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Full text of "A classified collection of Tamil proverbs"

V* 




n 





THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 






3 






A CLASSIFIED COLLECTION 



OK' 



TAMIL PROVERBS 



BY THK 

REV. HERMAN JENSEN, 

Dayiish HtMtMMfV, Madras. 



AN OUNCE OF MOTHER WIT IS WORTH A POUNO OF I.KAKN1NG. 



MADRAS : 

THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL PUBLISHING HOUSE 

LONDON : 

TRUBNER AND CO. 

I8 97 . 
All Hight* Betervtd. 



PRINTED AT THE M. E. PUBLISHING HOOSE, MOUNT ROAD, MADRAS. 



The Luz, 19th AprU, 1897. 



ROM 



The Hon'ble S. Subramania Aiyar, b.l., c.i.e., 

Dp van Bahadti/r 






Dear Sir, 

I have no doubt that your forthcoming collection of 
Tamil proverbs will prove highly useful and interesting. 
The collection of sayings in the West by the side of these 
proverbs would enable many people to see how much 
similarity in ideas exists between the East and the West. 

As regards the translation into English the ideas under- 
lying those proverbs have been well brought out. I wish 
every success to your laudable undertaking. 

Yours sincerely, 
(Signed) S. Sttbbaicaniem. 



From 

C. W. Tamotharam Pillay, Esq., b.a., b.l. 

The edition of proverbs brought out by the Rev. Mr. 
Jensen is decidedly an improvement upon its predecessors. 
Its classification under appropriate heads gives it a superior 
aspect, facilitating one to lay his hand on what he wants 
which he cannot do in a collection simply alphabetically 
arranged, the advantage of which is also combined in the 
edition by the index of the initial words. 

Notwithstanding that there are slight errors of gram- 
mar and spelling, which a European compiler cannot but 
fall into, the book, I believe, will be of great use to both 
the Tamilians and foreigners. 

(Signed) C. W. Tamotharam Pillay. 

Madras, 23rd April, 1897. 



PREFACE, 



About twenty years ago, when I got Percival's collection of 
Tamil proverbs into my hands, I had only been a short time in 
India, and had as yet got no insight into Indian thought and liter- 
ature. I had read only a couple of small Tamil story books, but 
when reading these I had already perceived that the Indians could 
hardly tell a story without introducing some proverbs into it. 
My attention was thus at an early period of my life in India drawn 
to proverbs, and 1 began to study Percival's collection. I got, 
however, very little out of my study, as Percival had only given a 
translation of the Tamil proverbs, and had given no hints as to 
their meaning. So in those days I got no insight whatever into 
the real household proverbs, but had almost to rest satisfied with 
the many aphorisms, or what we in Tamil call StslQumigl, of which 
we find large numbers in all our Tamil proverb collections. Yet, 
from what I had seen in the story books and in Percival's collec- 
tion I had got an interest in these terse, blunt and poetic sayings ; 
and year after year on getting deeper into the thought and life 
of India, and at the same time becoming acquainted with more and 
more of the proverbs, my interest in them steadily increased. 
And whenever I met with a new proverb either when talking with 
the people or reading Tamil books, I always looked for it in Perci- 
val's collection, and if he had not got it, I took a note of it ; and 
at times I tried to have some of them explained by the common 
people. 

While I was thus leisurely prosecuting the study of Tamil 
proverbs, the Rev. J. Lazarus, b.a., began to prepare a " Dictionary 
of Tamil Proverbs." I looked forward to the publication of this 
book with very great interest, but when it appeared, I was some- 
what disappointed with it, partly because Mr. Lazarus had not 
given a translation of the proverbs and partly because his expla- 
nation of the proverbs seemed to me, from the insight I had got 
into the proverbs through years of study, not always to be the right 



IV PREFACE. 

one. But the book roused my interest afresh, and I took a Tamil 
munshi for about three years to go through all the proverbs I had 
found in other collections, and those I now found in Mr. Lazarus's 
book, and also those I had collected myself. This study with my 
munshi together with the kind help I got from other Tamil people 
led me to a fuller understanding of Oriental proverbial literature, 
and after a couple of years investigation, I got the idea of pub- 
lishing a collection of these beautiful national sayings. But no 
sooner had I began to realize the idea, than I felt how much 
easier it was to get an idea than to carry it out. And hundreds 
of times, when going on with this work, have I felt the force of 
the Tamil proverb : " I stepped into the water without knowing 
its depth." 

When the idea of publishing a collection of Tamil proverbs 
occurred to me, I saw at once that I had great difficulties to face. 
I had the difficulty of two languages, both of which were foreigu 
to me. I had the fear — and still have it — that it might be too much 
for a foreigner to venture on the publication of Tamil proverbs, 
as proverbs undoubtedly form the most difficult branch of a nation's 
literature to comprehend. Besides this, it was clear to me that 
if I were to publish Tamil proverbs, I could not adopt the usual 
alphabetical order, but would have to arrange them into groups. 
Another difficulty — and without comparison the most important 
one — was to get the proper meaning of the proverbs, not as some 
pandits may please to explain them, but as common men and 
women understand them, when they use them in their every day 
life. Another difficulty, again, was to have these thousands of 
proverbs before me sifted. What was to be taken, and what to be 
left out ? It always seemed to me that our collections of proverbs 
suffered from a great evil, viz., that they contained too many 
useless sayings, too many aphorisms and too many repetitions of 
the same proverbs. 

With these difficulties before me I started, hoping that the 
proverb would prove true : " Little strokes at last fell great oaks," 
or as we say in Tamil : " Stroke upon stroke will make oven a 
grindstone creep." 

When going into the study of Tamil proverbs one finds that 
little has been done in the way of making a scientific investigation 
of them. All proverbs, sayings and aphorisms we meet with in our 



P R B 9 AC B. v 

Tamil proverb collections we generally call Tamil proverbs, but these 
two terms — Tamil and Proverbs — raise two great questions : Are 
they all Tamil originally, and are they all proverbs ? When com- 
paring the Tamil proverbs with the Telugu ones, we find a good 
number almost word lor word the same. And I remember when once 
walking with a friend in the streets of Poona, that he quoted two 
Marathi proverbs, both of which we have literally in Tamil. At 
Bombay I once happened to look into a Marathi proverb collection, 
and when I asked for a translation of the first proverb in the book 
I found it to be ours : " The dancing girl, who could not dance, said 
that the hall was not big enough." But which is which in our 
Tamil proverb collections. They are all called Tamil. 

Again, is it right to insert in our collections of proverbs 
hundreds and hundreds of aphorisms, classical sayings {i^Qmn^l) 
and common sayings, when these only communicate a truth in a 
general way, without making use of any sort of illustration ? It 
seems to me that we should not allow " the confusion of proverbs 
with mere precepts or maxims destitute of proverbial significance and 
character " to go on. Each in its proper place. I have not left 
them out altogether, but tried to insert only such as are common, 
and at the same time contain rare words or idiomatic phrases. 

To show what I mean by aphorisms and precepts, I shall 
quote a few here : — <S6wri_ffl.'6W sri—irQ^v)? — &-<i$(W}&renLDLLG}ub emgifluuth 
a9«— 6v'ffto,7? — QppeSQso QsiLiq-ssn n6Br Qfisf.eSQ&) Q^frujQu/61. — Qeu^eo ^\5g\ 

oetr iT ST&ieCITlJD U6BVE. (8jUf-pg6Bnil «p«B7 g!ILJSSBrea&(G5)&) } IBeSTSIRLD &J0li SeSiLD 

&'QJjih. — QsL-i—SBiSu eiGteotrua muucrQg, mii>i$G6rQ£&)&MTii> Q&nG0&}nQs>. — 
^6S)LDQu^Q/DSueBr fgtanLDiuaeiFlgnGBT. — l/^oj &rnfl<uiii&eifl&) lj^uj QiLm&tyssr 
QevesorQiii. — pQrjiDgemgu urreuti) Q®j&)®)it g] . — ^(r^&jjrrQ&) ^sn^ snifltuu) 

Here are a few more of the same kind, but a little more clas- 
sical in their grammar : — (^eosriS&jeiXT^ eSgemg <sie060rni> ^eSpenp. — 

(TTi&(8)ifil(ki%so. — ijiujiTianB&Q&rrfeg) ^(Lpseo pgl, ^vuirir ueosrQfdjsueoreijt}) 
$Bgl. — Q#rT&)§2)m Q&n®) ^■i&Qpuo Qs®ih pq^w. — meOen i@2ssr<ss>SJ ^/gn^ifi^ 
@Q&) QslL-— i?2sB7«oa; SdaiiL — (&}®)&vfsiiP gm uh^^mssi'Sua^w, uff&v^lif 
peix QLcesffsmtuu^th Qucxpjeunir. ^dvevpi£bV&> < 0/, ft&iev/DLDGBrgii. ufienrtLineir 



VI l'KKFA C E. 

e8i$.iLi(Lp6Br GTQgGg! ffltlfiuusiif! Q&vbeimen . — But where would be the 
end of it, if those were to be passed off as proverbs ? A fine collec- 
tion, quite a Mahabharata, might be made out of them. The 
literature of India abounds in them. From the Mahabharata, Hito- 
padesa, ^eiresxsuujnrr and other books, we could easily get a beautiful 
collection of aphorisms and sayings counted by thousands. 

Many of the proverbs met with in books have so often been 
handled by pandits, that we meet with the same proverb in a num- 
ber of forms. The same is the case with a number of proverbs, 
which, just because they are in common use all over the country, 
have become slightly altered when wandering about the country 
from place to place and from caste to caste. As they are in spite 
of slight changes the same proverb, they ought either to be put 
down together or references ought to be made from one to the 
other, as Captain Carr has tried to do in his collection of Telugu 
proverbs. If this is not done, they cannot but give the inex- 
perienced student of proverbs a great deal of trouble; and to me 
they have been a real worry, as I had to find them all out, in 
order that I might not in this collection repeat two proverbs that 
are the same. Here are a few examples of this kind : — 

&Q5B1SS&80 (&j£$l)6Br eSu'bsos sissafi^-uuirn ^<5mQi—fT = seaaTeesfl&) ulLu. 
es)s<soiu^ fifSuurriB&>'bsoz^i<asiaf5ui3s S6snressfl&) ulLi^.u&) emseaius aemisf-uu 

semeeS&) (SjgtgiiSGr&j <oT<ssrg)i Q^L-LSf.uQunQeunns&rT = s>§ i£l uSlQ&i (3jg5il<5Br 
qSj2so s\g)iuLn<TT)6aBn-Ji. — sjicuil-i—Gsr @ ueauemuis Qenpl^eo lduSitlduS 

<snn<BS)ffs-Qs i ng)i. — , = gyiJL5t_/rffl/£i#6i)'<!6v QojLL^ds^^iqLSleO^eo = ^a/gp/agja; suu 
Ljrei\ili&> a 680 QsvLL(Slds^^)iL]LSl&)'bs^=zsuui—!Te3jLSIeo'i0o Q<sjlLi—.s aptslaj 

uffei/feo. S-l—WLj QpQggjib IB%SOT& ^SU^SQS 3^$Gd GTGBTeGT = gip IB^SSTli^SiJ 

(£&{&)& 3k-p&) £rebr<SBr = QpLLi— r5 < 2e8!G@iriT&(j9j& (§<^iB<stiftev = Qp(igg)Lb isVesiip 
gntslsr Q&ggjih Q&®ggn<5sr= Gllqijeundjjigifissi $)(2)£j£liJ) Q&®@<g!resr Q&gtg/th 

Q&®ggn68! = @SLI!J£ffd& @JJfTLC€Ssf) ^H^Ggll}) Qs ®@gfT<SSI Q&iBgJLD Q&®£ 

pnGH = §uJL\g $g]u u&rstfl Qfpgiih Q&Qpgneisr ^i^i^ni Q&®p@aear. — 
&I—&SQ®) erppm QuntLi— sang .-= &Qp<gGjiiJ<£jig}&) <sj ppw Quntl.L- i g)QuiT6d = 
&np&$5lD<gG>l®) sjppwQunil®^ ptmosbfn ^<ssip^^rrpQun&). — Qisv'2s^ujpp 
SlmuLLisisr LDa'dstru &isj_g,gs& &ss)p^^rr^s)ih=iQ6>j'SeouS6Veoi^ ^uouiLi^asr 



P i: E t A C E. Vll 

= G?a>26u lSsotsQslLl- g\wuiLL—<5Gt Queaar&rSil g%eoGG>vu& QannpgtrgVjtx.. — 

^Si-Lg Lj&fl^gjpj 6TG5TjrilJ> LDMEl&tTUJ Ljeffl^^g) STOSr^nh P^eSBT 1W LD6V Q&il&)&) 

&irru>tr = sijndj Lf&fid^Q^r LDtriEi&rtiLi L/sffl^^Q^ir. — S-eai—ib^ <F/Egj s&ijp urfi 

(LjU>ir = ^LL'SSL- <£,B(3> 2«r^7 UffiljJITSp. JZ)jGB)!Td(3jl-.W geOUDLjlh iBeB) p(5jt—lh 

gsiitJLU(T&p = (3j66>r[)(&jt—!x> ^eaisiLjih iSesi/D^L-Lc getriiurrgi = (^eiap^i—th sk-p 
&a($luj — Stasi'D^'—LD ;5(efjjuiuns>i. — siLu-fris jboshuS&j QsolLi—s (^iLuf.s : »eLifl&) 
Q)mfSsL-Uf.s5r^nis> = (3jL-Uf-#&SL<(fied Qa,enQsnil.isf.s st-L®£@plu$Q&) GibjSslL 
®llit = ^JeonrVcBsr ■£(•!!)■£ Qg&r Q&*tluf.pg)i ^asaresBpi: u9i_/7Q/J@ QibplaCiq-pigi = 
G&esrestLDiipG&sti Q^oiQsitlLl-u u < 2eerLDff^^&) QiEplssLLu^esr t giQufT&>= Qpsisr 
< 2iS8T&(8)g QgeirQ&iTL-i—u u2sar<£(3> QiBplsLLt^.esr^QurT&). — &enfr Qlc&& !5i—eurr 
ld&) e_L_et> Oio.F^ r5i^i@psij'BesruQuir&) = e_i_e^i(o<S7 urT&isuan-g&v S-asor 
ugj, &ea_qjjsG!&>i urr&isurriTjijp e_6wrujj; = 2&L0&(9ju unaJGunirgg) O-assrS 
(trj>uux s_i_LOL/^@u uneosuna^^i &-GstxQ(irpu-n = £_z_6v Qle&&u un&) (^i^.s3 
(rrfiuir, ssur Qld^u uj&) (^uf.s@nr?iLi!T. — i§l£®> iE&}60g} Qp&si Qun&j&)!J 

The above are only a few examples of the many repetitions 
of the very same proverb. 

There is another way of changing a proverb, viz., by putting 
the second half of a proverb at the beginning, so that we get two 
proverbs out of one. As an instance : — uiLi— snsSQso u®u>, Qsl. l.. 
(guf-Quj Q&(8tA, changed into : — QslLl- (§i$-Qili 0«®lo uLLisneSQeo 
u®u) ; ^)(i$fcg&n&) QpQssS, rsu.iB psneo £QgeSl, changed into: — iEi—£.g 
streSKoeo &Q&6&, $)Q5®@ sneSQeo QpQgsS. 

As my aim in making this collection has been practical rather 
than scientific, I have not tried to solve all these difficulties in any 
other way than by trying my best to avoid all repetitions. But with 
reference to this there is much for any one to do who would try to 
give us a scientific collection of Tamil proverbs. In such a work 
Ave should also expect to see what we call Tamil proverbs sifted, so 
that we might learn where they have originated, as in a good 
English collection of proverbs we can see where each had its origin 
— in Greece, in Italy, in Spain, in Germany or elsewhere. 

This collection of proverbs is a selection from the thousands 
that are given in our Tamil proverb collections, and also from the 
many I have come across when reading Tamil books and conversing 
with Tamil people. Though I feel sure that there are a good 
number of real household proverbs I have not given that ought to 
be in such a collection as this, I am at the same time convinced 
that there cannot be very many. Once a man gave me 200 



Vlii P B H FA C V.. 

proverbs which he had collected at Madura, but among them all I 
found only two new ones which were not more or less a repetition 
of what I had. 

The Tamil proverb collections from which I have got help 
are : — A bazaar book containing about 2,000 proverbs without any 
English. 2-®JGB)LD&Q&rreo gj&znGsl, a collection of about o,000 Tamil 
proverbs published in 1872, which is with reference to real 
household proverbs, far superior to Percival's. The book is out 
of print but can be seen in our public libraries. Then there is 
Percival's collection of about 6,000 proverbs with an English 
translation. A very useful little u Handbook of Tamil Proverbs 
and Phrases" was published in 1888 by Mr. P. Satya Nesan, b.a., 
containing 500 proverbs only, but with translation, application and 
many similar English proverbs. The last collection that appeared 
was Mr. Lazarus' s " Dictionary of Tamil Proverbs." This book is 
now the largest collection we have, and so far it makes its prede- 
cessors superfluous. Mr. Lazarus has not translated the proverbs, 
but to every one he has given a hint as to its meaning. 

The other books from which I have chiefly drawn are the Tamil 
story books and Sastras. Of such I shall mention a few : s^nw^fB, 

Pandit S. M. Natesa Sastri's " Folklore in Southern India," which 
has a number of proverbs and Tamil stories to illustrate them. A 
magazine published some years ago called : " The Saguna Bodhini 
Series." A book called ^jTmcisiri^sih is, though written in poetry, 
full of proverbs. This is still more the case with " Vinoda Rasa- 
manjari" by A. Viraswami Chettiar, late Pandit in the Madras 
Presidency College. This book is simply interwoven with Tamil 
Proverbs. " Mathar Neethy " is another story book containing 
many fine proverbs ; and the same may be said of a book called : 
(sj®uDusLDD4hq,Ga&. " The Viveka Chintamani," a monthly magazine, 
published by Mr. C. V. Swaminatha Iyer in Triplicate, has for the 
last year had a number of Tamil proverbs with Tamil explanation 
in every issue. The Sastras translated from Sanskrit into Tamil 
contain hardly any proverbs except the Mahabharata. This royal 
storehouse of something of everything that India has produced con- 
tains a good number of proverbs interspersed throughout the huge 
volume. So even with reference to proverbs the Bengali proverb 
almost holds good : " What is there after the Mahabharata ? " 



PREFACE. IX 

Dear as these beautiful little proverbs are to Tamil people, 
I have for years wondered that so little has been done to make 
them known to Europeans, specially to European ladies, who 
have, or, at least, Could have, so much influence with Indian 
women. Percival gave a translation to his collection and left it 
there. But a mere translation of a real proverb will not in 
most cases bring us into contact with its homely meaning. Take 
as an instance Percival's : — ^sfriuirar @ftso xslsisTGufi, Qp^^n&r stub gijSi 
evnsir, translated : " the younger sister feeds on leaves, the elder is 
accustomed to fruit ; " in this case the translation is wrong, but even 
if it were translated properly, it would have no meaning to a Euro- 
pean. As Percival says, " In many instances the application has 
equally puzzled both myself and others to whom I have applied for 
information." To be sure, there's the rub in trying to explain 
proverbs. And consequently Percival left out the application, 
although he says that foreigners destined to spend the best part of 
their life among the Tamil people will find their proverbs of ines- 
timable value. But in many cases a Tamil proverb without its 
application is to a foreigner almost like an unbroken cocoanut to a 
dog, as the Tamil saying is. Mr. P. Satya Nesan in his collection 
began in the right way, but did not go far enough ; Mr. J. Lazarus, 
on the other hand, had his thoughts chiefly directed on collecting 
all the Tamil proverbs into one book. Hence Tamil proverbs as 
such have hitherto been handed over to us like a chaos. 

.My desire, as I have already indicated, has beenfirst to make the 
application of each proverb clear, and next to divide them into 
families. As far as I have succeeded in grasping the meaning, so 
far almost have I succeeded, I suppose, in getting them into their 
proper families. But it is hard to get such a register of sin, as prov- 
erbs almost arc, into a systematic order. The phenomena of sin- 
ful life are so manifold, and the reflections on it so numerous 
that the difficulties sometimes seemed to me insurmountable. Be 
it remembered, that as long as I was working at the arranging of 
them I had not at hand the English index nor the two glossaries 
and the many references from one proverb to another, and from 
one family to another, that are now before the reader. But in 
spite of all the difficulties and drawbacks, it seems to me that it 
is only when we have arranged the proverbs in groups or families 
that we are able to see what the proverbs teach us. I do not look 

B 



X I' K K F A C E. 

upon the arrangement introduced by me as at all final. Far from 
it. What I have done I wish to be considered a beginning only, 
or a little attempt at cultivating the ground. Many of the prov- 
erbs are imperfectly explained, partly because their meaning has 
not been fully grasped, and partly because many of them to be well 
understood ought to have a little story attached to them. They 
might be divided into more families, and all the minor families 
might again be grouped into main families, as I have tried to do 
at the beginning of the book, and also at the end of it. 

As the result of bringing the proverbs into groups, though I 
have in many cases not achieved what I have aimed at, one can 
easily get an insight into the social, ethical or domestic thoughts 
contained in them. Take as an instance the family on fate and 
fortune. There may within this family be a few that would have 
fitted in better somewhere else, and in some other family may be a 
few that might have been inserted under fate and fortune ; but one 
can at once by the help of the arrangement of the book get an 
insight into what the Tamil proverbs teach on such a subject. I 
have also observed that the dividing of the proverbs into families is 
a great advautage in the study of the Tamil language itself. Though 
each proverb in a family may be said to harp on one and the same 
string, the thought is expressed in a variety of terms, some of which 
are synonymous. Look for instance at the family on ostentation or 
i—iiuth — one of the chief Indian sins, according to the proverbs at 
least — in what a variety of language is vanity rebuked ! Another 
advantage of the family arrangement is that as a number of similar 
proverbs are brought together, they need less explanation ; for 
apart from a few that are misplaced, the heading of each chapter 
— though in many cases it has been difficult to find an adequate 
heading — gives the key to the meaning of all that are included 
under it. It is a matter of consequence that though the proverbs 
in each family allude to the same thing, they are in most cases not 
synonymous. In the chapter on a mother, it is at once evident 
that most of the proverbs have little or nothing connecting them 
but this, that they refer to a mother. In the same chapter we 
get also a good insight into the way in which India regards ;i 
mother in all her capacities, in an hour's time one can by study- 
ing the chapter on a mother get some real knowledge of her posi- 
tion in India, — a knowledge which one could hardly get from any 



P R K F A C I. XI 

other sources. The references from one number to another all 
through the book are«not to be taken as references to synonymous 
proverbs. This holds good in a few cases, but more often the 
references mean only that the reader would do well to compare 
the particular proverb with another, because they are closely 
related in thought or in language. As related individual proverbs 
are referred to each other, so are whole families referred to each 
other by the numbers given below the different chapters. 

In selecting English equivalents for the Tamil proverbs I 
have used the following books: — W. Carew Hazlitt's "English 
Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases." " A Handbook of Proverbs," 
which is a republication of Ray's collection of English Proverbs. 
Captain Carr's "Telugu Proverbs " A collection of Marathi Prov- 
erbs. And "Eastern Proverbs and Emblems" by the Rev. J. Long. 

A few words on the characteristics of Indian proverbs com- 
pared with the English, as they have struck me while working on 
them, may not be out of place, though I have not made a study of 
this subject. 

When going through an English collection of proverbs, one 
is struck by the number of proverbs referring to the weather and 
the seasons. India has very few proverbs of this kind. In India 
we have the South-West monsoon from May to October, and the 
North-East monsoon from November to April, and there is the end 
of it. The characteristic of the weather in England is change, 
while in India it is regularity. It would be thoroughly out of 
place in India to say : — " A woman's mind and winter wind change 
oft." For the big chapter in this book on " Sorrow and lamenta- 
tion of women" I could hardly find any equivalent from the 
English. The English woman has been respected, while her 
Indian sister has met with very little respect, hence her lamenta- 
tion, and her revolting in bitter terms against her oppressors. 
Again, in India we have no girls or young ladies. We meet in 
India with female children and wives, as the Indian woman passes 
at once from being a child to being a wife. But in Europe young 
women have a fine time for their development, both physical and 
intellectual, before they get married. In this transition period, 
then, there is a rich sphere for English proverbs, but as there is 
no such period in India, there are no such Indian proverbs. Even 
a widow is not overlooked by the English proverbs, as she some- 



XU PREFACE. 

times aspires, if possible, to marry again, but the Indian widow 
has no such aspiration, for she is a mere widow, a Qpsssrz6)L-&&, a 
contemptible thing ! Woman's dress plays a part in English 
proverbs, but it is jewelry which is here the all-important thing ; 
hence the tailor's shop plays the same part in Europe as the gold- 
smith's in India. In India a woman has had no trouble in dressing 
up in order to make an attractive appearance in Society, as her 
pai*ents arranged her marriage for her while she was still a child. 
Even if she is a monkey — exceedingly ugly — she will be married. 
The Tamil proverbs referring to vanity and ostentation out- 
number the English and are at the same time very pointed. There 
is almost no end to the Tamil proverbs on the wicked tendency in 
the human race to see their enemies destroyed. Though India is 
saturated with superstition, it seems to me, strange to say, that 
we meet with more English than Tamil proverbs on superstition. 
The Tamil proverbs almost altogether leave out criticism of super- 
stition, ceremonies, gods and temples, in short, all that refers to 
religious life. Even on caste there are comparatively few. Folly and 
laziness are regarded so differently by the Indians and the English 
that it is impossible to find English equivalents for the Tamil. 

The meaning of an English and a Tamil proverb may be the 
same, but the habits, customs and climate have formed them so 
differently. As an instance, we say in Tamil : " Ears (ornamented) 
with palmyra-leaves are better than ears with no ornaments ; " 
for this we might put the English : — " Better a bare foot, than no 
foot at all ; " to go bare-footed in the Northern couutries of Europe, 
especially in winter-time, would be very hard, but in India it is 
difficult to understand this English proverb, as all Indians still 
enjoy the great privilege of going bare-footed. 

One great peculiarity about the Tamil or Dravidian proverbs 
is that the animals we meet with are but dumb figures brought in 
merely for the purpose of illustration. In the Panchatandra, on 
the other hand, all animals are imbued with sense and characteris- 
tics : they think, talk, move and behave in every way like man. 
Nay, some animals in those ancient days seem even to have been 
reading the Vedas. The Aryans have given life to all their 
animals. The Dravidians, on the contrary, seem not to have seen 
much in animals ; in their proverbs, at least, they have not 
attributed anything like intellect to them, except perhaps a little 



PREFACE. Xlll 

to the cat. The shrewd and sensible elephant represents in Tamil 
proverbs outward greatness only. The gentle cow gives milk. 
The buffalo is for ploughing. Sheep are as stupid as their shep- 
herd. The dog's faithfulness is unknowu. Dogs, pigs and crows 
are dirty and greedy animals. The ass is ever obstinate, but has 
willingly or unwillingly to submit to hard work and hard treatment; 
its fate is a hard and pitiful one, indeed ; in the hands of the 
washerman it fares as badly as the monkey in the hands of the 
mendicant. The doctor and medicine for the poor ass is to go 
and roll itself in the dust of the street. AVhatever is done to an 
ass, it cannot become a horse ; in this sense the horse is used for 
something great and grand. But as the animals are brought in 
only in order to illustrate, and not for their own sake at all, they 
are of little interest in this connection. 

I have always been much struck with the complaining, the 
sighing, the groaning under the tyranny of men and of fate that 
underlies so many of the Indian proverbs. This is also the case 
with the Indian songs, hence also almost all tunes in India are full 
of melancholy. The triumphant tone does not pervade anything 
Indian. In all departments of Indian literature it is as if the 
goddess of the earth, Bhumidevi, stood personified, groaning under 
the burden heaped upon her. This feeling has found very strong 
expression in the Bhagavatgita : — 

Arjuna. 

Slayer of Madhu ! Yet again, this Yog, 
This Peace, derived from equanimity, 
Made known by thee — I see no fixity 
Therein, no rest, because the heart of men 
Is unfixed, Krishna ! rash, tumultuous, 
Wilful and strong. It were all one, I think, 
To hold the wayward wind, as tame man's heart. 



Krishna. 



Hero long armed ! beyond denial, hard 

Man's heart is to restrain and wavering; 

Yet may it grow restrained by habit, Prince ! 

By want of self-command. This Yog, I say, 

Cometh not lightly to th' ungoverned : (who need it !) 

But he who will be master of himself 

Shall win it, if he stoutly strive thereto. 

The Song Celestial. — E. Arnold. 



XJV PREFACE. 

But. why so much ado about nothing ? Why take so much 
trouble about these proverbs ? What is the good of it ? Who cares 
for these obsolete childish things ? Perhaps some old grandmother, 
when telling stories to women and children inside the houses who 
are half asleep on their mats, may make some use of them. But 
we men of the nineteenth century, what on earth have we to do 
with obsolete proverbial literature, some may ask. My answer is 
that it is well known that the more a nation develops the more 
its proverbs die out ; but though Europe has now for many 
hundreds ot years been developing, there are many proverbs still 
in circulation among the different nations of Europe, and some of 
these proverbs will not die out as long as there is a tongue on earth 
to speak them. Whether we look to the West or to the East we 
find that figurative speech always has great influence over the 
masses. I suppose this was the reason why Jesus, who " knew 
what was in man," "spake unto the multitude in parables; and 
without a parable spake he not unto them." It is interesting to 
observe that the latest Tamil drama : u Lilavati-Sulochana" written 
by an educated man, P. Sambandam, h.a., contains about a score 
of Tamil proverbs. If proverbs are still largely in use by the 
masses, if they still form a part of their daily language, used in 
practical life for practical purposes, it is clearly our duty to know 
them, if we want to exert any influence on the people. 

When we read biographies of great men, we often see these 
great men attribute much of their greatness to their mother's 
influence on them in their early life. A mother, or a home, does 
lay the first foundation in every child's heart for its future, and in 
most cases the foundation laid by the mother or by the women of 
the home, has a most important effect on the moral life afterwards. 
In this case India is no exception to the rule. But from where 
does the Indian mother get thoughts by which to educate her 
children at home ? When a child is naughty, or when a daughter 
has quarrelled with her mother-in-law and comes home, does an 
Indian mother in such cases in order to rebuke or comfort quote 
from the Bhagavatgita, or from the Upanishads ? Does she from 
these books try to inculcate in the child's heart what the different 
indriya.fi mean ? that some of them are to be subdued, others again 
to be developed ? 

The Indian mother has her own practical way at home. 



I' REFAC E. XV 

Legends, stories aud proverbs are her storehouse ; from these she 
obtains material for rebuking, for sneering, for warning, for en- 
couraging, for comforting and for praising. The proverbs and 
maxims are India's practical ethics. The Indian proverbs are not 
antiquarian curiosities, but living and stern realities, and hence 
perhaps more celestial than the so-called " Celestial Songs" of 
the Bhagavatgita. 

By a good knowledge of Indian proverbs one is enabled, as it 
were, to feel the moral pulse of the Indian people, and a sound 
insight into the proverbial literature of India is like getting a 
microscope by which one can look deeply into the recesses of the 
native heart. Nothing else can throw so much light on the daily 
practice of the Indians as do the proverbs. And if one could 
publish the obscene ones also, which often contain most striking 
truths, we should see still deeper into the misery of the country. 
But the obscene ones with which I have met in our collections, 
and in intercourse with the people, I have left out. I have, how- 
ever, reason to believe that there are many obscene ones besides 
the few that I have seen and heard ; and that they are freely 
used by the great majority of the common people even iu their 
children's presence. The children are often, I am told, made to 
laugh over them. 

Proverbs are merciless in their criticism of sinful life, aud 
they always aim at putting things right. As already said, the 
Indian mothers nurse their sons and daughters with them. By 
proverbs satire is pronounced over folly and over wickedness. By 
a proverb a crowd or a household is made to smile pleasantly, that 
otherwise might have got into a hot fight. In proverbs lies buried an 
endless store of criticism, encouragement, humour, sorrow and com- 
plaint, referring to all classes of mankind from the unborn child to 
the grey-haired veteran. And as the Hindu — and we might for that 
matter say the whole world — likes to hurt without hurting {an-nweo 
&®Qpg)), that he may not burn his own fingers, he has in the pro- 
verbial literature material by the help of which he can indirectly 
express his sorrow and joy, his approval or disapproval. By prov- 
erbs the shrewd and avaricious Brahmin is criticised ; the calcu- 
lating and careful Chetty is held up to ridicule or indirectly 
praised ; the shepherd's stupidity and the kuravan's rudeness is 
brought out; the ungrateful and deceitful friend is mercilessly 



XVI PREFACE. 

rebuked; the life of immoral women is censured in strong terms; 
vanity is ridiculed ; the dulness and indifference of the Pariah is 
sarcastically blamed. No wonder that many of the proverbs are 
universal in their application, for human life is much the same all 
the world over. Anger, pride, arrogance, selfishness, avarice, 
passion, dissimulation, falsehood and many more sins that keep 
society at a low level, are all of them universal, and it is with such 
that the proverbs deal. 

The Rev. J. Long in his " Eastern Proverbs and Emblems" 
says with reference to the Chinese proverbs — he has it from 
" Scarborough's Chinese Proverbs" : — " Used as quotations, the 
value of proverbs in China is immense. So used in conversation, 
they add a piquancy and a flavour which greatly delight the 
Chinese and make mutual intercourse more easy and agreeable. 
But it is to the missionary that the value of an extensive acquaint- 
ance with Chinese proverbs is of the highest importance. Per- 
sonal experience, as well as the repeated testimony of others, 
make us bold to assert, that even a limited knowledge of Chinese 
proverbs is to him daily of inestimable value. A proverb will 
often serve to rouse the flagging attention of a congregation, or to 
arrest it at the commencement of a discourse. A proverb will 
often serve to produce a smile of good nature in an apparently 
ill-tempered audience and so to call forth a kindly feeling which 
did not seem before to exist. And very often a proverb aptly 
quoted will serve to convey a truth in the most terse and striking 
manner, so obviating the necessity for detached and lengthy argu- 
ments whilst they fix at a stroke the idea you are wishing to 
convey." The same author remarks : " Like the proverbs of 
Solomon (SgHQiAiryS}), the Psalms, Bunyan's ' Pilgrim's Progress,' 
and the ' Arabian Nights,' they speak in a language ' under- 
standed of the people '." 

And from Archbishop Trench he quotes: " Anyone who by 
after-investigation has sought to discover how much our rustic 
hearers carry away, even from sermons to which they have atten- 
tively listened, will find that it is hardly ever the course or tenor 
of the argument, supposing the discourse to have contained such ; 
but if anything has been uttered as it used so often to be by 
the best Puritan preachers, tersely, pointedly, epigrammatically, 
this will have stayed by them, while all the rest has passed away. 



PREFACE. XV11 

Circat preachers to the people, such as have found their way to the 
universal heart of their fellows, have ever been great employers of 
proverbs." 

Pandits when inserting proverbs in the books they have made, 
or in books translated by them, have often tried to refine the langu- 
age in which they are expressed. They are always trying to employ 
big words and highflown terms, not knowing as yet that simplicity 
is the highest beauty. I think it is our duty, when we meet with 
pandit-refined proverbs to briug them back to their original form. 
I could give many examples of this kind, but I shall confine myself to 
one : ueanzPGW® ^esariiiQesr or a^-Ufju smgtiih tueoih ^sorepLo. The 
common form of this proverb is : uesrfl iSasr QunQx.smgi>i> l? Gdsisregnh. 
l? is not an indecent word in a Hindu home as yet. Would that no 
worse words were used in Hindu houses ! Keal life has dictated 
the proverbs, and as they are used in real life, so they should be 
quoted. Their meaning, their words and their grammar are alike 
practical and simple, why then dress them up in a pandit's dress ? 
When they die, let them die ; but as long as they are realities, and 
play an important part in the life of the nation, we should let them 
go in their natural simplicity, and honour them in their natural 
dress. 

The Two Tamil Indexes. 

I might perhaps be blamed for arranging the proverbs into 
families, because this arrangement makes it almost impossible for us 
to find any individual proverb, when we wish to see it. It is, how- 
ever, almost equally difficult to do this with the alphabetic arrange- 
ment, if one does not happen to remember the first word, which is 
often no easy thing, as it may be a most insignificant word, an $&$ 
or ^yihp or gt&& or $@ or any other little word which has no relation 
to the meaning of the proverb. I have, however, furnished the book 
with an index, or alphabetical glossary, containing the first word 
of each proverb, so that if the first word is remembered it is easy 
to find any proverb. 

I have noticed by experience that there are words within the 
proverbs that by and by stick to the mind ; while we forget the 
hr>t word of a proverb, we remember words within it. I have 
therefore also provided this book with an index of words from 
within each proverb arranged alphabetically. 

C 



XV111 PREFACE. 

This latter glossary is given not only to help the reader to 
find the proverbs, but also in order to supply a vocabulary of the 
most important words found in them. The student who takes an 
interest in Tamil can easily, whenever he meets with a word in 
other books, or in conversation, and wishes to see how the word is 
used in proverbs, turn to the two indexes, find the word, and see 
the use of it and also its translation. As to translation, however, 
he may not always find direct help, as the translation of a proverb 
cannot but be somewhat free, if we are to get the meaning out of 
it by a translation. 

To those who might prefer the proverbs arranged according 
to the letter, and not according to the spirit, the two glossaries 
will be of great help, as they can at once find out for themselves 
where the words horse, elephant, monkey, snake, poison, medicine, 
doctor, Brahmin, Pariah, Chetty, rain, wind, sickle, thali, husband, 
wife, woman, destiny and such like words appear. 



I have in conclusion to express my thanks to all who have 
helped me in this work. My munshi, Mr. Vasudeva Pillai, has 
been my chief help in making the proverbs clear to me and in 
giving me their homely applications. He has also supplied me 
with a few hundreds of new proverbs, not found before in any 
collection I have come across. But after I had gone through the 
thousands of: proverbs and phrases with my munshi, and as far as 
possible ascertained their meaning and their application, had 
selected those out of them that I wanted, had translated them into 
English, added their application, furnished some of them — about 
1,500 — with corresponding English proverbs, brought them into 
families, and made a copy of it all, there was one thing still to be 
done, and that was to make a thorough revision of the English 
part of the book. For this last, but very important part of the 
undertaking the Rev. A. C. Clayton of the Wesley an Mission came 
to my assistance, and for the generous help he has given me I shall 
ever feel most grateful. For about a year and a half Mr. Clayton 
has almost daily worked at the revision of my English manuscripts, 
going over most of them twice at least. The proverbs being in a 
simple language, their translation ought also to be simple and 
plain. But it is very difficult to translate an Eastern proverb 



PREFACE. XIX 

into English so that its meaning may be clearly understood 
and it is still more difficult to do it so that the language of the 
translation may be in harmony with the original in directness 
and simplicity. So whatever the reader finds of idiomatic beauty 
in the English translation and application is almost all owing to 
the deep interest Mr. Clayton has taken in this work and the 
perseverance with which he has sought to improve it. 

To my great sorrow Mr. Clayton was transferred up-country 
at the beginning of this year. When he left there were still about 
1,000 proverbs to be carried through the press, and up-country 
Mr. Clayton found it impossible to correct the proofs as quickly as 
I desired. Mr. A. Moffat, m.a., b.sc. of the Christian College has 
been kind enough to help me in correcting what was still left to be 
carried through the press. The Rev. N. Devasahayam, b.a., of the 
Leipzig Mission has also kindly gone over all the proof-sheets. 

HERMAN JENSEN. 

Vepery, Madras. 
24th April, 1897. 



INDEX TO THE ENGLISH HEADINGS. 







Pwje 




I'd'je 


A BAMPOWMBKT 


249 


Cleverness ... 


. 198 


Abundance 


155 


Coercion 


. 210 


Anger 




215 


Comfort 


. 129 


Anxiety 




294 


Comforting 


. 378 


Appearai 


ice 


267 


Companionship 


. 257 


Do. 


keeping it up ... 


190 


Do. influence of it 


858 


Arrogance 


51 


Do. association with 




Authority 


147 


the great 


. 25! » 


Do. 


tyranny 


148 


Compulsion 


. 810 


Do, 


having another person 




Conscience 


. 800 




in one's power 


150 


Consideration 


. 145 


Do. 


overbearing subordi- 




Contempt 


. 176 




nate ... 


151 


Content 


. 130 


Do. 


a master necessary 




Contrariety . . 


314 




everywhere 


151 


Courage 


. 273 


Do. 


miscellaneous 


152 


Cowardice 


. 274 


Do. 


like master, like servant 


152 


Craftiness 


31 


Do. 


many masters 


153 


Criticism 


203 


Avariciousncss 


196 


Curing 


279 








Curses 


165 


B EG in mm; 


328 






Belief 




320 


Darkxkss ... 


270 


Blessings 




164 


Death 


324 


Biagging 




884 


Do. one's death, another's 




Bravery 




273 


bread 
Debt 


324 
117 


Oabelkssxkss 


112 


Do. miscellaneous 


119 


Caste 




91 


Deception 


76 


Do. abstinence from meat 


92 


Deceit 


23 


Cause 




245 


Delay 


140 


Certainty, quitting it for hope 


319 


Do. miscellaneous 


111 


Certainty 




321 


Desire, vain wishes 


97 


Charity (benevolence) 


235 


Do. disappointed desires 


98 


Children 




365 


Do. ungrateful greediness 


99 


Do. 


the capacities of a man ... 


366 


Do. grasp all, lose all ... 


100 


Do. 


at home 


366 


Do. conflicting 


101 


Do. 


the conceit of young 




Do. counting the chickens, &c . . 


103 




people ... 


368 


Do. miscellaneous 


104 


Do. 


contrasted with age 


368 


Dexterity 


198 


Do. 


over indulgence of 




Dignity 


173 




children 


369 


Disagreement 


313 





I X U K X . 






XXI 




Page 








Page 


Discontent ... ... ... . . 


130 


Falsehood 




346 


Disgrace 


41 


Family life ... 




349 


Disguise 


25 


Fancies 






296 


Distress 


aes 


Fate 






5 


Disobedience 


54 


Fatness 






106 


Disunity 


313 


Faults 






14 


Do to others as you would be done to 


289 


F car- 






274 


Doctors 


279 


nailer}- 






168 


Domestic life 


349 


Food 






124 


Do. distinction between 


» 


Forgiveness ... 




318 


near and distant 




Forbearauce . .. 




95 


relations 


352 


Fortune 






8 


Do. taking unfair advan- 




Do. 


unluckiness 




9 


tages of the ties of 




Do. 


luck 




10 


relationship 


357 


Do. 


the unlucky cause mi 


sfor- 




Dreams 


2! 16 




tune 




11 






Friendship ... 




347 


Ease 


129 


Do. 


for gain 




302 


Eating 


124 


Do. 


at a distance ... 




303 


Do. hunger the best sauce 


125 


Do. 


familiarity breeds 


cou- 




Do. good food ... 


125 




tempt 




304 


Do. miscellaneous 


127 


Do. 


close friendship 




304 


Effect 


245 


Do. 


danger of close friend- 




End justifies the means 


88 




ship 




305 


Enmity 


314 


Do. 


to agree like dogs 


and 




Envv 


62 




cats 




306 


" 




Do. 


like and dislike 




306 


Escape, no 


10/ 










Do. narrow ... 


108 


Do. 


aversion 




300 


Do. the old fox is caught at 




Do. 


rejected friendship 




307 


last 


108 


Do. 


intrusion 




308 


Essential 


281 










Estimation, over 


299 


(3rAIX, LOVE OF 




114 


Evident, self 


269 


Geuerosii 


ty, at other's expense 




89 


Evil and good 


331 


Do. 


cheap kind 




89 


Exaggeration 


154 


God 






1 


Excess and deficiency 


154 


Do. and man 




2 


Excuse 


201 


Good and evil 




331 


Exertion 


215 


Do. 


the good suffer 


and 




Do. much but little gain 


217 




the wicked prosper 


330 


Do. one has the toil, another 




Do. 


men ... 




334 


the profit 


219 


Do. 


enterprises that 


end 




Do. great exertion over trifles 


221 




unluckily ... 




327 


Experience ... 


157 


Gratitude 




211 


Do. every man knows where 




Greatness, even the great err 




336 


his own shoe pinches. 


158 


Do. 


different signs of 




336 


Do: miscellaneous 


158 


Do. 


comparative 




339 


Expertness 


IU0 


Do. 


miscellaneous ... 




339 



XXII 


I M B K X. 








Page 






Pag* 


Growth 


.. 288 


Knowledge, man's knowledge limit- 




Guardianship 


.. 240 




ed 


161 






Do. 


a learned fool ... 


162 


Habit, nature cannot be 




Do. 


miscellaneous ... 


162 


CHANGED 


90 








Do. the power of 


.. 90 


IjAMENTATION 


370 


Do. what is done cannot 1 


)e 


Laziness 




121 


undone 


94 


Leniency 




B6 


Happiness 


.. 256 


Lie 




346 


Harshness, over 


.. 214 


Like seeks like 


251 


Haste 


.. 137 


Likeness 




316 


Heart 


.. 297 


Little things 


222 


Heaven 


13 


Do. 


little evils destroy 




Help 


.. 235 




much good 


223 


Hereditary characteristics and 




Do. 


great things cannot 




natural instincts 


.. 229 




be done by small 




Hiudrance 


.. 206 




means 


224 


Hopes, deceived 


.. 109 


Do. 


little things will not 




Honour 


.. 173 




become big things . . 


225 


Humility 


54 


Do. 


he who can do great 




Husband and wife ... 


.. 391 




things, can easily 




Do. an ill match 


.. 397 




do little things 


•l-l-j 


Hypocrisy 


.. 25 


Do. 


he who cannot accom- 
plish small deeds, 




Ignorance 


.. 132 




cannot do great 




Imitation 


.. 167 




things 


126 


Impartiality 


64 


Do. 


penny wise aud pound 




Important, all 


.. 281 




foolish 


•1-11 


Importunity 


.. 185 


Do. 


something is belter 




Impossible ... 


.. 284 




than nothing 


227 


Improbable ... 


.. 284 


Do. 


he who cannot bear a 




Indulgence of children 


.. 369 




little suffering, can- 




Do. over 


.. 214 




not bear great dis- 




Ingratitude ... 


.. 24J 




asters 


228 


Inheritance ... 


.. 316 


Loss . . . 




84 


Inqtiisitiveness 


.. 203 


Do. miscellaneous 


85 


Injustice 


64 


Love . . . 




348 


Interference with quiet people 


.. 342 


Luxury 




1 89 


Investigation 


.. 203 












IVTarriagf. ... 


388 


Jealousy 




Medicine 




279 


52 












Meddlesomei 


340 


Joy 


.. 256 


Mind . . 




297 


Justice 


64 












Do. misfortunes never come 








single 


32 


Kjngs 


. 146 


Mother 




361 


Knowledge ... 


.. 161 


Mother-in 


law 


402 



2^EGLECT ... ... 

New brooms sweep clean ... 

Obedience . 

Obstacles. 
Omens 

Opposition ... 
Ostentation ... 
Ownership ... 

IpARTIALITY 

Patience 

Permanence of evil ... 

Perseverance 

Persistence ... 

Perplexity .. 

Politeness ... 

Do. to oneself 

Do. miscellaneous ... 
Poor 
Poor and rich 

Do. miscellaneous 

Possession ... 

Do. what one has not labour- 
ed for is little valued... 

Do. exaggerating the value 
of one's own posses- 
sion ... 
Practice 
Pretexts 

Pride 

Priest 

Procrastination 

Progress 

Protection 

Prudence 

Punishment 

Rain 

Rarity 

Rashness 

Realities 

Reduced in circumstances .. 

Renown 

Restlessness ... 

Riches 

Rich and poor 

Rojruery 



INDEX. 1 


;xm 


y age 




Page 


230 


Roguery, from bad to worse ; mis- 




277 


fortunes never come 






single ... 


32 


14 


Ruin 


76 


206 


Do. to ruin the ruined ... 


79 


2±7 


Do. miscellaneous 


80 


314 






178 


Sahi 


248 


358 


Saturn 


248 




Scarcity 


156 


64 


Searching 


270 


318 


Do. in a wrong place 


271 


56 


Do. something that comes 




207 


by itself 


271 


208 


Do. miscellaneous 


272 


295 


Secrets 


285 


264 


Do. will come out at last ... 


287 


266 


Seeking 


270 


266 


Selfishness ... 


37 


184 


Self-praise ... 


171 


187 


Servants demand servants... 


292 


191 


Shame (disgrace) ... 


41 


358 


Shame 


176 




Signs 


247 


359 


Similarity 


316 




Sin 


14 




Do. every man has his faults 


11- 


360 


Do. no one sees his own fault ... 


15 


160 


Do. to condemn others ... 


16 


201 


Do. the fault in ono person, the 




51 


blame on another ... 


17 


12 


Do. misconstruction 


18 


140 


Do. wilful sin 


19 


288 


Do. fault-finding . 


19 


231 


Do. as you make your bed, so you 




145 


must lie on it 


20 


211 


Slander 


66 




Sorrow 


370 


280 


Do. miscellaneous 


375 


156 


Spending 


257 


137 


Steadfastness 


321 


296 


Stinginess ... 


196 


58 


Stoutness 


106 


173 


Strife 


66 


25 


Stupidity 


132 


116 


Suffering, beneficial to man 


329 


187 


Superabundance 


156 


31 


Support 


231 



XXIV 




IND K X . 










Page 






Page 


r rHAXKFULNKSS 




241 


Wickedness, miscellaneous 


4-8 


Theft 




87 


Will, where there is a will, there 




Thieves 




87 




is a way ... 


209 


Do. accomplices' 




86 


Do. miscellaneous 


300 


Time 




246 


Wife and husband ... 


391 


Tit for tat 




251 


Witness 




300 


Transmigration 




7 


Women 




378 


Troubles 




294 


Do. 


obedience and modesty ... 


379 


Trust 




320 


Do. 


jewelry, dress and beauty. 


380 


Do. the untrustworthy ... 




320 


Do. 


man's compassion for 




Truth 




343 




women 


382 


Do. frankness ; confession 




343 


Do. 


untrust worthiness 


383 


Do. miscellaneous 




344 


Do. 


importance in the family... 


384 








Do. 


cleverness and dexterity... 


385 


TTnckrtaixty 




321 


Do. 


unmarried and widows . 


386 


Union... 




312 


Do. 


her failings 


398 








Words without deeds 


260 


"Vain exertion ... 




200 


Do. 


power of kind and harsh. 


309 


Veda 




13 


Do. 


to speak decisively and 
clearly 


309 


"Watchfulness 




144 


Do. 


nonsense and empty babble 


310 


Wealth 




116 


Work and workers 


292 


Wickedness ... 




46 


Worthless, the 


68 


Do. the doer of great 


evils 




Do. 


apparently 


TO 


will not fea 


r to 




Do. 


cannot attain to what 




commit smaller ones. 


46 




is noble 


71 


Do. he who commits 


small 




Do. 


cannot improve 


72 


evils, will soon 


coni- 




Do. 


are contemptible 


73 


mit great ones 




47 


Do. 


not to be honoured ... 


74 


Do. kill evil in its 


very 




Do. 


raised above their sta- 




birth 




47 




tion ... 


75 



A 
CLASSIFIED COLLECTION 



OF 



TAMIL PROVERBS 



GOD. 

These Sentences about God are not Proverbs, but Aphorisms. 

God (is our) help, or The Lord is our help. 

This little sentence is put above the Title of almost every Hindu book. 

<s/_Q/«fr giftsm or QgLueuQii) gf&ossr are the most common. But we 

meet also with : 
&66sru$sl spVeaisr • uj^anw Qsgiuii) and other expressions. 

God is love. (Upanishad.) 

2. ^lffiiWT<g euetvgo or ldQ^&jits^s^ GTLLi—npGueor. 

The unknown God, or The One that cannot be reached by mind 
or by words. 

3. Jtjlflgl Jljlflgl cSy©* 6TQP&g> &-6SBTITP&). 

Exceedingly difficult it is to know the five letters. 

The \five letters ' refer to famous incantation, or the highest spiritual wisdom, 
or God's Name. 

" The best %cay to see divine light, is to put out thine own candle." 

" Some say that eight plain hold all truth, 
And some that it doth dwell in five ! 
No wonder that such living fools 
Exalt Vishnu, and Siva praise." 

Ch. E. Gover: The Folk-Songs of Southern India. 



2 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

4. eg/Gum giGto&uungi, £i6ttn<Si\LD ^jsmfiurrgi. 

Unless God move, not an atom will move. 
God is the hidden power behind everything. 

Nothing here is equal to God. 

The secrets of the heart are known to God. (Psalm 44, 21.) 

7- OTSff(6r5S(3j6?r erasarQesardjQuneo eria^ih i§esipib^l0s@(T^<S!r. 
God pervades all, as the oil in the oil seed. 

God did not feel joy in being alone (and hence he created). 
(Upanishad.) 

9. &Up l$JjLDLD@(gl<g6)®) gj&Up L$ITl£iLDU) l$!Tm&UL9&Q psp . 

The invisible God is made to shine by the revealed God. 
(Upanishad.) 

10. &U0 l$i!Tti>l£>LD Uin9fftJ>LDth ^jITeSBr<SS)l—lLjth ^plujQiSUeSBriy-UJgJ. 

We should know both the revealed and the unrevealed God. 
(Upanishad.) 

11. pmasfKcGoQuj pneisr ggxguutrtssr. 

God is the self -existing. (Vishnu Purana.) 

12. @giipiij> un<s>i& Q&tLeas jyppsvesr Qpeum. 
He who is without sin is God. 

13. Qpihsu euesardsQiD mas eurrfteo ^gysroi—.sgjLo &rry>. 

The worship of God is the bolt that shuts the gates of hell. 

14. iBirunuussarasr ^q^<&i<ssr^n<ssi, ^vesar i—asu^m ^(tjj<3i]gv)]l£I&)'%30. 
God is one, there is no second to him. 

15. utn$nu>u>p<5B)p& tgjiurrgsri}) Q&\L<ou$5l@s)io, i3usnQsaiTLceSl(t^k^ eS^^rr 

toBTLDneBrg) iSn&n&wnQpgj. 
By meditation on God the spiritual wisdom in man, which is 
unilluminated will become radiant. (Upanishad.) 

16. l/«d<s jfpetDiptjurTg ^l-&£5)Q®)U-Il}) jpjsu&sr jpetnLpeurrear. 
Even where smoke cannot enter He can enter. 
Said also about a crafty person. 



GOD AND MAN. 

17. ^sn^^^eSl^is^j ^>j£iii^/eSil.(cL-esr, L^iSSQ^eS ejpgi&Q&nssBti—n&r. 

1 was torn off from heaven, but God's (Bhumidevi's) mercy 

received me on earth. 
So says one who stands alone and helpless in this world. 

1 8. «5y<5,S?«(5 ^sit&Qld gjVassr. 
Heaven helps the helpless. 



GOD. 3 

1 9. gjUf-SOSjLD £>(T7J 6B)S, .-gySsKjrigjii) $(Vj <SS)«S. 

(God's justice and love) smite with one hand, and embrace with 
the other. 

A king kills on the day of the offence, God stands (delays) and kills. 

" God stays long, but strikes at last." 

" Though the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding 

small ; 
Though he stands and waits with patience, with exactness grinds he 

<tU." (Tennyson.) 

2 1 . a/D//?i^LO &SUGS))l}> <p6BTID60SU S763T©ff>ffl/65T SUITuSQ&i LDGBBT ! 

May earth fall into the mouth of him who says, that Vishnu and 
Siva are not one ! 

22. ^il®«(5 eurreo ^jeirei\ £\g>ipgi ssisu^^JQ^aQp^j. 
God has cut the tail of the sheep as it is. 28. 
God has limited each person's power. 

23. FF&esyeiBLJUJ ^jl^-ojijit ldsbtud ertfl&gi i^ssisk^n&i, e§6BBrQutT(9jQLDtr? 
Shall it be counted as nothing that the hearts of God's worshippers 

burn and smoke ? 24. 

24. srafiujneisjj eueS/iumr ^jisf-^^nio, sueSliunearr^ Qpibsuu) «5/i£.«(3jii>. 

If the mighty oppress the weak, God will punish the mighty. 
23, 30. 

25. eistatfi L$&r < 2eirs(3j'i QpiLeuQu) gftessr. 

God is the protector of the helpless children. (Psalm 72, 4.) 
" Where God helps, nought harms." 

26. &6BBr<lesBrd QsQ^jg QpiLsuth Qstr^eos Qarr®<i0 < gj. 

God who deprived him of sight gave him a staff (i.e., mental 

acuteness). 
" God never shuts one door, but he opens another." 
" A blind mans wife is in God's keeping." (Kashmiri Proverb.) 

The old woman finished her ten miles, and so did the horse. 

The story is that a man having performed the proper religious ceremonies 
hastily mounted his horse and set off for heaven. At the s«me time an 
old woman performed some ceremonies, with all her heart slowly and 
carefully, and her real piety brought her to heaven before the man on 
horseback. 

" God knows well which are the best pilgrims." 

28. (SjGdaDir qjsshtud s\jBk^i ^j&iecQsuir pihiSansar Qsnihi^ QmnQsaeSi&ftev. 
Is it not because God knew the disposition of the horse that He 

has not given it horns. 22. 
" God sends the shrewd row short horns." " Gvrs'd cows hare short 
horns." 

29. (5jipiw6B)£iLiu> QpdjsuQpth QsiTsisri—nu^ssr ^ji—^^leo. 

Children and God prefer to be where they are made much of. 



4 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

30. QsQuurnansr-s QpiLeuun QsQs^ijd. 

Those that destroy others will be destroyed by God. 24. 

31. <9Fffi//ra5 ^&fteo ersnQ/'eO &n~<ss&as)uju unit; mq^k JsIsjIso susstq^s^ 

uneour^&nfiu unit ; Qu$sl $}&)'2iso bKSsrqrjsti (Qtsii) euireir^<ss>^u uirit. 

If you say there is no God, look at the cowdung ; if you say, there 
is no medicine, look at the fireworks ; if you say, there is no 
purgative, look at the croton seed. 130. 

The cowdung of which the image of Ganesa is formed does not get worm 
eaten like other cowdung, because a grass root is put through it. The tin- 
works being made of 'medicines' or chemicals burn splendidly. And the 
croton tiglium never fails as a purgative. 

32. p%803iJ6Br Qs=fr&} Qs&r, tse&rQioifrrfil p<suQp&). 

Listen to the word of God and don't turn from the good path. 

33. fsnGGi epeargv rSVesrss, Q^ilksuld fpsisrjpi S^ssrsQpsn. 
While man thinks one thing, God thinks another. 

34. $5)0<SlirTd(9j<&(9) 6T$£)it3lllT&(<9j S-SSOrQ t—IT ? 

No word can go against God's word. 

35. jprrEisirpeuQecr Mikisn^sv&sr. 

He who is ever active is never moved. 

3b*. LL^esrujnesr^ ^osr^sr^ pQpsu^Qgrfluj/Tg &&Gsliupp qijLLu/-G6)UL)g gm 

euiruSeo seus$& Q&evsujgjQutreo. 

As the cat takes its young one which is unable to crawl and 

carries it, (so God takes the helpless and carries him, till he 

learns to cling to God as the young monkey clings to its mother). 

These illustrations from the cat and the monkey are called: LDrrit&&iT6\) 

SiLitTiuih and inrrssi— iStuntuu). 

37. Q^iLisiJLS60eo^eta^ujfr QuiTQpgj QutrQpgiii), QuiTQpgi eSiq-Qpsnth. 
Is it because there is no God, that the sun sets and rises ? 
Said ironically to a disbeliever in God as the Designer. 

38. QpiheULD <5ffil®L0, SCrrZ-LOia/T? 

God will show us a way but will he put food into our mouth ? 
" God helps those who help themselves." 

" God gives every bird its food, but does not throw it into the nest." 
" God reaches us good things with our own hand." 

39. Q&ujsii&jSB&LfiiQrikpiTed, Q&ppeuegyu) erQ^thuemrasr. 

If it be the will of God, even the dead will rise. . 

40. QpssresreuQeor Qpm iBissr(7rj>&i, Qpufjuunp smftiuth &.6bbtQl-it? 

If the first one (God) stand before us, there is nothing which we 

cannot do. 
" What God will, no frost can kill." 

41. eaeuuJmQprrjpiu), Q^lnsniJo Qgirap. 

Whatever world you inhabit (through the different transmigra- 
tions) worship God. 



PATE. O 

FATE. 

NO ONE WILL ESCAPE WHAT GOD HAS PREDICTED. 

42. ^uuesr $i-Li— S6ssri(^ ^Q^s^ih puungi. 
No one shall escape God's account. 

43. ^jtussr §)L-i— GtQp&tsl®) syemieuetreiitJD puung). 

In what God has written there will not be an atom of failure. 

44 ^ujsar jt/euiE^ui^.. 

According to God's measure. 

45. ,jpieBr6B)p&(9j STQp^lsmes) r ^ S\$&g) erQpgjsurriQ)'? 

What God has written before that He will not destroy and re-write. 
" That which must be, will be." 

46. ^/ujesr ^]es)LDU<ss)u ^rn^iih jSetretrssz-L-ir^. 
No one can cast off God's decree. 

If we want more than God has appointed, shall we get it ? 

48. ^j&)60^j suntrgj, Qjstr&r^ Qurrsirgj. 

That which does not exist will not come into existence, and that 
which exists will not be annihilated. 

49. ssl& Qp^ssruSeo ^<suu> Q&ih-gnepiii) &-&Tetrsp<gtTei5r Qetoi— &(&jud. 

Even if a man make penance standing on the point of a needle, he 
will not get more than was destined for him. 56. 

50. QSLp&np Quir^eji/ili, e-efraSSsw ^nn^i. 

Though dirt may be got rid of, inherited fate will not expire. 

51. ereasiQesarib Qurrs QpQgQ^giLD, gtq^^^iu Quits p Q^ajuunQ^sssti—n'i 
One may bathe so as to wash off oil, but who can rub himself so as 

to free himself from fate. 

52. GTQptBeor efijs} j>j(ip^rr&) ^(wjlo/t? 

Though one weeps, will the fate written (by Brahma) be removed ? 

53. Q<sitlLsb>i—uS60 (or wiTLLiani—iuireir) Queeor iSpkpirgyih, QuniLi— uerr&fl 

(er(ip^) puurrgj. 
Though a woman is born in a fort (in a royal family), she will 
not escape her fate. 

54. fgtrtsl&t&jp <535u u@6>l, (3jgo@sj]&(S)@ ■§■£& ^sirjjih. 

No one will be able to rise above the range of understanding and 
the religious customs that belongs to his caste. 

55. p^eo GTQgpgi |§)(3'5'S, &'%eoa»vu& GlenjrppnG) Qurr^Lmrt 

Since the letters of fate are on your head, will your fate leave 
you because you shave your head. 



6 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

56. gfyft/siLnuap peuih Q&ibpngiih, 3*-.®Qp (or Q<as>L—&Qp) sireoth tsukg) 
pneor gJ&ld. 
Though you stand on your head to do penance yon will only 

succeed in your aim at the time of success. 49. 
Success is attained not by effort, but by Fate. 

59. 0rrjrQpu> ©(jstyti pteoeSltgluif-. 

You get your wife and your pi'iest according to destiny. 3429. 
" Marriages are made in heaven." " In time comes she whom (rod 
sends." 

60. ^aretflg ^j&reffts (8j£i!pprT&itx>, QeuetteS uueoorQpih Qes)i—ajrTSsrr&)^^&) 

However much a man exerts himself, he will not get even a 
silver coin as long as fate is against him. 

61. iSaiDQpeueor QuitlLi— l/«t«/?#(3> g£}26SBTi—STwa? 

When God has made a mark, there is no erasing of it. 

62. Lcesares)u.aS&) erQpGsl, looSitit&) Lceapi^^uQurreo. 

The fate written in our heads is hidden hy our hair. 
We cannot read our fate. 

63. snip &>-pgp ^uf-p paQetsr ^uQ^eAnQili, 

If he begins a dance at all, he must finish it. 
" You must dree your ain weird." 

64. @SujrT(sld(3j LD^i^j e.6wr®, e$£il<i(&} LDqjjisjp &.6sari-Ji? 

There is medicine for diseases, but is there any medicine for fate ? 



FATE DECIDES SUCCESS. 

65. S\®&£1 QpiusarQrfgyui, =§}@ii) ibtretr ^nesr ^(Bjth. 

Though a man exerts himself over and over again, he shall only 

get what he seeks at the appointed day. 
" Man doth what he can, and God what he ivill." 

66. ^p& mem e$Q go ^isbtw LjnesnTi—n-ggiu), ^lUSSlp^i^nasT qlL<Su>. 

Even if a man roll himself daily in the river sand only what 

sticks to him will stick. 
" No butter will stick to his bread." 

67. QP&gi ^j&rsQpeu^ih QuasBriSl&r'ZGirprreBr , Qf>&uuujg» ^jeniQpsu^ui 

QuessrLS&r^eir/snear. 

The woman who measures pearls is but a woman, and she who 

measures spoiled beans is but a woman. 567. 
Fate makes these outward differences. 
" Every man hath his own planet." 



TRANSMIGRATION OR INHERITED DEEDS. / 

68. <s8$g!pp eS0)emujeSi—, Qsujpi isi—s^LDir? 

Will anything but what is destined happen to men ? 
" That which mmst be, icill be." 

69. GiiQ^ktgi gi<S6)i£@&ng$i}> ) eurrjjrrgj euiwtTg]. 

Though we beg and call, that which will not come, will not come. 
" Every man has his lot." 



TRANSMIGRATION OR INHERITED DEEDS- 

siSidssr. 

70. cgya/637- ^jeuesr Q&tbp efiVssr, jyeueisr ^jsu^isQs. 

The deeds of each individual will follow each individual (into the 

next world). 
" As you make your bed, so must you lie on it." 

7 1 . &rm>g$glt<oif)Q>eo eumgg], ^itld^^^S)Q&} QutT&QsuGeBruf.ujg}. 

What has come over one by inheritance, must be got rid of by 
virtuous act's. 

72. <s/rSsYr Qunesr <sui£IQuj suSgv Quir^ua. 
Wherever the bull runs, its rope will follow. 75. 
Whatever one has done, good or evil, will follow him. 

" As you sow, so you shall reap." 

73. Q&iLg eS2ssr Q^tu^eurrs^ Gruu^X&ih (a/^ti). 

What a person has done in a former birth, will come upon him 
again. 

74. <Sfi_6$ (gjGOpppnQtJUlT, (9)G®pLDjrS&lT&) ^LlZ—ffCWr ? 

Did you reduce your servants' wages, or did you measure with a 

scanty measure ? 
Said to one, who has a hard lot in this life ; implying that the canse of it 

must be some bad actions done in a former birth. (This may be said in a 

quarrel in order to stop the mouth of an opponent.) 

75. pesi iSi^eo @6btQ '(6»)G i— eu0ih. 
Our shadow will follow us. 72. 

76. peisr ©S3s8T geisr%ssT& <sf®lo, ^LLi—uum g8lLi3S)I—& &<3ih. 

His own deeds will burn him, and a cake will burn the house. 

Patanattu Pillayar, the poet, used to eat with men of all castes, which is 
contrary to Hindu rnle. His sister seeing this and thinking him better 
dead than so denied baked a cake with poison in it and gave it to him. 
The sage knowing her purpose, took the cake and placed it among the 
tiles on the roof of her house. By a miracle it set the house on fire. Thus 
the evil woman's deed was requited. 

77. §3%3st eSea^^^eu&sr tsffiasr .gi&iuunasr, eSTZexr eSesi^jg^suesr eS^ssr 

gjjrpuunGBr. 
He who sows millet, reaps millet, he who sows deeds (good or 
bad) will reap accordingly. 



8 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

78. Qppi$pui§&) Q&th& <a92sw, {g)ui5lpuLSso QpsoBTL-g) (from Qp^). 
Deeds done in a former birth, burn in this birth. 

79. <suk$ eS < 2esr Quirsngj, euutr q93sbt sugrrgi. 

The fruits of deeds done in a former birth will not go, and the 
fruits that do not come will not come. 

80. euQjjm oSSsar s>jljSIu$g) iS/b&irjp. 

The approaching result of deeds done in a former birth does not 
stop on the road. 

81. e£lLLi—(8j6B)p QpnL-i—QjjGap eSKduiir? 

The defects that were unremedied in a former birth, and the 

defects we now yield to, will not forsake us. 
The faults and failings of a former birth affect a subsequent birth. — This 

proverb is sometimes used about little things put off yesterday, that have 

to be done to-day. 



FORTUNE. 

THE FICKLENESS OP FORTUNE. 

82. «f$(5"> sn&3w ^(gjih, Qurr(5jih aneOih QuiT(&jU). 

At the time for possessing it is possessed, at the time for losing, 

it is lost. 
" Joy and sorrow are next-door neighbours." 

83. ^jlduit uniQuuih &ldu<t e&'fcii&^gi, uneS unsQiuiJa ujgjririij eS'bstrk^^. 
By Amba's fate good rice grew up, by my miserable fate grew up 

only chaff. 
" Fortune and misfortune are two buckets in a well." 

84. ^i$5l<sij>i—Qpu> g)&6uiflujQpm QQf)&jn uieis&)&). 

Good fortune and riches are never one man's share (Anyone may 
be lucky enough to get them). 

85. gjgilGtyt—lA ^,0>LU QuQfjtVj&pgJ. 

Fortune (if it comes) comes like a river in flood. 

In the rainy season Indian rivers will often suddenly rise many feet in a few 
hours. 

86. (Sjuetnu S-itirrispg), QarTUjsru) £irip£g < g}. 
The dunghill is raised, the tower is sunk. 

Said from envy to hurt a person who is getting on well in this world 
" To-day a king, to-morrow nothing." 

87. &&g)&&ua &iped ffids/TLA. 

Joy and grief are a whirling wheel. 2910. 
" Change of fortune is the lot of life." 



FORTUNE. y 

88. #<5ld gsSpspLSHtiyco, eSugih J g&Q/D : g>}i£l®)'Zso. 
"Well-being does not last, and penance does not last. 
These two do not abide in anyone. 

89. glEJSLD 6Te060lTlh ^ffl9il®<5(5 WlTguQpg]- 

All the pure gold changes into bran. 

In time of adversity or famine the well-to-do are reduced to beggary. Cf. 
The story of the prodigal son and that of the five Pandavas in exile. 

" To-day in finery, to-morrow in filth." 

" The highest spoke in Fortune's wheel may soon turn lowest." 

90. Qpuusps)j06i£u> <aunupfcp<suejpitJileo'fe) ) Qfiuu^tsuQ^e^jJa pngkpGUGSji 

There is no one who has prospered for thirty years, and no one 

who has met with adversity for thirty years. 
" Fortune and glass soon break, alas ! " 



UXLUCKINESS. 

Even if an unlucky man gets a (large) measure of milk the cat 

will drink it. 96. 
" He who is born to misfortune stumbles as he goes, and though he 

fall on his back will fracture his nose." 

92. jti&rarri-iifl (or (zfjQunear ui'.i-esorii)) Q&ireh'Ssirujirgipgyu), QsirQ^g) 

Even when Alagapuri (the city of the God of riches) is plundered, 
the unlucky wretch will get nothing. 1706, 1750. 

93. ^6sBiuesr l§i$-£@gij (&$&(§& &ibes>£u$6giw skonp ^suuljt^j. 

A woman possessed by Sani will not get even a rag in a big 
market. 

Sani is the most malignant of the planets ; hence ' a woman possessed by 
Sani ' means a very unlucky, unfortunate woman. 

94. easfitLieifr iSli$.@@sv&r ^isea^i^u Quir^gyih, L/^a^eir ^auui—Loiril. 

/_/7W. 

Though a woman possessed by Sani go to the (crowded) market 
she won't get a husband. 

95. miretr Q&ihQpg), meceostjirs&r QatLiujLDnLLLJTiJs&r. 

Good people cannot do what a lucky day can do. 2211. 
All Hindus have a very great belief in the efficacy of auspicious days. 

2 



10 TAMIL PROVE RJ3S. 

96. uit&3 (&iq.&&u urr&QuJtSeOsonpeiiesr eS^eouuir&i eunikiQ^i^ih, ^jeoj^LLjih 

Though the man who is not fated to drink the milk, buy it for a 

price, the cat will drink it. 91. 
The story is that a woman having lost all her children, bought a child from 

some poor people, but even it died. 
" He that was born under a three-half penny planet shall never be 

worth twopence." 

97. Quifteo Qurrgussu Qun^rrm, ySsw (& > gp&Q& Qun&s-nLD. 

A vain woman went to pick up a little fuel, but a cat came across 

her path. 
For a cat to cross one's path is a bad omen. The meaning of the proverb is 

that an unlucky person cannot attempt the smallest deed without being 

checked by bad omens. 
" Whither aoest thou, misfortune ? To where there is more !" 

98. eSu^ujrrQp^S G>eifteos(9ju Quir^V)§$iu> CW&so jpj&uui—trgi, QeuVso ^su 

ui' i ngyih sa-eS ^/suui—rr^j. 

Though the unlucky seek work, he will not find it, and even if he 
get work he will get no pay for it. 



LUCK. 



99. c9i{£leLf,L-L£l(Vjih£rr&), ^jsr& ueasreeareonua. 

If a man be lucky he may get a country to rule. 
" Luck is all" 

100. ^y^ta^.z—sy/rsar ld6sbt2ssst^ QptnLmrgpiLD Qlhtgbt<cv)(<9ji}>. 

The fortunate need only touch earth, and it becomes gold. 

101. cgyffl/<F/7rf? ^uj-^g&th gjtsla^i—th QeueoorSliii, GslQjjL—uQurr^ggnh GjIsb>& 

(Severn® m. 

If one play the harlot, luck is needed ; and if one go to steal, 
fortune is needed. 

102. gieiie!pj&(9jffi ^sQjr^jes)^ <g)U}.&QpSfj. 

The favourable influences of the planet Venus is upon him. 
" Fortune 's favourite." 109. 

1 03. cgytf @ ^(3/5,^7 jyQgu), gjfsleifrL—LSQrfkgi Q-ememw. 

Where there is Beauty there will be weeping ; where there is 
luck there will be eating. 

104. S\\£(5 Q&it&i Qun®wiT, jfj^jex^i—ih Q&irjry QunQiLir? 
Will beauty feed you, or will fortune feed you ? 



FORTUNE. 1 1 

105. ^©ii &n&)ih Qlduj su(T^m pQeuessn-JTiA, Q<giEjarTtbd(3j ^jeniiSrrQuireo 

At an auspicious time, there is no need to fatigue one's body ; 
success will then come of itself as the juice gathers in the 
green cocoanut. 

" When God wills, all icinds bring rain." 

106. ^Ssar &.GSBTL- efieirrr£i&6Bfl(oun&). 

Like the wood-apple eaten by the elephant. 

Though it swallowed this hardshelled fruit whole, only the shell could be 
found in its stomach, the pulp had all been digested. In this way 
wealth disappears leaving only trouble. 2034. 

107. gi^GDj ejp g\$ '«' fit in @)(2}&@rr&), (v^gtslsBrSip eui^j ^soifiujrr^rr? 

If you are destined to ride a horse, will it not come and place it- 
self under you ? 
" He danceth well to whom Fortune pipeth" 

108. QsnQdQp Qjgdjsuu) QpsthQineO (or Qp^&uSQ&i or (^^^QeO) 3\uf-& 

When God gives, he will throw his gifts at us. 
If we are lucky fortune will be forced on us. 2138. 

109. sf-sQir^lsias 1 ^sueor (§p$E)Qeo s\^-dQp^j. 

Fortune strikes him behind. (It comes unexpectedly.) 102. 

110. Qtuirssunear uioeos^ GJjpi 'sun esr. 

He who has luck in his favour will ride in a palanquin. 

111. eui^n&) &Lhu>rr euQ^ih, eutrnrrLoeO Qun^eo ^sBrjpith euffir^i. 

If (fortune) comes, it will come of itself ; if it does not come, 
nothing 1 will come. 



THE UNLUCKY BRINGS MISFORTUNE WITH HIM. 

112. ^srrfi isn'BefraSeo lSotSstt iSptsgnid, ^emesn— eSuJSlisira'2i3ST sreZreisr 

Q&LUUJLD ? 

A child is born on an unlucky day, what harm can it do to the 

next door neighbours ? 
That it will bring ruin on its own relations is implied. 441. 

113. e-sireffan^ayii QsQjgpnar P-ggisneSl euihgj. 

When a woman with twitching feet came into the house, she des- 
troyed what was in the house. 117. 

114. CT65T 6SlL®&(3jU U,6UHtL)3UJT, QurT&ST^JIU) gJQJjtllUIT&Srg). 

When she came to my house as a young flourishing girl, my gold 

became an unlucky straw. 
The mother-in-law may say so about daughter-in-law. 



12 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1 1 5. 8ee)p i3pms, {^eoiaetna <g>jySluj. 

By Sita's birth Ceylon was destroyed. 
Said of one who is the ruin of a family. 

116. fithtS i3p&&, pemrjLDilj—tA s^etf-sp. 

When the younger brother was born all was levelled to the ground. 
By his ill luck or by his bad behaviour. 

117. g)GB>L—&iTeSl eu&pgjii), 6T&)®)rTih < g)?6vi3jF2Qurr&<9?jp. 

No sooner had the woman with the affected walk (looked upon 
as unlucky) entered the house, than all was lost. 

Both this and No. 113 refer to an unlucky girl beiug married into the 
family. 

" An ill marriage is a spring of ill fortune." 

No one prospers under the influence of the star Rahu, and no 

one is ruined under the influence of the star Raja. 
Rahu is the ascending node, believed to be a monstrous dragon. 

119. ujresS jyOuqu ungQunangi. 

A hearth kindled on the second lunar day will burn always. 

120. ujT6issfiu$&) iStfokprTGd, pffesS ^en&mm. 

A person born under the planet Bharani will rule the world. 
" Better he lucky born than a rich mans son." 

121. eumpgiu) jquuuf-Quj, @eusfr gifigjw ^uui^-Qiu, eresrd^ Qpetsr eiesr 

Sl$<ctyi—w QuitiL tSpQpg]. 

What came was thus, and what God gave was the same ; my fate 
goes before me, stands there (and takes away my luck). 

i.e., I am unfortunate wherever I go; I had a husband, but I am as poor as 
ever; God gave me a child, but even that died. 



PRIEST: GURU. 

Only he is a priest who speaks encouraging words to those who 
come to him for shelter. 

123. snjjeaar (jSjQjj, sniBuu (9j(m. 

The priest for the sake of truth, and the priest for material gain. 

The former has his mind set on essential truth and seeks the spiritual 
benefit of his disciples. While the latter seeks only his own interest. — 
A very interesting story about a Karya priest is told by Pandit S. M. 
Natesa Sastri in his Folklore in Southern India, pp. 179. 



HEAVEN. 13 

J 24. (5 ueauLL) ii> QsiTi£liL\t}>Qun®) ^(r^eifih @<SL?>Gjp)i}). 

The priest and his disciple are as close as the dunghill and a fowl. 

As the fowl by constant scratching finds the seeds, Ac, in the dunghill, so 

the disciple by constant enquiry finds out the truth that the Guru knows. 

1 25. (gjULjrr) la&Qg.igj ^ai/ii) Q&djpnfgiih, (S)(rrj&<£(gfT)&(8j Quxiai^LSlso'Zeo. 

Though a priest make penance lying flat on his face he will not 
be saved. 

126. n6GBres&iLii&ioediTp euySlsniJ-Lp- eSesur. 

An ungodly spiritual guide is worthless. 
" He preaches well that lives well." 

127. Quit pi Qsu6srpsuQ60T ^jpleSSasr (Sjq^eunw. 

He who has conquered the five senses (or the flesh) will be a 
priest of wisdom. 



VEDA OR SPIRITUAL WISDOM. 

128. ^jissseatsrns^^ gjVesar Qaupih. 

The Veda is the strength of the Brahmins. 

129. ^eoium gijSuJiTg] GpSilssr (Heupih. 

The temple does not know the Veda you recite. 

The temple in this case represents " the Holy of Holies " or heaven itself. 
Said to one who preaches according to his own idea, and not according 
to the recognised scriptures. 

130. &rreiv$jri£> QuiriL (Sim^eo, Qg&GSsrpGapu lj/ttt. 

If you say the Shastras are false, look at the eclipse. 31. 
The eclipse that occurs as foretold in the Shastras is a proof of the truth- 
fulness of the Shastras. 

131. <9F(5^ (SQ5 -sfsn^jueuLD QpasrgviA fp^^jp QmiLQurrq^enirib. 

When the sacred writings, the priest, and one's own happiness 
are all in harmony, we have the truth. 134. 



HEAVEN. 

132. jt/ppjgi ujbjpi Greeflio, &.pp^i <s§®. 

If you get out of bondage, heaven is yours. 137. 

In com. language : uppleoeviTLDGO Qun^&i, ^Q^iQp^i QiDirsi^eS®. 

133. ^Oa/^r L$&£B)&, Qu^ffi/^ QintTSipth. 

What you give to another is alms, what you gain for yourself by 
that alms is ' bliss.' 



14 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

134. &-0$sl &snGS)!U6iiii> {°gjff<akr®ii> GpppnSo Qp&fsl. 

Where the sacred writings and. one's own happiness are in 

harmony there is salvation. 131. 
" He that will enter Paradise must have a good key." 

135. &6und&&£gl(c60 Q^mLuf-iLjili &ifl, Q^iressri—inn^iih &rf). 
In heaven a scavenger and king Tondaman are alike. 
" We shall lie all alike in our graves." 

130. &6uira<5£ t gj&(9jLJ Quir^epiLO, sdapfg)®) ^/^ujuufT^^iiLDir ? 

Even when we go to heaven, shall we have an old pot under our 

arm? 2943,3361. 
" When he dieth he shall carry nothing away." Psalm 49, 17. 

137. umpih Q&lL®, Q uon<3hq>uD &n6Bsflujrr&8ujrT(&jt}). 

If the fetters of sin be destroyed salvation is one's own. 132. 

138. (92&$.lD0$Bls0 ^(T^sQp^l (oLDlT^ii). 

Salvation is a minute essential, or, Salvation is not a matter of 
multa but of multum. 



SIN, FAULT, DEFICIENCY. 
ursuLD, (ajjn/DLD, (aj&n/D. 

EVERY MAN HAS HIS FAULTS. 

139. J>i0$u uLpganpu iSuLQZuuncrppir®), ^^^^estilju) Q&rrpenp (or LtfLp). 
If we break and examine a fig-fruit, it is all decayed (or 

wormeaten). 
Outwardly fine, but inwardly rotten. 

140. 2sn.iT cimgn ^jQ^m^neo Q^fBiLjth ^q^s^ud. 

Where there is a Hindu village, there is also a Paria village. 

Where there is something good, there is also something evil. 

Also used like " of course." Have you thieves in your village ? Have you 

water near your house ? To such questions this proverb is an affirmative 

reply. 

" It is in courts as it is in ponds ; some figs, some frogs." 

If we turn the Bassia flower, holes will be found on both sides. 

H2. GrajGOnpgj&QLb §?(3 Q&mL® sl«ot®. 2998,3000,3011,3014, 
3017. 
Everything has its defect. 
" Lifeless, faultless." 

143. erdoeoir^^js^ih e_6abr® ^Iteuuyu) unguuih. 

Every tree has fresh leaves and decaved ones. 
Defects are found in everyone. 
".No garden without its weeds." 



SINj FAULT, DEFICIENCY. 15 

144. <5i&)eonrr sSlL®^ Q^ne/a^uSi^sih ^LLemi — 

Whosoever makes a pancake, there will be holes in it. 
Refers to a particular thin kind of pancake made by the Brahmins for 
Ekadasy festival. 

145. ^<SfT<S5)<SUUJITIT QlD6$IUD (Bj/b/Dth, ^eSBT^^eSujITIT G?lfi6#L0 UQpJg/ S-6SBT®. 

There is fault in Avvai and there are defects in teachers. 
Avvai was a famous Tamil poetess. 

" Shew me a man icithout a spot, and I'll shew you a maid without 
a blot." 

14(3. &pk$ urr^ith gt&Qgo, i$pfc@ tS&j'BsrriLjih sr&&eo. 

Fresh drawn milk is impure, and a new born baby is impure. 

3004. 
" There is none without a fault." 

147. sfrstSleveorT^ ses.iT, uireuiHeoeon g ses.fr. 

A village without crows is also without sin. 

148. urreuil) QuirKoOJiraajra^ih Q^hlL®s Qsrr&kri—nSlii). 
Sin lays hold even of great people triumphantly. 

149. Qp^fsleplLD Q&fT@6B),£ &.6SST®, UGULpgtsleplLD Ulpgl &_633r®. 

There are defects in pearls and flaws in coral. 
" A good garden may have some weeds. 

150. <s£lL® <sSlL®s(^ Lcesnr ^(SuQu^rresr, Qunm ,-gyOuL/ ^go^bo. 

All houses have an earthen fire-place, a fire-place of gold exists 

nowhere. 
Refers to the degenerate state of mankind with its wants and sorrows. 
" Every man has his fault." 



"NO ONE SEES HIS OWN FAULTS." 

151. ^etamd (gjppib seaarespid^^ Q^rfltung]. 

The eye cannot see the defect of the eye-lid. 2089, 3214. 

152. Q&f&Lctgl &Gm6®$i&(&jp Quasar qrfjgi. 
Wickedness is not manifest to the eye. 

153. -seat (Sj/bpth seBBramus^p Q^near^^j. 

One's own faults are not seen by one's own eye. 
" Mens years and their faults are always more than they are ivilling 
to own." 

154. $<5S! Qpgl(§ j5<oBT5(3}£ QglflujlTgli 

No man can see his own back. 

" That man sins charitably who damns none but himself." 
" If the camel could see his hump, he woxdd fall down and break his 
neck." 



16 TAMIL PKOVEBBS. 

155. i3p@G&B&(3jts @ek (^easrw jrpre$Gjpjih O^a/soo;. 

A. crazy man thinks his behaviour straighter than a straight line. 

" Folly is wise in her oicn eyes." 

" Ignorance is the mother of impudence." 



TO CONDEMN IN OTHERS WHAT WE OURSELVES DO. 

Faults of other men ye question, 

Not the fault that ye have done ! 

Like chaff your neighbour's vices winnow, 

Like a false die hide your own. 

Dutt's: Lays of Ancient India. 

156. < £i&stT < 2etTu uLfSljSjpji ptkien & jtjeu^niftujrr^eir. 

The sister who blamed her elder sister became a harlot herself. 
" Every one should sweep before his own door." 

157. £j#eotrrr (SjppihQutTG) ^m^ppih unnppmsd, i3m igjpi e-6aarQL-.fr 

Would there be any more evil in man, if each one would observe 
his own faults as he observes the faults of his neighbour ? 

" We carry our neighbour s failings in sight ; we throw our own crimes 
over our shoulders." 

158. §JT<&£6OB!680r2£3ru U 1$ &Q (ttfOSJ , §>p<oO>p& S6S0T6SSfm . 

The one eyed man mocks the man who squints. 

" The pot calh the kettle black." 

" The raven said to the rook, stand away, black-coat ! " 

159. @60l'%oST& Gflfiuug! JPIpllUtTpmb U606tilT6Uir/gg}S (SjJ/Sgj, jgm as263)J<5F 



It is said, that the monkey of Pallavaram, without knowing that 

the village laughed at him, laughed at the village. 
" Those who live in glass-houses should not throw stones." 

160. pnoavju uifilpgip, ptbens gjeu&ntfl ^®@0>6(r. 

After blaming her mother, the younger sister played the harlot 

herself. 
" Virtues all agree, but vices Jight one another." 

161. iLSt&TfS^u Lj^^-r Qffn&)6S^, pmu ^jeu&nifl Quir^a/strmh. 

The mother after warning her daughter, played the harlot 
herself. 

" Let him that has a glass skull not take to stone throiving." 

1 62. QP&(5 S\&ft$ £tf>6tf), sn^j g\gik$ QpefRetmiJij uySlppnetrinb. 

The person who had a defective nose blamed the one who had a 

defective ear. 
" Point not at others' spots with a foul finger." 



SIN, FAULT, DEFICIENCY. 17 

THE SIN OR FAULT IN ONE PERSON, THE BLAME OR 
PUNISHMENT ON ANOTHER. 

163. jyesBTSiDi— QiLQedQ&truti), si—neSsar Qu>Qed&rril.u).esrgi Quired (or ^{3 

esr^Qurred^. 
Like wreaking on the goat the anger he felt towards his 

neighbour. 
" Since he cannot revenge on the ass, he falls on the pack-saddle." 

164. s\ememm Quitted ^(^i^ Q&nupeap mirib Quitted ^ppl^esr. • 
The anger he felt towards his elder brother, he cooled on the dog. 
" He that cannot beat his horse beats the saddle." 

165. <g)j<a>f%30 $'2l5GT@gl&Gl&n6m(Sl, &-J?SO @£)[$.8&l(nj>6Br. 

Thinking of the steeped rice he beat the mortar. 

Being angry with a superior whom he cannot harm he ill-treats some one 
in his power. Cf. Sf-LUTLDed s-QQp^gi, to burn without burning, to 
punish indirectly, or : ep<5Br<S6)p& girsQlUSl wpQl(ttf<5Br<o6)pis ^}lLi— } 
making one thing an excuse for reproaching another. 

166. jtjihiSI i£l®sQsir, jtjeispuusiieir iB®iQsir ? 

Is the power in the grinding stone or in the woman that 

grinds ? 169. 
Said when blame is laid not on the person who is the real sinner, but on a 

person who has been led into sin. 

167. ^g)^®/ Q&rT6Gr6Br<su68r QuittQeoivn ul£I1 

Should you blame him who announces a death ? 
"Messengers should neither be beheaded nor hanged." 

168. e_63OT7_a/efr Q-ernQQurrs, <srssi pteo uesor® QunQppir? 

Some one ate it and ran away ; am I to lose my head for it ? 
"Many without punishment, none without sin." 

169. ertb<56ijeaT @<3<£<£, jifiheau QisneunQeoKSSit 

Why blame the arrow, when he who discharged it is there ? 166. 

170. &<g$slttt&&irub Q&npsap Grtsor(rr?e\), ^itteuir&ru^essr (Sjjbpix) eimQqtj'&i. 

If you say that the brinjals are decayed, she says it is the fault 
of the knife by which they were cut. 

171. &cvjti>u &&&Qpg] eundjs Qjppih. 

If the sugar-cane tastes bitter, the fault is in the mouth of the 

eater. 
If one dislikes a good thing or a good person, the fault lies in himself. 

172. a it as it ib erpleorgoi}), ueaiu> uipw eSlQpm^^jth. 

The crow ascended the palm tree, and the fruit fell down. 

The fruit was quite ripe, and it needed a slight touch to make it fall and 
this the crow accidentally gave, and was wrongly blamed for the fall of 
the fruit. This thought is commonly expressed by : &ir&Jgirettt iSlUiriuu), 
or more commonly : Q 5>nL-L-GuSs\ Quitted uLpi, and is applied to a 
person, who happens to show the flaw in a thing, that was broken beforo 
he touched it. 

3 



18 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

173. QsireiurfT&r j^eusFirift Quits, ^essreissr^^iran&r ^<ssari—u> Qsn®ss. 

The woman from Ko-village played the harlot, but the woman 
from Gunnatur-village got the punishment. 

174. &p(gi!T$jg) QsirsQs, npGE)mp<3»@& ss<^\ 
0, beautiful stork, vomit the jewel ! 

Said by an innocent person who is blamed for a theft. 

175. Q&eo®)ti> Q#(nj&(9}@p@rT ? <s»n&eouu}- euQg$(3jQp£iTl 

Was it indulgence that made you slip P Was the entrance to 

the house slippery ? 3336. 
Said to a spoiled child who blames something or somebody else for its 

faults. 

176. pteo QeuiLuf. utfiQuni—GMLDirt 

You have cut the head off. Is it right to blame somebody else ? 

177. ul$ tyrreenT<5B>i— } utreutii GpneaBnsm — 

The blame on one side, the sin on another. 
" One doth the scath, and another has the scorn." 

178. QfiSLD ^srr^l0is^rr&), sesm^Uf. ereisresr Q&thujiDt 
If your face is ugly, what can the mirror do ? 
Don't blame anything else for faults caused by yourself. 



MISCONSTRUCTION. 

179. ^jasrupp uhtiBiisitq^s^s sired UL-i—iregiih (&jppu>, <ssisuL-i—!r^ih 

(gJPpiD. 

Whether your foot or your hand touch an unkind mother-in-law, 

it is wrong. 
" Faults are thick where love is thin." 185, 2765, 2838, 3643. 

180. <§\QBrupp LDtTL£llLirT0&(9j& (9jlhlSl®& pgJLD (jSjppil) £IT68r. 

Even a bow to an unkind mother-in-law will be taken as an 

offence. 
" Where there is no love, all are faults." 2770. 

181. c|$sa)iD iSmf-uunfr, LD60eorr^^}euiTiT, iBirm <£lgi Qstteor^eo uneuih. 

They will lay hold of a tortoise and turn it on its back ; but to 

mention it is a crime. 
" Speak what you will, bad men will turn it ill." 

182. uneS Q&rr®6BiLD un§HLo i^ettlsQp^. 

The heinonsness of my sin will turn milk sour. 

By my hard fate even the good I do to others is misconstrued. 

" All are not thieves that dogs bark at." 

183. Qu£tgv)G) evirtuiJuy., Qu#irjjg)(nj& 1 giT&) ssneai£>u uiu&). 

If I speak, I am called a babbler; if I am silent, I am called a 

dumb fellow. 
" It is hard to please all parties." 



SIN, FAULT, DEFICIENCY. 19 

184. LDmAlburriT ^jessB ^feSifiibprTeo, eufnutT^iih Q^rrsoeossk-isr^, Gasvutr^nh 

If the mother-in-law's dress becomes unfastened, you must not 
tell her of it, nor show her it (for fear of offending her). 

" If you want a pretence to whip a dog, it is enough to say he ate up 
the frying pan." 

1 85. Q<3J65BrL-iri£, Quesor&rrtg) emsuuLLi—rreo (&)ppii>, sneo luLl—Vso (SjppiJD. 

If a wife disliked by her husband touch him with her hand or her 
foot, it is wrong. 

" When love fails we espy all faults." 

" To crazy ship all winds are contrary." 179, 2770. 



WILFUL SIN. 

1 86. J)j/6liig) 3\jB®§i Q&tLQp utreujgGBip <2lQgg) SjQggi Gpif2&}asQ<su6SBr®ii). 
One will have to weep endlessly to expiate sin done wilfully. 728. 

187. sQpeSIs aQgeflu LSesr^utli Q&p<ssip iSllgl&Qp-giT (com. QlciAs 

Qppir) ? 
After washing your feet, will you walk in the mud ? 

1 88. <5iL-Uf. <oTlLi^.u unnpsj}, (jsjLLuf-&&-ts>jtfl&) QpLLup-sQarr&riGgQppn ? 
After seeing a ruined wall, why should you go and knock your 

head against it ? 
How is it that you allowed yourself to sin wilfully ? 

189. (^LLisf-ff^suiBso QpL-Uf-&Qsn<sfren Qeu&rQenQg -spirt 

Are you so blind as to run your head against a ruined wall ? 
Doing what one knows to be foolish or wrong. 

190. uirnpfslqijisgiLD UfTQpraQssarpplQeo ^QpQpprrt 

Though you see an empty well, will you go and fall into it ? 

191. eS&ideiasu i^u^p^sQanssar® Qsmppl^&) eSftpQppirt 

"Will you go and fall into a well with a lamp in your hand ? 
" Run not into ruin with your eyes open." 



FAULT-FINDING. 

192. 6p@<suek pyeouSQed Lciresstlssui ^0sQp^i <sr<asrjpi Q<a//-Li_6\)/ru)/7? 

Would it be right to cut off another person's head, because you 

think there is a gem in it P 
Why suspect without reason ? 3327. 
" Defaming others is the greatest of all sins." 
" Throw much dirt and some will stick." 
"He that icould hang his dog, gives out first, that he is mad." 



20 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

193. (9}ppLO utrfrsQeo ■s^ppiBe^ieo. 

If you look at men's faults you will have no friends. 
" Deem the best of every doubt, till the truth be tried out." 

194. <568T <SULj l9/P(T5<5(5<? &kg}. 

One's own faults are an opportunity for others. 742. 

" The vulgar keep no accounts of your hits, but of your misses." 

" In an enemy spots are soon seen. 1 

195. gnnisp QasBrpenpp gsrheunnnQp. 

Do not clear a well that has been filled up. 443, 459, 460. 

Cf. LopisglQurTesr fits^jeams Q&TQtfQp. Don't stir up what is forgotten. 

" Do not rake the gutters." 
" Let sleeping dogs lie." 

196. uaa&ujireffl&(3ju u<t^ui3Q<sO Qihtbe&LLi—giQ uned. 
Like adding ghee to an enemy's favourite food. 

A man's misfortunes are as pleasant to his enemies as clarified butter is to 
the Hindu palate. 247, 1842. 



" AS YOU MAKE YOUR BED, SO YOU MUST LIE ON IT." 

197. jijsuuLLQdQsn&rQeuesr GtmQqrf a&remssf dssffQ/ er®aQpg]t 
Does a thief steal expecting that he will be caught ? 
No one sins thinking that he will have to suffer for it. 

198. g\i—ngi Qeibpemasr umrj? uGHgmtgst. 

If one does what is unseemly, he will suffer what he should not 

suffer. 
" Fly that pleasure which paineth afterwards." 

199. js>j6ljU—ld£4)]&: &6tsFI<3r>uj euiLisf.S(^ eurnhQesr^iQutreo. 

Like buying Saturn (a malignant star) in his worst shape with 

borrowed money, 
i.e., Wilfully courting utter destruction by one's folly. 
" He that courts injury will obtain it." 

200. e gy^$a/i£<55(35«F Q&irsorGBrtsuasr, ui£lQu[Tg)i£(3jLb Lcesresrsuasr. 

A man who defends a false case is a king who tolerates crime, 
i.e., Must take the consequences of his crime sooner or later. 
" Trickery comes back to its master." 

201. e-Gtnppp&rr®) LjQp&QpQuirg) ^jeOeoQenn Ljnps^ih. 

When the time comes for worms to consume the kicking foot, 

will they not consume it ? 
In due course destruction will come even to the haughtiest. 
" Every ill man hath his ill day." 
" Vengeance belongeth to me, saith the Lord." 



SIN, FAULT, DEFICIENCY. 21 

202. Q-ULj Gj)<55rQp<si]6Br ^sesBrosufir (gjuf-uumssr. 

He who eats salt, will drink water. 2704. 

As surely as a thirsty man drinks water, so surely will a sinful man incur 
punishment. 

203. &-(j^lLi—uljjtl-L— &.etrG(rspi£> &-6tr(Gf$s(3) eumki^ua. 

By reason of fraud and trickery, the truth within you will 

shrivel up. 3334. 
" III sowers make ill harvest." 

204. ©-(TjilOii) l/jjlIOu) g2®i(3jLo Qpusmu. 

Frauds and tricks will reduce a man's greatness. 
"Most of our evils come from our vices." 

205. e_<sor<£(3}£i) QuQu, 2_6sr cgyzjuspi^u) QuQu ! 

To you Bebe, and to your father Bebe ! 

A man pressed by his creditors was advised by a friend, to whom also he 
owed money, to escape from their importunities by feigning madness. 
The debtor accordingly did so, replying to them all like an idiot, Beb£ ! 
The plan was successful and the creditors were deceived. Then the 
friend asked that the debt due to himself should be paid. But he himself 
received the treatment he had advised the deceitful debtor to use to the 
others. The proverb is also used about children who have no respect 
for older persons. 

" Trickery comes bach to its own master." 

" He falls into the pit, who leads another into it." 

206. (3)il-L$-£&®)$u) usm egjpiQ pGusisr , (3>lL®l!/i_/lL®<5= firsurr^sr. 

He who causes quarrels in a family will be cuffed to death. 
" As a man lives so shall he die ; as a tree falls, so shall it lie." 

207. @^«3T Q<SfT&0'fo)U$Q&) LDfT® QldIL\U>. 

A bullock will feed in the cheat's garden. 456, 1806. 
" Deceiving and being deceived." (2 Tim. 3, 13.) 
Cf. " He went out shearing, he came home shorn." 

208. (&5J!pu> eurr^th Coy^Ssar Q&iLiLjm. 

Deceit and quarrelling will end in suffering. 
" The biter bit." 

209. tslmmp QpiflujiTU)®) GslGsrgv, Queop Q ptftvurnDeti QugyQpgi. 

A vulgar proverb meaning that he who eats without moderation, will 
suffer pain. 

" He who swims in sin will sink in sorroiv." 

210. u@&(&ju uosrLouLpuo ^ImQt^eO, i§@pu> l/lLz_ un®ui—iUSiii). 

If he will eat the palmyra fruit because he is hungry, let him 
suffer the biliousness it causes. 

Said in condemnation of those who find their chief good in sensuous 
enjoyment. 

" Gather thistles, expect prickles." " Bead-sea fruit." 



22 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

211. ussajssSssr utTaupesipu ulL®@ O^ir^eodsCeSiiesar^ui. 

We must suffer for the sin we have done and so atone for it. 

212. ll LDSOnkg] QsL-j—g), snath eflifiijp QsLLi—gj. 

Blossoms open and die, your mouth opens and destroys you. 2503. 

Blossoms fade away after opening fully ; the mouth opens to say what it 
should not, and ruins the speaker. 

" The evil that cometh out of thy mouth flieth into thy bosom." 

213. Quitq^&t QurrsursvySIQuj gissiii Cu/rgjLD. 

In the way the wealth went, sorrow will follow. 
He who gains wealth unfairly, gets sorrow too. 
" Evil-gotten good never proveth well." 

214. LDH^^IiSSr ULpih LDSr<5@6BBT<S8)l— S&QgLD. 

The fruit falls near the tree. 

The results of your deeds will come upon yourself. 

" A drunken night makes a cloudy morning." 

215. inidednfeg] &-itiupmpneo (com. Qpi£)ihprT6o) iDnnQioQeo <s3q£ld. 

If you spit up while lying on your back, what you spit out will 

fall on your breast. 
" Who spits against heaven, it falls on his head." 

216. LDp&p e_«DL_«DU> LD&&^fJj<S(9j ^ISIT^l. 

Forgotten property is no good to any one. 

If one forgets something somewhere and the people of the place keep the 

forgotten property as their own, it will be injurious both to them and to 

their off -spring. 

217. Qu>trfiBtr&LD SLLuetB QsmsLf.il). 

A person who cheats and ruins will himself come to wear a 

common blanket only. 
Said as a warning to him who deceives or uses false measures ; or when 

family property is divided and one of the family secretes jewelry or 

other valuable things. 

218. eijiTujQsiTQpuLj @¥eouj(Teo ems)-&Qpg]. 

The insolence of his mouth trickles through his cloth. 1287. 

An impatient man while waiting for his rice abused the woman who was 
boiling it, and she threw it all into his lap, and the hot water in which it 
was boiled drained away from the rice, soaked through his clothes and 
scalded him. 

" Pride goes before and shame follows after." 
Cf. 2605/. 



DECEIT, HYPOCRISY AND DISGUISE. 23 

DECEIT, HYPOCRISY AND DISGUISE. 
Qldit&ld, uir&trtsif&j, Qsusi^Ui. 

" And no marvel ; for even Satan fashionetli himself 
into an angel of light." 

FALSE FRIENDSHIP. 

219. jya-gar epqjj (^efBrrkp (com. (&j<6fj)i5<5) QsfTek&fl. 
He is a smouldering firebrand. 1929. 

Said of dissembling enemies. 

220. ^jiflsurr^th jijeaffLuQeueam-Qiii, ^asanas i_ @^l(^ld Qsi—Qemsst5r®ixi. 
The sickle will move, but his Master's family will be ruined. 

He" feigns working for his master's gain, but his thoughts are on ruining 
him. 

221. ^h (3j£f.Q#®<£<£, ^esor L^.Qsu£L^ih QuniLi-JTiht 

When you disguised yourself as a mendicant, whose family did 

you intend to ruin ? 
Said of one who feigns piety in order to gain an evil influence. 
" What is good a friar never loved." 

222. CTilif (6»)6U (5®u5<SE>ttJiJ tSli$-d@jDjp } enli—freSLLi—ndo arrfysou iSliy-a 



* If he can reach it, he will pull your hair ; if not, he will seize 

your legs. 356. 

Said of one who tries to ruin a superior, either by open attacks or by 
secret intrigue. 

" I ash your pardon, coach, I thought you were a wheelbarrowy when 

I stumbled over you." 
" A knavish confession should have a care for absolution." 

223. R'-nff^'hso QuitlJSis &Qp&j?p ^jgvuunasr. 

He will tie a wet cloth round your neck and then cut your 

throat. 
Sudden treachery. 
" They scratch you with one hand, and strike you with the other." 

224. slLi^.sQsit®^^ Q&nn)juo, spg»sQsn®^^ Q#rr&>g$iLD er^jeuearrs^iX)? 

Boiled rice tied up in a cloth (provision for a journey), and a 
word you have learned, how long will these last ? 

The food will be eaten up at the first stopping place and a thing learnt as 
a parrot learns is soon forgotten. Said of one who by following the 
interested advice of a third party, finds that all the profit he makes goes 
into the other's hands, whilst the advantage to himself is but momentary. 



24 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

225. &6ean—&s)p&Q&nem(Sl srr^eoetJirifl <gjU}-&Qpgi. 

Through what he sees, he knocks your legs from under you. 

A person says to a friend — but a false friend — " I think, I am going to get 
good employment "; the false friend replies, " Don't take it, I will get you 
a place with double that salary," and so causes him to lose what he might 
have had. 

"In the fair tale is foul falsity." 

226. (3j<aBnkp (com. (5(®5^) Q3tT®r<siflujtru$@i5gi, gjif asms QsQss&itrLont 
Is it right to destroy the family by pretending to be a cheering 

firebrand ? 2188. 
" It is time to fear when tyrants seem to kiss." 

227- OsiT60'ieod(^U U60&9, (9jUp.3(3j& &(3j6Bfl. 

He is a Palli plant (Buchnera) to the garden, and Saguni to the 

family. 
The Palli plant (Buchnera) saps the soil of the garden, while Saguni, the 

councellor of Duryodhana in Mahabharata, ruined the Kaurava family 

completely. 

" He knows one point more than the devil." 

228. @tfl£g]& 3Q§&jp ^gvsQp^j. 

To smile on a man, and then cut his throat. 231, 229, 3101. 
" A snake in the grass." 

229. Qffnp<as)<D& QsnGHpsps &Qgp<3S)p ^gj&Qpg). 

Giving a man a meal and then cutting his throat. 228, 231. 
" Full of courtesy, full of craft." 

230. ptGoeaujp gi—<aS Qp2err<ss)uj S-tflojireor. 

He will pat your head gently and take out your brains. j 

" He covers me icith his wings, and bites me with his bill." 

231. Qpppl& &Qp <£es)p siMV&Qpgi' 

Comforting you and cutting your throat. 228, 229. 
" It is an ill sign to see a fox lick a lamb." 

232. C^sptb urr^nb QuireSlQykgi, sQppanp jtfjrupprreBr. 
He was like honey and milk, but cut my throat. 

" The fowler s pipe sounds sweet, till the bird is caught." 

233. uemsiurrerfl (3jzp.«»uj &_peuiTup- Qs®ssQeuesBr(Si}). 

The family of an enemy must be destroyed by friendliness. 
" Fair words and wicked deeds deceive wise men and fools." 

234. LDup-wirta&nuJ QuitlL® } ^^eoQsutUSlQp^i. 

Putting mangoes into a man's lap, and then beheading him for 

stealing them. 782. 
Ruining an enemy by treachery. 

235. Qmnk^iTpQuneo Qp&@66>p& siy-sQpgj. 

He bites one in the face, while he makes it appear as if he would 

only smell one's head. 
To " smell the head " is as tender an act as kissing among Europeans. 



I DECEIT, HYPOCRISY AND DISGUISE. 25 

236. emsemujLJtSliy-^^a s&r'2eir eimiTjSsp, lduS&bjtulSi^^^u uesgrih euiriki^ 

After receiving you with a friendly grasp of the hand, and 
giving you toddy to drink, will they not lay hold of your hair 
and take your money ? 

237. ueiren^^lQso ^0ih^>rr&) QuesBT&rrGd, QlolLi^QsO ^KJ^k^freo jyd&rrerr. 
In the valley he treats her as his wife, on the hill he treats her 

as his elder sister. 

Said of a man who will take every base advantage if he has no fear of 
being detected. 

" Do in the hole as thou wouldst do in the hall." 

238. emsQ&nQjgjpi&QsiTiSBnrQL- ses)LuurresS L§®tki(9)Q(n?6ar. 

While he seems to give a helping hand (in pushing the convey- 
ance), he takes out the linch-pin. 772. 

Of. 913/. 



HYPOCRISY. 

" How many like to mask their lives, 
Wash clean and seem upright, 
And yet be black as hell." 

Ch. E. Gover : The Folk-songs of Southern India. 

239. jyCWj &u® eSuifp Qfrnreor. 

He performs severe penance outwardly, but he is a great rogue. 

" All saint without, all devil within." 

" Hypocrisy is a sort of homage that vice pays to virtue." 

240. J)jU)J5n&QQ®) fS^^LD, ^6sflr5fTsSKo&) J>jU$IT<gQpLDrr ? 

At the bottom of the tongue is poison ; will there be sweetness 

at the tip ? 255. 
" A honey tongue, a heart of gall." 

241 . ^i0satss)u.eSLL®u ufinuunm &6bbt<sb)1— QptLt^.^ ^rruuneisr. 

The Brahmin in the next house breeds a quarrel and settles it. 
He gains honour or profit by settling quarrels that he has himself aroused. 
256, 264, 271. 

" Reynard is still Reynard, though he put on a cowl." 

242. .giQpsQ^edQurfeSlqjjisgi jyufkisBr jy y5j uuiT6sr. 

He pretends to be submissive, but he will destroy a fort. 

" Cats hide their claws." 

243. j)jifl&&m£gliT6Br g§lL<S&(9j jyGipp a?®. 

The next house to that of Harishchandra. 

Harishchandra was a king in the ancient time famous for never having 

uttered a lie. The proverb is said ironically about a person who pretends 

to be honest, but is a well known liar. 

4 



26 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

244. j>j(W&&reiTafr, Q^irQps&reirasr, ^^irjrdseirenesr. 

A weeping hypocrite, a worshipping hypocrite and a ritualistic 

hypocrite. 123. 
" An ill man is worst when he appeareth good." 

245. tgjeveor Qirrrihu emeu £fS inn di (or @a)uirT<Li) Qu^rQ^asr. 
He talks very piously. 

" Honey in his mouth, words of milk ; gall in his heart, fraud in 
his deeds." 

246. ^l-gSl-® Q&juf.see)s unir&Qpgi. 

Setting them going and watching the fun. 266, 292. 
Instigating strife and making profit out of it. 

247. «gj® (B^esrQp^ ereBrjry Q strain ^Q^Qp^iruD. 

It seems that the wolf wept, because the sheep got wet. 

" Crocodile's tears." 196. 

" Crows bewail the dead sheep and then eat them." 

" Beware of the geese when the fox preaches." 

248. ^eeari^esiius sesort—rrd) g&iei&ggt 6r&srQ(ir/'6Br ) /grr^'tiesrs sewri—rreo 

jrisisesr GT6G!@(n?G8r- 
If he meet a Saivite mendicant, he speaks of Siva ; if he meet a 

Vaishnavite mendicant, he speaks of Vishnu. 2838. 
" He hath a cloak for his knavery." 

249. «||{ti)L/«j)i_(u/r3s57-« (com. ^fSLo^<ss)L-ujrr&sr) Qsnmp s\p (or uQ) £&9. 
After killing her husband she feigns sorrow. 256, 288. 

250. ^ihQs pteo smKblQQ^m-, ^jihQs eun&i milJSiQqtj'&sr. 
Here he shows his head, and there his tail. 

He will not show himself boldly in his true character. 
" If you be false to both beasts and birds, you must like the bat, fly 
only by night." 

251. ^i—ir&r Qpiri—rreir, in&pisiJJT&rQLLQG) Q&pp iSffireaBT&sr. 

She will neither give to them nor touch them, but she is dying 
for love of them ! 

Said of one who makes great professions of kindness, but does not dream 
of carrying them out. 

" She loves the poor well, but cannot abide beggars." 

252. @«£7 OT6OT (§&)(T#!T<JU>, f^gj GIGST SUIjS pqtf&nHU). 

This is the law of my caste, and this is the law of my belly. 851. 

Potters are never Vaishnavas ; but the potters at Srirangam were com- 
pelled by the Vaishnava Brahmins to put the Vaishnava mark on their 
foreheads ; otherwise the Brahmins would not buy their pots for the 
temple. One clever potter, having considered this difficulty, after mak- 
ing the Saivite symbol (Vibhoothi) on his forehead put a big Vaishnava 
mark on his stomach. When rebuked for so doing by a Brahmin, he 
replied as above. 



DECEIT, HYPOCRISY AND DISGUISE. 27 

252a. ^§)/5,<3?L/ ySsBTli/LD UIT&) (9jl$-&(9jLD[r? 

Will this cat drink milk ? 2874. 

A cat generally sits as if it thought of no mischief, but no sooner does it 

see an opportunity of doing wrong than it avails itself of it. — A demure 

humbug. 

" He looks as if butter would not melt in his mouth." 

" Though the cat winks a while, yet sure she is not blind." 

253. ^nnsusesr ffiihifi(JUir@QurT&fi(nj<iQ(n?6Br. 
He is an ascetic like Ravana. 

That is, ' He is a hypocrite,' for a true ascetic (sannyasi) should hare no- 
thing to do with women, but Ravana carried off Seeta the wife of Rama. 

" An artful fellow is a devil in a doublet." 

254. S-^® Ul£(G$QflTlfluJ, &.ofr(oW QlB(G£3r (oi* GUIlSl j£l) <STlfflU. 

His lips rain fruit, his heart within is on fire. 2369. 
" A flattering speech is honied poison." 

255. P^iLis^Q&i &-pequo, Qw^&Qeo ussiaiLjm. 
Friendship on his lips, hatred at heart. 240. 

" Bees that have honey in their mouths have stings in their toils." 

256. ot®^^ Qpiy-eStL® gtGsKcjt euwgj Spuir&r. 

She will take it and hide it, and come and stand before you (as 

if innocent). 249. 
" Hiders are good finders." 

257. ejSlT^Q $S10U}-<3»IL! Gjppi—IT 2pf£$<SGlQl£>&). 

Oh sir, this thief steals on a holy day (Ekadasi) so put him on 

the idol's car. 
Said in mockery of the pretended piety of a notorious swindler. 

258. ejGsrauTGspiLb ^n^Qsr, ^ssgrcp. L/gj/Hjgpff? J^7Q/lo ^qtj ld&sbt i—gOim, unhfs 

jpefiKSlQeiJtrih. 

Oh Vaishnavite mendicant, have you become a Saivite ? (He 
replies) I will try for forty days what gain this brings. 1193. 

259. 6psGrjgjLD s{{Siun&nTm sgbtgbR, Gpuf-ui$Uf.£ppiTLD ^guisur^ «%6sr6&. 
This young woman acts the innocent but she has been a wreck 

for six months. 

The evident consequences of her immorality make her pretended innocence 
absurd. Used about sham virtue. 

260. SeSBTLJT®) G£(tlj Qu&& } &(T68B)LD®)Q>un(<ol5y3ti «p(77j Qu&Sr. 

When he sees you, one word ; when he does not see you, another. 
261, 262. 

261. S6SBTL-.fT&} <£ITL£IT&Q lE/TUJSIT, &!T(6SB)aSlLLLJTe0 SnLDtnLuj. IBlTUUSfT. 

When speaking with him, you speak as to a respectable person ; 

when you speak about him, you speak as if he was a fool. 
" He that speaks vie fair and loves me not, Til speak him fair and 

trust him not." 
" He that praiseth publicly will slander privately." 



28 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

262. sseai—neti QpGtopQ&niogpiQpsp, an<G3S)e£lLLi-JT60 Quit Q&netiepiQjDg]. 
When speaking to him, you give him his title, when speaking 

of him, you merely mention his name. 
" He who praises in praesentia, and abuses in absentia, has icith him 
pestilentia." 

263. s^^irlsQsn-&)'2eouS&} os-ggi (or Qeut^.seas) urtnsQpgiQuireo. 
Like looking at a theatrical performance in a garden of brinjals. 
Said to a person who pretends to go out to see a performance and avails 

himself or herself of the opportunity to do mischief. A brinjal is an 
edible vegetable. 

264. ssfrengsyLcrrQ efl&r<i(9ju) L§Uf.sQ(n?i5GT. 

He is himself a thief, and yet he brings the lantern. 141, 256, 

271. 
" If thou dealest with a fox think of his tricks." 

265. sphp QLoegftajfTiLu Qu&Qpgj. 

Your speech is as pure as new drawn milk ! 3118. 

Said sarcastically to one who makes great professions of truthfulness. 

" Nobody so like an honest man as an arrant knave." 

266. (SjpgjG&LJSl Qsnisf-seeis umrsSp^j. 

To incite (or provoke) one to do a thing, and then enjoy the fun. 
246. 

267. (3Jiol9®lo seireirrr (9j6B)Lpp$®tl> s&r&rrf. 

Rogues who pretend to be religious, and rogues who smear 

themselves with sacred ashes. 
" Full of courtesy, full of craft." 

268. &-lLQi—itQi— (or Quirm^QuunQi—) G6)&&)fT&u> Q&nsurrdj. 
Would that you could go to heaven with your body ! 
Said sarcastically to one who pretends to be pious. 

" No rogue like the godly rogue." 

269. etna semt— Qsu&s^s seoBTSs^ir (ZjempffifGjrr ? 
Does a clever prostitute lack tears ? 275. 

270. easuSeo QyguiLn'hso, &&<$@§i)so sesresrsQsireo. 

He has a rosary in his hand, and under his arm he has an imple- 
ment for breaking through the walls of houses. 
" Hypocrisy can find out a cloak for every rain." 

271. QsrrySI (gl@if.tLii£> s^u^s^eorre^QQ^issr. 

Though he has stolen the fowl he joins the others in going about 
searching for it. 241, 256, 264. 

" May the man be damned and never grow fat, who wears two faces 
under one hat." 



DECEIT, HYPOCRISY AND DISGUISE. 29 

272. QepflSeo Qu>djQp lS&tVsitu y&QQuned. 

Like the mole-cricket grazing in the mud. 2835. 

Though the mole-cricket (gryllus) lives in mud, the mud does not stick to 
its body; it is not defiled by the mud. Thus according to one Hindu 
philosophy, man's soul is not defiled by living in this material world. 

A Hindu once asked a Christian preacher, if he could not become a Chris- 
tian at heart, and outwardly remain a Hindu. To this question the 
Christian quoted the above phrase. 

273. SsLiretr ^(SiaQ^sun&r, ^esar^eosrs^ logout ^}®suir&r, Si/(VjQp Qi^GSiLDS^ 

eiJiT&e2i&(3j Loestsr ^'Ssurr&r. 

She is wicked, but professes fear ; she will repair the verandah 
facing the street, and next week she will repair the entrance to 
the house. 

She is known for what she is, but she is as clever in hiding her misdeeds 
as she is in doing them. 

" If a man is practised in disguise, he cheats most discerning eyes." 

274. ISITLL®S(^ I56V&) ^aai—UULD, ^lL®S^LI L$£@£ ^jeSiL—UULD. 

He is a fine broomstick in the country, but he is a worn-out 
broomstick at home. 

Said of one who has a good name abroad, but is known at home as a bad 
character. 

275. £&$&(3j& &6CBr<SSBplT l8eS)LDuSQ&). 

A silly woman has her tears in her eye-lids. 269. 

She is ever ready to shed tears either from silliness or deceitfulness. 

" Women laugh when they can, and weep when they will." 

276. uQuf-GDUJU UfTLDLj & Uj-p @ J£]Q UlTeO. 

Like the jester that was bitten by a snake. 

Applied to one who so often tells lies that if he happen to speak the truth 
no one will believe him. Or, to a child that constantly feigns sickness 
to avoid going to school, and is not believed to be ill when it is really 

sick. 

" He that sweareth till no man trust him, he that lieth till no man 
believe him, he that borroweth till no man tcill lend him, let him 
go where no man knoweth him." 

277. usfslQuuirQi— unsp (com. uneueS) stnbe &lLl$-Quj!tQl- 0tijjF[). 

She is so pious that she forgets cooking and allows the food to 

burn in the pot. 
" Much praying but no piety." 

278. u&pQpneo Qurrrr-igiLj Lje$uu!Tuj&ffi&) umLQp^j. 

To put on a cow's skin, and leap like a tiger. 282. 
" A wolf in sheep's clothing." 

279. uSLouoan ^jsastispSiun, u^&pgi&asj ^eaari^.Qujrr? 

Are you an hereditary mendicant, or are you only a mendicant 

because of the famine ? 123, 2065, 2852. 
Is your piety genuine, or merely for gain ? 



30 TAMIL PROVEEBS. 

280. ueap&Q&ifl Qld&tld seSiurrsssr pgi3(9juD Q&niLQm, s&) srSuLyi^u) 

Q<s/ril®ii). 
A Paria drum is beaten at weddings, and also beaten at funerals. 
Said of a double-dealing unreliable person, who is as ready for good as 

for evil. 181. 
" A conscience as large as a shipmans hose." 

281. umhLj&Qj-g ptevsniLiq., l8g§)}S(§ suites strLLGHQpsp. 
Showing his head to snakes, and his tail to fish. 

If among wicked people, he will speak and act as they do ; if among good 
people, he will try to appear good. 180. 

282. utrnp^ireo Ljjfcsr, uniL ibprr&) lj&N. 

If you look at him he is a cat, if he springs he is a tiger. 
Demure wickedness. 278. 

283. LDGsrjsKoeo ^esrgii, eutrsQQeo ^mgn. 

One thing in his heart, another thing in his words. 
" All are not friends that speak one fair ." 

284. es)LD&)iEiQ 6B)lc®)kjQ y gtieiQs <SB)6u<s<grruj? euni—trQp, <su pmisnQ p jy®u 

iSQeo esxaupQjgsijr. 
0, you dissembling woman, where did you put the flowers ? 

(She replies) In order that they should not shrivel and fade I 

put them in the fire-place. 
Deceitful excuses. Said for instance to a girl who feigns inability to fetch 

water from the well, but after escaping her duty, goes and plays, 

and while playing exerts herself far more than she would have needed to 

do to bring the pot of water. 

285. 0p£Hirrr#$,u ySsar &-uQjg&u> uestsTGsifimgjQluned. 

Like a cat putting on a rosary and teaching religion. 
Said of a religious teacher who makes his religion a cloak for sin. 
" Beads about the neck and the devil in the heart" 
" They are not all saints that use holy water" 

286. eS&suir&s Qstrs(9j isL—LDtrup.& Q&pppirii>. 

It is said, that a pious crane died from wandering about. 
Said in derision of the excellent professions of a false friend. 

287. efl pangs s&reifl lomSliurrir e8*>(9j ^i^ssuQun^s/strtru), seo^sir<ss>ifi 

The cunning mother-in-law went to gather firewood, and it seems 

she was pricked by the thorns of an aloe ! 
The aloe mentioned has no thorns, so her excuses for not bringing the wood 

were not believed. Said of a person who makes excuses that are not 

plausible. 

288. QsulLi^.uQuitl1.®s sL-is^aQsiressr® jyQgSpgj. 

To strike a person down and then embrace him and weep over 
him. 249. 



ROGUERY, CRAFTINESS. 31 

289. QeuetyQiMT ^a'Gffia^ii, LDestGHQeOiT ^jeuQeusxfuh. 

If we look at his appearance, it is the appearance of a religious 

ascetic, but if we look at his heart, it seems false. 
"He has one face to God, and another to the devil." 

290. ssiQJsQsnno sil.®ssfrjT'2esT ^uljs^sslLi^. giqgpnuQuneo. 

Like one who deceitfully embraced and wept over a man who 
was carrying a burden of straw. 

He pities the bearer for having to carry such a heavy burden, and gets him 
to give him a little straw for his cow. Interested sympathy. 

291. etasusQsir&isirirQsfTesai® wir\hkgi LDnib&jp ^jUf-^^n^uD. 

He beats you fatally with a straw. 

Said of a father or mother or master who constantly threatens to beat 
naughty children, or lazy servants, but never does it. 

Cf. Kashmiri ' Kohun haput ' 'Father's bear,' i.e., nothing to be afraid of. 

" If you cannot bite, never show your teeth." 

292. LSsJrSsmi/LD Q&raft, QprriLuf-eyiA ^LJ&Qpgj. 

Pinching the child, while swinging it in the cradle. 246. 
Said also about God, who has placed man as an unhappy being in this 
world, but at the same time granted him the holy books to comfort him. 

Gf. 9 13 /. 2338 /. 2373 /. 



ROGUERY, CRAFTINESS. 

"TO A ROGUE A ROGUE AND A HALF." 

292a. sj^^esrsarrjrissr Qp^iQeo euGp&'fcsr&snrreisr ejfS^asr. 
The cheat has got up on the back of the conjurer. 
" The fox knows much, but more he that catcheth him." 

293. jyeueBr Q&i'i tresr ^{spussr y eresrs^ ^neeer® i^jurih swr^! 
That drunkard is done for, but give me a drink ! 

" A pickthank, a picklock, both are alike evil : the difference is, that 
trots, this ambles to the devil." 

294. £wj&&niT§!pi&(5)Li i3nLc»3tfDgGsi&&n!jeBr ffirr&f). 

The murderer of a Brahmin is fit witness for a tax collector. 
" To a rogue a rogue and a half." 

295. eieoeoirQih ^eiftesrSQip j&GDif i^rreo, Revest ^sifi&sr i£Lp®)@Qip 

When every one else creeps under him, this man will creep 
under a man's shadow. 298. 



32 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

296. Q&ili—giuiLi—gi Q(rr}<3L£(BS3)iEi (genii), gjSjIatiii) QslLi—^ ^j^^uul. 

i_/r/E/(5istr/i). 
Those who live near the Krishna-Pond in Madras are wicked, but 
those who live near the Attipattan-Pond are worse. 

297. <9ra//ra5uj/7'(5i@<F &eimtj6l Q<sueear(diJa. 

One big rogue needs another to check him. 
" To a hard knot a hard wedge." 

298. pQaQeorGsGip jpstnLpiEgrriso, Q&ireop fslmQQ Lp gje&ipQpgi. 

If one creeps in under the mat, the other one will creep under 

the Kolam. 
The Kolam is a design drawn at the threshold of a Hindu house. 295. 
" One trick is met by another." 

299. QutTsQifl&Qfju Qurr&Qifl Q<su6aar®w. 

A blackguard needs a blackguard. 300, 415, 1389, 2285. 
" Set a thief to catch a thief." " To a rude ass a rude keeper." 
" Devils must be driven out with devils." 

300. ixm£lcurr(Vj&(&j wniBuunn (o<SiJ6am(Sth. 

One mother-in-law needs another mother-in-law. 415. 
She can only be outwitted another mother-in-law. 
" One heat expels another." 



FROM BAD TO WORSE : MAKING BAD WORSE, AND " MIS- 
FORTUNES SELDOM COME SINGLY." 

301. jyats) QujpiGu&n Qu^snSefr'2efr ^gie^ti) Qojeaerfl u57rz_ti>. 

The destitute woman bears a female child and this happens under 
an evil star. 

The climax of ill-luck : the woman is destitute, the infant is a female, and 
the time of its birth is inauspicious. 

302. ^jraQs Gjsisr jyup-LD&Qerrl s^Qs^ j^opQ^ih, ^jitiiQs&jrr ^j^-, srrp 

(ffibu upsseoiTLD. 
Why my girl, you are crying there for gruel, come over here and 

you may fly like the wind. 
A neighbour who sees a daughter-in-law weeping says this implying that 

the girl does get something to eat now, but if she leaves that house she 

will get nothing, and so go from bad to worse. 

303. g\<&£i—g,fip$£l2iD girth eS®, jy^gpiih ptfl^JgljTLb wrriBajnn a?®. 

My mother's house, was as poor as poor can be, but my mother- 
in-law's house is still worse ! 

While unmarried and staying at home with her mother, the girl was badly 
off; but after she was married and sent to her mother-in-law's house, 
she found still greater poverty. 

" Out of the frying pan into the fire." 



ROGUEEY, CRAFTINESS. 33 

304. j)](LpQp GaySsrr umr^jgj, j>jd(3j&r uirub&&Q(rrp<sBr. 

Seeing a woman in sorrow he thrusts his hand into her arm-pit. 

305. ^uDL^esiL-UJiTissr Q&ssgi ^jsutslu UI—&Q& (or <3Jja&UUp&&&Q3 : ), 

j>j6aarGB)i— eSiUSlssrrffssr j^&QijGfflQ®) urnu<p&Q(Trp6Br. 
While her husband was dying, her neighbour thrust his hand 
into the arm-pit (of the sorrowing wife). 326. 

He took advantage of her unprotected state. Said about persons who take 
a mean advantage of another's misfortunes. 

306. ^uj^jgidt&jLJ uvukjgi, ^pplQ&) litstEl&srapQurr®). 
Being afraid of paying the tax he swam the river. 
Incurring great risks in order to escape slight troubles. 

" He leaps into a deep river to avoid a shallow brook." 

307. ^i—{3esr sneSQeoQiu g})i—jpiQpg}. 
The leg that has stumbled stumbles. 
One fall into sin leads to more falls. 

308. ©_Z_ii>L/ <5T!51(gjLQ <9?®Qpg), J>jLp'2iS0 (Q(50LJ<SB)u) UDLSf-uSQeO &LL®Q(Tlj>lh. 

Though your body is burning all over, yet you put fire into your 

lap. 
Making bad worse. 

309. eriflQp Qsrr&Tefflasuj sjplp ^etretflissr^iQurreo. 

As a burning firebrand was made to flare higher. 
To excite a person already excited. 

310. gt<s$3(jsju kJuuuuLL® <aS'z_l(Szoi_«£F &®Qp<gir'? 

Should one burn down one's house for fear of rats ? 322, 330, 339. 

311. fpt-LoDt—S &i_<i<£68r U/TlL®<£(3j $)!Jll.<5B)i— prTypUfT&T QutTLL.L-JglQun<30. 

She bolted the door doubly against Ottaikuttans song. 

The story that illustrates this proverb is found in " Vinodarasamanjari," 
pp. 271. A king had a favourite poet Ottaikuttan, his queen had another. 
The king's poet was envious of the queen's poet, and had him imprisoned. 
The queen hearing this went into her room and bolted the door. At 
night when the king came to see his queen, she said she would not let 
him in till her favourite had been released from prison. On hearing this 
the king sent his own poet to sing outside the queen's door. So that 
the queen might think that her request had been complied with. But 
the queen knew at once that the song did not come from her favourite, 
and became more angry with the king and bolted the door with another 
bolt. Thus the king's stratagem only made matters worse. The proverb 
is used when a person is displeased with, or sorry for something that has 
happened, and somebody tries to soothe him, but only succeeds in irritat- 
ing him still more. 

" As water in a smith's forge, that serves rather to kindle than 
quench." 

312. ^Qp&Qjj s$LLup.(o®) Qsum&nh eukpgiQun®). 
As a flood came into a leaky house. 

" One ill calls another." 



34 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

313. sessr nemasfiQed Qsneo ggjili—gjG uireo. 

Like putting a probe into a wound in the eye. 
"To add fuel to the fire." 

314. seod a&ea0 siLi^.sQsnesBT® atresuruQunigiysfrmh, ^Q^s&Ja skasp 

SL-i^-sQsneasr® er^lQn euii^iretrfTih. 
When I went clad in a number of rags to see her, she met me 
clad in double the quantity of rags. 324, 325, 722. 

She counterfeited poverty more cleverly than I did, and I could therefore 
not get the help oat of her that I expected. 

" When Greek meets Greek, then comes the tug of war" 

3 1 5. sen e_6jiirz_ (SjnikiQj. 

A monkey that has drunk toddy. 320, 321. 

It is naturally mischievous but becomes worse after drinking toddy. 

316. sireoua Quiresr sneo£(gl&) Qp&)ix> evi^j (^gfisQu-i—^iQuneo. 
Like getting piles in one's old age. 

The sufferer is already weak, but the piles will make him still worse. 

31 7. &nJD£))U) LLetDglLjih 560m g] JM$.j££fTjb(oUtr60. 

Like being beaten by wind and rain at the same time. 

318. Qatar jpi puiSp spireS®) e&tp&itnDn ? 

After escaping the common well, should one go and fall into a 

Turavu ? 319. 
A Turavu is a big well. 

319. Qasarpgus^^ pui$p ^uSQeO urrdjkpnesT, 

Having escaped the well, he jumped into fire. 318, 338. 
" Out of the frying pan into the fire" 

320. (jSjjiijQeor <se)&u$&) Qsrr&r&B j>/suulLl- < ^iQuit&}. 
Like a monkey getting hold of a firebrand. 
It will do endless mischief. 

" One mischief falls upon the neck of another" 

321. gj/r/Bg) a&r<GrrjL£> (3jty-@jr>} ) QuiLjih L$i$-£gi, Q^^lo QsmLuj-^g)®), 

er&sresr &$bI Ǥjj(3j"> ? 
If a monkey drinks toddy, is possessed by a devil and stung by 
a scorpion, what will be its fate ? 

If a person gives room for one moral evil after another, how will he end ? 
The three evils referred to are the three evil principles (Mala) self-will, 
delusion, lust, often mentioned, in the Hindu philosophy. 315, 462. 

" But evil men shall tvax worse and worse." (II. Tim. 3, 13.) 

322. Q<s/r*gjigi <9j@& (^i^.QunQp^n ? 

Will a family remove to another house for fear of mosquitoes ? 
310, 330, 339. 

323. Qsneo ^jifiijs gj^Z—Ssaru Quneo. 

Like the blind man that lost his stick. 2135. 
He was already badly off, but fell into a worse plight. 



, ROGUERY, CRAFTINESS. So 

324. Qppuum golLGH&qu Qumu @p0>eo)t— 6»rTtaQ euneonw <zimg)i Qun 

^systrnthy &ppuu<SGr QuesurfnSil ff&&ld uitgbhl) ^j®ul9&) slL($-& 
Qstretksr® erGtlQn eni^nennih. 

It is said, that she went to her uncle's house in the hope of 
getting a small cloth, bat she met her uncle's wife wearing 
only a palm-leaf mat round her waist. From bad to worse. 
314, 325. 

325. HfIIgo §)®ffco <srmg)i Glesr^iLi {&pluj @ituj) eStlOa^u Quir^snirih, 

She went to her maternal aunt because she had no cloth, but her 
aunt came to meet her clad in a palm-leaf mat. 314, 324. 

326. ptTUf. upplsQsfresar® erifluj&Q<g : ) ^0lL<Ss(^ Qib^ulj QslLi^jt^ixi. 
While one man's beard was burning, another man asked him for 

a light for his cigar. 305. 
" If my beard is burnt, others try to light their pipes at it." 
Kashmiri: "My beard is on fire, and he comes to warm his hands at 

the blaze." 

327. ibtlu eunuSQeo Qsn^eo ^LLi—^iQun&i. 

Like putting a stick into the mouth of a dog. 

To irritate some one causelessly. 

" A man may make his oicn dog bite him." 

328. QiE0ULSIQeo QtsubeBiiu eSi' L.^jQuireo. 
Like pouring ghee (butter) into fire. 
Making matters worse. 

" To cast oil in the fire is not the way to quench it." 

329. ulLl— sitgSI(o&) u®u>, QslLl- (jsjuj-Quj Q&®ld. 

The leg that has been hurt will be hurt, and the ruined family- 
will be ruined. 
This is the proverb signifying that : " Misfortunes never come singly." 

330. dd&esi&ssiTn gj/i@u uuj/5^7 <jy®uz_/ QpL-L-n ggpQuned. 
Fearing beggars, she did not kindle a fire on the hearth. 

To avoid giving to the poor, she starved herself. Stinginess. 310, 322, 339 

33 1 . iSls : 6B)0 : &srrjTeBT Q&trpplQGO ^e^emsusrear i^^k^^Quireo. 

As Sani entered into the beggar's food. 

Life was hard to the beggar, and misfortune embittered it. Sani is a most 
malignant planetary deity. 

332. l3&GG>&&(9jU lS#<oG)&lL\t£> QslLL-£), l9sBt2sBT li/ LD $0 3IT& (5ITUiQpu> Qsil 

He did not get the alms he went for, and the money he had 
spent to adorn his forehead with his caste-mark was also lost. 



36 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

333. (tp&QeO gjiTUUG)u>, g\$g#u> snuiSesS. 

First of all, she is weak, and secondly she is pregnant. 
A great trouble is coming, but there is not strength to meet it. 

334-. QpeasresiL-s sesaresSu ti/6fr3sw ^jtgbbt® sesjrjgg/tD Qs/rsfrSstr. 

The child of the woman with bulging eyes, was blind in both 

eyes. 
Kashmiri : " Misfortune after misfortune" 

335. LDjr^^eS^m^i eSQpi^eu'Sesr uitldl\ &L-is)-i£ papQun&i (or ">/r® Qtoifip 

@4p or Q&it ^i^.<5sr^Quneo) . 
As the snake bit (or the ox trampled on or the car ran over) the 

man who had fallen from a tree. 
" Pour not icater on a drowned mouse." 

336. QpmQeer Sphp sires)^ <sSi—, iSeisrQm i§pkp Qsirix>n ueom. 

The horn that was born last was stronger than the ear that was 

born first. 2495. 
In a certain firm the employes longed to be rid of the Btrict manager, 

but when they had ousted him another came who was still worse. 

" King Log and King Stork." 

337. eSir®) a-pefjiGG! Quiflid j)ju)l£I (or &-&&)) GSqpih-ggjQuiTG). 
Like a grinding stone (or a mortar) falling on a whitlow. 

338. e8eomi(3j Qeu6eisn—nih, Q^rrQ^eBsSl&i $)(nj&QQ pear (or LDtuLuf-sQ&iTGSBr 

Qi—eisr, or Qua® eresrQ(T^m). 
I did not want the fetters, but here I am in the stocks. 319. 

I was displeased with the work I had, and got the work I applied for, but 
I find that I am worse off. 

339. e?il6»i_ ejasr ^tsf-ppnth ? QpLLetnt—u l^^&s^Cj uuursg). 

Why did you break down your house ? 1 did it for fear of bugs. 

310, 322, 330. 
"Burn not your house to fright away the mice." 

340. eff^8B)Jj &-<3S)l—kp GlLlSf- Q<aiJ6BBrLy-UJj£} S_6OT®, LL<^S)JJIM <51 GST £ < fo)U$&) 

Plenty of pots are uselessly broken, but I never saw a pot put 
as an ornament round my head. That would be something 
fresh. 

The story is as follows : — A woman used to break a pot on her husband's 
head for every tenth sin he committed. The husband got tired of this 
and went away to a friend's house, but here he found the wife breaking 
a pot on her husband's head for every fault he did ; and she did it so, 
that the mouth of the pot jumped over and fell down round the visitors 
neck and stuck there like a necklace. 

" Home is homely, and too homely sometime, where wives' footstools to 
their husbands' head climb." 



SELFISHNESS. 37 

340a. C<£® mqjjLD dUtorQesr ld^QslL® evQQpssrQeur, iurr2esr <su0ix> i§<5BiQm 

Loss of sense precedes (spiritual) degradation as surely as the 

sound of the bells precedes the elephant. 
" Coming events cast their shadows before them." 
" Quern deus vult perdere primum dementit." 

3406. eSmn^sstrQeo <sSui?^ul]^0. 

In times of degeneration people get a perverted mind. 

Cf. 792/. 2958/. 



SELFISHNESS. 

341. jy633T63BT|g2/<£(3)U QuGOST l3pk^rT&), Jfj^StO^ Jfjf&i) fBmLl—IT&r. 

If the elder brother gets a daughter, his sister becomes a 
stranger to him. 

All his kindness was formerly directed to his sister, but now all goes to his 
own child. wnL-i—nett is sometimes written wlTl—netr. The proverb then 
implies that the sister who has a son will not seek a wife for him among 
strangers, but will demand her elder brother's daughter for him. 

342. ^feajrdQpeijasr fp&srgu t8,'bssr£ < gp t 3i6S)sr&Q(nf'e8r, (9jiy.&QpGU68r ^earny 

He who grinds the ingredients thinks of one thing and grinds, 
he who drinks the medicine thinks of something else, and 
drinks. 

A doctor only thinks of the profit he will get by the medicine he is pre- 
paring, the sick person only wonders whether it will cure him or not. 
Each thinks of his own intei^ests. 

343. g\<mneuh ^/ssetairs^ j?i<aujr<siJiT u/rOuOiswr/f. 

Each one will exert himself for his own interest. 

344. ^jstr^m^j ereoevrrth isrriii jg6cird(9j erm^ji <oTeasr smii iLiTua. 

The dog seems to think that whatever is taken is intended for it. 
Mean people greedily desire everything they see. 354. 

345. QGnnnrt <s§lL<S> (com. ^snaj^Qpil.®) QisiLQuu, er&sr Quesar^n^l easQuu. 

The ghee (butter) belonged to the village, but my wife's hand 
distributed it. 

The husband and his wife were at a village feast. She was asked to help 
in distributing the food; as the ghee was not her own, she gave her 
husband much more than she would give him at home. Used about 
liberality with others' goods. 3185. 

" 'Tis good feasting in other men 's houses." 



38 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

346. oeirfftriT ffl?il®<F Q^npempuunn , Gp&unu). <suu$ peta puunn. 

Look at the villagers' rice ; look at this shameless man's stomach. 
He eats as often as he can and as much as he can at others expense. A 
proverb about selfish greed. 

347. er/Eis&r 6§il.(S&(8j eum^neo Giesresr Qsneear®eiJ0Q(nj'iu } S-ihs&l <s§lL 

®<5(S> eu&ptred Grearesr ^Q^Q^ibt 
If you come to our house what will you bring me ? if I go to your 

house what will you give me ? 
The same proverb is found in Telugu. 
" What's yours is mine, what's mine, is my own" 

348. erg) <siuui$-Qutr^G)§2ii£>, pasr sniBium ^earsg,. 
However matters go he thinks only of his own affairs. 

" He is a slave of the greatest slave who serveth nothing but himself." 

349. sriBQp e§Li.ty.Q&) l9®iei@p^j eOnuth. 

Whatever you are able to secure from a burning house is a gain. 

When supplies are bought for a wedding or for any grand occasion, or for 
some government contract, the person who manages the affair will secure 
something for himself ; this is specially true of police and lawyers in 
their management of cases. 359. 

" It is good fishing in troubled water." 

" Every little helps." 

350. ergiihLi&(9jp g<5BreB)£uu[T60 <s!em<^x<saer Q-I—wlj. 

Even an ant is eight span long, if measured by its own band. 

Every little man thinks himself great, because he measures himself accord- 
ing to his own standard. 

351. «|J6tf UQg@£tTG) jyiE/Qs, ^jffs- UQpjg£rr&) ^ieiQs. 

When the banyan is ripe he is there, and when the peepal 
(Ficus religiosa) is ripe he is here. 2737. 

Wherever there is something to be had, there the greedy man is to be 
found. 

352. £>(/5 QstTQfiLLu^esiuJs SQgeSdo QunLJL-ppqf) epmug] seo er&ri&jj ^s= 

&Q@, £6£/r Qs!rQpiLisf.s2etr GTed60irii> sQ§eSQ&) Quit® OTaJr^^ii). 
A man once said : If I get nine big measures of sesamum seed 

for impaling one merchant, then impale all the merchants in 

the village. 
Other people's sufferings are nothing to such a man, if he only gains by it. 
" He sets any house on fire only to roast his eggs." 

353. G£<Gsays6r Qsue8&(9j ^Q^sSp^j } psuHetr £6tsgr68sP(nj&(9j $)Q£&Qpg]. 
The lizard drags its prey to the hedge, the frog drags its prey to 

the water. 
Every man tries to secure what he has gained to himself. 
" All draw water to their own mill." 



SELFISHNESS. 39 

354. &(£$& fflj^uu/r CTSBT^ei), eiikiQs Gunpuun eresrS^esr. 

If the one says, Kanji Varathappa, the other replies : — where 
is the gruel ? 

A certain Vaisnavite at Conjevaram was praying to the God, Kanji Vara- 
thappa; a beggar who stood near by asking for alms, heard the name 
of the God imperfectly, and thought that the Vaisnavite said Kanji 
varukirathappa, i.e. " Some gruel is coming." Not seeing it he said 
Engd Varathappa, i.e. "Where is the gruel ?" The proverb is really a 
pun on the two words Kanji and Varathappa and is used when one 
appropriates remarks to himself that were uttered with no reference to 
him. 344. 

355. <sa»i_<s(3j<s seat— ^etrmLpaehr ^(Tfjuunehr. 

There is a person in each bazaar (shop) to sell things. 
Each merchant does his best to sell his own goods. 

356. SlLu^(^)&) rrmciT QsneS/s^ir, Qu-mreS ] lLi-jt&) ^eorjpiijfieo'Zso. 

If we get what we want, we worship the idol as Rama or Govin- 
dan, if we do not get it, the idol is nought. 222, 2186, 2732. 

357. (a)iSf-&Qp un^sos sldit Qevfy.uL$Q&) <8unna>®ppn1 

Do you pour the milk for drinking into a crevice in the ground. 

Used about foolish expenditure of money on selfish litigation or pleasure. 
367, 622, 2621. 

" A penny weight of love is worth a pound of law." 

358. QsireaS QsiT6SBit—gi, erq^gp s-wkpgi. 
The bull carried all that the sack held. 
Said about selfish avarice. 

" In the world there be men, that will have the egg and the lien." 

359. &kpisf. &trs@Qed skpuQutruf. snpueestw. 

Taking advantage of your being so busy, he gets a pice-worth of 
scented powder for himself into your bill. 349. 

Said of one who selfishly seeks to get profit for himself out of others. If a 
carriage is lent to such a person to convey him one mile, he is sure to 
keep the vehicle all day to pay a number of visits. If he goes shopping 
with you he makes you pay his bill. 

300. Q&jS£Gu<oisr e$LLiy.Q&) Qsilc—Qjissr j^it? 

Who is the loser in the dead man's house ? 

At a funeral, some outsiders take a pride in distributing the food and sweets 
which the near relatives have provided and are clever at making plans 
for disposing of the dead man's property. Said of those who are liberal 
with the property of others. 

" To cut large slices of another mans loaf." 

361. <friustT[8iu gink pa 'ear, &eurruQ striBtuu) euip sup. 

He is smart about his own business, he lets God's things slip. 
" Greedy are the Godless." 



40 TAMIL PEOVEEBS. 

361a. -steomseir s\£)ii5$n§$i£>, jgrrQetsr 6unipQiSiJ6BBr®u>. 

Though the eldest daughter has her thali cut off, her mother will 

not care if she is well off herself. 
A selfish mother will not mind when her daughter is made a widow. 
" Close sits my shirt, but closer my skin." 

362. @6srd(9j <5T(ssrQrj>eo iSlar^stii^ui <£3srr Qq/lL®lo. 

If it be for himself even a child will weed. 
" He feathers his own nest." 

363. pan sniflujptsl®) ljsS. 

He is a tiger in his own affairs. 
" A man is a lion in his own cause." 

364. -seer saiflmth enssr^eo, peer Q^eo u<oB)@s(3ju>. 

If it concerns his own affair, even his cloth will be restless. 
" Every man tcishes water to his own mill." 

•365. @irtijQp'%3y)uutTG$^ii> ©_l/l/ uiriruurr6Br. 

He will find salt in the milk from his mother's breast. 2899. 
Said of one who is over suspicious in every thing concerning himself. 

366. pn^iiD euiTQpQp snev^^leo, eiiuSijpi S)jpia(j9)ih ld^iijiI) Quqij3(3jw. 
When she is married, her stomach will become small and her 

sense great. 
While a girl is in her mother's house she has nothing to do but eat, but 
when she goes to her husband's house she will find little time to eat and 
will have to be constantly on the alert to economise. 

367. gtTear (^Uf-ssn^ urr'ievd seSuppgie&GjlQpgtil 

Should you spill the milk you can't drink ? 

Even children will use this proverb when another child is unwilling to share 
some sweets or fruits with them. 357. 

" The Bog in the manger." 

368. Qpsuu^iunea §2)0iBjp, ^^^ir&r Qppptrio QsniL.® Qpip&&ij> } Qpsuq. 

turretr Q&@ ^n&) epm < giiL£l&)'fa). 
If the dancing girl be alive, and her mother dies, there will be 
beating of drums; but if the dancing girl dies there will be no 
such display. 

To get the favour of the dancing girl, many men will attend her mother's 
funeral ; but if the dancing girl herself die. there is nothing to be gained 
by attending her funeral. In like manner: — If somebody die in a rich 
man's house, all people will attend that they may gain his favour; but if 
the rich man die, no one will care as nothing more is to be had from him 
in future. 

369. IB&)&) t6tTf@UJITIT SGS)lJb^ CW/f, IBfTl^ QppgiaiQi IEI1 L^Qmnn '. 

A measure of buttermilk churned by a good woman was sold for 

a measure of pearls. 
Said of a person who overvalues his own worth. 3248. 
" No one calls his own buttermilk sour." 



DISGRACE. 41 

370. ibitissi <5i<5BT(irj>a) ^jefrssirnuD, erssr l¥ (Qfirpjp) <5im(trp30 ueOfBiinih. 

He cares nothing about me personally, but he considers even 

my filth a cake. 2733. 
Servants and subordinates care little for their masters or superiors, bnt 

they care for his wealth if they can make anything out of it. 

371. /£uy*i> isires)ii£> .giji—n, &{Tjpiii> Q&trg)iu> cgfi—irl 
You and I, sir ■ sauce and food, sir. 

i.e., We shall get on together by ourselves as well as food and sauce. 
Said by a wife to a husband as a reason why he should leave the joint- 
family, in his father's house. 

372. ijrrir^^0ss^ tsldsrgti, apySI<g£d(7jj£&d <an<ss s(ipe>feun&sr. 

Tbough I saw him, he went on eating ; and though I watched 
him, be washed his hands. 

lie finished his meal withont giving me a share. Said of one who enjoys 
himself selfishly. 

373. LSairSaru Qugu urrirjgpsoib Qutrjpth, sr&sr <§j ) u>h<55>ljujit'2g6T& slLis^. 

-glfjGBsrapjgitJD Quir&pih. 
There has been enough of your help in my confinement, and of 

your embracing my husband. 
One woman told another that she would like to help her at the time of her 

confinement. Her intention was however to get access to the husband 

of the latter with whom she was in love. Hence the rebuke. Used of 

the interested help of deceitful friends. 

374. eurranipuipLD (slasr^p qsjmeiq}) ^sv'Ssu. 

There is not a monkey that does not eat plantains. 
Every one looks for bis own profit. 
Or Qeuesuri—nui eresrQ/D (&j!Ti5i(Vj s_6aBR_/r? 
Is there a monkey that says, I don't want ? 

375. QgulL&u) Q&lLi—stg$ild Qsi—lL®ld, Qprruemu ^iLi—jrio Qurrjpih. 

Let me lose my respect (if necessary) ; I am satisfied, if I get fat. 
Said of one who seeks profit at any cost. 
Cf. Kashmiri : u A fat man has no religion." 
Of. 1054 /. 



DISGRACE. 

Q 5UL_d5 U U (BlppSti. 

376. < g]iEj{60G8)'g j^p/flQeo s{eoQ&ntess)&(T ? 
Couldn't you wash your body in the river ? 

Said to a very wicked fellow, whose badness it is impossible to amend. 

377. siuf. sj^irffth, Q^pgi Qs!jqpsslL<ss}l — 

A thrashing is a sweetmeat, and a cuff is a cake. 403. 
\u sense of shame in him. 





42 TAMTL PROVERBS. 

378. 3{U)-is&g} <^,L-l— "> iSlLp-^gg) Qugbbt®. 

To beat people is a joke to him and he treats any woman lie getfl 

hold of as he likes. 391. 
Used of unprincipled tyranny. 

