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[NO. xxv.] 




FOR THE YEAR 1842-3. 


THOMAS AMYOT, ESQ. F.R.S. Treas. S.A. Director. 


JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. F.SA., Treasurer. 











WILLIAM J. THOMS, ESQ. F.S.A., Secretary. 



IN producing this first portion of the Prompt orium, the 
Editor, having for various reasons been induced to withhold 
for the present his more detailed Preface, feels it requisite to 
offer a few preliminary observations. The present edition 
is formed upon the text of the Harleian MS. 221,, which 
has been selected as the most ancient, the most correct, 
and the most copious of the MSS. of which the existence 
has hitherto been ascertained. The additions that have 
been made from other MSS., and from Pynson's edition, 
are numerous ; these, as likewise the corrections and 
various readings, are distinguished from the text by being 
placed within brackets, with the indication of the sources 
whence they are severally derived. In a few instances, 
where the reading of the Harl. MS. appeared so faulty 
as to justify an alteration of the text, the rejected word 
has been given in the notes ; but more frequently it has 
been considered preferable to leave the reading of the 
MS. unaltered, and to give the various reading, which at 
once suggests the correction. The authorities whence 


various readings have been taken, are indicated in the 
following manner. MS. in the Library at King's College, 
Cambridge, (K.) ; MS. in the collection of Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, Bart, at Middle Hill, and formerly in the Heber 
Library, (H.) ; MS. in the Chapter Library at Winchester, 
originally in the possession of Thomas Silkstede, Prior of 
Winchester, A.D. 1498, (s.) A fragment contained in Harl. 
MS. 2274, afforded a few readings, which are marked by 
the number of the MS. The edition printed by Pynson, 
in 1499, has supplied numerous additions and various 
readings, distinguished thus, (p.) ; and a few, the critical 
importance of which is but trifling, have been selected 
from the editions by Julian Notary, 1508, (j.) and W. de 
Worde, 1516, (w.) The work was reproduced by the last 
named printer in 1510, 1512, and 1528; but Pynson's 
text appears to have been followed in all the subsequent 
editions, with partial abridgment chiefly of the Latin portion 
of the work, and some trifling variations. 

The integrity of the MS. selected as the groundwork 
of the present edition having thus been, in all essential 
respects, preserved, the following modifications have been 
deemed advisable. The original consists of two distinct 
portions, and alphabetical arrangements, a nominate, and 
a verbale, according to the usage, of which other instances 
occur in contemporary works of a similar nature. The 
disadvantage of thus separating the verbs from the nouns, 
and other parts of speech, was evidently material, and 


the arrangement has been simplified by throwing the 
whole into one alphabetical order. The indications of 
genders, declensions, and conjugations, as likewise of 
certain inflexions of the Latin words, which conveyed 
important information to the student of Latin, for whose 
benefit the work was compiled, but are devoid of any 
utility as regards the present purpose, have been wholly 
omitted. Wherever it was practicable, the Latin words 
have been corrected by reference to the authorities cited ; 
in all other cases no attempt has been made to alter the 
barbarisms of a debased Latinity, which, displeasing, 
indeed, to the eye of the classical scholar, are not devoid 
of information to the archaic student. 

It has been found impossible to preserve the perfect 
regularity of alphabetical arrangement, in consequence 
of the disorder that had been introduced by the scribe, 
who, writing more by ear than careful observation of 
orthography, has in his transcript continually vitiated the 
spelling of the original. To have corrected these cor- 
ruptions, introduced by the second hand, would have 
been incompatible with the principle of preserving, in its 
integrity, the text of the MS. : the transposition of the 
words would have destroyed the evidence of their original 
spelling indicated by the alphabetical arrangement. Some 
words have, however, where it appeared advisable, been 
transposed ; and if the Editor should be reproached with 
an excess of caution in not making many alterations of 


the kind, he hopes that the inconvenience will be ulti- 
mately remedied by means of an orthographic Index, 
which it is proposed to supply, wherein the reference to 
words disguised by the most obsolete and uncouth spel- 
ling, may be effectually facilitated. The contractions 
have throughout been printed at length, with the excep- 
tion of the final m and ii : these have been left in cases 
where any question might arise as to their power. The 
chief difficulty in this respect has occurred in regard to 
the verbs, and although the Editor has little doubt that 
the termination -nne was here intended by the contraction 
n, yet the irregularities of the spelling, and indications of 
contraction, that occur in the MS., in this instance, have 
induced him to leave these, and all questionable cases, to 
the decision of those whom they may interest. In a 
few instances where the contraction has appeared to be 
redundant, or erroneous, it has been printed as it stands 
in the MS., so that it may be rejected, or retained, at the 
option of the reader. A prolongation of the last stroke 
of the m or n, which occasionally, as it is believed, 
denotes the mute final e, has been indicated in the 
following manner, m', n'. It must also be noticed, 
that y is to be sought in the place of i ; that sh is in- 
variably written sch ; and that J>, which is occasionally, 
by inadvertence of the scribe, written th, takes the pe- 
nultimate place, usually assigned to it in the Anglo-Saxon 
alphabet. The letter 3 is found in the place of z, at the 


close of the alphabetical arrangement ; as, however, its 
various and undefined powers would have heen insuf- 
ficiently represented by that letter, the Saxon character 
has been retained, with the exception only of a very 
small number of words, in which the letter having evi- 
dently the simple and ordinary power of z, that character 
has been employed. 

In the selection of illustrative materials, the Editor has 
sought to keep equally in view the curious character of 
the work, as affording definite evidence of archaic usages, 
and its philological importance. He has thought it also 
more desirable to establish by contemporary evidence the 
existence of an obsolete word, or show the immediate 
source whence it was introduced into the language, than 
to enter upon etymological speculations. 

The Author excuses himself for the dialectical pecu- 
liarities of his work, written in conformity with the lan- 
guage of Norfolk, with which alone he was acquainted ; 
a comparison, therefore, with the existing dialect of East 
Anglia appeared to be desirable, and it has been carried out 
as far as it was practicable. Of numerous contemporary or 
ancient authorities, whence illustrations have been largely 
drawn, several MSS. of the Latin-English Dictionary, en- 
titled Medulla Grammatices, compiled, according to Bale, 
by the same author as the Promptorium, have been chiefly 
consulted, as likewise the same work in its printed form, 
under the title of the Ortus Vocabulorum. Of the 
Medulla Grammatices, or Grammatice, the MSS. which 

CAMD. soc. 


may especially be cited are, among several in the Harleian 
Collection, those marked 2257 and 2270 ; two valuable 
MSS. in the collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. 
8244 and 8306 (MSS. Heber, 1020 and 1360) ; and the 
MS. in the Chapter Library at Canterbury, which is the 
more remarkable on account of the large number of cor- 
responding Anglo-Saxon words, which have been added 
in the margin, as it is supposed, by the hand of Somner. 
A copy is also preserved in the Pepysian Library at Cam- 
bridge, erroneously described as an English and Latin, 
instead of a Latin-English Dictionary, and another in the 
Library at Holkham. The most ancient MS. hitherto 
noticed is in the possession of the Editor ; and it must be 
observed, that although the work is substantially the 
same, the variations of the text in all these copies are 
found to be very great, and deserve careful comparison. 
A highly valuable MS., dated 1483, consisting of an English 
and Latin Dictionary, wholly distinct from the Prompto- 
rium, and written apparently in the North-Eastern parts 
of England, is cited as the Catholicon Anglicum, For 
free use of this important source of illustration the Editor 
is indebted to the kindness of its late lamented possessor, 
the Right Hon. Lord Monson. The curious work of 
John Palsgrave, entitled, " Eclaircissement de la langue 
Fran9oyse," 1530, the quaint sentences of Horman's Vul- 
garia, 1519, and various other early printed authorities of 
equal rarity, have been made available to the utmost of 
the Editor's ability. But much has been inevitably left 


without any explanatory comment; and the Editor is 
apprehensive that the elucidations which he has been 
enabled to offer will too frequently be found insufficient 
or defective. In a work that has demanded much minute 
research and detailed reference, numerous errors must, 
with the utmost care, have occurred ; and he will thank- 
fully appreciate any corrections or suggestions with which 
those who are interested in such researches may favour 
him. Considerable inconvenience has arisen from the 
impossibility of gaining access to treatises from which the 
Latin words in the Promptorium were derived. The 
author cited as " Mirivalensis, in Campo florum, " is 
unknown, and all researches in order to discover that 
work, which supplied many of the most curious and 
obscure terms, have hitherto been fruitless. No MS. of 
the Derivationes Ugucionis has yet been found which 
answers to the description here given, " Ugucio versifi- 
catus ; " and the " Commentarius curialium " is likewise 
still a desideratum. On these points of difficulty the 
Editor, in behalf of his endeavour to offer in the present 
work some contribution towards the archaic lexicography 
of the English language, would solicit the aid of those 
who are more conversant than himself with early MS. 

131, Piccadilly, 

July 29, 1843. 






xp 1 ^/ G^. 



ULi<2c3 iT""^! 

*M F 




INCIPIT PREAMBULUM. 1 Ccrnentibus sollicite clericorum con- 
diciones, nunc statuum et graduum diversorum numerose videntur 
jam varii clerical! se nomine gloriantes, qui tamen in suis colloquiis 
passim quotidieque barbarizando, sic 2 usum et artem Latine loquele, 
aut pene, aut penitus perdiderunt, quod eorum quam plures quasi 
de doctis indoctos, de sciolis inscios, noverca virtutum et viciorum 
mater degenerans produxit oblivio. Unde ego, dictus indigne 
frater predicator, 3 et Lenne sub regula paupertatis astrictus, ta- 
libus ut valeo compassus, ac juvenum clericorum gramaticare 4 
volencium misertus, presentem libellum non tarn rudem 5 sed quam 
utilem eisdem scribendum curavi ; potissime cum ipsis qui nunc 
ad usum 6 clericalis loquele velut cervi ad fontes aquarum deside- 
rant, sed Latina vocabula ignorantes, et instructorum ad libitum 
copiam ut cupiunt non habentes, singultu et suspiriis ut onagri 
in siti sua deficiunt, ac velut interna fame, sic eciam tabescunt, quod 
pene de eis illud Trenorum eloquium merito cum mesticia jam 
poterit recitari, parvuli petierunt panem, et non erat qui frangeret 
eis. 7 Igitur ego prefatus, quam vis rudis et inscius, plusque 8 
aptus discere quam docere, tamen ut ex libris gramaticorum in- 

1 Incipit prologus in libellum quidicitur 5 Rudem quam, K. p. 
Promptorius Puerorum, p. Promptorius 6 K. p. the word usum is omitted in 
parvulorum, K. Harl. MS. 

2 Sic quod, p. 7 Lamentations, iv. 4. 

3 Predicatorum, K p. 8 K. P. plus is omitted in Harl. MS. 

4 Grammatizare, K. p. 



tellexi, ad predictorum profectum, exile hoc opus collegi, precipue 
Catholicon, Campo florum, Diccionario, aliisque opusculis et 
tractibus, sepius vero ex inquisicione meliorum, l sed rarissime 
quamvis quandoque ex ingenio fallibili, et capite proprio personal!. 
In quo quidem libello primoAnglicanavocabula 2 secundum ordinem 
alphabet!, prout gramaticalia grarnaticorum in libris reperiuntur 
ac scribuntur, conscripsi, et postea correspondencia sibi Latina, 
cum notulis parcium, generum, ac declinacionum ; 3 sic tamen ut 
in 4 qualibet litera alphabet^ nomina et cetere partes, verbis tamen 
exceptis, 5 primo pariter sunt inserta, et tune tandem ipsorum verba 
breviter declinata, ordine quo supra sunt secuta. 6 Comitatus 
tamen Northfolchie 7 modum loquendi solum sum secutus, quern 
solum ab infancia didici^ et solotenus plenius perfectiusque cog- 
novi. Opus autem istud Promptorium parvulorum, sive cleri- 
corum, peto si placeat appellari, eo quod hie seclusis scriptis 
gramatice curiosis, sub quodam quasi breviloquio, medullam tamen 8 
verborum continens, pre brevitate sui aut in promptu, aut de facili, 
a cunctis clericis valeat possideri ; et quod in eo queritur non dis- 
currendo per multa, sed statim et in promptu poterit inveniri. 9 
Cunctos tamen pedagogos, didasculos, sive eciam magistros, precibus 
humiliter deposco, ut cum exile hoc opus perspexerint, quod Deo 
me juvante sit recte scriptum approbent, et quod male aut devie 
pie corrigant et emendent ; 10 quatinus gramatici exiles et pueri in 
volumello hoc brevi, tanquam in speculo, possint inspicere, et 
communia vocabula que sunt ad linguam Latinam spectantia libere 
et statissime invenire : necnon et quam plures alii absque rubore 

1 Majorum, K. rated in one alphabetical arrangement with 

2 K. P. omitted in Harl. MS. the other parts of speech. 

3 These have been omitted in the pre- * Subsecuta, K. perscripta, p. 

sent edition. See Preface. 7 Comitatus tamen Orientalium An- 

4 Sub. K. P. glorum modum loquendi quern, &c. p. 
6 This arrangement has, for greater fa- 8 Tantum, p. 

cility of reference, been changed in the ' K. p. invenire, Harl. MS. 

present edition : the verbs are incorpo- 10 Eniendant, K. 


post terga metencium l spicas eciam possint colligere, qui forte aut 
etatis, aut aliarum causarum pre pudore confusi, id quod minus 
sciunt ab aliis discere erubescunt. Igitur quicunque sibi in hoc 
opere inculto 2 utilitatis aliquid solaciive perspexerint, Deo gratias 
reddant, et pro me peccatore misericorditer intercedant. EXPLICIT 
preambulum in libellum predictum/ secundum vulgarem modum 
loquendi orientalium Anglorum. 

Isti sunt auctores ex quorum libris collecta sunt vocabula hujus 
libelli, per fratrem predicatorem reclusum Lenne Episcopi, Anno 
Domini millesimo cccc. XL. Gujus anime propicietur Deus. 
Et intitulatur liber iste Promptorium parvulorum. Hoc modo 
scribuntur nomina auctorum infra in hoc libro. 

Januensis in suo Catholicon . . CATH. 

Uguitio in majori volumine . . UG. 

Uguitio versificatus .... UG. v. 

Brito BRIT. 

Mirivalensis in campo florum . . c. F. 

Johannes deGarlondia.inDiccionario 7 

( DICC. 

scolastico .... 3 
Commentarius curialium . . . COMM. 
Libellus misteriorumquidicitur Anglia J 


que fulget . - . . 3 

Merarius ...... MER. 

Distigius DIST. 

Robertus Kylwarbi . . . . KYLW. 

Alexander Neccham .... NECC. 
Cum aliis variis libris et libellis inspectis et intellectis, Deo adju- 
vante cum tota curia celesti. 4 

1 K. H. P. metuencium, Harl. MS. 2 K. P. inculte, Harl. MS. 

3 Qui dicitur Promptorius parvulorum, K. H. In the edition by W. de Worde the 
work is entitled, Promptuarium parvulorum clericorum, quod apud nos Medulla gram- 
matice appellatur. 

4 This list of the Latin authorities consulted by the compiler of the Promptorium is 


Nota, quod quicunque alterius patrie vocabula, a dicte prime 
vocabulis aut sillaba aut littera aliquo modo discrepancia, voluerit 
in hoc libro inserere, caveat ut semper secunda ' litera cum prima 
observetur, ut puta, non scribat HONDE pro HANDE, nee NOSE pro 
NESE, aut MON pro MAN, nee KAYE pro KEYE/ et sic de aliis ; 
sed 3 sic scribat, HANDE vel HOND, NESE vel NOSE, et sic de aliis : 
quia aliter liber cito viciabitur et ordo scribendi confundetur, ac 
scrutatores vocabulorum scrutando deficient, dum ea que scru- 
tabuntur in locis debitis non inveniant. 4 

found only in the Harl. MS. and is now printed for the first time. See in the Preface 
notices of the writings above enumerated. 

1 K. secundam, Harl. MS. 

2 In locis debitis secundum vocem literarum scribantur, K. 8 Vel K. 

4 Invenient, Harl. MS. The list of authors is in the Harl. MS. placed before the 
Preambulum, but has been here transposed. In the King's MS. the admonitory Note 
alone, which is above given, is found at the end of the volume. 


A-BACKE, or backwarde. Retro, 

A-BASCHYD, ora-ferde. Territus, 

A-BASCHEMENT, or a-fer. Terror, 

pavor, formido. 
A-BATYN. Subtraho. 
A-BATEMENT, or wythdrawynge of 

wyghte, 1 or mesure, or other 

thyngys. Subtractio, defalca- 


ABBEYE. Abbacia. 
ABBESSE. Abbatissa. 
A-BYDYNNE. Expecto, prestolor. 
ABYDYNGE. Expectacio. 
ABYTE, i. clothynge. Habitus. 
ABLE, or abulle, or abylle. Ha- 

bilis, idoneus. 
ABLYN, or to make able. Habi- 

A-BOCCHEMENT, or a-bocchynge. 2 

Augmentum, CATH. Amplifica- 

mentum, CATH. 

ABHOMINABLE. AbTiominabilis. 
ABHOMINACYON. Abhominacio. 
ABBOTT. Abbas. 
ABOVE. /Supra, superius. 

ABOWTE. Circum, circa. 
ABREGGYN. Abbrevio. 
ABBROCHYN or attamyn a vesselle 

of drynke. 3 Attamino, CATH. 

ABSENCE, or beynge a-way. Ab- 

ABSENT, not here, (or a-way, K.) 


ABSTEYNYN. Abstineo. 
ABSTYNENCE. Abstinentia. 
ABSTYNENT, or absteynynge, or 

he that dothe abstynence. ^46- 

ABULLE, supra in able. Habilis, 

ABULNESSE. Habilitas, aptitudo, 

ABUNDANCE, or grete plente. 


ABUNDYN, or haue plente. Abundo. 
ACENT, or assent, or grawntynge. 

ACENTYN, (assentinge, p.) or 

grawntyn. Assencio. 
A-CETHEN for trespas (acethe, 

K. aceth, p.). 4 Satisfactio. 

i Wyghte, King's MS. weyte, p. The HarJ. MS. reads mete. 
v Augmentum, adauffma, a-bocchement. MKD. GR. MS. PHILL. 
3 " Thilke tonne, that I shal abroche." CHATJC. Wif of Bathes Pro]. 
* " And if it suffice not for asseth." p. PLOUHM. See Jamieson, under Assyth, 
and Spelman. 



ACHE, an erbe. 1 

A-CHETYN. Confiscor. 

ACHWYN, or fleyn. Vito, devito. 

ACHUYNGE, or beynge ware (ache- 
wynge, K. achue, p.) Precavens, 

A-CYDE, or a-cydenandys, or a-slet, 
or a-slonte (acydnande, K. acyd- 
enam, p.) Oblique, vel a later e. 

A-CYNEX, or ordeyn. Assigno. 

A-CLOYED. 2 Acclaudicatus, incla- 

ACLOY3EN, (acloyin, K.) Acclau- 
dico, acclavo, inclavo. 

A-COLDE. Frigidus, algidus, 

(ACOLYTE. Acolytus, P.) 

A-COMELYD for coulde, or a- 
clommyde (acomyrd, p. acorn- 
bred, w.) 3 Eviratus, enervatus. 

A-coMERYD, 4 (acombred, w. acou- 
tyrd, P.) Vexatus. 

A-COMERYNGE, or a-comerment, 

(acombrynge or a-combrement, 

w. a-comyrment, p.) Vexacio. 
A-CORDYD, or of on a-corde. 

(ACORDYD, or made at one, 

Concordatus, p.) 
A-CORDYN. Concordo. 
(ACORDYNG. Concordancia,K.p.) 
A-CORDYNGE, or beynge fytte or 

mete. Convenio. 
ACCORNE, or archarde, frute of the 

oke. 5 Glans. 
Ace us YD. Accusatus. 
(ACCUSYX. Accuso, H. p.) 
ACCUSYNGE (accusacyon, p.) Ac- 


ADAM, propyr name. Adam. 
ADAMANT, precyowse stone. 6 

ADDYCYON, or puttynge to for 

encrese. (addyng or puttynge 

to, P.) Addicio. 
ADMYTYN, orgrawntyn. Admitto* 

1 Ache, or hoppe, ORT. voc. Skinner gives ache, for smallage, from Fr. I'ache, 
parsley. See Cotgr. 

2 " To acloye with a nayle as an yuell smythe dothe an horse foote, enclouer. Ac- 
loyed as a horses foot, enclouL" PALSG. The more usual sense of the word is as 
Horman uses it, " My stomake is accloyed, fastidiosus, nauseabundus." Florio 
renders inchiodare, " to clow, or pricke a horse with a naile." 

3 "Jo ay la mayn si estoniye, so acomeled.'' GAUT. DE BIBELESW. Arundel 
MS. 220. Acomlyt. MS. Phill. In the later Wycliffite version, Isaiah xxxv.3, is read, 
" Coumfort 36 clumsid, ether comelid hondis, and make je strong feble knees." MS. 
Cott. Claud. E. n. In the earlier version the passage is rendered, " Coumforteth the 
hondes loosid atwynne," MS. Douce. In the Latin, " manus dissolutasS' 

4 " I am accombered with corrupt humours, obruor pituita. The snoffe acombreth 
the matche, that he can nat burn clere, fungi elychnium olsident.'' HORM. Piers 
Ploughman uses the word in the sense of to overcome, or destroy. 

" And let his shepe acomber in the mire." CHAUC. 
See Depos. of Ric. II. published by the Camden Society, pp. 29, 30. 

5 Glans, an acharne, Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. Accharne, okecorne, ORT. v. A.S. 
secern. In the curious inventory of the effects of Sir Simon Burley, who was be- 
headed 1388, are enumerated, " deux pairs des pater nosters de aumbre blanc, Vun coun- 
trefait de Atchernes, Vautre roundel MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps. 

" Lapis ferrum attrahens, an adamounde stone, maynes." WHITINTON GRAMM. 
Aymant. PALSG. 


A-DO, or grete bysynesse. Sollici- 

A-DEWE, or farewelle (adwe or far 

wel, P.) Vale. 
AFFODYLLE herbe (affadylle, K. 

p.) ! Affbdillus, albucea. (Affa- 

dilla, K.) 
AFFECCYON, or hertyly wellwyll- 

ynge. Affectio. 
AFFECTE, or welwyllynge. Affec- 

tus, CATH. 

A-FENCE, or offence. Offensa. 
AFENDYD, or offendyd. Offensus. 
A-FERRE,not nye (afer, p.) Procul. 
A-FERDE (or trobelid, K. H. p.) a 

Terr if us, perterritus ( turbatus> 

perturbatus, K. P.) 
AFFERM YD, or grawntyd be worde. 

AFFYRMYN, orgrawntyn. Affirmo, 


AFFERMYNGE. Affirmacio. 
AFFYNYTE, or alyaunce. Affinitas? 
A-FORNE (afore, p.) 4 Ante, 

A-FORNANDE (aformande, H. p. 

afromhand, j. aforehande, w.) 


A-FRAY. Pavor, terror, formido. 
AFFRAYED, supra. Territus, pa- 

vore percussus. 
AFTYR. Post. 

AFTYR PARTE of a beste, or the 
hyndyr (parte, p.), or the 
crowpe. Clunis. 

AFTYR PARTE, or hynder parte of 
the schyppe. Puppis, CATH. 

AFTYR WARD. Postea,postmodum. 

AGAS. 6 

AGAS, propyr name. Agatha. 

A-GASTE, supra in a-ferde. 

AGE. Etas, senium, senectus, 

THE vij AGYS. Prima, infancia, 
quce continet vij annos ; se- 
cunda, puericia, usque ad quar- 
tumdecimum annum; . tercia 
adolescentia, usque ad xxix m . 
annum ; quartajuventus, usque 
ad quinquagesimum annum ; 
quinta gravitas, usquiadlxx. 
annum; sexta senectus, que 
nullo terminatur termino (non 
terminatur certo numero, p.) ; 
senium est ultima pars senec- 
tutis. Septima erit in resur- 
rectione finali. CATH. 

A-GAYNE, or a-jeyne (ayen, p.). 
Iterum, adhuc. 

A-GEYNE, or a-gaynewarde. Retro. 

A-GAYNBYER, or a raumsomere. 

(AGEYN BYINGE. Redemptio, 
K. H. p.) 

" Affadyll, a yelowe floure, qffrodille." PALSG. 

2 Forby, in enumerating among the provincialisms of Norfolk the word afeard, 
noticed that formerly it was not, as at present, synonymous with afraid. 

" This wif was not aferde ne affraide." CHAUC. 

The Harl. MS. indeed, renders both aferde and afrayed by territttg, but the reading of 
the King's MS. agreeing with the printed editions, seems preferable. Aferde or tro- 
belid, turbatus, perturbatus. Compare ABASCHYD or aferde. A.S. afered, territus. 

3 After AFFYNYTE, the Harl. MS. has the word A-FOYSTE, lirida. See under the 
letter F. 

4 Aforen, aforne, afore. CHAUC. A.S. set foran. 

5 The Harl. MS. gives AGAS twice, first without any corresponding Latin word, 
but probably it is the same as HAGAS puddynge, tucetum. 



AGYD. Antiquatus, senectus, ve- 

teranus, veteratus. 
AGYN, or growyn agyd. Seneo, 

AGGLOT, or an aglet to lace 

wyth alle. 1 Acus, aculus, (acu- 

la, P.) 
AGGREGGYN, or to greue more. 

AGGROGGYD, or aggreuyd. Ag- 

AGGRUGGYNGE, or a-greuynge. 

Aggravacio, aggravamen. 
AGGREUAUNS. Gravamen, no- 

cumentum, tedium. 
AGREUYD. Gravatus, ut supra. 
AGRIMONY, or egrimony, herbe. 


AGROTONE wyth mete or drynke 

(agrotonyn, K.). Ingurgito. 
AGROTONYD, or sorporryd wyth 

mete or drynke. 3 Ingurgitatus. 
AGROTONYNGE, or sorporrynge. 

AGWE, sekenes (ague, w.). Acuta, 

querquera. c. F. CATH. 
A-HA. Evax. 

ARE, or ache, or akynge. Dolor. 
AKYN. Doleo, CATH. 
AKYR of londe. Acra. 
AKYR of the see flowynge (aker, 

p.) 4 Impetus maris. 
ALLE, or euery dele. Totus. 
ALLE, or ylke. Omnis, quilibet. 
ALABASTER, a stone. Alabas- 

trum, Parium, c. r. 

1 " Agglet of a lace or poynt, fer. To agglet a poynt, or set on an agglet vpon a 
poynt or lace, ferrer. PALSG. Wyll you set none agglettes vpon your poyntes ? en- 

ferrer voz esguylettes." This word denotes properly the tag, but is often used to signify 
the lace to which it was attached. " Myn aglet, mon lasset, a point, laferrure d'un lassetS ' 
R. PYNSON, Good boke to lerne to speke French. 

2 " Affreyier, supporter avec peine." ROQUEF. LACOMBE. 

8 Agroted, CHAUCER, Legend of G. W. is explained cloyed, surfeited. 

4 This word is still of local use to denote the commotion caused in some tidal rivers, 
at the flow of the tide. In the Ouse, near Downham bridge, above Lynn, the name is 
eager, as also in the Nene, between Wisbeach and Peterborough, and the Ouse near York, 
and other rivers. Camden calls the meeting of the Avon and Severn, higre. Compare 
Skinner, under the word eager. In Craven Dial, acker is a ripple on the water. Aker 
seems, however, to have had a more extended meaning, as applied to some turbulent 
currents, or commotions of the deep. The MS. Poem entitled Of Knyghthode and 
Batayle, Cott. MS. Titus A. xxm. f. 49, commending the skill of mariners in judging 
of the signs of weather, makes the following allusion to the aker. 

" Wei know they the remue yf it a-ryse, 
An aker is it clept, I vnderstonde, 
Whos myght there may no shippe or wynd wyt stonde. 
This remue in th'occian of propre kynde 
Wyt oute wynde hathe his commotioun ; 
The maryneer therof may not be blynde, 
But when and where in euery regioun 
It regnethe, he moste haue inspectioun, 
For in viage it may bothe haste and tary, 
And vnavised thereof, al mys cary." 

Aker seems to be derived from A.S. se, water, and cer, a turn ; sse-cir signifies the ebb 
of the sea. C^EDM. See Nares, under Higre. 


ALLABOWTE. Undique, circum- 

A-LAYBE. Temperatus, remissus, 

A-LANGE, or straunge (alyande, p.) 

Extraneus, exoticus. 
A-LANGELY, or straungely (aly- 

aundly, j.) Entrance. 
A-LANGENESSE, or strawngenesse 

(alyaundnesse, J.) Extraneitas. 
ALAS. Euge, euge, prodolor. 
ABLASTE (alblast, P.) Balista. 
ALBLASTERE. Alblastarius, (ba- 

listarius, K. p.) 
ALBEREY, vel alebrey (albry, p.) 1 

Alebrodium, Jictum est. 
ALKAMYE metalle (alcamyn, p.) 2 

ALDYR TRE, or oryelle tre. Al- 

nus, c. F. 

ALDYRKYR (alderkerre, K. alder- 

kar, p.) 3 Alnetum, viz. locus ubi 

aim et tales arbores crescunt, 

c. F, 



Aldirmannus, se- 

ALDYRNEXTE. Propinquissimus. 

ALE. Cervisia, c. F. cervisia 

quasi Cereris vis in aqua, hec 
Ceres, L Deafrumenti; (et hie 

nota bene quod est potus Anglo- 
rum, P.) 
ALE whyle hys (it is, K.) newe. 5 

Celia, c. F. COMM. 
ALLEGYANCE, or softynge of dys- 

ese. Alleviacio. 
ALEGGYN, or to softe, or relese 

peyne. Allevio, mitigo. 
ALLEGYAUNCE of auctoryte (of 

auctours, P.) Allegado. 
ALEGGYN awtowrs. Allego* 
A LEY yn gardeyne. Peribolus, 

CATH. c. F. per ambulator ium 

et periobolum, UG. (peram- 

bulum, Dice. P.) 

ALEYNE, propyr name. Alanus. 
ALLEFEYNTE, or feynte. Segnis. 
ALLEFEYNTELYE (alfeynly, K.) 


ALLEFULLY. Totaliter, complete. 
ALGATYS, or allewey. 6 Omnino, 

omnimode, penitus. 
ALLEHOLEfro brekynge. Integer. 
ALLEHOLE, or alleheyle. Sanus, 

ALLEHOOLY (all holy, p.) In- 

tegre, integraliter, totalizer. 

1 " Alebery for a sicke man, ehaudeau," PALSG. ; which Cotgrave renders, caudle, 
warm broth. 

2 Alcamyne, arquemie, PALSG. A mixed metal, supposed to be produced by alchymy, 
and which received thence the name. See Nares. 

3 Carre, a wood of alder, or other trees in a moist boggy place, RAY. See Forby and 
Moore. Ducange gives kaheir, kaeyum, sahctum. 

4 Aller, the gen. plur. ealra, A.S. is used by Chaucer, both by itself, and compounded : 

" Shall have a souper at your aller cost." Prol. Cant. Tales. 
There occur also, alderfirst, alderlast, alderlevest, that is dearest of all, and alderfastest. 

5 Compare GYYLDE or GILE, new ale. Celia, Orosius informs us, was the name of 
a Spanish drink made of wheat, and here seems to signify the sweet and unhopped 

6 \Vyll you algates do it ? le voulez vousfaire tout a force ? " PALSG. " I damned 
thee, thou must algates be dead." CHAUC. Sompnour's Tale. A.S. Alfceats, omnino. 




ALYAUNCE, or affynyte. Affinitas. 
ALYSAUNDER, herbe, or stan- 

marche. 1 Macedonia. 
ALYSAUNDER, propyr name. A- 


A-LYKE, or euyn lyke. Equalis. 
ALLELYKELY, or euynly (a lyke 

wyse or euynly, K. p.) Equal- 

A-LYKE, or lyke yn lykenes. Si- 


A-LYTYLLE. Modicum, parum. 
A-LYVE. Vivus. 
ALYEN, straunger. Extraneus, 

ALYEN, straunger of an other 

londe. Altellus, altella, UG. c. F. 
A LYE. Affinis. 
ALY, or alyaunce. Affinitas. 
ALKENKENGY, herbe morub. Mo- 
Telia rubea. 
ALKENExherbe. Alkanea, (vlicus, 

eklicus, P.) 
ALMAUNDE frute (almon, p.) 

(ALMAUND TRE, K. almon tre, P. 

Amigdala, amigdalus, CATH.) 
ALM ARY, or almery. 2 Almarium, 

c. F. almariolum, (armarium, 

ALMERY of mete kepynge, or a 

saue for mete. 3 Cibutum, c. F. 
ALMESSE, or almos (elmesse, H. p.) 

Elimosina, roga, c. F. et dicitur 
elimosina ab el, quod est Deus, 
et moys quod est aqua, quasi 
aqua Dei ; quia sicut aqua ex- 
tinguit ignem* ita elimosina ex- 
tinguit peccatum. 

ALMESSE of mete yeuyri to powre 
men, whan men haue ete. Mes- 
telenium, COMM. 

ALMESMANN,or woman (almesful- 
man, p.). Elimosinarius, roga- 
torius, rogatoria, c. F. 

ALMESSHOWSE. Xenodochium, 
c. F. vel xenodocium, et xeno- 
dium, orphanotrophium, pro- 
seuca, CATH. 

ALLMY3&HTY (almyghty, P.) 
Omnipotens, cunctipotens. 

ALLMYGHTYHEDE. Omnipotencia, 

ALMOSTE. Fere, pene, ferme. 

ALONE. Solus. 

ALOWANS. Allocacio. 

ALOWEDE. Allocatus. 

ALLOWYN yn rekenynge (or re- 
ken, p.). Alloco. 

ALPE, a bryde. 1 Ficedula, c. F. 

ALLWEY. Semper, continue. 

ALOM, or alym, lyke glasse (alum 
glas, P.) Alumen, CATH. 

A LURE, or alurys of a towre or 
stepylle. - s Canal, CATH. UG. 
grunda, (canalis. P.) 

' Gerarde gives the name alexanders to the great or horse parsley, hipposelinum. 

2 " Almariolum, a lytell almary or a cobborde. Scrinium, Anqlice almery.'' ORT. voc. 
" All my lytell bokes I putt in almeries, (scriniis chartophilacUs,forulis, vel armariis) 
all my greatter bokis I put in my lyberary." HORM. A.S. Almeriga, scrinium. 

3 "Almery, aumbry to put meate in, unes almoires." PALSG. 

4 " Ficedula, awodewale or an alpe." MED. GR. In Norfolk the bull-finch is called 
blood-olph, and the green grosbeak, green-olf, probably a corruption of alpe. FORBY. 
Ray gives alp as generally signifying the bull-finch. See Moore. 

5 The alure seems in its primary sense to have been the passage behind the battle- 
ments, allorium, ambulacrum, in French alleure or allee : and which, serving as a 



AMBROSE herbe. Ambrosia, sal- 

gia silvestris, CATH. 1 
AMBROSE, propyr name. Am- 


AMENDYD. Correctus, emendatus. 
AMENDYNGE. Correctio, emen- 

AMENDYNGE, or reparacyon of 

thyngys bat byn weryd or 

a-peyryd (worn, p.) Reparacio. 
AMENDYN, or reparyn. Reparo. 
AMENDYN. Emendo. 
AMENDYN thyngys bat ar done 

fawty. Corrigo. 
AMERCYN yn a corte, or lete. 

AMEREL of be see. Amirellus^ 

classicarius, CATH. c. F. 
AM YE (Amy, propre name, p.) 

AMYSSE, or wykkydly (or euyll 

done, P.) Male> nequiter. 
AMYCE (amyte, H. K. p.) 2 Amita, 


(AMYSE furred. Almicia, c. F. 

K. P.). 
AMONGE, or sum tyme. Inter - 

dum, quandoque. 
AMONGE sundry thyngys. Inter. 
A-MOWYNTYN, or sygnifyyfi. De- 

noto, significo. 
AMSOTE, or a fole (any sot, H. p. 

a folt, P.) Stolidus, baburius, 

c. F. insons. 
AMUCE of an hare. Almucium > 

habetur in horologio divine sa- 


ANCLE, infra in ankle. 
ANNYS, propyr name (Anneys, H. 

Annyce, P.) Agnes. 
ANEYS seede, or spyce. 4 Anetum, 

ANELYD, or enelyd, infra in 

ANELYNGE, or enelynge, infra in 

ANELYN, or enelyn metalle, or 

other lyke. 5 

channel to collect the waters that fell upon the roof, and were carried off through 
the gargoilles, the term alure came to be applied to the channel itself, as it is here 
rendered. See Ducange, under the words Alatoria, Allorium. Alure occurs in Ro- 
bert of Gloucester. 

" Up the alurs of the castles the ladies then stood, 

And beheld this noble game, and which knights were good." 

" The towrs to take and the torellis, 

Vautes, alouris and corneris." Kyng Alisaunder. 

1 Ambrose, ache champestre, PALSG. Ambrosia, herbapredulcis, Avylde sawge, ORT. 
voc. " Ambrose, ambroisie, the herbe called oke of Cappadocia, or Jerusalem." COTGR. 

2 The amice is the first of the sacerdotal vestments : it is a piece of fine linen, of an 
oblong square form, which was formerly worn on the head, until the priest arrived 
before the altar, and then thrown back upon the shoulders. It was ornamented with a 
rich parure, often set with jewels, which in ancient representations appears like a 
standing collar round the neck of the priest. Dugdale gives an inventory in his History 
of St. Paul's, taken 1295, which details the costly enrichments of the amice. 

3 " Ammys for a channon, aumusse." PALSG. This was the canonical vestmentlined 
with fur, that served to cover the head and shoulders, and was perfectly distinct from 
the amyce. See almucium in Ducange. 

4 The King's MS. gives Aneys herbe, anisum, and Aneyssede, anetum. 

5 The word to anele was used in two senses, "to aneele a sicke man, anoynt hym with 


ANTYFENERE (antyphanere, P. an- 

phenere, H.) Antiphonarius, 

(antiphanarium, p.) 
ANGYLLE to take wyth fysche. 2 

Piscale, Jistuca, fuscina, c. F. 

(hamillus, P.) 
ANGURE, or angwys (angyr, K. p.) 

Angor, c. F. angustia. 
ANGUR, or wrathe (angyr or 

wretthe, K. H. p.) Ira, ira- 

ANGRYE. Iracundus, bilosus, 

JellituSy felleus, malencolicus. 
ANGWYSCHE. Angustia, agonia, 

ANYYNTYSCHYN, or enyntyschyn. 

ANNIUERSARY, or yereday (5er- 

day, K. H.J Anniversarium, 


ANKYL. Cavilla, verticillum. 
ANKYR of a shyppe. Ancora. 
ANKYR, recluse. Anachorita. 
ANOYNTYD, or enoyntyd (anelyd, 

or erielyd, ut supra). Inunctus. 
ANOYNTYN (or enoynten, p.) 

Inungo, ungo. 

ANOYNTYNGE, or enoyntynge (an- 

elynge, or enelynge, ut supt*a). 

A-NOON, or as-faste (anon, H. P.) 

Confestim, protinus, mox, cito, 

statitn, illico. 

A-NOTHYR. Alter, alms. 
ANSWERE. Responsum, respon- 

sio, antiphona. 
AWNSWERYN. Respondeo. 
ANTYLOPPE, beste. Tatula, c. F. 
(ANTYM. Antiphona, K. H. p.) 
ANTONY, propyr name. Antonius. 
APE, a beste. Simia. 
A-PECE (abce, P. apecy, K. 3 ) Al- 

phabfitum, abecedarium, c. F. 
A-PECE (abce, P.) lenier, or he ]?at 

lernythe ]>e abece. Alphabeticus, 

abecedarius, c. F. 
APECHYNGE. ; Appellacio, 
A-PECHOWRE, or a-pelowre. Ap- 

APEYRYNGE, or apeyremcnt/ Pe- 

foracio, deterioracio. 
APPEYRYN, or make wors. Pe- 

Joro, deterioro. 
A-PEEL, or apelynge, supra in 

apechynge (apel, H.) 

holy oyle. I lefte hym so farre past, that he was houseled and aneeled, communit et en- 
huyllc : and, to aneel a potte of erthe or suche lyke with a coloure, plommer." PALSG. 
As applied to metal it signifies to enamel, and occurs in that sense. Lacombe and 
Koquefort give the word neelle, emaille. 

1 In Robert of Glouc. Wiclif and Chaucer, this word is written vnnethe, vnnethis, 
A. Saxon Un-ea'Se, vi.v. 

2 A. Sax. Angel, hamus. In the St. Alban's Book, 1496, is a treatyse of fysshynge 
with an angle; Shakespeare uses the word to signify the implement of fishing. "Angle 
rodde, verge apescher." PALSG. Angle twache, lumbricus, which occurs in Vocabula 
Stanbriffii, 1513, seems to be the worm serving for a bait. A. Sax. Angeltwecca. ELFR. 

3 Cotgrave renders Abece, an abcee, the crosse row. 

4 Appeyching, accusement. PALSG. Fabyan relates that, in 1425, " many honeste 
men of the cytye were apeched of treason." Apescher, to impeach. KELHAM. 

5 " A litil sourdow apeyreth al the gobet." 1 Cor. v. WICL. R. Brunne uses the 
verb to apeire, which occurs also in Chaucer, Caut. Tales : 

" To apeiren any man, or him defame." 
" To appayre, or waxe worse, empirer." PALSG. 



APPELYN. Appello, CATH. 
A-PELE of belle ryngynge (apele 

of bellis, P.) Classicum, CATH. 
APPERYN. Appareo, compareo. 
A-PLEGGE (apledge, p.) Obses, 

CATH. vas. 

APPLYED. Applicatus. 
APPLYYN. Applico, oppono. 
APPLYYNGE. Applicacio. 
(APOSEN, or oposyn. Oppono, 

K. H. p.) 
APOSTATA, he bat leuythe hys 

ordyr. Apostata. 
APOSTUME (apostym, K. p.) 


APOSTYLLE. Apostolus. 
APRYLE monythe (Aprel, H.) 


APPULLE, frute. Pomum, malum. 

APPULKEPER. Pomarius, po- 

milio, porno, c. F. 
APPULMOCE, dyschmete (appul- 

mos, P.) * Pomacium, c. F. 
APPULLSELLER. Pomilius, po- 

milia, CATH. pomilio, c. F. UG. 
APPULLE tree. Pomus. 
APPULLYERDE, or gardeyne, or 

orcherde. Pomerium, CATH.C.F. 

cum e et non cum a. 

A-QUEYNTE, or knowen. Notus, 
cognitus, agnitus. 


nitio, agnitio. 
AQUEYNTYN, or to make know- 

leche (make knowen, p.) Noti- 
fico, notumfacio. 
AQWYTTE. Quietatus, acquie- 

AQWYTAWNCE (or quitaunce, P.) 

AQWYTYN, or to make qwyte and 

sekyr. Acquieto. 
AQWYTYN, orqwytynand yeldyn. 

ARAGE, herbe. 2 Attriplex (artri- 

plex, P.) 
A-RAY, or a-rayment. Orna- 

tus, apparatus, ornamentum, 


ARAYMENT. Paramentum. 
A-RAYN, or clo|?yn (arayen, p.) 

Induo, vestio. 

A-RAYN, or to make honeste (ara- 
yen, P.) Orno, adorno, ho- 

nesto, decuso, decoro, c. F. 


ARAYNE, or ordeynyd (arayen or 
ordeyne, p.) Ordino, paro. 

ARAYNYE, or erenye, or sonde. 3 

1 Recipes for making this dish occur in the Form of Cury, pp. 42, 96, and other 
ancient books of cookery. See Harl. MS. 279, f. 16 b. Kalendare de Potages dyuers, 
Apple muse ; and Cott. MS. Julius, D. viu. f. 97. The following is taken fromaMS. 
of the XV. cent, in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps. " Appyl mose. Take and 
sethe appyllys in water, or perys, or bothe togyder, and stamp heme, and strayne heme, 
and put heme in a dry potte, with hony, peper, safferone, and let hit haue but a boyle, 
and serue hit forthe as mortrewys." 

2 " Atriplex domestica, Arage, or medlus." ROY. MS. 18. A. VI. f. 66 b, where its 
virtues are detailed Arage, aroche. PALSG. 

3 There seems evidently here an error of the scribe in the Harl. MS. Arayn, ac- 
cording to Ray, is the name given in Nottinghamshire to the larger kind of spiders. It 
is used also in Yorkshire. The Latin-English Dictionary in Mr. Wilbraham's library 
renders aranea an arayne, arantinus, an erayn webbe : the former word is in the Me- 
dulla rendered, an attercoppe. See further, under ERANYE. 



(ARANYE, or erayne. Aranea, 

K. H. P.) 

ARCH ANGEL yn heuyn (arcawngel, 

H.). Archangelus. 
ARCHANGEL, defe nettylle (arc- 

aungell, P.) Archangelus. 
ARS, or arce (aars, H.) Anus, 

culus, podex. 
ARSWYSPE. Maniperium, Dice. 

ARCETER, or he bat lernethe or 

techethe arte (arcetyr, H. K. p.) 


ARCH yn a walle. Archus. 
ARCHER. Sagittarius. 
ARCHERYE. Sagittaria, arcus. 

A-RECHYN, or strecchyn (astretch- 

yn, P.) Attingo. 
A-RENGE, or a-rewe (arowe, p.) * 

A-RESTE,or resty as flesche (arees- 

tyd, K. areest or reestyd, p.) 

A-RESTER, or a-tacher, or a catch- 

erel, or a catchepolle. An- 

garius, apparitor, CATH. c. F. 
A-RESTE, or a-restynge. Ares- 


A-RESTENESSE, or a-restenesse of 

flesshe. 3 Rancor, rancitas. 
ARESTYN, or a-tachyn. Aresto, 


ARGUMENTS. Argumentum. 
(ARKAWNGELL, or archaungel. 

Archangelus, H. p.) 
ARME. JBrachium. 
ARMEHOOLE. Acella, subyrcus, 

CATH. in brachium. 
ARMYN. Armo. 
ARMYS, of auncetrye. Arma. 
ARMURE (armoure, p.) Arma, 

armamentum, c. F. armatura. 
ARNESTE, or hanselle (or ernest, 

H. P. ansal, K. Strena, p.). 
ARNESTE, or erneste, seryowste. 


ARNESTELY, orernestely. Seriose. 
A-ROWME, or morevttere. 1 Remote, 

deprope, seorsum. 
ARTE. Ars. 
ARTYN, or constraynyn. Arto, 

coarto, stringo, astringo, con- 
string o. 

AROWE. Sagitta. 
ARWE, or ferefulle (arwhe, K. 

arowe, or ferdfull, p.) 5 Ti- 

midus, pavidus, formidolus, 


1 Arcetour, arcien. PALSG. Roquefort explains arcien as etudiant en philosophic 
artifex, artatus. 

2 " I shall tell the all the story a-rewe, perpetuo tenore rem explicabo." HORM. 
The monkish chronicler Dowglas relates of the miracles " the wiche God schowed for 
Seinte Thomas of Lancaster, that a blind priest dreamed that if he went to the place 
where the Earl had been slain he schulde have ayenne his sighte ; and so he dremed 
iij nightes arewe." Harl. MS. 4690, f. 64 b. 

3 Among recipes of the XIV. century in a MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
is one " to sauen venesone of rastichipe (orrastischipe)." See the Roll of A. D. 1381, in 
Forme of Cury, p. Ill, "to do away Restyng of Venisone." Skinner derives resty 
from A. Sax. rust, rubigo. 

4 " Aroume he hovyd, and withstood." Rich. C. de Lion. The word occurs in K. 
Alis, 3340, Chaucer, Book of Fame, B. ii. 32. See Wilbraham's Cheshire Glossary, 
under the word rynt. 

5 A. Sax. ears, iffnavus, eargian, torpescere pro timore. The word arwe occurs in 



ARWYGYLL worme. 1 Aurealle. 

(aurialis, p.) UG. in auris. 
As. Quasi, sic^ veluti. 
A-SAYYD. Temptatus, probatus. 
A-SAYYN. Tempto, attempto. 

A-SAYLYD. InsnltUS. 
A-SAYLYN. Instlio, CATH. 
A-SAYLYNGE. Insultus. 

A-SCHAMYD, or made a-shamyd. 

A-SHAMYD, or shamefaste. Vere- 

cundus, pudorosus. 
ASSE, a beste. Asinus. 
ASSENEL, poyson (assenyke, py- 

sone, K. H. P.) Squilla, c. F. 
ASSENT, or acent, or a graunte. 

ASFASTE, or a-noon (asfast, or 
anone, P.). Statim, confesiim, 
protinus, mox. 

ASSYNGNYN, supra in acynyn 
(asynyn or acynyn, p.) 

ASKER. Petitor, postulator. 

ASKYS, or aschys (aske or asche, 

K. H. p.) * Ciner, cinis, c. F. 
ASKYS YE (askefise, K. p. aske- 

fyse, H. 3 ) Ciniflo, UG. in flo, 


ASKYN. Peto, postulo, posco. 
ASKYNGE. Peticio, postulacio. 
ASCHE tre. Fraxinus. 
ASLET, or a-slowte (asloppe, H. 

a slope, P.) Oblique. 
ASOYLYN of synnys (or defautes, 

p.) Absolve. 

ASOYNYD, or refusyd. Refutatus. 
ASOYNYNGE, or refusynge. Re- 


ASPE tre. Tremulus. 
A-SPY5E (aspye, K. H. p.), or a 

spye. Explorator. 
ASPYYN. Exploro. 
ASPYYNGE. Exploracio. 
ASPYYD (aspyed, or perceyued, 

perceptus* H. P.) Exploratus. 

C. de Lion, i. 3821. " Frensche men arn arwe and feynte." In Yorkshire arfe is used 
in the sense of fearful. See Boucher, under the words Arew, Arf, Arghe, and Arwe ; 
and Jamieson, under Erf, and Ergh. P. Ploughman uses the verb to arwe, to render 

1 This insect is called in Norfolk, erriwiggle. FORBY. In the Suffolk dialect, arra- 
wiggle. MOORE. A. S. ear-wrgsa, vermis auricularis. 

2 A. Sax. Axe, axsa, cinis. See Boucher, under the word Ass. 

3 The reading of the Harl. MS. Askysye, is here given, although probably it is an error, 
by inadvertence of the scribe. The printed editions all agree with the other MSS. in 
giving the word Askefise. In the MS. of the Medulla Gramm. in the possession of Sir 
Thomas Phillipps, No. 1022, ciniflo is rendered, an aske fyse ; and in another, No. 1360, 
" ciniphlo, a fyre blowere, an yryn hetere, an askefyce." The word does not occur in 
several MSS. of the Medulla in the Brit. Mus., nor in the Ortus Vocabulorum, but in 
Mr. Wilbraham's curious Latin-English Dictionary, printed about the same time as 
the Promptuarium, ciniflo is explained to be one, " qulflat in cinere, vel qui preparat 
pulverem muliebrem. Anglice, aske fyste, a fyre blawer, or an yrne hotter.' 7 The 
Harl. MS. 2257, a variety of the Medulla, renders the word " a heter of blode iren, or 
an axe wadelle ; " and it appears in Ihre's Lexic. Suiogoth. v. Aska, that askefis was 
applied as a term of reproach to those who remained indolently at home by the fireside, 
as axewaddle is used in Devonshire. See Palmer's Glossary, and Boucher under the 
word Axewaddle. 



ASTELLE, aschyyd (astyl schyde,i 

K. shyde, P.) Teda, c. F. as- 

tula, CATH. cadia. 
ASTYLLABYRE, instrument (as- 

tyrlaby, P.) Astrolabium, 

c. F. 
ASTONYED, or a-stoyned yn man- 

nys wytte. Attonitus, conster- 

natus, stupefactus, perculsus. 
As TON YD, as mannys wytte. At- 

tono, CATH. UG. in tono. 
ASTONYNGE, or a-stoynynge yn 

wytte. Stupefactio^ conster- 

natio, attonicio. 
ASTOYNYN, or brese werkys. 

(astoyn, or brosyn, p.) Quatio, 

quasso, CATH. 
ASTORYN, or instoryn wyth nede- 

fulle tliyngys. Instauro. 
ASTRAY, or a best J>at goythe 

astray. Palans, c. F. vagula, 

A.STRAYLY (astray, or astrayly, 

p.) Palabunde, KYLW. 
(ASTRETCHYN or arechyn. At- 

tingOy P.). 

(ASTROLOGERE. AstrologUS, P.) 

(ASTROLOGY. Astrologia, P.) 
ASTRONOMERE. Astronomus. 
ASTRONOMYE. Astronomia. 
A-STRUT, or strutyngly (strowt- 

ingly, p.) Turgide. 
A-SUNDYR. Distinctus, divisus, 


A-SONDYR, or brokyn. Fractus. 
A-SUNDERLY. Disjunctim, separ- 

atim, divisim. 
AsuRE. 2 Asura. 
ASURYN, or insuryfi. Assecuro, 


ATTACHYN, supra in arestyn. 
ATHAMYD, asa wessel wyth drynke 

(atamed, p.) 3 Attaminatus, Dice. 

depletus, CATH. 
ATTAMYN a wesselle wyth drynke, 

or abbrochyn. Attamino, depleo. 
ATTHAMYNGE of a wesselle wyth 

drynke. Attaminacio, depletio. 
A-TASTYN. Pregusto. 
ATTEYNYN, supra in strechyn 

(astretchyn, p.). 
ATTEYNTYN. Convince, 
ATTYR, fylthe. 4 /Sanies. 

1 See SCHYYD. Astelle, estelle, copeau, eclat de bois, ROQUEF. a piece of a wooden 
log cleft for burning. 

2 " Lazirium, i. e. incaustum, or asur colour," ORT. voc. See Ducange, under the word 
Lazur ; and directions " for to make fyn azure of lapis lazuli," and distinguishing lapis 
lazuly from "lapis almaine, of whiche men maken a blew bis azure." Sloan. MS. 73. 
f. 215, b. 

3 John de Garlandia says, " Precones vini clamant gula hiante vinum attaminatum in 
taberniS) portando vinum temptandum, fusum in cratere." which the gloss renders 
atatnyd. Liber dictus Diccionarius, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 177, b. 

4 A. Sax. Atter, venenum. "This sore is full of matter, or ater ; purulentum." 
HORM. Atter has the same sense in Norfolk at the present time, and Skinner mentions 
the word as commonly used in Lincolnshire. See WHVTOUWRE. 

5 A. Sax. Atter-coppa, aranea, literally a cup, or head of poison. See a curious tale 
of the effect of the venom of the atturcoppe at Shrewsbury, in the Preface to Lang- 
toft's Chron. Hearne, i. p. cc. The Medulla renders aranea, an attercoppe, and the 
English Gloss, on the " Liber vocatus Equus," Harl. MS. 1002, f. 114, explains the 
same word as addurcop. Palsgrave gives " Addircop or Spiners web, Araignee , " and 



A-TYRE, or tyre of women. 1 Re- 

dimiculum, CATH. cultus, c. F. 
A-TYRYN yn womeyns a-ray, supra 

in ARA YN. Redimio, orno, CATH. 
ATREET (atrete, P.) Tractatim, 

(tractim, distincte, K.) 
A-TWYXYN (atwexyn, H. atwyxt, 

p.) Inter. 
A-TURNEYE (aturne, K. H. p.) 

Suffectus, c. F. atturnatus, sub- 


ATTE J>E LASTE. Tandem, de- 
mum, novissime. 
A-WHYLE (avayle, K. p. awayt, 

w.) Profectus, proventus, 

A-VAYLYN, or profytyn. Valeo, 

prosum, CATH. 
A-WAYTE, or waytynge (awayt- 

inge, P.) Exploracio, explo- 

(AWAYTINGE, or takinge heede, 

p. Attendens.) 

A-VAUNCEMENT. Benejicium. 

A-VAUNCYD (avauntyd, H. avaunt- 
ed, P.) Benejiciatus. 

A-VAUNCE, or boste (avaunt, K. p.) 
Jactancia, arrogancia. 

A-VAUNTYN, or boostyn. 3 Jacto, 
arrogo, ostento. 

A-VANTAGE (auauntage, P.) Pro- 
ventus, CATH. emolumentum, 
avauntagium, (prerogatives, P.) 

AWBE (awlbe, p.) Alba, poderis, 

AWBEL or ebelle tre (ebeltre, 
K. p.) 4 Ebonus, viburnus, 
Dice, (ebenus, P.) 

AWBURNE coloure. Citrinus. 

AwEordrede. Timor, pavor, ter- 
ror, formido. 

A-WEY, or nott here. Absens. 

AUELONGE (awelonge, H. awey- 
longe, p.) 5 Oblongus. 

AVENCE lierbe. 6 Avancia, sana- 

Ray says that in Cumberland the word attercob signifies the web, as it does also in York- 
shire. See BOUCHER and JAMIESON. In the Legenda Aurea, spiders are called spyn- 
coppes. Saynt Felyx, f. 72. In Trevisa's version of the Polychronicon, it is said that 
in Ireland " there ben attercoppes, bloode-soukers, and eeftes that doon none harme." 
Caxton, f. 63, b. 

1 " Atyre for a gentilwomans heed, atour." PALSG. See hereafter under TYRE. 

3 " Auayle, prouffit." PALSG. See an enactment in Rot. Parl. VI. 203, regarding 
certain manors " with all proufites and avayles to the same perteyning." 

3 " Though you do neuer so many good dedes, you lese your mede if you auaunte 
you of them, se vanter." PALSG. The word occurs in another sense in Elyot's Librarie, 
" Vendito, to sell often, to auaunt, venditatio, an auaunt." 

4 It is very doubtful what tree is here intended. Forby observes that in Norfolk 
the asp tree, populus tremula, is called ebble, which seems to be merely a variation of 
abele, the name given by botanists to the populus alba. In a vocabulary in Harl. 
MS. 1002, viburnum is rendered " a awberne." The Promptuary gives hereafter EBAN 
TRE, Ebanus. In early French writers the " bois ffaubor" 1 " 1 is often mentioned as in 
esteem for making bows, but its nature has not been satisfactorily explained, and pos- 
sibly it may have been identical with the awbel. In German the yew tree is called eben. 

5 This word occurs again hereafter, WARPYN, or wex wronge or avelonge as vesselle, 
oblongo. In Harl. MS. 1002, f. 119, oblongo is rendered to makeauelonge ; and in the 
editor's MS. of the Medulla, oblongus is rendered auelonge. A. S. Awoh, oblique, 
Moore gives the word avellong, used in Suffolk, when the irregular shape of a field 
interferes with the equal distribution of the work. 

6 Avens, caryophillata. SKINNER. The virtues attributed, at the time the Promp- 



AVENE of corn (awene, K. awne, 

p.) i Arista, CATH. 
AvENERE. 2 Abatis, duorum ge- 

nerum, CATH. 
A-VENTURE. Fortuna. 

A-VYSYN. Delibero. 

AWKE, or angry. 6 Contrarius, 

bilosus, perversus. 
AWKE, or wronge. Sinister. 
(AWKLY, or wrongly, K. Sinistre.) 

A-WERE, or dowte (awe, K. p.) 3 AWKELY, or wrawely. Perverse, 

Dubium, ambiguum, per- contrarie, bilose. 


AWFYN of be chekar. 1 Alfinus. 
AwoRYM. 5 Algarismus. 
AVYSEMENT. Indicie, deliberacio. 
AVYSYD. Provisus, avisatus. 

AWMBRERE, or awemenere (awm- 
nere, K. awmener or amner, p.) 7 
Elemosinator, rogatorius, c. F. 

AWMEBRY, or awmery. Elemosi- 
narium, rogatorium. 

torium was compiled, to auaunce, by some called barefoot, which it resembles, may be 
found in Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 67, b. It was used in cookery ; see the Forme of 
Cury, p. 13. By modern botanists it is known as the geum. 

1 " Arista, spica, an awne of corne, an ere, or a glene." DICT. WILBR. 

2 The avenere was an officer of the household who had the charge of supplying pro- 
vender for the horses. A curious account of his duties occurs in MS. Sloane, 1986, f. 
38, b. quoted in Boucher's Glossary. See Abatis in Ducange and Spelman. The 
Clerk Avenar occurs in the Household Book of the Earl of Northumberland, 1511, his 
duties were " for breving daily of horssemete and liuereis of fewell." Ant. Repert. iv. 233. 

3 " I stand in a wer, whether I may go or turne agayne, hesito." HORM. 

4 The awfyn or alphyn was anciently the name of the bishop in the game of chess. 
Hyde derives it from the Arabic, al-fil, an elephant. The piece was called by the French 

fol, at an early period, and subsequently aufin. The third chap, of the seconde trac- 
tate of Caxton's game of the Chesse, 1474, " tretethe of the Alphyns, her office ande 
maners. The Alphyns oughte to be made ande formede in manere of Juges syttynge 
in a chayer withe a book open to fore their eyen. Theyr offyce is for to counceylle 
the Kynge." " Alfyn, a man of the chesse horde, avlfin." PALSG. See Ducange, 
Douce' s Remarks on the European names of Chessmen, Archseol. xi. p. 400, and Sir F. 
Madden's remarks on the chess-men found in Lewis, Archseol. xxiv. p. 225. Horman, 
speaking of chess, says, " We shulde have 2 kyngis, and 2 quyens, 4 alfyns, 4 knyghtis, 
4 rokis, and 16 paunis." f. 282. b. 

5 " Augrym, algorisme. To counte, reken by cyfers of agryme, enchifrer. To cast 
an accomptes in aulgorisme with a penne, enchifrer. To caste an accomptes with 
counters, after the aulgorisme maner, calculer. To caste an accomptes after the comen 
maner, with counters, compter par iect. I shall reken it syxe times by aulgorisme, or 
you can caste it ones by counters." PALSG. It would hence appear that towards the 
commencement of the XVIth century the use of the Arabic numerals had in some 
degree superseded the ancient mode of calculating by the abacus, and counters, which, 
at the period when the Promptorium was compiled, were generally used. Hereafter we 
find the word COUNTINGE BORDE as an evidence. They were not indeed wholly dis- 
used at a time long subsequent : an allusion to calculation by> counters occurs in Shake- 
speare, and later authors prove that they had not been entirely discarded. Algorithm 
or algorism, a term universally used in the XlVth and XVth centuries to denote the 
science of calculation by 9 figures and zero, is of Arabic derivation. 

6 " Aukwarde frowarde, peruers. Aukwar leftehanded, gauche, Auke stroke, rewers. " 


7 " Saynt Johan the Elemosner was mercyfull in suche that he was called al- 



AWMBLARE, as a horse (awmilere, 

K. H. aumlinge horse, p.) ' Gra- 

darius, c, F. ambulatory ambu- 

AWMYR, or ambyr (awmbyr, K. H. 

p.) Ambra, c. F. 
(AUMENERE, H. awmener or am- 

nere, P. Elemosinarius.) 
AWNCETYR. Progenitor. 
AWNCETRYE. Progenitura, pro- 

sapia, herilitas. 
AWNDERNE (awndyryn, K. awn- 

dyrn, p.) 4 Andena, ipoporgium, 

C. F. 

AWNGEL. Angelus. 
AWNSCHENYD (auncenyd, p.) 

Antiquatus, veteranus. 
AWNTE, moderys systyr. Ma- 

teria, CATH. Tia, c. F. 
AWNTE, faderys systyr. Amita, 

CATH. (aunto) P.) 

AWNTYR or happe (aunter, p.) 3 

For tuna, fortuitus. 
AWNTRON (awntryn, K. aventryn, 

p.) 4 Fortuno, CATH. 
AWNTEROWS, or dowtefulle. For- 

tunalis, fortuitus. 
AwNTERoVsLY. For te, fortasse , 


A-VOYDAWNCE. Evacuacio. 
A-VOYDYD. Evacuatus. 
A-voYDEN. 5 EvacuO) devacuo. 
A-vowE. 6 Votum. 
A-WOWYN, or to make a-wowe. 

(auowen, or make auowe, p.) 7 

A-VOWYN, or stonde by the for- 

sayde worde or dede. Advoco, 

CATH. 8 

A-VOWTERE (avoutrere, H. p. avow - 
terere, K.) Adulter, adultera. 
A-VOWTRYE. Adulterium. 

mosner, or amener." LEG. AUR. f. 83. At the inthronization of Abp. Warham, 1504, 
to each of the tables was appointed an almner, with sewer, panter, and other officers. 
LEL. COLL. vi. 18. Of the duties of the " aumenere " at the table of a great lord, see 
a curious English poem, of the times of Henry VI. appended to the " Boke of Cur- 
tasye." Sloan. MS. 1986, f. 43. De officiariis in curiis Dominorum. 

1 " Amblyng horse, hacquenee.'" PALSG. 

2 Among " thingis that ben vsed after the hous,'' in Caxton's Boke for Travellers, 
" upon the herthe belongeth woode or turues, two andyrons of yron (brandeurs), a 
tonge, a gredyron." " Awndyreue, andena." Vocab. Roy. MS. "Aundyern, chenet." 
PALSG. " I lacke a fyre pan and andyars to here up the fuel. Alaribus vel ypopyryiis" 
HORM. It appears that andyrons and dogs were not identical, as generally is understood, 
for in the Inventory of Sir Henry Unton's effects, 1596, printed by the Berkshire Ash- 
molean Society, the two are enumerated as occurring together, and both occur also 
singly. Cotgrave renders "chenets, and landiers, andirons ; harpon defer pour retenir 
et arrester unpoultre, dogge of iron. " 

3 "Aunter, adventure." PALSG. " He bosteth his dedes of aunters." HORM. 

4 " To aunter, put a thyng in daunger, or aduenture, aduenturer." PALSG. 

5 " To auoyde as water do the that ronneth by a gutter or synke, se vuyder. To blede, 
or auoyde bloode." PALSG. 

6 " Auowe, veu." PALSG. This word occurs in R. de Brunne, Wiclif, and Chaucer. 
The phrase " perfourmed his auowe" occurs in the Legenda Aurea, f. 47. 

7 " I have auowed my pylgrymage unto our lady of Walsyngham, j'ai aduoue." 
PALSG. In the same book the word is used in a sense somewhat different. "To auowe, 
warrant, or make good or upholde, as in marchaundyse or such like. Take this clothe 
of my worde, I auowe it for good, jf. le pleuuys." 

8 " But I wol not avowen that I say." CHAUC. 



AWTERE. Altare, ara. 

AWTERSTONE. Superaltare. 

AWTORYTE (auctorite, P.) Auc- 

AWTOWRE. Auctor. 

AXYLTRE, or exyltre. Axis. 

(AxE, or exe to he we, P. Securis, 

A-3ENE (ayen, p.) Iterum, adhuc, 
rursum, rursus. 

A -3 ENS, or a-gens (ayens or ageyne, 
P.) Contra, adversus. 

A-^ENWARDE (ayenwarde, P.) E 
contrario, e converse. 

A-3EN WYLLE (ayen wyll, P.) In- 

BABE, or lytylle chylde. Infans, 

puerilus, pusillus, pusio, DIST. 
BABEWYN, or babe wen (babwyn, 

or babwen, p.) l Detippus, c. F. 

ipos, Jigmentum, chimera. 
BABLYN, or waveryn (babelyn, p.) 

BABELYNGE, or wauerynge. Va- 

cillacio, librillacio. 
B ABULLE, orbable (babyll, p.) Q Li- 

brilla,CATH. pegma, C.F. CATH. 

BAKER or baxter (bakstar, p.) 

fist or, panicius, CATH. pani- 
ficus, panifex, panificator. 
BACE, or fundament. Basis. 
BACE, fysche. 4 
BACE CHAMBYR. Bassaria, vel 

camera bassaria, sive camera 

BACE PLEYE. Barrus. JBarri, bar- 

rorum, dantur ludi puerorum. 
BACENETT. Cassis, CATH. in galed. 
BACHELERE. Bacularius, bach- 

illarius, bachalarius. 
BACUN FLESCHE. Petaso, baco. 
BAD, or wykyde. Mains. 
BADDE, or nowght worthe. In- 


BADLY, or wykkydly. Male,inique. 
(BAFFYN as howndys, K. H. P. 

Baulo, baffb, latro.) 
BAFFYNGE as howndys folowynge 

her pray. Nicto, CATH. UG. 

BAFFYNGE or bawlynge of 

howndys. Baulatus, bajfatus. 
BAGE, or bagge of armys (badge, 

p.) 5 Banidium, bannidium, 


1 " Babwyne beest, laboyn" PALSG. 

2 " Librilla, baculus cum corrigia plumbata ad librandum carries. Pegma, laculus 
cum massa plumbi in summitate pendente, et ut dicit Cornutus tali baculo scenici lude- 
bant." CATH. " Librilla dicitur instrumentum librandi, idem est per cutiendi lapidesin 
castra, i. mangonus, a bable, or a dogge malyote." OUT. voc. In the Vocabulary, Roy. 
MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 56, b. occur under Nomina armorum, withmase and other weapons, 
" Dog babulle, babrilla, Babulle, Pegma." Palsgrave renders "Bable for a foole, 
marotte." See Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare, where will be found numerous 
representations of the bauble. Baubella, in old French babioles, trinkets, gewgaws. 

3 Piers Ploughman describes Covetyse as " byttelbrowedeandbaberlupped." In old 
French the thick lips of some animals are called babeines. ROQUEF. 

4 *' Bace, ung iar." PALSG, " Lubin, a base, or sea wolfe. Bar, the fish called a 
base." COTGR. The basse, or sea perch, the lupus of the Romans, labrax lupus, 
cuv. seems to be the fish here intended, and not the coal-fish, according to the explan- 
ation in Boucher's Glossary. 

* " Badge of a gentylman, la deuise ffung Seigneur." PALSG. It was a cognisance 


BAGGE, or poke (pocke, K.) Sac- 

BAGGE, or sacchelle (sechelle, K.) 

BAGGYN, or bocyn owte, quere 

infra in bocyn. Tumeo. 
(BAGGE PYPERE.Panducarius, P.) 
(B AHCHE, or bakynge, K. batche, p. 


BAY frute. Bacca. 
BAY, or wyth-stondynge. Obsta- 

BAYYD, as a horse (bay, P.) Ba- 

dius, UG. et ibi nota omnes 

colores eguorum. 
BAYYN, or berkyn a-yene (ageyne, 

p.) Relatro. 
BAYNYD, as benys or pesyn. 1 Fre- 

(BAKKE, flyinge best, K. bak, 

p. fleynge byrde, w. 2 Vesper- 


BAKKE. Dor sum. 
BAKKE of a beste. Tergus, CATH. 
BAKKE of man, or woman. Ter- 

gum, CATH. 

BAKKE of egge toole. JEbiculum. 
BAKKEBYTERE. Detractor, de- 

tractrix, oblocutor, oblocutrix. 
BAGBYTYN (bakbyten, p.) De- 

traho, detracto, CATH. 
(BAKBYTYNG, K. backebytinge, P. 

Detractio, oblocutio.) 
BAKHOWSE, or bakynge howse. 

Pistrina, pistrinum, CATH. 
BAKYN, or to bake. Pinso, pani- 

BAKYN, or bake (baked, p.) 

BAKYN vnder be askys (aschys, 

K.). Subcinericius. 
BAKYNGE (or bahche, K.) Pis- 


BAKYNGE howse. Panificium. 
BAK WARD, orbakstale. 3 A retro. 
BAXTER, supra in baker (bakstare, 

K. P.) 

BAKUN, supra in bacun. 
BAKWARDE. Retro, retrorsum. 
BALLE of pley. Pila. 
BALLE of be ye (iye, p.) Pupilla. 
BALKE yn a howse. 4 Trabes, 

trabecula, COMM. 

or ornament, forming part of the livery assigned by a chieftain to his followers, which 
led to the use of uniforms. The word is probably derived from A.S. beag, corona, ar- 
milla. See in Harl. MS. 4632, an interesting list of badges of cognisance, printed in 
Collect. Topogr. et Genealogica, vol. III. p. 54. 

1 This word seems to signify shelled, and consequently prepared for the table, from 
bayn, ready. See Jamieson and Boucher. In Norfolk bein means pliant or limber, 
FORBY. Compare BEYN or plyaunte, which occurs hereafter. 

2 " Lucifuya, quedam avis lucem fugiens, a backe.'' OUT. voc. " Backe, a beest 
that flyeth, chauvesouris." PALSG. " Vespertilio, a reremouse or backe." ELIOT. 
A.S. Hrere-mus. 

3 Bakstale may be derived from A. S. stael, stal, locus, status. In German stellen 
signifies to place. 

4 " With his owen hand than made he ladders three, 

To climben by the renges and the stalkes 

Unto the tubbes honging in the balkes." CHAUC. Miller's Tale. 
A.S. Bale, trabs. " Trades, a beame, or a balke of a hous." ORT. voc. " Balke, 
pouste," i. e.poutre. PALSG. 



BALPLEY, or pley (plainge, p.) 

at be balle. Pililudus. 
BALPLEYERE. Pililudius, lipi- 

dulus idem est, ludipilus. 
BALAUNCE. Statera, libra, fa- 

lanx (balanx, p.) trutina. 
BALDEMOYN (baldmony, K.balde- 

monye, P.) 1 Genciana. 
BALE, or bane. 2 Mortiferum, 

toxicum, letiferum, letale. 
BALE of spy eery, or other lyke. 

Bulga, c. F. 
BALLE, schepys name. Ballator, 

ballatrix (balator, p.) 
B A L E YS . 3 Virga. 
BALY (baley, p.) 4 Ballivus. 
BALY, or seriaunt men arestynge. 

Angarius, CATH. apparitor. 
BALLYD. Calvus. 
BALLYDNESSE. Calvicies. 

BALYSCHEPE (balyshype, K.) 

JS a Hiatus. 

BALKE in ahowse, supra. Trabs. 
BALKE of (on, p.) a londe eryd. 5 

Porca, CATH. 
BALKYN, or to make a balke yn a 

londe (in erynge of londe, P.) 

Porco, c. F. in porca. 
BALKYN, or ouerskyppyn. Omitto. 

P.) 6 Planus. 
BANNARE, or cursere. Impre- 

cator, imprecatrix, maledicus, 

BANE, or poyson (supra in bale, 

P.) Vide supra. Mortiferum, 

exitium, intoxicum, letiferum. 
BANE of a pley (or mariage, p.) 

Banna, coragium, c. F. (pre- 

ludium, P.) 

1 " Look how a sick man for his hele 

Takith baldemoyn with the canele." GOWKR. 

Of the virtues attributed to this herb, see Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. " Genciana ys an herbe 
that me clepyth baldemoyne, or feldewort." 

2 The signification here given to bale is uncommon ; its usual meaning is mischief, 
woe or calamity. Thus Hampole, in the Pricke of Conscience, calls the day of doom 
" the day of bale and bitterness." A.S. Balew, earitiwn. 

3 Hereafter occurs in the Promptorium 3ERDE baleys, virya. Virga is rendered a jerde 
or a rodde, MED. and ORT. voc. ; and such the baleys seems to have been, and not a 
besom, balai, in the present sense of the word. Matthew Paris relates that in 1252, 
a person came to perform penance at St. Alban's, "ferens in manu viryam quam vulga- 
riter baleis appellamus," with which he was disciplined by each of the brethren. Wats 
in the Glossary observes, " Ita Norfolcienses met vacant viryam majorem, et explnribus 
longioribus viminibus ; qualibus utuntur pcedayogi severioresinscholis." Baleys occurs 
in Piers Ploughman in the same sense. Forby does not notice it : but the verb to balase 
occurs amongst the provincialisms of Shropshire ; see Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua. 

4 In the Wicliffite version Baili seems to imply the charge or office, " jelde reken- 
ynge of thi baili, for thou myght not now be baylyf." Luc. 16. " He is my ryue arid 
bayly, Inquilinus prediorum urbicorum et rusticorum.^ HORM. 

5 " Crebro, a balke bitwyne two furrowes. Porca vor at furfur, aratrum vult ver- 
tereporcam." MED. HARL. MS. 2257. " He hath made a balke in the lande, scannum 

fecit, sive crudum solum et inmotum reliquit." HORM. " Baulke of lande, separation." 
PALSG. A.S. Bale, porca. The word is still in use in Norfolk and Suffolk. 

6 In Gawayn and the Green Knyjt occur the expressions " a bal3 berg," and " bal^e 
hawnchej," which are explained by Sir F. Madden to mean ample, swelling. Mr. 
Stevenson, however, in Boucher's Glossary, interprets the word as smooth or unwrinkled. 



BANERE. Vexillum. 

BANNYN, or waryyn. Imprecor, 

maledico, execror. 
BANYNGE, or cursynge. Impre- 

catio, maledictio^ 
BANYOWRE, or bannerberere. Vex- 

illarius, vexillifer, primipilus, 


BANKE of watyr. Ripa. 
BANKE of be see. Litus. 
BANKER. 1 Scamnarium, amphi- 

taba, c. F. UG. 
BANYSCHYD (banysshed, p.) Ban- 

nitus, exulatus. 
BANSCHYN (banysshe, P.) Bannio. 

BANNYSCHYNGE. Bannicio, ban- 

nitus, exilium. 
BAPTYM.* Baptismus, baptisma, 

(BAPTYST, or baptisar, p. Bap- 

BAPTYZYN (baptyse, p.) Baptizo. 


rixosuS) c. F. jurgosus. 
BARBARYN frute. Barbeum, c. F. 
BARBARYN tre (barbery, p.) Bar- 

BARBICAN by-fore a castelle. 4 

Antemurale, KYLW. 
BARBOURE. Barbitonsor. 

1 The banker was a cloth, carpet, or covering of tapestry for a form or bench, from 
the French " banquier, topis pour mettre surun bane, stragulum abaci." NICOT. COTGR. 
" Amphitapa est tapetum circumfilosum, a woll loke." ORT. " Tapes utrinque villosus." 
Due. ; denoting the coverings of arras and tapestry work, wrought, perhaps, on both 
sides, such as are enumerated in the Inventory of Sir John Fastolfe's effects, 1459. 
Archseol. xxi. 257, 265. We there also find "Banker, hangyng tapestry worke," 
which may mean the tapestry commonly in use for hangings, or that the Banker was in 
this instance the covering of a high- backed seat, over which it was hung. In an earlier 
Inventory of the Priory, Durham, 1446, occur "iij Bankquerez paleat' de blodio intenso 
et remisso ; cost era pro ornatu murorum ejusdem earner -cc," these last being of the 
same suit as the Bankers, that is, of cloth of say, paly dark blue and light. Inventories 
published by the Surtees Society, i. 92. In the Teutonic, bancJc-werck is rendered by 
Kilian, " tapes, opus poly mitum, vulgo bancalia, scamnalia, subsellii stragulum." A 
Vocabulary of nearly the same date as the Promptorium gives " pepotasina, bachis, ban- 
quere." ROY. MS. 17. C. XVII. This word has been in Boucher's Glossary incorrectly 
explained to mean a table-cloth. 

2 Baptym is not an error of the scribes, but a singular corruption of ortho- 
graphy. In the other MSS. as well as the printed editions, the same spelling occurs. 
In the Wicliffite version it is thus written, as also baptym, and baptem, in the Legenda 
Aurea. The observation would be trivial, did it not afford an evidence of the predomi- 
nant influence of the French language in England at the period ; the word is evidently 
thence received, and not from the Latin. 

3 Compare hereafter DEBATE MAKER, or barator, incentor. FEYGHTARE, or baratowre, 
pugnttx, which is distinguished from FEYGHTARE, pugnator, showing that the word 
implies one of a contentious disposition, and not an actual combatant. 

4 Spelman explains the barbacan to be " munimen afronte castri, aliter antemurale 
dictum ; etiam foramen in urbium castrorumque moeniis ad tragicienda missilia. Sax. 
burgekening. Vox Arabica. 1 ' Pennant asserts that the Saxons called the barbican to 
the north-west of Cripplegate, burgh-kenning ; other writers have suggested a different 
etymology, A.S. burk-beacn, urbis specula. Bullet would derive it from the Celtic, bar, 
before, bach, an enclosure. Lye gives barbacan as a word adopted in the Anglo-Saxon 
language, and we must certainly not seek thence its derivation. The best specimens of 
the outworks to which this name was given were at York, and called the Bars, of which 
one still exists in good preservation. 



(BARBORERY, or barborysh hous, 

K. harbours hous for shauynge. 

p. Barbitondium.} 
BARBYLLE fysche (barbell fisshe, 

p.) Barbyllus. 

BARBULLE,sekenes of be mowthe.i 
BARE. Nudus. 
BARYN, or to make bare. Nudo, 


BARYNE (bareyn, p.) Sterilis. 
BAREYNTE (bareynesse, p.) Ste- 


BARELLE. Cadus. 
BARENESSE. Nuditas. 
BARRE of a gyrdylle, or ober 

barneys. 2 Stipa. 
BARRE of be schyttynge of a dore 

(shettinge, p.) Pessulum, re- 

pagulum, vectis, clatrus, CATH. 
BARRE abowte a graue or awter 

(barres, p.) Barre, plur. c. F. 

UG. in gero, (cerre, p.) 
(BARRED as agirdell, p. Stipatus.) 
BARRYD wyth yrefi. Garratus, 

UG. (cerratuS) P.) 

BARREN harnes. Stipo, constipo. 
BARRYN dorys, (wyndowus, K.) or 

ober shyttynge. Pessulo, repa- 

BARRYNGE of dorys (or other 

shettynge, P.) Repagulacio, 

BARRYNGE of barneys. Stipacio, 

BARRERE, or barreere (banker, 

K.) Pararium, barraria, bar- 

rus, c. F. 
BARGAYNE (bargany, p.) Lid- 

taciO) stipulaciO) CATH. 
BARGANYYN, or to make a bar- 

gayne. Stipulo> CATH. mercor, 

llCltOj UG. C. F. 

BARGE, schyppe. Barcha. 

BARKE. Cortex. 

BARKE, powdyr of (for, p.) lethyr. 

Ferunium (frunium, P.) CATH. 
BARKERE (barkar, p.) Cerdo, 

frunio, c. F. 
BARKARYS barkewatyr (barkars 

water, p.) Naucea, c. F. 

1 Burbul, papula. ROY. MS. 17 C. XVII. de infirmitatibus. It is probably the same as 
" barbes, pushes or little bladders under the tongues of horses and cattell, the which 
they kill, if they be not speedily cured. Barbes aux veaux, the barbies." COTGR. 

a The ornaments of the girdle, which frequently were of the richest description, were 
termed barres, and in French cloux ; they were perforated to allow the tongue of the 
buckle to pass through them. Originally they were attached transversely to the wide 
tissue of which the girdle was formed, but subsequently were round or square, or fa- 
shioned like the heads of lions, and similar devices, the name of barre being still re- 
tained, though improperly. Thus a citizen of Bristol bequeathed in 1430, " zonam 
hamizatam cum barris argenti rotundis." In the description of the girdle of Richesse, 
in Chaucer's Romaunt of the Rose, we read, 

" The barris were of gold full fine 
Upon a tissue of sattin, 
Full hevie, grete and nothing light, 
In everiche was a besaunt wight." 

In the original, " les cloux furent d'or epurt." The word was similarly applied to 
the ornaments of other parts of costume, such as the garter, worn by the Knight of the 
Order, or spur-leathers, as in Gawayn and the Green Kny3t, i. 287. 

' ' clene spures under 

Of bryjt golde vpon silke bordes 
Barred ful ryche." 


BARKYN lethyr. Frunio, tanno, 
tannio, c. F. 

BARKYNGE of lethyr (lethyr or 
ledyr, P.) Frunicio. 

BARLYLEPE, to kepe yn corne 
(barlep, p.) l Cumera, UG. in 

BARLY CORNE. Ordeum, triticum, 
c. F. 

BARLYSELE.* Tempus ordeacium. 

BARLYMELE. Alphita, UG. in al. 

BARME. 3 Gremium. 

BARMCLOTHE, or naprun. 4 Li- 
mas, CATH. 

BARNYSKYN (barme skyn, p.) 5 

Melotes, CATH. c. F. melota, 

UG. in mellese. 
BAROONE lorde (barun or baron, 

p.) Baro. 

BARONESSE. Baronissa. 
BARONYE. Baronia. 
BARTRYN or changyn, or chafare 

oone thynge for a othere. Cam- 

bio, campso, CATH. 
BARTRYNGE, or changynge of 

chafyre. Cambium, c. F. 
BAROWE. S Cenovectorium, ce- 

novium, UG. in cenon, c. F. 

BASELARDE. 7 SlCtt, C. F. cluna- 

bulum, CATH. (pugio, BRIT. P.) 

1 " Sporta, a here lepe, or basket." OUT. voc. In one MS. of the Medulla it is 
rendered "a berynge lep." A.S. Bere, hordeum, leap, corbis. See BERINGE LEPE. 

2 In Norfolk at the present time the season of sowing barley is termed barley-sele, in 
Suffolk, barsel. FORBY, MOORE. A.S. sel, occasio. 

8 " And in hire barme this litel child she leid." CHAUC. A.S. bearm, gremium. 
* Chaucer uses the word ; it occurs in the Miller's Tale : 
" A barme cloth as white as morrow milke 

Upon her lends, full of many a gore." 

The Medulla explains limas to be " vestis que protenditur db umbilico usque ad pedes, 
qudutuntur serviced etfemine. Anglice, barm cloth.'' A.S. barm-rsegl, or bar ra- 
cial, mappula, ELFRIC. 

5 The melotes is explained in the Catholicon to be " quedam vestis de pilis vel pel- 
libus taxifacta, a collo pendens usque ad lumbos, qud monachi utuntur. Et iste habitus 
est necessarius proprie ad operis exercitium, eademut pera ut dicunt." Uguitiosays, 
" melota expellibus caprinis esse dicitur, ex und vero parte dependens." See Ducange. 
The King's MS. gives barniskyn, but the reading of the printed editions appears to 
be preferable, barme-skyn, implying simply an apron formed of the skin of a beast. 
Barm-skin is preserved in the dialect of Lancashire, where it means a leathern apron. 

6 A barowe or crowde was a small vehicle, whether precisely similar or not to the 
barrow of the present times, cannot be asserted. When Sir Amiloun was worn out 
with leprosy, and reduced to "tvelfpans of catel," the faithful Amoraunt expended 
that little sum in the purchase of a barowe, therein to carry the knight about. 

" Therwith thai went ful yare 

And bought hem a gode croude wain." Amis and Amiloun, 1867. 
A.S. berewe, vectula. " Cenovectorium, a berw. Instrumentum cum quo deportatur 
cenus." MED. See CROWDE, barowe. 

7 The Baselard was a kind of long dagger, which was suspended to the girdle, and 
worn, not only by the armed knight, but by civilians, and even priests. Thus Piers 
Ploughman, in allusion to the neglect of clerical propriety, says, 

" Sir John and Sir Jeffery hath a girdle of silver, 

A baselard, or a ballocke knife, with bottons ouergilt." 

Knighton tells us that the weapon with which Sir William Walworth put Jack Straw to 
death was a basillard. Sir William was a member of the Fishmongers' Company, who 



BASKET, or panyere (panere, p.) 

BASKET, or a lepe. 1 Sporta, corbes 

(canistrum, cartallum, p.) 
BASSENETT, supra in bacenett 

(basnet, p.) 
BASONE wesselle (basun or bason, 

vessell, P.) Pelvis. 
BAASTE, not wedloke (bast, P.) 


BASTARDE. Bastardus, nothus* 
BASTARDE, comyn of fadyr and 

modyr genteylle (comyn of un- 

gentyl fadyr and gentyl moder, 

p.) Spurius, spuria, CATH. 
BASTARDE, of fadyr gentylle, and 

modyr vngentylle. Nothus, 

notha, CATH. 
BASTYLE of a castelle or cytye. 3 

Fascennia, UG. infacio. 
BASTYN clothys. 4 Subsuo, CATH. 


BASTYNGE of clothe. Subsutura, 

BATAYLE. Bellum, pugna> du- 

BATTE staffe. 5 Perticulus, CATH. 

fustis, batillus, UG. in bachis. 
BATTYN, or betyn wyth stavys 

(battis, p.) Fustigo, baculo. 
BATYN, or abaten of weyte or 

mesure. Subtraho. 
BATYN, or make debate. Jurgor, 

vel seminar e discordias, veldis- 

BATTFOWLERE. Aucubaculator, 

BATFOWLYN (or go to take birdes 

in the nyght, P.) Aucubaculo. 


latus, (CATH. in hamis, P.) 
BATHE. Balneum, balnearium, 

balneatorium, UG. 
BATHYNGE. Balneacio. 

still preserve the weapon traditionally recorded to have been used by him on this occa- 
sion, and which he presented to the Company. Among Songs and Carols edited by Thos. 
Wright, is a spirited poem describing the baselard. " Pugio, a dagger or a baslarde." OUT. 
" A hoked baslarde (bizachius) is a perels wepon with the Turkes." HORM. In old 
French bazelaire, badelaire, from balthearis, KOQUEF. See Ducange, basalardus. 

1 See LEEP, or baskett. " Lepe, or a basket, corbeille." PALSG. A.S. leap, corbis. 

2 " Bast, bdtard." ROQUEF. " He was bigeten o baste, God it wot. 1 ' Artour and 
Merlin. Weber, iii. 360. 

3 Fascenia is explained to be " clausibtlis vallatio circa castra et civitates que solet 
fieri quibusdamf ascibus stipularum et lignorumS' CATH. " Closture de bois, palis." 

CATH. ABBREV. Roquefort gives " Bastille, chdteau de 6oifi." In Caxton's boke of the 
Fayt of armes, part ii. c. xxiin. of habillements that behouen to an assawte, are di- 
rections at length respecting bastylles and bolwerks of wood, formed with palebordes 
called penelles, with defences after the manner of towers, and other batellements. See 
also c. xxxiv. Lord Berners, in his translation of Froissart, writes, "They landed lytell 
andlytell, and so lodged in Calays, and thereabout, in bastylles that they made dayly." 

4 " This dublet was nat well basted at the first, and that maketh it to wrinkle thus, ce 
pourpoynt n'estoit pas bien basty." PALSG. Chaucer uses this word, Rom. of the Rose, 
" With a threde basting my slevis." "Besten. Fris. Sicambr. leviter consuere." KILIAN. 

3 This word occurs in the Wicliffite version, Matt. xxvi. 47, " Lo Judas, oon of the 
twelve, cam, and with him a greet cumpany with swordis and battis.'' A.S. batt, fustis. 

6 " Batfowlynge, la pipee." PALSG. The Catholicon explains hamis to be "fustis 
aucupabilis, soil, virgula que sustinet rhete in quo capiunturfere, vel que levat rhete in 
quo capiuntur aves." 



BATYLDOURE, or wasshynge be- 
tylle.i Feretorium, Dice. 

BATYLMENT of a walle. Pro- 

BATOWRE of flowre and mele wyth 
water (batour, p.) Mola, c. F. 

BAWDE. Leno. 

BAWDEKYN clothe, or (of p.) 
sylke. Olosericus, c. F. clo- 
ser-tea, CATH. UG. 

BAWDERYKE.* Strophius, CATH. 

BAWME, herbe or tre. Balsamus, 
melissa, melago. 

BAWME, oyle (baume, p. beaume, 
J. N.) Balsamum. 

BAWMYN (balmyn, p.). Balsamo. 

BAWSTONE, or bawsone, or a gray 
(baunsey or bauston, best, p.) 3 
Taxus, melota, CATH. 

BEE, a beste. Apis. 

BE BETYN. Vapulo. 

BE BESY. Solicitor. 

BE BORNE. JVascor. 

