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LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 



CLEMENT OF 
ALEXANDRIA 



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Translated by ,^ ^ 

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G. W. BUTTERWORTH i 



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CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 



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Sr JOHN AND THE ROBBER. 



CLEMENT 
OF ALEXANDRIA 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

G. W. BUTTERWORTH, M.A. 

BODINGTON MEMORIAL FELLOW OP 
THE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS 

THE EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 
THE RICH MANS SALVATION 

AND THE FRAGMENT OF AN ADDEESS ENTITLED 

TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLX 



First printed 1919 
Reprinted 1939. 1953. 1960 



PrifUed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 

St. John and the Robber . . Frontispiece 

PAGE! 

Introduction ....... xi 

Bibliography .--... xix 



THE EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Introduction 3-9.1 

The minstrels of Greek legend were supposed to 
have performed wonderful deeds by the power of 
music. But the new minstrel, the Word of God, 
does greater works in real life. His power is shown 
in saving men from slavery to daemons ; and also 
in giving order and harmony to the universe. 
He is the New Song ; and yet old, for He was " in 
the beginning." He alone reveals God to men. 

Description of the Greek Mysteries . 27-51 

Sanctuaries, oracles, sacred springs and trees are now 
out of date. The mysteries ; derivation of the word 
' mystery ' ; originator of mysteries. Mysteries of 
(i.) Aphrodite, (ii.) Demeter,(iii.) Attis and Cybele. 
Story of Persephone. The mysteries of Dionysus. 
Rites of the Corybantes and the Cabeiri. The Ele- 
usinian formula. These mysteries are profane 
and unholy ; Heracleitus witnesses against them. 
Greeks, not Christians, are the real atheists. 



CONTENTS 

PAOK 

Description of the Greek Gods . . 53-101 

Seven causes of idolatry. Many gods of the same 
name. Gods were really men ; examples to prove 
this. The immorality of the gods, with examples. 
Goddesses equally guilty. The Greek games are 
all held in honour of dead men. Origin of phallic- 
emblems in Dionysus-worship. Gods have even 
been slaves. They have human feelings and 
needs. Zeus was once ahve, but is now dead. 
Greeks themselves call the gods by stupid and 
indecent names ; Egyptian animal worship is 
better than this. Greeks also worship animals ; 
examples. Are the Greek gods daemons, or 
secondary divinities? Certainly they are not 
guardians of men, but savage and man-hating 
creatures, as is proved by human sacrifices. Such 
daemons must be avoided hke wild beasts. Men 
are better than daemons, e.g. Solon than Apollo. 
The gods' temples are really tombs. 

The Worship of Statues . . . 101-143 

The first images were unwrought wood and stone ; 
in later times they were made into human shape. 
They are all the work of men ; as is shown by 
many examples. Even the image of Sarapis in 
Alexandria is of human workmanship. The dei- 
fication of Antinous is another example of god- 
making ; his tomb is now a temple. The Sibyl 
predicts the destruction of temples with their 
images. Heracleitus scoffs at image-worship. 
Images are without life, and sacrifices do them 
no good. The lowest animals are better than 
any statues. God's true image is mental, not 
material. Rulers despise statues, and insult 

vi 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

them. Thieves steal them. Fire and earthquakes 
destroy them. Sculptors make them look like 
their own favourites. Both kings and private 
persons, scorning image-worship, have styled 
themselves gods. The epitaph of Hippo shows 
that all gods were once men. They are now un- 
clean spirits that haunt tombs, and their statues 
are simply earth and art. The fascination of art 
has led men to fall in love with statues ; now it 
leads men to worship them. Stories of gods are 
full of immorahty ; but Christians are living 
images of God, and must not listen to them. 
Indecent pictures hung in houses ; indecent 
symbols on rings ; shameful emblems displayed 
in public. Image-making is forbidden to Chris- 
tians. Men must seek after God, and not after 
any created thing. 

The Witness of Philosophy . . . 145-163 

Early philosophers supposed the elements to be 
first principles. This veneration of matter is 
mere atheism. It originates with barbarians. 
Other philosophers sought for a higher first 
principle, as the Infinite, or Mind. The Stoic 
doctrine of Immanence. The Peripatetic doc- 
trine ; God the soul of the universe. Epicurus. 
A crowd of minor philosophers who exalt the 
elements. But Plato is a better guide ; together 
with Euripides and Democritus, he knows the 
majesty of the true God. Whence came Plato's 
wisdom ? From barbarians, as he confesses, i.e. 
from the Hebrews. Antisthenes, Xenophon, 
Socrates, Cleanthes and Pythagoras also knew 
the truth. 



CONTENTS 

FAOB 

The Witness of Poetry . . . 163-173 

Poetry is entirely concerned with fiction, yet it cannot 
help bearing some witness to truth. Examples 
from Aratus, Hesiod, Sophocles, Orpheus. Even 
comic poets know the truth, for instance, Men- 
ander. Homer, too, and many others speak ill 
of the gods ; but especially Euripides. 



The Witness of Hebrew Prophecy . 173-195 

The sacred writings are simple in style, but of great 
power. A prelude from the Sibyl. Many quota- 
tions to show the majesty of the one true God 
and His love for man ; from Jeremiah, Isaiah, 
Moses, Hosea, Solomon, David. But Christ the 
Word speaks with even greater authority. He 
invites us into His kingdom, to be sons of God. 
Punishment awaits unbelievers. We must then 
obey God " to-day." The meaning of " to-day." 
We must choose between God's grace and His 
displeasure. Salvation is beyond price ; yet it 
can be bought for faith and love. God is our 
teacher, through the scriptures. All may become 
His children. 



The Claims of Custom .... 197-237 

Ought men to abandon their traditional ways ? Yes, 
just as children abandon childish ways. Custom 
is the real obstacle to godliness. It refuses 
all guidance. The sight of filthy and degraded 
priests ought to bring men to God, who is a 
loving Father. Yet some men are like worms 

viii 



CONTENTS 

PAQB 

and swine, loving what is foul. God has a splen- 
did inheritance for His children; heaven and 
earth are theirs without cost. An innate faith 
in goodness is possessed by all, and is worthy of 
trust. Custom is stupid ; it deifies mere human 
beings, and sets up stones for worship. God's 
Word is His true image ; and man's mind is an 
image of the Word. Custom is rooted in ignor- 
ance. But ignorance is only an excuse for him 
who has never heard God's message. Custom 
destroys men. It is utterly absurd. Those who 
follow it are like drugged men ; they also become 
like stones when they worship stones. Men are 
the really sacred things, not animals or stones. 
Unbelievers are deaf and blind in heart ; or hke 
serpents, wriggling on the earth. Life is the 
reward for finding God. Divine wisdom helps 
man to do life's duties well. God's children follow 
God's laws, which are severe, but health-giving. 
The Word has brought untold blessings to men. 

God's Plan of Redemption . . . 237-251 

Man was created innocent and free ; but he fell 
through pleasure. The Word became incarnate, 
and died on the Cross to save him. So man gains 
more than he lost. The Word is now man's 
teacher. He brings light and reveals God. The 
night of earth gives place to the day of God. 
The Word is also an amulet that can save from 
sin. This is ever God's purpose — to save men. 
It is proclaimed to men by Christ's bloodless 
army. Those who obey God become His delight 
as well as His handiwork, and they inherit a 
kingdom. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Final Exhortation .... 251-263 

Custom must be shunned as a deadly peril. It is like 
Circe's island. Follow Odysseus' example, and 
be bound to the Cross. Be warned by the mad- 
ness of Pentheus. The Word's mysteries are 
sober ; performed by pure maidens and righteous 
men. These mysteries alone give a vision of 
God. Christ is the true hierophant. He offers 
rest and immortaHty. It is sheer madness to re- 
main in ignorance when truth is within reach. 
Man can become a friend and son of God, but 
only by following Christ. Finally, the reader is 
exhorted to make for himself the great choice 
between life and destruction. 

THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION . 265-367 

TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED . . 368-377 

APPENDIX ON THE GREEK MYS- 
TERIES 379-390 

INDICES 391-409 



INTEODUCTION 

Few facts are known to us concerning the life of 
Clement of Alexandria. His title comes from the 
city which was the scene of all his important work ; 
but an early tradition spoke of him as being an 
Athenian by birth, and this may be correct. The 
date of his birth can be fixed roughly at 150 a.d. ^^'e 
are told nothing of his parentage or early training. 
It seems clear, however, that he was not a Christian 
to begin with. He is so well acquainted with the 
mystery cults that there is a strong probability that 
he had been initiated into some of them. We have 
it on his own authority that he wandered through 
many lands and heard many teachers. Six of these 
he singles out for mention, though not by name ; 
they were " blessed and memorable men," who spoke 
"plain and living words." Doubtless all of them 
were Christians. The last of the six, who was '' first 
in power," and whom he found in Egypt, is almost 
certainly Pantaenus, then head of the Catechetical 
School at Alexandria. Here Clement's wanderings 



INTRODUCTION 

ceased. He became a presbyter of the Church, and 
taught in Alexandria for more than twenty years, 
succeeding Pantaenus as head of the School. On 
the outbreak of persecution under Severus in 202 a.d. 
he left Alexandria, never to return. We get one 
more glimpse of him; in 211 a.d. he was the bearer 
of a letter from Alexander, afterwards bishop of 
Jerusalem, to the Church at Antioch. In this letter 
he is described as " Clement the blessed presbyter, 
a virtuous and esteemed man . . . who upheld and 
extended the Church of the Lord." Alexander was 
one of Clement's old pupils, and a fellow-pupil with 
the great Origen. Clement must have died not long 
after this letter was written ; for the same Alexander, 
writing to Origen a few years later, speaks of him 
together with Pantaenus as " those blessed men who 
have trodden the road before us." 

The extant works of Clement are as follows : — 
the Exhortation to the Greeks ; the Pedagogue or Tidor ; 
eight books of Stromateis or Miscellanies ; a short 
treatise entitled. Who is the rich man that shall he 
saved? together with some fragments called Selections 
from the Prophets, being comments upon portions 
of the Scriptures. There are also a number of short 
extracts from the writings of a certain Theodotus 
with comments thereon. Of the lost works the most 
important is the Hyjwty poses, ov Outlines, a. comment'dry 
upon the Scriptures. Possibly the Selections from the 
Prophets formed part of this work. 
xii 



INTRODUCTION 

The writings of Clement are considerable in 
extent^ and remarkable in character. Hardly a page 
can be found without some quotation from the Old 
or New Testaments. Besides this, Clement makes 
constant references to the Greek poets, dramatists, 
philosophers and historians. He can illustrate his 
argument by a passage from Plato, or by lines from 
Homer or Euripides. He can strengthen his attack 
by quoting Heracleitus or Democritus. Items of 
information about curious, absurd or immoral Greek 
customs he can glean from a crowd of minor authors 
whose works have now perished. It is said that he 
mentions by name more than three hundred such 
authors, of whom otherwise we know nothing. 
Some of these may have been known to him only 
through books of extracts; but there can be no 
question as to his thorough reading of Plato and 
Homer. For Plato he has a sincere admiration, and 
Platonic expressions and ideas, to say nothing of 
direct quotations, are everywhere to be met with in 
his writings. Generally speaking he betrays no 
interest in his authorities except in so far as they 
are useful to establish some point. But this wide 
reading is evidence of a large and generous mind, 
that welcomed the true and the good wherever they 
might be found, confident that every ray of light 
proceeds from the same sun. 

This fearless acceptance of truth from every 
available source makes Clement not only important 



INTRODUCTION 

for his own times^ but also interesting for the world 
of to-day. He was faced by a problem that ever 
recurs^ the problem of blending old truth with new. In 
the second century Christianitj^ had become a power. 
No longer was the Church weak, poor and neglected. 
ILducated men inquired about its faith, and asked 
admittance within its fold ; but they would bring 
with them an inheritance of thought and culture, 
unknown to the simple Christians of an earlier age. 
The question was bound to arise, What relation has 
this to the Christian faith ? Is it to be set aside as 
superfluous, or injurious } Or is all the good in it to 
be accepted and w^elcomed, a proof that God's revela- 
tion extends in a measure to all men, to Greeks 
as well as Jews ? Clement himself had come to 
Christianity with a mind steeped in Greek learning, 
and he answered this question with clearness and 
confidence. Greek learning was not to be rejected. 
Philosophy at its best had stood to the Greeks in 
the same relation as prophecy to the Jews ; it had 
been, he held, a preparation for Christ. It abounded 
in glimmerings and foreshadowings of the divine 
teaching, and could not have come from the devil, 
as timid Christians maintained. It was therefore a 
proper object of study, and the exercise of human 
reason which it pre-supposed could do no harm to 
the Christian faith. Thus Clement, taking his stand 
upon the oneness of truth, laid down the lines upon 
Avhich Christian theology could safely proceed. 



INTRODUCTION 

But while Clement asserted that a real revelation 
had been made to the higher minds of Greece, he 
knew well how slight was its effect on the popular 
morality and religion. Hence the fierce attack 
which is the subject of his first work, the Exhortation 
to the Greeks. With bitter scorn he describes the 
mysteries, seizing upon any disgraceful legend or 
piece of childish ceremonial which seems to stamp 
them as worthless and debasing. As for the gods, 
with their human needs and passions, they are 
subjects for ridicule, to which Clement adds a 
burning indignation when he thinks of the low 
standard of morality attributed to them in the 
current mythology. The worship of images, too, is 
stupid; the true God cannot be represented in 
material form. Yet Clement can prove by quotations 
that philosophers, Plato especially, and even poets, 
had clearly taught the unity, supremacy, and good- 
ness of God. But the greatest witnesses of all were 
the Hebrew prophets, through whom God gave His 
promises to men. The Greeks are prevented from 
accepting the truth by Custom, that dead weight of 
inherited tradition, which must be abandoned. 
Christianity offers man the true mysteries, culminating 
in the vision of God. 

Thus the Greek religion which Clement attacks 
is a thing far removed from the lofty conceptions of 
Plato or Aeschylus. It is the religion of the multitude 
in the Greek-speaking world. Five hundred years 



INTRODUCTION 

before this^ Plato censured the immoralities of the 
gods in terms hardly less severe than those of 
Clement, but Plato's words were ineffective to change 
what he himself was heartily ashamed of. The 
Christian Church, however, under the leadership of 
men like Clement, was slowly gathering the common 
people into a society which upheld a higher view of 
the divine character, and demanded a correspondingly 
higher standard of human conduct. No doubt the 
evil of the popular religion is exaggerated ; certainly 
Clement omits all reference to its good. Yet there 
must have been enough of the evil before men's 
eyes to make Christian life and teaching stand out 
in noble contrast. In the house, in the street, in 
the market-place, at feasts, assemblies and religious 
processions. Christian converts were exposed to 
sights and sounds from which they had learnt in- 
stinctively to shrink. It is such things, and all that 
was bound up with them, that Clement denounces. 
To-day we may admire Greek art without paying 
much attention to the mythology which was then 
inseparable from it ; we may probe mystery religions 
in search of those elements of good which made 
them for centuries the chief spiritual food of the 
common people. Such discrimination is not to be 
looked for in the second century. Clement claimed 
a place for philosophy in the Churcli ; later on a 
home was found for art too, and even the funda- 
mental ideas of the mysteries were not refused 



INTRODUCTION 

admission. Time was necessary to show wliat could 
be assimilated and what could not. In Clement's 
day Christianity was still struggling for existence, 
and popular religion was its deadliest enemy. This 
fact should serve as an excuse for the over-elabora- 
tion of his attack and for one or two passages which 
are unpleasant to a modern reader. 

In preparing the present translation I have had 
the great advantage of being able to work from the 
text of Stahlin, published in 1905. All students of 
Clement must be grateful_, not only for this clear 
and accurate text, but also for the references 
collected by Stahlin, which throw light on many a 
difficult passage. The text printed here is sub- 
stantially that of Stahlin's edition, though I have 
occasionally preferred the conjectures of other 
scholars or retained the manuscript reading where 
Stahlin departs from it. All deviations of any im- 
portance from the mss. are noted at the foot of each 
page. So far as concerns the Ecchortation, the chief 
extant ms. is the Parisian, referred to by Stahlin as 
P. A description of this ms. is to be found in the 
introduction to Stahlin's text (vol. i. pp. xvi-xxiii). 
Depending on P is the Codex Mutinensis, known 
as M. 

This translation was first drafted several years 
ago as part of a complete edition of the Exhorta- 
tion to the Greeks \ and I am still working towards 



INTRODUCTION 

the accomplishment of this larger plan. A grateful 
acknowledgment is due to the committee of the 
Bodington Memorial Fund, in connexion with the 
University of Leeds, for grants which have materially 
assisted the progress of my work. I desire also to 
record my deep indebtedness to the late Dr. Joseph 
B. Mayor, who in the closing years of his life gave 
me most generous and patient help both in the 
details of the translation and in my general study of 
Clement. Most of all, I thank Professor W. Rhys 
Roberts, of the University of Leeds, at whose sug- 
gestion I first began to read Clement, and to whose 
kindly encouragement and ungrudging help is 
largely due my perseverance hitherto in so difficult 
an undertaking. 



xviii 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



The chief editors of Clement of Alexandria are as follows : — 
John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury. His edition 
in two vols, was issued at Oxford in 1715, and is 
reprinted in Migne, P.G. vols. viii. and ix. 
William Dindobf. 4 vols. Issued at Oxford in 18GD. 
Otto Stahlin. 3 vols. Issued at Leipzig 1905-1909. 
This supersedes all previous editions. 
Out of the very large literature that has grown up 
around Clement's works the following books in English 
may be mentioned : — 

Bishop Kaye. Some Account of the Writings and 

Opinions of Clement of Alexandria. London, 1835. 

Bigg. The Christian Platonists of Alexandria. Oxford, 

1886. 
HoBT. Six Lectures on the Ante-Nicene Fathers. 

London, 1895. 
Hitchcock. Clement of Alexandria (Fathers for English 

Readers series, S.P.C.K. 1899). 
Tollinton. Clement of Alexandria : a Study in 

Christian lAberalism. 2 vols. 1914. 
Patbick. Clement of Alexandria (The Croall Lecture 
for 1899-1900). 1914. 

xix 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

'Ilie whole of Clement's extant works (with the excep- 
tion of the Extracts from Thcodotus and the newly-dis- 
covered Exhortation to Endurance) are translated into 
English in The Ante-Nicene Christian Library hy the Rev. 
W. Wilson. The vols, marked Clement of Alexandria, 
I. and II., contain the Exhortation to the Greeks, the 
Pedagogue or Tutor and the Stromateis. The Rich Mans 
Salvation is to be found at the end of the volume marked 
Lactantius II., and the Selections from the Prophets and 
various Frag-ments are at the end of a small volume 
entitled Early Liturgies : Fragments. 

The Seventh Book of tlie Stromateis is translated by 
the Rev. J. B. Mayor in Hort and Mayor's edition of that 
book. Cambridge, 1902. 

The Rich Man's Salvation lias been translated by 
r. M. Barnard (Who is the Rich Man that is being saved? 
Early Church Classics series. S.P.C.K. 1901). 

The Frag-meut entitled Exhortation to Endurance, or. To 
the Newly Baptized has been translated by J. Patrick in 
his book Clement of Alexandria, pp. 183-185. 



XX 



NOTE ON ILLUSTRATION 

(For the story see pp. 357-365.) 

The Illustration reproduces (hy kind 'permission of the 
Master and Felloivs) a jxtc/e from a manuscript Apocalypse ^ 
in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, which is perhaps 
the finest example of the English art of its time, viz. the 
middle of the thirteenth century. It is one of the very few 
representations of the story of St. John and the Robber ichich 
occur in mediaeval art. The inscriptions, in Anglo-French, 
explain the scenes quite adequately. 

Picture 1 (top of page). — Here is hoxo St. John asks for 
the youth, and how he is in the forest vnth the robbers. 

On label (St. John says to the Bishop) Restore me him 
whom I entrusted to you, and, by the witness of the Holy 
Church which you govern, 1 demand of you the youth whom I 
commended to you. (The Bishop says) He is dead. Verily 
he is dead to God ; for he is gone away full of all mischief, 
and in the end he is become a icicked robber, and now he is in 
the mountain with a great company of robbers and hath taken 
the mountain for to spoil and to kill and to rob the people. 

Picture 2. — Here is how the youth fled, and how St. John 
gallops after him and calls him gently. 

(St. John says) Fair son, why dost thou flee from thy 
father ? Wherefore dost thou flee from an old man unarmed ? 
Have pity on thyself and have no fear, for thou canst still 
have hope of life. Fair son, stay ! 

Picture 3. — Here is how St. John kisses the youtKs right 
hand, and how he baptizes him, and hoxo he leads him back to 
the Church from whence he had gone out. 

1 This Apocalypse has recently (1909) been edited for the Roxburghe 
Club by the Provost of King's. 



XXI 



CLEMENT 
OF ALEXANDRIA 



KAHMENTOX AAESANJPEflS 

npoTPEnTiKOS npos eaahna:s 

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acr/xa elaen rovro 'EAAt^i/ojv aSerat | )(opa), T6)(y7] 
2 F. Tjj fiovGLKT] 6 ixev Ix^vv SeAectCTas", o Se Qiq^as 
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fjLvdog 'JLXXrjVLKos) iriOdaeve ra Orjpta yv/jivfj rfj 
cpSrj Kal hr] ra SevSpa, ras (f)r]yovs, pLerecfyvreve rfj 

fJLOVGLKfj. eXOLpL* CLP GOi Kal dXXoV TOVTOCg dSeAcj^ov 

hirjyriGaGB ai ptvOov Kal ipSov, EuVo/xov rov AoKpov 
Kal rerriya rov WvOlkov. TraviqyvpL? 'EAAr^i/t/o] 
eTTt v€Kpw hpaKOVTi GvveKporelro YivOoZ, iTTird^tov 
iprreTOv aSovTOS KvvopLov vpLVOS "^ Oprjvog 6cf)€(jos 

*» Arion was returning from Sicily to Greece laden with 
prizes and presents. The sailors thought to kill him for his 
wealth, but after playing his Ij're he jumped into the sea. 
Dolphins, charmed by the music, gathered round him, and 
one of them took the bard on its back to Corinth. 

* The stones were said to have moved into their proper 
places at the sound of Amphion's music. 
2 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

THE EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

I. 

Amphion of Thebes and Avion of Methymna were Minstrels oi 
both minstrels. Both are celebrated in legend^ and ^n?' ^heir 
to this day the story is sung by a chorus of Greeks wonderful 
how their musical skill enabled the one to lure a^^on' 
fish« and the other to build the walls of Thebes.^ ^P^ion 
rri. 1 rrM . 1 1 Orpheus 

There was also a 1 hracian wizard/ — so runs another 

Greek legend, — who used to tame wild beasts simply 
by his song, yes, and to transplant trees, oaks, by 
music. I can also tell you of another legend and 
another minstrel akin to these, namely, Eunomus the Eunomus 
Locrian and the Pythian grasshopper.^ A solemn J^*JjJ^^ 
assembly of Greeks, held in honour of a dead serpent, grasshopper 
was gathering at Pytho,* and Eunomus sang a funeral 
ode for the reptile. Whether his song was a hymn 

<= i.e., Orpheus. Cp. Euripides, Rhesus 924, deivc^ (ro(pi(TTy 
QprjKL. 

"^ Strictly cicala, here and elsewhere. 

« i.e., Delphi. According to the Greek legend the 
serpent was the ancient guardian of the Delphic shrine, 
and was slain by Apollo. 

3 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. '^v rj (LStj, ovk €xoj Xeyeiv ayojv he tjv kol eKida- 
^ pL^ev a)pa Kaviiaros EuVo/xos", on-qvLKa ol reVrtye? 
VTTO rols TTerdXoLs fjSov dva rd opiq depopLevoi rjAiO). 
fjhov 8e dpa ov rw hpdKovn ro) veKpco, ra> Hv- 
diKd), dAAct TO) deo) TO) 7TavG6(f)a) avTOVOfiov ciSriy, 
TcDv Euvo/xou ^eXriova vofxajv prjyvvrai )(opSrj tco 
AoKpo)- e^tVrarat o tctti^ tco t,vy(x)- ireperctev d>s 
€7n KAaoco Tip opyavip' /cat tov reTTLyos tco aafxaTt 
dpfxocrdfjLevos 6 coSos ttjv XeiTrovoav dveirXripcooe 
XopS-qv. ovKovv (pSfj T7J EiVvofjLOV ayerat o tcttl^, 
(OS 6 fivdos ^ouAerat, ;\;aA/<:ow dvaoTT^aas HvdoZ 
TOV EuVo/xov avTrj tjj KiBdpa kol tov GVvaycovLGTrjv 
TOV AoKpov- 6 Se €Kd>v e^tWarat /cat aSet eKcov, 

EAAl^CTt 0€ €OOK€L VTTOKpLTrjS yeyovivai pLOVaLKTJS. 

Ilij St] ovv fjLvOoLs Kevols 7T€7nGT€VKaT€, OeXyeodai 
fjLOVGLKrj Ta ^oia vnoXa/jL^dvovTes ; aAry^eta? 8e 

V/jLLV to TTpOGOJTTOV TO ^aiSpOV pLOVOVy (OS €OLK€V, 

eTTLTrXaGTOV elvat So/cet /cat rot? diriGTias VTroire- 
7TT(OK€V 6cf)daXpLots ' Kidaipchv Se dpa /cat 'KXlkcov 
/cat Ta ^08pvG(jijv opt] /cat SpciKcov, reAearT^pta ttjs 
TrXdv-qs, hid ra pLVGT7]pLa^ TedelaGTaL /cat KaOvfivrjTat. 
eyd) pL6v, et /cat pivdos cIgi, hvGavaGX^TOj TOGavTais 
eKTpaycphovpievais Gvpi^opals' vpLLV he /cat tcov 
sr. KaKcov at dvaypa<f)al \ yeyovaGi hpdpcaTa /cat tcov 
hpapidTCov ol viroKpiTal dvpc-qhlas ^ea/xara. aAAo, 

' 5oK€L Wilamowitz. 

^ TeXea-TTipLa ttjs irXdprjs, 5ia to. fivar-qpLa Schwartz. reXe- 
(TTTi]pLa, riis TrXdvris rd fxvcTTTipia MSS. 

" Mt. Cithaeron was sacred to Zeus ; Mt. Helicon to the 
Muses ; and the Thracian mountains were the home of 
Dionysus-worship. For the meaning of these mountain- 
cults in Greek religion see A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. pp. 100-163. 

4 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

in praise of the snake, or a lamentation over it, chap. 
I cannot say ; but there was a competition, and 
Eunomus was playing the lyre in the heat of the 
day, at the time when the grasshoppers, warmed by 
the sun, were singing under the leaves along the 
hills. They were singing, you see, not to the dead 
serpent of Pytho, but to the all-wise God, a spontane- 
ous natural song, better than the measured strains of 
Eunomus. A string breaks in the Locrian's hands ; 
the grasshopper settles upon the neck of the lyre 
and begins to twitter there as if upon a branch : 
whereupon the minstrel, by adapting his music to the 
grasshopper's lay, supplied the place of the missing 
string. So it was not Eunomus (hat drew the grass- 
hopper by his song, as the legend would have it, 
when it set up the bronze figure at Pytho, showing 
Eunomus with his lyre, and his ally in the contest. 
No, the grasshopper flew of its own accord, and sang 
of its own accord, although the Greeks thought it to 
have been responsive to music. 

How in the world is it that you have given why believe 
credence to worthless legends, imagining brute and yet '^^ ^ 
beasts to be enchanted by music, while the bright ^/^\^^'®^Y.® 

„ r. 1 1-1 1 • the truth ? 

face of truth seems alone to strike you as deceptive, 
and is regarded with unbelieving eyes ? Cithaeron, Mountains 
and Helicon, and the mountains of Odrysians and sicred 
Thracians,* temples of initiation into error, are held 
sacred on account of the attendant mysteries, and 
are celebrated in hymns. For my own part, mere Dramas are 
legend though they are, I cannot bear the thought stori^es^or 
of all the calamities that are worked up into tragedy ; an?wiS"ed- 
yet in your hands the records of these evils have ness 
become dramas, and the actors of the dramas are 
a sight that gladdens your heart. But as for the 

5 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. yap TO, jjiev hpdfxara /cat rovs Xrjvatt^ovras Trotrjrds, 
reXeov tJStj Trapoivovvras , kltto) ttov dvaS-^aavres , 
d(j)paivovra's cKTOTrcos reXerfj ^aKX^Kfj, aurots" 
aarvpoLS koI didaco jjiaivoXrjy uvv /cat rcb dXXcx) 
SaLjjiovcov X^pt^j <eV>^ 'EAt/ctDvt /cat Kt^atpcovt /cara- 
KXeLaajjJiev yeyrjpaKoacv, Kardycofiev Se dvojBev i^ 
ovpavojv dX-qdeiav djjia ^ai^ordrr) (fipovrjoei et? opos 
dyiov Beov /cat x^P^^ '^^^ dytov rov Trpo^iqriKov. 
7) 8e cos on i^dXiara r-qXavye? diroGTiX^ovaa (f)djs 
KaTavyat,€TOj Trdvrr) rovs iv OKorei KvXivSovfxevovs 
/cat rrjs irXdvTqs rovs dvdpcoTTOVs aTraAAaTreVaj, tyjv 
VTTeprdTTjv opeyovaa he^idv, r-qv avveoiv, els oa>- 
riqpiav. ot 8e dvavevaavres /cat dvaKvijjavres 'EAt- 
KCx)va jjiev /cat Kt^atpcDva KaraXeiTTOPrcov, oIkovvtcov 
Se Stcot'' " e/c ydp Y^icov e^eXevaerai vof-Los, /cat 
Xoyos Kvplov e^ 'lepovaaX-qfi," Xoyos ovpdvLog, 6 
yvrjuios dyojvLGTrjs eVt rep iravTos kog/jlov Oedrpo) 
(jT€(f>avoviJi€vos . aSet Se ye o Ewo/xo? o ifios ov 
rov TepTrdvSpov vo/jlov ovSe top KaTTtajvos", ouSe pLTjv 
Opvyuov 7) AvSlov t) AcopLOV, dXXd rrjs Katvrjs 
dpfjLovlas rov dtStov vofxov, rov (fjepcovvfiov rov Beov, 
ro aofjia ro Kacvov, ro AeviriKov, " vrjTrevOes r d- 
XpXov re, KaKcbv irriXrides drrdvrcov." yXvKV rt /cat 
dXiqOLVov <f>dpiJiaKov 7T€l6ovs ^ eyKCKparai rco do/JLarc. 
^ <€P> inserted by Mayor. ^' wfudovs Reinkens and Stahlin. 

* Clement is not referring to the works of the great 
dramatists, but to the contests at the Lenaea, a festival 
held annually at Athens in honour of Dionysus. In 
Clement's day the competitors would be for the most part 
poets of a very minor order. * Isaiah ii. 3. 

•^ The modes {apfxovlai, see p. 12. n. a) were the scales in 
which Greek music was written. Phrygian, Lydian and 
Dorian were the chief modes, others being, it would seem, 
formed from them by modification or combination. The 

6 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

dramas and the Lenaean poets, who are altogether ohap. 
Hke drunken men^^* let us wreathe them, if you like, ^ 
with ivy, while they are performing the mad revels Confine 
of the Bacchic rite, and shut them up, satyrs and %'SL^tn''^ 
frenzied rout and all, — yes, and the rest of the com- their sacred 

., ..TT1- J /-^-o-u mountains 

pany of daemons too, — m Helicon and Cithaeron 
now grown old ; and let us bring down truth, with 
wisdom in all her brightness, from heaven above, to But bring 
the holy mountain of God and the holy company ^^^^!j {^^^j^ 
of the prophets. Let truth, sending forth her rays mountain, 
of light into the farthest distance, shine every- 
where upon those who are wallowing in darkness, and 
deliver men from their error, stretching out her 
supreme right hand, even understanding, to point 
them to salvation. And when they have raised their 
heads and looked up let them forsake Helicon and 
Cithaeron to dwell in Sion ; " for out of Sion shall whence 
go forth the law, and the Word of the Lord from ^JJ^^! Se 
Jerusalem," ^ that is, the heavenly Word, the true tme ' _^^ 
champion, who is being crowned upon the stage of 
the whole world. Aye, and this Eunomus of mine 
sings not the strain of Terpander or of Capio, nor yet 
in Phrygian or Lydian or Dorian mode " ; but the who sings 
new music, with its eternal strain that bears the song^^^ 
name of God. This is the new song, the song of 
Moses, 

Soother of grief and wrath, that bids all ills be forgotten.'* 
There is a sweet and genuine medicine of persuasion ^ 
blended with this song. 

Dorian mode was of a solemn character, answering to our 
minor scale ; the Phrygian and Lydian were brighter. 

'' Homer, Odyssey iv. 221. 

« A slight change in the Greek, suggested by Reinkens, 
would give the meaning " remedy against grief." 

7 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP 'E/xot fiev ovi^ SoKovGLv 6 QpaKLos eKetvos 'Op^eu? ^ 
/cat o Qrj^aios /cat o MT^^u/xvato?, aVSpe? rtve? ou/c 
4 P. dVSpe?, a77aJTT]Aot yeyoyeVat, 7Tpoa)(iqyLaTi <t€>^ 
fjLOVGLKrjs XvfjLTjvdiJLevoL Tov ^iov, evTexvcp TLvl yOTj- 
reia Sat/xoycovres' et? Sta(/>^opas', v^peis opyidt^ovres, 
TTevOrj iKOeidl,ovTeSy rovs dvdpojrrovs eirl rd etScoAa 
X^t-pctycoyrjoaL TrpaJroL, vat ixrjv XlOol? /cat ^uAoi?, 
TOVTeoTLv dydXfiaaL /cat (T/ctaypa^tat?, avot/co8o- 
fjLTJcraL TTjV GKaLorrjra rod eOovs, rrjv KaXrjv ovtcu? 
€K€Lvrjv iXevdepcav rcov vtt* ovpavov TreTToXiTevfievcou 
chSals /cat i7TCp8aL9 eaxdrr] hovXeia Karat^ev^avres , 
'AAA' ov TOLoahe 6 coSos 6 ifJLos ovS^ els /xa/cpav 
KaraXvGCJV d<^iKTai ttjv BovXelav rr^v TTiKpdv rcjv 
TvpavvovvTCxJV SaLjJLOvcov, cL? Se tov rrpdov /cat 
(f)iXdvd pcxJTTOv TTJs deoae^eia? jxerdyajv rjpLa? I,vy6v 
avdis els ovpavovs dvaKaXeZrai rovs els yrjv epptfi- 
(xeuovs- piovos yovv rcov TTcoTTore rd dpyaXecorara 
drjpta, Tovs dvOpojTTOVS, eriddcrevev, Trrrjvd puev tovs 
Kov(f)Ovs avTOJV, ep-nerd Se rovs dirarewvas , /cat 
Xeovras /xev tovs OvpuKovs, avas Se tov? tjSovlkovs, 
XvKovs Se TOVS dpiraKTiKovs . Xidoi he /cat ^liAa ol 
d<j)poves' TTpos Se /cat XlOojv dvaiadrjTOTepos dvdpo)- 
TTos dyvoia ^e^aTTTLopievos. pidpTVS r)pLLV Trpot^rjTLKrj 
TrapLTOJ (fxjovijy avvcoSos dXiqOeias, tovs ev dyvoia 
/cat dvola /caTarerpt/x/xeVou? olKTeipovaa- " SvvaTos 
ydp 6 6e6s e/c tcov Xidojv tovtojv eyeipai TeKva to) 
'A^paajLt." OS KaTeXerjcas T'r]v dpLadlav Trjv ttoAAt^v 

^ ['O/o0ei>s] Wilamowitz. 
2 <Te> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

« For examples see pp. 35-43. 
* St. Matthew iii. 9 ; St. Luke iii. 8. 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

In my opinion, therefore, our Thracian, Orpheus, chap. 
and tlie Theban and the M ethjrmnian too, are not ^ 
worthy of the name of man, since they were deceivers. Orpheus, 
Under cover of music they have outraged human Hfe, ^n^^Arion 
being influenced by daemons, through some artful Y^^re 
sorcery, to compass man's ruin. By commemorating 
deeds of violence in their religious rites, and by 
bringing stories of sorrow into worship,'* they were 
the first to lead men by the hand to idolatry ; yes. And 
and with stocks and stones, that is to say, statues 071^^013^%' 
and pictures, to build up the stupidity of custom. 
By their chants and enchantments they have held 
captive in the lowest slavery that truly noble free- 
dom which belongs to those who are citizens under 
heaven. 

But far different is my minstrel, for He has come The 
to bring to a speedy end the bitter slavery of the ^^eaveniy 
daemons that lord it over us ; and by leading us 
back to the mild and kindly yoke of piety He calls 
once again to heaven those who have been cast 
down to earth. He at least is the only one who He tames 
ever tamed the most intractable of all wild beasts — ^^^^^e men 
man : for he tamed birds, that is, flighty men ; 
reptiles, that is, crafty men ; lions, that is, passion- 
ate men ; swine, that is, pleasure-loving men ; wolves, 
that is, rapacious men. Men without understand- 
ing are stocks and stones ; indeed a man steeped in 
ignorance is even more senseless than stones. As 
our witness let the prophetic voice, which shares in 
the song of truth, come forward, speaking words of He changes 
pity for those who waste away their lives in ignorance men without 
and folly, — " for God is able of these stones to raise understand- 
up children unto Abraham." ^ And God, in compas- virtuous 
sion for the great dulness and the hardness of those ™®° 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Kal rrjv oKXrjpoKaphiav twv els rrjv dXrjdeiav AeAt- 
dcofievajv yjyetpev deoae^eia? CTTrep/xa aperrjs aloBo- 
fxevov i.K Xl6cx)v eKeivojv, rcov Xidois TTe-marevKOTajv 
i6va)V. avOis ovv lo^oXovs tlvol? Kal TraXifi^oXov? 
VTTOKpiras e^oSeuovra? hiKatoavvrj " yevvrnxara 

ixi'^VCJV " K€KXr]K€ TTOV dXXoL Kal TOVTCOV €L Tt? 

rcov 6(f)e(x)v ^xeravorjuai Ikcov, eTTOfxeuos Srj rep Xoycp 
" dvdpojTTOs " yiverai " Oeov." " Xvkovs " Se dXXovg 
aXX-qyopel Trpo^drcov KcpScoLS 'r]p.(j)Leap.£vovs, tovs 
€V dvOpcoTTOjv iJLop(f)als dpnaKTiKov? alvirrop^evos. 
Kal TTovra dpa ravra rd dypicorara Br]pia Kal tovs 

TOLOVTOVS XldoVS Tj OVpdviOS (vSt) aVTTj jJLeTejJiOp- 

^(xioev els dvOpojTTOVs rj/JLepovs. " r^pLev ydp, -qpiev 
7TOT€ Kal TjpieLs dvoTjTOL, dTTeiOels, TrXavcopievoL, 
BovXevovres 'qSovats Kal eTTidvpiiais TroiKiXaLS, iu 
KaKia Kal <f>d6vcp Sidyovres, GTvyrjrot, pnaovvres 
flp. dXXrjXovSi" fj (f)r)(nv rj dTTOcrroXiKrj ypa(J>TJ-\" ore 
8e 7] XPI^'^^'^1'^ ^^^^ V (f)iXav6paj7Ti.a iiretpdvy] rov 
Gojrrjpos rjpLCJV deov, ovk ef epycov tojv ev SiKatoavurj , 
d eTTOL-qcrapLev rjpLeXs, dXXd Kara to avrov eXeos 
eaojoev rjpLas." 

"Opa TO da/xa to Kaivov oaov taxvaev dvO pcorrovs 

€K XiOoJV Kal dvdpcOTTOVS e/C d-qpioiV 7T€7T0i7]K€U. ol 

8e TiqvdXXixJS veKpoiy ol Trjs ovtojs ovar]s dpL€T0X0L 
Co)i]S, dKpoaral pLovov yevopievoL rov aapLaTOS dv- 
e^Lwaav. tovto tol Kal to ttov eKocrpL-qaev ip,- 
pieXcos Kal Tcov aroixeioiv ttjv hia<j)(xiVLav els rd^LV 
eveTeive (jvpL<f)covLas, Iva Srj oXos 6 KoapLOS avTco 
dppLOvia yevrjTat,' Kal OdXaTTav pcev dvrJKev Ae- 
XvpLeuTjv, yi]s Se em^aiveiv KeKcoXvKev avTifjv, yrjv 
8* epLTTaXiv eaTepecouev <^epopLevriv Kal opov avTTjv ^ 

* avTTiv Stahlin. ourg Msa. 
10 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

whose hearts are petrified against the truth^ did raise chap, 
up out of those stones^ that is^ the Gentiles who trust ^ 
in stones_, a seed of piety sensitive to virtue. Again, 
in one place the words " offspring of vipers " '^ are 
applied to certain venomous and deceitful hypocrites, 
who lie in wait against righteousness ; yet if any 
even of these snakes chooses to repent, let him but 
follow the Word and he becomes a '^'^man of God." * 
Others are figuratively called " wolves " '^ clothed in 
sheepskins, by which is meant rapacious creatures in 
the forms of men. And all these most savage beasts, 
and all such stones, the heavenly song of itself 
transformed into men of gentleness. " For we, 
yea we also were aforetime foolish, disobedient, de- 
ceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in 
malice and envy, hateful, hating one another," as the 
apostolic writing says ; " but when the kindness of 
God our Saviour, and His love toward man, appeared, 
not by works done in righteousness, which we did 
ourselves, but according to His mercy He saved 
us."^ 

See how mighty is the new song ! It has made The Ne\7 
men out of stones and men out of wild beasts. They ga"! order 
who were otherwise dead, who had no share in the and 
real and true life, revived when they but heard the to'the"^ 
song. Furthermore, it is this which composed the universe 
entire creation into melodious order, and tuned into 
concert the discord of the elements, that the whole 
universe might be in harmony with it. The ocean 
it left flowing, yet has prevented it from encroach- 
ing upon the land ; whereas the land, which was 
being carried away, it made firm, and fixed as a 

« St. Matthew ill. 7 ; St. Luke iii. 7. ^ 1 Tim. vi. 11. 

« St. Matthew vli. 15. '^ Titus iii. 3-5. 

B 11 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. eTTTi^ev daXoLTrrjS' pal jjltjv Kal TTVpos opfirjv e/xaAafev 
depL, otovel Awpiov apjioviav Kcpdaas AvSlcp' Kal 
Trjv depos dTT-qvfj ifjvxporrjra rfj rrapaTrXoKfj rod 
TTvpos iriddaevev, rovs vedrovs rcJov oXixjv ^doyyovs 
Tovrovs Kipvd? e/x/xeAcos'. Kal Sr) ro aafxa to dK-q- 
parov, epeLayia rcbv oXcov Kal dpi^iovia rcbv 7Tdvra>v, 
aTTO T(x)v fieawv eiri ra vepara Kal drro tcl)v aKpojv 
errl ra jxeaa Siaradev, rjpfjioaaTO robe to Trdv, ov 
Kara rrjv QpaKcov fjLovaiKTjv, rrjp TrapaTrXrjGiov 'lou- 
^dXy Kara Se rrjv Trdrptov rod 9eov ^ovXtjglv, rjv 
e^T^Acoae AavlS. 6 8e e/c AavlS Kal Trpo avrov, 6 
rod deov Aoyo?, Xvpav fiev Kal KiBdpav, ra dijjvxa 
opyava, vrrepLScov, koojjlov Se rovhe Kal Sr) Kal rov 
ojJLiKpov KOGfxov, rov dvdpojTTov, i/fi;;\;T]y re Kal adjjjLa 
avrov, ayicp TTvevyiari dpfioadfievos, i/jdXXeu ra> 6ed) 
8ta rov 7ToXv(j)a)Vov opydvov Kal irpoodhei rep op- 
yava) ro) dvdpcvTTcp. " ov yap el KiBdpa Kal auAo? 
Kai vaos ejJLOi" ' Kiddpa hid rrjv dpfioviav, avXog 
Ota ro TTvevpa, vaos Sta rov Xoyov, Iv* r] pev 
KpeKTj, ro Se ep^TTverj, 6 Se x^P'^'^TI 'TOV Kvpiov. val 
prjv 6 AttftS o ^aaiXevs, 6 KtBapiarris, ov piKpco 
ftp. TTpoadev epvrfad-qpev, rrpovrpenev w? rrjv dXijOeiav, 
aTTerpene Se elhojXojv, rroXXov ye ehei v/xvelv avrov 
rovs Salpovas dXr^Oet rrpos avrov ScajKopevovg 
povaLKTJ, fj rod EaouA ivepyovpcevov ^ eKelvo? ^ aScov 
povov avrov laaaro. KaXov 6 Kvpios opyavov e'/x- 

' Tov HaoiiK ivepyovixivov Mayor. tQ laoi/X ivepyovjx^vif} ]\I. 
T<^ ^vavXos 6 iv€pyuv/j.evos P. 
^ ^KeivoLs StJihlin. 

" See p. 6, n. c. » See Genesis iv. 21. 

'= The source of this quotation is unknown. It may be a 
fragment of an early Christian hymn, the metaphors being 
12 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

boundary to the sea. Aye^ and it softened the rage chap. 
of fire by air, as one might blend the Dorian mode ^ 
with the Lydian * ; and the biting coldness of air it 
tempered by the intermixtm-e of fire, thus melodiously 
mingling these extreme notes of the universe. What 
is more, this pure song, the stay of the universe and 
the harmony of all things, stretching from the centre 
to the circumference and from the extremities to the 
centre, reduced this whole to harmony, not in accord- 
ance with Thracian music, which resembles that of 
Jubal,^ but in accordance with the fatherly purpose 
of God, which David earnestly sought. He who The New 
sprang from David and yet was before him, the Word wor°d o^God 
of God, scorned those lifeless instruments of lyre and 
harp. By the pow er of the Holy Spirit He arranged 
in harmonious order this gi'eat world, yes, and the 
little world of man too, body and soul together ; and 
on this many-voiced instrument of the universe He 
makes music to God, and sings to the human instru- Who makes 
ment. " For thou art my harp and my pipe and my God'ihrough 
temple " ^ — my harp by reason of the music, my pipe the universe 
by reason of the breath of the Spirit, my temple by man ^^^^ 
reason of the Word — God's purpose being that the 
music should resound, the Spirit inspire, and the 
temple receive its Lord. Moreover, King David the 
harpist, whom we mentioned just above, urged us 
toward the truth and away from idols. So far was he 
from singing the praises of daemons that they were 
put to flight by him with the true music ; and when 
Saul was possessed, David healed him merely by play- 
ing the harp.^ The Lord fashioned man a beautiful, 

suggested by such passages as Psalm Ivii. 8 ; 1 Corinthians 
vi. 19. 

•^ See 1 Samuel xvi. 23. 

IS 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTVovv Tov avO pojiTOV e^eipydaaro Kar eiKova rrjv 
eavTOV' a/xeAct Kal avros opyavov eon rod Beov 
vavapfjiovLOP, e/x/xeAe? Kal dyiov, Gocj^ia virepKoapLLOs, 
ovpdvios Xoyos. 

Tt 8rj ovp TO opyavov, 6 tov Oeov Aoyo?, o Kvpio?, 
Kal TO dafxa to Kaivov jSovXerac; ocj^OaXfiov? 
dvaTTeTaaai tv<^\cov Kal tSra dvoZ^ai Ka>(f)ajv Kal 
OKa^ovTa? TO) ttoSc t) TrXavco/jievovs els SiKaiocrvvr^v 
X€Lpaya)yrjaaL, Oeov dvOpcoTTOi? d(j)paivovGLV eVt- 
hel^ai, TTavaai (f)dopdv, VLKrjuai OdvaTOV, vlovs 
drretdels StaXXd^at TraTpL (fyiXdvOpojTrov to opyavov 
TOV deov' 6 Kvpiog e'Aeet, Traihevei, TrpoTpeneL, 
vovOeTcl, a(x)t,ei, ^uAdrret Kal paodov tj/jlIv ttjs 
jxaO-rjaeoj? eK Trepiovaias ^aoiXeiav ovpavcov irr- 
ayyeXXeTaiy tovto jjLovov diroXavajv rjfjiajv, o aw^O' 
fjLeOa. KaKia jjiev yap ttjv dvOpcoTTwv im^ooKeTai 
cf)dopdv, rj Se dA7]^eta wonep r] fieXLTTa, Xviiaivofjcevr^ 
TCtJv ovTOJV ovhev, IttI fJLOVTjg TTJs dv6pco7Ta>v dydX- 
Acrat acDT-qpiag. ex^L? ovv ttjv enayyeXiaVy ex€is 
TTjv ^ iXav 6 pcoTT lav Trjg ;)^d/)tTO? jueraAd/z^ave. 

Kat fjiov TO aojxa to acoTijpLOv jjirj Kaivov ovtcds 
VTToXdBj]? OJS CT/ceuo? Tj WS OLKLaV " 7Tp6 €a>a(f)6- 
pov " yap rjv, Kal " iv dpxfj rjv 6 Xoyos Kal 6 Adyo? 
rjv TTpos TOV Oeov Kal Oeos t)v 6 Adyo? " • TraAatd Se 
Tj TrXdvY], Kaivov he r) dXy]Oeia (j^aiveTai. etV ovv 
dpxoLiovg Tovs Opdya? SiSdoKovaiv aiyes fivOiKai, 
el're av tov? 'Ap/cdSa? oi irpoGeX-qvovs dvaypdcpovTes 

* Psalm cix. 3 (Septuagint). 

* St. John i. 1. 

" See the story in Herodotus ii. 2. Psammetichus, king 
of Egypt, being desirous of discovering which was the most 
ancient people, put two children in charge of a herdsman, 
14 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

breathing instrument, after His own image ; and chap. 
assuredly He Himself is an all-harmonious instrument ^ 
of God, melodious and holy, the wisdom that is above 
this world, the heavenly Word. 

What then is the purpose of this instrument, the The Word's 
Word of God, the Lord, and the New Song ? To ^Tvp.Z'^^ 
open the eyes of the blind, to unstop the ears of the toward men 
deaf, and to lead the halt and erring into the way of 
righteousness ; to reveal God to foolish men, to make 
an end of corruption, to vanquish death, to reconcile 
disobedient sons to the Father. The instrument of 
God is loving to men. The Lord pities, chastens, 
exhorts, admonishes, saves and guards us ; and, over 
and above this, promises the kingdom of heaven as 
reward for our discipleship, while the only joy He 
has of us is that we are saved. For wickedness feeds 
upon the corruption of men ; but truth, hke the bee, 
does no harm to anything in the world, but takes 
delight only in the salvation of men. You have then 
God's promise ; you have His love to man : partake 
of His grace. 

And do not suppose that my song of salvation is The Word is 
new in the same sense as an implement or a house. xewSong; 
For it was "before the morning star"*; and, 'Mn yet tie \vas 
the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with beginning 
God, and the Word was God." ^ But error is old, 
and truth appears to be a new thing. Whether then 
the Phrygians are really proved to be ancient by the 
goats in the story '^ ; or the Arcadians by the poets 

Goats were to be brought to them for giving milk, but no 
human speech was to be uttered in their presence. The first 
articulate sound they made was taken to be the Phrygian 
word for bread ; hence the king assumed that Phrygians 
were the primitive race. 

15 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTOirjTai, etre fjirjv av rovs Alyvmiovs ol Kac npo)' 
Tiqv TauTr]V dvacfyrjvai ttjv yrjv Oeovs re /cat avBpw- 
TTOVS oveipcxJGGOvres- dAA' ov rrpo ye rod Koajjiov 
rovSe Tovrcop ovSe els, Trpo he rrjs rod KoafJLOv 
Kara^oXrjs rjiiels, ol ro) Setv eGeoOai ev aura) 
TTporepov yeyevvrfpievoi rep 9ecp, rov deov Xoyov ra 
XoyiKa TrXdafxara T^/xet?, 8t' 6V dpxo.tl,opiev , ort " ev 
dpxfj o Xoyos rjv." dAA' on piev '^v 6 Xoyos avwdev, 
dpxQ Oeia rojv Travrinv rjv re Kal eoTiv on he vvv 
ovopia eXa^ev ro irdXat KaOojcncopievoVy hvvdpieco? 
d^LOV, 6 XptcTTOS', Kauvov dapid (xoi KeKXrjr ai. 
«7 p. Atrtos- ^ yovv 6 Xoyos, \ 6 XpLoros, Kal tov etvai 
TrdXai 7]pLds (rjv yap ev Oecp), Kal rod ev elvai- vvv 
hrj e7Te(f>dvr] dvdpcoTTOis avros ovros 6 Xoyos, o 
pLOVOS dpLcfxjD, Oeos re Kal dvOpojiros, aTTavrojv rjpLlv 
alrios dyaOojv Trap* ov ro ev l,rjv eKhchaoKopLevoi 
ets"* dihiov l^corjv TrapaTrepLTropieOa. Kara yap rov 
deoTTeaiov eKelvov rov Kvpiov dirooroXov " rj X'^P^^ 
rj rov deov aojrrjpLOS TrdcrLv dvOpooTTOLS eiTecjidvri, rrai- 
hevovaa rjpids, tVa dpvrjcrdfjievoi rr]v aaepeiav Kai 
rds KoapiLKas eTnOvpLias aoj^povojs Kal hiKaioJS Kai 
evae^cbs l,i](Ta>pLev ev rep vvv alcovL, Trpoahexop^evoL 
rrjv piaKaplav eXniha Kal eTncj^dveiav rrjs ho^i^s rov 
pieydXov Oeov Kal aa)ri]pos rjiJLOJV ^Itjgov XptcrroiJ. 
rovro eon ro aofia ro Kaivov, rj e7n(f)dveia 7] vvv 
eKXdpujjaaa ev TjpjZv rod ev dpxfj dvros Kal rrpoovros 
Xoyov i7Te(f)dvrj he evayxos d Trpoojv awriip, erc- 
e^dvt] 6 ev ra> ovri ojv, on "6 Xoyos ^ r]V Trpos 

1 alVtos Stahlin. o5tos mss. ^ \6yos 6s mss. 

« St. John i. 1. * Titus ii. 11-13. 

<= Literally, " He who exists in Him who exists." 
16 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

who describe them as older than the moon ; or, again, chap. 
the Egyptians by those who dream that this land ^ 
first brought to light both gods and men ; still, not 
one of these nations existed before this world. But 
we were before the foundation of the world, we who, 
because we were destined to be in Him, were begotten 
beforehand by God. We are the rational images 
formed by God's Word, or Reason, and we date from 
the beginning on account of our connexion with 
Him, because "the Word was in the beginning." <* 
Well, because the Word was from the first, He was 
and is the divine beginning of all things ; but because 
He lately took a name, — the name consecrated of old 
and worthy of power, the Christ, — I have called Him 
a New Song. 

The Word, then, that is the Christ, is the cause The Word 
both of our being long ago (for He was in God) and Ipll^e'Lnfd 
of our well-being. This Word, who alone is both oq earth 
God and man, the cause of all our good, appeared 
but lately in His own person to men ; from whom 
learning how to live rightly on earth, we are brought 
on our way to eternal life. For, in the words of 
that inspired apostle of the Lord, "the grace of 
God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 
instructing us, to the intent that, denying ungodli- 
ness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly and 
righteously and godly in this present world, looking 
for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory 
of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ."^ 
This is the New Song, namely, the manifestation 
which has but now shined forth among us, of Him 
who was in the beginning, the pre-existent Word. 
Not long ago the pre-existent Saviour appeared on 
earth ; He who exists in God *" (because " the Word 

17 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rov deov," StSaCTKaAo?, €TT€(f>dvri a> to, TTavra 
SeSrjfMOvpyrjTai Aoyo?, Kal to ^rjv eV apxjj /^era 
rod TrXdaaL rrapaax^JV (hs hrniiovpyos, to ev l^rjv 
eStSa^ev €7n(f)av€ls co? SiSdaKaXos, "va to del 1,t^v 
varepov ws Oeo? x'^PVYV'^T)' 

'0 Se ov vvv ye rrpojTOV wKreipeu rjfjid? rrj? 
TrXdvrjs, dAA' dvojdev dpxrjOev, vvv 8e jjSr) drroX- 
Xvfxevov? eTn(j)avels TrepiueocoKev. to yap Trovrjpov 
Kal ipTT-qoTLKov 6r]pL0v yor]Tevov KaTahovXovrai Kal 
aiVt^erat elaeTi vvv tovs dvOpconovs, efiol Sok6lv, 
^ap^apiKcbs TLjxojpoviievov, ol veKpols rovs alxp-o.- 
XcoTOVs ovvSelv Xeyovrat ocojiaaLV, eW av avrols 
Kal GVoaaTTOiULV. 6 yovv Trovrjpov ovtooI Tvpavvos 
Kal SpdKOJV, oijs dv olos t€ y^ eV yevcTrjs a<ji€T€- 
piaaodaiy Xidois Kal ^vXols Kal dydXfiaGLV Kal 
TOiovTOLS TLalv ctScoAot? Trpo(7G(f)Ly^a? TO) Setat- 
haipLoviag dOXico Seapo), tovto Stj to Xeyofxevov, 
^djvras e7TL(f>epa)v avvedaifjev avTOVs, eoT dv Kal 
uvpb(jiBapa)GLV. OV St) X^P^^ (^^^ Y^P ^ dirarediv 
dvcvdev fJL€V TYjv EuW, vvv 8e TJSr] Kal tovs dXXovs 
dvOpcoTTOVs €LS ddvarov virocfiepajv) ef? Kal avTo? <6 >^ 
eTTLKOvpos Kal ^oTjOos rjp,Xv 6 Kvpios, 7rpop.r]vvajv 
dpx'r)Oev Trpo^ViTLKOJSy vvv he rjSr] Kal evapyws els 
acxJTTjpLav TTapaKaXdJv. 

Ovycofiev ovv aTToaroXiKfj Treidojjievoi TrapayyeXla 

Tov dpxovra ttjs e^ovoias tov depos, tov rrvev- 
jxaros TOV vvv evepyovvTOs iv toIs viols Trjs dnet- 
Oeias," Kal tco aojTTJpi tw Kvpio) TrpocrSpd-pLiOjiev, 
OS Kal vvv Kal del Trpovrpenev els GCOTrjplav, 8ta 

^ 7? Mayor, eirj aiss. - <d> inserted by Mayor. 

" St. John i. 1. ^ Ephesians ii. 2. 

18 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

was with God " <») appeared as our teacher ; the chap. 
Word appeared by whom all things have been created. ^ 
He who gave us life in the beginning when as 
creator He formed us, taught us how to Hve 
rightly by appearing as our teacher, in order that 
hereafter as God He might supply us with life 
everlasting. 

This was not the first time that He pitied us for He has 
our error. He did that from heaven from the ^^en^*^ "^ 
beginning. But now by His appearing He has through 
rescued us, when we were on the point of perishing. wiK'^wl"^ * 
For the wicked, crawling wild beast makes slaves of T"^"^^ ^>°"^ 
men by his magical arts, and torments them even 
until now, exacting vengeance, as it seems to me, 
after the manner of barbarians, who are said to bind 
their captives to corpses until both rot together. 
Certain it is that wherever this wicked tyrant and 
serpent succeeds in making men his own from their 
birth, he rivets them to stocks, stones, statues and 
suchlike idols, by the miserable chain of daemon- 
worship ; then he takes and buries them alive, as 
the saying goes, until they also, men and idols 
together, suffer corruption. On this account (for 
it is one and the same deceiver who in the 
beginning carried off Eve to death, and now does 
the like to the rest of mankind) our rescuer and 
helper is one also, namely, the Lord, who from the 
beginning revealed Himself through prophecy, but 
now invites us plainly to salvation. 

Let us then, in obedience to the apostolic precept, 
flee from " the prince of the power of the air, the 
spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience." ^ 
And let us take refuge with the Saviour, the Lord, 
who even now exhorts men to salvation, as He ever 
b2 19 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Tepdrcxjv kol aTjfjieicov eV KlyvTrrco ,ev ep-q/jLO) < he >^ Slol 
8 P. T€ TTJs ^drov /cat T7J? OiKoXovdovar]? x^/atrt (f)i[Xav- 
Opojiria? OepaTTaLVTjg hiK-qv 'JL^paioig vecjyeXiqs. rov- 
TOJV fjiev hrj rep (f)6^cp rovs UKX-qpoKapSiovs rrpov- 
Tperrev rjSrj Se Kal Sta Mcocreajs' rod jravGo^ov 
/cat rod (f)LXaXrj9ov? 'Hcrata /cat Travros rod rrpo- 
(firjTLKOv ')(opov XoyLKcorepov eTrl rov Xoyov em- 
GTp€(f)eL Tovs (Lra^ K^Kriqpiivovs- /cat eod" ottttj pcev 
XoiSopelraL, eanv 8' ov /cat ciTreiAet* tovs Se /cat 
dpiqvel rayv dudpcoTTCov aSet Se d'AAot?, Kaddrrep 
larpos dyaOo? roJv voaovvrcov acofidTcxjv rd fiev 
KaraTrXdrroiv , rd he KaraXeaivcov , rd he KaravrXd)v, 
rd he /cat oihiqpci) hiaiptbv, eVt/catoji^ Se a'AAa, eo-rt 
8' ov KOL drroTTpLCov, €L ttcjjs olov re Kav rrapd fiepo? 
t) jLteAo? rov dvdpcuTTOv vyidvai. ttoXv^ojvos ye o 
GOjrrjp Kal TToXvrpoTTOS els dvdpcorrcov G(x>rr]piav' 
drreiXchv vovderel, Xoihopovpievo? eTnarpecfieL, 6pr]va)V 
eXeel, ifjdXXwv TrapaKoXel, hid ^drov AaAet {Gr)p.eLCOV 
eKelvoL /cat repdrojv expj]Cov) /cat toj jrvpl SehlrreraL 
rov? dvOpcoTTOVS, dvdrrrojv e/c klovos rrjv (/)Aoya, 
Selyfxa ofxov )(dpLros /cat (f>6^ov' edv VTraKovarjs, ro 
<f)Ci>s, edv TTapaKovarjs y rd irvp. eTreihrj he /cat 
KLOVos /cat ^drov rj odp^ rijxicorepa, Trpo^i]rai 
pier eKelva (f>deyyovraL, avros ev 'Hcrata o Kvpios 
AaAcov, avros ev 'HAta, ev aropiari tt pocfjrjr ojv 
avros ' Gv he dXX el Trpo(f)'i^raLS p^rj mGrevets, 
pivdov 8' VTToXap^^dveLS /cat rovs dvhpas Kal ro 

^ <5e> inserted by Stahlin. 
^ Tovs (hra Mayor, rom to. Sira MSS. 

" Or, "to reason." The Greek Loc/os means either 
"Word" (personal), or "rational word," "reason" (im- 
personal). All through his writings Clement plays upon I 

20 I 

i 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

did, by wonders and signs in Egypt, and in the chap. 
desert by the burning bush and the cloud that, q^ ^j^ ^^^ 
through favour of His love, followed the Hebrews Lord ex- 
like a handmaid. By the fear that these wonders to saUaUon 
inspired He exhorted the hard-hearted ; but after- ^y signs 
wards, through all-wise Moses and truth-loving Isaiah Then 
and the whole company of the prophets. He converts mouth of^'^^ 
to the Word " by more rational means those who have prophets 
ears to hear. In some places He rebukes ; in others 
He even threatens; some men He laments; for others 
He sings : just as a good doctor, in dealing with 
diseased bodies, uses poulticing for some, rubbing for 
others, and bathing for others ; some he cuts with a 
knife, others he cauterizes, and in some cases he 
even amputates, if by any means he can restore the 
patient to health by removing some part or limb. 
So the Saviour uses many tones and many devices 
in working for the salvation of men. His threats 
are for warning ; His rebukes for converting ; His 
lamentation to show pity ; His song to encourage. 
He speaks through a burning bush (for the men of 
old had need of signs and portents), and He strikes 
terror into men by fire, kindling the flame out of a 
cloudy pillar, as a token at the same time of grace 
and fear, — to the obedient light, to the disobedient 
fire. But since flesh is of more honour than a pillar 
or a bush, after those signs prophets utter their voice, 
the Lord Himself speaking in Isaiah, the Lord Him- 
self in Elijah, the Lord Himself in the mouth of the Finally the 
prophets. As for you, h.owever, if you do not trust S^sJe'aTs, 
the prophets, and if you suppose both the fire and having 
the men who saw it to be a legend, the Lord Himself 

this double meaning of Logos. Other instances occur on 
pp. 27, 275, 277. 

21 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTvp, avrog aoi XaXriaei 6 Kvpios, " os eV fJiopcjifi 
deov VTTdpx(J^v ovx dpvayfxov rjy-^aaTO to elvai laa 
deep' €K€i'a>G€v Se eavrop " 6 (f)tXoLKrLpiJiajv ^eo?, 
ocoaaL Tov dvdpojTTOV yXL^dpievog' koL avro? tJSt] 
OOL ivapydjs 6 Aoyo? AaAet, Svctcottcov rrjv aTnaTLav, 
vat (f)r]pLi, 6 Xoyo? 6 rod Oeov dvOpcoTTO? yevd/xevo?, 
tva Si] /cat crv Trapd dvOpcjTTOV fxdOrjg, rrfj ttotc dpa 
dvdpojTTOS yevTjraL Oeos. 

Etr' ovK droTTOVy a) (f>iXoL, rov jikv Oedv del 
TTporperreLV rfpids eV* dperrjVy rjjjids 3e avaSueo^at 
rrjv (L(f)eXeLav Kal dva^dXXeaOai rrjv ocur-qpiav; ri 
yap ov)(L Kal ^lojdvvrjs errl Gcorrjplav irapaKaXeX Kal 
TO TTav yiverai <^ajvr] TrpoTpeTTTLKi] ; nvOcoiieda 
roivvv avTov' " ri? rroOev ei? dvhpajv; " 'HAta? 
fjiev OVK epel, XptCTrd? Se etvat dpvr]Gerai' (fxjovrj 
8e ofjLoXoyrjaeL ev eprifxco ^ococra. ris ovv eoriv 
^Icodvvr]?; d>s rvTTCo Xa^eXv, e^eariD etTrelv, cfjcovrj 
Tov Xoyov TTpoTpeTTTLKrj ev eprjixcp ^odjcra. ri /Soa?, 
CO ^(xjvri; " etTre Kal rjixlv." " evdeia? Trotelre rag 
ohovs Kvpiov." TTpoSpojjLO? *la)dvvrjs Kal rj (jxxjvrj 

TTpoSpOfJLO? TOV Xoyov, (fxjJVT] 7TapaKXr)TLK'^, TTpo- 

eroLfxdl^ovaa elg ocx)Tr]piav, ^o^vt) TrpoTpeirovaa els 
KXiqpovop.iav ovpavcov 8t' rjv r) OTelpa Kal 'ip-qpios 
y p. I dyovos ovKeTi. 

YavTTjv jjiOL rrjv Kvo(f>opLav TrpoeOeamaev dyyeXov 
(fxjtivrj- TTpoSpojjLOS "^v KdKeivrj tov Kvptov, OTelpav 
evayyeXit,opievrj yvvalKa, cu? 'IcoavvT]? tt^v epiqpiov. 
Std Tavr-qu Toivvv rod Xoyov ttjv (fxjjvrjv r) oTelpa 

"■ Philippians ii, 6-7. * Homer, Odyssey i. 170, etc. 

« See St. John i. 20-23. •* Odyssey i. 10. 

« Isaiah xl. 8, quoted in St. Matthew iii. 3; St. Mark 
i. 3 ; St. Luke iii. 4 ; St. John 1. 23. 

f i.e., EHzabeth ; St. Luke i. 7-13. 
22 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

shall speak to you, He " who being in the form of chap. 
God did not count His equality with God as an 
opportunity for gain, but emptied Himself," " the 
God of compassion who is eager to save man. And 
the Word Himself now speaks to you plainly, 
putting to shame your unbelief, yes, I say, the Word 
of God speaks, having become man, in order that 
such as you may learn from man how it is even 
possible for man to become a god. 

Then is it not monstrous, my friends, that, while 
God is ever exhorting us to virtue, we on our part 
shrink from accepting the benefit and put off our 
salvation ? Do you not know that John also invites us john also 
to salvation and becomes wholly a voice of exhorta- gaivaSn" 
tion ? Let us then inquire of him. " Who and 
whence art thou ? " * He will say he is not Elijah ; 
he will deny that he is Christ ; but he will confess, 
"a voice crying in the desert." " Who then is John ? 
Allow us to say, in a figure, that he is a voice of the 
Word, raising his cry of exhortation in the desert. 
What dost thou cry, O voice ? " Tell us also." ^ 
"Make straight the ways of the Lord."^ John is 
a forerunner, and the voice is a forerunner of the 
Word. It is a voice of encouragement that makes 
ready for the coming salvation, a voice that ex- 
horts to a heavenly inheritance; and by reason of 
this voice, the barren and desolate is fruitless no 
longer. 

It was this fruitfulness, I think, which the angel's John's voice 
voice foretold. That voice was also a forerunner of ^°'| j!'/ .^ , 
the Lord, inasmuch as it brought good tidmgs to a are two 
barren woman,/ as John did to the desert. This o7the Word 
voice of the Word is therefore the cause of the 
barren woman being blest with child and of the 

23 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAR 6VT€KV€l Kal Tj epTjIJiOS KapTTQ(j)Op€l. at TTpoSpOflOL 

^ rod Kvpiov (f)Ci)val Bvo, dyyeXov Kal 'Icoawou, 
alviaaovTai jjlol ttjv iva7TOK€LiJi€vrjv aajr-qplav, (h? 
eVt^aveVro? rod Xoyov rovhe evreKvias -qfid? Kapirov 
OLTTepeyKaad ai, 'CcorjV ollSlov. a/x</>oj yovv is ravrov 
ayayovoa ra (fiojva 77 ypa(f)r] cra^T^vt^et to Trdv 

" OLKOVGOLTOJ 7] OX) TLKTOVOa' prj^aTO) cl)OWrjV 7) OVK 

(hhtvovaa, otl -nXeiova ra reKva rrjs epn'niov p,dXXov 
Tj rrjs ixovorjs rov dvSpa." -qjilv evriyye\il,ero 
dyyeXos, rjfJLds vpovrpeTrev 'Icoaw)]? vorjaat rov 
yecopyov, i7]rrjaaL rov ctVSpa. et? yap Kal 6 avros 
ovros, 6 rijs areipas dvqp, 6 rrjs eprifiov yeojpyo?, 
6 rrjs Oeias ijJLTTXrjcras SvvdfJLeoJS Kal rijv orelpav Kal 
rrjv ep-r^jJLOV. eVet yap TroXXd ra reKva rrjs evyevovs, 
diraig 8e rjv 8ta drreideiav rj TToXv-nais dveKaOev 
'EjSpaia yvvT], rj arelpa rov dvhpa Xaji^dvei Kal rj 
epr][xo5 rov yecopyov elra r) fxev Kapncov, r] Se 
TTLaroJv, dfjicfia} he [xrjrepes Sta rov Xoyov amcrrot? 
he eloeri vvv Kal arelpa Kal eprjfios TrepiXecTreraL. 

'0 jJiev 'lojdvvr]?y 6 Krjpvi rod Xoyov, ravrrj rrrj 
TrapeKdXei eroipuovs yiveoQai els Oeov, rov \piarov, 
rrapovaiav, Kal rovro rfv o fjvlaaero rj ZaxapLOV 
aLOJTTrj, dvap^evovaa rov TrpoSpofxov rov XpLorov 
KapnoVy Lva rrjs dX'qOelas ro ^d)s, 6 Xoyos, rcov 
Trpo(f)rjrLKdjv alviyp^drajv rrjv piVorLKTjv aTToAuar^rat 
GLWTT-^v, evayyeXiov yevofievos' ov Se el rrodels 

« Isaiah liv. 1. When Clement says that Scripture brings 
together the two voices, he is interpreting the first clause of 
this quotation as referring to the desert, and the second as 
referring to the woman. 

* i.e., the Gentiles ; cp. Stromateis ii. 29. 1. 

<= See St. Luke i. 20, 64-. 

24 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

desert bearing fruit. The two forerunning voices of chap. 
the Lord^ that of the angel and that of John, seem rpjjj 
to me to speak darkly of the salvation laid up in meaning 
store for us, namely that, after the manifestation of two^voice 
this Word, we should reap the fruit of productiveness, 
which is eternal life. Certainly the Scripture makes 
the whole matter plain by bringing together the two 
voices. For it says, "Let her hear that brings not 
forth ; let her that is not in travail utter her voice ; 
for more are the children of the desolate than of her 
that hath an husband." " We are they to whom the 
angel brought the good tidings ; we are they whom 
John exhorted to recognize the husbandman and to 
seek the husband. For He is one and the same, the 
husband of the barren woman and the husbandman 
of the desert. He who has filled both the barren 
woman and the desert with divine power. For since 
the woman of noble birth had many children, but 
was afterwards childless through unbelief, — that is, 
the Hebrew woman who had many children to begin 
with, — the barren woman ^ receives her husband and 
the desert its husbandman. So then by reason of 
the Word both become mothers, the desert of fruits 
and the woman of believing children ; yet even now 
the words '^'^ barren" and "desert" remain for un- 
believers. 

In some such way as this John, the herald of the John 
Word, summoned men to prepare for the presence S pre^re 
of God, that is, of the Christ. And this was the for Gods 
hidden meaning of the dumbness of Zacharias, which ^°°^^°^ 
lasted until the coming of the fruit which was fore- 
runner of the Christ,*^ — that the light of truth, the 
Word, should break the mystic silence of the dark 
prophetic sayings, by becoming good tidings. But 

25 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. tSctv CO? dXr]6cb? Tov deop, KaOaporlojv jjieTaXdj.i^ave 
OeoTTpeTTOJV, ov Sdcfjvrjs TrerdXcuv /cat raiULcdp tlvojv 
ipLCO Kal 7Top<f)vpa TreTrot/ctA/xeVcoy, St/catoawr^v 8e 
dvahriadjxevos /cat rrj? iyKpareias rd TreraXa irepi- 
Odfievos TToXuTTpayjJLovei ^piarov " iycj ydp elpa rj 
9vpa," <l>iqai ttov rjv e/c/xa^etv Set vorjaat OeXiqaaaL 
TOV deov, OTTOJS TjpXv ddpoa? ra>u ovpavcov dva- 
TTerdcrr) rds rrvXa^' Aoyt/cat ydp at rod Xoyov TrvXai, 

10 P. TTLarecos \ dvoLyvvjxevai KXeiSr " Oeov ouSet? eyvixi, 
et p,ri o VLO£ Kal d) dv 6 vlos dTTOKaXvipj]." Bvpav 
he ev otS' ort rr]v aTTOKeKXeLorfievrju recos 6 dvoiyvv? 
varepov dTTOKaXvTTrei rdvhov /cat heiKwaiV d pbiqhe 
yvcbvai olov re '^p irporepov, el fjLT] Sta Xptarou 
TreTTopevpievoLS, St' ov piovov deds iTTOTTreverai, 



II 

"ASura roivvv ddea pLYj TToXvTrpaypioveZre [jii]8e 
^apdOpojv GTopbara reparelas epiirXea t^ Xe^rj- 
ra QecTTTpcoTLOV -q rpiTToSa Kippaiou t] AojSco' 
valov ;^aA/cetop'* yepdvhpvov he i/jdpLpLOis eprjpiat? 
reripL-qp^evov /cat to avrodi pLavreiov avrfj hpvt 
pcepiapaapLevov pivdoig yeyr^paKocn KaTaXelifjare. 
aeaiyrjTai yovv rj KaaraAta? Trrjyr) /cat KoAo^cDvo? 
dXXrj TTTjyijy Kal rd dXXa opLoiajs reOvrjKe vdpiara 

« St. John X. 9. * See p. 20, n. a. 

« St. Matthew xi. 27. 

^ e.g., the cave of Trophonius at Lebadeia in Boeotia. 

« Clement refers to the Libyan oracle of Zeus Ammon. 
There was a close connexion between this and the oracle of 
Zeus at Dodona. For the existence of a sacred oak in 

26 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

as for you, if you long to see God truly, take part chap. 
in purifications meet for Him, not of laurel leaves ^ 
and fillets embellished with wool and purple, but Purifi- 
crown yourself with righteousness, let your wreath neSsary 
be woven from the leaves of self-control, and seek for the 
diligently after Christ. " For I am the door," « He o?God 
says somewhere ; which we who wish to perceive 
God must search out, in order that He may throw 
open wide for us the gates of heaven. For the gates 
of tlie Word are gates of reason,^ opened by the key 
of faith. " No man knoweth God, save the Son, and 
him to whom the Son revealeth Him." '^ And I 
know well that He who opens this door, hitherto 
shut, afterwards unveils what is within, and shows 
what could not have been discerned before, except 
we had entered through Christ, through whom alone 
comes the vision of God. 



II. 

Do not therefore seek diligently after godless Sanctuaries, 
sanctuaries, nor after mouths of caverns full of sa^Jg^^'trees 
jugglery,'* nor the Thesprotian caldron, nor the Cir- and springs 
rhaean tripod, nor the Dodonian copper. As for the of date 
old stump honoured by the desert sands,^ and the 
oracular shrine there gone to decay with the oak 
itself, abandon them both to the region of legends 
now grown old. The Castalian spring, at least, is 
all silent. So is the spring of Colophon ; and the 
rest of the prophetic streams are likewise dead. 

Libya see A. B. Cook, Zms, vol. i. pp. 361-366. Strabo 
(54- B.c.-A.D. 24) says that in his day the oracle was " almost 
entirely deserted " (Strabo 813). 

27 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. ixavTLKa KOi Srj rod rv(f)ov K€va oipe /xeV, o/xco? 
^^ 8* ovv SieX-qXeyKTaL rols tStot? ovveKpevGavra 
fivOoLs. hirjyriaai rjfjLlv Kal rrjs aXXrj's (JiavTLKrjs, 
fjidXXov Be jjiaviKrjSy to, dxprjara ■)(^prjar'qpLa, rov 
Y^XdpLov, rov HvOlov, rov AiSu/>tea, rov 'A/x</>ta/Dec(j, 
rov "f 'AttoAAco/ rov ^AfichlXoxov, el 8e ^ovXei, Kal 
reparoGKOTTOVs Kal oIcjovookottov? Kal rovs oveipmv 
Kpirdg dviipov ovv avrol?' arrjaov 8e ojjlov napd 

11 p. rov Uvdiov rovs dXevpofxavreis dyojv \ Kal Kpido- 
/jidvreLS Kal rovs elaerc irapd roXs ttoXXols rerLfx-q- 
fxevov? eyyaarpiixvOovs' val fjLTjV dSvra AlyvTrrlajv 
Kal Tvppr]va)v veKvofiavreZai oKorw TrapaSiSoaOajv. 
jjiavLKCL ravra cos" dXr)9a)s dv9pco7Ta>v dTrioratv 
ao(f)iGrT]pLa Kal TrXdvrjs dKpdrov Kv^evr-qpia' ovv- 
efJLTTopoi rrjaSe rrjg yo-qrelas aiyes at cttI fxav- 
rLKTjv r]OKrjfJLevaL Kal KopaKes dvOpcovoLs XP^^ ^^^ 
dvdpcoTTOJV ScbaGKOfjievoi. 

Tc 8' €L GOL KaraXeyoifiL rd /jLVGrijpLa; ovk 
i^opxrJGOiJiaL fteV, ojonep 'AXKL^idSrjv XeyovGLV, 
dTToyv/JLVCoGO) 8e ev fidXa dvd rov rrj£ dX-qOelas Xoyov 
rrjv yorjreiav rrjv eyKeKpvfijjievrjv avrol? Kal avrovs 
ye rovs KaXovpuevovs vpiwv deovs, a)v at reXeral 
<at> " jJiVGriKaiy olov em GKTjvijg rov ^iov rots 

^ Tov fATToXXw is probably corrupt, tqv TpocpwvLov (Cobet) 
and Tou M6\pou (Wilamowitz) have been suggested. Mark- 
land puts rbu 'AirdWio before Tof KXdpiop, a re-arrangement 
which has been followed in the translation. 

2 <,ai> inserted by Mayor. 

" An attempt has been made here to reproduce the 
striking word-play which is a constant feature of Clement's 
writing. For other examples see pp. 37, 191 (n. b), 199 (n. a), 
255 (n. fZ), 299 (n. a). 

28 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Stripped of their absurd pretensions, though none chap. 
too soon, they are at last thoroughly exposed ; the ^^ 
waters have run dry together with the legends 
attached to them. Relate to me the utterly vain 
utterances " of that other fonn of divination, — I should 
rather say hallucination," — the oracles of Apollo, 
Clarian, Pythian and Didymean, and those of Amphi- 
araus and Amphilochus ; and, if you will, devote to 
destruction along with them the soothsayers, augurs 
and interpreters of dreams. At the same time, take 
and place by the side of Pythian Apollo those who 
divine by flour, and by barley,^ and the ventriloquists'' 
still held in honour among the multitude. Yes, and 
let the sanctuaries of Egypt and the Tuscan oracles 
of the dead be delivered over to darkness. Homes 
of hallucination in very truth they are, these schools 
of sophistry for unbelieving men, these gambling- 
dens of sheer delusion. Partners in this business of 
trickery are goats, trained for divination ; and ravens, 
taught by men to give oracular responses to men. 

But what if I were to recount the mysteries for The gods 
you } I will not burlesque them, as Alcibiades is mysteries 
said to have done, but will thoroughly lay bare, in 
accordance with the principle of truth, the trickery 
they conceal ; and as for your so-called gods them- 
selves, to whom the mystic rites belong, I will display 
them on the stage of life, as it were, for the spectators 

* Flour and barley were used in the sacrifices, and 
omens were obtained by watching the movements of the 
flames. 

<= The Greek word is used in the Septuagint to denote 
those who have " familiar spirits," such as the witch of Endor 
(1 Samuel xxviii. 7). Their ventriloquism was employed to 
simulate the voices of the spirits ; see Isaiah viii. 19 (" that 
chirp and that mutter "). Also Leviticus xix. 31, etc. 

29 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rijg dXrjOeias eKKVKXiqaco dearaZs. ^tovvaov fxai- 
v6Xt]v opyidi^ovai Ba/c^^ot wfiot^ayta rrjv tepofjcai'Lav 
dyovTes Kal reXioKOVGi rds Kpeovofjiia? rcjv (f)6vojv 
dveorejxpLevoi roTs o^eoiv, eTToXoXv^ovreg Euav, 
Euav eKeivriv, hi rjv rj irXavrj TraprjKoXovOrjaev Kal 
orjjieiov opyiojv ^aKXiKwv 6(f>is earl TereXeajxevos . 
avTLKa yovv Kara rrjv OLKpi^rj rojv 'K^paiojv (fxjjvrjv 
TO ovopta TO "Euta Saavvopievov eppnqveverai ocfus 

12 P. 0^ I ^i^Aeta- At]6l» 8e Kal l^oprj SpdpLa rjSr) iyeveadrjv 
pLVGTiKov, Kal rr)v TrXdi^rjv Kal rr)v dpTrayqv Kal to 
TTevBos avraZv 'EAeucrt? hahovx^Z. 

Kat juot hoK€Z rd opyia Kal rd pivarrjpLa SeZv 
irvpioXoyeZv, rd pikv (itto t^s" opyrjs rrjs Arjovs rrjs 
npos Ata yeyevqpLevqs, rd 8e dno rod pLvaovs 
rod ovpL^e^rjKoros irepl rov /!S.L6vvaov el 8e /cat 
(XTTO Mvovvros nvos ^ArnKov, ov ev Kwrfyia 8ta- 
(f)daprjvaL 'AttoAAoSco/jos' Aeyet, ov <f)66po?- vpLwv 
SeSo^aarai rd pLVGrrjpia emrvpi^ia) npLrj. Trdpean 
Se Kal aAAcos" pLvdripid ooi voeZv avriaroLxovvrajv 
Twv ypapLpLarcjv rd pLVGnqpia' drjpevovai ydp el 
Kal dXXoL rives, drdp St^ /cat ot pLvOoi oi roioihe 
QpaKcov rovg ^ap^apiKcordrovs , (^pvydjv rov? 
dvo-qrordrov? , 'EAAt^vcov tou? heiaihaipiovas . oXoiro 
ovu 6 rrjaSe dp^as rrj? dirdrrig dvOpcoTTOis, e'lre 6 
Adphavos , 6 ^slr^rpos deojv KaraSei^as rd pLVonqpiay 
etVe 'HeTtcDV, o Tct HapiodpaKcov opyia Kal TeAcTas" 

" "Eva" {eva, eiidv) is one form of the cry " evoe " or 
*♦ evae " {(vol, eiiai) uttered by worshippers in the orgiastic 
rites of Dionysus. 

* Clement catches at a slight verbal resemblance as 
affording some support for his idea that there is a connexion 
between Eve and the Bacchic serpent. Elsewhere {Sfroma- 
30 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

of truth. The raving Dionysus is worshipped by chap. 
Bacchants with orgies, in which tliey celebrate their ^^ 
sacred frenzy by a feast of raw flesh. Wreathed with Dionysus 
snakes, they perform the distribution of portions of 
their victims, shouting the name of Eva,* that Eva 
through whom error entered into the world ; and 
a consecrated snake is the emblem of the Bacchic 
orgies. At any rate, according to the correct 
Hebrew speech, the word '^hevia" with an aspirate 
means the female snake. ^ Demeter and Persephone 
have come to be the subject of a mystic drama, and Demeter 
Eleusis celebrates with torches the rape of the sephone' 
daughter and the sorrowful wandering of the mother. 

Now it seems to me that the terms "orgy" and Derivation 
"mystery" must be derived, the former from ^^'^^^^o^gP^^rni 
wrath iprge) of Demeter against Zeus," and the "mystery" 
latter from the pollution (jnysos) that took place in 
connexion with Dionysus.^ But even if they are 
named after a certain Myus of Attica, who according 
to Apollodorus was killed in hunting, I make no 
objection. Your mysteries have received the glory 
of funeral honours ! You may also, in another way, 
suppose them to be hunting-stories (mytheria), since 
the letters correspond ; for as surely as there are 
men who hunt wild beasts, so do legends like these 
hunt the rudest among Thracians, the silliest among 
Phrygians, and the daemon-fearers among Greeks. A 
curse then upon the man who started this deception The alleged 
for mankind, whether it be Dardanus, who introduced of SySerL 
the mysteries of the Mother of the Gods ; or Eetion, 
who founded the Samothracian orgies and rites ; or 

teis iii. 80. 2) he gives the Hebrew derivation, Eve = Life (see 
Genesis iii. 20). 

<^ See p. 35. ^ See p. 73. 

31 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. VTroarrjadfjievo? , etVe o Opuf eKcZvog 6 Mt8a?, 6 
irapa rod ^OSpvaov /JLadayv, eVetra SiaSou? rot? 
VTroreray/jievoL? evrexvov airdrriv. ov yap /xe o 
YsJjTTpios 6 vr]aid)T7]? Kivvpa? TrapaTreiaai ttot av, 
rd TTepl Tr)v ^ K^poh'irrjv /jLa)(Xa)Pra opyta e/c vvkto? 
rj/Jiepa irapa^ovvai roXfXTjaas , (f)iXoTLiJLOVjJi,€Vog OeidaaL 
TTopvTjv TToXlr iSa. MeAa/x7To8a Sc rov ^AfivOdovog 
aAAot (f)aalp i^ AlyvTrrov fieraKOfjiLoaL rfj 'EAAaSt 
18 P. Tds Ar)ovs eoprds, rrevOos vfivov/JLevov. rovrovs 
eyojy* dv dpx^xdKOvg ^i]crat/xt jxtjOcdv dOeojv Kal 
SeccnSaLfioi^Las oXedplov rrarepa?, anep/JLa KaKtas 
Kal (fydopds eyKara^VTevoavras rd) ^ico rd iivari^pta. 

"HSt7 Se, Kal ydp Kaipos, avrd vpidiv rd opy ca 
i^eXey^o) dirdrris Kal reparetas epLrrXea. Kal el 
fjLejjLvrjode, ImyeXdoeaOe fidXXov rots' pvOois vpidov 
rovrois roL? Tt/xoj/xeVot?. dyopevaco Se dvacjiavhov 
rd KeKpvjjLpieva, ovk alSovfievos Xeyetv a rrpouKvvelv 
ovK aLGXvveaOe . rj jxeu ovu " d^poyeviqs ' re Kal 

KVTTpoyeurj?," rj Kivvpa (f)iXr] [rrjv ^A<f)poSLrr]v 
X4ya>, rrjv " (jyiXopLrjhia, on pirjhecav €^e(f)adv6r],'' 
fjLTjSecov eKeivojv rcjv dTTOKeKopLiJLevojv Ovpavov, rcbv 
Xdyva)v, rojv fierd rrjv rofxrjv ro KVfxa jBe^LaafUvcov), 
cos daeXyojv v(xTu ixopicov d^ios ['A</>po8tTT]] ■'■ yiverai 
KapiToSy €v rat? reAerat? ravrrj? rrj? rreXayias 
rjSovrj? reKixTjpiov rrjs yovrj? dXcov ;!^ovS/)o? Kal 
0aAAo? rot? jJiVOVfiepoLg rr]v rexvrjv rrjv fioixi-K'qv 
eTTtStSorat- vopnapia he elatfiepovcnv avrfj ol fxvov- 
fjLevoL, cos eraipa epaarai. 

^ ['A0/)o5/t77] Schwartz. 

* This phrase is quoted from Hesiod, Theogony 200, 
See also Liddell and Scott under (1) (pi.\o/j./x7j8r)s and (2) 
(piXo/jiiJ.€i5rji, 
S2 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

that Phrygian Midas, who learnt the artful deceit chap. 
from Odrysus and then passed it on to his subjects. ^^ 
For I could never be beguiled by the claims of the 
islander Cinyras, of Cyprus, who had the audacity to 
transfer the lascivious orgies of Aphrodite from night 
to day, in his ambition to deify a harlot of his own 
country. Others say that it was Melampus the 
son of Amythaon who brought into Greece from 
Egypt the festivals of Demeter, that is, the story of 
her grief celebrated in hymns. These men I for my 
part would call originators of mischief, parents of 
godless legends and deadly daemon-worship, seeing 
that they implanted the mysteries in human life to 
be a seed of evil and corruption. 

But now, (and high time too,) I will convict your Descriptioi 
orgies themselves of being full of deception and mysteries 
jugglery, and if you have been initiated you will 
smile the more at these legends you are wont to 
honour. I will tell openly the secret things, and 
will not shrink from speaking of what you are not 
ashamed to worship. There is, then, the "foam- 
born" " Cyprus - born " goddess, the darling of 
Cinyras. I mean Aphrodite, who received the (i.) of 
name Philomedes because she was born from the ^^ ^° ^ ^ 
medea,^ those lustful members that were cut off 
from Uranus and after the separation did violence to 
the wave. See how lewd are the members from 
which so worthy an offspring is born ! And in the 
rites which celebrate this pleasure of the sea, as a 
symbol of her birth, the gift of a cake of salt and a 
phallos is made to those who are initiated in the 
art of fornication; and the initiated bring their 
tribute of a coin to the goddess, as lovers do to a 
mistress. 

33 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Ar]ov9 §€ /jLvar-qpLO. al^ Ato? Trpo? fir^repa 
ArffjLTjTpa affypohiGLOi avfiTrXoKal Kal firjvis [ovk 

OtS' O Tt (fiO) XoLTTOV, jJLTjTpOS "^ yVVatKO?) TTJS At^oOs", 

i^S" Si7 X^P^^ BptjLtci) TTpoaayopevdrjvaL Aeyerat, < /<:at >^ 
iKenqpiai Ato? /^ctt 770/xa X^^V^ '^^^ KapStovXKLai Kal 
dpprjTOvpyLaL- ravra ol Opyye? reXiaKovoiv "ArriSt 
/cat ¥iv^eXr) Kal l^opv^aacv redpvXrjKauLV de cus" 
d'pa dTToaTrdaa? 6 Xevs rod Kpiov tov? SlSvjjlovs 

<f)€p(x}V Iv jJL€GOLS 6ppnfj€ TOt? /CoATTOt? TT^? At^OUS", 

rLpiiopiav iJjevSrj rrj? ^laias ovpLTrXoKyj? eKrivvvajv , 
CO? iavTov hrjOev eKreixajv. ret ovfi^oXa rrj? fivq- 
aeojs ravriqs e/c Trepiovaias TrapareOeuTa otS' ort 
K:tv7^CT€t yeAcora /cat juo^ yeAaaetouCTtv t;/xty 8ia 
14 P. rovs I eXeyxovs' " e/c rvpLTrdvov e^ayov e/c /cu/x- 
^dXov €7TLOV iK€pvo(l)6prjaa' vtto rov Traarov 
vneSw.^' ravra ovx v^pi9 rd avfx^oXa; ov x^^^V 
rd fJiVcrripLa; rl S* et /cat rd CTrtAotTra TTpoadelrjv; 
KV6i fjikv r) Arjpi'rjrrjp, dvarp€cf)erai 8e rj Kopry, 
pLiyvvrai 8' a^^t? o yevrryaas' ouroat Zeu? tt^ 
(^€p€(f)drrr], rfj tSta Ovyarpl, pLerd r-qv pbrjrepa rrjv 
Arjco, €KXad6pievo? rod Trporepov pLvaovs {Trarrjp 
Kal (f)9opevs Koprjs 6 Zeu? ^) /cat pLiyvvrai hpaKOJV 
yevofievog, os rjv, iXeyxO^LS. Ha^at^iojv yovv 
fivarrjpLcov avpi^oXov rot? pLVOvpievoLS 6 hid 
koXttov deos' SpdKOJV 8e ionu ovrog, SteA/co/xcvo? 
rod koXttov rwv reXovpievcov , eXeyxo? aKpaaias 

^ al Lobeck. Kal mss. "^ <.Kai> inserted by Schwartz. 

^ iraTTjp . . . Zevs. These words are not found in Euse- 
bius {Praep. Ev. ii. 3), and are rejected as a gloss by Stahhn. 

« i.e. the Grim or Terrible One. 

* Compare this formula of the Phrygian with that of 
the Eleusinian mysteries, quoted on p. 43. See also the 
Appendix on the Mysteries, p. 388. 

34 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

The mysteries of Demeter commemorate the chap. 
amorous embraces of Zeus with his mother Demeter, .jj l^^^ 
and the wrath of Demeter (I do not kno'w what to Demeter 
call her for the future, mother or wife) on account 
of which she is said to have received the name 
Brimo ^ ; also the supplications of Zeus, the drink of 
bile, the tearing out the heart of the victims, and 
unspeakable obscenities. The same rites are per- (iii.) of 
formed in honour of Attis and Cvbele and thccybeieand 
Corybantes by the Phrygians, who have spread it t""e Cory- 
abroad how that Zeus tore off the testicles of a ram, which^are 
and then brought and flung them into the midst of the same 
Demeter's lap, thus paying a sham penalty for his Demeter 
violent embrace by pretending that he had mutilated 
himself If I go on further to quote the symbols of 
initiation into this mystery they will, I know, move 
you to laughter, even though you are in no laughing 
humour when your rites are being exposed. " I ate 
from the drum ; I drank from the cymbal ; I carried 
the sacred dish ; I stole into the bridal chamber." ^ 
.\re not these symbols an outrage ? Are not the 
mysteries a mockery ? But what if I were to add 
the rest of the story ? Demeter becomes pregnant ; The 
the Maiden grows up ; and this Zeus who begat her PeTiephons 
has further intercourse, this time with Persephone 
herself, his own daughter, after his union with her 
mother Demeter. Totally forgetful of his former 
pollution Zeus becomes the ravisher as well as father 
of the maiden, meeting her under the form of a 
serpent, his true nature being thus revealed. At 
any rate, in the Sabazian mysteries the sign given to 
those who are initiated is " the god over the breast " ; 
this is a serpent drawn over the breast of the votaries, 
a proof of the licentiousness of Zeus. Persephone 

35 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. AtO?- KV€L Kal Yj 0£/)6</>aTTa TTtttSa Tavp6fjiOp(j)OV' 

ravpos SpciKovTOs /cat Trarrjp ravpov SpaKOJv, 

iv Opei TO KpV(j)LOV, ^OVKoXo?, TO KeVTpiOV,^ 



^ovkoXlkov, oljxai,^ Kevrpov top vdpOrjKa intKaX 



OJV, 



ov 817 dvaare(f>ovaLV ol ^olkxol. ^ovXei /cat to, 
^epe^drrr]? dvdoXoyia hirfyrjacofxai ^ crot /cat rov 
KaXaOov /cat rrjv dpTrayrjv rrjv vtto 'AtScoyecDS" /cat 
TO x^^P-^ * '^V^ yV^ '^^'^ '''^^ ^S" rds Ev^ovXeojs 
rds avyKaraTToOeicrag raZv dealv,^ St' rjv alriav iv 
TOis Q€aiJLO(f)opLOLS fieyapl^ovTe? x^^P^vs ifx^dX- 
Xovaiv; ravrrjv rrjv /jLvdoXoytav at yvvalKes ttol- 
klXcos Kara ttoXlv ioprdt^ovGi, QeaiiocfyopLa, UKupo- 
15 P. <f)6pLa, Wpprjro(f)6pia, TroXvrpoTTCOs t7]V Oepe^arrT^? 
eKrpaycphovaai dpTrayrjV. 

To, yap Atovucrou pivarr^pia reXeov dTrdvOpojTra' 
ov eiaeVt TratSa ovra ivoirXcx) KLvrjoei Tvepcxo- 
pevovTwv Viovptjrcxjv, SoXcp Se vttoSvvtojv Ttrdvcov, 
dTrar-qcravreg TraLSaptcoSeaiV ddvpfiacnv, ovtol St] 
ot Ttrdves SceaTracrav, ert vrjTTLaxov ovra, d>s 6 rrjs 
TeAer^S" rroLrjrrjs '0/3</>€u? (f)r]aLV 6 QpaKiog- 

Kcovos /cat pofjL^os /cat iraiyvta KajXTreaiyvia, 
fjLTJXd re ;)(;puaea /caAa Trap* 'KaTreplScov Xcyv- 

(jxJjVOJV. 

/cat rrjahe vjjlIv rrjs reXerrjs rd dxpela avfi^oXa ovk 
dxp^tov els KardyvcoGLV Trapadeadat' darpdyaXos, 

^ KevTpiov Dindorf. Kcvrpov mss. 

^ iv . . . otuat] bv 6pe(ri KpixpLov ^ovko\u> k^ptoov (pepuv 
[t6 — ot/xat] Tournier. 

^ diTj-yriaio/J.aL Dilldorf. Si7]-yr](T0/xai MSS. 

* Xda/ma from Eusebius. o-x'cr/ia mss. 

^ rori/ deolv Wilamowitz. tt] deq. Rohde. 
36 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

also bears a child, which has the form of a bull. To be chap. 
sure, we are told by a certain mythological poet that ^^ 

The bull begets a snake, the snake a bull ; 

On hills the herdsman bears his mystic goad, — 

the herdsman's goad being, I think, a name for the 
wand which the Bacchants wreathe. Would you The rape of 
have me also tell you the story of Persephone Persephone 
gathering flowers, of her basket, and how she was 
seized by Hades, of the chasm that opened in the 
earth, and of the swine of Eubouleus that were 
swallowed up along with the two deities,'* which 
is the reason given for the custom of casting swine 
into the sacred caverns at the festival of the 
Thesmophoria ? This is the tale which the women 
celebrate at their various feasts in the city, Thesmo- 
phoria, Scirophoria, Arretophoria, where in different 
ways they work up into tragedy the rape of 
Persephone. 

The mysteries of Dionysus are of a perfectly savage The 
character. He was yet a child, and the Curetes were SJ^D?onysus 
dancing around him with warlike movement, when 
the Titans stealthily drew near. First they beguiled 
him with childish toys, and then, — these very Titans 
— tore him to pieces, though he was but an infant. 
Orpheus of Thrace, the poet of the Initiation, speaks 
of the 

Top, wheel and jointed dolls, with beauteous fruit 
Of gold from the clear-voiced Hesperides. 

And it is worth while to quote the worthless ^ symbols 
ot this rite of yours in order to excite condemnation : 

« The Greek reads, "the two goddesses"; but Clement 
can hardly have meant this. 

* For the word-play see p. 28, n. a. 

37 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. a^aipa, arpo^iXoSy /JLrjXa, pofi^og, eaoTrrpov, ttoko?, 
^ Adrjvd fxev ovv rr)v Kaphiav rod Atoi^ucrot; vcfjeXo- 
fievT] riaAAa? eV rov rrdXXeiv ttjv Kaphiav irpoo-qyo- 
pevdr]' ol he TirdveSy ol Kal hiaGTraoavres avrov, 
Xe^r^rd riva rpiTToht emOevTes Kal rod Atop-uaou 
ijjL^aXovres rd pieXr], KaBrnJjovv Trporepov eTretra 
o^eXiaKOLS TrepiTreipavTes "vnetpexov 'H^ato-roto.' 
Zej)? 8e vurepov i7n(f)ai'€LS (et deos rjv, rd-xa ttov 
Trjs Kvlarjs rajv OTrraj/xeVcov Kpecov fieraXa^cov, rjs 
Brj TO " yepa? Xa^^Zv " opLoXoyovaiv vfjLOJV ol deoi) 
Kepavvo) TOV9 Ttrai/a? aiKil^eTai Kal rd fxeXr) rod 
AiovvGov ^AttoXXcxjul TO) TTachl TTapaKararideraL 
Karaddxpai. 6 he, ov yap rj-n-eidrjae Ait, els rov Yiap- 
vaaaov cfiepcov KararWerai hieorraaiJievov rov veKpov. 
Et deXeis S' eTTOTTrevGai Kal Kopv^dvrcov opyta, 

16 p. rov rpirov \ dheX(f)6v aTTOKreivavres ovroc rrjv Ke(j>a- 
Xtjv rod veKpov (fiOiVLKihi eTreKaXvxpdrrjv Kac Kara- 
areipavre idaijjdrrjv, (fiepovres errl xP^Xkyj? doTriho? 
VTTO ra? VTTOjpeias rov '0Au/x77ou. Kal ravr eon 
rd piVGrrjpia, ovveXovri (j>dvai, <f)6voL Kal rd^oi' ol 
he lepels ol rcovhe, ovs ^ AvaKroreXeards ots [leXov 
KoXelv KaXovGiy rrpoGeinreparevovrai rfj GVfj.(f)opa, 
oAopt^ov dirayopevovres GeXivov enl rpaire^r]? ri- 
OevaL' o Lovr ai ydp hrj eK rov atfiaros rod drrop- 
pvevros rod Kopv^avrtKod rd oeXivov iK7re(f)VKevaL' 
cjGTTep djJieXeL Kal al 6eGijiO(f)opLdl,ovGaL rrjs poids 
Tovs KOKKovs 7Tapacf)vXdrrovGLV eGdleiv rovs diro- 

" Pallas from paJIein. 

* Homer, Iliad ii. 426. Over Hephaestus, i.e. the fire. 

« Iliad iv. 49. 

'^ The "Princes" are the Corybantes or Cabeiri. See 
Pausanias x. 38. 7. 
38 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

the knuckle-bone, the ball, the spinning-top, apples, chap. 
wheel, mirror, fleece ! Now Athena made off with ^^ 
the heart of Dionysus, and received the name 
Pallas from its palpitating.* But the Titans, they 
who tore him to pieces, placed a caldron upon a 
tripod, and casting the limbs of Dionysus into it first 
boiled them down ; then, piercing them with spits, 
they "held them over Hephaestus."^ Later on 
Zeus appeared ; perhaps, since he was a god, because 
he smelt the steam of the flesh that was cooking, 
which your gods admit they " receive as their 
portion." '^ He plagues the Titans with thunder, 
and entrusts the limbs of Dionysus to his son 
Apollo for burial. In obedience to Zeus, Apollo 
carries the mutilated corpse to Parnassus and lays it 
to rest. 

If you would like a vis:' on of the Corybantic The 
orgies also, this is the story. Two of the Corybantes o°g{es^'^ ^^ 
slew a third one, who was their brother, covered the 
head of the corpse with a purple cloak, and then 
wreathed and buried it, bearing it upon a brazen 
shield to the skirts of Mount Olympus. Here we see 
what the mysteries are, in one word, murders and 
burials ! The priests of these mysteries, v/hom such 
as are interested in them call " Presidents of the 
Princes' rites," ^ add a portent to the dismal tale. 
They forbid wild celery, root and all, to be placed on 
the table, for they actually believe that wild celery 
grows out of the blood that flowed from the murdered 
brother.^ It is a similar custom, of course, that is 
observed by the women who celebrate the Thesmo- 
phoria. They are careful not to eat any pomegranate 

« For this legend of the Corybantes see A, B. Cook, 
Zeus, i. 107-108. 

39 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTeTTTCOKorag x^iiai, Ik tcov rod ^lovvaov atixarog 
arayovcov ^€^Xaarr]K€uai vo/jLcl^ovaai ^ ra? poids. 
Ka^SetpoL'S" Se rov? Y^opv^avrag KaXovvres kol 
TeXerrjV Ka/^etpt/CT^v KarayyeXXovaLV' avroj yap St] 
rovTOJ rob d8€X(f)OKT6vco rrjv KLarrjV dveXofjLevoj , eV fj 
TO Tov Aiovvaov alSoLOV OLTreKeLTO, els Tvpprjviav 
KaT-qyayov, evKXeov? e/JLTTopoL (j>opriov' Kavravda 
SieTpi^eTr^v, (j>vydhe ovre, rrju TToXvTifxrjTOv evae^eias 
StSacT/caAtav, alSota /cat klgttjv, Opr^aKeveLV Trapa- 
defxevco Tvpp-qvols. St' tjv air lav ovk dneLKorcvs 
rov AtovuCToy rives "Amv TrpooayopeveaOau OeXovaiv, 
alSoLWV eoreprip^evov. 

Kat Tt davfjiaarov el Tvppr^vol ol ^dp^apot alaxpol^ 
ovra>s reXiGKOvrai Trad-qixaGiv , ottov ye ^A0r]vai,OLS 
Kal rfj dXXr] *EAAaSt, alSovfjiaL /cat Xeyeiv, aiaxvvrjg 
epLTrXeajs tj irepl rrjv Ar]d) jJLvOoXoyla; dXajptevr) 
yap rj Arjd) Kara t,rjry]aiv rrjs dvyarpos rrjs Koprys" 
TTepl rrjv 'EAeuati^a [rrjs ^ArnKrjg Se eon rovro ro 
Xojplop) aTTOKapLvei Kal (/ipeart eTTLKaOl^eL XvTrovfxevq. 
rovro rots fxvovfJLevoLS dirayopeverai elaen vvv, 
Iva pLTj SoKotev ol rereXeapbevoi papLeladai rrjV 

17 p ohvpoixevTjv. a)Kovv \ he rr^viKaSe rrjV 'EAeuatva ol 
'yrjyeveXs' ovofiara avrols Bav^d) Kal AvaavXrjs 
Kal TpLTTroXe/JLOs, en 8e Eup,oA77os' re Kal Eu^ou- 
Xevs' ^ovKoXos 6 TpLTTroXefios rjv, 7Toijxr]V 8e o 
Ev/xoAtto?, av^cx)rr]s Se o Eu/SouAeu?" a0' &v ro 
Y.VjJioXmh(ji)V Kal ro KrjpvKOJV ro lepoc^avriKov Srj 
rovro ^ AOrjViqai yevo? yjvO-qaev. Kal Srj (ou yap 
dvrjGco fjLrj ovxl elTrelv) ^eviGaGa r} Bau^cu rrjV Arjdj 
^ po/j.isovcraL Wilamowitz. vofj-i^ovai mss. 

« i.e. Persephone, 

* Literally, "the hierophantic clan." The hierophant 
40 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

seeds which fall to the ground, being of opinion that chap. 
pomegranates spring from the drops of Dionysus' ^^ 
blood. The Corybantes are also called by the name The rite 
Cabeiri, which proclaims the rite of the Cabeiri. cabehi 
For this very pair of fratricides got possession of the 
chest in which the virilia of Dionysus were deposited, 
and brought it to Tuscany, traders in glorious wares ! 
There they sojourned, being exiles, and communicated 
their precious teaching of piety, the virilia and the 
chest, to Tuscans for purposes of worship. For this 
reason not unnaturally some wish to call Dionysus 
Attis, because he was mutilated. 

Yet how can we wonder if Tuscans, who are The tale 
barbarians, are thus consecrated to base passions, °^^^ saat^o 
when Athenians and the rest of Greece — I blush 
even to speak of it — possess that shameful tale 
about Demeter ? It tells how Demeter, wandering 
through Eleusis, which is a part of Attica, in search 
of her daughter the Maiden,* becomes exhausted 
and sits down at a well in deep distress. This 
display of grief is forbidden, up to the present 
day, to those who are initiated, lest the worshippers 
should seem to imitate the goddess in her sorrow. 
At that time Eleusis was inhabited by aborigines, 
whose names were Baubo, Dysaules, Triptolemus, 
and also Eumolpus and Eubouieus. Triptolemus 
was a herdsman, Eumolpus a shepherd, and Eu- 
bouieus a swineherd. These were progenitors of 
the Eumolpidae and of the Heralds, who form the 
priestly clan ^ at Athens. But to continue ; for I 
will not forbear to tell the rest of the story. Baubo, 

(see Appendix on the Mysteries, p. 385) was chosen from 
the Eumolpidae, the dadouchos or torch-bearer from the 
Heralds, 

41 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. opiyei KVKeoJva avrfj- rrjs he dvaLvofxevrfs Xa^elv 
/cat 7TL€iv ovK i9eXovar]s {7Tev6r]pr]S yap rjv) Trept- 
aXyr]s rj Bau/8a> yevo/jLevr], co? vrrepopaOelaa Srjdev, 
avaareAAerat to. alSola /cat €7tlS€lkvv€l rfj deep' r] 
Se TeprreraL rfj oipec rj Ar](h /cat /xoAi? nore hex^rai 
TO TTorov, YjodeXaa rep dedpLari. ravT kari ra 
Kpv(/)La rojv ^AOiqvaicxjv pivaT-qpia. ravrd roc /cat 
'O/D^eu? dvaypd(f>€L. TrapaOrjGopiaL 8e cot avrd tov 
Op(j)€ojs rd €7Trj, tV exj]? pidprvpa rrjs ayatCT;(WTta? 
TOV pivaraycoyov 

ojs eiTTOVGa TTenXovs dveavpero, Sel^e Se irdvra \ 
18 P. acoparos ovSe TrpenovTa tvttov ttoIs 8' rjev "laK^os, 
;^etpt re pnv ptTrraor/ce yeXcov Bau^ou? wtto koXttois' 
7) 8' erret ow pieihrjae ded, p,eLSrj(T^ ivl dvpcp, 
he^aro 8' atoAov dyyo?, ev cL /cu/ceojv eve/cetro. 

KaoTL TO GvvOrjpia 'EAeuatytcov pLvarrjpLOjv evi]- 
GTevaa, ernov rov KVKecova, eXa^ov e'/c KLOTr]?, 
epyaGafievos ■*■ dTredepuqv els KdXadov /cat e'/c KaXddov 
el? KLGTTjv." KaXd ye rd Oedpara /cat ^ea Trperrovra. 
d'^ta /xei^ ow vu/cto? to, reXeGpcara /cat irvpos /cat 
Tou " pieyaXyjropo?," pdXXov 8e pLarai6(j)povos 
^KpexOeiSdjp Srjpov, irpo? 8e /cat tcov d'AAajv 
*EAAT^ya»v, ovGr ivas " /xeVet TeAeuTT^oavTa? dVoa 

J e77eucrci/iej'0J Lobeck. 

** The Greek word represents a mixed drink composed of 
barley-meal, grated cheese and Pramnian wine. The same 
word is used for the draught mentioned in the formula of 
the Eleusiiiian mysteries. 