379. jyihwireir QslLl- QslL®s(^ Qpssn® fpmqrfl (or QQf) Qsi—rr?) 
Is one veil sufficient to cover a woman's wickedness P 417. 
Is modesty a sufficient cloak for immorality P 

380. cSyemir i&Gdigp (com. Q^ift^fi) ^t—ih ujb/SI GriftQpgj. 
The place on which he treads will take tire. 

Said of the very wicked and the very unlucky 

381. jpjeuear &muLD Qsu^^^uQuiTUJeSlLLi—^. 

His colour has been well bleached out. 

Just as a cloth loses its colour and value through much washing, so he, 
having been found out in his deceit, is dishonoured. 

382. jtie&g-ggieSlili— GsrrySj. 

A fowl that is let loose. 390, 411. 

One who goes about doing whatever he likes, not feeling shame before 
anyone. 

383. ^lL®S(^IS) i£>fl"Z-L®«(3JU> Qp<S6) piLItT } SITLL.®S(9)li> umU$l&(<SjU> <S>J6B)rjLU(r? 

Have sheep and cows moral laws, and have woods and songs any 

limit ? 
Said ironically of those who have no shame in their misdeeds. 

384. ^pjB&gKfbfB cgHihu®)^^)®) easudsuunirsQ^ear. 
(Or 6Jw2sb7 u<s£l6Lfi-o j^pgiiQQrpeifr.) 

He tries to winnow me in public. 
He tries to bring disgrace on me in public. 

385. @ib/5 s\LDn<5utTGB)&S(<S)tii Qsuil.si£l&}'2ev, etiQ^Qp ^LDfTSurTes)^s(^m Oo/tl 

siBeo^so. 
This new moon he has no shame, nor will he have any next new 

moon. 
No shame now and none hereafter. 

38G. $§)es)p& : & fzilGGt (ttf §$Co GTG£iih6B)u& Q&iT^gjd s(ipjsj3&) j>jessfl@p^rr? 

Though a person eats flesh, why string the bones and hang them 

round his neck ? 
It is bad enough to do evil, but still worse to make it public. 

387. ^@pLD§Stia(8jLO pui3e&&(ZjLh G^GO t5l<eST<5Grppi(9j1 (for ^UlSI&S, QulTsQlft 

or Gps-uunuf- or ^sslLi^jhsst are used.) 

Written bonds are not needed for honest men or rogues. 

The good man will do his duty without them, the rogue will not do his duty 
though he has signed a hundred. 

388. erek Qp&ptglQeo sift l^&^Quj. 

Thou hast smeared my face with charcoal. 1026. 
You have disgraced me. 

Or ctsst QpspglQed sift gL-GimQp (or erresift Qunt-jrQp). 
Don't smear my face with charcoal (or cowdung). 



DISGRACE. 43 

889. er^rQuifteo <guL5l(ijji5@n&) ) erm'^issT QmnLLeoL^ SjUf-^^is S(Lp<sa^Qw&) 
sjpplsQsn&r. 

If I am wrong, shave my head and make me ride on an ass. 

Put me to shame, if I am wrong in what I have done or said. 
390. «jf_/r<sk_L_<£cB/rj7 6p<S(35 (or euiliLfssrTjT^jd^) sui£l erdjQs ? QunQp<smssr 

Where is the path of a rash man ? Over a quiet man's head. 

382, 411, 415. 
" Bold and shameless men are masters of the world." 

39 J . &<58nri—Qf5 sirss^, Qsnsmi—Qs; Qaneoua. 

What you see is a sight, and what you get is an ornament. 378. 

Applied to those who give way to all sorts of evil, not knowing that every- 
thing is the result of Maya, illusion. 

392. QsL-L— (9jlSf- Q&L-l^g), Lj ) !TfT@J!ruJS (3jl$. J)jUUa\ 

You are drunk, drink plenty old fellow. 

A sneer about drunkards and debtors. Why stop drinking or borrowing ? 

393. QsiT(ig&&LLismi—S(3)P ■s'&mLiLSIeo'Zeo, ^k.^^aisf.^Qs^ (or QsnuSio ^esar 

U?-&@&(8} Or (3jZ£-UJ6i32/<S(3>) (Lp<S6)pil]L£\60'%50. 

The cake has no point, and the dancing girl (or the female men- 
dicant or the drunkard) does not regard the ties of relationship. 
A dancing girl is invariably a harlot. 

394. &l<so>p##ri'hso&(3j c °>jL[>&l®) , 2eo } Q^<3vt^.ujtT(Gf^a<^ Qp6B)pu$®)'fo). 

A prison has no beauty, and a dancing girl does not regard the 
ties of relationship. 3593. 

395. mnapjuD <sukQp<5G!, iBrrppQpih QurT&Srg]. 

When I entered the home, the smell disappeared. 

A Mahomedan young man whose father sold salt fish, married the daughter 
of a dealer in sweet perfumes, and after the wedding the girl came to her 
father-in-law's home to live with her husband. At first she could not bear 
the smell of the fish, but after a while she became used to the odour and 
ceased to perceive it and was conceited enough io suppose that her pre- 
sence had driven it away. The meaning of the proverb is, that those 
who live in an atmosphere of sin become blind to the disgrace of sin. 

396. (^Si<3SiS£, GUySlgsp QpSSIT® QunL-l—tT p(oUfT60. 
A vulgar proverb satirising sham prudery. 

397. Qs=nir'?essTQsL-i—isiiissr Q&nfepi&nniSBr. • 

A shameless fellow will win. 415, 416. 

As ho has no shame, he does anything he likes. 

" He that has no modesty has all the town for his own." 

398. ^tf-Sgj <gj<£jj&tr& ufTti>Li. 

A snake that does not fear the stick. 

399. ■g'fcO&QfjQlXi®) Q<SiJ&T&JLD vg!T66BlQuiT<g1S)®) <5im<5GI, QpgthQuiT{SIT)&) <51GB!<3G(1 

When a flood rises over one's head, what does it matter whether 

it rises only a span or a cubit ? 
When one is completely discredited, further disgrace makes no difference. 



44 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

400. Gd(rrjL$.&(3jp QpibeuuSlGO'teo, ^jetiffiriBs^ ^emaSeo^so. 

A thief does not fear God, and a harlot is not bound by an oath. 
" The tears of a whore and the oaths of a bully may be put into the 
same bottle." 

401. ^(t^uu^liiSeo QiDnLLisBiL- s\U)-&&g}u Qungnweo, u§)BW&£$eo Qiflu 

Not thinking it enough to have been shaved bald at Tirupati, 

he came to Shrirangam to become a laughing-stock. 
Not satisfied with the first shame, he seeks another. 

402. gietaeupgig; Q^it&tQld&) QunLL®sQ<ssn6SBri—nGsr. 

He has dipped it in water and put it on his shoulder. 1318. 

Dipping a cloth in water makes it heavier. Said of ono who adds sin to 
sin and makes a public display of his wickedness. 

Danish : " He has bitten of the head of all shame." 

403. Q^ir&BmQuiBeo Q^ireaar^jr^ ^lif. ^isf-i^n^w, ^e^t—^^gjuQun® 

6>JIT6Br. 

Even though he be beaten ninety-nine times on his shoulder, he 
will rub the smart off. 377, 413. 

404. upgiuQuir Qlds&u ui$-&Qp$5lQedujLD, ^uSuthQuemn <g)iiy-dQp£jKo&> 

il\u>, isngpQurr Qicee iBisf.dQp^Q&)iLjth, iSi—niSti—ireanss (9}is/.s 
QpQ<g QstLuf-Ssn up pernio. 
It is more praiseworthy to drink pot after pot of toddy than to 
study so as to be praised by ten persons, or to conquer a 
thousand people, or to dance so as to be praised by four. 

Used ironically of the degenerate who despise goodness and praise wicked- 
ness. 

" Hell will never have its due, till it have its hold of you." 

405. u'fcgrLDij&(slp(gj i§ip&) ^eo'fo), uempiuegu&Qj QpempuS&fteo. 

The palmyra palm yields no shade, and a Paria does not regard 

the ties of relationship. 
A reference to the incestuous habits of certain Parias. 

406. l$ GilGSTQpjgiQun&i &m<s>\ s<ssari-jr&), QunQggieSltsf-iBpnisti iijitq^s^^ 

Q&ir60§2)Qpsp. 
If one dreams that he eats dirt, to whom can he tell it at day- 
break. 
If one Becretly leads a bad life he will be ashamed to tell of it to others. 

407. L^i7/ri_<5«/rjC,6B)® Quit nn is}. Qpisf-iungi. 

No one can fight with a man born under the star Purdda. 
Those born under this star are wicked and insolent. 

408. Qupp ^nii]L-asr QunQpeuesji&^u uppth <srjp? 

Will the man who lies with his own mother regard any ties? 
424, 3693. 



DISGRA' 45 

409. Qupp ^rreatuu OuawSig ^jGBiipuunear. 

He will call his own mother to he his wife. 408. 
Boundless wickedness. 

410. Qup^ems S'BsBnurr^ ppigteci. 

A wicked child that has no respect for his parents. 

411. Qunsspp i5nuj&(8ju QurresrQ^eOeOrTih euyS}. 

A dog without an aim, a road that goes in every direction ! 382, 

390. 
Said of a wicked person who goes where he likes and does what he likes. 

412. QpL-i— (or QpQgspih) iB < 2esriB^et/es)iS(^ ffrnSeo^sci Qu&piLfilio'fa). (or Qpd 

SfT® OT63T63T?) 

One who is soaked through, is not wet, and has no lice ahout him. 
(or does not want a veil ?) 

Applied to men utterly shameless or utterly poor. (This is the vulgar 
form of the proverb.) 

413. Qpuug) Q&rnjUL] SHesT psuGjpi&qij Qpemgfi Q^q^ulj uessfisnuw. 

To him who has eaten thirty shoes, three will be like a cake. 403. 
A man who has been beaten with a shoe thirty times will not mind being 
beaten thrice. 

414. iLQTfig) SjlGBi(nj>6d Ssmipuunaj erasTQ^io, w\&hpnm fEteBrGBncmLQi—esr 

If you say to him, Take medicine and you will live, he replies, I 

won't take a drop of it. 
Said of those who are so bad that they will not hear about improvement. 

415. jTn*gG8T QuiflQgtT, Qun&QtFl QuiflGgrr? 

Is the king or the blackguard the greater ? 299, 300, 390, 397. 
In a fight or quarrel the shameless man is the greater, as he will not re- 
frain from using any abuse or device. 

" Beware of him icho regards not his reputation. 7 ' 

416. QsulL&ld Qsili—euek &en(jjj&(3ju Quifttueuear. 

One who is lost to all shame is the big man of the village. 
397, 415. 

417. QevLL&w @&Q sSlL® QeueiBuuili— QpeSi(^ Qpssrr® (p@ Qsi—n? 
When an utterly shameless woman appears in the public, is a 

veil all she needs P 379. 

418. QeuLLsgetDg e$pgi) ^d^affQeo ^i—aQsQsnesaf(SQunQ(jr^&sr. 
He has sold his honour, and put it under his arm. 

Slid of one who has done a shameless thing which he tries to hide. 

•• Who hatlt horru in his botom, let him not put them on hishead." 



41 9. enema enevtu esi&irjsseo, GUi—L-p *si-L—p 

Abuse him and he will become a lasting stone, scold him and he 

will become a flint. 
A shameless fellow. Also used about one who in spite of all his injustice 
prospers in this world. 



40* TAMIL I'KOVKRBS. 

WICKEDNESS. 

THE WICKED INTENT ON WICKEDNESS. 

420. s&reirear ug(s) £I@lL®Ql£>Qg>. 

A thief's mind is on stealing. 529. 
" III doers are ill thinkers." 

421. Q&®®Jireor Qs® rS^ssTuunasr. 

The wicked think only of wickedness. 422. 

422. prreisr £d@t$- e sy<F6UaS > ® iBihuLDfnlujTeBr, ak-^^ss&rea&sr Quesor^rT^eemJ 

He who is a thief himself can't trust his neighbour, and he who 

keeps a concubine can't trust his wife. 
A wicked person cannot believe good of others. 
" A thief thinks every man steals." 
" He that does not speak truth to me does not believe me when I 

speak truth." 
" Do tvell and doubt no man ; do ill and doubt all men" 

423. Qpd&GB)jDUJ6Br &6B)gQun&) Qu&Q(nfGBr. 

He speaks like the noseless man in the story. 

A certain man who had no nose was always ridiculed in his village. To 
make the other people as badly off as himself, he began at certain times 
to praise God and to thank him that he had enabled him to see him. 
When he thus burst out in loud praise, people gathered round him, and 
asked what they should do to see God. His advice was, that they should 
cut off their noses. This they did one after another. And though they 
could not see God, they pretended that they could out of very shame. 
Thus wicked people will try to draw good people over to their own wicked 
ways. 

" A hog that is bemired, endeavours to bemire others." 



THE DOER OF GREAT EVILS, WILL NOT FEAR TO COMMIT 
SMALLER ONES. 

424. j^pnQ&rn® QunQpe>j6S)i&(sj ^ssrr&r sjg], pihs&Q srgi? 

What is an elder or a younger sister to him who lies with his 
own mother ? 408, 3593. 

425. O«/r?60<5(5 ^(Grpngeum uy$j<i(9} ^j^a-enn^O) ? 

Will he be afraid of blame, who is not afraid of committing 
murder ? 

426. uftev QpQpiaQ6sr wn^ir&jd^d spa] s^asar i—tr laQ . 

To a mother who has swallowed a mountain, a door is but a bit of 
seasoning. 

427. LDirifluj^jsiT^eiT Quasar® t3tsf.sQpeu@is(^u LAfnitl QuesBrfftrGjI stwldit^ 

What is the priest's wife to him, who seduces the Goddess of 
Small-pox herself ? 



WICKEDNESS. 47 

HE WHO COMMITS SMALL EVILS, WILL SOON COMMIT 
GREAT ONES. 

428. <5®<2> seneijih s<snei\^iTasr , sfruLffls setrojih smeqpnsisr. 
Theft of mustard is theft, and theft of camphor is theft. 
Camphor is sacred, and used in the worship of all the gods. 

" Sin is sin whether big or small." 

429. &n<58>@ j^gy £ pisiiear S6aor2easrd (9jp$£)^a)§piih ^^^i&Jiresr. 

He who cuts off the ears of a person, may also stab his eyes. 
" Small faults indulged are little thieves, that let in greater." 

430. GBsssyiu s.«OL_ / i e ^7ffl9ili_(aj/isar ^^eoosnu &-<56)l-@ ■strath a_s»z_L/ij/r(Ssr. 
He who breaks one's hand, may also break one's head. 

" He that will steal an egg, will steal an ox." 

431. @)m6B>ps(&) §$go jfjjp) ppsum /F/rSsrrigji; (vfteo j^gfiisinniLL—n^t 
Will not he who steals leaves to-day, steal a cluster of fruit 

to-morrow ? 
To do a little evil will lead to doing greater. — Or, said of one who is 
overanxious to see the result of his labour. In this case: LCiri—t—rreBT for 

" He who hath done ill once will do it again." 

432. jg)63r«o/n<£(3j Q&snssr^d^ euisgspy iBir'Bsfrd^u Quiff^is^ a/^ii. 

He who came for a little to-day, will come for a big thing 

to-morrow. 
Said often by mothers to their children. 
" Tie that will steal a pin toill steal a better thing." 

Cf. 424 ff. 2013 /. 



KILL EVIL AT ITS VERY BIRTH. 

433. (9jLLup.uuMixanLj ^isf.^^n^il> } (Bj/bgyuSliTmij eSi—uQunsngp. 
Though it be only a young snake you beat, it won't do to leave it 

half dead. 

434. $£ i&(g)&<3S)<3>ippnG}s\s>, ueias iB^^ asxsv&auui-jrgi. 

Though you may cherish fire to excess, don't cherish hatred to 
excess (but kill it at once). 454. 

435. ggnesBT umi>urT^B)§2iti> QpLpp&up. QeuemQixi. 

Though the snake be only a span long, a stick a cubit long is 
needed to kill it. 

436. UHLD<SS)U Qpil.eS)L—USQ&) } L)G$<3S)Ujd (3jLLl$.U$QeO, QsiT®)60(o<3iJeSBr®lh. 

A snake must be killed while in the egg, and a tiger while it is 

young. 
" Destroy the lion while he is but a whelp." 



48 TAMIL PBOVEfiBS. 

437. Qfi^etruSteo Qekenn^es)^ appffiigG)®), Qsnu-aeStQatTcaar® QsulLi— 

What is not nipped at the bud but left to mature, will have to 

be foiled with an axe. 3299. 
Neglected evil is hard to destroy. 

Gf. 3299/. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT WICKEDNESS. 

438. j)fjgtjDegiia(gj (vulg. j^^&aeud(^) ^uSitld <%ul\&- 
A vile man lives a thousand years. 446. 

" A bad thing never dies." " An ill stake standeth longest." 
" A creaking door hangs on its hinges." 

439. S\®$ sec/f Lessor QlditI&sGsii, gasr'2esr LDpwspsSliLi—iTiasr. 

As soon as he put his foot on the soil of that village, he went to 
the bad. 

440. gieu&irifl erm jp/ ^SsbtCd LoQ&i sjpeOtTLo, $El(n)i$- Gisisrg)} Q^0eS&) <sujt 

6U/TU3/7"? 

A prostitute may ride an elephant in the streets, but can a thief 

come into the streets ? 
Some sins are condoned. 
'' No law for lying." 

441. «g}<w^ Qeu2efraSi&) ti)s«r8sff i3pi^ireo, jyuuVesru-ii}) ^^^n^a^Lo Qsn&) 

§xQld zpySlu-i, UtGfj&rriEistGi) Qfir&sresr uniruurr'fcsr 6i<5sr<soi Q^djujih ? 
If a child is born at an inauspicious time though he ruins both 
his father and mother, what harm can he do to the Brahmin 
who tells his horoscope ? 112. 

Said in mockery of a wicked person who invokes all kinds of evil on those 
whom he hates. 

442. eiL-Quuuf. jyiflQ 6^0 seuneaih, ejQg mnJr ^esstemi— 6p(m QuDuMenih. 
Eight measures of rice is only a mouthful to her, and the tpiarreln 

of seven villages makes her jump with joy. 450. 
A description of a shrew. 

443. Gj&ssruf- uitlLi^. Lo^feir (Sjetfl ■£ pmu (ctsst^su), uemipiLi iS^sstulj sfi—ir 

Quuneeaasf. ! 
If the grandson asks, O, old woman, why are you adorning your 

body with saffron ? she replies. my grandson my old 

passions have returned. 459. 
After losing her husband or getting somewhat old, a woman should not 

adorn herself with saffron. If she does, it shows that she wants to 

attract men. Used of hidden vice that springs up again. 

444. gjCtu/r Gi<5Br(nf®) ^giLDn&jbgju urreuih sf-pjpiLo. 

If I pity you, six month's sin will surround me. 461. 

To pity a wicked person and forbear with him is considered a great sin. 

" If you pity rogues, you are no great friend of honest men" 



WICKEDNESS. 49 

445. s&bl-QslLl.. QpeiBsf^s Qsnuth Qsnesmi—mLL-LD. 
Anger is fun to a wicked woman. 

446. &<sfreifld(9j !5rr® ereoeonth sit®. 

The Kalli weed {Euphorbia) grows all over the country. 438. 
" Weeds grow apace." "' III weeds groio fast." 

447. srreoth sesari— QuQ^^^rr&fl. 

He is a bandycoot who has seen many days. 

A bandycoot is a large animal of the rat tribe very strong and cunning. 
Used of a knowing rascal. 

448. sn&)iEjQsLL(Ss s^vuljQsitl^I {p!<sueir'bofrQpLL<oS)i— ^®Qpgi. 
The black hen that wasted its time lays a white egg. 

This is not exactly a proverb. Used about the present evil age (Kaliyuga). 

449. gjj/Bgj Ljeoar ^(trfgi. 

A monkey's wound never heals. 

A monkey is too restless to let its wounds heal, and so the human race 
through its constant activity in wickedness cannot amend its ways. A 
philosophical saying. 

450. S,66ST®S(^ QrrnLLl^. ■9?LL®QuiT®Qp61jeir. 

She makes bread for the army. 442. 
i.e., She is a camp follower, a term of abuse. 

451. ^iQ^iUSluuuueo &6§ujiT<s8Br<i£!!®) Qpu}_&a- sf<s3j^sQpsu<ssr Quffliupesrii). 
At the marriage of a thief the pick-pocket is the best-man. 

If the master is a wicked man, he will have servants still worse. 

452. J£l(ffji-L(Sl&(9j theuwessfl. 

In thieving he shines like the Nine Gems. 

A capital rogue. A first class scamp. The Nine Gems were nine learned 
men in the court of Vikramaditya the Great. 

453. Q^terrjaQjd Gsfr®d8Qso eSleL^tb, Q^euuf-iurr^s^ &.i—UJL9Q6i) eSe^ih, 

^-.emsQsir ^n sun iejsud eSsu^Lc. 
Scorpions have poison in their tail, harlots in their body, but as 

to you, your whole body is poison ! 
An expression of contempt for a wicked person. 

454. QihQ^^&Qpek an pppn 6$iud, (^esBih^j i^®isjsQmesar®i}). 

If a thorn runs into the foot, one must stoop to take it out. 434. 
Be careful even with little evils. — If a mean fellow abuses you, bear it 
humbly. 

455. QiB0ues)ud sesm® i&$slppn§2\LD (com. QLoiflppaeyuD) &®ih, arr,GBS)LD®) 

iHfslpgn6$\s> #®/i). 
Whether you tread on fire knowingly or unawares, it will burn. 
Evil is evil whether seen or not. 

7 



50 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

456. urrmu ^L-Uf- unilii3Qeo (firey), serreirebi seneSQeo (*/ra/). 

(Death) comes to the snake who has lived as a snake, and to the 

thief who has lived as a thief. 207. 
As one lives, so will he die. 
" The wolf must die in its own skin." 

Or urTihuinLiy-&(3)Li utnhiSGlGi eney, seven spag, seneSQed (or s(ip 

eSQeo) &nei\. 
Death come to the snake-charmer from his snake, and to the 

thief from his theft (or on the impaling tree), 
i.e., Retribution follows a person from his own wickedness. 

457. LjefflujLDnpGda) errSesisuem ueo <«i_^e»)6v ^jjoia^suneisr. 

He who has climbed a tamarind tree will come down when his 

teeth are set on edge. 
People will do evil as long as they can. The fruit of the tamarind tree is 

proverbially sour. 

458. QuiraQif) (or Qpjrt-L®) ^eoi^^is<^ (ippeo grrmUjSViii Qsa®ssQeij<saar 

(Sim. 
We must honour the great rogue by giving him betel first. 
He is to be marked out as the worst rogue. 

459. Quasar Gevfiuufyosr <$ ^niht^eOLD emeujg&d jyemLpppg/Qurreo. 

Like recalling Sani (the planet Saturn) by giving him betel. 

The folly of re-instating a bad servant helper, or friend. Only harm will 
come of it. Sani is the most malignant of all the heavenly bodies. 

460. Qurresr -sHrpesipu uerf) J§)lL® jqsmipPjggiQuaio. 

Like bringing a fever back again by giving tamarind. 459, 742. 
Refers to difficulties one has got over, but in which one wilfully entangles 

himself again. Specially used of evil habits, given up for a time and 

then resumed. 

" Misfortunes when asleep are not to be awakened." 

461. Qps^^Qeo Qpi£l@ptT&lu>, Qpmgi w/rSsrri^.F Qsngp jq&uui—rrgj. 

If you look into the face (of a wicked person) you will not get. 
food for three days. 444. 

462. QpuugjmQumu, ^pm^siD p&reifl6BT<ou&r(ourTso Qu&Q(npeir. 

She speaks like an experienced person who has passed her 

thirtieth year, and given up the three restraints. 321, 443. 
The three restraints are modesty, shame, arrogance [QsulLs^^sS e$(np 

uu). 321. 

463. sun eun wniBuutTrT SQpea^QufTeo ^(Cmerr. 

The mother-in-law became gradually like an ass. 
Said of a person who becomes worse and worse in evil-doing chiefly through 
envy. 



PRIDE AND ARROGANCK. 51 

PRIDE AND ARROGANCE. 

QcBITolJLD, ^L/S/dB/rsn'-Z). 

464. ^jL-iEisrTLj unihu&qij !rir?grr QpiaQsogiq.. 

A bamboo stick is the king of an insolent snake. 
" Restive horses must be roughly dealt withy 

465. jy®,^ oS > il®<s«/rjCT»<5(5 ^GsI&wtJo eukgneo, ^sourem— <^lL®ssitjt 

If their neighbour is promoted to authority the people next door 

will be in for all the noise. 
11 A great lord is a bad neighbour." 

466. j)jQg<g 6§LL®ssnires2i3(3j £{$bIQ!uljit&ld (or ^j^&^i—ld) Gukptreo, 

If a neighbour is fortunate he will buy up the next house for a 

stable. 
He will oppress his neighbours as king Ahab oppressed Naboth. (1 Kings 21.) 

467. ^jsuirn &jgja,Q&, ^/iftaun&rm'Ssssr s^sQs? 

Is he sharp r 1 Is the kitchen knife sharp ? 

Used ironically by a wife to describe the ability of her husband, if he is 
arrogant. — Or said of a wicked man who says that in future he will do 
right. 

468. ^Q/gp/igj ^sit&lo Qpsor^ueSn&Jsetsi— (or ^otq/). 

To him the sky is only three fingers above him (or long). 
Said of an exceedingly proud person. » 

" He is on the high ropes." 

469. ^jjp/j&jpdQsiTGSBn—pirtii sQpea^, srQ^gidQ&iTeoort—piTui g^lLi m. 

It seems that the ass broke loose and took to its heels. 

Said of a stupid and obstinate fellow who suddenly leaves his home or his 
work and runs away. 

" Who drives an ass, and leads a whore, hath pain and sorrow 

I'lf-rmore." 

470. ^/f S\i— n , sSlLl-^j LoneSuJwt mnQear a9il®«Q<s/7 p «>8rC?i_G3r LDiresffivm] 
What, yon fellow, who gave you that property ? I have given it 

to myself ! 

Said of one who does things as seems proper to him. — Or of an inferior, 
who takes undue authority on himself. 

471. $0&& rsrreir <zr&)edrru> f^rDjis^eSil.®, s«hjtu uetapujG!pi&(9j& pireajr 

(com. gnu) ewrirppgiQuiTeo. 
Like keeping it all this time and at last giving it as a present to 
a village-Pariah. 503. 

Said of one who, in his foolish pride, keeps some valuable too long, because 
he can't get the price for it he wants, and of one who will not give his 
daughter in marriage because he cannot get a sufficiently wealthy 
bridegroom for her, and at last finds that the srirl has been seduced. 

" Better to bow than break." 



52 TAMIL TKOVERBS. 

472. s_«5r2sBT« Q&rr®LjQuQ(GV) $(nj&ns?, a-sirC^gj)© Qun&&gi Ljut-Li—nQ. 
Do you think I will give you a coin V with you the month of 

September is gone. 
During the month of Purattasi (September — October) Vaishnava mendi- 
cants receive large presents, but when the month is over they may not 
expect much. Said to remind an inferior who arrogantly magnifies his 
claims on the respect and help of others that he can't have all he wants. 

473. Q(Lgiki(3j ^(5 ueotsrih, ^ter^s^ (or i—ihuw) QpssneouetmLD. 

For outward show a whole coin, and for vanity three quarters of 
a coin. 1643. 

474. <£/-L®<5(3J J)jL-IEJSrTU SlSTlB. 

A scamp who does not submit to rules ! 
Used about an unmanageable child or person. 

475. (3yQ$ei\&(5j L&t&ffim ^sl^gf. 

A disciple greater than his Spiritual Guide (Guru). 479, 1391. 
Said of a proud and insolent fellow. 

" A halter and a rope for him that toill be pope without all right and 
reason." 

476. a-6ssri—ssfruj sf-eeBri—ssnQuj, sresrs^ Qpktsl euib^0i8(mQuj? 

A Shunda fruit (Solanum) is but a Shunda fruit (t.e , small and 

insignificant) ; how have you come before me ? 
Said by a big man in contempt of a humble person. 

477. Q&tT(TJ)Q&Qi—m@ jy&u&auiLjth Q&irgi ^f&retru lj/duulLl-^i. 

The ladle that was stuck in the thatch as useless has begun to 
scoop up rice. 

Said of a person who has been overlooked or not thought of, but who sud- 
denly makes his appearance with an air of injured dignity. 

478. i—il>LArrjTdsrr'2GtrQurr&) ^j^eotunQ^. 

Do not go about like a noisy young bullock. 
Said of an unruly person. 

479. puf-&(9) iB^&est iSi—n. 

He is a pot that is greater than a 'stick ! 475. 

i.e., It is not afraid of being broken by the stick : though any stick can 
break a pot. Said of a subordinate who is insolent to his master. 

480. ^^eos^^^^eo QuiBuj^esrti) (or witl-ljt<5s>id). 
One head is arrogant to the other. 481. 

Said of wicked and unruly people, who will submit to no one. 

48 1 . ptreS sj^i^^eueir sSlLi^.Q&) pteos^p <$¥&) Quifiuugmth. 

In a widow's house (lit. one who has taken off her thali) all are 
masters. 480, 2869. 

482. pireisr Q^it&stjS QuQrjuw&r (com. &n<&r Q^fT6tssfj } or pnGsr Qpirmrfi 

He goes about imagining himself a God. 

" He is so full of himself that he is quite empty. ," 



PRIDE AND ARROGANCE. 53 

483. gnQan s^rrearn, g<asi L-j&j^ uileff/f. 

He thinks himself a governor, and his intellect a butler. 
There is an obscene form of this proverb. 

484. @tT<GG)iL<g Sjl&STjr)! ^"hscuunubu QuirsQeuesar®ih. 

He wants to eat everything himself, and to become the head of 

everybody. 
Said of a person who adds insolent arrogance to selfish greediness. 

Or : pnQesi ^asfgji pm ^^Quj Qu^sQevesBrQih. 
He wants to keep everything for his own enjoyment, and aims 
at raising his own head gloriously. 

485. QiLiqjs® wrr^^Q&) skJr uirir&Qpgj. 

To try the sharpness of the knife on the knife-board. 492. 
To be haughty and impertinent towards those who have given us help. 

486. jpangeSliL® (BniL rsnp&neSIQLc®) <sj rfiesr \gjQuir&). 

Like the dog that jumped up on the geutleman's chair. 
" Every man a little beyond himself is a fool." 

487. isrretpiih L^&irtfl, eresrs^tl) ^suniS ^iLi—Qpopeasr®. 

I too am a Pujari, even I can dance like a God. 

Sarcastically used to a person, who pretends that he can speak with author- 
ity on important subjects. A Pujari is a Sudra priest in the temple of a 
local tutelary deity. 

" Every ass thinks himself worthy to stand icith the king's horse" 

488. /5/T63T <£Lld ^UD eresr^eO, syn/n syp/n sresrSQr^arr. 
If I say yes, yes, he says Hard, Hari. 2837. 
He will not agree with what I say. 

489. £ Q&p@n£o } &JS0&LO erdo&irru} ere^upundju Qun^Qimt 
If you die, will the whole world become skeleton ? 

490. uLLtqjAfTLL(S&(3jd slLgoi— sLLiy.eBrs>j(2urr®). 
Like tying a log to a skittish cow's neck. 

Haughty and wicked persons are not rectified by the punishment they get. 

491. L$i$-<sutrpi}> (3jiyj5rr&ih. 

Obstinacy is a family's destruction. J 899. 

492. Qupppnih ^i—^^lQeovuir &pp eSlgasig smLQQp^} (or §g)Qpg)). 
Do you show off the tricks you have learned to your own mother ? 

485. 
Said of a disobedient and haughty child or man, who has learnt bad ways, 
but tries to deceive the experienced. 

493. ldit aesru utl.u.Qgeo&)iri}> <$(§ GdsTeeanh, LDirL-®&&tT!iu<anuujGB2&(9j& &n 

Greatness is but a straw ; shall I then bow down to a cowherd's 
boy? 



54 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

494. eupjBpQ^u^ &eir(6fJj supessn-Jimnixi ffn<^)^^ } g&rplpfTrpih &&!<&$ e_^^ 

•gn en aih &rT(€3B)£$5). 

When the toddy dries up, (in the hot season) the toddy-drawer's 
wife will shrivel up, when the toddy flows (in the cooler wea- 
ther) she will become plump. 

Said of an inferior, who, as long as he has his master's favour, is haughty 
and unjust towards others, but if he loses that, will behave fairly again. 
Toddy is the fermented juice of certain palms, and is an intoxicant. 

495. q9soj<s@q9l1z_ mibuQ>urT60. 

Like fruits let go to seed. 

Such fruits are useless for food. The term is used of an arrogant 
person whose indolence his master puts up with till the work 
entrusted to his skill is finished, and then he is at once dismissed 

(j)j$£ iStjT&rnQ or jiji—iEJsrr^eum- or LSI^QQurrssreu^r). 



OBEDIENCE, DISOBEDIENCE, HUMILITY AND 
HUMILIATION. 

496. SjSU<5B)U (5)6G)pp@[T60, WL-l—p^S^ <aUQf)6UIT6(!r (pv QsftQgULj ST&> 

If his spoon is made smaller, he will be manageable ; (or his 

fatness will be reduced). 501,512. 
Used of a forward child that needs a little management. 

497. jiji—dsLD j^uSirii) Quirm- pq^w. 
Submission will yield a thousand gold coins. 
" Humility often gains more than pride." 

" By hearing Scripture man acquires ; 
By doing it his soul aspires ; 
The utmost love is conquering sense, 
Which cometh of obedience." 

E. Arnold : Indian Idylls. 

498. ^/ffi/ssr ay/re*) ^jSvm^jQuir-f^^. 
His tail has been cut off. 508. 
His pride has been subdued. 

" His comb has been cut." 

499. ^Uf. Gpibisp uu>urni)Qutr&). 

Like a top that has done spinning. 500. 
Said of one who has been humbled. 
" His heart went into his boots." 



OBEDIENCE, DISOBEDIENCE, HUMILITY AND HUMILIATION. 55 

500. StSS.&&) ^1$. £<5Gt (§%SmSI®) $p(3jLD. 

The swing swings, but comes to a standstill. 499, 507. 

Wickedness will come to an end some day. 

" Blow the wind ever so fast, it will lower at last." 

501. ejL^na^i—UD Qu&^eo, ^jsuetou (j^esfliuw GmwuQuear. 

If you speak haughtily I will only give you an empty ladle. 496. 

i. e., I will give you no food. — Commonly said to children, servants or 
daughters-in-law. 

" I will take you down a peg." 

502. arr®)n&) (§)lLi— (o^'Ssoswuj, cnsiLMed (or @'%souj{t&)) Q&iuojiTGfr. 

The work pointed out to him by (his master's) foot, he will do 

with his hands (or head). 2639. 
A highly obedient person. 

503. Q&n&srmuut. Qsu-i—nio, lditu (tAney) ussii—uQ wssr (or Qsrr®u 

Quebr), QsenneSL-L-ne^ LcesBr2sssr QsuLLiq-ULioni—uQum. 
If you obey, I will bake bread for you ; but if you don't, your 

bread shall be dust. 471,2843. 
" Better to how than to break." 

504. p'tetiQiDQ®) $)uf. $)Uf-p@rT62iLD, ^/rm (^eaffajtrasr. 

Even if he be struck on the head by lightning, he will not bend. 

505. pnupfcpgi ■gib&LD, a.uj/7/5^^7 l^^Sskt. 

The humble are pure gold, the proud are brass. 

506. prrtpibgtf iBissrQ^io, eimCpksp SpurriL. 

If you be humble, you will remain prosperous. 
" Better bend the neck than bruise the forehead." 

507. (o<$it gup. pm S'bsouSeo iS<b(8)Ua. 

The car may run, but it will come to a standstill. 500. 

Said about a proud and over-bearing person, or about a wicked husband 
who leaves his wife for years, but is sure to return at last. 

508. uio^u iSKdrnQm umbLjQurr&). 

He is like a snake that has had its teeth drawn (i.e., is harmless). 
498, 510. 

509. ueatpm QunasiearQioGr Qunexsreorm, uemLpuu suu&syjjQuu suuemj;. 
Ponnan has become old Ponnan, the vessel has become an old 

vessel. 535. 

There was once a servant, who found a vessel full of gold buried in the 
earth. He did not remove it, but went daily to look at it. At the same 
time he became proud and unruly. His master watched him closely, 
and found out about the treasure, which he took secretly. When the 
servant found that his treasure was gone, he resumed his usual docility 
and when asked for the reason of the change in his bearing, he replied as 
above. This is said of one who suddenly becomes rich, but as suddenly 
loses his wealth. 



56 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

510. QuL-isf.uuiris>L^QuiT&) ^fi—isiQ^fSsr. 

He is now as gentle as a snake in a box. 508. 
After being caught and punished, he fears to do evil. 

510a. Qu&&u Gu#& GTGsrcspw (Qu&u)); Qu^ld legist eukpneo 8#&& sf«£ 

Q&6GTGg)lLD Setn. 

The parrot will imitate your speech but when the big cat conies 

near, it will screatch in fear. 1483. 
Said of a boaster who knows his own littleness and is put to shame in the 

presence of his superiors. 



511. WI—IElSfTS (5 / ^«»J<5@<F .FQ/igj S\U}-' 

Beat an unruly horse with a whip. 198. 

512. euuSpfled j>ju).ppn6) srdoeOiTth Qurr^ih. 

If your stomach be beaten, it is all up with you. 496. 
i.e., If a proud and mischievous fellow gets no food, his arrogance will come 
to an end. 

5 1 3. fitfz-LOigj £JL-ieusitj£ LSsffSsrraooj v&urnrr ^yi_«@a;/r/r«sff. 

The villagers will master a child who will not obey his own 

relations. 
i.e., Public opinion must be respected, even by the most rebellious. 



THE PERMANENCE OF EVIL. 



(3JLDIT? 

Even if you give a thousand gold-pieces, can you regain the 

chastity lost for half a copper coin ? 
Guilt is easily acquired, but not easily got rid off. 
" What is done cant be undone." ■» 

515. ^aSotgTiQfneBr^giLQ, .syeufrrifl ffiQp&rrtf) sysiAniLisien. 

Though she be advised a thousand times, a prostitute will not 

become a wife. 
" What is bred in the bone will never be out of the flesh." 

516. <§^nnQiD&3 pgis^u Qun^gnh, &Q$&Bm Qpn'2eMUiaS&)'%6». 

Though he went on a pilgrimage to Rameswai*am, his evil desti- 
ny is not expiated. 519, 520. 

51 7. e_6obr® e^rSluSeo f^Q Greor0>&), ©.(WjsJbr® Q^^eSQeO <sSi(i4>Q(tr?ebr. 

Though I tell him to eat and make himself at home, he goes 

rolling about and falls in the streets. 
Said of one who is well advised but will not reform. 



THE PERMANENCE Of EVIL. 57 

518. 6TL-U}.i(gju uneosunirgsp sn&tfr^^ng^in^ ^«^ul| a_68Brz_/r(3ji£>/7 ? 

Will the strychnine-plant ever grow sweet, even if milk is poured 

round its roots ? 
It will remain bitter and poisonous. Evil will always be evil. 
" 'Tis is hard to break a hog of an ill custom." 

510. g}i£j&n gth Qun^^ith, pasr urrsvih pasrQ^Qi 

Though he go fifty miles, his sin will be with him. 516, 520. 

Though he went to Benares, his sins are not expiated. 516, 519, 

523, 2241, 2520. 
" He who goes a beast to Rome, a beast returns." 

52 J. (Gjiy-sQ/Deueisr euneemjff 1 st/h/Ste @© QuirL-j—ireyu), (^i^jaSiw eSi—ir&sr. 

Even though you burn a drunkard round his mouth, he won't 

give up drinking. 
The permanence of bad habits. (Prov. 27, 22.) 

522. Q«lLl-uit&) m6060uirio ^(zjum? 

Can spoiled milk become good milk ? 

523. Q&lLi—<5)j<sjt &&}&»& ^j > up-<GV)&), uireuth ^(tjjldit? 

Will a bad man get rid of his sin by bathing in the Ganges ? 

520. 
" If we be enemies to ourselves lohither shall we fly ?" 

524. «D<s«D(u £ijp]@giefilL-L-.iTeipi£>, jy&ue&u sL-Vf-sQlsiresn® ^l(7^®eun&si. 

Though his hand is cut off, he will fasten a ladle to the stump of 
his arm and steal with that. 757. 

525. Q&Qtjuuned cgjup-^giTepiu), ^0LL®seahSB iBp&ngi. 

Though you strike him with your slippers, his thievish habits (lit. 
hand) will not cease. 

526. Q&eSi—sisT srr^Q&) &iii(9j &~n(5/(G8)jbQ un&i. 

Like blowing a conch in the ear of a deaf man. 
Said of giving good advice to those who will not heed it. 
" He that will not be saved needs no sermon." 

527. G&a&)&)s : Q&tT&)&) ldlLis^ lA&SBi'fcmrg GdrnQfrrpesr. 

However much a self-willed man is warned, he eats earth. 532. 

528. pt£j&g<as)£& (BjeStsSQpeisT <5i<5BTqrfg$iis>, £<zh Lj@6d eSQQfD^lio^eo erasr 

Though I say to him, I will heap up pure gold for you ; he says, 
My (bad) nature won't leave me. 

529. fsl(riJt—GV)i&(3)<g ^0lL®ulj^^I Qunstrgj. 

The thievish nature of a thief will not leave him. 420. 

8 



58 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

530. unibQro u>ml.®&(3j(ip6BrQeBr Qeu^th Q^irm^/bQuneo. 

Like repeating the Vedas before a bull about to gore you. 
It is impossible to check wickedness in full career. 

531- i§ppes)j3(9ju lj^^ Q&rrm^eO, QsiLun^t 

If we warn a rogue, will be listen ? 155, 2563, 2707. 
" He has the greatest blind-side, ivho thinks he has none." 
" Who is so deaf, or so blind as is he, that icilfully tvill neither hear 
nor see." 

532. Qeueoori— Qeueomi—, pneeari—GuiD (&-@gi) r^j<SlQ(v^ssr. 

Though I entreat him over and over again to cease, yet be dances 

wildly. 527. 
Said of one who will not give up his wicked ways. 
" Tliey that be in hell think there's no other heaven." 

Gf. 675/. 839/. 873/. 



REDUCED CIRCUMSTANCES. 

533. ^SU^lTlBuSQeO 0,-/5^7, Qu(TFj6>JtTlflu$Q&) QunQpgi. 

What has been gained by playing the harlot, is lost in the plague. 
" HI got, ill spent." 

534. jyeii&r ueo^ea^ ineoarQsiTesBf® ep&fl^^^j. 
Her power is hidden by earth. 

" Her day is over." 

535. cgyfflAsar ^uu/tijl mni^.aS&i ^i—iEiQ^asr. 

He has been running and singing {i.e., has been arrogant), but 
his pulse has sunk. 509, 553. 

gjSWoBT isnuf. ^l—iBjSQun &&■£}, his pulse is brought down; he has come 
to his senses at last. Said of one who has* lost his property and 
his pride too. 

" Reckless youth makes rueful age." 

536. ^jeuesT &p(5j ^iq-fep upesusu. 

He is a bird with broken wings. 
" He is on his last legs." 

537. ^euan eunipGii iseaar® (sjOsoa/ &.<o6>i—mpj£iQurT60. 

His career came to an end like the breaking of the vessel 
(Kuduvei) in which crabs were carried. 

A Kuduvei is a small earthen vessel. When this broke all the crabs crawled 
away. Used for instance when the death of a mother leaves a large 
family of children with no one to look after them. 



REDUCED CIRCUMSTANCES. 59 

538. JljySligJ Uggjfo#IT0>UJL](eLJIT&& < gl. 

It is boiled rice gone bad. 560. 

Used of lost goods, of broken health, and of a ruined character. 

539. ^l—IT^lh J^ty. GglL)(gB)(nj3(¥j& SfTULjlh S\3»$g) ■Q&'frg]- 

Having behaved as he ought not to have behaved, he had to take 

off even his bracelets and give them to the God Ayanar. 
" He made his money fly." 

540. ^gtossr ®Ql)isgj sjii&neeBn— gg}i—pGH®) l^2ebt ^^sjp l/6VlclS s{Q£ 

Qpgl. 
In the place where he once lorded it as an elephant, he now lords 

it like a weeping cat ! 
" Pride breakfasted with plenty, dined with Poverty, and supped 

with Infamy.' 1 
" Pride goes before a fall." 

541. ^esTLDLLfSih ^f^rr&f) ^is^^^suQuniL® ^ibetnjgQ urr&) QpySjs@0'6Br. 
He has done his best to play a grand part in the world ; now he 

blinks like an owl. 
" Many there be that buy nothing with their money but repentance." 

54-2. ff isrgarjj/ Qunu$(B)&Q(irj>6sr. 

(He has become so feeble that) he can only say " Ee." 

543. &-.uLjffi&LLup. <3u<sap ^(Bih Q '^n pg^ieSCi—n^sr (or gjgoIi QuniLQeSu-i-niT 

<S6«r). 
Even his salt-pan and pot-sherd were sold by auction. 
The bitterest poverty. 

544. £-6V<S63)<5 Qgihihsp &-&fluiSlup- ^PStgl. 

The rice-pounder is so worn, that it is like the handle of a chisel. 
Said of things worn out, or of an impaired intellect, or decayed dignity. 

545. 67637 £\uum a*-£grTi$-, eresrs^ ^esrjruih QpiBuurrg), iS&esy&QunGi. 
My father was an acrobat ; I know nothing ; give me alms ! 
Charity claimed ou account of the worthiness of one's ancestors. 

" What matters it to a blind man that his father could see ?" 

545a. GTihsuueisr i$pt5<s < gi QeusirGftuflev (or eas&tn&th), (siibsnib [i. e., eriki 

sen gnilj) diptsggi Qunmuftisd (or iD&nQi&Qrf). 

My father was born on a Silver Mountain {or Kailasa), my 

mother was born on a Gold Mountain {or Mount Meru). 851. 

Kailasa is Siva's heaven. Meru is a fabulous mountain often identified with 

the Himalayas. The proverb is used sarcastically about people who have 

come down in the world but still vaunt their high origin. 

54C. srgb>@@ gjeosfliLjih siBQewsL^QptA (or Q&n&dQpiii) ^tgayssr. 
His clothes are a rag and his garb is all charcoal. 
Said of a person reduced to utter poverty. 

547. sihwiretrear ugsstud stBujih QuiriftiijLDfriJUu QuntLieflL-t—gp. 

The goldsmith's money has become charcoal and sparks. 

Goldsmiths are said to gain much by trickery, but their wealth goes as 
qnickly as it comes. 



60 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

548. SQpQB'S QpiLmgl &L-QL—£)ILbn ^-f&g!. 

The ass is worn down to an ant. 

Said of one who rushes into licentiousness and is ruined in goods, or health. 

549. &&r<en}<i(3j ^juexr®, s(^eumL.®s(^ j§)j6E>r®. 

I have spent a couple of coins on toddy and a couple on salted 

fish, 
i.e., I spent a little here and a little there, and thus have spent all I had. 

When the husband thus recounts to his wife a number of trifling expenses 

to excuse himself for having spent all his wages, his wife replies, in order 

to ridicule him : — 

a/aar@)g2/«@« g> j2/«srf? (Qisdo) QsirQ^Qgasr, Qs&r, sQpstap Qs<ar ! 
^wwlLi—^S(^3o (ggyessfl QsnQ^Q/gm^ Qsetr, aQp&os; Qa&r ! 
GfGBrQjSnsQl&r ! 

What you say is this : I gave a measure of rice to the washer- 
man. Listen, you donkey listen ! and I gave a measure to the 
barber. Listen, you donkey listen ! 

By this she implies that her husband has given away money that ought to 
have gone to household expenses. 

" Haste makes waste, and waste makes want, and want makes strife 
between the good man and his wife." 

550. <£/7<SF<5<SL.68br® <5/fl<5<9R_«OT/_'7UJiJ Qun&&sp. 

The vessel in which money was kept, is now used for charcoal. 

55 1 . (aji— ®) s\&®& && erispLDLLQih ^®/i> ? 

How far will a fox run that has lost its entrails (i.e., its 

strength) ? 
A degenerate man's day will soon be over. 

552. (3jty-u2&) iSpisgi, gjtf/E/g, ^lLi^ld ^ > ®Q(nj k <ssr. 

He was born in a good family, but now he behaves like a monkey. 
Said of one who has brought himself down by a bad life. 

553. (5/B,@(65)UJ/T (jSfjJJIElQs, S-fi3T ffk^iSf. ^jl—IElCoS. 

O monkey, are you sitting down ? Ts your chatter subdued ? 535. 
Used of one whose prosperity and impudence have both met with disaster. 
" Better it is to suffer and fortune to abide, than hastily to climb and 
suddenly to slide." 

554. QslLl. q§b.@&(9j ctlI® eutrnpesp. 

A decayed village needs eight words. 

It is hard to describe a decayed country, its literature and its religion, in 
such a way as to make them seem respectable. 

555. Q&ne&ei Q<firjbsss(^s (^wLLufssr Qpojup-turrefr, siru^d Qfrrpjpid^d 

The dancing girl who was formerly more than filled with good 
food in the temple, now turns a somersault to get a poor man's 
rice. 

556. si^Gcru} QpetRpfg eastunQeo &n6ssfi Q^afiss <£!,&&■£]. 

It has come to this, that the hand that formerly sprinkled 
sandal is now sprinkling cow-dung water. 567. 



REDUCED CIRCUMSTANCES. 61 

557- Q@6B>neiin&)Qun&) a-isp (^gSvjld jQ&m-gj. 
It is as completely gone as a frog's tail. 
Complete loss of wealth or honour. 

558. iB6ssr®th (^'SesiSiJiijuD is®@Qp(yj<sSl60 &.<ss)i—ihpspQurrGO. 

As the pot holding crabs broke in the midst of the street. 537, 
787. 

Applied for instance to the death of the chief person in a family; who 
protected the others and kept the property and the family together. 

559. rBtT<6f7jd(9j{5rT&r mifliuiTUJuQufrQp^j. 

Day after day it grows into a jackal. 

Said of circumstances that become worse daily; or character, property, 
health or beauty that deteriorates. 

560. Qismhsp gir®> jyySlftjpQurrQpgi. 
Spoiled thread is destroyed. 538. 

561. ul1i_ulj<S6U eSeirs^u utry) j>i<ss>L-ib^^jQurreo. 

Like a lamp that has become worthless in broad daylight. 

Said of one who has been reduced in circumstances till his appearance in 
public is as ineffective as the shining of a lamp in clear daylight. 

562. upg) suueo ewhjsrrgpiih upmp «uua), <5Til.(Sssuu&) tsukptiGpLo $)pib<g 

suueo. 

If ten ships come they fly away, if eight ships come they are 

dead. 1216. 
The idea is, that no amount of wealth is of any use to a spendthrift. 
".4 great fortune in the hands of a fool is a great misfortune." 
" Many ivould have been worse, if their estates had been better." 

563. y eSpp s<ss)i—uSQ60 lj&} eSpsetjih, l/sJ? (§)(2j£^ sniLuf.Qeo Latest 

esreum «^® QLciiidae^LDir^sf-Q^. 

It has come to this that grass is sold in the flower market, that 
a cat lives in the forest where the tiger lived, that a jackal 
occupies the den where the lion lived, and that he who used 
to ride on an elephant now herds sheep ! 

A saying of the good king Nula, while wandering about with his queen, 
Damayanti, after he had lost his kingdom ; now quoted about losses of 
property and fortune. 

561. lds@ m6mtGxs)U$(T?}<iQ(Tr?eBr. 
He is turned into dust. 



565. w&®s>& j)jipl&piT&), (9}<9 : &&(ajw j^arrjp. 

If you break down a big building, you can't build a hut (out of 
the materials). 569. 

566. iL6aai2essr<iS pi mesmesSQei) u®^^)0sQ(^ns&r. 

They are scratching the soil and lying in the dust. 
Said of people red need to beggary. 



62 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

567. Qp^^J S\QR®& sasiLirrio, Qp&uuujjpi ^jenas eiikpsp. 

The hand that measured pearls has come to measure spoiled 
pulse. 67, 556. 

568. suppeonibs snuLikg sui—sm (com. Q7i_a/Lo) Quired svppl. 
It has dried up and shrivelled like a ' Vadavam.' 

Vadavam is a mixture of herbs and spices used for curry, made into balls 
and dried in the sun. 

569. eungmpeuear Q&i' L.rreo, eueap ^i-LOigjic ^streor. 

If a prosperous man is reduced in circumstances, he is not worth 

a pot-sherd. 565, 2599. 
" The highest tree hath the greatest fall." 
Cf. 2314 /. 



ON PEOPLE WHO HAVE COME DOWN IN THE WORLD. 

570. GLDtrasar® td&srQp 6SlLi^.Q&), Q&tresirQtslmjpj Qpisf-m&nl 

In a house where they fared sumptuously, how will they fare, 
if they have to buy food for each meal ? 

Formerly they had a large store to draw on at will, but now they have to 
buy in very small quantities for each meal. 

571. Qsnefttysfr ^Uf-pspp jSt&STQpajejpjSQjS, Qsrr6BBr®^6sr<ssr^ @itiej(3ju)it? 
Will he who used to get his livelihood by robbery, submit to buy 

his meals and eat ? 

572. QutrQnn® ^lesrQp uwtlOi^u, dH®£jQuQunLl.®d slLQixht? 

Will the cow that is used to eat from the stack be satisfied with 

handfuls ? 
Those who have been accustomed to luxury will not appreciate poverty. 

573. uxocaipQudjg] iSmpuJiT^g)) QiDtrestst Qeunfr^sp iS&aptLiLDir? 

If it could not be filled by the rain, will it be filled by water that 

is drawn and poured into it ? 
Used of misfortunes for which there is no remedy. 



ENVY AND JEALOUSY. 

574. cgi&&)6ff® Gunuprsgn®}, soikjpisnGr ulLi^.6sB Qi—uun&r (or ujjQ^ih 

QunQpgj). 
If the neighbouring house prospers, she will starve herself for five 

days (or she will go on a pilgrimage). 
" An envious man icaxes lean at the fortune of his neighbour." 

575. < jyaar«Dt_iaS , il®a:<!Hn"/fl lilarSsrr QupQifen srasrgu sjeeOvfi L-®ssntB §}u?.-g 

^sQsn6Bori— < ^jQun&). 
Like the woman who struck her own stomach when she heard 
that her next door neighbour had borne a child. 580, 586. 



ENVY AND JEALOOSY. 63 

576. «|M® QarT(tg&Qff)Qjge06Mih, ^g)<s»i_ttJ6p<£(3> eOnuih. 

All the fatness of the sheep is profit to the shepherd. 

When one in a family prospers, but is unwilling to help his relations, they 
will say this ; meaning that his present stinginess does not matter as his 
wealth will come to his relatives at his death. 

577. &GZ(Vj3(8j s^iDGO (com. ^ix>ld&)), effil.(S)&(3j ■sua$ibQpifl&3 : id. 
Fame abroad, envy at home. 

" Malice seldom wants a mark to shoot at." 

578. 2§»r/r ereOsJrrth ®mgQfD&p er&srnji off® ereoeorrih S\Q^^i Ljuesgri—n^iih 

Though a household weeps and rolls on the ground (in envy) 
saying, The whole village prospers, will (prosperity) come (to 
that household)? 

" Malice drinketh its own poison." 

579. <sr$5ltB&(9)& &(9)<asrpp<3m— GT6argy . (ip&<3ns ^jjgipapsQsireiiqsnjQtDJg) 

Quneo. 
Like cutting off your nose as a bad omen to your enemy ! 
Said of one who hurts himself in trying to injure some one whom he hates. 
" Envy shoots at others and icounds herself." 
" Cutting off one's nose to spite one's face." 

580. guuLy-tw&r (com. gn&pfsl or ^ULj&Bi—UJiT&r) iSI&t'&it Qup^&r 

erasrgp epssu litairSkrr QufDGdrriLtT? 
When her husband's brother's wife gets a child, can this woman 
also get one (because she is envious) ? 575, 586. 

58 1 . s&saTSSLJLS&T^siT QuGSBr&rrls} s®ssekQurrLL(SldQsfr6SBrLJT&r erea-jry snifl 

uussrrsrear Qu6otsr&iT Js) &rr<5Bi<5 jpiJpijispsQ&rresBrt—rr&nTUi. 
When the accountant's clerk's wife saw that the accountant's 
wife had put on an ear-ring, she cut off her own ears ! 

582. s&) <5Tpl&(3j£ ^ulS^s^ld, sessr <srp1&(8jp @uu Qpi^-iuir^j. 

Though one may escape the throwing of a stone, one can't escape 

the glance of an (envious) eye. 
" A jealous man's horns hang in his eyes." 

583. <S=^^}0 QufT(n?GB)L£> @65TSQ& ^6SOriJ2eST. 

An enemy's envy is a punishment to him. 

584. (3>£f>/FS»,!S striL&&e$iih, (SjeoBTL- ear (or gjCTWsar) &mb&&§2iiJo Qurrdd&trrjp. 
The envy of children and servants (or dwarfs) is dangerous. 

It is generally thought in India that a dwarf is very cunning and very bad. 

585. tsesTQifuS^ipnepiw uirirdaLDtrLLi-jriT&ar, QsLLi—n&nih piribsiDMLi—nir 

setr. 
If you are well off they envy you ; if you are reduced in circum- 
stances they shun you. 

586. ii/efrSsrr Quppou'BenLJ uirngjrd, uoeduf. Qu0qp&#gSlL(S> ^jQ^^^i(curr&). 
As the barren woman sighed and wept when she saw her who 

had a child. 575, 580. 



64 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

587. QunarftanLD Qrs (GjjQCcev Qsn&refflissLL<sau.ujfT&) sn—Q&j6sm®iJD. 
Envy in the heart must be branded with a firebrand. 

588. lDin&tJUlTQT)3(3) S6S0T LD6S0r<5S)L— LS&piElQQunQpgJ. 

The eyes of a mother-in-law will burst out of her head. 
She is proverbially jealous of the love that exists between her son and his 
wife. 

589. flU3<s<s<ss) / fl9UJCT2/<S(5 <8imup&<a5)&uuLLu.n&) } Qp6Bres)iii> QurrsefilL-rreor, i§6Br 

esfu b QutT&eSi—nesr. 
If a woman is married to a man with a defective nose, he will 

not let her walk before him or after him. 
He is jealous lest she should like other men. Also said of a master who is 

jealous of his authority. 

" As jealous as the man that searched a hollow walnut for his wife's 
leman." 

590. Brim Q&L-t—iraiiLD, er^jifl eu!TipQ<su<osar®is). 
Even if I am ruined, let my enemy prosper. 
This proverb is unique. 



JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE, PARTIALITY 
AND IMPARTIALITY. 

<jpDLQ 9 jryrijIiurriuLD, jBujitujld. 

591. g\isj- eresrQp LDib^rftiLjLSI&}'26i>, i$iy. <srmQp jjir i *%GG)iLfil&>'fo). 

There is no minister to say ' Strike' and no king to say ' Arrest.' 
Said when persons act accoi'ding to their own base desires. 

592. j^msmneisr s\<g$& uesarih QaiLuinsGr, ^j^irQsnLL®ssnjj^!r egihug) 

U6SSTLD (o <£lL L//T63T. 

Bogus officials will ask for fifty coins ; the real tax-collector 
demands only five. 

593. GT&r<Gff}&anuju iSt&rihg eSeusurjih. 

A dispute that is decided as clearly as a sesamum bean splits. 

598. 
The sesamum bean splits longitudinally into two even parts. Used of tho 

decisive settlement of a dispute. 

594. <p(7jj scseresSQeO Qeuesm'^essT <gi—e8aQarrem®, ^0 sestsresSQ&) &<sm 

(ess)ii)Lj pL-.e£laQ&n60Br(E) utrrrsQpgpQuiTGd. 

He looks at people after having smeared one eye with butter, and 
the other with lime. 762. 

i.e., He looks favourably on some and severely on others. — Said when there 
are two boys or two daughters-in-law in a family, of whom one is favour- 
ed, and the other misused by one of his or her parents. 

595. 5>(5<5«OTr QpiSf., P0S68BT Qpifi&Qpg]. 

Shutting one eye, and keeping the other open. 
" To get on his blind side." 



JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE, PARTIALITY AND IMPARTIALITY. 65 

596. ^0^'2eo eui£3(3j girsSeyLD Q&eu&nsu. 

A partial statement is straighter than a straight line. 

A partial statement will seem clear, and a partial judge will make his 
judgment seem more righteous than the law itself. 

597. spiTLD Q^rrssresrsuesr ^(r^s^ih ^snasr. 

A partial man is unpleasant to everybody ! 3468. 

598. s6atsr^s)QeO ssasn—as^ enkfef^dsiiiLu LSeirih^iruQurreO Qf/T&ieoQsuesar 

®ih. 

What you have seen with your eyes you should state as plainly as 
a sesamum bean splits. 593. 

599. Q&LLuiT(r7)LiQeo'26V, QiLiLuurT(t^LSI&)1eo. 

There is no one (in this community) to inquire, and no to herd 

you. 
i.e., Every does what he likes. Often used by women. 

600. LDGSBrGtsnfisSl(r?j&jg) 6ULp&(&j spjib G)&fT&)&)nQ g. 

Standing on the earth (i.e., the Goddess Prithivi) do not speak 

partially. 
The Goddess Earth (Prithivi, Bhumadevi) is a special guardian of truth. 

601. iMTg^ireSl slLu}- gitsf-sQpsp. 

To tie a wooden thali and beat her. 

In former days if people were unable to pay their taxes, unjust rulers would 
take the women's jewels, even their gold thalis, and beat them and give 
them wooden thali* instead. The thali is a marriage-token (correspond- 
ing to the European wedding-ring) tied round the neck of the bride. 

602. LDlftlUrTSB)^ JTfTLDiSSr GULpSt&jji $Etti£glTuQu(I<30. 

As Mariyathei Raman settled disputes. 

Mariyathei Raman was a judge in the ancient kingdom of the Chola kings, 
the hero of many tales, famous for the acuteness of his judgments. See 
the Kathamanjarii, &c. 

603. 6unups<g uosetr suikpiT&) mrGBsrg ^®S(3j (g$®, QslLu. lds&t ssumpneo 

@yS)i<g g®&<§ g£j®. 

When the prosperous daughter pays a visit, they say, Put the 
fine mat for her to sit on ; when the poor daughter pays a 
visit, they say, Put the old torn mat for her. 

Respect of persons. 

604. Qsuefr&rtflssaih eSlpp uiLi—emih. 

This is a town where cucumbers are sold ! 

i.e., A place where everything can be had except justice. 

Cf. QsareSQpsspaS&JeOtT^ ss3.tr. A village without management. 

Of. 702 ff. 1357 /. 

9 



66 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

STRIFE AND SLANDER. 

&<5m65)L—, <S6\)d5LC. 

605. =9/©"* v^n easBreai— QuMwetrtx), ^jiaseoih gjif\& §}(Vj seumsirm. 

She jumps with joy over the quarrels in five villages, and she eats 

a big measure of rice at a mouthful. 196. 
Used of a woman who is mighty in strife, and delights to hear ahout quarrels. 

606. jtjiaQ® Qprr(S)uiSld(9j j>jii(^ ^irssarQ gji-L®, ®)£i(§ ^nessi® Q&/tlL®. 
A slanderer and talebearer will get two claps there and two cuffs 

here. 1545. 
" A tale-bearer will tell tales of you as well as to you." 
" The most dangerous of wild beasts is a slanderer ; of tame ones, a 

flatterer." 
" A gossip speaks ill of all, and all of her." 

607. ^jseareai— eSuJd^ feesreai— &6sare&si]&(3j& (3jetBn&&. 

A quarrel in a neighbouring house is a pleasure to the eye. 

608. jysuisor QjgtTLLQ&Q&rrGlpprTioBT, mnm ^iLGl&Q&nGipQpgsr. 
He gave a touch, but I gave a blow. 

The one did a little injury, but the other, returned it with interest. 

609. ^j^^ (or ^js^^l) isnrnj Qt^^^npQurreo &.gbt'2gst& Q^iQQp&sr. 

I will tear you to pieces as the fibres of Atti trees are torn to 

pieces ! 
A kind of rope is made from the fibre of this tree. 

610. <S>jfiosr S6BBTI— i$ptsSl5(3j(Tr)i— risen ^jis}.p i gi&QaiT6eBn— < g£oun<3d. 

As the men born blind quarrelled about the elephant. 

The folly of disputing about things concerning which one has no informa- 
tion. The proverb is from a story about four blind men who quarrelled 
over their different ideas about an elephant, which is intended to show, 
that it is useless for men to dispute about the unknown God. 

611. &-&TIBrT&(3jLb Q^fT6eBT<oS)l—lLjlh S\$Z J>j<oS)l—^^^lQuiT60. 

Like shutting up one's palate and throat. 
Said of one who sulks after a quarrel. 

612. &-esrd(3j j^* eresrs(^ ^ftf- f?0 «o« uirii&sQev&stirQu). 
The hand must see whether it is yours or mine. 

t. e., We must fight the matter out. 

613. OT<£6J26ui(<5 rsiTUJ .gjut-ggisQaneeBt® iBpQpjpiQuneo. 

Like a dog keeping on fighting for an old plate made of leaves. 
Said of children who quarrel about sweetmeats, &c. Hindus usually eat 
from plates made of leaves which are thrown away after being used once. 

614. erQp^d aeSgpjgiu Qu&Qrtqeisr. 
He speaks so as to upset you ! 
i.e., He speaks rudely. 



STRIFE AND SLANDER. 67 

615. OTG3T 68)& GsV&)eOLD ^SSrQp^lT? 01" <5T60r <SB)SuSQ&) ergpilALj {g)G0'%5MLirT? 

Does my hand eat sugar ? or Are there no bones in my hand ? 
A threat, meaning that the speaker can strike as well as Bpeak. 

616. 9(5 a?® gji—tsisepiLD iSi—iriB (or u^irtfl), 
A house full of termagants ! 

A noisy quarrelsome household. 

617. <5t—fT l3Gnr<5»lTIZl(9j@pgl UfTlL^f^S^ $l—li>. 

When a goat draws back, it is to get room to butt ! 

Applied to one who feels himself superior in a quarrel, and therefore quietly 
waits for the moment, when he can give a decisive blow. — Also to a big 
dog and a cur.--" Dignity and impudence." 

618. S60sld l9 pinned, iBuunuuih i$p&(gjt}>. 

If there be a quarrel the rights of the matter will come out. 

If quarrels, misunderstandings and debts, are examined by outsiders, the 
truth will be found out. Used by the innocent or injured party. 

619. &60a<g$g)Q<sd QurreartSlpun®, sireowrr® gfysowni—nl 

Are feet and heads distinguished after strife has begun ? 1303. 

620. sirpgis &npQQrjQL— Qutr&&gi. 
The wind is gone with the wind. 
i.e., Let our quarrel be forgotten. 

621. Stfi&SfTg] QlDpSKg) QpSffl, #68Br<SB)t—&(<9j JT60BrU£JgJi!f&nGlfl. 

That wretched woman has no jewels for any part of her ears, 
but she is good at a quarrel. 

622. (8}lLgG>L-®S)UJ5 SeOsQu U(TT)!5g]S(9) ^jeajr ^®Qpgj. 

Disturbing the water in a pool, and giving food to kites. 375. 

A quarrel ruins the peace of a family and disperses its wealth among 
lawyers. 

623. (5(T5oS««i_6JRiriSB)i_ Qsrr&}iT&} s'iec^^^jQuneo. 

Like destroying the nest of a bird with a stick. 3086. 
Used of slander or strife that breaks up a family. 

624. (9Jp6>Jt£d(9jl}) fg£l66)t—GVip'£(3jLD QsritGlj&pGsI®) $£31*5}). 

Disputes of hunters and shepherds are not easily settled. 
The quarrels of stupid people are hard to settle. 

625. &eBBr<S8)t—Qp&£§d&) &_p6UtT ? 

Will relationship count in a quarrel ? 628, 1303. 

626. ftTs^ssiruser sneSeo eSfzpsvesy^eSli-., GeAsrsni—sstniGBr srr&Seo sSq^sh^i 

It is better to fall at the feet of him with whom you have 
quarrelled than to fall at the feet of a witness. 

In this proverb straightforwardness is recommended. Perhaps also there 
is the idea, that the witness of a crime is more difficult to silence than 
the person wronged. 

627. Q&rTGBresreiD£& Q&tr&)G$ .jyip.! &%GmQ&L-L— Qpeifi\ 
shameless woman, say what you said ! 



68 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

628. u®&en&Ggleo ^uurriftujiT? 

Does relationship count on the battle field ? 625. 

629. (2u#<9i-&(3}u Qu&&& QiisfTsnciT? 

Is there any beauty in speaking words against words ? 
Said sarcastically about endless disputes. 

630. LDgj i$(5S}) sed&ihQuir&o $)QJj&@pg!- 

It is like the quarrel caused by a honey drop. 

Applied to quarrels arising from trifles. 

" Contend not about a goat's beard." " A storm in a tea-pot." 

631. inneaff^ &L-ty. wesr^lQeo emeu. 
Beat your breast and remember. 

When one of the disputants uses a bad word, the other beats his own 
breast to make himself remember it, that he may return it witli interest. 
Tamil abuse is most fluent and most indecent, and neither men nor 
women hesitate to use the most obscene words. 

632. QiDeirearth sed&iEn&LD. 

Silence is the end of a quarrel. 

633. eumpgi (or er 1-Luf.esr^i) ^asuram—, ^jpssisf. s^.<5t»t—6tmu ! 

I have a quarrel with you ! Set your basket down ! 634. 

i.e., We must have our quarrel out. Quoted aboxit a woman of quarrelsome 
disposition, to whom strife is a delight. 

"A man that will fight may find a cudgel in every hedge." 

634. eueo&Si^. <suip<iQJj& Q&ireoeoiq. lditlSI. 4 

O mother-in-law, tell me how you wantonly caused that 

quarrel. 633. 
Said to a person who stirs up strife without cause. 

635. Qsngtiiheunib Qw&oepiQp ^jiheeiLDLUtT^st^ rstrySj jpjsuio ^jsuulLu.^ 

Quired. 
It is like a measure of bruised rice to a woman who has been 

working her jaws on nothing. 
A sarcastic description of the joy that a quarrelsome woman finds in strife. 
" Arthur could not tame a woman's tongue." 



THE WORTHLESS. 

2_^Sl//r^561J S5T. 

"GIVE NOT THAT WHICH IS HOLY UNTO DOGS." 

636. eT&lwLj sisf.sSlp iBrrius(jSjLi u^uuQ^ng)] ejear ? 

Why give pulse and rice (i.e., good food) to a doer, that is biting- 
bones ? 1198. 

A dog is regarded as an unclean animal in all the East, because, along with 
the village pigs, it plays the part of scavenger. 

" What should a coiv do with a nutmeg V 



THE WORTHLESS. 69 

637- ^(5 &&$ ua'2esr tsitib ^pSiurr^j. 

A dog does not know a vessel used on fast-days from a common 

pot. 647. 
Nothing is sacred to the wicked. 

638. &<so&pgis(3jp Q^iBiljQllit s/fuL^ff surre'tiesr? 

Will a (common) pot know the smell of Camphor? 
" He spri?ikles incense on a dunghill" 

639. SQpss) ■$&(&);£ Q^iBiLfLdn seivgirrfl (or ss^uOu/tijl) eurr&'&ST ? 
Will an ass know the odour of musk r 1 849. 

640. <5[TLL(3uLj > '2Ggrd(9j<9 : QsurrrrgSdrfl eSp^um? 

Will a wild cat observe the fast of Sivaratri ? 651. 

The Sivaratri is a monthly vigil in honour of Siva, bat a cat will kill and 

eat animals and birds even on that night. No time is sacred to the 

wicked. 

641. (3jlkl(3jLDLD &lOlhg &(Lpe®£ UlfltXGirUj ^jSI'ljLDlT? 

Will the ass that bears a load of Kunkuma (a fragrant plant) 
enjoy the odour of it ? 

642. (3)<rmQm g'tevuSev snsih easu^^is &(T®fl(9)ihi$iLL-g)QutTeti. 

Like putting a pot of sacred water on the head of a monkey and 
worshipping Kali ! 

Kali is a malignant deity, who is supposed to be highly infuriated at any 
breach of the ceremonies in her temples. The most clever and capable 
person is always employed to carry the pot of sacred water in her pre- 
sence. To give such a sacred trust to a careless man, would be incurring 
the Goddess' vindictive spite. The proverb is used of a person who 
employs a well-known fool to perform a duty that is to be done with the 
greatest care. 

643. (9jjiiEJ(m es)SuS&) lildv'Zso ^suulLl—^jG "uneo. 

Like a monkey getting a garland of flowers into its hands ! 

644. Q^VL^&r^etr siLisf.esr &prrrj"SS)L-Quireo. 

Like a little girl wearing a small cloth. 3317. 

A child too young to understand why she should wear clothes will untie 
her cloth and perhaps forget it altogether and run about naked. Said of 
one who does not appreciate his privileges, and also of one put into a 
position for which he is unworthy. 

645. geora(<sj <5T<5BT(Trj>6ti LjQpseas seoih &Qg<sSl S-6ear^)en. 

Knowing that the pot is for herself the slave-woman will 
not clean it before she eats from it. 

Said about people who only do what work they are compelled to do, and 
are utterly careless about personal neatness and comfort. 

646. IBsQp !5nuJ3Q!j& Q<F#(3j eTSST^Uih &6ueSlEJSUi eT68TJpiLb QgtfltLjLO/T? 

A dog is not able to distinguish an oil mill from a linga. 

The linga is a conical stone emblem of the god Siva. The oil mill is made 
out of the bole of a large tree. The two are very slightly alike. The 
proverb means that degraded people cannot distinguish between sacred 
and secular things. 



70 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

647. t6iTih&(9}& QgrfitLjLDrr Q^iasniL (Tj©? 

Does a dog appreciate the sweetness of a cocoanut ? 637. 
" A pebble and a diamond are alike to a blind man." 

648. uesipf@ QsupiS'ie^QunLLLJT&i, upepeSlogyLo 3f6Ssr^ss)iJDL^. 

When a Paria woman chews betel, her ten fingers will be 
smeared with lime (thi'ough slovenliness). 

649. UGBT r8&(3jL-l<f-&(9j 9(5 &kf£l Gig}? 

What has a young pig to do with a fast day ? 

650. LjQgd&os ^Qpdsm gifQu-irrgi, lS^^'Sgit mir/bpiM ^jpliurr^i. 

A slave does not understand good conduct, and brass does not 
know a bad smell. 676. 

A cat does no charity and no penance ! 640. 

652. Quu). esisuSeo rnbeau ^fsuuLLu. : g)Qun&>. 

Like Rambha's falling into the hands of a eunuch. 

Rambha is one of the celestial courtezans in Swerga, the heaven of Indra. 
No eunuch would be better off if he caught her. Hence the proverb is 
used about good fortune happening to those who are unable to make use 
of it. 



THE APPARENTLY WORTHLESS ARE USELESS. 

653. <$$£i Qu(nj@ptT&), P-n&ttTLDtrt 

Can the odina tree be made into a mortar when it has grown 

big ? 662. 
Wood from the odina is no use at any time. The worthless will always be 

useless. 

654. ^0!iVLD£rih «£/t<6TO)GW, ^LLL-rrisjQefR(^s : &) jpz-l® jyfomn? 

Will an odina tree make a pillar r 1 Will a shell serve as a coin P 

655. &i£j6B)su$Qeo Qp^eir^^iT^iuD, Quiu^^eenrsarruj m&)eo sf-emrjd&mu ^sit^j. 
Even if it grows in the Ganges, a bad gourd will not become a 

good one. 

The River Ganges is usually said to purify everything that comes in 
contact with its sacred waters. 

656. sio Greo®)nLD Lorressfl&sd s&)&)m£iT? 

Is every stone a precious stone ? 2498. 

657. <§ie/<sb)&u$(o&) i$pi5p tB&etap &nGtia@gtTu>ib ^sngo. 

A snail born in the Ganges will not become a Salagrama stone. 
The Salagrama is an ammonite worshipped by the Vaishnavas because its 
spirals are supposed to contain or typify Vishnu. 

658- smKSiu QuiL^^eajjssatu spld(^ ^sjuxt! 

Will a wild gourd ever become fit to season food ? 

659. (^uetnuuSlQeo Qp^err^^ S&ajr suugy&^u uiriLinjriMn^LDiT? 

Will a vegetable grown on a dunghill make a mast for a ship ? 



THE WORTHLESS. 



THE WORTHLESS MAY BE OF USE. 



660. j?i(ip&(3)& : @?eod(&}&r(DeiT uxrgssfldsu). 

A rub j may be found within a filthy cloth. 2407. 
An apparently worthless man may have a good soul. 
" A little body often harbours a great soul." 

661. spu^-ip Q&iredn^epjih, sssLssr^iQsneon^ui. 

Although a broken stick, it may be of use to lean on. 

Even an odina tree may be useful on occasion. 654. 

663. ^LLsai—uir^eeruSio ^asssau ^}Q^s(^th. 
A broken pot will hold sugar. 

664. (^usauuSQeo (tp2etr^^ Qsai^. s^siajTuSeO erplssr^QuiT&). 

As the creeper that grew on a dunghill spread over the roof of the 
house. 

This may also be used as a sneer against one who is thought to be an 
upstart. 

665. &J£I £2(B)U}L\ U6tfe03(8j^<g s_^Q/ti. 

Even a little straw may serve as a tooth-pick. 

666. Q&pplQeo Qp'bsa^^ Q&isprTLLGMT. 
The red lotus that grew in the mud. 

Women will use this about a beautiful child born of ugly parents. Men 
will say this about a child with a noble disposition born in a mean family. 

667. (sptsmp euuS/b/SQeo Qppsp iSlp&Qpgi. 

In the womb of an oyster, pearls are born. 

Cf. 2005 /. 



THE WORTHLESS CANNOT ATTAIN TO WHAT IS NOBLE. 

668. ^jsQrmjT^^leo Spk^n^Co, mrrin Qeupth ^j3iL\Lon'i 

Though a dog is born in a Brahmin street, will it know the Veda ? 
There are several other forms of this proverb. 

669. (^L-Ufjsrrdj Q&rrasBr® <2Wl«»/_ jyfiQpprr? 
Is a pup any good in hunting ? 

670. <ss_6i0i(25<s (3jgg}@pGii'2Gir& Qsefftsaas <3j,i—& Q^trtssi^pQuireo. 
Like telling a woman who pounds rice for hire, to dance. 674. 
The graceful art is beyond her. 

11 An emmet may work its heart out, but can never make honey." 

671. Q&tTLLuf.sQLpmi(9j QsuLL®Qpsueir QsasSsS^ Qjikgi ^Ssurr&ra ? 

Will a woman, who is digging up eatable roots, come to a temple 
and dance ? 



72 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

672. Uj£jTIEi££gl3 &nS&tTtlJlT(gB)S$iD, Qs'T'sSk 8jW UT<Sl£llT? 

Though a crow be born at Srirangam, will it be able to say 
" Govinda " ? 

Srirangam is a sacred place of the Vaishnavas near Tricbinopoly, Gorinda 
is a name of Vishnu. The meaning is, that circumstances cannot alter 
character. To be in a holy place will not make a bad man good. 

673. $@LJ2esr gnagm QpL$Qpi£l&5& Q&itgsi^go, Qpi^uun^s^. 

If a thief is told to look with the (bold) eye of a king, will he 

be able to do so ? 
A thief is afraid of being found out, and the fear in his heart prevents him 

from simulating the fearless look of a king. 

674. QfSGOgy (&j£g]SpaiJ{Gtij&(8j& &®)§}i uiflem&f, Q^rfliLjLDrr? 

Can she who is pounding rice examine precious stones ? 670. 



THE WORTHLESS CANNOT BE IMPROVED. 

675. <9j(ip&e8)3<g gjsmi—'gg} LAif-uSdo easu^jgrTepiih, ljq^s<so)ss gjsaarti) 

Though you wipe off the dirt and place her in your lap, the 

(mean) disposition of a slave girl will not leave her. 
" A crow is never the whiter for washing herself often." 

676. GTp-g'SesrgneBr jpsodS^Gyu), i3^^%m isfrppth Qurrstrgi. 

However much you may polish brass, its bad smell won't leave 
it. 650. 

677. smmsuSQeo (LpogQ^epiiii, ansMiL ^feisreatih ^gjuj/r? 

Even if a crow bathe in the Ganges, it will not become a 
swan. 686, 2654. 

If a saddle is put on an ass, will it become a horse ? 687. 
" Fine feathers do not make fine birds." 

679. sQpeSd s(ipeS tteuppl^gjiiA, se3&<9? tsirppio Quusit^j. 

However much you may wash bad food, its bad smell won't go. 

680- &Qg;igi Qs»(6fi)i$g(TQitx>, snssnuj s^i—^^LDirt 

Though its neck is made white, a crow won't become a sacred 

kite (Garudari). 
" The wolf changes his hair, bid not his nature." 

681. ss»ULjiBrruJ Qa/drSsrr/sffuj ^xngJ- 

A black dog won't become a white dog. 

" What's bred in the bone, will never be out of the flesh." 

682. Qsaj^uSasr sireSleo 3&<56)&eG)m& &lLl$.(GB)§2iw ) (^usaussnuf @&(&jih. 
Though a fowl's legs are adorned with bells, it will go and scratch 

on a dunghill. 695. 

" An ape's an ape, a varletfs a varlet, though they be chid in silk 
and scarlet." 



THE WORTHLESS. 73 

683. ffiffsouj* (SjeffluurTL-iy- /5®®li'lLa£_(c6i) <oB)ev<£@rr62iw } enrr'?eos QeiruiSs 

QsrremSl tS ^lesrearu Quir^ua. 
Though you wash a clog and put it in the household shrine, it 
will raise its tail and go and eat filth. 

There is a little shrine or a room where the domestic images, &c., are kept, 
in every Hindu house. 

" Wash a dog, comb a dog, still a dog is but a dog." 

684. iBirvb evir^eos gjajarigj ct®<s<560/7xo/t? 

Can you get the curl out of a dog's tail ? 

" Crooked by nattire is never made straight by education." 

685. u<oS>p&£l iSar'fcfretoUJu ueiresflsi^ esusn^^tr^th, Qu&&Ko&) jfjibQuj 

GremeguLDtiLD. 

Although a Paria woman's child is sent to school, it will still say 
' Ayye' ! 

Ayye is vulgar Tamil for Ayar ot Appar meaning 'father.' The proverb, 
means that education will not eradicate vulgarity, and that modern science 
will not overcome the old science of the Sacred Books. 

11 Nature overcomes nurture." — "Dogs bark as they are bred." 
" As the old cock crows, so crows the young." 

686. Qpdsrr^iiJD sirsuo QpQgQ (gjGffl-gptrepiiJD, Qm&(3j ^(^mrr ? 

Even if a crow is washed and bathed thrice a day, it will not 

become a white crane. 677. 
" Set a frog on a golden stool, and off it hops again into the pool." 

687. QpLLisp-ssneti sQp&a^ uLLi—<sniT^^ear urftiuirma? 

An ass with knock-knees will never become a royal steed. 678. 
He who is born in an inferior position is not fit for a superior position.^ 

Of. 514 ff. 



THE WORTHLESS ARE CONTEMPTIBLE. 

688. ^js^^l ^uSirih arrLuppireyih Ljp<g6il L\p^^jQtu. 

However many fruits the akatti tree (corouilla) yields, they are 
only fit to throw away. 

689. ^QFGaLD QuQJjGVLD ^pllUn^^m ^6337® GJtSOTSBr, LDfTSSBT® GTm<56T. 

It does not matter whether a person who does not appreciate 
what is rare and noble, rules or dies. 

690. euani-Jsp (or <^lL<ss)I—) &iejQ®) sm.<so^ (or /snpjry) uplnjmn? 
Can you get a sound out of a broken conch P 

Or Can wind play on a broken conch P 

The conch shell is frequently used by Hindus, especially at funerals. 

" A cracked bell can never sound well." 

691. 676$ LjQgdems @)jdui3&) $l@ftjp GTesrm, eunuiSeo ^QfjGgl simesr. 

It does not matter whether rat's dung is on the beam or on the 
ridge in the field. 

10 



74 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

692. <9?«DjiJuffl/<5(5"> u<a»puunLJB&(<9jih ©j/7^8sara5a)?eo. 

The flower of a gourd and a Paria's song have no savour. 

693. QpL-®S(5j QpL-fSllLeOSO, Qpt—S S^Sijl£i&)&}, &60T6Bfl$5l6urr&§2l&(i9j# ffifT@05 

ssetiiDsosdm 

You are neither a support to a support, nor a door to shut, nor a 

door in a temple gate. 
Utterly useless for all purposes. 

N.B. — The above are but a few out of many proverbs on this subject, many of 
which are but slight variations of the above. 



THE UNWORTHY NOT TO BE HONOURED. 

694. S^tl®Di_ /5/TL$<5g>lJ L^esar &LLut-t56rgjQ>UtT&). 

Like fastening a silver ring round a broken measure. 
" A leaden sword in an ivory scabbard." 

695. aqiji—jSBr aneS&) eg/sana SLLt^esr^iQuneo. 

Like tying little bells to the leg of a sacred kite. 682. 

696. &(tT)tkimeSl a_6\)<5«D#«gj Qen&reiflu Lessor sL-i^.6sr^iQuiTei. 

Like fastening a silver ferrule on a rice pounder made of ebony. 

To make a rice pounder of ebony and then adorn it with a silver ferrule 
Vould be the height of folly. To honour fools is folly. 

697. s&refBsQsnLOL^i^ QeuetreiBu yswr siLu^mgiQuiTed. 

Like fastening a silver ferrule on a staff (cut from) the Kalli 
plant. 

Wasting valuables on the worthless. 
\ 

698. spuupp isrrfis^s QsailiLj jtyLpemsuurriT. 

Look at the beauty of the ornament in the ear of that worthless 
woman. 

" Garlands are not for every broiv." 

699. uihseap (i.e., u^iki(^<ss>piB^ } without beauty) .^/rawr sp<s(3>u udo 

^Lpeaau uirnr. 

Look at the beauty of the teeth of that worthless scamp. 

Both these proverbs refer to privileges being enjoyed by those unworthy of 
them. 

700. LfQpseiasdfgu QunmQpu^. Qutr^s^Lon? 
Can a slave sustain a crown of gold ? 
" As meet as a sow to bear a saddle." 

701. Qpsqjjpgireir Qurri—rr<g Qpsaaiu.^^is(^ Qpuu^uesBr^^lio Qeueireift 

uuiS. 
(As useless as) a silver snuff-box costing thirty coins (i.e., very 
expensive) to a fool who does not use snuff ! 



THE WORTHLESS. 75 

ON INFERIOR PEOPLE WHO ARE RAISED ABOVE THEIR STATION. 

" Give promotion to the rude, 
They will chase away the good. 
Can the dog that eats old shoes 
Taste the sugarcane he chews ? " 

Ch. E. Gover: The Folk-songs of Southern India. 

702. jyuDULLt-JVissr wih^ift^^esr^^js^ GasUj&gjdQ&rraJtsri—giQLjtTG). 

Like a barber who was made a minister. 708, 1363, 1364, 1365. 

The proverb refers to a story that tells about three men, a barber, a 
potter and a washerman, who were all raised to a high position by a king. 
They were equally little-minded, and also equally anxious to show off 
their dignity and authority, so they fared very badly. 

703. J))gllULjdsa60^^l&) 676$<£(3j gg/5^7 QuGSBT&lT Jsl. 

In harvest time a rat keeps five wives. 
When the poor prosper they live extravagantly. 

704. c gy/rx_/sp<s(3ju (jQ/a£-n suiprrio, j/jir^^jTrr^^ifluSeO (^£taL-i3i^.uun&!r. 
If a low-bred man obtains wealth {or authority) he will carry 

an umbrella at midnight. 709, 712. 
In India an umbrella is a sign of affluence and authority. 
" Set a beggar on horseback ana lie ivill ride to the devil." 
" The higher the ajpe goes the more he shows his tail." 

705. ct(5^7 Q&rrQgppnio QprrQpoj p$sl®) ^jffrr^j, ueapium QsirQg^jgtT®) 

If an ox grow fat, it will not remain in its stall ; if a Pariah be- 
come fat, he will not stay on his mat ! 711. 

706. £68BTI—f£ll5g l5fTiL]LD&)G) } SSSTLDpli^S SUU6B)ptLIUl&)€0. 

He is not an experienced dog, neither is he a pot that knows 
politeness. 

Said of upstarts who do not know their work, but are too proud to ask 
advice from others. 

707. &iT86B)£ii$<oisr 8Qgp(gl®) uesriEisneanus sLLuf.esr^/Qun&). 

Like tying a palmyra fruit to the neck of a crow. 708a, 1999. 
Giving a heavy burden to a weak person. 

707a. snrfiluQuiTGsr SQ^essriQi^isj^ uipw i^eifliutrio upis> Quprosp. 

The white yam that tasted rancid has been made tasty by the 
. use of last year's tamarind. 

Said of worthless people who attain prosperity through the gratuitous aid 
of others. 

708. (^LSf.LDss&r gjG6in&£Goru> Q&vupgiQLmeo. 
Like menials set in authority. 702. 

708a. (^Q^eSs SQgpfs)®) QjSiEJsmasujd 3LLuf.65rjg)QuiT&). 

Like tying a cocoanut to the neck of a bird. 707. 

Said when a weak person is given work beyond his strength ; or when 
such a person attempts to do work beyond his strength ; or about afflic- 
tions which he has no strength to bear. 



76 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

709. QsireHssarpGileo 9(75 ana* ^q^kpneo, Qsiri^l 3k-ui$L— (or s^su) §>0 

If he has a coin in his rags, he will sing a song when the cock 
crows. 704, 712. 

710. @LL®d(9j0<sSld(3}u ut-Li—th SL-i<f.^e/so, ^LLis^uun^esr OT6U6Wtlo Q&ffli— 

Q&iiri—QeiKSsrsti ppsptii. 
If you honour a sparrow, it will hop on all the pots and pans, and 
make them bang against each other. 

711. iB6sai® QsrrQg&piT®) eu^uSeo ^jjtit^o, ueneiB Q&tTQgppireo urruS®) 

If a crab gets fat, it won't remain in its hole; if a Palli gets fat, 

he won't remain on his mat. 705. 
If mean people prosper they will become impudent. 
" The priest when he begins the mass, forgets that ever clerk he was." 

712. u&r&fl etasuSeo ueaBTLSI^iE^rrdo, urTfgjjTnp£jlifluS&) u/r®ay/rsar. 

If a Palli-rann gets money into his hand, he -will sing at midnight. 

709. 
The Pallis are a low Sudra cas%e. They now claim to be of the warrior 

(Kshatreya) high caste. 

713. jtitiejQ (rank) L&^Q^th (room) QpQQpgi, ^sQuQutn— ^&t Q<g® 



His rank is exalted and he seeks a room, and he also seeks a 
person to cook for him. 

Said of one who is too proud to do petty necessary work for himself. A 
vulgar proverb in mongrel Tamil. 

" Beggars mounted run their horses to death." 
Cf. 591 /. 1357 /. 



DECEPTION, RUIN. 

SELF-DECEPTION AND SELF-DESTRUCTION. 

714. jyjglsnifl sfiLL[y.QG0 SdfWjup., ^^soiumA e$>LLiy.(e&) GB>eug,pgiQuiT&). 
Like stealing from the headman's house, and hiding the stolen 

goods in the house of the village watchman. 723. 
" To break the constable's head and take refuge with the sheriff." 

715. ^suasT ^asr^Qeo <srresr QsL-L-frio, ^eaart^eS eresrafrQ^Lueurreir? 

If he ruins himself, what can his teacher do ? 

Said of a person, who through presumption rushes into ruin ; and of a 
meddlesome man who undertakes work for which he has no ability, and 
thus loses his living. 



DECEPTION, RUIN. 77 

71G. s{ifi(S^(S Qp&6®& 3jg)iLJun&sr s_6sbr/— rr? 

Will any one cut off his nose to increase his beauty ? 
" Like cutting off your nose to spite your face." 

717. *£)j > U<S8)UUtSl(£lfElQ<5Br (3jrrtEJ(Bj rSIT&lh ^SSil-Jk^^QutTGO. 

As a monkey perished by drawing out a wedge. 

The story is that of the monkey who sat on a tree that some wood-cutters 
were trying to split and pulled out the wedge they had driven in. The 
wood at once closed on the monkey and he was killed. 

"He brings a staff to break his oivn head." 

718. ^MT®) QsiLQl—GST, QlBfTJTIT&) QaLLQl—^ST. 

By whom was I ruined P By my mouth ! 2506. 

" A fool's tongue is long enough to cut his own throat.'' 
" Evil that cometh out of thy mouth flielh into thy bosom." 

7 1 9. ^esr @<5sr ^^souSleo pirQssr LDSsar^essru QufTLL®sQsa&r(e^LD. 
An elephant will put earth on its own head. 

" To put one's elbow into one's eye." 

Like the shepherd who lusted after a bear ! 733. 

To seek one's own destruction. 

" He makes a rod for his own breech." 

721. &.soBr£lp Q&npplQ&i (5(£jj<s®&d seosQp^nt (or seo'ieouQurTQSlp^fT?) 
Who will mix poison with the rice he is eating ? (or Who will 

put stones into the rice he eats ?) 
Who will destroy his own livelihood ? 

722. eteh'BsiT t§&Q<&Q&rr6aBr(b)<siJiruQun6Br QuiL, tST6mQesBnJb& QairemQeurr 

Like the devil that went to relieve his friends from bringing 
oilseed, but agreed that they should bring oil. 314. 

He brought worse trouble over his friends whom he came to set free, for 
after his interference they had to crush the oil out of the seed and bring 
it to their master. 

723. ep&flssu QuiriL\ii> pfysMLmifl eSLLi^.eOrr? 

Though you go and hide yourself, should you do so in the house 
of the village watchman ? 714. 

" To run into the lion's mouth." 

724. sihueifluSQeo Q&trpGiDpuQuruLQ, lduSit lduSit GT<5GrQpspG>Lm&). 

Like putting boiled rice in a blanket, and then grumbling 
because it is full of hair. 

725. &(Lp@j2 jtup/sss sfi^l easuSio QsuQ^^rrpQuireo. 

Like giving another man a knife to cut your own throat. 731. 



78 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

726. Qesarpssyp^ gRhfSpned, euuSp<sinpg girrfs(9ji£>. 

If you fill up the well, your stomach will be filled up (as no meal 

can be prepared without water). 
Folly will come back to its author. 
" Birds come home to roost." 

727. &GaBruueGr 6§tl-(8&Q&rTLjS) jgirQm eSeomfSj u ) LLi^.sQs!Teasri—^]Qun&). 
As the hempdresser's fowl entangled itself in the hemp. 

Said of a person who involves himself in difficulties through his own folly. 

728. Q&i$.u$sSl0&3p Gptgstftesr wuf-uSeo eSLLQsQsfrssm®, @«s/_© pgi @«ot_ 

She takes a lizard from the hedge and puts it in her own lap, and 

then complains because it tickles her. 186, 735. 
Said of self-inflicted evil. Also used in an obscene sense. 
" Fly the pleasure that bites to-morrow." 

729. Qffes$UL}§!p}a(9j <ojesr g^r/Bg;? 

Why should a weaver keep a monkey ? 

It will only damage his work. Why should a man cherish bad habits ? 

730. pesr euiriiiss^Qeaua {ssStuppgpuQutnLi—nGBr. 
He spilt his own soup. 

i.e., He destroyed his own livelihood. 

731. 068r'2Gsrs slLl- &u$jpi pnQear Qsrrfd^pnpQuireo. 
Like giving a rope to bind yourself. 725. 

" I gave you a stick to break my own head with.' 1 

732. pnesr firs LD@ihjgj ^Ssruir^t 

Will any one eat medicine to kill himself ? 
" Life is sweet." 

733. giriEiQSjQp ue&Gmuup pi-Lip. srQpuulesr^iQurreO. 

Like striking a sleeping tiger to wake him up ! 720. 
" Let sleeping dogs lie." 

734. Qt5(Tj)LJL9Q®) & Qu>rruj<ss(jsji£>rr? 
Will flies fly into fire ? 

735. QiB0uetau u>i^.uSQeo Qpi$.Qp@iT? 

Shall I put fire in my own lap ? 728. 

The two last proverbs are said by women, when blamed for being too free 
with men ; or said by others in defence of such a woman ; or by a chaste 
woman to a rude person who seeks her with evil intentions. 

736. iSi—jfifliasMJLj Quasar® esisn^^iQsiresari—^iQuireo. 
Like taking a vixen as a wife. 3572. 

A Piddri is a haughty, obstinate, and bad woman. 
" To make a halter to one's oxen neck." 



DECEPTION, RUIN. 79 

737. L£i$.uSlQeo L$ssra(&jLL.uf-66>uj& &LLi$.aQ&rr6BBr(b) &(8j<5btld unrrsQp^Quireo. 
Like tying up a kitten in one's lap, and looking for a good omen. 
The cat is considered an ill-omened animal by Tamils. 
" Dont take an ill-tcisher along with you, when you start for some- 
thing good." 

Cf. 3251 /. 



ON HELPING TO RUIN THOSE WHO ARE ON THEIR WAY TO RUIN. 

738. ^jftstr £ pfivasr <5?eouSeo Qs=itlL®. 

A tap on the head for an impoverished man. 892, 3502. 
" All the loorld will heat the man whom fortune buffets." 

739. (SjeSiLfi <SlG6!(lTf&) GTGlJIT&(9)li> GTGlflg). 

If he is poor he is slighted by everyone. 894. 
" A loio hedge is easily leaped over." " Every poor man is counted 
a fool." 

740. <5J6G>ipsts)U-is seatsn—rrio, CWsDtpuyLo u/ni/ii. 

If it sees a poor man, even a beast without horns will butt at him. 
894, 3372. 

" Even a child may beat a man that's bound." 

741. tyQTj6>j<5Gr (3jl£Iu$Q<so 6SI(LpiB^fT&) } <st eiedfT Q^ub <si_££. j^evesr ptecuSQeo seo 

^sou Qurr<SQp^rr? 
If a person fall into a pit, should all join and throw stones on 
his head ? 744. 

" Him that falls, all the toorld runs over." 

742. &(Tij<3i]nLL®s&rrifl &£jgi<2SlLLL-rrG) } !sn<ssr enm^eSli—Qi—issr. 

If the fish-wife gives me a chance, I'll take it. 194. 

Used by one who wants a pretext to enter into a dispute or quarrel with 
somebody who is already in trouble. 

743. Q^piSQeo Ljaa^ibp ^esresnus sasetasujm qjjlL®ld. 

Even a crow will peck an elephant that has stuck in the mud. 
"All bite the bitten dog." " Hares may pull dead lions by the 

beard." 
" Little birds may peck a dead lion." 

744. isift (or (9j&refTuumTuuiT(5BT) Q am <b ]£l <sd eS(Lpi^ir&}, pestsr® er®, piy. ot® 

GTeBrumT&etr. 
When a fox (or a dwarf Brahmin, i.e., a mischievous Brahmin) 

falls into a well, all will cry : Bring clubs and sticks ! 741. 
" He that is down, down with him, cries the world." 

Cf. 887 /. 1369 /. 1694/. 



80 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT DECEIT AND RUIN. 

745. ^(B&tvj&ilty. LjfissrQuned ^®sQQeo ep&B&Qpgi. 

He hides himself in a corner like a cat near a pile of pots. 
Said of one who is cunning in all lie does and says. 

746. sj®;5@ &-60>jr Q<5ii(8}i£iQurr t g], psisr s^.tss)<T&(9j QiLrr&ih. 

When a neighbour's thatch is burning, one's own thatch is in 

danger. 
The evil that happens to your neighbour may come home to you. 
" When the neighbour s house doth bum, be careful of thine own." 

747. J)jl5@U U0ULJ £§)/»©<£ Qw&nsjj. 

Those beans will not be cooked here. 748, 776. 

i.e., Yon will not take me in, however cunning you may be ! 

748. ^feuasr ^jesareiai— ^kpu u0Ulj Qeu&ngi. 

Those beans will not be cooked in his house. 747. 
He is not to be deceived. 

749. cSy^ssr wear ^'fcoig, e_%w stoevsSQ^ssr. 

He is getting the rice-pot ready for my head. 750, 1875. 
He is preparing to cook my head; i.e., he is bent on ruining me. 

750. ^jev68r s(Lp^^]S(^s spfsl SjLJSiQqrj'ear. 

He sharpens a knife for that man's throat. 749. 

Said of a deceitful person who does harm to one who least expects it from 
him. 

751. jya/ssr p^sauS®) GpiLanL- seSt^uuir&r. 
She has upset a pot on his head. 

Said of a wife who has ruined her husband by her extravagance. 

752. ^il®<s Qsni—uSlQ&) Qarr<GB)Uj Lj(&jipspQurT&). 
Like a wolf in a sheep-fold ! 

753. ^essriiji}) (Severn ljtu>, fgSduuQpm Qeu&ki—rrih, ^6ssftss)aju QutrLL®^ 



Neither swear nor take an oath. Spread the cloth and jump 

over it. 759. 
To spread a cloth and leap over it is a most emphatic oath. 

754. ^QptA urTQpu) cgjetsird Seaji urr^tsltijLD. 

(As badly off as) a crop of areikkeerei on the bed of a dry lake. 

The areikkeerei grows wild, and nobody looks after it, and the lake may rise 
any day and destroy it all. Said of a family that is totally ruined. Some- 
times more briefly ^j,(ipu> urTQpisi QuiTff&g]. 

755. j^thuiLi—esr LDrTUL$eir'2£tr&(&j LS'etaff epgisQesrspQutTed. 

Like the barber's son-in-law who had his moustaches shaved 
away at the marriage. 

Each of his barber friends tried to make some improvement in the bride- 
groom's moustaches till there was not a hair left on his lip. 

" Too many cooks spoil the broth." 

" Many dressers put the bride's dress out of order." 



DECEPTION, RUIN. 81 

756. ^6S)L—uj£sr QsQg^g} utr$5l, ££«oi_ujgar Q&Qgggj unGj). 
The shepherd destroyed half, and the fool half. 788. 
In India a shepherd is considered an incarnation of stupidity. 

757. ^ffeast® esisiLjm Qunpnsp erssi^i ^isueautijLb sLit^.sQsrreaarLJTesr, 

Finding his two hands were not enough, he tied on a ladle (to 
serve as a third hand). 524. 

Said about a cunning person. This proverb is used of officials open to 
bribery. 

758. §£)Q5®gJu> QsQpgrrasr, Q&ggjih QsQpprresr. 

He destroyed while alive, and also after his death. 

Tennalarama the Jester, ordered his body to be buried across the boundary 
line of his village. The people in the next village objected to any part 
of the grave being in their village. Hence strife arose and so though he 
had done harm while alive he did more after his death. Used when things 
go from bad to worse. 

759. Gresarug} Qsuesisri—mi), qudu^ild Qpuu^nh Q«/r®. 

I don't want eighty, give me fifty and thirty. 753. 

The debtor offers terms to the creditor. The creditor veils his eagerness for 
the money by putting his demands in other terms. 

" It's six of one, and half a dozen of the other." 

760. <ste$g fitGouS®) Qsiri—fr&S <s$Qgisg f g]QufrGO. 
As the axe fell on the head of the rat. 
Complete destruction. 

761. GT60@}rrqj}u> s^isf., (snssrs^s (-sjidGdv (or isiTLDih) Qurril.Ljrrr&&r. 

All have joined to put a cap (or Namam) on me (i.e., to deceive 
me). 

762. *P(2> ssaatssniQeo lj^ib^j } &Q5 ssestesmQei Qjfw-SrnpsBr. 

He goes in at one eye, and comes out of the other. 594. 
" He has as many tricks as a lawyer" 

763. &L.Uf.^ysBT ^rreSI, sTLLuf-tgysor QsireOua. 

He tied the thali, and then showed his own character. 773. 

Having married the girl, he showed his real disposition. Said of those who 
gain their ends by false pretences. 

764. sesar siLisf. eSgemp sitlLu. euiprnjurr? 

Have you come to tie up our eyes and show off your skill ? 776, 
781. 

765. stliLDrrenGST u&<as>eu& srrgi ^j^u^^sQsfr&retr QeueetsrQu). 

You must only buy a Kavimalans cow after cutting its ears. 

This caste is considered so full of deceit, that one cannot be sure that the 
cow a Kammalan wants to sell is not a wooden cow till its ears have been 
cut and the blood has flowed. 

11 



82 TAMIL PEOVEEBS. 

765a. stitLDrretTear u3HSS)3iid sagging) QstresBri—rr^ili, ^.etrQen Q&suojiraQj 

UlTlb&@U$(T7jUUlT6Br. 

Though you buy a Kammalan's cow only after cutting its ears, he 

will have put red wax in its ears. 
This proverb is a sequel to the former. The Kammalan knows the trick 

there referred to and is so canning that he will put red wax into his 

wooden cow's ears so that if they are cut into they will look like red flesh. 

Used of a perfect rogue. 

766. sQgg.gi&tzjQi&id &@Gd <8)Jih(gl0&£<g : Qs : Q&tLujQe»6aBTUt-iugp erGsreisr? 
When the knife is on the neck, what can be done ? 

767. sn^/sou iSis^.^^ s=€sflujesr sghgb!J& &prfi ^ji^.S(^ih. 

If the baneful influence of the star Saturn attack your legs, it 
will make you wander all over the village. 

Some times a Hindu wife scolds a husband so much that he leaves home 
and wanders about. 

768. SlTGlflp Q^ITlLl-^^/S SpUS G$0&fy!,U) ■£j ) QJ)8(5L2 2-jg<S»tr < §J. 

The Kalpaka tree in Kali's garden is of no use to any one. 

The goddess Kali is so revengeful, that if anyone eat the fruits of her 
wonderful tree, she will kill him. — What is the good of property in the 
hands of those who will not make a generous use of it ? 

769. QeserprSeo perreiFI, seMsoujui QunLLi—nasr. 

He pushed him into the well and threw stones upon him. 
i.e., He betrayed and ruined him. 

770. (3j£_$6ou iSKBtaQ zg^&ih (or L^^urio) QunLLQ&Q&netf^QeuGsr. 

I will tear out your entrails and wear them as my sacred cord ! 

768. 
This proverb refers to a Kali or Pidari festival. Her priests go in the dead 

of the night to the burning-ground, where they kill an infant and bring 

its entrails in order to hang them round the neck of Kali, who delights 

in cruelty. 

Said of one who boasts of his inhuman actions. 
" He could eat my heart with garlic." 

77 '1. (9ji1)l2lLl-. (osrreSeo ptGcQiAed ^ji^Js^i eSQgmggQuneo. 

Like the temple^that fell on the head of him who revered it. 

Spoken of a man who has been ruined by a person whom he respected and 
trusted. 

772. (3j(&;a/<5(3jii> tBULom ^i—<sS (or G?u/7xl®), Qsnuneo QulLi^uSSo <sb)& 

Qumli—giGurTG). 
Like putting a Ndmam on a priest's forehead, and putting your 

hand into the vessel in which he receives alms. 238. 
Clever and daring cheating. 

773. GnsgpneSl &QgpGH<5srQi£>G0 <sj piUSlun. 

Let the thali first be tied on the neck. 763. 

i.e., Only when I am actually married to her shall I believe you mean to 
let me have your daughter. The proverb expresses fear of deceit. 



DECEPTION, RUIN. 83 

774. QsnQ^^npQuneo QsrrSljggj fSunsEiQsQsireir^Qp^]. 

He took it back again just when he had given it. 917. 

775. &su Q&niss)] qso tsrr&iA. 

Siva's property destroys a family. 

He who steals what is sacred or what belongs to a temple will be ruined. 

776. %g-°eo (or str&smu) isS^ea)^ arri-LQQQpm ujriTdQetfeOfTU)®) urnr. 
I will show you magic, watch attentively ! 764, 781. 

i.e., I am up to your tricks. A hint to a cheat who is trying to deceive. 
" Stuffing is good for geese, but not for vie." 

777. g<5S)2 ^lLi^.<SW SUU6V QuiTGd. 

Like a ship which has run ashore. 

778. ;£%50&(3jQlCi60 <SS)5 SUlUSlQ 'pgj. 

To show one's hand over one's head. 260. 

i.e., To revoke with the hand what has been promised by the lips. The 
proverb is often used in condemnation of a crafty person in power who 
plays a double part. 

779. ^^SOilSeO <5B)£ GB>eu@p!T68r. 

He put his hand on my head. 

Said of one who has taken advantage of trust reposed in him to deceive 
and ruin those who have trusted him. 

780. jpeifii-. rSiSljrsm, £?<a£i_ utBuneosariJa. 

To destroy the wicked, and protect the good. 

This Sanskrit phrase appears often in the Sastras in connection with the 
incarnations of the Divinity, who appeared on earth to protect the good 
and destroy the wicked. 

781. i§ uis}.p@ ueir<oiflu$(J®)'giTm, r5rrG?r!]ii> uu^-sQ^esT. 

I have studied in the very school in which you studied. 764, 776, 

1324, 1811. 
i.e., I am as smart as you are. 

782. ui£IQuitlL.®£ gfoa ®jrrt5](9jQp %grr$. 

A race that blames innocent people and cuts their throats. 234. 
Said of those who are unscrupulous in their treachery. 

783. utnLuf. es)u^^)uusfTifl, updemsQuiii-L® Qps^gnesS Gresrutreir. 
Grandmamma is silly ! When she gives one a small measure (of 

something) she says it is a big one. ' 

Said ironically of one who is full of tricks and dodges but cannot hide her 
true character. 

784. i$<sst(G5)Qgo ££)(njisj>i 3^.<sm® QpG6)i—Q(rr?m. 

He keeps behind me to weave wicker-work (to bury me in). 
The proverb refers to a practice of 4he Thuggs, the sect of religious 
murderers. 

785. L06garCTw/g(g @)6B)inurTuju QunQpgi. 
It becomes food for the earth. 

Said, for instance, about something destroyed by white ants ; or by a person 
who is pleading for help, but sees his request refused. 



84 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

786. Qp&&rTLL(£<i(3)&rQ<3<T g/J® LD/F^JLD/T ? 

What ! Are there secret incantations inside yonr veil ? 
This proverb is used when one finds a secret plot against oneself in an 
apparently guileless person. — The veil is often used to signify modesty. 

786a. QpsstnL($la(9)eir fQppnt—rr'? 

What ! (Did you conceal) a dagger inside your veil ? 

787. QldujQp Qsni^l Qpa<5G>& e^is^^^npQuneo. 
Like breaking the beak of a fowl. 558. 

If its beak is broken, it must die of starvation. — Used when the chief 
supporter of a family dies. 

788. eunfsl QsQjg'Sg] urrtgl, ©/6sbr<era)65r Q&®£@jg] unGD. 

The alchemist spoiled half, and the washerman spoiled half. 756. 
Neither knew his own business. 

789- QsussiSTSseCsS Qtsufctiir ewrnfipneisr. 

He digged up the roots and poured hot water on them. 
Utter destruction. 

790. ^svesr eim'Sesr sea^lu upds ^is^ssu unnkQqifGGr. 
He tries to blow me off and make me fly away. 
Tries to ruin me. 



"IT IS EASIER TO PULL DOWN THAN TO BUILD UP." 

790a. ^j®sQp j?i@g&>ld s^eai—dQp ibitujs^^ QpifliLjLDrT ? 

Does the dog that breaks the pots understand how difficult it is 

to pile them up ? 
In the potter's house and verandah pots of all sizes are placed in great piles. 

It takes much time to pile them up, but it is easy to knock them down 

and smash them all. 

791. (3}<Fai/SB2/<i(5u U60 isrr&rQeiffe), ^is^ssmj^us^ <^q^ iBiBeL^Qsifbso. 

What is many day's work for the potter, is but a few moment's 

work for him who breaks pots. 
" An hour may destroy what an age has built up." 



LOSS. 

LOSS UPON LOSS. 

792. aeoil) Qurreor < gpLD®)G)rru>®) ) sassrespid^iM £Lp&(3j&(9ju> euijgjpj Qs®. 

I have not only lost my pot, but I have also lost my eyes and 

my nose. 
" After one loss come many." 

793. SQpGS)^ SUf-ppgllLGiGtitTLL®), <5/r < 26U(i/LC l6IJ$ )gp£ITth (CODl. QlAtflpp 

Not only did the ass bite him, but it also trampled on him. 



loss. 85 

794. (3j$SG>ri Q&jgpgJLD&iGtirTLDeO, (SjL^jQ £[168X1— U U£Jj7 U638TLD. 

JNot only has his horse died, but it has also cost ten coins to 
bury it. 

795. QstrySj QurrevrgjLD&jGtirTLDeO, (9jjr§xw Qun&&g). 

Not only has she lost her fowl, but her voice is gone also. 
She has lost her fowl, and her voice in screaming for it. 

796. ffnuLSeir'Berr QupQrpgyiri, LD(tjjp < g)<3ij#& <$l.<s$ ^uu/r^. 

Though the child was still-born, the midwife did not miss her 
fee. 

797. tSlar'2etr<i&iTjT68r LS&rVeiragj ^JOgQ^nfasr, ueBBRQ&iLQeuireBr (com. u€5&& 

Gear) sir&&(9) ^(LpQ^&ir. 
The father weeps for the (dead) child, the people who arrange 
the funeral weep for hire. 

In India there are classes of low caste people whose business it 
to perform last rites for the corpse. 

798. Qpi$-&<9? ^jeSt^sss Qatr®£jgj2LD®)60rrLD®), ^jerB ^^eurriLu ULLi—Qpih 

Besides losing the money he had tied up in his cloth, he has also 
been called a grinning fool ! 

799. eSStsnsQs05BiQ6Ssrihs(^s QaQi— geSg, LftsfrSsff iStstat^uu^j ^jeo'ieo. 
Besides losing the oil, the child did not live. 

Oil is often used as medicine in India. 

Cf. 301 /. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT LOSSES. 

800. ^(Sul/ld QiEQ^ui^ih Qumu } euiriL^ pefiKDu) Quirest-sp. 

After losing both the hearth and the fire, the bran (i.e., the food) 

in my mouth was lost too. 809. 
" All is lost : both labour and cost." 

801. «gj(ifijii lditlLul®) ep0 Lo/r© S-<ss)^^^]sQsrT6sari—rrio er^reur ? 
If one cow out of a thousand kicks, what does it matter ? 

Like the man who toiled for a small measure of rice, while the 
pig (at home) ate up a big measure. 806. 

803. &iLu}.<a5)<s}j£p u6B8r@GB)<gjg piLis}-u ufStpprrirQutTeo. 

As the money tied up for safety was snatched away ! 
Spoken of the sudden loss of what was carefully protected. 

804. suueo ejrSs si—eH®) seS^ih^^jQurreo. 

Like embarking on a vessel and being shipwrecked at sea. 



86 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

805. (^etr^Q^Sfr® Q&Ji$gg]& strio sQgevnpsumQuiTGO. 

Like the man who was angry with the pool and so would not 
wash his feet in it ! 

" When a man grows angry, his reason rides out." (II. Kings 
5, 11.) 

806. ggfresar &p, Qpy>u> &gi&(3)®p@(i1 

While rising a span, should one slip back a cubit ? 802. 
" One step forward and two steps back." 

807. ^esar6saFrrs(^i—w vjanL-kpngpiih goCW, &u$rra(9ji—u> Q-Gai—kpngiiLo 

?oQujn\ 

CO 

If a water pot (a worthless thing) breaks, they exclaim ' Alas ' ! 
and if a pot of curds (a valuable thing) breaks they say the 
same ! 

808. &isf-pp Q2eirtLju) Lfljsj)<£p (com. QiDiflpp) Qstrwi^ih QppH^j Qun&argi. 

The branch I had seized and the branch on which I was stand- 
ing both broke ! 

809. L]gi Qeuetrefrw eukgi usai^tu Qsmar&r^eis^iLjth ^Ji^.^ < gjsQsrressrQQuiT 



A new flood came and carried off the old flood ! 925, 1241, 3153. 

The loss of what one possesses together with the loss of what one is 
seeking. 

810. to'Sevxaooju urrrrpjgi mill Q^teopgnio, m^sos^s QsQi—ir rsirtud^d 

If a dog look at a mountain and bark, will the mountain or the 

dog suffer ? 
" What does the moon care, if the dog bark at her." 
" To bark against the moon." 



THEFT, THIEVES. 

ACCOMPLICES IN THEFT. 

811. £i$ds(fiBiL\is> ^eoujntBmh sk^usf., <sSi^.u^lllL®isi ^l(T^u.60mh. 

If the head-man and the village watch-man are in league, they 
can steal till daybreak. 814. 

812. &.eireS&}&)tTuoeo senei\ §)&&&). 

No robbery takes place without the help of an inmate of the house. 

813. &-&r<aiJe8f!&)60rrLc>&), nss.fr gjL^luLingi. 

A town will not be destroyed without a traitor. 



THEFT, THIEVES. 87 

8J 4. e_sffsffOTj/u) s&reirevyLb s^.i^es)&), isSu^QprnLLQu) $s)(TrjL-eorrth. 

If the inmate of a house and a thief are in league, they can steal 
till day-break. 811. 

815. a&rerrgipjih Q ^niLi—ssnn^io e^m^s sz-i$.(6B)&) ) <z3t$.U-iu)Ll.(8u) ^Iq^i— 

If the thief and the gardener are in league, they can steal till 
day-break. 



THIEVES. 

816. .jyaw ems Qwpp a^nn&Q&. 
His hand is very sharp ! 
i.e., He is a thief. 

817. 'gfig) eSngyts), fokgi smissnksQsned. 
His five fingers are five crow-bars. 
Said of a clever thief. 

818. siLuf. jpftLpQpQurrsp, <5S)shjld ^ifiireijQp^i. 

While embracing and weeping she gropes with her hand. 2311. 

After a death in a house while the women sit weeping in a circle with their 
hands on one another's shoulders, a thievish woman will try to steal the 
jewels of the woman next her. Nothing is sacred to a thief. 

819. ^L-i—nm ■grrthu Qunmeefle^LD LDtruQutTtssr ^iQ^Steurrek . 

A goldsmith will pilfer a little gold-dust even from his mother's 
gold! 

820. Q^neSlQ^ss, G-^en e£l(LpiEj£l (com. QpQpraQ). 

He swallowed the pulp, but left the peel intact. 
Said of a thief who steals without being found out. 



THEFT. 



821. jtj&reffl&QsrTioBBrQi— Qutr&&Q<3 : , Q&refflsQsnem® eu(T^QQ^dsr. 
While I was going away with what I had stolen, he came 

and pilfered from it. 

822. @)®@ 6§LLl$.Q6ti etZHSUpgSZ LDfTUJLDrTa9(^sS)p^J. 

What is kept in the house becomes an illusion. 830, 831. 

Said when little things disappear from one's house without anybody know- 
ing how they disappear. The allusion is to the doctrine of illusion 
(Maya) according to which everything is phenomenal and nothing real. 

823. ssnQs^s serreiresr &_z_(2W ^Q^uuiTGsr. 

There will be a thief for a needle immediately. 
Little things, if not looked after, will be stolen at once. 

824. senmasr QutflQgiT, struunesr QuiflQgtr ? 

Is the thief great, or the watchman ? 415. 
The thief is more alert than the watchman. 



88 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

825. Q&ri&^Qpeii6sBi—^^6i) ^10ib^fr^iih } gjentGf^Q p^eSi—^^leo ^(r^sseoir 

Though he who pilfers may be endured, he who steals in quanti- 
ties cannot be endured. 

826. Gsnek'Serra^u Qurr^^ii, <9k.il.® ^sngi. 

When a thief goes to plunder, he should go without a partner. 

827. ffwurs^l QffsefO^&sr eiiQ^Q (jrj'/ssr } Q&ihij (com. Q&rriiLj) pau^ee &.&rQ&r 

(or ironically : QeietRQuj) meu. 
Our honest relative is coming, put all the brass pots inside (or 
ironically, outside) ! 

Used ironically about a friend in whom one has no confidence, implying that 
even one's relatives may be thieves. 

828. seven— $)i—££gjQ®) Gsl(£i—<5Br sesBrQunQ/Dgi. 

The eyes of a thief run over the place he sees. 972. 

While he is in a place he will stealthily study it well, with intent to use his 
knowledge ill. 

829. isrfl /Brrga srr&) ^d^L-ek, |§)<sa>z_uJS3r ^nessr® srrio ^Q^i—ssr. 

The jackal is a thief with four legs, the shepherd a thief with 
two legs. 

830. $<3srjp>Gl&[TesBrQi— $)(njm@6)JGGr 6tuui^.Qujit sessressBdo Lcasor'Sessru 

QuitiL®, j)/68)@ &®£^&Q&n6Btsr®Q!urT l G8)>oBr. 

He who just stood here has somehow managed to throw dust 
into your eyes and run off with something ! 822, 831. 

831. emsvpjp Gt»Gi)<£<g<3iJ6BrQuiT&) GrQpspsQ&iTGBtsri— freer. 

He carried it off as though be had placed it ready to hand. 
822, 830. 



THE END JUSTIFIES THE MEANS. 

832. MuSjriii Qurruu Q^rreoeSIs Qair<aSl'2sti& su-i^eiaeu. 

Tell a thousand lies in order to build a temple. 

Or, ^uSjrih QuitiL Q&rreveSI 9(75 eSena® ejjbfSetaev, Tell a thousand 
lies to light a lamp : Or, ^aSjjth Qurnb Q&rr6oafl ^q^ grreS slL 
isfJoBxsu, and j^uSIdld Outrun QffireoeS ep(jjj seSuunssar^ O^iL/^sroa/, 
Tell a thousand lies and marry. 

The latter forms of the saying refer to the lies told by the bridegroom's 
friends to the bride's relatives about his character, person, habits and 
wealth, in order to make them eager to complete the arrangements for the 
marriage. 



GENEROSITY. o\t 

GENEROSITY. 

GENEROSITY AT ANOTHER'S EXPENSE. 

833. s<3S)i—^Qpmisnib er®^^i, <svL^)uLS<3(r'BefTujrT0S(^ ^.<smi—^^npQuireO. 

Like stealing a cocoanut in the market and breaking it as an 
offering to Ganesa. 360. 

Ganesa is the popular god of learning and remover of obstacles. 

834. l)&68)@js 0<s/ToJrj2/ Q&fTrjUL] jgm58r(£jj Q&iLggiQurreo. 

Like killing a cow and making its hide into shoes as a gift to a 
Brahmin. 

The cow is sacred, and the gift of shoes made from its hide to a Brahmin 
cannot expiate the crime of killing it. One cannot buy merit with 
wealth made unrighteously. 

" Robbing Peter to pay Paul." 

835. QsiJ&)&)LJL9&r'SefTUJ!TSS)rjs Q&t&B, -9\&p(§ <oS)ibQsu^^IuJ(^ Q&thQpgj. 

Pinching off a little sugar from an image of Ganesa (that is 
made of sugar) and offering that sugar to the image (from 
which it has been stolen) ! 

"Broad thongs are cut from other mens leather" 



CHEAP GENEROSITY. 

836. ^pplQeo QutrQp gesorGSBpemjr, ^juurr (§1$-, ■Qpgnen @if-. 

O, father, mother ! drink of the water that runs in the river. 
Often used of shameless claims on public money, especially public charities. 

837. ^pfSQeo j^uSjTih sfT6asB grresru) ue8BressflgB)pQuiT60. 

Like making you a gift of a thousand acres of land in a sandy- 
river ! 

A worthless gift. Sometimes used of a master who assigns much work on 
little pay. 

838. &is^a&Li}(TLLL-iTg urra(3) Q-pjSiL jSgnearih. 

The areca-nut which one cannot bite, is an excellent gift to 
others ! 

Besides being a sarcasm on a mean gift this saying is also used of the gift 
of a miser, which is a great thing to him however small others may think 
it. There is a Telugu song that tells how a miser mourned because he 
had to pay a few cash for the wood for the funeral pyre of some one who 
died in his house. 



12 



90 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

HABIT. 

61JLp&&LG. 

THE NATURAL DISPOSITION CANNOT BE CHANGED. 

839. sengGnp Gutrsa gjarfl^s^a/spn^'Seo, u& Qutrsp ^&srpeu^iLSl&)'260. 
No one gets rid of dirt by bathing, and no one has his hunger 
satisfied by eating. 

The dirt and the hunger will soon return ; the washing and the eating must 
be repeated. 

Will iron become fine gold, however often refined ? 

841. (8j<588r@60)@ LDlTpp gjjTJ ^}&}'SeO. 

There is no priest who can change the natural disposition. 1 2J. 

842. QageBTLDjgSil®) iSipkpgi Q&QJjuurreo sj^-^^&l^ 1 QutT&iTgp. 

What is born with you will not leave you even if beaten with 

slippers. 850. 
" He who is born a fool is never cured. 

843. .gbooiasiifiT Qeum&ffir^epiu) Qis^ueau jyeS&^th. 

Though cold water is made hot, it will put out fire. 2372. 
"■Foul water as soon as fair, will quench hot fire." 

844. Q<8MEj&mu<gj}i&(3j (or Qsu&r < 2efruLf ) esar(Sli(^) (st^^sst 6>jrr&'2G8r sCis^^s) 

However many perfumes you put on an onion it will still emit 
a bad smell. 

Of. 514 /. 852, 858-860, 873 /. 



THE POWER OF HABIT. 

845. ^liistruf-sstTifletaaj^ &iE]$@ii> uiri—&Q&rreBT(gv)60 } Qeuikisirvuih sq^Qiqju 

l9$6« eresrunefr. 
If you ask a woman, who goes about the street selling vegetables 
to sing a song, she will only go on crying, ' Onions and greens ' ! 

846. J?jthLD60BrgQg&£6i)60 Q&lTLD6SSrLD BL-IS)-<5G{<3D<35T 6G)U 1 gGj)uJ3&tT!J<5isT . 

He who ties on a rag in a country where all go naked will be con- 
sidered a mad man. 
" You must do in Borne as Rome does.". 

847. j>i(T^es)UD LDQT)iD&eisr ^e^Qun^^iLD Qunsil.(dth } j^GHsireopgi os®) 

QutT&GOir&ngi. 
Although the head of your dear son-in-law comes to grief, it does 
not matter ; but see that the rice-mortar you have inherited 
comes to no harm. 

Said about overvaluing that which is old because it is old, and undervalu- 
ing that which is recent or new because it is not ancient. 

" Custom is the plague of wise men and the idol of fools." 



CASTE. 91 

848- sss.0S(^ 6r®)®)mh ep(r^ euyS), ^ssrs(^ ep(trj evySjiurr? 

The whole village has one way (of doing things) ; do you want a 

different one ? 2828. 
Said as a rebuke to one who makes innovations. 

849. aih^uQurrup-s sQni—s&irjrgsy&iTij eunsfyssr Q^rfliL/LDrr? 

Is a merchant who sells scented powder, able to smell it ? 395, 

639. 
He has got so used to it, that he does not perceive it. Constant association 

with anything, good or evil, is apt to give rise to indifference to its moral 

worth. 

850. Q@!TLLlS}-60ULp&&LD 4r(D3tr(dwLl,(dt}>. 

Habits acquired in the cradle last to the grave. 842. 
" What belongs to nature lasts to the grave." 



CASTE. 

gOrrtsl, (3J6VLD. 

851. jy&eSlQ®) tSpm<g s&viLneoii) . 

He is dross born from pure metal ! 252, 545a. 

Said sarcastically to a worthless person who prides himself on belonging to 
a high caste. 

852. ^a/ssr %grr$sl srih^u lj^^}, (^®)ih <srkp j^&ithQldit, jyg/^am eu^ih. 

A man will inherit the intellect and the rites of his caste. 856. 

The characteristics of a man's caste will show themselves in him, however 
much he tries to hide them. 

" Nature will out." 

853. S®)LO 3®)fc @IT®) , (Sj&dLD 3®)S(3jLD. 

If we mix our pots {i.e., If we take food together), our castes 
will get mixed. 

People of different castes and sub-castes cannot eat together without 
contracting ceremonial defilement. 

854. SSBTLD^jgllGS)®) %gfT Js)Q 'lUILKSOT ($ , Q^sisTLD^^I(eS)&) ggfTJg)uSl®)'2®). 

One does not belong to a caste by birth, but by reason of actions 
done in a former existence. 

Explained in the Mahabharata : — !SesrQ<ssTfQ is®)®) lEi—atansiLjeini—iu 
ffl//f<ssfr GiGua&Qearr, jpjeuir&Q&T ts®)®) QggGjresru), only those who walk 
in the right way with good conduct are of good birth. 

855. (9j<58orth QutflQpujmrS, ^®)ih Quiflp®)®). 
Not caste, but virtue is great. 

856. (3j®)L£> 6TUUl$-QlUrr, (9j<5mu> SfUUiS^QiLI. 

As his caste is, so is his character. 852, 1392. 



92 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

857. (8j60ii> ^uemuuSQed, ugsbtud uk^luSlQeo. 

High caste lies on a dunghill, wealth has the feast. 

" Worth has been underrated ever since wealth was overvalued." 

858. &rEiBujrt&3(3jih ggrrGfluDiresrih Qunsir^j. 

Even an ascetic (who has renounced all) has not lost pride in his 
caste. 

859. ggT^ia;/r<S(5 SB's®*— ©/fig,, ^ja/uswuuy Q^/rSsrr awrigj. 

The caste's custom is common to every village, just as there are 
holes in every Iluppai flower. 

The faults and shortcomings of a caste mark the caste wherever it is found. 
Low caste people often attempt to mingle with the higher castes, but 
they find it difficult, as their mannerisms of speech betray them. 

860. eum&gjp (com. guieiqj&lJd) evrri^emsd^ ^g> ®®s»su GluirisiseSLLt—ir 

gnu) Qutrsnjp. 
The habit of your caste will not leave you even if you boil a vessel 

full of rice as an offering to it. 
A man can never lose the sentiments of his caste. 

Cf. 839 /. 



ABSTINENCE FROM MEAT. 

861. «§£® GslesruiTGniTiJD, ^jiresar® «^® ^esrurr&rmh, ^tls»L_<s assart— *&), @&@ 

GT6srufTenrrLb. 

She will eat a sheep, yea even two, but if she sees one, she ex- 
claims : " fie, fie " ! 

Used ironically of those who profess not to eat flesh, but who really enjoy it. 

862. 2_ul/<s aessti—ih u/SIQsir®^^ utrauuir^^lQurreo. 

Like the Brahmin woman who had lost her salted mutton ! 
1025. 

Used when something is lost, that the owner dare not enquire after for 
fear of public disgrace. Brahmins are not allowed to eat flesh in any 
form. By the rules of her caste the Brahmin woman ought not to have 
had any salted mutton to lose ; and when it was lost she dare not in- 
quire about it, lest she should be turned out of her caste and disgraced 
for breaking caste rules. 

863. $QT)QurrQgj£j (or ^pirrju Lys8>&)& ^L-tsf., ^ifslmQu®) &e>i&@& &ilu}. 

(or i£<5sr&r8). 
The pots used daily by flesh eaters are put on the top of the 
pots kept for sacred purposes ! 228 1 . 

The two ought never to come in contact as the former defile the latter. 
Said in sarcasm about those who make great professions of ceremonial 
piety but do not carry them out. 



CASTE. 93 

804. SpplQev (com. &£$Q<so) Qeuesari—Tth, gtrpplQeo sunq^. 

Do not give me any piece of meat. Give me the broth only. 

805. Q&nGSTQrj 1 ®) urrsmx), GjlsisrQrj'Gd Gjqjjud. 

If yon kill an animal, it is sin ; but if yon eat it, you will get 
rid of the sin ! 

Killing is a sin, but among many Sudra sub-castes the eating of flesh is 
allowed. 

866. errpplQeo l? §)gv& gnpQutreo <suiT0. 

Strain the filth from the soup and let me have the soup. 

• 

867- GnpffitQ®) QeuGBBri—TLc, Q^eiBeSQeO eurrQJj. 

I don't want the soup (with the meat in it), give me the clear 
soup only ! 

864, 866, 867 and 869 all mean the same. What the person says he does 
not want, is exactly what he wants. These proverbs are sarcasms on the 
growing disregard for Shastraic rules against flesh eating. 

868. &g@ em&QJLD, LDSSSpl GT60&)tTU3 ^etnet^uisf.. 

He is a pure vegetarian, so throw all vegetables away. 

Said ironically to one, or about one, who pretends to be a strict vegetarian. 

868a. sro^a/^jps^ .^kd^ul/lL© wssspl ^&r&fleSlLLQL-&!r ! 

I wish to become a vegetarian, and so I have given up vegetables ! 

869. (GTjiruSpgusQipmLD GpQrjQunqgsj] isestsr® Qeusean—iriii, &(T£u <sS®. 

I don't want crabs as it is a fast day ; pour out the soup only for 

me. 867. 
" As good eat the devil, as the broth he is boiled in." 

870. isireonih gtfysoQpon pe&iuu unnppneo, /F/roS^spii &ppuu$>6)6im6Bi . 

If you look back four generations you may find that a barber is 
your uucle. 

871. Gs>&eu Qp@<a»@ujtT (a name) Qp^eQiunQ^s^u GGSLDggiuQuM— eu&r 

A Pariah priest cooked for the vegetarian, Muttaiya Muthaliyar ! 
The Muthaliyar's professions of vegetarianism, which is counted a virtue 

in India, were overthrown by the fact that his cook was a flesh-eating 

Pariah. 

872. Go&euih Qpppl, ere^mLj er^twuiruus sySliLjg}, 
Pretending to severe vegetarianism he excretes bones. 

An ironical and rather vulgar proverb denoting that the professed vege- 
tarian is really a flesh eater. 

Cf. 386. 



94 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

WHAT IS DONE CANNOT BE UNDONE. 

873. «jy3s33T si—kp Qeum&iLD jpfQgjgrrepiLD sujrrr^j. 

Will the flood that has leaped over its banks go back if you weep ? 

874. &-rfiu$Q&) siLis).^ girdQ<G8)62iw, giqg&p L^^esffssaib ^'QpsQ®). 
Though a rotten gourd is hung up in a net (uri), it is still a 

rotten one. 

If you have paid him one small coin to weep, will he cease weep- 
ing if you give him nine coins ? 
Easy to do evil, hard to remedy it. See 884 N.B. 
" Give the piper a penny, and two pence to leave off." 

876. spkp uirio Qp^sos^ tajgiiDirt 

Can milk that has been drawn, enter the udder again ? 
" Can a man be born again." 

877. &n\hkp ^(njiALj (gjisj-pp §<saa Gunirng]. 

The water the hot iron has drunk, will not come back ! 

878. Qarruii) sufejg] QioSBrjbplso eSogmprr®), &&Q ptnstyLD eumptr®) er(Lpib$(V)& 

S&HTLDIT ? 

If you get angry and fall into a well, will you get out by trying 

to feel happy ? 
" Anger begins with folly, and ends with repentance." 

879. Qsiru^^lio £\g)igp QP&(5 &i5(o£rreifip$60 q^lo/t? 

Will happiness restore a nose that has been cut off in anger ? 

A jealous husband in India sometimes cuts off his wife's nose in his anger. 
If the quarrel is made up and he lives happily with his wife again, he 
would like to undo what he has done, but, of course, cannot. 

880- *®<£/7® QutT6BT LSlsSBTlh ^(T^WUIT^J. 

A corpse that has gone to the burning ground will not come back. 

881. Q&trgi Qi^l^eo Qua^iss&iiTih, LonesriJci Gfo£g)(6is)®) QutTjpisasGOtTLLtr? 
If boiled rice be spilt, it may be picked up ; but if honour be 

lost, can it be had back ? 

882. Q^iresurt—s (3>j2/6B3#, gnhss Qps^^iesS. 

One measure for digging, but three for filling up again. 

883. Srissaretoi—dsiTLU srr&) uesarua, St-sislds <si_(S$ Qps&rreo uesenJo. 

The price of the sundahai (a vegetable) is a quarter of a panam, 
the charge for carrying it is three times as much ! 



FORBEARANCE, LENIENCY, PLIABILITY. 95 

884. Q&@g jy,® snea ussanb, &<5®ld& s^.eSl Qpssneti ugsbtld. 

The price of the dead sheep is a quarter of a panam, the charge 
for carrying it is three times as much ! 

N. B. — Nos. 875, 883 and 884 scarcely come in this section, bni it is difficult 
to class them more accurately. The idea in them seems to be that what 
is begun without thought, mifst be completed, though it involves much 
labour and loss- 

885. Lnpib^i Q&@Qp<5Br, i3uasssrm <svrr ensar(n^&) eu^LDir? 

I forgot myself and died ; if I call my life back, will it come ? 

Used of one who thoughtlessly does something wicked ; which he cannot 
rectify. 

" Evil comes to us by ells, and goes away by inches." 

886. QpUUSp U6SSTLD Qs!T®^^ITg^LD, ^ip&flu UlLL-LO QuiT&lTgl. 

Though you give thirty panams, a bad name will not forsake you. 
" Give a dog an ill name, and you may as well hang him," 

Cf. 514 /. 839 /. 994 /. 1288 /. 



FORBEARANCE, LENIENCY, PLIABILITY. 

887. sjpSl®@ unfniiuirm QQisQ/gssr ^gj sas?s(^ ^pm^s Qpnemfiurr? 
The Brahmin he knew as his friend, gave bim only three cakes 

for six cash. 
He ought to have given him six. 

888. S\jBkpei)6Br GTtSGTgU (SJWlSl- J)jU?-et»LD <3DI£&Ql-L— &<56)£. 

The story of the man who bowed down to his friend, and was 
claimed by this friend as his slave ! 

889. Sjjsn ^eiruuLDrruSlfTfjikjgneti, (or <& iait is -s (suites)®)) <5JLobssTU^LD iSLo'bosriiiLb 

UeOSlTULO U60BT (mi SUT&T . 

If Death present himself without his terrors, she will take 
advantage of it and cook him in a cake. 2649. 

A shrew will take advantage of the least indulgence to get the upper hand 
over her husband or master. 

889a. ^fSstruLj f^L-LSf-^so eTLD^esriLjt}) fBLD^sniji}) ueosrrjTth uesurgnsyGurT&r. 

If you allow her leaness to be cured by with good eating, she 
will make Death into a cake. 

890. j^'Seiru uirir^^fTebr, <3>jituS&) <sjiL0pn<5sr. 

He saw him, and deceived him in his own mouth. 3372. 
"He did him in the eye" 



96 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

891. ^ena S6sar® ejwrr^gimnu) (or eruus^ih or lSsjlL.®witiJd) ^eomi 

sail.® QutL (or isifl). 

The devil (or jackal) that lives in the banyan grove, sees a man 
and cheats him (or intimidates him). 

They will harm no one who turns a bold face to them. 

Cf. ejLDiri^'Sij'^esr srLDirpgjQ/Dg), to deceive him who can be de- 
ceived. 

" An easy fool is a knaves tool." 

892. &-Qg@/D LD!TL-<Se>L— J£!3<g ; £IT&) J)jiy.jijgS2QLJIT60. 

Like beating the ploughing ox with the yoke. 738, 3502. 
Said about the ill-treatment of an inferior who has done good service ; or 
about over-severe punishments. 

893. 6T$lfl ^etTUUU>IT < 6G)&) } QsiTUW #600TL—U iSu^Gmi—IM. 

If your opponent betrays weakness, then your rage will be over- 
whelming. 

894. GrGslrrpptoiHsm ensmLp GreorQipso, Qsauth safari— rr&ru>. 

If your opponent is a poor man, your rage will be savage. 739. 

895. OT6S7- ^enssnsrth eS&rssfriL GrtBQrogp (com. w/flu/^). 

My good nature burns like a lamp. 

i.e., All in the house know my good nature or my submissiveness and I 
suffer, just as a lamp wastes by burning. Said by an overworked 
daughter-in-law or by a servant. 

" The least boy always carries the greatest fiddle." 

"A candle lights others and consumes itself." 

896. 67/f 2-QpQ/DSlJ6Br @£j6frUULDIT(GB)60, GT(TJ)gl LD8 : &(Ti5BT Qfi(5S>p (OY <56)l£>pg} 

eanasr) Qsrr<ssart—fr®ix). 
If the ploughman is yielding, the bullock will treat him like a 

brother-in-law ! 
If the superior is weak, the inferior will get his own way. 

897. 676B7Qy/ruj3s8r« S'smi—ireirnua, eiessftuui^Lc i$Uf-g@tTenrTiJD. 

Seeing that her husband was a simpleton, she carried the torches 

very high. 
i.e., Knowing his easy-going foolishly kind nature, she did what she liked 
without regard to his wishes. 

" She wears the breeches." 

898. GjLotrkpn®) iBrTLDii) Qun®<surrm, ^Ssttul/ epL-L-eS &)^bo. 

If I am yielding he will put a Namam on me {i.e., cheat me), but 
he is too weak to try (or he has no chance). 910. 

899. 6£®Q p@u'<!l581 3 S6SBTI—IT&), gUJgJgjQp<31JG!p)&(9j $j&T33ITJJU>. 

Seeing the pursued man run away, makes (pursuit) easy to the 
pursuer. 



DESIKK. 97 

900. SGmtTSjgiGHu umMLfQurreo sesaressflQeo LD6sar2essr u G>un®Q(ir?Gsr. 

He throws earth into your eves with the malice of a whip-snake. 

The green whip-snake is said to hide itself in the tops of palms and wait 
for the drawer of palm juice to climb up. When he nears the top the snake 
darts forth and strikes out his eyes. Here it is used as an emblem of 
malice. 

90 1 . Qsm—U}-(GV)®) Q^ek, QsmLi—ireS/L-L^fTeo ti/sfrSsrruy^S. 

If it sting it is a scorpion ; if not, it is only a mud-gryllus. 

902. Qarrdtisosifr sreiflsmLD (or Qu^ioSod) aakr®, (3jjjiej(8j sngns^u l^gsst 

It is said, that a monkey seeing the good nature of the black- 
smith, asked him to adorn its legs with anklets ! 
Said of one who is so good natured, that every one takes advantage of him. 

903. ^iTfEiQ^ ^tn&jQu uirnggn®), ^^eoQLDeO0rpiQ(nj'm. 

If you treat a person too leniently, he will jump on your head. 
If a servant says he will leave, but is coaxed to stay, he will treat his em- 
ployer with contempt. * 

904% gir&^essfluJLb s,<sgt ihir&m. 

Over complacency is the ruin of wealth. 1085. 

i.e., The inability to say 'No.' (Tdhshinyam) is ruinous to all material pros- 
perity. 

" Foolish pity spoils a city?' 

905. pnth girpf3(§G)60 omnir girjbjpiLD, Qsn66an—<suek girjbplfcB)®) semt—enasr 

g/r/bgusuireifr. 
If a mother slanders her daughter, the village will slander her 
also ; if the husband slanders his wife, every body else will 
slander her. 3200. 

906. LJ,&£l Ljy&Q <5IG5i(Trf&), Lj(LpdG)»S ptetiQlL®) GlgJU). 

If you speak kindly to a maid-servant, she will jump on your 
head. 

If servants bo treated too kindly, they will take advantage of their em- 
ployer. 

" He that handles a nettle tenderly is soonest stung." 
Cf. 738/. 3334/. 



DESIRE. 

VAIN WISHES. 
907. <2j ) <a»#uS)(Tr)&Qpg) £n&l®)u<58i5T6!5sr, j>jL£lm& 'prop. ^lSI^w) §)qtj&Q 

P&I1 <S(W&B^ (oLDLUSS. 

He has the desire to rule over a district, but his lot is to herd 
asses. 

" The wolf loses his teeth, but not his inclination." 
" If wishes were thrushes, beggars would eat birds." 

13 



98 TAMIL PROVEKBS. 

908. 6r(tpih$(7ijLJuiTefr sireSHo'teo. 

She would like to stand up, but lias no legs. 

Said of one who wants to do mischief, but lacks the power. 

909. ^(^lLQsQsitl^I gefifiUSi&fgj sSiaQssi^iQuneo. 
The blind bird had a great desire for bran. 
Its blindness prevented it from finding any. 

910. £iht$ seufrmrr (Grovernor) ^suirm, ^§)3srruL/ $LLL-.efi&)'fa>. 

The younger brother wants to be the governor, but his feebleness 

prevents him. 898. 
" If you cannot bite, dont shoio your teeth.'' 

911. $ldi3 s^Qpsumsisr, QiDt^UsnLi—igi. 

The younger brother Avould plough, but he cannot reach the 

handle of the plough. 
" If wishes might prevail, shepherds tcould be kings." 

912. (Lpi—Gum Q<5/ui)LyG\££p<5(5j ^ysto&uuL-i—giQuir®). 

Like the lame man who wanted the honey up in the tree. 1017. 
Said of a person who craves for something beyond his reach. 
" The grapes are sour" 

Cf. 1669 ff. 2670 ff. 



DISAPPOINTED DESIRES. 

913. ^{QgQp L9fiff3srr<S(5 si/neinipuULpu) sml.(SiQp < ^/Qurr&}. 
Like showing a plantain (or banana) to a crying child. 
The sight of the fruit only makes the child cry more. 

914. ^«d<^ Q^ireoeSsantLi^., Qlchigld G&tLQpg). 

To excite desires and then deceive. 2363. 

To give hopes either by promises, ambiguous words or invitations, but 
finally to disappoint the hopes formed. 

915. erm^oST miuunQp, <$n<s$ eunrbsnQ^. 

Do not trust in me and take off your thdli ! 

Said about one who disappoints the faith that others have in him. The say- 
ing is, literally, a warning to a married woman not to forget her marri- 
age vows. It is also explained as follows : — In the Woddar (navvy) caste 
a widow is allowed to remarry, and may wear the th'ili given to her by 
her first husband up to the day of her second marriage. There was a 
lazy Woddar who wanted to marry a certain hard-working widow so that 
he might live on the profits of her work. One day he found out that she 
had the same idea in her mind about him, so he uttered the above words, 
meaning, If you want to remarry in order to live an idle life, don't 
marry me. 



DESIRK. 99 

9 It). ■sjpeS'iLL®, sissSeauj <sunrEi(3jQpg). 

What ! make me mount (a tree) and then remove the ladder ! 
Do not excite hopes only to deceive them. 

9 1 7. <$&)£$&) Q&rrp<ss)p $jlL®& emsmbuu i3i^.^^npQuneO. 

Like serving up rice in a vessel and then laying hold of your 

hand (to prevent you from eating it). 774. 
To promise and afterwards disappoint. 
" Give a tiling and take again, and you shall ride in helVs ivain." 

918. Qistfleinuj suefrir^^u l^ggt emsuSl®) Qsn@s8p.gir? 

Is it right to rear a parrot and then leave it to the claws of a cat ? 

919. Qsn@s8Q pear er sst Qtj-eo jy ) <SB)&, j>ji^.s8Qp<csr srm^eo ucuih. 

If I say I will bestow, I give hope ; if I say I will beat, I cause 

fear. 1095 
Promises and threats should be carried out. 

Of. 219 /. 239 /. 913 /. 2328 /. 2373 /. 



UNGRATEFUL GREEDINESS. 

920. $ji—u> Qsn@£@n&). LDi—ua L3@isi(^eunehr. 

If you give him a place (to lie down in), he will take the whole 

hermitage. 
" Give a rogue an inch and he'll take an ell." 

921. @®uLy GSKSijpp $§)t—u3 creoeonih j>j@ulj eaxstj^^n&fr. 
Wherever he got a place to lie on, he made a hearth. 

" Give me a seat, and I will make myself room to lie down." 

922. FFesT0S(9j §£)u.ikiQsn@ppn&), ^s^eSli—ih GGisQsn&nsunasr. 

If you make room for a mean person, he will take your whole 

house. 
" lie that takes the devil into 'his boat, must carry him over the 

sound." 

923. s_lo (com. ©_) 6reGi8(ir?&rJi}) snu>n&$, epLLuf.sQsnemL-n<sir^LD Ltfgp&fi. 

Kamakshee (Siva's wife Parvati) only said ' um,' but Meenakshee 
(Kuberan's daughter) stuck to her. 963, 980, 1934. 

After the former had promised a thing, the latter did not leave her till she 
got it. Siva and Kubera are popular deities. 

924 6Tj2/ii)Ly smff ^ji—iaQsn@^^nev, stq^^ild QunSdiLjU) B-SffCar Q&gypgj 
eunesr. 
If you leave sufficient room for an ant to creep in, he will drive in 

his bullock and its load ! 
" Give a clown your finger and he will take your whole hand." 



100 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

9li5. ^esari— Gvizp iSli—trtA 32sa.fr iSi—niBsinajp gjapfslsBTjgiQan®). 

Like the goddess that came and asked for a place to rest, and then 
expelled the goddess of the village. 809. 

Hindu applications of this proverb would be : — The Brahmins came to 
India for shelter in ancient times ; but made themselves the priests and 
masters of the land : the English came to trade, but have taken all 
authority out of the hands of the Brahmins. 

" / gave the mouse a hole, and she is become my heir." 

926. QlLisuit mnQvu tsrasrQrf®), Qp^&GD'U (prop. Qps^ss)^ . iss(§8jdj£/. 

If yon say, Come here, dog ! it will lick its face and come (crin- 
ging)- 

If spoken to kindly it will beg for something to eat. If low people are en- 
couraged at all they will try to make profit of the kindness shown to 
them. 

" The dog wags its tail, not for love of yon, but of your bread." 

927. pfrp&sr ^t-Lt—u) ^iQ^uu^mSQeO QpiPuLjil). 

The tricks of a Vaishnava mendicant are known in Tirupathi. 

These mendicants will come to villagers and promise to help them to per- 
form religious rites at the sacred shrine at Tirupathi, but when they have 
persuaded the villagers to make a pilgrimage to the shrine and have got 
them to the place they refuse to do anything unless handsomely reward- 
ed, at the same time threatening these ignorant people with the anger 
of the deity unless they conform to their demands. A man's greed is 
best known in the place where he has most influence. 

928. t5ifl&(3j ^i—iEjQsrr(d^^n&}, Qeai—SQjj ^gesm® ^® iSlty-d^m. 

If you give any room to a jackal, it will take two sheep from your 
flock. 

929. eBneo ^aotptu ^ji^iijQsrT®^^rT&), e_j?so (or ( s5?6u<a»uj) ^leaipsQ^&si. 
If you give room for him to push in a finger, he will push in a 

rice-mortar (or his head) . 

930. Oa/6ff3sT7s«/rjOT2/i(^ ^LJ£lpQ$!T&) ^u.ikiQsn®^^nrrs&r, sjgi g\gvpg), 

set/f QpQpjgjm ^up-gsp, ^)^7 616BTS2 Gi6isr(rrfm. 
(Our ancestors) gave as much room as a sheep-skin can cover 
to a European, but he cut it into bits, conquered the whole 
place, and said, " This is mine." 

Cf. 2172/. 



" GRASP ALL, LOSE ALL." 

931. ^/DffQ&Ll.® Qp(Lp(5ei£l—L£>. 

Over niggardliness is utter loss. 
"Much ivould have more, and lost all." 

932. sQ^Q^u-fSs seetsT^essr (or ^tueaeujs Qs®&(9jii>. 
Stinginess ruins the eyes (or one's sense of sympathy). 
" A covetous man is good to none, but worst to himself." 

933. sear ^eiss, sesr #a!£/_Lo. 
Great desire, great loss. 

" Avarice bursts the bag." " All covet, all lose." 



DESIRE. 10 i 



934. QujtT6s>& $gBnp pifl-gGDziD. 
Much greed is endless poverty. 

935. emLisf. ^szo# QppG$j&(3j& Qa®. 

Greed of high interest is loss of capital. 



COVETOUSNESS. 

936. cSff&Gdir'T for em.urra) 5_«_<oTOlo<5@u Quiuituju upaQpjp. 
He flies like a devil after a neighbour's property. 

" No one is content with his lot." 

937. <g>liFl& jtj&reSissr snssniLuQuneo. 

Like the crow that plundered the rice. 

A crow that has once eaten rice, always seeks more. 

" As greedy as a dog." 