BE BUXUM, or obedyent to anobyr 

(obeyyn, K. Obedio.) 
BESEGYDE. Obsessus. 
BECEGYN. Obsideo. 
BESEGYNGE. Obsidio. 
BECEKYN, or prey (beseche or 

pray, p.) Rogo, oro, deprecor. 
BESEKYNGE, or prayere. Depre- 

cacio, supplicacio, oracio, ro- 

gatus, rogacio. 
BECEMYN. Decet. 
BESEMYNGE, or comelynesse. De- 


BECHE, tre. Fagus, CATH. 
BECYDYN. Juxta, secus. 
BESYTTYN, or dysposyn (becettyn, 

K. besette, P.) Dispono. 
BED. Lectus, thorns, stratus, 

stratorium, grabatum. 
BEDCLOTHE, or a rayment for a 

bed. Lectisternium. 
BEDE, or bedys. Numeralia, de- 

preculce.g. F. (vagule, P.) 

1 " Batyldore, battouer a lessive, betyl to bete clothes with, battoyr.*' PALSG. Peri- 
torium is explained ia the Medulla to be " instrumentum cum quo mulieres verberant 
vesturas in lavando, a battyng staffe," " or a betyll." ORT. voc. 

2 " Baudrike, carquant, baldrike fora ladyes necke, carquan." PALSG. Thus is found 
in the Ort. Voc. " Anabola est ornamentum mulieris a collo dependens, a baudrik." 
The word had, however, a more general signification ; it is derived, probably, from 
baudrier, a strap or girdle of leather, but was afterwards used to denote similar appliances 
of any material, and of costly decoration. In Gawayn and the Grene Knyjt, bauderyk 
is the appellation of the guige, or transverse strap by which the shield was suspended 
round the neck. Hall relates that " Sir Thomas Brandon wore a great baudericke of 
gold, greate and massy, trauerse his body;" and he further describes the Earl of South- 
ampton, Great Admiral of England, as " wearing baudrick-wise a chayne at the whych 
did hang a whistle of gold, set with ryche stones," which was a badge of office. It 
would appear that the bauderyke was properly a belt worn transversely, as was the 
"baudre de serico, argento munitumpro cornu Regis. 1 ' LIB. GARDEROB. EDW. i. 1299. 
It signified also the cingulum, or military belt, and in the 16'th century, the jewelled 
ornament worn round the neck both by ladies, and noblemen. See Hall's Chronicle, 
p. 508, baldrellus and baldringus in Ducange, and Boucher's Glossary. 

3 " Bawcyn, or brok,^ler, castor, taxus, melota." GARL. SYNONYM. These words 
are in the Medulla and Ortus explained as signifying the brocke. A.S. broc, a badger. 
The word bausene^ occurs Cott. MS. Nero, A. x. f. 62 : and baucines in William and 
the Werwolf. See Bawson in Boucher's Glossary. 


BEDE, or prayers. 1 Oracio, sup- 

plicacio, interventus. 
BEDMAN. Orator, supplicator, 

BEDEWOMAN. Oratrfa, suppli- 


BEDELE. Preco, bidellus. 
BEDERED-MAN, or woman. 2 De- 

cumbens, clinicus, cUnica.CA.TU. 
BEDYN, or proferyn. 3 Ojfero, CATH. 
BEDYNGE, orproferynge. Oblacio. 
BEDDYNGE. Lectisternium, lee- 


BEDYS, supra in bede. 
BEDDYS syde. /Sponda,KYLW. C.F. 
(BEDLAWYR, supra in bedered. 4 

K. P. Decumbens.) 
BE-DRABYLYD, or drabelyde. Pa- 


BEDSTEDE. Stratum. 
BE F AYNE, or welle plesyde. Letor. 
BYFFE, flesche (beff, p.) Bo- 
villa, bosor. 
BEFYCE. Films, (filinius, vel pul- 

cher ftlius, P.) 
BEFORESEYDE. Predictus, pre- 


BEFORETYME. Ante, antea. 
BEFORNE a thynge (before, P.) 

Cor am, ante. 
BE-FOTE, or on fote (afote, P.) 

Pedestre, adv. vel pedestris, 

", CATH. 

BEGGAR. Mendicus, mendica. 
BEGET A RE as a fathyr. Genitor. 
BEGETARE as mothere. Geni- 


BEGETYN. Genera, gigno. 
BEGETYNGE. Genitura, gene- 

BYGYLYN (begyle, p.) Decipio, 

fraudo, seduco, circumvenio. 
BEGYLYNGE, or dysseyte. De- 

BEGYLE. Fraus. 
BEGGYN, or thyggyn (thigge, p.) 5 

BEGGYN bodely fode, as mete and 

drynke. Victo, CATH. 
BEGGYNGE. Mendicacio. 
BEGYNNARE. Inceptor, inchoator. 
BEGYNNYN. Incipio, inchoo. 
BEGYN a-yene (ageyne, P.) Itero. 
BEGYNNYNGE. Incepcio, incho- 

acio, initium, exordium. 
BEGYNNYNGE, or rote of a ]?ynge. 

Origo, ortus. 
BE GLAD, or mery. Letor, jo- 

BEHOLDERE, or lokar vpon yn 

seyynge. Inspector. 
BEHOLDYN, or seen. Intuor, in- 

spicio, aspicio* 
BEHOLDYN, or bowndyn (beholde 

or bounde, p.) Obligor, teneor. 
BEHOLDYNGE. Inspeccio, intuicio. 
BE-HERTE. Cor detenus. 

1 In the Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. occurs " rogacio, oracio, 
deprecacio, a bede or prayer." A.S. bidde, oratio, biddan, petere. 

2 A.S. bedredda, clinicm. 

3 The verb is used in the sense of proffering in Gawayn and the Green Kny3t, in 
Robert de Brunne's Chronicle, and in Sir Tristrem. A. S. beodan, jubere. 

4 In the will of Sir Thomas de Hemgrave, dated 1419, among the Hengrave evidences 
in the possession of John Gage Rokewode, Esq. is the following bequest to the bed- 
ridden poor in Norwich, " Item lego cuilibet pauperum vocatorum bedlawermen infra 
civitatem predictam, iiiid. ad orandum pro animd med." 

* See hereafter THYGGYNGE, mendicacio. A. S. pigan, accipere cibum. 



BEHESTE.' Promissio. 
BEHYNDE. Retro, a retro, pone. 
BEHYNDE, or bakewarde. Re- 

BEHOTYN, or make a beheste (or 

behestyn, H. behote or beheste, 

p.) a Promitto, pollicior. 
BEHOUELY (behouable, p.) Opor- 

BEHOUELYNESSE (behouablenesse, 

p.) Oportunitas. 
BEHOUYN. Oportet. 
BEY, or boy. Scurrus. 
BEYKYNGE, or streykynge (strek- 

inge, j. N.) Protencio, extencio. 
BEYN, or plyaunte (bey en, p.) 3 

BEYTON hoorse. 
BEYT o N wy th howndy s, bery s, boly s, 

or other lyke. Commordio,CATH. 

vel canibus agitare,(oblatro, P.) 
BEYTYNGE of horse. Pabulacio. 
BEYTYNGE of bestyswyth howndys. 

(BEYTINGE of houndes, p. Obla- 

BEK, or lowte. Conquiniscio, c. F. 

(inclinacio, P.) 

BEK WATYR, rendylle. 4 Rivulus, 

tor r ens. 

(BEKE, tokyn, p. Nictus.) 
(BEKEN with the iye, p. Annuto, 

conniveo. Connivet hie oculis, 

annuit ipse manu.) 
BEKNYN (bekyn, p.) Annudo 

(annuo, p.) annuto, nuto, c. F. 

BEKNYNGE, or a bek (bekenynge, 

p.) Annutus, nutus (annic- 

tus, P.) 
BEEKNE, or fyrebome (bekne, K.) 

Far, c. F. et UG. infos. (PhcL- 

rus, P.) 
BE-LAGGYD. S Madidatus (palu- 

dosus. P.) 
BELAMY. Amicus pulcher, et est 

Gallicum, et Anglice dicitur, 

fayre frynde. 
BE LEFULLE, idem est. 
BELDAM, moderys modyr. Bel- 

lona, c. F. 
BELDAM, faders and moders 

modyr, bothe (beldame, faders 

or moders whether it be, p.) 6 

Avia, CATH. c. F. 

1 See BEHOTYN, or make a beheste. In the Wicliffite version Acts ii. 39 is rendered, 
" the biheeste is to 3011 and to joure sones." Horman speaks of making " behestes to 
God and sayntis. I haue behest a pygge to Saynt Antony, votonuncupavi." " Nutio, i. 
promissio, a promyse, or behyghtynge. Promissio, a beheste." OUT. 

2 " To behest or promesse, to behyght." PALSG. A.S. behatan, vovere. The 
Chronicler of Glastonbury, Douglas, relates amongst the miracles of St. Thomas of 
Lancaster, that a certain sick man " beheten to God and to Seinte Thomas thatte iff he 
werre hole thatte he schulde come tbider to seke him " (at Pomfret.) Harl. MS. 4690, 
f. 64, b. In the WicJiffite version we read, " what euere God hath bib^t he is mi3ti 
to do," Rom. iv. 21. 

3 Bane in the dialects of Yorkshire and Somerset signifies near, or convenient. 

4 " Torrens, aqua sordida ex inundationibus pluviamm, a beke or ryndell." A.S. 
becc, rivulus. The word is commonly used in the North. See Brockett. 

5 A passage in Gautier de Bibeles worth, where he speaks of one who has been splashed 
by horses in miry places, " Cy vent vngarsoun esclatt," or esclauott, has this gloss in 
the margin, " bilagged wit swirting." Arund. MS. 220, f. 303. A.S. lagu, aqua. 

6 " Recommaunde me to your bel-fadre, and to your beldame, a vostre tayon et a 
vostre taye." BOKE FOR TRAV. CAXT. 



BEELDYNGE, or byggynge (bild- 

inge, p.) Edificacio, structura. 
BELLE. Campana. 
BELEVENESSE, or feythe. Fides. 
BELLFRAY. Campanarium, UG. 
BELY. Venter, alvus, uterus. 
BELLYN, or lowyn as nette (ro- 

ryn, P.) l Mugio. 
BELLYNGE, of rorynge of bestys 

(bellinge of nete, P.) Mu- 

BELSCHYD, or made fayre (belched, 

p.) Venustus, decoratus. 
BELCH YN, or make fayre. De- 

coro, venusto. 
BELSHYNGE (belchinge, p.) Ve- 

nustacio, decoracio. 
BELSYRE, or belfather, faders or 

moders fader. Avus, CATH. 
(BELT, or ax, p. 3 Securis?) 
BELTE, or gyrdylle. Zona. 
BELOWE (belows, P.) Follis. 
BELWEDYR, shepe. Titurus, c. F. 
BELLEJTARE (bellejeter, K. bell- 

yatere, P.) 3 Campanarius, CATH. 
BE-LYTYLLE and lytylle. Para- 

tim, paulisper, paulatim. 
BEEME, or balke, supra. Trabs. 
BEEME, or (of p.) Iy3hte (Iy5the, 

K.) Radius. 
BEME lygthte. Radio. 

BEEME of webstarrys lome. Li- 

ciatorium, CATH. 
BE MERY and gladde. Jocundor, 

letor, jocor. 
BENCHE. Scamnum. 
BENDYNGE of bowys, or ober 

lyke. Tencio. 

BENDE bowys. Tendo, CATH. 
BEEN, or to haue beynge (be or haue 

be, p.) Sum, existo, subsisto. 
BEEN abowte yn bysynes, as wyvys 

and men yn occupacyon (or ben 

besy, p.) Satago. 
BEEN abowtyn, or be abowte-warde 

(be abowte or am abowte, p.) 

Nitor, conor. 
BEEN A-KNOWE wyllfully. Con- 

BE A-KNOWE a-geyne wylle, or be 

constreynynge. Fateor. (Con- 
fiteor sponte, fateor meafacta 

coacte, P.) 
BEEN a-qweyntyd or knowyn 

(aqueynt, p.) Noscor. 
BEEN a-schamyde. Erubeo,pudeo. 
BEEN ydylle. Vaco. 
BENE corne (been, p.) Faba. 
(BENEDAY, p. 4 Precare.) 
BENEFYCE. Beneficium. 
BENEFY3YD. Beneficiatus. 
BENETT, ordyr. s Exorcista. 

1 " Cheueraux cheyrist et tor torreye, kide motereth, bole belleth." G. DE BIBELESW. 
" denaturele noyse des bestes." This word is retained in the dialect of Shropshire, and 
in Somerset to belg has the same sense. See Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua, and 
Jenning's Glossary. A.S. bellan, boare. 

2 This word appears of rather questionable introduction : the printed editions in which 
it appears omit the next word BELTE, or gyrdylle. It is not found in the MSS. 

3 Campanarius is explained in the Catholicon to be a bell-founder. See hereafter 
3ETYN metel, ^ETYNGE of metelle as bellys, fusio. A.S. seotere,/M*or. 

4 A. Sax. bene, precatio, dag, dies. The word seems synonymous with A. Sax. 
bentiid, rogationum dies, by which name the three days preceding Ascension day were 

5 " Exorcista, id est adjurator vel increpator, a benette or a conjurer." OUT. The 
lesser orders in the Christian church were four, Ostiarius, Lector, Exorcista, Acolythus. 




BENETT, propyr name. Bene- 


BENETHYN (benethe, p.) Inferius 
(BENWYTTRE, K. benewith tre, P. 
BENGERE of corne (bengge, p. 

BENGERE of a mylle (bengge, P.) 

Ferricapsia, Dice. 
BEPYR, or bewpyr (beawpere, P.) 

Pulcher pater. 
BE-PLOTMELE. 3 Particulariter, 

BE-QWETHYN, or qwethyn yn 

testament. Lego. 
BERE, a drynke. Hummulina,vel 

hummuli potus, aut cervisia 

hummulina (berziza, P.) 
BERE, or beryn. Porto., gero, 


BERYN a-way (or bere awey, P.) 

Asporto, aufero. 
BERE downe, or presse downe. Com- 

primo, deprimo. 
BEERE downe vndyr )>e fote. Sub- 

BERE DOWNE, or caste downe to 

grownde. Sterno, prosterno. 
BERE fellyschyppe (felaweshepe or 

companye, P.) Associc. 
BERE YN. Infero. 
BERE OWTE. Effero. 
BERE PARTE, or be partenere. 

Participo, CATH. 
BERE WYTNESSE. Testificor. 
BERBERYN tre, supra in barbaryn 

BEERDE (berde, p.) Barba, ge- 

nobardum, CATH. 

The functions of the third extended to the expulsion of evil spirits by the imposition of 
hands upon persons possessed, recently baptized, and catechumens. The ceremony was 
always accompanied with aspersion, and the name benett was doubtless taken from the 
aqua benedict a, eau btnite, or, perhaps, from the vessel called in French benitier, which 
contained the holy-water. In a will dated 1449 is a bequest of " a gret holy-water 
scoppe of silver, with a staff benature, the sayd benature and staff weyng xx nobles in 
plate." The staff benature was the aspersorium, termed in the Promptorium STRENKYL, 
halywater stye. Fox, relating the death of Hooper, states that it was part of the cere- 
mony of degrading Bishops to " take from them the lowest vesture which they had in 
taking bennet and collet" (i. e. acolyte). Eccles. Hist. iii. 152, A.D. 1555. T. Becon, 
in the Reliques of Rome, says, " Boniface V. decreed that such as were but benet and 
colet should not touch the reliques of saints, but they only which are subdeacons, deacons, 
and priests." Edit. 1563, f. 183. 

1 This appears to be the wood-bine, which in Swedish is called beenwed. Linn. Flor. 
Suec. Verelius explains the Icelandic beintvid to be ossea pericliminis species, a bony 
kind of honeysuckle, beinwid signifying bone- wood. Ivy is in the North called bind- 
wood. See Jamieson. 

2 See BYNGGKR and BYNGE, theca, cumera* A.S. bin. In Norfolk and Suffolk still 
pronounced bing, as in Danish, bing, cumulus. FORBY. 

3 This is one of the number of words in which the A. S. Msel, pars, occurs in com- 
position. The A. S. form of these adverbs is mselum, in parts, bit-mselum, dael-mselum, 
&c. We have retained piecemeal, but the rest are wholly obsolete. See in Nares, 
drop-meal, inch-meal, and limb-meal. P. Ploughman uses pounde-mele and percel- 
mele. In the Liber Festivalis we read that William Tracy, after the murder of St. 
Thomas of Canterbury, " fylle syke and roted all his body, in somoche that himselfe 
with his owne hondes cast away his owne flesshe lompe-mele." Palsgrave gives "by 
ynche-meale, menuement, par poulcees, and flock-meale, par troupeaux." 

11 Only that point his peple bare so sore 
That flockmel on a day to him they went." CHAUC. Clerke's T. 



BERDE, or brynke of a wesselle, or 

other lyke. Margo. 
BERDYD. Harbatus. 
BERCEL (berseel, p.) Meta.i 
BERE, beste. Ursus. 
BEERE of (for p.) dede men. Fe- 

retrum, libitina, loculus, 
BEREYNYD, or wete wyth rayne. 

ComplutuS) UG. in pluo. 
BfiREWARDE. 2 Ursarius. 
BERY, frute. Morum, CATH. 

c. F. 
BERYL, precyous stone. 3 Beril- 

BERYNGE. Portagium, latura. 

BERYNGE a-way. Asportacio, ab- 


BERYNGE yn. Illacio. 
(BERINGE LEPE, p. 4 Canistra, 


BERKAR, as a dogge. Latrator. 
BERKYN. Latro, baffb, baulo. 
BERKYNGE. Latratus. 
BERME of ale or other lyke. 

Spuma, CATH. 
BERMYN, or spurgyn as ale, or 

other lyke. 5 Spumo. 
BARNAKYLLE, byrde (bernack, K. 

bernak, p.) ; Barnacus, bar- 

nita, barnites, c. F. 

1 See hereafter BUT, or bercel. 

2 " Bearwarde, gardeurd'oursS' PALSG. A curious representation of the bear-ward, 
and baiting the bear, occurs in the Louterel Psalter, illuminated in the early part of the 
reign of Edw. III. It has been engraved in Vetust. Monum. VI. pi. xxiv. In the 
Household Book of the Earl of Northumberland in 1511, under the head of Rewards, 
is one of " 6*. 8rf. to the Kyngs or Queenes Barward, if they have one," when they 
come to the Earl. Ant. Rep. iv. p. 253. The Earl had also in his own family an 
official of the same kind, whose reward was 20*. Shakespeare uses the word, and 
also bearard or bear-yerd, which are synonymous. 

3 Beryl is used by Chaucer and the authors of the XlVth and XVth centuries, to 
denote the precious stone so called, and also a finer description of crystal glass, which 
resembled it in transparency or colour. This distinction is not preserved here ; but it 
is made by Palsgrave : " Berall, fyne glass, beriL Beryll, a precious stone, berilS' 
Elyot renders" Glessum, crystal or berylle." See Whitaker's Cathedral of St. Germains, 
ii. 280. 

4 One of the MSS. of the Medulla renders sporta, a berynge lep ; in the Ortus, it 
is explained as a bere lepe, or basket. The word is perhaps synonymous with EARLY- 
LEPE, to kepe yn corne, which occurs above, aud in the printed editions is spelled 
BARLEP. A.S. bere, hordeum, leap, corbis. 

5 A. S. \)eorma.,fermentum. See hereafter SPORGYN, taken from the French, espurger. 

6 Alexander Neccham, who died in 1227, gives in his treatise de naturis rerum, a curious 
account " de ave que vulgo dicitur bernekke," which grew, as he asserts, from wood steeped 
in the sea, or trees growing on the shores. Roy. MS. 12 G. XI. f. 31. The marvellous tales 
respecting this bird, which has been supposed to be the chenalopeces, mentioned by 
Pliny as a native of Britain, are to be found at length in Gesner, Olaus Magnus, and 
many ancient writers. Giraldus gives in his Topographia Hibernia3, c. xi. a detailed 
account " de bemads ex abiete nascentibus,'' as a phenomenon of which he had been 
an eye-witness on the Irish shores, and states that these birds were, on account of their 
half-fishy extraction, eaten during Lent. This indulgence, of which the propriety was 
argued by Michael Meyer in his treatise de volucri arbored, was sanctioned by the au- 
thority of the Sorbonne. It is scarcely needful to observe that the origin of these 
strange statements is to be found in the multivalve shell-fish, the lepas anatifera, which 
attaches itself to submerged wood, or the bottoms of ships. " Ciconia, i. ibis, a ber- 



BERN A K for horse (bernakill, p.) ' 

Chamus, CATH. 
BERNE of lathe (or lathe, p.) 2 

Horreum, c. F. 
BERWHAM, horsys colere (beru- 

ham for hors, P.) 3 Ephiphium, 

epifium, CATH. vel collare equi. 
BERWE, or schadewe (berowe or 

shadowe, p.) 4 Umlraculum, 

BESAUNTE. Talentum, mna, 

dragma, UG. c. F. 
BBS ME or besowme (besym, p.) 

Scopa, c. F. 
BESTE, or alle the beste (aldyrbest, 

K.) Optimus. 
BEST AD, or wythe-holdyn yn wele 

or wo (in hard plyt set, K. with- 

holden in harde plyte or nede, p.) 

BERSTAYLE (bestali, K. bestayle,. 

p.) 5 Armentum, CATH. 
BESTE (beest, p.) Bestia, pecus, 

animal, jumentum. 
BEES TEL Y, or lyke a beste (bestly, 

P.) Bestialis. 
BESTYLYNESSE (bestlyi-esse, p.) 


BESTYLYWYSE. Bestialiter. 
BE STYLLE, and not speke. Taceo, 

sileo, obmutesco. 
BEESTNYNGE, mylke (bestnynge, 

K.p.) 6 Collustrum, c. F. KYLW. 

UG. in colo. 

nacle, a myrdnimmyll or a buture." ORT. voc. " A barnak." MED. GRAMM. Junius 
derives the name from the fabulous origin of the bird, A. S. beam, films, and ac, 
quercus. See Claik, in Jamieson, and barnache in Menage. 

1 " Chamus est quoddam genus freni, vel capistrum, an halter or bernaole." ORT. voc. 
Junius derives the word from the French berner, comprimere petulantiam ; and Ro- 
quefort mentions a kind of torture practised by the Saracens, termed bernicles. The 
Wicliffite version renders 2 Kings, xix, 28, " y schal putte a sercle in )>i nose Jnrlis, and 
a bernacle in H lippis." Cott. MS. Claud. E. 11. 

2 Berne is the contraction of A.S. bere, hordeum, and ern, locus. Lathe, which does 
not occur in its proper place in the Promptorium, is possibly a word of Danish introduc- 
tion into the eastern counties, Lade, horreum, DAN. Skinner observes that it was very 
commonly used in Lincolnshire. It occurs in Chaucer : 

" Why ne hadst thou put the capell in the lathe." Reves Tale. 

" Horreum, locus ubi reponitur annona, a barne, a lathe." ORT. voc. " Granarium, 
lathe." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "A lathe, apotheca, horreum. 11 CATH. ANGL. 

3 " Bargheame, epiphium." CATH. ANGL. This word is still retained in the North 
of England ; see Barkhaam in Brockett's Glossary, Barkham, Craven dialect, Brauchin, 
Cumberland, Brechame, Jamieson. It occurs in the curious marginal gloss on Gautier 
de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, f. 302. 

" Les cous de chiuaus portunt esteles, hames (hamberwes, MS. Phill.) 
Coleres de quyr, et bourle hoceles.' 1 beruhames. 

4 A.S. bearw, berwe, nemus. 

5 The reading of the Harl. MS. seems here to be erroneous ; the word is doubtless 
adopted from the French, bestail, cattle. 

6 " Bestynge, colustrum." CATH. ANGL. " Colostrum, novum lac quod statim primo 
mulgetur post fetum, quod cito coagulatur, beestnynge. Colustrum, beestynge or 
cruddys." ORT. voc. A.S. beost, bysting, colustrum. 




BETAYNE, herbe (batany, or be- 

tony, p.) 1 Betonica. 
BETAKYN' a thynge to anothere. 

Committo, commendo. 
BETE, or Betune, propyr name (Be- 

tryse, K.) Beatrix. 
BETHYNKYN'. Cogito, recogito, 

BETYDEN', or happen'. Accidit, 


BETYLLE. Malleus, malleolus, UG. 
BETYN', or bete. Verbero, cedo. 
BETYNGE. Verberacio, verber. 
BETYNGE (instrument, p.) In- 

strumentum, verberaculum, UG. 
BETTYR. Melior. 
BETTYR. Melius, adv. 

BETYS herbe. Beta vel lleta. 


BETRAYYN'. Prodo, CATH. trado. 

(BEUER, drinkinge tyme, p. 2 Bi- 

BEUERECHE, drynke(beueriche,p.) 

BEVYR, beste. 3 Bever, c. F. cas- 
tor, fiber. 

BEWARE. Caveo,CATH.precaveo. 

BE WOODE, or madde. 4 Furio, 

BEwoNE,orvsyd(wonte,p.) Soleo. 

BEWRAYER of counsel. Recelator, 
recelatrix, CATH. in celo. ~Et 
nota alia infra in LABLE. 

BEWRETHYN', or wreyyn' (be- 
wreyen, p.) Prodo, recelo, revelo. 

1 See a curious account of the virtues attributed to fcetony in the XVth century, Roy. 
MS. 18 A. VI. f. 68, where it is said to be " also clepyd byschuppyswort." Herman 
observes that " nesynge is caused with by ten (betonica) thrust in the nostril." The 
powdered root of hellebore was another homely sternutatory anciently much in request. 

z " Merendula, a beuer after none. Merenda, comes tio in meridie, vel cibus qui 
declinante die sumitur." ORT. Harrison, in his description of England, prefixed to 
Holinshed's Chronicles, i. 170, remarks that "of old we had breakefastes in the fore- 
noone, beuerages or nuntions after dinner, and thereto reare suppers, generallie when 
it was time to go to rest, a toie brought into England by hardie Canutus ; but nowe 
those are very well past, and ech one, except some yoong hungrie stomach that cannot 
fast till dinner time, contenteth himself with dinner and supper." The higher classes, 
he observes, dine at 11 and sup at 5, merchants seldom before 12, and 6. This was 
written about 1579. Sherwood renders, " Bever, or drinking, un rtciner, collation, 
goustar. To bever, rtciner; " and Cotgrave explains un reciner as "an afternoones 
nuncheon, or collation, an Aunders-meat." See hereafter NUNMETE, which seems to 
have been much the same as the intermediate refection here called BEUER. The word 
bever still signifies in Suffolk an afternoon snack. MOORE. 

3 A.S. beofer, castor. That the beaver was anciently an inhabitant of these islands, 
the laws of Howel Dha, and the curious description of its habits given by Giraldus, in 
his Itinerary of Wales, 1. ii. c. 3, satisfactorily prove. The fur of this animal was in 
estimation from an early period. Piers Ploughman says, 

" And yet vnder that cope, a cote hath he furred 
With foyns, or with fichewes, or with fyn beuere." 

" Me fyndeth furres of beuevs, of lombes, pylches of hares and of conyes. On treuue 
fourrures d'escurieus," &c. CAXTON, Boke for Travellers. The beuer hat is mentioned 
by Chaucer as a part of female attire, and by Hall as worn by the Stradiote light horse- 
men in 1513. 

4 See WOODE or madde. A.S. vrod, furiosus. 


BE WROTHE. Irascor. 

BE WRATH E yn valewe (be worthe, 

P.) ValeO) CATH. 
BEWTE (beawtye, p.) Decor, 

species, pulchritudo. 
BY AND BY. Sigillatim. 1 
BY THY SELFE (by the selfe, p.) 


BY A RE. Emptor, institoi*, CATH. 
BYBLE, or bybulle. Biblia. 
BYCE, coloure. 2 
BYDDYN', or comawndyn'. Mando, 

precipio, hortor, exortor. 
BYDDYN' bedys, or seyn' prayers 

(bydde or pray, p.) 3 Oro. 
BYDDYNGE, or commawndement 

(commaundinge, p.) Manda- 

tum, preceptum, imperium. 
BYDDYNGE, or praynge. Oracio^de- 

precacio, exoracio, supplicacio. 
BYE, or boye. 4 JSostio, UG. 
BYGGYN', or byldyn'. 5 Edifico. 
BYGGYNGE, or beeldynge (byldinge, 

p.) Edificacio, structura. 
(BYGGYNGE, or thyng that is byg- 

gyd, H. Edificium.) 
BYCCHE, hownde or bylke (bycke, 

p.) Licista, COMM. 
BYKER, cuppe (bikyr, p.) 6 Cim- 

bium, COMM. 
BIKYR of fytynge (bykere or feight- 

inge, p.) 7 

1 The Medulla renders " sigillatim, fro seel to seel." Harl. MS. 2257. 

2 Palsgrave renders byce by azur : the word is, however, probably taken from the 
French couleur bise, which properly means a brownish or blackish hue. In some 
curious instructions respecting the production of fine azure from lapis lazuli, it is ob- 
served that to distinguish this last " from lapis almaine of whiche men maken a blewe- 
bis azure," they should be exposed to fire, in which the inferior material turns rather 
black, and becomes " brokel." Sloan. MS. 73, f. 215, b. Probably byce, or rather blue 
byce, as it was in ancient times usually termed, was a preparation of zaffre, of a dim 
and brownish cast of colour, in comparison with the brilliancy of the true azure. 

3 A.S. biddan, orare. In the Book of Curtasye, the young child on coming to church 
is thus admonished, 

" Rede, or synge, or byd prayeris 

To Crist for all thy Crrsten ferys." Sloane MS. 1986, f. 22 b. 

4 " Bostio, an oxe dryver." OUT. Compare BEY or boy, scurrus. 

5 "To byge,fundare, condere, edificare. A bygynge, construccio, structura. Byg- 
ynge vndyr erthe, subterraneus." CATH. ANGL. A.S. byggan, (Edificare. See Big, in 
Boucher's Glossary, and Jamieson. 

6 What was the precise kind of cup called byker, or beaker, it is not easy to deter- 
mine. This word occurs as early as 1348, in the accounts of the Treasurer of Edward, 
Prince of Wales ; " ii magne pecie aryenti, vacate Bikers, emellate in fundo, cum coo- 
perculis cum batellis, et ex undparte deauratis." In this instance they were destined 
to be presented to ladies. (Beltz, Memor. of the Garter, p. 385.) Becher in German 
signifies a cup or goblet, as does beker in Dutch, and Teutonic ; possibly we derived 
the vessel to which the name was originally given from Flanders or Germany. Of 
cognate derivation is the Italian bicchiero. In the later Latinity bacar, baccharium 
have the same meaning ; see Ducange. The common root of these words was perhaps 
the Greek PIKOS, vas habens ansas. MEN AGIO. 

7 " Beckeryng, scrimysshe, m&sUe. Bicker, fyghtyng, escarmouche." PALSG. "Anon 
after the fylde began to beker." HORM. Skinner suggests the Welsh bicre, conftictus, as 
the etymon of this word, which, however, he inclines to think of Anglo-Saxon origin. 



BEKERYN', or fygfityn' (bikker- 

inge, p.) Pugno, dimico. 
BYLLE of a byrde. Nostrum. 
BYLLE of (or, p.) a mattoke. Ligo, 


BYLE, sore. Pustula, UG. 
BYLLERNE, watyrherbe. 1 Berula, 

c. F. 

BYLET, schyde. Tedula, CATH. 
BYLET, scrowe (bille, K.) 2 Ma- 

tricula, CATH. (billa, K.) 
BOLLYN', or jowyn' wythe thebylle 

as byrdys (byllen or iobbyn as 

bryddys, K. iobbyn with the byl, 

H. p.) 3 Rostro. 
BYLLYN' wythe mattokys. Ligo- 

nizo, marro, CATH. 
BYLLYNGE of byrdys. Rostratus. 
BYLLYNGE of mattokys. Ligo- 

nizacio, marratura. 
BYNDE,orwode bynde.Corrigiola, 

vitella, CATH. (edera volubilis, 

BYNDE, a twyste of a wyne (vyne, 

P.) Capriolus, c. F. 
BYNDYN' wythe bondys. Ligo, al- 

ligo, vincio. 

BYNDYN' wythe comawnt* or scrip- 
ture (comavndement, K. cum- 
naunt, H. couenaunt, p.) Obligo. 

BYNDYNGE, lyste of a sore lyme. 
Fasciola, KYLW. UG. 

BYNDYNGE. Ligacio. 


BYYN a thynge. Emo, mercor, 

BYYN' a-5n' (ageyne, P.) Redimo. 

BYYNGE. Empcio. 

BYYNGE a-3en (ageyne, p.) Re- 

BYYNGE place, or place of byynge. 
Emptorium, c. F. 

BYNGE. S Theca, cumera. 

B\PATHE. Semita, orbita, callis, 
c. F. frames, UG. 

BYRCHE tre. Lentiscus, emus, 

BYRDUNE (byrdeyne, p.) Pon- 
dus, onus, sarcina. 

BYRYN' (beryyn, H.) Sepelio, 

BYRYYN', or grauyn', or hydde 
vndur the grownde. Humo, se- 
pelio, UG. 

1 The curious treatise of the nature and properties of herbs, Roy. MS. A. VI. f. 69, b. 
gives " Billura, an herbe that me clepyth billure; he ys much worth to rype bocch." 
Elyot explains lauer to be "an herbe growyng in the water, lyke to alisaunder, but 
hauyng lesse leaues. Some do call it bylders." 

2 The Catholicon explains matricula to signify carta promissionis, and cites the life 
of St. Silvester, which says that he inscribed the names of widows and orphans " in 
matricula.' 1 Spelman gives A.S. bille, schedula ; the word BYLET was, however, pro- 
bably of French introduction, as also was scrowe or scroll, escrou. 

3 To job signifies still in Norfolk and Suffolk to peck with a sharp and strong beak. 
FORBY. Tusser calls the pecking of turkies jobbing. 

4 The word is thus written, but the correct reading probably is comnawnt. See 
hereafter CUMNAWNTE, pactum. 

5 Forby gives bing in the dialect of East Anglia, Danish, bing, cumulus. A.S. bin, 
prcesepe. The word binna occurs in a deed of the year 1263, in Chron. W. Thorn, 
1912, where it signifies a receptacle for grain. Cumera is explained by Uguitio to be 
" vas frumentarium defestucis," and no doubt the bin was anciently formed of wicker- 
work, as in German benne crates, Belg. benn, corbis. In the Indenture of delivery of 
Berwick Castle, in 1539, occurs "in the pantre, a large bynge of okyn tymbar with 3 
partitions.'' Archeeol. xi. 440. 



BYRYYDE (biryed, p.) Sepultus, 

BERYYNGE (biryinge, p.) Sepul- 

tura, tumula. 
BYRYELE (beryel, H. biriell, p.' 

Sepulchrum, tumulus. 
BYRTHE. Nativitas, partus. 
BYSCHELLE, or buschelle (bysshell 

otherwyse called busshell, p.) 

Modius, chorus, bussellus. 
BYSSHOPPE (byschop or buschop, 

H.) Episcopus, antisteS) pon- 

tifex, presul. 
BYSCHYpRYCHE-(bysshoperike, P.) 

Episcopatus, diocesis. 
BYSY (besy, p.) Assiduus, so- 

licitus, jugis. 
BYSYLY. Assidue, jugiter. 

solicitude, opera, CATH. 
BYSCUTE brede (bysqwyte, H. 

bysket, p.) Biscoctus. 
BYS3YN'chyldur (bissyn chyldryn, 

K.) Sopio, nemor, lallo, UG. 
BYSSYNGE of chyldyrne (bys3ing, 

H.) Sepicio, c. F. 
BYSSYNGE songys (bys3ing, H.) 

Fascinnina, c. F. nenia, CATH. 
BYTT of a brydylle. Lupatum, c. F. 
BYTTorbytynge(byte, p.) Morsus. 

BYTYLLE worme (bityl wyrme, K.) 


BYTYN', or byte. Mordeo. 
BYTYNGE. Morsura. 
BYTYNGE or grevows fretynge. 


BYTTYR. Amarus. 
BYTTYRNESSE. Amaritudo. 
BYTTYRSWETE.* Amarimellus, 

musceum, KYLW. 
(BYJING supra in byinge, H. By- 
singe, P. Emptio.) 
BLABBE or labbe, wreyare of cown- 

selle (bewreyar, H. p.) 3 Futilis, 

anubicus, CATH. 
BLABERYN, or speke wythe-owte 

resone (with owtyn, K. oute of, 

p.) B 'later o, CATH. 
BLADE. Scindula. 
BLADE of an herbe (blad or blade, 

p.) Tirsus, c. F. 
BLADYN' haftys (bladen heftis, 

K. H. P.) Scindulo. 
BLADYN' herbys, or take away 

the bladys. Detirso, CATH. 
BLADSMYTHE. Sdndifaber. 
BLAFFOORDE or warlare (blad- 

fard, H. blaffere, p.) 4 Traulus. 

(Traulus peccat in R, peccat 

in S sidunus, P.) 

1 The more ancient sense of this word, as denoting the place, and not the act of in- 
terment, is here distinctly preserved. A.S. byrigels, sepulchrum. In the Wicliffite 
version biriel occurs often in this sense. " And the kyng seide, what is this biriel which 
I se ? And the citeseyns of that cite answeriden to him, it is the sepulcre of the man 
of God that cam fro Juda." IVth Book of Kings, xxiii. 17. Harl. MS. 2249. In Mark 
v. 5, the demoniac is said to have " hadde an hous in birielis." So likewise in Leg. 
Aur. " It happed after, that vpon the buryels grewe a ryght fayre flouredelyse." f. cxi. 
The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 145, gives " Mausoleum, a byryelle, 
anabatrum, a chyrchestyle." 

2 The Solanum dulcamara, or woody nightshade. 

3 See hereafter L ABLE, or labbe, which occurs in Chaucer. This word is doubtless 
derived from the same source as blabbe and blaberyn. Skinner would derive the 
verb to blabber from the Latin, " q. d. elabiare, i. e. labiis quicquid occurrit effutire." 
Compare TEUT. blapperen, yarrire, BELG. lapperen, blatcrare. 

4 This word signifies a person who stammers, or has any defect in his speech. The 



BLAK. Niger, ater. 


BLAKYN', or make blake. Denigro, 
vitupero, increpo. 

BLAKE THORNE. (Prunus, P.) 

BLAME. Culpa, noxa, vitupe- 

(BLAMEN, P. Culpo, vitupero, in- 

BLAMEWORTHY. Culpabilis. 

BLAMYNGE. Vituperium. 

BLANKETT, vollon clothe. 1 Lodix. 

BLANKET T, lawngelle. Langellus. 

BLASFEMARE. Blasphemator. 

BLASFEMYN'. Blasfemo. 

BLASFEMYNGE. Blasphemia. 

BLASYN', as lowe of fyre (as doth 
the lerae of a fyre, P.) Flammo. 

BLASYN', or dyscry armys. De- 

BLASYNGE, or flamynge of fyre. 


BLASYNGE of armys. Descripcio. 
BLASTE of wynde. Flatus. 
BLANKE plumbe (blavmblumbe, 

K. H. blawmblumb, otherwyse 

called whyte lede, p.) 2 Album 

BLANCHYN' almandys, or ober 

lyke (blaunchyn, p.) Dealbo, 

BLANCH YNGE of almondys or other 

lyke. Dealbacio, decorticacio. 
BLAWNDRELLE, frute (blaunderel, 

K.) 3 Melonis, c. F 
BLEDYN'. Sanguino, cruento. 
BLEDYNGE. Sanguinacio, Jleo- 

BLEDYNGE boyste. 4 Ventosa,guna, 


Ortus renders " traulus, a ratelare." It appears in Ducange that balbus and blesus are 
synonymous with traulus ; the first of these is rendered in Cooper's Thesaurus, one 
" that cannot well pronounce wordes, a maffler in the mouth." 

1 Blanket is taken from the French blanchet, woollen cloth, no doubt of a white 
colour ; the distinction here made is not very clear, but lodioc appears to have been a 
bed- covering, as we now use the word blanket, langellus, blanket cloth generally. 
" Langeul, langais, blanchet, drap de laine." ROQ.UEF. The Medulla explains lodex 
to be " a blanchet or awhytil;" the latter word, which is merely a version of the 
French, is still retained in North Britain to denote a woollen wrapper used by females. 
4< Lodix, quicquid in lecto supponitur, et proprie pannus villosus, Anglice, a blanket." 
ORT. voc. See hereafter DAGGYSWEYNE, lodix. 

2 In Sloan. MS. 73 f. 213 are directions for making blanc plumb, album plumbum, 
with " strong reed wine drestis, and brode platis of newe leed, in a great erthen pot or 
barel, and closed for six wokis or more in hoot horsdunge." This MS. is of the close 
of the XVth century ; an earlier receipt occurs in Sloan. MS. 2584, f. 6. 

3 Lydgate mentions this among the fruits more choice than " pechis, costardes, 
etiam wardens." 

" Pipus, quinces, blaunderelle to disport, 

And the pome-cedre corageos to recomfort.'' Minor Poems, p. 15. 

" Blaundrell, an apple, brandureau." PALSG. " Blanduriau, tres blanc ; pommes 
de Caleville blanc, qui venoient d'Auvergne." ROQUEF. " Blandureau, the white apple, 
called in some parts of England, a blaundrell." COTGR. 

4 The Catholicon gives the following explanation : " Guna vel guina, vas vitreum, 
quod et Latinis a similitudine cucurbitce ventosa vocatur, qua animata spiritu per ig- 
niculum in superficiem trahit sangninem." PAPIAS; see Ducange. The operation of 
cupping, which is one of ancient use, was doubtless well known to the Friar of Lynn, 



BLEDYNGE yryn. Fleosotomium, 

c. F. (fleobothomium, P.) 
BLEDDYR. Vesica. 
BLEDDERYD. Vesicatus. 
BLEYKE of coloured Pallidus, 

BLEYKCLobE, or qwysters (ble- 

chen clothe, K. p. blekyn, H,) 2 

BLEYSTARE, or wytstare (bleyster, 

K. bleyestare or q wytstare, H. 

bleykester or whytster, p.) 3 

Candidarius, CATH. c. F. 
BLEYNE. Papula, CATH. et UG. 

in popa. 

BLEKE (blecke, p.) 4 Atramentum. 
BLEKKYN wythe bleke (blackyn 

with blecke, P.) Atramento. 
(BLEXTERE, K. Obfuscator.) 
BLEMSCHYDE(blemysshed, p. 

BLENSCHYN' (blemysshen, P.) Ob- 

fusco, CATH. 

BLEMSCHYNGE. Obfuscacio. 
BLERE YED (blere iyed, p.) 5 Lippus. 
BLERYDNESSE (blere iyednesse, 

p.) Lippitudo. 
BLERYNGE or mowynge wythe the 

mowthe. Valgia. 
BLERYNGE wythe mowe makynge. 6 

Patento, valgio. 
BLESE or flame of fyre (blase or 

lowe, P.) Flammella 
BLESCHYN', or qwenchyn' (blessh- 

yn, P.) Extinguo. 
BLESCHYNGE, or qwenchynge of 

fyre (blensshinge, p.) Ex- 


BLETYN', as a schepe. Balo. 
BLETYNGE of a schepe. JBalatus. 
BLEVYN, or levyn aftyrwarde (ble- 

vyn or abydyn, K. p.) Remaneo, 

BLEVYNGE, or releve, or relefe (or 

levynge or relef, K.) 7 Reliquia, 

vel reliquice. 

who compiled the Promptorium, as one of the means resorted to when, according to the 
monastic institutions, there were at stated seasons (temporibus minucionis] general 
blood-lettings. See Martene de Antiq. Ritibus, and Mr. Rokewode's note on Chron. 
Joe. de Brakelonda, p. 11. In the Chirurgica of John Arderne, surgeon to Edw. III. 
where he speaks of cupping, " ventosacio," a representation is given of the bledynge 
boyste. Sloane MS. 65, f. 70. Compare the verb BOYSTON. 

1 "Bleke, wan of colour, blesme." PALSG. A.S. blsec, pallidus. 

" Some one, for she is pale and bleche." GOWER, Conf. Am. B. v. 
Bleek is still used in Norfolk to signify pale and sickly. FORBY. 

2 TEUT. bleycken, excandefacere insolando. A.S. ablsecan, dealbare. 

3 The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1587, renders " Albatrix, candidaria, 
blecherre or lawnderre." " Whitstarre, blanchisseur de toylles." PALSG. See WHYT- 

4 Herman says, " Wrytters ynke shulde be fyner than blatche, atramentum scrip- 
torium lectius esset sutorio." " Bleche for souters, attrament noyr." PALSG. A.S. 
blaec, atramentum. 

5 " Lippus dicitur qui habet oculos lachrymantes cum palpebris euersatis, blered of 
the eye." ORT. voc. In Piers Ploughman the verb to blere occurs, used metaphor- 
ically. " He blessede hem with his bulles, and blerede hure eye." "To bleare ones 
eye, begyle him, enguigner.'' PALSG. 

6 " I gyue him the best counsayle I can, and the knaue bleareth his tonge at me, 
tirer la langue" PALSG. See MOWE, or skorne. 

7 See RELEEF, or brocaly of mete. 



BLEYLY, or gladely (blythely, p.) 

Libenter, sponte, spontanee. 
BLYNDE. Cecus. 
BLYNDEFYLDE (blyndfellyd, H.) 


BLYNDYN', or makeblynde. Exceco. 
BLYNDFELLEN', idem est. 
BLYNNYN, or cesun, or leve-warke.i 

Desisto, cesso. 

BLYSSE. Beatitudo, gaudium. 
BLYSSYD, hevynly. Beatus. 
BLESSYD, erthely. Benedictus, 


BLYSSYN', or blesse. Benedico. 
BLESSYNGE. Benedict. 
BLYTHE and mery. Letus, hillaris. 
BLYM, or gladde, or make glad 

(blyym or glathyn in herte, K. 

blithen or gladden, p.) Letifico. 
BLYTHYN', or welle-cheryn'. Ex- 


BLOO coloure. Lividus, luridus, 

c. F. 

BLO ERYE (blo erthe, p.) 2 Argilla. 
BLOBURE (blobyr, p.) 3 Burbu- 

lium, UG. burbalium, c. F. 
BLODE. Sanguis, cruor. 
BLOODE hownde. Molosus, c. F. 
BLODY. Sanguinolentus. 
BLOODE YRYN, supra in BLED- 


BLOODE LATARE. Fleobotomator, 

c. F. 
BLOKE or stoke (blooc, H.) 4 

Truncus, codex^ CATH. 
BLO ME, flowre. Flos. 
BLOMYN', or blosmyn' (blosym, p.) 

Floreo, floresco. 
BLORYYN' or wepyn' (bleren, p.) 5 

Ploro, fleo. 
BLORYYNGE or wepynge (bloringe, 

p.) Ploratus,fletus. 

1 Hampolc, in the Pricke of Conscience, terms the day of final doom, " the day of 
sorowe that neuer salle blyne." Harl. MS. 6923. Fabyan, in the Prologe to vol. ii. 
speaks of the great devotion that occupied, without any intermission, the numerous 
religious houses in London, 

" When one hath done, another begyn, 

So that of prayer they neuer blyn." 

" To blynne, rest or cease of, cesser. He neuer felt wo or neuer sail blynne, that hath, 
a bysshoppe to his kin." PALSG. A.S. blinnan, cessare. 

2 The reading of the Harl. MS. ERYE may at first sight appear to be corrupt ; it 
is, however, retained, because hereafter there occur ERYE, or ERTHE, and ERYYN, or of 
the erthe. 

3 This word occurs in Chaucer, Test, of Creseide. 

" And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome." 

" Blober upon water (or bubble) bouteillis." PALSG. The verb to blubre occurs in an 
analogous sense, in Syr Gawayn and the Grene Kny3t, lin. 2174. ' The borne blubred 
ther inne as hit boyled hade." Blubber still signifies in Norfolk a bubble, from blob, 
as Forby says. See Bleb in Skinner, and Jamieson. 

4 " Blocke of a tree, tronchet, tronc. Blocke of tynne, saumon d'estain.'' PALSG. 

5 Skinner gives blare as an English word, from Belg. blaren, mugire. Teut. blerren, 
clamitare. It is retained in the dialect of Norfolk, as applied to calves, sheep, asses, 
and children. FORBY. Blore signifies a roaring wind, as in the Mirrour for Magistrates, 
p. 838, " hurried headlong with the south-west blore." 



BLOSME, or blossum. From. 
BLOSMYNGE, or blossummynge. 


BLOTTE vpon a boke. Oblitum, c. F. 
BLOTTYN' bokys. Oblitero. 
BLQTTYNGE. Oblitteracio. 
(BLOTTYD, p. Oblitteratus.) 
BLOWYN' as wynde. Flo. 
BLOWYN' wythe home. Corno, 

c. F. cornicino, KYLW. 
BLOWN as a man wythe honde 

(blowen with sounde, P.) Ex- 

sufflo, sufflo (insufflo, P.) 
BLOYNGE (blowynge, p.) Flacio, 

BLEWE of coloure. Blodius, blue- 

tus, Dice. 

BLUNDERER or blunt warkere (wor- 
ker, P.) Hebefactor, hebeficus. 
BLUNDERYNGE, or blunt warkynge. 


BLUNT of wytte. Hebes. 
BLUNT of edge, and bluternesse 

(bluntnesse, p.) quere post in 

BoBET. 1 Collctfa, collafus, CATH. 
BOBETTYN'. Collaphizo. 

BOBETYNGE. CoHafizacio. 
Booc or boos, netystalle (boce, K. 

bose, netis stall, H. p.) 2 Boscar, 

CATH. bucetitm, presepe. 
BOCE or boos of a booke or ober 

lyke (booce, H.) Turgiolum, UG. 
BOCYN' owte, or strowtyn'. 3 Tur- 

geo, c. F. UG. 

BOCYNGE or strowtynge. Turgor. 
BOCHERE. Carnifex, macellarius. 
BOCHERYE. Macellum, CATH. 

BOCLE or boculle (bocul, K. H. 

bokyll or bocle, P.) Pluscula, 


BOCLYD as shone or botys (boke- 

led, P. Plusculatus. 
BODE or massage (boode, H.) 1 

BODY. Corpus. 
BODYLY. Corporaliter. 
BODYLY. Corporalis. 
BOFFETE. Alapa. 
BUFFETYN', or suffetyn' 5 (bofeten, 

p.) Alapizo, alapo, CATH. 
BOFETYNGE. Alcipizacio. 
BOFET, thre fotyd stole (boffet 

stole, p.) 6 Tripes. 

1 " Bobet on the heed, coup de poingS* PALSG. 

2 In the midland and Northern counties, a stall where cattle stand all night in winter, 
is called a boose, in Scotland, a bowe. See Craven Dialect, and Jamieson. Ang. Sax. 

3 This word occurs in Palsgrave as a verb active. " To booce or boce out as worke- 
men do a holowe thynge to make it seem more apparent to the eye, endocer. This brod- 
erer hath boced this pece of worke very well." 

4 A.S. bod,jussum, 

5 The word suffetyn', which occurs here only, and is not found in the other MSS., 
or the printed editions, may be an erroneous reading, but possibly it is a corruption of 
the French word souffleter, to cuff on the ear. Jamieson gives the verb to souff, or strike. 

6 Skinner gives " Buffet-stole, vox agro Line, usitatissima, est autem sella levior 
portatilis, sine ullo cubitorum out dorsifulcro, credo parum deflexo sensu h G. buffet, 
mensa ; mensce enint vicem satis commode supplere potestC" 1 The buffet, however, was 
the court-cupboard, in France termed also the credence, and under this a low stool 
without a back might be placed, but for what special purpose does not appear, Hickes 
derives the word from A.S. beod, mensa , and fset, vas. Forby explains the buffet- 



BAGGYSCHYN (boggysche, K. H. 
boggisshe, P.) Tumidus. 


BOCHCHARE, or vn-crafty (bot- 
char, p.) 1 Iners, c. F. 

(BOTCHARE of olde thinges, P. Re- 

BOHCHE, sore (botche, p.) Ulcus, 


BOCHMENT (botchement, P.) Ad- 
ditamentum y amplificamentum, 
CATH. augmentum-, auctorium. 

BOY, supra in BEY. Scurrus. 

BOYDEKYN, or bodekyn. Subucula, 

BOYSTE, or box. 2 Pix (pixis, P.) 
alabastrum, c. F. 

BoYSTON'. 3 Scaro, ventoso, UG. 

BOYS Tows. 4 Rudis. 

BOYSTOWS garment. J3irrus,CATH. 
BOYSTOWESNESSE (boystousnesse, 

p.) Ruditas. 

BOOK (boke, p.) Liber, codex. 
BOOKBYNDER, or amendere. So- 

sius, UG. in soros. ^ 

BOKELERE. Pelta, ancile, KYLW. 

c. F.parma, CATH. 
BOKELYN, or spere wythe bokylle. 

BOKE RAM, clothe.* 
BOKETT. Situla, mergus, c. F. 
BOKULLE, supra in BOCLE(bokyll, 

BOKULLE makere. Pluscularius, 

BOLAS frute (bollas, p.) Pepulum, 

mespilum. KYLW. CATH. 

BOLAS tre. 6 Pepulus. 

stool in Norfolk to be a four-legged stool set on a frame like a table, and serving as 
the poor man's sideboard, stool, or table. In the History of Hawsted by Sir John 
Cullum, p. 25, the bequest occurs in 1553, of " a buffed stool," which is explained to 
be an oval stool, without a back, and generally having a hole in the seat, for the con- 
venience of lifting it. The Inventory of the effects of Katharine Lady Hedworth, 1568, 
comprises the following articles : " In my Ladyes Chamber, 2 cupbords, 6*. Sd. 2 cup- 
bord stoulles, 3*. 4d. 3 buffett formes, 3*. one litle buffet stole, Gd." Wills and Invent, 
i. 282, printed by the Surtees Society. See hereafter BUFFETT stole. 

1 Palsgrave gives the verb " to botche, or bungyll a garment as he dothe that is nat 
a perfyte vforkema,n,fatrouillrr." " Thou hast but bodchyd and countrefeat Latten, 
imaginarie umbratilisque figure." HORM. 

2 " A buyste, alabastrum, pi&is, hostiarium pro hostiis." CATH. ANGL. lt Lechitus 
est vas olei amplum, vel ampulla ampla que auricalco solet fieri, Anglice, a boyste or 
kytte for oyle." ORT. voc. This word is from the old French boiste, bostia, in late 
Latinity bustea, or bustula, and these are derived from pyxis, or, as Menage sup- 
poses, from buxus, the material chiefly employed. See Buist, in Jamieson. 


4 " Bustiis, rudis, rigidus. To be bustus, rudere." CATH. ANGL. " Rudis, indoctus, 
inordinatus, quasi ruri datus , boystous. Rudo, to make boystous." ORT. voc. " Boy- 
stous, styffe or rude, lourd, royde. Unweldy, boystouse, lourd. Boystousnesse, roydeur, 
impetuosite." Chaucer uses the word thus, " I am a boistous man, right thus say I." 
Manciple's Tale. The Wicliffite version renders Matt. ix. 16, " No man puttith a clout 
of boystous cloth into an olde clothing;" in the original the sense is raw, unwrought cloth. 

5 " Buckeram, bougueramS' PALSG. In medieval Latinity boquerannus. DUC. If 
it signified a coarse-grained cloth, the name may be of French derivation, from bourre, 
flocks of wool, and grain, but some ancient writers describe it as teles subtilis species, 
See MENAGE. William Thomas, in his Principal Rules of Italian Grammar, 1548, 
renders " bucherame, buckeramme, and some there is white, made of bombase, so 
thinne that a man mai see through it." 

6 " A bulas tn,pcpitfta,'' CATH. ANGL. " Pepulus, a bolaster." ORT. voc. 



BOOLDE, or hardy (bolde, p.) 

Audax, animosus, magnani- 

BOLDE, or to homely. Presump- 

tuosus, effrons, c. F. 
BOLDELY, or hardely. Audacter. 
BOLD ELY, or mal&pertly.Eff'ronter, 

c. F. presumptuose. 
BOLDENESSE, or hardynesse. A.U- 

BOLDENESSE, or horaelynesse (to- 

homlynes, K.) Presumpcio. 
BOOLE, a beste (bole, net, beste, H.) 

BOLLE, vesselle. Concha, luter, 

C. F. UG. 

BOLLE, dysche. Cantare. 
BOLLE of a balaunce, or skole 

(scoole, H.) Lanx, CATH. 
BOYLYD mete. 

BOLYYN', or boylyn'. Bullio. 
BOYLYN ouyr, as pottys on j>e 

fyre (bullyn, H.) Ebullio. 
BOLYYNGE, or boylynge of pottys 

or othere lyke. 1 Bullicio, bullor. 
BOLLYNGE owere as pottys plawyn. 

Ebullicio, c. F. 

BoLKE,or hepe. Cumulus, acervus. 
BOLKYN'.* Ructo, eructo, orexo, 


BOLKYNGE, or bulkynge. Orexis 9 

eructuacio, c. F. 
BOLNYD. Tumidus. 
BoLNYN*. 3 Tumeo,turgeojumesco. 
BOLSTYR of a bedde. 4 Culcitra. 
BOLTE. Petilium, tribulum, KYLW. 
BONE. Os. 

BONDE. Vinculum, ligamen. 
BONDAGE. Servitus. 
BONDE, as a man or woman. Ser- 

vus, serva. 

BONDMAN. Servus nativus. 
BONDSCHEPE. Nativitas. 
BONDOGGE (bonde dogge, p.) 5 

BONE, or graunte of prayer (boone, 

p.) Precarium, CATH. c. F. 

BONET of a seyle. Artemo, CATH. 

sirapum, c. F. 
BONY, or hurtynge (of hurtynge, 

K. H. p.) 6 Fleumon, CA.fH.Jleg- 

men, c. F. (tumor, P.) 

1 " Bulla, tumor laticum, i. aquarum, a bollynge or abloure." GARLAND. EQUIV. 

2 " Ructo, to bolkyn." MED. GR. " Bolke nat as a bene were in thy throte, ne 
route point." PYNSON, boke to lerne French. " To bocke, belche, roucter. Bolkyng 
of the stomake, routtement." PALSG. A.S. bealcan, eructare. Skinner gives ''Boke, vox 
agro Lincolniensifamiliaris, significat nauseare, eructare." See Boke, orVoke, Forby. 

3 In the Wicliffite version, 1 Cor. v. 2, " Ghe ben bolnun with pride." Chaucer speaks 
of " bollen hartes." " Bollynge yes out se but febely, oculi prominent es." HORM. 
" Bolnyng or swellyng of a bruise or sore. See how this todebolneth, s'enfle." PALSG. 

4 " Bolstarre, trauersin, chevecel." PALSG. A.S. bolster, cervical. 

5 " A bande doge, Molosus." CATH. ANGL. Skinner conjectures that the word 
bandog is derived from " band, vinculum, q. d. cants vinctus, ne scilicet noceat; vel si 
mails, ab A.S. bana, interfector." 

6 The Catholicon explain sflegmen to be, " tumor sanguinis. Item flegmina sunt 
quando in manibus et pedibus callosi sulci sunt.' 1 It would appear to be the same as a 
bunnian, the derivation of which has been traced from the French, " bigne, bosse, en- 
flure, tumeur." ROQUEF. Cotgrave renders it a bump or knob, and he gives also 

" Bigne, club-footed." SirThos. Browne, Forby, and Moore, give the word bunny, a 
small swelling caused by a fall or blow ; in Essex " a boine on the head." In Cullum's 
Hawsted, among the words of local use, is given bunny, a swelling from a blow. 



BONY, orgrete knobbe (knowe, w.) 
Gibbus, gibber, callus, CATH. 

BONSCH AWE, sekenesse (bonshawe, 
p.) 1 Tessedo, sciasis. 

BOORE, swyne. Aper, verres, 


BORAGE, herbe. Borago. 

Stultis, leprosis, scabidis, tumi- 
dis,furiosis, [_&<> 

Dicit borago, gaudia semper 
BOORDE. Tabula, mensa, asser. 
BORDECLOTHE. Mappa, gausape, 

c. F. 

BOORDE, or game. 2 Ludus, jocus. 
BOORDON, or pleyyn' (bordyn, p.) 

Ludo, jocor. 

BORDELE. Lupanar, prostibulum. 
BORDYOURE, or pleyare (bordere, 

p.) 3 Lusor, joculator. 


BORDURE abowte a thynge (bor- 

dore, K. round a-bowtyn, H.) 

Limbus, orarium, c. F. ora. 
BORDERYN', or to make a bordur 

(maken a border about, p.) 


BORE, or hole, foramen. 
BORYN', or holyn (make an hole, 

p.) Perforo, penetro, cavo. 
BORYNGE, or percynge. Perfo- 

racio, cavatura. 
BORMYN', or pulchyn' (bornyn, 

K.P. boornyn, H.) 1 Polio, CATH. 
Bo R WAGE (borweshepe, K. boro- 

wage, p.) Fidejussio, c. F. 
BORWARE (borower, p.) Mutu- 

ator, c. F. sponsor, CATH. 
BORWYNGE. Mutuacio, mutuum. 
(BoRWE for a-nothire person, 

borowe, H. 


1 " The baneschawe, oscedo." CATH. ANGL. " Oscedo, quedam infirmitas quo ora 
infantium exulcerantur, i. e. oscitatio, oris apertio, a boneshawe." ORT. " De in- 
firmitatibus. Baneschaw, cratica, i. passus." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. f. 40. John 
Arderne, who was surgeon to Edward III., says in his Chirurgica, " ad guttam in osse, 
que dicitur bonschawe, multum valet oleum de vitellis ovorum, si inde ungatur." Sloan. 
MS. 56, f. 18 b. In Sloan. MS. 100, f. 7, is given the recipe for " a good medicyn 
for boonschawe. Take bawme and fejnrfoie, \>Q oon deel bawme, and >e J>ridde parte 
feHrfoie, and staumpe hem, and tempere hem wi> stale ale, and lete J>e sike drinke 
J>erof." In Devonshire the sciatica is termed bone-shave, and the same word signifies 
in Somerset an horny excrescence on the heel of an horse. ? A.S. sceorfa, scabies. 

2 " A bowrde >4 ;ocM*. A bowrdeword, dicerium, dictorium." CATH. ANGL. ' Mis- 
tilogia, a bourde, i.fabula. Nuaaciter, bourdly." ORT. voc. " Bourde or game,jeu. 
Bourdyng, jestyng, joncherie. To bourde or iape with one iu sporte, truffler, border, 
iouncher." PALSG. 

3 " A bowrder, mimilarius, mimilogus, lusor, joculator, et cet' ubi a harlotte." CATH. 
ANGL. " Mistilogus, a bourder, i. fabulator vel gesticulator." ORT. voc. 

4 " Bornysch, burnir." PALSG. Chaucer and Gower use burned in this sense fre- 
quently, as in the Knightes tale, " wrought all of burned steele.'' 

" An harnois as for a lustie knight, 

Which burned was as silver bright." Conf. Am. 
The word is taken from the old French word, burnt, in modern orthography, bruni. 

5 " A \)orgh,Jidejussor, vas, sponsor, obses. To be borghe, fidejubere, spondere." 
CATH. ANGL. " Fidejussor, a borowe, qui pro alio se obttgat, a suerty." ORT. voc. 
The word occurs in Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 13951. 



BOROWE, or plegge (borwe, K. H.) 

Vas, CATH. 
BOROWYN' of anodur (borwyn of 

another, K. borowen, p.) Mu- 

BORWON owt of preson, or stresse 

(borvyn, H. borwne,?.) 1 Vador, 


BOSARDE byrde. Capus, vultur. 
BOSOME, or bosum'. Sinus, UG. 

BOST (boost, P.) Jactancia, ar- 

rogancia, ostentacio. 
BOSTARE, or bostowre. Jactator, 

arrogans, philocompus, c. F. 
BOOSTON'. Jacto, ostento. 
BOOT. Navicula, scapha, simba. 
BOTE for a mannys legge (bote or 

cokyr, H. coker, p.) 2 Bota, 


BOTE of (or, p.) helthe. Salus. 
BOTELLE, vesselle. Uier, obba. 
BOTELLE of hey. 3 Fenifascis. 
BOTLERE (boteler, p.) Pincerna, 

promus, propinator, acaliculis, 


BOTERAS of a walle. 4 Machinis, 
muripula, muripellus, fultura. 

BOTERYE. Celarium, boteria,pin- 
cernaculum(promptuarium) p.) 

BOTEW. Coturnus, botula,crepita. 

BOOTHYR. Potomium y CATH. c. F. 

BOTWRYTHE (botewright, p.) Na- 
vicularius, UG. 

BOTYNGE, or encrese yn byynge. 5 
Licitamentum, CATH. liciarium, 
c. F. 

Bo TUNE, 6 or botum' (botym, p.) 

BOTUN, or yeue more owere in 
bargaynys (botyn, or 36116 more- 
ouere in barganynge, K. botown, 
H. bote, P.) Licitor, CATH. vel 
in precio superaddo. 

BOTME, or fundament (botym, p.) 

BOTME of threde, infra in CLOW- 
CHEN, or clowe (botym, p.) 7 

BOTOWRE, byrde (botore, K. p.) 
Onocroculus, botorius, c. F. 

BOTWN (botun, P.) Boto,fibula, 
nodulus, DICT. 

" Ne wight noon wol ben his borugh, 
Ne wed hath noon to legge." 

It is found also not infrequently in Chaucer and Spenser. 

" That now nill be quitt with baile nor borow." Sheph. Cal. May. 
" Vas, i. sponsor velfidejussor, Anglice a borowe" (borghe, in another Edition). GAR- 
LAND, Equiv. "Borowe, a pledge, pleige." PALSG. A.S. borh,/oerm, fidejussor. 

1 " If thou be taken prisoner in this quarrell, I wyll nat borowe the, I promesse the, 
je ne te pledger ay point" PALSG. 

2 See BOTEW, and COKYR, botew. "Boote of lether, houseau." PALSG. 

3 " Botelle of haye, botteau defoyn. Aske you for the hosteller, he is aboue in the 
haye lofte makynge botelles (or hotels) of hay, hotelier. 1 ' PALSG. In Norfolk it de- 
notes the quantity of hay that may serve for one feed. FORBY. 

4 " Bottras,joor/a#." PALSG. "Arcboutant."" COTGR. 

5 " To boote in corsyng," (horse-dealing) "or chaunging one thyng for another, 
gyue money or some other thynge aboue the thyng. What wyll you boote bytwene my 
horse and yours ? mettre ou b outer dauantaige." PALSG. A.S. betan, emendare. 

6 The correct reading is probably BOTME. " A \)othome,fundus." CATH. ANGL. 

7 "A bothome of threde, filarium." CATH. ANGL. li Bottome of threde, gliceaux, 
plotton defil." PALSG. Skinner derives it from the French, boteau, fasciculus. 



BOTHON clothys (botonyn, K. bo- 
ton, P.) Botono.Jibulo. 
BOTURE (botyr, K.) Butirum. 

BOTURFLYE. Papilio. 

BowEofatre (bouglie, branche, 

p.) Ramus. 
BOWALLE, or bowelle (bowaly, 

K. H. bawelly, p.) Viscus. 
BOWALYNGE. Evisceracio, exen- 

BOWAYLYN', or take owte bowaly s. 

JEviscero, CATH. 
BOWDE, malte-worme (boude of 

malte, p.) 1 Gurgulio, KYLW. 
BOWE. Arcus. 
BOWETT, or lanterne.* Lucerna, 


(bowyere, p.) Arcu- 
) architenens, DICT. 
BOWYN*. Flecto, curvo. 
BOWYN', orlowtyn' (lowyn,bulkyn, 

or bowyn, H. p.) Incline. 
BOWGE. Bulga, c. F. 
BOWLE. Bolus. 
BOWLYN, or pley wythe bowlys. 

BOWNDE, or marke. Meta, limes. 

BONTYVASNESSE (bountyuous- 
nesse, P.) Munificentia, libe- 
ralitas, largitas. 

BONTYVESE (bountyuous, p.) Mu- 
nificus, liberalise largus. 

BOWRE, chambyr. Thalamus, 

Box, or buffett. Alapa. 

(Box, or boyste, K. H. p. Pixis.) 

Box tre. Buxus. 

BOTHE, or bothyn (bothen, p.) 
Uterque, ambo, CATH. 

BoJjE, chapmannys schoppe. Pella, 
selda (opella, apotecha, P.) 

BOYUL or bothule, herbe, or cow- 
slope (bothil, H. boyl, p.) 3 Vac- 
tinia, c. F. menelaca, marciana, 
c. F. 

BRACE, or (of, p.) a balke. Un- 
cus, loramentum, c. F. 

BRACE of howndys. 

BRACYN, or sette streyte. Tendo. 

BRAGETT, drynke (bragot or bra- 
ket, K. H. p.) 1 Mellibrodium, 
bragetum (sed hocestfictum, p.) 

BRAY, or brakene, baxteris instru- 
ment. Pinsa, c. F. 

1 Bouds, in the Eastern counties, are weovils in malt. TUSSER, FORBY, MOORE. 

2 Among appliances for sacred use in the Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17. 
C. XVII. f.46, are "absconsa, sconsse, ventifuga, bowyt, crucibulum, cressett." The 
word was no doubt taken from the French boete, in Latin, boieta, capsula. 

3 In the treatise of herbs and their qualities, Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 72 b. is mentioned 
bothume, " Consolida media is an herbe that me clepyth wyth bothume, or whyte 
goldys, thys herbe hath leuys that beth enelong." 

4 " Bragott, idromellum" CATH. ANGL. " Hire mouth was swete as braket or the 
meth.'' CHAUC. Milleres Tale. Skinner explains bragget to be " species hydromelitis, 
vel potius cerevisia melle et aromatibus conditce Lancastrensibus valde usitata," The 
Welsh bragod has the same signification. Grose says bracket is in the North a drink 
compounded of honey and spices. See bragwort,.in Jamieson and Nares. Harrison, 
who lived in Essex about 1 575, relates in his description of England, prefixed to Ho- 
linshed's Chronicles, ii. c. 6, how his wife was accustomed to make brackwoort, re- 
serving a portion of the woort unmixed with hops, which she shut up close, allowing 
no air to come to it till it became yellow, calling it brackwort, or charwort, to which 
finally she added arras, and bay'berries powdered. 



BRAYNE. Cerebrum. 

BRAYYN' in sownde (brayne in 

sowndynge, p.) 1 Barrio, CATH. 
BRAYYN', as baxters her pastys 

(brayn, vide in knedying, K.) 

Pinso, CATH. 
BRAYYN, or stampynin amortere. 

BRAYYNGE, or stampynge. Tri- 

BRAYYNGE yn sownde. Barritus, 

c. F. 

BRAYNYN' (brayne, P.) Excerebro. 
BRAYNYD, or kyllyd. Excere- 

BRANYD, or fulle of brayne. Ce- 

rebrosuS) cerebro plenus. 
BRAYNYNGE, or kyllynge. Ex- 


BRAYNLES. Incerebrosus. 
BRAKE, herbe, orferne\ Filix. 
BRAKEBUSHE, or fernebrake. 

Filicetum, Jilicarium, UG. in 

BRAKENE, supra in BRAY (brake - 

nesse, j.) 3 
BRAKYN, or castyn, or spewe. 4 

Vomo, CATH. evomo. 
BRAKYNGE, or parbrakjnge. Vo- 

mitus, evomitus. 
BRANDELEDE (branlet, K.branlede 

or treuet, p.) Tripes, NECC. 
BRAS (brasse, p.) Es. 
BRASYLE. S Gaudo) Dice, vel 

lignum Alexandrinum. 
BRASYN' (brased, p.) Ereus, eneus. 
BRASYERE. Erarius. 

1 " The moders of the chyldern " (slain by Constantine) " camen cryenge andbray- 
enge for sorowe of theyr chyldern." LEGEND. AUR. "To bray as a deere doth, or 
other beest, brayre. There is a deer kylled, for I here hym bray." PALSG. 

2 " A brakane, filix, a brakanbuske, filicarium.'" CATH. ANGL. "Filix, Anglice, 
feme or brakans." ORT. voc. " Brake, feme, fusiereS' PALSG. In the Household 
Book of the Earl of Northumberland 1511, it appears that water of braks was stilled 
yearly, for domestic use. Ray gives the word brakes as generally used ; it is retained in 
Norfolk and Suffolk. See FORBY and NARES. 

3 " A brake, pinsella, vi&ra, rastellum." CATH. ANGL. 

4 " He wyll nat cease fro surfettynge, tyll he be reddy to parbrake." HORM. " To 
parbrake, vomir. It is a shrewde turne, he parbraketh thus." PALSG. This word does 
not occur again in its proper place in the Promptorium. See Braking, in Jamieson. 

5 It is not a little singular to find so many notices as occur of Brasil-wood, con- 
siderably anterior to the discovery of Brasil, by the Portuguese Captain, Peter Alvarez 
Capralis, which occurred 3d May, 1500. He named it the land of the Holy Cross, 
" since of store of that wood, called Brasill." Purchas's Pilgrimes, vol. i. It is probable 
that some wood which supplied a red dye, had been brought from the East Indies, and 
received the name of Brasil, long previous to the discovery of America. See Huetiana, 
p. 268. In the Canterbury Tales, the host, commending the Nonne's preeste for his 
health and vigour, says, 

" Him nedeth not his colour for to dien, 
With Brasil, ne with grain of Portingale." 

Among the valuable effects of Henry V. taken shortly after his decease in 1422, there 
occur " M. graundes peces du Bracile, pris vi. s. viii. <?.'' ROT. PARL. In Sloan. MS. 
2584, p. 3, will be found directions " for to make brasil to florische lettres, or to rewle 
wyth bookes." 



BRAWL ERE. Litigator, litigiosus, 

BRAWLYN', or strywen'. Litigo, 

jurgo. Quere plura in STRY- 


BRAWLYNGE. Jurgium, litigium. 
BRAWNE of a bore. 1 Aprina. 
(BRAWNE of a checun, H. cheken, p. 

Pulpa, c. F.) 
BRAWNE of mannys leggys or ar- 

mys. MusculuS) lacertus, pul- 

pa, c. F. 
BRANCHE of a tre. Palmes, c. F. 

(ramus, ramusculus, P.) 
(BRAWNCHE of a vyny, K. p. 

BRAWNDESCHYN' (brawnchyn as 

man, K,) Vibro. 

BRAWNDYSCHYNGE (brawnchyng, 

K.) Vibracio. 

BRECHE, or breke. 2 Braccce,plur. 
BREDDE or hecchyd, of byrdys 

(hetched, p.) Pullificatus. 
BREDE, mannys fode. Panis. 
BREDE twyys bakyn, as krakenelle, 

or symnel, 3 or other lyke (twyes 

bake, or a craknell, p.) Ru- 

bidus, c. F. (artocopus, P.) 
BREDE, bysqwyte, supra (bred cle- 

pyd bysqwyte, H. p.) Biscoctus. 
BREDE, or lytylle borde. Men- 

sula, tabella, asserulus. 
BREDE-HUCHE (bredhitithe, p.) 

Turrundula, UG. in turgeo. 
BREDECHESE (bredchese, p.) 1 

Jumtata (junctata, P.) 

1 Brawne, which Tooke conjectured to be boaren, flesh being understood, was applied 
anciently in a more general sense than at present. The etymology of the word may be 
traced with much probability to the Latin, aprugnum, callum. Piers Ploughman speaks 
of " brawn and blod of the goos, bacon and colhopes ;" and Chaucer in the Knight's 
Tale applies the word, as it has been here, to the muscular parts of the human frame. 

" His limmes gret, his braunes hard and strong." 
The gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth gives the word in this sense, 
" En la jamle est la sure, (the caalf.) 

E taunt cum braoun rest ensure, (the brahun.)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 298. 
" }>e brawne of a man, musculus." CATH. ANGL. "Lacerna, vel lacertus, proprie 
superior pars brachii vel musculus, brawne of the arme." MED. Harl. MS. 2257. 
" He hath eate all the braune of the lopster, callum" HORM. " Braon, le gras des 
f esses." ROQUEF. Roman de Rou. 

2 " Breke, bracce, femorale, perizoma, saraballa. Breke of women, feminalia." 
CATH. ANGL. A curious illustration of the use by the fair sex of this last mentioned 
article of dress is supplied by the Roll of expenses of Alianore, Countess of Leicester, 
A.D. 1265, edited by Mr. Botfield for the Roxburghe Club. " Item, pro m pellibus 
baszeni ad cruralia Comitissce, per Hicqe Cissorem, xxi d. pro Hi ulnis tarentinilli ad 
eadem, per enndem, xiid. pro plumd ad eadem, xiid.^ page 10. 4< Bathini dicuntur 
vestes linee usque ad genua pertinentes, a breche." ORT. voc. " Breche of hosen, 
braiette, braie, braies." PALSG. Elyot gives in his Librarie, a quaint synonyme in 
his rendering of the word " subligaculum, a nether coyfe or breche." 

3 See CRAKENELLE, brede, and SYMNEL. 

4 Juncata, which is written also juncta, juncheta, andjumentata, is explained to be 
" lac concretum, etjuncis involutum, mattes or crudde." ORT. voc. In French jonchee, 
which is " a greene cheese or fresh cheese made of milke that's curdled without any 
runnet, and served in a fraile of green rushes." COTGR. Bred in the Eastern counties 
signifies at the present time the board used to press curd for cheese, somewhat less in 



BREDE of mesure. 1 Latitude. 
BREDYN' or hetchyn', as byrdys 

(foules or birdes, p.) Pullifico. 
BREDYN', or make more brode. 


BREDE vermyne. Vermesco. 
BREDYNGE, or brodynge (or forthe 

bringinge, p.) of birdys. Ebro- 

cacio,focio, CATH.fomentacio. 
BREDYNGE, or makynge brode. 

BREYDE lacys. Necto, torqueo, 

UG. laqueo^jibulo. 
BREDYNGE of lacys, or ober lyke. 

Laqueacio, nectio, connectio. 
BREYDYN', or vpbreydyn'. Impro- 
per o. 
(BRAYDE, sawte, or brunt, p. 2 

BREKE, or brekynge. Ruptura, 

BREKYN' or breston' (brasten, p.) 

BRAKYN'a-sunder cordys and ropis 

and ober lyke. JRumpo. 

(BREKEN claddis, p. 3 Occo, UG.) 
BREKYNGE. Fraccio. 
BREME, fysche. Bremulus. 
BREN, or bryn, or paley. 4 Can- 

tabrum, furfur, CATH. 
BRENNAR, or he bat settythe a 

thynge a-fyre. Combustor. 
BRENNYN, or settyn' on fyre, or 

make bren'. Incendo, cremo, 

BREN', by the selfe (brenne, p.) 

BRENNYNGE. Ustio, combustio, 


BRENT. Combustus, incensus. 
BRERE, or brymmeylle (bremmyll, 

or brymbyll, p.) Tribulus, 


BRESE. S Locusta, asilus, UG. 
BREST, or wantynge, of nede (at 

nede, p.) 6 Indigencia. 
BREESTE of a beste. Pectus. 
BREESTE-BONE. Torax, UG. in 

(BRASTEN, supra in BREKEN, p.) 

circumference than the vat ; the bred-chese may have been one freshly taken from the 
press, or perhaps so called as being served on such a " bred," or broad platter. 

1 "Brede or squarenesse, croisure." PALSG. A.S. breed, latitudo. 

2 " Brayde, or hastynesse of mynde, colle. At a brayde, faisant mon effort. At 
the first brayde, de prime face. To brayde or take a thyng sodaynly in haste, je me mets 
dprendre hastiuement. I breyde, I make a brayde to do a thing sodaynly, je vrfefforce. 
I breyde out of my tressaulx." PALSG. See brade, in Jamieson. 

3 " Occo, scindere, ylebaSj rangere, Anylice to clotte." ORT. voc. Compare BRESTYN 
clotty s. 

4 See PALY of bryne. " Faille, chaffe, the huske wherein corn lieth." COTGR. From 
the Latin palea. 

H " A brese, atelabus, brucus, vel locusta." CATH. ANGL. " Atelabus, a waspe or a 
brese." ORT. voc. " Brese or long flye, prester" PALSG. A.S. briosa, tabanus. 
6 Hampole uses this word in the Pricke of Conscience. 

" Lorde, when sawe we the hafe hunger or thriste, 

Or of herbar haue grete briste." Harl. MS. 6723, f. 84. 

It is perhaps taken from the Danish, "brost, default, have brost, to want or lack a 
thing." WOLFF. 




BRESTYN', or cleue by be selfe 

(brasten, p.) Crepo. 
BRESTE clotty s, as plowmen (clod- 

des, P.) Occo. 
BRESTE downe (brast, P.) Sterno, 

dejicio, obruo. 

BREKE couenant. Fidifrago. 
BREKE lawys. Legirumpo. 
BRESTYN owte. Erumpo, eructo. 
BRESTYNGE downe. Prostracio, 

BETRAX of a walle (bretasce, K. 

bretays, H. p.) 1 Propugnacu- 

lum, Dice. 
BRETHE. Anelitus, alitus, spi- 

BRETH YN', or ondyn'. Spiro, anelo, 

BREUETOWRE. Brevigerulus, 

BREYEL. Brollus, brolla, miser- 


BRYBERY, or brybe. Manticulum, 

c. F. 

BRYBYN'. Manticulo, latrocinor. 
BRYBOWRE- 2 Manticulus, man- 

ticula, CATH. 
BRYD. Avis, volucris. 
BRYDALE. Nupcice. 
BRYDALE howse. Nuptorium, 

BRYDBOLT, or burdebolt. Epi- 

BRYDE, infra in SPOWSE (man or 

woman, infra in spowse, P. 

mayde or woman, w. Spon- 

sus, sponsa^) 
BRYDYLLE (bridell, p.) Frenum, 

erica, CATH. 
BRYDELYN'. Freno. 
BRYDELYN', or refreynyn'. Re- 


BRYGE, or debate (bryggyng, K.) 3 

Briga, discensio. 

1 " A bretasynge, propugnaculum^ CATH. ANGL. The Catholicon says, " dicuntur 
propugnacula pinne murorum sive summe paries, quia ex his propugnatur." In the 
Treatise " de Utensilibus," written by Alex. Neccham, about the year 1225, in the 
chapter relating to a castle, the French gloss renders propugnacula, brestaches, and 
pinne, karneus. Cott. MS. Titus, D. xx. f. 196. " Bretesse, breteche, bretesque, 
forteresse, tour de bois mobile, parapet, creneaux, palissade." ROQUEF. This word was 
applied rather indefinitely to denote various appliances of ancient fortification. See 
bretachitp, in Ducange. It more properly signified the battlements ; thus it is said 
of the valiant Normans, 

"As berteiches monterent, et au mur guernele." Roman de Rou. 
In Lydgate's Troy we read that, 

" Every tower bretexed was so clene." 

In a contract made at Durham in 1401, is the clause, " Et supra islas fenestras faciet 
in utroque muro ailours, et bretissementa battellata." 

(l Who saveth a thefe when the rope is knet, 

With some false turne the bribour will him quite. 5 ' LYDGATE. 

In Piers Ploughman bribers are classed with " pilors and pikeharneis. 1 ' In Rot. Parl. 
22 Edw. IV. n. 30, are mentioned persons who " have stolen and bribed signetts," that 
is, young swans. " A bribur, circumforaneus, lustra, sicefanta." CATH. ANGL. " To 
bribe, pull, pyll, briber, Romant, derobber. He bribeth, and he polleth, and he gothe 
to worke." PALSG. 

3 This word occurs in Chaucer, T. of Melib. " min adversaries han begonne this 



BRYGGE. Pons. 
BRYGYRDYLJ.I Lumbare, renale. 
BRYGOWS, or debate-makar. JBri- 

BRYLLARE of drynke, or schen- 

karc (drinkshankere, p.) Pro- 

pinator, propinatrix. 
BRYLLYN', or schenk drynke. 2 

BRYLLYNGE of drynke (of ale, K.) 


BRYM, or fers. 3 Ferm,ferox. 
BRYMBYLL, supra in BRERE. 
BRYNGARE. Allator> lator. 
BRYNGE to. Affero, perduco. 
BRYNGE forthe chyldyr, or chyl- 

drun. Parturio, pario, edo. 

(BRYNGYN forthe, or shewyn forthe, 
K. P. Profero.) 

BRYNGE forthe frute. Fructifico. 

BRYNGE forthe kynlynge. Feto. 

BRYNGE yn to a place. Infer o, 

BRYNGYN, or ledyn. Induco, in- 

BRYNGE to mynde. JReminiscor, 

BRYNGE owte of place. Educo. 

BRYNGYNGE. Allatura. 

BRYNE, or brow of ]>e eye. Su- 
per cilium. 

(BRYNNEof corn, K. Cantabrum, 

BRYNE of salt. Salsugo, CATH.C. F. 

debat and brige by his outrage." Roquefort gives " Briga, querelle, demett, combat. 
Brigueux, querelleur:" and Cotgrave " Brigue, contention, altercation." Skinner 
would however trace the word to A.S. brice, ruptura. Herman says, " beware of 
such brygous matters (abstineas omni calumnia), for thou oughtest nat to hold cour- 
rishly ageynst thy maister." See Briga, in Kennett's Glossary. 

1 ' Lumbare, Anglice a breke-gyrdle, cingulum circa lumbos, et dicitur a lumbis, 
quia eo cinguntur et religantur, vel quia lumbis inhereat. Item dicitur et coxale, et 
bracharium, et renale, sed proprie renale quod renibus assignatur, sicut ventrale circa 
ventrem cingulum" ORT. voc. from the Catholicon. " Braccale, braccariurn, a breke- 
girdul. Afarcipium, a brigirdele." MED. " Perisoma, braygurdylle.'' Harl. MS. 
1002, f. 116. The terms brekegirdle and bygirdle are occasionally confounded together, 
and it may be questioned which of the two was here intended : the latter is the Anglo- 
Saxon bigyrdel, zona, saccus, fiscus, which properly signifies a purse attached to the 
girdle. In this sense it occurs in P. Ploughman, " the bagges and the bigirdles. 5 ' 
Vision, lin. 5072. " A bygyrdylle, marsupium, renale." CATH. ANGL. "Renale, a 
bygyrdyll, est zona circa renes. Brachile, i. lumbare, dicitur etiam cingulum renum, 
a bygyrdell. Cruma vel crumena est bursa, vel saccus pecunie, vel marsupium, a by- 
gyrdell." ORT. voc. On the Northern coast of Norfolk, opposite Burnham Westgate, 
is an island of singular shape, resembling the letter S : it is about a mile in length, 
following the direction of its tortuous form, and very narrow throughout. It still bears 
the name of Bridgirdle, evidently from its supposed similarity to the ancient article of 
dress called the BRYGYRDYLE. See No. LXIX. of the Ordnance Suivey. 

2 " To byrle, propinare, miscere.' 1 CATH. ANGL. Ang. S. byrlian, haurire, byrle, 
pincerna. Jamieson gives the same sense of the verb to birle. See hereafter SCHENK YN 
drynke. A.S. scencan, propinare. 

3 This word occurs in R. Brunne, and Chaucer. See also Gawayn and Golagros. 
il He come lyke a breme bare.'' Sir Amadas. " Brimrne, feirse, fier." PALSG. A.S. 
bremman,y?<rere. In the dialects of Norfolk and Suffolk, brim is retained only in the 
following sense, " a brymmyng as a bore or a sowe doth, en rouyr." PALSG. "To 
bryme, subare." CATH. ANGL. Elyot renders " subo, to brymme as a boore doth, 
whan he getteth pygges," See further in Ray, Jamieson, and Forby. 



BRYNKE of a wesselle. Margo. 
BRYNKE of watyr, supra in 


BRYSYDE (brissed, p.) Quassatus, 

BROSYN or qwaschyn' (brysyn, 

K. bryszyn, H. brissen, p.) 1 

jBriso, CATH. quasso, brisco, 

c. F. allido. 
(BRISYNG, or brissoure, K. bryss- 

ynge or bryssure, H. Quas- 

satio, contusio, collisio.) 
BRYSTYLLE, or brustylle (burs- 

tyll, p.) Seta. 
BRYGHTE. Clarus, splendidus, 



B ROC ALE, or lewynge of mete 

(brokaly of mete, p.) 2 Frag- 

mention, COMM. 

BROCHE of threde. Vericulum. 
BROCHE, juelle (jowell, p.) 3 Mo- 

nile, armilla. 
BROCHE for a thacstare. 4 Fir- 

BROCHE, or spete ( without- yri 

mete, H. withoute, p.) 5 Veru. 
(BROCHE or spete, whan mete is 

vpon it, p. Verutum.) 
BROCHE for spyrlynge or herynge. 6 

Spiculum, COMM. 
BROCHYN', or settyn a vesselle 

broche (a-broche, K. p.) Atta- 

mino, clipsidro, KYLW. 
BRODE, or wyde. Latus, amplus. 

1 "To bryse, quatere, quarsare. Brysille, fragilis, fisilis, fracticius, fractilis." 
CATH. ANGL. A.S. brysan, conterere. The word bryse is, however, probably taken 
more directly from the French. Palsgrave gives " to brise or bray herbes or suche 
like in a morter, briser." In the curious treatise of the virtues of herbs, Roy. MS. 
18 A. vi. f. 72 b. is mentioned " bryse-wort, or bon-wort, or daysye, consolida minor, 
good to breke bocches." 

2 Elyot renders " Analecta, fragmentes of meate whiche falle vnder the table. Ana- 
lectes, he that gadereth vp brokelettes." 

3 The broche was an ornament common to both sexes ; of the largesse of Queen 
Guenever it is related, " Everych kny3t she $af broche other ryng." LAUNFAL MILES. 
" Fibula, a boton, or broche, prykke, or a pynne, or a lace. Monile, ornamentum est 
quod solet ex feminarum pendere collo, quod olio nomine dicitur fir maculum, a broche." 
ORT. voc. The jewel which it was usual about the commencement of the XVIth Cen- 
tury to wear in the cap, was called a broche. Palsgrave gives " Broche for ones cappe, 
broche, ymage, ataiche, afficquet. Make this brotche fast in your cappe. Broche with 
a scripture, deuise." The beautiful designs of Holbein executed for Henry VIII. and 
preserved in Sloan. MS. 5308, afford the best examples of ornaments of this descrip- 
tion. See also the Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary, edited by Sir F. Madden. 

4 Broaches are explained by Forby to be " rods of sallow, or other tough and pliant 
wood split, sharpened at each end, and bent in the middle ; used by thatchers to pierce 
and fix their work. Fr. broche." 

6 " A soudear for lacke of a brotche or a spyt, rosteth his meate upon his wepon 
made lyke a broche." HORM. Thomas, in his Principal Rules of Italian Grammar, 
1548, renders " stocco, an armyng swoorde made like a broche." In the Earl of 
Northumberland's Household Book, 1511, it appears that the broches were turned by 
a " child of the keching." ANT. REP. iv. 233. Palsgrave alludes to the same primi- 
tive usage, " when you haue broched the meate (embroche) lette the boye tourne, and 
come you to churche." See also Leland's Coll. vi. 4. 

6 " A sperlynge, ipimera, sperlingus" CATH. ANGL. " Spurlin, a smelt. Fr. esperlan." 
SKINNER. The name is retained in Scotland ; see sparlyng and spirling in Jamieson. 



ERODE, or large of space. Spa- 


ERODE of byrdys. Pullificacio. 
ERODE hedlese nayle. Clavus 

BROOD arowe (brodarwe, K.) 1 

Catapulta, CATH. 
BROOD axe, or exe. Dolabrum, 

BRODYN, as byrdys (and fowles, p.) 

FoveO)fetiJico, c. F. in alcyon. 
BRODYNGE of byrdys. Focio, 

CATH. (focacio, P.) 
BROYDYN (broyded,p.) Laqueatus. 
BROYLYD. Ustulalus. 
BROYLYD mete, or rostyd only on 

be colys. Frit/cum, frixitura. 
BROLYYN', or broylyn'. Ustulo, 

ustillo, torreoj CATH. 
(BROLYYD, supra in BROYLYD, K.) 
(BROLYYNGE, orbroylinge, K. Us- 

(BROK,best, K. brocke, p.' 2 Taxus, 

castor, melota, pictorius.) 
BROKE, watyr. Rivulus> torrens. 
BROKE bakkyde. Gibbosus. 
BROOKE mete, or drynke (broken, 

p.) 3 Retineo, vel digerendo re- 

BROKYNGE of mete and drynke. 