'' Lobeck suggested " having tasted," which meaning 
can be obtained by a slight change in the Greek ; see 
note on text. This would bring the passage more into 
line with the Phrygian formula quoted on p. 35. 1 have 
42 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

having received Demeter as a guest, offers her a chap. 
draught of wine and meal.<* She declines to take '^ 
itj being unwilling to drink on account of her 
mourning. Baubo is deeply hurt, thinking she has 
been slighted, and thereupon uncovers her secret 
parts and exhibits them to the goddess. Demeter is 
pleased at the sight, and now at last receives the 
draught, — delighted with the spectacle ! These are 
the secret mysteries of the Athenians ! These are 
also the subjects of Orpheus' poems. I will quote 
you the very lines of Orpheus, in order that you may 
have the originator of the mysteries as witness of 
their shamelessness : 

This said, she drew aside her robes, and showed 
A sight of shame ; child lacchus was there, 
And laughing, plunged his hand below her breasts. 
Then smiled the goddess, in her heart she smiled, 
And drank the draught from out the glancing cup. 

And the formula of the Eleusinian mysteries is as The 
follows : " I fasted ; I drank the draught ; I took formula"" 
from the chest ; having done my task,^ I placed in 
the basket, and from the basket into the chest." 
Beautiful sights indeed, and fit for a goddess ! Yes, 
such rites are meet for night and torch fires, and for 
the ^'■great-hearted" — I should rather say empty- 
headed — people of the Erechtheidae," with the rest 
of the Greeks as well, "whom after death there 

translated the reading of the mss., leaving the English as 
vague as is the Greek. It seems fairly clear, however, that 
some of the worshippers' acts are symbolic imitations of 
what the goddess is supposed to have done. See Appendix, 
p. 384, n. 3. 

<^ The great-hearted people of Erechtheus are mentioned 
in Homer, Iliad ii. 547. Erechtheus, a legendary king of 
Athens, had a temple, the Erechtheum, on the Acropolis. 
C 43 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. ovSe eXnovrai'* tlgl Srj {xavTeverai *Hpa/<:AetTos' 

19 P. o 'E^eato?; " vu/<:Tt7rd|Aots", ixdyois, ^aK^ois, X-qvacs, 

fjLVcrraLs," tovtols avretAet to. fiera Odvarov, tovtols 

fjiavTeverai to TTvp' " rd yap vopiiiC,6}ieva Kara dv- 

upajTTOvs pivanqpLa dviepojarl p-vovvrat." 

No/xo? ovv Kal VTToXrjifjL? K€vr] rd pLvari^pia ■*• /cat 
rod SpdKOvros dirdrr] ris eanv OprjOKevopiivr], rd? 
apLvqrovs ovrojs pLvrjaets Kal rd? dvopyidarovs 
reXerag evoe^ela vodco TrpoorpeTTopievcav. otat Se 
/cat at KLorai at pivariKai' heZ ydp dTToyvp^vojoai 
ra dyta avr(x)v Kal rd dpprjra e^eiTrelv. ov Grjcyap.aL 
ravra /cat 7rupa/xt8e? /cat roX'urrai /cat iroTrava 
voXv6pLcf)aXa -)(6vhpoL re dXchv Kal SpaKOjv, opyiov 
Alovvoov 3aoadpov ; ov)(l 3e potat npos rolaSe Kal 
Kpdhai^ vdp9r]Ke? re Kal Ktrrol, Trpog Se /cat (l)doXs Kal 
jjL'qKcoveg; ravr eariu avrchv rd dyta. Kal irpoa- 
€Tt Trfs ^ 0e/xt8o? TO, dnopp-qra avp.^oXa op'tyavov, 
Xvxvo?, ^'l<J)os, Krels yvvaiKelos , 6s icrnv, eix^ijpLcos 
Kal pLvarcKcog etVetv, piopiov yvvaiKeZov. ci) rrjs 
ipL(f)avovs dvaioxwriag . irdXaL pckv dvOpwrrois 
Gaj(j)povovGLV eTTLKaXvpipia TjSovrjs vv^ rjv GLcoTTcopievr)' 
vvvl Be rols pLVOvpuevoLg Trelpa * rrjs aKpaoias vv^ 
eon XaXovpLevTj, Kal ro irvp eXeyx^i rd Trddr] 
hahovxovpievov . aTTOG^eGov, Jj tepo(f>dvra, rd rrvp' 

^ TO. fxva-Tripia after kcvt] Mayor : after bpaKovroi ms9. 
2 Kpadat INIorellus. Kapdiat MSS. 

^ Tt}? Wilamowitz. t7js mss, 
* Trelpa Wilamowitz. i] iepa mss. 

" Sec the mention of the chest in the Cabeiric rite, p. 
41, and in the Eleusinian formula, p. +3. 

* Ge Themis is the result of an emendation of Wilamowitz, 
accepted by Stahlin. It necessitates only a minute change 
44 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 



await such things as they httle expect." Against chap. 
whom does Heracleitus of Ephesus utter this Heracieitus 
prophecy? Against " night -roamers, magicians, bears 
Bacchants, Lenaean revellers and devotees of the rgai'nst 
mysteries." These are the people whom he '^^o^^ ^'^o 
threatens with the penalties that follow death ; for in the 
these he prophesies the fire. " For in unholy fashion "^y^tenes 
are they initiated into the mysteries customary 
among men." 

The mysteries, then, are mere custom and vain The myster- 
opinion, and it is a deceit of the serpent that men profane and 
worship when, with spurious piety, they turn unholy 
towards these sacred initiations that are really pro- 
fanities, and solemn rites that are without sanctity. 
Consider, too, tlie contents of the mystic chests "' ; Contents of 
for 1 must strip bare their holy things and utter the chests^ "^ 
unspeakable. Are they not sesame cakes, pyramid 
and splierical cakes, cakes with many navels, also 
balls of salt and a serpent, the mystic sign of 
Dionysus Bassareus ? Are they not also pome- 
granates, fig branches, fennel stalks, ivy leaves, round 
cakes and pop])ies ? These are their holy things ! 
In addition, there are the unutterable symbols of Ge 
Themis,^ marjoram, a lamp, a sword, and a woman's 
comb, which is a euphemistic expression used in the 
mysteries for a woman's secret parts. What manifest 
shamelessness ! Formerly night, which drew a veil 
over the pleasures of temperate men, was a time for 
silence. But now, when night is for those who are 
being initiated a temptation to licentiousness, talk 
abounds, and the torch-fires convict unbridled passions. 
Quench the fire, thou priest. Shrink from the 

in the Greek. The deity referred to is then the earth- 
goddess, of whom Demeter and Cybele are other forms. 

45 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. alSeaOrjTL, Bahovx^, rag Aa/XTra8as" iXeyx^L gov 

TOV "laK)(OV TO (f)aj£' eTTLTpeijjOV OiTTOKpVl/jaL rfj 

vvktX to. jJLVGTTJpLa- GKOTei TeTiixijadco TOL opyia. 
ro TTvp ovx VTTOKpiveraL' eXeyx^tv /cat KoXdl^eLV 
KeXeverai . 

Taura rcov dOecov rd fivarijpLa- dOeovs Se 
elKorcxis drroKaXcx) tovtovs, ol rov jjiev ovrcos our a 
Oeov riyvoriKaoLVy iraihiov he vtto Tirdvajv Sta- 
G7Tcopi€vov Kal yvvaiov ttevOovv /cat fiopta dppr]Ta co? 
dXrjdojs V7T* aloxvvi)? avatcr;^WTajs" ae^ovaiv, SLrrfj 
20 P. eveaxyjp^cvoL rfj \ dOeoTrjTc, Trporepa /xeV, /ca^' rjv 
dyvoovai rov deov, rov ovrcos ovra firj yvcxjpl^ovreg 
Oeov, erepa Se /cat bevrepa Srj ravrrj rfj TrXdvrj rovs 
ovK ovras <hs ovra? vofill^ovres /cat deov? rovrov? 
ovofid^ovres rovs ovk ovrcjs ovra?, jxaXXov Se ovSe 
ovra?, fjiovov 8e rov ovofiaro? rervx^jKora?. 8ta 
rovro rot /cat o dvoaroXo? SceXeyx^L rjfid? " /cat 
rjre ^evoi " Xeycov " rcov Siadr^KaJv rrj? errayyeXia?, 
eXTTiha pL7] exovre? /cat dOeoi ev rep Koapco." 

IloAAa KdyaOd yevoiro rep rojv HkvOcov ^aoiXel, 

oarL? TTore rjv [* AvdxapGL?] .^ ovro? rov rroXiriqv 

rov eavrov, rrjv irapd K.v^LKr]voL? pL7]rp6? rwv decov 

TeXerrjv dTTopLipLOvpievov irapd HiKvOai? rvpuravov re 

^ ['Ai/dxapcrts] Casaubon. 

« Clement means that fire is God's instrument for judg- 
ment (op. 1 Corinthians iii. 13) and punishment (St. Matthew 
xviii. 8, etc.). The torch-fires of Eleusis are at once a 
revelation of misdoings and a premonition of the retribution 
to come ; hence they are fulfilling the fire's appointed task, 
and not merely playing a spectacular part. 

* The Greek ddeos means something more than '* godless," 
and yet less than the positive English word "atheist." It 
was applied (see next paragraph) to philosophers who denied 
46 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

flaming brands, torchbearer. The light convicts chap. 
your lacchus. Suffer night to hide the mysteries. ^^ 
Let the orgies be honoured by darkness. The fire 
is not acting a part ; to convict and to punish is its 
duty.<» 

These are the mysteries of the atheists.^ And Greeks are 
I am right in branding as atheists men who are atheists 
ignorant of the true God, but shamelessly worship a 
child being torn to pieces by Titans, a poor grief- 
stricken woman, and parts of the body which, from 
a sense of shame, are truly too sacred to speak of. 
It is a twofold atheism in which they are entangled ; 
first, the atheism of being ignorant of God (since 
they do not recognize the true God) ; and then this 
second error, of believing in the existence of beings 
that have no existence, and calling by the name of 
gods those who are not really gods, — nay more, who 
do not even exist, but have only got the name. No 
doubt this is also the reason why the Apostle con- 
victs us, when he says, " And ye were strangers from 
the covenants of the promise, being without hope 
and atheists in the world.'"' 

Blessings be upon the Scythian king, whoever he Noble 
was. When a countryman of his own was imitating ^J«^"ip'e 
among the Scythians the rite of the Mother of the Scyihian 
Gods as practised at Cyzicus, by beating a drum and *°^ 

the existence of the gods ; also to Christians, partly on the 
same ground, partly because they could show no image of 
their own God. As used here, the word conveys a theo- 
logical rather than a moral imputation, so that "atheist" 
is the nearest rendering. Clement continually retorts that 
his adversaries were the true atheists. See p. 145. 

" Ephesians ii. 12. "Without God" is the rendering in 
both the Authorized and the Revised Versions ; but 
" atheist " is necessary here to bring out the point. 

47 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. iiTLKTVTTOvvTa KOL KVfji^aXov €Trrj-)(^odvra kol rov 
rpaxTJXov TLva firjvayvpTrju l^rjprrjixevov , Karero^ev- 
0€V, ojs avavh pov avrov re Trap' "EXXtjcfl yeyevrjfxe' 
vov Kal rrjs diqXeias rols aAAot? S/cu^cov hihaoKaXov 
voaov. ojv hrj X^P^^ (°^ V^P o^Sci,i>''^? arroKpvTTriov) 
Oavfid^eiv eVetcrt /xot orco rpoTTCo Eury/xepov rov 
*AKpayavTLVOv Kal NcKcivopa rov KvTTpiov /cat 
Atayopav Kal "iTnrcova rco Mr^Ato) ^ rov re Kvprjvalov 
errl rovrois €K€lvov ([o] ^ GeoScopo? ovoixa avrco) 

21 P. Kat rtva? dXXovs avxvovs, ooj(j)poyaj5 ^e^LOJKoras 
Kal KadeojpaKora? S^vrepov ttov rajv Xolttcov 
dvOpcoTTOJV rrjv dfjicfyl rovs Oeov? rovrovs TrXdvrjV, 
ddeovs eTTiKeKXiqKaGiv , el Kal rrjV dX-qOetav avrrjv 
jir] vevorjKorag, dXXd rrjV TrXdvrjv ye vnajTrrevKoras, 
OTTep OX) ajJLiKpov els dX-r^Oecav ^ <j>pov'qaeoj? ^coTTvpov 
dva(f)veraL GTrepfia- wv 6 fiev n? Trapeyyva roXs 
AlyvTTriois , " el Oeovs vofill^ere, fjcrj dprjvelre avrov? 
ljLy]Se KOTTreaOe- el Se Trevdelre avrov?, fir^Kert 
rovrov? rjyeXade etvai deovs," 6 8 'Hpa/cAea e/c 
^vXov Xa^ojv KareGKevaapievov {ervx^ Sc eijscjjv rt 
ot/cot, Ota et/co?) " eta St^, d> 'Hpa/cAet?, " el-rrev 
" vvv GOi ijSrj KaipoSy oiGirep Eupucr^et, arap St) A<rat 
r\plv vTTOvpyfJGai rov rpiGKaiheKarov rovrov ddXov 
Kal Atayopa rovifjov* rrapaGKevdGai." Kar avrov 
els TO TTvp evedrjKev (Ls ^vXov. 

^ Tu> 'M-qXicj Miinzel. rbv ix-qXiov mss. 

2 [6] Dindorf. 

* d\7i9eLai> Sylburg. dXTjOeias mss. 

^ TOi'r^OP Cobet. TOVTOV JISS. 

» Literally a " menagyrtes " or " metra<jyrtes," that is, a 
wandering priest of Cybele, the Mother of the Gods. See 
p. 168, n. a, for a further description of these priests. 

* Herodotus iv. 76. 
48 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

clanging a cymbal, and by having images of the chap. 
goddess suspended from his neck after the manner ^' 
of a priest of Cybele,<* tliis king slew him with an 
arrow,* on the ground that the man, having been 
deprived of his own virility in Greece, was now 
communicating the effeminate disease to his fellow 
Scythians. All this — for I must not in the least The term 
conceal what I think — m^akes me amazed how the wnSgiy^ 
term atheist has been applied to Euhemerus of applied 
Acragas, Nicanor of Cyprus, Diagoras and Hippo of ^ 
Mel OS, with that Cyrenian named Theodorus and a 
good many others besides, men who lived sensible 
Hves and discerned more acutely, I imagine, than 
the rest of mankind the error connected with these 
gods. Even if they did not perceive the truth itself, 
they at least suspected the error ; and this suspicion 
is a living spark of wisdom, and no small one, which 
grows up like a seed into truth. One of them thus 
directs the Egyptians : " If you believe they are 
gods, do not lament them, nor beat the breast ; but 
if you mourn for them, no longer consider these 
beings to be gods."<' Another, having taken hold 
of a Heracles made from a log of wood — he happened, 
likely enough, to be cooking something at home — 
said ; "Come, Heracles, now is your time to under- 
take this thirteenth labour for me, as you did the 
twelve for Eurystheus, and prepare Diagoras his 
dish ! " Then he put him into the fire like a log. 

« The philosopher referred to is Xenophanes. See 
Plutarch, Amator'mn 763 d and De Is. et O.nr. 379 b. Mourn- 
ing for dead gods was a conspicuous feature of some ancient 
religions. In Egyp Osiris was mourned for (see the 
reference to his funeral rites on pp. 109-] 1) ; in Asia Minor, 
Attis ; and Adonis in Syria. The "weeping for Tammuz " 
of Ezekiel viii. 14 is an example of Adonis-worship. 

49 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 



CAP. ^AKporrjTes dpa ajxaOias ddeorrj? Kal SctCTtSat/xo- 
vla, Sv CKTO? fxeveiv GTrovhaoreov . ovx opas rov 
l€pocf)dvTrjv rrjs dXrjOela? Mcocrea TTpoardrrovTa 
^AaSiav Kal dTroKeKojjijjLevov firj €KKXriaidl,eiv y Kal 
TTpooen Tov eV rropvrjs; atViTrerat 8e 8ia jJLeu 
Tojv TTporepcov tov ddeov rpoTTOV rov rrj? deias Kal 
yovijjLov Swdfiecog iareprjfjLevov, Sea 8e rov Xolttov 
rov rpirov rov ttoWovs €7nypa(f)6fX€VOV xjjevhcxjvvyiov? 
deovs dvrl rod pLovov ovros Oeov, wanep 6 €K rrjs 
TTopvrjs roijs ttoXXovs €7nypdcf>€r at Trardpas dyvola 
rov TTpos dXr^Oeiav irarpo?. tjv 8e rt? epi^vros 
dpxo-icL TTpos ovpavov dvOpwiroLS Koivcovia, dyvola 
piev iaKorLGpievT^ , d(f)Vco Se ttov hieKdpcLaKovoa rov 
GKorovs Kal dvaXdpiTTOvaa, olov 8rj eKelvo XeXeKrai 
rivL ro 

opas rov vifjov tovS' direipov aWepa 

Kal yrjv Trepi^ exovd' vypaXs eV dyKaXai?; 

Kal ro 

CO yrjg ox^jp^CL Kdrrl yrj? ex<J^v eSpav, 
oaris TTor el gv, SvaroTraoros elaiSelv, | 

22 P. Kal oaa dXXa roiavra TroLTjrwv aSovGL TratSes". 

"Ewotat Se rjpLapr-qpLevai Kal TraprjypLevat rrj? 
evdetas, oXedpiai d>s dXrjBcoSy ro ovpdviov (f)vr6v, 
rov dvOpcoTTOV, ovpaviov e^erpeipav StatTi]? Kal 
i^erdvvaav inl yrjs, yrjtvois Trpoaave^ctv avarrei- 
aaaai TrXdapLaacv. ol piev yap evdecos dpi(f)l rrjv 

« *' Hierophant " is the literal rendering. For the 
hierophant's office see p. 40, n. b, and Appendix p. 385. 
* See Deuteronomy xxiii. 1, 2. 

50 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

It appears then that atheism and daemon-worship chap. 
are the extreme points of stupidity, from which we ^thlism 
must earnestly endeavour to keep ourselves apart, and daemon- 
Do you not see Moses, the sacred interpreter « of the J?e\o'^ 
truth, ordering that no eunuch or mutilated man stupidity 
shall enter the assembly, nor the son of a harlot ? * 
By the first two expressions he refers in a figure to 
the atheistic manner of life, which has been deprived 
of divine power and fruitfulness ; by the third and 
last, to the man who lays claim to many gods, falsely 
so called, in place of the only real God ; just as the 
son of a harlot lays claim to many fathers, through 
ignorance of his true father. But there was of old ^^P ^^s 
implanted in man a certain fellowship with heaven, fe"iio"ws\fp 
which, though darkened through ignorance, yet at ^^^^ heaven 
times leaps suddenly out of the darkness and shines 
forth. Take for instance the well-known lines in 
which someone has said, 

Seest thou this boundless firmament on high, 
Whose arms enfold the earth in soft embrace ?« 
and these, 

O stay of earth, that hast thy seat above, 
Whoe'er thou art, by guessing scarce discerned ; ^ 

and all the other similar things which the sons of 
the poets sing. 

But opinions that are mistaken and deviate from False 
the right — deadly opinions, in very truth — turned ^^^^1°^ 
aside man, the heavenly plant,^ from a heavenly man to 
manner of life, and stretched him upon earth, by ''^°^^^^y 
inducing him to give heed to things formed out of 
earth. Some men were deceived from the first 

" Euripides, Fraff. 935. 
■* Euripides, Trojan Women 884-5. 
« Plato, Timaeus 90 a ; cp. p. 217. 
C2 51 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. ovpavov Oeav OLTraTcofievoL /cat oifjei fJiovr) Tre-mGreV' 
Koreg raJv aarepcxiv ra? Kivrjaeis eVt^ecu/xep'ot 
idavfj^aadv t€ kol e^eOeiaaav, deov? ck rod Oelv 
ovoixdaavres tovs dorepa?, koL 7TpoaeKVvr]aav tJXlou, 
CO? ^IvSoi, Kal oreX-qvrjv, co? Opuye?- ol he tojv €K 
yrj? (f>voix€vcjL>v rovg rj/jLepov? SpeTTOfxevoL Kapirovs 
Arjoj rov (7LTOV, cos *A6r]uaLOL, Kal Alovvgov r-qv 
ap^TTcXov, (h? Q7]^aLOi, npoa-qyopevoav . ctAAot ra? 
OLfiOL^ds rrjs /ca/cta? eTnaKOTn^aavTes deoTTOiovai ray 
avrtSocret? TrpoaKWOvvres Kal ra? avix<jiopds. ivrev- 
Oev ras" 'Eptvm? Kal ra? EuftevtSa? YlaXafivaLOVS 
T€ Kal II poarpoTTalov?, en he 'AAaaropa? dvaire- 
TrXaKaaiv ol dpi(f)l rrjv (jK-qvrjv TroL-qrai. ^iXoaocfxjov 
he yjhrj nve? Kal avrol pueTa tov? TTOLrjTLKov? rcbv 
ev VfiLV TTaBcov dveihajXoTTOLOvai tvttovs tov ^o^ov 
Kal rov "Epcora Kal ttjv Xapav /cat tyjv 'EATrtoa, 
wcrnep ajxeXet Kal 'ETrt^evtS-/]? o TraAato? "Y^pecjo? 
Kal 'AvatSeta? ^AO'qvrjaLV dvaarT^aas j8tu/xous" ot 
he e^ avrajv opfMcopiepoL rcov Trpayfidrcov eKOeovvTai 
rots dv9pa)7TOL? Kal crcu^art/cajs' dvaTrAarrovrat, 
Alkt] Tt? /cat KXojOcj Kal Adx^cng Kal "Krponog 
Kal Etftap/xevT^, Av^co re /cat GaAAco, at 'Arrt/cat. 
e/CTO? earlv elarjyrjTLKos rporros aTrdrr]? decbv 
TTepLTTOLT^TiKO?, /ctt^' ov a^piOpiOVGL deovs TOV? hcodeKa' 
tSv /cat deoyoviav 'HcrtoSo? a8et rr^v avrov, /cat 
ocra OeoXoyeZ "OpLr^po?. reXevraXog he vnoXeLneraL 
(eVra yap ol diravres ovtol rpoTTOc) 6 drro rrjs 

"■ This fanciful derivation comes from Plato, Cratylus 
397 c-D, where Socrates is made to say that the first Greeks 
had only the earth and the heavenly bodies for gods. Since 
these were in perpetual movement {thehi, to run) they called 

52 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

about the spectacle of the heavens. Trusting solely chap. 
to sight, they gazed at the movements of the heavenly conies of 
bodies, and in wonder deified them, giving them the idolatry (i.) 
name of gods from their running motion." Hence ofh^Tveiny 
they worshipped the sun, as Indians do, and the bodies 
moon, as Phrygians do. Others, when gathering the (ii.) deifica- 
cultivated fruits of plants that spring from the earth, f^idts o?^ 
called the corn Demeter, as the Athenians, and the the earth 
vine Dionysus, as the Thebans. Others, after re- (iii.) gods 
fleeting upon the punishments of evil-doing, make aTcountffo? 
gods out of their experiences of retribution, worship- calamities 
ping the very calamities. This is the source from 
which the Erinyes and Eumenides, goddesses of ex- 
piation and vengeance, as well as the Alastors,^ have 
been fashioned by the poets of the stage. Even (iv.) gods 
certain of the philosophers themselves, following the typerof 
men of poetry, came to represent as deities the types human 
of your emotions, such as Fear, Love, Joy, Hope ; 
just as, of course, Epimenides did of old, when he set 
up altars in Athens to Insolence and Shamelessness. 
Some gods arise from the mere circumstances of (v.) gods 
life deified in men's ej^es and fashioned in bodily flom human 
form ; such are the Athenian deities. Right, the affairs 
Spinner, the Giver of lots, the Inflexible One, 
Destiny, Growth and Abundance. There is a sixth (vi.) the 
way of introducing deception and of procuring gods, |^n™heon 
according to which men reckon them to be twelve 
in number, of whose genealogy Hesiod sings his own 
story, and Homer, too, has much to say about them. 
Finally (for these ways of error are seven in all), (vu.) dei- 
there remains that which arises from the divine ^ ^^'^^^ 

them gods (theoi). On learning about other gods they 
extended the name to them. 
* i.e. avenging deities. 

53 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 



CAP. t/eta? evepyeauas rrjs et? rovs avupcoTTov? Kara- 
yivoyiivr]? opixcjjfievog. tov yap evepyerovvTa jxr] 
avvievTes Beov dveTrXaadv nvas oiOTrjpag Alogkov- 
povs Kol *Hpa/<-Aea oXe^iKaKOv /cat ^ AoKXiqTnov \ 

23 P. larpov. 

Avrai [lev at oXiadrjpaL re Kal iin^Xa^els nap- 
€K^do€Ls Trj£ oXqOeiaSy KaOeXKOvaai ovpavodev tov 
avOpcDTTOV Kal et? ^dpadpou TrepLrpeTTOvaaL. iOeXoj 
Se vfiLV iv xpcp Tovs Oeovs avrovs emhel^aL ottolol 
TLves Kal €L TLves, tV rjSrj rrore rrjs TrXdvrjs Xt]^r]T€, 
avOis Se TTaXLvSpofjL'qarjTe els ovpavov. " rjp,€v ydp 
7TOV Kal r]fxeZs rcKva opyrjg, d)S Kal ol Xolttol' 6 8e 
6e6s TrXovaios (jov eV eAeet, Sta t'Y]v ttoXXtjv dydirriv 
avrov, T^v 'qydrrrioev rjixdg, ovras rjSrj veKpovs tols 
TTapaTTTcofiaGLV avvet,a>07Toirioev ro) Xptcrro)." l,ajv 
ydp 6 Xoyos Kal <6 >^ avvTa<^els ^pLGTO) avvvi/jovrat 
deo). ol Se €TL CLTTLOTOL " T6Kva opyfjs " ovojxdt^ov- 
raiy Tpe(f)6p,eva dpyfj' rjpieLS Se ovk opyrjs dpef-Cfxara 
ert, ol TTJs TrXdvYj? aTTeuTraapievoL, aaaovres Se cm 
rr]V dX-qdeiav. Tavrrj tol r]ixeZs ol rrjs dvojxias viol 
TTore Sta tt^v (j>LXav6poj7Tiav rov Xoyov vvv viol 
yeyovapLev rod Oeov' vjjllu Se /cat o vfierepos 
V7ToSv€TaL TTOirjTrj? 6 ^ AKpayavrZvos ^EijjLTTeSoKXrj?- 

roLydproL ;^aAe7r7^CTtv dXvovres KaKorrjaiu 
ov TTore SetAatcov d;^ea)v Xa>(f)rjG€T€ 6vp,6v. 

TO. fiev St) TrXelora pLefxvOevrai Kal TTeirXacTTaL irepl 
Oectjv vpXv rd Se oaa Kal ^ yeyevrjodai VTreiX-q-nraL, 
ravra Se Trept dvdpcoTTOJV alaxpojv Kal doeXycos 
^e^iojKOTCov dvayeypairraL • 



^ <d> inserted by Schwartz. 
^ 6aa Kal Mayor. [Kai] 6aa Stahlin. Kal 6(ra mss. 



54. 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

beneficence shown towards men ; for, since men did chap. 
not understand that it was God who benefited them, ^^ 
they invented certain saviours, the Twin Brothers, 
Heracles averter of evils, and Asclepius the doctor. 

These then are the slippery and harmful paths Exhortation 
which lead away from the truth, dragging man down fdo1atr°*^°° 
from heaven and overturning him into the pit. But for the 
I wish to display to you at close quarters the gods ^^^ 
themselves, showing what their characters are, and 
whether they really exist ; in order that at last 
you may cease from error and run back again to 
heaven. " For we too were once children of wrath, 
as also the rest ; but God being rich in mercy, 
through His great love wherewith He loved us, when 
we were already dead in trespasses, made us alive 
together with Christ." * For the Word is living, and 
he who has been buried with Christ is exalted 
together with God. They who are still unbelieving 
are called " children of wrath," since they are being 
reared for wrath. We, on the contrary, are no longer 
creatures of wrath, for we have been torn away from 
error and are hastening towards the truth. Thus we 
who were once sons of lawlessness have now become 
sons of God thanks to the love of the Word for m.an. 
But you are they whom even your own poet, Em- 
pedocles of Acragas, points to in these lines : 

So then, by grievous miseries distraught. 

Ye ne'er shall rest your mind from woeful pains.* 

Now the most part of the stories about your gods are 
legends and fictions. But as many as are held to 
be real events are the records of base men who led 
dissolute lives : 

" Ephesians ii. 3-5. * Empedocles, Fi-aq. 145 Diels. 

55 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rv<f)a) Kal fxavLr) Se ^aSt^ere /cat rpi^ov 6p6r]U 

evdelav TTpoXnrovres aiTiqXdere rrju St' aKavdcov 
Kal (JKoXoTTCov. Tt TrXavdode, ^poroi; Travoaade, 

/xctratot, 
/caAAtVere OKoririv vvktos, ^ojtos 8e Xd^eade, \ 
24 P. ravra ripuv r] Trpo(j}rjTLKrj irapeyyvd Kal TTOLrjTtKrj 
m^vXXa' TTapeyyva Se Kat rj dX-qdeua, yvfxvovaa 
Tcbv KaraTTXrjKTiKoov tovtcovI Kal iKTrXrjKTLKcov 
TTpoacjOTTeiojv rov o^Xov rcov Oechvy GvvcovvfjLiaLS nal 
rds So^oTTOuas hieXeyxovua. 

AvTLKa yovv elalv ot rpels rov? Zryva? dvaypd- 
(f>0VGLV, rov pLev AWepos iv 'Ap/<:aSta, rcj 8e Aot776c> 
rod Kpovov 77a tSe, rovroiv rov pLev iv Kpijrrj, ddrepov 
6e iv *Ap/ca§ta irdXiv. elal 8e ot Tiivre ^Adr]vdg 
VTToridevraLy rrjv piev 'H^atWou, rr)v 'AOrjvatav 
rrjv 5e NetAou, rrjv Alyvrrriav rptrrjv KrrjV'A rod 
Ys.p6voVy rrjv TToXipcov evpertv rerdprrjv rrjv Atos", 
rjv M.eGGrjVLOL KopvfJiauLav drro rrj? pLiqrpos im- 
KeKXrjKaoiv iirl ttcLgi rrjv Ild?\Xavros Kal TiravlSo? 
rrjs ^Q.K€avov, rj rov rrarepa Svaae^oj? Karadvaaaa 
Tip TTarpcpcp KeKoapLTjrai SeppLan cocnTep kcoBlo). 
^ <jr]vy inserted by Wilamowitz. 

« Sibylline Oracles, Preface, 23-25, 27. 

* The word Sibyl was applied to proj^hetesses who 
dehvered oracles at certain shrines, such as Cumae or 
Erythrae. It was appropriated by the authors of that long- 
series of pseudo-prophetic verses which has come down to 
us under the title of the Sihi/lline Oracles. These date from 
various periods between the second century b.c. and the 
seventh century a.d. The earliest oracle is a Jewish work, 
written in Egypt. Many of the subsequent ones are of 
Christian, or Jewish-Christian, authorship. Their chief 
object was to denounce the folly of polytheism and image- 

56 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

But ye in pride and madness walk ; ye left CHAP. 

The true, straight path, and chose the way through U 

thorns 
And stakes. Why err, ye mortals ? Cease, vain men 1 
Forsake dark night, and cleave unto the light. <» 

This is what the prophetic and poetic Sibyl ^ enjoins 
on us. And truth, too, does the same, when she 
strips these dreadful and terrifying masks from the 
crowd of gods, and adduces certain similarities of 
name to prove the absurdity of your rash opinions. 

For example, there are some who record three Many 
gods of the name of Zeus " : one in Arcadia, the son goti^bear 
of Aether, the other two being sons of Cronus, the <^he same 
one in Crete, the other again in Arcadia. Some 
assume five Athenas : the daughter of Hephaestus, 
who is the Athenian ; the daughter of Neilus, who is 
the Egyptian ^ ; a third, the daughter of Cronus, who 
is the discoverer of war ; a fourth, the daughter of 
Zeus, to whom Messenians give the title Coryphasia 
after her mother. Above all, there is the child of 
Pallas and Titanis daughter of Oceanus. This is the 
one who impiously slaughtered her father and is 
arrayed in the paternal skin, as though it were a 

worship, and they are frequently quoted by the early 
Christian Fathers. Clement would seem to have believed in 
the antiquity of those known to him, for he asserts (see 
p. 161) that Xenophon borrowed from them. 

« With this paragraph compare Cicero, Be natura deorum 
iii. 53-59. Both Cicero and Clement are using the work of 
the "theologians" {theolor/ol), who tried to reduce to some 
system the mass of Greek legend. On the reasons for this 
multipHcation of gods see Gardner and Jevons, Manual of 
Greek Antiquities, pp. 95-96. 

^ A goddess worshipped at Sais in Egypt, whom the 
Greeks identified with Athena. See Herodotus ii. 59, etc. 

57 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. vat fjirjv ^ArroXXowa 6 fxkv ^ ApLaroreXr)? rrpaJTOV 
^^ 'H</>atCTTOU Kal 'Adr^vd? {ivravOa hr] ovKen -napBevos 
r) 'AOrjvd), Sevrepov ev Kprjrrj rov Kvp^avTog, 
TpLTOV rov Alos Kal reraprov rov 'Ap/caSa rov 
HiXrivov' Nd/xio? ovro? K€KXr]raL -napa ^ ApKaoiv 
errl rovroi? rov Al^vv KaraXeyec rov "A/x/xojvo? • 
o Se AtSu/xo? o ypafiiJLarLKO? rovroL? eKrov e7n(f)€pei 
rov yidyvTjro?. rroooi he Kal vvv ^ AjroXXoive? , 
dvapiOix-qroL Ovqrol Kal eiTLKiqpoi'^ nveg dvOpcoTTOi, 
eloLV, OL TTapaTrXrjaLCo? rot? Trpoei/ar^/xeVot? €K€lvol? 
KeKXr]pi€Voi ; ri 8' el ooi rovs ttoXXovs etVot/xt 
^AaKXrjTnovs rj rovs 'Epfta? rovs dptdfxovfievovs r] 
rovs *H(/)atCTTOt»S' rovs jJivdoXoyovfxevovs ; p^r} Kal 
TTcpirros etvaL So^cx) rds aKods vp^aJv rots ttoAXoIs 
Tovrois eTTLKXvl^ajv ovofiaaLv; dAA* at ye Trarpihes 
avrovs Kal at rexvoLi Kal ol ^lol, npos he ye /cat ot 
rd^oL dvBpojTTOvs yeyovor as hieXeyxovacv. 

"Apr)s yovv 6 Kal Trapd rots -noi-qraZsy <hs olov re, 
rerLjjir]fjLevos, 

^Apes, "Apes, PporoXoiye, /xtat(^ove, ret^eo-tTrA'^Ta; 

25 P. o dXXoTTpouaXXos ovros Kal dvdpOLOs, co? ^lev 
*E77txap/xo? (f>riGi, ^TTapndrrjs rjv TiOcjjOKXrjs oe 
QpaKa olSev avrov dXXoL Be 'A/D/caSa. rovrov he 
"Ofx-qpos SeheadaL <j)r]alv eVt pirjvas rpioKaiheKa' 

^ iiriKTipoi, Mayor. iviKovpoi >iss. 



" The skin usually worn by Athena is the aec/is, a goatskin 
ornamented with the head of the Gorgon, whom she had 
slain. Clement's story is evidently another explanation of 
the aegis. See Cicero, De natura deorum iii. 59. 



58 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

fleece.'* Further^ with regard to Apollo^ Aristotle chap. 
enumerates, first, the son of Hephaestus and Athena ^^ 
(which puts an end to Athena's virginity) ; secondly, 
the son of Cyrbas in Crete ; thirdly, the son of 
Zeus ; and fourthly, the Arcadian, the son of Silenus, 
called among the Arcadians Nomius.^ In addition 
to these he reckons the Libyan, the son of Ammon ; 
and Didymus the grammarian adds a sixth, the son 
of Magnes. And how many Apollos are there at 
the present time ? A countless host, all mortal and 
perishable men, who have been called by similar 
names to the deities we have just mentioned. 
And what if I were to tell you of the many gods 
named Asclepius, or of every Hermes that is 
enumerated, or of every Hephaestus that occurs 
in your mythology ? Shall I not seem to be 
needlessly drowning your ears by the number of 
their names ? But the lands they dwelt in, the The gods 
arts they practised, the records of their lives, "^^^ ^^JJ^ 
yes, and their very tombs, prove conclusively that lived and 
they were men. -^^^^ 

There is for example Ares, who is honoured, so Examples 
far as that is possible, in the poets — Ares°°^ ' 

Ares, thou plague of men, bloodguilty one, stormer of cities ; « 

this fickle and implacable god was, according to 
Epicharmus, a Spartan. But Sophocles knows him 
for a Thracian, others for an Arcadian. This is the 
god of whom Homer says that he was bound in 
chains for a space of thirteen months : 

* i.e. the " pastoral" god, from nomeus a shepherd. 
<= Homer, Iliad v. 31 and 455. 

59 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rXrj fiev "Apr]?, ore fiiv '^Q.ros Kparepos r ^"EcfudXrrjS} 
TTalBe? ^AXwrjos, Sijaav Kparepo) ivl Seajjco)- 
^aA/ceoj 8' iv KepdfjLCp SeSero rpioKaiheKa pirjvasm 

TToAAa Kay add Kape? oxolev, ol Karadvovaiv avrco 
Tovs Kvvas. TiKvOac Se rovs ovovs Upevovreg [xtj 
naveaOioVy ojs ^ A-noXXohcnpos (f)rj(jL Kal KaAAi^a;^©?, 

Oot^O? *Y7T€p^Op€OiaLV ovcov eTTtTeAAcTat IpOLS. 
6 avTos Be dXXaxov 

repTTOvaiv Xnrapal ^ol^ov ovoG(f)ayLaL. 

"H^atCTTO? Se, ov eppiipev e^ ^OXv/jlttov Zei)? " ^7]Xov 
aTTO decTTTeGLOio," ev A'^fivco KaraTreacov exdXKeve, 
7Tr]pa>6els ro) TTohe, " vtto Se Kvrjpiai pojovro 
dpaial." ^X^^^ '^^^ larpoVy ovx} x^tA/cea [jlcvov ev 
deoiS' 6 Se larpos (jiiXdpyvpos rjv, ^AoKXrjTrtos 
ovofjLa avrcp. Kai gol tov gov TrapaO'qGOjJbai TTOLrjTiijv, 
rov BoLcoTLOv Ilivhapov 

erpaTTe KaKeZvov dydvopi pnodch XP^^^S ^^ X^P^^ 
(f)aveis' 
2S p. X^P^'' ^' ^P^ Kpovtojv j piifjas 3t* djjLcf)OLV dfiTTvodv ^ 
Grepvcov KaOelXev 
(JiKecxJS, aWojv be Kepavvds eveGKrjifje ^ pLopov, 

Kal ^VpLTTiSrjS 

Tjevs yap KaraKrds TralSa tov epiov ainos 
^AgkXtjttlov, GrepvoLGiv ifi^aXcbv (f)X6ya. 

^ dfMiTPoap Pindar. d/xTrvoas mss. 

2 iviffK-qxl/e Pindar. 4ffKri\pe mss. 

« Homer, Iliad v. 385-387. 

* Phoebus is of course Apollo. The thought of dogs 
being offered to Ares leads Clement on to describe, in £i, 
characteristic digression, an even more absurd sacrifice, 

" Callimachus, Fragments 187-8 Schneider. 

60 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Such was the lot of Ares, when Otus and strong Ephialtes, CHAP. 
Sons of Aloeus, seized him, and chained his hmbs in strong II 

fetters ; 
And in a dungeon of brass for thirteen months he lay 

captive." 

Blessings be upon the Carians, who sacrifice dogs to 
him ! May Scythians never cease offering asses^ as 
Apollodorus says they do, and Callimachus too, in the 
following verse ; 

In northern lands ass-sacrifices rise 
When Phoebus first appears.* 

Elsewhere the same writer says : 

Rich sacrifice of asses Phoebus loves," 

Hephaestus, whom Zeus cast out of Olympus, ** from 
the threshold of heaven/' ^ fell to earth in Lemnos 
and worked as a smith. He was lame in both feet, 
" but his slender legs moved quickly under him." ^ 
You have not only a smith among the gods, but a 
doctor as well. The doctor was fond of money, and Asclepiua 
his name was Asclepius. I will quote your own poet, 
Pindar the Boeotian : 

Gold was his ruin ; it shone in his hands, 

Splendid reward for a deed of skill ; 

Lo ! from the arm of Zeus on high 

Darted the gleaming bolt for ill ; 

Snatched from the man his new-found breath. 

Whelmed the god in a mortal's death.-^ 

And Euripides says : 

'Twas due to Zeus ; he slew Asclepius, 

My son, — with lightning flame that pierced his heart.' 

^ Homer, Iliad i. 591. « Iliad xwiii. 411. 

>■ Pindar, Pythian Odes iii. 97, 100-105. 
' Euripides, Alcestis 3-4. 

61 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP ovTOs fxkv ovv KeZrai KepavvcoOels €V toZs Kvvocr- 
ovpihos opiois. ^iXoxopos 8e ey Trjvoj Yloaeihojvd 
(f)rj(jL Tipbdadai larpov, J^povco 8e eTTiKeladaL Hlk€- 
XioiV Koi ivravda avrov redac^dai. YiarpoKXrjs re 
6 SovpLO? /cat llo(f)OKX'i^s 6 vecorepos ev tlgl ^ rpa- 
ycjphiais LGTopelTOV^ ToZv t^LOOKOvpoiv^ iripi' dvOpo)- 
7TCO TLve TOVTOJ Tco ALOCTKOvpo) eTTiKrjpOii iyeveadrjv ,'^ 
€L TCt) LKavos TTLGTCoGaaOaL "OpLTjpos TO XeXcyjJLevov 

Tovs 8' rjhr] Kdre)(ev <J)vglI,oos ata 
€V AaKeSaijJLOVL avOi, ^iXrj ev Trarpihi yaij). 

TrpoGiTOj Se /cat o ret KfTrpta/ca 7rot7]/xara ypdipas 

KdGTCop ixev dvrjTo?, davdrov Se ol afora TTevpcoTai- 
avrdp 6 y dddvaTOS UoXvSevKTjs, o^os "Apr]0£. 

rovro fiev TroLrjTLKa>£ ei/jevGaro' "Ofirjpos 8e d^to- 
TTLGTorepos avrov elircbv TrepX dp,^olv rolv Atoa- 
KovpoLV, TTpos Se /cat rov 'Hpa/cAea elhcx)Xov eXiy^as' 
" (jiojra " yap " 'Hpa/cATya, fieydXojv emLGropa 
epyojv." 'Hpa/cAea ovv Kal avros "OfJLTjpo? Bvqrov 
olhev dvOpcoTTOV, 'lepcovv/Jios Be 6 (f)iX6GO(f)o? /cat 
rrjv GX^GLv avrov vcprjyetraL rov Gcofiaro?, puKpov, 
^pi^orpLXOL, pcoGriKov AiKalap^o? he ayt^tav, 
vevpwSr), jxeXava, ypvirov, vrroxo-poTTov , reravo- 
rpixoL. ovros ovv 6 'Hpa/cATys" hvo TTpos rols 
TTevrrjKovra err] ^e^LcoKajs Kareorpexjje rov ^iov 8ta 
27 P. rr]s ev Otrrj TTvpdg \ KeKrjSevfxevos. 

^ ?i> TLai Welcker. ^v rpiai mss. 
2 laTopelTov Sylburg. laTopeiroiv wss. 

Tolv AlO<TKOVpOLV Sylburg. TW AlOffKOVpU wss. 

^ eyeuiffd-qv Dindorf. yeviad-qv BISS, 



o Homer, Iliad iii. 243-244.. 



62 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

This god, then, killed by the thunderbolt, lies on the chap. 
frontier of Cynosuris. But Philochorus says that in poseidon 
Tenos Poseidon was honoured as a doctor. He adds 
that Sicily was placed upon Cronus, and there he lies Cronus 
buried. Both Patrocles of Thurium and the younger 
Sophocles relate the story of the Twin Brothers in The Twin 
some of their tragedies. These Brothers were simply 
two men, subject to death, if Homer's authority is 
sufficient for the statement, 

they ere now by life-giving earth were enfolded. 
There in far Lacedaemon, the well-loved land of their 
fathers." 

Let the author of the Cyprian verses^ also come 
forward : 

Castor is mortal man, and death as his fate is appointed ; 
But immortal is great Polydeuces, offspring of Ares. 

This last line is a poetic falsehood. But Homer is 
more worthy of credence than this poet in what 
he said about both the Brothers. In addition, 
he has proved Heracles to be a shade. For to him Heraciei 
"Heracles, privy to great deeds," is simply "a. man."^ 
Heracles, then, is known to be mortal man even by 
Homer. Hieronymus the philosopher sketches his 
bodily characteristics also, — small stature, bristling 
hair, great strength. Dicaearchus adds that he was 
slim, sinewy, dark, with hooked nose, bright gleaming 
eyes and long, straight hair. This Heracles, after a life 
of fifty-two years, ended his days, and his obsequies 
were celebrated in the pyre on Mount Oeta. 

* i.e. an epic poem bearing the name of Cypris, or 
Aphrodite. The extant fragments are printed at the end of 
D. B. Monro's Homeri opera et reliquiae (Oxford 1891), the 
above hnes being on p. 1015. 

' Homer, Odyssey xxi. 6. 

63 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP Ta? Be Movarag, a? * AA/c/xav^ Ato? kol Murjfiocrvp-qg 
yeveaXoyel Kal ol Xolttol TTOirirai kol avyypacj^els 
iKdeiat^ovGLV /cat oe^ovaiv, rjSr] 8e kol oAat TroAet? 
fiovaela reixevi^ovaiv^ avTatg, Mucra? ^ ovcra? 6e- 
paTTaivihag ravra? icourjraL Meya/cAcu 17 Ovydrrjp rj 
Ma/capo?, o Se Ma/cap Aea^lojv fiev e^aaiXevev, St- 
€(f)€p€TO Se aet 77^0? tt)^ yvvaiKa, rjyavdKrei he rj 
Meya/cAo) iJTrejO tt]? fJLrjrpo?' ri S' ou/c e/xeAAe; Acat 
MuCTas" OeparraLvihas ravras roaavras tov dpLdjjiou 
ojvelrai /cat /caAet Motcra? * /caret tt^v SiaAe/crov 
rrjv AloXeojv. ravras eStSa^aro aSetv /cat KiOa- 
pLt,€LV ras rrpd^eis rds TraXaids ifipLeXo)?. at Se 
(jvvexa)£ KiOapl^ovaaL /cat /caAaJS" Kareirahovaai rov 
Ma/capa eOeXyov Kal Kareiravov rrjs opyrjg. ov S-q 
;^aptv r] Meya/cAco -xapiarripiov avrd? ^ vnep rrjg 
ljL7]rp6s dveOrjKe ;)^aA/ca? /cat am rtdvra cKeXevae 
rifjidadai rd lepd. /cat at ^ei' Moucrat rotatSe* 7^ 
Se laropia rrapd ^IvpaiXoj ro) Aecr/Stoj. 

A/coi^ere Srj ovv rojv Trap* vjxlv decov rovg epojras 
/cat rds rrapaho^ovs rrjs dKpacrlas puvOoXoyias /cat 
rpavfMara avrwu /cat Seapid /cat yeAajra? /cat 
pidxas SouAeta? re ert /cat ovfiTTOcna avpLrrXoKas 
r av Kal Sa/cpua /cat Tra^T^ /cat piaxXcoaas rjSovds. 
KdXei pLOL rov jQoaeiScD /cat tov X'^P^^ '^dju hie(j)6ap- 
pLevcxJV utt' azJTOu, rrjv ^ A}i^irpirr]v, rrjv *Ap,vpLd)vrjV, 
rrfv AXomqVy rrjv MeAavt77777]v, r'qv *AXKv6vr]v, rrjv 
'iTTTToOorjv, rrjV XtovT]v, rds a'AAas" rds [xvptas' eV 
als Srj Kal roaavrats ovaais en rod Ylooeihcovos 
vjj,d)v ear evoxcop euro rd TrdOr)- /cctAet pLOt, Kal rov 

^ 'AXk/jlclv Bergk. d\K/u.ap8poi mss. 
^ Tefxevi^ovaiv Sylburg. /xh l^ovaLv Msa. 
^ Mi/(rds Stahlin. ixovaas mss. 
64 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

As for the Muses, Alcman derives their origin from chap. 
Zeus and Mnemosyne, and the rest of the poets and on>inof 
prose-writers deify and worship them ; to such an the^Muses 
extent that whole cities dedicate " temples of the 
Muses " in their honour. But these were Mysian 
serving-maids purchased by Megaclo, the daughter 
of Macar. Now Macar, who was king over the 
Lesbians, was constantly quarrelling with his wife, 
and Megaclo was grieved for her mother's sake. 
How could she be otherwise ? So she bought these 
Mysian serving-maids, to the correct number, and 
pronounced their names Moisai, according to the 
Aeolic dialect. She had them taught to sing of 
ancient deeds, and to play the lyre in melodious 
accompaniment ; and they, by their continual playing 
and the spell of their beautiful singing, were wont to 
soothe Macar and rid him of his anger. As a thank- 
offering for these services Megaclo erected, on her 
mother's behalf, bronze statues of the maids, and 
commanded that they should be honoured in all the 
temples. Such is the origin of the Muses. The ac- 
count of them is found in Myrsilus of Lesbos. 

Now listen to the loves of these gods of yours ; to The incon- 
the extraordinary tales of their incontinence ; to the^gods*^ 
their wounds, imprisonments, fits of laughter, con- 
flicts, and periods of servitude. Listen, too, to their 
revels, their embraces, their tears, passions and dis- 
solute pleasures. Call Poseidon, and the band of 
maidens corrupted by him, Amphitrite, Amymone, 
Alope, Melanippe, Alcyone, Hippothoe, Chione and 
the thousands of others. Yet in spite of this great 
number, the passions of your Poseidon were still un- 

■* Moicras Mtiller. [xvcras Mss. 
^ avras Stahiin. avrais mss. 

65 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

GAP. 'AttoAAco* ^oljSos ioTLV ovTO? Kal fMOLVTL? ayvo? 
/cat GVjJL^ovXos dyado?' aAA' ov ravra 7^ HrepoTrri 
Aeyet ovhe r) AWovaa ovSe tj ^Apaivorj ovSe rj 
Tjev^LTTTTr} ouSe rj YlpoOor] ovSe rj MapTTTjaaa ovSe 
Tj 'YtpLTTvXrj' ^d(f>vri yap e^e^uye ixovt) Kal rov 
/jidvrLV Kal r-^v (f)6opdv. aurd? re o Zeu? iirl irdaLV 
r]K€TO), 6 " TTaTTjp " /ctt^' vfjids " dvhpojv re Oecou 
re." ToaovTOS Trepl rd d(j)pohiaLa i^exvOrj, ws 
eTnOvfieLV fxev naacov, eKirXiqpovv he els ndaas 
TTjv eTnOvjiiav. eveTTLjiirXaTO yovv yvvaiKcov ovx 
TjTTOV 7) alycx)V 6 Q/jlovltcov rpdyos. Kal gov, c5 
"OfJLTjpe, redavfJLaKa rd TTonjixara' | 

28 P. '^, Kal KvaverjGiv cV 6(f)pvGL vevGe Kpovlajv 

dfji^poGLaL 8' dpa xP-lraL eTreppcoGavro dvaKTog 
Kparos cxtt' ddavdroio • jxeyav 8' eXeXi^ev "OXvpiTTOV. 

oepivov dvarrXdrreis , "Ojxripe, rov Ata Kal vev/JLa 
rrepidTTrei? avrch rerLfxrjiJLevov. dAA' edv eViSet^i^? 
jxovov, dvOpojTre, rov Keorov, e^eXeyx^rai Kal 6 
T^evs Kal Tj Ko/JLT] KaraiGxvverai. els ogov S' e'A?^- 
XaKev ^ aGeXyeias 6 Zeus' eKeZvos d fier ^AXkixtjvtjs 
rooavras rjSvrraOTJGas vvKr as ' ovhe yap at vvKres 
at evvea rep dKoXdGrco fiaKpal [arras 8e efxTraXiv 
^ 5' i\rj\aK€v Dindorf. dieXrjXaKey mss. 

" Homer, Iliad i. 544 and elsewhere. 

* This was probably a sacred goat kept at Thmuis, and 
treated as the incarnate manifestation of some god. At 
the neighbouring town of Mendes such an animal was 
worshipped, as we learn from Herodotus ii. 46 ; see also 
Clement, on p. 85 of this volume. Thmuis is mentioned in 
Herodotus ii. 166 as the name of a town and district in 
Egypt. The goat, like the bull, would be chosen for 
veneration on account of its procreative force. Clement 
regards it (ii. Stromateis 118. 5) as a type of the sensual man. 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

satisfied. Call Apollo, too. He is Phoebus, a holy chap. 
prophet and good counsellor ! But this is not the ^po\i(, 
opinion of Sterope, or Aethusa, or Arsinoe, or 
Zeuxippe, or Prothoe, or Marpessa, or Hypsipyle. 
For Daphne was the only one who escaped the pro- 
phet and his corruption. Above all, let Zeus come zeus 
too, he who is, according to your account, " father of 
gods and men." ^ So completely was he given over 
to lust, that every woman not only excited his desire, 
but became a victim of it. Why, he would take his 
fill of women no less than the buck of the Thmuitans * 
does of she-goats. I am astonished at these verses 
of yours, Homer : 

Thus spake the son of Cronus, and nodded assent with his 

eyebrows ; 
Lo ! the ambrosial locks of the king flowed waving around 

him 
Down from his deathless head ; and great Olympus was 

shaken. <= 

It is a majestic Zeus that you portray. Homer ; and 
you invest him with a nod that is held in honour. 
Yet, my good sir, if you but let him catch a glimpse 
of a woman's girdle, even Zeus is exposed and his 
locks are put to shame. What a pitch of licentious- 
ness did this great Zeus reach when he spent so many 
nights in pleasure with Alcmene ! Nay, not even the 
nine nights ^ were a long period for this debauchee, — 

" Homer, Iliad i. 528-530. Strabo says (354) that Pheidias 
had this passage in mind when he carved the famous statue 
of Zeus at Olympia. 

"^ According to the usual story Heracles was begotten in 
three nights (Lucian, Dialogi deorum 10), whence he was 
called TpUffTrepos (Justin Martyr, Oratio ad Graecos 3). It 
is possible that Clement has confused this with the " nine 
nights " of Zeus and Mnemosyne which preceded the birth 
of the Muses (Hesiod, Theogonia 56). 

67 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. o jStos" aKpaata ^pa^v? rjv), tva Srj rjfxXv rov dXe^l- 
KaKov orreipr] Oeov. Ato? vcog 'UpaKXrj?, Ato? ws 
dXrjdoj?, 6 eK fjLaKpds yepvwfjieuog vvktos, rov? /xev 
dOXovs rov? ScoSeKa ttoXXo) TaXatTTOjpiqadfxevos 
Xpdvcp, rd? 8e Trevr-qKovra Qeariov Ovyarepa? 
vvktI hia^deipas pna, fiocxos ofiov /cat vvix(^lo? 
Toaovrcov y€v6jxevo£ Trapdevojv. ovkovv dneLKOTcos 
ol TTOirjral "gx^tXlov" rovrov kol " alavXoepyov " 
dTTOKaXovGLV. fxaKpov S' ai^ e'ir) /xot;^eta? avrov 
TTavToBaTTas Koi Traihiov hi-qyeladai <^dopds. ovhe 
ydp ovhk TTacScov dTreaxovro ol irap v\xlv deoi, 6 
fidv Tts" "TAa, o 8e 'TaKivOov, 6 he IleXoTTOs, 6 Se 
\pvGi7T7Tov, 6 Se TavvfjLijSovs ipojvres. rovrovs 
VjjLOJv at yvvoLKes TrpoaKwovvrajv tovs deovs, 
roiovrovs Se evx^odcov ehau tov? dvhpas rovg 
iavrojv, ovrco G(I)(j>povas, lu cLglv o/jlolol tols Oeots 
rd LGa et^riXcoKores' tovtovs iOtl^ouTOJV ol TralSes 
vixiov G€^€iv, tj/a Kal dvSpeg yivojvrai eiKoua Trop- 
veias ivapyrj ■*• rovg deov? TrapaXafx^dvovres . 

*AAA' ol fxev dppeves avrots rcov Beojv Igojs jjlovol 
arrovGL rrepi rd dcf)poSLGLa' 

6r]Xvr€pat 8e deal fieuov alSol olkol eKaGrrj, 

(f)r)GLV "OjjLrjpo?, alSovjjLevaL at ^eat ^ Sta GefMuorrjra 

^ A(f)pohirrjV IheZv pLefioLX^Vfxeprju. at Se dKoXa- 

GratvovGiv epbrradeGrepov eV rfj jU,ot;^eta SeSe^LteVat, 

Hcus" eVt l^idajvo), ILeXrivrj <S' eVi > ^ 'E^'5uyLttaJ^'i, 

^ ivapyrj Markland. ivayri mss. 

2 {ai deal] Valikenaer : StJihlin. 

^ <5' eiriy instrted by Wilaiuouitz. 

68 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

indeed, a whole lifetime was short for his incontinence, chap. 
— especially when the purpose was that he might ^^ 
beget for us the god whose work it is to avert evils. 
Heracles is the son of Zeus, begotten in this long Heracles 
night. And a true son he is ; for long and weary as 
the time was in which he accomplished his twelve 
labours, yet in a single night he corrupted the fifty 
daughters of Thestius, becoming at once bridegroom 
and adulterer to all these maidens. Not without 
reason, then, do the poets dub him " abandoned " 
and " doer of evil deeds." <» It would be a long 
story to relate his varied adulteries and his corrup- 
tions of boys. For your gods did not abstain even 
from boys. One loved Hylas, another Hyacinthus, 
another Pelops, another Chrysippus, another Gany- 
medes. These are the gods your wives are to 
worship ! Such they must pray for their own 
husbands to be, similar models of virtue, — that they 
may be like the gods by aspiring after equally high 
ideals ! Let these be they whom your boys are 
trained to reverence, in order that they may grow 
to manhood with the gods ever before them as a 
manifest pattern of fornication ! 

But perhaps in the case of the gods, it is the The 
males only who rush eagerly after sexual delights, fJeequaUy 
while gi^iity 

Each in her home for shame the lady goddesses rested,* 

as Homer says, because as goddesses they modestly 
shrank from the sight of Aphrodite taken in adultery. 
Yet these are more passionately given to licentious- 
ness, being fast bound in adultery ; as, for instance, 
Eos with Tithonus, Selene with Endymion, Nereis 
« Homer, Iliad v. 403. * Odyssey viii. 324. 

69 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Nrjprjts cttI AlaKO) kol irrl YlrjXel Gert?, eVt 8e 
2gF, *laaL(x)VL^\^7]iJL't^Tr)p Kal eirl 'A8ojvt8t Oepe^arra. 
^ K(f>pohirri 8e €77* "Kpei KaTrj(T)(vpLiJLevrj fjLerrjXdev 
errl ¥s.ivvpav koX ^Ayxlcyrjv eyrjixev kol Oae^oyra 
eX6x<^ Kal "rjpa ^AScovlSo?, i^iXoveiKeL 8e tt^ ^ocottlSl 
Kal dTToSvadfjiei^ai Sid fjLrjXou at ^eat yvjjival -npoa- 
el)(ov rep TTOLfievL, et rt? avrcov 8ofet KaX-q. 

"Wl Srj Kal rovs dycavas iv ^pa)(eL TrepLoSevGajpiev 
Kal rds emTvpL^LOvs ravraal Trav-qyvpets Kara- 
XvGcapLeVy "\adpiid re Kal Ne/xea Kal YlvOia Kal rd 
€7tI rovroLs ^OXvpLTna. UvOol pceu ovv 6 SpdKOjv 6 
Uvdios dprjGKever at Kal rod 6(f}€a)s rj Traviqyvpis 
KarayyeXXerai Yivdia' ^iGOpcot 8e gkv^oXov rrpoG- 
enrvGcv eXeeivov r] ddXarra Kal MeXcKeprrjv 6Svp€- 
rai rd "IgO paa' Nc/xeaat 8e a'AAo rraihiov *Apxe- 
fxopos KCK-qSevrai Kal rod Traihiov 6 €Tnrd(f)io? 
TTpoGayo pever ai Ne/xea- Fltaa 8e vpiXv rd(j)os eVrtV, 
c5 YiaveXXrives , rjvioxov ^pvyos, Kal rov UeXoTros 
rdg X^^^» '^^ ^OXvpuTTia, 6 (^ecStov G(f>erepil,erai 
Zeus'. pLVGriqpia rjGav dpa, a*? eocKev, ol dycove? 
€771 veKpoLS SiaOXovpLevoL, a)G7Tep Kal rd Aoyta, Kal 
heh^qpievvrai dpLcfxx). dAAa rd pL€V iirl "Aypa^ piv- 
Grrjpua Kal rd iv 'AAi/xowrt rrjs ^ArriKrjs ^AOi^vt^gl 
TrepiaypiGrax' aiGXOs 8e -^'87^ KOGpuKov ot re dyajves 
^ 'laaicoi'L Sylbiirg. IdacjuL mss. 
^ "Aypq. Meurs. adypai jiss. 
» i.e. Hera. The epithet means, hterally, "cow-eyed"; 
btit it is frequently appUed to Hera in the Iliad {e.g. i. 551) 
in the sense of "with large, bright eyes." For the con- 
nexion between Hera and the cow see A. B. Cook, Zens, i. 
pp. 444-457. 

* i.e. Paris, son of Priara of Troy. He judged Aphrodite 
more beautiful than Hera or Athena, and so roused the 
anger of these two goddesses against Troy. 
70 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

with Aeacus^ Thetis with Peleus, Demeter with chap. 
lasion and Persephone with Adonis. Aphrodite^ ^^ 
after having been put to shame for her love of 
Ares, courted Cinyras, married Anchises, entrapped 
Phaethon and loved Adonis. She, too, entered into 
a rivalry with the " goddess of the large eyes," * 
in which, for the sake of an apple, the goddesses 
stripped and presented themselves naked to the 
shepherd,^ to see whether he would pronounce one 
of them beautiful. 

Let us now proceed briefly to review the contests. Review of 
and let us put an end to these solemn assemblages ^^^ s^^^^ 
at tombs, the Isthmian, Nemean, Pythian, and, above They are 
all, the Olympian games. At Pytho worship is paid honoJJJ of 
to the Pythian serpent,'' and the assembly held in the dead 
honour of this snake is entitled Pythian. At the pythian 
Isthmus the sea cast up a miserable carcass, and the a^^^^ 
Isthmian games are lamentations for Melicertes. At isthmian 
Nemea another, a child Archemorus, lies buried, and 
it is the celebrations held at the grave of this child Nemean 
that are called by the name Nemean. And Pisa, — 
mark it, ye Panhellenic peoples ! — your Pisa is the 
tomb of a Phrygian charioteer, and the libations 
poured out for Pel ops, which constitute the Olympian olympian 
festivities, are appropriated by the Zeus of Pheidias. 
So it seems that the contests, being held in honour 
of the dead, were of the nature of mysteries, just as 
also the oracles were ; and both have become public 
institutions. But the mysteries at Agra and those 
in Halimus of Attica <^ have been confined to Athens; 
on the other hand, the contests are now a world- 

« See p. 3, n. e. 
^ See Appendix on the Mysteries, p. 382. 

71 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Kol ot (baXXol ol Aiovvdco eVtreAoi^/xeyot, KaKws 
II » / ^ O' ' 

€7rLV€V€fJLr]lJL6VOL TOV fiLOV. 

Aiovvuog yap KareXOeiv els "AlSov yAi^oftevo? 
TjyvoeL rrfv ohov, U7n(7;^vetTat S' avro) (f)pdaeLV <tls>,^ 
80 P. TipoaviJivos Tovvofia, ovk \ apuoOi- 6 he pnodos ov 
KoXoSy aAAa /SlLOVvoco KaXos' Kal d(f)poSLGios rjv 17 
XO-piS, 6 pLiados ov fjTelTO Alouvoos' ^ovXofjLevcp he 
ro) deep yeyovev rj airr]GLS, kol hrj vma)(yeZTai 
TTape^eiv avra>, el aua^ev^ou, opKco TnaTcoadjJLevos 
TTjV VTroax^-CJiv . piaOajv OLTTvpev eTravrjXdev avOis' 
ov KaraXajjLJSdveL rov Wpoovpivov {eredvrjKei yap) • 
d(f)0(jLovfxevos Tip ipaarfj 6 Aiovvaos eVt to pt.vq- 
fielov oppia Kal TTaGxrjTLa. KXdhov ovv ovkt^s, ci>S 
erv^ev, eKrepLcov dvhpetov pLoptov GKevd^erai rpoTTOV 
e^e^erat re rep KXdhco, t7]v VTroa^eoiv eKreXcov rep 
veKpcp. viTopLV-qpia rod rrddovs rovrov pvarLKOv 
i^aAAot Kara TToXetg dviaTavrai Aiovvorcp' " el pr] 
yap Alovvgo) TTOpurrjv eTTOiovvro Kal vpLveov aGpa ^ 
alhoLOLGLV, dvaiheGTara elpyaoT^ dv,^ " (f)TjGlv 'Hpa- 
/cAetTOS", " oiVTOS he "Aihrjg Kal Atoruao?, orecp 
jxaivovrai Kal Xrjvatl^ovGLV," ov hid ttjv pied-qv rov 
Gcopiaros, cos eyd> olpai, togovtov ogov hid Tr]v 
eiTOveihiGTov rrjs dGeXyelas lepo(jiavriav. 

EtVoTCo? dpa ot TOtotSe vpicov deal < hovXoi >/ hovXoL 
TTaOdJv yeyovoTeSf dXXd Kal irpo ^ rdju KlXcorcov 

^ <Ttj> inserted by Dindorf. 

* q,<r/j.aTa Heinsius : Stahlin. ^cr/xara, & Dindorf. 

^ eipyaar' df Schleiermaclier. eipyaarai jiss. 

* <5o0\ot> inserted by Schwartz. 

' irp6 MUnzel. vpbs uss. 

« Heracleitus, Frag. 127 Bywater, 15 Dials. Dionysus 
72 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

wide disgrace, as are also the phalloi consecrated to chap. 
Dionysus, from tlie infection of evil which they have ^^ 
spread over human life. 

This is the origin of these phalloi. Dionysus was Origin of 
anxious to descend into Hades, but did not know the *^® Phalloi 
way. Thereupon a certain man, Prosymnus by name, 
promises to tell him; though not without reward. 
The reward was not a seemly one, though to Dionysus 
it was seemly enough. It was a favour of lust, this 
reward which Dionysus was asked for. The god is 
willing to grant the request; and so he promises, 
in the event of his return, to fulfil the wish of 
Prosymnus, confirming the promise with an oath. 
Having learnt the way he set out, and came back 
again. He does not find Prosymnus, for he was 
dead. In fulfilment of the vow to his lover Dionysus 
hastens to the tomb and indulges his unnatural lust. 
Cutting off a branch from a fig-tree which was at 
hand, he shaped it into the likeness of a phallos, and 
then made a show of fulfilling his promise to the dead 
man. As a mystic memorial of this passion phalloi 
are set up to Dionysus in cities. " For if it were not Heracieitus 
to Dionysus that they held solemn procession and nesr^the 
sang the phallic hymn, they would be acting most shame of^ 
shamefully," says Heracleitus ; "and Hades is the SSfp^' 
same as Dionysus, in whose honour they go mad and 
keep the Lenaean feast," "• not so much, I think, for 
the sake of bodily intoxication as for the shameful 
dis})lay of licentiousness. 

It would seem natural, therefore, for gods like The gods 
these of yours to be slaves, since they have become beensJ^aTes 
slaves of their passions. What is more, even before Examples 

is originally a vegetation god, and is thus but another form 
of Hades or Pluto, the " wealth -giver." 

73 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. KaXovfJievojv ra)V rrapa AaKeSaifjiovLOL? SovXeLov 
VTreLGrjXdev ^vyop 'AttoAAcov 'ASfiTJroj eV Oepat?, 
'HpaKXrjs iv lldpSeGLV '0/x</>aAT7, AaofieSoun 8' idrj- 
reve TiocreiSajv Kal ^AttoXXcuv, KaOd-rrep dxp^los 
OLKeTrjs, pLTjSe eXevOeplas h-qirovOev hvviqBels Tu;^etv 
irapd rod Trporepov SeaTTorov rore Kal rd 'lAtou 
Teixfj dvcpKoSofir^adTrjv ro) ^pvyL "OjJLrjpos 8e 
rriv ^AOrjvdv ovk alox^verai Trapa^aiveiv Xeycov 
TO) 'OSuacret ";\;pi;crcop' Xv^yov exovGav" eV x^po^^' 
TYjV he ^A(f)poBLTr]v dveyvcofjiev, olov aKoXaarov ri 
depa-naivihioVy Trapadelvai (j>epovGav rfj 'EAeVr^ rov 
hi(j)pov rod jioixov Kara TrpoGojTTOv, ottcos avrov eis 
ovvovGiav VTTaydyrjrai . ITayuaCTcrts' ydp Tipo? rov- 
roLS Kal dXXovg TraixiroXXov? dvOpajrroig XarpevGai 
Oeov? LGTopel c5Se ttcos" ypa^cov 

tA-^ fiev Ar]ixriTr]p, rXrj 8e kXvtos *A/x</»tyu7Jet?, 
tAt^ Se UoGeiSdajv, rXrj 8' dpyvporo^os ^AttoXXcov 
dvSpl TTapd Ov-qTcp drjTevejJLeu ^ els eviavrov 
rXrj Se Kal ^ d^pLpLodvixos "Ap-q? vtto rrarpos dvdyKT]?, 

Kal rd €771 TOVTOLS. 

TovroLs ovv elKOTOJS eTTerai rovs epajrcKOvs vfiojv 

81 P Kal TTaOrjTLKOvs TovTOVs deovs dvdpa)\7T07Ta9ei? e/c 

TTavTog ecGdyeLV rpoirov. "Kal ydp OrjV Kelvois 

dvrjTOS XP^^'" TeKfjLYjpLoX 8e "Ojxrjpos, p,dXa aKpL- 

jSoj? ^A^poSiTYjV inl TO) rpavfJiarL TrapeLGdyojv 6$v 

Kal [jLeya IdxovGav avrov re rdv TToXep^LKoararov 

"Apr] VTTO rov Ato/XT]8oL'S' /caret rod Kevecovos ovra- 

apievov hiriyovp^evos . YloXepiojv Se Kal rrjv ^Adrjvdv 

1 6r]T€vifj.ev Sylburg. drjTevaifxev aiss. 

2 Kal inserted by Sylburg. 

« Homer, Odyssey xix. 34. 
74 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

the time of the Helots, as they were called, among chap. 
the Lacedaemonians, Apollo bowed beneath the ^poij^ 
yoke of slavery to Admetus in Pherae, and Heracles Heracles 
to Omphale in Sardis. Poseidon and Apollo were Poseidon 
serfs to Laomedon, Apollo, like a worthless servant, 
not having been able, I suppose, to obtain the gift of 
freedom from his former master. It was then that 
these two gods built the walls of Ilium for their 
Phrygian lord. Homer is not ashamed to speak of Athena 
Athena lighting the way for Odysseus, " holding a Iphrodite 
golden lamp" * in her hands. We read of Aphrodite, act as 
how, like a wanton hussy, she brought the stool for 
Helen, and placed it in front of her paramour, in 
order that Helen might entice him to her arms.^ 
Panyasis, too, relates in addition very many other Panyasis 
instances of gods becoming servants to men. He nmny "other 
writes in this way ; — similar 

*' cases 

Demeter bore the yoke ; Hephaestus too ; 
Poseidon ; and Apollo, silver-bowed, 
One year endured to serve with mortal man ; 
Likewise strong Ares, by his sire constrained," 

— and so on. 

As a natural consequence, these amorous and The gods 
passionate gods of yours are brought before us as jj^^^iani 
subject to every sort of human emotion. " For truly feelings 
mortal flesh is theirs."^ Homer gives evidence of Examples 
this, when in precise terms he introduces Aphrodite Aphrodite 
uttering a loud and shrill cry over her wound ; ^ and 
when he tells how the arch -warrior himself. Ares, was Ares 
pierced in the flank by Diomedes.-^ Polemon says 

^ See Iliad iii. 424 and following lines. The paramour was 
Paris, whose abduction of Helen from Sparta brought about 
the Trojan war. " Panyasis, Heraclela, Frag. 16 Kinkel. 

<^ Iliad xxi. 568. « Iliad v.'M[^. 

f Iliad v. 855 and following lines. 

D 75 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. vrro ^OpvvTOV TpcudrjvaL Xeyer vol {jltjv /cat tov 
'AtScoi'ea VTTO ' Hpa/cAeou? ro^evOrjvaL "Ofjirjpos 
Xeyei koI tov "HAtov [AvyeW] "^ Yiavvauais iGTopel. 
rjSr] Se Kal rrjv "Hpav rrjv t,vyiav laropeZ vtto rod 
avrov 'HpaKXeovs 6 avro? ovros Havvaaaig " eV 
YivXcp -qjJiaOoevTL." HcxiOi^Los 8e Kal rov 'Hpa/cAea 
Trpos rwv *l7nTOKoajvTiSa)v Kara rrjs X^^P^^ ovra- 
odrjvai Xeyei. el he ^ rpavpLara, Kal at/xara* ot yap 
Ixojpes ot TTOiiqTiKol elSexOeGrepoL koI tojv at/xarcop', 
orjifji? yap alfMaros Ix^P '^oelrai. dvdyKT] roivvv 
Oepanelas Kal rpo^ds TrapeLadyeiv avrotg, cov eloiv 
ivSeelg. Sto rpdire^aL Kal [ledaL Kal yeXcore? Kal 
GWovGiai, ovK dv d^pohiuiois XP^P-^^^'^ dvdpoj- 
TTivoLS ^ ovhe TTaihoTTOLOvpievaiV ovhe pur^v virvioaaov- 
TCOVy el dddvaroL Kal dvevheeZs Kal dy-qpco * VTrrjpxov. 
jjLereXa^ev 8e Kal rpairet^r]? dvdpcoTrlvrjs rrapd roXs 
AWloijjLV, aTTavdpcoTTOV Se Kal ddeapLOV avros 6 
Zeus' TTapd AvKdovL to) 'Ap/<:a8t earicopLevog- 
dvOpcoTTelcov yovv eve(f)opeiTO aapKOJV ovx eKOJV. 
rjyvoei yap 6 Oeos cos dpa AvKda>v 6 'Ap/ca? o 
eGTidrajp avrov rov TraXSa Kara(j(j)d^a? rov avrov 
[NvKrcpios ovopLa avrco) TrapaOeir) oifjov rep Att. 
KaXos ye 6 ILevs d piavriKos, d ^evcos, d iKeaioSy d 

^ rQv"]l\LQv \A.vyeav] Schwartz, rbv ifKelov ai'Ye'aj' >iss. 
2 5^ Mayor. 8t] mss. 
^ avdpu}Trivois Reinkens. avdpfhiroi^ mss. 
* dyrjpci) Potter, dyripcos mss. 

" Poleraon, Frag. 24 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 122. 

* Iliad V. 395-397. 

" Panyasis, Heracleia, Frag. 6. 20 Kinkel. 

** Sosibius, Frag. 15 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 628. 



76 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

that Athena too was wounded by Ornytus '^ ; yes, and chap. 
even Hades was struck with an arrow by Heracles, Athena 
according to Homer ; ^ and Panyasis relates the Hades 
same of Helius, This same Panyasis further relates Helms 
that Hera, the goddess of marriage, was wounded by Hera 
the same Heracles, "in sandy Pylos."^ Sosibius Heracles 
says that Heracles himself was struck in the hand 
by the sons of Hippocoon.^ If there are wounds 
there is also blood; for the "ichor" of the poets 
is a more disgusting thing even than blood, the 
word ichor meaning putrefaction of the blood/ It 
is necessary, therefore, to supply the gods with The gods 
attendance and nourishment, of which they are in subfect to 
need ; so they have feasts, carousings, bursts of bodily 
laughter and acts of sexual intercourse, whereas if 
they were immortal, and in need of nothing, and 
untouched by age, they would not partake of the 
pleasures of human love, nor beget children, nor 
even go to sleep. Zeus himself shared a human Zens for 
table among the Ethiopians,-^ and an inhuman and ^^^™p^® 
unlawful table when feasting with Lycaon the 
Arcadian ; at least, he glutted himself with human 
flesh. Not wilfully, however, for the god was 
unaware that, as it appears, his host Lycaon the 
Arcadian set before him, as a dainty dish, his 
own child, Nyctimus by name, whom he had 
slaughtered.5' What a fine Zeus he is, the diviner, 
the protector of guests, the hearer of suppliants, the 

^ "Ichor" is the blood that flows in the veins of the 
gods ; cp. Iliad v. 340. But the word is also used of matter, 
or corrupt discharges from the body. See references in 
Liddell and Scott, s.v. 

f Iliad i. 423-424. 

^ See Pausanias viii. 3. 3. The story of Lycaon is dis- 
cussed in A. B. Cook, Zeus, vol. i. pp. 63-81. 

77 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. fxeiXixio^y 6 TTavofKpaios, 6 TrpoarpoTralos' ftaAAov 
^^ 3e < o > -"^ olSlkos, 6 adeofxo?, 6 dvofjLOS, 6 olvoglos, 6 
aTrdvdpcoTTOs, 6 ^iaios, 6 (ftdopevs, 6 fioLxo?, 6 
epojTLKos. dXXd Tore puev rjv, ore tolovtos rjv, ore 
dvOpojTTOs rjv, vvv he rjSr] fjLOi Sokovgl /cat ol pLvOoi 
VfJLiv yeyrjpaKevai. hpaKCOV 6 Zei)s" ovKen, ov 
KVKVOs eoriv, ovk aero?, ovk dvOpojTTOs epojnKos' 
ovx LTTrarai, Oeos, ov Traihepaorei, ov (fnXeX, ov 
jSta^erat, Kairoi rroXKal koI KoXal /cat vvv en 
yvvauKes /cat Ai^Sa? evTrpeireorepai /cat ^epieXr]? 
aKpuatorepai, jjueipaKLa Se cLpaiorepa /cat TroAtrt- 
Kcorepa rod ^pvylov ^ovkoXov. ttov vvv eKelvos 6 

ao T> deros ; ttov he 6 kvkvos; ttov he avros I o TLevs; 
yeyrjpaKe fiera rov Trrepov ov yap otjttov fjLeravoet 
rot? epa>rLKOLS ovhe TTatheverai oaxjipoveZv. yvjx- 
vovr at he vfitv 6 fivdos' dTTedavev rj Arjha, aTredavev 
6 KVKVOS, dTTedavev 6 deros. ^-qrec gov rov Ala- 
/jLT] rov ovpavov, dXXd rrjv yrjv TToXvTTpayfiovei. 6 
l^prj? Goi hiriyriGeraL, Trap a> /cat reOaTTrai, KaAAt- 
fJiaxos ev VfivoL? 

/cat yap rd(f)OV, cS aVa, Gelo 
Kprjre? ereKr-qvavro . 

reOvrjKe yap 6 "Lev? {/jlyj hvGcfiopei) cog Aijha, cog 
KVKvo?, d)s deros, cbs dvdpa>7TOs epcoriKos, cos 
hpaKcov. 

^ <6> inserted by Sylburg. 

<* i.e. Ganymedes ; see pp. 69 and 111. 

* Calliraachus, Hymn to Zeus 8-9. This claim of the 
Cretans to possess the tomb of Zeus is said to have earned 
for them their traditional reputation as Hars. The two hnes 
of CaUimachus, when read in full, distinctly assert this. 

78 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

gracious, the author of all oracles, the avenger of chap. 

crime ! Rather he ought to be called the unjust, ^^ 

the unrestrained, the lawless, the unholy, the 

inhuman, the violent, the seducer, the adulterer, the 

wanton lover. Still, there was life about him in These 

those days, when he was all this, when he was a man ; provrthat 

but bv this time even your legends appear to me to 2eus was 
, "^ ^ -, r, . 1 1 once alive 

have grown old. Zeus is no longer a snake, nor a 

swan, nor an eagle, nor an amorous man. He is not 

a god who flies, or corrupts boys, or kisses, or 

ravishes ; and yet there are still many beautiful 

women left, fairer even than Leda and nearer their 

prime than Semele, and lads more blooming and 

more refined than the Phrygian herdsman.* Where 

is now that famous eagle ? Where is the swan ? 

Where is Zeus himself? He has grown old, wings 

and all. For you may be sure he is not repentant 

because of his love affairs, nor is he training himself 

to live a sober life. See, the legend is laid bare. 

Leda is dead ; the swan is dead ; the eagle is dead. 

Search for your Zeug> Scour not heaven, but earth. 

Callimachus the Cretan, in whose land he lies buried, 

will tell you in his hymns : 

for a tomb, O Prince, did the Cretans 
Fashion for thee.* 

Yes, Zeus is dead (take it not to heart), like Leda, But now 
like the swan, Hke the eagle, like the amorous man, ^^"^ ^ ^^^^ 
like the snake. 

They run as follows : 

Cretans ever do lie ; for a tomb, O Prince, did they fashion 
Even for thee ; but thou art not dead, for thy life is unending. 

Cp. Titus i. 12, and, for a discussion on the burial-place of 
Zeus, A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 157-163. 

79 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. "HS-q Se Kal avTol ^atVovrat ol SeLGiSaLfJioveg 
aKovres /xeV, o/xco? 8' ovv avvLevres rrjv TrXdvrjv Trjv 

7T€pL ToijS deOVS* 

ov yap OLTTO Spvo? elai TraXaicfxiTOV owS' oltto TreTprjs, 

aXX avopaJu yevos elui, pLiKpov Se vorepov Kal Spve? 
ovres evpedrioovrai Kal nerpai. 'Aya/xe/xvova yovu 
TLva Ata iv ^TrdpTrj TLjxdGd ai Hrd(f>vXo? laropei' 
(^avoKXi]? Se ev "Fjpcoaiv rj ^ KaAot? 'Ayafiejjivova 
Tov 'YdXXiqvojv ^acriXea ^ Kpyvvvov vecjv 'Ac^^oSitt]? 
taraodai err^ ^Apyvvvco ro) ipajfjLevo). "Aprepnv 
he ^ApKaSes ^ ATrayxojJiei^rjv KaXovjxeviqv TrpoorpeTTOV- 
rat, o)? (f)rjGi KaXXlpiaxos ev AItlols. Kal Koj^- 
SuAm? ev MrjdvjjLvr] erepa rert/xT^rat "Aprepus. 
ear I Se Kal Ylohdypas dXXrjs WprepLiSos ev rfj 
AaKCovLK-rj lepov, a)5 <f)riGi Hcdgl^lo?. UoXeficov Se 
l\exy]v6TOs ^AttoXXcovos oiSev dyaXf^ia, Kal 'Oj/fo- 
33P.(f)dyov I TrdXiv ' AttoXXcovos dXXo ev "HAtSt ripLoj- 
fjievov. ivravda ^Atto/jlvlco Ad dvovaiv 'HAetot- 
'Ptoyuatot Se 'Attojjlvlo) 'Hpa/cAet Kal Uvpera) Se 

^ ^ Leopardus. roh Sylburg. rle aiss. 

" Homer, Odi/sset/xix. 163. The gods were not, according 
to Clement, primeval beings, but simply men with a human 
history. 

* Clement seems to allude to his passage about the statues 
p. 101 and onwards. 

" A local cult of Agamemnon (such as the one which 
existed at Clazomenae— Pausanias vii. 5. 11) had evidently 
been combined with the worship of Zeus. See Athenagoras, 
Apology i. 

■^ Staphylus, Frag. 10 Fraq. hist. Oraec. iv. p. 506. 

^ Phanocles, Fraq. 5 Bach. Cp. Athenaeus, p. 603. 
80 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

But it is clear that even the daemon-worshippers chap. 
themselves are coming to understand, though against The witness 
their will, the error about the gods; for of Greek 

writers 

Not from the ancient oak nor rock do they take their their own 
beginning." gods 

No ; they are of the race of men, though very shortly 
they will be found to be nothing but oaks and rocks.^ 
There is a Zeus Agamemnon'' honoured at Sparta, 
according to Staphylus ^ ; and Phanocles, in his book 
entitled Loves, or Fair Youths, says that Agamemnon 
the king of the Greeks set up a temple to Aphrodite 
Argynnus, in honour of Argynnus whom he loved.* 
Arcadians worship an Artemis called " the goddess 
who is hanged," as Callimachus says in his Causes f\ 
and at Methymna another, an Artemis Condylitis, 
is honoured.^ There is also another, a " gouty " 
Artemis, with a shrine in Laconia, as Sosibius says.^ 
Polemon knows a statue of " yawning " Apollo ; and 
another, too, of Apollo '^'^the epicure," honoured in 
Elis.^ These Eleans sacrifice to Zeus "averter of 
flies," ^ and the Romans to Heracles of the same title, 

•^ Artemis seems to have been "hanged" annually at 
Condylea in Arcadia. See Pausanias viii. 23. 6, where the 
children are probably imitating some ancient ritual. Full 
discussion in Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris, i. pp. 288-397. 
See also Callimachus, Frag. 3 Schneider. 

^ Condi/litis ma.y mean '■' striking," from Kovdvyc^eLv. But 
possibly this is another form of "Artemis of Condylea," 
called Artemis Condyleatis in Pausanias viii. 23. 6. 

^ Sosibius, Frag. 14 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 628. 

^ Polemon, Frag. 71 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 135. See 
Athenaeus, p. 316. 

^ See Frazer, Golden Bough, part 5, vol. ii. p. 283 
(3rd ed.). 

81 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. /cat Oo^o) OvovGLV, ovs Kal avTOvs jJLeTOL rcov afi(f)i 
TOP 'Hpa/cAea iyypd(f)ovGLV. ioj Se 'Apyetou?* 
* Acf}poSiT'r]v TvfJL^copvxov dprjGKevovuLV 'Apyetot /cat 
Aa/cojve?/ /cat XeAvrtSa Se "Apre/xtv LTraprtarat 
Ge^ovaiv €7761 TO ^rjTTeiv x^Xvrreiv koXovglv. 

Otet TTodev TTapeyypaTrra^ ravrd gol KOjiiL^^GdaL 
rd vcf)^ -qpLchv TTapaTiOejxeva; ouSe rous' crou? yvcopi- 
t,€LV eoLKas Gvyypacf)€'i?, ovs iyoj fidprvpa? eirl rrjv 
GTjv dTTiGTiav KaXo), ddeov )(X€vr]s, oj SetAatot, tov 
TTavra vpccov dftiojrov dvrcjos ^iov ifiTTeTrXrjKOTa?.^ 
ovxl jJievTOL Zeus' ^aAa/cpo? iv "Apyet, nficjopog 8e 
d'AAo? iv KuTTpoj rerijJLrjGdov *; ov^l 8^ ^Aif)poSiTrj 
Trept^aGOL^ fiep "'Apyeloi, iraipa he ^ Adr^valoL /cat 
/caAAt77uyaj ^ Ovovglv HvpaKovGGtoi, rjv Nt/cavSpo? 

O 7TOi7]Trj? " KaXXlyXoVTOV " 7TOV K€KXrjK€V; Atd- 

vvGov he yjhrj glcottco tov -xoipoiljdXav' St/cucovtot 
TOVTOV TTpoGKVvovGLV IttI TiJov yvvaLKeiojv rd^avTes 
TOV IS^LovvGov fJLopLCxJV, e(f)opov aiGxovs TOV v^peco? 
Ge^dt,ovTes dp)(r]y6v. Toioihe pLev aurot? ol deoi, 
TOLOihe /cat aurot, Tral^ovTes ev deol?, pidXXov he 
epi7Tait,ovTes Kal evv^pll^ovTes gc/jlglv aurots". /cat 
TTOGCp ^eXTiOvs AlyvTTTLOL KOjp,7]h6v /Cat /Card TToXeLS 
Ta dXoya tcov l,a)OJV eKTeTLp.r]K6Teg yjirep "EAAi^i^es 
TOLovrov? TTpoGKVVovvTe? deovs ; TO, piev yap el 
Kal drjpia, dXX ov pLOixiKdy dXX ov pidxXa, rrapd 
(f)VGiv he Orjpevei -qhovrjv ovhe ev. ol he oTToloLt 

^ Kal AdKi>}V€s placed by Stahlin after 'Apyeiovs (1. 2). 

^ irodev TrapeyypaTTTa Stahlin. ivbOev irapayiypaiTTaL Jiss; 

^ ifxireir\y}KbTas Stahlin. i/XTreirXriKbTes MSS. 

* TeTifXTjaOov Sylburg. T€Ti/j.i]adu}u mss. 

^ Trepi^aaol Dindorf. Trepi^aairj mss. 
^ KaXKnrvyu} Sylburg. KaXXnrvpyu) MSS. 

« Nicander, Fraq. 23 Schneider. 
82 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

as Avel] as to " Fever" and " Fear " which they even chap. 
enroll among the companions of Heracles. I pass ^^ 
by the Argives ; Aphrodite the "grave-robber" is 
worshipped by them^ as well as by the Laconians. 
Furthermore, Spartans venerate Artemis Chelytis or 
the "coughing" Artemis, since the verb corresponding 
to Chelytis is their word for "to cough." 

Do you think that the examples which I am Further 
adducing are brought to you from some improper f^m Greek 
source } Why, it seems as if you do not recognize writers 
your own authors, whom I call as witnesses against 
your unbelief. Alas for you ! They have filled your 
whole life with godless foolery, until life has become 
truly intolerable. Tell me, is there not a "bald" 
Zeus honoured in Argos, and another, an " avenger,'* 
in Cyprus ? Do not Argives sacrifice to Aphrodite 
divaricatiix, Athenians to her as " courtesan," and 
Syracusans to her " of the beautiful buttocks," whom 
the poet Nicander " has somewhere called " of the 
beautiful rump " } I will be silent about Dionysus 
choiropsalas. The Sicyonians worship this Dionysus 
as the god who presides over the woman's secret 
parts ; thus they reverence the originator of licen- 
tiousness, as overseer of what is shameful. Such, 
then, is the character of the Greek gods ; such, 
too, are the worshippers, who make a mockery of 
the divine, or rather, who mock and insult them- 
selves. How much better are Egyptians, when in Even 
cities and villages they hold in great honour the aSai^^ods 
irrational animals, than Greeks who worship such are better 
gods as these ? For though the Egyptian gods are 
beasts, still they are not adulterous, they are not 
lewd, and not one of them seeks for pleasure contrary 
to its own nature. But as for the character of the 
d2 83 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Tt Kal XPV Aeyety ert, aTTOXpwvTOJS avrow oteAi^- 
Xeyfievow ; 

'AAA' ovv ye AlyvTTTLOi, (Sp' vvv Srj efxvqaOrjVy 

34 P. Kara rag OprjGKeias \ ras acf)a>v eoKe^avrai- oe^ovai 
he avTcov SuT^t'trat ^ (fxiypov rov IxOvv, [xatcjoTrjv he 
(a'AAo?^ ovTog IxOvg) ol rrjv 'EAe^avrtVr]!^ OLKOVvreg, 
^O^vpvyxlrai rov (f)epa)VVjJLOV rrj? ;)^<:6pas' avTcov 
ojjioicos Ix^^^} ^Tt ye pirjv 'HpaKXeoiroXlTai Ix^ev- 
fxova, Satrat Se koI Srj^aloL irpo^aTOV, Avko- 
TToXlrai he Xvkov, "KwoTToXlrai he Kvva, rov ^Attlv 
Me/x0trat, Mevh^GLOi rov rpdyov. vfJieX? he ol 
TTavr d/xetVou? AlyvTTTicov (o/<rva> Se elneZv x^^povg), 
at Tov? AlyvTTTLOVS oarjiJLepaL yeXcovres ov iraveade^ 
TToloL^ rives Kal ireplra aXoya ^wa; (deooaXol pcev 
Vficov rov? TTeXapyovs reripirjKaui Sta rrjV Gvvqdeiav, 
Qrj^aXoL he ra? yaXds hia rrjV 'Hpa/cAeous" yeveaiv. 
ri he rrdXiv QerraXol; fJLvpjJirjKa? loropovvrai 
oe^eiv, eirel rov Ata fiefiadi^KaaLv ofioicodevra 
pLvp/jLTjKL rfj l\Xr]ropos Ovyarpl lEvpvjjiehovGrj payrjvaL 
Kal ^^IvpfjLihova yevvrjaac YloXeptajv he rovs djicfA 
rrjv Tpojdha KaroiKOvvras laropel rovs emxojpiovs 
fJLVS < oe^eiv >,^ ovs ofiLvOovs KaXovaiv, on rds vevpds 

* Si/T^j'trai Ortelius and Canter (in Sylburg). evrivtrai mss. 

'^ aXXos Potter. Sj 6.\\o% .aiss. 

' iraveade Heinsius. iravaeade MSS. 

* TTolol Wilamowitz. oTrotol mss. 

^ <cr^/3etj'> inserted by Dindorf. 

« The Apis bull was regarded as an incarnation of the god 
Ptah, or Osiris. Certain peculiar bodily marks distinguished 
him from other bulls, and when found he was tended with 
deep veneration in a shrine at Memphis. At his death 
there was great mourning, and a stately funeral. See 
Herodotus iii. 27-28. * See Herodotus ii. 46. 

<^ The story is given in Antoninus Liberalis, ch. 29. The 
84 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Greek gods, what need is there to say more ? They chap. 
have been sufficiently exposed. ^^ 

Egyptians, however, whom I mentioned just now, Examples of 
are divided in the matter of tiieir rehgious cults. anSa^° 
The people of Syene worship the fish phagrus ; the worship 
inhabitants of Elephantine another fish, the maeotes ; 
the people of Oxyrhynchus also worship a fish, that 
which bears the name of their land. Further, the 
people of Heracleopolis worship the ichneumon ; of 
Sais and Thebes, the sheep ; of Lycopolis, the wolf; 
of Cynopolis, the dog ; of Memphis, the bull Apis * ; 
of Mendes, the goat.^ But as for you, who are in 
every way better than Egyptians, — I shrink from 
calling you worse — you who never let a day pass 
without laughing at the Egyptians, what is your 
attitude with regard to the irrational animals ? The 
Thessalians among you give honour to storks by But Greeks 
reason of old custom ; Thebans to weasels on account anhnaiT^^"^ 
of the birth of Heracles.^ What else of Thessalians ? examples 
They are reported to w orship ants, because they have ^'^^" 
been taught that Zeus, in the likeness of an ant, had 
intercourse with Eurymedusa the daughter of Cletor 
and begat Myrmidon.^ Polemon relates that the 
dwellers in the Troad worship the local mice (which 
they call sminthoi), bcause these used to gnaw 

birth of Heracles was retarded by the Fates to please Hera. 
But Alcraene's companion Galinthias (cp. gale, a weasel) 
told them that the birth was by the will of Zeus, whereupon 
they ceased opposing it. They punished Galinthias, how- 
ever, by turning her into a weasel. When Heracles grew 
up he remembered her good deed and built her a shrine. 
The Thebans thereafter used to offer her the first sacrifice at 
the feast of Heracles. 

** The legendary ancestor of the Myrmidons, a Thessalian 
tribe. The name may be connected with myrmex an ant. 

85 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 
CAP. Tcov TToXefiLOju hierpo)yov rcov ro^cov /cat HfXivOiov 

^ATToXXcOVa OLTTO TOQV fJLVCOV eKelvOJV €7T€cf)rjjjLLGaV. 

'H/oa/cAetST]? Se iv Kriceatv Upcov nepl rrjv 'A/cap - 
vaviav cf)r)aLV, evda to "Aktiov iariv aKpcx)Ty]piov 
KOi Tov ^AttoXXcovo? tov * Aktlov TO tepop, rat? 
jLti'tat? rrpoOveodai ^ovv. ovSe jxriv Sa/xtcuv Ik- 
Xijaofjiai [rrpo^aroVy cos (firjoiv Yiix^Qpicov, oe^ovai 
85 r. Sa/ztot) ouSe ye rwv ttjv ^OLViKr]v Hvpcov \ Kar- 
OLKovuTcov, ojv ot fiev ra? Trepiarepas , ol Se rovs 
Ix^^? ovrco ae^ovcji TrepcTTco? cLs 'HAetot tov Ata. 

Kiev St^- eTTethr] ov deoi, ovs OprjGKeveTe, ai^^t? 
eiTLGKeifjaadai fiot So/cet el ovtojs elev Sat/uove?, 
SevTcpa TavTr], to? vfxeXg ^are, eyKaTaXeyofievoL 
ra^et. et yap ovv halixove?, Xtx^oL re /cat paapoi. 
eoTL fxev ecj^evpelv /cat avacfyavhov ovtco /caret TToXeis 
Saljjiovas eTTLXojpLOVS TLpirjV einhpeTTOixevovs , rrapa 
KvdvLOL? MeveSr]ijiov, Trapa TrjViOLS KaAAtarayopav, 
TTapa Ar]XiOLs "Avlou, Trapa Aolkcoglv ^AoTpd^aKOV. 
rt/xarat 8e rt? /cat ^aXrjpoi /cara Trpvpivav rjpoJS' 
/cat r) Ilu^ta ovveTa^e Oveiv riAarateucrti^ 'AvSpo- 
/cparet /cat ArjpiOKpdTeL /cat Ku/cAatoj /cat Aeu/ca>vt 
rcijj^ j\Ii]St/cajv a/c/xa^dvrcov aycivojv. ecrrt /cat 



" Compare the story in Herodotus ii. 141, where Sen- 
nacherib's army, invading E^ypt, was rendered useless by 
the ravages of mice. 

* Polemon, Frag. 31 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 124. 

*= Heracleides Ponticus, Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 197, 
note 2. See also Farnell, Cttlfs of the Greek States, i. p. 45. 

"^ Euphorion, Frag. 6 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 73. 

" The Syrian goddess Derceto was represented with the 
body of a lish, and her daughter Semiramis took the form 
ot a dove. See Diodorus ii. 4. 

■f See Herodotus vi. 69. 
86 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

through their enemies' bowstrings ^ ; and they named chap. 
Apollo ' Smintheus ' after these mice.^ Heracleides, ^^ 
in his work on The Foimding of Temples in Acariiania, 
says that on the promontory of Actium^ where stands 
the temple of Apollo of Actium^ a preliminary sacrifice 
of an ox is made to the flies.<^ Nor shall I forget the 
Samians^ who, as Euphorion says, worship the sheep ;** 
no, nor yet the Syrian inhabitants of Phoenicia, some 
of whom worship doves, and others fishes,^ as ex- 
travagantly as the Eleans worship Zeus. 

Very well ! since they whom you serve are not Perhaps 
gods, I am resolved to make a fresh examination to i!il^J^!^ 

* ■■ T gous are 

see whether it is true that they are daemons, and secondary 
should be enrolled, as you say, in this second rank of daenfons'^ 
divinities. For if they really are daemons, they are 
greedy and foul ones. We can discover perfectly 
clear examples of daemons of local origin who glean Examples of 
honour in cities, as Menedemus among the Cythnians, daemons or 
Callistagoras among the Tenians, Anius among heroes 
the Delians and Astrabacus among the Laconians.-^ 
Honour is paid also at Phalerum to a certain hero " at 
the stern," o and the Pythian prophetess prescribed 
that the Plataeans should sacrifice to Androcrates, 
Democrates, Cyclaeus and Leucon when the struggles 
with the Medes were at their height.'' And the man 



•" This hero is Androgeos, on account of whose death at 
Athens the annual tribute of seven youths and seven maidens 
was imposed by his father Minos upon the Athenians ; from 
which they were dehvered by Theseus. A scholiast, com- 
menting on this passage, says that figures of Androgeos 
were set " at the stern of ships." Phalerum was the ancient 
port of Attica, whence according to tradition Theseus em- 
barked on his j(;urney to Crete. See Pausanias i. 1. 2-4. 

'' See Plutarch, Aristeides xi. 

87 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. aXXovs TrafjiTToXXovg avviSelv Salj^wva? toj ye Kal 
ayLLKpov hiadpelv Swajjievco' 

rpl? yap fjLvpLol elaiv inl ^(Oovl TTOvXv^oreLprj 
SaLjjLOves dOdvaroLy (f)vXaK€S fxepoTTCOV dvdpcoTTWv. 

rives elalv ol (f)vXaKes, co Botcurte, pLT) (f)dovearjs 
Xeyeiv. r) hrjXov o)? ovroi Kal ol tovtojv eTnnpiOTe- 
poL, ol fjLeydXoL Saifioves, 6 'AttoAAcov, tj "Apre/jLLSy 
Tj Ar]Ta)y Tj ArjfjLi^Trjp, 77 Kopr], 6 IIXovtcou, 6 
'HpaKXrjg, avros 6 ILevs. aAA' ovk dirohpavai 
Tjixas (f>vXdTT0VGiv , ^AoKpale, fxr) dfiaprdvetv Se 
LGCos, ol djxapTiojv Srjra ov TreTreipaixevoi. eVTai}^a 
8t7 to TTapoLfJiLcJoSes e7TL(f)9ey^a(jOaL appLorrei 

" 7TaT7)p dvovOerrjTa^ rralha vovderel." 

€L 8' dpa Kal elcrl (f)vXaKes ovtol, ovk evvoia rfj 
TTpos rjfjids TTepnradelSy rrjs he VfieSaTrrj? drrajXelas 
exdfJiepoL, KoXaKcov SiKrjv, eyxplp^TTTOvrai ro) ^ico, 
heXeat,6iJievoi KaTrvw. avroi ttov i^opLoXoyovPTac ol 
Batp^ove? rrjv yaorpip^apyiav rrjv avrcov, 

Xoiprjs re Kvioiqs re' ro yap Xdxofiev yepa? rjixeZs, \ 

36P. Xeyovres. riva 8' ay (fycovrjv dXXrjv, el (i)ojvr)v 
Xd^oiev AlyvTTricov Beoi, ola a'lXovpoL Kal yaAat, 
7Tpoi]GOvrai 7} rrjV '0p.7]pu<'rjv re Kal 7TOir]rLK7Jv, rrjs 
KVLor]s re Kal oipaprvnKrjs (f>iX'r]v; roLolSe pLevroi 
Trap* vp.lv ol re haipLOves Kal ol deol Kal el rives 

^ duov6^Ti]Ta Wilamowitz, dpovOerrjTos MSS. 

" Hesiod, Works and Days 252-253. Hesiod was a native 
of Ascra in Boeotia, which explains the two appellations 
that follow this quotation. 

* Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. pp. 616-7. 
88 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

who is able to make even a slight investigation can chap. 
get a view of very many other daemons ; ^^ 

For thrice ten thousand dwell on mother earth. Witness of 

Immortal daemons, guards of mortal men." Hesiod 

Who are these guardians, thou Boeotian bard ? Do 
not refuse to tell us. Or is it clear that they are 
these whom I have just mentioned, and others more 
honoured than they, namely the great daemons, 
Apollo, Artemis, Leto, Demeter, the Maiden, Pluto, Daemons, 
Heracles, and Zeus himself? But it is not to prevent small °are 
us from running away that they guard us, poet of ^^l o"o 
Ascra ! Perhaps it is to prevent us from sinning, 
seeing that they, to be sure, have had no experience 
of sins. Here indeed we may fitly utter the pro- 
verbial line. 

The father warns his child but not himself.* 

Yet if, after all, they really are guardians, they 
are not moved by feelings of good will towards us ; 
but, being intent upon your destruction, they beset 
human life after the manner of flatterers, allured They 
by the sacrificial smoke. In one place the daemons 



approach 
man not 

themselves admit this gluttony of theirs, when they from love 

^ J ^ J but for the 

say, sacrifices 



Wine and odorous steam ; for that we receive as our portion.'-" 

If Egyptian gods, such as cats and weasels, were to Are they 
be endowed with speech, what other cry are they thln^^"^"" 
likely to give forth than this from Homer's poems, Egyptian 
proclaiming a love for savoury odours and cookery? gods? 
Be that as it may, such is the character of the 

^ Homer, Iliad iv. 49. 

89 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TjiiiOeoL (x)GTr€p rjjjLLOVOL K€KXr]VTai' ovSe yap ovoe 

" OVOfJLOLTOJV VflLV TT€VLa TTpOS TOiS TTJS (XCTe^etaS 
GwdeGGLS* 



III 

Oepe 87) ovu Kal tovto TTpoaOcofJiev, ws oltt- 
dvOpojTTOL Kal pnadvd pojTToi 8at/xore? elev vpiihv 
ol deol Kal ovxl piovov eTTixciLpovTes rfj (fypevo^Xa^eia 
TCOV dv9 pOJTTOiV , TTpos §€ Kal dvdp(x>7TOKTOvia? avTO- 
Xavovres' vvvl pbev ras" eV crraStot? ivonXovs 
(jyiXoveiKias , vvvl he rds iv TroAe/xot? dvapldp^ovs 
(f)iXoTipiias d<f>opp,ds <J(f)iGiv rjSovrj? rropLl,6p.€VOi, 
OTTCJS on pidXiGTa exoiev dvOpcoTreiojv dveh-qv ipi- 
cfiopelGdai (f)6va>v 17817 8e Kara TroAet? Kal eOvr], 
otovel Xoifjiol eTnGKrjijjavreg, GTrovSd? d7T'rJT7]Gav 
dvrjpiepovs. ^ApLGTopLevrjs yovv 6 MeCTcn7Vtos' ro) 
^WcopL-qr-r] Att rpiaKOGiOVS d7TeGcf)a^ev, roGavrag 
opiov Kal TOLavrag KaXXiepelv olof-ievog 6Kar6p.j3ag' iv 
ots Kal ©eoTTO/xTTO? -^v <6> ^ AaKehaip.ovicov ^aGiXevg, 
UpeXov evyeveg. Tavpoi Se to edvos, ol irepi rriv 
TavpiKTjV x^PP^^V^^^ KaroLKOvvres, ovs av raJv 

^ <6> inserted from Eusebius, Praep. Ev. iv. 16, 

« To understand the point of Clement's onslaught against 
the " daemons " it must be remembered that the best Greek 
teachers of his age, such as Plutarch and Maximus of Tyre, 
used the doctrhie of "secondary divinities" as a means of 
preserving their own monotheism without altogether break- 
ing away from the popular mythology. According to them, 
the one'Supreme God worked through many ministers, to 
whom worship could rightly be offered. Clement attacks 

90 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

daemons and gods you worship, and of the demigods chap. 
too, if you have any called by this name, on the ^^ 
analogy of mules, or demi-asses ; for you have no 
poverty — not even of words to form into the com- 
pounds needed for your impiety.* 



Ill 

Come then, let us add this, that your gods are in- The gods 
human and man-hating daemons, who not only exult human ^° 
over the insanity of men, but go so far as to enjoy slaughter 
human slaughter. They provide for themselves 
sources of pleasure, at one time in the armed contests in the 
of the stadium, at another in the innumxcrable theltecUum 
rivalries of war, in order to secure every possible in wars 
opportunity of glutting themselves to the full with 
human blood. Before now, too, they have fallen They 
like plagues on whole cities and nations, and have Sman*^ 
demanded drink-offerings of a savage character. For sacrifices 
instance, Aristomenes the Messenian slaughtered Examples: 
three hundred men to Zeus of Ithome, in the belief ^^^^omenes 
that favourable omens are secured by sacrifices of Messenian 
such magnitude and quality. Among the victims 
was even Theopompus, the Lacedaemonian king, a Human 
noble offering. The Taurian race, who dwell amolfg^Jhe 
along the Taurian peninsula, whenever they capture Taurians 

this position from the moral standpoint ; the legends and 
the animal sacrifices prove that all these divinities, whether 
called gods, demigods, or anything else, were evil in char- 
acter ; there was no distinction between Zeus and the 
humblest daemon. A clear and valuable account of the 
matter will be found in Dill, Roman Society from Nero, etc. 
pp. 423-134.. 

91 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAr. ^evojv Trap* avrols e'Acuat, tovtcov Srj rcJov Kara 
daXarrav eTTTaiKorcuv , avriKa fidXa rfj TavpiKrj 
KaradvovoLV ^ Kpreyahi' ravTas oov ras Ovaia? 
l^vpLTTLSrjs €771 (JKr^vij? TpaycpheZ. Moj/t/xos" S' taro- 
pel iv rfj Tcbv davfiamajv avvayojyfj ev YieXXri 
TTJs SerraXias 'A;^aiop' avdpcoTTOV W-qXeZ Koi 
yieipcovi KaradveaOaL- Avktlov?^ yap {Kpr^rwv 8e 
edvo£ elalv ovtol ^) 'Avrt/cAetSr^s* iv ^oarocg oltto' 
^aiverai di'OpcoTTOvs d7TOG(f)dTT€LV rco Att, Kal 
Aea^iovs Aiovvacp TrfV o/xotav Trpoadyeiv dvalav 
AcDCTtSa? Aeyef ^ajKaeig Se [ovSe yap avTOVs 
TTaparreixipopiai) — tovtovs YlvdoKXrjs ev rpiTco Ylepl 

2.1 V. ojxovoias T7J TavpoTToXcp 'Apre/xtSt dv\dpcxJ7TOV oXo- 
KavreZv ^ laropet. 'E/3e;(^eu? Se o ^Attlkos Kal 
Mapto? o 'Poj/xatos" rds avroJv edvadTrjV dvyarepas' 
Sv 6 pb6V rfj 0€p€(f)dTTrj, co? Arjiidparos iv Trpcjrrj 
TpaycpSovpJvcov, 6 Se rot? ^ATTOTpoTraiois, 6 
Mapto?, CO? Acopo^eo? iv rfj rerdpTrj 'IraXcKajv 
lor op el. 

^iXdvOpcoTToi ye iK tovtojv Kara(j>aivovrai ol 
SalpLoves' TTCos Se ou;^ ocrtoi dvaXoyoJS ol SecoL- 
Saifiove?; ol fjiev aojTrjpe? evcf^rjjjLOViJLevoL, ol Se 
Gcorrjplav alrovfievoL rrapd rojv iiri^ovXajv ctcdtt]- 
pias. KaXXiepelv yovv roTrd^ovres avrols crcpd? 

^ AvKTLovs from Eusebius. Xvklovs :mss. 

'^ OVTOL fi*om Eusebius. oiVws :mss. 

^ oKoKavTelv from Eusebius. oXoKaelv mss, 

<* That is, in his play Iphigenela among the Tanrinvs. 
See also Herodotus iv. 103. The Taurian peninsula is the 
modern Crimea. 

* Monimus, Frag. 1 F^'cuf. hist. Graec. iv. p. 454. 

" Anticleides, Frag. 9 INlulIer, Script, rerum Alex. Mag, 
p. 149. 

92 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

strangers in their territory, that is to say, men who chap. 

have been shipwrecked, sacrifice them on the spot ^^^ 

to Tauric Artemis. These are your sacrifices which 

Euripides represents in tragedy upon the stage." 

Monimus, in his collection of Wonderful Events, relates 

that in Pella of Thessalv human sacrifice is offered to also 

J, at Pella 
Peleus and Cheiron, the victim being an Achaean.^ 

Thus too, Anticleides in his Homecomings, declares 

that the Lyctians, a race of Cretans, slaughter men Human 

to Zeus ; '^ and Dosidas says that Lesbians offer a oSed by 

similar sacrifice to Dionysus.'^ As for Phocaeans, — Lyctians, 

for I shall not pass them over either — these people are ph'ocaeans 

reported by Pythocles in his third book On Concord to 

offer a burnt sacrifice of a man to Taurian Artemis.^ 

Erechtheus the Athenian and Marius the Roman by 

sacrificed their own daughters, the former to Perse- a'nd^Marius 

phone, as Demaratus relates in the first book of liis 

Subjects of Tragedy/ the latter, Marius, to the 

" Averters of evil," as Dorotheas relates in the fourth 

book of his Italian History. 9 

Kindly beings to be sure the daemons are, as So daemon- 

these instances plainly show ! And how can the beconiTar*" 

daemon- worshippers help being holy in a correspond- cruel as the 

ing way ? The former are hailed as saviours ; the 

latter beg for safety from those who plot to destroy 

safety. Certainly while they suppose that they are 

^ Dosidas (or Dosiades), Frag. 5 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. 
p. 400. 