938. (^lLis^Qu/tlLl- mniLQuneO ^fbsoQpgj. 

To be as anxious as a dog that has pups. 

A mother-in-law often applies this to a daughter-in-law who covets some 
luxury : but it is also applied to all kinds of desires. 

939. LSuf-iSi^-uunih isL-L-rriOj Qurr^lQun^vunuj s^Ssyr u^lo/i ? 

If you plant rice by the handful only, will it grow up in sheaves ? 
933. 

Said sarcastically to children who fill their mouths greedily when eating. 
" He that grasps at too much holds nothing fast." 

He longed for the gold bracelets and was caught by the tiger ! 

The story is told in the Panchatantra. A certain tiger grew too old to hunt 
and was dying of hunger, when he thought of a device for securing a meal, 
and wove a bracelet of yellow grass round his paw. A Brahman who 
came that way saw the bracelet and believing it to be gold, coveted it. 
The tiger, who professed intense penitence for all his former sins, declar- 
ed that he would give the bracelet to the Brahman, if he would take it. 
The Brahman led by his avarice approached to take the gift, and was 
killed and eaten by the tiger. 

941. IxkstogllSlGpILD U!T&), <oSlLl^.^Ii}) <gu5lffn? 

If (you take) the milk when with the herd, can you have curds 

at home ? 
" The first cut and all the loaf besides." 

Cf. 1205 /. 



CONFLICTING DESIRES. 

942. SJG&& ^jSu&rQme^j ^prjeq uitluQld&). 

He wants the woman, but he loves his mat ! 
Parsimony versus lust. 



102 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

94'2a. ^pplQ®) ep^strgyuD, Q&ppl3eo ^Q^sn^iLDnaS(i^sQ(Trj'm. 

He stands with one leg in the river, and one in the mud. 

943. ^jaesarSl e$LLt$.g2iLb seSiunemw, $&»i—u$&) Q&ppp-Co fsmus^LLi^.. 

A wedding was going on in two houses ; the pup died between 

them. 951. 
" He that hunts two hares oft loseth both." 
" Between two stools he falls to the bottom." 
Kashmiri : " 1 he washerman s dog is not of the house, nor of the 

ghat." 

94-4. ^rr<sm(B ^lLi$.Q®) stsLLLupsor (^C-Uf. cg^Gtpsar. 

He has become a lamb that sucks two sheep. 

Said of one who tries to take advantage of the favour of several persotiB 
instead of cleaving to one patron, and finds that the end of all his schem- 
ing is failure and disappointment. 

" No man can serve two masters." 

945. ^nesa® spt—.p$5lQ>60 streo etnsu&Qppir? 

Can you keep your legs in two different boats ? 

946. Gip&Q&rrSBTtgV)®) <oT(T7}J£]&(3j3 QsiUli, ^piklS^Q^IT&STi^SO Q '/5 IT 60BT l$.S 

(3j<5 QsiTum. 
If a lame man is told to mount a bull, the bull gets angry ; if he is 

told to dismount, he gets angry. 
Said for example, when a mother-in-law and her daughter-in-law quarrel 

and the girl's husband does not know what to do, for if he sides with 

either party, he offends the other. 

947. SLDLyijgji sVetT QaUL-Uf.<G5)pQi UlTSHih $l(T7jd&Q'aU6aBr®U>, pti>i$S(§u 

Quesar QuQ^/bQurrgyth $)@saQsiJ6BBr®LD. 
Appear as if you were weeding the corn, and as if you were 

arranging the marriage of your younger brother ! 220. 
" Killing two birds ivith one stone." 

948. siT8i-3(9j spQt) (^^Issiinqm Qtsu6SBr®L£>, sfrpes)puQuiT60 upd&eyih Qsu6BB 

®ti. 
He wants (to buy) a horse for a few cash, but it must run as 
swiftly as the wind. 

949. a^.Q£S(^LD £i<oto&, LDrreii&(3ju> (or Lfietn&atsjih) ^€®<y. 

He is fond of gruel, and of flour (or of his moustache). 

950. O^/TissrjCffjefr j%uj (firnh) Q&pjpuQujQjrr&r, Q&n&)&)rT<aSlLLL-rT60 sjuu&st 

Q&pgjuQuirsurTGBT. 
If I tell it, the mother will die ; if I don't tell it, the father will 
die. 

A man caught a hare and gave it to his wife to cook. The hare ran away, 
and the wife to avoid her husband's anger killed their cat and prepared it 
for dinner. The son who happened to know this, to save his father 
from eating the cat, came running in and threw one of his slippers into the 
rice and the other into the curry and ran off. — Used when one servant 
knows something bad of another and desires to inform their master but 
fears his fellow-servant's vengeance. 



DESIKE. 103 

951. gj&&&) seaiBepLD seSiunseaih, gjif-iu®) peniflegjLD &&fiiurT6Bgru> } ibitiL jyisi 

There was a wedding in the villages of Tukkal and Tudiyal, the 
dog ran to one, but got nothing, and to the other but got 
nothing. 943. 

QpSS) pilSQ '6VIL/LD = gy # ^«O / ^LO(SSr7/rui?0<5<3(oQ.'6KB'®ti). 

The money (that has to be paid for niy bride) must be ten panams 
only, the girl herself must be a pearl, and she must also be the 
daughter of my father's sister. 

The bridegroom wants to give a very small dowry for his bride, but is verv 
exacting in his requirements. 

953. urrihi-i &rr&iTLD&), urnbLi j>/l^^<s Qstrepiiii QprflssMDeo ^(trjssQeu6aar 

®u>. 

It must be done without killing the snake, and without breaking 
the stick that strikes the snake. 

Said of one who wants to force something from another, but without in- 
juring him. 

954. u>(s)&)Qi£60 LfiesrQurr®). 

Like a cat upon the wall. , 

No one can say which side it will jump. Used about cases in the law courts 
of which the result is not certain. 

955. 0i£6V6>)a/£i) lct L-i—tTLL&j , QfiQprii setfth U)/rLlL_/U£S$(77jfi;©(7?pajr 
He will not chew it, nor will he swallow it. 

He will not tell his secret or sorrow, nor have done with it. 



"COUNTING THE CHICKENS BEFORE THEY ARE HATCHED." 

956. £}&si7® QeuL-i$. u0£Gsl e&Gnp&QQpasr Gr6BT(np60 } sjuuit eresrs^ 9/75 

giuuiLiq. GTesr&(n?6Br i3<3ir < 2etr. jygjb(9j ^uum es>ssir&) uilfds 
SLjSluJuQunQpjgi, LDLf-^giu QuiLi^uSQeo gdgu eresrQn^m. 

If the father says, I will cut down that forest and sow cotton 
seed ; the son replies, Father give me a new cloth. On this the 
father remarks. It is too long for your legs and hands ; it will 
be torn ; fold it up ; and put it away in the box ! 960, 1282. 

A variation of the last clause is: sj&p<§ S\uum sireSQ&) wtnLiq. 
SySjaseurr er&sr^j/ a&srempGsl®) s\isf.p&nesr. On this the father re- 
marks, What ! will you tear it with your feet ? and boxes his 
ears. 

The boy takes for granted that the cotton has grown up and been woven. 
The father takes for granted that the boy has got the cloth. Used of 
premature and unreasonable requests and hopes. 

957. estir e_6abri_/rSuJ6U6^C?ia;/r Qg&Qs Qu>pQ& p-6sari—fTsQs^6ssr®Lc. 
When you have built the village, then talk of East and West. 
" Don't holloa till you are out of the tcood." 

958. STQ^sam (g)(Bjii£iTeo ^eO&iQsun un&i spssQeueBm®ih. 
When you own a buffalo, then milk it. 



104 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

959. st0sbld eunmi^Qp'35! QihtueSl'2e\} a^-jryQp&nt 

Should ghee (clarified butter) be offered for sale, before a single 

buffalo is bought ? 
" Dont reckon your eggs before they are laid" 

960. U(mpt5l3(j5j S-Qpih QpeisrQm, $ldl9 tzriUiiQpipLD snssrQ^m. 

Before ploughing in order to plant cotton, the younger brother 
asks for eight cubits of cotton-cloth. 956, 1269, 1282. 

961. fJ7isrrcfcrr Qujbgtiu QuiBu.QemssBr®ii). 

A name must be given to a child after its birth. 
" Never buy the cradle, till the baby comes." 

962. iDjpstop emsu^^jsQsneesr®, ut£<g&»@& QarnrQsHGSBrQw. 
You must plant the tree, before you long for the fruit. 

Of. 2530 /. 2882 /. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON DESIRK. 

963. s\qs>&gi\ @0/F^/ra) eSt-Lfiu Q un stair iLi— near. 

As long as there is a bustle, he won't leave. 923, 975, 978, 9S1. 
Thus children keep near when cakes are baking, in hope of getting one. 

Cf. ^jiEiQa j>/t58>&eSlsv'2&) ) There is nothing going on there, I can get 

nothing there. 

964. ^<as)& Qibireqi^ tgjeSipgu) <sj^. 

There is no antidote for the disease called Desire ! 2520. 

965. sy3n& QuifiQpn, id^so QurflQ^rr ? 

Is Desire or a mountain the greater ? 982. 

The Vishnu Purana says: — "There is no end of my desires. Though all 

I hope should come to pass for ten thousand or a hundred thousand 

years, still new wishes would spring up." 

966. jgaB&dQj ^i&rafieo'teo. 
Desire has no limits. 965. 
" Ever drunk, ever dry." 

967. ^t—u u*t—£ Qpifltuirjp, ^jTesBT® U/E/gj &_6ott®. 

He can neither dance nor sing (i.e., can do nothing), but wants 
a double share (of the rewards). 977. 

968. ^sveOLDiT^^rn}) ^j0ih^!T6V eresresr, ^jmesiiJo ^)ptkjQ<G6)®) ^jeoQeOtr 

l§GB)l£UUn<5Br. 

What avails mere desire ? If he swallows rice, he will live. 

969. P-<sesn—tT&> $@Qldit u&, sessii—neo ^(trfoLcir u£l ? 

Will seeing food, or eating food, satisfy your hunger ? 968. 

970. GTL-U}-UUip£<3np ^jff9iQp^lQuiT&>. 

Like wishing to eat poison (nux vomica) ! 



DE8IBK. 105 

971. spgiflssmb Gurrii;® LA&essfls&rtdjs Qsna-Qfj't 

When you buy a brinjal (a small vegetable), will they give you 

a pumpkin (a big vegetable) into the bargain ? 
" The calf is bought and the buffalo demanded into the bargain" 

972. &tTLX>e!p)S(<9j& &<50tSTL- {g)t—jgjglGO sestsr. 

Wherever Kdinan goes, there is his eye. 828. 

The God of lovo always makes good use of his eyes. Said of one who 
desires every woman he sees. 

973. smn agists sever ^ev'Ssu, 
Lust has no eyes. 

This means that lust lacks discrimination. 
" Love is blind." 

974. srreo jijiGBff) QsnQaQQpem ot ear Qrj>eo f sirpeui^l tsi—uunefr. 

If you say, I will give you a quarter-anna coin, he will walk ten 

miles (to get it). 
A quarter-anna is worth about a farthing. 

975. ^tsm^iLj&refr ^ji—pSileo &£$ tsnQth. 

The knife seeks the fleshy parts. 963, 978, 981. 

Said of avaricious or lustful or even merely greedy persons who know 
their best friends and get out of them all they can. 

976. &i5i§luurT@ QsrTeuesargsp&fSj ££is : &)jgj£i<9 : &Qp&fTjnh QueSlL-i—glQuiTeti. 
Like the ascetic who was anxious to protect his loin cloth and 

got a big family ! 

The story goes that a Sannyasi bought a cat to protect his clothes from 
rats ; to feed the cat he got a cow ; to graze the cow he hired a cowherd; 
the cowherd soon married and had a number of children ; then a famine 
came, and the Sannyasi had to keep them all. The story shows how 
one desire leads to many, each greater than the other. 

" No one is content with his lot." 

977- jpui-i<£Q3t-Li—.<sij(Gfji&(3j (or QslLl-sQslLQs^ ^)UlL<oB)L- uiflmuo. 
A worthless woman demands a double wedding present. 967. 
The worthless are often the most importunate. 

978. u#<56)& soson—tr®), 6£lL(D <3\U)- ldsQisit\ 

O daughter, if you see green places keep to them ! 963, 975, 981. 

Stay where there is something to be got. Said also of children, when one 
of them has some sweets, and the others surround it to get some. 

979. uiii@&}sorru uraems eSlapisp ^j&reireOrTLDrr? 

Should you fall on a share which is not yours and plunder from 
it? 

980. uirifuurreff)!&(3j eurrih QunssnQ^, ^esBn^a^ jyg/^rT&piii) Q&ireoe^irQ^. 
Do not promise a Brahmin anything, and still less a mendicant. 

923, 1934. 
Both are proverbially importunate until they get what they think their 

due. Hence never promise them anything. ^jSunS(^S(^ euiTUJ eSlpgfl 

uQurn !T\Sfi } Don't sell your mouth to them. 

" Three things are insatiable : priests, monks, and the sea." 

14 



106 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

981. urr"2esruSI&} <gqtBG\ ^jQ^w^irio, uirrfuurreisr sem ^.priisa^j. 

As long as there is rice in the pot, the Brahmin will not sleep. 
963, 975, 978. 

Said of covetous people who are always trying to got something out of the 
rich. 

982. LS&r'Setr Qujdu Qupu «§£«»#, uestsin Q&&& Qffn cf£«»<P. 

The wish is for more and more children, and for more and more 

money. 965. 
Desire increases by being satisfied. 
•' The more one has, the more one wants." 

983. LlfioGT Q&tTGSrp U1T6VLD &-68T(oigV)Ql—, QsiJGdGVLD {glGST p UfTSUih GT6BT 

Let the sin of killing the cat be with you, and the sin of eating 
the sugar with me. 

Said by a greedy merchant to a Brahmin priest to whom he brought 
the cheapest offering that wonld expiate the sin he had committed in 
killing a cat, viz., a little image of a cat made of sugar, which lie him- 
self swallowed, saying the above words. 

984. LDeisricpeBi ^jeu^esr uLDunuoQutreo ^lLOS^sot. 

The God of Love {or Lust) plays with him as with a top. 

985. eniresSujssr ^Gmp Gsrr&sufiiLiih Qsnetrentrgi. 

No sack is big enough to hold an oilmonger's avarice ! 

Cf. 1205 /. 



FAT PEOPLE. 

l-l<5ip, If- ILj m<5tT Ski <53T. 

986. ^L^-djUD J$]6BfllL]L£> glflgg SLL<SBiL-Qun&). 

He is like the trunk of a tree from which the root and top have 
been cut off. 

987. ^GsrQurred QiDeSl&nuSl^dQQtfdj. 

You are as thin an an elephant. (Ironical.) 

988. Gjeauj- (or <sjm egyip.) QwssaQeam ! ^bsfr^^trib (SjtslnQuiieti. 
Why my dear woman ! you are as thin as a rice-bin ! 987. 
Ironical. A rice-bin is a huge clay receptacle for grain. 

989. eguutT sSHnQun®), jtfwu>rr&r (g^rrQunG). 

The husband is as thin as a spike of corn, the wife is as plump as 
a rice-bin ! 

990. s$nQuneO ggjVetrjSgid ^^lijQuireO ^eF&gi. 

He was as thin as a spike of corn, but is now like a rice-bin ! 

991. S(Lpd(9) Qu>rT(ip&(9) (prop. Qldqpq) st&st^u ^j(rF ) &@(Trj>eBr. 
He shines like fat and grease. 



ON BEING INVOLVED IN TROUBLE FROM WHICH THERE IS NO ESCAPK. 107 

992. Qunggsigu Lj ) 5e5&«&niLQunGSl(Trj&Q(nj>5Gr. 
He is like a big pumpkin. 

993. LosssrsSQeO iSQlihQssr su&retfld QL^iEJ^QuneS^dQ^asr. 

He is round and nice like a white potato (the sweet potato) just 

pulled up from a sandy soil. 
Said of a sleek lazy person. 

He is like a well stuffed pillow in a cover. 



ON BEING INVOLVED IN TROUBLE FROM 
WHICH THERE IS NO ESCAPE. 

^gtydBLJL/®^^, LD/TlLi_LJl/(P^SV, $<£<35L/L/®<£0\), 

994. e_j6$(?6i) ■g'fao LDiiLLiy-sQa-em®, S-&)ses)sd(^Lj uiuuuL-L—tied ^Q^wnt 
If you fear the rice-pounder after putting your head into the 

mortar, is that enough to save you ? 

995. GTSS ^jQ£^n&) LjfiSBT eSIQLDlT? 

If the rat weeps, will the cat let it go ? 

" Too late repents the rat, when caught by the cat." 

996. GTi£xssr<an8uSl60 ^jsuuilu— Q-uSirQuieo. 

Like a soul fallen into the hands of Death. 
i.e., In difficulties from which there is no escape. 

997. &Qgs$)p&(9j (SurrtpdemsuuLL®. &-G8)&d(3j j>j(ir ) &(es)&), ^0ldit? 

If you marry an ass, and then fear its kicking, will that be enough 

to save you ? 3540. 
M To be tied to a sour apple tree." 

998.' <5/Til®«(c<5/Ti^<5@ 2-J&) (9jL)S)(dUJ eiDS&ilTffiUi. 

The inside of a rice-mortar is heaven to a wild-fowl. 1747, 3371. 
The fowl that once gets into the rice-mortar can never get out again. 

999. ^"Sgoseuj is^an^^j jgd-frgi, <sb^^}llju> <ss»siipg) ^ds-^i. 
The head is made wet and the razor is ready. 1028. 

Said of a difficulty in which one is caught and from which there is no 
escape, e.g., If anything is found wrong with the child-bride after the 
butrothal {jS^^luj jgrruiLj ) 60LL) ) the betrothal cannot be undone. 

1 000. gtrakx-iy-efi®) j^suulLl— l$<sst sp&retf) ib^^1(GS)60 eSQeunirseirrT ? 

If the fish caught on the hook longs to wriggle off it, will (the 
fishermen) let it go ? 



108 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1001. unuai3iS5r<sundj^ Q^earrQuneo. 

Like a frog in the mouth of a snake. 
" Like a lump of butter in a dog's mouth.' 

Of. 873 /. 



THE PITCHER THAT GOES OFTEN TO THE WELL 
WILL BE BROKEN AT LAST. 



^dBUL/®^^. 



UlLL-6BT. 

The rogue Tummattipattan, who had escaped here and escaped 
there, was caught after all. 1004. 

1003. QsiLiq-sannear L/^gj ert-L<3ihn'2Gfru§&) QgtfiiL\LD. 

A cunning man's falsehood will be found out within eight days. 

20. 
" Punishment though lame, yet overtakes the sinner at last." 

1004. u&HBn&r $sl (j^i—m ^Q^ibrr%}fTS(^ ^jsuuQeumssr. 

He who has been a thief many days will be caught some day. 
" The old fox is caught at last." 



NARROW ESCAPES. 

^Ul5lu(oU[T(3j^(5\). 

1005. gtlxxsbt 6unu$G$(njiEg] euih^gj (or L^emi—sp) Qun&>. 

Like returning from the mouth of Death. 

Said of a thing which had been lost, but was recovered, or of an unexpected 
recovery from sickness. 

100G. &mLi euaSjb/S&) ^iresarL—neu^ iSpkpjpQutTGti. 

Like being born a second time in one's own mother's womb. 1007. 
Said of a marvellous recovery from a very dangerous illness. 

1007. isrft (or enoeisr) eunaSQeo logout QunLLL-munt 

Did you throw earth into the mouth of the jackals (or Death) ? 
1006. 

i.e., Did you disappoint the Jackals ? Jackals wait in the burial ground to 
eat the corpses. 

1008. umbLj eunaSeo ljc^is^j ^ui3esr^jQuneo. 

Like escaping after getting into the mouth of a snake. 3408. 
A marvellous escape. 



DECEIVED HOPES, PERPLEXITY. 109 

DECEIVED HOPES, PERPLEXITY. 

GTLLfTJBJJuCoLJrrtgj^SV, 6^llfi^^6V. 

1009. jyassfieo lajpeStlu. tsiriLQurreo. 

Like the dog that let the squirrel ran up a tree. 
He could never catch it again. 

1010. <££&»& ulLQi—<o6t, zm.£luQurr&& i g}. 

1 wanted it; new it has gone bad. 1178 

1011. jy ) k<ss)@Qun&) e&i£}&Qpgi. 

To stare like an owl, (i.e., to be perplexed). 

Said of one who begins a thing without being able to accomplish it. 

1012. ^bssr Qjt-Liy. QunQua Gresrgii isldlS edpempuQunLLt—giQuneo. 

Like expecting an elephant to bring forth a young one, when it 
only dropped dung. 1014. 

Said when one's expectations of some great man's kindness are dis- 
appointed. 

1013. j§)©^ ^imp (9jHiki<5$>&uQunisd. 

Like the monkey that had eaten ginger ! 

i.e., QpfGjjQ stGiflpspsQiStTioBBi® JglffltLjLD, It will go about with a twisted 
face. 

1014. £g)®ia//7srr ^Qeuneir erasrgji sjssQpp^i <§^Qjjkpn &rn ih ; i5(tl£I Q&nQ-igi 

She was obsequious to her mistress saying ' she will give, she 
will give.' The mistress satisfied her four desires with a 
measure of rice. 1012, 1026. 

i.e., She got little for all her trouble. The four desires of a Hindu girl are : — 
SS26OT, £_<a»£_, Li, iD{GK&®r. Food, dress, flowers and saffron. 

1015. ^)s^Q/ sngg QtotflQureo. 

Like the parrot waiting for the ripening of the pods of the 
cotton tree. 

These pods burst when ripe, and the cotton flies away on the wind, so the 
parrot gains nothing by waiting for them to mature. 

1016. er6BBr€tssfltoBT 6T6aar<58Bn}) sresr<5ST J>ji$-, ^jssm^ss) snssjgii jytsntppp Qpmp 

What ! My girl, why did you call me your elder brother ? 

A man was making evil advances to a woman, and she seemed about to yield, 
but suddenly called him ' older brother,' which made him say this, 
meaning that to be her elder brother, was just what he did not wish 
to be. The proverb is used of persons who disappoint one's expectations 
of tli em. 



110 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

1017. ej/DUUL-fTp LDjT&(sKe&) 6T68Br<&IB)ll$JTU> &MLI. 

On the tree that one cannot climb, there are eight thousand 

fruits. 912, 2128. 
Said also as a riddle about the rngi (Cynosurus). It is a kind of corn, 
very short, but with numberless seeds on each head. 

" ' Fie upon hens,' quoth the fox, because he could not reach them." 

1018. ^(y^iBfTtef^ih QiBssir^snek ^)0iBireffl&) &iflppn<5tsr, ^iq^^n^w Qsug)i 

One who had never smiled, smiled on a sacred day, and then 
the sacred day became a common day. Or better : — 

^Q^IBIT<ef^LS&>e0!TLO&) £s)(Jf ) ISi7(6rfj8(8jU QulT(§G)S0, Gjl '(W)<5 77 (6»7;LO QsugfUBIT&HT 

If a man, who never attended a festival, attends one, the festival 

day becomes a common day. 
Used when something happens at the last moment to prevent one from 

enjoying what he had expected to enjoy, or when one goes to a show or 

festival and is disappointed with what he sees. 

1019. fpisf. epiy. &-&reniEiang)2iii> Qev(&^^ r s^j. 

I have been running after it so much that the skin has come off 

my feet. 
Great efforts to get something, but disappointment at last. 

1020. sihuafl QpLLeai— er&srg)! sffisf. Qpil.6S)L-esxu jfjsSl^^^ir^m. 

It is said that he opened the bundle thinking it was a wool- 
pack, but it was a bear ! 

Said of a servant, who thinks his master is careless and lenient, but finds 
himself disappointed. 

" He has caught a Tartar." 

1021. srresr'ieo i§it eimgy GTGSBressfl, wires; 6^1$. ^j2eir^^ < giQuir&). 

Like the deer that was wearied with running after a mirage 
which it thought was water. 2439. 

Thus most people seek satisfaction in things that will only increase their 
desires. (Luke 12, 16—19.) 

1022. es>&d(8j erLLup-SBTg!, <svnuj&(9j G7lLz_q5?o> < 26\>. 

It reached the hand, but not the mouth. 
" Many a slip t'wixt the cup and the lip." 
" A miss is as good as a mile." 
" Near dead never helps the kirkyard." 

1023. Q&ir&JtevssrrLL® rsrfl u&}'2eod sniLisf-esr^iQuneo. 
As a jackal in a grove showed its teeth. 

Said of one who is asked to do work, which he knows he is unable to 
do, and yet will not admit his inability. The jackal in the grove can do 
no harm, though it appears ready to bite. 

1024. $sl<a5>su yaw® lSI^I^^j (com. Qu>iflpg]) ^Is^iQsLLL-rrn^ouneo. 

He has lost his bearings like one who has trodden on the " tigai 
pundu." 

This plant is said to have the property of confusing the senses of any 
one who treads on it. 



DECEIVED HOPES, PERPLKXITY. Ill 

1025. 5i!0LJ2eBT<g Q^&r QsniLiq-mgiQurr®). 

Like the scorpion stinging the thief. 862. 

He came to steal, but he trod on a scorpion as he entered the house and 
had to suffer the terrible agony in silence, lest the household should be 
aroused and catch him. 

1 026. QuiBia §£ji—w GTesrgi iSI&ziD&d^u Qurr^etTrnh, siB'Ssnu eut^lpg] Qp&is 

$Q&) Qgiuggn-etrrrtl) (or gi—eSl^sfriTuJ). 

They say, she went thei*e for alms, thinking it was a rich house, 
but the mistress of that house blackened her face with char- 
coal ! 388, 1014. 

Used of great expectations rudely disappointed. 

1027. Qu!T<5Brgi(oiJiT&) eukgrr^LD ugi inrTLJiSerrVetr. 

The new son-in-law came back as he went. 

The son-in-law went to the mother-in-law's house for presents after the 
wedding, bat he returned empty-handed. Said of one who begins a work 
in hope of profit, but is disappointed. 

1028. Qpzorgv s\Uj- zgtfisf-ggiu QurrirCoLDeo Quail.® tSjf&gj. 

The corn has been threshed thrice and thrown on the straw- 
stack. 999. 

i.e., The matter is done with. In threshing corn it is supposed that all the 
corn will be got out of the straw in three beatings. Said of one or by 
one, who has done everything in his power to bring a law-suit to a 
successful ending ; but has not succeeded. 

1029. QsiJ6SBTQesaruj $slsrts(r&Q>& -gni£l &.6®u.!5@giQuneo. 

Like breaking the churn just as the butter was forming. 

N B. — The following eight proverbs differ a little from, the above. 
Their meaning is : — 

THOUGH ONE DOES WHAT ONE OUGHT TO DO, OR PAYS WHAT ONE 
OUGHT TO PAY, YET THE RESULT IS DISAPPOINTMENT. 

1030. <jy©* uetsarih QstrQ^jp, s^&^^eeBrsn^ij gj/£_L/ufl(cW«5r ? 
Why should he pay five coins to get rice-water to drink ? 
Why pay so much and get so little for it ? 

1031. e.tf«(5 iiSsrrg Q&rrQuuiQmesr, ^&f)^^la^is^i tifle/rgj &ngi (8jiQ.uurr 

Qeaj&srl 
Why should he give a measure of pepper and drink the pepper- 
broth in secret ? 

A measure (urakku) is a great deal and should supply a great feast with 
pepper-broth (mulligatanny). If a man supplies so much for a feast he 
ought to be well served. But if after he has made great preparations, 
he gets no pleasure for his pains, he may use this proverb. Or, a Hindu lady 
may save up money secretly, and buy some sovereigns, and take them 
to the goldsmith to have a jewel made. He may steal some of the gold, 
and when she gets the jewel and finds out his theft, she may say this 
proverb meaning that she has got no pleasure in return for all her pains. 

1032. si— esr uiUSiih uLLu^.eeBujiT'i 

After borrowing money, am I to starve ? 1033. 



112 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1033. ssSiunosBTLD QffidjgjLD &ihi$turr&ujn'? 

Am I to live a bachelor life after getting married ? 103:2. 
Used generally of privileges of which one cannot fully avail himself. 

1034. (9j@@& ah-GSajuD Q&rrQpg], ertsliT f*p&&u Qu>i®S/D£rr? 

Besides giving wages for pounding, should I also assist in the 

pounding ? 
" What, keep a dog and bark myself." 

1035. Q&n®dQ/Dgi Q&nQpgi, ^e^L-QurrQ sn&SQeo eSlQpsufrQeaisn-? 
Besides giving him what I can give, shall I fall at the feet of 

the leper ? 
e.g., If a good doctor can be had for ten rnpees. why pay my ten rupees 
to a quack ? 

1036. Q&nGUggjLD, QstT&}'2eo euL^luuniuLJ QunQppnt 

If one pays (like others) why should one go away through 
the back door. 

1037. @gm&jig}&(8)U QuniLjii>, Q&arflprT&esr arreSKoGO e$(LpQiDpn? 

Why go to Sreerangam and fall at the feet of a man who has 
skin disease ? 

Much toil and no profit. Sreerangam is a sacred place of the Vaishnava 
sect near Trichinopoly. 



INDIFFERENCE AND CARELESSNESS. 

1038. ^QpeOtttTLD ^emisf-C®, suit ermurreir (or ejuum Q&rr&reutr&r). 
Having taken it all in, she says, Come on again (or hiccups). 

1041. 
Said of a bad wife who has become callous to threats and punishments. 

1039. ^{sss&sr rSysoBU—ned eim-enr, LDesfl^eitr ^eoMLJT®) GKsxmt 

It does not matter who rules, whether a demon or a man. 

m 

1040. Sj<s&M)i semi—Gxp ^jQuiSl®) Qurnl®, ^sQssi u,j'2eirr<ss)UJ^ Qgn&fl&) 

QurfL-®sQsneem® SHiftQfDgiQurr&). 
What he gets daily he cooks (and eats) and then puts his pot 
on his shoulder and wanders about (begging again). 

1041 . r^uSum j?jeinrrdsn&) uessrw. 

A thousand (kicks) are only one-eighth of a small coin to him. 
1038. 

Said of a person so hardened to punishment that he thinks nothing of any 
threats, and of one who is so clever that he fears no task. ' A thousand ' 
means a large number of kicks or some other kind of punishment. 



INDIFFERENCE AND CARELESSNESS. 113 

1042. ^(5«(5 suihpQ^fT, €T<su0d(^ euih^Q^rr? 

To whom did it come, to which person did it come P 

This phrase is used by people about matters concerning which they are 
quite indifferent. 

1043. sfStjiT Q&ppnebr, ctqX?(CT) ^(Lgpnssr? 
Some one died, some one else cried. 

Said to one or about one who is careless about his duties. 

10+4- @i££!/<S(25 ww^sh&t @ne$ ^ig/uutrorrr? 

Will a woman take off her thdli when she goes to a funeral ? 
i.e., So long as she is not made a widow, she is indifferent to the sorrow of 
others. 

" The comforter s head never aches." 

1045. osunnQs <5un(Wjmj&6rr, qpj£!(3ji§it (&j^ < gSEJs®r. 

Come, village people, and pour water on the back of this woman ! 
Refers to a family ceremony connected with the first pregnancy of a woman 
(seem/ai/ham) performed by the woman's husband's elder or younger 
sister. The pregnant woman stands bending over a rice mortar, and 
woman's milk is poured on her back, and some rupees are given for 
jewelry for the still unborn child. Strangers, of course, have no interest 
in the ceremony. The saying is used when outsiders are called in to do 
for a person what his own family should do for him. 

1016. GTQg&spdfyjLJ un&)LDir{£l(oGr seBordseviuh, s_®«£ro«<s@u uneOLonrSliosr 
(or ueo s/tlLl^.<oSt) ^nQujisi shq^^^ld c gy<S3)/_<a//r/r<£gn r . 
The accountant who neglects his account, and the prostitute 
who neglects her dresses (or who shows her teeth) will suffer. 

1047. srrpsussn wsmLpdarr QumT^gidQarretretT^ ^essftdarr? 

Is that a cloth to be put on against rain and wind ? 

Said of the indifference of a man who cares nothing about the blame or 
abuse he gets ; and also about money or goods that are insufficient for 
some given purpose. 

1048. Q&pgLSm GTUuiy. QutT(G6)e$]LD ctottsot? 

Does it matter how things go after death ? 

1040. iS<ssrpaj&sjuSd\) QibQld ■sp-suit, cSiq^k^ ^jmgn gji-ltp.^ <9fqw. 

While it stands, it is a high wall ; the day it falls, it is a ruin. 
2916. 

Said about one who is careless and indifferent as to how he gets on in life. 
Also said of what has only a temporary value. 

1 050. iS&£B)&6B>& <3unLLL-LanuJ asMJ<5$5l(rrjdQ(tr?iSGr. 
He lias laid it down at his left hand. 
Said when one lias carelessly forgotten where he loft something. 

1051. Qu68BT(mid(&j fpQjj @irti?®, eSldoepiSQj 6£(7jj qldlS®. 

One obeisance to the girl and one obeisance to the bow. 
Both a girl and a bow are easily bent, but who can trust either? Very 
little respect should be shown to either. 

15 



114 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1052. Quirm u>fTil.<55>i—£ Q ^®<sh!T{t^l3&)^iso, eukg LDrnLesii—i suJSlsuir^ 

\3&ftG0. 

There is no one to seek for the lost cow, and no one to tie it up 

after its return. 3171. 
Said of people who are heedless and careless about their possessions. 

1053. euiriEiQear si—Votrd Qsn®sQp^l&f^so, QsnGi-sg SL-Besrs QsiLQp 



He does not give back Avhat he has borrowed, and he does not 

ask for what others have borrowed from him. 
Utterly indifferent concerning all his affairs. 



LOVE OF GAIN. 

SVITUIjD. 

1054. ^pufsgjs^ <2ji£(&, (sftsoQppir'? 

Who will let her beauty be destroyed for a trifle ? 
Only great profit can be ;t temptation. 

1055. «paBr,g2/ < $(5 <&miKi@, ctl1®(5(5 eSpQtpsd eonuQtD eonuua. 

If we buy a thing for one rupee and sell it for eight, that will 

be profit indeed ! 1062. 
" He bought the fox-skin for three pence, and sold the tail for 

a shilling." 

1006. sesaru^l yan.? <ss)sQldQisO. 

To worship Ganesa is immediate (gain). 

1057. seSiuiewr e^Ll®d(^d spl ^jsueau, &rr<5i] sSlLQs^^ Q&irpgj 

tgi/suetou. 
He is a ladle for food in the house where there is a wedding, and 

a ladle for rice in the house where there is a funeral. 1545. 
Said of a person who is seen everywhere where something is to be gained. 

1058. &k-<£@nuf. Qg&Qs UTirppneifr, sk-eSisnirear QiLpQs unnppnm. 
The dancer watched the east (to see if the sun was rising so that 

he might get his pay and go home) ; the labourer looked to- 
wards the west (to see when the sun would set, that he might 
get his pay and go home). 

1059. <ss_6#L/ ues)i— QqjlLQldi? 

Will a hired army fight P 1077. 

Mercenaries are indifferent to their work, and care only for their pay. 

1060. Qs€sar<ss)L-<s6imu QuitlL® tsSsrn^so ^QgiQpgj. 

To use a small fish to hook a big one. 2734. 

Used about the custom, so common in India, of making presents to in- 
fluential people in order to secure their patronage. For the converse 
see 2003. 

" Throw in a sprat and catch a salmon.'" 



LOVK OF GAIN. 115 

1 06 1 . 6B)sQimQ&) sqsbti— ued^sr. 

Profit seen on your hand. 
Sure profit. 

10(32. Q&rrasBTL—uty. G$jb(r>j'eo, Qsnuf. &)rruu>. 

If you sell things at the price you bought them, you will make 

ten millions. 1055. 
Honesty is the best policy. 

1063. uib£)&(9j Qp,i$s)sQsr7<srr, uemt—d^u iSmtstaQstrerr. 
Be first for food and be last for war. 

Be the first to seek profit, and the last to incur loss. 

1064. unhuungtsl jymiDtr, ldpt® euiipjg), unfr^^jsQsneir. 

O ! Brahmin woman, the cow has come ; look after it now ! 1067. 

The cow-herd shouts this when, after herding the village cows on the graz- 
ing grounds during the day, he brings them back in the evening and 
leaves each cow at its owner's house. Said of one who has no interest 
in his work, and only wants to get his wages. 

1065. 6E)UUJ6p<S(5 OTOTTOTT <SlJ(TT)U>t GT<o8T&(jBj LDfT^LD ^ff6SBT® &6BTGB1 UQSBTlh 

(I don't care) what happens to the boy so long as I get my 

monthly fees {lit. two little panarns). 
Put into the mouth of the typical village-schoolmaster whose one aim is 

to keep his own body and soul together. 

1066. QurrSjj sj6fi&@JDgp(3) QprnQest, &p£$Gilp(-S) *g>j6frazQp£n? 

Is the hire to be paid before the load has been measured out ? 

Is the cooly's hire to be paid before the load that he has to carry is deter- 
mined ? 

1067. ton® Qu>iij^£rT(6G)ib, (osrrllievu Qurnl-L-n<QS)t£>. 

They say he herded the cows, and then threw down his stick. 
1064. 

i.e., He minded his work only just as long as he was forced to, but took no 
interest in it, and left it as soon as he could. 

1068. UJirrr s\i$-$p <ss_6$ ldi^.QllQ&). 

Their hire for beating their breasts is in their laps. 

Or «i_6$<£(<5 LOfTIT ^Uf-sQpgl. 

To beat one's breast for hire. 

The reference is to mourners who come to the house of mourning for 
what they can get. 

1069. Qpuugi ps n Qar Quit, y euwrsQeai swr! 

Let the thirty days of the month go, and let my gold vardkan 

come. 
Said of one who does his work for money's sake only. A vardkan is a 

coin worth three and a half rupees. 

Cf. 341 /. 2732 /. 



116 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

WEALTH. 

1070. FFL-Uf- st 1 —® Qp&u) uiriLjm, uesano utrptrenuysijsmir&cifjiJD uito^ud. 

A spear will reach, for eight cubits, but money will reach down 

to Hades (Pdtdla). 
" An ass laden with gold overtakes anything." 

1071. &-pen&(g)LQ ueass(^is> QuirQ^Qen swretssrw. 

Wealth is the cause of both friendship and hatred. 

1072. gtlLi^.sstldlL®ld QsulLQu) &£$sl, gtlLl-tt@ ldlL®u> QsulKSw ueasruj. 

A knife will cut as far as it can reach, but money cuts where it 

cannot reach. 
The power of money has no limit. 

1073. sthuerB eSpp uesisrgjp&r&j lduSit Qp^sfr^^^sQp^n^ 

Has haii" grown on the money made by selling blankets ? 

As blankets are made of animal hair Hindus think the trade con- 
temptible. But no one thinks the profits mado in the trade con- 
temptible. Money is good no matter how it, is gained ; the great tiling 
is to get it. This proverb and 1074, 1075, 1076 and 1082 are alike. 

1074. siB e&pp uesonh sguuuTTuSQ^s^uarrt 

Will the money acquired by selling charcoal be black ? 

1075. QifiSuesr Qan®^^ uessr^^dr^ ts<5®tj &.6sari—n? 

Will the money given by an old man have grey hair ? 

1070. ibituj eSpp sits; gj'StevigiLo/T? 

Will the money got by selling a dog bark )t 

" Money is welcome though it comes in a dirty cloth.'" 

1077. uesrsTLO &.<s)ksrLJT(G5)G), u<ss)u.6B)ujuliu) QeueoepiGMTesr. 

If one has money, one can conquer an army. 1059. 
" All things are obedient to money." 

1078. uesors&rTrreiiT /Jtaargp/Lo upgpuQuir, etau^^lmssniridr ulesregyLc, upgju 

Quit. 
Ten persons run after a rich man, and ten after a mad man. 

1079. u&ssnJUitiedipeuisBr l3<ssotld. 

He who has no money is a corpse. 

" A man without money is a bow icithout an arrow." 

1080. US8BTU) <5I<5BrqtfG), L$68SrQpt£> euTTlb %Elp&(9)lJD. 

If you say ' money,' even a corpse will open its mouth ! 
A sarcastic description of the power of money. 



DEBT. 117 

108J. uessnb 6T6&rar?&), QuiurriLu up&Qpg]. 

If you say 'money', he Avill fly like the devil. 

1082. QsuuQuemQemuJ eSIpp sn& ■3s&£(&fU)n? 

Will the money acquired by selling Margnsa oil be bitter ¥ 

The oil of the Margosa or Neem tree is very bitter, but that does not 
affect the acceptability of the profits made by selling it. 

Cf. 2732 /. 



DEBT. 

<35L_63T. 



INDIFFERENCE TO DEBT. 

1083. -SJj^lo si— ear, sirgpio si—6sr Qu0&a&, <#® jqi—rr, u<ssSsrrn^&s^. 
Let the debt increase six fold or a hundred fold, but fry the 

cakes, fellow ! 
" He has a hole under his nose thai all his money runs into." 

1084. <5£_(?(CT)® si—sk (or Q&GtiQisiirT® Q^susj/) sk^uQuirisf. snpuemui. 
Though the debt increase, I must have a quarter of a panams 

worth of scented powder. 

1085. &t—Q(&s) r & si—^S)Qp^i, c gy«wns»z_s^ ) z-li5LgsrG , /LD(2'6U GflL® ^Qpgi, i3eir 

3srr<5(^<£ seSlcufresoTLD uesar^u. 
Though the debt increase and you give a promissory note on 
your neighbour's house (which is not yours), your son must 
be married ! 3514. 

When parents are considering about the expenses of their son's wedding, 
this is their decision. Debts of this kind are one of the great curses 
of Indian thrift. 904. 

108G. jfC^® S/r(n/'Qp^3, QmibuSQeo a-® s\U)- uassfismrih. 

Let the debt increase by hundreds, but let me have my cake 
baked in ghee. 

Ghee is clarified butter. Oil made from sesamum seed is generally used. 
Ghee is an extravagance for the poor and poorer middle classes. 



BORROWING AND LENDING EASY ; REPAYMENT DIFFICULT. 
1087. ^L-Gil&splimh QiseOGpi&Q&irjrym ^uhdit (jSjUDinn, <g)kp& si—'SsrQaLLsu 

They enjoy the mutton and rice (obtained with borrowed 
money), but if you ask them to pay what they owe, they blink 
their eyes. 

" He that doth lend, doth lose his friend." 



1 18 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1088. <§>jjr &i— ear emeujgprregiu), torriB <£z_6sr emsusssa^L-ngi. 

Though you do not pay your debt to others, you must pay your 
debt to the goddess Mdri. 

Mdri is a form of the goddess Durga who sends small-pox. The meaning 
is that a powerful creditor is not to be trifled with. 

1089. §)Q!)®gi ueserist QanQp^/ ibi—W^i eunikisQejeearu^vu^. 

He who sits down to lend money, will have to walk to get it 
back again. 

" Scrape and pave, and thou shall have ; lend and trust, and thoB 
shalt crave." 

1 090. ^jireudo £_«»£_<a»ii> ^aa&stinuSQjj&Q ps? } erasr iSeir'Seir ^g&sssr, m<ssr 

QstrQssLDn CQu-asr. 
Borrowed property is pleasant, therefore I swear on 1113- child, 

I will not return it. 
" Trust nor contend, nor lay wagers, nor lend; and you 11 have 
peace to your end." 

1091. a.«»z_a»u)(^a) QsrrQjgjp, ^(T^eoiiDiLjih qfftsoQ pjg). 

To lend your property is to have your name ruined. 

" When I lent I teas a friend ; when I asked I was unkind." 

1092. &-H§piih Q&nQpgj, (9)<tqiud QunaQeuasBrGiib. 

If you lend your rice-mortar, you will lose your voice (in asking 
for its return). 

1093. s-fSuueasttM (or ldu^uugbbtld) Qunih Q^q^s- &6BBres)t—es)UJ Jg)(Lps£lp i g>. 
My savings have gone and brought on a street quarrel. 
Lending money is easy : getting it back is often the cause of much strife. 
" Money lent, an enemy made." 

1094. Q&fT®ppg)ii Q&LLi—treo, jtiGtp^jpih uems. 

If you ask for what you have lent, your neighbour will hate 

you. 
" If you would make an enemy, lend a man money, and ask it of him 

again." 

1095. Q&nGi&jp iQsiptBnui uOffl/aD^aflt-, Qsni—ni£>&) iB<ai$(§au> uQsuQtp 

(otoev. 
Better suffer the pain of refusing to lend, than suffer the pain 
of lending. 919. 

" He that trusteth not is not deceived." 
109b\ uiKSuLjL-G&eu ^jirevio QairGlpjp, uftessr gndQaQstreear® ^^eoiu 

Qeu6Bll{L$-UJIT&& < g]. 

After lending a silk cloth (pattuppuduvei) you must follow the 

borrowei- everywhere with a seat. 
The pattupputl uvei is a long piece of silk worn by women as an outer 
dress. If the lender does not watch, the borrower will soil the 
garment she has borrowed by sitting on the ground while wearing 
it. The proverb is a warning against lending to persons who neglect 
their liabilities. 



DEBT. 119 

1097. UG8sr@<3s@& Qsn®s&& Q&neveSl e_irJa»j wrria^Qp^i. 

He kills me by asking me to return the money. 2714. 

" lie that fast spendeth must needs borrow ; but when he must pay 
again, it is all sorrow." 

.1098. Qp&T(Gf^QtD&) @¥eo QurTLLi—neo, Qll&t&t Qudsit&i wrriK/(jSjQp <su l^Juuit 
uu&)&)Q sunt (or eutrikisQeLesBrQiH). 
If a cloth be spread on a thorny bush, it must be taken off very 
carefully. 3133. 

If anything is lent to a mean person, it can only be recovered by great 
forbearance. The proverb is also a warning against friendship with 
mean people. 

1099. ®mrk]QpQunsp §>(nj iSsir'&ir Qupp^giQuneo, Q&nGZ&QpQuig) ^qk 

Borrowing is like the birth of a son, returning what has been 
borrowed is like the death of a son. 

In India the birth of a son is welcomed with the highest possible joy, 
and the death of a son is the most terrible loss that an Indian father 
can experience. 

1 100. isviTiEiQp'Sis^LiQurT&S^ssQeiiesarQih Qsr,®s@p^nj>. 

Returning what has been borrowed should be like borrowing it ! 
In both cases cheerfulness is desirable. 
" He that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing." 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON DEBT. 

1101. ^eeareai—^LJSs si—gbjild l9lLu.^^j^ Qjrisi^ui (or jt/eauuSQsO ljgsbt 
(jspiih or @®ULSCa> Lfeaar 6miu>) ^sit^j. 
Being in debt to a neighbour and itch on one's breech ought not 
to be. 1106, 2310. 

1 102. ^a/sor &.eirQ&r&)rrih l/6jrjt, &.i—ti>Qu&>sorru) QsmliLjefrti. 

His inside is full of sores and his body is covered with blisters. 
" He is head and ears in debt." 

1 1 03. f§)ff<5V®) ^}SSsfluJ,7li>, $)!JS>JG0 SplLl—llb, ^QgpgJsQ&'LJSl Qw&T^SS)^ } 

They say the wedding-dress and the money (to perform the 
wedding) were borrowed ; beat the drum loudly and tie the 
thdli securely ! 

1 1 04. <§})3Slip Q&tt")) U^ffli) @niEI(3jlD!l ? 

Can borrowed rice ward off famine P 

1 105. e_L/L/<yLl^t 6ueapQujiT®ti> eSpg»s slJ^ests Qsir^^^sSu-t-jresr. 
He has sold his salt-pot and potsherds to clear his debt. 
He has had to sell all he had. A very common proverb. 

1106. S-areSil.(Sla si—g^sCd, ^.taremiKsas^ &niki(^LD QslLl^^. 

A debt at home, and itch in your palm are alike bad. 1101. 



120 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1107. er(Lp^ns &t—e!pj&(j3) ^jQp^rreo ^(ttjldit? 

If one weeps about what has been lent without a receipt, will 
that do any good ? 1111 . 

1108. &shri9>&(9jL-U)-& QlLls^ud, si—<snsfrr;esr QiLL-eifth ^Q^&suui—irgi. 
Do not stay near a calf or a creditor. 

If you go near them the calf will lick you and the creditor will ask for his 
money. 

" Creditors have better memories than debtors." 

1109. &1—6bR&)®)1£ <5(G$Q <5IT6tiGlJuSlgll. 

To be without debt fills a quarter of the stomach. 
" Without debt, without care." 
" Rather go to bed supperless, than rise in debt." 
" Poverty icithout debt is independence." 

1110. Qs\)60£8)p& &L-6GT @1T J?iySI<5(3jli>. 

Small debts destroy dignity (w honour) . 

1111. @lL(Si iBinLuf. eti&otrg ai—asps^ sjaggnepiLb ^(t^ldij? 

If you weep for what you have lent without getting the 
borrower's mark to the receipt, will that do any good P 1107. 

1112. (ogtLih^ ^jiiiLDrT&r Q^iLsu'un'^ssr, Q^tuiUJ^^d^ ^)LLi—n 6$ilo Gjqrfjg). 
The woman who is afraid of her things wearing out is called a 

god-elephant, but if she offers gifts to the gods, they will not 
accept her gifts. 

Said by women chiefly about a well-to-do woman, who is so stingy, that 
she is afraid to lend her jewels to anybody, lest they should suffer a little 
by being handled. 

1113. mast &nui$LLt—gi giruuni—GO®), iS\ 

The food I have eaten is not food, it is filth ! 1114. 

So says a man who regrets that he has not been able to pay off his debts. 

" Debt is the worst poverty." 

1114. mnesr e_/E/<s<sfr sljsst $5 n s@ ' pm sai jj uS &) , rsirear &nui5l®@p &rTuurr(E) 

#iruurTt—&)60 } iS\ 
Until I have cleared off my debts to you, what I eat will not be 

food, but filth. 1113. 
" A pound of care will not pay an ounce of debt." 

1115. unes)& Q&nipih, LoppQ^eoeo/Tiii ^nsuio. 

The turban is his own, the rest is boiTOwed. 

Said of a bridegroom who had borrowed all his clothes, except his turban. 
In India even rich people will borrow jewels, &c, for great occasions. 

1116. Q(3ULL&pgiS(3j eSti^Qmeueisr, &i—G!p]&(j9} j>j^snsjiT<m. 

He who fears shame, will fear debt. 

1117. &i—Gsr6vnmiQ4 : 0<F6\)q/ Q&iLpGuesytii, lditld Gjpls <s6)s<sSLLL-ene§)]Lo &rfl. 
He who borrows and spends, and he who climbs a tree and lets 

go his hold, are alike. 



LAZY PEOPLE. 121 

LAZY PEOPLE. 

1118. .jyao^uL/ig, (or gjup-SQji) ^uSinb Quiresr surnw^suaarrr? (or Qeuesar 

Oiarf) 
Will she get a thousand gold-pieces for each movement (or 
step) ? 1133. 

Applied to a lazy and unreasonable man, or to a dancing-girl who will not 
dance unless well paid. 

1119. ^thueOih Qeii(9)gi (Gagfi^j. 
The rest-house is on fire ! 

1120. jystBgggaeifr Q&n®)§2isiJ[r(D6Br6Br? euiromuj^^iTasr QiBneunQssrasr. 

Why should he say so ? Why pain his mouth by saying 
so ? 3084. 

1121. &k<S6)& ^jaajr^^sStQeo ^isjSq^k^ QsiLQi—Qesr. 

I lived in the midst of the market-noise and was ruined. 

The story runs that three exceedingly lazy fellows permanently took up their 
abode in a public rest-house. The owner of the chattiram. was anxious to 
get rid of them, but seeing them disinclined to go, he set fire to the chat- 
tiram. When the men perceived this, the one who was a " half lazy " said 
the first of the above three sayings. The one who was " three quarters 
lazy" did not like the remark and quoted the second, and the third man, 
who was " fully lazy" got very angry over the disturbance caused by 
the remarks of his two companions and used the third saying. The 
sayings are used as striking examples of laziness. 

" As lazy as Ludlarns dog, that leaned his head against the wall 
to bark." 

1 122. ,jya/(6if7;<s(<5 $}sveir er(ipi^(T^i^i &.esaruirar. 

Compared with her, this woman sits up eating ! 

The story is that the first wife of a certain man was so lazy that she 

would lie down to eat her food ; and his second wife was a little better 

than the first, for she sat up to eat. 
Used of improved circumstances as well as of laziness. 

1123. tSygj/ssLAnLLLjrjgeueifr ^<Sljl9Q&) ^imu^Q^lL® ^ifteuir&r. 

He who is unable to reap, carries fifty-eight sickles at his side. 

1124. ^srrruuLLi^.6sR Qi—igeussr u-iflpp eutraaipLJugih efi/b&lp&tr Gmsrjpi 

The man who had starved all night asked, if peeled plantains 

(bananas) were for sale ? 1137. 
Though very hungry, he was too lazy to peel the fruit. 

1 1 25. $)Q5®& sfT&) QpQgsS, mi— kp sirio @Qge&. 

Mm Devi is in the legs of an inactive person, and Sree Devi in the 
legs of an active man. 1126, 1141. 

Mu Devi is the goddess of ill-luck, the elder sister of Sree Devi (Lakshmi) 
the goddess of good fortune. 

16 



122 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1126. ^(Tj^a/aSr STQpiB^Q^sSp^p^&rQeir, iBmp&issr QisQth girjTix>. 
While the lazy man was getting up ; the man on his feet had 

already walked a long distance. 1125, 1141. 
" Lost time is never found again." 

1127. a./S^XcUJ/rtfii 0<—LjL—so, Q&sSt&Qpaufrs&r ^ssr^rpisisflajirlr <srmpleo'bso, 

&i£>uetriJD &6a&a(&j svLp&Q&i'fco, (Sjesuremi—eizuj eSfpgi isngji sunasasr 

My employment gives me no rest ; I am unable to say who my 
masters are (for I have many) ; my salary is unsettled ; tell 
our people to sell their bullocks and to send me about fifteen 
rupees. 

Thus writes a self-important young man, one of the many who leave 
their villages and go to Madras to try their luck and find that hard 
work is essential. 

1128. S-QpSp thiT&fl&) &sz(7j}&(<3ju Qunib, jifguaQp iBneffido jijiBsiJfT&r Qsn&kr 

During the ploughing season he went about paying visits, but 
returned at harvest time with his sickle (ready to reap the 
harvest for which he had not toiled) . 1322. 

1129. s_s3ri@ QPSK5 eiftefrQ p &tr t 
Will your back bend ? 

i.e., Are you willing to work ? Said to a lazy person, P-l—WLj QjVsffiurTjgevGBr, 
one who will not bend his body. 

1130. SL6ar2sfl7 j>jLS)- 1 £gjLjQuiTili-jr&), ugg) snessfisg) gt(TJj6>i QurTL-eorrib. 
If I kill you, you may make manure for ten acres of land. 
Said sarcastically to a strong healthy man, who goes about begging. 

1131. ei6BT&(9js Q&rrtSd&psmgd Qsn®^^a&), mnesr QunQQpssr. 

If you give me what you usually give, then I will go ! 1911. 

Put into the mouth of a lazy person who has got so used to rebukes and 
blows that he will do nothing unless they are first applied, e.g. Used 
of children who will not go to school unless compelled. 

1131a. <s@© sesuTL- §£ji—ix> easeon&txi, Q&irgi seesri—. ^§)i_ii> s-euirssih. 

Whatever place gives him rice-gruel is his Kailasa, and what- 
ever place gives him rice and curry is his Swerga. 
Kailasa is Siva's heaven, and Stcerga is Indra's. 

1132. sesari— $t—w isaseorrfdi. 

Whatever place he goes to, is heaven (Kailasa) to him. 1135, 

1136, 1138. 
i.e., He will make himself at home anywhere. 

1133. sn&) /F«Di_<£@ Quasar® sits-, ems <a£&&&(9) gg/F^ &n&. 

Two copper coins for walking on foot, and five for swinging the 

arms! 1118. 
Said in ridicule of a lazy and unreasonable person. 



LAZY PEOPLE- 123 

1134. (5^ for ^d^i^j) JsleBrtTrp®), (s^myiCd inn^w. 

If one sits eating, a mountain will be destroyed. 1887. 

A man who will not work because he is rich, will soon see his property 
lessened. 

" His thrift ivaxeth thin that spendeth more than he doth win." 

1135. fgSdir&GEiQeo erTuun®, iA65ort—u£J3Q&) u(Sssss. 

He gets his food in a Chat tram, and sleeps in a Mantapam. 1132, 
1136, 1138. 

A Chattram or Choultry is a public rest-house. Food is often given away 
freely at such places by pious Hindus. A Mantapam is a sort of 
portico to a temple. The proverb describes a lazy vagabond. 

1136. QffilTJTl ^jSUUL-t— $l—li) 3r3lh. 

There is comfort where there is rice. 1132, 1135, 1138. 

Applied to people, who attend weddings and festivals to get something 

at the feasts. 

1137. Q&rru>Qurfi&(3j eutT6B)LpuuLpih Q@rrQ&)nQi 

A lazy man eats plantains (bananas) with their skins on. 1124. 
He won't take the trouble to peel them, though it is so easily done. 

1138. QurrQpgjuil.!— @£)i—u>, eSKdfsl (or ^E/gjii '^i—ld) eScLi— ^j'—ih. 
Where the sun sets, there is his lodging. 1132, 1135, 1136. 
Said of a person full of excuses for remaining where he finds comforts. 

1138a. ulLi— (e3(Lpib^) ^i—ilQufTQp^, efliLi— §$}i—ii> eSQtsl. 

Where he fell down he remains lying the whole day, and the 

place given him for rest, he claims as his permanent place. 
A more common form of 1138. 

1139. ldit^ud str-gsvySI Lonie^su u/DUunear. 

He will fly ten miles like a deer — in one month ! 
An ironical description of a lazy man's activity. 

1140. Qp^ 6$iltf.Ga) QpiLeisi— f£)(SQ(nj><sor. 

He is laying eggs in a corner of the house ! 
Sarcastic description of a lazy man's sloth. 

1141. IBl—kglTeO /5/T® 676V6U/TL0 2.^©/, uQ^gfTG) UniLjlh USBiS. 

If you walk, the whole country is your friend ; if you lie down, 

even your mat (bed) will hate you. 1125, 1126. 
A lazy man has few friends ; an active man can get on aDy where. 

1142. Qsur5g Q&n peopg Gsieargi, eStgl suwgireo &n@pjgj. 

Eating his food when it is cooked, dying when his fate arrives. 

1 143. Gsui<g<ss)££ $<asrn)J, eumpenp 2-&rgiQ/Djp. 

Eating what is cooked, and clamouring about what happens. 
Said by the wage earner about those who sit at home doing nothing 

beyond eating, chatting and sleeping, — the women inside the house, the 

men on the verandah. 



124 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

FOOD, EATING. 

SLOW TO WORK, QUICK TO EAT. 

1144. e-eaarsaaru u<s»*_ b.6dot®, Qeu&)&)u uemi—uSeoyev. 

There is an army of people to eat, but no army to conquer with. 
1402. 

There is no one to work and earn anything for the support of the 
family. 

1145. &.tf>Q/«(3j ^(5 »pgtiii> emrrr^i, &SK6spid(^u uu>ujtijd. 

At ploughing he will not plough a furrow, but he will dance 
like a top for food. 

" He eats till he sweats, and works till he freezes." 

1146. sulS (or Qsn&Tfef^) Gtmqrf&i <snndj^^ps(^th, sLSf-tsuireaih 6T<obr(nf&) 

If you say ' Grain,' his mouth opens ; if you say ' Bridle,' his 
mouth is shut. 

" He deserves not sweet, that will not taste of sour." 

1147. QsnL-Uj.& QipiE/QFj ujB&&&Q&tT6sr<gB)®) Qsm3^^isQsn&f<svirrr uesar 

i—njjth, ^jisSlpjgj E-iflpgi Qp^orQesr QSieuppneo giQpsjiQs^saeunh 
ueeari—tTjTib. 

If they say ' Go and dig up potatoes,' the mendicant is angry ; but 
if the potatoes are boiled and peeled and set before him, he 
will devour them. 2736. 

u Spread the table and contention will cease." 

1148. $s)6eon9-S(5) gjQj&nu), Qeuteos^ ep&fluLf (or s=ns(^). 
There is haste to eat, but an excuse (for escaping) work. 

1149. QpGSBri—& Qsir/bgissniin, (jsjgsbt® QuitlL® suit ^/l-tiI (or jsleBrjpi 

QutriKSu Qun !) 

0, Thou sluggard, come for food when the gun is fired. 

The evening gnn is fired in Madras at eight o'clock in the evening. Said 
of a lazy fellow in a family who earns nothing, bat never forgets 
the meal -time and is impatient for his meals. 

1150. u0ulj Qffnp&s^u upgj (com. ufsltEj) sit^lo Quireunesr. 
He will go a hundred miles to get dhall ! 

Dhall is a luxurious dish. 



FOOD, EATING. 125 

HUNGER IS THE BEST SAUCE. 

1151. (§L—&) amLii5j$n&) ) gj^srojo/ii eamiaQstreo tgleorgipjm. 

When its bowels are dry with hunger, a horse will eat straw. 
"J. hungry ass eats any straw." 

I 152. U& Qlj&l jy/fillLIVg], lBj£ $Sl<S8)!I &SIX) ^tfSu-HTgl. 

Hunger is indifferent to flavour, sleep is indifferent to comforts. 
Hunger and weariness make a man indifferent to trifles. 

I I 53. uSigi SfB QeueksrL-mh, gir&&£g]&(3ju unub (osuesBrL-nm. 

Hunger needs not spices, sleep needs not a mat. 1 152. 



GOOD FOOD. 

1154. f§j£&& Sp^vsssri^. <5r®sr&(9j@ Q^e^tUSluQun^s-^i. 
This pastry nauseates me. 

" He digs his grave icith his teeth." 

" That is not always good in the man, that is sweet in the mouth." 

1155. ^sarjz/ frruLSi-Lu. ptruun®, ^SBresrth gigi LDtr&ggi&(§p @irtki(<9ju>. 

The food I ate that day will help me over six months. 1914. 

Said in praise of a lady for the good food she prepares. If it is used inter- 
rogatively it means, ' Will what you gave me help me for six months ? ' 
i.e., It will be of little use to me ! It is also used ironically. 

1156. «f££9- (LDir&ih) ULpr&fo&ngyu), r^^sh-i—iEHSrrub evpp^iua Qpi$.p tsiesrp 

He who seeks and eats cold rice with dried dthandan fruit in the 
hot weather (lit. the month Adi) will gain heaven. 

This dish is a very suitable one for the hot season, and also very palata- 
ble. 

1157. ^(TrfisfSKcturr, L^Q^ssrStQuurr? 

Is it prawn curry, or is it pigeon curry ? 1160. 
Prawn curry and pigeon curry are both rich. 

1158. S^^luULD ©S5)i_<£gjt£>/T ^jiD!HSlin<3B)^U UQfjS&Ds'? 

Will rice (such as is eaten) at the New Moon Festival come every 

day? 
Hindus eat only one meal on the day of the New Moon, and it is 

therefore a good one. 

" Angels visits, few and far between. " 

1159. Qun<5Gr<GT)iEj&GGBrG6&i;(9jU L\<sfB eS lL.® ^sQ^eo , &.6SBr&s3)LJ Quasar evpith 

If tamarind is added in cooking the Ponuang kanni vegetable, 

even a woman who eats nothing will eat very much. 
Tamarind is a favourijte condiment and the vegetable is pleasant. The 
two together make a very rich dish. 

1160- iSesr (SfLpihGutT, Q pax (3jt£Lc(oiJ/r ? 

Is it fish sauce, or is it honey sauce P 1157. 



126 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

GLUTTONY. 

1161. $)Q5&Qp <2j6sr<°6>p&(8j er(T7}6B)ic ilk® ^tear (rrppQ uneo. 

The day he has something to eat, it is as if a buffalo was feeding. 

1162. ^j6S)jT QpQpiEjQesr uirwLjQua&J. 

Like a snake that has just swallowed its food. 

1163. e-UL$&)6MLD®) 6^0 uSi—ns s^Q ^Uf.uuirm (or <ST<sar^eOs^Qsuissrn^ 

(jsjiy-uurrear). 
He will swallow a huge pot full of rice, without any salt (or 
saying, It is not mine) ! 

1164. P-U<56)u@ QjgtjiLQaQsrTeaar® e_j<i6u (LpQ^tsi^surnssr. 

He touches his lips with salt and swallows a big rice-mortar ! 

A great glutton. Also said of one who wants to make great profits with 
slight exertion. 

1165. sen £Kc uit&) Q^ireannsBi—iLjU), fir§sQufr&) euuSguw. 

He has a throat like a needle, and a stomach as big as a washer- 
man's pot. 

Said of one who pretends to be able to eat a little only, but is found to 
have an enormous appetite. 

1166. sem^vsfretaius si^-^^jsQsnessr® §>qt} un^esrs 1 Q&irpeoip <srmp&)ed erm 

Linear. 
He will swallow a pot full of rice with a little chutney, saying, 
It is not mine ! 

1167. snibk^ llitSI sihiSIQeo eSfzpi^rr/bQuireo. 

Like a starving cow getting into a corn-field. 
A glutton's appetite. 

1168. <2WlL®<£ &u)uit ^aQtansu&pneo, QuitlL®^ &!tui$l- GUQfjGbirtTSetr. 

If I prepare rice and set it before them, they will come and swal- 
low it up. 2736. 
Said in sarcasm on those who are ready to eat, but unwilling to work. 
The Q&(Til.®3 : &t£>un is fresh threashed rice, which has a sweet taste. 

1169. &&SuQurr® &u>Lnkfsl ^QgP&neo, <sjq§ g)3so. 

If a man who feigns unwillingness to join in a meal, is induced 
to partake of it, he will eat seven helpings (lit. leaf-plates full) 
of rice. 1177. 
" Do as the maids do, say no, and take it ! " 
" I don't want it, I don't want it, but put it into my hood." 

1170. Qffnp^ii^s Qs® } yuPigju uiTjru>\ 

He is the ruin of food, and a burden to the earth ! 
A useless person who is a burden to all. 
" He is not worth his salt." 

1171. l§d(9jU GuT<5(5<5 Q&lLl-GUGB)] 3(3j0 Q£rT63Br<oB)L-LDt-L(du) SVtTUJlh <5lJU$JpiU>. 

A person that is without modesty has a stomach and mouth 

that meet at his throat. 
" To have a belly up to ones mouth." 



FOOD, EATING. 127 

WHERE THERE IS MUCH TO TAKE CARE OF, A LITTLE IS 

NOT MISSED. t 

1172. Qasisrpjpijg gsu'fcrr <566btgg$c[ (9ji$.£@<SB).g& ssiai—gj uanh, @£$l!/j/t 

@<58)@& &6BB1l—£tf lUtTIT? 

Who has seen a frog in a well drink water, and who has seen it 

not drinking r 1 
Often said of a man and a woman who live by themselves in the same 
house. Everybody believes that they treat each other as man and 
wife, though no one has any proof. 

1 1 73. (3jsiTLo straQpauesr ^ssmssc^issujs (^i^uunQ^S) ? 

Will not he who guards the tank drink from it ? 
" He who manages other people's ivealth, does not go supperless to 
bed." 

1174. C^Ssnr euySI&Sp sugar upiEiss)<sssitu iBSSLDfri-LL-rr^s)? 

Will not he who gathers honey lick the back of his hand ? 
" He guides the honey ill, that may not lick his fill." 

1175. US- Q-QD@tT^lLD y UU$GG>ff@ fs]<S8T<3S ^iLl—lTISSr. 

Though the cow plough, its owner will not allow it to eat the 
crop. 

The cow is held sacred by the Hindus, and should never be used for plough- 
ing ; but this man yokes it and gives it nothing to eat. 

1176. Qumt QmtfisQp lditQ, (SSiSusQarreO (slan^^rr? 

Will not the bullock that treads the stack eat the straw r* 
" He is a poor cook who cannot lick his own fingers." 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT FOOD 
AND EATING. 

<J/TL/L//r(S). 

1177. e_6sbrjp/L0 euuSpemp ^etflsSppir ? 

Why hide a stomach which wants food ? 1169. 

Applied to one who, from a false feeling of modesty, refuses to take 
what he is longing for. 

" Never be ashamed to eat your meat" 

1178. jbjjGs&uuL-L- uesari—ui maL@uQun&& i gi. 

The cakes I had hoped to enjoy have been spoiled. 1010. 

1179. 6TOTTS3T ^lek(ltj'^lLO, gl@p(3jG>LC)Q&) IBIT§H (o U/f^LD Ui£ii ^<SST6ST, CT6U 

&)rru> ^fu^uQu) (or QsiBs^ih). 
Whatever ydu eat, if you also eat four dates, all will be digested. 



128 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1180. erearear s\i—i> §?S3r,g2/ Gpsar(tr?ib (3}(tjjgS3ljit®) QsnplsQ(nj'li. 
Why, you pick up your food like a bird, a grain at a time. 

i.e.. You take too little in your hand at a time ; fill your hand with rice and 
eat well. Food is eaten in India without the aid of knives, forks, and 
spoons. 

1181. (§<gg]LJutl.(£lu QuirjpijSptregiJD, (Sjemp euuSjpi Quit gus^unr ? 

• Though you may bear a blow, can you endure a stomach only 
half filled? 1189. 

1182. «_(^>i(5<s Q&npL-tr i&easmLi. 

Chillies {Capsicum frutescens,) serve as whips to make one eat 

gruel. 
The hot taste of the chilli is a stimulus to the appetite. 

1183. <sr_i£ STGsrQtj'&iiiD, (jSjUf-aQpsuasT i3o5>ipuun6sr. 

Although it is called 'gruel,' he who drinks it will live. 1725. 
A person can at least sustain life on the poorest food. 
" Half a loaf is better than no bread." 

1184. Q#np(tr?&) ^jisf.ffi^ s-suir. 

(Man's, body) is a wall built of rice. 
The body cannot exist without food. 

1185. ZgflQgM) GUIiSgU, &lfjTth GT60GWLD &JU$(T>j> ? 

Is not the stomach only one span ? Is the whole body stomach ? 

Why is there so much falsehood and deceit in this world merely to pi'o- 
vide the stomach with good things ? 

1186. (e^iTearQpm &&)e£liyib tBtri£l ^fiB&uSQeO. 

Wisdom and learning are both in a measure of rice. 
Food is essential if knowledge is to be gained. 

1187. fsisisrp Qfrrjp/ 2_i_u>LS(ceo pLLt-.eSlSo'fo). 
The food I eat does not stick to me. 

Said when sickness or sorrow makes food loathsome. 

1188. tglsarQpanpp ^lesr^vm, Qpeunth^ ^L-L-UHTuSQ^sQQrpGBT. 
Though he eats well, he is still' like the thin sloth. 
" He is nothing but skin and bones." 

1189. Qpg]Q3>G) gjuf-ppned ^jruii), suuSpp!®) ^iq-pprreo ^gHont 

If one is beaten on his back, it will heal ; if beaten on the sto- 
mach, it will not heal. 1181. 
Said when too little to eat or too little salary is given. 

1190. ingp &ap\s> QurTLLQdQsrr&rGinr^eijieisr LomLQu l9/duu. 

He who will not receive rice the second time it is passed round, 
is born a bullock. 

The distributer says this to the guests. It is thought to be bad manners 
not to take a second helping. 



COMFORT, EASE, LUXURY. 129 

COMFORT, EASE, LUXURY. 

1191. P-@f£lQujrrspg]&(9) ps& &&ID. 

One's comforts must be suited to one's business in life. 

1192. <otQuuit0ud i5liy.uurr(VjLX) s-6sari—rr^v)&}, ^fSenuLju) peSHrULju) e_68wx_/r 

If you have servants to take and fetch, you will be Aveary and 

fatigued. 
Luxury leads to enervation. 

1193. eresresr ^i~sr i ptTpnl L/jili_/r© LDir&ii> Qpuugjih 9(5 sk^naJih (or 

eorruth). 
(If you say) 0, Vaishnava mendicant what is the matter ? 

(He says) The thirty days of Purattasi are days of profit to 

me ! 258. 
Purattasi is £he month August — September in which Vaishnavas are speci- - 

ally liberal to all mendicants. 

11 94. (Vj^slasijj (3j0i—tTigB)§2iu), Qsn&T(6nj GslmQoDpleo ^eapiunt 
Though the horse be blind, will it eat less gram ? 

Though a person be worthless, be will expect his food and comforts like 
anybody else. 

" A bad horse eats as much as a good one." 

1195. #<sii> QstLL-rrso aSlj^/i) pssQeuesorGZuQ, eStir^ih QslLl-(t&) &&ih p&s 

QeueBnrGSlih. 
If your worldly comfort fails, asceticism is the right thing (to 
seek to attain) ; if asceticism is of no avail, worldly comfort 
is to be sought. 

Speaking generally, Hinduism rejects the idea of the possibility of com- 
bining the pursuit of temporal and spiritual prosperity. 

" If you can be happy without health, you may be happy loithout 
virtue" 

1196. Qegspemps Qsfr<Sl^^iu> &&0m& entriEjQsQsrr&r. 

Even if you have to give the world for it, acquire prosperity. 

2251, 2449. 
Here ' prosperity ' may be translated ' spiritual welfare.' 

1197. $Qj)thrT(&2&(9jLJ QurrS^iurr enssr^eo ^ih, ^ih [said quickly and 

joyfully), j3(VjLhiSl sn^QQrj'ujiT Gtmqifei e_ii>, e_to ! [said slowly 
and sadly). 

If we ask anyone if he is going to a festival, he will say, " yes, 
yes" (with joy). If we ask if he is returning, he will say, 
" um, um " (with sorrow). 

People are happy when entering on a new delight but after enjoying it 
disgust arises. 

17 



130 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1198. isitlu Q&lLl- Q&t-L®d(9ip Qpiki&iriLu u/rjjyu> Q&ngiwn ? 

Does the wretch of a dog crave for cocoanut milk and rice ? 636. 
Hankering after comforts above one's position. 

1199. Qtstreupp euntpQeii sutTupen, (gjeapsupp Q&sos&ld Q&ed<8ULD. 
Prosperity without pain is prosperity, and wealth without lack 

is wealth. 
" It is a fortunate head that never ached.' 7 

1200. u&u$edeorr.g<3i]S!pis(9j& sq^ul^ ldiiSq^s^^ pLLrrasnii. 
To a person never hungry, famine is like hair. 
i.e., It is not worth his notice. 

1201. u&retr^^Q&i ^Q^sQpsijasr, ueire<r<g$(l>®) ^uu,T(g)? 
Will a person in a valley always remain there ? 87. 
" After a storm comes a calm." 

1202. urrg!i&(9j iSI^&esr <s?<oB)SvuSeo'2eo } ueoeos(^s^ iSI^Qesr Q^ir^m-LSls^eo. 
In taste nothing surpasses milk, in comfort nothing excels a 

palanquin. 

1203. iSt&rVefr i$p&@p@p(&j QpmQear ^issrpiutrn, iDQjjics&r eu^Qp^p^ 

QpmQetsr sL-Uf-uutrfr (or QumLQjluunn). 
Eat and enjoy before you get a child ; put on your jewelry and 
enjoy it before a daughter-in-law comes to your house. 

After a child is born the mother will have to regulate her diet for the 
child's sake. And after the daughter-in-law comes to the mother-in- 
law's house, it is not considered becoming in the mother-in-law to wear 
as much jewelry as before ; she must give her jewels to the daughter- 
in-law, however much the girl may have brought with her from her 
own home. The meaning of the proverb is therefore : use your chances 
of enjoyment. 

" Make hay while the sun shines." 

1204. euipgi suu&), Lc&)ir£pjp Qgirusmu. 

That which came was a ship, the outcome of it was a big belly. 
Said of a family that suddenly becomes prosperous. Wealth and corpu- 
lence often go together in India. 



CONTENT, DISCONTENT. 

G^QIjugjI, fiJlQIjLj{g!u96V6VtT6S)Ui. 

1205. ^iLi—Q^eoeomh Qsirerr^ii) ulLl^ldssst suuemp. 

A wretch who has a vessel for alms that can hold whatever is 

put into it. 1211, 1220. 
Never satisfied. 
" A beggar s purse is bottomless." 

1206. E_68BTi_ euu9pjpi&(Z)3 : Qfnjpnh, QLDmLe8)u.g£'teo&(3j sTeaarQesanLjixiQ uneo. 

Like food to a satisfied stomach, and oil to a bald head ! 

Applied to one who shows indifference to a gift, because he is already 
well off. 



CONTENT, DISCONTENT. 131 

1207. &.60BTI— euuSjipi Q&L-Qth, $£)earp uns^ Qens^iJa. 

The stomach that has eaten will ask for more ; the areca-nut 
one has eaten will make (the mouth) red. 2178. 

Said of people who have received much help but are not satisfied, and will 
certainly seek more assistance. 

1208. e-6snru^j tsnySI, &.®uujp rbtrep) Qpgih, <sr6Banjg)Q&tTU}. iS'Bssrih^} crassr 

emi ih Loesril). 
Man needs a measure of rice for food, and four feet of cloth for 
dress, but the mind thinks of eight hundred millions of 
things. 1215, 2708. 

" Had you the world on your chessboard, you could not fit all to 
your mind." 

1209. SLOTrSsar/J i$i$., snssr'hssTLJ iSliy., u.&isn^^n&r ^^sogoiuulSIi^.. 

Catch you, catch me, and catch the head of the goddess. 

Said by one who has already exerted himself to the utmost for some one 
when he is asked to do yet another kindness, implying that there is no 
end to the demands made on him. e.g., Draupadi made a vow when 
the Pandavas were conquered at gambling, that she would not tie 
up her hair till their enemies the Kauravas were killed. When this had 
been accomplished by Krishna's favour, she again declared that she 
would not tie up her hair till Aswathama, who had killed her children, 
was slain. Then Krishna said this proverb to her. 

1210. med£gi&(§ ejjbp QsrreOm. 

The appearance (or The ornaments, or The costume) must be ad- 
apted to the occasion. 2310, 3058. 

" Cut your coat according to your cloth." 

1211. «Sfi_€E>£_ 3i-<5B)t—UJlTtb& Q&(T®fi@IT§2ll£> (9j68)p lilEJStTgl. 

Though you give him baskets full, his wants will not be satis- 
fied. 1205, 1220. 

1212. &rrew§!)!T£eB)jg& &lL(3 } &g)i£><ss)p6muju QuiriLiutrsQ } @^^n^<ss)^s 

sessr®, sfsih Qugietigi erssrreOLci ? 
When shall I, having burnt the Shastras, having proved the 
four Vedas false, and having seen the mystery, obtain spiritual 
happiness ? 131. 

" When may I know the hidden things of life, 
And thus attain perfection ? I would show 
How false the Vedas are, with error rife, 
And burn the Shasters, so the truth might grow." 

From Pattanattu's songs, in Govee's " The Folk-songs of Southern India." 

1213. &QM}lW(& ) @pg] G160GMLO y«D^i(5 J/j<SS)L-UJIT&rLCI. 

All grumbling is a signal for punishment. 

Children that whine for things they cannot have get punished. 



132 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1214. L]G0g2t §£j(fi)&Qp ®<—&@l®) QLDiveSi—rrg], Q&ngi @0sQp §gji—&$&) 

^esresr epi—mrgi. 

Where there is grass the cow will not graze, and where there is 
rice you will not eat. 1208. 

Discontentedness makes people change from one thing to another " to 
improve their circumstances." Give a man half the world in the one 
hand, and he will soon ask for the other half, says Carlyle. 

1215. QungiLo er&srQp tuesrCcLD Qutrm QsiLiijib wq^k^s. 

A heart that is satisfied is a medicine (or philtre) that will 

make gold. 1208. 
" A contented mind is a continual feast." 

1216. gfearjy (tpipQpua $($ &pg)i, (tpuug) QpLpQpm $@ a-pgi. 

If you have three cubits of cloth, you can only wind it round 
yourself once ; if you have thirty cubits of cloth, you can 
only wind it round yourself once. 562. 

Said of one who is never satisfied. 

1217. ($& safari— l$gbt e./j&sroiu o.pletnuj.g pireyQpg]. 

The cat that has tasted nice things will continually jump at the 

uri. 
He who has got a taste for pleasure will not be satisfied easily. The uri 

is the loop in which a vessel to hold food, &c, is hung from the roof. 

M The escaped mouse ever feels the taste of the bait." 
" Stolen waters are sweet." 

1218. suuSjp) i§jjihL9(GV)e2ji}>, seear Snwurrg]. 

Though the stomach is filled, the eye is never filled. 
" The eye is bigger than the belly" 

1219. euirnjeijth l/sJt(6^ld/t<5 jy'Seu^Tjpssr. 

He wanders about like the wind and birds. 

Said of one who has too much to do, or about a person who seeks wealth 
in all sorts of ways, but is never satisfied. 

1220. eumpQ@6d6dnLD Qsn&r^ixi u>&n nn^ssr suueSlQeo. 

A king's ship will hold everything that comes. 1205, 1211. 

Cf. 963 /. 1669/. 



STUPIDITY AND IGNORANCE. 

(LpLLl—T6rT 9 G>U6S)45. 

1221. <f£2so $ffa> qarKourreo g^igjio. 

The leaves of a banyan tree are like tamarind ! 

"He knows not a pig from a dog." " Very like a whale." 

1222. @®^ GiGBTQtfeO QprfliurrpiT? GTgyLSl&ffwuLpti) QuireSl^s^u). 
What, don't you know ginger ? It is as sweet as a lime 
" He does not know A from a goose's foot," 



STUPIDITY AND IGNORANCE. 133 

1223. (BirssrHiJo ermear, QgrfltLm^rr? w^^enihQutr&i &eo <s&) GreGrapiw. 
What, don't you know a horn ? It sounds like a drum ! 

" As like a dock as a daisy." 

1224. Li&GS!sfl<&&ndj&(8jLD LjL—®)iEJ£rTuj8(3)th eSlgffiujn&LO QptBtuniLGi G?u# 

Q(rrj>dj. 
You speak as though you don't know the difference between 

the gourd and the snake- vegetable. 
The pwdalangkai (Trichosanthes anguinaj is a long snake-like vegetable. 
M As like as an apple is to a lobster." 

1225. uneeari—<siJiT&r Qgiflcurr-stT? slLi^.go sngyQurre) ftpsarjipQuiT ereisTgy 

euntuireo Q&netis$ } ^nesm® eSn^sos aniLuf., i§®)&(s)eO §)@ QarrQ 

" Don't you know how many Pandava princes there were ? 

They were as many as the legs of a bed — three " So said a 

fool, and held up two fingers, and made a single mark on the 

ground ! 
Every Hindu school-boy and every Hindu woman knows that the Panda- 

vas were five brothers, the heroes of the Mahabharata. 

" He speaks one word nonsense, and two that have nothing in them" 

1 226. eg5/£>j2/<505L/ QuirtssrspiSled'feo, Q&(T}jljlj &Lpp<$ ! G8rjpLfl®ftB0. 

He neither went to the river nor did he take off his shoes. 

1227. fr-esr<Si\uD QgiBuungj, issseyub QptBuurrgj. 

(A cow that) understands neither how to bring forth (a calf) 

nor how to lick it ! 
A simpleton. 

1228. <sjlL®ld ^jjessr(StLD QpifitLmp Qu&op. 

A stupid fellow who cannot add eight and two together ! 

1229. seSiumsssr aS'tli^.a) Quitlu ^]t£lajn&5r, Qld&t^ &g@Qpii) QslLQ ^jjS 

muter. 
He knows nothing about going to a wedding, and he does not 

understand the sound of the drum. 
Said of a man who acts foolishly because he lacks experience. 

1 230. QsnQ^^jLD ^/tSlujirear, Qsn®& psurrsVerrs sesarQih ^jjSiuneisi. 

He has never known what giving is, nor has he ever seen people 

who give ! 
He has not a charitable disposition naturally, and is too stupid to acquire 
such a disposition. 

1231. /sons (?Ljn-tli_j57Lo7a)?60, QumLi-.&jiTs'BsiTLJ uirnp@g$L£l@fteo. 

She has neither worn jewels herself, nor has she seen people 

who wear them ! 
Innocent ; knows nothing of the world. 

1232. Qurresresyii) QgrfiiLiiTg}, Qunm QpiSfJsp ^6ssfiiLjii> Q^rftuurr^j. 

He neither knows gold, nor does he know a cloth in which gold 

is tied up ! 2547. 
A fool. 



134 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1233. eoeusseijih QgtflujiTjp, aseuggju uasi—sse^ih Qgifiiung). 

He does not understand how to keep it, and he does not under- 
stand how to make use of it. 

Said about those who do not know how to manage wealth or fortune or 
business; especially about servants, daughters-in-law, and wives. 

1234. 0DQJ&S& Q@ifluJiTLD&) ) <3naj&Q&ni<k> Qurrrfleo esxauggnetrrTU). 

She did not understand how to keep her property, so she placed 
it in a stack of straw. 1261, &c, &c. 

Said when women or servants entrust their little savings to untrust- 
worthy persons. 

1 235. gjUi-PP ®t—U> S6BBT(E>L9u?.<£g} cgjLp, ^JpiLDlT&tX) Q&®)§BLb. 

To find the spot on his body where he was beaten, and to cry 

about it, will take him six months. 
Dullness, stupidity. 

1236. ^jifleiJiT&r (^LLeat—uQuireo sirujf&eo ldit p pQ<smrt 

Can fever be removed as (easily as) the heat from a sickle ? 

The story goes that a sickle had become hot in the sun, and a passer by 
thought it had fever, so he put it in water and found that it grew cool 
again. At another time he found his mother in a burning fever, and 
put her into water also, where she was drowned. 

" A fool will laugh when he is drowning." 

1237. .jyffl/SBT eunuSeo&irr^ l^g®. 

He is a worm without a mouth. 

He won't bite; is innocent; does not meddle with others. Also used 
ironically. . 

1238. @<s8)/_iij@2/u) ueireifliL\LD §£emp&£ Lj®)ti> #ire3. 

The land cultivated by a shepherd and a Palli proved a failure. 

1245, 3317. 
These two castes are proverbially stupid. 

1239. ^jLL®ea)Sii^^iT&) (sleBTGBreqti), <5T(Sipg]Gt» i 8uppn®) &lo&£&)u> QpifliLjih. 
What you place before him he will eat, and what you put upon 

him he will carry. 
He can eat and work, but in other things he is a simpleton. 

1239a. Or eaeu^^es)^^ 0m^n, QunLLL-<an$& <sfld«@lo. 

He will eat what is given him and carry what is laid on him. 
Said of an ass or a stupid man. 

1240. §$oirQPQgg!u> anu>tTuj6eani> QslL®, @<ssip&(9j srirmGor GTearastQeuesorGHuD 

GT6BTUg}G!uiT&). 

After having heard the Bamayana read (and explained) all 

night, he asked how Rama was related to Sita ? 
He listened so stupidly as to miss the chief point, i.e., that Sita was Rama's 

devoted wife. Of such a person it can be said, ^JSussr Ljgjg) &.&)sea)S 

Q&tTQgrsgp, his wit is as blunt as a rice-pounder. 
" John has been to school to learn to be a fool." 



STUPIDITY AND IGNORANCE. 135 

1241. &jsfretr<ss>pujtJc> Q&Qppneisr Qihn&r'&siTS&esBrsGBreGr . 

The one eyed (or angry-eyed) man ruined what existed. 809. 

To make bad worse. Said also of one who destroys what is in good order 
by his incapacity. 

1242. OTtl®ffl/(T5&£LO <oT(Trj6B)LD33L-rT 67//?<£gjU (oUITS <3Uy5? Q<£®U)ITlh. 

The buffalo-bull that had been used to go to a lake to drink for 

eight years, was still doubtful about the way. 
The buffalo is proverbial for its stupidity. 
" Send a fool to the market, and a fool he will return." 

1 243. GTQfjjgi ffeisrpgi 6TGBrQri>eO, Q@nyj@$sl&0 slL® GTGBrQpgjQuireo. 

If he is told that a bull is in calf, he will say ' Tie it in the 

stall ' ! 
11 As wise as Waltham's calf, that ran nine miles to suck a bull." 

1244. GT(TT)QpiLa5)l—LJ LjfffT6SBrii) <SH!T&&Q (TtfaST . 

He is reading the Purdna written on cow-dung cakes. 

Said of a very stupid fellow. The Purdnas are the scriptures of later 
Hinduism and are largely mythological. 

1245. si— n QLDiLi&@pGii6or sijSsuirQtQ) QaaQg Qunear £§)*_to. 

Does a shepherd know where the plough-share is ? 1238. 
It is not his business. An Indian shepherd is always counted a fool. 

1246. &QgGS)pun®) (§u^gg&ttQutre$(V)&Q(Trj'6ar. 
He is like one who has drunk asses' milk. 
i.e., Very stupid. 

1247- 3&T(&^3 @;{£-UJg3/,s(3} eunib 6T6Brjpiih Qfypgl Gi6BTgiiii> Qgifliurrgi. 

A person who drinks toddy does not know the mouth of the 
cup from the bottom of it. 3085a. 

1248. siTeaBr QQfj'Siiu), (^lllSi— $@£jju>rr? 

Do you come at one time to see me and at another to salute 
me ? 1254. 

Labour in vain ; both might be done at the same time. Said to one who, 
when ordered to do two small tasks, which might be done at once, 
arranges to do one now and the other another time. 

" Lazy folks take the most pains." 

1249. @Qtp umhi-i eiasrQrj'eo, QlcQ®) unn&QpgjQluiTeo. 

If you say there is a snake on the ground, he will look up. 
" He cannot say " bo" to a goose." 

1250. (5(5®i2) Q&e&Qih &-p,g]u unirpptTpQutT&) Q&djQ&iu. 

You do your work like the blind man and the deaf man at the 
show. 

The blind man criticised the dancing, and the deaf the singing as though 
each had understood what had taken place on the stage. 



136 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1251. etaauS®) ^(ds^QfimQear Q&rryS] Qmn^m <sj<ssrg)i gjplujiTgi. 

He does not know that he may lose the fowl till it is stolen 

out of his hands. 
The innocent man believes the deceiver till the deceit is flagrant. 
" A fool loseth his estate before he finds his folly." 

1252. Qsirs(<sj& pteouSi®) Qsn^arQesBrdj aBsusjpu iHiy-sQpgiQun®). 

Like putting butter on a crane's head and catching it. 

Said of a stupid undertaking about which one is ignorant of the steps to be 
taken. 

1252a. Or Qisio§0s smusQrrLLjjm Qsil-t—isuissrQun&i. 

Like the man who asked : " Which is the tree on which rice 
grows ?" 

1253. (G^vu&iB&fteo GnsBrgt sTGuegjii) QpireogysurriSBr, (^ireanSI&)%so GTGsrgi er<au 

Any one will say, I have forgotten it ; but no one will say, I 

am without sense. 
" All complain of want of memory, but none of want of judgment." 

1254. t5i—&&LDiTLLt—np e06urus^&(3j iBfr^jiiudsQpih &eurrifi. 

The old horse that is unable to work gets work on all sides. 

1248. 
Said of a fool who, instead of finishing the work he has on hand, turns 

to some other work, toils at that for a while, and then seeks something 

else. 

1255. jpsefi uhtpJsIgo <ojjfil, s\U)- u>!i<&G8)p Q@uLLis}.earg}QuiT6d. 

Like climbing to the top of the tree, and cutting it off. by the 

root. 
" The fool hunts for misfortune." 

1256. isrrasr QsnsQsirt Qsma^ iBmLL-irQesr\ 

Am I a crane ? man from the Konkdn country ! 

Cf. iBiresr 6TLDrrib]£ QgirQifluuirl Do you take me to be a fool ? 

When a Rishi (a saint) was doing penance, a crane let its droppings fall 
upon him from a tree. The angry glance he gave the bird slew it. This 
made the Rishi believe himself to be a great wonder-worker, and when 
he met the wife of the Tamil saint Tiruvalluvar, who did not at once 
obey his orders, he looked at her, thinking that she also would fall dead ; 
but instead of doing so, she looked at him and uttered this proverb. 

1257. useSio us-eym Q^rfliLieSlev'Seo, ^zeSHo GtqrjGSiu* O^/flayuj/r? 
During the day he does not know what a cow is ; will he know 

a buffalo at night ? 
If one cannot understand simple matters, how about what is difficult ? 

1258. U6srr8&(8jp peSl® ensussuQuir^guuo e_ff eremQpg], sqgpjgi <9{g)i& 

If you lay bran before a pig, it will say ' ur ' ; if you cut its 
throat, it will say ' ur. ' 

It cannot distinguish between good and evil, and it does not understand 
how to be polite. 



HA8TB AND RASHNESS. 137 

1 259. LjlL®SSL.<SS)I-. QpeBB(L-p$E)GO QufTglsQ (57®^^ QpSOSrl—Ui. 

He is a fool picked out of a basket of fools. 1261. 
Said of a great fool. 

1260. ySssr uilbsBTuSeti ptteoesMJ ^jil.(SlsQsrresar<S sreoeorruo $)Q7j60Bt(bl(2urT&&-g) 

After the cat has pat its head into a pot, it thinks that all is 

darkness. 
" He is a fool that thinks not that another thinks." 
" As a fool sings, so he thinks the bell rings." 

1261. WLLl^.liS§Hlh IDL-lf. LDSrr WL-Uf-. 

He is a greater blockhead than all blockheads. 1259. 

1262. QpiLl—.fT(6nj&(3j 6T6BT6Br Q&tTtSGT(g5)g2]LD ai—Ql—frQl— ©«6ff/7S3T. 

Though you give a fool advice, he will not listen with any 

attention. 
" Fools are pleased with their oivn blunders." 



HASTE AND RASHNESS. 

1263. ^jGu&rrfggjjQeo (jSjesmGi&LLuf.uS®) ems jgjemLpiurrg}. 

The hand won't go into the round pot in a hurry. 1276. 

The mouth of this pot is very large, but a man in a hurry will fail to get 
his hand into it. 

" More haste, less speed." 

1264. g\sti&Bp§i&(3j (or Jgu.ggjsQj or ^pfslirpgi&asffiu uneutJiGfleo. 

Necessity (knows) no sin. 
" Necessity knows no law." 

1265. ^j^^jnssirn^is^ (or ^sn^nssrTjr^iis^u lj^Js) ldlLQ. 
A hasty person's judgment is limited. 

" He that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly." (Prov. 14, 29.) 
" A hasty man never wants woe." 

1266. «g^j2/ snpih snssrQpQuuQ^ Qisnewasxpoap gjeSlup 1 gg]& QjGJLSIuSQeo 

aLLuf-aQ&nesBri-.ir<G5)iA. 
When the river was still sixty miles off, he untied his loin-cloth 
and put it on his head. 

He ought not to have taken it off till he was crossing the river. Inoppor- 
tune haste. 

" Do not strip before bed-time" 

18 



138 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1267. £§)/fla£) iSesstL—LD ^irnp piasiTg). 

The embryo of a Rishi will not stay (in the womb) a single 
night. 1272. 

i. e., A Rishi will be born before the dawn after the night in which his 
mother has conceived him ! — Said if people are over hasty in getting 
back things that they have lent ; and also if things lent are returned 
sooner than is expected. A Rishi is a Hindu sage. 

1268. 2_/-l«/r/f/F ( ^^«<5<£F(c<9 : J)JL$.g£?T®) QulTGSr<<SlS)(3jl£>, QL—&Q& < gju}-@pn&) 

If one strikes while sitting down, it may become gold ; if while 
running, it may either become copper or iron. 

" The admonition Nothing rashly, is everywhere useful." 
" Haste and wisdom are things far different." 
"He that can stay, obtains." 

1269. CTSfficrj enssrQp^p^QpmQissr, eresstQemub erikiQs <5rm®(ir^m1 

Before one says, Sesamum seed, he says, Where is the oil ? 
956, 960, 1282. 

Too hasty to wait for something expected. 

1270. ^(5 Gi-pgi s-ppl GuuSpsmp'i ^i—eSuuirir^^}sQsr76S!iri— < ^jQurr&). 
Like the woman who rubbed her stomach (to know if she was 

pregnant) after going round (the sacred fig-tree) only once ! 
2677. 
She was worshipping the god in the tree to obtain its favour and bear a 
child. Walking round a sacred place from left to right is a very com- 
mon form of adoration. 

1271. snQuSHo $(Wj££<3iJ6Br s6ssr2oSsr.i (§£$& sir^Qun^^ieSld^is^i ems i£lL 

While in Conjeevaram he stretched out his arm to strike the 

eye of a man in Benares ! 
The two places are twelve hundred miles apart. 
" Make not the sauce till you have caught the fish." 

1272. &tTLLQi—ifl (or @£)(!5@) £_6K>i_63)U5 ^nir^^iasir^j. 

The property of a demoness will not remain till the next 
morning. 1267. 

1273. &nes& seS^ii^jQurrQp^fr? 

Will your land capsize ? 

i.e., Take things quietly. Why toil and struggle as if defeat and ruin are 
about to befall you ? 

1274. (3j6rw) s-eamk^j QutT(9)iiQungi Q/xsmpeS^LDn? 

When a tank bursts, is there time to ask whose turn it is (to 
repair its banks) ? 

In a time of calamity every one must do his best to stop the evil. 



HASTE AND RASHNESS. 139 

1275. &$>es8T& &ggih, cs^sssru i^ggih. 

At one moment it is his will ; at another it is bile to him. 

1285, 2905. 
Or Cfflj3srr«(5 ^^ (gssBrib, an ever changing mind. 

" Women, wind and fortune are ever changing." 

1276. G;UUL-L-. fi#LL®<S(3jlJ iS &(3jL-.<Sl»L- £68Br68lfilT. 

Water from a cess-pool is of use to a house on fire. 1263. 

" Foul water ivill quench fire" " Good and quickly seldom meet." 

1277. wrij&Qj QeuteovmAaJteo, r8ps Qt5<TQpi$G0'fa>. 

The dog has nothing to do, and yet has no time to be quiet. 
Said when one is in a hurry about nothing. 
" He has more business than English ovens at Christmas." 
" Idle folks have the least leisure." 

1278. rS'&sTggQuigj iSl&r'Seir i3ps(^Loirt 

Will a child be born at the time expected ? 

One must not be in a hurry to gain the fulfilment of a wish, but must 
work and wait for it. 

1279. u]g!(6V)uSjjti> Qsn(E)0£tT62iu), uesi^UL] ^strgi- 

Even if you give ten thousand rupees, anxiety is of no avail. 

1280. u^&pGdeo i3&r'2eir eSpQpgiQuned. 
Like selling a child during a famine. 

Said when one is compelled to sell a thing cheap in order to live. The 
proverb is founded on fact. Cases were known during the Great Famine 
of 1876-8 and during the famine in the north of India at the end of 1896. 

128L, uvu6BBT&$tT!jeBr (prop. iSijrujnG8ord&tT!T6Br) eau^^uussirn&sr. 
A man going a journey is mad. 

He is so hurried and worried, that he appears to be mad. Making a 
journey is an anxious undertaking to most Hindus. 

1282. Uq^pfsl LjL-6B)SUUJITlLs StTtbggg]QuiT6d. 

Like the cotton tree that yielded a woman's dress ready-made ! 
956, 960, 1269. 

The cotton after being gathered has many processes to go through before 
it become cloth. Said sarcastically of one in great haste. 

" All is not butter that comes from the cow." 

1283. unnuun§!pi&(<sjLJ uput-j, QsneSle&Q>®)U-\LD &puLj. 

The Brahmin is in haste for the temple must be adorned. 

1284. upuurreisr uuSrr ^Lpfepnasr. 
The hasty man lost his crop. 
" Haste makes waste." 

1285. Qp-£j$jJu) QuiLQp^i^eaQen Qpuu^Q^iL® (^esnrth. 
While easing himself he had thirty-eight minds. 1275. 
Said of one who is very fickle. 

" A ivomans mind and winter wind change aft." 



140 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1286. @fli$.ujir>&iT60p£)G) seSvurrissmLci l$i$. urrsQ. 

To-morrow morning the wedding will be performed ; take betel ! 

Said when one receives notice at the eleventh hour of an impoi'tant matter. 
It is customary when inviting people to a wedding to send them 
betel-leaves and areca-nut. 

" Haste trips up its own heels." 

1287. Qauihpgi Qungiw Qp<5srqr?'2issTuSl®) Q&mL®. 

It is boiled enough ; throw it into my lap. 218. 
" Too hasty burned his lips." 



PROCRASTINATION. 

SLOWNESS TO LEARN. 

1288. «^ti)L/6i»i_uj/r057- Q&£0i£l/D(8j gjgi$GSl£(9ju i-\&$5l sui^^iQuneo. 

As the widow only got sense after her husband's death. 1439. 

2679. 
"Experience is a dear school but fools learn in no other." 
" Misfortunes tell us what fortune is." 

1289. <p<3 pnio eSlQgihprTeo Qpifliurrptr? 

If you fall once only, don't you perceive it ? 
" Bought wit is best." " Beware of the stone thou stumbledst at 
before." 

1290. S6SBT QsL-l—l3psn (SjlfllU IBW&VSfTrjui Q&lLQpjgl'i 

Is it only after you have lost your sight that you will worship 

the sun ? 1293. 
" The night cometh, when no man can work." (Joh. 9, 4.) 
" Blessings are not valued, till they are gone." 
" When the sun shines, nobody minds him ; but when he is eclipsed, 

all consider him." 

1291. sa&SQ&) ulLi— dUpw, Qjrsfrnrm (or eesfl) Qurrpirgj. 

Is the influence of planets of no account when you have hurt 
your foot ? 1295. 

1292. Qaswr/bpfieo eSlQgmpisiiGar id^iuv^iijix) eSQpeurr^)? 

Will the man who has fallen into a well once, fall into it again ? 
" Experience is the mistress of fools." " To-day is yesterday's 
pupil." 

1293. Qf$£L$/D(8j, Q&LU<£@JGS}ia(9)& Q&thQpprrt 

Is it after his death that you should recompense him who does 

(evil) to you ? 1290. 
" Know your opportunity" 



PROCRASTINATION. 141 

The cat that has been burnt will not go near the fire-place. 

"i burnt child dreads the fire ." 

" Adversity makes a man wise, not rich." 

1295. gfysVuSeO gjif^ iSp&lT, ^ITLpS(^6sffQp^J? 

Is it only after knocking your head, that you bend it ? ]291, 

1297. 
u When the head is broken, the helmet is put on." 

1 296. upjgi §)3»@& ti?<53TL/ urrir& fihQgsu) Ggiriggj. 

After paying a fine of ten (rupees), my grave doubt was removed. 
" Wisdom rides upon the ruins of folly." 

1297. e»n&®)ui$- ^^snuSleo uLLi—i3pm, (^esflQp^i? 

" Will you only bend your head after having knocked it against 
the door frame ? 1295, 1331. 

Cf. 873/. 1439/. 2975/. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT PROCRASTINATION AND DELAY. 

1298. «^<sil®Lo QuitsiKEIu), j>]siiet5)ir<isrrujs snubssiUSiLD, <gihi3 iSpasiUSua, 

.^ffl/spigji ssSliuiTtoSBTii) ^slKSld, ^m^esis 3^ui3i—uQunQQp 

G? (63) ? 

Let it be or let it go, let the vegetable grow up, let a boy be 
born, and let him be married, but do you think I am going 
to invite you to the wedding ? 2377. 

1299. srrir sigusstLfSiLD, sptslrfl l^sslKSu). 

Let the harvest come, and let the brinjal-plant blossom. 
Said to put off one who asks for help. 

1300. ptso @$(V)&8p ^i—^^leo tBQg@g] eusCJSlui. 

Let your neck grow up to where your head is now. 3329. 

i.e., Wait till you are a little older. 

" You must eat another yard of pudding first." 

1301. QpiSSTgil Qp\S)-&8r SQp@G?l®) eSifiL-Qlh, Qptilugl {gftsV (9)U<oB)UU$®) eSj^L- 

Let the three knots be tied on your neck, and let thirty leaf- 
plates be thrown on the dunghill. 

i.e., You feel very happy that an excellent offer for your daughter has been 
made ; but the wedding has not been performed yet. Let the three 
knots of the thdli be tied, and let Brahma. Vishnu and Rudra's names 
be pronounced over each knot; and after that, let the family be present 
for the grand final feast before you make sure that the wedding is 
really to take place. Cf. Solon to Croesus : — 

" Do not feel happy till you are in your grave." 



142 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1302. QtD?6od(3j& pire$&L-®Q(o(Dm, sqgpQp s-sQld j§)(77j aasrug/SunG). 

Like saying, Be happy, O neck ! some day I shall tie a thdli on 

thee ! 2377. 
Said of one who promises help, but delays in giving it. 
" He loses his thanks who promiseth and delayeth." 
" Hell is paved with good intentions." 

N.B. — The above jive proverbs are put together here not only on account of their 
meaning, but also on account of the peculiar expressions in them. 

1303. ^Qiuirgm Qps^^teo ^nj^m Q^QQp^iQurreO. 

To seek for weapons while the battle is going on. 619, 625, 
1332. 

Sloth turns nectar into poison. 1409. 
" Delay is dangerous." 

1305. cgj/zSW a(&jQ ut^iii &<£$&. 
Cold food is (soon) old food. 

Delay in doing duty makes the duty irksome. 

" The purpose of to-day to-morrow wrests away." 

1306. ^j6oresips(^ ^Qpsp isir'Sefrsf^ ^slLQw. 

To-day it is done ; to-mori'ow it may be done. 

" From to-morrow till tomorrow time goes a long journey." 
" Don't put off till to-morrow what can be done today." 

1307. §£esr<anp GrasrugjLD, isir'Berr Gimugnh, ^£&fteo GTasruppQ gjemi—ujn 

arib. 
To say " to-day " or " to-morrow " means " no ! " 
" One ' take it ' is better than two ' you shall have it.' " 

1308. eitflQp 6$LLes>i— j^eSSssd QestsrgiiQeuLLi—, wn&r uirrr^^spQurr&). 
Like looking out for an auspicious day to dig a well to quench 

a burning house ! 
" In haste like a snail." 

1309. si—&) euppls <£(77f<a//r® ^lasresr&)frix> eiasrgn &.L—&) 6upp7& Q&jgppirth 

Qsrr <£(&), 
The body of the bird who said ' After the sea is dried up I can 

eat salted fish, ' dried up and died (while it was waiting). 
" He that doth not what he ought, that haps to him which he never 

thought." 

1310. sestsT^u&renQunQ^ &rr&$. 

While you have your eyes you have sight. 
" Take time while time is, for time will away." 
" Take time by the forelock." 



PROCRASTINATION. 143 

1311. <s63argpu) s^u^^m Q-etretrQunQp strQ^sjyJo, jfj^ssr tStssri-j erasreur 

While there is sight and sense, we do not perceive what will 

happen to ns afterwards ? 
" After death the doctor ? " 

1312. snpgisir&rGlunQ.g ^pplsQsn&r. 

Winnow while the wind blows. 
" Make hay while the sun shines." 

1313. @60tsrjpj Qajt-Li$.j$ pn&iii ^irssaJmorr ? 

Can't you wait to quench your thirst until you have dug a well ? 
" Dont have your cloak to make when it begins to rain." 

1314. ffiQp^tsljr sfteo Gpuuu QuirQpgHJAeoyeo, ^ldlS^^so QpQpQ grruueoorih 

UGSBTioSBTuQuiTQp^JLSl&ftGO. 

The waves of the sea will not stop, and the young man will not 
finish washing his head and performing the rites for his 
deceased father. 1871. 

" He who will not sail till he has a full fair wind will lose many a 
voyage." 

" He who will not sail till the dangers are over must never put to sea." 

1315. Q^iLisf. QiisrriftdQp^ji^arQ&r, ulLissstiI) uplQunQpg]. 

While the merchant was adorning himself the city was looted. 
" He brings his machines after the war is over." 

13 1G. ^SiqijLJSGI Lj(9jl5g} ^0>LDrT^U) ISfTOJ (Sj^GOji <£J£lQ>LJ!T60. 

Like a dog barking six months after a thief had entered the 

house. 
" To lock the stable door ivhen the steed is stolen." 

1317. Q peuisfjLin&r QiEisiiiBs^QpssTQear, Qpn <gisf-@ Qpq^e&Qa) rSpQpgj. 
Before the dancing-girl had adorned herself, the car ran on 

and came to a standstill in the street. 

The procession was over before she was ready to join in it. It is part of the 
duty of the dancing-girls attached to a temple to dance before the 
sacred car when the God of the temple is taken ont on festival-days. 

1318. tB < 2iS8r<5jp &LDS@p<grr? 

Will any one wet his burden (and so make it heavier) ? 402. 
Said of him who puts off moral improvement till evil increases, or postpones 
repairs while decay increases, and thus double the cost of repairing. 

1319. up^iiupgis^ qpqieisss is mil euntaQsun Gieixqrfsti, urreo Qpetfi&(9j 

^jaij^^sQeaiT QsiT6sa'Si3ii(i^3U!Tdsr. 
If you say, Go buy the murungei fruit for the patient's diet, (he 
delays, and then) brings avatti vegetables (coronilla grandijlora) 
for the milk-sprinkling (funeral) ceremony. 

i.e., The sick man is allowed to die because the person in charge of him 
will not trouble to get him medicine. The milk-sprinkling ceremony is 
an offering of milk to the manes of the dead person on the third day 
after death. Used, for instance, when a loan of ten rupees which would 
have preserved a sick man's life, comes only in time for his funeral. 



144 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1320. u^qtj'^ siriftium Qptrrfgi. 

A tiling done without haste does not fail. 

Gf. U^fSsST SaiBtJULD UlTlfi. 

An affair that is hurried is all in vain. 

1321. tAfgjj&'ar (3j<sifl@j£i u&essrQiLQ®) ^Q^st^ihQurr^i LurrLLQi—eor eresrfiQjr, 

LflsrrSsrr Qupgu Qt5,m£El(nf)&s&Qs : Qsuesarc— (or Qibnesmi—) euih^Qir. 
While I was adorned with saffron and was ready for you, you 

refused to come to me ; now that I have borne a child and am 

weak, you want me. 
Literally a wife's complaint against a phlegmatic husband. Also used 

about any privilege that is neglected too long. 
" He that will not when he may, when he would he shall have nay." 

1322. Quflso&(9j Q-Qgeunir, ak-Qg&(8j ^Q^Shirir. 

They who delay ploughing will have to cry for food. 1128. 

1323. QsuQp a?LL®i(35 QstJLLQQp Qsmpi. 

A well that is being dug for a house on fire ! 
" To cover the well when the child is drowned." 
N.B. — Some of the above may he compared with 873 ff. 



WATCHFULNESS. 

6ZHT&QjT<55)3>. 



oa 



1324. c^Ssk7<? s-pp^u utTrrsstrweo j>jeird@p^rrl 

Do you gossip without looking (at your hearers) ? 781, 2585. 
Be careful when you try to deceive. 

1325. j^ppl^?®) &6mi&&rr®) pssorGssPiBepiLb j)j@& iBi^daQeuesurQixi. 

Though the water in a river is not more than ankle-deep one 
should walk carefully. 

1326. &-8 : 3 : iBp'fa>iiSl®) QffiQTjuurrGO jyiy-ppgiQuireo. 

(His influence is) like striking the crown of the head with a 
slipper. 

Tn ancient times a Tamil man might take a woman as a wife of inferior 
degree by putting his slipper on her head. This signified that the 
woman became his slave for life, and was to have nothing more to do 
with other men. The position of such a woman was less honourable 
than that of a legal wife and her children had no right to inherit family 
property ; but on the other hand it was far higher than that of an 
ordinary prostitute. The proverb is often used to one who allows him- 
self to be subjected to the influence of others. 

1327. s<sear®tb &nesareSl&)'fo>, QslLQuo Qsil.&e&GO'fo) sresrg) @(i£««£(?<a/6SBr®tf>. 
You should be like one who seems not to have seen what he 

has seen, and not to have heard what he has heard. 
i.e., Be wary. 
" There is a time to wink as well as to see." 



PBUDENC*. 145 

1328. &G8BrQ@n*) Lj6SBrQ^S)[ 

Is it an eye, or a wound ? 

Said as a warning to one who ia treating a delicate matter carelessly. 

1329. (3j£$2- snsi/pgi&Q&rTeBBri—aQujtT, Q&ir&r&fl eaxsu^^jaQsnesarL-irCDUJii? 
Did you receive a family into your house (as tenants) or did 

you receive a firebrand ? 
i.e., Be careful as to whom you admit into your house or into your employ- 
ment. 

1330. u&£}tju>, ersat suit&gSIsv j>jl$. Gasua&nQp. 

Be careful, don't put your foot inside my threshold ! 2243, 
2394. 

1331. QpCJSiQfxssr (356a^iiX?Q/«Rjr®ii). 

Stoop before you get into difficulties. 1297, 1337. 

" Look before you leap, for snakes among sweet flowers do creep." 

1332. Qaj&rsaih 6uqjjQpgjb(3j QpssiQesr, ^Bbsst (cu/ri_G?ei/6ssr©u>. 
The dam must be built before the flood comes. 1303. 
" A stitch in time, saves nine." 

" Prevention is better than cure." 



PRUDENCE. 

jEl^STULj, QlUT&dooT. 

1333. ^sbut tsihiS, Qprrtprr, &n(njS(Sj ejppm QumLi 

From whom did you expect (help), my friend, when you put up 

a water-lift (to irrigate) the kar rice. 
Don't begin an undertaking without being sure of the necessary assistance. 

1334. cf^0ii> Q0tfluJiTiD&) anteo ^LJSlsQsnessri—^iQuneo. 

Like stepping into the water without knowing its depth. 

Used about beginning operations without fully understanding their cost. 

(Cf. Luc. 14, 28.) Also about evil deeds that are done in the belief that 

they will never be found out. 

" A danger foreseen is half avoided." 

1335. s.©ii>Ly Gu/T(g)9) QunQpgj, es>& ewsgrra) Quirgjih. 

Let the iguana go. If I can only get my hand (out of its mouth) 
it is enough. 

The story runs that a man had foolishly put his hand into a hole to catch 
an iguana, but it seized his hand with such strength that he could not 
extricate it. Said of a person who has involved himself in great diffi- 
culties, out of which he is glad to get at any price. 

" Catching a Tartar." " To burn one's fingers." "Bo as little as 
you can to repent of." 

19 



146 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1336. eresaressf)^ G&iLQpsussr Q&l-U}., (sisem^^io Q&ibQpsum- lclLi$.. 

He that thinks before he acts is a Chetty, but he who acts without 

thinking is a fool. 
The Chetty caste is a class of merchants renowned for their business 

ability. 
" Consideration is the parent of wisdom." 
" Consideration is half conversion." 

1337- eresuresisB^ ^i6eSsu^i sqldld, gjessflih fii$sar GiesaTegsueugi $jQp3(8j- 

It is a deed to think and then venture ; but to think after ven- 
turing is a disgrace. 3331. 
" Think of the end ere you begin, and you will never be thrall to 

sin." 
" Some do first, think afterwards, and repent for ever." 

1338. QesurpgU ^ipQpih, suSp^ii MeaQfiih unnssQ<susssr(Slui. 

One must consider the depth of the well and the length of the 

rope. 
" Look before you leap." 

1339. &LDrr&rTjnh Q^if\mrn£>&>, ^jlotisijit gb)&&(3ju QunQ(tr?68t. 

Without knowing any particulars about it, he goes to the New 

Moon festival. 1009. 
i.e., He went to the house expecting a meal, but found that he had 

come on a fast-day and so was disappointed. High caste Hindus fast 

on the day of the New Moon festival. Said of one who commences an 

undertaking without understanding it. 

1340. eu/riu Lj&f)<ggQpn, LCfTiEJsnuj i^etfi^^Q^nt 
Which is sour, the mouth or the mango ? 

Said to one who draws hasty conclusions, or judges from superficial 
knowledge. Thus Europeans often draw too hasty conclusions about 
Hindus and vice-versa. Or said to one who says it is easy to lead a 
religious life, or, to gain a university degree. 

" A hard thing it is, I wiss, to judge a thing that unknown is." 



KINGS. 

N.B. — It should be remembered that in India each king or prince was a 
despot, and that each subordinate ruler was in his degree a despotic 
ruler. This is true to-day of the rulers of dependent native states — more 
than six hundred in number — save that they are subordinate to the 
British supremacy. 

1341. gjo&e&eoeonp tsnGi £ja : @®)eo,7p Qpir. 

A country without a king is like a car without a linch-pin. 
1380. 

Or ^z&eafthGdtTg ibitQ <°>i'%50&L£lppnpQun&). As a country with- 
out a king is harrassed. 



AUTHORITY. 147 

1342. sin&esp&QsMso @jpisi»ldujud Qu(^ss>iDiLjih. 
To a king 1 there is neither low nor high. 
An oriental potentate treats his people as he likes. 

1343. jpin&sbr wrrei] sjsm&uj, /5/rS j^ea^tLjih. 

If the king moves his tongue, the country will be stirred up. 
The power of a king's words. 

1344. ^ff&GtsftstiSOlU UGSit— Q<3>JG0g$Wg[l gllflg). 

An army without king (a head) will hardly conquer. 1379. 

ulLi—u> ^ftffmjirear. 
He who kills one person will die at once, he who kills many 

will become a king. 
Many an eastern king has waded to the throne through blood. 

1346. QsrTG>]&(9j S\i£Q5 Q&isjQ&n&) QpsmpeaLD. 

A sceptre of justice is the beauty of a king. 

1347. 4pps£ld(9j Qeuk^ek gi(TTjwL\. 

The king is a mere straw to the ascetic. 

In this saying the result of the long struggle in India between the priest- 
caste (Brahmans) and the warrior-caste (Kshattriyas) is epitomised. 
The social life of modern India is priest-ridden, and the priests are the 
pillars of all the old customs and prejudices. Said of one who in 
righteous indignation against tyranny has resolved to sacrifice himself 
for his country or for his family. 



AUTHORITY. 
^gjSilxrr jtld. 

ARBITRARY AUTHORITY. 

lo48. jysuear Q&neamsrQg &lLl-ud, ^su&sr ^LLt—Q^ i§&<56>&. 

Whatever he says is law, whatever he gives is alms. 
His words and deeds are to be accepted as law. 

1349. s_aoi_£U2i/S3T Q&ireouu}. ^.n^eospsi-ppls (gySlupl. 

Dig a ditch round the rice-mortar according to the owner's 
words. 

Said of a man whose will must be done though it be to his own dis- 
advantage . 

" All that he says is law." 

1350. £l<as>!T@ep i£k$g} sjihiS, Qmnpgi lEkpsp (&j®l£I. 

After the grinding is finished the stone remains, after the 
shaving the tuft of hair {Kudumi) remains. 

i.e., However much grinding is done on it the stone is not worn out, and 
however carelessly the barber shaves he is snre to leave the Kudumi. 
Said of a proud master, who cares nothing for the privileges of others. 
The Kudumi is the tuft of hair on the back of the head worn by all 
Hindus except certain ascetics and never touched by the razor. 



148 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1351. 67U363T i§2esrsseijLh, LSenVetr iSlemifiSsetjLDfr? 

When Death thinks the child must die, will it live ? 2939. 

Said of rich people and of people of authority who do what they like, not 
minding what others think of them. 

1352. ejpmu u/7il®<5(5 erfglrru umLiy.60'teo. 

There is no chorus to the song of the worker on the water-lift. 

The songs sung by workers on the water-lift are sung at random, and are 
often only strings of phrases sung to a monotonous cadence while the 
worker performs his solitary work. The proverb is applied to a man 
who will allow no voice to criticise his doings. 

1353. &t—£o ifietpi&Q}) gfiteuiLiasi ^jlLi—^j <^lLi—ld. 

The name the fisherman gives to the seafish is law. 1595. 
" If a jury say it is a cat, it must be so." 

1354. tELoiSluurrek <s&L-i—Q@ SirrggiD. 

Whatever the Vaishnava Brahmin pours out to people is holy- 
water. 
What the great do is above common people's criticism. 
" Must; is a king's word." 

1355. eueHiunasr GrQppQp ^rribsireo, (Suedsurrm ^uf-esiQ^ umusrih. 

What the strong man dug was a channel, and what the clever 

man spun was a top. 
" Might is right." 

1356. sroa/^^uJSBT Q^rrmesrQ^&ieOaii) wQ^ts^j. 

Whatever the doctor says is medicine, that is medicine. 1602. 

Hindu physicians are said to give their vegetarian patients all sorts of 
meat broths, but the patients must obey the doctor's word even if they 
break the rules of their castes. 



TYRANNY. 



1357. <9>Qgp LfisrrSsrruyto eurrtUQpGSIih ^Gsl&rTjrth. 
Authority that shuts the mouth of a crying child ! 
A description of tyranny. 

1358. jysuasr ^tgl&rrrrih Q&nu).&LLu)-U upsQp^j. 

His authority is a hoisted flag fluttering in the wind. 

The daughter-in-law applies this to her mother-in-law when the latter 

acts unjustly towards her. It is also applied to one who acts according 

to the prompting of others. 

] 358a. sesorQpi^.^ giemir £g6eium&Q&. 

It is a government that shuts its eyes ! 
All is done blindly and unfairly. 



AUTHORITY. 149 

1359. &66Bri—{8uj(T@8U6sr QuGsoruGmt—ggiT®), arrtSQu)® ereieOrru) ^Oppg/g 

It is said, that if a man without experience of women marries 
(or gets a girl into his possession) he will drag her through 
every jungle and over every hill. 1367, 1368. 

The novelty of the thing makes the silly fellow anxious to show off his 
authority to his wife and before his neighbours. Domestic tyranny. 

1360. s(Lp<5B)g eJ2eaujpsirjTiS5r QLLL-Quniiju> QslLl—^j ) eusm^sysst QlLi— 

QutruL\LD QslLi—^j. 
The ass suffered much when the hangle-seller was its owner 

and when the washerman was its owner. 3371. 
Both gave it much work and little food. 

1361. QL^I^ffTuiS&r'bsfr LDessflujpGsKoeo SiLuf-GBr eSireo jq/bgyuQunui. 

The finger that is pointed at the authority of Kirinjapillei will 

be lost. 
Said of officials who will not allow their doings to be criticised. 
" Might is right." 
"Accusing is proving, where malice and force sit judges." 

1362. QjgtgiaQarresgr® <stirr GrearQtfed, QsulLi^.sQsitsssi® enQ^QQrj'm. 
Though you tell him only to reprimand that man, he brings 

him cut up in little pieces. 2650. 

Said of a person who arrogantly exceeds the limits of the authority that 
has been delegated to him. 

1363. erreornu soa/^^/rj^to ffif), ffL-u^iumb <ssxsii<g<£rrg>iu) &ifl. 

Whether you make it a big pot or a small pot, it is all the 

same. 
See explanation appended to No. 1365. 

1364. Qewrgpnid QixiniLemi—, esusu^^rrio gj®i/5. 

If you shave me, my head will be bald ; if you don't, the tuft 

(Kudumi) will remain. 
See explanation appended to No. 1365. 

1365. QsufGfijpgi eStLLi—rrgyu) &tB, &ldldit eEHLL-nepiiJn &iR. 
Whether you wash it or not, it is all the same. 702, 2718. 

Each of the above three means that whatever the person addressed does, 
is right. There is a story that a king gave high offices to a potter, a 
barber and a washerman. While they were in authority, a rogue beat 
a poor farmer, who complained to the potter, and closed his complaint 
with the first of the above three proverbs. He meant to say, "It is in 
your power to do good, I therefore leave it all to you." The potter, 
fool that he was, took the proverb as a sneer at himself; and ordered the 
farmer to be beaten and sent away. The poor farmer then went to the 
barber magistrate and complained, ending his complaint with the 
second proverb. The barber took this as a personal insult and the farmer 
was again beaten. Finally the farmer went to the washerman-judge, 
recited his wrongs and closed his appeal for justice with the third 
proverb. He was again beaten for his pains. The story is a satire on the 
hypersensitiveness of upstarts about their humble origin. 



150 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1366. Q$^fjjS(ir) LDessfluju) Q& r <(Slg£rr&}, ggmo *%rrLD£jp&(5)& (or QurTQgjpefl® 

Qp ldlL®u> or SlS<s^^^]S(^ <§L£l<3L£ti>\ QsirtUStih. 
If you give office to a scorpion, it will sting all the time. 
Said about the abase of authority by wicked persons. 
" Men of cruelty are birds of the deviVs hatching." 

1367. ussii—uuT^ usai—pp LDirLStiurrQir, &jssr'2esru uGtapiusar gjgysss sesret] 

seearQi—esr. 

0, mother-in-law, who possessest what you ought not to pos- 
sess ! I dreamed that a Pariah had cut you up. 704, 1359. 

Said in disgust of one who is not accustomed to dignity and power, and 
therefore tyranises over servants or relations when he gets into 
authority. 

1368. Qun'ieos^ $>(Vj Qunissrw^sS Qsau.^^^ftiJD y ^jsa^u QutTQggi <sSi^.uj 

srrffl/Lo Q^itlL<S^ Q^/tlIOu urnr^^^rrw. 

They say that when a vain woman got a golden ornament, she 
handled it the whole night. 1359. 

Gf. 591 /. 702 /. 1374 /. 1694 /. 



HAVING ANOTHER PERSON IN ONE'S POWER. 

1369. e gy6yfpi(3><3ff(?<5ir ^jSUULLl^.Q^sQp^] STGGT ti/fiSigUL/ 67 60&)rT th . 

What is in his hands is my whole livelihood. 1372. 

1370. e-6ar eveanri—suireinl) ersoeonua erssrs^^ Q^iftu^ui. 

I know your character, (i.e., all your wickedness). 

1371. sss.it ggjerrawnuD <sueMr^dV)ejpi8(3j@ Q^iftiLjth. 

The washermen knows the defects of the village. 

When getting the clothes to wash he learns a great deal about the private 
affairs of the different families. 

1 372. 6765T (3J®£o7 .jyffl/GJT <oS)SU$60 ^SUULL®sQsfT6Sari— < gJ. 

My hair-tuft is in his hands. 1369. 

i.e., I am in his power. For ' hair-tuft' (Kudumi) see 1350. 

1373. &lLi$- <§lLu)-u Qu&Qp Q<suefrenrrenuioS)uujrr y ^.isis&r gjsmjr&rreBfl erih 
serr @6B)p&9 : n'2eou$®) ^(j^sQq^&t. 

O, thou Vellala fellow, why spin such a long yarn ? Your 
mistress is in our jail. 

i.e., We know all about you and your affairs too. 



AUTHORITY. 151 

THE OVERBEARING SUBORDINATE. 
' Dressed in a little brief authority.' 

1374. cgy62SJT(€33)LO?6oaj/r(T5«(g <gj3uu@jpi5[repi yszo^ ^esarLf-St&^s^ GTQgupg) 

The god Annamalaiyar is worshipped sixty-four times, while his 
priests are worshipped seventy-four times. 1377. 

One must spend more in bribes on small officials than on big ones. Or, 
subordinates are more punctilious in exacting homage than great offi- 
cials. 

" The servant of a king is a king." 

1375. ji/Jslsmfl <s§il®& Qsitl^qplLgol- (SjiqAJtrmeuesr eSiL® sjibiJZsmj 

It is said that an egg laid in a great man's house smashed a 

farmer's grinding stone ! 
The servants of a great man can ruin humble folks. Servants in India 

arrogate to themselves at least two thirds of their master's authority. 

1376. sj&i&sr Qpp$s)nii> eSlmssmb erifttLfgi (or ertBQpgi). 
His urine shines like a lamp ! 

Servants say this of one of themselves who has paramount influence with 
his master. 

1377. ^suitlSI eujTii) Qsti®^^rr^ua, y.w/fl $)i— to Q&rrQ&s wniLmim. 
Though the god may grant a gift, his priest will not. 1374. 
Priests (jpujari) are proverbially extortionate and ungenerous. 

1378. L$t—iTifl 6ujTih QsnQgpirGpiii), <§#&<ssr isustld Qsn®sQp^eo^so. 
Though Pidari (a village goddess) may grant a gift, it will be 

difficult to get a gift from her priest ! 

Gf. 1357 /. 



A MASTER NECESSARY EVERYWHERE. 

1379. gfjJ&SGr gfteoeonp u«or_ QoiiUSliLnl 

Will an army without a king fight ? 1344, 1381. 

1380. ^in&GsfletiGdtTp git®, Li(TrjeLf>68R&)60rrp eS®. 

A country without a king is a house without a man in it. 1341. 
3168. 

1381. ^<Slfl&iS0r!W&> ^ILf^lh Q6illl.®U)IT? 

Will a sword cut without a person to wield it ? 1377. 

1382. sisf-GutTenifiieoednp (^^ssar. 
A horse without a bridle. 

1383. SuS/jry fg)&)®)tT£ UWUJTLD. 

A top without a string. 



152 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1384. «>-&$ujnfr i3®r?£iT&(§@ p&uugbi cum ? 
Who is the father of the harlot's child ? 

Her children have no legal father. The proverb is used on occasions 
when a head or master is wanting to an affair. 

1385. pftso @(5-s<s euireo ^®i/>/r? 

"While the head is still, will the tail wag ? 

The servant can do norhing except on the initiative of his master. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON AUTHORITY. 

1386. er&uxTGsr Oa/srflCcUJ Qurr^so u&ikis&t er&jevrru) (^LDLDireaua QunQsmrir 

setr. 
When the master is out all the children and servants romp 

about. 
" When the cat's away, the mice will play." 

1387. «T(5J3 (or ^3) i82esrpp @)L-p$Eleo QprripiJo (or utli$.) slL®Q 

ppnt 
Are we to build the stall (or fold) where the bullock (or sheep) 

thinks proper ? 
"An ass must be tied where the master will have him." 

1389. ^ < 2eos^(oLD60 @aot_ $)0&Q/Dgj. 

There is an umbrella over my head. 299, 300. 

There is authority over me to protect me. The umbrella always 
signifies dignity and authority in India. 

1390. evrr^^ajrresijT Qld#&6bt LpeJrSsyr ^§)a)2eo. 

There is no child that praises its teacher. 3640. 
No servant is satisfied with his master. 

1390a. UIT[£ efiT(5<5@ !5lfi j/rggn-. 

A jackal is the king in a deserted village. 
To rule over something worthless. 
" King among cobblers." 



LIKE MASTER, LIKE SERVANT. 

1391. (5(5®/i(5 ejpp @<3L?,Gar. 

A disciple suited to his spiritual teacher (guru). 475, 2286 

1392. pntssr cgyi—isis, psisr (3j&)ii> eS&rrsis. 

If he be humble, his caste will be notable. 856. 
" A good Jack makes a good Jill." 

1393. unpin GTuuif. uspirs&r ^fuuv^.. 

As is the Mahabharata, so are its devotees. 
" Water never rises above its level." 



AUTHORITY. 153 



1394. -Ovrggssr erdjsuL^I, gjip-csdr ^eusuL^. 

As is the king, so are his subjects. 
The masses will behave like their superiors. 

1395. aiTLD'2esTuQu!T60 srrr^rr ^Qfjmpireo. j>j^uuht2sstuQuit&3 Q&su&gspjiAqfju 

/J/rsar. 

If the King is like Rama, his servant will be like Hanuman. 

A good master makes a good servant. The Ramayana tells of the faith- 
ful service that the monkey -god Hanuman rendered to Rama. 

Cf. 2259 /. 



MANY MASTERS. 

1396. ,fg<i ^(3*0 ^snnQmasr, £f,s<i£ e_z_'i>6a>uu^ti) Lj&k^iQ&Q stream®? 
To whom am I to submit ? My worthless body is all ulcerated. 
Said in disgust by one who has too many masters. 

" The ass of many oicners is eaten by the icolf." 

1397. «g£(25^(5 $Q5 (9)lL®& (^lLu^^so, ^Iisf-Qajsor pleo Qu>n lLbsi—. 
Being buffeted by every one, miserable creature that I am, my 

head has become bald ! 

Said by one who is ill-treated by everybody, or by one who has a small in- 
come and out of it lends various little sums to different persons, till he 
is helpless himself. 

" A pot that belongs to many is ill stirred and worse boiled." 

1398. sslq^&q 9(77j Q^sui^-ajtreff cg^jjig) erzsrgi/ ^®Q;/Ts«r? 

The village has only one dancing-girl; for whom is she to 
dance ? 

As all want her services, she is not only in doubt where to go, but also 
suffers from being overworked. Very commonly said by a daughter- 
in-law who comes from a poor home and who is therefore despised and 
overworked by her mother-in-law's household. 

1399- aS!E(5<SB(5 $°$>B1T 1 £g3u<56T LfisfrSsW UUlTfT Qs,~eS&) J^&Zltf.? 

One who is a cripple in a village becomes a mendicant at 
Qanesas temple. 3351. 

Ganesas temple is not highly esteemed, and there is no money to be 
had there, so the case of the mendicant who takes up his abode 
there is likely to be a hard one. A member of a family or a servant 
who is despised by all and required to do all sorts of work says this 
about himself, or another says it about him. 

1400. §>($ «i_«9£_ s&>e#u> Q<5djauu>rr<G8)G0 ) (GjUHSKblQpg] crips safteo? 

If all the stones in a basket are gods, which stone am I to 

worship ? 
If all are masters, who is to be obeyed F 

1401. «£il«D d &UU®}IS(9j tySBTUStf LDfT^iSl. 

For a leaky ship there are nine captains. 
Said when there are many beads to a profitless undertaking. 

20 



154 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

1402. S(£$@ ewrrrds ^etfleos^frmio^oUJ^Qinh, «#«»<? &lLi— ^etR^dSp^j. 
Though there is no man to pour out the gruel, there will be 
somebody to tie the girdle (i. e., to quarrel). 1144. 

If a woman has no protector, and yet manages to provide for herself, 
everything that she does will be criticised, and she will get all sorts of 
contrary orders. 

1404. i3v^.^^siifrs(ei^S(^ sreosornh Quasar®? 

(I am a) woman that everybody can take hold of ! 

Said by a woman who is disgusted by having too many masters in the 
house. If her husband is too easy going and bis brothers begin to order 
her about, a woman will say this. It is also said of a woman of light- 
virtue. 

" Better master one than engage with ten." 



EXAGGERATION. 

cg)/^ <&L£>T&(&j<£0i). 

1405. ireiDFu Qu<Q)s8u, Quftesiu Quq^ldi&t ^d^Qfvpeor. 

He makes a nit a louse, and a louse into the God Vishnu. 
" To make a mountain of a mole hill." 

1406. ^Gsr&npu u<£$n&e>\LD } u£<ss)£ epsisr Qrpseqih s=fr^)sQ(n/'ear. 
He maintains that one is ten, and ten is one. 

1407. &eoBT$%B)jr<£ Sit^s^^^i Qpmgy u/ugj. 

What he has not seen is three times what he has seen. 

1408. ^iQ^iiieou^ gir^aQppn? 

Do you make a straw into a pillar ? 



EXCESS AND DEFICIENCY. 

■ TOO LITTLE AND TOO MUCH SPOILS EVERYTHING." 

1409. egyara/i^ a9@£)<eff)<ji) ^{iRa^Qpio aS<afu>. 

If taken in excess even nectar is poisonous. 1304. 

141 0. ^>//D3(3ji5B)Lp<g0ng}it.b (Sj«Dipuu/r«r, ^iBQuurrdj $)pdQ<gG)&lih $pd(9) 

eun&r. 
She will either boil the rice too much, or not boil it at all. 
Said of a person who goes to extremes. 

1411. s(t^l6<ss)u eSfjrrjLcu eSt^ilu Qeuwu. 

If you constantly long for (and eat) sugarcane, it will become 

bitter margosa (to you). 
The leaves and the oil of the Margoxa (Azadirachta IndicaJ are very bitter. 
" More than enough breaks the cover." 



ABUNDANCE. 155 

1412. Q&ff& Q&ffffi Q&L$-iqth ueas. 

If you draw too near, even a plant will hate yon. 2773. 
" You can have too much of a good thing." 

1413. iB@£ld Qun<gV)&) QpppCa &eSld(3jw. 

If you go daily (to see the same people), the entrance of their 

house will be disgusted. 2744, 2755. 
" Familiarity breeds contempt." 

1414. U®SSU uQlS&U U/IULjlh U68)S. 

If you lie down too often, your bed (mat) will hate you. 

1415. ULpSU ULp&U UITgplLD L/6f/?d5(3jL0. 

If you constantly drink milk, it will become sour to you. 
A constant guest is never welcome. 

1416. QudjgjiJo Q&GZgjg&p, strtbikgith Q&Qjgpjp. 

If it rains, the crop is spoiled ; if there is a drought, it is 
also spoiled. 

1417. emsn^^lnmr dUetr'cleir Qtsneij ^rrrr^j, q.<3wi p tsluucr i3ar'2efrs(^u uuf.uLj 

The sickness of a doctor's child will not be cured, and a teacher's 
child will not learn. 

The doctor gives too much medicine, and the teacher overdoes his teach- 
ing. 



ABUNDANCE. 

1418. ^ggVesr ^^^^ssrajrr^&i, ,g\&aytosr tsr^^bssnuir^ih^ 
If this amounts to that, how much will that be ? 

1419. s(Lp®s)£u q/-L<a»L_ ®»d> iSIstillS ] <^eo Qwrgitii. 

He is satisfied if he gets his hands full of asses' dung ! 3076. 
Said of one who looks to the quantity rather than the quality of his profits. 
" A bellyful is a bellyful whether it be meat or drink." 

1420. Qsn&ei] Qp^^rrd) (Sjjry&sisfl. 

The urine of a mosquito is plentiful ! 
No want of worthless things. 

1421. lc<sSIis& &<j&(9j for uessri—ua) ssmL^^Q^Q^e^s^ euQjjiA. 

When there is plenty of grain (or provision), it will come to the 
bazaar-street for sale. 2582. 

If sin abounds, or is not kept with in limits, it will come to the knowledge 
of the public. 

1422. eSir&) g-ireo ^(GV)®), 2-jr&) eraaesr ,^@to? 

If a finger becomes as big as a rice-mortar, how big will the 
rice-mortar become ? 2048. 



156 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

RARITY, SCARCITY. 

1423. ^IpGHu y asesoii—g)QurT&). 

Like seeing the flower of a fig tree. 1427, 1428. 
The blossom of the fig is not to be distinguished from the fruit itself. 
Said in joy on seeing a friend whom one has not seen for a long time. 

1424. ^josrasrui3i^- QsmsoeOuSis^. sijf&g). 

A handful of rice has become (as dear) as a handful of sugar. 
1429, 1430. 

1425. £-<$$sIQujit<5!Jj (G)$5lG®!T& QsnihuiraS^sSp^i. 
Employment has become like the horns of a horse. 
" It is as rare as hens teeth." 

1426. $0 SPU.® $0 (0LJITUJtruSl(Wj&QjDg>. 

A small copper coin is now a rupee ! 

1427. snngtslen&u iSeap semi— <aumQ una). 

Like the man who saw the new moon in November (Kdrttikei). 
A rare sight, as the sky is overcast with clouds in this rainy month. 

1428. sirprQQeo squiSQ®) &6snrt— $&)'?&) (or tS^esrsseSio'hso). 
I have not seen him either in storm or in famine. 
These two are rare, so the proverb is used of rare visitors. 

1429. Q&ngfi Gsb&i&iLcmLiu Qutr&& i dgi. 

Boiled rice has become sugar. 1424, 1739. 
i.e., Rice has become as dear as sugar. 

1430. iSesetL-Lb QuQTjwstrujw, g\m<3Biu> seivgirifl. 

Food has become (as dear as) assafoetida, and rice (as rare as) 

musk. 
" In ill years straw is corn." 



SUPERABUNDANCE. 

JPJQf) <S$)LGl£l6V®)[T6S)L£). 

1431. jyessflibiSI&r'Betrstsj jajihiQ j>jiflQ<£rT, ^eoor [$.<?& iSi&r^sirs^^ QftTgj 

Is palmyra fruit a rarity to a squirrel ? Is rice a rarity to a 

beggar-woman's child 'r 
A sarcasm on the ' poverty ' of religious mendicants. 

1432. @£i@&reBr iSlen'<jeiTJ(9) <st&Ss(9j(£jj& sqtjuuit? 

Does a hunter's son ever find a scarcity of young rats. 
This caste eats rats, and rats are never scarce. 



EXPERIENCE. 157 

14-33. S_J 60 U^&iA ^jplilfLDfT? 

Does the rice-mortar experience the famine ? 

Nearly all food stuffs are pounded in it before being cooked, and even in 
famine times there is something to be pounded. 

1434. &6&iuiT<ssBr ptslgpiLD U(£ir ) &'j$60'%so, aGfrgjSlgyw u^&ifi&i'fa). 

At a wedding and on the threshing-floor there is no scarcity. 
No one need be hungry at the one or on the other. 

1435. QdSTSOTTL- SeSiL-uSQeOLUIT G&pQpglt 

Should you sell things in the very shop where you bought 
them ? 

1436. QsfT&}&)m QgQ^eSKoeo &en.gl e&pQppnt 
Why sell needles in a blacksmith's street ? 
" Carrying coals to Neivcastle." 

1437. ^uulLi— <oSl1.u^Q&) sifl^SLLemt— u^^Lorr? 

Is there any lack of charcoal in a house that has been burnt 
down. 

1438. Catt—spigj^ Qpesr u^&mnl ^Lpi^^is^ sfuf. u^ffmat 

Is a hunter ever in want of honey ; does a fool ever lack a 
beating 1 . 



EXPERIENCE. 

LEARNING BY EXPERIENCE. 

1439. ^juuesr ^jQ^esiiD jyuueoT Q&ppneo QptRmJo, a-UL$ssr ^^anto a_u 

iSleOGOnQjgQuiTfGV)®) QjSrfliLjil). 
The worth of a father is only known at his death, and the 

worth of salt is only known when it is lacking. 1288. 
" Yon never miss the water till the well goes dry." 

1440. &(T<3lll$-UUrTirLCi G-LDaQpSUeglS^p Q^lfllLJU). 

He who bears the yoke knows its weight. 1447. 
The yoke or Kavadi here referred to is that used when anything dedicated 
to a deity is carried to the temple by the person who has offered it. 

" No one knows the weight of another's burden." 

1441. fiteoQ 'rsnequD smLffifepiLo @6srd(<9j eukpir&o QjgifltLjth. 

If one gets head-ache and fever himself he will know what they 

are. 
" He laughs at scars who never felt a wound." 

1442. iSifi&) ^(TTjstold QsvuSeSleo Quir<ev)&) Q^iftiijii. 

If you walk in the sun, you will know r the blessedness of (being 

in the) shade. 
; ' Health is not valued till sickness comes." 



158 TAMIL PBOVERBS. 

1443. ULLc-rreO QptRiLjih u6B)jDUJG!p)&(3j. 

A Pariah will learn if he suffers. 

" Adversity makes a man ivise, not rich. 1 ' 

1443a. u—i—neo QptfliLjua unfruun^is(^, QsL-L-ireti Q^/fluyio QsnQfiLLu^s(^. 
A Brahmin will learn if he suffers, and a Komutti will learn if 

he is ruined ! 
A Brahmin will only behave well after suffering, and a Komutti will be 
brought to his senses by losing the capital he has invested. The Komutti 
caste is a class of rich merchants. 

1444. unnppn®i Q.^tfttLjLLrr f uiLi—neo Q^iBilildij <3u(T7}0£u)'? 

Is it by beholding pain or by suffering pain yourself that you 

learn to understand it ? 
" Experience teaches." " Need makes the old wife trot." 
Of. 1288 /. 



"EVERY MAN KNOWS BEST WHERE HIS OWN SHOE PINCHES." 

1445. CT(75^7 Qisntb &n&<5B>&&(3j@ Q^tfliijLDrr? 

Does a crow know what pain it causes a bullock ? 

Crows frequently get on the back of bullocks and peck at any sores they 
may find. 

1446. S6BBT68B)l&(9jLJ LfeSST^UmeO&) > & H 680T U IT ITS (3J GSWo/ !£>&)&). 

(Mine is) a disease which the eye cannot see ; and lookers-on 

do not notice it. 
i.e., The pain is real, but secret. 
" Every heart knows its own bitterness." 

1447. <9rSJOU3 S7-®L/Ufflyg2/<S@<F &SB)U) L7(OT>Q/ Q^lftlLjlll. 

He who carries the burden knows the weight of it. 1440. 

1448. Ql5ITUJlT<3(fl&(3jp QpifltLjLb QlhnuSaST <3>J(TJ)g0LD. 

The sick person knows the pain of his malady. 
" I knoio best where the shoe wringeth me." 

1449. QpLLeai— ^fBQp Qsr^ji^ eu^pgih Q@ifiu]ti). 

The hen that lays the egg knows the pain. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT EXPERIENCE. 

1450. §£)as)i—&&ssr LS®r%strssrTtfl&(3jp p'teo&&<SBr uS&r'Berrssrrift u>0^^}<suu> 

unnppTT pQuneo. 
Like the woman who had only borne one child, but wanted to 
be midwife to one who was going to have her second child. 
3325. 

1451. §£es>p&& GslmQroeuGsr <s®ul/<£(3> i&QTjkg] ^jrfisimeBT. 

A flesh-eater knows the medicines for (stomach) complaints. 
Flosh-eating is considered abominable by large sections of Hindus. 



EXPERIENCE. 159 

1452. &&>uu688r£eB)-ge8t—, ^0 QipuiSesenh <h®)&)gi. 

An old corpse is better than a big measure full of money. 

3628. 
The experience of the aged is worth more than money. 

1453. snpsuL^I Q 'until ^jplajn^su&sr uht^ld OTsuawiD iBi—i^.T^s)U). 

He who had never walked ten miles, is said to have walked 

the whole month (before he had advanced ten miles). 
Having no experience in walking, he was unable to make progress quickly . 

1454. (8jq.u$(nj&gi una, &-LL(Duuu$n $)lL®uuitit. 

Learn to know people by living with them, and by farming with 

them. 1713. 
Know people by mingling with them in daily life. 

1455. C^a/tf aj/rstr iS <srQ^^npQuneo. 

Like a dancing-girl wiping a child. 

A dancing girl is supposed to have no children, so she does not know how 
to keep them clean. Said of One who tries to mend a matter, but lacks 
experience and makes things worse than they were before. 

1456. Q^niUSis sniLu.n^ e&£S®£& G-LLQuQutTLLi—rrggih emrngi. 

Learning not acquired from practical example will never become 

your own, even if it is branded on you. 3566. 
The teacher must exemplify his teaching if the disciple is really to grasp it. 
" Practice not your art, and it will soon depart." 
" Precepts may lead, but examples draw." 
" The example of good men is visible philosophy." 
" lieligion is best understood when most practiced ." (C!f. John 7, 17.) 

1457. Qmpjpi Qemluj^esr QesarpplQeo Qpkgnmnea eump Qp^'iisoQuneo. 
Like the crocodile that came the day before yesterday into tbe 

well that was only dug yesterday. 

Said sarcastically about some oue who professes long acquaintance with 
what he has only recently learned. 

1458. uL-L-n 8.6S7- Quifiio, ffntguuf. qsuAQg) (or gtgotQidQg)). 

The deed is in your name, the fruits of the cultivation are 
enjoyed by the village (or by me). 

One has the right, another the profit. Said when a married woman lives 
with a man who is not her husband. 

" Wealth is not his who gets it, but his who enjoys it." 

1459. U$UJ fflJ6B8T(63S)gf2/tf), UGlSlfiUJ ^LOUi-li—J^/ii Q^Q. 

Get a new washerman and an old barber ! 1461. 
With the former muscular exertion is all that is wanted j with the latter, 
skill. 

" A barber learns to shave by shaving fools." 

1460. LD&)L$.d(8jg Qpifliyutn lS&t^sshuu Qupp ^(njeoifi? 

Does a barren woman understand the joy of motherhood t 1 
" He who has no children knows not what is love." 



160 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1461. euneo Q%%ir&dJGgutJc> } eSQjig <aBGii<$$g}u.iGg)iii> ihasrjr)i. 

A young astrologer and an aged doctor are best. 1459. 
" An old physician, a young lawyer." 

1462. e§LLeaL-& sLLup-uutriT, seSuJiresBnst Q&tLijgiuniT. 

Build a house and see what happens, marry and see what 

happens. 3514. 
Only actual experience will reveal the cost of a house and the expense of 

a wedding. 

" Building and marrying of children are great wasters. 



PRACTICE, EXPERTNESS. 

ULp&SLD, ^UlSluJfr&LD. 

1463. <g)luiSI'Jurr&u> <gk-&n- eBpsap. 

Practice is the science that gives confidence. 
" Practice makes perfect." 

1464. ^jUtSliUrr&U} (3j&) o9(T7y$7. 

Expertness in an art is the glory (lit. trophy) of a caste. 

1465. £IG8)J7fQ&7jbQ&168Br® J?jli>LJ60li) SJfS^SO, ^SDJ^Gta/TSV QpQg&Q&IT&} 

eonmrr? 
If one attempts to gain popularity with half a word (i.e., with 
little learning; will his half word ever become a whole word ? 
1466. 

1466. ^smpuSso jy > i$.<jU®)GoQsuT ^ihuGOgjslso ^L-QsuesurQih. 

It is only after practising in a room, that one may perform in 

public. 1465. 
" By working we become workmen." 

1466a. eecsaxDUJsar Qu&& ui^Qesr Quq^s^^ QpiBiLjuo. 

Those who are used to the signs (lit. speech) of the dumb, 

understand them. 
" Custom makes everything easy." 

1467. eikfi ^uijgQpu) gjiLt—p ^lLl-.s sk-ir. 

The more any weapon is whetted, the sharper (it becomes). 2083. 
Every one needs continual discipline to become good. 

1468. §?(7j <k_6S8T® Qpsau-i^euesr epmugi shsisr® Qpe/ai—surrasr. 
He who can plait one basket will plait nine. 

" He that makes one basket may make a hundred." 

1469. @0J3ffQpi£> 6B)<£UUyiS&U), Q#i5@uS(ipLb iBnuuLpdsu). 

By practising the hand you learn how to draw pictures, by 

practising the tongue you learn to speak classical Tamil. 
" All things are difficult before they are easy" 

Of. 1881/. 



KNOWLEDGE. 161 

KNOWLEDGE. 

TO KNOW ONE'S SELF. 

1470. &608rd&eBr <56m&(9j ^plsvrrem-, gssr f$<s6BT&66)&<5 ^rrssr siffiu-MGor. 
An accountant knows others' accounts, but not his own. 
People can advise others but do not apply their knowledge to themselves. 

1471. seOeS spQpssy^eSi—, @m aqfjgsp ^j^niLQp^i tssirrmLD. 

It is better to investigate one's own thoughts than to study 

science. 
' ; A handful of good life is better than a bushel of learning." 
" Self-examination is a good medicine for the soul" 

1 472. ^ssrSsar ^fpSispeueisr, ^^sosu'Sesr jpfrSteuneor. 

He who knows himself will know the Ruler (i.e., God). 

" A disease known is half cured." 

" It is a great point of wisdom to find out one's own folly." 



MAN'S KNOWLEDGE LIMITED. 

1473. ot^^Ssot" e&pGinp s/b(r^^w, Q^^^eu^issru l$6B)lpulSI&& ^rSajtresr. 
However much you learn, you do not know how to raise the 

dead. 1502. 
Hindus sometimes say this about Europeans. 

1474. 6T6tie0lTlJD ^jBihpGiJ&plL&Gd'ftsO, epm^ULb J?jrfillUITj£6VgS)]L£l'S0'2eO. 

No one knows everything, nor is there anyone who does not 

know something. 
" No living man all things can." 

1475. s<smesSeo ssmt—^ Q&rny-, &n<§ss)g>S)) j^ssrib^th Qsni^.. 

What we have seen with our eyes is very much, but what we 

have not seen is infinite. 
" Half the world knows not how the other half lives." 

1476. sjbpg! sosuJsffffl/, &<id®)iT 1 gjgi ^.&)senetj. 

What we have learned is a handful, what we have not learned 
is a world in quantity. 

1477. &nQQp@&) jjtr(cLD&v6iJirtl>6Vio8)!njSl60 Qprfltb^eutsor. 

He knows everything from Benares to Ramesvaram. 1805. 
i.e., He knows everything in the land of India. Ironical. 
" Jack of all trades and master of none." 