Retencio (retencio cibi vel 

potus, digestion p.) 
BROKDOL, or frees (brokyl or fres, 

H. brokill or feers, p.) Fragilis. 
BROME, brusche. Genesta, mirica, 

CATH. tamaricium, c. F. 
BRONDE of fyre. Facula, fax, 

ticiOj torris, c. F. 

BRONDYDE. Cauterizatus, c. F. 
BRONNYN' wythe an yren'(brondyn, 

p.) Cauterizo. 

BRONDYNGE. Cauterizacio, c. F. 
BRONDYNGEyren'. Cauterium, c. F. 
BROSTYN, or broke. Fractus, 

BROSTYN man, yn ]?e cod. Her- 

niosus, c. F. 
BROTHE. Brodium, liquamen y 

c. F. 
BROWDYD, or ynbrowdyd (brow- 

dred, or browden, p.) Intextus^ 

acupictus, c. v.frigiatus, UG. 
BROWDYN', or inbrowdyn' (in- 

browdyr, p.) Intexo, c. v.frigio, 

UG. in frigid. 
BROWDYOURE (browderere, p.) In- 

textor, c. F.frigio, CATH. UG. 
BROWE. Supercilium. 
BROWESSE (browes, H. p.) 4 Adi- 

patum, c. F. 

1 The Catholicon explains catapulta to be " sagitta cum ferro Mpenni, quam sagit- 
tam barbatam vacant." Palsgrave renders broad arrow, "raillon:" and Cotgrave 
gives "fer defleche ci raillon. a shoot-head, a forked or barbed head." 

2 See above BAWSTONE. " Fiber, id est castor, a brocke. Fibrina vestis que tra- 
mam defibri land habet, a clothe of brocke woll." ORT. voc. " Brocke a best, taxe." 
PALSG. The Wicliffite version renders Hebr. xi. 37, " Thei wenten about in brok 
skynnes, and in skynnes of geet." A.S. broc, grumus. 

3 " To brooke meate, digerer, aualer. I can nat brooke this pylles. He hath eaten 
raw quayles, I fear me he shall neuer be able to brooke them." PALSG. A.S. brucan, 
frui. Margaret Paston, writing about the sickness of her cousin Bernay, 14 Edw. IV. 

1476, 7, says, " I remember yat water of mynte, or water of millefole, were good for 
my cosyn Bernay to drynke, for to make hym to browke." Paston Corresp. V. 156. 

4 Skinner explains brewse to be " panisjure intinctusj' which is the precise meaning 



BROWETT.' JBrodiellum. 

BROWNE. Fuscus, subniger, ni- 
gellus, c. F. UG. in A. 

BROWNE ale, or other drynke 
(brwyn, K. P. bruwyn, H. 3 
browyn, w.) Pandoxor. 

BROWSTAR, or brewere. Pan- 
doxator, pandoxatrix. 

BROTHYR. Prater. 

BRODYR yn lawe. Sororius, c. F. 

BRODYR by the modyr syde onely 
(alonly by moder, p.) Ger- 

BROWNWORTE herbe (brother 
wort, P.) Pulio, peruleium 
(puleium, p.) 

BRUNSTONE, or brymstone. Sul- 

BRUNSWYNE, or delfyne. 3 Foca, 

delphinus, suillus, CATH. 
BRUNT. 4 InsuUus, impetus. 
BRUNTUN, or make a soden stert- 

ynge (burtyn, P.) Insilio, CATH. 
BRUSCHE. JBruscus, c. F. 
BRUSC HALLE (brushaly, K.) Sar- 

mentum, CATH. ramentum, UG. 

in radO) ramalia, arbustum. 
(BRUSTYL of a swyne, K. p. Seta.) 
BUDDE of a tre. Gemma, c. F. 

botrio,frons, UG. in foros. 
BUDDUN' as trees. Gemmo, c. F. 

pampinoy pululo, frondeo. 

(BUFFETYN, K. H. P. Alapo, 

alapizo, CATH.) 

of brewis in the North of England. BROCKETT. Huloet, in the reign of Edward VI. 
speaks of ( ' browesse, made with bread and fat meat." 
*' A proverbe sayde in ful old langage, 

That tendre browyce made with a mary-boon, 
For fieble stomakes is holsum in potage." 

Lydgate, Order of Fooles, Harl. MS. 2251, f. 303. 

The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17. C. XVII. gives " browys, adepatum, 
brewett, garrusj' distinguishing these two words, as the Promptorium does. Brewes is 
derived from the plural of A.S. briw, jusculum, but brewett is a word adopted from the 
French, brouet, potage or broth. Palsgrave, however, gives " brewesse, potage of 
fysshe or flesshe, brouet" 

1 In the Forme of Cury, and other books of ancient cookery, will be found a variety 
of recipes for making brewets, such as brewet of Almony, or Germany, of ayrenne* or 
eggs, eels and other fish in bruet. In a MS. of the XVth century, in the possession of 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, No. 8336, occur " Bruet seec, bruet salmene, and bruet sara- 
zineys blanc." The word seems to have been applied generally to any description of 
potage, but Roquefort defines the original meaning of brouet as " chaudeau, et ce que 
les nouveaux mar Us donnoient a leurs compagnons pour boire, lejour de leurs noces." 

3 Gautier de Bibelesworth, in his Tretyz de Langage, written in the reign of Edward 
I. gives a detailed and curious account of malting and brewing, " debreser, et de bracer." 
Arund. MS. 220. In Harrison's Description of Britaine, Book ii. ch. 6. prefixed to 
Holinshed's Chronicles, will be found a minute description of the process of brewing, as 
practised in the Eastern counties in the XVIth century. 

3 In Anglo-Saxon mere swyn signifies a dolphin ; the epithet brun, fuscus, is pro- 
bably in reference to the colour of the fish. It is the porpesse, perhaps, which is in many 
places called sea-swine, in Italian porcopesse, that is here intended. 

4 " Brunt, hastynesse, chavlde-colle. Brunt of a daunger, escousse, effort." PALSG. 




BUFFETT stole. 1 Scabellum^ tripos, 

trisilis, c. F. 
BUGGE, or buglarde. 2 Maurus, 

BUGLE, or beste (bugyll, p.) 3 


BUK, best. Dama. 
BUK, roo. Caprius (caprinus^ P.) 
BULLE (of the Pope, K.) Sulla. 
BULLOK. JBoculus, biculus. 
BULTE flowre. Attamino, CATH. 

taratantarizo, UG. in tar do. 
BULTURE (bultar, p.) Taratan- 

tarizator, politrudinator. 

BuLTYD. 4 Taratantarizatus. 

BULTYNGE. Taratantarizacio. 

BULTE POOKE, or bulstarre. Ta- 
ratantarare, c. F. taratantarum, 
UG. in tardo, politrudum. 

BOMBON' as been' (bummyn or 
bumbyn, K. H. p.) 5 Bombizo, 
CATH. bombilo, bombio. 

BuNCHON'. 6 Tundo, trudo. 


BUNDELLE. Fasciculus. 
BUNNE, brede. Placenta. 
BUNKYYDE (bunne kyx. Cala- 
mus, K.) 7 
BUNGE of a wesselle, as a tonne, 

1 See above, BOFET, thre fotyd stole. 

2 " Bugge, spectrum, larva, lemures.' 1 BARET. This word has been derived from 
the Welsh bwg, larva. Higins, in his version of Junius' Nomenclator, 1585, renders 
" lemures nocturni, hobgoblins or night-walking spirits, blackebugs. Terriculamentum, 
a scarebug, a bulbegger, a sight thatfrayeth and frighteth." See Nares, andBoggarde and 
Bogith in Jamieson. St. Augustin and other writers mention " quosdam damonesquos 
Dusios Galli nuncupant" namely incubi. See Ducange. To this word Ducius, by 
which the bugge is here rendered, the origin of the vulgar term, the deuce, is evi- 
dently to be traced. 

3 "Bugle beest, bevgle." PALSG. " Bugle, bujfle, boeufsauvage." ROQUEF. " Buffle, 
buffes or bugles, wild beasts like oxen, uri. Buife leather, aluta bubalina." BARET. 
" Preciouse cuppis be made of bugull hornys, urorum cornibus, non bubalorum." HORM. 
The bugle was introduced into England in 1252, as a present to Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, brother of Henry III. " Missi sunt Comiti Richardo de partibus transma- 
rinis Bub all, pars vero seocus masculini,parsfeminini, utinhis partibus occidentalibus, 
ipsa animalia non prius hie visa multiplicarentur. Est autem Bubalus genus jumenti 
bovi consimile, ad onera portanda vel trahenda aptissimum, cocodrillo inimicissimum, 
undis amicum, magnis cornibus communitum." Matt. Paris. 

4 " Bulted, sasse, boultyng clothe or bulter, bluteau. To boulte meale, bulter." 
PALSG. He gives the word also in a metaphorical sense, " to boulte out a mater, trye 
out the trouthe in a doubtfull thynge, saicher." See bulter-cloth, in Kennett's Glos- 

5 "To bomme as a fly dothe, or husse, bruire. This waspe bommeth about myne 
eare, I am afrayed leste she stynge me." PALSG. 

6 " To bounche or pusshe one ; he buncheth me and beateth me, il me pousse. Thou 
bunchest me so that I can nat syt in rest by the." PALSG. " He came home with a 
face all to bounced, contusd." HORM. 

7 The Harl. MS. appears here to be faulty, and the correct reading probably is, 
BUNNE, kyx. See hereafter KYX, or bunnes or drye weed. A.S. \>\me, fistula. In 
Joh. Arderne's Chirurgica, Sloane MS. 56, p. 3, in a list of French and English names 
of plants, occurs " chauynot, i. bunes ;" the reading should probably be chenevette, 
which signifies the stalk of hemp. Forby and Moore give bunds or bund-weed, as the 
name by which in the Eastern counties weeds infesting grass land are known. Jamieson 
explains bune to be the inner part of the stalk of flax, or the core. 



barelle, botelle, or othere lyke 

(kyx of vessell, p.) Lura, 

CATH. c. F. 

BUNTYNGE, byrde. Pratellus. 
BURBLON, as ale or ober lykore 

(burbelyn, p.) Bullo. 
BURBULLE, or burble (burbyll, 

p.) 1 Bulla, c. F. 
BURDON' of a boke. Bur do. 
BURRE. Lappa, glis. 
BURGEYS. Burgensis. 
BURGYN, or burryn as trees. 2 

Germino,f rondo, CATH.gemmo, 
frondeo, supra. 
BURGYNYNGE (burgynge, K. p.) 

Germen, pullulacio. 
BURLE of clothe (a clothe, P.) 

Tumentum, CATH. c. F. 

BURNET colowre. Burnetum, bur- 

netus, DICC. KYLW. 
BURTARE, beste (burter, p.) Cor- 

BURTON', as hornyd bestys. Cor- 

nupeto, arieto. 

BURTYNGE. Cornupetus, c. F. 
BURWHE, sercle (burrowe, p.)* 

Orbiculus, c. F. 
BURWHE, towne (burwth, K. burwe, 

H. burrowe, p.) Burgus. 
BUSCEL (buschelle, K.) Modius, 

(chorus, buscellus, P.) 
BUSKE, or busshe. 5 Rubus, du- 

BUSCHOPE (busshop, P.) supra in 

BUSCHEMENT, or verement. Cun- 

eus, c. F. 
BUT, or bertel, or bysselle (ber- 

sell, p.) 6 Meta. 
BUT, fysche. 7 Pecten. 
BUTTOK. Nates, CATH. piga. 
BUTTON', or caste forthe (butt, p.) 

BUTTYR, or botyr (butture, K.) 


1 " Bulliculus, Id est parvus bullio, a burble, tumor ague. Bullio, a wellynge." ORT. 
voc. " Burble in the water, bubette. To boyle up or burbyll up as a water dothe in a 
spring, bouillonner." PALSG. 

2 " Gramino, to burion, or kyrnell, or sprynge." ORT. voc. "Burryon or budde of 
a tree, burion. To burgen, put forthe as a tree dothe his blossomes, bourffonner." 

3 This word is compounded of A.S. bur, conclave, casa, and mseden, puella, a 
bower-maiden, a chamber-maid : in like manner as bur-J>egn signifies a chamberlain. 

* Burr signifies in Norfolk, according to Forby, a mistiness around the moon ; and in 
North Britain a halo is termed brugh, brogh, or brough ; Jamieson suggests from its 
encircling the moon like the circular fortifications which are also called brugh. Ang. S. 
beers, munimentum. The expression, " a burre about the moone " occurs in " Whim- 
zies, or a new cast of Characters," p. 173. The same derivation may possibly apply 
to the terms, burr of a lance, which is a projecting circular ring that protected the 
hand ; as also the burr of a stag's horn, or projecting rim by which it is surrounded 
close to the head. 

5 " A buske, arbustum, dumus , frutex , rubus." CATH. ANGL. Buske or boske, as 
bush was anciently written, occurs in R. Brunne and Chaucer. Spenser uses the word 
buskets, and boskie is to be found in Shakespeare, Tempest, Act IV. In old French 
bosc and boschet. ROQTJEF. 

6 Buttes are explained by Bp. Kennet to be the ends or short pieces of land in 
arable ridges or furrows. " Limes, buttynge or bound in fields." ELYOT. Celtic, but, 

' Yarrell, in his History of British Fishes, observes that the flounder is called at 



BuxuM'. 1 Obediens. 

BUXUM, or lowly or make (lowe 

or meke, K. p.) Humilis,pius, 

mansuetus, benignus. 

lynesse. Humilitas, mansue- 

tudo, benignitas. 
BUXUMNESSE. Obediencia, obe- 

ditio, CATH. 

CAB AN', lytylle howse. Pretori- 
olum, CATH. c. F. capana. 

CABLE, or cabulle, grete shyppe 
(cabyl or schyp roop, H. P.) Cur- 
cula, CATH. currilia, UG. in 
curvo, curculia, restis, rudens. 

CABOCHE. Currulia, UG. in 


CASE of closynge. Capsa. 
CASE or happe (or chaunce, p.) 

Casus, eventus. 
CADAS.* JBombicinium. 
CADAW, or keo, or chowghe (ca- 

dowe or koo, K. p. ko, H.) 3 Mo- 

CADE of herynge (or spirlinge, 

K. P.) or obyr lyke. 4 Cada, 

lacista, KYLW. ligatura. 
CAGE. Catasta. 
CAHCHARE, or dryvare (catcher, 

p.) Minator, abactor. 
CACHYN' a-way (catchinge away, 

p.) Abigo. 

Yarmouth a butt, which is a Northern term ; the name is likewise given by Pennant, 
but does not occur in the Glossaries of Northern dialect. 
1 " Ne yan sal na man be boxsome, 
Ne obedyent to ye kirke of Rome." 

Hampole, Prick of Conscience, Harl. MS. 6923, f. 58, b. 

" And be lofande to hym and bouxsome," namely, to God, ib. f. 101, b. " Boxome, 
obedient, obeissant." PALSG. A.S. bocsum, obediens. 

2 Cadas appears to have signified flocks of silk, cotton, tow, or wool, used for stuffing 
gamboised garments. In the curious poem by Hue de Tabarie, at Middle Hill, en- 
titled, " Coment lefiz Deufu arme en la croyz" is this passage, 

" Pur aketoun ly bayle blaunche char e pure, 
Pur cadaz e cotoun de saunJcfu le encusture." MS. Heber, No. 8336. 

In the petition against excess of apparel, 1463, it is thus mentioned ; " Noyoman, &c. 
to were in the aray for his body eny bolsters, nor stuffe of woole, coton, or cadas, nor 
other stuffer in his doubtlet, savelynyng accordyng to the same." ROT. PAUL. " Cadas 
or crule, saijette." PALSG. " Cadarce pour faire capiton, the tow, or coursest part of 
silke, whereof sleaue is made." COTGR. Nares explains caddis to be a sort of worsted 

3 Caddow is still the name given to the jackdaw in Norfolk, as Coles and Forby have 
recorded. Palsgrave gives " Caddawe abyrde, chucas," and Withal renders "Caddow 
or dawe, nodulus." " Monedula, a choughe or cadess." ELYOT. Keo is from A.S. ceo, 
comix. See hereafter coo BYRDE, or schowhe. 

4 The quantity of fish contained in a cade is determined by the Accounts of the Cel- 
larist of Berking Abbey, MON. ANG. i. 83 : "a barrel of herryng shold contene 1000, 
and a cade of herryng six hundreth, sixscore to the hundretb." Palsgrave renders 
cade, escade, but the word does not occur in the Dictionaries. In 1511 it appears by 
the Northumberland Household Book, that the cade of red herring was rated at 6s. 4d. 
the cade of " sproytts, 2." The spirling mentioned here was the smelt, called in French 
esperlan. See hereafter SPIRLYNGE, epimera. 




CHASYN', or drvye furbe (catchy n 

or dryue forth bestis, p.) 

CAHCHPOLLE, or pety-seriawnte. 

Angarius, exceptor, UG. c. F. 
CAHCHYNGE, or hentynge (catch- 

inge or takyng, K. p.) Appre- 

hencio, decapcio, captura. 
CAHCHYNGE, or drywynge a-wey 

or forthe. Minatus, abactio, 

CATH. in abigo. 
CAYTYFFE. Calamitosus, dolo- 

rosus, UG. BRIT. 
CAKE. Torta, placenta, colirida, 

c. F. libum. 

CAKELYN' of hennys. Gracillo. 
CAKELYNGE,or callyngeof hennys. 


CAKKYN',orfyystyn'. Caco,CATH. 
CALAMYNT, herbe. Calamenta, 

balsamita (balsiata, P.) 
CALENDIS (calende, j.) Calende, 

CALFE, beste. Vilnius. 
CALFE of a legge. Sura, CATH. 
e. F. UG. in suo. 

CALKEorchalke,erye. Calx,creta. 
CALKYN'.* Calculo. 
CALLYN' or clepyn'. Voco. 
CALLYN' yn', or owte, be name, 

a-3ene, to-gedyr, to mete, quere 

infra in CLEPYN'. 
CALLYNGE or clepynge. Vocacio. 
CALLYNGE or clepynge a-jene. 

CALLYNGE or clepynge yn to a 

place. Invocacio. 
CALLYNGE or clepynge to-gedyr. 

CALLYNGE or clepynge to mete. 

(CALYON, rounde stone, p. 2 Ru- 

dus. Hie rudus esto lapis, 

durus, pariterque rotundus.) 
CALME or softe,wythe-owtewynde. 

Calmus, c. F. tranquillus. 
CALME-WEDYR. Malacia, cal- 

macia, c. F. 
CALKESTOKE (calstoke, p.) 3 Ma- 

CALTRAP, herbe. 4 Saliunca, c. F. 


1 " He calketh (vestigaf) vpon my natyuyte. 1 ' HORM. Palsgrave gives the verb " to 
calkyll as an astronomer doth whan he casteth a fygure, calculer. I dare nat calkyll for 
your horse that is stollen, for feare of my bysshoppe.'' See also Paston Letters, i. 114. 

2 In the accounts of the Churchwardens of Walden, Essex, in 1466, 7, among the costs 
of making the porch, is a charge "for the foundacyon, and calyon, and sonde." Hist, 
of Audley End, p. 225. Among the disbursements for the erection of Little Saxham 
hall in 1505, is one to the chief mason, for the foundation within the inner part of the 
moat, " to be wrought with calyons and breke, with foreyns and other necessaries con- 
cerningthe same.'' Rokewode's Hundred of Thingoe, 141. " Calyon, stone, eolJOtf." 
PALSG. In the dialect of Northern England a hard stone is termed a callierd. 

3 " A cale stok, mayuderis." CATH. ANGL. ' ' Maguderis est secundus caulis qui 
nascitur in tyrso absciso, vel ipse tyrms abscisus, a koolestocke." ORT. voc. "A 
calstok." MED. In Harl. MS. 1587, occur " maguderis, wortestokk, cauletum, 
cawlegarthe." " Calstocke, kalstocke, piS de chou." PALSG. In Scotland "castock 
or kail-castock, t\xe stem of the colewort," according to Jamieson. 

4 In the Dictionary of Synonyms of names of plants, in Latin, French and English, 
Sloan. MS. 5, compiled about the middle of the fifteenth century, occurs " Saliunca, 
spica Celtica, Gall, spike seltic, Aug. calketrappe." A. Sax. coltrseppe, rhamnus. " Cal- 
trops, tribulus,seu carduus stellatu,?." SKINNER. In French chausse-trappe, according 
.to Cotgrave, signifies both the thistle, and the caltrop used in war. 


CALTRAP of yryn, fote hurtynge. 1 

ffamus, CATH. c. F. UG. 
CALVUR as samoon,or oj>yr fysshe. 2 
CAMAMYLE, herbe. Camamilla. 

CAMELLE, or chamelle. Camelus. 
CAMMYD, or schort nosyd. 3 Simus, 

C. F. 

CHAMMYDNESSE (cammednesse, 
p.) Simitas. 

1 " A calle trappe, hamus, pedica." CATH. ANGL. " Caltrapa, a caltrappe," ORT. 
voc. The Catholicon gives the following explanation of hamus. " Dicitur et Tiamus 
asser cum clavis quo subtegltur terra in vineis sub arboribus defendendis, vel in domo 
circa scrinia et thesauros, ut si aliquando fur ingrediatur, ejus pedibus infigatur." 
In the contemporary poem describing the Siege of Rouen by Henry V. the city is said 
to have been defended by a deep and wide dike, full of pitfalls, " of a spere of heyth." 

" Also fulle of caltrappys hyt was sette 

As meschys beth made wythinne a nette." Archseol. xxi. p. 51. 

" They hydde pretely vnder the grounde caltroppys of yron to steke in horse or mennys 
fete, murices ferreos leviter condiderunt ." HORM. Chaussetrappe is explained by 
Cotgrave to be an " iron engine of warre made with four sharp points, whereof one, 
howsoever it is cast, ever stands upward." Among the " municyons and habyllyments 
of warre '' belonging to Berwick castle, 1539, occur " 15 pece of lettes calteroopes.'' 
Archgeol. xi. 439. Caltraps are mentioned by Quintus Curtius in the Life of Alex- 
ander as having been spread over the ground by the Persians to annoy the Macedonian 
cavalry. This circumstance is thus described, Kyng Alisaunder, line 6070 : 

" And calketrappen maden ynowe, 
In weyes undur wode and bowe, 
Alisaundris men to aqwelle, 
And synfulliche heom to spille." 

Vegetius calls them tribuli. A representation of a caltrap, from the Tower collection, 
will be found in Skelton's Illustrations of the Armoury at Goodrich Court, ii. pi. 132. 

2 The recipe in the Forme of Cury, p. 48, directs for " vyande Cypre of samone, 
take almandus and bray hem unblaunched, take calwar samone, and seeth it in lewe 
water," &c. See also p. 75, " salwar salmone ysode." Palsgrave renders " caluer of 
samon, escume de saulmon. n This term appears to denote the state of the fish freshly 
taken, when its substance appears interspersed with white flakes like curd; thus in 
Lancashire the fish dressed as soon as it is caught is termed calver salmon, and in North 
Britain caller or callour signifies fresh, according to Jamieson. " Quhen the salmondis 
faillis thair loup, thay fall callour in the said caldrounis, and ar than maist delitious to 
the mouth." Bellend. Descr. Alb. c. 11. Calvered salmon is mentioned by Ben 
Jonson and Massinger as a delicacy ; and Isaac Walton applies the term to the gray- 
ling. R. Holme, however, would make it appear that calver was a term applied to fish 
dressed in oil, vinegar, and spices. See also Nares. The word " caleweis," which 
occurs in Chaucer, Rom. of Rose, and has been by the earlier glossarists interpreted as 
calvured salmon, is in the original " poire de caillouel," a sort of sweet pear, called by 
Roquefort caillos, or caillotl. 

s This word seems to be taken from the French, " camus, qui a le nez court." 
LACOMBE. Cotgrave renders camus, flat-nosed. 

" Round was his face, and camuse was his nose." CHAUC. Reve's Tale. 
Hence also the sea-gull appears to have received a name, which is given by Elyot, 
' Candosoccus, a sea-gull, or a camose." See Camy, and Camow-nosed, in Jamieson's 



CAMPAR, or pleyar at foottballe. 1 

Pedilusor, pedipilusor. 
CAMPYN'. Pedipilo. 
CAMPYNGE. Pedipiludium. 
CAMPYON, or champyon. Athleta, 

pugil, campio, CATH. 
CANCELLYNGE, or strekynge owte 

a false word. Obelus, c. F. 
CANCET, soore or kankere (cankyr, 

K.) Pustula, UG. in puteo, 

cancer, c. F. 

CANDYLLE (candell, P.) Candela. 
CANDELERE. 2 Candelarius, can- 
CANDYLRYSCHE (candelrushe, K.) 

Papirus, CATH. 
CANDELBEM' (candell beme, p.) 

CANDELSTYKKE. Candelabrum, 

tucernarium, c. F. 
(CANEL of a belle, K. Canellus.) 
CANEL, spyce. Cinamomum, amo- 


CANEL, or chanelle (in the weye, 

H. in the strete, p.) Canalis, 

(aquagium, p.) 
CANVAS, clothe. Carentinilla, 

NECC. Dice, canabeus, canalbus, 

canabus, KYLW. canabasium. 
CANKER, sekenesse. Cancer. 
CANKYR, worme of a tre. Teredo, 

UG. in tero, termus, termes, c. F. 
CANNYN', or grucchyn' (canyyn or 

grochyn, K. chanyyn, H. cany en, 

p.) Murmuro, remurmuro (ca- 

niso, P.) 

CANONYZYDE. Canonizatus. 
CANONIZACION. Canonizacio. 
CANOPE. S Canopeum. 
CANTEL, 4 of what euer hyt be. 

Quadra, UG. minutal. 
CANTYN', or departyn'. Partior, 

CAPPE. S Cappa, pilleum, CATH. 

Dice. Campedulum, c. F. (capa, 

K. caracaUa, P.) 

1 Forby and Moore have given ample illustrations of the nature of the game at ball 
called to this day in Norfolk and Suffolk, camping : the former agrees with Ray, in de- 
riving the word from the A. Sax. campian, prteliari. The camping-land appropriated 
to this game occurs, in several instances, in authorities of the fifteenth century ; in 
Cullum's Hawsted, mention is found, in 1466, of the camping-pightle. 

2 This word seems to be taken from the French chandelier, a candlestick : cande- 
larius signifies properly a maker of candles. See hereafter CHAWNDELERE. 

3 " Canopeum, reticulum subtile factum de canabo. Canopeum, a gnate nette, rete 
quo culices vel musce excluduntur. 1 ' DICT. WILBR. The Canope alluded to in the 
Promptorium, was very probably the Umlraculum under which the Sacred Host was 
carried in the procession on Palm Sunday. " Canapy to be borne over the sacrament, 
or ouer a Kynges heed, palle, ciel." PALSG. See the word canapeum in Ducange. 

4 " Minutal, a lompe of brede, or cantel." ORT. voc. " Cantel of bredde, cantel or 
shyuer, ckanteau.'" PALSG. 

" Of Florentys scheld a kantell 

He cleft thonryght." Octouian, line 1113. 

The term occurs also in " the Anturs of Arther at the Tarnewathelan." Hall, in his 
account of the marriage of the Princess Mary to Lewis XIL at Paris, in 1514, describes 
the entry of the Dauphin, whose " apparell and bardes were cloth of golde, cloth of 
syluer, and crymsyn veluet kanteled together." Hall's Chron. 6 Hen. VIII. Roquefort 
gives " Chantel, un morceau de pain," from cantellus. See Ducange, and Mon. Angl. 
i. 411. In Norfolk, to cant is to set a thing up on edge ; see Forby, Moore, and Nares. 

5 The priestly vestment generally known as the cope is here intended. " Capa, a 


CAPPE, or hure, for clerkys. 1 

Tena, CATH. c. F. 
CAPPE of a fleyle. 2 Meditentum, 


CAPYTLE, or chapytle, or captur 
(capytyll or chapytyll, P.) Ca- 

CAPUL, or caple, horse. 3 Caballus, 

C. F. 

CAPVNE or capone. Capo, CATH. 


CAPTEYN. Capitaneus. 
CARANYE, or careyn'. 4 Cadaver. 
C A RE- A WE Y, sorowles (carawey 

cappe or a cope ; caracalla, a sclauyn or a cape." DICT. WILBR. " A cope." OUT. 
Pilleum, according to the Catholicon, signifies a garment made of skins, but in its more 
usual sense, a covering for the head. In early times the cappa was an ordinary upper 
garment worn by ecclesiastics indiscriminately, and Ecgbert, Abp. of York, ordained 
in the eighth century that none of the clergy should appear in the church "sine co- 
lobio vel cappd" Of the various modifications of this vestment, and the names by 
which they were distinguished, a detailed account will be found in Ducange. At a later 
period the cope was a vestment reserved for occasions of ceremony : when worn by 
prelates and dignitaries, the richest tissues were chosen, and covered with a gorgeous 
display of jewels, orfrays, and embroidery ; but its use was not confined to them, for 
with the exception of the priest officiating at the altar, who was vested in the sacred 
garments appropriated to the service of the mass, the cope appears to have been worn 
by all the assisting clergy, and even the choristers. In A. Sax. the name cappa, or 
ceeppa, was adopted from the Latin, probably as early as the mission of St. Augustine, 
A.D. 601 ; and a cappa oloserica, one of the gifts of Gregory the Great, was preserved at 
Canterbury until the Reformation. See hereafter COOPE, capa. 

1 The use of a small cap by the clergy as a covering of the tonsure is one of con- 
siderable antiquity, it was usually termed the coif, coypha, and this term occurs here- 
after in the Promptorium. This was identical, as Joh. de Athona asserts, with the 
tents or infulce, but these appear more properly to have been lappets appended to the 
coif, and which occasionally were fastened under the chin. At various periods, when 
the clergy, disregarding strict propriety in demeanour and dress, became assimilated in 
externals to the laity, the coif was specially decried by the Church. Thus in the Council 
of London in 1267, the Legate Othobonus ordained that the clergy should never appear 
in public with the coif, except in travelling, because thereby the corona, or circlet of hair 
left by the tonsure, was concealed, and therein " pr&cipue depositio terrenorum, et 
regalis sacerdotii dignitas designantur." See Lyndwode, Provinciale, p. 88. Hure, 
howe, or howfe, are synonymous, and are derived from A. Sax. hufa, cidaris. See 
hereafter HOWE or hure, heed hyllynge, and HWYR, cappe. 

2 "Cappe of a flaylle, cappa.' 1 ' 1 CATH. ANGL. "Cappe of a flayle, liasse d'un 
flaiau" PALSG. 

3 This word, which, as Skinner observes, is evidently a corruption of caballus, is 
used by Chaucer : the Cambridge Scholar exclaims, when the Miller lets his horse loose, 

" Why ne hadst thou put the capell in the lathe." Reve's Tale. 

" The kny3t kachej his caple and com to the lawe." Gawayn and the 

Green Kny 3 t, lin. 2175. 

" Capull, a horse, roussin." PALSG. Cotgrave explains roussin to be " a curtail, a 
strong German horse." Elyot gives " Caballus, a horse ; yet in some partes of England 
they do call an horse a cable." 

4 This word is written by R. of Gloucester and P. Ploughman caroyne, by Chaucer 
careyne. In the Wicliffite version likewise, Hebr. iii. 17, is rendered, " Whether not 
to hem that synneden, whos careyns weren cast doun in desert ? '' It is taken from 
the French " caroiync, cadavre." ROQUEF. 



sorweles, H. caraway, p. care- 

awaye, w.) Tristicia procul. 
CARAWAY herbe. Carwy, sic 

scribitur in campo florum. 
GARDE, wommanys instrument. 

Cardus, c. F. discerpiculum. 
GARDE maker. Car dif actor. 
CARDYN' wolle. Carpo. 
CARDENALE (cardynall, P.) Car- 

C ARDYACLE (cardyakyll, p.) Car- 

diaca, UG. in Cardyan. 
CARE. Tristicia, mesticia, dolor. 
CARE, of hert-besynesse (hertlybe- 

synesse, p.) Solicitudo. 
CARYN' yn' herte. Solicitor. 
CARRE, carte. Carrus, c.v.currus. 
CARRE, orlytylle carte j^atoonehors 

drawythe. Monocosmus, CATH. 
CARYARE. Vector, vectitor. 
CARYAGE. Vectura, portagium, 


CARYYNGE (cariynge, P.) idem est. 
CARYN', or cary (caryen, p.) 

Velio, transveho. 
CARYYNGE vesselle, or instrument 

of caryynge. Vectorium, CATH. 

CARTEHOWSE (carfax, or carfans, 

H. p. 1 ) Quadrivium. 
CARKEYS. Corpus, cadaver. 
CARLE, or chorle. 2 Rusticus. 
CARLE, or chorle, bondeman or 

woman. Servus nativus, serva 


CARL OK, herbe. 3 Eruca. 
CARAL, songe (caroll, p.) 4 Pali- 

nodium, UG. inpaluri (psalmo- 

dium, psalmodinacio, K.) 
CAROOLYN', or synge carowlys 

(carallyn, p.) Psalmodio, (pal- 

linodio, P.) 

CAROLYNGE. Palinodiacio. 
CARFARE. Fabulator, garula- 

tor, garula. 
CARPYN', or talkyn'. 5 Pabular, 

confabulor, garrulo. 
CARPE, fysche. Carpus. 
CARPYNGE. Loquacitas, garu- 

lacio, collocutio. 
CART. J3iga, reda, quadriga. 
CART ARE. Bigarius, redarius, 

CARTYN', or lede wythe a carte, 6 

Carruco, CATH. 

1 The Harl. MS. gives here CARTEHOWSE, which appears wholly erroneous. The 
word does not occur in the MS. at King's College. Skinner derives the name of the 
Carfax at Oxford from the French carrefour, or possibly from quatre faces : another 
derivation has been proposed, from quatre votes. See an article on the Oxford Carfax, 
in the Antiq. Repert. iii. 267. 

2 " Harke howe the fat carle puffeth, le gros vilain." PALSG. A. Sax. ceorl, carl- 
man, rusticus. 

3 According to Gerarde, carlock, charlocke, or chadlocke, is a sort of wild rape or 
turnip, rapistrum arvorum, now known as the sinapis arvensis. In Arderne's Practice, 
however, aulfoyn, which is properly the corn-flower, is rendered karloke, Sloan. MS. 
56. A. Sax. cerlice, rapum sylvestre. " Eruca, a coleworm or a carlok." ORT. voc. 

4 " A caralle, corea, chorus." CATH. ANGL. " Carole a song, carolle, chanson de 
Noel." PALSG. A. Sax. kyrriole, a chanting at the Nativity. 

5 Palsgrave gives the verb, " to carpe, Lydgate, this is a farre northen verbe, cac- 
gueter." Gower uses it, Conf. Am. lib. vii. 

" So gone thei forthe, carpende fast 
On this, on that." 

6 The Promptorium does not give again the verb to lead, as it is here used, in the 



(CASARD, netes donge, P. casen, 

w. 1 JBozetum?) 
CAST, or castyd. Jactatus, pro- 

(CASTE DOWNE, K. p. Prostra- 

tus, projectus.) 
CASTYN', or brakyn' (as man owt 

the stomack, K.) 2 Vomo, evomo. 
CASTYN' A-VAY. Abficio, projicio. 
CASTYN', or throwyn'. Jacto,jacio. 
CASTYN' DOWNE. Dejicio. 
CASTE for to goon', or purpose for 

to don' any othyr thynge (caste 

for to go, or any other thinge 

done, P.) Tendo, intendo, CATH. 
CASTE lootte. Sorcior. 

CASTE warke (werkys, K.) or dys- 

posyn'. Dispono, propono. 
CASTYNGE, or a caste. Jactus, 

CASTYNGE downe, or a-wey. Pro- 

CATTE, beste. Cattus, mureligus, 

pilax, CATH. 
CATELLE (catal, K.) CataUum, 

census. CATH. 
CATYRPEL, wyrm' amonge frute. 3 

JErugo, UG. 
CATON', or Catvn' (propre name, 

p.) 4 Cato, CATH. 
CAUCYON, or wedde. 5 Cautio, 


signification of to carry. Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, " Richer the carter 
shall lede dong (mettra) on my land, whan it shall be ered, and on my herber (courtit) 
whan it shall be doluen." 

1 " Casings, stercus siccum jumentorum, quod pauperes agri Lincolniensis ad usum 
foci colligunt ; a Teut. Koth, fimus, q.d. cothings." SKINNER. In the North, ac- 
cording to Brockett, casings, or cassons, are cow-dung dried for fuel. It is still the 
usage in the neighbourhood of Lynn to employ cow-dung for this purpose. Richards' 
Hist. i. 80. 

2 The Wicliffite version renders ii. Pet. 2, 22, " The hounde turnyde agen to his 
castyng." In Sloan. MS. 100, f. 5, b. is given the following prescription: "For 
castinge, For hem that may not browke her mete. Take centorie, and sethe it in watir, 
and lete the sike drink it leuc warm iii daies, and he schal be hool, for this medicyn 
spourgith the brest, and the stomak." 

3 " Catyrpyllar, worme, chatte pelleuse." PALSG. 

4 In the middle ages a metrical system of ethics, entitled " Disticha de moribus ad 
filium," attributed to Dionysius Cato, or Magnus Cato, had attained the highest degree 
of estimation. It was illustrated by the comments of the most learned men of several 
centuries, and served as a manual for the instruction of youth. It is not certain who 
was the author ; a translation from the Latin was made about 1480, by Benedict Burgh, 
Archdeacon of Colchester, for the use of his pupil Lord Bourchier ; and in 1483 Caxton 
published his translation from a French version, entitled " The Booke called Cathon." 
Chaucer frequently quotes Cato : see Miller's Tale, 3227, Marchaunt's Tale, 9261. 
Caxton says in the Boke for Travellers, " George the booke sellar hath doctrinals, 
catons, oures of our Lady, Donettis, partis, accidents." See Warton's Hist, of Eng. 
Poetry, ii. 166. Dibdin's Typogr. Antiq. i. 195. 

5 Caucyon may here signify a pledge, as in Palsgrave, "causion, pledge, caution." 
See hereafter WEDDE, or thynge leyyd yn plegge. The Catholicon, however, explains 
cautio to be a simple promise, without oath, pledge, or surety, but idonea cautio, im- 
plied those additional securities. It is further interpreted to be a writing, as Papias 
says " cautio est breve recordationis chirographum. Unde in Evang. Luc. : Accipe 
cautionem tuam." In the Wicliffite Version this passage is rendered " and he seide to 
him, take thy caucioun and wryte fifty," Luke xvi. 6. 



CAWDELLE. 1 Vitellium, caldea- 
rium, caldellum, et hoc nomen 
habetur in commentario JoTian- 
nis de Gara (puls^ ofasium, p.) 

CAWDRON, vesselle (cavdryn, H.) 
Cacabus, caldaria, lebes, CATH. 

CAWCEWEY (cavuce, K. H. cawcy 
wey, p.) 2 Calcetum. 

CAWSE (skyll, K.) or enchesone 
(cause or cawze, H.) Causa. 

(CAVTELE, or sleyte, K. H. caw- 
tele or sleight, p. 3 Cautela.) 

CEE. Mare,fretum, pontus. 

CEK, or cekclothe,or poke. Saccus. 

CEC, or seeke (ceke, or sekenes, 
p.) Infirmus, eger, languidus. 

CECHELLE. Saccellus. 

CECYN'. Cesso. 

CECYNGE (cecenynge, H. P.) Ces- 


CEEDE (ced, H.) Semen. 
CEEDE of corne, as kyrnel. 4 Gra- 

num, semen. 
CEDYN', as corne or herbe. Se- 

mento, CATH. 
CEDYR, drynke. Cisera. 
CEED LEPE, or hopyr. 5 Satorium 

(satitolum, H. p.) 
CEDYR, tree. Cedrus. 
CEGE of (for, p.) syttynge. Se- 

CEGE of enmyes a-bowte a castelle 

or cyte. Obsidium. 
CEGGE, or wylde gladone. 6 Ac- 

CEGGE, or stare. 7 Carix, c. F. 

1 " Caldarium, acawdell." ORT. voc. Palsgrave render it chaudeau, which according 
to Roquefort was " bouillon qu'on donnoit aux epoux le matin du lendemain des noces, 
calens jusculum." In Caxton's Boke for Travellers, occur as " Potages. Caudell for 
the seke, chaudel. Growell and wortes." Skinner and Junius interpret it to be 
merely a spicy drink, but in the ancient terms of cookery cawdel signifies generally 
anything stewed down to & puree ; see in the Forme of Cury, pp. 24, 27, " chykens in 
cawdel, cawdell ferry ;" and in Cott. MS. Julius, D. vin. f. 100, " Caudelle of 
samone, caudelle of muskles." See further calenum, in Charpentier. 

2 Cawcewey is derived directly from the French chaussee, a word taken, as Menage 
and other writers have observed, from the Latin calciata, so called, as some conjecture, 
from its being continually trodden, via calcata, but probably rather from the mode of 
forming such a road, with stones imbedded in mortar, via calceata, from calx, lime. See 
Spelman, Ducange, and Kennet, under the word calcea. There was a causeway at Lynn 
leading to Gaywood, on which was situated the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, and 
among the benefactors to the Hospital of St. John Baptist occurs Ufketel films 
sanctimonialis de Sceringes, who grants " totam terram in Linne super calcetam." 
Mon. Ang. vi. 648, new edit. Palsgrave gives " Causey in a hye way, chausee." 

3 Cotgrave renders " cautelle, a wile, cautell, sleight, guilefull devise, subtilty." 
Fabyan relates that in 1448, the town of Pont-de-1'arche was taken by the " cautele " of 
the Frenchmen, who introduced two men disguised as carpenters ; and Hall, speaking 
of the same occurrence, calls it " a praty cautele and slighte imposture." In Elyot's 
Librarie occurs " Offucia, cawtelles, crafty wayes to deceyue." 

4 See hereafter KYRNEL of frute, granum. 

6 In Norfolk the basket carried by the sower, is still called a seed-lep. FORBY. 
A. Sax. sasd-leap, seminatoris corbis. See hereafter HOPUR, and SEEDLEP. 

6 See hereafter SEGGE of the fene, or wyld gladone. A. Sax. sec^,, gladiolus. Nares ex- 
plains segs to be the water flower-de-luce. " Glayeul de riviere, sedge, water flags." COTGII. 

7 The name sedge is now applied indiscriminately to the genus carex, which probably 
from the stiffness of its growth was called also stare. In Su. G. it is denominated starr, 



(CEGE, or preuy, p. Latrina, 

CEYLE of a schyppe, or mylle. 

Velum, carbasus. 
CEYL YERDE. Antenna, c. F. 
CEYLYN vpon' watyr. Velifico. 
CEYLYNGE. Velijicacio. 
(CEK, supra in CEC, P.) 
CEEKENESSE. Infirmitas, egri- 

CEKYN', or wexe seke. Infirmor, 


CEKYN'. Quero, inquiro. 
CEKYN', or serchyn'. Scrutor. 
CEEL (ceall, P.) Sigillum. 
CEELE, t. solde (celde, H. P.) Ven- 


CEELDAM (celdom, p.) Raro. 
CEEL, fysche. Porous marinus. 
CELE, or ceele, tyme. 1 Tempus. 

CEELLE, or stodyynge howse (cell 

or stody hows, p.) Cella. 
C EL ER. Cellarium,promptuarium. 
CELERERE of be howse. Cellerar- 

iustpromus (promptuarius, P.) 
CELYDONY, herbe. Celidonia. 
CELYN' letters. Sigillo. 
CEELYN' wythe syllure. 2 Celo. 
CELLYN'. Vendo. 
CELLYNGE. Vendicio. 
CELWYLLY, infra quere in SEL- 

WYLLY. Effrenatus. 
CEEM, of a clothe (or other lyke, p.) 

C EM E, or quarter of corne. Quar- 

CEMELY, or comely yn syghte. 

CEMELY, or on seemely wyse 

(comly wyse, P.) Decenter. 

Isl. stb'r, " quum herba sit perquam rigida" IHRE. See hereafter SEGGE, star of the 
fenne, and STARE. 

1 Ray in his East Country Words, and Forby, have recorded the use of the word seal, 
signifying time, or season, from A. Sax. ssel, opportunitas. BARLYSELE has occurred 
already in the Promptorium. See hereafter SEEL, tyme. 

2 The Catholicon explains celo to signify sculpere, pingere, and celamen or celatura, 
sculptured or painted decoration. Lydgate in the Troye Boke uses the word celature 
to describe vaulted work of an elaborate character. It appears doubtful whether the 
verb to cele, and the word ceiling, which is still in familiar use, are derivable from ccelo, 
or may not be traced more directly to ccelum and the French del, signifying not only 
vaulting or ceiling, but also the canopy or baldaquin over an altar ; the hangings of 
estate over a throne, which are sometimes termed dais, from the throne being placed in 
the part of the apartment to which that name properly belonged ; and lastly the canopy 
of a bed, " celler for a bedde, del de lit." PALSG. Gervase of Dover uses the term in his 
graphic description of the conflagration of Canterbury Cathedral in 1174, occasioned by 
sparks having been carried by the wind, and lodged between the roof and the interior 
vaulting of the church ; " ccelum inferius egregie depictum, superius vero tabulce 
plumbea ignem interius accensum celaverunt ." Twysden, Hist. Angl. Script. 1289. 

Thomas Stubbs, among the benefactions of Aldred, Archbishop of York 1061 1070, 
records that " totam ecclesiam a presbyterio usque ad turrim ab antecessore suo con- 
slructam, superius opere pictorio quod cesium vacant, auro multiformiter intermixto 
mirabili arte construxit ." Ibid. 1704. The word had a still further signification, de- 
noting, not merely the decoration of the vaulting or roof of a chamber, but also the 
wainscot-work upon the walls. Thus Horman says, " These wallys shal be celyd with 
cyprusse. The rofe shal be celed vautwyse and with cheker work." See hereafter 
SYLURE of valle, and SELYN wythe sylure. 




CEMY, or sotelle (subtyll, p.) 


CEMELY, or sotely. Subtiliter. 
CEMELYN', or lykyn' (cemlyn, H. 

cemblen, p.) Assimulo. 
CEMYN, schowyn or apperen'. Ap- 


CEMYN, or becemyn. Decet. 
CEMYNGE, or a cemys (or cemys, 

p.) Apparencia. 
CEMYNGE, or hope(n) schowynge 

(opyn, K. H. open, p.) Apparens. 
CENSE, or incense, or rychelle. 

Incensum, thus. 
CENSERE. Thuribulum, ignibu- 

lum, CATH. 
CENSYN', or caste be sensere. 

(CENSINGE, p. Thurificatio.) 

CENDEL. Sindon. 

CENDYN' by massage. Mitto. 

CENDYNGE. Missio. 

CENE, or besene. Apparens, ma- 

CEENE of clerkys. 1 modus,CATH. 

{A sancto sinodo redeunt burse 

sine nodo, P.) 
CENGYLLE (cengylly, H. p.) Sin- 


CENY, or tokyn. Signum. 
CENY, or tokyn of an in or ostrye. 2 

Tex era, CATH. tessera, c. F. 
CENTENCE. Sentencia. 
CEPTYR, or mace. Ceptrum, 


CEERCLE. Circulus, girus, c. F. 
CERCLE, clepyd the snayle, as of 

pentys, and other lyke. 3 Spira, 

UG. in spacium. 

1 " A seyne, sinodus, est congregacio clericorum." CATH. ANGL. Ceene or a synod 
is from the French " senne, assemble de gens d'Eglise; de coenaculum, lieu d' assem- 
ble, suivant fiarbazan." B.OQUEF. Send is explained by Cotgrave to be " a Synod or 
assembly of curates before their Ordinarie or Diocesan." ' Cene of clerkes, con- 
vocation." PALSG. In the Legenda Aurea mention is made of the " Ceene of 
Calcydone." f. xxvi. 

2 Tessera is rendered in the Ortus " a dyce," and t ex-era has the same meaning ; the 
Catholicon, however, gives another explanation, " Texere dicuntur lapides quadratiad 
modum talorum, unde pavimenta sternuntur." There can be little doubt that the token 
of an inn, here referred to, is the ancient sign of the chequers, scaccarium, the chess- 
board or playing tables. It has been questioned whether this symbol denoted in England, 
as it did where it occurs at Pompeii, a house of entertainment where play was practised, 
or rather had its origin in the painted lattices at the doors and windows, which, as has 
been affirmed, were part of the external indications of an hostelry as late as 1700 ; the 
ordinary use of such lattices is mentioned by Harrison in his description of England. " Of 
old time our countrie houses in steed of glasse did vse much lattise, and that made either 
of wicker or fine rifts of oke in checker-wise." B. ii. c. 12, in Holinshed. Among the 
deeds and benefactions of Thomas Chillenden, Prior of the church of Canterbury from 
1390 to 1411, it is recorded in the obituary, " in civitate Cantuaria unum Hospitiumfa- 
mosum,vocatum le Chefcer,nobiliter adificavit; in eadem civitate Hospitium de la Croivne." 
ANG. SACRA, i. 143. The " red lattice " is a term often used to signify an ale house ; 
Shakespeare alludes to it, Hen. IV. pt. ii. ; it occurs in Marston, Chapman, and other 
early dramatists, and Massinger speaks of the " red grates next the door " of a tavern. 
Of this and other inn-signs see Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 247, Gent. Mag. xl. 403, 
Ixiii. 531,lxiv. 797. 

3 The term helix- was applied to denote the volute of a capital, but here it seems pos- 
sible that the term relates to a spiral or newel-staircase. There was however, a military 



CERGYN, supra in CEKYN'. Scru- 

tor, rimor. 
CEERCHYNGE (cergyn, K. cerg- 

ynge, H. p.) Scrutinium, per- 


CERIAWNT. Indagator. 
CERIAWNT of mace. Apparitor, 

angarius, CATH. 
CERYN' and dryyn', as trees or 

herbys. Areo, marceo. 
CEREIOWRE (ceriore, K. ceriowre, 

p.) Scrutator, perscrutator. 
CERYOWS. Seriositas. 
CERTAYNE, or sekyr. Certus, se- 


CERVAWNTE. Servus, vernaculus. 
CERUYCYABLE (ceruysable, p.) 

CERUYCYABLE, or redy alle waye. 

CERUYCE. Servicium, obsequium. 
CERUYN'. Servio,famulor. 
CESSYONE. Cessio. 
CESTERNE, or cysterne. Cisterna, 

c. F. 

CESUN', or tyme. Tempus. 
CESONE in londe, or obyr go(o)d 

takynge. Seisina. 
(CESYN, supra in CECYN, P.) 
CESYN' (cesun, p.) or welle aray 

mete or drynke. Tempera. 

CESUN, or yeve sesenynge yn 

londe, or other goodys. Cesino. 
CESONYD, yn tyme (cesynde in 

tyme, or other suche lyke, p.) 

Tempestus, tempestivus, UG. 
CETTE, or putt. Po situs. 
CETTYN', or puttyn' (plantyn, p.) 


(CETTYN, or putten, p. Pono.) 
CETTYNGE, leynge, or puttynge. 

Posicio, collocacio. 
CETTYNGE, or plantynge. Plan- 

CETEWALE, herbe (cetuall, p.) 

Zedorium, Dice. 

CETHYN' mete. Coquo, decoquo. 
CEWARE at mete. 1 Depositor, 

dapifer, sepulator. 
CEWE. Sepulatum. 
CEWYN' (yn halle, P.) Cepulo. 
CEVENE, numbyr. Septem. 
CEVYN HUNDRYD. Septingenti. 
CEVYNTENE. Septemdecem. 
CEVYNTYE. Septuaginta. 
CEXE. Sex. 

CEX HUNDRYD. Sexcenti. 
CEXTY. Sexaginta. 
CEXTENE. Sedecim. 
CEXTEYNE (cyxten, j. N.) 

crista, CATH. 
CEXTRYE. Sacristia. 

engine, a variety of the testudo, used in battering walls, to which the name of the snail 
is given in the curious version of Vegecius, made at the bidding of Sir Thomas of 
Berkeley, 1408. " The gynne that is clepede the snayle or the welke, is a frame made 
of goode tymber, shaped square, keuerede and hillede alle a-boute wythe rawe hides, or 
wythe feltes and heyres, for drede of brynnyng. This gynne hath wythe in hym a grete 
beme meuabely hangede wythe ropes, the whiche beme may wythe draughte of men 
wythe-in be drawe bacward, and let fle wythe his owenepais forewarde to thewalle, and 
so astonye and shake the walle. This gynne is cleped j>e snaile, for righte as J?e snaile 
hath his hous ouer hym where he walkethe or restethe, and oute of his hous he shetethe 
his hede whan he wolle, and drawethe hym inne a-yene, so doth this gynne." B. iv. c. 
xiv. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. f. 105, 

1 See hereafter SEWARE, SEW, and SEWYN. 



Quere plura vocabula kaben- 

cia in primd sillabd hunc so- 

num C, in S litterd, ubi E 

sequitur immediate S. 
CHACE of tenys pley, or obyr 

lyke. Sistencia, obstaculum, 

obiculum (fuga, P.) 
CACCHYN' a-way (chas away, p.) 

Fugo, agito, abigo, effugo. 
CnACYNGEa-wey. Fugacio, abac- 

tio, effugacio. 
CHAFFE. Palea. 
CHAFF ARE, 1 Mercimo nium, mer- 

catum, commercium. 
CHAFFARYN'. Negocior, mercor. 
CHAFFERYNGE. Mercacio, mer- 

catus, negociacio, negocium. 
CHAFFENETTE, to take byrdys. 

Reciaculum, COMM. 
CAFFYNCHE, byrde (chafFynche, 

K.) Furfurio, c. F. 

(CHAFYN, or rubbyn, K. H. P. 

Frico, confrico.) 
CHAFYNGE. Confricado. 
CHAFOWRE, panne (to make hot 

handys, H.) Scutra, CATH. 
CHAFOWRE, to make whote a 

thynge as watur. Calefacto- 


CHAYERE (chayjer, H.) Cathe- 
CHALAUNGE, or cleyme (chalenge, 

p.) 2 Vendicacio. 
CHALENGYN', or cleymyn'. Ven- 

CHALENGYN', or vndyrtakyn'. 3 ^- 

prehendo, deprehendo. 
CH ALANGYNGE, or vndurnemynge. 

Improperium, vituperium. 
CHALYS. Calix. 
CHALKE,supra mcALKE(cals, K.) 
CHALUN (or chalone, K. H.) bedde 

clothe. 4 Thorale) chalo. 

1 ChafFare or merchandise is a word derived by Lye from the Alamannic chauphen, 
cmere. See Junius. Gautier de Bibelesworth says, 

" La tyure (a pound) sert en marchattndye, (chaffare) 

Mais le lyure (be bok) nous aprent clergy." Arund. MS. 220. 

It occurs not unfrequently in Chaucer and Gower. In 1441 a complaint was made by 
the King's tenants of the forest of Knaresborough, that the Archbishop of York pre- 
vented their coming to Ripon, " so that none might utter their caffer, wherewith to pay 
his (the King's) farme att tearmes accustomed." Plumpton Corresp. p. liv. " Chaffre, 
ware." PALSG. 

2 " Calenge, dispute, contradiction, contestation." ROQUEF. 4< Chalenge or cleyme." 
PALSG. In the Wicliffite version, Jerem. vii. 6 is rendered, " If ye maken not fals 
caleng to a comelyng, and to a faderless child, and to a widewe." 

3 The distinction is here clearly made between the two significations of the verb to 
challenge. Thus also Cotgrave explains " Chalanyer, to claime, challenge, make title 
unto : also to accuse of, charge with an offence." Robert of Gloucester, Brunne, and 
Chaucer use the word in the former sense. " To chalange, vendicare, calumpniari. A 
chalange, calumpniaS' CATH. ANGL. " Calanger, accuser, disputer, demander, itrcen 
conquerance." ROQUEF. " The tribune dredde lest the iewis wolde take him bi the 
waie and sle him, and aftirward he myght be chalengid as he hadde take money." 
Wicliffite version, Dedis, c. 23. 

4 Chalo or chalonus is explained by Ducange to be "pars supellectilis lecti, straguli 
species. 1 ' In the Mon. Angl. ii. 720, chaluns are thus mentioned, " aut pannos pictos, 
qui vocantur chaluns, loco lectisternii.' J The word occurs in Chaucer, Reves Tale. 



(CHAMELL, best, K. p. Camelus.) 
(CHAMPYON, or campy on, K. p. 

Campio, atleta, pugil.) 
(CHAMLOT, clothe, p.) 
CHANELLE (or canell, P.) of a 

strete. Canalis, aquagium, c. F. 
CHANONE. Chanonicus. 
CHAPE of a schethe (sheede, K. 

schede, H.) 1 Spirula. 
CHAPELL. Capella. 
CHAPELEYNE. Capellanus. 
CAPELET (chapelet, K. H.) Ca- 

(CHAPYTTYL, K. chapytle, H. cha- 

petyll, p. 2 Capitulum.) 

CHAPMAN. 3 Negotiator, merca- 


CuARE. 4 Currus, quadriga, pe- 

torica, c. F. pilentum, c. F. bel- 

giga, COMM. (reda, p.) 
CHARGE. Cur a, onus. 
CHARGYD wythe byrdepys, or obyr 

lyke. Onustus, oneratus. 
CHARYAWNT. Onerosus. 
CHARGYN wythe byrdenys, or o]>yr 

byngys. Onero. 
CHARGYN', or gretely sett a thynge 

to herte. Penso. 

tl And in his owen chambre hem made a bedde 

With shetes and with chalons faire yspredde." 

Tyrwhitt thinks they were probably so called from having been made at Chalons. " A 
chalone, amp hit ape turn. 1 ' CATH. ANGL. In an Inventory taken at the Hospital of St. 
Edmund, Gateshead, 1325, there occurs, "In Choro, Unum frontale de Chalonns." 
Wills and Invent. Surtees Society, i. 22. 

1 " Chape of a knyfe, vomellus." CATH. ANGL. " Chape of a shethe, bouterolle de 
gayne. To chape a sword or dagger." PALSG. The word is derived from the French 
chappe, which Cotgrave explains to be " the locket of a scabbard," but Skinner more 
correctly " vaginae mucro ferreusJ'* The chape of a sword was a badge assumed by the 
De la Warr family, in memorial of the part taken by Sir Roger de la Warr, at Poitiers, 
1356, in the capture of John King of France, when he took possession of the royal 

2 " A chapitrye, capitulum." CATH. ANGL. 

3 " A chapman, negotiator, et cetera tibi a merchande. A chapmanry, negociacio. A 
chapman ware, vendibilis. To chappe, mercari, nundinari, negociari." CATH. ANGL. 
" Chapman, marc hant, cJiallant^ PALSG. Ang. S. ceapman, mercator. 

* The term chare seems to have been the earliest appellation in England, of vehicles 
used to convey persons of distinction. It has been derived from the Anglo-Saxon, 
cyran, vertere, but probably we derived both the vehicle and its appellation from France, 
where, as early as 1294, the use of the char had become so prevalent that it was for- 
bidden to the wives of citizens by an ordinance of Philippe le Bel. A description of 
the rich chare prepared for the Princess of Hungary, will be found in the Squyr of low 
degree, Ellis's Specimens, vol. i. ; and is beautifully illustrated by an illumination in 
the Louterell Psalter, executed in the reign of Edward II. See Mr. Rokewode's valu- 
able paper in the Vetusta Mon. vol. vi. plate xx. A variety of representations are 
also given by Mr. Markland, with his remarks on the early use of carriages in England, 
Archseol. xx. 443. The appellation chare continued in use in the 16th century. 
Horman says, " the quyene came in a chare, pilento. He came in a chare or a wagen." 
It occurs in Hall and Fabyan ; and in Strype's Memoirs, Edward VI. 1557, is men- 
tioned a " chair drawn by six chariot horses.'' 



CHARGYN', rekkyn' or yeve tale 
(reckyn or jeuyn tale, 11. rechen, 
or gyue tale, p.) Curo. 

CHARYETT, supra in CHARE." 

CHARYETTER. Aurigarius, qua- 
drigarius, CATH. redarius. 

CHARYN a-way, supra in CAC- 

CHYN'. 2 

CHARYN, or geynecopyn' (a5en- 

stondyn, K.) Sisto, CATH. 

CHARYOWRE, vesselle. 3 Cati- 


CHARYTE. Caritas. 
CHARKYN', as a carte, or barow, 

or obyr thynge lyke. 4 Arguo, 

UG. alii dicunt stridere. 
CHARLET, dyschemete. 5 Pepo, 


CHARLYS, propyr name. Carolus. 
CHARME. Incantacio. 
CHARMYD. Incantatus. 
CHARMYD, or bygylyd, or for- 

spekyn. Fascinatus, CATH. 

CHARMYN'. Incanto. 
CHARMYN', begylyn', or for- 

spekyn'. Fascino. 
CHARNEL,or chernel. Carnarium. 
CHAASTE. Castus. 
CHASTYZED. Castigatus. 
CHASTYZYN'. Castigo. 
CHASTYSYNGE. Castigacio. 
CHASTYSOWRE. Castigator. 
CHASTYSOWRE bat beryth an 

instrument of chastysynge, to 

make pees. Castifer. 
CHASTYTE. Castitas, pudicicia. 
CHATERYN'. Garrio. 
CHAVYLBONE, or chawlbone 

(chaule bone, p.) 6 Mandibula. 
CHAWMBYR, or chambyr. Ca- 
mera, thalamus. 

CHAWNCE, or happe. Eventus, 


1 " Basterna, est theca manualis vel itineris, a carre, or a chareot, or horslytter." 
ORT. voc. In the Catholicon Basterna is explained to be " vehiculus itineris, quasi 
vesterna, quia mollibus vestibus sternitur, et a duobus animalibus trahitur, ubi nobiles 
femine deferuntur." " Charryet, chariot, branlant.^ PALSG. 

2 " To chare, ubi to chase." CATH. ANGL. A. Sax. cerran, vertere. 

3 ' ' Parapsis, discus, sive vas ex omni parte habens latera equalia, a platter, or a 
dobler, or a charger. Lanx, latus discus, a charger." ORT. voc. " Charger, a great 
platter, ung grant plat." PALSG. " One swanne is ynoughe to fyll a charger. This 
fysshe fylleth a charger, namozanum applet." HORM. 

4 Gower uses this word to express the creaking of a door, Conf. Am. lib. iv. 

" There is no dore, which maie charcke.'' 

Compare CHYRKYN, sibilo, CHERKYN, or chorkyn, or fracchyn as newe cartys or 
plowys, strideo. Ang. Sax. cearcian, stridere. 

5 In the Forme of Cury, p. 27, will be found directions for making " charlet, and 
charlet yforced." It appears to have been a kind of omelet, sometimes compounded 
with minced pork. Pegge derives the term from the French chair. Pepo is explained, 
however, in the Ortus, as " herba quedam, i. melo, or mortrews, et est similis cucur- 

6 " A chafte, a chawylle, a chekebone, maxilla, mala, faux, mandubila, mandula, 
mola." CATH. ANGL. " Chawe bone, machovere." PALSG. In the Latin-English 
Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 140, occurs the word " brancus, a gole, or a chawle." 



CHAUNCEL. Cancellus, CATH. 
CHAUNCELER. Cancellarius. 
CHAUNCEMELE(chavncemely, K.)! 

Subtelaris, c. F. CATH. 
CHAUNCEPE, or schoynge home 

(chaucepe, p.) 2 Parcopollex, 


CHAUNCERYE. Cancellaria. 
CnAWNDELERE. 3 Cerarius,CATH. 
CHAWNGYN'. Muto, permuto. 
CHAWNGYN', or roryn', supra in 

BARTERYN', et infra in RORYN'. 
CHAWNGYNGE. Mutacio, per- 

mutacio, commutacio. 
CHAWNGYNGE, or yeuynge (ro- 

ryng, K. H. roringe, p.) oone 

thinge for a-nothere. 4 Cambium, 

CHAWNIORE of money (chaungere, 
p.) Cambitor, camsor (camp- 
sor, P.) trapezeta, Dice. 

CHAWNTERYE. Cantaria. 

CnAWNTYNGE. 5 Discantus, can- 
tus organicus. 

CHAWNTON'. Discanto, organise. 


CAWEPYS, or chavepys, or stran- 
gury, sekenesse. Stranguria. 

CHEP, or hap (chefe, p.) For- 
tuna, eventus. 

CHEFE, or princypale. Precipuus. 

CHEK. Scactifactio , scaccatus. 

1 " Su&telaris, vnder the hele." ORT. voc. A similar explanation is given in the 
Catholicon, with this addition, ' ' Sotular autem vel sotularis nihil aliud est, ut dicit 
Magister Bene, sed aliqui contrarium dicunt." 

2 The Catholicon gives the following explanation, " Parcopollex, i. tramellum" which 
is properly a thimble : chauncepe appears to be a corruption of the French chaussepied. 

3 Of the office of the chandeler in the household of a great lord, see the curious 
poem appended to the Boke of Curtasye, written about the. time of Henry VI. Sloane 
MS. 1986, f. 46, b. 

" Now speke I wylle a lytulle whyle 
Of the chandeler wyth-outen gyle, 
That torches and tortes and preketes con make, 
Perchours, smale condel, I vndertake." 

Chandler signified not only the maker of candles, but the candlestick, from the French 
chandelier. Thus in the Legenda Aurea mention occurs of a " chaundeler or candyl- 
stycke," f. vii. b. See above CANDELERE, and the word chandler in Jamieson. 

4 See hereafter ROORYN or chaungyn on chaffare for another, cambio. 

It has been stated that the usage of chanting in the English churches was intro- 
duced by Osmund, Bishop of Sarum, 1090 ; but we learn from Bede that Benedict, 
Abbot of Weremouth, brought Abbot John, the arch-chanter, from Rome to this 
country, about A.D. 678, at which period Archbishop Theodoric, a Greek by birth, 
made a visitation of the whole island, and caused instruction to be given in the art 
" sonos cantandi in ecclesid," until then known only in Kent. Bede states even that at 
an earlier period in the same century Paulinus left at York James the Deacon, who was 
" cantandi in ecclesid peritissimus" and who " magister ecclesiastice cantionis juxta 
morem Romanorum, seu Cantuariorum multis ccepit ewistere." Bede, lib. ii. 40. See 
also lib. iv. 3, and v. 20, and the appendix, edit, by Smith, p. 719. The most impor- 
tant treatises on the subject of Church Music are those of St. Nicetus in the Vlth cen- 
tury, and Aurelian in the IXth, subsequent to the great change introduced by St. 
Gregory. A curious notice of the ancient system of notation has been given among 
the "Instructions du Comite Historique. Collection de documents inedits." 1839. 
Chanting or " deschaunt" was among the practices violently opposed by Wickliffe, as 
was all Church-melody by the innovators of a later period. 




CHEKEBONE, supra in chavylbone. 

CHEKENYD, or qwerkenyd (chowk- 

ed or querkened, p.) Suffoca- 

tus, strangulatus. 
CHEKENYNGE (chowkinge, p.) or 

qwerkenynge. Sujfocacio. 
CHEKYN', or qwerchyiY (qaerken, 

p.) Suffoco. 
CHEKKYN' (checken, p.) Scacti- 

fico> KYLW. 
CHEKKYNGE (checkynge, P.) Scac- 

catus, supra. 
CHEKYR. Scaccarium. 
CHEKRYE, as clobys and o]>yr 

thynge (chekered, p.) Scacca- 

CHEKYR, tabulle. Scaccarium, 

stipadium, CATH. 
CHELYNGE, fysche. 1 
CHEYNE (chene, P.) Cathena, boia. 
CHEYNYN', or put yn cheynys. 


CHEEP (chep or pryse, K. chepc, 

p.) Precium. 
CHEPYN'.' Licitor, UG. in liceo, 

CHEPYNGE, or barganynge. Li- 

citacio, stipulacio. 
CHEERE. Vultus. 
CHERY, or chery frute. Cerasum. 
CHERISTONE. Petrilla, cerpeta 

(ceripetra, P.) 
CHERYTRE. Cerasus. 
CHERYN', or make good chere. 

HillarO) exhillaro^ letifico. 
CHERELLE, or charle (churle or 

carle, p.) Rusticus, rustica- 

CHERLYCHE or charlysche (chur- 

lisshe, P.) Rusticalis. 
(CHERLICHLY, K. cherlyschely, H. 

churlisshly, p. Rusticaliter.) 
CHERLYCHE, or charlyche preste 

(churlisshe prest, p.) 3 Ego, 

CATH. vel eco, c. F. 

1 " A kelynge, morus, piscis est." CATH. ANGL. " Morus, quidampiscis, a hadok, a 
kelynge, or acodlynge.'' OUT. voc. At the inthronization feast of Abp. Nevill, 1464, 
there was served " Kelyng, codlyng, and hadocke boy led." Leland Coll. vi. 6. Ac- 
cording to Ray, the keeling is the same as the cod-fish. 

2 "To chepe, taxare. Chepe, precium." CATH. ANGL. In Caxton's Boke for Tra- 
vellers a servant who is sent to market is thus directed, " So chepe for us of the ve- 
nyson, si nous bargaigne." Palsgrave gives the verb " To bargen, chepe, bye and 
sell, marchander. Go cheape a cappe for me, and I wyll come anone and bye it." 
Ang. Sax. ceapian, negotiari. The following use of the substantive occurs in the Will 
of Sir John Lumley, 1420, " I wille bat my brothre William haue J?e landes and rentys 
bettir chepe }>en any othir man, by a reasonable some." Wills published by the Surtees 
Society, i. 63. Caxton in the Boke for Travellers says, " he byeth in tyme and at hour, 
so that he hath not of the dere chepe, du chier marchiet." 

3 " Ut dicit Papias, Egones sunt sacerdotes rustici." CATH. In the Glossary of St. 
Isidore of Seville, who lived in the Vllth century, occur " Econes, sacerdotes rustici. 
Egones, sacerdotes rusticorum." The compiler of the Promptorium was a Friar - 
Preacher, and the insertion of this word may possibly be attributed to the contentious 
feeling which subsisted between the monastic orders and the secular clergy. The illi- 
terate condition, however, of the rural or " uplandish '' clergy brought them generally 
into contempt, and occasioned their receiving the nick-name ' ' Sir John," and other 
appellations of invidious obloquy. 



CHERSYDDE (cheryschyd, H. 

ctierisshed, p.) Potus, nutritus. 
CHERSYN'.* Foveo. 
CHERSYNGE (cherschyng, H. che- 

risshinge, p.) Focio, nutricio. 
CHERVELL, herbe. Cerifolium, 

apium risus* 
CHERWYN', or tetyn' (chervyn or 

fretyn, H. cheruen or freten, p.) 

Torqueo, CATH. 
CHERVYNGE, or fretynge in be 

wombe. Tor do , c. F. 
CHESE. Caseus. 
C HESSE.* Scaccarium. 

CHESEKAKE. Ortacius, ortoca- 
turia, UG. in tigro (artocaseus, 
artocira. P.) 

CHESEFATTE. Casearium,fiscina. 

CHESYN'. Eligo. 

CHESYN', or cullyn' owte. Elicio. 

CHESYNGE, or choyse. Electio. 
CHESYPYLLE (chesible, p.)' Ca- 

CASTANY, frute or tre, idem. 

(chesteyne, p.) Castanea. 
CHESTE. Cista. 
CHESUN, or cawse (chesen, p.) 5 

Causa (occasio, p.) 
CHETE for the lorde. Caducum, 

c. F. confiscarium,Jisca. 
CHETYN'. Confiscor,fisco, UG. 
CHETYNGE. Conjiscacio. 
CHETOWRE. Conjiscator, cadu- 

carius, CATH. 
CHEUERELLE, leddare (cheueler 

lether, P.) (J 
CHEUETUN, or ledar, or capteyn' 

(chefteyne, P.) Capecerius, 

capitaneus, stratiles, c. F. 
CHEVYN', or tbryvyn'. 7 Vigeo. 
CHEW METE. Mastico. 

1 "To cherische or dawnte, blanditractare." CATH. ANG. 

2 See above CHEKYR. 

3 Papiever, MS. " A chesse bolle, papaver, cinolus. 1 " CATH. ANG. The Promp- 
torium gives also CHYBOLLE, cinollus. " Papaver est herba somnifern, anglict a che- 
bole." ORT. voc. " Cheese \>ovi\s,florespapaveris hort. a similiturline aiiqud vasculorum 
caseaceorum sic dicti." SKINNER. See the words Chasbol and Chesbow in Jamieson. 

4 " A chesabylle, casula, infula, planeta." CATH. ANG. " Casula, a chesuble." 
ORTUS. At the Reformation there was still preserved at Canterbury among the vest- 
ments supposed to have been sent by St. Gregory to Augustine AD. 601, "casula 
oloserica purpurei coloris aured teacturd, et lapidibus superius a parte posteriori omata." 
Bede, App. p. 691. 

6 The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. gives in relation to suits 
at law, " Causa, occasio,pretextus, cheson." See hereafter ENCHESONE, or cause. 
" Ackeison, encheison, occasion heureuse, plainte, querelle." ROQUEF. In low Latin 
" acheso, occasio, Us contra jus intentata" DUC. 

6 In Sloan. MS. 73, f. 211, will be found directions "for to make cheuerel lether of 
perchemyne," by means of a solution of alum mixed with yolks of eggs and flour ; and 
also " to mak of whit cheuerel, reed cheuerell," the colour being given by a compound 
of brazil. " Cheuerell lether, cheverotin." PALSG. 

7 The verb to cheve is used by R. Gloucester and R. Brunne, and likewise in Piers 

" The poore is but feble, 
And if he chide or chatre, 
Hym cheveth the worse.'' Vision, line 9375. 




CHEWYNGE of metys or ober 

bynngys. Masticacio. 
CHEW the cood, of bestys (as 

bestis done whan the rest, p.) 


CHEVESAUNCE.' Providencia. 
CHEVYSTYN', or purveyn' (chevy- 

schen, H. cheuesshen, p.) 2 Pro- 

CHYBOLLE, herbe. Cmo to, KYLW. 
CHEKYN'. Pullus. 
CH(EK)YN' WEDE, herbe (cheken- 

wede, p.) 3 Hospia, vel hospia 

major, et minor dicitur oculus 

Christi, morsus galline (hispia, 

p ) 
CHYDAR. Intentor (contentor, 

p.) litigator. 
CHYDYN', or flytyn'. 4 Contendo, 

CATH. litigo. 

CHYDYNGE. Contencio, litigacio. 
CHYKKYN, as corne, orspyryn, or 

sp(r)owtyn.' 5 P^^7o (pupulo, P.) 
CHYKKYN', as hennys byrdys 

(chycke, as henne byrdes, P.) 

Pipio, pululo. 
(CHICKYNG, or spyryng of corne, 

K. sprowtinge of corne, P. Ger- 

minacio, pululatus, pululacio.) 
CHYKKYNGE, or wyppynge of 

yonge byrdys (chickyng or 3ip- 

pyng of bryddys, K. H. yeppinge, 

p.) Pupulatus, KYLW. pupu- 

CHYLANDER, or chylawndur. 6 

Chyndrus (chillindrus, K. p.) 
CHYLDE. Puer, infans. 
CHYLDE, whyle hyt can not speke. 

Proles, soboles. 
CHYLDE BEDDE, or women whan 

]?ey haue chyldryn' (childyng 

or bringyng forthe of childryn, 

K. H.) 7 Decubie, c. r. puer- 

CHYLDEHODDE. Infancia, pue- 

CHYYLDYN', or bryngyfi' furthe 

chylde. 8 Pario. 

Roquefort gives " Chevir, agir, posseder, jouir, en bas lat. cheviare." " To cheve, 
brynge to an ende, aschieuer." PALSG. 

1 This word is used by Piers Ploughman, Chaucer, and Gower. " Schift, cheue- 
saunce, cheuesance." PALSG. 

2 In the Legenda Aurea, f. 64, b. it is related of Becket, " and the nexte nyght after 
he departed in thabyte of a brother of Sympryngham, and so cheuyssed y l he wente 
ouer see." Fabyan states that Rufus said of the Earl of Poytiers, "I woll assaye to 
haue hys Erldom in morgage, for welle I knowe he must cheuyche for money to per- 
fourme that journey " (to Jerusalem). 

3 " Chekynwede, herbe, movron." PALSG. In Norfolk the alsine media according 
to Forby is called Chickensmeat. Ang. Sax. cicena mete, alsine. ELFRIC. 

4 See hereafter FLYTIN, or chydin. The Cath. Ang. gives " To chyde, titigare, 
certare, et cetera ubi to flyte." 

6 To chick signifies still in Norfolk and Suffolk to germinate, as seeds in the earth or 
leaves from the bud. FORBY. 

6 Chilindrus, in French chilandre, PALSG. was a name of Greek derivation, applied 
to_some venomous kind of water-serpent. 

" The English gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth explains " gysine, childing." " There 
was a woman with chylde grete vpon her delyueraunce, and at y e tyme of chyldynge she 
myght not be delyuered." Leg. Aurea. " Partus. puerperium, chyldyng." Vocab. 
Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 

* " To childe, parturire, eniti,fetare, parere. Femina vult parere, sed non vult ilia 


CHYLDYNGE, or woman wythe 

chylde. 1 Pregnans. 

c. F. nola. 

CHYLDYS CAPpE.Calamacium,UG. 
C H Y L L E, herbe . Cilium vel psil- 

CHYLLYN', or (for, p.) colde. 

CHYLLYNGE of tethe or ober 

lyke. Frigidor, CATH. 
CH(Y)MME BELLE (chyme, H. P.) 

CnYMYN',or chenken' wythe bellys 

(clynkebell, p.) Tintillo. 
(CHYMER, K. H. p. Abella, K. 

obella, H. P.) 
CHYMERYNGE, or chyuerynge, or 

dyderynge. Frigutus. 
CHYMNEY. Fumarium. CATH. ca- 

minus, epicaustorium. 
CHYN'. Mentum. 

CHYNCHYN, or sparyn' mekylle 

(chinkinge or to mekyl sparyn, 

H.) Perparco, CATH. 
CHYNCH YR,or chynchare(chynche, 

H. p.) 2 Perparcus, CATH. 
CHYNCERY (chincherye, P.) or 

scar(s)nesse. Parcimonia. 
CHYNE, of bestys bakke. Spina. 
CHYNGYL, or chyngle, bordys for 

helyngys of howsys (shingill, 

howsehillinge, p.) 3 Sindula. 
CHYPPE. Quisquilie, UG. CATH. 

assula, UG. c. F. astula. 
CHYPPYNGE of ledyr, or clothe, or 

other lyke. Succidia, UG. in 

cedo, presigmen, c. F. 
CHYRCHE. Ecclesia (basilica, P.) 
CHYRCHE3ARDE (churcheyerde, 

p.) ' Cimitorium (j)oliandrum,P.) 
CiiYRCHEHOLY. 5 Encennia, in 


parere." CATH. ANG. The Wicliffite version renders Levit. xii. 2, "If a woman 
childib a knaue child, sche schal be vncleene bi vii daies." Cott. MS. Claud. E. 11. 

1 Ang. Sax. cildiung-wif, a child-bearing woman. 

2 " A chinche, tenax, Sfc. ubi cowatus. Chinchery, tenacitas, 8fc. ubi cowatyse." 
CATH. ANG. " Tenax, a toughe balder, or chinche." MED. Chaucer says in the Tale 
of Melibeus, " men blamen an avaricious man, because of his scarcitee andchincherie." 

" Bothe he was scars and chinche." Sevyn Sages, 1244. 

R. Wimbeldon said in his Sermon at Paul's Cross, A.D. 1389, " forsoth wete ye, 
that euerych auouterer, or vncleane man, that is gloton, other chynch, shal neuer haue 
heritage in the realme of Christ and of God." Fox, Acts and Moo. The word is occa- 
sionally written chiche, as by Chaucer, Rom. of R. In French, " chice, mesquin ; 
chichetS, avarice, vilenie." ROQUEF. 

3 Shingles of wood, a covering both light and durable, were probably still, at the 
time the Promptorium was compiled, in very general use for roofing houses, although 
the regulations for the dimension of the various kinds of tiles are a proof of their 
being likewise employed to a considerable extent. See Stat. 17 Edw. IV. c. 4. A.D. 
1477. The term seems derived from the French eschandole, or Latin scindula, and is 
occasionally written shindies. See Holland's Pliny, B. xvi. c. 10. Piers Ploughman 
terms Noah's ark a " shynglede shup,'' an expression that seems to bear some analogy 
to the Ang. Sax. scide-weall, murus de scindulis congestus. ELFRIC. See SCHYNGYL. 

4 In the Seuyn Sages, line 2625, the chirche-hawe is spoken of, Ang. Sax. haga, agellus, 
or hege, septum. In Cath. Ang. it is termed " akyrke-garthe." Ang. Sax. geard, sepes. 

5 " Encenia dicuntur novafesta, vel dedicationes ecclesiarum.'" ORTUS. Ang. Sax. 
cyric-halgung, church hallowing. 



CHYRKYN'. 1 Stbilo. 

CHERKYN', or chorkyn', or frac- 

chyn', as newe cart) s or plowys.* 


CHYRKYNGE. Sibilatus. 
CHYRNE,vesselle. Cimbia, cumbia. 
CHYRNE botyr. Cumo. 
CnYRNYNGE. 3 Cumbiacio. 
C(H)YRPYNGE, or claterynge of 

byrdys (chirkinge or chateringe, 

p.) ' Garritus. 
CHYSEL, instrument. Celtis. 

CHYSEL, or grauel.s Acerua 

(arena, P.) sabulum. 
(CHYST, supra in CHEST, p.) 
CHYTERYN' as byrdys, supra in 


tum, KYLW. 
CHYUALRY, or knyghtehoode. Mi- 


CHYVERYN', supra in CHYLLYN'. 
(CHYUERYNG, or qwakyng for 

coldysupra in chymeryng, H.p.) 7 

1 " And kisseth hire swete, and chirketh as a sparwe with his lippes." Sompnoures 
Tale. " To chyrke, make a noyse as myse do in a house." PALSG. 

2 See above CHARKYN, as a carte. Ang. Sax. cearcian, stridere. Chaucer uses the 
term to express generally a disagreeable sound. 

" All full of chirking was that sory place." Knightes Tale. 


4 Thomas, in his Italian Gramm. 1548, gives " Buffa, the dispisyng blaste of the 
mouthe that we call slurping." 

5 The Latin-English Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. gives " arena, grawell, 
sabulum, sande, glaria, chesylle, " f. 37, and again, f. 56. " nomina lapidum, 
ylaria, chesylle." The etymology of the name Chesil Bank, in Dorsetshire, a 
singular bank of pebbles, which extends nearly seven miles S.E. from Abbots- 
bury, and abuts at Chesilton on the isle of Portland, is here clearly ascertained. See 
prefixed to Holinshed's Chron. the description of the Chesill, by Harrison, Descr. of 
Brit. p. 58. Harrison speaks also of the Chesill at Seaton in Devonshire, where he 
says " the mouth of the Axe is closed by a mighlie bar of pibble stones," p. 59, and 
copies the account given by Leland, Itin. iii. f. 42, "the men of Seton began of late 
day to stake and make a mayne waulle withyn the Haven and ther to have trenchid 
thorough the chisille, and to have let out the Ax, and receyvid in the mayn se. But 
this purpose cam not to effect. Me thought that nature most wrought to trench the 
chisil hard to Seton Town, and ther to let in the se." In this instance the term chisel 
seems to accord with the explanation given in the Medulla, " Glarea, argilla, vel 
primum lapides quos aqua fluviatilis trahit." Harl. MS. 2257 . It implies, however, in 
a more general sense the pebbles on the shore ; thus in the Coventry Mysteries, p. 56, 
is the following paraphrase of Genes, xxii. 17. 

" As sond in the see dothe ebbe and flowe, 

Hath cheselys many unnumerable." 

In the Wicliffite version this passage is rendered " gravel which is in \>e brink of be 
see." Ang. Sax. ceosel, glarea, sabulum. Teut. kesel. In Norfolk chizzly signifies 
dry and harsh under the teeth, which Forby derives from Teut. kiesele, gluma. The 
Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 147, gives among " pertinencia pistrine, 
Cantabrum, any lice chycelle." 

6 " Chiterlynge, hilla.^ CATH. ANG. " Chyterling, endoile." PALSG. Horman 
says, " let us have trypis, chetterlyngis, and tryllybubbys ynough, suppedita aulicoctia 
ad saiietatem." Skinner derives the word from Teut. kutteln, intestina. 

' Chaucer writes in the Blake Knyght, " I chiver for defaut of hete,'' and Gower 



CHOYSE. Electio. 
CHOSUN. Electus. 
CHOWEN, supra in CHEWEN. 
CHOWYNGE (or chewynge, p.) 

CHOFFE, or chuffe, charle, or 

chutt (chuffe, cherl or chatte, H. 

cliel, or chaffe, supra in carle, 

p.) 1 Rusticus, supra. 
CHORLYSCHE, or carlysche. Rus- 

ticanus, rusticacio. 
CYBBE, or kyn, or lye (akyn, H. 

of kyn, p.)* Affinis. 
CYBREDE. Banna, in plur. c. F. 
CYYD, as clothys bat be thredbare 

(cyd, H.) 3 Talaris. 
CYYDE of amann, orbeste. Latus. 
CYFTYN'. Cribro. 
CYFTYNGE. Cribracio. 
CYTHE. Quere in S literd. 
CYYNGE DOWNE, or swownynge 

(cyghinge or swonynge downe, 

P.) Sincopacio. 
CYKYLLE. Fassilla, vel fassicula 

(falcilla,falcicula,falx, P.) 

CYKYR, fro harme. Securus, 

CYKYR or (of, p.) sothefastenesse. 


CYKYRNESSE. Securitas. 
CYLLABLE. Sillaba. 
CYLKE. Sericum (serica, P.) 
CYLKE WORME. Bombex, c. F. 
CYLKE WOMAN. Devacuatrix 

(aurisceca, P.) 

CYLTE, soonde. Glarea, c. F. 
CYLUER. Argentum. 
CYLLOWRE (cylere, p.) 5 Gla- 

tura (celatura, P.) 
CYLUERDE (cyluryd, H. cylered, 

p.) Celatus. 

(CILUERYN, K. H. P. Argento.) 
CYMNEL, brede. 6 Artocopus. 
CYMPYLLE. Simplex. 
CYMPYLNESSE. Simplicitas. 
CYM, propyr name (Cymund, H.P.) 

CHYNCHONE, herbe (cynchone, 

H. p.7 Ceneceon, camadroos.) 

uses the verb to chever. " Chyueryng as one dothe for colde ia an axes, or otherwise, 
frilleux." 1 PALSG. 

1 Chuffy, as Forby observes, does not in Norfolk now signify clownish, but merely fat 
and fleshy, particularly in the cheeks. French, jouffu. Palsgrave gives " chuffe, boujfe," 
which is explained by Cotgrave as " a swollen or swelling cheek ; Boufft, puffed, blown.'* 

2 See hereafter SYBBE and SYBREDE. 

3 See hereafter SYYD, as clothys. Talaris. This term, which is retained in Norfolk, 
implies commonly merely the length of a garment, " syde as a gowne, defluxus." CATH. 
ANG. from Ang. Sax. sid, amplus, latus. The reason of its special application here to 
clothes that are threadbare is not apparent, unless it were, that garments in such con- 
dition, losing the swelling folds that new stuffs would form, and hanging close to the 
sides, give the figure a lengthy and lean appearance. 

4 See hereafter SYYNGE downe. 

5 See CEELYN with syllure, and hereafter SYLURE of valle, and SELYN. Cotgrave 
gives " Draperie, a flourishing with leaves and flowers in wood or stone, used especially 
on the heads of pillers, and tearmed by our workmen drapery or cilery." 

6 See BREDE twyss bakyn as krakenelle, or symnel, and hereafter SYMNEL. 

7 In a curious MS. herbal of the XVth century, in the possession of Hugh Diamond, 
Esq. the virtues of this plant are detailed. " Grondeswyle, we clepen in latin seneceon>" 
p. 61. It was used as a plaster for " bolnyngs " and sores, " hit wole staunce J?e hoote 
potagre, and alle manere greues of }>e leggys." By most leeches it was thought dan- 



CYNDYR of be smythys fyre. 

Casuma, c. F. cochiron, RIC. 
CYNE of (or, p.) a tokyn'. Signum. 
CYNAMUM. Cynamomum. 
CYNAMUM, TRE. Sinamus, vel 

sinamomicus, CATH. 
CYNNE. Peccatum, piaculum, 


CYNFULLE. Criminosus^peccosus. 
CYNFULLY. Criminose. 
CYNNYN'. Pecco. 
CYNNYNGE. Peccamen. 
CYNGYN'. Cano, canto, psallo. 
CYNGYNGE, or (of, P.) songe. 

CYNGYNGE of masse (messys, p.) 


(CYNKE of a lawere, P.I Mergulus.) 
CYNKYN'. Mergo, submerge. 
CYNKYNGE. Dimersio, submercio. 
CYNTER or masunry (cyynt of 

masonrye, P.) Cintorium, 
CYNEW, or cenu, of arrays, or 

leggys (cynows, p.) Nervus. 
CYPPYN', or drynkyn' lytylle. Bi- 

bito, subbibo, CATH. 
CYPPYNGE, of drynke. Subbibi- 

tura, CATH. in bibo. 
CYPRESSE, tre. Cipressus. 

CYRCUMSYCYON'. Circumsicio. 
CYYR (eyre, or syr, p.) Dominus, 

CYSMATYKE. Cismaticus, cis- 


CYSOWRE. Forpex. 
CYSTYR, by be faderys syde 

oonly. Soror, CATH. 
CYSTYR, by be modurys syde. 


(CYTE, p.) Civitas, urbs. 
CYTEZEYNE (cytesyn, p.) Cives 

(jirbanita, P.) 
CYTYR, tre. 2 Citrus. 
CYTTYN'. Sedeo. 
CYTTYNGE. Sessio, sedile. 
(CYTTINGE place, or cete, p. Sedile, 

CYVE, (or cifte, P.) for corne 

clansynge. Cribrum, cribellum. 
CYVE, for mele. Furfuraculum, 

c. F. 
CYUEDYS, of mele, or brynne (cy- 

uedus, w.) Furfur, cantabrum, 

CYVER, or maker of sevys (cyvyer, 

H. maker of cyues, p.) Cri- 

CYVYS, herbe (cyues, P.) 

gerous to use it internally, although so recommended by Pliny; however, ")>is erbe 
algreene, if it be dipped invynegre, and so y ete wole abate >e fretyng of |>ewombe ;" 
and the touch of the root was accounted a specific for the tooth ache. 

1 The drain of a lavatory seems to be here alluded to, such as that with which the 
lavacrum or piscina on the south side of the altar was invariably supplied, which 
allowed the water that had served for washing the sacred vessels, and for the ablutions 
during the service of the altar, to sink into the earth : or generally in reference to such 
provisions for cleanliness as are to be observed in most monastic establishments, as 
especially the lavatories in the cloisters at Chester and Worcester Cathedrals. Mer- 
ffulus, however, usually signifies the sink of a lamp, wherein the wick was placed. 