« Pythocles, Frag. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 489. 

•^ Demaratus, Frag. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 379. 

^ Marius is said to have been warned in a dream to 
sacrifice his daughter Calpurnia, in order to obtain a victory 
over the Cimbri by whom he was hard pressed. Phitarch, 
Collect, parall. 20 ; Dorotheas, Frag. 3 Miiller, Script, rerum 
Alex. Mag. p. 156. 

9S 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP avrovg XeXrjOaoiv d7TOG(f)dTTovT€? dvOpojirovs. ov 
yap ovv rrapa rov tottov cepetov yiverai o (povos, 
ou8' et ^AprefjuSl tl? koI Ad iv lepcp hrjOev x^^P^^p 
fjidWov 7) dpyfj Kal <j)i\apyvpia, ctAAots- ojjlolois 

SaLjjLOGLV, €7TL ^CO/XOt? t) eV oSot? a770Cr(^aTTOt TOV 

dvOpcoTTOV, llepov] ^ lepelov e7Ti(j)rjiiiaas , dXXd c/jovo? 
iori Kal dvSpoKTaola rj roiavrr] dvala. tl Srj ovv, 
c5 ao(/)d)TaTOi rd)V dXXa)v ^wcov dvOpcoiroi, ra [xev 
O-qpia 7T€pLcf)€vyof.i€v rd dv-qpiepa, Kav ttov Trepi- 
rvxojpiev dpKco rj Xeovn, eKrpeTTopieOa, 

CO? S' ore TtV re SpaKovra IScbv TToXivopGos drreGr't] 
ovpeos iv ^rjOGrj?, vtto re rpofjLOS eXXa^e yvla, 
difj T ai>€xd)p'y]cy€V' 

haipiovas he dXeOpiovs /cat dXtTrjplov? em^ovXovg re 
Kal pLiuavO pojTTOV? Kal XvpLed}va? dvra? Trpoaiado- 
88 P. pievoi Kal GVVievres ovk eK\TpeTTeG6e ovhe drroGTpe- 
(f>eG9e; ri S' dv Kal dX-qdevGaiev ol KaKol, -r) riva 
dv (h^eXrjGaiev ; avriKa yovv e^oj gol ^eXriova 
Tcbv vpLeSanaJv tovtcov Oeojv, rwv haijiovcxjv , eTTi- 
Set^at rov dvOpojTTOv, rov ^ AttoXXcvvos rov puavrLKov 
rov I^vpov Kal rov HoXajva. c^^tAoScopos' vjxdjv 
6 ^OijSos, dAA' ov (j)iXdv6 pojTTOs . TTpovhcx)Ke rov 
Ys^poloov rov (fiUKOV Kal rod paoOov eVAa ^o/xero? 
(ovrcx) <f)LX6So^os rjv) dvijyaye rov. l\poXGOV Sua rod 
"AAuo? eVt rrjv TTvpdv. ovrco (f)LXovvres ol SaupLoves 
oSrjyovGLV et? to rrvp. aAA', d> (jyiXavOpajTioTepe 
Kal dXrjOeGrepe rod 'ATroAAcoro? dvOpojTre, rov enl 
rrjs TTvpds o'lKreipov SeSepcevov, Kal gv pLev, cL 
^ [lepov] Wilamowitz, {Lepetov] Potter. 

« Homer, Iliad iii. 33-35. 
94 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

offering acceptable sacrifices to the daemons, they chap. 
quite forget that they are slaughtering human beings. ^^^ 
For murder does not become a sacred offering because 
of the place in which it is committed, not even if 
you solemnl}^ dedicate the man and then slaughter 
him in a so-called sacred spot for Artemis or Zeus, 
rather than for anger or covetousness, other daemons 
of the same sort, or upon altars rather than in roads. 
On the contrary, such sacrifice is murder and human 
butchery. Why then is it, O men, wisest of all Why not 
living creatures, that we fly from savage wild beasts daemon 
and turn aside if perchance we meet a bear or a ^^ f™"^ 

,. , ^ savage 

lion, and beasts? 

As in a mountain glade when the wayfarer spieth a serpent, 
Swiftly turning his steps, his weak limbs trembling beneath 

him. 
Backward he maketh his way ; " 

yet when faced by deadly and accursed daemons, 
you do not turn aside nor avoid them, although you 
have already perceived and know quite well that 
they are plotters and man-haters and destroyers ? 
What possible truth could evil beings utter, or 
whom could they benefit ? At any rate, I can at 
once prove to you that man is better than these gods Men are 
of yours, the daemons ; that Cyrus and Solon are tharf the 
better than Apollo the prophet. Your Phoebus is daemons, 
a lover of gifts but not of men. He betrayed his of Croesus 
friend Croesus, and, forgetful of the reward he had siiows 
received (such was his love of honour), led the king 
across the river Halys to his funeral pyre. This is 
how the daemons love ; they guide men to the fire ! 
But do thou, O man of kinder heart and truer speech 
than Apollo, pity him who lies bound upon the pyre. 

95 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. SoAcov, jJLOLVTevaai rr]V aAr^^etap', av Se, c5 Kvpe, 
KeXevaov aTToa^eadrjvaL rrjv irvpav. aoj(f)p6vr]aov 
vcrrarov yovv, a> KpoXae, ro) Trddei pLeTaixaBcLv 
axoLptOTo? eoTiv ov TrpoaKweZs, Xapi^dvei tov 
/jllgOov Kal fxerd ro xp^^^i^ov ifjevSerai ndXiV. reAo? 
apa ovx o Satixcov, dAAa o dvdpojTTO? gol Aeyet. ov 
Xo^d /xavreuerat SoAojv rovrov evp'qaei? ^ dXrjdrj 
fjLOVov, o) ^dp^ape, rov XPV^H'^^' tovtov Irrl rrjg 
TTvpds SoKLfidaecs. 

"Odep €7T€LaL jJLOi 6avjJidt,€LV TiGi TTOTC (f>avTaaLaL? 
aTTaxOevreg ol TrpaJroL ireTrXaviqpievoi heioihaiaoviav 
dvdpojTTOis KariqyyeiXav, haif^iovag dXiTiqpiovs vopLO- 
Oerovvre? ae^ecv, elre ^opcvvev? €K€lvo? rjv etre 
Mepoip etre d'AAo? rt?, ot veco? Kal ^cjojjlov? dveGrrjoav 
avTols, TTpds he /cat dvGcas TrapaGrrJGac TrpdjroL 
fxepLvdevvrai. Kal yap St] Kal Kara XP^^^^^ 
VGrepov dveirXarTOV deovs, ots TrpoGKVvolev. d/xe'Aet 
rov "E/36L>Ta rovrov <r6v> ^ eV rol? TrpeG^vrdrot? rcov 
6ea)V elvai Xeyofxevov erijxa irporepov ovhk els rrplv 
7) \dp[jLov fieipdKLov n iXetv Kal ^ay jjlov ISpvGaGOaL 
€V ' A/caST^/xto, ;\;apt(TTT7ptov ^ eTnreXov? yevofievrj? 
eTridvpLias' Kal rrj? vogov rrjv aGeXyetav "Epcora 
KeKXnJKaGL, deoTTOLOvvres dKoXaarov emOvplav. 

39 P. ^ KOyjvaloL Se ouSe rov Ilai^a jjSeGav ooris rjv, | vplv 
7) (^lXlttttlSt^v elirelv avrol?. 

^ evp-qcreis Canter. ei5 Orjaeis MSS. 
2 <j6uy inserted by Markland. 
^ Xct-pi<TTrjpLoi> Valckenaer ; see Frotrepticus 27 P. (p. G-t 
above) and 42 P. (p. 106). x^P'-^'^T^po" >iss. 

'^ See the whole stor,y in Herodotus i. 30-33 and 85-88. 

* Cp. Pausanias i. 30. 1, Athenaeus xiii. p. 609 d; and, 
for the antiquity of Eros, Plato, Symposium 178 a-c, and 
Hesiod, Theogonla 120, with Paley's note ad loc. The ancient 

9Q 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Do thou, Solon, utter an oracle of truth. Do thou, chap. 
Cyrus, bid the flaming pyre be quenched. Come to ^^^ 
thy senses at the eleventh hour, Croesus, when 
suffering has taught thee better. Ungrateful is he 
whom thou dost worship. He takes the reward of 
gold, and then deceives thee once again. Mark ! it 
is not the daemon, but the man who tells thee the issue 
of life. Unlike Apollo, Solon utters no double-mean- 
ing prophecies. This oracle alone shalt thou find true, 

barbarian. This shalt thou prove upon the pyre.* 

I cannot help wondering, therefore, what delusive How were 
fancies could have led astray those who were the daemoS 
first to be themselves deceived, and the first also, by worshippers 
the laws they established for the worship of accursed ^^^'^^^^'^^^^ 
daemons, to proclaim their superstition to mankind. 

1 mean such men as the well-known Phoroneus, or 
Merops, or others like them, who set up temples 
and altars to the daemons, and are also said in legend 
to have been the first to offer sacrifices. There can 

be no doubt that in succeeding ages men used to in later 
invent gods whom they might worship. This Eros, ?'£1y"'in° 
for instance, who is said to be amongst the oldest rented gods 
of the gods, — why, not a single person honoured him 
before Charmus carried off" a young lad and erected 
an altar in Academia, as a thank-off'ering for the 
satisfaction of his lust ; and this disease of debauchery 
is what men call Eros, making unbridled lust into 
a god ! ^ Nor did Athenians know who even Pan 
was, before Philippides told them.'' 

Eros was probably an earth-deity, or god of fertility, and in 
reality quite different from the winged child who accompanies 
Aphrodite and is the personification of human love. See 
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, ii. pp. 625-6. 
« Herodotus vi. 105. 

97 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 



CAP. EtVoTO)? apa apxv^ nodev rj B € lglS at jxov la Xa^ovaa 
KaKuas avoTjTov yeyove Trr^yrj' elra 8e fxrj dp-a- 
KOTTeZcra, aAA' els iirihoGiv iXOovaa Kal ttoXXyj Srj 
pveXaa, SrffXLovpyos ttoXXcov KaOlaraTai Saifiovcov, 
eKarofJi^as Ovovaa Kal rrav-qyvpeis eVtreAouaa /cat 
dyaXfiara dviurdoa Kal veojg dvoiKohopLOVoay rov? ^ 
S'q — ou8e yap ovSe tovtovs cnajTrrjaopiaL, rrpog §e Kal 
avTOVS i^eXey^oj — vew? fiev eix^-rj/jcajs oi^o/xa{o/xe- 
vov£, Ta(f)OV£ 06 yevofievov? [rovTeori tovs rdcfiov? 
vedjs i7TLK€KXr]pi€Vous].^ vfjiels 8e dAAo. kolv vvv 
heioihaipiovias eKXadeaOe, tovs rd^ovs TLjxdv 
alaxwdpLcvoL. iv rep veco rrjs ^A6r]vds eV Aaplar] 
ev rfj dKpoTToXei rd(l>os eurlv ^AKpiacov, ^AOrjvrjacv 
Se iv aKpoTToXei l\eKpo7TO?, a)s (f)r]aLV ^Avtloxos 
iv rep ivdrcp rdjv 'laropcajv. re 8e ^EtpixOovLos ; 
ovxi ev to) ved) rrjs noAtctSo? KCK-qSevrai; '1/x/xa- 
paSos ^ §e o Eu/xoAttou Kal Aaelpas ovxl iv tco 
TrepL^oXo) rod 'EAeucrtvtou rod vtto rfj dKpoTToXei ; 
at he KeAeou dvyaripeg ovxl iv 'EAeucrtt't rerdcj^arai ; 
Tt crot KaraXeyo) rds <i^>^ 'YTrep^opeojv yvvalKas ; 
^Yirepoxy] Kal AaoScKr] KeKXrjadov, iv rco ^ Aprepaoicp 
iv At^Ao) KeKTjhevoOoVy rd he iv rep ^ AttoXXcovos 
rod /^-qXiov iarlv lepcp. Aedvhptos he KXeoxov^ iv 
MiXi]rcp re9d(f)6ai iv rep AtSi;/xataj (f)rjaLV. ivr avda 
rrjs AevKO(f)pvv7]s ro pivr]pielov ovk d^cov TrapeXOeiv 
eTTopievovs Ijr^vexiVL rep Mut'StO), rj iv rep lepep rrjs 
40 P. 'Apre/xtSo? iv | Mayi^^^ata KeK-qhevrai, ovhe pLrjv 

^ rods Schwartz. oOs wss. 

- [rovTia-Ti . . iiriK€K\ri/j.^vovs] Markland. 

^ 'I/x/iapados from Pausanias i. 5. 2, etc. i/j-fxapos mss. 

* <e^> from Eusebius, Praep. Ec. ii. 6. 

^ KXe'oxo)' Mtiller from Arnobius vi. 6 and Apollodurus 
iii. 1. 2. KKiapxov mss. 

98 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

We must not then be surprised that^ once daemon- chap. 
worship had somewhere taken a beginning, it became rpj^^g 
a fountain of insensate wickedness. Then, not being daemon- 
checked, but ever increasing and flowing in full Jrew to its 
stream, it establishes itself as creator of a multitude ^^t^^t^ 
of daemons. It offers great public sacrifices ; it 
holds solemn festivals ; it sets up statues and builds 
temples. These temples — for I will not keep silence 
even about them, but will expose them also — are 
called by a fair-sounding name, but in reality they are 
tombs. But I appeal to you, even at this late hour Bnt the 
forget daemon-worship, feeling ashamed to honour JeSi^^*^^ ^"^^ 
tombs. In the temple of Athena in the Acropolis tombs, as 
at Larissa there is the tomb of Acrisius ; and in the prove^ ^^ 
Acropolis at Athens the tomb of Cecrops, as Antiochus 
says in his ninth book of Histories.^ And what of 
Erichthonius } Does not he lie in the temple of 
Athena Polias ? And does not Immaradus, the son 
of Eumolpus and Daeira, lie in the enclosure of the 
Eleusinium which is under the Acropolis } Are not 
the daughters of Celeus buried in Eleusis } Why 
recount to you the Hyperborean women ? They 
are called Hyperoche and Laodice, and they lie in 
the Artemisium at Delos ; this is in the temple 
precincts of Delian Apollo. Leandrius says that 
Cleochus is buried in the Didymaeum at Miletus.^ 
Here, following Zeno of Myndus, we must not omit 
the sepulchre of Leucophryne, who lies in the temple 
of Artemis in Magnesia ; nor yet the altar of Apollo 



" Antiochus, Frag. 15 Frag. hist. Graec. 1. p. 184. 

* Leandrius (or Meandrius), Frag. 5 Frag. hist. Graec. 
ii. p. 336, The Didyraacura is the temple of Zeus and Apollo 
at Didyma near Miletus. 

99 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rov Iv TeXfxrjaaa) ^ ^cofjiov rod 'AttoAAcuvo?' juLvrjiJia 
elvai Kal rovrov TeA/XT^CTcrou ^ tov {jidvreaj? laropov- 
aiv. YVroXejiatos 8e o rod ^ Ayrjadpxov iv toj a 
rCiV TTepl TOV OtAoTraropa ev Wd(f>cp Xeyei iv toj 
TTJs ^ A(f>poSiTr]g tepo) Kuvvpav tc Kal tovs J^Lvvpov 
OLTToyovovg KeKiqSevGOai. dXXd yap emovTi /jlol tot)? 

7TpOGKVVOVpL€VOVS V/JlIv Ta^OVS 

eixol [xev ouS' o ird? dv apKeaat "^ ')(p6vos' 

Vjxds Se el fir) VTreiaepx^Tai rt? alaxvvr] row 
ToXpLOjpLevajv, veKpol dpa TeXeov oi'Te? vcKpolg 
[oVrco?] * TreTTLcrrevKOTes Trepiepx^aBe- 

d heiXoiy Tt KaKov rohe Trdax^re; vvktl fiev 

VpidJV 



GtAuarat Ke^aXal. 



IV 



Et S' eVt 77/30? TOVTOis (f>€pa}v vpuv TO. ayciA- 
jLiara aura €7TLGKOTTeZv Trapadeiiqv, imoPTe? d)£ dXr]- 
Bch'S Xrjpov €vprj(j6T€ TTjv awqdcLav, " epya x^^pdiv 
dvdpcoTTOJv" dvaiaOrjTa rrpoaTpeTrofievoi.^ rrd.Xai fxev 
ovv ol HiKvOaL TOV dKivdKTjv, ol "Apa^es top Xldov, 
ot Ylepaat tov TTOTajxov TrpocreKVvovv, Kal rdjv 

^ Te\fn]a(T<2 Stahlin from Arnobius, and one ms. of 
Ensebius. T€XfxL(Ta<2 mss. 

^ TeXfXTjcraod Stahlin. TeX/xiffcrov mss. 

^ apK^aai from Eusebius. apKia-Q mss. 

* [6vTUis.] Heyse. 

^ TrpoaTpeirbfxevoL Potter. TrpoTpeTrij/J.€voi. MSS. 

'^ Ptolemaeus of Megalopolis, Frag. 1 Fr-aff. hist. Gh'aec. 
iii. p. 66. 
100 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

at Telmessus, which is reported to be a monument chap. 
to the prophet Tehnessus. Ptolemaeus the son of "^ 
Agesarchus in the first volume of his work About 
Philopator says that in the temple of Aphrodite at 
Paphos both Cinyras and his descendants lie buried.* 
But really, if I were to go through all the tombs 
held sacred in your eyes. 

The whole of time would not suffice my need.* 

As for you, unless a touch of shame steals over you 
for these audacities, then you are going about utterly 
dead, like the dead in whom you have put your 
trust. 

Oh ! most wretched of men, what evil is this that ye suffer? 
Darkness hath shrouded your heads.*' 



IV 

If, in addition to this, I bring the statues them- The images 
selves and place them by your side for inspection, °^ ^^® ^^'^^ 
you will find on going through them that custom ^ is 
truly nonsense, when it leads you to adore senseless 
things, "the works of men's hands." ^ In ancient 
times, then, the Scythians used to worship the dagger, images were 
the Arabians their sacred stone,-^ the Persians their ^oodTnd* 
river. Other peoples still more ancient erected stone 

* This verse is not found in Nauck's collection of Tragic 
Fragments. The sense may be compared with that of St. 
John xxi. 25. 

<' Homer, Odyssey xx. 351-352. 

^ Custom, i.e. inherited traditions about the gods and 
their worship, was pleaded by adherents of the old religions 
as a defence against Christian attack ; see p. 197. 

« Psalm cxv. 4. 

^ i.e. the Kaaba at Mecca. 

101 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. aAAcov avdpojTTOJV ol en iraXaiorepoi ^vXa ISpvov- 
TO 7T€pi<^avrj Kal Ktova? Igtojv ck XlOcjov d Srj 
/cat ^oava Trpoar]yop€V€ro Slol to OLTre^eadaL rrj? 
vXrj?. djjLeXeL iv "iKapcp rfj? 'ApTe/xtSo? to dyaXfia 
^vXov rjv ovK elpyaGjievov, /cat tt^s" Kt^atpajvtas" 
"Wpas ev QeaTTela Trpefivov eKKeKOfipLevov /cat ro 
rrjs HafjLcas "Hpag, w? (/yrjaiv 'Ae^Atos", TTporepov 
[i€V rjV (ravis, varepov 8e inl UpoKXeovs dpxovros 

41 P. dvSptavToetSes" iyevero. eirel he dvOpcorroLs | dir- 
eLKOvL^eadai rd foava rjp^aTO, ^perr] rr]V e/c 
^ por ojv eTTCxJVvyiiav eKapirojaaTO . iv 'Pco/xTy Se to 
TTaXaiov Sopv (f)r)Gi yeyovevai rod "Apecog to 
^oavov Ovdppojv 6 Gvyypacf)€vs, ovSeTrco rojv rexvi- 
ra)v €ttI rrjv evTrpoaajTTOV ravrrjv KaKorex^iav 
(LpfJirjKOTajv. eVetS-)^ Se -qvOrjoev rj rexyrj, r]v^rjG€V 
7) TrXavrj. 

'Q,? p,kv ovv Tovs XlOovs Kal rd ^vXa /cat avveXovri 
(f)dvaL TTjv vXyjV dydXjxara dvhpeiKeXa iiroiiqaavTOy 
ols e7n}iop(jidt,eT6 evae^etav avKo^avrovvres r-qv 
dXrideiav, yjSr] fiev avrodev SrjXov ov pirjv dXXd 
/cat aTToSet^eo)? Troarj? eTrtSeo/xeVou tou tottov ov 
TTapacT-qreov . rov fxev ovv 'OAu/XTTtao-t Aia /cat 
T'Y]v ^AO-^vrjGL IloAtaSa e/c ;\;puCTOu /cat iXe(f)avTos 
KaraGKevdaai OetStW Travri ttov Ga(f)6?' to 8e iv 
ILdpiCp TTJs "Upas ^oavov 2/xtAt8t ro) ^ Eu/cAetSou 

7r€'7TOL7]G6aL ^OXvfJLTTLXO? iv HafJLiaKols LGTOpel. jJLT] 

ovv dpi^ipdXXere , el tojv HepLvcov ^Ad-^vrjGi KoXovpii- 

^ Sui'XiSi r(p Cobet. Q-^utXT? tt; biss. - 

" Aethlius of Samos, Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 287. 
^ Varro, Ant. rev. div. xvi. Fr. 3-t Agahd {Jahrb. class. 

Phil, 1898, Suppl. Bd. p. 210), and cp. S. Augustine, Civ. 

Dei iv. 31. 

" Olympichus, Fr. 1 Frac/. hist. Graec. iv. p. 466. 

102 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

conspicuous wooden poles and set up pillars of chap. 
stones, to which they gave the name xoana, meaning ^^ 
scraped objects, because the rough surface of the 
material had been scraped off. Certainly the statue 
of Artemis in Icarus was a piece of unwrought timber, 
and that of Cithaeronian Hera in Thespiae was a 
felled tree-trunk. The statue of Samian Hera, as 
Aethlius says, was at first a wooden beam, but after- 
wards, when Procles was ruler, it was made into 
human form.* When these rude images began to be Aftenyards 
shaped to the likeness of men, they acquired the human"form 
additional name hrete, from brotoi meaning mortals. 
In Rome, of old time, according to Varro the prose- 
writer, the object that represented Ares was a spear,^ 
since craftsmen had not yet entered upon the fair- 
seeming but mischievous art of sculpture. But the 
moment art flourished, error increased. 

It is now, therefore, self-evident that out of stones Proof by 
and blocks of wood, and, in one word, out of matter, thataii^' 
men fashioned statues resembling the human form, ^"^'1^^^^.°^^,^^ 
to which you offer a semblance of piety, calumniating work of men 
the truth. Still, since the point calls for a certain 
amount of argument, we must not decline to furnish 
it. Now everyone, I suppose, will admit that the 
statues of Zeus at Olympia and Athena Polias at 
Athens were wrought of gold and ivory by Pheidias ; 
and Olympichus in his Samian History relates that 
the image of Hera in Samos was made by Smilis the 
son of Eucleides.'' Do not doubt, then, that of the 
goddesses at Athens called " venerable " ^ two were 

<* These are the same as the Erinyes, goddesses of 
vengeance, mentioned on p. 53. They were called 
Eumenides, the kindly ones, and at Athens Semnai, the 
venerable ones, these titles being euphemistic substitutes 
for their real and dreaded name. 

103 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. vojp Oecov ras" /xev hvo S/coTra? iTTOirjaev Ik tov KaXov- 
^ fjueuov Xvxveojs XlOov, KaAco? Se Tr)V fjLearjv avratv 
LGTopovura e^oj gol^ UoXeficuva ScLKVvvaL iv rfj 
rerdprr] rcov TTpos Tt/>tatov [i7]h* el^ra iv liardpoLs 
TTJs AvKias dyaA/xara Atos K-oX 'AttoAAcovo? OetSta? 
rraXiv eKeZvos^ [rd dydA/xara]* Kaddrrep tovs Xeov- 
ras rovs avv avrols dvaK€L[ievov9 e'lpyaGTar el Si, 
COS" (f>a(7L TLveSy Bpvd^LOS 7)^ rix^'T], ov Sca^epo/xat* 
exit's KOL TovTov dyaXfjiaTovpyov orrorepov avrolv 
^ovXet iiriypai^e. /cat pi-qv TeXeoiov rod ^ABiqvaiov, 
w? (f)7](Ji, ^iXoxopos, 'ipyov elolv dydA/xara ivvea- 
TTijxV HoCTetScup'os" Kal 'A/x^tr/DtTT^? iv Trjvo) vpoa- 
Kvvovpieva. ArjfjLrjrpLOs yap iv hevripco tojv 'Ap- 
yoXiKcov TOV iv Tlpwdi rrjs "Upas ^odvov Kal rrjv 
vXrjV 6yxvy]v /cat tov TTOLrjTrjv "Apyov dvaypdcfyei. 
TToAAot 8' dv Tdxa ttov davfjLdaeLav, et piddoiev to 
42 P. IlaAAdStOV TO Si07T€T€S KaXovpLCVov, \ o ALOfi-qSrjs 
Kal ^OSvaaevs laTopovvTat piiv v<j}eXiGdai airo 
'lAtou, TrapaKaTadiaO ai he Ar]iJ,o(f)a)VTL, iK tcov 
UeXoTTOs ogtcov KaTeoKevdodai, Kaddrrep tov 
*0Xvfji7TLov i^ dXXojv ooTcbv ^IvSiKov drjpiov . /cat 
h-q TOV loTopovvTa Alovvglov iv to) TrepLTTTCp jJiepeL 
TOV Ky/cAou TTapiGTiqpLi. 'AvreAAas" Se iv rot? 

^ TT]v jxiarjv . . <tol Jahn. i)v fj.^ay}v avTaif iaTopovvrai 
^XovaaL Mss. 

■■^ firjS' el Miinzel. /X7?5^ mss. 

^ iKeluos Wilaraowitz. eKe7va mss. 

^ [to, ay dXfJiaT a] Stahlin. [ird\LV . . dydXfxaTa] Heyse, 

^ i] Wilamowitz. ijv jiss. 

" Lychneus is mentioned by Athenaeus (205 f) as a 
stone from which images were made. It is probably the 
same as lychnites, which according to Pliny {Nat. Hist. 
xxxvi. 14) was a name given to Parian marble, because it 
104 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

made by Scopas out ef the stone called lychneus,^ chap. 
and the middle one by Calos ; I can point out to you ^^ 
the account given by Polemon in the fourth volume 
of his work Against TimaeusP Neither doubt that 
the statues of Zeus and Apollo in Lycian Patara 
were also wrought by the great Pheidias, just as 
were the lions that are dedicated along with them. 
But if, as some say, the art is that of Bryaxis, I do 
not contradict. He also is one of your sculptors ; 
put down which of the two you like. Further, 
the nine-cubit statues of Poseidon and Amphitrite 
worshipped in Tenos are the work of the Athenian 
Telesius, as Philochorus tells us.'' Demetrius in his 
second book of Argolic History, speaking of the image 
of Hera in Tiryns, records its material, pear-tree 
wood, as well as its maker, Argus. ^ Many would 
perhaps be astonished to learn that the image of Pallas 
called "heaven-sent" (because it fell from heaven),* 
which Diomedes and Odysseus are related to have 
stolen away from Troy, and to have entrusted to the 
keeping of Demophon, is made out of the bones of 
Pelops, just as the Olympian Zeus is also made out of 
bones, — those of an Indian beast./ I give you, too, 
my authority for this, namely Dionysius, who relates 
the story in the fifth section of his Cycle.^ Apellas 

was quarried in underground pits by lamplight (lychnos = 
lamp). 

* Polemon, Fr. 41 Fraq. hist. Graec. ill. p. 127. 

« Philochorus, Fr. ISS'Fra//. hist. Graec. i. pp. 414-15. 

^ Demetrius of Troezen, Fr. 5 Diels CFrag. hist. Graec, 
iv. p. 383). 

« Compare this with the image of Artemis at Ephesus, 
mentioned in Acts xix. 35, which is also called diopetes, or 
" fallen from heaven " (R.V. margin). 

^ i.e. the tusks of an elephant. 

' Dionysius, Fr. 5 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. pp. 9-10. 

105 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. AeA^t/cot? Svo (juTjol yeyovevai to. IlaAAaSta, a/x<^60 
8' vn dvOpwTTCov SeSrjfJLLovpyrjoOat. aAA' oTTcog 
fi-qSelg VTToXdjSr] kol ravrd /xe dyvoia Trapet/ceVat/ 
TTapadiqaoixai rod M.opvxov ^lovvaov to dyaXfia 
^Ad-qprjaL yeyovevai fiev eK rov ^eXXdra KaXovfievov 
XiOoVy epyov he etvai ^lkojvos tov Eu7raAa/xou, cus" 
<f)rjGL UoXefjicov ev rivi eTnaroXrj. eyeveaOrjv^ he Kal 
dXXco rive hvco Kp-qriKaj otfiaL dvSpLavTOTTOidj 
{HkvXXls ^ Kal Alttolvos d)VOfiat,ea9rjv) • tovtco he 
rd ev "Apyet roZv AiOGKOvpotv dydXfxara Kar- 
eaKevaadrrjV /cat rov ev TlpwOc 'UpaKXeovs dv- 
hpidvra Kal ro rrjs MovvvxtCL? ^ KprepLihos $6avov 

iv ^LKvdjVL. 

Kat ri nepl ravra htarpt^oj, e^ov avrov rov 
IxeyaXohaipLOva vpuv emhel^ai dans rfv, ov hrj 
fcar' e^o)(r]v Trpds Trdvrojv aeBaapiov Karr^^Lojpievov 
aKOvofiev, rovrov <ov> * dx&LpoTToirirov etVetv re- 
ToXixr^KaoLV, rov AlyvTmov Tidpamv ; ol fiev yap 
avrov laropovaiv x^pLGrrjpiov vtto HivajTreajv IIto- 
Xefiaca) rat ^LXaheXcftcp rco AlyvTrrtcov Trefi(f)9rjvaL 
^aaiXei, os At/x,a> rpvxojJLevovs avrovs drr* AlyvTrrov 
fxerarrepiijjapievov?^ olrov [o liroXefxalo?] ^ dveKrrj- 
oaro, etvai he ro ^oavov rovro dyaXfxa YlXovrcuvo?' 
o 8e "^ he^dfievog rov dvhpidvra Kadihpvcrev enl rrjg 



* irapeiKivai Sylburg. irap-qKivai mss. 
^ eyeyecrdriv Sylburg. yeviaOrjv mss. 

2 S«:t;XXts Sylburg (from Pausanias ii. 15. 1, etc.). ^ki/Xijj 
siss. 

^ <6j'> inserted by Markland. 

^ fxeTairefxxl/afjLci'ovs Sylburg. fjL£TaTre/j.\l/af.i.eyos MSS. 

^ [6 UToXetialos] Arcerius. 

^ 6 5k Heyse. 6s mss. 

106 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

in his Delphic History says that there are two such chap. 
images of Pallas, and that both are of human work- ^^ 
manship.* I will also mention the statue of Mory- 
chian Dionysus at Athens, — in order that no one 
may suppose me to have omitted these facts through 
ignorance, — that it is made out of the stone called 
phellatas,^ and is the work of Sicon the son of 
Eupalamus, as Polemon says in a certain letter.*' 
There were also two other sculptors, Cretans I believe, 
whose names were Scyllis and Dipoenus. This pair 
made the statues of the Twin Brothers at Argos, 
the figure of Heracles at Tiryns and the image of 
Munychian Artemis at Sicyon.^ 

But why do I linger over these, when I can show Even the 
you the origin of the arch-daemon himself, the one laSpis 
who, we are told, is pre-eminently worthy of venera- is man's 
tion by all men, whom they have dared to say is ^""^ 
made without hands, the Egyptian Sarapis ?^ Some Three 
relate that he was sent by the people of Sinope as it^s^odgin* 
a thank-offering to Ptolemy Philadelphus king of 
Egypt,/ who had earned their gratitude at a time 
when they were worn out with hunger and had sent 
for corn from Egypt ; and that this image was a 
statue of Pluto. On receiving the figure, the king 

« Apellas, Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 307. 

* I'he scholiast describes this as a rough stone quarried 
from Phelleus, a rocky district of Attica ; cp. Aristoph. 
Clouds 71. 

" Polemon, Fr. 73 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 136. 

•* For Scyllis and Dipoenus see Pausanias ii, 22. 5, etc. 

' An account of Sarapis-worship, showing its wide dif- 
fusion at this time, will be found in Dill, Roman Society 
from Nero, etc. pp. 560-584. 

^ A different version of this story is to be found in 
Plutarch, Isis and Osiris ch. xxviii. 

E 107 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. aKpas, rjv vvv 'VaKcbriv KaXovav, ev9a koX to 
lepov reriyL-qTai rod Hapdirihos, yeirvia he tols 
roTTOis -^ TO x^p'^ov. ^XiGTLxrjv ^ 8e ttjv TraXXaKcSa 
reXevrtjaauav iv Viavco^co ^erayayojv 6 rTToAe/xato? 
kdaifjev VTTO Tov TrpoSeSrjXoJiJLevov orjKov. aAAot Se 
(^aot IlovriKov elvat Operas rov HdpaTnv, fjieTrJxOaL 
Se €L? ^AXe^di^Speiav fxerd niJLrjs TravrjyvpiKrjs. 
*IatSajpos" [xovos Trapd HeXevKeojv rcbv rrpos 'AvTto- 
;^eta ^ to ayaXfxa fieTaxdrj^on Xeyei, iv atToSeta 
Koi avTOJV yevofxevcov /cat vtto UroXefialov Scarpa- 
43 P. (f>€VTCov. aAA' o ye ^AdrjvoSojpos \ 6 tov HdvSojvo? 
dpxcitl,eLV TOV Hdpamv ^ovX-qOels ovk otS' ottcos'^ 
TTepieTreaev , eXey^as avrov ayaXpia elvat yevrjTov 
Yieaojorpiv (f)7]aL tov AlyvTrriov ^aoiXea, to, TrXeioTa 
Twv Trap* "EAAi^at TTapaaTrjadfievov eOvcov, enaveX- 
oovTa ets" AtyyTTTOV enay ay eoB at Texvira? iKavovg' 
TOV ovv ' Oaipiv TOV TTpoirdTopa tov avTOV Sat- 
SaXdrjvaL eKeXevaev avTo?^ TToXyTeXaJg, KaTaaKevd^eu 
Se auTov Bpva^ig 6 h-qpnovpyo?, ovx 6 ^AdviValog, 
dXXos Se TLS OfJLCovvjJLOS eKeivcp Ta> Bpvd^iSi' o^ 
vXrj KaTaKexprjTai el? Sr] ficovpy lav puKTrj Kal 
ttolklXtj. pLvr]ijLa yap xp^f^ov rjv avTcp Kal dpyvpov 
XO-Xkov Te Kal oihr^pov Kal fioXl^Sov, npog Se Kal 
KaoGLTepov, Xidojv Se AlyviTTLOJV eveSeu ovSe eh, 
oa7T(j>eipov Kal alfxaTLTOv BpavapiaTa ofxapdySov Te, 
aAAa /cat TOTra^cov. Xedvas ovv Ta rrdvra Kal 
dvafXL^ag expct)(7€ Kvdvco, ov Srj X^P'-^ pueXdvTepov 

^ rdcpoii Mayor. (The map of ancient Alexandria shows 
the Serapeum to be adjacent to Necropolis.) But T67roj = 
Td0os in Euripides, Heradeidae lO-il. 

^ BXt(7r/x^f Dindorf. ^Xlanxi-v mss. 

^ 'AvTioxdq. Cobet. avTi.6xeiav aiss. 

* 6Tip Schwartz : Stahlin. 
108 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

set it up upon the promontory which they now call chap. 
Rhacotis,, where stands the honoured temple of ^^ 
Sarapis ; and the spot is close to the burial-places. 
And they say that Ptolemy had his mistress Blistiche, 
who had died in Canobus, brought here and buried 
under the before mentioned shrine. Others say that 
Sarapis was an image from Pontus, and that it was 
conveyed to Alexandria with the honour of a solemn 
festival. Isidorus alone states that the statue was 
brought from the people of Seleucia near to Antioch, 
when they too had been suffering from dearth of 
corn and had been sustained by Ptolemy. But 
Athenodorus "' the son of Sandon^ while intending 
to establish the antiquity of Sarapis_, stumbled in 
some unaccountable way, for he has proved him to 
be a statue made by man. He says that Sesostris 
the Egyptian king, having subdued most of the 
nations of Greece, brought back on his return to 
Egypt a number of skilful craftsmen. He gave 
personal orders, therefore, that a statue of Osiris his 
own ancestor should be elaborately wrought at great 
expense ; and the statue was made by the artist 
Bryaxis, — not the famous Athenian, but another of 
the same name, — who has used a mixture of various 
materials in its construction. He had filings of gold, 
silver, bronze, iron, lead, and even tin ; and not a single 
Egyptian stone was lacking, there being pieces of 
sapphire, hematite, emerald, and topaz also. Having 
reduced them all to powder and mixed them, he 
stained the mixture dark blue (on account of which 
the colour of the statue is nearly black), and, mingling 

" Athenodorus, Fr. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. ill. pp. 4.87-88. 

^ airoh Wilamowitz : Stahlin. 

109 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TO ^^poifxa rod dyaA/xaro?, /cat r(x> Ik rrjs 'OatpiSos 
/cat rod " Kttlos K-qSelas VTroXeXeLfifxevo) (/japfiOLKCO 
(/)vpdaas ra iravra SteVAacrey tov ILdpaTTiv ov /cat 
rovvojjua alvirreTai r-qv KOLVcoviav rrj? KrjSelas /cat 
rrjv e/c rrjs Ta<^rjs hrjpnovpyiaVy avvderov oltto re 
*OaipLSos /cat "A77tos- yevopievov ^Ooipains. 

Katvov 8e d'AAoi^ ev AlyvTrrcp, oXlyov Selv /cat 
Trap' "EAAT7CTt, ae^aapLLaJS reBeiaKev deov 6 jSacrtAeu? 
o ^Vojpiaiojv TOV ipwpLevov wpaiorarov^ o^ohpa yevo- 
pi€vov' 'AvTtVoov [6V] ^ dvLepcoaev ovtojs to? Vavv- 
pbrjSrjv 6 Zeus" ov yap KcoXveTat paSlajs eVt^u/xta 
(f)6^oi> ovK exovaa' /cat vvKra? Upd? rds ^Avtlvoov 
TTpoGKVVovGiv dvdpojTTOi vvv, d? aloxpoi? rjTTLararo 
6 ovvaypvTTVTqaa? ipaaTrjs. ri /xot Oeov /caraAeyet? 
TOV TTopveia TeTipirjpLevov; rt Se /cat ct»S" ftoy 
Opr^veloOaL TvpoaeTa^a?; rt 8e /cat rd /cdAAos" 
adroO Strjy^; alaxpov eoTL to koXXo? v^peu 
pLepLapapLpLevov. pcrj Tvpaw^ar]?, dvOpojTre, tov /cdA- 
Xovs pL-qhe ivv^pioTj? dvdovvTi tco veto' TrjpriCTOV 
avTo KaOapov, Iva fj KaXov. ^aoiXevs tov KaXXovs 
yevov, pLTj Tvpavvos' eXevOepov^ pceivaTOj' t6t€ gov 
yvcopiao) to /cdAAo?, dVe* KaOapdv TeTy]pr]Kas ttjv 
ecKova' t6t€ TrpoaKwrjaco to /cdAAo?, oVe^ dAv^^tvdv 

44 P. dpX^TVTTOV ioTi | TcijV KaXciJV. tJSt] Se Td(f)OS ioTLTOV 

ipcopievov, v€(x)s ioTLV ^AvTLVoov /cat TrdAt?- KaOdnep 
^ (hpaLorarov from Eusebius, Praep. Ev. ii. 6. upalov tCjv 

JISS. 

^ [6v] Eusebius. 

^ iXevOepov Wilaraowitz. ^Xevdepos mss. 
* 8t€ Wilamowitz. 6ti aiss. 

^ ore Stiihlin. to mss. 6 before apx^rvirov in M ; above 
the line in P. 



110 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

the whole with the pigment left over from the funeral chap. 
rites of Osiris and Apis/ he moulded Sarapis ; whose ^^ 
very name implies this connexion with the funeral 
rites^ and the construction out of material for burial, 
Osirapis being a compound formed from Osiris and 
Apis. 

Another fresh divinity was created in Egypt, — Another 
and very nearly among Greeks too, — when the god"mlking: 
Roman king ^ solemnly elevated to the rank of god Hadrian 
his favourite whose beauty was unequalled. He Antiiuaus 
consecrated Antinous in the same way that Zeus 
consecrated Ganymedes. For lust is not easily re- 
strained, when it has no fear ; and to-day men 
observe the sacred nights of Antinous, which were 
really shameful, as the lover who kept them with 
him well knew. Why, I ask, do you reckon as a 
god one who is honoured by fornication ? Why did 
you order that he should be mourned for as a son ? 
Why, too, do you tell the story of his beauty ? 
Beauty is a shameful thing when it has been blighted 
by outrage. Be not a tyrant, O man, over beauty, 
neither outrage him who is in the flower of his youth. 
Guard it in purity, that it may remain beautiful. Be- 
come a king over beauty, not a tyrant. Let it remain 
free. When you have kept its image pure, then I 
will acknowledge your beauty. Then I will worship 
beauty, when it is the true archetype of things The tomb of 
beautiful. But now we have a tomb of the boy who has^'be*come 
was loved, a temple and a city of Antinous ; and it a temple 

" For the burial of the Apis bull see p. 84, n. a, and 
A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. pp. 434-5. 

* i.e. Hadrian. When Antinous was drowned in the 
Nile, Hadrian gave way to extraordinary grief. He ordered 
him to be enrolled among the gods, and built AntinoopoHs 
in his memory. See Pausanias viii. 9. 7-8. 

Ill 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

C^- Se, otfiai, OL vaoL, ovrco Se Kal ol rct^ot Oav/jLa^ovTaL, 
TTvpafiiSe? Kal fxavacoXeia Kal Xa^vpivdoi, aXXoi 
vaol Tojv veKpcJov, dis eVetvot rdcfjoL rcov 9ed)V. 
OLodaKaXov Se Vfjilv TrapaO-qaoiJiaL r-qv 7Tpocf)rJTLV 
m^vXXav 

ov ipevSov? ^oif^ov xP'^^l^'^yopoVy 6v re fjidraiOL 
avupcDTTOi Oeov eiTTOv, eTreifjevcravTO Se fxdvTLV, 
aAAa Oeov fjbeydXoLo, top ov X^P^^ eirXaaav dvSpdjv 
etScoXois dXdXoiui XiOo^eGroiaiv opioiov. 

avriq fievroL epeiTTia rovs veojs Trpoaayopevei, rov 
l^ev TTjs ^E(f)eaLa? 'Apre/xtSo? " ;\;aa/>taCTt Kal aei- 
(jfMoX? KaTaTToOrjaeadat Trpojjirjvvovaa ovtojs, 

UTTTia o olpicp^ei "K(f)eaos KXaiovaa Trap* oxOaus 
Kai vr]6u ^rjTOvaa rov ovKerc vaierdovra' 

rov Se "lo-tSo? Kal HapdTTuSog ev Alyvirrco Kar- 
evexOrjoeadai ^iqaL Kal epLTTprjadTJcrecrdaL' 

'^loL, ded rpirdXaiva, /xeWt? errl ;!^eu/>taCTt ^ Net'Aou 
fLovvT], fiaivas dvavSos eVt ipafjidOoLs ^Axepovro?, 

etra viro^dua' 

Kai aVy Yidpam XiOovs dpyovg imKeiiieve rroXXovg, 
Kelaai Trrajpia fieyiorov ev AlyvTrro) rpuraXalvr^. 

ov Se dXX el jjLtj 7Tpo(f)r]riSos erraKovei?, rod ye gov 
aKovaov ^iXoao^ov, rov ^YA(j>eoLOv 'Hpa/cAetrou, 
rr]v dvaiadrjalav oVetSt^ovro? rot? dydXfiaaf " Kal 
roi? dydXfjiaGt rovreoiaiv evxovrai, okolov et ris 

^ Xev/xaa-i Sibylline Oracles. x^^'I^^^to- Stahlin : Jiss. 
112 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

seems to me that tombs are objects of reverence in chap. 
just the same way as temples are ; in fact;, pyramids^ ^ 
mausoleums and labyrinths are as it were temples 
of dead men, just as temples are tombs of the gods. 
As your instructor I will quote the prophetic Sibyl, 

Whose words divine come not from Phoebus' lips, 
That prophet false, by foolish men called god. 
But from great God, whom no man's hands have made. 
Like speechless idols framed from polished stone." 

She, however, calls the temples ruins. That of The Sibyi 
Ephesian Artemis she predicts will be swallowed up f^fn of'' "'* 
by "yawning gulfs and earthquakes," thus: temples 

Prostrate shall Ephesus groan, when, deep in tears. 
She seeks along her banks a vanished shrine.* 

That of Isis and Sarapis in Egypt she says will be 
overthrown and burnt up : 

Thrice wretched Isis, by Nile's streams thou stayst 
Lone, dumb with frenzy on dark Acheron's sands." 

Then lower down : 

And thou, Sarapis, piled with useless stones, 
In wretched Egypt liest, a ruin great. '^ 

If, however, you refuse to listen to the prophetess, Heracieitns 
hear at least your own philosopher, Heracleitus of q^JSVo? 
Ephesus, when he taunts the statues for their want praying to 
of feeling: "and they pray to these statues just as 

« Sibylline Oracles iv. 4-7. 
* Sib. Or. V. 295-296. 
» Sib. Or. V. 483^84. 
^ Sib. Or. V. 486-487. 

113 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. <TOiS >^ SojJLOL? XeaxrjvevoiTO." rf yap ovxi reparoj' 
Set? ol XiOovs TTpoarpeTTOiJievoL,^ etra [levTOi /cat TTpo 
Tcbv TTvXcbv LOTCivres avTOVS CO? ivepyels, '^pp^rjv 
7TpoGKVvovvT€s ^ COS O^ov Kal TOP 'Ayutea dvpcopov 
loravTes; et yap co? avaiudriTOVS v^pll,ovoLV, ri 
TrpooKVVovoiv (jjs deovs; el he aladrioews avrovs 
fierexeu' otovrat, rt rovrov? lardai dvpojpovs; 
'Pco/xatot be ra pbeyiora KaTopdwjJiaTa rfj Tv^T? 
dvandevTes /cat TavTr]v fxeyicrTy-jV olofxevoi deov, 

45 P. (/)€povres els rov Ko\TTpa)va avedr^Kav avr-qv, a^iov 
veojv rov d(f>eSpa)va velfxavres ttj 6ea>. 

'AAAa yap dvaLodiqrcp XlOo) /cat ^vXo) Kal XP^^^V 
TrXovalo) ovS^ otlovp /xeAet, ov KVLorjS, ovx atjuaro?, 
Ol) Kanvov, a> Sr] rt/xco/xei^ot /cat TU(/>o/xei^ot e/c/xe- 
XaivovraL' aAA* ovSe TifjLrjs, ovx ^^P^^?' '^^ ^^ '^^^ 
Ttavros euTLV dnpiorepa ^(x)OV, rd dydXfiara. /cat 
OTTOJS ye redelaaraL rd dvaiodiqra, dnopeZv eTreiai 
jxoi /cat KareXeeZv rovs TrXavajpievovs rrjs dvoias 
cos BeiXalovs' el ydp Kal riva rcov t,a>(x>v ovx} 
vdaas exec rds aladrjaeis, wanep evXal Kal KdixTrai 
Kal oaa Sta rrjs TTpcorrjs yeveaeojs evdvs dva-n-qpa 
(jiaiveraL, KaOdirep ol ondXaKes Kal rj pLvyaXrj, 'qv 
^T^CTtv o Nt/cavSpo? " TV(f)XrjV re a/Jiephvrjv re'- 
dXXd ye dfJLelvovs elal rajv ^odvojv tovtcov Kal rcov 

* <To2sy inserted from Origen, Con. Celsum i. 5, vii. 62. 
2 TrpocrTp€Tr6/.L€voL Heyse. TrpoTpewoinei'oi >iss. 
^ irpo(XKvvovvTes Stiililin. TrpoaKvvovffiv mss. 

« Heracleitus, Fr. 126 By water, 5 Diels. 

^ Fortuna was originally an earth deity, a goddess of 
fertility, and only later became a personification of chance 
or luck. Mr. A. B. Cook {Zeus, i. 271-2) cites this passage 
as tending to establish her connexion with the earth. 

114 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

if one were to chatter to his house." " Are they chap. 
not amazing, these men who make supplication to ^^ 
stones, and yet set them up before their gates as if 
ahve and active, worshipping the image of Hermes 
as a god, and setting up the "god of the Ways" as 
door-keeper ? For if they treat them with contumely 
as being without feeling, why do they worship them as 
gods? But if they believe them to partake of feeling, 
why do they set them up as door-keepers ? The 
Romans, although they ascribe their greatest successes 
to Fortuna, and believe her to be the greatest 
deity, carry her statue to the privy and erect it 
there, thus assigning to her a fit temple.^ 

But indeed the senseless wood and stone and The statues 
precious gold pay not the smallest regard to the wTthout^ 
steam, the blood, and the smoke. They are blackened sense or 
by the cloud of smoke which is meant to honour 
them, but they heed neither the honour nor the 
insult. There is not a single living creature that is 
not more worthy of honour than these statues ; and 
how it comes to pass that senseless things have been 
deified I am at a loss to know, and I deeply pity for 
their lack of understanding the men who are thus 
miserably wandering in error. For even though 
there are some living creatures which do not possess 
all the senses, as worms and caterpillars, and all those 
that appear to be imperfect from the first through 
the conditions of their birth, such as moles and Even worms 
the field-mouse, which Nicander calls "blind and J;°Jj"o°Jf 
terrible" ''; yet these are better than those images and sense 

° Nicander calls the field-mouse " terrible " in reference 
to its plague-bearing powers. The complete line {Theriaca 
815) is TV(f)\T]v T€ a/Liepdv-Tju re ^porois iirl Xoiybv &yovaav 
lnvyaXirjv. 

e2 115 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP ayaX^drojv reXeou optoju Koxfyajv exovGLV yap 
aladiqoiv fiiav ye rtva, (f>epe eiTrelv aKovaTiKrjv rj 
aTTTLKTjv 7] Trjv OLvaXoyovdav rfj oac/jprjorei 7) rfj 
yevaei- ra 8e ouSe pads alad-qaeaj? pccrex^i^, to. 
aydXp^ara. ttoXXol he ean tojv l,a)(jjv, oaa ovre ^ 
opaaiv ex^L ovre oLKorjv ovSe ^ pirjv (f)ajv'7jv, oloi^ Kal 
TO TCi)v oarpecov yevo?, dXXd Ifj ye Kal av^erai, 
TTpos Se Kal rfj oeXrjvr} avpLTrdax^i'' rd he dydXpiara 
apya, dirpaKTa, dvaloOrjra, Trpoahelrai Kal irpoa- 
KaOrjXovTai Kal TTpoGTnfjyvvT at, ;)^coveueTat, pivdraL, 
TTpierai, TTepL^eerai, yXvcjierai. KOj^-qv pLev br] 
yalav deLKit^ovaiv ol dyaXp.aroTTOioi, rrjg otVeta? 
egLGTaures (f)V(jea)s, vtto rrjs rexvrjs TrpouKwelv 
dvaTTeidovres' TrpoaKwovcnv Se ol deorroLol ov 
deovs Kal SalpLovag Kard ye atad-qaLV rr]V epLrjV, yrjv 
oe Kai rex^r^v, rd dydXpiara drrep eoTiV. ecmv yap 
CO? dXrjOoj? TO dyaXpia vXr) veKpd TexvLTOV xeipt 
p.ep.op(j)a>p.€ur]- rjpiLP Se ovx vXrjg aiodrjTrj? alaOriTov, 
voTjTov Se TO dyaXpid euTiv. vorjrov, ovk aladriTov 
ean [to dyaXpia] ^ 6 Oeos, 6 puovo? oVtoj? 6e6s. 

Kat 07] ep^TTaXiV ev avTaXg ttov rats" rrepiaTdaeGiv 
ol heLOihaip.ove'S, ol tcov XlOojv rrpooKwriTaiy epycp 

46 p. ixadovres dvaiadrjrov \ vXrjv pLrj ae^ecv, avTrjs rjTTCO' 
p,evoL TTJ? ;)^peta? dTroXXvvTai vtto heioihaipioviag' 
KaTa^povovvres S' o/xoj? Tchv dyaXpidTOJV, (f)aiveo9ai 
he p,r] ^ovXopLevoi avTwv oAco? * 7Tepi^povovvTes» 
^XeyxovTai v-n avTchv tcov Oewv, ols hrj rd 
ayaA/xara eTTLTrecjjiqpiiGTai. Atovucrtos" p,ev yap 6 
^ ovre Mayor. ov8i mss. 2 ^^^^ Mayor, oijre mss. 

^ [to &ya\fj.a] Wilamowitz. '* 6\us Sylburg. 6\ujv mss. 

" Cicero {De divlnatione ii. 33) says of oysters and shell- 
fish that they " grow bigger and smaller with the moon." 
116 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

statues which are enth'ely dumb. For they have at chap. 
any rate some one sense, that of hearing, let us say, ^^ 
or of touch, or something corresponding to smell or 
taste ; but these statues do not even partake of one 
sense. There are also many kinds of living creatures, 
such as the oyster family, which possess neither sight 
nor hearing nor yet speech ; nevertheless they live 
and grow and are even affected by the moon." But 
the statues are motionless things incapable of action But statuea 
or sensation ; they are bound and nailed and fastened, ^t 111"^°°^ 
melted, filed, sawn, polished, carved. The dumb 
earth is dishonoured ^ when sculptors pervert its 
peculiar nature and by their art entice men to wor- 
ship it ; while the god-makers, if there is any sense 
in me, worship not gods and daemons, but earth and 
art, which is all the statues are. For a statue is The true 
really lifeless matter shaped by a craftsman's hand ; J?^^°fs°a 
but in our view the image of God is not an object mental 
of sense made from matter perceived by the senses, '"^^^^ 
but a mental object. God, that is, the only true 
God, is perceived not by the senses but by the mind. 

On the other hand, whenever a crisis arises, the The gods 
daemon-worshippers, the adorers of stones, learn by hei'p^meS'^"^ 
experience not to revere senseless matter ; for they nor protect 
succumb to the needs of the moment, and this fear statues"^" 
of daemons is their ruin.'^ And if while at heart 
despising the statues they are unwilling to show 
themselves utterly contemptuous of them, their 
folly is exposed by the impotence of the very gods the youSger 
to whom the statues are dedicated. For instance, ^^atueTf* 
the tyrant Dionysius the younger stripped the statue Zeus 

* A verbal reminiscence of Homer, Iliad xxiv. SI. 
<= i.e. the gods cannot help them out of their difficulties. 

117 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rvpavpos 6 vecorepos OoLfidrLov ro XP^^^^^ Trepi- 

eXofJLevos rod Ato? eV 2i/ceAta vpoaera^ev avrco 

ipeovv Trepnedrjvaiy ■xp-pievr(x>s (j>r]aas tovto dfieivov 

etvat Tov ;^pucreou,-*^ /cat depovs Kovcjiorepov koX 

Kpvov? aXeeivorepov. ^Avrloxos Se o Ku^tAcr^vo? 

OLTTopovjjievos ;;^p7]/xaTCoy rod Ato? to dyaXfia ro 

Xpvaovv, TrevTeKaiSeKa TT'r]Xcov to fjieyedos 6v, 

irpooera^e -xajvevaaL /cat ttj? clXXt]? tt]? drLfioTepas 

vXr]? dyaXfia TraparrX'^aiov eKeivcp TTcrdXoLS k€- 

Xpvcrojjjievov dvadelvac TrdXtv. at 8e ;)(;eAtSove? /cat 

Tojv opvecov rd nXelara KaTe^epwaiv ^ avraJv ra>v 

dyaXfidrcjov elGTreropieva, ovhev (fypoPTLoravra ovre 

^OXvfJLTTLOV Ato? ovre ^YiTTihavpiov ^AorKX-qmov ovSe 

fj.TjV ^Adrjvd? rioAiaSo? rj TiapdmSos Alyvvriov 

Trap* (x)V ovhe avrdiv rrjv dvatadrjalav rcov ayaA- 

fidroju eKfiavddvere. aAA' etat fiev KaKovpyoi rive? 

rj TToXepLLOL eTndefievoL, ot St' alaxpoKepheiav iSrjco- 

oav rd lepd /cat rd dvaO-qpLara eavXrjoav rj /cat 

avra ex^jvevaav rd dydXjiara. /cat el Kafi^varjs 

rig rj Aapeto? t] aAAos" fiaLvofxevos roiavra drra 

eTTexeiprjcrev /cat el rov Alyvirriov rt? aTreKreivev 

'Attlv, yeXo) puev on rov deov drreKreivev avrojv, 

dyavaKro) 8e el KepSovs X^P^^ CTrAr^/x/xeAet. eKCJv 

ovv eKXrjaojxai rrjaSe rrjg KaKOvpyia?, rrXeove^las 

epya, ovxi Se dhpavelas rcov elScoXa>v eXeyxov 

voixit,ojv. dXX ovri ye ro rrvp /cat ot creLOfJiol 

KepSaXeoL, ovSe firjv (j^o^ovvrai rj hvacorrovvrai ov 

rovs SatfJiovas, ov rd dydXfiara, ov /xaAAov rj rd? 

ijjrjcfilSas rds rrapd roZs alyiaXols oecrcopevfievag 

rd Kv/jtara. otSa eyco rrvp eXeyKriKov koX heioi- 

^ Xpvffiov Cobet. xP^'^'^o^ ^^ss. 
^ Kare^epuxj-ip Sylburg. Karf^aipovaiv MSS. 

118 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

of Zeus in Sicily of its golden cloak and ordered it chap. 
to be clothed with a woollen one, with the witty ^^ 
remark that this was better than the golden one, 
being both lighter in summer and warmer in winter.* 
Antiochus of Cyzicus, when he was in want of money, Antiochus 
ordered the golden statue of Zeus, fifteen cubits hiffh, of Cyzicus 

» ^ 01 melted one 

to be melted down, and a smiilar statue of cheaper down 

material covered with gold leaf to be set up in its 

place. Swallows also and most other birds settle on Birds heed 

these very statues and defile them, paying no heed to ^^®'" °°^ 

Olympian Zeus or Epidaurian Asclepius, no, nor yet 

to Athena Polias or Egyptian Sarapis ; and even their 

example does not bring home to you how destitute 

of feeling the statues are. But there are certain Thieves and 

evil-doers or enemies at war who from base love of steaVthem 

gain ravaged the temples, plundering the votive 

offerings and even melting down the statues. Now 

if Cambyses or Darius or some other put his hands 

to such deeds in a fit of madness ; and if one of 

them ^ slew the Egyptian god Apis, while I laugh at 

the thought of his slaying their god, I am indignant 

when gain is the motive of the offence. I will 

therefore willingly forget these evil deeds, holding 

them to be works of covetousness and not an exposure 

of the helplessness of the idols. But fire and earth- Fire and 

quakes are in no way intent on gain ; yet they are destroy'^^^* 

not frightened or awed either by the daemons or by them 

their statues, any more than are the waves by the 

pebbles strewn in heaps along the seashore. I know 

that fire can expose and cure your fear of daemons ; 

« The story is also told by Cicero {Denatura deorum iii. 83) 
who places it in the Pekiponnesus instead of in Sicily. 
* Cambyses. See Herodotus iii. 99. 

119 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. haiaovias lariKov el ^ovXei TravaaoOac rrj? dvota?, 

TV/ / \ ^ ^ \ ^ \\» 

(pajraycoyrjaei ae ro rrvp. rovro ro rrvp /cat rov €V 
47 P. "Apyei V€(hv ovv kol rfj lepeia \ KaTe<j)\e^€v XpucrtSt, 
icat Tov iv ^Yicjiiacp rrj? 'Apre^tSo? Sevrepov [lera 
'A/xa^oVa? Kal ro iv 'Pcofir) KaTnTOjXiov im- 
veviixrir ai TToXXaKis' ovk OLTreax^TO 8e ovSe tov 
iv AXe^avh peojv TToXei Hapd-mSo? Upov. *A6'iqvr]GL 
yap rod Aiovvaov rod 'EAef^epeoj? Kar-qpeupe tov 
vecov, Kal tov iv AeA^ot? tov ^ AttoXXojvo? rrpoTepov 
7]p7Ta<T€v OveXXa, erreLra rj(f)dvi(T€ irvp Ga>(f)povovv. 

TOVTO UOL TTpOOiflLOV iTTiSeLKVVTai d)V VTriGXVeLTai 
TO TTVp. 

01 3e rojv dyaX/JLOLTCOv Sr)fjiLovpyoL ov SvocDTTOvacv 
vpLa)v Tovs epi^povas ttjs vX7]s KaTa(fipov€lv ; 6 pikv 
^ Adr)valos OetSta? eVt tw SaKTvXo) rod Ato? tov 
'OAujLtmou iiTiypdifja? " UavrdpKrjg KaXos " • ov 
yap KaXos avTcp 6 Zei;?, aAA' o ipcjop,€vos t)v 6 
Ylpa^LTiXrj? hi, oi? HoaeiSiTTTro? iv tw irepl Y^vihov 
hiaaa(^el, to ttjs ^ A^pohiT-qs dyaXfia ttj? KviSta? 
KaraaK€vd^cov Tcb ¥s.paTLvrjs ttj? ipcopLevrj? el'Set 
TrapaTrXrjOLOv TrerroiiqKev avTiqv, Iv* e^oiev ol heiXaioi 

^ Kvibov Sylburg. kuiBIov mss. 

« See Thucydides iv. 133, where the fire is attributed to 
the carelessness of Chrysis, who placed a lighted lamp near 
the garlands and then fell asleep. According to Thucydides, 
however, Chrysis was not burnt with the temple. Fearing 
Argive vengeance she fled the same night to Fhlius, 

'' i.e. Dionysus of Eleutherae, a town in Attica from 
which the worship of Dionysus was introduced into Athens. 
See Pausanias i. 2. 5. 

'^ According to Stoic teaching, fire was the creative and 
sustaining principle diffused throughout the universe. But 
this was an ethereal fire, different from common fire (Cicero, 

120 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

if you wish to cease from folly, the fire shall be your chap. 
guiding light. This fire it was that burnt up the ^^ 
temple in Argos together with its priestess Chrysis,<* 
and also that of Artemis in Ephesus (the second 
after the time of the Amazons); and it has often 
devoured the Capitol at Rome, nor did it spare even 
the temple of Sarapis in the city of Alexandria. 
The temple of Dionysus Eleuthereus ^ at Athens was 
brought to ruin in the same way, and that of Apollo 
at Delphi was first caught by a storm and then 
utterly destroyed by the ^^ discerning fire." '^ Here 
you see a kind of prelude to what the fire promises 
to do hereafter. 

Take next the makers of the statues ; do not they sculptors 
shame the sensible among you into a contempt for JJ^g^ffg'^^ 
mere matter ? The Athenian Pheidias inscribed on their 
the finger of Olympian Zeus, ^^Pantarces is beautiful," ^^^""^ites 
though it was not Zeus Pantarces whom he thought 
beautiful, but his own favourite of that name.'^ 
Praxiteles, as Poseidippus shows clearly in his book 
on Cnidus,^ when fashioning the statue of Cnidian 
Aphrodite,-^ made the goddess resemble the form of 
his mistress Cratina, that the miserable people might 

De nat. deor. ii. 41), and the Stoics applied to it various 
epithets, such as TexvLKov, "skilful," and ^port/xos, "prudent.*' 
In this passage Clement plays with the two meanings. 
Other references to the " prudent fire " in Clement are 
iii. Paed. 44. 2, vii. Strom. 34. 4, Eclog. Prophet. 25. 4. 

^ Pantarces means "all-powerful," and so could be under- 
stood as a title of Zeus. 

« Poseidippus, Frag. 3 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 482. 

/ Marble copies of this celebrated statue are to be seen 
at Munich and in the Vatican. For a photographic illustra- 
tion of the latter see Cambridge Companion to Greek Studies 
(1906), p. 258. 

121 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTjv Tlpa^iTeXovg epcoixev-qv TrpoGKVvelv. ^pvvr) 8e 
OTT-qvLKa yjpdei r) iralpa rj SeaniaKiq, ot l,o)ypd(f>oi 
TTOvres < ra? >^ rrj? ^A(f)poSiTr]£ eiKouas rrpog to KciXXog 

aTTejJLLIJLOVUTO ^pVVT]?, CQOTTep aV Kal OL XiOo^OOL 

Tovg 'Ep/xas" 'A^ryrT^crt irpos ^ AXKi^idh-qv aTTeLKal^ov. 
VTroXeiTTerai rrj? urjs Kpuaecos to epyov eVa^at, el 
povXei Kal rds iraipas TrpocjKvveiv. 

^YiVTevdev, ot/xat, KwrjOevre? ol ^aaiXels ot 
TraXaioi, Karacfypovovvre? rcov fivdcov tovtojv, dveSrjv 
Bid TO ef dvdpcoTTOJV dKLvSvvov G^ds avTovs Oeovs 
dvrjyopevov, TavTj] KdKeivovs Sta Tr]v ho^av drnrjOa- 
vartcr^at ^ StSdaKovTes' Kt^u^ jxev 6 AloXov 7j€vs 
VTTO TTJg ^AXKvovrjs TTjS yvvacKog, 'AA/cuovi^ Se 
avOis VTTO Tov dvSpos "Hpa Trpoaayopevo/jLevT]. 
nroAe/Ltatos" Se o TeTapTO? Alovvgos eVaAetro- 

48 p. Kal I MidpihdTT]? 6 YloVTLKO? AtdvUCTO? Kal aUTOS" 

e^ovXeTO he Kal ^AXe^avS pos "ApLpioovo's vlds elvai 
SoKelv Kal Kepao^opo? dvarrXdTTeGOai rrpos tcov 
dyaXpLaTOTTOLcbv, to KaXov dvdpojrrov TrpoGOJirov v- 
^puGat GTrevScov KepaTi. Kal ovtl ye ^aGiXet? pioi^ov, 
dXXd Kal IhidJTai decais TrpoGvyopiaLs G(j)ds avTovg 
eoepLVVVOVy ojs ^leveKpdT-qs 6 laTpos, Zeu? ovtos 
eTTiKeKXripievos . tl fxe Set KaTaXeyetv ^AXe^ap)(ov 
{ypapipLaTLKos ovtos ttjv emGTiqpLriv yeyovo)?, a>s 
LGTopel " ApLGTOs 6 SaAa/.tiVto?, avTOV KaTCGxrjpid- 
Til^ev els "YLXiov); tl Set Kal NtKrayopou pte/jLvrj- 
adac (ZeXeLT7]s to yevos rjv /caret tovs ^ AXe^dvhpov 

^ <Tds> inserted by Schjifer. 
^ dirrjBauaTiadaL Sylburg. dirrjdavaTTJa-dai MSS. 

" Ammon was the Egyptian rara-headed god whom the 
122 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

have the sculptor's mistress to worship. When Phryne chap. 
the Thespian courtesan was in her flower^ the painters ^^ 
used all to imitate her beauty in their pictures of 
Aphrodite, just as the marble-masons copied Alci- 
biades in the busts of Hermes at Athens. It remains 
to bring your own judgment into play, and decide 
whether you wish to extend your worship to 
courtesans. 

Such were the facts, I think, that moved the Kings of old 
kings of old, in their contempt for these legends, to IhemsehS 
proclaim tliemselves gods ; which they did without gods 
hesitation, since there was no danger from men. In 
this way they teach us that the other gods were also 
men, made immortal for their renown. Ceyx the son 
of Aeolus was addressed as Zeus by his wife Alcyone, 
while she in turn was addressed as Hera by her 
husband. Ptolemy the fourth was called Dionysus, 
as was also Mithridates of Pontus. Alexander wished 
to be thought the son of Ammon, and to be depicted 
with horns by the sculptors, so eager was he to 
outrage the beautiful face of man by a horn.* Aye, 
and not kings only, but private persons too used to And private 
exalt themselves with divine titles, as Menecrates ^^''^^'^^^^'*° 
the doctor, who was styled Zeus.* Why need I 
reckon Alexarchus ? As Aristus of Salamis relates, 
he was a scholar in virtue of his knowledge, but he 
transformed himself into the Sun-god.'' And why 
mention Nicagoras, a man of Zeleia by race, living in 

Greeks identified with Zeus. In Greek art the horns are set 
on a human head. See ilhistrations of coins in A. B. Cook, 
Zeus, i. pp. 370-2. 

* Because (Athenaeus 289), through his healing art, he 
was the sole cause of life to men ! He wrote to Pliilip : 
"You are king in Macedon, I in medicine." 

" Aristus, Frag. 2 Miiller, Script, rerum Alex. Mag. p. 154. 

123 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. yeyovojg XP^^'^''^^' *E/3/x7]? TTpoorjyopeveTO 6 Nt/c- 
ayopa? /cat rfj oroXfj rod 'Ep/xoO iK€Xpr]ro, ojs 
avTo? [xapTVpel) ; ottov ye kol oXa edvq kol 
TToXeis avravSpoL, KoXaKeiav VTrohvofievai, i^evre- 
XlI,ovgiv rovs fJLvdovs rovs irepl rajv deojv, Icrodeovs 
dvdpcoTTOL KaTaaxrip-cLTLl^ovTeg eavrovg, vrro 86^7]? 
7T€(j)var]fi€i>OL, €7Tnljri(f)Lt,6iJ,6VOL Tt/xct? iavTolg vrrep- 
oyKOVS' vvv fxkv rov Ma/ceSwa tov ck UeXXr]? tov 
^ApLVVTov ■*■ OtAiTTTTOV €v Kvvoadpy€L vofxodeTovPTeg 
TTpooKVveZv, TOV " TTjV kXglv KaTcayoTa Kal to 
UKeXos TreTtripcopievov y" 6s e^eKOTTTj tov 6(f)daXpi6v 
av6i£ he TOV ArjiXT^Tptov deov /cat avTov dvayopevov- 
Tes' Kal evda piev OLTre^r] tov lttttov ^A6rjval,e 
eloLOiVy Karai^aroi; lepov eart ^rfpnqTpioVy ^ajpiol 
8e iravTaxov' kol ydpio? vtto ^Adrjvalcov avTco 6 
rrjs *A6r)vd? 7]VT p en i^eTO- 6 8e ttjv pLev deov vrrep- 
7](f>dveLy TO dyaXpia yrjpLai piTj SvvdpLevos' Adpnav 
he TTjV eTaipav ex(JOV els aKporroXiv dvrjeL Kdv 
TO) TTJs ^Adrjvds (JVve(f)vpeTO TraoTO),^ ttj TraXaia 
TTapOevcp TO. ttIs vea? eTnheLKvvs eTalpas axripiaTa. 
ov vepueoLs tolvvv ovhe "Ittttojvl aTTaOavaTL^ovTi tov 
OdvaTOV TOV eavTov' o "Ittttojv ovtos e7TLypa(f)rjvai 
eKeXevaev to) pivrjpiaTL Tcp eavTOV roSe to eXeyelov 

"iTnrojvos Tohe orjpia, tov dOavdTOioL BeoloLV 
laov eTTOiiqaev Motpa KaTacfidtpievov. 

* 'AiJLvvTov Cobet. dfj.vvTopos Mss. 

- Kav Tip TTJS 'Adijfds crvve(pvpeTo iraaTQ Mayor, xal t<^ tP/s 
aOrjvds epecpvparo waarcp wss. 

" See Athenaeus 289 c, where Baton is given as the 
authority for this story. Cp. Baton, Fi-ag. 1 Frag. hint. 
Graec. iv. p. 348. 

* Demosthenes, On the Crown 67. 
124 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

the time of Alexander^ who was addressed as Hermes chap. 
and wore the garb of Hermes, according to his own ^^^y^ ^^^ 
evidence ? " For indeed whole nations and cities with nations 
all their inhabitants, putting on the mask of flattery, right to 
belittle the legends about the gods, mere men, puffed °^^^® ^°^^ 
up with vain-glory, transforming men like them- 
selves into the equals of the gods and voting them 
extravagant honours. At one time they establish by 
law^ at Cynosarges the worship of Philip the son of 
Amyntas, the Macedonian from Pella, him of the 
"broken collar-bone and lame leg," with one eye 
knocked out.^ At another, they proclaim Demetrius 
to be god in his turn ; and the spot where he dis- 
mounted on entering Athens is now a temple of 
Demetrius the Alighter,*^ while his altars are every- 
where. Arrangements were being made by the 
Athenians for his marriage with Athena, but he 
disdained the goddess, not being able to marry her 
statue. He went up to the Acropolis, however, in 
company with the courtesan Lamia, and lay with her 
in Athena's bridal chamber, exhibiting to the old 
virgin the postures of the young courtesan.^ We 
must not be angry, therefore, even with Hippo,^ 
wdio represented his death as a deification of himself. 
This Hippo ordered the following couplet to be in- The epitapi 
scribed on his monument : '^^ Hippo 

Behold the tomb of Hippo, whom in death 
Fate made an equal of the immortal gods. 

" A title of Zeus, as descending or alighting in thunder 
and hghtning ; applied in flattery to Demetrius by the 
Athenians. See Plutarch, Demetrius 10. 

''■ Cp. Plutarch, Demetrius 26. 

* Hippo has been mentioned before, among those dubbed 
atheists by the Greeks ; see p. 49. For the couplet see 
Bergk, Poet. lyr. Graec. ii. p. 259 (ed. 1915). 

125 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP €V ye, "Ittttcou, eTnbeLKVveLg r]ixlv rriv avOpajTriviiv 
IV >, / ■> X ^ \ \ - ' ^ / 

TTAaviqv. €L yap /cat AaAovvTL aoi firj TreTnarevKaaL, 

veKpov yeviadcoaav fiaOrjTaL ^^piqap^os ovrog ianv 

"Ittttojvos' vo-qcrojjJLev avrov. ol TrpoaKwovfJievoL 

49 p. Trap vjjlXv, \ dvOpojiroi yevopievoi ttotc, elra pLevroi 

redvaoLV' T€Tipi'qK€V Se avTOVs 6 pivdos koI 6 

Xpovos. <j>iXel yap ttoj? to, pikv irapopra ovvr^deia 

KaracfipoveladaL, ra Se Trapoj-xrjKora rod TrapavriKa 

eXeyxpv Ke-^ajpiapLeva xpo^'^'^ dSrjXia reripirjadai 

TO) TrXdapiari, /cat ra pikv dinoTeZadaL, rd Se /cat 

6avpid^€Gdai. avTLKa yovv ol rraXaiOL veKpol rep 

TToXXo) rrjs TrXdv-qs XP^^V aepLVVv6p.evoL toZs eVetra 

voixit,ovrai Oeoi. TTcarL? vp^Zv rcjvhe avrd vpidju rd 

pLvarijpLa, at TTavrjyvpcLS, Secr/xd /cat rpavpLara /cat 

haKpvovres Seoi' 

o) pLOL iyd), ore /xot HapTrrjSova ^tArarov di>Spd)v 
pioZp" VTTO YiarpoKXoio MevotrtaSao SapLrjvat. 

K€K pdrrjr ai ro deXrjpLa rod Ato? /cat o Zei)? vp.Zv 
Bid Hapinqhova olpLcpi^ev vevLKrjp.evos. 

EtSwAa yovv ehcorajs avrovs /cat Sat/xova? vpueZs 
avrol /ce/cAi^/care, inel /cat rrjv ^Adiqvdv avr-qv /cat 
rovg dXXovs deovs /ca/cta npLrjaas "Opuqpos 8aLj.iovas 
TTpoarjyopevaev 

rj S' OvXvpLTTovSe ^e^^j/cet 
Scopuar* is alyioxoio Ato? /xerct Salpiova? aXXovs. 

« Homer, Iliad xvi. 433-434-. 

* The word is generally translated " idols "or " images," 
but it also means " shades " or "phantoms," which is the 
sense wanted here. 

'^ Or perhaps, "honouring them for their wickedness." 
Compare a similar construction, "honoured by reason of 
126 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Well done, Hippo, you point out for us the error of chap. 
men ! For though they have not believed you when ^^ 
you could speak, let them become disciples now you 
are a cor})se. This is the oracle of Hippo ; let us 
understand its meaning. Those whom you worship This epitaph 
were once men, who afterwards died. Legend and fhe^^rath 
the lapse of time have given them their honours, that all gods 
For somehow the present is wont to be despised men 
through our familiarity with it, whereas the past, 
being cut off from immediate exposure by the 
obscurity which time brings, is invested with a 
fictitious honour ; and while events of the present are 
distrusted, those of the past are regarded with 
reverent wonder. As an example, the dead men 
of old, being exalted by the long period of error, 
are believed to be gods by those who come after. 
You have proof of all this in your mysteries them- 
selves, in the solemn festivals, in fetters, wounds and 
wee})ing gods : 

Woe, yea, woe be to me ! that Sarpedon, dearest of mortals, 
Doomed is to fall by the spear of Patroclus son of Menoetius.'' 

The will of Zeus has been overcome, and your 
supreme god, defeated, is lamenting for Sarpedon's 
sake. 

You are right then in having yourselves called The gods 
the gods " shadows " * and "daemons." For Homer menfar? 
spoke of Athena herself and her fellow-deities as If^^^/ 
"daemons," paying them a malicious compliment.'' "shadows" 

But she was gone to Olympus, "daemons" 

Home of shield-bearing Zeus, to join the rest of the 
daemons.** 

fornication," or " whose honour comes from fornication," on 
pp. 110-11. 

<^ Homer, Iliad i. 221-232. 

127 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTchs ovv eVt Oeol ra etScuAa kol ol SaLfjLoves, ^SeXvpa 
ovrcDS Kai TTvevfxara aKadapra, rrpo? navTcov ofio- 
XoyovfM€va y-qtva Koi SetcraAea, Karoj ^pidovra, 
' TTepl Tovs rd(f)OV? kol ra /^vrjiieta KaXLvSovjJLeva," 
TTepc a hrj kol UTTO^atVovrat o^fivSpoos " OKLoeihrj 
(jiavTaajiara" ; ravO^ VfJicov ol deol ra etScoAa, at 



OKiai Kac TTpo£ TOVTOLs < ai > ^ " x^^Xal " eVe 



ti^ai /cat 



pvaai, TrapajSXojTres 6(f)9aXjjL(jj,'^" at Atrat at 
QepGLTov ixdXXov rj Atos" dvyarepes, axjre /jlol 
BoK€iv -x^apievTaJS cfxivaL rov Btwya, ttojs dv eVStVoj? 
60P. ot dv^dpojTTOL TTapd rod Ato? atTTycrovrat ^ rrjv ev- 
rcKviav, 7]v ovh^ avro) rrapaa^^elv taxvaev; otfioL 
rrjs dOeoriqros- rr^v dKTjparov ovaiav, ro oaov 
i(f>^ VfiLV, Karopvrrere Kal ro dxpo-vrov CKelvo Kal 
ro dycov rot? rd<j)ois eTTCKexdjKare, rrj? dXr]9d)? 
ovrcxys ovaias avXijaavres ro deZov. ri Srj ovv rd 
rod deov rols ov Oeol? Trpoaevel/jLare yepa; ri Se 
KaraXiTTOvreg rov ovpavov rijv yrjv rerifxiJKare ; ri 
o dXXo xpiJ<ydg 7) dpyvpos tj dSdjias yj aiSrjpos tj 
XciXkos Tj iXecfiag 7) At^ot rii-uot; oi>xt yrj re Kal 
eK yfjs; ovxl Sc /xta? jJLTjrpos CKyova, ri]? yij?, 
rd rrdvra ravra oaa opas; ri Srj ovv, co fidraioL 
Kal Kev6(f)pov€s {TrdXiv ydp Srj iTravaXtjipofxai) , rov 
VTTepovpdvLOv ^Xaa(f)iqjxri(javres roirov els rovSacfiOS 
Kareavpare rr]V evGe[^eiav, x^oviovs VfiTv dvanXdr- 
rovres Seovs Kal rd yevqrd ravra irpo rov dyevijrov 
ixenovres Oeov ^aOvrepcp TTepiTTenrcoKare ^ocfxp; 

^ KaLy inserted by Kroll. 
2 6(t>6aKixd> Homer. 6(p6a\/nuiu hss. 
^ ahricFovraL Cobet. alrrjauvTai MSS. 

« See Plato, Phat'do 81 c d. ^ Iliad ix. 502-5037" 

'^ Thersites is Homer's ridiculous character, hump-backed, 
128 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

How then can the shadows and daemons any longer chap. 
be gods, when they are in reaUty unclean and loath- ^j^^J^ 
some spirits, admitted by all to be earthy and foul, "shadows' 
weighed down to the ground, and " prowling round un^cS ^ 
graves and tombs/' * where also they dimly appear spirits, 
as "ghostly apparitions «" ? These are your gods, graves and 
these shadows and ghosts ; and along with them go ^°°^^^ 
those "lame and wrinkled cross-eyed deities," the 
Prayers,^ daughters of Zeus, though they are more 
like daughters of Thersites '^ ; so that I think Bion 
made a witty remark when he asked how men could 
rightly ask Zeus for goodly children, when he had 
not even been able to provide them for himself.*^ 
Alas for such atheism ! You sink in the earth, so 
far as you are able, the incorruptible existence, and 
that which is stainless and holy you have buried in 
the tombs. Thus you have robbed the divine of its 
real and true being. Why, I ask, did you assign to 
those who are no gods the honours due to God 
alone ? Why have you forsaken heaven to pay 
honour to earth ? For what else is gold, or silver, 
or steel, or iron, or bronze, or ivory, or precious 
stones ? Are they not earth, and made from earth ? The statues 
Are not all these things that you see the offspring ^aeni^ons 
of one mother, the earth ? Why then, vain and are nothing 
foolish men, — once again I will ask the question, — did "^ ^^^^^ 
you blaspheme highest heaven^ and drag down piety 
to the ground by fashioning for yourselves gods of 
earth ? Why have you fallen into deeper darkness 
by going after these created things instead of the 

lame and bandy-legged, with an impudent tongue into the 
bargain. Iliad ii. 211-277 . 

'' Bion of Borysthenes, Frag. 44 MuUach, Fra(/. phll. 
Graec. ii. p. 427. « See Plato, Phaedrus 247 c. 

129 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. KaXos 6 UdpLos XWog, aAA' ovSenoj UoGeiSwv 
KaXos 6 eXecfja?, aAA' ovSeTrco "OXv/jlttlos- evSerj? 
dec TTore rj vXr] rrjs rex^rj?, 6 Oeog Se dvevSerj?. 
TTporjXOep Tj rexvr], Trept^e/JA-^rat ro crxVH'^ V ^^V> 
/cat TO ttXovolov rrj^ ovaias irpog jjueu ro KepSog 
dycoytfxov, pcovoj Se rep axTJpiart yiverai oeBda/jLLov . 
XpVGos ioTL TO dyaXfJid gov, ^vXov eoTiv, XlOog 
ioTiv, yrj eoTLV, idv dvcxjdev vorjar)?, pLopcjir^v Trapd 
Tov TexviTov TrpoaXapovoa. yrjv Se iyd) TrareZv, 
ov TTpOGKVvelv /xe/xeAeTT]/<:a* ov ydp fxoi Oefxig 
epLTTiGTevGai Trore rots' dijjvxoLs Tas ttj? ^vxV^ 
iXniSa?. 

'Ireoi/ ow COS" eVt fidXiGTa iyyvTaTO) tcx)V dyaXfid- 
T(x)v, (I)s otVeta rj nXdvin KaK Trig TTpoGoiljea)? 

^\ ' 1 ' ' ^ / ^ \ I Z \ 

eAeyx'^raL' evaTTOi^LefxaKTai yap iravv orj Ga<pcog ra 
etSry rcuv dyaXp^drcjov ttjv SidOeGLv tcov haijiovajv. 
et yovv Tt? Tag ypacfidg Kal tcl dydXfiaTa TrepivoGTCvv 
decpTO, yvojpiel vp.a>v TrapavTLKa Tovg 9eovg €K tojv 
eVovetStCTTCOV GxrjpLdraiv, tov Alovvgov dno Trjg 
GToXrjg, TOV "H(j)aLGTOV aTTO TTJg Texv7]g, ttjv A7]dj 
ttTTO Trjg avpL(f)opdg, dno tov Kpr^SepiVOv TrjV *Iv6tj, 
0,770 T-^s" TpLalvrjg tov IloaeiSa), dno tov kvkvov tov 
Ata* TOV Se 'Hpa/cAea SeLKvvGiv rj irvpd. kov 
yvp.vrjv iSr] Tig avdyparrTov yvvalKa, Trjv " xpv(yyjv" 
^AcfypoSiTrjv voel. ovTcog 6 livTrptog 6 HvypLaXlojv 
81 P. eKelvog eXe(f)av\Tivov ripdoOr] dydXf.iaTog' to dyaXpLa 
A(J)poSLTr]g rjv Kal yvpLvr] '^v vt/carat o KvTrpiog to) 
GX'qpiaTL Kal GvvepxeTai tco dydXptaTL, Kal tovto 
^LXoGT€(f)avog LGTOpel- *A^poStTT7 ^^ ciAAt; iv 
KvlSip XiOog Tjv Kal KaXr] rjv, erepog ripdoOr] TavT7]g 

^ t/\^7X7?rat Potter. eXeyxerai. MSS. 
180 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

uncreated God ? The Parian marble is beautiful, chap 
but it is not yet a Poseidon. The ivory is beautiful, 
but it is not yet an Olympian Zeus. Matter Avill 
ever be in need of art, but God has no such need. 
Art develops, matter is invested with shape ; and 
the costliness of the substance makes it worth carry- 
ing off for gain, but it is the shape alone which makes 
it an object of veneration. Your statue is gold ; it 
is wood ; it is stone ; or if in thought you trace it to 
its origin, it is earth, which has received form at 
the artist's hands. But my practice is to walk upon 
earth, not to worship it. For I hold it sin ever to 
entrust the hopes of the soul to soulless things. 

We must, then, approach the statues as closely as 
we possibly can in order to prove from their very 
appearance that they are inseparably associated with 
error. For their forms are unmistakably stamped The forms 
with the characteristic marks of the daemons. At statues 
least, if one were to go round inspecting the paintings sj^ow whom 
and statues, he would immediately recognize your represent 
gods from their undignified figures ; Dionysus from 
his dress, Hephaestus from his handicraft, Demeter 
from her woe, Ino from her veil, Poseidon from his 
trident, Zeus from his swan. The pyre indicates 
Heracles, and if one sees a woman represented naked, 
he understands it is " golden" ^ Aphrodite. So the Men have 
well-known Pygmalion of Cyprus fell in love with an [ove with 
ivory statue ; it was of Aphrodite and was naked, beautiful 
The man of Cyprus is captivated by its shapeliness 
and embraces the statue. This is related by Philo- 
stephanus.^ There was also an Aphrodite in Cnidus, 
made of marble and beautiful. Another man fell in 

« Homer, Odyssey Iv. 14. 

*• Philostephanus, Frag. 13 Frag. hist. Graec. ill. p. 31. 

131 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Kal jiiyvvTai rfj XlOco- IlooelSLTrTros loropeZ, 6 jxev 
TTporepos iv to) irepl KvTrpov, 6 Se erepos eV rch 
TTepl \s.vlSov. rooovTOV 'ia)(VGev aTrarrjaai re-xyq 
TTpoayojyos avdpwTTOis epcjOTiKols els ^dpadpov yevo- 
fxevT]. SpaGT-qpLos fjiev rj h-qpnovpyLKri, aAA' ov^ 
Ota re aTTarrjaaL XoyuKov ovSe fjirjv tovs Kara Xoyov 
^e^LOJKOTag' l,cx)ypa(j)ia? jjcev yap St' ofJLOLorrjTa 
GKLaypa(f)i]TaLS TrepiGTepaZg^ TrpoaeTrrrjaav TreXeiahes 
Kal LTTjrois KaXa)s yey/aa/x/xeVat? Trpoaexpepie' 
naav lttttol. ipaodrji'ai Koprjv eiKovos Xeyovunv 
/cat veov KaXov KytStou ayaA/^taro?, aAA' rjuav rajv 
dearojv at oifjeus rjTraTrjpievai vtto rrjs Te)(V7]s. ovSe 
yap dv dea tls ovveTrXaKr], ouS' dv veKpa tl? avv- 
€Td(f)rj, ovS^ dv rjpdaOrj Salfiovo? Kal XiBov dvOpcoiros 
(Ta>(f)pova)V . vjjids Se dXXr] yo-qreia drrara rj rex^r}, 
et Kal jjcT) eVt to ipdv Trpocrdyovaa, dXX inl to 
TLfidv Kal TTpoGKVveiv rd re dydX/jLara Kal rag 
ypa(j)ds. ofiola ye rj ypa(f>iq- eTTaLveLadco /xev rj 
rexvr], fxr) aTrardTCo 8e rov dvOpcoTTOV cos dX-qOeia. 
€orr'r]K€v 6 17T7TOS 'qavxj] , r) TreXecds drpepL-qs, dpyov 
TO TTTepov, r] 8e ^ovs r) AatSaAou rj eV tov ^vXov 
7T€TTOir]pievri Tavpov eXXev dypiov Kal KaT-qvdyKaaev 
TO OrjpLOV r) Tex^f] rrXavqaaaa ipa)ar]s iTnjSrjvai 
yvvaLKoS' togovtov oloTpov at re^t^at /ca/core;^- 

^ ffKiaypa^riraLS Trepiarepals Stahlin. (rKt.aypa(f)Las -rrepLffTepal 
Mss. iaKLaypa(f)riix€vai.s wepicTTepats Mayor. 

" Poseidippus, Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 482. 
* Literally, "procuress." Compare Tennyson's "In 
Memoriam," 53, 

Hold thou the good : define it well : 
For fear divine Philosophy 
Should push beyond her mark, and be 
Procuress to the Lords of Hell. 

132 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

love with this and has intercourse with the marble, chap. 
as Poseidippus relates.** The account of the first ^^ 
author is in his book on Cyprus ; that of the second 
in his book on Cnidus. Such strength had art to 
beguile that it became for amorous men a guide ^ 
to the pit of destruction. Now craftsmanship is The fascina- 
powerful, but it cannot beguile a rational being, nor artVr 
yet those who have lived according to reason. It is foolish men 
true that, through lifelike portraiture, pigeons have 
been known to fiy towards painted doves, and horses 
to neigh at well-drawn mares. They say that a 
maiden once fell in love with an image, and a 
beautiful youth with a Cnidian statue '^ ; but it was 
their sight that was beguiled by the art. For 
no man in his senses would have embraced the 
statue of a goddess, or have been buried with a 
lifeless paramour, or have fallen in love with a daemon 
and a stone. But in your case art has another illusion Worship of 
with which to beguile ; for it leads you on, though aSifeV^ 
not to be in love with the statues and paintings, yet fo™ of art's 
to honour and worship them. The painting, you 
say, is lifelike. Let the art be praised, but let it 
not beguile man by pretending to be truth. The 
horse stands motionless ; the dove flutters not ; its 
wings are at rest. Yet the cow of Daedalus, made 
of wood, infatuated a wild bull ; and the beast, led 
astray by the art, was constrained to approach a love- 
sick woman. '^ Such insane passion did the arts, by 

Clement had no fear of " divine Philosophy," but only 
of art. 

<= Compare Philostratus, A'pollon'ius of Tyana vi. 40 
(Loeb Classical Library ed. ii. pp. 134-9). 

^ i.e. Pasiphae. Daedalus had put her inside his wooden 
cow, that she might satisfy her passion for the bull. Apol- 
lodorus iii. 1.3; Philo Judaeus, Be spec. leg. 8. 

133 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. vovaai rot? dvorjTOts iveTrocrjaav . dAAa tovs fxev 
TTidriKovs ol rovTcou rpo(f>€Xs /cat fxeXcSojvol redav- 
jxaKaaiv, ort, rcov K-qplvcov 7) TrrjXivajv o^otco/xarcov 
/cat KopoKoa/JLLCov aTTara tovtovs ovSev u/xet? 8e 
dpa /cat TTiBriKCxJv x^ipovs yevrjoeaOe XlOlvols /cat 
^uAtVots" /cat ;!^/3ucreot? /cat iXe(j>avTivois ayaA/xartot? 
/cat ypa(f)al'S TTpoaavexovres. toiovtojv u/xtv [ot] ■*■ 
S-qpLLOvpyol advpiidrcov oXedplcov ot Xido^ooi /cat ot 

62 P. avSptai^TOTTotot ypa(f)eLS re av /cat reKro\ves /cat 
TTOir^rai, ttoXvv riva /cat roiovrov o^Xov nap- 
ecadyovTes, /car* dypovs /xev Sarupous" /cat riavas", 
am 8e ras" ^'Aa? Nu/x^a? ra? opeidhas /cat Tecs' a/xa- 
S/ouaSas", vat /xt]v dAAct /cat Tiept rd uSara /cat 
Trept Tous" TTorapLOVs /cat rd? TT-qyds rds NatSas" 
/cat 77ept rr]v ddXarrav rd? N7]pet'8as'. /xdyot 8e 
t^'St^ due^eias rr]? Gc/)d)V avrcbv vrriqperas Saifiova? 
avxovcTLv, OLKeras avrovs eavrols Karaypdifjavre?, 
Tovs Karr^vayKaajjievovs SovXovs rals eTvaotSat? 

7T€TTOir]K6r€S . 

rd/xot re ovv en /cat 7rat8o770ttat /cat Ao;^etat 
^ediv fjLvr]fiovev6[ievaL /cat jLtot;^etat dSd/xei'at /cat 
evcox^oLi' KOjficpSovfjievaL /cat yeXcores irapd ttotov 
eiGayojxevoi TTporperrovai hrj ^ fxe dvaKpayelv, Kav 
cjLOjTTrjaaL 6eXa>, otfjiOL rrjs ddeorrjTOS' OKrjvrjv 
776770 17] /care rov ovpavov /cat to deiov vp,lv Spdfia 
yeyeviqrai /cat ro dyiov TrpoacoTTeioLs Saifiovlcov 
KeKCjopLcphrjKaTe , rrjv dXrjdrj deoae^etav SetctSat- 
fjLovla Garvpiaavres. 

avrdp 6 (f)opiJiL^ojv dve^dXXero KaXov deiheiv, 

^ ToiovTiJiv , . [ot] Wilaraowitz. roaovTuv , . oi mss. 
^ 5ri Hoschel. 5^ mss. 
134 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

their vicious artifices, implant in creatures without chap. 
sense. Even monkeys know better than this. They ^^^^ 
astonish their rearers and keepers, because no manner monkeys 
of waxen or clay figures or girls' toys can deceive them, deceived 
But you, strange to say, will prove yourselves inferior ^v lifeless 
even to monkeys through the heed you pay to statues 
of stone and wood, gold and ivory, and to paintings. 
Such are the pernicious playthings made for you statues are 
by marble-masons, sculptors, painters, carpenters and ^adeTo^r 
poets, who introduce this great multitude of gods, men by 
Satyrs and Pans in the fields, mountain and tree and poets 
Nymphs in the woods, as well as Naiads about the 
lakes, rivers and springs, and Nereids by the sea. 
Magicians go so far as to boast that daemons are 
assistants in their impious deeds ; they have enrolled 
them as their own servants, having made them 
slaves perforce by means of their incantations. 

Further, the marriages of gods, their acts of The gods 
child-begetting and child-bearing which are on men's aduftery^ "' 
lips, their adulteries which are sung by bards, their and 
feastings which are a theme of comedy, and the nes" 
bursts of laughter which occur over their cups, these 
exhort me to cry aloud, even if I would fain keep 
silence, — Alas for such atheism ! You have turned 
heaven into a stage. You look upon the divine 
nature as a subject for drama. Under the masks 
of daemons you have made comedy of that which 
is holy. For the true worship of God you have 
substituted a travesty, the fear of daemons. 

Then to the harp's sweet strains a beautiful song he opened ; <• 



* Homer, Odyssey viii. 266. 

135 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

^^v^' ^o-ov rjfJLLV, "Ofx-qpe, tyjv (fjcxjvrjv ttjv KaX-qv, 

jtafi(p ' Apeojs (f>iX6rrjros ivGT€(f)dvov r^ 'A^poStVrys" 
COS" TO, Trpojra iiiyrjaav ev *H</)atCTTOto 8o/xotcrt 
XdOprj- 77oAAa S' eScoK€, Xexos §' rjaxvve Kal evvrjv 
H^atCTToto dvaKTog. 

KaraTTavGov, "OjJtrjpe, rrjv cpS-qv ovk eom KoXrj, 
IJLOf)(€iav 8tSaCT/c€f TTopveveiv he rjfxeZs /cat tcl cora 
TTaprjTifjixeda- -qpieZs yap, rjfJLels iofiev ol rrjv ecKova 

TOV 9eOV 7T€pi(l)€pOVT€? €V TCp ^OJVTi Kal KLVOVjJLeVCp 

rovTO) aydX/jiarL, rep dvOpojTTcp, gvpolkov ecKova, 
ovpi^ovXov, avvopiiXov, Gweurtov, GVpLTraOrj, vnep- 
TTadrj- dvddrjp^a yeyovap^ev rep deep inrep \piGrov' 
" r)pL€is TO ylvos TO eKXeKTOV, TO ^aGiXetov Upd- 
reu/xa, edvos dycov, Xaos irepLOVGLOs , ol nore ov 
Xaog, vvv he Xaos rod deov " ' ol Kara rov ^Icudvviqv 
OVK ovres €k tcov Karoj," Trapd he rov ducoOev 
eXuovro£ to rrdv fiefiadrjKOTe?, ol ttjv oiKovopiiav 
TOV Oeov KaravevorfKores , ol " iv Kaivor'qTL t,corjs 
TTeptTTarelv" pbepLeXerrjKores. 

AAA' ov ravra <j>povovGLV ol ttoXXol- aTToppi- 
xjjavres he rrjv alhco Kal rov <^6^ov o'lkol rov? rojv 
haLfjLovojv eyypd(f)ovr at TTaGx^jriaGfjiovs . TnvaKLOLs 
53 P. yovv I tlgI KaraypdcfiOLs pier ecu porepov dvaKeipievois 
TTpoGeGxrjKores aGeXyela rov? daXdpiov? KeKOGpuq- 
Acacrt, rr^v aKoXaGcav evGe^eiav vopbit^ovres' Kairl 
TOV GKLpLTToho? KaraKeipievoi r^ap avrds en ra? 
TrepiirXoKas d(f>opdjGLV els rrjv ^ A(j>pohirriv eKeivr]V 

« Odyssey viii. 267-270. » 1 St. Peter ii. 9-10. 

St. John viii. 23. <* See St. John iii. 31. 

* Romans vi. 1. 
136 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Siii^- us that beautiful strain, Homer, CHAP. 

IV 

Telling the love of Ares and Aphrodite fair-girdled, Homer's 

How at the first they met in the halls of Hephaestus in witness 

secret • ^° ^''^ 

Many the' gifts he gave, and the bed and couch of Jf'^Jg'/ 

Hephaestus 
SulUed with shame.*^ 

Cease the song, Homer. There is no beauty in 
that ; it teaches adultery. We have declined to christians 
lend even our ears to fornication. For we, yes [fsteu to^ 
we, are they who, in this living and moving statue, such stories 
man, bear about the image of God, an image which 
dwells with us, is our counsellor, companion, the 
sharer of our hearth, which feels with us, feels for 
us. We have been made a consecrated offering to 
God for Christ's sake. " We are the elect race, 
the royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people belong- 
ing to God, who in time past were not a people, 
but now are the people of God." ^ We are they 
who, according to John, are not "from below,"" 
but have learnt the whole truth from Him who 
came from above,^ who have apprehended the dis- 
pensation of God, who have studied " to walk in 
newness of life." * 

But most men are not of this mind. Casting off" indecent 
shame and fear, they have their homes decorated ^'g hung 
with pictures representing the unnatural lust of the ii houses 
daemons. In the lewdness to which their thoughts 
are given, they adorn their chambers with painted 
tablets hung on high like votive offerings, regarding 
licentiousness as piety ; and, when lying upon the 
bed, while still in the midst of their own embraces, 
they fix their ga»e upon that naked Aphrodite, who 

137 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rrjv yvfxv-qv, ttjv IttI rfj GVinrXoKfj SeSefxevrjv, Kal rfj 
ArjSa TTepLTTOTCjojJievov rov opviv rov epcoTiKoVy rrjg 
67]XvTr]TOS aTTohexoi^^uoL Ti]V ypa(f)ijv, aTTorvrrovai 
rats G(j)€vh6vais y a(f>paylSi y^poyixevoi KaTaXXrjXco 
rfj Ato? aKoXacTLa. raura u/xcov rrj? rj^VTradecas 
ra apx€rv7Ta, aurat rrjs vjSpecos at deoXoyiai, avrai 
rCjv avfJLTTopvevovTOJV vpLcv Oeoov at StSacr/caAtat* 
"o yap ^ovXerai, tovO^ eKacrrog Kal oterat" /caret 
Tov 'AO-qvalov p-qropa. otat be av /cat d'AAat v/jlcov 
elKove?, TTavLGKOt, TtJ^e? /cat yvfjLval Kopai /cat 
odrvpoL }xedvovT€S /cat pLoplojv evrdoeis, rat? 
ypacjial? aTToyvixvovpievaL, drro rrjg a/cpacrta? iXeyxo- 
jLtevat. rjSrj 8e dva(f>avS6v rrj? a/coAaata? oXyjs to, 
ox'TjP'O.'ra dvaypairra Travbrifjiel Oecjiievoi ovk alaxv- 
veade, (fyvXarrere 8e ert fxaXXov dvaKeijieva, cooTrep 
dpieXei Tcov Oeajv vpLOJV rds ecKovag, (jTrjXa? dv- 
aiaxvvrias Kadiepojoavres ot/cot, ctt' laiq? iyypa- 
(f)6fJL€V0L ra <I)tAatvtSos' ax^P'O-Ta d)S ra 'Hpa/cAeous' 
ddX-qpiara. tovtojv ov puovov Trjg XPV^^^^> '^P^S 
Be /cat rrj? oipeajs Kal rrjs dKorjs avrrjs dpiviqarlav 
KaTayyeXXofiev. rjTaLpr]Kev vfilv ra cSra, Treirop- 
vevKaoLV ol 6(f)daXjjLOL Kal to KaivoTepov rrpo ttj? 
ovfiTrXoKT]? at oi/jets vpiZv p,ep.0LX^VKa(nv. d) jStaaa- 
fjLevoi TOV dvdpcDTTOv Kal TO evdeov tov TrAacr/xaros" 
eXeyx^i' dirapd^avTe?, TrdvTa aTrtaretre, tva eKira- 
dalvrjade- Kal maTeveTe^ p.ev rot? etScuAot? l,r]XovvTes 

^ Tn<TT€veT£ Arcerius. TnarevrjTe MSS. 

" i.e. bound with the invisible chains which Hephaestus 
had made to entrap her, Odyssey viii. 270-299. 

* Demosthenes, Olynthiacs iii. 19. 

« i.e. in houses ; see p. 137. 
138 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

lies bound in her adultery.* Also, to show they chap. 
approve the representation of effeminacy, they ^^ 
engrave in the hoops of their rings the amorous bird indecent 
hovering over Leda, using a seal which reflects the on ruTgs 
licentiousness of Zeus. These are the patterns for 
your voluptuousness ; these are the stories that give 
divine sanction for wanton living; these are the 
lessons taught by gods who are fornicators like 
yourselves. " For what a man desires, that he also 
imagines to be true," says the Athenian orator.^ 
Look, too, at other of your images, — little figures Shameful 
of Pan, naked girls, drunken satyrs ; and obscene afd?ewd 
emblems, plainly exhibited in pictures, and self- pictures 
condemned by their indecency. More than that, fn'piwfc 
you behold without a blush the postures of the 
whole art of licentiousness openly pictured in public. 
But when they are hung on high '^ you treasure them And in 
still more, just as if they were actually the images ^^^^^^ 
of your gods ; for you dedicate these monuments 
of shamelessness in your homes, and are as eager to 
procure paintings of the postures of Philaenis as 
of the labours of Heracles. We declare that not 
only the use, but also the sight and the very 
hearing of these things should be forgotten. Your 
ears have committed fornication ; your eyes have 
prostituted themselves ; '^ and, stranger still, before 
the embrace you have committed adultery by your 
looks.^ You who have done violence to man, and Unbelief 
erased by dishonour the divine image in which of'wiTat^ir 
he was created, you are utter unbelievers in order base 
that you may give way to your passions. You believe 
in the idols because you crave after their incontinence; 

<* Cp. 2 St. Peter ii. 14. « Cp. St. Matthew v. 28. 

F 139 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. avTcJov rr]v cLKpaaiav, aTnareZre he rco Oeco Goxbpo- 
crvv-qv fir] <j)€povres' kol ra fiev Kpeirroj p,€fJLior]Kar€, 
TO. 8e riTTOj reTLfi-qKare, dper-qs /xev dearai, /ca/cta? 
Se ayoiviGTal yeyevrjixevoL . 

64 P. ""OX^LOl" I fJLOVOL TOLVVV, d)S €TTOS 6L7T6LV, OfXO- 

dvfxahov eK€ivoL Trdvres Kara rrjv Hi^vXXav 

ot vaovs <iJLev>^ Trdvras OLTrapviqaovTat, IBovres 
/cat pajfJLOv?, etVata Xidojv ISpyfiara kcj^ojv, 
Kal Xidiva ^oava Kal dyaXfiara xeipoTToiriTa, 
at/xart epL^v^co fiefjuaafieva Kal dvaiaiai 
TeTpaTToScDV, SlttoScov, 7TT7]va)V Orjpcov re (povoLorLV. 

Kal yap Br) Kal aTTrjyopevraL rjfilv dva(f)avSov 
drrarrjXov epydl,ea6ai rexvr]v, " ov yap rroLT^aeis," 
<f)r]crlv 6 7Tpo(f>T^rr]g, " rravros 6iJL0La>pLa, oaa ev rip 
ovpavcp dvco kol ocra ev rfj yfj Kdroj." rj ttov y av 
en rrju Ilpa^LreXovs /S.-qixrjrpa Kal Kdpryv /cat rov 
"laK^ov rov jJLvariKov deovs vTroXd^oLfiev 7) ras 
AvaiTTTTOV rexvdS '^) rds x^^pa? rds 'ATreAAt/ca?, at 
817 rrj? deoho^las ro gx^I^o, rfj vXtj TrepireOeiKaaiv; 
dXX Vjxels jJiev ottojs vore 6 dvSpids on pidXiara 
ojpaioraros reKralvrjrai, TrpooKaprepeZrey ottojs Se 
avTOt /XT7 opLOLOL 8t* dvaiodrjGLav rots dvSotdGLV 
dTToreXeGdrjre , ov (f>povril,ere- Trdvv yovv e}X(j>avios 
Kal GVvrojJLCos 6 TTpocfyrfriKos eXeyx^i rrjv GW-qdeiav 
Xoyos on "Trdvres ol deol rdv eQvQ>v SaifJLOVLOJV 
€lgIv etSajXa' 6 Se deos rovs ovpavovs eTToirjGev" 

^ <jj.hy inserted from Sibylline Oracles. 
^ Kal Xidiva . . . x^'PO'^oiTjra not in Sibylline Oracles. 

a Sibylline Oracles iv. 24, 27-30. 
140 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

you disbelieve in God because you cannot bear self- chap. 
control. You have hated the better, and honoured ^^ 
the worse. You have shown yourselves onlookers 
with regard to virtue, but active champions of vice. 

The only men, therefore, who can with one con- christians 
sent, so to speak, be called ^^ blessed," are all those alone are 
whom the Sibyl describes, 

Who, seeing the temples, will reject them all, 
And altars, useless shrines of senseless stones ; 
Stone idols too, and statues made by hand 
Defiled with blood yet warm, and sacrifice 
Of quadruped and biped, bird and beast." 

What is more, we are expressly forbidden to practise They are 
a deceitful art. For the prophet says, " Thou shalt ^^l^^^^^ ^ 
not make a likeness of anything that is in heaven 
above or in the earth beneath." ^ Is it possible that 
we can still suppose the Demeter and Persephone 
and the mystic lacchus of Praxiteles to be gods ? 
Or are we to regard as gods the masterpieces of 
Lysippus or the works of Apelles, since it is these 
which have bestowed upon matter the fashion of 
the divine glory ? But as for you, while you take 
great pains to discover how a statue may be shaped 
to the highest possible pitch of beauty, you never 
give a thought to prevent yourselves turning out like 
statues owing to want of sense. Any way, with the 
utmost plainness and brevity the prophetic word 
refutes the custom of idolatry, when it says, " All the 
gods of the nations are images of daemons ; but 
God made the heavens,"^ and the things in heaven. 



* Exodus XX. 4 ; Deuteronomy v. 8, 
" Psalm xcvi. 5. 



141 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Kol TO. iv T(x> ovpavo). TrXavdofievoL yovv rives ev- 
revOev ovk otS' ottcos Oeiav /xev rexv-qv, 7tX7]v dAA' ov 
Oeov TrpocTKVVovoLV -qXiov re kol aeXt^vqv Kal rov 
dXXov rojv aarepcov -xppov, rrapaXoycos rovrovs 
Oeovs VTToXajjL^dvovreg , ra opyava rod XP^^^'^' 
" ro) yap Xoycp avrov earepecoOrjaav Kal ra> 
TTvevjJiarL rod arojJLaro? avrov Trdoa rj Swa/xt? 
avrojv." aAA* r) fxev avdpcxjrreia re^yr] otVta? re Kal 
vavg Kal TToXei? Kal ypa(f)as SrjiiLovpyeL, deos Se 
TTCos av e'iTTOLfjLL ooa TTOiel; oXov the rov Koap^ov^ 
eKeivov epyov eartv' Kal ovpavos Kal tJXlos koI ay- 

65 p. yeXoi Kal avOpcoTTOi " epya ra>v SaKrvXcov \ avrov." 
6(77] ye Tj Swa/xts" rov deov. pLOVov avrov ro ^ov- 
XrjpLa KoopiOTToda- p,6vos yap 6 6e6s eTTolrjaev, eirei 
Kal pLovos 6vrcx>s earl Oeog' i/jlXo) rep ^ovXeaOai 
hrjpLiovpyeZ Kal rep puovov eOeXrjoai avrov eirerai 
ro yeyevrjaO ai. evravOa (j>iXoo6(j>(jov rraparpeTrerai 
Xopos TTpos piev rrjv ovpavov deav TrayKaXajs 
yeyovevai rov dvOpojTTOV opLoXoyovvrcov, rd Se ev 
ovpavcp (f)aLv6pLeva Kal oifset KaraXapi^avopieva rrpoa- 
Kvvovvrcov. el yap Kal pirj dvOpojiriva rd epya 
rd ev ovpavaj, dXXd yovv dvOpcoTTOLS SeSrjpiLOvp- 
yrqrai. Kal pcrj rov yjXiov rt? vpLcov TrpoaKweirWy 
dXXd rov rjXiOV TTOirjrrjv eTnTToOecraj, pirjSe rov 
KoapLOV eK6eiat,era), aAAo. rov KoupLOV SrjpLLOVpyov 
e7nt,7]r7]Gdra) . piovr] dpa, cb? eoiKev, Kara^vyr] rd) 
pieXXovri errl rds aojrr]piovs dcjuKvelaOaL Svpas 
VTToXeLTTeraL ao^ia Be'iKrj' evrevdev ojoTrep e^ tepov 
nvog dtrvXov ovSevl ovKen dywyupLos rd)V haipLOVcov 
6 dv6po)7TOS yiver ai onevScov els aatrrjpiav. 