21 



162 TAMIL PROVEEBS. 

1478. SITlLu}.®) Lj<56)@££ &<SBT45G5rQptJ0 ) UmLlSf.60 LjGIOp-fjg U Ifi LdQ U/7 (^(Gf^W } 

eS LLisf-issr LD^esrujrT&r u><o8TQpth, jypSeugj g\ftgi. 

In the country it is difficult to know these three things : the 
treasure buried in the forest, the old meaning buried in a 
song, and the heart of the mistress of a house. 

1479. <2>«d/D g\p& s,pp<sum Qsiru^uSeo ^Q^eL t 6ar. 

A learned man without defects is one among ten millions. 



A LEARNED FOOL. 

1480. S\P&9kJl<3S)lD QpQgQLDtTL-mL — 

A sharp blade (gives) a good shave. 

Said of a man who gets himself into trouble through his own over-clever- 
ness. 

"A mere scholar is a mere ass." 

1481. sjbpfS (oLDtrGmip. 

Though learned yet stupid. 

1482. Q&LLu?-&&irjr QpLLi—n&r. 
Clever, but a fool. 

" Folly and learning often dwell together." 

1483. Q-^fresresres)^ Q&tT&>§$iih Q&BulS&t'Bgit. 

A parrot will only say what it is taught. 510a, 1539. 

This is explained in the Mahabharata thus : — Qerfl 6ieueueneq sp^is 
Qsiresart—iT^uj, u^tssr i3ij).^firr&>, " jyixiLDir, l$gst iHuj-iQpg] " 
ST63TJ2/ Q&rre\)60rT4p } However much a parrot may learn, it is unable 
to cry out : " Mother, the cat is laying hold of me," if the cat seizes it- 

" All is but lip wisdom that wanteth experience." 

1484. uu).ggi QpLLt—ir<s(rrTuS0sS(rrf><5sr. 
He has studied, but is a fool. 

1485. QlD££U UUf-<g<56l]<5Br Gs>u@GHuJ83i!reBr. 
He who has much learning is mad. 

" Thy much learning doth turn thee to madness." (Act. 26, 24.) 

Cf. 1221 /. 



MISCELLANEOUS SAYINGS ON LEARNING AND LEARNED MEN. 

1486. ^jeSKoGijQ &.peS)e$iih, eSQeuQ usesQuj rsasrjr)/. 

Better is the hatred of a learned man than the friendship of a 
fool. 

" A friend's frown is better than a fool's smile." 



KNOWLEDGE. 163 

1487. jqpuuuj-ppGu&sr ^msnu^Qum^eo, eSpseijiMnLLL-nek, Qsn&reney 

inn Ci— near. 

If a very learned man goes to the market he will neither sell 
nor buy. 1507. 

A sneer at learning as having nothing to do with matters of common 
life. 

" Experience ■without learning is better than learning icithout ex- 
perience." 

1488. 3l<3u-i s]}$iu Qs®sunn &.esari^n? 

Will any one suffer by constantly exerting himself to learn ? 

1489. s\S^ <3> \ -%n jqpleunnt x £j ) bui<56)JiT ^ pi sunn. 

Who comprehends knowledge ? He who reflects. 

1490. ^{S®] Qu^^Q^nm Q is nib Qu^pQ^neisr. 

He who increases knowledge, increases sorrow. 

" For in much wisdom is much grief." (Ecclesiastes 1, 18.) 

1491. &-«0Z_(£»LO OT63TUJE? S&)eSliLj<oS)l—€S)LD. 

Wealth of learning is (true) wealth. 

1492. GTQpjS eiiLpiEJsn^ sungey aQgetnss i^sjismi— sernb. 

The life of one who cannot write is like the threshing-floor 

where an ass has been rolling. 
"Better unborn than untaught." 

1493. a&t—nesr seOeBuS^tiLD <s&)e3uS<osnh iseOiM. 
Ignorance is better than imperfect learning. 
" Better untaught than ill taught." 

1494. ssssii—<5S)^s spsu u6oorup-£65r ^sun&sr. 

He who studies what he sees will become a learned man. 

1495. seoeon^suQu aGBBrassfiGtiGOn-setin. 

A man without learning is a man without eyes. 

1496. &60®)npnn Q&eoeujgGdgpiib &pqr}h en gyanLo rs&)ih. 

The poverty of the learned is better than the wealth of the un- 
learned. 

1497. s&xs&l jytpQas ,gjLp(8j. 

• The beauty of learning is (true) beauty. 

1498. seoeS OT<sar© uu$(7J)£(3j& saserasBpn erehrp ldoslg QeuessiQuo. 
The rain of tears is necessary to the harvest of learning. 
" There is no royal road to learning." 

1499. aptSl^geuesr S6sar2sssrs Q&nQppen&sr. 
He who teaches is a giver of eyes. 

1500. appends snb^&liun (3jiq-&3uQunQ(rtfb. 

Do you boil and drink your own learning Y 

Refers to many learned pundits in India who keep their wisdom to them- 
selves. 



164 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1501. QaQdS^uih, seoeS Q&Quui—rrgj. 

Whatever else may be destroyed, learning will not be destroyed. 

1502. esis &-68Brt—ir<siJgi appsuirsicf^s^ ^Qld. 

Only the learned possess hands (i.e., ability). 

1502a. &neurrir)&) spuQg s&ieS, i3plr ^L-^^l&) ejsmneo &-G8BruQ 1 g 2_6ssna/. 
That is learning which teaches yon to escape death, and that is 
food which is eaten without your going to others (to beg it). 
1473. 

15026. /£ /.I® eSlpsmp ejpiwn ? 

Will learning long drawn out be worth much ? 

1503. gse&ii$i&} QiLthQpjp. 

To graze on the tops (of herbs). 

Said of one who has superficial knowledge only ; or of one who, though he 
possesses only superficial knowledge, talks as if he knew everything. 

1504. UL^}uufT<ssr &&)<sS Lineup Jsieisr z>@Lpjp/. 
Faulty knowledge is the source of sin. 

1505. eSp^jSvir^iis^ Gjjgj usrQg&LD. 

What land is foreign to a learned man ? 
His learning fits him to live in any country. 

1506. 6B)<aUfi(g)iui}>, Qagn&tuw, fiBi^pLD, LDii^jjm QptBixinpsuirsefflio'^so. 
Everyone knows something of doctoring, astrology, music and 

exorcisms. 

1507. eaeup JsIulksst striLspla^u Qunesr^gjQuaso. 

Like the doctor who went to buy vegetables. 1487. 
His learning made him criticise everything and buy nothing. 

" Gentry sent to market will not buy one bushel of corn" 

N.B. — As these aphorisms (for very few of them are proverbs) on learning 

abound in Hindu literature, a few only are given. They might be 

multiplied indefinitely. 

BLESSINGS. 

1508. sj/stiQutr®) eS(Lp^j sSlL®, sfW(S^ ulT&i G«a//f GfU}-, QpiEjQs^(cUIT&) 

&pjpiih (TpQinmneo euir^i^lQ^uLSirs&r. 

May you prosper without fail, sending down fresh stems like a 
Banyan tree, taking root like the spreading Arugu grass, and 
surrounded (by friends) like a Bamboo (surrounded by other 
Bamboos). 2595. 

" Happy man and beauteous bride, 
Be this place your home of pride ! 
Loving man and dutious wife, 
In peaceful union pass your life ! 
May prattling children fill your home with peace, 
And lisping babes their grand-sire's bliss increase ! " 

Dutt : " Lays of Ancient India." 



CURSES. 165 

1509. 67W <&/UJ# QurTLL(3aQ<£IT6B8ri$-0. 

May you take my age upon you. 

i.e., May you live to be as old as I am ! Said by an old man to young 
people. 

1510. QsQuugpuo eurruurreo, uLSf-uuspun euirujirei. 

With the mouth you injure others, and with the mouth you read 
(the Vedas). 1511. 

1511. @&@ GTesrQpgiLo $]i5p siindjfiiKssr, Seu Qsurr eresrQp^/m ^k^ surnu 

With the same mouth you say ' Fie, Fie,' and ' Siva, Siva.' 

2443, 2501, 2689. 
" With the tongue bless ice God, and therewith curse toe men." 

(James 4, 9.) 

1512. ^lLi^.s Q&L-L-irqjjL&irffyso, sunups $sl eunupigirQJjuSlGO'Zsti. 

No man was ever ruined by being cursed, and no one ever pros- 
pered because he was blessed. 3125. 
" No one dies of threats." 

1513. uts)(6B)jpjLh Qupgy, Qu^snir^ajth eunupQpgj. 

May you have sixteen children and live most prosperously. 
" One year of joy, another of comfort, and all the rest of content" 

1514. utrriTS&akirujTiLi&rrijSltTrj. 

May you always be of the age of Markandeya (i.e., always be a 
youth). 2216. 

Markandeya was the sage who was the author of the sacred book called 
the Markandeya Purana, he was fated to die in his 16th year ; but 
through severe penance and invocation of Siva secured everlasting 
youth. 

" So that thy youth is renewed like the eagle's." (Psalm 123, 5.) 



CURSES. 

&ITULD. 

N.B. — " There are four measures of good, but nine of filth in this 
world." (3014.) So says a proverb and it is emphatically true that 
Tamil curses are more numerous than Tamil blessings. A few common 
curses are subjoined. 

1515. J§)if. eSI(ipSUlT6ST. 

May he be struck dead ! 

1516. S-asr ^Lpey GiGH&s. 

May your funeral take place ! 

1517. s-sar euiruSQeo lcgsst e&Lp. 

May earth fall into your mouth ! 
i.e., May you die ! 



166 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1518. s_637-2swu urresii—iiSQso emsi/jggiu LSsnuiresurih (coin. uuusearu>) $i—. 
May you be laid on the bier, and take your journey ! 

i.e., May you be carried to the burning-ground ! 

1519. s_63r pireSl ^gvkgi ^esaresi^n urr'SesruSeo eSlg. 

May your thdli be cut off and fall into a water pot ! 

1520. S-Sot Quak/rea^s) &ne$ iSsm^jglsGrQuiflsti eStp. 
May your wife's thdli fall on your corpse ! 
May you die and your wife be left a widow ! 

1521. 8_<sar iSlen'tefreimup Gflsorgy, ^esarea^ir (^i^.ss. 

May you have to eat your own child, and drink water after it 
(i.e., digest it) ! 

1522. 2-6ST <ST6Bor6BBrg{g)e0 GriDGir yj. 

May Death blight your prospects ! 

1523. &.63T Qan&SBT&M— Qjfteouu. 

May your hair be dishevelled ! 

i.e., May you have to mourn for the death of your husband ! In India a 
widow is condemned to a life of wretchedness. 

1524. 2_65t3s37- QsuiLuf. ueSQuiri 

May you be cut down and sacrificed ! 

1525. V-m^esr gj&teti'igi&rett QsrrssarQQurrs. 

May you be taken away while you struggle for life ! 

1526. &-G8T QutTIEl(j9j (9JE1&. 

May your pride be brought down ! 

1527. &-63T U><gli> lLeSBT(GBS)UJuQuiT&. 

May your pride become dust ! 

1528. a-«r3sar $eaarq.u unesn— siLi 

May you go to the grave alone ! 

Hindus believe that when one man dies, another one also dies somewhere 
else. In using this saying the speaker expresses a wish that the person 
addressed may not have any such comrade at the hour of death. 

1529. GpJTih Qsuienjpsp, ^ttj ussim Q&itiGpi gftB&s. 

May your lips be bleached white, and white ants gnaw one 
of your sides ! 

1 530. siletai—uSQeo emsiiuurresr. 

He will be laid on his funeral pile ! 

1531. Q^neeareai—uSQeo ssetsrL-iLn'ieo ljjduul—. 
May scrofula come out on your neck ! 

1532. uarifiuJiT^^n&r (SjySjuSio Loes)p 1 g3p<as)<Sij&&. 

May you be hidden in the pit of the goddess of small-pox ! 



IMITATION. 167 

1538. U60sSI(d&) UfffftfiQ 6BXSV&&. 

May raw rice be put into your mouth ! 

Rico is put into the mouth of a corpse during the funeral ceremonies. 

1534. a/^^Ssar Gte(S5<9F ^emi—as. 

May your deceit choke you ! 



IMITATION. 

1535. jyeomsr !B<ss)i— isi—ssuQurrdj, pssr isom—tym QsiLi^^iQuneo. 

Like the man who tried to walk like a swan, and thereby lost 
his own way of walking. 3325. 

This proverb has a wide range of application all over the world. It is 
especially applicable to India where the transition from an old civiliza- 
tion to a new is so marked. Tamils describe a person who follows the 
new fashions as ^usmi—iTih QslLl-T<SST, ' He is spoiled a second time,' or 
Gjlifl&iGi(9) JTfTagrr Quired ' He is like king Trisanku.' Trisanku did 
much good to the Rishi Viswamitra, in return for which Viswamitra 
tried to elevate Trisanku in his mortal body to heaven. But the 
Gods were unwilling to receive him and a compromise had to be made 
between the Gods and Viswamitra, by which Trisanku was left sus- 
pended between heaven and earth. (Vishnu Purana, Book 4, Chap.3.) 

" Apes are never more beasts, than when they wear mens clothes." 

1536. ^srou3(iy/_6sr Qp&eo opt-Lasi— ^i—uQutrtb sem ulgjia&l Q&pppirih. 
It is said that when a hare went with a turtle to lay eggs, its 

eyes bulged out and it died. 

Cf. The story in " Aesop's Fables " about the frog that tried to make 
itself as big as an ox, but burst in the effort. 

1537. &&lit ep&s s^i—Qisy&sarSlili. 

Agree with the village and go on your way ! 

Do as others do, and you will be safe ! 

" You must do at Borne as Rome does." 

1538. sesuri— utT®j^oSTUJirdjs Qarresat<5S)i— Qpisf.hQpg3. 
Arranging her hair in imitation of others. 

Also said of a person who takes undue liberties with strangers, as if he 
were an old friend. 

1539. &rru9&)<sdrTa5(3i}§g)]&(3j ?m.ir er&)&d!TL£> prrtLi. 

The whole village will be a mother to a motherless child. 
1483. 

The story goes that a certain man who was headman or judge in his 
village quoted this proverb in order to console his younger brother after 
the death of their mother. The younger brother, who was a great fool, 
succeeded his brother in the office of headman or judge in due time, and 
as it was his principle to imitate the doings and sayings of his brother 
matters went on well for a time. But one day a man whose wife 
had died came to him for consolation and he, mindful of the way in which 
his elder brother had comforted him when their mother died, quoted 
the above saying adapting it to circumstances thus : — 



168 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1539a. ©-6W" Quesm&nGsl £62(75<£(3jlo ereoejmh QuesBr&trts), eresrs^iii Quasar 
&n$s) j/jd^eoeurr? 
Was not your wife the wife of the whole village, and was not 
she my wife ? 

It need hardly be said that this was no consolation to tho bereaved hus- 
band. The whole story is a satire of senseless imitation. 

1540. lirr ^lLl-^^60 Q^uulo Q&&}e£iii> ^asreaimQurreo. 
Like a raft that goes with the current. 

" It is hard striving against a stream." 

1541. umisirerrggi mirth Qtsjsrr^GsrihQvDeo Gjtfitsorjip ermjpi enasar^^m &Qg<sG>@ 

Qeu&renireSi urr'2esTuSI&) sjrSlssr^triJci. 
It is said, that a washerman's ass having seen a Bengali dog 

ascending a throne mounted it's master's washing pot (and 

broke it). 
When inferiors ape their betters, ruin is the result. 

1542. urrnuurresiffu utrn&gju unQp&iJn QunQpapQurred. 

Like looking at others and going a pilgrimage. 

Primarily used of imitation of a good example, but also used of those 
who follow a bad example, and sometimes applied to young Hindus who 
imitate European customs and habits. 

" He that for the new way leaveth the old way, is often times found 
to go astray." 

1543. ueSssiinu unfrpspu u*test @® QuaLLQdQ&rressri—gjQurrei). 

Like the cat who saw a tiger and branded itself (so as to be 

striped like the tiger) ! 
Persons in inferior stations in life should not try to imitate the great 

lest they hurt themselves. 

" Borrowed garments never fit well." 

1544. inaS^ecd sasai® evrrasrQsrrL^I ^uj-esrspQ uired. 

Like the turkey who saw a peacock and danced ! 

" An ape is ne'er so like an ape as when he wears a doctors cap." 

Cf. 2324 /. 



FLATTERY. 

1545. j)]iEi(ajii> @)(jT)UurreBr , ^ii^m ^Qjjuuirm, ^sQeor Q^np^is^u uisi 

(3ju> {°£j0uurrGsr. 
He is there and he is here, and he is sure to come for his 

share of food. 606, 1057. 
Some persons by carrying tales of different people to their enemies, gain 

favour from both parties. This proverb is said sarcastically about such 

busy-bodies. 

" Like a dog in a fair : here, there, everywhere." 



FLATTERY. 169 

1546. ^fihunggirir Qeu&rrrissareiSLD tun^esT siLi—^^irsir, euiresrQpil.®uD Quirk ; 

^guQsiressri—ga uir^l, girjpiQ&neBBTi—g) utrGil. 

In the harvest at Ambattur (village) the stubble (was strong 
enough) to tie up an elephant, and the stacks reached the 
sky ; but a flood carried off half, and the jungle took half. 

The story goes that -when the tax-collector came to assess the village 
crops, the village headman uttered the first part of this proverb as a des- 
cription of the good harvest. But a farmer held up his hand in such a 
way as to show the village headman his golden ring, signifying that 
a heavy bribe would be paid to him if the taxes were remitted, 
so the headman added the second part of the proverb — for it was more 
important to please the farmers of the village than to give an exact 
return to the collector. 

" He hath a conscience like a chevereVs shin, that will stretch." 

1547. jpjir&eBr e^meap §$SHpBpael ^ss gfr&ipQGueisiirQih, epeBrempu usupi 

^srreo epssu us u>QeuGBtsr®LCi. 
If a king speaks and contemns anything, you must contemn it 
likewise ; if he praises anything, you must praise it like- 
wise. 

" Like a miller, he can set to every wind." 

1548. ^n&m seoeS&srQi-CiQeo sptslifl airtud^tl) srssr^ev^ Qsirggj ^uSjrth 

(X$6U ^miSsua 6T<oifruniT5&r. 
If the king says, the brinjal (vegetable) will grow on stones ; the 

people will say, in thousands of bunches, in thousands of 

clusters. 
" A flatterer s throat is an open sepulchre." 

1549. <3jsu6or r5<aoL-.8(9ju upjpuQurr eu^suirrrs&r, G8)sd!>&3rS(3jU ugspu 

Quh su^suirna&r. 
Ten people will imitate his style of walking, and ten others 

will swing their hands like him. 3439. 
Said in flattery of or irony about an ugly person. 

1 550. Q-pqrfir ^lesr(nj>eo up(n?dj o^Sstniytc, om.nnn $slm(Hfeti QunrriLi aS2sjm/Lo. 

If one's own people are fed, an anthill grows up ; but if the 
villagers are fed, your reputation will grow. 1553, 1565, 
3196. 

1551. ^e^esr (&j^B6B)4S4E *5nik](&jQ(Trj i <zsr. 
He supports that man's breech. 

Said of one who flatters to please, or airssiriuu i§Uj.sQpj£iy he is 
catching crows. 

1552. $)§yu6B)u &sseB)ir QairesiL-vunuD, ^lesms&r Qmf&ssr iBemmjutrib. 
Flattery of gentlemen is the way to get common sugar as a 

gift. 

Said in ridicule of one who takes pains to please a great person, and 
gets little by it. 

22 



170 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1553. Sui—eo Qld&&u undo (3jtsf-&Q(n?'JJir'! ®§ssi Qw&&u urreo (Sjiq-sQ ] (ttj"jjn f 
Do you drink milk to please your body or to please the village ? 

1550, 1565, 1583, 2146, 2147, 3193. 
" He that doth good for praise only, meriteth but a puff of wind." 

1554. a_<s37-,5(3j ©_l1ul1®u iSlesrufrLL®u urrGlSp u)esfl^iTS&rQufr&). 

Like people wlio depend on you, and therefore sing after you. 
" To dance to every mans pipe.' 7 

1555. er&&p&&ft£o&(?}j $}&&aw Qu&Qpjp. 

To flatter for a leaf -plate ! 1562, 1563. 
Flattery for something worth nothing ! 
" The coin most common is flattery." 

1556. erQuumr etas (SjipsGap. 

He is a baby (who goes) to anyone who will take him ! 

One who yields to everybody. 

" To turn with the wind and tide" 

1557. &>-i£§i&qF ) ejpp uw^ld tSup.&Qpjg]. 

Holding the torch according to the movements of the dancer. 
" He has a saddle for every horse." 

1558. Q&n®@prTG0 §>(T7) Quea?, Qstr®ssnQ^QuiT(SS)so ^qtj QU8&. 

If you give to him, he will speak one word (favourably) ; if you 
refuse him, he will speak one word (contrarily). 260. 

1 559. (Sf&gl $)®)&)rr£ (5®683i@/. 

A gourd without a bottom to stand on ! 

The bottle gourd has no flat end to stand on, and rolls this side and that 
without any steadiness. People who spend their lives in seeking the 
favour of others have to yield in all things to all whom they want 
to please, and are thus like the unsteady gourd. 

" An empty bag cannot stand upright." 

1560. (S2@gl5(j9)p ■g®&(3jU QunL-($l& &ppl&Q&(T66ISt(i3> fsllBQpgl. 

Going round (a great man) to push his mat under him. 1561. 
Obsequiousness. 

1561. &®&(9j£ garerf) QuffS-u Qu&Qpgi. 

Pushing the mat under him and speaking (to him). 1560. 
Hindus often sit on a little square mat. One who wants a great man's 

favour, will wait to place this mat wherever it is required to get the 

chance of a word with him. 

" To dance attendance on one." 

1562. QiDff&sQsir&i&t , ct*^?6o <5T®&Qpjp. 

To get praise he will remove the leaf-plates that have been 
used. 1555, 1563. 

Said of one who will do the most menial acts to earn the favour of the 
great. 

" Set your sail according to the wind." 

" You have a handsome head of hair ; pray give me a tester." 



SELF-PRAISE. 171 

1563. QLctr^emp Q&trpgp&qij QLoernh ^i^dQ^asr. 

He beats a drum to get a mouthful of boiled rice. 1555, 1562. 
" Cringing is a gainful accomplishment." 

1564. eunesiLpuuipi}} Qsnsm®QurTSSTisu&r eun&eSHd ^Q^tB^iT&r, Gurr/smcus 

QarTSSBr® QuneBrsu&r r5®<sfii-Lup.e\) <°£j0ih@nish. 
She who brought a plantain (banana) sat at the entrance ; 
she who brought her mouth sat in the middle of the house. 
2776. 

The first woman brought a gift but she was left outside. The second was 
a false friend but she could flatter and she therefore got a seat of honour. 

" Flattery sits in the parlour, when plain dealing is kicked out of 

doors." 
" All doors open to courtesy." " They love most who are least 

valued." 

1565. <c£lL.®5(&jU Lf&y>&@(oUJfT, /F/r<-L®<£(3jU Lj&y)#@QlL)i7? 

(Is one to seek) praise at home or abroad ? 1550, 1553. 



SELF-PRAISE. 

1566. ^jsuesr smasauJsQ&nemQL- ^yeum sesoressfl®) (Zjg$£l<Gis)68r. 

He struck his own eyes with his own hand ! 

i.e., He cleverly managed to do harm to his opponent by the means on 
which he depended. Also said of a person who ruins an enemy, but 
does it so cleverly that no blame attaches to himself. 

1567- jg&n&^emg &j(SuuL—fJLDeo suf-uQu&sr srsarS^ssr. 

He says he can bite the sky without leaving a scar in it. 
1808, 2556. 

" Your trumpeter's dead, and so you blow your trumpet yourself." 

1568. &-.&r<sni5]<a»&u§eo etnsu (3j68Bru.ua sniUSiQQpsbT. 

He will show you heaven (Vaikuntham) in the palm of his hand ! 
" Great boast and small roast." 

1569- 6T6or<5(3> er^lrflGO'Zso, Qiheo^ss^u u^iflev^eo. 

No adversary for me, and no chaff in my rice ! 
i.e., I am not afraid of foes or misfortune. 

1569a. &-63T sniBmua Qpuug$glz<ssBru}-Qeo ! 

Your case lies in thirty-two ! 1573. 

Said to one who praises himself, signifying that he is worthless ; after his 
death all his affairs will come to light, the Karmantiram funeral 
ceremony for him will be performed on the thirty-second day after his 
death. This ceremony should be performed on the tenth day after the 
death of a Brahmin, on the twelfth day after the death of a Kshattriya 
or Vaisya, on the sixteenth day after the death Sudra. The saying is 
therefore a wish that a man's affairs may all be in confusion at his death, 
or that dishonour may put an end to all his self-complacency. 



172 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1570. erear^esruQurreos (^sr&nti, otott s}^^n < 2efruQuneo ^liS^nih $)®)?60 stsbt 

The ass says that no one has a voice (for singing) like his, and 
no one has gait like that of his eldest sister ! 

" Did you ever before hear an ass play upon a Itde ? " 
" Every ass loves to hear himself bray." 

1571 - (^Ui-jp eSlQgihgrTgyu), l£6B)&u$Q&) ilggsi ui—eSeMso er6srQ(nj>ssr. 

Though he fell flat on his face, he says that his moustache was 

not soiled ! 
Even at the moment of defeat he finds a reason for self-complacency. 
" There is no such flatterer as a mans self." 

1572. (gfoiiQp isniLi Q@hlL<ss)1—u iSnsf-ssn^. 

A barking dog is not fit for hunting. 1576. 

Said of one who is too full of brag to succeed in anything. 

" A barking dog seldom bites." 

1573. Qsitl^I sL.eS eSi^-Qp^fr? 

Does day dawn because the cock crows ? 489, 1565, 2559. 

Said of one svho thinks himself very important. 

" Daylight will come, though the cock do not crow." 

1574. Q&pfin®) L$6®i£&3LDiTLLmreBr. 

If he dies (it is because) he is determined not to live. 
Applied sarcastically of one who boasts of the great deeds he can do. 
" When you die, your trumpeter will be buried." 

1575. Q&dosuuQuesor @tna&t5rrujQ<5(&js : @@mu) suib^^rrih euempQtvn®. 

A potsherd was sent as dowry to the petted goddess of Sri- 
ran gam. 

Said to one who boasts about riches he has not got. Instead of susiopQuun® 
the common people insert a very obscene word. 

1576. ^jerr^Qp lo/t® QuitSS s-wssn^i. 

A frisky bullock will carry no burden. 1572. 

1577. gietr&rnQ p gzeirennQp @<sfreff/r! uss^Gsled uetreirm ^ji—ir\ 
Oh dwarf, don't jump for joy ; there is a ditch close by ! 
Don't boast too much; some one may accept your challenge. 

1578. gj&reiflp gieheiflp Q^iruQum^J eSfipQ^tu. 

If you frisk about too much you will fall headlong. 
Do not abuse people too much ; you may fare badly yourself. 



DIGNITY, SOCIAL IMPORTANCE. 173 

1579. ibt&si sungik/S sun t^etaojd Q&n&igdjQQ p&sr , ^sabres)/— <sSu.®asrrj76sfl0S 

I wiJl tell you the story of my life ; but go and see if my 
neighbour is at home. 

Said of one who is willing to speak about himself, but he wants to make 
sure that his neighbour is not at hand to check his self-glorification, by 
the recital of facts. 

" He dwells far from neighbours who is fain to praise himself." 
" Every mans tale is gude till another s be tauld." 

1580. QurriflLDirssieu QLD^&^m- Qurrdeaseijmum'. 

A toothless person praises the flour made from parched rice. 
Every man praises what he himself is able to enjoy or master or which 
suits him. 

Cf. 1794 /. 2108 /. 



DIGNITY, SOCIAL IMPORTANCE. 

1581. cgjaQjjtTjTgg] WfTih i§uGH<si£<5mi—&(j3} jpKLppjpQurreo. 

Like a dog belonging to a Brahmin street weeping for (or 
hankering after) honour. 858. 

A dog in a Pariah village used to visit a dog in a Brahmin village, and 
enticed it to enter the Pariah village by saying :— " You can get 
neither meat nor bones from vegetarian Brahmins ; come to my place 
and you shall have both." The other replied : — " I prefer this place, for 
here I have the great honour of being called the father of Brahmins. 
For when the Brahmins quarrel they call each other Son of a dog, 
rsiTih LD&6BT ! A sarcasm on those who have false ideas of dignity. 

" Desire of glory is the last garment that even wise men put off." 

1582. cguemffuuGSsru) Q&evSLDrrtGmepitii, sjsessru)2isst Q&susld Qun eon 'gjLo/r? 

Is there any service like service in a palace, though the wages 

there be only half a fanam ? 
The honour of serving a king is great though the pay may be small. 

1583. ^eaarijf.ai^d Q&rr<SsQ(n?QujrT? &<ann&(Sj(8sG6)S&(gj& Q#/r©i©(np(eW ? 

Do you give to the mendicant or to the gourd ? 1553. 

i.e., Give in order to do good, and not to get praise for your charity. 
The ' gourd ' is a vessel in which alms are received by a mendicant. 

1584. ctsot ptpdetss (tpm^is^s, Qsrrem(Ssurr. 
Bring my nose forward ! 879. 

A curious phrase. The allusion is to the mutilation of a faithless wife 
by her husband. Sometimes the adulteress' mother was mutilated 
also. Hence when a girl was leaving home for her husband's house 
after marriage, her mother would use this saying meaning ' Be careful 
to bring credit to me ; don't do anything that will make your husband 
cut my nose off.' It is now used by a superior to an inferior as an 
warning to behave himself, lest he bring disgrace on his master. 



174 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1585. eJGsr u&apuurr] GieBrQpQnp efii—, suetr^eu umpiurr eimQpgi Qu>®). 

Instead of saying simply " Pariah" why not say " Valluva 
Pariah " ? 678. 

A Valluvan is a Pariah-priest, but both live in the Pariah village and 
both are Pariahs. A title does not raise a low man. 

" Vain glory blossoms but never bears." 

" What good can it do to an ass to be called a lion." 

" Fame is a magnifying glass." 

1586. QsargiiDjbp mtrifl&(3j ^mu&pmn&r ffi—ia^, ^j^e^Lopp ieitiBsq goto 

A ceremony lasting nine days for a worthless woman, and a 
ceremony lasting fifty days for one still worse. 

The allusion is to the long festivals that the parents of a deformed girl will 
hold in order to get her married. The lamplight and bustle of the 
festival prevent anyone from noticing her defects, and a marriage may 
be arranged before anyone knows that there is anything wrong with 
her. The proverb is said of people who seek honour and respect, but 
do not deserve it. 

1 587. sC.Qi-.itQl. Qun^eo, sesr^Q^nQi— emreonuo. 

If you go with a load, you may return with honour. 347. 
i.e., If you take presents with you you will be well received. 
" He that bringeth a present findeth the door open." 

1588. <55ti>iD(GB)LLi$. {<ss)SiiiQu6SBri—riLLi^.) iSlvk%Gir(jurT(GB)e2iiii QftbiLjLO <fz_ y»(5 

Q^djtuQisussorQuo. 

Though the son of a widow, all the proper rites should be 
performed for him. 

Even an illegitimate child, when a bridegroom, should be fully honoured. 
This saying is often quoted in reply to a man who urges caution in some 
expenditure. 

1589. &m@$Elp(3j i5p(5)Gsisru> &<amD£rriiiQ. 

Virtue is the support of dignity. 

The ' support ' referred to in the proverb is the erection of etone, brick 
or wood, by the road-side upon which coolies, and others who carry 
loads on their heads, may rest their burdens. 

" From our ancestors come our names, but from our virtues our 
honours." 

1590. sneSQ&i &lLl$.^v)60 ofi^g), (ZjuesiuuSio @L-iB^tr&) giessfl. 

If tied round the leg it is a trophy, if lying on a dunghill it is 
only a rag. 1595, 1602. 

A man is honoured according to the work he does, or according to his 
position, and not according to his intrinsic worth. 



DIGNITY, SOCIAL IMPORTANCE. 175 

1591. sir pi &-l£I pigtail it slkfrs (com. ■snrS QfiL^ligtaVirs^str) seagrus-irs&rir? 

^jiaQs <££(£) ^lL® eBxsupGzirsenrr ? 
Did you see those persons who were spued out, or did you 
place a tray before them ? 

Said of one who is of low caste, oris very poor, or has a bad character yet 
wants to be honoured j or said to one who wants to honour such a 
person. Also said of two persons who blame each other for the 
faults common to both. The tray referred to is the tray of betel leaves, 
sandal-paste, rose water, &c, placed before a guest as a mark of honour. 

1592. (&jLDiSl(£l QsrrGjgsp, (^ihtSl® evaiEi^Qp^ir? 

Do you make a bow to get a bow ? 

Said of those who cringe in order to get into the society of their 
superiors. 

1593. (3jmji)iQa>e$LLt— eS&rstssisuQuaeo. 

Like a lamp on a hill. 2624. 
Said of one who is widely honoured. 

1594. QsrreSeO LcessfluJU) <snssrQp Quit $j(Wj£&rreO Qurr^th. 

If I can only get the title of Manager of the temple, I shall be 

satisfied. 
Said of a person who longs for honours and titles. 
" A rose called by any other name would smell as sweet." 

1595. ffikiQQ&d <sSIlLl-jt&) (gir&gLD, Qir>nism>g\iSQeo eSlLLi—rretf gesBresofir. 

If water is poured into a conch, it is sacred water ; if poured 
into an earthen pot, it is common water. 1353, 1590, 1602. 

1595a- iBtTL-L-iT&sr QueBBr&rrtgl <srmqr?6$ ejesi <5T60TuiT&r, rsn§}iQu(tr)&(3j& Q&rrjpi 

6T6BT(np®) VSULD CTS37 UtT&T. 

When they say she is the headman's wife, she is pleased ; but 
when they say, she must give her four labourers their 
wages, she is glum. 

Said of one who magnifies his authority to the utmost, but will not give 
just wages to those who work for him. 

1596. upgiuQutBQeo u$5lQ<GG)!inL£>QuntTu-i @(5<a;aCa/6OTr®u). 

Be the eleventh person among ten. 

i.e., Do not seek to be honoured ; or if you require special notice, separate 
yourself from the rest. 

1597- UQpS<5SiSS : Q(oUJ&) #6BTtonTpU> (Q^UJ<SUlli) SutBgtT&i, Uj $lL<Ss QljlhlSl— 

Qsussar®w. 
If an oracle inspires a slave girl, you should present flowers to 

her and worship her. 1601. 
People of low birth are not to be despised if they obtain greatness. 

1598. ffu/ife) ismf) sunup. (<a//r gjU}-), sm^QtueO ejpuf.\ 

Come shameless lassie ! Climb into the cart ! 

Said sarcastically to one who seeks the place of honour everywhere with- 
out, being invited. 



176 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1599. swrjpsg, ^sfjsm @iJdu6bt (or Qfiwiy-tun&r) en\usi- Q&eor(np60 sQpes)^ 

QiDiLuuiresr (or Qwrijuunetr}. 
When the acrobat (or dancing-girl) who acts to the admiration 
of all becomes old, he (or she) will herd asses ! 

1600. eSiQ^^issn Qenileai— ^QQ/Dgj? 

Do yon hunt for the sake of the trophy ? 

1601. Qsu&retmil.if.&(3)<5 : &6Bresr£th euwpn&l, eSopk^i^TOST (guai3L-Q<SL'esat®ih. 
If an oracle inspires a maid-servant, you should fall at her 

feet and worship her. 1597. 

When God works through a person look at the good in him, and not at his 
former social position. 

1602. emsu&JsluJSBi QsrrGlppiTG) i&Q^mgj, $&)60rrefiLLi—n&) LDesuremi. 

If the doctor gives it, it is medicine ; if not, it is only earth. 
1356, 1590, 1595. 



SHAME, CONTEMPT, DEPRECIATION. 

1603. cgyswear QsiT(Gjj&u lj&Suuit? 

Is be an insignificant tiger ? 

Don't despise anyone for his apparent insignificance. 

1604. ^jeuesT &-68T&(9j& Qen^s&istDjjQujrr? 

Do you take him to be a soft vegetable ? 

1605. ^liSnui (9j£g)smir6B)UJ j)jpQ<siiL-i^.<ssr &uunihp!T$>G) @u(?uirj? ues)p& 

The soldier who cut down a thousand horsemen is now living 
in disgrace along with the dogs of the Pariah village ! 

1606. (genii) (or ^gn, or eiifi, or st—&)) GippfyssT (g^es>^s seaarL-Qpn ? 

(8j@gi GipffisGr (gen -gem p& 36BBri—(c£rr? 
How many breeches lias the pool (or river, or sea) seen ? How 
many pools has your breech seen ? • 

Refers to the Hindu practice of washing in rivers or tanks after obey- 
ing the calls of nature. A servant uses this, meaning that he has 
had many masters, and many masters have had him. 

1607. etseur $%rjessr £_z_ldl/ §>0 agiT6oor ^jpesrm. 
My eight span body became one span. 
i.e., I was put to shame. 

1608. wear lSsjhpul/ (or Qu&& or ueQeufra) QiBuuniL^ QiflaQpg] (or 

an pi QpL^lsQp^i) Qp(§eSlQ&). 
My livelihood (or my word, or my respect) is ridiculed (or has 

been spat out) in the street. 
All laugh at me : all despise me. 



SHAME, CONTEMPT, DEPRECIATION. 177 

1609. safari— 6u it &/&!}<$(&)& ssarth gjao^/sC^ear, untiuuGiiiT&i&K&Qfju u@w 

gj«D p&Q 'jg6BT '. 

I have lost my respect before the public, and my honour has 
decreased before spectators. 

1610. &&6B)jgGtsuj j>jeSip£prr&), Qkeag seoia^th. 

If he unties his rags you will pity him 1613. 

If a man's inner character or the secret history of any family or policy is 
revealed, there is always something to be pitied in it. 

" There is a skeleton in every man's cupboard." 

1611. siTiLibp <sf-5sar^s)ai6B)unjLb, supmjQssi Qeu/bpSteveaujiLim, §$tetrg@ j/rgj 

Don't give up a bit of dried lime (used m chewing betel), nor 

withered betel leaves, nor a reduced king. 
Any of these may afterwards be of great advantage. 

1612. <s? ay/raff sawaouj euySlpgjLjCourn—iy., &2s8BtQ&lLl- Qeu&r&TiTLLu^. 

Oh, you shameless woman, scrape the vegetables off from the 
wall and give them to me ! 

A hnsband was displeased with the vegetables his wife had prepared for 
his meal, and he threw them away against the wall. Bat after a little 
while, seeing that there was nothing else for him to eat, he asked his 
wife (bnt in abusive language) to scrape them off and give them to 
him. 1614. 

" To sivalloic the bitter pill." — " To make a virtue of necessity." 

1613. Q#rr<5BTtgB)&) QgvlLssQs®, ^Qp^rrdo gis&atQs®. 

If I tell it, it is shameful to me ; and if I weep over it, it is 
painful to me. 1610. 

1614. GslGsrgi giuddesr (or ssQsSlIi—) gnLOLysoptanpao ^asrem r§2s8ruurrrr 

setrirt 

Who will think of chewing again the betel that he has chewed 
and spat out. 

A friend or a mistress once despised will not be restored again. This say- 
ing is the reverse of 1612. 

1615. fsrr&sr <oT6k(trfio, &.esrd(^s &es)L-iaurTU$&) iS. 

As far as I am concerned, you do not esteem me more than the 
dirt in the corners of your mouth ! 

1616. u>a$a @dQ^B)&), ®-u$<3Mi a»a/#(3juw seuiftuoirear? 

If the yak is caught by its hair, will it keep its life ? 

The long hair of the yak is its pride. Bather than lose this, it would 
give up its life. 

1617. lorrearth QurfKcpn? iSirnesar&sr QutflQpiT? 

Is honour or life the more valuable ? 1616. 

" Hither live or die with honour." 

23 



178 TAMIL PEOVERBS. 

1618. eStLQf Q<f/7-«jt<6B)60 slL®s (or @tl®) (sj'feou/Lo, eSuBpsp sJdgfslgB)®) 

<2l(ipd(9)Uu(8ii>. 
If I let go my hold of it the knot will come untied ; if I spread 
my cloth out it will become dirty. 1728. 

The cloth is old and worn and has some holes in it. In order that 
others shall not observe these defects, the wearer knots it together, and 
refuses to spread it oat, and gives as an excuse, that if she does so it 
will touch the floor and get dirty. This saying is used of genteel 
poverty. 

" Decency and decorum are not pride." 

1619. OaiL.(f«(5u Qujbjpi QeutsSuSei sifSk^isSi ] LLu.nirs&r. 

I have been born for nought, and have be thrown into a hedge 

(of thorns) . 
A poor daughter-in-law has often to serve a rich daughter-in-law; and 

she may quote this proverb when bemoaning her lot in the joint-family, 

Cf. 376/. 



OSTENTATION. 

t—LLULD. 

" O man, why boastest thou in pride, 
The smallness of thy mind to screen ? 
Go, bathe thy vile polluted hide 
In meditation's sacred stream." 

Ch. E. Gover : The Folk Songs of Southern India. 

1620. <s>jdQujT<o5Tu> iSly.^ QpGaar<as>i—&(§& &enaQourresnh ereorgi Quit. 

The widow is seized with stupidity, but her name is " The 
Wisdom of Siva"! 

1621. ^jesuri— &Lpe$&)e0nLDG)Quir^O)Q)ih, Quit <g£&)rr&) G$(jjj<9spiJD. 

Though he gives no shade for you to resort to, his name is 

' Banyan tree.' 
The Banyan, Ficus Indica, is a very shady tree. 

1622. cgyQpiTjgih L£f@iuth, ^l—lduxud ^j^sih. 
The nectar is lacking, the pomp is great. 

" A proud heart and a beggar's purse were never loving companions." 

1623. j)]&reitls (3jiq-&s@ ^GflbrsaaP/flaJ'Sso, Quit sta&nQpeS. 

She has not water enough to fill her hand for a drink but her 

name is " The goddess Ganges." 1658. 
" Where you think there are flitches of bacon, there are not even 

hooks to hang them on." 

1624. ^lLi^.60 ^uSjTih, lditlLlo.&) ^uSjTii), eSili^Qeo srresBTVf- uireSislReo. 

He has a thousand sheep, and a thousand cows, but not a 
spoonful of milk at home. 



OSTENTATION. 179 

1625. ^juuek Q&njb")i8(9) gjQgQ(n?ehr , ul&r'BeiT QLDuQsiremp^eo Q&npn 

earth Q&ubQ(n?e8r. 
The father is crying for rice, while his son is giving cows 
(to the Brahmins) at Kumbakonam. 1626, 1657. 

The gift of cows to Brahmans is one of the highest forms of Hindu charity. 
Kumbakonam is a very holy place in the Tanjore District. 

" Be just before you are generous." 

1626. cgj^^flofr ^jth logout ih, (BjLouQ&neeBrgGjIed Q&rrpnesrw. 

While the mother goes naked, her son gives cows (to the 

Brahmins) at Kumbakonam. 
" Charity begins at home." 

1627. -%l£ n &(5 <2]ifl@, QpsunLpn&(9ju unVssr, Qppe&iunir euqrrjQ/D eSr^ueauu 

UTTTT. 

The Mudaliyar has only a small measure of rice, but keeps a pot 
that can hold three such measures. Behold the pomp of the 
Mudaliyar ! 1648, 2261, 2284. 

1628. ^efruuirnpptred sjLp<?jju8eo, Qeij'Seosaiuu urrrrpprrG) J§)iga/u>'&w. 

If we look at his person he seems to be a mountain of beauty, 
but if we look at his actions he seems to be a mountain of 
worthlessness. 545a. 

1629. $$s?& ^^ssesjis^ ^jffasBr® Queeetfn^l, 6u&@eun&)u>LL®ih eueo&) 

euiriL.® (or egy/s.sa/CTu^jii). 
This foppish fellow has two wives, and his scarf reaches to the 
village of Vandavasi ! 

1630. V-uSQjrn® §)(§&(ifjuDQuiig] 9(75 siresansf. QibiLs^ euySfaSeo'teo, §ld£ 

gi&(5 Qebrug] saesaruf. Qisth eSiLi—giGlunei. 
While he was alive they did not give him one spoonful of ghee, 

but after his death they spent nine spoonfuls of ghee at the 

funeral ceremony to please the public. 
The funeral ceremony referred to is the Karmantiram, usually performed 

by Brahmans on the tenth day after death, and by Sudras on or after 

the sixteenth day after death. 

1631. s_sJr(c«(r unnppiTQb ^ssneaih, QsuetrKoiLi unnppir&> i—imuld (or iSlolSI 

If you look inside, there is retching ; if you look outside, there 

is pomp (or it is like a fire-fly). 
" He is like a silvered pan, fair without, but foul within." 

1632. osb.it <5Ti£j(3)U> Qurr, eS® uu-isf.eS. 

His fame is all over the village, but there is starvation in his 
house. 

1633. erias&r jSjsjpssrrrr epi LD {s&Q&tfi&(8ju QuiriLsvis^freaT. 
My husband has returned from court. 

A bombastic way of announcing that the husband is connected in some 
menial capacity with the court-house and has returned from his daily 
duty. 



180 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1634. <or&&¥eop Jsleisrjrii, gjuuld ^L-L-jipQun&). 

Like belching after eating the (defiled) refuse of food. 

Said in contempt of one who gets very poor food at home, but belches in 
the public as if his stomach were full of good things. Belching is not 
thought rude ; on the contrary, it is rather complimentary to a Tamil 
host to belch after eating the meal he has provided, for that is supposed 
to show that the stomach is replete, i.e. that the food was rich and 
plentiful. 

1635. erQdQpgi ffkoap Qsauireoii), sjjri/Qpjp pkp ueneossirt 

What ! Is his occupation begging, and his conveyance an ivory- 
palanquin ? 1273. 
" A proud mind and- a poor purse are ill met." 

1636. ^iLiujrrirsQsrr6SBrss)i—UJiTt}}, ^n^LDL^eunih, S-&rQ&r ^jq^s^lditu) ffQ^m 

Her hair is gracefully done up, and (adorned) with Pandanus 

flowers, but there are nits and lice in it ! 
" A fair exterior with a foul interior." 

1637. slLl-s srflLDessfiaSeveinuieoQurr^g^u), Qu,i QutTasrmuoton&r (or 

Though she does not possess even a black bead (a very cheap 
ornament) her name is ' Mother of gold ' {or ' Wreath of 
Pearl')- 

1638. sf3&(9) $®)®)it£ sunsaLpssjiL ui^eSIQ&) sL-is^p Q garni sQeutrl 
What, are the plantains (bananas) to hang (as ornaments) 

at the front of the house, while we have nothing to eat ? 
Sometimes said of a person who will not help his poor relatives. 

1639. &n&&)6Wpei]GS)i&q}j eurrn&asr Qu&& enssresr? 

Why should he who is without a cash speak of a big gold coin ? 

1640. (Sji—So 8h-(ig&(9j £fQ§Qpg), Qsir<saares>L- yo/i^ ^/(tgQpgj. 

While the stomach is crying for gruel, the hair is crying for 
flowers. 1671. 

1641 (9ji$.dQpj5i ai-Lg, Q&rruueiflsQpjg) ume^n. 

He drinks only gruel, but washes his mouth with rosewater ! 

1642. ^«@ &d(3j <si6Brg)i uns&jp ^<ssrun<m &es)u Qw&ffi, e^iS-t^-Qeo eukgj 

To be praised by the public he chews areca-nut when abroad ; 
to be praised by the women of his household he licks his lips 
at home. 2352. 

1643. &uHj&rix> ^vaauuemLxxr^SjgijiJD, e^s^ Qpssn&iuesanJD. 

Though his salary is half a panarn, three-quarters of a panam 

goes to keep up appearances. 473. 
" The devil wipes his tail with the poor man s pride." 



OSTENTATION. 181 

1644. Q&eu&& QpprSssr ewrtanipssrrdj (sarcastic) L]eff)aS&)&}rrLc&) fgj&sfls 



The ripe plantain (banana) craves some tamarind. 

The ripe plantain is too sweet for use in the kitchen, and a good deal of 
sour tamarind is needed to correct its flavour. Hence the proverb 
is used about those who have been over indulged, and need to have 
their fine airs severely corrected. 

1645. Q0$($6O SL-l—p giGBsfiuS&i'hsc, S^-^^OJrTIT @)]I6B0r®. 

He has not a scrap of clothes, but he keeps two concubines ! 
Some Hindus keep concubines simply to exhibit their own wealth. 

1646. ggneasr uGBorL—iTiipgi&(3) QfLptJn <s$y^ (or @Sli£j£ib, or @Tty-)- 

A religious mendicant a span long daubs a cubit of holy ashes 
on his forehead (or wears a beard a cubit in length). 

Said of one who seeks honour that he does not deserve. 

1647. £lol9 srreoiB<SBii—, Qu#& ueoeOsQQeo. 

The young fellow has to walk, but he speaks (as if he had) a 
palanquin (to ride in). 

" Great cry and little wool." 

1648. pneisr ^asresT^ geSI® ggjGJteo, &Lourr Qib&)§hs^^ Qprrthetnu (or 

He has not even bran to eat, but he keeps a (huge) basket for 
good rice ! 1627. 

" Penniless, but bragging of having a plum." 

1649. ^637 (3jL$L<£<S<£ <5i_i£ ^)60'2lSO } GMTJjpgJSQfj (utElQfj) ^jJTeSBT® U6Br{S(9jll.Uf- 

He has not even gruel to drink, and yet he undertakes to bring 
up two pigs for hire. 

The gruel referred to is pig-meal. When one has not. even pig-meal for 
his own table, it is only vain ostentation to undertake the rearing of 
two pigs for hire. 

1650. pnear ^asmsTp pe&U}-&fteo, pt5i&p0nQ&> pneS Q/gniiis^ Q/emejsu 

He has not even bran to eat, but his wife asks for a thdli of pure 
gold to hang on her neck ! 

1651. ptTGST QulT^S/M 0trS0 < g}&(8j<5 Q6S>L-.lU(Tgl, eTQg0L-.IT §%GV JpT&lflfjL-LO 

If he goes himself he won't get anything to drink, so he says 
(to his clerk) " Order (lit. write on a palm-leaf for) one 
hundred pots of curds." 



182 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1652. pneisr Q until QmniBioeOiTLD&iSiim^euissr, gu$(nj&(iij<9 : @lL® <stQ^^\t^S)i^S)U>. 
He went himself for buttermilk but got none ; he then wrote 

an order for curds. 

1653. ul&rVsir uQpsetas, Quit Qp&g) uaresSssixi. 

The boy is a slave, but his name is ' Pearl-jewel.' 

1654. QuQJjQOW iS^SSeOlM, $)QTj&@pj[p 6£L-G6il—&&&)U>. 

His boast (is that he eats from) a golden vessel ; but it is only 
a broken pot. 

1655. Qu0SG>iD&(3j ^iLssiL- sjist-pgiu, L9&r'2efr<SB)siiS&) sntstassf ^uJBsQsit 

®ppn<5sr. 

He killed a sheep (to appear wealthy) but he only fries the 
ears of it for his son. 

1656. QuQ^esan ^>(Tj Qppih, LjGM—pgi GrQppmio ^m^itSeo^eo. 

He has a sieve full of grandeur, but if it be sifted nothing 
remains. 

" Sift him grain by grain and you will find him all chaff." 

1657. Qu/b/D pirtLi u&tsjslqrj&s, ulffrnnesBruQurr^ssrih Q&ibeSl gggiQuireti. 

While his own mother starves, he feeds Brahmins. 1625, 
1626. (Math. 15, 5.) 

1658. Quit Q&ed60ui3®r ( &sfnjnujrT , iBrriALDjbgiiuQurr&Srgi. 

His name is Sellapilleirayan, but he has no ndmam (on his 
forehead) . 

The ndmam is a trident shaped mark worn by Vaishnavites on the fore-head 
and other parts of the body, painted on the forehead, at least, before taking 
food. Sellapilleirayan is one of the names of Vishnu. A Sellapillei- 
rayan without a ndmam cannot be the real Sellapilleirayan. Said of a 
man who makes great professions, but has nothing to support them 
with. 

1658a. Quit siki'snuemresfi, (Sjisj-ssp ^eaaressf 'if)&)^ev. 

Though her name is Granga Bavane she has no water to drink. 
1623. 

Ganga is the holy river Ganges. Bavane is a name of one of the tribu- 
taries of the Cauveri River. 

1659. LDl—U QuQJj&QLDglTeBr t§&&0e8BTSVBp(l1ja(<S) 611 ifiuSl &)¥&>. 

The hermitage (Sanscr. mat'ha) is a grand one, but there is no 
way of getting even rice-water in it ! 2126. 

1660. ^Jii jgjTLDrriu QlditlLg6>l-, ^suetr Qun &Jsp®) jtji^Q. 

She has inherited a bald head but her name is ' The woman with 
beautiful hair.' 



OSTENTATION. 183 

1661. grrjTrremi) ^eaaressfiruuis^eo, Sd^^esaregsFir Qguj uiLi—un®. 

He says he has plenty of sheds where water (is given away in 
charity) ; bnt rice-water is as rare (in his honse) as ghee. 
1659, 1792. 

1662. Qp^sStiunir i—wum eS&rdQssssrQ&SBrujdt^s Qs®. 

The Mndalyar's ostentation causes the loss of lamp-oil. 

After taking a wretched meal, he rubs his hands and the leaf-plates that 
are thrown into the street with oil, that it may appear as if he were 
living in high style ; for according to Hindu ideas food that is cooked 
with oil or ghee is very rich. 

" Reputation is the darling of human affection." 

1663. Qpi—ssu uiruSeo&nrQ^Qun^^nua, fi—S^s^s (geapd^&Seo^eo. 
Though he has not a mat to lie on there is no lack of bustle. 

1664. QjffULj <sj{8p ^iressn—mn iLi-jrea , ^even-Quir gireaari—nih {i.e. ^6ot®4- 

Though her name is ' She who leaps and dances,' she is 

unable to get over a varappu. 
A varappu is the earthen ridge that separates one rice-field from another. 

They are usually only a foot or so high, and a few inches broad. Prop. 

JEtreoBt L—rriu means ^freaan—eu — <^,U-i a name for Kali, referring to 

her dancing with Siva at Chidambaram. 

1665. eunQgQartfGsr eutTQgQd^&sr <si<m^i iLgjenu ereieOirth QufftTUD, j^ppleo 

^pikiQ^eo egihupQgLL®^ Q@7G0'2eoujrTth. 
He was famed over all Madura for being well off, but when he 
descended into the river (i.e. at his death) there were fifty- 
eight difficulties (i.e. debts). 1569a, 1573. 

1666. sSlLQs^^ Q&nrS&fteo Qsmsbt gj pi suit ear } isinl.(Eld(3j& Qs=e060uiSl&r'BeiT 

Siva knows there is no rice in my house, but am I not called 
' The darling of the country.' 

1667. sS® QeugjiA eS®, Qeut^rn ^^msio. 

His house is only an empty house, but his rule (over it is as 
exacting as that of) the Nawab of Vellore. 

Said by a wife to a hnsband who demands dainties, but gives her very 
little money for household expenses. 

1668. <SB)61Jg£gpQ)jQL£&) <Sljy5lu$G)'%GV } LS&Sa&SQU GutT&& &GB)!T&(9j®<SB)QJ 

He boasts of having no more room in his house to keep things, 
but he has not even a gourd shell to take with him when 
begging. 

Cf. 2396 /. 



184 TAMIL PR0VERB8. 

DISCONTENTED POVERTY. 

<ST65Up. 

1669. ^dsrsf (&)U}-&&& ^eonres^fflio^eo, ^esTQinQeO ^jixiuniBQenesufdunTUi. 

He had not even water to drink that day, but he wanted (to 
ride in) a howdah on an elephant. 

1670. &-<sirefr iSlar'&n Q-jffe> msQsQs^6saruf.(i^ss, topQ^Q^ iSleir'2en<5(9j£ 

While the child she has is licking a stone mortar, she goes to 
Tripati to beg the God for another child. 

Though she has no food to give to the child she already has, she wishes to 
bear another. Improvidence. 

" Better have one plough going than two cradles." 

1671. Qi—&Qpgi ^lUS^^IssBr'bsasT, s^vjs (or searei\) strem@pgi LDf&eS-® 

(or wrr&fletas). 

What he has is only a miserable verandah, but he dreams of a 
palace. 1640, 1670. 

" Hope and expectation are a fool's income." 

" He lives in a hut, but dreams of a palace" 

1672. esistufreo ^sng &gv&Q <awi68»riJL/L_<a»ffi/<S(3j ^SBiffuuL-t—^iQuneo. 

Like a servant girl fit for nothing longing for a coloured cloth. 
1687. 

A long ' cloth', pudavei, is the ordinary dress of Tamil women. 

1673. QfihQpg) &eB>jraSp G?<a/<feo, ffi'&sr&Qpg) Qnewppirfr Qofteo. 

He is doing the work of a barber, but aspires to become Sheris- 
tadar. 1635, 1677. 

A Sheristadar is a petty official. 

" Every ass thinks itself worthy to stand with the king's horse." 

1 674. Qgrriii(9jQp < giJ (&}LLLp.&<fr<siiiT } <5(6B)« sireesrQp^i LDn&^eas. 

That which he owns is a ruined wall but what he sees in his 
dream is a palace. 

" Too much hope deceiveth." 

1675. i§&&@6BBresifi0&(9i Qs^Qesreij&r, usfihuirg^s^f ffrsseem Qp® 

Q(V/>eir. 

She who begs for rice water is seeking sugar to sweeten her 
cow's milk. 

Said of a poor man who will not be contented with any but the best of 
food. 



UNREASONABLE IMPORTUNITY. 185 

1676. ulpip iSt&r'Bsrr t3uf- Q&rrpjgi&qij SjQgQpgi, tSpisuQurrSp iSerr'bsfrs 

The child is crying for a handful of rice but (its parents) are 
seeking anklets with bells on them for a child yet unborn. 

1677. ^lSI ^etreornh ereisrnpi LDearuuneo (9jU}.aQpg)QunG). 

He drinks mind-milk (i.e. nourishes a foolish hope) thinking 
that he can rule the world. 1673. 

" It is good fish, if it were hnt caught." 

Of. 997 /. 1205 /. 2670 /. 



UNREASONABLE IMPORTUNITY. 

Qu(^<SS)LDf <aJGS)Lp. 

1678. J?iUU5 : & (3j^UD<5B)LJ6B)'lJ& @IJU, ti?o»"Ssrr Qppplm Q^!SJSfTUJS(^ S\Q§ 

QpsffcoUIT®). 

While the father is sucking cocoanut fibre, his child is crying 
for a ripe cocoanut. 

" He can give little to his servants who licks his own trencher." 

1679. ^esan^Qiu .gyeBrasrggj&tjS) j>i'%5ouj&Q& ) pm sSIiejsld uiT®)Qfn pgia(8j 



While the mendicant is praying for rice, his Linga cries for 
milk and rice. 1686. 

1680. s^ponp u®Qp urr@&(9}&rQe(r, lossst CW^sgj ^(^©(/jw. 

While the mother is distressed (for want of food) her son cries 
for buttermilk. 

1681. ^susaL-iuiretsnnmh {mkjjjl) eStias^esi^tLjua ^gy Qstrassr^QuirsCcisij, #p 

vusQsrreS&) g-guitiB ersj&jrrih <F/f*<s«ajjr QurriEi&£&s(9j jpiQppjp 
Quit®). 

Like all the (little) gods of the surrounding temples crying 
for sweetmeats, while the river carries off the sacred stone 
bull and the Linga. 3075. 

The stone bull (Nandi) and the Linga nre both emblems of the great God 
Siva. 

1682. ^sfraesr ^lLs^s^ jyeSifi ^suuu.7^ xaetpGHeo, xn&$n iiW* «@ 

Q&(9j giQg&gjQutreo. 

Like crow-devils crying for rice-soup while respectable people 
cannot get a single grain of boiled rice. 

24 



186 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1683. .fjjssr Q^LUGupeiOfg j^gi QsiresBrGHCoLHTQpgi, ansupsirn^is^p Qpu 

Is it a floating-festival for the watchman when the river carries 
off the gods ? 

At certain festival times the idols in some temples are taken on rafts for a 
sail on the temple lake. 

1684. srifi/TuSirth QutnssrQupp (8}$gl<aa!r ^puaDuu ul®iKi<aa&u$&), (§0il.(3d 

(Sjjgjswr QsirspmLD QrrnLLuj-&(9j f&mjQssrgrrth. 
While the horse worth seven thousand gold coins was feeding 
on straw from the eaves, the blind (worthless) horse was 
hankering after wheat bread. 

1685. 5>sot(2?>6ot Qpiheuis) ^gptkiQ Qt—ss&Qf, Qp^eosStL®^ Q@dj<smi> (3jiej@ 

sSliuth Q&LL(&jLDnih. 
While the chief god is badly off, the little gods in the corners 

are asking for perfume. 
i.e. Though the head of the family is in difficulties, his dependents will 

never cease to ask for all sorts of luxuries. 

1686. &(3sn—$pihi§nir<56r &np3ii<i(3j ^](ipQ(Tij>^s)m } ■sSIiejsld U(G$& <3{i8inpp 

gj&(9j <§>/(ipQp0rrih. 
It is said that the chief priest of a Saivite temple was crying 
for pepper-water, and that the Linga was crying for a dish 
consisting of five kinds of nectar. 1679. 

The priest was in want, but the symbol of the deity wanted luxuries just 
as much as in times of prosperity. 

1687- ^«uupi@ ^il® Q&irsuGxsuDrTUQ, los<sst eTQppgjQutru.i—g} Qeuessr 

The father wears a loin-cloth made of rags stitched together, 
but the son wants print-cloth. 1672. 

1688. $&uueg)is(3j& slLi—S Q&nsvisssnj&s&eo, ld&got p^^tr&LniLLLQih waai—u 

UiT£lJ[T68)L— G>UtTl—&Q<9 : {7&Sr^B)<§15)li>. 

It is said that the father had not even a loin-cloth, but the son 
asked for cloth to spread (on the road) as far as Tan j ore (for 
a procession to walk on) . 

1689. ptki&Qpui Qurrmegyu} peairaSQeo, ^q^sas- (SiTn-spiEisntij V-pluSQeo. 
Pure gold and common gold are buried in the ground, but a cash- 
worth of lemons is kept in a swinging tray (uri). 

In times of distress servants or inferiors will complain if they lack little 
comforts, although their betters suffer great anxieties and losses with 
fortitude. 

1690. u^Gtn&ibntfi uessfl&irjTih stLi—nor, e£taQgS)tfi efi&fTjruutlj-JT&r. 

A poor beggar woman was cooking cakes ; a starving woman 
yearned for them. 

1691. QuQ^iDirar uetR&f pessrestfq^stgj ^eoQq^ssr, gjGguuDtTn ppgHQuJirp 

esrua QsiLQ^n. 
While Vishnu is wandering about to get tamarind- water, the 
Monkey-Grod is demanding boiled rice and curds. 



KICH AND POOR. 187 

1692. (ippeo L^sJrSsirr (ips$E\!jp3p&(§ tgjQpiiiQurTjp, ^neeari—iTLD LffeffSsrr 

While the first born child cries for urine, the second cries for 
milk. 

1693. eusaorssBrs^^J&sm mssar'Bsssr $ Gil6areG)&u9&) ) £LL®euiT6SBfls(8jGilGtBji Qsa&r 

While a beautiful horse eats earth, the country pony neighs for 
gram (a kind of lentil). 



RICH AND POOR. 

U655r<3B&ITD£5T) 6T6$)Lp. 

1694. J)jIT&eV}l&(5j $0 Q&IT&), ^jUf.<SB)LDS0^ <g1>6» &<56iW. 

The king's command is but a word, but it lays a burden on the 

head of his slave. 1699. 
Easy to command, hard to obey. 

1695. c£iJj68Bru>'%Gsr<&(3j j>]u$mh Q&etigyt}), (9jU}Mjm5BTGuSBT eimesr Q&neosunm. 
Thousands of rupees go to the royal palace ; what can the 

(poor) farmer do ? 1711. 

1696. ^GBsny.etouj s\i^^^<^)^, @®«oa/«oaj (or Q%%n&fl(as)uj)u QuitlL® 

It seems that he beat the poor beggar, and threw his vessel 
down and smashed it ! 1709, 1718. 

1697. ^jbfSed QuQTjQeu&rGtni), ietlus^ srasnssr^ &&ruL\p@esBi66ifiir. 

What is it to the dog, that the river is in full flood ? It can 
only swallow one draught. 1706. 

However plentiful good things may be, it is the poor man's lot to get but 
little. 

1698. jyfissrQLDeo QunQrosu'^esr^ s-6Sbt^s)ldli QslLl-ij&) ^jsuu®umt 

If you ask lime to chew with betel leaves from one who rides 

on an elephant, will you get it ? 
A poor man is too insignificant to receive favours from a great personage. 

1699. £_SST<5(3j $(Vj QU&&, <5TeBr&(9) ^0 Qp&6r. 

Your order is but a word to you, it cost me my breath. 1694. 
" Saying and doing are two things" 

1 700. CT606\W(T7J1£> U6d&)S(8j ffl^CT)^ , U6v6V<S(3j (Linn gJT&QJjQpgJ ? 

If all should sit in palanquins, who would carry them ? 

A palanquin is a litter carried by a number of men. This seems to be a 
Telugu proverb, but it is used in Tamil. 

" You a lady, I a lady ; who is to drive out the sow ?" 

" I proud, thou proud, who shall bear the ashes out ?" 



188 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1701. <5T<oB)LpQu&<9? jfjihuenih GJ(Vfg). 

The words of the poor will not reach the assembly. 
" Poor metis rcords have little weight." 

1702. ejentp S\Q£$ sesoresifiir &>-(8uj eua^str Gp&(§u>. 

The tears of poor people are like sharp swoi'ds (against the 
rich). 

" Tread on a icorm, and it will turn'' 

1 703. sgbi—Qu>&) <sjjB <QU)-<gb)G2iud, SQip eukgiprresr iSI&es)& Q&LL&QtivemGlui. 
Though he plays on the top of the pole, he will have to come 

down to ask for gifts. 

In spite of his seeming superiority the acrobat must come down among 
the crowd to beg for the rewards of his skill. So a poor man though 
engaged in an important piece of work must bear himself humbly or 
he will get no wages. This is especially true in India where every 
petty official expects the utmost obsequiousness in every one who is 
under his orders. 

1704. smear ptsled g{u)-&&(T§$!LD, 3&(fl ^g @auesfleo'%8c>. 

Even though they beat me on my cheek, I have no strength 
(lit. life) to scream out. 

Poverty is powerless to oppose oppressors. 

1705. m&&(9) ^(5 CVSso eS/bqif^iA, isnuSeor (Sfpgi ^jihuDeeanJo. 

Though a cloth were sold for a cash only, yet a dog's breech 

would be bare. 
The poor must go without Avhat others consider to be essentials. 

1706. srrQeuifl S(G£@iumbuQuiT^s)£2ii£), tsntb wsQ^^neb (^Uf.ssQ<3u<ssar(Slu>, 
Even if the river Kaveri were turned into gruel, a dog could 

only lick up (a little). 

1697, 1705 and 1706 contain the Hindu idea of the unchangciibleness of 
the lot of the poor. 92. 

1707- (3j6wrt£- gt£&¥)oBT Qsir0ssr/bQsTessr]^S)^ii>, &sb)ld <sfiLUp.&) Quirtb& 

It does not matter into how many contortions the body is bent, 
if the burden is carried home. 2642. 

" He serves the poor with a thump on the back ivith a stone." 

1708. &J*tlL£<5Br GTGd&irTLD QlJQlfi 'sp<5(3> £g)®»tf. 

All small fish are food for big ones. 

1709. Q^ir&Besmu iSiQikjQQsnemi—n iSleem* Qun®@pgi. 

Should you snatch a beggar's bag with its contents, and then 
give him an alms ? 1696, 1718. 

1710. isin&(8j& Qsnssan-jril.L-iJD, w<sm®s(^^ ^emL—nCi—w. 

Fun to the jackal, but agony to the crab. 1711, 1717, 1719. 



RICH AND POOR. 189 

1711. isifl &G$iLm6sar£sp&(9j, (besot® Ssn^sspppCc. 

A fox's marriage costs many crabs their lives. 1695. 

Tin's might be said of a Viceroy's visit to a Native Prince, whose subjects 
will have to find the funds squandered by their lord in doing honour to 
the Viceroy. 

1712. ih'bssr&p Qgeuast <sui<grr&), &-60rrfc@ sSI/o^s^^ Q&gui. 
If a wet old man comes, dry firewood will suffer. 

Said for instance by a poor man to a rich man, who has invited him to a 
feast, meaning : — You will gain nothing from me though you will have to 
send me away with a gift. A polite refusal from an inferior to a superior 
who invites him to a feast or ceremony. 

1713. uQ ejuusstrnzsyui Ljetf) sjuussmr^nua «_tl®L/uui?/f ^LLL-gjQuneo. 
As two persons, one belching from hunger and one from eating 

tamarind, cultivated a field jointly ! 1454, 1861. 
The poor man will be the sufferer, if he deals with the rich. 
" Those who eat cherries with great persons shall have their eyes 

squirted out with the stones" 

1714. ueemssniT^ii—issT uw^uuim QutTL-edtri&rTl 

Can you lay a wager with a rich man ? 172"J. 
" Contend not with thy betters." 

1715. L/6\)o;,£(3j<£gj (DineO^tpuf-uSeOs^tT^iSiJ^is^uDy &tre)2is(<sj& Q&(muiSle\)&)irg 

eueglia(9jLb eS&nZLh ^mQp. 
The sorrow of one who has no cover over his palanquin, and 

that of one who has no shoes for his feet are the same. 
Both the rich and the poor have sorrows. 
■ .1 country man may be as warm in kersey as a king in velvet." 

1716. uni—SssiTifiaSt—iJa urrrr^th Q&rrt8tf&s)&) } unL-&p<as>(Bu unhuunetrnt 

unn@p<58>g& Q&LLurr&rn? 
If you recite the Mahabharata to a richly bejewelled Avoman, 

will she look at her ornaments or will ghe listen to the 

poem ? 2102. 
It is useless to make complaints to an unsympathetic hearer. 
" Little knows the fat sow what the lean doth mean." 
" The full belly does not believe in hunger." 

1717. u/rtoLy pm uQg&uj iB'^txrs^w, Q^etair @esr eStglemj i8 < 2eifrs^Li. 
The snake (when catching a frog) thinks of its own hunger, the 

frog thinks of its fate. 1710, 1711. 

1718. iS^etas" erQdQ/D&fTu) QuqrjLon&r (sq^Luost), ^es>£u l9®iw8/djstu) 

JPjgSlJLCXriT. 

It seems that Vishnu begged an alms and that the Monkey God 
snatched the alms away from him. 

Said when some one attempts to deprive another of what the latter has 
won with difficulty. Used cv.u by children. 1696, 1709, 1980. 

" The pom- man turns his cake, and another comes and takes il 
away." 



190 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1719. L4fasr&(9)<& Qsireatsri—tTLLi—ixi, 6i<3$&(&j@ fsleaari—nt-Li—th. 
What is sport to the cat, is death to the rat. 1710. 

1720. LO&iTtTtT$%m mesar'Sessr (or tS) $eisr(yrj>eo, tuQ^m^is^^ G?I<sg! (ftjasr eiesr 

utriT&eir, iSlfesi^ssrrgear LD6m2s5sr^ 6d6sr(Tij>&), suuSi /bgi&QeOeOnLDeo 
(sImQifeBr snssrurriTS&r. 

If the king eats dust (or filth), people will say he takes it for 
medicine ; but if a poor man eats dust they will say it is 
because his stomach lacks food. 

Excuses are easily found for the whims of great people, but the poor man 
is never excused. 1736. 

" Rich men have no faults." 

1721. LDSn eod&tS u!rQg&ii)Qun$>a)pQuneo. 

As the goddess of wealth went to a far country. 

Used of rich men who are ' not at home ' or are unsympathetic to their 
needy friends. 

1722. LD&nnnfgQtgG)® Qs=irssLiu./T<ssr Quni—eOniDn': 

Can you play at draughts with a king. 

Applied to comparatively poor people who borrow money in order to imi- 
tate rich people or who waste their time in paying court to rich men, 
instead of working. 1714. 

" Acqtiaintance of the great will I nought, far first or last dear it 
will be bought." 

1723. LD&& $)(§&&, Lcn&fleas ^@&& } ^lLl-.<sst (3ji$.gib&&(9j QstftsoGuwpgi. 

Whether it is a terraced-roof, or a palace (that has to be built) 
the toil comes to the hut of the navy. 

A terraced-roof is a flat roof made of bricks and cement and polished. It 
is more expensive than a tiled roof. The proverb means that the poor 
have to bear ' the burden and heat of the day.' 

Of. 738/. 1369/. 



KEEPING UP APPEARANCES. 

1724. {g)jrssLi(outrgB)G2iLD, &pssuQun\ 

Though you have to beg, do so decently clad. 
" He bears poverty very ill who is ashamed of it." 

1725. skempujn^epii}) sffdQssLKd, sk.ipn<§iS)§}iLo (^erfl^^s^i^.. 
Though you dress in rags, wash and then dress ; and though you 

drink gruel, bathe and then drink it. 1183. 



MISCELLANEOUS PKOVERBS ABODT THE POOR. 191 

1726. sne<)Q<3ifu <ggi&(9j& «_si9«@« (3j&$tGV)g2ltJD, iSQpssiKd (or ,jy<S(3>6ff) 

uduSit QeuefflQuj QgsiBuuuQurrsngtnh. 

Though you have to pound rice for your living, do not let the 
hair of your armpit be seen. 2572. 

It is not thought seemly for a woman to raise her arm so that her arm- 
pit can be seen. The proverb means that however humble the work 
may be that one has to do, one must never allow poverty to destroy his 
sense of self-respect. 

" lie is a wise man that can wear poverty decently.'' 

" A broken sleeve holdeth the arm back." 

1727. <9S-tjb (^isf-^^§^io, (^lju-itiLs Qi^.ss(Ss>j<saBr®iJD. 

Though you have only gruel, drink it in a respectable fashion. 
" Poverty is not a shame, but the being ashamed of it." 

1728. <5to<s (*pu}-sQsiT6mu^Qijm 1 giT60 a(ipssih, ^pkpnei QeuLLi—Qsmstf) (or 

e&LLL-JT®) <5£<5BTjr)lL£lGti , %30). 

If one keeps the fist closed, what may be inside is a secret ; but 

if one opens the hand, all is clear. 1618, 2572, 3158. 
This refers to secrets, and also to all family affairs, that should be hushed 
up. 

" It is an ill bird that fouls it own nest." 

1729. WGSBT^ssar^ ^ear^^itl), msaipuj^ ^sir sp . 
If you eat dust, do so secretly. 

Let not others know your poverty. 

Of. 3156 /. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT THE 

POOR. 



GTSSUp., l5l& : 6$)3 : <k&ITir6k. 



1730. ^ijiasiTUf. q9?6os»uj s\$3 ^ji^-ssrrQ^. 

Do not lower the market rate too much. 

Do not curtail the wages of the poor. Dr. Percival explains this as an in- 
junction not to contravene the established opinions and practices of one's 
associates. 

1731. jyif-Gp <SJ0S(3jU), (8)U?-£g 3k-Qg&(9jlA &lfl. 

His ploughing and the gruel he drank were equal. 1732, 

1741, 2259. 
What he earned was just enough to live on. 
" From hand to mouth." 

1732. ^iixaniDiutriT girpQp &irg$i£(8jtli, Qujtgbt jyetsjrtGfrresar siiSp^is^ih, 

The thread the woman spun, was just enough to make a string 
to tie round her grandson's waist. 1731. 



192 TAMIL I'ROVEIM's. 

1733. j>ijDiEies>astqtl> L/piieiasiqili isd^QpQ^. 

(I am so poor as to have) to lick my hand on both sides. 1765, 
1769. 

1/35. §$&)eotr<£ iStarVGirdtaj j^gyuetauu l^ &&ses)ir. 

An orphan must take the I luppai -flower (Bassia) for sugar. 
2057. 

It must take what it can get. 

" Something is better than nothing.'''' 

1736. $&)6O!r06»eBr Quir&>eon^eijesr. 

He who has nothing is wicked. 1720, 1745. 

1737. ^eiKSST d5ll-U}j3d7G>Jgl &tTUUtTL-JT6iJ < gl ) J§)aU63T UffLDUSOHnuilUJLJ (<OV @2t}> 

Do not speak of food in his house, for he is a beggar by heredity. 

The professional beggar is bv no means badly off in Tndia ; some are even 
rich. 1786. 

1738. a_i_ii)L/ eiQ/gpeussr ct^swlo s^O otO^^/tsst. 

Every one who has carried a body has carried a potsherd. 
Every one has begged in one way or another. 

1739. ©_swr©ff) Q&ngi Q<sn&i@iLO. 

The rice he eats is sugar (to him). 

He is so poor as to value a little rice as if it were sugar. 1429. 

1740. s_tt5/f QufTSfrmeo a>68Br68tsPiT @tj^£^&Qsnem(£ie)i(TF)QQ(w?w. 

We go on drinking water without being able to die. 3397. 

i.e. The lot of the poor is hard ; scanty food and hard work, they can 
neither live nor die. 

1741. &.QgQpW6BT <56S3T«(3> UniTjgjgn&), &-L£<iQ S/7JJJ/LO L&^fftng}. 

If the cultivator looks into his accounts, not even a plough-tail 
will be left as clear profit. 1731. 

The lot of the agriculturist is hard. 

1742. ssk&sbt gjppQunQp, &-/r>Qj s\fbpg!. 

When there is no food, there is no relationship. 1761, 1745, 

2527, 2732 and 3555. 
" Want makes strife betwixt man and wife." 

1 743. <sr&®'teo&£}mgi u& fsqifiiDij ? 

Can a man satisfy his hunger by eating (old) leaf -plates "? 

1 743a.67<f63 ( i><s ( &60ff(3j uxseisit^fkaLLuf. ^^ituw. 

A clod of earth is a support to a leaf -plate. 1765, 1773, 2293. 

The poor supports the poor. In India food is oaten from plates made of 
leaves. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT THE POOR. 193 

1744. <5Tjgg'2£Br GjeB)Lpurr{g5)62iii> } eTgULSIfffiiBisrruj sjp@ < fcsr Quirasr ^eo&>nm&> 
QutriLtr ? 
However poor a man may be, will lie lack a piece of gold the 
size of a lime ? 

Said by a barber who had just so much gold himself. People are apt to 
think that others are as well off as themselves. 

" He that is warm thinks all so." 
J 745. <5J6obtu.it, ui—i—uuseSlQeo ^l0®Q(Vj><b\ <srm ^Gu&nib &.<sora(gjp Qpifl 

(If you say) What ! do you steal in broad day -light ? (The 

thief -replies) Do you know my need ? 1736, 1761, 1742. 
u Poverty has no shame." 
" Necessity has no law." 

1746. &&&&) SfVjSlJIT® QujlT&ppgJ&qjjU Qun^^lll, l3&GB)&&&IW6Br Qldit<35^^ 

JgJ&i&jU Q>UlT&LDITl—.L—nGBT. 

Though salt fish obtains heaven, a beggar will not. 
Contemptibleness of beggary. 

1747. sip6sf!u$®) (or jy&ySluS®)) eSrxpi^ sQpea^s^ jyjpQeu easeonfix>. 

The field (or The ditch) in which the ass falls becomes its heaven 
(Kailasa). 

i.e. The ass will die where it falls as no one will help it. This proverb 
as well as 1748 and 1770 may be applied to poor people, who have to 
suffer because they have neither the means nor the time to look after 
their own comfort. 998, 2512, 3371. It must die there, as no one pities 
and helps it. 66)<560fT&ib(ounQp < g} = to go to Kailasa, is a euphemism 
meaning ' to die.' 

1 748. s(ipes) puL-jessr jp/csg^ Qg0ULjQg£gl iLQjj&gi. 

The dust of the street is the only medicine for the wound of an 
ass. 1747, 1770. 

1749. (9j(3&jps (&)$&gi Loirey ^up-pptreytl), LjQpdeassc^ ^(75 QsnQpd 

SL—SSiL 

Though a slave pounds rice most actively (lit. leaping, leaping) 

he (or she) only gets a cake of bread. 
Though the poor toil hard, they get little pay and honour for their work. 
1 750. (SjQufftskr ui—.t—essr^^Q&)LLjLh eS ' p^^^eoujesr &.«wr®. 

Even in the city of Kubera (the god of riches) fuel-carriers are 
found. 92. 

" The poor ye have always with you." John 12, 8. 
1751. s^eSlssiruesr Qugsgt&itGeI @<3tB(§etft&suQuiTQ(rr?enntJD, (sjuoduuSQ®) 

It seems that the labourer's wife went to be confined, and the 
castor oil plant (Ricinus) started growing on the dunghill. 

i.e. No one has any forethought for a poor man's troubles, and a poor 
woman must do without what every one else looks on as necessaries. 
The oil of the castor-oil plant is much used by Hindus at confinements 
and ought to be ready for use, but according to the proverb the plant 
from which the oil is to be obtained only begins to grow on the day 
that the woman who needs it is confined. Hence the application. 

25 



194 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1752. 6B>su$(o&) sir&LSlio'fa), Qp&ptslQ&) «8srr(i/u9si)26u (or UGH&L8eo¥eo). 
No money in my hand and no beauty in my face. 

1753. &<bp@ Sp&S&'JJlBeo'fco, IES&P ge$®L£l '6U360. 

He has no cloth to wear, and no bran to lick. 
Utterly destitute. 

1754. Q&npjgi&tBjs sirp^iiiu up&Qpgj. 
He flies after rice like the wind. 
Said of one who ti'ies hard to get work. 

1755. Q&trpjrvuunVesr &.sa)i—iB^n&}, u^npg^uun^tssr $)®)'bso. 

If his rice-pot breaks, there is no pot to replace it. 1767. 
Said of those who are without resources. 

1 756. Q&trjriiLD ^gsaftoyii peSa, t£>ppgg]&(&j sr®)G0rra> (Sjan/noJ/^'Seu. 

There is no lack of anything but food and clothing. 1771, 
3322. 

A sarcastic description of poverty. 

1757- Q&triOSlsQ&n ^GnL-ggi&Q&rr erasrgii @)(nj£@pgi. 
There is just enough to touch or to wipe off. 

There is nothing to eat. Said of a poverty-stricken home. Often 
&u^p^&Q&ntts&f ) Qp£p(5j ^GBrjpiL£l®)'2£0 : there is nothing to bite. 

1758. t5®$Qp(njU iS^StO^S^ I5 76BBTUJU) U(TIT&Q pptll 

Should one be shy when going out to beg in the middle of the 

street ? 1763, 1766. 
" Hungry dogs will eat dirty puddings." 

1759. mevrTu ^^^est ejeaLp, ljgSI s\^^sst &ng>. 

He is as poor as a Nawab, and as gentle as a tiger ! 
An ironical description of a rich man who pretends to be poor. A Xawab 
is a Musalman prince. A Raja is a Hindu prince. 

1760. istrgsyih g^_L<aoz_, erear ib(SsS(Sl'd Qutr^g®). 

I am cracked and my home is a hole ! 
Said of one in a misei^able condition. 

1761. U&GUtBglTeO U^^jlh Up&(9jLi>. 

When one is hungry, the ten fly away. 1742, 1742a, 1745, 

2903. 
The ' ten' are: to/TOTTi/), self-respect; (3>6Du>, caste; seoeS, learning; 

ev6sares)LD ) good manners ; SjfSe^i—i3S)Li> t knowledge ; jgirearih, charity ; 

psuuiy self-control ; QpiupQ, perseverance in the good ; fsnarnGGBrGaiD, 

energy; QpGiflek s&kp Qffn'&ieSixjnQiL&i snQpgipeo, the love of 

women whoso words are as honey drops. 
" Bashfulness is an enemy to poverty." 

1761a. u& a//!^/Ta) u&tsl up&t&jih. 

If hunger comes, virtue flies away. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT THE POOR. 195 

1762. uesy/Dium QufriaseSlLLi^T&), uaawrsgyig, Gjqrfpn'i 

If a Pariah boils rice as an offering (to a god) will not the god 

notice it ? 2285. 
God will notice the piety of the poor, however despised they may be. 

1763. tS&enf <ST®&@ptg)e2iL£i tiJ^swr? 

(Should one feel) embarrassment while receiving alms ? 1758. 
" He that is too proud to ask, is too good to receive." 

1764. t$#<anp&Q&rTp{8QliD <zr&&£o Q&n(nft 

What ! Do you object to the rice left on a leaf -plate, after 

going out to beg ? 1950, 1994. 
If one has stooped to do a mean thing, he should go through with it. 

" Beggars must not be choosers." 

1765. iS&GBlf&Q&njbtSgULO (3jl£l5<SB)g Q&rTQr?? 

(What ! am I to give) food to children out of the food I have 

got by begging ? 1733, 1743a, 1769, 1773, 1920. 
Said by a poor man when others are troubling him for a help. 
Or i$&etsi&&Q&iipple2iLc> (SjstDLpihg Q&nqrfl 

Will there be over-boiled rice in the rice that is got by begging ? 
Beggars ought not to be over-scrupulous. 

1 766. lS GglmQ p^)Q&}iLjtl> ^iLnJirniLnt 

Should one put on airs when eating filth ? 1758, 1824. 

1767. icemppgis &lLl- u>nprpiu Lji^.es>euaS60'260. 

She has not a change of dress to hide her shame. 1 755. 
i e. She is so poor as only to have one ' cloth' (puduvet). 

1768. Qps^^lQe^ QpQgsS! eLir&ih. 

The goddess of ill luck lives in his face ! 

1769. Qpdeas L$ut-p&iT®), Qauasr QunQpgj. 

If one lays hold of my nose, I shall lose my life. 1733, 1765. 
A poor man will say this when asked to help others. 

1 770. ai/6?Rir(Sro)g2/<5(5 Qisneii suk^!T&} se^QsoirQi 

When a washerman gets sick, his sickness must leave him at 
the stone. 1747, 1748, 2512. 

The Indian washerman cleans clothes by soaking them in the water of 
some tank or river and beating them against a large stone. The proverb 
means that however sick a washerman may be, his work must be done ; 
or, more generallv, that no one makes any allowances for the pains and 
troubles of the poor. 1747, 1748, 2512. 

1771- <suu§(tr?p QunegmQpiBGOleo, ^®uurrpu L/z_6K>Q/u^6i/36\>. 

She has no food to satisfy her stomach, and no cloth to satisfy 
her hips. 1756. 

Said of one who has no food and no clothes. 



196 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

1772. Q//r(©5<sgi ^itSjrih, Q<grT(Gfij&(3j ^uSsnh &LDunGj)aiQ(irj>QuJ(T 1 

Do you earn a thousand by your sword and another thousand 
by your shoulders ? 

In the old days of Hindu rnle a high military officer would receive a thou- 
sand gold pieces for his sword and another thousand for wielding it. The 
saying is a way of reminding the person addressed that his salary is not 
a large one, and is used by a wife to a husband who wants many luxuries 
but earns little, or to a young Hindu who demands Western comforts. 

1 773. Qeueneuireti eSu.®S(^ Oawa/ne) eum^nio, £iLjib Q^iriii^ wrrGjpjw 

When bats visit one another, they say, You hung yourself up 
and I will hang myself up ! 1743a, 1765. 

This is said by one who is destitute to another who comes and asks for 
help, and means, You had better go to those who can help you, for I have 
nothing. The bat referred to is of a large species sometimes called the 
' flying-fox.' 



STINGINESS— AVARICIOUSNESS. 

L$&QSB)nSl £5iid5<53r<S5<3B/rjJW. 

1774. ^]6S>jt^^}lL®s^u L? $<sisr sspQ ptSllQSt . 

One who buys filth for a few cash and eats it ! 

1775. <g]£»&& efljgysfgjff #«ar(SS3)LDL/ ^L-LDHL-i—rrm, ^ismu}- euis^ir^im 

iSI&ems: ^L—LDfrili—trissr. 

He will not give lime for a cut finger (to stop the bleeding) 

and he will not give alms to a mendicant ! 
" Yell break your neck as soon as your fast in Ms house." 

1776. s-gygpesr <oSq^!s^jS(^ fpuutrmg; fp<ssrgfii£l&fieo. 

Nothing can be compared to the feast of a stingy man ! {Ironical) 

1777. 2-Q&)ni3&(3j @)(ijjQ&&)6y. 

A miser has double expenses. 
" A stingy man is always poor." 

1 778. er&&&) <stnsujn&) srrdems s^ili_u3/r/-li_n"6ar. 

He will not drive off a crow with the hand, (with which he 
is eating rice), lest he should lose some grains of rice (that 
stick to his hand). 

Rice is eaten with the right hand from off leaf plates, and naturally some 
grains stick to the outside of the hand. A miserly man will not wave 
his hand to drive off the crows that come to watch for and if possible 
steal a meal from him, lest these few grains should be dropped. 



STINGINESS, AVAEIC10USNESS. 197 

1779. sriLisf. u(tp^^i <s7W<sst, FFiutr&iniT euirgihgi GnsBrmt 

What good is it if the strychnus fruit ripens, and a miser 

prospers ? 
Both are harmful. The Nux vomica is poisonous. 

1780. si-Li—nessB&pGBiLDtuLs seSmneamih Q&djpnesr. 

He performed the marriage in a very stingy way. 

1781. QstTL-nQsemL-m, eSi—nQsemj-,dr. 

This man is determined not to give anything and that man 
is determined not to leave till he gets something! 

1782. Q&rT®&&LDiTLLL-iTjg6V6vr &-@<a»@u uyS] pgnm , {g)t-.t£>!TLl.t—rTg<syeor OT<£ 

He who would not give money blamed the dancing, and he 
who would not give rice, said it was defiled ! 

The first would not pay enough money to hire a well-trained dancing-girl, 
but he put the blame for his stinginess on her dancing ; the other preten- 
ded that the food he should have given had gone bad. 

1783. Qsn®ssi£>mLi—n @ {g)<smi—uj6Br £?2szrr ^lL&m—s snL-i^.€sr^iQun&}. 
Like a shepherd who would not give anything, but showed an 

ewe big with young. 

1784. Q-fihu!T&> s\U}-$& sn&io Qsni—nm. 
He will not even give copper coins. 

"His money comes from him like drops of blood." 

1785. pirGjpiLD ^§)z_nw, ^LLisuir&'BerrLJ uair^^plajiT&r. 

She herself does not give and she does not know people who do 

give. 
Charity and the charitable are foreign to her. 

1786. Q&U)-u L\<smppgig Q^d^eSeo <g)ns®ppn1 

Should one acquire wealth and bury it, and go about begging 
in the streets ? 1737, 1791. 

Much wealth is acquired and hidden in this way by professional men- 
dicants in India. 

1787. mrrpeumueor (or ses^as^eiirnu^r) Q@i—, iseosoenirium ^Imeor. 
While the man with evil breath (i.e. the miser) acquired the 

property, the man with sweet breath (i.e. his son) enjoyed it. 
" After a great getter, comes a great spender." 

1788. uQssu uirnjih Qsm—rreitr, girtsia ^L-Qpm QairL-rrefr. 

He won't give a mat to sleep on, and he won't give a place to 
sleep in. 

1789. uifliu@j£)£(<9j <£](&)& (8j(nji-L(i2& sasreoBetatus Qaneaan—fT/bQuneo. 
Like him who feared (that he would have to give a great) 

nuptial present for a nice girl, and so married a blind virgin. 
" Covetousness often starves other vices." 



198 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1790. l? tslmQpsueisr sSlL®S(^u Qurr<Gts)60, Qurrqgg] eSi^.QpiLLL®iii Qusos 

A vulgar proverb meaning that if you go to a miser's house, he will trouble 
you all night to give him something. 

1791. QuntjUsMij zinsvgsptaSliKSu L$&eis)&&(9ju Quir^&sr } tgjsmpiLjU) GtnQJgjp 

He left his bundle at home and went to beg ; what he got he 
also left (at home), and he now lies dead. 1786. 

" A covetous man does nothing that he should till he dies." 

1792. LDSirjrrr^esT seSlujnesBrg^i®) lirrrrairirth Qibuj ulLi—uit®. 

At a great king's wedding (plain) water and (poor) food are 
treated as if they are yhee. 

Shabby food is given sparingly as if it were as rare or as dear as ghee. 
1661. 

"He is not fit for riches, who is afraid to use them." 

1793. <8ui$.g@ned snewyLcrr'? QumwSl^io ssiremiLcir ? 
Shall I get more by straining or by boiling it ? 

Said of one, who is anxious to get as much out of a thing as possible. 

Of. 2119 /. 



CLEVERNESS AND DEXTERITY. 

1794. ^Qpe>j&sr ^jesinssnQ^il: ^su/rear, ^sn^w^is^ ^uSirw Q&n-Q-s^rr 

epi ib ^SLorrL-L-nGsr. 

A skilful man will become (what he ought to be) with half a 
cash, but though you give the worthless man a thousand 
(coins) he will not prosper. 3473. 

1795. ^uSjjld sul3uS&) isQpeSleBi suiS. 

He is the little grain that has slipped out from among a thou- 
sand grains. 

He knows how to get out of a difficulty. 

" He is like a cat, he always falls on his feet." 

1796. ^eirirem ^etr Lj^m^rrdv (com. t^sseri—ireo) ^inems^uj eS&ri<^ eresar 

QeaariijujfTui. 

If the right man enters, castor-seed will turn into lamp-oil. 
1802, 1818. 



* CLEVERNKSS AND DEXTERITY 199 

1797. cg@)6^ ^i^&Qeo <aw/7, ^siTeSiLi—tTGO iBi—neSKoeo eunir. 

If successful, pour it into a mould, if not pour it into the melt- 
ing pot. 

The goldsmith examines the gold after melting it. If it is free from dross he 
pours it into the mould ; if it is still impure, it goes back into the pot. 
By one method or other he accomplishes the task he has undertaken. 
1798, 2847. 

" Good riding on two anchors men have told, for if one break, the 
other may hold." 

1798. =g@)su ^^leurrrnhj ^sneSL-i-jreo Q&nLDGunjiih. 

If successful, it is Sunday ; if not, it is Monday. 1797. 
Sunday is a fortunate day. Monday is an ordinary day. 
" To have two strings to one's bow." 

As a lime to a king ! 

The lime is a formal gift given to procure an audience with a great man. 
Just as a lime procures an audience so a skilful man accomplishes the 
purpose that he has formed, with little cost or trouble. 

1800. ^.<sn-&rtkiesi<suS&) j^^sf-QsrvemeayL- Qpis^sQ^ssr . 

He can tie the hair of five women in the palm of one hand ! 
Great cleverness. 

1801. smesm &-Lp&&rreo ^eirdQarftir , ibviLani-. iBirySjajnG) ^i&r&QQrpetr. 

She measures the village with a small measure and the country 
with a bigger one. 

Said of a clever woman who has studied the weakness of everyone around 
her, and uses it for her profit, and so benefits by the faults of others. 

1802. s<oS>jruunfr sstajj^^iri\) sevgiiu) ssmrrnjil). 

If the right man grind, even a stone will turn to dust. 1796, 
1818. 

1803. &&)&SQ&) tBirn ^.iBsQjD^iQuneo. 

Like stripping off bark from a stone. 1817, 2622. 
Said of one who knows how to get money from a stingy man. 

11 He '11 flay a flint." 

1804. sT&)fT&) Qpuf.isp<3S)p& anstunev jtisSltp&aQpLf.iurrg). 

What he has tied with his foot, others cannot untie with their 
hands. 

Said of a clever and skilful person. 

1805. Sup sx(Lps03Q/>ih ) QLci&) sjQpeOsQpu) uirrr££GiJ6Br(cun&) Qus-Qq^sst . 
He speaks like one who has seen both the seven lower and the 

seven upper worlds. 1477. 

Said ironically of one who makes great professions of cleverness. 



200 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1806. Q&L-Uj-&&lTJJ68r Qs!r&}^SCliSQsO S(LpSB)£ (oLDUjQp^. 

The ass is grazing in the clever man's garden. 207. 
Even a clever man may be deceived. 

1807. &U>[T'& t gl&r<3a Q&<31J&Ggil&(3jU Lj&l^lLD JglLjjgW. 

Even a blade of grass is a weapon in the hands of a skilful 

warrior. 
" A wise man will make tools of what comes to hand." 

1808. pestsrssBpifleti si^LSis^sQp^. 

Tracing footsteps on water. 1567, 1813. 
An ironical description of somebody's cleverness. 

1809. l§68BTL-. i gJ p#&GGT, (j9j<SS)pm@S>] S^LDITek. 

The carpenter wants (his wood) too long, and the blacksmith 

wants (his iron) too short. 
Both are knowing. A carpenter can easily shorten a piece of wood, and a 

blacksmith can easily hammer out a piece of iron. 

1810. u^jeBiLoQuireo rsi^-dQ^m. 

He dances like a puppet. 

Said of one who is an adept in his art and never wearies in it. 

" He moves like a machine." " Tie goes like clock-work." 

1811. Ljeiflpp srrtLs^u Ljeifl Lf^^^syfTQiurr? 

Do you want to put acid into sour fruit. 781. 

u Dont try to teach your grand-mother how to suck eggs." 

18 12. LDsQm <3iJ®)eon<5sm<oB)LC ! 

You are very clever, my girl ! 

Said to a person who maintains that he can do for a small sum, what 
others think will cost a great deal. Used with or without sarcasm. 

1813. toOTwIteo suSlqrfuug Gjlifl&Qpsp, <s>m<5Gr$<S6>& e&eveornu eu^errsQp^!. 

Twisting a rope from sand, and bending the sky into a bow ! 
1808. ' 

1814. Laes>tpssneO $)(njLLi—n(GG)§j}uD, LDih^lQsfrmL] ^LpigJ urriLjinir? 

Will a monkey miss a branch it has jumped at, even in the 

gloom of the rainy season ? 
A man will give this as a reply, when warned that he may be deceived. 

1815. QpfSmgj sp®ti> eSuanssr^fip^u upigi g^ip. epLLQuQutrGHQpeusBr. 

He is a man who will fly along and repair a damaged car while 
it is in motion ! 

1816. Qu>ml.6B)L—pjg'?evu-iih f QfiLpiEisir§^uD Qpi^.QuiT®Qpisuesr. 

He can tie together a bald head and a knee. 2567. 
A clever and deceitful man. 

1817. ei/pd.® Loai—mQ)^iLb ^qjj Sn utrso Qsn®ssir^rr'i 

Though it is a barren cow, won't it give one drop of milk ? 

1803, 1920,1967. 
" If you squeeze a cork, you will get but little juice." 



EXCUSES, PRETEXTS. 201 

1818. taueososueisr ^lLu^sgi uuduitud L&stssreSlgyui j>l(Bild 

A top spun by a clever man will spin even in sand. 1796,1802. 

1819. 6iirTu$(Tjjiij3(T®) LDsQetr, GurriJpmsjiG&LL® Qj^mQjrruj. 

If you have a mouth, my daughter, you will contrive to prosper. 
1949, 2615. 

Said of a woman guilty of some fault, who defends her case so well that 
she escapes. Generally said by another person who may be quite as 
guilty, but has not the ability to defend herself, and hence has to suffer. 

" An ill plea should be well 'pleaded." 

" A dumb man never gets land." 

1820. <s&@<oS}@ jyup-sQp Qsiry51&(3j (corruption from Q&itm) eS&)freSl&) 

(corruption from eunih) ^0s8/d^tu> iSpgi (or ti/i-*.) 
A cunning backbiter has bile in her mouth. 
Cunning people know how to hide their cunning. 

Gf. 1566 /. 3480 ff. 



EXCUSES, PRETEXTS. 

1821. ^L-iDtTL-t—np Qpsmsf-iun&i a^-i—LO Qurr-girgi sreorQ/'errmh. 

The dancing girl, who could not dance, said that the hall was 

not big enough. 1782. 
" When the devil could not swim, he laid the blame on water." 

1822. j^i—rrprTasr LD^sjetr^sm^u uL^l^^n^ua. 

He who could not dance, blamed the drum (or music). 
11 An ill shearer never got a good hook." 

1823. ^ssareainvupp effrresr j^iLjpjgjStSBrQLD®) (sjqb/d Q&neo§2i<s>jiT<58r. 
A warrior without courage blamed his weapons. 

" A bad workman complains of his tools." 

1824. jyo/sn" &!uLuj-Q&t (or LcsapuL/) ^eajx^rru-i—n? 

Is the screen (mentioned) in her excuse any excuse (for her 

wrong doing) ? 1766. 
It is no excuse for wrong doing that it was done secretly. 

1825. ^>&n@ u^^rrias^^sQ jy&it-Jj? tsnt£luL{Lc> £gliurr&@uji}). 
In a bad almanac the whole day is unlucky (Tyajya). 

i.e., No time in the day is the right time to begin work. Tyajya is a 
period following the asterism that rules the day and is considered an 
inauspicious time for beginning any undertaking, called in Tamil 
Irdkhukdlam. It varies with the different days of the week. 

26 



202 TAMIL PROVEKBS. 

1826. ^Qfjuiupgir'clessr Q&eo jy/fligjuj/r ? 
Can white ants eat an iron pillar ? 
A reply to a foolish excuse. 

1827. ^.^iLtsf-Qeo uasor^ssjiGB)®), un&) apssnprr? 

Though the cow have sore lips, will it not yield milk ? 1834. 
Said of a lame excuse. 

1828. S-ulj iA(G$@i<>B)eo £6Gae$$rr Qun®, psstsosfrh i£l(ir ) &^S)&) s.uq Quit®. 
If there is too' much salt, pour water ; if too much water, put 

salt. 
The meals of the poor consist of rice boiled in salt and water with some 
condiments. Said of one who knows how to adapt excuses to occasions 
and so extricates himself from difficulties. 

1829. e-QpQpGB><$ eSil® iBQ^e^Qpeussr Q^iLsuth ^uj-^/rQun&i. 

Like one who left his ploughing and slipped away to dance as 
if he were possessed (by a god or devil). 

1830. eresari—tr, Q^asresrioir^^lQeo m /S^iL <siek(nj , eo ) s<sst^is(^lLi^.s^u 

u&) iHQieis GrGsrQQtfehr. 
If you say : fellow, why did you climb the cocoanut tree ? 

he replies, I went to get grass for the calf. 
A lame and vain excuse. 

1831. GilSDU}. &PP&J6BT ^}l—/SI<sS(lpi^fT&), ^Igpeqii) £@ GUlflGB)S : <5i<5srun<3X . 

If the fencer slips and falls, he will say that even that was 
part of his art. 

" All things that great men do are well done." 

1832. &l-l$. G-L-L-gjii), es)s eSiLi—gjii). 

The pot burnt him, and was dropped. 

Said of a poor excuse for leaving work that has turned out to be unprofit- 
able. 

1833. <y/r«(3>/i Qun&(9)Lb ejpsir^i ggujsar Qpek. 
Excuses will not be accepted before God. 

" It is always term-time in the Court of Conscience." 

1834. (SjpIsKdG) ^>jU}.ppnS8I ) U&)QlG!uiT3 : 3i-J£l. 

He beat him on his breech, and his teeth fell out. 1827, 2833. 

1835. Q fBSutasiS&sniLiSf. Lj^ih GslesrpgiQuned. 

Like the goblin who pointed to the gods, and swallowed (the 
offering.) 1838. 

Used of people, who make profit for themselves while professing to be 
disinterested. 

1836. QlbtTGBBTU}. (-Sj$6B)!Ia(8j# &Jpi&Q&!Tg2 &lTSQ!j. 

To the lame horse stumbling is an excuse (for idleness). 
Said of a lazy person glad of any excuse to get off work. 



INVESTIGATION, CRITICISM, INQUISITIVENESS. 203 

1837. uiriissiQsiT®^^ uGBBrp <§}<£(&) Qen&r&flsQLpetainujrT? 

Is Friday (a sufficient excuse for keeping) money that was lent 
for you to look at ? 

Friday is an unlucky day to undertake any enterprise and there is a 
superstition that money returned on a Friday will involve loss of pro- 
perty or of life. No Hindu will be willing to give or return money on a 
Friday. Friday is also the day for Hindus to visit their temples. 

183S. iStetr'&trenujf ftrdQil.®, ygih QpQpiEjQjQpgi. 

Making the child an excuse for asking for food the goblin swal- 
lowed the food itself. 1835. 

Said of a beggar woman with a child who asks for some food for her child 
with the intention of eating it herself. 

1839. «Jtarr2srri<s/r//? (§&iafiLLLjrso, LSek < 2etr(oLD&) &it&(3}. 

If a woman who has a child breaks wind, she will lay the blame 

on the child. 1841. 
" Better a bad excuse than none at all." 

1840. QpLLiq-ajtrQn QjtlLi$.uuitQjj srmQ^so, s&)u6Siuee>tu uafl&Q&eBrjpi 

QunLU-^QurreO. 
Like the man who left his plough the moment you said ' Reddi, 
Reddi ' ! 

Reddis are a class of Telugu farmers. The word ' Reddi ' specifies no 
particular farmer, and the man who professes to think that he is being 
called when some one calls out ' Reddi ', and leaves his ploughing, must 
be a very lazy and careless man. 

'* Idle folks lack no excuse." 

" Don't let the plough stand to kill a mouse." 

1841. Qaj < 2eo&&Gtr&fid(3ju i3&r < 2enQi£>&) ^/rig,. 

Her child is an excuse to a lazy woman. 1839. 

" When the maid leaves the door open, the cat's in fault." 



INVESTIGATION, CRITICISM, INQUISITIVENESS. 
Q&(rp<fasr, QjbtlLl-Ld, Q^Qpev. 

1842. s\wuiLu-m (SjuemuuSQeo Qen(8igs)&) > lduS/t uniSniruju lijduuQu). 

If you stir up the rubbish heap in a barber's dust heap you will 

find hair only. 
Leave mean people's affairs alone. 

1843. §}>}£} Q&npeap, gfg] i^etBajiasirdjuQuneo. 

This is worm-eaten, and that is (sour) like tamarind. 

Said to one who criticizes and rejects everything. 

" He lives unsafely that looks too near on things." 



204 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1844. ®m&U L£!TITUJ0(s)&) (l^it — jgiu) Q$66ip#&e$eo'teo. 
There is no failing in this inquisitiveness (of yours). 

1845. ff^fth (jfi&r&rtrQ&i ^(j^wna^ili emgggireyii), Qssiijsirtus(^ Lc^ff&Beo^eo 

LLQjs^il) LD6asnSI&)'2eo (snssrQfTrj'&r. 

If you tie her mouth up with the thorns of the date-palm she 
will still say, " There is no saffron on the cocoanut, and the 
flowers have no perfume." 2588. 

Said of a woman who insists on talking about everything. 

1846. FFJT QeutkianiLip$ p(3) ^IQ^i-i^^i isngH l/gdjt <5T®&Qpgi. 

To peal twenty-four skins off a fresh onion (is very difficult.) 
Said of one clever in criticisms. Old people say this about young people 
who are hypercritical. 

1847. &-6W Qf5<gjQ&) piL.\sf-Uunh (or Q^itlL®uuitit). 
Knock at your own breast (or heart). 

i.e., What does your own conscience say about you ? 

1 848. esn& QsT&retruCounuj^ ^j&)trd sesord^u uirnp 1 g3pQunG0. 

Like inquiring about its weight when going to buy a needle ! 
Silly inquisitiveness about trifles. 

1849. <5T&&ed <sr®ssff Q&rreBr^n&entT? sr^^'SssiQurr stm^s GiestsnaSBr&Q&neaT 

(Gayr sen it ? 

Did they tell you to remove the fragments left or to count how 

many people there had been for dinner ? 2844. 
Don't be inquisitive about what is not your business. 

1850. ei0es)LD wniL<as)L-p ^6sar6saFifl&) (cu/7l1®«0<!E/t«rit® e&'tevuiTiTaQpg!. 

To estimate the price of a buffalo while it is lying in the water. 
Buffaloes lie in ponds with all but their heads covered by the water. 
" To buy a pig in a poke." 

1851. 9<3 unfysBT Q&n pgp&qjj ^0 Q&trg)) u-gih. 

One grain is sufficient as a sample of a jar full of boiled rice. 

1863, 2692. 
" From one circumstance judge of all." 

1852. sCi^jsist <sSlL(Si&(3j QisitlLi—ld (or u(Lp^j or sQ^ggi or Q#ira<5B>p 

or ueeshseiss) Q&n Socmen it it jyQisstr. 
Many will criticize a finished building. 

" Every fool can find faults that a great many wise men cant 
remedy." 

" Of judgment every one has a stock for sale." 

1853. Q&SGipjpip ^ffl/Ssrra^ mini.® euenuuth ejml 

What has a frog in a well to do with the affairs of the country ? 
1855. 

e.g., What has a woman to do with what is published in a newspaper— an 
application which will appeal to every Hindu man. 



INVESTIGATION, CRITICISM, INQUISITIVENESS. 205 

1854. (Sjfslemrr meoeo^^n&sr &yS) Q&Llt—jp. 

The horse is good, no doubt, but its marks are faulty. 1864. 
The marks in the mane and hair of a horse are supposed to be signs of 

fortune or misfortune to its owner. Many a good horse fetches a low 

price because its ' marks ' are not lucky. 

1855. QstTLLeai— jgirpQp ^ihinirf&^s^u uLLi—6asnh <a8&nifi&Qpsj) ejeor? 

Why should a woman who spins cotton thread inquire about 
the affairs of the town ? 1853. 

1856. Qsn&sor® (§eoii> Qu&Qppnt 

Should a woman criticize the caste into which she is married ? 

1857. grrgjuSeoyei), iSun^iBeo^eo. 

There is neither indifference to nor complaint about it. 
Said about a matter which nobody looks after. 

1858. ^essrssBp(oiarriL]ih ^ires)iui^th ut^sseOtriDnt 

Are water and one's mother to be criticized ? 

1859. is^Qpeo^sBi^iLjtl), ifleiflQp®)<g<5iDgiL]i}) eQ&ntfl&&uui—ng]. 

It is not right to investigate the origin of a river or of a Rishi. 

Do not think of their possibly insignificant origin, rather admire their 
excellent qualities. Rishis are the highest order of saints in Hindu 
hagiology. 

1860. iBirpeoQfnpgns^Cj ugu> urrir&Qpgi siear? 
Why examine spoiled rice ? 1866. 

" There is but bad choice where the whole stock is bad." 

1861. uisi&iT&flGBiUJU-iw uGsrikisnGEHjuiLiui u^ld unnpgi QeuiLLJ2eueBar®ih. 

Cut into your partner and a palmyra fruit only after testing 
them (i.e., when you can make gain out of them). 

When a partner is in difficulties then is the time to give him up, and the 
palmyra fruit must be cut when it is tender. 

" When two persons have a common purse, one sings and the other 
weeps." 

1862. ueo wtrtJb sesari— p^em ^q^voniii QsulLl- wn tLu^n got. 

The carpenter who has seen many trees, will cut down none. 
He finds fault with them all, criticizes them and leaves them alone. 

1863. i$eir%sir tslppongu Qu&)eSil.®Lj umt. 

If you wish to ascertain a child's health, send it to stool. 1851. 
Investigate everything so as to secure the knowledge you need. 

1864. /_9<sn"3srr R&ietigjgneBr, QurrqggKoun^&d sgbbt Qpifluungj. 

The child, to be sure, is a nice child ; but when the sun sets it 

cannot see ? 1154, 1867. 
Said of a person with one glaring fault. 



206 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1865. Ljesnressfiaj^^is^ &-(Lg@ (3j6abre»i_«nujij u&)'2eou iSus^pgiu ugth 

uirri gtsgjQuneo. 
Like examining the teeth of the plough-bullock .that has been 

lent as a favour. 
Do not be so ungrateful as to criticize the kindness of others. 
" Look not a gift horse in the mouth." 

1866. LD6BBT jrQ&n ptflQed &&) ^ihSpspQuneO. 

Like searching for the grit in sand. 1860. 

Said of something that cannot be set right, because it is radically wrong. 

e.g., What is the use of correcting an essay that is completely wrong in 

matter, style and grammar ? 

1867. i§Lp&) iB&)®)gi pnsGr Qp&jpt Q&L-L-gi (or Qun&tQinpg]). 

The shade is certainly good, but the red ants are bad. 1880. 

People seek shelter from the sun under shady trees, but the red auts that 
often live in such places, give nasty bites to those who sit or lie down 
where they are away.— Good people surrounded by wicked and selfish 
ones are hindered in doing good to the public. 

1868. Qpu)- ea>®i&@ ^^eos^s- SrySIs (§jbpu> urrirsSp^rr? 

After the head has been crowned, why look at the cure of the 

hair ? 
Mistaken criticism. The crown puts the wearer above criticism. 

1869. eueSm Quasar QsaQsOQ^i}) enskQrfeo, (9}&)th ereareor, Qanptstrjih 

ereoTm sr&srunhs&r. 
If you say that you will give your daughter in marriage will- 
ingly, the bridegroom's friends will ask what is your caste 
and what is your family ? 
" Give neither counsel nor salt till you are asked for it." 

1870. ^(SteSi—ndju u£lo uM&Q(ttj><5sr. 

He goes from house to house examining everything, (and finds 
satisfaction nowhere). 

Of, 192. 



OBSTACLES. 

1871. jfypempp £rT60tsrup.uj®)&)QG>m sean sjpQ<sueaai(Siix>. 

Only by crossing the river can one reach the other shore. 1314. 
No success without effort to overcome difficulties. 
" No gains without pains." 

1872. g§)®<swr/f i$#GO)&<aDUj& Qs®s8p^iT? 

Should one prevent the giver from giving ? 1877. 

1873. @J/72g€or erpleor ^^leajjs^ Qld® ejg], u&renih ergi? 
What are hills and valleys to a king's horse ? 



PERSEVERANCE. 207 

1874. ^jTrr^sm QstLusfiaw eruuisf.Qvutr'i 

How shall we know what is the King's will and God's will ? 

God works his will, and a king does what he likes. What man can oppose 
either ? 

1875. eresrs^u urr&(9j tSlty-ssu unh&Qqtfss!. 

He tries to make me accept betel and areca-nut. 749. 

After a work has heen completed the employer gives betel-leaf and areca- 
nnt to the workmen when dismissing them. Hence ' to give betel and 
areca-nut' means 'to dismiss,' and the above saying is used about an 
enemy who is trjing to oust the speaker out of some employment. 

1876. 6p®QjD Qa/aroTLo gftessruSlGO iSp^unr^ 
Will a rushing flood stop at a dam ? 

1877. <SR_6#.S(aju urreS (gjgii&Qss eLib^near. 

That sinner came between me and my wages. 1872. 

1879. !$&&)& ^L-L-gi Qungjih, lErreaaju l9i^.^^js slL®. 

I am satisfied with what you have given me. Seize the dog and 

tie it up. 1880. 
Said by a beggar to the elders in a family when the younger members of 

it have vexed and ridiculed him, and by a mother-in-law about her 

daughter-in-law, implying that though her son is dutiful, his wife 

frightens and worries her as a fierce dog would. 

1880. LDfTsifleas &lLi$. eusBTQijirisiigj (or tcj/5/ruJ) &iLuf.eBr i gpQ!LitT&). 

Like building a palace and keeping a monkey (or pole-cat) in 
it. 1867. 

The ' monkey ' is the stingy person in a family, who prevents others from 
being liberal to beggars. 

" Like the gardeners dog, that neither eats cabbage itself, nor lets 
anybody else." 

" Like a dog in a manger." 



PERSEVERANCE. 

■£[T6fTrT6m<55)LD \ &68)L-UlSlU}-. 

" LITTLE STROKES FELL GREAT OAKS." 

1881. jqu^Queo s\isf. j>jUf.pptTG0, ^ih^tLjih is&Qjjih. 

Stroke upon stroke will make even a grinding-stone creep. 
1822. 

A grinding-stone is the slab used in grinding curry-stuff and is so heavy 
that two men are required to lift it. 

1882. ^isf-is ^juf-ssu u.isz s\(sl& efiesif Q&rr&r^th. 

The harder the blow, the faster the ball flies. 

Now used of one who becomes worse by neglecting repeated advice and 
chastisement. 



208 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1883. &_iL&nfrfcg) ,g>j60&^D6iirT u®ssQeijeear®Lh. 

You must sit down before you lie down. 1888. 
Said to a man inclined to do things hastily. 
" First creep, then go." 

1884. ^(5 QpQg&QQ®) LD688T GT<3&Q/D£rT? 

Can you clean out a well at one dive ? 

The reference is to getting ont the mud or dirt in a well by diving. 

" Borne was not built in a day." 

" An inch in an hour is a foot in a days work." 

1885. 5>6sr,g2/ ^esTQr/'dj gffl(trf1 Gf>(njifi&& ^ir^? 

Does it become a hundred by adding one and one V Does it 

become a hundred in a moment 'r 1 
" Drop by drop the lake is drained." 
"An oak is not felled at one chop." 

1886. (g^^otf® SLLi^.iLi&ieOsuir uo&SrsS® sLLL-(c<sueoar(du>? 

Must we not first build a hut, and afterwards a big house ? 

1887. Qafr^&iEi Qsit^sw Gilm (!$&>, u%ssi\l\id SdvorgiisSi—eomh. 

If you eat it little by little, you can devour a palmyra tree. 

1134. 
" Constant application overcomes the greatest difficulties." 

1888. ifiesr(Ttj>6vQurT®) e&QpiEpireo, g^eo &.<ss)1—ilju). 

If you fall suddenly you will break your head. 1883. 

Cf. 1463 f. 1889/. 2005/. 



PERSISTENCE. 

1889. gfiifBgi <3j®&g)3 : Q&rT&sr^ed Q<gir®p<g sniftcuih Qpu^u^ih. 

If you speak to him over and over again, the work he has under- 
taken will be completed. 

1890. cSy«£7 iBirm Q&ibtunQpQuiT^&i, eresr ifi<sto& GT®pgie&(£>QQ pesr (or 

If I do not accomplish that work, I will take off my mustache. 

This proverb is used by Sudras to express the determination to succeed in 
an enterprised named or else to renounce all secular things. Hindus 
generally wear only a mustache. But Brahmins generally do not wear 
even, a mustache as the mustache is looked on as a sign of pride, and 
they profess to be without pride. Some ascetics however, wear both 
beard and mustache and Mahratta Brahmins wear mustaches. 

1891. sssissLCi^) <as)seSQi—eo. 
Never give up persevering. 



PERSISTENT;. 209 

1892. OTja/lfiL/ 26frj7<5 S60 Q pU^LD (or (3j L$ LU tl>) . 

A stone will be worn away by the creeping of ants. 1881. 
" Constant dropping wears the stone." 

1893. §>Qn sireSlQeo ^Q&Srvpm. 

He is on one leg. 

The reference is to the story of Arjunas's penance as told in the Maha- 
bharata. He stood on one leg for a fabulouB space of time and by this 
perseverance in penance gained a magic arrow that could destroy any- 
thing it was aimed at. 

1894. pmuo ^jifii^^SuD, smesTpfslQeo seas e3®Qp^irt 

Even if yon lose your property, don't rest your head on your 

hand. 1896. 
Don't appear to lose courage in adversity. 
" Set hard heart against hard hap." 
" Fortune lost, nothing lost ; courage lost, much lost ; honour lost, 

more lost ; soul lost, all lost." 

1895. (9j<iiEi(9)UL5li$.QurT&) l9 'i$.ssG 'eusaai® 'to- 

Lay hold of a thing as firmly as a monkey does. 
i.e., Be firm ! or Be obstinate ! 

1896. QslLi$.&) Q-gjifgl, &_lL®l£> esai—eaLD. 

Perseverance in time of adversity, will bring back lost property. 
1894. 

" Fortune favours the brave." 

" Calamity is the touchstone of a brave mind." 

1897. pirek i5!i$.gg Qppgps^ Qp&srQp sir so. 

The hare he caught had only three feet ! 

Said of a self-opinionated person who is obstinate in his own view in 
spite of all argument. 

1898. Qisp/SuSQeo Qpssr^i sssbt u<aai—$ ^eu&sr euuQsneear®U). 

Let the destroyer with the three eyes in his forehead come ! 

According to popular mythology Siva, the god of destruction, has three 
eyes, and hia appearance is always described as most terrifying. The 
proverb is used by an obstinate man who is not to be moved from his 
purpose even by the fear of the wrath of Siva. Said, for instance, by a 
man who refuses to give back a borrowed article, or by one who is sub- 
jected to threats but will not give way, or reveal a secret. 

1899. Qu>djgpned sQgaap QimLuQuesr, ^so&inQ^Qmr^sjiei unQg&u) 

QunQeuGir. 

I prefer tending asses to tending other animals ; if I am not 
allowed to do so I shall go on a pilgrimage. 491, 2843. 

Said ironically to one who persists in what is low and mean, when hon- 
ourable and profitable employment is open to him. 

Cf. 1881 /. 

27 



210 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

COERCION. 

1900. <3ji$. S-^<Si]@/D^iQun&) ) ^jesBreasrm ^liiS s.^eijeumrseiTiT^ 

Can an elder brother and a younger brother give help like the 

help a stick gives ? 3302. 
" Spare the rod and spoil the child." 
" It is the bridle and spur that make a good horse." 

1901. e_z_/ii_fl(o60 utuiBQ^iB^n&i, ism(trfih& Q^uueuirm. 

If a person has fear in his body {or mind), he will do his work 
well. 

1901a. errflg : &®) mkgi ^jedeoQ'Sun si^.SQth, erQpuL9sSLLi—ir <S£$L«(3jii? 

When it gets enraged it is sure to bite, but will it do so at 

another's instigation ? 2065. 
Whatever a person does, he should do of his own accord, not because he 
is compelled by outside influences. 

1902a. srQgugi Q&6srQr?§}lu>, ustnp sjeS^e)&)^;rn^r Q^iLnjih. 

Though a Pariah be seventy years old, he will only work if 
ordered. 

19026. &<5S)t—UJ&Q8 : eugtrp QeuesarQesanii, (Sj«oi_«j<£(cV <suguQunQppn1 

Is the butter that did not come during churning, likely to come 
when one stirs gently ? 3132, 3210. 

e.g. A son who did not love his mother and father before he married is 
not likely to love them after he marries and gets children of his own. 

1903. seeer^essrs &itlLi$. <3l<as>ip@<gnG0 eunn^ei/m, em&etnuju iSiy-jigi jyongji 

/sit&) <a/(77j<a//7"«r/r ? 
Will she who does not come when called by loving glances, come 

if you lay hold of her hands ? 
" You may force a man to shttt his eyes, but not to sleep." 

1904. (Qja<E)Q<a5r tSetntu LOQjj&gj&tgjs QsL.i—n&) QsirQs^Lorr'? £>]U}-@gi eirniis 

Qeuissar®i£tn ? 
If you ask a monkey (an inferior being) for its excrement for 
medicine, will it give it ? Must you not beat it to get it ? 

Very many other things quite as unpleasant as the excrement of monkeys 
are found in the Hindu pharmacopoea. 

" The bird that can sing, and will not sing, must be made to sing." 

1905. Qsneo <%i—, (§rriEj(9j ^fStih. 

If the stick dances (beats), the monkey will also dance. 
" It is the raised stick that makes the dog obey." 
" A whip for a fool, and a rod for a school, is always in good 
season. 



PUNISHMENT, WORRY. 211 

1900. &<5B)l-<3»uju i^tsf-pS)) (g)Qg ! £@tT&), ekSuuirQ QlLl- Gu^euneisr. 

Only when you lay hold of an ascetic's (Sanniyasi) long hair 

and pull him, will he come. 
" He's an ill boy that goes like a top only when he is whipt." 

Will that which does not ripen by itself, ripen if you take a 

stick and beat it ? 
Nature will have its course in spite of education. 

1908. ldu$(o®) LouSQeo (§)/*> @> Qsn® arnqt^so, Qsrr®d(^LDrr? 

If you say, ' O peacock ! O peacock ! give me a feather,' will 

it give you one ? 
" There is no argument like that of the stick." 

1909. QpempQiurr (com. QmrrQ^) si <ssrQ peussr sQ^^^lQeo eSiasih slLls^ 

(65)61), LD<3S)p<sSIQ&) J)jg)/£&>]LJ Qun lLGZgSKI} SUIT SGI . 

If you tie a linga round the neck of a person who objects to it, 
he will secretly untie it and throw it away. 2763, 3097. 

Applicable to many marriages in India, when the girl-bride or the young 
bridegroom, is forced to marry unwillingly — with sad results. 

" One man may lead a horse to the water, but ten men cannot 
make him drink." 

J 910. euirujaQeo QsiLu.ireo <snnesii^ui3i^r ) »L£> QstTL-frew, ^esuru^^^js QslL 
t—neo pnQ(n?Qi— QsaQuurrasr, 
If entreated he will not give you even one unripe plantain, but 
if compelled by force he will give the whole bunch. 

1911. Qen(er^uu!rev)is(^ (or ajsw^/Ju/rsp^gj) Qsij^uunm %%tT$s} (or j>j^eo) 



For a master who beats (or kicks), the good (ironical) washer- 
man will wash well. 1131. 

A pun on the word Qeu^ss, to wash, which is also the slang for 

' giving, a sound thrashing.' 
" Fear keeps the garden better than the gardener." 

Cf. 2064 /. 3299 /. 2763 /. 



PUNISHMENT, WORRY. 

1912. =?V^7 3\&PQ5 ^(5 <so/?evj, gj<sbt&(5j gtlL<8& so/Sew. 

Others have only one anxiety, but I have eight anxieties. 

1913. cgtfQgQp OLulifeV ^Qfjih-gtreyih, epQgQp aSLlip.su §)(Tr}a,&uui—iTgj. 
One can stay in a house where there is sorrow, but not in one 

that leaks ! 
A sharp quarrel that is soon over can be endured but who can endure 
constant quarrels. 



212 TAMIL PKOVEEBS. 

1914. 3\ea3spai(V) ^isf-pp <$jis)- ^gvuw&ih <gfri&(9jii>. 

The thrashing he got that day (was so severe that it) will do 
him good for six months- 1155, 2784. 

1915. ^QB&Quj&ieoiTii) ^s s{ui-Ppn®f QppppnQ&). 

She beat her husband with a winnowing-fan to her heart's 
content! 3578. 

1916. ^jpstr iLLi^uQun®. 

Stretch that person on the ground (and thrash him) ! 

1917. ^ikis&r e-psSQ&) Q<suQpss>^eQi—, ^xt^slLQ eBpQQso QeuQpgi 

Qldso. 
It is better to be burned in a bundle of firewood (in the 
cemetery) than in one's relationships. 

Said in reproof of a relative or friend who takes liberties and is a great 
expense and worry. 

1918. &-tt2effu t$y$£jd &(£0j2uQu(T®Q<5>j68r. 

I will squeeze you and turn you out. 
i.e. I will give yon endless trouble. 

1919. Gr&)&)rr@u> <sjfS ^ft&rpp qfjf£l<SB)<jQLDQ6d ^tlnS Qunm ulLl^ld slLu^u 

LJpUULLt—rT6BT. 

The younger brother tied a gold piece (on the forehead) of the 
jaded horse that all had ridden, and started out. 

Said by a master, who has been worried by a number of people and is 
tired out, when one more comes to vex him. 

" A man may bear till his back break." 

1920. ^ili^.(6ff)6^a), §}Lpa(9}U iSns^ih srasrQpjSir? 

Is it right to say (to a cow) , Though your skin sticks to your 
bones give me a measure of milk ? 1765, 1817, 1967. 

Said of the importunity that tries to exact work from a person who is 
already exhausted. 

1921. §>0 iaD^f®/ 67S3r(77p6U, S_ SIT 6Tr !_/££- ^(SjU). 

If you say there is a funeral, things will go on properly. 

i.e. If a funeral takes place in his house, even an unjust tyrant will 
come to terms. Ueed by the oppressed against tyrants who act 
lawlessly. Also used of one who has too many irons in the fire. Also: 
^)^7 eresresr ^jifiSif '• Why this constant trouble ! 

1922. 5?<25 ^jls/l 3\is}./BpnQi\A uuJBsQsnsk&reonLCi, 9(5 Q#rr&) Qatls Qpui- 

One may endure a beating, but one cannot endure a word, 1931, 

1933, 1935. 
" A word hurts more than a wound." 
" Many words hurt more than swords." 



PUNISHMENT, WORRY. 213 

1923. <st_/r si— it Grasrqtf^iuoy Lo^i^isQ §>(T$ L?/f erekQ^ssr. 

Though he said the goat was a he-goat, he asks for a drop of 

its milk for medicine ! 
Said of one who worries incessantly in order to get something. 

1924. &n'fa>& G-prfleor uirmL/ sty-ppneo epySluu tafii—irg}. 

A snake that has coiled round your leg will not leave without 

biting you. 
An importunate man will worry till he gets what he wants. 

1925. (5il®/Juili_T6jju) Qi£>rrJ£ia&<an&ULmio (^LL®uuL—Q6i6Sor(SLb. 

If I have to suffer a beating let it be with a jewelled hand. 

1926. 
Better to suffer at the hands of a worthy man than at the hands of a 
base person. 

" Be it better or be it worse, be ruled by him that bears the purse." 

1926. fSj^SloMT ®-<5G)ppptTQILD &.6B)jg&S&)ITU), <SSQp6S)J$Ujrr S-66) $ &Q p gp . 

A horse may kick me; but may an ass kick me ? 1925. 

1927. «_6$<S(3ji; a(ip<o£l(r^uuaiT<seiTrT? 

Will any one (allow himself to) be impaled for hire \ 



1928. (jsfisosQp (hirdj&(3j ergmhaauu QumLL-^iQuneo. 

Like throwing a bone to a barking dog. 

i.e. Satisfying the momentary worry caused by a child or an importunate 
person. 

1929. Qstr&rGifl&&LL<sB){—ujrr®) &t-Li—i&) Qsnuu&fld(^iit ereorjp) euneaiLpuuipiki 

He thinks, that if he were to burn him with a firebrand, it 
would blister him, and so he brands him with a plantain 
fruit. 233. 

Said of one who takes his revenge by indirect means. 

1930. &rrQp<su<5S)(rtiSlGd <ss)3up$5luj<5Br e&i^irecsr, Q&p&irgiiih eQmrssr u^fnmi 

a&snuGBT. 
The doctor won't leave, till you die, but the Brahmin (who 
determines auspicious days) won't leave after your death. 
980. 
When one is dead the care of the doctor ends, but the Brahmin will worry 
for money for the various funeial ceremonies. 

1931. snilsau. jt/if-iLfw ^a/igj ^if uyii> Quir£}js&&)n-u> } g/3£-L®L/y<Fs? aLp.iLjw, 

QpessTQpeesrunisi j^&njp. 

One may bear blows from a rope and a whip, but the bites of 

bugs, and grumbling tones are unbearable. 1935, 
" No cut like unkindness." 



214 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1932. 9aQsjnsst s/SutSIVei) (sffiQisiJuiSI'Zeo) ggjQppjp&QarrsBor® ^ItBuiSea^eir. 
Shickiran leaves drag one about. 3396. 

These leaves are used by poor people as soap, and are very sticky. 
Used by a person already worried and troubled, when some one comes 
and increases his worry. Also said in ridicule of a person who is 
in hot haste to dispose of a daughter in marriage. 

1933. ^ULjeser ^giLD, eumiiuL^esar ^qtfg!. 

A wound caused by fire will heal, but a wound caused by words 
will not heal. 1922, 2789. 

1934. Ql5tueUMT0£ U60BTLD Qp(Lp£KoLmQp<gfT? 

Is the money for pouring out ghee irrecoverably lost? 923, 

980. 
Said to one to whom some small gift has been promised and who is as 

urgent for it as if the promised gift were a debt. 

One " take it " is better than hvo "you shall have it." 

1935. Qppppu)- uiLi—rr^th, Qpsppu}. ut-eonsa^i. 

One may endure the blows of a sieve, but not frowns. 1931. 

1936. <sul-S<sb/s^ LurrVsnTeinuj sn$-@@n&), Qpp&ptsl tua^esrs^u n^^leuQ^ua. 
If you beat an elephant from the North (i.e. a strong ele- 
phant), the elephant from the South (i.e. a weak elephant) 
will get sense. 163. 

The punishment of one offender is a warning to others. 



OVER-HARSHNESS SUCCEEDED BY OVER-IN- 
DULGENCE. 

1937- QsnQgssiLesiL- £)<ssrp isrrujs^a (bj^igsS Qi&nn gj^^ds^Sssaruj/r ? 

Should one give a measure of buttermilk as an offering to a 

dog that has (stolen and) eaten one's cakes ? 
Ought a man who deserves punishment to be favoured ? 

1938. Q&QUuneo .gjtsf-pg}, ulL(Bu l/l_<s»@; Qstr®^^npQuneo. 

Like beating a woman with your shoe, and afterwards giving 

her a silk cloth. 
To strike anyone with the slipper is the utmost insult among Hindus. 

1939. utTuun&&irQ&) ^Lp.^^}, u(^ulju> Q^rrgtiih QuiriLi—giQunGO. 

Like beating a person with your slipper and then serving him 
nice food ! 

1940. eSteirs^LDiT p(npeo s\U)-psti, QfjGzlemilQuJn® ^sulLis}. Q&tT®<$@npQ>uneo. 
Like beating one with a broom-stick, and afterwards giving him 

a horse and a torch. 

To punish or disgrace a person, and afterwards to repent of it, and to give 
him large gifts as compensation. 



EXERTION. 215 

ANGER. 

(o&TULB. 

1941. Q&itulc 8-Gsai— Tenth. 
Anger (ends in) baseness. 
" Anger is a sworn enemy." 

1942. piigj LSl!Tsaaii—iT&) <sff® ^i—isj Qmeaarnsi], 

When a gentle person gets angry, a forest will not hold (his 

wrath). 3055. 
" In the coldest flint there is hot fire." 
" Nothing turns sourer than milk." 

1943. Gr5(njUL-i umpii> SLLi^.sQsrT6Snr(S iSpQfV^asi. 
He stands, holding a torch. 

An idiomatic phrase meaning that his face flames with anger. 

1945. QP&& (or QfisiJa) &nLL®S(npGBr. 
He shows his face. 

i.e. He is discontented or angry and his face shows it. 
" He has eaten sparrow-dumpling." 



EXERTION. 

&6£fiL-LD, (Lpiurr>&. 

EFFORT REWARDED. 

1946. cgy^sos? LD&enn^gptJb, g-ldiait en^LDT? 

Though she is your paternal aunt's daughter she cannot be 
obtained for nothing. 1955. 

By custom a man must marry his paternal aunt's daughter, but though 
he has a right to demand such a girl, he will have the same expenses 
for the wedding, and must perform the same ceremonies as if she were 
a more distant relation. He must persevere. 

" No sweet without stceat." 
" Think of ease, but work on." 

1947 S\Q{>$ i^eh'BstT umso gjf^-igjto. 

A crying child will get milk. 1961. 

1948. ©_6wri_ e_<_iOL/<S(5 a_«gwj£?, &-Qp@ SLpeof) Qtseoey. 

To the body that eats, strength comes ; the ploughed field (will 
yield) grain. 

1949. ast/f ^q^&Qpg!, €urni$(£&@pg]. 

The village is there, and you have a mouth. 1819, 1961. 

Make use of your tongue and you will find what you want. 

" Asking costs nothing." " Lose nothing for want of asking." 



216 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1950. <si&&6d $g)tsBT(Vj>§2i(Jo euuSjpj iSaDpujp ^)mesiQ<su6ssr®ix>, Gj&Sr&Q&LLi-n 

ep ic QunQpjp eSup.QjDLDLL®th QsLLsQ<sueaaT®m. 

If you eat offal, you must do it till your stomach is full ; if you 
listen to bad language, continue to do so till day break. 1764, 
1952, 1994. 

Persevere in what you undertake, though it may be ever so insig-nificant, or 
unpleasant, and you will gain something by it. 

195 1 . 6j«Dig giu)-pQ$Q@5), «i_s»tp *gytf pQpQ/gs) ? 

Did I beat the poor beggar, and thereby strike a blow at my 
fortune? 1962. 

The deity that rewards virtue is supposed to inflict poverty on the oppres- 
sor of the poor. 

1951a. taJGB)JT gjlSf-&Q&QgG), <SR_«Oip Jtjiq.gQpQ^B)'! 

Did I diminish the number of my ploughs ? Did I diminish 

my own food ? 
i.e. He tbat stints labour will -find food lacking. 

1952. <^t^.UULDnQ§mh Serr(S(T^6US QsSfT. 

Though the language be obscene, listen to it attentively. 1950. 

1953. <se>s arrtugptTG), &Qp(9) (u/r<£(3j) sitiLs^ud. 

If the hand becomes hard (by watering the areca palm) the 

areca will bear fruit. 
Constant application will produce the required result. 

1954. Qemngpireo s^eSt, QfeSfipneti sldu&tlJd. 

If you shave you will get pay, if you serve you will be paid for 
it. 1962. 

1955. SriiLDn Qstoi—&(8jLC>iT Q&rrgitB)&®)snr urrpii)? 

Can Siva's feet {i.e. God's mercy) be obtained for nothing ? 
1946. 

L mi S~, 7 71 ,7 • 7 7 II 

1 he trods sell us everything for our labours. 
" The best things are worst to dome by." 

1956. isni^eer Quirrr^eir sa><s<sfi_®££>. 
What we seek, we shall obtain. 
" Seek and ye shall find." 

1957. &GBBTI— <3DS Q/5(T}jULJ ^j&T^W. 

The stretched-out hand will take up tire. 1004, 2420. 

Thieves will come to grief. This proverb refers to the old custom by which 

a suspected person had to prove his innocence by taking red-hot iron in 

his hand without being burnt. 

6B)S ML-l—SSirn&ST S(Lf) GjjruewriSBr. 

The person who has long arms (i.e. has thieving propensities) will one day 
be impaled. 

" Be sure your sins will find yon out." 



KXERTION. 217 

1958. u&r&rih @)to8)jD£g6u<5sr uiki(8j QsrrestsrQQunQqrpeisr. 

He who irrigates low-lying land will get his share. 
" He who will have the fruit must climb the tree." 

1959. unfSliB&^eo, u&iesjiLDl eel/so. 
No exertion, no fruit. 

" No pains, no gains." 

1960. LLmGduggcrio Ltariksirub e$(LpL£>rr? 

Will the saying of an incantation cause mangoes (a fruit) to fall 

from a tree ? 2041, 2349. 
Nothing can be done by words; exertion is needed. 

1961. eurrih n^issarLjn^syso, tSsh'BstnSlstBLp&Q^tii. 

If the child has a mouth, it will live. 1947, 1949. 
If it cries for milk, it will get it. 

1962. CWSso Qfub@tT60 s^eS, Qsue^LD QuitlLujt&) srr&. 

If you work you will be paid, and if you mount the stage as 
a player you will get your wages. 1951, 1954, 2642. 

Cf. 2699 /. 



MUCH EXERTION AND LITTLE GAIN. 

1963. ^jt^-Hjui ulL®u Lj&flgp LDWEismiiu) ^lmemQ6iessr®innt 
Am I to take a beating and also to eat sour mangoes ? 
" Great pain and little gain will make a man soon iveary." 

1 964. £}{e)Qgo (§<5G>pe#eSl®)'teo, ^ilu-L-n u>essii<a5)uj Ljf&nifl. 

There is no fault to find in you, 0, poojari (priest of Kali), only 

be punctual in ringing the bell before the image. 
Used of any rogue who pretends to honesty. 

1965. §£/&&& ■S^QpSSIT ^P^fesT £sl(Vjf5niDlh (or ^I0U^Q^lL® ISITLDth). 

Is it for this little gruel that I have put on so many ndmams. 

1970. 
Used by a Siva mendicant forced by hunger to assume the Vishnuvite 

ndmam (mark on the forehead) in a Vishnuvite village. 
i.e. Is it for nought that I have made these great professions of piety ? 

" To have nothing for one's labour but one's pains." 

1966. &sLjrnireSLL®s seSuunemQiDy sresr ^jeSupkpnths QsmceaorQu). 

It is the wedding of another villager, why have you loosened your 

loin-cloth for it ? 
Said by an outsider to one who is so very busy at a wedding ; that even 

his loin-cloth is loosened, and he is put to shame. Used of those who 

take much pains in affairs that do not concern them and get no good by 

their exertions. 



218 TAMIL PROVERBS. 



Though told that it is a male buffalo, he asks if there is not a 

drop of milk to be had for the child. 1817, 1920. 
Said of one who tries to get something out of what seems hopeless. 

" To milk a he-goat." 

1968.' &rr^&(&js <sQuQu gefljr, semi— uei<3sr ^6sr,g2/Lo?6i)'2ev. 

Besides wearying my legs, the profit I anticipated was lacking. 

1969. (8f60Bn—rr&&jrGstsni> QuirL-L-ngyu>, iSieean—n^Qfirpgns^ Gui£luSlGO'teo. 

Though he turns a somersault in a pot (i.e. does the impossible) 
there is no way (for him to get) a mouthful of rice. 

1970. <£(5 ihrr&r 3n-psp&(9i lE<3S)& QioSiHsseun^. 

Why shave off the mustache to go and dance for one day ? 1965. 

In India female characters are represented by male actors in female garb. 
Said to one who tells a number of lies to get a trifle. 

" The game is not worth the candle." 

1971. Q&rrQ&Qpjp P-ip&(9jL]un&), Q-emp&Qpg! U6tigauQun&. 

(The cow) yields only a small measure of milk, but it kicks out 

(the milkman's) teeth. 
Said of a severe master, who pays small wages but demands much work. 

1972. $59gst £jiy.pp jgyeosuiTfa) <zr®)6dmb &.£& g)tf sa &.&}ireS glifliQpeor. 

I wandered about knocking my head against all the door- lintels 

which the carpenter had put up. 
1 have exerted myself to the uttermost but achieved nothing. 

1973. uil<Sui uirip, iBilQih #rrefl. 

My exertions are fruitless ; what I planted is blighted. 

1974. upi^j uprs^i un®ULLi—fTSilu> } u&gi&(9j& Q&rrpHo'fo). 
However much I exert myself, I get no rice to eat all day. 

1975. eajretj Q&rr^&u), sugSulj Qld/$$. 

The income is little, the pain (to earn it) is great. 

1976. eSeear ^)if>Q/"5@ wirn ^ip.s8p^ir? 

Why beat your breast at a funeral where you get nothing ? 

Even at the humblest Hindu funerals the guests receive betel leaves 
and areca nut. The proverb is used to express contempt for an enter- 
prise that yields no profit. A very common proverb. 

Cf. 1995 /. 2616 /. 



EXERTION. 219 

ONE HAS THE TOIL, ANOTHER THE PROFIT. 

1977. j)iuuir&6iJiTL£l&(9j3 seSiurresariJ), egyo/zf gjsufr <^lLl^.Q60 &truun® } 

Q&niUSlQiAeinh QsneSeSIQev, QeujbfS'SeoufTS^ seai—uSQeo, <9reear 

Appaswamy's wedding is being performed. The guests have to 
dine in their own houses ; the drum is beaten in the temple ; 
betel leaf and areca nut are to be had at the shops ; and at the 
kiln they can get lime (to chew with the betel) ! 

Said of a miser, or more commonly of a person who has the knack of 
getting what he wants at the expense of others. 

1978. <=#,&& ^/saj^^u QumLi— a/sff QsLLL-en&r, sul^s^lLl^. ^ejpiuil&eor 

eu&r t5®)G\)euetr . 

She who prepared the food and served it, is taken no notice of ; 

she who was sent to start you on your journey is praised. 
The one who does the work is often overlooked. 
" Another threshed what I reaped." 

1979. ^jL-i—eunsar Qgml.i—ei)rr&&r Qs lLl-.su rf&eir, (gfruQutrgi oukpeufrsoa 

meoeoeurrseir. 

Those who give and those who help are despised, new-comers 
are honored. 

Said, for instance, by old servants, when a new-comer is favoured or pro- 
moted. 

1980. ®9-& jgsu&r Lfeai—^^euiar §)ihQ& $@&&> 6ulqLU unirppsueir QsitlL 

While the woman who pounded and sifted the rice is left here, 
she who only looked on has gone off with it all. 1718. 

Said by a mother-in-law about a daughter-in-law who gets the benefit of 
all her economy and thrift. 

" One man knocks in the nail, and another hangs his hat on it." 

1981. usu) <s5_i£. Q&&(9j peiretr, euires^ujesr eresirQeeBnb Qs!reeBr®Quns. 
The whole village helped to work the oil mill, but the oil mer- 
chant took the oil away. 

" Little dogs start the hare, the great get her." 

1982. ereSI slLi—, uijldl\ (^L^Qsiraren. 

The rat makes (the hole ) ; the snake inhabits it. 1987. 
" Fools build houses, and tcise men live in them." 

1983. ^(5 (3><2js# §)<&>n er®&&, 5>c8rug> (^Q^eS eutrib $pi&. 

One bird brings the food, and nine open their mouths for it. 
The head of a family does not enjoy what he earns. 



220 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

1984. si—isstulL® s^lsstulLQ jyth&SLD @lolS/_, li uuuit s^pts) eSlQpisgj 

In order to worship the Goddess, I have borrowed money and 
given bonds ; but whose concubine are you, to bow down here 
and worship the Goddess ? 1988. 

One profits by another's labour. 

Used by a selfish mother-in-law against a disliked daughter-in-law, when 
the latter attempts to profit by the former's economy. 

" One soweth and another reapeth." 

1985. siT^^I(i^ls^sii<asr Queeor^n^leiauj, Qrspjpi surs^suasr ^ijup-pjp&QsiTGSBr® 

He took care of the girl (in the hope of marrying her) but a 
stranger who arrived yesterday came and took her away for 
himself. 

1986. <£6i)*r>/r<a/ ^^L^^a/eJr urreS, suiSl ^jt^-^^Qj&r Ljesures^iLisy^lujiT? 

Is she who pounded a kalam of flour a sinner, while she who 
pounded the grit is virtuous ? 

Used when one person gets credit for a piece of work, nearly all of which 
has been done by another, e.g. A daughter-in-law has bad all the 
hard labour of preparing for an approaching wedding, but just at the 
last the daughter of the house gives a finishing stroke to the prepara- 
tions, and her mother honours her as if she had done all the work. 

" God heals and the physician hath the thanks." 

1987. seapiuirasr LfjbfSeo unii>n ^u^QsiresaH—^jQurreo. 

Like a snake making its home in the ant-hill of the white ants. 

1982. 
" Tfie sparrow builds in the martins nest." 

1988. isn&sr Qjsuf.u u&ea&Quni—^ isnifl&str er&)&)trii> euik^nffa&r Q^uusuld 

I have procured and arranged these plants and trees, and then 
all these women come to dance for the goddess ! 1984. 

The allusion is to the ceremony (jpacchei poda) performed by a woman who 
has been possessed by a spirit (piddri), in which a great pot is taken and 
ornamented with a nose, and eyes, &c, made by streaks of saffron, which 
she then worships under ashed made of green leaves. While she is 
worshipping, others naturally come to watch. If they also join in the 
worship, and dance before the goddess Paccheiyamnial in the pot, the 
woman who performs the ceremony must present half a cocoanut and 
some flour to the Goddess for each worshipper. This is a great expense 
and no benefit to her. She has the trouble, they have the advantage. 
The proverb is commonly used when the efforts of a good man to do his 
duty are turned to their own advantage by unscrupulous persons. 

"Fools lade out all the water, and wise men take the fish." 

1989. Qsueoeoti GUtsbrQpGuissr ^Qjeueisr, q9./7 < 3gu<£ (^ULjSpeuasr e^q^eum . 

One eats the sugar ; another licks his fingers. 



EXERTION. 221 

1989a. Q-GBSruirm ^asrunm aaunnQ, gj^^SQj Spuirsisr eSjTQpei^t^.. 

The mendicant fares sumptuously at my master's table, but it 
is I, Veeramusti, that must bear his blows and hard treatment. 

Used by a hard working day labourer against an indulged fellow 
labourer. 

1990. <g>}&&) 2-(tp@rD<58)£e8L-, ^Lfi 2-Qp@pg]Qm&). 
Better to plough deep than wide. 

If you begin a work, do it thoroughly and not superficially. 

1991. S-Ssrr (or Q&gv) QJi^/ii/u>, sjgcol- wetDipiLjih, Qungj) er^^jth ^arfluyuvruj 

^j'ieoQp^iQuneo. 

Like going single-handed in a road full of quagmires in un- 
ceasing rain with pack-bullocks. 

A simile expressing the very highest degree of discomfort for very small 
profit. The driver of pack-bullocks gets small wages for all the pains 
he takes. 

1992. sj&r^^fiirdsr enssBrQeearibs^ ^.eOQ^Qp^j (or &rrdjQpgi) eieSu 

Sesamum-seed is dried for oil, but why dry rats' dung. 

Said about a person who loiters about with others who are hard at work. 

1993. ^GOnru^saiTaeor iSsaLpuLjU), euemi^-ssirn^sr i^asLpui^ih ^ssfgi. 
A single man's life and a cart-driver's are alike. 

Both are ever on the move and have no comforts. 

If you agree to personate a dog, you must bark. 1764, 1950. 
Anything once begun should be done thoroughly. (The proverb implies 
that the work in question was begun with some unwillingness.) 



GREAT EXERTIONS OVER TRIFLES. 

1995. gj&iTiBujptslio uQjrpu iSjrujjggsBrLDrr QgtLQpg)? 

Should one make the efforts of Bhagiratha over a trifle ? 
King Bhagiratha by his austerities brought the Ganges from heaven. 
Many people take great pains for no adequate purpose. 

1996. <2g ) LUSi&(9)iLu}-&(3j ^2esreioujs <s/ra/ Qsn®sQp^n? 

Should an elephant be sacrificed to save a sheep ? 2002. 

1997. <%$GST<a»LU e&pgu, L$esi&(3j <58iG>jp$E)uui£> urrirdSpptr? 
Should one sell an elephant to get medicine for a cat ? 

1998. ^0ldlj s^etj @)t$-j5g}, yaffil®* QsriQpssLLeiBL- GrGUdQpjSn? 
Should one knock down an iron door in order to take a bran-cake ? 



222 TAMIL PR0VEKB8. 

1999. assjrs (jSjQjjeSQin®) srirLDUiTeetsrih Q^rrQQp-gn? 

Is a good arrow to be shot at a sparrow ? 707. 

1999a. 67-6$ Q>suiLeB)t—&(§p peSeouf-uuirl 

Should you beat the drum when catching rats ? 
Unimportant people make much noise about their unimportant deeds. 

2000. QeoiappesmGjl iSKSts/s, ejQeo&iuun lLu.it? 

Why should a number of persons sing a chorus when rooting 

up a small vegetable ? 
Coolies when lifting a great burden together or carrying a load, shout or 

sing in unison so that all shall lift or step together. 

2001. Q&itl£I £iUf.&QfDpp(3j& (Sjgwhjgiq.ujrT'? 
Is a club needed to kill a fowl ? 

2002. QsrrySj QpL-pg/<5(9}& si—rr Q6ui-Lup.s srreij QsrrSl&Qpjgtr? 
Should a sheep be sacrificed to cure a lame fowl. 1996. 

2003. <s® Qs6sarea)L-S(^ giiBquiju &.6B)t—s&ip<5iT? 

What ! Make a breach in a lake in order to catch a small fish ! 
This proverb is the converse of 1060. 

2004. Loteoeaaj QistrasBrip. (or &60&8) ereSeauuu iSiy.&Qppn'i 
Should you dig up a mountain to catch a rat. 

" Sue a beggar and catch a louse." 

Cf. 1963 /. 2616 /. 



LITTLE THINGS. 

THE IMPORTANCE OP LITTLE THINGS. 

2005. gif&nesS (or Q^jriressfi, or »&r&rnesS, or SGOL-UJiresafl) ^eo&n^ 

A car without a linch-pin will not move three span. 

2006. jyjpisih <5il6B)i_uyii) ^upjps^uo ©.^fiJ/to. 

Even bundles of grass may be of use in adversity. 