2 The citron was probably introduced into Europe with the orange by the Arab con- 
querors of Spain, and first received in England from that country. By a MS. in the 
Tower it appears that in 1290, 18 Edw. I. a large Spanish ship came to Portsmouth, 
and that from her cargo Queen Eleanor purchased Seville figs, dates, pomegranates, 15 
citrons, and 7 poma de orenge. See the introduction to the valuable volume on House- 
hold Expenses in England, presented to the Roxburghe Club, by B. Botfield, Esq. p. xlviiL 



CYVN' of a tre. Surculus, vitu- 

lamen, CATH. 
CYYD, (cyued, p.) or cythyd and 

clensyd, as mylke, or ober 

lyke (Hcoure, p.) 1 Colatus. 
CYFTYN' (cyuyn, p.) or clensyn'. 

Colo, CATH. 
CYTHYNGE (cyynge, H. cyuynge, 

p.) or clensynge. Colatura. 
Qnere plura vocabula similem 

sonum istis habencia in S 

literd, ubi I vel Y sequitur hanc 

liter am S immediate. 
CLADDE, or clothydde. Vestitus, 

CLAM', or cleymows (gleymous, 

K. H. p.) 2 GlutinosuS) vis- 


CLAMERYN' (or crepyn, ?.)Repto. 
CLAMERYNGE, or clymynge. Rep- 

cio, reptura (reptacio, K.) 
CLAPPE, or grete dynne (dynt, p.) 3 


CLAPPARRE (clat, H. j. clappe, p.) 

CLAPPE, or clakke of a mylle 

(clat, H. clatte, p.) Taratan- 

tara, UG. in tardo, CATH. ba- 

tillus, Dice. c. F. 
(CLAPYRof abell, K. H. P. Ba- 

tillus, c. F. Dice.) 
CLAPPYN', or knokkyn'. Pulso. 
CLAPPYN' hondys to-gedyr for ioy, 

or for sorowe. Complodo, c. F. 
(CLAPPYNGE, H. p. Percussio.) 
CLAPPYNGE, or clynkynge of a 

belle. Tintillacio. 
CLARET of a tunne (cleret, p.) 

CLARET, or cleret, as wyne. Se- 

CLARET, wyne (clarey, K. clarry, 

p.) ' Claretum. 
CLARYFYYN'. Clarifico. 
CLARYN' wythe a clary one (clary- 

yn, K. p.) Clango. 

1 " Colum, a mylke syhe, or a clansynge syfe." MED. See hereafter SYYNGE, or 

a " Clammy, as breed is not through baken, pasteux." PALSG. See hereafter GLEY- 
MOWS or lymows. In Norfolk meat over-kept is said to have got a clam ; and to clam 
signifies to stick together by viscid matter. FORBY. Ang. Sax. clam, lutum, clsemian, 

3 " They that serche the ende of a mannys lyfe by nygrymanciars be payed at a 
clappe, clade involvuntur." HORM. 

4 The French term dart seems simply to have denoted a clear transparent wine, but 
in its most usual sense a compounded drink of wine with honey and spices, so delicious 
as to be comparable to the nectar of the Gods. 

" For of the Goddes the vsage is, 
That who so him forsweareth amis, 

Shall that yeere drinke no clarre." Chaucer, Rom. of Rose. 

In the original Romance pigment, clard, and vin par^e are named together, and in the 
Merchant's Tale Januarie is said to indulge in consoling spiced drinks, " Ipocras, 
clareie and vernage." Barth. Anglicus gives a description of the mode of compounding 
claret, lib. 19, de propriet, rerum, c. 56 ; and recipes " ad faciendum claretum" occur 
in Sloan. MSS. 1986, f. 14, b. and 3548, f. 105. The following directions are found 
in Sloan. MS. 2584, f. 173. "To make Clarre. Take a galoun of honi, and skome it 
wel, and loke whanne it is i soden J^at >er be a galoun ; >anne take viii galouns of red 
wyn, )>an take a pounde of pouder canel, and half a pounde of pouder gynger, and a 
quarter of a pounde of pouder peper, and medle alle bese bynges to geder, and >e wyn ; 



CLARINE, trumpett (clary on 
trumpe, p.) 1 Lituus, sistrum, 

C. F. 

CLARYOWRE, or clarenere (clario- 

nere, K. H. p.) Liticen, bellicrepa. 
CLAW, or cle of a beste. Ungula. 
CLAWYN', or cracchyn' (scratche, 

p.) *Scalpo,scrato,grado, c ATH. 
CLAWYNGE. Scalpitacio. 
CLAWSE, or poynte (or clos, p.) 

Clausula (clausa, P.) 
CLAVSURE, or clos (clawser, p.) 3 


CLEY. Argilla, glis. 
CLEYSTAFFE(cleykestaffe,K.H.p.) 4 

Cambusca (cambuca, c. F. 

H. P.) 
CLEYME, or chalaunge. Vendi- 

cacio, clameum. 

CLEYMARE. Vendicator. 
CLEYPYTTE. Argillarium, c. F. 
CLENCH YDDE (clenched, p.) Re- 

tusus, repansus, CATH. 
CLENCHYN'. Retundo, repando, 

CLENCHYN' a-3en' (in wraw speche, 

K.) or chaueryn' a^en'^ for prowde 

herte. 5 Obgarrio, CATH. 
CLENCH YNGE.7?efamcw, repancio. 
CLENE. 6 Mundtis, purus. 
GLENN ESS E. Mundicia, puritas. 
CLENSYD, as lycoure (or tryid, 

K. syyd, H. fyed, p.) supra in 


CLENSYD, or made cleene. Mun- 
datus (purificatus, P.) 

and do hym in a clene barelle, and stoppe it fast, and rolle it wel ofte sij>es, as men 
don verious, iii dayes." Palsgrave gives " Clarry wyne, c/m?." In Norfolk at the pre- 
sent time any kind of foreign red wine is called claret. 

1 " Clarine, cleron." PALSG. Herman says that " a trumpette is streyght, but a 
clarion is wounde in and out with an hope." This instrument received its name from 
its shrill sounds : it was called in low Latin clario, and Knyghton mentions " clarriones 
et tuba," as sounding the onset at Cressy, and speaks of them also in his account of 
the siege of Paris, by Edward III. A.D. 1360. 

2 The verb to scratch, derived by Junius from the Danish, kratse, or the Flemish, 
kratsen, was formerly written cracche : see hereafter CRACCHYN. Chaucer speaks of 
" cratchinge of chekes," and Piers Ploughman says, 

' ' Al the clergie under Crist 

Ne myghte me cracche fro helle, 

But oonliche love and leautee." Vision, 6866. 

3 This term is derived from the Latin, or more directly, perhaps, from the French, 
" closier, petit closferm6 de haies." ROQUEF. Horman says, "these byrdis muste be 
kepte in with a rayle, or a closer latis wyse, clathro." See CLOSERE of bokys or oj>er 

4 Cambuca is rendered in the Medulla Grammatice, " a buschoppys cros, or a crokid 
staf." See hereafter CROCE of a byschope. The term CLEY-STAFFE seems to be taken 
from the similarity of the head of the pastoral staff, in its simplest form, resembling the 
ancient lituus, to the claw of an animal, which here, as by Gower, is written cle. " Cley 
of a beste, ungula." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk the pronunciation cleyes is still retained. 

5 Chaueryn may be here the same as CHARYN, or geynecopyn, which occurs pre- 

6 Clean formerly signified, not merely external, but also intrinsic purity. " He gave 
a senser, and a shyp of clene syluer, argento puro." HORM. 



CLENSYN', or make clene. Mundo, 

puriftco (purgo, depuro, K. P.) 
CLENSYN', supra in CYFTYN'. 

(Colo, P.) 
CLENSYNGE, or powregynge (pur- 

chinge, P.) Purificacio. 
(CLENSYNGE, or cyyinge, H. cif- 

tinge, P. Colatura.) 
CLENZON', or declenson' (clensen, 

p.) Declinacio. 

CLEPYN', (or callyn, K.) 1 Voco. 
CLEPYN' be name. Nuncupor, 

CLEPYN' A-JENE (ageyne, p.) JRe- 


CLEPYN' yn to a place. Invoco. 
CLEPYN owte. Evoco. 
CLEPYN' to-gedyr. Convoco. 
CLEPE to mete. Invito. 
CLEPYNGE, or callynge. Vocacio. 
CLEPPYN', or clynchyn'(clippyn or 

clynkyn, P.) Tinnio, UG. 
(CLEPYNG, K. cleppynge, or clyn- 

gynge of a bell, H. clinkinge, P. 

CLERE, as wedur ys, bryghte (or 

brygth, K.) Clams, serenus. 
CLERE, as watur, or ober licour. 

Limpidus, perspicuus. 
CLERE of wytt, and vndyrstond- 

y(n)ge. Perspicax, c. F. 

CLERGY, or cumpany, or (of, p.) 

clerkys. 3 Clerus, clericatus, 

(CLERGE, or conyng of offyce of 

clerkys, K. clergie, or office of 

clerkes, H. clergie of office, p. 3 


(CLERGYSE, K. p. Clerimonia.) 
CLERYN', or wex (clere or, p.) 

bryghte, as wedur. Sereno, cla- 

CLERYN' fro drestys. Desicco 

(defico, K. P. CATH.) 
CLERYN', or make clere a thynge 

bat ys vnknowe (was vnknowen, 

p.) Clarifico, manifesto. 
CLERKE. Clericus. 
CLERKE of cowntys (a cownt, p.) 


CLERKELY. Clericaliter. 
CLERELY. Clare (perspicue, p.) 
CLERENESSE. Claritas, perspi- 

CLERENESSE of wedyr. Sere- 

CLYTE, or clote, or vegge (clete 

or wegge, K.) Cuneus, c. F. 
CLYFFE, or an hylle (clefe of an 

hyll, p.) Declivum. 
CLYFF, clyft, or ryfte. 4 Sissura, 


1 The verb to clepe is commonly used by Robert of Gloucester, Chaucer, Gower, and 
other ancient writers ; but as early as the commencement of the XVIth century it ap- 
pears to have become obsolete, for Palsgrave gives " I clepe or call, je huysche. This 
terme is farre Northern." Ang. S. cleopian, clamare. Forby gives the word as still 
in use in Norfolk. 

2 " A clerge, clems, clerimonia." CATH. ANG. 

3 The word clergy, signifying erudition suitable to the office, in the sense given to 
the word in the King's Coll. MS. of the Promptorium, is thus used also in Piers Plough- 
man's Vision, 

" I asked hir the high way where that clergie dwelt." 
See the word clargie, in Jamieson. " Clergie, science, literature, savoir." ROQUEF. 

4 Clift occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, to denote what is termed the 
fork of the human figure, in the following passage, Arund. MS. 220. 




CLYK ETT." Clitorium, clavicula, 


CLYMARE. Scansor. 
CLYMYN'. Scando. 
CLYMYNGE. Scansio. 
CLYNGYN', or styrkyn' (shrynke, 

p.) Rigeo, c. F. CATH. 
CLYNYN', or declynyn'. JDeclino, 

CATH. (vario, P.) 
(CLYNE, or bowe downe, p. 

Dec lino, incline.) 

(clynkyn, supra in chymyn, K.) 
CLYNKYNGE of a bell, supra in 

CLAPPYNGE (clyngkynge, K.) 
CLYPPARE. Tensor, tonsatrix. 
CLYPPYN'. Tondeo. 

CLYPPYNGE.* Tonsura. 
CLYPPYCE of be sonne or money 

(clypse, K. p.) 3 Eclipsis. 

doone woode. Findo (scindo, P.) 
CLYUYNGE, or departynge (cleu- 

ynge, p.) Scissura (fissura, P.) 
(CLYUE, or ryue by the selfe, p. 4 

Rimo, risco.) 
(CLIUYN to, K. cleve to, p. Ad- 

CLYUYNGE to, or fastenynge to a 

bynge (cleuynge, P.) Adhesio. 
CLOKERRE, or belfray supra (clo- 

cherre or belief rey, K. clocher, 

p. clocke hous, w. 5 Campanile, 

K. classicum, p.) 

" Quisses (be^es) nages (bottokes) one la fourcheure (>e clift) 
Fount graunt eyse pur chiuauchure (vor ridinge). " 

Clough, a deep fissure or ravine, is a name still retained at Lynn, at a spot described 
by Forby. Ang. Sax. clouh, fissura ad montis clivum. See also cleuch and cleugh in 
Jamieson, and Brockett's Northern words. 

1 " A clekett, clavis." CATH. ANG. " Clyket of a dore, clicquette.^ PALSG. The 
French term cliquet, in low Latin cliquetus, seems properly to have signified a latch, 
" pessulus versatilis, Gall. loquetS' DUC. Thus the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth 
renders it. 

" Par cliJcet et cerure, (lacche and lok) 

Ert la mesoun le plus sure." Arund. MS. 220, f. 302, b. 

Chaucer, however, uses the word in the sense that is here given to it, " clavicula, a 
lytel keye." ORTUS. Thus in the Merchant's Tale, 

" he wold suffre no wight here the key, 

Sauf he himself, for of the smal wiket 
He bare alway of silver a cliket." 

2 "A clippynge, tonsura. A clippynge howse, tonsorium." CATH. ANG. In Norfolk 
to clip signifies now to shear sheep, and the great annual meeting at Holkham was 
commonly termed the Holkham clip, or clipping. FORBY. 

3 " J>e clippys of \>& sone and moyne, eclypsis. To makeclippys, eclipticare." CATH. 
ANG. Chaucer, comparing the course of love to that of the moon, says that it is like 
the planet, 

" Now bright, now clipsy of manere, 
And whilom dimme and whilom clere." 

4 The verbs from CLYUE, to COWRYN, are omitted in the Harleian MS. and are here 
given chiefly from the MS. at King's College, Cambridge, and Pynson's edition. 

5 This term is derived from the French clocher, or the low Latin clochtrium. It 
occurs in the accounts of the Chamberlain of Norwich, among charges for the celebra- 



CLODDE. 1 Gleba. 

(CLODDYN, or brekyn cloddes, K. 


CLOGGE. Truncus. 
CLOYSTYR. Claustrum. 
(CLOKKYN as hennys, K. clocke, p. 

CLOKKYNGE of hennys. Crispi- 

atus, c. F. in crispat. 
C LOK KE. Horisoniumjiorologium, 


CLOOKE (cloke, p.) Armilausa, 

(collobium, P.) 
CLOOS, or boundys of a place 

(clos, P.) Ceptum, ambitus. 
CLOOS, lybrary. Archyvum, c. F. 
CLOOS, ar yerde (or, p.) Clausura. 
(CLosYN,orschettyn, K. shette, p. 


(CLOSYN streytly, K. Detrudo.) 
(CLOSYN ABOWTYN, K. aboute, P. 


(CLOSYN IN, K. Include.) 
(CLOSYN OUTE, or schettyn owt, 

K. Exclude.) 

CLOSET T. Clausella, clausicula. 
(CLOSED. Clausus, P.) 
CLOSYD, clausyd, or closyd yn'. a 


CLOSYD owte. Exclusus> seclusus. 
CLOSPE. OffendiX) firmaculum, 

signaculum, CATH. 
CLOSERE (closure, P.) of bokys, 

or ober lyke. 3 Clausura, coo- 

CLOTE, herbe. Lappa bardana, 

c. F. lappa rotunda (glis, P.) 
(CLOTERYN, as blode, or other 

lyke, K. cloderyn, p. Coagulo.) 
CLOTHE. Pannus. 
CLOTHE woudon' (wouyn, K. H. p.) 

with dyuers colours. Stroma, vel 

pannus stromaticus, CATH. 
CLOWCHYN', or clowe (clowchun, 

tion of the exequies of Henry VIII. A.D. 1547, where a payment appears " to the 
Clarks of Cryste Churche, for ryngyng the clocher bells." Blomf. Hist, ii 155. 

1 " A clotte, cespis, occarium. To clotte, occare. A clottynge malle, occatorium." 
CATH. ANG. " Occo, fflebas frangere, to clotte." ORTUS. In the Medulla, Harl. 
MS. 2257, occur " glebarius, a clotte mailer. Gleba est durus cespes cum herbd, an 
harde klotte." Palsgrave gives the verb to clodde as signifying the formation, and not the 
breaking up of clods. " To clodde, go in -to heapes, or in to peces, as the yerthe dothe, 
amonceler. This yerthe clotteth so faste that it must be broken. To clodde, figer, 

fortier, conyeler." Compare CLOTERYN. 

2 A note, copied by Hearne from a copy of the Promptorium, states that the com- 
piler of the work was "f rater Ricardus Fraunces, inter quatuor par let es pro Christo 
inclusus." See Hearne' s Glossary to Langtoft's Chron. under the word Nesshe. If, 
however, it had been true that he had belonged to the order of Anchorites, who 
were called inclusi, or reclusi, it seems probable that some indication of the fact would 
have here occurred. The dwelling of the Anchorite, domus inclusi, or clusorium, ap- 
pears to have often immediately adjoined the church, and is doubtless in many instances 
still to be distinguished. The ritual for his benediction will be found in Martene, 
Antiq.Rit. lib. iii. c. 3. Palsgrave gives the verb " to close up in a wall, or bytwene 
walles, emmurer. Cannest thou fynde in thy herte to be an Anker, to be closed up in 
a wall? " See hereafter RECLUSE. 

3 Compare CLAUSURE, or clos. Jamieson gives closeris, enclosures, and closerris, 
which he conjectures may signify clasps. In Norfolk Forby observes that the cover of 
a book is called clodger, which he supposes to be derived from the French, closier, as 
the term codger is corrupted from cosier, a cobler. 



H. clewe, P.) Glomus, globus, 

Dice, glomicillus, UG. in garma. 
CLOWDE of be skye (clowde, or 

skye, K. H.)I Nubes, nubecula. 
CLOWDY, or fulle of clowdys 

(skyys, K.) Nubidus. 
CLOWE of garlykke (cloue of gar- 

lek, or other lyke, p.) Costula. 
CLOWE, spyce. Gariofolus. 
CLOWYS, water schedynge (clowse, 

watyrkepyng, K. clowze, n. 

clowse, water shettinge, p.) 2 

CLOWTE of clothe (cloute or 

ragge.) Scrutum, panniculus, 


CLOWTE of a schoo. 3 Pictasium, UG. 
(CLOWTYN, K. Sarcio, CATH. re- 

brocco, )*epecio.) 
(CLOUT disshes, pottes, pannes, p. 

CLOWTER, or cobelere. Sartorius, 

rebroccator (pictaciarius, P.) 
CLOWTER of clothys. Sartorius, 

sartor, sartrix. 
CLOWTYD, as clothys. Sartus, 

CLOWTYD, as shoone, or ober 

thyngys of ledyr. Pictaciatus, 


CLOWTYNGE of clothys. Sartura. 
CLOWTYNGE, or coblynge. Re- 

(CLOWTYNGE of shone, K. Pic- 


(CLOTHYN, K. Vestio, induo.) 
(CLOJJID, supra in CLADDE, K. H.) 
CLOTHYNGE, dede. Induicio. 
CLOTHYNGE, or garment. Indu- 
mentum, vestimentum. 
CLUBBYD staiFe (clubbe, staffe, 

H. P.) Fustis, CATH. 
CLUBBYD, or boystows. Rudis. 
CLEWE, supra in CLOWCHYNGE. 4 
CLUSTYR of grapys (closter, p.) 

Botrus, racemus, UG. 
Coo, byrde, or schowhe. 5 Mone- 

dula, nodula. 

COBYLLSTONE, or cherystone. Pe- 

trilla (ceripetra, lapis cerasi- 

nus, ceramus, P.) 
COCATRYSE. Basiliscus, coco- 

COCUR, boote (cokyr bote, H. p. 6 ) 

Ocrea, coturnus, KYLW. c. F. 

1 Compare hereafter SKYE, nubes. The word skye is thus used both by Chaucer and 
Gower, to signify a cloud. Ang. Sax. skua, umbra, Su. G. sky, nubes. 

2 CLAWYS, MS. "A clowe of flode3ate, singlocitorium, gurgustium.'" CATH. ANG. 
The term clowys appears to be taken from the French ecluse. See the word clouse, 
in Jamieson. 

3 " A clowte of yrne, crusta, crusta ferrea, et cetera nbi plate." CATH. ANG. In 
Norfolk the terms cleat and clout signify an iron plate with which a shoe is strengthened. 
FORBY. Ang. Sax. cleot, clut, pittacium, lamina. Palsgrave gives the verb "to cloute, 
carreler, rateceller. I had nede go cloute my shoes, they be broken at the heles." 

4 " To wynde clowys, glomerare." CATH. ANG. A. Sax. cleow, glomus. 

5 The chough or jackdaw, called in the Eastern counties a caddow. See before 
CADAW, or keo, or chowghe, and hereafter KOO, bryd, or schowghe. " Monedula, coo." 
Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "A ka, monedula." CATH. ANG. " Nodulus, a kaa." OUT. 
voc. Ang. Sax. ceo, comix. 

6 The coarse half-boot used by rustics was called a cocur, and the term cocker is 
still used in the North of England, but properly signifies gaiters or leggings, and even 



COKERYNGE, or grete chers- 
chy(n)ge (ouer greate cherys- 
shinge, P.) Focio, nutricio, 
carefocus (carifotus^ P.) 

(COKERYN, P. Carifoveo.)^ 

(COKYRMETE, K. H. 2 Cenum, 
lutum, CATH.) 

CODDE, of frute, or pesecodde. 

CODDE, of mannys pryuyte (preuy 
membris, p.) Piga, mentula 
(testiculus, jiscus, P.) 

CUDDE, of bestys chewynge (cod 
of bestys, or chewynge, P.) Ru- 

CODE, sowters wex (coode, H. p.) 3 

Coresina (cerisina, P.) 
CODDYD CORNE (coddis, p.) Lu- 

CODLYNGE, fysche. Morusj et 

nota quod sic dicitur quia 

morose nature fertur. 
CODULLE, fysche. 4 Sepia, UG. bel- 

ligo (lolligo. P.) UG. in lolium. 
COFYN'. S Cophynus, c. F. 
COFUR. Cista. 
COGGE of a mylle. Scarioballum, 

(DICC. P.) 
(COGGYN a mylle, p. Scario- 


coarse stockings without feet, used as gaiters. In a MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's 
possession, Culponeus is rendered " a carl stoghe," (in the Ortus "a chorles shoo,") 
with this additional explanation, " vel a Cokyr, ut dicit Campus florum" Piers 
Ploughman speaks of his " cokeres," Vision, line 3915, and they may be seen in the 
curious drawing in a MS. of the Poem in the Library Trin. Coll. Cant, an engraving 
from which is given in Shaw's Dresses. Elyot gives " Carpatinee, ploughmen's bootes 
made of vntanned lether, they maye be called cokers. Peronatus, he that weareth 
rawe lether shoen, boteux, or cokars lyke a ploughman." Librarie, 1542. 

1 Junius compares this word with the Dutch, kokerillen, celebrare hilaria, but Lye 
is inclined to trace its etymology to the Welsh, cocr, indulgens. The use of the term 
is fully illustrated by Palsgrave. "To coker, cherysshe to moche, mignotter. This 
boye canne never thriue, he is cokered so moche. To coker, bring up with daynty 
meates, affriander, affrioller, Coker hym up thus in his youthe, and you shall haue a 
fayre caulfe of hym shortly." See below, COOKERYNGE METE. 

2 This singular term was given most erroneously in the printed editions of the Promp- 
torium ; Pynson printed it Ckyrmete, Julian Notary Chyimete, and W. de Worde Chy- 
mette. It appears to relate to the kind of rustic boot called here a cocur, and cokyr ; 
but the whimsical application of such a term to clay is wholly unaccountable. 

3 Among numerous substances, resin, grease, and herbs, mentioned in the curious di- 
rections for making a good " entreet," or plaster to heal wounds, occurs " Spaynisch 
code." Sloan. MS. 100, f. 17. 

4 Elyot renders " Sepia, a fyshe called a cuttell. Loligo, a fyshe whiche hath his 
head betwene his feete and his bealy, and hath also two bones, oone lyke a knyfe, the 
other lyke a penne." The Sepia officinalis , which is found commonly on the coasts of 
Britain, is not properly a fish, but belongs to Cuvier's great division of Molluscous 
animals, and the class of Cephalopodes. Ang. Sax. cudele, sepia. See hereafter, COTULL. 

5 The primary meaning of the word cofyn seems to have been, as in Latin and French, 
a basket, and is thus used in the Wicliffite version, which renders Matt. xiv. 20, " Thei 
token the relifis of broken gobetis, twelve cofyns full." Elyot renders " Tibin, a bas- 
kette or coffyn made of wyckers or bull rushes, or barke of a tree ; such oone was Moyses 
put in to by the daughter of Pharao." The term also implied a raised crust, as for a 
pie, or a custard, and occurs in this sense in Shakespeare. See also the Forme of Cury, 
pp. 72, 83, 89. Palsgrave gives " Coffyn, yrant boiste." 



COGBOOTE (cokbote, p.) Scafa. 
COY, or sobyr. Sobrius, modestus. 
COYFE, supra in CAPPE.' Tena, 

corocallum (carocallum^ p.) 

capicella, COMM. KYLW. 
COYLY, or sobyrly. Modest e. 
(CoYYN, K. p. a Blandior.) 
COYNGE, or st(y)rynge to werkyn* 

(sterynge to done a werke, K. 

styringe, p.) Instigacio. 
COYTER, or caster of a coyte. Pe- 

treludus (petriludarius, K. p.) 
COYTE. Petreluda. 
(CoYTYN, K. Petriludo.) 


COOKE (coke, K. p.) mete dytare. 

Cocus, coquinarius. 
COKKROWYNGE, tyme (cokcrow, 

tyme, K.) Gallicinium, galli- 

cantus, UG. in castrio. 
COK BELLE. Nola, campanella, 

bulla, BRIT. 

COKNAY (cokeney, K.) 3 Cari- 
fotus, cucunellus, fotus, c. F. 
delicius, et sunt nomina deri- 
sorieficta, et inventa (lauticius, 
carenutus, coconellus, K. lu- 
cimellus, P.) 

COKYR, botew, supra. Cocurus. 

COKERELLE. Gallus (gallimellus, 
gallulus, CATH.gallinacius, p.) 


COCLE, fysche (cokyll, p.) Coclea. 
COKYLLE, wede. 5 Nigella, lol- 

lium, zizannia^ CATH. (gitt, P.) 
COKOLDE. Ninerus. 
COKKYS combe. Cirrus. 
COLLEGE. Collegium. 
COOLDE (colde, P.) Frigidus. 
COOLDE, substantyfe. Frigus, 

COOLDER, schuldere (coldyr, 

K. H. p.) Petrosa, petro. 
COLE of fyre, brynnynge. Pruna. 

1 " A coyfe, pillius, pilleolus, apex, galerus. Versus, Pillius est juvenum, peregri- 
numque galerum." CATH. ANG. See above, the note on CAPPE, or hure. 

2 Chaucer uses the verb to " acoie," in the sense of making quiet ; in Spenser it sig- 
nifies to caress, and also to daunt. Palsgrave gives " to coye, styll, or apayse, ac- 
quoyser." The derivation is evidently from the French quoi, quietus, now written coi. 

3 " A coknay, ambro, mammotrophus, delicius. Versus, Delicius qui deliciis a 
matre nutritur." CATH. ANG. The term coknay appears in the Promptorium to imply 
simply a child spoiled by too much indulgence ; thus likewise in the Medulla, " Mam- 
motrophus, qui diu sugit. Mammotrophus mammam longo qui temporeservat, Kokenay 
dicafur, noster sic sermo notatur" There can be little doubt that the word is to be 
traced to the imaginary region " ihote Cokaygne," described in the curious poem 
given by Hickes, Gramm. A. Sax. p. 231 , and apparently translated from the French. 
Compare " le Fabliaus de Coquaigne." 1 Fabl. Barbazan et Meon. iv. 175. Palsgrave 
gives the verb " To bring up lyke a cocknaye, mignotter ; " and Elyot renders " delicias 

facere, to play the cockney." " Dodeliner, to bring vp wantonly, as a cockney." 
Hollyband's Treasurie. See also Baret's Alvearie. Chaucer uses the word as a term 
of contempt, and it occasionally signifies a little cook, coquinator. See further in 
Douce's Illustrations, King Lear; and Brand's Popular Antiquities, notes on Shrove 

4 This word occurs here as a substantive. See above, COKERYNGE. 

h " Cokylle, quedam aborigo, zazannia." CATH. ANG. It would seem that Chaucer 
considered the term Lollard as derived from lollium. See hereafter, LOLLARDE. 

6 Colder in the dialect of Norfolk signifies " broken ears of corn mixed with frag- 
ments of straw, beaten off by the flail ;" and in Suffolk the " light ears and chaff left in 
the caving sieve, after dressing corn, " are termed colder, or cosh." See Forby, and 



COLE, qwenchyd. Carbo> CATH. 
COOLDE (cole, P.) or sum-what 

colde. Algidus, c. F. 
(COLE, or sum what colde, K. p. 


(COLYN, or kelyn, K. Frigefacio.) 
COLL ERE. Collar e, collar ium. 
COLLER of howndys. Millus, 

CATH. in millo. 

COLLER of horsys. Epiphium. 
COLLER of a garment. Patagium, 

CATH. UG. in pateo. 

COLLER, or lyue(rey) (of leuery, 

K. of lyvery, H. p.) 1 Torques. 
COLLERYDE. Torquatus. 
COLETTE, propyr name (Collet, 

p.) Colecta. 

COOLYD, of heete. Frigefactus. 
COLYKE, sekenesse. Collica pas- 

COLYER, or colyfere (colyjer, H. 

coler, p.) Carbonarius* 
COOLYNGE. Frigefaccio, refri- 

geracio, refrigerium. 

Moore. Petro signifies the clippings of stone. " Petrones sunt particule que abscin- 
duntur de petris.^ CATH. 

1 The usage of distributing year by year a robe, or some external token of adherence 
to the service or interests of the personage by whom such general retainer was granted, 
appears to have commenced during the XHIth century. The gift, whether a robe, a 
hood, or other outward sign, was termed a livery, liberata, and the practice was carried to 
so pernicious an extent, that various statutes passed in the reigns of Edward III. Ri- 
chard II. and Henry IV. by which the use of liveries was restricted or regulated. Mr. 
Beltz, in his curious article on the Collars of the King's Livery, Retrosp. Review, N. S. 
ii. 500, states that the first instance on record of conferring such marks of distinction 
in England is in 1390, when Richard II. distributed his cognisance of the white hart, 
but the assertion copied from Anstis, that it was pendant from a collar of broom-cods, 
does not appear to rest on any authority. This collar was, however, presented in 1393 
to Richard II. and his three uncles by Charles VI. King of France, whose cognisance it 
was. Such a "colare del livere du Roi de Fraunce " is mentioned in the Inventories of 
the Exchequer Treasury, vol. iii. 357. See Mr. J. G. Nichols's interesting observations 
on the Effigies of Richard II. and his Queen, Archseol. xxix. 46. The earliest notice 
of collars of livery, that has been observed, occurs in Rot. Parl. iii. 313, where it ap- 
pears that when John of Gaunt returned in 1389 from the wars in Spain and Gascony, 
Richard took his uncle's " livere de coler " from his neck, and wore it himself; that it 
was also worn by some of the King's retinue ; and that Richard declared in Parliament 
that he wore it in token of affection, as likewise he wore the liveries of his other uncles. 
It is not improbable that this livery of the Duke of Lancaster's was the collar of letters 
of SS, subsequently adopted by Henry IV. as his livery, the origin of which is still 
involved in obscurity. This device had been in use many years before his accession, 
and as early as 1378 Sir John de Foxle, whose will is preserved in Bishop Wykeham's 
Register at Winchester, bequeathed " Monile auri, cum S liter A sculptd et amelitd in 
eodem." The livery of Henry V. during the life-time of his father, was a swan, adopted 
doubtless in token of his descent from the Bohun family ; the Stat. 2 Hen. IV. c. 21, 
contains a clause ' ' que Monseigneur le Prince purra doner sa honorable liveree del 
Cigne as seigneurs et a ses meignalx gentilx ; " and such were probably the " Colers 
d? argent de la livere du Roy," which are enumerated in the Inventories of the effects of 
Henry V. taken at his decease, 1423. Rot. Parl. iv. 214. Henry VI. used a collar 
formed of broom-cods and the letter S alternately, and Edward IV. adopted as his li- 
very a collar of suns and roses, to which a white lion was appended. There is no evi- 
dence that collars of livery were ever distributed by subjects, excepting the Princes of 
the blood. 



(COLYSSHE, disshemete, p.) 1 
CoLYTTE. 2 AccolituS) cerofera- 

rius, CATH. 

COLMOSE, byrde. 3 Alcedo. 
COLLOPPE. Frixatura, UG. in 

frigo, asm, NECCH. carbona- 

cium, KYLW. carbonella, UG. 
COLO w RE. Color. 
COLORYD. Coloratus. 
(COLORYN, K. colowren, p. Coloro.) 
COOLE RAKE (colrake, H. p.) 4 

Restellum, batillum, CATH. c. F. 
COLTE (or fole, p.) yonge horse. 


COLWYNGE (colowynge, p.) Car- 


COLUMBYNE, herbe. Columbina. 
COLUMNE of a lefe (of a boke, p.) 

COMBE, for kemynge. Pecten. 

COMBE, or other lyke of byrdys, 

supra in COKKYS. 
COMBE, of curraynge, or horse 

combe. StrigiliSt c. F. 
COMBE, of hony. Favus. 
(COMAWNDYN, or byddyn, K. 

Mando,jubeo, impero, hortor.) 

COMMAWNDEMENT of a kynge. 

Mundiburdium,) c. F. (edictum, 

p :> 

COMMAWNDOUR. Preceptor,man- 

(COMBYNYN, or copulyn, K. 

coplyn, P. Combino, copulo.) 
COMELY, or semely in syghte. 

COMELY, or semely, or well far- 

ynge in schappe, Elegans. 
COMELYD, for colde. 6 Eviratus. 

1 " A culice, morticium." CATH. ANG. In the collection of Recipes, dated 1381, 
printed with the Forme of Cury, will be found one " for to make a Colys," which was 
a sort of invigorating chicken broth. See p. 94, and Preface, p. xvii. where will be 
found references for further information on the subject. The term is French. Cotgrave 
gives " Coulis, a cullis or broth of boiled meat strained, fit for a sick body." See the 
words collice in Junius, and cullis in Nares' Glossary. 

a Of the minor orders in the Christian church, the fourth is that of acolyte, suc- 
ceeded immediately by that of subdeacon, the first of the greater orders. The functions 
of the acolyte, consisting chiefly in attendance on the services of the altar, will be found 
detailed by Martene, or Ducange. By the writers of the XVIth century the orders of 
" benet and colet " are mentioned not infrequently together. See above BENETT, ordyr, 
Exorcista. " Accolitus, serviensin missd habens ordinem, a collect. Acholitus Grece, 
ceroferarius Latine, a colet." ORTUS. 

3 " A collemase, alcedo," CATH. ANG. " Alcedo est quedam avis que ceteris avilus 
sedulius alit pullos. Anglice, a seernewe." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. colmase, parula. 

4 " A colrake, trulla, verriculum." CATH. ANG. Elyot gives " Rutabulum, a coole 
rake to make cleane an oven." See Comenius, orbis sensualium, by Hoole, p. 113. 

s " To colowe, make blacke with a cole, charbonner" PALSG. Forby gives the verb 
to collar, as used in Norfolk in the same sense. In other parts of England the expres- 
sion to collowe or colly is retained. Shakespeare in Mids. Night's Dream applies the 
epithet " colly 'd " to the night. See Nares. 

6 See above the note on A-COMELYD for coulde. Cumbled still signifies in Norfolk 
cramped or stiffened with cold ; cumbly-cold denotes great severity of weather. See 
Forby, and the word cumber, or benumbed with cold, in Jamieson. In the Wicliffite ver- 
sion a-clumsid occurs in the same sense : " We herden \>e fame berof, our hondis ben 



COMLYNESSE, or seeinelynesse. 

Decencia, elegancia. 
COMELYNGE, new cum man or 

woman. 1 Adventicius, inquilinus. 
(COMENDYN, orgretyn, K. recom- 

ende, p. Recommendo, com- 

(COMENDYN, or preysyn, K. Lau- 

do, commendo.) 


(COMEROUS, p. Vexativus,vexu- 

COMET sterre, or blasynge sterre. 

Cometa, vel stella comata. 
COMYN', SEEDE. (Ciminum, P.) 
COMYNGE TOO. Adventus. 
COMYS, of malte (comys, p.)* 

Paululata, KYLW. (pululata, 

K. P.) 
(COMUNYN, or make comowne, K. 

comon or make comon, p. Com- 

(COMOUNE, or talke with another 

in cumpany, or felawshepe, H. 

comon, P. Communico.) 
COMOWNTE (comnavnte, K. coue- 

naunte, p.) 3 Communitas. 

COMOWNE. Communis. 
COMOWNLY. Communiter. 
COMOWNE, pepylle. Vulgus. 
COMOWNE |>ynge, or comown 

goode. Res publica. 
COMPERE, falawe (compyre, p.) 

Compar, coequalis. 
COMPLAYNTE. Querimonia, 

COMM. querela. 
COMPLEXIONS. Complexio. 
COMMUNYONE (the, p.) sacrament. 

(COMPOSTYN, or dungyn, p. 

CONABLE, accordynge. 4 Compe- 

CONABLY, or competently. 4 Com- 

CONCEYTE. Conceptus. 


CONCEYUYNGE. Concepcio. 
(CONIECTEN, P. Mollior.) 
CONSENT, or grawnte. Assensus 

(consensus, p.) 
(CONCENTYN, or grawntyn, K. 

Consencio, assencio.) 
CONSCIENCE. Consciencia. 
CONDYCYONE. Condicio* 

a-clumsid, tribulacioun haj> take us," Jerera. vi. 24 ; and the expression " thou clom- 
sest for cold" is found in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, line 9010. " Clumsyd, evi- 
ratus. Cumbyrd, ubi clumsyd." CATH. ANG. In the curious translation of Vegecius, 
Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that a fleet should not venture to sea after the au- 
tumnal equinox, when " the see is looke and shit up, and men bethe combered and 
clommed with colde." B, iv. c. 39. 

1 In the Wicliffite version the following passages occur: "A comelynge which 
is a pilgrim at ^ou." Levit. xviii. 26 ; " Most dere I biseche you as comelingis and 
pilgryms." 1 Pet. ii. 11. The following expression occurs in Trevisa's translation of 
Higden's Polychronicon, in reference to the use of the French language in Britain ; 
" the langage of Normandie is a comlynge of another lande, '* in the original " adven- 
titia." " Accida, Anglice a comlynge." ORTUS. "Accola, advena, a comelinge." 
MED. GRAMM. " A cumlynge, advena." CATH. ANG. Ang. Sax. cumling, advena. 

2 " Cummynge as malte, germinatus," CATH. ANG. 

3 " A commontye, vulgus, populus, gens, plels." CATH. ANG. 

4 Jamieson derives the word from the Latin conalilis, what may be attempted with 
prospect of success. 




(CONYN, or hauyn conynge, K. 1 


CON FECTYON' of spyces (confexion, 
H. P. spysery, K.) Confeccio. 

CONFLYCTE of verre (or werre, 
K. P.) Conflictus. 

CoNFUSYONE,orschame. Confusio. 

(CONGELLYN, K. Congelo.) 

CONY. Cuniculus. 
CONYYS hole. Cunus, CATH. 
(cania, p.) 

CUNNYNGE, or scyence. 2 Sciencia. 
(CONYNGE, or wytt, K. wytty, P. 

CONNYNGERE, or connynge erthe. 3 

COONYONE, or drowtly (conione or 

dwerhe, K. conione or dwerwe, H. 

congeon or dwerfe, p.) 4 Sessillus. 
COYNOWRE, or coynesmytare. 5 

CONIURACYON', or coniurynge. 


1 " To cone, to cunne, scire." CATH. ANG. " Coanoscere, scientiam habere, to 
conne." ORTUS. To conne is used in this sense by Chaucer, and in the Wicliffite ver- 
sion, 1 Cor. ii. 2, is rendered thus, " I deeme not me to kunne ony thing." Caxton 
remarks in the Boke for Travellers, " It is a good thyng to conne a good craft, 
scavoir." So likewise in the Legenda Aurea, f. 92, b. " O who sholde conne shewe 
hereupon the secretes of thyne herte ! " Palsgrave gives " to konne, learne or knowe, 
scavoir. I can konne more by herte in a day, than he can in a weke ; " and " to conne 
thanke, or can one good thanke, scavoir bon gr6." " Thou shalt kun me thanke." 
HORM. See Jamieson. Ang. Sax. connan, scire. 

2 " A connynge, scientia,facultas." CATH. ANG. " Connynge is of that thou haste 
lerned the memory or mynde, and reteyneth that thou sholdest forgete." Legenda 
Aurea, f. 53. Ang. Sax. cunning, experientia. 

3 This word is used by Lydgate in the Concords of Company, Minor Poems, p. 174. 

" With them that ferett robbe conyngerys." 

Among the Privy Purse expenses of Henry VII. is a payment in 1493, " for making of 
the Conyngerthe pale." Herman observes that " warens and conygers and parkis 
palydde occupie moche grounde nat inhabitaunt, leporaria sive lagotrophia.'" Elyot 
gives " Vivarium, a counnyngar, a parke ; " and Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, 
1548, uses the word to denote a pleasance, or enclosed garden, " Horti di Venere, the 
womans secrete connyngers." " Cony garthe, garenne. Cony hole or clapar, tais- 
niere, terrier, clappier." PALSG. In the Paston Letters, iv. 426, the term " konyne 
closse" occurs in the same sense. In almost every county in England, near to ancient 
dwelling places, the name Coneygare, Conigree, or Coneygarth occurs, and various con- 
jectures have been made respecting its derivation, which, however, is sufficiently obvious. 
See Mr. Hartshorne's observations on names of places, Salopia Antiqua, p. 258. 

4 Coinoun, or konioun, occurs in Kyng Alisaunder, and is explained by Weber as 
signifying coward, or scoundrel, from the French coion, which has that meaning. 

" Alisaundre 1 thou coinoun wode." line 1718. 
" Pes I quoth Candace, thou konioun ! " line 7748. 
Here, however, the word seems merely to signify a dwarf. See hereafter DWEROWE. 

6 The first record of a mint at Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, occurs 
in 9th John, 1208, but there was possibly one in earlier times, and the name occurs on 
the coins of Edgar. Parkins supposes that it fell into disuse about 1344, 18 Edw. III. ; 
and he states that the Bishop of Norwich had also a mint there, but the fact is ques- 
tionable. See Blomeneld's Hist. Norf. iv. p. 582, and Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, 
ii, 198. 


CONQUESTS, or conquerynge. 

(CONSTREYNYN, K. Compello, 

cogo, coarceo, arto, urgeo.) 


tacio, compulsio. 
CONSTRUARE. Constructor. 
CONSTRUCCYON', or construynge. 


(CONSTRUYN, K. H. Construo, 

CONTAGYOWS, or grevows to dele 

wythe. Contagiosus. 

(CONTEYNYN, hauyn or kepyn 

wit-innyn, K. kepe within, p. 

CONTEYNYD (or within holdyn, H. 

holde, p.) Contentus. 

CONTEYNYNGE. Continencia. 
CONTRARYOWS. Contrarius. 


CONTRYCYON, or sorow for synne. 

CONTYNUALLY, or allway (con- 

tynuyngly, p.) Continuo. 
CONTYNUYD, kepte wythe-owte 

cessynge (brekynge, ~?.) Con- 

(CONTYNUYN, lestyn, or abydyn, 

K. Continuo.) 

CONTYNUYNGE. Contmuacio. 
COPPE, or coper of a other thynge 

(top of an hey thyng, K. coppe of 

an hye thinge, P.)I Cacumen. 
COOPE (cope, K.H. cape, w.) 2 Capa. 
COPEROSE. Vitriola. 
COPORNE, or coporour of a thynge 

(coperone, K. H. coperun, p.) 3 


1 The Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1587, gives " summit 'as, coppe," 
namely, of a steeple. In the Wicliffite version, Luke iv. 29 is thus rendered, " And 
they ledden him to the coppe of the hil, on which her cytee was bildid, to cast him 
down." The crest on a bird's head likewise was thus termed, "Cop, cirrus, crista, 
est avium ut galli vel alaude." CATH. ANG. The gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth ex- 
plains " geline hupee, coppede hen;" and Elyot gives " Stymphalide, a coppe of 
fethers, whiche standeth on the head of a byrde." In Norfolk, the term copple-crown 
still has this meaning. Herman says, " Somtyme men were coppid cappis like a sugar- 
lofe," and uses the term "a cop heedyd felowe, cz'/o," which is explained by Elyot as 
having a great round forehead ; and again, " Homer declaryng a very folysshe and an 
haskard felowe under the person of Thersyte, sayth that he was copheeded lyke a gygge, 
vertice acuminato .' '' Cotgrave renders " pignon, a finiall, cop, or small pinnacle on the 
ridge of a house." The epithet is applied to the pointed shoe, or poleyn, in fashion 
in the XVth century. " Milieus, a copped shoo." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cop, apex. 

2 See above CAPPE, capa; this sacred vestment commonly called a cope, the wearing 
of which has fallen into disuse, excepting at coronations, is by the Canons of the Re- 
formed Church directed to be worn at the celebration of the communion in cathedral 
and collegiate churches. See Queen Elizabeth's Advertisements, A.D. 1564, Wilkins' 
Cone. IV. p. 248, and the Ecclesiastical Constitutions, or Canons, A. D. 1604, ibid. 
p. 383. 

3 The Catholicon explains capitellum as signifying merely the capital of a column, 
but in the Medulla it is rendered " summa pars capitis ; " and in this sense, coporne 
signifying the apex or pinnacle, the work with which a tower, or any ornamental con- 
struction, is crowned, may perhaps be regarded as a diminutive of coppe. The term 
occurs in a curious description of a castle, written about the time of Richard II. 


COPY of a thynge wretyn'. Copia. 
(COPYYN, K. Copio.) 
COPYYD. Copiatus. 
COPYOWSE, or plentevows. Co- 


COPYR, metalle. Cuprum. 
CORAGE, or craske (cranke, p.) 1 

Crassus, coragiosus. 
CORAGENESSE, or craskenesse (co- 

ragiowsnesse, or cranknesse, P.) 


CORALLE, stone. Corallus. 
CORALLE, or drasse of corne 

(coralys or drosse, K. p. coralyys, 

or dros, H.) 2 Acus, UG. c. F. 

rusculum, ruscus vel ruscum, 

UG. in ruo, CATH. 

CORBELL of a roffe. Tigillus, 


CORCET, or coote. Tunica, tu- 

nicella, c. F. 
CORCY, or corercyows. 3 Corpu- 

CORCYOWSE, or grete belyydde. 


CORCYOWSNESSE. Corpulencia. 
COORDE, roope. Cordula. 
CORDYD, or accordyde. Concor- 

CORDWANE, ledyr (cordwale le- 

thir, K.) 4 Aluta. 
CORDWANER. Alutarius. 
COORDONE (cordone, p.) 5 Nicetri- 

um (nicetorium, P.) amteonites, 

" Fayre fylyolej that fyjed, and ferlyly long, 
With coruon coprounes craftyly sleje." 

Gawayn and the Grene Knyjt, line 797. 

A round tower appears to have had the appellation of a fyell, a phioll, or fylyole, not 
as Ruddiman conjectures, fromfiola, a vial, but from phala. " Fala, a tour of tre." 
MED. GRAMM. In the description of Belshazzar's feast, in another poem of the same 
time, cited by Sir F. Madden in his notes on Sir Gawayn, it is said of the covered cups 
which were fashioned like embattled castles, 

" The coperounes of the canacles, that on the cuppe reres, 
Wer fetysely formed out in fylyoles longe." 

Cott. MS. Nero, A. x. f. 77. 

1 See hereafter CRASKE, or fryke of fatte, a word which seems to be derivable as a 
corruption from crassus, or the French eras. Crank, which occurs here in the printed 
editions of the Promptorium, usually signifies sickly or feeble, but in Kent and Sussex 
it has the sense of merry or brisk ; the reading is, however, questionable, as the word 
crank does not occur in these editions subsequently, but craske, as in the MSS. 

2 " dcus, coralle." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. " Curailles de maisons, the dust, filth, 
sweepings, or cleansing of houses." COTG. See DRAFFE hereafter. 

3 "Corsy, corpulentus." OATH. ANG. " Corey fe, corpsu. Corsyfe, to full of fatnesse, 
corsu, corpulent." PALSG. Elyot gives " Pinguis, he that is fat, corsye, unweldye." 

4 Chaucer, in the Rime of Sir Thopas, mentions " his shoon of cordewane ; " and 
in the Boke for Travellers Caxton speaks of " hydes of kyen whereof men make lether ; 
of fellis of gheet, or of the bukke make men good cordewan ; of shepes fellis may be 
made the basenne." The kind of leather to which this name was applied was originally 
prepared at Corduba, and thence, according to Junius and Menage, received the ap- 

5 The Medulla gives " Nicetrum, tokene of overcomynge. " Harl. MS. 2257. The 
Catholicon gives the following explanation, " dicuntur Niceteria filateria, qua ges- 
tabant at hletce, facia de summitatibus armorum, qua a metis acceperant." See Du- 



c. F. victoriale. c. F. dicit sic, 

Nicetoria sunt et victo- 

rialia nicetoria sunt ornamenta. 

CORE, of frute. Arula. 

CORY, schepherdys howse. 1 Ma- 
gale, mapale, CATH. 

CORYOWRE. Coriarius, cerdo. 

CORYOWSE, of crafte. Curiosus, 
(artificiosus, P.) 

CURYOSTE, or curyosite (coriouste, 
P.) Curiositas, artificiositas. 

CORKTRE. Suberies, UG. in suo. 

CORKBARKE. Cortex, UG. in suo. 

CORMERAWNTE. Corvus mari- 
nus, KYLW. cormeraudus, mor- 
plex, c. F. 

CORMUSE, pype (cornymuse, p.) a 

CORNE. Granum, gramen. 

CORNE, whyle hyt growythe. Seges. 
( CORNE, that is grene, p. Bla- 

COORNE, or harde knott in be 

flesche. Cornicallus. 
(CORNEL, H. P. Frontispicium.) 
CORNERE (or hyrne, H. P.) An- 

CORNERYD. Angulatus. 


CATH. coronulla, UG. 
COROWNE (corone, K.) Corona. 
COROWNYDE. Coronatus. 
(COROWNYN, K. P. Corono.) 
COROWNYNGE, or coronacyon. 


CORPHUN (corpchunherynge, H.P.) 
CORPORASSE, or corporalle. 3 Cor- 


1 la N. Britain a temporary building or shed is called a corf, or corf-house, signi- 
fying, as Jamieson observes, a hole or hiding place, Ang. Sax. cruft, crypto., or perhaps 
approaching most nearly to Isl. korbae, tuguriolum. The floating basket used on the 
Suffolk coast to keep lobsters, is called, as Forby states, a corf or coy ; and it seems 
possible that this appellation may have been given to the shepherd's hut, from its being 
formed with wattles, like a rudely-fashioned basket. Caxton, in the Boke for Tra- 
vellers, calls a basket a fi corffe, or mande." 

2 A distinction seems to be made in the Promptorium between the CORMUSE and 
the BAGGE-PYPE, panduca, a word which has occurred previously. Chaucer speaks 
of the great multitude that he saw in the House of Fame, 

" That made loud Minstralcies 

In cornmuse and shalmies." Book iii. 

In the Romance of the Rose he describes the discordant sounds produced by Wicked 
Tongue "with hornepipes of cornewaile, " evidently identical with the cornmuse. 
Palsgrave renders " Bagge-pype, cornemuse," in low Latin, " cornemusa, vox ab 
Italis et Hispanis usurpata, uter symphoniacus." DUC. Hawkins has given in the 
Hist, of Music, vol. ii. 453, a representation of the cornamusa or bagpipe, copied from 
the Musurgia of Luscinius, published at Strasburg, 1536. Dr. Burney observes that 
" the cornmuse was the name of a horn or Cornish pipe, blown like our bagpipe." 
Vol. ii. 270. This instrument appears to have been in favour as an accompaniment of 
the dance. Roquefort gives it another appellation, estive; and in the list of Minstrels 
who played before Edward I. in 1306, when Prince Edward was knighted, are found 
Hamond Lestivour, and GefFrai le Estivour. See the volume presented to the Rox- 
burghe Club by Mr. Botfield, on Manners and Household Expenses in England, p. 142. 

3 The term corporas, corpor alts pallet, denotes a consecrated linen cloth, folded and 
placed upon the altar in the service of the mass, beneath the sacred elements. Its 
symbolical import, allusive to the fine linen in which the body of Christ was wrapped, 



COORS, dede body (corse, K.) 

COORS of sylke, or threde (corce, 

p.) 1 Textum. 

CORSOURE of horse. 2 Mango, C.F. 
COWRTE. Curia. 

curialis, curio, UG. in cordia. 
CORUUN, or kutte (corvone, K. 

corued, P.) Scissus(sculptus,p.) 
COOTE, lytylle howse (cosh, K. 

cosche, H. cosshe, p.) 3 Casa, 

tugurrium, capana (gurgus- 

tium, tfiges, K. p.) 
COOSYN', or emys sone (cosyng, 

K. cosyne, p.) Cognatus, cog- 

COSYN, of ii systerys, awntys son' 

or dowgfttur. Consobrinus, con- 

sobrina, UG. in sereno. 
COSYNAGE. Cognacio. 
COSYNES, brederys chyldrynne. 

Fratruelis, c. F. (fraternalis, P.) 
COOSTE, or costage. Expense, 

sumptus, impendium, CATH. 
(COSTYN, or do cost or spendyn, 

K. Exspendo, impendo.) 
CoosTE,herbe. 4 Costus (coosta, P.) 

cujus radix dicitur costum, c. F. 
COSTE of acuntre. Confinium, or a. 
COSTARD, appulle. Aniriarium 

(quiriarium, K. p.) quirianum, 

COOSTRE of an halle (costere, H.) 5 

Subauleum, CATH. in auleum. 

is fully explained by Durandus. See Lyndwood's Observations on the Constitutions of 
Abp. Walter Reynold, 1322, p. 235. The Constit. of the Bishops of Worcester in 
1229 and 1240, required that in every Church should be provided " duo paria corpo- 
ralium," and the Synod of Exeter in 1287, ordained that in every Church should be 
" duo corporalia cum repositoriis." Wilkins, Cone. i. 623, 666, ii. 139. The reposi- 
torium, or case wherein the corporas was enclosed, when not in use, was richly em- 
broidered, or adorned with precious stones ; it was termed likewise theca, capsa, or 
bursa corporalium. See the inventories of the gorgeous vestments and ornaments at 
St. Paul's, 1295, Mon. Angl. iii. 321. " Corporate, alba palla in altari, Anglice, a 
corporalle." ORTUS. " A corparax, corporate." CATH. ANG. " Corporas for a chales, 
corporeau." PALSG. 

1 " Corse of a gyrdell, tissu. Corse weauer, tissutier .'' PALSG. See hereafter SEYNT, 
or cors of a gyrdylle. 

3 " A coyseyr of hors, mango. To coyse, alterare, et cetera ubi to chawnge." CATH. 
ANG. To cose signifies in N. Britain, according to Jamieson, to exchange or barter. 
In Octovian a dealer in horses is termed a " corsere." See Weber's Metr. Rom. iii. 
191. Herman says, " Corsers of horses (mangoneft) by false menys make them loke 
fresshe." " He can horse you as well as all the corsers in the towne, courtiers de 
chevaufa." PALSG. 

3 As COOTE occurs hereafter in its proper place, the reading of the Harl. MS. ap- 
pears here to be corrupt. " Cosshe, a sorie house, caverne." PALSG. In the Craven 
dialect cosh still has this signification. 

4 Of the various virtues of coste, which is the root of an Indian plant, the early 
writers on drugs give long details, and Parkinson has represented it at p. 1582 of his 
Herbal. In Mr. Diamond's curious MS. on the qualities of plants and spices, two 
kinds of coste are described, both brought from India : " }>e oone ys heuy and rede, \>e 
to>er is lijt and nojt bittere, and somedel white in colour ; " and it is recommended to 
make an ointment of coste ground small with honey, excellent to cleanse the face of the 
freckles, and " a suffreyn remedie for sciatica, and to J?e membris >at ben a-stonyed." 

5 The Catholicon explains auleum as " cortina, quia in aulis extendi solet." The 


COS TELE WE (cOStfull, K. COStleW, 

H. costuous, w.) 1 Sumptuosus. 
(CosTYN ouyr be cuntre, K. coos- 

tyn on the countre, p. 2 Trans- 

COSTRED, or costrelle, grete bo- 

telle (costret, or hotel, K.) 3 
Onopherum, Dice. c. F. aristo- 
phorum, CATH. 
COOTE, hyrde (cote, brydde, K.) 


COTE ARMURE. 4 Baltheus, c. F.UG. 

hangings with which the side-walls of a hall were garnished, previously to the more 
general use of wainscot, appear to have been termed costers. The name was applied 
likewise to hangings, either in a church at the sides of the choir, or in a hail near the 
high table, as a kind of screen, or even to the curtains of a bed. In the Register of the 
ornaments of the Royal Chapel at Windsor, taken 1385, 8 Ric. II. under the head of 
" Panni," several are enumerated. " Duo costers panni magni de Velvetto, pro prin- 
cipalibus diebus, rubei et viridis coloris, cum magnis imaginibus stantibus in taberna- 
culo." Mon. Ang. T. iii. part 2, p. 81. Ralph Nevill, Earl of Westmorland, bequeathed 
in 1424 to his wife a third part of his estate, " cum uno lecto de Arras operato cum 
auro, cum costeris eidem pertinentlbus et concordantibus ,- " and to his son Richard 
another bed of Arras, "cum costeris paled de color e rubeo viridi et albo, qui solebant 
pendere in magnd camerd infra castrum de Sherifhoton." Madox, Formul. p. 432. 

1 Chaucer, in the Persones Tale, makes great complaint of the " sinneful costlewe 
array of clothing," occasioned by the extravagant fashions of the time of Richard II. 
In the Stat. 3 Henry VII. c. 2, against murderers, it is stated that " he that will sue 
eny appell must sue in propre persone, which sute ys long and costlowe (costeouz, Fr.) 
thatyt makyth the partie appellant wery to sue." The Cath. Ang. gives " costy, 
sumptuosus," and Palsgrave, " costyouse, sumptueux.' J 

2 Chaucer uses the verb to costeie in the sense of the French costoier, to pass along- 
side ; as in the complaint of the Black Knight, line 36. 

" And by a riuer forth I gan costeie." 

Palsgrave gives the verb " to coste a countrey or place, ryde, go, or sayle about it, 
costier or costoyer. To hym that coulde coste the countray, there is a nerer way by 
syxe myle." 

Chaucer, in the Legend of Hypermestre, relates that her father Danao gave her 
"acostrell" filled with a narcotic, in order to poison her husband Lino. "A cos- 
trelle, oneferum, et cetera ubi aflakett. A flakett, flacta, obba, uter, et cetera ubi a 
potte." CATH. ANG. A MS. of the XI Vth century, which gives the explanation of 
words that occur in the Missal, contains the following interpretation : " Uter, Anglice 
a botel, sedcollateralis, Anglice, a costrelle. De cute diets utres, de ligno collaterals " 
M. Paris gives a curious relation of poison discovered in the year 1258, concealed in 
certain vessels, " qua costrelli vocantur." Costerellum or costeretum, in old French 
costeret, signified a certain measure of wine, or other liquids ; and a costrell seems to 
have been properly a small wooden barrel, so called because it might be carried at the 
side, such as is carried by a labourer as his provision for the day, still termed a costril 
in the Craven dialect. 

4 Baltheus, which properly implies the girdle or mark of knightly dignity, the cingulum 
militare, is here used as signifying a kind of military garment. Compare hereafter 
DOBBELET, garment, baltheus. The Cath. Ang. gives "a cotearmour, insignium." 
The usage of wearing an upper garment, or surcote, charged with armorial bear- 
ings, as a personal distinction in conflict, when the features were concealed by the 
aventaille, commenced possibly in the reign of John, but was not generally adopted 
before the time of Henry III. A portion of the armorial surcote of William de For- 



COOTE, lytylle howse, supra. 


rinus, tugurrina, gurgustina, 
coterellus, coterella, et hec duo 
nominajicta sunt. 

COTELERE. Cultellarius. 

COTHE, or swownynge.2 Sincopa, 
sincopes, c. F. 

(COTUL, fisshe, K. H. cotull or 
codull, fisshe, p. 3 Cepia.) 

COTUNE (colon, P.) Bombicinum. 

Co WE, beste. Vacca. 

COWARD, hertlesse. Vecors, iners. 

COWARDNESSE (cowardise, K.) 
Vecordia, inertia, CATH. 

COWCHE. Cubile, grabatum, c. F. 
media productd ; grabatum, me- 
dia correptd, Anglice a barme, 

or lappe, unde versus, Pro gre- 

mio grabatum, pro lecto pone 

(COWCHYN, or leyne in couche, K. 

lye in cowche, p. Cubo.) 
( COWCHYN, or leyne thinges to- 

gedyr, K. Colloco.) 
CowDE. 4 Frustrum, congiarium, 

UG. (frustum, p.) 
COVEY of pertrychys (coue, or 

couy, H. P.) Cuneus,vel cohors. 

(COWEYTYN, K. Cupio, opto, 

glisco, concupisco, CATH.) 
COVETYSE. Cupiditas, cupido. 
COVETYSE of ryches (coveytyce, 

H.) Avaricia. 
COVETOWSE. Cupidus. 
COVETOWS of (great, p.) worldely 

tibus, Earl of Albemarle, who died 1260, still exists, and an engraving of it is given in 
the Vetusta Monutn. VI. plate 18. Among the earliest representations may be men- 
tioned the effigies at Salisbury of William Longespee, who died 1266, and of a knight of 
the De 1'Isle family at Rampton, Cambridgeshire. See Stothard's Monumental Effi- 
gies. Sir Thomas de la More relates that the Earl of Gloucester was slain at Bannock- 
burn, 1314, in consequence of his neglecting to put on his insignia, termed in the Latin 
translation " togam propria armatura." Chaucer relates that the heralds after the 
conflict distinguished Arcita and Palamon by their " cote armure," as they lay in the 
" tas " severely wounded. Knight's Tale, 1018. An early instance of the use of the term 
coat-armour occurs in the Close Roll, 2 Edw. III. 1328, where the King commands the 
keeper of his wardrobe to render up " omnes armaturas, tarn cotearmurs quam alias," 
which had belonged to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, deceased, for the use of Giles his 
son, to whom the King had given them. Rymer, iv. 371. During the reign of Edward 
III. the surcote gave place to the jupon, and this was succeeded, about the time that 
the Promptorium was compiled, by the tabard, the latest fashion of a garment armorially 
decorated, and the prototype of that which is still worn by the heralds and pursuivants. 

1 The inferior tenants, or occupiers of cottages, are termed in the Domesday Book 
cotarii or coscets, in Ang. Sax. cotsseta, caste habitator, in French cotarel, or costerel. 
Ducange and Spelman make no distinction between cotarelli and cotarii, but Bp. Ken- 
nett thinks there was an essential difference, and that the coterelle held in absolute 
villenage. See his Glossary, Paroch. Ant. 

2 Sir Thomas Browne mentions cothish among words peculiar to Norfolk, and Forby 
gives cothy as the word still used, signifying faint or sickly. In Bishop Kennett's 
Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, is given " cothish, morose. Norf." Ang. Sax. 
cothe, morons. 

3 See above CODULLE, fysche. Sepia. 

4 This word appears to signify a piece or a lump of meat ; congiarium is in the 
Catholicon explained to be "frustum carnis undique equatum," Minsheu states 



goodys, or other ryches (werdli 

good, K. wordly, p.) Avarus, 

cupidinarius, c. F. 
COVETOWS of worldely ryches 

(wordli worchyp, K. worldly 

worshippes, p.) Ambiciosus. 
CoovENT^ouentejp.) 1 Conventus. 
COUERCLE (coverkyl, H.) Oper- 

culum, cooperculum. 
COUERTOWRE. Coopertorium. 
COGHE (cough or horst, p. cowhe, 

or host, H. w.) 2 Tussis. 
(CowYN, or hostyn, K. cowhyn, H. 

cowghen, p. Tussio, tussito, 


COWHERDE. Vaccarius, vaccaria 

(jbubulcus, P.) 

CouERLYTE,clothe. Coopertorium. 
COOWLE to closyn mennys fow- 

lys. 3 Saginarium, cavea, CATH. 
COWLE, vesselle (for to sette ves- 

sell, p.) 4 Tina, CATH. 
COWLE, or coope (cope, H. 

coupe, P.) S Capa. 
COWLE, munkys abyte. Cuculla, 

cucullus, c. F. 
COWLE TRE, or soo tre. 6 Fa- 

langa, vectatorium, CATH. 
COWME of corfie. Cumba. 
COW(M)FORY, herbe (cowmfory, 

that " cowde is an old English word, signifying a gobbet, morcell, or peece of any 
thing cut out,'' but he appears to have taken it from the Promptorium, and Skinner 
gives it on his authority. Possibly COWDE may have some analogy with cud, which in 
the Promptorium is written cood. See above CHEW the cood. Ang. Sax. cud, rumen. 

1 " A couent, conventus, conventiculus." CATH. ANG. The derivation of the word is 
here evidently from the French, convent, and not from the Latin : and the orthography 
of the name Covent Garden thus appears to have the sanction of ancient authority. 

2 Among the virtues of " horhowne," as stated in a translation of Macer's Treatise on 
Plants, MS. XVth Cent, belonging to Hugh W. Diamond, Esq. is the following : " Jns 
erbe y-dronke in olde wyne helpi> J?e kynges hoste, and )>e comone coghe eke." In 
another place a decoction of roots of " skyrewhite " is recommended to heal ")>e 
chynke and j?e olde coghe." Skinner says the hooping-cough was termed in Lincoln- 
shire kin-cough, and derives the word from the Belg. kicnkhost, and the verb kinchen, 
difficulter spirare. See hereafter HOOSE, or cowghe, and HOSTYN. 

3 " Coupe or coule for capons, or other poultrie ware, caige aux chappons." PALSG. 
The name was probably assigned in consequence of a supposed similarity to a monk's 
cowl, whence likewise the name has been given to the covering of a chimney. Ang. Sax. 
cuhle, cuculla. Elyot gives " scirpea, a dounge potte, or colne made with roddes." 

4 The cope was originally worn with a hood, which at a subsequent time was repre- 
sented only by embroidery on the back. Hence, probably, this garment was sometimes 
termed a cowle. Chaucer repeatedly terms the monastic habit a cope. See the descrip- 
tion of Huberd the Frere, who was not like a " cloisterere," 

' ' With thredbare cope as is a poure scolere. 
Of double worsted was his semicope, 
That round was as a belle, out of the presse." 

5 " Tina, vas vinarium amplissimum." ORTUS. In the accounts of the church- 
wardens of Walden, in Essex, occurs a charge in 27 Hen. VI. 1448, for a " cowle pro 
aqud lenedictd) x.<?." Hist, of Audley End, by Lord Braybrooke. In Essex the term 
cowl is applied at the present time to any description of tub. See Kennett's Glossary, 
under the word cowele ; he supposes it to be derived from cucula, a vessel shaped like 
a boat. 

6 " Phalangaest hasta, vel quid a in baculus ad portandas cupas, Anglice a stang, or a 



K. P.) Consolida mayor, et 

minor dicitur daysy (dayseys, p.) 
COMFORTE. Consolacio, confor- 

tacio, consolamen. 
COMFORTOWRE (confortoure, P.) 

Consolator (confortator, K.) 
(COWMFORTYN, or cumfortyn, K. 

conforten, p. Conforto, consolor.) 
COWNSELLE. Consilium. 
COWNSELLE, or preuey thynge to 

know. Secretum, c. F. mister ium. 
COWNSELHOWSE. Concionobu- 

lum, consiliabulum, CATH. 

COW(N)SELLOUR. Consiliarius. 
(COWNSELYN, or aske counsell, 

or gyue counsell, K. Con- 


(COWNTYN, K. Computo.) 

COWNT ROLLARE (countrolloure, 

p.) Contrarotulator. 
COUNTESE. Comitassa. 

COWNTYNGE. Computdtio. 

COWNTYNGE HORDE, or table. Ta- 
pecea, tapeceta, UG. in torreo 
(trapeced) P.) 

CowNTOWRE. 1 Complicatorium. 

culstaffe." ORTUS. " Courye, a stang, pale-staffe, or cole-stafFe, carried on the shoul- 
der, and notched for the hanging of a pale, at both ends." COTGR. In Caxton's Mir- 
rour of the World, c. 10, A. D. 1481, it is related that in Ynde " the clustres of grapes ben 
so grete and so fulle of muste, that two men ben gretly charged to bere one of them only 
vpon a colestaff." In Hoole's translation of the Orbis sensualium by Comenius, 1658, 
is given a representation of the cole-staff (eerumnd} used for bearing a burden between 
two persons, p. 135 ; and again at p. 113, where it appears as used by brewers to carry 
to the cellar the newly-made beer in " soes," or tubs with two handles (labraj, called 
also cowls. In Brand's Popular Antiquities, ii. 107, will be found an account of the 
local custom of riding the cowl -staff, or stang. 

1 At the period when the Promptorium was compiled, calculations were usually made 
by means of the abacus, or counting-board, and counters, which were chiefly the pieces 
of base metal to which the name of Nuremburgh tokens has commonly been given. The 
" augrim stones'' mentioned by Chaucer in the Miller's Tale, where he describes the 
clerk of Oxford's study, probably served the same purpose. Palsgrave gives " counters 
to cast a count with, iect, iecton." The science of calculation termed algorism had, 
however, been partially introduced. See above AWGRYM. The term counter signified 
also the table on which such accounts were cast, and even the counting-house, in which 
last sense it occurs in Chaucer, where it is related that the Merchant's wife went to call 
her husband, 

" And knocketh at his countour boldely." Shipman's Tale. 

A curious representation of the counter-table occurs in drawings of the time of Edward 
II. in Sloane MS. 3983. In a letter from Margaret Pastonto her husband, about 1459, 
regarding some alterations in his house, is the following passage : "I have take the 
measure in the draute cham'yr, as ye wold yo r cofors and yo r cowntewery shuld be sette 
for the whyle, and y r is no space besyde the bedd, thow the bedd wer remevyd to the 
dore, for to sette bothe yo r bord and yo r kofors ther, and to have space to go and sytte 
besyde." Paston Letters, iii. 324. At a later time there appears to have been a piece 
of ordinary furniture in the hall of a mansion termed a counter, probably from its re- 
semblance to the table properly so called. In the Inventories printed by the Surtees 
Society, mention frequently occurs of the counter and the counter-cloths ; as likewise 
of " doble counters, counters of the myddell bynde, Flanders counters with their car- 
pets." Wills and Invent, i. 133, 154, 158. 




COWNTYSE (cownte, K. count, p.) 

Compotus (ratio, P.) 
COWNTYRFETE, what so hyt be. 


(COWNTYRFETYN, K. Configuro, 


Co WNTYRFETYNGE. Conformacio. 
COWYNTYRPEYCE (peys, K. poys, 

p.) Hostimentum, libramentum. 


COWNTERE (countour, p.) Com- 
putarius (computatorium, p.) 

(COUNTER', p. 3 Computator, com- 

(COWNTRYN songe, K. in songe, p. 
Occento, c. F.) 

COWNTERYNGE yn songe. Con- 
centus, c. F. (occentus, K.) 

COWPARE. Cuparius. 

COWPE, orpece. 4 Crater (cuppa, P.) 

COWPYLLE, of ij thynggys. Co- 
pula (cupla, P.) 

(COWPLYN, K. Copulo.) 

COWPLYD. Copulatus. 
(CowRYN, or strechynge, K. curyn, 

or astretchyn, p. aretchyn, j. N. 

Attingo, CATH.) 

COW(R)CER, horse (cowsere, K. 

courcer', p.) Succursarius, gra- 

darius, CATH. 
COWRSE. Cursus. 
COWRSE of mete. Missorium, UG. 

infero, vel cursus ferculorum. 
COWURS of frute yn be ende of 

mete (cowrs, K.) JBellarium, 

CATH. collibium, imponen- 

Cows LOPE, herbe (cowslek, or 

cowslop, P.) Herba petri, herba 

paralisis, ligustra, KYLW. (vac- 
cinia, P.) 

COWRS of ordyr, or rewe. Series. 
CRABBE, fysche. Cancer. 
CRAB BE, appulle or frute. Mad- 

CRABBE, tre. Acerbus, macianus, 

CRABBYD, a\vke, or wrawe (wray- 

warde, w.) 5 Ceronicus, bilosus, 

(CRACCHE, or manger, supra 

in CRYBBE.) 
CRACCHYN', supra in CLAWYN' 

(cramsyn, p.) (i Scalpico. 
CRACCHYNGE (cratchinge, p.) 


1 " A cowntynge place, libratormm." CATH. ANG. 

2 " A cownter, anticopa." CATH. ANG. 

3 See above CLERKE of cowntys. The appellation which occurs in Chaucer's de- 
scription of the Frankelein was placed by Tyrwhitt among his words not understood. 

" A shereve had he ben, and a countour." Cant. Tales, Prol. 

A countour appears to have been one retained to defend a cause or plead for another, 
in old French, confer. See the Stat. 3 Edw. I. c. 24, against deceit or collusion by 
pleaders, " serjnunt, contour, ou autre," who being convicted, should suffer imprison- 
ment, and never again be heard " en la Court le Rey, a confer pur nulluy." It may, 
however, be questionable whether Chaucer used the term in this sense, and it seems 
possible that escheator may be meant ; the office like that of sheriff was held for a 
limited time, and was served only by the gentry of name and station in their county. 
See hereafter PECE, cuppe. 

5 See above AWKE, or angry, and hereafter WRAW, froward. 

6 See above the note on CLAWYN', or cracchyn'. In the history of St. Eutrope it is 



CRAFTE. Ars, artificium. 
CRAFTY. Artificiosus (artatus, P.) 
CRAFTYNESSE. Industria. 
CRAFTYLY. Artifidose, arcite. 
CRAGGESTONE (crag stone, p.) 

Rupa, scopula, cepido, CATH. 

CRAKKE, or dyn. Crepitus,fra- 

gor, c. F. 
CRAKENELLE, brede. 1 Creputel- 

lus,fraginellus (artocopus, K.) 
CRAKKYN', as salt yn a fyre, or 

oj>er lyke. Crepito. 
CRAKKYN', or schyllen nothys 

(shill notes, p.) Excortico> 

enuculo, enucleo, KYLW. 
CRAKKYNGE. Crepor, c. F. 
CRAKYNGE, or (of, p.)boste. 2 Jac- 

tancia, arrogancia. 
CRAMPE. Spasmus, CATH. 

(cramsyn,Mpmmclawyn, H. p.) 


YNGE (cratchinge, p.) 3 
CRANE, byrde. Grus. 
CRAYNE, or crayues (crany or 

craues, p.) Rima, rimula, 


CRANYYD. Rimatus. 

CRANYYN'. Rimo. 

CRANKE, instrument. 4 Cirillus 

(girgillus, K. H. p.) 
CRANKE of a welle. Haustrum, 

CRAPPE, or gropys of corne. 5 

Acus, CATH. criballum, c. F. 
CRASCHYN', as tethe (crayschyn, 

H. crasshen teethe, p.) 6 Fremo, 

frondeo (strideo, P.) 
CRACCHYNGE of tethe, or grynn- 

ynge (crashynge, K. craskinge, 

p.) Stridor^fremitws. 
CRASKE, or fryke of fatte (crask, 

or lusty, K.) 7 Crassus. 

related that "she ran to hym y had slayne her broder, and wolde haue cratched his 
eyen out of his heed." Legend. Aur. f. 51, b. Palsgrave gives the verb " to cratche 
violently with ones nayles, gratigner." "He crached me cursedly about the chekis, 
unguibus laceravit.'' The Promptorium gives also CRAMZYN' in the same sense. 

1 The kind of biscuit which still bears this name was in France called craquelin , 
Skinner gives also Belg. craeckelinck. " Pastilla, a cake, craknel or wygge." ORTUS. 
See above BREDE twyys bakyn, as krakenelle, or symnel. 

2 " Jacto, id est gloriari, erogare. Anglice, to boost, or crake. Jactor, a craker." 
ORTUS. " Craker, a boster, bobancier. To make auaunte, boste or crake. When he 
is well whyttelled, he wyll crake goodly of his manhode ; quand il a Men beu, ilsevante 
gorgiasement.^ PALSG. Forby gives this word as still in use in Norfolk. See Jarnieson's 


4 Girgillus signifies a kind of reel for winding thread. *' Girffillum, Anglice, a haspe, 
or a payre of yerne wyndle blades." ORTUS. Ang. Sax. cranc-stsef, a weaver's instru- 

5 In low Latin the word crappce is used in this sense, " aljectio bladi, ut crappa 
recolligatur." Fleta, lib. ii. c. 82. Ducange gives also crapinum, which he derives 
from Belg. krappen, excidere. " Crappes, acus." CATH. ANG. " Crapin, criblure, 
le bled qui tombe du van. 1 ' RoauEF. 

6 " To crasshe with my tethe togyther, grincher. To crasshe, as a thynge dothe that 
is cryspe or britell bytwene ones tethe, cresper." PALSG. 

7 This word is given by Skinner among the ancient words, " Crask, Authori Diet. 



CRAUARE. Procax^ pecultus, 

peculta, CATH. 
CRAUAS, supra in CRANY. 
CRAWE, or crowpe of a byrde, or 

ober fowlys. Gabus, vesicula, 


CRAWYN' (cravyn, K.) Proco> 

procacio, rogito, CATH. 
CRAWYNGE. Procacitas. 
CRACOKE, relefe of molte talowe 

or grese (crauche, K. crawke or 

crappe, H. p.) 1 Cremium (jquod 

restat infrixorio, K.) 
CREDE. Symbolum, CATH. 
C RED EL, or cradel. Crepundium, 

cunabulum, cuna, crocea, c. F. 
CREDEL BONDE, or cradel bonde. 

Fascia, fasciale, CATH. quicia 

(inicia, p.) 
CREKYN' (as hennes, p.) supra in 

CLOKKYN'. Gracillo (crispo, P.) 

CRELLE (creke, H. p.) baskett or 

lepe. 2 Cartallus, sporta. 
CREME ofmylke. Quaccum, UG.C. F. 
CREMYN', or remyn', as lycour. 3 

CREMMYD, or crammyd, or stufFyd. 

CREMMYN', or stuffyri'. Farcino, 

repleo, CATH. 
CREMMYNGE, orcrammyuge. Far- 

CREPERE, or he bat crepythe. 


CREPYN'. Repo, UG. 
CREPYNGE. Repcio, reptura. 
CREPAWNDE, or crapawnde, pre- 

cyous stone (crepaud, p.) l Sma- 

CRESE, or increse (cres, or meres, 

K. p.) Excrescencia (incremen- 

tum, P.) 

Angl. apud quern solum occurrit, exp. pinguis, obesus, q. d. crassius, a Lat. crassus." 
It is perhaps more directly corrupted from the old French word eras, which has the 
same signification. 

1 In a MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's possession cremium is rendered " a cra- 
conum of grece or talwhe." " Extrema crematio cepi, vel illudquod relinquitur ustum 
in frixorio. ty ORTUS. "A crakane, cremium." CATH. ANG. The term cracklings, 
which occurs in the Scotch Acts, James VI. is explained by Jamieson as signifying the 
refuse of melted tallow ; Su. G. and Isl. krak, quisquilite, from krekia, to throw away. 
Tallow craps has a like meaning in the Craven dialect. 

2 Creel is given by Moore as a word not frequently used in Suffolk ; Forby does not 
mention it, but it occurs in the Craven dialect, and signifies an ozier basket, or crate. 
See Jamieson's Dictionary. Roquefort explains creil as signifying a hurdle, craticula. 
LEPE occurs hereafter. 

3 See hereafter REMYN, as ale, or other lycoure. 

4 Precyoustone, MS. " Crapaude, a precious stone, crapaudine." PALSG. Cotgrave 
explains crapaudine as signifying the stone chelonitis, or the toad-stone. The precious 
stone found, as it was asserted, in the head of a toad, was supposed to possess many 
virtues, and especially as a preservative against poison. On some of these stones, ac- 
cording to Albertus Magnus, the figure of the animal was imprinted ; these were of 
a green colour, and termed crapaudina, being possibly the kind here called smaragdus, 
a name which properly denotes the emerald. These stones were known also by the 
appellations borax, brontia, chelonitis, nise, batrachites, or ceraunia. In the Metrical 
Romance entitled Emare is described a rich vesture, thickly set with gems, rubies, 
topaze, " crapowtes and nakette; " the word is also written " crapawtes." More de- 
tailed information on this subject will be found in Gesner, de quadrup. ovip. ii. G. 


CRESYN', or encresyfi'. Accresco. 


CRESSE, herbe. Narsturcium. 
CRESSE, seede. Gardanum. 
CRESS YT. a Crucibollum, c. F. 
CRESTE, on an hede. Crista. 
CRESTE, or a werke. 3 Anaglipha, 

c. F. 
CRESTE, of a byrdys hede. Cirrus. 

CREYSTE, of londe eryyde (of a 

londe erryed, p.) 4 Porca, CATH. 
CRESTYN', or a-rayyn' wythe a 

creste (or sette on a creest, p.) 


CREUES, supra in CRANY. 
(CREVEYS, fysshe, K. creues, p. 5 


CRYE. Clamor, vociferacio. 
CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd 

See also Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, As you like it, Act 2, Sc. I. ; and the 
word toad-stone in Nares' Glossary. 

1 ' A cressent a-bowte y e nek, torques, torquis, lunula." CATH. ANG. Lunula is 
explained in the Ortus to be an ornament for a woman's neck, shaped like the moon. 
" dnglice, an ouche, or barre." 

2 " Batulus, a cressed, quoddamvas in quo ponuntur pruned ORTUS. "Acressett, 
latillus, crucibulum, lucubrum. A crosser, crucibulum, lucubrum." CATH. ANG. A 
curious representation of the cresset of the time of Henry III. occurs in one of the 
subjects from the Painted Chamber, engraved in the Monum. Vetusta, vol. vi. where 
Abimelech is pourtrayed attempting to set fire to the tower of Thebes. Gower relates 
that in Gideon's little troop every man had 

" A potte of erthe, in which he tath 

A light brennyng in a cresset." Conf. Am. lib. viii. 

This word is derived from the French, " crasset, lampe de nuit." ROQUEF. See 
Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare, and the representations of ancient cressets there 
given. Hen. IV. Part I. In Queen Elizabeth's Armoury at the Tower, there is one 
affixed on a long spear-headed pole. "Cresset, a lyght, flambeau, f allot" PALSG. 
" Falot, a cresset light (such as they use in Playhouses) made of ropes wreathed, pitched, 
and put in small and open cages of iron." COTGR. 

3 " Anaglypha dicuntur eminent es picture?, sicut sunt in frontispiciis ecclesiarum, et 
in aliis altis locis. Anglice, borde of painters." ORTUS. The finishing which sur- 
mounts a screen, roof, or other ornamented part of a structure, was called a crest, such 
as is seen at Exeter Cathedral on the high-ridged roof. The Stat. 17 Edw. IV. c. 4, 
comprises an enactment respecting the manufacture and dimensions " de tewle, ap- 
pellez pleintile, autrement nosmez thaktile, roftile, ou crestile," the prescribed length of 
the last being 13 in. the thickness five-eighths, with convenient deepness accordyng. 
Crest- tiles, pierced with an ornamental open pattern, were to be seen on the roof of the 
ancient hall of the Templars, at Temple Balsall, Warwickshire. In Hall's Chron. are 
described l< crestes karued wyth vinettes and trailes of sauage woorke," which orna- 
mented the Banqueting-house prepared at Greenwich in 1527. Reprint, pp. 606, 722. 
" Crest of a house, coypeau de la maison." 1 ' PALSG. The Glossary of Architecture cites 
several authorities, in which the use of the term crest occurs. 

4 See above BALKE of a londe eryd. " Porca est terra ilia que eminet inter duos 
sulcos." ORTUS. 

5 In the Medulla polipus is rendered " a schrympe," and in the Ortus " a lepeste," 
or lobster ; but the fish here intended is probably the craw-fish, Cancer dstacus, Linn, 
which still bears the name in the North of England, and Jamieson gives it the ap- 
pellation crevish. " Creues, a fysshe, escreuice." PALSG. 



haue howe (halowe, p.) 1 Ce- 

leuma, c. r. 
CRYE, or grete noyse a-mong the 

peple (in the people, p.) Tu- 

CRYAR, he ]>at cryethe yn a mer- 

ket, or in a feyre. Declamator, 

preco, c. F. (proclamator, P.) 
CRYYN'. Clamo, vocifero. 
CRYBBE, or cracche, or manger 

(cribbe or bose, K.)a Prese- 

pium, presepe. 
CRYKE of watyr. Scat era. 
CRYKKE, sekenesse (or crampe, 

H. P.) Spasmus, secundum 

medicos, tetanus, UG. in teter. 
CRYKETTE. Salamandra, cril- 

lus, COMM. (grillus, P.) 

CRYMPYLLE, or rympylle. Ruga. 
CRYMPLED, or rympled. Rugatus. 
CRYMPLYN', or rymplyn'. Rugo. 
CRYPYLLE (cripil, K. crepyll, P.) 

Quadriplicator, CATH.claudus, 


CRYSME (holy, p.) oyle. Crisma. 
CRYSPE, as here, or o)>er lyke.s 

Crispus, KYLW. 
CRYSPHEED, or cryspenesse. Cris- 

pitudo, CATH. 

CRYSTE (Criyst, XPC, K.) Cristus. 
CRYSTALLE, stone. Cristallus. 
CRYSTYNDAME. 4 Cristianitas, 

CRYSTEN manne or womanne. 

Cristianus, Cristiana. 
CROCE of a byschope. 5 Pedum, 

1 " Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, ut heuylaw romylawe." ORTUS. See 
hereafter HALOW, schypmannys crye. 

2 In the Legenda Aurea the manger in which our Saviour was laid is termed a 
crybbe or racke ; in the Wicliffite version it is called a cratche, Luke xi. 7. " Cratche 
for horse or oxen, creche." PALSG. " Creiche, a cratch, rack, oxe-stall, or crib." 
COTG. See Nares's Glossary. BOOC, or boos, occurs previously. 

3 " Cryspe as ones heer is that curleth, crespe, crespeleuoe." PALSG. In the Cath. 
Angl. is given " A cryspyngeyrene, acus, calamistrum." 

4 Horman uses this word in the sense of the common term Christening; "I was 
called Wyllyam at my Christendome, die lustrico.^ So likewise in the Cath. Angl. 
"A crystendame, baptismus, baptisma, Christianitas." 

h The pastoral staff with a curved head, to which the appellation CLEYSTAFFE has been 
given previously in the Promptorium, was called croce, crosse, croche, or crutch, words 
derived from the French croce or croche. " Croce, lituus, ce nom vient de croc,pource 
qu'une croce est crochue." NICOT. In Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 5089, it is said 
that Do-best 4< bereth a bisshopes crosse," with one extremity hooked : and at the con- 
secration of a church, according to the Legenda Aurea, " the bysshop gooth all aboute 
thre tymes, and at euery tyme that he cometh to that dore, he knocketh with his crosse," 
in the Latin original, " baculo pastorali.'' Chaucer uses the word croce. " Crosse for a 
bysshoppe, crosse." PALSG. " Pedum, croche." Vocab. ROY. MS. 17 C. xvn. 
" Camluca, a crutche." ORTUS. "A cruche, cambuca, pedum" CATH. ANGL. A 
costly " cruche '' occurs in the Inventory taken at Fountains Abbey, and published by 
Burton. In Ang. Sax. cruce signifies both a cross and a crook, and from similarity of 
sound between cross and croce, words perfectly distinct in their derivation, some con- 
fusion of terms has arisen, especially as regards the usual acceptance of the word crosier, 
which has been supposed to be incorrect. Crosier, however, properly signifies the pas- 
toral staff, or croce, the incurved head of which was termed in French crosseron, part 
of the insignia of Bishops : thus in Brooke's Book of Precedents it appears, that at the 



KYLW. Dice, cambuca, c. F. 

KYLW. crocea. 
CROCERE. 1 Crociarius, cambu- 

carius, crucifer, CATH. peda- 

rius, KYLW. cruciferarius. 
CROCKETT of songe. Semimi- 

nima (simpla, P.) 
CROKE, or scheype hoke (crotche, 

H. P. croche, w.) Pedum, c. F. 

UG. cambuca (podium, P.) 
CROKYD, or wronge. Curvus, 

(reflexus, tortus, P.) 
CROKYD (or lame, P.) supra in 

CRYPYLLE (claudus, tortus, K.) 
CROKYN', or makyh' wronge. 

Curbo (curvo, K.) 

CROKYN' (cromyn, K. H. p.) 

Unco, CATH. (vinco, K.) 
CROMBE, or crome (crowmbe, p.) 2 

Bucus, c. F. (unccus, K. P.) 

arpax, c. F. 
CRONYCLE, or crony kylle. Cro- 

nica, historia. 
CRONYCLERE. Cronicus, histo- 

ricus, c. F.(historiagraphus, K.) 
CROPE,supra mcRAWE of a byrde. 

(Cabus, vesicula, K.) 3 
CROPPE of an erbe or tree. 4 

Cima, coma, capillamentum, 

CATH. c. F. 
CROPPE of corne yn a yere (3ere, 

K.) Annona. 

marriage of Philip and Mary in 1554, the Bishops present had their " crosiers carried 
before them.'' Lei. Coll. iv. 398. Fox says that Bonner, who was then Bishop of 
London, at the degradation of Dr. Taylor in 1555, would not strike him with his 
" crosier- staff" upon the breast, lest he should strike again. Minsheu says that 
" croce is a shepherd's crooke in our old English ; hence the staffe of a Bishop is called 
the crocier or crosier." 

1 " A croser, cruciferarius, crucifer," CATH. ANG. In the relation of the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury it is said that " one Syr Edward Gryme, that was 
his croyser, put forthe his arme with the crosse to bere of the stroke, and the stroke 
smote the crosse on sonder." Legenda Aur. At the first progress of Henry VII. after 
his coronation, during the solemnities at York, the Archbishop's " suffragan was croyser, 
and bar the Archebisshops crosse." Lei. Coll. in. 192. It appears, however, by the 
Promptorium, that the appellation CROCERE denoted also the bearer of a pastoral staff, 
or crosier. In this sense Higins, in the version of Junius' Nomenclator, 1585, renders 
" lituus, a crosier's staffe, or a Bishop's staffe." 

2 This word, signifying a staff with an hooked end, is still retained among the pro- 
vincialisms of Norfolk and Suffolk, and is traced by Forby to the Belg. crom, uncus. 
Tusser speaks of a " dung-crome," and Jamieson gives crummock, or crummie-staff, a 
stick with a crooked head. Ang. Sax. crumb, curvus. 

3 Forby gives crop, as the name applied to the craw of a bird, Teut. krop, stomachus , 
according to Jamieson it signifies the same in N. Britain, and also the human stomach. 
Ang. Sax. cropp, gutturis vesicula. 

4 "Acroppe, ctma." CATH. ANGL. Chaucer uses this word repeatedly, signifying 
the topmost boughs ; so likewise Gower, alluding to the confused state of affairs in the 
latter part of the reign of Richard II. says, 

" Nowe stante the croppe vnder the rote, 

The world is chaunged ouerall." Conf. Am. Prologue. 

Crap has the same signification in the North, as given by Jamieson. Ang. Sax. crop, cima. 



CHOPPERS, or crowpyn' (croper, 

K. p.) Postela, subtela, CATH. 
CROPON' of a beste (croupe or 

cropon, H. p.) Clunis. 
CROSSE (cros, K. H.) Crux. 
CROSSYDDE. Crucesignatus. 
CROPPE of a tre or other lyke (crote 

of a turfe, K. H. p.) Glebi- 

cula, glebula, CATH. glebella. 
CROWDE, instrument of musyke. 1 

CROWDE, barowyr. Cenivectorium. 