« See Genesis i. 14. 
142 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Some, it is true, starting from this point, go astray, — chap. 
I know not how, — and worship not God but His g^J^ ^^^^ 
handiwork, the sun, moon, and the host of stars worship the 
besides, absurdly supposing these to be gods, though Sis ^ 
they are but instruments for measuring time ; "> for j^^J*'^^ °^ 
" by His word were they firmly established ; and all 
their power by the breath of His mouth." ^ But 
while human handiwork fashions houses, ships, cities, 
paintings, how can I speak of all that God creates? 
See the whole universe ; that is His work. Heaven, These are 
the sun, angels and men are '' the works of His ^aidi^oi 
fingers." '^ How great is the power of God ! His 
mere will is creation ; for God alone created, since 
He alone is truly God. By a bare wish His work is 
done, and the world's existence follows upon a single 
act of His will. Here the host of philosophers turn 
aside, when they admit that man is beautifully made 
for the contemplation of heaven,^^ and yet worship the 
things which appear in heaven and are apprehended 
by sight. For although the heavenly bodies are not 
the works of man, at least they have been created for 
man. Let none of you worship the sun ; rather let seek after 
him yearn for the maker of the sun. Let no one deify Jfo^^tJ"*^ 
the universe ; rather let him seek after the creator works of 
of the universe. It seems, then, that but one refuge ^°*^ 
remains for the man who is to reach the gates of salva- 
tion, and that is divine wisdom. From thence, as from 
a holy inviolate temple, no longer can any daemon 
carry him off, as he presses onward to salvation. 

* Psalm xxxiii. 6. " Psalm viii. 3. 

^ Cp. Cicero, De natura deorum ii. 140 " Providence . . , 
made men upright and erect, that by contemplating the 
heavens they might gain a knowledge of the gods." See 
also Ovid, Metamorph. i. 83-6. 

143 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 



ras So^as, ooag avxovai nepl rcJov deaJv, et ttcos 
Kal (f)LXo(JO(f)Lav avTYjV KCVoBo^la? eVe/cev dveiSojXo- 
TTOLOvaav rrjv vXrjv ecjjevpcDiiev, ri ^ /cat Sat/xovta 
arra eK6eiat,ovaav Kara rrapaSpofxrjv Trapaarrjaai 
Svv7]da)fX€v oveipcjTTOvaav rrjv dXiqdeLav. aroix^Za 
fi€v ovv dpxoL? diriXiTTOV ^ i^vpLvqaavTes QaXrj? 
6 MtAi7CTtos' TO vScop /cat ^Ava^ LpLevrjs 6 /cat 
avTos MlXtJglos tov depa, cS ^Loyeviqs varepov 6 
^ATToXXcjDVidiTrjs KaTrjKoXovdrj(j€V. YiappievLSr^g 8e o 
'EAeaTT^? Oeovs elGr^yTJaaro TTvp /cat yrjv, ddr^pov he 
avToZv pLovov,^ TO TTvp, deov v7r€LXr)(f)arov "iTTTracrog 
re 6 MeTa770VTtvos' /cat o *E</>eo-tos' *Hpa/cAetTos"* 
'EjLt7r£8o/cA?ys" yap 6 ^ AKpayavrtvos els TrXrjdos 
66 P. epLTTeaojv 7rp6? rots rerrapaL (7to(,\x€lols tovtols 
velKOS /cat ^iXiav KaTapiOpLeZrai. 

"Adeoi piev Srj /cat ovtol, Gocf)ia nvl dao^co Trjv 
vXrjV TTpoaKwrjaavre? /cat XiOovs piev r] ^vXa ov 
TLpLTjoavreg , yrjv he r-qv rovrcov pirqrepa eKOeLaaavres 
/cat IlocretSctJva piev ovk dvaTrXdrrovres , vhcup he 
avTO TTpoarpeTTopievoi . ri ydp eari nore 6 * Uoaeihajv 
rj vypd ns ovoia e/c rrjs iToaeojs ovopiaroTroLovpLevr] ; 
wairep dpieXei 6 rroXepLLOs "Ap-qs dno rrjs dpaeojs 

1 fl Diels. d Mss. 
^ dir^XiTrov Cobet. ciTrAeiTroj' MSS. 
3 /xovov Sylburg, jxbvoLv mss. 
* irore 6 Wilamowitz. wpdrepov jiss, irepov Mayor. 

" i.e. gets a feeble grasp of it. Cp. Plutarch, De Is. et 
Osir. 383 f *' The souls of men, while on earth and en- 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 



Let us now, if you like, run through the opinions The 
which the philosophers, on their part, assert con- pS^oso-^ °' 
fidently about the gods. Perchance we may find phers 
philosophy herself, through vanity, forming her con- 
ceptions of the godhead out of matter ; or else we 
may be able to show in passing that, when deifying 
certain divine powers, she sees the truth in a dream.* 
Some philosophers, then, left us the elements as Early 
first principles of all things. Water was selected p|||,'°^sup- 
for praise by Thales of Miletus ; air by Anaximenes posed the 
of the same city, who was followed afterwards by to^blfhrst 
Diogenes of ApoUonia. Fire and earth were intro- principles 
duced as gods by Parmenides of Elea ; but only one 
of this pair, namely fire, is god according to the 
supposition of both Hippasus of Metapontum and 
Heracleitus of Ephesus. As to Empedocles of 
Acragas, he chooses plurality, and reckons " love " 
and " strife " in his list of gods, in addition to these 
four elements. 

These men also were really atheists,^ since with a They aro 
foolish show of wisdom they worshipped matter, atheists 
They did not, it is true, honour stocks or stones, ^^^//J.^^^^jf^ 
but they made a god out of earth, which is the mother urst cau^e 
of these. They do not fashion a Poseidon, but they 
adore water itself. For what in the world is 
Poseidon, except a kind of liquid substance named 
from posis, drink } Just as, without a doubt, warlike 

cumbered by bodies and passions, can have no companion- 
ship with God, except in so far as they get a dim dream of 
Him through the aid of philosophy." 
* See p. 4^7 with note. 

145 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. /cat avaipeaeajs KeKX-qixivos, fj kol hoKovai jjlol 
TToXXol ixaXidra to ^i^os fiouov Trrj^avres eTnOvecv 
(1)S "Apei- ean Se HjKvdcav to tolovtov, Kaddnep 
EuSo^o? eV SevT€pa Trjs ^ Trepiohov Aeyet, ILkvBwv 8e 
OL ZiavpofioLTaL, 60? ^TjGLv 'I/ceCTto? eV to) irepl 
fjLvaTrjplojv, aKLvaK-qv o4^ovaiv. tovto tol Kal ol 
dfi(f>L TOP 'YlpaKXeiTov to irvp (Ls apx^yovov 

0€^OVT€£ TTeTTOvdaOLV TO ydp TTVp TOVTO €T€pOL 

"H^atcrrov (Lvo/jiaaav. JJepocov Se ol pidyoL to 
TTvp TeTLpirjKaGL /cat Taju Trjv ^Acrlav KaTOtKovvTOJV 
TToXXoi, TTpos Se /cat Ma/ceSoi/e?, co? ^T7crt AioyeVr]? 
ev a riepcrt/caJv. rt /uot Saupo/xara? /caraAeyeti', 
ous" H^VfjicJioSajpos iv NofMLfiOLs ^apj^apiKoZs to rrvp 
ae^eiv cGTopeX, i] tovs Uepuas /cat tovs M-rjSovs /cat 
Tous" fxayovs ; dveiv ev VTraldpo) tovtovs 6 Ali^cov 
Aeyet, ^ecov ayaA/xara /xova to 77u/3 /cat i'Sa)/3 vojxlI^ov- 
ras". ou/c dTreKpvi/jdpLrjv ov8e ttjv tovtcov dyvoLav. 
€L yap /cat Ta fxaXiGTa d7T0(f)€vy€LV otovTai Trjs 
67 P. TrXdvrjs, dXX etV eVepav KaToXiodaivovGiv \ dndT-qv' 
dydXpLGTa fxev dewv ov ^vXa /cat XlOovs VTreiXi^ffjaGLV 
ojGTTep "EAAi^ves" ovhe fxrjv t/3tSa? /cat IxvevpLovas 
KaOdirep AlyvTTTLOL, dXXd irvp t€ /cat vSojp (Lg 
(jiiXoGocfioi . /xeTo, 77oAAas" fievTOL VGTepov TTepioSovs 
eTCJV avdpcoTroeihrj dyaA/xaTa Ge^eiv avTOVs B'qpcoG- 
^ Vt]s Diels. Trjs uss. (See p, 44, n. 3.) 

" Cp. Plutarch, Amatorius 757 b " Chrysippus says 
that Ares is anairesis" (so Petersen : wss. have anairsin = to 
destroy). The endeavour to find meanings in the names 
of the gods has its hterary origin in Plato's Cratyhis (esp. 
pp. 395-413). The Stoics found in this method a support 
for their doctrine that the gods of mythology were merely 
personified natural forces or processes. See Cicero, Le 
natura deorum ii. 63-72. 
146 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Ares is so called from arsis and anairesis,^ abolition chap. 
and destruction ; which is the chief reason, I think, ^ 
why many tribes simply fix their sword in the ground 
and then offer sacrifice to it as if to Ares. Such is 
the custom of Scythians, as Eudoxus says in his 
second book of Geography,^ while the Sauromatians, 
a Scythian tribe, worship a dagger, according to 
Hicesius in his book on Mysteries.'^ This too is the 
case with the followers of Heracleitus when they 
worship fire as the source of all ; for this fire is what 
others named Hephaestus. The Persian Magi and Many 
many of the inhabitants of Asia have assigned ^oSSp &-e 
honour to fire ; so have the Macedonians, as Diogenes 
says in the first volume of his Persian History.^ Why 
need 1 instance Sauromatians, whom Nymphodorus 
in Barbarian Customs ^ reports as worshipping fire ; 
or the Persians, Medes and Magi } Dinon says that 
these Magi sacrifice under the open sky, believing 
that fire and water are the sole emblems of divinity./ 
Even their ignorance I do not conceal ; for although 
they are quite convinced that they are escaping the 
error of idolatry, yet they slip into another delusion. 
They do not suppose, like Greeks, that stocks and 
stones are emblems of divinity, nor ibises and ich- 
neumons, after the manner of Egyptians ; but they Worship of 
admit fire and water, as philosophers do. It was fj'much^'^*^ 
not, however, till many ages had passed that they P^^^"^ t^^"^ 
began to worship statues in human form, as Berosus woilwp 

* Eudoxus, Fr. 16 Brandes {Jahrb. class. Phil. 1847, Suppl. 
13, p. 223). 

" Hicesius, Fr. 1 Fraq. hist. Chraec. iv. p. 429. 
<* Diogenes of Cyzicus, Fr. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. iv, p. 392. 
e Nymphodorus, Fr. 14 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 379. 
•^ Dinon, Fr. 9 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 91. 

f2 147 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. GO? iv rpLTTj XaASal'/ccuv TrapiorriaL, rovTO 'Apra- 
^ ^ip^ov rod Aapeiov rod "Q-x^^ elar^yrjaaiJLevov, os 
TTpcoTOS rrjs AcfypoBiTT]? 'AvatriSo? ^ to dyaXjJia 
avaGTrjaa? iv BajSuAcovt /cat Soucrots" Koi 'E/c- 
^ardvoLS Hepaai? /cat Ba/crpot? /cat Aa/xaa/coj /cat 
EapSeatv vTrehei^e ae^eiv. ofioXoyovvrcov roivvv 
ol (j)L\6ao(j)Oi Tovs SiSaCT/caAou? tous' cr^oiv IlepCTas' "^ 
Havpofidras 'q fxdyov?, Trap* cLv rrjv dOeor-qra rait' 
oe^aafJiLCov avrols pLejiadiqKaoiv dpxd)V, dp^ovra tov 
Trdvrojv TTOirjTrjv /cat rwv dpxdJv avrcov Srjjjiiovp- 
yov dyvoovvres, rov dvapxov Oeov, rd Se " Trrcoxd" 
ravra /cat " dadevrj," fj (p7]aLV 6 dTTooToXos, rd els 
rrjv dv6pd)7TOJV viTiqpeaiav TreTTOtT^/xeVa " crTOt;\;eta" 
TTpoorpeiTOiievoi. 

Tcuv Se dXXcov cf)LXoa6(f)a>v oaoi rd aroix^la 
VTrep^dvre? eTroXvTTpayjjLovrjadv n vi/j-qXorepov /cat 
nepurrorepov, ol puev avrdiv ro drreipov Ka6vf.Lvrj(jav, 
(Ls ^Ava^ijJLavSpos (MtATjcrto? -qv) /cat 'Avafaydpa? 
d KXal,o[jLevLOS /cat d ^AOrjvalos ^ Apx^Xao? . rovroj 
jLteV ye aft^a> rov vovv eTreorrjodr-qv rfj drreipia, 
6 8e MtAi^CTto? AevKLTTTTOs /Cat d Xto? MrjrpoSojpos 
Strra?, cos" eot/cev, /cat avrcu apx^^? dTreXiTrerrjv , ro 
TrXrjpes /cat rd /cevdv TrpoaeOrjKe Se Xa^cbv Tovroiv 
rolv hvelv rd etSojAa d ^A^Srjplrrjs ArjiJLOKpiroS' d 

68 P. yap TOt KpoTCuvtctTT]? 'AA/c/xato^v I deovs coero rovs 
darepas elvai ipufjvxovs ovras. ov atojTn^cro/xat rr^v 
rovrcjv dvaiax'^vriav ^evoKpdrrjs (KaA;^T]Sdi'to? 
OTTOS') inrd pikv deovs rovs TrXavi^ras, oySoov Se 

^ 'AfaiTidos Bochart. rapatoos mss. 



" Berosus, Fr. 16 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 508. 
* Galatians iv. 9. 



148 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

shows in his third book of Chaldaean Histoi-y ; « for chap. 

this custom was introduced by Artaxerxes the son of ^ 

Darius and father of Ochus, who was the first to set 

up the statue of Aphrodite Anaitis in Babylon^ Susa 

and Ecbatana^and to enjoin this worship upon Persians 

and Bactrians_, upon Damascus and Sardis. Let the pwioso 

philosophers therefore confess that Persians^ Sauro- f(Jj.e^^e?^^*' 

matianSj and Magi are their teachers, from whom this 

they have learnt the atheistic doctrine of their ?rom™^ 

venerated "first principles." The great original, barbarians 

the maker of all things, and creator of the " first 

principles" themselves, God without beginning, 

they know not, but offer adoration to these " weak 

and beggarly elements," * as the apostle calls them, 

made for the service of men. 

Other philosophers went beyond the elements and other 
sought diligently for a more sublime and excellent pher^g^*^" 
principle. Some of them celebrated the praises of sought for 
the Infinite, as Anaximander of Miletus, Anaxagoras priidpfe 
of Clazomenae, and Archelaus of Athens. The two ^^^ infinite 
latter agreed in placing Mind above the Infinite ; Mind 
while on the other hand Leucippus of Miletus and 
Metrodorus of Chios also left, as it seems, a pair of 
first principles, " fulness " and "void." Democritus Fulness 
of Abdera took these two and added to them the ^°*^ ^""^^ 
" images." '^ Nor was this all; Alcmaeon of Croton 
thought that the stars were endowed with life, and The stars 
therefore gods. 1 will not refrain from mentioning as gSs"^^* 
the audacity of these others. Xenocrates of Chalcedon 
intimates that the planets are seven gods and that 

'' The theory of Democritus was that all natural objects 
gave oiF small particles of themselves, which he called 
"images." These came into contact with the organs of 
sense and were the cause of perception. 

149 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rov €K TTOvroiv Ta)V arrXavchv ^ avvearchra KoafjLOV 
alvLTrerai. ovhe firjv rovs oltto rrjg ILrods rrap- 
eAevcTO/xat 8ta Trdarjs vXrjg, Kal Sta rrjs OLTLfiOTdTr]?, 
TO deZov 8nqK€LV Xeyovra?, ot KaraiGX^vovaiv 
are^^vco? rrjv ^L\oao(j>Lav . ovhkv 8e ot/xat ;\;aAe7rov 
evravda yevofxevos kol raJv e'/c rov YlepLTTaTOV 
IxvrjaOrjvai,- Kal 6 ye rrjs alpeoeojs Trarr^p, tojv 
6Xcx)v ov vorjaas rov trarepa, rov KaXovfievov 
" VTrarov" ^vx^^ elvai rod navros olerar rovr- 
ecrrt tov kogjiov ttjv ijjv)(rjv Oeov VTroXafi^dvixiv 
avro? avTO) TrepiTTeiperai. o yap rot P'€.-)(pi rrjg 
GeXrjvri's avrrj? hiopil^cjDV ttjv TrpovoiaVy eVetra tov 
KOGfjLOV 9e6v -qyovfxevo? TrepLTpeTreraL, rov ajJiOipov 
rod dead Oeov SoyfiaTLZ,(jov. 6 he 'Epecrto? eKelvos 
Qe6(f)paGTO? 6 ^ ApLGToreXovs yvojpLjxo? tttj fiev 
ovpavov, TTTJ 8e TTvevixa tov Oeov virovoeZ. 'Ettikoi;- 
pov [xev yap fiovov Kal eKojv eKXrJGOfxai, o? ovSev ^ 
jjLeXetv o'leTai tco Oeo), Sid TrdvTOJV doe^aJv. tl yap 
^HpaKXelSrjs 6 Uovtlkos; €gO^ ottt] ovk eVt ra 
A7]ixoKpLTOV Kal avTos KaTaGvpeTat etSwXa; 



VI 

Kat TToXvs fJLOL cTTLppeZ TOLovros oxXos, otovel 
pbopfio) TLva, haipiOVLtov rrapeiGdyajv ^evcov aTorrov 

^ TU)v air\avu}v Davies. avrQv mss. &<XTpwv Diels. 
^ ov5h Lowth, ovbk mss. 

<» i.e. Aristotle, 

* Aristotle sharply divided the celestial spheres, which 
were the divine part of the universe, from the sublunary- 
world, in which alone birth, death, and change take place. 
The laws governing the upper world are necessarily different 
from those of the lower. Zeller {Aristotle, i. 308, n. 3, Eng. 

150 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

the ordered arrangement of the fixed stars is an chap. 
eighth. Nor will 1 omit the Stoics, who say that the rj^ygt^ojg 
divine nature permeates all matter, even in its lowest doctrine : 
forms ; these men simply cover philosophy with maJin" in 
shame. At this point there is, I think, nothing to all things 
hinder me from mentioning the Peripatetics also. The Peri- 
The father of this sect,'* because he did not perceive doctrine • 
the Father of all things, thinks that he who is called God the ' 
the "Highest" is the soul of the universe; that is Se'ii?^ 
to say, he supposes the soul of the world to be God, 
and so is pierced with his own sword. For he first 
declares that providence extends only as far as the 
moon ; then by holding the opinion that the universe 
is God he contradicts himself, asserting that that 
which has no share in God is God.^ Aristotle's 
disciple, the celebrated Theophrastus of Eresus, 
suspects in one place that God is heaven, and else- 
where that God is spirit. Epicurus alone I will Epicurns: 
banish from memory, and that willingly, for he, ^are for the 
pre-eminent in impiety, thinks that God has no care world 
for the world. What of Heracleides of Pontus ? 
Is there a single place where he too is not drawn 
away to the " images " of Democritus ? 



VI 

And a vast crowd of the same description swarms Many other 
upon me, bringing in their train, like a nightmare, an docS^s 

trans.) says : " Both Christian and heathen opponents have attention 
distorted this to mean that the Divine Providence reaches 
only as far as the moon and does not extend to the earth. 
How far this representation agrees with the true AristoteHan 
doctrine may be gathered from what has been already said, 
at pp. 403, 410, and 421." 

151 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAT. (jKiaypacfiLav, jjivOoXoyaJi' ^ vOXco ypaiKco' ttoXKov 
ye Set avhpdaiv iTTcrpeTreiv aKpodudai tolovtojv 
XoyojVj ot fji-qbe tovs TralSas rovs eavr ajv, tovto 
81) TO XeyofJLevoVy KXavOixvpit^oyLevovs idl^ofjiev rrap- 
rjyopetodai pivOl^ovres, oppojhovvres auvavarpe^etv 
avToZs aOeorrjTa ttjv irpos rcov Sokt]glg6(I)ojv ^ 
Br) TOVTOJV KarayyeXXofjievYjv, fjLTjSev ri vqiriojv 
fidXXov TdXr]des elSorajv. rl yap, cu irpos rrjs 
dX-qOelag, tovs crot -neTnGrevKor as heiKvueis pvoei 
/cat (j)opa^ hivais re dra/crots" * VTro^e^X-qixevovs ; ri 
he fjLOi elhojXojv dvaTTLfjLTTXrj? rov ^iov, dvejjLovg re 
T) depa 7) TTvp Tj yrjv 7) XlOovs t^ ^vXa r) alSrjpov, 
KOGjjiov rovSe, Oeovs dvanXdrrovGa, deovs Se /cat 
rovs aGrepas rovs TrXavTjras, rots ovrojs TrenXa- 
V7]fjievocs rcjv dvdpojrrojv hid rrjs rroXvd pvXrjrov 
ravriqs dGrpoXoylas, ovk dGrpovofiias, fjLerewpo- 

69 P XoyovGa /cat dhoXeoxovGa; \ rov Kvpiov rwv TTvev- 
fjidrojv TTodo), rov Kvpiov rod Trvpos, rov KOGpLOV 
hrjfJLLOvpyoVy rov rjXiOV (ficoraycoyov deov eTTt^T^roj, 
ov rd epya rov deov. riva hrj Xd^o) napd gov 
Gvvepydv rrjs ^rjriJGecos; ov yap TravrdnaGLV 
dneyvcoKajjiev Ge. el ^ovXec, rov HXdrwva. irfj 
hr] ovv €^L)(yevreov rov Oeov, w IlXdrojv; "rov 
yap TTarepa /cat TTOLrjrrjV rovhe rov rravros evpelv 

^ fivOoXoyuv Mayor. fxvdoXoywv >jss. 
^ SoK7)aia6<pwv Potter. doK-qaeiaocpoji' mss, 
^ (popa Miinzel. cpdopa mss. 
* 5ivais re araKTois Heyse. bewah re koI draKTois MSS. 

« The doctrine of "flux" was taught by Heracleitus in 
his well-known phrase, " All things flow " {wdi'Ta pel). 
"Motion" and "irregular vortices" refer to Anaxagoras, 
who supposed the primitive elements to have been set in 

152 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

absurd picture of strange daemons, and romancing chap. 
with all an old wife's extravagance. Far indeed ^^ 
are we from allowing grown men to listen to such 
tales. Even to our own children, when they are 
crying their heart out, as the saying goes, we are 
not in the habit of telling fabulous stories to soothe 
them ; for we shrink from fostering in the children 
the atheism proclaimed by these men, who, though 
wise in their own conceit, have no more know- 
ledge of the truth than infants. Why, in the 
name of truth, do you show those who have put their 
trust in you that they are under the dominion of 
"flux" and "motion" and "fortuitous vortices".'"* 
Why, pray, do you infect life with idols, imagining 
winds, air, fire, earth, stocks, stones, iron, this world it- 
self to be gods } Why babble in high-flown language 
about the divinity of the wandering stars to those 
men who have become real wanderers through this 
much-vaunted, — I will not call it astronomy, but 
— astrology ? I long for the Lord of the winds, the 
Lord of fire, the Creator of the world. He who gives 
light to the sun. I seek for God Himself, not for 
the works of God. Whom am I to take from you 
as fellow worker in the search ? For we do not 
altogether despair of you. "Plato," if you like. Piato is i 
How, then, Plato, must we trace out God.? "It is ^^^^ 
a hard task to find the Father and Maker of this 



rotatory motion by Mind (vovs). This theory is ridiculed by 
Aristophanes, Clouds 828 " Vortex has ousted Zeus, and 
reigns as king." Vortex motion was also a part of the 
" atomic theory " of Leucippus, Atoms of various size and 
shape constantly impinging upon cue another in empty 
space would give rise to countless vortices, each of which 
might be the beginning of a world. 

153 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. re epyov koI evpovra et? aTTavras iienrelv dhwarov." 
bta Tt oryra, co irpos avTOv; p-qrov ^ yap ovoapiOJS 
iuTiV." ev ye, (L HXdrcov, erra^duai rrj? dXrjdelas' 
dAAa fjLT] aTTOKaiJiy]?' ivv {xol Xa^ov Trjg ^rjrrjaecos 
rdyadov Trepi' TrdaLV yap aTra^aTrXcos dvdpojTTOLS, 
[xdXiara Se tols Trepl Xoyovs evhiarpi^ovoiv iuearaK- 
rai Tis drroppoia OeuKr). ov hrj x^P^^ '^^^ aKovres 
jLtev opioXoyovGLV eva ye ^ elvai Beov, dvcoXedpov /cat 
dyevriTOV rovrov, dvoj ttov Trepi ra vcora rod 
ovpavov ev rfj Ihia Kal olKeia TreptajTrfj ovtojs 
ovra del. 

Oeov he TToloVy elrre fioi, vo-qreov ; 

Tov rravd^ opcovra KavTov ovx opcofievov, 

EiVpLTTihrj? Xeyei. TreTrXavrjadai yovv 6 MeVa^Spo? 
iioi hoKel, evda (f)r]GiV 

'qXie, ae yap Bel irpoaKwelv irpihrov decov, 
St* 6v Oecopelv eon tovs dXXovs deovs' 

ovSe yap tJXlos e-nihei^ei ttot av tov deov rov 
dXrjOrj, 6 Se Xoyos 6 vyirjs, o? eoTLV tJXlos ipvxrjSy 
8t' ov fJLOvov evSov dvareiXavros ev rep ^ddeu rod 
vov ^ avrrjs * Karavydl,eraL ro ofJLjJLa' odev ovk (itt- 
eiKoTCJS 6 Ary/xd/cptro? " rinv Xoyiojv dvdpcoTTOJV 

^ prjTop from Plato, prjriov mss. 

2 76 Schwartz, re mss. 

3 TOV vov Cobet. TOV vov Kai TOV vo6s MSS. 

* avTTJs KroU. avTov mss. 



« Plato, Tlmaeus 28 c. 
* Plato, Epistles vii. p, 341 c. 

>= Literally "the back" of the heavens. The phrase 
comes from Plato, Phaedrm 2 17 c. Both Plato and Clement 



154 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

universe, and when you have found Him, it is im- chap. 
possible to declare Him to all."* Why, pray, in ^^ 
God's name, why ? ^' Because He can in no way be 
described." ^ Well done, Plato, you have hit the 
truth. But do not give up. Join me in the search for 
the good. For there is a certain divine effluence a divine 
instilled into all men without exception, but ^^^5°^^ 
especially into those who spend their lives in thoughtful 
thought ; wherefore they admit, even though against ^n°es3 to 
their will, that God is One, that He is unbegotten ^"^"^^ 
and indestructible, and that somewhere on high in 
the outermost spaces'' of the heavens, in His own 
private watch-tower. He truly exists for ever. 

What nature, say, must man ascribe to God ? Euripides 

He seeth all ; yet ne'er Himself is seen, for instance 

says Euripides. ** Certainly Menander seems to me 
to be in error where he says, 

O Sun, thee must we worship, first of gods, 
Through whom our eyes can see the other gods.* 

For not even the sun could ever show us the true 

God. The healthful W^ord or Reason, who is the 

Sun of the soul, alone can do that ; through Him Democntua 

alone, when He has risen within in the depth of the some look 

mind, the soul's eye is illuminated. Whence h^^ten 

Democritus not unreasonably says that " a few men for God 

think of the heavens as a series of spheres revolving above 
the earth. The dwelling-place of God (or Plato's "real 
existence ") is on the outer side of the topmost sphere. See 
the whole passage, Phaedrus 246 d-249. 

<* Euripides, Frag. 1129 Nauck. 

« Menander, Frag. 609 Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. iii. 
p. 184. 

155 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. oXiyovs " (f)r]GLV " dvareivavTa? ras ;)(etpa? evravda 
ov vvv rjepa KaXeofiev ol "YAXiqves, [rravra] Ata /xu- 
deladai^' Kal <yap> iravra ovros otSev /cat 8t8ot 
<7TdvTa>^ Kal d^atpetrat, koI ^acriXevs ovros rwv 

^P' TrdvTCOv." ravrrj tttj kol YlXdrcDV \ Stavoovfievos 
rov Oeov alvirrerai " nepl rov -ndvrojv /3acrtAea 
Trdvr €GTL, KdKeZvo aLTiov dirdvTOJV <t(x)v>^ KaXojv." 
Tts" ovv 6 ^aciXevs rcov iravrajv ; Oeos rrjs rcov ovtojv 
dXrjdeias ro fxerpov. ayoTrep ovv rep /JLerpcp Kara- 
XrjTrrd rd jjierpovfieva, ovrcoal Se Kal rep vorjaai 
Tov deov fjierpelrai Kal KaraXapi^dverai r) dXi^deLa. 
6 8e Upog ovrcjs Mcouctt]? " ovk eorai," (j>riaiv, 
" ev ro) fiapGLTTTTcp GOV GrddjJLLOV Kal GrdOpiov fxeya 
Tj jjiiKpov, ovbe eGrai eV rfj oIklo. gov pcerpov pueya 
r) fXLKpov, dAA' 7) GrddjJLLOv dXrjdivov Kal OiKaiov 
ecrrat gol, GrdOfxiov Kal pierpov Kal dpcOpLov rd>v 
oXojv VTToXapi^dvojv rdv deov rd puev yap dhiKa 
Kac dvLGa et8a>Aa olkol ev rep pLapGLTTTTcp Kal ev rfj 
OJS eTTOs elnelv pvrrcoGrj ^^Xfj KaraKeKpvnrar ro 
8e p.6vov hiKaiov pierpov, 6 piovos ovrcos deo?, 'Igos 
del Kara rd avrd Kal ojGavroJS '^X^^> pierpet re ^ 
irdvra Kal GradpLarac, olovel rpvrdvr] rfj SiKatoGvin) 
rrjv rojv oXcdv dppeTTcos TrepiXapL^dvcov Kal dvexojv 
(f)VGLV. "6 pikv 8r) deos, oioirep Kal 6 TraXaios 
Xoyos, dpxriv < re >^ Kal reXevrrjv Kal pLeaa rdjv dvrcov 
drrdvrojv ex^jv, evdelav Trepaivei /card (/)vglv Trepi- 

^ Aia fivOdadat. Heinsius. dia/xvdeiadaL mss. 

^ Kal Kyapy irdvTa . . . Kal 5i8o? <jrdvTay (with omission of 
•jTdtj'Ta in previous line) Wilaraowitz. Kal irdvTa . , . Kal 
Sl8o2 Kal . , . MSS. 

^ <rwy> from Plato (but cp. Plotinus i. 8. 2). 

■* /xerpeire Wendland (cp. Plato, Laivs 643c). /xerpe^rai mss, 

* <re> from Piato, and Clement, ii. Strom. 132. 2. 
156 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

of reason "' stretch out their hands towards that chap. 

which we Greeks now call air and speak of it in ^^ 

legend as Zeus ; for Zeus knows all, he gives and 

takes away all, and he is king of all things." ^ Plato piato speaks 

also has a similar thought, when he says darkly ofau^hinas 

about God : " All things are around the king of all i.e. God 

things, and that is the cause of everything good."*' 

Who, then, is the king of all things ? It is God, 

the measure of the truth of all existence. As God is the 

therefore things measured are comprehended by the Si exiSe°ce 

measure, so also by the perception of God the truth 

is measured and comprehended. The truly sacred 

Moses says, " There shall not be in thy bag divers Moses 

weights, a great and a small, neither shall there be a|afns\ faiso 

in thy house a great measure and a small, but thou measures, 

shalt have a weight true and just." ** Here he is gods 

assuming God to be the weight and measure and 

number of the universe. For the unjust and unfair 

idols find a home hidden in the depths of the bag, 

or, as we may say, the polluted soul. But the one 

true God, who is the only just measure, because He God, the 

is always uniformly and unchangeably impartial,^ measure 

measures and weighs all things, encircling and sus- is ever 

taining in equilibrium the nature of the universe by pat.iedby 

His justice as by a balance. " Now God, as the pifj^^'g^^g 

ancient saying has it, holding the beginning and end 

and middle of all existence, keeps an unswerving 

« Kb^Lo% means learned^ but here it seems to refer back to 
X670S. 

* Democritus, Frag. 30 Diels, Vorsokratiker ii. pp. 70-1 
(1912). 

*= Plato, Epistles ii. p. 312 e. 

^ Deut. XXV. 13-15. 

See Plato, Phaedo 78 d. 

157 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTopevofJievog- ro)^ 8' aet ^vveTTerai hiK-q rwu oltto- 
X€i7TO}jL€va)v rod Oeiov vofiov rLfxajpos." TToOev, w 
YlXdrcoVy dX-r^deLav alvirrrj; irodev rj rcbv Xoycov 
d(f)6ovos x^PW^^ "^^ Oeoae^eiav fiavreverac ; aocfxL- 
T€pa, (jiTjoiv, TOVTiov ^ap^dpojv rd yevq. otbd uov 
Tovs hihaaKoXovs, Kav d7TOKpv7TT€Lv ideXr^s' yeco/jLe- 
rpiav Trap" AlyvTrricov p,avddveis, darpovo/jLiav Trapd 
Ba^vXcovLOJv , eVcoSas' rds vyceXs Trapd SpaKcov 
Xajx^dveis, TToXXd oe kol ^Aaavpioi TT^TraihevKaai, 
vofiovs Se Tov? oaoL dXrjOels /cat 86^av ttjv tov deov 
Trap^ avr(x)v (h<f)eXr](Tai rojv 'K^palcov, 

OLTLves ovK dirdrrjOL KCvaZs, ovS' epy* dvdpd)7Ta>v 
Xpvaea Kat xdXKeca /cat dpyvpov t]8' eXecfyavros 
/cat fuAtVcov Xidipajv re ^porcov etStoAa davovTOJV 
TLfiajGLV, oaa irep re Bporol Keveocbpovi BovXrj- 
aAAa yap aeipovai " Trpos ovpavov wAevas ayvas, \ 
6] P. opdpioi i^ evurjs, del XPooL dyvt^ovre? 

vhaai, /cat npLcooL fiovov rov del jxeSeovra 
dddvarov. 

Kat jjioi fxr) jjLovov, co <f)LXoGO(f)La, eva tovtov 
YiXarojvaj ttoXXov? Se /cat dXXovs TrapacrrrjaaL 
OTTOvSaaov, tov eva ovtojs jjlovov 6e6v dvacfjdey- 
yojjievovs Oedv /car' eVtWotav avrov, et ttov rrjs 
dXrjdeias eTTtSpd^aLvro. 'AvTiadevr]? [lev yap ov 
KvvLKOV Srj TOVTO ivevoTjaev, HwKpdrov? 8e are 
yvcjpLfjLos " deov ovhevl eot/ceVat" (fyiqaiv " Sionep 
avTov ovSels eKjjLadeiv e^ ecKovos SvvaraL." "Eevo- 

* TV from Plato and Clement, ii. Strom. 132. 2. tt}v jiss. 
2 6.eipov<TL Sibylline Oracles, atpovai >iss. 
158 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

path, revolving according to nature ; but ever there chap. 

follows along with him Right, to take vengeance ^^ 

on those who forsake the divine law."^' '^Whence, 

Plato, do you hint at the truth ? Whence comes it 

that this abundant supply of words proclaims as in 

an oracle the fear of God ? " "The barbarian races," 

he answers, "are wiser than the Greeks." * I know 

your teachers, even if you would fain conceal them. 

You learn geometry from the Egyptians, astronomy Sources 

from the Babylonians, healing incantations you obtain ^iSSm ^ 

from the Thracians, and the Assyrians have taught 

you much"; but as to your laws (in so far as they 

are true) and your belief about God, you have been His good 

helped by the Hebrews themselves : tZlhT 

Who honour not with vain deceit man's works 

Of gold and silver, bronze and ivory. 

And dead men's statues carved from wood and stone. 

Which mortals in their foolish hearts revere ; 

But holy hands to heaven each morn they raise 

From sleep arising, and their flesh they cleanse 

With water pure ; and honour Him alone 

Who guards them alway, the immortal God.« 

And now, O philosophy, hasten to set before me other 
not only this one man Plato, but many others also, J^erT" 
who declare the one only true God to be God, by proclaim 
His own inspiration, if so be they have laid hold of GiV^"^ 
the truth. Antisthenes, for instance, had perceived Antisthenes 
this, not as a Cynic doctrine, but as a result of his 
intimacy with Socrates ; for he says, " God is like 
none else, wherefore none can know him thoroughly 
from a likeness." <^ And Xenophon the Athenian Xeuophon 

« Plato, Laws 715 e, 716 a. * Phaedo 78 a. 

<= Sibylline Oracles iii. 586-588, 590-594. 
** Antisthenes, Frag. 2i Mullach, Fraff. phil. Graec. 11. 
p. 277. i 

159 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. (f)a>v 8e o *A6r]vaios htappr]hr]V av kol auro? TrepX 
rrjs aXiqOeias ey€'ypd(f)€L ^ ri fiaprvpchv co? TiCOKpdrr]?, 
€1 fiT] TO HajKpdrovg eSeStet (f)dpiJLaKov' ovSev 8e 
'^TTOV alvlrreraL. "6" yovv " rd Trdvra," (brjal, 
" aelajv /cat drpefiL^cov <x)S fJi€V fieyas ns Kal 
SvvaroSy (f)avep6s' ottolos Se rrjv^ fjiop(j>riv, dcf)avri^' 
ovBe ii7]v 6 7TaijL(f)arjs Sokojv ehat yjXLo? ouS* auras' 
€OiK€v opdv avrdv eTnrpiTreiv, dXX yjv rt? dvatScos 
avTov OedarjTai, rrjv oipiv d^atpetrat." ttoOcv dpa 
6 rod TpvXXov ao^it^erai t) S-qXaSrj Trapd rrjs 
7Tpo(j>riTihos TTJ? 'EjSpatcoy 6€OTnl,ov(jr]S o58e ttcos"; 
TtV ydp adp$ SvvaraL rov iirovpdviov kol dXrjdrj 
o^OaXjxoloiV IheZv deov dfi^porov, o? ttoXov oIk€l; 
dAA' ov8* aKTivajv Karevavriov rjeXloio 
dvdpojTTOi arrjvai SwaroL, dvrjrol yeyacores. 
KAedv^T]? Se o JlrjSaaevs,^ 6 aTTo rrjs Eroa? (j>iX6- 
GO<f)Os, ov deoyoviav TTOLrjTLK-^v, OeoXoylav Se dX7]dL- 
VTjv evheiKwrai. ovk dTTeKpvijjaro rov 6eov Trepc on 
7T€p elx^v (f)po]^a>v' 

rdyadov^ ipcoras p,^ ol6v ear ; aKove Sr^* 
reraypLevov, hiKaiov, oulov, evae^i?, 
Kparovv iavrov, -x^piqaipiov ^ koXov, hiov, | 
62 P avorrjpov, avOeKacrrov, del avpLcfjepov, 

dcbo^ov, dXvTTOV, XvatreXes, dvcoSvvov, 
(I)(f)€XipLOV , evdpearov, da^aAes", (J)lXov, 
evnpLOV, opLoXoyovpcei 



* * * * * 



* eyeypdcpeL Dindorf. avaypdipei MSS. 

^ U TT]v Stobaeus {Eclog. ii. 1). 5^ tis mss. 5' iarlv 
Clement, v. Strom. 108. 5. 

3 U.i]8affeus Wilamowitz (see Strabo xiii. p. 611). TicraSevs 

MSS. 

"* Tuyadbv Clement, v. Strom. 110. 3. d to dyaObv mss. 

160 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

would himself have written explicitly concerning the chap. 
truth, bearing his share of witness as Socrates did, ^^ 
had he not feared the poison which Socrates re- 
ceived ; none the less he hints at it. At least, he 
says : "He who moves all things and brings them 
to rest again is plainly some great and mighty One ; 
but what His form is we cannot see. Even the 
sun, which appears to shine upon all, even he seems 
not to allow himself to be seen ; but if a man 
impudently gazes at him, he is deprived of sight." ** 
From what source, pray, does the son of Gryllus 
draw his wisdom ? Is it not clearly from the Xenophon's 
Hebrew prophetess, who utters her oracle in the come's'^rom 
following words ? . the Sibyl 

What eyes of flesh can see immortal God, 
Who dwells above the heavenly firmament? 
Not e'en against the sun's descending rays 
Can men of mortal birth endure to stand.* 

Cleanthes of Pedasis,'' the Stoic philosopher, sets cieanthes 
forth no genealogy of the gods, after the manner of God truly 
poets, but a true theology. He did not conceal what 
thoughts he had about God. 

Thou ask'st me what the good is like ? Then hear 1 
The good is ordered, holy, pious, just, 
Self-ruhng, useful, beautiful, and right. 
Severe, without pretence, expedient ever. 
Fearless and griefless, helpful, soothing pain, 
Well-pleasing, advantageous, steadfast, loved, 
Esteemed, consistent . . . 

« Xenophon, Memorabilia iv. 3. 13-14. 

* Sibi/lline Oracles, Preface 10-13. These pretended 
Hebrew prophecies were, of course, much later than the 
time of Xenophon, though plainly Clement believed in their 
antiquity. See p. 56, n. b. 

" See note on text. Cleanthes is generally said to be a 
native of Assos in the Troad. See Strabo xiii. pp. 610-11. 

16] 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 



CAP. ei^/cAee?, aTvj)OV, eVt/xeAe?, Trpdov, cr<^o8pov, 

)(povLl^6fi€vov, a/xe/x77TOV, act Siafievov. 

dveXevOepos rrds oarig els So^av ^Xerreiy 
COS" Srj 77-a/o' €KeLvrjs rev^ofievos KaXov tlvos. 
evravda Srj ora(f)a)?, olfiaL, StSacr/cec 077010? ecmv 6 
deos, /cat d)S 7] ho^a rj kolvt] /cat -q avv-qOeta rovs 
eTTOfjLevov? avralv, dAAa i^rj rov deov e7nl,r]Tovvra's , 
i^avSpaTToSc^eadrjv. ovk aTTOKpvTrreov ovhk rovs 
d/x</>t rov YlvdayopaVy ol (fiaaiv " 6 fxev deos els, 
ovTOs ^ Se ovx, <^s Tti^e? vTTovoovaiv, eKTOs rds 
hiaKOGfJirjaLOs , dAA' ev avra, oXos ev oXqj rep kvkXoj, 
eTTiaKOTTOS TTaaas yeveatos, Kpdais roiv oXojv alcLvojv ^ 
Koi ipydras rcov avrov Swd/jLLcov /cat epycov OLTravTcov 
ev ovpavo) (f>aj(TT'qp Kac Trdvrcov Trarijp, vovs /cat 
ijjvxojais tG) 6X0J kvkXo),^ Trdvrcov KLvaais." dnoxpr} 
/cat rdSe els eTTtyvojcnv Oeov eTTLTTVoia deov rrpos 
avrcjjv ixev dvayeypafiiieva, irpos he rjpiojv e^ei- 
Xeyjieva to) ye /cat ojXLKpov Siadpelv dXijOeLav 



Suva/xeVo) . 



VII 



*'It6l) Se T7/xtv (ou yap avrapKeZ pLovov rj (f)LXooro(l>La ) 
dXXd /cat avrr] <rj>^ TTOirjTLKr] rj nepl to ifjevSos rd 
Trdvra rjcrxoXrjpLevTj, pLoXiS TTore yjSr] dX-qdeiai^ I^^P' 
rvp-qaovGa, pLdXXov 8e e^opboXoyovpLevrj to) deep Trjv 
pLvOcohrj TTapeK^aoLV Trapircx) Stj ogtls /cat ^ovXerai 

^ OVTOS Wilamowitz. x^^^os mss. avrbs Justin {Cohor. ad 
Graec. 19). 

^ aluvujv Justin, ael ibv MSS. 

^ to) 6'\w kvkXw Stahlin. t^j SX<^ KVK\(fi Msa. 

* <i7> inserted by Markland. 
162 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Renowned, not puifed up, careful, gentle, strong, CHAP, 

Enduring, blameless, lives from age to age.* VI 

Slavish the man vi'ho vain opinion heeds. 
In hope to hght on any good from that/ 

In these passages he teaches clearly, I think, what 
is the nature of God, and how common opinion and 
custom make slaves of those who follow them instead 
of searching after God. Nor must we conceal the 
doctrine of the Pythagoreans, who say that " God is The Pytha- 
One ; and He is not, as some suspect, outside the ^^^^^^^ 
universal order, but within it, being wholly present 
in the whole circle, the supervisor of all creation, 
the blending of all the ages, the wielder of His own 
powers, the light of all His works in heaven and the 
Father of all things, mind and living principle of the 
whole circle, movement of all things." These sayings 
have been recorded by their authors through God's 
inspiration, and we have selected them. As a guide 
to the full knowledge of God they are sufficient for 
every man who is able, even in small measure, to 
investigate the truth. 



VII 

But we will not rest content with philosophy The witness 
alone. Let poetry also approach, — poetry, which is "^ P°°^^y 
occupied entirely with what is false, — to bear witness 
now at last to truth, or rather to confess before 
God its deviation into legend. Let whichever poet 

« Pearson, Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes, p. 299 (Fr. 
75). Pearson remarks : " Clement's mistake in referring 
these lines to Cleanthes' conception of the Deity, when they 
really refer to the ethical summum bonum, is obvious." 

* Pearson, p. 320 (Fr. 101). 

163 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTOLTjTrj? TTpCOTOS. "ApaTO? fJL€V OVV SiOL TrdvTOJV TTjU 

SvvafiLV rod Beov hirjKeLv voeZy 

6(f)p^ e/x7Te8a iravra ^vojvrai, 
TO) {JLLP del TTpajTov re Kal vararov IXdaKovrar 
XOitpe, Trdrep, /xeya davfjia, ixey" dvBpojTroiGiv 
oveiap. 

TavTTj rot Kal 6 ^ KoKpaios alvirreTai *Hcrto8o? rov 
Oedv' I 

63 P. avros yap TrdvTiov jSacrtAcus" Kal Koipavos Iotlv, 
dBavdrcjJV rio 8' ^ ovtis Ipi^piar ai Kpdros d'AAos". 

'qSrj Se Kal inl rrj? GKrjvrjg TTapayvfivovcrc ttjv 
dXtjdeLav 6 fi€V Kal els rov aWepa Kal els rov 
ovpavov dva^Xeipas " rovSe rjyov Oeov," (/>r}GLV^ 
^vpLTTiSrjs' 6 8e rov So^iAAou So^o/cA^?, 

els rats dXriOeiaiaiv, els earlv OeoSy 
OS ovpavov r erev^e Kal yalav ixaKprjv 
TTovrov re )^apo7T6v otS^a Kave/jicov ^las' 
dvTjrol he TToXXd ^ Kaphia nXavcofievoL 
IhpvadpieaOa TTrjfjidrajv napaipvxrjv 
deojv dyaXfiar €K Xidcov, rj ■)(aXKea>v 
rj xpvaorevKrcov ^ eXecbavrlvcov rvTTOVs' 
dvaias re rovroLs Kal Kevds Travqyvpeis 
vefJLOvres, ovrcos evae^eZv voixit,op.ev. 

ovrodl fjiev rjSr] Kal TTapaKeKLvSwevfievcos eirl rrjs 
(jKrjvrjs rrjv dX-qdecav rols dearaZs TrapeiG'^yayev. 

1 T^o d' Stahlin. a^o 5' Clement, v. Strom. 112. 3. t4 
ol Buttmann. re 65' mss. 
'^ TToXXa Heyse. ttoWoI mss. 

164 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

wishes come forward first. Aratus, then, perceives chap. 
that the power of God permeates the universe : Aiatua 

Wherefore, that all things fresh and firm may grow. 
To Him our vows both first and last shall rise : 
Hail, Father, wonder great, great aid to men." 

In the same spirit Hesiod of Ascra also speaks Hesiod 
darkly about God : 

For He is king and master over all ; 

No other god hath vied with Thee in strength.* 

Further, even upon the stage they unveil the truth. 
One of them, Euripides, after gazing at the upper Euripides 
air and heaven, says, " Consider this to be God." " 
Another, Sophocles the son of Sophillus, says : Sophocles 

One only, one in very truth is God, 

Who made high heaven and the spreading earth. 

The ocean's gleaming wave, the mighty winds. 

But we, vain mortals, erring much in heart. 

Seek solace for our woes by setting up 

The images of gods made out of stones, 

Or forms of bronze, or gold, or ivory. 

Then sacrifice and empty festival 

To these we pay, and think it piety.*^ 

This poet, in a most venturesome manner, introduced 
the truth on the stage for his audience to hear. 

« Aratus, Phaenomena 13-15. 

* Hesiod, Frag. 195 Rzach. 

« Euripides, Frag. 941 Nauck. 

^ [Sophocles] Frag. 1025 Nauck. These lines are also 
quoted by Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Eusebius, and other 
Christian writers. They are of Jewish or Christian origin, 
as their teaching proves ; certainly not from Sophocles. 

165 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. o Se QpaKLOs Upo<f>dvTrj£ /cat ttol'tjt'^s afxa, 6 rod 
Oidypov ^Op(f)ev9, fierd r-qv tcjv opytajv lepo^avriav 
Koi Twv elScoXojv ttjv deoXoycav, TraXivcphiav aX-qSeias 
eiaayei, top lepou ovtcos oifje Trore, oficos S' ovv 
aSojv Xoyov 

(l)d€y^oiJLai ols 9efiig iari- dvpas 8' irrideaOe 

^€^7]XoL 

TTavres o/jlo)?' ov S' clkovc, <l)a€a(f)6pov eKyove 

MouCTat', e^epecx) yap dXr)dea, fxrjhi ae rd Trplv 
iv GTrjdeaaL (f)avevra (f)lXrj? alchvos dfieparj. 
ets" Se Xoyov Oelov ^Xeipas tovtco TrpoaeSpeve, 
Wvvcov Kpahirfs voepov kvto?- cv S' eTTi^aive 
drpaTTLTOV, fiovvov 8' eaopa KoofiOLO dvaKra 
dddvarov. 

€LTa VTTO^ds hLapp-qh-qv errKJieper \ 
64 P. et? ear , avToyevqs, €v6g eKyova Trdvra rirvKTai* 
ev 8' avToXs avro? TTepLVLoaeraL, ovSe rts" avrov 
€LGopda OvTjTcov, avTos 8e ye Trdvra? opdrai. 

ovTOJ? p,€V hr] ^Op(j>evs' XP^^^ 7^^ ttote crvvrJKev 

7T€7TXavr]IJL€V05 . 

dXXd GV fxr] pieXXojv, ^pore TTOiKiXopuqn, ^pd8vv€, 
dXXd TTaAt/xTrAay/CTOS" orpexjsas Oeov IXdoKoio. 
el yap /cat rd ixdXiara evavapbard riva rod Xoyov 
rod detov Xa^ovres "KXXrjve? oXiya drra rrjs 
dX-qdeta's ic/jdey^avro, irpoaixaprvpovcji ptev rrjv 
8uVajLttv avrrjg ovk d7TOK€KpvpLpL€vr)Vy G(j>ds he avrovs 
eXeyxovGLV dGdevels, ovk i(f)LK6pL€voi rod rdXovs. 
7]Sr) yap ot/xat Travri rep SrjXov yeyovevai cos rojv 
^ ye Stahlin. W mss. 

166 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

And the Thracian interpreter of the mysteries, who chap 
was a poet too, Orpheus the son of Oeagrus, after orpheus 
his exposition of the orgies and account of the idols, 
brings in a recantation consisting of truth. Now at 
the very last he sings of the really sacred Word : 

My words shall reach the pure ; put bars to ears 
All ye profane together. But hear thou. 
Child of the Moon, Musaeus, words of truth ; 
Nor let past errors rob thee now of life. 
Behold the word divine, to this attend, 
Directing mind and heart aright ; tread well 
The narrow path of Ufe, and gaze on Him, 
The world's great ruler, our immortal king.* 

Then, lower down, he adds explicitly : 

One, self-begotten, lives ; all things proceed 
From One ; and in His works He ever moves : 
No mortal sees Him, yet Himself sees all." 

Thus wrote Orpheus ; in the end, at least, he under- 
stood that he had gone astray : 

Inconstant mortal, make no more delay. 
But turn again, and supplicate thy God.* 

It may be freely granted that the Greeks received 
some glimmerings of the divine word, and gave 
utterance to a few scraps of truth. Thus they 
bear their witness to its power, which has not been 
hidden. On the other hand, they convict them- 
selves of weakness, since they failed to reach the 
end. For by this time, I think, it has become 

« Orpheus, Frag. 5 Abel. 
* Sibylline Oracles iii, 624-625. 

167 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. x^pt? Tov Xoyov ttJ? aXrjOeias ivepyovvrojv rt r] Kal 
^Oeyyoixevcov ojjlolcjjv ovrcov T0I9 X^P''^ ^daeajs 
j8a8t^etv ^ta^OjLteVot?. 

Av(ja>7TovvTCov 8e ae et? aajTrjpLav Kal ol Trepu 
Tovs deovs vjJLOJv eXeyxoi, ovs Sta Tr)V dXijOeLav 
eVj9ta^o/xevot KCOficpBovaL TroL-qrai. MevavSpos yovv 

6 KOJfJiLKOS eV 'HvtOp^OJ \ev * YTTO^oAtjU-atO) ] ^ TO) 

Spd/JLari 

ovSels /x* dp4oK€i {(f)r]al) TrepLnaTwv e^co deos 
jjierd ypaog, ouS' els oiVta? irapeiaicxjv 
inl rod aaviBlov 

[fjLrjTpayvpTrjs] ^ tolovtol yap ol firjTpayvpraL . odev 
eiKOTOJS 6 ^ AvTLadevTjs eXeyev avroZs fierairovaLV 
" ov Tp€(f>a> TTjV firjrepa tcjv Oeojv, t^v ol Oeol Tpe(f)OV- 
GLV." TTaXiv Se o avTOS kojplwSlottolos iv 'lepeia 
Tw Spdiian ;)^aAe7ratWv irpos T17V <jvvr]deLav hi- 
eXeyx^t'V Tretparat rov dOeov Trj$ TrXdvqs rv(f)OV, 
i7rL(f)66yy6jji€Vos ifjLcfypovoJS 

€t yap lA/cet rov dcov 

TOLS KVfl^dXoLS dvdpOJTTOS ct? o ^ouAeTttt, 
o rovro ttoicjv eari p,€Li,a)V rov deov' 
dXX eon roXfjL-qs Kal piov ^ ravr opyava 
evpiqfxiv* dvOpoaTTOiOLV. \ 

1 [iv 'TTTo^oXiyuafcfj] Clericus (missing from Justin, De mon. 5). 

2 \nr)Tpa.'yvpTr]s] Dindorf. ^ /Siaj Bentley : Stahlin. 

« For the fragment see Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. iii. 
p. 58, The priest would seem to have carried on a tray an 
image of Attis ; and the " old dame " personated Cybele, 
the mother of the gods. But iirL may mean " in charge of," 
" presiding over," in which case the priest personates Attis, 

168 



bear 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

plain to everybody that those who do anything or chap. 
utter anything without the word of truth are hke '^^ 
men strugghng to walk without a foothold. 

The comic poets also_, owing to the compelling The comic 
power of truth, bring into their plays convincing P°Jnes^s^^" 
arguments against your gods. Let these shame against 
you into salvation. For instance, the comic poet*^®^°*^^ 
Menander, in his play The Charioteer, says : Menandei 

No god for me is he who walks the streets 
With some old dame, and into houses steals 
Upon the sacred tray." 

For this is what the priests of Cybele * do. It was 
a proper answer, then, that Antisthenes used to give 
them when they asked alms of him: "I do not 
support the mother of the gods ; that is the gods' 
business." " Again, the same writer of comedy, in 
his play The Priestess, being angry with prevailing 
custom, tries to expose the godless folly of idolatry 
by uttering these words of wisdom : 

For if a man 
By cymbals brings the God where'er he will. 
Then is the man more powerful than God. 
But these are shameless means of livelihood 
Devised by men.** 



and fj.r)TpayvpTT]s ought perhaps to be retained (see note on 
text). Grotius observes, however, that "the statement has 
to do with the god himself, whom the travelHng priest 
carries, and not with the priest." The quotation occurs in 
Justin Martyr (De mon. 5) with this addition : "the god 
ought to stay at home and take care of his worshippers. " 

* i.e. Metragyrtae. See p. 48, n. a. 

" Antisthenes, Frag. 70 Mullach, Frag. phil. Graec. ii. 
p. 287. ^ ^ 

'^ Menander, Frag. 245 Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. iii. 
p. 70. ^ 



169 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. /cat ovxl yiovos 6 "Mivavhpog, aXXa kol "0/x7]/dos" koI 
65 P. EuptTTtSi^s" KOI d'AAot Gvxvol TTOLTjTal hieXeyxovoiV 
vjjichv rov£ Oeovg Kal XoihopeloBai ov SeSiaonv ovSe 
KaO^ OTToaov avrolg. avriKa rr]V ^Adrji'dv " Kvvd- 
fjLVLav" Kal Tov "}lcf)aLGTOv " dfi<:f)Lyvr]V " KaXovGLV, 
TTJ 8e ^A<f)poSiTr] Yj *EAeVT7 (f)rjaL 

fJLr]K€TL (JoIgL TTohcGGlV V7T0GTp€lfj€ ia? "OXvflTTOV, 

irrl 8e tov ^iovvgov dva(f)avS6v "O/xi^po? ypd<f>€L 

OS TTore fiaLvofievoio Alojvvgolo ridrjvas 
Geve Kar* rjyddeov Nuctt^iov at 8' dfjLa Tracrat 
OvGdXa ;)^a/xat Kare^^vav utt' dvhpo^ovoLO AvK- 
ovpyov. 

a^-to? CO? dXrjdo)? T^ojKpaTLKrjs StarptjSr]? 6 ^vpLTrlSrjs 
els rr)v dXi^OeLav d7TLSd>v /cat rovs Beards VTrepiScov, 
TTore ixev rdv ^AiroXXcova, 

OS iX€Gopi(j>dXovs ehpas 
yatet ^poroXGi GTO/jua vepiojv aa^eWara, 

hieXiyxoiVy 

Keivcp TnOofxevos ^ rr]v reKOVGav eKravou, 
eKelvov rjyeLGd^ duoGLOv /cat KTeivere-^ 
eKelvos TjixapT , ovk eyco, 
dixadeGrepos y' cuv^ rod KaXov /cat rrjs Slktjs, 

Tore 8' ifiijiavrj eLGaycov 'Hpa/cAea /cat fxeSvovra 
dXXa)(69L /cat aTrXriGrov' ttcos yap ovx^i os eartco- 
fJLevos rots Kpeaoi 

* Toirip iridd/xevos Euripides. K€LP(f} Tr€id6fj.evos MS3, 

2 KT€lv€T€ Euripides. Krelvare mss. 

3 y' G)v Euripides, (bv mss. 

170 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

And not only Menander, but also Horner^ Euripides chap. 
and many other poets expose your gods, and do not nJmer 
shrink from abusing them to any extent whatever. 
For instance, they call Athena " dog-fly/' « and 
Hephaestus " lame in both feet " * ; and to Aphrodite 
Helen says : 

Never again may thy feet turn back to the halls of 
Olympus.'' 

Of Dionysus Homer writes openly : 

He, on a day, gave chase to the nurses of mad Dionysus 
Over the sacred hill of Nysa ; but they, in a body, 
Flung their torches to earth at the word of the savage 
Lycurgus.** 

Euripides is indeed a worthy disciple of the Socratic Euripides 
school, in that he regarded only the truth and dis- 
regarded the audience. On one occasion, referring 
to Apollo, 

Who, dwelling in the central spot of earth, 
Deals out unerring oracles to men,« 

he thus exposes him : 

His word it was I trusted when I slew 
My mother ; him consider stained with crime. 
Him slay ; the sin was his concern, not mine. 
Since he knew less of good and right than 1/ 

At another time he introduces Heracles in a state 
of madness,^' and elsewhere drunk and gluttonous.^ 
What else could be said of a god who, while being 
feasted with flesh, 

« Homer, Iliad xxi. 394-, 421. ^ Iliad i. 607 etc. 

« Iliad iii. 407. ^ Iliad vi. 132-134. 

« Euripides, Orestes 591-592. / Orestes 594-596, 417. 

^ i.e. in the Hercules Furens, ^ Alcestis 755-760. 

G 171 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. p^Aojpa crv/c' e7Tria6L€V 

dfJLOva* vXaKTwv ware ^ap^dpo) fjcaOetv, 

rjSr] Se eV "Iojvl ra> hpafxari yvfxvfj rfj K€<l>aX'fj 
eKKVKXeZ Tw Bedrpcp rovs deovs' 

7760? OVV hiKaiOV TOVS VOflOVS Vfjids ^pOTOLS 

ypdifjavras avTOV? aSt/cta? 6(f)XLGKdv6tv; 
€i 8', ov yap earai, ro) Xoyco Se xP'^^^Ofxaif 
StVa? ^Lalcov hdioer dvOpoj-noLs ydjjLCov, 
ov KoX ITocretSajv Zevs" 0^ , os ovpavov KpareZ, 
vaoijs Tivovres dhiKias K€vd}a€T€» 



VIII 

'Qpa roLVVv rdJv dXXiov ripLlv rfj rd^ei TTpoBirjW 
(TfJi€va>v irrl ra? Trpo^T^rt/cas' t'eVat ypa(f>ds' koi yap 
p. ol )(pr]apLol rds els rrjv Oeoae^etav rjpilv d(j>opiids 
evapyearara irpoTeivovTes OefieXiovui rrjv dX-r^Oeiav' 
ypa<^al he at delai kol^ TToXirelai aw^pove?, crwro/xot 
GOJTiqpia? ohoi' yvjJLval KOfiiJLCOTLKrjs /cat t-^s" cktos 
KaXXicjxxivias /cat OTCopbvXias /cat /coAa/cetas" vrrdp- 
XovaaL dviGTCoaiv dyxojJievov vtto /ca/cta? rov dvdpoj- 
Ttov, VTTepihovaai tov oXiadov rov ^icdtlkov, pna /cat 
rfj avTTJ (l)Cx)vfj TToAAa depaTreiJovoai, aTTorpeTTOVoaL 
fjLev rjfjidg rrj? eTnt,riiJLiov aTrdrr]?, TTporpeTTOvaai he 
ifji(j)avdjs els TTpouTTTOV acorripiav. avriKa yovv r] 

^ al delai, <et> Kal Schwartz : Stahlin. 
2 depawevovaaL Sylburg. depaireOcrai. MSS. 

« Euripides, Frag. 907 Nauck. 

* Literally, "with head bare." " Ion 442-447. 

«* For other references to the " short road " to salvation 
see pp. 217, and 240, n. a. Clement means to say that 
172 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Did eat green figs, and howl discordant songs, CHAP. 

Fit for barbarian ears to understand ? '^ Vll 

And again^ in his play the Io?i, he displays the gods 
to the spectators without any reserve ^ : 

How is it right that ye who made men's laws 
Yourselves are authors of unrighteous deeds ? 
But if— I say it, though it shall not be — 
Ye pay men penalties for violent rapes, 
Phoebus, Poseidon, Zeus the king of heaven. 
The price of crime shall strip your temples bare." 

vni 

Now that we have dealt with the other matters The witness 
in due order, it is time to turn to the writings of pj.^pjg(.g 
the prophets. For these are the oracles which, by 
exhibiting to us in the clearest light the grounds of 
piety, lay a firm foundation for the truth. The 
sacred writings are also models of virtuous living, The sacred 
and short roads to salvation.'^ They are bare of s^mpfe^fn^"^^ 
embellishment, of outward beauty of language, of style, but of 
idle talk and flattery, yet they raise up man when ^^^^ power 
fast bound in the grip of evil. Despising the snare 
of this life,^ with one and the same voice they pro- 
vide a cure for many ills, turning us aside from 
delusion that works harm, and urging us onward 
with clear guidance to salvation set before our eyes. 

Christian teaching puts truth in simple form so that the 
humblest may at once imderstand as much of it as is 
necessary to ensure his salvation. Some aspects of truth 
are reached through philosophy, but that is a long and 
difficult process, beyond the efforts of all but a few. 

« i.e. all the dangerous pleasures which this life offers. 
In the Paedagogus Clement uses the same word " snare " in 
reference to feasting (ii. 9. 4), wine (ii. 23. 1, 28. 2, 29. 2), 
and laughter (ii. 47. 3). 

173 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTpO^rJTLS rjfJilv q-GOLTCxJ TTpCJTT) St^uAAtt TO aCT/Xa TO 

oojrrjpLOV 

ovros tSov TTavreacn^ aa(f)r)s OLTrXdv-qTOs VTrdpx^L' 
eXOerCy /.trj GKOTirjV 8e hiooKere /cat iC,6(f>ov alei. 
TjeXiov yXvKvSepKes, ISov, <f)dog e^o-)(a Xdinrei. 
yvojre 8e KarOefjuevoL oo(f)irjv iv aTT^Oeaiv vfiojv. 
et? Oeo? ean, ^poxds, dvejxovs, aeiG/JLOVs r cttl' 

7T€fJL7TOJV, 

dareporrds , XipLOVs, Aot/xou? Kal Ki^Sea Xvypd 

Kal VL(f>€TOV5 /cat TaAAa,^ Tt St) /ca^' ev e^- 
ayopevco; 

ovpavov -qyeiraL, yairjs Kparel avros avr' dpx^?.^ 
evOiios (J(f>6Spa ttjv pcev aTrdr-qv dneLKd^ovaa ro) 
GKOTGL, TTjv Se yvwoLV rjXicp /cat <I>cotI rod Oeov, 
djJL(j>co Se 7Tapa6epL€vr] rfj ovyKpiaei, rrjv eKXoyrjV 
SiSdoKei' TO yap ifievSo? ov ipi-Xij rfj TrapaOeaei 
rdXrjOov? SiaoKeSduvvraL, rfj Se ;(p')]o-et tyjs dXrjOeias 
iK^La^opuevov (j)vyaheveTaL . 'lepepLLas Se o 7Tpo<j)rjrrjS 
6 7Tdvoo(j>os, pidXXov Se iv 'lepe/xta to aytov TTvevpia 
emheLKVvai rov Oeov. " 6e6s eyyit^cov lyoj et/xt," 
(f)r)al, "Kal ovxl Oeo? rroppajdev. el TTOL-qaei n dv- 
dpojTTOs eV Kpv(f)aLOLS, /cat e'yco ovk otpopLat avrov; 
ovxi Tovs ovpavovs /cat Tr]v yrjv iyoj TrXrjpaJ; 
Aeyet Kvpios." irdXiv Se av Sta 'Hoatou "ti? 
pLerpriaei," (f)rjaL, " tov ovpavov GTridapifj /cat Trdaav 
TTjV yrjv Spa/ct; " opa to pieyedo? rov Oeov /cat 
KaraTrXdyrjOi,. rovrov irpoaKwrjoajpiev , €(/>' ov ^tjglv 
6 7rpo(f)7]Tr]s " aTTo rrpoaajnov oov opr] TaKrjGovraiy 

^ irdvTe<r<n Sib. Or. and Clement, v. Strom. 115. 6, ttuut' 
ia-TL Mss. 

2 Kal T&Wa Cobet. Kp6(XTa\\a mss. : Stahlin. 
3 dw' dpxvi Mayor, vvdpxei mss. : Stahlin. 
174 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

To begin with, let the prophetess, the Sibyl, first chap. 
sing to us the song of salvation : A^preiude 

from the 
prophetic 

Lo, plain to all, from error free He stands ; Sibyl 

Come, seek not gloom and darkness evermore ; 

Behold, the sun's sweet light shines brightly forth. 

But mark, and lay up wisdom in your hearts. 

One God there is, from whom come rains and winds, 

Earthquakes and lightnings, dearths, plagues, grievous 
cares, 

Snowstorms and all besides, — why name each one ? 

He from of old rules heaven, He sways the earth." 

With true inspiration she likens delusion to dark- 
ness, and the knowledge of God to the sun and 
light ; and by putting them side by side in her 
comparison she teaches what our choice should be. 
For the false is not dissipated by merely ])lacing 
the true beside it ; it is driven out and banished by 
the practice of truth. Now Jeremiah, the all-wise Jeremiah 
prophet, or rather the Holy Spirit in Jeremiah, 
shows what God is. "I am," he says, "a God who 
is near, and not a God afar off. Shall a man do 
anything in secret, and I not see him ? Do not I 
fill the heavens and the earth, saith the Lord ?" ^ 
Once again, the same Spirit says through Isaiah : Isaiah also 
" Who shall measure the heaven with a span, and Q^^^.g^ °^ 
the whole earth with a hand-breadth ? " " See the greatness 
greatness of God and be amazed ! Him let us 
worship, about whom the prophet says : " The hills 
shall melt from before thy face, as wax melteth 



* Sibylline Oracles, Preface 38-35. 

* Jeremiah xxiii. 23-24. 

Isaiah xl. 12. 

175 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. COS" O-TTO TTpOOCDTTOV TTVpOS TT^KeraC K7]p6s." OVTOS, 
VIII / / > \ t n ' It T n ' /> '> ' 

(p-qaLV, eoTiv o ueos, ov upouos piev eoriv o ovpavos, 
vttottoSlov Se rj yrj," os " eav dvol^r] rov ovpavov, 
rpopios ere XrnJjerai." ^ovXei koI Trepl rchv elhcjXcov ^ 
aKOVuai TL (f)r](TLV < 6>^ Trpo(f)-r]Trjs ovrog ; " TrapaSeuy- 
pLaTioBrjGOvrai epLrrpocrdev rod rjXtov Kal earai ra 
e7 P. 9 i^Tj a i\paia avrchv ^pcopara rots 7T€reivol? rod 
ovpavov Kal tols Orjpiois rrjs y^?, Kal oarrriaeTai 
VTTO rod rjXiov Kal rrjs aeXrjvr]?, a avrol -qyoLTT-qaav 
Kal ols avrol iSovXevaav, Kal eprtp-qoOriGerai r) 
ttoXls avrojv." (jiOap'^aecrOai 8e Kal ra oroix^Za 
Kal rov Koapov gvv Kal avroZs Xeyec " rj yrj," 
^rjGL, " TTaXaicoOT^GeraL Kal 6 ovpavos TrapeXevoe- 
raCy" " ro he prjpa Kvpiov peveu et? rov alwva." 
Tt 8e orav ttoXlv eavrov heLKVvvai 6 Oeos ^ovXrjOfj 
Sta M.a)VGecx)s ; " tSere I'Sere on iyo) elpi Kal ovk 
ecrrt Oeos erepos ttXtjv ipov. iyoj drroKrevoj /cat 
(,rjv TTOLT^GOJ' TTard^oi Kayoj tacro/xat, /cat ovk eonv 
OS i^eXeZrai e/c rwv ■)(^eLpcx)v pov." 

'AAAa /cat irepov eiTaKOVGat OeXeis XRV^I^V^*^^ ' 
e;)^ets" rov X^P^^ iravra rov Trpo^-qriKOV, rovs GVvBia- 
Ga)ras rov Mcoucrecos". ri cf)r]Glv avrols ro TTvevpa 
ro dyiov Sta ^Qorje; ovk oKV-qcro) Xeyeiv' " Ibov, 
iyd) Grepecvv ^povrrjv Kal Kril,ojv TTvevpa," ov at 
X^Zp^S rrjv orparidv rod ovpavov iOepeXiOJoav. ert 

^ etSwXwj/ : can this be a scribe's mistake for eldi-AoXarpQu 
(cp. p. 178, 1. 12) ? 

^ <6> inserted by Dindorf. 

" See Isaiah Ixiv, 1-3. * Isaiah Ixvi, 1. 

" See Isaiah Ixiv, 1 (Septuagint). 

<* The text gives " idols," but the quotation refers to their 
worshippers. It is possible that there is a slight error in the 
text. See textual note, 

176 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

from before the face of the fire." <* He is God, the chap. 
prophet says again, " whose throne is heaven, and ^^^^ 
the earth His footstool"*; before whom "if He 
open heaven, trembHng shall seize thee." " Would 
you hear too, what this prophet says about idol- Isaiah teiis 
worshippers } ^ " They shall be made a spectacle dL*trur tion 
before the sun ; and their dead bodies shall be of idoidters 
meat for the fowls of the heaven and the beasts of 
the earth, and shall be rotted by the sun and the 
moon, things which they themselves loved and 
served; and their city shall be burnt up." ^ He And also of 
says also that the elements and the world shall be ^^^oj,w 
destroyed with them. "The earth shall grow old, 
and the heaven shall pass away ; " but " the word 
of the Lord abideth for ever." '^^ What does God 
say when at another time He wishes to reveal 
Himself through Moses ? " Behold, behold, I am Moses 
He, and there is no other god beside Me. I will G^o^d's^power 
kill and I will make alive ; I will smite and I will 
heal, and there is none that shall deliver out of 
my hands." si 

But will you listen to yet another giver of oracles .'' 
You have the whole company of the prophets, who 
are joined with Moses in this sacred fellowship. 
What says the Holy Spirit to them through Hosea ? The witness 
I will not hesitate to tell you. "Behold, I am He °^^°''^ 
that giveth might to the thunder, and createth the 
wind," ^ whose hands established the host of heaven.*' 

« A collection of passages from Jeremiah, not Isaiah. 
See viii. 2 ; xxxiv, 20 ; iv. 26. 

^ Isaiah li. 6 ; also compare St. Matthew xxiv. 35 and 
Isaiah xl. 8. 

^ Deuteronomy xxxii. 39. 

^ Amos iv. 13 ; not Hosea. 

* See Jeremiah xix. 13 and Psalm viii. 4 (Septuagint). 

177 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Se Kal Slol 'Haa'tov {Kal TavTr]v aTTOfivrjixovevaoj 

VIII \ I / \ t < i / > >/ > >> J I <<» 

aoi TTjv (pojvrjv) eyco et/xt, eyco ei/xt, (prjaiv, o 
Kvpios 6 AaAcDy SiKaioGVvrjv /cat dvayye'AAcoy ciAt^- 
Oeiav avvdxOrire /cat 7Jk€T6' ^ovXevaaaOe a/xa, ot 
Gcpl^ofievoL OLTTO Tcbv eOvcbv . ovK eyvcoaav ol aipovres 
TO ^vXov yXvjjijjia avrcbv, /cat TTpooevxoixevoL OeoZs 
ot 01) acocrovGLV avTOVs." etO^ VTTo^ds " iyco," 
<f>7]aLi>t " 6 Oeos, /cat ovk eari ttXtjv e/xou St/catos", 
/cat GCJTTjp OVK eoTL Trdpe^ ijjiov- €7nGrpd(f)r)T€ npos 
fjL€ /cat GCoOrjueode ol dir* io^drov rrjs y^?. eyco 
€t/xt o 6e6s /cat ou/c eWtv aAAos-- /car' e/xaurou 
ofivvcj." rot? 8e eiScoAoAarpats' Svox^paLvei Xeyojv 
" TLVL ojjJbOiajoaTe Kvpiov ; tj tlvl ofxoioipiari d>iioi(jj- 
CTare avrov; firj eiKova eiroiiqGev reKTOJV, tj \pvGO' 
Xoos ;)^a)veuo'a? ;(puCTtov TrepLexpvGcoGev avrov; " 
/cat TO. CTTt rovrois. fjcr) ovv ert vfieZs elScoXo- 
Xdrpai; dXXd Kav vvv (fyvXd^aGde rds dneLXds' 
oAoAu^et ydp rd yXvnrd /cat ra ;j^etpo770tT7Ta, ^aA- 
Aov 8e ot €77* auTot? 7T€7tol66t€S, dvaLG6r]TOS yap 
rj vXt]. ert (f)r)GLV "o Kvpio? oetoet TroAet? /car- 
oiKOVjievas /cat ri^v olKovpLev-qv oXtjv KaraX-^ifjeraL 
rfj ;\;etpt co? voootay." rt oot GO(/>La? dvayyeXXo) 
liVGTrjpia /cat p-qGei? e/c TratSos" *Ei^paiov GeGorpiOfie- 
vov ; " KvpLo? €KTLG€V fie dpx'f]v ohcjv avrov etV 
epya avrov," /cat " KvpLog StScoCTt GO(f)lav /cat otto 
rrpoGcoTTOv avrov yvcoGcs /cat oweots'." "ecus' rrore, 
OKViqpiy /cara/cetcat ; Trdre Se e^ vttvov iyepdi^Grj; 

« Isaiah xlv. 19-20. » Isaiah xlv. 21-23. 

" Isaiah xl. 18-19. <^ Isaiah x. 10-11, 14 (Septuagint). 

* i.e. Solomon ; see 1 Kings iii. 7 ; iii. 12. 
■^ Proverbs viii. 22. " Wisdom " is, of course, the speaker. 
Clement's quotation, here as everywhere else, is taken from 

178 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

And again through Isaiah (this utterance too I will chap. 

remind you of): "I, even I," he says, "am the Lord FlftLr 

that speaketh righteousness and declareth truth, witness 

Assemble yourselves and come. Take counsel to- ^°™ 

gether, ye that are being saved out of the nations. 

They have no knowledge, who set up their carved 

image of wood, and pray to gods who shall not save 

them." <» Then, lower down, he says : " I am God 

and there is none righteous except Me, there is no 

Saviour beside Me. Turn ye unto Me and ye shall 

be saved, ye who come from the end of the earth. 

I am God, and there is no other. By Myself do I 

swear." ^ But He is displeased with idol-worshippers 

and says : " To whom did ye liken the Lord } Or 

to what likeness did ye liken Him } Did the 

carpenter make an image ? Did the goldsmith 

smelt gold and gild it .^ " — and what follows.'' Are 

you then still idol - worshippers .f* Yet even now Isaiah pre- 

beware of God's threats. For the carved images Judgment on 

made by hand shall cry out,^ or rather they who idolatry 

trust in them ; for the material is incapable of 

feeling. Further he says : " The Lord shall shake 

the inhabited cities, and in His hand shall grasp 

the whole world as it were a nest." ^ Why tell 

you of mysteries of wisdom, and of sayings that 

come from a Hebrew child who was endowed with The wise 

wisdom } « " The Lord created me in the beginning ^pJaks°Sf 

of His ways, for His works"/: and, "the Lord God as the 

giveth wisdom, and from His face are knowledge ^sdom 

and understanding." 9 " How long dost thou lie at 

rest, thou sluggard ; when wilt thou awake from 

the Septuagint. The Hebrew text of this verse gives a 
different meaning — "possessed" instead of "created"; 
but see R.V. margin. ^ Proverbs ii. 6. 

g2 179 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. eai^ Se doKVOS tJ?, yj^ei gol axJTrep TTTjyr] 6 dixrjros 
68 p. GOV," 6 Aoyo? o TTarpiKos, I o dyados Xux^os, o 
Kvpios eTTaycov ro (fxjjg, rrjv TriarLV irdoi kol acurr)- 
piav. " Kvpcos " yap "6 TTOirjaas rrjv yrjp ev rfj 
larxvt avTOV," c5? (f>r]aa> 'lepe/xtW, ^' dvcopOojaev ttjv 
OLKOVjjievrjv ev rfj GO(j)ia avrov." diroTreoovra? yap 
rjfjids enl rd etSojAa rj ao(f>La, 17 ianv 6 Xoyo? 
avrov, dvopOoZ eVt r-qv dXrjdeiav. Kal avrrj rj 
7Tpd)r7] Tov 7Tapa7TTCL)fiaTO£ dvaaTaai?- odev diroTpe- 
TTUiV €iSa>XoXaTp€Las dTTaa-qs 6 deaTTeaios TrayKaXcos 
dvaK€Kpaye ^lojvarjs' " dKove ^lapa-qX' Kvpios o 
Oeos GOV, Kvptos et? eGTL," /cat " Kvpiov rov deov 
GOV TTpoGKVvrjGeis Kal avTco fiovcp XarpevGCLS' 
vvv hrj ovv Gvvere, c5 dvOpcoTTOt,, Kara rov jjiaKapLov 
j/faA/xojSov €Kelvov TOV Aa^tS* " hpa^aode TratSeta?, 
IXTj TTore opyLGOfj KvpLog, Kal dTToXelGde i^ oSov 
St/cata?, orav eKKavOij ev rd^^ei 6 Ovfio? avrov. 
fiaKapLOL TTavres ol rreTTOiOore'S eV* avraj." tJSt} 
8e VTTepoiKreipiDV rjiids 6 Kvpios ro Gcor^qpiov 
ivSiSojGL jJLcXos, otov ifi^ari^pLOV pvOjjLov "viol 
dv9pd)7TOJV, ecus 770X6 ^apvKaphioi; tva ri dyaTrdre 
IxaraLor-qra Kal ^rjrelre ipevSos ; " res ovv r) 
jLtaratoTTys" Kal ri ro ipevSos; 6 dyuos diroGroXos 
rod Kvpiov rov? "EAAi^va? alriajpievos i^i-iyr^Gerai 
Goi' "on yvovre? rov deov ovx d)? deov eSo^aGav 
7) rjvxoLpiGr-qGav, aAA' efxaraiwOriGav ev rol? Sia- 
XoyLGfjLOL? avrd)v, Kal rjXXa^av rrjv ho^av rov 6eov 
^ avTT) i) Mayor, avrrj jiss. 

" Proverbs vi. 9, 1 la. (The latter verse is found only in 
the Septuagint.) 

* Possibly from Proverbs xx. 27 (see the Septuagint 
reading as quoted by Clement, vii. Strom. 37. 6 and by 
180 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

sleep ? If thou art diligent, there shall come to thee chap. 
as a fountain thy harvest/' "' that is, the Word of the ^^^^ 
Father, the good lamp/ the Lord who brings light, 
faith and salvation to all. For " the Lord, who made Jeremiah 
the earth in His strength," as Jeremiah says, "re- odd restores 
stored the world in His wisdom," ^ since, when we *^® ^'^^^'^ ty 
have fallen aw^ay to idols, wisdom, which is His Word, 
restores us to the truth. This is the first resurrection,^ 
the resurrection from transgression; wherefore the 
inspired Moses, turning us away from all idolatry, Moses bears 
utters this truly noble cry : " Hear O Israel, the S ood 
Lord is thy God ; the Lord is one " ^ : and " thou is one 
shalt worship the Lord thy God and Him only shalt 
thou serve."/ Now therefore, learn, ye men, in the 
words of that blessed psalmist David : " Lay hold of David warns 
instruction, lest at any time the Lord be angry; and toGod's^^" 
ye shall perish from the right way, if ever His wrath ^oi'^s 
be hastily kindled. Blessed are all they that trust 
in Him."^ And, in His exceeding great pity for us, 
the Lord raises high the strain of salvation, like a 
marching song. " Sons of men, how long will ye And to 
be heavy-hearted? Why do ye love vanity and Janfty^nd 
seek after falsehood ? " ^ What, then, is this vanity, falsehood, 
and this falsehood ? The holy apostle of the Lord idolatry 
will explain to you, when he accuses the Greeks : 
" because, knowing God, they glorified Him not as 
God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their 
reasonings, and changed the glory of God into the 

Clement of Rome i. 21. 2). Cp. also Psalm cxix. 105, where, 
however, the Septuagint (cxviii. 105) has "Thy law" instead 
of " Thy word." <= Jeremiah x. 12. 

** See Revelation xx. 5. « Deuteronomy vi. 4. 

^ Deuteronomy vi. 13 ; x. 20 ; St. Matthew iv. 10 ; 
St. Luke iv. 8. 

s Psalm ii. 12 (Septuagint). * Psalm iv. 2. 

181 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. eV oLLOKxt^ari clkovos (f>dapTOV dvdpojTTOV, /cat 

VIII »\ / ^ f \ \ f >> \ 

eAarpevaav rrj KTiaei Tra/oa rov KTiaavra. /cat 
fjLYjV 6 ye deo? ovto?, og " iv oipxfj ^TTolrjae rov 
ovpavov /cat rr^v yrjv " • gv he rov fxev Oeov ov voet?, 
rov 8e ovpavov vpocrKweX?, /cat rrd)? ovk dae^els ; 
cLKOve TToXiv 7Tpo(f)'qrov XeyovTOS ' ' e/cAetj/fet jxev 6 
T^Ato? /cat o ovpavos GKoriodiJGerai, XdfufjeL 8e o 
TravTOKpaTcop el? rov atcuva, /cat at SwdfJceLS rcov 
ovpavcjv oaXevOrjGOvraL /cat ot ovpavol elXiy-qGovraL 
d>£ Seppts eKreivopievoi /cat GVGTeXXopievoi " {avrai 
yap at 7Tpo(f)r]Ti.KaL (fxavai) "/cat -q yrj <f)ev^eraL 

dnO TTpOGCOTTOV KVpiOV. 



IX 

Kat fxvpias dv exoi}xi gol ypa(j>ds rrapa^epeiVy 
(Lv ovhe " Kepaia TrapeXevGerai fila," fir) ovxi 
eTTLTeXrjs yevojxevrj' ro yap crro/xa Kvpiov, to 
dyiov TTvevfia, eXdXrjGev ravra. " pirj roivvv firjK- 
ert/' ^T^CTtV, " vie fjiov, oXiycopeL TraiSelas Kvplov, 
fi-qS* ckXvov utt* avTOV eXeyxdfievos." co tt^S" vnep- 
^aXXovGTTjs cf)LXav6pco7TLas- ovB^ cu? jxaOr^raXs 6 
StSctCT/caAos" ouS' ofS" ot/cerat? o Kvpios ovh^ cos 
p. deos dv\d piLiTOis , " TTaTrjp Se cu? rJTnos" vovderel 
vlov?. elra M.covGrjS /xev opioXoyeZ " epi^o^os etvat, 
/cat evTpojJios," dKOvcov Trepl rov Xoyov, gv Se rov 

« Romans i. 21, 23, 25. 

* Genesis i. 1. 

<^ A collection of passages from Scripture ; see Isaiah xiii. 
10 ; Ezekiel xxxii. 7 ; St. Matthew xxiv. 29 ; Isaiah xxxiv. 4; 
Psalm civ. 2 ; Joel ii. 10. Stahhn thinks that the whole may 
possibly be taken from the Apocalypse of Peter, with which 

182 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

likeness of an image of corruptible man, and served chap. 
the creature rather than the creator."* Of a truth ^^^^ 
God is He who ''in the beginning made the heaven 
and the earth." ^ Yet you do not perceive God, but 
worship the heaven. How can you escape the 
charge of impiety ? Hear once more the words of 
a prophet : " The sun shall fail and the heaven be Final 
darkened, but the Almighty shall shine for ever ; ^fYuJgment 
and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken, and 
the heavens shall be folded up, being spread out and 
drawn together like a curtain " — these are the 
prophetic utterances — "and the earth shall flee 
from the face of the Lord." " 



IX 

And I could bring before you ten thousand Many 
passages of Scripture, of which not even " one tittle scrfpture^s 
shall pass away " without being fulfilled '^ ; for the could be 
mouth of the Lord, that is, the Holy Spirit, hath '^''°^^'^ 
spoken it. " No longer, then, my son," it says, 
" regard lightly the chastening of the Lord, nor faint 
when thou art reproved of Him." ^ O surpassing love 
for man ! He speaks not as a teacher to disciples, nor 
as a master to servants, nor as God to men, but as 
a "tender father"/ admonishing his sons. Again, God speaks 
Moses confesses that he " exceedingly fears and H h?^^**^' 
quakes," 5' when hearing about the Word; do you children 

we know Clement to have been acquainted (Eusebius, H,U. 
vi. 14). 

<* See St. Matthew v. 18 ; St. Luke xvi. 17. 

" Proverbs ill. 11. 

^ Homer, Odyssey ii. 47. 

s Hebrews xii. 21. 

183 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Xoyov OLKpoayfjievo? rov Oeiov ov hehias ; ovk dyoj' 
I'ta?; ovxt- a/Jia re evXa^fj Kal GTrevSei? eV/xa^etv, 
rovrearc GrrevSci? el? acorrjpcav, (f)o^ovfi€vo? rrjv 
opyqv, ayaTn^cra? Trjv )(^dpiv, l,r]Xcoaa? ttjv eATTtSa, 
Lva eKKAivrjs rrjv Kpiaiv; rjKcre rjKere, cS veoXaia 
rj e/jL-q- " tjv yap /jltj avdts d)S rd Traihia yevrjode Kal 
dvayevvrjOrjre," wg (^-qacv r) ypa<j)'q, rov ovrcjs ovra 
narepa ov firj dTToXd^iqre, " ovS^ ov /jltj elaeXevaeade 
7TOT€ els Tr]v ^aoiXeiav tcjv ovpavojv," ttcos ydp 
elaeXdeZv iTTireTpaTTrai ro) ^evco; dAA' draVy ot/xat, 
eyypa(j)fj Kal TroXirevdfj Kal rov narepa dTToXd^r], 
rore " ev rots rod Trarpo? " yevi^aerai, rore 
KX~qpovoiir\aai KaTa^LcodijaeraL, rore rrjs ^aaiXelas 
rrj? TTarpojas Koivcovrjuei ra> yvrjoicp, tco " rjya- 
TTrjfjLevcp ' ' • avTYj ydp r) TrpcxJTOTOKOs eKKXrjOia rj e/c 
TToXXwv dyaOdJv GvyKeLfxevrj Traihiaiv raur' ecrrt rd 
*' TTpcororoKa rd evarroyeypapipiiva eV ovpavols" 
Kal roGavTais " pivpidoiv dyyeXojv" GvpLrravrjyvpi- 
t,ovra' TTpojroroKOi 8e rralhes rjpt^eis ol rp6(f)Lp.oL 
rod deoVf ol rov " TrpcjororoKov" yvTjGLOt ^lXol, 
OL TTpdjroi rctjv dXXcov dvOpcorrajv rov Bedv vevorjKores, 
ol TTpojroL rcov dpLaprid)V dTreGTraGfievoi, ol TrpdJroi 
rod Sia^oXov Kex^opLGpLevoL. 

Nvvl 8e roGOVTCp rives cIglv dOecorepoc, ogco 
^iXavBpcoTTorepos d Oeds' d piev ydp €k SovXcdv 
vlovs rjpids yeveGOai ^ovXerau, ol 8e Kal viol yeveodai 
VTTep-qcfjavqKaGLV. d) rrjs dirovoias rrjs ttoXXtj?- tov 
Kvpiov €7TaLGXvveG9€. iXevdeplav eVayyeAAerat, 

« St. Matthew xviii, 3 ; St. John iii. 3, 5. 
* St. Luke ii. 49. « St. Matthew iii. 17 etc. 

<* See Hebrews xii. 22, 23. 
184 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

not fear when you listen to the divine Word Himself? chap. 
Are you not troubled ? Are you not careful and at ^^ 
the same time eager to learn ; that is to say, are you 
not eager for salvation, fearing God's wrath, loving 
His grace, striving after the hope, in order that you 
may escape the judgment? Come ye, come ye, my 
little ones ! For " except ye become once more as Unless we 
little children and be born again," as the Scripture chUdTe^n 
says, ye shall not receive the true Father, " nor shall we cannot 
ye ever enter into the kingdom of heaven." * For patheS^ 
how is the stranger allowed to enter ? Why, in this kingdom 
way, I think ; when he is enrolled, and made a 
citizen, and receives the Father, then he will be Once 
found "in the Father's courts,"* then he will be ^5^%fj^^« 
counted worthy to enter into the inheritance, then kingdom 
he will share the Father's kingdom with the true Son, ^beloved' 
" the beloved." " For this is the " church of the first- SoJ^ 
born," which is composed of many good children. 
These are " the first - born that are enrolled in God's many 
heaven " who ioin in solemn assembly with all those children 

1T1 n T>>^*i 1 lOTm the 

^innumerable hosts of angels. « And we are these " church of 
first-born sons, we who are God's nurslings, we who born"^^" 
are the true friends of the " first-born," ^ who have 
been the first of all mankind to know God, the 
first to be torn away from our sins, the first to be 
separated from the devil. 

Yet the truth is, that the more God loves them But many 
the more do some men depart from Him. For He ^j:^^^*^^^ *^^^® 
wishes that we should become sons instead of slaves, blessings 
but they have disdained even to become sons. What 
depth of folly ! It is the Lord of whom you are 
ashamed. He promises freedom, but you run away 

« Colossians i. 15, 18 ; Hebrews i. 6. 

185 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. vfJueXs Se ets" SovXeiav o-TroStSpacr/ceTe. acorripiav 
^^ XapL^€raL,viJL€LS Se els ddvarov^ VTTO<f>€p€Gd€. l,ojrjV 
Scope trat alojviov, vfjuels Se ttjv KoXaacv avajLteVere* 
/cat "to TTvp" 8e TrpoaKOTTelre, "o rjroifiaGev o 
KvpLog rch Sca^oXo) Kal rols dyyeXois avrov." hid 
TOVTO 6 fiaKapLOs aTroGToXos " fxaprvpoixaL eV 
Kvplo)," (fyrjcTLV, " fJLTjKerL vpids TTepLTrarelv, Kadcbs 
/cat ret eOvT) TreptTrare t eV [xaraior-qTi rod voos avrcbv, 
iaKoriapievoi rfj hiavoia ovres /cat dTrrjXXorpLCopLevoL 
TTJs l.ojrjs Tov deov, Stct rr^v dyvoiav ttjv ovaav iv 
avroLS, Sta rrjv TTcopcoGLV rrjs /capSta? avrwv otVtves 
70 P. iavTOVs irapehcxJKav \ (17717 Ayi) /core? rfj daeXyeia els 
epyaaiav aKadapaias TrdG7]s /cat TrXeove^ias ." tolov' 
TOV fxdpTvpos iXeyxovTOS ttjv tojv dvdpcoTTcov dvoiav 
/cat dedv em^ocxjpievov, tl Stj CTepov UTToAetTrerat rot? 
dTTLGTOis 'q KpLGLS Kal KaTaSiKr) ; ov /cctjLtvet ^ Se o 
KVpLos Trapaivcbv, eK(j)0^(i)V, TrpOTpiircoVy Steyetpoiv, 
vovdeTcov d(f)V7TVil,ei yd rot /cat tov gkotovs avTov 
Tovs TTeTrXavriixevovs StavLGTrjGLV "eyetpe," <j)r]Giv, 
" 6 Kadevhcov /cat avacrra e/c tojv veKpcov, /cat eTncbav- 
G€L GOi 6 Xptaros" KvpLos," o TTJs dvaGTaGecjJS rjXtos, 
6 " 7Tp6 €ajG<f)6pov " yevvw/jievosy 6 ^cdtjv xapiadiievos 
dKTLGLV tStatS". 

Mrj OVP 7r€pL(f)pOV€LTO) TLS TOV XoyOV, [XT) XdOr) 

KaTacfypovojv eavTov. Xeyei yap ttov tj ypa(f>7]' 
" Grjfjiepov idv ttjs (fxxjvrjs avTOV dKOVGr]T€, pLrj 
GKXr]pvvrjT€ TO.? KapSlas vjjlcjv d)S ev tco '.lapa- 
TTLKpaGjjLcp /cara tyjv rjfxepav tov rteipaGpiOV ev ttj 
eprjfjLO), ov eneipaGav ol Trarepe? vjiuyv ev Sokl- 



^ davarov Stahlin. aTTw\eiav Sylburg. AvOpcoTrov mss. 
2 ov Kdfivei. MUnzel. ovk dfxeXe? mss. 



186 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

into — slavery ! He bestows salvation, but you sink chap. 
down into death. He offers eternal life, but you xhe^punish- 
await His punishment ; and you prefer " the fire, ment that 
which the Lord has prepared for the devil and his ^^^' ^" 
angels " ! * Wherefore the blessed apostle says : " I 
testify in the Lord, that ye no longer walk as the 
Gentiles also walk, in the vanity of their mind, being 
darkened in their understanding and alienated from 
the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in 
them, because of the hardening of their heart, who 
being past feeling gave themselves up to lascivious- 
ness, to work all uncleanness and greediness."* 
When such a witness reproves the folly of men 
and calls upon God to hear, what else remains for 
unbelievers but judgment and condemnation ? Yet 
the Lord does not wear}' of admonishing, of terrifying, 
of exhorting, of arousing, of warning ; no indeed, He 
awakes men from sleep, and those that have gone 
astray He causes to rise from out the darkness itself. 
"Awake, thou that sleepest," He cries, "and arise 
from the dead, and there shall shine upon thee 
Christ the Lord," ^ the sun of the resurrection. He 
that is begotten "before the morning star," ^ He 
that dispenses life by His own rays. 

Let no one then think lightly of the Word, lest 
he be despising himself unawares. For the Scripture 
says somewhere, 

To-day if ye shall hear His voice, He exhorts 

Harden not your hearts as in the provocation, us to hear 

Like as in the day of the temptation in the wilderness. His voice 
Where your fathers tempted Me by proving Me.« *^ 

« St. Matthew xxv. 41. * Ephesians iv. 17-19. 

" Ephesians v. 14. ''Psalm cix. 3 (Septuagint). 

* Hebrews iii. 7-11, from Psalm xcv. 8-11. 

187 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. ^acrta." 17 Se SoKLfxaorla rl? eariv el OeXeis fxadeiv, 
TO ayiov GOL rrvevfJia i^rjyTqorerai' " /cat elSov ra 
epya fxov," (f)r]GL, " reaaapoLKovra errj- 8t' o Trpoa- 
coxOtcra TTJ yevea ravrrj kol ecTTOV del TrXavojVTai 
rfj Kaphia' avrol he ovk eyvamav ras" ohovs fMOV 
CO? wfjLOora ev rfj opyfj [xov, el elaeXevaovrai els ttjv 
KardTTavGLV fiov." opdre ttjv dTreiX-qv opdre ttjv 
TTpoTpoTrrjV opdre rrjv rLixrjv ri Srj ovv en r7]V 
X^P^v ^^S opyrjv fieraXXdcGopLev Kal ovxl dvaTreTrra- 
fjuevat? rats' d/coat? KaraSexdfievot, rov Xoyov ev 
dyvals ^evoSoxovpbev raXs iJjvxolI? rov deov ; fieydXrj 
yap rrjs eirayyeXias avrov rj xapt?, " edv orjixepov 
rrjs <f)Cx)vrjs avrov dKOVcrwfJLev^^ ' ro 8e orjixepov 
KaO^ eKaarrjV \avrov'\ ^ av^erau rrjv rjfjLepav, ear dv 
T] orrj/jLepov ovofjid^'rjraL. P^^XP^ ^^ ovvreXeias Kal rj 
OTjiiepov Kal r] ixdOr^uis Sta/xeVef koI rore rj ovrcos 
arjj.iepov rj dveXXiTrrjS rod deov rjjiepa rols alcoai 
avveKreiverai. 

Aet ovv rrjs (f)OJvrjs vnaKovajp^ev rov deiov 
Xoyov rj arjfjiepov yap diSlov alcovo?^ eariv 
elKcov, GVji^oXov Se rov (j>cx}r6s rj rjjiepa, <f)d)? 8e o 
Xoyos dvdpojrroLs, St' ov Karavyat,6jieda rov deov. 
elKorcos dpa marevaaoL jxev Kal vrraKovovaiv rj 
^^apt? VTrep-nXeovdaei, diTeidrjoaoi he Kal TrXavco- 
jjL€V0L9 Kara Kaphiav oSou? re ra? KvpiaKag jjutj 
eyvcxJKOGLV, as evOeias TTOielv Kal evrperrit,eiv Trapijy- 
yeiXev ^lcx)dvv7]s, rovrois he TTpooaJX^ioev 6 Oeos Kal 
direiXel- Kal hrj Kal ro reXos rrjs dneLXyjs alvtyjia- 

71 P. rcohchs d7TeiXrj\^aGLV ot rraXatol rcov '^^palcov 



^ [avTov] Stiihlin. 
2 di8iov alGjvos Arcerius. aldio^ alwi' mss. 



188 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

If you wish to learn what this "proving" is, the chap. 
Holy Spirit shall explain to you. ^^ 

And they saw My works forty years. 

Wherefore I was displeased with this generation. 

And said, They do ahvays err in their heart : 

But they did not know My ways ; 

As I sware in My wrath, 

They shall not enter into My rest." 

See the threat ! See the exhortation ! See the 
penalty ! Why then do we still exchange grace for 
wrath .^ Why do we not receive the Word with 
open ears and entertain God as guest in souls free 
from stain .^ For great is the grace of His promise, The meaning 
" if to-day we hear His voice " ; and this " to-day " is ?. to^day"'^'^ 
extended day by day, so long as the word " to-day " 
exists.* Both the "to-day" and the teaching con- 
tinue until the consummation of all things; and 
then the true "to-da}^/' the unending day of God, 
reaches on throughout the ages. 

Let us, then, ever listen to the voice of the 
divine Word. For " to-day " is an image of the 
everlasting age, and the day is a symbol of light, 
and the light of men is the Word, through whom 
we gaze upon God. Naturally, then, grace will Grace 
abound exceedingly towards those who have believed towards 
and listen; but as for those who have disbelieved those that 
and are erring in heart, who know not the ways other's God 
of the Lord, which John commanded us to make ^j^h^^®"^^ 
straight and prepare, with them God is displeased, punishment 
and them He threatens. Moreover the ancient 
Hebrews received in a figure the fulfilment of the 
threat when they wandered in the desert. For, 

« Hebrews iii. 7-11, from Psalm xcv. 8-11. 
* See Hebrews iii. 13. 

189 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TrXavrjraL' ov yap " elaeXdelv et? Trjv KaraTTavcTLV** 
XeyovraL Sta rrjv aTTiariav, rrpiv tj G(f>d? avrovs 
KaraKoXovdijaavTas ro) Mojucreo)? 8ta8o;(aj oijje 
TTore €pya) fiadelv ovk dv d'AAcos" GcoOijvaL fMrj 
ovxL cos ^IrjGov? TTeTTLGrevKoras . 

^iXdl^dpCOTTOS 8e cov 6 Kvpto? TTOLVra? dvdpCJTTOVS 

" els eTTLyvajGLv rrjs dXy]6eias " TrapaKaXeT, 6 rov 
TrapoLKXrjTov aTroGreXXcov . ris ovv rj eTtiyvajGis ; 
QeoGe^eia- " deoGe^eta Se Trpos Trdvra co^eAt/xo? " 
/card rov TlavXov, " iirayyeXiav exovGa ^coijs rrjs 
vvv Koi rijs fJLeXXovGrjs •" ttogov ajfxoXoyqGare, ch 
dvdpcxJTTOLf el emTrpdGKero Gojrripia dtSto?, ojvr]- 
GaGdai dv; ovhe el rov YlaKrcoXov ns oXov, rov 
XPVGLOV TO pevjjLa ro fivdiKov, aTTO/xerpr^o-at, dvr- 
d^Lov GOJTrjplas puGdov dpidfjLrJGei. firj ovv dno- 
KdpLr)re' e^eGriv vjxlv, rjv eOeXrjre, e^ojviJGaGdai Trjv 
TToXvrijJiriTOV GcorrjpLav olKelo) drjGavpo), dydTrrj Kal 
TTLGreL, ^cofjg 6s eGnv d^toXoyos puGdos^ ravrrjv 
rjSecJS TTjv TLjjLrjv 6 Oeos Aa/x^dvet. " rjXTTiKapiev 
yap eirl deep t^cjvri, 6s eGTV gojttjp Trdvrcov dv- 
dpcoTTOJV, pidXiGra ttlgtojv." ol Se d'AAot Trepc- 
TTe^VKores raj KOGpap, ola (f)VKLa nvd ivdXois 
TTerpais, dOavaGias oXiycopovGiv, KaOdrrep 6 Ida- 
K-qGtos yepcov ov rrj? dXrjOeias Kal rrjs ev ovpavcp 
TTarplSoSy TTpos Se Kal rod ovrats ovros t/xetpd/xevot ^ 
<j>a}r6sy dXXd rod Kanvov. 

^ dydirrj Kal TicrTeL fw^s, 6s . . . /jLiados. Stahlin. The 
punctuation given above is suggested by Mayor. 
^ ifieipd/xevoi Markland. IfieLpofxevos mss, 

« 1 Timothy ii. 4. 

* St. John XV. 26. There is a play on words in the Greek 
which it is hard to reproduce in English. The word para- 

190 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

owing to their unbelief, they are said not to have chap. 
"entered into the rest/' until they followed the ^^ 
successor of Moses and learnt^ though late, by ex- 
perience, that they could not be saved in any other 
way but by believing, as Joshua believed. 

But the Lord, being a lover of man, encourages Truth and 
all men to come " to a full knowledge of the truth " « ; 'omg""" 
for to this end He sends the Comforter.^ What through 
then is this full knowledge ? It is godliness ; and ^° 
" godliness," according to Paul, " is profitable for all 
things, having promise of the life which now is, and 
of that which is to come." '^ If eternal salvation Salvation 
were for sale, at what price would you, brother men, besought 
have agreed to buy it .'' Not even if one were to for money 
measure out the whole of Pactolus, the legendary 
river of gold, would he count a price equivalent to 
salvation. But do not despair. It is in your power, 
if you will, to buy up this highly precious salvation 
with a treasure of your own, namely, love and faith, 
which is a fitting payment for eternal life. This But God 
price God is pleased to accept. For " we have our fSttd 
hope set on the living God, who is the Saviour of love as 
all men, especially of them that believe." ^ The p^^"®" 
rest, clinging to the world, as certain sea-weeds 
cling to the rocks of the sea,^ hold immortality of 
little account. They are like the old man of Ithaca, 
yearning not for truth and their fatherland in 
heaven, nor yet for the Light that truly exists, but 
for the smoke from the hearth./ 

kletos, translated Comforter in the New Testament, is 
formed from parakalein, a verb which combines the meanings 
of summon, comfort (i.e. strengthen), and encourage ; or, to 
put it in another way, of invitation coupled with assistance. 

" 1 Timothy iv. 8. '^ 1 Timothy iv. 10. 

« See Plato, Republic 611 d. ■'' Homer, Odyssey i. 57-58. 

191 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. ©eoae^eia 8e, e^ojjiOLOVGa ra> Oeo) Kara to 
hvvarov rov dvdpojTTOVy KardXXriXov eVtypa^erat 8t- 
hdoKaXov deov rov /cat fiovov aTTeiKdaai /car' d^iav 
Bwdfievov dv9pa>7T0v dew. ravrrjv 6 aTToaroXos 
T-qv hihaoKaXiav delav dvrois eTnardfjievos " ov 
he, c5 Tt/xo^ee," (f)rjaLV, " diro ^p€(f)OVs lepd 
ypdfjLpLara otSa?, rd SvvdpLevd ae GO(j>ioai els 
Gcoriqplav 8ta TTLoreaJS ev Xpto-roi." lepd ydp cu? 
dXrjOCbs rd leporroLOVvra /cat deorrotovvra ypa/x/xara, 
e^ ojv ypajjijjidrojv /cat ovXXa^djv ru)v lepcav rds 
(juy/cet/xeVa? ypa(j>ds, rd avvrdyfxara, 6 avros 
dKoXovda>s aTToaroXos " OeoTTvevarovs" /caAet, 
** (h^eXipLOVs ovaas 77/36? StSaa/caAiav, rrpos eXeyxov, 
TTpos e7Tav6pB(jL>Giv,7Tp6? 7T a ih e lav rTjV ev hiKaiOGVvri , 
Iva dpnos fj 6 rov deov dvOpajvos rrpog rrdv epyov 
dyaOov e^rjpr-qpLevos." ovk dv ns ovrcus eKTrXayeirj 
Tcov dXXcov dyiojv rds rrporpOTrds d)S avrov rov 

72 P. KvpLOV rov <f)iXdv6po)7TOV' ovSev ydp \ dXX tj rovro 
epyov jjiovov eorlv avrw Gco^eodai rov dvOpcjoirov. 
^oa yovv errelyajv el? Gcorrjplav avros " rjyyiKev r] 
^aoiXeia rcov ovpavcov" ' e7nGrpe(j>eL rovs dvdpd)- 
7TOVS TrXrjGLd^ovras rep (f)6^cp. ravrr] /cat o o-tto- 
GroXos rod Kvpiov TrapaKaXojv rovs MaKehovas 
eppLTjvevs ytverai rrjs deias <f)a>vrjs, " 6 Kvpcos 
rjyyLKev" Xeyojv, " evXa^elode pir) KaraXrjcf>6cop.ev 
Kevol." 

* Y/xet? Se is roGovrov dheeZs, pcdXXov Se dmGroi, 
pir]re avra> TreiOopievoL ro) Kvplcp pL-^re rat IlauAoj, 
/cat ravra vrrep \pLGrov Se8ep,evcp} " yevoaode 

^ 8€0fiiv(^ correction in P (cp. 2 Corinthians v. 20), 
« 2 Timothy iii. 15. * 2 Timothy ui. 16, 17. 

192 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Now when godliness sets out to make man as chap. 
far as possible resemble God, it claims God as a qJ^ 
suitable teacher ; for He alone has the power Himself 
worthily to conform man to His own likeness. This our teachei 
teaching the apostle recognizes as truly divine, 
when he says, ''^And thou, Timothy, from a babe 
hast known the sacred letters, which have power to 
make thee wise unto salvation, through faith in 
Christ."^ For the letters which make us sacred 
and divine are indeed themselves sacred, and the 
writings composed from these sacred letters and 
syllables, namely, the collected Scriptures, are con- Through the 
sequently called by the same apostle ^"^ inspired of ^^^^'^^^^^^ 
God, being profitable for teaching, for reproof, for 
correction, for instruction which is in righteousness ; 
that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly 
furnished unto every good work." ^ No one could 
be so deeply moved at the exhortations of other holy 
men as at those of the Lord Himself, the lover of 
men ; for this, and nothing else, is His only work, 
that man may be saved. In His own person He 
cries out, urging men on to salvation : " The kingdom 
of heaven is at hand." " He converts men when they 
draw nigh to Him through fear. On this point the 
Lord's a]:)0stle becomes an interpreter of the divine 
voice when in appealing to the Macedonians he says, 
" The Lord is at hand ; take care lest we be found 
empty." '^ 

But you have so little fear, or rather faith, that 
you obey neither the Lord Himself, nor Paul, though 
Paul was a prisoner for the sake of Christ. " O taste 

« St. Matthew iv. 17. 

<* Philippians iv. 5 ; the latter half of the saying is not 
found in the New Testament. 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Kal tSere on xprjorog 6 deog." rj ttlotls elod^ei, 
^^ rj TTelpa Siha^et, rj ypa^r] Traihayajyiqaei " hevre, 
w T€Kva," Xeyovaa, " aKovaare jjlov, (f)6^ov Kvpiov 
StSa^co vfids." etra (hs rjhr] TreTnGTevKooi avv- 
TOfJicog eTTiXeyei " tl? icrnv avOpcoTTOs 6 OeXcvv 
i,coT]v, dyaTTCJV rjfjiepa? tSetv dyaOds ; " rji^Lets eV/xev, 
ijyrqooixev, ol rdyadov TrpooKvvrjrai,, ot tojv dyaOojv 
tprjXcxjrai. aKovoare ovv " ot jxaKpav," aKovaare 
" ol iyyvs"' ovk dveKpy^r] nvd? 6 Xoyos' cfxjij? 
€(JTi KOivov, imXdiJLTTei TTaatv dvdpojTTOLS' ovhels 
Ki/jLixepLos ev Xoycp' GTrevdcopLev etV oatTiqpiav, eVt 
TrjV TTaXiyyeveaiav' els piiav dydmrjv^ ovva-xdrjvai ol 
TToXXol Kara ttjv rfjs jjiovaSiKTJs ovaias evcomv 
07T€Voajfi€v. dyaOoepyovfievoL dvaXoycos ivor-qra 
SicoKCjofxev, TYjV dyaOrjV eKl,r]rovvTes fxovdSa. r) Se 
eK TToXXcjv €V(jL>GLs €K 7ToXv(f)OJVLas Kal SiaGTropds 
dpjxoviav XaBovaa Oe'iKrjv jiia yiveraL oviKpojvla, 
€vl x^pevrfj Kal StSaa/caAco tw Xoycp eTTOpLevr], 
err' avrrjv rt)v dXtjOeiav dvaTravofievr], " *A^^d" 
Xeyovaa "6 TraTijp"' ravri^v 6 6e6? ttjv (pwvrjv 
r7]v dXrjOivrjV dcrTra^erat Trapd tojv avrov nalSajv 

TTpCOTYjV KapTTOVpLeVOS . 