2007. Sjfbup ^76B)i_iJi_(toff(e5)j^ii) s_srr girQaauj ^ju.S(^ld. 
A worn broom will serve to lessen the dust. 

" Small rain lays great dust." 

2008. j^uSjTih LLirsaesS ^j^u^^jresari—eiajj. 

A thousand sixteenths make sixty-two and a half. 

" Little and often fills the purse." 

" One grain fills not the sack, but helps his fellows." 



LITTLE THINGS. 223 

2009. ^GST Q<SD5LD ^l—IEJ^th SjlEl^ff^^li^eO. 

The swiftness {or impetuosity) of an elephant is subdued by a 

goad. 2049. 
" A great icind is laid with a little rain." 

2010. /£«oj<f QiB^lt^S)Qujrr } @<a»jr& &ib^<§V)QuJfi? 

Did you spill water or did you spill your fortune ? 3171. 

If you do not mind unimportant things, you will not mind important 
things. Economic use of water is supposed to lead to fortune : waste 
of water is superstitiously dreaded as the sure way to misfortune. 
Water is the element dear to the Goddesses Lakshmi and Sarasvati. 

" Of saving cometh having." 

2010a. e-ues)u Qih^^Qijurr giusmu Si^l^Qiuir? 

Did you spill your salt or did you spill your food. 

If trifles are not attended to, misery will arise. Salt is an emblem of food. 
If one spills a single grain of it, this the loss is superstitiously taken 
to forebode of food, or employment, in the near future. 

2011. Q&niirFy&ptgled e-6aBr<5S)LDuS®)eong<siJ6Br } Q<ssni$.u$g2iix> ^q^ssldij Cu.it m. 

He who is not faithful in little things, will not be so in great 
ones. 

2012. usi) speffl QuQjj QwenetTLh. 

Many drops make a great flood. 2029. 
" Many drops make a shower." 

Gf. 660 ff. 1881 /. 



LITTLE EVILS DESTROY MUCH GOOD. 

2013. ^jjbu ^eme CWip. peupesigs Qs®sqld. 

A little desire destroys a penance carried on for a long time. 

The great aim of the penances (Tapas) of Hindu ascetics is the complete 
suppression of all desires and passions. The attainment of this state of 
passionless peace is supposed to confer supernatural power. 

2014. ^jJilSjJLD (3J68BTLO ^(TJ Q&)fTU&(3)6BBr££rT&) ^lL®LD. 

A thousand good qualities will be thwarted by avarice. 
" One ill weed mars the whole pot of pottage." 

2015. er&)&)rrth tseisi (nfdj& Qfibgi (or Qu&) Qsn^s= i$ ^u.e3ies)&sr. 

He did it all right, but (just at the last) he smeared it over with 
a little filth. 

2016. <£®(3j ^g^^Ssar QiBQ^uuir^^iLD Quneass Qsir^^^eSQih. 

Though there be only as much fire as a grain of mustard, it 

will burn a stack. 2021. 
" A little fire burns up a great deal of corn." 



224 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2017. &&)u uir6£i&(8j£ sperflu iSsmn. 

A drop of curd is enough for a Kalam (measure) of milk. 
" A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." 

2018. <£jr«sa/?<£(3j<f Q&rrihu®), Q&niS}.a(9j (Suq^ikpLD. 

To be lazy in little things (will lead) to countless sufferings. 
" A little neglect may breed endless mischief." 

2019. saaasfi ^eme, Qsnu^. Qs®. 

A little desire (will lead to) immense loss. 
" A man is not so easily healed as hurt." 

2020. girpemps QsQ^^^j (^^V6ssft. 

One measure (of chaff) has spoiled a hundred (of corn). 

2021. Qihqjjun Qplgi eimgu QpissTQrf^esTuS&i) Qpi^ajeomDn-? 

Can you cover up fire in your lap because you say ' There is 

but little fire.' 
Avoid the wicked though their company seems almost harmless. 2016. 

Of. 424 /. 



GREAT THINGS CANNOT BE DONE BY SMALL MEANS. 

2022. ^Gsreuir'teoLJ i$is}-@g]& aeear ejpeotrui, j^L-iy.esr euir'ieou i$iy-@ < g)& 

If you catch hold of the tail of an elephant you may reach the 
other bank (of the river) ; if you catch hold of the tail of a 
sheep how can you reach the bank ? 

Seek great people for help and protection, not the feeble. 2028, 2906. 

2023. auudo 6pi$-U ulLl— si—cisr QsfnL<sa)i— jprp(7)p <a9^m/ii)? 

Will the debt incurred by sending out a ship be cleared by 

spinning cotton ? 
" A drop in the ocean" 

2024. (^eir&T^ioSTsQsrrsaar® si—&) «f£tg"> unrr&£l(npeBr. 

He wants to fathom the depth of the sea with the aid of a 

dwarf ! 2026, 2028. 
Used when a man wants to do something for a small sum that requires 

an expenditure of much money. 

2025. &ul\ 6T<8pj£i fpetBppnid, aeSivrresartl) $p(9jii>iT? 
Can you stop a wedding by hiding the comb ? 

The bridegroom gives the bride certain presents on the eve of the wed- 
ding ; among these there is always a comb, but a wedding would not be 
stopped if the comb were not forthcoming. 

2026. ibiB eunVev&Q stream®, <sz_sv> ^Lpix uniisQp^iQuneo. 

Like sounding the depth of the sea with the tail of a jackal ! 

2024, 2028. 
Little people cannot do great things. 



LITTLE THINGS. 225 

2027. mtriLi (gfleo&gl ts&£ix> uiTLpir^Lcn? 

Will a village be ruined by the barking of a dog ? 

2028. wtuj sunyeouu/bfS, ^pjSeo ^pmi^Qpgnt 

Can you lay hold of a dog's tail and go into a river (safely) ? 
2024, 2026. 

It is not safe to rely on the help of mean people when face to face with 
great difficulties. 

" Trust not to a broken staff." 

2029. u>aSi7 <&Li.<3s stfttun^imrt 

Can charcoal be made by burning hair ? 

If one is in need he should not waste his time over vain devices to help 
himself but should go to those who are able to help him. — For the con- 
verse see. 2012. 

2030. iB6Sl3ssP,u LfrffiQ Qeii@itl£ : &pgi&(8j ^Q^&rQuniLn'i 

Will darkness disappear before the shining of fire-flies ? 

2031. Qf&(3)LDU$rr iS<3i£jQ(GB)g) umnJa gjsswDuyifl/r? 

Will one's weight be lessened by pulling out the hair from the 
nostrils ? 



LITTLE THINGS WILL NOT BECOME BIG THINGS. 

2032. ^uSirih isLL&gtslinh e^uf.^e)§nuD ^(77j &£fsljreisr *gy,srrgj. 

A thousand stars though joined together will not make a moon. 
" Better one virtuous son than even a hundred fools." (Hitopadesa). 

2033. eriKSs <§<&,&■ gli$-@ptT§$lii>, ffiLLtf-d spl ^strgj. 

Even if you kill eight tiny chickens, they won't make a meal. 

2034. GsmLu^s Q&tuLiq. g\<onkgn§$w, (ggvessf! u/gs^ ^sn^j. 
Though measured a thousand times over, a small measure of 

grain will not become a big one. 106. 

2034a. usef) Qudjjrp (ajenw Qnaihi^iDir^ wang Quibgi gjsffifl Qj/tlol/umt ? 

Will a lake be filled by the falling of dew, or by the falling of 
rain ? 



■ HE WHO CAN DO GREAT THINGS CAN EASILY DO LITTLE THINGS." 

2035. ^jesari—^ets)^ sHLsQpeu^SQ snastsr^eii—ss^ihu unjuMT? 

What is the burden of a small fruit to him who bears the 
universe ? 

2036. ^gt) (or &i—&), or &Qp${5lnu>) (SiGdasreueipidgj <3»nih&&n6dGiCownpj£lnu> ? 
What is a water-chanuel to him, who can swim across a river 

(or, a sea). 2046. 

2037. ^esT'savus Q&nmpeuesr, Lftesr&nuj Qeueo&iiD!nLi—iT^'i 
Cannot he who has killed an elephant conquer a cat ? 

29 



226 TAMIL peovei;j:s. 

2038. ^Bssreauj (or uj'Ssdstouj) QpQgiEiSm j>fu>6Biu>ujrT0d(3ju ll^est sfssar 

To a woman who Las swallowed an elephant (or mountain) a 
cat is but a trifle. 

2039. &jfcsT5(<9jp Ggeisfl j§)®ti> <afiLLL$-&), ^lKSis^lLl^s^u u^^ldit? 
Will a lamb find a famine in a house where an elephant is fed ? 

2040. «U<&»T QldILJLO S!TL-L^.&), c|£® QldLU @)I—LC $J®)'fa)IJLllj'! 

Is there not space for a sheep to graze in a forest where ele- 
phants feed r 

2041. 2_61)<£GE<5SL/ L^ea^S^ ^jSmfflUrT^^, ^l0UUITLL(SlS(^ J)jGS>ffilLltDn ? 

Will he who does not yield to a sound thrashing with a rice- 
pounder yield on hearing a sacred song. 1960, 2790, 3151. 

2042. iSlilj^^ieSiLi—n^iui Qurr&&g}, dKStEiQe&LLi—ngyLo (Juirwj). 

If you tear it off it is gone, if you pull it off it is gone. 2049. 

i.e. It is a matter of no importance at all, e.g. After spending 1000, 
rupees in building a house, the builder thinks nothing of spending fifty 
more on an improvement in it. 

Of. 424 /. 2013 ff. 



THE MAN UNABLE TO ACCOMPLISH SMALL DEEDS CANNOT DO 
GREAT THINGS. 

2043. «g£® Q&n®am<s ^esii—iu^r, u«<a/ Qsir®uuiTics)? 

Will the shepherd who refuses to give a sheep, give a cow ? 

2044. &-LL&niim@@u'2esr<& slLl-ldit L-L—n ^ern^r , ^(SSpsu < 2esrs &L-®@utT^tS) ? 

Can he who is unable to bind a person who is sitting down bind 
a man that is running ? 

2045. S-etr^ifieo spigKpgar iSuf-sartpeneisi, &.es}L-.uufTiTUiT'Benujm Quniii 2_®ux_/ 

Will the man who cannot catch a lizard in his own village be 
able to go to a foreign place and catch an iguana ? 

2046. StTGOtabtTGRlUp ptTGBMt—n&eum, SLJ%30& £[T6eBl®<3>m(GS)? 

Can one who is unable to cross a water-chanrual, cross the sea ? 

2036. 
" He that cant ride a gentle horse must not attempt to back a mad 

colt:' 

2047. Q&tTpfSio Qi—sQp sGiTeo <or<SlsswnLLi—iTfiei<asr (G^nesr^es)^ gtuuuj. 

If he cannot pick the bits of grit out of his rice, how will he 

understand wisdom ? 
" He may ill run, that cannot go." 



LITTLE THINGS. 227 

204S. QiDfTii&Bjg gGsurssisPiflGso sfi® Offl'^GuJigia), lBl-it^ ^essres^Q^a^ 

If a bouse i s scalded by a small pot of water, how will it be 
affected by a large pot of water. 1422. 

If you cannot overcome little difficulties, how are you to get over great 
ones? 

Gf. 2059 /. 



"PENNY WISE AND POUND FOOLISH." 

2049. ^iSsih QutresrQuirLL® ^2asr 6W7/b©, ^jsbjj uusam £ gi Sjt&asj&p 

After paying one thousand gold coins for an elephant, why 
hesitate to pay half a cash for a goad ? 2009, 2042. 

2050. ssrrgj Qu.iQro s&zrs^u umruuirasr, l^QesBssituju QurrSpgo QgiR 

lungs. 
He makes a note of a lost needle, but he does not perceive the 
loss of a pumpkin ! 

205 ! . «S(3j QuaQp («£ii—j£$j}<£o put. eiQfggi&QsnGBsr® GUtfiewr&s, L^Qasfls 
sitiLu QunQp ^t—g&d®) QpiRtuigj. 

He will wander about with a stick (in his hand searching) the 
place where a mustard-seed was lost but he does not know 
where he lost a pumpkin ! 

" They drink their water by measure, but eat their cakes without." 

2052. (SjGHsan Qctrressri-ireo, 60sirgjpj&(8j eugd&n ? 

After buying the horse, why dispute about the bridle ? 2053. 

2053. u3f-ss)Su s&jb(rrp@d, sesrst'd(^ euLp&&rr' i . 

If you have sold the cow. why dispute about the calf ? 2052. 
" If you buy the cow take the tail into the bargain." 



"ANYTHING IS BETTER THAN NOTHING." 

2054. &QpeB)ga(j9jLj unQp&io (3ji-Ljp.<£<*aj/f. 

To go to a ruined wall for grazing is an ass's pilgrimage. 

2055. <3uibgG6>£ wuu®^i_t eueo&sml.® jtitldi? 
Take what you can get, O Valakkatturama ? 

Said to the creditors of an insolvent or stingy person who cannot get their 

demands satisfied. 
" When you cant get bread, oat-cakes are not amiss." 

205G. Sukg, 3<T3rS(3j eULLi—lfil®)'%B0. 

There is no interest on the money you received ! 

Be satisfied with what you can get from an insolvent debtor. 

" A bad bush better than an open field.*' 



228 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2057. Qeujpiih snsjisqsj 6£ < %30&&rtsp Qld&). 

Ears (ornamented) with palmyra leaf are better than ears with 
no ornaments. 1735. , 

When Tamil woman are unable to buy jewels to put in their ears they 
frequently roll up a strip of palmyra leaf and insert it in the hole that 
is always pierced in the lobe of the ear. This is done to prevent the 
hole from contracting and so becoming too small to hold the Kammal 
ear ornament. 

"Better a bare foot than no foot at all." 

" Half a loaf is better than no bread." 

2058. Qeujpua (SfjgeiD^ m&QjjQpenpe&i—, iS (gpeap tE&QijQpsp Qil&). 
It is better to lick a dirty breech than a clean one ! 



HE WHO CANNOT BEAR A LITTLE SUFFERING CANNOT BEAR 
GREAT DISASTERS. 

2059. ergamLj suf.ssu QurTjpi&siTprr? 
Can you not bear an ant's bite ? 

2060. SQpQeup^ gjes&rsg i§eS seoBressfl®) saw ^lLl-^p^s stflaQpsp eresr 



The woman (who professes to be) ready to be impaled, says 
that her eyes smart when she blackens her eyelids ! 

Hindu women blacken their eyelids with certain pigments, thinking that 
they beautify themselves. 

2061. srrgj (S)p@u Qurrgva&rr/gn? 

Can you not bear to have your ears bored ? 

If such a slight pain is unbearable, how can you bear greater pain ? 

2062. GIe^eI ^jgikgjQunQp ^tps^, <5ti5^ldlL®u> ^q^s^u)? 
How long will a nose last that breaks off when blown ? 
Also said of a person who gets unreasonably angry over trifles. 

2063. QaM_Q<5M_Q<a/63rjy gGsoretsiPiT (Sjafla sn peuentr e_i_63r<£LL<SB>£_ ejpiii 

QunQqrpat ? 

Will she who refuses to bathe in tepid water ascend the funeral 
pyre? 

The reference is to the rite of sati or suttee, by which a widow immolated 
herself on the funeral pyre of her husband. The practice was abolished 
by Lord William Bentinck abont ]830. 

Of. 2043 /. 



HEREDITARY CHARACTERISTICS AND NATURAL INSTINCTS. 229 

HEREDITARY CHARACTERISTICS AND 
NATURAL INSTINCTS. 

2064. sjssn'bsns Qstreanri—Teo, ^isj<asses>ai (ipsap QsLLuaQetsrmt 
Having married the elder sister why does he ask what is his 

relationship to the younger ? 2071. 

2065. ^ixstvsj- lds&st ^ssari^-iua^eo, Qwbld ^fSis^i eth(9j ^en^isunissr. 

If a son of a mendicant becomes a mendicant, he will blow the 
conch at the proper time. 279, 1901a, 2499, 2852 f. f; 
3085. 

" As natural to him as milk to a calf." 

2066. JQGOLDJJlh UQp@gS>J GfGBTgU upeSiSUS^ ^IT @lLG>) S{§§P Ul$GBTg) ? 

Who sent letters to the birds that the banj'an tree was in 

fruit ? 2070, 2072, 2074.. 
They know that hy their own natural instinct. 

2067. ^jtupeas euirffiVssTQujrr, Q&ajp&MS swt<s : 2sb7"(cuj.t? or ejpeas eungfyasr 

Qujrr, Q&psns eun&JEsrGliLm ? 
Is the smell natural or artificial ? 
i.e. Is the habit natural or acquired ? 

2068. ejp ^ansuuLLi—irdo, pn^synu i$p<s£l Qsu&kQu}. 

If you desire to climb trees, you must be born a Shanar. 

The Shanar caste who draw the juice from palms to make the intoxi- 
cating toddy are necessarily skilful climbers of trees. < 

2069. swueisr eSil.® Q&j&T(snmLuf.tqm (or &lL®<£ ppliLjih) seSun®tb. 
Even the servant woman (or the peg to which a cow is tied) 

in (the poet) Kamban's house will sing. 2331. 
A great man's influence on others. 
" In a fiddler's house all are dancers." 

2070. S(^LDLjS «5tl®i@ GTJpilhLj pirQoST <a.'(77jU>. 

Ants will come of themselves (to devour) sugar cane. 2066, 

2072, 2074. 
" Wheresoever the carcase is, tliere will the eagles be gathered 

together." 

2071. Q^eSeatuu umLuf. erssru^p(^d QsCsQeueBsr®LDn^ 

Why ask if vou may call an old woman ' grand-mother ' ? 
2064. 

2072. gjsrrto Qpiresaruf. gsuosir sh-ui3i—Qetjeear®iDirt 

Need you send for frogs after digging a pool ? 2066, 2070, 
2074. 



230 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2073. @<gihujjjgj£l&) iSlpig iSlefrVen &(&)■£ ^iQ^Qtsusisrurronsiis ajbgi&Q&n®a& 

No one need teach a child born at Sithambaram to sing a 

sacred song. 
Sithambaram (Chillumbrum) is a very holy place about one hundred and 

fifty miles south of Madi'as near the East coast containing a famous 

temple dedicated to Siva. 

" Teach your grand-mother to such eggs." 

2074. Q£Ggn&(&j ffgibuju iSlLf.^gv eSli—QisuesarQuiiT^ 

Is it necessary to catch flies to bring thom to honey ? 2066, 
2070, 2074. 

2075. miLQwasr LS&r'Bbvd^s Qs(nLuf.ssnL.L-Qeueaar®LDiTt 

Do you need to show the child of a musician (nattuvan) how to 

beat a drum ? 
The Nattuvan is the person who trains dancing girls and directs their per- 
formances. 

2076. at—id iSespaig £&&u uip<i&Q®J6Bisr®LC>rr'? 

Is there any need to teach sea-fish to swim ? 

The son follows in his fathers profession. This is especially true in India 
where so many trades are hereditary. 

"Don't teach fish to swim." 

2077. Qeueaeun&iia^ ujitit pnuDLj^th tstotaudprriTseirl 
Who has offered Tdmboola to the ftying foxes ? 

Tamhoola is betel leaf enclosing areca-nut and lime ready for chewing, 
given when inviting people to feasts. The flying fox is a large bat. It 
goes where its instincts lead it without needing any invitation. 

Cf. 1900/. 2852 0". 



NEGLECT. 

SLLlColUIT&LD, 2_LiCoUJ/r<S5/^)a)(5U/7S5)LD. 

2078. S-QDi—iueueor Uffjjtru uuSit ®-(T?)Uu®ldit'? 

If the owner does not look after it, will the crop thrive ? 3227. 
" Tis the farmer s care that makes the field bear." 

2079. ®Jds&n@ L/i_ss3a/ l^^Qs^ ^ssm (or Q&&)epi sjiBsqis)). 

A woman's cloth that is not worn will be food for insects (or 
will be eaten by white-ants). 

Paper, cloth, serge, Ac, is attacked by many different kinds of grubs 
and small insects in India. If any books or any clothes are put away and 
neglected they are soon riddled through and through by these pests. 



PROTECTION', CARE, SUPPORT. 231 

2080. a_sroi_ujffl/63r sesar Gpi—ir^ uuSrr 2-L-Qgsi .jyi^izyii. 

The crop over which the owner's eyes do not run will be spoiled 

immediately. 
Said of anything the owner ought to protect, as his children, his house, etc. 

2081. ^..esar^)^ Q&trgsii LDesnr(sm)UJLJ QutT(9jti>. 
Property not enjoyed goes to dust. 

2082. a^a/ QuiTSfTtDeo Q&L-L—jg!, si—esr QslLsitlc®) QslLl-^j. 

If you do not visit your friends and relations, relationship will 
be destroyed ; if you do not ask for what you have lent out, 
it will be destroyed. 

2082a. &ii>urT eStlktribgj pniLmsp Qt~s(^^i (Qi—iQp&p), ^.esarunifledeOnLDeO 

The samba crop is over-ripe, but since those who should eat it 

do not come for it, the sparrows devour it. 
Samba is a superior sort of rice. 

2083. gieos&rrp ^t{^w ^iq^ulSis/.sqiJd. 

A weapon not polished will gather rust. 1467. 
" The used hey is always bright." 

2084. uirfrdsn^ a_<oa>{_iss)Lo unup. 

Property not looked after will decay. 



PROTECTION, CARE, SUPPORT. 
&rruurTpjpi4580» 

2086. «f£<teo e£i(ipgj @nm](3)Qpg)Qu!Teo. 

As the aerial roots of the banyan support it. 

Children ought to support their parents as the aerial roots of the banyan 
support the parent tree. 

2087. gtieiQs ^(^tp-jCTje^/i), smm&Q&treO eawss ^0 £&)'—"> Q^eear^ih. 
Though you steal everywhere, there must be one place where 

you keep your implements. 
i.e. There must be one place where oven a thief won't steal, viz., his home. 
Even the worst people reverence something. 

2088. sr&r^ <sS(ipiB^T&) ) ei®ss wsn Q# < 2est ) @)i—r£l <s8(i§mpneo er®ss «^«r 

If a sesamum seed fall, there are hosts of people to pick it up, 
but if (a man) slip and fall there is no one to help him. 
741, 3348. 

People are eager for profit, but they have little desire to help their fellows. 



232 TAMIL PROVERBS. 



2089. s&ssr2essr @)gb>ld ang-gspQuneO. 

As the eye-lash protects the eye. 151, 3214. 
Tender and unselfish care. 

2090. &eO60S(3j<ar $)QT)&Qp Q^es)uss)tuu^m, (tpil.<S6)L-&(<9j<8fr $}(rrjd@p upesxav 

(^(mea^iLjth e&iiLig. suenfr&Qpg) tuirrr? 

Who is it that nourishes the frog inside the stone, and the 
chicken inside the egg, and makes them grow ? 3387. 

An afflicted woman may use this proverb, indicating her trust in God, as 
the one who will protect her, even if all forsake her. 

" The true and living God knows all griefs 
He nourishes the egg ere 'tis begot : 
He feeds the frog before its rock it leaves : 
If thus he cares for unborn things, will not 
He make them grow, when He new life doth add? " 

Ch. E. Gover : The Folk-Songs of Suutliern India. 

2091. spi3^^eu^xs(^s sitss <SijeC&}es)iM ^eo^eoujnt 

Has not the creator the power to protect ? 3387. 

2092. sftlKSs^u Lj&S ^pgen, L/eSs^s sn® ^grroj. 

The tiger is the protection of the woods, and the woods of the 
tiger. 2094-. 

2093. meouiq. (or a_£f><£gj) <g/ifl&)da!Trr68r SLgnwir LL<3u>jgiT65r. 

It exists only as long as the man lives who earns. 2098, 2099, 
2105. 

When the head of the family dies, the family fares badly. Said also of 
the responsible head of an institution or office. 

2094. an-gy&Qjs ms P-psS, <so>ss(3j& sn&) 2.^<a>9. 

The hand is a help to the leg and the leg to the hand. 2092. 

2095. (9)jpiiixs6)ug ■se&rr&Q^iii Qjif-^rriiiQ. 

One who removes inhumanity and saves people ! 
A description of a protector. 

2096. «i@^ tstmgi QpiQu Qupp dA&rhsir&niuuQuiTeo &iruLmpjpiQ(np6Br. 

He protects the child as if he had home it in sorrow and eaten 
ginger for it ! 2100. 

Said of a step-mother or of a woman who takes tender care of a child that 
is not her own. Ginger is given to women at the time of their confine- 
ment. ' To eat ginger ' is a phrase meaning ' to bear a child.' 

2097. ^<sst Q-uSamruQuiT®), wan &.aSesiiriL)Lb snssQenesm®^. 

Protect others' lives as you protect your own. 2180. 

" Bo as you would, be done by" " Live and let live." (Mai'k. 
12, 33.) 



PROTECTION, CARE, SUPPORT. 233 

2098. Qpfr gj^sS piDLLQih QiEsrrjrih, Qph Quirasii3p(§ erasresr? 

As long as the temple-car moves it is ornamented ; but what 
ornament is left after it has gone back (to the temple) ? 
2093, 2099, 2105. 

Temple-cars on which images of the gods ride out at festivals are marvel- 
lously adorned for the occasion. When the festival is over, the car is 
stripped of all its ornaments and covered up with mats. 

2099. Q^QititQl- Guw#j! ^(ij/s/rar, gnQtunQL- Qun&arg) i^pis^sih 

(or i$p&@ <9i&u>). 

The festival ends with the procession of the car, and all help 
and support from home ceases when the mother dies. 2093, 
2098, 2105. 

The daughters of the deceased are then left to the mercy of their step- 
mother, or mother-in-law, and they are often not kind to them. Said 
of one who has lost his chief supporter. 

2100. Qi50ues)u LDiy.u$&) siLu).sQsrT&san^.(r^sQ(nfuQuir&). 
It is as if she had tied up fire in her lap. 2096. 

Said of one who protects with the greatest care something he has charge 
of. 

2101. upkjgsQunQp <st<9 : @ps'2gvQld&) } seo'^30^ gfr&Q<oBxsu<£<grTuQurreo. 
Like placing a stone on a leaf -plate that is going to fly away. 
Protecting a person who would otherwise go to ruin. 

2102. urri—sd&nrfl 6unipmgiT&), u^Q^lL® ^sotld l9s»££<£(3>lo. 

If a woman with anklets (Pddakam) prospers, eight or ten of 

her relations will be supported by her. 1716. 
They will get help for nothing. 

2103. LSl$-<ggfT60 &QDIL, e&L-t—rT6d S^SfTLD. 

If I hold you, you are my bundle {i.e. are safe); if 1 let you 
go. you are bits of straw (i.e. are uncared for). 1027, 1369 jf. 

2104. Qu0i£>jTgein£& &pfBasf su&reiftsQsiruf.Qurr&). 

Like a convolvulus (a creeper) that encircles a big tree. 2334. 
A weak person with a strong protector. 

2105. Qu0LD!T&r ^(Trj£prT&)so&)(2<sim, GslQ^mn&r ihi—asuQunQp^-. 

. As long as Perumal lives there will be festival days. 2093, 
2098, 2099. 

Perumal is another name for Vishnu. The proverb means that while the 
protector or the head of a family is alive the members of the family 
will lire in happiness- 

2106. QeueQ ptrQear uoSIgmt QiciLm^neo, efiVEtreugj eruuis).? 

If the hedge graze on the crop, how will the crop thrive ? 

3236, 3256. 
If the gardener robs the garden, or the police the people, how can the 

garden or the people prosper. 

30 



234 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2107. es)ajpjgiT&) iSi&r^eniurrrr, wySlpg) GtjQkpneo &nes&. 

If I keep thee, thou art Ganesa, if I scrape thee off {i.e. discard 
thee) thou art but cowdung ! 2103. 

i.e. You are in my power ; 1 have helped you ou ; but if you get proud 
I can bring you down again. Ganesa (Tam. Pillaiyar) is the God of 
Good Luck, whose image is made of cow dung for household worship, 
the cowdung-ganesa is scraped off wben the worship is over. 



BRAGGING, GREAT PROFESSIONS. 

2108. ^i ) &r l &&G$G0 upss S-uQ^&uQuiosr, erek'2esr^ gir&@ ^pgisfg 

^uurreo eS® erafr@0'&sr (5(75. 

The spiritual teacher says, I will teach j^ou to fly in the sky. 
but first lift me up, and drop me on the other side of the river. 

2109. sk-oag eipla Qsnifi L$iq.&&i£>nLLL-irp (^Q^saeiriT, QJtresru) @f8 

<sro<a;(3j«8JH_i/) <s/ril®<a//r/f. 

Can spiritual teachers who are unable to climb a roof to catch 
a fowl, rend the skies and show people Vishnu's heaven 
(Vaikuntha). 

" Physician heal thyself." 

2110. an&tstoujuiSiq-jBgip girsQeS®, i3&5Brssrri—inhs (^eSlsQQp&sr erm 

He says : Lay hold of my hands and raise me up, and I will heap 
the whole of them in the burial ground ! 

Said in scorn of a feeble braggart. 

" Make me a diviner and I will make thee rich." 

2111. u&uunioeo ensk^Q^QQpm, uLpias^Q $}(Vj£@rT&) qjitq^. 

I will give you a boon to save you from hunger ; but if you have 
stale gruel, give me some. 

" His wit got wings and would have jiown, but poverty still kept 
him down." 

2112. LD'bsoesiiii^ gnsQaasup&n&) (erear ^'^&)Qld&)) } tEirm j)jea)^ erSlpjgid 

QstrexirdjlQutrSQ/DSBr GimQqrfeBr. 

If you will lift up the hill and place it on my head, I will carry 
it away. 

Cf. 1566/. 



HELP AND CHARITY. 235 

HELP AND CHARITY. 

" You see the tall grain in the field of the man 
Who lived to his God and did right in the world. 
Who tilled his own land, and then cheerfully helped 
His neighbour or friend. He gave alms to the poor, 
The hungry he fed, to the cold he brought fire. 
The naked he clothed, and the poor he relieved." 

Ch. E. Gover : The Folk-songs of Southern India. 

2113. g£il.L-$5)&) ^eargyuD (jsjempvuigi. 
Nothing will be diminished by charity. 
" To a good spender God is a treasurer." 

" Alms-giving never made any man pool', nor robbery rich, nor 
prosperity wise." 

2114. @i-Li_/T(T5«S(5 §)L-I— U6063T. 

To those who give a reward is given ! 

" Give, and it shall be given unto you." (Luc. 6, 38.) 

2115. ^StUpsS $6B>/D&&& QstSOrgll <9fITS(^lh. 

Water will spring up in the well that is constantly used. 
" Give and spend and god will send." 

2116. §frssip&& Qessrgs mugum, ^fisiptunp Qeaarga tsngfiti). 

The well from which water is drawn will flow ; the well not used 

will stink ! 
" Drawn wells are seldom dry." 

2117. 9-£irifl&(9j (com. senpniB, Udari) Quiresr gi^mi^. 

To a charitable mind, gold is but straw. 

" The charitable give out of the door, and God puts it in at the 
windoio." 

21 18. spsss spds Qsajpiii) u&sSiasruneo, uup-sssu uup-ds o&Lgpth Qlcuj^ 

The more you milk, the more a cow will give ; and the more 
you read, the more true wisdom will spring up (in your mind). 
" The hand that gives gathers." 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON HELP AND CHARITY. 

2119. •%,&$&& Q^iLsnih er&)&)Tti) slLGl-JtQl- inneani-.gi. 

All the gods whom I worshiped have entirely perished. 
Those on whom I depended have left me helpless. 



236 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2120. ^esreoiu eS^suir^is^iJo, LjfissrGBujs (^pev^is^w Qsn®. 

Give an elephant to a pandit, and a cat to a Kuravan. 2278, 
2298. 

Let. your gifts correspond to the rank of the recipients. Pandits and 
other learned men are venerated throughout all India. A Kuravan is a 
man of one of the tribes that live by the chase, and are despised by 
Hindus because they kill animals and eat the flesh of various animals 
especially cats. 

2121. ^LLi^^mQuiBid <sj(tri><o5i&uuLLi—n®) QanL—SfsfcLoirV 

If you want more than what is given to you, will you get it ? 
965,2179. 

2122. @)l1.(oljtit QuiflQuJiTiT, ggji—nQprnr $y5l(9jeo0Q.gr7iT. 

Those who give are the great, those who do not give are of low- 
caste. 

2123. ^nk^siD, uQrjihjpsfSj (com. tSlrrmbgj) @®. 

Even if you beg, give to the kites. 

However poor be charitable. Some Hindus, as an act of piety, occasion- 
ally buy flesh and toss it into the air to the Brahmany kite, which is 
considered the vehicle of Vishnu (garuda, Falco Pondicherianus) . 

2124. ^eoteo erearQp taStliy-GO udo&tiujth Q&sngj. 

Even a lizard will not live in a house that says ' No ' (to a 
beggar). 2141, 2393, 2768. 

The lizard, Lacerta gecko, is very common in India, and is much reverenced 
as a fortune-teller by ; its chirps. Every Hindn consults the lizard's 
chirps before commencing any domestic business. 

2125. S-tttf/f e_^a9i(5 i/A^rj&m &-pe8 Qeupleo^so. 

No charity surpasses the charity of giving one's life. 2143. 
" Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life 
for his friends." (Joh. 15, 13.) 

2126. 6riB(9)U) LDt—LDMiS^&Q/Dgi, ^q$&&jEpnm ^i—iAHo^eo. 

There are Choultries (rest houses for travellers) everywhere, and 
yet no place to stay in. 1659, 2147. 

Said by one who has many acquaintances but who finds that none of them 
will give him real help. 

2127. 67-®UU/77f LOQgSnSU, pGHuUITlT Lj&S<SBUJ, QsirQuUfTIT gj(nj66iLD. 

There are some who will take up a hot iron (in trial by ordeal), 
and there are others who will stop tigers, but the generous are 
scarce. 2147. 

2128. erili—nu y Q^euirs^s^, gtlL®u> ^ pt£is<&$&(<3j. 

Flowers beyond reach belong to the gods, but those we can 

pluck are our own. 1017. 
" What the Abbot of Bamba cannot eat, he gives away for the good 

of his soul." 



HELP AND CHAEITY. 237 

2129. £TeBT<o8)p3(3jU> (oUtTl—fT^ 60LL<9i-LSl {g)6BTg)llh Q U ITl—<sS &)^6)} , $Sl<S61 LO QulJ® 

Qp Q<gtsijfy.uj{T(Gf]j&(9j ^mesipd^ eT6ST6sr Q&(S) <suk p jj? 
Lakshmi who never gives alms, did not give to-day ; but what 
evil has befallen the dancing-girl who always gives, but did 
not do so to-day 'r 

A sarcasm on the stinginess of a well-to-do person, and a lament over the 
forgetfulness of a true friend. 

2130. &rrirg£gl<5B)&s(3ju i3m ldqbl^uS&o'^) ) sn6sar^is(^u i3m Qsiremi—uSdv'bs^. 

There is no rain after Karthikei ; there is no generosity surpass- 
ing Karnan's ! 2137, 2149, 3120. 

Karthikei is a festival in honour of the Pleiades who, in the form of 
nymphs, nursed the infant God Skanda. It is held in the Tamil month 
Karthikei (Nov. -Dec), and it is commonly believed that if the annual 
heavy rains have not begun before the festival they will not come at 
all. Karnan is one of the heroes of the Mahabharata renowned for his 
charitable disposition. 

2131. seouurr^eo ^q^lSsss (guf-p/g l±2gbt<5S)UJ ^.i^ssrrQ^iiii spds&Q&tTeor 

Will the cat that drank a big measure of milk without stopping, 
yield any milk if you milk it. 

Said of those who are ready to enjoy benefits, but unwilling to confer 
them. 

2132. sm g^<sa&rQ urrQ@ anQtgss)th } sasTgu Q&ppt3paiT Q&nLLL-uQuirQpgz? 

While the calf was alive the* cow gave no milk; is it likely to give 
a drop after the death of the calf ? 2154, 3210. 

e.g. If he did not give you anything while his wife, who was your sister, 
was alive, is he likely to help you after her death? 

2133. <5/rLl®/JtJ(iK , ia/<s@ u<3if,LDns8 : &<s6i$ jyiflih<g uDeoreBTssr seta^Qurreo. 

Like the story of the king who cnt off some of his own flesh for 
the benefit of a pigeon ! 

The story which is told in the Rdmdyana says that King Sivichakkiravertti 
was performing a sacrifice when a pigeon escapiug from a hunter flew 
to him for safety. The king ransomed the pigeon by giving his own 
flesh for it. This phrase is quoted in " Ramakirthanai." 

" If you oblige those who can never pay you, you make Providence 
your debtor." 

2134. gj^i-spigja @(T5i_6sr Qsireo LSiuf.ss Qpuf.uqi£>n;t 

Can a blind man take hold of another blind man's stick {i.e. 

to guide him)? 2108,2112. 
The helpless can help no one. 
" If the blind lead the blind both will fall into the ditch." 

2135. (aj(tKL-G!i)i&(3j3 ssm Q<su6sar®ix) sreisrjrjjptTQm Q^rr&i^Sijiiesr; Qeuem 

The blind man is sure to say that he wants eyes ; will he ever 

say that he does not want them ? 323. 
i.e. There are always people who need help and are ready to accept it. 



238 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2136. QslLsitld&) QmQ&QrDgj Q-p@tiiiJci, QslLQs Qsir®sQp^i ldpGHldw, 

QstLQih Q&ir®s&rr jjdQjjuug) ^j^mm. 

To give without being asked is excellent ; to give after being 
asked is moderately good ; not to give when asked is base- 
ness ! 

2137. <saauS&) ^jQ^m^ireo snessr&sr. 

If he has something in his hand, he will be (charitable like) 

Karnan. (See 2130 note.) 
Said of one ready to help others ; also ironically of a stingy person. 

2138. Qsn<dsQp<sn<ssr sssresr^^jeo j)jUf.^^is QsirQuutTGBr. 

He who is anxious to give will strike people on the cheek and 
give (i.e. compel them to receive). 108. 

2139. Q'sir®j£ < gjd Qsn(dpgi& <sa>su^th sntbuLj sTfiSuQumLeSu-L-^. 
His hand has become hard through his constant giving. 

2140. QsneS&) eSenias, @^l eSenikj(^ix>. 

If the temple shines (i.e. prospers through your gifts) your 
families will shine (i.e. become renowned). 

2141. @ ereisrQp eSiLuf.Q&) Quiljlc jpongiurTgi. 

Even a devil will not enter a house in which the word " fie, fie" 
is heard. 2124. 

A devil will avoid a house where beggars are driven from the door without 
alms. 

2142. &GB)l£>ptTlklQ ^JULD 8;(T&&ng). 

The roadside resting-block pays no toll. 2150. 

This block is a small brick or plaster platform on which coolies and 
olhers may rest the loads they carry on their heads. 

2143. Q&pgiih prrstrgeiieBr, ^uunsih QsirQuQunasr. 

He who makes an offering will live though he be dead. 2125. 

What has been left over is for charity. 

2144. ^Hfth uuSIqs&qjju QuiLjih meiaipQuneO. 
Like rain on a scorched crop. 
Opportune help. 

2145. gjGBjr easuSa) OTjjjLOLy ^&)^eo. 

There is no bone in a gentleman's hand. 2505, 2130. 
Said of one who gives lavishly. 

2146. Q&6ikirL-.pjpJ(3jLJ ueaarQpLD, $sl2ij&£gjs(§s SffliLjua jijsuu(Sih. 

You can always find the money for vain charity and food at 
the feasts on the anniversary of a relative's death. 2147. 



HELP AND CHARITY. 239 

2147. Quasar L-pjpd(9j ^suu®ih, i$esBn—@gi&(Sj ^jsuul—it^i. 

One can get money for vain charity bat not for food ! 1553, 

2126, 2127. 
A wife may say this to her husband meaning " you help all sorts of people ; 

you give charity to people to enable them to perform ceremonies ; you 

helped your fellow caste-man to escape justice, &c. &c, but you hesitate 

to give me a new cloth." 2126, 2127, 2151. 
Both 2146 and 2147 are sarcasms on the indiscriminate alms-giving that 

is so marked a feature of Hindu social life. 

2148. QfBtTGjS 33B8T @(J5«<5, QlStTSST^ 36BBI68piS(9j ILQTjlbg). 

While the suffering eye is left to suffer, he applies medicine to 
the eye that does not suffer. 

Instead of helping the poor and needy, he helps those who are well off. 
2517. 

2149. US8)i_<£(3Jtf) ^QfjSlJGBr, Q&lT<o6)t—&(8jU) GpQjfiLcSi. 

Only one for the army, and only one for charity. 2130, 2137, 

3120. 
Referring to the rarity of great and charitable men. 

2150. u^sstldjtu) ejjpiQjDeuVGirr er^^^ssr^nrtsi pirikseorrix!. 

How far can one support a man, who is climbing a palmyra- 
tree? 2142,2152. 

One can only help according to one's ability. Or, one cannot teach more 
than one knows. 

2151. UrT0@JTU> SlfliBgl L9ffi<5B)f QuiT®. 

Give alms only when you know the begging bowl. 2137. 
Against indiscriminate alms-giving. 

2152. urrteo ^eiiLiJSleunrJsek, un&QuJpenp s&nLLi—LDnrLLi—fTirs&r. 

People will deal out milk to others, but they cannot deal out 
happiness. 2142, 2150. 

People may help each other in little things, but only God is able to give 
men lasting happiness (bhagya). 

2 1 53. iSlees)* $lLl.jt&) Quht^im. 

By giving alms we obtain heavenly bliss. 

2154. ih&deo i?rr'2etruS&) i5rrySluurr&) speuirpgi, smjpi Qepgis s&luurreo 

sp&(3j l Qu)n'{ 
Will a cow that does not yield a small measure of milk in its 
happy days (i.e. when its calf is alive) yield a big measure 
after the death of its calf. 2132, 3210. 

2155. dH&esie ^)il®(S QslLj—jsu^ild ^esnrt—ir? 

Has any one ever been ruined by giving alms ? 
" Me who lends to the poor gets his interest from God.' 

2156. iSiq-pgi 62(2j dlif-ufiA, &($&£> 9(5 SySlym Qsn^^^^jesstmrt 
Have you ever given me one handful of rice, or torn off a rag 

for me to wear ? 
This may be used to an unkind friend or relation. 
u I thank you for nothing." 



240 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2157. iSfruM iSVesr&pna), syL\& (^stDpturr? 

Will his life be shortened if Brahma thinks of him ? 

Said about a friend or relation who is as able and willing to help as God is. 

2158. fiy/5^ffl/CTy<S(5<f (c&rrgv, suwTjgeuesy&tjSf) se.'few GBxsv&QpgJ. 

To those who come rice is given, and for those who do not come 

the cooking-pot is kept ready. 3208. 
Said of a very charitable family that is always ready to feed any stranger. 

2159. sunuSeo QurrQpesi^s ssQs Qsrr®s8p^i. 

To vomit out and give away what ought to go into one's own 

mouth! 3261. 
To deny oneself for the sake of others. 

2160. evrreorth g-oss, ^iresrth &ps(^ih. 

If the sky pours down (rain) charity will be abundant. 

Of. 1774 ff. 



UNTRUSTWORTHY GUARDIANSHIP. 

&IT81Jp&IT&(<3j<£<5i). 

2161. su.®3 : ffir^^^l&> etsSls^^eisff easuggns SLLi^-esr^/Qurreo. 

Like fastening up a young rat in one's bundle of food and 

keeping it there. 1234. 
Entrusting a thing to an unsuitable guardian. 

2162. sar<str2esT ©.isirGW QDQjpgjd s^esxsjd fftrpfsl^uQutreo. 

Like putting the thief inside (your house) and shutting the 
door on him. 

2163. Q/gnihrnuaz-ssBTisf-Qed ereSI strsupaneu^jps &LLu?.m3p(ourr&). 
Like fastening a rat inside a corn-bin to guard it. 

2164. wseBr<as)L-& <sflL® ih(8&ae>jp<5®@i]p$g)QutT®). 

Like keeping a jackal to guard a roasted crab. 2166. 

" You give the wolf the wether to keep." 

" A fox should not be of the jury at a goose's trial." 

2165. ungy&qfjs sneueo, Lfiesi d(§ii> QptiLpm. 

(He is kept) to guard the milk, (but he is also) a friend of the 

cat. 
" To hold with the hare and run xvith the hounds" 

2166. uir&i &L-i$.a(gjLj ySssr arreu&) meu&QpgiQuneo. 
Like keeping a cat to watch a pot of milk. 2164. 
" To entrust the sheep to the wolf.''* 



GRATITUDE AND INGRATITUDE. 241 

GRATITUDE AND INGRATITUDE. 

J5651 "ft LD/dGsU<50. 

THANKFULNESS FOR BENEFITS RECEIVED. 

21(57- &L-i— s$lL®S(&}lj L9tl.i<f.LL®mQsrresar(S, ®U}Jsp atfLLOig, uaaaree^il. 
<3dQ&ireaar<S jgliflQpg)QurT&i. 
Like dividing your food with the household that has helped 

you. and goiug about repairing broken down houses. 
Gratitude to those who have been kind. 
" He is my friend that grindeth at my mill." 
" For if you love them that love you, zchat reward have ye ? " 

2168. er&sr (c^rr^eod Gt&qjjuuntju <2Dj££g}uQuir<£QeuGsr. 

I will take off my skin and give it to make slippers for you. 
" He that requites a benefit pays a great debt." 

2169. ihireor Q&$sp ejQp l9/duli iSpipirgyun, jya.657 Q&ihp isebresiLC ld/dss 

LDirilXoL-esr. 
E ven if I die and pass through seven births, I shall not forget 
the good he has done me. 
One kindliest- is the price of another." 

2170. fJO'fetf S\pg¥t5GT &-6UtTu9&(3jd <5®gj Sj^^^oST SITLJL^jrtl) (oi' <? U>l9 D 7T GsS) . 

A piece of camphor as big as a mustard-seed is given to a god as 
big as a mountain. 2171. 

Said in deep gratitude by one who has been largely helped and who is un- 
able to show his gratitude adequately. Camphor is burned before the 
images of the gods in every sacred place. 

2171. uS&r @ sipffisst i$Gr¥eiTujn q^s^s <s®@ ^/eiraj saisQtsu^^uuih. 
(Give) an offering as big as a mustard-seed to a Ganesa as 

big as a chill}'. 
Images of Ganesa, the god of luck, are made of all sizes, lome of them 
are very large. 



INGRATITUDE CONDEMNED. UNGRATEFULNESS. 

2172. jfieeresrth ^)Llt_T«Dj« sesremih jg)i_6tf/ruyr? 

Should we break through the walls of those who have supported 

us P 
" I taught you to stchn ad now you would drown me." 

2173. ^.eseii— sSlLSs^ ^jresar® iS'2^rs@/Dsuear 2_«JBrt_/r? 

Is there a person who has two opinions about the home that has 

nurtured him P 
"Mua not the fountain that gave drink to thee." 

2174. &.u&rrrr@ < g[)&(9j ^jusrrsnh slq^S/d^i gur^e^i—th. 
To receive evil for good is bad luck. 

" Hell is full of the ungrateful." 

31 



242 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2175. s_ul/ g}ilz_<a/«wr e_«r<arara/ub iSlksT. 

Think of your benefactor as long as you live. 
" Let every man praise tlie bridge he goes over." 

2176. ^jaretiikesisuSeo &)sQif) ({§)3eo, s/3, @6S)jr) §g)L-i—<si)n a'bsir &.&r&t&retith 



As long as you live think of those who put food in your hand. 

2177. 6rih& mm/Slaouj wpmp uireugtslptjsju) iSjjnujff&ppiA e_6flbr®, ^(j^suft 

Qfftbp & ear [Beam topis <s uiT6ii<££)jb(3j miT^^irih lShituj& : Q@0u3&)'%6U } 

ibssQld ! 
There is an atonement for the sin of forgetting any good thing 
received (providentially) but no atonement for the sin of for- 
getting the good received from others ; hell is the only 
punishment of that sin ! 

2178. SfdQ Quoit jT6QtTu>rr? 

Are you to crush a flower to smell it ? 1207, 2179. 
Be satisfied with the perfume it gives naturally. 
" Much would have more" 

2179. S0ixiLj 0& erearsfi QeiQntf® L0®ffi7#6\wioi7 ? 

Because the sugar cane is sweet, is it right to pull it up by the 

root ? 2121, 2178. 
"Milk the cow but don't pull off the udder" 

2180. uQjrnu&njrQiA Quiftgj. 

To be kind to others is a great thing. 2097. 

Gf. 920 /. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON GRATITUDE AND INGRATITUDE. 

2181. ^gfi SL—aQpeueagaSeo jyeaareaorear .gihiSl, ^jpi si—k^n&> itimrr isn^/r. 

As long as people are crossing a river together, they call each 
other ' Brother ;' but after crossing they say, Who are you? 
and Who am I ? (». e. they treat each other as strangers). 

When the object is attained, those who assisted in its attainment are 
forgotten. 

" Danger past, God forgotten." 

2182. ^poaps si—jsptreo, <§i—ssnffes}i&(9j 55/75 Qeml.®. 
After crossing the river the boatman gets a blow. 
"The river passed, the saint forgotten." 

" The nurse is valued till the child has done sucking." 

2183. ^jilu—eum ^L-neSiLL.treo, QeuiKSuueas. 

If the giver, who used to give, ceases to give, (he incurs) mortal 

hatred. 
"All is lost that is put in a riven dish." 

2184. e_68ar68Br <a//r <siasr(nj'&), (3)p& etiQ^QQi^m. 

. When I invite him to a meal, he comes to strike me. 
" Bo good to a knave and pray God lie requite thee not" 



GRATITUDE AND INGRATITUDE. 243 

2185- 96ze5!jr>& Q&nQgg <sl$. LossananL-emJu iSenipgi. 

With the staff I gave him to support himself, he broke my skull. 
" Save a thief from the gallows, and he will be the first to cut your 
throat." 

2186. SinBaJLD ^^LDlLQw Sa^SOUiSlSf., &ITlfluJLDrT6BrL9p(3j @®u9a»iL/u l9l^. 

Embrace his feet till you gain your case ; after gaining your 
case take him by the hair. 356. 

Obsequiousness should be used till what is desired is obtained. Em- 
bracing a teacher's or great man's feet is a sign of the greatest possible 
respect. 

2187. (sjUt-tiSq^ip 6$lLi$.Qg) Qsrr&reffl eaeusSpeijesr. 

One who sets fire to the house which sheltered him ! 
Said of one who betrays his benefactors. 
" Anoint a cloicn, and he will grip you." 

2188. d&_i_« (3jt$.u$(njih < g>Q&rT6SBr(£l } Qarr&reiR Q&rr@s&)iTLDiT? 

Is it right to put a firebrand to the house of the people with 

whom you are living ? 226. 
M Ingratitude is the daughter of pride." 

2189. «9<S<£g><5 OSS QlBUJ &JfTIT^jglT£jllU>, c£6BBr«(3j £UUiTgJ. 

Though you give him handful after handful of ghee he will not 

forget his accounts with you. 
However much good you do to an ungrateful person, he will not forget 
what little you may owe him, or what little good he may have done to 

you. 

2190. Qsir®sQpsu^ssTs safari— iso } a/ff/sgjfi 'ffjajspigj ^j&rssrrsnh (or ejiliu 

UiTsar). 

When he sees his benefactor, the recipient will seek ( lit. take) 
favours. 

An ungrateful person, who never earns, but only receives, will con- 
stantly trouble his benefactor to give him more. 

" A good man will request a gift ; an ill man will ask more." 

2191. Q&rrsgsr l-.it Gspuo QmQgpirespLD ^ssrgv, ®£&£ seSiviT6BBr^ea)^d <ss_/-Lip. 

GDeug^suecir euna$&) lSl^-ldssot. 
He who married her and he who gave the girl have become 
great friends, but let a handful of dust be thrown into the 
mouth of him who brought about the wedding ! 

The man who arranges the wedding has all the trouble, but after the 

wedding is over his kindness is quite forgotten by all parties. 
" A favour ill placed is great waste." 

2192. &napesi<g 9_tl0«/r«s>r® edaasonuj &.LSLpib^ieS(S6ij^j(ouiT60. 

Like drinking the juice and spitting out the pulp. 
Said of one who is friendly only as long as he is helped. 
" He that gets, forgets ; but he that wants, thinks on." 

2193. Qpeir QrsQ^uiSQeo eS(ipi^rr&) } erQ^^eSLLL-eu'BssTd QsitlLGIlq. 

A scorpion, that has fallen into the fire, will sting him who 

takes it out, 2196. 
Wicked people always return evil for good. 
" Foster a raven and it will peck out your eyes." 



244 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2194. rseisrf&Q&uJ/g SiBuLSek'Beireiaajd QsireisrjDgiQurrG). 
Like killing the mongoose that had done good ! 

The story occurs in the Panchatantra of a mongoose that lived in a house 
and destroyed a snake which approached a sleeping child. The mother 
who had been to the well, met the mongoose at the door covered with 
the blood of the snake, and thinking the mongoose had killed her 
child, she killed it, and so unthinkingly rewarded its bravery with death. 

2195. usotpttj (9j(BjU)-, ssseeysu^^ipenu^. 
O blind woman, open the door. 

A saint met some blind women in a certain house, and had compassion 
on them, and gave them their sight, for which they were very grateful. 
After some time be happened to visit the house again and found the women 
so proud and ungrateful that they would not open the door for him 
though he addressed them as above to remind them of their former 
condition and the blessing he had given them. 

" The peril past the saint mocked." 

2196. utiii)Lfd(^u uireo sunfrpgi euenir^^rr^m, eSei^^esi^s Q&n®&(§ih. 
Though you give milk to a snake and bring it up, it will give 

you a deadly bite. 2193. 
It is a common practice to put milk near the holes inhabited by cobras. 
Indeed the cobra is looked upon as a sacred being and is always spoken 
of euphemistically as 'the good snake' — valla pdmbu — in Tamil, in 
spite of its venomousness. 

" Put a snake into your bosom, and when it i? warm it will sting you." 
" He hath brought up a bird to pick out his men eyes." 

N.B. — Mahabharata ^iri^urrsuth) criticizes the ungratefulness of mean 
people in the following terms: — " @S0T6Br i&6&@<58)ff& Q<firss&)/TS!T^i. 
^jsunsefrrrio Quifliu sirrRtuth ^slditlLujtjp. ^&bld (Tp < SetrtLjLDe060^i 
iseisresiLD eS'BGTriutrgp. j/jeuirstet^d^ srmesr u.uann^ Q&iLpQurr6i) 
£2ti, erajojetraj &snuuuD ueaaresafissrQun^lejUih, ^jSunsennQeO Q&eu 
«oa/tl»LJLl(?t_/rtb CTearjy ^(^ssir^KCf) Q^freoeiLDiru-i—trns&r. ueo 

«L^q9 UlTiplTUJLjQuiTUJ, Uir&QjLLJIUi iSj&^dujm 0G8BT63BplT G&l—RUip 

Qurr^oj/eo eruuip. <a//r®G?io/r, gjuuisf-uQuneo Qpsih eurrig., svldlj 
euMT0<aDp&ariTty. ^sfusiraihuesBr^pieiinrrs&r. [5lds(9ju uetasvunuSQ^u 
u&jns(&^L-Gsr &_peunuf. tsi&sp &.6aar<sai£>s'Be(r Qen&ftaSiUSleSKSlsuniT 
&etr. The passage may be translated as follows : — " You must not 
associate with inferiors. They can accomplish no great deeds. Evil 
flourishes in their actions, good will not thrive. Whatever benefit we 
render to them, however much help we give them, they will never 
admit that they have been made the better for it. If we aid them for 
many days but omit to help on any future day, all the help that we 
have given will be in vain, and just as the areca-palm will wither if 
its daily supply of water fails, so with angry face and with much 
abuse, they will injure us. Making friends with our enemies, they 
will reveal our secrets to them." From this it will be seen that 
ingratitude is in Hindu eyes a very grave sin, and though it 
must be confessed that gratitude is somewhat lacking to-day in India, 
and that the sneer that some people make about the absence of a 
word for 'thanks' or 'gratitude' in Tamil is not altogether unjusti- 
fied, the sweeping assertion that the Hindus are ungrateful is however 
as false as it is sweeping ! 



CAUSE AND EFFECT. 245 

CAUSE AND EFFECT. 

&irj<o5$rW 9 &TffltLILD. 

2197. sjssrr&r ^i(Tj)8@pGumiT<i$G0 iLSfrreot s^peij. 

The relationship of a brother-in-law lasts as long as his sister 
lives. 3210. 

2198. j)ji$.uj p(tr?60 } j576jrf? o9ifi/7L06jJ?(5«S(5LD/r? 

Will not the top fall if there is no root ? 
A proverb of wide application. 

2199. s gfG)J6sfti—<g6i)®) ereoeOiTQ^LD tSi&6B)& ^iriEisQeu6SBr®ih. 
From him all must receive alms. 2202, 2208, 3438. 

Applied to anyone who is the embodiment of goodness, justice, beaut}*, &c, 

2200. Sjenetrng) (gsta/DiLing), Q&rr&JGiiTg) iSpeuijgj. 

If nothing be taken, nothing will be wanting ; if nothing be 

spoken, nothing will be rumonred. 
" Ewy why has a wherefore." 

2201. .Sj.fSt'oS! LfGsoressfieyu: jy*® iSpQjih. 

The sear will last when the wound is healed. 3418. 

2202. er®)&)n Qg&jggjstsrjth ^ji^uun utrrrpg] ^lLl-Q^ l9&6B)&. 

India has bestowed alms on all other countries. 1671, 2199. 

It is a common idea in India that Europe owes its civilization, its science, 
and its religion, to India. 

2203. erijQs Lfsias ^-<sstsrQu.n, ^ikiQs QiB^ui^th ©.siw®. 
Where there is smoke, there is tire. 

" No tmoke without fire." 

2204. erifiQpetngu iSlQijQ^siK Qsn^lsQp^i jyi—iEifSjih. 

If the burning fuel be removed, the boiling will cease. 
" Take away fuel, take, away fiame." 

2205. seosih Grmevyw Q&i$.d(9js Qiptkisnih for umpfrrpuu) ^(/^©(-flpeir. 
He is the root (or source) of the plant called ' strife.' 

2200. srrppl&jeOtTweo jpr@u up&(&jir>rT? 

Will dust fly about without wind ? 
" Tliere is a raus? for alt things." 

2207. &S6V ^it^^isjs(&^s(^u> &Qppfsl!jQLo sirsreasrw. 

The sea is the cause of all sacred rivers and waters. 
Thus God is the cause of all holiness in the human heart. 

2208. QiDrT&ppgjdQj cgysusar uirrrpgi ^Ct—Qp L$&6ti>&. 

He is the only person who gives alms (to support us) to heaven. 

2199, 2202. 
Said of a person who has unique authority. 

2209. eSpgj ^eoeotr ff-Cb&Bpnujw Qld£8l£ &)"%&)£ QQ^iSeo^eo. 

No growth of life without seed either up in heaven or down on 
earth. 



246 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

TIME. 

2210. jysuuQuiTQgGilgxih, psuuQuitQggi ie&j&)^j. 

Better is time spent in penance than time spent in vain. 

2211. cgj/f ^psusuirir? ibt&t ^pgiuo. 

Who will comfort us ? Time will do it. 95. 

" In the end things xoill mend." 

" Time is a file that wears and makes no noise" 

2212. foiun 6U(j^QpsuetaiTaS&) ^jLoneurreiaff (B jb&i&n? 

Will the new moon wait for the Brahmin's arrival ? 2923. 
" Time and tide wait for no man." 

2213. sneoth seSlsaeoih j>/&)eosiJiT? 

Is not this time the Kaliyuga ? 

Hindus divide time into four ages, the Kreta, Treta, Duvapara and Kali- 
Yugams or ages. .The last or present age is an ' iron age.' 

2214. &efid(<9ju Lj^ssiLDtuaicSi snifluji£l@&&p < gi. 

In this last age {kali) strange things happen ! 

Generally used about the European habits and customs that are creeping 
into Hindu society and upsetting the old order of things. 

2215. Quirisj(3)LD streOLD Ljetfluj.w&rrdj, u>[ej(&jlL snetiih LDniasmii. 

When times of plenty are coming the tamarind is fruitful ; 
when famine is coming the mango is fruitful. 

2216. i5rrpu0O&(3jQlLDeo Q&6BT(nj'&) isniLd Qjeoorii). 

When a person is above forty years of age, he gets the disposi- 
tion of a dog. 1514. 

He has seen too much and tried too much, and feels more or less disgusted 
with all. 

2217. uifiih UQgpprrio, QsnihiSlQeo gtasirgi. 

When a fruit is ripe it will not remain on the branch. 3160. 

Events will take place at the proper time. e.g. When children come of 
age, they will marry. 

2217a. Quneag] Qun&&gi, Qu/TQpgi e&ufjEpjp. 

What is gone is gone, the dawn has come. 195. 
" Jjet by-gones be by-gones." 



SIGNS AND OMENS. 247 

SIGNS AND OMENS. 

2218. ■^fl&&Qf>$$ r g]JT6osru>8Esr&(8j ^srrsp. 

A woman who is born with an inauspicious mark on her neck 

must not be in a palace. 
The marks referred to are lines in the skin of the neck. 

2219. GjgiQmjbjS (^gn^hso <si^nssenik^ireo ^srrgi. 

If one with a high forehead and curly hair meets you, it is a 
bad omen. 

2220. Gjgyih QpiL&i, ^piii^ih ui—ir /gmDeair, &JdiJD i^q^&ild, @if <a»iu& 

Ascending spots on the skin, descending ring-worms, and the 
eyebrows grown together, will destroy a family. 

2221. &lLi$- ^}L-LDtT^ejeo } Qgl'lLi$. ^jsr^ireneo/rth. 

If the fca^i-bird fly to your left hand side, you will triumph 

and reign as a king. 
The kcitti is the black Swallow. 

2222. &lL®&3(TGS>I— ^)l—LX)IT^)&), (9jll.lJ).&«Gl]QT}tX> Qi_//76B7(6B)(3JiO. 

If the quail passes on the left side, even an old wall becomes 
gold. 

2223. &Q}jl—GSl J§)i_LC/7(gJ)60 GTSU&T <o6)&0$60 QutTQlgnjlh £6Br<oBi&U$&) QffQlh. 

If a kite passes you on the left, other's property will become 
yours. 

2224. sirsih eu&}LDrrgjs)&), ^iLjgf- eSir^^uun^uD. 

If a crow passes you on the right, you will attain old age. 

2225. snosn— £§)z_u>/r@)6i>, iBtnLesiL- ^ateonih. 

If a quail pass you on the left, you may rule a country. 

2226. sreoQu) GTQpikfslQjj&gi sirseias uirn&Qpg) e^&irjp. 

It is a bad sign to see a crow, on rising in the morning. 

On the other haud it is lucky to see two crows. 

Cf. the English rhyme about crows : — One for sorrow, two for mirth, 
three for wedding, four for a birth, fire for a letter, six for something 
better, seven for silver, eight for gold, nine for a secret, never to be 
told. 

2227. sireni— slLu^^b)®), uir<as>t— slLQia. 

If a quail appears before you, your bier must be made (i.e. you 
must die). 

2228. Qsnt^. s-pfSu i§pwp LflsJrSsrr (3j60g$slp(9j ^sng]. 

A child born with its navel string round its body, will be a 
curse to its caste. 



r 



248 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2229. ftrQp isirih ^SlLl^Qso er/Sear^jQurreo. 

Like a dying dog climbing a roof. 321, 463, 2947. 

Said of a person, who is getting more and more wicked, and is ap- 
proaching his ruin. A dog seldom climbs a roof, but if it does bo, 
the omen is thought to signify the death of several members of the 
family, so its ears and tail are cut off, and the blood sprinkled on the 
roof. 

2230. «(T5lLs5)z_ Q&nepi ^j®th, uixnanu un&) sunirs^tb, Qarreajj Qt^.Qs®d 

Curly hair gives food, thick hair brings milk, and very stiff 
hair destroys a family. 

These different kinds of hair are to be noted when selecting a girl for a 
wife. (Ruthusastram) . 

2231. Q&thQuiT0gl 6U60LDTgB)&), &ll)Upj£l &-G8BTl—tT(gjli>. 

If the Indian red cuckoo passes on your right side, you will get 
a fortune. 

2232. LLir'ieoSrpfSu Gusesr i$pkpn&), LDnuoGjpj&Qj ^mg}. 

If a girl is born with her navel string round her neck, she 
causes death to her mother's brother. 

2233. e&e&aft eneouin^eo, $#&uuu> a'/r^a/ s-esarL-mh. 

If the Vichuli-bird passes on your right hand, happiness is 

certain to come to you. 
The Vichuli'bird is the fowler's hawk : 



THE MALIGNANT INFLUENCES OF THE PLANET SATDBN. 

2234. «5/<5ULJZ-Li_6y«]p/«(25 r °)/eLfii—U)<g t gj& <fenfl } ^t^uQurrssr~si^iS(^ ^einu 

He who was caught was under the influence of Saturn in the 
eighth sign ; and he who escaped, was under the influence 
of Saturn in the ninth. 

Saturn situated in the eighth sign from that of one's birth is supposed to 
exercise a most malignant influence. (Percival, Tamil Proverbs). 

2235. e gj<sif,L-.LO£jp& &esfl t$u}-<i$gi, ljlLi—^^i^ ^/eosBtiiLD S-rfUgpQ&nesBr 

Saturn in the eighth sign seized him, and stripped off even his 

loin-cloth. 
Said of a person who has ruined another. 

2236. ^eum <siears<^ sj^i—^^S 1 ^ &®&- 

To me he is Saturn in the eighth sign. 2235. 
i.e. He is my enemy, 

2237. ^g)ll£>r\ &$£)&(§& #6Bfluj<5Sr l$U}.p@gjQLJIT60. 

The evil he has done to me is like Saturn's seizing me for six 
months. 

1 



ABANDONMENT, REJECTION, DONATION, ADOPTION. 249 

2238. &&fl i$t$.fi&Q&n, eeiffl lS^^Q^it? 

Have you caught a cold, or has Saturn caught you ? 
The unpleasantness of a cold compared with the trouble caused by the 
evil influences of the planet Saturn. 

2230. (§ifluJ%EST& Qusessrw (com. Qurreaarm or JM^) i3u}.p$giQuiTeo eresr 

As an eclipse (or the dragon Rahu) seizes the sun, so has 
Saturn seized me. 

Said when some disaster has occurred that cannot be accounted for. Rahu 
and Kethu are the dragons that are said to devour the sun at an 
eclipse. 

2240. Qunthqij &eafl Qunih, ldiki(9} &6isf) sviB&gi, ldieiq &etrfl QurnL @/E/@ 

The favouring Saturn left, and Saturn that causes decline 
came ; when it left, Saturn that causes final decay came. 30, 
301 ff. 

Said of youth, manhood and old age. 

2241. Quiresr ^esfltudr Quir&stgi <simg» ^((^iQ ' &<8sr ', LcaSq^s^&ir <§&(Qkgi 



I believed that Saturn was gone, but he squeaks in my hair. 842. 

This reminds one of a European story about a hobgoblin which had been 
the torment of a family for a long time. At last the householder 
decided to remove to another house, hoping that the hobgoblin would 
remain where it was but as he was going along the road to the new 
house with the last cart-load of his things rejoicing that he had left the 
goblin behind, it poked its head out of a bushel measure on the cart and 
said: " Tt seems that we two are moving to-day!" And this again re- 
minds one of the Tamil pmverb \ " Even if you go to Benares, your sin 
will follow von." 520. 



ABANDONMENT, REJECTION, DONATION, 
ADOPTION. 

2242. gjGBips stos &(if>@uQt3ijemu).ujgi£nm. 

You must wash your hands of it. 2243. 

Give up hopes of getting that money ; yon will never get it ; he is unable 
to pay you. 

2243. e_65r2teffr<s si—eSQ&i <ss>& sQgeSQmsisr. 

T have washed my hands of you in the sea. 1330, 2245, 22.S5. 
I will have nothing more to do with you. 

32 



250 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2244. m&t^ld ^saar6ss^0iii eSiL®, ^^ihu6aares3fleSilQu.^r (or etas &qj> 

eSQesnssr). 

I poured out sesamum and water and gave it over (or, and 
washed my hands of it). 2256. 

A solemn ceremony when a person hands over a gift to another, that is to 
be hiB for ever. If it is a daughter he hands over to the bridegroom, the 
father of the bride keeps the sesamum and water in his hands and says 
thiee times: £irir<ajrriT£jp<& Qsrr®d@Qp6sr-=l pour her out and give 
her to yon as your wife. 

2245. 9(5 QpQgSSlTVb Qfi(LpQeSL.QQJ6SBr®U). 

Leave it all while dipping once under the water. 

Wash it all off with one dip. Forget all about that affair, or offence, com- 
pletely. 

2246. slL<sb)l-& Qsnostsrio j>j®ljlS&) SiBnispgi. 

The crookedness of the firewood became straight in the fire. 

2248. 

i. e. The strength of humble folk is of no avail against that of the great. 
Also, affliction removes blemishes. Also, a bad man may become 
great. 

2247. seaar2eesrd siLuf.s smLt^Qeo e&iLi—g)Quir&). 

Like covering his eyes and leaving him in the forest. 2252. 
Abandoning a man completely. 

2248. «_aar(oL_/rCoi_ Quir&Srgi (^eifl^th sniL&#^LD. 

Both the cold and the fever left with the body (lit. nest). 2246. 

Said when an evil, a sin, a wicked person, a sickness or a trouble is got 
rid of. Said in the Maha Bharata by Dnryodhana and his party, 
when they had set fire to the house in which they thought the five 
Pandavas were sleeping soundly. 

2249. &S&GSW jsltoBrgy iSpjgtx) QuirQ5ii>n^6)G<i, s&uurresr iDQ^kesi^ <sim (slm 

mQ<3U6SBr®u> ? 
If one can get rid of biliousness by eating sugar, why take 
bitter medicine ? 

If one can get rid of an evil easily, why incur trouble to get rid of it. 

2513. 

* 

2250. (§ifltu'&8r& <s«sjri_ ueofl (or {^(getr) Quireo i§ia@6ar^. 

It vanished like the dew (or darkness) that has seen the sun. 

2251. @asr seaar2ssord Q&irGZpgi, Q<suiEis6aar^ssr <surriEisQ6>J6sor(Stx>. 

Give away your eyes and buy vcmifeaw-fish. 1196. 

This fish is said to have such an excellent flavour that too much cannot 
be paid for it. One cannot pay too much for a good thing. 

2252. lEtLi—irpfSQeo etas eSi-Lt—rr/bQurTG). 

Like abandoning (a trusting person) in the middle of a river. 

2247, 2253. 
Said of one who deceives or betrays him who has trusted him. 



LIKE SEEKS LIKE, LIKE SUITS LIKE, TIT EOK TAT. 25l 

2253. i5t£>L9esrQues)jT rsLlL-nprSlQeO ems eSi—aiirmrr? 

If a person trusts you, is it right to forsake him in the middle 
of a river r 1 2252, 3251. 

2254. iS"hso eSiiLujreo, /£,£#. 

If you get out of your depth, swim ! 

Don't give up your appointment in order to go about searching for the 
uncertain. 

2255. u/7?so eunnpgig gfysoeoiiju QpQgQeSKE) , 

Pour oat milk and bathe your head. 

i.e. Free yourself entirely from the companionship of a person previously 
mentioned. 

2250. Ljeognih lj^iBujld &.&re(ra)Ll.Qai, eresr Se0^<sa^ jtfggtiQun suauwt 'essy. 

As long as grass and the earth exist you shall enjoy my 

land. 2244. 
Said in handing over property iu perpetuity. 

2257. e&iLi—g] s\u}-, £-«5t ^eme GfiefrtTLDULppgi GpLLQt—nQi 

O woman, I am cured of my desire for you as completely 
as the ripe fruit of a wood-apple is separated from its shell. 
272, 2835. 

Give up friendship or connection with one who has proved himself to be a 
bad character. 

2258. 60)&j£$ius8r em&efiL-L-.giQurr®). 

Like the doctor who gave up his patient. 

Said of the abandonment of a hopeless case or project. 



LIKE SEEKS LIKE, LIKE SUITS LIKE, 
"TIT FOR TAT." 

2259. jy^igjii lSIu^s^ud &if). 

The beating and the clutching were equal. 2262, 2266, 2282, 
2292, 1731. 

" To y ire one tit for tat.* 

2260. ^^.uutrQissiasr iSli^-UunQesrissr, ^>jt-.s^@put^.Quj < ^yi_«@G«a/sar. 
Why does he beat and why does he lay hold of him ? 1 will 

subdue him by means that will subdue him. 2264, 2265. 
" Different sores must have different salves." 
" A boisterous horse must have a boisterous bridle.'' 

2261. £ltB&&(j5)P gas sJbsoiijLD, ^lol/sol- uu negus (9jg g&& eS(T^uLjih. 

A pot sufficient for the rice (that is to be boiled) and pride that 
suits her husband's position. 1627. 2271. 2272. 2273. 



252 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2262. gjevG&r <a/ii)L^<55giii> ^euesr gju>Lj&(<sju> &ifl. 

This man's brutal language is equal to that man's insolent 

language. 2259, 2266. 
" I will give him a kick for a cuff." 

-264. =3^* s/dsQjs lotlLgidi— <=^i£-« s/DSsQsueaardiih, utruf.s sfDsSp 

U)ITtl.6B>l—U UITlSf.S &jr)3sQ'3}J600r®LD. 

A dancing cow must be milked dancing, and a singing cow must 

be milked singing. 2260, 2265, 2285, 3463. 
Conform to the nature of those with whom you have to do. 
"A bird may be caught by a snare that will not be shot." 

2265. ^® Offili—ia/ajr <%j,u?.<$ ^tiBeuiTear, Q&ni$ Q<£LLi_o/«Jr ai_<a9^ tslifl 

6UIT6BT. 

He who has lost a sheep will wander about (seeking it) : and 
he who has lost a fowl will wander about calling for it. 
2260, 2264. 

The elephant and the pot are equal. 2259, 2262. 2282. 

The allusion is to the story of a man who would uot be eoDsoled on the 
death of his elephant although much money was offered to him to buy a 
new one, but was put to shame by a man who pretended to be equally 
iuconsolable about the breaking of an old pot. The saying i» used when 
people by their stupidity refuse satisfactory compensation for losses. 

" To return like for like." 

2267. $GBr0<so)@ ^ssith pQgeyih. 

Kindred will embrace kindred. 2274, 2277, 3205. 
" Birds of a feather flock together." 

2268. #® Ggg.T® GriiQiA&foso. 

Like and like are nowhere. 2997. 
Two persons quite alike do not exist. 

2269. ^<3 &§b.q&(3j $0 sui^aj/r? 

Is there only one way to a village P 2828. 

There are many ways of doing thiugs and of treating people. 

" There are more ways to the woods than one." 

2270. ^earQ/D (gjfBaajT, ^esrQrr) rrnetf^geifr. 

The horse for the rider, and the rider for the horse. 2996. 
Said of two people who suit each other. This is not a pure Tamil 
proverb. 

2271. GpLLee)t—0 Q^ireaarLf-S^ ^j^fiib^iQuaesi suSgti <?if). 

A broken rope will suit a broken pot. 2261, 2272, 2273. 
" Like pot, like cover." 

2272. sGHQsiLl- u>iTui§&r'2en&(9) <5T0QpLL6iai^.uuesafisnjru). 

Cakes of cow-dung will be given to a worthless son-in-law. 
2271, 2293. 



LIKE SEEKS LIKE, LIKE SUITS LIKE, TIT FOE TAT. 253 

2273. ai5es)£&(3j<£ g^feig Qutrmoap. 

A shred suited to a rag. 2271. 

Said of a poor, miserable man who has a wife to suit him. 

2274. sest^eai^s scoria uirir&tjsjua, S0<suhlL(SIlj urr2esreo)uu Lflesr utrn&(8jijo. 

Dignity looks for dignity, and a cat will look out for the pot 
containing salt fish. 2267, 2277, 2296. 

The great seek the {Treat, ami the low the low. Often said by oue relative 
to another, who is better off and apt to overlook him. 

" The wise and the fool have their fellows." 

" Every lamb knows its own dam." 

" .1 thief knows a thief, and a ivolf knows a wolf." 

2275. an e$&(g}d <gd& Q&(n}L]L]u>> &-@$&(9jdj gas ^esii^ULjih. 

tShoes that tit the feet, and toil that suits the labourer (or the 
wage) . 

2276. <s/rj)j<5(j5 jyj&l/D Q&qjuli gleos^ ^(^uxr? 

Will shoes that tit the feet, tit the head P 2281. 

227 7- (§&)uj Qi&ipQprrQi—, Q<su&i&tlo j^pQQpQi—. 

Caste joins with caste, and the flood goes along with the river. 
2267, 2274. 

2277a. (9j(nj<s&&(9j$ g(9)i$ ^nrrQinetoSkijiLD. 

The bird should be suited to Rameswaram. 

The task a man attempts should be suited to his ability. A small bird is 
not able to fly away to distant Rameswaram. 

2278. Q&LLtBuQumssr uirnuuneg)is(9js : Q&jgg/uQuneor urn- ^neoui*. 

A dead cow is given as a gift to a degenerate Brahmin. 2120, 

2298. 
Treat everyone as he deserves. 
" A thistle is a fat salad for an ass's mouth." 

2279. S8>&d(8)(Trj<a9es)uj3 Q&neeot®, arnUSs (^Q^eSesMJu L9Lp.ssQeuesnr®w. 
You must catch a wild bird by the help of a tame bird. 
Trained birds are used as decoys. 

Flowers fit for women's hair. 2295. 

2281. •firessfld &lLu}- eneudQp ^i—@$sleo &irss&& fiLis). emeus sQgu sex® ld. 
&&<ssi&&&L-tsi. eaeusQp ^ji—^^&> & fleets &&L-up. ensussQeuGsar®^. 

Let the pot for cow-dung be put in its place, and the pot for 
gold-thread in its place. 863, 2276. 

Show politeness according to the worth of people ; what is due to one, is 
not due to another. Cow-dung is* universally used in India as a purifier. 
The cow aud all its products arc regarded as holy. 



254 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

2282. QffL-i$- ussor gangs (gGsippgneifr, Qseesflujear jgrteos (gjonpggneisr. 

The merchant gave less money (to the weaver than he had 
promised) and the weaver put less thread into the cloth 
(than he had promised). 2259, 2262, 2266. 

" Tit for tat" 

2283. Q^0ULfS^s srr'bsog gplsQpgnt 

Are we to shorten the feet to (make) the shoes (fit) ? 

Is religious teaching to be suited to men's wishes, or are men to conform 
to religions teaching ? 

2284. gg/rdbr u6amL-.nspg)S(gj Qpipib <aSy,£l (or eSliiisih or girty.). 

A mendicant only a span high wears a Siva mark (or linga or 
beard) a foot long. 1627. 

2285a. piss Q&aput-i cg@)j^"> g^eos® stq^^j. 

Though the shoes be of the finest gold they will not be put. on 

the head. 
e. g. Though a Pariah may become rich, he remains a Pariah. 1762. 

22856. p<o&K 66a? iflQ>&) eS&iriSjg slul/^ gasaressFifteo sstairuuQsi'edar^il!. 

Salt that has been formed in water must be dissolved in water. 
299, 2264. 

2286. ^(TjtlOiJ uuj6>y<s(3jij l9jtlL®s ^r^ssar. 

A rogue has deceitful priests. 292a, 475, 1391. 
" To a rogtce a rogue and a half" 

2287. stsbt Q&Q5UI-1 eSK&Qp §fti—pGslQ@d&>-L- jyeu&fr i§ps Quuir s@iussr&)&i. 
He is not fit to stand where 1 have left my shoes. 3022. 

On entering a house a Hindu leaves his shoes outside. The proverb ex- 
presses utter contempt. 

2288. jwjaw© <srpp &n®. 
Yarn fit to make a cord. 

2289. u&etn&u unesxi—g^ed u/r'Jtetf sasnggireo, urrgyuz s^g<sun^j utr&SBTL- 

Don't keep milk in a new earthen pot, for both the milk and 
the pot will be spoiled. Matt. 9, 17. 

A new earthen pot gives a pungent and unpleasant taste to any liquid put 
into it, and it also retains the taste of the liquid in its pores after being 
emptied. 

2290. uifts® £g)®u> sq-euirengetng /sifts® $®£lpgj. 

Putting the horse's bridle on a jackal. 678. 

If a second wife receives the jewels that belonged to ft first wife, this 
proverb may be quoted. 



LIKE SEEK8 LIKE, LIKE SUITS LIKE, TTT FOR TAT. 255 

2291. uar&fld(<!rjLJU£jpd(3j ^juoul-L-&st &.®mpGslujiTn. 
A barber is the teacher in a Palli village. 
Pall is are a low Sudra caste. 

" A mad pariah mn..<t have a mad priest" 

2292. Quihmp LoszDz^-sgjLo &ifl, smbip QsuuSgydQfjtl) &ifl. 

The rain that fell and the heat that dried it np are alike. 2259. 

2293. weeBiigspiki&LLuf. umuiSenflEiTstjS) GTrnjQpLl.<3SL- ueesf)sirjTth. 

A son-in-law who is like a clod will get nothing but cow- dung 

cakes. 1743a, 2272. 
" A lean fee is fit for a lazy rlerk." 

2294. LD60BT <S/T<Sr<5(3j<F &tTi£>ueo Q&tTQpd&LL&Di 

For coins made of clay you will get cakes made of ashes. 

2295. LOS8BT<oB)l—d(3j <oJ pp QstT&SSreiOi—. 

The right sort of hair for a woman's head. 2280. 

2296. ILfTlDffth U(tp£gtT60 Qetf)£(9j ^(gjli), Qsuii>L\ UQp£glT&) $rTSGtS)&&(8) 



When the mango tree bears fruit the parrot will get food, when 
the margosa tree bears fruit the crow will get food. 2274. 

The noble seek what is noble, and the low what is mean. 

2297* LDiretjd(^^ <gds uazfisirffth. 

The number of the cakes will depend on the quantity of the 
flour. 2611. 

2298. (Hfu li &(&}<? Qffirgiii), (tppggjdfSjd &!\gs&vl\lo. 

Food for old people and cow-dung for a winnowing basket. 
2278, 2110. 

Cow -dung, which is thought to be very holy in India, is used to plaster 
over the wicker-work of the broad shallow basket, like an elephant's 
ear, in which grain is winnowed. The saying means, treat every one 
according to his worth. 

2299. s8iagl!&(§p £&&, eSd&Ui. 

The swelling will he according to the size of the finger. 
Let yonr expenditure fit your income. 

2300. sunei\&(5)& $(§kp O^stfo/, LDnui3&r < 2etrs(^^ &(§kp in^fai. 

The expenses must be proportioned to the income, and the 
amount of the saffron to the station of the bridegroom. 
1210, 2314. 

" Cut your coat according to your cloth." 

Of. 1391 /, 2605 /, 3582 /. 



256 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

HAPPINESS. 

230 1 . E-65ru/r® Qsir&T^en^nQissT. 

Your lot is a lucky one. 

Said to a man who has got just what he wants. 

2302. &ir<gss)gi sssan—irpQuneo. 
Like seeing the unseen. 

2 03. @rf?uj3sB7<s seaari— £itld68)!jQuit&). 

Like the lotus flower that has seen the sun. 
A simile describing happiness. 

2304. Oggsartoi (or iSlpeS) gj^i—gpigji seesr Qsm—ppgiQuneo. 
Like a man horn hlind getting sight. 

2305. u&&peuG«)}a(§u ua&) gjdSirpiA Qsrr®^^n/bQuir&). 

Like giving milk and nectar to a hungry person. 

2306. u(BjutSKo&) QisiLi eSLLu-^Quneo. 
Like pouring ghpp into dhalJ. 

Ghee and dhall together make a most savoury dish. 
" Hi* bread feU info the honpy." 

2307. ugiii fBQpeSu uneSIa) e&Qp®@jpQun&>. 

Like fruit slipping into milk. 

2308. nesi$uj&) erQ^^oj'BesiuQuiTeo. 

Like a man who has found hidden treasure. 

2309. euuS<biSQ&) anteo eunrrppspQuneo. 
Like filling your stomach with milk. 

Of. 1205/. 



RESTLESSNESS. 

2310. j£§)C5">i-/ ^f>fM SO'S'V")? @iriEi(9j iSiy-pp e/asa^m &ihum §)ffirg>. 

A hand that has laid hold of iron and a hand that has itch 
will not keep quiet. 1101,2715. 

" Itch and pane can no man } lipase" 

2311. (£gi&nsGsi esisujih, QsirarsTnasr euiriLjih m-unsar ^zng}. 

The hand of a deceitful person and the mouth of a slanderer 
will not keep quiet. 818. 

2312. Js)0lL®& eas Spang], 

A thievish hand will not be still. 



SPENDING, COMPANIONSHIP. 257 

23 i 3. L$djmg (or Q$isp) ^"^eotLjm, Qu&3r&&pp evrniji}) sfihrnrr §$ITiTgi. 

A torn cloth and a mouth that has learnt to speak will not be 

quiet. 
A rent will get bigger and a fool will talk. 
" An old sack asketh much patching." 



SPENDING. 

2314. ^lenQs&esr (or gjCuflw) <^gS)&lii>, ^jetretj .g/plisg} Q&eoetf G&iLuj 

Though as rich as Kubera (the god of riches), know how much 
you have and then lay out your money. 2300. 

2315. syjf-&st\&>g$sleo ^eoeuihutir,^ updQpjpQurreo. 

It flies away like cotton-down in (the wind of) July. 
" Money has wings." 

2316. O<F60j^ld Q&®)@irrpgi&(jgs : QfLLuf-UJirir $0&@(inpiT. 

Whether the coin is current or not the merchant is here to 
tell you. 

Said by women when a quantity of food is prepared for some 
guests who do not come, and the question arises what is to be done with 
it. One of the family quotes this phrase referring to some glutton in 
the house who is able to eat it all up as easily as a merchant can 
tell whether a coin is good or not. 

2317. gjuj/r Q stream® suQ^Qp L9&eta&3(3j Sjjpiua gir^ii es>u. 
There are sixty-six purses to hold the alms a man gets. 

All a man's earnings do not suffice to meet the expenses of his family. 
" Ask thy purse what thou shouldest buy." 
Of. 533 ff. 



COMPANIONSHIP. 

ONE MUST SUFFER WITH ON'E'S ASSOCIATES 

2318. z&Lemnu l$i$.££ &e& i3m'2etrajri<ss)!T\i\tJo L$i$.jgpg). 

Saturn that had bewitched the village, also bewitched (the god) 

Ganesa. 
As Ganesa was the village god he had to suffer with the villagers. 

2319. GtiLuf-m—Qm Qshfcp ^&>a\ih ^uulLi—^i. 

The Bilk-cotton tree that grew with the stryehnus tree 

took tire. 
The useful tree was burned alonj,' with the poisonous, when the latter took 
lire simply because of its proximity, i. c. A good man who associates 
with evil companions will suffer wit h them when they tret into trouble 

33 



258 TAMIL PE0VERB8. 

2320. Gp®@p &(ip<ss>0 tii/rf&sou iS)if.00fTG), V-i—Qesr Q&trQ&Qth ueoasr 

If you lay hold of the tail of an ass that is running, you will be 

paid for your trouble immediately (i.e. you will be kicked). 
Avoid low companions (j/jQjrT&r Q%gn&S&(3ju Quu&irQp). 
" Beware of the hind part of a mule, and all sides of a priest." 

2321. sit® Qeumpn&) &ii£6Br LDBQfiio Qeusirpir'? 

If the forest burns, will not the sandal-tree burn with it ? 

2322. iS&r'bBtrvuiTeanu i3uf.p@ &&$, ^jit^lds jmjNjib tSlip.ppgi. 

Saturn that bewitched Ganesa also bewitched the fig-tree 
(Ficus religiosq). 

The image of Ganesa is kept under this holy tree. Ganesa is the god of 
luck. 

2323. QpesNGBii—aauju i3iq.gp sesan—LDn^so , Qfi0ia(oS)s<ss)iJUiijU) iSli$-ppg}. 
When the tumor seized the widow's neck it also seized the 

drumstick-tree. 

Of. 3083 ff. 



THE INFLUENCE OF COMPANIONS. 

2324. ®ft0u <aauuje!pj&(V} $}£& <sSlL® sj>£ld Pjas>ppspuQunii<c8nl.L-.gi. 
The dampness of this house (family) has got right into this boy. 

2325. 
Used of the effect of evil influences, surroundings or companions. 

2325. e_L/L/ g6oar688p(rr}u>, sulj ld^^^uo ssapluQuir &&£). 

The salt water and the sticky saffron have soaked well into her. 
2324. 

She begins to overstep the bounds of modesty and to imitate women of 
character. 

2326. «gtu@>/7 QsireQeo in6xr2essr Qiaiflppojirseir, ^j^^^EsrQuQ^ih upffin* 

SfT&ft. 

All those who tread on the soil of Ayanar's temple are wicked 

people. 
Ayanar is an inferior tutelary god, whose temple Brahmins will not enter. 
" Meddle with dirt and some of it will stick to you." 

2327. QepjBQeo «&> eSil® erplkpir®), Gu>Q&) Q&pl&Qih. 

If you throw stones into mud it will splash over yourself. 
" If you will stir up the mire, you must bear the smell." 
"He who blows in the dust fills his eyes icith it." 
" Do not throw clods into dung to spatter your own clothes." 

2328. uasijSs^uLSesr QunQp smgiih l$ ^m^ith. 
A calf that goes after a pig will eat filth. 
" He who touches pitch defiles himself." 

" One scabbed sheep will mar a whole flock." 
" A wicked companion invites us all to hell." 



COMPANIONSHIP. 259 

2329. uVesnorrpfgleisr SQl^ unseed Qisf-^^n^ih, sar^g esasruirirs&r. 
Though you drink milk under a palmyra-palm people will say 

that you drink toddy. 

The juice of the palmyra-palm is made into the intoxicating drink called 
toddy, hence the inference. People are judged by the company they 
keep. 

2330. atfi-LOu urrihLj siriL®d^u Qun^et, ^gjeyth aniL®u ufTmLf c^3>u>. 
If a tame snake goes to the woods, it will become wild. 

Gf. 1535 /. 



ASSOCIATE WITH THE GREAT. 

" There is nought better than to be with noble souls in company ; 
There is naught dearer than to wend with good friends faithful to the end. 
This is the love whose fruit is sweet, therefore to bide therein is meet." 

E. Arnold : Indian Idylls. 

2331. s/bus eS(n}azp,g6B)g& Gfiri<g sirsQpuo jfl&kpui &-60Br&ap/th. 

Even the crow that seeks the Kalpa tree in Stverga (the heaven 

of Indra) will feed on nectar. 2069, 2337. 
If the meanest seek the highest ideal he may attain it. 
" He hath no mean portion of virtue that loveth it in another." 

2332. gj<-^ip- tSg,® QsnQgpasngjth syQ^ajQpuLj $angi. 
Though a kid fattens, its flesh will always be clammy. 

2334. Qsrr&)'26»u$60 (9jjbffieB)(ju jysmt—mp i^eoga p-ipsuesr s.Qpuea>L-d^d 

Will the grass that has grown round a stump in the field be 
destroyed by the plough-share ? 2104. 

The stump saves the grass from being ploughed down and the great will 
protect their dependants. 

2335. Qmqf)UGtau& Q&nmp aj/ro/to ^pear rSpunr^th. 

Whatever is put into fire will be of the colour of fire. 
" He that walked with the virtuous is one of them." 

2336. Lyeqi—GBT d&-i£-«ff isiT0ih loaxrih QujbfTffpQurreo. 

The strings with which the flowers are bound get the perfume 
of the flowers. 

2337. Qinmetaeud Q&irihp srrdsrrtLjih Qurrasreafl/Dih. 

If the black crow keep near Mount Mem it will shine like 

gold. 2331. 
Mount Mem is a fabulous mountain of pure gold. 

N.B. — Except '2332, the above are aphorisms, not proverbs. 
Gf. 3075 /. 



260 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

WORDS WITHOUT DEEDS. 

Q<f!T6V, QU&&. 

2338. ^l-fQ <oTasT0>eo e_#& (Sjeifl0u>rr? ^jQ^euesBrih (or ^eueetnm) eieisrQrfeo 

Will the crown of your head feel cool if you simply say Achi t 

Will your nails become red if you say Aruvanam ? 
Achi is the legendary capital of Kuveran (the god of wealth). The 

Aruvanam (Lawsonia) plant ia used in India, as it was in Egypt also 

by women as a dye to colour their nails red. 

" Good words and no deeds, are rushes and reeds." 

2339. cg/i—fr ereoruiresr, Qsi&BQuu Ljpuui—nm. 

He will say ' Adda ' but he will not set out. 
His words are forcible but, he does nothing. 

2340. ^tjuun Gresr(ir?&) £_<£© gjerfl^uwr ? 

If you only say ' Appd ' will the crown of his head become cool ? 
Mere speech will effect nothing. 

2341. g{3 S\a eiGsrugi QuifKopn? ^eaaru^i^ ^®eug) QutflQprr? 
Which is greater, to say ' Hara, Hara ' or to give alms to the 

mendicant ? 
Hara is a name of Siva. 
" All talk and no go." 

2342. (SjearD (8ji— ti) ^(©fjajL/to, S<ss>p (8jL-ld p^ihung). 

A pot half full of water splashes, a full pot does not splash. 

Either part of this proverb may be used separately. 

" The deepest streams flow with least noise." 

" Deep rivers move in silence, shallow brooks are noisy." 

" Still waters run deep." 

2343. <3i6us:nifl&(3j qjituj Ou/fljy, rgy@<» ^&! gjifi&&(9)& QsirSd Quiflgr. 

A prostitute has a big mouth ; five or six grains of rice make 
a noise when boiling. 

A prostitute will deny her faults with much talk. Women often use this 
saying about a person who tries to hide a fault by repeated denials. 

" Empty barrels make most noise." 

2344. ^ ) 6aari^.s&r loz_u> slL®@/d^Qut&). 

Like mendicants building a rest-house for travellers ! 2358. 

When these worthies meet together at night after begging all day they 
take opium and other drugs and chat and criticise persons and things, 
and in their imagination build all sorts of castles in the air till they 
sleep. Next morning they start out again begging. 

" A deluge of words and a drop of sense." 



WORDS WITHOUT DEEDS. 261 

2345. s^nSffih QsireSk^LD QuiTLLL-tT§$ix>> ^jQpgr uemu.sQ peugpi&Qp Qgif! 

tLjih. 
Though a beggar cries out Gorinda ! (Krishna) a thousand 

times, it is the man who cooks the food that has the trouble. 

1440. 
The householder who gives to the religious mendicant has all the trouble. 

2346. jyjiSjjLa Q&tT6ti^&(9j sfesm erQppgi Qldg). 

Better a half-formed letter than a thousand (spoken) words. 
A written receipt, however imperfect it may be, is better than mere words. 

2347. £_u<y it a eunfr petals sir^ir^Lorr ? &-<sootl—it&) $ljSIuj ^q^Lon ? 

Polite words will not become coins ; will (your hunger) be 

satisfied unless you eat ? 
" Words do not fill the belly." 

2348. sj&Q^jiJd QupQeyuo sti&ieosuQesr. 

He is quite a hero in talk and abuse. 

" A man of words and not of deeds, is like a garden full of weeds. 

For when the weeds begin to grow, then doth the garden overflow." 

2349. <5jiL®& a-ir&srnb sr8s(^ ^gjto/r? 

Will the word pumpkin serve for a meal ? 1960, 2376, 3230. 

"Bare words buy no barley." 

" The wine in the bottle doth not quench thirst." 

2350. <§i—<si\icLDinl.i—rT(58r, L9ifL<s«Q/LDto/rili_/T607, ^turTLD&) Qu&GunGsr. 

He will neither move nor take hold of anything but he will 

talk without ceasing. 
" The noisiest drum has nothing in it but air." 

2351. sn& ^ireatsr® srQp.i&pjggtTQm, gjGBips straw er^^2esr ibit&t 

The name Kdsi (Benares) has two syllables only ; but how 

many days will it take to get there r 1 

Kdsi is the most sacred place in India. Tt is the Hindu's Jerusalem. 

/ 

2352. sirifiujuD QurRGptr, eSiftiuLD QuifiGpir? 

Which is the greater, deeds or boasting ? 2365. 

2352a. (3>68Br® &lLu?.u6I&) (§6j1<sb)jt ^LL®Q(T^m (or aiT6BBrii>QuiT(b)@(n?eBr). 

He drives horses (or turns a summersault) in an earthen pot. 
1642. 

Said of one who talks boastfully about his own deeds when at home, bnt 
does nothing to match with his great professions. 

" It is not the hen ivhich cackles most, that lays most eggs." 

2353. @^ (5,0 etmunnaea ereoeoiTQ^m n^.i—s (^^uunrrsenir'i 

All will say : "jump, jump," but will they join in jumping? 

2357. 
All are ready with encouragement, but no one will do anything. 



262 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2354. Qairtg&uQurTQ'&etr u>k$l3W ueesr^uQp^iQunen <SB)&snL-®Q(tt?6nr. 

He speaks the charm to make the little he gives to appear 

much. 
Said of a parsimonious man who makes a great show on small means. 

2355. Qsne&kpiT GTmQtpeo Qstrtsf-avtsnetsrih eimsn ^erftssiTLD&) QpQgsrru>®! 

Is it right to think that to say Govinda (Krishna) once is as 
good as bathing a thousand times, and therefore to neglect 
all washing ? 2411, 3030. 

2356. s&sans <oiesr(a?&) ^^s^u>n ? 

Will your food be sweetened if you only say ' sugar ' ? 

2357. Qffneosunir (oTeoeotTQ^ua, giosfiajncrsetin ^uuituj? 

All will encourage the deed, but who will dare to leap into the 

fire? 2353. 
" Deeds are fruits, words are leaves." 
" Deeds are males, words are females." 

2358. pppgpxfr ^essriq. sea^Qurr&i. 

Like the talk of the mendicants at Tattanur. 234. 
After they had been well fed at the monastery (Madam, matt) they forgot 
that they were beggars and began to build castles in the air. 

" It is better to do well than to say well." 

2359. pihiSl suarr<sea>^seB)iu ®J60Dnjp.u$Q&) s®®j0 i gpgnesr ^jQpssQe>j6oar®il). 

The words of the younger brother must be placed in a carriage 

and paraded. 
An ironical estimate of the value of a younger brother's judgment. 
" The greatest talkers are always the least doers" 

2360. isiresr iiil.if.eur eSji^so lcl— ssu>n iLi—irek , illy. i§lLl^.u Qus-euirm. 

He is unable to bend the finger I stretch out, but he is able to 

speak at great length. 
" A long tongue has a short hand." 

2361. /£/f OTfljrjy Q&nebr<GB)60 Qib0ulj ^aSo/to/r? 
Will fire be put out by saying ' water ' ? 

2362. Qi5(n}UL-i ereist(T^&) euirih Qeu&giQutnQnl 

Will one's mouth be burnt by saying ' fire ' ? 

2363. Q>miruJiTeift&(9) <Q<aa&e>jrTiTpeB)p Q&n&ogiQpgiQun®). 

Like speaking words of hope to a sick person (without trying 
to help him). 914- 



WORDS WITHOUT DEEDS. 263 

2364. u\S).&Qpsj) gl(rrj6viT&&ti>, §$i9-3Q}Dgi &<8vesr ^eouJih (Q&ireSa)). 

He reads a poem in Siva's praise, and then breaks down Siva's 

temple. 3566. 
" Much praying but no piety." 

2365. QunpfessT QuifiQpir, **?%& QufiQpn ? 

Which is greater, teaching or practice ? 2352, 3566. 

2366. mQ^J !T&&UJU) U60BT 6Bpi 8rD£nQL)lTeO. 

Like making a kingdom in the imagination. 2370. 
" Castles in the air." 

2367. QfQ^rsieeiss sirib GrGarSpgith (s_a>= e_£_(2W), QpflSH&pirth upfgluju). 

It seems, that as soon as one uttered the name of the murunga 

vegetable his diet-prescription was broken. 
Murungai-kai, Moringa Pterogospermwm, is also called the drumstick-tree, 

and the fruit, leaves and roots of this plant are all used in cookery. 

" Good words fill not a sack." 

2368. gjuiTUJ erasr0>9) euuSgi rSeiBp&gjQurrgjum ? 

Can one's stomach be tilled by saying the word ' Rupee.' 

The rupee is the standard coin of India, made of silver, about the size of 
an English florin, and worth (at the time of publishing) about one 
shilling and three pence. 

" Fair wards make me look to my purse." 

2369. smtiIj surreeiifiuuifith, ems s(r^2essrs Qgtsiqij. 

His words are (as sweet as) plantains, his deeds are like the 

burning taste of the karunei-voot. 254. 
" Fair words do not fill the pocket." 

2370. surruurred u&peo QunGiSjDgjQLur&l. 

Like building a booth with your mouth ! 2366. 

2371. ay/r/issso^igj^ piflptsljiuin'? 

Is there any scarcity of words ? 

" A deluge of words and a drop of sense." 

'• Much smoke and little roast." 

2372. GeursiifiQeo eS® Qoj^im ? 

Will a house be burned down by hot water? 843. 1512. 

Words will do you no harm. Said to comfort one who feels distressed at 
being abused. 

Cf. 239 ffi. 913 /. 2373 /. 2783 /. 2792 /. 2801 /. 



264 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

POLITENESS. 

HYPOCRITICAL POLITENESS. 

2373. tgjeBtfl&ftev ^asrpleo^eo jf/qg&eo u&ifrssnib\ seSiunesaf eurj^<sSQ&) 

Oh rotten jack-fruit ! you did not come to see me yesterday or 
to-day, and now you come to my house to eat at my wedding 
feast ! 

Said about a man who refuses help to those who are in need, but is always 
ready to put in a claim on their kindness when they happen to be in 
better circumstances. 

2374. U-U&ns eunfrpeap eumvd^s Qs®, &rpjpiu uq^sghs euaSpgis 

@i ©<s®. 

Polite words are the ruin of the mouth, thinly served boiled 
rice is the ruin of the stomach. 

Said of stingy politeness that does not mean hospitality. A stingy host will 
so spread out the rice that is put on the leaf-plates for the guests that 
it shall seem to be more than it is. 2365. 

" There is not always good clieer ivhere the chimney smokes." 

2375. &U)-pp urr&(<9}i£> Qsni—trp &ppuuesr srr^suL^I suiprr^syii. 

It seems that his uncle, who would not even give him a nut 

once chewed, accompanied him ten miles on his road ! 
"Fair words and foul play cheat both young and old." 

2376. fsseajiiLjii Qpesyth &ppuun\ sjiLuj-eOGTQgtsi mssuu!r\ 

Oh uncle, write the words ' sugar ' and ' honey ' on a leaf and 
lick it. 2349. 

A sarcasm on the kindness that means nothing. The ' leaf referred to 
(Yedu) is a strip of palm leaf. The palm leaf was much used by Hindus 
as the material on which books aud documents might be written with a 
style. Paper is now largely used in towns, but elsewhere it is no 
uncommon thing to find strips of palm leaf used for notes and accounts. 
They are commonly called olei. 

" Less of your courtesy and more of your purse." 

2377. eTGuetreyih g£}0&prT&), seSmi^essr^ Q&ibgiGsysu&QQ pm. 

If you remain with me till you die, I will bear your marriage 

expenses. 1298, 1302. 
" Fair words butter no parsnips." 

2378. Q#rrjrtiL£> ^eosfliLjLQ Gta&rtTLceSl0i3grr®), eim Qupp tS&r'BefreiaiueSi— 

upgswt— 151(8} <gijij)&u>ndj& arTuuirpgiQaueisr. 

If you don't ask me for rice and clothes, I will cherish you ten 

times more dearly than my own dear child. 
" Good words and no deeds are rushes and reeds." 



POLITENESS. 265 

2379. Q&nrr)g)i&(9j euiEi@esr ihirQuj ! unrLLQuQurriEiseo &yS]&& mp(ffiBrr&t 

eurrQuj\ 

starving dog, come the day after the Ox Pongal Feast is 
over. 3217. 

The Pongal feast is held in the Tamil month Tay (Jan. Feb.) for three days. 
It is really a thanksgiving when the earth begins to come nearer to the 
sun at the time of the winter solstice. On the first day new rice is 
boiled in honour of the sun and dedicated to him and eaten with much 
rejoicing. On the second day the horns of cattle are painted and some- 
times gilded, and their bodies are decorated in honour of the God Indra. 
This is the Ox Pongal. No strangers or servants are fed in any household 
on this or the previous day. But on the third day visits are exchanged 
and all comers are fed. The proverb is used about a person who is un- 
willing to help the needy in their distress. 

2380. GjleBrGSTQeuGSsn—mA) &.6sar68arQeijeaBn—fTw ld&Q&i, Qp^&iuireu^i (or (tps 

iDrreugi) &Qge8 QufnL® emGijpg)&Q&tT6aor(S(curT\ 

Don't eat and don't drink in my house, my dear daughter, but 
wash your face and put the spot (of vermilion) on your fore- 
head and go home. 
Said to a married daughter by her stingy father when he will not help her 
but only pretends to do so. Sudra women who are living with their 
husbands wear a spot of vermilion (Kunkuma) on their foreheads. The 
mark has no sectarian significance, though Vaishnavas sometimes say 
that it represents Vishnu's wife Lakshmi, and Saivas that it represents 
Parvati the wife of Siva. 

" All is not gospel that cornea out of his mouth." 

2381. Qpsisi 9(*£<5 Qu@, Q@(/r)e>jy$l(cUj <s$®Q/Dgi. 

Speaking honeyed words and accompanying him across the 
street. 

Said of one who speaks kindly to his friends or relations, but gets rid of 
them without helping them. 

" Sugared words generally prove bitter." 

2382. sn^^Qjrjih s-u<f rrjrth (or QppQs, or mns^.fr). 

The politeness of Conjevaram (or the South, or Negapatam). 

A phrase signifying insincere politeness. 

"He who gives fair words feeds you with an empty spoon." 

2383- i§U}-8(§u i3uf. rsuoeiv&nauD. 

Prostrations over and over again (to a long train of officials 
from the lowest till you reach the highest). 

Said by those who can only reach a great person by cringing to, and even 
bribing many minor officials. The prostration (Namaskdra) is a most 
respectful salutation. But it is also the common salutation of all Hindus. 

2384- aoo/UL/ afft/L/ Gsyevpgju Qu&QevesBr®ii>. 

One ought to observe decorum (lit. to set bounds to what one 

says) when speaking. 
A mother-in-law may say this when her daughtqr-in-law forgets to speak 
respectfully to her. 

34 



266 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2385. U&GQ&& BlfiuLjU U60£g&(9i& Qs®, ^TpSfU UQ2&<o8i& auuSlpgnaQs 

Qs®. 
Feigned laughter ruins the teeth, and loosely spread boiled rice 
is a loss to the stomach. 2374. 

Cf. 239 /. 913 /. 2338 /. 



HONOURING ONE'S SELF. 

2386. «^/«0J<?^'8sW SlLl-S «0<5«(5 ^UffTJTLDfT? 

Should one compliment one's own hand for tying one's waist- 
cloth ? 

2387* &.esori— toiiuSi/bgii&QJ) a-u&fTjTLDtr'i 

Should one's stomach be honoured for digesting food r* 

2388. «r«(5 (or gfe&Lp) t-ji—Gsjeu Qfnkpneti, ao«<s@ s^ue/rnLon? 

(If a woman's hand) fasten her cloth when it is loosened, will 
that hand be praised ? 

2389. eaasqij ajniLi &.u4FfTjru>n? 

Is the mouth to honour the hand (because the hand puts food 
into the mouth) ? 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON POLITENESS. 

2390. kisser ssnrm QuiHiueuir, gjuun, sir'bsou l9i$.. 

(He admits that) his elder brother is his superior but calls out 
to him ' appd ! shampoo my feet !' 

Used of an inferior who demands respect from his betters. Appd is a 
familiar term for Aiya, Sir. 

2391. ,Sf^s sift^esrua (or u&piii) <^<g),§>8(ii>, ^ > uDt^es)u.uj!T2esT ^juuit <oi<asrjp) 

Should you ever call your husband ' appd,' however much you 

may like him ? 
A husband should always be treated respectfully. 

2392. e_6wri_ eSili^Qa) ^iL&irnm^Q&ireir&TnQpQun^Byso, sssoru-aunseir ereo 

eoini s® <s® srsaruirrraaT. 

If you do not sit down a little while in the house where you 
have eaten food (in courtesy to the host) all who see you will 
be angry with you. 3208. 

2393. a-iB&rr (prop. 9-q^msn^) Qf<G$@ (or Qp&th) sniLi—nQp, euibg e&qr)& 

pireffl statu <^lLl—itQ^, 

Don't show a cross face and don't drive away a guest from your 
house. 2124, 2766, 3208. 

" It is a sin against hospitality to open your doors and shut up your 
countenance." 



don't judge according to appearances. 267 

2394. LDgiiurrp tsun^eSQeo iS^ujn^^uuQ^ s.^u>th. 

It is best not to set your foot in the house of those who do not 

respect you. 1330. 
" Welcome is the best cheer" 

2395. LDifiiLirres)^ puiSlggG) (or QsiLi—rTeo) uxreoeun®. 
He who fails in politeness is a Mala. 

Mala is the Telugu name for the Pariah non-caste class. 



DON'T JUDGE ACCORDING TO APPEARANCES. 

2396. u» sjp/UL] <srmg>i uit§hld sgyuurrt 

Though the cow's skin is black, will its milk also be black ? 

2403, 2412, 2863. 
Though the mother be wicked, the daughter may be good. 

2397. <§&§i j>i§8)iii>iT<gs)&Q&. 
This boy is a Hanumdn. 

You take him to be a good boy because he behaves well when you see 
him, but lie is really very bad. Hanuman is the Monkey-God. 

2398. ereoeon^LD Loesfl^srrT? sg) sreoeornh tofressfissujir? 

Are all men men ? are all stones rubies ? 656. 
" A white glove often conceals a dirty hand" 

2399 sssurdsuiSelr'SefT ereoeomh erQgpgjuiSleir'BGmiJiT? 

Can all who belong to the accountants' caste write ? 2065. 

By birth they belong to the accountant-caste (Kanakkan), but they may be 
fools at figures. 

2400. &jpip@Q&G)&i<TtJD 06oor«8sFn, Q&i(6n i; g j gQ r &60&>rrLD uneo eresrQ^ek. 

He says that everything black is water and everything white 

is milk. 
He takes things according to their outward appearance. He believes 

things to be what he sees them to be, without making inquiries. Said 

of an innocent simple fellow (Qu<5B>/g). 
"At ease he is that seldom thinketh." 

2401. sjissmL— I®) Q&iu r 3 GTiLisL&&e&ti]i£i &&SQ)U)ir? 

Will a Strychnus (Nux vomica) fruit made of sugar-candy be 

bitter ? 
Though it has the appearance of the bitter strychnus fruit, it will be 

sweet. Appearances are deceptive. 

2402. (50 Ga/aftc Qsnessn—sum eieo&airuo @(ij ^e>jn<Q)? 
Are all priests who dress like priests ? 

" You can't judge a horse from the harness." 



268 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

2403. Q&trL^I ajpiuu(T<gG)§2iiJD, ^jtsleBr QpiL<a»L—ujui sgpuun'i 

Though a fowl be black, are its eggs also black ? 2396, 2412. 
" A black plum i? as sweet as a white." 

2404. &Uf- Gr®006i]eBr <sr&)&)iTth pGbsn—p&nn^l 
Are all who carry staves rent-collectors ? 

The staff of office does not make them rent-collectors. 
"All are not hunters that blow the horn." 

2405. {semrrjgjgGuasT ereOeoaua ©iga/@)? 

Are all who have grey hair old men ? 

2406. iBfiiDih Quirt-Li—euesT ereoeond, pnp^sp. gBl^Gj) Lj^ssnsuasr ereo&)irih 

^geoorijp.iLtrr? 
Not every one who puts on a Ndmam is a Vaishnava mendicant, 

and not every one who smears himself with holy ashes is a 

Siva mendicant. 
" It is not the beard that makes the philosopher." 

2407. £jp> y,p? QiE^ULjQuireo. 

Like fire covered with ashes. 660, 2681, 3057. 

Said of a virtue not discovered at first sight. This phrase is often used 
in the Mahabharatha about men of secret virtue. Real virtue works 
humility, and this humility is like ashes that hide true greatness. 
" Said of a very learned and humble man." (Carr, Telugu Proverbs.) 

" A good name keeps its lustre in the dark." 

2408. iS^^'Berr gfteo p $n §#ld Qunasr^eesah suq^iunt 

Will the nature of gold belong to brass although it shines. 676. 
" All is not gold that glitters." 

2409. QuppQp&ieonuo tSI&r'BefiuuiT, ^ili-Q^oisMLc uuSitit'? 

Are all who are born, true children ? Does every field that is 
sown yield a crop ? 

A child may look like its father and yet not have its father's character- 
istics. This commonly means that all that is temporal is uncertain ; the 
children may die, and the corn may fail. 

Birth is much, but breeding more." 

2410. esiu GrGZppeiiasr <sr&)60iru> taneuptslujige) ? 

Are all who carry bags (of medicines) doctors ? 

" An old goat is never the more reverend for his beard." 

2411. in@<F(©5u) Loeoq^ui Qairasor® gjGsJ&srreSlLLi—ngiiu), Qis^&io /#2sotu 

Though you do not worship God with offerings of saffron and 

flowers, to think of him in your heart is enough. 2355. 
Inward worship compared with outward ceremony. 

2412. Lon® QipLDfT^^jiM, urreSiSBi (rrffi Qun^mn ? 

Though the cow be old, its milk will not lose its good taste. 
2396, 2403. 

Cf. 1620/. 



REFERRING TO WHAT IS SELF-EVIDENT. 269 

REFERRING TO WHAT IS SELF-EVIDENT. 

Q^Sv/?Siy, QsUSffl<3F&LD. 

2413. J)/ljuu> t5T<sl>T(ir?ed lSlKSIs sirLLi—Qsu6sar®LDfr? 

If you say it is a pancake, is it necessary to break it in two to 
show that it is one ? 2071. 

2414. ^jfissr<S6iu.iu urrirss QeuenQenogpsnt 

Do you think me so purblind as not to be able to see an ele- 
phant ? 

2415. ^eirefriKj<SB)su$&) QfE60eSI&&eaflQuiT&). 

Like a weZZi-berry in the palm of the hand. 

The nelli (Phyllanthus) bears a bright yellow transparent fruit. 

" As plain as the nose on a man's face." 

" As clear as crystal." " As plain as a pikestaff." 

2416. &GBBf^SB)D<& &66Bri—@lb(9j SjeoT ^dSUSSL/S (8jfS? 

Why inquire the mark of the ladle (in the food) to prove a theft 
that you have seen with your own eyes ? 

2417. £6aorQsiT60B[® j>j&)&)Q<sun, evySf m i—saQsuesurQii). 

Must you not walk on the road by the help of your eyes ? 

2418. &6sist<G&)Qi30 &mxL—gp(§& ^/7-<-L6kw? 

Do you need a witness of what you have seen with your own 
eyes ? 

2419. 68)3 til Lj6BBT6ttS21&(<!rja &<5SBrgSB)U?-tLUT? 

Do you want a mirror to see a wound in your hand ? 

2420. es)au$&) ^Q^ss, QiBtuuSQeo etas ^®<sijfjQesrm. 

While the stolen thing is in her hand, why should she put her 
hand in (hot) ghee (butter) to prove her innocence ? 1957. 

Putting the hand in hot oil to prove one's innocence of a crime is one of 
the many ordeals practiced in India. I have met with this even among 
Native Christians. 

2421. tsn® (or e«Efr) sjf8®@ uiriruurrG!pi&(9ju L£^ureo eimt 

Why is a sacred thread necessary to a Brahmin who is known 

to the whole country side (or village) ? 
What is well known need not be published. 

2422. ullt-US&)(oUiT&). 

As clear as broad daylight. 
" As clear as the sun." 

2423. QstJLLi—Qeueffl^ih uiLi—useonibu Qurr&argi. 
It has become as clear as broad daylight. 

Said of something that was hidden or unperceived before, e. g., the poverty 
of a man who was believed to be wealthy. 



270 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

DARKNESS. 

2424. @0tl®i@ sreoeonih &ifl. 

In darkness all things are alike. 

" All cats are grey in the dark." 

" When candles be out, all cats be grey." 

2425. §$0lL® Q&/bsoQuun, gj(5il® Ca/SteoCW ? 

Was the work done in darkness, or by a blind man ? 
Said of something done clumsily. 

2426. ^0i—m sSlL® eSens^Quneo eriBQp^i. 

It burns like the lamp in a thief's house (i.e. very dimly). 

2427. aSlstr&&®)eO T & sSlLi^.Q&) Guuj ^u^.uS0S(^ih. 

A demon will live in a house where there is no light. 
Evil thrives best in darkness. 



SEEKING. 

TO SEARCH FOR THAT WHICH ONE ALREADY HAS. 

2428. c^tlSi^Ll^Lsaaj^ GptraBGeo (SiaQj^^is #/r® erik^w Qpiq-angi 

Quit go. 
Like searching through a forest for a lamb that is on your 

shoulders. 
" The butcher looked for his knife ichen he had it in his mouth." 

2429. 2-eireiriEje8}su$&) QuniL(Slu L\pisi<ss>ses)UJ issseorruirr? 

Why lick the back of your hand, when you have (food) in your 
palm ? 

i.e., When a man is already well off why should he seek money in dis- 
honest way 8. 

2430. s_6ffaS , il/^.(o6^ (or pm Qstrdo'tejuSlGO) Saajr GmsupgiaQaireoBr®, gjff®) 

<sSlL(S&(&jlj QurreunQesreBr. 

Why should he go to his neighbour's house for vegetables, when 
he has them in his own house (or garden) ? 

2431. &-fflti$Q&) QeueserQesarih '§}0ds, QibiLsq sj^so^nQesrasi^. 

Why should one wander about for ghee, when there is butter in 
the hanging pot (uri) at home ? 



SEEKING. 271 

2432. Sssmgj. @(5<5« ">$60 Qp<\6BBL-.nQp. 

Do not dig through a mountain for a well when you have one 
already. 

2433- easaSeo sh&qss, &<£ld(9j ^j'hsusurrQigsrm. 

Why go wandering about seeking vegetables when you have 
money in your hand (to buy them) J* 

2434. &ir t §jifliuLJu > 2sBr i£gb; $0<i&, Lj&RtuiEisfT6S)uj^ ^lasrQp^aiJo. 

The artful cat ate tamarind when there was fish (in the house 
so that the owner should leave the fish exposed without 
suspicion). 

Said of one who pretends to be satisfied with what he has, while he is bent 
on getting something better. 

2435. o9ar<S(5 {§}0&s, GtiBQULjd^ ^i^eosunQesi&sr. 

Why wander about seeking for a light while the lamp is burning. 
" He looks for his ass, and sits on its back." 



TO SEEK FOR SOMETHING IN A WRONG PLACE. 

2436. c^2sw sn^)is>&)Qun^s)eO; @6ot®<f &L-Uj-uSeo Q^isf.^^Quned. 
Like seeking a lost elephant in an earthen pot. 
" To seek a hare in a hen's nest." 

2437- sisSQed QuitlL®, sits sen t-uSeo Q^®@id^it? 

Why seek in a gutter for what you have thrown into the sea ? 

2438. Qenp^leo QlmlLQs Seaor/bpSleo Q^i—eoiraur ? 

Why search in a well for what you have thrown into a pool ? 

2439. 3ussar^)6BTlu.^^leo ^ianfiss>uju QuniKSs QsnsQ&sri3pQs gjVeoispg] 

Guireo. 
Like wandering after a paddy- bird (to get back) a cloth sent to 
the washerman. 2021. 

The story is that a man who had lost his clothes thought these white birds 
were his own white cotton garments and ran after them ! 



A THING SOUGHT FOR COMES TO HAND. 

2440. j^i—uQunesr siasns ^jesar<ss)i—aS&) Qj&pn/bQuneo. 
Like the Ganges which came (to meet) the bather. 

2441. (SjihtSti—uQuiresr QptLsLii, Qjgj&Qs suiptTuQutTet. 

Like the deity that came (to meet) the guru who worshipped 
him. 

2442. Qpi—uQufTear LDQijihjp, sireSKSeo ^LLi^.enr^iQuiT&). 

Like the medicinal herb striking the foot of him who is seeking 
it. 



272 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON SEEKING. 

2443. =f£<fc>7 Q&lLi— eurrtuirdo, ^ilOs^ilip.i Qsil.Qppn'! 

Will the mouth that asked for an elephant ask for a lamb i* 
1510, 1511, 3441. 

Those who seek great things will not centre their thoughts on the insigni- 
ficant. 

2444. eriflibp u&aSeo {§)t£ihp ubes&GSiujp Q^i—u(oun<sm^jQurreo. 
Like seeking a lost gem to satisfy raging hunger. 2447. 
To search for what is urgently needed. 

2445. f£@l!r68T (gjerflir&GitJumus siruuii^ir^iii), ^ifiuj'2esrQuu p^&ia^^nn istr® 

eurrir<SE&r. 
However much the cool moon shines, the whole world seeks the 
sun. 

It is well to have heard the great Rishis (Prophets), but it is far better to 
have heard God himself. 

2446. 0LLi—nG&i—$Gsleo ^jQ^^r&i ^q^s^ld, qiji£Il1-u/-& &ilt$-ii$60 ^Qfjts 

It must either be with the goldsmith or in the pot in which he 
melts gold. 

It will be found somewhere in the house. Said to one who is in search of 
something that cannot be found. 

2447- u&ppGueot ugiE&QSBr&etaau ufr/r^^^/QuirSo. 

Like a hungry man looking at his old accounts. 2444. 

Said of one who tries to console himself for past folly. The proverb 
always refers to something lost or spent carelessly. 

2448. ljlL®«(<5 ^(Lpajtrii, uestsfid^ ^iQpsvini <sei<snuus^^eo, uns^a^ &!Q$& 

unrrppetDp sgsbti— $&)'$&. 
In this world people weep for silk and for jewelry, but no one 
has ever heard any elaborate description (lit. Mahablmrata) 
of anyone crying for areca-nuts. 

People do not trouble about little things. 

2449. uaQuir&mQpuf., ^sQuirsth isntst. sun^ens QujsQtauesBiQiJD. 

One must get happiness by seeking both heavenly and earthly 
enjoyment. 1196. 



COURAGE, TRUE AND FALSE. 273 

COURAGE, TRUE AND FALSE. 

2450. ^esar G&<8 ^n» Q&® ^&>'2eo. 

Men and the sacred fig-tree are never destroyed. 
In comparison with women men will persevere in their purposes and the 
sacred tree will send its roots deeper and deeper into the ground. 

2451. <4$K5<s(2>ijb sj^^irasr, ^ u<stoi—£(gju> QpneOirear. 

He teal's no one and is not defeated by any one's army. 
Enterprise is the first, the second, and the third thing in commercial 



2452. ^ar ^3srr ^isf.S(^ih (or Qjpgjth), <gy<sn (tp®&(<sju upgjQuosiiJ 

One man can strike another but the show of might will strike 
ten. 

2453. &-(T^eSesr evirfleir ssa/DaSeo ^L-trp eSjrasr. 

A hero who does not sheath his drawn sword. 

2454. er^Hr^^eu&sr wrr^s^ ^essfltJUfruSQTj. 

Be a nail in the breast of your enemy. 

2455. eriBQp eS&rdsrr^gjUih, ^remQQafreo spsorjpi QsaeaorSlw. 

Though the lamp burns brightly, a splinter is necessary to raise 

the wick. 
A good man needs encouragement. 

2456. ^(nj@g6BT QfgneSl3(8ju Qun setfutn lLQl-gbt, enssrsn^eo Qwiflpgnffi eflu. 

Q/tD/7Ll(ei_65r. 

I will not meddle with other people's affairs, but if anyone 
treads on my toe I will not let him go ! 2468. 

2457. Spi>(fl&(9jLD Q#eu&S6)l<£(8j Qp&£$&) l£(oB)& 6J6BT? 

Why should a soldier who hides himself have a moustache on 

his face ? 
'•An excellent soldier: he lacks nothing but a heart and a feather." 

2458. si—^eo^ gxhggjw srrrftujui Qpis^isQsuesaiQiM. 

Though you have to till up the sea, complete your work. 

2450. &tr&p gies&i ^a/spigj.y fQpgtglirth (ipi^misnei «^tptb. 

To a man who dares to die, the sea is only knee-deep. 

2460. 3r&p aL?J6g2/i(5 &.llSlT ^(TJLDL/. 

To a perfect hero life is but a straw. 
" A stout heart crushes ill-luck." 

35 



274 TAMIL PROVEKBS. 

2461. gjpi@^ ap<35i!JLD&&en jpqldlj. 
Princes are only straw before a hero. 

2462. QzgujQpareni&iK&w uujLSldv'fcv. 

There is no fear as long as there is victory. 

2462a. j£?<£(3> eSQggiuu) Cs/rarua/sgyigj Qggaj jijuQ^ujs streouo Qpifliuirg]. 
He who is bent on conquering the whole world knows not times 

of victory or of defeat. 
Ail times are alike to brave men. 

2463. esi^ifim &)dpuS, pear &)<9spu9. 

The goddess of bravery is the goddess of wealth. 
"Faint heart never won fair lady." 
"Nought venture, nought win." 

2464. UQppjBeSiGJeon $ ^/essfi&i unsi/ieoeoiTp suueo. 

Bravery without discernment is like a ship without cargo. 

2465. uds&Q&ndo ufglgpuSjru). 

A word of encouragement is worth ten thousand (coins). 

2466. (jo#?su erQguLSetiil® is nib ugifki@6BrgiQ>un@). 

Like the dog, that started the hare and then stopped. 2469. 
Sham valour. 

2467. Qpehnsnsiijip sits), (Sim smsuds lot lLQ 'u.m . 

I will not withdraw the foot I have put forward. 

2468. sugSvu &68or60)i—&@u QunQpgiiA&fteo, euip <?6wraoi_a»aj e$(SlQpg) 

There is no seeking for quarrels but there is no slackness in 

quarrels that arise. 2456, 3086, 3099. 
Said of a quiet man who knows how to bear himself well if quarrels arise. 

2469. eSq^g) a^fBsukgj, Q&i$.u$(c&) jp<aagQpg@uneo. 

Like creeping into a bush after proclaiming your valour. 2466. 

2470. aneup^HuJGBi ^'bsoinniLuf-eSlQ^i^i gjQgpgiQuiTei. 
Like the doctor weeping at the head of the bed. 



FEAR AND COWARDICE. 

UtULD, QeS. 

2471. gitGrfisaiGiim d6ggr6g?/g(g ^sn&Lc ei&ieorriJb Quit. 

To the eye of the coward the sky is full of devils. 2491, 2492. 

2472. ^j^Sesrsu'bsaJU Quuu ^is^sqll. 
A devil will strike a coward. 

2473. ^(gjStas endears @<e$«tb Oai/^tlOto. 

Even a young bird may terrify a coward. 



FEAR AND COWARDICE. 275 

2474. ^if GuaSjbjBeO $1$. eSQ^w^nuQuiroi. 

As if lightening struck the lower part of his stomach. 
Description of midden terror. 

2475. <^® &u}.&Qpg) ereorg/i ^siau.uum a_^9 ejjSu ugimiQssrgiQ 'arret. 

Like the shepherd saying that the sheep would bite him, and 
climbing into a pot hanging from the roof (uri) and hiding 
himself. 

" The worst ills are those that never happen." 

2476. j^uSirih sirdeasd^ 9(75 &&)(c&) Qurrgith. 
One stone will frighten a thousand crows. 
It is easy to frighten cowards. 

2477. ^jg/tDtrfu ulirtwresarih (or uiuesarih) gj@@ ist—ih^irdo Qfiis^imnn'i 
Will a person who walks in fear eve • accomplish a six month's 

journey ? 
" He that dares not venture must not complain of ill luck." 

2478. £g)if Gpm& QslLu. umJoLfourre). 

Like the snake that heard the sound of thunder. 

2479. ®_ffi/<ffsJr j)juuear u^-f&st^u uujuulLQi—^v)? &.eir u^f&s^u utuu 
• ui_. 

Did I fear the threats of your father ? Shall I fear your 
threats ? 493. 

2480. ereSe6>iud seam® ufissr ejdsih ^qdi—iliiait? 

Will a cat be alarmed at seeing a rat ? 2561, 3064. 

2481. &lLu).u lS ereo&iTih pe&aesifinu l? *§£#&£]. 
His constipation became diarrhoea. 2492a. 

2482. sestsn—gi urrihu., sui.ppg) iDiriEiQ&irLLeni—. 

What bit him was the kernel of a mango and what he saw was 
a snake. 

After the mangoes are eaten the kernels are thrown away. These are 
sometimes two inches long. When lying about and dried np, some of 
them open at one end, and fancy may make them resemble a snake's 
mouth. Should a man strike his toe against one of them, and at the same 
time see a snake, the conclusion that the snake bit him is easily drawn. 
Fear has a great deal to do with the number of deaths which are 
recorded as the results of the bites of snakes in India. A case occurred 
in 1896 in South India when an educated Native Christian gentleman 
died, as his medical attendant declared, almost entirely because he was 
overcome with terror though the snake that bit him was not venomous. 
2489. 

Also: — utruDLj &i$./i/iQ<gn } iDniaQsiriLeau- stf-p^G^rr? 

Did a snake or a mango kernel bite him ? 2486, 2491, 2670. 



276 TAMIL PEOVEEBS. 

2483. auSpsapu utrihLf GHssrg) <5T<akr6ssfi& seoiiQesr^Quirio. 
Like taking a rope for a snake and trembling. 

A common example of Mdyd, Illusion, in the Vedanta philosophy. 

2484. &irty-68>sBtt$60 &-GB>puuil.t—6>jegiis(9j& s wuerfl « s n siHgst s aemL-rr®) uuuih. 
If he who was once struck by the paw of a bear sees a person 

wrapped up in a (hairy) blanket he will be frightened. 
This proverb sometimes occurs with other phrasing, but always contains 
the same simile. 

2485. sQi)L-$esr& sesaru. uirthLjQuneo. 
Like a snake that sees a kite. 

Sudden fear. Kites are great enemies of small snakes. 

2486. 8&S iSltp.ppQpfT, l/sJ? i3is}.ppQpiT ? 

Did fear or a tiger lay hold of you ? 2482. 
" A man surprised is half beaten." 

2487- (gatOr eStl/SlLjQurrffiG-g}. 

The shivering has left him. 

Said of servants or wives who are forward. 

2488. isiTQBUjd aexrdHpiTgB) sirujih tt-iKSiQpgf. 

Was it after seeing the dog that I mixed the assafoetida ? 
e.g. You think I treat my wife {or anyone else) kindly because some one 
makes me, but I do so because I like to do so. 

2489. uiTthLf erasr(j^&) ) uetoi—iLjth isQia^th. 

The word " snake" will make even an army tremble. 2482. 

2490. Lj&$S(3jU UUJUUllj—6lJITS&J GT&>&)fTU) Sukgl <o\<3StQutf\&t uQ^^/dQsiT&T 

fimasm. 

All of you who are afraid of the tiger come and lie on the top 

of me! 
Said of one who gets into the safest place when danger comes. 

2491. iDGSiu QuQiu §>ySlu-i, ir>ppu Quia ^ii^eo. 

Except imaginary devils there are no others. 2471. 

2492. i£ljrsaan—sum <£6aBr6p/#g> ^jqjjesBri—Qpeo&inih QuiL. 
To a coward every dark thing is a devil. 2471. 
" Foolish fear doubleth danger." 

2492a. Qu#&u QusrthQuuGp, l$&&u L^i—toOxsuuSeo siLu^sQsrjeiri^Qdff&T. 

She is so timid that she gets diarrhoea at the mere mention (of 
something dreadful). 2481. 



NEW BROOMS SWEEP CLEAN. 277 

"NEW BROOMS SWEEP CLEAN!" 

2493. ^xuDuptslG) (9$jr£gi<siiih. 
Heroism at the beginning. 

2494. LjGsluu QJ6aBr<683)63r Qunk^istl.i^. Qsutef^uumssi. 

A new washerman will knot up the cloth before he washes it. 

The common cotton cloths often have silk ends and edges. These would 
be damaged if they were boiled along with the rest of the garment, and 
ought to be knotted up in another piece of cloth so as not to be injured. 
A new washerman will do this very carefully because he wishes to get 
the praise of his customer. 

2495. LjGdgfruj eukp iLGG&iu&mgm QibQ^uunaSq^sQqt^m. 
The new village officer is all fire. 336. 

2496. Lj^juQuakrQessT, Lj^juQueamQisoar Qibq^ulj a®pg)Gun\ a_<s3r«@u 

new girl, bring fire ! in future you will be beaten with a 
slipper ! 

Said to a servant who rejoices over good treatment received from a new 
master not knowing that it will not last. — Or a mother-in-law says the 
first part to her daughter-in-law and the latter thinks the second part. 

2497- <3ulk@npQun&) Qgy&Q ukg) £)ji$.@@rT®r, <a/j <sub& &j*)i&Q QiBiT6sari^.u 

In the beginning the girl played at ball but she became lame 
by degrees. 

Said of one who begins an enterprise with much zeal, but soon wearies of 

it. 

" He that doth most at once, doth least." 

2498. eum^trpQuireo lditlSI um^i sju^ppn&r, sun sun LomSI s(tp<5t0jS QldiLsQ 
qrp&r. 

When the daughter-in-law came to her husband's house her 
mother-in-law played at ball but by and by the mother-in-law 
herded asses. 

The daughter-in-law found her mother-in-law pleasant at first but her 
true nature soon came out. Said of one who professes sorrow for 
wrong doing but soon forgets his repentance. 



278 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

THE TONGUE. 

2499. e_i— 6V ^^o/sgyigju tSpipgi, isrr&(9j uoi^s^u iSl/Dih&g). 

One's body was born for one's own benefit, but one's tongue for 

(tbe benefit or ruin) of many. 
" Birds are entangled by their feet, and men by their tongues." 

2500. e_®zi>L/<5(5 @j<jabr® t5rT3(9j, &.6sra(<sju) ^jt&sbt® mn&strt 
The iguana has two tongues, have you also two ? 

" A sinner that hath a double tongue." Ecclesiasticus 6, 1. 

2501. <sr<as>p siL-ssneSil.i—!r§jjth thn&osjs ^i^ssQ^ueserQih. | 
Whatever else you do not subdue, subdue your tongue ! loll. 
" A bridle for the tongue is a necessary piece of furniture." 

'' Put to your tongue a bridle, that it talks not idle." 

2502. GtgythtSieiGOiT isits^ eteoeoiru> Qus-uo. 

A tongue that has no bones says everything. 
" The tongue breaketh bone, and itself hath none." 

2503. !5I—S(8jt}> SfTG) ;gGltJp)QrDlgl§8lii, I5ITS(§ pSUjpiQpgl 0«lL*_^?. 

A slip of the tongue is worse than a slip of the foot that walks. 
212. 

; ' Better a slip of the foot than of the tongue." 

2504. iBiretj gjaafuj, miT® jysro^uyio. 

If the tongue move, the country will move. 

" A good tongue is a good weapon." Or, this phrase may mean : — 
" A tyrant's breath is another's death." 

2505. (5tr&(3)&(S) Gigsix*$&fteo. 

There are no bones in the tongue. 2145. 
" Your tongue is made of very loose leather." 
" He lies as fast as a dog can trot." 1 

2506. QuffuQutr^sfcvoir , &rr&uQurT<Q)(}tuiT? 

Did you go to speak or to die ? 718, 2907. 
Take care what you say ; the mouth may say things that lead to ruin. 
" A fool's tongue is long enough to cut his own throat." 
" A word and a stone once let go cannot be recalled." 
" Rule thy word while thou art young, for life and death lie in thy 
tongue." 

Of. 2684/. 



DOCTORS, MEDICINE, HEALING. 279 

DOCTORS, MEDICINE, HEALING. 

SS) oil ^ 3* IU 577 ? LDQfjJSJgl, Q&IT iwpiD. 

2507- si^sQunsih Q@a'teo&pn&), jyeSgpti) ueSs^ix. 

When I have experienced my appointed lot the medicine will 
take effect. 

Said by a sick man. AH Tamils believe that fate has allotted a certain 
amount of suffering to a man which he must endure. 

2508. ^aSnihQussars Qmeisr peueot ^e/as esusu^^ujasr : 

He who has killed a thousand people is half a doctor. 2518. 

2509. ^Besr Q&nQgpptreo sunesigpgesai®, ^es/nS&r'Berr Q&irQgppiTG) Qmu 



If an elephant becomes fat, give it the inside of the banana 
tree to eat ; if a man become fat, give him the stalk of a 
(big) vegetable. 

2510. ^eoiasesrih uinc p&r<3if,@ih. 

When sick, fasting is the supreme remedy. 

"Diet cures more than the lancet." 

" Feed sparingly and defy the physician." 

" The best physicians are Br. Diet, Dr. Quiet and Dr. Merryman." 

2511. sezySIs (or eSi—rr) snujf&G) ^/^sldiT(Q)€0, ^eaffiussiTff&ST Qan&rlieir. 
Much chronic fever (among the people) will be spoil to the 

sorcerer. 

2512. sr^^car qawapigj,? &nii>u&) wq^k^i. 

Ashes are the medicine for the wound of a bullock. 1747, 

1770, 3371. 
The poor can neither afford to call in a doctor nor to spend time away 
from their work. 

2513. &LL<5Bit—uun<as>paauj QpQgisiQQtun LL® (prop. eSQpiiS), &&(S) s&^n 

If one swallows a crowbar and takes ginger as medicine, will 

he be cured f 2249. 
Great evils will not yield to small remedies. 
" He who will not bear the itch must endure the smart." 

2514. sneiLcnG) pleoiDn® ssisujs^nussr suipasar. 

The doctor that offered to bear to the cemetery the head-side 

and not the foot-side of the patient he had killed is come. 
Said of one who does not understand his occupation. 

2515. s^annssnib ea^j^^iuih, (or @e0G)sa>p aDSupjslujih, or Qu60Br®s&r 

68)GupGi)uJib). 
Vegetable medicines (or Little medicines or Women's medicines). 

2523 : 
Different terms for ' domestic medicines.' 



280 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2516. gngi (or /FJTZf) tgif&uJirp Qu<sb>0 tasieupSSujeBr. 

A simpleton of a doctor who does not understand the pulse. 

2517. Qisireq ^ssr jpi ^(t^ss, iDQ$kg] $m£» Qstr(8i@gg). 

The disease is one thing and giving medicine is another. 2148. 

This proverb is also used generally ; e.g. a young Hindu wife often 
wishes to go home to her mother, and to prevent her from doing 
so her husband buys fruits, sweets and even jewels and gives them 
to her but without result. 

2518. utp th Lfem^f&fi utrisi sjoa/^^ujsar. 

He who has had many sores is half a surgeon. 2508. 
Experience is as important as skill. 

2519. iS/D&QpQurrQgQg Qpi—Lon^eo, Qpiheupgi&^u uGtoi—ppireo 0(njtm'? 

If one is born a cripple, will healing come by making an offer- 
ing to a God ? 

2520. Quir&)60np (gesar/ksps^ LD@i$gj S-esBrQi—nt 

Is there any remedy that will cure an evil disposition ? 964, 
544/; 2521. 

2521. aQ^IS)<a&lun$S(3j LD0IB^1 &.eoari—tT? 

Is there any remedy for the sickness of the heart ? 964, 2520. 

2522. Oa/efrSsw Qsn®g@n6ti 6&%ssr ^q^lo, u&gs)& QstrQ^jgrrSo uireum ^Q^iht 

If you offer silver (money) the effects of sins you committed in 
a former birth will be removed ; if you offer betel your 
present sin will go. 

A doctor says this to his patient meaning that he can effect a cure for 
money. 

2523. GsySiipGjIuueGr LD0ihj£i&(9j& ossldq^ie^i rs&)e0^j. 

Domestic medicines are preferable to doctors' medicines. 2515. 



ON RAIN. 

2524. ^uu#&Gimhs : &sonuj lckss)l^ QuiLQp^i. 
It rains shower after shower. 

2525. IfQfeO Upkpn&i LD65)L£. 

When white ants swarm, it will rain. 

2526. srjpiwLj QpiLaM— Qsrrssnr®, ^lL<ssh— ejfSiQ)&) Losanp OuiiiiLjih. 

If ants remove their eggs, and ascend a hillock (with them), 

rain is coming. 
Ants do this in order to save their eggs from the effects of rain. 



ON RAIN. 281 

2527. sguiS&&(9)U> (or j)j l !biSI@<£(5ju)) sirir^^teasd^th unang QuiLuuire&il. 

If there is no rain in October and November the elder brother 
and the younger brother will be alike. 1742. 

The 'elder brother' is the upper lip; the ' younger brother' is the lower 
lip, and the whole proverb means that the mouth will have no work if 
the rain does not come in the rainy season. 

2528. sfTir^^es)s inn&$S)} logbi^ seoih &(igGqQp@fb(3j&r(t<8it QjiwspQurrqffU). 

The rain of November comes and goes while a pot is being 

washed. 
In this month it rains frequently. 

2529. cBirirp$B)e8)& iDtT&aj$sl60 s®Loetaifi Qudjpneo, seoeNmGsip ^rndSp 

If it rain well in November even the grass under the stones will 
shoot. 



THE ESSENTIAL: 

OR, THAT WHICH IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IN A TRANSACTION. 
(Lp&QlULLTSST SfTlfluJU). 

2530. jf/u^. GTearjry jyeiBgdS&Lj Qu68or&rT6ilu$®)'fa>, tSdrSferr ot^^Ssst, Quean 

I have not got a wife to call me " my dear," and yet he asks me 

how many sons and daughters I have ? 
Do not ask for the result of a work before the work has commenced. 

2530a. jytixsoiD @@£)<6i5)§iiu>, Qurrixxsios g^^jgjjjtfii QevGsorif-UJgj j>\S&. 

Whether a woman or a puppet pound the rice is of no conse- 
quence, if only we get rice (to eat). 2535. 

2531. ^ifltus sh-^^nisf^^^iB, siriftuj^^eo sesor^uS^. 

Though they are dancing ever so cleverly, keep your eye on your 

own affairs. 2545. 
" To have an eye on the main chance." 

2532. ^fl (9jj£$(6tl)G)lllh <9l<B@tLHT<gO)60 Gift. 

It does not matter who pounds the rice so long as the husks are 
got off. 

2533. e-LL#<swr §gj0d&, njD#&eurr ^&)itldit? 

Is it right to neglect the inner and to whitewash the outer 

wall ? 
Outward morality and inward depravity. Also an advice to regard the 

welfare of one's own family before taking thought for that of strangers. 

36 



282 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2534. ereoeoiTUi ^QH&Qpg] QulLi^.uSQ&), ^fteod/spl sgsh-ju# &Lii$.uSeo'fa). 
We have everything needed in the box, but we have no pot in 

which to mash the vegetables. 
Said when the essential is absent, though all sorts of unnecessary things 
abound; also said of vain excuses. 

2534a. ereodHTth Qptflibp rstrtfl, /SiAIlLiq. ejjbgi ^uf. eStensssis. 

O woman, you know everything, trim the wick and light the 
lamp. 

A thief went into a house at night to steal ; the woman in the house heard 
him, and got up. She tried to light the lamp, but as she had not trim- 
med the wick, it took her such a time that the thief finished his busi- 
ness, and while running away uttered this saying, which is now used of a 
person who in spite of his cleverness forgets what is essential to the 
accomplishment of his purpose. 

2535. 6pil«w_ (or Qpetfi) ffCuf.ujij^s)&iiLb, Qsir(i^ssu-ee)L- QeuQpgi Gprntpi. 
Though the pan may be a cracked one it does not matter so long 

as the cakes are fried. 2548. 
" All's well, that ends well." 

2536. &6$tLmesm& fk^isf.uS&) plfeSl siLi— Lopk^rrpQuireo. 

As if they had forgotten to tie the thdli in the bustle of the 
wedding ! 

2537. Q streamed Qsiremio QstreSkptr. 

Though everything is crooked. God will put all right. 832, 
3317. 

Now said with the meaning that it is not present circumstances but the end 
attained that is important. 

2538. &tEi(3j PS&.SITLD60, pneQ <xil®eij^j S-oari—irf 

Can the thdli be tied without the blowing of the conch ? 2536. 
The blowing of a conch celebrates this part of a Hindu wedding. 

2539. #<£(3> s\fBvnp seu^nuuih e_688ri_/r ? 

Is there any decoction without dry ginger in it ? 

2540. &esBigs8)ii>i$Q>&t ^jQ^sQp^i (§4tyth. 

(In chewing betel leaves) the essential thing is the lime. 
Betel leaves are chewed with areca nut and lime. 

2541. Srsueajr emeu.ggi&QstTSBr® ^eo&iQiSiin Q@6jlj?u> ejQppQeue&Qth. 
Build the wall first, and then draw the pictures on it. 
Sometimes used in an obscene sense. 

2542. QffL-lSf. (TfiQsQsrT, &rj&(3j Qp®sQsiT? 

Which is the more important, the merchant or his wares ? 

2543. ( jsrtte» 9-pfSis SQjrr&rLb surru$G)prr6Br euuQenesBr®ih. 

Though you pass your handful of rice lxmnd your head it must 
come to your mouth at last. 2549. 

Said of one in a family who has run away from home on account of 
quarrels or for some other reason ; he is sure at some time to return 
home. — Or, an old servant may say this when dismissed, meaning that 
he is sure he will be re-engaged. 



THE ESSENTIAL. 283 

2544. giiL® tsumgi QulLi$.u$(d&) GflQgiipGpir, £IlL($> euikg) QuL.tf.uSQeo 

Did the money I earned or the abuse I got go into my money 

box ? 
Why care for a little abuse, the chief thing is to get money. 

" Account not that work-slavery that brings in penny savory." 

2545. <£/r6OTrz£.6i) Q un lLu.su 6?pi&(9j@ ^seas (or Qid^ulj) Qlo&) sesar. 
The fisherman keeps his eyes on the float. 2531. 

2546. U(W)UL] @)eo&)irp seStiurTesanJo e_6!rarz_/r ? 

Is there a wedding (feast) in which there is no pulse r" 

i.e., We could not possibly celebrate our festival without your presence. 
Said either as a sneer or in earnest. 

2547. Qurrm ^jsuuu-L-ireO Qurrm- Qpisf.ua g/essfl si&uuL-.rrpn! 

If one gets gold, won't one find a bit of cloth to tie it in ? 1232. 

2548. LD6S0r LflSSTVUn^GplLD, GT&S lSi$.-£j£it®) &lfl. 

Though the cat be made of clay, it is all right, if it catch rats. 
2535. 

2549. ufleoaS&i eS'Setrih^ir^SLo, ^.neSeo^nm LoSuuQ<syeaar®Lo. 

Though (the grain) grew on the hills, it must be bruised in a 
mortar (at home). 2543, 3435. 

E.g., Though a girl is born in a rich family, if she marries into a poor 
family she must submit to her lot. 

2550. Lofiof &-6SBn—frigB)&) } uessftsmrLo #t_a)/ru). 

If you have flour, you will be able to make cakes. 

2551. Loir<si\ u>pkp «i_(T£<5(3j ©.l/l/ ^<Tj (cst—rr? (or QjenpiutT?) 

Is the omission of salt the chief defect in gruel made without 
flour ? 

This proverb has many applications. E.g., If a woman dx'essed iu rags ex- 
presses a desire for some fine jewelry this may be said to her. 

2552. suL-(Seii^^m-QLD&) Q^rnUStuQumLi—reO, suiU^eiJ^^is^ isar^swn 

If you knock the bag (in which betel and other things are kept) 
will the bag only suffer? (Every thing inside will be 

bruised). 

If the head of a family suffers in any way, all the family will suffer 
1 Cor. 12, 26 ; Matt. 10, 25. 



284 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

THE IMPROBABLE AND IMPOSSIBLE. 

2553. ^ji—diQeBT l9i$. iSuf-ssQ6iiesa(dih, jyi—ia&rTp tStip. i9uf.ssuuntTssuQ^. 

Grasp what you can reach, and do not try to grasp what is 

beyond your reach. 
"He that takes too great a leap falls into the ditch." 

2554. jytil&GlnLcwnm esEifl&) QsnGslsQp lEegpLb Qifts^wtrub. 

Even a fish that is being boiled laughs in a very wicked village. 
Said to one who relates something very doubtful. 

2555. ^srr&peBipu uq^tBg) srQ^^isQsiT&iarQQuiTUin? 
Can a kite fly away with the sky ? 2558. 

" That is as likely as to see a hoy Jly." 

2556. <Q&n#p<asig <au®uui—d sis^.sQp^n'i 

Can you bite the sky so as to leave a scar in it ? 1567. 
" He is teaching iron to sirim." 



2557. ^str&pgi&Q, GQLcuutJD siriL.(SlQp^nt 

Can you point out the middle of the sky ¥ 

2559. ses.giQp &mi(§ oss.^^)&), e$i$.£)p QunQpg; eSt^Qp^nt 

Will the dawn come at the blowing of the conch ? 1573. 

Human efforts cannot change natural laws. Do what you have to do and 
leave the rest to God. 

2560. tm.es>LD iSljT&iEJSLJDusBBr&ssr, Q&e3i—<sifr Q&iLi—giQuiTQd. 

Like a dumb man preaching and a deaf man listening. 
" He holds a looking-glass to a mole." 

2561. ereS L^esnsaaj Qeu&)sgu>ir? 

Can a rat conquer a cat Y 2480. 

" Can a mouse fall in love icith a cat f" 

2562. sjesSenvup g&refiu uneamQuieo eipoinLDtr? 

Can yon get up to a loft (paran), if you push the ladder aside ¥ 

Paran may also be the platform on which watchmen sit iu the lields at 
night to guard the crops from thieves. 

2563. sj(npu<aau.&(§ /f/f ufnu^SrQp^jQuireo. 

Like conducting water into channels that are above its level. 

531. 
It is useless to give advice to a fool. 

2564. srruj/50 uarti) pmrfind^mir? 

Can a withered tree sprout again 'f 2570. 



SECRETS. 285 

2565. <ss>&u>Gu6bb(&it6;i ^j&S<ss>ujs s^eaj^sisasiuafr ^j^v^^fr^txi. 

The man whose hands had been cut off, cut off the thdli of a 
widow. 2567. 

As he had no hands, he could not do it, and a widow wears no thdli. Said 
about an improbable story. 

2566. &Qpp*duglElQeo ei/b/Dih QuniLi—^iQurreo. 

Like erecting water-lifts (to draw the water) out of the sea. 
" He is building a bridge over the sea." 

2567. #n£,g>n€& (3j®£/#<s@(i>, #mi8ujn& L£65p-jafi(5ii> dpu^Qun®. 

Tie a knot on the Sdtt aid's tuft of hair and on the ascetic's holy 

thread. 1816, 2565. 
The Sdttnni shave the whole head and the sannyosi have no sacred thread. 

The Sdttdni are a low Vaishnava caste of flower gatherers, mendicants and 

minstrels. 

2568. ^Q^uu^aSeo Qlo/tl1«»l_* pn g'tiesi & seeari—nujirt 

Have you seen the bald-headed Vaishnava mendicant at 

Tripaty ? 
As these mendicants are found there by huudreds it is impossible to 
distinguish a particnlar one. 

2569. Lo&liy.<oB)uuu iSeir'Betr Qup^Q^nek^eo Qujruevrr&rn? 

Can a barren woman give birth to a child if you tell her to do so ? 
Said to one who demands the impossible. 

2570. Gufpigp uiajpt QpfysappnuQuiTed. 

Like parched pulse germinating. 2564. 



SECRETS. 

ON KEEPING SECRETS. 

2571. {§)&) Quifliu @)u.0giu Qu&&. 
This is talk about high places. 

This may be said by a servant, who is asked the secrets of the family he 
serves, meaning that he intends to keep what he knows to himself. 

" It is wise tui to seek a secret, and honest not to reveal it." 