Nota supra in BAROWE. 
CROWDE wythe a barow.* Cine- 

CROWDYN', or showen (xowyn, H. 

shoue, P.) Impello. 
CROWDYNGE, caryynge wythe a 

barowe. Cenivectura. 
CROWDYNGE, or schowynge. Pres- 

sura, puhio. 
CROWE, byrde. Corvws. 

CROWEFOTE, herbe. Amarusca^ 

vel amarusca emuroydarum.) 

pes cor vi. 

CROWEN, as cokkes. Gallicanto. 
CROWKEN, as cranes. Gruo. 
CROWKEN, as todes, or frosshes 

(froggis, p.) 3 Coaxo. 
CROWNE, or corowne. Corona. 
CROWNERE, or corownere. Co* 


C(R)OWPER, supra in CROWPON*. 
CROWSE, or cruse, potte (crowce, 

or crwce, p.) Amula, c. F. 
CURDE (crudde, K. H. p.) 4 Co- 


CRUDDYD. Coagulatus. 
CRUDDYN'. Coagulo. 
CRUEL, man or beste. Crudelis-, 

sever us, truculentus. 
CRUEL min(i)ster Satelles, UG. 
CRUELTE. Crudelitas, severitas* 
CRUET T. S Ampulla, phiola* 

1 The crowde appears to have been a six-stringed instrument resembling a fiddle, 
called in Wales crwth, and in Scotland cruit. Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, who 
wrote at the close of the Vlth century, enumerating the kinds of music peculiar to 
different countries, uses this expression, " Chrotta Britanna placet." Carm. lib, vii. 
c. 8. In the Wicliffite version, Judges xi. 34 is thus rendered, " ForsoJ?e whanne 
lepte turnede ajen his oon gendrid doubter cam to him wij> tympans and croudis." 
The word occurs again, Luke xv. 25. " Coralla, a crowde. Coraldus, a crowdere." 
Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. " A crowde, corus, lira ; Corista, qul vel que canit in eo." 
CATH. ANGL. " Croude, an instrument, rebecq. Croudar, iouevr de rebecq." PALSG, The 
English interpretation of the Equivoca of Joh. de Garlandia gives " chorits, crouthe." 

2 Of the barrow, called in the Romance of Sir Amiloun a " croude wain," and still 
called in the Eastern Counties a crud-barrow, some notice has been taken under the 
word BAROWE. The use of the verb occurs in the following passage, after the descrip- 
tion of the leprous knight being placed in the barrow, - 

" Then Amoraunt crud Sir Amiloun 

Thurch mani a cuntre vp and down." Amis and Amiloun, 
Moore gives the verb to crowd as signifying in Suffolk to push or shove. 

8 This term, as well as several others of synonymous meaning, appear to be onoma- 
topeias, and to be traced to their similarity of sound to the noise which they express. 
The Medulla explains coa,v to be " vox ranarum, croudynge of padokys." Palsgrave 
gives " to crowle, crouiller. Mybely crowleth, I wene there be some padokes in it.'* 
Herman says, " his bely maketh a great crowlynge, patitur bothorygmon." In N, 
Britain to croud, according to Ruddiman, signifies the noise of frogs. See Jamieson. 
* "A.eiMdde,6ulducfa t coaffillium.^ CATH. ANGX. "Cruddesofmylke,nfl^*."pALSG, 
6 The vessels which contained the wine and water for the service of the altar were 



CRUMM' brede, or o)>er lyke (crum- 

myn, k. H.) Mico. 
CRUSCHYLBONE, or grystylbone 

(crusshell, p.) 1 Cartilago. 
CRUSCHYN, or quaschyn'. Quasso. 
CRUSSHYN' bonys. Ocillo, UG. 
CRUSKYN', or cruske, coop of erbe. a 

CRUSTE. Crustum, UG. 

Cu, halfe a farthynge, or q. (cue, 
p.) 3 Calcus, c. F. minutum. 


CUFFE, glove, or raeteyne (mytten, 
p.) Mitta (ciroteca, j.) 

CUKKOW, byrde(cukhew,bryd, K.) 

CUKKYNGE, or pysynge vesselle. 
Scaphium, UG. in scando. 

CUKSTOKE, for flyterys, or schy- 

called cruets, in Latin phiala, urceoli, amululcp, in French burettes, chennettes, &c. 
The Constitutions of Walter de Cantilupe in 1240 require that in every church there 
should be " duce phialce, una vinaria, altera aquaria ; " and at the Synod of Exeter in 
1287 it was ordained that there should be " ires phialce." Wilkins, Concil. i. 666, ii. 
139. Among the costly bequests of the Black Prince in 1376 to our Lady's altar at 
Canterbury, are mentioned " deux cruetz taillez come deux angeles, pur servir h mesme 
Vautier perpetuelement." Herman, under the head of things sacred, says, "Have 
pure wyne and water in the cruettes, amulis." 

1 In Norfolk, according to Forby, crish or crush signifies cartilage, or soft bones, 
and in Suffolk crussel or skrussel has a similar meaning. Ang. Sax. gristl-ban. 

2 This term is derived from the old French word creusequin, which signifies a drink- 
ing cup. In a MS. Inventory, dated 1378, 1 Ric. II. in the possession of Sir Thomas 
Phillipps, are enumerated " Un petit cruskyn oue le pee et le couercle d 1 argent enorre 
et eym\ Un cruskyn de terre yarnis d'argent, Sfc. Un pot d? argent Mane au guyse 
d'un cruslkyn, oue le couercle sanz pomelle. Un cruskyn de terre couere de quir bende 
en la sumeted'or et le couercle d'or." Among the " pertinencia promptuario," in 
Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002, occur " cornua, home cuppe, picarius, cruskyn." 

3 The smallest Anglo-Saxon coin was the styca, of which two were equal to a far- 
thing. Ruding observes that the stycas appear identical with the " minuta," Domesd. 
i. f. 268, and the passage rendered in the Saxon Gospels, "twegen stycas, " is in the 
Wickliffite version, " tweie mynutis, that is a farthing." Mark, xii. 42. See MYNUTE 
hereafter: In Buncombe's Hist, of Reculver is given a mortmayn grant, dated 13 
Henry VI. 1435, in which half a farthing is named as a portion of rent paid to the 
Hospital of Herbaldowne, namely, " xxv schelynges, and the halfin dell of an fferdyng 
of rente, and rente jeldynge of a quat' of berr', and an henne and a half, a certell (sar- 
cella) and J>e iij parte of a certell," &c. Bibl. Top. i. 151. At the time however that 
the Promptorium was compiled it does not appear that there was actually a coin of 
this value ; the mite, as well as its equivalent, called here a cu, were merely terms 
retained in calculation, andwthe latter was commonly used at Oxford at a much later 
period. It is thus explained by Minsheu, who completed his first edition in that 
University. " A cue, i. halfe a farthing, so called because they set down in the 
Battling or Butterie bookes in Oxford and Cambridge the letter q. for halfe a farthing, 
and in Oxford when they make that cue or q. a farthing, they say, Cap my q. and make 
it a farthing, thus q a . But in Cambridge they use this letter, a little s. for a farthing, 
and when they demand a farthing bread or beare, they say a seize of bread or beare. 
Latin, calcus, a cue of bread." The abbreviation q. did not, it plainly appears, always 
stand as at present for quadrans, a farthing, but denoted a value of only half that amount ; 
and it seems possible that cue or q. may have been an abbreviation of " calcus, quarta 
pars oboH." ORTUS. The term cue occurs in Beaumont and Fletcher. See Nares's 


derys (cukstolle, K. cucstool, 
H.) 1 Turbuscetum, cadurca. 
CULLYN* owte. Segrego, lego, 
separo (eligo, K.) 

CULLYNGE, or owte schesynge 
(owtclesyng, K. chesyng, H. 
chosinge owte, P.) Separacio, 

1 " Terbichetum, a cokstole." ORTUS. " Cokestole, cuckestole, selle a ricaldes." 
PALSG. The earliest mention of this mode of punishing female offenders occurs in the 
laws of Chester in the time of Edward the Confessor, as stated in Domesd. i. f. 262, b. 
The fine for using false measures was fixed at 4 shillings ; " similiter malam cervisiam 
fattens, out in cathedrd ponebatur stercoris, aut iiij sol. dabat prepositis." It was 
called in Ang. Sax. " scealfing-stol, sella urinatoria, in qud rixosas mulieres sedentes 
aquis demergebantur." SOMNER. The pillory for male offenders, and cucking-stool for 
females, were essentially appendant to the view of frank-pledge, or Leet : inquest was 
ordered to he made respecting the sufficient provision of both, by the Stat. assigned to 
51 Hen. III. c. 6; and among the " Capitula JSscaetrie," one of the duties of the 
Escheator is declared to be inquiry " de pilloriis et tumbrellis sine licentid Regis le- 
vatis." Stat. of Realm, i. 201, 240. It was termed, perhaps from its resemblance to a 
warlike engine so called, trebuchet, or trebuchetum. See hereafter TREBGExfor werre. 
By Bracton it is spoken of as tymborella, and in the Statutes tumbrellus, appellations 
likewise derived from its construction. An instance of the jealousy with which any un- 
authorized assumption of this manorial right of punishment was repressed, occurs in 
the Chron. of Jocelin de Brakelond, p. 38, where it is related that about 1190 certain 
encroachments were made on the privileges of the Abbot of St. Edmund's Bury, in the 
manor of Illegh ; " levaverunt homines delllega quoddam trebuchet adfaciendamjusti- 
ciam pro falsis mensuris panis vel bladi mensurandi, unde conquestus est abbas." This 
punishment was chiefly inflicted in early times on brewers, who are spoken of always as 
females, for any transgression of the assize of ale, " Braciatrix (paciatur) trebuchetum 
vel castigatorium ;" in Scotland it was used in like manner. Stat. of Realm, i. 201, 
and Skene's Reg. Majest. It became subsequently the punishment of scolds, and 
women of immoral or disorderly life ; thus in the town of Montgomery such offenders 
were adjudged to suffer the penalty " de la Goging-stoole,"" as appears by a MS. cited 
in Blount's Tenures ; in the Leet Book of Coventry mention occurs in 1423, of the 
" cokestowle made apon Chelsmore grene to punysche skolders and chidders, as y e law 
wyll : " and items of account are found so late as 1623, which show that the punish- 
ment still continued to be used in that city. Of the " coke-stool " at Norwich, which 
was to be provided by the gild of St. George, see Blomf. Hist. ii. 739 ; an account of 
expenses connected with another at Kingston-on-Thames is given in Lysons's Env. 
i. 233 ; and in Lord Braybrooke's Hist, of Audley End, p. 261 , are mentioned payments 
so late as the year 1613, at Saffron Walden, where the scene of such punishments at the 
end of the High Street is spoken of in 1484 as the " cokstul hend." In 1555 Mary 
Queen of Scots enacted that itinerant singing women should be put on the cuckstoles 
of every burgh or town ; and the first Homily against contention, part 3, published in 
1562, sets forth that " in all well ordred cities common brawlers and scolders be pun- 
ished with a notable kind of paine, as to be set on the cucking-stole, pillory, or such 
like." An original cucking-stool, of ancient and rude construction, was preserved in 
the crypt under the chancel of St. Mary's, Warwick, where may still be seen the three- 
wheeled carriage upon which was suspended by a long balanced pole a chair which could 
readily be lowered into the water, when the cumbrous vehicle had been rolled into a 
convenient situation. This chair is still in existence at Warwick. Another cucking- 
stool, differently contrived, may be seen at Ipswich in the Custom House ; it appears 
to have been used by means of a sort of a crane, whereby the victim was slung into 
the river, and is represented in the Hist, of Ipswich, published 1830, and Gent. Mag. 
Jan. 1831. More detailed information on this curious subject will be found in the 



CULME of a smeke (of smeke, 

H. P.) Fuligo. 
(CULPOWN, K. culpyn, H. p.) 1 

Culpum, scissura. 
CULRACHE, smerthole, herbe (cul- 

ratche, H. p.) 2 Persiccaria. 
(CuLTER'for a plowe, P. Cult rum.) 
CUM, or come (cvmnyn, K. cvmne, 

H.) Venio. 
CUM AFTER,orfolow(cvmnynaftyr, 

K. cvmne, H.) Succedo, sequor. 
CUM DOWNE. Descendo. 
CVM YN. Ingredior, introeo. 
CVM' TOO. Advenio. 
CUMLY (or semely, P.) supra in 


COMLY, or cumlywyse. Decanter, 

(CUMLINGE, or newe come, K. p. 3 

Adventicius, UG. inquilinus.) 


datum, preceptum.) 
CUMNAWNTE (coiimawnt, K. cu- 

naunt, p.) 4 Pactum, fedus y 

(CuMNAWNTEbrekere, K. Fidi- 

CUMNAWNTYN', or make a cum- 

nawnte. Convenio^ pango. 
CUMPANY. Comitiva, agmen, 

turba, turma, conturbernium, 

cetus (conventiculum, proprie 

malorum, P.) 

Glossaries of Ducange, Spelman, Blount, and Cowel ; as also in Brand's Popular Antiqu. 
ii. 441. The term flyterys, here applied to contentious persons, does not occur again 
in the Promptorium, but only the verb FLYTIN or chydin. See hereafter KUKSTOLE. 

1 Culpon, derived from the Latin colpo, or the French coupon, a shred, or any por- 
tion cut off, is a term not uncommon in the early romances. 

" Al to peces thai hewed thair sheldes, 

The culpons flegh out in the feldes." Ywaine and Gawin, 641. 

Hoveden, speaking of the livery allowed to the King of Scotland at the court of King 
Richard in 1194, says he had " 40 grossos longos colpones de dominie d candeld Regis." 
Chaucer says of the long hair of the Pardoner, which hung " by vnces " on his shoulders, 

" Full thinne it laie, by culpons one and one." Cant Tales, Prologue. 
' Culpon that troute " is given as the proper term of the art, in the " Boke of 
Kerving," 1508. " Culpit, a large lump of any thing." FORBY. 

2 The Persicaria hydropiper, Linn, was called culrage, from the French, " enrage, 
mirage, the hearbe water-pepper, arse-smart, killridge or culerage." COTGK. Its 
aphrodisiac properties are thus alluded to by Piers of Fulham, 

" An erbe is cause of all this rage 

In our tongue called culrage. " Hartshorne, Metr. Tales, 133. 

3 See COMELYNGE. Sir Ywaine, when he had long time left the lady whom he had 
espoused in a foreign land, is called by her messenger, " an unkind cumlyng." Ywaine 
and Gawin, 1627. " Komelynge " occurs in Rob. of Gloucester ; " comlyng," R. Brunne. 

4 Cumnawnte or comenaunt are perhaps corruptions of the French convenant. In 
Sir John Howard's Household Book, entries frequently occur of agreements made with 
domestics or artificers, always expressed by the term comenaunt. In 1464 his steward 
made the following note: "My master made comenaunt at Fressefeld with .... 
Carpenter, y l he schalle be wyth hym this xii monyth, and he shalle have in mony xxxs. 
and a gowne, and his comenaunt begynnith the iiii. yer of the Kynge, and the next 
Monday before myhelmesse." Household Expenses in England, presented to theRox- 
burghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. Palsgrave gives " comnant, appoyntment, conuenant. 
To c^mnaunt, conuenancer ; that that I comnaunt with you shall be parfourmed." 
Compare BREKE couenant above, p. 50, in which instance, if the correct reading be 



COMPANYABLE, or felawble, or 

felawly. Socialis. 
( CUM PAS, or sercle, P. Girus.) 
CUMPASSE, instrument. Circi- 

nus, circulus, machina. 
CuMPASSYN'(cvmpacyn, K.) Cir- 


CUMPLYNE.' Completorium. 
CUNDYTE of watyr. Conductus, 

aqueductusy aquagium, c. F. 
CUNE, or money (coyne of mony, 

K.) Nummisma, assarium, c. F. 
CUNNE, or to haue cunnynge (cun, 

supra in cone, P.) Scio. 
(CUNNYNGE, K. P. Sciencia^) 
CUNGE, or yeve leve (cungyn, or 

zeue leue, K. H. p.) a Licencio. 

CUNGYR, fysche. Congrus, COMM. 
CONIURYN', or cuniowryn'. Con- 

juro, adjuro, exorcizo. 
CUNIURYD, or con(iu)ryd. Con- 

CUNIURYNGE, or coniurynge. 


CUNSTABLE. Constabularius. 
CUNTENAWNCE (or chere, p.) 


CUNT RE. P atria. 
CONTREMANN, or womann'. 

Compatriota (patriota, K. p.) 
CUPPE. Ciphus, patera, cuppa. 
(CUPPE of erthe, p. Carthe- 

CuPBURDE. 3 Abacus, c. F. 

conuenant, it will accord perfectly with the French word. In the Romance of Sir 
Amadas, " conande " occurs in the sense of a covenant : 

" The conande was gud and fynne." Weber, Metr. Rom. line 700. 
In Mr. Robson's edition the word is printed "couand," possibly a contraction of 
" couenand," which is found in the context. See stanzas 63, 64, the Anturs of Arther, 
St. 16, and Avowynge of King Arther, s. 38, where occurs the same word " couand." 

1 Compline, called in Latin Completorium, completa, or complenda, " quod catera 
diurna officia complet et claudit," DUC. is the service with which in monastic estab- 
lishments the day closed, after which, by the rule of St. Benedict, all converse was 
forbidden. It was called in Ang. Sax. niht-sang, vespertina cantio, completorium, and 
Abbot ^Elfric speaks of it in his pastoral Epistle translated from Latin into the lan- 
guage of England, by order, as he states, of Abp. Wulstan. The seven canonical hours, 
that the four synods had appointed for daily services of praise to God, are in this 
epistle stated to be matins with the after song appertaining thereto, prime, tierce, sext, 
none, vespers and compline (niht-sang). Ancient Laws and Institutes, ii. 377. See 
also the Regularis concordia Angl. nationis monachorum. Amalarius says, " comple- 
torium ideo dicitur quia in eo completur quotidianus usus cibi vel potus, seu locutio 
communist De Eccl. Offic. lib. iv. c. 8. The hour of compline is stated by Fuller, 
in his Church History, B. vi. 278, to have been at 7 o'clock, but in Davies' rites of 
the Church of Durham, it is fixed_at an earlier hour. 

2 CUNTE, MS. The verb cungyn is evidently derived from the low Latin congeare, 
and French congter, signifying to send away, to give license to depart. 

3 In the Commentary on the Equiv. Vocab. Interpret, of Job de Garlandia abacus is 
explained to be the marble table whereon, in the feasts of the ancients, the cups were 
placed, " apud modernosfit de aliis lapidibus, sive de lignis arlificiose conjunctis, et 
vocatur a cupborde." The cupboard was, in the more common sense of the word, an 
open buffet, whereon a rich display of plate was made, such as Hall and other chron- 
iclers describe frequently. It was also sometimes closed with doors, as usual at the 
present time; such as in the will of Elizabeth Drury, in 1475, is called a "cupbord 
with two almeries." Rokewode's Hund. of Thingoe, 284. The livery cupboard, often 
mentioned in accounts and ordinances of household, was open, and furnished with 



CURRAYYN* horsys, or ober lyke. 

CURRAYYN' ledyr. Cociodio, 

KYLW. (corradio, P.) 
CURSER, or cow(r)ser. Equus 


CURATE. Curatus. 
CURE, or charge. Cura. 

CURFU.' Ignitegium. 

CURYN', or hyllyn' (cuueren, w.) 

Operio, cooperio, tego, veto, 

CURYN', or heelyn' of seekenesse 

(holyn, K. H.) Sano, euro. 
CUVERYNGE, or hyllynge, or 

thynge j;at hyllythe (curyng, 

shelves, whereon the ration called a livery, allowed to each member of the household 
was placed ; and in well ordered families every dormitory appears to have been supplied 
nightly with a substantial provision. In the contract for building Hengrave Hall, in 
1538, is the following clause ; " the hall to have ii. coberds, one benethe at the sper 
(screen) with a tremor, and another at the hygher tables ende without doors." Pals- 
grave gives " cupborde of plate, or to sette plate upon, buffet: cupborde to putte meate 
in, dressouer. Methinke my cupborde is ungarnysshed, nowe I wantemy salte celler." 
Cotgrave renders " Buffet, a court-cupboard, or high standing cupboard ; also a cup- 
board of plate. Dressoir, a court cupboord (without box or drawer)." 

1 The origin of the curfew in England is generally ascribed to the Conqueror, by 
whom it was imposed in token of servitude, but the assertion seems to rest on no suf- 
ficient authority, and no mention of the usage occurs in the Stat. de nocturnis custodiis. 
Ancient Laws and Instit. i. 491. Dr. Henry observes that the custom prevailed, 
at the time of the Conquest, in France, and probably in all the countries of Europe, 
and was intended merely as a precaution against fires, at a time when cities were con- 
structed chiefly of wood. It has been stated also that the custom was abolished by 
Henry II. The Statutes of the City of London, 13 Edw. I. enjoin that no one shall 
be found in the streets " apres coeverfu persone a Seint Martyn le graunt." Stat. of 
Realm, i. 102. Couvre feu, or carfou in France was rung at 7 in the evening, but in 
some places at a later hour in summer, and there was also a bell at daybreak. See 
Pasquier, iv. 18, and Menage. In England the hour of ringing the curfew was eight, 
Wats, however, gives nine as the hour in summer ; that hour is so named in " the 
Merry Devil of Edmonton," and it was the customary time in Scotland, as appears 
by Act Parl. 13 James I. 1419, but subsequently was altered to ten. The usage of the 
curfew is still retained in the Universities, and many towns and villages in England, as 
is likewise the custom of ringing a bell at day-break, or four o'clock. At Lynn, where 
the Promptorium was compiled, the largest bell of the principal churches is still tolled 
at six, both morning and evening, and serves as a signal to labourers and artizans. The 
xalutatio angelica, commonly called the angelus, was recited daily morning and evening, 
" ad pulsationem ignitegii,'" an institution ascribed to St. Bonaventure, but more 

frobably, as Ducange observes, to Pope John XXII. at the Council of Sens, 1320. 
n the Statutes of Lichfield Cathedral, it is ordered as follows: " Est autem ignite- 
gium qudlibet nocte per annum, pulsandum hord septimd post meridiem, exceptis Hits 
festis quibus matutince dicuntur post completorium." In the Institutions of Guarin, 
Abbot of St. Alban's, who died 1195, the curfew is called pyritegium. Matt. Paris. The 
Medulla renders " ignitegium, a coure feu," in the Ortus "a fyrepanne," alluding 
perhaps to such an implement for extinguishing the fire, as is represented in Antiqu. 
Repert. i. 89, and which was afterwards in the possession of Horace Walpole at Straw- 
berry Hill. " Courefewe, a ryngyng of belles towarde euenyng, couurefev." PALSG. 
In the Romance of the Seuyn Sages the word is repeatedly written " corfour bell." 
Vlth Tale. " Curfur, ignitegium.' 1 ' CATH. ANGL. See curfure in Jamieson. Spelman 
gives the Ang. Sax. curfu-bell, but it is not found in Lye. See further on this subject 
Brand's Popular Antiqu. ii. 136, and Barrington on the Anc. Stat. 133. 



K. H.) Operculum, velamentum, 

velamen, tegimen. 
CURYNGE, or heelynge of seke- 

nesse. Curacio, sanacio. 
CURYNGE, or recurynge of seke- 

nesse. Convalescencia. 
CURLYD, as here. Crispus. 
CURLYNGE of here. Crispitudo. 
CURLEW, byrde. Coturnix, or- 

togameter, ortogametra, c. F. 
CURCE. Ex communication ana- 
thema, maledictio. 
( CURS YD, K. Excommunicatus, 

CURSYN'. Excommunico, ana- 

thematizo, cateziso, maledico. 
CURTEYSE. Facetus, urbanus, 

CURTESY. Facecia, urbanitas, 


CURTEYNE. Curtina. 
CURTLAGE, or gardeyn'. Olera- 

rium, curtilagium. 
CUSCHONE (cusshyn, p.) Cus- 

cina, supinum. 

CUSTUM, or vse. Consuetude, ritus. 
CUSTUM, kyngys dute. Custuma, 

(usucaptio, P.) 
CUSTUM ABLE. SolituS) consuetus. 

CUSTUMABLY. Consuete, solite. 
CUSTUMMERE. Custumarius, usu~ 

captor, c. F. consuetudinarius. 
CUTTE a-sundere. Scissus. 
CUT, or lote. Sors. 
CUTTYN' (cutte, or cutton, p.) 

Scindo, seco, CATH. 
CUTTYYN' a- way. Abscindo, reseco, 


CUTTE vynes. Puto, c. r. 
CUTTYNGE of vynys. Putacio. 
CUTTYNGE. Scissura. 
CUTTYNGE, or a-voydaunce yn any 

materyalle thynge, (mater', p.) 

or refuse. Resecamen, putamen. 
CUTTPURS. Burscida, et inde 

burscidium, actus ejus, cucufri- 

(CuT PURSINGE, p. Burcidium.) 

DAFFE, or dastard, or he J>at 

spekythe not yn tyme. 1 Ori- 

durus, CATH. 
DAGGARE, to steke wythe men'. 

Pugio (clunabulum, armicu- 

dium, P.) 
DAGGE of clothe. Fractillus* 

DAGGYDE.' Fractillosus. 

1 This term of reproach occurs in Piers Ploughman and Chaucer, 

" Thou dotest daffe, quod she, dulle are thy wittes." 

Chaucer uses the expressions, " a daffe, or a cokenay," in a similar sense, and "be- 
daffed," made a fool of, 

" Beth not bedafFed for your innocence." Clerkes Tale. 
In the " seconde fyt of curtasie " occurs the following advice : 

" Let not J?e post be-cum \>j staf, 
Lest >ou be callet a dotet daf." Sloane MS. 1986, f. 28, b. 

2 DRAGGYDE, MS. daggyd, K. P. Chaucer, among the costly fashions of the reign of 
Richard II. which are satirized in the Parson's Tale, speaks of "pounsed and dagged 
clothing ; " this custom of jagging or foliating the edge of a garment had commenced 
in the previous reign, and is curiously represented in the History of the Deposition of 


DAGGYN'. Fiaclillo. 


DAY. Dies. 

DAY BE DAY, or ouery day (or 
daily, or euery day, p.) Quo- 

DAYYN*,or wexyn day(dawyn, K.)* 

DAYS rawarde or hyre, or oj>er 
lyke. Diarium, c. F. 

DAYSY, flowre. Consolida mi- 
nor, et major dicitur confery 
(cownfery, K.) 

DALE, or vale. Vallis. 
DAYLY, or pley (daly, K. p.) 3 

Tessura, c. F. (alea^ decius, K.) 
DALYAUNCE. Confabulacio, col- 

locucio, colloquium. 
DALYYN', or talkyn'. Fabulor, 

confabulor, colloquor. 
D A L K E. 4 Vallis (supra in dale, p.) 
DALLYN, or hallesyn (halsyn, K.) 

Amp lector. 
DALLYNGE, or halsynge. Am- 

(DALMATYK, K. p.) 5 Dalmatica. 

Richard, Harl. MS. 1319. Archseologia, vol. xx. Chaucer uses also the diminutive 
dagon ; thus in the Sompnoures Tale the importunate Friar, who went from house to 
house to collect anything he could lay hands upon, craves " a dagon of your blanket, 
leve dame." Ang. Sax. " dag, anything that is loose, dagling, dangling." SOMN. 

1 A bed-covering, or a garment formed of frize, or some material with long thrums 
like a carpet, was termed a daggysweyne; lodix is explained in the Ortus to be " quic- 
quid in lecto supponitur, et proprie pannus villosus, Anglice a blanket." Hormansays, 
' my bed is covered with a daggeswaine and a quylte (gausape et centone) some dags- 
way nys haue longe thrumys (fractillos) and iaggj on bothe sydes, some but on one." So 
likewise Elyot gives " Gausape, a man tell to caste on a bed, also a carpet to lay on a 
table, some cal it a dagswayne." Andrew Borde, in the Introduction of Knowledge, 
1542, puts the following speech in the mouths of the Frycelanders : 

" And symple rayment doth serue us full well, 

With dagswaynes and roudges we be content." 

Harrison relates in the description of England, written in Essex during the reign of 
Elizabeth, that the old men in his village used to say, "our fathers (yea and we our 
selues also) haue lien full oft vpon straw pallets, on rough mats couered onelie with a 
sheet under couerlets made of dagswain, or hopharlots (I vse their owne termes) and a 
good round log vnder their heads insteed of a bolster." Holinshed, Chron. i. 188. 

2 " The dayng of day," Anturs of Arther, edited by Mr. Robson, st. 37. See DAWYN. 

3 The Council of Worcester, in 1240, ordained regarding the Clergy, "nee ludant 
ad aleas vel taxillos ;" the latter game was probably the same which is here termed 
DAYLY, but in what respect it differed from ordinary dice -play has not been ascer- 
tained. Ducange supposes it may have been the same as the French " trictrac, Indus 
scrupulorum." Herman says that " men pley with 3 dice, and children with 4 dalies, 
astragulis vel talis. Wolde God I coude nat playe at the dalys, aleam. Cutte this 
floss he into daleys, tessellas." 

4 Delk, according to Forby, signifies in Norfolk a small cavity either in the soil, or 
the flesh of the body. In this last sense the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth inter- 
prets the expression " au cool troueret lafosset, a dalke in J?e nekke." Arund. MS. 
220, f. 297, b. 

6 The dalmatic is a sacred vestment, so named, according to St. Isidore, from its having 
originated in Dalmatia, and was introduced into the Christian church by St. Silvester, 
P.P. in the 4th century, as stated by Alcuin, who describes it as " vestimentum in modum 
crucis, habens in sinistrd sud parte fimbrias, dextrd Us carente, inconsutile, et cunt 


DAME, or hye bankys (dam or 
heybanck. K.) Agger (stag- 
num, K. p.) 

DAMAGE, or harme. Dampnum. 

DAMASYN', tre. Nixa. 

DAMASYN', frute. Prunum Da- 
mascenum, coquinella. 

(DAME, K. p. Domina.) 

DAMESELLE. Domicella. 

DAMPNACYONE. Dampnacio. 

DAMPNYD. Dampnatus. 
DAMPNYNGE, idem est quod 


DAMNYN'. Dampno, condempno. 
DAPYR, or praty. 1 Elegans. 
DARYN', or drowpyn', or prively to 

be hydde (priuyly to hydyn, K. 

prevyly ben hyd, H.) a Latito, 

lateo, CATH. 
DARYNGE, or drowpynge (drou- 

largis manicis." It was specially appropriated to the deacon, who was vested there- 
with at the time of his ordination, and therefore St. Stephen and St. Laurence, who 
were deacons of the Church, are always represented as wearing this vesture. A very 
interesting portraiture of the former will be found in a MS. of Xlth cent. Calig. A. 
xiv. In early times the dalmatic was ornamented with longitudinal bands, called 
clam, which were either of gold, as in the illumination just mentioned, or purple ; 
" Dalmata, vestis sacerdotalis Candida cum clavis purpureis." Gloss. S. Isid. Orig. 
Hence the epithets auroclavus, chrysoclavus, and purpurd clavatus. To these bands 
were attached at intervals theplayulce, as exhibited in the illumination of the Bible of 
Charles the Bald at Paris, executed in the IXth century, engraved in Montfaucon 
Mon. Franc, torn, i, and the splendid work published by the Comte Bastard. See also 
the curious German Missal, Xth cent. Harl. MS. 2908, and the illumination in Cott. 
MS. Claud. A. in. supposed to represent St. Dunstan. In the Ang. Sax. Inventory 
of sacred ornaments given by Bp. Leofric to the church of Exeter about A.D. 1050, 
occur " 2 dalmatica, 3 pistel roccas." Mon. Angl. i. 222. These last were probably 
tunicles, vestments appropriated to the order of subdeacon, as was the dalmatic to that 
of deacon ; in effigies and representations that exist in England of ecclesiastics in pon- 
tificalibus, both vestments are almost invariably exhibited. The Legate Ottoboni or- 
dained, A.D. 1268, that if any Prelate neglected to punish the immoral conduct of his 
clergy, " Episcopus a dalmaticee, tunica, et sandaliorum usu sit suspensus donee 
duxerit qua statuta sunt exequenda." Wilkins, Cone. xi. 5. 

1 DRAPYR, or party, MS. dapyr, or praty, K. p. Palsgrave gives "daper, proper, 
mignon, godin; dapyrnesse, propernesse, mignotterie." 

2 A very usual sense of the verb to dare, in the old writers, is to gaze about, or stare ; 
Palsgrave gives " to dare, prye or loke about me, je advise alentour. What darest 
thou on this facyon, me thynketh thou woldest catche larkes ? '' 

" With woodecokkys lerne for to dare. 1 ' Lydgate, Minor Poems, 174. 
The same signification has been assigned, by Tyrwhitt and the commentators on 
Chaucer, to an expression occurring in the Shipman's Tale, the true import of which 
appears above to be made clear. Dan John rallies the old merchant's wife on the slug- 
gishness of her spouse : 

" an olde appalled wight, 
As ben thise wedded men, that lie and dare, 
As in a fourme sitteth a wery hare." 

Chaucer appears evidently here to use dare in the sense given to the word in the Promp- 
torium of lying concealed, as an animal in its den, which is termed hereafter DWERE, 
or dowere. " Dilatesco, to biginue to dare. Lateo, to lurk." MED. Cotgrave gives 
" blotir, to squat, ly close to the ground, like a daring larke, or affrighted fowle." 



kynge, H. droukinge, p.) Lici- 

tacio (latitatio, K. H. p.) 
DARTE. Jaculum, telum, specu- 
lum (spilum, p.) 
DARN, or durn (darun, daren, or 

dorn, p.) Audeo. 
DASYD,orbe-dasyd. Vertiginosus. 
DASMYN', or messefi as eyys (da- 

syn, or myssyn as eyne, H. 

iyen, p.) 1 Caligo. 
DASTARD, or dullarde. 2 Duri- 

buctius (vel duribuccus, P.) 
DATE, frute. Dactilus, 
DATE, of scripture. Datum. 
DAWBER, or cleymann'. Argil- 

lariuS) bituminarius, KYLW. 

linitor (lutor, p.) 
DAWBYN'. S Limo, muro (banni- 

no, P.) 
DAWNCE, Tripudium. 

DAWNCEyn a sorte (in sercle, P. 

cercle, H.) Chorea. 
DAWNCERE. Tripudiator, tri- 


DAWNCYNGE, idem est quod 


DAWNCYN'. Tripudio, salto. 
DAUNGE(R), or grete passage 

(dawnger, K. or streyte passage, 

p.) Arta via. 
(DAWNGERE, K. daunger', p. 

DAWNGEROWSE (or strauge, p.) 

Daungerosus (domigeriosus, 

K. P.) 

DAWYN', idem est quod DAYYN' 
(dawnyn or dayen, p.) 4 Auroro, 

1 The derivation of this word appears, according to Skinner and Junius, to be from 
Ang. Sax. dwses, hebes, stulttts ; the Teut. daesen, insanire, phantasmate turbari is 
more closely assimilated to it. In the Wicliffite version Gen. xxvii. 1 is rendered 
thus: " Foresothe Isaac wax eld, and hise i3en dasewiden." The word is repeatedly 
used by Chaucer. 

" Thin eyen dasen, sothly as me thinketh." Manciple's Prol. 

2 "Duribuccus, >atneuer opened his rnouj), a dasiberde." MED. ' ' A daysyberd, duri- 
luccus." CATH. ANGL. " Dastarde, estourdy, butarin." PALSG. SeeDAFFE and DUL- 

3 Palsgrave gives the verbs "to dawbe with clay onely ; to daube with lime, plaster, 
or lome, that is tempered with heare or straw. Dauber, placqueur." Forby states that 
a dauber in Norfolk is a builder of walls with clay or mud, mixed with stubble or short 
straw well beaten and incorporated, and so becoming pretty durable ; it is now difficult 
to find a good dauber. This mode of constructing fences for farm-yards and cottage 
walls is much used in Suffolk, as appears by Sir John Cullum's account of the process, 
Hist, of Hawsted, 195, and Moore's explanation of the term " daabing." The proverb 
given by Ray, " there's craft in dawbing " would make it appear that this mode of 
construction was once more generally known ; in the western counties it is still in con- 
tinual use, being known by the appellations cob, or rad and dab, a curious article on 
which, and on the use of concrete in building generally, will be found in Quart. Rev. 
vol. lviii.,524. 

4 "To dawe, diere, diescere, diet, impersonate." CATH. ANGL. This verb is used 
by Chaucer : 

" Thus laboureth he, till that the day gan dawe." Marchant's Tale. 
Palsgrave gives " to dawe as the day dothe, adjotirner, Vaube se crieve. To dawe from 


DAWNYNGE of the day. Ante- 

lucanum, c. r. MER. ante luca- 

nus, qui surgit ante lucem, c. F. 


DAW(N)TYNGE, or grete cher- 

synge (dauntinge, or greate 

cherisshinge, p.) JFocio, CATH. 
DEBATE.Dissencio, sedicio, CATH. 
DEBATE MAKER, or baratour. a 

Incentor, CATH. 
DEC BYTE, or begylynge. Fraus, 

decepcio, dolus, meander, c. F. 
DECEYUABLE (deceywabyl, K.) 



DECEYUAR. Fraudator, tiptes, C.F. 
DECEYVYN'. Decipio, fraudo, 

defraudo, folio (supplanto, P.) 
DEDE, or dethe, substantyue. 

Mors, letum, interitus. 
DEDE, adiectyue. Mortuus, de- 

DEDE, orwerke. Factum (aceio, 


DEDELY. Mortalis. 
DEDELY. Mortaliter, letaliter. 
DEDELY ENMY. Hosticus, c. F. 
DEDELYNESSE. Mortalitas. 
DYFFAMYN' (or defamyn, p.) 

Defamo, diffamo, CATH. 
DEFFE. Surdus. 
DEFAWTE. Defectus. 
DEFAWTY. Defectivus. 
DEFENCE. Defencio, tuicio, mu- 

nimen, munimentum, tutela* 
DEFENSYN'. Defenso, munio. 
DEFENSOWRE (defendour, K. p.) 

DEFENDYN'. Defendo, tego, pro- 

tego, tufa) tutor, tueor, CATH. 
DEFENDYN', or forbedyn'. Pro- 

hibeo, inhibeo. 
DEFYYN' (or broken, p.) mete or 

drynke. 3 Digero. 
DYFFYYN', or vtterly dyspysyn'. 

swounyng ; when a dronken man swouneth, there is no better medecyne to dawe hym 
with, than to throwe maluesy in hys face. To dawne or get lyfe in one that is fallenm 
a swoune ; I can nat dawne hym, get me a kaye to open his chawes." Compare D A.YYN, 
or wexyn day. Ang. Sax. dagian, lucescere. 

1 DAWNCYN', MS. " To dawnte, llanditractare." CATH. ANGL. In N. Britain to 
dawt has the same signification. See Jamieson. In the vision of Piers Ploughman to 
daunt appears to mean to tame by kind treatment ; the allusion is to the dove which 
was trained by Mahomet to come to his ear for her food. 

" Thorugh his sotile wittes 

He daunted a dowve.'' Vision, line 1042. 

In Norfolk to daunt is used in the sense of knocking down, Fr. dompter, as by Pals- 
grave, "To dawnte, mate, overcome, je matte. Lydgat. This terme is yet scarsly 
admitted in our comen spetche." 

2 See BARATOWRE. In " the Charge of the Quest of Warmot in euery Warde," 
given by Arnold, in the Customs of London, p. 90, inquiry is ordered to be made " yf 
ther be ony comon ryator, barratur, &c. dwelling wythin the warde." The term is 
taken from the French, barateur, in low Latin, fiaraterius, which have the same 

3 "To defy, degere, degerere. A defiynge, diffestio." CATH. ANG. This word 
occurs in Piers Ploughman, where repenting Gluttony makes a vow to fast, and that 

" Shal never fyssh on Fry day 
Defyen in my wombe." line 3253. See 


Vilipendo, floccipendo, sperno, 

aspernor, aporio, c. F. 
DEFYYNGE of mete, or drynke. 1 

DEFYYNGE, or dyspysynge. Vi- 

lipencio, floccipencio. 
DEFFENESSE. Surditas. 

DEFOWLYD. Deturpatus, macu- 

latus, feculentus (dehonestatus, 

p -) 
DEFOWLYN', or make fowle. In- 

quino, deturpo, violo, polluo. 

DEFOWLYNGE. Deturpacio, ma- 
cula do. 

DEFFE, or dulle (defte, K. deft, 
H. p.) 2 Obtusus, agrestiSy 
Aristotelis in politicis (ebes, P.) 

DEYE. S Androchia, c. F. 

See also line 457- In the same sense it is used in the Wicliffite version, and by Gower. 
To defy has also the signification of dissolve ; thus Master Langfrank of Meleyne in 
one of his prescriptions, directs certain substances to be compounded, and "make 
pelotes, and defy one of heme in water of rewe." MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas 
Phillipps. See FYIN, or defyin mete and drynke. 

1 Drynge, MS. 

2 Jamieson observes that deaf signifies properly stupid, and the term is transferred in 
a more limited sense to the ear. It is also applied to that which has lost its germi- 
nating power : thus in the North, as in Devonshire, a rotten nut is called deaf, and 
barren corn is called deaf corn, an expression literally Ang.-Saxon. An unproductive 
soil is likewise termed deaf. The plant lamium, or archangel, known by the common 
names dead or blind nettle, in the Promptorium, has the epithet DEFFE, evidently 
because it does not possess the stinging property of the true nettle. 

3 "Androchia, a deye." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. " A deye, dndrochius, androchea, 
ffenatarius, genetharia. A derye, androchiarium, bestiarium, genetheum." CATH. 
ANG. The daia is mentioned in Domesday, among assistants in husbandry, and the 
2d Stat. 25 Edw. III., A.D. 1351, occasioned by the exorbitant demand for wages made 
by servants after the pestilence, enacts that " chescun charetter, earner, chaceour de 
carues, bercher, porcher, deye et tons autres servant z " should be content with such 
rate of wages as had been previously usual, and serve not by the day, but the year, or 
other usual term. The term is again found in Stat. 37 Edw. III., A.D. 1363, c. 14, 
" de victu et vcstitu," which defines the homely provision and attire suitable to the estate 
of " <haretters, &c. bovers, vachers, berchers, porchers, deyes, et touz autres gardeinz 
des bcstes, batours des bleez, et toutes maneres des gentz d' estate de garson, entendantz 
h husbandries'* not having goods or chattels of 40s. value. The word is rendered here 
in the translations " deyars," and " dairymen," and by Kelham is explained to signify 
drivers of geese. The Stat. 12 Ric. II. c. 4, A.D. 1388, fixes the wages of all servants 
for husbandry, and rates the porcher, femme laborer, and deye at vjs. each by the year. 
The word is here translated " deye " and " deyrie woman." In the Stat. 23 Hen. VI. 
c. 12, by which the wages of such servants were assessed at double the previous rate, 
the term deye is no longer used. It appears by Fleta, 1. ii c. 87, de caseatrice, that the 
androchia was a female servant who had the charge of all that pertained to the " daeria," 
and of making cheese and butter. A more detailed account of her duties is given by Alex. 
Neccham, Abbot of Cirencester, A.D. 1213, in his Summa de nominibus utensilium. 
" Assit et androgia (vne baesse) que gallinis ova supponat pullificancia, et anseribus 
acera substernat ; que agnellos morbidos, non dico anniculos, in sud teneritate lacte 
foveat alieiio. Vitulos autem et subrumos (sevlement dentez) ablactatos inclusos 

teneat in pargulo juxta fenile. Cvjus indumenta in festwis diebus sint matronales 
serapeliine (petysabuj recinium (riueroket) teristrum. Hujus (androgie) autem usus, 



DEYYN'. Morior, obio, interio, 

DEYYNGE (deying, supra in dethe, 
K.) Defunctio. 

DENTE (deynte, K. H. p.) Lauticia, 
c. F. 

DEYNTE mete. Cupes, cupium, 
CATH. (delicie, K.) 

DEYRYE (deyery, K.) Androchi- 
anum, KYLW. vaccaria, andro- 
chiarium (androchiatorium.) 

DEKYN'. Diaconus, levita. 

DELE, or parte. 1 Porcio. 

DELARE, or he bat delythe. Dis- 
tributor, partitor. 

DELARE, or grete almysse yevere 
(elmesjeuer, K. greate almes 
gyuer, p.) Rogatorius, c. F. 

DELYCATE, or lycorowse. Deli- 
catus (lautus, P.) 

DELYCE, or deyntes. 2 Delicie. 

DELYCYOWSE. Deliciosus, delica- 

DELYN' almesse. 3 Erogo, distribuo. 

DELYTYN', or haue lykynge. De- 
lector^ delecto, c. F. CATH. 

DELYUERER. Liberator, delibe- 


DELYUERYD. Liberatus, erutus. 

subulcis colustrum et bubulcis et armentariis, Domino autem et suis collateralibus in 
obsoniis (supers) oxigallum sive quactum in cimbiis ministrare, et catulis in abditorio 
repositis pingue serum cum pane fulfureo porrigereS' Cott. MS. Titus, D. xx. f. 15 b. 
The French interlinear gloss which gives here baesse, signifying a female servant of an 
inferior class, is not contemporary with the MS. This account satisfactorily illustrates 
Chaucer's description of the poor widow who lived on the produce of her little farm, 
her three sows and kine, and one sheep ; her fare was milk and brown bread in plenty, 
" Seinde bacon, and sometime an ey or twey, 

For she was as it were a maner dey." Nonnes Priest's Tale. 

The deye was sometimes a male servant ; thus in the commentary on Neccham it is 
stated that " androgia dicitur ab andros, vir, et genet, mulier, quia id officium exer- 
c-'tvr a viro et muliere,^ and Bp. Kennett cites the " compotus Henrici Deye et uxoris 
de exitibus et provenentibus de dayri." A.D. 1407. See the word kevere in his Glos- 
sary. Palsgrave gives " dey wyfe, meterie," i. e. metayere, and Shakespeare speaks 
of the "day woman," Love's Labour's Lost, i. sc. 2. See Douce's Illustrations. 
Jamieson has discussed the obscure etymology of the word dey. In Gloucestershire 
and the neighbouring counties day -house signifies dairy house, and many instances are 
met with among names of places. See Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua. 

1 See hereafter EY3TYNDELE, mesure, and HALVUNDEL. In the Rot. Parl. A.D. 
1423, mention is made of a " thredendels, or tercyan," 84 gallons of wine, or the 
third part of a " tonel." The Ortus gives " sepile, somdeleofte; sobriolus, somdele sober." 
In the Legenda Aur. occurs the word " euerydeale," which is rendered by Palsgrave "tout 
tant qu'il y a." He gives also " by the halfe deale, la moitie ; any deale, goutte , neuer 
a deale, riens qui soyt ; somdele grete, small wyse, quelque joew." Ang. Sax. dsel,pars. 

2 In the Legenda Aur. it is related of St. Genevieve, that " in her refeccyon she had 
no thynge but barly bread, and somtyme benes, y e whiche soden after xiiij dayes, or 
thre wekes she etc for all delyces." 

3 "To dele, distribuere, dispergere, erogare" CATH. ANG. This verb in its primary 
use has the sense of division or separation. Thus the Gloss on Gautier de Bibeles- 

" Car par bolenger (baker) est seueree (to deled) 

Laflur, enfourfere (bran) ainz demoree." Arund. MS. 220. 



DELYVERE (or quycke, in bey- 

nesse, p.) 1 Vivax. 
DELYVERYN'. Libero. 
DELYVERYN, or helpyn' owte of 

wooe. Eruo, eripio. 
DELUAR, or dyggar. Fossor. 
DELVYN'.* Fodio. 
DELVYNGE. Fossura,fossatura. 
DELVYN' vp owte of the erthe. 

Ejffodio, CATH. 
DEMAR (or domes man, p.) Ju- 

dicator {judex. P.) 
DEMYN'. Judico, dijudico. 
DEMYNGE, or dome. Judicium. 
DEN, hydynge place. Spelunca, 

latibulum, specus. 

DEN, or forme of a beste. Lus- 
trum, UG. 

DEENE, or denerye (dene of de- 
nerye, K.) Decanus. 

DENERYE. Decanatus. 

DENYYN", or naytyn'. Nego, de- 

DENTYN', or yndentyn'. Indento. 

DEPARTYN'.' Divido^partior. 

DEPARTYN'a-sundyr yn'to dyuerse 
placys. Separo. 

DEPE. Profundus. 

DEPENESSE. Profunditas, alti- 

DEPENESSE of vatur (watyr, K.) 

1 This word appears to be taken from the French, delivre, and is very frequently 
used in old writers. " Industris, sleyghe, bisy, or deliuur." MED. GRAMM. 

" Deliuerly he dressed vp, er the day sprenged." 

Gawayn and Grene Kny^t, 2009. 

Palsgrave gives " delyuer of ones lymmes, as they that prove mastryes, souple ; de- 
lyver, redy, quicke to do anything, agile, delwrk / delyuernesse of body, souplesse." 
Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, renders " snello, quicke, deliuer." BEYN, or 
plyaunte, has already occurred, and bain is still used in Norfolk in the same sense ; the 
word has also, as shown by Jamieson, the sense of alert, lively, active, or of prepared, 
made ready, as has been observed above in the note on BAYNYD, as benys or pesyn. 

3 The verb to delve, Ang. Sax. delfan, appears to have become obsolete in Norfolk, 
and is now rarely used in Suffolk, but the substantive delf, a deep ditch or drain, is 
still retained. The verb occurs frequently in early writers. In the Legenda Aur. 
occurs this expression, " I have dolphen in the depe erthe; " and it is related that 
when St. Donate conjured his wife, after her death, to reveal where she had concealed 
some treasure, " she answered out of the sepulcre, and sayd, at the entre of the hous, 
where I dalue it." In the Wicliffite version, 2 Chron. xxxiv. 10, the expression occurs, 
" stonys hewid out of J?e delues (ej>er quarreris)." Cott. MS. Claud. E. n. " Aurife- 
della, a gold delfe." Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. Delph and delf occur not infrequently 
as names of places in the fenny districts of the Eastern counties. 

3 "To departe, abrogare, disjungere, separare. Departiabylle, divisibilis. To departe 
membres. To departe herytage, herecescere. Departyd (or abrogate) abrogatus, dis- 
plosus, phariseus, scismaticus. A departynge, hceresis, divisio, srisma," &c. CATH. 
ANG. In the will of Lady Fitzhugh, A.D. 1427, is the bequest, "I wyl yat myn 
howsehold s'uantz haue departed emag theym a C. marc." Wills and Inv. Surtees 
Soc. i, 75. So it is said of Christ in the Legenda Aur. " he shall departe the heete of 
the fyre fro the resplendour and bryghtnesse." Palsgrave gives the verb, " to departe, 
deuyde thynges asonder that were myxed or medled together ; departe this skayne of 
threde, dtsmesler. Departe or distribute the partes of a thynge to dyuers persons, mes- 
partirS' Fr. ddpartir, to separate or distribute, in low Latin, dispertire. 



DEPOSE (depos, or weed, H. wed, 

p.) Depositum. 
DEPRIVED' or putten' a-wey a 

bynge, or takyn' a-way fro 

a-nodyr. Privo, deprivo. 
DERE. Cams. 
DERYNGE, or noyynge. 1 Nocu- 

mentum, gravamen. 
DERKE, or merke. Tenebrosus 

obscurus (teter> caliginosus, P.) 
DERKENESSE. Tenebrositas. 
DERKYN', or make derke or merke. 

Obscuro, CATH. obtenebro. 
DERLYNGE. Cams, cara. 


(derworthy, K.) 
DERNEL, a wede. Zizania, CATH. 

DERTHE (or derke, p.) Carittcia, 

c. F. 
BERTH YN', or make dere. Ca- 

risco, carioro. 
DESE, of hye benche (desse, or 

heybenche, K. dees, H.) 2 Sub- 

sellium, c. F. dindimus, or- 

cestra, UG. c. F. 
DESCRYNGE (descryynge, K. H.) 


1 The verb to dere, or hurt, is commonly used by Chaucer, and most writers, until 
the XVIth century. 

" Fyr ne schal hym nevyr dere." Coer de Lion, 1638. 

Fabyan observes, under the year 1194, " so fast besyed this good Kyng Rycharde to 
vex and dere the infydelys of Sury." Palsgrave gives " to dere, or hurte, or noye, nuire ; 
I wyll never dere you by my good wyll. To dere, grieve, blecer ; a lytell thynge wyll dere 
hym." Sir Thomas Browne mentions dere among words peculiar to Norfolk, in which 
county it still has the sense of sad or dire. See Jamieson. Ang. Sax. derian, nocere, 
derung, leesio. NOYYNGE occurs hereafter. 

2 The term dese, Fr. dels or date, Lat. dasium, is used to denote the raised platform 
which was always found at the upper end of an hall, the table, or, as here in the Promp- 
torium, the seat of distinction placed thereon, and finally the hanging drapery, called 
also seler, cloth of estate, and in French del, suspended over it. With regard to its 
etymology, various conjectures have been offered by Ducange, Menage, and others. 
See also Jamieson's Dictionary. Matt. Paris, in his account of the election of John de 
Hertford, Abbot of St. Alban's, A.D. 1235, and the customary usages on the occasion, 
says, " solus in refectorio prandebit (electus} supremus, habens vastellt'm, Pr^"' t .. *- 
dente ad magnam mensam quam Dais vulgariter appellamus." Ducangt suggests that 
vastellum may here mean a canopy or hanging dais, from Ang. Sax. vatel, tegmen, um- 
braculum. Chaucer, in his Prologue, describes the haberdasher and his companions, 
members of a fraternity, and having the appearance of fair burgesses, such as sit " at a 
yeld hal, on the hie deys." Gower speaks of a king at his coronation feast, " sittend 
upon his hie deis." In the Boke of Curtasye, Sloane MS. 1986, f. 17, written 
about the time of Henry VI. a person coming into the hall of a lord, at the time of first 
meat, is advised not to forget 

" J>e stuard, countroller, and tresurere 
Sittand at de deshe J?ou haylse in fere." 

In the ceremonial of the inthronization of Abp. Nevill, A.D. 1464, after the Lord and 
the strangers had entered, the marshal and other officers were to go towards the " hygh 
table, and make obeisance, first in the midst of the hall, " and agayne before the hygh 
dease." Leland, Coll. vi. 8. 



DESCRYYN'.' Describe. 
DESERT, or meryte. 2 Meritum. 
DESERVYN', or worthy to haue 

mede or magre (be worthy to 

havyn, K.) Mereor, CATH. 
DESERTE, or wyldernesse. De- 

sertum, solitudo. 
DESYRE, or yernynge (3ernyng, 

H.) Desiderium, optacio. 
DESYRYDE. Desideratus, optatus. 
DESYRYN'. Detidtro, opto, qf- 

fecto, appeto. 
DESKE. Pluteum, quere infra in 

LECTRON' (ambo, K.) 
DESPYSE (despyte, K. H. p.) 

Contemptus, despeccio, impro- 


DESPYSYN'. Despicio, sperno. 
DESTEYNE (or happe, k. destenye, 

H.) Fatum. 
DESTROYERE. Destructor, dissi- 

DESTROYYDE. Destructus, dis- 


DESTROYYN'. Destruo, dissipo. 
DESTROYYN' a cuntre (or feeldis, 

p.) Depopulor, depredo, de- 

DESTRUCCYONE (or destriynge, 

K.) Destruction dissipacio. 
DETTE. Debitum. 
DETTERE (dettoure, K. p.) Debitor. 

DETRACCYON', or bagbytynge (bak- 

bytynge, K.) Detraccio, oblo- 

DETRACTOWRE. Detractor, ob- 

DEWE. Ros. 
DEWLE, or devylle. Diabolus, 


DEVYCE, purpose. Seria, KYLW. 
DEVYDYN', supra in DEPARTYN'. 
(DEVYDEN, or cleuen asunder, p. 

DEWYN', or yeve dewe. Roro, 


(DEUYNITE, K. H. Theologia.) 
DEW LAPPE, syde skyn' vndur a 

bestys throte. Peleare, CATH. 
DEUOCYONE. Devocio. 
(DEVERE, or dute, K. H. deuour, p.) 

Diligentia, debitum, opera.) 
DEVOWRAR. Devorator. 
DEVOWRYN'. Devoro. 
DEVOWTE. Devotus. 
DYAMAWNTE, or dyamownde. 

DYALE, or dyel, or an horlege 

(dial, or diholf of an horlage, K. 

orlage, P.) Horoscopus, c. F. 
DYCARE (dyker, H. p.) Fossor. 
DYCE. Alea, tessera, taxillus. 
DYCE PLAY (dicepleyinge, K.) 


1 This verb is directly taken from the old French descrier, and is by some writers 
used to denote the enuntiation, or distinction generally of the combatants hy their coat 
armour, either previously to entering the lists, or at other times, duties which devolved 
upon the heralds. 

" Herawdes goode descoverours 

Har strokes gon descrye." Lybeaus disconus, line 926. 

In the Vision of Piers Ploughman occurs an allusion to the usage that heralds of arms 
" discryued lordes." Palsgrave gives "to descryue or descrybe or declare y e facyons 
or maners of a thynge, blasonner ; Ptolemye hath discryued y e worlde.*' 

2 DESEEIT, MS. Desert, H. deserte, p. 



DYCE PLEYARE. Aleator, aleo. 
DYCYN',or pley wythe dycys.Aleo. 
DYCYN', as men do brede, or ober 

lyke (or make square, p.) 

DYDERYN' for colde. 1 Frigucio, 

DYDERYNGE (for colde, p.) Fri- 

(DYDOPPAR, watyr byrde, infra 

in DOPPAR.) 
DYCHE, or dycyde. 
DYFFYNYN, or deme for sekyr. 

Dijfimo, CATH. 
DYGGYN', supra in DELVYN'. 
DYKE. Fossa, fovea, antrum. 
DYKEN', or make a dyke. Fosso. 
DYLLE, herbe. Anetum. 

DYMME (or dyrk, K.) Obscurus. 
DYMME, or harde to vndyrstonde. 

DYMMYN', or make dymme. Ob- 


DYRKENESSE. Obscuritas. 
DYNE, or noyse. Sonitus, stre- 

pitus (crepitus, K.) 
DYNER. Jantaculum, CATH. 

(jtraneKttm, P.) 
DYGNYTE (or worthynesse, p.) 

Dignitas, probitas. 
DYNYN'. S Jantor, janto, CATH. 
DYNDELYN'.S Tinnio. 
DYPPYN'yn lycour. Intingo,CATH. 
DYPPYNGE yn' lycore. Intinctio. 
DYRYGE, offyce for dedemen' 

(dyrge, p.) 4 Exequie. 

1 " To daidir,friyucio, et cetera ubi to whake." CATH. ANGL. " Barloter defroid, 
to chatter or didder for cold, to say an ape's Paternoster.'' COTGR. Skinner gives this 
word as commonly used in Lincolnshire, " <z Belg. sitteren, pr& frigore tremere." 
The Medulla renders "frigucio, romb for cold." In the Avowynge of King Arther, 
edited by Mr. Robson, to " dedur " has the sense of shaking, as one who is soundly 
beaten ; and in the Towneley Mysteries, Noah's wife, hearing his relation of the ap- 
proaching deluge, says, 

" I dase and I dedir 

For ferd of that taylle." p. 28. 

" Didder, to have a quivering of the chin through cold." FORBY. See Brockett's 
Glossary, the verb dither in the Dialect of Craven, and Hartshorne's Salopian 

2 DYMYN', MS. 

3 This verb is given in a somewhat different sense, namely, of suffering acutely, " to 
dindylle, condolere." CATH. ANGL,. Brockett gives to dinnel, or dindle, to be affected 
with a pricking pain, such as arises from a blow, or is felt by exposure to the fire after 
frost. In the Craven dialect to dinnle has a similar signification. Langham, in the 
Garden of Health, 1579, recommends the juice of feverfew as a remedy for the " eares 
ache, and dindling." Dutch, tintelen, to tingle. 

4 The office for the dead received the name of DYRYGE, or dirge from the Antiphon 
with which the first nocturne in the mattens commenced, taken from Psalm 5, v. 8, " Dirige, 
Domine Dem metis, in compectu tuo viam meam." In 1421, Joanna, relict of Sir Thos. 
de Hemgrave, directed daily mass to be said for his and her own souls, and the anni- 
versaries to be kept with a solemn mass, " cum 2>lacebo et dirige." Among the 
" coosts laid out at the monthes mynde" of Sir Thos. Kytson at Hengrave, 1540, occur 
payments "to M r p'sson for dirige and masse, ijs. ; to iiij prists for dirige and masse, 
xijJ. ; to the dark for dirige and masse, xijrf." Rokewode's History of Hengrave, 
92, 112. The name is retained in the Primer set forth in English by injunction from 
Henry VIII. in 1546 ; and this Dirige, from which portions have been retained in the 




DYSBOWAYLYN'. Eviscero, ex- 

entero, UG. in enteria. 
DYSBOWALYNGE. Evisceracio. 
DYSSHE. Discus, scutella. 
DYSSHE BERER at mete. Disco- 

ferus, CATH. 

DYSSHE METE. Discibarium. 
DYSCENCYONE, or debate. Dis- 

Exonero (deo- 

Discordia, discor- 


nero, P.) 

DYSCORDE yn songe. Disso- 


DYSCORDYN'. Discordo, discrepo. 
DYSCORDYN' yn' sownde, or syng- 

ynge, Dissono, deliro, c. F. 
DYSCOWMFYTYN'. Confute, su- 

pero, vinco. 
DYSCOWMFORTYN' (disconforten, 

j.) Disconforto. 
DYSCRECYONE. Discrecio. 
DYSCRETE. Discretus. 
DYSCURER, or dyscowerer of 

cownselle (discuerer, K.) Ar- 
bitrer, anubicus,CATH. in anu- 

DYSCURYN' cowncelle, supra in 

DYSCURYNGE of cownselle. Arbi- 
trium, anubicatus (revelacio, K. ) 

DYSCHERYTYN', or puttyn* fro he- 
rytage. Exheredo. 

DYSESE, or greve. Tedium, gra- 
vamen, calamitas, angustia. 

DYSESYN', or grevyn'. Noceo, 
CATH. vexo. 

DYSMEMBRYN'. Dissipo,dispergo 
(exartuo, P.) 

DYSOWRE, ]?at cannot be sadde. 1 
Holomochus, Aristoteles in 
ethicis, nugaculus, nugax (bo- 
nilocus, K. bomolochus, P.) 

DYSPENSYN (disperagyn, K. dys- 
pagyn, p.) 

DYSPENSYN'. Dispense. 

DYSPENDYN'. Expendo. 

DYSPENSON, be auctoryte, of pe- 
nawnce. Dispenso. 

DYSPARPLYN' (dispartelyn, K. 

burial service of the Reformed Church, appears to have been only a service of me- 
morial, to be used even on occasion of " the yeres mynde " of the deceased, and com- 
prises a prayer for departed souls in general. " Dirige, seruyce, vigiles." PALSG. 
Herman says, "he must go to the dirige feste, ad silicernium^ which is mentioned 
by Harrison in his description of England, written in the reign of Elizabeth, where he 
alludes to the changes that had taken place in religious observances ; " the superfluous 
numbers of idle waks, guilds, fraternities, church-ales, helpe-ales, and soule-ales, called 
also dirge-ales, with the heathnish rioting at bride-ales, are well diminished and laid 
aside.'' B. ii. c. i. Holinsh. vol. i. There occur items in the Hengrave accounts, 
already cited, which shew the feasting that took place on that occasion. 

1 By Gower and other writers dysour is used as signifying a tale teller, a convivial 
jester ; 

" Dysours dalye, reisons craken." K. Alisaunder, 6991. 

Palsgrave renders " dissar, a scoffar, saigefol," and Horman says, "he can play the 
desard with a contrefet face proprely, morionem representat." Elyot gives " Panto- 
mimus, a dyssard which can fayne and counterfayte euery mannes gesture. Sannio, a 
dysarde in a playe or disguysynge ; also he whiche in countenaunce, gesture, and 
maners is a fole. 1 ' Ang. Sax. dysian, ineptire. 



dysparlyn, H. p.) 1 Dissipo, 

DYSPLESAUN(C)E (displesawnce, 

K. H.) Displicencia. 
DYSPLESYD. Displacatus, im- 

precatus, maleplacatus. 
DYSPLESYN'. Displiceo. 
DYSPOYLYN, or spoylyn'. Spolio. 
DYSPREYSYN', or lackyn'. Culpo, 


DYSPUTACYONE. Disputacio. 
DYSPUTYN'. Dispute. 
DYSTAWNCE of place (or space, 

p.) betwene ij thyngys. Dis- 


vel DYSCORDE (disctdia, p.) 
DYSTEMPERYN'. Distempero. 
(DISTEMPRED, p. Distempera- 

DYSTROBELAR of j?e pece (dis- 

turbeler, or distroyere of peas, 

K.) Turbator, perturbator. 
DYSTURBELYN' (distroublyn, p.) a 

Turbo, conturbo. 

DYSTROBELYNGE of pece (dis- 

turbelynge, K.) Disturbium, 

turbacio, conturbacio. 
DYSPLAYYN' a baner of arrays of 

lordys, or ober lyke. Displodo. 
DYSVSYN' a-jenste custome. Ob- 

soleo, dissuesco. 
DYSVSYN, or mysse vsyn a-jenste 

resone. Abutor. 
(DYSJESE, K. dyse3e, H. Te- 

dium, calamitas.} 
DYTANE, herbe. Diptanus. 
(DYTARE, vide infra KOKE, metf 


DYTE (dytye, p.) Carmen. 
DYHTYN'.S Paro, preparo. 
DYTYN' or indytyn' letters and 

speche (scripture, K.) Dicto. 
DYTYN', or indytyn for trespace. 


DYTYNGE, or indytynge of tres- 
pace. Indictacio. 
DYTYNGE, or indytynge of cury- 

owse speche. Dictamen. 
DYSWERE, or dowte. 4 Dubium. 

1 In the WicliflSte version, disperplid, disperpriled, disparplid, and disparpoylid, 
occur in the sense of dispersed. In the curious version of Vegecius, attributed to 
Trevisa, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. the danger is set forth of surprise by an ambush, while 
the host is unprepared, some employed in eating, " and somme disperbled and de- 
partede in o>er besynes." B. HI. c. 8. In a sermon by R. Wimbeldon, as given by 
Fox, A.D. 1389, it is said that " by Titus and Vespasianus Jerusalem was destroyed, 
and the people of the Jewes were disparkled into all the world." Palsgrave gives " to 
disparpyll, Lydgate, same as disparke, escarter, disparser. They be disparkled nowe 
many a mile asonder." See hereafter SPARPLYN. 

2 This verb is used by Chaucer, and occurs in the Wicliffite version. " And they 
seynge him walkinge on the see weren disturblid." Matt. xiv. 26. So also in the 
version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that a young soldier should be 
taught ''that he destrowble nat the ordre of ordenaunce." The Mayor of Norwich, 
on being sworn, made proclamation " that iche man kepe the pees, and that no man 
disturble, ne breke the forseid pees, ne go armed.'' A.D. 1424, Blomf. Hist. ii. 100. 

3 In the Household Book of Sir John Howard, A.D. 1467, among expenses incurred 
for one of his retinue, is entered this item, " My Lady paid a surgeone for dytenge of 
hym, whan he was hurte, 12<Z." Palsgrave gives the verb in its more usual sense, " to 
dyght, or dresse a thynge, habiller. A foule woman rychly dyght, semeth fayre by 
candell lyght." Ang. Sax. dihtan, disponere. 

4 The place in which this word is found in the alphabetical arrangement seems to 


DYUERSE. Diversus, varius. 
DYVERSYN', or varyfi' (varyen, p.) 

Diversified, vario. 
DYUERSYTE. Diversitas, varie- 

DYUERSE WYSE, or on dyuers 

maner. Varie, multipharie, 

DYVYN' vnder be weter. Sub- 

nato, CATH, 

DYUYNYTE (or deuynite, j.) 

DYYN' clothys, or letyri' (dye, or 

lyt clothes, P.) Tingo. 
Doo, wylde beste (beste of the 

wode, H. P.) Dama (capra, P.) 
DOAR, or werkare. Factor, actor. 
DOBELER, vesselle (dische ves- 

selle, K.) 1 Par apses. 
DOBBELET, garment. 2 Big era, 

indicate that it was originally written dywere, or divere, which may be derived from the 
old French, " divers, inconstant, bizarre, incommode." ROQUEF. It occurs, however, 
written as above, in a poem by Humphrey Brereton, who lived in the reign of Hen. VII. 
which has been printed under the title of "the most pleasant song of Lady Bessy , 
eldest daughter of King Edw. IV." 

" That time you promised my father dear, 

To him to be both true and just, 

And now you stand in a disweare, 

Oh Jesu Christ, who may men trust ! " 

1 "A dublar, dualis, et cetera ubi a dische." CATH. ANG. The Medulla gives the 
following explanation of Parapsis, " proprie est discus sive vas quadrangulum, ex 
omni parte habens latera egualia, a dobuler." The term is derived from the French 
doublier, a dish ; it occurs in Piers Ploughman, and is still retained in the Cumberland 
and Northern dialects. See Ray and Brockett. 

a It appears that the compiler of the Promptorium assigned to baltheus, which pro- 
perly signifies the cingulum militare, the unusual meaning of a garment of defence. 
Thus COTE ARM u RE previously is rendered baltheus. The Catholicon explains " di- 
plois, duplex vestis, et est vestis militarist but it does not appear to have been ori- 
ginally, as it subsequently became on the disuse of the gambeson, a garment of defence. 
The dublectus mentioned in the Constitutions of Fred. II. King of Sicily, in the XI Vth 
century, was a garment of ordinary use by nobles and knights, as were also, it is pro- 
bable, the rich garments provided for John II. of France, in 1352, when Stephen de 
Fontaine, his goldsmith, accounts for the delivery of " un fin drop d'or dedamas, etun 
fin camocas d'outremer, pour faire deux doubtts." At this period wadded defences 
were made in Paris by the armuriers, and the tailors were divided into two crafts, 
pourpointiers and doubletiers , it was only in 1358 that the Regent Charles, on account 
of the use of the doublet becoming general, permitted the tailors to exercise also the 
craft of doubletiers. See the Reglemens sur les Metiers, edited by Depping, p. 414. 
Shortly after, however, the doublet appears as a military defence ; "25 doublettes, 24 
jakkes," and other armours, are enumerated among the munitions of Hadlegh Castle 
granted in 1405 by Henry IV. to his son Humfrey. Rymer, viii. 384. The importance 
at this time attached to the manufacture of this kind of armour appears by the privileges 
conceded in 1407 to the " armurariis linearum armaturarum civitatis JLondonie." 
Pat. 9 Hen. IV. confirmed 18 Hen. VI. and 5 Edw. IV. It is related that the Duke 
of Suffolk, when murdered at sea in 1450, was attired in a "gown of russette, and 
doblette of velvet mayled ;'' Paston Letters, i. 40 ; and in the curious inventories of 
the effects of Sir John Fastolf, at Caistor, in Norfolk, 1459, occur " j dowblettis of red 
felwet uppon felwet ; j dowbelet of rede felwet, lynyd with lynen clothe." Archseol. xxi. 



UG. baltheus, diplois, CATH. 


DOBELYN', or dublyn*. Dupplico. 
DOCERE of an halle (dosere, K. 

docere, H. p.) 1 I)orsorium, 

auleum, CATH. c. F. 
DoDDYD,wythe-owte hornysse(wit 

owiyn horny s, K.)- Decornutus, 

DODDYN' trees, or herbys, and ober 

lyke. Decomo, capulo, CATH. 
DODDYD, as trees. Decomatus, 

miculus (mutiluS) P.) 
DOGGE. Canis. 
DOGGE, shyppe-herdys hownde. 

Gregarius-, CATH. 

DOGGYD. Caninus. 

DOGGYDE, malycyowse. Mali- 

ciosuft, perversus, bilosus. 
Do RON' * 3 Degener. 
DOOKE, byrde (doke, K. fowle or 

birde, P.) Anas. 
DOOKELYNGE (birde, p.) Anati- 

DOCKEWEDE. Padella (jpara- 

dilla, P.) 
DOKET, or dockyd by be tayle. 

Decaudatus, caudd decurtus. 
DOCKYD, lessyd or obryggyd. 

Abbreviatus, minoratus. 
DOKKYN', or smytyn' a-wey the 

tayle. Decaudo. 

253. See further Sir Samuel Meyrick's valuable observations on military garments 
worn in England, Archseol. xix. 228. At a later time the doublet seems again to have 
become a vestment of ordinary use, the military garment which resembled it being 
termed a coat of fence. " I wyll were a cote of defence for my surete, loricd Unified." 
HORM. Caxton says " Donaas the doblet maker hath performed my doublet and my 
jaquet, mon pourpalnte, et mon paltocque." Book for Travellers. 

1 DORCERE, MS. ; but this reading is evidently erroneous, and the word is derived 
from the French, dossier, or Latin, dosserium. See DOSSE, and DORCERE, which 
occurs afterwards in its proper place. In a Latin-English Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002, 
f. 144, occur " auleum, scannarium, a dosure ; " and another makes the following 
distinction : " anabatum, hedosour, dorsorium, syd-dosour." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 
The term occurs in the Awntyrs of Arthure, 431, where a costly pavilion is described ; 

" Pighte was it prowdely, withe purpure and paulle, 

And dossours, and qweschyns, and bankowres fulle bryghte." 

Sir F. Madden explains it as signifying here a cushion for the back, but in its usual 
sense it seems to denote the hangings or " hallyngs " of tapestry, which, before the 
use of wainscot, were generally used to cover and adorn the lower part of the wall of a 
chamber. Chaucer uses the word "' dosser " in a different sense, speaking of sallow 
twigs, which men turn to various uses, 

" Or maken of these paniers, 

Or else hutches and dossers." H. of Fame, iii. 850. 

Panniers are still called, in many parts, dosses, dorsels, or dorsers. See Ray and 
Moore. Hollyband renders " hotte, a basket, a dosser." 

2 Dodded is used in the North in this sense ; see Brockett, and the Craven Dialect. 
Jamieson gives doddy and dottit with a similar signification. In Norfolk doddy still 
means low in stature. Phillips has dodded, lopped as a tree, and in Suffolk scathed 
or withered trees are called dooted, in the North, doddered, words which appear to be 
derivable from the same source. Skinner suggests "Belg. dodde,caulis,fustis,jjaxillus." 

3 This word does not occur in the other MSS. ; the reading is probably corrupt, and 
from the place in which it occurs, DOGON' may be suggested as a correction. This 
term of contempt seems to be derived from the French " Doyuin, brutal, hargneux." 
ROQUEF. See Dugon in Jamieson's Dictionary. 



DOKKYN, or shortyn. Decurto, 

abbrevio, capulo, c. F. 
DOLE, merke. 1 Meta, tramaricia. 
DOLE, or dolefulnesse. Dolor, 

dolorositas (lamentacio, p.) 
DOLE, or almesse yevynge (doole 

of almesse, p.) Roga, CATH. 



DOLFYNE, fysche. Delphinus. 
DOLLYD, sum what hotte (or 

sumdyl hot, K.) Q Tepefactus. 
DOLLYN' ale, or o)>er drynke. 

(DOLLYNGE, K. doolynge, H. Te- 


DOME. Judiciuwi) examen. 
DOME HOWSE. Pretorium. 
DOMES MANNE (domysman, K.) 

Judex, CATH. 

DOON', or werkyn'. Facio, ago. 
DOON A-WEY. Aufero, deleo. 
DOON' AWKE (don amys, K. H. p.) 

tSinistro, CATH. (malefacio, 

protervio, p.) 

Do GYLE, supra in BEGYLE. 
Do GOODE. Benefacio. 
Do LECHERY. Fornicor (luxu- 

rior, P.) 

Do MAWMENTRYE. Ydolatro. 
DOON' of clothys. Exuo. 
Doo GLOTYNYE. Crapulor. 
Do ON CLOTHYS, or clothyn'. 

Induo, vestio. 
DOON' OWTE, or qwenchyn' (Ii3th, 

K. lyth, H.) Extinguo._ 
Do TO WETYN', or knowyn'. In- 

timo, innotesco, innoteo. 
Do WRONGE a~3ene resone (ayenst 

reason or lawe, P.) Injurior, 


DOON wykyddely. Nequito, CATH. 
DOON' or fulle wroste (done or full 

wrout, H. wrought, p.) Factus, 

completus, perfectus. 
Do NET. 3 Donatus. 

1 Agnes Paston writes to her son Edmund, the lawyer, respecting the dispute as to a 
right of way, between his father and the Vicar of Paston, who had been " acordidde, 
and doolis sette howe broode the weye schuld ben, and nowe he hath pullid uppe the 
doolis, and seithe he wolle makyn a dyche ryght over the weye." Paston Letters, iii. 
32. Forby gives this word as still used in Norfolk, the mark being often a low post, 
called a dool-post ; it occurs also in Tusser. Bp. Kennett states that landmarks, or 
boundary-stones, are in some parts of Kent called " dowle-stones," and explains dole 
or doul as signifying " a bulk, or green narrow slip of ground left unplowed in arable 
land." See his Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033. Queen Elizabeth, in her 
Injunctions, 1559, directs that at the customary perambulations on the Rogation days, 
the admonition shall be given, " Cursed be he which translateth the bounds and dolles 
of his neighbor." Wilkins, Cone. IV. 184. Ang. Sax. dselan, dividere. 

2 " Dollyd, defrutus." CATH. ANG. The Medulla renders " tepefacio, to make leuke." 

3 The grammar most universally used in the middle ages was that composed by 
./Elius Donatus in the IVth century, and the term Donet became generally expressive 
of a system of grammar. See Warton's Eng. Poet. i. 281, Clarke's Bibl. Diet. iii. 144. 
It was printed among Gramm. Vet. Putsch, p. 1735. The rich hall prepared for the 
education of the son of the Emperor was decorated with symbols of grammar, musick, 
astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, rhetoric, and physic. 

" Therinne was paint of Donet thre pars, 

And eke alle the seven ars.'* Seuyn Sages, 181. 

Allusions to Donet occur in Chaucer, and Piers Ploughman. In Sir John Howard's 
Household Book is a payment, 1466, ' fore a donet for master Gorge, 12d." and 



DONGE, matrasse. 1 Culcitra, ma- 

tracia, lodex (foltrwn, p.) 
DONGE, mucke. Pimus, letamen. 
DONGE CARTE. Titubatorium. 
DONGE HYLLE. Sterquilinium^ 

jimarium, forica. 
DUNGEN, or mukkyn' londe. Fimo, 

pastino, BRIT. 
DOPPAR, or dydoppar, watyr 

byrde. Q Mergulus. 

(DOPPYNGE, H. P.) 3 

DoRCERE. 4 Anabatrum. 

Do RE. Ostium. 

DoRLOTT. 5 Trica, caliendrum> 

c. F. 
DORMAWNTE tre (dormawntre, 

K.) 6 Trabes. 
DORMOWSE, beste. Glis. 
DORTOWRE. Dortorium. 
DOSEYNE. Duodena. 
(DossE, K. p. 7 Dossorium.) 
DOTARDE (or dosell, p.) De- 

sipio, deceps. 
DOTELLE, stoppynge of a vesselle 

Caxton mentions it as one of the books in greatest demand, " George the booke-sellar 
hath doctrinals, catons, cures of our lady. Donettis, partis, accidents." Book for Tra- 
vellers. " Donett, Donatus, a Donett lerner, Donatista." CATH. ANG. 

1 In the Inventory of Effects of Sir John Fastolfe, at Caistor, 1459, there appear 
the following items in his own chamber: "j fedderbedde, j donge of fyne blewe, 
i bolster, ij blankettys of fustians, j purpeynt," &c. Archseol. xxi. 268. A previous 
entry mentions a " donge of purle sylke." 

2 The little Grebe is still known by the names didapper, dipper, or dobchick, the 
Mergulus fluviatilis of the older naturalists, Podiceps minor of Temminck. Ang. Sax. 
dop fugel, mergus, dufedoppa, pelicanus, according to the sense in which the word 
occurs Ps. ci. 7, in the Lambeth Psalter ; but its derivation from dufian, immergere, 
would make the appellation inappropriate to that bird. 

3 Forby and Moore mention the word dop, as used in East Anglia at the present day 
to denote a short quick curtsy. Ang. Sax. doppetan, mersare. 

4 " Auleum, dorsarium, cortina, anabatrum, anastrum, dosure or curtayne ; colate- 
rale, syd-dosour." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. " A dorsure, dorsorium." CATH. ANG. 
" dnabatrum, a cortyne. Auleum, an hangyn, i. indumentum aule, cortina, or a cor- 
tyne." ORTUS. M. Paris speaks of the " dossale, sive tapesium in quo passio S. Albani 
figuraturj' 1 given to St. Alban's by Abbot Richard, who died 1119. Among the cloths 
of arras and tapestry work belonging to Sir John Fastolfe, at Caistor, enumerated in 
the curious inventories taken about the year 1459, occur several "hallyngs'' of ta- 
pestry and worsted, a term probably synonymous with dorsure. Archseol. xxi. 259. 
See above, DOCERE. 

5 Dorlott is taken from the French dorelot, which signifies an ornament of female attire 
generally, but here seems to denote particularly the elegant network, frequently enriched 
with jewels, in which the hair was enclosed, termed a kelle, caul, or crepine ; or the head 
dress called a volipere, which is mentioned by Chaucer. " Trica, plicatura vel nexus 
capillorum." ORTUS. u Caliendrum, a voliper." MED. GRAMM. In 1394 Johanna Laburn 
of York bequeaths " j kyngll, j dorlot, j armari . . . best volet yat sehat, andaredhude 
singill." Testam. Ebor. i. 196. Cotgrave gives " dorlot, a jewel or pretty trinket, as 
a chain, brooche, aglet, button, billement, &c. wherwith a woman sets out her ap- 
parel ; " and by the Statutes of the trades of Paris in 1403 it appears that the craft of 
tloreloterie consisted in making fringes and ribbons both of silk and thread. See Ro- 
quefort and Charpentier. 

6 A dormant or sleeper is a main beam that, resting upon the side walls, serves to 
support the joists, or the rafters of the roof. It is called in Norfolk a dormer. " Treine, 
a dorman or great beame." COTGR. 

7 Doss is at the present time the name given in Norfolk and Suffolk to a hassock, 



(dottel, H. dossell, P.)I Du- 

cillus, ductildus, c. F. 
DOTRELLE, byrde. Fingus. 
DOTRELLE, fowle, idem quod 


DOTYNGE. Desipiencia. 

Do TONE. Desipio. 

Do TON', or dote for age. J)eliro, 

CATH. in lira. 

DOWE, paste for brede. Pasta, c. F. 
DOWRE, wedowys parte (do wary, 

K. p.) Dos (vel perdos, P.) 
DOWCET mete, or swete cake mete 

(bake mete, p.) 3 Dulceum, 

c. F. (ductileus, P.) 

DOVE, culuyr byrde (dowe brid, 

K. dowue, P.) Columba. 
DOVE, yonge byrde. Columbella. 
DOWYS HOOLE, or dovys howse. 

Columbar, CATH. 
DOWER yn the erthe (do v were, H. 

douwir, p.) Cuniculus. 
Dow ME, as a man or woman. Mutus. 
DOWNE (of, P.) federys. 4 Pluma, 

plumula, plumella, UG. 
DOWNE, or downewarde. Deorsum. 
DOWNE GATE, or downe goynge. 

DOWNE GATE of be surme(ormone, 

H.) or ober planettys. Occasus. 

such as is used in church, and panniers are in some places called dosses. See 

1 This name for a faucet appears to be a corruption of ductulus, which in the Latin- 
English Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. is rendered "dosselle," as the word is more 
commonly written, from the French dosil, doucil, or according to Cotgrave, " doisil, a 
faucet." Among the pertinencia promptuario, in another Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 
1092, is given " clipsldra, a doselpyn." In the Seuyn Sages, it is related how Ypo- 
cras pierced a tun in a thousand places : 

" And tho he hadde mad holes so fele, 
In ech he pelt a dosele." line 1150. 

See dottle in Jamieson's Dictionary, dossel, Craven Dialect. 

2 This word appears here to signify a foolish person, not the stupid bird common in 
Lincolnshire and the neighbouring counties, the Charadrius morinellns, and the repe- 
tition caused by the word " fowle " is probably here an error. " A dotrelle, desipa." 


3 In the Forme of Cury doucets are not named, but "daryols,"p. 82, seem almost the 
same ; directions are given in the following recipe, which is taken from Harl. MS. 279, 
f. 41, b. under the head of " Bake metis, vyaundeftirnez. Doucetez. Take creme a gode 
cupfulle, and put it on a straynoure, Jeanne take jolkys of eyroun, and put ber-to, and a 
lytel mylke ; fen strayne it }>orw a straynoure in-to a bolle ; ben take sugre y-now and 
put ber-to, or ellys hony for defaute of sugre ; ban coloure it wit safroun ; ban take bin 
cofyns, and put in be ovynne lere, and lat hem ben hardyd ; ban take a dyssche y-fas- 
tened on be pelys ende, and pore bin comade in-to be dyssche, and fro be dyssche in-to 
be cofyns, and whan bey don a-ryse wel, take hem out, and serue hem forthe.'' Among 
the election expenses of Sir John Howard at Ipswich, 1467, appears the item in his 
household book, " viij boshelles of flour for dowsetes ; " and in the first course at 
dinner in Sir John Nevile's account of the marriage of his daughter to Roger Rockley, 
in 1526, appear " dulcets, ten of dish." Palsgrave gives " dousette, alytellflawne, da- 

4 DOWME, MS. and K. downe, P. 



(DowpAR, bryd, K. dooper, H. 

DOWRYS, or dowryble (dowrybbe, 
K. dovrybbe, H.) 1 Sarpa, 
costa pasthalis, c. F. (costapas- 
talis, P.) 

DOWCE EGYR,or sowre an(d) swete 
menglyd to-gedyr (do we soure 
and swete togedyr, K. dovseger, 
H. menkt togeder, p.) 2 Mulsus, 
c. F.musus, c. F. dulce amarum. 

DOWTE. Dubium. 

DOWTYN'. Dubito, CATH. (he- 
sito, P.) 

DOWTYN' bothe partyes a-lyke. 

DOWTYNGE. Dubitacio, dubietas. 

DOWTEFULLE. Dubius> ambi- 

DOWTELES. Indubius, sine dubio. 
DOWTELESLY. Indubie, procul- 

DOWSTY, bolde, or hardy (dowty, 

K. H. p.) 3 Audax. 
DOSTER (dowtyr, K. doughter, p.) 



Do WE TROWE (trowghe, p.) Pis- 

tralla, alveus, Dice. 
DRAPLYD (drablyd, K.) Palu- 

dosuSj CATH. (lutulentus, P.) 
DRABELYN' (drakelyn, p.) 4 Pa- 

ludo, traunlimo (sic.} 
DRAFFE. S Segestarium, drascum. 

1 A rybbe is an household implement, which probably received its name from its 
form, a kind of scraper or rasp used in making bread ; thus Palsgrave renders " dow- 
rybbe, ratisseur a paste." The term occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth. 

" Vostre paste dount pestrez, (kned H douw) 

De vn rastuer (a douw ribbe) le auge (a trow) moundez, 
Le rastel (a rake) e le raster 

Sount diuerses en lour mester." Arund. MS. 220, f. 299, b. 

Hence it appears to have served for scraping and cleansing the kneading trough. An- 
other implement, termed likewise a rybbe, was used in the preparation of flax. See 
hereafter RYBBE, and RYBBYN flax. 

2 In the Forme of Cury, p. 20, will be found recipes for egurdouce, a compound of 
the flesh of rabbits or kids with currants, onions, wine and spices ; and for egurdouce of 
fysshe, pp. 63, 113. Directions are also given for concocting " an egge dows," which 
seems more to resemble the mixture alluded to in the Promptorium, being composed of 
almonds, milk, vinegar, and raisins. Mulsus signifies a kind of mead, and dowce egyr 
was probably much the same as oximel. 

3 " Dughty, ubi worthy." CATH. ANG. A. Saxon, dohtig, instructus. 

4 This word is still used in Norfolk, in the sense of to draggle, and a slattern is 
called a drabble-tail. Ang. Sax. drabbe,/ee*. 

5 Draffe, or chaffe, is a word that occurs in Chaucer : 

11 Why shuld I sowen draf out of my fist, 

Whan I may sowen whete, if that me list." Persone's Prol. 

In the Reve's Tale the scholar John complains of being left to lie in his bed "like a 
draf sak." So likewise in Piers Ploughman's Vision, where allusion is made to casting 
pearls to swine, it is said that 

' ' Draf were hem levere, 

Than al the precious perree. 1 ' line 5617. 

In the Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. occurs under the head " ad brasorium per- 
tinencia, drayium, draf;" and in the Cath. Ang. " draf, seyisterium, acinatum, brasi- 



DRAFFE, or drosse, or mater 

stampyd. Pilumen. 
DRAGAUNCE, herbe (dragans, p.) 1 

Dragancia, c. F. basilica, dra- 

centra, c. F. 
DRAGGE (dragy, K. dradge, H. p.) ? 

DRAGGE, menglyd corne (drage, 

or mestlyon, p.) 3 Mixtio (mix- 

tilio, P.) 
DRAGGYN', or drawyn'. Trajicio, 


DRAGONE. Draco (vel drago, P.) 

DRAKE, byrde. Ancer,vel ancer 


DRAME, wygfrte. Drama, dragma. 
DRANE. Fucus, KYLW. 
DRAPER. Pannarius, KYLW. 
DRAWKE, wede. 4 Drauca, c. F. 

in lollium. 

DRAWYN', or drawe. Traho. 
DRAWYN' a-longe. Protraho. 
D(R)AWYN' a-wey. Abstraho. 
DRAWYN' a-3ene (agayne, p.) 

DRAWE forthe owte of be ovyne. 


purgium." " Segisterium, Ant/lice, droffe." ORTUS. " Draffe, dracque." PAT.SG. 
Ang. Sax. drof, sordidus. Matt. Paris has given a charter of Guarin, Abbot of St. 
Alban's, dated 1194, in which the word drascum occurs, which appears to signify the 
grains that remain after brewing, called in French drasche, or drogue. Compare 
CORALLE, or drasse of corne, and DROSSE. 

1 Numerous virtues are ascribed by Macer and other writers to the herb dragaunce or 
nedder's tongue, called also dragon wort, addyrwort, or serpentine, arum or aron. See 
Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 73. Macer says that " water of dragaunce ys gode to wasshe 
venome soris," and it appears to have been yearly distilled in the household of the Earl 
of Northumberland, 1511. See Antiqu. Rep. iv., 284. " Dragence, or nedder gryffe, 
dragancia, basilisca, herba serpentina." CATH. ANG. 

2 This word is taken from the French dragee, a kind of digestive and stomachic 
comfits anciently much esteemed. Chaucer says of the Doctor of Phisike, 

" Ful redy hadde he his apothecaries, 

To send him dragges, and his lettuaries. " Cant. Tales, Prol. 

3 In the Xlllth century the grains chiefly cultivated in England, as appears by the 
accounts of the bailiff of the royal manor of Marlborough, Rot. Pip. 1 Edw. I., were 
wheat, "berecorn, dragg," or a mixture of vetches and oats, beans and pease. The 
regulations for the brewers of Paris, in 1254, prescribe that they shall brew only " de 
grains, c'est & savoir, d'orye, de mestuel, et de dragte;" Reglemens sur les Arts, ed. by 
Depping. Tusser speaks of dredge as commonly grown in the Eastern counties. 