^ Stahlin suggests dy^X-qv. 

" Psalm xxxiv. 8. * Psalm xxxiv. 11. 

* Psalm xxxiv. 12. 

<* Isaiah Ivii. 19 ; Ephesians ii. 17. 

e See St. John i. 9. 

■^ The Cimmerians were a mythical people who dwelt 
beyond the Ocean in a land of mist and cloud and total 
darkness. See Odyssey xi. 13-16. 

3 Or, if Stahlin's suggestion is accepted (see note on text), 
"into one herd," or "flock." The word dyfK-r) is used for 
the " flock " of men on p. 34.7 of this volume, and in i. Strom. 
156. 3, and 169. 2. Cp. St. John x. 16. 

194- 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

and see that God is good."'* Faith shall lead you, chap. 

experience shall teach you, the Scripture shall train ^^ 

you. "Come, ye children," it says, "hearken unto 

me ; I will teach you the fear of the Lord." ^ Then, All who 

as if speaking to those who have already believed, it eternal life 

adds briefly, " What man is there that desireth life, ™ay come 

and loveth to see good days } " " We are they, we 

shall answer, we, the worshippers of the good, we who 

are zealous for good things. Hear then, "ye that 

are afar off" ; hear, " ye that are nigh." ^ The Word 

was not hidden from any ; He is a universal light ; 

He shines upon all men.* No one is a Cimmerian/ 

in respect of the Word. Let us hasten to salvation, 

to the new birth. Let us, who are many, hasten to Though 

be gathered together into one love^ corresponding to ^e°made^^ 

the union of the One Being. Similarly, let us follow ^^^ ^ "°itj 

after unity by the practice of good works, seeking love and 

the good Monad.'' And the union of many into one, ^°°^ works 

bringing a divine harmony out of many scattered 

sounds, becomes one symphony, following one leader 

and teacher, the Word, and never ceasing till it 

reaches the truth itself, with the cry, "Abba 

Father." * This is the true speech which God 

welcomes from His children. This is the first-fruits 

of God's harvest. 

'' The Monad, or unit, was a term used by the Pytha- 
goreans, who regarded all things as in some way constituted 
out of number. Odd numbers were more perfect than even, 
and the Monad, from which the rest were derived, v/as 
conceived as the perfect first principle of the universe. 
Clement here makes it a name for God, but in another place 
(i. Paedagogus 71. 1) he says that God is " above the Monad 
itself." 

* See St. Mark xiv. 36 ; Romans viii. 15 and Galatians 
iv. 6. 

195 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 



*AAA* e/c TTarepojv, (^are, TrapaSeSo/jievov rjfilv 
edog avarpiTTeiv ovk evXoyov. kol tl hrj ovxl rfj 
TTpcoTTj Tpo(f)fj, Tco ydXaKTL, ;^/3a»/xe^a, (5 S-q-novdev 
ovvecOiaav rjjjids Ik yeverij? at TLrOai; tl he 
p. av^dpofiev rj ixeLOVfxev r-qv Trarpcoav ovaiav, \ Kal 
ovx^L T-qv Lcrrjv, d)S 7Tap€LX'q(f)afji€V, 8La(f)vXdTTOfjiev ; tl 
Se OVK6TL rots' KoXtTOLS TOLS 7TaTpCi)0L£ ivaTTO^Xv- 
^OfJL€V, Tj Kal TO. d'AAa, a vri7Tidt,0VTes vtto pnqrpdaiv 
re iKTpe(j)6ix€Voi yeXajra a)(f>Xofi€v, ^TTLreXovpiev €tl, 
dAAa 0(j>ds avrovs, Kal el firj TraiSaycoycbv ervxofMev 
dyadojv, eTravcjjpOdjoaiJLev ; etra eVt tojv TrAdcov-*^ at 
TTapeK^daets Kairoi eTTi/^-qfiLOL Kal e7nG(f)aXeLS ovoai, 
d/xcos" yXvKeZai ttcos TrpoaTriTTTOVcriv , inl 8e rod ^lov 
ovxl ro edos KaraXiTTovres ^ to Troviqpov Kal epbiraOes 
Kal ddeoVy Kav ol rrarepes x^^^'^^^^^^^^ > ^'^'^ '^W 
dXijOeiav eKKXivovixev Kal tov ovtoj? ovra Trarepa 
eTn^rjr-qaoiJiev,^ olov Sr]Xr]T7]piov ^dpfxaKov rrju gvv- 
rjOeiav aTrojad/xep'ot; rovr avro ydp rot ro KdX- 
Xiorou rcov eyxeipovfiepoju eariv, UTroSet^at vfiZv (l)s 
drrd p^avias Kal rod rpiaadXiov rovrov edovs epnaridn) 
7] deoGe^eca' ov ydp dv epnG-qdrj TTore tj drnqyopevdr] 
dyaOov roGovrov, ov pLelt,ov ovhev eK deov SeSctj- 
prjrai ttoj rfj rcov dvdpwTTOJV yeveaei, el pL-q gvv- 
apTTat,6pLevoL rep eOet, etra puevroL diro^vGavre? rd 
a>ra rjpiii^, otov lttttol GKX-qpavxeves d(f)'qvLdL,ovreg, 
rovs xaAivoL'S' ivSaKovres, direcfievyere * rovs Xoyovs, 

^ ttXocov Cobet. Traiduf Schwartz, iraduiv MSS. 
'■^ KaTaXiirovres Cobet. KaraXeiirovTes MSS. 
^ iirL^7]T7](roiJ.€v Sylburg. iTr L^riTTja-wixep MSS. 
* dire(pevyeTe . . . vTreXa/x^dyeTe Stahlin. dirocpevyeTe . . . 
VTroXa/uL^dyere MSS. 

196 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 



X. 

But, you say, it is not reasonable to overthow a it is 
way of life handed down to us from our forefathers. Jfij^^j^eli 
Why then do we not continue to use our first ought not 
food, milk, to which, as you will admit, our nurses ancSrai^ 
accustomed us from birth ? Why do we increase or customs 
diminish our family property, and not keep it for 
ever at the same value as when we received it? 
Why do we no longer sputter into our parents' 
bosoms, nor still behave in other respects as we did 
when infants in our mothers' arms, making ourselves 
objects of laughter? Did we not rather correct 
ourselves, even if we did not happen to have good 
attendants for this purpose ? Again, in voyages by Yet new 
sea, deviations from the usual course may bring loss Settmes 
and danger, but yet they are attended by a certain good 
charm. So, in Hfe itself, shall we not abandon the 
old way, which is wicked, full of passion, and without 
God ? And shall we not, even at the risk of dis- 
pleasing our fathers, bend our course towards the 
truth and seek after Him who is our real Father, Custom is 
thrusting away custom as some deadly drug ? This oj^JSe to 
is assuredly the noblest of all the tasks we have in godliness 
hand, namely, to prove to you that it was from 
madness and from this thrice miserable custom that 
hatred of godliness sprang. For such a boon, the 
greatest that God has ever bestowed upon the race Custom 
of men, could never have been hated or rejected, au guManca 
had you not been clean carried away by custom, and ^1?^^^^^^^^^ 
so had stopped your ears against us. Like stubborn *''^'^™®" 
horses that refuse to obey the reins, and take the bit 
between their teeth, you fled from our arguments. 

197 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. dTToaciGacrdai, fjiev tovs rjvi6)(ovs vjjlcov rod ^lov 
rjfjids eTTLTTodovvres, ctti Se rov? Kprji^Lvovs rrjg 
aTTCxjXeias vtto rrjs avoia? (f>ep6iJi€voi ivayrj rov 
ayiov VTTeXajji^di^eTe ^ rod deov \6yov. cVerat roi- 
yapovv VfjLLV /caret rov 2o(/»o/cAea ra eTTix^ipa rijs 
eKXoyrjs, 

vovs (f)povhos, cor dxpctay (fypovrlSeg Kevai, 

Koi ovK tore ojs Travros fiaXXov rovro dXrjOe?, on 
dpa ol fiev dyadol Kal Oeoae^els dyadrjs rrj? 
dfjLOL^rj? rev^ovrai rdyadov reripiriKores, ol he eV 
rwv evavricov TTOvqpol ri^s KaraXXriXov ripLcoplas, 
Kal ro) ye dpxovn rrjs KaKias in-qpr-qrai KoXaais. 
drr eiXei yovv avrco 6 7Tpo(f)rjrr)s Za;Yaptas' "eVt- 
rifJL'qGaL iv aol 6 eKXe^dfievo? rr)v 'lepovaaX-qfJi' 
OVK ISov rovro SaAo? e^eaTTaGfievog ck TTVpos; " ris 
ovv en roLs dvOpcoTToc? ope^ts eyKeirai Oavdrov 
eKovaiov; ri he ro) SaAoi ro) Oavarrjcjiopa) rovrco 
74 P. 7TpoG7Te(f)evyaGLV, jjced^ ov Kara(f)XexOT]aovraL, e^ov 
^LcJtJvaL KaXa>s Kara rov Oeov, ov Kara ro edos ; 
Oeos fiev yap ^ojtjv ^(apLl^eraiy edos he rroviqpov fierd 
rrjv evOevhe dnaXXayrjv pLerdvoiav Kevrjv dfia n- 
fJLOjpLa rr poor pi^er ai, " iradchv he re vtjttlos eyvoj," 
d)S aTToAAuet heioihaipLOvia Kal aw^eu Oeoae^eia. 

'ISeVco Tt? Vfiojv rovs irapd roTs elhcoXoL? Xa- 
rpevovrasy KOfjir) pvircovras, iadijn Tnvapa Kal Kar- 

^ d7re0ei;7eTe . . . vTreXafi^dpere Stahlin, dvocpevyeTe . . , 
VTroXa/x^dveTe mss. 

" Clement plays upon the similarity between hagios, holy, 
and enages, accursed. 

* Sophocles, Frag. 863 Nauck. « Zechariah iii. 2. 

198 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

You yearned to shake yourselves free from us, the chap. 
charioteers of your life ; yet all the while you ^ 
were being carried along by your folly towards the And leads 
precipices of destruction, and supposed the holy destruction 
Word of God to be accursed. ** Accordingly the 
recompense of your choice attends upon you, in the 
words of Sophocles, 

Lost senses, useless ears, and fruitless thoughts ;* 

and you do not know that this is true above all else, 
that the good and god-fearing, since they have 
honoured that which is good, shall meet with a 
reward that is good ; while the wicked, on the other 
hand, shall meet with punishment corresponding to 
their deeds : and torment ever hangs over the head 
of the prince of evil. At least, the prophet Zechariah 
threatens him : " He that hath chosen Jerusalem 
take vengeance upon thee ! Behold, is not this a 
brand plucked out of the fire.''"*' What a strange why do 
longing, then, is this for a self-chosen death which ™eath when 
still presses upon men .'' Why have they fled to this life is pos- 
death-bearing brand, with which they shall be burnt 
up, when they might live a noble life according to 
God, not according to custom '^ ? For God grants life ; 
but wicked custom inflicts unavailing repentance 
together with punishment after we depart from this 
world. And "by suffering even a fool will learn"* 
that daemon-worship leads to destruction, and the 
fear of God to salvation. 

Let any of you look at those who minister in the Description 
idol temples. He will find them ruffians with filthy Jh^idof' '" 

temples 
«* A play upon the words theos (God) and ethos (custom). 
« Hesiod, Works and Days 218. 

199 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. cppajyvla KaOv^piofiivovs , Xovrpcbv fxkv TravraTraaiv 
aTTeipoLTOvs, rat? 8e roau ovvxoJi^ a/c/uat? eKreOrjpicxi' 
ixevovg, ttoXXovs Se koL tojv alSolcou a^rjprifxevovs, 
€pycx) SeLKVvvras ra)v elhojXojv ra refievr] rd(f>ov? 
TLvas rj Sea/JLajT-qpLa- ovtol puoL Sokovgl TrevSelv, ov 
6pr]GK€V€LV Tovs deovs, iXeov fxaXXov 7) Oeoaef^etas 
d^ia TTeTTOvdores . koI ravra opojvres ert rv(f)X(x)T- 

T6T€ Kav OV)(l TrpoS rOV SeGTTOTTjV rOJV TTOLVTCDV Kal 

Kvpiov rcx)V oXcov dva^Xeipere ; ovxl Se Karacfiev- 
^eode, eK rojv ivravda SeapLcoTrjOLajv iK(f)€vyovT€S, 
iiTL Tov eXeov tov i^ ovpavcov; 6 yap Oeo^ €/c 
ttoAAt^S" rrjs (f) iXavd peon lag avrex^Tai tov dvdpcoiTOV, 
oiOTTep eK KaXids eKTriiTTOVTOs veorrov rj fi'^rrjp 
opvis e^tTTraraf el he rrov Kal drjpiov epTTrjariKov 
nepLxdvoL to) veorrcp, 

fJirJTTjp 8' dii<f>L7TordTai oSvpOfievr] (j)iXa reKva' 

6 he 6e6s TTarrjp Kal l,rjTeL to TrXdofia Kal laTai to 
TTapaTTTcop^a Kal hiojKei to 9r]piov Kal tov veoTTOV 
avdi^ dvaXapL^dvei eVt ttjv KaXtdv dvaTrTrjvai irap- 
oppLchv. eha Kvves /xev TJhrj TreTrXav7]pievoi dS/xat? 
pLVTjXaTovvTes e^ixvevaav tov 8eaTr6Tr]v Kal ''.ttttol 
TOV dva^aT-qv dTTOoeiadpievoi evi ttov ovpiyp^aTi 
VTT^KOvaav ra» SeaTTOTT)' " eyvcu he," (/)r]CFL, " ^ovs 
TOV KTrjodp^evov Kal ovo? ttjv (j)dTViqv tov Kvpiov 
avTOV, laparjX Se fxe ovk eyva>." tl ovv 6 Kvpios; 
oi) p,vr]oiKaKel, eTL eXee't, ert t7]v pceTdvoiav diraiTel. 
epeaOai he vpids ^ovXo/jLat, el ovk aTorrov vpcXv 
hoKel TrXdoTfia iifxas tovs dvdpojTtovs einyeyovoTas ^ 

^ iinytyovoTas >iss. [i ir i]yey op 6t as Stahlin. 
200 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

hair, in squalid and tattered garments, complete chap. 
strangers to baths, with claws for nails like wild ^ 
beasts ; many are also deprived of their virility. 
They are an actual proof that the precincts of the 
idols are so many tombs or prisons. These men 
seem to me to mourn for the gods, not to worship 
them, and their condition provokes pity rather 
than piety. When you see sights like this, do you The sight 
still remain blind and refuse to look up to the prje^^s^ 
Master of all and Lord of the universe? Will you should lead 
not fly from the prisons on earth, and escape to the to Go? 
pity which comes from heaven } For God of His 
great love still keeps hold of man ; just as, when a 
nestling falls from the nest, the mother bird flutters 
above, and if perchance a serpent gapes for it. 

Flitting around with cries, the mother mourns for her 
offspring.* 

Now God is a Father, and seeks His creature. He God is a 
remedies the falling away, drives off the reptile, pathfr 
restores the nestling to strength again, and urges it though His 
to fly back to the nest. Once more, dogs who have do^no?"^ 
lost their way discover their master's tracks by the know Him 
sense of smell, and horses who have thrown their 
rider obey a single whistle from their own master ; 
"the ox," it is written, "knoweth his owner, and 
the ass his master's crib, but Israel doth not know 
Me." ^ What then does the Lord do .^ He bears How can we 
no grudge ; He still pities, still requires repentance ^ev^J ^^® 
of us. I would ask you, whether you do not think instead 
it absurd that you men who are God's last creation, ^^ °^ 

« Homer, Iliad ii. 315. 
* Isaiah i. 3. 

201 



CLEMENT OP ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rov deov Kal Trap' avrov ttjv ipvxrjv (:iXr)<f)6Tas kol 
ovras oAco? rod deov iripco hovXeveiv heoTTorr), 
TTpos 8e Kal depaTTevcLV olvtl fxev rod ^aoiXeois rov 
rvpavvov, avrl Se rod dyadov rov TTOvrfpov. rls 
yap, cu TTpos rrjs aX-qOeia?, aco(f>povojv ye rayaOov 
KaraXeLTTOJV KaKia avveanv ; ris he oans rov deov 
d7TO<f)evycov SaifiovLOts avpL^toZ; ris Se vlos elvat 
hvvdpievos rod deov hovXeveiv riherai; ri ris ovpavov 

75 P. TToXirrjs etvau Bvvdfxevos epe^os \ SicoKeL, e^ov irapd- 
SeLOov yeojpyeZv Kal ovpavov TrepiTToXelv Kal rrjs 
i^ojriKTJs Kal dKTjpdrov fxeraXaix^dveiV 7Tr)yrjs, 
Kar LX^os eKeivrjs rrjs (f>a)reLvrjs depo^arovvra 
vecpeXrjs, warrep 6 'HAta?, Oecopovvra rov verov 
<r6v>'- oioriqpLov ; ol Se GKOjXtjKajv SiKrjV Trepl 
reXjjiara Kal ^op^opovs, rd rjSovrjs pevjjiara, KaXiv- 
hovpuevoi dvovijrovs Kal dvoi^rovs eK^ooKOvrai 
rpv(j)ds, vcoSeLs rtves dv6pa>TroL. ves ydp, (f)r]Giv, 
" rfhovrai ^op^opo) " fxaXXov 7] KaOapco vBari, Kal 
" irrl (f)opvra> ixapyaivovatv" Kara ^-qfxoKpirov. firj 
Srjra ovv, fxr) Srjra e'^avSpaTToStcr^cD/xev /xT^Se ucu- 
SeLS yevwfxeOa, dAA' " co? rcKva (fioiros" yvqcna, 
dvaOpTJorajfjiev Kal dva^Xeipcofxev els to (f)a)s, {JLTj 
voOovs rjiJids e^eXey^rj 6 KVpios cjorrep 6 'qXios 
rovs derovs. 

Meravo-qacxj/jLev ovv Kal fieraarajfjuev e^ dfxaOias 

els eTnarrjix-qv , ef d(f)po(7Vvrjs els (f>p6v7](JLV, e'f 

aKpaaas els eyKpdrecav, e^ dSiKias els BiKaLoavvrjv, 

e'f dOeorrjros els 9e6v. KaXos 6 kIvSvvos avropcoXelv 

^ <Tbvy inserted by Sylburg. 

« Clement has drawn together the Elijah of the Trans- 
figuration (St. Matthew xvii. 5) and the Elijah of Mount 
Carmel (1 Kings xviii. 44). 
202 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

who have received your soul from Him, and are chap. 
entirely His, should serve another master ; aye, and ^ 
more than that, should pay homage to the tyrant 
instead of to the rightful king, to the wicked one 
instead of to the good ? For, in the name of truth, 
what man in his senses forsakes that which is good 
to keep company with evil ? Who is there that flees 
from God to live with daemons? Who is pleased 
with slavery, when he might be a son of God ? Or 
who hastens to a region of darkness, when he might 
be a citizen of heaven ; when it is in his power to 
till the fields of paradise, and traverse the spaces of 
heaven, when he can partake of the pure and life- 
giving spring, treading the air in the track of that 
bright cloud, like Elijah, with his eyes fixed on the 
rain that brings salvation ? * But there are some Yet some 
who, after the manner of worms, wallow in marshes are like 

worins 3)11(1 

and mud, which are the streams of pleasure, and swine, 
feed on profitless and senseless delights. These are Is unfieln^' 
swinish men ; for swine, says one, " take pleasure in 
mud"^ more than in pure water; and they "^^are 
greedy for offal," according to Democritus." Let us 
not then, let us not be made slaves, nor become 
swinish, but as true "children of the light," <^ direct 
our gaze steadily upward towards the light, lest the 
Lord prove us bastards as the sun does the eagles. 

Let us therefore repent, and pass from ignorance Let us 
to knowledge, from senselessness to sense, from in- repent, and 

* ^ ' come over 

temperance to temperance, from unrighteousness to to Gods 
righteousness, from godlessness to God. It is a ^^^^ 

* The words are from Heracleitus : Frag. 54 Bywater, 
ISDiels. ^ ^ 

" Democritus, Frag. 23 Natorp, 147 Diels. 
** Ephesians v. 8. 

H 203 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTpos Oeov. TToX\cx)v he Koi a'AAojy eanv artoXavoai 
dyadwv rovs SiKaLoavvrjs epaardsy ol ttjv ollSlov 
ScwKOfiev ocoT7]piav, drdp Sr) Kal aJv avros alvir- 
rerai 6 Oeos Sid 'Hcratou XaXdJv " eari KXyipovofiia 
roLs OepaTTevovGi Kvpiov"' KaXij ye Kal ipd- 
apLLog Tj KXripovopiiay ov ;^/9uatov, ovk dpyvpos, ovk 
iaOrjs, rd rrjs yrjs^ evOa ttov cr-qg Kal XrjGrrj? vov 
KaraSverai Trepl rov ;)^a/xat^T]Aov ttXovtov o^OaXpuwv , 
dXX eKelvos 6 Orjaavpos rrjg (jaiTTqpias, rrpos 6v ye 
eireiyeoOaL XP^ (f)LXoX6yovs yevop^evovs, ovvaTraipei 
he rjpLLV evOevhe rd epya rd dareZa Kal (TWiTTTaraL 
raJ rrjs dXrjdeia? Trrepcp. 

TavTTjv r]piZu TTjv KXrjpovopiiav eyxeLpil,ei rj 
dihios hiaOrjKTi rod Oeov rrjv dthiov hcopedv 
Xoprjyovcra' 6 he cjiiXoaropyos ovros -qpcajv TTarrjp, 
6 ovrojs TTarrip, ov Traverai TrporpeTrajv, vovOerajv, 
TraLhevcov, (jyiXcjv ovhe ydp acpl,a}V Traverai , avp,- 
^ovXevei he rd dpiora' " hiKaioi yeveode, Xeyeu 
KvpLos' ot hitpcovreg TTopeveaOe e^' vhcop, Kal oaoL 
pLTj ex^re dpyvpioVy ^ahiaare Kal dyopdaare Kal 
TTiere dvev dpyvplov." eirl ro Xovrpov, errl rrjv 
oojrripiaVy errl rov (fxjjriGpiov rrapaKaXel pcovov- 

76 P. ovxl I ^oajv Kal Xeyojv yrjv ooi hihajpa Kal 
ddXarraVy iraihioVy ovpavov re Kal rd ev avrol? 
irdvra ^cod gol ;i^apt^o^af pLOVOv, S TcaihioVy 
hiiJjrjGov rod TrarpoSy dpLiGdei gol heixO-^Gerat 6 
deos' oi) KaTTrjXeverai rj dXTjOeia, hlhajGi gol Kal rd 
nrrjvd Kal rd vrjKrd Kal rd cttI rrjs yrjs' ravrd gov 

^ TO, TTJs 7^ J after ^adqs Markland : after <jr]s Kai mss. : Kal 
[to. TTjs 7^j] Stahlin. 

" Isaiah liv. 17 (Septuagint). 
204 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

glorious venture to desert to God's side. Many are chap. 
the good things which we may enjoy who are lovers ^ 
of righteousness^ who follow after eternal salvation ; 
but the best of all are those to which God Himself 
alludes when He says through Isaiah, '^ there is an We shall 
inheritance to those who serve the Lord." <* Aye, God's^"^^^ 
and a glorious and lovely inheritance it is, not of gold, inheritance 
not of silver, not of raiment, things of earth, into 
which perchance moth and robber may find a way,^ 
casting longing eyes at the earthly riches ; but tliat 
treasure of salvation, towards which we must press 
forward by becoming lovers of the Word. Noble 
deeds set out from hence in our company, and are 
borne along with us on the wing of truth. 

This inheritance is entrusted to us by the eternal 
covenant of God, which supplies the eternal gift. 
And this dearly loving Father, our true Father, 
never ceases to exhort, to warn, to chasten, to love ; 
for He never ceases to save, but counsels what is 
best. " Become righteous, saith the Lord. Ye 
that are thirsty, come to the water ; and as many 
as have no money, go ye, and buy and drink without 
money." " It is to the font, to salvation, to en- 
lightenment that He invites us, almost crying out ah things 
and saying : Earth and sea I give thee, my child ; without cast 
heaven too, and all things living in earth and heaven 
are freely thine. Only, my child, do thou thirst for 
the Father ; without cost shall God be revealed to 
thee. The truth is not sold as merchandise ; He 
gives thee the fowls of the air and the fishes of the 
sea and all that is upon the earth. These things 

* See St. Matthew vi. 19, 20. 
« Isaiah liv. 17 (Septuagint) ; Iv. 1. 

205 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rat? evxoipi'Cr'roLs rpv^al? Sehr]iJiLovpyr]K€V 6 var-qp. 
■^ apyvpicp /xev (Lvqaerai 6 vodos, o? aTTOjXeias eorl 
TTaihioVy OS " jjiafxajva SovXeveiv " TrpoTJpT^rat, crot 
he TO, CTCt eTTLTpeTTeL, rco yvrjoico Aeyco/ to) ^lXovvtl 
Tov Tvarepa, 8t' ou en cpya^erai, S fiovco /cat 
VTTtCTXt'etTat Aeyco;^- " fcat 17 y^ ^^ TrpaOTjaerat elg 
^e^aiOjaLv"' ov yap Kvpovrai rfj (j>dopa' " efirj 
yap eoTiv Trdaa 77 yrj," eon he Kal ar], lav aTToXd^rjS 
TOV Oeov. odev rj ypa<j)r] eLKoro)? evayyeXi^eraL rot? 
TreTncTTevKoaiV' " ol he ayiot Kvpiov KXripovopiri- 
oovai TTjV ho^av rod Oeov /cat Trjv hvvaixiv avrov." 
TTolav, oi /xa/capte, ho^av, etW p,oi' " r\v o^^aA/xo? 
ovK eXhev ovhe ov? TJKOvaev, ovhe inl Kaphiav av- 
dpwTTOV ave^T]- /cat ;)^a/DrJ(70VTat eVt rfi BaaiXeia 
rod KVpiov avrojv el? rovs alwva?, oljjltJv." ^x^re, 
J) dvOpojTTOL, rr)V Oelav rrjg ;)^a/3tTO? eirayyeXiav, a/07- 
Koare /cat rrjv aXXiqv rr\s KoXdaeco? aTietAT^v, 8t' cSi^ 
o Kvpios ocol,ei, (f)6^a) /cat ;^aptrt Traihayajyajv rov 
avOpcoTTOV ri /xeAAo/xev; ri ovk eKKXcvofiev rrjv 
KoXaoLV ; ri ov KarahexopieOa rrjV hcopedv; rt he 
ovx alpov[ieda rd ^eXrlova, Oeov dvrl rod Trovrjpov, 
/cat CTO^tW elha>XoXarpelas TrpoKpLVOfiev /cat t,coT)v 
avriKaraXXaaoopieOa ^ Oavdrov^ ; " Ihov reOeiKa irpo 

^ \iyw Stahlin. \^yet. mss. 

'* avTiKaTaWaffaoixeda Heinsius. dvTiKaTa\\aaa-6/j.evoi mss. 

3 ^ai/drou Mayor. 6avdT<^ mss. 

« St. Matthew vi. 24 ; St. Luke xvi. 13. 

6 See St. John v. 17. 

"= Leviticus xxv. 23. 

<' Clement takes the Old Testament phrase in a spiritual 
sense. It is the "inheritance incorruptible . . . reserved 
in heaven" (1 St. Peter i. 4) which is not " deUvered over 
to corruption." 

206 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

the Father hath created for thy pleasant dehghts. chap. 
The bastard, who is a child of destruction, who lias ^ 
chosen to '^ serve mammon," "' shall buy them with 
money; but to thee, that is, to the true son, He Because we 
commits what is thine own, — to the true son, who chudr^ea^ 
loves the Father, for whose sake the Father works 
until now,^ and to whom alone He makes the 
promise, "and the land shall not be sold in per- 
petuity " " ; for it is not delivered over to corruption.^ 
" For the whole land is mine," ^ He says ; and it 
is thine also, if thou receive God, Whence the 
Scripture rightly proclaims to believers this good 
news : " The saints of the Lord shall inherit God's 
glory and His power." What kind of glory, thou 
Blessed One ? Tell me. A glory " which eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard, nor hath it entered into 
the heart of man. And they shall rejoice in the 
kingdom of their Lord for ever. Amen."/ You 
have, my fellow-men, the divine promise of grace ; Our choice 
you have heard, on the other hand, the threat of 'g^j.^^^^^^^^" 
punishment. Through these the Lord saves, train- punishment 
ing man by fear and grace. Why do we hesitate } 
Why do we not shun the punishment ? Why do 
we not accept the gift ? Why do we not choose 
the better things, that is, God instead of the evil 
one, and prefer wisdom to idolatry and take life in 
exchange for death.? "Behold, 1 have set before 

« Leviticus xxv. 23. 

•'' The first part of this passage is from 1 Cor. ii. 9, where 
it is introduced by St. Paul as a quotation. Origen tells us, 
in his Commentary on St. Matthev) (see Migne, Origen vol. iii. 
p. 1769), that St. Paul took it from the Apocalypse of Elijah. 
Doubtless the rest of the passage, as given by Clement, 
comes from the same source. 

207 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. rrpoacoTTOv Vfjicbv," (f)r](jL, "top Odvarov Kal rrjv 
^ojyjv." 7T€Lpdl,€L G€ 6 Kvpios CKXe^addaL rrjv ^ojijv, 
GVfji^ovXeveL aot ws TTarrjp TreideoOai^ rco 6ea>, 
" edv yap oLKOvcrrjTe jjlov," (f)r)ai, " /cat deXi^crrjTe, 
TO, dyadd rrj? yrjs ^dyeode," VTraKorjs rj ^dpis' 
" idv Be fJLTj vrraKovcrrjTe fxov ixrjSe deX-^arjre, iidxo.Lpa 
Vfids Kal TTvp KareSerat," TrapaKorjs rj KpioLS. 
" TO yap oTOfia Kvpiov iXdXrjaev ravra'" vofxos 
dX-qdeias Xoyos Kvpiov. \ 

77 P. BovXeade vfjilu dyaOos yei'cojjiai crvfi^ovXo? ; dAA' 
vpLGL? fxeu dKovaare' iyd) 8e, el Swarov, eV8etfo/xat. 
iXPV^ /xev vfjids, c5 dvdpcoTTOi, avrov Trepi evvoov/jLe- 
vovs Tov dyaOov efjL(f)VTou eTrdyeodai ttlgtlv, fidprvpa 
d^Loxpeojv^ avTodev OLKodev, TTepi^avws atpovjjLevrjv 
TO BeXTiGTOv, pLTjSe [^rjTelu] ^ el jxeTahicoKTeov eK- 
TTOveZv. Kal yap e'i Tip pbeOvoTeov, ^^P^ elirelvy 
diJL(f)L^dXXeiv XPV' ^P^^^s 8e nplv ^ eTTiaKeifjaadai 
fjiedveTe' Kal el v^piGTeov, ov TToXvrrpaypLOveiTe, 
dAA' 17 * Tdxos v^pil^eTe. piovov 8' dpa el 6eoG€^^]Teov, 
^rjTeLTe, Kal el tco ao<^a> tovtco [hrj] ^ Tip dew Kal tcS 
\pLGTip KaTaKoXovdrjTeov , tovto Syj ^ ^ovXrj? Kal 
GKei/jeaJS d^LOVTe, o?)S' o TrpeTrei deo), 6 ti TTore eart, 
vevoiqKOTes. TTLGTevoaTe rjpLLV Kav cjs P-^^J]* ^^oi 
Gatcf)pov'i^Gr]Te' TTiGTevGaTe Kav cus" v^pei, Iva 
^T]Gr]T€. el Be Kal TreiOeGd ai ^ovXeode ttjv evapyrj 

^ ireideadaL Sylburg. ireldeade mss. 

2 TTtoTif, /iidpTvpa d^toxpewi/ Wilamowitz. fxdpTvpa d^t6xpew. 

irlCTTLV JISS. 

3 [frjreii'] Mayor. StJihlin retains ^riTetv, and inserts rh 5' 
dyadov (Schwartz) before eKiroveiv. 

* Xi Sylbui'g. ij MSS. 

6 [8i)\ Stahlin. « St? Stahlin. 5e mss. 

" Deuteronomy xxx. 15. * Isaiah i. 19, 20. 

208 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

your face/' He says, "death and life."'* The Lord chap. 
solicits you to choose life ; He counsels you, as a -^ 
father, to obey God. " For if ye hearken to Me," 
He says, " and are willing, ye shall eat the good of 
the land,"— the grace follows upon obedience. " But 
if ye hearken not to Me, and are unwilling, a sword 
and fire shall devour you," — the judgment follows 
upon disobedience. " For the mouth of the Lord 
hath spoken it ; " ^ and a word of the Lord is a law 
of truth. 

Would you have me become a good counsellor to An inborn 
you ? Then do you hearken ; and I, if it be possible, ^^g^ what^^ 
will show myself one. When reflecting upon the is good 
good itself, you ought, my fellow-men, to have 
called to your aid faith, implanted in man, which is 
a trustworthy witness from within ourselves, with 
the utmost clearness choosing what is best,'' You 
ought not to have toiled to discover whether or no No long 
the best is to be followed. Let me give you Sed" ^^ 
an illustration : you ought to doubt whether it is 
right for a man to get drunk ; but your practice is Men follow 
to get drunk before considering the question. Or judgment, 
in the case of riotous indulgence, you do not make i»i ™ost 
careful examination, but indulge yourselves with all 
speed. Only, it would seem, when godliness is in Only in the 
question, do you first inquire ; and when it is a God^d?they 
question of following this wise God and the Christ, ^^^^^^ 
this you think calls for deliberation and reflection, 
when you have no idea what it is that befits God. 
Put faith in us, even as you do in drunkenness, that 
you may become sober. Put faith in us, even as 
you do in riotous indulgence, that you may live. 
And if, after having contemplated this clear faith 

« Cp. Aristotle, Eth. Nicom. 1169 a 17 (p. 192 By water). 

209 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAT?. Ta)V dperaJv iTTOTTTevcravreg^ ttlotlv, ^e/ae vfilv €K 
TTepLOvalas rrjv Trepl rod Xoyov Trapadrjaofiai Treido). 
Vfjcels Se, ov yap ra rrdrpLa vjjid? en rrjs dX-qdeias 
aTTaaxoXel edrj 7TpoKarrj-)(r]fievov?, dKovoir^ dv rjSrj 
TO fJLerd Tovro ottoj? ej^ef i<al Srj fit] ri? Vjjids rovSe 
rod dvo/jLaros aiuxdviq TrpoKaraXapi^avercOy " rjr^ 
dvSpa? fieya atVerat," Traparpeirovaa Gojriqpia?. 

^ K7TohvadjJL€voi 8' ovv 7T€pL(j)av(JL)s ev ro) rrjs 
dXr]9eias orahio) yvrjoiajs dyajvi^cojiedaj ^pa^ev- 
ovros fJ^€V rod Xoyov rod dyiov, dycxJvoOerodvros 3e 
rod SeoTTorov rdov dXa)v. ov yap OfiLKpov r^ixlu rd 
ddXov dOavaaia TrpoKeirai. jxr] ovv ere (fipovrll^ere 
fJLTjBe [et] dXlyov, ri vpids dyopevovoi avp(f)aK€S 
TLves dyopaZoL, heLoidaifjLOvias ddeot xopevral, dvoia 
/cat Trapavoia i? avrd djOovfievoi rd ^dpaSpov, 
elhdiXcov rroL-qral Kai Xidojv TrpoaKVViqrai- otSe yap 
dvOpcoTTOvs dnoOeodv reroXfjaJKaac, rpiaKaiheKarov 
^ AXe^avhpov rdv Ma/ceSoya dvaypdcf^ovres Oeov, " dv 
Ba^uAtov yjXey^e veKpdv." dyafiai roivvv rdv Xtov ^ 
GO(f)iGr'qv, QeoKpLros ovofjia avrd)' fierd rrfv 'AAe^- 
dvSpov reXevrrjv eTTiOKajTrrcov d SeoKpiro? rds Sd^as 
ra? Kevdg rd)V dvOpcoTTOjv a? etxov irepl Oedjv, 77/30? 

78 P. Tou? TToAtVas" I " dvhpes," €L7T€v, " Oappelre dxpiS 
dv dpdre rovs deovs irpdrepov rd)v dvdpojTTOJV dno- 

^ iTTOTTTevaavTes Potter. viroirT€vcravTe% jiss. 
2 [ei] Kontos. 3 xroj' Cobet, Oelov mss. 

» This seems to refer to the " implanted faith " mentioned 
at the beginning of this paragraph. It may, perhaps, refer 
onlj' to the preceding sentence ; in which case we should 
translate, "this clear proof of the virtues," i.e. the proof 
derived from studying the lives of Christians. 

* Homer, lUad xxiv. 45 ; Hesiod, Works and Days 318. 

'^ Sibylline Oracles v. 6, Alexander was called the 
210 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

in the virtues,'^ you desire to be obedient_, come chap. 
then, I will lay before you in abundance persuasive ^^ 
arguments concerning the Word. On your part abundant 
(for it is no longer the case that the ancestral cIK*^^'^^ 
customs, in which you have formerly been in- provided for 
structed, prevent you from attending to the truth), desires to 
listen now, I pray you, to the nature of the words ^*^^™ 
that follow. Moreover, let no feeling of shame for 
the name of Christian deter you ; for shame " does 
great hurt to men," ^ when it turns them aside from 
salvation. 

Having then stripped before the eyes of all, let The true 
us join in the real contest in the arena of truth, theprfze°of 
where the holy Word is umpire, and the Master immortality 
of the universe is president. For the prize set 
before us is no small one, immortality. Cease then 
to pay any further heed, even the slightest, to the 
speeches made to you by the rabble of the market- 
place, godless devotees of daemon-worship, men who The folly 
are on the very verge of the pit through their folly and woShiJ^" 
insanity, makers of idols and worshippers of stones, pers, who 
For these are they who have dared to deify men, Alexander 
describing Alexander of Macedon as the thirteenth ^ g°^ 
god, though " Babylon proved him mortal." " Hence 
I admire the Chian sage, Theocritus by name, who How 
in ridicule of the vain opinions which men held about of^chios^"^ 
gods, said to his fellow-citizens after the death of ridiculed 
Alexander, " Keep a cheerful heart, comrades, so 
long as you see gods dying before men." ^ But 

" thirteenth god " because his name was added to the twelve 
deities of Olympus, to whom Clement alludes on p. 53 of 
this volume. 

'^ For this and other witty remarks attributed to Theocritus 
of Chios (quite a different person from the poet Theocritus) 
see Fraf/. hist. Ch'aec. ii. p. 86. 

h2 211 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Ov-jjaKOVTag." deov? 8e 817 tov? oparovs kol rov 
CTuy/cAt'Sa TMV yevYjTOJV tovtwv 6')(\ov 6 TrpoGKVvixiv 
Koi 7Tpoa€TaLpi^6fX€vos, avrojv eKetvcov raJv Sat/xd- 
vojv aOXioiTepo? fiaKpcv. deo? yap ovSafxfj ovhapLO)? 
dSiKOs a)a7T€p ol Sat/xove?, dAA' oj? otov re SiKato- 
raros", /cat ovk eariv avro) opiOLorepov ovhev tj o? 
av rjpLwv yevqraL on St/catdraros". 

^ar' els oSov Srj nds 6 x^^P^^^^ Aeco?, 
01 T7]v Atds" yopycbvLV ^Kpydvrjv ^ Oeov 
GTaToZai XIkvols TrpoGrpeTTeade,^ 

riXidioi Tojv XiOcDV Sr]fiLOvpyoL re /cat TrpoaKVvrjr at. 
6 OetSta? vpL(JL)v /cat d YioXvKXeiros rjKovTcov Upa^L- 
TeXrjs re av /cat 'AvreAA^^s" /cat oaot rds ^avavaovs 
fjLerepxovrai re^vas, yrjivoi yrjs ovres epydrai. rore 
yap <f)r)<jl ns 7Tpo(f)r)reLa Svarvx'jcr^LV rd rfjSe 
Trpdypiara, orav dvSptacrt Tnorevaaxjiv. rjKovrojv 
ovv au^t?, ov yap avrjaoj KaXoov, ol puKporexvai. 
ovSel? 7T0V rovrojv epurvovv etKova SeSrjp.LovpyqKev, 
ovSe pLrjv eK yrjs pcaXdaKrjV ipidXa^e adpKa. ris 
errj^e pcveXov 7) ris emq^ev oarea; ris vevpa St- 
erecvev^ ; ris (jjXi^as e^'uarioev ; ris alfxa evex^^v ev 
avraZs rj ris Sep/jLa ire pier eivev ; ttov S' av ns 
avrcov 6(f)9aXjUL0VS rroi-qaai ^Xenovras ; ris ev- 
e(J)VGrjGe ipvxTJv; ris SLKatoavvrjv ehajprjaaro ; ris 
ddavaoiav VTreax'rjraL ; jjlovos 6 rojv oXcjdv SrjfiL- 
ovpyos, d " dpLororex^as TTartjp," roiovrov dyaXpua 
epupvxov [rjpids^ * rov dvOpojrrov eTrXaaev 6 he 

^ 'EpYdj'T?!/ from Plutarch, De Fortuna 99 a. epydinjv mss, 

"^ irpodTp^TreaOe Plutarch. irpoTpeTreade Jiss. 

* dLeTeifef i) Wilamowitz. ■* [r//xa$] Mayor. 

« Cp. Plato, Theaetetm 176 b-c. 
21;^ 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

indeed, as for gods that can be seen, and the motley chap. 

multitude of these created things, the man who ^ 

worships and consorts with them is far more wretched 

than the very daemons themselves. For God is in 

no way unrighteous as the daemons are, but righteous a righteoua 

in the highest possible degree, and there is nothing SesV^^ 

more like Him than any one of us who becomes as approach 

.,-,'' to God 

righteous as possible.* 

Go forth into the way, ye craftsmen all, 
Who supplicate, with winnowing fans aloft. 
The goddess Industry, stern child of Zeus,* 

— stupid fashioners and worshippers of stones ! Let 

your Pheidias and Polycleitus come hither, Praxiteles The crafts- 

too, and Apelles, and all the others who pursue the [J paft^y')'"^ 

mechanical arts, mere earthly workers in earth. For when com- 

a certain prophecy says that misfortune shall over- ckJd's ""* 

take this world of ours, on the day when men put 

their trust in statues.*' Let them come then, I say 

again, — for I will not cease to call, — puny artists that 

they are. Not one of them has ever fashioned a 

breathing image, or made tender flesh out of earth. 

Who gave its softness to the marrow ? Who fixed 

the bones? Who stretched out the sinews.? Who 

inflated the arteries ? Who poured blood into them 

and drew the skin around ? How could any of these 

men make eyes that see ? Who breathed life into 

man? Who gave him the sense of right? Who 

has promised immortality? None but the Creator 

of the universe, the " Father, the supreme artist," ^ 

formed such a living statue as man ; but your 

* Sophocles, Frag. 760 Nauck. The goddess " Industry," 
whom the craftsmen worshipped in their processions, is 
Athena. See Plutarch, De Fortuna 99 a. 

<^ The source of this quotation is unknown. 

«* See Pindar, Frag. 37 Schroeder. 

213 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP, OXvflTnOS VflOJVf CLKOVOS €LKCOV, TToXv Tt ttjs dXrj- 

Oeia^ OLTTaSojv, epyov iarl kw<^6v ;^etpa;v ^ArTtKibv. 
" eiKCiiv " fxev yap " rod Oeov " 6 Xoyos avrov (/cat 
vlos Tov vov yvT^aios 6 deios Xoyos, (j^caro? ^PX^' 

79 p. TVTTOV (f>OJ?), eLKcbv Se TOV XoyOV 6 dvdpCDTTOS <6>^ 

dXyjOivos, 6 vov? 6 ev dvOpcoTTcp, 6 " Acar' etKova 
TOV Oeov Kal " Kad^ opLoiojaLv " Sta tovto yeyevrjadai 
Xeyofievog, Tjj /card Kaphiav (jipovqaei to) deico 
TTapetKat^opievos Xoyco Kal TavTT) XoytKos . dvdpcoTrov 
8e TOV opcjjjxevov tov yrjyevovs yrjcvos eiKcov to. 
dydXfxaTa to, dvhpeiKeXa < Kal>'^ rroppoj ttj? dXrjOeLa? 
eTTLKaipov eKfjiayelov /cara^atVerat. ovhkv ovv 
dXX r) jjLavLas efnrXeojs 6 ^lo? eSo^e fioL yeyovevai, 
TOaaVTTj GTTOvSfj TTepl TTjV vXrjV KaTayLv6pi€Vos . 

^EiTTLTeOpaTTTaL ^ 8e vrro Kevrjs ho^rj? tj ovvr^Oeia 
SovXeias fiev yevaaaa vfids Kal dXoyov Trept- 
€pyaaias' vofjuiixcov he dvopLcov Kal dnaTTjXwv vtto- 
Kpioecov dyvoia atrta, tj Srj KaTaoKevds elodyovoa 
elg * TO Tojv dvOpcoTTCov yevos Krjpojv oXeOpicov Kal 

elScoXoJV €7TL(TTVy<JJV TToXXds T(X)V SaLfJLOVOJV eTTLVOt]- 

aaaa iJiop(f>dg, KrjXlha rots" erro/jLevoL? avrfj ev- 
aTTefxd^aTO OavaTOV pcaKpov. Xd^eTC ovv vSojp 
XoyLKov, XovaaoOe ol fiefioXvafjievoL, Trepippdvare 
avTovs diTO TTJ? ovvrjOelas rat? dX-qOivai? GTayoatv 
KaOapovs els ovpavovs dva^rjvai Set. dvdpcxJTTOS el, 
TO KOLVOTaTOVy eTnt^-qTiqaov tov S-qfjLiovpyijaavTd ae' 

^ <6> inserted by Mayor. ^ <^ai> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

^ iirLTidpairTai. Mayor. ewLTeTpLTTTaL mss. 

^ KaraffKevas eladyovaa els Scliwartz. Karaa-Kevade^aa MSS. 
Stfihlin marks the passaj^e as eorrupt. 

" A reminiscence of the Platonic theory of ideas, in which 
there are three stages of reahty : first, the archetypal idea ; 
secondly, the object, which is a visible expression and a 
214 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Olympian Zeus, an image of an image, far removed chap. 
from the truth,* is a dumb lifeless work of Attic ^ 
hands. For "the image of God" is His Word (and The image 
the divine Word, the light who is the archetype of f. ^,9,^ *? 

-.- . . I- -nf T r,\ ^ . "^ ^ n "1^ Word 

light, is a genume son oi Mmd '') ; and an miage of 

the Word is the true man, that is, the mind in man. The true 

who on this account is said to have been created " in ™^°,' *•*•. , 
,, Til >' mans mind, 

the image of God, and "in His likeness," "^ because is an image 
through his understanding heart he is made like the ^^^^^^^^^^ 
divine Word or Reason, and so reasonable. But 
statues in human form, being an earthen image of statues are 
visible, earthborn man, and far away from the truth, o"maTs°^^ 
plainly show themselves to be but a temporary im- body, far 

'^ / ., J • • J.1 ^Li • from the 

pression upon matter. In my opmion, then, nothmg truth 

else but madness has taken possession of life, when 
it spends itself with so much earnestness upon matter. 

Now custom, in having given you a taste of ignorance 
slavery and of irrational attention to trifles, has been caui'lof 
fostered by idle opinion. But lawless rites and idolatrous 
deceptive ceremonies have for their cause ignorance ; 
for it is ignorance that brought to mankind the ap- 
paratus of fateful destruction and detestable idolatry, 
when it devised many forms for the daemons, and 
stamped the mark of a lasting death upon those 
who followed its guidance. Receive then the water 
of reason. Be washed, ye that are defiled. Sprinkle 
yourselves from the stain of custom by the drops 
that truly cleanse. We must be pure to ascend to 
heaven. In common with others, thou art a man ; 
seek after Him who created thee. In thine own 

particular instance of the idea ; thirdly, the picture, which 
is but a representation of the object, nothing more than the 
image of an image, three stages removed from reality. 

* i.e. the Father. Cp. v. Strom. 8. 7. " Genesis i. 26. 

215 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. vlo? €i, TO IhtaiTaTOV y avayvojpiGov rov Traripa' av 
Se ert rats' a/xaprtat? TrapafxeveL?, TTpoorer-qKOiS 
-qSovats; tlvl XaXrqaei Kvpio? " vjjlwv iariv rj 
^aaiXela tcov ovpava)v ' ' ; vpLcijv eariv, iav deXrjariTe, 
Twv TTpos rov Oeov rrjv TrpoaipeoLV iax'qKOTCoi'- vfiojv, 
iav iOeXi'jarjTe Tnarevaai jxovov /cat rfj cruvro/xta rod 
KYjpvyiiaros eTreaOai, rjg vnaKovaavres ot Ntveutrai 
TT^S" TTpocrSoKYjOeior]? dXcoaeajs fxeravola yvrjGLCp rrjv 
KaXrjV dvrLKaTTjXXd^avro ocxjriqpiav. 

Yicbs ovv dveXdoj, (f)'qaLV, et? ovpavovs ; " oSog " 
eanv 6 KvpLOs, " arevrj " fiev, aAA* " e^ ovpavaJv," 
arevTj p,ev, aAA' et? ovpavovs dvaTTepiTTOvaa' arevr^ 
iirl yrj? VTrepopcopLevy], irXarela iv ovpavols irpoa- 
KwovfjievT] . eW^ 6 fiev dnvoros rov Xoyov ovyyvdapLriv 
rrjs TrXdvYj? ex^L rrjV dyvoiav, 6 8e els cora ^aXXofievos 
Kal rjj ^vxfj rrapd rrjs yvcxypiris (jiepei rrjv dTreideiav, 
/cat oacp ye (f}povLfjiO)r€pos elvai ho^ei, rrpos /ca/cou rj 
Gvveais avro), on rfj (fipovijaeu Kexpy]r at KaTiqyopoj 

80 P. TO ^iXriorov \ ovxeXofxevos' 7Te(f)VKe yap (Ls^ dvdpcxj- 
7TOS OLKeioJS e;)(etv irpos Beov. coairep ovu rov lttttov 
dpovv ov /Sta^o/xe^a ovSe rov ravpov Kvvqyerelv, 
TTpos o vechvKe Se eKaarov rcov l,(x)OiV TrepLeXKOjxev, 
ovrojs dfieXei /cat rov dvdpcoTTOV eTrl rrjv ovpavov 
yevofievov 6eav, (f)vr6v ovpdviov ws dXrjdojs, eTrl rrjv 
yvaxTLV TTapaKaXovjiev rov deov, rd OLKelov avrov 
/cat e^aiperov /cat tStcoftart/coi^ Trapd rd d'AAa ^oia 
KareiXrjfjifievoL, avrapKes e<j)6hLov alcovcoVy deooe- 



ws Schwartz. dXXws mss. 



« St. Matthew v. 3, 10 ; St. Luke vi. 20. 
* Compare p. 172, n. d. 

« Jonah iii. 5, 10, ^ St. John xiv. 6. 

« St. Matthew vii. 13, 14 ; St. John iii. 13, 31. 
216 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

self thou art a son ; recognize thy Father. But chap. 
thou, dost thou still abide by thy sins, engrossed in God and His 
pleasures ? To whom shall the Lord say, " Yours kingdom 
is the kingdom of heaven ?" » It is yours, if you J^g ^S' '^ 
wish, for it belongs to those who have their will 
set upon God. It is yours, if you are willing simply 
to trust and to follow the short way of our preach- 
ing.^ This it is which the Ninevites obediently 
heard ; and by sincere repentance they received, in 
place of the threatened destruction, that glorious 
salvation." 

"How then," you may say, "am I to go up into 
heaven ? " The Lord is " the Way " ^ ; a " narrow " The Lord is 
way, but coming "from heaven" ; a "narrow" way, "^^^^Way" 
but leading back to heaven.^ It is narrow, being 
despised upon earth ; and yet broad, being adored 
in heaven. Accordingly he who has never heard 
the Word can plead ignorance as an excuse for his ignorance 
error; whereas he whose ears ring with the message only for^him 
deliberately nurses his disobedience in the soul who has 
itself; and, the wiser he may seem to be, his '^° 
intelligence ever proves a source of evil, because 
he finds wisdom an accuser, once he has failed to 
choose what is best. For it is his nature, as man, 
to be in close fellowship with God. As, then, we Man is 
do not force the horse to plough, nor the bull to gj^® ^°^ 
hunt, but lead each animal to its natural work ; 
for the very same reason we call upon man, who 
was made for the contemplation of heaven, and is 
in truth a heavenly plant, to come to the know- 
ledge of God. Having laid hold of what is personal, 
special and peculiar in his nature, that wherein he 
surpasses the other animals, we counsel him to equip 
himself with godliness, as a sufficient provision for 

217 



CAP. 
X 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

^etav, rrapaoKevdt^eadai avfi^ovXevovTes. yeiopyei, 
4>a.fiev, el yeojpyos el, dXXa yvcoOt tov Oeov yecop- 
ycov, Kol TrXeWi ^ 6 rrjs vavriXla? epwv, dXXd rov 
ovpdviov Kv^epprjT7-jV -napaKaXcov arparevofievov 
ere KaTeiXr](/)€V r) yvajatg- rod Si/cata oripiaivovros 
CLKOve orparriyov. 

KaOdrrep ovu Kdpco Kal pLedr) pe^apr]ixevoL dva- 
vrjiljare Kal Sta^XeifjavTes oXcyov evvorjO-qre, rt 
OeXovoiv vjjilv ol TTpooKwovixevoi XiOoL KOL a TTepl 
rrjv vXrjv Kevoorrovhoj? hairavdre' els dyvoiav Kal 
rd ;\;p7y/xaTa kol rov jSlov cL? to i^ijv vficiov els 
Odvarov KaravaXiaKere, rovro fiovov rrjs /xarata? 
■ufxajv eX-nihos evpo/JLevoi ro irepas, ovhe avrovs oloi 
re ovres olKTelpat, dXX ovSe rols KareXeaxjcv vjxds 
T7]s irXdviqs e7Tir7]8eLOL rreideadai yiveode, cvvrjdela 
KaK-fj SeSovXcojxevoL, rjs d7T'rjpTr]fjLevoL avOaiperoi 
[xexpi rrjs eaxdrr^s dvaTTVorjs els dTTcoXeiav vtto- 
(jiepeaOe- " on to ^chs eXtjXvdev els rov Koapiov Kal 
r]yd7Tr]Gav ol dvOpojTTOL fxaXXov to okotos t) ro 
(f>cos," e^ov dTTOfjid^aaOaL rd efiTToScbv rfj Ga)TT]pLa 
/cat TOV rv(j)ov Kal tov ttXovtov Kal rov (l)6^oVy 
e7n(f)deyyofi6Vovs ro Troi-qriKov Sr] rovro 

TTTJ Sr] xp^iOtaTa noXXd cpepcx) rdhe ; rrfj Se Kal avros 
7rAa^o/xat; 

ov iSovXeade ovv rds (fiavraoias ravras rds Kevds 
dTToppixjjavres rfj avvr]deia avrfj aTTord^aadaL, Kevo- 
ho^ia imXeyovres' 

i/jevSets oveipoL )(^aiper , ovSev rjr dpa; 
^ irXeWi Sylburg. TrXi^di mss. 
" St. John iii. 19. * Homer, Odyssey xiii. 203-t. 

218 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

his journey through eternity. Till the ground, we chap. 
say, if you are a husbandman; but recognize God "^ 
in your husbandry. Sail the sea^ you who love 
sea-faring ; but ever call upon the heavenly pilot. 
Were you a soldier on campaign when the knowledge 
of God laid hold of you ? Then listen to the com- 
mander who signals righteousness. 

Ye men that are weighed down as Avith torpor Money and 
and drink, awake to soberness. Look about you and ^^f^f^l 
consider a little what is the meaning of your worship statues 
of stones, and of all that you squander with useless 
zeal upon mere matter. You are wasting both 
money and livelihood upon ignorance_, just as you 
are wasting your very life upon death. For nothing 
but death have you gained as the end of your vain 
hope. You cannot pity yourselves, — nay, you are 
not even in a fit state to be persuaded by those who 
have compassion upon you for your error. Enslaved 
to pernicious custom, you cling to it of your own 
free will until the latest breath, and sink down 
into destruction. '' For the light has come into 
the world, and men loved the darkness rather than 
the light," ^ though they might sweep away the 
hindrances to salvation, absurd folly and riches and 
fear, by repeating this verse of the poet : 

Whither this wealth do I bear ; my journey, where doth it 
lead me ? * 

Do you not then wish to fling away these vain 
fancies, and bid good-bye to custom itself, saying 
these last words to vain opinion.^ — 

Farewell, deceitful dreams ; for ye were nought." 



Euripides, Iphigeneia among the Taurians 569. 

219 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Tt yap rjyelade, cL avOpcxJiroL, rov Tv-)(^ujva ^ \ 
81 P. '^pixTjv /cat Tov 'Av8o/<rtSoL> ^ /cat rov ^ AfjLvrjrov ; rj 
Tiavri Tip SrjXov on Xtdovs, woirep /cat < avrovy^ rov 
'Kppirjv. CO? Se ovK eon Oeog rj d'Aaj? /cat ws ovk 
ecTTt deos rj tpi?, dXXa TrdOrj depos ^ /cat vecficov, /cat 
ov rpoTTOv OVK 'iunv rjfjiepa BeoSt owSe fxrjv ouSe 
eviavros ovhe xpo^*^? o e/c rovrcov avp.7TXr]pov- 
fxevog, ovrojg ovSe rjXios ovSe oeXrivrj, ol? eKaarov 
rGiv 7Tpo€Lpr]iJiev<jL)v hiopit^erai. res dv ovv rrjp 
€v6vvav /cat rrjv KoXaatv /cat rrjv Slkyjv /cat rrjv 
vefiecTLV ev (f)pova)v vrroXd^oi deovs; ovSe yap 
oj3S' ipivvs ovSe pLoTpai ovbe elfxapfjievrj, eTrel fx-qhe 
TToXireia /X7]Se ho^a fx-qSe rrXovrog deoi, ov /cat 
^ojypd(f)OL rvcf)X6v eTTiheiKvvovaiv et 8e atSoi /cat 
epcora /cat d(j)pohirr]V e/c^eia^ere, aKoXovdovvrajv 
avroXs alaxvvT] /cat op/xi) /cat /caAAo? /cat ovvovGia. 
ovKOVV eV at' elKorcx)? vTTVog /cat Odvaros Oed) 
SiSv/jidove TTap^ vjjlXv vopiil^oivro, Trddrj ravra rrepl 
rd t,o}a avpL^atvovra (f)vaiKdj?' ovSe fir^v Krjpa 
ovSe eljJLapfJievrjv ovSe fioipas 9eds evhtKcos epelr€. 
et he epcg /cat p-dxr] ov deoi, ovhe "Aprjs ovhe 
*Eyu6tj. en re <el>^ at darpaTral /cat ol Kepavvol 
Kal ol dpL^poi ov deoL, TrdJs rd rrvp /cat rd vhcop 

^ Ti'xwj^a Meurs (see Hesychius s.v.). TV(pQ)va mss. 
^ 'AfdoKidov Heinsius. di>8oKi5i]i' mss. 
'■^ ^avrbuy inserted by Mayor. 
* d^pos Markland. d^pwy mss, ^ <et> inserted by Sy J burg. 

« The Hermes was a stone pillar ending in a bust, which 
was set up in fields and roads as a landmark, and also before 
the doors of Athenian houses. An essential part of the 
figure was a phallus, which points to Hermes being originally 
a fertility god. He was, therefore, easily identified with 
Tycho, an Attic nature divinity of similar character to 
220 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Why, my fellow-men, do you believe in Hermes chap. 
Tycho and in the Hermes of Andocides and the one ^.^ -^ 

n T A 1 o 1 • 1 statues are 

called Amyetus r "' burely it is plain to everyone plainly 
that they are stones Just as Hermes himself. And s^nes^ ^"^^ 
as the halo is not a god, nor the rainbow either, 
but conditions of the atmosphere and clouds ; and 
precisely as day is not a god, nor month, nor year, 
nor time which is made up of these ; so also neither 
is the sun or moon, by which each of the before- 
mentioned periods is marked off. Who then in his 
right mind would imagine such things as audit, pun- 
ishment, right and retribution to be gods } No, nor 
even the Avengers, nor the Fates, nor destiny are 
gods ; for neither is the State, nor glory, nor wealth, 
the last of which painters represent as blind. If 
you deify modesty, desire and love, you must add to The 
them shame, impulse, beauty and sexual intercourse, of ^dfySg 
No longer, then, can sleep and death be reasonably passions and 
held among you to be twin gods, since these are ^'^^'^^^"^^ 
conditions which naturally affect all animals ; nor 
indeed will you rightly say that doom, destiny, or 
the Fates are goddesses. And if strife and battle 
are not gods, neither are Ares and Enyo. Further, 
if flashes of lightning, thunderbolts and showers of 
rain are not gods, how can fire and water be such ? 

Priapus (Diodorus iv. 6 ; Strabo 588). For the identification 
see Hesychius s.v., and A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. pp. 175-6. In 
415 B.C., just before the sailing of the expedition to Sicily, 
all the Hermae in Athens were mutilated except one, which 
stood in front of the house of Andocides and was called the 
"Hermes of Andocides" (Plutarch, Nicias xiii.). The 
account of the excitement caused by this outrage, and the 
accusation made against Andocides, is found in Thucydides 
vi. 27, and in Andocides, On the Mysteries. The Hermes 
Amyetus was, according to Hesychius, on the Acropolis at 
Athens. 

221 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Qeoi; TTOJ^ 8e /cat ol hiaooovre? /cat ol KOftrjrai 
Slol ttolOos depo? yeyevrjjJLevoi; 6 Se Tr]v rvx^v G^ov 
Xeycov /cat rrjv rrpd^iv Xeyeroj deov. el Srj gvv 
Tovrojv ovSe eV Oeos elvai vojLtt^erat ovSe jxr]V 
iKeivoiv TOiv x^lpokjjltJtojv /cat avaiodrirwv TrXaaiid- 
rcov, TTpovoia he rt? -nepl rjixds /cara^atVerat Svvd- 
fjieojs Oe'iKrjg, AetVerat ovSev dXXo rj rovro opioXoyelv, 
OTL dpa ovrojs piovos eoTi re /cat v(f}eaT7]Kev 6 fiovos 
OVTOJS virdp^^ojv 6e6?. 

'AAAd yap fiavSpayopav rj tl dXXo (jidppcaKOv 
rreTTOJKOGLV dvdpcorroLS eot/care ol dvorjTOi, deos oe 
vpiZv dvavrjijjaL hoir] TTork rovSe rod vttvov /cat 
ovvievai deov pbrjhe xP^^^v rj XiOov r] hevhpov r] 
TTpd^LV 7] TrdOo? rj voaov rj (f)6^ov IvSdXXeadai ws 
deov, " rpls ydp pLvpioL eloiv" ojg dXrj9a)5 " eVi 
xOovl TTOvXv^oreiprj haipioves" ovk " dOdvarou" 
ovhe pLTjV OvrjToi [ovhe ydp alaOrjoeo)?, Iva /cat 
davdrov, pLereiXijcfiO.cnv), XlOlvol 8e /cat ^uAtvot 8e- 
OTTorai dvdpcoTTCov, i)^pit,ovTes /cat TrapaaTTovSovvTe? 

82 P. Tov ^Lov Sid TTjs \ GvvrjOeias . " rj yij Se rov Kvplov," 
(f)r]GL, "/cat TO TTXrjpoL>p,a avrrjs'" elra ri roA/xas" 
ev rot? rod Kvplov rpv^cov dyvoelv tov hearrorrjv ; 
KardXenre rrjv yrjv rrjv epirjv, epel gol 6 Kvpios, purj 
dlyrj? TOV vSaros o iyoj dvahihojpa, rd)v Kaprrajv 
wv iydb yecjopyci) fxrj pberaXdpL^ave' drroSos, dv- 
OpcxJTTe, rd rpo^ela rcb 6ea>' eTTiyvojOi gov rov 
SeGTTOTTjv lSlov el TrActCT/xa rov deov- rd he olKeZov 
avrov TTOjg dv ivhiKcos dXXorpcov yevoiro ; rd ydp 



€OL\aT€ Oi 



Schwartz. ioiKaaip mss. 



* Hesiod : quoted above, p. 
222 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

How, too, can shooting stars and comets, which come chap. 
about owing to some condition of the atmosphere ? ^ 
Let him who calls fortune a god, call action a god 
also. If then we do not believe even one of these 
to be a god, nor yet one of those figures made by- 
hand and devoid of feeling, but there is manifest we must 
round about us a certain providence of divine power, JJJaJJhe'/r* 
then nothing remains save to confess that, after all, is but one 
the sole truly existing God is the only one who ^^"® ^°^ 
really is and subsists. 

But verily, you who do not understand are like ihey who 
men that have drunk of mandrake or some other otherwise 
drug. God grant that one day you may recover from are in some 
this slumber and perceive God, and that neither gold ^^^ ^ ^^^ 
nor stone nor tree nor action nor suffering nor disease 
nor fear may appear to you as God. For it is quite Daemons 
true that " there are thrice ten thousand daemons f,ifn|S-tai 
upon all-nourishing earth," but they are not "im- 
mortal" as the poet says.<» No, nor yet mortal, — 
for they do not partake of feeling, and therefore 
cannot partake of death, — but they are stone and They are 
wooden masters of mankind, who insult and violate |^°o^i.trf"but 
human life through custom. It is written, " The lifeless' 
earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof"^ Then ^^""'^^ 
how do you dare, while enjoying the delights of the 
Lord's possessions, to ignore their Master ? Leave 
My earth, the Lord will say to you ; touch not the 
water I send forth ; partake not of the fruits My 
husbandry produces. Give back, O man, to God the 
recompense for your nurture. Acknowledge your Man ^ 
Master. You are God's own handiwork; and howGod;°how 
could that which is His peculiar possession rightly ^^"0^^ 
become another's.?' For that which is alienated, another's? 

* Psalm xxiv. 1. 

223 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. OLTTrjXXoTpLCxJfXeVOV aT€p6[jL€VOV Trjs OLKeiOT-qTOS GT€p€' 

rat rrjs dXrjOeias. rj yap ovx fj Nto^i] rpoTTOV rivd, 
fjidXXov 8e Lva pLVoriKajrepov irpos vfjidg dirocjidiy- 
fco/xat, yvvaiKos rijs 'K^paios Slktjv (Acot iKaXovv 
avTTjv ol TTaXaLol) ct? dvaLa6y]aiav ixerarperreade ; 
XeXi6(jj}Ji€vr]v ravTYjv 7Tap€LXr](j)aiiev rr)v yvvalKa hid 
TO So8o/xa>v epdv SoSo/xtrat Se ol doeoL Kai ol 
TTpds TYjV da€^€Lav eTTiarpet^ojJLevoi OKXrjpoKapoiOL 
T€ Kal rjXLdiOL. ravras o'lov Oeodev iTnXeyeadai 
GOL rds (f)U)vds' [JLTj yap olov Xldovg jJLev elvaL 
lepd Kal ^vXa Kal opvea Kal 6(j)€L?, dvOpojirovs 
Se pLTj- TToXv Se TovvavTLOV Upovs fiev ovtojs 
Tovs dvdpojTTOvs VTToXdix^ave ^ rd Se d-qpia Kal rovs 
XlOovs OTTep elaiv. ol yap tol SetAatot rcov dvdpoj- 
TTCov Kal dOXioi hid fxev KopaKO? Kal koXolov 
vo[JLi^ovGi Tov Oeov ifi^odv, hid he dvdpojTTOV Giajtrdv, 
Kal TOV piev KopaKa rerifirjKaGiv (hg dyyeXov Oeov, 

TOV Se dvOpCOTTOV TOV deOV hlCOKOVGlV, OV Kp(x)l,OVTa, 

ov KXcot,ovTa, (f)9eyy6[jLevov he' ot/xot, XoyiKO)? /cat 
(j)iXavdp(x>7Tcx)s KaTrjxovvTa dTTOG(f)dTTeiv aTravupco- 
7760? eTTLX^ipovGiVy eVt TrfV hiKaioGvvrjV KaXovvTa, 
ovTe TTjV x^P^^ 'T'V^ dv(x)9ev a7re/<:8e;^o/xevo6 ovTe TTfV 
KoXaGLV eKTperrojxevoL. ov ydp TTiGTevovGi tu> dea> 
ovhe eKfJuavdavovGL ttjv hvvafjiiv avTov. 

Ov he dpp-QTOs Tj (j)iXav9poj7TLa, tovtov dxcj^prjTOS 
rj iJLiG07TOV7]pia. Tpe(f)eL he 6 piev dvfxos ttjv KoXaoiv 
eTTt djxapria, ev TTOiel he eirl fieTavoia rj (j>iXavdpojma. 
oiKTpoTaTOV he TO GTepeadai ttjs rrapd tov oeov 
eTTiKOvpias. ojJiiJLdTOJV fJLev ovv rj TrrjpojGis Kai rfjs 



viro\a.iJ.j3ave Markland. vTroXa/x^dveTe mss. 



" Genesis xix. 26. * Or, an angel. 

224 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

being deprived of its connexion with Him, is deprived chap. 

of the truth. Are you not turned into a state of Men who 

insensibility after the manner of Niobe, or rather — worship 

to address you in more mj^stical language — like the become like 

Hebrew woman whom the ancient people called stones 

Lot's wife } This woman, tradition tells us, was 

turned into stone on account of her love of Sodom ; "- 

and by Sodomites we understand the atheists and 

those who are devoted to impiety, w^ho are both hard 

of heart and without sense. Believe that these 

utterances are being spoken to you from heaven. 

Do not believe that stones and stocks and birds 

and snakes are sacred things, while men are not. 

Far rather regard men as really sacred, and take The reaUy 

beasts and stones for what they are. For indeed sacred 

the timid and wretched among men believe that are men 

God cries out through a raven or a jackdaw, but 

is silent through man ; and they have given honour 

to the raven as a messenger ^ of God, while they God's 

persecute the man of God, who neither caws, nor ^^^^^^ 

croaks, but speaks. Yes, alas ! they set to work through 

with inhuman hatred to slaughter him when he ^irough 

instructs them with reason and human love, and ^^^^^ 

calls them to righteousness, while they neither look 

for the grace that comes from above, nor do they 

seek to avoid the punishment. For they do not trust 

in God, nor do they fully understand His power. 

But He whose love for man is unspeakably great, God hates 
has also an unbounded hatred for sin. His wrath ^^1^'^^'^. , 

will punish 

breeds the punishment to follow upon sin ; on the it 
other hand. His love for man brings blessings upon 
repentance. It is a most pitiable thing to be deprived 
of the help that comes from God. Now the blinding 
of the eyes and deafening of the ears are more 

225 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. oLKorjg -q KCL)(f)Coai? dXyeivorepa Trapa ra? Xolttcls 
rov TTOvYjpov irXeove^ias' r) fjcev yap avrcjv ci(f)y]pr]TaL 
TTJg ovpaviov TTpoa6\jje(x>s, r] Se Trjs Oeias /Jiadiqaecos 
iareprjrai. vfxeZs he irpo? ttjv dXi^Oetav dvdTrrjpoL 
Kal rv(f)Xoi [lev rov vovv, KOj(f>OL 8e rrjv avvecnv 
ovre? ovK dXyecre, ovk dyavaKrelre, ov rov ovpavov 

83 P. Ihelv Kal rov rov ovpavov TTOLrjrrjv \ iTreOvfirjaare, 
ovSe rov tojv Travrcuv hiqixiovpyov Kal Trarepa 
dKovaau Kal fxaOelv e^el,riTrjaare , rrjv TrpoaipeGiv 
Trj GCOTiqpia ovvdrpavres' efinoScov yap tararaL 
ovhev TO) GTTevSovTL 7Tp6? yvujGiv deov, OVK a77at- 
Sevaia,^ ov irevia, ovk dSo^la, ovk dKr-qfioavvrj' 
ovSe TLS TTjv ovTOjg dXrjOrj cro^tav " )(aXKa) Sr^coaas " 
IxeraXXd^ai evx^rat ovSe aiSrjpco' ev yap tol Travros 
IxdXXov rovTO etprjTai- 

6 ^^prjaros^ eari 7ravra)(ov GCOTijpLos' 

6 yap rod hiKaiov t,riXa>riqs, tu? av rod dvevheovs 
epaarrj^y oXiyoheri? , ovk ev d'AAo) nvl t) ev avro) 
[Kal] ^ rep deo) ro [laKapcov d-qoavpioas, evda ov orjs, 
ov Xriarrj?, ov Treiparrj?, dXX 6 rtx)V dyaOcov atSto? 
Sori^p. dpa ovv elKorco? djjioLOjaOe rolg o^eaiv 
iKeivoL<;, ols rd dtra rrpos rov? KareirdSovras diro- 
KeKXeiarai. " Ov/jlos yap avrols," <f)r]alv rj ypacj)!], 
" Kara rrjv 6pioia>OLV rov 6(j>eaj?, wael doTTiho? 
KO)(j)rjS Kal ^vovGrjs rd cora avrrj?, rjns ovk ela- 

^ aTraidevaia Hopfenmuller. dTratSi'a mss. 
^ XP77(rr6s Blass (from Stobaeus, Flo?'. 37. 6"). xP'-'^t^^ ^fss. 
^ [/cat] Barnard. eV airy Kal Dindorf. 

« Homer, Iliad viii. 534. The phrase, well known, no 
doubt, to Clement's first readers, is used metaphorically. 
Cp. the " sword of the Spirit " in Ephesians vi. 17. The 
226 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

grievous than all the other encroachments of the chap, 
evil one: for by the first of these we are robbed of m ? ,, , 

1 r- 1 111 1 To be blind 

the sight oi heaven, and by the second we are and deaf to 
deprived of the divine teaching. But you, though worst of ^^^ 
maimed in respect of the truth, darkened in mind ^.u evils 
and deaf in understanding, still are not grieved, are 
not pained, have felt no longing to see heaven and 
its maker, nor have you sought diligently to hear 
and to know the Creator and Father of the universe, 
by fixing your choice on salvation. For nothing The way to 
stands in the way of him who earnestly desires to ^^'^il^ °^^" 
come to the knowledge of God, not want of instruc- 
tion, not penury, not obscurity, not poverty. And 
when a man has '' conquered by brass," '^ or by iron 
either, the really true Avisdom, he does not seek to 
change it. Indeed no finer word has ever been said 
than this : 

In every act the good man seeks to save.* 

For he who is zealous for the right, as one would 
expect from a lover of Him who is in need of nothing, 
is himself in need of but little, because he has stored 
up his blessedness with none other than God Himself, 
where is no moth, no robber, no pirate,'' but only 
the eternal giver of good things. With good reason. But some 
therefore, have you been likened to those serpents dSf'^dders, 
whose ears are closed to the enchanters. '' For their ^^'^o listen ' 
heart," the Scripture says, '^^ is after the likeness of persuasion 
the serpent, even like an adder that is deaf and 
stoppeth her ears, who will not give heed to the 

earthly warrior is ever bent on fresh conquests and spoils : 
the spiritual warrior finds *' the true wisdom " a sufficient 
prize, and seeks to save others rather than to destroy. 

* Menander, Frag. 786 Kock, Comic. Att. Frag. iii. p. 217. 

° See St. Matthew vi. 19, 20. 

227 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. aKovacraL ^ojvrj? eVaSovrojv." dAA* v^elg y€ 
KaTeTTaaOrjre rrjv aypiorr^ra ^ /cat TrapaSe^aaOe rov 
rjjjiepov Koi rjfierepoi^ Xoyov /cat rov lov olttotttv- 
aare rov ^rjX-qrrjpiov, ottoj? on fxaXiara Vfilv rrjv 
(f>dopdv, COS" iK€LVOL? TO yrjpag, arrohvoaaOai SoOfj. 

'A/coucrare fiov /cat /x-)] ra cLra d7T0^var]r€ [JLrjSe 
rds a/coas" d7TO(j>pa.^r]re, aXX et? vovv ^dXeoOe ra 
Xey6{jL€va. KaXov ian ro (f)dpiJLaKov rrjs ddavaaias' 
ariqGare rrore rov? oXkov? rovg ipmqGriKOV'S . " ol 
yap ixOpol Kvpiov xovv Xet^ovaL," (j^iqaiv \r] ypa^j] 
Aeyet] ^' dvave-uoare rrjg yrj? el? aWepa, dva^Xeifjare 
€L9 ovpavov, Oav/Jbdaare, Travaaade KapahoKovvres 
ra>v hiKaiajv rrjV Trrepvav /cat " rrjv oSov rrjg 
dXrjBeias" efiTToSl^ovres' (f)p6vLiJi0L yeveode /cat 
dj8Aa/Sets" rdxo, rrov 6 Kvpio? aTrXorrjrog vfxlv 
hcxiprjcier at irrepov [rrrepihoai Trpo-^prjraL rovs yrjye- 
vets"), tva Srj rovs -xrjpapiov? /caraAetVovre? olK-qaiqre 
rovs ovpavov?. fiovov i$ oX-q? /capSta? fieravo-q- 
o(xjpi€v, (hs oXt) KapBia SvvrjdrjvaL x^PV^^'' '''^^ Oeov. 
" eXirioare €77* avrov," (f)r]aL, " Trdaa ovvayojyrj 
Xaov, eKX^ere ivcoTTiov avrov Trdaa? rds /capSta? 
v/Jicov." TTpo? rov? K€Vov? rrj? TTOvrjpta? Aeyet* e'Aeet 

84 P. /cat hiKaioavvr)? irXr^pol- \ TTiorevaov, dvdpcoTre, dv- 
OpcoTTCp /cat deep' Triarevoov, dvBpcoTre, rw TraOovn 
/cat TTpoaKvvovfJLevcp. Oetp t,ci)vri morevaare ot 
SouAot rcx) veKpo)- rrdvre? dvdpcxirroi Tnarevaare 
pLovcp rep Trdvrcov dvOpcoTTCOv Oeoj' Tnarevaare /cat 
fjLiadov Xd^ere aojrrjpiav " e/c^T^TT^aare rov Beov, 

^ dypL6T7]Ta Heyse. ayioTTjTa MSS. 
2 [t] ypa<pr] X^yei] Mayor, 

« Psalm Iviii. 4, 5. * Psalm Ixxii. 9. 

228 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

voice of charmers." ^ But as for you, let your wild- chap. 
ness be charmed away, and receive the gentle Word ^ 
we preach, and spit out the deadly poison, in order 
that as fully as possible it may be given you to cast 
off corruption, as serpents cast their old skin. 

Listen to me, and do not stop up your ears or shut Cease to 
off your hearing, but consider my words. Splendid se?p^ente^^^ 
is the medicine of immortality ; stay at length your 
serpent-like windings. For it is written: "the 
enemies of the Lord shall lick the dust." ^ Lift up 
your head from earth to the sky, look up to heaven 
and wonder, cease watching for the heel " of the just 
and hindering "the way of truth." '^ Become wise 
and yet harmless ; ^ perchance the Lord will grant 
you wings of simplicity (for it is His purpose to 
supply earth-born creatures with wings) -^ in order 
that, forsaking the holes of the earth, you may dwell 
in the heavens. Only let us repent with our whole 
heart, that with our whole heart we may be able to 
receive God. " Hope in Him," the Scripture says, 
" all ye congregations of people ; pour out all your 
hearts before Him." 5' He speaks to those who Become 
are empty of wickedness ; He pities them and fills wTck^JdSess, 
them with righteousness. Trust, O man, in Him and be 
who is man and God ; trust, O man, in Him who righteous- 
suffered and is adored. Trust, ye slaves, in the living "^^^ 
God who was dead. Trust, all men, in Him who 
alone is God of all men. Trust, and take salvation Life is the 
for reward. " Seek after God, and your soul shall g^^^^^ qI^ 

* Genesis iii. 15 : Psalm Iv. 7 (Septuagint). 

«* 2 St. Peter 11. 2. 

« See St. Matthew x. 16. 

' See Plato, Phaedrus 248 c, and elsewhere. 

9 Psalm kil. 8. 

229 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. /cat ^rjaerat rj ^vx^ vficov." 6 eV^T^rcDv tov Beov 
rrjv IStav iroXvirpayiioveZ ao)Tr]piav evpes rov Oeov, 
ex^iS rrjv i^co^qp. tpriTiqacofx^v ovv, Iva Kal ^rjorcofiev. 
6 fjLLaOo? rrj? evpeoecos ^cor] irapa Oew. " dyaX- 
XidaOojcrav Kal €V(j)pav9riT(x>Gav eirl aol Travre? ol 
^TjTOVVTes ere Kal Xeyercuaav Sta iravros, fieyaXw- 
O-^roj 6 Oeog." KaXos vpivo? tov deov dddvaro? 
dvOpojTTOs, SiKaLoavvT] olKohojxovixevos , iv S rd 
Aoyta rrjs dX'qOeias iyKexdpaKraL. ttov yap dX- 
Xaxodi rj iv aco(f>povL ifjvxfj hiKaioovvqv iyypaTrreov ; 
TTOV dyd7T7]v ; alScb Se ttov; Trpaorrjra 3e ttov; 
ravras, ot/xat, rds Betas ypa(f)ds ivaTTO(T(f)payLaafxe- 
vovs XPV '^fj i-'^Xfi ^ot'^oy d(f)€ri]pLov oocjjiav rjyeladaL 
TOt? €<f)* oriovv TOV ^iov TpaTTeZai fiepos, oppLOV 
T€ TTjV avTr]v^ dKvpiova GcoTrjpias Go^iav ^o/xt^etv 
St' TjV dyaOol /xev Trarepe? tekvcov ol toj TraTpt 
Trpoahehpap.rjKOTe? y dyadol 8e yovevatv viol oi 
TOV vlov vevorjKOTeg, dyaOol 8e dvSpe? yvvaiKchv 
ol ixepivripbevoi tov vvficfiLov, dyaOol 8e oIk€t<2)v 
heoTTOTai ol T7J? eGxdTTj? SovXeias XeXvTpojpievoL. 
^Q. piaKapLCJTepa ttj? eV dvOpajTrocg TrXdviqs rd 
Orjpia- emvepi€TaL ttjv dyvoiav, cos vpueZs, ovx 
VTTOKpiveTaL he ttjv dX-qdetav ovk ecrrt 77ap' avTols 
KoXaKOJV yevrj, ov heioihaLpiovovGiv IxBves, ovk 
etSojXoXaTpel ret opvea, eva pLovov eKTrXiqTTeTai tov 
ovpavov, €TTel Beov vorjaat pbTj Swarat aTT-q^cajpieva 
TOV Xoyov. etr' ovk alaxvveoBe Kal tcov dXoycjv 
G(f)ds avTOVS dXoywTepovs TrerrocrjKOTes, ol 8td to- 
oovTcov rjXLKLOJV iv dBeoTTjTi KaTaTeTpLcjyBe ; TTalSes 

^ T-qv avTT]v Mayor, top avrov mss. 
- -yovivaLV viol Potter. 7o^'ers viaaiv mss. 

" Psalm Ixix. 32, * Psalra Ixx. iv. 

230 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

live." ^ He who seeks after God is busy about his chap. 

own salvation. Have you found God ? you have ^ 

life. Let us seek then^ that we may also live. 

The reward of finding is life with God. " Let all 

who seek Thee be joyful and glad in Thee, and let 

them say always, God be exalted."^ A beautiful The best 

hymn to God is an immortal man who is being built j^rman^^^ 

up in righteousness, and upon whom the oracles of who has 

truth have been engraved. For where else but in a and^Truth 

temperate soul should righteousness be inscribed } or 

love, or modesty, or gentleness ? We ought, I think, 

by having these divine writings stamped deeply into 

the soul, to regard wisdom as a noble starting-point, 

to whatever lot in life men turn, and to believe that 

the same wisdom is a calm haven of salvation. For Divine 

it is because of wisdom that they whose course has J^eip°hijn 

led them to the Father are good fathers of their faithfully 

childi-en; that they who have come to know the aii dUitieT 

Son are good sons to their parents ; that they who 

have been mindful of the Bridegroom are good 

husbands of their wives ; that they who have been 

ransomed from the deepest slavery are good masters 

of their servants. 

Surely the beasts are happier than men who live Beasts are 
in error ! They dwell in ignorance, like you, but state^than 
they do not falsely pretend to truth. Among them idolaters 
are no tribes of flatterers. Fishes do not fear 
daemons ; birds do not worship idols. One heaven 
alone they marvel at, since God they cannot come 
to know, having been deemed unworthy of reason. 
When you think of this, are you not ashamed to 
have made yourselves less reasonable than even 
the creatures without reason, you who have wasted 
so many stages of life in atheism? You have 

231 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. yeyovare, elra /xetpaKta, elra ecfyrj^oc, etra avSpe?, 
Xpy](JTol Se ovheTTore. Kav to yrjpa? alSead-qre, eVt 
Sucr/xats' Tov ^iov yevojJievoL Gaxf^povqaare, kolv eTn 
reXeu tov ^lov rov Oeov eTrtyvcore, (x>s 8rj to TeXo? 
vfilv TOV ^Lov OLpxV^ o-i^ctAa/Sot GCxiTiqpias. yrjpdaaT€ 
Trpos heiaihatpioviav y vioi a(j>LKeode Trpos deooe^eiav 
TratSa? aKaKov? eyKpiveZ Oeos. 6 fiev ovv ^Adrjvalos 
ToXs HoXojvog irreodoj vo/xot? /cat o 'Apyeto? rots' 
Oopcoveco? Kal 6 UTrapTiOLT-qg rot? AvKovpyov, cl 

85 P. Se aeavTOV avaypa.(f)eis tov deov, ovpavos \ fiev aoi 
Tj iraTpisy 6 he 6e6s vopLoOeTiq?. Ttves Se koI ol 
vofioi; " ov (f>ov€VG€LS, ov jjLOLX^vaeis , ov TratSo- 
<f>6opriGei?, ov KXeipei?, ov ifjevSojiapTvp-qcreLS , dya- 
TTTjaeLS Kvpiov TOV Oeov GOV." elol Se /cat tovtcjv 
rd TrapaTrX-qpcvfjiaTa, XoycoL vojjlol /cat aytot Aoyot ev 
avTals eyypa(f)6iJLevoL rat? /capStat?* " ayaTn^o-et? 
TOV ttXtiglov gov COS" GeavTOv" /cat " to) tvtttovtL 
Ge elg ttjv Giayova rrdpex^ xal ttjv dXXrjVy" /cat 
*'ovK eTndvjJLTjGeLs, eTndvfjiLa yap piovr} fiefiolx^vKas." 
TTOGO) yovv dfieivov toXs dvOpojTTOts tov Tvyxo-veiv 
Tcov eiTidviJLLwv dpx^jv iJL7]be emdvixeXv eOeXeiv cov 
1X7) Set. 

'AAA' vpieXs fiev TO avGTiqpov ttjs aojTT^ptas- vtto- 
fjLeveiv ov KapTepeXTe, Kaddvep 8e tcov gitiojv TOt? 
yXvKeGLV TjSofieda Sta Tr)V XeiOTiqTa ttjs rjSovrjs 
TTpOTifxcovTe?, tctTat 8e tJ/xci? /cat ?3ytci^et Tct TTiKpd 



iytjpdaaTe Wilamowitz : Stiihl 



in. 



« See Exodus xx. 13-16 ; Deuteronomy vi. 5. For^ the 
added commandment *' Thou shalt not corrupt a boy " see 
the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles ii. 2 ; Epistle of Barnabas 
xix. 4. The prevalence of this vice in the early centuries of 
Christianity doubtless led to the insertion of the precept. 
232 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

been boys, then lads, then youths, then men, but chap. 
good you have never been. Have respect to your ^ 
old age ; become sober now you have reached the 
sunset of life ; even at the end of life acknowledge 
God, so that the end of your life may regain a 
beginning of salvation. Grow old to daemon- 
worship ; return as young men to the fear of God ; 
God will enroll you as guileless children. Let 
the Athenian, then, follow the laws of Solon, the 
Argive those of Phoroneus, and the Spartan those of 
Lycurgus, but if you record yourself among God's 
people, then heaven is your fatherland and God your 
lawgiver. And what are His laws ? " Thou shalt God's 
not kill ; thou shalt not commit adultery ; thou shalt muit^oiiow 
not corrupt a boy ; thou shalt not steal ; thou shalt God's laws 
not bear false witness ; thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God." ^ There are also the complements of these, 
wise laws and holy sayings inscribed in the very 
hearts of men ; " Thou shalt love thy neighbour as 
thyself,"^ and, "to him that smiteth thee on the 
one cheek, offer also the other,"" and, "thou shalt 
not lust, for lust by itself is an act of adultery." ^ 
How much better is it for men not to have the least 
Avish to lust after forbidden things, rather than to 
obtain the object of their lusts ? 

But you do not patiently endure the severity of The way of 
the way of salvation. Nevertheless, just as we take ^s severe! 
delight in sweet foods, preferring them because they but good 
ai-e smooth and pleasant, and yet it is the bitter 
medicines, rough to the taste, which cure and restore 



* Leviticus xix. 18, and often in New Testament. 

= St. Luke vi. 29. 

«« See St. Matthew v. 28. 

23S 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Tpaxvvovra Tr]V aiodrjaiv, dAAa rov? aadeveis rov 
(JTOfMaxou poivvvGLV r) Twv <^ap/xa/cajv avaTr]pLa, 
ovTCos rihei [xev /cat yapyaXl^cL rj avvrjdeia, aAA' rj 
fiev els TO ^dpaOpov coOel, tJ ovvrideia, rj Se ets" 
ovpavov dvdyec, rj dXrjdeLa, " rpaxeXa" fiev to 
vpajTOV, " dAA' dyaOr) KOvpoTp6(f)og ' ' • /cat ae/JLvrj fiev 
rj yvvaiKCjvZTLS avrrj, a(x>(j)pcov he rj yepovGca- ovSe 
ioTL SvcTTTpoGiTOs ovSe dSvvaTO? Xa^elv, dXX eanv 
eyyvrdra) evoLKOs^ rjfxcov, fj (f)r]GLV alvLTTOjievos 
6 7rdvao(f)os Mcovarj?, rpiol toZs Kad* rjjids ev- 
hiairajjievrj jxepeai, " x^pal /cat arofiari /cat 
KapoLa." ovji^oXov tovto yvrjoiov rptal toZs rrdoL 
avfJLTrXrjpovjjLevrjs rrjs dXrjdecas, ^ovXfj /cat rrpd^ei 
/cat Xoycp- jirjhe yap rohe Set/xatve, jxrj oe to. 
TToAAd /cat eTTLrepTTrj <j)avral,6jjieva^ dcj^eXrjrai ao(f>ias' 
avTos eKcbv vrrep^rjarj rov Xrjpov rrjg avurjOelas, 
Kaddrrep /cat ot rralhes rd dOvpjiara dvSpes yevofxevoi 
drreppLipav. rdxcL fiev Srj dvvrrep^Xrjrc^ evvoia re 
evTTpoGLTCp rj Svvafiis rj OeiKrj eTnXdfx^aGa rrjv yijv 

6G P. GOJTrjpiov GTTepfxaros everrXrjGe \ to ttov. oi) yap 
dv OVTCOS ev oXlycp xpovco togovtov epyov dvev Oeias 
KOjjiihrjs e^rjVVGev 6 Kvpios, oipei Kara^povovjievos , 
epycp npoGKVvovjJievos, 6 KaddpGios /cat GCDrrjpios 
/cat fjLeLXlxi'OS, d deZos X6yos» 6 (fiavepcoraros ovtcos 
deos, 6 rep SeGTTorrj rdjv oXcov e^LGOideisy on tjv 
vids avTOV /cat " o Aoyos" '^v ev Tip deep," ovd^ 6t€ 

^ hoLKos Markland. iv olkols mss. 
^ (paPTa^ojxeva Stahlin. (pavral^ofxeuov MSS. 
" The epithets are apphed by Homer to Ithaca. See 
Odyssey ix. 27. 

'' Having compared truth to Ithaca, the home of 
Odysseus, Clement goes on to divide it into two parts, 
sanctity and prudence, one being represented by the women's 
234 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

us to health, the severity of the remedies strengthen- chap. 

ing those whose stomachs are weak ; so custom ^ 

pleases and tickles us, but thrusts us into the pit, 

whereas truth, which is "rough" at first, but a 

" goodly rearer of youth," » leads us up to heaven. 

And in this home of truth, the chamber of the 

women is the abode of sanctity ; while the assembly 

of the old men is prudent.^ Nor is truth hard of Nor is it 

approach, nor impossible to grasp, but it is our inner- ^^^ °^ 

most neighbour, dwelling, as the all-wise Moses darkly 

says, in the three parts of our being, "hands and 

mouth and heart. ' ' " This is a genuine symbol of truth, 

which is made complete by three things in all, by 

purpose and action and speech. And be not afraid Once found 

of this, that the many delights of the imagination forsfk^i\r* 

may draw you away from wisdom ; of your own for custom 

accord you will willingly pass beyond the childishness 

of custom, just as boys throw away their playthings 

on reaching manhood. With a swiftness beyond The whole 

parallel and a goodwill that is easy of approach, the ^qw fliTed 

divine power has shone forth upon the earth and with this 

filled the whole world with the seed of salvation, power 

For not without divine care could so great a work 

have been accomplished, as it has been in so short 

a time by the Lord, who to outward seeming is Greatness of 

despised,^ but in very deed is adored ; who is ^^^ ^^^^ 

the real Purifier, Saviour and Gracious One,^ the 

Divine Word, the truly most manifest God, who is 

made equal to the Master of the universe, because 

He was His Son and "the Word was in God."/ 

chamber, the other by the council of old men. Perhaps, 

too, there is an allusion to the chastity of Penelope and the 

prudence of Odysseus. 

<= Deuteronomy xxx. 14. "^ See Isaiah liii. 3. 

« Titles of Zeus. / St. John i. 1. 

I 235 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TO TTpaJTOV 7Tpo€K7^pv)(drj, aTTiariqd els , ov6^ ore to 
dvOpcoTTOv TTpoaojTrelov dvaXa^oju Kal aapKt dva- 
TrXaadpLevos to ocoTrjpiov hpdpba rrj? dvdpojTTorrjros 
VTTeKpivero, ayvorjOets' yv^Gio? yap rjv dycovtarrj? 
Kal Tov TrXdofiaro? ovvaycovtarT^?, rdx^OTa he et? 
Trdvras dvOpojirovs StaSo^et? Odrrov rjXlov e^ avrrjs 
dvarelXas rrjs TrarpiKrj? ^ovXrjoecDS , paara rjpi'iv 
eTreXajjupe tov Oeov, ddev re rju avros Kal o? rjv, 
St' Sv eSiSa^ep' Kal evehei^aro , TrapaarrjadpLevos , 
6 G7Tovho(j)6pos Kal SiaXXaKTrjs Kal aa>r7]p rjpLOJV 
Xoyos, 7T7]yr] ^ceJOTTOtos", elpr^vLKifj, eirl rrdv ro 
TTpoGOJTTOv rrjs yrj? ■)(e6pievos, St* ov chs enos 
elrrelv rd Trdvra rjSq rreXayos yeyovev dyaOojv. 



XI 

MiKpou Se, el ^ovXei, dvcoOev dOpei rr}v Oelav 
evepyeaiav . 6 rrpdJros [ore] ^ ev TTapaSetaa) erraL^e 
XeXvpteuos, enel Traihiov rjv rod deov' ore he 
VTTOTTLTrrwv ^ rjhovfj {6(f)L? dXXr]yopeZrai rjhovr) eirl 
yaarepa epirovaa, KaKia yrjtvr), el? vXag rpe- 
(jiopievr] ^) irapriyero eTn6v[XLai£, 6 rraXs dvhpi^opievos 
dveidela Kal rrapaKOvaa? rod rrarpo? fjaxv^^TO rov 
deov. olov LGXvaev rjhov^' 6 St' dnXorr^ra XeXv- 
IJievos dv9pa>7Tog dpLaprtais evpedrj SeSe/xeVo?. rcov 
heapLcov Xvaat rovrov 6 Kvpiog au^t? rjOeXrjoev, Kal 
oapKi evheOel? {pi,VGrrjpiov delov rovro) rov 6(j>iv 
ixeipwGaro Kal rov rvpavvov ehovXcoGaro, rov 

^ [ore] Stiihlin. 6t^ ixeu Dindorf. Sre -qv Marklaud. 
'^ viroir'nrTwv Sc'h\v;irtz. vir^TmrTey MSS. 
' aTp€(pofxey)] Heyse : StJihlin. 
236 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

When at the first His coming was proclaimed the chap. 

message was not disbelieved ; nor was He unrecog- ^ 

nized when, having assumed the mask of manhood 

and received fleshly form, He began to act the drama 

of salvation for humanity. For He was a true He is the 

champion, and a fellow-champion with His creatures ; champion oi 

and, having been most speedily published abroad to humanity 

all men, — for swifter than the sun He rose from the 

very will of the Father — He readily lighted up God 

for us. Through His teachings and signs He showed He has 

whence He came and who He was, namely, the Jntofd* 

Word our herald, mediator and Saviour, a spring of blessings 

life and peace flooding the whole face of the earth, 

thanks to whom the universe has now become, so to 

speak, a sea of blessings. 

XI 

Now consider briefly, if you will, the beneficence Man was 
of God from the beginning. The first man played Sf,oc*e^nt 
in Paradise with childlike freedom, since he was a and free 
child of God. But when he fell a victim to pleasure But he fell 
(for the serpent, that creeps upon the belly, an pElfr^ 
earthy" evil, reared to return to matter, is an allegory 
for pleasure), and was led astray by lusts, the child, 
coming to manhood through disobedience and refus- 
ing to listen to the Father, was ashamed to meet 
God. See how pleasure prevailed ! The man who 
by reason of innocence had been free was discovered 
to be bound by sins. The Lord purposed once again 
to loose him from his bonds. Clothing Himself The Lord 
with bonds of flesh (which is a divine mystery). He an?dSo 
subdued the serpent and enslaved the tyrant death ; set man free 

^ '' from sin 

« Because it feeds on earth ; cp. Genesis iii. 14. 

237 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Bdvarov, Kal, to TTapaSo^orarov , eKelvov rov avOpo)- 
7TOV Tov rjSoi^ij 7T€7TXavrjiJL€VOV, Tov rfj <f)dopa 8eSe/xe- 
vov, x^polv rjTTXojjjLevaLs ehei^e XeXvfievov. o) OavfjLa- 
Tos pLVCTTLKOV' /ce/cAtrat pi€V 6 KvpLos, avearr] 8e 
dvdpcoTTOS Kal 6 eK rov Trapaheiaov irecrcbv juet^ov 
VTraKorjs aOXov, ovpavovs, a7ToXap,^dv€i . 8to /xot 
So/cet, eTTel avro? rJKev co? rjpLds ovpavodev 6 Aoyo?, 
r)p,d9 eV dvOpcjDTTLvrjv livai firj XP'^^^'' 8t8aa/<:aAtav 
€Tt, 'A^i]va? Kal rrjv dXXrjv *EAAa8a, Trpos 8e Kal 
*IcoytW TToXvTTpaypiOvovvTa? . el yap rjfjLLV [o] •'■ 8t- 
SdaKaXos 6 7rX7]pa)aag rd Trdvra Swdfieauv dyiais, 

87 P. brjpLLOvpyia GcoTrjpla evepyeaia vopLodeaia 7Tpo(f)r]- 
reia hihaaKaXia, Trdvra vCv 6 SiSdcjKaXo? Kar-q^^Z 
Kal TO TTav rjSr] ^AOijvai Kal 'EAAa? yeyovev ro) 
Xoyo). ov yap Sr] fivdco fiev eTnarevere Trotr^Tt/caJ 
TOV Mlvo) rov Kprjra rov Ato? oapiarrjv dvaypd(fx)vrLy 
rjpids 8e aTnonqaere fxaOiqrd? Oeov yeyovoras , rrjV 
ovrojs dXr^drj (jO(/)Lav iTravrjpripLevovs y rjv (j)LXoao(f)Las 
aKpoi fiovov fjVL^avro, ol he rov yipiorov i^adr^ral 
Kal KaretXrjcfyaoL Kal dveK-qpv^av. Kal Sr] Kal Trdg, 
o)s 67709 elirelvj^ 6 ^pcaros ov fxepL^erai' ovre 
^dp^apos ear IV ovre ^Yovhalos ovre "EAAt^v, ovk 
dppeVy ov OrjXv Kaivos 8e dvOpwTTOs deov TTvevpLarc 
dyicp ixerarreTrXacTpLevos . 

Et^' at /xev a'AAat avfi^ovXai, re Kal VTJodrJKaL 

^ [6] Heyse. 

'^ Stahlin, following Schwartz, suspects an omission 
between dirttv and 6 Xpta-rbs. 



« It is possible that the Greek means only "with hands 
unloosened." But the outstretching of Christ's hands upon 
the cross was a familiar thought to the Christian Fathers, 
238 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

andj most wonderful of all, the very man who had chap. 
erred through pleasure, and was bound by corruption, ^^ 
was shown to be free again, through His outstretched 
hands.* O amazing mystery ! The Lord has sunk Man gains 
down, but man rose up ; and he who was driven from ™e°iost^*° 
Paradise gains a greater prize, heaven, on becoming 
obedient. Wherefore it seems to me, that since the The Word 
Word Himself came to us from heaven, we ought no fg^ouAnoe" 
longer to go to human teaching, to Athens and the rest teacher 
of Greece, or to Ionia, in our curiosity. If our teacher 
is He who has filled the universe with holy powers, 
creation, salvation, beneficence, lawgiving, prophecy, 
teaching, this teacher now instructs us in all things, and 
the whole world has by this time become an Athens 
and a Greece through the Word. For surely, after 
believing in a poetic legend which records that 
Minos the Cretan was "a familiar friend of Zeus," ^ you 
will not disbelieve that we, who have become disciples Christians 
of God, have entered into the really true wisdom ^igcSes 
which leaders of philosophy only hinted at, but which 
the disciples of the Christ have both comprehended 
and proclaimed abroad. Moreover, the whole Christ, 
so to speak, is not divided ; there is neither barbarian 
nor Jew nor Greek, neither male nor female, but a 
new man transformed by the Holy Spirit of God." 
Further, all other counsels and precepts, as, for 

and is alluded to by Justin (I. Apol. 35) and by Irenaeus 
(v. 17. 4), though the word used in each of these passages 
is cKTelvcj and not dTrXow. Basil uses a7rX6w in this connexion ; 
cp. In Psalm, xlv. p. 272, " having his hands outstretched 
{rjwXojixiuas) in the manner of the cross." Perhaps Clement 
wishes to suggest both meanings. 

* Homer, Odyssey xix. 179. 

° See 1 Corinthians i. 13 ; Galatians iii. 28 ; Ephesians 
iv. 24; Colossians iii. 9-11. 

SS9 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. XvTTpal Kal Trepl rcbv ettI yiipovs elmv, el yafi-qreov, 
el 7ToXiT€VT€ov , €L 7Tai,So7TOii^r€OV' KadoXiKr) hk apa 
TTpoTpoTTTj fiovT] Kal TT/DO? oXov Sr]Xahrj Tov ^Lov, iv 
TTavTL KaLpcp, iv TTaarj TrepiOTdoei Trpos to KVpLco- 
rarcfu reXos, rrjv ^corjv, avvreivovaa r) deoGe^eta' 
KaO^ o Kal fxovov eirdvayKes iari i,rjvy tva ^T^aco- 
fjL€v del- (f)LXoao(f)La Se, fj <^aaiv ot TTpea^vTepot, 
TToXvxpovios eari dVfijSovXj], ao(f)ias diSiov fivrj- 
arevoixivr] epajra' " ivToXrj §e Kvpiov riqXavyiqs, 
(fxjtjTi^ovcra 6(f)daXfJiOV5." drroXa^e tov jipiGTOv, 
aTToXa^e to ^Xerreiv, dnoXaBe gov to (f)a)S, 

6(f)p^ ev yivojGKois rjfjiev Oeov rjSe Kal dvSpa. 

" TToOecvos" ^ 6 Xoyos 6 ^curtaa? T^/xa? " virkp 
XpvoLOV Kal Xidov tljjllov yXvKv?^ cgtlv vnep fxeXi 
Kal Krjpiov." ttcds yap ov TTodeLvos 6 tov iv gk6t€L 
KaTopcopvypievov vovv ivapyrj 7TOLr]GdpL€vo? Kal tcl 
" (f)(jOGcf)6pa " TT]9 ifjvxyj? dTTO^vvas " o/x/xara " ; /cat 
yap coGTrep " tjXlov pirj ovto? eveKa tcdv dXXa)v 
aGTpcop vv^ dv Tjv TO, TrdvTa," ovtojs el pbrj top Xoyov 
eyva>jjiev Kal tovtoj KaTr]vydG9rjp.ev , ovSev dv rcov 
GLTevojjievcxJV opvldcDV iXecTTop^eda, iv GKOTei maLvo- 
fievoL Kal OavdTCp Tpe^opievoi. x^PV^^H-^^ '^^ <f>d)S, 
88 p. tva ;^a)/)77 CTco/xev tov Oeov x^PV'^^H-^^ '''^ ^^S" kol 
jjiaOr^TevGcopiev tco Kvpicp. tovto tol Kal iTTrjyyeXTai 

^ TTodeLvos — 'y\vKvs Mayor (see Psalm xviii. 11 Sept.). 

yXvKvs — irodeLvbs Jiss. 

" Compare this with what Clement says about the " short 
way " of the gospel preaching, pp. 173 and 217. 

'' Psalm xix. 8. <= Homer, Iliad v. 128. 

** Psalm xix. 10. 

* Compare Plato, Timaeus 45 b. 

J' Heracleitus, Frag. 31 (Bywater), 99 (Diels). 
240 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

instance, whether a man should marry, or take part chap. 
in politics, or beget children, are of small account ^^ 
and of special application. The exhortation that Piety is 
alone would seem to be universal, and concerned universal 
plainly with the whole of existence, reaching out in precept 
every season and every circumstance towards the 
supreme end, life, is piety towards God. And it is a life of 
only necessary to live according to piety, in order to ^ifes external 
obtain eternal life ; whereas philosophy, as the elders life 
say, is a lengthy deliberation, that pursues wisdom 
with a never-ending love.^ But " the commandment 
of the Lord shines afar, giving light to the eyes." ^ 
Receive the Christ ; receive power to see ; receive The Word 
thy light; rglf- 

Thus shalt thou well discern who is God and who is but 
mortal.° 

The Word who has given us light is " to be desired 
above gold and precious stone ; He is sweet above 
honey and the honeycomb." '^ How can we help 
desiring Him who has made clear the mind that lay 
buried in darkness, and sharpened the " light-bearing 
eyes " ^ of the soul.^ For just as "if the sun were without 
not, the world would have been in perpetual night, should have 
for all the other heavenly bodies could do"/; so been in 
unless we had come to know the Word, and had 
been enlightened by His rays, Ave should have been 
in no way different from birds who are being 
crammed with food, fattening in darkness^ and 
reared for death. Let us admit the light, that 
we may admit God. Let us admit the light, and 
become disciples of the Lord. This is the promise 

3 The same simile occurs in Philostratus, Life of ApoUonius 
iv. 3. 

241 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Tip Trarpl " hiiqyiqaoixai to ovojxa gov rols dSeA^ot? 
fjiov iv fxeaco eKKXiqaias vfivrjaoj ae." viJLvr]aov 
/cat SiTiyrjaal fxoL rov rraripa gov rov deov oixioei 
GOV ret hLr^yrjjJLaTa, TratSeuaet /xe r) coStJ. d)? fiexpf' 
vvv errXavajjJi'qv ^r)Tcov rov deou, enel Se fxe (f>ojT- 
aytoyeis", Kvpte, /cat rov deov evpiGKco 8ta gov /cat 
Tov TTarepa aTroXafx^dvco napd gov, yivofial gov 
GvyKXrjpovojjLos , eTret rov aSeA^ov ovk e7Tr]G-xyvdrj<s . 
*A(f)€Xojfi6V ovv, d(f)eXaJiX€V ttjv Xrjdrjv rrjs dXr]6€La?' 
rr)v dyvoiav /cat to gkotos to ijJLTToScov d)s dxXvv 
oipeojs Karayayovres tov ovtojs ovra Oeov €7t07TT€V- 
GCx)[JL€V, ravTrjV avTCO trpajTOV dvviivriGavres rr)v 
(f)COV^v " xP-lpe (f)d>s"' (f)d)? rjjJLLV e^ ovpavov tols 
iv gk6t€1 KaropajpvyfJievoLS /cat eV o/cta Oavdrov 
/caTa/ce/cAetCT/xeVot? il^eXafjLijjev tjXlov KaOapdyrepov, 
i,a)rjs rfjg ivravda yXvKvrepov. to c^ais" e/cetvo l,ojr] 
€GTiv diStos, /cat OGa ixereiXiqtjyev avTOV, ^rj, rj vv$ 
Se euAa^etTat to <f)d>s Kal Svvovoa Sta rov (j)6pov 
TTapaxojpel rfj rjlJ^epa Kvpiov rd irdvra (f)d)s dKoifir]- 
rov yeyovev /cat r) Svgls els dvaroXrjv TTepieGriqKev} 
Tovro 7) KriGis r] Kaivr] ^e^ovX-qrac o yap ra 
Trdvra KaOiiTTrevcov " SiKaiOGVvr]? tJXlos" eV taT79 
TTepLTToXet rrjv dvOpcoTTorrjra, rov irarepa fiLfiovjie- 
vo?, OS " eTTL irdvras dvBpdjirovs dvareXXei rov tJXlov 
avrov," /cat KaraipeKdt,€L rrjv SpoGOV rrjs dX-qOetas. 
ovros rrjv Svglv els dvaroXrjv fjLerrjyayev /cat tov 
ddvarov els ^oj^jv dveGravpojGev , e^aprrdGas Se rrjs 
dTTCuXelas rov dvOpojirov TrpoGeKpefxaGev aWept, 
^ ei'j dvaroXrjv TepiiffTTjKev Wilamowitz. dvaToXrj ireTiaTevKey 

MSS. 

" Psalm xxii. 23. * See Romans viii. 17. 

<^ See Hebrews ii. 11. 
242 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

He has made to the Father ; " I will declare Thy chap. 
name to my brethren ; in the midst of the congrega- xhe Word's 
tion will I sing praises to Thee.""^ Sing praises, and ligM reveals 
declare unto me God Thy Father. Thy story shall 
save. Thy song shall instruct me. Until now I was 
erring in my search for God, but since Thou, Lord, 
dost become my guiding light I find God through 
Thee, I receive the Father at Thy hands, I become 
joint-heir ^ with Thee, since Thou wert not ashamed 
of Thy brother." 