2572. §fteo Loaopeij &,riu uxanpeq Q '<su soar i—n ldit t 

Should not the leaves give shade to the fruit P 1726, 1728, 
:U58. 

Everything that goes on in a family does not concern the public. 
" Thy secret is thy prisoner." 

" To tell our secrets is folly ; to divulge the secrets of others is 
treachery." 



286 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2573. S-dr^igjdrCW Qsmluf-esr QpQ&i, ^75 im^ffui Q&neogyQQpGor, 



The scorpion has stung a private part ; I will say an incan- 
tation (to cure it). Listen ! 

Said when something scandalous or unpleasant happens in a family which 
must be kept secret. 3207. 

2574. ^(jja/sor ^plfsprr®) jtsQujuj, ^neia(®Qun; ^]plih^fr&} jyihu&)u>. 

If only one person knows it, it is, a secret ; if two know it, it is 

public. 
" Three may keep counsel, if ttvo be away." 

2575. si—&SQei giQuon Qi—mpngnih, Loesr^Koeo $0 Q&n&> Ql-isuit^i. 
Though a little straw may remain on the sea, a secret will not 

remain in the heart. 

2576. &t$.&@ surruu g/etoL-pgirpQurrio. 

Like wiping your mouth after eating anything obnoxious to 
others. 

This act is done quickly and is unnoticed. In communicating a secret the 
communication should be brief so as to be unnoticed by others. 

2577- sirgjth sit^jlo QSiQiiBpn jtQunet, eaeussQeuseerfSltx). 

Keep it (as a secret) between my ear and yours. 
" Two eyes, two ears, only one mouth." 

2578. QissarprSQeo seo QunLLt—giQun&i. 
Like throwing a stone into a well. 

Telling secrets to one who knows how to keep them. 

2579. ak-i'.L pGil®) siKSi&Q&nfpi ^eS^^^irpQurreo. 

Like untying the food prepared for a journey in a public gather- 
ing. 
No Hindu likes his food to be seen by persons of other castes. 

2580. enrnnuprnp surnrpspu ^rrmu pastes Qsar. 

Give him intoxicating drink, and then hear the secrets of his 

mind. 
" When ale is in, wit is out." 

2581. Nearest e£il®f QffB j>jihueo^Q&) guqld (or SiDrepp^Qeo Qpifl 

What takes place inside the bed-room will reach the public, (or 
will be known when the Seemantha ceremony is performed 
after the conception of the child). 2589 ft'. 

2582. pesarGsi&n @up (gar sSIlLl-itg), p¥eo&(jgjQiDG). 

All bad secrets will come out. 

This proverb is too vulgar to be literally translated. 1421 . 

2583. Q<ktgb)l-u$&) Lfsaar^essr meai—aSeo smLQSp^ir ? 

Should you show a wound on your thigh when walking about r 1 
Keep your secrets to yourself. 



SECRETS. 287 

2583a. isirggi G>uqr)3(<3j& QfireosS, ld<5BT$eIQ60 Quml.® ssieu&QpteueBT. 

He is a person who keeps secrets in his heart after having told 

them to four persons. 
Said sarcastically of one who cannot keep secrets. 

2584. Qmeo§/js(9je(iQen gfiflQ. 

There is rice within the husk. 

A truth uttered to one who is overanxious to get a secret out of you. 

2585. us&S&l ussih uirirg&vu Qu&Q<3w5BBr(blLD, xnpGllifiu$&) ^upgrrGpiih 

Qu&QsiJioSBn—nuD. 
At day-time one should look round before speaking, at night 
one should not speak even after taking that precaution. 1324. 
" Mills see, ivalls hear." 

2586. iS fslmeipiiA sufTth jiflBL^Cuuai. 

Like wiping a mouth that has eaten filth. 
Seek to hide your faults quickly. 

2587. ine8rj3&) ^(TjigjLo sts&ujlo ld$sIQ&l_g§)iS(3j earraSQeo. 
The secrets of a fool's heart will be on his lips. 

2588. Qpuf-GsysugprTgith (Lp688ii Qpeepi ersistGgiiih, emppgp sasu^^irg^ih i—u> 

L-tD GteBTGV))LCi. 

Though I cover it up, they whisper ; though I stitch it together, 
they will announce it by beating a drum. 1845, 2805. 

Used of secrets which one part of a family desires to keep from the other, 
but which get ont. 

Of. 2589 /. 



SECRETS OR TRUTH WILL COMB OUT AT LAST. 

2589. «|jj/r ^^^^ G&<££g]iJ>, Qu/rQggi e3i$.ih@n&) Q^iBu^th. 

When it dawns, it will be known whose mother is dead. 2581. 

Said by a man to his wife at whose instigation he had agreed to 
kill his own mother. His own mother and his wife's mother 
slept together, and the wife's mother was murdered instead of the 
husband's, with the lattei's knowledge. The wife, having an inkling of 
the truth, endeavoured to persuade her husband to go and see which of 
the two they had spared, and he replied as above. (Captain Care's 
Telugu Proverbs.) 

" Truth, is the daughter of time." 

2590. OTsJr @if. QsiLi—guhy s-sot- (3>£$l Q<slLj_j57lo, Ou/r^jj eSti$.£@n&) 

Qjgtflujil). 
Whether my household or thine is ruined will be known at day- 
break. 
" What is done by night, appears by day." 



288 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2591. Q&£jStra) Qpifltuih, QfLLufjunn (or &unnLt^.) minupeq. 

When the Chetty (merchant) dies, his affairs will become 
public. 

2592. Men £&r (or Qutrsu Quits or gwj suit) QpifltLjth QwiLivld QuiriLniih. 

What is true and what is false will be understood as time goes 
on. 

2593. QpmQffLb slL® ^jeSifid^rreo Gpifliuth. 

On untying the third knot we shall know (his character). 

A man always wears a thread round his waist, and as soon as he is dead 
the thumbs of his two hands, and great toes of his two feet are also tied 
together, and the three knots are cut by the relatives when the corpse 
is to be buried or burnt. The proverb means that a man's real character 
will be known after his death. 

2594. eSu^JBjSneo Qgifliuii) LDrruiSefr^eas (9jqjj®ld } Queesr ^qi^®ld. 

The dawn will reveal the bridegroom's and the bride's blind- 



ness. 
" Truth will out at last" 



Of 2571 ff. 



GROWTH, PROGRESS, DECAY. 

2595. gjjpi&ih <sLla»L_(cu/T6x) s\iq. (osuir gj&f)rT&Q pjp (com. g)^f$&Qpgi). 
It will spread out its roots like the aruga grass. 1.508. 

2596. J^ODLD U(8j£<g 6$®W, J)jl6I(GIS) J£/6B)Lpl5jg <S§®LO Q-QJjUUl—ITgl. 

A house in which a tortoise has entered (a bad omen), and a 
house in which officials have entered (to take the taxes that 
people have neglected to pay) will not prosper. 

2597. eT(tgjp@pg! Qufip&)&), ^etsrearii) sjpS®g) Q&iisQpjp Quiflg/. 

y\ It is no great tbing to be able to write : developing the know- 

ledge that has been acquired is the great thing. 

2598. air&iirQeo rsu-ib^ireo sup euySj, ^^eouunQeo isi—is^n®) ersuBjeiretf ^iruih ? 
If you walk on your legs you can walk ten miles ; but how 

much progress will you make if you walk on your head ? 

2599. Q&LLi—iT6Br eungispn®) ®2en Q^errujauj^ gjetRrruuneisr, mrypiprreBr 

QsLLi—treo swan pQ nun iL®&(9jth j^&rrm . 

If he who was ruined begins to prosper, he will put forth 
branch after branch ; but if he who prospered is ruined, he 
is not worth a potsherd. 569. 

2600. Q&lL®s QsiL®& (Sjip. ^Spprr ? 

Will a family that is constantly ruined continue to exist ? 



GROWTH, PROGRESS, DECAY. 289 

2601. $sntr& Q& litems @jjn&rrgi. 

If what ought to be done is not accomplished, there is no pros- 
perity. 

2602. sul-Qsit® 2-tL)iri5g} GiGBTGisr, QpsbrQsn® 5-nhkg) erasrear, su&in 

i3ss>psQs. 
What does it matter whether the Northern cusp of the new 
moon point upward and the Southern point downward ; in 
either case it is the waxing new moon. 3124. 

2603. m&)eo GTQgpgi m®Qsu {§)@3&, Qsrrsssrio erQg^gi Q/jgysQa euibpfn. 
While there was a good letter (i.e. good luck) in the midst, 

a crooked letter, (i.e. ill luck) came across it. 
e. >j. A family was living prosperously but the folly or crime of one of 
its members brought shame or disgrace en it. 

2604. L/6JSjr2bwu u (or urrevLLt—w) u Quneo iseaapgiuo, ijpisluS&ftiso. 
Though your hair is as white as the ceZosm-flower, you have no 

sense. 
" The head grey, and no brains yet." 



"AS YE WOULD THAT MEN SHOULD DO TO 
YOU, DO YE ALSO TO THEM LIKEWISE." 

2605. <gi&Tihg (sniflQ&iraJBr® ^jenuu/reisr. 

He will give back according to the measure he received from 

you. 2612. 
" What bread men break is broken to them again." 

2606. ^LDesurs^ e8<3S)@jggrT6d, ^&ftT Qj$Gn&(§iDn ? 

If you sow castor seed, will ebony grow up ? 2872. 
. As is the cause, so is the effect. 

2607. ^Q^sQptSLlGBI Q&SUGBSllUJtTuSlQ^kgrT®), &GWI&Q p<3U66{ Q&&J6B)6UUJrrdj& 

Q&ibeuiTasr . 
If the person (who is being shaved) sit properly, the barber 
will shave him properly. 

2608. eez£)<gO)60 QurTQih, a_/z9@0(6ff)6U eu^th. 

If blown it will fly off, if sucked it will come near. 

If you are unkind to people, they will desert you; if you are kind they 

will associate with you. 
" As you salute, you will be saluted." 

2609. ussaessBesr uaSifleO gjetiedeurr LjesBrazflvuih Q^iBil\u>. 

Is it not through the crop the worth is known of those who 

cultivate ? 
A virtuous man will get a good wife; he will have good children ; his fields 

will yield rich crops. The converse of 2987 ff ; 3308, 3573, 3576. 

" The tree is known by its fruits." 

" If virtue keep court within, honour will attend without." 

37 



290 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2610. una) Q^rriLfSlu urr&) spssQ<sv6anr(di}). 

You must touch (the udder) with milk, to draw the milk. 
" Love to be loved." — " As you give, so you will get." 

2611. Lorrey ^jQ^sQp uxsSBT^em^uQuneO, si-L^I&> ^0s^ii> @f6SBrzi). 

As the savour of the flour is, so will the nature of the gruel be. 
2297. 

As you are, so you will be treated. — As the tree, so its fruits. — If a daugh- 
ter-in-law complains to her husband, that his mother ill-treats her, and 
the husband knows his wife to be a quarrelsome woman, he may quote 
this proverb. While 2613 has a general application, this is limited to 
the family or household and always refers to the inner disposition. 

2612. (tpeisr ^tjenisp mni£l i$m ^syrigjCu). 

As you measure unto others, so will it be measured to you. 2605. 
" As you soio, so yon shall reap" 

2613. Qpek ems iiemi—rr&), QpLpiae&s £<&t>la. 

If you stretch out your hand, others will stretch out the arm. 

2611. 
" One never loses by doing a good turn." 

2614. eneesriaQear Qp&r em^s^ih. 

The thorn that bends will pierce. 

If you are proud and take airs, you will have uo friends. Humility often 
gains more than pride. — If a child shows more love to its father than to 
its mother, and the mother feels a little jealous, and makes remarks 
about it to the father, he may answer by quoting this proverb. 

2615. eurrtb n>&)&)prT(Gjf)G) } esE/f tBededjp. 

If your mouth is good, the village will be good. 1819. 

If you speak kindly to others, you will receive kindness from others. 

Or esi/f r5&)&)Q@iT, sunib mioedQ^n ? 
Is the village good, or is your mouth good ? 
" To him that soweth righteousness shall be a sure reward." Pro- 
verbs. 11, 18. 
" He that any good will win, at his mouth must first begin." 
" Good language cures great sores." 

Cf. 197 /. 2259 /. 



VAIN EXERTION. 

2616. ^pp&Qeo semjrpp lj&RQuit&>. 

Like dissolving tamarind in a river. 2620. 

Useless waste. The tamarind will not affect the taste of the volume of 
water found in a river. 

2617. ^lAlemuus (§&$ ems &e$lppgiQutT&). 

Like wearying one's arm with pounding chaff. 2622. 
" To beat the air" 



VAIN EXERTION. 291 

2618. er0&BLD u>niLu).6BrQ>iD&) Lcxanip Qutii^^/Quneo. 

Like rain on a buffalo. 

" Like pouring water on a duck's back." 

2619. s^l!«dl_l/ un'2esruS&> isSlLi— ^6issressFirQuiT&). 
Like pouring water into a cracked pot. 2626. 
" All is lost that is put into a riven dish." 

" Torn sacks will hold no com." 

2620. sl^&S&i Qu^iEjsrruju) sosuj^^^iQun&i. 

Like dissolving assafcetida in the sea. 2616. 

2621. SLDlfieO ses.pf8<SBI UtT®). 

It is milk poured into a crevice in the dry soil. 357. 

2622. seoib upetajTS (5^^(65)J^to, gjiBQ ^srr^i. 

Though you pound a big quantity of husks, you will not get rice- 
flour. 2617. 
The converse of 1803. 
" You cannot get blood out of a stone." 

2623. &iuLuf.Q&) erpUsp t§®)tr (Qib&)it com.) 
Moonshine thrown on a forest. 

2624. (a) (3ji—<$GJi®) ejpplear <aSetr&(3j (b) eSeai^ sjppls &uss>i—ujirGi 



(a) A lighted lamp in a pot. (6) Lighting a lamp and cover- 
ing it with a basket. Matt. 5, 15. — 1593. 

2625. QeSfTL^lQ^LL&ai—S(^ LDuSH tSKIilijQpg). 

Plucking the feathers off a hen's egg. 2629. 

Said about a lazy person or about one who spends his time uselessly. This 
has also an obscene meaning and should not be quoted. 

2626. ngis (9)i—06d&) eunirpp ■geoBrassFirQutr®). 

Like pouring water into a new earthen pot. 2619. 

The water will percolate through the sides of the pot and be lost. Don't 
speak confidentially with strangers. 

2627. e§6ffS2id(9j &.<5B)LpsQpeu<5Gr eS&iarear. 

He who spends his energy in useless work is a nonentity. 
" He is teaching a pig to play on a flute." 

2628. ia9ip < |^«(5 §&3s>p$@ liirQuneo. 

Like irrigating useless grass. 

2629. Qeuleo u52eariO«Lli_ ^jldulLl-<sst pm ws'baa (or ^0sr&auj)s= 

The barber who had nothing to do shaved his daughter's head 
(or his cat). 



292 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

"SERVANTS DEMAND SERVANTS." 

2630. ejyOiJL/ SLLif.a(j9j<& ^eeiL-uusaiLesn 

A hearthstone demands a broomstick (to help it to hold the 
pot). 2631. 

2631 . ^lLujt^s^ §?(75 QLDniLi—ir&r. 

The shepherd can get some fool to serve him. 2630. 

Indian shepherds are proverbially stupid, but even a shepherd can 1 find 
some one more stupid to serve him. Said when a servant is told to do a 
thing, and sends someone else to do it, or when a child is asked to fetch 
something, and the child sends a younger brother or sister. 

u The master orders the man ; the man orders the cat ; and the cat 
orders her tail." • 

2632. ^>/ ) LLL-iT<Gf£S(&) ^0 @il.t—nGfr (or LonL'.i—nm), £}i—uu&&fUJG!pis(&j $(jtj 

gJGB)t—UU3&LL.<5B)l 

A shepherd has a servant, and the bearer of the wallet (adap- 
pakkaran) has a broomstick (a lower helper). 

The adappakkaran is one who does all sorts of menial services for his 
master. 

2633. 6)a»ff> Sifi @<aap, gjtsl&sr @tp ^ihui '.t.esr. 

A slave under a slave, and under him a barber. 

The barber caste is held in very low esteem although all classes of Hindus 
use the barber. 

2634. @iLi—n<&F&(Sj ^(^ QpiLi—n&r, Q&(njUL\<i ^irsQs^ $(§ j/fi—uusan 

JT6ST. 

The servant has an assistant, and the shoe-bearer has a wallet- 
bearer (adappakkaran). 2632. 

2635. p^eo &6®n3@p cg]i£>UL-i—e!piai(9) ^i—uuih pnikis ep@ ^gsfr. 

A man to carry the bag for the barber who shaves people's head. 



WORK AND WORKERS. 

2636. j>/l£I(g$@ a_sBr(oi_/r, @ul/ ibitujssQji. 

Oh, Kuppu Naikdr, have you some work for me V 
^jlSI^Q Q ffly?eu is also used of forced labour. 

2637. gi<snrrQeu'texasMJ& &muu$Qeo Q&iresarGZeuqijQppn ? 

Should you bring half-finished work before the assembly P 



WORK AND WORKERS. 293 

2638- s\eu&2& Qsneoil) jyetretflp QpetfippgiQunGi Q&iT®)&)Q(npth. 

You speak like the woman, who hurridly takes a handful of 
powder and strews it instead of working the Kolara pattern 
carefully. 

Said of one who takes people in by shuffling excuses, or by hasty and 
worthless work. 

2639. siesBruf. Qgy&Qy L\60g8 ^ps-nt 9(75 Qmiriq.&(3jQp<5isr slLl—it&Q&\ 

If you say, " Well, woman, did you cut the grass ?" she says, 
" It was tied up in bundles a little while ago !" 502, 2640, 2650. 
Said of a hard-working and willing servant. 502, 2640, 2650. 

2640. sn&in&i iBt—a&iTLD&), sirp^iiiu upsQpgi. 

He does not walk, he flies like the wind. 2639. 

2641. (5(59- @6snr6s$Q5&(9juQun l gis)&), erilL-n&r lSisstsQs®. 

If a blind woman goes for water, eight persons have to forego 

work. 2648. 
As she can't find her way, one is sent to find her, and another to find these 
two, and so on. 

" Work ill done must be twice done." 

2642. <9&_«yfl<L//r@)£#u) «i_«Di_ G-wkgipnGsr «sr_6$ QupQeu&zrGlih. 

Though she is a hump-backed woman she must carry her 
burden home before she gets her hire. 1962, 1707. 
" If a man will not tcork, neither- shall he eat." 

2643. pnGstQunsirp sirifluj<ggj&(<3j ^eirQ ua^eo ^(75 Q&itlL®. 

If a servant goes about business that his master won't go for, there 
will be defects (in the way it is done). 2644, 2649. 

" And he that by the plough would thrive, himself must either hold 
or drive." 

" If you wish a thing done, go ; if not, send." 

2644. ^lesret] erQ^^suasr Q&fTpfiib^Q&tT&r&rQsuasBrQib. 
''''Let him that is itchy scratch himself." 2643. 
Let the thing be done by one interested in it. 

2645. $(tT)Uuf£i «^'Loui-lz_63r ^ffl/j^ Q^iLQrD^Quff&i. 
Like the Tirupathi barber shaving. 

Tirupathi is a most sacred place, and on festival days at Tirnpathi there 
are numbers of people to be shaved. It is considered meritorious to get 
shaved and to present the hair to the temple. To make them wait, the 
barber shaves a little hair off each person, so that they may be 
ashamed to go and wait till he has finished his work properly. The 
proverb is said about work that is half done, gjGBiriLiLD (^eapnj tLtresr 
Qeu^eo, or about work that is done hastily, or about clever devices for 
securing one's own advantage. 

2646. ueareisfiu u$ppnpQuiT&). 

Like a piece of filagree work well fitted together. 



294- TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2647. LLffrTiuiAtrdj (offl/?su sjb^isQsrT&r&rQsiJ6aarQii. 

Learn to do thoroughly the work you have to do. 

2648. QpLi.i—tT(Gnj&(3j {g)rrassr<8 ^ar. 

A fool must have two helpers. 2641. 

He will do things so badly, that two persons will be wanted to set things 
right again. 

2649. (Hp^ane (or ^err) unir, Qpapenpu unh. 

Meet persons face to face, meet them directly. 889, 2643. 

Go yourself for what you require that people may see you know what yon 
are about and they will fear to cheat you. 

" If yon will have a thing well done, do it yourself.'' 

2650. QeuLLuf-aQsneoBT® surr&Q&iresrgS)®), siLiy-sQairestsr® m^Q^m. 

If you tell him to cut firewood, he brings it tied up. 1362, 

2639. 
"All things are easy that are done willingly." 

He strikes a good blow in his work. 
i. e. He works hard, and earns much. 



ANXIETY AND TROUBLE. 

2652. j)/&(9j£;Q<giT&(3j (j£)60®)rT£6ue!pj&Qrj£ gi&sih sjg> ? 

What sorrow has he, who has no family and no wealth P 

2653. ^aa&iLj&retretreyil) sj^so^feo £.6sbr®. 

As long as there is desire, there is anxiety. 

2654. «^«wrif Qeue^uo QumKSih, e gy$eo.£<psy fgaeSiGo'teo. 

Though you assume the guise of a religious mendicant, the 

anxieties of life will not cease. 1033. 
Outward religious devotion is no remedy for the evils of life. 677. 

2655. e^i—60 2-<ar&r <sn<5eisrs(^LD, si—&> Qsnar&m^ seu^so. 

Even the ocean cannot contain the anxieties of mortal life. 3388. 

2656. b.ul| $0ibpn&) u0ulj $}irngi, uqjjulj $)(TTjispneo S-ljlj ^JJtrgi. 

If there is salt there are no beans, if there are beans there is no 

salt. 2658, 2659. 
Always something wanting. 

2657. suiSi—iretj iHso^eo, QsvlL(Sss^^hj uQ&i'teo. 
He has neither cloth nor scissors. 

Said in blame of him who does not care for what he ought to care for. 



DISTRESS, PERPLEXITY. 295 

2658. seo'hsoii aesuri—iTeo isiretBius &itQ!<gsb)ijd, iBrreaytus &emi—tre\) } seO ( 2eos 

If you see a stone there is no dog (at which to throw it) ; if you 

see a dog there is no stone to throw at it. 2656, 2659. 
Said when something cannot be found that is needed. 
" All is not at hand that helps." 

2659. iSlerr'Berrujrreioffs semi—neo Q^iEJ&rrmujd &rrQ<es3)tii, QgiEiarretotus sesar 

i—rreo, LSefr'BsiTiLmemjTs srrQ^ili. 
If we see an image of Ganesa (the god of luck), we do not see 
a cocoanut (to offer to him); if we see a cocoanut, we do not 
see Ganesa. 2656, 2658. 

2660. wears <sq/3so, ueos (g-sispeij. 
Mental worry is loss of strength. 
" Care killed the cat.'' 

Of. 1205 /. 



DISTRESS, PERPLEXITY. 

266 J. ^uSIjtld umhtSleo sjsuulLi—. QpemrrQuneo ^eSsQ^m. 

He pants like a toad caught among a thousand snakes. 

2662. ^pplQeo <3&lLi— Qprruemu Qurreo jge&sQpjgi. 

To be harrassed like a straw (lit. Kusa-grass) let afloat in a 
' river. 

2663. sesuressrluSeo (or sutysouSleo) ^suuilt— (or QsQdGsaem u-\ u>rresrQurreo 

a®)isi(8jQ(rr/'<5BT. 
He is confused like a stag caught in a trap (or net). 

2664. &6B)!T &tr<GBB)£ Qprressfl Qurreo -geSlsQpgi. 

To be distressed like a boat that cannot find the way to the shore. 

2665. smeapp QpiSf.u usr pe&sQpgi Qurreo. 

Like the distress of a cow seeking her calf. 3151. 

2666. srrpplQeo ^sljulLl— auueO Qurreo ^j^eoQp^i Loearuo. 

The mind is agitated like a ship caught in a (storm of) wind. 

2667- prruxaMT ^teouSeo pesrsressPrr Qurreo 0eSI&Q(n?ear. 

He is in distress like water (quivering) on a lotus-leaf. 

2668. QgesReo eSczprhss ff Qurreo pe&&Qqr?m. 

He is struggling like a fly that has fallen into honey. 
Said of a person who is in great trouble and does not know what to do to 
get out of it. 

2669. ld^bo &eoiaQ(GB)gBih , LL6mii> seorasu Qurrsrr^j. 

Though mountains shake, the mind should not be troubled. 



296 TAMIL PK0VEK13S. 

REALITIES, FANCIES AND DREAMS. 

<S<S5T<Sty. 

2670. $3ir& semi— sesrey iSii—nuQurr&i eSiaSeargi. 

What one saw at night in a dream swelled to the size of a huge 

pot. 
Said of hopes not likely to be realized. 

2671. sezeBiLD sesati— searey (com. <s@)) Quit&). 
Like the dream of a dumb man. 

He is unable to communicate it to anyone. 

2672. GTeetsreeBfii) sred60irih Qurrib, (STld&st Sjfteo Qlduj (or <sje<fl@u> Quoili). 

Hopes and plans are all vanity but Death's decree is the one 
thing true. 

2673. semeSeo assort— uessrih Q&eoey&tg e^a/owr ? 
Money seen in a dream will not pay your bills. 
" -He who lives on hope has but a slender diet." 

2674. setsreSeo semi— Qurrrr^&r «o«<5@ otlLOlo/t ? 

Will wealth seen in a dream reach your hands r* 
" If tvishes were horses, beggars would ride." 

2675. ssorefi®) &.6sari— Q&vjru u& ^trs^mnt 

Will rice eaten in a dream satisfy hunger r" 
" Golden dreams make men wake hungry." 

2676. sesieSiei <£63bri_a/gps;(3ju ©udbr Qsn($ippg)QuiT&i. 

Like giving one's daughter in marriage to a man seen in a 
dream. 

2677- Qu(5 (SjjuS^z/ Qsnesari—^ ^fSiujjLDeo, @LDih@£jgp(9) is/reir @l!®« 
Qarreaan—rr^ih . 

Not knowing that his wife had dropsy, he appointed a day for 
the Seemanta ceremony. 1270, 2698. 

The Seemanta is a ceremony performed during the first pregnancy of a 
woman. 

" That which has its value from fancy is not very valuable." 

2678. ld0<sS&) &.68BTI— &truunilj56)i— ^}&)isise8Br^^)&) S^sar^^is Qsrresan—^i 
Qun&). 

Like thinking, during one's fast, of the food eaten by him at 

the feast given in his honour by his bride's family. 
To dream of past glory in the midst of present distress. 
" The memory of happiness makes misery woeful." 



THE MIND OR HEAKT. 297 

2679. QldiL sresr^n {g)(nj&QjgeBr, Qpi£l@Q>g<sBr, <s«jr<a/ ^&&g). 

I believed it all to be real ; I awoke, and found it only a 
dream. 

e. g. A widow may use this proverb meaning that she was happy till her 
husband's death, and had foolishly thought her happiness permanent till 
then. 1288, 2924. 

2080. SJjlL® 6^(633)057- LflgjIBSp Q&tTG6BrL-.glQurTS0, Ol' J)j@UeBl GMUpffleO SJTll.® 

gp<ss3)OTr ^0sS/r>^i. 

Like a blood-sucker (a lizard) entering into him ; or There is 
a blood-sucker in his stomach. 

The story runs that a man was taking water in his palms to drink under a 
tree ; a lizard that -was up in the tree was reflected in the water in his 
hands and the man saw the reflection of the lizard as the water ran 
into his mouth. He at once felt pain, and thought himself fatally sick. 
—Said of imaginary sicknesses and imaginary conclusions ; or said 
of one who may be right in being suspicious of a certain person, but 
thinks himself right in suspecting everyone. 

Of. 907 /. 1669 /. 2882, 2486, 2491, 2695 /. 2907 /. 



THE MIND OR HEART. 

L£x5STLD 9 Qj5(GTj<3h» 

2681. sim^u npfBQeo eiigu urncLj ^j0A(^Qldit? 

Who knows what snake is found in a particular hole ? 2407. 
Said of a person whose capabdities are not yet known. 

2682. Sir =§^>ld sesBri—rTgyw, GltB^G- JQLpth snasBruui—rrgp. 

Though you fathom the depth of water, you cannot fathom the 

depths of a heart. 
Generally said about women. 
" No one can see into another further than his teeth." 

2683. LnGMVeo jtf&reSlLLL-rrgytli, Lcesre^jg ^j&reSu.uui—n^i. 

Though you measure grains of sand, you cannot measure a 
heart. 



"OUT OF THE ABUNDANCE OF THE HEART THE MOUTH SPEAKETH." 

2684. s.tli-//P / «^7<5(5 QeuetRuLipLh sessr^Uf.. 

The outer man is the mirror of the inner man. 2702. 
" A bird is known by its note, and a, man by his talk." 

2685. &-<oBBri—g)@nQeG! ejuuih ®j(rr}iJb. 

What has been eaten will be (perceived by) the belching. 
" What the heart thinketh the tongue speaketh." 

38 



298 TAMIL I'KOVKRBS. 

2685a. LDesrlgleo ^Qtj&Qpg], eunsQQeo eu(gQpg}. 

What is in the heart will come into the mouth. 

2686. (3J6tf£,£7<S(3> <5Jpp Qu&&. 

Each man's speech accords with his caste. 685. 
" Good horses cannot be of bad colour." 

2687. Q&rrjbjr)i<&(<9j ejpp lo&ilo (or iS). 

The excrement varies with the food. 

A mother-in-law sometimes says this to her daughter-in-law, implying 
that her words and har deeds are alike vulgar. 

" Every tub smells of the wine it holds." 

" Muddy springs will have muddy streams." 

2688. meoeonn QuneO&infr mrreSlQedpirGBr. 

The good and the bad (are known) by their tongues. 

2689. IhlfsQQ&i ^Q^sQp^l !5m«6)lDVL\U> (b<oB)LCIL)UD* 

Good and evil are in the tongue. 1510, 1511. 

2690. iheoedgiuD Qun&)eonspiA m&QQgo. 

In the tongue is good and evil. 

2691. meoeonean tsne&eo S-<ss)ir } Qunan'2esis aeosSeo &-<a»D. 

Find out the good by their tongue, and pure gold by the touch- 
stone. 
" Speech is the picture of the mind." 

2692. up&sffQs Qpifitungn sirssrraSssr Qp®3Qj? 

Don't you know the strength of the crow when it flies \ 1851. 
People are known by th'ur deeds and words. 

2693. un^eoi (9)i$.@ peugpts^Li undo sjuuu> eu^iM, sar^eirs (&jiy.&&GJG!pid 

(3j& am eruuti) suq^ld. 

He who has drunk milk will belch milk, and he who has drunk 

toddy will belch toddy. 
" From a clear spring clear water flows." 

2694. Qu0es)miLjLD QgyanLCU-iw euirturreo euQih. 

Greatness and littleness come by the mouth, or is known by words 

Cf. 2499 /; 282 /. 5. 



THE MIND OR HEART. 299 

OVER-ESTIMATION OF WHAT IS DESIRED. 

LD6STLD, Qj5t<chj<fr 9 J5TL-L-LD. 

2695. 'g&nn'gtpsi Qw&QeBrgd sihetau. 

Whomsoever the Raja has praised becomes Ramba. 3436. 
Ramba was a beautiful celestial nymph. The ugliest creature in the world 
becomes as beautiful as Ramba if the king takes a fancy to her and 
praises her. 

" Fair is not fair, but tliat which pleaseth." 

" Fancy surpasses beauty" 

" An incensed lover shuts his eyes, arid tells himself many lies." 

Trees, forest and all seem to be she. 

Because she is so dear, she seem3 to be in everything. 

" A lover s soul lives in the body of his mistress." 

2697- l ®(2jvn'2efrd sesisrQsfT6sar® untrdas ^^i—eS&J^eo. 

I had not eyes enough to see all the splendour of that festival 
day. 3451. 

2698. u>6ortx> Q&fT60BTi— < g) Lcrraflana (or Q&nen<s8)&). 

What the heart is set on seems (as grand as) a palace. 2677. 

" A good hope is better than a bad possession." 
" Fancy -may bolt bran and think it flour." 
" A black plum is as sweet as a white." 

Of. 2670/,- 3145/. 



« WHERE THERE IS A WILL, THERE IS 
A WAY." 

IH6WLD 9 QljBtQjfr) JBITlL_L-LD. 

2699. 9<-Li£.^a)60 O^^i-l^Lgjfii) Qsir&r^ih, §>L-L-<re$LLL-n&> stLu^gnuo Qsit&t 

When there is agi"eement between the two, the very cradle can 
hold it ! when there is no agreement, even a cot cannot hold 
it. 2771. 

2700. Qsyesar(Su) eresr^eo er^jjgfrear Q&iLuj&&i-L-tTgi. 

If one really will, what is impossible ? 3146. 
" The will is everything." 

2701. Qsu683T®ih GreBrjpi jpr p(a?®i QeusaeiQesaidj QuorrpetopQutTG) £irjba60nu>. 
Thread may be spun as (soft as) a ball of butter, if while spin- 
ning one says it must be so. 

" The will is the soul of work." 

Of. 1946 ff. 



300 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS REFERRING TO THE MIND AND HEART. 

2702. gi&£$£l&) cg/Lp® npspGil®) Q^ifttLjih. 

The beauty of the soul is known in the face. 2684. 

" 'Tis the stainless soul within, that outshines the fairest skin." 

" The countenance is the index of the mind." 

" In the foreliead and the eye, the lecture of the mind doth lie." 

2703. $)!J&a>L&@ieonpGijear QtE^&th ^jq^imlSsUld Qsniq.uDJFp. 

A merciless man's heart is harder than iron. 3287. 

2704. &-ut$(yjfc 1 g uirestsn—QpuD, ^-uituulSq^w^ Qt5(GJ}#Qpt}) pilJ$l6am®QlurT(BjLC). 
A vessel containing salt, and a heart containing deceit will be 

broken and ruined. 202. 

2705. s&i^eoiunQ^ai}) aetaira&eo/nD, wssr&B^s ■sanff&s Qpuf.ajiT^i. 
Though you may dissolve a rock, you may fail in melting the 

heart. 3287. 

2706. jppeupih ^&)&>pu> Loesr^lQeo. 

Asceticism and domestic life are matters of the heart. 

i. e. Whether one is an ascetic or lives with his family, piety in the heart 
is the chief thing. 

2707. QarreOeoirp uxsbtld Qsenngi. 

An evil heart will not hearken. 531, 3287. 

2708. /_/@« u pi fined uif-iLjib epq^ Qg&u> } Qffijsj* u/Duuff/Dg (SVsv&it 

Though cotton flies off by the wind it will settle down in some 
land, but we find no resting place for the flight (restlessness) 
of the heart. 

2700. jsIqstld <gsijr$'2eou$a) LD6sr<so)fi tSipipgi. 

Keep the mind daily in a state of devotion. 

2710. iDniSuunn fi'ieouSeo emstLjih, LDrruLSm^eirQiLO) Sidnxafii^ti). 

Her hands are busied with her mother-in-law's head, but her 

thoughts are with her husband. 
"Her hands are on the wheel, but her eyes are in the street." 



CONSCIENCE, WITNESS, AND WITNESS OF 
CONSCIENCE. 

LL63TLD, <3FfT 

271.1. S{OS-m a_«0L_<s»/LDa;(5 ^stTvusunesS sir&fi. 

The sky is the witness to a king's property. 
A higher power protects a king's property. 

2712. ^gya/ssr jytsu&sr u>enrQ&, ^o/eir ^]®je!p]&(j9j& &nai$> 
Each person's heart is his own witness. 76. 



CONSCIENCE, WITNESS, AND WITNESS OP CONSCIENCE. 301 

2713. su8®\ LDtosr<S8),g jyifi&fgih. 
Conscience will gnaw the heart. 
" A wicked man is his own hell." 

2714. si— m utLi—nn G)iB(^s i thQun&) £&}(£j(5jQpgi. 

As confounded as the mind of a debtor. 1097. 

2715. sea&r Loeorih jpefr^ih. 

The deceitful heart is ever restless. 2310. 
" A wicked man is afraid of his own memory." 

2716. (^guihLSu^&retr snjgi ^otq/ ^dr^iih. • 
An ear full of wax will itch. 2718. 

A guilty conscience is restless. 

2717. ($pp LDesr&s : rTLL&ip Sh-Uf-euirQgLD & j £gp(ifj. 

The guilty conscience is a foe that lives with us. 
" A guilty conscience needs no accuser." 

2718. (sjjbpQp&rea QiS(G£& qjj/ (Sjjv CTwspti), (gjjpiihiSliLi&ren airgi Sdsor®] 

Qsn&H&Tjih. 
A guilty conscience murmurs ; an ear full of wax itches. 2716. 
The three persons mentioned in 1363, 1364 and 1365 are clear examples of 

the statement in this proverb. 

2719. QsITlDlLi^. <Fff<S5$. 

A Komati's evidence. 

A Komati (merchant) was asked to identify a horse about which a Musal- 
man and a Hindu were quarrelling. He said the fore quarters of it 
seemed to belong to the Musalman, and the hind quarters to the Hindu. 
— He was indifferent to the troth, and was afraid to offend either party. 

2720. &G6\ Q/F(S5<Sr JtjfiSlUIT^ QuiTlL ^§)6i)$6U. 

There is no deceit without the doer's mind being conscious of it. 

2721. pm^esT 6p®fl<£gi &(£ Gu^gfysst ^§)6tf$eo. 

There is no dodge by which one can hide one's way of concealing 
one's self. 

2722. prtGisr ^jpliLitTg ^jfoeu&uQ £_ajbn_fl-? 

Can anyone be possessed by a spirit without knowing it ? 

2723. ^sn Qi5(G£&d(3j<g QpiLeuQiL ^/7-<s^J. 

God is the only witness to the doubting heart. 
Said to comfort one's self or others in great sorrows. 

2724. j£jriT augi (9)&(<S)& Q^iLkouQld &(ra$. 

God is the only witness in an unsettled law-suit. 3036. 

2725. Q/F,g5* ^jpliuu, Qumu Q&n6d§tiQpprr? 

What ! to tell a lie, while your heart knows the truth ? 

2726- uou^tiSeo sesruo ^}(^ib^it&) euL^laSQeo uiuth. 

If there is money in the pocket, there is fear in the road. 2729. 
He who has sinned fears. 



TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2727. LD6BTJp3(9j LDGBrQg &{TSafi. 

The heart is its own witness. 

2728. u>esr(p£ LD6Brsps(3jLJ ukg}, LoeorQp LDsarjp&(jS)& -f^^iQ^. 

The heart is its own friend or enemy. (Bhagavat-gita 6, 5.) 
a Soul is self's friend when self doth rule over self, 

But self '.urns enemy if Soul's own self hates Self as not itself.' 
E. Arnold : The Song Celestial. 

" Their thoughts accusing or else excusing one another." Rom. 
2,15. 

" A good conscience is the best divinity." 

2729. QfigjOQeO LfSSBT S_6WTi_T@)si), Q&l$.U$Q&) J&eiDipUJLJ UUUU). 

With wounds on one's back one fears to enter into a bush. 

2726. 
" Conscience makes cowards of us all." 

2730. (oL£)!TQf)&(9)U QurriLi Qi£nrihsts>sses)UJ ^erfluuiQearesr? 

When going to buy buttermilk, why hide the vessel ? 
" A. good conscience need netier sneak." 
" Truth seeks no corners." 

2731. Qe>jeiNd(<9j 6p^fB)6BT &lTSnP. 

A lizard is witness to (what goes on in) the hedge (where it 
lives). 

Dependents will support their protector's case. 

Most of the above proverbs go to show that the II i ml us as well as other 
nations have a conscience. 1 have often been told that the Hindus 
have no conscience, and that before anything can be done for tkem a 
conscience will have to be created in them. Apart from the Bible, 
is there any nation that has said more and said it so well about good 
and evil (wearsou), ^stold) as the Hindus ? Do they not know the 
difference between knowing the good and not realizing it ? (Cf. 3566.) 
Cf. also the proverbs from 139 to 218 and Rom. 2, 14—15. 



FRIENDSHIP FOR GAIN. 

2732. H&lLi— &-P&I «Til® /5/rS5rri@, fs&Qasi e^sy (5ir§$ iBir'2efr<i(^. 
Friendship gained by giving lasts for eight days, platter 

friendship, only for four. 356. 
" He that is won with a nut may be lost with an apple." 
" A friend that you buy with presents will be bought from you." 
" With provision in store, we have friends by the score." 
easisu-Li Qffeu&GBt is a common phrase for this thought. 
" If you would have the dog to folloio you, feed him." 

2733. {§)L-i— etasesnv (spgQiurT, @}i—tr& <ss>ssauj rspg/QtsirT? 

Is the hand that gives, loved or the hand that does not give Y 
370. 



FRIENDSHIP FOR GAIN. 303 

2734a. &n Ssapii^ @mg$6ti Q&nmtglQrj&QLo u&fi&eh ifr supGaar L-.it &) QisGUm 

The birds that live in a lake full of water fly away when the 
lake dries up, but the lotus flowers that grow in the same lake 
will (remain) die with the drying up of the water. 

2734. QsnQpSSLJSBiL- <#l1® &-p6un®Qppnt 

Is friendship to bekept up by baking cakes ? 1060. 
" While the pot boils friendship blooms." 

2735. uir < 2eaTaSQ&) u^ig, Qneo ^QJjih&T®), Qp'2eouSQ&) Qps(8jgisB& QgtLi 

&JLC &-£jglT®Lb. 

If there is grain in the pot, many gods will dance in the cor- 
ners of the house. 

" Let us have flarins and we shall find cousins.'' 

" I wot well hoto the ivorld ivays : he is most loved that lias most 
bags." 

" Now I have got an ewe and a lamb, everyone cries, Welcome, 
Peter /" 

2736. LDit&i @)Ly.j5jgiT&) LDsmuf. Q&n&TfgrrfQpsp, a>-Lp Q&n^ggired «_tf« 

Q&n&TfGtpQpjp. 

If the rice is being pounded they draw near, if the gruel is 

being boiled they come as friends to eat. 1168, 1147. 
Said of one who does not care for others unless he can profit hy them. 
" Daub yourself with honey, and you will have plenty of flies." 

2737- 3k-.<as)nQ ldQgo Q&njryQutnLi—neo, ^uSbcd susstuj. 

If you put rice on the top of your houses, a thousand crows will 

gather. 351. 
" A full purse never lacked friends." 
"Money is the best bait to fish for man xvitJi." 
" In time of prosperity friends will be plenty, in time of adversity 

not one among twenty." 

Gf. 1070/.; 1054/.; 1742; 3136/. 



FRIENDSHIP AT A DISTANCE AND NEAR BY. 

2738. <3js&) §l0i^iT&) iSseir S-poj, QlLi— ^j0w^ireo qplLl—u u«o«. 

If separated by a long distance, there will be long-lived friend- 
ship, but if they are near each other, there will be perfect 
hatred. 

M Friends agree best at a distance." 



304 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2739. ^/a®) $(n)B &T&), ueiasiijLb s-peumn. 

If (two people) live at a distance, their hatred will turn into 

friendship. 
" A hedge between keeps friendship green." 

2740. jyssmu wniUSis^ ^ssesm u&<ss)&. 

The cow on one side of the river (thinks) the other side green. 
" Distance lends enchantment to the view." 

2741. Q&JT $Q)jih&n&) Q&iy.tmh ues)S, girn {g)(Vjt5/gned Q^iril.uf.^LD &.paj. 

If you live together the slightest thing will cause enmity, but 
if you are far apart 3'ou may be friends with a scavenger. 

2742- girJT ifiiq^kpn®} Qffn &-peq. 

If friends live apart their friendship is close. 

2743. gKDpgiu u&<smf sssar^us^s (gjetfiiT&Gl. 

Green at a distance is cool (pleasant) to the eyes. 



FAMILIARITY BREEDS CONTEMPT. 

2744. sthLDireirm isrriLi &ldloi1.u),$ Q^neeBs^ jpi^&lcit'? 

Will the blacksmith's dog fear the sound (of the hammer) r 1 

2745. uesriki srnL® ieiB &eo wuqsg j^^st-lait ? 

Will the fox that lives in a palmyra-grove fear the rattling of 
the palm leaves ? 

The leaves of the palmyra-palm make a rattling and creaking sound 
which sounds very weird in the dark. 

2746. QaireSeo l^2sbt Q^suq^s^ jtj^a-tDir? 

Will the temple-cat fear the gods ? 1412, 1413, 1414, 1415. 
" The nearer the church the farther from God." 



CLOSE FRIENDSHIP. 

2747. ^nnw eOi-L&LDasnreiBg Quit®) $)eB)&m$$l(Tr)&Qpgi. 

To be friends like Rama and (his younger brother) Latch ma- 
nan. 2818. 
Like David and Jonathan, or Damon and Pythias, or Pylades and Orestes. 

2748. Ql-I—go @j6sbr®, e_u5?/r epsisrjrii. 
Two bodies, but one soul. 

2749. &-a$(£LD &-L-£Mh Quireo. 
Like soul and body. 



FRIENDSHIP FOE GAIN. 305 

2750. n.pp QQisSpeisr, ^-uSq^s^ ^iBnpiD. 
A close friend is nectar to one's life. 

2751. rssQpih &60)puji£> Qua®). 

As close as nail and flesh. 
" They are hand and glove" 

2752. un&jih &qjjud Qurr&i. 

(They are as closely united) as milk and water. 

2753. ^<°ytfl LrxsearQpii) Quireo. 

As inseparable as the flower and its scent. 

2754. wedifl®) tAesorQpib, erea&fl®) siekrQesartutLjth, @^i—®fi®\) &.aS0Lh seoipjp 

Quneo. 
To be one like the scent in the flower, like the oil in the oil-seed, 
and like the soul in the bodj T . 

Sayings of this kind might be multiplied indefinitely from Indian lite- 
rature. 



DANGERS OF TOO CLOSE TNTIMACY. 
&-/D<SLf v QlQjB&LD. 

2755. &-pey &.peij prrear upluSQeo <sa><$ laasusaaQ^. 

No doubt, we are friends (or relatives), but do not put your 

hand into my basket (or pot). 
" I love you well, but touch not my pockety 

2756. «®(CTj SQibslt) seanremtsQU Qua&ieoiruLj. 

Too close a friendship is offensive to the eye. 

" Hot love is soon cold." 

" Friends are like fiddle strings, they must not be screwed too tight." 

2757- lluSit s«ri_ff L-ir^euirs&r glLli, QurTQjj&r sex.i—at—d Q&GHih. 

Friendship that is so intimate, that there is no room to insert 
a hair (between the friends), will be ruined if money-matters 
occur (between the friends). 

2758. Lonir ldlLQlo sl/pq/ {§)0&£rrQiih, lditit Qld&) ems Quiri—trQlp. 

Though your friendship reach her bosom, don't put your hand 

on her bosom. 
Though very much in love with her, don't take any liberty with her. 

Of. 1413, 2773 /; 2777/. 



39 



306 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

"TO AGREE LIKE CATS AND DOGS." 

2759. |§)6i;6B2/i(3j egya/spagjLO ei(ip Qunqrjppui. 

There are seven points of agreement between the pair. 3577. 

When a Brahmin examines astrological ly, whether persons, between whom 
a marriage is proposed, are adapted to each other, and finds that there 
are seven points of agreement in their horoscopes, they are considered 
unfit for marriage. 

" They agree like bells ; they want nothing but hanging." 

2760. eieSujih L^ssn^ih Quneo eunupQpg). 

Living together like rat and cat. 2762, 2846, 3622. 
" Two cats and a mouse, two wives in one house, two dogs and a 
bone, never agree in one." 

2761. smL®d QenrrssntLjiii, seear QslLi— ^ujeSeoeorr^ ^^rojspLo Qstrrrpgis 

@6V,7«a/^? Qua®). 

Like the wild Kild-imit and the blind unmerciful blood-sucker 

embracing each other and playing. 
Said of people who after quarrelling come to be very friendly. 

2762. urrihLjih QiftiL\ih (cUfT&j. 

To live like a snake and a mongoose. 

A mongoose is said to attack the most venomous snake and kill it. 

" At daggers drawn." 



LIKE AND DISLIKE. 

<5)Sl(TJjULl, Q^JPlUL-f. 

2763. j>/uSgr l @&(8) 2-(tp£tr®) Gifluuntb a22srm/u>/r? 

If you plough because you are compelled (i.e., unwillingly), will 

the crop grow well ? 1907, 1909. 
No good result can be expected from forced work. 

2764. c °)i(Bj<3>j(7r}ULi<9 : Q&rrjpiih, <9i#tkiQ@& snfiliyii). 

The rice was disgusting, and the curry was filthy. 

2765. $eif>L-. wjbp Qpe&iLiSsi, g gyffl*fti-/flff < g7 < y ffesffujiosr. 

Munian whom nobody likes is to every one the malignant planet 
Saturn (sani). 179, 2234/. 

2766. QsitgsS Q&iTUj. Qsn®uu^lgnil>, Q&ir^5B)tL6d srressfl Q&irQjuugi 

Instead of giving much with a wry face, it is better to give a 
little willingly. 2393. 

" God loveth a cheerful giver." 2 Cor. 9, 7. 

" A gift with a kind countenance is a double present." 



REJKCTKD FRIENDSHIP. 307 

2767. Q&nrfiisg] Qpubssng erasBrQistSBruJiLjih, uifl&g) ^ji—rrg Q&nnj/u) urrip. 

Oil not rubbed into tbe body properly, and food given without 
affection are worthless. 

Wheii Hindus take an oil-bath, the oil is rubbed into the skin by the 
friction of another person's hands. 

" Dry bread is better with love, than a fat capon with fear." 

•2768. i5lrfiiuu3&)&)iT£ Qfrrjrii, i$68ari—n Q&n&i. 

Rice given without love is but a morsel. 2124, 2393. 

" Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a stalled ox and 

hatred therewith." Proverbs 15, 17. 
"Better a friendly denial than an unwilling compliance." 

2769. uiflei] $)®)60itu Quir&asrpGflp ulLi^.6sB rnmgn, iSlifttjuuSeoeorT Queetsns. 

ift/b QuiL meotgi. 
Hunger is preferable to (receiving) food (given) unkindly ; a 
demon is preferable to an unkind wife. 

2770. Qsueasri—iT Qeujpiuuiruj, sjesort—rr QsnQuurrdj? 

Why do you give it with such an air of disgust ? 180, 185. 

2771. (cfiuawOii) <sreisr(tr?60 eS®, Q season— it ti> <5T6BT(n?ed sit®. 

If I like it, it is my home; if I dislike it, it is a wilderness. 

2699. 
A right disposition of the mind overlooks inconveniences. 

2772. GWiL/ti 3(V)ihuiT&Q#, Qsv/b/Sl^eoiLjih e8iei£iDtT&Q&. 

The bitter Margosa-tree has become a sugar-cane, and the betel- 
leaf has become poison. 

Said of broken friendship ; they have become Qt5Uf- ibfijbpu), a pungent 
unpleasant smell, to each other. 

Of. 1900 /. Of. 3145 /. 



REJECTED FRIENDSHIP. 

REFERRING TO PEOPLE WHO DESIRE TO BE TBUE FRIENDS, 
BUT WHOSE FRIENDSHIP IS NOT APPRECIATED. 



^/r<jS3)<S 3UQf)Qjn5lJ[T&6ri . 



2773. ^LLiy-sQarresoT® eukpnepiih, J5lLl$.& sySj&Qg'SBr. 
Though I cleave to him, he repels me. 1412. 

2774. SlLi—s 8lLi— eu&pn&iLo, euLi— enLi—u QunQ^asr. 

Though I constantly try to get near him, be goes further 
away. 



308 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2775. eueStu euig @Qpe&G®uj& &n®)tr&) ossigggip ^ar^Qp^. 

He kicks out with his foot the goddess of good fortune 

(Lakshmi) who has come to him of her own accord. 
Wilful rejection of kindly help. 

2776. eue&uu vupewruf. eunfeSlQ&) suk^ne^ih, Qunih &_psurrt^. Qurrajsurr 

Though you enter his doorway as his friend of your own accord, 
he says hypocritically, ' Come some other day !' 1564. 
^ True friendship rewarded with indifference. 

Of. 2755 /. 



INTRUSION. 

2777. «5y<s»ipuj/r 6fftl.(d&(9j j&66)i£ijun& etAuitg) (com. &thix>ih£sl). 

A relative who invites himself to a house from which he has 
received no invitation. 

The proverb is a sarcasm on all those unavoidable parasites, who come 
uninvited to all weddings and feasts in Hindu houses. 

" Fiddlers, dogs and flees come to a feast uncad (uncalled)." 
"He who comes uncalled, unserved should sit." 

2778. QSLiflQeO ssSiunsaani), u>iriBQeo &kpmic>. 

There is a wedding in the village, and there is sandalwood 
paste on his breast. 

Said of an impertinent intruder, who puts his nose into what does not 
concern him. 

2779. @<3fT6lfl uQu@^1J)£2IU), pQpefls (3>(o8) LpQ p £J . 

Though I order him off, he tenderly embraces me (with some 
selfish object in his mind). 2782. 

2780. urstsiaSQed Qevessri—rTih QsneawLJTm GTasrQrpa), ffieo Qungpeo §$%& 

Though I constantly refuse to take him to dinner, he constantly 
says that the leaf-plates are full of holes. 

Said of people who are told many times that they are not wanted, but, 
having no sense of modesty (Q<jn&ih OtQ^iTjT^essruS&)'2eo) ) do not take 
the hint, but criticise everything and make themselves quite at home. 

" Forbid a fool a thing, and that he will do." 

2781. iSi—viflenuju iSlif.ggjp p&r<m^ psirenu, Qu68br65gy«ni_uj &ppuum 

Though taken by the neck and turned out over and over again, 

he slips in, saying that he is my wife's sister's husband. 
" Follow love and it will flee : flee love and it will folloiv thee." 

2782- eSt-LQeSilj—rTgyih, ^LLu^sQsrreair® mq^Q^asr . 

Though you let him go, he sticks to you. 2779. 

Gf. 2755 ff. 



THE POWER OF WORDS, KIND OR HARSH. 309 

THE POWER OF WORDS, KIND OR HARSH. 

2783. cSytoi-/ ^seS esipppspQuneo Qu&Qpgj. 
Speech pierces like arrows and nails. 

2784. j>jeBr<5iDjD<5(3j& Q^nm^sr Q&nei> Q*gmiD Q%%GBrus<sjgi&(jsj &-<3»jD£ (gjua. 
The words spoken that day have effect for generations. 1914. 

2785. ^jirrTLDUrTesonb ulL® ^.Q^eSesr^jQurreO. 

As if hit and cut through by the arrow of Rama. 
So sharp were his words. 

2786. £_6ssr«0££> issorQiAirySI, ^JmssiLD Q-jryppw. 

A kind word is a blessing, but a harsh word will pain. 

2787. &®(mQfiT&) QsL-i—nio, sngis^d Qsnuu<anw. 

If you hear a harsh word, your ears will blister. 

2788. atrGiiQeo miruTfLo srnus : &eSlLLi—^)Qun-&). 

Like heating an iron rod, and putting it into the ear. 
Hearing bad words, or receiving sad information is very painful. 

2789. sireoiM Quir(9jih y wirfr^es)^ t$rb(9jLD. 

Time passes, but words remain. 1933. 
Said fco a person who uses abuse. 

2790. ihujQu)iTL)Slu9gB)®) Qggiuti) &_6sbr®. 

Kind words conquer. (For tbe reverse see 2041). 

2791. u& ld!T£$&) eeigpp j^GsnBQuirGV. 

Like a nail entering (Or, as a nail enters) into fresh timber. 
His words cut to the quick. 

Of. 2338 /. 



TO SPEAK DECISIVELY AND CLEARLY. 

2792. .jya/ear L^ffntumiribu Qu&Q(tr[m. 
He speaks without modesty. 

2793. 676BT6OTi_T, <FQ/<£#U> &L-Uf.U Qu3rQ(^lh. 

Sir ! your speech is clever. 

Said to one who speaks so clearly and decisively that he leaves do 
room for being attacked. 



310 TAMIL PROVKRBS. 

2794. srr&sQu Q u/tGjWsot, sirsuu^ Qs/T6ssr(Ssi/ihQ^eisr. 

I went to Benares, and brought back the Kdvadi. 

The Kdvadi is the pole put across the shoulders at each eud of which jars 

of holy Ganges water are slung and so brought by the pilgrim from 

Benares to Rameswaram to be poured on the idol there as an offering. 

Cf. note to 1440. 
Said to one who spin yarns, when wanted to be brief. By this proverb he 

is asked to be brief, or to state only the essentials of what has happened 

or has been done. 

2795. Qgmj&trih s-6tBL—^rruQ urr&) Qu&QQtfGisr. 

His speech is like the breaking of cocoanuts. 593. 

i.e. Terse, emphatic, clear speech, like the hard blows which break a 
cocoa-nut. 

2796. Q&nGtp&nuQunGO Qu&QjDg;. 
To speak logically. 

2797. j5irpj£))&(3) ^(Tj Qu&&. 

A word (of sense) is worth a hundred (of nonsense). 
" Deliver your words not by number, but by weight." 
" To hit the nail on the head." 

2798. ut-i-GHs &£@(fi 1 g@gjQun<3d Qu&Qpgp. 
Speaking like cutting silk cloth. 
Decisive speech. 

2799. Offl/il® ^mjrp, josser® ^uesar®. 
One cut, two pieces. 

Said chiefly of the right word that decides a matter. 

2800. Qeu&r'Semumu^ Qftr&)eSsSiL-L-jjissr. 

He said it in clear words. 

Of. 2338 /. 



NONSENSE AND EMPTY BABBLE. 

2801. «^Q/63T Qu&Sr ^GBBTSStsFlT QlD&) <ST(Lg$E) GBiSlJ&sQeiJGSarQilh. 

His talk must be recorded on water (i.e. it is not worth 
writing on paper). 

2802. jyeusiir Qu<f<9f- eSenaQseetnQseerib (or, Qeueesreen—ssnth) &wn&&n<jLb. 
His speech is a matter of lamp oil, or His speech is like the 

vendeikai vegetable (i.e. very greasy). 

2803. e_6or Q&rr®)09Q&) &_L/L/a9eO?so, l/«#ia/ iAleo'Seo ) ueaifiLj uflewSsu. 
There is neither salt, tamarind, nor juice in your words. Empty 

talk. 



THE POWER OF WORDS, KIND OR HARSH. 311 

2804. ©.gar eunaSQeo 9Qpeti. 

The goddess of good fortune (Lakshrai) dwells on your lips. 
Used ironically of a petitioner who does not know how to ask gracefully 
and so fails to gain what he requests. 

2805. eJfeo suitg&uj Qpty-tGBjg&ui, ses.iT eunesmj Qpi—evmorr? 

Although you cover the mouth of a rice-pot, can you cover the 

mouth of the village ? 2588. 
No one can prevent people from slandering and hackbiting. 

2806. ssei^sQS srrgy lSco^so ..s'Jteuuy tSI&i'bso. 

The story you tell has neither head nor tail. 
A story may be spun out to any length, when it is a story with- 
out facts or reason. 
" A story without a head." 

2807. s^^ldlJSlo &<5GilQumL(b)& spey pngGsleSLLGiuQurr ! 

When you have chattered as much as you like, shut the door 

and be off ! 
Said to one who comes and talks a lot of rubbish. 

2808. <s&}<sa)sud < m<5SiH upluug) Qurr&) QustQ^sbi. 

He speaks like one gathering mixed vegetables. 
i.e. He talks inconsistently, holds all sorts of opinions. 

2809. Q^fTessreiBi—eioius QySj^sps QanemGZQu&Qqrj'iSBT. 
He speaks so as to tear his own throat. 

Said of beggars, preachers and children who talk very loud. 

2810. U63T6?J#<F O<y/r<50T(S5)e0 UiTffg)LDlT(8jU). 

If he goes on speaking, a Mahabharata will be produced. 1502c. 
" Great talkers are like leaky pitchers, everything runs out of them." 

2811. usstg&u ueerarBu ul^iei soap uiy-iurrQ@. 
Do not tell the old story again and again. 

2812. Qppp s&)eS Qu&rrQp. 

Don't tell us your high wisdom. 

An ironical way of expressing contempt for the feeble nonsense of some 
pretentious talker. 

2813. Qwpp s\&gi iSl^Qesr Q>u&&s&tram. 

A talker who is transgressing all proper limits. 
He speaks haughtily. 

2814. SOLD 68)LD &IB£tfl, S^SaSU §HGJj&lfl. 

My pretty maid, leave the door ajar. 

Said in sarcasm to a servant or child, who, when relating something, goes 
too much into details. — A mother may say it to her child, when the 
child cannot get what it wants from her, and threatens to ask its father. 

2815. eui$ eufTihs &rr0$l®)®)rTLD&) Qu&Q(n?dj. 

There is no way or channel in your speech. 
There is nothing in what you say ; it is all against reason. 



312 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2816. (a//r«(5 emu&saruD Q^iftiLirnDeo Qu&Q(nj'm. 

He speaks regardless of persons. 

2817. QstigfiLD ens Qptpih(Surr®LDiT? 

Will an empty hand bestow a cubit's length (of cloth) ? 
He who has nothing, can only talk. 
"No flying without wings." 

Of. 2338 /. 



UNION. 
6£(/lj<S5)l£>I_J/r® 9 <aFLDUJ5^Ld. 

2818. jyi—uzuisj Qsmf-iLju) ^STeeon—rreo lSKS&qj. 

If tender creepers cling together there will be strength. 2005 

& ; 2747. 
" Weak things united become strong." 

2819. gieueor erikiQs f§)(nj& gnear , ibir&sr crribQs fg)(ij}ih(2@ear. 

Where was he, and where was I ? 

There was no connection between us before ; we have been brought to- 
gether by wonder, as it were. Eph. 2, 12 — 13. 

2820. s_6n-(6j5ti> Lj/Du>Ljii> ^^0ssQeLesar(Siu). 

Man's inner self must agree with his outward life. 

2821. 6Tj£<srr&) suiry>®)nu>, ^pprroi euiripeonui\ 

How can we live together ? By agreeing ! 

2822. ct^^tld GussBruf-iLfLD spppireo, Qld® u&r&rih SJg) ? 

If the bullocks and carriage agree, what are hills and valleys 
to them ? 

2823. «p(75 685.5 ^L-U^^eO, egSB)^ <STQpLbLjLDn? 

If one hand only is moved (lit. struck), will the sound (of clap- 
ping) be produced ? 
" Hand loashes hand, and finger finger." 
" One flower makes no garland." 

2824. si—eSQeo i$p&(9)U> e_uL/<j(3jti>, ufleouSQeo eSI'SeiruLjth MjrppiEi&truj&Qjih 

Qpnkpw. 
There is union between the salt born in the sea, and the lemon 
that grows on the hills. 

These two are united in pickles (a£tjpi3iruj) . The saying is applied to 
two people, who, though born in different countries, meet and act in 
unison. 



DISUNITY, MSAGBEHtBNT. 313 

2825. u r 4giuQu(nj&(3ju uetit&j&Q, epQ^eu^iis^^ gfbso &sg)ld. 

For ten persons it is as light as a tooth-brush ; if one has to 
carry it, it will be a heavy burden. 

The word translated 'tooth-brush' means, literally, a small twig with 
which the teeth are cleaned. No Hindu would defile himself by putting 
a brush made with an animal's bristles into his mouth, nor would he 
think it cleanly to use the same brush twice. 

" Company in distress -makes trouble less." 

2826. (jp<s«i_il®<? Qs(<sj ^(ygj. 

The dispute in an assembly of three persons cannot be appeased. 
A dispute between two persons may be settled, but not one between many. 
Or, it is difficult to unite many people in one opinion. 

" So many inert, so many minds." 



DISUNITY, DISAGREEMENT. 

6p (if) 69) LC U J Uf- SV 00 T 65) l£> . 

2827. ^aem® utlu. veniBQeo gjj/E/gj (guy.iiSjriTg]. 

In a village divided against itself even a monkey will not abide. 
Matt. 12, 25. 2831, 2841. 

2828. s-6\)<stD ueoeSl^th. 

The world has many ways. 848, 22tii>. 

Every one acts according to his own will. 

" No gale can equally serve all passengers." 

2829. S-637- un® &.m&@, 6TGBT Uff® GTmSQj. 

You have your sufferings : 1 have mine. 

i.e. We have nothing to do with each other; we will not help each other. 

2830. 90 wnpsjiu ulL<sk>l— ^0 wnp$sQ@d ^lL®loh ? 

Will the bark of one tree stick to another tree P 2832. 

2831. <p(77j6»LO UrTUt-&)eOTg (8j($. epQjjiBsss Qs®lo. 

A disunited family will suffer destruction together. 2827. 

2832. &lLl- weBMgnsijii), u&<ax>& ld6sbt^uu> ^lL®ldit? 

Will burnt earth and fresh earth stick together P 2830. 

2833. @}em%GSBrs(8j Qp&t QsniLu., uOi._/ra/-*g) QiSfiS slLi — 

The scorpion stung the veranda-floor, and the swelling (caused 

by its poison) arose on a pot. 1834. 
A sarcasm on irrelevant reasoning. 

2834. rsnn ^jgvi^rrio Qpisf.ujeonu>, issnii^ s\giftpn<k (tpu^ujeoaii, Lcmth ji/nyih 

pneo (or, QpfSkptTeo) QpUf-ULingJ. 
If a fibre breaks it may be joined again, if a vein breaks, it may 
be joined together, but if the heart breaks (i.e. if friendship 
is broken) it cannot be (joined). 3205. 
1 1 token friendship may be soldered, but never made sound." 

40 



314 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2835. q&fliLitb G£®ld Quneo ^lLl-tlcsSq^sQp^i. 

The ripe fruit of the tamarind and the shell that covers it do 
not stick together. 

As the tamarind fruit and its shell do not stick together, so the argument 

does not stick together. 
In Hindu Philosophy the same as 272, 2257. 

2836. Q/6OTT(63Jr)S52/<5(35/i> §fr <SuneB&S(9)U) ©_^ff)Sl/ STSSTSOT? 

What relation is there between a washerman and a naked 
man ? 



ENMITY, OPPOSITION, CONTRARIETY. 

2837. s\& <9jifi Giesr(it/<3d, union gnwn 6T6sr@(npeBr. 

If I say " Vishnu," he says " Rama." 488. 

2838. Sjfl GresTQij'®) ^68BW?.d(&j& Qsnuih, s\3 GiGsrqr?®) gn@Gjpi&(9j& 

Qsnuib. 
If I say " Vishnu" the Saiva mendicant gets angry, if I say 

" Siva" the Vaishnava mendicant gets angry. 179, 248. 
The Vaishnavas and Saivas are the two great divisions of modern popular 

Hinduism, and no love is lost between them. 

2839. ^-swrif «(3> ggit-.&Q&n&f! <££&), pnpes»a(9j $)i—# Q^neo§nQ(irj-asr. 

If I say, " Give alms to the Saiva mendicant," he says, " Give 
alms to the Vaishnava mendicant." 

2840. e-GO&pgi&Q) (QnetsiLD Quuu, (G^n&srggi&Qj &_6vsih Quit. 

Wisdom is the world's demon, and the world is Wisdom's 

demon. 
i.e., The world and Wisdom (Gnana) are opposed. 

2841. oes-ir ^)ffessr®uLLi^n&), s^^^ni^s^s Qsnasgri—nLLi—ib. 

If the village be divided into two parties, a show-man is happv. 

2827. 
He make profit out of the feuds of the rival factions. 

2842. snejus^u QumLljtgO, grbsosQU Qun®S(r^&sr. 

If I put it at his feet, he puts it on his head. 2845. 

2843. Sesijrd <itls»i_ Qenilu^r Q&nm^5)&), Q^mjammi siL®@{D^nt 
When I order him to cut vegetables, he ties garlands. 503, 

1897, 1899, 2844. 

" He calls for a shoe-horn to help on his gloves." 

2844. Q&n&nesrg) g£j(nj<ia, SK-eiaff lS(Sikj(^S0>uj. 

While that which you were ordered to do is left undone, you arc 
pulling up gourd-plants. 2843. 
• Said of one who is told to do one thing, but does something else. 1849. 



ENMITY, OPPOSITION, CONTRAKIETY. 315 

2845. ^ < 2eod^u Qu,tlLl-.!t&) srrgy&Q}, sngis(3ju QuiriLi—trio ^'Ssu.sgj. 

If put at the head it is removed to the feet, if put at the feet it 

is removed to the head. 2842. 
Said by a servant about a master who gives all sorts of irregular orders. 

He does not know a field in which rice is growing, and he does 
not know a place on which the moon is shining. 

These two things everybody knows. Said ironically to a person who in 
any given case which he knows well, wilfully speaks as if he did not 
know it. Also applicable to a stupid person. 1232. 

2846. U(65<#li> Q/5(0jtCL/tf> Qu!T&). 

Like cotton and fire. 

Said of two things that cannot be brought into connection without mutually 
destroying each other. 27bO. 

2847. uLLt—tT&) us&) sjB, ui—neStLL^irdo j§)jnr& s{8. 

If I get it, I will have it for mv dinner, if not for my supper. 
1797. 

The Hindu's dinner is at twelve o'clock noon, their supper is at eight 
o'clock at night. The former is the chief meal. 

2848. (J060T(68)G > 6U QuiT^Bjio QpiUSlQpsp, l$6BIi£B)Q®) QuiT<68)<50 Q-G8>fi<&Qf)p i g] . 

If you go before he will butt you, if after he will kick you. 

2851.. 
Said of a cross-grained man. 

2849. tjrrut3pmg t3&r < bsn iLjih ^str^i, u<s&) iSlpihg i3<ar'2eniL\i£> ^sn^i. 
Whether the child is born at night or in day-time it is disliked. 

2851. 

2850. QsuesaseOLC Qeusear aeoth srasr^eo, G^iLetm— G^iLem— ermQ^m. 
When I say, it is bell-metal, be keeps saying that it is a 

cracked pot. 488. 
Said of a person, who, through spite, wilfully depreciates what deserves 
praise. 

2851. Q<sudjiiSeSQeo QuiTLLL-ngpuc snuu LDiriLL^nssr, pesarestfi'iBQeo QuitlL 

If put in the sun, he will not dry, if put into water, he will not 

get wet. 2848, 2849. 
Said of one who wilfully puts himself at cross purposes with everybody 

and everything. 
" We piped unto you, and ye did not dance ; we wailed, and ye 

did not mourn." Matt. 11, 17. 



316 TAMIL PROVEKBS. 

SIMILARITY, LIKENESS. 

CHIEFLY IN THE SENSE OF INHERITED LIKENESS. 

2852. =gy@* 6T(Lp£g£lth UJSh'2aSTlLjU) ^jUU^dSSTuQuirreSri^sSp^l. 

He is like his father both in the five senses and in his appear- 
ance. 

2853. <g>jGSBt l— ££}&(§ <§&$£$ t$5GBII—Pgl&(9j. 

That which is like the whole is like its parts. 
Like father like son ; like master like servant. 

2854. jysuSGar ^.S^^<ssisa^^npQu^<sS(i^s®(iffisss. 

This man resembles that, as if he had skinned him and put on 
his skin. 

2855. jij&retBu urreo suiTii<iea)suS&) } Q&tr&)eSlLJ un&) mnh^^lr^sQp^i. 

When feeding the child with milk-food, they have also poured 

the milk of words into it. 
Parents, by their talk to, and by their behaviour before a child infuse their 

own good or evil nature into it. The proverb is generally said of the 

evil influences. 

2856. «^il®i(a5 epppgi @Llifi@. 

The lamb is like its mother. 

" She hath a mark after her mother." 

2857. ^(5 ^fQQeo &-0aQ <sutTrr<gjgrrpGu[T60. 

As if melted and poured into one mould. 

Said about men or things that exactly resemble each other. 

2858. setrmsar i3&r'2eas(^LO s&r&ru i~\&js). 

A thief's son has the disposition of a thief. 
" We may not expect a good whelp from an ill dog." 

if the horse leap eight feet, the colt will leap sixteen. 28t>:>. 

2860. @i7/E7(5 (*p<Gf)Q (QpSih) 6reO®)Mi> 9(75 g/>@R 
The face of one monkey is like all the rest. 

Said by a person to another who will not help him, meaning that he is a 
worthless comrade. It is also said by Hindus about Europeans, imply- 
ing that they all keep together as one against, foreign nations. 

2861. Q&LLq.uiSI&r%efrQuj[T, QsLii^.uiSl&r2efrQiuiT? 

If he is a merchant's son, he is a clever lad. 
The merchant caste is naturally expert in figures. 
" A chip of the old block." 



SIMILARITY, LIKENESS. 317 

2862. ■smanujuQuiTeo tS'&r'ckir, gir'%souQuiT&) Q^so. 

As the mother so the child, as the yarn so the cloth. 3275, 

3495. 
" As is the mother, so is her daughter." Ezekiel, 16, 44. 

2863. grrdj ejip jyiy. uiriuih / sa&), lds&t otlL® s{^- uniusuir&r. 

If the mother leaps seven feet, her daughter will leap eight feet. 
2396, 2859. 

2864. £tTUJ£(8j 2_«T6»r^7 £D<5(S»5<5@. 

The daughter will inherit her mother's nature. 

" Bad crow, bad eggs" — " Like mother, like daughter." 

2865. jpurrdQ <3uu9jbj£l&) iSziaQ l9 jd£ pgjQu rreo. 

Like a cannon being born from the womb of a musket. 

2866. ^uuiLi^.uSQ&i Ql£I£& QsnwGsarthpnQ&si. 

It is only a rag torn off from a piece (of cotton cloth). 
Said of the bad son of a bad father. 
" He is his father s son." 

2867. Lj&tid(<sju iSlpig! tBSiB&)60fiLDeo Quctqijilit ? 

Being; born of a tiger, will it lack claws ? 3063. 

A soldier's child will not be a timid child. 

" That ivhich comes of a cat will catch mice." 

2868. Lonprr Q&iupjp LO<s,$2srr<fs sirirs^ua. 

A mother's deeds will stick as a stigma on her children. 
" Visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children." Exodus 
20,5. 

2869. Qp6SBrGB)l—&@ Quppgl QpGSrjryih J)jUUUf.Quj. 

The three children the widow bore (while a widow) were all 
alike bad. 

i.e. The children of a vicious woman will be vicious. 

Among Hindus illegitimate children can only be the children of widows or 

dancing girls, as girls are married as soon as they attain puberty. 481, 

3495. 

" He is the son of a bachelor." 

" A vicious man y s son has a good title to vice." 

2870. >3ll3 : IBni3tlSiQe0 t-l(tpjg£ LjQp. 

He is a worm sprung from deadly poison. 

2871. eurrenip jyty. eurreiBip. 

The (shoots springing from the) roots of the banana-tree will be 
banana-trees. 

2872. efi&nrr ©asrjy QutnLi-.neo, &<SB>n §}<sisrjpi (^oSsYrigjuyr ? 

Will a gourd grow up from seed that is not gourd-seed ? 2606. 

Of. 279. 2064 /. 2684 /. 



318 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

PATIENCE, FORGIVENESS. 

QufTjrjjtoinLD, LG<o5r6&UL-l. 

2873. ^s&u QunjpigjgisuiSBr, ^pu Qu(rg»&&u>iTLLi—iT<6B)? 

Will not he who has waited till the food is cooked, also wait 
till it cools ? 

2874. g®t}> i£m epty. ep0 ifi&sr euQfjLC&reqtx) suirtsf-uSQ^s^LLfrih Q&n&qfj. 
The crane will stand hungry and let fish after fish pass, till the 

proper one turns up. 
Great people overlook things not worth notice. 252«. 

2875. peearesi^Q^th Qpssr^n iSlsmip Quirgu&(9ju>. 

Water forgives three offences. 

Referring to the three times a man is said to rise to the surface before 
drowning. 



2876. l5QtQGdlT(Jfj&(8jU QuiTjr)l<36)L&(oUJ 

Patience is the support of good men. 
" He that can quietly endure overcometh." 

2877. M& (Bjppih J^g) L$my,Gl siesta® QuirjptdaGteiJGBBrQih. 

A hundred offences must be considered as six faults only and 
forgiven. Of. Matt. 18, 22. 

2878. QisitiL jyifiGI Q&rrGH Quir^jd^iLn? 

Will pounded rice endure boiling '? 

Mean people possess no real patience ; there is nothing noble in them. 

Winslow says this proverb means that the poor cannot bear sudden 

wealth. 

2879. Qujbp £iJiL -Sj^HHud, (^ppuo er^^^esi Qurrjpiuurreir. 

Though she is your own mother, how many offences will she for- 
give ? 3212. 
There is a limit even to her patience. 

2880. L^i&eewuQuiTeo QunguesnnQeueetir®!!). 

One should have patience like the earth. 

The earth bears the sins of one generation after another, but according to 
the Puranas, in ancient times the goddess Earth (Hhumi Devi) some- 
times lost her patience and applied to the gods for help against the sins 
of men. 

2881. QunspiBpnn l^lSI ^areuan. 

The patient will rule the world. 

Ou/r/E/S@)/f &tr®Qstreir<3Hrrir. 

The passionate will inherit the burning or burial ground. 

Said in allusion to the Pandavas and the Kauravas in the Mahabharata. 

" Command yourself and you will command all things." 



ON QUITTING CKKTAiNTY FOR HOPE. 319 

ON QUITTING CERTAINTY FOR HOPE. 

J5LDL§<3i<5S)$, jB&<9 : UJLD. 

2882. jqn&yGsr (Bii>i$u uq^sl^issts esiseQiLL-^iQune^. 

Like believing in the king and giving up one's husband. 

Said of one who gives up a post with a small but certain salary, for the 
sake of a better post which he fails to get. 

" Never quit certainty for hope." 

2883. j>f68reB)<D<&(3)d Q<3S)'—&Qp ^uSfrm Qunasf'^EsrcSi—, {g)eBT<SB>pd(3j& 

A little copper coin obtained to-day is better than a thousand 

gold coins that you may get some day. 2889. 
" One to-day is better than ten to-morrows." 

2884. ^esrQijDeSl0s8p ^nseisr Q&n p<aj)pe&i— } i9&<as)& <si®sQp unnu 

un6sr Q&rrjgi QldgO. 

Better is the rice of a mendicant Brahmin, than the rice of a 
king riding on an elephant. • 

A king may lose his kingdom but a mendicant Brahmin is welcome every- 
where. 

2885. ^}jjsv&) @?eos6)uj iblci3, ^®uus swes>^es)uj eriBm^ireirniJa. 

Trusting to the borrowed cloth, she threw away the rags she had 
round her waist. 

The folly of forsaking certainties. The woman who threw away Iter own 
ragged clothes because she was dressed in a borrowed cloth, found that 
when she had to return the borrowed dress she was left quite naked. 

2886. <s?teuuyti> LDUsmu isihiS, semupp irnreasu sulLi^sq eSLLi—^Qun&i. 
Believing in the dispersing clouds (i.e. that it was going to 

rain, and she would soon get a fresh harvest), she lent the 
flour she had ground (to her neighbour). 
" Although in rain, throw not away thy watering-pot." 

2887. <as)&uuip£GB)gu Qunu-QeSil.®, ^jpiLQu uippgist&j syasssuuL-L-g] 

Quired. 

Like dropping the fruit in your hand, and longing for the fruit 
that has to be got down from the tree. 

2888. Qsiresori—GL'sisr g£j@&&, <563OT/_aX?<60)® QuneutrQeeras:. 

While I have my husband, why commit adultery with a stranger ? 

2889. /5fl-2err«(5;? $esrQp ueorrssnetaiveSu., §£eisr<3Bp&(8j£ tslmSp sarrrs 

sntLi QmeO. 
Better to eat -Koto-fruit (an inferior fruit) to-day, than to eat 

jack-fruit (a favourite Indian fruit) to-morrow. 2883. 
" A bird in the hand is icorth two in the bush." 



320 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2890. QiBiuSpes)^ sSlL® f§'2esT@j£/&Q&n688Ti—'TgB)Lb msQ&nenasr. 
The weaver thought of abandoning weaving. 

" The cobbler should stick to his last" 

289 1 . <suwpg) QuiribeSKSiLD, $}0<i&pg) Quirairgi. 

That which comes will go again, but what one has will not go. 

2892. euuSpguu i3&i"2eirssnu mti>i3, em&uiSI&r'SeireBxu eSLLi—gjQunio. 

Like a mother believing that she will bring forth the child in 
her womb, and giving away the child in her arms. 

Of. 956 /. 



BELIEF, TRUST. 

J5LDl9<£<SS)&. 

HE WHO WILL NOT BELIEVE CANNOT BE MADE TO BELIEVE. 

2893. .sfflarSsroru lS®ieiQ' QpesrQGsr srpli^w, seoBTsLLtg. e3jg<58)& GimQqrjGBt . 

Though one pulls out one's eyes and throws them before him, he 

will only say it is jugglery. 
Wilful stupidity. 
" None so blind as those who wont seeP 

2894. etiaSpgvs (3jz_tteo,£ <s/rL.i^.(65)earii > ennesiLp/Bnir GitanQqtfm . 

Although you show him the entrails of your body, he will 
say that they are the fibres of a banana-tree (Musa). 

2895. euaSpemps Spls stTesBriSpprrgnuD, f^jijslff °%neouo Grasrunasr. 

Even if I cut open my stomach and show it to him, he will only 
say that it is jugglery. 



THE UNTRUSTWORTHY. 

2896. ^s=edeSil.L-n<s5r titafrSfrr ^j > up < g}&(9j S-^e^surr^g) ? 

Will a neighbour's child give help in times of adversity "i 3537. 

2897. cS/tf- $L-Uf- ^f^eoQeurr QiDpsnesenh Quin^.Q<Siieear(Sliii. 

Rest on something solid and then make your somersault. 1333. 
Do not enter into any undertaking without having something to depend 
on. 

2898. e_«J7<5(3j §>ilJS)p ^leaar^essrCouneSl^sQQij'^r. 
He is like a narrow veranda to you. 

One cannot sleep comfortably on a narrow verauda for fear of rolling off 
One cannot be comfortable if one has a doubtful or untrustworthy 
partner or benefactor. 



CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY, STEADFASTNESS, ETC. 321 

2890. (§<£,£) ggjassfloauj ihihi-iSpGaeO'teo. 

He is afraid of trusting the cloth he has tied round his waist. 
Tie is afraid that somebody will steal it. Said of a very suspicious per- 
son who suspects everyone, even his own wife. 365. 

2900. Q&pfiQoi ibi'.I— sthuihQurr&>. 

Like a pole stuck in the mud. 

A pole stuck in the mud may fall at any time any way. Applied to an 
untrustworthy person ; or, to an unsettled law-suit. 

2901. mi—sQpg) ibi—sslUSiud, Q^iusuth ^j0sQ/o^i. 

Come what may, God remains. 2090. 

2902. u# eiTsjiLD, uiriruu!T(Ssr STSOLpiijih rsibuuui—irg}. 

One should not trust a gentle cow or a poor Brahmin. 2903. 
The cow may gore, and the Brahmin may prove a cheat. 

2903. u&jg£6)J6isr(cU)&t iewlSsiscos sbsussitQ^. 
Do not trust a hungry man. 1761. 
" Trust not a broken staff." 

a Hunger and cold deliver a man up to his enemy." 

2904. u@,g]e8p)§$£l§/iu> ues>ptd2esr idthusonm, uiriruurr'2esr wuauds^-i—ir^. 
In ten cases you may believe a Pariah, but not a Brahmin. 

2905. Queisr uirirggrrepuD WTiT3(gjih, srreta^s sLp-gprreyih sup.d(9juy 

for iSuugpngyw i$tbs(9ju>). 
It may hunt lice in the hair, but it may also bite the ear (said 

of a monkey). 
Said of a person who is not uniform in his treament of others ; he may do 

good and may also do harm; not a noble character. Uia>3srr<£g) <p0 

(3jGBBTli>. 1275. 

2906. LD68BT (Vj£)GinjT6B)Uj is u>l9 , ^pjSlQei) ^piaseonuin^ 

Should one mount a horse made of mud to get across a river ? 

2022, 2028. 
Don't trust mean people, though their outward appearance be ever so grand. 



CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY, STEADFAST- 
NESS AND UNSTEADFASTNESS. 

'2907. jqiaQs QurrQesrQ^ Q*&G?G.go)'? 

If I go there, I shall be killed. 2506, 2915. 

In colloquial : ^EiQsQurrgBjG) Q&pGpasr. The past for the future 
denotes certainty. 

2908. =^<5«(5 <$gp &$<* • 

Are we eternal to one another *r 

Death's approach is uncertain. Consequently we do not know how long 
we shall have our dear ones and friends or protectors. 

41 



322 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2909. 4^ eutrpetf «f£(g«(5 iStearpg] ? 

Whose prosperity will remain with him for ever P or, who can 

depend on his present prosperity ? 
" To-day stately and brave, to-morrow in the grave. 

2910* ^)a»i— &@ fihu^gjih, &tr^sB)@$5l eurrt^ajtM &iB, 

The prosperity of a shepherd woman, and that of a woman of 
the toddy-drawer's caste are equal. 

Sometimes there is no grass for the sheep ; and the juice of the palmyra 
trees is not to be had at all seasons. 87. 

" Danger is next door to security." 

2911. £$150 &-&)& <swn£a/ #£u>n? 

Does worldly prosperity last for ever ? 87. 
" No morning sun lasts a whole day" (in England.) 
" No gain on earth without its loss ; no back of ours without a cross ; 
No pleasure here without its pains ; thus earth and earthly things 
are vain." 

2912. {§)gl eredeonih Qunihtna) «^tli_ti). 

All this (i.e. world) is a puppet show. 

All is illusory, and lasts only for a short time. This is the doctrine of 
Maya. 

2913. gfraeueo &gu>ir, $sJ0L—Gbt v-peun? 

Do borrowed things remain with you for ever ? will a thief be a 
friend 'r 1 

2914. ^6Br<a»p&(9) ^q^sQ peuan isrr'<kiT&(jS) g^ei^so. 
He who is to-day, is not to-morrow. 

This may be illustrated by the saying of Pattanathar Pdlei, @)Qf)UU&p 
Qurrib, Qun&igl Qutvb. ' Existence in this world is falsehood, leaving 
this world is truth.' 2936. 

2915. aacanju ueias^Q^Q<Q) §>0 Qiini^u^eo QsLLQu.Q^i 

If I hate the village, I shall be ruined in a moment. 2907. 

2916. eri5@ LDi—pj3<5(<!)j 6t£@ ^Gokuf- &£ii>?. 

What mendicant occupies any lodging-house permanently ? 

1049. 
He moves to a new rest-house every day. 

2917- <»6!»r &GS$&LDtTtLs : Q&jeOgxeunear . 

His estimate of it will be but a guess. 

2918. 3&)GlB&) <5T(l£&g] «?60ii/a»/r? 

Will a letter written on a stone be obliterated "t 



CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY, STEADFASTNESS, ETC. 323 

2919. (3jix.//?<sgj epQj LflsrrSsrr, Qarrt$.£(&j ^75 Q<a<6ff2srr. 

One child for a young woman, and one wash for a new cloth. 

The beauty of both soon fades. The cares of maternity destroy tlxe beauty 
of Hindu girls very early. It is no uncommon thing for a child-wife of 
fourteen to bear a child. One washing is enough to dim the gorgeous- 
nessof the colours in a new cloth. 

2920. Q&rreorm Q&n®)gyai(§ ^}j6sgris^eoe^rTLD&} suQ^eunm. 

There are no two opinions about his words ; he will surely come. 
He has said it, and he will act accordingly. 

2921. QfiTLLu.isnnm (01% suu/bsiriTSBr) sungey 3npg»<2>iu}.&@n®)QuiT&3rgi. 
A gardener's prosperity may end any day, if a storm comes. 

A man's worldly prosperity may be upset any day by unforeseen events. 
"A merchant's happiness hangs upon chance, winds and waves" 

2922. iBnib svntu GB)SuppgiQun&) Q<oij'2eoQfdjQp t g} (or utp.dQ/Dgj). 

Working like a dog that runs about putting its mouth to every- 
thing. 
Describes unsteadiness of purpose. 

2923. U(G$&rriEisth Qurr^gyih, iB^^^nih Quit^ldit. 

If the almanac is lost, will the stars be lost ? 2212. 

That which is derived may fail or be lost, but the original of all does not 
fail. Even if the Vedas were lost, God would not be affected by it. 

2924. QunimQesr urr&> QuiriLuuireo. 

Boiling milk is deceptive. 

When milk is being boiled, it may rise very high and seem much, but it 
subsides as soon as the pot in which it is being boiled is removed from 
the fire. Said of people who are proud and conceited on account of 
their position or of a little money they have. Also said when some one's 
pride and conceit are seen to be founded on purely tern porary prosperity. 

2925. LDGBtp QuihQpgiih, ti?sir3err QujpiQpgiuD ldsit Q@6dqtj&(§ld Qptfl 

virjji. 
Even the great gods do not know when it will rain, and when 
a child is to be brought forth. 

2926. sutTGtogsfg} ^(75 gj'Ssu. 

A banana-tree yields only one bunch of fruit (and then it dies). 

2927. Qeuhptuth (or, Qsuikisnujih) @)lLl- &}8&(3j& &isQp&i£l &)"%&. 
There can be no doubt about a curry with fenugreek seed in it. 
The smell of the fenugreek or onion at once settles all doubt. 

Said of a person who has done some evil, or betrayed a secret and then 
denies it, though it is evident that he and no one else is the sinner. 

Gf. 2670 /. 



324 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

"ONE'S DEATH ANOTHER'S BREAD." 

&IT61J. 

2928. ^Gsorip. eruQuir &nenn<asr1 wi—th sruQun ^yj/uyii. 

When will the mendicant die, and when will his place in the 

rest-house (Matt, Matho) become vacant ? 3642. 
" He pulls with a long rope that waits for another's death." 

2929. $<sibl—8 (or ptriLi) Qt^eS eruQun ^iieunQ Wfr? f§)i—ti> (or pngeuiripih) 

eruQuir gySjiLjGi&ir? 
When will the old shepherd woman die, and when will her 

place (or shed) be empty ? 
" He that waits for dead men's shoes, may go long enough barefoot." 

The property of the dead is the refuge of the living. 

2931. LD#&nein Q&ppirei) LDU$]Trr#&, sihueifl QiDpeop (5us&&ir&3r. 

I care a hair for the death of my brother-in-law, for his blanket 
and mat will become mine. 



REFERRING TO DEATH. 
&IT6L]. 

2932. ^euasr Q&npaop wpwjpefililj—rrGBT. 

He forgot to eat his rice (i.e. he died). 

2933. gjQgeuttfr gjpp SesaQpuy, ^pn^eunn <g{pp */_?60uyii). 

A corpse that has no one to weep over it, and a funeral pyre 

that has no one to quench it. 
Said of one who dies in a foreign place away from his own people. 

2934. ^liisireoih ereoeomh jp/<siJ&rTifl <%v)-} fniEisneoth &i£isjriT <f/e/«j/t ereor 

Throughout life she was a harlot, but at the time of death she 

cried ' Siva, Siva !' 
When nearing death all cry to God for help. — Death-bed repentance. 

2935. ^fS^th &rrei], jprplgyuo errey. 

A person may die when six or when a hundred years old. 
" Of young men die many, of old escape not any." 
" Death does not blow a trumpet." 

2936. ^cJl/u^? QuniL, Qurreug) QldiL. 

To remain here is a lie, to depart to another world is the truth. 

3124. 
i.e. Not earthly life, but life after death is the true life. 



" one's death another's bread." 325 

2937. §gj@&<ge>jeBr §)0uusv^s(^ euL^lsiriLi^.. 
The dead is the guide of the living. 

The dead are witnesses that the living must also die. 

2938. FFfeo Lci^.i^sirjbQurreo mi^k^Q^ CVcfcur. 

The army died like swarms of ants. i. e. in heaps or by thou- 
sands. 

2939. ctsbt @lU$Is S)ySligiQuT l gB)&) jtjeOeoQsurr &tre>j guqll. 

I shall die only after my fate-leaf is torn. 1351, 2948. 

In allusion to the Hindu belief that the fate of every person is written 
on a cadjan-leaf by Brahma and left in the custody of Yama's clerk, 
Chittraputra. This latter is supposed to tear the leaf of everyone 
whose term of life is out and to hand the torn leaf over to Yama's 
messengers who execute death. 

This is sometimes said by people, who, in great illness or intense suffering, 
long to die, as follows: ^asresfua er&sr @lJS)& St^iueSeo^soQuj. 
My fate-leaf is not yet torn ! The proverb may also mean : Nothing 
can be done in any sphere of life without the will of the person in 
authority. 

" Mrityu ! thou art created unto this, 
To make an end to all that lives, go, child ! 
Make them to end, each at his time ; spare none ! 
Such is my will, and never otherwise ; 
Thou shalt be blameless, doing Brahma's will." 

E. Arnold : Indian Idylls. 

2940. Gpiq-uQunesr Qp#eo Qurftia (tp&eo. 

The hare that ran away was a big one. 2949. 
The loss of anything makes it precious. Matt, xxiii. 29. 
" He that boasted of his ancestors confesseth he hath no virtue of 
his otcn." 

2941. slLgsl- Quirked <°>)(8uQunGi—. 

When this body goes (dies), there is no more. 

2942. ear® eun erasrSiD^j, a?® Quit sresrSrogj. 

The burial place says : " Come," and the house says " Go !" 
Said about or by old people, who on account of age must soon die. 
" He is burnt to the socket." 

2943. sngi s\&^P ssL^njih ewrntTgistresBt (ggu-w) &G8)i—euy5l&Q&. 

On your last journey {i.e. to the burning ground) you will not 
carry even an eyeless needle with you. 136, 3361. 

" A thousand pounds and a bottle of hay are just the same at dooms- 
day." 

2944. «i-® ^,Q^sss (gjuSeo (or qjqgS) Qunesi mrnuih sresresr? 

How wonderful, that I, the cage, am left behind, while the 
cuckoo, its inhabitant, has flown away without my knowledge ! 

The bereft wife considers herself the ca<?e, and her husband the bird that 
lived in it. Said by a widow over bet husband's corpse. 



326 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2945. &e&uiSesonh giBassr Q>p®iD. 

A man who dies on a Saturday will seek help. 2953. 
Saturday is an inauspicious day. Hence if one dies on that, day another 
must die and follow him. 

2946. &n&Q>GU6GBc(i>iLD eresrQp ggjifiemtu sSiltSeSLLQsur, surTLpQ®jeaar®ih sreor 

Qp a/6U^«ouj gftanippgieiiiT. 
Leave the wise woman who wants to die, and bring the hold 

woman who wants to live. 
So says Death to his servant. Those who seek death, cannot find it (as 

Damaijanli in the forest after Nala had loft her), and those who fear 

death are called away. 

2947. &nQp rsiriii <s£!rp<ao<£& &iTLLis/-<asrg)QuiT6ti. 
Like a dying 1 dog showing conrage. 2229. 

Said of one, who in despair at Death's approach, does as much evil as he can. 

2948. @<g@JJULl£J5)!TG8})d(9)& Qglfl/jUtTLDeO @lL<S>& Q LfS) UL\ LLtT ? 

Will the label (with one's name) be destroyed without the 

knowledge of the accountant of Death. 
No one dies without the will of Death. 2939. 

2949. Qegpeuesi sesar si—tr sssar, $0&@sijeBr s&sar ^}&)eSI seear. 

The dead man's eyes are very big, those of the living very 

small. 2940. 
Lavishing praise on the dead which is not bestowed on the living. 

2950. Q&P& £§)*—"> LjdogjS (ytfefTpgiuQumh. 
Grass will grow on the place of his death. 

Said to signify that the person referred to died long ago. Or: — Had he 
not helped that family, it would have been ruined long ago 

2951. Q&pgi& Q^iLsuuonib SpQ(ff&sr. 
Though dead, he stands like a god. 

Women often say this about a deceased person meaning : Do not speak ill 
of him for he can hear what you say. 

" Speak well of the dead." 

" Of the dead nothing but what is good." 

2952. Q&£g6U6sr (Sfpjp QtpsQs ^(T^tB^neo erssresr, QinpQs ^(njibprrdo 

GI<35teBt\ 

What does it matter whether a dead man's body is turned to 
the East or the West r 1 

Whatever ceremonies the Brahmins perform after a man's death are of no 
avail, if they have not taught him the right path in this life. — Or, a man 
should be treated properly while he is alive.— Or, said of a man who is 
ruined morally, for whom there is no help. 

2953. pihQm <2$ UJfT gGBT @GOTG!plL-66r QpGSTgll. 

A person who dies on a Thursday will take three with him. 
2945. 

Death on a Thursday is even more inauspicious than death on a Saturday. 
In India we meet with the idea, that he who dies on Thursday must have, 

as companions, a chicken, some cocoanuts and a bolt ; while he who dies 

on a Saturday needs only a chicken. 



A GOOD ENTERPKISE THAT ENDS UNLUCKILY. 327 

2954. girjb£)i&(3j ^/^rs^ne^Lo, a^-jbgis^ (uumm) ^jetapsSsair^neisr. 
Even if one lives a hundred years, he is but a vegetable to 

Death. 
u Death is the common lot of all." 

2955. i3gsar^e6i^ Qpu?- wasur p<as>p& Q&tb. 

Cover up the corpse and attend to the marriage. 2957. 
Postpone the Former for the latter. 

2956. a/jruCW p'Viso'ju'&bst (coin, g'teossnessfl), sunuussaQeon u^s-QiDpiatDp. 
After death an earthen ridge is the pillow for the head, and a 

water-channel is the cotton mattress. 

This is the last comfort provided for the human body. 

The Lingayat Sivites bury their dead. The corpse is placed in a sitting 1 
position in the grave. The artisans (Kammalar) also bnry. 

2957. &l!TUp66i&l@ g&T6ffi(GB)S2lLD, &[T<3DtoiJ£ g&TefrUUl—ITStf. 

Though you reject prosperity, you cannot reject death. 

Though you stay away from a wedding, you should not stay away from a 
funeral. The reverse of 2955. 



A GOOD ENTERPRISE THAT ENDS UNLUCKILY. 

2958. SlS&i&glu Qunepgg) sjSsnenesBTesiL. Quir^&i, gj&m&J ^Qg&g! 

w&&n6&i—ft$&> eSu-L-netrmb. 
If weary and fatigued sbe (left her husband and) went to her 
elder sister's house (hoping to rest a while from worry), her 
elder sister dragged her back to her brother-in-law. 

2959. sfbus eSQfjai^iDGOBrGtBL- Qundj, 6TLLtg.daniu euniEiQeBT^Qun&i. 

He went to the KaljHika-tvee, but got poisonous fruit. 

The Kulpaka-tree is one of the five magic trees of Iudra's heaven, sup- 
posed to yield whatever is desired. 

2960. Qsmgy QsulLl—u L^gt-o L-ipuuLLL- < ^iQun&). 
When digging a well, a devil came out. 

2961. (&jLy.p£6orii> Qin'S^L-Qeusstsrisf., iSi—irtftemuuu Quem® ssxaupgiaQ&nGSBr 

*_/r«Jr. 
Being anxious to have a family, he married a vixenish woman. 

8558. 
"A man has choice to begin love, but not to end it." 
"He has a great fancy to marry that goes to the devil for a wife." 

2962. Q&fidsuQufJib, Qfp&npu L^QsQsn-esori—^Qun60. 

Like smearing yourself with mud after bathing. 

Said of one who tries to make money, but loses what little capital be 
had instead. 

2963. (5«^^/E/«/-li_ s (VjL-ip. ^ULLuf-ppgi. 

After tying on a charm against having too many children, and 
then bearing twins. 



328 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2964. Si-pgiu unrrssuQutriosr ^L—pSsleo, Qui) i3i^.^^^iQuneo. 
Like going to see a play, and being seized by a devil. 

2965. QsnesBn—nLLu-LD Quirib, ^emL-ntLt—tS) ^f&gi. 

After the pleasure, sorrow comes. 3514. 

When the wedding festival is over, the debts incurred in performing the 
ceremonies have to be paid. 

2966. l9sJt3sw sujrpgj&^u Quirm ^i—^^l&) } L/0<a^2sB7u unS Q&rr®<ggg) 

Quireo. 
Like the woman who lost her husband at the place where she 
went to perform ceremonies in order to have a child. 

Hindu woman frequently make pilgrimages to shrines in order to worship 
idols that are supposed to have power to remove barrenness. 

" The camel seeking horns lost its ears." 

2967. LS&r'SefrujrriJ iSi^ssuQundj, QiriEisiTtb QpL$-ihgspQuir®). 

Like attempting to make an image of Ganesa, and ending by 
making an image of the monkey-god. 

2968. QuqrjiLneir enssrQp Queajr innppu Quiftiv QuQ^iDtr&r j^f&gj. 

He went to have his name Perianal (Vishnu) changed, but had 
it changed to " great Perumal." 

A Hindu had a Pariah Servant of this name. Being a Vaishnava he did not 
like his servant to have the name of the god he worshipped ; he therefore 
sent him home to change his name and paid all the expenses of the cere- 
mony The servant however returned with the above name, which was 
even more sacred than his former name. 

2968a. eS'SetrtutTLLi^rraS^ii^^j, sS < 2esrujiTUj Qpuj-ipgi. 

The beginning was play, the end was serious. 
" Play's gude while it is play." 

Of. 301 f. 



BEGINNING. 

2969. ^piK]&&G& &&&tr^G)eo, sstau isjgfiQp^j sruuqL. 

If on entering the river one has to swim, how is one to get to 

the other side P 
How is one to accomplish a task that is hard at the very beginning. 
" All beginning is hard, said the thief: he began by stealing an anvil." 

2970. sr(£)<i(8)(ipeisrQeor sq^ss)^ ^j®ulj QLp.ihgj <s&(LpR$$!TLD. 

Before the ass had moved its load, it broke its hip and fell down. 
" Getting out well is a quarter of the journey.'''' 

2971. ertSpfgiruQuiT®) ^uuiL.<oSii—ss!\s<ssr uL-i_nm (or Q^^^nesr). 
Just when about to start, the drummer died. 



SUFFERING BENEFICIAL TO MEN. 329 

2972. sj jbjs&Q an e$&(Gju iSty-gprred, ^ji8euireir iSa^s^ ^q^ii,. 

If yon take (a bamboo pole long enough) for a water-lift it may 
by and by be shortened. 

Let the beginning be grand, you can easily be brought down. Mauy bazaar- 
nien and peddlers act according to this proverb, when they ask ten 
times more for their things than they want, and gradually come down to 
the proper price. 

2973. Qpgeo Qsiressreo, Qppgvw Qsir<sssr&). 

If the beginning is crooked, the whole will be crooked. 3308. 
" He who begins ill, finishes worse." 

2974. (ip£&) tSlpip lSs/tSstt QP&gv iSlar'Beir, iSekQecr iSipmp i$&r%etT 

iS lSsjtSsw. 
The first-born is a pearl, the next child is tilth. 3529. 
Used to signify that first thoughts and impressions are best. 



SUFFERING BENEFICIAL TO MEN. 

2975. s jyz-li_/rea'ic, utreo <9f-<sasuiiSeo (9)m(n?gi. 

Though milk be boiled, its flavour does not diminish. 

2976. ^tswrsQeByih (or Q^ibis^'i&^th) ^fs^asfio, gjgesr loosbtld gf<Tr?g). 
Though sandal-wood be ground, its fragrance will not vanish. 
Or, &ns@m&&iljaai— Qpdjrsjgi, sispih (jsjemptytAn? 

Will the fragranee of a piece of sandal- wood lessen, if it is 
rubbed ? 

2977. ^Qpsstreor (or udlLl~) Gurr^n'^ssTU Lji—^jisleo <sasu^^i erQuuirirs&r. 
(Goldsmiths) put inferior gold into the retiuing-pot. 

2978. SQUiLfU) sr&Tf&^ui s&sQfSvysti (or ^gv&Q^geo) ueo^^th. 

Only when sugar-cane and oil-seed are crushed do they yield 

profit. 3351. 
Men must go through hardships and trial. 
" Crosses are ladders to heaven." u No cross, no crown." 

2979. (§&$ 3iJU}-@<gng)ti, &u>un, (9juQf)uu$&) QunLLi—ngHih <giasih. 
Though pounded and cleaned, Samba rice is still Samba rice, 

and pure gold, though thrown on a dunghill, is still pure 
gold. 

2980. (9ju<s6)uuS&) QunLLi—iTgitJa, Q)zsrplu>608fj Lo/E/a/r^ # (or (-sjehrplLLasrflpiTm). 

Though hunri seed be cast on a dunghill, it loses not its lustre 

{or, it is still loan-i seed). 
Though ouo of high rank mingles with the lowly, In- will not lose his 

dignity. 

42 



330 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

2981. Qat'-t ..ngath Q&lLu}. Q&lLu}.Quj. QySjiprreyth ulL®u ulLQi — 

A reduced merchant is still a merchant, torn silk is still silk. 

2984, 3054. 
What was originally good and noble will never lose its worth entirely. 
".4 myrtle among thorns is « myrtle still." 
" Good blood cannot lie." 

2982. pisi&LD Lji—pfiieo Qsaiippaggth, g<ssr i^pu> Quir&irg). 

Though gold be put into the melting-pot, it will not lose its 
colour. 

2983. £Ji-Li_ja/(6ff;<s(<5L/ u^eS, ui—rr^au^a^ ibhsld. 

She who suffers attaius heaven (Padaci), she who does not 
suffer will go to hell. 

" Well thriceth tkat well euffereth" 

2984. ulL® Ls>iQ^s)^HLo QulLi$.u$(o&). 

Though a silk-cloth rots, it will be kept in a box. 2981, 3061. 
Rare and valuable tilings are not easily given up. 

2985. Lji—th QutTL-L-n®), Qunasr Qeugi s&Bihu Qeugp. 

If gold is put into the melting-pot, it will be separated from 

its dross. 
Adversity tries men and forms their character. 
" Bitter pills may hace sweet effect." 

298b. Qur^eenc «6wri_a//f ; &gi<as>i& assert— irededeogi Qp^h. 

He who attains honour will not thrive unless he endures humi- 
liation. 

Of. 1288/. 

It is said in a Tamil song, ^m^KaenGSBrurr) that gold, sugar-cane, sandal. 
wood and milk only improve by suffering. Cf. 2975, 2976, 2978, 2985. 



THE GOOD SUFFER AND THE WICKED 
PROSPER. 

2987. <9\<gfj&^6fss>s&, Q&(G£&s$&(9jld, s\U}-p&n<as)B ■su.iigeS&Q^ih. 

(God) makes the timid to cringe, and the violent to prosper. 

A master will often bully an obedient servant while he yields to an insolent 

one.- God keeps the good from prospering in a worldly sense, and 

allows the wicked to prosper. 2b'09. 

" The more rogue, the more luck." 

2988. ^(gj© iBi—&QpGufr&<&£&(9)<i arr&iLD&ieo. 

(The present age) is not (favourable) to God-fearing people. 
3117. 

2989. < 3i<Q&QeunGS)!i& Qs(e^f ^uf.aa (or, upas ^ftsf.sa)u uirna@(n^<ssr. 
He tries to make honest people cringe before him, or tyrannizes 

over them. 



GOOD AND EVIL. 331 

2990. 3\S$s jquf-ppneo, &-J3jt eS'Ssmifth. 

He who is severe in his treatment of others will prosper. 

2991. ^jpiuunesps^u usm-Qpih Qani—tLiigi, pjaaLpuuir^is^u QuasBreBsyih 

The honest man who pays his debt has no money, and he who 

toils cannot get a wife. 
The irony of fortune. 
" Better God than gold." 

2992. pnLLQt—[TLLi—&&n!lGg)i&(9) ! & ^uS^^Qffngfiih, e&arGvrr&d&rrff sp^gj Qguib 

l§0U2 U0SSS)SULjt}). 

A deceitful man gets rice and curds, while a faithful man 

gets only warm water and a grain of rice. 
" The devil's children have the devil's luck." 

2990. &mupg i£>d£$e)60 &&> errSu®uo, sxvb&siTp inn^^eo erffiuQmrr. 

Stones will be thrown at a fruitful tree, but not at a barren tree. 

Generally meaning: The good-natured are worried by beggars and not the 
hard-hearted. 887 ff. 

2994. QuntLiiSiqiythSjj LfetithLjih, QinihaSQ^i^i Qpy5)d(&jU>. 
Falsehood is noisy, truth stands perplexed. 

Lying and hypocrisy succeed in this world ; honest people are disheartened. 
■• Knaves are in such repair, that honest men are accounted fools." 

To a very learned men daily food is (as rare as) sugar. 

2996. zaeugrranrr suiri^es)eua(^iJD, <sunipk$n<3anj£ @nip<sB)6ii&(9jih. 

God makes revilers to prosper, and bumbles those who are pros- 
perous. 



GOOD AND EVTL. 

^(55rS5)tD ? $B68)LD, 

2997. ^ajr^i® ^ <%,&*<$£,, ^sappp® 9(5 ^gst^/. 

With the worthy the unworthy, and with the unworthy ihe 

worthy are linked. 2268, 2270. 3013. 
" Every couple is not a pair." 

2998. ^ssteum ^snpsmssr <5TiKi(9jih e_68bt®. 

Good and bad people are found everywhere. 139. 142. 

2999. &.jgi-Lt$.(cG) sutrenipLJULpii: e_<sir(cW pstc^nj&ppnl 

Are you to force a banana into a man's mouth Y 3008. 
Are we to compel a lazy or wicked person to enjoy a good thing ? 

3000. grnjihiSIQa) Q^esr §)qr>&(<9}ih, <£&r&fluSlgyu> uit&) @^«@ii. 

There is honey in sugar-cane, and sap (lit. milk) in the (useless) 

tree- spurge. 
The sap of the Euphorbia tirucalli is white like milk. 



332 TAMIL PEOVBRBS. 

3001. &0LbL]d(9j& semi §£iQTjfc'£n§&ii) sfd^Lorr? 

Though there be joints in a sugar-cane, will it be bitter ? 

Though a man has faults, his real goodness need not necessarily be affected 
by them. 

3002. &@ihLj jdasreBis 3^&9tun? 

Do you want to pa}' for eating sugar-cane ? 

3003. s&) e_u# pirn Qt?60 , ^(75 j>j<sS^ (com. ^eSeo) gLLi—rrpn? 

If you eat a big measure of chaff, will you not come across a 
grain of rice P 

3004. apkg un^eos snssiriLfth Qpirt—irg). 

Even a crow will not touch fresh drawn milk. 146. 
Hindus do not drink milk till it has been boiled. 

3005. siriKBp Q<g%G8r eflil.®, sebVerrd (^is^^^^Quireo. 

Like giving up eating honey, and drinking toddy. 3007. 
Choosing evil instead of good. 

3006. (3jL9-u$ede0!T<$ eSt-Lip.®), (^easr^uQuQ^dfireifl &.eoireijth. 

Fat bandicoots (a kind of big rat) will occupy an empty house. 
If piety ceases in a home, evil will take possession of it. 
" Hell is wherever heaven is not." 

3007. eiBsuSdo ^Q^dSp Q&npempu QuruLQeflLL®, etd&eo Q&npg»&(9)& 

Like throwing away the good food in his hand, and begging for 
defiled food. 3005. 

3008. Qsn^ff^^eo ^QffsQp^n (gniEjfS) iSletr^ Mrr (^t^.sQp^i. 

It is no easy task to make a monkey drink pepper-water. 2999. 

It is difficult to do that which is good, for it requires great exertion. It is 
hard to make men admit the good and to accept it. — It is ever difficult 
for parents to make children understand that it is good to keep them- 
selves neat and clean, good to take medicine when sick, good to go to 
school, Sec. 

" One may lead a horse to the water, but four aii twenty cannot twite 
him drink." 

3009. QsireSeo §)u}.s&g gpesfiis peu^s), (Sj&ruo Q<suLLu.uQuirQ(nj><ssr. 

Ts he who dares to break down a temple likely to dig a tank ? 
He who is wicked, will not do virtuous deeds. Constructing tanks in the 
precincts of temples is an act of piety. 

3010. fir&o^jruD unjrrrjg eS® &Qp0$E)inh. 

A household that does not respect astrology is an ocean (of 
wealth). 

3011. @QpefltL]L-ear «^t_ QpQ^eS iStpis^irpQurreo. 

As the goddess of ill-luck wns born along with the goddess of 

good-luck. 
Wherever good is found, evil will also be found. 



OO0T> AND EVIL. 333 

3012. Qpiresrsmii} is trig., mmesiiD sQL-rrQp. 

In loving what is ancient (i.e. traditional), do not forsake 

what is good at present. 
" The olden age was never the 'present age." 

With a good there is evil, with an evil there is good. 

It is rarely that both husband and wife are good. If one is good, the other 
is bad. The more usual form is given in Xo. 2997. 

3014. i5®)&)gi (En&) s&)m, ssngenp §>6Brug) seoib. 
There are four measures of good to nine of filth. 

3015. iBeoeojp Qffihgi ib®<sul^Quj QutT@s)&), Quneoedngi QunQp svySIQiu 

QunQpgj. 
If one does good and walks in the middle of the road, evil will 

go its own way. 
Evil will not be able to do any harm to such a person. 
" A good cause makes a stout heart and a strong arm." 

301 G. Qfiub&(9)i—LD s-GBL-i^rreo, ismiis^ eQqfjfcsfi. 

If the pot of ghee breaks, there will be a feast for the dog. 
" It is an ill wind that blows nobody good." 

3017. Quqjjih Qeusireirib u/nt/ii SL-eSlQeO, l? eu/rdjd&rrgyih urTtLjLc. 

It is to the sea to which the big floods flow that the sewers also 

flow. 2637. 
Both good and evil end at last in heaven. 

3018. QpimnL^I spsSp u&GviTicipgxth, Qpm ^puonuu tSGSlmiQp u# 

Though a cow give three measures of milk, she must not pull 

out straw from the eaves. 
A good character is not an excuse for ill -doing. 

3010. e8eL£@eo>0& (ZjiSf-ppeueGr, i3eti(^ Sir (jSjup-SsQeuGstfrGlih. 

He who has taken poison, must drink pepper water. 
He who has done evil, must seek good as an antidote. 

3020. eSpQj Qsn eats! eon (6B)j$ to Qib0ulju up(n?@n ? 
Though firewood be crooked, will it not hnrn P 

If it is firewood, the shape is of no accouut. Though a woman is ugly, if 
she is good, she will fill her place in the house. 

"A crooked log makes a straight pr>." 

3021. <s§%6ssr QsiTes^^snii), tBirpih Qsn essii icrr (or ^tsapujiDT)? 

Though the instrument (veena) is crooked, will the music be 
crooked {or faulty) ? 



334 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

GOOD MEN. 

J5<5ti<oti6U(55T . 

3022. jysueifr i&fgljgjB (com. QiDtB-sp) ggjL-pGdev lj&)^hm &ir&njgi. 
Where he treads, grass will not die. 2287. 

3023. a-^^iospi^ eTjg@iT§gii> {erfisl^gyih) Qs® @6U'Ssv). 

toothing (-in injure an excellent man. 3065. 

3024. p-(tgQp loit® uaQp&ih Quir^eo, s\^s<^ ^(njeueisr slLi^. £_(T£swsJr 

Ff a plough-bullock goes to a foreign country, some people will 

yoke it to do their ploughing. 
A good mau is always made to roil. 

3025. P-Qg&p (j9j6BBT6B)L-.UJrrgV)60, &jar^iB&) eS^eciunsn^fT? 

If the plough-bullock be a good one, will it not sell in its own 
village P 

Good people will always be appreciated in their own place and need not go 
abroad for work or for game. 

•' Good ware makes quick markets.'' 
" Good ware will sell itsrlf." 

302G. GjQeo&i&diaesr Qurr^eir sj(tp si—eSlev Qurr^gniM ^l^mLjtli. 

Though the property of Elelasingan (a certain honest man) go 

over the seven seas it will return to him. 
An honest man's property is always under God's protection. Elelasingan 
was a faithful disciple of the Tamil Pariah Sago Tim val Invar. 

3027. &u® rSfgi s®srr@^nu) QpifliurTgi. 

There is not as much as a mustard seed of deceit or guile in 
him. 3043. 

3028. &1feiTiSI®rEi&rrp uuSit srreo uuSir. 

A cornfield not weeded will produce only a quarter of a harvest. 
If a man's faults are not removed he can do little good in the world. 

3029. GsGBir !B&ieo^n^&}, aQpeSesr ^ssxest^Qn Qutrpngn Qeus. 

Ff the vegetables are good, will not the witter in which they 

were washed do to boil them V 
A clever and wood mau will get on without artificial precautions. 

3030. @0l1®<5 scour gtnsjQ ereisrm, girikisirgn srasresrt 

What does it matter whether a blind eye sleeps or wakes p '1:\'>'>. 

Tf one has no true piety, it matters little whether lie performs ceremonies 
or not. 

3031. Q<£Z-Li_&/6p<5(35<5 Q&L-t—gijsnein Qes>L-S(^L£ } iheoeosu^s^ iB^reamQiu 

An evil person will obtain evil, a good person will obtain good; 

3113. 
" As you sow so you will reap" 



GOOD MEN. 335 

A person careful about cleanliness will get tilth in three places. 

If he treads on something lie chinks dirty, he will touch it with a linger 
and then smell it. Thus foot, hand and nose are defiled. A refined 
person has much nioie need to be careful than a pig. 

"Dirt is dirtiest npon the fairest spots." 
" A spot is must seen upon the finest cloth." 

3033. @tT<5BT U45 Jg!6sf)uJITigB)&> r (o^vSJ/i^-UJ/TSff QpQ^<oLl§SUi (&jl$.a$0&&&)mb. 

If a matron is chaste, she may live in the dancing-girls' street. 
" To the pure all things are [jure."' 

3034. i5&)&> &.u$it is,! pugmn&t ^)(5<s@ii). 

A good life will last for forty days. 

Said to an angry person who refuses to take his food, implying that liis 

obstinacy does not matter as a good man can go for forty days without 

food. Said ironically. 

3035. IB 6060 Qu6SBT®S(^ ^(flj Q&IT60, 15606)) LO/7L-®<5@ €p(§ Sjl$-- 

One word to good woman, and one beating to a good bullock. 

8042. 
" .1 nod for a ivise matt, and a rod for a fool." 

3036. i5606y}®j<sor ^Q^ppm is®Qeu iSjbs, ^(frfgs a^agjii ^pgiuQunq^w. 

If a good man is mediator, an unsettled quarrel will be settled. 
2724. 

3037. iBeoeoeuesr p^p&susii isrrgg u&sariii GJ&rr(b)j£jj]S : &ujurT$E)s&Q®jeBBr®u>, 

QslLlsu6st n„ir)<a»<aiiu upsjju uessrih Qsn®@gi l§<i&QGU6Bgr(3uD. 
You may acquire a good man's friendship for four cash, but 
you should get rid of a bad man's friendship though you pay 
ten cash to be rid of him. 

3038. [sedQeonn- tsi—pmp ^Quun^s^p f&Ql®. 

The life of the good is a terror to the wicked. 3106. 
" He that follows truth too near the heels shall have dirt thrown in 
his face." 

3039. [§$5llUpp ULl.L—<58Br J5 fs)&> fS&Op LCGDLfi QuiLlLjLDIT? 

Will plentiful rain fall in a city without righteousness \ 
....... . * 

3040. QtB60^l&(j9jLJ UlitUthp §n, Lj60g21S(&)LD UillLjIM. 

The water that waters the rice Held, wafers ihc grass too. 

" For he sendeth rain on the just and on the it ii, just." Matt. 5 ; !■•">. 

" Do rain and wind avoid some men among the rest. 

Because their caste is low P 

When such men tread the earth hast seen it quake with rage? 

Or does the brilliant sun refuse to them its rays?" 

Cli. E. Glover : The FWJ Songs of Southern India. 

3041. U6m€sstiujuj <p06i;Gar uiejs6060. 

Virtue is not assigned to anyone (one must struggle to get it.) 
" Virtue is tied to no degrees of men." 



336 TAMIL PEOVERBS. 

3042- &Jtb&th (com. euiiS^ih) sutrfr^&a^s^ ^^Sfth, Liggsems a.<s»^igj 

A respectable man fears a word, but a slave does not fear a 
kicking. 3035. 

3043. Q©>6ff 2sw<S(3j ^§)6U?6tf aeirefrf Sfoeta-s. 

The pure of heart are without fraud. 3027. 
Thev will neither deceive nor be deceived. 



EVEN THE GREAT MAY ERR. 

3044. ^bssrs^th jyzf &g»&(§LD. 

Even an elephant's foot will slip. 

" Good Homer sometimes nods." 

" He that stumbles and falls not, mends his pace" 

3045. seKQs^ sreoetirrih ^n&v^jjih QftiedgyQrD ueOeS, SQpiiir (or sinp.u 

urr'2ssruS&), or &-ipurr%esrijSl&)) eSQp@p^jQurT&}. . 

Like the lizard that was the religious adviser of the whole 

village falling into a tub of dirty water. 
The sound of the " speaking : ' lizard is believed by Hindus to be an omen 

according to the point from which it is heard, the number of times it is 

heard, <fc<5. 
" H e rode sure indeed that never caught a fall" 

304(5. er&)®),Tu> Q&rr&)§2iLDrTth ueoeSl, SQpi§rruun'2iosruSleo e$QpLcirth ueo&S. 

They say that a lizard will tell us everything, but it may also 

fall into a dirty pot. 
" Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall." 

3046a. uititsQjd seesr^iis^s Qsu-Qp airgj Qld&>. 

The ear that hears is above (is more important than) the eye 

that sees. 192. 
Said in the Mahabharata to a king by a minister (Mantri) whom the king 
wants to employ. Implying, you may lend your ears to such persons, who 
are slanftering me. S'ou may take what you hear from such persons to 
be true, and without investigating matters and seeing things with your 
own eves, punish me. Big people often blame their inferiors unjustly. 



DIFFERENT SIGNS OF GREATNESS. 

3047. ^ji—SSQpeeii—Uunn SjfSt^n, ^ji—iiisn^irir &&)6*>(tit. 
The humble are wise, the haughty are ignorant. 

3048. <2/ ) LL®S(jSFi<g Q prr pqidit SgULjeSI. 

Will an old tiger be defeated by a lamb Y 3064. 



DIFFERENT SIGNS OF GREATNESS. 337 

3049. j^uSuih o_s»^_uj/T/f ^>jLDrrib^0uufTiT, sih<a»jg QunjpisQ 'QgtrihGtpiriD 

Q^ir/EQ^atA' GlGGtep) <£i_ / s# ( <ff/7'®a;/7(sir. 

The owners of thousands are quiet people, while one who goes 
about in search of rags is presumptuous and noisy. 3057, 3061, 
3068. 

3050. ^uSuih &rT<£<s&)&.i(3j6fr 6pQj sj'oiresruuLLQ ^suuQQpspQunGO. 

Like a swan among a thousand crows. 

The great and excellent are rare. Most men ai-e like crows, greedy and 
noisy. 

" Wise men in the world are like timber-trees in a hedge, here and 
there one." 

3051. ^3sst Q&pgngsth ^uSffih Quneisr. 

Even when dead an elephant is worth a thousand gold pieces. 
" A lion's skin is never cheap." 

3052. ^Ssar ^(LpsSssT e&siurr®) ^lLQs^lLu?- p(L{><s>\Qppn1 

Should the arm that embraced an elephant embrace a lamb r" 
3441. 

3053. ^isst GjjBiis ^lil.i^.eurrs : 0S&} j£i<3Btp®j ^Quired. 

Like entering a wicket while riding an elephant. 
" Can a camel go through a needle's eye ?" 

3054. ^SssT eSQpfcgrrgxil) gj^/SBjtci-Li—ii). 

Though an elephant falls down it is still as high as a horse. 
2981, 3051. 

The grandeur of the great is not quite lost when they come down in the 
world. 

3055. si— &) QsnGEljgjSneo, sSennsu i§ir ejgi. 

If the sea boils, how can water be had to cool it ? 1942. 

If a great man gets angry, what will pacify him ? Also : If a great man 
fall who shall set him right ? 

3056. seOsQ^ua si—eo Q&Qtj'sng]. 

Though you stir up the sea, it will not turn to mud. 
Nothing can disturb the equilibrium of a great mind. 

3057. QsiLuf.^ pits lot ^G)®) seSQnmg>i <£6$«gjLo/r? 

If the gold is solid gold, will it give a tinkling sound ? 2407, 
3049, 3061, 3068. 

3058. uiaQjeafi v\mg)) uq^sQ p^ii£l&)^eo , Qptslstoij er&srgfiui QjpisQpgi 

tSlev'teo. 

He does not expend more in March ; he does not lessen his ex- 
penses in April. 

March (Punguni) is the plentiful month of harvest. April (Sittarei) 
is a month when one can make little profit. The proverb is used 
of a man who pursues the even tenor of his way in all seasons. 
"A wise man is he who knows that prosperity and adversity are alike" 
(Bhagavat Gita II. 15 Tamil version). 

" Me swells not in prosperity, and sin-ink?; not in adversity." 

43 



33S TAMIL PROVE KBS. 

3059. &(8QuJiTn Q&tbp &gj tSaoip, QuiftQuuair Qutrgyuugi st—Qsar. 

It is the duty of the great to forgive the little faults of lesser 

folk. 
" To forgive a wrong is the best revenge." 

3060. uasflu Qu<wjs@Q®) suueo 65®icff? 

A ship cannot sail in a flood of dew. 
" Great ships require deep inciters." 

3061. ulLQlo ulLu. neat— iuu> QuLLup-tiSeo <g)QjjS(9jLh, sn&)&n&daih<5Big spi^_ 

Silk and silk cloths are kept in a box, while rags not worth a 
quarter of a cash run about the street. 2984, 3049, 3057, 3068. 

3062. Lj&S U&^^7&) Lj&J§ilfi §?l6Sr§S)lLDnt 

Will a hungry tiger eat grass F 

Great or good people will never stoop to what is mean. 

3063. t-i&$&(<3jLj iSlpissp L^bssruumuau (Sunburn? 

Will the cub of a tiger ever become a cat ? 2867. 

3064. Ljfio87<SB)UJ& &680T®, Lj&S ^(G^G-LOfT? 

Will a tiger be frightened at seeing a cat ? 2480. 301"). 

3065. Qu0 Qi5@ul-i&(9} fr-jTQpesBn—tr^ 

Will dampness extinguish a great fire ? 3023. 

3065a. Qu0ldsitilii£) (or ^E/©) $j0G& ufr<ssart—LoQun&) (or unesarL-LO 

euasfyssr Qutrairgj.) 

Like the pot that had contained assafoetida. 

The traces of former greatness are never quite forgotten, as the smell of 
assafoetida never leaves the vessel that has held it. 

•" Every tub smells of the wine it holds." 

3065&. LDiEietas ^lLi—i^s)&) siasmsuSQ®) QpQ^^sun&t t swans (plLi—i^go 
enaQs QpQg(&j<3>jnGir. 
If a woman is unclean she can bathe in the Ganges, but if the 
Ganges itself (the goddess, the chief of waters) is unclean, 
whither can it go ? 

The humble can get pardon from the great; but if the great commit 
faults where can they get absolution for their sins ? 

3066. Lo'Ssuttfiisar ^.vuffua Lo'Ssuigj^ Qp /Allium? 

Does a hill know its own height ? 2407. 

The great are so great in humility, that they do not know their own great- 
ness. Said of God, kings and the wise. 

3067. txineeSsss &n§#£(3j Lorrpgnssneo ^(r^dQp^iT? 
How can a pillar of rubies be replaced. ? 

It is difficult to replace the great when they die. 

3068. Qeu&T6ifl Qloit^ulo ^a»<y Qujp/Lo, Quneor Qld(!*sI<jld spes)*? Qsfr(Bs 
A silver ring will ring, but not a gold one. 3049, 3057, 3061. 



DIFFERENT SIGNS OF Q&BATNBS8. 339 

COMPARATIVE GREATNESS. 

In a village without a sugar-mill the flower of the Bassia tree 

serves as sugar. 
An ignorant professor must serve iu the absence of the learned. 
" Amony the blind the one-eyed man is king." 

3070. senes)Lni(^ &.&rj£i<3Lnuja5r (or Qgpgissjnuj&r) &.pun ^i3essri—U3. 

The dumb look up to a stammerer as a person of great wit. 
Both worthless, yet the one a bit better than the other. 

In a village without a horse an ass is a king. 

3071a. ^C-tsj-u Que ^ ) eiff&)&}ireStli—iT&), gu>i$ &eesrL-ut$!j#eBBrL-<5nr. 

When there is no one to check him, a young fellow is very 

boisterous. 
" When the eat is away the mice icill play." 

3072. Q@itlLu}-60 lS^t'Bsits^ rsi—sSp iSlenVetr luldgbt. 

To a child in a cradle a walking child is like the God of Death. 

The child in the cradle is so weak that the toddling child can do what he 
likes with him. 

" A coward'?- fear may make a coicard valiant." 

3073. ilesrp iDU^^Qeo QisQinsth Qun^e)eo, Simp iwjQw Qib®Lonii'. 
When the tallest tree in a forest is cut down, the trees left will 

appear tall trees. 

Applied to the head of a family : it lie dies, the one next to him will 
become the head. 

3074. ripL-6uev))S(3j (or &uurr &&&(&)) Q'snesarts. ^eetsi—ui^sffeesLjasi (or #® 

(5®u«dzj). 
A lame man is very boisterous before a (complet-e) cripple 

(or, a man without legs). 
" There could be no great ones were there not little 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON GREATNESS. 

3075. SLi^-ssn pplQeo ^wiSt upsseQe ^jeosuw U(G£&35(9j eiisjQs &£$? 
While the grinding stone is flying about in the wind of July, 

where will the silk-cotton go P 1681, 3079. 
When the great meet with adversity, what will be the fate of common 
people ? 

3076. cg^Etf $@ (Sjilip-CoL/n-LLOii ueosisr, umpl (com. U6wrea#) u&Iq^lL 

i$.QutnL.(3th u&)6sfl&)'2eo. 
Though the elephant brings forth only one young one, it is of 

value ; though a pig bring forth many young ones, they are 

of no value. 1419. 
" Better a handful of gold, than a sackfuU of viov.ld." 



340 TAMIL PKOVKR15S. 

3077. ^Q^iiiLj sjUj-sQp @)t—0>j£l<& iBirtua^ GTeisrm Q&j'Zso? 

What has a dog to do in a blacksmith's woi-kshop ? 

If a man attempts to do work he is not fitted for, this saying is quoted. 

3078. ssn.'f ^i&^QjDSum Queaoi® iSisf.-gpnsO, gy^i—Gsr QffneoeSl QposypaS® 

It' the ruler in a village commits adultery, to whom should com- 
plaint be made ? 

3079. &Li.eo)i—uun<oG)p up&&&G>&, 6r&£l&)&60'2ev srems^ ermsms^l srm 

Qpgj ? 
When the crowbar flies about, the leaf-plate says, what will 
my fate be ? 3075. 

3080. (BjGsletnijtLiib sQpesi^iLjih ^sot^? 

Are the horse and the ass the same ? 678. 
Low caste and high caste must not be thought equal. 
" A sceptre is one thing, and a ladle another." 

3081. gwiSntrebr ^ujq/ ^rnfipn&d, &£r§ujrr&iii ermremd^l/b^ ? 

If we have the favour of the head of the monastery, what need 
is there of asceticism ? 

3082. Qprng)) Lorr^^^lp^QpmQssr u&) Qunesnoui^s^ QpgusQja seisi^aSeo 

erssresr Qsufyso. 
What has she who lost her teeth three months ago to do in the 
bazaar where mtirukku (a very hard cake) is sold ? 

Of. 2331 ff. 



MEDDLESOMENESS. 

USELESS INTERFERENCE THAT RECOILS ON THE PERSON WHO 

INTERFERES. 

3083. ct gtiihemus sis^uuirQeojissr Q^nifi ueo^u QuneunQesim ? 
Why should he bite bones and lose his teeth ? 

3084. seo'bsoa (Sj^jpsurrQesreisr, ernes QrsnwnQssrmr. 

Why beat a stone with your hand and why hurt your hand ? 
1120. 

"Do not trust nor contend, nor borrow nor lend, and you 11 aainin 
the end." 

3085. (§/i£ITjg <5/7JS7«(5 SiSLSSnSl &)'?&}. 

There is no defect in ears that have not been pierced. 

Said by one who does not wisli to involve himself in another's quarrels 
because of the trouble that will come on him if he does so. 



MEDDLESOMENESS. . 341 

3085a. &!sj(9j (S&gnQpgi, ^omiy. winunQpsp. 

The mendicant put the wrong end of the conch into his mouth. 
1247, 2065. 

i.e. A mendicant is familiar with the conch she'll, which he has to blow at 
so many ceremonies; for him to make a mistake in its use is most re- 
prehensible, but it is not my business to blame him. 

" A wise head makes a close mouth." 

3086. gird (3J6SBT iki (3j(75<a9 (SjHi5i(3j<i(3jLJ L/^^ld Q^rriskeoj^iQuneo. 

Like the loxia bird that taught the monkey wisdom. 623, 2468, 
3099. 

This bird makes large hanging nests for itself. One rainy day while well 
sheltered in its nest one of these birds saw a monkey shivering in the 
rain, and advised him to make a shelter for himself. The monkey in- 
stead of taking the advice, became very angry and tore the bird's nest 
to pieces. Bad people do not like good advice. 

" Good reasons said, and ill understood, are roses thrown to hogs, and 

not so good." 
"A wise man may look ridiculous in the company of fools." 

3087. mnpio iSeaiu QixiiBuuirQesr&sr, ib&)so ^esaisss^istair ewiir^^/d sQgevrr 



Why should I tread in filth, and then use good water to wash it 
off? 

3088. Q/5606W6U £\U)-£5gn®>, &&)&>!!&> ^up-uunm. 

If I hit him with rice, he hits me with stones. 

3089. iSujuuitQgbhsgt, mguunQmesr. 

Why tear a cloth to pieces, only to stitch it together again ? 

3090. Qu®)&QffitT6BT6Br<siJ68r oJiTiT, suiru^Q^nmearsuesr tuirn. 

A vulgar proverb. 

Said of one who goes wilfully into some evil and has to suffer the conse- 
quences; or who involves himself in an undertaking that leads to great 
loss ; or who makes friendship with a wicked person to the loss of his 
reputation. 

309 1 . Qunmp ^jl-^^isqu Qun^&i, mnnp Qs=mL(d ®j(V}ti>. 

If you go where you ought not to go, you will suffer what you 

ought not to suffer. 198, 2648. 
"Pry not into the affairs of others." 

3092. QGut-Luf-uunGspi}) i3sssi(jpii> slLis^u Ljaenil.®u>. 

Let the grave-digger and the corpse straggle as they like. 

When fire is applied .to the pyre at the burning ground, it sometimes hap- 
pens that the muscles of the corpse contract in such a fashion that the 
«, body moves, and the grave-digger has to beat it down into the fire. It 

looks as if the two were engaged in a struggle. Buc no one else should 
interfere. The grave-digger knows his own work best. 

Of. 2318 /. 



342 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

WANTON INTERFERENCE WITH QUIET 
PEOPLE. 

3093. ^sspaSio {§j(it)&p Qurraltefr sjuugOud tojp^iQ^asr. 

He publicly exposes people who stay in their own rooms. 
Said of a person who wantonly worries quiet folk. 

3094. &.G8Br<esB)LD&) 6il<oBi<gB)LDG0 saE/i ^fmueOLDfrQearm (or euuSgi 2-ulj&u) 

Though I have never eaten another's food (i.e. have kept 

myself) I have been dragged into publicity (or, I have become 

pregnant.) 
A language of a widow, who blames herself for having gone astray. Said 

also by a dishonest person who has lost his situation but tries to cover 

over it. 

3095. &suuLj ) as)&ti$ed sjji$. Ltf9jiz$gjQu(T&). 

Like the bear that joined in the worship of Siva. 
Said of an intruder who is a source of annoyance. 

3096. QsuQm er6org)i ^(njkgneytii ^eS'2esi eSi—eS&ffcv. 

Though I do my own duty without meddling in the affairs of 

others, people will not leave me alone. 
" You must ask your neighbour if yoti shall lire in peace." 

3097- 4rU>LDlT Ql—S@p ffmiOSlS &en.tg}s Qs®g 0rT<5BT J^SSMUf.. 

The mendicant blew the unused conch and spoiled it. 1909. 

Said when a person does not want to marry, but his relations will not 
leave him alone till he unwillingly agrees to a marriage which turns out 
unhappily. Or, when somebody mentions -fruits, while children are 
playing merrily, and the children at once begin to ask for some. 

3098. &WWIT ^QKsQpav&sr (^pjOHQeO &UU60 brGH^sps (9jg$£leBrj£jQ!uneo. 
Like taking a straw and pricking a quiet man's breech. 

3099. Qu&go&s QsnQpjp, <sj&es>& tsurriaQp^i. 

Giving a word, and getting abuse. 2468, 3086. 
Why trouble to advise a bad man to improve ; he will only get angry with 
you. 

3100. eurTiLj&reniTiT (Su&equb sueo^ienemrir Q&nySls&eyuD <9i ; &&Qp (or, sresrs^ 

euisjBgj). 
It is my fate to be at the mercy of talkers and the fool of those 
who have power over me. 

" When I did well I heard it never; zchen I did ill I heard 
it ever." 



TRUTH. 343 

3101. suirthuQuffiGa&u ulQiaQ, euu$ pQpit7&&'%so& Q&rn-Liy-dQ&ir&r^nj 



Getting words out of somebody", and then throwing them at 

him to cause him remorse. 228. 
To fish out secrets from a person, and afterwards to make a bad use of the 

information gained. 



TRUTH. 

TRUTH IS BITTER FOOD. 

3102. &-<Sfr<Sff<a»s£,jF Q&n6BI<G6)&), g-.l—UOU eilB^eO. 

If the truth is told, the body (is full of) anger. 

i.e. Speaking the truth is often disastrous to ease aud comfort. 

" Truth may be blamed but not shamed." 

3103. &.&T6fres3^s : Q&nsisr^eo, QiBrrefr^siri sesnress^s^ QistTuurr&rih. 

If I speak the truth, I shall offend those with defective eyesight. 
" Truth finds foes, where it makes none." 

3104. &-.etretr£8)@& Q^rrm^io, ■£§s.(rrj&(&ju usms (or Qun&iecn^euasr). 

If a man tell the truth, the village will hate him (or, he will be 

an enemy of the village.) 
" Follow truth too close at the heels, it will strike out your teeth." 

3105. e-effarao^r^ Q&trdosSl Qi£>e$HQ 1 g6Br y Qts rr&rdsrr <s &<ssorgsv)&&, l$&sb)& 

Quit®. 
I have become thin by speaking the truth, but give me alms, 

thou blind woman ! 
" He that scoffs at the crooked had need go very upright himself." 

3106. ajpnnjggeurrGsl Qa/gjgggsr eRQnnGil. 

He who speaks the truth will have many enemies. 3038. 



TRUTH, FRANKNESS, CONFESSION. 

3107- Q-ppgi Q&tT&)Gi, S\ppg) QuiT0l5gltl). 

By telling the truth, defects will be adjusted. 
" Confession of a fault makes half amends." 
" A sin confessed is half redressed." 

3108. semQ&mQi— i$pihp snQ6i/fflujtT(GB)g2iu) &.@LL<ami—& o-lL® &.peunQ 

Qqj6bt. 
Though he be as precious as the river Kdv&ri that was born with 

my eyes {i.e. as dear as my eyes to me) I shall only become his 

friend when I have scarred his lips with hot iron. 
Though lie he my relative there shall be no false leniency in my treatment 

of him. 3112a. 



344 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3109. S/S <2j,/b/6l(6V)®) Ljssar Jggvw. 

If you lance a sore it will be relieved. 

When misunderstandings arise between friends, frank speech however 
painful is the best remedy. 

3110. gj£&£toS)@3 : Q&n<soeSl ^ppQsussortStii, <slLl$.6B)iu<& Spl j^ppQsueisa 

To get relief in a trouble tell it ; to get relief for a boil lance it. 

3111. (Hpu^jsmGiJgp t^essr ^ygfgi. 

A wound kept covered will uot heal. 

3112. Qeuisp Ljossr eSlfyssr Q&iLujrTjp. 

If you cauterise a sore it will do no harm (but heal up). 3109. 
Radical remedies must be used for radical evils. 

3112a. @rr<3s>uJ3 : Q&frkp ^.pstjrr^^ith, ^jgu^^i^^niosr ^psunL-QeueearQih. 

Distinct understandings must be maintained even with your 

relations on your mother's side. 3108, 3220. 
Relation on the father's side become dire enemies in India on account of 
innumerable feuds arising from property claims. 

Gf. 3217 /. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ABOUT TRUTH. 
£_<S33T65)LO. 

31 13. £_65ar«DLo Q&rrsBTiGti)®) e_6ss"<a»zi> ueSls^ih, wssraoto Q&ii68r$oG)&) m^resiLD 

Speak truth and it will produce truth, speak goodness and it 
will produce goodness. 3031. 

3114. R-sssresiLDUu®, s-sx^uu®. 
Be true and be firm. 

3115. £-eBBr<oB)LDU$G06d[T@ Ull.fflh SSS)JTUS&)0)IT^ QJjStt <£ G?l &i £6BBIG88plT !§lpUSp 

Quneo. 
Love without truth is like water in a pool without banks. 

3116. e-QTjaQm Qisib sunn pprrgpio, semi—. iSuuiriuk^ir&sr Q&nsoepiaimcsT (or, 

Though they deal out clarified ghee to him, be will only say 

what he has seen. 598, 3126. 
A thoroughly honest man. 

31 17. &-.&refrj£i Q^/t^Jgi) sss.Q^LD&)eo, iegogo^j Qffrre^eo isrr(b)u)&)6V. 

This is not a village in which to speak truth, nor is this a 
country in which one can speak good words. 2988. 

Said in blame of the people of a place. Or, implying that no one speaks 
in favour of the user of the proverb. 



TRUTH. 345 

3118. s>pkp uneo s/DiB^uuf-Qiu Qu&. 

Speak like milk just drawn (from the cow). 265. 
To speak the pure truth. 

" Graft must have clothes, but truth loves to go naked." 

" Truth's best ornament is nakedness. 

3119. (2j€6)piu& Q&treoeSI, fSaaptu jy&r. 

You may ask a high price, but measure honestly. 

Tt frequently happens that when rice is only nine measures for a rupee 
people will not buy. The bazaar-man therefore says he will sell ten 
measures for a rupee, and steals a little out of each measure, so that 
the customer actnally gets only nine measures. Or, you may demand a 
high salary, but must do honest work. 

" Cheat me in the price, but not in the goods." 

" It is not a sin to sell dear, but it is to make ill measure." 

3120. <9=££sluJ@sp&(3j euDtfl&#ihl£ljreBr. 

In speaking the truth he is a Harichandra. 

Harichandra was a Hindu king who never told a lie. This phrase is also 
used sarcastically about an inveterate liar. Harichandra is renowned 
in Indian history for truthfulness ; Kama for charity (cf. 2130) ; Arjuna 
for heroism (cf. 2149) ; and Narada for quarrelling and double-dealing. 

3120a. &-65r<S(3) ^ifl&fihjgljTebr i£iUSs(^ sj®&@ sSi—ir? 
Do you live next door to Harichandra P 
Said to a pretender to truthfulness. 

3121. &<£$e!uj(dL£> QQjeoepiiii, ju&js^sIujQld Q&IT®)§2lth. 
Truth conquers, falsehood is defeated. 

3122. &t5$£l\ii<3ima : &6Gr ^ld&v^b is p^asoreisr . 

He who speaks the truth, possesses all good qualities. 

3123. Qutruj Olouj®»uj OiSwevja/Lo/r? 
Can falsehood conquer truth ? 
" Truth is God's daughter." 

3124. Q until Uyiressr &ihtg)jieBr, Quuu QprntTrfih iS!es>p. 

Falsehood is like the full moon, truth is like the crescent new 
moon three days old. 

2602, 2936. Falsehood will come to nought just as the full moon wanes. 
Truth will increase just as the new moon waxes. 

3125. Qlduj Q&rr®}&S& Q&iLu.<siiev)iL£l®)'2®) } Qutrib Q&nso&fi ewrtp/s^a/sp 

No one has been ruined by speaking the truth, and no one has 
prospered by lying. 1512. 

" Oil and truth will get uppermost at last." 
« " A man never surfeits of too much honesty." 

3126. pteoQioQed sjuju upw^n^iih, Q&nmm Q#rr&) ^eu0>Q^. 

Even if arrows fly over your head, do not swerve in your words. 
3116. 

44 



346 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

FALSEHOOD. 
Qutriu, 

3127. sfsussT Qu&QpQ-giiWTuz jgled^iLD lSsv^hu) ^0suir^<ss>jr. 
All that he says is lies and tricks. 

£5J6d6$iLD i3&)epiLD ^(^eun^jean is a colloquial expression commonly used 

by women and girls meaning ' tricks, deceptions.' 
" He lies as fast as a horse can trot." 
" There is as much hold of his words as of a wet eel by the tail." 

3127a. jysuGjpi&f&ju QufTiL^ <f^^ujti) urrgym Q&rrgiu). 

To swear or give false statements is as pleasant to him as milk 

and rice. 
Said of a very wicked person. 458. 

3128. §>(£ QuitLid^ ^ebrug) QuniL. 

(To establish) one falsehood nine (must be told.) 
" One lie makes many?' — " One lie draws ten after it." 

3120. &&)£<$$&) LjiGffj&rTgeijesr i5!r<$p$ElQ&) Qunennecst. 

He who does not tell a lie in a quarrel will go to hell. 

One must tell a lie to get out of a scrape. The term ' hell ' is not to be 
taken too literally. 

" He who hath shipped the devil must make the best of him." 

3130. $as>&u LjjrLLL-.ejpj&(3jLj l/ (6/5(5 .sgj,^ &rri£&@u$60'2eo. 

To him who reverses the cardinal points there is no scarcity 

of lies. 
He who dares to tell a big lie will not shrink from fihs. 

3131. i§6»£i slL®uul-Cj Qu<9f-Sl0>sk. 

He talks so that the indigo shall be tied up. 

i.e. He makes all sorts of false promises in order to get his workmen to 
finish the work. Said of a liar. 

" That is a lie with a witness." 

3132. Lj(617jQigV)g21U> QufT(3j£p L/(6T£c£(oQ/6OT®LC. 

If you lie, do it so as to be believed. 

3133. Q ujnreasssirs^esi Quqfjld L/^gj Q&rreosSI Qsueo&jQeuesBrGHih. 

A man of much avarice must be conquered by great lies. 1098. 
One must always hold out hopes of great profit to him. 

3131. LD3Sirei{&(8ju Qunvus Qsnd(&j i3uf.^^^iQuir&). 
Like going to Mecca and catching a crane. 
Said of one who wilfully tells all sorts of lies. 
" He may lie boldly icho comes from afar." 

" He has been as far as Delhi and says all men there walk on their 
heads." (Hindi or Hindustani Proverb). 



RKFKRRING TO KRI BUDS HIP. 347 

3135. (tpt-L<smL-<isiTil<s : -a^surnS. 

The big man with the big bundle of lies. 

The ' bundle ' is a pack of lies. 

Also ; — PipLL<o6iL- egy&r&QroaiJ&fr. bo measures bundles. 

" He lies as fast as a dog can lick a dish." 



REFERRING TO FRIENDSHIP. 

3136. ^® ues>siqti>, (gilts}. Q-p'm&nl 

Will he hate the sheep and love the lamb ? 3141. 

Said of one who is on bad terms with the parents, bnt professes to love 
their children. 

3137. ,gu^(?e) QQisQ^sr gfjB. 

Know a friend when you are in adversity. 
" A friend in need is a friend indeed" 

" Prosperity is no just scale, adversity is the only balance to weigh 
friends in." 

3138. ^}0SVIT tbL-L]&(&) GpQJjGtin QurrffvemLA. 

The friendship of two depends on the forbearance of one. 

3139. &.LpsQQeo Ql£S(3j Qinp&nl 

Will there be East and West in a little round vessel ? 

i. e. There should be no differences between members of one family. 

3140. gglEiSfTgll) Q UK Q5V)§21Ua ^tplQpSLO Q<aiJ6SBT®ti>. 

leisure a known face before you undertake a journey of fifteen 

miles. 3143. 
The Hindu is miserably homesick when he has to live among strangers. 

3141. &¥&> USES, <SUIT60 S-p6VIT? 

Will it hate the head and love the tail ? 3136. 

3142. U<gLDrTUJ& &Q(E&LDUGaaT<5GBrQ<5lJ<5BgT®lI). 

Make friendship with moderation. 1413. 

" Friendship increases in visiting friends, but more in visiting them 
seldom." 

3143. u&gi (com. utsltki) Sit^ld QufT^s^ii, utpssu) QeuesarQw. 
Though yon go fifty miles for it you must have society. 3140. 

3144. esisv^^liussr &.p<sq Q@QFj6iJtT&60i£LJBuc>. 

The doctor's friendship lasts only to the door. 

Cf. 1409 /; 2732 ff; 2738 f; 2744 f; 2747 /; 2755 f; 2759^; 2763^; 

2773;' 27 77 



348 TAMIL PKOVERBS. 

LOVE. 

3145. jysarL/drsff (^esorih ^j^eouSdoeOfT^ ie^I. 

A character full of love is like a river without a wave. 

3146. cgysm-/-/ ^Q^iB^neo, ^snp^u) ^(gih. 

If there is love the impossible becomes possible. 2700. 
" He that hath love in his breast hath spurs at his heels." 
" Kind will creep where it cannot go." 

3147. jy&sjQu ddjrpmsisrm, jyjpQeu Qsu^LDtresiLD. 

Love is all important, aud it is its own reward. 

3148. j£iGB)& &.6anrL-n'(es)6\} ) uas).? s-sot®. 

If there is desire (of gods or men) there will be worship (of 

them). 
i.e. Men honour those whom thev love. 

3149. <5TLLi$.LDjji£irr(GV)6£itjD u&Q&mjru ^(r^ssQQjessr®ih. 

Though it is a (poisonous) nux-vomica tree, we ought to wish 

that it may be green. 
Hate no one, wish evil to no one ; love all, however wicked they may be. 

3150. ersp&(&jih ®-(T$&n poum , J^ao^gj e-^gjewrsor. 

He who is not melted by anything else may be melted by love. 
2041. 

The ' love ' referred to is passionate desire, rather than ' love ' as it is 
understood in Europe. 

3151. &<5Br<ZS>p& S6SST®, S^££j2>J(7Jj£i U<fr68)6VuQuiT&). 

Like the cow that ran to its calf immediately on seeing it. 6665. 
A simile frequently used to describe tender affection. 

3152. snikgih §j)(Lpi&j£ &§a.&)<S8)UJuQuiT60. 

Like the needle that was attracted by the magnet. 
Said of the attractive power of love. 

3153. Qesurpgiis ^emossF staff Qeuetrsnih Q&n<55tsr(3QurT(8jLDir? 

Can the flood carry off the well-water ? 809. 

No outside force can destroy the love of those who are united in heart. 
Used also about well protected property. 

3154. Q^eSc-i—irs S6sff, ti?or3srr ; Q^sSlLi—itu urrmLe, ^esaressFir. 

A child is a fruit, and water is a drink, that one never tires of. 

3155. unnpspu unrrpgis sesmemim L^ggiuQunfFBrg}. 

By looking and looking my eyes have grown dim. 
Said by one who has long been waiting for a person he loves. 

Of. 26,95/; 2763/. 



FAMILY LIFE. 349 

FAMILY LIFE. 

REFERRING TO HOME AND DOMESTIC LIFE. 

3156. J)j<Glj<9rLC> Qp6BrgVU) &-.G3BTt—fT(G8)®) } ^jSlUfT uQueeOT SttllLD &6B)LI)&(8jU). 

If the five and the three are at hand, even a young girl may 

make curry. 
It is easy to do a thing when one has all the help required. 
The 'five' are pepper, salt, mustard, cumin and tamarind. The ' three' 

are water, fire and fuel. 

3157. c oy«oir«<SQ/ii) intTUJih. sG5)jr&aeijti> wmuih. 

It is an illusion to grind it and an illusiou to dissolve it. 

May be said by a daughter-in-law to a mother-in-law, when the latter gives 
the former too little of the rice, &c, required in preparing a meal. 