" Sow barly and dredge with a plentiful hand." 
" Thy dredge and thy barlie goe thresh out to malt." 

Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, mentions " dredge mault, 
malt made of oats mixed with barley malt, of which they make an excellent fresh quick 
sort of drink," used in Staffordshire. " Dragee aux chevaux, provender of divers sorts 
of pulse mixed together." COTGR. See MKSTLYONE, or monge corne. 

4 " Drake, or darnylle, zizannia." CATH. ANG. The gloss on Gautier de Bibeles- 
worth makes a distinction between these two weeds : 

" Le yueray (darnel) i crest, et le betel (drauke)." 

Gerard assigns the name to a species of bromus sterilis, which he calls small wild oats, 
in Brabant called drauich, and Skinner suggests that the name maybe derived " aBelg. 
droogh, siccus, quia et actu et potentid siccum est." Drawke or drake is well known 
in Norfolk and Suffolk, and Forby says it is the common darnel grass, lolium perenne. 



DRAWE fowlys, or dysbowaylyn'. 

Excaterizo, NECC. eviscero, UG. 

(exentero, p.) 
DRAWE lotte. S or dor. 
DRAWYN' owta. Extraho. 
DRAW EN' owt of the shethe (shede, 

K. P. schede, H.) Evagino. 
DRAWE to. Attraho. 
DRAWYN' or steryn', entycyn' to 

goodenes, or badnes (styren or 

meuen, p.) Allicio. 
DRAWE watur, or ober lyke. 

DRAWE vp by be rote. Eradico, 


DRAWTE, or pulle. Tractus. 
DRAWTE of drynke (draught, p.) 

DRAWTE of watyr owte of a welle, 

or ober lycoure owte of a wes- 

selle, idem est. 
DRAWE BRYGGE (drawte brydge, 

p.) Superfossorium, pons trac- 

tilis,pons tractativus, pons ver- 

satiliS) COMM. 
DRAWTE WELLE. Ha(u)rium, UG. 

in haurio. 

DREDE. Timor, pavor, terror. 
DREDEFULLE. Timidus, pavidus. 
DREDEFULLE and vgely (vggly, 
* p.) TerribiliS) horribilis. 

DREDEFULNESSE, idem est quod 

DREDEFULNESSE, and horrybyl- 

nesse. Horribilitas, terribilitas. 
DREDYN'. Timeo,metuo,formido, 

vereor, paveo. 

DREGGYS, or drestys. Fex. 
DREGGY (dresty, p.) or fulle of 

drestys. Feculentus, c. F. 
DREGGYS of oyle (drestis, p.) 

Amurca, CATH. 
DREGGYS, or lyys of wyne (drestis 

or lese, p.) Tartarum, c. F. 
DREEME. Sompnium. 
DREMARE. Sompniator. 
DREMYN', or dretchyn' yn slepe. 


DREMYNGE. Sompniacio. 
DRESSYN'. Dirigo, rictonnor (sic) 


DRESSYNGE. Directio. 

D RES SURE> or dressynge boorde. 

Dressonum, directorium. 
(DRESTYS, drestys of oyle, drestys, 

or lyys of wyne, supra in DREG- 
GYS, K.) l _ 
(DRETCHYN' yn slepe, supra in 


1 The Medulla renders "fecula, a little traist, feculentus, fulle of traiste," (Harl. 
MS. 2257) ; in the Ortus, " dregges." Amurca is explained by Elyot to mean "the 
mother or fomeof alloyles," in Harl. MS. 1002, " drastus." Palsgrave gives " dresty, 
full of drest, lieux." Herman says " the drastys (floces) of the wyne be medicynable." 
Ang. Sax. dresten, faces. 

2 This verb is used by Chaucer, and other writers, in the sense of being disturbed by 

" This chaunteclere gan gronen in his throte, 

As man that in his dreams is dretched sore." Nonne's Priest's Tale, 
" And if it so by tide this nyght, 
That the in slepe dreche ani wight, 
Or any dremis make the rad, 

Turn ogayn, and say I bad." Ywaine and Gawin, line 480. 
It has also the sense of to delay or hinder, in several passages of Chaucer and Gower , 



DRY fro moysture. Siccus. 
DRYE, or seere. Aridus. 
DRYE, as kyne (nete, p.) or bestys 

bat wylle gyfe no mylke (yeue, 

p.) Exuberis, UG. 
DRYFTE, or drywynge of bestys. 1 


DRYYN'. Sicco, desicco. 
DRYLLE,orlytylle drafte of drynke 

(draught, p.) Haustillus. 
DRYNESSE. Siccitas, ariditas. 
DRYNKE. JPotus,poculum,pocio. 
DRYNKARE. Potator, kibcix^ bibo. 
DRYNKYN'. Bibo> poto. 
DRYNKYN' a^een' (ageyne, p.) 

Rebibo) repoto. 
DRYNKYN' a-bowte (drynkyn- 

alowt, K.alloute, p.) Ebibo, epoto. 
DRYNKELYN' (drynklyn, H. 

drenchyn, p.) Mergo, submerge. 
DRYPPE, or drope (drepe, p.) 

Gutta, stilla, cadula, c. F. 

DRYPPYN', or droppyn'. Stillo, 

DRYPPYNGE, or droppynge. Stil- 


DRYE SCABBE. Impetigo, UG. 
DRYTE (or, p.) doonge. 2 Merda y 

stercus (menda, P.) 
DRYVYLLE, serwawnte. 3 Ducti- 

cius, ducticia. 

DRYVE bestys. Mino, c. F. CATH. 
DRYVYN', or constreynyd. Co- 

actus, constrictus, astrictus. 
DRYVYN', or ledde. Ductus. 
DRYVYNGE, or cathchynge (chas- 

inge, p.) Minatus. 
DRYVYNGE, or constreynynge. 

Compulsio^ coactio, constriccio. 
DROBLY, or drubly (drobely, p.) 4 

Turbulentus, turbidus. 
DROBLY, of drestys. Feculentus, 

c. F. 

See also Piers Ploughman's Crede, where the baneful conduct of the Friars is exposed, 
who desert the rule of their order and " dreccheththe puple," lin. 924, 1004. Ang. Sax. 
dreccan, turbare. See Jamieson. 

1 The drift of the forest, agitatio animalium in forestd, is a legal term which 
implied a view taken of the cattle feeding in the chase, forest, or waste, at certain 
seasons when they were driven into an enclosure, in order to ascertain whose they were, 
and whether legally commonable. The Stat. 32 Hen. VIII. c. 13, among various 
clauses, devised for the improvement of the breed of horses, directs the drift to be 
made at Michaelmas, and other convenient times, and under-sized horses to be de- 
stroyed. The word is used by Herman metaphorically, in its more ordinary acceptation, 
" subtyle dryftis (callida consilia) ought nat to sette a iudge out of the ryght wey." 
Elyot renders " adpulsus, the dryfte of shepe to the water." 

2 "To dryte, cacare, egerere," CATH. ANG. In the Wicliffite version, Phil, iii., 8, 
is thus rendered ; " I deme alle thingis as drit ; " and the word occurs also in Wicliffe's 
" Objections of Freres. Freres setten more by stinking dritt of worldly goods, then 
they don by virtues, and goods of bliss." See Jamieson's observations on the etymo- 
logy of the verb to drite, exonerare ventrem. Ang. Sax. gedritan, cacare. 

3 Honnan speaks of " a dryuyl or a drudge : he is a very dryuell, sterquiliniumS' 
Junius gives in this sense " drivell or droile, mastiffia, qui uMque expulsus abactusque 
est. Belg. drevel." See droile in Jamieson's Dictionary. Tusser, in his Points of 
Huswifery, speaks of an under servant in the dairy termed a droy, or droie, whose duties 
appear to have been similar to those of the DEYE, described in the note on that word. 

" Good droy to serve hog, to help wash, and to milk, 
More needfull is truly, than some in their silk." 

4 Chaucer, in the Persone's Tale, says, " he is like to an hors, that seeketh rather 


DROMEDARY, beste. Dromeda- 
rius (dromedus, c. F. P.) 

DROPE, supra in DRYPPE. 

DROPS YE, sekenesse. Idropis. 

(DROPSY man or woman, p. 


' K.) 

DROPPYNGE of flesshe, or fyshe yn' 
be rostynge. Cadula,CATH.c.F. 

DROSSE of corne. 1 Acus, cribal- 
lum, ruscum, CATH. 

DROSSE of metalle. Scorium, 


DROSSE, or fylthe where of hyt 
be (qwat so it be, K.) Ruscum, 
rusculum, CATH. 

DROTARE (droot, p.) Traulus, 


DROTYN' yn' speche. 2 Traulo. 
DROTYNGE. Traulatus. 
DROVE of bestys. Armentum, 

polia, CATH. 
(DROWPYN', or prively to be hydde, 

supra in DARYN'.) S 
DROWTE. Siccitas. 
DRUBLY, supra in DROBELY. 4 
DRUBBLYN', or torblyn' watur, or 

other lycoure. Turbo. 
DRUBLYNESSE. Turbulencia, 

feculencia, CATH. 
DRUNKON'. Ebrius, temulentus. 
DRUNKELEW. S Ebriosus. 

to drink drovy or troubled water, then for to drink water of the clere well.'' " Drovy, 
tur&idus, turbulentus." CATH. ANG. " Turbidus, troubli, drobli, or dark." MED. 
GRAMM. " Turbulentus, i. non lucidus, drouy." ORTUS. Bp. Kennett, in his Glos- 
sarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, gives " dravy or druvy, Bor. druvy, Northumb. 
drevy, thick, muddy as the water is. Sax. drefend, turlldus." Forby mentions drovy, 
used in Norfolk as an epithet of loathing, on account of filthiness of the person. Ang. 
Sax. drof, canosus. 

1 Higins, in his version of Junius's Nomenclator, renders " vannus, a van wherwith 
corne is clensed from chaife and drosse against the wind." Ang. Sax. dros,/ip,r, sordes. 
At Hengrave Hall, in Suffolk, in 1604, is entered in account a delivery " for the swine, 
of dross wheat." Hist, of Hengrave, 207. 

2 This term, implying difficulty of speech, or stuttering, has not been met with else- 
where. The Ortus renders " traulus, a ratelere," a word equally unnoticed by Glos- 
sarists, which occurs also in Cath. Ang. " To ratylle, traulare; a ratyller, traulus: 1 

3 In the Anturs of Arther, where a description occurs of the King and bis court 
going forth to the chace, it is said, 

" The dere in the dellun, 

Thay droupun and daren." Ed. by Mr. Robson, p. 3. 

* " TurMdtts, troubli, drubli, or darke." MED. In the Ortus and Cath. Angl. drouy 
occurs in the same sense ; Jamieson gives droubly and drumbly ; and the verb to 
drumble, signifying to be confused, is used by Shakespeare. See Nares. 

5 This word is used repeatedly by Chaucer, and occurs in Piers Ploughman and the 
Wicliffite version. 

" Irous Cambises was eke dronkelew, 

And ay delighted him to ben a shrew.'' Sompnoure's Tale. 

Herman uses the word " dronkleu, dronkeleu." In a curious treatise on Obstetrics 
of the later part of the XV th century, Add. MS. 12,195, are particular instructions for 
the selection of a nurse, among whose recommendations are ")?at sche be wysse and 
well a-vyssyd, and >at sche lof )>e chylde, and >at sche be not dronkeleche." 


DRUNKESHEPE. 1 Ebrietcis. 
DWALE, herbe. 2 Morella somp- 
nifera, vel morell'i mortifera. 

DUBBYLLE. Duplex^ duplus. 

(DUBLER, supra in DOBELER, 

K. H. Parapsis, P.) 
(DUBLET, supra in DOBBELET, 

K. H. Baltheus.) 
(DUBBYL garment, K. Diplois.) 
DUBBYLMAN, or false and de- 

ceyvable. Duplicarius, Dice. 


DUBLYN', supra in 'DOBELYN', 

et duplo, CATH. gemino. 
DUBBY N', or make knyghte. In- 


DUDDE, clothe. 3 Amphibaluf, c. F. 

birrus, CATH. c. F. KYLW. 
DWELLARE. Incola, mansiona- 

rius, c. F. 

DWELLYN'. Maneo, commoror. 
DWELLYN', or longe lettyn' or 

taryyn'. Moror, pigritor. 
DWELLYNGE, place. Mancio, 

DWELLYNGE or (longe, P.) tary- 

ynge. Mora. 
DWEROWE (dwerwh, K. dwerwe, 

H. P. dwerfe, w.) l Nanus, c. F. 

sessillus, CATH. et UG. in sedeo. 
DWYNYN' a-wey (dwyne or va- 

nyssheaway, P.) Evaneo, eva- 


1 Gower, speaking of the vices that spring from original sin, says, 

" Wberof the first is dronkeship, 

Whiche beareth the cuppe felauship." Conf. Am. lib. vii. 
" Drunkechepe, ebrietas, vinolencia, &c." Harl. MS. 1U02, f. 173, b. 

2 Chaucer makes repeated allusion to the somniferous qualities of the night-shade, or 
dwale, the Atropa belladonna. 

" Arise (quod she) what haue ye dronken dwale ? 

Why slepen ye ? it is no nitertale." Court of Love. 

A strange effect is attributed to this plant in a volume of miscellaneous collections, 
once belonging to William Worcestre, Sloane MS. 4, p. 2. " For to take alle maner 
of byrdys. Take whete, or other corne, and take guse of dwale, and menche pe corne 
per yn, and ley yt per pe byrdys hawntene, and when they have eten per of, pey shalle 
slepe, pat ye may take pern with yowre handys." Higins, in the Version of Junius's 
Nomenclator, gives " Solatium letale, banewoort, dwall, or great nightshade." 

3 " sJmphibalus, a sclaveyn, a faldynge, or a dudd.'' MED. GRAMM. " Lacerna est 
pallium fimbrialum, a coule, or a dudde, or a gowne." Harl. MS. 2257. According to 
the explanation given of birrus, the garment called a DUDDE seems to have been a coarse 
wrapper or dread-nought, probably the same as the Irish mantle made of raw wool, which 
was in request in England as late as the time of Charles 1., as appears by the Custom- 
house rates. " Birrum, vestis pilosa sen grossa, a schypper's mauntel. 1 ' ORTUS. Forby 
gives to duddle up, or wrap up with clothes ; in the North, as well as other parts of 
England, rags or clothes in general are called dudds ; and Grose mentions a square 
in Stourbridge fair, where linen cloth was sold, called the duddery. See Jamieson. 

4 By early writers this word is written very variously, but approaching more or less 
to the Ang. Sax. dweorg, dweorh, nanus, which in the valuable fragment of JElfric's 
Glossary, discovered by Sir Thomas Phillipps, in the Chapter Library, Worcester, is 
written " dwseruh." Thus the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth, " leo vey ester un petit 
neym (dwerouh)." Arund. MS. 220. In Lybeaus Disconus " dwerk " occurs re- 
peatedly, and in King Alisaunder we read of "durwes, the leynth of an elne." In 
Synonym. Harl. MS. 1002, f. 173, occurs the word " dwarof," and in Cath. Ang. 



(DWFHOWUS, K. dufhows, p. Co- 
DUKE. Dux. 


DULLE of egge. ( Obtusus, K. p.) 
(DuLLE of wytte, K. p.) Hebes. 
DULLARDE (dullare, K.) Duri- 

buccius, CATH. agrestis, Aris- 

toteles in ethicis. 
DULLYN', or make dulle yn wytte. 

DULLYN', or make dulle in egge 

toole. Obtundo. 
DULLYN', or lesyfi' the egge. 

ffebetesco, c. F. 
DULY. Debite. 

D WL Y, or trostyly. Secure^Jtrmiter. 
DULNESSE of egge. Obtusitas. 
DULNESSE of wytte. Hebetudo. 
(DuM, K. P. dovm, H. Mutus.) 
DUMNESSE. Mutitas, taciturnitas. 
DUNCHE, or lonche (lunche, H. p.) 

Sonitus, strepitus (bundum, 

bombus, P.) 

DUNCHYN', or bunchyn'. Tundo. 
(DVNCHE, K. (dunchinge, or 

lunchinge, P.) Tuncio,percussio. 
DUNNYD of coloure. Subniger. 
DUNNYN' in sownde (in songe, H.) 

Bundo, c. F. 

DUNNYNGE of sownde. Bunda, 

c. F. bombus, c. F. 
DEWE OFFYCE, or seruyce of dett 

(dv, K. due, P.) Munium, CATH. 
(DuARY of wedowys, K. p. Dos.) 
(DOWERE, or deen, H. dwer', p. 

duer, w. Cuniculus, CATH. 
DWRESSE, or hardenesse (duresse, 

p.) Duricies. 
DURYN', or induryn', or lastyii'. 

DurO) perduro. 
DURN, supra, idem est quod 

DARN (durn or dare, p. Audeo.) 
DUSTE. Pulvis. 
( DUSTY, P. Pulverulentus.) 
DUSTYN'. Pulverizo. 
DWTE, supra in DETTE (dvte or 

dette, K. dutye, p. Debitum.) 

EBBE of the see. Refluxus, *a- 

laria, KYLW. ledo, CATH. 
EBAN', tre. Ebanus. 
EBBYN', as the see. Refluo, sa- 

lario, CATH. 
Ecco, sownde. Ecco. 
EDGROW, gresse (edgraw, herbe, 

K. ete growe, gresse, H. P.) 1 

Bigermen, regermen. 

" a dwarghe, tantillus." See duergh and droich in Jamieson's Dictionary. In the 
Catholicon is given the following explanation : " Sessillus, i. parvus staturd, quia non 
videtur stare, sed sedere ; " and the Ortus gives " Nanus, a dwarfe, or a lytell Turke." 
Compare COONYONE, or drowtly. Bp. Kennett gives the word " dwerowe " as of local 
use, but in the Eastern counties it appears to be no longer known ; in his Glossarial 
collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, is the term " durgan, of short or low stature, as, he is 
a durgan, a meer durgan, a durganly fellow. Isl. duergur, Kiliano, dwergh. West- 
m(orland) a dwarwh." 

1 The Medulla explains biyermen to be the mixed grain called in the Promptorium 
MESTLYONE, but it seems here to signify after-grass, or after-math, still called edgrow 
in some parts of England. Bp. Kennett mentions the word in his Glossarial collections, 
Lansd. MS. 1033. " Eddish, roughings or after-math in meadows, but more properly 
the stubble or gratten in corn-fields, from Sax. edisc, quod post messem in campis re- 
linquitur. This word is in some southern parts corrupted into ersh, and in Surrey into 



EFTE (or also, p.) Edam. 

EGGE (edge, p.) Acies. 

EGGYD TOOLE on bothe sydys. 

EGGYD, as teethe for sowre frute. 

Acidus, c. F. CATH. stupefac- 

EGGYD, or steryd, or entycyd to 

doon' a dede (steryd to gode or 

bad, p.) Instigatus, incitatus. 
EGGYN, as tebe for sowre mete. 1 

EGGYN, or entycyn' to doon' 

welle or yvele (eggen, or styre 

to gode or yll, p.) a Incito, 


EGYL, byrde. Aquila. 
EGYR, or egre. 3 Acer. 
EGMENT, or sterynge. Incitamen- 

turn, instigacio. 
EGYRYMONYE, herbe. Agrimo- 

nia r c. F. 

EY (or egge, P.) Ovum. 
EYE. Oculus, talmus. 
EYE LEDE. Supercilium, cilium, 

EYLDYNGE, or fowayle (fowaly, 

K. fewaly, p.) 4 Focale. 
EYLYN'. (Obsto,p.) 
EYMBRE, hote aschys (eymery or 

synder, hote asshes, p.) Pruna. 
EY3THE (eyght, p.) Octo. 

esh, as a wheat esh, a barley esh. In Cheshire eddgrew, eddgrow, eddgrouth, from the 
Saxon preposition ed (which in composition denotes allwaie again, as re in the Latin,) 
and growan, germinare, crescere." This word is not noticed by Mr. Wilbraham, and 
it does not appear in the East Anglian Glossaries ; in Shropshire, according to Hol- 
loway's Provincial Dictionary, the after-grass is called " edgrew," or as stated by Mr. 
Hartshorne, " headgrove, or headgrow." Salopia Antiqua. The common appellation 
both in Norfolk and Suffolk is eddish, Ang. Sax. edisc, gramen serotinum, but it is 
also termed rawings, roughings, or rowen, a word used by Tusser and noticed by Ray, 
which may be a corruption of the older appellation edgrow. See Forby and Moore. 
Tusser uses the words eddish and etch to signify a stubble, or land that has produced a 
crop. In a copy of the Practica of John Arderne, Sloane MS. 56, p. 3, are some names 
of plants in French and English, among which occurs " weldillone, i. edgrowe," 
possibly some herb of autumnal growth, abounding in the after-grass. The Medulla 
gives "frutex, a styke, a yerde, and buske, vnderwode, or eddysche." 
Horman says, " my tethe edge with eating of these codlynges." 

2 The verb to egg, from Ang. Sax. eggian, incitare, occurs in this signification in R. 
Brunne, Piers Ploughman, and Chaucer, who uses also the substantive ; 

" Soth is it, that thurgh womannes eggement 

Mankind was lorne, and damned ay to die.'' Man of Lawe's Tale. 

3 The old writers give to the word eager the significations of sour, and of fierce ; the 
first from the French " aigre, eager, sharp, tart, biting." COTGR. " Exacer&o, to 
make eygre." ORTUS. Palsgrave gives " Egernesse, bytternesse. Egar, fiers or mody 
as a wild beestis,/c/." 

" He hente a spere with egre mode." Octovian, line 1653. 
" And sclendre wives, feble as in bataille, 

Beth egre as is a tigre yond in Inde." Clerke's Tale. 

4 In the dialects of the North, as observed by Ray, any kind of fuel is called eldin, 
and the term is applied to the brush-wood of which fences are made. See Brockett, the 
Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. Ang. Sax. seld, ignis, selan, accendere. The word is 
given by Bp. Kennett among his valuable glossarial collections, Lansd. MS. 1033. 



(eyghtene, p.) Octo- 
decim, vet decem et octo, secun- 
dum correcciones fratrum pre- 

EY3THE HUNDRYD. Octingenti. 

EY3TY. Octoginta. 


EYJTYNDELE, mesure (eyhtyndyl, 
K. eyghtydell, j, w.) 1 Saturn, 


EYAR, element (eyre, p.) Aer, 

ether, ethera, CATH. 
EYYR, or herytage (eyre, P.) 


EYTHER, or bothe. Uterque. 
ELE, fysche. Anguilla. 

ELBOWE. Cubitus, KYLW. 
ELDE, or olde, for-weryde (eeld, 

or worne, p.) Vetustus, de- 
tritus, inveteratus. 
EELDEN', agyn, 2 supra in A, etve- 


EL(D)FADYR. Socer. 
ELDYR, or hyldyr, or hillerne tre 

(hillar, K. hyltre, or elerne, H. 

elder, or hyltre, or elorne, p.) 3 

ELDE MAN, or woman. Senex, 

annosus, veteranus, grandevus, 

ELD MODYR (elmoder, K. p.) 

1 Half a bushel is given hereafter as the same measure which is here intended ; and 
the term EYJTYNDELE seems to be derived from its being the eighth part of a coom, or 
half quarter, which has already occurred, COWME of corne, cumba. Compare DELE, and 
HALVCJNDEL. Ang. Sax. dsel, pars. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial collections, Lansd. 
MS. 1033, mentions another local name for the same measure, " a tofet, the measure 
of half a bushel, Kent ; some say two fats. Sax. fat, or fset was the same measure as our 
peck." _ 

2 Agan, MS. The word elde, still retained in the Northern dialect, occurs often as a 
substantive in old writers. Thus in the Wicliffite version, 3 Kings, xv., 23 is thus 
rendered, " Asa hadde ache in feet in J>e tyme of his eelde ; " and it is commonly 
used in Piers Ploughman. See Chaucer's description of " Elde " personified, Rom. of 
Rose. " Senectm, helde ; senex, haldman." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "Elde, 
senecta, senium, annosilas." CATH. ANG. In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 
A. XII., it is said that military exercises "must be vsede before in yongthe, or the 
body be made slewthefulle by age and elde." B. i, c. 4. Ang. Sax. eld, aenectus. 

3 In Norfolk, according to Forby, the elder tree is still called eldern ; " sambucus, 
an eldrun," Harl. MS. 1002. Gautier de Bibelesworth says, 

" Mes desueau (of ellern, MS. Phill. hildertre, Arund. MS.) lemfet suheaus, 
Vn manger ke est bons et beaus (wi)> milke.)" 

In Worcestershire the elder is termed ellern, and Piers Ploughman speaks of it thus : 
" Impe on an ellere, 
And if thy appul be swete, 

Muchel merveille me thinketh." Vision, line 5471. 

" Un sehu, an ellir tree." Harl. MS. 219. Ang. Sax. ellarn, ellen, sambucus. In the 
North the alder is called an eller, whence several names of places, as Ellerbeck, Eller- 
burn, &c. in Yorkshire, are derived. Ang. Sax air, alnus. " An ellyrtre, alnus ; al- 
netum est locus ubi crescunt.'' CATH. ANG. In the Ortus is given another name of 
the elder, " sambucus, burtre, or hydul tre.'* 

4 " An elfadyr, socer , an eldmoder, socrw*." CATH. ANG. In the North an ell-mother, 
or eld-moder, signifies a mother in law, or step-mother, but, as Jamieson observes, must 




ELDWOMANN'. Anus, vetula. 

ELEBRE, herbe (elebyr, K. p.) 

ELEFAUNTE, or olyfaunt, beste. 
Elephas, elephantus, CATH. 

ELEMENT. Elementum. 

ELEUYN'. Undecim. 

ELFE, spryte. 1 Lamia, CATH. 
et UG. in lanio. 

ELYER, or elger, fyscharys instru- 
ment. 2 Anguillaris, fuscina, 
c. F,fragidica dentata, KYLW. 

ELYCE, propyr name (Ely, K. p.) 


ELM, tre. Ulnus, c. W*(&hnu*, K.) 
ELMES, supra in A, ALMES. 
(ELMESFULMAN, p. Elemosina- 

rius, elemosinaria, rogatarius.) 
(ELMES HOWS, p. Proseuca, 

ELNE, or elle (mesoure, p.) Ulna, 

ELOQUENT, or welle spoke man or 

woman. Eloquens y dicosus, UG. 
ELSYN' (elsyng, K.) 3 Sibula. 

have properly denoted a grandmother, from Ang.-Sax. ealde-moder, avia. John Heworth 
of Gateshead bequeathed, in 1571, his best horse to his father in law, and adds, " Item, 
I gyve vnto my eldmoder, his wyffe, my wyffes froke, and a read petticote." Wills and 
Inv. published by the Surtees Soc. i. 352. 

1 The Catholicon explains lamia to be a creature with a human face, and the body 
of a beast, or, according to a gloss on Isai. xxxiv, 14, a sort of female centaur, which 
entered houses when the doors were closed, as old wives' tales went, and cruelly used 
the children, whence the name, "quasi lania,a laniandopueros." The ancient leeches 
have given in their books numerous charms and nostrums for the relief of children 
" taken with elvys ; " among which may be cited the following from a curious medical 
MS. of XVth cent, in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps. " For a chylde that ys 
elfe y-take, and may nat broke hys mete, that hys mouthe ys donne (sic.) Sey iij tymes 
thys verse, Beata mater munere, fyc. In the worchyppe of God, and of our Ladi, sey 
iij pater noster, and iij aueys, and a crede ; and he schal be hole." In Sloane MS. 73, 
f. 125, it is directed to " take be roote of gladen and make poudre berof. and ^eue be 
sike bobe in his metes, and in hise drynkis, and he schal be hool wibinne ix dayes and 
ix nyjtis, or be deed, for certeyn." William Langham, practitioner in physic, recom- 
mends this same remedy in his Garden of Health, 1579 ; and orders the root and seeds 
of the peony to be hung about children's necks, as a charm against the haunting of the 
fairies and goblins. The term elf is not, however, applied exclusively to mis- 
chievous spirits, but to fairies generally. See in Brand's Popular Antiquities detailed 
observations on the Fairy Mythology. " An elfe, lamia, eumenis, dicta ab en, quod 
est bonum, et mene, defectus. Elfe lande," (no Latin word) CATH. ANG. Horman 
seems to speak of elves as a sort of vampires : " No man stryueth with deed men but 
elfis, laruce ; " and Palsgrave give ' elfe, or dwarfe, warn." Ang.-Sax. elf, lamia. 

2 This instrument seems to be the same which in East Sussex and Kent is known by 
the appellation of an eel-shear, but in other parts better known as an eel-spear. 

3 This word occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, where 
a buckled girdle is described : 

" Een isy doyt le hardiloun (be tunnge) 

Passer par tru de subiloun (a bore of an alsene)." 

" An elsyne, acus,subula." CATH. ANG. " Sibula, an elsyn, an alle, or a bodkyn." 
ORTUS. In the Inventory of the goods of a merchant at Newcastle, A.D. 1571, occur 
" vj doss' elsen heftes, 12d. j clowte and % a c elson blades, viij*. viijd. xiij clowtes of 
talier nedles," &c. Wills and Inv. published by the Surtees Society, i., 361. The term 



ELLE WANDE (elwonde, P.) Ulna. 
EEM, faderys broker. Patruus, 

EEM, moderys brothere. 1 Avun- 

culus, CATH. 
EMBYRDAY (embyr, or embyrday, 

H. P.) Angarium, vel quatuor 


EM ME, propyr name. Emma. 
EMERAWNTYS, or emerowdys. 

Emnrrois, CATH. 
EMPEROWRE. Imperator. 
EMTY. Vacuus. 
EMTYNGE, or a-voydynge (voyd- 

inge, P.) Evacuacio. 
ENCHESONE, or cause (enchesyn, 

K. H. enchesen, p.)' Causa. 
ENCRECYN'. Accresco, augmento, 

augmentor, CATH. 

ENCRES, or incres. Incrementum, 
augmentum, augmentacio, ex- 

EENDE. Finis. 

ENDE, dooke byrde. 3 Anas. 

EENDYD. Finitus, terminatus. 

EENDYN', or makyh' a(n) ende. 
Finio> consummo,desino, CATH. 

ENDYNGE. Finicio, terminacio. 

ENDYTYD, or indytyd for trespas 
(of trespas, P.) Indictatus. 

ENDYTYD (orindityd, K.) as scrip- 
ture and specfae. 4 Dictatus. 

ENDYTYN', or indytyn' scripture 
and feyre speche. Dicto. 

ENDYTYN' or (inditen of, p.) tres- 
pace. Indicto. 

ENDYTYNGE, orindytynge of feyre 
speche, or scripture. Dictamen. 

is derived from the French alene ; " elson for cordwayners, alesne." PALSG. In 
Yorkshire, and some other parts of England, an awl is still called an elsen. 

1 The Anglo-Saxon word earn, avunculus, is commonly used by Chaucer, Gower, and 
all the earlier writers, and is not yet obsolete in the North of England. It is related 
in the life of St. Peter of Melane, that " one his erne whiche was an heretyke de- 
mauoded of his lesson, and the chylde sayd to hym, credo ; his uncle sayd to hym 
that he sholde no more say so.*' Legenda Aur. " An erne, avunculus, patruus. Versus, 
Patruus a patre pendet, avunculus ex genitrice. An erne son or doghter, patruelis, ex 
parte patris ; consobrinus, ex parte matris." CATH. ANG. Bp. Kennett gives in his 
Glossarial' collections, La nsd. MS. 1033, the following use of the word earn, noticed 
likewise by Grose : " Earn, an unkle, Bor. This term in the North is familiarly 
applied to a gossip, and indeed to any friend or neighbour ; so is the word unkle in 
Worcestershire, and adjoining parts, where mine unkle or my nunkle is a common 
appellation, as mine earn in the North. Ex ore viri doctissimi G. H." 

a This word is derived from the French " acheison, encheison; occasion heureuse, 
loisir, cause de bonheur, dessein," &c. ROQUEF. " Enchesun, causa, occasio, accio, 
eventus, casus, ratio." Synonym. Harl. MS. 1002. See CHESUN, and CAWSE, or 
enchesone. It is used by Wicliffe, and many early writers. Occleve says of St. Margaret, 
" But understandeth this, I onely commend her nought, 
By encheson of her virginitie." Letter of Cupide. 

3 This appellation of a duck, which now seems to be quite obsolete, is the Ang. 
Saxon ened, anas, in Dutch, eend ; it occurs in the glosses on Gautier de Bibelesworth. 

" Zlusi a il ane (enede) et plounczoun, (douke) 

Qen riuere ont lour mansioun (woning.) " MS. at Middle Hill. 
And in another passage, " de naturell noyse des oyseaus, it is said, 
" En marreis ane iaroille (enede queketh.) " 

4 ENDYTYD, or yid MS. The scribe has left a blank on account of a defect 



ENDYTYNGE (or indytinge, K.) of 

trespace. Indictacio. 
ENDYVE, herbe. Endivia. 
ENDLES. Infinities, interminabilis. 
ENDE METE, for dookelyngys (end- 
mete. H. P. edmette, j. enmotte, 

w.) Lenticula, KYLW. 
ENGYNNE, or ingyne. Machina. 
ENGLYSSHE speche. AngUcum, 

(ydioma, P.) 
ENGLYSHEMAN, or woman. An- 


ENGLONDE. Anglia. 
ENHA WNCYN', or ynhawnsyn' (in- 

haunten, p.) Extollo, exalto. 
ENYOYEN', or make ioy (enioyn, 

K. enioyen, p.) Exulto,gaudeo. 
ENYYNTYSCHEN, or wastyri' (en- 

yntyschyn, H.) Attenuo, exi- 

ENYN', or brynge forthe kynde- 

lyngys. 1 Feto. 

ENMY. fnimicus, liostis, emulus. 
(ENMYTE, p.Inimicitia, hostilitas.) 
ENOYNTYD. Inunctus. 
ENOYNTYN', (or innoyntyn, K.) 

supra in ANOYNTYN'. 
ENOYNTYN', or gresyrT, or leyyn' 

to a thynge sof'te matere. Linio. 
ENOYNTYNGE. Inunctio. 

ENTYRFERYN'. Intermisceo. 
ENTYRYD, or intyryd, as dede 

men. Funeratus. 
ENTYRYN' (or intyryn, p.) dede 

men'. Funero, c. F. infunero, 

C. F. 

ENTYREMENT, or yntyrment. 

ENTYRME(N)TYN' (entermentyn, 

K. P.) Intromitto (vel inter- 

mitto, K.) 

ENTYRMENTYNGE. Intromissio. 
ENTYRMENTOWRE (entermetoure, 

p.) Intromissor, intromissatrix. 
ENTRE. Introitus, ingressus. 
ENTRYD, or browjte yn'. Induc- 

tus, introductus. 
ENTRYN' yn to a place. Introio> 

ENVYE, or invye. Invidia, invi- 


ENVYOWS, or invyowse. Invidus. 
ERAN YE, or spyde(r), or spynnare.' 1 

ERBE. Herba. 
ERBE ION', or Seynt lonys worte. 

Perfoi'ata, fuga dsmonum, 

ERBARE. S Herbarium?* virida- 

rium, vlridale. 

in the MS. from which his transcript was made; this appears to be supplied by the 
reading of the King's MS. 

1 The verb to can or yean, which is commonly applied only to the bringing forth of 
lambs, here appears to have had anciently the more general signification of the word from 
which it is derived, Ang. Sax. eanian, eniti, parturire. See Somner, Nares, and 

2 In the Latin-English Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. occurs among " nomina 
vermium, aranea, nerane ; " the Medulla gives " muscaraneus, a litelle beste that 
sleethe the flye, the erayne ; " and the Catholicon Angl. " Erane, aspyder or an atter- 
copp, aranea.' 1 Ray mentions arayn as the name given to the larger sorts of spiders in 
Nottinghamshire, and the word aran, orarain, is still in use in Yorkshire. SeeARA^NYE 

3 A garden was termed an ERBARE, or herber, from the French herbier, and the 
appellation must not be here confounded with arbour, the derivation of which is pro- 
bably from Ang.-Sax. herberga, mansio. Chaucer, however, seems to use the word 




copus, archipresul. 
ERCHEDEKENE. Archidiaconus. 
ERCHEPRESTE. Archipresbyter. 
ERYE, or erthe (erde, K.) 1 Terra, 

humus, tellus. 

ERYYN', or of the erthe. Terrenus. 
ERTHE QWAKE, or erbe dene (er- 

dyn, or erde qwave, K. erthdyn, 

p.)' 1 Terremotus, sisimus, c. F. 
ERNDE, or massage (erdyn, K. H. 

erden, p.) Negocium, nuncium. 
ERE of a beste (man, K.) Auris, 


ERE of corne. Spica. 
ERE of a vesselle. Ansa. 
ERYSY. Herisis. 

ERYTYKE. Heretic**, heretica. 
ERYAR of londe. Arator, glebo, 

c. F. georgicuS) c. F. 
ERYDAY, or eueryday. Quotidie. 
ERYYN' londe. 3 Aro. 
ERYYNGE of londe. Aracio. 
ERYTAGE. Hereditas. 
ERLE, lorde. Comes. 
ERLDAM. Comitatus. 
ERLY, or by-tymys yn be morn- 

y(n)ge. Mane (tempestivfi, p.) 
EERLONDE (Erlond, K.) Hiber- 

nia, Tanatos, c. F. 
ERMYNE for forowrys (ermyns or 

furre, p.) Erminius, c. F. 
ERMYTAGE. Her(e)mitorium. 
ERMYTE (eremyte, p.) 1 Heremita. 

herber in both significations. " Viretum, locus pascualis virens, a gresjerd, or an 
herber." MED. " An herber, herbarium." CATH. ANG. " Herbarium, an herber, ubi 
crescunt herbe, vel ubi habundant, or a gardyn." ORTUS. Caxton says, " Richer the 
carter shall lede dong on my land whan it shall be ered, and on my herber (courtil) 
whan it shall be doluen." Book for Travellers. Hall describes a curious pageant ex- 
hibited at the entry of the Emperor Charles Vth into London, A.D 1522, part of which 
was " a quadrant stage where on was an herber full of roses, lyllies, and all other flowers 
curiously wrought, and byrdes, beastes, and all other thynges of pleasure.'' Chron. 14 
Hen. VIII. 

1 It has been observed under the word BLO ERYE, that the reading of the MS. may 
perhaps be considered as corrupt, by an error of the scribe, who wrote y for \> ; but it 
must be observed that similar errors are of very rare occurrence in this MS. and that 
the words are here placed in their proper order, as written with a y, whilst ERTHELY 
will be found in its place afterwards, the letter \> being in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet 
usually placed at the end, and in the Promptorium next after w. In an early MS. of 
the Medulla Grammatice, in the Editor's possession, whfch is equally free from the use 
of the character y instead of b, which towards the later part of the XVth century became 
very general, occurs the word " ffliteus, eryen." 

" " An erthe dyne, terremotus, or an erthe qvake." CATH. ANG. Mention occurs 
of " erthequaues " in the Legenda Aur. f. xxv. Ang.-Sax. eorS-dyn, tcrrte motus, 
cwacung, tremor. Robert of Gloucester uses the words erbgrybe, and erthegrine, 
signifying an earthquake. 

3 " To ere, ubi to plughe.'' CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives the verbs to ere, or to erye 
land, in the sense of ploughing; " he hath eared his lande, God send hym good innyng. To 
erye the yerthe, labourer. 1 ' Harrison, in his description of Britain, B. ii., c. 24, 
speaking of the numerous antiquities turned up by the plough, says that "in the be- 
ginning of the same Kings daies (Henry VIII.) also at Killeie a man found as he eared, 
an arming girdle harnessed with pure gold," with spurs of gold, and other precious 
things, of which part were in the possession of one Dr. Ruthall. Holinsh. Chron. i., 217. 
Ang.-Sax. erian, arare. 

4 From the Anglo-Saxon times until the Reformation, hermits, as well as anchorites 


ERNEST, sMjmmARNEST,hansale; 

et a(r)ra, arabo, strena. 

ERNEST, ceryowste (or arnest, K.) 

ERNES TLY. Seriose. 

ERNYN', as horse (eerne, P.) 

Cur sit o. 

ERTARE. Irritator, irritatrix. 
ERTYN'. Irrito. 
ERTYNGE. Irritacio. 

or recluses, were a numerous class in England ; many curious particulars regarding 
them have been brought together by Fosbroke, in his British Monachism, p. 503. The 
essential difference between the hermit and the ANKYR, or recluse, the terms occurring in 
the Promptorium, appears to be defined by Giraldus in his epistle to Abp. Langton, 
where he makes use of the following expression: " Heremitce solivagi Anachorita 
conclusi." Ang. Sacra, ii., 436. They had both, however, a fixed dwelling-place, al- 
though differing in certain conditions ; the establishment of an hermitage was among 
those acts which informer times served to testify, in a signal manner, of the piety of 
the founder, or his gratitude for divine protection. Thus it appears by Pat 1 Hen. IV. 
that, having landed in Holderness, on his return after many years of banishment, and 
been seated on the throne, one of the first acts of that sovereign was the precept ' de 
heremitagio cedificando apud quendam locum vocatum Ravenescrosbourne, in quo Rex 
ultimo suo adventu applicuit." A curious evidence of the high respect and estimation 
in which recluses and hermits were held at this period, is afforded by the will of Henry, 
Lord de Scrop, A.D. 1415, whose bequests in their favour are singularly numerous and 
detailed. Rymer, ix , 275. 

1 The verb to erne or yerne, signifying to hasten, or run as an animal, Ang.-Sax. 
yrnan, currere, has not been sufficiently distinguished from the verb to yearn, Ang.-Sax. 
geornian, desiderare, expressive of anx'ious longing or deep affection. The former 
occurs in several of the old romances ; thus it is related of the wonderful long-legged 
race that Alexander found running bare-foot in the Indian forest, 

" Every wilde dere astore, 

Hy mowen by cours ernen tofore." K. Alis. line 5003. 

So also of the King of Navarre, when he charged forward to meet the Soudan's cham- 

" Vpon a stede he gan yerne 

With sper and scheld." Octouian, line 965. 

See also line 1934, where it is written " erne." It expresses also the strenuous move- 
ment of the sailor. % 

" The maryners awey gonne skylle, 
And yorne awey, with good wylle 

Well hastily." Ibid, line 561. 

In Piers Ploughman's Vision it is used to signify the flow of water, or running of tears. 

" And then welled water for wicked workes, 
Egrely ernyng out of men's eyen." Passus 20. 

Laneham, in his curious account of the reception of Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle, in 
1575, uses the word in describing the eager course of the stag-hound ; " the earning of 
the hoounds in continuauns of their crie, y e swiftnes of the deer, the running of footmen, 
the galloping of horsez . . . mooued pastyme delectabyl." Bishop Kennett, in his 
Glossarial Coll. notices the sense of the word to earn, as used in the North, which is 
given also by Brockett and Jamieson ; " to earn, to run as chees doth. Earning, chees 
rennet, Bor. from Sax. yrnen, currere.^ Lansd. MS. 1033. 



ERWYGLE (erewygyll, p.) 1 Au- 

realis, UG. in auris. 
ERTHELY. Terrene. 
ERTHLY (or of erthe made, P.) 

Terrenus, terrestris. 
EES, fyschys mete on a hoke (or 

boyght for fisshes, p.) 2 Esca, 

escarium, KYLW. 
EscHE,tre. Fractinus(fra#inus,p.) 
ESCH KEY, frute. Clava, c. F. 

in fractinus. 
ESE, or cowmfort. Levamen, 


ESE, or reste. Quies (requies, P.) 
ESY. Quietus. 

ESY, orsoft,aswedyr. Tranqulllus. 
ESY, or softe yn' sterynge. Lentus. 
EsYLLE. 3 Acetum. 
ESYLY. Quiet e, tranquille. 
ESYLY, or sokyngly. Sensim, 

ESYN' of charge, or grevowsnesse. 

ESYN', or cukkyn', or schytyfi' (or 

voydyn as man at priuy place, 

K. cuckyn, H. kackyn, p.) Ster- 

coriso, merdo, egero, CATH. 

ESYN' yn herte, of hevynesse. 

Quieto, delinio. 
ESPE, tre. Tremulus. 
EST. Oriens. 
EESTERNE. Pascha. 
ESTWARDE. Orientalis (orien- 

taliter, P.) 

EST WYNDE. Eurus. 
ETYN'. Manduco, comedo, ves- 

cor, CATH. mando, prandeo, 


ETYNGE. Manducacio^ commestio. 
ETYNGE HOWSE. Pransorium, 


ETYNGE appulle tre. Esculus. 
EwARE. 4 Aquarius vel (aqua)ria. 
EVENYN', or make evyn.' Equo, 

coequo, adequo. 
(EuEN in menynge, or clothynge, 

p. Uniformis, et inde uni- 


EVYN', a-lyke. Equus, equalis. 
EvYNHOODE(evynhede,p.) Equa- 

litas, equitas. 
EVENEHOLDE, or eucneldc (even- 

olde, K. euyn olde, p.) 5 Coevus, 


1 The earwig is still, according to Forby, called eriwiggle in Norfolk, but it appears 
to be only a local corruption, as the word is usually written more conformably to its 
Ang. Saxon original, ear-wig^a, vermis auricularis. Thus in a Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 
1002, is found " auriolus, Anglice a 3erwygge ; " and Palsgrave gives " Erwygge, a 
worme." See ARWYGYLL. 

2 This curious word appears to be a Latinism ; but is, perhaps, more directly taken 
from the old French, " Esche ; appdt, amorce ; csea." ROQUEF. 

3 This word is used by Chaucer and Lydgate, who in the Troy Book speaks 

" Of bitter eysell, and of eager wine." 

" Acetum, ayselle or bytter wyne." MED. GRAMM. "Acetum, aysyl, or vinegre." 
Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. " Acetum, ayesell ; Oxigalus, ayseU menged." ORTUS. It 
occurs also in the Forme of Cury. Ang.-Sax. eisile, aisil, acetum. 

4 This word usally signifies a vessel for water; "ewer to wasshe with, aiguier" 
PALSG. ; its meaning seems here to be transferred from the ewer to the person by 
whom it is carried. The Medulla gives " aquarius, aquaria, a waturberere." Ang. 
Sax. hwer, huer, cacabus. Among the domestics of the Earl of Essex, mentioned in 
his will, 1361, occurs " Davy, q'est Barber et Ewer." Nichols' Roy. Wills, 53. 

5 "Evyn eldes, coetaneus, coevus, colectaneus, equevus.^ CATH. ANG. " Coetaneus, 



EVENYNGE, be laste parte of be 

day. Vesper, vespera, CATH. 

sero, UG. in sereno. 
EVESE, or evesynge of a howse. 1 

StilUcidium, imbrex., imbricium, 

CATH. domicilium. 
EVERY DAY. Quotidie. 
EVESTERRE. Esperus, vesper, 


EVYDENS. Evidencia. 

EVYL. Mains. 

EVYL, or sekenesse. Infirmitas. 

EVYL HAPPE, or evyl chefe. 2 In- 

fortunium, diffortunium. 
EUER LASTYNGE. Sempiternus, 

perpetuus, perhennis, eternus. 


perpetuitas, perhennitas. 

EUERMORE Eternaliter, per- 
petue, perhenniter (semper, K.) 

Ex, instrument. Securis. 

EXAMYN', or apposyn', or a-sayyii 
(posyn, H. posen, p.) 3 Examine. 

EXAWMPLE. Exemplum. 

EXAWMPLERE. Exemplar. 

EXAWMPLYN'. Exemplifico, ex- 
emplo, CATH. 

EXECUTOWRE. Executor, exe- 

EXCESSE, or owterage. Excessus. 

EXCESSE of drynke. Bibera, UG. 

EXCESSE of etynge- Peredia, UG. 

EXCLUDYD, or put owte. Ex- 

EXCLUDYNGE, or puttynge owte. 

unius et ejusdem etatis, euen olde." ORTUS. Herman says, " lyke as I se my son do 
for his frende and euei^elde (eqnalis) and help h>m in his maters, so it is right that we 
olde men shuld help and do eche for oder." Ang.-Sax. efen-eald, coevus. 

1 The term evesynge, from the Ang.-Sax. evesung, tonsura, evese, margo, occurs in 
the Gloss on G. de Bibelesworth ; MS. at Middle Hill. 

" Et ceueroundel (sparewe net) ci la ceuerounde (at \>& euesinge) 
Prent le musshoun et le arounde (swale we)." 

" Seuerunder h la severunde (a serundel at pe eueses) " Arund. MS. 220, f. 301, b. 
It would seem hence that it was usual to take small birds, as the muskeron, or sparrow, 
and the swallow, by means of a net adjusted to the house eaves ; they probably served, 
as they do still in Italy and Southern Europe, as articles of food. In Piers Ploughman's 
Vision are mentioned " Isykles in evesynges;" and in the Creed *' Orcheyarde and 
erbers evesed wel clene ; " in which instance the word seems to be used precisely in the 
sense of the Ang -Saxon verb efesian, tondere, unless it may signify that the erber, or 
garden of herbs, was neatly hedged in. The Medulla renders " intonsus, vnevesed. 
Antipophara, an evesynge." In the North of England the eaves are called casings. 
" Severonde, the eaue, eauing, or easing of a house." COTGR. 

2 The word chefe, signifying chance or fortune, has occurred already, but in the MS. 
is written, as it would seem erroneously, CHEP. It appears to be taken from the French, 
chef, chief, which, according to Roquefort, implies not only the head, or the commence- 
ment of a thing, but the end, issue, or extremity. Chaucer, in the Merchant's second 
Tale, speaks of " the boncheff and the myscheff ; " and in the account of William 
Thorpe's examination by Abp. Arundel in 1407, published by Fox from a contemporary 
authority, it is related that he said, " if I consented to you to doo heere after your will 
for bonchefe or mischefe that may befall me in this life, I deme in my conscience that 
I were worthy herefore to be cursed of God." 

3 The verb apposyn', which does not occur in the Harl. MS. in its proper place 



EXCUSABLE. Excusdbilis. 
EXCUSACYON'. Excusacio. 
EXCUSYD. Excusatus. 
EXCUSYN'. Excuso. 
EXEMPTYDE (exempt, p.) Ex- 


(EXEMPCION, K. p. Exempcio.) 
EXYLYD. Extoms, c. F. UG. 
EXYLYN', or banyshen'. Bannio, 

relego, UG. (exulo, K.) 
EXPERYMENT. Experimentum. 
EXPERTFULLE, be dede know- 

ynge (expert full knowen, K. p.) 

EXPOSYCYON', or expownynge. 

EXPRESSYN', or spekyn' owte 

opynly (shewen openly, p.) Ex- 

EXTORCYON'. Extorcio. exactio, 

EXTORCYONERE. Extortor, ex- 

actor, predator, angarius, BRIT. 
EXULTRE, or ex tre, supra in A, 


FABLE, or tale (fabyll, p.) Fabula?. 

FACE. Fades. 

FACEET, booke (facet, K. faucet, 

p.) Facetus. 
FACYN', or shewyn' boolde face. 

EJfrono, CATH. 
FACULTE. Facultas. 
FACUNDE, or fayrnesse of speche. 1 

Facundia, eloquencia,. 
FADYN', or lese the colowre. 

Mar ceo. 

FADYR. Pater, genitor. 
FADYR and modyr yn' one worde. 

FADYRKYN', or modyrkyri' (fadyrs 

or moderys kin, K.) Parentela. 
FADYRLESSE chylde. Orphanus, 

C. F. 

FADME, or fadyme. 2 Ulna, CATH. 

in brachium, lacerta. 
FADMYN' (fadomyn, p.) Ulno, 

CATH. in brachium. 
FADEMYNGE. Ulnacio. 

alphabetically, has here the same signification as that in which it is used by Chaucer, 
and many of the old writers, namely, of putting to the question, or examining judicially. 
" May I not axe a libel, Sire Sompnour, 
And answere ther by my procuratour, 
To swiche thing as men wold apposen me ?" Frere's Tale. 

" I appose one, make a tryall of his lernyng, or laye a thyng to his charge. I am nat 
to lerne nowe to appose a felow, aposer.'"' PALSG. 

1 Chaucer, in the Assembly of Fowls, uses the word facond both as a substantive and 
an adjective, as in French, "Facond, Eloquent ; faconde, eloquence." ROQUEF. So 
also he says of Virginia, 

" Tho sfce were wise as Pallas, dare I saine, 
(Her facond eke full womanly and plaine) 
No counterfeited termes at all had shee 
To seeme wise." Doctor of Physic's Tale. 

In the Golden Legend it is said that " Martha was ryght faconde of speche, and 

2 The ancient Anglo-Saxon measure of six feet, faeftem, ulna, the space of both arms 
extended, was, at the time the Promptorium was compiled, still used as a measure of 
length, and subsequently more exclusively applied to depth. Horman says, that " in a 




FAGYN', or flateryn'. 1 Adulor. 
FAGYNGE, or flaterynge. Adulacio. 
FAGOTT. Fassis, strues t CATH. 
FAYNARE, or flaterere. Adulator. 
FAYNE, or fayne (sic.) 2 Libens. 
FAYRE yn' bewte. Pulcher, ve- 

nustus, decorns, bellus, c. F. 
FAYRE cnvLVE. 3 Ephebus, epheba, 

FAYRE, mery wedur or tyme (fayir 

as wedyr, K,) Amenus. 
FAYRE SPEKAR. Orator, retor. 


c. F. rethorica. 
(FAYIRNESSE of speche, K. Fa- 

FAYRNESSE of bewte. Decor, ve- 

nustas, pulcritudo, species. 
FAYRNESSE of wedur, and tyme. 

FAYTOWRE. 4 Fictor, simulator, 

simulatrix . 
FAYTOWRYS gresse, or tytymal 

(fay tours grees, p.) Titimalhis. 

man that is of laufull stature, the lengthe fro the toppe of his heed to his hele, and fro 
the both toppys of his myddell fyngers, whan he makethe a vadome, is all one." 

1 " To f age, adulari, assentari, blandiri, blandificare, delinire, palpare. A fagynge, 
blandicia. Fagynge, blandus." CATH. ANG. This word is derived from the Ang.- Sax. 
fsegnian, fsegenian, gaudere, which has also the signification of flattering. Hardyng, 
relating the guileful practices of Vortigern on the weak King Constaunce, says, 

" Such subtyle meane to fage the Kyng he fande." Chron. c. Ixvi. 

Coles gives " fage, a merry tale." Palsgrave gives the verb " I fagge from the trouthe 
(Lydgate) ; this terme is nat in our comen use." It may be questioned whether Dray ton 
does not use the verb to fadge in this sense ; but it is explained by the Glossarists as 
signifying only to agree, or accord ; Ang.-Sax. fe%ain,jurigere. 

" With flattery my muse could neuer fadge." Pastorals, Eel. 3. 

2 It would at first sight appear from this reading of the MS. as also from a word that 
occurs subsequently, FoR3ETYN, or fo^etyn, that the initial if must have some special 
power of its own, and not merely represent the capital F. None such, however, can be 
assigned, and the readings are, probably, in both instances corrupted by the scribe. In 
the present case the correction appears to be FAYNE, or fawne, and in the second the 
true reading may be FoR3ETYN, or forgetyn. " Fayne, ubi mery. Alacer, apricus, di- 
lectabilis, hilaris, lelus." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. fsegen, latus. See FAWN'. 

3 The appellation fair child, belfils, or BEFYCE, which has occurred previously, was 
one of endearment or courtesy, afterwards used only to signify a son-in-law. Instances 
of its use are not infrequent ; thus in Piers Ploughman's Vision, when Joseph relates 
to his father his dream that the sun, moon, and stars " hailsed hym all," 

" Beau fitz, quod his fader, 
For defaute we shullen, 
I myself and my sones, 

Seche thee for neede." line 4819. 

4 A FAYTOWRE was, as it seems, a conjuror, or a quack-salver, so called from the 
French/izzYeor, orfaiturier, a sorcerer; and thence the name was applied to itinerant 
pretenders to such skill, to mendicants, and generally to idle livers. " Faitard,faiteor, 
tin parresseuxS' LACOMBE. The plant called quack-salver's turbith or spurge, the 
Tithymalns or Esula of the old botanists, Euphorbia, Linn, was much employed in 
homely physic, as also by the empirics in former times. Its virtues are detailed by 
Gerarde and Parkinson. See TITYMALLIC. The MS. has similator, as also similacto. 


FAYTERYE (faytre, H. p.) Fictio, 

simulacio, ficticium. 
FAYTOWRE, )>at feyny the sekenesse 

for trowantyse (trowandyse, p.) 

Vagius, UG. 

FAL. Casus, lapsus, ruina. 
FALL ARE, or he bat oftyn' tyme 

fallythe. Cadax^ CATH. ca- 

ducus, cadabundus, UG. 

FALDYNGE, clothe. 1 Falinge, 

amphibalus, c. F. birrus, c. F. 
FALYYN', or faylyn'. Deficio. 
FAYLYNGE, orfawte (falyynge, p.) 

FALLE, or mows trappe. 2 Musci- 

pula, decipula. 
FALLYN', orovyr throwyn'. Cado, 

ruo, CATH. 

1 Compare ROW CLOTHE, as faldynge and other lyke, which occurs hereafter. The 
term faldyng, signifying a kind of frieze, or rough-napped cloth, is derived by Skinner 
from Ang.-Sax. feald, plica, because coarse wrappers or mantles were usually made of 
it. Chaucer describes the West Country shipman as clad 

" In a goune of falding to the knee." Cant. Tales, Prol. 
Nicholas, the Oxford clerk, had his books, and appliances of science, 
" On shelues all couched at his bed's hed ; 
His presse icouered with a faldyng red, 
And all aboue there lay a gay Sautrie." Miller's Tale. 

Nich. de Schirburn, an ecclesiastic of York, bequeathed, in 1392, " tunic am de nigro 
faldyng lineatam ; " and Ric. Bridesall, merchant of the same city, makes this devise ; 
" lego patri meo meam armilausam, videlicet faldyng clok." Testam. Ebor. i. 173, 174. 
' ' Amphibalus, a sclaveyn, a faldynge or a dudd." MED. GRAMM. "A faldynge, 
amphibatus. A faldynge, plicacio, convolucio." CATH. ANG. This kind of cloth was 
supplied, probably, from the North of Europe, and identical with the woollen wrappers 
of which Hermoldus speaks, " quos nos appellamus Faldones; " Chron. Slav. i. c. 1 ; 
called by Adam Bremensis " Paldones." Frieze received its name from Friesland, and 
the rough garments of that country are called by Andrew Borde " dagswaynes," as has 
been noticed above in the note on that word. The Polonie of Scotland may have re- 
ceived its name from its Polish origin ; see the curious observations on that word in 
the Supplement to Jamieson's Dictionary. These garments, as also the Irish mantles, 
much in request so late as the reign of Charles I. as appears by the Custom-house 
rates, were, probably, the same as the faldyng ; the last were usually imported in pairs, 
upon which the duty, as rated in 1553, was 5s. and by the Kytson Household Book it 
appears that in 1573 the price of "a coople of Irish mantells " was 43s. History 
of Hengrave. " Endromis, vestis villosa de arietis pellibus facta, vel pallium forte 
vilfosum, Sfc. an yrysshe mantell." ORTUS. " Bracca, that kynde of a mantell whiche 
nowe commeth out of Ireland, or a longe garment made of roughe frise." ELYOT, 1542. 
Fallin signifies in Irish, according to Lluyd, a mantle, and the term appears to be iden- 
tical with that used by Giraldus Camb. in his description of the Irish, composed in 
1185; " capuiiis modicis assueti stmt et arctis, trans humeros deorsum, cubito tenus 
protensis, .... sub quibus phalingis laneis quoque, palliorum vice, utuntur." Topog. 
Hibern. 1. iii. c. 10. The fashion of the phalingus is exhibited in marginal drawings 
in a valuable contemporary MS. of Giraldus, in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps ; 
and it is described by the appellation coccula in the Life of St. Cadoc, MS. Landav. 
Eccl. as cited by Spelman, under that word. See further Tyrwhitt's Chaucer, and 
Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland, 267. 

" See hereafter MOWSFALLE. " A felle for myse, decipula. A mowse felle, mus- 
cipula." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. mus-fealle, muscipula. 



FALLE DOWNE to be grownde, to 

don' worschyppe. Procido. 
FALLYN', or happyn'. Accidit* 

FALLYNGE downe, idem est quod 

FALLYNGE evylle, or londe 

yvelle. 1 Epilencia, vel morbus 


FALSE. Falsus. 
FALSE, and vntrosty. Perfidus. 
FALSE, and deceyvable, and yvel 

menynge. Versutus, versipellis, 

UG. in verto. 
FALSHEED. Falsitas. 
FALSHEED yn* boke, for yvel wryt- 

ynge. Menda, CATH. c. F, UG. 
FALSYN', or make false. Falsified. 

FALSE MODDER, or wenche. 2 Ca- 

risia, CATH. 
FALSE WRYTER. Plastographus, 


phia, CATH. 
FALTRYN' yn he tunge. Cespito, 

vel lingua cespitare. 
FALWE LONDE (falowen, p.) 

Novo, CATH. 
FALOW, londe eryd. Novale, vel 

novalis, CATH. (UG. in neos^ P.) 
FAME, or loos of name. 3 Fama* 
FANN to dense wythe corne. 4 

VannuS) CATH. 
FANE of a stepylle, or ober lyke. & 

Cherucus, ventilogium. 

1 "|>e falland euylle, epilencia, comicius vel comicialis, morbus caducus, noxa,. 
yerenoxa." CATH. ANG. Epilepsy, or the falling sickness, appears to have been in 
former times a very prevalent disorder, and had numerous appellations ; Cotgrave and 
Sherwood give the following, in French, " le mal caduque, mat de terre, le mal S. 
Jean, le gros mal, le haut mal, mal d'Alcide, mal des cornices, mal de Mahomet, mal 
de S. Valentin, maladie de S. Jean, maulubec, malubec." See LONDE IVYL. 

a Mawther, in the East Anglian dialect, still signifies a girl, according to Forby and 
Moore ; the explanation of the word carisia given in the Catholicon, has been adopted 
in the Ortus, " Carisia dicitur lena veins et litigiosa, unde et fallaces ancille, quia 
veritafe carent, Anglice, false seruauntes," See MODER, servaunte. 

3 See LOOS, or fame. 

4 " A fanne, capisterium, pala, vanmts, ventilabrum." CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax.fann, 
ventilabrum. The ancient form of this implement, explained in the Catholicon to be 
" instrumentum de vimine factum, in modum scuti, cribrum," has undergone little 
change during several centuries, as exhibited on the sepulchral brass at Chartham, in 
Kent, representing Sir Robert de Setvans, or de Septem Vannis, who died in 1306. 
The fan, or van, here appears both on the armorial surcoat, and the ailettes ; the 
bearing, which is a curious example of the arma cantantia, or armes parlantes, appears 
to have been, not seven vans, but three, as given in the Roll of Arms, t. Edw. II. 
Cott. MS. Calig. A. xvm. A faithful representation of this curious memorial has 
been given by Messrs. Waller in their valuable Series of Monumental Brasses. 

5 " A fayne of a schipe, cheruchus, et cetera ubi a wedercoke." CATH. ANG. Ang. 
Sax. fana, vejcillum. Chaucer uses this word repeatedly, 

" O stormy peple, unsad and euer untrewe, 

And undiscrete, and changing as a fane ! " Clerke's Tale. 

Among the costs of the construction of a dormitory, at Burcester Priory, in 1424, is a 
charge for " truncis de ferro, cum ij ventiloyiis, viz. Vanys de tyn, ponendis super 
utrumque finem dormitorii ;" Kennett's Paroch. Ant. ii., 254; and in the accounts of 
Thomas Lucas, Solicitor- Gen. to Henry VII. for the building of Little Saxham Hall, 


FANGYN, or latchyn (lachyn or 
hentyn, K. H.) 1 Apprehendo. 

FANNE corne, or ober lyke. Van- 
no, CATH. 

FANTASY, or fantan. Fantasma, 

fantasia, CATH. 
FANVN', or fanen' (fanoii, p.) 2 

Fanula, Dicc.manipulus, CATH. 

in 1507, is the entry, " a vane for my vise (winding- stairs) ; iv vanys for my bruge." 
Rokewode's Hist of Suff. 151 . Chaucer, in the Manciple's Prologue, alludes to the rural 
sport of justing "at the fan," in some MSS. "van;" which has been explained as sig- 
nifying a kind of quintain, so termed from its revolving like the fane of a weather-cock. 
In the curious version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. a passage occurs, however, 
which would lead to the supposition that Chaucer's allusion refers to a rural conflict, 
with the winnowing fan, by way of shield ; it declares " how olde werriours were wont 
to iuste with fannes, and pley with the pil, or the pale ; " and that tyros or young sol- 
diers ought to have "a shelde made of twigges sum what rounde, in maner of a gre'dryn, 
the whiche is clepede a fanne and therwith they sholde haue maces of tree." B. 1, c. xi. 
See QUYNTYNE hereafter. 

1 To fang or seize, Ang.-Sax. fang, captura, fangen, captus, is a verb used by R. 
Brunne, and various writers, as late as Shakespeare. See UNDERFONGYN, and LATCHYN 

2 The etymology of this appellation of the sacred vestment, termed also the maniple, 
is uncertain ; the Latin pannus has been suggested, the German Fahne, or the Ang. 
Saxon word of the like signification, fana, vexillum. The resemblance of the maniple 
to the penon on the lance, called in France fanon, or phanon, is obvious. The word 
can hardly, however, be of Ang.-Saxon derivation, as in JElfric's Glossary, written 
towards the close of the Xth cent, the maniple is termed "manualis, handlin ; " and 
among the gifts of Bishop Leofric to Exeter Cathedral, about 1050, are mentioned 
"iv subdiacones handlin." MS. Bodl. Auct. D. 2,16. Leo IV. P.P. towards the 
middle of the IXth cent, ordained thus, "nullus cantet sine amictu, sine albd, stold, 
fanone et casuld,-" and a contemporary writer, Rabanus Maurus, says, " quartum 
sacerdotis indumentum mappula sive mantile est, quod vulgo fanonem vacant.' 1 '' Inst. 
Cler. c. 18. The original intention and use of the maniple is explained by Alcuiri and 
Amalarius, writers of the same period, as follows: "Mappula, que in sinistrd parte 
gestatur, qud pituitam oculorum et narium detergimus.'' Shortly after, however, the 
rich and massy ornament bestowed upon the fanon rendered it unsuitable for its original 
purpose. A specimen discovered at Durham, in the tomb attributed to St. Cuthbert, 
is still preserved there ; it is elaborately ornamented with needle-work, on a ground 
woven with gold, and was wrought, as appears by inscriptions upon it, by direction of 
jElfleda, Queen of Edward the Elder, for Frithelstan, consecrated Bp. Winchester 
A.D. 905. It was probably brought to Durham, with other precious gifts, by Athelstan, 
the successor of Edward, in 934. This fanon measures 32| in. exclusively of a fringe 
at the ends, 1| in. deep ; and its breadth is 2 in. Elaborate drawings of this inte- 
resting relic, and of the stole discovered with it in 1827, are in the possession of the 
Society of Antiquaries. They are both ornamented with figures of saints, by which, and 
other representations, it appears that the fanon was at that period worn loosely thrown 
over the back of the hand, as on the Bayeux Tapestry in the representation of Abp. 
Stigant ; but subsequently it was attached closely round the wrist. In a few instances 
the fanon appears carried on the right, instead of the left hand, an example of which 
occurs in the Bible of Charles the Bald, MS. of the IXth cent. See Montf. Mon. 
Franc. 1 , pi. xxvi. The fanon was usually of the same suit, de eddem sectd, as the 
stole, and the parures of the amice and the alb ; the material of which they were formed 
was most costly. Among the gifts of Will, de Elintune to Rochester, it is recorded,, 



FARDEL LE, or trusse. Fardellus. 
FARE, or boost. Jactancia, ar- 


FARE, or ledynge of lyfe. Valitudo. 
FARE, of schepemen be )>e see. 

FARE MAKERE, or bostowre. Jac- 

tator, philocompus, c. F. 
(FARE WELL, p. Vale, valete.) 
FARE WELLE, or elle mon' (sic) 

(badly, K. p.) Valeo, c. F. 
FARYN' owte of ]>e cuntre. De* 

FARYN' ovyr be see, or watur (on 

the see, P.) 1 Meo, transmeo, 


FARC YD, as metys. Farcitus. 
FAARCE mete (farsen, p.) Farcio, 

farcino, CATH. 

FARSURE. Farsura.farsumen. 
FART. Trulla, bombus, CATH. 
FART A RE. Pedo. 
FARTON'. Pedo-> CATH. 
FARTYNGE. Peditura, bombizacio. 
FACELYN', as clothys (faselyn, p.) 2 

FASYLLE of a clothe (or other 

lyke, p.) Fractillus, c. F. (vil- 

lus, CATH. P.) 
FASSYONE, or knowlechynge (fa- 

cyon, p.) Fassio, confessio. 
FASSYONE, or factyone, forme of 

" dedit stolam etfanum de nigrd purpurd de viride ciclade de alba purpurd," &c. 
Reg. Roff. 119. They were ornamented with gems, pearls, and goldsmith's work, as 
appears by the inventories of the treasuries at Old St. Paul's and Lincoln, printed by 
Dugdale. It must be observed that some distinction seems to have been made in Italy 
in the Xlth cent, between the fanon and the maniple, but its precise nature has not 
been ascertained. See the account of the gifts of Abbot Desiderius, Chron. Monast. 
Casin. Murat. iv. 429,487. " Fannell for a preeste'sarme, i /anow." PALSG. " Fanon, 
a fannell or maniple, a scarfe-like ornament worne on the left arme of a sacrificing 
Priest." COTG. 

1 To fare, Ang.-Sax. faran, ire, is a verb frequently used by the earlier writers, as 
R. Brunne, Rob. of Gloucester, Langtoft, and Chaucer. 

" Ten thousand prest and yare, 

Into batail for to fare." K. Alisaunder, line 1188. 

Sir Thomas de la More, in his Life of Edward II. relates that at Bristol, on the way to 
Berkeley Castle, Thomas de Gorney put upon his head a crown made of hay, and the 
soldiers " ironid nimis acerbd dixerunt, fare forth Syr Kynge." Ed. Camden, p. 602. 
Minot, speaking of the journey of Edward III. into Brabant, in 1338, says, 
" Unto France fast will he fare, 

To confort hym with grapes." 

Various significations of this verb are given by Palsgrave, " I fare, I go a iournay. I 
fare with one, orentreate hym well or yuell. I fare, I playe at a game so named at the 
dyse. I fare, I resemble another thyng in my dealing. I fare, I take on, as one doth y l is in 
sorowe." Occasionally it is used in the sense of compelling to go ; thus, in the Towneley 
Mysteries, Herod, enraged at the birth of Christ, declares, 
" Under my feete I shalle thaym fare, 

Those ladys that wille (not) lere my lare." p. 120. 

2 Palsgrave gives the verb " I fasyll out, as sylke or veluet dothe, le raule ; my 
sieve is fasylled, rauelee. Fasyll of clothe, cassure." ? Ang.-Sax. fKs,fimbria. The 
term to ravel, now generally used in this sense, thus appears to be derived, not from 
the verb to reave, or tear away, as it has been supposed, but from the French. 




FAST, or bowndyn', or festyd. 

Vinctus, ligatus. 
FAST, or festyd be clevynge to, or 

naylynge. Fixus, confixus. 
FASTE of abstynence (or fastynge, 

K.) Jejunium. 

FASTARE. Jejunator,jejunatrix. 
FAST GONGE, or schroffetyde, or 

gowtyde (fastyngon, p.) 1 Carni- 

privium (et carnibrevium, P.) 
FASTYN'. Jejuno. 

FASTYNGE. Jejunus, impransus, 

c. F. 

FASTYNGE, idem quod FASTE. 
FATE, vesselle. 2 Cuva, c. F. cupa 

vel cupus, c. F. Dice. 
FAT, or fet. Pinguis. 
FAT FOWLE, or beste, mestyde 

to be slayne (masted, p.) 3 Al- 

tile, UG. in alo. 
(FATYN, or lesyn colour, K. Mar- 

FATNESSE. Pinguedo, crassitude, 

1 " Fastyngange, carniprivium." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives ''at fastyns, at 
Fastyngonge, a Quaresme prenant.'' Blount, in his Dictionary of Hard Words, 1G80, 
gives " fasguntide " as a Norfolk word, which Forby considers as now obsolete. In 
the statement made by the citizens of Norwich respecting a riot that occurred in 1441 , 
termed Gladman's Insurrection, they declare that it originated in the circumstance that 
the said Thomas Gladman " on Tuesday, in the last ende of Cristemesse, viz. Fastyn- 
gonge Tuesday, made a disport with his neyghbours, coronned as Kyng of Cristemesse." 
Blomf. Hist. ii. 111. A detailed account of such local usages at Shrove-tide will be 
found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. vol. i. Hardyng, relating the conflict between the 
Yorkists and Queen Margaret, which closed with the battle of St. Alban's, Shrove 
Tuesday, Febr. 17, 1461, says, 

" And southward came thei then therfore 

To Sainct Albones, vpon the fastyngange eue (al. fastirne.)" Chron. c. 237. 

The term is compounded from Ang.-Sax. fasten, jejunium, and gong, Her, or going, 
the commencement of Lent. " Caresme prenant, Fastnes, or Shrove Tuesday." 

2 "A fatte, cupa, cuva. A fattmaker, cuparius." CATH. ANG. "Cupa, a coupe, 
or a fatte, or stope." ORTUS. " Fatte, a vessel, quevue. Fatte to dye in, cvuicr h 
taindre." PALSG. " Cuve, an open tub, a fat, or vat." COTG. Ang.-Sax. faet, fat, vas. 
Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, enumerates " thinges that ben vsed after the hous, 
platers, disshes, saussers, sallyers, trenchours ; these thinges shall ye fynde of tree, 
and of erthe. Now after, a disshe fat (esculier) where me leyeth therin the forsaid 
thinges, and the spones of tree." There was a local measure of grain, called a fat, 
identical with the cupa, cupus, or cuva, and which contained a quarter, or 8 bushels. 
The Stat. 1 Hen. V. c. 10, recites that it had been ordained that there should be only 
one measure, namely 8 bushels to the quarter ; but that the purveyors of the Crown 
were accustomed to take 9, and the merchants and citizens of London take of all sellers 
the same quantity, as a quarter of wheat, "par un mcsure use deins la dicte Citte, 
appelle le faat, ove un bussell mys sur le dit faat." The word coupe does not occur in 
the Promptorium, in the same sense as FATE, but is so given in the Ortus and the 
Cath. Ang. " A cowpe, cupa. A cowper, cuparius. " Caxton says in the Book for 
Travellers, " Paule the couper maketh and formaketh the keupis (refaict les cuues.y 

3 See MASTYN beestys, hereafter. Ang.-Sax. msestan, saginare. 



FAWCETT. 1 Clipsidra. 
FAWCHUN, knyfe or swerde. 2 

Madiera, c. F. et CATH. semis- 

pata, UG. 
FAWKENERE (fawconer, p.) Fal- 


FAWKON', hawke. Falco. 
FAWN', supra, idem quod FAYNE. 
FAWNYN' as howndys. Applaudo, 

FAWNYNGE of howndys. Plausus, 

FAVORYN'. Faveo. 
FAVOWRE. Favor. 
FAWTE, or defawte. Defectus. 
FAWTY, or defawty. Defectivus. 
FAWTOUR, ormeyntynore. Fautor. 
FEE. Feodus. 
FEBYLLE, or weyke. Debilis, im- 

becillus, BRIT. 
FEBYLLE, or lytylle worthe. Exilis. 

FEBYLNESSE, or weykenesse. De- 

FEBYLNESSE, or lytylle of valure. 

Exilitas, invalitudo. 
FEBLYN', or make feble (febelyn, 

p.) Debilito. 
FEDDE wythe mete. Pransus, 

FEDYN' wythe mete. Cibo, pasco, 

esco, CATH. 
FEDYNGE, or fode. Pastum, ali- 

mentum, alimonia, victus. 
FEEDE chyldryn' wythe pappe 

mete. Papo, c. F. 
FEDYR. Penna, pliima. 
FEDYRFQ, or fedyrfoy, herbe. 

FEDERYN', or feteryn'. Compe- 

dio, CATH. 
FEDERYS, or feterys of pryson* 

(fettirs, p.) Compes. 

1 Clepsidra is explained in the Ortus to be the same as " docillus, Anglice a perser 
or a spygote." See DOTTELL, dossell, above. " Faucet, to drawe Vfjne,faticet, Iroche 
a estovper le vin." PALSG. This word is derived from the French, faulcet. 

2 " A fawchone, rumphea, framed, spata." CATH. ANG. This appellation of a 
sword with a curved blade is taken from the French f auction, a diminutive of faux, 
from the Latin falx. Thefauchon is frequently mentioned by Guiart, who wrote at 
the close of the Xlllth cent, and seems to have been identical with the falso, often 
named at that period, and thefalcio, which is included among weapons that monks 
were forbidden to bear by the Stat. Cistert. Ord. A.D. 1202. An early instance of the 
use of this weapon occurs in the curious designs of t. Edward I. discovered in the 
Painted Chamber at Westminster, given in the Vetusta Monumenta. When Launfal 
is assailed by the lords of Lombardy, in unequal conflict, 

" Sir Launfal brayde out hys fochon, 

And, as ly^t as dewe, he layde hem donne." 

Launfal Miles. Cott. MS. Calig. A. n. 

It must be observed, however, that the fauchon and falso seem occasionally to be 
named with long-handled weapons, and that the falchion may occasionally have been a 
kind of bill, with the curved or scythe-shaped blade, whence the name was taken. 
Chaucer uses the word as signifying a sword, and in Piers Ploughman's Vision allusion 
occurs to St. Paul, keeping the gate of heaven with his " fawchon." Palsgrave gives 
"Fawchyon, a wepen, marguy baston de ivif ; " and Cotgrave, " Malcus, afaulchion, 
hangar, wood-knife." 



FEFFYD. Feofatus (feofactus,p.) 
FEFEMENT. Feofamentum. 
FEFOWRE. Feofatus. 
FETCHE, corne, or tare (fehche, 

K.) Vicia, UG. in vincio, cro- 

bus, c. F. 

FETCHYN, or fettyn'. Affero. 
FETCHYNGE, or fettynge. Alia- 

(FEYAR, or fowar,tft/ra in GOONGE 


FEYNARE (feynour, p.) Fictor, 

FEYNYD. Fictus. 
FEYNYD thynge. Ficticium. 
FEYNYD sleythe of falshede (feyn- 

yng, sleithe, H. feyned sleyte, p.) 
Com(m)entum, CATH. c. F. 
FEYNYN'. Fingo. 
FEYNYN' yn syngynge, or synge 

lowe. 2 Succino, CATH. 
FEYNYNGE. Fictio, simulacio. 
FEYNT. Segnis. 
FEYNTNES of herte, or coward- 

nesse (feyntyse of herte, or cow- 

ardyse, K. p.) Vecordia. 
(FEYNTYN, K. H. feynten, p. feote, 

j. feyte, w.) 3 Fatesco. 

FEYNTENESSE, or feyntyse (feble- 

nesse, P.) Segnicies. 
FEYNTLY. Segniter. 
FEYYR, or feyre. Nundine. 
FEYGHTE, or fyghtynge (feyt, or 

feytyng, K.) Pugna, certa- 

FEYGHTARE. Pugnator, certor, 

FEGHTARE, or baratowre (feyter, 

p.) Pugnax, c. F. 
FEYGHTYN' (feytyn, K. feythtyn, 

H.) Pugno, CATH. bello, di- 


FEYT HE. Fides. 
FEYTHE BREKE(R), or comnant 

(breker.) Fidifragus^fidifraga. 

FEYTHFULLE and trusty. Fidelis. 


FELLE, or fers. 4 Severus, ferus, 

fellitusiferox (bilosus, felleus, 

atroX) P.) 
FELA, or felowe (felawe, p.) ' /So- 

cius (consors, p.) 
FELA, or felow at mete. Sodalis. 
FELA, or felow yn' travayle. So- 

FELA, or felow yn offyce. Col' 

lega, CATH. 

1 The word FEYAR, introduced here on the authority of Pynson's edition, is derived 
from the verb to fie or fey, used by Tusser, and still known in the East Anglian dialect. 
" Escureur, a scowrer, cleanser, feyer." COTG. See FYIN, and FOWAR. 

2 Palsgrave says, " I feyne in syngyng, le chante ct basse voyx. We may nat synge 
out, we are to nere my lorde, but lette us fayne this songe." 

3 In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, it is recommended that the host 
in marches " be not highely fayntede with iourneyeng of weyes in the hete of the day,'' 
but in summer should rest from " vndren' to myde ouernone.'' B. iii. c. 2. 

* " Felle, acer, acerbus, asper, atrox, austerus,ferox, &c. To be felle, barbarizare, 
sevire. To make felle, ferare. Felly, acriter. A felines, atrocitas, rigor, &c." 
CATH. ANG. " Fell or fierse, as a person is for modynesse. Fyers, fell, rigoreu,v,fier. 
Fell, or felonys,he,felonneux. Felnesse, despiterie." PALSG. Ang. -Sax. fell, crudelis, 
felnys, crudelitas. 




FELOW yn' walkynge by be way 
(in iourney, P.) Comes. 

FEL A, or felow in scole. Consors. 

Socius in periculo, collega in 
officio, comes in itinere, consors 
in premio, sodalis in mensd, vel 
in sede ; hec UG. in sagio. 

FELOWYS, y-knytte to-gedyr in 
wykydnesse. Complices, c. F. 
complex, UG. in plico. 

FELOWLY. Socialiter, sodaliter. 

FELYSCHEPE (felowshepe, p.) So- 
cialitas, societas, contubernium. 

FEELDE. Ager, campus, rus, 

FELDEFARE, byrde (felfare, P.) 

FELEABLE. Sodalis. 

(FEELABYLL, P. Sensibilis.) 

FELYN'. Sencio. 

FELYN' wythe handys, or gropyn. 

FELLYN', orcastyn' downe (fallen, 

p.) Prosterno, dejicio. 
FELONE, soore. 1 Antrax, c. F. 

carbunculus, c. F. 
FELONE, thef. Scetestus. 
FELON YE. Scelus. 
FEELTE, or qwylte. 2 Filtrum, 

CATH. c. v.fultrum, KYLW. 
FELTRYKE, herbe. 3 Fistra, fel 

terre, centaurea. 
FEL WE of a qwele (whele, P.) 

Cantus, c. F. CATH. timpanum, 

CATH. circumferencia. 
FEMEL, no male. Femella. 
FEMELLE. Feminius. 
FEMYNYNE, or woman lyke. Mu- 

liebris (femininus, P.) 
FENNEL Labina,palus, CATH. UG. 

1 '' CarluncuJus, the felone." ORTUS. " Felon, a sore, entracq." PALSG. " Furun- 
culus, a soore called a felon ; also a soore callid a cattes hear, whiche breketh out in the 
fingers with great wheales and moche peyne. Tagax, a felon, whiche happeneth on a 
mann's fynger." ELYOT. Baret gives " A fellon, vncomme, or catte's haire ; a bile or 
sore that riseth in man's \>o&\e,furunculus ; Bossette dure, ou froncle, vngr clou. A 
fellon, or impostumation vnder the rootes of the nailes, paronychia; " and Cotgrave, 
" Furuncule, a fellon, or whitlaw; Panary, a felon, or whitlaw, at the end of a finger." 
Gerard recommends as a remedy the Persicaria hydropiper, or arsmart, which, "bruised 
and bound upon an imposthume in the ioynts of the fingers (called among the vulgar 
sort a fellon or vncome,) taketh away the paine." Elyot explains the term uncome as 
follows : " adventitius morbus, syckenes that cometh without our defaute, and of some 
men is callyd an vncome." 

2 The Catholicon explains filtrum to be so called "guia ex fills, i. pilis animalium 
fiat;''' 1 and the Ortus renders ii fultrum^ illud quod ornat lectum, sive lecti apodia- 

mentum." The term felt appears to have signified, at a very early period, a material 
formed of wool, not woven, but compacted together, suitable even for a garment of 
defence, so that the gambeson is sometimes termed feltrum. " Centrum vel filtrum, felt." 
Gloss. JElfrici. In Norfolk a thickly matted growth of weeds spreading by their roots, 
as couch-grass, is termed a felt. 

3 This herb is the small centaury, which was called/e terre, and in Dutch Eerdegall, 
from the excessive bitterness, and possibly the deep yellow colour of its juice, which 
in some countries was used by women to dye their hair, when yellow hair was the pre- 
valent fashion. By modern botanists it is known as the Erythr&a centaurium. FEL 
TKYKE appears to be merely a corruption of the Latin name ; Cotgrave gives " Sacotin, 
feaver-wort, earth-gall, common centory." 

4 FENNE has occasionally, as the Ang.-Sax. fenn, the abstract signification of mire. 


FENCE, or defence of closynge 
(clothinge, p.) Defensio, muni- 
do, defensaculum, UG. infenso. 

FENCE, defence fro enmyes. Pro- 
teccio, defensio. 

FENCYD, or defencyd. Defensus y 
rmmitus, defensatus, UG. 

FENSYN', supra in DEFENCYN'. 

FEENDE. Diabolus, demon. 
FENDOWRE, or defendowre. De- 

fensor, protector. 
FENESTRALLE.' Fenestrella>fe- 

FENKYLLE, or fenelle. 2 Feni- 

culum, c. F. vel feniculus, 

Dice, (maratrum, p.) 

Thus in the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is related that Scipio bid his 
Spanish prisoners cleanse and dig ditches, " with this reprouable scorne ; ye ben 
worthy, he saide, to be blottede and spottede, foulede and defoulede with fenne and 
with drit of water (luto inquinarf) and of blode, }>at in tyme of werre ne were not, ne 
wolde nat be bespreynt ne be wette with ennemyes blode." B. iii. c. 10. 

1 Before the general introduction of glazed windows, their place was supplied by 
framed blinds of cloth or canvas, termed fenestralls, which are mentioned in the 
accounts of the executors of Queen Eleanor, A.D. 1291, as follows: " pro canabo ad 

fenestrallas, ad scaccarium Regints apud Westmonasterium, iijd." Household Expenses, 
presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 135. " Fenestrall, chassis 
de toille, ou de paupier (papier.)'" PALSG. Herman says that "glasen wyndowis 
let in the lyght, and kepe out the winde ; paper or lyn clothe straked acrosse with 
losyngys make fenestrals in stede of glasen wyndowes. I wyll have a latesse (clathrurn) 
before the glasse for brekynge. I have many prety wyndowes shette with leuys goynge 
up and downe (canestetlce quoc attolli et demitti possunt)." Not long subsequently to 
the time when Horman wrote, glazed windows became so generally in use that the 
fenestrall was laid aside. Harrison, who wrote his description of England about 1579, 
speaks of "lattise made of wicker, or fine rifts of oke in chekerwise," formerly much 
used in country houses instead of glass, as being then obsolete. He speaks of the use 
of horn, selenite, and berill, for glazing windows, observing that of the last ' an 
example is yet to be scene in Sudleie castell ; " and states that glass had become so 
cheap and plentiful, being imported from Burgundy, Normandy, and Flanders, as well 
as made in England, of good quality, that every one who chose might have abundance. 
B. ii. c. 12. Holinsh. Chron. i. 187. Leland noticed " the Hawle of Sudley Castle 
glased with rownd Beralls." Itin. iv. f. 170, a; viii. f. 74, b. 

2 "Fenelle, or fenkelle, ./emeu/urn, maratrum." CATH. ANG. The numerous virtues 
of this herb are thus summed up in the King's Coll. MS. of the Promptorium : 

" Bis duo dot maratrum,febresfugat atque venenum, 

Et purgat stomacum, sic reddit lumen acutum." 

Macer gives a detailed account, in which the following remarkable passages occur : 
" J?e edderes wole ete fenel, when her yen dasnyj?, and so she getij? a-yene her clere 
sighte ; and J>er J?oroghe it is founde and preved bat fenel doj? profit to mannis yene : 
J>e yen }>at ben dusked, and dasni>, shul be anoynted wit J?e ius of fenelle rotis medeled 
wit hony ; and )>is oynement shalle put a- way alle J?e dasewenesse of hem, and make 
hem bry3t." The virtue of fennel, in restoring youth, was a discovery attributed 
likewise by Macer to serpents ; " \>is proui> auctours and filisoferis, for serpentis whan 
men (sic} olde, and willeth to wexe stronge, myghty, and yongly a-yean, J?ei gon and 
eten ofte fenel, and >ei become yongliche and myghty." MS. in the possession of H. W. 
Diamond, Esq. FENKYLLE is obviously a corruption of the Latin name ; this herb is 
still called in German Fenchel, and in Dutch Venckel. In Piers Ploughman's Vision 
mention occurs of 

" A ferthing worth of fynkel-sede for fastynge daies." 



FENKYLLE, or fenelle seede. Ma- 

ratrum, c. F. 
FENTE of a clothe. 1 Fibulatorium, 

c. F.JZmbria. 
FEER, or ferdenesse. Timor, 

terror, et cetera in D, 'drede, 

(FERDFULL thinge, quat so it be, 

K. p. TerriUlum, c. F.) 
FER, orfer a-way. Alonge,procul, 

eminuS) longe. 
FERSSE (feers, P.) idem quod 

FELLE, supra. 

FERCEHEDE. Ferocitas, severitas. 
FERY over a watyr. Pormeus, 

CATH. UG. in neo. 
FERYAGE. Feriagium, naulum, 

potomium, c. F. CATH. 
FERYALLE. Ferialis. 
FERYARE. Pormeus, CATH. 
FERYBOOT. Portemia, c. F. 
FERYN', or make a-ferde. 2 Terreo, 


FERY PLACE, idem quod FERY. 
FEERME, a rent. Firma. 
FERME, and stabylle. Firmus, 

1 In the Assembly of Ladies, a poem attributed to Chaucer, Attemperaunce is 
described as arrayed in a blue gown of cloth of gold, in tabard-wise, purfled, or trimmed 
with fur, and set with pearls and diamonds. 

" After a sort, the coller and the vent, 

Like as armine is made in purfeling, 

With great pearles full fine and orient, 

They were couched all after one worching." 

The glossarist interprets vent as signifying " the fore-part ;" but this does not suffi- 
ciently explain the term. In the Xlllth Cent, the fent or vent appears at the collar of 
the robe, both in male and female costume, being a short slit closed by a brooch, and 
which served for greater convenience in putting on a dress so fashioned as to fit closely 
round the throat. This is shown by the effigies at Fontevrault, engraved by Stothard, 
and especially by those of Queen Berengaria, at the abbey of FEspan, and of Richard I., 
recently discovered at Rouen. Archseol. xxix. pi. xxi. In these instances it is suffi- 
ciently apparent why the fent should be termed, as in the Promptorium, fibulatorium ; 
but at a later period being considerably prolonged, the opening of the robe in front ex- 
tending often much below the waist, a brooch was no longer sufficient to close it. At 
the period when Chaucer wrote, the fent was trimmed with rich furs, and the fastenings 
were ornaments of chased work, jewelled, of a very splendid description. They are 
termed in inventories " attaches," and exhibited on the effigies of Lady Mohun, and of 
Joan of Navarre, Queen of Henry IV., at Canterbury. The less richly decorated effigy 
of Queen Philippa, at Westminster, presents an example of the fent, simply closed by a 
lace ; and the combination of furs and jewels in this part of costume appears in many 
MSS. which have furnished Strutt with examples, among which may particularly be 
mentioned Roy. MS. 16 G. V. See Strutt's Dresses, pi. xciv. The propriety of ap, 
plying to the fent thus purfled and adorned, the termfimbria, as in the Promptorium, 
is evident, as likewise limbus, which is given by Ducange, on an ancient authority, as 
synonymous \vithjibulatorium. In the Wardrobe of Sir John Fastolf, A.D. 1459, there 
was " j jakket of red felwet, the ventis bounde with red lether." Archseol. xxi. 253. 
" Fente of a gowne, fente." PALSG. 