Away then, away with our forgetfulness of the Let us then 
truth ! Let us remove the ignorance and darkness ignorance 
that spreads like a mist over our sight ; and let us and dark- 

n6ss 

get a vision of the true God, first raising to Him this 

voice of praise, " Hail, O Light." Upon us who lay 

buried in darkness and shut up in the shadow of 

death ^ a light shone forth from heaven, purer than 

the sun and sweeter than the life of earth. That The night of 

light is life eternal, and whatsoever things partake p^^ce to^the 

of it, live. But night shrinks back from the light, day of the 

and setting through fear, gives place to the day of 

the Lord. The universe has become sleepless light 

and the setting has turned into a rising. This is what This is the 

was meant by "the new creation."^ For He who coming to 

rides over the universe, "the sun of righteousness,"/ oilmen 

visits mankind impartially, imitating His Father, who 

" causes His sun to rise upon all men," 9 and sprinkles 

them all with the dew of truth. He it was who ^fg^^^f^Qj^ 

changed the setting into a rising, and crucified death earth to 

into life ; who having snatched man out of the jaws h^^^^" 

of destruction raised him to the sky, transplanting 

<* See Isaiah ix. 2 (St. Matthew iv. 16 and St. Luke i. 79). 

'' Galatians vi. 15. (Revised Version margin.) 
/ Malachi iv. 2. s St. Matthew v. 45. 

1 2 243 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. fieTa(f)VT€vwv TTjV (f)Oopav etV d<j)dapaLav Kal yrjv 
■^^ IxeTa^dXXojv ei? ovpavovs, 6 rod Beov yeojpyos, 
" Se^id a-qpiaivcxjv , Xaov? S' eVt epyov" dyadov 
" eyeipcoVj jjnixvrjaKCJV ^lotolo " dXr]6LVov, Kal rov 
ixeyav ovrcos Kal BeZov Kal dvacjiaipeTov rov irarpos 
KXrjpov ')(apit,6pievos rjfJilv, ovpavico StSaaKaXia deo- 
t!9 p. Ittolojv top dvdpojTTOv, " SiSou? vofjiovs €tV rr]V 
Sidvoiav avTcov Kal irrl KapSlav ypdcficov avrovs." 
rivas V7Toypdcf)6i vopiov?; " on Trdvres eloovTai rov 
Qedv aTTo puKpov ecus fjieydXov, Kal tAeco?," (f>rjcylv 6 
Oeos, " eaojjLai avrol? Kal ra)V dpLapriouv avrchv ov 
fjirj fxviqada)." Se^cofxeOa rovs vofJLOVs rrj? ^coij?, 
7T€La9a)fji€v 7TpoTpe7Top.eva) dew, pLadajpiev avrov, Iva 
IXeojs fj, aTTohojpiev Kal pur] deop,evcp pnoOdv ev- 
xdpioTOV evTradeias}- olov n evoiKiov [yriv ev- 
crepeLav] ^ ro) Beep rrj? evTavBa evoiKiqGeoos . 

Xpvaea ^(aXKeicjJVy eVaro/x/Sot* evvea^oiajv. 

oXiyrjs TTtarecos yrjv ool StSaxn ty]v Tocavriqv 
yeoopyelv, vhcop iriveLV Kal dXXo TrXelv, depa dva- 
TTvelv, TTvp VTTOvpyelv, Koapiov olKelv evrevBev els 
ovpavovs aTTOLKLav areiXaoBai aoi avyKexcoprjKev' 
rd pLeydXa ravra Kal roaavrd ool SrjpLLOvpyripLara 
Kal xP-piapiara oXlyqs Trioreois pLejiioBcoKev. elB^ 
at puev ToXs yorjai TreTnorevKores rd TrepiaTTTa Kai 
rds eTTaoiSds OJS ocoriqpLovs SrjBev dnoSexovraL, 
vpcels Se ov ^ovXeoBe rov ovpdvtov avrov Trepidipa- 
oBai, rov aa>rrjpa Xoyov, Kal rrj eTTOjSfj rov Beov 

^ eiVa^etas INIayor. evirddeiau Jiss. evwddeiav Heyse. 
2 [jriv eva(j3€iai^] Heyse. 



244 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

corruption to the soil of iiicorruption^ and transform- chap. 
ing earth into heaven. He is God's husbandman, ^^ 
" who gives favourable omens, and rouses the people 
to a work " that is good, ^^ reminding us of the true 
Hvehhood,"" and granting to us the Father's truly 
great, divine and inalienable portion, making men 
divine by heavenly doctrine, " putting laws into their 
minds and writing them upon the heart." ^ To what 
laws does He allude.^ "That all shall know God Knowledge 
from the small to the great ; and," God says, " I will pos^^-bie^ 
be gracious to them and not remember their sins."* for all 
Let us receive the laws of life ; let us obey God 
when He exhorts us ; let us learn about Him, that 
He may be gracious ; let us render Him (though He 
is in need of nothing) a recompense of gratitude for 
His blessings, as a kind of rent paid to God for our 
dwelling here below. 

Gold in exchange for brass, a hundred oxen for nine's worth." 

At the price of a little faith He gives thee this God's gifts 

great earth to till, water to drink, other v/ater to aTitt"I\I?th 

sail on, air to breathe, fire to do service, and a world 

to dwell in. From hence He has granted thee power 

to send forth a colony into heaven. All these great 

works of creation and gracious gifts He has let out 

to thee in return for a little faith. Again, men who 

believe in wizards receive amulets and charms which 

are supposed to bring safety. Do you not rather The Word 

desire to put on the heavenly amulet,^ the Word '^^^®°"^y, 

11 1 . -^ _ 3,niUiGt- elicit 

who truly saves, and, by trusting to God s enchant- can save 

from sin 
« These words are quoted from Aratus, Phaenomena, 6-7. 
* Jeremiah xxxi. 33, 34 (quoted Hebrews viii. 10-12). 
" Homer, Iliad vi. 236. 
^ See Plato, Charmides lo7 a. 

245 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TTLGTevaavTes dnaXXayrjvai fJL€V naOcbv, d Srj ^vxt]S 
voGoi, dTTOGTTaadrjVcii he dfxaprLas ; ddvaro? yap 
diSios dfJiapTLa. rj reXeov vcxihol /cat TV(f)Xoi Kaddirep 
ol GTrdXaKes ovSev dXXo ^ €g9lovt€s iu gkotco 
Stairaa^e, TTepLKarappeovreg rfj (j>dopa. dXX cgtcv, 
€GTLV 7) dX-qOeta r) KeKpayvla " eK gkotov? </»a>? 
XdfJLipeL.^^ Xafii/jdrco ovv ev raj d7TOK€KpvfX[X€vco rod 
dvdpcoTTOv, iv rfj KapSia, ro (f)a)S, Kal rrj^ yvcoGeoj? 
at dKrlves dvareiXdrojGav rov iyKeKpvfjLfievov evSov 
€K(j>aivovGai /cat dTTOGriX^ovGai dvOpcoTrov, rov /xa- 
Br]r7]v rov (f)a>r6s, rov \pLGrov yvcjpipiov re /cat 
GvyKXrjpoPofjiov, /xaAtara eTTeiSdv ro rifiLOirarov koX 
Ge^aGjjLLcorarov evGe^ec re /cat dyadco TraiSt dyadov 
TTarpo? ovofjua el? yvcoGiv dcj^iK-qrai, rrpoGrdrrovros 
TJTTia /cat ra> TratSt eyKeXevojievov rd Gojrqpia. 6 
he TTeidopievos avra> Kara Trdvra Srj trXeoveKrei' 
errer ai rep deep, Trelderai rep irarpi, eyvoj nXavajfJievog 
avrov, rjydTrrjGe rov Oeov, riydrrrjGe rov ttXtiglov, 
CTrX-qpajGe rrjv evroX-qv, rd ddXov eml^rjreL, rrjv 
eTTayyeXiav drraireZ. 

Ilpd/cetrat he del rep deep rrjv dvdpcoTTOJV dyeXrjv 
a(pl,eLV. ravrrj /cat rov dyaOov TTOLfieva 6 dyados 
diTeGreiXev Oeog- dirXcxyGas he 6 Xoyos rrjv dX.'qOeLav 
ehei^e rot? dvdpojTTOis ro vijjos rrjs GajrrjpLas, ottcos 

90P. "^ I pieravorjGavres gcoOcoglv r) p.rj vnaKovGavreg 
KpiddJGLV. rovro rrj? hcKaLOGVvrjs ro K'^pvyp.a, 
VTTaKovovGLV evayyeXiov, TrapaKovGaGLV Kpirripiov. 
dXXd GoXTTiy^ fiev -q pLeyaXoKXovos rixV*^*^^^ 
orparLcoras Gvvqyayev /cat rroXefMOV Kari]yyeLXev, 



246 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

ment, to be freed from passions, which are dis- chap. 
eases of the soul, and to be torn away from sin ? ^^ 
For sin is eternal death. Surely you are altogether 
bereft of sense " and sight, spending your lives, 
like moles, in darkness, doing nothing but eat, and 
falling to pieces through corruption. But it is the 
truth, I say, which cries, " Light shall shine out of 
darkness." ^ Let the light then shine in the hidden 
part of man, in his heart ; and let the rays of know- 
ledge rise, revealing and illuminating the hidden 
man within, the disciple of the light, friend of Christ 
and joint-heir with Him ; more especially since there 
has come to our knowledge the name, worthy of 
all honour and reverence, of one who is a good 
Father to a good and dutiful child, whose precepts 
are kindly, and whose commands are for His child's 
salvation. He who obeys Him gains in all things. 
He follows God, he obeys the Father ; when erring 
he came to know Him ; he loved God ; he loved 
his neighbour ; he fulfilled God's commandment ; he 
seeks after the prize ; he claims the promise. 

It is ever God's purpose to save the flock of man- God's pur- 
kind. For this cause also the good God sent the ?o slve men 
good Shepherd. '^ And the Word, having spread 
abroad the truth, showed to men the grandeur of 
salvation, in order that they may either be saved if 
they repent, or be judged if they neglect to obey. 
This is the preaching of righteousness; to those it is pro- 
who obey, good news ; to those who disobey, a aif^^^ ^ 
means of judgment. But when the shrilling trumpet f^.^^^'^f'' 
blows, it assembles the soldiers and proclaims war ; army ^ 

a Nw(5ot means literally "toothless," as applied to the aged. 
Clement seems to use it metaphorically for senile decay. 
* 2 Corinthians iv. 6. " See St. John x. IL 

247 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Xptcrro? Se elp-qviKOV inl ret rrepara rrj? yi^g cttl- 
^ TTvevaag /xeAo? ov avvd^ei dpa rov? elp-qviKovs 
GTpariwras rovs iavrov ; ovv-qyaye fiev ovv, c5 
avdpcjJTTe, TO arpariojTiKov to avaipiaKTOV alpiari 
Koi Xoycp, Kol T'r]v /SaatAetav rcov ovpava>v avrolg 
ivex^^pi^cr^^- crdXmy^ earl \pLGrov to evayyeXiov 
avrov' 6 fiev iadXTTiorev, 7]/xet? Se rjKOvaapiev. 
i^oTrXiocopieda elp-quLKcos, " ivSvadpievoL rov OdopaKa 
TTJs hiKaioovvrj'S " /cat ttjv doTriha rrjs TriGreoos 
dvaXa^ovreg kol rrjv Kopvv rod GcnTiqpiov TTeptdepie- 
voi Koi "ttjv pidxoLtpoLv Tov TTvevpLaros, 6 €gti prjpLa 
deov," aKovT^GCopiev. ovrojs rjpidg 6 dTTOGToXo? 
elpr)VLKa>£ eKrdrrei' ravra rjpLcov rd onXa to. 
drpiora' rovroug l^oTrXiGdpievoi Trapara^ copied a rep 
TTOV-qpoi' rd TTeirvpaKrcopiiva rod rrov-qpov drro- 
G^eGOjpiev ^eX-Y] rals vSarLvats d/c/xat? Tat? vtto rod 
Aoyow ^e^apbpievaL£ y eu;^apt'aTOt? dpi€L^6pLevoL rd? 
evTTodas evXoylai? /cat rov Oeov ro) detco yepacpovres 
Xoycp. " en ydp XaXovvros oov ipeX," (f)r]Giv, ' ISov 
TrdpeipLL." 

''Q rrjs dyias kol /xa/capta? ravrrj? SvvdpLeco?, 
8t' ^S" dvdpcoTTOLS GVpLTToXir ever ai deos. Xcpov ovv 
KOL dpieivov rrj? dpiGriqs rchv dvrcov ovoias pup.iqrr^v 
opiov /cat depairevrr^v yeveoOai' ov ydp papieXGOai 
rL9 Sw-qoerai rov dedv t) St' chv oglco? depaneveL •*• 
ovS' av OepaireveLv /cat Ge^eiv rj pLL/jLovpLevos. 6 ye 
rot ovpdvLOs /cat ^eto? ovrcjos epoj? ravrrj TrpoGyiverai 
roZs dvOpcoTTOL?, orav eu avrfj rrov rij ^vxfj rd 
ovrcxjs KaXdv vtto rod deiov Xoyov dval,oj7Tvpovpievov 
eKXdpLTTeiv Bvv7]6fj' /cat rd pLeytGrov, dpLa r<x> 

^ 6epaTreveL Schwartz. Oepairevaei MSS. 
248 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

and shall not Christy think you, liaving breathed chap. 
to the ends of the earth a song of peace, assemble ^^ 
the soldiers of peace that are His ? Yes, and He did 
assemble, O man, by blood and by word His bloodless 
army, and to them He entrusted the kingdom of 
heaven. The trumpet of Christ is His gospel. He 
sounded it, and we heard. Let us gird ourselves 
with the armour of peace, " putting on the breast- The armour 
plate of righteousness," and taking up the shield of ?4SdierVof 
faith, and placing on our head the helmet of salva- peace" 
tion ; and let us sharpen " the sword of the spirit, 
which is the word of God." ^ Thus does the apostle 
marshal us in the ranks of peace. These are our 
invulnerable arms ; equipped with these let us 
stand in array against the evil one. Let us quench 
the fiery darts of the evil one ^ with the moistened 
sword-points, those that have been dipped in water 
by the Word,'^ returning thankful praises to God for 
His benefits and honouring Him through the divine 
Word. " For while thou art yet speaking," it says, 
^' He will answer, behold, I am with thee."^ 

O sacred and blessed power, through which God we must 
becomes a fellow-citizen with men ! It is then and imitate 
better and more profitable for man to become at the God 
same time both imitator and servant of the highest 
of all beings ; for he will not be able to imitate 
God except by serving Him holily, nor yet to serve 
and worship except by imitating Him. Now the 
heavenly and truly divine love comes to men in this 
way, whenever somev/here in the soul itself the spark 
of true nobility, kindled afresh by the divine Word, 
is able to shine out ; and, greatest thing of all, salva- 

« See Eph. vi. 14-17 ; 1 Thess. v. 8. * Eph. vi. 16. 

c The allusion is to Baptism. <* Isa. Iviii. 9. 

249 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. ^ovXr]6rjvai yvrjoiios ro acoOrjvaL ovvrpex^t', ofxo- 
t,vyovvT<jjv , ojs €TTOs etVetv, Trpoaipeaeois /cat ^cdt)?. 
roiydproL jj,6vr) avrrj rj rrjs dXrjOecas TrporpoTrrj rot? 
Tnarordrois aTTec/cao-rat tcx)v (fiiXcov fJ-expt- rrj? iaxd- 
Tr]s dvaiTvorjS Trapafxevovaa /cat TrapaTTOfiTTOS dyadrj 
oXcp /cat reXeicp ro) rrj? j/f^X^? rrvevjJiaTi rot? et? 
ovpavov diraLpovoL yevoixeviq. ri hiq oe TrporpeTroj ; 
G(x}9rjvai oe eTretyo/xat. tovto jiptaro? ^ovXerai- 
€vl Xoyo) l^corjv gol ;)(apt^eTat. /cat rt's" lanv ovro? ; 
fidOe avuTO/JLCos' Xoyog dXiqOela?, Xoyo? d^Bapoia? , 
6 dvay€vvcx)v rov dvdpcjTTOv, els dXrjOeiav avTOV 
dva(f)€pcoVy TO Kevrpov rrjs Gcorrjpla?, 6 e^eXavvojv 
rrjv (jidopdv, 6 e/cStc6/ca>v rov ddvarov, 6 ev dvdpojTTOLS 
OLKoSofjirjGas vecov, Iva ev dvOpcoTTOis ISpvGr) rov 
Oeov. dyvLuov top vecov, /cat ra? rjSovds /cat ras" 
paBvpiias coGTTep dvBog ii^-qfiepov KaraXi/JiTrave dvep^co 
/cat TTvpiy aoj(f)po(7vvr]s Se rovs Kapirovs yecopyrjaov 

n p. epifjipovixis, /cat aeavrov dnpoBivLov \ dvdarrjaov T<h 
deep, OTTOJS OVK epyov pLovov, dXXd /cat X^P^^ f)^ '^^^ 
deov' TrpeneL 8e a/x^a> tw Xptcrrot'^ yvajplp,cp, /cat 
^aaiXeias d^iov (f)av7]vaL /cat ^aatAeta? Karrj^iwaBai. 



XII 

^vyaypiev ovv rrjV ovvriBeiav, <f>vy(x>pLev olov aKpav 
XdXeTrrjv t) Xapuj88eaj? aTreLXrjv t) Hetprjva? pLvBcKds' 
ayx€i Tov dvBpcjTTOV, rrjs dXrjBelas dTTorpeireL, 
dndyeL rrjs Ic^rjs, rrayis eariv, ^dpaBpov earw, 
^odpos iori, Xix^ov ^ earlv /ca/cov tj ovviqB eia' 

^ rjs Wilamowitz. y siss. 
2 XpccTTou Ma3^or, Xpiarw aiss. 
* XiX^of Mayor. Xixi'os mss. 
250 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

tion itself runs side by side with the sincere desire for chap. 
it, will and life being, as we may say, yoked together. ^^ 
Wherefore this exhortation to the truth, and this This ex- 
alone, is hke the most faithful of our friends ; for a°flShfu" *^ 
it remains with us until our latest breath, and proves friend, in 
a good escort for the whole and perfect spirit of death 
the soul to those who are setting out for heaven. 
What then is my exhortation } I urge thee to be 
saved. This is the wish of Christ ; in one word. He Christ 
freely grants thee life. And who is He .> Understand to?ela"ved 
briefly: the Word of truth ; the Word of incorruption ; 
He who regenerates man by bringing him back to 
the truth ; the goad of salvation ; He who banishes 
corruption and expels death ; He who has built His 
temple in men, that in men He may set up the 
shrine of God. Purify the temple, and abandon Let us for- 
your pleasures and careless ways, like the flower of become' ^^^ 
a day, to the wind and fire ; but labour in wisdom Gods de- 
fer the harvest of self-control, and present yourself a| His work 
as first-fruits to God, in order that you may be not 
only His work, but also His delight. Both things 
are necessary for the friend of Christ : he must show 
himself worthy of a kingdom, and be counted worthy 
of a kingdom. 



XII 

Let us then shun custom ; let us shun it as some custom is 
dangerous headland, or threatening Charybdis, or gj'^^^^^f 
the Sirens of legend. Custom strangles man ; it turns it allures 
him away from truth ; it leads him away from life ; destroy 
it is a snare, an abyss, a pit, a devouring evil. 

251 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. K€ivov iikv Karrvov koI /cu/xaro? eKTos eepye 

vrja. 

(f>ev'ycx)^€v, o) avvvavrai, (l)€vy(x)fi€v to Acv/xa tovto, 
TTvp epevyerai, vrjoos iuri TTOvrjpa ootoIs kol 
veKpolg aeacopeviievr] , aSct 8e eV avrfj TTopvihiov 
ihpalov, Tjhoviq, TravSijficp TepTTOfieuov fiovaiKfj' 

Sevp^ ay* Icov, TroXvacv^ 'OSuaeu, fxeya KvSog 

vrja KaTaarrjaov , Iva Oeiorepriv orr" dKovar]^. 

eTTatvel ere, d> va{>Taj koL TroXvvfjivrjTOV Xeyec, /cat 
TO KvSog TOJV 'EAAt^i^coi^ 7] TTopvr) G<f)eT€pL^eraL- 
eaaov avr-qv imvefieGOaL rov? veKpovg, TTvevud gol ^ 
ovpdviov ^o-qdel- TrdpiOi rrjv rjhoviqv, ^ovKoXeX- 

pLYjSe yvPT] oe voov TTvyoaroXos e^a-Trardrco , 
al/jLvXa KCxJTiXXovaa, rerjv SLcfxjJcra KaXi-qv. 

TTapdirXei rrjv (hhiqv, Odvarov epydt,erai' idv ideXr)? 
fioi'ov, v€VLK7]Ka? TYjv dTTCoXeiav /cat TO) $vXa} npoG- 
8eSe/xeVo? aTrdaris ear) tyjs (f)9opd? AeAu/xeVo?, KvBep- 
vqaec ae o Xoyos 6 rod Beov, Kav ^ rols Xl/jl€ol 
Ka9opfXLG€L Tci)v ovpavojv TO TTvevfJLa TO dyiov Tore 
fjiov KaTOTTTevaei? tov Oeov /cat rots' dyiots eKeivois 
TeXeadrjoT] pLVOT-qpiois /cat tcov iv ovpavois dno- 
Xavaeis aTro/ce/cpu/x/teVcuv, tcuj^ e^ot Terrjpripievcov , 
"a ovT€ ovs TjKOvaev ovt6 irrl Kaphlav di'^_^r] " 

TWOS. 

^ COL Hoschel. ae mss. ^ kolv Mayor. koL mss. 



« Homer, Odyssey xii. 219-20. 
* See Odyssey xii. 45-46. ' ' " Odyssiy xii. 184-5. 

252 



Odysseus 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

Wide of that smoke and wave direct, O helmsman, thy (jHAP. 
vessel.'' xil 

Let us flee, comrades, let us flee from this wave. 
It belches forth fire ; it is an island of wicked- 
ness heaped with bones and corpses/ and she who 
sings therein is pleasure, a harlot in the bloom of 
youth, delighting in her vulgar music. 

Hither, renowned Odysseus, great glory of all the Achaeans : See the 
Bring thy ship to the land, that a song divine may entrance f^^^"^£jf, °^ 
thee.'' 

She praises thee, sailor, she calls thee renov,^ned 
in song ; the harlot would make the glory of the 
Greeks her own. Leave her to roam among the 
corpses ; a heavenly wind comes to thine aid. Pass 
by pleasure ; she beguiles. 

Let not thy heart be deceived by a woman with trailing 

garment. 
Coaxing with wily words to find the place of thy dwelling.'* 

Sail past the song ; it works death. Only resolve, 
and thou hast vanquished destruction ; bound to the 
wood of the cross " thou shalt live freed from all 
corruption. The Word of God shall be thy pilot 
and the Holy Spirit shall bring thee to anchor in 
the harbours of heaven. Then thou shalt have the 
vision of my God, and shalt be initiated in those 
holy mysteries, and shalt taste the joys that are 
hidden away in heaven, preserved for me, " which 
neither ear hath heard nor have they entered into 
the heart " ^ of any man. 

'^ Hesiod, Works and Days 373— i. 

<" An allusion to Odysseus being bound to the mast of his 
vessel as it passed the land of the Sirens. Odyssey xil. 1 78. 
■'' 1 Corinthians ii. 9. 

253 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Kal fJLTJV Opdv IXOL hvO ^Jikv TjXioVS hoKCJJf 

Sto-o-as" he Grj^as" | 

62 p. ^aK](€vajv e'AeyeV rt? etScoAot?, dyvoia jxedvajv a- 
Kpdrco' iyd) 8' < dv >^ avrov oiKrelpaLfiL Trapoivovvra 
Kal rov ovTco Trapavoovvra eirl acoTrjpiav rrapa- 
KaXeaaifJLL aoj(})povovaav, on Kal Kvpiog pLerdvoLav 
dpiapTCoXov Kal ovxl Bdvarov doTrdt^eraL, rJKey J) 
TTapairXiq^ y pirj dvpao) aKrjpLTrrofJLevos, pLJ] kltto) 
dvaSovfjLevos, ptijjov rrjv piirpav, plxjjov rrjv ve^piha, 
o(D<j>p6vrjaov' hei^o) aoL rov Xoyov Kal rov Xoyov 
rd pLvarrjpLa, Kara rrju gtjv SirjyovpLevos ecKova. 
opos iorl rovTO deep 7T6(f)LXr)pL€Vov, ov Tpaycohiais cu? 
Ys^idaipajv VTTOKeipievov, dXXd rols dXrjdeias dva- 
Keipievov SpdpLaaiv, opos V'r](f)dXL0Vj dyvatg yAat? 
ovoKLOv ^aKxevovoi Se ev avTO) ov)( at Se/xeAT^s" 
"tt;? Kepavvias" aSeA^at, at piaivdhes, at hvaayvov 
Kpeavopiiav pivovpievai, dXX at rov Oeov dvyarepes , 
at dpLvdhes at KaXai, rd oepivd rod Xoyov deoTri- 
t,ovaai Spy La, x^po^ dyeipovoai aco(/)pova. 6 xopds ol 
StVatot, TO aopia vpivos earl rov Trdvrcov ^acnXeats' 
ifjdXXovGLV at Kopai, ho^dl,ovaiv dyyeXoi, 7Tpo(f)rJTaL 
XaXovdLVf rjxos areAAcrat pLovcnK-fjg, hpopio^ rov 

^ <&!'> inserted by Stiihlin. 

" Euripides, Bacchants 918-9. The speaker is Pentheus, 
king of Thebes, who was stricken with madness for refusing 
to worship the god Dionysus. The legend, which tells how 
Dionysus took vengeance by visiting the Theban women 
with his frenzy and driving them out into the hills, and how 
the mad king, in trying to spy out their revels, was torn to 
pieces by his own mother and her companions, is the subject 
of Euripides' play, the Bacchants. In the paragraph follow- 
ing this quotation, Clement has the Bacchants constantly in 
254 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

CHAP. 
And lo ! methinks I see a pair of suns Xil 

And a double Thebes," A warning 

from the 

said one who was revelling in frenzy through idols, pe^^theus 
drunk with sheer ignorance. I would pity him in 
his drunkenness, and would appeal to him to return 
from this madness to sober salvation, seeing that the 
Lord also welcomes the repentance, and not the 
death, of a sinner. Come, thou frenzy-stricken one, 
not resting on thy wand, not wreathed with ivy ! 
Cast off thy headdress ; cast off thy fawnskin ; ^ return 
to soberness ! I will show thee the Word, and the 
Word's mysteries, describing them according to thine 
own semblance of them. This is the mountain Description 
beloved of God, not a subject for tragedies, like word\ sober 
Cithaeron, but one devoted to the dramas of truth, mysteries 
a wineless mountain, shaded by hallowed groves. 
Therein revel no Maenads, sisters of " thunder- 
smitten " '^ Semele, who are initiated in the loathsome 
distribution of raw flesh, but the daughters of God, the 
beautiful lambs,^ who declare the solemn rites of the 
Word, assembling a sober company. The righteous 
form this company, and their song is a hymn in 
praise of the King of all. The maidens play the 
harp, angels give glory, prophets speak, a noise of 
music rises ; swiftly they pursue the sacred band/ 

mind, and his allusions can only be understood by reading 
the play. 

* For the description see Euripides, Bacchants 833, 835. 

" Euripides, Bacchants 6, 26. 

** The Greek amuades, lambs, is meant as a play upon 
Mainades (Maenads, or women worshippers of Dionysus). 

« Gr. thiasos, or band of Dionysus' followers (cp. Bacchants 
66). The word is here used of the company of maidens, 
angels and prophets, whom the Christian must follow to 
reach, not Dionysus, but the Father. 

255 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. Oiaaov S(,cx)Kovcnp, GTrevSovauv ot KeKXqixevoi irarepa 
TTodovvres aiToXa^elv. rJK€ fiOL, t5 Trpea^v, /cat av, 
TOLS 07]^a9 Xlttow Kol rrjv fJLavTLKrjv Kal rrjv ^aKX^iav^ 
aTToppLifja? TTpog aXrjdeLav ■)(^eipayojyov' ISov gol 
TO ^vXov eTT€peihea6aL SlScju/jll' anevaov, Teipeala, 
TTLdrevGOV' 6ip€L' Xptaro? iTnXdfjLTTeL (fyaihporepov 
TjXloVy St' 6V 6(j)9aXpLol rvcf)XcJjv dva^XeTTOvcnv vv^ 
ae (f)€V^€TaL, nvp (f)o^r]dT]a€TaL, Bdvaro? olyrjaeraL- 
oifjEL Tovs ovpavovs, d) yepov, 6 07]^a? firj ^XeTTCov. 
'^jQ rcJL)v dyiojv (vs dXrjdoj? pLVOTT^plajv, o) </>ajTO? 
OLK-qparov. SaSovxovjxaL rovs ovpavovg /cat rov 
Oeov eTTOTrrevcjaL,^ ayto? yivofiaL fivovixevo?, lepo- 
(fyavreZ 8e o Kvpios /cat rov pcvGT'qv ocj) pay it,eTai 
(f)ajTayo)ya)v , /cat TTaparideraL toj Trarpl rov Treiri- 
GTCVKora alwGi TTjpovfxevov. ravra rcov ificov 
fxvGTrjpLcov rd ^a/c;\;eu/LtaTa- et ^ovXec, /cat ov fivov, 
/cat xop^vaei? pier ayyeXojv dpi(fA rov dyeviqTOV /cat 
dvcoXedpov /cat puovov ovrco? Oeov, avvvpivovvros 

93 P. T^pLiVTOV 6 €OV XoyOV. dtStO? | OUTO? 'Il^CTOUS", et? [o]^ 

jLteya? dp^cepevs Oeov re evog rod avrov /cat Trarpo?, 

vnep dvdpojTTOJv evx^Toa /cat dvOpcoTTOig eyKeXeverai 

*' K€kXvt€, pLvpia cf)vXa," pidXXov Se oVot rcov 

dvOpojTTcov XoyuKOL, /cat ^dp^apoL /cat "EAAr^ve?" to 

TTav dvdpojTTCov yevog KaXco, oii^ iyoj SrjpLLOvpyo? 

deX-qpiarL irarpo?. rjKere <J)S e'/xe, i5^' eva raxOiqao- 

fji€uoL 6e6v /cat Toy eVa Aoyov rod deov, /cat pcrj piovov 

rcbv dXoycov t,cx)ow TrXeoveKrelre rep Xoyo), e/c 8e 

T(Jl)v Ovrjrcov drrdvrcjjv vpilv ddavaaiav piovois Kap- 

^ ^aKxeiau Wilamowitz. ^aKX(-KT]v mss. 

^ iTroTTTeuaai Schwartz. iiroirTevcrai mss. 

^ [6] Wilamowitz. 

" i.e. instead of Teiresias' staff; cp. Bacchants 363-4^. 
'256 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

those who have been called hasting with eager chap. 
longing to receive the Father. Come to me, old ^^^ 
man, come thou too ! Quit Thebes ; fling away thy ^S shall 
j)rophecy and Bacchic revelry and be led by the ^^^^'^^^ ^"<^ 
hand to truth. Behold, I give thee the wood of 
the cross to lean upon." Hasten, Teiresias, believe ! 
Thou shalt have sight. Christ, by whom the eyes of 
the blind see again, shineth upon thee more brightly 
than the sun. Night shall flee from thee ; fire shall 
fear thee ; death shall depart from thee. Thou shalt 
see heaven, old man, though thou canst not see 
Thebes. 

O truly sacred mysteries ! O pure light ! In the These are 
blaze of the torches I have a vision of heaven and of ^^g^™?^^ 
God. I become holy by initiation. The Lord 
reveals the mysteries ; He marks the worshipper with 
His seal, gives light to guide his way, and commends 
him, when he has believed, to the Father's care, 
where he is guarded for ages to come. These are the 
revels of my mysteries ! If thou wilt, be thyself also Exhortation 
initiated, and thou shalt dance with angels around f^jfjated 
the unbegotten and imperishable and only true God, 
the Word of God joining with us in our hymn of 
praise. This Jesus being eternal, one great high 
priest of one God who is also Father, prays for men 
and encourages men : "'Give ear, ye myriad peoples,'* The Word 
or rather, so many of mankind as are governed by caiS^men to 
reason, both barbarians and Greeks ; the whole race come 
of men I call, I who was their Creator by the Father's 
will. Come to me, that ye may be marshalled under 
one God and the one Word of God ; and do not 
surpass the irrational creatures in reason only, for 
to you alone of all mortal beings I offer the fruit He offers 

immortality 
' Homer, JUad xvii. 220. 

257 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. """^cracr^at St8cu/j,t. ideXco yap, edeXw Kal ravr-qg 

^11 Vfjilu jJieraSovvaL rrjs _\;aptTOS', oXoKXrjpou xop'r]y<Jov 

rrjv evepyeoiav, a(j>Bapaiav' /cat Xoyov ;^a/ot^o/xat 

Vjxiv, rrjV yvcjoLV rov 6eov reXeiov ifiavTOV X^P^' 

^o/xat. TOVTO elfiL iyco, tovto ^ovXerai 6 Oeos, 

TOVTO GVfl^COVLa €GTL, TOVTO dpflOVLa TTaTpOS, TOVTO 

vloSy TOVTO XptCTTo?, TOVTO 6 Xoyos Tov deov, 
^paxiojv Kvpiov, hvvapbis tojv oXojv, to BeXrjpia tov 
TTaTpos. d) ^ TToXaL fi€v etKoves , ov TTaaai 8e e/x0e- 
peZs, hiopdcooaaBai vfids rrpos to dp^eTVTTov ^ovXo- 
/xat, tva pLOL Kal opLocoL yevrjade. ;(ptaa; vpids tw 
TTLGTecog aAet/x/xart, 8t' ov ttjv (f)6opdv aTTO^aXXcTCy 
Kal yvpivov hiKaioavvrjs eVtSet^oj to axfjpia, 8t' ov 
TTpos TOV deov dva^aLV€T€ . " Seure Trpo? pL€ TrdvTeg 
at K07na)VT€S Kal jr€(j)opTiapLevoiy Kdyco dvaTravaoj 
vpids ' dpaT€ TOV t,vy6v puov e^' vpid? Kal pidOeTe 
(XTT* epiov, oTi TTpav? elpiL Kal Taireivos Trj Kaphia, 
Kal €vpiqo€Te dvdiravoLV Tais ipv^aXg vpLcov 6 yap 
^vyos piov XPV^^^^ '^^^ '^^ (j>opTiov pLov iXa(f>p6v 
ioTiv." GTrevacjopi€V, SpdpicopLev, a> Oeo^iXrj Kal 
deoeiKeXa TOV Xoyov [dv6pa>7TOL]^ dydXpcaTa' gttcv- 
GOjpiev, SpdpLOjpL€v, dp(x)pi6v TOV l,vy6v avTov, vtto- 
Xd^ojpLcv d(f)9apGLav ,^ KaXov rjvLOxov dvOpcoTTOv tov 
y^piGTOv dyaTTTjoajpLev' tov ttcoXov VTTol,vyiov rjyaye 
Gvv Tcp TT-aAatoJ* Kal tcDv dvOpcoTrojv ttjv GWcupiSa 
KaTa^ev^as, et? dOavaGiav KaTiOvvei to dppia, ottcv- 
Scov TTpos TOV deov TrXrjpaJGaL ivapyojs o rjvl^aTO, 
TtpoTepov pL6V els 'lepovoaX'^pt,, vvv Se eloeXavvajv 

^ S} Wilamowitz. wp mss. 
2 [dvOpw-rroi] Heyse. 

^ VTToXd^w/xey d<pdapffiav Mayor. viro^aXioixev dcpdapffiai MS3. 
iiri^aXufxey d<p0ap<xiq. Wilamowitz (whom Stiihliii follows). 

258 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

of immortality. I desire^ yea, I desire to impart chap, 
to you even this gracious favour, supplying in its ^^^ 
fulness the good gift of incorruption. And I freely 
give you divine reason, the knowledge of God ; I give 
you Myself in perfection. For this is Myself, this is 
God's desire, this is the concord, this the harmony 
of the Father : this is the Son, this is Christ, this 
is the Word of God, the arm of the Lord, the might 
of the universe, the Father's will. O ye who of old He will 
were images, but do not all resemble vour model. I P^^einen 
desire to conform you to the archetype, that you of Himself 
may become even as I am. I will anoint you with 
the ointment of faith, whereby you cast away cor- 
ruption ; and I will display unveiled the figure of 
righteousness, whereby you ascend to God. ' Come 
unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, He will 
and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon ^^^®'^®^*' 
you and learn of Me ; for I am meek and lowly in 
heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For 
My yoke is easy and My burden is light.' " ^ Let us 
hasten, let us run, we who are images of the Word, 
beloved of God and made in His likeness. Let us 
hasten, let us run ; let us take up His yoke ; let us 
take upon ourselves incorruption ; let us love Christ, 
the noble charioteer of men. He led the foal and its He drives 
parent under the same yoke,^ and now having yoked mankTnd °' 
together the team of mankind. He shapes the course into heaven 
of His chariot for the goal of immortality. He 
hastens to God that He may fulfil clearly what before 
He darkly hinted at ; for He drove at the first 
into Jerusalem, but now into heaven, a most noble 

« St. Matthew xi. 28-30. 
* See St. Matthew xxi. 1-7. 

259 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. ovpavov?, KoXXiarov Oia^ia rw Trarpl vtos dtStos 

PLKr)(f)6pO£. (^iXoTLlXOi TOLVVV 77/30? TO. KoKcL KOL 

6€0(f)LXeXg avOpcoTToi yevcofieda, Kal rcjv dyaOcov ^ to. 
/xeytCTra, deov Kal ^co'qv, KrrjocLfieOa. dpojyog Se o 
Xoyog' dappa)jjL€v avrw /cat fit] ttotc rjfxd? toctouto? 
94 p. dpyvpov Kal \ xp^f^ov, jjirj So^rjs eueXOrj ttoOo?, 
oaos avrov rod rrjg dX7]6€La? Xoyov. ovSe yap 
ovSe rep deep avrco dpearov, el rjpLels rd fiev TrXelarov 
d^ca TTepl^ iXa)(iGrov TTOLOVfJieda, ayvota? ^ Se Kal 
dpLadlas Kal paOvjXia? Kal elhojXoXar peias v^peis 
7r€pi(f)av€L? Kal rrjv iaxdrrjv hvaae^eiav irepl TrXeio- 
vo? alpovpLeOa^ 

Ov yap diTo rpoTTov (jyiXoao^cov rralhes rrdvra 
oaa TTpdrrovGiv ol dvorjroi, dvoatovpyeXv Kal 
d(T€^€Xv vopbil^ovGiv Kal avrrjv ye [ert]^ rr^v dyvoiav 
fiavtas etSog V7Toypd(f)Ovr€s ovhev dXXo tj /jLefjLrjvevai 
rov£ TToXXovg opLoXoyovaiv. ov Stj ovv dpLcfaf^aXXeiv 
aipel^ 6 Xoyo?, onorepov avroZv dfieivov, aax^povelv 
Tj jjLepLTjV evac- ixofievovs 8e drrpl^ rrjg dXr]Oeias 
TTavrl (jQevei eTreodai XP'^ "^^ ^^^ ocxjcj^povovvras 
Kal TTavra avrov vopLL/^etv, ojoTrep eari, Trpo? Se 
Kal rfpids rd KoXXiarov rcov Krrjfidrcov /jLepLadrjKo- 
ras ovras avrov, G(j>ds avrov? emrpeTTeLV rci dew, 
dyaTTOJvras Kvpiov rdv Oedv Kal rovro rrap' dXov 
rdv ^Lov epyov rjyovixevovs. el he " Koivd rd 
(jiiXojv," deo(f)LXr]s Se 6 dvdpwTTOS {Kal ydp ovv (j)iXo£ 
TO) Oeo),"^ jxeairevovros rod Xoyov), yiverai S) ovv 

^ ayadCov Stahlin. diradCov siss. - Trepi Cobet. vvep MRS. 

^ dyi-olas Markland. dvoias Jiss. 

* aipov/J.eda Stahlin. aipujixeOa >rss. 

* [^Ti] Wilamowitz. ^ alpel Cobet. ipd mss. 

' T(^ Bei^ after 0/Xoy Wilamowitz, after &vdpwTroz imss. \tQ 

^ey] Cobet. 

260 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

spectacle for the Father, the eternal Son bringing chap. 
victory ! Let us be zealous, therefore, for what is ^^^ 
noble, and become men beloved of God ; and let us 
get possession of the greatest of good things, God 
and life. The Word is our helper ; let us have con- 
fidence in Him, and let no longing after silver and 
gold, or after glory, ever come upon us so strongly 
as the longing after the Word of truth Himself. 
For surely it cannot be pleasing to God Himself 
if we hold in least esteem those things which are 
of the greatest moment, while we choose as of 
higher worth the manifest excesses and the utter 
impiety of ignorance, stupidity, indifference and 
idolatry. 

The sons of the philosophers not inaptly consider Phiioso- 
that all the works of foolish men are unholy and fjiforan^ce"^ 
impious, and by describing ignorance itself as a form a sort of 
of madness they acknowledge that the mass of men are ™^*^°^^* 
nothing else but mad.'* Now reason does not allow 
us to doubt which of the two is better, to be sane or 
to be mad. Holding fast the truth with all our might But we 
we must follow God in soundness of mind, and con- ^"sthoid 
sider all things to be His, as indeed they are ; and 
further we must recognize that we are the noblest of 
His possessions and entrust ourselves to Him, loving 
the Lord God, and looking upon that as our work 
throughout the whole of life. And if "the goods of if we 
friends are common," ^ and man is beloved of God fr1end?of 
(for he is indeed dear to God through the mediation go^i, aii 
of the Word), then all things become man's, because are ours 



" The philosophers referred to are the Stoics ; cp. Cicero, 
Paradoxon iv. and Tusc. disp. iii. 5. 

* Greek proverb. See Plato, Phaedrus 279 c. 

261 



fast the 
truth, and 
not be mad 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

CAP. TO, TTOLvra Tov dvOpcoTTOv, on TO, Trdvra rod deov, 
/cat KOLvd djjL(f)OLv rolv ^iXoiv rd Travra, rod deov 
/cat dvdpoiTTOV. a)pa ovv r]p,lv fJLovov tov deoae^rj 
[KpLdnavov] ^ etVetv TrXovatov re /cat crcu^pova /cat 
evyevrj /cat Tavrrj ecKova tov deov fxed opLOLcoaecos, 
/cat Xeyeiv /cat TTiUTeveiv " St/catov /cat ooiov jLtera 
(f)povTJaeco£ " yeuofievov vtto \pLGTOV Irjaov /cat ets" 
TOGOVTOV ojjiOLOV TJSrj /Cat ^eo). ow/c aTTOKpvTTTerai 
yovv 6 7Tpo(f)rjT'r]s tyjv X^P^^ Xeyojv, " eyoj eiirov 
OTL Beoi eare /cat utot vipcGTOV Trdvres." rjfJids yap, 
rjfids eLGTreTTOLrjTaL /cat rjpbojv ideXec fiovcov KeKXrJGdaL 

95 p. I TTaTTjp, ov Tcbv dTTeidovvTCxJV . /cat ydp ovv wSe 
TTCos e;(et Ta -qpLerepa tojv ^piGTov oTrahojv otat 
fjLev at /SouAat, rotot /cat ot Xoyot, ottoXol 8e ol 
Adyot, Toiaihe /cat at Trpd^eis, koi o-noZa ra epya, 

TOLOVTOS 6 ^ioS' XPV^'''^^ ^ GVfJLTraS dvdpOJTTOJV ^tos 
Tcbv X/DtCTTOV eyvajKOTCOV. 

"AAt? otpLaL TOJV Xoycov, el /cat [xaKpoTepoj irpo- 
ijXdov VTTO (f)LXav6pco7TLa? o Tt TTep etxov e/c deov 
€Kxeojv, CO? dv errl to pieyiGTOV tojv dyadajv, T-qv 
aojTTipiav, TTapaKaXdJv rrepl ydp rot ttjs TravXav 
ovSafifj ovSafjLOJS exovGrj^; ^ojijs ovk eOeXovGLV 
oi;S' ot Adyot TravGaodai ttotc lepo(f>avTOVVTes . 
VfXLv Se en tovto TrepiXe'iTTeTai rrepas to XvGire- 
Xovu eXeodai, r) /cptatv rj xdptv ws eyojye ouS' dpL(j)i- 
^dXXetv d^LOj, TTOTepov d/jLetvov avTolv ovSe ixr]v 
ovyKpiveGdaL depus C,ajrjv dnajXeLa. 

^ [XpLCTTiaubp] Wilamowitz. 

«* The Stoics said all this of their " wise man," as Clement 
tells us elsewhere (ii, Strom. 19. 4): "The Stoic philosophers 
hold this doctrine, that kingship, priesthood, prophecy, 
legislation, wealth, true beauty, noble birth and freedom 
262 



EXHORTATION TO THE GREEKS 

all things belong to God and are common to both chap. 
friends, God and man. It is time then for us to ^^^ 
affirm that only the God-fearing man is rich and of 
sound mind and well-born/ and therefore the image, 
together with the likeness/ of God ; and to say and 
believe that when he has been made by Christ Jesus 
"just and holy with understanding," '^ he also becomes He whom 
in the same degree already like to God. So the ^^kes holy 
prophet openly reveals this gracious favour when he becomes 

,, T -J J J 11 ^ ii God's son 

says, " 1 said, ye are gods, and ye are all sons of the 

Most High." ^ Now we, I say, we are they whom 

God has adopted, and of us alone He is willing to be 

called Father, not of the disobedient. For indeed 

this is the position of us who are Christ's attendants^: The 

as are the counsels, so are the words ; as are the Jul" onffe 

words, so are the actions ; and as are the deeds, such 

is the life. The entire life of men who have come 

to know Christ is good. 

Enough, I think, of words. It may be that, moved The reader 
by love of man, I have run on too long in pouring iJ make*^^*^ 
out what I have received from God, as is natural his choice 
when one is inviting men to the greatest of good deaUi and 
things — salvation. For of a truth, the very words ^^^^ 
are unwilling ever to cease revealing the mysteries 
of that life which knows no manner of ending. But 
with you still rests the final act, namely this, to 
choose which is the more profitable, judgment or 
grace. For my own part, I claim that there is no 
shadow of doubt which of the two is better; nay, it is 
sinful even to compare life with destruction, 
belong to the wise man alone. But even they admit that he 
is exceedingly hard to find." * See Genesis i, 26. 

« Plato, Theaetetm 176 b. ^ Psalm Ixxxii. 6. 

« This phrase is an allusion to Plato, Phaedrus 252 c : 
•' the attendants of Zeus " (to)*' At6s 6Tra8Qv). 

263 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

Introduction 

The Rich Man's Salvation, or, to give the work its 
Hteral title, " Who is the rich man that is being 
saved ? " is the only complete example left us of 
Clement's popular teaching. Although composed in 
the form of a sermon, it would seem too long to 
have been delivered orally on any single occasion. 
Possibly it may be the expansion and elaboration of 
an actual sermon ; but, whether this is so or not, we 
may be sure that the teaching it contains formed 
the subject of many a discourse addressed by 
Clement to the rich Christians of Alexandria. In 
all probability the Church came into close touch 
with the cultured and well-to-do classes earlier at 
Alexandria than elsewhere. Consequently, the 
problem of reconciling Christianity with the posses- 
sion of worldly wealth would be likely to have 
become acute there in the second century. It was 
not an easy problem to solve. The rich man who 
was well-disposed towards the new religion had to 
consider many things which, as Clement in this 
treatise admits, often drove him to the conclusion 
that the Church had no place for him. There was 

^65 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

the poor and simple life of Christ Himself and of His 
apostles ; there were the numerous gospel warnings 
about the dangers of wealth ; there was the severe 
command to the rich man to sell all that he had ; 
there was the communism of the first Christians ; 
there was the undoubted fact that the Church had 
spread among poor people and had always been 
chiefly composed of them. All these considerations, 
augmented and strengthened by the conviction that 
a gospel of the eternal life had but little to do with 
comfort in this world, made it difficult both for the 
rich to enter the Church and for the poor to receive 
them there without jealousy or suspicion. Clement's 
extensive learning, for the acquisition of which 
money and leisure were certainly necessary, and his 
familiarity with the customs of refined society, show 
that he was himself a man of at least some wealth 
and position. He was therefore personally interested 
in the question which he sets out to answer in the 
work now before us. 

He takes as a basis for his inquiry the passage 
about the rich man in St. Mark x. 17-3L Here was 
the hardest stumbling-block of all to the rich who 
wanted to become Christians, and Clement removes 
it in characteristic fashion by denying that Christ's 
words mean what they seem to say. Apparently it 
never occurred to him that, on the theory of " diver- 
sities of gifts," one man might be ordered to give up 
his wealth and another to keep it for wise and 
generous use. He knew that even in pre-Christian 
days some men had felt that their highest work 
could only be done at the cost of sacrificing their 
possessions ; but he was unwilling to allow that 
Anaxagoras, Democritus and Crates had, to the 
266 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

best of their ability, fulfilled the very ideal that 
Christ had placed before the rich man. It must be 
something fundamentally different from this that 
Christ meant, so Clement says. What then was His 
meaning.^ The wealth He bade His questioner 
renounce must be taken in a spiritual sense ; it was 
a wealth of passions, a brood of sins in the soul ; 
not money itself, but the love of money. The rich 
man might have kept his wealth, and by following 
Jesus have learned to use it rightly. All that rich 
men in general have to do, therefore, is to eradicate 
selfishness and to spend their money liberally for 
the relief of their poorer brethren, who by inter- 
ceding with God for such benefactors will return an 
abundant recompense. 

As a result of this exegesis we are robbed of one 
of the most striking appeals to a man's heroism and 
contempt of consequences that even the gospels 
contain. There can be no question that the Christian 
Church has suffered much, and is still suffering, from 
that avoidance of the plain meaning of historical 
records which is characteristic of the Alexandrine 
system of spiritual or allegorical interpretation. It 
would, however, be unfair, as well as ungracious, to lay 
the whole blame of this upon Clement. He was but 
the exponent of a system for which the age in which 
he lived was responsible. Nor must we forget 
the positive advantages that were gained by this 
interpretation. The mission of Clement and the 
Alexandrine Church was to give Christianity a firm 
footing in the world, and to allow it to assimilate all 
that was good of human thought and culture. In 
Clement's day the belief in a speedy return of Christ 
was passing away, and consciously or unconsciously 
K 267 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

the Church was preparing for its own continuance as 
a permanent institution in human society ; a citizen- 
ship on earth was being claimed alongside of St. 
Paul's "citizenship in heaven." When once this is 
admitted, neither philosophy, nor science, nor art, 
nor even the leisure and refinement that are associ- 
ated with wealth, can be utterly excluded from the 
Church. In the Stromateis we see Clement boldly 
claiming for Greek philosophy a place in the life of 
Christian people ; in the " Rich Man's Salvation " we 
see him making the same bold claim on behalf of 
wealth. There is no virtue, he says, in beggary ; 
there are certain good things which wealth alone 
can bring ; and if the rich man will but learn to 
spend his riches in the alleviation of suffering and 
the brightening and comforting of other lives, he 
need not despair of a place among the followers of 
Christ. 

The present translation of " The Rich Man," like 
that of the "Exhortation to the Greeks," has been 
made from Stahlin's edition of Clement, and the text 
printed here is in the main Stahlin's text. Any 
deviations of importance from the reading of the chief 
manuscript are noted at the foot of each page. This 
manuscript is the one in the Escurial library, known 
as S. A page is missing from the end of S, and also 
from the Vatican manuscript which was copied from 
it. This page, however, consisting of the story of St. 
John and the robber, is almost completely recoverable 
from Eusebius who quotes it {H.E. iii. 23), and from 
the Scholia of Maximus Confessor on Dionysius the 
Areopagite. About twenty lines are still lost. A 
few words that are missing from the first three 
268 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

paragraphs have been inserted in the following text 
according to what seemed the best conjectures 
available. Before Stahlin's edition was issued the 
text of S had been carefully edited and the 
manuscript described by P. M. Barnard (Texts and 
Studies, edited by J. Armitage Robinson, D.D,^ vol. v. 
No. 2), who has also published a separate translation 
(S.P.C.K.). 



Tit O SniZOMENOS nAOT^IOS 

935 p. 1. Ot ^ev Tous" iyKcojJLLacrTLKOvs Xoyov? rols 

ttXovctlols S(x)po(f>opovvTes ov fiovov KoXaKes Kal dv- 
eXevdepoL St/catco? dv efioiye Kpiveadai Sokol€v, cu? 
eTTL TToXXio TTpoaTTOiovjJievoL yapidaaOai rd d^dpiOTa, 
dXXd Kal dae^els Kal eTri^ovXoi' dae^els p-ev, on 
TTapevre? alvelv Kal So^a^etv top piovov reXeiov Kal 
dyaOoi^ deoVy i^ ov rd rravra Kal hi ov rd Travra Kal 
els ov rd Travra, TTepiaTTTOVGi to<vtov >^ to ye pas 
dvOpciJTTOis ev da<d>Tcp Kal ^op^opa>hei> ^Icp kvXlv- 
SovpevoLS <Kal >^ to Kecj^dXaiov viroKeipievoLS * rfj 
Kpicrei Tov Oeov' eTri^ovXoi Se, on Kal avrrjs rrjs 
TTepiovGias KaO^ avrrjv LKavrjs ovarjs ^(avvcxiaaL rds 
ifjvxds r(jL)v KeKTrjpevcov Kal hia^BeZpai Kal drro- 
arrJGai rrjs ohov, St* rjs eTTLTV^^lv earn GOJTrjplas, 
oiSe TrpoaeKTrX^aaovcn rds yva)pLas rcov ttXovglcov 
rats rjSovaXg rcbv dperpcjjv erraiviov eTraipovTes Kal 
KaOdira^ rchv oXojv Trpaypbdrcov ttXtjv tov ttXovtov, 

936 P. 8t* ov 6avp,dl,ovraL, \ 7TapaGKevdt,ovTes vrrep^poveZv, 

TO 8r] TOV Xoyov irvp errl TTvp pLerox^TevovTes , Tvcjxxt 

^ To<jL)Tovy Lindner : Stiihlin. (The bracketed words and 
letters are to fill blank spaces in the ms. ) 
2 d(T<u}T(f} Kal dopjSopudeiy Lindner : Stahhn. 
2 <rai>Segaar. 
* viroKet./j.ipois Combefis. viroKel^icvov ms, 

<» Romans xi. 36. 
270 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 



1. Men who offer laudatory speeches as presents to The sin of 
the rich may rightly be classed^ in my opinion^ not JjJI'^iJi^en 
only as flatterers and servile^ since in the hope of a 
large return they make a show of granting favours 
that are really no favours, but also as impious and 
insidious. They are impious, because, while neglect- 
ing to praise and glorify the only perfect and good 
God, from whom are all things and through whom 
are all things and to whom are all things,* they invest 
with His prerogative men who are wallowing in a 
riotous and filthy life and, in short, are lying under 
the judgment of God. They are insidious, because, 
although mere abundance is by itself quite enough 
to puff up the souls of its possessors, and to corrupt 
them, and to turn them aside from the way by which 
salvation can be reached, these men bring fresh 
delusion to the minds of the rich by exciting them 
with the pleasures that come from their immoderate 
praises, and by rendering them contemptuous of 
absolutely everything in the world except the wealth 
which is the cause of their being admired. In the 
words of the proverb, they carry fire to fire,^ when 

* A common Greek proverb, equivalent to our " Carrying 
coals to Newcastle." See Plato, Laws 6%6 a. The verb 
translated "carry" means literally "to conduct water 
through pipes." 

271 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TV(f>ov erravrXovvres Kal oyKov TrXovTO) irpoaava- 
Tidevreg ^apel (f>voeL (j)opriov ^apvrepov, ov [laiXXov 
^XPW oi<f)aLp€lv Kal TrepiKOTTTeiv, to? ^(^aXepov vo- 
cn^fiaTO? Kal 6avaTr](f>6pov' rep yap vipovfievcp Kal 
fjLeyaXvvojJLei^cp rrapaTTeirqyev^ avriGrpo(j>os r] npos to 
raTTeivov jJLera^oXrj Kal tttcogls, co? o Oetog StSctcr/cet 
Xoyos. efJLol he ^atVerat jxaKpo) (jiiXavOpoiTTOTepov 
elvai rod depaTrevetv <dveXevd€paj? >^ rovg ttXov- 
rovvras <Kal e7TaiveZv>^ iirl KaKa> ro ovvaipeadai 
Krrjv l,(x>r]v Kal>'^r7]v ocorrjpiav avrols <Karepyal,€- 
adai>^ aiTavra rov hvvarov rporrov, rovro puev 
i^aLTOvpidvovs napa deov rod ^e^aicos Kal rjheojs 
TOts" iavrov reKvoi? ra roiavra Trpo'CepLevov, rovro 
Se Xoycp ^ Stct ri]? ;^a/9tTOS" rod ocorrjpo? tco/xeVou? ra? 
ijjv)(^as avrojv, <f>corit,ovras Kal rrpoaayovras em rrjv 
TT^? aX-qdeias KrijuLV, t^S" o rvx^oi^ Kal epyois dyadoXs 
iXXapLTTpwofjievos fiovos ro '^ ^pajSelov rrj? alowiov 
^corjs dvaip-qaerai. Seirac 8e Kal rj evxr] ^VXV^ 
evpcocrrov Kal XiTrapovs dxpi' rrj? iaxdrrj? rj/jLepa? 
rod ^Lov (TVfifJLeiJierprjpLevrj? Kal <r)>^ iroXireia Sta- 
Oeaeojs XPV^^V^ ^^^ pLOvipbov Kal Trdaais rats 
eVroAat? rod Gcorrjpos €7T€Kr€Lvopi6vrj?. 

2. Kivhwevei 8e ovx dirXodv n ehai ro atnov rod 
rrjv aajrrjplav ;)^aAe7Ta>Te/3av rots' TrXovrodai Sok€lv 
^ rols dxpr]pidroL9 rojv dvdpojircjVy dXXd ttolklXov. 
ol pL€V yap avrodev Kal 7Tpox€lpa>s dKOvaavres rrjg 
rod Kvpiov (f)a>v7]?, on paov Kdpi7]Xo? Sta rp-^p,aros 
pa(f)L8os SieKSvoerat rj ttXovgios els Trjv ^aoiXeiav 
Tcov ovpavcov, aTToyvovres eavrovs d)S ov ^ia>G6pLevoi, 

^ irapair^Trrjyev from Antonii Melissa : missing from ms. 
2 <fl.v€K€vd^pwsy Fell. 2 <Kal eiraLvelvy Barnard. 

^ <Tr)v '^o}r)v Kaly Stahlin. " K^KaTepyd^eadaiy Fell. 

272 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

they shower pride upon pride^ and heap on wealth, 
heavy by its own nature, the heavier burden of 
arrogance. Rather they ouglit to have diminished 
and curtailed wealth, as a perilous and deadly disease; 
for the man who exalts and magnifies himself is in 
danger of a complete reversal of fortune, namely, the 
change and fall into low estate, as the divine word 
teaches.* It seems to me an act far kinder than ser- Tho 
vile attention to the rich and praise that does them Sty^??"^ 
harm, if we share the burden of their life and work out ■'^^ther to 
salvation for them by every possible means ; first by the ncii 
begging them from God, who unfailingly and gladly 
accords such gifts to His own children, and then by 
healing their souls with reason, through the Saviour's 
grace, enlightening them and leading them on to the 
possession of the truth. For only he who has reached 
the truth and is distinguished in good works shall 
carry off the prize of eternal life. But prayer requires 
a sou] that runs its course strong and persevering 
until the last day of life, and the Christian citizenship 
requires a disposition that is good and steadfast and 
that strains to fulfil^ all the Saviour's commandments. 

2. Now the reason why salvation seems to be Reasons 
more difficult for the rich than for men without Y^^ .. 

salvation 

wealth is probably not a simple one, but complex, seems diffi. 
For some, after merely listening in an off-hand way ri"hmen 
to the Lord's saying, that a camel shall more easily 
creep through a needle's eye than a rich man into 
the kingdom of heaven,^ despair of themselves, 

" i.e. St. Matthew xxiii. 12. 
* Literally, "stretches out towards." The same word is 
used by St. Paul in Philippians ill. 13. « St. Mark x. 25. 

^ \6y(f Segaar. X^yco ms. "^ rb Stahlin. oCros ms. 

^ <r;> inserted by Barnard. 

273 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

Tip Koafxo) rravra ■)(apit,6^evoi /cat rrjs ivravOa t,corj? 
d)s fiovrfs iavTols VTroXenroixevris eKKpefiaadevTes 
aTTear-qoav ttXcov rrjs eKel ohov, fi-qKeri TToXvrrpay- 
pLovrjaavres fMi^re rivas rovs TrXovalovs 6 SeaTTOTrjs 
Kal BiBdoKaXos TTpoaayopevei fx-qre ottcos to aSuVa- 
rov ev avdpojTTOis^ hvvarov yiverai. dXXoL Se rovro 
ixkv avvrJKau opOojs Kal TTpoarjKovrcos, tcx)v he epyojv 
Tcjv els TYjV aojTiqpiav dva<f)ep6vTCOV oXiyajpiqaavTes 
ov TTapeaKevdaavTO ttjv heovaav TrapaGKevrjv els to 
Tcov eX7nt,ofjLevojv rvx^^v. Xeyoj^ he ravra eKarepa 
Trepl ^ Tojv TrXovaiojv rojv Kal rrjs hwdfiecos rod 
(Tcorrjpos Kal rrjs e7n(j>avovs aa>rr]pias fjGdrjjJLevcxJv, 
rGiV he dfjLvrjrcov rrjs dXr^Oeias oXiyov jiot fieXei. 

3. Xpi] roivvv rovs (jjiXaXrjOojs Kal <j)iXaheX^(jos 
<StaAcet/xeVous'>* Kal jjLijre KaraOpaavvopievovs clv- 
6dhcx)S rcbv TrXovalcov KXrjrctJv pL-^re av irdXiV vtto- 
TTLTTrovras avrols hid olKeiav <j>LXoKepheiav, Trpwrov 
piev avrcov e^aipelv rep X6ya> rrjv Kevrjv^ aTToyvcxtoiv 
Kal hrjXovv pLerd rijs heovarjs e^rjyiJGeoJS ra>v Xoyicov 
937 P. rov Kvplov I hiori ovk aTTOKeKorrrai reXeov avrols rj 
KXr]povopiia rrjs ^acnXelas rcov ovpavcov idv vtt- 
aKovcrcoGi rals evroXals' eW^ orrorav piddatoiv ojs 
dhees hehiaai heos Kal on ^ovXopLevovs avrovs 6 
aojrrjp dopievojs hex^rat, rore Kal TrpoheiKVUvai Kai 
piVGrayojyelv ottojs av Kal St* olojv epyojv re /cat 
hiadeGeojv eTravpaivro rijs eXTTihos, d)S ovr apir]- 
xdvov KaOeGrwGrjs avrols ovre rovvavriov clk-^ 

^ avOpioTTOLs Barnard, dvdpdbnif i) ms. 
2 X^7w Ghisler. X^ycov ms. ^ irepl Barnard. Hwep iirl ms, 
* ^diaKeL/xipovsy Fell. ^ Ket^rjp Combefis. Kaivrjv ms. 

» Literally, "the rich who are called" ; cp. 1 Corinthians 
i. 24, and Jude ver. 1. 
274 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

feeling that they are not destined to obtain life. 
So, complying with the world in everything, and 
clinging to this present life as the only one left to 
them, they depart further from the heavenward way, 
taking no more trouble to ask who are the rich men 
that the Master and Teacher is addressing nor how 
that which is impossible with men becomes possible. 
Others however understand the saying rightly and 
properly, but, because they make light of the works 
which bear upon salvation, do not provide the neces- 
sary preparation for the satisfaction of their hopes. 
In both cases I am speaking of the rich who have 
learnt of the Saviour's power and His splendid salva- 
tion ; with those who are uninitiated in the truth I 
have little concern. 

3. It is the duty, therefore, of those whose minds Christian* 
are set on love of truth and love of the brethren, ^"Jj ^^l^ 
and who neither behave with insolent rudeness salvation 
towards the rich members of the church,** nor yet Impossible 
cringe to them through personal love of gain, first, by 
means of the word of scripture,^ to banish from them 
their unfounded despair and to show, with the neces- 
sary exposition of the Lord's oracles, that the inherit- 
ance of the kingdom of heaven is not completely cut 
off from them, if they obey the commandments ; and 
afterwards, when they have learnt that their fears 
are groundless, and that the Saviour gladly receives 
them if they desire, to point out and instruct them 
how and through what kind of works and re- 
solves they can enjoy the object of their hope, 
which is neither beyond their reach nor, on the 
contrary, to be obtained without settled purpose. 

* Or perhaps, " by means of reason." See p. 20, n. a. 
k2 275 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TrepiyLVOfxevris . aAA* ovrrep rponov e;^et to row 
ddXy^rcJjv, Iva {JLiKpa Kal eTriKrjpa fxeydXois Kal 
d(/)9dpTOLg 7Tapa^dX(j0fjL€U, tovtl Kal i(f)^ iavrov ^ 6 
Kara kogjjlov irXovrchv Xoyit^eadix). Kal yap eKeivcov 
6 fxev on hvvriaerai VLKav Kal GT€<f)dvcjov rvyxdveiv 
dTTeXTTLcra? ouS' oAco? evrt rr)v ddXrjGLV dTreypdiparo, 
6 be Tavrrjv fxev ifx^aXo/jLevos rfj yvwfirj rrjv iXTTtSa^ 
TTovovs Se /cat yvfivdaua Kal rpo(j)ds firj Trpooieixevos 
7TpoG(f)6povSy dare^dvcjOTOS SteyeVero Kal Si-^fjcapre 
rojv iXTTiSaiv. ovtojs tls Kal rrjv iTTiyeiov ravr-qv 
'iiepi^e^Xiqixivos nepi^oXrjv fi'^re rrjV dpxrjv iavrov 
ra)v ddXojv rod (Ta>rTJpos iKKrjpvaoera), maros ye 
d)v Kal ro fieyaXeXov avvopojv rrjs rod deov (j>iX- 
avOpcarrias, ixiqre pb^jv avOi? dvdaKTjros Kal dv- 
aywviaros /xetVa? dKovtrl KdvLSpa>rl ^ rcou ar€(f)dvcov 
rrjs dcfiOapalag iX7nl,erco pieraXa^elv dXX avrov 
vTTo^aXero) (j)4pojv yvfivaarfj fxev rep Xoyco, dycjjvo- 
derrj he ra> \pLara>' rpocj)!) Se avrco Kal irorov 
yeveadoj rerayptevov r] Kaivrj hiadrjKri rod Kvpiov, 
yvpivdaia he at evroXai, evax^jpioavvT] he Kal 
KOGpios at KaXal hiaSeaeis, dydrrrj, TTtarLs, eXTTLs, 
yvwcns dXrjdeias, <€7TielKeia,>^ irpaorr]?, evoTrXayx- 
vla, oepLVorrj?, Iv* y orav <r)>^ eoxdrr] odXmy^ vrro- 
GTjpi'rjyrj <r6 reXos >^ rod hpoptov Kal rrjv evreddev 
e^ohov ^ Kaddnep e/c arahiov rod ^lov, pier dyadov 
rod Gweihoros rep dOXoderrj Trapaarfj viKTjcfiopos, 
<I}pLoXoyr]p,evo£ rrjs dvoj jrarpihos d^tos, els rjV 

^ eai'Tou Mayor. eavTi^ 3is. 

^ AkovltI KavLdpwTL Ghisler. CLKcoveTraL kSlv idpQTL ms. 

3 <^7riei/ceta> Fell (lacuna in ms.). 

"* <r;> inserted by Schwartz. 

^ <jh Ti\os> inserted by Stahlin (cp. 2 Timothy iv. 7). 

^ TT)p . . . i^odov Stahlin. ttjs . . . e^65ov ms. 

276 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

Well then, as is the case with athletes — if we may But effort 
compare things small and perishable with things "g^'^vfth'^^ 
great and incorruptible — so let him who is rich in athletes 
this world consider it to be with himself. For the 
athlete who has no hope of being able to win and to 
obtain crowns does not even enrol himself for the 
contest ; while the one who at heart entertains this 
hope, but does not submit to hard training and 
exercises and suitable food, comes out uncrowned 
and entirely misses the fulfilment of his hopes. In 
the same way let not one who is clothed with this 
earthly covering" proclaim himself barred at the start 
from the Saviour's prizes, if, that is, he is faithful 
and surveys the magnificence of God's love to men ; 
nor, once again, let him hope, by remaining un- 
disciplined and unused to conflict, to partake of the 
crowns of incorruption without dust and sweat. But 
let him come and subject himself to reason^ as 
trainer and to Christ as master of the contests. Let 
his appointed food and drink be the Lord's new 
covenant,^ his exercise the commandments, his grace 
and adornment the fair virtues of love, faith, hope,^ 
knowledge of the truth, goodness, gentleness, com- 
passion, gravity ; in order that, when the last 
trumpet^ signals the end of the race and his departure 
from the present life as from a course, he may with 
a good conscience stand before the judge a victor, 
admitted to be worthy of the fatherland above, into 

« i.e. riches. 

* Again we have the comprehensiveness in the meaning 
of loffos. See p. 20, n. a. In Clement's thought the different 
meanings tend to mingle with one another. 

'' See 1 Corinthians xi. 25. 

^ See 1 Corinthians xiii, 13. 

« See 1 Corinthians xv. 53. 

277 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

jLtera are^dvcov Kal Kiqpvyixdrcjv dyyeXiKOJV eirav^p- 

4. AotT^ Toivvv -qjJLLV 6 (jojTrjp evrevdev dpf a/xeVot? 
Tov \6yov TaXrjOrj /cat ra Trperrovra /cat rd acxJTrjpia 
Gvix^aXeadai rot? dSeX(j}oXs rrpos re r-qv eXTTiha 
TTpcoTOV avTYjV Kal BevTcpov TTpos rrjv rrj? iXiTLho? 
vpoaayajy-qv. 6 Se -xcipiiC^er at Seo/xeVot? /cat alrovv- 
ra? 8tSaCT/cet /cat Auet ri^v dyvoiav /cat ti^v a77o- 
yvcDCTtv drroGeierai, rovs avrovs irdXiv eladycov 
Xoyovs 7T€pl rcx)v TrXovaiajv, iavrcov ipfi-qveas ytvo- 
fievov? /cat i^rjyrjrds da^aAetS'. ovSev yap olov 
avTCJov au^t? dKovaau rcov p7]Tchv, drrep 7]fids ev 
rot? evayyeXcoLS dxpi' vvv hi^rdpaaoev d^aaavioTOJS 
/cat hir]pLapry]ix4vojs vtto v7]7n6Tr)TOS dKpowfidvovg. 

'"E/cTTopeuo/xeVou avrov^ ei? oSov rrpooeXOcLv rt? 
lyovvneTei Xeycov StSda/caAe dyaOe, ri TToirjaoiy 
9S8P. tp-a I t,cx)riv alojvLOV KXrjpovofJLrjaaj; 6 Be liqaovs 
Xiyei- ri pie dyaddv Xeyeis; ovhels dyados el fir) 
eh 6 Oeos. Tct? evToXdg otSas' (Jlt) jJLOLX^vcrr]? , fjbrj 
(j>ovevar]9, pbrj KXei/jj]?, fXTj ifjevSofxapTVprjar^s , rt/JLa 
TOV TTarepa gov /cat rrfv fx-qrepa. 6 Be dTroKpiOel? 
Xeyei avro)' rrdvTa ravra e(f)vXa^a <e/c veor-qros 
piov>^. 6 Be 'It^ctou? ijJL^Xeifja? rjydnrjGev avrov 
/cat eLTTev ev gol VGrepeZ' el deXeig reXeios eLvai, 
TTcLXrjGOV oGa ex^^s Kal StdSo? 7na>xol9y f<al e^eis 
6r)Gavp6v ev ovpavaj, Kal Bevpo dKoXovOei jxoi. o 
Be GTvyvaGas eirl rep Xoycp dirrjXde Xv7Tovp.evo?' t^v 
yap excov xPVf^^'^^ 770 AAd /cat dypovs. Trepi^Xeifja- 

1 aiiTov Barnard, ai^rcp ms, 
2 <^/c veoTTjTos /xoi'> inserted by Segaar ; see pp. 286, 290. 
278 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

which with angeUc crowns and proclamations he 
now ascends.** 

4, May the Saviour grant us power, then, as we a prayer 
begin oar address at this point, to impart to the saviour's 
brethren true and fitting and salutary thoughts, first beip 
with regard to the hope itself, and secondly with 
regard to the means of reaching it. He gives freely 
to those who need, and teaches them when they ask, 
and disperses their ignorance, and shakes off their 
despair, by bringing up again the self-same words 
about the rich and showing them to be their own sure 
interpreters and expositors. For there is nothing 
like hearing once more the actual sayings which, 
because in our childishness we listened to them un- 
critically and mistakenly, have continued until now 
to trouble us in the gospels. 



As He was going forth into the way, one came and The gospel 
kneeled before Him, saying. Good Master, what shall I ^u^'^^^fu 
do that I may inherit eternal life. And Jesus says. Why rich man 
callest thou me good .'' None is ^ood save one, even God. 
Thou knowest the commandments ; do not commit 
adultery, do not kill, do not steal, do not bear false 
witness, honour thy father and mother. And he answer- 
ing says to Him, All these thiuirs have I observed from my 
youth. And Jesus looking upon him loved him, and said. 
One thing thou lackest. If thou wilt be perfect, sell 
whatsoever thou hast and distribute to the poor, and thou 
shalt have treasure in heaven ; and come, follow Me. 
But his countenance fell at the saying, and he went away 
sorrowful ; for he was one that had great riches and lands. 



" The imagery in this fine passage is taken from the 
Greek games, which St. Paul also had used as an illustration 
of the spiritual conflict. See 1 Corinthians ix. 25. 

279 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

fievo? Se o 'It^ctou? Aeyet tols fiadrjTatg avrov- 
Ttcxis hvoKoXaJS ol TO, XP^I^'^'^^ €xovT€S elaeXevGOVTai, 
et? TTjv ^aaiXeiav rod deov. ol he fJLadrjral idafi- 
^ovvTO 67Ti Tols Xoyois aVTOV . TTaXiv Se o 'iTjaous" 
aTTOKpiOels Aeyet avroZs' reKva, ttw? SvckoXov eari 
rovs TTeTTOiOoras ^ttI ;YP''7iLtaCTtv els tyjv ^aaiXeiav rod 
deov elaeXdelv evKoXcos Slol rrjs rpu/xaAta? rrjs ^eXo- 
V7]s KaijLrjXos elaeXevGerai t] rrXovoLog els rrjv ^aat- 
Xeiav rod deov. ol Se TrepiaacJos e^eTrX-qaaovro /cat 
eXeyov ris ovv hvvarai aajdrjvai; 6 he ifJc^Xeifja? 
avroLS elirev 6 ri rrapa avOpojirois ahvvaTov, Trapa 
Oeoj hvvarov. rjp^aro 6 JleTpos" Xeyeiv avrcp' the 
Tjixels d(f)r)Kafiev Trdvra /cat riKoXovOrjaapiev gol. 
drroKpidels he 6 ^Y-qaovs Xeyei' djJLTjv vfitv Xeyco, 
OS dv d(f>fj rd tSta /cat yovets /cat dheX(f)ovs /cat 
Xpr^fiara eveKev ifJLOV /cat eveKev rov evayyeXlov, 
dTToXruperai eKarovTaTTXaaiova. vvv ev rep Kaipco 
rovTcp dypovs /cat ;^p')7/xaTa /cat ot/cta? /cat dheX(f)ovs 
ex^^v jierd hiojyixchv els ttov ;^ ev he rep epxouevcp 
t,(X>r\^ eariv alcovtos' [ev he] ^ eaovrai ol Trpwroi 
eo-p^arot, /cat ol eaxcLTOL TrpcoTOi. 

5. Taura fiev ev rep /caret MdpKOV evayyeXio) 

yeypairrar /cat ev rots aAAots- he Trdaiv <rols>^ 

dvajpLoXoyqjjievoLs oXtyov /xev taws' eKaaraxov tojv 

p-qpidrajv evaXXdaaei, Trdvra he rrjv avrrjv rrjs 

yv(x)p.7]s avpi(f)covLav eTTiheiKwrai. Set he Ga4>cbs 

elhoras d)s ovhev dvdpcoTrlvcos 6 acxjr-qp, dXXd. Trdvra 

6eia oo(f)La /cat fivarLKrj 8t8acr/cet rovs eavrov, firj 

aapKLVCJS dKpodadai ra>v Xeyopcevcov, dXXd rov ev 

^ el$ irov ; Stahlin. eh irov MS. dpyov Barnard. 

2 fwTj Ghisler. fwTjf ms. ^ [^^ g^j Ghisler. 

* <Tots> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

280 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

And Jesus looked round about, and says to His disciples, 
How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the 
kingdom of God ! And the disciples were amazed at His 
words. But Jesus answering- again says to them, 
Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to 
enter into the kingdom of God ! A camel shall more 
easily enter through the eye of the needle, than a rich 
man into the kingdom of God. And they were exceed- 
ingly astonished and said. Who then can be saved ? But 
He looking- upon them said, That which is impossible with 
men is possible with God. Peter began to say to him, Lo, 
we have left all and followed thee. And Jesus answer- 
ing says, V^erily I say to you, whoever leaves his home 
and parents and brothers and riches for My sake and for 
the gospel's sake, shall receive back a hundredfold. To 
M'hat end is it that in this present time we have lands and 
riches and houses and brothers with persecutions ? But 
in the time to come is life eternal. 'J'he first shall be 
last and the last first. ° 

5. This is written in the gospel according to Mark, The passage 
and in all the other accepted * gospels the passage [nJerpreted^ 
as a whole shows the same general sense, though in a merely 
perhaps here and there a little of the wording 
changes. And as we are clearly aware that the 
Saviour teaches His people nothing in a merely 
human way, but everything by a divine and mystical 
wisdom, we must not understand His words literally,*' 

« St. Mark x. 17-31. It will be noticed that the text of 
St. Mark's gospel used by Clement differed in a number of 
small points from that with which we are famihar. 

* Clement distinguishes the four gospels from others 
which he knew, and occasionally uses, but to which he did 
not attribute the same authority. 

<^ The Greek word is "fleshly" or "carnally"; the 
fleshly meaning was the one that lay on the surface, as con- 
trasted with the hidden or spiritual meaning. " Literally " 
seems the nearest equivalent in modern Enghsh. 

281 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

avTOLs K€KpvfjLfi€VOv vovv /xerct TTJ? dftas- ^r]T'ija€ajs 
Kal Gvveaeojs epevvdv /cat Karaiiavdavetv . /cat yap 
ra VTT* avrov rod Kvpiov hoKovvra rjTrXojodai irpos 
Tovs fia6r]Tas tojv fjVLyfjLevojs VTreipiqpLevojv ovhev 
rjTTOvos aAAa irXeiovos ert /cat vvv rrjs eTnardaews 
evpiaKerai Seofxeva Slol rrjv vnep^aXXovaav ttjs 
(f)pov'ijcr€cos iv avTols VTT€p^oXr]V . ottov he /cat ra 
voixit^opieva v-n avrov hiolxBai rols eao) /cat avrols 
rols rr\s /SaatAeta? reKvois vn avrov /caAou/xeVots" 
ert ;^p2?^et (j>povrihos ttXelovo?, rj ttov ye ra So^avra 
fjL€V OLTrXaJS iievrjvexOai /cat Sta rovro /xrySe hi-qpco- 
939 P. rrffxeva rrpos rwv aKovaavriDV, \ els oXov 8e ro 
reXos avro rrjs amr-qpias hia<^€povra, eV/ce7racrfteVa^ 
Se davfiaaro) /cat VTrepovpavicp hiavoias ^dOei, ovk 
€7n7ToXai(x)S hex^adai rats a/coats' TTpocrrJKfv, aAAa 
KadUvras rov vovv ctt' avro ro TTvevfia rod orojrrjpos 
/cat ro rijs yvcofirjs aTTopprfrov. 

6. ^Yipcoriqrai fiev yap r)S€CL>s 6 Kvpios r^Jicov /cat 
(TCorr)p ipa)rr]fjLa KaraXX-qXorarov avrw, rj t,ojr] nepl 
^corjs, 6 (Tcorrjp irepl GOir^qpias , 6 hihaoKaXos Trepl 
K€(f)aXaiov rojv SiSaaKOfievcov Soy/xdrajv, <rj >^ 
dX-qdeLa 7T€pl rrjs dXrjOivrjs ddavaoias, 6 Xoyos Trepl 
rod TTarpcoov Xoyov, 6 reXeios Trepl rrjs reXelas dva- 
rravaecos, 6 d(f)dapros rrepl rrjs ^e^auas d(f)dap(jLas. 
rjpcorrjraL Trepl rovrcov vrrep a)v Kal KareX-qXvdev, 
d rraiSeveL, d StSacr/cet, a TTapex€L, tva Sel^r) rrjv 
rod evayyeXiov viroOeaiv, on hoais earlv alojviov 
^ojrjs. TTpooiSe 8e cLs 6e6s Kal a fxeXXet Siepcju- 
rr^d-qaeadai /cat a /xeAAet ris avrco drroKpiveodaL. 

^ 8La(f>ipovTa, icKeTraafiiva Stahlin. SiacpepoPTUP, iffKiTraaixl 

VUiP MS. 

^ <^> inserted by Barnard. 
282 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

but with due inquiry and intelligence we must 
search out and master their hidden meaning. For 
the sayings which appear to have been simplified 
by the Lord Himself to His disciples are found even 
now, on account of the extraordinary degree of 
wisdom in them, to need not less but more attention 
than His dark and suggestive utterances. And 
when the sayings which are thought to have been 
fully explained by Him to the inner circle of dis- 
ciples, to the very men who are called by Him 
the children of the kingdom,* still require further 
reflexion, surely those that had the appearance of 
being delivered in simple form and for that reason 
were not questioned by the hearers, but which are 
of importance for the whole end of salvation, and 
are enveloped in a wonderful and super-celestial 
depth of thought, should not be taken as they strike 
the careless ear, but with an effort of mind to reach 
the very spirit of the Saviour and His secret meaning. 

6. For our Lord and Saviour is pleased to be asked The rich 
a question most appropriate to Him ; the Life is asked t'ion was^^^* 
about life, the Saviour about salvation, the Teacher JJ^q^^^l^jJ 
about the chief of the doctrines He was teaching, 
the Truth about the true immortality, the Word 
about the Father's word, the perfect one about the 
perfect rest, the incorruptible about the sure incor- 
ruption. He is asked about the things for which He 
has even come to earth, and which are the objects 
of His training. His teaching. His bounty ; in order 
that He may reveal the purpose of the gospel, that 
it is a gift of eternal life. As God He knows before- 
hand both what questions He will be asked and 

« St. Matt. xiii. 38. 

283 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

rt? yap koI [idXXov t) o 7Tpo(f>iJTr]s irpocjjrjTcov Kal 
KVpios TTavros 7Tpo(j)'qTLKOv TTuevfiaTog; KXrjOel? 
Se dyaOos, avr* avrov npajrov rod p-^jxaro? rovrov 
TO euSoGLjJLOv Xa^cov ivrevdeu Kal rrjs SiSaGKaXla? 
apx^raL, i7naTpe(j)(x>v rov jxad-qr-qv iirl rov Oeov 
Tov dyadov Kal TrpojTOV Kal pcovov ^corj? aloiviov 
rapiiaVy tjv 6 vlos SlScoglv rjpLiv irap* cKeivov 
Xa^cov. 

7. OvKovv TO pbeyiGTOV Kal Kopv^aioTaTov tcov 
rrpos TTjV ^corjv [xaO-qpLaTajv oltto ttjs dp)(rj? evdvs 
eyKaTadeadai ttj ^vxfj S^ t, yvcx)vai tov deov tov 
alojviov Kal SoTrjpa alajvlcov Kal TrpcoTOV Kal inrepTa- 
Tov Kal €va Kal dyadov Oeov. <ov>^ cgtl KTi^aaaOat 
8t,d yvcoaeojs Kal KaTaXqipeojs' avTr] yap arpeTTTO? 
Kal dadXevTO? ^Pxh '^^^ KprjTrl? (^ojrj?, eTnaTT^pir) 
Oeov TOV ovTOJS ovTOS /cat ra ovTa, tovtIgtl ra 
ala)VLa, ScopovpLevov, i^ ov Kal to etvac rots' a'AAot? 
virapx^L Kal to fielvai XajSeXv. rj pt^ev yap tovtov 
dyvoia OdvaTos eoTiv, rj 8e eTriyvojais avTov Kal 
olKeiojGis Kal rj irpos avTov dyaTT-q Kal i^opLolcoais 

pLOVT] t^ajT]. 

8. Tovtov ovv TrpcoTov eTnyvcovai to) ^7]oopL6Vip 
Tr]V OVTOJS l^corjv TrapaKeXeveTac, ov " ouSet? eVtyt- 

Va)GK€L el pLTf 6 VLO? Kal d) dv 6 vloS dTTOKaXvipT]" ' 

eireiTa to pieyedo? tov GOJTrjpo? /xer' eKelvov Kal 

TTjv KaivoTiqTa Trjs ;\;a/)tTOS' pLaOelv, otl Srj KaTOL tov 

^ <5»'> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

" The word used here (tamias) is applied in Homer 
{Iliad iv. 84) and Plato (Rep. 379 e) to Zeus, and Clement 
is doubtless alluding to these passages. 

^ See St. John v. 26 ; xvii. 2. 

" See St. John xvii. 3. 
284 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

what answers will be given Him. For who should 
know this more than the prophet of prophets and 
the Lord of every prophetic spirit ? And when He 
is called good, He takes His key-note from this very 
first word and makes it the starting-point of His 
teaching, turning the disciple to God who is good, 
and first of all, and alone dispenser " of eternal life, 
which the Son gives to us after receiving it 
from Him.^ 

7. We must therefore store up in the soul right The first 
from the beginning the greatest and chiefest of the doctrines- 
doctrines that refer to life, namely, to know the to know 
eternal God as both giver of eternal gifts and first 

and supreme and one and a good God.'' And we 
can get possession of God through knowledge and 
apprehension ; for this is a firm and unshakable 
beginning and foundation of life, — the knowledge of 
God who truly exists and who is the bestower of 
things that exist, that is, of eternal things, from 
whom it is that the rest of things take both their 
existence and their continuance. Ignorance of Him 
is death, but full knowledge of Him, and close 
friendship, and love to Him, and growth in His 
likeness,^ is alone life. 

8. He therefore that aims at living the true life Then to 
is bidden first to know Him whom " no man knows savioio^^ 
except the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son 
reveals Him " ^ ; and then to understand the Saviour's 
greatness, next to Him, and the newness of His 
grace ; because, according to the apostle, " the law 

^ The thought of "becoming like God" is taken from 
Plato, Theaetetus 176 b, a passage to which Clement often 
refers. 

^ St. Matthew xi. 27. 

285 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

/cat rj dXi^Oeia Sta ^Irjaov XptcrroiJ"' /cat ovk loa ra 

8td SovXoV 7TLGTOV 8iS6[JL€Va TOt? VTTO [tOv] ^ vloV 

yu-qoLOV hojpovjJievoLS. €t yovv t/cavo? "^v 6 Mcoaeojs 
vofjios ^a)r]v alojvLov Trapaax^iv, fjbdrrjv jjuev 6 acor-qp 
avTOS TTapayiverai /cat Trdax^^ St' r^ixds avro yeveaecos 
f^'^xpf' TOV G7]fjL€LOV TTjv dvdpojTTOTrjTa StaTpe;\;a>v, 
jjLOLTTqv Se o TTaaas 7T€7TOir]K(l)s "e'/c veoTT^ro?" Tas" 
vofiLjjLov? I eVToAa? Trapa aAAou atret^ yovuTrercoy 
ddavauiav. ovhk yap TreTrXrjpcoKe pcovov rov vofiov, 
dXXa /cat evdvs diro Trpcorrjs rjXLKias dp^dfievos' 
€7T€l /cat Tt fieya rj VTrepXa/jLTrpov yfjpas dyovov 
dScKrjfjLdTOJV wv eVt^u/xtat tlktovgl veavLKal rj 
opyrj l,eovoa rj epcos xPVt^^'^^^» ^^^ ^' '^''^ ^^ 
OKLprrj/JLaTL veoriqaioj /cat to) /cauCTOJVt tt^s" i^At/cta? 
napeax'qraL (l)p6vr]jjLa Treiravov /cat rrpeo^vrepov rov 
Xpdvov, davfjLaaros ovros dyojvLarrjS /cat SiaTTpem^s 
/cat TT^v yva)fi7]V ttoXlos^. aAA' ofxcos ovro<; o tolovtos 
di<pL^djs TT€7T€LaTaL, SioTt aiJToi TTpo? /xev St/cato- 
uvvr]V ovhev evSei, l,corjg Se oAw? TTpoaoel' oto 
avTTiv alrel Tiapd rov Sovvai llovov Swafievov /cat 
77/30? ftei^ TOV vojJLOV ayet TrapprjGLav, rov v€ov oe 
rov VLOV LKereveL. "e/c TTLGrecos €ls ttlgtlv" /xera- 
rdGGeraL' cos G(f)aXepa)£ iv vojxco GaXevojv /cat 
iTTLKLvSvvojs vavXoxoJv etV TOV GCOTrjpa ixedopiiiL,eTaL . 
9. *0 yovv *lr]GOVS ovk iXeyx^i /xev avTOV d>? rravra 
rd €/c vofxov jjLT] TTeTrXrjpcxJKora, dXXd Kai dyaird /cat 

^ [toC] Stiihlin. 

2 aire? J. A. Robinson, in >i3. 

3 7roXi6s Stahlin. iro\id)T€pos ms. 



« St. John i. 17. 
286 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

was given through Moses^ grace and truth through 
Jesus Christ/' « and gifts given through a faithful 
slave ^ are not equal to those bestowed by a true 
son. At any rate, if the law of Moses was able to 
supply eternal life, it is in vain that the Saviour 
comes Himself to us and suffers on our account/ 
running His human course from birth to the cross ^ ; Moses' law 
in vain, too, that he who has kept ^' from youth " all give me 
the commandments of Moses' law kneels and asks 
immortality from another. For not only has he 
fulfilled the law, but he began to do so right 
from his earliest years. For what is there great or 
especially distinguished about an old age free from 
the brood of sins that are born of youthful lusts or 
boiling anger or passion for riches ? But if a man 
in the heyday and heat of youth displays a ripe 
spirit older than his years, he is a wonderful and 
illustrious champion and hoary in judgment. Never- 
theless the young man in question is positively con- 
vinced that while, as regards righteousness, nothing 
is lacking to him, life is lacking altogether. So he 
asks it from Him who alone is able to give it. As 
regards the law, too, he speaks with boldness, but to 
the Son of God he makes supplication. He passes 
over " from faith to faith." ^ As he tosses perilously 
in the dangerous roadstead of the law he is brought 
to a safe anchorage with the Saviour. 

9. Certainly Jesus does not convict him of not 
having fulfilled all the demands of the law. No, He 

* The reference is to Moses in Hebrews iii. 5. 
" See Galatlans ii. 21. 

* Literally, the " sign," a term often used to denote the 
cross ; cp. Ep. Barnabas xii. 5. 

' Romans i. 17. 

287 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

VTr€paaTrdl,€Tai rrjs €V of? ejxaOev evTretOeias, oltcXyj 
Se etvat (firjcnv c6? vpos rrjv alojviov ^oj'qv, o)? ov 
reAeia TreTrXr^pcoKora, /cat vojxov fxkv ipyariqv, 
apyov 8e ^co^S" dXrjdLvrjg. KaXd piev ovv KO-Kelva 
{ris 8' ov <f)7]GLv; rj yap " iuroXr] dyia" ) dxpi 
TTacSayajyla? tlvos pLerd (f)6^ov Kal TrpoTraiSelas 
€Trl Trjv rod 'It^ctov vopLoOeaiav ttjv aKpav Kal X^P^^ 
TTpoxcopovvra, nX-qpajpia Se " vopLOU Xpto-ros" et? 
BtKaLoavvrjv Travrl rw Tnarevovri," ovyl 8e hovXovs 
TTOLOJV d)s SovXos, dXXd Kal vtovs Kal d8eA<^ous' Kal 
GvyKXrjpovopiovs rovs eiTiTeXovvTas ro BeX-qpia rov 
varpos. 

10. "Et OeXeig reAetos" yevecrOaL.^^ ovk dpa ttco 
reXeios rjv ovSev ydp reXeuov reXeiorepov. Kal 
Oeicos TO "el deXei?" to avre^ovaiov rrjS Trpoa- 
hiaXeyopiivris avrcp ifjvx^S ehr]XojGev. errl rep 
dv6pd)7T(x) ydp rjv rj alpeaig (hs iXevdepco, irrl Oeo) 
Se r) SooLS CO? Kvpio). SlSojcrt 8e ^ovXopiivoL? Kal 
VTTepeGTTOvSaKoaL Kal heopcevois , Iv* ovtojs lSlov 
avTcbv 7) oiorripia yevrjTai. ov ydp dvay/ca^et o 
Beds, jSta ydp exBpdi^ B^^, dXXd roZs t.-qTOvai 
TTopt^CL Kal rots alrovGL rrapex^L Kal rols Kpovovoiv 
dvoiyei. el BeXeis ovv, et ovrcos BeXeLS Kal pL7) 
lavrdv e^aTrara?, KTrjoai to evheov. " ev ooi 
AetVet," TO ev, ro ipidv, ro dyaBov, ro rjSr] virep 

VOpLOV, OTTep VOpLOS OV SlScOOLVf OTTCp VOpiOS OV 

« Romans vii. 12. * See Galatians iii. 24. 

'^ Romans x, 4, and xiii. 10. 

<* i.e. Moses ; cp. Hebrews iii. 5-6. 

« See St. Matthew xii. 30, and Romans viii. 14-17. 

f St. Matthew xix. 21. 

y See St. Matthew vii. 7, and St. Luke xi. 9. 

288 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

loves him and warmly welcomes him for his ready 
obedience in what lie has learnt. Yet He calls him The rich 
imperfect as regards eternal life^ on the ground that Sferefore 
he has fulfilled deeds that are not perfect^, and that still im- 
though he is a worker of the law, he is idle in respect ^^^ ^^ 
of true life. Now the works of the law are good — 
who will deny it? for "the commandment is holy/'" 
— but only to the extent of being a kind of training, 
accompanied by fear and preparatory instruction, 
leading on to the supreme law-giving and grace of 
Jesus.* On the other hand " Christ is the fulfil- 
ment of the law unto righteousness to every one 
that believes," '' and those who perfectly observe the 
Father's will He makes not slaves, in the manner 
of a slave,^ but sons and brothers and joint-heirs.^ 

10. "If thou wilt become perfect."-^ So he was 
not yet perfect ; for there are no degrees of perfec- 
tion. And the " if thou wilt" was a divine declara- The rich 
tion of the free-will of the soul that was talking j;^\^^^^^^ 
with Him. For the choice lay with the man as a choose lift 
free being, though the gift was with God as Lord. 
And He gives to those who desire and are in deep 
earnest and beg, that in this way salvation may 
become their very own. For God does not compel, 
since force is hateful to God, but He provides for 
those who seek. He supplies to those who ask, and 
He opens to those who knock.9' If thou wilt, then, 
if thou really wilt and art not deceiving thyself, get 
possession of that which is wanting. " One thing 
thou lackest," ^ the one thing, that which is Mine, 
the good, that which is already above law, which 
law does not give, which law does not contain, which 

ft St. Mark x. 21 ; St. Luke xviii. 22. 

289 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

XcopeXy o rojv t,ojvrcov Ihiov earLV. dfjieXeL 6 rravra 
TO, rod vofJLOV TrXrjpwaag " €K veorrjTos" Kal to. 
V7T€poyKa ^pva^dfjievos to ev rovro irpoaO eZvai to is 
oXoLs ov SeSvvrjTat, to tov acoTrjpos e^atpcTOV, ha 
941 p. Aa^2? C^V alcoviov, rfv TToOet' \ dXXd hvax&pdvas 
oLTrrjXdev, d-xOeadel? raJ TrapayyeXfjuaTL rrjg C^rjg, 
V7T€p 77? ik4t€V€v. ov ydp dXr]9a)s ^ojrjv rjOeXev, (Ls 
€cf)a<JK€V, dXXd So^av Trpoaipeoeojs dyaOrj? fiovrjv 
TrepiejSdXXero, /cat nepl noXXd fxev olos re tjv doxo- 
XetodaL, TO Se eV, to r-qs ^corjs epyov, dhvvaTOs /cat 
dirpodvpios Kal daOevr^s eKTeXelv ottoIov tl /cat 
TTpos TTjv MdpOav elirev 6 GOJT7]p daxoXovpLev-qv 
< Trepl > ^ TToAAa /cat TrepLeXKOfievrjv /cat Tapaaoopie- 
vrjv^ Sta/covt/ccDs', ttjv 8e dS6X(l}r}V alTiajpLevqv, otl 
TO VTr-qpeTetv dTroXiTTOvaa tol? ttoctIv avTov Trapa- 
KaOrjraL jjLadr]TLKr)v dyovaa axoX-qv " gv ire pi 
77oAAa Tapdaar), Mapta Se ttjv dyaOrjv /xeptSa e^- 
eXi^aTO, Kal ovk d(l>aLpe6rjaeTai avri]?." ovtcos 
/cat TOVTOV e/ceAeue ttj? TToXvTTpayfxoavvr]? d(^ep.evov 
ivl 7rpoaT€Tr)K€vaL Kal it poaKa9et,€ad at, ttj ;!^apirt 
rod l,(x>7]v alcjviov TTpooTidevTO?. 

11. Tt TOLVVV rjv TO TrpoTpeifjdfjLevov avTov els 
(f>vyr)v Kal TTOirjoav dTravTOpLoXrjaaL rod SiSaoKaXov, 

rrjs iK€T€LaS, TTjS iXTTlSoS, TTJg t,OJrjS, TCx)V TTpO- 

TTeTTOvrjfjLevcov; *' ttcoXtjoou to, virdpxovTa gov." tl 
Se TOVTO ioTiv; ovx o Trpox^ipcos hexovTai tlve?, 
TTjv VTrdpxovaav ovaiav dTTopplipai TrpoaTaoaei Kal 
dTTocTTrjvaL Tcov ;)('/37^/xaTtt>v, aAAa ra Soyp^ara tol 
Trepl xP'r]P^dTa)v e^opiaai rrjg ipvxrjs, Tr)v irpos aura 

* Ktreply inserted by Segaar. 

2 rapaaaofxiv-qv Ghisler. irapaTaaaoixiprjv jis. iraparapaa- 
aofxivTiv Barnard. 

290 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

is peculiar to those who live. Yet indeed he who 
has fulfilled every demand of the law " from youth " 
and has made extravagant boasts^ is unable to add to 
the tale this one thing singled out by the Saviour, 
in order to obtain the eternal life which he longs 
for. He went away displeased, being annoyed at 
the precept concerning the life for which he was 
making supplication. For he did not truly wish for 
life, as he said, but aimed solely at a reputation for 
good intentions. He could be busy about many 
things, but the one thing, the work that brings life, But he 
he was neither able nor eager nor strong enough to 5o"the°°* 
accomplish. And just as the Saviour said to Martha one thing 
when she was busy about many things, distracted 
and troubled by serving, and chiding her sister 
because she had left the household work and was 
seated at His feet spending her time in learning : 
" Thou art troubled about many things, but Mary 
hath chosen the good part, and it shall not be 
taken away from her," " — so also He bade this man 
cease from his manifold activities and cling to and 
sit beside one thing, the grace of Him who adds 
eternal life. 

11. What then was it that impelled him to flight, The mean- 
and made him desert his teacher, his supplication, ^o^^^and— 
his hope, his life, his previous labours? "Sell what "Seiiwhat 
belongs to thee." ^ And what is this? It is notthee"^^^ 
what some hastily take it to be, a command to fling 
away the substance thai; belongs to him and to part 
with his riches, but to banish from the soul its 
opinions about riches, its attachment to them, its 

« See St. Luke x. 38-42. 
* St. Matthew xix. 21 ; St. Mark x. 21. 

291 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

(TVjjiTTddeiav, rrjv vrrepdyav imdvi^uav, rrjv Trepl 
avrd TTToiav kol vogov, rd? /xept/xva?, ra? aKavOa? 
Tov ^iov, at TO (jTTepixa rrj? i,ojrjs ovixTTviyovaiv. 
ovre yap fieya /cat l,rjXcoT6v to Tr]vdXXa)g diropeZv 
XpT^pidrajv fir^ ovk irrl \6ycp ^ojrj? [ovtcxj /xeV y* dv 
TjGav OL fi7]S€v e^ovTes iJLrjSa[j.fj , dXXd ep-qpLOi /cat 
/xeTatTat rcov e^' rjfJLdpav, ot Kara rds oSovg 
ippifxpLevoL TTTCoxoL, " dyvoovvTes" Se dedv /cat 
" SLKaL0GVV7]v deov," /caT* auTO fxovov to dVpco? 
dTTopetv Kal dpL-qxavelv ^iov /cat twv eXa-)(ioTCx)V 
G'7Tauil,€LV ixaKapiojraroL /cat OeocfyiXeGraroi /cat 
fiovoL ^oj7]v exovres alioviov) ovre Kaivdv to 
drreirraGd ai TrXovrov /cat ;)^a/oto-aCT^at 77Tco;)^ot? r] 
irarpLGLV, o TroAAot irpo rrjg rod GOjrrjpos KaOoSov 
7Te7TOLr]KaGiv, ol iiev rrjs et? Xoyov? GXoXrj? /cat 
v€Kpds GO(f)La? eveKev, ot 8e </)')7/xi]? K€vrj<; /cat 
Kevoho^uas, ^Ava^ayopat /cat A7^/xo/cptTOt /cat 
KpaTT^Te?. 

12. Tt ow COS" Kaivov Kal lSlov Oeov rrapayyeXXet 
/cat fiovov ^cooTTOLOvv, o rovg irporepov? ovk €go)G€v; 
€L Se i^atperov n r) " Kaivr) KriGis," 6 vldg rod feov, 
fxrjvveL Kal 8t8ao-/cet, ov ro (f)aLv6fievov, orrep d'AAot 

« The allusion is to the parable of the Sower. See St. 
Mark iv. 19 and parallel passages. 

^ Romans x. 3. 

^ Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, 500-428 B.C., gave up his 
property in order to have more leisure for philosophy. 
Democritus of Abdera (about -tGO-SGl u.c.) is said to have 
spent a large fortune on travels undertaken in search of 
knowledge. Crates, the Cynic philosopher (about 320 b.c.) 
gave his wealth to his native city Thebes. 

<* When Clement speaks of the "new creation" (the 
phrase comes from Galatians vi. 15 and 2 Corinthians v. 17), 
he is thinking in the first place of the great transformation 
292 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

excessive desire, its morbid excitement over them, 
its anxious cares, the thorns of our earthly existence 
which choke the seed of tlie true hfe.* For it is no 
great or enviable thing to be simply without riches, 
apart from the purpose of obtaining life. Why, if 
this were so, those men who have nothing at all, 
but are destitute and beg for their daily bread, who 
lie along the roads in abject poverty, would, though 
" ignorant " of God and " God's righteousness,"^ be 
most blessed and beloved of God and the only 
possessors of eternal life, by the sole fact of their 
being utterly without ways and means of livelihood 
and in want of the smallest necessities. Nor again 
is it a new thing to renounce wealth and give it 
freely to the poor, or to one's fatherland, which 
many have done before the Saviour's coming, some 
to obtain leisure for letters and for dead wisdom, 
others for empty fame and vainglory — such men as 
Anaxagoras, Democritus and Crates." 

12. What then is it that He enjoins as new and The 
peculiar to God and alone life-giving, which did not means— to 
save men of former days t If the " new creation," ^ «trip the 
the Son of God, reveals and teaches something passiVs ^ 
unique, then His command does not refer to the 

which has resulted from the presence and work of Jesus 
Christ on earth : the fear of death has given place to an 
assurance of union with God and immortality. The life thus 
opened out to man is eloquently described in the Exhorta- 
tion to the Greeks, 88-89 P. (see pp. 243-7 of this volume). 
But Clement can also apply the terra " new creation " to 
Christ Himself, the result of Christ's work being gathered 
up, as it were, into the person of its author. This is what 
he seems to do here. Yet the main thought is still that 
the old world has been so entirely left behind that Christ's 
teaching must in every detail go far beyond anything taught 
or practised before. 

293 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TreTTOLT^KauL, TTapeyyva, aXX erepov n 8ta tovtov 
G-qfjiaLVOfievov fi€lll,ov /cat deiorepov kol reXecorepov, 
TO rrjv ifjvx'Tjv avrrjv /cat rrjv StddeGLV yvfjuvwaai rdv 
VTTOVTCOV TTadcjv Kal TTpoppit^a TO, aAAorpta rr^? 
yvcojjir]? eKTepLeXv /cat eK^aXeZv. rovro yap lSlov 

jJLeV TOV TTLGTOV TO fJLOiOrjjjia, a^LOV Se TOV GOJTYJpOS 

TO 8tSay/xa. ot yap roi Trporepoi, KaracfypovrjaavT^'S 
942 p. Ta)v Iktos, to. fxev KT-qpLara \ d(f)rJKav /cat TrapancoXe- 
aaVy rd he TrdOr] rcov xjsvx^cov olfxai on /cat rrpoaeTre- 
Tetvav ev VTrepoipla yap eyevovro /cat aAa^oyeta 
/cat Kevoho^ia /cat 7T€pL(f)pov'qGeL rwv dXXa>v dvdpo)- 
TTCDV, COS avroL TL VTTep dvdpcoTTOv ipyaGdjJLevoi. 
7T(x)S dv ovv 6 Gojrrjp Traprjvei TOt? et? aet /Stoioo/xe- 
voLS rd pXdipovTa /cat Xvjxavovpieva TTpos rrji^ '^ojrjv, 
Tjv €7T ay yeXXer at ; /cat ydp av /ca/cetvo eoTf SwaTat 
Tt? d7To^opTiGdp.evos rrjv KrrJGLV ovhev '^rrov en 
TTju iTTidvpLLav /Cat rrjv ope^tv rcov ;)^p')]/xaT6ov ^x^iv 
ivTerrjKvlav /cat Gv^wGav /cat rrjv fiev ;(pr^crty aTro- 
^e^XrjKevaiy drropojv he d'/xa /cat ttoOcov direp 
eGTrddrjoe huTrXfj AuTreto^at, /cat rfj rijs VTTrjpeGta? 
aTTOVGLa /cat rfj rrjs pieravoias GwovGia. dve(f)iKrov 
ydp /cat dpii^X'^^'^^ heopievov rcov irpos to ^lOTeveiv 
dvayKa'iOJV /jlyj ov /caTa/cAao^at ttjv yvcjopLrjv /cat 
doxoXlav dyeiv citto rchv KpeiTTovcov , ottojgovv /cat 
odepovu ravra TTeipcofxevov eK7Topit,eLV. 

13. Kat TToacp ;!^p7]CTt/x66Tepoy to evavriov, t/cavd 
KeKTrip^evov avrov re irepl rrjv KTrjcnv ptr] KaKOiradelv 
Kal ot? KadrJKev eiriKOvpelv; ris ydp dv KOLvajvia 
KaTaXeiTTOLTO irapd dvOpcoTTOiSy el jjLrjhels e^ot pnqhev; 

« Strictly, service rendered by rowers on a ship, in 
relation to the work of sailors and pilot ; hence, services 
rendered by wealth, etc., for the support and comfort of hfe. 

294 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

visible act, the very thing that others have done, but 
to something else greater, more divine and more 
perfect, which is signified through this ; namely, to 
strip the soul itself and the will of their lurking 
passions and utterly to root out and cast away all 
alien thoughts from the mind. For this is a lesson 
peculiar to the believer and a doctrine worthy of the 
Saviour. The men of former days, indeed, in their 
contempt for outward things, parted with and sacri- 
ficed their possessions, but as for the passions of the 
soul, I think they even intensified them. For they 
became supercilious, boastful, conceited and disdainful 
of the rest of mankind, as if they themselves had 
wrought something superhuman. How then could 
the Saviour have recommended to those who were to 
live for ever things that would be harmful and in- 
jurious for the life He promises ? And there is this 
other point. It is possible for a man, after having un- 
burdened himself of his property, to be none the less 
continually absorbed and occupied in the desire and 
longing for it. He has given up the use of wealth, 
but now being in difficulties and at the same time 
yearning after what he threw away, he endures a 
double annoyance, the absence of means of support " 
and the presence of regret. For when a man lacks 
the necessities of life he cannot possibly fail to be 
broken in spirit and to neglect the higher things, as 
he strives to procure these necessities by any means 
and from any source. 

13. And how much more useful is the opposite Those only 
condition, when by possessing a sufficiency a man is money^can 
himself in no distress about money-making and also o^ey other 
helps those he ought.'' For what sharing would be of the Lord 
left among men, if nobody had anything.^ And how 

,295 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

vcos 8* av Tovro to Soy/xa ttoXXols d'AAot? Kal KaXots 
rod Kvpiov hoyfiaoLV ovxl (f)av€pcos ivavTiov/jLevov 
evpLGKOLTO Kal jjiaxo/Jievov ; " TroLi^aare iavrolg 
cf)LXov? Ik rod fia/jLcovd rrjs dScKia?, tV orav e/cAiTTi], 
he^ojVTai vjjidg et? ra? alcovlovs OKrjvd?." " Kry]aa- 
ade d-qaavpovs iv ovpavcp, ottov fJL-qre arjs jxr^Te 
^paxns d(/>avL^€L fJLTJre KXiirrai StopvaaovGL." ttojs 
av Tt? TTeivcovra rpecfyoL /cat Snjjowra TTOTit,oi Kal 
yvfivov (jK€7Tdl,0L Kal dareyov ovvdyoi, a roZs /xt) 
TToiiqGaGiv direiXeZ irvp Kal gkotos to i^corepov, et 
TTavTCjtJV avro? eKaGros (/)6dvoL rovrojv vorepajv; 
dXXd fjirjv avTos re em^evovTai Za/<:;^ata) Kal Aeuet 
Kal MaTOalcp Tolg ttXovglols Kal reXcovat?, Kal rd 
fiev ;)^pT]ftaTa avrovg ov KeXevei piedelvai, rrfv Se 
hiKaiav XPV^^^^ emOels Kal rrjv dhiKov d(f>eXd>v 
KarayyeXXei' " Giqiiepov GWTrjpLa rep o'lKcp'rovrcp." 
ovTO) rrjv ;)^petav avrcov eTratvet, (x)Gr€ Kal jxerd rrj? 
TTpoGdrjKiq? TavTTjs TTjV Koivojviav emrdGGeL ,7Toril,€iv 
rov SiipdjVTa, dprov SiSovat ro) Treivcovriy viroSex^- 
oOai Tov aGTeyov, dpLcjaevvvv ai rov yvpi^vov. el he 
rds XP^ta? ovx olov re eKirX-qpovv ravras pirj dno 
XpripidTCjov , Tcov Se xp'^P^^'^^'^ d^LGraadai KeXevei, tl 
av erepov etrj ttolwv 6 Kvpios <rj>^ rd avrd hihovai 
re Kal pLrj SiSovat Trapaivdyv , rp€(f>€iv Kal pLrj rpe(j)eiv, 
VTTohexeGOaL Kal dTTOKXeieiv, KoivojveZv Kal [xtj 
KOLvajvelv, onep aTravrajv dXoycorarov ; 

^ Kol Aei'ei J. A. Robinson. KeXevei ms. 

2 XPV<^i-v Olshaxisen. Kpiaiv ms, 

2 <.T)> inserted by Ghisler. 

« St. Luke xvi. 9. * St. Matthew vi. 20. 