3158. .gjeu&sr (gjisf-p &<s® &<S6) g &QpdaLDiTUJS QsiressrQQurrQ^ear (or, &Qp#(T 

He manages domestic affairs with great reserve (i.e. he hides 
his poverty). 1726—1729, 2572. 

3159. tgug/ugi /5/73srri(3j GTQgug} siseay^. 

For sixty days seventy rags. 

Said of children when they wear out their clothes very soon (or tear up 

their school-books) ; and of the expenses of a family that are incurred 

through want of economy. 

3160. @)P(5 Qppfi'-' upssi&Jiurr<GS)so, er&ieonih ^m enuSpeap^ pmssr unas 

When its wings are fully developed and it is fully grown, every 
bird must look after its own stomach, i.e. must feed itself. 
2217. 

3161. &.pp semeuggju) ^0 Qrsio^iih &.6mi—iT(GG)®), QpSHnLcQurred gjif. 

6»nih&6B)& Q&ibuj&mib. 
If a woman has a faithful husband and a little rice, she may 

make her domestic happiness (as beautiful) as a picture. 

3165, 3167, 3183. 
" I live and lords do no more." 

8162. sm& f?0 QPLp& giee&<s®ujULiiT£ijgi QsrrQsQU), jy^^/rgp/Lo (com* 
tgignespuD) Q-PQtj'n QsaQssnirseir. 
A needle will give at least a cubit of cloth, but relatives will 

not. 3239. 
Trust to your own efforts rather than to the good offices of friends. 
" Help yourself and your friends will bless you." 



350 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3163. gt&&60 §)s&a cgyifi^ii), upgiu up&s ^u^s^ih. 

Dirtiness will make .you beg, uncleanliness Avill make you fly 

away. 3164, 3172. 
Here <sr&Q®> means j/j^^rrinh, ceremonial defilement. Used to children 

who suck their fingers. It is commonly thought that children who suck 

their fingers will not get on in life. 

" Want of care admits despair.'' 

3164. er^Qeo ^ns^th, gir<ss)LD (or ^l1®) ^76roz_i(3j(i. 

Dirty habits will drive a family to beggary, and ceremonial de- 
filement will sweep (all property) out of the house. 

The defilement referred to is that caused by catamenia, child birth or con- 
tact with a dead body. It is most commonly used with the first meaning. 

3165. 9(5 Qp<Tr}fiii>5in&ujiii sp0 sr^etSLDiijih ^L.6aan—!Ti^)eo, evQ^Qp eS^i^s^ 

If I have a murungei-tvee and a buffalo, I can make people 
happy at the coming feast. 3161, 3167, 3183. 

The murungei-tree yields a tasty fruit. 

" A little house well filled, a little land well tilled, and a little wife 
well willed, are great riches." 

3166. Gpp66>p& &1TQ)UD ^rftlLjLDnLUS: &(ip3 : ITlT<GJj Q&lLlQ(Trf'6$r. 

He lives the life of an old one legged jackal (or, the monkey). 
i.e. He will associate with no one. 
" Like a snail in the shell." 

3166(1. <SLDLO(TSff637" (&jlSf.j£@66TIX> U6OTT<633)(p '^B, & G6)t—Q & L-L— QsUfflftinLLu}.. 

Don't keep house like a Kammalan (an artisan), thou wretched 
maid-servant ! 547. 

Said to one in a family who is not economical. The reverse of : Q# lLi$- 
(SjUf-igJgeBTLO ussmemiiQQ^-Bir . She keeps house like a merchaut-caste 
woman, i.e. very economically. 

31666. SLbixnTefrm jg/essfl ennisiQ^ed, <srr®) lduSit QastBuu euntsi^eumssr, r gi6m<g& 
&60<ansiJ&(9jLJ Q u/rOii Quirgpuo, ^j®ui3QeoQurTil.t—!r^iLD Qsugngi. 
When a Kammalan buys cloth, the stuff he buys is so thin that 
it does not hide the hair on his legs and when sent to be washed 
or bleached, (it will be so dirty that), if put on a fire, it will 
not burn. 547. 
Great desire for ostentation (L_ti>ULo), but dirty habits spoil ever thing. 
sreoieuff 1 tfetietiirgt/esisfl, muslin; thin transparent cloth. 

3167. &p<35)<3uuj<s(reniT6Bi eSfTrjihgistsj ^^firm. 

He who has a milk cow will not fear to give a feast. 3161, 3165, 

3183. 
He has milk, and from it he gets curds, bnttermilk and ghee (butter). 
" Enough is as good as a feast." 
" He who desires but little has no need of much. 



FAMILY LIFE. 351 

3 1 68. (9jty-&geBrQu>rr glows p georQ 'urn ? 

Is it a household or a kingdom ? 1380, 3170, 3479. 

A family mast be governed as carefully as a state. This proverb asserts 
in strong terms social reform as the basis of political reform. 

3169. «0<5 UlLL-160 &6SBriGSS)l$.. 

If the hand touches it, it will be like a glass. 
Only used about feminine tidiness. 

3170. &Qp&nsw, ffnssih. 

Family life is an ocean (of trouble). 3168. 

3171. &m<£)m *§LLup.Q&) Q&jitrjp, LciaQesr eEiLuf-Qeo eutrwrgi. 
(Nothing) accrues in a household of squandering people, and 

(nobody) comes to a gloomy house. 1052, 2010a. 
Csed about a family that is lazy, dirty and wasteful. 
"' There is but an hour in a day behceen a good houseicife and a bad.'" 

3172. &■■££!£, Q&tTgi Qun®th } erd&eo $jrds easud^th. 

Cleanliness will give you food, and dirty habits will make you 

beg. 3163. 
" Cleanliness is both decent and advantageous." 

•'J 173. $pkp <s$® Q&edsotrgpn&r QsrrsSeo Qune&QrjdQpg). 
An open house is like Sellattal's temple. 

The temple of this goddess is always open ; worshippers go in and out as 
they please. Said about those who are careless about their own 
possessions. 

" At open doors dogs come in." 

3174. isn^eird^uj £it isi—is^^iissr QunQp&p, ^<ssr<ss> pd^ih @ir ^jQ^ds^ 

pnesr QunQpg). 
To-morrow we aie sure to prosper and to-day we are certainly 
prospering. 

Said by a young wife when her husband grumbles at the dowry she has 
brought : meaning that they have done very well so far, and that if her 
relatives do not help him, he will have no money at all. 

3175. ungnvuu QunQpgi u&eSesr euauSQeo. 

That which is waste (left after the meal is finished) goes into 
the cow's mouth. 

Let nothing be wasted ; whatever is left after a meal, should be given to 
the cow or to the poor. 

3176. ldlLl-ttuj f§}Q?jR&g) LD^eefl (^ysBOTaszifl) gjif. euttupdeas. 

Hjs brother's wife's management of the house was frugal. 

3177. LDifliurrar (a-uf-ppapih ffiBvuirubu Quird&jp. 
Mary's household management went on well. 

A Roman Catholic proverb used ironically about a woman who manages 
some household matter badly. The Man* referred to, is the Uoly Virgin 
Mary. 



352 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3178. euL-sQa u(TiJ£<$ ld&& eSL-eau.<sS!L-, Q^^Qs unhpp @^* eS® Qweo. 
A hut facing the South is better than a palace facing the North. 

A house facing the North gets more sunshine in the hot weather, and more 
rain during the rainy season than a house facing the South. 

3179. euuSgn iSiffubiB^eo, uit^est Qpt—n&r. 

After filling her stomach, she does not cover up the pot. 
Said of a wasteful, improvident house wife. 

3180. eSfTijiBg; £|)sU6Wr# Q&irgy wqijkgi. 

Food taken without company is like physic. 

Said by the women in the house of a very hospitable man, who have to 
cook food for his many guests, either in admiration or in sarcasm be- 
cause of his hospitality. 

3181. oSSsfro^ ^itB&iLHT^Gpiih Qld&) e_u9 Qurrgts)®) eSttefriutrgj. 
Though it is rice, if it is without husks, it will not grow. 

, No one can get on without the help of others. 

3182. <sSlL®&(3j jyeoiEi&rrirts) Quifluj gjif.. 

The beauty of a house is a large family. 
The opposite of 3166. 

3183. sBlLQ^ Q&®)6mx> mn®, Q^m-Li—p ©<? eveuih QpQtjtkians. 

' The wealth of a house is a cow ; the wealth of a garden is the 

Mttrungei-tree. 
The milk, dung, and urine of the cow are used in every Hindu house, and 
all parts of the Murungei-tree (Hyperanthera moringa) are used as food 
or medicine. 3161, 3165, 3167. 

3184. Q<3lJ®)®)UUn'2GBT6B)UJ 6TJ»U)L/ QlI>mU^ t gJsQsiT6Satl—^}QuiT&). 

Like ants swarming round a pot of sugar. 

Said when there are many in a family who are greedy to get a share in the 
prosperity of the family. 

1724 /, 2373-2395, 3473 /. 



REFERRING TO DISTINCTIONS MADE IN FAMILY LIFE BETWEEN 

NEAR RELATIVES, DISTANT RELATIVES AND STRANGERS 

AND BETWEEN HOME AND ABROAD. 

3185. ^jQQpeu&r ^mtssrenenn^eo, gjuf-uukGiluSeo ^Q^i^ireo ermear, 

If she who serves out the food to the guests be one's own friend 
{or relation) what matters it whether one has the first or last 
seat. 345. 

" A friend in court makes a process short." 



FAMILY LIFE. 353 

3186. sjei^i—p giftpSjIrru) L$i$.pae>jeir ^jLDjrjeu^uS&i sungQqif&r eimgi i§p 
tsluup @tfl<g6j)rrLD iiiisj-ppsLi<5BT r§eifrp rfl'fo)u$(c60 ^lL®sQ srressr® 
sufcgrrebr. 
Though he knew that she who had suffered the eight kinds of 
poverty (-i.e. want of wealth, children, jewels, &c,) was 
enjoying married happiness in the heaven of Indra, he (her 
brother or father) who suffered eternal poverty came and 
persisted in taking her away. 3298. 

It frequently happens that the relations of a woman insist on fetching her 
from her husband's house, because they think she is not happy, though 
they themsolves are too poor to give her the comforts she had in her 
husband's house. The above proverb is quoted about such foolish 
fondness. 

3187- ^j6sar6sarasr Q^^ssniSeo gj&r&fl s^^oreswuQunQd^&r. 

She goes to eat food by handfuls in her elder brother's great 
household. 

A sneer at the harshness of the girl's mother-in-law. It is only in her own 
mother's house that the girl can enjoy herself and feel at liberty to 
feast as she likes. 

3188. ^jseBremm^nm <s»_z_l/ i§pib@nm, ^j6sbtssS =k_z_u iSpk^nenir^. 
Your elder brother was born to your own mother, but was his 

wife also P 3212. 
Your brother may help you, but his wife, a stranger, will not. 

3189. M®SllQ^i LLGzfllULLVuSffi&Qtinrp&Sr } &etr0&(&j ©fflj'SSeV Q&UJaijQp LDGSlfiaJLCIT 

u$(nj&Qqt?6Br. 
He makes it his business to play, and to do work for the village. 
Said of one who neglects home duties. 3101, 4195. 

3190. -MjPSpi & n senjbpl £>{&)&& &Qge8(6G)§2)i£>, Qeupjpi i§ii Qeupgii Sir^rrasr. 
Though yon pour river water and wash it with it, the river 

water will be foreign water, i.e. will not cleanse. 
Said by a step-mother, implying that all that she does for a step-sou cannot 
t<et he r bis affection. 

3191. @QyS5T ae£0S(9jLJ i3eir'2etT. 

He is a child of the village. 

He does nothing at home, but is always in tin village. 3189. 

3192. s^dsQfiar&r &p(afp<5Bi& i@fluu <gmu) epgisQ&i euiruf. (suit s\iq. 

stluf. jip). 
Oh, come, my gentle step-mother, to a retired place and let us 

embrace each other and weep. 
Said sarcastically to the step-mother who shows her love for her step 

children only in public. 3193. 

3193. a_t£<5(<5 e-s»r^e5(i5<5@tJ, u^d^ uirGpSsg. 

A small measure of rice as a helping lor tin- people of one's own 

village, but a big one for a stranger. 1553. 319G. 
Said of one who seeks honour from outsiders and is careless about the opi- 
nions of his own people. 

45 



354 TAMIL PR0VERB8. 

3194. e-dr^&j/r LDQfjLD&etpiih &.Qp&p <5i_/r<a/u> sift. 

A son-in-law from your* own village and a plough buffalo are 

esteemed alike. 3205. 
" A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country." 

3195. gmsfsjjg &eS® ^uf.ss^ g&retiirg], ^y^j^i@ (or, &ti>L9jrirG8)i&(9j 

or, ssE^sgj) ^(jjtfiL/ @)ty.s&@ gente^iA. 

She is unable to pound bran for herself, but she can beat iron 
for strangers. 

Said of women who dislike to do their home duties, but delight in going 
to friend's houses and helping them. 3189, 3603, 3612. 

" Charity begins at Jwme." 

3196. Q-pQ\&(§ GpGBIUglUlS}-, &etr(n}3(3jU U&g)UUU)-. 

Nine measures of grain for relations, but ten for strangers. 
1550, 3193. 

3197. e_S37<c(65)(?i_ dipmptsl®), iDeaarQ^Qi— iSpsseiirth. 

Being born with you (as vaj brother), I might as well be born 

with a clod of earth (for a brother): 
Said by a sister to an unsympathetic brother. 

3198. $&8\ii iHpk@ piBHsns fpeoiAiL.® g/p&Qf, ^uuirifl^ ^isnssiss^s &jb 

Qtpetni—UJiTUD. 
While one's own sister is screaming for a cloth {i.e. a new 
dress), it is given to her who is only a sister by manner of 
speech. 3202. 

It is usual for Tamil men and women when talking together to address 
each other as ' Brother' ' Sister' ' Mother' ' Father" although they may 
not be related. 

3199. ^isf. §>0 Q&rruf- QpQajGdgpth, ®Qt)®gi (or &.LLsTiTm^}) 9^5 sirsr 

Better to remain (where one was born) to earn one casb, than 
to roam about (in foreign places) to earn great wealth. 1268. 

3200. Qs /resort— sugar ^eceirrp QsulLsia, sesisn—Su^is^ e_6BWX_/r? 

If the husband is not ashamed (of bis wife's bad life), will an 
on-looker (i.e. stranger) be ashamed ? 905. 

3201. p&5€ar S0i£irm ^&r(ef^uuf., inppQ^eOeonih sj^huuls^.- 

He spurns the carpenter and blacksmith, and treats the rest 

well. 2147. 
Said of a farmer who refuses their dues to the useful craftsmen, who make 

his implements for him, and wastes his money on the idle and useless. 

3202. $gbt&(9ju iSpkp iSar^eir ^eSLL®s(^ juQgQppirtii, amwrrr ii?ar3syr«DUJ 

asEiJ.19. even n&Q (year. 
While his own child is crying for bran, he feeds and nurtures 
the child of strangers. 3198. 



FAMILY LIFE. 355 

3203. pssr L9ssrr3srr«gji_j uea^sstrjsm&r, fsseir^u iS&r^sfrs^u uetapii 

un&rnt 

If her heart does not beat for her own child, will it beat for 

that of a rival wife ? 3564. 
Some Hindus marry a second wife while the first is still alive, and the 

quarrels in such a household are proverbial. The proverb is used 

generally about heartless friends and relatives. 

3204. prresr JQt—n <sS 'LLi—n e^ih pssr peng ^Qth. 
Though he does not dance, his flesh does. 3211. 

Refers to enmity betweeu near relatives. — Though a brother may say 
that he will have nothing to do with his brother, or sister or parents, 
yet he cannot keep to this position ; he cannot but feel for the mis- 
fortunes of his owu family. 

3205. iSenjr gjut-ppneo Q<su0>(3jLDrrT 

If we strike water, will it divide into two parts ? 2267, 2834. 
It is impossible to separate relations. 
" They are finger and thumb." 

3205a. t-l/D&&6B)l— ILQ^S^ &<58)<SUa(9j ®-@@>J[Tjgl. 

Medicinal plants from one's own back-yard are not valued. 
3194. 

Children obey their teacher and his rod more readily thau they obey their 
parents. Or, the natural tendency of all people is to value what i 
strange. 

" Far fetctid and dear bought is good for ladies." 

3206. unfysou uirn&Qppn ? urrVesriaouJu urrird3/D@iT ? 

Should one look at the milk, or at the pot that holds it ? 3569. 

If one's child does harm to others, and someone wants the child punished 
for it, another cpaotes this proverb : meaning thereby: — Think of his 
good father who is like milk and overlook the faults of the child who is 
onry like an earthen pot. In some Hindu philosophy it means:— We 
should look at the good in man, and not at his defects. 

" Do not look upon the vessel but upon that ichich it contains." 

" The jewel is not to be valued for the cabinet.'' 

3207. QuniGiStyih un&> LjpihQurrseS&)^eo. 

Though the milk boiled, it did not boil over. 2573. 
Said of something unpleasant or shameful thai has happened within a 
family but which the family tries to keep secret. 

3208. u>Q)igiLb eSQfjihgjLb Qpmgj QunQgg) (or ihir&r). 

For medicine and for feasting three days. 21 •">8, 2392, 2393. 
The effect of medicine will be known within three days, and one relative 

should not stay more than three days with another lest his host be tired 

of him. 
" Fresh fish and gue# smell at three days old." 



356 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3209. LDQU>&aptd(<9j GTteisrrpt GBSvpp QlBlhetaUJ LLSGB)IS(Sj HSLprB ■Sbuftg! 67/fl/S 

pnar. 

The ghee (butter) which she had kept for her son-in-law, she 
poured out to her son, and then envied him. 

Ghee being thick flows out of the pot very slowly. The story is that the 
son, knowing his mother's partiality for her son-in-law, had managed 
to melt the ghee withont her knowledge. When she came at his meal 
time to pour out a little ghee for him, she turned the pot quickly, expect- 
ing the ghee to be stiff, but it all ran out into her son's vessel, and the 
son-in-law had none. 

3210. LDireijiJ} Qun&#gi } u>/ra/ SL-isf.<sar ^essfinjib Qurrffi&g;, ^i&ft ermesr 

The flour is gone and the cloth in which it was kept : what 
friendship will there be in the future ? 19026, 2132, 2154, 
2197. 

Said when he dies through whom two families were related. 

3211. jTjggutrefuuD @SL-JTg}. 

The ties of blood do not give way. 2267, 3204. 
" Blood is thicker than water. 1 ' 

3212. .yrflQQ&naJBr® ^ssrr&r aS'il®«@iJ QuneunQmm. 

Why should I bring rice with me, when I goto my elder sister's 

house? 3188. 
She is my sister and has natural love for me. She is sure to give me food. 

3213. aeoorassfl®) ulLi—it&> aifls^mn, Lj^Sj^^jeo ulLi—JT®) sifiatQ^iont 

Will the smart be produced when the eye is hit, or the eye- 
brow ? 

It pains one most when his near relatives are suffering ; also : — one's own 
relatives will take an interest in one, and not strangers. 

3214. <g6BgT6gP/<g(g ^eS)LD SnpLDH? 

Are the eyelids ten miles away from the eye ? 15J, 2089. 
A family will protect its members. 

3215. * sireSeo ulLi—jp, seeamssfle^ uiLi—giG>un&). 

The hurting of your foot (pained me) as if my eye had been 
hurt. 

3216. e$n&) scmessiiQeo (Sj^^mgj GT&srgg QeuLLisf.uQunQjQppn'? 

Do 3 r ou cut off your finger because it poked into your eye ? 

One does not disown a member of the family on account of a fault done 
within the family circle. 



FAMILY LIFE. 357 

TAKING UNFAIR ADVANTAGE OF THE TIES OF RELATIONSHIP 
AND SACRED PRIVILEGES. 

3217. e-g&iMtLiGOBnh ereisrnpi s-iftetatus SLLt^sQarrestsr® &nQpgfr? 

One should not hang himself because it is Uttarayanam. 2379. 

Uttarayana is the time when the sun moves northward, i.e. from January- 
till June. Dakshanayana is the time when the sun moves south- 
ward, i.e. the rest of the year. The former is the daytime of the 
heavenly years, the latter the night time. Whatever is good is done 
in the day-time. Thus Brahmins solemnize weddiugs only during Utta- 
rayana. Just as the doors of houses in this world are kept open in the 
daytime so are the doors of heaven kept open during U ttarayaua and all 
who die during Uttarayana enter heaven at once; while those who die 
during Dakshanayana have to wait outside heaven till Uttarayana begins 
a train. 

3218. srsn^Q afljrgLxi srGsrgi isnssasu i3®iEiQsQsn6stsr® &ir&jfTir&ernr? 
Though it be the Ekadasi fast, should you pull out your tongue 

(i.e. in order to die and get to heaven) ? 

32 J 9. ^suusisr QeuiLuf-ear Qssar^i srasrgy ^9eo <&ipndj s$lp&).tldit? 

Will anyone throw himself headlong into a well because his 
father dug it ? 

Whatever is handed down by our ancestors, should be used and not abused. 

3220. &m a?Ll® g8&!&(3j ersar^ Qpggih ^LL&dQsfT&r&T&iiTUJiT? 

Should one kiss a lump because it belongs to his house Y 2879, 
3112a. 

The lamp will not be partial, but burn him. One should not offend his near 
relations, thinking that they will forbear to blame or punish him. 

" A man may love his house well, though he ride not on the ridge." 

3221. gear lSsttSsw" simgn prbsoQweo smeu^^/sQsnerren&irnc-^ 

Though it be your own child, should you carry it on your head '? 
Parents should not be partial to their own children. 

3222. &(Sjf>BrLC t56W(ir?ti$i(ii)&Qp5fi zre&rjry QuiTQg&peSlisf-QfDSUGms&QijU} searearth 

Though a thief meets a good omen while on his way to steal, 

will it be right for him to steal till day-break "r 2179. 
Though your superior is kind to you aud overlooks your faults, his kindness 
must not be strained too much. 

3223. ^TSar (9}Wl5l®lh Q^UJSULCIT^gjilLh, QulTUJ6 : 3 : &$UJUJ Q&lLglTeti QulTgflS 

(SjUJ/T? 

If 1 speak falsehood as truth, will God bear with me, even if 1 
worship him 'r 1 

3224. Qunear s$$e) eian-gii sQgjisp jygjjpgi&Q&rT&TeiTGMuiiT? 

Ought you to cut your throat with a knife, because it is made 
of gold ? 

This is an injunction againt that obsequiousness which leads a man to pan- 
der to the faults of a superior or friend. 

Cf. 3107. 



358 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

OWNERSHIP, POSSESSION. 

3225. ^jixunirmisSLL® Q<sy&r&rrrLLuf.es)uj ^jig.&s, ^j^sniBemijus QsLLaQevGsnc 

Is it necessary to ask the headman for permission to pnnisli a 
maid-servant in an nncle's house. 3232, 3563. 

3225a. gjGDe8)i&(9) Q%%u$&) (or, ^stvuptgltfl) pntb eSQ. 

The jail (or, hospital) has become his home. 395, 3438. 

Said of one who is put into jail time after time or of a person who is so 
often sick, that he is found more often in the hospital than at home. 
In both cases the person is ridiculed for behaving like a young married 
girl who, instead of staying permanently with her mother-in-law, too 
often goes home and makes a long stay with her mother. 

3226. jif/buear es>s ^uSjtuj QuirmeaB^iM, ^pi^^^ljjm <smsp ^&SQl- 

Bran in a good man's hand is better than a thousand gold pieces 
in a mean man's hand. 3239. 

3227. Q-StBi—tLKSueisr §£&)edn& (c^^su ep(Oj (jpifis.sil.eai—. 

A cloth without an owner (to look after it) will be a short cloth 
(i.e. destroyed). 2078, &. 

3228. s_«0(_uJ/T/r sSlL® CW^ajagj ^jsueaus sesars^ snssresrt 

Why keep an account of the butter- milk enjoyed by the owner 

himself ? 
If he chooses to waste it, that is his own affair. 

3229yJ^GT0$ etj'Bsftujrr (6a)^i ti> @<s& often Q<sjeaor®w. 

Though only a rat hole> it should be one's own. 3240. 

" East or West, home is best." 

" Home is home be it ever so homely." 

3230. seai—aSeo g\ifl& &<££&&(§ s^e/uj/r ? <gi6BBrm>t—e§LL(ds&tTif)u (or, ^l9 

Is the (unpounded) rice in the bazaar ready to be eaten ? Is 
a neighbour's husband (or. harlot's paramour) any help in 
trouble? 2349. 

3231. QslLuitit Qeaeo'teos G&iKSla Q&t—nQp. 

Do not be ruined by listening to hearsay (or, everybody's advice). 
3234. 

3232. &p$5l!i$g)& aL.(f£S(9}£ grr^vguudrsniT &-ppswn1 

Is it necessary to get the sanction of the custodian of the 
Chattirdm in order to get the free meal bestowed on all comers. 
3225. 



OWNERSHIP, POSSESSION. 359 

3233. &@]gl QuQtj'g i&qffB gpih LD(nj£Q<grr'? Qujbjg/u uetnL-Vuns iSi&r'hsfriijiM 

LS&rVGfrGtutr? 
Is that a medicine that does not cure ? Is that your child that 
you have not borne and brought up yourself ? 

3234. Q&n6d§#tsiiniT Q&nmtgS)®), QslLuitq^s^ LD^laSe^soojn ? 

If talkers talk, have not those who hear got discrimination ? 3231. 
Judge for yourself. 

3235. @<o5T&(3) <5T68rgll @)(17}£@rT&), &LDUJ@ < g)&(3j S-^Q/ii. 

If a thing is one's own, it will be of use at the (right) time. 

3236. gear ^jeafth ^asr'Besrs air&fjsjth, QsusSI uuSetajTs sns^ih. 

His kindred will protect him ; the hedge will protect the crop. 
2106. 

3237- ^sar &en.(n)&(9j ^Bssr, sj&®>> s«E(J5<S(3jiJ ySssr. 

Iii his own village he is an elephant, in a neighbouring village 
only a cat. 3238. 

" Every one is a king in his own house." 

3238. ,#637 a«i(j5«@ ^mentis), iSI/d sse^s^s sn&th. 

He is a swan in his own village ; in another village only a crow. 

3237. 
"Every dog is a lion at homey . 

3239. gmu&tsasu usrib Qunissreisfl^iLD, <g<oisr esis^^eSQi— Qld&). 

Better to depend on your own bran, than to depend on your 

mother's fine gold. 
It is better to depend on one's own property, though small, than to depend 
on that belonging ro others. 3162, 3226. 

M A little in one's own pocket, is better than much in another man's 

purse." 
" Dry bread at home is better than roast meat abroad." 

3240. major LS?sfrSsrruj/r(6S)ej)/Lb, pm L9&r2striiJ'TuS(j^ssQsuessr(Sltii. 

Though a child be only dust, it should be one's own. 3229, 3319. 



WHAT ONE HAS NOT LABOURED FOR IS LITTLE VALUED. 

3241. pntSGI Q^l—TU Ou/768T@J/(5(5 WK pWH&<8<ftl30 ^GOini^lS&^eO. 

Gold not acquired by oneself is neither fine nor valuable. 3284. 
" Nothing is a man's truly, but what he came by duly." 

3242. 6d(mup-m Qrseognd^ LD^^einh Loussnei. 

The drum is used as a measure for stolen rice. 

As it has cost the thief nothing, he measures it out lavishly or at random. 



360 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3243. l§<SSTgll QunL-L-gjlBsO'bsO, (3jG&kgl <SI®^^^H&&fii30. 

You did not stand up to put it down, nor stoop down to take it 

up. 
A father says this to his spendthrift sou, who has had iio trouble in earn- 
ing what he is spending. 

" Lightly come, lightly gone." 

3244. eniraaQp sSlLQs^ ty@ Queaoremiih, emeu sQ 'sn eo Qunrt^&Qj p(V7j 

&6BTJ£BLC. 

One woman in a prosperous house, and one calf in a stack of 

straw. 
A spendthrift woman who marries into a prosperous family will ruin the 
family she will selfishly enjoy what she has never toiled for — just as a 

calf tied close to a stack will eat it all up. 



EXAGGERATING THE VALUE OF ONER OWN POSSESSIONS 



Tf it belongs to the elder sister, it is rice, if it belongs to the 
younger sister, it is only bran. 

Or ^jssrrefr u^bti—iJd <g]iB&l, pias&S uGStfri—ih ^laP®. 

The elder sister thinks her own property valuable as rice, hut 

her younger sister's property she thinks mere chaff. 
■• Every potter praise* his own pot, and the more if it be broken." 

3246. ssmrrrir uesmi—LD &.L&Qunso, pax uesen—w piastiiQuneo. 
The property of others is chair, his own is pure gold. 

3247. &tr<gss)&p sssbtl— sil)Ur5J«L-<3ntp Sfa^rrgj @j£. jyiy. , &dv<b§ Qp&Q ! 
Oh, thou silly woman, do not spill this rare gruel, drink it ! 
Said in ridicule of a low person, who is unduly elated by getting .some- 
thing a little better than that to which ho is accustomed. 

3248. &rr5&mju&(j9jih pm (Bjt^si- Qunm gj^*. 
To a crow its young are golden. 369. 

" The croic thinks her own bird the fairest." 
" Every cook praises his own broth" 

3249. ^«jr<5(5 c9/ig(2> OiD/Ttlsa)/—, iSlrDrgsQj SjifiQ QesrresBTiss)^. 

He holds his bald head a beauty, others think so of their 
braided tuft. 

3250. u&r&flLJiSI&r'fcir <5T66r(irj'<sd, Q&eoedib (^<oS)/r>iiji£)n? 

If yon say ' It is only a Palli child,' will it have fewer caresses ? 
The Pallis or Vcmniyans arc a low caste, hut a I'alli mother loves her low- 
caste child just as much as a Brahmin mother loves her high-caste son. 



MOTHEK. 361 

DECEIVING ONE'S OWN DELATIONS. 

8251. £l®££8l$£BT& Qa®3&G0lTLDrT? 

Is it right to rain him who has come for protection ? 2253. 

3252. &.i—^jic^eh(c<ofr iBrrsisms suL^jsQp^n ? 

Do you rub the tongue with any of the members of your body ? 

Rubbing the tongue to cleanse it is considered a, very necessary act by 
Hindus ; but neither the hand nor any other member is allowed to touch 
the tongue. Should they touch it they are defiled. In the same way 
cheating or deceiving the members of one's own family is considered to 
be very shameful. 

3253. U-®p& @¥go (or L/*_«oa/) unii/urnus sist--£@g!Qurt6d. 

Just as if a cloth he had put on had bitten him like a snake. 
3558, 3578. 

Said when a relation, or servant, is unfaithful. 

3254. (9)&)@gJ&(8) fFSBTU) QsfTL-nioSlsSfTWLj. 

The handle of the axe brings ruin to its own race. 
It serves to fell trees like that from which it has itself been cut. Said of 
treacherous relatives. 

3255. tSl®i'2eti&(8ju LSlar'SeiTUJiJuSI(n ) iB^i , QuLLes)L-UL9(k^6ir<ssuJ QabfysouunsQ 

Though he was treated as one of my own children, he seduced 
a girl in my family. 

3256. Q&jeSls^u Q until— Qp<ar sir §jto&(&) laS/Sforrorj*^. 

Tbe thorns put up for a hedge have hurt the feet. 2106. 
Said if those who should protect one become one's foes. 

Cf. 714 /. 



MOTHER. 

d£/T(JJ. 

3257. giapgrrgyiD i3@tr'Zsfr sjsiQen QupQ&j6m(8u>. 

Though she weeps, a mother must give birth to her own child. 

3284. 
There is no escape from the sufferings appointed to us. 
" Every bird must hatch its own eggs." 

3258. S\jbppg)&(8) &.pp /srriu. 

A mother can be trusted with secrets. 

3259. ^OT&nig ?>-<geim0<Sijek, ^(Wjigjto ^smsfr. 

A sou, who does not help his mother, is worthless to all men. 
3272. 

3260. <%Q5U> <£j,<3' c V-P^? gTILjLD t_0<3ff2s>Tl^LD &-p®]. 

Who and who are relations ? Mother and child are relations. 
i.e. There is no closer relationship than that of mother and child. 

46 



362 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3261. GreyihanujB $einjpj eetagmtjus Qsn®@gl euenrrggneiT. 

She reared her child with meat, while she ate bones. 2159, 
3285, 3294. 

3262. $@ LfiefrSsrr Qupps>J(&7j&(9j &-plii$Qa) Qfrrgi, mne$ iSm^ea Quppen 

A mother who has had only one child has food in her store, but 
she who has had four children gets her food in the open street 
from a potsherd. 

If a mother has only one child, he is sure to protect his mother, but if 
four, none of them thinks it his special duty to care for his mother, and 
she suffers want. Here : 6-pl=&&ih ; ^Q=6ii0ggU). 

" Children are ceriain cares, but very uncertain comforts." 

3263- ^(T7jeDGS}l&(3j<g jglTjrU), l£pp<3UGG))&(§jb tgtTUJ. 

To one she will be a wife, to the other she will be a mother. 
Of many suitors only one can marry the girl, the rest should look on her 
as their mother. 

3264. &ndjuunrj£<a»$ Qsnuf. ^irisisir^n ? 

Will not the creeper bear the weight of its fruits ? 3266. 
Will not a mother support her children ? 

" A mother is like the sea that bears the greatest ships, though she, 
like the sea, yields to the slightest impressions." 

3265. (9}(tjjQ ldit y$ (o&arnjgQJgByib, giTuj <suniT£<an£jd(<sj rgyi—iEisv^suegyii) 

gg65BT££-. 

He who will not hear the priest's word, and he who w ill not 
obey his mother's word are stubborn. 3274. 

3266. Qsiri$-d(9j& snub unouwl 

Is the fruit too heavy for the tender creeper H 3264-. 
A mother will find means to support her children. 

3267- Qsnifl i&$i&gi (com. QiD<fl&g)) (§<$>$&■ Qpi—LD ^qsjwnt 
Will a chicken be lamed, if its mother treads on it ? 
" The kick of the dam hurts not the colt." 

3268. &tTuiS&r'3eiT Qupgiijg ^neonil.u-&>rnc>ir ? 

There will be no lullaby at the birth of a still-born child. 

3269. grriLju) 0&uuejpiii) peflir ffseOQpib sunmiseonih. 

One may buy everything except a mother and a father. 3320, 
3575. 

In Tamil, the word ' mother' precedes the word ' father' when both terms 
are used together. 

" Friendship is not to be bought at a fair." 

" Love can neither be bought nor sold, its only price is love." 

A motherless child becomes a rogue. 3273. 



MOTHER. 363 

3271. ^uj gfrSltjurrp (g^®) p^samQLjnt 

Will a mother not know when her daughter is pregnant ? 

3272. -sndj Quir^nssa^sis)^ •sm.fr Qun^i&^mnt 

What a mother will not forgive her child, the village will not 

forgive either. 3259. 
Or, p&L0&(9j ^srr^ ddeir'fcfT , pfTtbs(§ih j^arrj?. 

3273. flirib Qpaih arT(6ift)£ iSaxr'bsfnL^ih, Losiatp qpsih an<&s)^ uu$Qf}ih 6.@u 

A child that has not seen its mother's face, and a crop that has 
not seen the face of the rain, will not thrive. 3270. 

3274. grruj surrfrgsinp Q&mrr^ LftsJrSsrr rsmu eurraSio &¥&). 

A child that will not obey its mother, is like a rag in a dog's 

mouth. 3265. 
Tts end will be utter ignominy. 

3275. pneaujji ^essiessPfr 3p<sts)puSl&) uirfr&piTeo, tSen'bsfr&siaj e$LLup.®) urrfras 

When you have seen the mother at the tank-side, there is no 

need to see the child at home. 2862. 
The child's character can be inferred from the mother's face and conduct. 

3276. pn<3s>uJULmfr.&Q§2iLQ &\ptr>g Q sneR §$iB®fli3o . 

No temple is more beautiful than one's mother. 

3277. JStresiLu Lopsa ^))isf-&(8jL[> @u§qjjld &(T@Qpih. 

Curds and rice will make a child forget its mother. 

If a child that has lost its mother is treated kindly, it will forget its 

mother. Also, material welfare may make a man forget spiritual things. 

Also, a mother-in-law's kindness may make her son-in-law forget and 

neglect his mother. 

3278. ptTtLdgju lAsbt ptrfjih. 

The wife after the mother. 

After the mother is dead the wife should show the same kindness to her 
husband as his mother did. 

3279. G!lmm$ ^leisresrs QstL^Loniii iSm'2en Qupp <auu$jpi. 

The stomach (of her) that has borne a child ;isks for food con- 
tinually. 
A nursing mother's appetite is great. 

3280. L^&essfid&rruj gi^pfyssT Qppgi. 
A pearl as big as a pumpkin. 

Said in praise of a child, a jewel, or some other valuable possession. 

3281. Qptki&iruJ&(9j Qpearjp] sessr, GTS6t&(9j epQjj asew. 
The cocoanut has three eyes ; I have only one. 

Said by a mother who mourns because she has only one child. As this one 
is very dear to her, she calls it her ' eye.' 



364 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3282. iBi—sQp i3m'2efT gsujpjQpgj, gammr QftLp ussBrassfiujii). 

That a child that has learnt to walk should take to crawling 

again is the result of its mother's virtue. 
Said sarcastically about the reduced circumstances of a family. 

3283. Upp/Tih Qugl U(TG6)l—uSl®) 6B)8L'<5(9jli>. 

The tenth child will lay the mother on the bier. 3426. 

3284-. L5«ffSsrr ^(T^eann Quppent&^s^^, Q<sif)tLjib. 

The preciousness of the child is known only to its mother. 
3241, 3257. 

3285. tSlar2efres>uju upplu lS&smj^ S$&sres)i. 

Eat excrement for the child's sake. 

A mother will do or endure anything for the sake of her child. 3261, 
3294. 

3286. Qupp pntL ^pQ^sS, ugji^ ^rnrih @Q@e&. 

He considers his mother the goddess of ill-luck and his wife 
the goddess of good-luck. 3288, 3292. 

3287. Qujbp Lcesru) tSlpgj, tSai^sfr lds&uj seo§n. 

The mother's heart is tender, the child's hard. 2703, 2706, 
2707. 

3288. Quppeuea ewtSpeiopu uirnuurrea, QuesBt&nSH lcl^gbuju unrruunetr. 
His mother will look to his stomach ; his wife at his waist 

cloth. 3286,3292. 
The mother takes care that her son gets something to ear. ; the wife is only 
anxious to see how much money her husband brings home tied up in his 
waist cloth. This proverb has also an obscene meaning. 

''''After the time of winning and bringing, a wife's friend yon art' ; 
but when you are tired andu-eary, a mother * son you are." Kash- 
miri proverb. 

3289. QututT^gyih, <sndj sunn jimp pil.i—&)tTiD(t? 

A mother may be a devil, but may you evade her commands P 
3548. 

3290. Quiu i3@n'2eiTujrr<GV)§2iiJD, path ^en&BeSQsijnenn'i 

Will a mother abandon her child even if it is a devil ? 3575. 

3291. ldit<sit ixyssrCa ertfluj, eun Lpn&r ^0 mni^ih. 

She who burns her mother's heart will never prosper. 
A disobedient daughter will have bad luck when she is married. 

3292. (yfteo Q&n®pgi (or ©aul^i) GuetrfrGgsvea QpQpsfi, QpeBT(itj>'2esT QuitlL 

She who has nursed you and brought you up is your evil god- 
dess (Mudevi). while she with whom you lie is your good 
goddess (Sridevi, Lakshmi). 3286, 3288. 

Said sarcastically by a mother to her married son about his wife. 

3293. inrggigrjjgj^ii &eor pniLdgj uisQesr. 

Though a king, he is only a sou to his mother. 343. r >. 3638. 



CHILDREN. 365 

3294. euuSpeaps su-i^ssremet^d^ ^ihi^GSL—iimissr, eunemtus slLl^ssteh^s 

(3jiJ tSl&r'Befr. 
She who stints her stomach has a husband, and she who 

muzzles her mouth has a child. 
Both husband and child will thrive through her self-denial. 3261, 3285. 

3295. GuefTiigp iSleir'bsfT Q^rrgv Quni—ireSlLLi—ngyuD, esxsu^^ iitarrSsrr Q&ngp 

Qun®u>. 
If the child they have reared gives them no food, the child they 

have planted (i.e. the cocoanut palm) will feed them. 
Providence is more reliable than the affection of a son. 

3296. <auiTUJ&(3ju L&sffSsrr suaSjbgus^ inirpQtj'issr. 

A child to the mouth may prove a foe to the stomach. 

It is difficult to bring up children, however pleasant it may be to have 

them about one. The mother can eat only what is suitable for the infant ; 

if she eats what she likes the health of the child will suffer.— Or, 

a pregnant woman will speak of her child with joyful anticipation, but 

its birth may be a danger to her own life. 

3297. eunuunQeO Qgnrnmsp, ^triurreiajr eSlpgys QsrT®ssQsu6asr(Slixi. 
What you have promised you must give, even if you have to 

sell your mother. 

3298. <sutr(LpQp QuGsurlkssr-s prrtunfr Q3<Sg£j£/QurT&). 

Like a mother spoiling her married daughter's happiness. 
3186; 3251/. 

Sometimes a mother will fetch her daughter home from her husband's house 
because she thinks that the girl's mother-in-law ill-treats her. This gives 
rise to very serious quarrels and sometimes leads to a long separation 
between the girl and her husband, which is bad for both. Hence the 
proverb refers to mistaken kindness. 



CHILDREN. 

THE TRAINING OF CHILDREN. 

" The tricks a colt getteth at his first backing, 
Will whilst he continueth never be looking," 

3299. gifGrfiQeo eu^siriun^^i, ^thu^lQeo ajSsrru^off ? 

Will that which is not bent at the age of five, bend when it is 

fifty years old ? 437. 
" Bend the tree while it vt young." 
" Hang a thief when he is young, and he will not steal when he is 

old" 

3300. „gy@£)G?6V jqplujn psueisr , sgiLuglGeo jy/iflawrQ) ? 

Will a child who is ignorant at five, be clever at fifty ? 



366 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3301. gjU)-pgi euefrird&ip titaffSsffuyti), Qpjry&Q wsirrr&strp ifianfajLD 

Q&euetnsu jgsrrg). 
A child brought up without beating, and a moustache that is 
not twirled well, will not develop properly. 3343. 

3302. SlupLinp ion® uiy-iurrgi. 

A bullock that is not beaten will not be broken to work. 1900. 
" A rod for a fool's back." 

3303. Q&Ly-tiSQeO suesBniisn^jg/, (DiT^§iKo&) sueeBriki^iunt 

Can you bend in the tree what was not bent in the sapling ? 
" The old branch breaks, if bent." 

3304. &%& <5T®da&Q&, QarenQeuemQuo. 
It should be nipped in the bud. 

" It is hard to break an old hog of an ill custom." 
Cf 433/; 1900/. 



THE CAPACITIES OP A MAN. 

3305 *§J(2>"> siriL lSI0&Q&> QpifliLjm. 

What fruit it will be is known when it is green. 

3306. saQesr i3ea^m <g&(&jih. 

A child that vomits will grow strong. 

The Hindu thinks that it vomits what is harmful and so keeps good health. 

3307. gi&r@&(2}j suir&Qpih, Qp&r^i^s «i_^«ou3ii/Lo QpZefr&Q p>Q unQ p Qpifl 

The smell of tulsi, and the sharpness of the thorn are known as 

soon as they spring up. 
" It early pricks that ivill be a thorn." 

3308. eSVeiriLjth uuSir (yfosfruSQeo Qptfliyih. 

What grain it will be is known by the blade. 2609, 2973. 



CHILDREN IN THE HOME. 

3309. ^cssiemuju i$iq-&Qpgjih y utt'fcsTuSl®) g\<as)u.&Qrr> i gju) i jy^G?©/ Qfeo 

eou iSlar'BGfr&(9j jijemL—tutr&rii). 
To catch an elephant and put it into a pot, is a child's silly 
talk. 

Said of a person who speaks about a great undertaking as if he were able 
to accomplish it easily. 

3310. <§)idG0iip eSiKSld^ ^eO^&LUixi. 

In a childless house (a little child) is a gi*eat boon. 3313. 

3311. ^jetriasasrg)/ uiuti> ^{pliuiTgi. 

A young calf does not know fear. 

Said of a naughty child that abuses its elders. 



CHILDREN. 367 

3312. <g®@p umheiBuu l9i$.&8jd u^a/ii. 

It is the young who catch a gliding snake. 
The young do many dangerous things innocently. 

3313. sevLJLjQpesisii iS&Q&st snesanssr. 

Kama, who removed a vessel full of worms. 

From the moment Kama, as a child, went into the childless house of 
Dhritarashtra, the worms disappeared from the food served in that 
house. (Mahabharata). The Hindu thinks that a house without children 
is as badly off as it would be if all the food served in it were full of 
worms. 

3314- ssinjp) «i_£$L aetrib jyu?-p@ned, etmj&Q&iTQiLD ^sit^/, Offgemgujib 



If calves are yoked together to thresh corn, you will get neither 
straw nor rubbish. 3317, 3318. 

Said of children who are set to do work that they do Dot know how to do, 
and simply spoil good material. 

3315. (9jiprsGG>@ uQQivrr, QsneSeo uQQuun? 

Is the infant, or the temple hungry ? 

As both are dear to all, neither will ever be in want. 

3316. (8jLpib68>g giriEj(3jQpQgedeorTLD ^thetDwiurTQ^s^ eoauih. 

All the time the infant sleeps is of use to its mother. 

3317. 65«g2/ti)<8ff3sw Gi&ibp Q<siiennesm<smi£> efi® <svmg) Q&nngj. 

Will the crop cultivated by children ever be brought home. 
644, 1238, 3314. 

What is done thoughtlessly will come to naught. 

3318. £)«g2/j-fl«j2srr eStkiriuiril.® <g\\$kpg) uxrmisn® (or «a»»® srsitfigj 

Little children's play is destruction to a mango-grove (or to 
small rats). 

3319. sgnem iSen^etrujiT^^m, ^sm iS&r'Seir @Q^esQ<su<sssi(Slih. 

Though one's child is only a span long, it must be a boy. 3240. 

3320. t3<stt'2etr#@i( Qsn&rens Qean—d^iDtT? 

Can one buy the blessing of having children ? 3269. 
This cannot be had for money. 

3321. L$sfr3sff <sresr(m'&), er&)&)iT0S(^u} LS&r2err. 

If you say it is a child, it is everybody's child. 
Children are dear to all. 

3322. u>a<Grrj&(9j& @l_6U uitsQujld ^eSln, er&}&)rr utrsQvuQpih ©_«wr®. 

My daughter has every blessing, except the blessing of having a 
child. 1756. 

According to Hindu ideas, the possession of children is the crowning joy of 
life. 



368 TAMIL PROVEKBS. 

3323. Qp/kgiiD wsuexiQpw (Lpes>piurriL (or ^jessfitueissfiiundj) Q&nfi &&S}>QL<n&). 
Like stringing pearls and coral in order. 

Said wheu male and female children are born in a family alternately. 

3324. Qeu^eo QppQ&rr, i3&r^etr (ip^Q^n? 

Is work a pearl, or is a child a pearl P 

A child should not be considered too precious to work, but should be put 
to work. 



THE CONCEIT OF YOUNG PEOPLE. 
6U/T5$L/<S3T. 

3325. gffSujiru L$ien75srrujn^a)QiLD, ^(Sslmit QfUi-j. 

Though an innocent lad, he plays the old man. 1450, 1535. 
" Grey head on green shoulders." 

3326. sneoii) sem *_ sk-etB. 

A devil who has lived a long time ! 

Said of childreu who talk as if they were old people. 

3327. UQpjip spyeo&Diuu uirirgjtf<$ (^Q^^^S ^e^ &if);£@g]Qun&). 
When the young palm-leaf saw the old one, it laughed. 192. 

" Young men think old men fools, but old men know that young 
men befools." 

3328. iS^&Qeo uQp^^eneor. 
A precocious child. 

" Soon ripe, soon rotten.'' 

3329. (fpil.es)L-uSQ&)Qijj QsrrsQnQsn wmQptsum. 
One who crows wliile still in the egg. 1300. 
Said of a young man who plunges into pleasure too early. 
" It will be a forward cock that croweth in the shell." 



YOUTH CONTRASTED WITH AGE. 
UQfjSULD. 

3330. ^jetraDiMuSdo (iptupQ, QpgpQmnuSeo strs^ti. 
Exertion in youth will preserve you when old. 

" He that saveth his dinner will have the more for his supper." 

3331. atreoiD gjfSwg] LSetDLpivrrpeueBr, <aurr&) ^jgyip (^niki(^ ^wirm. 

He who lives without appreciating the value of his time will 

become like a monkey that has lost its tail. 
" If you lie upon roses when young, you 11 Lie upon thorns when 

old." 
" If youth knew what age would crave, it would both get and save." 
" A young man idle, an old man needy." 



CHILDREN. 369 

3332. Qjb(ir?<3a <stlL(S> cg^e/jig,^ <F/fl. 

One youth will do as much work as eight adults. 

To a young man work is still a pleasant thing, and where there is a will, 
there is a way. 

" While the tall maid is stooping, the little one hath swept the 
house." 

3333. lamuQ&tr, evstieOd&frQt—rr ? 

Is he not young, is he not strong ? 

Old people say this about the young, i.e. young people are not afraid of 
encountering difficulties. 



ON THE OVER-INDULGENCE OF CHILDREN. 

3334. e_(T5<5<sii) sl^sslditlu sent-Liy., &.&rQ<3ir Qurr&&4p. 

The mother nurtured her child with too much tenderness, and the 
child shrivelled up. 203. 

Said of parents who over-feed their children and destroy their digestion, 
so that the children become thin and weak. 

" He that has but one hoy makes him fat, and he that has but one 
son makes him a fool." 

3335. <°p(iT) LflsfrSsrr ermgv &gzlLi$. euean^^trenns}), gigj QlffiBtatr wiri^^&zrth 

Since she had only one child, she over-fed it, and it got indi- 
gestion and died. 

3336. fp(rrj Queear Gresrjpi sss.lLl^. m&rcrpgn&r, sf#P senaQioeo Qun&&gi. 
Having; only one girl, she nurtured her well, but the girl be- 
came a prostitute in the village. 

Spoiled by her mother's indulgence, she ended as a prostitute. 
" A child may have too much of its mother s blessing." 

3337. Q&&)60ii> Q#n£og8S(9j si^&n^. 

A spoiled child fears no rebuke. 
" Spare the rod and spoil the child." 

3338. Q&&)60ti> @ir £/L$&(§ii>. 
Indulgence will destroy prosperity. 

" Give a child his will, and a whelp his fill, and neither will thrive." 

3339. Qfevsow Q&Q&Qp GjIitlL®ljuit&) (sjmtl/SQpgi. 

Made conceited by indulgence, and loathing good milk. 

3340. QffitstieOutSleir'fcir @%&> vJUppirpiru) i3&rT>m QugjunUSlLD. 

The spoiled girl would not wear clothes till she had a child. 
The idea is that over-indulgence is a sure way of making a child a prey to 
shame and sin. 

47 



370 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3341. Q#&)ed# #&Qa$ dUelr'fctr Q&@uli Q#(£uumLjp ^slmgi &$Qpg). 

The shoemakei ,, s spoiled child ate shoe after shoe and passed 

them out undigested. 
Said of people who give their children food that is too rich (^)^<9r«R>rsB)i_) , 

for them to digest. 

3342. Q&60eo£$Eleo ^75 Quessr iSlpmgj, Q&lLl$. Q<g0ei) er&ieoiTih Q/smLiy. 

(or, (slifUgj) gSlL® eu&pgi. 
She was born in a rich family, but she went about mischievously 

in all the chetty streets. 
i.e. She went to the bad. 

3343. gtr&@ euenfrp'g L9«ir25ffayt£), giGB)i—u$&) emwpgip <soi&gp ^fteuii/ii 

A child always in arms, and a leaf-plate kept on the thigh 
while being stitched together will not be well formed. 3301. 
The child will be spoiled and the leaf -plate will be badly made. 
" Mothers darlings make but milk-sop heroes." 

3344. L^ppneBrumesT iSar'terr iS/DBgi, yo;/r6\> jyiy-uut!.®* Q&ppgj. 

The child when born was as delicate as a flower, but it hurt it- 
self on a flower and died. 

Said sarcastically about very sensitive people, or about a mother who is 
too sensitive concerning her child. 

3345. L^ppneBTLDiresr LffsJrSsrr ^j^^ir'Serr^ pasS SL-Uf.esr^nui. 

The child that was too tenderly treated is said to have married 

its mother. 
The gentle treatment that it received ruined its character. 

Cf. 887 /. 



SORROW, LAMENTATION. 

" Man's inhumanity to man makes countless 
thousand mourn." Burns. 

N.B. — The following are chiefly used by women. 

3346. ^/(SlllCoU <3UG5IGim&lO, <5®uClj GSi&edn&ih. 

The hearth is my hermitage, suffering is my heaven (Kailasa). 
Said by a daughter-in-law when ill-treated by her mother-in-iaw, meaning 
that there is nothing but toil and pain for her. 

3347. cSysw^ eSiLi—ire^ui aGduSleoleo, ^ULjjDth Quir^S)^iu> eS^aS&i'bso. 

If I leave that I do not know where to go ; and if I go some- 
where else no prosperity awaits me. 3364, 3384. 



SORROW, LAMENTATION. 371 

3348. <3irf)Q Greorgj ^j&r&flu uanuuaQ^uS&i'bso, &.i£ ensstg^ esEjgJ/j urnruun 

There is no one to sift and see whether I am rice or husk. 17, 

2088, 3419. 
There is no one who cares for me. 

3349. ^soigiiLSIiso'Zso sirpjpj, ^dr^it3&)^eo (jsjafiir. 

At that time there was no wind, now there is no coolness 
(pleasure) . 

e.g. — At the very beginning my husband did not love me, and what am I to 
expect now ? Or, it is used by a girl whose step-mother was unkind, 
but who finds her mother-in-law is still more unkind. 

3350. st/r $2)lLl- &iru2eBTQujrr, ^ii^-ibit&Bisst jgeSVesTQiurr'? 

Is it somebody's curse I am suffering under, or is it the result 
of a former birth ? 

3351. jgbsos SQjjihuih, Gate/ [si—&)) giqjjibui}) ^Qesiasr\ 

I am become a sugar-cane in the sugar-mill, and a bit of straw 
in the waves of the sea. 1399, 2978. 

3353. ^eaieaps^^ Qeppirio, isa^errs^ ^irssBr®i5a&r. 

If he dies to-day, to-morrow will be the day after it. 

i.e. To-morrow will come whether he dies or not ; said in disgust about a 
person of whom one is wearied. 

3354. a_j,gyi(5 $(Vj ussii> J§)<£., iL$p<Btipjgi&(§ ^neeat® us&Qpih @£)i$-. 

A mortar is beaten on one side (by the pestle), but a drum is 
beaten on both sides. 3355. 

Said by a person who suffers at the hands of several persons or by one who 
has manj' sufferings, to a person who suffers less. 

3355. &JTG) Qumu w^^eir^Q^nQt— Qponp §)lLi—^iQuii&). 

Like the mortar going and telling its sorrow to the drum. 3354. 
The mortar could not expect to be comforted by the drum. 

3356. &-<5s>ip&Qp sQpGnp eTiii5tT'2Gtrs(3jib a-eaippCojg ^srQeueatsrQih. 
The hard working ass must work hard for ever. 

3357. e«E/f ^os&Qpgi, ^® @(5«©/d«^7. 

There is a village and a potsherd. 3358, 3369, 3373, 3389. 

The potsherd is the vessel in which alms begged ill the village are received. 
The meaning is that when the worst comes to the worst one can always 
resort to begging. 

3358. e££^ ®(n)&£lpgi i§&tsm& Quirt—, j^O ®Qf)3>®pgi euniEjSQ&netr&r. 
The village is near to give me alms, the potsherd is ready to re- 
ceive them. 

i.e. I will rather go begging, than be ill-treated in this house. 

3359. neunsarr euZeirppirgeih n.pp giVetssruSeo'teo, jF/n-Laot- aSsyr^^/r^ti ts&ieo 

Though one wanders about the village, one finds no true help ; 

though one wanders about the country, one finds no help. 
Said in disgust by a helpless person who is left alone in his troubles. 



372 TAMIL PROVE KBS. 

3360. srmiQ&QujiT $u?-&@gi surresrih st&srgv ^(rrjiQpzfr, puungi erm ^ec 

I thought that the heavens would fall somewhere, but they 

have but fallen on my head. 3404. 
The evil I thought others would have to suffer has fallen on me. 

3361. Greeny eunifis siLis^sOsnessr® QunQpgit 

What are we going to take along with us from this world ? 

136, 2943. 
There is no certain prosperity in this world. 

3362. eTQjjsiBLD Qp^^laui erdQiu^^}S(^ cgjgjtfl/r? 

Will the urine of a buffalo be used at a sacrifice ? 3363. 

3363. 6t@6B)ld &rrensf) Gpu)£&2&(3j ^(^Lorr? 

Can buffalo-dung be used as an offering ? 3362. 

Said in sorrow by one of the women in a family, who has been neglected 
at some family festival, and thus expresses her contempt for the person 
preferred before her. 

3364. ereo&ifr^ pymuSepiih gilL.® GTQppg}, gi&st uitgSI ptsuuSQ®) u<£sj] 



On every one's head eight letters are written (by Brahma), but — 

wretch that I am — there are ten letters on my head ! 3347, 

3384. 
Said by a woman when asked about her welfare, implying that she is worse 

off than anyone else in the world. Everyone's fate is supposed to be 

written on his head at his birth by Brahma. 

" Every horse thinks his own pack heaviest." 

3365. Gljr)lLDHQp@6Q 6T63BT^83)uSljrt}> Q '.S/7 ISf-S (8j p QjgtBiLjlh • SnULinpglQp IblTffiT 

Lu&soTsn <snssr'2esrs sfruufrppLcrrLLu-rr(es)t 
All creatures, from the ant upwards (lit. the eighty thousand 
millions of creatures) know (my innocence), will not Vishnu, 
the Preserver, protect me ? 2090. 

3366. GT£UlhLIQpjg60 eT68BT(63B)uSljnh QafTl^-lLjlh tgjQgfiSjl. 

All creation, from the ant upwards, wept. 

A lamentation from the Drona Pari>a of the Mahabharata referring to 
Arjuna's sen, Abhimanyu, who had been slain in battle. 

3367. CT«5T FfS^sas &0d(3j s\fliG>m&r Q&ireasr® s\S9>d&pg}. 

The sharp edge of a sickle has cut my liver, 
i.e. I am in great distress. 

3368. ^(2> t-jessrih Q&irQuun^ib, e^uuirweo ^>jesiL^uuiT(ES)ih. 
He pays me only one coin, but calls me constantly. 
He recompenses me miserably and demands much in return. 

3369. 6?® £&)(5<S®2>.#7j /5/T63T ^j0sQQpSST. 

The potsherd is (ready), and 1 am (ready). 3357. 
i.e. If I have to turn beggar, well, what must be, must be ! 

3370. slLss>i— (or s_i_ii>L/) ^)Q^sQpLoiL®ix>, sei^i^QpesBT®. 

As long as we live in this body we shall have trouble. 3388. 



SORROW, LAMENTATION. 373 

3371. ssssti^v)(d&) Q&iesr si—aL—Qsueorgi Ci_//t<65)jm'lo, <a/«3br^3ff)€3r a(Lp6B)jg 

The washerman's ass must carry its burden to its destination, 
though its life is jolted out of it through its eyes. 998, 1360, 
1747, 2512, 3395. 

Said by daughters-in-law or others in a family, who are worried or ill- 
treated, implying that there is no remedy for their evil plight. 

" What cant be cured, must be endured." 

3372. <5Qp<si]a(<9j ejpp Q&nqpiLut., 

The Komati fit for the stake. 740, 890. 

This proverb refers to an incident, that took place in " the City of Injus- 
tice/' A certain mau was to be impaled for a ciime, but at the last 
moment he pointed out that a certain fat merchant {Komati) would be 
better suited for the instrument of punishment than himself and so es- 
caped. The proverb is now used of a person who is forced to suffer for 
the faults of others. 

3373. qs&iuo $)(B)<i@ pgi , iBirehr ^(i^aQQpissr. 

The pond is ready, and I am ready. 3357. 
i.e. I am ready to drown myself. 

3374. QsriQp Q&ntJbi$60GQiTp Qsirt^.Qun6V!rQesr<SGr. 

I have become like a creeper without a support. 3378. 
i.e. I am helpless and friendless. 

3375. ^O® Quagias Q is n wear pi, @<ar/?/r siriu QiBfnSl&) < 2&}. 

Although there is time to gather dry leaves for fuel, there is no 
time to warm yourself. 3397. 

3376. emiBvun® e£® @est>T%mru$Qa>. 

The pilgrim's house is in a veranda (outside the house). 

A pilgrim must be satisfied with any abode ; also, a woman must endure 
any hardship. 

" Weal and woman cannot pan, but woe and woman can." 

3377. &IT@pGU<56>II&(9jlJD asi^l—LDlT^lS)®), <9?SU) eruQunt 

If we have to suffer till we die, when shall we get comfort ? 
" We are born crying, live complaining, and die disappointed." 

3378. @p(3j $jG0&}tT<g upeasuQuneiirQeajm. 

I have become like a bird that has lost its wings. 536, 3374. 
Said of one who has suffered great losses. 

3379. pteoaQj lSI^^&st ^sQVssruS GO^eo, QsrrLDeear^^d^ iSl^^eor ^ift^^u 

LSleo'2eo. 
There is no punishment greater than the loss of one's head, and 
no poverty keener than not having more than a rag. 

Said to encourage a person overwhelmed by a series of calamities, 
implying that the worst is past. 



374 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3380. Q&rr epsssnq. Q^(^eSQeO ^j'^uueSili—nQujl 

You have made your family so poor, that they are obliged to 
take shelter (at night) under a car and to go about begging 
(by day). 

Said by a wife to her lazy or wicked husband. 

" A dog's life, hunger and ease." 

3381. is neat u®ii u/7® miriL^a^iuoi ui—rrgi. 

Even a dog does not suffer what I suffer. 3382. 

3382. isrresr u®u> uir®, u^&pireor uSCW? 

Does cotton-down suffer what I suffer ? 3381, 3385. 
Cotton-down is picked, put between rollers to remove the seeds, sent to the 
spinning wheel, and then to the loom at last. 

3383. /F/T65T Qu6SBT lUpkgl Qj£(ffjeSl(c®) iSpQQp&ST. 

I am born a woman, but stand out in the street. 3386, 3419. 
i.e. I have relations enough, but no real friend. 

3384. upg) ^jifl&iiith QeuaefiedVeo, utrefl, ciear i3anem^)juD Qun&eQ&fteo. 

I cannot get my ten (little) rice grains boiled, and — wretch that 

I am — my life will not leave me ! 3347, 3364. 
Said in despair by a poor person who has nothing to eat. 

3385. Quq^ld snpjfieo ^j&)eum u@a? upaQpgiQuneo. 

Flying about like the down of the silk-cotton tree in a storm. 

3382. 
A very common simile expressing distress and anxiety. 

3386. to© (or ektslirm) ^jdveoirp eSazr^Qearm, icQ^i^i $®)&)(T0 l/sott^ 



I am a sky without a moon, and a sore without an ointment. 

3383. 
i.e. I am utterly helpless. 

3387. mirth GtsiGuppoieBT jgakresBpiT GunassiniuLL-tT^sfi 

Will not he who planted the tree, water it ? 2090, 2091. 

God will protect those whom man neglects. 

" God never sends mouths, but he sends meat." 

3388. tLesar<SBii—iLf&r<s(r (or, Qp&(§) euemjjuSev e&fl Qurrarrjp. 

As long as the brain (or, nose) remains, you will have colds in 
the head. 2655, 3370. 

Said to one who complains about all her sorrows, and about endless 
quarrels. 

3389. Qpipnyesr $)(!5&@pg!, isn&i g£® $(iT)&Qpgi. 

Here is my lap or apron (to receive alms), and there are four 
houses to help me. 3357, 3358, 3369, 3373. 

3390. QpLpiEj<oB)stiS&) ulLl— &ati,QurT&) ^QTj&QQpeisr. 

I feel as comfortable as an elbow that has been knocked. 



SORROW, LAMENTATION. 375 

3391. 6>j(rrjtx> eSISd eumgneo, u®ih eSl£) ui—Qeneasr®iM. 
When one's fate comes, it must be endured. 

Said either about one who suffers, or to comfort one who suffers. 

3392. GiiLjSl sui^ajtrib QuirgjiDQuiTgp, eS^I e&SjIujirib tsuQ^Qpgj. 
Though I keep to my own path, my fate comes to me. 

3393. <stmCp'sn^fT ) &(8j (com. <san^)<sii) <sjpp euuSpQpifif&eo. 
Life has always its anguish and troubles. 
Generally said by women about family sorrows. 

3394. <a$?6wr a9®ii> @£f«(5 efiesor eSQih, erast urrsSl gjquE^ eStesor eSKSLDnl 

Omens settled the choice of brides in fortunate families ; alas, 

none turned up in my case ! 
This proverb is evidently of ancient origin and has reference to an omen 

(eStsosr e&®Qpjgl) noted by certain Sudra sub-castes when choosing 

wives for their sons. In this proverb the mother blames her ill fortune 

in not finding a girl with the wished for omen. 

3395. e3p(8)p'%30uje!S)i&(9) Qtsnth suib^irio, e£lp(&j stlQi—nQli— QutribeSKSu). 

When the fuel carrier gets sick, fuel carrying is his only 

medicine. 3371. 
There is no help for him. 

3396. gSssbt ^jLpsunui QsniEisnuu^^nefriTth, lS®isjsu i3®ikisu Quifigevrrii). 

It is useless toil to peal the skins from onions, the more they 
are pulled oft* the more the trouble. 1932, 1976. 

Used by servants or by daughter-in-law who are constantly worried by too 
much work and abuse. Or, said by one who meets one difficulty after 
another. 

3397. Q<sns QismAl^ib^rr^im, &na, QisziBiMso. 

Though there is time to burn, there is no time to die. 1 740, 
3375. 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVERBS ON SORROW AND LAMENTATION. 

3398. ^eoeoeopp uGsetss gfgQgnih cgytpgj. 

A bed free from sorrow is the greatest delight (lit. beauty of 
beauties). 

3399. ^jmuQpih spmuQpw ct®^ £_i—gt><£(§ $}uueOL\. 

It is the nature of the human body to experience pleasure and 

pain. 
This is like many others a philosophical phrase. 

3400. ^)«5r«jrtD ^qrj&Q 'p&H Q^(i^s,(^m QtEisngih. 
Greater beauty is still hidden in the car. 

Said in sorrow over Borne evil or wickedness that is gradually being 
revealed. 



376 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3401. Gi&oeorrp gs&QijiD ^(75 ^jQpesis jyQgisj&eir. 
Weep for the whole at once and be done ! 

A bridegroom was found to be lame. During the marriage ceremony 
niany of the relatives wept on account of this defect in him. Seeing 
this, the bridegroom threw off his clothes, exposed all his other defects, 
and used this phrase. Said by some one who knows all about a third 
person's faults to another person who is gradually finding them out. 

3402. $@l5IT&r $0 (Lj&LD. 

One single day was an age (yuya). 

Said by a person in great distress, who finds time go very slowly. 

3403. seognih &6B)jnu t u>sm 688UU) S-QJjS, ^(ip^iresr. 
He wept so that stones and earth melted. 

3404. S<£$Q&) sosieSQ&) QpifltLjLDir? 

Did any presentiment or dream forewarm me ? 

i.e. I never thought of it at any time. I never expected such a calamity. 
3360. 

3405. Qarrqnih pnisiQm QurrihsBLD (or, ££#">) Qutieo. 
Like a monster that bears a tower. 

The reference is to those monster-images used all over the world in build- 
ings as pillars or buttresses. Applied to persons who are burdened with 
the support of many people, and to those who complain of their many 
great sufferings and cares. 

3406. s-k^ln^esru unnisp adbrsp/i^^ ^esBou^ssru urrrrggrr/bQunG). 
Like the eyes that after having seen the moon, saw (the malig- 
nant) planet Saturn. 3441. 

Used about a person once well-off, and subsequently reduced in circum- 
stances. 

3407. @d<5)&&GeI&) e_6\)<£<aD<gj Qsn®@ l &giQuned. 

. Like handing over a pestle to another person at Srirangam. 

At Srirangam woman pound rice for the temple for wages. Those who 
do so must work the whole day and there is a man to see that the work 
is done. If one of these women, hearing her children crying, persuades a 
bystander or passer-by to take her place for a while to enable her to 
look after her children, and does not return, the substitute is obliged to 
stay in her place till the sun sets. The proverb is therefore said of one 
who undertakes responsibilities which involve more than he expected. 

3408. gteoQiunQi— Gvfcpg], ^eouunes>sQuJiTQi— Qutresrgi. 

It came to take the head, but it took the turban only. 1008, 

3417. 
Used of narrow escape from danger. 

3409. Q geuiy-uun&r g$lLu}.60 LSek'Sar i3pk^^)Quneo. 

As when a boy is born in a dancing-girl's house. 

Dancing-girls are invariably prostitutes and do not care to bear children. 
If they do have children, they desire to have girls, that they may be 
brought up tc their own profession— which is not regarded as a disgrace- 
ful one in India. The proverb is used to describe the sadness of a home 
to which misfortune has come. 



SORROW, LAMENTATION. 377 

3410. rstrniT&iJD &mb&& /f®<$f Q&e8u$®) eSiLL-ir/rQuned. 
As if a hot iron rod were thrust into the ear. 

Said when one hears words that cause great pain to the heart. 

3411. lB<g$5luU& SQSBri—LD L£ff^5o)lLI3r. 

A long life with daily dangers, 

i.e. My daily perils are endless, bat my longevity is assured. 

" Long life hath long misery." 

3412. Qispgu evi^ireirnih (3j£f, jyeuefr < te»u$&) sfl(igi£0rrih £§/££.. 

She came yesterday to live here, and misfortnne befell her at 
once. 

Sometimes used to describe the hard lot of a new servant or daughter-in- 
law, whom all order about. 

3413. LS&sm&ssnjrVesru Quib t3iy.@<5pnii> e_<?63 ^.q^id^^&i (or, sl&@ 

The devil seized a poor beggar in broad daylight. 

The beggar had no means to buy the devil off and so could not save 
himself.— Applied to a great calamity or great expense that comes 
unexpectedly on a family. Or, said in pity of a poor man who has been 
ruined by a rich man. 

3414. i3jj&e» easurjnsQuJth, unn6m emsunn&QujLn, eruLD&rresr smsuunsQuuLD. 
The renunciation of sexual intercourse made by a woman when 

suffering the pains of child birth, the renunciation of 
worldly things made after studying the sacred books, the 
renunciation of worldly things made after seeing corpses 
burned. 

These three causes make people give up their desire for a time. 

" The chamber of sick7iess is the chapel of devotion." 

" Votes made in storms are forgotten in calms." 

" They icho icorship God merely for fear, would worship the devil 
slwuld he appear." 

" The devil was sick, the devil a monk would be ; 
The devil grew well, the devil a monk icas he." 

3415. iS QuQeo fipQcyuQuneo. 

Like standing on dirt. 

Used of the pain felt at heart when in unpleasant company. Cf. the 
English expression : To sit on needles. 

3416. Quneoeoirp sir&>ih Qsneo&inweo eni^^j. 

The bad time came without announcing itself beforehand. 
Said of sudden and unexpected misfortunes. 

3416a. Quasar wff&nm ^(T^ilulsni^irear. 

The brother-in-law w r ho took himself off has come back. 460. 
Said of troubles or evils that repeat themselves at intervals. For instance 
of a man who gets drunk two or three times a year. 

3417. iriteoQutTGd enjikpgi, uesBQuirdo Qun#<9rgj. 

It came like a mountain, and disappeared like dew. 3408. 
Said of sudden disasters. 

48 



378 TAMIL PR0VERB8. 

341 8. w<as>y> e8il.(S>u), gieumssriD e&L-sSio'te). 

Though the rain has stopped, the drizzle has not. 2201. 

One has got through the great troubles, but their consequences remain. 



ON COMFORTING. 

1 have no one to comfort and no one to console me. 

3421. @)®&lj Qutfluj QsrT&rVsnuSQa), ^uu/r! <srmsu li'sirSswaCevltetf. 
Though I have abundance of everything, I have not got a 

child to call me 'father.' 

i.e. There is no one to comfort me. Riches cannot fill the heart, it will 
ever sigh for love. 

" Who hath none to still him, may weep out his eijes." 

3422. S765T <5t<5arutT(njiJ>l&fteo, GrQps&u unauunq^iSH^so. 

I have no one to inquire about my welfare, and no one to help 
me. 

3423. aQtkgimigSL'eBi aesai^essr p gj&nL-. 
Wipe the eyes of him who is weeping. 

3424. O^iLsuim uessrsssfjear Q&uj<so (or, tgl^s &-&£/.) 
It is a deed done by God. 

Said to comfort one who is sorrowing for a dead friend or relation. 



WOMEN. 
Qussst. 

GIRLS. 

3425. j/cej^/ro/^/ Quaint Qs^^^^iith Qmi—uuirjai. 

Though you seek humbly to marry a girl who is born fifth in 

her family, you will not get her. 
If the fifth child in a family is a girl, she is considered to be very lucky. 

3426. ^nrjioQug)) Qu6sm<gss)dju i3pi^n&) ^(trpsm (^uf.^^emua i§(npiLieSI®ih. 
If the sixth child be a girl, a family that is like a river (i.e. rich 

and grand) will be reduced to ashes. 3283. 

3427. (§ii>tfliunuSI(n)&es)&u$6» Qsneasri—nil-L-ih, @i£e&iunii$@ses>su$eo tslaxsr 

I—ITlLL-U). 

When young, a woman is a joy ; when old, she is a vexation. 



WOMEN. 389 

3428. esSsSlu Queaar^uix> ) ffireaiDSs^lQ^ui us^eupts)®) urrii^^ireo (or 

Even a chakJclli girl and the ears of the millet are beautiful 
when mature (lit. when they have reached puberty.) 

Youth is identified with beauty. The chnkkili are leather workers and are 
regarded as the lowest of the low. 

3429. Quasar ermgv iSpmpQunQfl, L^a^gor Spk^lQ^uundsr. 

For every girl born, a husband has been born previously. 59. 
"Marriages are made in heaven." 



WOMAN'S OBEDIENCE AND MODESTY. 

3430. <gll—SS<hglU Qu68BT68£l]d(5j ctgytpgj STSJr? 

Why adorn an obedient woman P 
Obedience itself is her beauty. 

" Beauty in woman is like a flower in spring ; but virtue is the star 
in heaven." 

343 1 . %£®<gv @uujg) iJs»"Ssrr«(5 gothugj eutugi Guam sirio (Lpi—saQteussor 

A woman of fifty must sit with folded legs before a boy of 
five years. 3566. 
t. e. A woman must always be respectful to one-of the other sex. To sit 
on the ground with the legs stretched out straight is not thought a 
respectful attitude. 

3432. Quern 6mi&@<5 (9j68Bns>@ireb ^penrtii. 

A woman's virtue is her dowry. 

3433. Quem®s&r &u>np§) j^®uuisjsss)jj <3u6e)jni$6Vgaei}T. 

The skill of women goes as far as the fireplace. 
Cleverness is of no use to a woman outside domestic affairs. 

3434. Qu<SBipeis)i£> ersbugj uDrr<siT<ss<Gf$&(3j jyevsfiseodi. 

Simplicity (or Ignorance) is the ornament of women. 
" Blushing is virtue's colour." 

" Maidens should be mild, and meek : swift to hear, and slotv to 
speak." 

3435. ffir^ir LDseirir^s)^ih, Qansmi—iSiigiis^u Qu&krpnGsr\ 

Though she be a king's daughter, she is only a woman to her 
husband. 2549, 3293, 3638. 



380 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

WOMAN'S JEWELRY, DRESS AND BEAUTY. 

3436. ^^ffiuLDnear niheau ^jtflQ QstriUSidp Q^mhsau (or Qgirihsaud 

<9B_68OT®). 

The wonderful Rhamba is only like a grain-bin. 2695, 2698. 

Said to a man who is in love with a girl he has met, implying either that 
she is ugly and clumsy looking, or that she is engaged in mean work. 
Rhamba is one of the marvellously captivating courtesans in the para- 
dise of Indra. 

3437. ^i£<gih &k$£i, sj^(S ^Q^^p^. 

That woman overflows with loveliness ; beauty flows from her. 

Said ironically of an ugly woman. 

" That woman is killed with beauty." 

3438. jya/«Jr .jytp^sg^ pmuefi®. 

She is the home of beauty. 2199, 3225a. 

^eut&^d^ jyeuQeir it® (or, Q^rr®, or, <fu)/7Wu> or, ftfl, or, 6puu)- 

She alone is equal to herself. 

i.e. No one can be compared with her in beauty or in goodness. 

3439. jfj&i&r ^ipgjsgju upgiQurt sv^enanseir, sessr Ql£IlLu^^)60 ^uSuth 

Quit LDaJiaQQufreunffs&r. 
Ten men will be drawn by her beauty ; and, if her eyes twinkle, 

a thousand will be allured. 1549. 
" Beauty provoketh thieves sooner than gold." 
" A fair face may be afoul bargain." 

3440. jqev&r ^jt^sasu unnppn&o, Qetr&fljg ^mesr&iirih ermrpi ^QfjdSpjv- 
It is as if you want to pluck and eat her beauty when you see 

it. 
Describes great desire to enjoy a charming woman's beauty. 

3441. gjeufctra S6SBTL- 8GSBr^5B)Qeo, §frsorQ{§s)(rT)p GHentus siremiQp^ir ? 
Will the eyes that have seen her beauty, look at another 

woman ? 2443, 3052, 3406. 

3442. £jip(5 &Q£(§®p<gi> ibihli <suig] rss^Qp^i, ®lL<oH>z_l/ uir'2ssr Qarrasisr 

®eun, ulup.-s^ieineijss. 
Beauty leaks from her, the dog is licking it up, bring a broken 

vessel to catch it in ! 
Sarcastically said of an ugly woman, who boasts of her beauty. 

3443. gjLpQQ&i iSlpibg ueu<sn Qsnuf.. 

This coral-nymph is the first-born child of Beauty. 

3444. £fLp(§&(3j& QffitL/Sg), ^i,upgl&(8j S-^Q/LO. 

The jewels of prosperity may become the saviours of adversity. 
" Gold may be ever so red, it will go out for bread." Danish. 



WOMEN. 381 

3445. g)®(jq ar(T£l5)(3)Qpg], Qu600r®3(GfJj&(j9j J)jLp(3). 

To have a slender waist is a woman's beauty. 

Also : gireo ^eai—ULm&r or tSlip. ^<ssn-.[un&r a waist as thin as a 

thread ; or so thin that a hand can clasp it. 
" A woman and a greyhound must be small in the waist" 

3446. sieiDigeiaujd slLis^. QsueiflQiu swhpir®) sesBT<^s)LLu^. } Qeu&r^etreaujs 

•sslLu}- QmetflQuLi isjih^rreo Qeu&reaiTLLi^.. 
If you dress in rags and go out, you will be an object for 

admiration, but, if you dress up nicely and go out, people 

will speak ill of you. 
People think an overdressed woman is a prostitute. 
" In silk and scarlet, walks many a harlot." 

3447. sagis^ g^LLi—mio, Qps^^is^ ^jl^^. 

If you put jewels in the ears, you adorn the face. 

3448. (§U$&) (3j!T§tltX>, LDuSio ^i^(^ihQu/Teo. 

She sings like a nightingale, and is as beautiful as a peacock. 

1570. 
Ironically said. 

3449. CVetewCcioo) Q#¥eo slUSIld Q^su jriieiau ^^gHU), 6}8goQli>®) GT(tp& 

You may choose for your bride a prostitute like Rhamba, but 
not a girl who knows how to write. 

3450. upsQp QeffJuCcurreSI(T^dQ(nf'&r. 

She is as beautiful as a flying parrot. 

3451. urrirssu u^^s)uSirth sesar Gq/6OT®ld. 

Ten thousand eyes are needed to look at it. 2697. 
Said of something exceedingly beautiful and rare. 

3452. tSlif- j)]LpQ i-i(3}&prr®), Queser jytfiS ^suneir. 

If the thin woman enters, she will become beautiful. 

In the negotiation previous to marriage the girl is blamed for being thin 
by those who want her in marriage, but they get this reply, i.e. Take 
her home and feed her well and she will soon get fat. 

3453. i^eq&ren LDiEjemsiuirtl), Qurresr Q&iri$.tumi>, Quiresr £§)t-£i> eredGXTm 

It is true that she is adorned with flowers and gold, but she is 
beaten with slippers wherever she goes. 

She appears well dressed, but is a bad character who must be treated with 
scorn. 

" A fair face may hide a foul heart." 

3454. Qu68Br6W2iS(9jih Quire&rG!p]3(<9jij> Q^rrpLj &.6j»ri_/r? 

Were woman and gold ever defeated ? 

" One hair of a woman draws more than a bell rope." 



382 TAMIL PEOVEEBS. 

3455. Qu6ott 6p/ tfgju Gurnb, Quties!es)i&(<9ju iSmsntrisiseoiruurt 

Having gone to get a girl, why withdraw on account of the 
price asked for her ? 

3456. Qu<ssBr65S)i&(9ju Quasar ^jlLQuuitit, «q/(5«@ logout ^jil.®uurriT. 
Put jewelry on a woman and look at her, and plaster a wall 

and look at it. 
Both will be improved by your care. Said by a mother to one who re- 
marks that her daughter is not exactly a beauty. Also said when 
something is needed to perfect a thing. 

" No woman is ugly when she is dressed." 

3457. Qussatessflissr Qsnemeo, QunmeeP.Q&i SlSq^ld. 

The ugliness of the girl's face will be removed hy jewels. 

" He that is proud of his fine clothes gets his reputation from the 

tailor." But in India from the goldsmith ! 
" Fine feathers make fine fowls." 

3458. QzJ/naJr strtLpp LazihQuneSl(TTi&@(ttj'@!r. 

She is as full of jewels as a tree of fruit. 

3459. Qunm (SjL-pgj&Qju Qufril.® ^lLQu uirna&QtoiieeBrGliLon ? 

Does a gold vessel need a painted spot ? Of itself it is fair 

enough. 
" Fair faces need no paint." 

3460. LD/TS3T SSSBTGSsfieplLD gig®, <aSl6S)!I<sSl§$ILD oSsDJffl/. 

Her eyes are more beautiful, and her limbs more nimble than 
those of a deer. 

3461. ir/r^/ra/uj, Quasar jp/ii), Qsitl^.iijld 8ili— $(t)j&@p<50)£p <S(i$e£l&Qarreir 

euirrrseir. 
Kings, wemen and creepers will embrace what is nearest them. 



MAN MUST HAVE COMPASSION ON WOMAN, AND TREAT HER KINDLY. 

Qusm. 

3462. «g%63W/.!K(g <°>I®jG>&® Q&VU£lT§tllD } Qu6BBT(mi&(8jU l5l60)LpQ 3® Q&UUUJLJ 

ut-_rrjp. 
Though you may ill-treat a man, you should never ill-treat a 
woman. 

3463. ^Sessr jyup-jSjip euenfr, Queaar'Bessru Qurr/bpl <suenrr. 

Bring up a boy under strict discipline, but bring up a girl by 

praising her. 2264. 
" Glasses and lasses are brittle ware." 

3464. &600TteSJS)(oG) SeSBTL—n^lh, L06S3T<€33;G?6tf LD<56>p&&QiaUGM®LD. 

Though you see a woman's; sin with your own eyes, cover it 
over with earth. 



WOMEN. 383 

3465. g/QsrrrueBi-gianuj giQeo (giessfl) U-iftiipgiQurrio. 
Like stripping off Draupadi's clothes. 3466. 

In the Mahabharata Dharmaraja played a game of chess in which 
Draupadi, his wife, was the prize ; his opponent, Duryodhana won, and 
seizing Draupadi, he tried to strip her cloth off. By the grace of 
Krishna, however, the cloth proved endless, and he was thus unable to 
put her to shame. But bis attempt has become proverbial for its 
shamelessness. 

3466. u^jslesflGinuj^ QgniLL-gjih, gHfKoiurTjgeareisr QsL-L-spth. 
Touching a chaste woman was Duryodhana's ruin. 
From the same story as 3465. 

Also said ironically to an immoral woman who praises her own character. 

3467. QueSST GT68T (V?&) Qutljlh $!TtEI(3jLb. 

If she says : " I am a woman," even a devil will have compas- 
sion on her. 

3468. LDGSBtQiAeo Smjpi Quessr g^jlo Q&nededrrQg. 

Do not dare to stand on the Earth, while passing unjust 

remark on a woman. 597. 
The earth is the goddess Bhumidevi. 



the untrustworthiness of women. 
Qugsst. 

3469. ^jrrunr LDiEKotD&Quj.i® ^ssnriEiQeargi jya/ti. 

It was Rama's weakness that he yielded to a woman (to Sita). 
" Summer-soion corn and women's advice turn out well once in 
seven years." 

3470. ®Qt)U>&ng} wiEjansQiun® ^jeasriii^Q/D^i sjguisou). 
To yield to a double-minded woman is weakness. 

3471. srssBieearps sjbjpi eTQ$<5&p eun&ppngtiih, Quessr n$fsl lSsbt lj^^Quj. 
Though she reads and studies endlessly, a woman's thought is 

always an afterthought. 

3472. Q&nedeiirpGtop u^esnun^sQ^ Qffnearesreuasr uiLi— unQQuneo. 
Like the suffering of a husband, who tells to his wife what 

he ought not to tell her. 
"He that tells his wife news, is but newly married^ 
The above four proverbs are scientific in their form, and may be called 

literary proverbs. 



384 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

WOMAN'S IMPORTANCE IN THE FAMILY. 

Qusssr, 

3473. <3jmff&asnG®& <ggu$jju> Qurtssr^V)S(^Q psu^ua Quessr^n^l, ^uSirih 

She who can convert half a copper coin into a thousand gold 
coins is a wife, and she who can reduce a thousand gold coins 
to half a copper coin is also a wife. 1794. 

Economy or extravagance are alike characteristic of woman. 

"All women are good: good for something or good for nothing." 

3474. ffil.®d(^ih urTLLGJ&gjth ^Q^rs^iT&r sr®@u)/fl. 

The burden-bearing maiden was equal to all the emergencies of 

life. 
Said by a mother about her industrious daughter to her lazy daughters-in- 
law. 

3475. <sjn i$ui.pp<3i}<5Br <ST6BreBr Qffib&mGsr, utr^esr l9^-^^<sl-&t undSiULD. 

The ploughman may do his work, but the comfort of the family- 
depends on the housewife. 
" A good wife and a good name hath no mate in goods nor fame." 
" It shall be at the wife's will if the husband thrive." 

3476. Qu6onr®s&r Q&npgi&(9)g> Qpessri—iJi&ift&i. 
Women do not get their food as a charity. 
Women are always doing some good at home for their food. 

" The wife that expects to have a good name is always at home, as 
if she were lame ; and the maid that is honest, her chief est de- 
light is still to be doing from morning till night." 

3477. u>!bsBT&Q&tTt9.uSl60a)ir& w&sr u/rtg. 

A house without a creeper (woman) is desolate. 3500. 
There must be a wife in a house, if it Is to prosper. 

3478. uflssrefil <g$&060np LfQ^ei^ssr ^<stau LDegyGL^eisr. 

A man without a wife is only half a man. 

3479. LD&H6sreuirs&r ^esBri—^j erdoednih ldjs^IiBs&t ^saareau). 

The king's rule depends on the minister's skill. 3168. 

Said by an elderly woman to the younger women in a family ; implying : — 
Men go out to make money, but women manage the house. 

" As the Friday so the Sunday : as the Sunday so the week. As 
the good man saith, so say we ; but as the good wife saith, so it 
must be." 

Gf. 3156 8fc. 



WOMEN. 385 

WOMEN'S CLEVERNESS OR DEXTERITY. 

Qusssr. 

" The man's a fool who ihinks by force or skill 

To stem the torrent of a woman's will ; 

For if she will, she will, you may depend on't. 

And if she wont, she won't, and there's an end on't." 

•3480. tgjmffggiL-isf-Q®) 3s3turT68siLD, j>jGj)3a) Q&n^&iD uneoBr(oGiJi$.£6B)3. 

She manages a wedding or a festival for a few coins, but out of 

them she saves a little for fireworks. 1803. 
Applied to cleverness and stinginess. 
" He woxdd get money in a desert." 

3481. .-gya/^agj Qairuau p&(9)& Q^iHiljw. 
She is up to every dodge. 

" Women in mischief are wiser than men." 

3482. .fJJ^SOT" ljgSI eui^n^iih ^irssBT®<sunen: 

Though an elephant or a tiger come, she will leap over them. 

She is equal to any difficulty. 

" Whatever a woman will she can." 

3483. $!&4 >s ' r uiuuuiLQi—m, gtsst ^saori—ffl/CW, ^tfissr (^^eau eumpn^uD 

@,76oor(3Qaj6aT (com. ^neemQeuQssr). 
Do you think, O husband, that this frightens me ; even if I meet 
elephants and horses I will leap over them. 

Said of a bold and clever woman, or by a saucy wife when her husband 
threatens her. 

3484. <§£ l k$n' f dsGr5 fk^lD^esr ^texunQeo LoempuurTeir, enDg@LDjrrr$g < 2£sr& 

eetsvurrQeO weapuuirar. 
She will conceal Indiran (a god) and the moon with a leaf, and 

Death with her hand. 
" She icill scold the devil out of a haunted house." 

3485. 5-360 6B)®/pj5 fib&iKoeo &rr£u siruu^Qp^j. 

Where other people have put their pot on the fire, she looks 
for an opportunity to put her's close by, so as to have her 
food cooked without expense. 

3486. GT&sorQeoBnu aeaat— ^i—^^leo ^L-eSdQsrTasar®, @ulj sseari— $jt—$ 

Gsleo pleveiJiTifl (or i?a9) Qm&r<$r$Qpgi. 
Wherever she sees oil she will smear a little on her hair, and 
wherever she sees a comb, she will comb her hair. 

3487. erpGHQeo LSetr'Beir Qupgti, ^gsueSlQ!®) ^rreomKblQp^i. 

Cunningly she brings forth the child, and she lulls it in a 
borrowed cradle. 3489. 

<£&&nuu& ^svesrth u&ior 68ti)Q pgi . 

49 



386 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3488. ^(5 sgeaBTisp. GiesarQ&ssrdjQ&nesar® ueosnnis> »lL®u > ukjgl e$&ir 

iflpjp, <sum@ Quasar® serr <suntfl Ofty-jig), Quasar® sen n eo iSis^inneBi 

L&&)QdtTLD60 UfpSSGO)!— euj^jlUnaJU QundjeSlLt—g!. 

With one spoonful of oil she baked the cakes, she supplied the 
table, she gave oil for the hair to the women that came, 
but the carelessness of those women allowed what was left to 
be stolen through the back door. 

Said ironically of one who has done much with small means. 

3489. (SL-ULff^drsff ^t—gGgleo iStenVGir Qupnpi&, &s(3j& sgbotl- ^i—p(0l&s 

snujih jJEi6aTun&r, 
She brings forth a child where she finds a cot, and gets the 

cordial where she sees dried ginger. 3487. 
She makes other people bear expenses that she ought to bear herself, but 

at the same time makes them feci that this has happened quite by 

accident. 

3490. &p$5lap66)p& (9)@$5l (or QiBneean^.) j)juup^Q^ eessuuun&r. 

She will dig out a picture painted on the wall, and place it 

somewhere else. 
Said about great cleverness. 

3492. iDsnnn<^m QuosBT&trtsI LDiTLDSSfrifl ) lUfTQ^i—ear Q&ir&sr^gxui ^peaics 

sniB. 
The great king's wife has her secret sins, and, when we speak of 
them, she is able to defend herself. 

3493. QpQpu Uj&asfl&srrGtnujf Q&njbQqtjQi— Lcsaypuurrek. 
She will hide a big pumpkin under a plate of rice. 
She makes the impossible possible. 

3494. eSI'ZsvQLDiTfflQG) QsussarQemiL <si®g£)ig p^eo lo«@2/<s@<s seSuuneesrua 

U6S0T 6SS11SUIT&T . 

She will make butter out of bought buttermilk, and perform 
her eldest son's wedding. 

Bought buttermilk is almost as thin as water, but from this she makeH 
butter, and by the sale of it she makes the wedding. 

" To milk a he-goat." 

Cf. 1794 8rc. frc. 



REFERRING TO UNMARRIED WOMEN AND WIDOWS. 

Ql/6337". 

3495. g{g)i&<3& (com. Qpesm<5s>i—3 : &) ma epi d(^ jytEi&us ereo&>nis> Q<fSL^es)i—. 
The body of a widow's son is all mischief. 2869, 2862. 
As a widow she should not get children ; if she gets children, she shows 
thereby that she is a bad woman, and from bad comes bad. 



WOMEN. 387 

3496. ^(njiSlevediT/g Ou6ZRJTOT2/i(5 j^esareiDL. eS CQisn a ebr wrruLS&rVenuurrui. 

It is said ohat a neighbour is the bridegroom of a lonelv woman. 

3501, 3502. 
Hindus are very suspicious of the virtue of women. 

3497- ^enenrleosorr^ spasm <gj(ip@trG$lii $WTg). 

The sorrow of a woman who has lost her husband will not be 
removed however much she weeps. 

3498. ^&r6sfleOeon^ Quem tssjpi &t&j evn ipoS^/feu . 

A woman without a husband has no happiness. 

3499. j^eiresfjGOev.T^suefr ^pgi wmn ay&^f &tB. 

A woman without a husband is like the sand of a river. 

She is at the mercy of circumstances, just as the sand is at the mercy of 
the winds. 

3500. ^sntssfleoeon^ LDis/easi^ £\i£(-9j utryp. 

The beauty of a woman without a husband is in vain. 3477. 

3501. ^eOeOrr^iSiim Quem&rrGsi 6TG0®)rT(V)S(3jio Q^ni^vunl 

A poor man's wife is likely to be any man's love. 3496, 3502. 

3502. ^ysirgpsudi Quem&nSil 6T&)6i)rr(f7jS(&jUj emLDpepenB (com. iDf@6sr&@.) 

A poor man's wife is treated by all as a sister-in-law. 3496, 

3501. 
All treat her familiarly or as they like. 
" A low hedge is easily leaped over." 

3503. &3@jt (or, Q^n&r&fl) *-$ujp$Ele\) pneSl atJ-ty., (grfluu &.^(u^^)jb<^eir 

She was married when Venus rose, and had to take off her 
thali when the sun rose, or, On Friday morning she was 
married and on Sunday morning she became a widow. 

Short-lived happiness- 

" After a dream of a wedding comes a "corpse." 

3504. §1(11)1— .m Qusaw&nGil ermeaps^uo aa&iiiQuem&rrGs). 

The thief's wife is always a widow. 

Thieves' (soldiers' and sailors') wives do not know when they 
will be left widows, as their husbands ai-e always in danger. 

3505. eu/TLprrp Quern em\ s(^ grid ejesBriy., Qunt-L® Greasily., w^ff&T (8j&f) 

ejesari^-, (<sjm <§>>ut-). 
Why should sbe who has the misfortune to be unmarried, blacken 

her eyelids, paint the dot on the forehead and use saffron ? 
All these things should be done only by married women. 



388 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

WEDDING, MARRIAGE. 

3506. jy&ggiSQj ajiruussuuil® (enirt^seasuuLL®) ^uS&ih o^a^ii 

GunLpGuenpeSlL-, &<gjgj&(j9j ennuJssuuiKSf &LL.Qi—<ssrjr)j $n@& 
gjgiuuQg QldQg). 
It is better to be united to a virtuous man and cut off the thali 
after a short time, than to be united to a vile person and live 
with him for a thousand years. 

When a woman becomes a widow the thali or marriage token is taken 
off. 

3507. jqiALDn&r Q^Q^ter^iQj^p^ Qp&srQesj, gou-w p^d^^euirir. 

Before the bride comes of age, the husband will die. 3,518. 
Said of the great difference in age between the bride and the bridegroom 

so common in India. 
In plain words : ggihugi <suujjgn<5BreiJG!p!&(3j §£&£! svujjjju Queaar^) ? 

Should a girl of five years be given in marriage to a husband of fifty, 

if not more ? 
" A certain gentleman, in a certain village, married his daughter, 10 years 

old, to an old man of 81 and received Rs. 2,000 for the bargain. In 

due course, the girl matured, and the nuptial ceremony was performed. 

The girl was sent to her hated husband, much against her will. She 

escaped from the room in the dead of night and threw herself into a 

well." Padfield : The Hindu at Home. 

" A young wife is an old mans pod-horse to the grave." 

3508. ^uSutJD sneo^giu uuSIjiit&<9?Q£. 

It is a crop that will last a thousand years. 

Marriage is indissoluble, therefore >;are should be taken to marry a girl to a 
fit husband. 

3509. ^(gLD/bpQp @irjjii>, senifieo 5>(75<sy(2W QpnLp&sr. 

Take a girl without relations for your wife, and have only one 

friend in your own village. 
If the wife has no relations, there will be no hanger-on. 
" Go down the ladder -when thou married a wife ; go up when thou 

choosest a friend." 
" If you have one true friend, you have more than your share." 

3510. si—&) 068X688? n euppl$>G)§2iii), u&rerB&Q prrsSi eup0'^i. 

Even if the water of the sea dries up, a Palli woman's thali will 
not dry up. 

If one husband dies she will marrv again, and thus never be without a 

thali. 
Or u&T6ifls(&jU U^gj lo^ssbt. The Palli woman has beeu sitting as a 

bride ten times. 

351 1. aeorarf? {§)0S&d &n$6tr (®)itgSIu6bt) ld^sbbt ejpevmoir? 

If the girl has become a woman, her brother should not many 

till she is married. 
If she has not come of age, he is allowed to marry before her. 



WEDDING, MARRIAGE. 389 

3512. aesieaffuLj, LDGOjrefl®)'fo). 

The girl is not yet in blossom. 

She has not come of age and cannot marry. 

3513. sefliurrasonh aligned, es)LD&@i£lyp QiLL—n^]. 

When the wedding is over, the little boxes of collyrium 

(eye-paint) are missing. 
At Hindu weddings many little things disappear. 

3514. &e$UJ!T68Bni> ueaaressBear efiLLty.®) ^^iudit^ld sq^uu.. 

In a home where a wedding has been celebrated, there will be a 
six months' famine, 1085, 1462, 2965. 

Most Hindus borrow large sums of money for their weddings and have to 
suffer for it afterwards. 

" After a feast a man scratches his heady 

3515. &W-Li$.&> ^esreenus sniLisf., (sSlL^lsi) Qwsm%sms Qsn®aQpgi 

Quired. 
Like pointing out an elephant in the woods, and giving a girl 

in marriage at home. 
To promise large dowry, and afterwards not to fulfill the promise. 

3516. srru^ih seafiiijih s_6sbri_ff(gj)s\), &nrr@$sl<56)& LDrrpw seSuLiiresmih. 

If fruit could be had in November, weddings would be solem- 
nized even then. 3217. 

3517. @t£LDrr<GB)§}im } Q3il.i—n@s)§#u>, SLLi^.sQsfT6snn—eu&r ulsiDLpuuiT&r. 
Though the man is old and worn-out, a girl should marry him 

to secure a livelihood. 

3518. QipGiiG!S)i&(3j &ngsen&uu(SiQp<5®pe8i—,Q<ompflQede&(igQp i g] Qtc&i. 

It is better to throw oneself into a well, than to marry an old 
man. 3507. 

3519. (3)t9-ti9Q&) @j/e/@ ^j^s)^>i> Qsn&r^tf), or, 
(gstkiqi) ^,<GB)@2L£> (gjGdpGded Gair&renQ<su6sar®Lb. 

Though she be as ugly as a monkey, marry a girl of your own 

caste. 
" Wives must be had, be they good or bad." 

3520. Q&ir@$5lnti> tgjfflBg} Quesar'Sessrs Q&*®, unptslnuD Slfflisg] i^eaae 

Qua®. 
After knowing the family of the suitor give your daughter in 
marriage, and after knowing the beggar give him alms. 
" Take a vine of a good soil, and a daughter of a good mother." 

3521. &LCLDIT $}0®j£ ^(J Gu60BT6miS(^ JPj&ajT ill U6BBT £ gl $ @(Ts8 Qu/TjgrTjgrT? 

An old maid should be satisfied with a husband who spends 

only a few coins on the thali. 
She should be glad to take anybody. 



390 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3522. grTtL &.p(cSU!T, IBtTILI ^.p(o6UlT ? 

Compared with relationship to one's father, relationship to 

one's mother is relationship to a dog. 
A Hindu seeks a wife closely related to his father and not to his mother. 

3523. iBfrdsnQeo QurlLu. Qpiq., u&)s^neo &U}.pg) @)Qp<$&r r g}lu> si/qjjldit'? 

The knot tied by your tongue will not be untied, though you 

bite and tear it with your teeth. 
"' He hath tied a knot with his tongue, that he cannot untie with his 

teeth." 

3524. U@g]d(8j(oLDQ&) «p(T7j uei»pujeip)&siT6iJj£i ^<ar&rQ&i6sar®uci. 

When a girl is over ten she should be forced into marriage, 

even though it be with a Pariah. 
" Marry your daughters betimes, lest they marry themselves." 
" Daughters and dead fish are no keeping wares." 

3525. uLpisisrreo gjrirssQ'aUGBWi—mb, lj^jssit&) QsuLlt—QevesarL-iTLD. 
Do not fill up the old channel, and do not dig new ones. 

A warning against marrying with strangers and adopting new fashions. 

3526. i3eir'bsfrujiT<T^s(^u Quasar Qsner^S pgiQun&). 
Like procuring a wife for Ganesa. 

Ganesa's mother, Parvati, once asked him, if he was not going to marry ; 
his reply was : " I shall when I meet a woman like you !" His mother 
got so angry over this reply, that she cursed him and ordered him to 
stand near the public roads to wait for a wife. Hence the images of 
Ganesa, or the belly-god, are placed by the public roads to this day. 
Said when it takes a long time for a man to find a wife. 

3527- Quasar 6uenrrpj$nQuJir, iS en&sn^^nQmn'i 

Did you bring up the girl or mere filth. 

Said to one who raises objections, because the girl is too young to marry. 

3528. LotTuunuSd^sQpLCLJBiLb tcv^uSio emsu ^^Iqf^Q 'gear } Q^auurrean3p(^ 

LDUf-uSleo esxsiJSseorTLDfj? 
While my daughter was a little girl, I kept her in my lap 
(well protected) at home, but after her coming of age, I 
cannot guard her safely. 3534. 

3529. Qpi^lesr Q&apGspp ^ilif (g)a>, iSktglesr Qfirjpi tSiyii, Qeirgyih. 
If the first food is rejected, the latter will be filth. 2974. 

The first man who offers himself to marry a girl should not be rejected, as 
he is believed to be lucky. If he is rejected, other suitors may be 
doubtful characters. 

3530. Qisu'Seoasfrift siewgii Qsuami^JuQuri QsLLujins&r, (giy-ppsor&miR 

<si&5Tgfi QsnGStdsLomLQi—iui) eiasrQtj'ns&r. 
They asked her in marriage, believing her to be hard-working ; 

but her parents said, She manages our house well, and we 

will not give her away. 
Said sarcastically about a girl no one will have. 



HUSBAND AND WIFE. 391 

HUSBAND AND WIFE. 

" The gnde or ill hap o' a gude or ill life 
Is the gude or ill choice o' a gude or ill wife." 

3531. «jy^6U 6£>lJSi&&itdgv)]&Q)ju urRfc^Qsnesar®, ^ > LDL\<aai—iun'2esr jfu}.ppi 

en nm. 
She spoke affectionately with her neighbour, and beat her own 
husband. 

3532. ^ji—iEisrrp Queatsr&ntsiiDnQG) ^^ea^s^ih (lditlA!) ismd^tl) Qurreo 

&>ITULj (<F6Wr<S3«_). 

On account of ray disobedient wife, there is strife between my 

mother-in-law and me. 
" Every man can rule a shrew, save he that hath her." 

3533. jy//?S usasiLjih j^iiuGoi—UJiTeBr usasujih &-638ri_/r? 

A wife will hate rice and her husband only momentarily. 

3534. ^jpssn^fiirm Queen® (g^wihpiTGsr, Qsn&irpsvt^l &u>/igi ji/txp^ireisr. 

A husband, Avho from jealousy shuts up his wife, while at home, 
and when travelling carries her on his shoulders for sixty 
miles, is at last cheated by her in spite of all. 3528, 3565. 

" A dishonest woman cannot be kept in, and an honest one will not.'' 

3535. jgdaQeueoorL-ffih, ^jesinssQebsstsTL—nis), Qu6amQ6S3r\ otott QlLi— ^Q^i 

<gn&) Quirgjui ^jLf. sessrQ&iarl 
My dear ! you shall neither cook nor grind curry stuff ; if you, 
who are as dear to me as my eyes, are near me, it is enough. 

3536. ^ssiff ^Igfiugi iBir&r, Qmrrsih Qpuujgi isfT&r, QpiresBrgspirjpi mn^w 

QutT&f)®) ,g)<50)l—UU83LLeB)l 

After marriage there will be desire sixty days, lust will last 
thirty days, and after ninety days have passed, she will be 
considered a broomstick. 

" When a couple are newly married, the first month is honeymoon 
or smick-smack ; the second is hither and thither; the third is 
thtvick-thwack ; the fourth: — The devil take them that brought 
thee and me together." 

" Mother, what sort of a thing is marriage ? Daughter, it is 
spinning, bearing children and iveeping." 

3537. ^u \£gj&(§ &-p<3urrp QuGsor&rTJsl ^jm^sstr GB>eu££)(njdQpgi? 

Is it for beauty's sake that one takes a wife, who is useless in 
time of adversity ? 2896. 

3538. cSJ^j/S^ig) s.^a/a/T(g) ^jsufrufl ^uDLjODi—ujneBr. 

A loose woman cannot trust her kept husband in time of trial. 



392 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3539. ^LihuGSii—tLineBr U60u> ^(rrjiprrGO, @us»u <sjf8& fesoraDt— Qurri—eomD. 
If a wife has her husband's support, she is likely to climb a 

dung-hill and quarrel. 
If a woman is supported she will quarrel for ever. 

3540. @£p. e8(Lp!a)jiTGg)j&(8j eurrtp&GiBsuuLL®, ermQiBUQpua $up. gg/xtou). 

A woman who has married a wretch, may find herself beaten 
at any time. 997, 3546. • 

Of her it can rightly be said : ^(njtsrreir <£@n^(T)Qpgi £>(5 ajsu>, To pass 

a day is like passing an age. 
" Age and wedlock we all desire and repent of." 

3541. @j6sir® Qu60Br&irGs}&siTrrG!pi3(gj& Qs^esareai—. er&sresr^^lpc^t 
Why should a husband with two wives wear long hair? 
The two wives will seize him by it in their quarrels. 

" Two women in one house, two cats and one mouse, two dogs and 
one bone, will never accord in one." 

3542. ^uesarQ Q u dw : &n$sl& sir srear urr® ^esari—niLL^ua. 

A man who has two wives experiences only trouble. 

3543. gjftenvun&r @3ey fslGsrofi, Qp^^ir&r sirtu ^/fleurrar. 

The younger wife will sit down and eat from the leaf from which 
her husband has been eating ; the elder wife will prepare 
the food. 

3544. ^j'SerrmnQerr, eunt$.\ (sun gjis}.) LDVsoiurr&ruD QunQeumb, QpgptrQen 

euifuf-\ QpiLi^.sQs noser® ^irQeurrthl 
O, younger wife, come let us go to the Malayalam country ! 0, 
elder wife, come let us knock our heads together and die ! 

When the younger wife is ill, the husband is willing to spend much 
money in taking her where she can get the best medicine, but he will 
spend no money on the elder wife when she is sick. 

3545. &-607" £>iuu6BrQ>i£>Qeo ^jfisssr, ereitr QldQ®) ^sa^uj!riiS(T^ssQeii<siir®tJa. 

Swear by your father that you will love me. 

The wife thinks she can make her husband love her by making him take 
an oath. 

" Better be half hanged than ill ived." 

3546. @^Q/ Q&n®uuire!p!&(§ eurrtfideiasuuLLQ, G£lLl-Qid $>y$aj isgdl— 

After marrying a scoundrel, she must always run about. 3540. 

She has to slave for his comfort. 

" Marry in haste and repent at leisure." 

3547. <§i$.uQurrG5r L/^a^ssr eumg) s^isf-sQsfrssmt—nasr, e_«D*_a»u>(2Yfi6\> 

e_aoz_«DLD QurriUEl uS^iisQsQ.snessrL-rrar. 
When the run-away husband returned and joined his wife, he 
gave her very many ornaments and she was joyful. 
" All is well, and the man has his tvare again." 
" Gold broth hot again, that lov'd 1 never, 
Old love renewed again, that lov'd I ever." 



HUSBAND AND WIFE. 393 

S548. <s&ieOnS£jHth seanrsuesr, LjevsoirQ^nui t^a^OT. 

Though hard as a stone, he is your husband ; though soft as 
grass, he is still your husband. 

Said to a woman who despises her husband, whom she should obey. 3289, 
3628. 

3549. 3&)'ZsvuQufT& & east ai &&(§&&> Q&eo Q&trpjrpsQgj ^(ipsunQesiesr. 

Why should she cry for rice, while she has a husband as firm 
as a rock. 

3550. sQg&gi LDfTULS&r^Btrd^u uvuuui—ireSiLLJtgaiA, ajuSpgy uyruiS&r 

Ssffagju umuui—QsueArtSui. 

Even if you do not respect him who tied the marriage token 
round your neck, you must respect the children he has 
begotten. 

A good wife can easily appease her husband, but she cannot so easily over- 
come the impatience of the children. 

3551. sjdlj srearujp, Q&rra) psuftfonia. 

Chastity means not trangressing a husband's order. 

3552. «/ri«@/i(5tc Quir&3sipi&(9jij> l^^hQujit i^ssr2sirr ; ^esur^^sussr a^/F 

O, Punnai tree (Calophyllum inophyllum) hast thou blossomed 
for strangers ? couldst thou not have waited and blossomed 
at ihe arrival of my dear husband ? 

A man went out into the world to make his fortune ; before leaving wife 
and home, he planted a Calophyllum tree at the front of his house, and 
told hiB wife that he would come, when the tree had its first flowers. 
The day for the blossoming of the tree came, and the husband also 
came, but his wife did not recognize him, so she says these words in 
despair. (From a popular Tamil song.) 

3553. gj,£?aw ^(jjul/ ^fpl^jm, Qstresan-. Qussur^rr^ (geairm ^ijB&iir&r. 

A horse knows its condition (its rider's will), and a wife knows 
her husband's mind. 

3554. (3j*)iessfl&&(TnG!p)&(8j QjrigiaD&uuLLfdu updfg upi® srafrjpi gjy-p 

sp&Qsrrasori—TG) 3ss)i—s(gLDir ? 
After marrying a husband with a small income, will the wife 

get big things even if she insist on it ? 
" if aids want nothing bvt husbands, and When they have them, they 

want everything." 

3555. an&uQurrQarpiyeo, sL-Qi&Qfptslujih utrjrir&r. 

If the husband has no property (is reduced), even his own wife 

will not respect him. 1742, 3579. 
•' When poverty comes in at the door, love leaps out at the window." 

50 



394 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3556. 60s iSaopisp Qurresr^esru u/nrdQ^niii, aekr Ssapisp sesareuesr Qmeo. 
It is much better for a woman to have a husband that fills her 

eyes (at whom she looks with delight), than to have one 
whose hands are full of gold. 

3557. Qsrr&sarL^euasr sjis^&s, Q&iTQgisp^nQiceo sfi(igi6j5rreiriTih. 

After the husband had punished his wife for unfaithfulness, she 
embraced her husband's younger brother (and thus gave 
evidence against herself). 

3558. Qsitgobtl- Quesar &rT0Quj ol.it jyiflaurretnTuSQisptTar. 

His own wife became a sharp sickle in ruining her own 

husband. 2961, 3253, 3578. 
" Age and icedlock tame man and beast." 

3559. Q&rreir(Gnjui<3>J6B)!r&(3jth Qsiresari—FTLLi—ih, Q&nessn—i$p(3j ^esatL-tril. 

Before marriage all joy, after marriage much misery. 
" Pleasures, while they flatter, sting to death." 

3560. Qstl^ $l1-u)-& «i-a/u>/r? 

Is a hen able to flap her wings and crow like a cock ? 
A'woman is not able to do the work of a man. 

3561. &6U6$lEl&pfElGBTQlL&) ST&SuQun&). 

Like a rat on the top of a linga. 

Said of a wife who mounted her husband's head. She wilfully did 
what her husband told her not to do. Also : S\<au6sr ^^eoQineO ejpluS 
Q^S@Q^&r } she has got up on her husband's head. 
" He lives under tlie sign of the cat's foot." (is henpecked). 

3562. @<5BT&(3j 6T6BTJPI ^(T^^^uSI(l^i^lT&>, fi'bS0LDnLLl^.&> (3jli(5) gl(l£<3iJtT®r. 

If one has a wife, she will sit down at his head and weep. 
She will care for and comfort him when he is sick, or when dying. 

3563. pear Quest* &n$s)<saujp ■grreor j)jtjp-&&£, <sVeoujniflea)UJ& 9lL®s QslL 

Qppn? 
Should one seek permission from the village watchman to beat 

one's own wife ? 3225. 
One does not need permission to exercise one's legal rights. 

3564. giiq-UitTU Queoaci£.rr is>iq.u$e0 Qrs^ULf. 

A wife, who does not feel anxious for her husband, is like fire 
in the lap. 3203. 

3565. iBihuinnLLi—T^euesr Queoar&iT^I&f&j fttrpugjQurr ix>iruL9ar2sfru>frir. 

A suspicious man's wife has forty men as her husbands. 3534, 

3606. 
An oversuspicious person cannot see that he is fooled all through. 
" At the gate where suspicion enters, love goes out." 



HUSBAND AND WIFE. 395 

3566. uSileBn&n uptslesft soap Q&LLQeumQpm ; uiUSisQL-uuiriis sifteo 

I have just heard a story of a very virtuous woman ; fold thy 
legs, thou damned fellow ! 1456, 2364, 2365, 3431. 

The wife who has heard a story about a chaste wife, ought herself to try 
to be such a wife to her own husband. Instead of that, she begins to 
abuse him in a most impertinent way immediately after she has heard a 
sermon about the behaviour of a pious wife. 

" But be ye doers of the word and not hearers only." 

" Bells call others, but themselves enter not into the church." 

" He has one face to God, and another to the devil." 

" All are not saints that go to church." 

" Pious precepts, gentle friend, never acted, wisely meant, 
x\re like gay and coloured flowers, — without fragrance, without scent." 

R. C. Dutt : Lays of Ancient India. 

3567. QuemLS&r'Bsrr (a^^igjtj L/z/taSsror. 

He is only a wisp of straw for a woman to sit on. 
" The grey mare is the better horse." 
" The wife wears the breeches." 

3568. Ouasir?/r^ sneosiL®, i$ek'2eiT sunibssiL®. 

A wife ties up her husband's legs, and the children his mouth. 

3570. 
" Wedlock's a padlock." 
" Down to gehenna, or up to the throne, he rideth the fastest, who 

rideth alone." (Kipling). 

3569. Qu6stsr&rT$sl Qp&p<a®<$ (com. £tpgj@6B>nj)u u/r/ri«/rei9ilz_/Tgjto, L$6fr3sw 

np&gG6ij5u uirirssQsuesarQuo. 
If you do not look at your wife, look at your children's faces. 

3206. 
Though you are not kind to your wife for her own sake, you must treat 

her well for the sake of her children. 

3570. Qwsegrfrrtgl srr&) eSeO(si<®, iS&r^eir ^r&r&rnessfi (or euiriussiL®). 

A wife is a fetter on her husband's legs, and a child is a bolt 

through this fetter to fasten it tightly. 3568. 
A wife is a fetter, and a child is a gag. 
" He that has children, all his morsels are not his own." 
" A married man turns his staff into a stake." 

3571. Queearffrr^l Q&ir&pu), Quits® eunpgiu LjpihQu. 

His wife is his own, but his enjoyments are all outside. 3580. 

3572. QuakfirSH) Q&nswn—gjtJD, ^ason—TiLi-th uiLi—giu> QutrgiLD. 

I am more than satisfied with the woman I married, and with 
what I have had to suffer from her. 736, 3558, 3578. 

Said of an unpleasant wife ; also, of a stay at any plate of which one feels 
sick ; or said of people of whom one is tired. 



396 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3573. Quasar &maj&(9fU) useor&psfl'UQjrr^ud^, usmu-uj <amuj&(gih un&Sltu 

A virtuous mau will obtain a good wife, and a fortunate man 

will obtain wealth. 2609. 
" Be a good husband, and you will get a penny to spend, a penny to 

lend, and a penny for a friend." 

3574. QuiLjih ^/Snjih Qugbw#it$e) i$&r'&rT<S6nu. 

Even a demon knows his own wife and children. 3290. 

3575. 6B)UfrTQIS(3jU upgl QuSSBI, Q&IT&Jpi (8)i£g)> 

One can get ten wives for a small coin, and a handful into the 

bargain. 3269, 3220. 
" As the market goes, wives must sell." 

3576. LD€a!<SB)^uQuiT&S0S(^lh LDlEjQ&StULC. 

As a wife's heart is, so will her marriage token be. 

If she is good she will keep her thali, i.e., her husband a long time. 

" A virtuotis woman is a crown to her husband." 

" Tico things prolong thy life, a quiet heart and a loving icife." 

3577. i&GsruQuirQijppLD ^j0ii^T&) ) m/bjDU Quirg&gth uirn&&Q&esBi($li&n'i 

If there be harmony between husband and wife, there iH no 
need to look for astrological harmony. 2759. 

It does not matter if their horoscopes do not agree. 

" Marriage with peace is the ivorld's paradise ; with strife, this life's 
purgatory." 

3578. u>n%ao §&L-i— Queaar^fr^, erinear(curT&} euihpireir. 

The woman who gave a man a garland (selected him for her 

husband) was Death to him. 1915, 3253, 3558, 3572. 
" Better be half hanged, than ill wed." 

3579. <a£tl.(E)d(<sj ^(gfcpneo Q<su&sbts&)u Qu&sgrffir^, ffl?il®«(3> ^eoebirQp 

QuiT(Q)eo giriB&eo QuesoT&n£il. 
If the house is supplied according to the wish of the wile, she 
is all smiles (shines like bell-metal), but if not she will 
be displeased and blame everyone. 3555. 

3580. <sSlL®u Queon&nfBi CWcl/, wniUSu Qusmen^l sq^llu. 

His own wife is a margosa tree (bittei*), and his wife outside 
the house is sugar-cane (sweet). 3571. 

3581. <sfigg)/<5(S}0 gir&N Q@j&sBi®ih erarrjpi S\9>?Q&^e)1 

Was it wantonly and without cause that I cut off my thali ? 

A widow takes off her thali (marriage token) on the death of her husband. 
Therefore on the death of a man, the woman who takes off berth/Hi 
thereby shows that Ehe was Mb legal wife and as such has a right to 
his property. 



" if jack's in love, he is no judge of jill's beauty." 397 

" IF JACK'S IN LOVE, HE IS NO JUDGE 
OF JILL'S BEAUTY." 

&js&»p&(9jt5 &(Q)jhp QufTjbssi^. 2273. 

3582. gfi—ikistTp lottesraSfi/ti), ^isisnau L/^a^spii. 
An obstinate wife and a haughty husband. 

" When the husband is fire, and the ivife toiv, the devil easily sets 
them in aflame." 

3583. g\n&<§Qf>p$ ^<sms9s? q^s^u Qutr<Q^&r, Lfakr i9uf.pps»<ck iSm^Qeo 

A sickly woman, who could hardly walk, went for water, and a 
man full of sores went after her. 

3584. ^isiDniLL-np «jy(*p« mtrifl&Qfjp, Q^i—waiLt—n^ GElQrjiLQ&enGunm. 

A worthless wife unable to oook and a cursed husband unfit to 

earn anything. 
" Like loves like." 
" They were both equally bad, so the devil put them together." 

3586. .^iiqsiOi-UJ/Tsjp/sgj S\Q$& @«D0) gjigssk Guibsp euniLippiTm. 

Her grievance was that after she had wept to get a husband, 

she got a blind one. 
" A bad bush is better than an open field." 

3587. eranGoBgiLD s^IQslLl-<sv^t, etek^ssr eufcgi ujff'Jteo ^ili—nm. 

One in a worse state than myself came and put a garland on me 

(chose me for his wife). 
" Better one house filled than ttco spilled." 

3588. ggujTQ/igj o9 ( i«o # ^ufia) ( 8gv, j)ju)U>rr(ef^s(^d QsiiaiiLSleti'fo). 

As the husband is a fool and can earn nothing, his wife takes 

no air. 
" Like blood, like good and like age, make the happiest marriages." 

3589. <Bff3r<sunuj&sr gSlLup-Qg), thttgpGunujm Quern Qsnsm i—giQuneo. 

The talkative foul-mouthed man married a girl from a home as 

bad as his. 
" There is no goose so gray in the lake, that cannot find a gander to 

her make." 

3590. #uuires$ Loirui3m''6sns(^3 : sig) epu).ihp Queaar^rr^. 

For a bridegroom who is a cripple, a bride who has broken her 

hip-bone will do. 2278. 
" A scald horse for a scabbed squire." 

359 1 . Qt£ml.e8>t—&&&(5g @(5®P Qpsseoyroiti&si . 

A noseless husband suits a bald-headed woman (a widow). 
" A bad jack may have as bad ajill." 



398 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3592. eunSpQpiB^s&i Queaar^ir^s^ iDn^eossaiar ^thLfetai—ajnesr. 
A most miserable woman has a blind husband. 
" Hedgehogs lodge among thorns, because they themselves are 
prickly." 

Cf. 2259 8fc. 



REFERRING CHIEFLY TO FEMININE FAILINGS. 

ftp 

There are only two good women in the world : one of them is dead, and the 
other is not to be found. 

3593. ^uuQ^S)Qi— Qurr@/D2>j^nj&(&f, ^jeanrssarasr eigi, &thtSl ejgj. 

What is an elder or younger brother to her, who sins with her 

own father. 394, 408. 
" She is as common as a barber s chair. : ' 

3594. <9iihuS iB$pg) (com. Qmtfipgi) ^Q^i^^l unfrjgpjpQun&) Qu& 

Q(T/j'&r. 
She speaks like one who has been standing on the grinding 
stone looking at Arundhati. 

Arnndhati was the chaste wife of Vasishta, now a star, which is shown to 
the bride by the bridegroom during the marriage ceremony. She stands 
on a grinding stone and promises him that she will be a wife like 
Arundhati. The grinding-stone is a symbol of Ahalya, who for com- 
mitting adultery with Indra was metamorphosed into a stone. The put- 
ting the grinding-stone under the bride's feet symbolises the bride's 
abhorrence of Ahalya's conduct. Applied sarcastically to a woman who 
professes to be the wife of somebody to whom she has not been married. 
or to false witnesses in a case. ^ 

3595. ^fttfdstTGSsfl Qppg) siRsQsir&fLDn^ar. 

The precious pearl has become a black mark. 
Said of a fallen woman. 

3596. j>j6i)fniBQun&Gqu> ^stosaS^sSp^j, j/jt^-uurresr er&sr^ti uujQpu>iraS 

She has a desire to go astray, but she is afraid that her husband 

may beat her. 3609. 
Chaste of necessity. 3600. 
" Fear and shame, much sin doth tame." 
" Fears are divided in the midst." 

3597. ^tjLjSli^aLm ujitQjtitQi— Qun^eo erec/resit 

It matters little with whom a ruined woman sins. 
" She is neither icife, widoiv nor maid." 

3598. ^iQgQp ^&GB8ruL\ii>, &iBsQp Qu6sar2eBsriLjtX) vtijuuUL-trgj. 

Do not believe a weeping man or a laughiug Woman. 

3599. *g/ > u$jrwQuifli— : i$&) &Q<s&LDU6ear6B$^§2)iD } ^esurLS&r'Bsfrs^ Gieareur? 
It does not matter how many courtezans a man lias. 

The implication is that a woman has far less liberty than a man. 



REFERRING CHIEFLY TO FEMININE FAILINGS. 399 

3599a. §&i—auffiJg)@)eoeorT0 u^eSnsa^. 

A chaste woman who cannot find an opportunity to go astray. 

3600. $i—ti gj&uut—np (c^/refii Qupp ufgleSnesip. 

Having no opportunity to go astray, she is very virtuous. 
3596. 

" Holiest as the cat, token the meat is out of reach." 

3601. ^)^^2sst Qufiujsijm esissaivu iSiq-gptreo, etuuiq. i£>iiLLQL-esr ersaru 

Like saying to a rich man who lays hold of my hand : " I won't 

come." 
Chiefly referring to a man's attempt to seduce a woman. 

3602. £§} < 86U uQguurTgBj&iu), (Vj&iu uQguurrsrrgj. 

Though leaves fade, a woman or a caste should not fade. 
A woman should remain virtuous. 

3603. e«z:/f GieooitTih ai-pfS, er&sr Quit (ipifs). 

I have been all round the village, and my name is Mukti (bliss). 

3195, 3624. 
She has led a loose life and yet praises herself. 
" A ronh-toicns (a gad-about) seldom a good housewife at home." 

3604. &&LiflQ&)uju) Qu-Sbtr&r, Qfirm^eo gjQgajrr&r. 

She is a gad about, but she weeps if you say so. 
" A young ivhore, and old saint" 

3605. erasr GTffi&fieod sQgeS, a_63r &gppfi$Qeo awirrs&\ 
Let my filth be washed off with your cleanliness. 
Your cleanliness is not better than my filth. 

IB v&iQmtr f Ah, do yon imagine yourself pure ! 

3606. si(ip jfjsmp siLuf (^ifB®)) eo)6ii<g£iTG2nh, 9(75 pngeapuS®) Qf truth 

Qutreun&r. 

Though you build seven rooms, and keep her in the inner one 

she will find a nook in which to go astray. 3534, 3565. 
" A bag of fleas is easier to keep guard over than a woman." 

3607. erasrmt^., ^jsu2sst ld&&@0>uj. 

What are you doing, girl, are you tempting him ? 

3608. sga/^igj,^ GpeS j>ji£lujrT£ u^^teS. 

Though Draupadi was the wife of the five Pandavas, she was 

quite chaste. 
Ironically of one who praises herself for chastity. 



400 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3609. sesar® Quffs sQSiemLftSfr^sQpgi, Qp&pSil&i Qpy5}&& Q®jL-&Qpi&q$& 



She desires to talk to him, but she is too shy to look in his 

face. 3596. 
" Fain icould the catfish eat, but she's loth to wet her feet." 

3610. spiSleoeorTjg g\t£$!j, ®jrrf < &sTti$®)G0iT@ y. 

Beauty without chastity is a flower without smell. 

3611. snssiriit sit GimQt?&), seaarsu^ssr sjuun Grasrjpi su.Lf.sQsir&r^3>j!r 

en ma. 

If a crow makes a noise, she will embrace her husband and say : 

My dear ! 
She pretends to be frightened by it, that her hnsband may have confidence 

in her. 

" A wicked woman and an evil are three half -pence worse than the 

devil." 
" An eel is held by the tail surer than a woman." 
" You have daily to do with the devil, and pretend to be frightened 
at a mouse." 

3612. stfi-LOig, $>(§ QiDtrpesip Q&iKSiQ&netreffiy. u>nifiuunp<zsip. 

0, dear goddess, you ask for a morsel of food in every house ! 

3195, 3603, 3619, 3624. 
Said of an immodest woman who goes to any house to eat and talk. 
" Dry bread at home is better than roast meat abroad." 

3613. (3jLL®i£n<56iu> <guiSl qij&euQ^Qi— Qun^eo, #il«w_uyu) uesar^ek, 

SLLuf-iLfih QsfJL-irm. 

If you are put out of your caste and live with a potter, he will 
neither respect you, nor give you pots. 

3614. (Bjetffsnrjg affOio, 3Z-p6Hujrr(V)ii> c«sri_/r@)6i) lbuSz.t&jt QtauennexusBiio 

He who has a comfortable house and a concubine does not care 
whether his crops fail or succeed. 

3615. <SR_«J)l£ (3jUf-P$ITQllA } (3>/J68>U <9rLL&£tTQIUD, (3JU6Muiff/Til®lJ Qu«J0T 

sen Qijd(&jLD&srf) ', urr^eos (SjUj-pprrgpluo, uCoat-s slLu^^^jixi, ulLl- 
eanpgiu Quohsek u psoas (or ^LUSieunesS). 
Though village-women drink water-gruel and carry manure 
on their heads, they are precious jewels, or Rukmani, (one of 
the wives of Krishna) ; though the women in cities drink milk 
and di'ess in silk, they are gad-abouts. 

3616. ^nsseioi— LfQp ei&sr^^LD, essneaptsl ei&srQ^^ih <*//?. 

Whether you say " gutter-worm" or " concubine " it is all the 
same. 



REFERRING CHIEFLY TO FEMININE FAILING. 401 

3617. QifipptiQuLiiT, Cog-tee ^eS^^rrQiurr? 

Did you laugh or did you take off your cloth ? 3618. 
For a woman to laugh when speaking with men is as culpable as the 
greatest immodesty. 

" A maid that laughs is half taken." 

3618. &(8ppnQuJiT, 9<ss>rjs (gj'Zsog ptrQujn? 

Did you laugh or did you destroy your good name r* 3617. 

If a young woman smiles while speaking, an elderly one may correct her 

by saying i ug0qu&(8) Qld&) <oT6srear SrBuLj, why do you smile and 

show your teeth P 

3619. (5!T68BrL£l®)®)lT£ &J£l&Q&(3j WtT§tf tg)<£(3)Lb talHTg&iUUf.. 

An immodest woman will enter any door. 3612. 

3620. ulLl—u useSlQeti QunQ psutms^p sblJSiss^jss)!— LDem/Duuir? 

Can a woman, who sins in the open daylight, hide herself with 
a big basket ? 

3621. QuesorsssflsBr (^ssnrQpih ^jplQsum-, &ti>uib(gl euiriLjist ^jplQeam. 

I know the girl's character, and I also know the tongue of her 
parent. 

The mother-in-law is called upon to interfere between her daughter-in- 
law, and that daughter's mother, but she says she knows their bad 
character too well to do so. They are both vixens. 

3622. LD^SpU) pGsIuJLdQuIT®) <SUfTL£ft$(7J)d3(D<3>J6em(ElU>. 

To live happily like Kama and his wife Kadi. 2760. 

3623. Qpap #23(3) jijfipG) (Hp&gtrQntrQi— G>uit(GB)®) (gj&jijp&i&j fr-esiih. 

If a young married woman fears to refuse an elderly man's 
improper advances, it will be a shame to the whole caste. 

Or, when an inferior is too weak to resist his master's improper orders 
and does something wrong. 

3624. (tpasrg)! s)L?i_L®<a5(35 QpssrreS, fsir^l efii-LQ&fgj Enp&tr&S. 

She is a footstool in three houses, and a chair in four houses. 

3603, 3612. 
Said of a woman who is always gossiping in other people's houses. 
" A maid oft seen, a gown oft worn, are disesteemed and held in 

scorn." 
" A woman is to be from her house three times ; when she is christened, 

married and buried." 

Cf. 443 ; 462. 



51 



402 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

MOTHER-IN-LAW. 

l£>rTL$UJIIT, 

3625. ^suen Qftreo ©_6Bri@<s (3j(£eims(§ (or, ifle^suns^). 

Her words are like a priest's words to you. 

.Said in sarcasm by a mother to her son, when she thinks that her son 
listens too much to his wife instead of listening to her. 

" The husband's mother is the ivife's devil." 

3626. <^£$l<5(sj jtiGG>Lp&&tr p uDmAliLirrsaffp Qpiq. lduSomtu L$t£.@g!& Q&qju 

The mother-in-law who does not send her daughter-in-law 
home in July, should be sought, dragged by her hair and 
beaten with slippers. 3629. 

A married couple should never live together in July, for the first born 
must not be born in April, as this month is considered very unlucky. 

3627. erssr u>s(6fijs(jsj s>m!i&gi&(5 ^jTaknQsL'rTLLup. p^sos^ vsuppiQe^m 

(this said slowly), srssr LC(/^LDS(&^i(^^ ^uneuefis^^ p%sva(&) 
ssE.p£fiQsum (this said quickly). 
I will give my daughter a bath of oil twice a week, but my 
daughter-in-law will get one only at the dipavali festival, 
i. e., once a year. 
This shews the mother-in-law's great partiality. 

3628. Qsn(SlLDU!reSujrT^e)^iih, QsneaBTi— laitiAIujitit QsuesurSlih. 

Though a mother-in-law be a wicked sinner, a house cannot do 

without her. 1552, 3548, 3635. 
She is necessary to the welfare of the house, however bad she may be. 

3629. Slptslemn i£>n&<i$El&) Q&eosuear LQpiB<grr&), ^OTrgJijLcigf jyisnppi}), or, 

Qs<Sm. 
If the first born is bora in April a prosperous family will come 
to grief. 3626. 

To avoid this calamity the mother-in-law must send her daughter-in-law 
to her mother's home, away from her husband, in the month of July. 

3630. gnm ^ssati— &.6\J,£6»<sk/u>, pisisu L^^fffffdua ffiso LD0Los(ef^d(^. 
The pestle which the mother-in-law used and her gold necklace 

should go to the eldest daughter-in-law. 

A certain daughter-in-law hated her mother-in-law, and one day being 
alone with her in the house strnck her on the breast with the pestle or 
rice-pounder, so that she fell down speechless. The other women were 
called in, and the mother-in-law pointed to the wicked daughter-in-law, 
to the rice-pounder and to her own breast. The women asked the 
murderess for an explanation of these signs, and she said : Being the 
eldest of you all, I am to have the rice-pounder and the golden necklace 
on her breast. 

3631. QgGOl QolS)§$l!Jt7LCXSBr LjfioS7 (oi* (S^KCO") suernT^^^QurreO, 

As Tennaluraman fed the cat, i.e., he fed it very scantily. 

If the daughter-in-law does not receive proper food, she will say this of 
her mother-in-law. 



MOTHER-IN-LAW. 403 

3632. un%xr $}LLup-gB)§2nh ^lL®ld, vcnuS $UL-rrar. 

Though a broken pot might be joined together again, a mother- 
in-law could not live in peace with her daughter-in-law. 2834, 
3636a. 

3633. Qu6enr2e3srs Q&nGipgnQuuir, sem'bessrs Qsir®0<£rr(2ujtT? 

Did you give me your daughter, or did you give me your eyes ? 
Said by a son-in-law to his mother-in-law : — Will we not, after taking your 

daughter to my home, treat her as kindly and carefully as we treat our 

own eyes ? 

3634. Gu6SBrem!&(3j uiiriSvun(r^ui ) i3&i < 2efTa^ eurrptSiurrQrjih. 

A mother-in-law for a daughter-in-law, and a teacher for a boy. 
Both are alike necessary. 

3635. Qurr<5Brg5)6Br iMQTji&s&rn^epitJD, inem^fceo (pflK unnSujnn Qeuesnr®Lb. 
Though the daughter-in-law be made of gold, she must have a 

mother-in-law of mud. 3628. 

Whatever the mother-in-law's character may be, her authority is necessary 
for the yonng girl. 

3636. Lcsebr Q&@@nQiih <f/7<sl1®lc, u>@i£i&eir QsrrL-L-ii) (or Q&nsuih) egji—ia 

Even if my son dies, let him die, I shall be satisfied if the 
haughtiness of my daughter-in-law is subdued by his death. 

•' Mother-in-law and daughter-in-law are a tempest and a hail 
storm." 

3636a. u>iTiiuj£gt3GS0&(3)ih GutoStsrQt-. ! LOfTtAivrr^s^w lc0los(&^S(^ld 

&G8Br<5B)'. 3632. 

O beetle within the mango-kernel, thou knowest best the strife 
between the mother-in-law and the daughter-in-law. 630. 

No trace is visible on the surface of the kernel to show how the beetle 
entered it ; and thus also no clear cause of strife between mother-in-law 
and daughter-in-law. Any trifling thing causes a quarrel between them. 

363". LDrruSiLinrr Q&&& <%Q$u> wn^ui id^lcs&t &es6t€s&Q&) ^eeereet^n eukpg) 
Qunio. 
Like the daughter-in-law who shed no tears for her mother-in- 
law, till six months after the mother-in-law was dead. 
'• There is no good mother-in-law but she that wears a green goivn" 

(is buried under the green grass.) 
" Crocodile tears." — " There will be many a dry cheek after him" 

3638. iLrTLSiujiT^ih §?(75 a?Ll® iBtnLfBuQueeBT^trasr. 

Even the mother-in-law was once a girl from some house in the 

country. 3293, 3435. 
'' The mother-in-law forgets that she was a daughter-in-law." 
" The priest for getteth that ever he hath been holy icater cleric." 

3639. UDfTL&lLin (£&(§# &6Um£)lUrTlT ^jSL&T. 

The daughter-in-law is a god to her mother-in-law. 47.~>. 
The daughter-in-law rules the mother-in-law ; a rather unusual state of 
things. 



404 TAMIL PROVERBS. 

3640. lditlSuuitit QiD&&(5Br L&QrjLD&etflso'Zso, LD(WjLD&&r Qlo&Qsst uonL^iumBeo^eo. 
No daughter-in-law praises her mother-in-law, and no mother- 
in-law praises her daughter-in-law. 1390. 

3641. L£>ni£luJiTiss)irs seikir® u>(tJjLD&srr iBn^^Qp^iQuir&l. 

As the daughter-in-law feels shy before the mother-in-law. 

Said of any one who feels shy to come forward and speak freely before a 
superior. 

3642. LDmBtunfVjLD &nmQmn, LD&frdssu'tev&iLo {gjrrrQjgiT? 

Is not my mother-in-law going to die, and put an end to my 

anxiety ? 2928. 
The daughter-in-law is longing to get rid of her mother-in-law's worry and 
also herself to become the mistress of the home. 

3643. irnnSiurra &_S5)i— ppirsv LoemuT^esr, LDQjjLD&sir &_6mi—.£<gtT&) Quitsst 

u/rSsar. 
If the mother-in-law breaks a pot, it is only clay (of no conse- 
quence), but if the daughter-in-law breaks one, it is gold (of 
great consequence). 179, 180, 184. 

3644. QutriEis®) Qun&&gi, QuiTLUtiiLb QuiT&&gi, QuahrVsm ^j^iuui—ir 

QuiLmegisriy.. 
The Pongal feast is over, and the day of that festival for burn- 
ing up old things thrown into the street is also gone, send 
my wife home, thou blackguard ! 

A young wife leaves her mother-in-law's house and goes home to her parents 
for her confinement, but she mast not stay there more than six months. 
When the time is up her husband asks for her return. Also used about 
money that should be returned within the fixed time. 

The above refer directly to the relations between a mother-in-law and her 
daughter-in-law. There are a number of other proverbs more or less 
directly bearing on the same subject, which have been included under 
other headings. Some of them can be found by referring to the words 
LDtrinluJlTiT and mrtKLLS&T in the Index. But there are numerous pro- 
verbs which have reference to the mother-in-law by implication only. 
That there is such a large number of proverbs which thus refer to the 
mother-in-law is a proof of her immense importance in Hindu familv 
life. 



THE END. 



INDEX OF THE FIBST WOBD OF EACH PBOVEBB, 



ll^ll""" 



^flsQ QugV'SU^l 30 I . 

^js^is^ 18. 

r g)/&aULlL-<s>j§r)iS(3j 2234< 

^jsuulKB 197. 
sjseo 2738, 2739. 

^seoix> 1990. 
s\&pf£l 688. 
jy&@$&) 2702. 
jti&umu 496. 
^jsniBia^^JeO 1995. 
^jQsrrrr 239. 
si&*9 3245. 
Sj&smg 2740. 
jussn® 956. 
^jssn&r 2197, 3245. 
j^ssn^sfT 156, 2064. 
jrysQiLmtoBrw 1620. 
gl&Qnirupjislsti 668. 
^jsQutrufi^i 1581 
SjS(^fiQ^!TS(^ 2(552. 

J)]l51Sg68)'5 376. 

jgjisimui- 1730. 
j)jiEisrrLf.ssr7ffleis)uj 845. 
<jy/£/0® 606. 

«^(»<5u> 1002, 1545. 
«#«/(?* 2907. 
jpjiejQs Gjeor 302. 
<9l&&g)&(5) 3506. 
g\ff&wh 157, 936. 
Si^eSQeO 851. 
.oyffsv) (p/". ^leaareaL-) 574, 
3531. 

c gf<o8)#UL]d(3j 1118. 

cgygro^Q/ 963. 



^&&nGts& 2005. 
jp0 2338. 
^(& ) &n i 3»gi 3425. 
^@0 (r/: uu.it}>) 2988. 
^&®Qeo 3299, 3300. 
jijf^&ssrssrnT^ 292a. 
^(G^Qsarsveifr 247 1 . 
^j^9meu^ssr 2472, 2473. 
ji/(S5©(C3)<s»/r 2987- 
^(55* 1030, 2852. 
^(Sj* ass/f 605. 
cgf^&il) 3156. 
^®J3 ((/. «g»^7) 3431. 
j>]L-&&^jgi 3430. 
^L-ssd> 497, 3047. 
ji/L-iasn^ 464, 3532, 3582. 
^jL-iaQm 2553. 
^i-tiuti 2818. 
gfi—T <oT6Bruneisr 2339. 
Sli—Tgi 198. 
^Ip. Sim")! 2530. 
«^yif. GissiQp 591. 
j)ji^.tujb0'io 2198. 
jyiy-iLjih 986. 
^{9. ^tlip. 2897. 

Jtfip. /E/T<55©(c6V 240. 

jyip. tsuuSpiBeo 2474. 
jtftf 377, 1900. 
^^i* 1882. 
J2IL$-S(3)ti> 19, 2259. 

2896, Jtij-fifi 1235 > 173L 
j>]i9-0g> 3301. 
g\u)-p&gi 378. 
gjisf-QiA®) 1881. 

62 



406 



INDEX. 



^u^uunQesim 2260. 
^Iif.ujrr£ 3302. 
^isf-\i\w 1963. 
'^®iQp 790a. 
s\®^(^ 745. 
^j(Bjg@ sk-<3?>3 746. 
si®&& 465, 466. 
^jQffisufen 3251. 
j>l®0ss 65, 122, 1889. 
^®uLjii> 800. 
^®u H 3630. 
j>i®uQu 3846. 
s\L-i—n§^LD 2975. 
^ffl^L.^ gifl^JFlffui '60S, 3 1 86. 
gil<aij,!—LD£g!3 : ffesfl 199, 2235. 
j>{Qssh&> 1009. 
S\<ssS pS&[^en 14-31. 
^Ssbst 873. 
S^'smi— 1621. 
^sbstl-^os)^ 2035. 
^jesaiL—^^a^ 2853. 
^essrssiL- (cf. tgH&ei) 168, 241, 575, 
607, 1101. 



/a^sar^ 164, 2390, 3187, 3188. 
Sfsetsf^)u^es> 1374. 

egjpLDGSJl&tg) 438. 

j)]$5i& sifleasriii 2391. 
^a;/7//?714, 1375. 
^I^smfliijiii 811. 
jj-gleuuLDnem 3436. 

Jlj^idQlTLDLDrT&ST 2554. 

^ffl^i-ti 84, 85, 91, 99. 
gf$£l<ctyL-.€imm 100. 
^j 2990. 
^(?6v) 1964. 
=sy^7 s\$p(§ 1912. 
,^yj3 /5/rgar 1890. 
jyQpdo&jrrm 10o< s . 
^ismga ems 2242. 



S\si»$*&iiim 1120. 
jysayg eSLLi—n&gui 3347- 
^,@ 139, 1423. 
gjpsmp 1946. 
cSy/F,^ e«c 7 439. 

«^y/5rfF«3W/f<5(5 128. 

^ji^u) 3437. 

£)j<5£U UQULj 747. 

t gjuu#Q 1678. 
cgjuuiJb 211 3. 
^uuesr 1439, 1625. 
jyuLX2 , ( 6B)G'i_ 3593. 
^uutr <ztm(tt?&) 2340. 
^juunsf-tsui u9<s@ 1977. 
egyuLSajtrffiii) 1463, 1464. 

gjLLUL-t—SGT 755, 1812. 

^ILDUU-U.^SSI 702. 

j>)thu®)th 1119. 
cgULDu/r 83. 
^q 2783. 

Sju>unpgirrr 1546. 
^iMLon&r 379, 3507. 
^Caicnm 3225. 

.^ufl 166, 3594. 

^liS^Q-i^ 2763. 

£ju$@Q 2636. 

^jL&rrgLD 1622. 

glQP&Q<gB)®) 242. 

^Losroto 2530o. 

jyihemLDiu ? /f I 732. 

tgjiueBr (cf cSyfl, FT-ffissr, g-siiituS, Q<gtL> 

gul'd, Qp&t) 42, 43, 44, 46. 
^us&gx 1039. 
s\sk(^(Lp^^ 358^. 
cgyj =?/0" ('/• ^lum, ^ifl) 2341. 
g\u&m (cf. ^w^m, nn^m) 20, 

1341, 1343, 1344, 1379, 1380, 

1547, 1548,2711. 
j>i!r<s=2es7 2882. 



INDEX 



407 



^<7<*£32/i,25 1342, 1694. 

jyjQSBTwVlSSTifgj 1005. 

jpR 21. 

^y/fl ^iB [of. Q/D/fl, jm ^j) 2837. 
^rfl <5resi0>sv 2838. 
jffiQ 937, 3212, 334*. 
^AQs® 2261. 
<jy//?8 usm 3533. 

=sy/tf^ 3. 

^ift&trar 220, 1 230. 
<$l(nj&&rieB$ 3595- 
jHQaniD 689, 847. 
S\(^SuQ^ul^ 2764. 
Sjsaaase^ih 3 1 57. 

SjG6)3&£,VoO)3 : 3473. 

c gys»i7'^@i_a) 2342. 
^l&nrr&Qpsu&ir 34-2. 
glsenj&Qgsyih 2976. 

c gy£!»i7ic5/r#<!5 ( gj 5 1 4. 

j^jsaa^^^Go 2386. 
j>>f<5B)j&Q&.T6V 1465. 
^jasar^^} 1350. 
^smj pgiLLuf-Qsv 3480. 
jy&airjg&tfLL® 1774. 
jyenffuuesBrih 1582. 
^asiKcWSsu 2637- 
SjgtiiSg) 2958. 
^sosoeo/bp 3398. 
jyw&ggjS*®) 1263. 
j^suffspjip&tsj 1201. 
^susui QatT&)LD 2638. 
jqeueirif) 101,440, 3596. 
j>j3>j&rrifl<i(3j 2343. 
€ gjaj&tuflijSI(2&) 533. 

^j6lJLjQu!T(Lp^^i!U> 2210. 

.^a-Stew 165. 
<5yay(6y5<js(5 1122, 3481. 
^o/sff 1824, 3438, 3439, 3 Ho. 
s)su&i Of®) 3625. 



•jya/Ssrr 34 1 1 . 
,jya@2/c% 3l27o, 3225a. 
egya-Ssw 2854. 
jtieum- 4, 219, 245. 
s\sunn 467. 

^jsuzsreum 70, 343. 2712. 
Sj^ssresersai— 748. 
jfj&i<sisBi-.^^so 2199. 
^yauOT2/i@ 102, 468. 
jqsw&r e_«r 1 102. 
^sugiis^&rCoeir 1369. 
^yaoor ^jgiarrnth 1358. 
jysusbr e!«jr<£(<5 1 604. 

SjSU<S5T <5Tl£lQ& 28 1 9. 
jysustr <5T&sr<5S(aj 2236. 
^/sussr S7W 740. 
^eussr CTSorSssr 790. 
cgya^ssr e^^z. 535. 
egya-isar ■sn^fi^a^ 750. 
.jyajsor (9jUf.g@<ssr &<sG)g 3 1 58. 

Jt\SHOS! G&LLl—rTbOT 293. 

Sjsum ems 816, 1566. 
^asor Qdsrr(Gjj* 1 603. 

cglSHoBT &niUt£> 381. • 
£f\3uGX &PQIJ 536* 

jyeuesr (g-i&ng 1 55 j . 
.aya/sor Q&nssreBiQg 1348. 
^jsiKssr Q&'ip&np 2932. 
gtsum $£iisl 852. 
jysuebr (! gS3r<gj)G?6D 715. 
jqauGBT ^'ieouS&i 751. 
^/eu&sr Qpiru.® 60S. 
^sum /5S»^.<5(25 1 549. 
^susor L^ffaajLD 2792. 
^jsl'&st (Ju&Spgj 3127. 
^a/eir (?<j<£<# 2801, 2802. 
^aeir ufls^s 3b0, 3022. 
^^607 Qpsgtg;i!Tth 1376. 
^jsijssr suldljs^u) 2262. 
^suihr eueopsnp 534.. 



408 



i n n I x . 



jyau6ar eundj 1237- 
^suasr euneo 498. 
jyoysor awr^ey 537. 

^eSQeuQ I486. 

jqeSlip^g} 382. 

^12® 103, 104, 3442. 

jygQQeo 3443. 

jyi^^i^ 716, 3444. 

<3/y5li5£<siJ&r 3597. 

s\$fsgj 538. 

jyySjsiJip&tv} 200. 

^jQps&raiilT 244. 

^(^©^ 304, 913, 19J3, 3598. 

^(^ 1357, 1947. 

^l(L^s(^ 660. 

j>IQg&aD& 675. 

<2>IQg@n§)nh 3257. 

j)l(tpts>jrriT 2933. 

^jesiifiuun 2777. 

^j&TSlTLjffl 92. 

jyenQ&fGir 2314. 
^I&iig 2605. 
c gyfiir<a/<!5@ 1409. 
jy&refrrTgp 2200. 
^oratf 821, 1623, 2855. 
Sl&r^sug) 344. 
Sjpisn^^nm- 3534. 
cgip&d&jemipjsgngiiu) 1410. 
«jy/D<s <si_fris»ii> 1480. 
Sjf£>lSi<30is^ih 1733. 
Jf.0* G^il® 931. 

cgy/pu uisf-ppsum 1487. 
jfliflcu 1488. 
cSy/fl*,* 186, 887. 
3j{SHs^<sum 888. 
jy/flsy 1489, 1490,2713. 
cgy^oj/r^ 2, 3325. 
^^*ii) 2006, 2595. 
s\&ss 1123. 
Sj&ipeSl 3495. 



3jg»&& 1775. 

s\&i$g> 469. 
simug} 3159. 
jy J/1J4 303. 
si&»pu$&> 1466, 3093. 
«jy^)iJ ^sro^ 2013. 
sjpupgi&Qij 1054. 

■3\P>U 0OSB)L—UULb 2007. 

3jpu<ssr 3226. 

<g>jlbuG5)l<k(9) 704. 

sippgj 132. 

3jppj>gi&(9) 3258. 

s\s§)iQun&Lo 2507. 

.^otl/ 1, 3146. 

3jesrupp [cf. ^)<d^i—icpp l9SijuiSI&) 

eorr*) 179, 180. 
^jesTLjekefr 3145. 
3/esrGu 3H7. 
jy*r.g» 104U, 1669. 
3\mg)} &nuiSitl.L— 1155. 
^j&srpl&ffjso 2373. 
^jGsrguiS&f&v 3349. 
jqesrenpsg 45, 1914, 2784, 28S3. 
^mm- f5<sa)L- 1535. 
jyeorsBiu lSIi^. 1424. 
..jjysffrSsarigj 3259. 