2 The use of the verb to fear, in an active sense, is not uncommon. 

" That rybaude fered me with his loke, 

That confort to me coude I none take." Castell of Labour, 1506. 
" Absterrere, i. penitus t err ere, Anglice, to fayr. Terreo, i. terrorem inferre, to feere." 
ORTUS. ' I feare one, I make hym afrayde. I feare awaye, skarre away, as we do 
beestes or byrdes, dechasscr." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fseran, terrere. See FESYN'. 


unde dicitur in literd 
attornatus, ratum et gratum, 
ferme and stabylle, CATH. 

FERMERYE. Infirmaries infir- 

FERMYN', or take a ]>ynge to 
ferme. Firmo, vel ad firmam 

FERMOWRE. Firmarius. 
FERROWRE, smythe. 1 Ferrarius, 

CATH. ferrator, COMM. 
FEERTYR (fertyr, K. fert', p. 

fertur, J.) 2 Feretrum. 
FERVENTE. Fervens, fervidus. 
FERUENTLY. Ferventer. 
FERUOWRE. Fervor. 

1 In the will of the Earl of Essex, 1361 , occur bequests " ct Mestre Thomas leferour, 
v. marcs ; h un garson pur le ferour } xxs. ; d, un garson feurer, i. marc." Royal 
Wills, p. 50. Elyot renders " veterinarius medicus, a horseleche, or ferror," now 
called corruptedly a farrier. In the version of Pliny, by Holland, it is related that the 
Empress Poppaea "was knowne to cause her ferrers ordinarily to shoe her coach 
horses, and other palfries, &c. with cleane gold." B. xxxiij. c. 11. In the order of the 
Pageants of the Play of Corpus Christi, at York, 1415, are enumerated among the 
various trades, "smythes, fevers." Sharpe's Coventry Mysteries, p. 137. This last 
appellation is taken directly from the old French, fevre, febvre, or ferre, a black- 

2 Among the appliances of a sacred nature, there were feretra of two kinds ; first, 
the bier for carrying the corpse to the grave, "/m?#rMW, bsere," Gloss. ^Elfric., thus 
mentioned in the laws of Henry I., " amid extrahant mortuum, deferentes in fere- 
trum, et portantes eum ad ecclesiam." By the Constitutions of Will, de Bleys, 
1229, and Walter de Cantilupe, 1240, Bishops of Worcester, as also of Abp. 
Peckham, 1280, among the ornaments and requisites to be provided in every church, at 
the charge of the parishioners, was included "feretrum competens ad sepulturam mor- 
tuorum." Wilkins, i. 623, 666; ii. 49. In its secondary sense feretrum signified a 
portable shrine, containing the relics of saints, and carried in processions on a frame 
similar to the ordinary bier; and also stationary shrines of similar fashion, but which it 
was not customary to display as gestatory ornaments, such as those of St. Cuthbert at 
Durham, or St. Thomas of Hereford, in the cathedral there. It is recorded in Reg. 
Roff. 120, that " Willielmus Rex Anglie magnus, in articulo mortis (1087) dedit 

feretrum, cum altarigestatorio deargentato, et pallium cum leonibus." In 1355, Eliza- 
beth de Clare, daughter of Gilbert Earl of Gloucester, made the following bequest : 
" Je devise a Seint Thomas de Hereford un ymage de n're dame, d' argent surorre, 
d'estre tache sur son fiertre." Roy. Wills, p. 31. In the ancient documents relating 
to the shrine of St. Cuthbert the term feretrum implies, as Mr. Raine states, not the 
shrine itself, but the quadrangular space or oratory wherein it stood : the keeper had 
the title oiferetrarius. See Raine's Saint Cuthbert. Amongst numerous representations 
of the feretrum may be mentioned the procession of St. Alban's shrine, in the MS. of M. 
Paris, with drawings, supposed to be by his own hand, Cott. MS. Nero, D. i. ; Strutt's 
Manners and Customs, i. pi. Ixiv. One occasion on which it was customary to carry 
the feretra in procession, was at the parochial perambulations in Rogation week, a full 
account of which will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. vol. i. Herman, in his 
chapter of sacred matters, says, " We two muste beare the feretrum (tensam gestare} 
a procession in the gange dayes." The term " fertre " occurs in Langtoft's Chronicle ; 
and in the Golden Legend mention is made of the " fyerte,'' or shrine of St. Alphey, 
f. 117, b. " Fierte,fiertre,fietre: Chdsse, reliquaire, brancard." ROQUEF. The term 
feretrum in the MS. Ordinar. Ecc. Rotom. signifies the pyxis, wherein the consecrated 
Eucharist is deposited. 



FERTHYN', or ferthynge. Qua- 

FESAWNT, byrde. 1 Fasianus, or- 

nix, CATH. 

FESYN', i 


FEST, or teyynge (festnynge, p.) 

FEST, or teyynge of a schyppe, or 
bootys (festnynge, p.) Scala- 
mus, CATH. pronexium, c. F. 
restis, c. F. 

FEESTE of mete and drynke. Fes- 
tum, convivium. 

FEEST, or fedynge of mete and 
drynke in holy chyrche. 3 Aga- 
pes. Nota, de Agape in Jure, 
distinctione xlij,, Si quis ; et 
Raymundus, lib. 3, tit. 4. 

FESTYD, or fed wythe goode mete 
and drynke. Convivatus, CATH. 

FESTYD, or teyyd fast to a thynge. 
Fivus, conjixus. 

FESTYN', or cleve to. Figo, af- 

Jigo, configo. 
FESTYN', or byynd to-gedyr. Ligo, 

alligo (colligo. P.) 
FESTYN' (within a thinge, P.) or 

knyttyn' yn' to a thynge, or 

gryffyri', or ober lyke. Insero. 
FESTYN'J or make feestys, and 

feede men'. Convivor, CATH. 
FESTYNGE to a thynge (festnyng 

to, P.) Confixio,Jixura. 
FESTYNGE wythe mete and drynke. 

Convivatus, convivatorium, 

FEESTRYD, as wowndys (as sores, 

p.) Cicatricus. 
FEESTRYD wownde. Cicatrix. 
FEESTRYN', as wowndys, or sorys. 

FEESTRYNGE of wowndys. Cica- 

tricatio, cicatricatus. 
(FESTU, infra m-FYSCHELLE.) 4 

1 The pheasant was brought into Europe from the banks of the Phasis, in Colchis, 
according to Martial, by the Argonauts ; it was highly esteemed by the Romans, and 
possibly introduced by them into England. In default of positive evidence as to its 
existence here in early times, it can only be stated that about the time when the Promp- 
torium was compiled, it had become sufficiently abundant in East Anglia. Thus in the 
Howard Household Book, amongst the costs incurred at Ipswich, in 1467, " whane Syr 
John Howard and Mastyr Thomas Brewse were chosen knyghtes of the shyre,'' occurs 
the item, " xij fesawntes, pryse xijs." Household Expenses, presented to the Roxburghe 
Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 399. " Qrnix est gallus vel gallina silvestris, Anglice a 
fesande or a werkok." ORTUS. " A fesan&e,fasiamts." CATH. ANG. 

2 R. Brunne uses the word "fesid," which Hearne explains as meaning whipped or 
beaten (p. 192.) Ang.-Sax. fesian./t^flre. 

3 The love-feasts, or dydirai of the primitive Christians, were held in the churches ; 
but this usage was suppressed by the Council of Constantinople, A.D. fi91 , and discoun- 
tenanced by Gregory the Great, in his Letter to the British converts. It is probable 
that the author here refers solely to the primitive custom. There is no evidence that 
the practice of feasting in churches had been retained in any part of England ; but it 
appears probable that the agape of the earlier times gave rise to the church-ale, of 
which, and of wakes, frequently celebrated near the precinct of the church, a full 
account will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. See the Hierolexicon D. Macri, 
Ducange, and Spelman, v. Agape. 

4 In Piers Ploughman's Vision, line 6183, where allusion is made to Matth. vii. 3, 
the mote in the eye, festuca, is termed " festu." The Medulla likewise renders 
"festuca, a festu, or a lytul mote." The name was applied to the straw, or stick 



FET, or fatte, as flesshe and ober 
lyke. Pinguis, crassus, obesus. 
FETERYD. Compeditus. 
FETERYN', supra (in FEDERYN'.) 
FETYCE, or praty. 1 Parvunculus, 


FETYR (of prison, p.) supra in 

FETHYR (sic, sed rectius fe- 

derys) et pedica, c. F. pedux, 

FETYRLOKKE. Sera compedi- 

talis (sera compedita, P.) 

et popa, sagina. 
FEWE. Paucus, pauculus. 
FEWENESSE (or scassenes, K.) 

Paucitas, paucedo. 
FEWTE. Vestigium. 

(FEWTE, or omage, H. fewtye, or 

homage, p. 2 Omagium.) 
(FEWTE, K. Fidelitas.) 
FY. S Vaih, racha (vaa, P.) 
FY(A)L, or fyolle (fyall, or cruet, 

H. P.) Fiala, CATH. 
FYDYLL, or fyyele (fyyil> K.) 

Viella,Jidicina, vitula, CATH. in 

vitulus, et Dice, vidula, KYLW. 
FYDELARE. Fidicen, CATH. vitu- 

lator, UG. 
FYDELIN, or fyielyn' (fetelyn, K.) 

Vitulor, Dice. CATH. in vitulus. 
FYFTENE. Quindecim. 
FYFTY. Quinquaginta. 
FYGGE, or fyge tre. Ficus. 
FYGURE, or lykenesse. Figura. 
FYIN, or defyin mete and drynke 

(fyyn, K. H. p.) 4 Digero. 

used for pointing, in the early instruction of children : thus Palsgrave gives " festue to 
spell with,festev." Occasionally the word is written with c or k, instead of t, but it 
is apparently a corruption. " Festu, afeskue, a straw, rush, little stalk, or stick, used 
for a fescue. Touche, a fescue ; also, a pen, or a pin for a pair of writing tables." 

1 Chaucer uses the word fetise, and fetisely, in this sense ; it is apparently derived 
from the old French fetis, or faiteis. Palsgrave gives " featysshnesse, propernesse, 
feactise ; " as also the synonymous word " feate, or proper of makyiig, godin, godinet, 
cointj mignon ; fetly, nycely, coyntement. I haue apted them together the fetlyest 
(le plus gentimenf) that euer you sawe. Feted, fetered, or well shapen of the lymmes, 
alignt. It is as well fetered a chylde as euer you sawe. You neuer set your eye upon 
a fayrer fetered woman, mieulx aligne." Herman likewise speaks of " the feat con- 
ueyans of a speche that soundeth well to the eare, argutia plausibilis sermonis. She 
wereth corked slippers to make hir tal and feet." 

2 " Homagium, idem est quod fidelitas, a feaute." ORTTJS. William Paston writes, 
in 1454, of Thomas Bourchier, Bp. of Ely, who was translated in that year to Canter- 
bury, "My lord of Ely hathe do hys fewthe." Paston Lett. iii. 222. The word is 
taken from the French " feaultt, feautt ; fidttitk, foi, Constance" ROQUEF. It is 
commonly taken for the oath of allegiance in the feudal system : 

'* When thise Bretons tuo were fled out of this lond, 

Ine toke his feaute of alle that lond helde." R. Brunne. 

8 In the Wicliffite version occur the following passages : "he that seith to his 
brother, Fy (al. fugh) schal be gilty to the counsell." Matt. v. 22. "And as thei 
passiden forth, thei blasfemeden him, movynge her heddis, and seiynge, Vath, thou 
that distriest the temple," &c. Mark xv. 29. 

4 This word, in the MSS. and in Pynson's edition, occurs among the verbs between 
FYISTYN and FLAPPYN, which is perhaps an indication that it had been originally 



FYKIN a-bowte, infra in FYSKIN. 

FYKYNGE a-bowte in ydylnes. Dis- 
cursus, vagatus. 

FYLBERDE, notte. Fillum, Dice. 

(FILBERDE, tree, p. Phillis.) 

FYLE. Lima. 

FYLIN wythe a fyle. Lima. 

FYLYN', idem quod FOWLYN, su- 
pra in D. 

FYLL wythe mete. Sacio, sa- 

FYLLE, or fylly(n)ge of mete, or 
drynke. Sacietas, saturatio. 

FYLLYN'. Impleo, repleo. 

FYLLYNGE. Implecio, replecio. 
FYLZOFYR (fillosofere, K.) Phi- 

FYLETTE. ! Victa, UG. in vincio, 

FYLME of a notte, or o}>er lyke. 

Folliculus, gallicula, c. F. 
FYLOWRE, of barbowrs crafte (fil- 

lour of barborys crafte, K.) 2 

Acutecula, filarium, KYLW. 

(acutella, K.) 
FYLTHE. Sordes, spurcicia, lino, 

CATH. turpitudo, labes, putre- 

dO) pus. 

written FYSIN. To fie or fey now signifies in East Anglia, as in Craven and Hallam- 
shire, to clean out, as ponds or ditches ; it is thus used by Tusser, and also to express 
the cleansing of grain. 

" Choiced seed to be picked, and trimly well fy'd, 

For seed may no longer from threshing abide." August's Husbandry. 
" Escurer, to scowre, fey, rinse, cleanse." COTG. Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. 
gives " to fea, fey, feigh or fow, to cleanse or empty, as to fea a pond, a privy, &c. 
Dunelm. Isl. fsegia, mundare, eluere ; whence to feag, by metaphor, applied to whip- 
ping or correcting, as, He feag'd him off." Lansd. MS. 1033. In the Wicliffite 
version, Deut. xxiii. 13 is thus rendered, " }>ou schalt bere a litil stake in >e girdil, and 
whanne J>ou hast sete, >ou schalt digge bi cumpas, and J>ou schalt hile wi> er)?e J>ingis 
defied out, where J>ou art releuyd;" in the Vulgate, " egesta humo operies." See 

1 Johanna domina de Roos bequeaths, in 1394, " unam longam feletam de rosis de 
per', Sfc.^ Testam. Ebor. i. 203. "Nimbus, fasciola transversa ex auro insuta in 
lintheo, quod est in front efeminarum, a felet." ORTUS. " Fyllet for a mayden's heed, 
fronteau." PALSG. " Fronteau, a fillet, frontlet, forehead cloth." COTG. In a letter 
written about 1465 to Sir John Paston occurs the request of a lady, who " wuld fayne 
have a new felet." Paston Lett. iv. 176. 

2 FYLOWRE, or barbowrs crafte. MS. " Afiloure, affilatorium , to filoure, affilare" 
CATH. ANG. The term affilatorium occurs with the signification of a hone, in the Usus 
Ant. Ord. Cisterc. c. 85. The implement so called seems to have been identical with 
that now called a steel, in French fusil, which is rendered by Cotgrave "the steele, 
wherewith a butcher whets his knives." A resemblance in form to the spindle or 
spoole used in spinning was probably the origin of the appellations FYLOWRE, filarium, 
and fusil. In the Boke of Curtasye a " fylour " appears to signify a rod, as that upon 
which a curtain may be hung, moveably, by means of rings. The word occurs in the 
directions for the grooms of the chambers, regarding making the pallets, and two beds 
of greater state, for lords, 

" That henget shalle be with hole sylour, 
With crochettes and loupys sett on lyour, 
Tho valance on fylour shalle henge with wyn, 
iij curteyns strejt drawen withinne." Sloane MS. 1986. 



FYLTHE of mannys nose, snotte. 

FYLTHE of mannys fete. Petor. 

FYMTERRE, herbe. Fumus terre. 

FYNCHE, byrde. Furfurio, c. F. 

FYYNDARE of thynge loste. In- 
ventor, inventrix. 

FYNDE thingys loste. Invenio, 
reperio, comperio. 

FYNDE COSTE. Exhibeo. 

FYNDIN, helpyn', and susteinyn' 
hem bat be nedy (fynde theym 
that ar nedy, p.) Sustento. 

FYYNDYNGE of thynge loste. In- 
vencio, repericio. 

FYYNDYNGE, or helpynge in bo- 
dyly goodys at nede. 1 Exhi- 
bicio, subvencio. 

FYNE, or ryght goode (fyyn, P.) 
Egregius, excellens. 

FYNE WYNE. 2 Falernum, CATH. 

FYNE, of bondage. Finum. 
FYNNE of a fysche. Pinna. 
FYNGYR. Digitus. 
FYNGYRLYNGE of a glove. Di- 

gitabulum, CATH. 
FYR, tree. Abies. 
FYYR. Ignis, rogus, focus, pir. 
FYYRFORKE. Ticionarium,CATH. 

pala, arpagio ; hec in historid 

scolasticd de vasis templi. 

ignearium, c. F. 
FYYRE YRYN', to smyte wythe 

fyre. Fugillus, CATH. pirici- 

dium, Dice. KYLW. 

FYYR STONE, for to smyte !wythe 

fyre. Focaris, UG. in laos, vel 

focare, CATH. ignarium, c. F. 

FlRBOME, SUpra in BEKENE. 3 

1 The Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VII. comprise an entry in 1493, " to Dr. 
May for th' exebucon of Thos. Phepo," who appears to have been King's scholar at 
Oxford; and the allowance is subsequently termed "the finding, 2 li." Exc. Hist. 
The term exhibition, or allowance of money, taken from the Latin, which in medieval 
times had the same signification, is used in this sense by Shakespeare and B. Jonson, 
as likewise still retained at the Universities. 

2 The Medulla renders " Falernum, wyn atyurbest." MS. in the Editor's possession. 

3 The practice of maintaining beacons, to give warning of approaching invasion, is one 
that may be traced in Britain to the most remote times. The term itself is Anglo- 
Saxon, beacen, sianum, beacne torr, specula. The right of erecting beacons was one 
of the exclusive privileges of the Crown ; and a tax for their maintenance, termed 6e- 
conagium, was levied upon every hundred. At an early time, as Coke observes, the 
beacon was merely a stack of combustibles prepared on an elevated spot, or a rock ; 
Ang.-Sax. beacenstan, j9&2rS; subsequently to the time of Edward III. as he states, 
" pitch-boxes, as now they be, were, instead of those stacks, set up ;" that is, a kind 
of large cresset, raised on an upright pole or beam : hence the appellation FIRBOME, 
Ang.-Sax. beom, trabs. Blount cites the " Ordinatio pro vigiliis observandis a Lynne 
usque Yarmouth, t. Edw. II. Quod levari et reparari faciatis signa et firebares super 
monies altiores in quolibei hundredo, ita quod tota pairia, per ilia signa, quotiescumque 
necesse fuerit , premuniri potest ; " which is rendered by Stowe, "He ordained biken- 
ings or beacons to be set up." A.D. 1326. The care with which these signals were at 
all periods provided, appears by numerous evidences in the public records. In 1415 
Henry V. on his departure for France, provides for the safety of the realm, and directs 
the provision of "signa vocata bekyns in locis consuetis." Rymer, ix. 255. Hall 
relates that when Richard III. with false confidence, disbanded his forces, he issued 




FYRIN, or sette on a fyre, or brin- 
nyn. Ignio, CATH. comburo. 

FYRMAMENT, or walkyn'. Fir- 

FYRRYS, or qwyce tre, or gorstys 
tre. 1 Ruscus. 

FYRSTE of alle. Primus. 

FYRSTE, or be-forne. Primo. 


FYYRE, sharpe brusche (firre, 

whynne, K. fyir or qwynne, P. 

whynne, j.) 2 Saliunca. 
FYSCARE a-bowte ydylly. Dis- 

cursor, discursatrix, vagulus 

vel vagator, vagatrix. 
FISKIN a-bowte yn ydilnesse. 3 

Vagor, giro, girovago. 
FYSCHE. Piscis. 
FYSCHARE. Piscator, favissor, 

CATH.etnota ibi bonam causam. 

COMM. oria, c. F. 

strict commands that on the coast, and the frontiers of Wales, strong ward should be 
kept according to usage ; "for the custome of the countreyes adjoyning nere to y e 
see is (especially in the tyme of war) on euery hill or high place to erect a bekon with 
a greate lanterne in the toppe, whyche maie be sene and discerned a great space of. 
And when the noyes is once bruted that the enemies approche nere y e land, they so- 
deinly put fyer in the lanthornes, and make showtes and outrages from toune to toune, 
and from village to village." 3 Rich. III. This kind of signal, of which representations 
will be found in Archseol. i. pi. i. xv. pi. xii. was likewise termed a standard: "A 
bekyn or a standarde, statela" CATH. ANG. It was taken by Hen. V. as a badge, 
and appears among the sculptures of his chantry at Westminster. " Beakyn, feu au 
ffuet." PALSG. The elevation whereon it was placed was sometimes termed a tote-hill; 
see that word hereafter. 

1 Ruscus is properly the plant with sharply-pointed leaves, called butcher's-broom, 
but that which is here intended appears to be the Ulex Europ&us, Linn, called com- 
monly furze or gorse. In the Wicliffite version, Isai. Iv. 13 is thus rendered : " A 
fir tre schal stie for a gorst (e)?er firse) and a myrte tre schal wexe for a nettil." Claud. 
E. ii. In 15 Hen. VI. 1436, licence was given to Humfrey Duke of Gloucester to 
inclose 200 acres of land, " pasture, wode, hethe, virses, and gorste (bruere et jamp- 
norum),"and to form thereof a park at Greenwich. Rot. Parl. iv. 498. "Ruscus, 
Anglice, firsun." Harl. MS. 1002. " Fyrsbusshe, ionmarin." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. 
fyrs, genista, rhamnus. 

2 Saliunca has occurred already, as the name of an herb called CALTRAP. Cotgrave 
renders " chaussetrape, the starre thistle, called also the calthrop ; " but although the 
name may have occasionally been so assigned, from its being hurtful to the foot, yet ac- 
cording to Parkinson the herb called land caltrops, tribulus terrestris, was not of the 
thistle species. The saliunca again is, according to the same author, a kind of spike- 
nard, whereas in the Medulla it is stated, " Saliunca dicitur vulgariter in Gallico carr- 
Jcerepe, (? carchiofe, an artichoke,) a qwynne." Harl. MS. 2257. In the Ortus it is 
rendered " a wynne or grost." 

3 This word does not appear, by the East-Anglican Glossaries, to be still in use ; it 
occurs, however, in Tusser's lessons for waiting servants. 

" Such serviture, also, deserveth a check, 

That runneth out fisking with meat in his beck." 

" I fyske, iefretille. I praye you se howe she fysketh aboute." PALSG. " Trotiere, 
a raumpe, fisgig, fisking huswife, raunging damsell." COTG. Compare FYKIN a-bowte, 
and see Jamieson's remarks on that word. It occurs in R. Goer de Lion, 4749. 



FYSCH SELLARE. Piscarius, pis- 

caria, UG. in pasco. 
FYSCHELLE of fyschew, or festu. 1 


FYSCHYN'. Piscor, CATH. 
FYSCHYNGE. Piscacio, piscatus. 
FYSCH LEEP. 2 Nassa, c. F. 
FYSYCIAN', or leche. Medieut, 


FYSNOMYE. Phisonomia. 
FYSTE of an hande. Pugnus, 

CATH. (pugtthU) P.) 
FYYST, stynk. Lirida. 
FYiSTYN' v (fyen, w.) Cacco, c. F. 


FYYSTYNGE. Liridacio. 
FYT, or mete. Equus, congruus, 

UG. in grus. 
FYTON', or lesynge (fycon', K. 

fyttyn, s. fytyn, p.) 3 Mendacium, 

mendaciolum, CATH. 

FYVE. 4 Quinque. 
FYVE HUNDRYD. Quingenti. 
FYVERE (sekenesse, p.) Febris. 
FYVERE, agu. Querquera, CATH. 

et UG. in quero. 
FYTHIL, supra in FEDYLLE. 
FLAGGE of }>e erthe, vide in T. in 

TURFE. 5 Terricidium (cespes, 

CATH. et c. F. s. gleba, P.) 
FLAYNE, or flawyn'. Excoriatus. 
FLAKE (or hame, K.) Floctus, 

UG. in flo (squama^ P.) 
FLAKETTE, botelle. 6 Fiasco ,flasca. 
FLANKE, or leske. Ylium, KYLW. 

inguen, CATH. 
FLAPPE, or stroke. Ictus (fla- 

gellum, K.) 
FLAPPE, or buffett (flap bofet, p.) 

FLAPPE, instrument to smyte 

wythe flyys. Flabellum, Dice. 

muscarium, c. F. 

1 According to the Medulla the term FYSCHELLE is synonymous with FYSCH LEEP ; 
" Nassa, quoddam instrument um ex viminibus et cirpis, tanquam rhete, contextum, ad 
capiendos pisces, a pyche or a fysshelle." So also it is related in the Golden Legend, 
" Than they put hym in to a lytell fysshell or basket well pytched, and set it in y e see, 
and abandouned hym to dryue wyder it wolde." f. 99, b. " Fiscelle, petit panier de 

jonc, fiscella." ROQUEF. Fyschew signifies a reed, or supple rod, as osiers, &c. 

2 See hereafter LEEP for fysche kepynge. Ang.-Sax. leap, corMs. 

3 " Fytten, memonge." PALSG. In Wiltshire fitten signifies a pretence. 

4 FEVE, MS. 

5 In Norfolk, according to Kennett, Ray, and Forby, the upper turf pared off to 
serve as fuel, is termed flaks or flags. The repetition of this word below, FLAGGE, 
drye wythe J?e gresse, is apparently a corrupt reading. In the North such sods of turf 
are called also flags, or flaws, or flaughter. See Jamieson and Brock ett. " A flaghte, 
uU a turfe. A flaghte (or flyghte) of snawe,^occw*." CATH. ANG. Dan. flager, Teut. 
vlaeghen, deglubere ; Isl. flaga, exscindere glebam. 

6 This word, as also Ang.-Sax. flaxe, the French flac, or flache, &c. appear to be 
directly taken from the low Latin flacta, adopted probably from the Greek. In William 
and the Werwolf a certain clerk is mentioned who came to Rome " wij> tvo flaketes of 
ful fine wynes," written also "flagetes,'' p. 68. " Flacta, a flakette. Obba, genus 
calicis, a bottell, a flaket." ORTUS. "A costrelle, oneferum, fyc. ubi a flakett. A 
flaket, flacta, obba, uter, fyc. ubi a potte." CATH. ANG. "A flaget, flacon." PALSG. 
The term does not appear to be retained in Norfolk, as in the North. " A flacket, 
flasket, or flask ; bottle made in fashion of a barrel. Bor. Flaskin, a wooden bottle, or 
little barrel which labourers use for beer. Yorkshire." Kennett's Gloss. Coll. Lansd. 
MS. 1033. 



FLAPPYN'wythe a fta.ipipe.F'labello. 
FLASSHE, watyr. 1 Lacuna, CATH. 
FLATT. Bassus, vel planus. 
FLAGGE, drye wythe be gresse. 2 

Globa, UG. in globus. 
FLATERARE, supra, idem quod 


FLATERYD. Adulatus. 
FLATERYN'. Adulor. 
FLATERYNGE. Adulacio. 

FLATNESSE. Planicies. 
FLA WE, supra in FLAKE. 
FLAWYN', supra in FLAYN'. 
FLAWME, or lowe. Flamma. 
FLAWNE, mete. 3 Flamicia, Dice. 

flato, Dice. COMM. opacus, ar- 

tocasius (apacus, s.) 
FLAX. Linum. 
FLATHE, or flathe, fysche (flay, or 

flacch, fysch, s.) 4 (R)agadies. 

1 The term flash, signifying a shallow pool, does not appear to be now retained in 
Norfolk ; but it occurs in names of places, as Flash -pit, near Aylsham. In low Latin 
flachia, fiasco. , and^aco, in old French flache orflesque, have the like signification. A 
supply of water from the locks on the Thames, to assist the barges, is termed a flash, 
and in Sussex loose water-soaked ground is called flashy. Plot speaks of the " flashy 
over-watery taste'' of some white fruits. Hist. Oxf. 156. See PLASCHE, or flasche 
where reyne watyr stondythe, and PYT, or flasche. 

2 This word, placed here out of its proper alphabetical order, whereas FLAGGE of >e 
erthe has occurred already, has been retained as found in the MS., on account of the 
uncertainty whether it is an interpolation, or a vitiated reading. Possibly the correct 
reading may be flawe, a term synonymous with flagge, a sod of turf. Blount, in his 
Law. Diet. v. Turbary, cites a charter in which " turbaria bruaria a flaw-turf, or 
heath-turf," is mentioned. In the North the words flaw and flaughter are still com- 
monly used in this sense. See Jamieson and Brockett. 

3 " A flawne, opacum." CATH. ANG. " Flat on, a flawne. Artocira, a flawne, i. 
cibusfactus ex pasta et caseo. Laganum est latus panis et tennis oleo linitus, quasi 
oleofrixus, a pancake, a flawne." ORTUS. " Flaune mea.te,flanet,flan,flaon. I loue 
well a flawne, but and it be well sugred I loue it the better.'' PALSG. Caxton says in 
the Boke for Travellers, " Of mylke and of egges men make flawnes (flans), of mylke 
soden with the flour men make printed cakes (rastons)." Recipes for making flawnes 
will be found in the Forme of Cury ; " Flawnes for Lentyn," Harl. MS. 5401, f. 193, 
202 ; and " flathons," under the head of " Vyaundefurnez," Harl. MS. 279, f. 42, b. 
The following directions " for flaunes " are found in the poem entitled " the slyjtes 
of cure." 

" Take new chese, and grynde hyt fayre 

In morter wyth egges, wyth out dyswayre ; 

Put powder }>erto of suger I say, 

Coloure hyt wyth safrone ful wele J>ou may ; 

Put hyt in cofyns >at bene fayre, 

And bake hyt for the y the pray." Sloane MS. 1986, f. 87. 

In the North the word is still in use, as Bp. Kennett noticed in his Glossarial Collec- 
tions, Lansd. MS. 1033. " Flaun or flawn, a custard. Bor. As flat as a flawn, prov. 
Sax. flyna, flsena, artoloyanum." 

4 This must not be confounded with the general appellation of flat fish ; the ray or 
scate was formerly called FLATHE, or, according to Willughby and Ray, flaire, still 
retained in the name of the sting-ray, called in some places the fire-flaire. In N. 
Britain it is known as the fire-flaw, according to Jamieson. Harrison, in his description 
of England, uses the name flath, evidently as denoting the ray or scate. In the account 



FLEE. Pulex. 

FLEAR of beest. Excoriator. 

FLEARE, or rennare a-wey. Fu- 

gitivus, fugitiva. 
FLED, or mevyd. Amotus. 
FLEGGE, infra in S. idem quod 

FLECCHERE (fletcher, H. P.) Pe- 

tularius, flectarius. 
FLEYKE, or hyrdylle (fleke, s. hir- 

dell, p.) 1 Plecta, flecta, cratis, 

C. F. 

FLEYL. Flagellum* COMM. UG. 

v. in T. (tribulum, CATH. p.) 
FLEYL CAPPE. Cappa, Dice, me- 

ditentum, COMM. UG. v. in T. 

FLEYL STAFFE, or honde staffe 

(handyll, H. P.) Manutentum, 

FLEYLE swYNGYL. 2 Virga, Dice. 

CATH. tribulum, CATH. COMM. 
FLEYNGE a-way. Fuga. 
FLEYNGE of beestys. Excoriacio. 
FLEKERYN', as ionge byrdis. Vo- 

litO) nideo. 
FLEKERYN', or waveryn' yn vn- 

stabylle herte (flyker, p.) Nuto, 


FLEKERYNGEofbyrdys. Volitacio. 
FLEKERYNGE, or wauerynge yn 

an vnstable hert. Nutatus, va- 


of fish usually taken upon our coasts, he observes that " the flat are divided into the 
smooth, the scaled, and the tailed. Of the third (are) our chaits, maidens, kingsons, 
flath, and thornbacke ; " and the larger species, as he states, were dried, and formed a 
kind of export into other countries. B. iii. c. 8, Holinsh. i. 224. The correct reading 
of the word above is probably FLA)>E, or flaye, fysche. 

1 " Crates est instrnmentum ex virgis, a fleke." MED. " A fleke, cratis, craticula." 
CATH. ANG. This word is used by R. Brunne, as also the verb to fleke, or cover with 
hurdles, which occurs in his account of the construction of a temporary bridge. 

" Botes he toke and barges, l>e sides togidere knytte, 

)>ei fleked J>am ouerthuert, justely for to ligge." p. 241. 
" Botes and barges ilkon, with flekes mak J>am tighte." p. 321. 

Hardyng relates the singular escape of Sir James Douglas, who had been hemmed in 
by Edward III. in Stanhope Park, and by means of hurdles, which, to prevent pursuit, 
his men drew after them as they went, passed over a quaking and miry moss. 

" But James Douglas their flekes fell dyd make, 
Which ouer the mosse, echeone at others ende, 
He layde anon, with fagottes fell ouer the lake." Chron. c. 178. 

In a satirical poem, put forth in 1550 against the liberty of religious discussion, the 
services and preachers of the Reformed Church, entitled " An old Song of John No- 
body," printed in the Appendix to Strype's Mem. of Cranmer, it is said of those who 
with ignorant assurance set themselves up as expounders of the Gospel, 

" More meet it were for them to mylk kye at a fleyke." p. 138. 

Horman says, " Ley this meate in tray es and flekis, conchas sive aludos," (? alucos) 
where the term may signify a shallow wicker basket, in some parts termed a flasket. 
" Alucus, vas factum ad modum alvei, a troughe." ORTUS. In the North hurdles are 
still called flaiks ; see Jamieson. 

1 Swyngyl fleyle, MS. " A fiayle, flag ellum, tributes, tribulum. Versus. Tres tri- 
bulo partes, manutentum, cappa,flagellum. Manutentum, a hand stafFe, cappa, a cape, 
flagellum, a swewelle. A swevylle, tribulum." CATH. ANG. See hereaftej SWENGYL. 



FLEMMYNGE. Flandricus, Flan- 

drica (Flamingus, P.) 
FLEEN, or flee bestys. Excorio. 
FLEEN enmyes, or grevowsnesse. 

Fugio, CATH.qffugiO) confugio. 
FLEESE of wulle. Vellus. 
FLESCHE HOOKE. Creagra,fus- 

cina, CATH. tridens, CATH. 

FLESCHY, or made alle wythe 

flesche. Carneus. 
FLESCHY, or sum dele made wythe 

flesche. Carneatus. 

FLESCHLY. Carnaliter. 
FLESHLY, or fulle of flesshe. 

Carnosus, carnulentus, CATH. 
FLET, as mylke or ober lyke (ober 

licour, K. flett of mylke, H. p.) 1 

FLEET, be watyr of be see comythe 

and goythe (flete, there water 

cometh and goth, H. p.) 2 Fleta, 
fossa,) estuarium, c. F. 
FLETE of schyppys yn be see. 

Classic, c. F. 
FLETYN' a-bovin (fletyn, or hovyn, 

H. houen, p.) 3 Supernato. 

1 To fleet, or skim the cream, is a verb still commonly used in East Anglia, and the 
utensil which serves for the purpose is termed a fleeting-dish. " I flete mylke, 
take away the creame that lyeth above it whan it hath rested." PALSG. " Esburrer, 
to fleet the creame potte ; laid esburre, fleeted milke ; maigne, fleeted milke, or 
whaye." Hollyband's Treasurie. " Escreme, fleeted, as milke, uncreamed." COTG. 
Ang.-Sax. flet,^o* lactis. A celebrated Suffolk cheese, made of skimmed milk, is 
called flet-cheese. Tusser, in his lesson for the dairy maid Cisley, on bad qualities of 
cheese, says, 

" Gehazi his sickness was whitish and dry, 
Such cheeses, good Cisley, ye floted too nigh." 

2 The term fleet, signifying a channel, an arm of the sea, or water-course, occurs not 
infrequently in several parts of England, as Northfleet and Southfleet on the Thames, 
the Fleet-ditch, London, Holt-Fleet on the Severn, near Worcester, Fladbury, an- 
ciently Fleotbury, and Twining Fleet, on the Avon. On the coasts of Norfolk and 
Suffolk the name is common, and properly, according to Forby, though not invariably, 
implies a channel filled by the tide, and left at low water very shallow and narrow. At 
Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, there are several channels so called, as 
White Friars' Fleet, and Purfleet. The grant of the possessions of the Gild of the 
Holy Trinity, Lynn, by Edward VI. A.D. 1548, alludes to rents laid out in " repairing 
of banks, walls, fletes, and water- courses in Lenn." Blomf. IV. 598. "Flete where 
water cometh, breche." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. fleot, sinus. In the North, as Bishop 
Kennett notices in his Glossarial Collections, fleet signifies water, as in the ancient song 
over a corpse. 

" This can night, this can night, 

Every night and awle, 
Fire and fleet, and candle light, 
And Christ receive thy sawl." Lansd. MS. 1033. 

3 " To flete above ye water ; his cappe fleteth aboue the water yonder a farre hence." 
PALSG. " Naviger, to saile, to fleete." Hollyband's Treasurie. Harrison, in his de- 
scription of England, speaking of Lyme Regis, Dorset, says, " the Lime water, which 
the townsmen call the Buddie, commeth . . . from the nils, fleting upon rockie soil, and 
so falleth into the sea." Holinsh. Chron. i. 58. Ang.-Sax. fleotan, fluctuare. See 
HOVYN, which has a like signification. 



FLETYN', or skomyn' ale, or 

pottys, or ober lycoure that ho- 

FLETE mylke only. Dequacco, 

FLETYNGE of lycowre. Spumacio, 

despumacio, CATH. 
FLEW, or scholde, as vessell, or 

ober lyke (scold, s. flwe, or 

sholde of vessels, p.) 1 Bassus. 
FL E w, complexyon' (flewme of com- 

pleccyon, K. flwe, p.) Flegma, 

CATH. et c. F. in ventriculus. 
FLEWEMATYKE. Flegmaticus, UG. 
FLEWME, idem quod FLEW, supra, 

et sperma. 
FLY A RE. Volator. 
FLYE. Musca. 
FLY FLAPPE, supra, idem quod 

FLAPPE. Muscarium, CATH. 

c. F. et UG. 
FLYGGE, as bryddys. 2 Maturus, 


FLYGNESSE. Maturitas. 
FLYYN', as birdys. Volo. 
FLYYN' A-WEY. Avolo, evolo. 

YNGE, K.) 
FLYKKE of bacon'. Perna, pe- 

taso, baco. 

FLYNT, stone. Silex. 
FLYGHTE, fleynge a-way. Fuga, 

effugium, c. F. 
FLYGHTE of byrdys. Avolatus, 


(FLYTERE, supra in CUKSTOKE.) 
FLYTIN, or chydin. 3 Contendo, 

FLYTTIN, or remevyri (away, p.) 

Amoveo, transfero. 
FLYX, or flux, sekenesse. Fluxus, 


FLODE. Flumen, Jluvius, dilu- 
vium, fluctus. 
FLODEGATE of a mylle. Sino- 

glocitorium, Dice. 
FLOKE of bestys. Grex. 
FLOKE, or heerde of bestys, what 

so they be. Polia, CATH. 
FLOKKYN', or gadyr to-gedyr. 

Aggrego, congrego. 
FLOKKYS of wulle or oj>er lyke. 

Floccus, CATH. (fultrum, p.) 
FLO RE (or grownde, infra.) Area. 
FLORSCHARE (florissher, p.) Flo- 

FLORSCHYN' (florisshen, p,) Flo- 

reo, CATH.floresco. 



1 According to Forby, flue, as well as fleet, has in Norfolk the signification of 
shallow, as a dish, or a pond. In the North, a flaw peat or flow signifies a watery 
moss ; Isl. flaa, palus. See SCHOLD, or schalowe. 

2 Margaret Paston in a letter to her husband in 1460, describing the vain hopes ex- 
cited amongst the partizans of Henry VI. says, " Now he and alle his olde felaweship 
put owt their fynnes, and arn ryght flygge and mery, hoping alle thyng is and schalbe as 
they wole haue it." Paston Letters, iv. 412. " Flyggenesse of byrdes, plumevsettS' 
PALSG. In Norfolk birds ready to fly are still said to be fligged, and in some parts of 
England are called fliggurs. Arig.-Sax. fliogan, volare, ftyge,fuga. 

3 " To flytte, altercari, certare, litigare, abjurgare, catazizare." CATH. ANG. " Li- 
tiffo, Anglice to stryff or flyte." ORTUS. Ang.-Sax. flitan, certare. 

" In peese thou ete, and ever eschewe 
To flyte at borde, that may the rewe." 

Boke of Curtasye, Sloane MS. 1986. 



FLOTYSE, or flotyce of a pott or 

other lyke. Spuma, CATH. c. F. 
FLOT GRESE. 1 Ulva, c. F. 
FLOWYN', as the see. Fluo, CATH. 

(venilio, CATH. s.) 
FLOWYNGE of be watur (see, p.) 

Fluxus, venilia, CATH. KYLW. 
FLOWRE of tre, or herbe. Flos. 
FLOWRE of mele. Farina, simila, 

UG. in similis, pollen, CATH. c. F. 
FLO WRYN', idem quod FLORSCHYN, 

supra, etfloro, CATH. 
FLOWTE, pype. Cambucus, KYLW. 

ydraula, calamaula. Versus. 

Pastor sub cauld bene cantat 

cum. calamaula. The scheperd 

vndyr be folde syngythe well 

wythe hys gwgawe be pype. 

(Flatorium, K. p.) 
FLowTYN',or pypyn'. Calamiso, 

FLWE, nette (flw, K. flewe, P. 

flowe, w.) 2 Tragum, C.F.CATH. 
FoDE.Alimentum, alimonia, victus. 

FODYNGE, or norschynge (fodin- 

ynge, P.) Fomentum. 
FODDUR, bestys mete, or forage 

(foodyr, p.) Farrago, CATH. 

c. F. et UG. infrugo, pabulum. 
FOOYNE, furrure. Loero, NECC. 

et Dice, bacre, NECC. et Dice. 3 
FOOLE. Stultus, fatuus, babur- 

ruS) babiger, c. F. 
FOO(L)DE of shepe. Ovile, caula. 
FOLDE clothys, or other lyke. 

Plico, CATH. 
FOLDYN' a-bowtin (abowtyn, K. 

abowte, P.) Circumplecto. 
FOLDYN' in armys. Amplector. 
FOOLDYN', or put beestys in a 

folde. Caulo, incaulo, inovilo. 
FOLDYN' VP. Complico. 
FOLDYNGE of clobys, and ober 

lyke. Plicacio, plicatura. 
FOLDYNGE (of shepe, P.) or put- 

tynge in felde (sic.) Incaulacio. 
FOLE, yonge horse. Pullus. 
FOLETT (idem quod FOLTE, infra, 

1 Gerard describes the Gramenfluviatile, flote-grasse, or floter-grasse, which grows 
in waters ; and Skinner supposes the name to be derived, " q. d. flood grass." It 
appears to have been also called wreke, or reke. See WREK of a dyke, or a fenne, or 
stondyng watyr, ulva. 

2 The Catholicon explains tragum to be "genus retis piscatorii, quod aliter verri- 
culum a verrendo dicitur ; " according to the Ortus, " tragum, a draught nette." In 
1391 Robert de Ryllyngton, of Scarborough, bequeathed to his servant " j flew, cum 
warrap et flot," directing his two boats to be sold, and the price bestowed for the wel- 
fare of his soul. Testam. Ebor. i. 157. " Flewe, a nette, retz a pecher." PALSG. See 
TKAMAYLE, grete nette for fyschynge. Tragum. 

3 The FOOYNE appears to have been the same as the polecat or fitchet, or according 
to Ray the martin was sometimes so called. "Fowyng, beest, foyne. Foyns, a furre, 
foynnes." PALSG. " Fouinne,foyenne, a foyne or polecat." COTG. Loero is the name 

of a small animal, called in old French lairon or lerot, the fur of which was highly 
esteemed. John de Garlandia says in his Dictionary, " Pelliparii cariits vendunt 
urlas de sabellino et laierone" rendered in the gloss " laierone, Gallice lairons." In 
the Inventory of the wardrobe and jewels of Henry V. taken in 1423, at his decease, 
are mentioned " gounes de noier damask furrez de sides de foynes et marterons," and 
the value of this kind of fur is ascertained by the following entry : " iij panes de foynes, 
chascun conV e. bestes, pris lepec 1 xd. xijli. xs.;" the marteron being more costly, 
"prig le lestexijd?' Rot. Parl. iv. 236. 



et FOPPE.) Fatuellus, stolidus, 
follus, UG. in foveo (bardus, p.) 

FOOLE HARDY,or tobebolde (foole 
herdy, or to bolde, s.) Teme- 
rarius, CATH. et UG. in audax. 



FOLY. Fatuitas, stoliditas, stul- 


FOLKE. Gens, plebs, populus. 
FOLTE, idem quod FOLET, supra 

(et FOPPE, infra.) 1 
FOLTYN', or doon as a foole (folyn, 

K. fooltyn, H.) Stultiso, CATH. 

FOLTRYE. Fatuitas, stoliditas, 

follicia, UG. in foveo, insipien- 

cia, baburra, c. F. 
FOLWARE, or he that folwythe 

(folower in steppys of anothir, 

K.) Sequaoc, secutor. 
FOLWARE, or serwante folowynge 

hys mastyr, or souereyne. Pe- 

dissequus, vel pedissequa, as- 

secla, c. F. 
FOLWARE, yn' manerys, or condy- 

cyons. Imitator, CATH. 
FOLWYN'. Sequor. 
FOLWYN', in felaschyppe. Co- 

FOLWYN', in maners and condy- 

cions. Imitor, sector. 
FOLWYN', or suyn' yn' purpose. 


FOLWYNGE of steppys. Sequela. 
FOLWYNGE of manerys, or con- 

dycyons. Imitacio. 
FOOME of lycoure. Spuma, CATH. 
FOM AN, or enmy (foo, p.) Inimicus, 

inimica, etnulus, hostis. 
FOMEREL of an halle. 2 Fuma- 


FOMYN'. Spumo. 
FONDYN', or a-sayyn'. 3 Attempto. 

1 " A folte, bias, baburrus, hiatus, bardus, nugator, garro, ineptus, morio." CATH. 
ANG. Roquefort gives "folete,foleton> Sfc. extravagant, fon, sot. ttourdi; volaticus." 
TOTTE occurs hereafter as synonymous with FOLTE. See also AMSOTTE, and SOTTE. 

a In the Medulla fumariwn is rendered " a chymene or fymrel." The term is de- 
rived from the Latin, " Fumerale, Anylice a funierell. Fumeralis, idem est." ORTUS. 
" A chymney, caminus, epicasterium, fumerium, fumerale." CATH. ANG. The term 
chimney seems, however, not to have been originally synonymous with fomerel, but to 
have signified an open fire-place, or chafer, such as the " chymney e with charecole " in the 
pavilion prepared for the conflict of Syr Galleroune with Gawayne. See the Awntyrs 
of Artbure. Thus also in the will of Cecilia de Homeldon, 1407, is the bequest, " lego 
unum magnum caminum deferro Abbathiae de Durham. 1 '' Wills and Invent. Surtees 
Soc. i. 45. In Gawayn and the Grene Kny3t, however, composed about the same 
period, "chalk whyt cbymnees " are described as appearing upon the roof of the 
castle. The FOMEREL was a kind of lantern, or turret open at the sides, which rose 
out of the roof of the hall, and permitted the escape of the smoke ; it had sometimes 
the appellation of the lover, a word which occurs hereafter ; thus Withal, in his Dic- 
tionary, mentions the " lovir or fomerill, where the smoake passeth out." Among the 
disbursements of Thomas Lucas, Solicitor-General to Henry VII., for the erection of 
Little Saxham Hall, in 1507, occurs a payment " to the plommer for casting and 
working my fummerel of lede ; " and it appears to have been glazed like a lantern, for 
there is a payment to the glazier " for 50 fete glas in my fummerelle." Rokewode's Hist, 
of Suff. pp. 149, 150. In the Book of Wolsey's Expenses at Christ Church, Oxford, 
is an entry relating to the " femerell of the new kitchen."- Gutch, Coll. Cur. i. 204. 

3 The Medulla gives " Conor, to streyne or fonde," rendered in the Ortus, "to 



FONDYNGE, or a-saynge. Attemp- 

FONEL, or tonowre.' Fusorium, 

infusorium., c. F. 

FOPPE, supra, idem quod FOLET. 
FORBEDYN' (orforfendyn'.) Pro- 

hibeo, inhibeo, veto, interdico. 
FORBEDYNGE (or forbode, or fore- 

fendynge, infra.) Prohibicio, 


FoR-BYaplace, orober byngys. Per. 


in luna, ut patet ejus versus. 

FORBODE, idem quod FORBYD- 

DYNGE, supra. 
FORCELET, stronge place (forslet, 

H. P.) Fortalicium, munici- 

FOORCERE (forcer, K. p.) 2 Cis- 

tella, teca, clitella, scrinium, 

Dice, for cerium, COMM. 
FOORCYD, as mennys beerdys (or 

pollyd, infra.) Capitonsus. 
FOORCYD, as wulle. Tonsus. 
FOORCYN', or clyppyn'. 3 Ton- 

FOORCYNGE. Tonsura. 

constrayne or fande." "To fande, conari, niti, et cetera ubi to be a-bowte warde." 
CATH. ANG. Minot relates that David Bruce 

" Said he sulde fonde 

To ride thurgh all Ingland." Poems, viii. p. 39. 

The word is used by Rob. Brunne and Rob. of Gloucester in the same sense. Ang.-Sax. 
fandian, tentare. 

1 Conowre, MS. See hereafter TONOWRE of fonel. In Norfolk, according to Forby, 
the term in ordinary use is tunnel, Ang.-Sax. tsenel, canistrum. The word funnel ap- 
pears to be derived fromfunduhis, " quasi fundle," as Junius observes. "Infusorium 
eat quoddam vasculum per quod liquor infunditur in aliud vas ; vel est vas in quo est 
oleum quod ponitur in lucernis, a fonell dyshe (aL tonnell dysshe.)'* ORTUS. 

2 Junius thinks that this term was borrowed from the Italian forciere, which is ren- 
dered by W. Thomas, in his Italian Grammar, 1548, "a forsette, or a little coafer ;" 
and by Florio, " a forcet, a coffin, a casket, a cabinet, &c." It may be remarked that 
the most elegant caskets of the Middle Ages, usually of bone or ivory, curiously carved 
and painted, are, with few exceptions, of Italian workmanship ; but as Flanders also 
furnished these and numerous other ornamental appliances, the origin of the name 
forcere may perhaps be sought in the Belg. fortsier, a banded coffer. The importation 
of " ascune manere ware depeinte, forcers, caskettes, &c." was forbidden by stat. 3 
Edw. IV. c. 4, A.D. 1463. In William and the Werwolf it is related that the Queen 
sought by means of a ring to charm the monster. 

" SeJ>e fei]?li of a forcer a fair bok sche rau^t, 

And radde J?er on redli ri3t a long while." 
Chaucer says in " La belle Dame sans Mercie," 

" Fortune by strength the forcer hath vnshete, 

Wherein was sperde all my worldly richesse." v. 65. 

Caxton, in the Book for Travellers, says, " The joyner made a forcer for my loue, her 
cheste, her scyrne, unforcier, sa luysel, son escrin. Set your jewellis in your forcier, 
that they be not stolen." Palsgrave gives "fo(r)sar, or casket, escrain; fo(r)cer, a little 
cofer, cofret," andco#re# is rendered by Cotgrave " a casket, cabinet, forset, (sic) &c." 

3 This word is taken, from the French forces, shears for clipping wool or cloth. 



FORSYGHTE (forsy3t, K. forsythj, 
H.) Previsio, previsus. 

FORCLYD (or fvrclyd, infra; for- 
kelyd, P.) Furcatus. 

FORDON', or dystroyn'. 1 Destruo. 

or a-\antage (fordryn, or forthyn, 
K.) Promoveo, proveho. 

FORDERYN', in spedynge (forthren, 
p.) Expedio, accelero. 

FORE, or forowe of a londe. Sul- 
cuS CATH. lira. 

FORELLE, to kepe yn a boke. 2 

Forulus, CATH. BRIT, in forus. 
FORESTE. Foresta, indago, c. F. 
FORETTE, or ferette, lytyll beste. 

Furo, c. F.furetus, vel furun- 

culusj c. F. 
FOR EVYR. Semper, eternaliter, 

FORFENDYN', idem quod FOR* 

BEDYN', supra? 
FORFENDYNGE, idem quod FOR- 


Fourceler, to clip or shear. See ROQUEF. The stat. 8 Henry VI. c. 20, forbids the 
fraudulent practice termed forcing wool, reciting the loss in the customs arising from 
those who " clakJcent et forcent les bones lainsdu roialme, pur eux carier dehors dicelle 
en estraunges paiis ; ordinez est que nulle estraunger ne face forcer clakker ne harder 
nulle maner des leins, pur carier hors du roialme," upon pain of forfeiture, with a 
penalty of double the value, and imprisonment. Stat. of Realm, ii. 256. 

1 This verb, Ang.-Sax. for-don, perdere, occurs in the Vision of P. Ploughman. 

" Alias ! that drynke shal for-do 

That God deere boughte." line 5284. 

In the Golden Legend it is said in the Life of Becket, that Henry II. " wolde fordoo 
suche lawes as his oldres hadde vsed to-fore hym." Palsgrave says, " What so euer 
he do on the one day, on the morowe I wyll fordo it, defaire." 

2 Jocelyn de Brakelonda relates in his Chronicle, p. 84, that Abbot Samson ex- 
amined the relics of St. Edmund in 1 198, and when the shrine was closed up, "positus 
est super loculum forulus quidam serious, in quo depositafuit scedula Anglice scripta, 
continens quasdam salutaciones Ailwini Monachi," with a memorial of the opening of 
the shrine, which was subscribed by all who had been present. Foruli, according to 
Papias, are " thecce vel cistce librorum, tabularum, vel aliarum rerum, ut spatae ; dictce, 
quod deforis teg <ant ;" in French, fourreau, or four el, lias the like meaning. Horman 
says, "I hadde leuer haue my boke sowed in a forel (consuatur in cuculli invo- 
lucro) than bounde in bourdis, and couerede, and elapsed, and garnysshed with 
bolyens." Jennings, in his Observations on the Dialects of the West, states that the 
cover of a book is still termed a forrel. Palsgrave gives " coueryng for a book, chemi- 
sette,' 1 a term which appears to be synonymous with forelle, and which has been ex- 
plained by Charpentier, v. Camisia libri. In an Inventory taken at Notre Dame, 
Paris, in 1492, is mentioned " ung petit messel, couvert de cuir rouge, garni d'une 
chemisette de chevrotin rouge." Two of the mourners, whose figures are seen around 
the tomb of Richard Beauchamp, at Warwick, hold each a book, wrapped in the forelle, 
or chemisette ; see Stothard's Monumental Effigies. Its fashion is more clearly ex- 
hibited in a picture at Munich, by Schorel, which has furnished the subject of a plate 
in Shaw's Dresses and Decorations. 

3 This verb is derived from the Ang.-Sax. for, which often gives in composition the 
sense of privation or deterioration, and fandian, tentare. " God forfende it ! " PALSG. 
To forhinder, signifying to prevent, is retained in the East-Anglian dialect, according 
to Forby. Many other words similarly compounded have become wholly obsolete, se- 



FORFETYNV Forefacio, delin- 

FORFETYNGE, or forfeture. Fore- 

Fo R F ET o w R E. Forefactor. 
FOORGE of smytbys. Fabrateria, 

CATH.fabrica, CATH. COMM. 
FORGYJN'. Fabrefacio. 
FORHED. Frons, sinciput. 
(FORHELYN, K. H. p. for-hyllyn' 

cowncel, s. 2 Cela.) 
FOR-HUNGRYD, and an-liungryd. 3 


FORKE. Furca, pala. 
FOR-LATYN', or leve desolate. 

FORLATYN'. Desolaius. 

FORLATE PLACE. AbsoletllS, C. F. 

FORME. Forma. 
FooRME,longe stole. /Spowf/rt, Dice. 
FOORME of an hare, or o]>er lyke. 

Lustrum, KYLW. 
FOORMYD. Formatus. 
FOORMYN', or makyn'. Formo. 

FOORMYNGE, or makynge. For- 

FOORMYNGE, or techynge, or in- 

formynge (or infourmynge of 

techinge, p.) Instruccio, in- 

FoRMowRE,or grubby nge yryn' of 

gravowrys. 4 Scrofina, CATH. 

runcina, c. F. 
FORNE parte of a thynge (fore 

part, p.) Anterior pars. 
FORNE parte of a scbyppe, or for- 

scbyppe. Prora. 
FOR-SAKYN'. Desero, relinquo, 

derelinqiw, renuo. 
FoRSAKYN',andden\^yn'. Abnego. 
FORSAKYN', and refusyn'. Ab- 

renunciO) refuto, recuso. 
FoRSAKYN'jOrref'usyd. JRefutatus. 
FOR-SAKYN', or lefce. JDerelictus, 

relictus, dimissus. 
FORSAKYNGE, or refusynge. Re- 

futacio, c. F. derelictio,desercio, 


veral of which are given by Palsgrave, as the following ; "To forbreake, Lydgate ; to 
forderke, make devke ; to fordewe, sprinkle with dewe ; to fordreynt, Lydgate, drowne ; 
to fordull, make one dull of wyfc ; to forlye, as a nouryce dothe her chylde whan she 
kylleth it in the nyght ; to forvvaye, go out of the wave, Lydgate ; to forwery, &c.'' 

1 Chaucer, Gower, and the early writers generally, use the verb to forfeit in its pri- 
mary sense of committing a transgression ; in Fi-ench forfaii-e has the same significa- 
tion. " Forisfacio, id est offendere vel nocere, to forfeyte." ORTUS. "What have I 
forfayted against you ? '' PALSG. 

2 Ang.-Sax. forhelan, See HY.LLYN". 

3 Hardyng relates the honours that were falsely paid to the remains of Richard II. 

" Fro Poumfret brought with great solempnyte, 

(Men sayde forhungered he was) and lapped in lede, 

At Poules his masse was done and diryge." Chron. c. 200. 

4 The Catholicon gives the following explanation : " A scrobs dicitur scrofina, quod- 
dam instrumentum carpentorii, quia herendo scrobemfaciat^" 1 " Runcina est quoddam 
artificiumfabri lignarii gracile et recurvum, quo cavantur tdbule ut una altera alteri 
connectatur ; Anylice, a gryppynge yron." ORTUS. Palsgrave gives the term " for- 
mowr, or grublyng yi'on," which appears to signify a gouge. See GROWPYN' wythe an 
yryn, as gravowrys, runco. 



FORSOTHE. Vere,utique, quinimo, 

profecto, siquidem, Amen. 
P\>R-SPEKYN', or charmyn'. 1 Fas- 

cino, CATH. 
FORSTERE, or fostere. Foresta- 

rius, indagarius, indago, vel 

indagator (viridarius, P.) 
FORSWERERE, or he bat ys oft 

forsworon'. Labro, c. F. 
FORSWERYN'. Perjuro. 
FORSWERYNGE. Perfurium, per- 

juracio, objuracio. 
FORSWORNE. Perjurus. 
FORTHYNKYNGE of dede done. 

Penitudo, CATH. 
FORTH YNKYN'. 2 Penitet, luo, UG. 

Transitus, pro- 




FORTHYRST. Sitibundus, siciens. 
FORTOPPPE. Aqualiuwi) CATH. 

calvaria, CATH. et c. F. 
FORTUNE, or happe. Fortuna, 

eventus, casus. 
FORWARDS, or cumnawnt. 3 Con- 

vencio, pactum. 
FORWARDE, or more vttyr. Ultra, 

FORWHY (forqwhy, H.) Quin 

(quiet, quoniam, P.) 
FOR THE NONYS (nones, w.) 4 

Idcirco, ex proposito. 

1 " Facina, a forspekere, or a tylstere (al. tylyere). Fascino, to forspeke or ouersee." 
MED. GRAMM. " To forspeke, foscinare, incantare: a forspekynge, fascinacio, 

facinus." CATH. ANG. Palsgrave says, " I forspeake a thyng by enchauntementes. 
Some witche hath forspoken hym, quelque vaudoyse la enchante." W. Turner, in his 
Herbal, 1562, says that "there are sum date trees in whose fruite is a stone bowyng 
after y e fasshon of an half moon, and thys sum polyshe with a toothe, with a certayn 
religion agaynst forspekyng and bewitchyng." The Ang.-Sax. for-spsec has merely 
the signification of a preface, fore-speca, prolocutor ; by Shakespeare and other writers 
to forespeak is used with the sense of forbidding. The use of the word in the sense of 
fascinating or charming arose probably from a superstitious belief, which is not extinct 
at the present time in North Britain, that certain persons had the power of injuring or 
bewitching others by immoderate praise. See Jamieson's observations upon this word. 

2 Richard Earl of Arundel, having made in Parliament certain complaints against 
John of Gaunt, which were answered by Richard II., the Earl was obliged to make 
before the House an apology which was enrolled, wherein he thus expresses himself: 
" Hit forth ynketh me, and byseche yowe of your gode Lordship to remyt me your 
mau-talent." Rot. Parl. in. 314, A.D. 1393. "To rewe, penitere, Sfc. ubi to for- 
thynke. A forthynkynge, compunccio, contricio, penitencia." CATH. ANG. 

3 In the romance of Richard Goer de Lion it is related that Saladin made a treaty 
with him that for three years pilgrims should have free access to the holy city. 

" The next day he made forewarde 

Of trewes to the Kyng Richard." line 7115. 

In Sir Amadace the White Knight makes an agreement in these terms ; 
" Butte a forwart make I with the, or that thou goe, 
That euyn to part be-twene vs toe, 

The godus thou hase wonun and spedde." Stanza 42. 

See also the Avowynge of King Arther, stanza 35; Cant. Tales, Prologue, 831,854. 
Ang.-Sax. fore-weard, pactum. 

4 " For y e naynste, abintento." CATH. ANG. Various are the conjectures that have 
been made with "regard to the derivation of this phrase. See Tyrwhitt's note on Cant. 



FoR3ETARE (forgeter, P.) Im- 
memor, oblitor. 

FOR- ^ETYLLE, or fretefulle (forget- 
full, P.) 1 Obliviosus (letenus, P.) 

FoR3ETYN*. Obliviscor, necligo. 

FoRYETYN'lessonys, or other loore 
and techyngys. Dedisco, CATH. 
in disco. 

FOR^ETYN' or for~3etyfi' (sic.) 2 


FOR-YEVYN' trespace, or dette 
(forgeuen, p.) Indulgeo, re- 
mitto, condono. 

FOR-YEVENESSE (forgyuenesse, P.) 
Venia, remissio. 

FORYEVYNGE, idem quod FOR- 
YEVENESSE, supra. 

FOORDE, passage ouer a water 
(forthe or water passinge, p.) 
Vadum, CATH. 

FORTHERYNGE, or promocyon 
(forthe, or fortheringe, p.) Pro- 


FOSTERE, supra, idem quod FOR- 


FOOT. Pes. 

FOOT BE FOOT. Pedetetim. 

FOOTE, mesure. Pedalis, CATH. 

FOTYNGE. Peditacio. 

FOTYNGE, or fundament. Fun- 

. damentum. 

FOT MANN, or he bat goythe on 

foote. Pedester, pedes, c. F. 
FOOT STAPPE. Vestigium. 
FOTE STEPPE, of a mann only. 

Peda, CATH. et KYLW. 
FOWAYLE (or fowaly, p.) 3 Fo- 

FOWAR, or clensare. 4 Mundator, 

emundator, purgator, munda- 

trix, purificatrix. 
FOWARE, or clensare of donge, as 

gongys, and oj>er lyke. Fi- 

marius, oblitor, c. F. 
FOWER, or fewelere, or fyyr maker 

(fovwer, H.) 5 Focarius, velfo- 

caria, focularius. 

Tales, v. 381 ; Jamieson's Diet. v. Nanes ; and Sir Frederick Madden' s glossaries 
appended to William and the Werwolf, and Syr Gawayn. In the last he retracts the 
opinion previously expressed, and is disposed to conclude that the original form of the 
phrase was the Saxon " for than anes." It implies occasion, purpose, or use ; thus 
Palsgrave gives " for the nonest, de mesmes ; for the nones, apropos, ct, escient. C'est 
un gallant de mesmes, et de fait apence. This dagger is sharpenned for the nones, 
affille tout ct, esciant." Herman says, " he fayned or made hymselfe sicke for thenonis, 
deditd operd. He delayeth the matter for the nonys, de industrid. It is a false mater 
deuysedfor the nonys, deditd operd conficta." Occasionally, as in the following in- 
stance, it is used ironically : " You are a cooke for the nones, wyll you sethe these 
roches, or you haue scaled them ? vous estes ung cuisinier de mesmes," &c. PALSG. 
" He is a popte fole, or a starke fole, forthe nonys, homo fatuit ate monstrabilis." HORM. 

1 The word fretefulle seems here evidently a corrupt reading, which is corrected by 
Pynson. For letenus should probably be read letheus, " i.joWioiosus." _ORTUS. 

2 The correct reading, probably, is here either FORYETYN, or fo^etyn ; or possibly 
forgetyn. See the note on the word FAYNE. 

3 See EYLDYNGE, or fowayle. In the Romance of Richard Coer de Lion this word 
seems to have the more general sense of provisions, or needful supplies. When Richard 
arrived at Cologne the heads of the city issued the command, 

" No man selle hem no fowayle." line 1471. 

4 See FEYAR, FYIN, and GOONGE FYRMAR. The appellation Fowar occurs as a 
surname in the Issue Roll of the Exch. 44 Edw. III. " Will. Fowar, falconer." 

5 " Focarius, a fuelere, or makere of fyre." MEDULLA. See Nares, v. fueler. 




gatus, purificatus, emundatus. 
FOWYN', or make clene. 1 Mundo, 

emundo, purgo, purifico. 
FOWYNGE, or clensynge. Emun- 

dacio, purgacio, purificacio. 
FOWYR. Quatuor. 
FOWLE, bryd. Avis, volucer. 
FOWLE, of fylthe. Turpis, vilis, 

FOWL, on-thende, or owte caste 

(vnthende, P.) Abjectus. 
FOWLARE. Auceps, avicularius. 
FOWLYN', or take byrdys. Au- 

cupor, COMM. 
FOWLYN', or defowlyn' (defylen, 

p.) Turpo, deturpo, maculo, 

coinquino,fedo, polluo. 
FOWLYNGE, of fylthe. Detur- 

pacio, pollucio, sordidacio. 
FOWLYNGE, or takynge of byrdys. 

Aucupium, UG. in aueo. 
FOOWNE, beeste (fown, K. H.) 

Hinnulus, vel innulus, CATH. 
FOWNDER of a place. Fundator. 
FOWNDOWRS (fowndowresse, H. 

foundresse, p.) Fundatrix. 
FOWNDRYD, as horse. 

FOWNDERYN' (fowundryn, p.) 2 


FOWRE, supra (in FOWYR.) 

gulus, quadrangular is. 
FOWRE FOLDE. Quadruplus. 
FOWRE FETYD (fotyd, K. foted, 

i.) Quadripes. 

FOWRE HUNDRYD. Quadringinti. 
FOWRE SQUARE (fowre 3cware, or 

fowre sware, H.) Quadrus. 

lum, c. F. (peretalum, p.) 
FOWRTHE, or the fowrte. Quartus. 
FOWRETENE. Quatuordecim. 
(FouRTY, P. Quadraginta.) 
FOWRTY TYMES. Quadragesies. 
FOWRTNYGHT. Quindena. 
Fox, beeste. Vulpes, CATH. 
FOXYSHE (foxich, K.) Vulpinus. 
(FRACCHYN', supra in cherkyn', 

as newe cartys ; frashin, s.) 3 
FRAYLE of frute (frayil, K.) Pa- 

lata, CATH. carica, CATH. et 

UG. in copos. 4 
FRAYYN', idem quod FERYN', 

supra (fraiyn, or afrayn, K. 

afrayin, P.) 

1 " I fowe a gonge, ie cure un retraict, or ortrait. Thou shalte eate no buttered 
fysshe with me, tyll thou wasshe thy handes, for thou hast fowedagonge late." PALSG. 
Forby gives the verb to fie, fey or fay, as still used in Norfolk in this sense. See FYIN. 

2 Palsgrave gives the verb " to fownder as a horse, trtbucher." Dr. Turner, in his 
Herbal, 1562, makes use of the term in allusion to ailments of the human body, where 
he says that Pyrethrum " is excellently good for any parte of the body y* is fundied or 
foundered." In his treatise of baths and mineral waters, he says that the baths of 
Baden, in High Germany, " heate muche membres that are foundre or fretished wyth 
cold, and bringe them to theyr naturall heate agayne ;" and that the Pepper bath has 
virtues to restore " limbs fretished, foundered and made numme wyth colde." 

3 This word appears to be now only retained in the North Country expression to 
fratch, signifying to scold or quarrel. It seems to be derived from A.S. freo'$an, < /Hcare. 
Compare Jamieson, v. Frate. 

* The Catholicon gives the following explanation : " A palus dicitur palata, quiafit 
de palis, et palate sunt masse que de recentibus ficubus compingi solent, quas inter palas 


FRAKINE (fraken, K. frakne, H. 

freken, p.) 1 Lentigo, c. F. len- 

ticula, c. F. 
FRAKNY, or fraculde (frekeny, p.) 


FRAKNYD, idem quod FRAKNY. 
FRAME of a worke. Fabrica. 
FRAMYD. Dolatus. 


FRAMYN' tymbyr for howsys (or 

hewyn, p.) 2 Dolo. 
FRAMYNGE of tymbyr. Dolatura. 
FRAMYNGE, or afframynge, or 

wynnynge. 3 Lucrum, emolu- 


ad solem siccant ,-" and carica properly signifies dates preserved in a similar manner. In 
the Romance of Coer de Lion are mentioned, among provision for the army, 

" Fyggys, raysyns in frayel." line 1549. 

"A frayle of fygys, palatal CATH. ANG. "Frayle for fygges, cabas, cabache." 
PALSG. Minsheu would derive the term "a fray Hi late," and Skinner from the Italian 
fragli ; but it more closely resembles the old French " Fraiaus, frayel; cabas, panier 
de jonc." ROQUEF. In Suffolk, according to Moore, a flexible mat-basket is called a 
frail. See Bp. Kennett's and Nares' Glossaries. 

1 Chaucer makes use of this word in his description of the King of Inde. 

" A fewe fraknes in his face y-sprent, 

Betwixen yelwe and blake somdel y-meint." Knight's Tale. Garlandia it is said, " lenticula est quedam 
macula in facie hominis, Anglice a spotte or frecon : lenticulosus, fraconed." " Frecken, 
or freccles in one's face, lentile, brand de Judas. 11 PALSG. Forby observes that the 
word freckens is still used in Norfolk. A. S. frsecn, turpiludo. 

2 Previously to the XVIth cent, the ordinary mode of constructing houses in the 
eastern counties, as likewise in other parts of England, was by forming a frame of wood, 
or skeleton structure, the intervals or panels being afterwards filled up with brickwork, 
lath and plaster, or indurated earth, by the process called in Norfolk dawbing. Such 
constructions are usually termed timbered houses, or, in Shropshire, Cheshire, and 
neighbouring counties, where they are found highly ornamented, black and white 
houses. Harrison, who wrote his description of England about A.D. 1579, being re- 
sident in Essex, observes that " the ancient manours and houses of our gentlemen are 
yet and for the most part of strong timber, in framing whereof our carpenters haue 
been, and are, worthilie preferred before those of like science among all other nations. 
Howbeit, such as be latelie builded are comonlie either of bricke or hard stone, or 
both." B. ii. c. 12, Holinsh. Chron. i. 188. It is from this period that a marked 
change in the costly and ornamental character of domestic architecture in England is to 
be dated ; previously, with the exception of some parts where the abundant supply of 
stone occasioned a more frequent use of such solid materials, houses were ordinarily of 
framed work. Palsgrave says, " My house is framed all redye (charpente), it wanteth 
but setting up." Among the disbursements for building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 
1507, by Thomas Lucas, Sol. General to Henry VII. occur payments "to the joy- 
nours for framyng of 6 chambres, 25*. For framyng of my great parlour and great 
chambre, 10*." Rokewode's Hist. Suff. 147. The stat. 37 Hen. VIII. c. 6, 1545, 
recites that certain novel outrages had of late been practised, such as "the secret 
burnynge of frames of tymber prepared and made, by the owners therof, redy to be 
sett up, and edified for houses." This misdemeanour was made felony. 

3 Forby gives the verb to frame, as meaning in Norfolk to shape the demeanour to an 



FRANK, kepynge of fowlys to 
make fatte. 1 Saginarium, Dice. 

FRANKYD. Saginatus. 

FRANKYNGE. Saginacio. 

FRANKINCENS. Olibanum,fran- 
cum incensum, c. F. (ihus> P.) 


FRAUNCE, londe. Francia ( Gal- 

lia, p.) 
FRAWNCHEMUL, puddynge (fraun- 

chem, p.) 2 Lucanica, c. F. 
FRAUNCHYSE (francheyse, K.) 

Libertas, territorium. 
FREE. Liber. 

FREDAM. Libertas. 

FRE HERTYD in yeftys (in 5iftys, 

K. free of giftis, p.) Liberalise 
FREYL, and brokulle, or brytylle 

(febyl, K. febyll or brekyll, p.) 


FREYLNEESSE. Fragilitas. 
FREYTHE of caryage (freyt, or 

freythe, K. freight, cr cariage, 

p.) Vectura, nabulum, c. F. et 

UG. trajectio, CATH. 
FREYHTE, orfeer (freyt, or fer, K. 

freyth, H.) Timor ,pavor, terror. 
FREYTOWRE. Refectorium. 

occasion of ceremony. In N. Britain it has the signification of succeeding, and is de- 
rived by Jamieson from A. S. fremian, valere, prodesse. In the Craven dialect it im- 
plies making an attempt. 

1 The word frank appears to be derived from the old French. Cotgrave gives 
" Franc, a franke or stie to feed and fatten hogs in ; " and Florio renders Saginario, 
" a franke, or coupe, or penne ; a place where beasts or birds are fatned." Ital. Diet. 
Harrison, in his description of England, speaking of the mode of making brawn, says, 
" it is made commonlie of the fore part of a tame bore, set vp for the purpose by the 
space of a whole yere or two, especiallie in gentlemen's houses (for the husband men 
and farmers neuer franke them for their owne vse aboue three or foure moneths), in 
which time he is dieted with otes and peason," &c. B. iii. c. i. Holinsh. Chron. i. 222. 
This verb is used by Shakespeare, and repeatedly by Holland, in his translation of 
Pliny. See Nares' Glossary. 

2 Lutanca,MS. " A franchemole, lucanica.'' CATH. ANG. The Catholicon observes, 
" Lucanica quoddam genus cibi, et ut dicunt salsucia, quiaprimo in Lucanid est facto." 
It is a term of French derivation; Cotgrave gives " Franchemulle d'un mouton, a sheepes 
call or kell," and it seems to have signified a viand much the same as the haggis. Di- 
rections for compounding it will be found in the " Kalendare de leche metys," Harl. 
MS. 279', f. 32. " Nym eyroun with j>e whyte, and gratid brede, and chepis talow. 
Also grete as dyse nym pepir, safroun, and grynd alle to-gederys, and do in fe wombe 
of \>Q chepe, }>at is pe mawe, and sethe hem wyl, and serue forth." See also the Forme 
of Cury, p. 95. The following metrical recipe "for fraunche mele " occurs in the 
" Crafte of Cure," Sloane MS. 1986, f. 85. 

" Take swongene eyrene in bassyne clene, 
And kreme of mylke )>at is so schene, 
And myyd bred J>ou put J>er to, 
And powder of peper J>ou more do. 
Coloure hyt with safrone in hast, 
And kremelyd sewet of schepe on last ; 
And fylle by bagge >at is so gode, 
And sew hyt fast, sir, for J?o rode. 
Whehne hyt is sojmn J>ou schalt hyt leche, 
And broyle hyt on gredel as I the teche." 


2 A 



FRELY. Libere, gratis. 
FREMANN. Liber, libera. 
FREMANN, made of bonde (manu- 

misyd, K.) Manumissus, coli- 

bertus, manumissa, coliberta, 

c. F. libertus, CATH. 
FREMYD, or strawnge (frend, or 

strange, K. fremmed, H. p.) 1 Ex- 

traneuS) alienus,externus,\JG. v. 
FREEND. Amicus, arnica. 
FREENDFULLE. Amicabilis. 
FREEND LY. Amicabiliter. 
FRENESSE of hert, or lyberalyte. 

Liber ali fas. 
FRENESY, sekenesse. Frenesis, 

FRENETYKE (frentyk, K.) Fre- 

neticus, maniatus. 
FRENGE, or lyoure. Tenia, glossd 

Merarii (orarium, K.) 

FRENSCHYPPE (frenchepe, H.) 

Amicicia, amicabilitas. 
FRERE (fryer', p.) Frater. 
FREES, idem quod FREYL, supra 

(fres, or freel, K. or brokyl, or 

broyyl, H. broyle, p.) 2 
FRESCHE. Recews, friscus. 
FRESCHE, ioly and galaunt (fresshe 

and gay, p.) 8 Redimitus, CATH. 
FRESCHLY, and newly. Recenter, 

FRESCHLY, or iolyly, and gayly. 

Gaudiose, friscose, redimite. 
FRESYN', froste. Gelat, c. F. 
FRESYNGE, or froste. Geliditas-, 

FRESTE, or to frest yn byynge or 

borowynge (frest, or frestynge, 

K.) Mutuum. 
FRESTYN', or lende to freste 

1 Fremyde is a word used by most of the older writers. 

" Sal neuer freik on fold, fremmyt nor freynde, 

Gar me lurk for ane luke lawit nor lerd." Golagros and Gawane, 1079. 
" Many klyf he ouer clambe in contraye3 straunge, 

Fer floten fro his frende3 fremedly he rydes." 

Gawayn and G. Kny3t, 714. 

It occurs in Rob. of Glouc. and Chaucer ; and signifies both strange, as regards 
country, and alien, as to kindred. 

" Whether he be fremd, or of his blod, 
The child, he seyd, is trewe and gode." Amis and Amiloun, 1999. 

" Those children that are nursed by frembde men's fires are, for the most part, more 
harde and strong then they be which are daintily brought up in their owne fathers 
houses." Precious Pearle, translated by Coverdale, A.D. 1560. " Fremmyd, exterus, 
externus. To make fremmyd, exterminare." CATH. ANG. " Exter, the last, frem- 
mede, or strange." MEDULLA. " Estrange, separated from, growne fremme or out of 
knowledge, and acquaintance. Estrangier, a stranger, alien, outlander, a fremme 
bodie, that is neither a dweller with, nor of kinne vnto us." COTG. Ang.-Sax. fremed, 

2 Compare BROKDOL, or frees, where possibly the correct reading should be brokyl ; 
and SPERE, or fres. 

3 Chaucer and Gower use the word fresh in the sense of handsome, or ornamented ; 
Herman says, " the buyldynge is more fresshe than profitable, majoris ostentationis est 
quamusus. Our churcbe hath a sharpe steplewith a fresshe top, cum ornatofastigio." 
So likewise Palsgrave gives " fresshe, gorgyouse, gay, 



(frestyn,orleendyn, ii.) 1 Presto, 

comodo, accomodo, mutuo. 
FRETYN', or chervyfi' (choruyn, 

H.) Torgueo, CATH. 
FRETYN', or weryn', as metalle be 

ruste (or knawyn, H. gnawen, 

P.) Corrodo, demollio. 
FRETYNGE. Corrosio. 
FRETYNGE, payne yn' be wombe. 


FRYYD. Frixus, confrixus. 
FRYKE, or craske, or yn grete 

helthe. Crassus. 
FRYKENESSE. Crassitudo. 
FRYYN' yn a pann'. Frigo,frixo, 

c. F. 

FRYYNGE. Frixatura, CATH. 
FRYYNGE PANN. Sartago,frix- 

orium, CATH. 
FRYSARE, or he bat frysythe clothe. 


FRYSE, or frysyd clothe. Pannus 


FRYSE clothe. Villa. 
(FRYSED, as clothe, P. Villatus.) 
FRYSYNGE of clothe. Villatura. 
FRYTOWRE, cake. Lagana. (La- 

gana sunt laid panes sarta- 

gine plagd. K.) 
FRO A-BOWYN' (fro abovyn, K. 

from aboue, P.) Desuper, de- 

(FRO BE-NETHYN, K. H. from he- 

nethe, P. Deorsum.) 
FRO FERE (fro far, p.) Eminus^ 

de longe. 
FROGGE, or froke, munkys abyte 

(frok, monkes clothinge, J. w.) 

FlocuS) in Jure, libra vj\ 
(FROKE, monkes habyte, K. p. 

frogge, H. Cuculla, culla, 

CATH.) 2 

1 Ray gives among his N. Country words " to frist, to trust for a time." A.S. 
fyrstan, inducias facer e. Jamieson explains it as signifying in the primary sense to 
delay, or postpone, and thence to give on credit, to grant delay as to payment. Germ, 
fristen, prorogare tempus agendi. " To friste, induciare." CATH. ANG. 

2 " A froke, cucullus." CATH. ANG. There is much ambiguity in the use of the 
termfroccus, the monastic frock, which occasionally appears to have been confounded 
with the cuculla, although properly a distinct garment. At the General Council at 
Vienna, 1312, Clement V. denned the cuculla to be along, full, and sleeveless garment ; 
theyZoceM*, considered identical with/roccw*, to be a long habit, with long and wide 
sleeves. They are evidently distinguished by Ingulph, who states among the ordinances 
of Egelric, Abbot of Croyland from 975 to 992, " Induit omni anno totum conventum 
cum sectd sud de tunicis, omni altero anno de cucullis, et omni tertio anno defroccis.'* 
Rerum Angl. Script, i. 54. The distinction appears likewise to be made by M. Paris, 
where he speaks of the unbecoming changes in monastic attire, introduced at St. Alban's 
during the time of Abbot Wulnoth, towards the close of the Xth cent. So also in the 
enumeration of garments allowed by custom to each monk of Glastonbury, at the latter 
part of the Xlth cent, it is stated, " unusquisque fratrum ij cucullas, et ij froccos, et 
ij stamina, et ijfemoralia haoere debet, et iv caliyas, et peliciam novam per singulos 
annos." G. de Malmsb. de Antiqu. Glast. Hearne, ed. Domerham, i. 119. At an early 
period the cowl appears to have been portion of a sleeveless garment which sometimes was 
a mere cape, but occasionally reached quite to the heels, and was worn over the long, 
full, and sleeved habit termed a frock. See the illustrative plates in Murat. Script. 
Ital. i. part 2, Chron. Vulturnense ; Mabill. Ann. Bened. i. 121. At a subsequent time 
it seems that these garments ceased to be distinct, and the long dress of the monk, having 
the cowl attached to it, was termed indifferently froccus,frocca, &ndfloccus, or cuculla. 
Further information on this subject will be found in Ducange. 



FROGGE, or frugge, tode. Bufo. 

FROHENS forewarde. Amodo, de- 
inceps, actenus, decetero. 

FROHENS (frohethyn, K. froheyin, 
H. fro heyine, s. fro heym, p.) 
ffinc, dehinc (abhinc, K.) 

FRO NY (or fro nere, K. p.) Co- 

FRO^T,idem quodFORHEV, supra. 

FRO YD custummere bat byythe of 
a-nother, as 3erne byers (froth 
custumnare, bat byyb off a-noder, 
as 3arne byars, s.) 1 

FROYSE. 2 Frixura, CATH. Ver- 
sus. Frixa nocent, elixct, ju- 
vantj assata coartant. Hec 

C. F. 

FROKE, or frosche (frosh, K. 

froske, or frosche, H. s. p. or 

frogge, w.) 3 JRana. 
FROST. Gelu. 
FROTHE. Spuma, CATH. spu- 

mula, KYLW. 
(FROWARDE, s. P.) Contrarius, 

per versus, protervus. 
FROWARDNESSE. Perversitas, 

contrarietas, protervitas. 
FRO WYTHE YN'. Abinter.deintus. 
FRO WYTHE OWTE (fro wit owtyn, 

K.) Ab extra. 
FROWNAR. Fruncator, CATH. 

in nario, rugator. 
FROWNCE of a cuppe. 4 Fronti- 

nella (frigium, p.) 
FROWNYN'. Frunco, CATH. in 

subsamno, sanno. 

1 A satisfactory interpretation of this word has in vain been sought. The practice of 
buying up woollen yarn for exportation was carried to a great extent in Norfolk, and 
other parts of England. It was highly injurious to the interests of the cloth-workers, 
and occasioned loss to the revenue. Many enactments appear in the statutes to protect 
both the weavers of Norfolk, and the customs, against the crafty proceedings of merchants, 
both strangers and denizens, " regrators and gatherers of woll." See particularly stat. 
23 Hen. VI. c. 2 ; 7 Edw. IV. c. 3 ; 4 Hen. VII. c. 11 ; 33 Hen. VIII. c. 16. Perhaps 
froyd may imply the artful diligence with which covetous traders persisted in eluding the 
statutes, and robbing the staple manufacturers of Norfolk. Jamieson explains " frody " 
as signifying cunning ; Teut. vroed, industrius, attentus ad rem. In the North, ac- 
cording to Brockett, froating means anxious unremitting industry. 

2 A pancake is called in the Eastern counties a froyse, a term derived, as Skinner 
conjectures, either from frixare, or the French froisser, because the substances of 
which it is compounded are beaten up together. Forby gives, as a Norfolk proverb, 
the following phrase : "If it won't pudding, it will froize ; " if it won't do for one 
purpose, it will for another. See ancient recipes in the Forme of Cury, p. 96 ; and the 
" Kalendare de Leche metys. Froyse out of Lentyn. " Harl. MS. 299, f. 36. " Froyse 
of egges, uovte d'cevfz." PALSG. Voulte d'aufs is the ancient appellation of an omelet. 
" Fritilla, a froyse or pancake. " ELYOT. 

3 A small frog, according to Forby, is called in Norfolk a fresher. The distinction 
which appears to be here made between FROGGE, tode, and FROKE, or frosche, is pos- 
sibly dialectical ; they seem properly, however, to be synonymous, the former derived 
from A.S. frogga, rana, while the latter assimilates more nearly to the Germ, frosch, 
Dan. frosk, a frog. TOODE, fowle wyrme, occurs hereafter. " Rana, a froske, or 
frogge." ORTUS. " A froske, agredula, rana, rubeta, ranula." CATH. ANG. In the 
Golden Legend, in the Life of St. Peter, is a relation of the deceit practised upon Nero 
by his physicians, when he ordered them, " Make ye me w* chylde, and after to be 
delyuered, y l I may know what payne my moder suffred : which by craft they gaue to 
hym a yonge frosshe to drynke, and it grewe in his bely.'' 

4 This term appears to signify the kind of ornament which in modern goldsmith's 


FROWNYN' wythe the nose. Nasio, 


FROWNYNGE. Fruncacio, CATH. 

in subsamno, rugacio. 
FROWNT, or frunt of a churche, or 

ober howsys. Frontispicium, 

C. F. CATH. 

FRUCE, or frute. Fructus. 
FRUTUOSE, or fulle of frute (fruc- 

tuowse, K.) FructuosuS) uber. 
FRUMPYLLE. Ruga, rugula. 
FRUMPLYD. Rugatus, rugulatus. 
FRUNTELLE of an awtere. 1 Fron- 


work is called gadrooned, from the French " goderonne, a fashion of imbossement used 
by goldsmiths, and termed knurling." COTG. France implies a wrinkle, crumple, or 
gather, generally in allusion to dress, as in the Vis. of Piers Ploughm. 8657. " Froun- 
syng,froncement." PALSG. Frontimlla is not explained by Due. and in the Ortus is 
rendered " the pyt in the necke ; " it seems, therefore, to mean a wrinkled or irregular 
depression of surface. Possibly the correct reading may be froncinella. Fronciatus, 
i. rugatus, Due. 

1 " A fruntalle, frontale." CATH. ANG. The frontal of an altar is defined by Lynd- 
wood to be " apparatus pendens in f route altaris, qui apparatus alias dicitur Palla." 
Provinc. 252. The synod of Exeter, A.D. 1287, ordained that in every church the pa- 
rishioners should provide "frontellum ad quodlibet altare." Wilkins, ii. 139. Abp. 
Winchelsey, in his Constitutions, A.D. 1305, prescribes that provision be made of 
"frontale ad magnum altar e, cum tribus tuellis." Lyndw. 252. The frontal must not 
be confounded with the permanent decoration of the fore-part of the altar, properly 
termed tabula, or tablementum, which was formed either of sculptured or painted work, 
and sometimes of the most precious metals, chased, enamelled, and set with gems, as 
was that in Winchester cathedral, described in the Inventory given by Strype, Life of 
Abp. Parker, App. 187. The frontal was formed of the most costly stuffs, and often, 
if not properly by prescribed usage, was of the same suit or colour as the vestments 
used at the same time in the service of the altar. As there were both the tabula fron- 
talis, and sup erf ront alls, which last seems to have been identical with the retro-tabula, 
or post -tabula, so likewise there were the panrnts frontalis, and superfrontalis, the 
second being in both cases the decoration placed above the altar, and attached or ap- 
pended to the wall or screen against which it was placed. The inventory of sacred or- 
naments in the Wardrobe Book of 29 Edw. I. A.D. 1300, enumerates " Duo front alia 
broudata majora et minora, de und sectd," p. 350; identical, probably, in purpose 
with those termed "frontella ij pro altar e, unum videlicet superius, e.t aliud inferius 
pro eodem," which were purchased by John de Ombresley, Abbot of Evesham, from 
the executors of Will, de Lynne, Bp. of Worcester, who died in 1373. Harl. MS. 3763. 
In Pat. 3 Hen. VI. these ornaments are again differently termed. Among various gifts 
to churches in France delivered by the executors of Henry V. it appears that they sent 
to St, Denis " unam altam frontellam, et unam bassam frontellam de velvet, rubeas, 
cum foliis aureis brouderatas." Rym. x. 346. In the inventory of the gifts of Abp. 
Chicheley to All Souls' Coll. A.D. 1437, there appears to be a distinction between the 
terms frontale andfrontellum, as it enumerates, among many others, "j frontale et 
suffrontale de blodio velvet operatum cum stellis, patibulo, et salutations ; j front ellum 
de blodio velvet cum foliis quercinis aureis, vj frontys, et vj suffrontys unius sectce, 
steynid, JM*O secundis altaribus," &c. Gutch, Coll. Cur. ii. 262. The precise difference 
is not apparent, but each secta, or totus apparatus for an altar, comprised, according to 
this document, the "frontale, suffrontale, front ellum, ij curtince, } des-cloth, j teca," 
or corporas case : possibly front ellum may be only a diminutive of the other term. 
Ducange gives the term " refrontale, apparatus altaris," the same, probably, as the 
pannus superfrontalis; as likewise the tabula suprafrontalis was, as has been observed, 
termed also retro-tabula. 



(FRUTE, p. Fructus, supra in 

FRUTYN', or brynge forj>e frute. 


FUL. PlenuS) repletus. 
FUL of wynde. Ventosus. 
FULLE of wordys. Verbosus. 

FULLARE. Fullo. 

FULE of golde, quod dicitur gold- 
fule (goldfoyl, K.) Brateum, 
vel bratea, in plur. CATH. 

FULFYLLN', or fyllyn'. Impleo, 

FULFYLLYN', or make a-cethe in 
thynge j?at wantytfie (makyn 
a-set for byngys bat wan tun, s.) 

FULFYLLE wythe mete. Sacio, 

FULLE clothe. Fullo, CATH. 

FULLYNGE. Fullatura. 