" See St. Matthew xxv. 41-43. 
** See St. Luke xix. 5. 
296 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

could this doctrine be found other than plainly- 
contradictory to and at war with many other noble 
doctrines of the Lord ? " Make to yourselves friends 
from the mammon of unrighteousness^ that when it 
shall fail they may receive you into the eternal 
habitations." « "Acquire treasures in heaven, where 
neither moth nor rust doth consume, nor thieves 
break through."^ How could we feed the hungry 
and give drink to the thirsty, cover the naked and 
entertain the homeless, with regard to which deeds 
He threatens fire and the outer darkness to those 
who have not done them,'' if each of us were himself 
already in want of all these things ? But further, 
the Lord Himself is a guest with Zacchaeus ^ and 
Levi and Matthew,^ wealthy men and tax-gatherers, 
and He does not bid them give up their riches. On 
the contrary, having enjoined the just and set aside 
the unjust employment of them. He proclaims, " To- 
day is salvation come to this house." -^ It is on this 
condition that He praises their use, and with this 
stipulation, — that He commands them to be shared, 
to give drink to the thirsty and bread to the hungry, 
to receive the homeless, to clothe the naked. And if 
it is not possible to satisfy these needs except with 
riches, and He were bidding us stand aloof from 
riches, what else would the Lord be doing than 
exhorting us to give and also not to give the same 
things, to feed and not to feed, to receive and to 
shut out, to share and not to share ? But this would 
be the height of unreason. 

« See St. Mark ii. 15 and parallel passages. The reading 
♦' Levi " is obtained by a slight change in the ais. Clement 
regards Levi and Matthew as two different persons. 

f St. Luke xix. 9. 

297 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

1 4. OvK dpa aTToppLTTriov ret kol tovs neXas a»0e- 
Xovvra ;YP^AtaTa- KT-qfiara yap ion KTrjTa ovra, 

943 P. Kal )(pTJfJLaTa ^pijaipLa ovra /cat el? \ ')(^pr]aiv dvdpcoTTcov 
VTTO Tov deov TrapeaKevaafJLeva, d Srj irapaKenai /cat 
VTTo^e^Xrjrai Kaddrrep vXt] rt? /cat opyava rrpo? 
XprjcJiv dyaO-qif rot? etSocrt. to opyavov, edv xpfi 
re)(yLK<2)?, rexvi-KOV eariv edv varepfj? rrj? rexvr]?, 
dTToXavei rrj? ctt^s" dfjLOVGias ^ ov dvairiov. tolovtov 
/cat o ttXovtos dpyavov eon. SvvaaaL XPV^^^'' 
St/catoj? avro)' irpos hiKaLoavviqv KaOvmqpereZ' 
aSt/coj? Tt? avTO) XPW'^'^' ^raAtv VTr-qperiq? dSiKiag 
evpLGKerai- Tret^vKe yap VTr-qperelv, aAA' ovk dpx^Li^. 
ov xP'h '^oivvv TO e^ eavrov fxr) ^x^'^ ftT^re to aya^op* 
pu-rire to kokov, dvairiov ov, alndodai, dXXd rd 
Svvdfievov /cat /caAco? TOVTOt? ;^pr^o-^at /cat /ca/ccD?, 
a^' Sv dv eX-qraiy Kar avrd Krovro a'lriov 6v>^. 
TOVTO 8' eCTTt vovs dvOpwTTOV, KOL KpiTiqpLOV iXevde- 
pov exojv ev eavrcb /cat to avre^ovoiov rrjs fiera- 
X^Lpioecos rcov SodevTOJV (Lore fxrj rd /cTr^/xaTct Tt? 
d(f)avi^era) fiaXXov ^ rd Trddrj rrjs ^VXV^> '''^ H-V 
ovyxcopovvra rrjv dfielvco XP^^^^ ''"^^ VTrapxdvTOJV , 
Lva KaXos /cat aya^o? yevofxevos /cat TOUTOt? TOt? 
KrrjixaoL ;^p7^CT^at Svvr]6fj /caAcD?. rd ovv dirord^a- 
adai TTaoL roXs VTrdpxovoL /cat TrcoXrjoaL rrdvra rd 
VTTapxovra rovrov rov rpoirov eKheKreov d)s enl 
Tcuv xjjvx^K(x)v TraOdJv hieLp-qpievov . 

15. *Eya) yovv KaKelvo ^T^oatjU,' dv eVetSi^ Tct }xev 

^ ifiovaias Segaai\ dwovaias MS. 
2 <xovTo a'lTiop 6vy inserted by Stahlin. 

« An attempt is here made to reproduce Clement's play 
upon the words xP^Mara . . . x/"?^'/^^ • • • XPV^^'-^' 
298 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

14. We must not then fling away the riches that Riches are 
are of benefit to our neighbours as well as ourselves, for^thrgc^od 
For they are called possessions because they are of others 
things possessed^ and wealth ^ because they are to be 
welcomed and because they have been prepared by 

God for the welfare of men. Indeed^ they lie at 
hand and are put at our disposal as a sort of material 
and as instruments to be well used by those who 
know. An instrument_, if you use it with artistic 
skill, is a thing of art ; but if you are lacking in 
skill, it reaps the benefit of your unmusical nature, 
though not itself responsible. Wealth too is an in- 
strument of the same kind. You can use it rightly ; 
it ministers to righteousness. But if one use it 
wrongly, it is found to be a minister of wrong. For 
its nature is to minister, not to rule. We must not 
therefore put the responsibility on that which, having 
in itself neither good nor evil, is not responsible, but 
on that which has the power of using things either 
well or badly, as a result of choice ; for this is 
responsible just for that reason. And this is the 
mind of man, which has in itself both free judgment 
and full liberty to deal with what is given to it. So 
let a man do away, not with his possessions, but rather 
with the passions of his soul, which do not consent 
to the better use of what he has ; in order that, by 
becoming noble and good, he may be able to use 
these possessions also in a noble manner. " Saying 
good-bye to all we have,"* and "selling all we 
have," ^ must therefore be understood in this way, as 
spoken with reference to the soul's passions. 

15. I for my part would put the matter thus. 

* See St. Luke xiv. 33. « See St. Matthew xix. 21. 

L 299 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

ivro? iari rrj? ^vx^}?, to. Se cktos, Kav fiev rj ifjvxr) 
XprjraL /caAcos", /caAa Kal ravra Sok€L, eav Se 
7TOvr]p6i)£y TTOvqpd, 6 KeXevcov aTraXXorpiovv ra 
VTTapxovra TTorepov ravra rrapairelrai cov avatpe- 
OevTOJV en ra rrdOy] fievei, ^ eKeZva fiaXXov d>v 
dvaipedevriov Kal ra Krrjjxara XPV^^H-^ yiverai; 
6 roivvv OLTTO^aXajv rrju KoapLLKrjv TrepiovGiav en 
Svvarau TrXovrelv rwv Tradojv, /cat rijs vXr]? firj 
Trapovar]?' r) yap roi htdOeais ro avrrj? evepyei 
Kal rov XoyiGfxov dyx'^^ Kal 7net,eL Kal (fiXeyfiatveL 
rat? GVvrp6(f)Ois eTrt^u/xtats" oOSev ovv rrpovpyov 
yeyovev avrw Trrcoxeveiv XPVH'^'''^'^ irXovrovvn rojv 
TraOcov. ov yap ra aTTO^Xrjra aTre^aXev, dXXd ra 
d8id(f)opa^ Kal rcov fxev vir-qperiKoyv eavrov irept- 
CKOifjev, l^eKavae Se rr^v vXtjv rrjs KaKias rrjv 
efjL(f)vrov rfj rcov e/cros" aTropia. aTToraKreov ovv 
rol? VTrdpxovGL roX? ^Xa^epotg, ovxl ToXg edv 
erriorrirai n? rrjV opOrjv XP^^^^ ^^'^ avvaj<^eXeZv 
hvvaixevoi<^' dxjieXel he ra fierd (j^povqGecos Kai 
GOjcj^poGvvrjg Kal evGe^elag olKovopiovixeva. drr- 
WGrea 8e ra eTTL^t^fiLa, ra Se eKrog ov jSXdrrrei. 
Ovrojs ovv 6 KvpLOs Kal rrjV rcjv e/cro? XP^^^^ 
944 P. elodyeiy KeXevcov aTTodeoOai \ ov ra ^iconKd, dXXd 
ra rovrois KaKCJS xpoS/xeva* ravra Se r^v ra rrjs 
ifivx^j? dppmarrjixara Kal Trddrj. 16. o rovrcxiv rrXov- 
ro? TTapojv fiev drraaL 6avarr]<f)6pos, drroAo/xevos' 
Se aojrrjpios' ov Set ^ Kadapevovaav, rovreon Trrco' 
Xevovoav Kal yvjjLvrjV rrjv ^vx'rjv Trapaoxcyievov 
^ del Ghisler. dr] ms. 

<» A Stoic term denoting things that are in themselves 
neither good nor evil. Clement's reasoning in this passage 
is strongly influenced by Stoicism. 
300 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

Since possessions of one kind are within the soul, Outward 
and those of another kind outside it, and these latter ^^V}^-^ ^^% 

1 •/• I 1 indifferent 

appear to be good it tlie soul uses them well, but 
bad if they are badly used, which of the two is it 
that He, who orders us to get rid of what we 
have, asks us to renounce ? Is it those after whose 
removal the passions still remain, or rather those 
after whose removal even outward possessions become 
useful ? He who has cast away his worldly abund- 
ance can still be rich in passions even though his 
substance is gone. For his disposition continues its 
own activity, choking and stifling the power of 
reasoning and inflaming him with its inbred desires. 
It has proved no great gain then for him to be poor 
in possessions when he is rich in passions. For he 
has cast away not the worthless things but the 
indifferent,^ and while depriving himself of what is 
serviceable he has set on fire the innate material of 
evil by the lack of outward things. A man must 
say good-bye, then, to the injurious things he has, 
not to those that can actually contribute to his 
advantage if he knows the right use of them ; and 
advantage comes from those that are managed 
with wisdom, moderation and piety. We must 
reject what is hurtful ; but outward things are not 
injurious. 

In this way then the Lord admits the use of out- Poverty of 
ward things, bidding us put away, not the means of Seeded ^ '^ 
living, but the things that use these badly ; and 
these are, as we have seen, the infirmities and passions 
of the soul. 16. Wealth of these brings death when- 
ever it is present, but salvation when it is destroyed. 
Of this wealth a man must render his soul pure, 
that is, poor and bare, and then only must he listen 

301 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

0UT60? TJBr] rod GOJTrjpos aKovoai Xeyovros' " Sevpo 
OLKoXovdeL jjiOL." 686g yap avrog rjSr) ra> KaSapoj 
TTjV Kaphiav yiverai, els Se aKadapTOV ipv^rji^ deov 
XOipi? ov TrapaSverac aKadapros Se r) TrXovrovaa 
Tojv eTTiOv/JiLcov Kal (hhlvovoa ttoXXoZs epojoi Kal 
KoafiLKOL?. 6 fiev yap e;^a)V Krrjfxara /cat XP^^^'^ 
Kal apyvpov Kal ot/cia? d>s deov Sojpedg, [koI]^ toj re 
StSdvrt deep XeirovpyaJp 0,77' avraJv els dvdpajTTCov 
GOjrrjpiaVy Kal elSous on ravra KeKrrjrat Sta rovs 
aSeA^oy? puaXXov rj eavrov, Kal Kpeirrcov VTrdpxojv 
rrjs KrYjoecos avrcov, fxr] hovXos <o}v >^ ojv KeKrrjrat, 
IJ.r)Se ev rfj ipvxfj ravra Trepicjiepajv, jjLTjhe ev rovrocs 
opl^ajv Kal TrepLypd(f)Ojv rrjv eavrov t,(x>rjv, dXXd n 
Kal KaXov epyov Kal delov del StaTrovcov, kov diro- 
areprjOrjvai her] irore rovrojv, Svvdpievos tXecp rfj 
yvwpLT] Kal rrjv aTTaXXayrjv avraov eveyKelv ef laov 
KaSdirep Kal rrjp Trepiovaiav, ovros eanv 6 jiaKapi- 
^ofxevos VTTO rod Kvpiov Kal rrrcoxos rep rrvevpiarL 
KaXovfievos, KXrjpovojJios eroifios ovpavov ^aaiXeias , 
ov ttXovglos ^rjaai /jltj Swdfievos' 17. o Se ev rfj 
i/jvxfj Tov TvXovrov <j>epcov, Kal dvrl deov rrvevpLaros 
ev rfj Kaphia xP'^^ov ^epcov r) dypov, Kal rrjv Krrjaiv 
dfierpov del ttolcov, Kal eKaarore ro irXeZov ^Xeircov, 
Kdruj vevevKOJS Kal rols rod KoapLOV Oi-jpdrpois 
TTeTTeSr]pLevos, yrj cov Kal els yrjv aTreXev cro pLevos , 
TToOev SvvaraL ^aaiXeias ovpavajv eTTidvpirjaaL Kal 
(f)povriGai, dvdpcoTTOs ov Kaphiav dXXd dypov 7) 
fieraXXov (j)opcx)v, ev rovrois evpeOrjoofievos err- 

^ [Kal] Schwartz. 
2 <(2>j/> inserted by Mayor. 

« St. Mark x. 21. 
302 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

to the Saviour when He says^ " Comej follow Me." ** 
For He Himself now becomes a way to the pure in 
heart ; ^ but into an impure soul God's grace does 
not steal. An impure soul is that which is rich in 
lusts and in travail with many worldly affections. 
For he who holds possessions and gold and silver Wealth 
and houses as gifts of God, and from them ministers ^^^^^J ^^'^'^ 
to the salvation of men for God the giver^ and knows man blessed 
that he possesses them for his brothers' sakes rather 
than his own, and lives superior to the possession of 
them ; who is not the slave of his possessions, and 
does not carry them about in his soul, nor limit and 
circumscribe his own life in them, but is ever striving 
to do some noble and divine deed ; and who, if he is 
fated ever to be deprived of them, is able to bear 
their loss with a cheerful mind exactly as he bore 
their abundance — this is the man who is blessed by 
the Lord and called poor in spirit," a ready inheritor 
of the kingdom of heaven, not a rich man who cannot 
obtain life. 1 7. But he who carries his wealth in his wealth in 
soul, and in place of God's spirit carries in his heart gJ^^^Slit 
gold or an estate, who is always extending his pos- from heaven 
session without limit, and is continually on the look- 
out for more, whose eyes are turned downwards and 
who is fettered by the snares of the world, who is 
earth and destined to return to earth ^ — how 
can he desire and meditate on the kingdom of 
heaven ? A man that bears about not a heart, but 
an estate or a mine, will he not perforce be found 
among these things on which he fixed his choice ? 



6 See St. John xiv. 6 ; St. Matthew v. 8. 

<= St. Matthew v. 3. 

^ See Genesis ill. 19. 

SOS 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

dvayKes^ [^'i^]^ o^S" etAero; " ottov yap 6 vovs 
Tov dvOpcoTTOV, eKeZ /cat o drjaavpo? avTOV." 

Qrjaavpovs Se ye o Kvpio? otSe Strrous", tov jLtev 
aya^oi^, " o " ya/) " dyado? dvdpcoTTos €K tov 
dyadov drjoavpov rrj? Kaphias Trpo^epei to dya^ov," 
TOV he 7rov7]p6v, "6" yap " /ca/cos" €K tov KaKov 
drjoavpov 7Tpo<^epeL to KaKov, otl Ik TrepiGaevixaros 
rrj? KapSla? to OTOfia AaAet." (ZoTrep ovu drjoavpos 
ou;^ ets" Trap' auTOJ Ka^o /cat Trap* 7^/xtv, o to al<j)VLhiov 
fxeya Kephos eV evp-quei hihovsy dXXd /cat SeuTepo?, 

dKepSrjs /cat a^T^Ao? /cat hvaKTrjTO? Kal eTTL^rjiJLLos, 
ovTOJS /cat ttAouto? o /LteV Tt? dyadcov, 6 he /ca/ctov, 
et ye TOV TrAouToy /cat tov Orjaavpov ovk dTriqpTrjjjie- 
vovs tofxev dAA-j^Aajv tt] (f>VGei. /cat o piev Tt? ttAoutos- 
KTTjTog dv etr] /cat Trepl^XrjTog, 6 he aKTrjTOs /cat 

945 P. dTTo/^ATyTO? • TOV aVT6v|Se TpOTTOV Kal TTTCOX^ca 

pLaKapiaTTj jLtev tj 7rveu/xaTt/c7^ . Sto /cat TrpoaedrjKev 
6 MaT^atos" " jLta/cdptot ot tttcoxol'" ttw?; " tcv 
77vei;/xaTt." /cat TTctAtv " /xa/cd/3tot ot TreivcjvTes Kal 
hiifjcovTes TTjv hiKacoavvr^v tov Oeov'" ovkovv dSXtoi 

01 e'vavTtot tttcoxol, Oeov pikv dpLocpoi, dfxoLpoTepoi, 
he Trjg dvOpcoTrivr^s KTiqoeojSy dyevoTOi he 8t/cato- 
ovv-qs deov. 

18. "Qo-Te Tovg irXovoiovs pLa6r)p,aTLKa)s d/cou- 

^ iirdvayKes Stahlin. ^tt' dj'd7/caty MS. 
2 [eV] Stahlin. 

« See St. Matthew vi. 21 ; St. Luke xii. 34. Clement 
quotes this saying elsewhere in the same form (vii. Stromateis 
T7. 6). 

6 St. Luke vi. 45. 

•^ St. Matthew v. 3. In this and the following quotation, 
the qualifying words *' in spirit " and " after righteousness " 
are omitted from St. Luke's account. St. Matthew's form 
304 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

"For where the mind of a man is, there is his 
treasure also." * 

Now as for treasures, the Lord knows them to be Christ 
of two kinds, one good, for " the good man out of tw!rki'ndl 
the good treasure of the heart brings forth that of treasure 
which is good " ; and the other bad, for " the evil 
man out of his evil treasure brings forth that which 
is evil, because out of the abundance of the heart 
the mouth speaks." ^ As therefore treasure is, with 
Him as with us, not single only, there being that 
kind which brings great and immediate gain in the 
finding, but a second kind also that is without gain, 
unenviable, undesirable and harmful, so also there 
is one wealth of good things, another of evil ; since Twokin-is 
we know that wealth and treasure are not by nature "n^^^oJerty 
separate from each other. And the one kind of also 
wealth would be desirable and worth getting ; the 
other undesirable and worthless. In the same manner 
also poverty is blessed, that is, the spiritual kind. 
Therefore Matthew added to " Blessed are the 
poor"; how.? "in spirit." « And again, "Blessed 
are they that hunger and thirst after God's righteous- 
ness." ^ Those then who are poor in the opposite 
sense* are miserable, being destitute of God, more 
destitute still of human possessions, and unac- 
quainted with God's righteousness. 

18. So with regard to the rich, who shall hardly 

probably represents the meaning of the original sayings. 
The word " poor " was applied in an ethical sense among the 
Jews to those humble souls who waited in patient trust for 
the coming of the Kingdom. 

^ St. Matthew v. 6. 

« i,e. those who possess no money, and do not hunger 
after righteousness. 

305 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

oreoVy Tovg SvgkoXco? elaeXeuaofxevovs et? rrjv /3acri- 
XeiaVy fXTj oKaichs ixr]he dypOLKWs fjLrjSe oapKLVOJS' ov 
yap ovTcos AeAe/crat. ovSe irrl rot? eKTO'^ rj acoTrjpua, 
ovre el TroAAa ovre el oXiya ravra t) fJLiKpa r) /leydXa 
^ evSo^a 7) dSo^a 7) evhoKifxa tj aSo/ct/xa, dAA' eVt 
rfj Trjs ^^Xl'^ o^perfj, 7tlgt€l Kal iXTrlSi Kal dydiTrj 
Kol (l>LXaheX(f)ia /cat yvcoaei kol Trpaonqn koL dTV(j>ia 
KOI dXrjOeia, cov dOXov r] acoTTjpia. ovBe yap Sid 
KdXXos crco/xaro? t^rjoerai t6? -r) rovvavriov aTroAetrat- 
dAA' d piev TO) hoQevTL acjpLan dyvuJs Kal Kara deov 
Xpojp'^vos t^Tjoerai, 6 he (jiOeipajv rdv vadv deov 
(fidapiqaerai, hvvarai Se rt? Kal ala^pos daeX- 
yaiveiv Kal Kara KaXXog ooj^povelv ovhe laxvs 
Kal pLeye6o9 aiopiaros ^CDOTTOceL, ov8e tcov pieXwv 
ovhevia diroXXveiy dAA' 7] tovtols tpvx'rj XP^H-^^V '^W 
alriav e^' eKdrepa Trapex^rai. virocfyepe yovv, (f)r](jL, 
TTaiopievo? TO rrpoacjirov, orrep Svvarai Kal laxvpos 
Tt? d)v Kal eveKTcov vvaKovaai Kal ttoXlv doOevLKos 
TLs div dKpaaia yvwpir^s 7Tapa^rji>aL . ovrco? Kal 
aTTopos Tt? d)V Kal d^Los evpedelrj ttot' dv p,edva>v 
rats" eTTLOvpLLaLs, Kal ;^/)9]/xaCTt TrXovcnos vri(j>ojv kol 
TTTCox^vajv rjSovojv, TreTreiapLeuog, avveros, Kadapos, 
KeKoXaapievos . el roivvv earl rd ^rjodpLevov pidXicxra 
Kac TTpojrov rj ijjvx'q, Kal nepl radnqv dperrj pi,ev 
(f>vopievT] CTco^et, KaKta he davaroZ, hrjXov rjhr] cra^djs 
on avrrj Kal Trrcjox^vovaa cLv dv ns vtto TrXovrov ■*• 
h La(f)9 eiprjr at ^ aa)t,eraL, Kal nXovrovaa rovrtov (Lv 

^ vXovTov Corabefis. tovtov ms. 
^ Sia(pOelpr]TaL Segaar, 8La(p6elpei ms. 



" See p. 281, n. c. 
306 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

enter into the kingdom, we must understand the word Spiritual 
in the spirit of disciples, and not clumsily, rudely, or ^^■^"1°^" 
literally ; ^ for it is not spoken thus. Salvation does and "poor 
not depend upon outward things, whether they are 
many or few, small or great, splendid or lowly, 
glorious or mean, but upon the soul's virtue, upon 
faith, hope, love, brotherliness, knowledge, gentle- 
ness, humility and truth, of which salvation is the 
prize. For a man will not obtain life on account of 
bodily beauty, nor perish for want of it ; but he 
who uses holily and according to God's will the 
body that was given him shall obtain life, and he 
who destroys the temple of God shall be destroyed.* 
It is possible for a man, though ugly, to be licen- 
tious, and in beauty to be chaste. Strength and 
greatness of body do not give life, nor does insig- 
nificance of the limbs destroy, but the soul by its use 
of these provides the cause that leads to either result. 
Accordingly the scripture says, " When thou art 
struck, offer thy face," <= which a man can obey even 
though he is strong and in good health ; whereas one 
who is weakly can transgress through an uncontrolled 
temper. Thus a man without means of livelihood 
might perchance be found drunk with lusts, and one 
rich in possessions sober and poor as regards pleasures, 
believing, prudent, pure, disciplined. If then it is 
first and foremost the soul which is destined to live, 
and virtue growing in the soul saves it while evil 
kills, it is at once abundantly clear that the soul 
is being saved when it is poor in those things by 
wealth of which a man is destroyed, and that it is 
being killed when it is rich in those things a wealth 

* See 1 Corinthians ill. 17. 
* See St. Matthew v. 39 ; St. Luke vi. 29. 

L2 307 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

€7nTpi^€i ttXovto? 6ava,TovTai^' /cat iiriKeri ^'qrcbfiev 
dXXaxov TTjV aiTLav rod reXovs nX-qv eV rfj ttjs 
4'^XV^ Kdraardaei kol hiadeuei Trpos re vTraKorjv 
deov /cat Ka6ap6r7]ra irpos re napd^aaiv evroXow 
/cat Aca/ctas" ovXXoyrjv. 

19. *0 )Ltev apa dXrjda>£ /cat /caAcu? <7TXov(n6s>^ 
ioTLV 6 Tcov dpercov irXovaios /cat Trdar] rvxv XPV^^^'- 
oalajs /cat TnaraJs hvvdfjLevos , 6 he voOog nXovaios 
6 Kara odpKa ttXovtcJov /cat rr^v ^cdtjv els Kttjv >^ e^co 
KTTJOLV fX€T€vr]voxdj? rr)v TTapepxofJievrjv /cat (fiOeipo- 
fievr^v /cat dXXore dXXov yLvopLevqv /cat iv rw reXei 
946 P. fiTjSevos fi-qSafifj. \ rrdXiv av Kara tov avrov rpoirov 
/cat yvrjOLOs tttcoxos /cat vodos a'AAos" tttcoxos kol 
i/f€vS(x)PVfio?, 6 fxev Kara TTvevfjia tttcoxos, to tStov, 

Se Kara KoapLov, to dXXorpLOV. rep Br) Kara 
Koa/jLov <ov> * 7TrcDX<p Kai TrXovaico Kara rd rrdOri 6 
Kara rrvevpia [ouj ^ rrrojxo? /cat /caret deov ttXovgio? 
" diToarridLy" <<f>r]aL>^, "row VTvapxdvrcov iv rfj ijjvxfj 
GOV Krrjfxdrcov dXXorpicov, Iva Kadapog rfj Kaphia 
y€v6pL€vos iSrjs rov deov, onep Kai St' irepas (fjwvrj? 
earlv elaeXOeLV els ttjv ^aaiXeiav rcjv ovpavcov. 
Kai TTcJos avrcou diroGrfj? ; TTajXn^aag. ri ovv ; 

^ davarovTai Dindorf, daPovraL MS. 
2 <7rXou(Tt6j> inserted by Wendland. 

^ <T7]uy inserted by Ghisler. 

* <ovy inserted by Jtilicher. 

^ [oil] Seg-aar. Stahlin retains this. 

^ <(f)r)(Tiy inserted by Ghisler. 

" Clement's involved antitheses are often difficult to follow, 
and this passage has given much trouble to commentators. 

1 take his meaning to be this : there is a truly rich man and 
a truly poor man in the spiritual sense, independently of 
outinird possessions. On the other hand there is a spurious 
308 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

of which brings ruin. So let us no longer seek 
for the cause of our end anywhere else except in 
the character and disposition of the soul with regard 
to its obedience to God and its purity, to its trans- 
gression of commandments and accumulation of evil. 

19. The man who is truly and nobly rich, then, is How the 
he who is rich in virtues and able to use every fortune mu^t"seii 
in a holy and faithful manner ; but the spurious rich his pos- 
man is he who is rich according to the flesh, and has ^^^^^°"'' 
changed his life into outward possessions which are 
passing away and perishing, belonging now to one, 
now to another, and in the end to no one at all. 
Again, in the same way there is a genuine poor man 
and also a spurious and falsely-named poor man, the 
one poor in spirit, the inner personal poverty, and 
the other poor in worldly goods, the outward alien 
poverty. Now to him who is not poor in worldly 
goods and is rich in passions the man who is poor in 
spirit and is rich towards God says,"^ " Detach your- 
self from the alien possessions that dwell in your 
soul, in order that you may become pure in heart and 
may see God,^ which in other words means to enter 
into the kingdom of heaven. And how are you to 
detach yourself from them } By selling them. What 

rich {i.e. a moneyed man), and a spurious poor man (i.e. a 
begp:ar). The appeal that follows is addressed by the one 
who has the right sort of poverty and the right sort of riches 
to him who has neither of these, i.e. a rich man who lives for 
his riches. These riches which occupy his soul must be 
exchanged, not for money, but for the true spiritual wealth. 
That the "alien possessions" dwelling in the soul are out- 
ward wealth and not mere covetous desires is shown by 
iv. Strom. 29. 1, where Clement points out that these latter 
could hardly be " given to the poor." See notes on text. 
^ St. Matthew v. 8. 

309 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

■)(prjfiaTa olvtI KT-q/jLoircov Xd^rj? ; avrihoaiv ttXovtov 
77/30? ttXovtov TTOL-qordfjLevos, e^apyvptaa? rr]v (jyavepdv 
ovalav; ouSa/xois"* aAAa dvTi rchv Trporepov evvnap- 
XOVTCov rfj ^vxj], rji^ oojoai rrodels, duTeiaayofievo? 
erepov ttXovtov OeoTTOiov /cat ^ojrj? ^(^op-qyov alojvlov, 
TCLS KaTOL TTjv ivToXrjv Tov deov hiadeaeis, dv6^ ojv gol 
7T€piiaTai piLcrdos koI rt/XTy, SirjveKrjg aajT-qpia /cat 
aloiVLOs d(f)9apGLa. ovtcjo? /caAcus" TrcoAet? ra VTrdp- 
XOVTa, TOi TToAAa /cat Trepiaad /cat aTro/cAetovra gol 
tov? ovpavovs ,dvTiKaTaXXaGG6p.€vo? avTcovTOLGcoGai 
BvvdpL€va. eK€iva ix^TCOGav at GapKivoL tttcju^oI 
/cat TOVTCov 8eo/.tevot, gv Se tov TTvevpiaTiKov ttXovtov 
dvTiXa^cov €XOi? dv yjBi] dr]Gavp6v ev ovpavoT?." 

20. Tavra p^rj cruj/tet? /cara TpoTTOv 6 ttoXvxP'^- 
fiaTog /cat evvofios dvdpcoTTog, ^7/Se ottcos 6 avTog 
/cat TTTOiXos hvvaTai elvai /cat ttXovglo? /cat ex^iv t€ 
XprjpaTa /cat p,rj ^'x^ty /cat XPV^^^^ '^^ /coct/xoj /cat 
pr] ;YP^o'^at, aTTTJXOe GTvyvos /cat KaTri(j)r}?y Xmdjv 

rrjV TO^^LV TT^S" t,Cx}riS, yj? €TTi6vpL6LV pLOVOV , dXX ovx} 

/cat Tu;^etv -j^Suraro, to hvGKoXov TTOLiqGas dhvvaTov 
avTos iavTO). BvgkoXov yap rjv pLTj TrepidyeoOai 

jLtT^Se KaTaOTpdT7T€G9ai TTjV 4^VXy]V VTTO Tcbv TTpOG- 

ovTCov d^pujv TO) TTpoSi^Xo) ttXovtco kol dvdrjpchv 
yor]T€vpdTOjv, ovk dSvvaTov Se to /cat €v tovtco 
Xa^eodac GOJTrjpias, et rt? iavTOV dTTO tov alod-qTov 
ttXovtov €ttI tov voy^tov /cat OeoSlSaKTOv pceTaydyoi 
/cat pidOoi rots' d8La(f)6poLg ^ ;^p7yCT^at /caAtu? /cat iStoj? 
/cat cu? av et? ^corjv alcjvcov oppnqGai ^. /cat ot 
p,adr]Tal Se to TrpcoTOV piev /cat auTOt TreptScet? /cat 

^ ddia(p6poLs Ghisler. diacpopios Jis. 

2 bpfx-qcrai Wilamowitz. opfxaaai MS. 

" St. Mark X. 21. 
310 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

then ? Are you to take riches for possessions_, to make 
an exchange of one wealth for another by turnmg 
real estate into money ? Not at all. But in place of 
that which formerly dwelt in the soul you long to 
save^ bring in another kind of wealth that makes 
you divine and provides eternal life, namely, resolves 
that are fixed in accord with God's commandment ; 
and in return for these you shall have abundant 
reward and honour, perpetual salvation and eternal 
inconuption. In this way you make a good sale of 
what you have, of the many things that are super- 
fluous and that shut heaven against you, while you 
receive in exchange for them the things that have 
power to save. As for the first, let the fleshly poor 
who need them have them ; but you, having received 
in their stead the spiritual wealth, will now have 
treasure in heaven." * 

20. The very rich and law-abiding man, not under- The rich 
standing these things aright, nor how the same man u^^deJ^Jood 
can be both poor and wealthy, can have riches Christ's 
and not have them, can use the world and not use it, ^o™™^^*^ 
went away gloomy and downcast. He abandoned 
the rank of that life which he could desire indeed, 
but could not attain to; since what was hard he 
himself had made impossible. For it was hard to 
prevent the soul being led away and dazzled by the 
luxuries and splendid allurements that are associated 
with visible wealth, yet it was not impossible even 
amid this to lay hold of salvation, if one would but 
transfer himself from the sensible wealth to that 
which belongs to the mind and is taught by God, and 
would learn to make good and proper use of things in- 
different and how to set out for eternal hfe. Even 
the disciples themselves are at first filled with fear 

311 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

KaraTrXrjyes yeyovaoLV . aKovaavres ri hrjiror^ ; dpd 

ye OTL ;^p7J/xaTa Kal avTol Ik^kti^vto iroXXd; dXXd 

KOi avrd ravra rd SiKTV(f)La /cat dyKiarpa /cat ret 

vrnqperiKd OKacfiihia d(f)rJKav TrdXat, dnep rjv avTols 

fiova. TL ovv <j)o^r]devres XeyovGi- " ri? hvvarai 

aojdrjvai;" /caAo)? rjKovoav Kal (Ls iJLadrjr at rov 

Trapa^oXiKcos /cat aaa^co? ^ XexOevrog vrro rov 

Kvpiov KOi fjadovTO rod ^dOov? rcov Xoyojv. eVe/ca 

947 P. /Ltev ovv XPVI^^'^^^ dKTrjfioavvrjs eveXmSe? Tyaav 

TTpos ooiT-qpiav iiTeihrj he avvrjSeaav iavrols 

IXTjTTCo rd TTadr] reXeov aTrore^et/xeVot? ^ {dpTtfiaOeis 

yap rjaav /cat veojorl irpos rod aojrrjpos rjuSpo- 

XoyrjixevoL) , " Trepiaacos l^eTrXriaaovTO " /cat 0,77- 

eylvcoGKOv eavrovs ovSev rt tJttov e/cetVou rod 

TroXvxprjfidrov /cat SeLVOJS rrjs Krrjaeojs Treptexo- 

fxevov, yjv ye TTpoeKpivev ^corj? alojviov. d^iov ovv rjv 

rots jxadriTaZs (j)6^ov TrdvTOJs,^ el /cat o xPVf^^^'^OL 

KeKrrjiJLevos /cat o Ta)v nadajv eyKvos, oJv * eTrXovrovv 

/cat avroi, TrapairXiqaLOj? aTreXaaOi^GovTaL ovpavwv 

diraOajv yap /cat KaOapojv ipvxcJov eanv r] acor-qpla. 

21. '0 he KvpLO? dTTOKpiverai Stort " to ev dvdpco- 

TTOis dhvvarov hvvaT6i> Oecp." TrdXtv /cat rovro pieyd- 

Xrjs GOcf)Las jjLeorrov cgtlv, on /ca^' avrov pLev duKcov 

/cat hiaTTovovpiei'os drrddeiav <6>^ dvOpajiTO? ovhev 

dvvei, edv he yeviqiai hrjXos VTrepeTnOvpidjv tovtov 

/cat hieaTTovhaKcos, rfj TTpoodrjKr] rrjs irapd deov 

hvvdpieojs TTepiyiveraL' ^ovXopievais piev yap ralg 

tpyxfi'is 6 Beds GvveTTLTTveL, el he aTTOGraZev ttJs TTpo- 

^ d(ra0cDs Ghisler. aacpuis sis. 

2 dvoTedei/xivoLS Mayor. dTroTi6e/j.^vois MS. 

2 wdvTOJs Wilamowitz. iravros ms. 

■* (bv Stahlin. &v ms. 

^ <6> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

312 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

and amazement. For what reason think you ? Was 
it because they too possessed great riches ? Why, 
their very nets and hooks and fishing-boats they had 
left long ago, and these were all they had. Why then 
do they say in fear, " Who can be saved } " "' It was 
because they understood well and as disciples should 
that which was spoken in dark parables by the 
Lord, and perceived the depth of His words. As 
far as lack of riches and possessions went they 
had good hopes for salvation, but since they were 
conscious that they had not yet completely put 
away their passions — for they were fresh disciples 
and but lately enlisted by the Saviour — "they 
were exceedingly amazed," ^ and began to despair 
of themselves no less than did that very rich 
man who clung desperately to his possession, which 
indeed he preferred to eternal life. It was then 
for the disciples an altogether fit occasion for fear, 
if both the possessor of outward wealth and also he 
who carries a brood of passions — in which even 
they were rich — are equally to be banished from 
heaven. For salvation belongs to pure and passion- 
less souls. 

9.1. But the Lord answers: "that which is im- But God 
possible with men is possible for God." * This again |^.'jJP'^ ^^^"^^ 
is full of great wisdom, because when practising and earn, stiy 
striving after the passionless state by himself man ^^^^^ ^^^ 
achieves nothing, but if he makes it clear that he is 
eagerly pursuing this aim and is in deep earnest, he 
prevails by the addition of the power that comes from 
God. For God breathes His own power into souls 
when they desire, but if ever they desist from their 

« St. Mark X. 26. ^ St. Mark x. 2T. 

313 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

dvjiLas, Kal TO SoOev €K deov -nveviia ovvearaXt]' 
TO /xev yap aKOvras acoletv iarl ^lalofxevov, to 
Se atpovjjL€vovs ;Ya/jt^o/xeVou. ouSe tojv Kadevhov- 
rojv Kal ^XaK€v6vra)v iarlv r) ^aaiXela rod deov, 
aAA' " OL ^laaral apirdt^ovGiv avrriv"' avrr) yap 
IxovT) ^ /8ta KaX-q, deov ^idoaoOaL Kal rrapd Oeov ^ojrjv 
dpTrdaaL, 6 Se yvov? tovs ^tatoj?, fJidXXov Se ^e/Satcos" ^ 
avrexofievovs [Gvvexa)p7]Gev]^ el^ev ;^at/3et yap 6 
deos rd roiavra rjTTCofjievos. Totydproi rovrojv 
aKovoas 6 fxaKdpios Ylerpos, 6 CKXeKTos, 6 e^aipe- 
Tos, 6 rrpayros rwv (jLad-qrcov , vjiep ov jjlovov Kal 
eavTOV rdv (f)6pov 6 uwrrjp eKreXel, raxecos 'rjprraae 
Kal avve^aXe rdv Aoyot'. /cat ri <f>r]Giv; " Ihe 
rj/JLets d(f)'>]Ka[jiev irdvra Kal rjKoXovd-qcraiJLev gol." 
rd Se " Trdvra " et fxev rd KrrjfJiara rd eavrov Xeyei, 
reoGapas ojSoXovs to-o)?, <to >* rod Xoyov, KaraXnrcxiV 
fieyaXyverat Kal rovrwv avra^lau drro^aivajv dv 
Xddoi TTjV ^aGiXeiav tmv ovpavdJv el Se, direp 
dpTL ^ vvv Xeyofiev, rd iraXaid vorjrd KTi^fiara Kal 
ifjvxi'Kd voGr^piara diroppLifjavTes errovrai Kar Ixvos 
rod SiSaGKoXov, tovt dv dvaiTTOiTO ^ rjSrj rol? ev 
ovpavols eyypa(f)rjGoiJLevoLs. rovro "^ ydp aKoXovdeTv 
ovTOJS rep GOjrrjpL, dvapLapr-qGiav Kal reXeiorrira 
rrjv eKelvov fierepxdfievov Kal Trpos eKeZvov oyGirep 
KaroTrrpov KOGpuovvra Kal pvd/jil^ovra rrjv ijjvxrjv 
Kal Trdvra Sid Trdvrcxiv opLOiajs Siaridevra. \ 

^ libv-q Stiihlin (from Sacra Parallela of John of Damascus). 
[xbvov MS. 

2 /Staiws . . . j8e^a/ws Stahlin (from Sac. Par.). /3c/3ata;s 
. . . iSialoji MS. ^ [avvexi^pVf^^"] Stiihlin. 

^ <t6> inserted by Segaar. ^ dpn Schwartz, fix/" »>s. 

^ dvdiTTOLTo Mayor. dirTOLTO MS. 

' TovTo Wilamowitz. oOtws ms. 
SI4 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

eagerness, then too the spirit given from God is with- 
drawn ; for to save men against their will is an act 
of force, but to save them when they choose is an 
act of grace. Nor does the kingdom of God belong 
to sleepers and sluggards, but '' the men of force 
seize it." * This is the only good force, to force 
God and to seize life from God ; and He, knowing 
those who forcibly, or rather persistently, cling to 
Him, yields ; for God welcomes being worsted in 
such contests. Therefore on hearing these things 
the blessed Peter, the chosen, the pre-eminent, the 
first of the disciples, on behalf of whom alone and 
Himself the Saviour pays the tribute,^ quickly seized 
upon and understood the saying. And what does 
he say } " Lo, we have left all and followed Thee." *" What 
If by " all " he means his own possessions, he is had^i^ft' 
bragging of having forsaken four obols or so,'^ as the 
saying goes, and he would be unconsciously declar- 
ing the kingdom of heaven a suitable equivalent to 
these. But if, as we are just now saying, it is by 
flinging away the old possessions of the mind and 
diseases of the soul that they are following in the 
track of their teacher, Peter's words would at once 
apply to those who are to be enrolled in heaven.* 
For this is the true following of the Saviour, when 
we seek after His sinlessness and perfection, adorning 
and regulating the soul before Him as before a mirror 
and arranging it in every detail after His likeness. 

« St. Matthew xi. 12. 

* See St. Matthew xvii. 97. 
" St. Mark x. 28. 

'^ As we should say, "a few pence." The obol was a 
small Athenian coin. 

* See St. Luke x. 20 ; Hebrews xii. 23. 

315 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

948 p. 22. " ^ A-TTOKpiO^ls §6 *\r]aovs' ajjLrjV vfilv Xeyoj, 
OS av d(f)fj TO, tSta /cat yove ts" /cat aSeA^ou? Krat XP''?" 
^ara eveKev ifiov kol eveKev rod euayyeAiou, 0,770- 
XrnJjeTai iKarovraTrXaaiova." aXXa ^r]hk rovd^ rjfjids 
eTTLTapaaaerco , fjirjSe to ert rovrov GKXrjpoTepov 
dXXaxov rats" (jxavals e^evqveyjjievov' " o? 01) /xtcret 
Trarepa /cat pL-qrepa /cat TratSas", vpooiri he /cat tt^v 
eavTOV iIjvxt]v, e/xo? /xa^r^n^? eti^at ou Swarat." 
ou yct/o elarjyelraL /xtCTO? /cat StaAuatP' aTro rcov 
(j>iXTdTCov 6 TTjS elprjPTjs 9e6s, o ye /cat rous" e)(dpovs 
dyandv Trapaivcxyv . et Se rous" ex^povs dyaTrrjTeov, 
dvdXoyov avr' eKeivcov dvLovri /cat rou? iyyvrdrco 
yevovs' '^ et fjLLcr7]T€0v rovs Trpo? at/xaros", ttoAu 
fidXXov Tovs ixOpovs Trpo^dXXeodai Kandov 6 Xoyos 
hihdoK€L, ixior aAAi^Aous" dvaipovvres eAey^ot^r' ai^ 
ot Aoyot. dAA* ouS* dvaipovuiv oi)S' iyyvs, drro yap 
rrjs avTTJs yvcofx-qs koI hiadeaecos /cat eVt ro) avrcp 
opcp Trarepa pLLaocrj rtg dv < /cat > exOpou dyaTTcorj ^ 6 
pnqre ixOpov dfivvofjievos pLt^re Trarepa ^piarov 
irXeov alSovfjLevos. ev eKeivco fiev yap rep Xoyqj 
fjLLGO? e/c/coTrret /cat KaKonouav, eV rovrco 8e rrjv 
TTpo? rd GVvrpo(f)a SvawTTcaVy et ^XdnroL Trpos 
Gcorrjoiav. et yovv ddeo? etr] rivl Trarrjp 7) vlos ^ 
dSeA(/)0? /cat /ctoAu/xa t^s" TTcarecos yevoiro /cat 
efiTToSiov rrjs dvoj Ccorj?, rovrco p,rj GVii(j)epeodco 
lirjSe ofjLOVoeirci), dXXd rrjV GapKLKTjv OLKeLorrjra Std 
rrjv 7Tvevp.arLKrjV exOpav SLaXvGaroj. 

23. NofJLiGov elvat ro TTpdy/jia SiaSiKaGiav. 6 jjcev 
Trariqp gol hoKeiroj TrapeGrcbg Xeyetv '* iyci) G€ 
eoTTetpa /cat edpeipa, d/coAou(9et yitot /cat cruj^a8t/cei 

^ </cai> • . . d-yairJjri Stahlin. d7a7rw*' m3, 
316 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

22. And Jesus answered, " Verily I say to you, The mean- 
whoever leaves his home and parents and brothers Q^j,ist's 
and riches for My sake and for the gospel's sake command 
shall receive back a hundredfold." *^ Let not this paints and 
saying however disturb us, nor yet the still harder kinsfolk 
one uttered elsewhere in the words, " He that hates 
not father and mother and children, yes and his own 
life also, cannot be My disciple." ^ For the God of 
peace, who exhorts us to love even our enemies, does 
not propose that we should hate and part from our 
dearest ones. If a man must love his enemies, he 
must also by the same rule, reasoning upward from 
them, love his nearest of kin. Or if he must hate 
his blood relations, much more does reason, by a 
downward process, teach him to abhor his enemies ; 
so that the sayings would be proved to cancel one 
another. But they do not cancel one another, nor 
anything like it ; for from the same mind and dis- 
position, and with the same end in view, a man may 
hate a father and love an enemy, if he neither takes 
vengeance on his enemy nor honours his father more 
than Christ. For in the one saying Christ cuts at 
the root of hatred and evil-doing, in the other of 
false respect for our kindred, if they do us harm as 
regards salvation. If, for instance, a man had a 
godless father or son or brother, who became a 
hindrance to his faith and an obstacle to the life 
above, let him not live in fellowship or agreement 
with him, but let him dissolve the fleshly relationship 
on account of the spiritual antagonism. 

23. Think of the matter as a lawsuit. Imagine The appeal 
your father standing by you and saying, " I begat kindred ^ 
you and brought you up, follow me, take part in my 

« St. Mark x. 29. * St. Luke xiv. 26. 

317 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

KOi fjir) TTeldov TO) ^piGTOv vofxo) ' ' /cat orroaa av 

€i7TOL ^Xda(f)7]IJLO? dvOpCOTTOS KoL V€Kp6s TTj <f)vaeL. 

erepcjodev Se a.KOV€ rod oojrrjpos' " eyco ae ave- 
yewTjoa, KaKws vrro KOOfxov Tvpos ddvarov yeyev- 
I'T] fxevov, rfXevOipaaaa, tacra/xi^v, eXvTpojodpiriv' eyco 
GOL TTape^co ^coTjv diravGrov , alcoi^iov, VTrepKOGpLLOV 
eyo) GOL Set^co Oeov rrarpos dyadov TrpoGcoTTOV 
fjiTj AcctAet GeavTO) irarepa IttI yrjs' ot veicpol rovs 
veKpovs OaTTrerwGav, gv Be /xot OLKoXovOec- dvd^oj 
ydp G€ els avdiravGiv <Kal aTToXavGiv > •*• dppy'jrcov 
/cat dXeKTCov dyaOaJv, d fxrjre ochdaXfios eiSe /x^jre 
ovs rJKOVGe firjTe eirl Kaphiav dvdpcoTTOJV dve^r], els 
d eTTidvpLovGLV dyyeXoL TrapaKvifjai /cat tSeiv avrep 
7;TOt/xacrey o Geo? roZs dy'toLS dyadd /cat rot? 
cjuXovGLV avrov reKvois. eyoj gov Tpo(f)evs dprov 
efiavTOV StSoJ?, ov yevodfievos ovSel? en rreXpav 
davdrov Xapi^dvei, /cat TTOfia /ca^' rjpiepav ivhiSovs 
ddavaGias' eyco StSdoKaXos vTrepovpavtcov TraiSev- 
fjuarcDV VTTep gov Trpos rov Odvarov SLrjyajVLGdfxrjv 
/cat rov GOV e^erioa Odvarov, ov dj(f)eLXes eirl roZs 
TTporjpiaprrjiJLevois /cat rfj rrpos Oeov aTTtarta." rov- 
TOJV rdjv XoycDV eKarepojOev ScaKOVGas vrrep Geavrov 
SiKaGov /cat TTjv iljrj(f)ov dveveyKe rfj Gavrov Gconqpia- 
Kav dSeXcf)6s o/xota Xeyr] kov reKvov Kotv yvvrj Koiv 

949 p. OGTLGOVV, TTpO \ TrdvTOJV iv GOL XptaTO? O VLKWV eGTCO' 

VTTep GOV ydp dycovl^eraL. 

24. AvvaGaL /cat tojv xP'^l^drojv eTTLTrpooOev elvaL; 
(f>pdGOV /cat ovK dirdyeL Ge ^ipLGrds rrj? KT'^Getos, d 

^ <\'at dTrdXavaivy Stahlin. 

« See 1 St. Peter i. 3. * See St. John xiv. 8-9. 

« St. Matthew xxiii. 9. " St. Matthew viii. 22. 

3J8 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

wrong-doing and do not obey the law of Christ/' and 

whatever else a man who was a blasphemer and in 

nature dead might say. But from the other side The appeal 

hear the Saviour; " I gave you new birth/ when by <^f^^"^* 

the world you were evilly born for death ; I set you 

free, I healed you, I redeemed you. I will provide 

you with a life unending, eternal, above the world. 

I will show you the face of God the good Father.^ 

^Call no man your father upon earth.' '^ ^ Let the 

dead bury their dead, but do you follow Me.' ^ For 

I will lead you up to a rest and to an enjoyment of 

unspeakable and indescribable good things ^ which 

eye has not seen nor ear heard, nor have they 

entered into the heart of man, which angels desire 

to look into and to see what good things God has 

prepared for His saints and for His children that 

love Him.' ^ I am your nurse, giving Myself for 

bread, which none who taste have any longer trial 

of death,/ and giving day by day drink of immor- 

tality.5' I am a teacher of heavenly instructions. On 

your behalf I wrestled with death and paid your 

penalty of death, which you owed for your former 

sins and your faithlessness towards God." When 

you have listened to these appeals from each side 

pass judgment on your own behalf and cast the vote 

for your own salvation. Even though a brother says 

the like, or a child or wife or any one else, before 

all let it be Christ that conquers in you ; since it is 

on your behalf He struggles. 

24. Can you also rise superior to your riches ? Salvation 
Say so, and Christ does not draw you away from the JirfSe'^aiT* 

« See 1 Corinthians ii. 9 ; 1 St. Peter i. 12. 

f See St. John vi. 50-51 ; Hebrews xi. 36. 

9 See St. John iv. 14. 

319 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

KvpLos ov (f)doveL. dAA' opa? aeavrop rjrrcoiievov 
utt' a?}ra>v /cat avar peir 6 jievov ; a^e?, plijjov, fiiorj- 
oov, OLTTora^aL, (f>vye' " Kav 6 Se^to? gov ocfidaXfio? 
GKavhaXitpT] G€, raxecos CKKOipov avTov " alpercore- 
pov iT€po^9a\p,cp pauiXeia 6eov rj oXoKXrjpo) to TTvp' 
Kav x^tp KO^v 7TOVS Kav r] ^vx^j, pLia-qoov avriqv' dv 
yap ivravOa aTToXrjTai vrrep XptCTrou, <c/cet Gojdrjae- 
Tat>^. 

25. Tavrrjs Be ofJLOLcos e;)^eTat ttjs yvcLfi-qg /cat to 
eiTopLevov " vvv he ev rep Kaipcp rovrcp dypovg /cat 
XP^p-OLTa /cat ot/cta? /cat dSeX(f)Ovs ex^tv pierd Stojy- 
/xa)V et? TTou; ^ " oure yap dxprjpidTov? ovre dv- 
eorlovs ovre dvaheX(f)Ovs; eTrl rrjv t^corjv KaXel, enel /cat 
ttXovglov? KeKXrjKev, dXX ov rporrov Trpoetp-qKap^ev, 
/cat dSeX(f>ov? Kara ravrov^ odGirep Werpov pierd 
^AvSpeov /cat 'la/cco^ov pcerd *lajdvvov, rovs ZejSe- 
Satov TratSa?, aAA' opLovoovvrag aAAr^Aot? re /cat 
yipiGTO). TO Se " pierd SccoypLajv" ravra e/cacTa 
e;)(etv aTToSo/ct/xa^ef SaoypLOs Se o /zeV Tt? e^wBev 
TTepiyiverai rcov dvOpwrrcov rj 8t ex^pav t) 8ta 
cf)d6vov Tj Std ^iXoKepheiav r] Kar evepyecav Sta- 
poXiKrjV rovs mGrovs eXavvovrcov 6 Se ^^aAeTxco- 
TaTO? evhoQev eGn Stcoy^d?, e^ avrrjs eKdGrcp rrjg 
ijsvxfjs TrpoTTepLTTopievos XvpLaivopievq? vtto eTndvpucov 
dOecov /cat 7]Sov6l)v ttolklXwv /cat (f)avXojv eA7rtSa;v 
/cat (j>9apriK(x)V * oveLporroXvpLarajv , orav, del rd>v 
TrXeLovcxJV opeyopLevr] /cat Auo-o-too-a i^tto dypicov 
ipcorcov /cat (jiXeyopuevrj, KaOdrrep Kevrpoig -q pLvcoipi 

^ <iK€? (Twd-fjixeTaiy Segaar. 
2 ei$ TToO ; Stahlin. eh irov MS. See p. 280, n. 1. 
^ Kara ravrbv Segaar. /car avrbv MS. 
* (pdapTiKuv Mayor. <p6apTiov us. 

320 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

possession of thera ; the Lord does not grudge. But 
do you see yourself being worsted and overthrown by 
them? Leave them, cast them off, hate them, say 
good-bye to them, flee from them. "And if thy 
right eye cause thee to stumble, quickly cut it out." 
Better the kingdom of God with one eye, than the 
fire with both. And if it be a hand or a foot or thy 
life, hate it. For if here it perishes for Christ's sake, 
there it shall be saved." 

25. This meaning attaches likewise to the passage The 
which follows. "To what end is it that in this jj^r^^^^s^ 
present time we have lands and riches and houses persecu- 
and brothers with persecutions?"^ For it is not ^^°°^ 
simply men without riches or homes or brothers that 
He calls to life, since He has also called rich men 
(though in the sense we have before stated) ; and 
brothers likewise, as Peter with Andrew, and James 
Avith John, the sons of Zebedee, though these were 
brothers of one mind with each other and with 
Christ. But He disapproves of our having each of 
these things "with persecutions." Now one kind of 
persecution comes from without, when men, whether 
through hatred, or envy, or love of gain, or by the 
prompting of the devil, ° harry the faithful. But the 
hardest persecution is that from within, proceeding 
from each man's soul that is defiled by godless lusts 
and manifold pleasures, by low hopes and corrupting 
imaginations ; when, ever coveting more, and mad- 
dened and inflamed by fierce loves,'^ it is stung by 

« See St. Matthew v. 29-30; xviii. 8; and St. Mark ix. 
43-47. * St. Mark x. 30. 

° Or perhaps, "by slanderous activity." 

** The phrase comes from Plato, Phaedrus 81 a ; cp. 
Republic 329 c. 

321 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

rot? 7rpoGK€Lfi€VOis^ avTTJ TrddeaLV i^aifjidaa'qTai 
77/30? OTTOvSdg fiavidoSei? Kal l^wfj^ dTToyvcooiv /cat 
deov KaTa(j)p6viqGiv. ovros 6 Sicoy/xo? ^apvrepos 
Kal ^(aXeTTCxjrepos y evSoOev op/xco/xevo?, del ovvojv, 
OP ovSe 6K(f)vy€iv 6 hiajKopievos hvvarai- tov yap 
i^dpov iv eavTO) Trepidyei Travra^^ov. ovro) Kai 
TTvpaxTi? rj pikv e^ojQev TTpoaTrirrTOVoa hoKip^aaiav 
Karepyd^erat, tj Se evSoOev Odvarov hiaTTpdoaerai ^. 
Kal TToXepLOS 6 fiep irraKros paSico? KaraXverai, 6 
he ev rfj ipvxfj f^^XP^ davdrov Trapa/xerpetrat. /xera 
Sicoyfiov roLOvrov ttXovtov idv exjjS top alod-qrop 
Kap dSeX(f>ovs rov? rrpos alpLaros Kal rd dXXa 
ipexvpa, KardXiTre rrjP tovtcjop TrayKTr^alap ttjp em 
KaKcp, elprjprjV aeavro) Trapdax^?, eXevOepcodr^rL 
SicoyfJiov jjLaKpov, d7Toarpd(f)r]0i npo? to evayyeXtov 
drr eKeiPOJPy eXov top ocorrjpa irpo TrdpTOjp, top ttjs 
arj? avpy'iyopop Kal TrapdKX-qrop ifjvx'^jSi top ttjs 
aTTeipov TrpvTapip ^cjorj?. " ra yap ^XeTTOfxepa 
TTpoGKaipa, TO, Se (xr] ^XeTTOjjLepa alcopia-" Kal 
950 P. eV fiep TO) TTapoPTL I xP^voi (jjKVjxopa Kal d^ejSaia, 
" ip Se to) epxofiepo) ^ojt] ^ earip alcoPLog." 

26. ""EiGOPTai ot TTpdjTOL eoxoLTOi Kal ot eGXO.TOi 

TTpojTOL." rovTO TToXvxovp fiep eoTL Kara Tr]P 
VTTOPoiap Kal TOP Ga(j)H]Piaji6p, ov (jltjp ep ye rol 
TTapoPTi TTjP tpfjT-qaiv aTratret* ov yap piopop peiret 

^ irpoffKeifiivoii Segaar. vpoKei/xipois sis. 

^ diairpdffaeTai. Barnard. diarapdaaeTat. MS, 

^ fwTj Ghisler. fw^i' ms. 

" Clement seems to have in mind Romans v, 4 (" worketh 
probation ") and 1 Corinthians iii. 13 (" the fire shall prove 
each man's work"). The "inward burning which works 
death " may be a reminiscence of 1 Corinthians vii. 9. 
322 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

its attendant passions^ as by goads or a gad-fly, into 
states of frenzied excitement, into despair of life and 
contempt of God. This persecution is heavier and 
harder, because it arises from within and is ever 
with us ; nor can the victim escape from it, for he 
carries his enemy about within himself everywhere. 
So too with regard to burning ; that which falls on 
us from without effects a testing, but that from 
within works death.'* And war also ; that which is 
brought against us is easily ended, but war in the 
soul accompanies us till death. If joined with such 
persecution you have visible wealth and brothers 
by blood and all the other separable possessions,^ 
abandon your sole enjoyment of these which leads 
to evil, grant to yourself peace, become free from a 
persecution that lasts, turn aw^ay from them to the 
gospel, choose before all the Saviour, the advocate 
and counsel " for your soul, the president of the 
infinite life. " For the things that are seen are 
temporal, but the things that are not seen are 
eternal;"'^ and in the present time things are 
fleeting and uncertain, but " in the world to come 
is life eternal." ^ 

26, "The first shall be last and the last first." -^ 
This saying, though fruitful in its deeper meaning and 
interpretation, does not call for examination at the 
present time, for it applies not merely to those who 

* Or "pledges," a terra used in Attic law to denote 
movable property that could be offered as security for 
debt. In this passage it may mean "dear ones," like the 
Latin jpignora. 

" Literally, "paraclete." But the connexion with "ad- 
vocate " shows that Clement is thinking of the word in its 
legal meaning. ** 2 Corinthians iv. 18. 

" St. Mark x. 30. / St. Mark x. 31. 

32S 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

Trpos" Tovs TToXvKrrjixovas , aXX a77Aajs' npos dnavras 
avdpojTTOvs Tovs TTLGrei Kaddna^ lavTovs eViStSdv- 
ras. cjare rovro fiev dvaKeiudoi ra vvv. to Be 
ye TTpoKeifievov tj/jlTv ot/JLau fjtrjSev tl ev'^eiarepov ^ rrjs 
eTTayyeXias hehelx&OiLy on tovs ttXovgLovs ovheva 
TpoTTOv 6 GOJTT^p /cax' avTov ye tov ttXovtov Kol Tr)V 
7TepL^oXr)V TTJs KTrjoeoJS OLTTOKeKXeiKev ouS* avTOig 
OLTTOTeTOLffipevKev TTjv GOJTTipiaVy el ye hvvaivTO kol 
^ovXoiVTO VTTOKVTTTeiv TOV 9eov Tat? evToXacs Kal 

TCX)V TTpOGKaipCOV TTpOTLflCOeV TT^V iaVTOJV l,wrjv Kal 

jSAeVotev Trpo? rov Kvpiov aTevel Tch ^Ae/x/xartj 
Kaddrrep elg dyadov Kv^epv^TOV vevfia hehopKOTes, 

Tl ^OvXeTaUy TL TTpOGTdGGei, TL GrjjXaiVeLy TL hlSoJGL 

TOtS" avTOV vavTaLS [ro]^ GVv6r]iJLa, ttov Kal TTodev 
TOV opjjLov eirayyeXXeTaL . tl yap dhiKei tls, el 
TTpoGexoiv TTjV yvcofirjv Kal (^eihofxevos rrpo Trjs 
TTLGTecxis ^Lov LKavov GweXl^aTO ; r) Kal <t6 >^ tovtov 
fiaXXov dveyKXrjTov, el evdvs vtto tov deov tov tyju 

TVX^V * Ve/JLOVTOS el? OLKOV TOLOVTOJV dvdpCJTTOJV elG- 

iOKLGOr] Kal yevos a/x<^tAa^es" rots' ;Yp')7/xaCTtv [lg^vov]^ 
Kal TO) ttXovto) KpaTOVV ; el yap hid Trjv aKOVGLOV 
ev ttXovtco yeveGLV aTreAT^Aarat ^cdi^?, dStfcetrat 
jLtaAAov VTTO TOV yeLvafxevov ^ deov, TrpoGKaipov fiev 
rjSvTTaOeLag /carT^^tco/xeVos', atStou 8e ^a>rjs direGTe- 
prjfjLevos. TL 8' oXojs ttXovtov expTJv eK yrjs dva- 
TelXai TTOTe, el x^P'^jyos Kal rrpo^evos eGTL BavdTov; 

^ ivSeiarepov Ghisler. ddeeffrepou MS. 

2 [t6] Stiihlin. ^ <^^> inserted by Ghisler. 

^ Tvxrjy Segaar. ^vxw ms, " [tVxOoj'J Wilamowitz. 

^ yeivafx^vov Ghisler. yivofxivov MS. 

" i.e. the gospel promise of salvation for all men. 
324 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

have great possessions, but generally to all men who 
once devote themselves to faith. So for the time 
being let it be reserved. But as to the question before 
us, I think it has been shown that the promise '^ does Salvation is 
not fall short in any respect, because the Saviour ^ch menT/ 
has by no means shut out the rich, at any rate so far they will 
as their actual riches and investments ^ of property ^ ^^ ° 
are concerned, nor has He trenched off salvation from 
them, provided they are able and willing to stoop 
beneath God's commandments and that they value 
their own life above temporal things and look to the 
Lord with steadfast gaze, like sailors on the watch 
for the nod of a good pilot to see what are his 
wishes, his commands, his signals, what watchword 
he gives them, where and whence he proclaims the 
harbour. For what wrong does a man do, if by it is not 
careful thought and frugality he has before his ravTmoney 
conversion gathered enough to live on ; or, what is 
still less open to censure, if from the very first he 
was placed by God, the distributor of fortune, in a 
household of such men, in a family abounding in 
riches and powerful in wealth ? For if he has Nor to be 
been banished from life for being born, through no rich family 
choice of his own, in wealth, it is rather he who is 
wronged by God who brought him into existence, 
seeing that he has been counted worthy of temporal 
comfort, but deprived of eternal life. Why need 
wealth ever have arisen at all out of earth, if it is 
the provider and agent <= of death ? But if a man 

* Literally, " clothing" or " covering," as on p. 277, n. a. 

« The word is used in Greek politics of a man who 
was appointed to represent the citizens of another State 
than his own, and to act as their friend and protector when 
they visited his city. Hence it has the meaning of our 
Consul, or Agent. 

325 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

aAA' et Svvarai ns evhorepco rojv VTrapxovrajv 
Kdfi7TT€iv rrjs i^ovaias Kal fxerpia (f)poi'€lv Kal 
a(D(^povelv Kal Oeov jjlovov t^rjreZv Kal Oeov avarrveZv 
Kal deep GvixTToXireveadai , tttcoxos ovros irapearrjKe 
rals ivToXats, iXevOepo?, a-qTrrjTOS, dvoao?, drpcoros 
VTTO ;\;/0T7/^aTa)y et Se jxij, Bdrrov kcl/xt^Ao? Sta 
^eX6v7]s elaeXevaerai tj 6 tolovto? ttXovglos IttI rrjv 
^aaiXeiav rod Oeov TTapeXevaerai. or^jiaiviroj /xev 
ovv TL Kal viprjXorepov r) KapnqXos 8ta arevrj? oSov 
Kal TedXifijjievrjs (f)9dvovaa rov TrXovaiov, orrep eV 
Trj 7T€pl dpxoJv Kal OeoXoylas i^rjyqaeL fjLvarrjpLov 
rod GCOTTjpos vrrdpx^i fiadelv 27. ov jjltjv dXXd ro 
ye ^aivofievov rrpcvrov Kal St' o AeAe/crat rrjs irapa- 
^oXrjs TTapexecrOo). StSaaKeroj tovs evTTopovvras 
CO? ovK dfieXr]r€OV rrj? lavrcov acoTr]pias diS yj^r] 
7TpoKaT€ypcoGpL€vov? ovSe KaTarrovTiareov av rrdXiv 
951 P. rov ttXovtov ovhe KaraSiKaareov d)s \rrjs i^ojrjs eVt- 
^ovXov Kal TToXefiLOVy dXXd fxadrjTeov riva rpoTTOV 
Kal 7760? ttXovtco ;)(;pT]CTTeov /cat r'r]V l,a)rjv Krrjreov. 
eTTeiSr) yap ovre Ik Travros aTToXXvrai tls, on 
TrXovrel SeSicos, ovre eK iravros acp/^erai Oappchv 
Kal TTiGTevcov d)s GCxjOrjoeraiy <f>€p€ GKevreov rjvTiva 
TTjV eXTTiSa avTOLS 6 Ga)Trjp VTroypd(j)€L, Kal 7ra)£ dv 
TO fiev dveXmGTOV ex^yyvov yevoirOy to 8e iXTnoOev 

els KTTJGLV d(f)LKOLrO. 

« Literally, " can bend within the power of his posses- 
sions," probably a metaphor from the chariot-race, in which 
the driver was required to pass close to the turning-post, yet 
not to touch it. The rich man must not let his wealth run 
away with him. With Clement's remark about the power 
of possessions Stahlin compares Thucydides i. 38—" the 
insolence and power of wealth." 

* St. Mark x. 25. 
326 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

can keep within bounds the power that possessions 
bring,* and can be modest in thought and self- 
controlled, seeking God alone, living in an atmo- 
sphere of God and as a fellow-citizen with God, here 
is one who approaches the commandments as a poor 
man, as free, unconquered, untouched by the diseases 
or wounds of riches. If not, a camel shall more 
quickly enter through a needle than shall such a 
rich man reach the kingdom of God.^ Now the 
camel, that passes through a strait and narrow way '^ 
sooner than the rich man, must be understood to 
have some higher meaning, which, as a mystery of 
the Saviour, can be learnt in my Exposition co?icerning 
First Principles and Theology.^ 27. Here, however, 
let me set forth the first and obvious meaning of the 
illustration,^ and the reason why it was used. Let The rich 
it teach the well-to-do that their salvation must not SkeValns 
be neglected on the ground that they are already about their 
condemned beforehand, nor on the contrary must ^* ^^^^°° 
they throw their wealth overboard or give judgment 
against it as insidious and inimical to life, but they 
must learn how and in what manner wealth is to be 
used and life acquired. For since a man is neither 
absolutely being lost if he is rich but fearful, nor 
absolutely being saved because he is bold and con- 
fident that he will be saved, let us now go on to 
inquire what hope it is that the Saviour outlines for 
the rich, and how the unhoped for may become 
secure, and the hoped for pass into possession. 

<• St. Matthew vli. 14. 

'' In ill. Stromateis 13. 1 and 21. 2, Clement mentions a 
projected work on " First Principles " ; but it has not come 
down to us. 

« Literally, " parable " ; but it is hardly a parable in our 
sense of the word. 

S27 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

^rjalv ovv 6 StSacr/caAo?, rt? r^ yLeyloTrj rcov evrO' 
Xcjv rjpojTriiJievo?' " ayaTTTjueis Kvpiov rov Oeov gov 
ef oXrjs rrj£ ifjvxfj? crov /cat i^ oXrjg rrjs Swdfjceco? 
crov," ravT7)s fxel^oj fjLrjSefjLLav ivroXrjv etuaL, /cat 
jLtaAa eLKOTCvg. /cat yap /cat Trepl rov Trpcorov /cat 
Trepl Tov fjLeyLGTOV Trapi^yyeArat, avrov rod Oeov 
TTarpog rjfjLOJV, St* od /cat yeyove /cat ecrrt ra Trdvra 
/cat els ov ra acp^ofieva ttolXlv eTravepy^eTai. vtto 
TOVTOV roivvv TrpoayaTTYjOevTas /cat rov yeveuO ai 
Tv^ovras ovx oaiov dXXo rt Trpea^vrepov dyeiv /cat 
TLfXLajTcpov, e/CTtVovra? fjLovrjv rr^v X^P^^ ravrrjv 
pLLKpdv eVt jLteytWot?, aAAo Se pL-q'^OTLOvv exovras 
dvevSeel /cat reXeicp deep Trpos dp.oLJ^rjV e-n-tvoT^crat, 
avTOj he TO) ^ dyarrdv tov narepa els ot/cetav lox^v 
/cat SvvapLLV dcfiOapcrtav ^ Kopat^opievovS' oaov yap 
dyaTTo. Tis Oeov, roaovro) /cat rrXeov evhorepui rov 
Oeov TTapahverai. 

28. Aevrepav Se rd^ec /cat ovSev rt puKporepav 
ravTifs elvai Xeyei to* " dyarrriaeis tov ttXt^glov 
GOV COS aeavTov" ovkovv rov Oeov vnep oeavrov. 
TTvvOavopLevov Se rov TrpoohiaXeyopievov " tls eonv 
TrX-qalov;" ov rov avrov rponov 'louSatots* Trpo- 
copLoaro rov rrpos at/xaros" ovSe rov rroXir'qv ovhk 
rov TTpoariXvrov ovhe rov opiOLCOs Trepirerpirjpievov 
ovSe rov evl /cat ravro) vopLO) ;^pco/xeyoy dAAa 
dvojOev Kara^aivovra^ dnd ^lepovoaXrjp, dyet rep 
Xoycp rivd els 'leptxco /cat rovrov SeuKwaiv vtto 
Xrjordjv ovyKeKevrrjpLevov, eppipLpLevov -qpaOvrjra eVt 

^ avTcS d^ Tt2 Ghisler. avrb 8e t6 MS. 

2 a.(pdapalav Wilamowitz. acpdapalai MS. 

3 Kara^alvovTa Ghisler. KaTa^aiucoy MS. 

* St. Mark xii. 30-31. 
328 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

When asked which is the greatest of the com- Tho first 
mandments the Teacher says, " Thou slialt love the command-^ 
Lord thy God with all thy soul and with all thy ^^^^ 
power," and that there is no commandment greater 
than tins'* — and quite naturally. For indeed it is 
a precept concerning the first and the greatest 
existence, God Himself our Father, through whom 
all things have come into being and exist, and to 
whom the things that are being saved return again,^ 
As therefore we were first loved by Him*' and took 
our beginning from Him, it is not reverent to consider 
any other thing as more venerable or more honour- 
able. This is the only thanks we pay Him, a small 
return for the greatest blessings ; and we are not 
able to think of the slighest thing else to serve as 
recompense for a God who is perfect and in need of 
nothing. But by the very act of loving the Father 
to the limit of our personal strength and power we 
gain incorruption. For in proportion as a man loves 
God, he enters more closely into God. 

28. Second in order, and in no way less important The second 
than this, is, He says, the commandment, " Thou mandment 
slialt love thy neighbour as thyself" ^ — God therefore 
you must love more than yourself. And when His 
questioner inquires, " Who is a neighbour ? " ^ He 
did not point, in the same way as the Jews did, to 
their blood-relation, or fellow-citizen, or proselyte, 
or to the man who like them was circumcised, or to 
a keeper of one and the same law, but He describes 
a man going down from Jerusalem to Jericho,/ show- 
ing him stabbed by robbers and flung half dead upon 

» See Romans xi. 36 " See 1 St. John iv. 19. 

^ St. Luke X. 27. «» St. Luke x. 29. 

/ See St. Luke x. 30-37. 

329 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

rrjs oBov, vtto lepeojs TrapoSevo/jLevov, vtto Aevirov 
Trapopcofxevov, vtto Se rov Sa/xapetrou tov e^covec- 
Siafievov Kal a^toptCT/xeVou KareXeovfievov , oV oi5;^t 
Kara rvx^jv cos eKelvoi TraprjXdeu, dAA' rJK€ avvea- 
Kevacrfjievos cLv ■*■ o KLvSvvevojv ehelro, olvov, eXatov, 
€7nSeafiou?, Krrjvos, fxioBov rat 7raySo;^et, rov fiev 
TJSr] SiSofievov, rov 8e TrpoGVTTLGXvovjxevov. "ris," 
€(1)7], " rovrcjv yeyove 7TXr]Giov rep ra Secva rraOovri;" 
rov Se OLTTOKpivapiivov on "o rov eXeov rrpog avrov 
iTTiheL^ajxevos' Kal ov roivvv TTopevOel? ovrco 
ttoUl," (Ls rrjg ayaTT-qs ^Xaorravovarjg evrrodav. 

29. 'Ev djJL(j)orepaL£ fxev ovv rat? eVroAai? dyaTrrjv 
^loTjyeZrai, ra^et 8' avrrjv St-^prjKe, Kal ottov fxev ra 
TTpcoreta rrjs dydTrrjs dvanrei ro) deep, ottov he ra 
Sevrepela vepuei r<p rrXiqaiov. ris 8* dv dXXos ovros 
€ir) ttXtjv avros 6 Gcorrip; tj ris pidXXov rjfjids 
952 P. eXerjGas \ eKeuvov, rovs vtto ra>v KOGfioKparopcjv 
rov GKorovs oXtyov redavarcopievovs rols ttoXXols 
rpavpiaoL, (jio^ois, emdvpiiaiSy opyaXs, Xvrrats, dTrd- 
rats, rjoovals; rovrojv he rcov rpavpidrcov piovos 
larpos ^IrjGOvs, eKKormov dph-qv ra rrddrj Trpoppi^a, 
ovx a)GTrep 6 vopLos iJjiXd ra dTToreXeopLara, rovs 
KapTTOvs rojv Trovqpcov (^vrcov, dXXd rrjv d^lvrjv rrjv 
iavrov rrpds rds pt^as rrjs KaKias rrpoGayaycov. 
ovros <6> ^ rov olvov, ro alpia rrjs dpLTreXov rrjs Aa/StS, 
CKxeas rjpicov errl rds rerpojpievas ipvxds, <ovros 6 
ro eXaLov,>^ rov €K GTrXdyxvcov rrarpos eXeov, 
TrpoGeveyKOJV Kal eTTthaifjiXevopLevos, ovros o rovs 

^ &p Ghisler. cbu us. - <6> inserted by Ghisler. 

^ KflOrosy inserted by Wilamowitz : <6 t6 iXaiovy by Lindner. 



« See St. Lukex. 31. ^ Ephesians vi. 12. 

' See St. Matthew ill. 10 ; St. Luke iii. 9. 



S30 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

the road. A priest passes him by ; a Levite disregards 
him ; but he is pitied by the scorned and outcast 
Samaritan, who did not pass along by chance * as the 
others, but had come fully equipped with what the 
man in danger needed, wine, oil, bandages, a beast, 
and payment for the innkeeper, some being given 
there and then and a further amount promised. 
"Which of these," He said, "proved neighbour to 
him who endured this outrage ? " And when he 
answered, "He that showed pity towards him," the 
Lord added, "Go thou therefore and do likewise." 
For love bursts forth into good works. 

29. In both commandments therefore He intro- jesus 
duces love, but He makes a distinction of order, in oir nearest 
one place attaching to God the highest exercise of neighbour 
love and in the other allotting its secondary exercise 
to our neighbour. And who else can this be but 
the Saviour himself? Or who more than He has 
pitied us, who have been almost done to death by 
the world-rulers of the darkness ^ with these many 
wounds — with fears, lusts, wraths, griefs, deceits and 
pleasures ? Of these wounds Jesus is the only 
healer, by cutting out the passions absolutely and 
from the very root. He does not deal with the 
bare results, the fruits of bad plants, as the law 
did, but brings His axe to the roots of evil.^ This is 
He who poured over our wounded souls the wine, 
the blood of David's vine ; ^ this is He who has 
brought and is lavishing on us the oil, the oil of pity 

'^ Cp. Teaching of the Twelve Apostles ix. 1-2, " with 
regard to the giving of thanks (i.e. the Eucharist), in this 
way give thanks : first with regard to the cup ; ' We give 
thanks to Thee, our Father, for the holy vine of David Thy 
Son, which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus 
Thy Son.'" 

M 331 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TTJ? uyeta? Kal ocoriqpias heajxovs oXvtovs eVtSet^a?, 
dyoLTTr)'', TTLGTiv, cA77tSa, ovros 6 BiaKovelv dyyeXovs 
Kal dpxoL? Kal i^ovoias tj/jllv eTTird^as eirl fxeyaXo) 
fjLiadcpy Slotl Kal avrol eXevOepcxjOrjcrovrai dno rrj? 
fxaTaiOT-qros rod KoafJLOv Trapd ttjv dTTOKaXvipLV 
rrjs So^Tj? rajv vtojv rod Oeov. rovrov ovv dyairdv 
Lcra XPV "^^ deep. dyarra Se X/otcrrov ^liqoovv 
6 TO OeXripia avTov ttolcjv Kal (f)vXdaaa)V avrov 
rag ivroXds. " ov yap irds 6 XeycDV fioi Kvpce 
Kvpie eloeXevoeraL els ttjv ^aaiXeiav ra)V ovpava)V, 
dAA' o 7TOLCOV TO deX-qjJLa rod Trarpos piov." 
Kai' " rl fie Xeyere Kvpie Kvpie Kal ov iroLeire a 
Xeyco;" Kal' " vpLei? piaKapioi ol opcovres Kal 
aKovovTeg a jxrire St/catot ixrjre Trpo(j>rJTai," edv 
TTOLrjre d Xeyoj. 

30. YlpwTOs puev ovv ovros eariv 6 Xptcrrov 
dyaiTcov, hevrepos he 6 tovs eKeivcp 'neTnarevKora? 
Tt/xcov Kal TTepieTTiov. o yap dv ris els fjLaOrjTrjV 
epydarjTaiy tovto els eavrov 6 Kvptos eKSexerac Kal 
Tidv eavTOv TTOieZrai. "Sevre, ol evXoyrj/jLevoc rod 
Trarpos fJLOv, KXr]povopLT^aaTe ttjv -qroipLacriJievrjV vpuv 
^acjiXeiav diro Kara^oXijs KoapLov. eireivaaa yap 
Kal ihcoKare pLOL (j>ayeZv, Kal iSlifjrjaa Kal eScoKare 
pLOL TTielVy Kal ^evos TJpLrjv Kal ovvqydyere pie, yvpLVos 
TJpLTjv Kal evehvaare pie, r]odevrioa Kal eneoKeipaoOe 
pie, ev (jivXaK-fj rjpirjv Kal rjXdere TTpos p-e. t6t€ 
dTTOKpid-qcjovTai avTO) ol 8t/catot Xeyovres' Kvpie, 



" 1 Corinthians xiii. 13. 
^ See Hebrews i. 14 ; Ephesians iii. 10. 
" See Romans viii. 19-21. St. Paul speaks of "the 
whole creation " being freed from corruption. The special 

332 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

from the Father's heart ; this is He who has shown 
us the unbreakable bands of health and salvation, 
love^ faith and hope ; ^ this is He who has ordered 
angels and princi})alities and powers ^ to serve us for 
great reward, because they too shall be freed from 
the vanity of the world at the revelation of the glory 
of the sons of God.'' Him therefore we must love We must 
equally with God. And he loves Christ Jesus who equluy™ 
does His will and keeps His commandments.*^ " For with God 
not everyone that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall 
enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that 
doeth the will of My Father."^ And, ^^Why call 
ye Me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things that I 
say?"-^ And "Blessed are ye that see and hear 
what neither righteous men nor prophets saw and 
heard," if ye do what I say .5' 

30. He then is first who loves Christ, and the Next we 
second is he who honours and respects those who Christ's^* 
believe on Christ. For whatever service a man does brethren 
for a disciple the Lord accepts for Himself, and 
reckons it all His own. " Come, ye blessed of My 
Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from 
the foundation of the world. For I was hungry and 
ye gave Me to eat, and I was thirsty and ye gave Me 
to drink, and I was a stranger and ye took Me in, I 
was naked and ye clothed Me, I was sick and ye 
visited Me, I was in prison and ye came unto Me. 
Then shall the righteous answer Him saying. Lord, 

thought of the angehc powers as destined to share in this 
deliverance seems to be Clement's own, though possibly it 
was in St. Paul's mind when he wrote. 

^ See St. John xiv. 15. 

* St. Matthew vii. 21. 

' St. Luke vi. 46. 

a See St. Matthew xiii. 16-17 ; St. John xiii. 17. 

333 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TTore ae €tSo/x€V 7T€Lva)i/Ta Kal e^pei/fa/xev, t] Siipojvra 
/cat iTTOTiaaixev ; iroTe he etSo/xeV ere ^evov kol gvv- 
-qydyo^xev y r) yvyivov kol Trepie^aXo^ev ; rj rrore ct€ 
€l8oijl€V aadevovvTa kol eTreaKei/jafMeda ; rj iv (f)vXaKfj 
Kal rjXdofjLev Trpog oe; aTTOKpidels 6 ^aatXevg ipel 
auTOts" aixTjV Xeyco vp.lv, e</>' oaov eTTOirjoare ivl 
TOVTOJV Tcov dS€X(f>a>v piov ra>v iXaxlcrrcov, ipiol 
eTTOL-qaaTe ." ttolXlv ck rcov evavricov rov? ravra 
/JLT) TTapacrxovra? avrot? clg to Trvp ipL^aXXei to 
alcovLov, (Ls avTcp firj TTapeaxT^Kora?. /cat dXXaxov' 
"6 vp.ds hexdpievos €p,€ hex^Tai, 6 vp,d? p,r] Sexop^e- 
vos ip,€ ddereZ." 

31. Tovrov? /cat reKva /cat iraihia /cat vrjTTia /cat 
(f>iXov9 6vop,dl^€L /cat puKpovs evddhe cos npos ro 
pLeXXov dvo) p^iyedos avTOJU, " pLrj KaTa(f)povTJarjT€," 
953 P. Xeyojv, " €v6s I TcJbv piLKpdjv TOVTOJV' TOVTOJV ydp ol 
dyyeXoi Sta TravTOS" ^Xenovcn to Trpoaojirov tov 
TraTpos p,ov tov iv ovpavois.^^ /cat eTepojOi' " p^r) 
(fyo^etade, to puKpov 7TOLp,vLov vpuv ydp -qvSoKrjcrev 6 
TraTTjp irapahovvai Trjv ^aaiXeiav" tojv ovpavcov. 
/caTct Ta avTa /cat tov pLeyloTov iv y€VV'i]TOLS 
yvvacKwv ^lojdvvov tov eXdxtOTOv Iv ttj ^aoiXela 
rd)v ovpavcov, tovtcgtl tov iavTov pLaOrjTi^v, etv-at 
pL€L^oj XeycL. /cat TrdXiv' "6 SexdpLevog hiKaiov 
Tj TTpo^TjTr^v els ovopLa hiKaiov rj iTpocjjriTOV tov 
CKeivojv pLiaddv X-qipeTai, 6 Se pLadrjTTjv rroTioas els 
6vop,a pLaOrjTOV TTOTi^piov ijjvxpov vBaTOs tov fuadov 
OVK dTToXeaei." ovkovv ovtos piovos 6 paados ovk 

« St. Matthew xxv. 34-40. 

* See St. Matthew x. 40 ; St. Luke x. 16. 

« See St. Mark x. 24 ; St. John xxi. 5 ; St. Matthew xi. 
25 ; St. John xv. 15 ; St. Luke xii. 4. 
334 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

when saw we Thee hungry and fed Thee, or thirsty 
and gave Thee drink ? When saw we Thee a stranger 
and took Thee in, or naked and clothed Thee ? Or 
when saw we Thee sick and visited Thee ? Or in 
prison and came unto Thee ? The King shall answer 
and say unto them ; Verily I say unto you, inasmuch 
as ye did it unto one of these My brethren, even 
these least, ye did it unto Me." <* Again, on the other 
hand, those who did not provide these things for 
them He casts into the eternal fire, on the ground 
that they have not provided them for Him. And in 
another place : " He that receiveth you receiveth 
Me ; he that receiveth you not rejecteth Me." ^ 

31. These who believe on Him He calls children Names ot 
and young children and babes and friends ; " also little honour'for 
ones here,^ in comparison with their future greatness Christ's 
above. "Despise not," He says, "one of these ^^^^^^^ 
little ones, for their angels always behold the face 
of My Father who is in heaven." * And elsewhere ; 
" Fear not, little flock, for it is the Father's good 
pleasure to give you the kingdom"-^ of heaven. 
After the same manner He says that the least in the 
kingdom of heaven, that is. His own disciple, is 
greater than the greatest among them that are born 
of women, namely John. 9 And again, " He that 
receiveth a righteous man or a prophet shall obtain 
the reward meet for these, and he that hath given 
a cup of cold water to a disciple in the name of a 
disciple shall not lose his reward." ^ This then is 

<* See St. Matthew x. 42. 

« St. Matthew xviii. 10. 

^ St. Luke xii. 32. 

9 See St. Matthew xi. 11 ; St. Luke vii. 28. 

* St. Matthew x. 41-42. 

335 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

OLTroXXvfievos icrTL. Kal avOig- " TTOL-qaare iavrolg 
<j)i\ovs eK Tou /xa/xojva tt^? ahiKias, Iva orav e/cAtTTT]/ 
Se^covrai vfids els rd? aicovlov? aKYjvd?." (j>va€i 
fxkv aTraaav KrrjoLV, tjv avros rt? icf) eavrov KeKTrjrai 
COS" ISlav ovaav Kal ovk elg kolvou rols heojxivois 
Kararid-qGiv , clSlkov ovaav d7TO(f)aiva)v, €K Se ravrr]? 
TrJ9 dSiKcas €v6v Kal rrpayyia hiKaiov ipydaaadaL 
Kal oojT-qpioVy dvaTravoai riva rcov exdvTCov alojviov 
OKr]vr)V TTapd rep rrarpi. 

"Opa TTpchrov p,6v co? ovk dTtairelaOai a€ KeKeXev- 
K€v ovSe evoxXelodai 77e/ot/xeVetv, dAAd avrov t^-qrelv 
Tovs ev TTeiaofxevovs d^iovs re ovras rod oojrrjpos 
pLadiqrds. KaXos puev ovv Kal 6 rod drrooroXov 
Xoyos' " IXapov yap Sorrjv dyarra 6 Beds," ;^atpovTa 
rep StSovat Kal fjirj (^etSo/xeVcos" ^ oTTelpovra, ti^a fxrj 
ovrojs Kal OepioTj, Slxol yoyyvaficov Kal hiaKpioecus 
Kal Xvrrrjg [/cat]^ Koivojvovvra, dnep eorlv evepyeoia 
Kadapd.^ Kpelrrcov 8' earl rovrov 6 rov Kvpiov 
XeXeyfjievos ev dXXcp x^P^V " '^ol^tI tco alrovvri 
ae SlSov" Beov yap ovrois t) roiavrr] (j>LXoh(jjpia. 
ovroal Se 6 Xoyos virep diraodv eon deorrjra, pirjSe 
alreZaOai TrepifxeveiVy dXX avrov dva^-qreXv dans 
d^Los ev Trade iv, eVetra r'qXcKOvrov jiloOov opiaaL rrjs 
KOLVojvLas, alcovLov GKrjVTjv. 32. CO KaXrjs epiTTopias, 
CO betas' dyopds' ojveZrai xP'^y^o.rcov ris dcf)dapaLav, 

^ iKXiirri Stahlin. e/cXt7r7;re ms. 

^ (pecdofxivcos (from 2 Cor. ix. 6) Segaar. (peibbfievov ms. 

^ [Kal] Segaar. 

* Kadapd Segaar. Kadd MS. 

<» St. Luke xvi. 9. 
^ The phrase comes from Acts iv. 32. 
" 2 Corinthians ix. 7. 
SS6 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

the only reward that cannot be lost. And once 
more : " Make to yourselves friends from the 
mammon of unrighteousness^ that when it shall fail, 
they may receive you into the eternal habitations."** 
Thus He declares that all possessions are by nature 
unrighteous, when a man possesses them for personal 
advantage as being entirely his own,^ and does not 
bring them into the common stock for those in need ; 
but that from this unrighteousness it is possible to 
perform a deed that is righteous and saving, namely, 
to give relief to one of those who have an eternal 
habitation with the Father. 

See, first, how His command is not that you should The great 
yield to a request or wait to be pestered, but that f^^'^^Q jj 
you should personally seek out men whom you may Christ's 
benefit, men who are worthy disciples of the Saviour. ^'^°'P^^^ 
Now the Apostle's saying also is good, " God loveth 
a cheerful giver," « one who takes pleasure in giving 
and sows not sparingly, for fear he should reap 
sparingly,^ but shares his goods without murmurings 
or dispute or annoyance. This is sincere kindness. 
Better than this is that which is said by the Lord 
in another place; "Give to everyone that asketh 
thee ; "* for such generosity is truly of God. But 
more divine than all is this saying, that we should 
not even wait to be asked,'' but should personally 
seek after whoever is worthy of help, and then fix 
the exceedingly great reward of our sharing, an 
eternal habitation. 32. What splendid trading! 
What divine business ! You buy incorruption with 

'^ See 2 Corinthians ix. 6. « St. Luke vi. 30. 

•^ Clement interprets the saying, "Make to yourselves 
friends . . . ," as a command to the rich man to give without 
being asked. 

337 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

/cat Sovs ra SioAAu/xeva tov kogjjlov fxovr^v tovtcov 
aloiVLOv ev ovpavolg dvTtXaiJL^dveL. TrXevaov eirl 
ravrrjv, dv oax^povfjg, rrjv Trav^yvpLV, d> TrXovace, 
Koiv Sery, TrepieXBe yrjv^ oXyju, (jlyj (f)€Lar) klvSvvcov Kal 
TTovwv, Iv* evravda ^acnXecav ovpdvLov dyopdcn^s. 
ri oe XldoL Sta^avet? /cat afidpaySoi togovtov €v<:f)paL- 
vovai /cat ot/cta,^ rpocfyrj TTvpos rj ;^povoi» Traiyviov 
Tj GeiGfiov Trdpepyov tj vjSpLGfjia rvpdvvov; ein- 
dvfjirjGov ev ovpavoZs olKrJGat /cat jSaatAeuaat juera 
Oeov' ravrrju gol rrjV ^aGiXeiav dvdpcoTTOS Scocet 
deov dTTOiiipbovpLevos' evravda puKpa Xa^cov eKel 

8t' oXoJV alcLvOiV GVVOLKOV G€ TTOLrjGer ai. LK€T€VG0V 

954 P. tVa Xd^Tj' G7T€VG0V, dya)\v[aGov, <f)O^T^drjTL pi'q 
ere drL/JidGr)' ov yap /ce/ceAeuarat Xa^eXv, dXXd 
GV TrapaGxetv. ov /jltjv ovS^ elrrev 6 Kvpio? hos, 
Tj 7TapdG)(es, Tj evepyerrjGOVy t] ^ot^Otjgov, <j>iXov 
he TTOLrjGaL' 6 Se (f)LXos ovk e/c /xtas" hoGecos 
yiverai, dXX e^ oXrjs dva7ravGea>? Kal GwovGias 
fjiaKpds' ovre yap rj TTiGri? ovre rj dydTrr) ovre^ rj 
Kaprepia puds rj/jLepag, aAA' "6 viropieivas els reXos, 
ovros GOjdrJGeraL." 

33. DcDs" ovv 6 dvOpcoTTOS ravra SlScoglv; otl hid 
rrjV eKeivov TLfjirjv /cat evvoiav /cat olKeioiGiv 6 Kvpios 
StScocTf "hixiGcx} ydp ov fiovov rots (f)iXoLs, dXXd /cat 
rots ^t'Aot? rd)v (f)iXa>v." /cat ris ovros eoriv 6 
^lXos rod deov; gv fiev p.r] Kplve, ris d^ios /cat rt's" 

^ yrju Combefis. Tr]i> ms. 
2 OLKia Combefis. oiKeia ms. 

^ ovT€ . . . o{jT€ . . . oijTe Stalilln. ovbk . . . oOre . . . 
oUre MS. 

" The word means " assembly " and was applied to the 
great national and religious festivals of the Greeks at 
338 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

money. You give the perishing things of the world 
and receive in exchange for them an eternal abode 
in heaven. Set sail, rich man, for this market,'* if 
you are wise. Compass the whole earth if need be. 
Spare not dangers or toils, that here you may buy 
a heavenly kingdom. Why so delighted with 
glittering stones and emeralds, with a house that 
is fuel for fire or a plaything for time or sport for an 
earthquake or the object of a tyrant's insolence ? 
Desire to live and reign in heaven with God. This 
kingdom a man, imitating God, shall give you. 
Having taken little from you here, he will make you 
through all the ages a fellow-inhabitant there. Beg 
him to take it. Hasten, strive earnestly, fear lest 
he reject you. For he has not been commanded 
to take, but you to provide. Furthermore, the Lord 
did not say, "give," or "provide," or "benefit," or 
"help," but "make a friend"^; and a friend is 
made not from one gift, but from complete relief 
and long companionship. For neither faith nor love 
nor patience is the work of one day, but " he that 
endureth to the end, the same shall l3e saved. "^ 

33. How then does a man give these things ? 
Why, the Lord gives them, on account of your 
esteem and favour and relationship with this man. 
" For I will give not only to my friends, but also to 
the friends of my friends." '^ And who is this friend 
of God ? Do not yourself decide who is worthy and 

Olympia and elsewhere. It is used of the Christian church 
in Hebrews xii. 23. As we should expect, these gatherings 
were made the occasion of fairs and markets (Strabo 486). 
It is this aspect of them which Clement seems to have most 
in mind here. 

» St. Luke xvi. 9. « St. Matthew x. 22. 

** Tills saying is not found in the gospels. 

m2 339 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

dvd^Los' iuSex^Tat yap ere Sta/xapretv vrept Tr]v 
So^av CO? iv d/x^t^oAo) Se rrj? dyvoias a}X€ivov koi 
rov5 ava^iovs €v TTOtelv 8ta rovs a^iovs rf <j>vXao- 
crofievov tovs rjaaov dyadovg fJbrjSe rot? crTrouoatot? 
7T€pL7Tea€LV. €K fieu ydp rod (f)€iSe<j9ai /cat irpoo- 
TToielaOai SoKLjjLd^eLV tovs euAdyco? rj firj rev^o- 
fievovs ivSex^ral oe koi ^eo^tAcuy djjLeXrjcral tlvcuv, 

OV TO iTTLTiflLOV KoXadL? CflTTVpOS aloJVLOS' €.K hk 

rod TTpo'Uadat Trdaiv i^rj? roZs xPV^o^^''^ dvdyKT) 
Trdvra)? evpeZv riva /cat tcjv adjaac rrapd Bed) 
hwafxevajv. " [Jltj KpZve" roivvv, " tva [xtj KpLdfjg- 
qj /jLerpcp [xeTpels, tovtco /cat dvnpLerprjdricreraL 
ooL' fji€Tpov KaXoVy TTemeafJievov /cat aeaaXevpievov, 
V7T€p€Kxvv6fjL€VOVj dTTohodiqaerai aoi.' Trdoiv av- 
OL^ov rd GTrXdyx^a rots rov deov /xa^r^rat? airo- 
yeypafJLfievoL?, jjir) 77/30? cra>/xa a7rt8a>v VTrepoTrrcDSy 
fjirj 7Tp6? rjXLKLav d/uLeXdjs Stare^et?, fJtrjS et rt? aKTTj- 
jjLCov •/) Svaeifjicov r) SvaeiSrjg r) dadevrjs (f)aiV€TaL, 
TTpos TOVTO rfj i/jvxfj Svax^pdvTj? /cat drroaTpacpfj?. 
axyJlJ-OL rovT eoriv e^codev -qixlv Trepi^e^XiqpLevov rrjs 

els KOapiOV TTapoSoV 7TpO(f)dG€L,^ LP^ et? TO KOLPOV 

rovTO TTaiSevrrjpLov elaeXdelp hvpr]6d)jJL€P- aAA' epSop 

KpVTTTO? 6POLK€L 6 ^ TTaTTJp KOL 6 TOVTOV TTat? O VTTep 

Tj/jidjv diTodavcov /cat /xe^' 7)iid)P dpaords. 

34. TouTO TO (TX^P^o, TO ^Xe-nopiepop i^aTrard top 
Bdvarov /cat top Sid^oXop' 6 ydp €Pt6s ttXovtos 
/cat TO /caAAo? avTOt? dOiaTo? ioTi' /cat pLaiPOPTai 
TTepl TO aapKLOP, ov KaTa(j)popovaiP co? aadepovs, 
Td)P epSop 6vT€9 TX}<f>Xoi KTrjpLaTCJV, ovK cVtCTTa/xevot 

^ Trpocpdaei Wilamowitz. irpicpacns MS. 
2 6 before TrarTjp Stiihlin : before KpvwTos ais. 

340 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

who unworthy, for you may happen to be quite mis- Do not 

taken in your opinion ; so that when in doubt through between' the 

ignorance it is better to do good even to the un- "worthy" 

worthy for the sake of the worthy than by being on worthy ""'^ 

your guard against the less good not to light upon 

the virtuous at all. For by being niggardly and by 

})retending to test who will deserve the benefit and 

who will not, you may possibly neglect some who 

are beloved of God, the penalty for which is eternal 

punishment by fire. But by giving freely to all in 

turn who need, you are absolutely certain to find 

one of those men who have power to save you 

with God. Therefore, "judge not, that you may 

not be judged ; with what measure you mete, it 

shall be measured to you again. Good measure, 

pressed down and shaken together, running over, 

shall be given back to you."* Open your heart to 

all who are enrolled as God's disciples, not gazing 

scornfully on their body, nor being led to indifference 

by their age. And if one appear needy or ill-clad Outward 

or ungainly or weak, do not in your soul take offence fg^untm-'^*'* 

at this and turn away. This is a form thrown round portant 

us from without for the purpose of our entrance into 

the world, that we may be able to take our place in 

this universal school ; but hidden within dwells the 

Father, and His Son ^ who died for us and rose 

with us. 

34. This form that is seen deceives death and the The real 
devil ; for the inward wealth and beauty are invisible ^eTut^ are 
to them. And they rage round the bit of flesh, within 
which they despise as weak, while they are blind to 
the inner possessions, not knowing how great a 

« See St. Matthew vii. 1 ; St. Luke vi. 38. 
* See St. John xiv. 23. 

341 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TT-qXtKOV TLva " drjaavpov eV oaTpaKivco gkcvcl" 
jSacrra^OjLtey, hwdfiet deov Trarpos Kal at/xart Oeov 
TTatSos Kal hpodO) TTvevjiaros dylov TrepneTetxi-o- 
puevov. dAAa av ye /xt) i^aTrariqOfj?, 6 yeyevpievos 
dXrjdeias Kal Karrj^LajpLevos rrjs pLeydXrjs XvrpcoaecDS, 
dAAa TO evavriov tol? dAAot? dvdpa)7TOLS oeavrat 
855 P. KardXe^ov arparov clottXov, drroXepLov, dvaipiaKrov, 
d6pyr)TOV, dpiiavrov, yepovTas \ deooe^eZs, 6p(j>avovs 
6eo(f)iXeZs, XVP^^^ Trpaori^rt cxjirXicrpLevas, dvSpas 
dydrrr] KeKoapnqpievovs . tolovtovs KrrjaaL rep aco 
ttXovto) Kal TO) acop,aTL Kal ttj ^vxf] ^opv(j)6povs, 
Sv crrparrjyeL deos, St' ovs Kal vav? ^aTrnl^opLei^r] 
KOV(f>Lt,€TaL jLtovat? dyiojv eux^i? Kv^epvcopievrj, Kal 
voGos aKT/xd^oucra Sa/xd^erai ^^tpcDr e-m^oXaZs 
StajKopievrj, Kal TTpoa^oXrj Xrjarwv d^OTrAt^erat 
€u;^ats' evoe^eai GKvXevopievr], Kal SaLpiovcov jSta 
dpaverai TrpoardypLaoL ovvtovols eXeyxop-evq. 

35. 'Evepyot-^ ovtol Trdvres [ot]^ arparLajTai Kal 
(j)vXaK€s pe^aLOL, ovSel? dpyos, ovSelg dxp^Zog. 6 
pL€v i^aLTrjaaaOai ae hvvarai Trapd deov, 6 8e irapa- 
pLvd-qaaadai Kdpivovra, 6 8e SaKpCaai Kal OTevd^ai 
avpLTTaddjs vrrep gov Trpos rov Kvpiov rcov oXa>v, a 
8e 8t8d^at TL Tojv irpos ttjv aojrrjpLav XP'^^U^^'^ y o 
he vovOerrjoaL jLterd Trapp-qalas, 6 Se avpL^ovXevaat 
pcer^ evvoias, Trdvres 8e (fnXetv dXrjddj?, dSoAajs", 
d(f)6^(jos, dvvTTOKpLTCos, dKoXaKevTOj? , dnXdaraJS. oj 
yXvKelaL depaTrelai (f)iXovvTa>v , to /xa/cd/atot 8ta- 
Koviai dappovvTOJV, cu tTiori? elXiKpivrj? Oeov pLovov 
hehi6ra)v, oJ X6ya>v dXy]d€La Trapd rol? xpevoaodai 
pLTj hvvapievois, a> /cdAAo? epycov Trapd rots deep 

^ iyepyoi Stahlin. fv ?pyoi.s MS. 
" [ol] Schwartz. 

342 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

" treasure " we carry " in an earthen vessel/'* fortified 
by the power of God the Father and the blood of 
God the Son and the dew of the Holy Spirit. Do 
not you be deceived, however, who have tasted of 
truth, and have been deemed worthy of the great 
redemption ; but, contrary to the rest of men, enlist 
on your behalf an army without weapons, without The great 
war, without bloodshed, without anger, without stain, christian 
an army of God-fearing old men, of God-beloved saints 
orphans, of widows armed with gentleness, of men 
adorned with love. Obtain with your wealth, as 
guards for your body and your soul, such men as 
these, whose commander is God. Through them 
the sinking ship rises, steered by the prayers of saints 
alone ; and sickness at its height is subdued, put to 
flight by the laying on of hands ; the attack of 
robbers is made harmless, being stripped of its 
weapons by pious prayers ; and the violence of 
daemons is shattered, reduced to impotence by 
confident commands. 

25. Effective soldiers are all these, and steadfast The many 
guardians, not one idle, not one useless. One is able twcan 
to beg your life from God, another to hearten you render 
when sick, another to weep and lament in sympathy 
on your behalf before the Lord of all, another to 
teach some part of what is useful for salvation, another 
to give outspoken warning, another friendly counsel, 
and all to love you truly, without guile, fear, hypocrisy, 
flattery or pretence. What sweet services of loving 
friends ! What blessed ministries of men of good 
cheer ! What pure faith of those who fear God alone ! 
What truth of speech among those who cannot lie ! 
What beauty of deeds among those who are resolved 
« 2 Corinthians iv. 7. 

343 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

SiaKOvelv 7r€7T€i(Jix€Vois, 7T€l6€lv Oeov, apeoKeiv Oeco' 
ov crap/cos" Trjg arj? aTrrea^at Sokovglv, dXXa rrjg 
iavTov ifjvx^s eKaarog, ovk aSeA^oi AaAetv, aAAa 
rco ^aaiXeZ rcov alojvcov iv aol KarotKOVVTi. 

36. Yldvres ovv ot Tnarol koXoI /cat OeoTrpeirels 
KOL rrjs TTpoarjyoplag d^iot, 7]^ woTTCp SidSrjfMa 
7repiK€LVTaL. ov [xrjv aAA' elalv rjSr) nves /cat 
Tojv e/cAe/cTcov eKXeKTorepoi, /cat rooovTco fiaXXov 
<rj> ■*■ rJTTOV IttLotiplol, rpoTTOV rivd e/c rod /cAuScovo? 
Tov Koapiov v€Ci)XKOvvT€? iavTovs /cat eTTavayovre? 
eV dor^aAeV, ov ^ovXofJievoL SoKelv dyioi, kolv e'iTTr) 
Tt?, alaxvvoiievoi, ev ^ddei yvcofjir]? aTTOKpvTTTOvres 
TO, dv€KXdXr]Ta pLVOTi^pia, /cat rr]V avrcbv cvyeveiav 
V7r€pr](f}avovvT€£ iv KOGpup ^XeireoOai, ovs 6 Xoyog 
" (bo)? TOV Koaixov" /cat " a'Aa? rris yrjg" /caAet. 
TOUT ecrt TO oneppLa, eiKcov /cat o/xota;crt? ueov, /cat 
reKVOv avTOV yviqaiov /cat KXrjpov6p.ov, wmrep eiri 
TLva ^evireiav evravda Treuirroui^vov vtto pLcydXrjs 
oiKOVopaas Kai avaAoyia? TOV TTarpos' ol o /cat Ta 
(j>avepd /cat to, d^avrj rod Koapiov hehrip^LOVpyrirai, 
rd fjiev €LS hovXeiav, rd he et? doK-qaiv, rd he els 
p.dd7]GLV avrcp, /cat Trdvra, piexp^s dv evravda rd 
arreppia pievrj, ovvex^rai, /cat avvaxOevros avrov 
Trdvra ^ rdx^ora XvOrjaerai. \ 

1 <^> inserted by Segaar. 

2 5t' 5 Schwartz, 5t' o5 Jis. 

3 xdj/ra Schwartz. Tavra ms. 



« 1 Timothy i. 17. * St. Matthew v. 13-14. 

<^ See Genesis i. 26 ; Romans viii. 17 ; 1 Timothy i. 2 ; 

Titus i. 4. „,,.,, 

^ The "seed" is a gnostic term for those higher souls 
who contain within themselves in a special degree the spark 
of divine hfe. They walk by knowledge, or direct intuition, 

344 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

to minister to God, to persuade God, to please God ! 
They seem to touch not your flesh but each his own 
soul, not to be talking with a brother but with the 
King of the ages * who dwells in you. 

36. All the faithful then are noble and godlike, and The highest 
worthy of their title, which they wear as a diadem. fJe^g^ed: 
Not but that there are already some who are even 
more elect than the elect, and more elect in propor- 
tion as they are less conspicuous. These are they 
who in a manner haul themselves up out of the 
surf of the world and retire to a place of safety, who 
do not wish to appear holy, and are ashamed if one 
calls them so, who hide in the depth of their mind 
the unutterable mysteries, and scorn to let their 
nobility of nature be seen in the world. These the 
Word calls " light of the world " and " salt of the 
earth." * This is the seed, God's image and likeness, 
and His true child and heir," sent here, as it were, 
on a kind of foreign service by the Father's high 
dispensation and suitable choice. For his sake both 
the visible and invisible things of the world have 
been created, some for his service, others for his 
training, others for his instruction ; and all are held 
together so long as the seed remains on earth, and 
when it has been gathered in all will speedily be 
dissolved.'^ 

rather than by faith. Justin Martyr (2 Apology ch. 7) 
makes the same statement as Clement, viz. that the world 
is preserved solely on account of the " seed " ; but he means 
by this term the whole body of Christians. Clement how- 
ever seems plainly to restrict it to those who are "more 
elect than the elect." For the " gathering in " of the elect 
see St. Matthew iii. 12 and xxiv. 31 ; Teaching of the Twelve 
Apostles ix. 4 and x. 5 ; Clement's Extracts from Theodotus 
xxvi. 3. 

S45 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

p. 37. Tt yap ert Sec; Oeo) ra ttjs dyaTrrjs fivaTTjpia, 
/cat Tore eVoTrreucreiS' rov koXttov rod Trarpog, ov 
6 fxovoyevrj'S deos piovo? e^rjyqaaro. ean he kol 
avTos 6 deos dyaTTrj Kal 8t' dyaTrrjv rjp,iv ededOr)} 
/cat TO piev dpprjTov avrov TTartjp, to 8e et? 'qpidg 
avpLTTadeg yeyove pii^Trjp. dyaTnjaa? 6 irar-qp 
ediqXvvOri, /cat tovtov pueya Gr)p.elov ov avTos 
eyevvrjaev ef avTov' /cat o rexO^U e'f dyd-TT-qs 
KapTTog dyaTTT]. Sta tovto /cat auros" KaTrjXde, Sta 
TOVTO dv6pcx)7Tov iveSv, Std tovto to, dvdpcoTTCov 
eKOJV enaOev, tVa 77/30? t7]j^ rjpLeTepav dodevecav ov£ 
rjyd7T7]Ge p^eTprjOels rjp.ds Trpo? tyjv eavTOv Svvapnv 
dvTip.eTpr]ar]. /cat pieXKoov OTrevheodai /cat XvTpov 
eavTov eVtStSous- Kmvrjv rjp,tv hiaSrjK-qv /caraAt/A- 
TTavei' " dydrrrjv vpilv StSco/xt ttjv epajv." tls Se 
eoTLv avTT] /cat ttogt]; virep rjpicJbv eKaarov /care- 
^17 /ce ^ Tr)v ifjvxrjv ttjv dvra^iav twv oXajv TavTr]v 
rjp^d? VTTep dXXrjXojv avTairaiTeZ. el he tol? ijiv^ds 
oqyeiXop^ev rot? dSeA^ots", /cat TOLavTr]v ttju avvdrjKriv 
TTpos Tov GojTTjpa dvdcopioXoyijpieda, ctl Ta tov 
KOGp^oVy TOi TTTcaxd KOL dXXoTpta /cat TTapappeovTa, 
Kadeip^op^ev TapaevopLevoi; dXXi^Xajv dnoKXeiGopLev, 
a p^eTa p,LKp6v e^et to irvp; Oeiojs ye /cat eVtTrydcoj ^ 

^ iOeadr) (cp. V. Stromate'is 16. 5) Lindner, idi^pad-n ms. 
"^ KaT€dr}K€ Segaar. KadrjKe MS. 

^ iinirvboos Li ndner. (Tnirovm ms. 

« St. John i. 18. This passage strongly supports the 
reading noted in the margin of the Revised Version. 
* See 1 St. John iv. 8, 16. 

" This thought of the Motherhood of God has a parallel 
in Synesius (Bishop of Ptolemais in Libya early in the fifth 
century), Hymn II. 63-4 : 

Thou art Father, thou art Mother, 
Thou art male, and thou art female. 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

37. What else is necessary ? Behold the mysteries God is love 
of love, and then you will have a vision of the bosom 
of the Father, whom the only-begotten God alone 
declared.** God in His very self is love,^ and for 
love's sake He became visible to us. And while the 
unspeakable part of Him is Father, the part that has 
sympathy with us is Mother." By His loving the 
Father became of woman's nature, a great proof of 
which is He whom He begat from Himself ; and the 
fruit that is born of love is love. This is why the 
Son Himself came to earth, this is why He put on 
manhood, this is why He willingly endured man's 
lot, that, having been measured to the weakness of us 
whom He loved. He might in return measure us to 
His own power. And when He is about to be 
offered'* and is giving Himself up as a ransom He 
leaves us a new testament : " I give you my love."* 
What love is this, and how great .'* On behalf of 
each of us He laid down the life that is equal in 
value to the whole world. In return He demands 
this sacrifice from us on behalf of one another. But God expects 
if we owe our lives to the brethren, and admit such 15)\e°oSe°^ 
a reciprocal compact with the Saviour, shall we still to another 
husband and hoard up the things of the world, which 
are beggarly and alien to us and ever slipping away.'' 
Shall we shut out from one another that which in a 
short time the fire will have ? Divine indeed and 

Gnostic speculation introduced a Mother as the cause of 
Creation (cp. Irenaeus i. 4), but the present passage would 
seem to have no connexion at all with this. Clement is 
simply trying to account, in a mystical way, for the love of 
God as shown in the Incarnation. 