^silQih 1298. 
^<£rT&@Gil®) 2108. 
^j/sn&jg^sleSlQ^iBgji 17. 
^sn&p^SQj 2557. 
^xnepeiajg 1567, 2555, 2556. 
^*/r^ 112,441, 1825. 
^Spaueisr 1794. 
^@<i 82, 105. 
^@ti> «/ra7 3305. 
«gi* 2873, 3535, 3584. 
45*© 1978. 
^aarreoih 2934. 



INDEX. 



409 



^rBpp 2119. 

<%&>* 914, 942, 964, 905, 1010, 
1915, 3148, 3536. 

^Gm&uSdTj&SjDJP 907. 
^SBi^iLiaTenens^iM 2653. 
^sw^i@ 966. 
^sd^uulIl- 1178. 
^<_ 1821. 
^i—u unu. 967. 
j^t—dQunesr 2440. 
^t—eSlil'S 246. 
^i—rr^rrm 1822. 
^i—iTgiib 539. 
^qws s/dsS/d 2264. 
=§£*f<s arr&)jg6d&) 2315. 
<^if i srrjbpHo 3075. 
«^£jl ti/r^ii) 1156. 
.gjfp. 499. 
«gjif «@ 3626. 

«g® 247, 576, 861, 2043, 2265, 

2475. 
^® ucb* 3136. 
«g®a/<2> 3189. 
^ili-zr^i^ 2631, 2632. 
jgt-Lip.a) 1624. 
^l1® 752. 
^l®i- sjB 1087. 
^tlOi (gtl^ 1996, 2428. 
4j,lL®£ & 22, 383, 2856, 3048. 
<g^2/«(5 3462. 
«^&5jr 3463. 
^2ei5snLjth 753. 
^6sbr 2450. 

.gear*?. 2065, 2654, 2928. 
^■dxriq-Qiu 1679. 
«^6OTif<srouj 248, 1696. 
^eearuf. s&r 2344. 
W&ri+s® 1583, 2839. 
^sennas) muupp 1823. 
^ppnstr 1626. 



^ignQ&m® 424. 
.gA® 609. 

s^spijrd&rTrrsBiid^ ] 265. 
cg^an^ 1680. 
jyjkeap 1011. 
jgup^io 3137. 
^u^^7i@ 3537, 3538. 

<§)j.USBiU 717. 
= g£L0<S3S'<£(3> 2606. 

<^aou> 181, 2596. 

^GBLDUJt—loifr 1536. 

«g£/iLya»z_uj/7W (r/. ^etrasr, q^a^sw-, 
Q*/r«ri_«v«r) 305, 1288, 3539. 

^LiiLjstnt—ujfTGipidQfj 3586. 

^toL/asi-uj/r&ar 249. 

^tusSiiffesr 582. 

<2j ) iu&&tT!je$)i&(3j 294- 

tSyjtjpgi&Q) 306. 

«ga»iru. 515, 801, 832, 1041, 1605, 
1795, 2008, 2014, 2032, 2049, 
2345, 2346, 2476, 2508, 2661, 
3049, 3050, 3508, 3599. 

^QlLHTgGBI 1303. 

= 2j ) tL&&60fTuj3 : &®Mdj 2524. 
^ns sQgptsI 2218. 
^nihu^^leo 2493. 
Qurreo 718. 
^iftiu 2531. 
^@ih 3260. 
^QuijbpQp 3509. 
^j^lS&)60!T35 3496. 
«gK5i(5 1042, 2908. 
^G5*©" ) 2451. 
J^SBJT 1333. 

«^CV 1043. 
,^/f cgyt-zr 470. 
«^/f «g(5i@ 1396. 
^<f 2211. 
«ggff ^ppneir 2589. 
^h ®tl/_ 3350. 



410 



2N I) K X. 



Jgp SI—GST 1088. 

Si? (gig. 221. 

<%* (3j@$<66)&iu> 2532. 

^it evtri^eij 2909. 

^&)Qujth 1304. 

^siiLinh 2066. 

«gfco {cf. «g£6v) 1221, 2086, 3351. 

^ecmSeoeorr^ 3069. 

^eciuih 129. 

^j,&) (cf. ^Seu) 351, 1508. 

^ei/aDL-aj/Teroj 1681. 

«^a/eu 968. 

^iptJo 1334. 

.g^ffig 1627. 

.g^ti 754. 

jty&resfleO&iiTp (cf. ^wLjemi—iuasar) 

, 3497, 3498, 3499,3500. 

^&rnm J 682, 1 796. 

jg^s® 1397, 3352. 

^fisn 890, 891, 1324, 1628, 1916. 

^dr 889, 1381, 2452. 

^(npu) 3426. 

^jj8§sih 2935. 

^plm 2201. 

^/Sl&si s^f,& 1305. 

«&g» 2036, 2181. 

^jj/u) 1083. 

j^gu &n<gu) 1266. 

^jt U37^ 2237, 2477. 

^pfiQeo 836, 837, 942a, 1325, 
1697, 2616, 260-J. 

^PfS girpfl 384. 

^Psvsq 1226. 

^psv in 3190. 

<g>ybgv t£6BtsreSl®) 66. 

jyfljpivurriT 3420. 

^sd/d 1871, 2182. 

«^«jr 1683. 
.^gar^^/i^ 2997. 
jqgbtldlLQu) 541. 



^msusisr 2998. 

^@e) 1797, 179,s. 

jtftesr 106, 540, 719, 987, 1012, 
1698, 2009, 2040, 2436, 2443, 
2509, 2884, 3051, 3052, 305$ 
3054,3076, 3482. 

^ftfSGT &6GB1I— 610. 

^sbts® 2039. 
^Gsri & m 2266, 3044. 
^sst&xju 1997, 2037, 20^8, 2120, 
2414, 3309. 

^ttssr guoVgo 2022. 



^jihQs pleo 250. 
g)®0 1013, 1222. 
g)^<i> 920, 3599a, 3600. 
§jL-fim 307. 

^i-IT&T 251. 

®f 1515. 

£§)q2. spans- 2478. 
^uf-ppsijar 1980. 
^)ijj. e8(igG>jtT6sr 3540. 
^j®Qpsu<ssr 3185. 
g)®u^ 921, 3415. 
g)®a/jD 133. 
jg)©aww 1872. 
^Qsurnk 1014. 
{g)es>L-ujm 720, 756. 
^asL-iuesjim 1238. 

J^STOL-i^SOT" 1450. 

g)«az_<5 %©9 2929. 
g)«a>z_j» 2910. 
@tlt_ 47. 
@tli_ ©-/pq/ 2732. 
@l!l_ scssouj 2733. 
®ili-@eo 2113. 
g)tl£_,g«r 2121. 

^tli—O^SVSJffLD 1205. 

(SilIl-Q/'sot 2183. 



IKDE1. 



411 



.suiis&r 1979. 
$lLl- sSl.®s & 2 1 67. 
@il£_/r(5«@ 2114. 
^jLL®es)s>j^^fTe^ 1239. 
gfriLQLJTrr 2122. 

^s^L-LDp/D (cf. sjmupp) 2765. 
&& 252, 2397. 

Jg).£? ereOeOrTLD 2912. 
@^7 Q&npenp 1843. 

(g)^? Quifliu 2571. 
g)^&w 1418, 3601. 
§)$pi£n 3483. 
@w^ 1844. 

@/F^ S-6U.S 29 1 1 . 

{g)Zp j)]LD r risiifT&ns : S0ih 385. 

$&£& &L.QP&&J 1965. 

^ji^i 3=f&^SS€ST 1629. 

^igp QpgvssmLy. 1154. 
§£j&pu Lfr'tiesruiLD 252a. 
$&@u Quifluu 3421. 
fagji^u <3nutju£sii<£(9j 2324. 
• ^§)w/5 gSlLij-Qso 822. 
(g&kgln'fan 3184. 

J§)<S8)/jD# Qfjppict 151. 

ggjijup<oB)& 2067. 

@ji« 1724. 

^jusstxt 2703. 

§)smsr® 757, 3541, 3512. 

^Uresar® ^iLuf.io 944. 

{g)rroikr® spi—<i£fl&) 9- 15. 

^sresm® ulLi— 2827. 

^ITSSOT® *8 L-U}-G$liJD 943. 

^jsri^ti) 2123. 

@j» 1090, 1103, 1104,2885, 
2913. 

^nnssessri— 2670. 
jg)jffLD 2747. 
^rjnisiunsmm 278-). 
gj)irnLDi7 3469. 

@)j7rr«gesr [cf. jyofm) 1799, 187 ; ">, 
2695. 



^jjiiT^sm 1874. 

{g)ffi7u uu-iy-evfl 1124. 

jg)/7ff QpQpglLD 1240. 

^answsm 253. 

@/#a£) 1267. 

§)Q5&Qp 1 161. 

^Q^sQ p&jissr 2607. 

@)0lL® 2425. 

§)<gil(Si&(5 2424. 

@(75^471, 1125. 

g)(3^ 1089. 

@}(nj/sgiu> 758. 

@(5'5 3,<snm 2937. 

®®uujy 2936. 

{^irguisBTgi 3470. 

jg)C5">4 1826, 1998, 2310, 3077. 

^(Tja/ff- 3138. 

_@(T5<sffs5r 1432. 

jg)«>j 1162. 

^)6i»/BffSBru) 2510. 

^j&)suih 1015. 

(ggjepiuGinu 141, 1552. 

@26tf 3602. 

|§)<teo LD6S)pe>) 2572. 

{%)&)&)£] 48. 

gfreoetitfi 1735, 3310. 

^feOeu/T^iaysffr 1736, 3501 

g&j&o 2124. 

g)Q/<S3T 3191 . 

@a/^2/i(5 2759. 

^)ffi/6BT <S$LLl$.6tf 1737. 

@#>a/ 167, 3546. 
g)ipffl/«(5 1044. 
{gjQpi&regj 2977. 

jg)&ri£j£6Brjril 3311. 
{g)efr<58)LDU$®) 3330- 
gifiefrppsum 738, 3502. 
^j'Seiruua&r 3543. 
@)2eniunG&r 3544. 
(£)pm](6&G# 2969. 



412 



INDEX. 



g)(7jpi sfiQaurr 1157. 
&P® 3160. 
{§)JptuurrG!pi&(§ 2991. 

g)«D/D*8 386, 1451. 
gfismpis 2115. 
^eSipfifi 2116. 

§jearfiea>fi 2267. 
@)esiuQpu> 3399. 
®ara>jDs<5 431, 432, 1306, 1307, 

2914, 3353. 
§)esr earth 3400. 

FF 542. 

**&> 2525, 2938. 

FFfeipldfg (<*/'. ^jtuasi) 5. 

fT-&esxes)u.iu 23. 

ff^ti 1845. 

ff® 2268. 

ffil^L 1070. 

nil®*® 3474. 

ffj^ £&» 223. 

ff/7 Qeuiiismuih 1846. 

ffsroj 1405. 

FP6BTQ5&(9j 922. 

Ftmeqii) 1227 '. 

a_«b*«r 1917, 2479. 
e.#<F/5 ^'Ssottffeu 1326. 
&.L_J>q 308, 1738. 
a_i_i£>ii)<2a> 1901. 
e_<_^ 1553, 2499, 2748. 
e.i_j^i(5Sff(?(s»T 3252. 
^.i—^l&reir 2655. 
8_®i*/r<5 2079. 
a.©^ 3253. 
a-®ii>L/ 1335. 
e-©u.L/i(5 2500. 
a-6»i_/5^ 690. 
&-ew_«j)u> 1091, 1491. 



s-«»i_aja;«ir 1349, 2078, 2080, 

3227. 
s-enujuir/r 3228. 
&-U-&rriii5fi6u'2m 2044. 
s-ilairnig? 1883. 
SLLisrriJw^l^ss^Q^ 1268. 
a_tl«a;/r 2533. 
Q-L-Uppgi&Q 2684. 
sueoarQp 721, 1739. 
s.68B7z_ 1206, 1207, 1948, 2173. 

2387, 2392. 

Q-GSBrL-gl 2685. 
&-6awi_ia/afr 168. 
s_638TZ_ff6tf 969. 
2_<3S3T® 517. 

e_6flbr saw 1144,2184. 
&.GBor smith 1117. 
£_«R>r(6sa) 2081. 

a. 6BBTtG8B)LDGV 3094. 

so-eoorugi 1208. 

■^esBrunesr 1989a. 

a_<s»r«DiD (c£ OujjZj, epjisluuth) 2786, 

3113,3114,3115. 
e.#® 254. 
e-fiu.19.Qeo 255, 1827, 2999. 

&-finifi&(§ 2117. 
UBtofififi srreo 20 1 . 
e-fifiwev)id(5 387, :- 023. 
Q-fifinrrujesBrih 3217. 
tufifilQturr&ih 1127, J 191, 1425. 
&-usn<jfig)&(9j 2174. 
&-u&rTjT eun/Tfietofi 2347, 2374. 
a-UL/ 1105, 1163, 1828, 2175, 

2325, 2656, 2704. 
s_u«ou 1164, 2010&. 

S-ULjS &eBBru.ih 862. 

2-uu; fu.19. 543. 
@_l/l/ filrnQpeveor 202. 
■zuitiemiu 2617. 
£_ii: or aerti 923. 



INDLX. 



413 



a-itf/f 1740, 2125. 
«lu%m 2749. 



e-ti$Grra® 1630. 
»_j7«> 3355. 
tuieSQeo 094. 
2_J^i@ 3354. 
Q-ngaw 1092. 
a-iTjisio 3334. 

&-Qf)&&(Lp&r@H 3192. 

a-(T5<s©sar 3 1 1 (3. 

fi-Gjilz- 203. 

$L.@LLG)ii, 204. 

S-QfaSm 2453. 

s_6U.SU) 2828. 

e-ovs^^igj 2840. 

a_6v)«s6»« 544, 2041. 

&-§&<£ pm 17 70. 

E-^GuaDa/^^ 3485. 

a_&u SLirtSBiuj 2805. 

a-(?60/TL9<5(5 1777. 

e-LpsSQ&) 3139. 

a^^ 802, 1031, 3193. 

s.^©^ 892, 1 128, 3024, 3025. 

&-(LpQrr,<SSr$ 1829. 

9~Qg@pau<oBr 1741. 
s-j^ei/i^ 1 14">. 

&-6BH£<5©/)5 3356. 

v-SfTsuem 813. 

s_«r«j/ 812. 

e_&rr 1991. 

^.arsaihsasuSeo 1568, 1800, 2170, 
2115, 2429. 

a.arsfl-^7 3117. 

s-ar&reop 3102, 3103, 3104, 3105. 

&.&T&rss)piL\ih 113, 1241. 

S-6t7<377<5 SQjggl 6. 

ffl_«w-ar LflsfrSsrr 1670. 
S-«r<3rrsB2rti> 814. 
fL.&ngnj&^&rQ&i 2573. 
a.sJr (f/t<?(<5 611. 



e-sr sUlIi^QsO 2430. 
C_6flr ffl^il® 1 106. 

&-oiQgi 1631. 

S-STT^/T 3194. 

P-m^iBeo 2045. 
e-/pey 2082, 2755. 
2-pey£c§ 3196. 
P-P&jsgjti 1071. 
p-lSuu<ssBruD 1093. 
s-pluSQeo 874, 2431. 
s-i^ 2750. 

£~pp &GStsren?vyti> 3161. 
n-pqrffr 1550. 

s-ppg) 3107. 

iLfiBri® 612, 1129, 1554, 1569, 

1699, 2898. 
&-<5bt&(3ju) 205. 
a-air gjuuesr 3545. 
a_s5r @ifa.' 1516. 
©.ear srssstesargts)®) 1522. 
©.air smftiuih 1569 a. 
«ls5t (5®u5 1372. 

£-657 Q«T68Br6a)Z_ 1523. 

slsbt Qf(T&)e6IQeo 2803. 

£-65T ,5/76$ 1519. 
S-69T ©/5(Cj;£?6\> 1847. 

s-ear u/t® 2301, 2829. 
a_6OT iS'&r^srrssMj 1521. 
a_o57 Qu680Tf(T$ 1 520. 

&-63T Quntfb(9j 1526. 

S_6BT tr^ti 1527- 

2-687 a/SSWL-ffl/'Tgffii 1370. 

£-687 ajiTi6i&) 1517, 2804. 
e-687&87 472, 1130, 1518, 1524, 
1525, 1528, 1918, 2243. 

P_68r3s87-tj ti'if 1209. 

2-eeiQ^afc l— 3197- 

asr£49, 1165, 1848, 2050,3162. 

53 



414 



INDEX. 



a6££)i(5 823. 
mn&eo 500. 

VgUGSBf 174<i. 

2&l$@})&) 2608. 
smgi&lp 2559. 
senpemp 50, 839. 
psiesiLD 2560, 2671. 

sen<oS)U)S(^ 3070. 

&m.esiuoijum 1466 a. 

cfiw 140, 578, 957, 1371, 1537, 

1632, 1949, 2841, 3078, 3357, 

3358, 3603. 
aauwr 345, 346, 1966, 3246. 
■ssinnQn 1045. 
ssEiflQ®) 2778, 3604. 
am®*® 577, 848, 1398, 1399, 

3045. 
vm<ss>3 1801, 2318, 2915, 3359. 
s6£/7<s (3j(5<a9 1999. 
2>™:/f dR_if- 1981. 
aetti^? 2511. 
&Em^i<srreaMJ 1166. 
vszGsrp 2185. 



<5T&(§ 2388. 
eiiaauu&sr 645a. 
erias&r 1633. 
(STi&jaefT aS , tl®<5(5 347. 

<5TtKI(3jlh 2126. 

eriaQsQivn 3360. 
stiejQs 2087. 
eiikiQs L/«o« 2203. 

GTffiLLlTSOr 1386. 

cr«£a> 1555, 1778, 1849, 1950, 

3163,3164. 
CT*fi&o 1634, 1743, 1743a. 
67<f65$go<5(<5 613. 
GrQsQpgj 1635. 
fer®i(5ti 2970. 



eiQggiru 2971. 
«i®$gi 256, 614. 
wOulW 1556, 2127. 

CT®UU/T(5ti) 1192. 

<ouLl-itu y 2128. 
srtl^ 1779, 3149. 

Gllll$-&(<9j 518. 

6TLli^.iL]L~.Q<ssr 231.9. 
stlLu^u uggsm/s 970. 

GTL-Uf. STL-lSf. 188. 
67xli$L«jr 1072. 
CTLlif(CB)SU 222. 

ctlI® 1242. 

CTi-l®ii) ^)J6OT®L0 1228. 

stz-L®« <25<j?5* 2033. 
enLQu u/f 442. 
OTGBW'jzg/raJBr 1607. 

ST60BTS8tinD 2b72. 

eresBTsssTp 3471. 
sr&brsaitf 1336, 1337. 
CT6j»rs!Rifloar 1016. 
sreenrQesBruj 51, 3486. 

<5I 65BTUg) 759. 

OT$>fl 893. 

&$$&(§ 579. 

<sr $Eln ggeum 894, 2454. 

67^7 348. 

tzigj&t-S) 3150. 

€T«o^ 2501, 3361. 

erjf&BT 676, 1473, 1744. 

srpg'&ssT Lji—th 840. 
erppneo 2821. 
st0@Q&) 3487. 

CT7F.J5 ^ILjgLD 1467- 

67/5^ lEmplemiu 2177. 
GTihgu Lj/bpl(c&) 268 1 . 

OT/JmS LDU.fgg)d(9j 2916. 

<s,u>ek 996, 1005, 1351. 
OTtu^oygar 169. 

ct^?®^ 309, 319, 1308, 2455. 



INDEX. 



415 



GTlflQfDGQp 2204. 
ST(fl&&G0 1901a. 

errflih'g 2444. 

GT(7Jj{g)m 2512. 

er(5^7 705, 1243, 1387, 1445. 

67(77^710 2822. 

er^aoui 958, 959, 1850, 1967, 

2618, 3362, 3303. 
err^QfiLLeau. 1244. 
sreSI 995, 1982, 1999a, 2561. 

<5TsSl&(3) 310. 
676$tl/tf> 2760. 

gt&Sgoiu 2480. 
ersflp pVeouSeo 760. 
srsSlu LjQpssios 691. 
CT6i» euVetr 3229. 
s7fi»u>L/ 636, 924, 2502. 
ergpiwanu 3083, 3261. 
GTsoeonp Qp&ggji&tgjiii 2202. 
Gj®)&)tTg p?eoa8gyu> 3364. 
<oT&)®)irpji/<5(sj 3401. 

<5T&)6VfT£gl3(3jU> 142, 143. 

erioeotrth 1474, 2015, 2534, 2534a. 

3046. 
ereoeoir^ih 144, 295, 761, 1700, 

1919, 2398. 

67 Qg<$ 1492. 

GT(Lp0tT 1 107. 
GTQgfslm 52. 

GTQpjzQjDjp 2597. 
GiQ$&gi&(5 1046. 
6T(igib$(WjLJun®r 908. 
sTQgugi 1902a. 

<oT&fllU!T6S)iT 24. 

OTOT^ 1269, 1992, 2088. 

67Sff(6r5<£(3J6?r 7. 

6707(6^ 2244, 2820. 
er&r^s sirdj 593. 

CTSTT&YT fi£ 722. 

er&utLi 1892, 2059, 2526, 3365, 
3366. 



«T£>lU>Lja(8j 350. 
67S37i@ 1131, 1875. 
<aT6BlGB>p3(&jLb 2129. 

ermmu.iT 1180, 1193, 2793. 
ermmisf. 3607. 

67607607 jOlm(Tlf§}lLD \ 179. 

ermesBejiiii, 3587, 

67S57SS3T 915, 1570. 

676ar jquum 545. 
6768T ^'snsatrjrLD 895. 

67657 fftf&O 3367. 
67607 GTfSl'fo) 3605. 
67637- gjiJL 2590. 
67607- 6W« 615. 
6760T fftl© 2939. 

67-60T Qpnteo 2 1 68. 

67607- iSeSiLpULj 1608. 
6760T Qulfi&) 389. 
67607 LO<5(6^«(5 3627. 
6T607 QpS^^lQeO 388. 

6765T Qpsetas 1 584. 

6T60T ffl/UJ* 1509. 
67607 ffl?iJ.®i@ 114. 



®-*/r^fi 257, 3218. 
sj*9gath 2348. 
<57L_flr«i_<_ti> 390, 501. 
gjl—®& <fr6B)jr&amu 2349. 

676OTT7'6»ttJ 2562. 
676W7i_/T 1745, 1830. 
zjsBony. 443, 988. 
S76wri$2- QjpidQ 2639. 
w/r 896. 
6J6»jt 1951a. 
67/r iSuLppeum 3475. 
sju>nkpn&) 898. 
67(?<W6U 3026, 

sjLpnuSnii 1684. 



416 

siQg ^sap 3606. 
steal? 25, 170J, 1951 

ffl <o6)ip2B)UJ 740 

sis/nip ere£r0>so 739. 
i/ao^i Qtu#& 1701, 
ejp 2068. 
67yr># Q#/re8r<eB)go 946. 

ZjpUUl—ITg/ 1017. 

sipsSilQ 916. 

<5I(HflDt3B)L-.&(3j 2563. 

«r,sw2> 2220. 
wjpi QisptS 2219. 
ejpp 1352. 

eipps Qsn&]&(3j 2972. 
sj6Bieunid2Esi 897. 
sjsot 3422. 
siSBr&n exii tc 258. 
ersar ueaptLin 1585. 

ag/Ba/r^ 519, 3140. 
gos,^ eSjrgnth 817. 
3>ihu@&(8iu} 2527. 
giuff 989, 2212. 
gjti^/f 2326. 
ggaj/r 2317. 
^ttj/ro/i(5 3588. 
gjCujj 444. 
;>:g<a7(75<!S(<5 3608. 



^>i<sL/ L9ff),^ 3198. 
919.15 p 661. 
^Lli?. 2773. 
9^4t<g)6u 1920, 2699. 
§?tl«»i_« &i-ji$m 31 1, 

96BOT*_ 925. 
6peaei u}.&&n near 1993. 
9# 653. 
9^<u 654, 662. 



1 N r> k x . 



9(5«J)u>uu/t® 2831. 

fpiLuurrn 1636. 

9(5/5 ff<srr 1970. 

5><?/r 1893. 

fp^jsear 2456. 

9(5<swt- 8. 

$>(Vjsv<ZBr ■s'SeouSeo 192. 

§>0qj6ot 741, 1345, 2571. 

9(5©;@2/i(5 3263. 

9(/£«© 312. 

5?(^)/E/(5 473. 

epaflss 723. 

9<ar#i(5ir> 2457. 

fppea>p 3166. 

epazqrfear 1685. 

9«57-^2/ ep&srqrfdj 1885. 

96^,g2/i@ 1055. 

spear n^io 259. 

fpasrjpiLDpp 1586. 

9637-(2> 2270. 

spear sap 1406. 

9(5 jy^. 1922. 

9(5 ^f&Qeo 2857. 

9(5 @^o/ 1921. 

9(5 ©££(5,5(5 2269. 

9(5 ««ar 595. 

9(5 &eaor6Bs{lQeo 594, 762. 

9(5 sueaoruf. 3488. 

S>05 ©(5 a9 1983. 

9(5 «95_«»i_ 1400. 

9(5 <9s_6wir® 1468. 

9(5 <sro« 2823. 

9(5 QsnQfiLLuf.ea)uj 352 

fp^f&jis) 637. 

9(5 *vf).52/ 1270. 

ep(rrj£rrti> 1289. 

9(5 ■ff'fcv 596. 

9(5^7l1® 1426. 

9(5*5 /7ot 3402. 

9(5 rs,T(&$ih 1018. 



I -V HEX. 



117 



9(5 uemth 875, 3368. 
9(?5 urrVesr 1851. 
905 iS/eii&ir 3262, 3335. 
9(25 ®^6wr 3336. 
9(3 Quirub&Q 3128. 
9(2>G)uirQpg} 863. 
9<5 icjr^ 2830. 

9(5 &><T$l&<oB)3lLIUl 3165. 

90 (tpQg&arruj 2245. 
9C5 QPQps9Q&> 1884. 
9(5 a?® 6Jfi. 



^l_q/^ 2350. 
g>ui, 3199. 

S?I$L SjJifL 1019. 

^i^uQuam 2940, 3547. 
spiy.ujLt>nQ^iih 1952. 
§>® 3369. 
$®lo 2874. 

g>®%> 1876, 2320, 3312. 
$®Qpe»'tesr 899. 
g*l«><_ 663, 694, 1401, 
2535, 2619. 

^(€3S)65T 353. 
6pdjUUUj-UJ(T&l 580. 
6piT« £6RiriS38r2sB7 158. 

£irzi 597, 1529. 



6d<5fT<50)3iJUjrTiT 145. 



<35i©sw 3306. 

siieasaSQeo 655, 657, 677. 

*#«© 2178. 

x&i—irm 1493. 

*©«,$* 3423. 

&&#&> 1746. 

*©G354, 1181a. 



2271, 



<5(g5& sua fids 1402. 

*£_«> 1309, 1353,3055, 3510. 

<sz_si) i£esp&(3) 2076. 

*t_«0a> 2437, 2575, 2620, 2824. 

suJbso 2458. 

*i-ar 1032, 1109, 1117, 1984, 

2714. 
su.Q^® 1084, 1085. 
*<-/r617, 1245. 

«i_/T <5«_,T 1923. 

suf.ss 838. 
«W 2375, 2576. 
suf.su nea id 1382. 
*% 428, 2016, 2051. 
*®ii> 2756. 
sQ&QjflL® 932. 
<s®@G).3^a> 2787. 
*«»L_ 1703. 

<£aDi_Q<£i_li_ 445. 
<£SaM_<5F(<9J 355. 

&<so)L-p Qgta&nuj 833. 
xgs)u.uj#Q& 1902ft. 
aes>L-u$&) 3230. 
*i^_ 1637. 
silt-neeS 1 780. 
**!*?. 2221. 
&LLu}_ujQgQp 818. 
<sily.tLj&r&r 3489. 
&u-u}-&Q&tT®i&p 224. 

S&LLLp.<58)6l/££ 803. 

atliftj <_? 2481. 

«l!^l6ot 1852. 

•lilqL <6B)eJr 763. 

<slL® 2222. 

<5lL®s;(5 474. 

siKb)& &nppgd&) 2161. 

«sl1«j><_ 2246, 2941, 3370. 

Gtl&Ri—uunemp 2513, 3079. 

<3&i-'.srot_tt5(2 > 60 1530. 

siLQt-nQt- 1587. 



418 



INDEX. 



semssGor 1470. 
ssBors&uLSwVerr 581, 2399. 
sgootu^I 1056. 

&GBBT 2917. 

*«m_828, 1132. 

360011— gl 2482. 
&0SBU—Q@ 391. 

seetsn—<smp 225, 1494. 

360011—. unSU^GST 1538. 

&eoort—GuiT&{&j}d(9j 1609. 

&65Br(—ffl(5g 706. 

seoon— plain -sensor 1359. 

seoon-rreo 260, 261, 262. 

<sak® Que 3609. 

3eeer®il> 1327. 

seoor^a 1407, 2416. 

sm<&>Qei 598, 2418, 3371, 3464. 

sesaree&uSeo 2663. 

360oreoaf)&) 1475, 3213. 

aaarjp/sgj 1446, 3214. 

ssoBrgwpi&refr 1310. 

sakr espi ih 1311. 

seoor^m 26, 1903, 2089, 2247, 
2893. 

&600rQ<GSB) 1328. 

3eoorQ<&o)Qi— 3108. 
seoor -siLiq. 764. 
seoor q^^sI 900. 
ssootQslLi— 1290. 
seoorQsneoor® 2417. 
sees ueooresotleo 313. 
saserQpty- 1358a. 
sglQsilt- 2272. 
x@t 990. 
&<sB)jg&(j9j 2806. 
s^ptflssirdj 170, 971- 

s&0tfla GmeoVevuSev 263. 

spgj 2807. 
skpuQuniq. 849. 



•sraso^ 546, 1725. 

SIEGO)0&(8j 2273. 

s!s<so)^<so)tu 1610, 3446. 
su® 3027. 
*uu£o 804, 2023. 
suiSI 1146. 
«Jt&_/r 2657. 
siciBio 2621. 
s<iu«0 1020, 1073. 
sihuetrluSQeo 724. 
sihusb 2069. 
&ihud(9j 947. 
<5L0L0(65)i-Li£. 1588. 

aihuureneor 547, 765, 765«, 2744, 

3166a, 3166?). 
suS& 1383. 
suSpeo>p 2483. 
csi^if 2484. 
srR 1074. , 

SQ^ikisneS 696. 
dF(^t_«or 695, 2223- 
&@i-%eor 2485. 

s^l/ 171, 2070, 2978, 3002. 
3@mL$G&> 3000. 

S(7rjU>LI&(8j 3001. 

&(nju>eo)Li 1411. 
arrtjihu Qtfo 2179. 
SQ^euinKSlssnifl 742. 
smnuuirn 1802. 
&60iD&rTgsB)jg 2664. 
sfrw-sjgl^o)®) 71. 
aa.vffu> 618, 2205. 
seosj$io 619, 3129. 
sev&jggiaQj 638. 

36000)60 917. 

«6i>u> 2622. 
«6V6roau 2808. 

sedaj/raarzi 1033, 1057, 1229, 2536. 
3513, 3514. 



INDEX. 



419 



S®fluUiT6B8r@&d§}ILD 1434. 

se$i(§ 2214. 
sVsotLjib 2886. 
&&)6ti(rprrfr 1496. 
&&)®)n gsuQ n 1495. 
s&eS 1471, 1497. 1498. 
&&)&QejpjLh 3056. 
seo ^Qgyil) 3548. 
sioeSIQeo 1803. 
seogULD 3403. 
s&)^s(^&r 2090. 
ado^eo 2658, 3084, 3549. 

&&MS0UJ[T@^)1£> 2705. 

sen a.t/0 3003. 
seosstbetag 314. 
seOULjnpsiasu 3313. 
seouusmgonp 1452. 

&60L!Ung)&(9) 2017. 

seouunleo 2131. 
seOiDieq 1986. 
seOih seoihgrreo 853. 
seoib Quiresr^ib 792. 
seo ereOeOirtb 656. 

S&) <ST{8lS(9j 582. 

s&Qmei 2918. 
sgesfiuSIa) 1747. 

S(LpS(9> 991. 

s^aa^ 548, 793, 1360, 1419, 

1748. 
s^mps® 639, 678, 997, 2054. 
*©W 680, 725, 3550. 
s(igpgis(3) 766. 
SQgeS 679. 
aQpeSls sQgeS 187. 
&QgQlS(8j 3372. 
S(w<zs)@u urrev 1246. 
sqpQwp 2060. 
*&rr 3028. 
aefrsrr 2715. 



sarareor 420, 824, 2858. 
ggrrar ggy ip 815. 
s&retr^esr 2162. 
s&ren ssyiAnQ 264. 

<sotW? 697. 

seiretfls(jsj 446. 

stfp-^ 315, 1247. 

«sir(6«5«@ 449. 

spss 2118. 

tf/o/M 146, 876, 3004, 3118. 

spkg QldssB 265. 

&p<as><su 3167. 

spls® 1638. 

s&ippgi 2400. 

SgULJLf rBITUJ 681. 

sempiuneisr 1987. 
tf/o <js 2331, 2959. 
& <b&<ssm L-trev 2401. 
sptS^^euesr 1499. 

S/bl$@ 1 5GHG5)lS(<5) 2091. 

spiSl®)®)rT<g 3610. 

spu 3551. 

sppgi 1476. 

sppemp 1500. 

spppl 1481. 

tfsar 933. 

&esrp(slp(<sj 1589. 

smpemp 2274. 

saxeSio 2673, 2674, 2675, 2676. 

S60r£)JS(3jtl.U}- 1108. 
SGBTgVaf^tq. 3314. 

ssBrjrysiretT 2132. 
sesremp 2665, 3151. 
seheor@£l&) 1704. 
sesreoB 3511, 3512. 

air sib, snsstrtb 147, 172, 2224, 
3611. 

■s,nssnujS(3j 3248. 



420 



INDEX 



sirssnaSesr 707. 
snssev)is(^iJb 3552. 

*<t9 2351. 
srr9uSdo 1271. 
sit®*® 520, 2794. 
sn@\Qp$ed 1477. 
si&soedir peuem 1639. 
<sf« 550. 

s/t*-*^ 948, 1705. 
str^^euffui 2382. 
*/r®2321. 
so® our 2942. 
*/f®u> 2696. 
srrenL. 2225, 2227. 

ao-ilip. »> 1478, 2623, 3515. 
smL® 658, 998, 2761, 3005. 
*/rtl®*@tfl 2092. 

<5/ril®LJL/(jyQ/ 2133. 

sfTL-(S>LJL£2esr 640. 
siru.QL.rR 1272. 

*/T688T 1248. 

ff/r^j? 2302, 3247. 
mri 1273, 2019. 

&ITS38f)&(5j 2018. 

snpe»t£l 1453. 
sfrglGa) 2788. 
*/r# 2061, 2943. 
&rrj2&(3) 3447. 
srrgiih 2577. 
streams 429. 
srr^^0ii^sam 1985. 
snkpiJb 3152. 
srrLDpgi&f&j 973. 

&nLDGS)!&(5) 972. 

siriL/ua 3516. 

<5/tiZj 3264. 

sniLpp 2993. 

*/r«u/5^ 877, 1167, 1611, 2564. 

srrueasr (35(75 123. 



*/7<fl(Uii 2186. 

*/w 1299. 

siriTfi$6iBs 1427, 2130, 25&8, 

2529. 
^ev^ 316, 2213, 2789, 3326, 

3331. 
&n&>Gu) 2226. 
sa&i^^s^ 1210. 
sneorrdo 502, 1804, 2598, 2640. 
snsSii 1291, 1590,3215. 
sir&s® 1968, 2094, 2275, 2276, 

2842. 
strteo 767, 1924. 
srreOih semi— 447. 
•/TMta QslL® 448. 

<5ff60(o<ffi^LJii) 1726. 
<S/r6t) gj68BT<GaB) 974. 

*/rei) /f«cl_*(5 1133. 
srr&) uuj. 2093. 
«/T6U tc/r® 2514. 
sneoenaeiauj 2046. 
srnsuq. 1440. 
srrQeurfl 1706. 
sirerB 768. 

*/7&YT 72. 

mfi 707a, 1691. 

srr/brSQeo 1428, 2666. 
srrjbf6leO&)rrLD&) 2206. 
sir/tgi 620. 
snpgisstTs 1047. 
str jb giiA 317. 
srrpgu&KsiT 1312. 
<5/r«8T?S0 1021. 



Qt-sQpgi 1671. 
©ili_* ©<!<_ 2774. 
QlLljout 926. 
©tlu2.(gj)6i> 356. 



INDEX. 



4-J1 



©asir^ 318, 1313, l , 4-3l\ 2960. 
@Goorpfi&) 769, 1292, 2578. 
Qesarps' 1172, 1338, 1853, 3 J 53. 

Qasair>3)i&(S) 319. 
Qsserpss)p 726. 
£<atf 2480. 

QgLLirfGysyih 3517. 
@Lp6U68r 1075. 
@Lpsues)id(3j 3518. 
SgeSiuih 27. 
&£<£$GOiUJ 2071. 
8$&*-7uiSar$Bir 1301. 
&srflea)uu 918. 
@&T(gnjQjr)3u$5r 825. 



@£@Q&) 864, 3404. 
£«dj7 2000, 3029. 
^s»j<E«L.«Di_ 2843. 
£<?# 1249. 
^ 1805. 

»lP« <5/T^7 621. 

£/# 3109. 



(<ftj»(g£Da< 641. 
@^a.'CT2fi(5 791. 
@=f* 1886. 
<&,t—j£$5l&) 2624. 
(5^.^ 551, 770, 1151, 1640. 
(9)isf.&Q tog] 1641. 
(3ji$.<&Q/D3um 521. 
(SjUf-PprnQma 3168. 
(Bjiy-pgesrih 2961. 
(^i^.uS(^i^ 2187. 
(Bjisj-uSq^kgn 1454. 
(sjifitflsu 552, 3519. 
(5 if ui? eOsotrs; 3006. 



@tlijL 938. 
(5*1® 1925. 
(3>£-La»i_a»iAj 622. 
(§i9-£Qp un^so 357. 
OSjtp-Lo&s&r 708. 
(^ifaoa/^^ 1329. 
©tit?. cgS 2332. 
(Sjtlifi «a)<sii> 206. 
gjtlty-^a/^ 189. 
(5<l*$t- /5/tiZi 669. 

(SjLlqLlJ UtlLD<3S>U 433. 

<^L-®innes!LL 3613. 

(SJ53WLO 855. 

(^aar^aa^ 84 1 . 

(&J5BBTL-JT 1969. 

^esBosf. 1707. 
<25«swrS 2352. 
®$ @^ 2353. 
<5*sl&gi 1749. 

©Saw 28, 107, 794, 1194, 1854, 
1926, 2052, 2859, 3071, 3553. 

(§$5lGG>n\L\Ul 30&0. 

<5$$ 1034. 

(§&<sit£ 3085. 

®il®uuil® 1181. 

C5*S 1362, 2979. 

(fj&gjsSLL® 266. 

(5/5^ 1134. 

@/5^@aj/r 553. 

©CoLJiTaJr 1750. 

(S)UL\p 125, 1571. 

(§uanu 80. 

@uss)uu2<n 659, 664, 2980. 

(9jUGS)LJ(L{lij 124. 

(gto/fl 3427. 
@t£>(/?i(5 2919. 
(giotSi- 2441. 
OtiLS(S 1592. 
@L6LSiS.L 267. 

54 



422 



INDEX. 



(^iLlSIiIl. 771. 

QjuSa) 3448. 

(SjibQm 320, 642, 1904. 

^nii® 321, 449, 1895, 2860. 

(gniEJigj easuSeo 643. 

g^i—gp/osgj 2134, 2135. 

@(5£$l 2641. 

gj(T5®ii> 1250. 

(SqlL® 909, 3030. 

@(5 ©5 623, 708a, 2277a. 

@(ja/i@ 475, 772, 1391. 

@(25 QmiryS) 3265. 

(5(5 Qsu&^ih 2402. 

@6x) i <s < £7.£@ 2686, 3254 

@©) J> 856, 857, 2277. 

©to)*©,© 1572, 1928. 

r^Lfiiea^ 584, 3315, 3316. 

(^tpsao^uyii) 29. 

(5«m> 1173, 1274, 1606, 2072, 

3373. 
(3}<sfr0(5l&> 2438. 

(8j<3tTpG&iT® 805. 

Qjetfisa 2962. 
(jsjofl&ih 2963. 

(8)<5tflffrT0 3614. 

<5«afl/f 2487. 
(&)&fliTi60 226. 
(^araffSssr 2024. 
(5 rtja/i£ «(5 624. 
(3jg»eBsfi&&rr<)G?p]a(8i 3554. 
(?5jj/lcl9 2716. 
(9)gyihG6)U 2095. 
(9)<3Sip 147'*. 

(9}60)ptLI 3119. 

(4jjbpis> 193. 
rsjppuxax 27 17. 

(9jppQp&r<3B 2718. 

(ajmgf 1593. 



<3n_t_« @9-oS(]5«^7 2188. 

«-© 2944. 

«i_aoi_ «_aoi_uj/riZy 1211. 
«.tl«_^eu 2579. 
e^ilGt-nGL- 268. 
tfi-^fl-if 1058. 
jk-ptsiujiin 1384. 
«l.^^7 2964. 
«i_^^7(S(5 1557. 
^aojr 2109, 2737. 
sucsmssiriL 2515. 
<s^ 74, 1059. 

<Si_6$«<S/7J63T 1751. 

■sL.etfi® 670, 1877, 1927. 
«i_(^)i(5 1182. 
«i_(z^>!iE(5Lo 949. 
a^Lp 1183, 1727. 

d6_<520ip 3615. 

sk.6^fajfTfes)6^La 2642. 



G)<3&®i©SB2//i> 1501. 

Qs®uugiih 1510. 

QaQuutT<3»jj 30. 

Q<$®a/,765r 421. 

QsiIl- 554. 

QsilL-g) 296. 

Cs£-Li_o;e]J2/<s(3j 3031. 

QsLLL—suasr 523. 

QaiLt—ngBii) 2981. 

QaL-L—nm 2599. 

QatLi^isirnm 1003, 1482, 1806. 

Q*tl® 2600. 

Qsesmeat—GDUJ 1060. 

Qssrif. 1831. 

Qs®u>@ 152. 

QslLi— (gup. 392. 

Qd5Z-Li_ L//760 522. 



INDEX. 



123 



Q&LLlSf-g &1E1SLD 3057. 

QsLLQuQunm 2278. 



G><&Li.arTLD&) 2136. 
Qxili^eo 1896. 
QsiLunn 3231. 
QslLu-tq^ld 599. 
Qs® suqjjus 340a. 



s»<35 1953. 
aasd® 1022, 2389. 
aasturreo 1672. 

ea>sa9i) 270, 1251. 1752, 2137, 

2420, 2433, 3007. 
«wao«j430, 525, 2110. 

GB)& C-SOTi—TQ;^ 1502. 

ero* soon— 269. 

«»#<£ (3j(TT)GSIsB)IU 2279. 
<S6)3S(9j& <5B)£ 2189. 

•sros QaiQpjp 238. 
stocS,^ ^«J? 773. 
®ns iSaniDikp 3556. 

<S8><5 UL-I—IT60 3169. 

sm&u uipgeag 2887. 
emstanujLJ i§isj-p§i 236. 
eaau lessor espis (g 2419. 
laB&LDQuGSBi&irtsI 2565. 
em&uQtjrr@'ar 3555. 
«o<£ Qpu}- 1728. 
easQuQeo 1061. 



Q<a;/r*(5 1252. 

Q<sff*o/ 1420. 
0<sff*a/i@ 322. 
Q&n&F 1887, 2354. 
Qsrr^s=^^l&> 201 1, 3008. 



0*/7t_/r 1781. 
Qairtf. 2228. 
Qsnuf-£(3j 3266. 
Qsn®ss 1782, 1783. 
QsaQAQpg: 1035, 1971. 
Qsn®aQpemssr 2138. 
Qff/rQa&^a/SEBr 2190. 
QsnQ&QQpesr 919. 

0*/r©ii 3628. 

G)&n® j ipnu 2796. 
Q&ir®pgn&) 774, 1558. 
QsirQjg) 1095, 2139. 
QsnQppgi 1094. 

QsiT®pj£)Lb 1036. 

Q&n®ggglih 1230. 
Q&tTLliy.(GB)®) 901. 

Q&itlL&dl- 1855. 
Gte/rewrt- 1435, 1856, 3558. 
QsnesBrt—uuf. 1062. 
Qstresm i—wm [cf. ^thi^sen—ivnasr) 
2888, 3200, 3557. 

QsrTSBOTI—IT^)il}> 2191. 

QsrrssBrL-juLi—tii 2965. 
0«.76wns»i_«@ 2280. 
0«/7?s«i(5 425. 
Qsrr&xsoek 902, 1436. 
Q«/r<w&» 1023. 
Q&rro)'fa)u$&) 2334. 
0«/reo'26oi@ 227. 
Qsrr&i^ih 3559. 
Qsir&r^srr 571. 
Qsir&r'Betr&f&j 826. 
QsnmfTtj'io 865. 
Qsn®sQp Q^ibsuth 108. 
QsrrQpssLLes)L- 1937, 2734. 

QsiT(ipdsLL<olBt—<i(^ 393. 

Qsn^ps QsnujLj 3374. 
QsnerrefflsaLLiotnt— 1929. 
Q«tfLLip.i Qipib(9) 671, 1 147. 



424 



U'DKX, 



(o<f6fl"L-®<£ &IS>U!T 1168. 

Qa(nLmi—uSI®) 53. 

Q&ireooTrt 2537. 

GstrcaA 358, 2766. 

Qsn^nm 3520. 

Q&nupglfh 879. 

Qsfruth 878, 1941. 

Qsirt^niM 3405. 

QsirioiLuf. 2719. 

G*/r«> 82% 1905. 

Q&iTGijafBrjijgleo 709. 

Q&neSkptr 2355. 

<?*/r«0«> 555, 1594, 2140, 2746, 

3009. 
($&tT<sii&(9j 1346. 
Q&rr&Lrrireir 173. 

G*/r$ 271, 795, 1573, 2001, 
2002, 2403, 2625, 3267, 3560. 
Q&n$u$m 682. 

&ggo 2207. 
^gjssRD 3222. 
&<$&gb)jt 2249, 2356. 
^issroju^LD 2376. 
,Fi©6>0 3428. 
*«(5 1642. 
#®<5 2538, 3085a. 
*ikiQGG> 1595. 
ffsroL- 1686. 
^«oi_s»ttj 1906. 
*tltf 1832. 
^eeaiemi— 625. 

&6SBTUU68r 727 '. 

s=<ss>^iL]0irefr 975. 
GptElvupjgi&qr) 3120. 
*^£«uGu> 3121. 
&&GHuj ssm&ssisr 3122. 
#&{g)!!p*El<50 1 135. 



&<gGglsj&j£i 3232. 
&&SPQ5 583. 
eipty. 359. 

&I5JS615TLD 556. 

fktslum 2445. 
#kgln%xr 3402, 

,F/5 68)^ 1121. 

#ki§vurr@ 976, 3376. 
&G!§iLm@a(&jLb 858. 

&LJ0U iSffLLLD 9, 10. 

&tx>n£g}<sa&r 1807. 
fLDlT&nrjih 1339. 

fQp&rrnQLDn 31 70. 
PQpa&ln 1314. 
#QP$$slijp$G!6d 2566. 
#!£>utb6d 827. 
^uDuentD 1643. 
«iu/r 2082a. 
^CJ© 3375. 
^uGu/i® 1169. 
cFsrff 2238. 
*srf? 2945. 
e&sftujGm 93, 94. 
#<asiLD&G5l<sti 854. 

*/r* 2459, 2946. 

&!T&fTLD&) 1502a. 

W,® 1930, 2947, 3377. 

*/r%> w/rju 2229. 

&IT&&<SB)l~ 3616. 
&tTS(8jlh 1833. 

#/7ilip. 1931. 
^/Tgssfl 2281. 
^/rjs 1942, 
ff/rj)/fliiju ySssr 2434. 
xirpprreoft 2567. 
firaoglau 130, 3010. 
*n<s(v$B p<o6)@ 1212. 



INDEX. 



425 



#ir&$&&rrijeBT 626. 
ffnuuireeS -3590. 
enuiSlw&rr 796, 3268. 
gnnpanp 2192. 
&rrjTmug<oB)<g 2580. 
ffneorrii 1363. 
^/ra/sffffl/ii) 2377. 
errrbrSIGa) 866, 867. 

otlLOs; (3j(75<a$?.-i(<5 710. 

@6BWtlEJ(3jQjV&n 1213. 

Qpmunagla) 2073. 
8># 3233. 
QpSHapg) 174. . 
&^^ln^ss>^ 3490. 
QptslnQpu) 1469. 
®$g)mn 3629. 
&p$uu LjpGDnegi&r&j 2948. 
£tej» 2062, 
£te^ar 3171. 
&(fip<snQam 3617, 3618. 
£?/fl^j2 228. 
Q<sioiT<£<5fT®) 1364, 1954. 

£?6l)6\)<SE>/r 1 1 10. 

QeuQm 3096. 
9su&9iEism 3561. 
9su Q&rrpgi 775. 
0av ysro-JF 3095. 
%@ 3378. 
QflGiunn 3059. 
QgKHP^.yff'cte'jigj 394. 
Q/bpuussr 324. 
©^sff 3332. 

0J2r ^J0U)Lj 665. 

0.5* Lflsn-Sferr 644, 3317, 3318. 
&& £^«ar 1708. 
9mp& Sip 2633. 
9mm 2581. 



£ 2141. 
9*8 1511. 

@&£)irrrm 1932, 
@LLL-n<&7-&(j!Fi 2634. 
£G>©9il/l_65t 3011. 
0«»* 115. 
£u 4 2025. 

^STIEIS^^g} 672. 
@!im]apgl&(3j 1037. 
@JTIEJS<gG?)60 3407. 

£&o g)^?eo 325. 

«aF-*u> 88, 1195. 
&&spa&ih 87. 
&#Qjt 3503. 
*«© 2096, 2539. 
sis&lir JsteawF 109. 

■9HBSIT 0Lp^Jj@ 2393. 

*@s/r® 880. 
«® Q&6snre8)i-.£(9j 2003. 
*lLl. 2832. 

&6ifBr<SB)i—<g;arruj 476, 883. 
ptiLflGsu 2540. 
2460. 
&pp <an&<siji£> 868. 
■m-^^lssnrr^is^ 3032. 
#@pu> 3172, 
&<smu> 1447. 

&<o8)LD@MElQ 2142. 

*<hu>tT 1955, 3097, 3098, 3521 
siustriBujuD 361. 

-Sr^ 131, 134. 

■9^0iles)L- 2230. 
&mgu L^eijs^th 692. 
<9f<sunss^0&) 135. 
&6>jrrd&j£ < gijs(8i 136. 
^■svits Setaueauj 1612. 
ansumn 2541. 



426 



I X It E X . 



*evrru9 31, 1377. 
&pp 1753. 



@© 1294. 

(afd^ingGj)®) 138. 

(§<5&fr 207. 

®gju> 208. 

<5#gX?a> 1645, 1834. 

@^^7 1559, 2899. 

(3^^75(5 1560. 

(Zjjgesip 396. 

@jct2/«(5 2461. 

(^/floj&w 2239, 2250, 2303. 

Q^aflGeu 3303. 

Q&q. uSeS^sQp 728. 

O^tlzy. 1315, 2282, 2542, 2861. 

Q*?p 1048, 1293, 2950. 

Q*fiP =g;® 884. 

Qefaeum 360, 2930, 2949, 2952. 

Qejfiireo 1574, 2591. 

Q&£_g} 2951. 

Qfggjth 2143. 

Q#UDun&) 1784. 

QethQurrpgi 2231. 

QfiLQpgi 1673. 

Q«o^ ofl&an- 73. 

Q&q$uunib 525. 

Q^Q^uurreH 1938. 

Q&QfULj&tvj 2283. 

Cfebj^ii) 2316. 

Qveoedpgleo 3342. 

O^Aewi 175, 3337, 3338, 3339, 
3340. 

Q#&)&)f &&Q&S) 3341. 

Qfsu&s 1644. 



Q&eosuu Quasar 1575. 
QeeStL-ek 526. 

\D&688flujSS)l&(8j 729. 

<?«r 1412, 2741. 

(?*&» 3449. 

QepplQeo 666, 743, 2327, 2900. 

SW^a/Lo 872. 
oo^a/^^i^ 868a. 
eto&SLiQppempujiT 871. 

Q&fTzVmr 397. 
Q&rT(gQ 477. 
Q&n&x?o& Qfrr&}&> 527. 
Q^/reijstf/TVSKOs? 3472. 
Qerrevgysiiw 2357, 3234. 
QfirfiSmgi 2767. 
Qenesreor 2920. 
Q#(T<osr<onrjp 2844. 
Q&irekmuu}. 503. 
Q&fTGisr<e3)e0 950, 1613. 
Q^rrmesres)^ 627, 1483. 



QpTthQuflsQ 1137. 
<?#/r^ 1136, 1429. 
(?#ir,swi 1756, 2378. 
Q&npqrf&t 1184. 
QeirpplQeo 272, 2047. 
Qeirpgva;® 1170, 1754, 

2687. 
Q&rrp6S)p 229. 
Qerrsv QibGdgydo 881. 
Q&npgiu u/rSssr 1755. 



2379, 



L£nib3,pgj (cf. gnii&Lo) 672. 



INDEX. 



427 



6g/rG?<63D) 1185. 

%as<k 435, 806, 1646, 3319. 

gg.76aw u6BBU-.rrrnJb 2284. 

ggtf,©<5(3> (cf. (3>6tfii)) 54. 

gg/r^ awigj 859. 
Sg^ev 776. 

! ^o!6n&£<sB>g 1196. 
QegiuQp&r&r 2462. 
Qagsarif^^a) 842. 
©ggSOTiDLD 2304. 

QfgfT&floatu 1709. 

<3irfyGSBr& &£gLD 1275. 

I^Tusw 1253. 
^truSpjpii&LpQBLo 869. 
^nastQpiJo 1186. 

L_tiLD/rj 478. 

gi&uusor 3219. 
psuuapi&ig) 1687, 1688. 
jff»«<2> (c/. Ou/rair) 89, 2982. 
ptb&peap 528. 
piki&qpih 1689. 
«/£&«* 2953. 
&(k)&g- Q&quli 2285. 
jwdr 1972,3201. 
<s^ 2404. 
<5iy.a>(5j 398, 479. 
?®£Qdr 298. 
r «®i(5 1561 . 



piLi—rreisr 819. 
£L-L-nasBt-p$6\> 2446. 
giLis^u Qu& 3071a. 
,^6S)r®<s@ 450. 
fiwmmfi 807, 843, 2582. 
pakessFfRio 1808, 2285a. 
? C5ii 2875. 
y<i 1858. 
■^^jjj/r/r 2358. 

^iii5 116, 910, 911, 1647, 2359. 
pihiSwreBT 3081. 
£9 LD £tJLD 1660. 

p<a®3 777. 
^&o 1300. 
.sW® 480, 778, 1389, 2845, 

3379. 
^'Sewi/jSssjrigj 993a. 
p°it3C(ssnn 999. 
^%orfa> 779, 1295. 
^femm 32. 
^■Ssu @(5«'5 1385. 
,#%» 67®i«iG<F 3304. 
^■260 GrQgpgi 55. 
^■feu QipniLi 56. 
^fetf SetauaSp 2635. 
^360 -sr/o/^ 2543. 
pteoGntup pt—<s8 230. 
pteo QiBneqih 1441. 
^260 usao^ 3141. 
^tSew u><sar 361a. 
^te<?u)«) 399, 504, 3126. 
<g<fa&ujnGL- 3408. 
.gUsu Oswilif 176. 
r 5«re»/? 2779. 
peer 363, 364. 
^6OTi@ 362, 645, 2143, 3195,. 

3202, 3235, 3249, 3562. 
■$esni> 1894. 
pasreoflQeoQuj 1 1 . 



428 



l N D E X . 



•eor&w 731, 1472, 2721. 

,£637 $)<5Brt£> 3236. 

pssr &-u$<aaji 2097. 

pebr esLgs® 3237, 3238. 

pear sssar^sufr 2251. 

psisr (9jp/Dii> 153. 

pen puLj 194. 

peer iSt^eo 75. 

pear Q/5@* 2720. 

pesr i3&!^sit 3203, 3221. 

pssr Quosar&rrGslGMu 3563. 

p&T Qpgl(3) 154. 

•gtoifr isurruj 730. 

p&sr aS?2sw 76. 

pesi «&il® 3220. 

pesr'2ssr^ QrAuugi 159. 



&[ri>8 903. 

gnuf. 326. 

^/rtlG'i_ffLli_««/r^OTj;<5@ 2992. 

prr&fissisftujih 904. 

pnp&sr 927. 

^^7 2516. 

ptrgiix) 1857. 

pnt£>GB>n 2667. 

■grriLjiL 3269. 

^<reu 905, 1006, 2863, 3271, 3272, 
3273, 3274. 

pnuSeoeotrp 3270. 

piruSsvsOijpsuair 1539. 

fitrmu 160, 2862, 3112a, 3275, 

3276, 3277. 
pirubd® 2864, 3278. 
pnib &-pQsuiT 3522. 
ficTihs eas 3239. 
path (yfteo 365. 
pnsjQpih 59. 
pnnnetni) 1661. 



pnigkpgi 505. 

<gi££g) 506. 

flireir 33, 732, 1392, 1648, 1649, 

1650, 1651, 1652, 2722, 3033, 

3204, 3223, 3630. 
,*.T@)(ti 484, 1907. 
piregnh 366, 1785. 
pnQm 483. 
,^/rsar (8jup.aarr<$ 367. 
.a/Tsar ^misf. 422. 

,£17637 Qpu.!TU 3241. 

£//637 QpnesTfS 482. 
,£0-657 LSlf.j50 1897. 
^/rsw Qunsirp 2643. 



Sjjemsu l^ssoiS) 1024. 
Pi© 2462a. 
£«wf 3130. 
£tl*p. 1512. 

$£l68BiUf.&(3j 1148. 

^ewSswi© 2833. 
,%<_637 1316, 2426, 3504. 
^(wji-spi© 529. 
0(i$i-2Bar 673, 1025. 
P(5if i@ 400. 
plq^isf-esr 3242. 
£<j5*1© 2286/2312. 
@0il(iis(aj 452. 
p1q^lL(Suuuj&) 451. 
@($uu@ 2645. 
@®uu@u$6o 401, 2568. 

P^/B/T^i^ 1197. 

,%*/7&r7 2697. 
$s)(tT)Gima(9j&(9) 34. 
#©*,* 3173. 
^6370/ 2644. 
^enrii 2709. 



INDEX, 



429 



f ®&37 77. 

{gtanQroGGig 1188. 

@*np 1187. 

Gd&srg/ 1014. 

glmm 209, 2380, 3279. 



^lLi^sst 485. 
@g/£»ii 12. 

puuili_ 1276, 1437. 

£u 4 «ar 1933. 

^ /i9@<iP 434. 

•pujth 2144. 

^/r 2601, 2723, 2724. 

jgairrar 273. 



Jgjlm&psns, 3110. 
gidseo 951. 
gjuf-tL'tTjg; 3564. 
gimL-sneSl 117. 
«#7*-L® 2544. 
^q>,£_ 780. 
gjurrdS 2865. 
gjuujbp 698. 

< g/UUtf.U$(e&) 2866. 

ji/iJL/ 977. 

g)<Tfjlh<5SiU 1408. 

j3s»ir 486, 2145. 
g)QrjiTU6mp 3465. 
gjGO&arrp 2083. 
jjjsttxa/^^7 402. 
ja«70 3307. 
^/ar&raQ/S 1577. 
jadrafl 60, 1578. 
^i&riGf^Qp 1576. 
gipeupih 2606. 
gipsfl£(5j 1347. 



,^/ri© 3343. 
M&($gbbti£i (^qJ? 3086. 
^riEJ&irjgeijQeBr 35. 
gir£i(3j@p 733. 
Meoari^uS&) 1000, 2545. 
girgj&nnm 2311. 
gcsrpg) 2743. 
jwiru) 2742. 
js/nf/^ 195. 

GlpessrL. 1149. 
Q0esBti_ l i, S j& (S 2146, 2147. 
Q/?uMa/<2 (c/. ^wsar) 37 38 39 

3424. 
QjgujSij eueeari&u) 13. 
Q^oS/ilum 3154. 
Q&ektgpguffiTumr 3631. 

QgiiEjandj 2795. 
Q&fEJ3mud(9} 3281. 
Q&i-uQunm 2442. 
£^if 1786. 
QpiLkp 1112. 
Q^QjtitQl. 2099. 
Q@es>n 557. 
<2>r 507, 2098. 

(c^ff g?6BSTiJL 3380. 

Qpsuist-uutTw 368, 1317, 1455, 3409. 

Qptojean (cf. jyium) 1835. 

Q<g<e$d & 453, 1366. 

G>«r 2193. 

<?40/0 231. 

Gfigns® 2074. 

Qgaplth 232. 

(?^&w 1174. 

Q/sesBdo 2668. 

<?,WBr 2381. 

55 



430 

GD^ifiiu 24C3. 

QiSrriKifgQtDg) 1674. 

QptTGIBL-uSeO 2583. 

Qjgmlif.io 850, 3072. 
QjsitlI® 1456. 
Q^aiKSsQsir 1757. 
Q^rr6SBT<5S)t—uSQ&) 1531. 
Q@n6BBr<56>i-.<aMJ 2809. 
Qpnth<as>u 2163. 

Q<$rT68TGB)LD 3012. 

Q^fTiLt-ssnaosr 292 If 
Qfineoon- 882. 
Gfine&QSs 820. 
GfiiraReor 403. 

/BsQpih 2751. 

/BG»* 1231. 
IB&Qp 646. 
m^sfeunuum 3589. 
«l_«« 1254. 
isi-sQp 3282. 
isi-sQpg, 2901. 

/FL_<£gjLO 2503. 
ISI—IS0IT&) 1141. 

tsQpQpg i" 758 - 

milL-upplQeo 2252. 
iBilQsu&ir 2075. 

/56WT® 711. 
ibasorQih 558. 

156BBTaSL- 2164. 

*$ 1859. 
ib^eap 667. 
fF/iuj 3565. 
/5ii)/JW 2253. 
ibiliSujnear 1354. 



INDEX. 



iBujQu>rr^! 2790. 

tf/0 744, 829, 1007, 1711. 

/B/tfi^ 928, 1710. 

iBifiojnVso 2026. 
is&anp&siieBr 2405. 
i5&)®)gi 3014, 3015. 
iE&)&}^nl> 2690. 
ihsoeogisQij 3013. 
^suaw 3036, 3037. 
ib&ieonir 2688. 

IF6l>60/rGDJ 2691. 

iseoQeoira 3038. 
/56i>GW(75i(5 2876. 

/56U6U S.liS'/f 3034. 
IS&)&) GIQgpSfJ 2603. 
IB60&) ihiT&&lujrTa 369. 
IB60&) fBir^etiuSeo 2154. 

IB6060 Qu6SBlQs(^ 3035. 

iBsurru 1759. 
isfyasTpap 1318. 
(5 ( 2gbt®p 1712. 
ism pi 2194. 

t66sr(tij>uj 585. 

JBirs&ffth 1223. 
MsanQeo 3523. 
iBiriQQ&i 2689. 
/F/ri(5 2505. 

fSHUfJSS! 1956. 

is n® 2421. 
isntLL—ntssi 1595a. 
/5/r/-L®<£(sj 274. 
isnesstw 3619. 
istTiLth 2406. 

isndj 327, 683, 1070, 1198, 2027, 

isnesiiu 2488. 
isiruja® 647, 1277. 
ihiruj eunih 2922. 



INDKX. 



431 



mniu emteo 684, 202*. 
rnnuj Qens^ih 1994. 

(BirjlT&U) 3410. 
mtnjiruu&ssr m 14. 
iBtrii 2834. 
mireonw 870. 
MgyQu(njd(jgj 2583a. 
isnoj j)j68)&uj 2504. 
/e/T(6)5«(5 559. 
m%nra<5 2889. 
rsrrVefr&Qjth 3174. 
mi&r QfdjQrog) 95. 
isn/Deo 1860. 

/F/Tff)a) lSsbiuj 3087. 
(BiTJDeuiTlUGBr 1787. 
G/rpugi&Qj 2216. 

/5/T gpH O 1760. 

mnespih L^firifl 487. 
mnejpiih subQ^gbt 395. 

JF/T63T .^U) 488. 

«<763r S-isja&r lilt. 

/5/TS3T GT<SBT0>eO 370, 1615. 
/6/763T QaiLi—ngyuD 590. 
«/r«sr Qarr&G&iT 1256. 

/5/T6OT &nUl§ll-U.g) 1113. 

C76sr Q&ggi 2169. 
mum Q&0uli 2287. 
/Fff6or Q^uf. 1988. 
mnesr MiLuf.G6r 2360. 
<sn«k uQm 3381, 3382. 
mrrssr Quasar 3383. 
isrr&sr eungihp 1579. 

j8fi$uj 1158, 3411. 
Sfipib 1413. 
S%eo 2254. 
iSpio 1442, 1867. 
mssrpja 1278. 



^ot/d 3073. 
iB&srir)e>J<ss>naSeo 1049. 

$68T(n?&) 1888. 

/Sfi5r^ 3243. 
iSeargiQ&rTGaorQi-. 830. 

fB&(3)uQuiT&(3j 1171. 

fc^&g6eBr<5$B?Qrj&(3j 1675. 

z&lip. /filif 1373. 

/fil® 15026. 

,£««_ 1809, 1957. 

S^tu/b/o 3039. 

£«m 2010, 3205. 

£/j 2434a. 

iff/r =|}ipii) 2682. 

£/f eieargi 2361. 

/f/f ^lL*_u> 1540. 

& Q&pgnG) 489. 

/£ uu}.$p 781. 

/fa/ti) mnespiD 371. 

/^6tfi2) 3131. 

&sSla(3j 275. 

/f«r £«r 2592. 

/£> 2407. 



^psrf? 1255. 
g,6Bflu$& 1503. 

JgfTggs® 2288. 
^r^v 2877. 
srrQ(¥® 1086. 
girpgns® 2797, 2954. 
jgrpanp 2020. 

Q JB^Sf (cf. 1£>68TU> e.6ff6ffti) 2725. 

Qaiu 1934. 



432 



INDEX. 



QiBiiiQpes)^ 2890. 

Qrsiu& gjz_ii) 3016. 

Qi5(5<er>@ 454. 

QisguLj 1943, 2021, 2362. 

QisqulSIQ®) 328, 734. 

Orsguaou 455, 735, 2100, 2335. 

Qrsa)60tT&) 3088. 

6k <ȣ$ 674, 1252a, 2845a. 

Qis&}^i3(j9) 3040. 

Qiseo^ns^&rQ&r 2584. 

QfspplaSQeo 1898. 



QjBpjm 1457, 3412. 



QjBfTearq. 1836. 
Qmnkp 2148. 
Qmnfsjp 560. 
Q/s/rtu 2878. 



QjBfTiupp 1199. 
Gisirwirafi&fg 1448, 2363. 
GWfiy 2517. 



LJastf^ 1257, 2585. 
u©tp. 276. 
u^ppflfla] 2464. 
LHsmsturreffl 233. 
uGSistunafl&Q 196. 
us&& Q&rreo 2464. 
usglQtunQL. 277. 

UIK)&6B)/D 699. 

uiki&rjetrgg) 1541. 
uiKisrr&flemujiLji}) 1861. 
uiwQeo&)iT 979. 
uii^eefl 3058. 



uG 1200, 1761. 
/jSi@210, 1153. 
u9jp**r 2447, 2903. 

U&£g<3UGjf)l&(3j 2305. 
U&tUfiLD&) 2111. 
uS GJUUU) 1713. 

u«(5» 1152. 
u# 1175. 
u*«»q/ 834, 2053. 
u<9? *jz/uL/ 2396. 
u«<f &ng)LD 2902. 
u*^ Q$rr&) 278. 
u&u>rr&£l&) 2791. 
u,fsb><?: 978, 2289. 
u&<aa&& (drfluLf 2385. 
u®« 2708. 
u@«ifl 2846. 
u^f ) &p$5l&) 1280. 
u^^nEisih 2923. 
u^esiffisnifl 1690. 
uuf.aQpg) 2364. 
utsf-pgi 1484. 
u<Ss<srr^^eo 628. 
u®«* 1788. 
u(Sdsu uG)as 1414. 

LJ65)L_c5(3J(i> 2149. 

uemi—tiJfTg; 1367. 

utlt_ 2422. 

ulL<_ J£)i_u> 1138a. 

utlt_ aireSeo 329. 

uLLuua^i 561, 3620. 

/j/l1^_<sj.'(6i(5<5(5 2983. 

uili—n 1458. 

uilt-rra 1443, 1443a, 2847. 

uiLy. 490. 

uil© 2798, 2984. 

ulL®&(9j 2448. 

u<JL®ti 1973, 3061. 

Utl®U L/L_6S5Q/ 1096. 



INDEX. 



433 



ussrnh 1077, 1079, 1080, 1081. 

WoSBJQpLD 952. 

U68or@<a»<g 1097. 
uemssfTiresr 1078. 
usstsrsann^i'—issr 1714. 
uewrsssfl 2646. 
uemessPesr 211, 2609. 
ueoar'tkssru y 2604. 
upwrrdj 3142. 
up(n?& 1320. 
uGHeSinpn 3566. 
u^i^aSniJD 1279. 
utdgygyih 1513. 
u^esiiD 1810. 
ug$ujpg)&(3j 1319. 
upSlBu> 1330. 
u^^6sB<ss)(u 3466. 
ugpnu) 3283. 
upg, 1296, 3384. 
u&gi&(§ 3524. 
uggis suueo 562. 
u^^js srr^LD 3143. 
uggju Qurfl&) 1596. 
u^j57u(cU(T5*(5 2825. 
ugspuQuir 404. 
upgi e8gg£)§ath 2904. 
uigu) 137. 
umS?l&(9j 1063. 
um^aSQeo 2780. 

Uti:6BBT&&ITI!&Sr 1281. 

u/rewfl 119, 120. 
UB&LD 1393. 
uni$ni£)£<as>p 15- 
unQun&th 2449. 
uffLDuewi 279. 
u/0i(3 2290. 
uiftiu^^js(g 1789. 
uiftot 2769. 
u©^ 1282. 



u G5,<jJ5?*(5 960. 
u^uifl?©) 2306. 
u^uLf 1150,2546. 

uQnnustrnQic 2180. 
ueo^/ofl 2012. 

U60 fFffgff - 1004. 

U60 i&jrih 1862. 
(_/©j6U«@«@ 1715. 

U6U6#(?6U 1533. 

u®)ga 508. 
ULpSU uips 1415. 
upih 2217, 2307. 
l/£^c/ srreO 3525- 
utpti) L/«wr(CTp6r/? 2518. 

u$ 177. 
u$uunm 1504. 
ugQuiriL® 782. 
u@^ 3327. 
ua»#>«j 509, 2195. 
uerenfi$Ge) 237, 1201. 
uaretrih 1958. 
u&r&ft 712. 
u&r&flu i$ar2e* 3250. 
uar&fls (9juugg)&(9) 2291. 
upsa&Q& 2692. 
upsQp 3450. 
uphgi 1974, 2101. 
upuunm 1284. 
uoDpeS) 648, 685. 
usB>p*Q*ifl 280. 
ueapuuear 1762. 
uemih 2745. 
uwfl 2034, 3060. 
ufar 2329. 
u'2isstloiii}) 2150. 

uVsBTLDffpgjd^ 405. 

uarrpl 649. 

urn pis® 1258, 2328. 

u6w«fl 2810,2811. 



434 



INDEX. 



u/r««B« 1115. 

UlTL-JBBSITlfl 1716, 2102. 

un®ih 1959. 
airily. 783. 

un<osaii—<sun<ar 1225. 
unpGHnu) 2151. 
uiuuirffffnQeo 1939. 
uniht$ebr 1001. 

uirthL, 456, 953, 1008, 1717, 2489, 
2762. 

urrwLjs^ 281, 2196. 

uirihesiu 436. 

utriLiQp 530. 

or/?** 1837, 3451. 

unrr&anp 2084. 

unirsQ/D 3046a. 

unhppneo y<fesr 282. 

unhpgnei 1444. 

uiriT£§i)0&& 372. 

unrrpfsl(nji5giii> 190. 

unhagjii unirggi 3155. 

uirrruuiTgtsI 1064. 

uunuunGs>n 1542. 

unnuun^sf^ 980, 1283. 

u/rjtfi® 1202, 2165. 

un&jth 2752. 

u/r<a 2610. 

un^ 2152, 2255, 2693, 3206. 

un&) (&ji$.ds 96. 

uffa) *ilijL«(5 2166. 

umsuih 148. 

u/tq9 182. 

UfTLpnUJ 3175. 

uff£ 1390a. 
u/rSsw 3632. 
u/r&5rafl«> 981, 2735. 

L^iso* 1550, 1718, 1763, 1764, 
1765, 1879, 2153, 2155. 



ti)#to5)^«@ 332. 

t3^es)3 : ssiTn&sr 331. 
i$&s®&&&n!jes)i&(9j 330. 
LSI&m&&&rrjT ( 2GBr 3413. 
lS^SCsu 3328. 
<i)z_/nfl 1378. 
duMiRemu 736, 2781. 
i% jy tf © 3452. 
<-%. i$i$.umiu 939. 
iV*<5 2383. 

i%;ff;ff 808. 

iSli$.£g6ij/T&(et})d(gj 1404. 
i3(9.00rr&) 2103. 
Sisj-pgi 2156. 

L$L$.<SWTgti) 491. 

i$eGBrp<S6)p 2955. 

1$<58BIL-LC> 1430. 

d^&w 2408. 
L$&gGsy&(gj 155, 531. 
L9tu#£7 2042. 
li/os^ 2313. 
iSiuuurrQesrm- 3089. 

iHh&gu 3414. 

iSaubQgGusBj 61. 

tiljuw ((/. sjujm) 2157. 

io^) 2768. 

tM&rr 961, 1203, 1653, 1863, 

1864. 
L9(sJr35w<5(5 3255. 
iSlwVstremu 1838, 3285. 
LS&i'Benssirussr 797. 
iSarVerrsaiTifl 1839. 
LSeffSsrr <g]0GB)u> 3284. 
LSefrcbr <si<ax(trf&> 332 1 . 
tSarten* Sir 3320. 
lSot&w Ou^ 982. 
iitafrSsrr Quproen^sn 586. 
tfm'BsiruQugv 373. 



1 X D E X. 



485 



Li/sn-aswayii) Qarsift 292. 
iJ?sJr3sw 6>jitu> 2966. 

tH&r'&irULinqjjSQ 3526. 

iSettanunaojT 2322, 2659. 
ulmVemurrt 2967. 
iSpiQp 2519. 
iSpkp 1676. 
iSm^Q&i 784. 

L? 1766, 1790, 2586. 
l? gasiQpg} 406. 
LfCuiCeu 3415. 

L^a»ff 16. 

4 <_J) 2985. 
cytl®<s<ss_6»i_ 1259. 
Ljem&s&iupap&(jsj 1865. 
UGasr&sR'jJLD 3041. 
uemessfliuiBeoeiiiTfi 126. 
Ljtdjgtrdj 2495. 
^jgoj 1459, 2494. 
Ljaa^iueo 2308. 
t-lgi& (9}i—<£!360 2626. 
4j?u GussarQsasr 2496. 
ug) Qtouairatw 809. 
ueS 3062. 

i^efi® 2490, 2867, 3063. 
Lj&S&auj 1543. 
Lj&igx 1214. 
u&iepih 2256. 
LfQpdeiss 650. 
LjQpseass^ 700. 
LjQpS&DS^ 1597. 
uafi/S0 1811. 

t-l&fliLju* 2835. 
Lj(ef$@gB)g$uj 3132. 
Ljpssasii— 3205a. 



LJ}&ss3f}&&mu<i(9ju> 1221. 
L£&6ssfi&&mu 3280. 
^i© 906. 

u^g-grrasrinnesr 3344, 3345. 
L£ IDGOITGg) 212. 

yu» 1677. 

^u5a»iu 2880. 
L^nni—s srr near 407. 
L^jrrruJLDntLi 2647. 
L£ aJ^ff) 563. 
y > Qji_€sr 2336. 
ysyii 2753. 
L^Q/dr<si7 3453. 
y&w 36, 983, 1260. 
y,3sari(5 651, 1719. 

L£<Jo376»u[.J 3064. 
(olUtLt^LJ UITIMU 510. 

Qu«ar 3429, 3527, 3567, 3573. 
Qum*n$ 3568, 3569, 3570, 357 1 , 
3572. 

QuanrQsar 3433, 3476. 
Quasar es&s® 3457, 3621. 
Qusssrwas® 1051, 3432, 3454, 

3455, 3456, 3634. 
QuesurVcssr 3633. 
Queasr <si&s(n?&) 3467. 
Quiujpih 1416. 
Quihkp 2292. 
Qutfltu 1026. 

QuQLDirar 1691, 2105, 2968. 
Qugmu} 1654, 1656, 2986. 
Gu(Dj<aoi&a(9i 1655. 
Qu0th 3070, 3385. 
Qu0th aniuih 3065a. 
Ou(5 Qb0uus0 3065. 
Qu0 inajtaap 2104. 
Quqij <suuSjt)i 2677. 



436 



G. 



upp 408, 409, 492, 1657, 2879, 

3286, 3287. 
Qujbpgi 2409. 
Quppeu&r 3288. 
Qupm<SB)!j 410. 

Gu* 2506. 
Gu&^eo 183. 
CW<* 2492a. 
Gu&&&qjj 629. 
Qusaa* 3099. 
Quisf. 652. 
QueapoatD 3434. 
Quuun<gG)§2iLD 3289. 
Gutym 3574. 
Cu^ iSlarVerr 3290. 
(?u*f.l658, 1658a. 
Glut/tod* 934, 3133. 
Cue* 3090. 
<?u6w 2905. 

emu 2410. 
anu&ireij&Q) 3575. 

<aS>UUUG8)l&(3} 1065. 

QuTiiseo 3644. 
QutrinSujib 3207. 
Ou/r<E/©«jr 2924. 
Quirti® 2240. 
Qurr[£j(3jiii 2215. 
Ou^ 1066. 
Qu/rjgienuj 1791. 
Qunpoap 992. 
Ou/r^ 3123, 3124. 
QuiTujttSQihgi 2994. 
Ouffrf) 1580. 

QurTQ^ek 213. 



INDEX. 



Glj/t^-7^ 2520, 2707, 3410. 

Q-UITQgg) 1138. 
Ourr^ 127. 

QuiT(nj>6B)l£> 587. 

Qunguppnh 2881. 

Ou/rear 940, 1052, 2547, 3458. 

QuTTGGtG&m 3459. 
QuiresrgsjiEi 1159. 
Quito* (gym 3635. 
QufresreByth 1232. 
Qu/rajr «^,© 3224. 

QuTsitjS 3091. 
QunsQiB 458. 
Quir&Qtti&g -299. 
Qunsspp 411. 
QuirtfBsr 2365. 
Gurrjpu> 1215. 
GunGnir® 572. 
<?u/T/f 1176. 
<2W&» 97, 1598. 
Guifteoi & 1368. 
Gunesrgj 1027. 
Qufienr seSojm 2241. 
Gunesr &6s8uj%5sr 459. 
Gunon &3&<csip 460. 
Gunesr gi Guns 2217a. 
Gunesr u>&&nesr 3416a. 

LDs^i® 161, 3322. 

losGW 1812. 

u>sm 3636. 

u><s/r 493. 

u>*/t j/rggsar 1720, 1792, 3492. 

LDSir zr/7-gg(?@)© 1722. 

LO&IT ®)&&l£l 1721. 

toi© 564. 
ioi<s/fQ/<s@ 3134. 



INDEX. 



40/7 
0/ 



LDiiieas 30655. 
LD&&n<5ar 2981. 
LD&& 1723. 

L£)-?SB)& 565. 

in^f&r 1321. 
LDgp&^nju) 241]. 
LDi—riiSfT 511. 
LDi—u QuQ^etatD 1659. 
uMfLuto 737, 2726. 
uiif. wrrisjsirtu 234. 
ldlLl-ituj 3176. 
ldlLi^oS^im 1261. 
uxswSeo 1813, 2683. 
iDeeoreSQeo 993. 

U36BW61) 1866. 
iDasBreBsRaSqriis^ 600. 
j-C6?ar 6TO/ <S(g 785. 
^ear 2294. 
LB2ssre5)i-.ujG(r&T 3388. 

i£>63BT6B3Z_,$(»j 2295. 

u36OTsro/_oiei) 62. 

LD6SBT^)IE1SlLl^. 2293. 
/i>688r2s837 566, 1729. 
LD638T (3j$Sl6S)!J<SS)UJ 2906. 

u>6»r ii/sfrSfeff 3240. 
Looser ^Vcst 2548. 

L£i60ar(oLD60 3468. 

i£)£GS)iih 3622. 
LDJgliLmp 2394. 

LD^)uS&)60fT^ 3386. 

w^ldo 954. 
ingnSlihgi 630. 

LLtB]sl!I0pn&) 1960. 

LDiseto^uSsnih 941. 

uxift? 1616, 2029, 2757, 

u>a5<?«> 1908. 

uouSfteo 1544. 

/jsjii 3387. 

LDZ<£$eSI(nj&j>j 335. 



u>ap$m 214. 
icB&onp 962. 
umpptreS 601. 

LDffllUfTGlDjg 2395. 
iDtfiujtrGap sinLD&sr 602. 
wifiiui&r 3177. 
is>(t^iDs^3b(^ 3209. 
inq^mg] 414. 
LDQJjBgpih 3208. 

u>(meS&) 2678. 

L06Dip.eB@ 1460. 

a)6U£5L«ouj 2569. 

LD&)tfl&> 2754. 

uxsSHsp 1421. 

u>*e 426, 2669, 3417. 

.'-cSsvttfla) 2549. 

ufeuaotu 810, 2004, 2112. 

Lc&wiSsSr 3066. 

ufisotuppyan 2170. 

±D60&)ITlhSy 215. 

^a»^ 573, 1814, 2925, 3418. 
Lcpkp 216. 
u)/D&j& 885. 

LD£»ffitr£ii> 1190. 

Lcemppg) 1767. 

iDgwP^ (cf. 0/f@*) 283, 2587. 

Loeorgi&Qi) 2727. 

u>««r<?^ 2728. 

Loesjes)^ 3576. 

u^® 2306, 2521. 

u>&w 3477. 

/x2e37a9 3478. 

LDSBTWjgasr 984. 

iDGBTSBreunssir 3479. 

t06BT<5#6l/3Gx> 2660. 

LCtS5TiE]Q&i7esgri—gi 2698. 
LomuQuiTQT ) p@t£i 3577. 
mesruQuib 2491. 

a; 



438 



INDEX 



LO/T® 1067, 2412. 
LLaessflss 3067. 
12(T@IA 1139. 

mnfiir 2868, 3291. 

Lorruunth 3528. 

wnu>sw 2296, 3636a. 

llii&ujitq 5 &( 5 300, 588, 3639. 

u>auSLuiT(r 5 ih 3638, 3642. 

imi£liunh 184, 2710, 3637, 3640, 

3643. 
iLmSlturretnjr 3641. 
wnifiuutrp prior 1532. 

LDiTlfllLHTgglT'Bsfr 427. 

Lonesijr 631. 

LDirnaseeBTL- 1514. 

inrnr ^ji^.^p 1068. 

tuniTLLiKdu) 2758. 

miteo 2232, 3577. 

u>ff«y 2550, 2551, 261 1, 2736. 

iD/ro/<5(5 2297. 

t£/T<SJ/L0 3210. 

Lntiefl&as 1880. 
wtreanh 1617. 
mnear 3460. 



iRaessii—mssr 2492. 
iBasfi uSesfi 2030. 



i&& 1160. 



(tps/sgeo 461, 1768. 
Qp&$gi&(5 3623. 
(JOtfii) 179. 
Q/>8&n® 78Gb. 
(tpssrril®s(^&rQefr 786. 



Qpssn&nJo 686. 
Qp&s^il® 2826. 
(ywSso 2466. 
(Lpt-is 1663. 
Qpi—suesr 912. 

(LpL-<SUGg))&(3j 3074. 

(5o£$l 3868. 
Qpi^-ffsi- 798. 
(jptlz_ 412. 

QfLLt-ir^s^ 1262, 2648. 
QpiLi^esneo 687. 
GP^l® 1331. 
QfiilQA® 693. 
<3olLo»/l. 1449. 
QfiLLeat^uSQeo 3219. 
qp&sBiGQt— 334. 
QpesormL-&Q 2869. 
QP<5mes.L-6B)uj 2323. 

QP<g&flcUMT 1662. 

Go^Geo 333. 
Go^ 2974. 

(£C,Seu Qsneesreo 2973. 

QPjsSlGeti 1189, 2729. 
G0£6U LfisffSferr 1692. 
Qps-GslgnCo 149. 
(y>A£7 07, 567. 
QPPgiC* 3323. 
(ptsprrVssr 3389. 
Gc^sar 3529. 

QfiKIBITt^ 3018. 

Gouu£7 90, 886, 1069. 

Qpuugl Qffi(V)ULI 413. 
QpUU^ILD 462. 

QP<biSitBui$&) 78. 
Qfrr^iiietssssinii 2367. 
Gc%o 3292. 
QPLpikimsuSlio 3390. 
G0(£ij L^Qesrlssmlj 3493. 
(y>2tew<t06U 437. 



INDEX. 



439 



QP&T<Gf7jQLD&) 1098. 

QPP&pu). 1935. 
QPffimp 1815. 
QpsmpQuurr 1909. 
Qpjbp 2812. 
Qp&sr 2467. 
np^rssrevQesr 40. 
(ysJr^GW 2848. 
QpearQesr 836. 
(7£s<37- jyetri^ 2612. 
(7/3sar s»# 2613. 



(tpds6S)/r)LUm- 423. 

(*p&&<anpujG!p]&<g 589. 
GP% 162, 2031. 
Qpssas 1769. 
Qp&^ggrreir 701. 
QP&S) 1945. 
(*P(gjj<sb)& 2649. 
<2W 2588,3111. 
QpLLes)L- 3135. 
Qp-sSdfm 1285. 

QpULj&(§ 2298. 

<y3sv 1140. 

Qpesr0>uj 2593. 

epsor.gv 1028, 1216, 1301, 3082, 
3624. 



Qld0isb)su 2337. 
(?u>&tf*<5 1302, 1322. 

<S5)LDa)E/© 284. 
SWLD «5)U) 2814. 

QucnT^-mi- 1816. 
Qu>rTLLeB)u.f£)d(§ 3591. 
QLoneoor® 570. 
Qwnpemp 1563. 
QiLrriheo)^ 2048. 

(oLUfT^ i5tT&i}> 217. 
QLondftpjggjacg 2208. 
Qu>rrih^rribQurT&) 335. 

Guhtqsq 2730. 
QlAfflmih 632. 
IUfiirtfi/g 3106. 
(olUfTssuiTm 110. 
Jp@u urretvm 3211. 



£W£ 1562. 
Qu>A* 1485, 2985. 
Quip p s\g£>j 2813. 
GWj 3125. 

Oioju Gresrjpi 2679. 
Qu)6V60fi}ji£> 955. 

QindjQfD 787. 
QiLtbgptr&i 1899. 



JT/T/zL© 713. 
1394. 

J7Tgg/7fil/fi> 3461. 
-!7ffgg(6B)@)6y[LO 3293. 

jrirggrr Loa&r 3435. 
ntruftssr 1395. 
zrrQLD&rrpjp&Q 516. 

X n (§@ 0<58)&U$&) 118. 

j7/ru i$pkp 2849. 



)j/7^6or) 415, 



440 



INDEX. 



Qfj9 seksri- 1217. 
(tf)jB$ElBnae$,u ySssr 285. 

(njunib 2368. 

QjriltfjunQjr 1840. 

SUftsniSuSQeo 2870. 
6u ( eT ) ^'2ssr 1534. 
mjL-.Q&iT® 2602. 
si'i—ss^^uun'Sesi 1936. 
oil-sGs 3178. 
(Suiy-gprred 1793. 

guilty. 935. 
siiLLQjGuptglear 2552. 
sueoorisiSesr 2614. 
•suasBrasars (^^l<ss>rr 1693. 

<&j3SBr.G58)6BflL-@G£l£0 2439. 

evG8Brgsir)ss)ia(3j 1770, 2836. 
euk$ 2056. 
emptied 111. 

suk-sirpQuneo 2497, 2498. 
wBfi& 633, 1204, 2891. 

@ufeg split 121. 
&jih^Q^&)&}au) 1220- 
euipiciDp 2055. 

6>JI5£SljeS)!<5(<9j 2158. 

sui^ {k-isgi 63. 
@j£p o93sw 79. 
suiif^^j 860. 
■euth&LD 3042. 
<auiuQ&n 3333. 
*>o$ & 1218, 3179. 

3DuS(TIfp 1771. 

wvSpflii 512, 2309. 
a/uff/Dj!* 2892, 2894. 
6uu$pQpiflf&&) 3592. 



&ju$p<ss)p 2895, 3294. 

a/jr a' j 463. 

a/jil® 1817, 2680. 

a/jL/L/ 1664. 

aiffuQun 2956. 

a/jfi/ 1974, 1975. 

a/ jq/ i(5 2300. 

suqt)i$£l 69. 

a/^ti; ©9,® 3391. 

<bu(i^uj sSi^est 80. 

a* 1869, 2468, 2775, 2776. 

sueSiunsk 1355. 

aa)6V)<a/63T 1818. 

Gv&)e$u)- 634. 
awi^ euySjtumu 3392. 
a;t$ SLntudsiT&j 2815. 
a/snT^s^ 3295. 
sujgjgg 2570. 
ojppeOiriu 568. 
Qjpplp(7rj>u> 494. 



aJ/Ti@ 2816. 
suniij&p 1099. 
eutrtEiQpemp 1100. 
eumijQesr 1053. 
arngsduiq. 1297. 

GUtTGS&UJGGl 985. 

ffl//f^ 788. 
a//r^7*@ L599. 

sun pgtuuirrr 1390. 
euirtuiKSeo 1910, 3297. 
eurn^ajih 1219. 
3urru]3treirntT 3100. 
surruSfTijiBprra) 1819. 
&nu$&) 2159. 
awriu 1340, 1961, 2615. 
euniu&Qij 3296. 
<aiinujn&) ukped 2370. 



INDEX. 



441 



6ijfrujsQsn(LpuLj 218. 
&mtbuQu&66)& 310]. 
auiruj @J7<aDLpuuy>t}) 2369. 
&mngGS)@&(9) 2371. 
sutTeoQvgnQiussr 1461. 
sunipnp 3505. 
ajrrQfQjD 3244, 3298. 

€L'fT(Lp&)(Tr/>GBr 1665. 

siitresiip 2871. 
a//rs8)ifi(5 2926. 
surreaifiLJULfiLb 374, 1564. 
«a/fl-Le/F/r(©5<B(3j 3393. 
aunipkgsn'ssr 569. 
surrg&g lds&t 603. 
a/ffipssoai/ 2957. 
a//7(6«;<£(<5 1772. 
sunssruD 2160. 



sSjepsQ 2299. 
a9(5^7 2469. 
eSjirjgjs&i 1600. 
s8(rykg> 3180. 
©9«oir 2872. 
q5s»j«(5 495. 

£&Sd!W(3j 338. 

sSteoGwiTiftso 3494. 

£&Lpe£l&(9j 2628. 

a9«ri@ 1940,2435. 
<afl&rsQ&6m-<fcs6T$(3) 799. 
loSendeas 191. 
£$ strsSl so svt£ 2427. 
a9&wuyti 3308. 
<a93srntj/7iJ.i_/7(Z/ 2968a. 
eSVeirsugi 3181. 
«5/!)<5 3020, 3395. 



six &&/?&& Q&fT&(3j 286. 
afl**o0 2233. 
eSsLpgemg 3019. 
sfii$.&£n&) 2594. 
a9if«j 1286. 

o9i9-iiJ/Tg/5@0 98. 
e8t-Ll— (3J&DJD 81. 

e&LLi—gi 2257. 

a9<l® 2799. 

e&iLSlf Q&nm^eo 1618. 

eStK3e$Li.L-tT§piii 2782. 

aJ/ewr 3394. 

eStgigg 68. 

q9^ 2209. 

sSpesip 1820. 

£$g<a»g&&eitGrfl 287. 

eSgeurrsjpi&fg 1505. 

e8tsn&3&nQ&) 340t. 

e8<un$gl£(§ 64. 

*a9j«* 337, 929, 1422, 3216. 



fitf© 1667. 
eSQeSL-iTib 1870. 
to -£il® 3580. 
aS'tlOir^ 513, 1565, 

3579, 3612. 
«M© e^tl®*^ 1 50. 

fitful®.? Q&eOGULD 3183. 

a?il©u utnii^ 2330. 
fflS'ilsroi— 1462. 
w^ss)uj 340. 
<S^ns & 2627, 3581. 

«tf&5BT 3021. 
effaftr 1976. 

a?«W @tpQ//7LD 3396. 

\oi6Utsi&iTUJ0g;<i(8j 844. 
Q&jt-QeuL- 2063. 
Qffl/i_L<su> 375, 416, 1 1 7. 
Qsut-L&0g)d(3j 1116. 



1666, 3182, 



442 



INDEX. 



QenLLs^em^ 418. 
QeuLLL-QevetR^ih 2423. 
Qa/ilip. 288, 2650. 
QeuLLi$.<£(9} 1619. 
QeuLLtg-iutTsgiiu) 3092. 
Qevesurseoth 2850. 
QeuemGemiL 1029. 
Qsu<s0 1142, 1143,3112. 
Qeukggi 1287. 
Q<5L'k 1 guuix> 2927. 
QsviSiftio 2372. 
QmuuSeSQei 2851. 
Qeu&)60ih 1989. 
Qsu&)eouuir'Bs5i<ssi!ju 3184. 
Q<auededut3eir'<!£{rajn<S6)B 835. 
QsufGfjjggi 1365. 
Qeu^uurr^id^ 1911. 
QsuerreniJo 1332. 
Qsuen&iiFlssndj 604. 
QsuetrefrMLi$-d(9j 1601. 
Qev&reif) 3068. 
Qsuen-Vefr 2522. 
Qeu&r < 2eirsstT!T^iiS(^ 930. 
Qeu&r'Bsirdrgj 3043. 
Qeu&rHemuntL 2800. 
Qwjpih 2057, 2058. 
Qsvgiih ans 2817. 
Qeug/tb sun ih 635. 



Qtsiis 3397. 
QwQp 1323. 
Qeuu.GS)is(9j 1438. 
QeiofGuxr 289. 



Qevemi^- (osu6sari— 532. 
Qeuemu.iT 2770. 
QeuesBTL-nu) 185. 
QeueArfSii 2700, 2771. 

QeU6BBT(3QLD6BTjriJ 2701. 

QsuuQuestaQemib 1082. 
QeuihLjib 2772. 
Qevsaff 789. 
CW 2106. 
QeueSd & 2731, 3256. 
Gfi/fe) 1962, 3324. 
(ceut/sos an itl 3530. 
Qev'?e\)saeheffls(^ 1841. 

(?Q/2GUu5?6tf 2651. 

<?afcw oO&bt- 2629. 



<ss)SUss 1234. 

etasvssei\ub 1233. 

Gtosufineisn 2996. 

<oBi®j<£(gluj 2523. 

meu^SiluJth 1506. 

eaeufiQiLUSS' 1356, 1417, 1507, 

1602, 2258, 2470,3144. 
esyev^fljSp^ 1668. 
eaeu^^ireo 2107. 
emeu ^gi emeu ^{£6x681 831. 
easa&Qstrii 290, 291. 

00®/ UJ esisuuu 419. 
6S>6UIULD 41. 
6S)6UULj 2384. 



(o\6U men net 1773. 

Q6V6ir6l)ITQ)&(3j 2077 




AN INDEX OF NON-INITIAL WORDS FROM 
THE BODY OF THE PROVERBS. 



^suul. 1369, 1372, 1350. 

^susnu 477, 501, 524, 757, 
1057. 

^jsuesus &GSsr&(<gj 3228. 
jysueBud (3}ffl 2416. 
S\ssss>3 343. 
^dsir&r 424, 2958. 
^/ssn&r 6$® 3212. 
SI&(9j&t (rf. sssii) 305, 418. 
S\S(Zj<3ir lluSit 1726. 
^js^m urriLd-f 304. 
^jiisth 3495. 
Sjiasniy- 1487. 
jqmgfth 2009, 2049. 
tgl&iB&gw 2764. 
j/*®i8ps 2201. 
#*& 341, 1911, 3195. 

^j&GO SfiDr 3*237. 

j>l*£» «tf® 422, 575, 2430. 
^eafiu 4, 220, 1343, 2041, 2504. 
^.9? 1341, 1797, 2857. 
^l-ss 418, 2007, 2260, 2501. 
si^tkis 510, 535, 1392, 2009, 

2204, 3636. 
jtft—iEis&) 616. 
jyt—iisng 474, 513. 
^lt-.tEi&iTgeu<asr 3265. 
j>/i—£j&tT<g lSi$. l$i$-s& 2535. 
Sii—uussrnresr 2632, 2634. 
^fi—uuii) 2635. 
^uf. 1086, 2257, 2584a. 
j-ytf 1438, 1931, 3035. 



4lif.es 24, 108, 291, 401, 512, 
767, 919, 930, 1189, 1790, 
1820, 1936, 1951, 1951a, 1972, 
2001, 2472, 3163, 3205, 3277. 

Sjisf. s^s* 1028, 1881, 1922, 
2651. 

s\is). &gv&a 3044. 

^ISf. mar 3350. 

s\isf-uui- 1179,3344. 

«J»if U UIB0 3185. 

jfjuf. u uttuj 2859, 2863. 
4juf.u i3uf.ss 1808. 
s\i$- ldsQ&i 302. 
cSyq*. wuLD 1255. 

<2JU}. SiJ!T6S)LQ 287 1 . 

j>jif. Qeun 2595. 
««y£p_ emeuaatrQ & 1330. 
j>jif.isu urriids 790. 
^ju^uunear 3596. 
cgyjf^sr 41 uf. 1914. 
S]U)-&g s-euir 1 184. 
S\uj-J£82& Q sir® is 2138. 
4ji$.£ < gidQatT60Br®Qurr3 1985. 
S\uf-pg;4,Q&TT<8a<ai 610, 613, 809. 
gjtsf-ggiuQuni— 1130. 
S\U)-&g) euenrrss 3463. 
<£>jUi-&gi eunikis 1804. 

^ifsou) 888, 1694. 
^It^Qujm 1397, 3352. 
^1®$$ eS® 243. 

^®u H 119, 150, 284, 2246, 2941, 
3136ft. 



444 



INDEX. 



j>l®uuiases>r; 1 294, 3433. 
j>I®ulS&> Quiti- 1040. 

Sj®UU QpLlt- 330. 

^jQuLj tansi&s 921. 
^gsh-ss 3309. 

SIGBil—SSGdlh 2930. 

jySBL— LOSB)Lp 1991. 

Jy&Bi—iurTefru) 1213, 1307, 3309. 
£>!&* [cf. uujuul-) 398,424, 1789, 
2451^ 2744, 2745, 2746, 3337. 
j>l(G£@6BreiJ6Br 1116. 
^&® wL-ss 1325, 2477. 
<°>igs$ cgystssfl 3323. 
^essP,s&)ih 3434. 
jysas/toj 386. 
jqVessT 1876. 
jflBarQiML. 1332. 
^•Ssaari-s 19, 373. 
^ewrsDi—aS 1 ® 3230. 
j^esaieiai—eSLLQssnjrear 1 1 2, 1579, 

' 3496. 
j>]6sar6esresr 3593. 
^sareaaTw ^ikil 1900, 2181, 2527. 

£168X65$ 3188. 

^esgrian) 1016. 
j)j6m^fsS 145, 715. 
^a>t_u)<?j^6Bfl2234, 2236,2765. 
rtystyiuu unp^sCo 2236. 

Jlj^LDlM 2136. 

Sj^nQeuiL<Sissnsj<ssi 592. 

^snnth 465, 1357, 1358, 1667. 

^sirfR 3225. 

^l@e#L-.i}> 101, 103, 104, 107, 121. 

j>l@!ieii> 377. 

cgv^J .jytf ss 1730. 

cSy^j ^SDt-ij 611. 

^^Qujrrsih 466. 

^l&p'ZsBr 1418. 

Si^uuiLt—mk} gem}) 296. 



cStf,^ 2813. 
^«o^341, 35:}j. 

J>j^<SB)^ LDS&T 952. 

j>\(5iT 1 5pih 3629. 
^/s^sbt 3586. 
^jusnBih 2174. 
jyuuesr (cf. gsuum) 205, 4 1- 1 , 

545, 950, 2479, 2852, 3545. 
jyuurr gjip. 836. 
S\u>ntr<su$ 3186. 
^LcrrkGH(Tr > && 3049. 
^^TQ//rs»^ 385, 1158, 1339, 2212. 
^jlSIso)^ 907. 
SjuSfr^ 240, 1304, 1409, 1686, 

2305, 2331, 2750. 
j>ju9igs) 2596. 
siQpgi 1147. 
SIQpgi umi—ss 2345. 

^<5S)LDULj 46. 

<g>lihuiLi_m 549, 1459, 2291, 2629, 

2633, 2635, 2645. 
glihueom 384, 1465, 1466, 2574, 

2581, 3094. 
^juiueoi}) ejp 1701. 
Sjihu&itii <sjpp 3093. 
SjuDuniB 1669. 

^IMLj 169. 

^gyujL/ upss 3126. 

^jihrnesoru) 1626, 1705. 

^imLon&r 989, 1112, 3588. 

jy<iufl 1350, 1375, 1881. 

^fihiSI upss 3075. 

S\tm& efig 337. 

jIuetBiwjM 635, 2038, 3316. 

gjiLQiu 685. 

s\b&i£>dld 2322. 

^j.r/7-ar 2221. 

ji/ff^esr (cf. noegm) 2884. 

gius-Qs® 2450. 



INDEX. 



445 



S\B& ussarsaor 99. 

S\S& uQg&s 351. 

^u^essT 242-. 

Sisemuftar 1582, 2218. 

j^iflds 1529, 2713. 

jytfl® 1186, 2584, 2530a, 2G22, 

2878, 3181. 
jyifiQaarrrrm- 2093. 
^rflf*ib@rrm 3120, 3120a. 
^'/fljp 1344. 
jyrfKfc/r 1431. 
jyrfleiifTGfr wbsssr 170, 467. 
jwfla//rer 1123, 112?, 3367, 3558. 
^ifleuirar t%. 2972. 
SjtgiB&Gil 3594. 
jy(5«>u> 790a, 1091, 1439, 1442, 

1460, 2127, 3284. 
Sjsmrrss 342, 3535. 
^]es)iT^^iuQuai— 1979. 
jyanjj [cf. ^}®ulj) 1101. 
egysroj^TaJBr suS^ 1 732. 
Simnssneo 1041. 
.j)/<38).£ri£z?€H>ir 754, 2954. 
jtjstsff LDg2/ia^.sar 3478. 
jqir/s&rrrTjitslrR 704. 
gjSdtkj&rirnh 3182. 
^6^5= (rf. sq^su) 376. 
^eoss sQg<su 3190. 
jySsu 1314, 3145. 
^y?s«aj 478, 938, 1096, 1679, 

1691, 1991, 2431, 2433, 2435, 

2439, 2666, 3380. 
gj'teo&#&> 2653, 2654. 
gjeu&ijih 1148, 1745. 
^^trif) 156, 160, 161, 173, 400, 

515, 2934, 3538. 
^jeuSouu) 3275. 
jyeutsluui— 305. 

^GUptglS Q<3S)U 1319. 



^suQa® 3462. 
tgjGmh 3469. 

<°)lGh<SO)ir<££lTUJ 1 298. 

gfsueou: 3470. 

^afli* 843, 1147, 1308. 

^jeSiaj 2361. 

^euio 635, 1682, 3003. 

jjeSifi 184, 1966. 

^eSyda 798, 1020, 1266, 1610, 
1804, 2579, 2593, 3617. 

jfeSp/sib 964, 2507. 

sip 52, 103, 186, 247, 288, 290, 
797, 875, 995, 1043, 1107, 
1111, 1235, 1322, 1581, 1613, 
1625, 1676, 2448, 2470, 3192, 
3198, 3202, 3366, 3403, 3497, 
3534, 3549, 3562, 3604. 

s\$® 1660, 3452. 

^@ 394, 698, 699, 1054, 1346, 
1497, 2702, 3249, 3398, 3428, 
3430, 3437, 3439, 3440, 3445, 
3447, 3448, 3460, 3500, 3537, 
36 iO. 

<jyi£6t> 308. 

Sly® Lctbsn 1628. 

jqySliu 1 1 5, 5 1 4, 565, 8 1 3, 2080, 
3318, 3608. 

jyySlds 45, 1110. 

j>IQps srufl 3584. 

^Qps&i 874, 2373. 

eg/(Lp<sm& 340 1 . 

^(Lpd(^UUL- 1618. 
J/jQpSVeSBTU) 2338. 

^l&D^ds 69, 1803, 2391, 2530, 

2946, 3368, 3626. 
#imd& 44, 67,567,1066, 1324, 

1801, 2034, 2605, 26 12,3119. 
jijeneSIt-. 2683. 
jy«7Q/ 22, 966, 1476. 



446 



1 X HKX. 



jfjenoj jqplcu 2314. 

^arar 477, 825, 937, 979, 19.*) 7. 

^I&r&r^^ieir&r 1525. 

^)jt>h6lfl &.68BT68BT 3187. 

jijareifip Qpetflss 2638. 

^f&r&flu Lurfr&s 3348. 

^iP 2826, 2834. 

glP Oa/tli_ 1605. 

s\ flops u> 3140. 

gjfSuj 1474. 

jypSujrTjgeueBr 3300. 

j>jjSuJiTu Queasr 3156. 

^jflajnm 1229, 1230. 

jug)/® 1508. 

^guss 77, 361a, 1128, U)0'.\ 

3112o,3503,3581. 
j>jgv$e$ (cf. Gn&LaQu&Br&nts)) 1288. 
jtlgupgeuen 481. 
Sjsv&gji Q&nQss 216S. 
^jeap siLi— 3606. 
s\pp QuirQp 1742. 
jyppg] 3107. 
Simkgih 1475. 
^jyjpuu 3644. 
jyesyQuuSih uesuressr 2256. 
J1&u*i 1395, 1691, 1718, 2397. 
<9l&srmih (&rrpih) 968. 
jyeorMih (u&p) 677, 3050,3238. 



sJmm&tD (cf. eurrasrth) 468, 2471 
<%*«& 2849, 3314. 
j&snpg, 2997, 3146. 
^anpeuesr 1794, 2998. 
^sit^q^ss 178. 
^strujsi-iTessfl 2711. 
gy&np s_z_toL/ 1396. 
<%pnp SgisQ 1672. 
^is 1159, 1168. 



^iQiiiQuiTL- 71-*!. 

^i&sor Q&rrjpi 1545. 

,^<s©«5r U/r3E37 1040. 

^iS&ar 3379. 

^lEianjrib 3 -382. 

^trauD 54, 852. 

Sj^irffs s&r&r&sr 244. 

t^&rrjru l^sbo* 863. 

^«n* 949, 2013, 2019, 3545. 

^gd^uul. 720, 940, 1672, 2887. 

^<ss)ff eurrn<£es)@ 2363. 

^■Ffn 2606. 

.J^gjLO l5!T&r 65. 

<^<_ 101, 160, 500, 523, 532, 
539, 671, 1355, 1385, 1398, 
1466, 1544, 1599, 1703, 1805, 
3204, 3325. 

siji— wuniu 1622. 

^'jf-s sp<ia 2264. 

s^uj-p jgiifluu 2265. 

=§5® 563, 2040. 

&lLl- 292, 456, 984, 1818, 1964. 

«gili_ii 378, 487, 552, 927, 1188, 
29 J 2. 

^iKSifsiLtf. 2039, 2443, 3052. 

^iLQfQpneo 930. 

^iLetau. sjuj.&& 1655. 

«U'-l«Bz_i sn&sar 861. 

^«^2454, 2783, 2791. 

^sssr 400, 1090, 3545. 

^em L-eveor 3483. 

^saerisf. (cf. prrpeor) 221, 258, 279, 

980, 1374, 1399, 1431, 1775, 

2065, 2341, 2358, 2406, 2838, 

2916, 3085a, 3097. 
jyesoras)!— 220. 
^GBanSI&r'far 2509, 3319, 3588, 

3599. 

^6SBTeS)LD 347 '.'. 



INDEX, 



447 



Jjj^GSBlL-iSJ&nub ] 156. 

=g^ja/042, 1743a, 2092. 

|^ja( Q&ne06d 122. 
«g^7sr/? 541. 
«^S? SUfTJTlh 1798. 

«gA*/reir 368, 441, 2589, 3345. 
^ggj&sngm 1633. 
•J^/FSB^ 54 1 . 

.ftu^g/ 2006, 2896, 3230, 34-14. 

^^6!Rjri(5 1751, 1796. 

^ijousat—uuim (cf. L]03i£eir, aasar 
ewsor, &sstsrtgNS)3n<5Br, Os/rasn? tsuetsr) 
373, 2261, 2391, 3294,3533, 
3538, 3592. 

^tiuaat-uj.i^esr ^ji^sa 3531. 

4£i2> ^co 488, 1197. 

^«u 1866. 

Sfjiuutfsn&a 2142. 

^aftni> 438, 1548, 1624, 1695, 

1772, 1794, 2737. 
^iiSuld Qu/resr 1118, 3051. 
.go/* 438, 2224. 

«f^* (S>6B>ff>UJ 2157. 

^tt/^zi 1381, 1467, 1807, 1823. 

2083. 
Qtypui Q$t— 1303. 
^ii (<■/. /gn tu) 545a, 950. 

^(bipeueisr 1489. 
^y/rtu 1471. 

«^60/E/<S/T® 891. 

^eotuih 2364. 
^eoireo e3(nj£if,ti> 1621. 
jyfcGufii) 2722. 

Wit 1338, 1990, 2459, 2682. 
jgi±w untax 2024, 2026. 
«g#/r*<5 1627. 

^ 120, 689, 1039, 1677, 2225, 
2881,3078,3479, 3630. 

^eirns 1396. 



295, 355, 1402, 1796, 2088, 
2451, 2648, 3071a, 3332. 

^ar Q^i_ 713. 

<%&r Quns 2643. 

^■dU9, 1189, 1771, 1933,3111. 

<%pu Qungiss 2873. 

•fUGj^ a/tf*<5 3036. 

=g«5J/ 85, 1546, 1681. 

^gn &i-8& 2181. 

^gi ifitr&LD 444, 1155, 1235, 3514. 

^J>p 164, 2211, 2933, 3109, 
3110. 

4P/0& ©/»«/* 1665, 2028, 2906. 

^^jv messreo 3499. 

^«ar ©jjl 3629. 

r%<ssr^i 2997. 

^3sar 340a, 440, 563, 743, 1546, 

1669, 1936, 1996, 3237. 
^esreama shlLl.. 3515. 



^jaQuirath 241-9. 

g)*#. 1547. 

©i*<ss)j 2740. 

@6»^/5^(5i* 2747. 

jg)*s)*a/ 1090. 

{g£j&&aii> (?u* 155"). 

@*£*<s 970. 

@*a»* 3150. 

g)£_ii 1132, 1136, 1138, 2126, 

2281, 2845a, 2950,3032. 
@l_k QsnQaa 922, 924, 1377, 

1788. 
@i_E/ Qsrr&reo 1942. 
©*_££> CWwOii 2087. 
g)<_,©307, 1831, 2088. 
@zf3412. 
g)if @if ** 504. 
@/p. S3"lou> 3540. 



448 



INJJKX. 



(g)i$. <a$Lp 2474. 

^uf.ss 1295, 2452, 3354, 3360. 

^uf.^^<3L&r 1986. 

QyjBfi ^® 2167. 

g)®i@ 745. 

gXSuL/ (c/. jy«»ir) 324, 1101, 1123, 

2885. 
@)®uuirp 1771. 
$)®uli 5?oj.tu 2970. 
@a»i_ 943. 
gent-man- 576, 829, 1783, 2043, 

2475. 
gfrmms 3469, 3470. 
®fi&aa 1965. 
g^or 2202. 
^kfsln gg.Tsuii 2895. 
^sesrih (cf. Sesim) 3214. 
ggjenu) sitss 2089. 
g)oj«»q 3399. 
g)j«s 1786, 3164. 
^)ji* s>i^.ss 3163. 
^blLv^ss 2963. 
g)jtl«w_ 311, 977. 
ggjueourt—rreug) 1006. 
g)j6wr® 61, 549, 2920. 
@j«ar® GTQgpg) 2351. 
^jnessr® iB < 2eeris 2173. 
^ueeer® u/e/@ 967. 

<°£}DGBBr® ui— 2841. 

£)*«/«> 1096, 1103, 1115, 3487. 

^j/ig? ^sm^F 118. 

g)ir,T<s «/# 2847. 

g).^ ^/s/a 1267, 1272. 

@K5lL® 1814. 

^(^eeort—^! 2492. 

£l@em®Qurr& 1260. 

@(5ul/ 3553. 

g^L, 877, 1268, 2703. 

g)(3dr Guw 2030. 



@aoir 622, 785, 1708, 1983,2079. 
@)GB>jr*e6o 465, 1121. 
^jeoiaseosrih 2678. 

g)6D/E/6B)« 115. 

^euffl/ii, 2315, 2319, 3075, 3385. 
Qgauoouu y 859, 1735, 3069. 
&)&>; 143, 1169, 1221, 1301, 

2667, 2780, 3343, 348 1, 
gTSsu j)/ gilds 431. 
g)te>i sjS 2535. 
gTSsu ^sOTsar 3543. 
§freoeipu> 2706. 
®eoeSt-u> 922. 
@«i)ay<5 <£6»br 2949. 
.@«>&d 1307. 
@ig 1894. 
@)ipih<g ld&ssB 244 -t. 
$jpo/ 1516, 1921, 1976, 3396. 
Jj)i£«a/ loSso 1628. 

^)^iff 353, 1093, 1103, 1169, 
1359, 1806, 1932, 2359, 2958, 
3152, 3523. 

^endsirnii 370, 895, 899, 1371, 
2190. 

§faim Or 105. 

^.erruuih {of. @}Vetru H ) 889, 893, 

896. 
$eif)#& avail 798. 
$®)<£j / @tjuu> 3310. 
@&w«* 988, 990, 1021, 1611, 

1919. 
<§$Gfig,p<8»m 1399. 
^SsrnJL/ (c|*. ggjenuuih) 1192. 
g/SferiuL/ §?tli_ 898, 910. 
@^3@ Qarr®*& 1908. 
®/b«* 633, 1410. 
£)/»«« 457, 968, 2028, 2906. 



INDEX. 



449 



^ptki&s Gerr&)&) 946. 
^youu 691. 

@)>du<sb)uu iS®ias 1684, 3018. 
@,g2/i<s 1296. 
&s6>p&& 1958, 2628. 
^esrui 3236. 
ggjGBTii) ^(Lpeu 2267. 
^asr^ifiesBiufTir 1127. 
^esBds 1644. 

rF 734, 2074, 2668. 

<f&&il uiriL 324, 325. 

ff® 3437. 

fFsrih 412, 3065. 

ffH 1636. 

ffjr&i 3367. 

rF«JT 1243. 

ff6arti 3254. 3623. 

a_*fi 3413. 

e-<F© @if «<s 1972. 

s_*6 ©srfljr 2338, 2340. 

ujua>n (cf. */Pirii) 350, 1102, 1187, 

1396, 1607, 1948, 3102. 
*ju* 1309, 2749, 2754, 3399. 

&.1—6BTUI— 1984. 

SLi_6ar su-eat— 2063. 

fc.®i<s 1618. 

a.®iss* 1046. 

&_®ihu Lfli^.i« 2045. 

«_a>i_iu 340, 537, 558, 807, 1274, 

1755. 
a_a»L_i« 430, 790«, 833, 1375. 

1696, 2003, 3643. 
p^emi—ujTiT utr'fctT ivih 2045. 
B.sB)t-«Du>21t), 936, 1090,1272. 

1896, 2084, 2711, 2930, 3245, 

3547. 



fc-il<s/7j 2392. 
■&-L-G&neB&r 2192. 
&.lLuui— 1554. 
e_«Rjrai/ 1502a. 
e-Gosrif.1— 1038. 

£_«JBT«JUO (cf. QiDUj) 2011. 

&.<s® 3108. 

2_£iuu) 3503. 

s_^a> 662, 665, 1900, 2006, 2673, 

2896, 3230, 3235, 3537, 3538. 
&_@6un $<sum 3259. 
tupsungi 2289. 
&.?e8 2094, 2125. 
^^n^srreS 113. 
a-@jr eSVeiruj 2990. 
©.sw^ 997. 
a.«>^** 801, 1911, 1926, 1971, 

2795, 2848. 
s-sro^i^ cSy©^ 3042. 
^.ea^uui— 2484. 
2-.eeippgig g&r&r 2775. 
e.jfiu>u> 838, 2136, 2394. 
u-&0je>l 3232. 
a-ufirjrib 2382, 2386, 2387, 2388, 

2389. 
&.uQ0&u> 285. 
e-uGpQaa 2108. 
&-unajih 2704. 
t.uq 1439, 2551, 22856, 2656, 

2803, 2824. 

S-LJLj UfTITSS 365. 
&.UU&LD 3094. 

&.U0 3246, 3348. 
tuu9 Quits 3181. 
s_u0 ^fisrear 3003. 
e_%> 215, 1591, 2192. 
&_ii> £ji (cf. ssLih) 1197. 
s.tujr 2602. 

S-UJffLD 3066. 



450 



I N I) K X . 



2_tt5?/f (cf. iSirnssarm @<siim) 996, 
2097, 2748, 2750, 2754, 3034. 
P-iiSk giq^uoLi 2460. 
&_u$tas)jr euniis 1097. 
e_(t5«oir easL'ss 1616. 
*.*£* 653, 847, 929, 1349, 1422. 
s-ffeSt&i lc&uj 2549. 

S.j'&O ^jU^SS 165. 

a-j'Ssu (bss 1670. 

e_j26o QpQgihs 1164. 

&.jt&) @i$ 998. 

a./fluj 3465. 

s_/fli* 1124, 1147, 1803, 2854. 

&.ifti5^iQs!T&r6(r 2235. 

e.©* 3403. 

&.0sn^sum 3150. 

&.($&& 2857. 

s.(T5i«LD 3334. 

s_(5uuz_ (<•/. q9.t^) 2078, 2596, 

3273, 3343. 
e_(T7jLou> 3413. 
s.^ai 2785. 
a.(^sff 517, 3507. 
s_«oj 3241. 
&.eairds 2691. 
&.<so>!J pgiuQuns 2324. 
e./f 1258. 

2_6tf<5ti 1805. 

S-eosrrggrrsir 1209. 
a-soiso* 696, 994, 3407, 3630. 
a_6»j 1712, 1992. 
8_«)/ra/ 3006, 3061. 
suetoeSp gjifitu 1972. 
*-3w 2261. 

eJteo meu&s 749, 2158. 
n.eunp$iL3nrr 1417, 2291. 
e_# 896, 911, 960, 1175, 1322, 
1948, 1990, 2763, 3024, 3194. 
e-t^sQsneo 1741. 



a-#?i(5 1159, 1801, 1971, 2131. 
&.jptaj6or 2334. 
ZUQgUGBU. 2334. 

8-sotgi.s 802, 2627. 

a.«D£f UU/TSBT 2991. 

a.«D££U£_/ 2275. 
^eiftuiSi^. 544. 
e_ar 1102. 
2_e»ra93s37 50. 
z-mengi 48, 49, 2864. 
&.&retriasTeo 1019. 

•2-.&T(Stllkj&Q& 1106. 

&.6Jrai7/ji$L 1921. 
v-eirefriDLLSlm 2093. 
a_stT(6»5«(5 Guirdis 203. 
e-eff-^sj/r 3025, 3193. 
£-6?rCW 1636. 
U-etrQetr Quit a 3334. 
S-&rQetr g&ren 2999. 
s-err/c 1143. 
B-arjjwrcuear 3070. 
g-jDisiarrgj 981. 

c/pq/zu- 233, 2734, 2776, 3108, 
3112a. 

e_/z>e/ (c/*. /5Llty, 9Q!5sih) 255, 625, 
1141, 1486, 2197, 2732, 2738, 
2739, 2741, 2742, 2758, 2836, 
2913, 3037, 3112a, 3136, 3141, 
3144, 3210, 3260, 3522. 

Z-peSiQeo Qeus 1917. 

&./DOJ ^ippgi 1742. 

e_/tf 517, 1217, 1689, 2755. 

a./* «r/D 2475. 

p-flemvus slLl. 3217. 

z_j8uSd\) Qfn& 3262. 

e./0(g5* 2608. 

e-^ 1896, 1948. 

2-gvj3uut— 3114. 

s_,gy;?/5 2786. 



INDEX 



451 



»_«»/d 093a. 
esspuSdo $}(— 2453. 
&_<aap&& 2784. 
&_pujpi5l6ssri—i£> 3070. 
supppirih 3258. 
o-ppg) 132. 
P-pqrffr 31 G2. 



sm.® 2943, 3152. 
vssGuQuirs 1010, 1178. 
sen® eSps 1436. 
£*e*_/ta_ 2757. 
sskQ^oj 1952. 

sscili_ 38, 944, 2152, 3334, 3627. 
naLLy. toearcis 2090, 3102, 3335, 
3336. 

SezasBT 1145. 

a*2^ 526, 690, 2065, 2538, 3097. 

asL<£<sn£ 3014. 

z>eEp<as)p<aiinuj6Br 1 787- 

vss.$£uups& 790. 

psE^uurrirss 3348. 

&sies)i£) 183. 

ewTLo (c/. fi-ii>) I505o. 

eerj 1892. 

6^2269,3117,3196. 

sssJrd^f^eS 2082a. 

vss.it i5&)eojp 2615. 

©ertswj^ ifr^^ 767. 

ssLirQmeo 3336. 

8^494,2116,2118. 

vmpliJ^utTs 2325. 

asKvp 679, 2621, 3190, 3209. 

ssiLpg: 1504. 

ssLGsrth 3085. 

ssump 3449. 

esum^nQsireo 661. 



STsSiuth 3362. 

srikiQs-eiiiQs 2819. 

er*Q& 146, 1782, 3605. 

<sr&&&> ^jjrds 3172. 

erfSfteu &7®i«s 1562. 

6r*fi«> ssv 2101, 3079. 

gt#Qg> GfiTgi 1764, 3007. 

6T®,i^7a9z_ 2193. 

srii*- 911, 1022, 1072, 2128, 

2674, 2774. 
ejiLusf-U unn&peuGi 1980. 
erdi^iseoR 2401. 
'siiLuf.ssirin 2959. 
enli-jT&r 2641. 
otl1®<s(<5 eSps 1055. 
etL-(dQpifiih 960. 
CTtl® eutrii-geop 554. 

CT6WT6S8T 1021, 1849. 

ereearesanM 1016. 

eresar^uSjnh 1017, 3365, 3366. 

GTetrQeaorJj 7,- 722, 1206, 1269, 

1992, 2754, 2767- 
erglifl 590. 
er^nds 2219. 
er^ifl&fbso 1569. 
er^lirunil® 1352. 
OTJ5W QP&& 1034. 

GTJgllT61]tT&(&j 34. 

ct^C/t ®^ 314, 324, 325. 

<5ieBT£&)6i} 1166. 

<st^^ssi 1418. 

apettesrQuh 1849. 

eri^u Lj t g Jgl 852. 

sru>«r 889, 2672, 2954, 3072, 

3578. 
OTiflesr yj 1522. 
GTLLpQjjuuTirggecn' 3484. 
67 thump Jdirih 427, 2036. 

GTUJpIt— 73. 



452 



INDEX 



enftuu 23, 326, 2426, 3291. 
erifleee* 3102. 
67(5,^ 358, 896, 946. 
eifT^QpCea)!-. 2272, 2293. 
<5T0<sau) 1257, 3165. 
6T0gb>l£&si—<t 1242. 

GiqtjGBU) IAIT® 1161. 

ctq»703, 1719,3561. 
CT6$igj@* 1432, 2161. 
wed? duf.ss 2004, 2548. 
sr&SuLjQpseas 1992. 
erffiiUffih 1222, 1744, 1799. 
GTsuthLj 386, 615, 2145, 2505. 
erggthLj srgjtcL/ 872. 

GTg)UDUfTtLluQuiT& 489. 

GT&iuxanuuQuin— 1929. 
CTffiG© 1043. 
ct^^ 2801. 
<sT(tgp<5rresaf) 3449. 

<*Q$fiS> 3, 43, 47, 51, 1687, 2346, 
2351, 2399, 2852, 2918, 3364. 

vQgfcglQS&s 878, 1122, 1126. 

vQQuiSeSL- 1901a, 2466. 

er&ihu 39, 2823. 

GTaRg, 739. 

CT6rr9«nu) 902. 

var<e$ 352, 2754, 2978. 

Gr«M(etTjd&rrdj 598. 

CT( a9 582. 

ct^uj 2107, 2327, 2623, 2885, 
2893, 2993. 

sjjSigieSi— 1619. 

ergiuLj 2070, 3184. 

erekunn 3422. 



GJ&GS)& tSUtUElS 3099. 

stlLu}-go &(ip£ 2376. 

ejsssflu uk^Co 897. 

ejssSsaiv euiriiis 916. 

asean-tr 2770. 

gjjp 424, 1505, 1873, 3593. 

vie 3007. 

gjuuu> 2693. 

sjuuiAl— 1634. 

gtuuw gmt 2685. 

STUU&&tTJT6br 1713. 
STLDIT&g 891. 

sjtbss 890. 
sj/t9 1242. 

GTjfliKDUJ S_<SK>f_«<5 2003. 

sr/r 1731. 

ejQeaeou urru.® 2000. 

wa; 1902a. 

®(y> 1805, 2759. 

sjQg&i—id 3026. 

sjenp 894, 1744, 1759, 2902. 

sraRfiih 2672. 

vp 292a, 486,773, 806, 1112, 

1502&, 1255, 1541, 1762, 1830, 

2022, 2063. 
sjpe8.u. 1009. 

S7/P£$L 1598. 

sjpuuu}- 3201. 

&(n?6®& 2121. 

<si{fip fi&retr 309. 

<zip& 1833. 

erpeos 2067. 

&PP 1210, 1391, 2624, 3093. 

<5jppu> Quni— 1333, 2566. 

<sjm 1595a. 



67* 1502a. 
erssu 1014, 2480. 
9JS-&& QsCs 1950. 



QOGuesoru) 2338. 
%QujrT 807. 



INDEX. 



453 



g)i/j6or 1833. 
«gttj<65)<f 539. 



sps* 580, 1537, 1547, 1702. 

9@<?/fl2814. 

5?ijuLf 536, 3590. 

5><p.i* 287, 787. 

9®i<s 204. 

9 l1l- 66, 898, 910, 1187, 1214, 

2699, 2782, 2830, 2832, 2835, 

2897, 3632. 
$iLi—esr 1723. 
gtli—rTtssr 1175. 
^ili_o9^'8so 1187. 
^Lii^dQsfT&r&r 923. 
5>tl® jytp.! 978. 
£>lL®<£ QsiroiesatuD 1687. 
^l!®^ gjahVmr 1671. 
$l1®uGum- 1815. 
9«Rjri_ 3380. 
5>6OTi^. 1528. 
§?^7idf 755. 
$g}iQ&) eun 3192. 
^gjisis 1685. 

W 131, 134, 2821, 2822, 2853, 
2856. 

$g£l@ia 2820. 
^uuirifl 62;s. 
^uuir/fl^ ■£!&&»■£ 3198. 
9u W 5, 1776, 3437. 
$uL]d(9) 290. 
^iLiurrifih 1766. 
5>aS6U 1570. 
^J6wraoi_ 177. 
5>(i5 easu uititss 612. 
9(5 #/5^ 649. 

^QljQulTQpgl 869. 

^giAss 1885, 2131, 2831. 



$sSI*s 3057. 
S?i$uj 2928, 2929. 
9Q$s 1913, 3437, 3442. 
§>q#su Qu# 2381. 

9^,5,5^0 650. 

9<T£>i(5 1920. 

9«tfi* 534, 745, 1031, 1177, 

2025, 2721, 2730. 
fxaBui^ 1148. 
9<*r-pi 283, 3080. 

QGSTgH pSBTQIpUJ 1180. 



apssLLi—nesr 387. 

spsmetruo 1631. 

<^»uurtuf. 346, 387. 

£«»<* 2478, 2823. 

^6©^ Qup 3068. 

fpeeebr 1378. 

g><_ 951, 1268, 1537, 2080. 

Gpi—s&rrjrsisr 2182. 

gt—ti> 945. 

^QQpeueisr 2044. 

S£® OT®<5<5 1738. 

§>® 2835, 3262, 3357, 3358. 
pit-. 1778, 2352, 2393. 
£ili_ii 469, 1540, 3546. 

gilt—irisi Qeifl@&&) 654. 
^tla»«_ 144, 1760. 
^ilsroL- ^tlsrof_ 2850. 
§L-<ani—& s&iih 1654. 
^tla»t_<s seSupss 751. 
^tls»i_u utr2ssr 3442. 
giLQiurQi- 2257. 
£>^>ot 728, 2731, 2761. 

6?(6OT)65r l§Uf-&3 2045. 
ge<g3)S5X L/<£ 2680. 

$# 129. 
§>^i 2324. 

68 



454 



INDEX, 



£u>ii 1630, 3363. 

6}U)60 577. 

giu 499. 

GpiLlj: QflT&)eO 875. 

<5}iuu Quits 1314. 

SyOJfTLDGO 3368. 

Gfuutruxso Que 2350. 
fpn&pGsl 580. 
5^555 O<F/rs\)60 600, 3468. 
gift 3166. 

§>&o 387, 1651, 2057, 2672, 3327, 
3449. 



<spm<3L?>fiL. 



2510. 



0»ss 174. 

ssSs Qsit®ss 2159. 

sssth (cf. ^js^&t) 136,. 270. 

siasirQ^eS 1623. 

sisJsrrusijfTeaft 1658a. 

siisas 523, 2440, 30656. 

s*ss 171, 1082, 1725, 2401, 

2978,3001. 
s&uu 2249. 
s#Q*ift 1633. 
&&os)& slLu. 682, 1402. 
*®fi 730, 1109, 1305, 3230. 
^©^ (Sjisf-ss 1163. 
&(trfip p&krssisPiT 1030. 
<s@0i(5 ^Lp 302. 
#(GJ)&(Lmriju Quits 1706. 
si- su. 3371. 
«i_«<s (cf. pneoort—) 2182. 
si—&) (cf fQppglmh) 804, 2243, 

2655,3017,3026. 
au.eo ^y>ih 2024, 2026. 



<su.e\> Q&qtf&iTg} 3056. 

'■BLj%50p piTGSBTL- 2046. 

si-<k 1053, 1083, 2023, 2082, 

3059. 
*t-/r 163, 1967, 3194. 

SI—TTS &6BOT 2949. 

su.n QsuiLl. 2002. 

suf.se 793, 1567, 1901a, 1924, 

2475, 2556, 3083. 
s if.su ireirih 1146, 2290. 
s® s® 2392. 
fair 581. 



*®© 2171,3027. 

<s®ul/ 1451, 1968, 3346. 

semi- 468, 563, 1421, 1435, 1977. 

s&SL—dsirrresr 849. 

«s»i_ Q<slL*_ 3166a. 

«s<s»f_ az/riZ; 1615, 1642. 

ses)L-u uk^i 3185. 

setau-uufreesfj (sf-ekeiriT6Ssrl) 238, 2005. 

«a»i_ <s}jl£I 2943. 

*6»i_«u 369, 2534. 

stlu. 572, 2044, 3294. 

atlif 3110. 

siLq. s\$ 3192. 

siLijp.sQsn68BT® euj 2650. 

SLLisf-sQsn&T&r 3611. 

sili+u una 1203, 1462. 

su.if.u Qu# 2793. 

su.if.eo 1225, 2699. 

*tl® 2593, 2639. 

eu.®eunn 1052. 
SU.® GTgtllAU 548. 

slLQujtQu. 1262, 2119. 

su.®s sQpptgl (cf. Queaarffir^l) 3535. 

su.®s (g&oaj 1618. 

su.®& Q&rrjpi 2579. 

su.®p <st£l 2069. 

SU-®UUU- 3131. 



1 N D E X , 



455 



*tle»z_ 490, 986, 2006, 2595, 

2630. 
sears® 42, 1127, 1470, 3228. 

SG8BTS(9j gUUttgl 2189. 

scours® uiriiss 1741, 2050, 2147. 
semBJGsr (cf. ^ihusai—iurrssr) 3161, 

3548, 3549, 3556, 3611. 
seaaBeth 2917. 
sssyis&ireo 1325. 
szaxi- ©i_£i) 828, 972, 1131a, 

3486,3489. 

sessri— ueoesr 1968. 

sesBn-iLn'ted 1531, 2323. 

sesBri—m 862, 3411. 

senn-Gifh 905, 2392, 2888, 3200. 

&60tjr®L$ijp-&a> 1235. 

se^r & L^ 178, 2419,2684,3169. 

S6SST(^)lL(^. (cf. &GBO(gSS)&rGGr) 3446. 

sem^tt)U$(njs& 2531. 

season 3116. 

seanT^aystresr (cf. ssssr^^tLt^.) .3552. 

seJaresfn 269, 275, 1498, 1702. 

&a*r 151, 152, 153, 972, 973, 

1218, 2949, 3046a, 3281, 

3 150. 
semQetssr 3535. 
sesaressrHoioOn^euesT 1495. 

S63BT B-piEJSITg) 98 1 . 

sesur srpl 582. 
setts £i_ 2080. 
SSSBT slLl— 2893. 

seaur Qent—ss 2301. 
setsor QsLLi— 2761 . 
sssbt QsirQss 1499, 363.'!. 
seaar Qsrr&ren 2697. 
seen Qgifliurrgj 1864. 
sesai QeueowQu) 2135. 
seaur rSetnpiu 3556. 
ssagreasrl&) us 762. 



sakesfi®) icesnr2essruQuni_ 830. 

semesSeo (gpp 429, 1271, 1566, 

3216. 
ssaaressfleo ui_ 3215. 
seen 3516. 
sebsiritl 639, 1430. 

S9n)LD!T6QU) 851. 
S<3Lf>n(L)U) 2539. 

se^i^ih 3370, 3377. 
**«y 693, 2814. 
sfiof ^uf.ss 1998. 
see] 9np$ 2162, 2807. 

sgGtneujg ^ipeuv^. 2195. 
sppl £{ip 1704. 

s$ 3075, 3079, 33 47. 
sfi Qsi- 3587. 
s$ir 989. 
s@ir s8l- 2529. 
&&ȣ 423. 

soap uisf-vuirQ^ 2811. 
sp$ 725, 766. 
s$$sl wit i— lib. 
s$$u Gum— 2807. 
sptsl amiss 999. 
spptflss 2798. 
sppifissniLi 1299, 1548. 
sihguQutrts}. 359, 1084. 

S(5$MJULD 1193. 

*««>;* 93, 314, 2885, 3061, 3159. 

si5GB)£ QurrjpisQ 3049. 

suuaap 509, 706, 1205. 

suuio 562, 659, 777, 1204, 1220, 

1401, 2464, 2666, 3060. 
suiSI 1795. 
sutS @t9.ss 1986. 
sun 2325. 
Sinn 357. 
SQpqfj 1953. 
sqpsslL® 1726. 



456 



INDEX. 



sqpssun 1728, 3158. 
swum sk-up 3247. 
sthuth 2900. 

sihueiflssmrasr 2484. 
sihu&fl Qu>ges)£ 2931. 
sihuerfl Qeusifiu) 217. 

&thL9G&) «% 1167. 
sri** 731, 1813, 2271. 
suSjbgi £&rt£> 1338. 

suSgn Quns 72. 

ssrsu) 642. 

snuf. 720, J 020, 3095. 

sneuuQuitL- 555, 1969, 2897. 

snemuL 1624, 1630, 3488. 

SlB&68TU) 2391. 

*A 547, 2029. 
sfiiu 2060. 
sMs 3213. 
s/fl* sCes)L- 1437- 
sifts sL.eaar® 550. 
«/#<£ (o<B/r60ii 3595. 
sifi $i—<8>i 388. 
«fl up 388. 

*J0 LOOB0 1637. 

sifiesitu mySis 1026. 
sift ©eva^io 546. 
&0&(9j 3367. 

SQJ)l—<5Bt 680. 

sQjfiessrs Ql^ieiq 701a, 2369. 

10^ 1311, 1471. 

8Q$?gi& Qfrrioeo 1852. 

*0u>4 1200, 1428, 1432, 3514. 

s(Tjju>u) 520. 

*(5ii 4 2772, 3580. 

s^mrresr 1809, 3201. 

*(5fiwr©549, 1309, 1746. 

SQfjeunil.®u urr^ssr 2274. 
S0 Qeuuddyeo 845. 
SGB)2 3115. 



sew 67/5 1871, 2022, 2969. 
saswss 1802, 2616, 2620, 2705, 

2886, 3157. 
ssdijuj 22856, 3403. 
*<f 3611. 

stmm 2130, 2137, 3313. 
siTLjtSlasB 333. 
a/fuyjm) 428, 2170. 
siruL^rr eunf'2esr 638. 

<S6U<S6tfQffl>687- 1223. 

s&)sili 630. 

<s6t\s miT&u> 632. 

*e»i* 622, 853. 

«6Dsff 1610, 2483,2714, 2663, 

2669. 
seouuneo 91, 2154. 
seoueau 1840. 
seoih 2528, 3014. 
sevih SQpsu 645. 

<£6lteB)ffl/ 316()6. 

seSstreoih 2213. 

seStiuireaarih 280, 451, 943, 951, 
1286, 1298, 1462, 1780, 1792, 
1885, 1966, 1977, 2025, 2377, 
2546, 2778, 3480, 3494, 3516. 

seSvunesar <seo)jgs s^LL[^.emeuss 2191. 

seSiurreaar suneeo 2373. 

seSn 3057. 

steeds 623. 

s^gou 2918. 

seoeo 789. 

s&) gtronip 287. 

seo 3287. 

s&} r^p 1866. 

sit er®ss 280, 2047. 

aeo srrSuu 2993. 

seoQeOnQu- 1770. 

s&> Qptu 1892. 

s^^u Gu^l_ 741, 769, 2578. 



IN D EX. 



457 



3&) sSl. 2327. 

*60g8 {cf. eSjaafi) 1186, 1491, 

1493,' 1501, 1504, 1502a. 
aSveS Gu* 2812. 

sevfBinn&sr 1616. 

s^ireariT 483, 910. 

3&<te> 1912, 2655, 2660. 

&aurT&nb 442, 605, 2543. 

seBunt- 2069. 

aeSup 1273. 

seSy&s 730, 804. 

seSippgiLj Qua 614. 

■sE&tpp^eSi— 367. 

<so9i« 679, 863. 

««oa 3609. 

*g»ai(5(5 e_^a; 3205a. 

agpp 1226. 

s^arfl 1948. 

a$aa 2379, 2773. 

5^ 872, 3341, 3513. 

aqg 1927, 1957. 

aQ$mf 389, 463, 469, 549, 641, 

687, 1492, 1541, 1570, 1747, 

1806, 1926, 2320, 2970, 3071, 

3080, 3356, 3371. 
&QpeiB0 GiDtLss 907, 1599, 1899, 

2498. 
sqpbj 352, 805, 2242, 2243, 2380, 

2528, 3087, 3029, 3190, 3605. 
*Qg$n unrest 3045, 3046. 
s(tp^^ (cf. Qu6obi#ii$eI) 2218, 3555. 
*QP£jp 386, 707, 708a, 750, 773, 

1301, 1302, 1909. 
*&**> JWW 223, 228, 229, 

231, 232, 1258, 3224. 
&(tg$gi <3>uilL.®id 1300. 
a&rih 1434, 1492. 
aetru> cgytf as 3314. 

««tq/ 197, 428, 812. 



aetrnaaruj 2889. 

aoflthu 2985. 

sSerr 1752. 

ds&rr QviIl-. 362, 947. 

a&ren&sr 267, 456, 823. 

a&tena §lk<anp 3043. 

ametiu u^ t Q 2858. 

aar&f) 1841,3000. 

am<e$ 494, 2329, 2693. 

a&ri&^ @if«« 321, S005. 

a&rVetr eunhaa 236. 

apaa 2131, 2154, 2264, 2610, 

3018. 
api5£ut$- 3118. 
afi 1087, 1153, 1507, 2349, 

2847, 2927. 
a<8 <gjauGB)u 1057. 
arflaQj jySsoaj 2433. 
apluiShso 1932. 

anpu H 448, 1074, 2396, 2403. 
apuath 768. 
apu 514. 
applet* 1502. 
apjpiaQanQaa 224, 2073. 
aesraeenh 1478. 
amaj 1671, 2670, 2671, 2679, 

3404. 
aesrajaiT&zr 406, 1367, 1674. 
aesriD 2726. 
aesTLDpluj 706. 
aesrih (gesypuj 1609. 
aesr^Q^rrQi— 1587. 
aeor iseipt—ih 933. 
aesB 3154. 
ae&ujupgi 1907. 
ams» 2181, 2154, 2328, 3244. 
aasripiQLLu}- 1830. 
a^erti 1894, 2138. 
assrsmflt— 2172. 



458 



INDEX. 



a^srmsQanio 270, 817, 2087, 

3222. 
smeS 259, 1789. 



&fTss (cf. sfruurrpp) 2089, 2091, 
2097, 2868, 3236. 

snsQp<mm 1173. 

snssnib or arrssms 672, 677, 680, 
686, 743, 937, 1445, 2226, 
2296/2331, 2337, 2476, 2692, 
2737, 3004, 3050, 3238. 

snssnib G£lLl-. 1778. 

sns- (cf. &lJS) 1076, 2347. 

sn&Qjjss 2433. 

sn^QujJw 1271. 

«r©446, 1942,2771. 
sn® Qu>® 1359. 
&nis)- 1598. 
snemi- 2222. 
anil.®u unihu 2330. 
srnlL. 1456, 1835. 
aniLuf.&) e$L- 2247. 
anem 1606, 1793, 3441. 
snQ & ih 1311, 2132. 
*/r«a»fl837, 1130, 2008. 
snessf) Qsn®sa 2766. 
&iressf}uj/nl.(d 137. 

SfT6SOrUITIT 1446. 

snesariSss 2895. 

*/™$ 391, 1310. 

s*0ih 27, 1150, 1266, 3214. 

s*#,th Quits 3143. 

sir? e»$ 974, 1139, 2375, 2598. 

sirjt 336, 621, 2057, 2716, 2787, 

3046a. 
sing) ^guss 581, 705. 
snetngs slq-ss 2905. 



snenps <spi_ 1655. 

sag, $ Q&f) 1015. 

snuunpp (cf. arras) 2096, 2378, 

3365. 
anuurresr 824. 
srruu 539, 940. 

SfTLCITU.1^. I5ITUJSIT 261. 
SMDS& IBMUSIT 261. 

avLDirasfi 923. 

*/raj 568, 1151, 1416, 2445, 2845a, 

2851. 
snujua 3489. 
amuib «i_tli_ 2488. 
sirdj 495, 3266. 
siTih jypluu 3543. 
anibspl 1507. 
*ff<£/«* 688, 1282, 1548, 1953, 

1252a, 3458. 
wiiw# 1500, 2788, 3410. 
sntb**&> 584, 1236, 1441, 2248, 

2511. 

SITUJUU <5jp 2139. 

snjjessrii 1071, 2207. 

snfiuih 348, 361, 1320. 

sniftiu (3j(T7j 123. 

anh 1333. 

sirrreglstns 2527, 3516. 

<S/T6#6l) ^Lli- 2442. 

,5/rstf^ «% 626, 1035, 1037. 

srTGys(3)u Quni— 2845. 

snTeo ®i_ 1334. 

snteop pplss 2283. 

sirteeu dlu?.as 222, 2186, 2390. 

snVeo QlditIss 2456. 

«/r?so o;/r/fl sj^-as 225. 

«r«> 942a, 1893. 

aneo slL® 3568. 

a/yei; a(ip&j 805. 

«/T6V-^'Seo 2806. 



INDEX 



459 



sn& ul. 179, 185. 
sneomir® 619. 
SIT&) Qpt—S& 3431. 

sir&> emsuss 945. 

sneuuf. 2794. 

snsueo 2165. 

siren psirum 1683. 

sireueoeaeuss 2163, 2164, 2166. 

sireuQ&nQss 1996, 2002. 

snQ&fi 3108. 

s/7«0 642. 

sn'Berr 3511. 

sirpuestsrih 359. 

srrpjpi 3349. 

snp^i gju^ss 2921. 

snpQrfiL upss 302, 1754, 2640. 



@l£lEJ(9j 1147. 

®ip/B(5 Oq/l1l_ 671. 

QiptEisiriL 2205. 

%# 2156. 

%0i* 609, 2156, 2809, 2866. 

S^tu 603, 2939, 2981. 

Qstruu 683. 

©ot/d 1842. 

Qeirrrssrrdj 2761. 

QetfluiSlvrVsfr 510a, 1483, 2296, 

3450. 
©&w 808. 
Q2etr QVsit 2599. 

®dr«r 292, 437, 821, 835, 3304. 
S&r&flp Silent ear 3440. 
Q&r^s Seasr 1604. 



Qt-is 574, 1124, 2082a, 2575. 

Gent- 752, 928. 

£au.«a 2883, 3031, 3425. 

Qesn-iu 2991. 

QlLl- 1108. 

Sewg, 195, 744, 1323, 1457, 

2438, 3219, 3518. 
Q<mpp1& eSy> 190, 191, 878. 

Qesurgi QshlLi— 1308. 

QuurruSiLiiurr 1087. 

Qzs&rnjth 1291. 

Qnsemih 130, 2239. 

Qns&vp'asr 827. 

&)(T7j(a£(6OT) (ajsffii 296. 

©igij lSIssbtlL 1452. 

%<i> 2412. 

%o;s3r 1712, 2405. 

%>©» 3427. 

Qt^sQs 957. 

Qg&Qs utrrrss 1058. 

QpsQs-QupGs 957, 2952, 3139. 



^5<£<9F £?,£* 510a, 2241. 

gfiuiSeMor 2194, 2762. 

Seour 659, 1612, 2430, 2808. 

Qesiffs^essr® 2509. 

SQif> 295, 298. 

GQifi suit 1703. 

£,z> 566, 2109, 2895, 3110. 



(gens 563. 

(SjihQeSujuD 1685. 

@e/<5 1526. 

@/q(5 -fsfffl 2240. 

(9j&euesr 3613. 

@ * eSi- 1839, 2582. 

@*8 2825. 

<5«? d?® 565, 3178. 

@@* 2033, 2090, 2473, 3248. 

@t _<i> 807, 2342, 2626, 3459. 

(3jt—U> S-6RI—UJ 3016. 

@i _6b 2894, 3322. 



460 



INDEX, 



&t9 . 1394, 2600, 2831, 3182, 3412, 
.3629. 

(S u f .uS0ds 2188, 2427,2827,3033. 

@if«« 1500, 2513. 

<gi$.Qa;mareir 1982, 1987. 

@i$L,<£,s5 tirr 877. 

(&}[$.ea0: 1723. 

(sjuf-pgemh 3158, 3166a, 3177, 

3426, 3530. 
gjif. grriKiQ 2095. 

(3ji£. IhlTfth 491. 

gjqt Quits 322. 
(jqu/jGor 293. 

(3}U}.UJtT05r<3U<5Br 1375. 

gjip. evrr^sstna 3161, 3176. 
^ufjesmi Q&®sa 221, 226, 2220. 
@i£. QslLi—jp 392. 

@if STOOJ 6#L_ 52 1 . 
@££. eS&nhs 2140. 

@®u0 1266, 1350, 1364, 1372, 

2567. 
& ®u9 iStf.is 222, 2186. 
<5®a»6w 558, 860, 1559, 1583, 

1696. 
@«»i_ 1389. 
(3>68M_ uliy-da 704. 
@«ot_uj 728, 19026. 
@ili_ 743. 

(^lLlutiLs (5^l<s« 1727. 
©tlif 436, 2856, 2859, 2963. 
@Llff# *ayfr 188, 1049, 1674, 

2054, 2222. 
(Stly. Qurn- 3076. 
@l1® (<s(jp««ti)) 3158. 
@tl® 606. 

GilQa gilt- 1397, 3352. 
&tLQu ui_ 206, 1925. 
@il«oi_ 1276. 
&S0B nh 155, 856, 1285, 2014, 2216, 

2408, 2520, 2611, 3432, 3621. 



(SjQSSUDfStU 3553. 

(Sjssgri—eisr 584. 

©aw® ftLuf. 1263, 2436. 

©6OT® 3006. 

@aar® CWz_ 1149. 

@6wr«D*_ 1127, 1865, 3025. 

(S^L-QrjuQ 1035. 

(2fj£lh<3DLI 1678. 

®^i<5 2353. 

®©«wr 678, 1151, 1382, 2270, 

3054. 
@®/7 988, 989, 990. 
<5W 429, 670, 674, 1989a, 2061, 

2530a, 2532, 2617, 2622, 3084, 

3490. 
(§&& <sus 2184. 
gj/sjs? 3575. 
@^ 3562. 
@l/l/ mnuu&esr 2636. 
©usolj 682, 857, 1301, 1590, 

1751, 1842,2979,361:.. 

(3}UGB)LJ <ojp 3539. 

<5u>tli_ 555, 3339. 

@a)//? 3474. 

(&jl£I iliy-ffi siluf. 2446. 

(9jwuQ&n<5SBnh 1625, 1626. 

(SthiSlL. 180, 642, 888, 1051, 1248, 

1400, 1597, 1601, 1984, 3223. 
gjubiil® eutriEis 1592. 
qi)ix>wn&rih Quiri— 1386. 
& uS&) 2944. 
©j/b@ 159, 315, 374, 552, 558, 

717, 729, 902, 1013, 1805, 

1880, 2827, 3008, 3086, 3331, 

3519. 
(BjMEj&nub Qpisf.{Li 2967. 
(Snio 1092, 1570, 3448. 
(gugxih Qurrs 795. 
GGL-esr 323, 2134, 2304. 



INDEX. 



461 



(3>(<5££- 2195. 

(5(5® 1194, 2594. 

(^(t^lLQs sssreS 1789. 

(sj^il® Q<su^so 2425. 

(SQSPgi sfiso 3327. 

@(5 59, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 

131, 841, 2108, 2109, 2402. 
@(25 g&y&sBG! 1937. 
&Q5 eS 1180, 1983, 1999, 2279. 
(Seoth ((/. &n t ®) 54, 852, 855, 1392, 

1464, 1869, 2122, 2228, 3519, 

3602, 3623. 
(2>6Ulo a&)d& 853. 
<2>6tf !5n&U) 774. 

(9)®in&nmh 252. 

(3>6tf/J) (cU* 1856. 

& mai 271, 2761. 
<5&tfaj 1054, 1091, 1523, 1618. 
@%u 1548, 2929. 
(sfiso jtjgvss 431. 

& ^oss 810, 1076, 1316, 1994, 
2027, 3618. 

(3j®)&)i7 761. 

@o9iaj 528,2110. 
@^5s»^ 1556, 1967. 
(§ipiheo><g Q^ngu 1765. 
@$ 1532. 

(gy# Q^tTGSBfL- 794. 

@/$ u,o9 1349. 

(VjySluS®) efliip 741. 

(giaaifids 267, 1410. 

(&j6®L£iu 1765, 2779. 

(^ani 1606, 2734a, 3115. 

(§<an}> QsriTthu 2034«. 

(9jetrih QsulLl- 3009. 

& &R 3505. 

(500*0 839, 1320, 1725,