'^ i.e. as a drink-offering— the same word that St. Paul 
uses of himself in 2 Timothy iv. 6. 

• See St. John xiii. 34 ; xiv. 27. 

347 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

o ^Icodvvrjs "6 fJLT) (fiiXcov" (l>iqGl " rov dSeA(/>ov 
avBpojTTOKTovos 6(7X1,' OTTepfMa Tov KdiVj Opefifxa 
rod Sia^oXov Oeov airXdyxvov ovk ex^c, e'ATrtSa 
KpeiTTOVojv OVK e;^€6, doTTopos eGTLV, dyovos ioTLV, 
OVK €GTi KXrjjJLa rrjs del ^clktt]? virepovpavias d/JLTre- 
Xov, e/c/coTrrerat, to TTvp ddpovv dra/xeVet. 

38. Su Se pidOe ttjv "<Kad^ >^ VTrep^oXrjv 686v," 
rjv heiKVVGL YiavXo?, IttI GOjnqpiav' " rj dydirri rd 
iavTrjs ov t,7]Tel," dXX errl rov dheXcfidv eKKe-)(vrai' 
TTepl rovrov iTrroTjTai, irepl tovtov G<x>(f)p6vojs 
(jLaLverai. " dydTrrj KaXv7TT€t TrXrjdo? dpLapriayv r) 
TcXela dydTTYj eK^dXXet rov (f)6^ov' ov TrepTrepeveraL, 
ov (j)VGiovraiy ovk iTTLxalpeL rfj dSiActa, GvyxoLtpei 
Se rfj dX-qdeta' irdvra areyet, Trdvra VLGTevec, 
TTavra eXiTil^ei, Travra VTrofieuei. rj dydrriq ovSe- 
TTore iK7TL7TT€i. 7Tpo(f)r)r€Tai Karapyovvrai, yXdJGGaL 
Travovrai, tdaets" eVt yi]? AcaraAetVovrat. /xeVet 8e 
rd rpia ravra, ttlgtis, eXiris, dydirri' pLelS^ajv Se ev 
rovTOLS rj dydTTT]." Kal SiKalcos. ttlgtls pcev yap 
direpxeTai., orav avToipla 77etCT^cD/xev ISovres Oeov, 
Kal eAms" d^avt^erat rcov eXTTiGdevrcjv drroSodevrcoVy 
dyaTTT] Se els TrXijpcDfJLa Gwepxerai Kal fjidXXov 
av^erai, rcbv reXeuov TrapaSoBevroov. edv TavTi]v 
efi^dXrjrai Tt? rfj ^vxf}, Svvarai,, Kav ev duaprr} p^aotv 
rj yeyevvrjpievos, Kav TroAAd rwv KeKioXvpieviov 
elpyaofievos, av^TQoas ttjv dydinqv Kal fierdvocav 
KaOapdv Xa^ojv dvapiaxeoaadai rd eVratCT/xeVa. j 

* <jiad"> inserted by Combefis from 1 Corinthians xii. 31. 

« 1 St. John iii. 15. 
* See St. John xv. 5-6, 

S48 



I 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

inspired is the saying of John : " He that loveth not 
his brother is a murderer/' "' a seed of Cain, a nursling 
of the devil. He has no tender heart of God, no 
hope of better things. He is without seed and 
without offspring. He is no branch of the ever- 
living heavenly vine. He is cut off; he awaits the 
fire at once.^ 

38. But do you learn the "more excellent way" ^ The great- 
to salvation, which Paul shows. "Love seeketh not ^lessofiova 
its own/'^ but is lavished upon the brother. For 
him love flutters with excitement, for him it is 
chastely wild. " Love covereth a multitude of sins. 
Perfect love casteth out fear. Love vaunteth not 
itself, is not puffed up, rejoiceth not in unrighteous- 
ness, but rejoiceth with the truth ; beareth all things, 
believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all 
things. Love never faileth ; prophecies are done 
away, tongues cease, healings are left behind on 
earth ; but these three remain, faith, hope, love ; 
and the greatest among these is love." ^ And 
rightly ; for faith departs, when we believe through 
having seen God with our own eyes ; and hope 
vanishes away when what we hoped for has been 
granted ; but love goes with us into the fulness of 
God's presence and increases the more when that 
which is perfect has been bestowed. Even though 
a man be born in sins, and have done many of the 
deeds that are forbidden, if he but implant love in Love with 
his soul he is able, by increasing the love and by ^^^^^ ga?ns *^ 

accepting pure repentance, to retrieve his failures. God's for- 

giveness 

<= 1 Corinthians xii. 31. 
^ 1 Corinthians xiii. 5. 

« See 1 St. Peter iv. 8 ; 1 St. John iv. 18 ; 1 Corinthians 
xiii. 4-13. 

349 



clemp:nt of Alexandria 

967 P. fJLrjSe ^ yap rovro et? dTToyvcjaiv gol /cat aTTovotav 
KaraXeXei^Oo), el /cat tov ttXovgiov fidOoLs ogtls 
eGrlv 6 x^P^^ ^^ ovpavoig ovk e^tov /cat rtVa rpoirov 
Tot? ovGi xp^l^^^os (39) dv Tt? TO re e-nipp-qTOV ^ tov 
ttXovtov /cat ;!(aAe7T6p' et? ^cot^v hLa(f>vyoL /cat SuVatro 
Tcoy alcjviojv [rcov]^ dyadojv erravpaGdai, e'er] he 
TeTVxr)Kdj<; ri 8t' d'yvotav ■^ 8t' dodeveLav tj irepiGTaGiv 
dKovGLOv jxerd ttjv G(j>paylha /cat Tr]v XvrpcoGiv 
TTepiTTeriqs tlglv a/xapri^/xacrty rj TrapaTTTCvpiaGLV , ix)s 
VTTevrjvexOai reXeov, < on >* ovtos Kareijjri(j>LGT at irav- 
TaTTaGiv V7t6 tov deov. rravTi yap tw /xer' dXiqdeias 
ef oXris TTJ? /capSta? eTTLGTpeipauTL rrpos tov deov 
dvecpyaoLv at ^upat /cat Se^^''"^'' TpiGaGfievo? TraTrjp 
vlov dXrjOojs pueTavoovvTa- r) 8* dX-qBiVT] [leTdvoia 
TO fXTjKeTL rots' auTOt? evoxov etvai, dXXd dphiqv 
e/cpt^coo-at tt;? ^vxrj? e^' ot? eavTov KaTeyva> 
ddvaTOV dfiapT-qfjiaGLV' tovtojv yap dvaipeBevTwv 
au^t? et? Ge deos etVot/ctCT^7](76Tat. fieydX-qv ydp 
cfyrjGL /cat dvvTrep^XrjTOV etvaL ^ctp^v /cat eopTTjv iv 
ovpavoZs to) Trarpt /cat rot? dyyeAot? eVd? dfJiapTOjXov 
eTTLGTpeifjavTOS /cat fieTavo-qoavTO? . 8td /cat KCKpa- 
yev " eXeov OeXoj /cat ou OvGcav ov ^ovXofiau tov 
ddvaTOV TOV dfJLapTwXov , dAAd tt]^ jjceTavoLav Kav 
(Lglv at d/xaprtat u/xdii/ ct>? (jyoiviKovv epLov, ws 
Xiova XevKavo), Kav pieXdvTepov tov gkotovs, cos 
epiov XevKov eKvixjjas ttolt^go)." Oeo) yap fMovcp 
SvvaTOV d^eGLV dpiapTLCov TrapaGx^crOaL /cat fxr) 
XoyiGaGdai TTapaTTTOjpiaTa, ottov ye /cat tjixIv napa- 

* fn]8€ Dindorf. iJ.rjT€ ms. ^ eirlpp-qTov Segaar. iirtppei rbv MS. 

^ aluviuv [tup] Ghisler. aldjvwv tCov ms. 

* <6n> inserted by Stahlin. 

« See St. Luke xv. 7, 10. 
S50 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

For if you understand who is the rich man that has 
no place in heaven, and also in what manner a man 
may so use his substance (39) as to win his way 
to life through the censure and difficulties caused 
by wealth, and to be able to enjoy the eternal good 
things, — yes, even though he has happened either 
because of ignorance or of weakness or of circum- 
stances not of his own choice to fall after the 
baptismal seal and redemption into certain sins or 
transgressions so as to have become completely sub- 
ject to them, — let not this thought remain with you 
to lead to despair and despondency, namely, that 
such an one has been condemned outright by God. 
For to every one who turns to God in truth with his 
whole heart the doors are opened and a thrice-glad 
Father receives a truly penitent son. And genuine 
repentance is to be no longer guilty of the same 
offences, but utterly to root out of the soul the 
sins for which a man condemned himself to death ; 
because when these have been destroyed God will 
once again enter in and dwell with you. For He 
says that there is great and unsurpassable joy and 
feasting in heaven for the Father and the angels 
when one sinner has turned and repented.^ Accord- 
ingly He cries, " I wish for mercy and not sacrifice, 
I desire not the death of the sinner, but his repen- 
tance. Though your sins be as scarlet wool, I will 
whiten them as snow ; though blacker than the 
darkness, I will wash them and make them as white 
wool." ^ For God alone can grant remission of 
sins and not reckon trespasses," though even we 

* See St. Matthew ix. 13 ; xii. 7 (from Rosea vi. 6) ; 
Ezekiel xviii. 23 ; Isaiah i. 18. 

See St. Mark ii. 7 ; St. Luke v. 21 ; 2 Corinthians v. 19. 

351 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

KeXeveraL rrj? rjiJicpas eKdarr]? 6 KVpios acjiievai 
rols dSeA^ot? pLeravoovoiv . el 8e ij/xet? nov-qpol 
ovres loixev ayada So/xara hihovai, ttooco fxaXXov 
"o TTarrjp tojv OLKTippLCOv." 6 dyados 7TaTr]p " Traar]? 
TTapaKX-qaeoJS," 6 rroXvoTrXayxvos koI iroXveXeo^ 
ire^VKe fiaKpoOvpLelv rov? iTnaTpeipavras rrepL- 
fji6V€L. einorpe^ai Se eanv ovrco'S aTTO tojv a/xap- 
Ti]ixdro)V TO TravaaoOai koI jjLrjKerL ^XeTreiv els 
rd OTTLoroj. 

40. Tojv fiev ovv tt poyey evqpievojv deds hihojoLV 
dcjieaiv, rGiv 8e eTnovrcov avrds eKaaros eavro). 
Kal TOVT eoTL fierayvcovaL, to Karayvwvai tojv 
7Tapcpxr]P'evcx)v /cat alTrjaaadaL tovtcjv d/jLvrjoTiav 
Trapd TTarpos, os aovos rwv dirdvTajv olds re eoriv 
aTTpaKra TroLTjuai ra TreTrpayfieva eAecp rep Trap avrov 
Kal SpdcTCp TTvevfiaros dTTaXeiijjas rd TrporjpiapTrjixeva. 
" ecf)^ ots ydp dv evpco vfids," (f)'q<jLV, "em tovtol? 
Kal Kpivd)'" Kal Trap* e/caara ^oa to reXos Trdvrojv' 
a)OTe Kal rep rd pLeytora ev TTeTTOirjKdri < Kard>^ rov 
plop, eirl Se tou reXovs e^oKeiXavn Ttpos KaKiav, 
dvoviqroL ^ Travre? ol TrpooOev ttovol, errl rrjs Kara- 
(jrpo(f)rjs rod SpdpLaro? e^ddXco yevopievcp, rw re 
958 P. xeipov I Kal e7TLaeavppLeva)s /StcooavTt Trporepov eonv 
varepov fjLeravorjaavri ttoXXov ;!^/30vou TToXirecav 

* <Kard> inserted by Segaar (from Sac. Par.). 
2 du6vr]Toi Ghisler (from Sac. Par.). dvSrjTOL ms. 

« See St. Luke xvii. 3-4. 

* St. Matthew vii. 11 ; St. Luke xi. 13. 

<= 2 Corinthians i. 3. ^ St. James v. 11. 

« St. Luke ix. 62. 

^ This saying, not found in our gospels, is mentioned in 
sHghtly different form by Justin Martyr ( Dialoqtte with Trypho 
47) who expressly attributes it to our Lord. It has some 
352 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

are exhorted by the Lord each day to forgive our 
brothers when they repent.** And if we, being evil, 
know how to give good gifts/ how much more does 
" the Father of mercies." '^ The good Father "of all 
comfort," '^ full of pity ^ and full of mercy, is by 
nature long-suffering. He waits for those who turn 
to Him. And to turn to Him truly is to cease from 
sins and no more to look back.^ 

40. Of sins already committed, then, God gives Repentance 
remission, but of those that are to come each man ^^piete 
procures his own remission. And this is repentance, change 
to condemn the deeds that are past and to ask ° ^ ® 
forgetfulness of them from the Father, who alone of 
all is able to make undone what has been done, by 
wiping out former sins with the mercy that comes 
from Him and with the dew of the Spirit. " For in 
whatever things I find you," He says, " in these will 
I also judge you ; " f and at each step He proclaims 
the end of all things.fi' So that even when a man has 
done the greatest works faithfully through life, but 
at the end has run on the rocks of evil, all his former 
labours bring him no profit, since at the turning- 
point ^ of the drama he has retired from the contest ; 
whereas he who has at first led an indifferent and slip- 
shod life may, if afterwards he repents, utterly wipe 
out a wicked course of long continuance with the time 

resemblance to Ezekiel xxxiii. 20 (Sept.) — " I will judge you 
each one in his ways " — and in both Clement and Justin it 
occurs in connexion with teaching drawn from Ezekiel xxxiii. 
10-20. a See 1 St. Peter iv. 7. 

^ The " catastrophe " or turning-point towards the end of 
a play when the issue stands definitely revealed. Used here, 
as elsewhere in Greek literature, for the conclusion of life, 
when a man might be expected to have settled down to a 
course either good or evil. 

353 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TTOvnpav if^i'i'KrjcraL tw /xera T-qv fxerdvoLav XP'^^V 
aKOiBeia? ?^ ^^^ ttoW-y]?, wGTrep rocs fJiaKpa voacp 
TTeTTOV-qKoar crdJAtaat hiairr]? XP^^^ '^^tt Trpoaoxfjs 
TrXetovo?. p KX€7TTr]s,a(j>eaiv ^ovXeiXa^elv; firjKeTL 
f(X^Tj-T^- o y^oix^voasy fJLrjKeri TTvpovadco- 6 irop- 
vevcras Xol'^^^ ayveviro)' 6 dpTrdaa?, aTToSlSov Kal 
TTpoaaTToSi^^^' ^ ijjevhojxdpTVS, dXrjdeLav doK-qoov 
6 eTTLODKOSf H'V'^^''''' ofivve' Kal rd dXXa TrdOrj orvv- 
reae opyrty* eVt^y/xtW, XvTrrjVy (f)6^ov, tva evpedfjs 
^^l ^^j ^^68ov TTpds Tov avrihiKov ivravOa 
ScaXeXvaOa'' ^^dvcjov. eariv jjuev ovv dSvvarov Lcrcos 
dSpocog dTT^*^^^^^ Trddr) avvrpo^a, dXXd fxerd Beov 
Svvdaecos '^^^ dvdpiOTreias LKeaia? koX dheX(j>ii)v 
Bo-ndeias k^^ elXiKpivovs jieravoia? /cat avvexovs 
fxeXer-qs Ka^opOovraL. 

41. Ato ^^^ Trdvrojs oe rdv Go^apdv Kal hvvarov 
Kal TrXovcn^^ eTnuTrjaaoOai lavrcp TLvd dvOpojirov 
deov KaOdv'^P dXeiTTTrjv Kal Kv^epvriTqv . alSov Kav 
€va (boBov 1^^^ ^^^> jJceXerrjuov dKovetv Kav eVo? Trap- 
p-naLatoaiv^^ ^^^ <yTV(f)ovTos dfia Kal depanevovros. 
ouSe ydp 7^^^ d^OaXpLoZs crvfjicf>€peL tov del xpo^ou 
aKoXdorois ^teVetv, aAAa Kal haKpvaai Kal hr]xO'rjvaL 
TTore V7T€p iV^ vyeia? rrj? TrXeiovo?. ovtoj Kal ifjvxf] 
SirivcKovs {l^ovij? ovSev dXeOpioorepov diroTvchXov- 
rai ydp a/^ r^? rrj^eats, idv dKLV7]Tos rep Trapprj- 
oiatoaevixi StajLtetV?^ Xoyoj, rovrov Kal opyioOevra 
(boBrjOriTL, '^^'^ GTevd^avra Xv7T'q6r]TL,^ Kal opyrjv 
iravovra atSea^Tyrt, /cat KoXaoLV irapairovpevov ^ 

1 c^Teva^av^^^ XvwrjdriTi Mayor. CTTecd^avTa evXa^rjdTjri 
Seo-aar Sucr'*"^'^^^" Schwartz. Stiihlin and Barnard mark 
the passage as corrupt. 

2 TrapaiTovl^^^<^^ Segaar. irapaiTovixivu ms. 
S54> 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

left after his repentance. But great care is needed, 
just as bodies that are labouring under a long disease 
require treatment and special attention. Thief, do 
you wish to receive forgiveness } steal no more." 
Adulterer^ no longer burn.^ Fornicator, keep pure 
in future. Extortioner, repay with interest. False 
witness, practise truth. Oath-breaker, swear no 
more. And repress the rest of the passions, anger, 
lust, grief, fear, in order that at your departure you 
may be found to have already become reconciled 
here on earth with your adversary.'' Now it is per- 
haps impossible all at once to cut away passions that 
have grown with us, but with God's power, human 
supplication, the help of brethren, sincere repentance 
and constant practice success is achieved. 

41. It is therefore an absolute necessity that you The rich 
who are haughty and powerful and rich should ap- Jpoken"*^ 
point for yourself some man of God as trainer and advice and 
pilot. Let there be at all events one whom you ^""*°s 
respect, one whom you fear, one whom you accustom 
yourself to listen to when he is outspoken and severe, 
though all the while at your service. Why, it is not 
good for the eyes to remain all our life-time undis- 
ciplined ; they should sometimes weep and smart for 
the sake of better health. So, too, nothing is more 
destructive to the soul than incessant pleasure, the 
softening influence of which blinds it, if it continues 
obstinate against the outspoken word. Fear this 
man when he is angry, and be grieved when he 
groans ; respect him when he stays his anger, and 
be before him in begging release from punishment. 

« See Ephesians iv. 28. 

* See 1 Corinthians vii. 9. 

« See St. Matthew v. 25 ; St. Luke xii. 58. 

355 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

(l)6d(JOV. OVTOS V7T€p GOV TToAAoL? VVKTaS aypVTTVT]' 

oaroj, TTpea^evcxiv virep oov npos deov /cat Atravetat? 
Gvvqdeoi ixayevojv rov Trarepa- ov yap avre^et 
Tot? TeKVOis avTOvra oirXdyxi^cL heopievois. Serjaerai 
8e Kadapws vtto gov TrporLfxajpievos cu? dyyeXos rov 
deov Kal jjLTjhev vtto gov XvTTOvfjievos, aAA' VTrep gov' 
Tovro eGTL fjLerdvoLa dvvTTOKpLTO?. " deos ov fivKrr)- 
pit,€rai' ovhe irpoGex'^i k€VoZs prjixaGi' fxovos yap 
dvaKpivei jjiveXovs /cat v€<f>povs Kaphias /cat rix)v ev 
TTVpl KaraKOvei /cat tcDv ev KoiXia K-qrovg iKerevov- 
Tiov e^aKOvei /cat ttoLglv iyyvs eVrt rot? TnGrevovGi 
/cat TToppcx) TOts" ddeois, dv [xtj /xeravorjacuatv. 

42. "Iva Se eTndapprjGrjs} ovtoj fJLeravorjGas 
dXrjdcbSy on goI /xeVct GOJTiqpias iXnls d^Loxp^oj?, 
aKovGOV pLvdov ov pivOou, dXXd dvra Xoyov Trepl 
059 P. *lo)dvvov Tov a7ro|aToAou 7rapa8eSo/xeVov /cat ^ivrjfir) 
TTecfyvXaypievov. eTreiBr] yap rov rvpdvvov reXevri]- 
Gavros diTO Trjg HaT/xou tt^S" vrjGOV pierrjXdev eVt 
TT^v "E<^eo-ov, drrriei TTapaKaXov/xevos /cat iirl rd 
TrXrjGLoxcjtJpa tcov idvojv, orrov jjuev eTTiGKOTTOvs /cara- 
GT-qGOJVy OTTOV Se oAa? eKKXrjGias dpjxoGOJV, ottov 
8e KXrjpov eva ye^ riva KXrjpwGcov tcov vtto tov 
TTvevfJLaTOS GrjiJLaLVOjJievcov. eXdwv ovv /cat eVt rtva 

1 iineappriffys Barnard and Stahlin (from Maxiraus Con- 
fessor). ^TL dappyjs MS. 

2 ye Stahlin (from Eusebius and Maximus Confessor). 
re MS, 



" Galatians vi. 7. 

* For this sentence see Hebrews iv. 12 ; Jeremiah xvii. 10; 
Psalm vii. 9 ; Daniel iii. ; Jonah ii. ; Revelation ii. 23. 

c Domitian, by whom St. John is said to have been exiled, 
is generally thought to be referred to here. But he died in 
A.D. 96, and it is practically certain that St. John the 
apostle's active ministry must have ended before this date. 

356 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

Let him spend many wakeful nights on your behalf, 
acting as your ambassador with God and moving the 
Father by the spell of constant supplications ; for 
He does not withstand His children when they beg 
His mercies. And this man will beg them, if he is 
sincerely honoured by you as an angel of God and is 
in nothing grieved by you, but only for you. This 
is unfeigned repentance, *' God is not mocked/' <* 
nor does He attend to empty phrases. For He alone 
discerns the marrow and reins of the heart ; and 
hears those who are in the fire ; and listens to those 
who in the whale's belly entreat Him ; and is near to all 
believers and far from the godless unless they repent.^ 

4.2. And to give you confidence, when you have story of 
thus truly repented, that there remains for you a and'uie" 
trustworthy hope of salvation, hear a story that is no robber 
mere story, but a true account of John the apostle 
that has been handed down and preserved in memory. 
When after the death of the tyranf he removed 
from the island of Patmos to Ephesus, he used to 
journey by request to the neighbouring districts of the 
Gentiles, in some places to appoint bishops, in others 
to regulate whole churches, in others to set among 
the clergy some one man, it may be, of those indicated 
by the Spirit.^ He came then to one of the cities 

Either his exile was earlier, i.e. in Nero's reign, or else there 
has been a confusion between the apostle and John the 
presbyter of Ephesus. 

■* The phrase KXrjpdjaoju Kkiipov means literally " to allot a 
lot." KXt7/)os was used to designate a " lot " or " share " in 
the Christian ministry (cp. Acts i. 17) and its use was after- 
wards extended to the ministers themselves or "clergy." 
In this passage both meanings are suggested. Those "in- 
dicated by the Spirit " would be men whose spiritual gifts, 
such for instance as pastoral authority or teaching, marked 
them out as fit candidates for office in the Church. 

357 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

TOJV ov iiaKpav TToXeojv, ij? /cat rovvofxa Xiyovaiv 
evioLy Kal ra d'AAa dvaTravaag tou? aSeA^ous", €7tI 
TTdoL TO) KaOeaTOJTL TTpocr^Xei/jas iTnoKOTTO), veavl' 
OKOV LKavov TO) CTcu/LtaTt /cat tt)v oijjLV aoT€lov /cat 
depjJLov rrjv ^vx^v ISwv, " rovrov" €(f)r] " aol 
Trapa/carart^e/xat '^ fjuera Trdar)? crTTOvSrjs ertl rrjs 
€KKXrj(jLas /cat tov l^piorov jxapTvpos." rod he 
Bexofievov /cat ttovB^ u7rtCT;(voL'/xeVoi> /cat ttoXiv ra 
avrd hiereivaro /cat hiepiaprvparo. elra 6 fxkv 
d-nrjpev eVt t')7V' "E^ecrov, o Se TTpea^vrepos dva- 
Xa^cov ot/caSe rov irapaSoOevra veavioKov erpe^e, 
ovveixev, edaXiTe, ro reXevralov e^cortcre' /cat /xera 
Tovro V(f)rJK€ rrjs irXeiovos emyieXeias /cat Trapa- 
<f)vXaKrjs, cos TO reXeuov avrcp (j>vXaKrrjpiov eVt- 
GTrjoas TTjv a(f)pa'yl8a tov Kvpiov. tco 8e dveGecos 
TTpo a>pas Xa^ofievcx) TTpoG(j)6eipovTai rives TJXiKes 
dpyol /cat dveppcoyores, eddSes /ca/ccDv /cat npajTOV 
jjiev St' eGTidoeojv 7ToXvreX(2)V avrov virdyovr ai, etrd 
7TOV /cat vvKTCop €771 AwTToSuCTtW i^LovTes ovveTrdyov- 
rai, elrd re /cat fieZ^ov avfiTTpdrreiv rj^lovv. 6 Se 
/car* oAtyov TTpoaeiBit,ero /cat 8td fxeyedos <f)VG€cos 
eKords oiGirep clgtoijlos /cat evpcoGTOS lttttos opdrjs 

J vapaKaTaTidefMai. Stahlin (from Eus. and Max. Conf.). 
vaparidefxaL MS. 

« It will be noticed that Clement here applies the terms 
*' bishop " and " presbyter " to the same person. This may- 
be due to the fact that in this story he followed a written 
authority coming down from a time when the two terms 
were synonymous, as they are in the New Testament. On 
the other hand, it is possible that the sharp distinction 
between "bishop" and "presbyter," though well-known 
elsewhere, was not yet recognized at Alexandria. Jerome 
358 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

not far distant, the very name of which is told by 
some. After he had set the brethren at rest on 
other matters, last of all he looked at him who held 
the office of bishop^ and, having noticed a strongly 
built youth of refined appearance and ardent spirit, 
he said : " This man I entrust to your care with 
all earnestness in the presence of the church and 
of Christ as witness." When the bishop accepted 
the trust and made every promise, the apostle once 
again solemnly charged and adjured him in the 
same words. After that he departed to Ephesus ; 
but the presbyter <* took home the youth who had 
been handed over to him, and brought him up, made 
a companion of him, cherished him, and finally 
enlightened him by baptism. After this he relaxed 
his special care and guardianship, thinking that he 
had set over him the perfect guard, the seal of the 
Lord. But the youth had obtained liberty too soon. 
Certain idle and dissolute fellows, accustomed to evil 
deeds, form a ruinous companionship with him. At 
first they lead him on by means of costly banquets ; 
then perhaps on their nightly expeditions for robbery 
they take him with them ; then they urge him to join 
in some even greater deed. He on his part gradually 
became used to their life ; and, like a restive and 
powerful horse which starts aside from the right path 
and takes the bit between its teeth, he rushed all the 

{Epistle cxlvi.) says that until the times of Heraclas and 
Dionysius (a.d. 333) the presbyters at Alexandria always 
elected a bishop from among their own number. Clement 
in other places sometimes mentions two orders of the 
ministry, sometimes three ; and it is not easy to discover 
his actual belief. For a short summary of Clement's refer- 
ences to this subject see Tollinton, Clement of Alexandria, 
ii. 111-114. 

359 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

oSov Kal Tov p^aAtP'ov evhaKcov fxetl^ovajs arara tcov 
^apdOpojv i(f)ep€ro, arroyvovs 8e reAeco? rr/v ev deco 
uoirripiav ovhkv eVt puKpov ScevoeZro, dXXa fxeya tl 
TTpd^as, eTTeiSrjTTep ama^ aTToXcoXei, loa rols aAAotS" 
TTaOelv ri^iov. avTOVs Srj tovtovs dvaXa^d)V /cat 
XrjarrjpLov ovyKpor-qaas, eroifxos XrjGrapxos rjv, 
jStatoraros-, /xtai^ovajTaTOS-, x^^^'^^^^'^^^ ' XP°^^^ 
ev fieao), Kal nvos eTTLTreaovar]? ;)^petas' dvaKaXovau 
TOV *la>dvvr)v. 6 8e, eTrel rd a'AAa Sv X^P^^ rjKev 
KarearrioaTo , "dye 817," 6^17, "c5 ema/co77e, r-qv 
TrapaOrjKrjv (177080? 'Qf^lv, t^v iyo) re /cat o 
XptCTTOS" ^ o-ot TTapaKareOefieda IttX rrjs eKKX-qoias , 
rjs TTpoKaOetr), udprvpos." 6 8e to aev Trpcbrov 
€^€7TAayrj, XPVH'^'^^ oLOfievo?, airep ovk eAape, 
GVKO(j)avTeZadaL, /cat ovre TnoreveLV et^ev VTrep (hv 
9C0 P. ou/c elx^v ovre d7n\GTeZv ^lojdvvrj- cos" 8e "rov 
veavLGKOv" etrrev "aTratroj /cat r-j^v ^^XW '^^^ 
dS€X(f)OV," GT€vd^as KdrcoOev 6 TrpeGf^vrrj? /cat rt 
Acat eTTiSaKpVGas, " eKelvog" €(f>r) " redvrjKe." 
" TTcog /cat TtVa ddvarov;" " deo) redvr]K€v" evnev' 
" aTTe^Yj yap TTOvrjpos /cat i^coXrjs /cat to Ke(f)dXaLov 
XrjGTTjs, Kal vvv dvrl rrj? e/c/cAi^ata? to opo? Kar- 
eiXri(f>e fxeO^ ofiotov GrparLOJTLKOV. Karapprj^dfjievos 
rrjv eGdrjra 6 dTTOGToXos Kal jxerd fxeydXr]? ol- 
fjLOjyrjs TrX-q^dfxevo? Tr]V Ke^aXiqv, "/caAov ye" e^r] 
" (f)vXaKa rrjs Ta8eA</>ou ^vxt]S KaTeXnrov dXX ltttto? 
rjSrj fjioi TTapeGTO) Kal rjyepLojv y€V€G6oj /xot Tt? 
TTJs 6S0V." rjXavveVj oiGirep et^ev, avTodev airo 
TTJs iKKXrjGias. eXddiV 8e els to ;^a;ptov vtto rrjs 
^ Xpiaros Eusebius. acoTrjp jis. 

360 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

more violently because of his great nature down 
towards the pit. Having quite given up hope 
of salvation in God he no longer meditated any 
slight offence, but, seeing he w^as lost once and 
for all, decided to do something great and to suffer 
the same penalty as the rest. So he took these 
very men, and organized a robber band, of which 
he was a ready chieftain, the most violent, the 
most blood-thirsty, the most cruel. Time went by, 
and some need having arisen the church again 
appeals to John, who, when he had set in order 
the matters for the sake of which he had come, 
said: "Now, bishop, return us the deposit which 
Christ and I together entrusted to your care in 
the presence and with the witness of the church 
over which you preside." The bishop w^as at first 
amazed, thinking he was being falsely accused about 
money which he had not received; and he could 
neither believe a charge that concerned what he did 
not possess nor could he disbelieve John. But when 
he said, " It is the youth and the soul of our brother 
that I demand back," the old man groaned deeply 
and even shed tears. "That man," he said "is 
dead." "How and by what manner of death?" 
" He is dead to God " he replied ; " for he turned 
out a wicked and depraved man, in short a robber, 
and now deserting the church he has taken to the 
hills in company with a troop of men like himself." 
The apostle, rending his clothes and with a loud 
groan striking his head, said : " A fine guardian of 
our brother s soul it was that I left ! But let a horse 
be brought me at once, and let me have someone as 
a guide for the way." Just as he was he rode right 
from the very church ; and when he came to the 

361 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

7rpo<j)vXaKrjs rcDv Xyjutcov aXioKerai, /xtJtc (f)evy(x)V 
ix-qre TrapaLTOVfievo? , dXXa ^ocbv "em tout* iX-q- 
Xvda, iirl Tov ap^ovTa v/jLajv ay ay ere /xe." os 
Tecos", a)G7T€p ajTrXiGTOy avepievev cos Se Trpooiovra 
iyvojpiae tov *la>dvvrjv, els (f)vyr]v alSeaOels irpd- 
vero. 6 8e iSicoKev dvd Kpdros, €7nXa66fi€vo? rijs 
TjXLKLas TTJs eavTOV, K€Kpaya)S' " ri /xe ^euyet?, 
T€.KVov, TOV aavTOv TTarepa, tov yvfxvov, tov 
yepovTa; iXerjcrov fJLC, tckvov, pL-q <j)0^ov- ex^'-S eVt 
^ojrjs eXiTiSas' eyco ^pLOTO) Xoyov Scjgoj virep oov' 
dv Serj, TOV oov ddvaTOV eKOJv vrrofjievcb, (Ls 6 Kvptos 
TOV vnep TjpLcbv' vnep oov ttjv ^vxV^ dvTihwooj ttjv 
i/jL-qv. OTTjdi, TTLOTevoov, y^piGTos pie aTTeoTeiXev ." 
6 he aKovoas TrpcoTOV eoTrj /xev /caTO) /SAeVcov, etTa 
eppiipe TO. OTrXa, etra TpepLCov e/cAate TTiKpcos- irpoo- 
eXOovTa Se tov yepovTa TrepteXa^ev, dnoXoyovp^evos 
Tats olpLOjyaZs cos iSvvaTO /cat Tots' SdKpvoi 
jSaTT-Tt^o/xeyos* eV SevTepov, pLovrjv diroKpyTTTCOv 
TTjv Se^idv. 6 8e iyyvcopievos, €7Top,vvpL€vos cLs 
d(f>eoLV avTO) Trapd tov oojTTJpos evpr^Tau, beofievos, 
yovv7T€Ta)V, avTTjv Tr]V he^idv ws vno Trjs p^eTa- 
voias K€Ka6app,€vrjv KaTa^iXoiyv , errl ttjv eKKXrjolav 
irrav-qyaye, /cat SaifjcXeoc pL€V evxoLiS e'^atrou^e- 
vos, ovvexeoL Se vqoTeiais ovvaycovL^opievos, rrot- 
KiXaLS Se oeiprjoL Xoycov KaTendBajv avTOV ttjv 
yvwpLTjv, ov npoTepov aTrrjXdev, ws (f>aoL, rrplv avTOV 

* See Hebrews xiii. 17. 

» See St. Matthew xxvi. 75 ; St. Luke xxii. 62. 

" In the illustration which forms the frontispiece of the 
present volume, the artist has represented this scene as a 
baptism in the literal sense. 

'^ If we read dTOKaTea-Tijae (with Barnard) or some 
362 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

place he is captured by the robbers' sentry, not 
attempting to fly or to expostulate, but shouting, 
" I have come for this purpose ; bring me to your 
leader." For a time the leader, armed as he was, 
awaited them ; but when he recognized John ap- 
proaching he turned to flight, smitten with shame. 
Forgetful of his years John followed after him with 
all his strength, crying out : " Why do you fly from 
me, child, from your own father, from this old, un- 
armed man ? Have pity on me, child, do not fear. 
You have still hopes of life, I myself will give 
account '^ to Christ for you. If need be, I will will- 
ingly undergo your penalty of death, as the Lord 
did for us. I will give my own life in pajnnent for 
yours. Stand ; believe ; Christ has sent me." On 
hearing this he at first stood still, looking down ; 
then threw away his weapons ; then trembling began 
to weep bitterly.^ When the old man had come 
near the robber embraced him, making excuse as 
best he could by his groans, and being baptized a 
second time with his tears," hiding his right hand 
alone. But the apostle gave his pledge and solemn 
assurance that he had found pardon for him from 
the Saviour. Kneeling down and praying, and 
tenderly kissing the right hand itself as having been 
purified by his repentance, he then brought him back 
to the church. There he interceded for him with 
abundant prayers, helped his struggles by continual 
fasting, and by manifold siren -like words laid a 
soothing spell upon his mind. Nor did he depart, 
as they say, before he had set him over ** the church, 

similar word, the translation will be " restored hira to the 
church." But iiriaTrjaai is almost certainly right. See 
note on text, p. 364. 

N 363 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

eTnoTrjaai ^ rfj €KKXrjGLa, SiSovs /xeya TrapaheLyjxa 
fjLeravoLa? dXrjdtvrjs Kal fxeya yvwpicrfjLa iraXiy- 
yeveaias, rponaiov avaardaeajs ^XeTTOfievrj?. 

. . . (f)aLSpoLS yeyrjdores, vfjLVOvvres, dvoiyvvvres 
Tovs ovpavovs. rrpo he Trdvrcjv avros 6 aojT'qp 
961 P. TTpoanavTa Se^tovfievog, <f>a)s i opeycov duKiov, aTrav- 
GTOV, ohrjycjv els rovs koXttov? rod Trarpos, els ttjv 
alcoviov t,cx)riv, els rrjv ^aaiXeiav rcov ovpavcov. 
TTiareveroj ravrd tls Kal deov /JLadrjraX? Kal ey- 
yvrjTrj deep, Trpo^T^retat?, evayyeXcotSy XoyoLs aTTO- 
aroXiKols' TOVTOis avl^ajv Kal rd cura VTrexcov Kal 
rd epya daKcov eir' avrrj? rrjs e^oBov to reXos Kal 
rrjv eTTiSeL^iv twv Soypbdroju oifjeraL. 6 ydp evravda 
Tov dyyeXov rrjs fjLeravolas Trpooiepievos ov fxera- 
voTjaeL Tore, rjVLKa dv KaraXtTTr) to crdjfxa, ovSe 
KaTaioxovdriaeraiy rdv Gwrrjpa irpoaiovra fxerd rrj? 
avTOV So^rjs Kal orpaTids lSa)V' ov SeSte to ttu/j* 
el 8e Tt? alpeZrai fxevetv e7Te^apiaprdva)V eKdarore 
enl rats rjhovaZs Kal rrjv evravOa rpv(f)rjv rrjg 
alojviov l,o}rjs Trponpia Kal SlSovtos rov Gojrrjpos 
d(f)eaLV d7TOorpe(j)er at, /XT^Te tov deov en pL-^re rdv 
ttXovtov pi-qre to TrpoTreaelv alridadcx), rrjV Be 
eavTOV if^vx^jv eKOvaicos drToXovpievrjv. tw Se eiri- 
^XeTTOVTL Trjv GOJTr]piav Kal ttoOovvti Kal pierd 
dvatSelas Kal ^la? alTOVvri Trape^ei rr)v dXr]dtvr]U 
KddapGLV Kal TTJV drpeTTTOV ^ojyjv 6 Trarrjp 6 dyadds 
6 ev TOLS ovpavoZs. cp Bid rod TraiBos *lr]GOV 

^ iircaTTJaaL Stahlin, from some mss. of Eusebius, Other 
MSS. give aireaTTjpi^ev, Kariarr^ae, a.TroKaT^crTT](Tei>, etc. Rufinus 
translates : " Nee prius abstitit, quam eum in omnibus 
emendatum etiara ecclesiae praeficeret." 
364 



THE RICH MAN'S SALVATION 

thus affording a great example of sincere repentance 
and a great token of regeneration, a trophy of a 
resurrection that can be seen.* 

. . . with bright faces rejoicing, singing praises, 
opening the heavens. And before them all the 
Saviour Himself comes to meet him, greeting him 
with His right hand, offering shadowless, unceasing 
light, leading the way to the Father's bosom, to the 
eternal life, to the kingdom of heaven. In this let 
a man trust to the authority of God's disciples 
and of God their surety, to the authority of the 
prophecies, gospels and words of the apostles. If he 
dwells with these, giving ear to them and practising 
their works, he will see at the very moment of his 
departure hence the end and proof of the doctrines. 
For he who here on earth admits the angel of repen- 
tance will not then repent when he leaves the body ; 
nor will he be put to shame when he sees the 
Saviour approaching with His own glory and heavenly 
host. He does not dread the fire. If, however, a man 
chooses to remain in his pleasures, sinning time after 
time, and values earthly luxury above eternal life, 
and turns away from the Saviour when He offers 
forgiveness, let him no longer blame either God or 
wealth or his previous fall, but his own soul that will 
perish voluntarily. But he who looks for salvation 
and earnestly desires it and asks for it with im- 
portunity and violence ^ shall receive the true purifica- 
tion and the unchanging life from the good Father 
who is in heaven, to whom through His Son Jesus 

« About twenty lines here are lost. See Introduction, 
p. 268. 

* See St. Luke xi. 8 ; St. Matthew xi. 12. 

365 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

XptO-TOU, TOV KVplOV l,0)VTa)V KoX VCKpCVV, KOi Sttt 

Tov ayiov TTvev/JLaros eirj Sofa, TLjJL-q, Kparos, 
alcLvLos iieyaXeiorris Kal vvv /cat ct? yevea? yevecbv 
/cat eh rovs alojvas tcov alcovcov, dfirjv. 

« See Romans xiv. 9. 



^66 



THE RICH MANS SALVATION 

Christ, the Lord of Hving and dead,* and through 
the Holy Spirit be glory, honour, might, and eternal 
majesty both now and for all generations and ages 
to come. Amen.^ 

* With this doxology compare 1 Clement of Rome Ixi. 
and Ixv. (Loeb Classical Library, Apostolic Fathers, vol. i. 
pp. 117 and 121). 



S67 



EXHORTATION TO 
ENDURANCE 

OR 

TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED 

Introduction 

The following fragment was discovered by Barnard 
in the Escurial Library with the heading " Precepts 
of Clement/' and was issued by him as an appendix 
to his edition of " The Rich Man " (Texts and Studies, 
edited by J. Armitage Robinson D.D., vol. v. No. 2). 
He conjectured that it might be part of a work 
mentioned by Eusebius {H.E. vi. 13) as being 
written by Clement of Alexandria and entitled 
"Exhortation to Endurance, or, To the Newly 
Baptized." Stahlin has accordingly printed it in his 
edition of Clement under this title. There can be 
little doubt but that Barnard's conjecture was right, 
as the style and thoughts are quite suitable both to 
Clement and to the subject. If this is so, we have 
a notable addition to our knowledge of Clement as 
teacher. Small though the fragment is, it is enough 
368 



EXHORTATION TO ENDURANCE 

to present a clear and beautiful picture of the ideal 
of Christian conduct as he understood it ; indeed, 
it would be hard to find another work which, in the 
same short compass, could give advice that so per- 
fectly described the good manners, the self-control, 
the purity of heart, the strenuous activity, the hopeful 
courage and the wide sympathy of the true Christian 
gentleman. 

The fragment has been translated in full by 
J. Patrick in his Clement of Alexandria, pp. 183-185. 



S69 



npoTPEnxiKOS eis rnoMONHN 

H 
nPOS TOYS NEDSTI BEBAnXISMENOYE 

KAHMENTOS HAPArrEAMATA 



Stahlin 
vol. iii. 



p.*22\* 'Hcrvxi'Oiv fjiev Aoyot? eVtrrJSeue, rjavx^av 8e epyois, 
(horavTOJS Se iv yXcorrr] Kal jSaStcr/xarf (j(f)oSp6Tr]ra 
8e aTr6(f)€vye rrpoTTerrj' ovrcos yap 6 vovs Sia/xevet 
j8ej8ato?, /cat ovx yrro ttjs cr<f>ohp6rr]ro£ rapaxcoSr]S 
yev6pi€Vos aaOevrjS earai Kal ^paxvs Trepl (j)p6vr]aLV 
Kal GKOT€iv6v 6pa)V^' ovSe '^rrrjdrjaeraL pcev yaorpi- 
fiapyiag, r^rnqdiqcjerai 8e eml,eovros Ovjjlov, 7]TTr]- 
O-qaerai Se tcop dXXa>v TraOaJv, eroifjiov avrolg 
apirayfia TrpoKeipievos. rov yap vovv Sei roiv 
7TaBcx)v eTTiKparelv viprjXov IttI rjavxov Bpovov ^ 
Kadr]}xevov acfyopcovra Trpos deov. /jirjSev o^vxoXiag 
dvairXeos eao irepl opyds, pirjSe vojdpos ^ iv Aoyot?, 
jjirjSe iv ^aSiafiacnv okvov TTeTrX-qpaipievo? , Iva gol 
pvOixos dyaOos rrjv 'qcrvx^^OLV Koafjufj Kal deicoSes rt 



^ (XKOT€Lvbv bpujv J, A. RobinsoH. aKOTeivCbv opcov MS. 

"^ dpbvov Barnard, dpbvov ms. 

^ iifjU voidphs Barnard, fii] Bh wObs ms. 



370 



EXHORTATION TO 
ENDURANCE 

OR 

TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED 

PRECEPTS OF CLEMENT 

Cultivate quietness in word^ quietness in deed, 
likewise in speech and gait; and avoid impetuous 
eagerness. For then the mind will remain steady, 
and will not be agitated by your eagerness and so 
become weak and of narrow discernment and see 
darkly ; nor will it be worsted by gluttony, worsted 
by boiling rage, worsted by the other passions, lying 
a ready prey to them. For the mind, seated on 
high on a quiet throne looking intently towards God, 
must control the passions. By no means be swept 
away by temper in bursts of anger, nor be sluggish 
in speaking, nor all nervousness in movement ; so 
that your quietness may be adorned by good propor- 
tion and your bearing may appear something divine 
N2 371 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

Kal lepov TO ax'TJ/JiOL (j)aLvrjTaL. (jyvXarrov 8e Kai Trjs 
V7Teprj(f)auLas ra avjJi^oXa, axrjfJiCL vi/javx^vovv /cat 
K€(/)aXr]v i^rjpjjLevrjV Kal ^rj/JLa ttoSojv aj^pov /cat 
fxerecjopov. 

"H77ta aoi TTpos Tovs aTTavTOJVTa? earoj ra prjfiaTa, 
Kal TTpoariyopiai yXvKelai' atSoj? §e Tipos" yvvalKas 
Kal ^Xefifjia rerpa/x/xeVov etV yrjv. AaAet §e rrepi- 
eaKefjLfJLevats aTravra, Kal rfj (f)(x)vfj to ^i^pT^at/xov 
p. 222 olttoSlSov, Tjj XP^^^ '^^^ ' o.Kov6vTcov TO ^^ey/xa 
fxerpajv,^ axpi av^ Kal i^aKOvarov fj,^ Kal fjcrj-re 
hia(j>evyov^ ttjv aKorjv rcov irapovTCOv vrro ofiiKpo- 
TTjTos, fjLrjre vrrep^dXXov^ jLtet^ovt ttj Kpavyfj. 
<f)vXdTTOV 8e OTTCos firjSev ttotc XaX-qdrjs o fir) 
TTpoeaKeipoj Kal Trpoevorjaas' pL-qSe 7Tpox^^p<J^? Kal 
fiera^v <Ta>v>^ tov irepov Xoycov viro^aXXe tov? 
oavTOv'^' Set yap dvd^ fiepo? aKoveiv Kal Sta- 
Xeyeod at, xpo^^ /xept^ovra Xoyov Kal OLOJTTiqv 
fjidvOave he dajxevajs, Kal d(f)d6voJ5 8i8aoK€, /X7]8e 
V7t6 (f)d6vov TTore ao(f)Lav diTOKpvTTrov Trpo? tovs 
irepovs, /xrySe pLadijaeco? d^iaraao hi alhch. VTreiKe 
TTpea^vrepoL? laa TraTpdoiv rt/xa depdirovras Oeov' 
Karapx^ ao^ta? /cat dpeTrjs. fjLYjhe epioriKo? kao 
rrpo? Tovg cfilXovg, pLYjSe ;^AeL'ao-TT9S" /car' avrojv Kal 
yeXcxJTOTTOLos' ifj€v8os Se /cat SoXov Kal v^puv 
laxvpcos TTapacTOv avv evcjuqp^ia Se ^epe /cat tov 
V7Tepr](j>avov Kal v^piGTrjv < w£ >^ rrpaos re /cat 
jjLeyaXoifjvxos dvrjp. 

KetCT^co 8e CTOt TrdvTa ets" Oeov Kal epya Kal Aoyot, 

^ ixerpQiv J. A. Robinson. ixeTpov ms. 

2 hv Wilamowitz. brj >rs. ^ rj Wilamowitz. dri ms. 

•* dLacpevyov Wilamowitz. 5ia(p€vycop ms. 

^ vTrepj3d\\oi^ Wilamowitz. viro^dWu}!' ms. 

372 



TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED 

and sacred. Guard also against the signs of arrogance, 
a haughty bearing, a lofty head, a dainty and high- 
treading footstep. 

Let your speech be gentle towards those you meet, 
and your greetings kind ; be modest towards women, 
and let your glance be turned to the ground. Be 
thoughtful in all your talk, and give back a useful 
answer, adapting the utterance to the hearers' need, 
just so loud that it may be distinctly audible, neither 
escaping the ears of the company by reason of feeble- 
ness nor going to excess with too much noise. Take 
care never to speak what you have not weighed and 
pondered beforehand ; nor interject your own words 
on the spur of the moment and in the midst of 
another's ; for you must listen and converse in turn, 
with set times for speech and for silence. Learn 
gladly, and teach ungrudgingly ; « never hide wisdom 
from others by reason of a grudging spirit, nor 
through false modesty stand aloof from instruction. 
Submit to elders just as to fathers.^ Honour God's 
servants. Be first to practise wisdom and virtue. 
Do not wrangle with your friends, nor mock at them 
and play the buffoon. Firmly renounce falsehood, 
guile and insolence. Endure in silence, as a gentle 
and high-minded man, the arrogant and insolent. 

Let everything you do be done for God, both deeds 

<* This generous precept finds an echo in Chaucer's 
And gladly wolde he lerne, and gladly teche. 
{Canterhury Tales, Prologue 1. 308. ) 

* Cp. 1 Timothy v. 1. In several places this fragment 
reminds us of the Pastoral Epistles. 

6 <jG)vy inserted by Barnard. 
■^ aavTov Stahlin. avTov MS. 
8 ava Barnard, eva ais. ^ <ws> inserted by Schwartz. 

37S 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

/cat -navra dvd(f)epe X/Dto-roj to, oavrov, /cat ttvkvws 
€7Ti dcov rpeVe ttjv ipvx't]^, Kal to vorjfxa eVepetSe 
TT] \pLGTOV Sum/xet ojarrep iv Ai/xeVt rtvt to) ^eta> 
^coTt Tov ocjTTJpos dva7Tav6ix€vov diTO TTaarjs 
AaAta? re /cat irpd^ecog. /cat /Lte^' rjfjidpav 77oAAa/ct? 
[/xevJ^jLtev dvdpojTTOis kolvov ttjv aeavrov ^povrjOLV, 
deep he €7TL TrXelarov iv pvktl o/xotcu? /cat eV rjfxepa' 
LIT) yap VTTVOS G€ eTTt/c/jaretTO) ttoAus" tcov rrpos deov 
€VX(J^^ T^ kolI vpLVCov Oavdrcp yap 6 [xaKpos VTTVog 
i(f)djJiLXXos . {JLCTOXos \pLaTov del KadioTaoo <tov >^ 
rrjv deiav avyrjv KaraXdjjLTrovros ef ovpavov- ev- 
(j)poavvri yap earo) ooi BLTjveKrjs /cat drravoTOS 6 

XptCTTOS". 

Mr^Se Xve TOV rrjs ^vx^js rovov ev evcox^q- Kal 
TTorajv dveaeiy iKavov he rjyov rep Gwaari to 
Xp€LCt)Ses. Kal jJiTj vpoadev eireiyov rrpos rpo^d^ 
TTplv 7) /cat heiTTvov TTapfj Kaipos' dpros Se eoTco 
CTOt TO helTTVoVy Kal TToat yrjg TrpoaeaTCoaav Kal rd 
e/c hevhpojv cu/aata* t^t ^ he eirl rrjv Tpo(f>7]v evoraOcos * 
/cat piT] Xvoaojhr] yaarpipLapyiav evrt^atVajv pnqhe 
aapKo^opos p,r]he (j>iXoivos eao, oTTore pLTj vogos^ tls 
tacnv IttI Tavrrjv dyoi. dXX dvrl ra)v ev tovtols 
Yjhovojv rds ev Aoyot? delois Kal vpLVOLS ev(f>poGvvas 
atpov rfj TTapd deov aoi ;)(o/)r^you/xeVas' ^ ao(f)La, 
ovpdvLos re dei ae ^povrls dvayeroj rrpds ovpavov. 

Kat Ta? TToAAa? irepl crctj/xaTO? dvtet pbepipLvas 
redapo7]Kcbs eAvrtat Tat? Trpds deov, on ooi ye rd \ 

• iroWoLKts [fj-h] after r)ix4pav Stahlin : after O^i^ de ms. 

" <jovy inserted by Barnard. ^ tdi Mayor, tadt ms. 

* evaradQi Wilamowitz. dara^cDs Jis. 

^ p6(tos Barnard, voaov ms. 

^ Xo^'?7oi^M^»'as Stahlin. x^PVy^^f^^V ^^^' 

S74 



TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED 

and words ; and refer all that is yours to Christ ; and 
constantly turn your soul to God ; and lean your 
thought on the power of Christy as if in some harbour 
by the divine light of the Saviour it were resting 
from all talk and action. And often by day com- 
municate your thoughts to men_, but most of all to 
God at night as well as by day ; * for let not much 
sleep prevail to keep you from your prayers and 
hymns to God, since long sleep is a rival of 
death. Show yourself always a partner of Christ 
who makes the divine ray shine from heaven ; * 
let Christ be to you continual and unceasing 

joy- 
Relax not the tension of your soul with feasting 
and indulgence in drink, but consider what is needful 
to be enough for the body. And do not hasten early 
to meals before the time for dinner comes ; but let 
your dinner be bread, and let earth's grasses and the 
ripe fruits of trees be set before you ; and go to your 
meal with composure, showing no sign of raging 
gluttony. Be not a flesh-eater nor a lover of wine, 
when no sickness leads you to this as a cure.*' But 
in place of the pleasures that are in these, choose 
the joys that are in divine words and hymns,*^ joys 
supplied to you by wisdom from God ; and let heavenly 
meditation ever lead you upward to heaven. 

And give up the many anxious cares about the 
body by taking comfort in hopes towards God ; 
because for you He will provide all necessary things 

« Cp. 1 Timothy v. 5. 

* This and the previous sentence may allude to Ephesians 
V. 14. 

c Is there an allusion to 1 Timothy v. 23 ? 
«» Cp. Ephesians v. 18, 19. 

875 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

p. 223 dvayKala Trape^eu ScapKrj Tpo(f)TJv re ttjv et? ^coi^v 
/cat xrctAu/x/xa aw/jLaros kol yeijxepLvod ifjvxovs 
aXe^iqTTipia. rod yap Srj gov ^aoiXeoj? yfj re 
drraaa Kal oaa iK^ver at- cos jxeXr] 8e avTOV^ tojv 
avTOV deparrovTOJV VTrep^aXXovrajs Tr^pieTrei Kaddrrep 
Upd Kal vaovs avrov. hid hrj rovro purjSe vooovg 
virep^aWovaas SeStdi firjSe yqpojs ecfioSov ;^/Dova> 
TTpoahoKOJjjLevov' 7TavG€TaL ydp Kal vogos, orav 
oXoijjvxcp rrpodeaeL ttolcoixcv rds avrov ivroXds. 

Tavra elSoj? Kal irpos voaovs laxvpdv Kara- 
GK€val,€ rrjv ipv^^v, evddparjoov wairep ns dvrjp eV 
araSiOig dpiarog drpirrrcp rfj Swdfjcet rovs vovovs 
V(f)LaraadaL. fir^Se vtto Xvttt]? rrdvv Tnel,ov rrjv 
ipvx'i]^, etre voaos eTTiKeiixivr] ^apvvei elre dXXo ri 
GV/JLTTLTTrev SvGx^p^s, ttAAct yevvaiojs avduGra rots 
TTOVOLS rd voTjixa, ;!^aptTas' dvdyojv deep Kal ev fieooLS 
rols eTTtTTovoi? TTpdyfjiaGL are Srj Goejyojrepd re dv- 
6pcx)7T(DV (fipovovvn Kal direp ov hvvarov ovhe paSuov 
dvOpcoTTOi? evpelv. eXeei he /ca/cov/xeVou?,^ kol rrjv 
TTapd rod deov ^orjOeiav ctt' dvdpojTiois alrov' 
eTTLvevGei ydp alrovvn rep <J)lXo) rrjv x^P^^> '<^ctt rot's 
KaKovfxevoLS^ eTTiKovpiav Trape^ei, rrjv avrov hvvapLLv 
yvdopLfjLov dvOpdjTrois KadiGrdvaL ^ovXojievoSy ojs dv 
el? eTriyvojGLV eXdovres errl Oeov dvlcoGiv Kal rrjg 
alcxjviov fiaKapLorrjros dTToXavGOJGiv, eirethdv 6 
rov deov vlds TTapayevr]rai dyadd roZs Ihioi? diro- 
KadiGrcjv. 

^ Barnard and Stahlin insert to. auifiara after avrou. 
2 KaKovixivovs Stahlin. KaXov/xevoLS MS. 
* KaKov/x^vois Stahlin. KaXov/jL^uois ms. 



316 



TO THE NEWLY BAPTIZED 

in sufficiency, food to support life, covering for the 
body, and protection against winter cold. For to 
your King belongs the whole earth and all that is pro- 
duced from it ; * and God treats the bodily parts of 
HI'S servants with exceeding care, as if they were His, 
like His own shrines and temples. ^ On this account 
do not dread severe diseases, nor the approach of 
old age, which must be expected in time ; for even 
disease will come to an end, when with whole-hearted 
purpose we do His commandments. 

Knowing this, make your soul strong even in face 
of diseases ; be of good courage, like a man in the 
arena, bravest to submit to his toils with strength 
unmoved. Be not utterly crushed in soul by grief, 
whether disease lies heavily upon you, or any other 
hardship befalls, but nobly confront toils with your 
understanding, even in the midst of your struggles 
rendering thanks to God ; since His thoughts are 
wiser than men's, and such as it is not easy nor pos- 
sible for men to find out. Pity those who are in 
distress, and ask for men the help that comes from 
God ; for God will grant grace to His friend when 
he asks, and will provide succour for those in distress, 
wishing to make His power known to men,'' in the 
hope that, when they have come to full knowledge, 
they may return to God, and may enjoy eternal 
blessedness when the Son of God shall appear and 
restore good things to His own. 

* Cp. Psalm xxiv. 1. 

* Cp. 1 Corinthians vi. 15 and 19. 

" Cp. Romans ix. 22. 



377 



APPENDIX ON THE GREEK 
MYSTERIES 

Meaning of the Term '^ Mysteries." — The term is 
applied to certain religious rites, the details and 
meaning of which are kept secret from all except 
those who have been formally initiated. MvcrrripLov 
is derived from fxveti', to close the lips (cp. mute, 
mutter), and thus the idea of secrecy is contained in 
the word itself Clement suggests three derivations 
different from this,^ but they are plainly no more 
than random guesses. Rites analogous to the Greek 
Mysteries are found among primitive peoples all over 
the world. In Greece, however, the Mysteries 
reached a high degree of development, and proved 
themselves able for many centuries to provide some 
satisfaction to the cravings of men for communion 
with the divine. 

Origin of the Mysteries. — The Mysteries are gener- 
ally connected with the gods called chthonic, i.e. earth 
divinities, whose worship goes back to a time before 
the arrival of the anthropomorphic gods of Greece. 
M. Foucart holds that the Eleusinian Mysteries were 

I See p. 31. 

379 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

imported from Egypt,^ and that Demeter is the same 
as the Egyptian Isis. But while it is possible, we 
may even say probable, that the intercourse which 
existed between Egypt and Greece from the earliest 
times helped to shape the ideas of the Mysteries, 
most authorities believe that at Eleusis, as elsewhere, 
an ancient nature-worship, with magical rites designed 
to secure the fertility of the soil, was the source from 
which later developments sprang. When Greece 
was overrun by warlike tribes from the north, the 
inhabitants of the plain of Eleusis kept secret, we may 
suppose, these rites upon which so much depended, 
entrusting the performance of them to certain 
priestly families ^ who were careful to preserve the 
old ceremonies unaltered. By degrees, as the 
prestige of these Mysteries grew, other ceremonies 
were added, and legends, symbolic explanations, and 
religious teaching about the future life gradually 
gathered round the primitive institution. 

The Mysteries in Classical Times. — The Mysteries 
of Eleusis overshadowed all others in importance 
during the classical period, a fact partly due, no 

^ P. Foucart, Les Mysteres cV Eleusis, chs. i.-v. Clement 
mentions the tradition that Melampus brought the Mysteries 
of Demeter from Egypt (p. 33). 

2 These families, the Eumolpidae and the Heralds, are 
mentioned on p. 41. It is sometimes thought that the 
Heralds were an Athenian family who were given a share 
in the management of the Mysteries when Eleusis became 
part of the Athenian state. On the other hand, they are 
often closely coupled with the Eumolpidae, and Clement 
(p. 40) seems to include both when he speaks of to lepocpav- 
TiKbu . . . y^i>os. This use of the singular noun also occurs 
in a phrase {to y^voi to Kt/pwwv /cat Ev/xoXindQu) quoted from 
an inscription by Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, vol. iii 
p. 163. 
380 



APPENDIX 

doubt, to the connexion of Eleusis with Athens. 
The chief deities concerned in them were Demeter, 
her daughter Core (i.e. the Maiden) or Persephone, 
and Pluto or Hades. The first two are an older and 
a younger form of the earth - mother, the great 
goddess who under various names and titles (Rhea, 
Cybele, etc.) was worshipped from very early days in 
all the lands bordering on the eastern Mediterranean.^ 
Pluto is the god of the underworld, the giver of 
wealth (in the form of fruits of the earth), as his 
name, connected with ploiitos, wealth, implies. By 
the seventh century b.c. the ancient ritual had given 
rise, under the influence of the Greek spirit, to the 
legend embodied in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. 
Persephone, while gathering flowers, is seized by 
Pluto and carried down to the underworld. Demeter 
is in deep distress at the loss of her daughter, and 
wanders everywhere to seek her. 2 Failing to find 
her, she refuses to help the corn to grow, and man- 
kind is in danger of perishing, when Zeus prevails 
upon Pluto to restore the maiden to the upper world 
for eight months of each year. The growth of the 
corn, so plainly pictured here, seems to have been 
the chief original concern of the rites, though there 
were doubtless other elements in them with which 
the poet did not deal. 

About the sixth century b.c. another deity was 
introduced into the Mysteries, viz. lacchus,^ who is 
a form of Dionysus. Under yet another form, that 

1 Thus Demeter is the mother of Zeus (p. 35 ; cp. 
Arnobius, Adv. Nationes v. 20), instead of his sister as in 
the later Greek mytiiology. 

2 The legend is alluded to by Clement ; see pp. 31 and 37. 
^ See p. 47. 

381 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

of Zagreus, Dionysus was worshipped by the Orphics, 
whose teaching dealt with the soul's destiny in the 
future life. Though we know little of the actual 
course of events, it is likely that the deepening of 
religious thought in Greece in the sixth century, of 
which Orphism was one sign, had its effect at Eleusis. 
The legend of the rending of Dionysus is told by 
Clement/ who omits, however, to say that from the 
head, preserved by Athena, a fresh Dionysus was 
born. The story is, in fact, one of death and resur- 
rection, akin to those of Osiris in Egypt and Attis 
in Phrygia;2 and in spite of its details, repulsive as 
they are to us, it probably served as a basis for 
teaching on the subject of human immortality. 

The events of the Eleusinian festivals were briefly 
as follows ; — 

A ceremony called the Lesser Mysteries was cele- 
brated at Agra ^ on the Ilissus, close to Athens, in 
February each year. This was regarded as a prepara- 
tion for the more important rites of Eleusis. A 
late author says that the Agra festival consisted of 
"a representation of the things that happened to 
Dion3^sus." * 

The Greater Mysteries began ^n the 13th day 
of the month Boedromion (corresponding to our 
September), when Athenian youths went in pro- 
cession to Eleusis and brought back the " sacred 
objects" (ra Upa). These Upd were perhaps the 

1 See pp. 37-39. 

^ Clement mentions (p. 41) that some identified Dionvsus 
with Attis. 3 See p. 71. 

■* Stephanas Byz., quoted in A. B. Cook, Zeti^, i. 692, 
and in Farnell, op. cit. vol. iii. p. 352. The Mysteries held 
at Halimus in Attica (p. 71) were also concerned with 
Dionysus ; see Arnobius, Adv. Nationes v. 28. 
382 



APPENDIX 

playthings of Dionysus mentioned by Clement.^ 
They were enclosed in chests ^ and carefully guarded 
from sight. Their resting-place while in Athens 
was the temple of Demeter and Core^ called the 
Eleusinium.3 On the 15th a gathering was held of 
candidates for initiation, at which a herald proclaimed 
the conditions — that no criminal or barbarian could 
be admitted. Certain instruction was then given by 
officials called mystagogues (i.e. introducers or guides) 
as to the various acts and formulas/ a knowledge of 
which was necessary in the course of the initiation ; 
and to this may have been added a symbolic ex- 
planation of the lepa and of the dramatic scenes 
represented in the Mysteries. There were also some 
fasts and abstinences to be observed. Strict secrecy 
was enjoined on all. On the following day the cry 
"To the sea, mi/siae" (aAaSe ixvcrraC) was raised, and 
the candidates underwent a ceremonial purification 
by bathing in the sea at Phalerum, and by offering 
a pig to the goddesses. 

The return journey to Eleusis took place on the 
19th. Besides the Upa there was carried a statue 
of lacchus, to whom hymns were sung along the 
road.^ The next four days were occupied with the 
Mysteries proper. The site of the Hall of Initiation 
(reXeo-T-qptov) has been found and examined. The 

1 Pp. 37-39. Foucart {op. cit. pp. 408-12) denies that 
Clement is here speaking of the Eleusinian Mysteries. He 
thinks that the most important of the lepa was an archaic 
wooden image of Demeter. 

^ These "mystic chests" are mentioned on pp. 41, 43 
and 45. 

^ Clement (p. 99) describes this temple as being "under 
the AcropoUs." * See p. 43. 

* Aristophanes, Frogs 325 fF. 

383 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

Hall was large and capable of seating about three 
thousand people. There is no trace of secret 
passages, or of any arrangement for producing 
startling scenic effects. The roof, or perhaps a second 
story/ was supported by many columns ; and there 
was a lantern (oTrato;/) above the shrine (^dvaKTopov) 
of Demeter. 

There are many references to the Mysteries in 

ancient writers, but they are for the most part vague 

and general. Only the Christian Fathers profess to 

give details, and even they do not attempt a complete 

description, but select those parts which will help 

their attack on the old religion. The following list 

will give some idea of the ceremonies, though we 

cannot be sure of the order in which they took place. 

(i.) Solemn sacrifice to Demeter and Core. 

(ii.) Ritual acts to be performed and a formula to 

be said. 2 Included in the acts was the 

drinking of a draught similar to that which 

Demeter had drunk when wandering in 

search of Core.^ 

(iii.) A journey representing the progress of the 

soul after death through the lower regions 

to the abode of the blessed. After much 

wandering in darkness amid scenes of terror 

^ Plutarch (Pericles 13) speaks of the "upper columns" 
as distinct from those on the ground. 

- See p. 43. 

^ There may also have been the sacramental eating of a 
cake from the chest, if the emendation iyyevadfxevos (p. 42, 
n. b) is right. But this is by no means certain. Arnobius 
(Adv. Nationes v. 26), who seems to follow Clement in this 
passage, leaves out the expression, which may mean that he 
read epyaaajxevos and could not undei'stand it. Probably 
some ritual action with the contents, whatever they were, 
of the chest is purposely concealed under a vague word. 
384 



APPENDIX 

the initiate was suddenly introduced into 
brilliant light. ^ 
(iv.) An exposition of the lepd, or sacred objects, by 
the hierophant, who derives his name (6 Upa 
cfiaivcov) from this office, 
(v.) Dramatic representations of the Rape of Core, 
the sorrowful wandering of Demeter, and 
the finding of Core.^ 
(vi.) The exposition of an ear of corn, a symbol of 

Demeter.3 
(vii.) Representation of a marriage between Zeus 
and Demeter,* and the announcement that 
Demeter (under her name Brimo) has borne 
a son Brimos.^ 
(viii.) Magical cries uttered by the initiates, e.g. ve, 
Kve (rain ! conceive !),^ and a ceremony con- 
sisting of the pouring of water from two jars 
on to the earth J This was evidently an 
ancient fertility charm. 
It is probable that a pilgrimage was also made to 
the sacred places round Eleusis visited by Demeter 
in her wanderings. It may have been on this journey, 
when the well called Callichorus § was reached, that 

1 Clement's language on p. 25T alludes to this. 

2 See p. 31. There seems also to have been a torchlight 
search for Core, in which the initiates joined. 

3 Hippolytus, Ref. om. haer. v, 8. 

4 The complete evidence for this can be found in Foucart, 
op. cit. pp. 475 if. Not all authorities admit, however, that 
this ceremony formed part of the Eleusinian Mysteries. 
But there must have been something to account for the 
language of Clement on pp. 45-47, and the sacred marriage, 
of which other Christian writers speak in definite terras, 
would account for it. 

5 Hippolytus, op. cit. v. 8. " lb. v. 7. 
' Athenaeus, p. 496 a. » Pausanias i. 38. 6. 

385 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

the initiates were forbidden to make any signs of 
grief.i As a rule they were recjuired to imitate the 
goddess, and this prohibition is singular. 

There were two grades of initiates at Eleusis. 
The story of Zeus and Demeter, together with the 
exposition of the ear of corn, seems to have been 
revealed only to the highest grade, the epoptae {i.e. 
those admitted to a vision of the sacred things : from 
eTTOTTTeueivj. 

The Eleusinian Mysteries were held in high 
repute for many centuries, and ancient writers (if 
we exclude the Christian Fathers) speak frequently 
of the good effect they produced on those who were 
initiated.2 The annual death and rebirth of nature, 
expressed in various mythological forms such as the 
rape of Core and the rending and rebirth of Dionysus, 
was made to point to a future life for man. By the 
actual initiation, a bond was created between the two 
goddesses and their worshippers, which assured the 
latter of divine protection on earth and beyond the 
grave. If the child of the sacred marriage was 
Plutus (wealth),^ then the union of the deities would 
symbolize the blessings they together brought to 
mankind. But we need not suppose that the ancients 
inquired so curiously as we do into the exact mean- 
ing of their holy rites. They were for the most part 
content to observe in all simplicity old customs that 
came to them with divine sanction, and upon the 
due performance of which they believed so nmch 
depended, both of social well-being and of the soul's 
future destiny. 

It should be noticed that, so far as Eleusis is con- 

^ See p. 41. 2 g^ Cicero, De legibus ii. 36. 

^ Foucart, op. cit. p. 4.79. 
386 



APPENDIX 

cerned^ Clement_, in spite of his vehement language, 
makes no charge of immoral practices. He considers 
the legends to be absurd and repulsive ; while the 
sacred objects and the marriage of Zeus and Demeter 
seem to him indecent. But what he attacks is 
chiefly the interpretation he puts upon these things, 
an interpretation, we must admit, that is not 
altogether unreasonable. The worst item in his 
indictment — the story of Baubo — comes, as he frankly 
says, from the Orphic poems. ^ The Hymn to Demeter 
gives a different account of Demeter drinking the 
draught — she is persuaded to do so by the harmless 
pleasantry of a servant maid.^ This was no doubt 
the official account at Eleusis. 

Many other mysteries existed in classical times, 
notably the Phrygian, the Samothracian, and those 
that were celebrated at Andania in Messenia. None 
of them enjoyed such widespread fame as those 
of Eleusis. There was, of course, a certain broad 
resemblance between all mysteries, and the Eleusinian 
may be taken as the highest instance of this type of 
religious worship. 

Mysteries in the Hellenistic Age. — After the con- 
quests of Alexander, the popularity of mystery cults 
increased, reaching its height towards the end of the 
second century a.d. Thus Clement was making his 
attack upon them at a critical time, when they were 
in full vigour and serious rivals of Christianity. 
Most, if not all, of those he mentions were doubtless 
of ancient origin, but there had been much cross 
influence at work. Clement speaks of mysteries 
associated with Aphrodite, Deo or Demeter, Attis 

^ See p. 43. 
2 Hymn to Demeter 202 ff. 

S87 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

and Cybele, the Corybantes, the Cabeiri, Dionysus, 
Zeus Sabazius and Ge Themis. He also tells us that 
the mysteries of Attis and Cybele were similar to 
those of Zeus Sabazius and Demeter.i Both of these 
had their home in Phrygia. The legend of Zeus 
consorting with Demeter under the form of a bull, 
and then again with Persephone under the form of a 
snake, is common to Phrygia and Eleusis.^ But the 
cult seems to have been differently worked out, if 
we may judge by the two formulas that Clement 
has left us. In Phrygia the worshipper underwent 
a mystical marriage with the god, who was repre- 
sented by his proper symbol, a serpent.^ At Eleusis 
the marriage was between the two deities. We 
may suspect that the omission of repulsive elements, 
and the general refinement and idealization of the 
legends, was carried further at Eleusis than else- 
where. 

The Mysteries and Christianity, — Two questions 
may be asked, and briefly answered, here, (i.) Was 
Clement's attack on the Mysteries justified.? (ii.) 
What influence did the Mysteries have on Christianity .? 

(i.) Rites which were held in respect by men like 
Sophocles and Cicero cannot have been merely the 
mass of stupidity and immorality that Clement might 
at first sight lead us to suppose. He makes no 

^ See p. 35. 

2 This seems to be Clement's meaning ; see pp. 35-37. 

3 See the sign on p. 35, "the god over the breast." 
According to this, the worshipper must have assumed the 
character of a feminine consort of the god. But the formula 
" I stole into the bridal chamber " suggests a mystical 
union with the goddess, in which the worshipper must have 
been considered as masculine. The difficulty is dealt with 
by A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 392 ff. 

388 



APPENDIX 

attempt to describe the Mysteries fully, nor does he 
give them credit for any good they contained. Yet 
it can hardly be doubted that he was on the whole 
right. What angers him is not so much the general 
ideas and teaching of the Mysteries (with much of 
which he certainly must have been in sympathy) as 
the symbols displayed in them — the childish play- 
things, the phalloi, the representation of sacred 
marriages, etc. These things had their origin in a 
rude society, where they were natural enough. But 
a time comes when a civilized people ought no longer 
to be content with the relics, however venerable, of 
a past age, when in fact such relics suggest quite 
different thoughts from those associated with them 
in the beginning, and when they have as a conse- 
quence to be continually explained afresh in order 
to meet moral or intellectual objections. The 
Greeks of the second century a.d. were no longer 
an unsophisticated people, and the ritual of the 
Mysteries was not an adequate expression of their 
highest religious ideas. 

(ii.) Much has been written on this question and 
widely different views are held. Christianity was 
preached by St. Paul to people who were well 
acquainted with the terminology of the Mysteries, 
and probably in many cases with the rites themselves. 
St. Paul uses words like rkXeio^i and {jLva-Tiqpiov ^ 
adapting them without difficulty to Christian teaching. 
Clement goes so far as to describe the whole Christian 
scheme of salvation in mystery language.^ The 
bitter hostility of the Church towards the Mysteries 
would forbid any direct or conscious borrowing ; but 

^Corinthians ii. 6, 7 
2 See pp. 255-57. 

S89 



CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA 

when words are taken, ideas are apt to come with 
them. It is not without significance that the word 
"mysteries" was afterwards used to describe the 
Christian sacraments, and above all the rite of Holy 
Communion. Moreover, both Christianity and the 
mystery religions were aiming at the same end : 
both promised " salvation " to their adherents. 
Christianity had a far truer idea than the Mysteries 
of what salvation meant, and this is one reason why 
it survived while the Mysteries died. But since 
both had to deal with the same human hopes and 
fears, the same problems of sin, purification, death 
and immortality, it would be surprising if the one 
owed nothing at all to the other. A comparison of 
the Synoptic Gospels with the developed theology 
of the fourth and fifth centuries will make it plain 
that, while Christianity had from the first its own 
distinctive character, which it never lost, it did not 
refuse the help of any elements in current thought 
and practice by means of which its message could 
be presented in a clearer or more acceptable form. 



890 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



References in italics are to be found in the notes or the Appendix. 
References marked with an asterisk (*) are commented on in the notes 



Abdera, 149, 292 

Acadeniia, a spot close to 
Athens, where Plato and 
his followers taught, 97 

Acrag-as, 49, 55, 145 

Acrisius, a hero of Larisa, 
99 

Actium, promontory of, 87 

Admetus, 75 

Adonis, 4^, 71 

Aeacus, 71 

Aeolic dialect, 65 

Aether, 57 

Aethlius, 103 

Aethusa, 67 

Agamemnon, 81 

Agra, a suburb of Athens, 
where the Lesser Mys- 
teries were celebrated, 
71, 382* 

Alastors, avenging deities, 
53 

Alcibiades, 29, 123 

Alcmaeon, of Croton (about 
500 B.C.), an early Greek 



physician and philoso- 
pher, 149 

Alcman,lyricpoetof Sparta, 
7th century b.c, 65 

Alcmene, 67, So 

Alcyone, 65 

Alcyone, wife of Ceyx, 123 

Alexander the Great, 123, 
125, 211, 387 

Alexandria, 109, 121, 358-9 

Alexarchus, 123 

Alope, 65 

Amazons, 121 

Ammon, Egyptian god, 
equated with Zeus, 59, 
123 

Amphiaraus, 29 

Amphilochus, 29 

Am phi on, 3* 

Amphitrite, 65, 105 

Amyetus, 221"^ 

Amymone, 65 

Anaxagoras, Greek philo- 
sopher, 500-428 B.C., 149, 
152*, 293* 

391 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Anaximander, early Greek 

philosopher,610-547 b. c. , 

149 
Anaximenes, early Greek 

philosopher, about 550 

B.C., 145 
Anchises, 71 
Andocides, Athenian orator, 

about 415 B.C., 221* 
Androcrates, a Plataean 

hero, 87 
Andi'ogeos, son of Minos 

king of Crete, 87* 
Anius, a hero of Delos, 87 
Anticleides, Athenian 

author, after the time of 

Alexander, 93 
Antinoopolis, 111* 
Antinous, 111* 
Antiochus, Greek historian, 

5th century b.c, 99 
Antiochus of Cyzicus, 119 
Antisthenes, founder of the 

Cynic school of philo- 
sophy, 159, 169 
Antoninus Liheralis, Greek 

grammarian, about 150 

A.D., 84 
Apellas, 105 
Apelles, Greek painter, 

about 320 B.C., 141, 213 
Aphrodite, 33, 6S, 69, 71, 

75, 83, 97, 101, 123, 131, 

137, 171, S87', Anaitis, 

149 ; Argynnis, 81 ; statue 

at Cnidus, 121, 131 
Apis, Egyptian bull god, 

85*, 111, 119 
Apocalypse of Elijah, 207 
392 



Apocalypse of Peter, 182 

Apollo, 3, 29, 39, 59, 67, 
75, 81, 89, 95, 97, 99, 
105,121,171; of Actium, 
87 ; of Delos, 99 ; Smin- 
theus, 87 ; of the ways, 
115 

Apollodorus, Athenian 
writer, about 140 b.c, 
31, 61, 98, 133 

Apollonia, 145 

Arabians, 101 

Aratus, poet, flourished in 
Macedoniaabout 270 b.c, 
165, 245 

Arcadia and Arcadians, 15, 
57,59 

Archelaus, Athenian philo- 
sopher, about 450 b.c, 
149 

Archemorus, 71 

Ares, 59, 71, 75, 103, 145, 
147, 221 

Argos and Argives, 83, 107, 
121, 233 

Argus, sculptor, 105 

Arion, Greek poet and 
musician, about 600 b.c, 
3* 

Aristomenes, Messenian 
king, 7th century b.c, 91 

Aristophanes, 153, 383 

Aristotle, 59, 150, 151, 209 

AristusofSalamisin Cyprus, 
wrote a history of Alex- 
ander the Great, 123 

ArnoMus, Latin Christian 
Apologist, about 310 A.I)., 
98, 381, 382, 384 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Arretophoria^ an Athenian 
festival of Demeter and 
Persephone, 87 

Arsinoe, 67 

Artaxerxes, 149 

Artemis, 81, 83, 89, 95, 105\ 
Taurian, 93 ; temple at 
Delos, 99 ; temple at 
Mag-nesia, 99 ; temple at 
Ephesus, 113, 121; statue 
in Icarus, 103 ; statue at 
Sicyon, 107 

Asclepius, 55, 59, 61, 119 

Ascra, 89 

Assyrians, 159 

Astrabacus, a Lacedae- 
monian hero, 87 

Athena, 39, 57, 59, 75, 77, 
99, 103, 105, 107, 119, 
125, 127, 171, 213, 382 

Athenaeus, 80, 81, 96, IO4, 
123, 124, 385 

Athenagoras, Christian 
Apologist, 2nd century 
A.D., 80, 165 

Athenians, 41, 43, 53, 83, 
87, 93, 97, 105, 125, 283 

Athenodorus, 109 

Athens, 41, 53, 71, 99, 103, 
107, 121, 123, 125, 149, 
239 

Attica, 41 

Attis, a Phrygian god, con- 
sort of Cybele in the 
Phrygian mysteries, 35, 
41, 49, 168, 382, 387 

Augustine, St., 102 

Avengers, The (Erinyes), 
53, 103, 221 



Averters of evil. The (Apo- 
tropaei), 93 

Babylon and Babylonians, 
149, 159, 211 

Bacchants, 31, 37, 45 

Bacchus and Bacchic rites. 
See Dionysus 

Bactrians, 149 

Barnabas, Epistle of, 232, 
287 

Bassareus, title of Dionysus, 
45 

Baton, 124, 

Baubo, 41, 43, 387 

Berosus, Babylonian his- 
torian, about 250 b.c, 
147 

Bion of Borysthenes, philo- 
sopher, about 250 b.c, 
129 

Blistiche, mistress of Pto- 
lemy Philadelphus, 109 

Brimo, title of Demeter, 
85, 385 

Bryaxis, Athenian sculptor, 
about 850 B.C., 105 

Bryaxis, sculptor, 109 

Cabeiri, gods of the Samo- 
thracian mysteries, 39, 
41, 388 

Callimachus, Alexandrine 
grammarian and poet, 
about 260 b.c, 61, 79, 
81 

Callistagoras,hero of Tenos, 
87 

Calos, sculptor, 105 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Cambyses, 119 

Canobus^ 109 

Capio, 7 

Cariaiis, 61 

Castalia, sacred spring on 

Mount Parnassus, 27 
Cecrops, legendary first 

king of Athens and 

founder of the Athenian 

State, 99 
Celeus, 99 

Ceryces. See Heralds 
Ceyx, son of Aeolus, 123 
Chalcedon, 149 
Charm us, 97 
Charybdis, 251 
Cheiron, 93 
Chione, 65 
Chios, 149, 211 
Chrysippus, son of Pelops, 

69 
Chrysis, priestess at Argos, 

121* 
Cicero, 57, 58, 116, 119, 

120, 143,146, 261, S88 
Cimmerians, 195"*^ 
Cinyras, ancient ruler of 

Cyprus, 33, 71, 101 
Cirrhaean tripod, at Cirrha, 

a port close to Delphi, 27 
Cithaeron, mountain range 

between Attica and 

Boeotia, 5, 1, 255 
Clarian oracle, of Apollo, 

29 
Clazomenae, 80, 149, 292 
Cleanthes, Stoic philoso- 
pher, about 250 b.c, 161- 

163 
394 



Clement of Rome, Epistle of, 

367 
Cleochus, 99 
Cletor, 85 
Cnidus, 121, 133 
Colophon, 27 
Condylea, in Arcadia, 81* 
Corybantes, attendants of 

the Phrygian goddess 

Cybele, 35, 39, 41, 388 
Coryphasia, title of Athena, 

57 
Crates, 293* 

Cratina, mistress of Praxi- 
teles, 121 
Crete and Cretans, 57, 59, 

79,* 87 
Cronus, 57, 63 
Croton, 149 
Curetes, attendants of the 

infant Zeus or Dionysus, 

37 
Cybele, Phrygian goddess 

(The Great Mother), 81, 

35, 45, 47, 49, 169, 

388 
Cyclaeus, a Plataean hero, 

87 
Cynopolis, 85 
Cynosarges, 125 
Cynosuris, 63 
Cyprian poems, The, 63* 
Cyprus, 33, 49, 83, 131, 

133 
Cyrbas, Cretan father of 

Apollo, 59 
Cyrus, 95, 97 
Cythnians, 87 
Cyzicus, 47, 119 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Daedalus, 133 

Daeira, wife of Eumolpus, 99 

Damascus, 149 

Dapliiie, 67 

Dardaiius, 31 

Darius, 119, 149 

Delos and Delians, 87, 99 

Delphi (or Pytlio), seat of 

the oracle of Apollo, 3, 5 
Demaratus, 93 
Demeter, 31, 33, 35, 41, 

43, J^5, 53, 71, 75, 89, 

131, 141, 380-8 
Demetrius, historian, 105 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, kin^ 

of Macedonia about 800 

B.C., 125 
Democrates, a Plataean 

hero, 87 
Deniocritus, Greek philo- 
sopher, about 430 b.c, 

149,* 151, 155-7, 203, 

293* 
Demoplion, 105 
Demosthenes, i^4, 139 
Dcrceto, a Syrian goddess, 

86* 
Dia^oras of Melos, called 

the '^Atheist" : Greek 

philosopher, about 425 

B.C., 49 
Dicaearchus, philosopher 

and historian, about 300 

B.C., 63 
Didymaean oracle (of 

Apollo) at Didyma near 

Miletus, 29 
Didymaeum, temple of 

Apollo near Miletus, 99 



Didymus, g-rammarian, 1st 

centui-y B.C., 59 
Dinon, 147 
Diodorus, 86, 221 
Diojrenes, historian, 147 
Dio^-enes, of Apollonia, 

philosopher, 5th century 

B.C., 145 
Diomedes, 75, 105 
Dionysius, 105 
Dionysius, the younger, 

tyrant of Syracuse, 117 
Dionysus, Jf, 31, 37, 89, 41, 

45, 53, 73, 83, 93, 107, 

121, 128, 131, 171, 25J^- 

255, 381-2, 386 
Diopetes, '^ heaven - sent " 

image of Pallas Athena, 

105 
Dioscuri. SeeTvvin Brothers 
Dipoenus, sculptor, 6th 

century b.c, 107 
Dodona, in Epirus : oracle 

of Zeus, 26, 27 
Domitian, emperor, 356 
Dorian mode, 7*, 13 
Dorotheus, 93 
Dosidas, or Dosiades, 93 
Dysaules, 41 

EcBATANA, 149 

Eetion, reputed founder of 
Samothracian mysteries, 
31 

Eg-ypt and Egyptians, 17, 
29, 33, 49, 57, 66, 83, 
85, 107, 109, 111, 113, 
147, 159, 380 

Elea, a Greek colony in 
395 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



south Italy, ljirth])lace of 
the philosophers Parme- 
nides and Zeiio, called 
Eleatics, 145 

Elephantine^ 85 

Eleusinium, temple of 
Demeter at Athens, 99, 
383 

Eleusis and the Eleusinian 
mysteries, 31, 34, 41, 43, 
46, 99, 379-88 

Eleutherae, 120* 

Elijah, 21, 23 

Elis and Eleans, 81, 87 

Empedocles, Greek philo- 
sopher, about 490 b.c, 
55, 145 

Endvmion, 69 

Enyb, 221 

Eos, m 

Ephesus, ^6,105, 145, 357-9 

Epicharmus, 59 

Epicurus, founder of the 
Epicurean school of philo- 
sophy, about 300 B.C., 
151 

Epimenides, 53 

Erechtheus and Erechthei- 
dae, 43*, 93 

Eresus, 151 

Erichthonius, 99 

Erinyes. See Avengers 

Eros, 97 

Ethiopians, 77 

Eubouleus, 37, 41 

Eudoxus, geographer, about 
130 B.C., 147 

Euhemerus, Greek philo- 
sopher (end of 4th century 

396 



B.C.), who taught that the 
gods were deified kings 
and heroes, a theory after- 
wards known as Euhemer- 
ism, 49 

Eumeiiides, 53, 103^^ 

Eumolpidae, 41^ 380* 

Eumolpus, 41, 99 

Eunomus, 3, 5, 7 

Euphorion, 87 

Euripides, 3, 51, 61, 93, 
108, 155, 165, 171-3, 
219, 255 

Eury medusa, 85 

Eurystheus, 49 

Eve; 19, 30*, 31 

Fates, The, 221 
Fortuna, Roman goddess, 
115 

GALiyTHIAS, 85* 
Ganymedes, 69, 78,111 
Ge Themis, 45* 
Greece, 33, 41, 49, 109, 239 
Greeks, 31, 43, 83, 111, 
147, 159, 253, 257 

Hades, or Pluto, god of the 
under world, 37, 73, 77, 
89, 107, 381 
Hadrian, emperor. 111 
Halimus, a district near 
Athens, where mysteries 
of Dionysus were held^ 
71, 382* 
Halvs, river, 95 
Hebrews, 21, 159, 189 
Helen of Troy, 75, 171 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Helicon, mountain rani^e in 
Boeotia, sacred to Apollo 
and the Muses, 5, 7 
Helius, 77 

Hephaestus, 39, 57, 59, 61, 
75, ]81, 147, 171 

Hera, 70, 77, 85, 103, 105, 
123 

Heracleides of Pontus, 4th 
century b.c, 87, 151 

Heracleitus, Ephesian philo- 
sopher, about 515 B.C., 45, 
73, 113-5, 145, 147, 152, 
203, 241 

Heracleopolis, 85 

Heracles, 49, 55, 63, 67, 
69, 75, 77, 81, 88, 85, 
89, 107, 131, 139, 171 

Heralds,anAthenian family, 
41*, 380* 

Hermes, 59, 115, 128, 125, 
221* 

Herodotus, IJf, JfS, 57, 66, 
84, 86, 92, 96, 97, 119 

Hesiod, 33, 53, 67, 89, 96, 
165, 199, 211, 223, 253 

Hicesius, 147 

Hieronymus, 63 

Hippasus, Pythagorean phi- 
losopher, 145 

Hippo, philosopher, 49, 125, 
127 

Hippoli/tus, Christian writer, 
2nd centurtj A.D., 385 

Hippothoe, 65 

Homer, 7, 22, 39, 43, 53, 
59, 61, 68, 67, 69, 75, 
77, 81, 89, 95, 101, 117, 
127, 128, 129, 131, 135, 



137, 138, 171, 183, 191, 
201, 211, 219, 227, 235, 
289, 241, 245, 258, 257, 
28Jf 

Hyacinthus, 69 

Hylas, 69 

Hyperboreans, 60, 99 

Hyperoche, 99 

Hypsipyle, 67 

Iacchus, name of the infant 

Dionysus, 48, 47, 141, 

381 
lasion, 71 

Ilium, or Troy, 75, 105 
Immaradus, Athenian hero, 

99 
Indians, 53 
Ino, 181 
Ionia, 289 
Irenaeus, 239, 34? 
Isidorus, 109 
Isis, 113, 380 
Isthmian games, 71 
Ithome, a mountain in 

Messenia, 91 

JUSTIN MARTYR, 67, 162, 

165, 169, 239, 3^5, 352 

Kaaba, The, sacred stone at 
Mecca, 101 

Lackdaemonians or Lacou- 
ians, 59, 75, 81, 83, 87, 
91, 233 

Laconia, 81 

Lamia, 125 

Laodice, 99 

897 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Laomedou, 75 

Larissa, i)!) 

Leandrius, 99 

Leda, 79, 189 

Lemnos, Gl 

Lenaea, 7*, 73 

Lesbians, 65, 93 

Leto, 89 

Leucippus, 5tli-century phi- 
losopher, founder of the 
atomic system developed 
by Democritus, 149, 158 

Leucon, a Plataeau hero, 
87 

Leucophryne, 99 

Lot's wife, 225 

L/ucian, 67 

Lycaon, 77 

Lycopolis, 85 

Lyctians, a Cretan tribe, 93 

Lycurgus, 233 

Lydian mode, 7"^, 13 

Lysippus, Greek sculptor, 
4th century b.c, 141 

Macab, king of Lesbos, 65 

Macedonians, 147, 193 

Maenads, 255 

Magnes, 59 

Magnesia, 99 

Marius, 93 

Marpessa, 67 

Maximum of Tyre, 90 

Meandrius. See Leandrius 

Mecca, The Kaaba at, 101 

Medes. See Persians 

Megaclo, 65 

Melampus, reputed founder 

of mysteries, 33 
S98 



Melanippe, 65 
Melicertes, 71 
Melos, 49 
Memphis, 85 
Menander, 155, 169, 171 
Mendes, 85 
Menecrates, 123 
Menedemus, a Cythnian 

hero, 87 
Merops, 97 
Messenians, 57, 91 
Metapontum, 145 
Methymna, 3, 81 
Metragyrtes, name for a 

priest of the Great 

Mother, or Cybele, 48, 

169 
Metrodorus of Chios, philo- 

soplier, about 030 b.c, 

149 
Midas, 33 

Miletus, 99, 145, 149 
Minos, 239 
Mithridates, 123 
Mnemosyne, 65, 67 
Monimus, 93 
Moses, 7, 21, 51, 157, 177, 

181, 183, 191, 235 
Mother, The Great (or. 

Mother of the Gods). 

See Cybele 
Muses, 4} 65, 67 
Myrmidon, oo* 
Myrsilus of Lesbos, Greek 

historical writer, 65 
Mysteries, 5, 29-47, 71, 257, 

379-90 
My us, reputed founder of 

mysteries, 31 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Neilus, 57 

Nemeaii games, 71 

Nereis, 69 

Nero, empei'or, 857 

Nicagoras of Zeleia, 123 

Nicaiider, 83, 115 

Nicaiior, 49 

Niiievites, 217 

Niobe, 225 

Nomius, title of Apollo, 59^ 

Nyctimus, 77 

Nymphodorus, 147 

OCEANUS, 57 

Ochus, 149 

Odrvsae, a Thracian tribe, 5 

Odr'ysus, 33 

Odysseus, 75, 105, 191, 23^- 

5,253 
Oeta, Mt., 63 
Olympia, 67, 103 
Olympian games, 71 
Olympichus, 103 
Olympus, Mt., 39, 61 
Omphale, 75 
Ornytus, 77 

Orpheus, 3, 9, 37, 43, 167 
Osiris, J^9, 109, 111, 3S2 
Ovid, 11{2 
Oxyrhyiichus, 85 

Pactolus, a small river in 
Lydia, famous for the 
gold found in its sands, 
191 

Pallas. See Athena 

Pallas, father of Athena, 57 

Pan, 97, 135, 139 

Pantarces, 121 
o2 



Panyasis, 75, 77 

Papiios, 101 

Paris, son of Priam of Troy, 

70, 75 

Parmeuides, Greek philo- 
sopher, about 460 b.c, 
145 

Parnassus, Mt., 39 

Pasiphae, 133 

Patara, a city in Lycia, 105 

Patmos, Isle' of, 857 

Patrocles of Thurium, 63 

Pausanias, 39, 77, 80, 81, 
87, 96, 98, 106, 107, 111, 

120, 385 
Pedasis, 161 
Peleus, 71, 93 

Pella in Macedonia, 125 
Pella in Thessaly, 93 
Pelops, 69, 71, 105 
Peutheus, 255'-^ 
Peripatetics, 151 
Persephone or Core (The 
Maiden), 31, 35, 37, 41, 

71, 89, 93, 141, 381-7 
Persians, 87, 101, 147, 149 
Phaethon, 71 
Phalerum, 87, 383 
Phauocles, 81 

Pheidias, 67, 71, 103, 105, 

121, 213 
Pherae, 75 
Philaenis, 139 

Philip of Macedon_, 125 
Philippides, 97 
Philo ludaens, 133 
Philochorus, 63, 105 
Philomedes, title of Aphro- 
dite, 33* 

899 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Philostephanus, 131 

Philostratus, 133, 24I 

Phlim, 120 

Phoceans, 98 

Phoebus, title of Apollo, 

61, 67, 95 
Phoenicia, 87 
Phoroneus, 97, 233 
Phryg-ian mode, I"*" 
Phrygians and Phrvgia, 16, 

81, 38, 35, 58,' 71, 75, 

387-8 
Phryne, 123 
Pindar, 61, 213 
Pisa, 71 
Plataeans, 87 
Plato, 51, 52, 96, 128, I46, 

153-5, 157, i57, 159, 191, 

212, 214-5, 229, 241, 

245, 261, 268, 271, 284, 

285, 321 
Pliny, 104 
Plutarch, 49, 87, 90, 93, 

107, 125, Wf, lJf6, 213, 

221, 384 
Pluto. See Hades 
Polemon, 75, 81, 85, 105, 

107 
Polycleitus, sculptor, about 

430 B.C., 213 
Pontus, 109, 123 
Poseidippus, 121, 131, 138 
Poseidon, 63, 65, 75, 105, 

131, 145 
Praxiteles, sculptor, about 

350 B.C., 121, 141, 213 
Priapus, 221 
Procles, ancient ruler of 

Namos, 103 
4-00 



Prosymnus, 78 
Prothoe, 67 
Ptolemaeus, 101 
Ptolemy 11., Philadelphus. 

107, 109 
Ptolemy l\., Philopator, 

101, 123 
Pygmalion, 131 
Pythagoreans, 163, 195 
Pythian games, 71 
Pythian oracle, 29 
Pytho, of Delphi, seat of 

the oracle of Apollo, 3, 

5,71 
Pythocles, 98 

RnAcoTis, 109 
Rome and Romans, 81, 93, 
103, 115, 121 

Sabazian mysteries, 85, 388 
Sais, 57, 85 

Samos and Samians, 87, 103 
Samothracian mysteries, 31, 

387 
Sarapis, 107, 109, 111, 113, 

119 
Sardis, 75, 149 
Sauromatians, 147, 149 
8cirophoria, 87 
Scopas, (ireek sculptor, 

about 870 B.C., 105 
Scyllis, ancient Cretan 

sculptor, 107 
Scythians, 47, 49, 61, 101, 

147 
Selene, 69 
Seleucia, near Antioch in 

Syria, 109 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Semele, 79, 255 
Semiramis, a Syrian goddess, 

86* 
Sesostris, 109 
Sibylline oracles, 57*, 118, 

141, 159, 161, 1G7, 175, 

211 
Sicily, 63, 119 
Sicon, sculptor, 107 
Sicyon and Sicyonians, 88, 

107 
Silenus, 59 
Sinope, 107 
Sirens, The, 251 
Srailis, 108 
Socrates, 52, 159-61 
Sodom, 225 
Solon, 95, 97, 288 
Sophocles, 59, 165, 199, 

218, 388 
Sophocles the younger, 63 
Sosibius, 77, 81 
Spartans. See Lacedae- 
monians 
Staphylus, 81 
Sterope, 67 
Stoics and Stoicism, 120, 

1 46, \6\,\Q\, 261, 262-3, 

300 
Straho, 27, 67, 160, 221 
Susa, 149 
Syene, 85 
Syracusans, 88 

Taubians, 91 

Teaching of the Twelve 

Apostles, 232, 331, 345 
Teiresias, 257 
Telesius, 105 



Telmessus, 101 

Tenos and Tenians, 63, 87, 

105 
Terpander, ancient Greek 

lyric poet and musician, 7 
Thales, Greek philosopher, 

about 600 B.C., 145 
Thebes and ITiebans, 3, 63, 

85, 254, 257, 292 
Thebes (Egyptian), 85 
Theocritus of Chios, 211* 
Theodorus, 49 
Theophrastus, 151 
Theopompus, 91 
Theseus, 87 
Thesmophoria, festival of 

Demeter, 37, 39 
Thespiae, 103, 123 
Thesprotia, 27 
Thessalians, 85 
Thestius, 69 
Thetis, 71 
Thmuitans, 67* 
Thracians, 3, 5, 81, 87, 59, 

169, 167 
Thucydides, 120, 221, 326 
Thurium, 63 
Tiryns, 105, 107 
'I'itanis, 57 
Titans, 37, 39, 47 
Tithonus, 09 
Triptolemus. 41 
Troy, or Ilium, 75, 105 
Tuscan oracles of the dead, 

29 
Tuscans, 41 

Twin Brothers, 55, 68, 107 
Tyche. See Fortuna 
Tycho, 220*, 221 

401 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Zeno of Myndus, 99 
Zeus, 4, SI , 35, 39, 57, 59, 
01, 65, 67 69, 71, 77, 70, 
83, 85, 87, 89, 93, 95, 
103, 105, 111, 119, 121, 
128, 127, 129, 131, 139, 
157, 215, 235, 284, 381 ; 
Zeus Ag-amemnon, 81* ; 
Zeus Ammoii, Libyan 
oracle of, 26"^, 27 ; Averter 
Zaqreus, Orphic name for of flies, 81 ; of Ithome, 91 



Uranus, 33 

Varro, 103 

Venerable goddesses, 103* 

Xenocrates, 149 
Xenophanes, 49 
Xenophon, 159-61 



Dionysus, 



Zeuxippe, 67 



402 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL 
PASSAGES 



References in italics are to allusions only, or to passages mentioned 
in notes or Appendix. 





For references marked with 


a t see the Septuagint. 




Genesis 


vi. 6 


233 


i. 1 


183 


vi. 13 


181 


i.U 


U2 


x. 20 


181 


i. 26 


215, 263, 345 


xxiii. 1-2 


50 


in. 14 


237 


XXV. 13-16 167 


in. 15 


229 


XXX. 14 


285 


Hi. 19 


303 


XXX. 15 


207-9 


Hi. 20 


31 


xxxii. 39 


177 


iv. 21 


13 


1 


. Samuel 


xix. 26 


224 


xvi. 23 


13 




Exodus 


xxviii. 7 


29 


XX. 4 

XX. 13-: 


141 
16 233 




1 Kings 






Hi. 7 


178 




Leviticus 


Hi. 12 


178 


xix. 18 


233 


xviii. 44^ 


202 


xix. 31 


29 






XXV. 23 


207 




Psalms 






ii. 12t 


181 


Deuteronomy 


iv. 2 


181 


V. 8 


141 


vii. 9 


356 


vi. 4 


181 


viii. 3 


143 



403 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES 



Psalms — contd. 


via. 4f 


177 


xix. 8 


241 


xix. 10 


241 


xxii. 22 


243 


xxiv. 1 


223, 37\ 


xxxiii. 6 


143 


xxxiv. 8 


193-5 


xxxiv. 11 


195 


xxxiv. 12 


195 


Iv. 7t 


229 


Ivii. 8 


13 


Iviii. 4, 6 


227-9 


Ixii. 8 


229 


Ixix. 32 


229-31 


Ixx. 4 


231 


Ixxii. 9 


229 


Ixxxii, 6 


263 


xcv. 8-11 


187-9 


xcvi. 5 


141 


civ. 2 


182 


cix. St 


15, 187 


cxv. 4 


101 


cxix. 105 


181 


P 


ROVERBS 


ii. 6 


179 


iii. 11 


183 


vi. 9, IPt 


181 


viii. 22t 


179 


XX, 27i 


180 




Isaiah 


i. 3 


201 


i. 18 


351 


i. 19, 20 


209 


ii.3 


7 


404 





viii. 19 29 

ix. 2 243 

X. 10-11, 14t 179 

xiii. 10 182 

xxxiv. 4 ^^^ 

xl. 8 23 

xl. 8 177 

xl. 12 175 

xl. 18-19 179 

xlv. 19-20 179 

xlv. 21-23 179 

li. 6 177 

liii. 3 235 

liv. 1 25 

liv. I7t 205 

Iv. It 205 

Ivii. 19 195 

Iviii. 9 249 

Ixiv. It 177 

Ixiv. l-3t 177 

Ixvi. 1 177 

Jeremiah 

iv. 26t 177 

viii. 2 177 

X. 12 181 

xvii. 10 356 

xix. 3 177 

xxiii. 23-24 175 

xxxi. 33, 34 245 

xxxiv. 20 177 

EZEKIEL 

viii. 14 4^ 

xviii. 23 351 

xxxii. 7 182 

xxxiii. 20f 353 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES 







Daniel. 


in. 




356 






HOSEA 


vi. 


6 


351 
Joel 


ii. 


10 


1S2 
Amos 


iv. 


4,1.3 


177 
Jonah 


a. 




366 


Hi. 


5,10 


217 




Zechariah 


iii. 


2 


199 
Malachi 


iv. 


2 


243 




St 


. Matthew 


iii. 


3 


23 


iii. 


,7 


11 


iii. 


9 


9 


iii 


. 10 


331 


iii. 


. 12 


31^5 


iii, 


.17 


185 


iv. 


10 


181 


ii\ 


16 


21i3 


iv. 


17 


193 


V. 


3 


303, 305 


V. 


3,10 


217 


V. 


6 


305 


V. 


8 


303, 309 


V. 


13,14 


345 



V. 18 183 

V. 25 355 

V. 2S 139, 23S 

V. 29-30 321 

V. 39 307 

V. 45 243 

vi. 19, 20 205, 227 

vi. 20 297 

vi. 21 305 

vi. 24 207 

vii. 1 341 

vii. 7 S88 

vii. 11 352 

vii. 13, U 216 

vii. 14 827 

vii. 15 11 

vii. 21 383 

viii. 22 819 

ix. 13 351 

X. 16 229 

X. 22 339 

X. 40 335 

X. 41-42 335 

x. A2 335 

cci. 11 335 

xi. 12 315, 365 

cci. 25 334- 

xi. 27 27, 285 

xi. 28-30 259 

xii. 7 351 

ccii. 50 288 
xiii. 16 17 333 

xiii. 38 283 

rvii. 5 202 

xvii. 27 315 

xviii. 3 185 

xviii. 8 321 

xviii. 10 335 

xix. 21 289, 271, 299 
405 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES 



St. Matthew — contd. 



xxi. 1-7 


259 


xxiii. 9 


319 


xxni. 12 


273 


xxiv. 29 


182 


wxiv. 31 


345 


XXIV. 35 


177 


XXV. 80-40 


338-5 


XXV. 41 


187 


XXV. 41-43 


296 


xxvL 75 


362 


St. 


Mark 


i. 3 


23 


n. 7 


351 


a. 15 


297 


iv. 19 


292 


ix. 43-47 


321 


X. 17-31 


279-81 


X. 21 


289, 291, 303, 




311 


w. 24 


334 


X. 25 


273, 327 


X. 26 


313 


X. 27 


313 


X. 28 


315 


X. 29 


317 


X. 30 


321, 323 


X. 31 


328 


xii. 30-31 


829 


xiv. 36 


195 


St. 


Luke 


». 7-13 


23 


i. 20, 64 


25 


i. 79 


243 


ii. 49 


185 


iii. 4 


23 


iii. 7 


11 


iii. 8 


9 


406 





iii. 9 
iv. 8 
V. 21 
vi. 20 
vi. 29 
vi, 30 
vi. 38 
vi. 45 
vi. 46 
vii. 28 
ix. 62 
X. 16 
X. 20 
X. 27 
X. 29 
X. 80-37 
X. 41-42 
xi. 8 
xi. 9 
xi. 13 
xii. 4 
xii. 32 
xii. 34 
xii. 58 
xiv. 26 
xiv. 33 
XV. 7, 10 
xvi. 9 
xvi. 18 
xiri. 17 
xvii. 3-4 
xviii. 22 
xix. 5 
xix. 9 
xxii. 62 



331 

181 

351 

217 

288, 307 

837 

341 

305 

333 

335 

352 

335 

315 

329 

329 

329-31 

291 

365 

288 

352 

334 

335 

305 

355 

317 

299 

850 

297, 337, 389 

207 

183 

352 

289 

296 

297 

362 



St. John 



i. 1 



3-^. 17, 
285 



19, 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES 



St. John — contd. 

i. 9 194 

i. 17 285-7 

i. 18 347 

i. 20-23 23 

i. 23 23 

iii. 3, 5 185 

in. 13, 31 216 

iii. 19 219 

Hi. 31 137 

iv. U 319 

V. 17 206 

V. 26 284 

m. 50-51 319 

viii. 23 137 

X. 9 27 

CD. 11 247 

x. 16 194 

xin. 11 333 

xiii. 34 347 

xiv. 6 217, SOS 

xiv. 8, 9 318 

xiv. 15 333 

xiv. 23 341 

xiv. 27 347 

XV. 5-^6 349 

XV. 15 334 

XV. 26 191 

xvii. 2 284 

xvii. 3 284 

xxi. 5 334 

xxi. 25 101 

Acts 

i. 17 357 

iv. 32 336 

xix. 35 105 



i. 17 



Ro.MANS 

287 



i. 21, 23, 25 181-3 

V. 4 322 

vi. 4 137 

vii. 12 289 

viii. 14-17 288 

viii. 15 195 

viii. 17 242, 344 

viii. 19-21 332 

ix. 22 377 

X. 3 293 

X. 4 289 

xi. 30 271, 329 

xiii. 10 288 

xiv. 9 366 

1 Corinthians 
i. 13 239 

i. 24 274 

a. 6, 7 389 

ii. 9 207, 253, 319 

iii. 13 46, 322 

iii. 17 307 

vi. 15, 19 377 

vi. 19 13 

vii. 9 322, 355 

ix. 25 279 

xi. 25 277 

xii. 31 349 

xiii. 4-13 349 

xiii. 5 349 

xiii. 13 277, 332 

XV. 51 389 

2 Corinthians 
i. 3 353 
iv. 6 247 
iv. 7 343 
iv. 18 823 

V. 17 293 

V. 19 351 

407 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES 

1 Timothy 

i. 2 SJ^k 

i. 17 345 

ii. 4 191 

iv. 8 ]91 

iv. 10 191 

V. 1 SIS 

V. 5 SI 5 

V. 2S S75 

vi. 11 IJ 



2 Corinthians — contd. 


ix. 6 


337 


ix. 7 


337 


Galatians 


ii. 21 


287 


Hi. 24 


288 


Hi. 28 


239 


iv. 6 


195 


iv. 9 


149 


vi. 7 


357 


vi. 15 


243, 293 


Ephesians 


ii. 2 


19 


ii. 3-6 


66 


ii. 12 


47 


ii. 17 


194 


Hi. 10 


332 


iv. 17-19 


187 


iv. 24- 


239 


iv. 28 


355 


V. 8 


203 


V. 14 


187, 375 


V. 18, 19 


375 


vi. 12 


331 


vi. 14-17 


249 


vi. 17 


226 



Philippians 

ii. 6-7 23 
Hi. 13 273 

iv. 6 193 



COLOSSIANS 

i. 15, 18 185 

Hi. 9-11 239 

408 





2 Timothy 


iii. 15 




193 


iii. 16- 


17 


193 


iv. 6 




347 
Titus 


i. 4 




344 


ii. 11-13 


17 


iii. 3-5 




11 




H 


EBREWS 


i. 6 




185 


i. 12 




79 


i. 14 




332 


H. 11 




242 


Hi. 5 




287,2 


iii. 7-1] 


L 


187-9 


in. 13 




189 


iv. 12 




356 


viii. 10- 


-12 


245 


xi. 36 




319 


xii. 21 




183 


xii. 22, 


23 


185 


wH. 23 




315 


mn. 17 




362 
James 


V. 11 




S5S 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES 
1 Peter 



i, s 


319 


i. 4 


206 


\. 12 


319 


ii. 9-10 


187 


iv. 8 


349 



2 Peter 

ii. 12 229 

ii. 14 139 





1 John 


iii. 15 


349 


iv. 8, : 


16 847 


iv. 18 


849 


iv. 19 


329 




JUDE 


1 


274 




Revelation 


ii. 23 


356 


ax, 5 


181 



THE END 



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