FULMARE, best (fulmard, H. p.) 1 
JPecoides, T>icc.fetontus,petor. 

FULNESSE. Replecio, implecio. 

FULNESSE of mete (or fulsunesse, 
infra.) Sacietas, saturacio. 

FULNESSE of sownde. Sonoritas. 
FULNESSE or plente (fulsunesse, 

K. H. P.) Habundancia, copia. 
(FULSUNESSE of mete, K.P. Saci- 


FUMETER, herbe. Fumus terre. 
(FUMRELL of an hows, K. p. supra 

in FOMERELL. Fumarium.) 
FUNDAMENT, or grownde of a 

gynnynge, H. p.) Fundamentum. 
FUNDAMENT, or grownde. Fundus. 
FUNDELYNGE, as he )>at ysfownd- 

yn', and noman wote ho ys hys 

fadur, ne hys modyr. Inventi- 

cius, inventicia, aborigo, UG. 
FUNKE, or lytylle fyyr. 2 Igniculus^ 

FUNT, or fant. Baptisterium, 

fons baptismalis. 
FURBYSCHOWRE, idem quod 

(FURCLYD, supra in forclyd, H. 

furcled, supra in forcled, p.) 
FURGON' (furgont, K. furgun, or 

fyre forke, p.) 3 Rotabulum, 

1 " A fulmerd, fefoncrus.'' CATH. ANG. The polecat is commonly called in the 
North a foumart. See Jamieson, Brockett, &c. The Acts of James II. King of Scots, 
A.D. 1424, regulate the export of " fowmartis skinnis, callit fithowis." The foumart 
appears, however, to be distinct from the fitchew : in the Boke of St. Alban's, among 
" bestys of the chace of the stynkynge fewte," are named " the fulmarde, the fyches, 
&c. and the pulcatte.'' Harrison, speaking of indigenous animals, and the hunting of 
foxes and badgers, observes, " I might here intreat largelie of other vermine, as the 
polcat, theminiuer, the weasell, stote, fulmart, squirrill, fitchew, and such like." Descr. 
of Eng. B. iii. c. 4. Isaac Walton mentions "the fitchet, the fulimart, the polecat," 
&c. Compl. Angler, i. c. 1. See hereafter POLKAT (pulkat, MS.) idem quod fulmere. 

2 Forby gives funk as signifying touchwood. The word may be derived from Germ, 
funk, Dan. funke, scintilla. R. Brunne uses the phrase " not worth a fonk," seeming 
to imply a brief existence, evanescent as a spark ; Langt. Chron. p. 171. In another 
passage he relates that King John vowed vengeance upon Stephen Langton, and the 
monks who had chosen him Archbishop, against the royal pleasure. 

" Be beten alle fonkes, or in prison ham binde." p. 211. 
CJower describes the amorous Perithous and Ipotasie as having drunk 
" Of lust that ilke firie fonke." Conf. Am. lib. vi. 

3 Furgone for an ouyn, uavldreeS' PALSG. Cotgrave gives " Fourgon, an oven- 



UG. in TUG, vertibulum, CATH. 
arpagio. Vide alia in FYRE 


FURRODE (furryd, K.) Furratus. 
FURRYN' wythe furre. Furro, 

penulo, KYLW. 
FURRYNGE, Furratura (pelli- 

catura, K.) 

FURLONGE. Stadium. 
FURMENTY, potage. Frumenti- 

FURNEYS. Furnus,fornax, CATH. 

fornacula, KYLW. 
FURST, or fyrst. Primus. 
FURST BEGOTON'. Primogenitus. 
FURSTE frute, or fruce. Primicie. 
FURWRE, or furrure (furre, K. 

furwur, H. furrour, or furringe, 

p.) Penulay Dice, furratura, 

FUSTYAN, clothe (orfusteyn, H.P.) 

Furesticus, Dice. 
FUTE, odowre. 1 Odor, vel odos, 


GABBAR (or lyare, infra.) 2 Men- 
daculus, mendacula, mendax. 

GABYL, or gable, pykyd walle. 3 
Murus conalis (gabyll wall, or 
pyke wall, murustenalis, P.) 

GABBYN'. Menticulor, mencior. 

GABBYNGE, or lesynge (lye, p.) 4 
Mendacium ) mendaciolum ) CA'iH. 

forke, tearmed in Lincolnshire, a fruggin," &c. This word is still in use in the North. 
See Brockett, v. fruggan. " A frugon, vertibulum, pala,furcaferrea." CATH. ANG. 

1 The fate is the scent of a fox or beast of chace. Compare FEWTE, vestiffium, which 
occurs previously. In Will, and Werwolf, when the monster returns to his den and 
discovers that the shepherd has carried the child away, he is sore grieved, 

*' And as )>e best in his bale )>er a-boute wente, 
He found \>e feute al fresh where for> j?e herde 
Had bore )>an barn beter it to jeme. 
Wi3tly j>e werwolf >an went bi nose, 
Evene to J>e herdes house, and hastely was J>are." p. 4. 

See also pp. 2, 79 ; Gawayn and the Grene Kny3t, 1425 ; the Bake of St. Alban's, 
and Malory's Morte d' Arthur, B. 18, c. xxi. It seems probable that the term feuterer 
may be hence derived ; but the Glossarists have supposed it to be a corruption of 
vaultrier, a keeper of the dog called in French " vaultre, a mongrel between a hound 
and a maistiffe ; fit for the chase of wild bears and boars." COTGR. Bp. Kennett no- 
tices the term in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033 : " A feuterer, a dog-keeper ; 
the word is corrupted from vautrier, Fr. vaultrier, Lat. veltrarius, one that leads a 
lime-hound, or grey-hound for the chace." In a vocabulary written in the latter part of 
the XVthcent. Harl. MS. 1002, f. 142, after " haywarde, parcare," &c. occurs " Fede- 
rarius, a fewterer." Nares cites several passages in which this term is used. 

2 Sir John Maundevile, speaking of false diamonds, says, " I schal speke a litille 
more of the dyamandes, alle thoughe I tarye my matere for a tyme, to the ende that 
thei that knowen hem not be not disceyved be gabberes (Fr. barratours) that gon be the 
contree, that sellen hem." 

3 " A gavelle of a howse, froniispicium." CATH. ANG. Rob. of Glouc. uses the 
word gable in the sense of high. See Bp. Kennett' s Glossary, v. Gabulum. 

4 In Wickliffe's Confession given by Knyghton, he declared respecting the real 
presence, that " before the fende fader of lesyngus was lowside, was never this gabbyng 
contryvede." Decem Script, col. 2650. Ang.-Sax. Sabbun, derisio, or delusion by 
way of mockery and jesting. 



GAD, or gode (gadde or qhyp, H, 
whyppe, P.) Gerusa, KYLW. 
scutica, c. F. 

GAD, to mete wythe londe (gadde, 
or rodde, P.) Decempeda, CATH. 
pertica, c. F. 

(GADERYD, K. Congregatus.) 

GADERYN'. Colligo, lego. Ver- 
sus. Fur legit es,Jlores virgo, 
viator iter. 

GADERYN' tresowre. TTiesaurizo, 

GADERYNGE to-gedur. Colleccio, 

GAGELYN', or cryyn' as gees. 
Cling o. 

GAGELYNGE of geese, or of gan- 
ders. Drancitus (dr actions, P.) 

GAGGYN', or streyne be the brote. 

GAY. Ornatus. 

GAYLER, or iaylere. Gaolarius, 
carcerarius, CATH. pretor. 

GALACHE, or galoche, vndyr 
solynge of mannys fote (galegge, 
or galoch, s. vndirshone, K. 
vnderschoyinge, H.) 1 Crepitum, 
crepita, C.F. obstringillus, CATH. 

1 Sunt obstringilli qui per plantas consuti sunt, et ex superiori parte corrigid con- 
trahuntur." CATH. The galache was a sort of patten fastened to the foot by cross 
latchets, and worn by men as early as the time of Edw. III. Allusion is made to it by 

" Ne were worthy to unbocle his galoche." Squire's Tale, 10,869. 

In the inventory of the effects of Hen. V. taken A.D. 1423, mention occurs of "j peir 
de galagesfaitz d'estreyn, ivd. j " but it is not easy to understand how straw should 
be a proper material for the purpose. See Rot. Parl. iv. 329. In Sir John Howard's 
Household Book, A.D. 1465, p. 314, are named both galaches and pynsons, which 
last are in the Promptorium explained to be socks. See Household Expenses in England. 
This kind of shoe was occasionally an article of luxury and ostentatious display, which 
probably suggested the allusion that occurs in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, where 
one is described as coming eagerly, as if to be dubbed a knight, 

" To geten hym gilte spores, 

Or galoches y-couped.'' line 12,099. 

The term "y-couped" seems to imply the extravagant fashion of the long-peaked toe : 
" Milieus, a coppid shoo." ORTUS. In the reign of Edward IV. a statute was passed, by 
which the higher classes alone were permitted to wear shoes, " galoges," or boots, with a 
peak longer than 2 inches (Rot. Parl. v. 505, 566 ; Stat. of Realm, u. 415) ; but, from 
certain allusions in ancient romance, it would seem that the fashion was, by the usage of 
a much earlier period, permitted to none under the degree of a knight. See Sir Degore, 
700 ; Torrent of Portugal, 1 193, &c. The curious drawings in Cott. MS. Julius, E. iv. 
(t. Hen. VI.), one of which, representing King John, has been given in Shaw's Dresses, 
exhibit the galache in its most extravagant form. " Solea, a shoe called a galage or 
paten, whiche hathe nothynge on the fete, but onely lachettes.'' ELYOT. " Gallozza, 
a kind of wooden patins, startops, gallages, or stilts. Cospi, wooden pattins, or pan- 
tofles, shoes with wooden soles, startops or galages,'' &c. FLORIO. " Galoche, a 
woodden shoe or patten made all of a peece, without any latchet or ty of leather, and 
worne by the poore clowne in winter." COTG. See Spenser, Sheph. Cal. Febr. and 
Sept. In the Wardrobe Book of Prince Henry, A.D. 1607, are mentioned " 1 pair of 
golossians, 6s. 16 gold buckles with pendants and toungs to buckle a pair of golosses." 
Archseol. xi. 93. 



GALAWTE. 1 Lessivus. 

GALLE ofa.beeste.F 

GALLE of appulle, or ober frute 

(galle, oke appyll, p.) Gcdla. 
GALLE, soore yn maim' or beeste. 

Strumus, marista, c. F. 
GALEYE, schyppe. Galea. 
GALYN, as crowys or rokys. 2 

Crocito, KYLW. crosco. 
(GALYNGALE, idem quod GANYN- 

GALE, infra.) 

GALL YD (gaily, s.) Strumosus. 
GALLYN, or make gaily d. Strumo. 
GALLYNGE. Strumositas. 

Callopedium, p.) 

G ALONE, mesure. Lagena, galo, 

GALWE TREES (galowe,p.) Furce, 

plur. vel furca, galofurcium, 

GALTE (or gylte) swyne. Ne- 

frendus, CATH. 
GAME, pley. Ludus^jocus. 
GAMME of songe. Gamma. 
GANYNGE, or janynge. 3 Oscita- 

tus, KYLW. 

GANDYR, byrde or fowl. Ancer. 
GANYNGALE, or galyngale, spyce. 4 

GANNEKER (ganokyr, s.) 5 Ga- 

nearia, UG. in capio, ganeo, UG. 

1 This word occurs in the Harl. MS. alone, and possibly the correct reading may 
be GALAWNTE. " Gallaunt, a man fresshe in appareyle." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. gal, 
libidinosus. For lessivus should probably be read lascivus, i. e. "petulans, luxurians, vel 
superbe se agens, ioly or wanton." ORTUS. 

2 By Chaucer the nightingale is said to "cry and gale," Court of Love, 1357 ; in 
which sense the word may be derived from the Ang.-Sax. fcalan, canere. Jamieson 
gives to gale, or gail, to cry with a harsh note, a term applied to the cuckoo ; and to 
galyie, to roar or brawl. According to Forby, to yawl signifies, in Norfolk, to scream 
harshly, as the cry of a peacock; and Moore gives yalen, to cry as a fretful child. 
" Japper, to bark or baye like a dog, to yawle, to bawle. Houaller, to yawl, wawl, to 
cry out aloud. Mouaner, to mawle, yawle, or cry like a little child." COTG. Ang.- 
Sax. Syllan, giellan, stridere. 

3 "To gane, fatiscere, hiare, inhiscere. To gayne, oscitare" CATH. ANG. "I 
gane, or gape, I yane, ie bailie. He ganeth as he had not slepte ynoughe." PALSG, 
Ang.-Sax. ganung, oscitatio. In the gloss on G. de Bibeles worth the verb to galp 
occurs, " Par trop veiller horn bailie, galpe>." See also the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 
8,214; Cant. Tales, 10,664, 16,984. Horman renders "he that galpeth, oscitans." 

4 Among the spices used in ancient cookery, the powder of galingale is frequently 
named, as may be seen in the Forme of Cury. It was the chief ingredient in galen- 
tine, which, as Pegge supposes, derived thence its name. It was also employed in me- 
dicine, as a cardiac and cephalic. In the version of Macer's Treatise on Spices, MS. 
in the possession of Hugh W. Diamond, Esq. it is stated that " Galyngale resoluej> }>e 
fleume of J>e stomak; hit helpij> he deiestione ; it doj> amende ]?e sauour and odour of J>e 
mouthe if it be eten." He further attributes to it virtues of a carminative and aphro- 
disiac nature. It occurs among spices mentioned in the Household Roll of the Countess 
of Leicester, A.D. 1265 ; "provj lib. Galinaalium, ?>.*." (Manners and Expenses of 
England, p. 14.) Chaucer makes allusion to its culinary use, Cant. Tales, 383. The 
annual provision of spices for the household of the Earl of Northumberland, A.D. 
1512, comprised " Galyngga, j quarteron." According to Parkinson, the real galingale 
was the root of a Chinese plant, of which he gives a representation ; but it appears that 
the root of the rush called English galingale, Cyperus lonyus, Linn, was much used ia 
place of it, both as a drug and a condiment. 

5 Ganeo is explained by Ducange to signify " gulosus, popinator, tabernio;" in 



GANTE, byrde. 1 JBistarda, c. F. 
GAP of a walle. Intervallum, 

intercapedo, UG. in valeo, et 

CATH. capedo, c. F. 
GAPYN'. Hio, oscito, UG. 
GAPYNGE. Hiatus, hiacio. 
GARBAGE of fowlys (or gyserne, 

infra.) Enter a, NECC. vel en- 

teria, c. F. vel exta, NECC. c. F. 

profectum, UG. v. 
GAGE,lytylle belle (lytyll bolle, s.) 2 
GAARCE. Scarificacio, NECC. 

sesura, c. F. inscisio, scissura* 

GAARCYD. Scarificatus,inscissus. 
GAARCYN'. 3 Scarifico, c. F. UG. v. 

et KYLW. 

GARCYNGE. Scarificacio, inscisio. 
GARDENERE. Ortolanus. 
(GARDERE, infra in GARTERE.) 
GARFANGYL, or elger. 4 Anguil- 

laria, anguillare. 
GARFYSCHE (or hornkeke, infra.) 5 
GARGULYE, yn' a walle. 6 Gor- 

gona, c. F. gurgulio (gargulio, 

Trench, " ganeon ; ivrogne, debauched ROQUEF. The Proclamation of the Mayor of 
Norwich, on coming into office, set forth " that all Brewsters and Gannokers selle a 
gallon ale, of the best, be measure a-selyd, for Id. 06. and a galon of the next for !<?.'' 
A.D. 1424. Blomf. ii. 100. 

1 The bird now called gannet, or Solan goose, sula alba, abounds only on the Bass 
Island, in the Firth of Forth. In the Exch. Roll of Normandy, A.D. 1180, p. 57, an 
entry occurs "pro pastu gantarum que venerunt de Analid, et pro Lv. de illisducendis 
ad Argent omum, et Ix. ad Burum, vili. iij so. et ixd." Giraldus mentions the GANTE 
among the birds of Ireland ; " Aucae. minores alba (qua et gantes dicuntur) et gre- 
ffatim in multitudine magnd, et garruld venire solent, in hos terrarum fines rarius 
adveniunt, et tune valde rare." Top. Hib. i. c. 18. Ang.-Sax. ganot,/w/zca. 

2 The reading of the Winchester MS. is probably here correct. In Norfolk a gage 
is, according to Forby, a bowl or tub to receive the cream, as it is successively skimmed 
off; so called, as he observes, from its use as a gauge, to show when a sufficient 
quantity has been collected to be churned. The word does not occur in the other MSS. 

3 In a treatise of the seasons, printed with Arnold's Chron. p. 172, it is recom- 
mended that in winter " men shulde lete them bloode in ther bodys by garsinge, but 
not on veynes, but if it be the more nede ;'' meaning the operation of cupping, called in 
the Promptorium BOYSTON'. "To garse, scarificare." CATH. ANG. "Caesura, a 
cut, a garse, an incision." ELYOT. 

4 The term ANGYLLE, to take wythe fysche, meaning a fishing rod, has occurred 
already, as also ELYER, or elger, which appears to be an eel-spear. " Contus, an algere, 
a shaft, a dartt, a polloure. Fuscina, a hoke for fysshe, an algere." MED. MS. 
CANT. The word GARFANGYL seems wholly obsolete ; possibly the first syllable may 
be traced to Ang.-Sax. ^a.r,jaculum, or the implement may be a kind of spear used 
in taking the GARFYSCHE. 

5 Sir T. Brown, in his account of the fishes of the Norfolk coast, mentions the gar- 
fish, or greenback (Esox belone, Linn.) Harrison mentions it among fish usually 
taken; "Of the long sort are congers, eeles, garefish, and such other of that forme." 
Descr. of Eng. Holinsh. Chron. i. 224. " Trompette, the needle-fish, garre-fish, horne- 
beake, borne-fish, or piper-fish. Aiguille, a horne-backe, piper-fish, or gane-fish. 
Esguille, a small fish called a horne-beake, snacot-fish, gane-fish. Orphic, the horne- 
kecke, piper-fish, garre-fish." COTG. The appellation is doubtless taken from its 
peculiar form ; Ang.-Sax. ^a.r,jaculum. Jamieson states that at Dundee the porpoise 
is called gairfish. 

6 Will, of Wore, uses the term gargyle ; Itin. p. 282. This appellation of the 


GARYTTE, hey solere. 1 Specula^ 
c. F. pergamium, UG. in gamio. 

GARLEKKE. Allium. 

GARLONDE. Sertum. 

GARMENTE. Indumentum, vesti- 

GARMENT of grete valure (or 
robe, P.) Mutatorium, CATH. 

GARMENT of clothe, made of dyuers 
clothys (colours, p.^JPanucia,c.F. 

GARNYSCHE of vesselle (garniche, 
K.) 2 Garnitum. 

quaintly-fashioned water-spouts in the forms of men or monsters with yawning mouths, 
of which medieval architecture presents so endless a variety, is taken from the French. 
" Gargyle in a wall, gargoille." PALSG. See also Roquefort, v. Gargoile. Hormari 
says, " Make me a trusse standing out upon gargellys, that I may se about : podium, 
suggestum, vel pulpitum, quod mutulis innitatur. I wyll haue gargyllis under the 
beamys heedis : mutulos, sive proceres, fyc." Elyot renders "frumeu, the vppermoste 
parte of the throte, the gargyll." A remarkable application of the gargoyle in archi- 
tecture occurs on the south side of Notre Dame, at Paris ; all the piscinas of the apsidal 
chapels surrounding the choir on that side being furnished with external gargoyles, 
which are fashioned like the upper parts of a lion, or dragon, and answer the purpose 
of the ordinary interior drains, which served to allow the water used in ablutions at the 
altar to pass into the earth. Their date is of the XHIth cent, and nothing of a similar 
kind has been noticed in this country. 

1 In the Creed of Piers Ploughman is a curious and graphic description of a monas- 
tery, with its numerous and stately buildings, 

" With gaye garites and grete, 

And iche hole y-glased." line 425. 

A GARYTTE was, in the original sense of the term, a watch tower,or look-out, on the roof 
of a house, or castle wall, called garita, in French guerite. In the version of Vegecius, 
Roy. MS. 18 A. xu. it is said of the defence of a camp, and keeping watch by night, 
" it is nat possible algate to haue highe garettes, or toures, or highe places for watche 
men, therfor it nedethe to haue out watche." B. iii. c. 8. Caxton, in the Book for 
Travellers, says " of thinges that ben vsed after the hous, hit behoueth to the cham- 
bres, loftes, and garettis, solliers, greniers." Cotgrave explains garitte, or guerite, to 
be a place of refuge from surprise, made in a rampart ; a sentry, or watch-tower ; and 
4< tourel CL cul de lampe, a small out-juttyng garret, or tower like a garret, on the top of 
a walle." See SOLERE hereafter. 

2 A garnish signified commonly the set or service of pewter, and likewise, in more 
stately establishments, of more precious material. Previously to the introduction of 
fictile ware of an ornamental description in the later part of the XVIth cent, the ordinary 
service of the tables of our ancestors was on vessels of pewter, the silver plate being for 
the most part reserved to decorate the cup-board, or buffet. Harrison, in his descripi 
tion of Eng. written about 1580, speaking of the great skill to which English pewterers 
had attained, says, " Such furniture of household of this mettall, as we commonlie call 
by the name of vessell, is sold usuallie by the garnish, which dooth conteine 12 platters, 
12 dishes, 12 saucers, and those are either of siluer fashion, or else with brode or narrow 
brims, and bought by the pound, which is now valued at six or seuen pence, or perad- 
uenture at eight pence. In some places beyond the sea a garnish of good flat English 
pewter of an ordinarie making, ... is esteemed almost so pretious, as the like number 
of vessels that are made of fine siluer, and in maner no lesse desired amongst the great 
estates, whose workmen are nothing so skillful in that trade as ours." Holinsh. Chron. 
i. 237. In the inventory of the college of Bishop's Auckland, A.D. 1498, the silver 
plate having been described, there are enumerated "xx pewder platers, xij pewder 
dishes, viij salsers, j garnishe of vessell." Wills and Inv. Surt. Soc. i. 101. 



GARNYSCHYD. Garnitus. 
GARNYSCHYN' vesselle. Garnio, 

garnisO) polio. 
GARNYSCHYN' pursys, and o]>er 

GARSONE, stronge place (gary- 

zone, or garzone, strong holde, 

H. garyson, or garson, p.) Mu- 

nicipium, c. F. 
GARTERE, or gardere. Subligar, 

c. F. pelliper, CATH. 
GARTERYN'. Subligo (obligo, K.) 
GARWYNDYLLE (garwyndyl, or 

3arnwyndyl, s. garwyngyll, p.) 1 

Girgillus, CATH. 
GASPYN'. Exalo, hisco, c. F. 


GATE, or wey. Via, iter. 
GATE, or 3ate (yate, P.) Porta, 
foris, fores, CATH. (janua, P.) 
GATE DOWNE. Descensus. 
GATE DOWNE, or downe gate of be 

sunne, or any ober planete. 2 

GATE SCHADYLLE (gateshodel, 

K.H. gate shodil,p.) Compitum, 

c. F. clinium, UG. in clino. 
GATE scHADYL,yn-to twey weyys. 

GATE SCHADYL, yn-to iij weyys. 

GATE SCHADYL, yn-to iiij weyys 

(or a carphax, H. p.) 3 Qvadri- 

GAWDE, or iape. 4 Nuga. 

1 " A gyrus dicitur gyrgillus, instrumentum femineum, quod olio nomine dicitur 
volutorium, quia vertendo in gyrum inde fila devolvuntur. Filum de colo ducitur in 
fusum ; a fuso in alabrum, vel traductorium ; db alabro in gyrgillum vel devoluto- 
rium ; a gyrgillo in glomicellum." CATH. " Girgillum, Anglice a haspe, or a payre 
of y erne wyndle blades." ORTUS. "A garwyndelle, devolutorium, girgillus." CATH. 
ANG. " Yarne wyndell, tornette." PALSG. " Tournette, a rice, or yarwingle to wind 
yarne on. Travouil, a rice or a turning reele." COTG. See JARNE WYNDEL. 

2 Palsgrave gives " At the sonne gate downe, sur le soleil couchant." 

3 " A gateschadylle, bivium, diversiclivium, compitum." CATH. ANG. From the 
Ang.-Sax. sceadan, separare, is derived the obsolete verb to shed; " Discrimino, to 
shedde and departe." MED. MS. CANT. " To shede one's heed, parte the heares 
euyn from the crowne to the myddes of the foreheed." PALSG. Chaucer says of the 
Clerk Absolon, 

" Full straight and euyn lay his jolly shode." Miller's Tale. 

Hence also seems to be taken the term GATE SCHADYLLE, the division of a road into 
two or more directions. It appears to be wholly obsolete, and unnoticed by the Glos- 
sarists. See Carfax (cartehouse, MS.) above, p. 62. 

4 In the Romance of the Seuyn Sages, the Emperor had given ear to the false ac- 
cusation brought against Florentine by his step-mother ; but the truth was at length 
made known. 

" A! Dame, said the Emperowre, 
Thou haues ben a fals gilowre, 
For thi gaudes, and thy gilry, 
I gif this dome that thou sal dy." line 3957. 

Mr. Weber has printed the word here gande, to which he gives the sense of a wile 
or mischievous design. Minot, in his poem on the Battle of Halidon Hill, says, 

" The Scottes gaudes might nothing gain." 
Chaucer uses the word in the signification of a trick, or joke. See Pardonere's Tale, 



GAWDY grene. Subviridis. 
GAVEL of corne. 1 Geluma, ma- 

nipulatum, c. F. manipulare, 

CATH. merges, KYLW. 
GAVELYN' corne, or ober lyke. 

Manipulo, CATH. mergito, 

GAWGYN' depnesse. Dimentior, 

GAWGYNGE of depenesse. Di- 

GAWL, fowayle (gavl, or gawyl, 

wode or fowayl, H. p.) 2 Mirtus, 

GAWNCELY, sauce (f)or gose 

flesche (gawnsely, saunce, K. 

gavcely, s. gawnly, p.) 3 Ap- 

lauda, KYLW. 
GAWNT, or lene. Maciolentus, 

(maeer, p.) 
GAWNTE, or swonge (or slendyr, 

K.) 4 Gracilis. 
GEAWNT. Gigay. 
GEFFREY, propyr naroe. Gal- 

GEYNE, redy, or rythge forthe 

(ry3ht forth, s.) 5 Directus* 
GEYNEBYYN', or byyn' a^ene. 6 

GEYNECOWPYN', or chasyn', or 

12,323, and Troil. B. ii. It implies also an ornament or toy of little value. Sher- 
wood gives "a gaude, babiole," which Cotgrave renders " a trifle, whimwham, guigaw, 
or small toy for a child to play withal." See Jamieson, and Nares, v. Gaud. 

1 To gavel signifies in Norfolk, according to Forby, to collect mown corn into 
heaps, in order to its being loaded. " laveler, to swathe, or gavell corn; to make 
it into sheaves, or gavels." COTG. Moore gives the word likewise as used in Suffolk. 

2 The Myrica gale, Linn, sweet gale, or bog myrtle, grows in boggy places in 
many parts of England, and before drainage had been carried to any extent in the 
fenny Eastern counties, it was probably found in sufficient abundance to be commonly 
used as fuel. Gerarde says that the Myrtus Brabanticus, gaule, sweet willow, or 
Dutch myrtle, grows plentifully in sundry places, as in the Isle of Ely, and the fenny 
places thereabouts ; "whereof there is such store in that countrey, that they make 
fagots of it, and sheaues, which they call Gaule sheaues, to burn and heat their 
ovens." He mentions also that it was used to give an intoxicating quality to beer or 
ale, as it is still employed in Sweden. 

3 " Gaunselle, applauda." CATH. ANG. The composition of this sauce is thus given 
in Arund. MS. 344 ; printed in Household Ordin. 441 ; and Warner's Cookery, 65, 
" Gaunsell for gese. Take floure, and tempur hit with gode cowe mylke, and make hit 
thynne, and colour hit with saffron ; and take garlek, and stamp hit, and do therto, and 
boyle hit, and sew hit forthe." Caxton says, in the Book for Travellers, " Nycholas 
the mustard maker hath good vynegre, good gauselyn, gausailliede." The term is evi- 
dently derived from " gausse d'ail, a clove of garlick." COTG. The Ortus explains 
" applauda vel appluda, dicitur sorbitiuncula ex paleis facta, (a gaunselle," MED.) 
This Latin word properly means chaff of corn, or husks, but here is taken in reference 
to the gousses, or husk-like covering of the garlic. 

4 Ray mentions gant, slim or slender, among South and East country words. Forby 
gives ganty-gutted, lean and lanky ; and Moore says that gant signifies scanty in Suffolk. 
Ang.-Sax. gewant, part, of the verb gewanian, tabescere. See SWONGE hereafter. 

5 In the Eastern counties gain signifies handy, convenient or desirable, and in the 
North near, as " the gainest road," which seems most nearly to resemble the sense 
here given to the word. See Brockett, Jamieson, and Hartshorne's Glossary. 

6 In the later Wicliffite version Exod. vi. 6 is thus rendered; "y am J>e lord J>at 



stoppyn' in gate (geynstoppyn 

of gate, K. H. geyne cowpyn, 

or chary n, s.) 1 Sisto, CATH. 
GELDERE of beestys. Castrator. 
GELDYN'. Castro, testiculo , CATH. 

emasculo, CATH. 
GELDYNGE of beestys, or fowlys. 

GELDYNGE, or gelde horse (gelt 

horse, K. P.) Canterius, CATH. 

canterinus, UG. in cavo, et c. F. 

vel equus castratus. 
Hie caute attendat lector varia- 

ciones soni hujus litere G. cum 

videlicet E. vel I. sequitur im- 

GELLE, or gelly. Gelidum, c. F. 

(congelidum, P.) 
GELLYN, or congellyn' (to-gedyr, 

K.) Gelat, congelat. 
GELLYD (or congellyd, K.) Con- 

GELOWS, or geluce. Zelotipus, 

GELUSYE (gelowsye, K.) Zelo- 

tipia, CATH. 
GELT. Castratus. 
GELT MANN. Spado, eunuchus. 
GEMETRYE. Geometria. 
GENCYANE, or baldmony. Gen- 


GENDYR. Genus. 
GENDRYN'. Genero, gigno. 

(GENERAL, K. s. p.) Gen(er)alis. 

GENTYL. Generosus. 

GENTYL, of awncetrye (of an- 

sware, s.) 2 Ingenuus, c. F. 
GENT YL,and curteyse. Comis,c ATH. 
GEYTYLMANN. Generosus. 
GENTYL, be fadyr and modyr. 

Ingenuus, UG. v. in N. 
GENTRY. Generositas. 
GENTRY, of norture and maners 

(gentilnes, K. gentyll, p.) Co- 

GENTRY, of awncetrye (gentilnes, 

K. gentry of awncetrye, P.) In- 

GERFAUCUN (gerfawkyn, K. p.) 

GERMAWNDER, herbe. German- 

GERMYYNE, propyr name. Ger- 

GERNERE, howse of corne kepynge. 

GERTHE, hors gyrdylle (hors 

gyrdyng, H. P.) Cingula, CATH. 

cingulus est Tiominum, UG. 
GESSARE (or a soposare, K.) Es- 
GESSYN', or amyn. Estimo, ar- 

bitror, opinor. 
GESSYNGE (or wenyn, K.) Esti- 


schal lede out jou of J>e prisoun of Egipcians, and y schal delyuere fro seruage, and y 
schal a-jen bie in an hi} arm ; " in the earlier, " forbigge in an ouerpassynge arme ; " 
" redimam in brachio excelso." Vulg. In the Golden Legend it is said, " We have 
grete nede of a doctour, or techer, of ayenbyer, of a delyuerer," &c. Compare A-GAYN- 
BYER, or a raumsomere, and BYYN' a-jen'. 

1 Compare CHARYN, or geynecowpyn'. Ray gives among South and East country 
words, " to gaincope, to go cross a field the nearest way to meet with something." In 
the Promptorium it signifies opposition, in both instances from Ang.-Sax. Sean, olviam, 
adversus, and ceapian, negotiari. 

2 GENTYL, or awncetrye, MS. of auncetry, K. p. So also, GENTRY, or awncetrye, MS. 


Nota in hoc capitulo multiplicem 
sonum, et soni mutacionem 
hujus Utere G. et ideo bene 
caveas quod sonat per I. liter am. 

GEST, strawngere. Hospes. 

GEESTE, or romawnce. Gestio 
(gestus, CATH. P.) 

GESTYN* yn romawnce. 1 Gestio, 

GESTYNGE, or romawncynge. Ges* 
ticulatus, rythmicatus. 

GESTOWRE. Gesticulator. 

GET, or gyn' (gett, or gyle, K. 
gette, or gyty, s.) Machina. 

GET, or maner of custome. 2 Mo- 
dus, consuetudo. 

GEETE, or blake bedys (gett for 
bedys, K. s. p.) 3 Gagates, plur. 

1 It would hence appear that the recital of gests, the deeds of conflict or gallantry, 
which was the proper business of the gestour, was accompanied by appropriate action, 
or gesticulation. " Gestire, i. gestus facere, scilicet diversis modis agitare, gaudere, 
luxuriari, tyv.*." CATH. Hearne stated erroneously that gests were opposed to romance, 
Chron. Langt. pref. p. 37 ; a mistake which Warton has properly corrected. Chaucer 
uses "to geste," to relate gests; and "to tell in geste ;" Cant. T. 17,354, 13,861; 
and these passages apparently imply that gests were chiefly written in alliterative 
verse. He calls the Gesta Romanorum, "the Romain gestes." See Tyrwhitt's notes 
on Cant. T. 17,354, 13,775, and Warton's Eng. Poetry. " Gest, a tale. Gestyng, 
bourde, bourde." PALSG. 

2 Palsgrave gives "gette, a custome; newe iette, guise nouvelle." This phrase 
occurs often in the old writers. In a poem on the dissolute lives of the clergy, in the 
reign of Edw. II. Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, p. 329, some, it is said, 

" Adihteth him a gay wenche of the newe jet." line 118. 
" Yit a poynte of the new gett to telle wille 1 not blyn, 

Of prankyd gownes, and shulders up set, mos and flokkes sewyd wyth in. 5 ' 

Towneley Myst. 312. 

Chaucer says the gay pardoner thought he rode " al of the newe get," or fashion; 
and he also uses the word in the sense of crafty contrivance, where he relates the deceit 
practised by the Alchemist, by means of a stick filled with silver filings. 
" And with his stikke above the crosselet, 
That was ordained with that false get, 
He stirreth the coles." Chan. Yem. T. 16,745. 

3 It appears that in former times great virtues were attributed to jet. Alex. Nec- 
cham, Abbot of Cirencester, who died A.D. 1217, says in his work De RerumNatura, 
" Gagates . . . aqud ardet, oleo restinguitur : atiritu calefactus applicata detinet, 
atque succinum : ydropicis ilium portantibus beneficium prestat' 1 lib. ii. c. 97, Roy. 
MS. 12 G. xi. f. 53. The observation of the electric properties of this mineral led 
him in the succeeding chapter to make some detailed remarks " de vi atlractivd," 
among which will be found a notice of the use of the magnet by mariners. In Trevisa's 
version of Barth. de propr. rerum, are the following observations: "Gette hyght 
gagates, and is a boystous stone, and neuer the less it is precious." It is best and most 
abundant in Britain, of two kinds, yellow and black, both of which have by friction the 
power of attracting light substances. It drives away adders, relieves fantasies, and has 
virtues against the visits of fiends by night. " And so if so boystus a stone dothe so 
greate wonders, none shuld be dispisid for foule colour without, while the vertu that is 
hid within is vnknowe." lib. xvi. c. 49. It was also regarded as a test of virginity, and 
rendering signal aid in parturition ; these, and other properties, are noticed in Caxton's 
" Boke callid Caton," sign, e, viij. Even in the XVIth cent, it was valued for certain 
medicinal qualities ; for Dr. Turner, Dean of Wells, says in his Herbal, 1562, " Miscel 



GETARE of goodys. Adqui- 

GETTARE. 1 Gestulator, gestu- 

osus (gesticulator, K. H. p.) 
GETEE of a solere (gete, K. H. p.) 2 

Techa, procer, c. F. meniana, 

c. F. vel menianum, CATH. (hec- 

theca, K. theca, CATH. p.) 
GETYN', or haue be prayere. Im- 

GETYN* or wynnyn'. Lucror, ob- 

tineo, c. F. vel optineo, c. F. 

(GETYN, or begetyn, K. p.Genero.) 
GETTYN'. 3 Verno, lassivo, ges- 

ticulo, c. F. gestio, CATH. c. F. 

gesticuloTy UG. v. 
GETYNGE, or hauynge by wyn- 

nynge. Lucrum, adquisicio. 
GfiTTYNGEin iolyte. Gestus,CATH. 
(GIAWNT, supra in GEAUNT, K.) 
GYBBE, horse. 4 Mandicus, KYLW. 

et c. F. mandicum, UG. in 

mando (manducus, s.) 

burde lyme melteth a swelled milt, if it be sodden, and layd to wyth a gete stone, or the 
Asiane stone." Beads, used for the repetition of prayers, were frequently formed of 
this material ; thus among the gifts of Philip le Hardi to his daughter, on her marriage 
with the King of Bohemia, A.D. 1393, occurs, " Item, j paternostres de perles et de 
jayet, ou il y a xxxvj grosses perles, et ix enseignaulx d'or." Hist, de Bourg. iii. 
Alianor Duchess of Gloucester bequeaths, A.D. 1399, " un pare de paternostres d'ore, 
ont y xxx aviez, el iiij gaudes de get, qe fuerent d, mon seignour et marV Royal 
Wills. See also Testam. Ebor. i. 381. There is evidence that by some persons such 
beads were superstitiously regarded as gifted with extraordinary virtue ; and to this 
belief Bp. Bale appears to make allusion, Kynge Johan, p. 39. 

" Holy water and bredde shall dryve awaye the devyll; 
Blessynges with blacke bedes wyll helpe in every evyll." 

1 Palsgrave gives " Gettar, a braggar, fringuereau. lettar, a facer, facer, braggart. 
lettar of nyght season, brigveur;" and Cotgrave, " Fringuereau, a ietter, spruce 
minion, gay fellow, compt youth.'' Compare hereafter SCHAKERE, or gettare : lascivus. 

2 This term denotes the singular projection of the solars or upper stories in old tim- 
bered houses, of which most picturesque specimens are still seen at Chester, and other 
towns. " Proceres dicuntur capita trabium que eminent extra parietes. Hecteca 
dicitur solarium dependens parietibus cenaculi.'' ORTUS. The Catholicon explains 
menianum to be the same as solarium, so named from Menianus, who made in the 
Forum certain convenient places for beholding public spectacles. " Meniana, buildings 
outward in prospectes and galeries, especially when they be so builded that the edifice 
iutteth out in length from the piller or other part of the house, wherin the building 
especially resteth; buildings of pleasure hanging and iutting out.'' COOPER. Herman 
says that " buyldynge chargydde with iotyes (mceniana adificia) is parellous whan it is 
very olde." In Macbeth, act I. sc. vi. Shakespeare makes use of the term "jutty" 
in this sense, where Banquo commends the position of Macbeth's castle. Florio, in his 
Ital. Diet. 1598, gives " Barbacane, an outnooke, or corner standing out of a house, 
a jettie. Sporto, a porch, bay-window, or out-butting, or jettie of a house, that jetties 
out farther than anie other part of the house." Cotgrave renders " surpendue, a iettie, 
an outiutting roome. Soupendue, soupente, a pent-house, iuttie, or part of a building 
that iuttieth or leaneth ouer the rest." Steevens cites an agreement made by P. Hens- 
lowe for building a theatre in 1599, with " a juttey forwards in eyther of the two upper 

a See IETTYN, hereafter. 

4 Festus and Papias state that certain monstrous images that were exhibited in the 
games of the circus, or on the stage, were termed by the Romans, manduci. Cooper 



(GYBBE, infra in KNOBBE yn a 

beestys backe or breste.) 1 
GYBELET, idem quod GARBAGE. 
GYBELET of fowlys. Profectum, 

UG. v. 

GYBET. Patibulum, calafiircium. 
GYBONN, or Gylberde, propyr 

name (Gybbon', or Gylbert, s.) 

GYDE, or ledare. Ductor, duc- 

GYBELOT (gyglot, s.) 2 Ridax. 

GYYLDE, or newe ale (gile, K. 

gyyl, H. gyle of nw ale, s. gyle, 

p.) 3 Celium, vel celia, c. F. 
GYYLDE. GUda,fraternitas. 
GYLDE HALLE, dome howse. 

Pretorium, CATH. 
GYLDYN' wythe golde. Deauro, 
GYLDYNGE wythe golde. Deau- 


GYYN', or ledyn'. Duco. 
GYYN', or wyssyii' (dressyn, s. 

wysshen, p.) 4 Dirigo. 

gives " Manduces, images carried in pageantes with great cheekes, wide mouthes, and 
making a great noyse with their iawes." The Orlus lenders tl Memdicvt, a gaye 
horse," and Forby gives the following explanation of the term ; " Jibby-horse, a 
showman's horse decorated with particoloured trappings, plumes, streamers, &c. It 
is sometimes transferred to a human subject." In the MS. the word mandicum is 
placed under GYBELET ; but its proper place is here. See Uguc. Vocab. Arund. MS. 
508, f. 141, b. 

1 This word seems to be taken from the Lat. gibbus. " Gibbe, a bunch or swelling, 
a hulch, anything that stands poking out." COTG. 

2 Compare GYGELO(T) in the nest page. The words are retained as found in the MS. 
and the reading seems here to be an error, which is corrected by the Winch. MS. 

3 Forby gives " gyle, wort. Aug. -Sax. gylla, slridere, or Teut. ghijl, cremor cere- 
visii." Ray has gail or guile-fat, among IS. Country words, and it is given also by 
Brockett and Jatmeson. " A gilefatve, acromellurium." CATH. ANG. ID 1341 , Thos. 
Harpham, of York. bequeaths '' '<mam cimam, qvee vocuiur maske-fat, el ij parvas 
cunas qii(B vocan-tur gy'e-fatis." ii. 2. The term occurs repeatedly in 
the Wills and Invent, pnn'ced by the Suvtees Soc. ; and in tlie Tnveut. of Jane Hall, 
Durham, 1567, a distinction i& apparent between the " gile-howse," and the brew- 
house, the former being perhaps Ihe chamber where the wort was set to cool. See 
vol. i. 279. In the accounts of the building of Little Saxham Hall, 150), it is called the 
" yele house." Rokewode's Suff. 14G. See Invent, of Sir John Fasi:olfe's effects, 1459, 
Archseol. xxi. 27 7 ; Unton Invent, pp. 3, 13 ; and Hartshorne's Shropshire Gloss, v. Illfit. 

* In medieval Latin guiare signifies to lead or conduct in safety, to instruct, " quasi 
flare," according to Ducange. In the Ward. Book of 28 Edw. 1. there is a payment 
" pro vadiis unius Lodmanni conduct!, pro navi guiandd inter KircudbrUh et Karla- 
verok." p. 273. Roquefort gives " guier : mencr, guider, conduire a la guerre, gou- 
verner," &c. Chaucer uses the verb to gie, Cant. T. 15,604, 15,627. Gower says of 
the education of Alexander by Aristotle, 

" But yet he set an exam play re, 
His body so to guye and rule, 
That he ne passe mot the rule." Conf. Am. lib. vii. 

See also the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 1257. R. Brunne uses both the verb, and the noun 
" gyour," a leader ; and in the Romance of K. Alis. 6023, " divers gyours, and sump- 
teris " are mentioned as attending on his Eastern expedition. " Commino, to lede, or 
to gye." MED. Palsgrave gives the verb, " I gye, or gyde, Lydgate." 




GYYN', or rewlyn'. Rego. 
GYLE, or deceyte. Fraus, decepcio. 
GYLLE, fowle clothe (fulclothe, 

H. p.) 1 Melota,velmelotes,CATH. 
GYLLE, lytylle pot. Gilla, vel 

gillus, vel gillungulus. Hec ha- 

bentur in vitis patrum. 
GYLLE of a fysche. Branchia, 

senecia, CATH. 
GYLLYN', or gylle fysche. Ex- 

entero, c. F. et UG. in stateo. 
GYLLYNGE of fysche. Exente- 

GYGELO(T), wenche (gygelot, 

wynch, s.) 2 Agagula. 
GYLLOFRE, herbe. GariopTiilus 

(galiofolus, s.) 

(GYLLOFYR, clowe, K. p. Garie- 


GYLTE wy the golde. Deauratus. 
GYLTE, swyne, idem quod GALTE, 

GYLTE, or trespace (gylt, or de- 

faute, p.) Culpa, reatus. 
GYLTY (or defawty, K. fauty, P.) 

Reus, conscius, culpandus (cul- 

pabilis, P.) 
GYLTLES. Immunis, inculpan- 

dus (inculpabilis, P.) 
GYMELOT. Penetral, UG. v. pe- 

netrale, CATH. 
GYM OWE of a sperynge (gymmew, 

K. gymew, s. H.) 4 Vert(i)nella, 


1 The explanation of the word Melotes given in the Catholicon will be found in the 
note on the word BARNYSKYN, which seems to signify a coarse apron. 

2 Forby derives the East- Anglian appellation gig, a trifling, flighty fellow, from 
Ang.-Sax. gegas, nuyae. In the North giglet still signifies a laughing girl; the word 
occurs in " the Northern Mother's blessing," in admonition to her daughter, 

" Go not to the wrastling, ne shoting the cock, 

As it were a strumpet or a giglot." 

''Quomaffisfetosamuliermagisluxuriosa, y e fayrare woman y e more gyglott." De 
Reg. Gramm. Sloane MS. 1210, f. 134. See Junius, v. Giglet. Compare GYBELOT 
above, a word occurring in the Harl. MS. alone, and probably an erroneous reading. 

3 " A gilte, suella." CATH. ANG. A gilt, or gaut, signifies in the North a female 
pig that has been spayed ; see Grose, Brockett, and Jamieson. Bp. Kennett, in his 
Glossarial coll. gives " gaits and gilts, boai*pigs and sow-pigs, JBor. from old Dan. 
gallte, porcus. Sax. gilte, suilla." See Yorksh. Dial. p. 39. Any female swine is 
called a gilt in Staff. Lansd. MS. 1033. See Hartshorne's Shropshire Glossary. 

4 This word is still used in Norfolk, precisely in the sense that it has here. Forby 
gives " Gimmers, small hinges, as those of a box or cabinet, or even of the parlour 
door." A sperynge here denotes that by which a place is closed up, as a door or 
window, the lid of a chest, &c. The derivation of the word is doubtless from the 
French, gtmeaux, twins ; and the term applies properly not only to a hinge, composed 
of two portions, of exactly similar form and size, jointed together, but to anything else 
which is formed of twin -pieces of like dimension, united in any manner, either as a 
hinge or otherwise. In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, an expedient is 
described, to be used in a besieged fortress, against the battering ram : " Somm hathe 
an iren, made as it were a peire tonges, i-iemewde as tonges in the myddes," by which 
the head of the ram is seized, and turned aside. B. iv. c. 23. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. 
Among the disbursements for building Little Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, under smith's 
work are mentioned " iij pair of jemews for almerys," or cupboards, as many for portal 
doors, and a pair for the buttery windows. Rokewode's History of Suff. pp. 146, 149. 
Ray, among N. country words, gives " Jimmers, jointed hinges, in other parts called 
wing-hinges ; " and the term occurs in the Craven dialect, with the observation, that 



(GYN', idem quod GET, supra.) 1 
GYNGELYN* in sowndynge. Re- 

sono, Dice. 
GYNGELYNGE of gay barneys, or 

ober thyngys. JResonancia. 
GYNGERE. Zinziber, CATH. 
GYPCYERE (gypsere, K. gypcer, 

H. p.) 2 Cassidile. 
GYRDYLLE. Zona, cingulum, 

CATH. succentorium. 

GYRDYN'. Cmgo,succingo,CATH. 
ubisic Jiabetur ; accingimur bel- 
laturi, precingimur ituri, et 
succingimur ministraturi. 

GYRDYNGE. Succinctio. 

GYSE. forma, modus. 

GYSERNE(O fowles, p^) idem quod 


GYSERNE, wepene (wepone, K. 
vepne, H.) 3 Gesa, C^TH. 

" being often formed like the letter H, they are called H. jimmers." In the Ortus the 
term denotes a pair of forceps, " Vertinella est forceps medici, a sclyce, or a gemowe ; " 
and it frequently occurs as the name of a kind of ring formed of two interlinked portions, 
which could be united into one connected ring, and frequently used as a token of be- 
trothal. See Nares, Brand's Popular Ant. and Archaeol. xiv. 7. Palsgrave has " Gymewe 
of a gyrdell, crochet tfune troussure. Gymell song, jumeau ; " and Higgins, in his edi- 
tion of Huloet's Diet, gives " Gimow (or gemoll) a little rynge to weare on the fynger. 
Gimmow (or gemoll) or rynge to hange at one's eare, as the Egyptians have, Stalog- 
nium, inauris. Gimmow of a door, Vertibulum, cardo / le gond d'un huisS' " Quin- 
quaillerie, all kinds of small yron worke, as padlockes, snuffers, gimmers, or hindges 
for doors, &c. Alliances, gimmoules, or gimmoule rings. Souvenance, a ring with 
many hoops, whereof a man lets one hang down, when he would be put in mind of a 
thing. Verge, a plain hoope, or gimmall, ring. Memure d'esperon, the gimmew or 
ioynt of aspurre." COTG. " Gemmew ring, souvenance." SHERW. " Annulus purns, 
an hoope ring, a gimmall, a plaine ring without a stone." Junius's Nomenclator, by 

1 A gin signifies, according to the old writers, a cunning or deceitful device, and 
thence an ingeniously constructed machine of any kind. Chaucer uses the word in 
both senses ; thus the crafty trick of the Alchemist, which is termed " a false get," as 
has been observed in the note on the word GET, is called also " a false gin." In the 
Squire's T. it is related that the magical steed of brass would bear its rider at pleasure, 

" And turne again with writhing of a pin ; 
He that it wrought, he coude many a gin." 

In the Golden Legend, the wiles of Satan are termed " gynnes of temptacyon." Life of 
St. Bernard. In the Romance of Coer de Lion warlike machines are termed gins ; as 
they are continually in Trevisa's version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. " Troclea, 
the gyn, whyche is called a crane." ELYOT. See Hartshorne's Shropshire Glossary. 
" Exostra, a vice or gin of wood, wherewith such things as are done within, out of 
sight, are shewed to the beholders, by the turning about of wheeles." Junius's No- 
menclator, by Fleming. 

2 This word is a corruption of the French " Gibbeciere, a pouch, bag, poake, budget," 
COTG. properly such as was used in hawking, &c. but commonly worn by the merchant, 
or with any secular attire. Chaucer says of the Frankelein, or country gentleman, 

" An anelace and gipsere all of silke 

King at his girdle, white as morow milke." 

In the Invent, of valuables, the property of Henry V. A.D. 1423, is enumerated "j 
gipcer de noier velvet, garniz d'or, pris, 66s. 8d." Rot. Parl. iv. 215. 

3 " A gesarne, gesa." CATH. ANG. " Gesa, gysserne." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 


GYYSTE, balke. 1 Trabes, trabe- 
cula, COMM. 

GYTERNE. 2 Samba) citolla. Dice. 

Gesa is, according to the Catholicon, "genus armorum quod Gallice dicitur ffisarma, 
a gero, vel cesa, a ccedendo : et sunl gase vel cese Gallorum, pila Romanorum." In the 
curious Dictionary of John de Garlandia, printed in the Collection of documents re- 
lating to French history, Paris, 1337, there is an enumeration of weapons and engines 
of war, used at the siege of Toulouse, iii 1213 : the writer says that he saw "secures, 
bipennes, calhagesa Gallicorum. calheias ei pugiones, cum dolonibus, avelancius Angli- 
corvm (anelucias, al. MS.) pila Romano-rum, fyc." The MS. at Rouen gives the fol- 
lowing reading, " sec-ares Dachas, jesa Gallicorum." But, although the gi sarnie seems 
in these passages to be appropriated as a Gaulish weapon, Wace, in the Roman de 
Rou, written about 1160. repeatedly describes the English in Harold's army as 
armed with sharp gisannes and IIP relicts, whereas their opponents fought with long 
lances and swords. See I'm. 12.903. 12,923, 13,437. It may be observed, however, 
that on the Bayeux tapestry the Saxons are represented as combating with the heavy 
axe, but no weapon appeals which resembles the gisarme. In the Royal mandate, 36 
Hen. III. 1252. printed by Wats at the end of his edition of M. Paris, the sheriffs are 
commanded to assemble all persons from vhe age of 15 to 6'0, and cause them "jurare 
ad arma," according to the amount of their .lands and chattels : those who were rated 
under 40 shillings land, or from 40 shillings to 10 marks chattels, "jurati suntadfalces, 
ffisarntas, euUcllos et alia c-rma minvtla." From this document, and tbe stat. Wint. 
13 Edw. 1. c. 6, 1285. it is apparent that the gisarme was one of the weapons in ordi- 
nary use among the inferior ranks of the English army. See Stafc. of Realm, i. 97. A 
curious description of the conflict of the King of Niniveh. armed with " gysarme and 
sweord botbe," occurs in the Romance of Kyug Alis. line 2J02. See also Havelok, 
2553; Ritson's Metr. Rom. ; Chafer, R. of Rose. 59/3. The gisarme was used in 
England as late as ihe battle of F.I odd en, 1513 ; it was of two kinds, according to Sir 
S. Meyrick, namely, the glaive gisarme, and the bill gisarme ; the distinctive mark of 
the weapon being a spike rising at the back, as may be seen in Grose's Armour, pi. 28, 
and Skelton's Illustr. of the Armoury at Goodrich Court, ii. pi. 84, 85. 

1 This seems to be the same word which is now written joist, derived from the 
French gisle, and denoting a beam, so called from gisir t to rest, to lie along. " Gyst 
that gothe over the, sotive, gisle." PAI.SG. " Trades, a traho, quia de und 
parie parieiis ad allam irolnlvr, a beme, or balke of a house. 5 ' ORTUS. 

* The gyterne, getron, or cittern, Fr. guild-tie, was a stringed instrument, which 
seems, from the repeated mention that is made of it by Chaucer, to have been much in 
favour, probably as an accompaniment to the voice, in the Lar. Eng. vocabulary, Roy. 
MS. 17 C. XVII. are given "gigf, getyrne : gigdor, getymer." f. 43, b. Amongst 
the curious representation* of musical instruments in Sloane MS. 3983, t. Edw. II. 
f. 13, the harp is called " ffiya 9el &#," but the same is named "arpes," f. 4, b. ; 
with the former there is seen an instrument with five strings, and the head recurved, 
which perhaps exhibits the form of the gyterne at that early period. In default of any 
positive information on the obscure subject of the early history of music, it may be 
stated, conjecturally, that the gyterne is the instrument which w^sheld in an horizontal 
position, and played either by hand or with a plectrum, as may be seen in almost every 
representation of the angelic choir, whether in sculpture, painted glass, or illuminated 
MSS. The minstrels' gallery on the N. side of the nave, at Exeter Cath., sculptured 
in the reign of Edw. IJI. may be noticed as a remarkable instance. In Hawkins' Hist, 
of Music, iv. 113, a figure is given of the cittern, from Merseunus. Harmonic Univer- 
selle, 1636, which represents an instrument with six strings, differing from the Spanish 
guitar in the pear-shaped form of the belly. It was little esteemed, and chiefly used in 



GYTONE. 1 Conscisorium, KYLW. 

GYVYS, or feterys of presone 
(fettirs of prison, p.) Compes. 

GLACYN, or make a by(n)ge to 
shyne. 2 Pemitido, polio. 

GLACYNGE, or scowrynge of bar- 
neys. Pernitidacio, perluci- 

(GLASINGE in scornynge, H. p. 

GLACYNGE, or wronge glydynge 
of boltys or arowys (glansyng, 
s. glaunsinge of shetinge, p.) 

GLAD, or mery. Jocundus, letus, 

GLAD, and gretely mery. Jo- 

cosus, gaudiosus. 
GLADYS', or cheryn'. Hillaro, 

exhillaro, letifico. 
GLADLY, or blebely. 3 Libenter^ 

hillariter, letanter (voluntarie, 

GLADLY, or ioyfully. Gaudiose, 

GLADNESSE. Jocunditas, Tiilla- 

ritas, leticia. 
GLADONE, herbe. 4 Gladiolus, 

places of lewd resort, or barbers' shops. See Nares, v. Cittern. Elyot renders "fidi- 
cula, a rebecke, or a gytterne ; '' and Fleming, in his version of Junius, gives " lyricus, 
lyricen, fidicen tyrce, a player vpon the lute or cyterne." "A gitterne, cistre, quiterne, 
giterne, guiterre. A small gitterne, mandore." SHERW. 

1 A GYTONE, or guidon, is the name of a sort of banner, or streamer, called in Latin 
ffuido, which Ducange derives from guida, a guide. Guidon has been supposed to be a 
corruption of gulde-homme ,- and is written " guydhome " in Had. MS. 2258, where it 
is stated that its length was to be 2 or 3 yards : " euery standard and guydhome to 
have in the chief the crosse of St. George, to be slitte at the ende, and to conteyne 
the creste or supporter, with the posey, worde, and device of the owner." From Harl. 
MS. 838, it appears that every baronet or superior estate should display a banner, if he 
were chief captain ; every knight a pennon, and " euery squier or gentleman his getoun 
or standard." It is also directed that both the last should be slit at the extremity, 
whence probably the getoun was called conscisorium, as given above. In the contempo- 
rary poem descriptive of the siege of Rouen, A.D. 1415, it is said, 

" There was many a getoun gay, 
With mychille and great array." line 1214. 

See Sir Fred. Madden's note on this line, Archseol. xxii. 396 ; and Retrosp. Rev. i. 511, 
N.S. It appears that a gytone was not only carried in the field, but attached to the 
mast of a ship ; thus, in a bill of expenses for the Earl of Warwick, A.D. 1437, is a 
charge, " Item, a gyton for the shippe, of viij yardis longe, poudrid full of raggid 
staves, for the lymmyng and workmanship ij *.'' Dugd. Warw. In the Will of John, 
Baron de Graystok, A.D. 1436, is this bequest: " lego pro mortuario meo optimum 
equum cum totd armaturd med, cotearmour, penon, et gyton', &c." t Wills and Inv. i. 85, 
Surtees Soc. Palsgrave gives " Guyderne, a baner in a felde, guidon: Gyderne, 
guidon .-" and Cotgrave has " guidon, a standard, ensigne, or banner, under which a 
troop of men of arms do serve ; also he that bears it." 

2 This word seems to have implied not only to furbish arms, or armour, but, by 
means of some kind of varnish, to preserve the polish from rust. Sir John Paston 
gives the following direction ; " As for my byll that is gylt, I wolde it were taken head 
to ; there is von in the town can glaser weel I nowe, and ellys late it be weel ovlyd.'* 
Palsgrave gives the verb " I glase a knyfe to make it bright ; iefourbis." 

3 Bleyely, MS. 

* " Gladyne, gladiolus, quedam herba." CATH. ANG. The name gladwyn now de- 



c. F. accorus, accolus, c. F. iris, 

C. F. 


NESSE (gladsunnesse, H.) 
GLARYN', or bryghtly shynyn' 

(bryt shynyn, K.) Rutilo (elu- 

cido, elumino, P.) 
GLASSE. Vitrum. 
GLASSE WRYTE (glaswrygh, K. 

wryth, H. wry3the, s.) Vitrarius. 
GLASY, or glasyne, or made of glas 

(glasyn of glasse, p.) Vitreus. 
GLASYN' wythe glasse. Vitro, vel 


GLEYME, or rewme. 1 Reuma. 
GLEYME of knyttynge,or byy(n)d- 

ynge to-gedyrs (kuttynge or 

byndinge, H.cuttinge, p.) 2 Limns, 

gluten, glucium. 

GLEYMOWSE, or fulle of rewme. 

GLEYMYN', or yngleymyn'. Visco, 

GLEYMOWS, orlymows. Limosus, 

viscosus, glutinosus. 
GLEYMOWSENESSE, or lymow(s)- 

nesse. Limositas, viscositas. 
GLEMYN, or lemyn', as fyyr. 

GLEMYN, or lemyn', as lyghte. 

GLEMYNGE, or lemynge of lyghte 

(lyjth, K.) Conflagracio,jlam- 

GLEYRE of eyryne, or oj>er lyke 

(gleyere, K. gley3yr of eyre, H. 

gley3yer' of eyr', p.) 3 Glarea, 

c. F. 

notes only the Iris foetid issima, Linn., but probably the more common species, Iris 
Pseud-acorus, may be here intended. In Mr. Diamond's MS. version of Macer, it is 
said, '* Gladen is y-clepid in Englisshe, iris in Latin, for his floure ha)> a colour like >e 
raynebowe . . Take J?e rootis of J>is erbe, and kyt hem in rounde gobetis, and ryfe hem 
vpon a )>rede, so )>at none of hem touche oj?er, if j?ou wilt drye hem." The virtues of 
this root are numerous, taken with wine, mead, or vinegar ; the following is curious, as 
a cosmetic. " Do take ij parties of >is pouder of gladen rotys, and J>e iij part of J>e 
poudre of ellebre, )>at some men clepen cloffynnge, and medele bo}>e Jnse poudres to-gider 
in hony. A plaster of HS wole purge and dense )>e face of frekelis, also it wole resolue 
the pockys, and whelkys of be face." Elyot renders " Xyphium, an herbe lyke the 
blade of a sworde, gladen ; it is also called Xyris ; " and Cotgrave gives " Glayeul, 
corne-sedge, corn-gladen, right gladen, gladen, glader, sword-grasse." 

1 In a medical treatise, Cott. MS. Jul. D. vin. f. 119, b. a pottage composed of 
gentian, tormentil, fennel, and honey, is directed to be given " for a gleymede stomak, 
J>at may no3t kepe mete." 

2 Byy(n)dynge to-gedyys, MS. " Viscus, gleme, or lyme." ORTUS. Compare CLAM', 
or cleymows ; where the other MSS. read gleymous. " Visqueux, clammy, cleaving, bird- 
lime-like, lotteux, claggy, clammy, cleaving. Glazeux, clammy, fat, clayish." COTG. 

3 " La glaire d'un ceuf, the white of an egge. Aubin d'vn ceuf, the white or gleare 
of an egge." COTG. In the Cant. Tales, the Chanon's yeoman, enumerating the num- 
berless requisites employed in alchemy, mentions 

11 Unsleked lime, chalke, andgleire of an eye." 

In a curious MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, concerning the craft of 
limning, is the following recipe. " To couche gold : take gleyere, and safferoun grounde, 
and couche on thy golde, whyle hit is moyste." Fox relates that one Margery Backster, 
being accused of heresy, thus declared her opinion of images ; " lewd wrights of stocks 
hew and forme such crosses and images, and after that, lewd painters gleere them with 



GLENAR of corne. Spicator, con- 
spicator, spicatrix. 

(GLENE, K. H. p. 1 Spicatum, 

GLENYNGE. Conspicacio. 

GLYARE, or goguleye (gloyere, or 
gogyl eye, s. gogyll iye, p.) 2 
Limusy c. F. strabo, c. F. et 
CATH. strabus, CATH. straba, 
hirquicallus, CATH. et UG. v. 

GLYDARE. Serptor, serptrix, 
c. F. (graditor, p.) 

GLYDERYN'. Rutilo. 

GLYDYN'. Serpo (gradior, p.) 

GLYDYNGE. Serpcio, gressus. 

(GLYYNGE, K. H. p. Strabositas.) 

GLYMERYN'. Radio. 

GLYMERYNGE of lyghte (lyjt, K.) 
Lucubrum, c. F. et CATH. 

GLYSTERY, orglystere(glisere, K.) 
glistere, c. F. 

GLOFFARE, or devowrare, 3 De- 
vorator, vorator, lurcus, UG. in 

GLOFFYNGE, or devowrynge. De- 
voracio, voracio, lurcatus. 

GLORYFYYN'. Glorifico. 

GLORYYN', or wythe onclene bynge 
defoylyn' (wyth ony on-clene 
thyng defowlyn, s. with foule 
thinge to defylyn, p.) Ma- 
culo, deturpo. 

GLORYOWSE. Gloriosus. 

GLORYOWSNESSE. Gloriositas. 

GLOSARE of textys. Glosator. 

GLOSAR, and flaterere. Adulator. 

GLOSE of a boke. Glosa. 

GLOSE textys, or bookys. Gloso. 

GLOSYN', or flateryn'. 4 Adulor, 
blandior, CATH. 

GLOSYNGE, or expownynge. Glo- 

colours.'* The French word glaire has also, according to Cotgrave, the signification of 
" gravell, sand, and small pible stones, or sand mingled with stones ; also a whitish and 
slimy soil," in Latin glared; hence it is said in Caxton's Mirrour of the World, part ii. 
c. 85, that " by Acres the cyte is founden a maner of sande, and there is founden also 
of the glayre of the see, whicheben medled to gydre, and of thyse twomyxtyons is made 
good glasse and clere." Bosworth derives glare from A.-S. glsere, pellucidum quidvis. 

1 " Arista est spica, an ere of corne or a glene." ORTUS. " An evene of corne." MED. 
" A glene, arista, conspica. Gloy, spicamentum.'" CATH. ANG. A glene seems to be 
here put for that which is gleaned, from the Fr. glane, the corn left for the gleaner. 
" A glean, a handfull of corne gleaned and tied up by the gleaner, or reaper. Kent." 
Bp. Kennett's Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033. The Medulla gives, " Conspico, to 
glene, or els to gadyre songles. Aristor, i. colligere spicas, to glene, or to gadre 
songles." MS. Cant. Mr. Wilbraham gives songow, used in this sense in Cheshire. 

2 Gogyrleye, MS. " A gleer, limus, strabo, obliquus" CATH. ANG. Skinner gives 
the verb to gly as used in Lincolnshire, signifying to squint, or look askance, possibly, 
he observes, from Ang.-Sax. glowan, candescere, " q. d. incensis et prae ird flamman- 
tibus oculis conspicere." See Jamieson, v. Gley. Compare GOGULEYE, hereafter. 

3 In the Vision of Piers Ploughman the word " glubbere " occurs in this sense, line 
5274 ; " y-glubbed," line 31 65, meaning gorged with liquor ; and in the Crede, " glop- 
pynge of drynke," line 184. 

4 " To glosse, ubi to fage. To glose, glosare, glosulareS* CATH. ANG. The verb 
to glose occurs in this sense in the later Wicliffite version, in which Judges xiv. 15 is 
rendered "glose thin hosebonde (blandire viro tuo." Vulg.) In the earlier version 
this verse is thus given, "faage to thi man, and meue hym that he shewe to thee 
what bitokeneth the probleme." This signification of FAGYN' has been noticed above. 



GLOSYNGE, or flaterynge. Adu- 

GLOTONE. Gluto, CATII. epulus, 

KYLW. epulo (vorax, nebula, p.) 
GLOTONYE. Gula, crapula. 
GLOVARE. Cirothecarius. 
GLOVE. Cirotheca. 
GLOWYN',ashoote yryne. Candeo, 

GLOWYNGE of hoote fyre, or yryn, 

or ober lyke (of hote fyre yron, 

p.) Candor, CATH. corusca- 

cio, CATH. 

GLU, of festynge. Viscus. 
GLU, or mynstralcye (glw, K. gle, 

p.) 1 Musica, armonia, c. F. 
GLWYN'. Visco. 
GLUYNGE to-gedyr. Congluti- 

nacio, cunviscacio, CATH. 
GLUYNGE MATERE, as paste, or 

ober lyke bat gluythe ij thyngys 

to-geder. Gluten, c. F. glu- 

tinum, c. F. 

GLUM AN, or mynstral (glwman, K. 
gleman, p.) Musicus, musica. 
GLUSCARE, idem quod GLYARE. 2 

K. p. Strabositas.*) 
(GNASTE of a candel, infra in 

GNASTYN'(gnachyn, K.) 3 Fremo, 

strideo, CATH. 
GNASTYNGE (gnachynge, K.) 

GNAWYN',orgnavyn, or fretyn' vn- 

gentely wythe tetfte (wheten with 

the teethe, p.) Rodo, corrodo. 
GNAWYNGE, or fowle bytynge. 

GOOARE. Ambulator, viator, 

GOARE on fote, idem quod FOTE- 

MANN, supra in F. 
GOBET, lumpe. Frustrum, massa. 
GOBET, parte. 4 Pars. 

1 Glu, or glee, denotes properly, as Sir W. Scott observes, the joyous science of the 
minstrel, which was called in Ang.-Sax. glrg, and the musician gligman, an appellation 
that denoted also the player, orjoculalor. See Bp. Percy's Essay on Minstrels, Sir 
Tristrem, Havelok the Dane, Jamieson, &c. In the vision of Piers Ploughman a sin- 
gular comparison occurs, doubtless used proverbially, as an analogous expression is at 
the present time. Gloton, having drank deep, till his legs totter, is said to go 

" Lik a gle-mannes bicche, 
Som tyme aside, 
And som tyme arere." line 3180. 

2 GLUSTARE, MS. Forby explains glusky as signifying sulky in aspect. 

3 " Strideo,fortiter sonare, horribilem sonum facere, to gnayste. Stridor, gnast- 
ynge." ORT. "To gnaste,/rezere, est furorem mentis usque ad vocis tumultum ex- 
citare ; frendere, est proprie denies concutere. A gnastynge, fremor, est hominum, 

fremitus bestiarum." CATH. ANG. " To gnaste or gnasshe with the tethe, grincer. 
Gnastyng of the tethe, strideur, ffrincemenL'' PALSG. In the Wicliffite version this 
word is of frequent occurrence. 

4 The word gobbet formerly implied not only a lump, but generally a piece or por- 
tion of anything. In the Wicliffite version, iv. Kings, 20, 7, is thus rendered ; " And 
Isaie seide, bringe 36 to me a gobet of figis (massam ficorum, Vulg.) ; and whan >ei 
hadden brou3t it, and hadden putte it on his bocche, he was heelid." Among the curious 
relics that were carried about by the Pardoner, 



GOBET, of a thynge kutte (of 

cuttynge, K. p.) Scissura. 
GOBET, of a broke thynge (of hole 

thinge, p.) F ragmen, frag- 

mentum, c. F. 
GODDE. Deus. 
GOODE. Bonus. 
GODE, idem quod GADE, supra. 
GoDFADYR. 1 Patrinus, CATH. 

(patrius, compater, K. p.) 
GODHED. Deltas. 
GOODLY. Benignus, benevolus. 
GOODELY, adv. Benigne, bene- 

GOODLYNESSE. Benignitas, be- 


GODMODYR. Matrina, materna, 


GODSON', or gosson' (godsune, or 

gosson, s. cossone, H.) Filiolus, 


GOD 3ATE (God3ote, K. Good3oth, 

H. Godwolde, p.) 2 Utinam. 
GOGULEYE, supra, idem quod 

GLYARE (gogyleyid, limus, 

strabO) K. gogelere, s. gogyl 

iye, p.) 3 
GOIONE of a poleyn' (goyvn off a 

polene, HARL. MS. 2274. ) 4 Ver- 

tibulum, c. F. cardo. 

" He saied, he had a gobbet of the saile 
That Sainct Peter had, when that he went 
Upon the sea, till Jesu Christ him hent." Cant. T. Prol. 

Sir John Maundevile says of the apples of Paradise, growing in Egypt, "and thoghe 
366 kutte hem in never so many gobettes or parties, overthwart, or end-longes, evere- 
more jee schulle fynden in the myddes the figure of the Holy Cros." p. 60. " Gleba, a 
gobet of erthe." MED. " Gobbet, a lumpe, or a pece, monceau, lopin, chanteauS 1 
PALSG. The derivation appears to be from " Gobeau, a bit, gobbet, or morsell." COTG. 

1 " A goffe, ubi a godefader. A gome, ubi a godmoder." CATH. ANG, In the North 
gofF signifies a fool, according to Brockett and Jamieson. Cotgrave gives " commere, 
a she-gossip, or godmother, a gomme," but the term appears to be now obsolete. 

2 The interjection Goddot, Goddoth, occurs frequently in Havelok the Dane : Sir F. 
Madden, in his Glossary appended to that curious poem, supposes it to be a corruption 
of God wot ! formed in the same manner as Goddil for God's will, in Yorkshire and 
Lancashire ; a conjecture which appeared to be confirmed by the following passage, 
where it is related that Havelok made a vow to found a priory, 

" And therof held he wel his oth, 

For he it made, God it woth ! " line 2527. 

The word, it is further observed, appears to have been limited to Lincolnshire or Lan- 
cashire, and a single instance of its occurrence is cited from a poem written in the 
former county, t. Edw. I. From the form, however, of the word, as it occurs in the 
Promptorium, the derivation appears to be more obviously from A.-S. geatan, concedere. 

3 This term occurs in the Wicliffite version, Mark ix. 46 ; "If thin yghe sclaundre 
thee, caste it out ; it is bettre to thee to entre gogil-yghed (luscum, Vulg.) into the 
rewme of God, than have tweyne yghen," &c. Palsgrave gives among the adverbs, " a 
goggell, en louchet. Goggle-eyed man, lovche." Junius thinks it may be derived from 
A.-S. scegl egede, strabo. 

4 In some parts of England a piece of projecting iron at each end of a roller, which 
connects it with the frame, is still called a gudgeon, from the Fr. " goujon, the pin 
which the truckle of a pulley runneth on ; also the gudgeon of the spindle of a wheele." 
COTG. Among the expenses of Thos. Lucas, Sol. Gen. to Hen. VII. in building Little 




G(O)IONE, fysche. Gobius, gobio. 

(golnus, P.) 
GOLDE. Aurum. 
GOOLDE, herbe. 1 Solsequium, 

quia sequitur solem, elitropium, 

GOLDEFYNCHE, byrde. Cardu- 

elis, KYLW. 
GooLVFUYLE)SUpra(in FULE,gold- 

fule, K.) Bratea, inplur.cATH. 
GOLDSMYTH. Aurifaber. 
GOLET, or throte. Guttur, gluma, 

gula, Dice. 
GOLFE of corne. 2 Archenium, 

KYLW. et COMM. acervus (ar- 

conium,K. arthonium, tassis, P.) 
<JOLYON, garment (clothe, p.) 3 

Gunella, gunellus. 
GOLVYN', or gob on'. Arconiso. 
GCME yn'mannys mowthe (goomys, 

s.) Gingiva, vel gingive, plur. 
GOON'. Ambulo, pergo, vado, io, 
gradior (meo y eo, transio, p.) 

GOON a-bowtyn', or w(h)yryllyn 

(wyrlyllyn, s.) Circino. 
GOON a-forne. Precede. 
(GooN aftyr, s. Succedo.) 
GOON a-wey. jRecedo, discedo. 
Goo be-hynde, or folow (gon be- 

hyndyn, or folwyn, K.) . Se~ 

quor (retrogradior, P.) 
Goo downe. Descendo, CATH. 
Goo foorthe. Procedo. 
Goo forthe yn a iurneye. Profi- 

GOON yn to a place. Introio, in- 

GOON on fote (gon afote, K.) Pe- 

dito, c. F. 

GOON owte. Exio> egredior. 
Goo slowly. Lento, c. F. 
Goo to, and be-gyn' a dede. Ag- 

Goo to pryvy, or to shytyfi. 

Goo wronge. Devio, deliro. 

Saxham Hall, A.D. 1507, are these items among smiths' work ; " for goions and colars, 
with ij stireppis for my bruge, weiyng 36^ Ib." These were probably for suspending a 
drawbridge. Rokewode's Suff. p. 150. 

1 The plant here intended is perhaps the corn marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum, 
Linn, called in the North, goulans, guilde, or goles, and in the South golds. See Ray 
and Jamieson. The virtues of " gowlde" are detailed in the curious metrical treatise 
of herbs, Sloane MS. 1571, f. 26, b. Dr. Turner says that "Ranunculus is called in 
English crowfoot or kingeux, or in some places a gollande." Herbal, part ii. Nares 
states that gold is the cudweed, or mothwort, Gnaphalium Germanicum, Linn. 

2 A rick of corn in the straw laid up in a barn is called inNorfolk, according to Forby, 
a goaf; every division of the barn being termed a goaf-stede : to goave signifies to stow 
corn therein. See also Ray and Moore. Tusser uses the verb to gove, to make a mow 
or rick ; see August's Husbandry, st. 23. In a short Latin-Eng. Vocabulary of XVth 
cent, written apparently at Creak, in Norfolk, Add. MS. 12,195, occur " Gelimo, to 
golue. Inyelimum, golfe." Palsgrave gives " goulfe of corne, so moche as may lye 
bytwene two postes, otherwyse a baye." 

" a Roquefort gives " gotton,sorte ff habit de guerre ;" but in the Promptorium golyon 
and gown seem to be almost synonymous, both being rendered by the Latin gunellus, 
a diminutive of gunna. The term is used by Gower, where he relates the exchange of 
garments made by Hercules and lole, in order to deceive Faunus. 
" He hath hir in his clothes clad, 
And cast on hir his golion, 
Whiche of the skin of a lion 
Was made." Conf. Am. lib. v. 


GOONGE, preuy. 1 Cloaca, latrina. 
GOONGE fyrmar (gongefowar, 

K. H. s. feyar, p.) 2 Cloacarius, 

latrinarius, COMM. 
GOO(N)GE hoole. Gumphus, NECC. 

GORE, or slory. 3 Limus, tessequa, 


GOORD. Cucumer, cucurbita, col- 

GOORE of a clothe. 4 Lacinia, c. F. 

1 This word occurs in the glosses on G. de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220, as the 
rendering offoreyn, a place retired, a " withdraught," as it was called, 

" Vn maueys vint en maforere (an heuedlond,) 
Ou par despit fist foreyn hier (gonge.)" 

Hence the term " chambre forene," which is used by Robert of Glouc. In the Seuyn 
Sages it is related that a father and son went together to commit a robbery, and the 
father falling into a pit, bid his son cut off his head, that he might not be recognized. 
He carried the head away to conceal it, 

"But als he com bi a gong, 

Amidde the pit he hit slong." line 1315. 

Fabyan gives the following tale, 43 Hen. III. " In this yere fell that happe of the 
Jewe of Tewkysbury, whiche fell into a gonge vppon the Saterdaye, and wolde not for 
reuerence of his sabbot day be plucked out ; wherof heryng the Erie of Glouceter, that 
the Jewe dyd so great reuerence to hys sabbot daye, thought he wolde do as myche to 
his holydaye, whych was Sondaye, and so kept hym there tyll Monday, at which 
season he was found dede.'' The Medulla gives " Birsa, cloaca, a gonge ; " and Pals- 
grave ''Gonge, a draught, ortrait." A.-S. gong, gang-settl, gang-pytte, gang-tun, latrina. 

2 " Gonge farmer, maister de basses cevures, guigueron, cvrevr d'ortraitz. I ferme 
a siege, or priuy, Vescure. Neuer come to your newe house, tyll your seges or priuyes 
be fermed, tant que vousayezcurelesorttrays.^ PALSG. Thomas, in his Ital. Gramm. 
1548, gives " Piombino, a certein instrument of leade, that the gongfermours use." 
" Gadouard, a gould-finder, jakes-farmer, feyer ofpriuies. Maistre phy phy, a jakes 
feyer, who hath often occasion enough to say, phy." COTG. Bp. Kennett gives the 
following note in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033 : " To farm, to cleanse or empty, 
Bor. Oxfordshire ; as, to farm kine, to farm a stable or cow-house ; from Sax. feormian, 
puraare, whence the cleansers of jakes or privies are in some places called jakes-farmers.'' 
Compare FOWAR, FOWYN, and FYIN. 

3 Flory, MS. Slush and gore are generally mentioned together in Norfolk, as Forby 
observes, the former expressing the thin, the latter the thick part of the mire. Ang.-Sax. 
gor, lutum. Brockett gives gor, in the Northern Dialect. 

" For gore and fen, and full wast, 
That was out y-kast, 

Togydere they gadered, Y wys.'' Lybeaus disconus, line 1471. 

4 Lacinia is explained in the Catholicon to be " veslis lacerata, vel ora sive extre- 
mitas vestimenti ; " to which the following addition is made in the Ortus, " vel nodus 
clamidis, a hemme of clothe, or a gore, or a trayne." G. de Bibelesworth says, 

" Car par deuaunt avez eskours (lappes,) 
Et d'encoste sont vos girouns (sidgoren.)" 

This word is used repeatedly by Chaucer, and Tyrwhitt observes that its meaning was 
not intelligible. It seems, however, to imply a slit in a garment, whereby a piece is 


(GoRSTYS TRE,orqwycetre,;mjra 

in FYRRYS.) 1 

GOOSE. Auca. 

GOSYS ORES, or camoroche, or 

wylde tanzy. 2 Camaroca, vel 

tanasetum agreste. 

GOSHAWKE. Aucipiter, herodius. 
GOSHERDE. Aucarius, aucaria. 


GOSSYP, mann. 3 Compater, c. F. 
(GosYp. woman, s. p. Commater.) 
GOSPEL. Evangelium. 

either inserted or taken away, so as to widen or contract it ; thus the attire of the Car- 
penter's young wife is described, who wore 

" A barm-cloth, as white as morwe milk, 

Upon her lendes, ful of many a gore." Miller's T. 3237. 

Here it doubtless signifies that her apron was gathered in with numerous plaits, in 
girding it about her hips. Sir Thopas says, where he relates his dream, 

" An elf-quene shall my lemman be, 

And slepe under my gore." Cant. T. line 13,719. 

Here the expression seems to be one of those conventional phrases of romance of which 
the meaning cannot be closely defined, and implying ample coverings, garments full and 
rich. In Emare, the Queen of Galys is said to be " goodly unther gore, wordy unther 
wede, comely unther kelle." Kits. Metr. R. ii. 243. " Goore of a smocke, poynte 
de chemise." PALSG. " Gheroni, the gores of a woman's smocke, or other lyke garment." 
W. Thomas, Ital. Gramm. 

1 In the North, and other parts of England, the Ulex Europaeus, Linn, or common 
furze, is called gorse. Ang.-Sax. gorst, erica, rubus. See the note on the word 
FYRRYS, above. " Ruscus, a gorst, or a furse." MED. MS. CANT. In the margin 
is the addition in Somner's hand, of the Ang.-Sax. words, " cneoholen, fyres.'' 
Cotgrave gives " genest espineux, furres, whinnes, gorse, thorne-broom." 

2 The Potentilla anserina, Linn, or wild tansy, is called in the North, according to 
Ray, goose-grass, because eaten by geese. The plant, however, most commonly known 
by the name, is the Galium aparine, or cleavers, which, as Moore observes, is called in 
Suffolk " guse-grass.'' Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, 1561, speaks of " Gooshareth or 
clyuer." Cotgrave gives " Grateron, the small bur called goose-share, goose-grasse, 
love-man, cleaver, and claver. Ridble, cleaver, goose-grasse, &c." Huloet calls the same 
plant " goslingweede, rueba (sic, rulea?} minor.*' 

3 GOSSYPMANN, MS. The Baptismal sponsors were formerly called gossips, a term 
which Skinner derives from Ang.-Sax. God, Deus, and syb, affinitas, as it were " cognati 
in Deo ; " and by the Canon law marriage was forbidden between persons thus allied, 
as much as between relatives by blood. In the Lay le Freine, it is related that the 
knight, to whom two sons were born, sent to greet a knight who was his neighbour, 

"And pray him that he com to me, 
And say he schal mi gossibbe be.' 7 

It would hence seem that the term comprised not only the co-sponsors, but the parents 
of the child baptized. Verstegan, in his explanations of ancient words, observes upon 
" Godsip, now pronounced gossip. Our Christian ancestors understanding a spiritual 
affinity to grow between the parents and such as undertook for the child at baptism, 
called each other by the name of Godsib, which is as much to say, as that they were sib 
together, that is, of kin together through God." p. 175, edit. 1655. Fabyan says of 
the repudiation of Ingebert of Denmark by Philip Augustus, king of France, " yt was 
not longe or she were from hym deuorced for cause of alyaunce of gossypred, or other- 
wise." Partvii. c. 242. 


GOOSTE, Spiritus. 
GOSTELY. Spiritualiter. 
GOSTELY mann, or womann. Spi* 


GOOSTLYNESSE. Spiritualitas. 
GOSSOMER, corrupcyon (gossum- 

myr, or corruption, H. p.) 1 Fi- 

landrya, lanugo, CATH. 
GOOT, beste. Hircus, edus, capra. 
GOTE, or water schetelys (goote, H. 

water schedellys, s.) 2 Aquagium, 

sinoglocitorium, c. F. 

1 " Lanuffo, i. lana super poma, velflos tribuli qui postquam bene siccatus est levi 
flatu effertur in aerem.'' CATH. In the Promptorium an allusion is made to another and 

strange supposition regarding the production of gossamer, noticed by Skinner, namely, 
that it was formed from the dew scorched by the morning sun, and thence, as it seems, 
termed here corruption. It is evident from Chaucer that this phenomenon had exer- 
cised the ingenuity of curious observers in ancient times. 

" As sore wondren som on cause of thonder, 
On ebbe and floud, on gossomer, and on mist, 
And on all thing, til that the cause is wist." Squiere's T. 10,572. 

An allusion to the anciently received notion occurs in Spenser, who speaks of 

t " the fine nets which oft we woven see 

Of scorched dew." 

" As light and thin as cobwebs that do fly 
In the blew air, caus'd by the autumnal sun, 
That boils the dew that on the earth doth lie ; 
May seem this whitish rug then in the scum, 
Unless that wiser men make't the field spider's loom." H. More. 

Even Dr. Hooke advances a conjecture that the great white clouds seen in summer 
might consist of gossamer. Microgr. 202. Dr. Hulse and Martin Lister first observed 
the real mode of its production by a species of spider. See Ray's Letters, 36, 69 ; 
Lister de Araneis ; and the interesting relation in White's Hist. Selb. The etymology of 
the word is very obscure ; Skinner suggests ffossamjrine, Fr. gossipium, Lat. the cotton 
plant. The derivation proposed in the Craven Glossary, from its appellation " summer- 
gauze, hence gauze o' th' summer, gauzamer, alias gossamer," is hardly tenable, when 
it is considered that the term was probably received in our language long before the in- 
troduction of the tissue called gauze. An early instance of its occurrence is in the gloss 
on G. de Bibelesworth, whose treatise was composed in the time of Edw. 1. 

" Regardet cy lafilaundre (gosesomer.)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 301. 

" Filiandra, Anglice, gossomer." Lat. Eng. Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. " Gossommer, 
thynges that flye in sommar lyke copwebbes/' PALSG. " Couvrailles, gossymeare, or 
the white and cobweb-like exhalations which flye abroad in hot sunnie weather." COTG. 
In N. Brit, according to Jamieson, it is called also sun-dew webs, or moosewebs. In 
German, unser Frawen Haar, the Blessed Virgin's hair. See Jaraieson, v. Garsummer; 
and Nares. 

2 The stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 33, after setting forth the decayed state of the fortifi- 
cations of Hull, grants certain duties levied on the importation of fish, to repair and 
maintain the walls, ditches, and banks, as also " other clowes, getties, gutters, goottes, 
and other fortresses there," for the defence of the town and haven. Stat. of Realm, iii. 
872. The stat. 2 and 3 Edw. VI. c. 30, states that the channel of the Camber, near 
Rye, had become choked up, in part by casting ballast into it, "and partely bycause 
dyuers mershes inned take in no water to scower the channell, but lett oute ther freshe 



GOTERE. Aquarium, imbricium, 
guttatorium, guttera, aqua- 
lacium, c. r. aquagium, UG. v. 

GOTERE vndyr be grownde. Ca- 
taduppa, cataracts c. F. sed 
cataracte in plur. sunt fenestre 
celi, nubes, vel meatus pluvi- 
arum, c. F. (cadadirpa^ p.) 

GOTERE, ad purgandum feces 
coquine. Ruder, CATH. 

GOOTYS BERDE. 1 Stirillum, CATH. 

et UG. in stuprum. 

GOOT HERDE. Caper 'cus, c. F. 

GOTOWS maim, or womann' (go- 
torous, P.) Guttosus. 

GOTON', or had betrawayle (gotyn, 
or get, P.) Adeptus, adquisitus, 

GOVERNAWNCE. Regimen, gu- 
bernacio, gubernaculum. 

GOUERNOWRE. Gubernator, rec- 

GOUERNOWRE of mony yn an 
howsholde, vndur a lorde or 
mayster. Massarius, massaria, 
CATH. in massa. 

GOVERNYN'. Guberno, rego. 

GOVERNE a towne. Villico, vil- 
licor, CATH. 

GOUERNYN', and mesuryn' in 
manerys, and thewys. Moderor, 
inodifico, CATH. 

GOWLARE, or vserere. 2 Usura- 
rius, fenerator. 

GOWLE, or vsury. Usura,fenus. 

GOWNDE of be eye. 3 Ridda, al- 
bugo, c. F. et UG. v. 

GOWNE, garment. Toga, epi- 
togium, Dice, gunellus. 

GOWTE, sekenesse. Gutta. 

GOWTON', as candelys. Gutto. 

GRACE. Gracia. 

GRACELES. Akaris, c. F.velacaris, 
c. F. et CATH. ingraciosus. 

water at guttes ;" so that the road for shipping was much injured. Vol. iv. 72. This word 
is retained in use in several parts of England ; Skinner and Ray give gowts, a word 
signifying in Somersetshire channels or drains under-ground. Bp. Kennett has the 
following notes in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033 : "A wide ditch, or water-course 
that empties itself into the sea, is called in Romney Marsh a gut, from old Dan. giota, 
scrobs : thence gutter, dim. a mill gut, a gote, i. a floud-gate, Northumb. Ang.-Sax. 
geotan, fundere." In the Craven Dialect gote denotes a channel of water from a mill- 
dam, as does goyt in Hallamshire. Jamieson gives goat and got, a small trench or drain. 
A similar word occurs in old French ; <( Goute : gouttiere, egout." ROQUEF. 

1 GOOTYS HERDE, MS. berde, s. H. p. " Stirillum, barba capre, et dicitur a stirict, 
quia pendens ad modum stirie, i. gutte." CATH. 

2 " Danista, Danus, agowlere, an vserere.'' MED. MS. CANT. The derivation appears 
obviously to be from gula, in French goule or ffole, significative of his rapacious avidity. 

3 Skinner gives the word gound as used very commonly in Lincolnshire, signifying 
the running or impure secretion of the eyes. It occurs in the glosses on G. de Bibe- 
lesworth, Arund. MS. 220, f. 297, b. 

" Vostre regardz est gracious (louelik,) 
Mes vos oeyz sunt saciouz (gundy ;) 
Des oeez outez la sacye (J?e gunde,) 
E de nees la rupye (be maldrope.)" 

Bp. Kennett, in his Glossarial Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033, has the following note : ' Gunded 
eyes, Westm. Goundy, filthy like running sores, Gower. Gunny eyes, Yorksh. Dial.'' 
Ang.-Sax. gund, pus, sanies. Skelton describes the "eyen gowndye'' of Elynour 



GRACYOWS. Graciosus, eukaris, 

C. F. fit CATH. 

(GRAFFE, infra in GRYFFE.) 
(GRAFFYN', infra in GRYFFYN'.) 
GRAYLE, boke (gray3ylle, HARL. 

MS. 2274. )* Gradate, vel gra- 


(GR AM E,S. infra in WAYTYNGEtO 

don harme.)' 2 
GRAMARYONE. Gramaticus, gra- 


GRAMERE. Gramatica. 
GRAMERCY. In plurali, has 

grates, accusative tantum. 
GRAPE. Uva. 
GRAPE of grete quantite. Bu- 

masta, CATH. 
GRATE for brede. Micatorium, 

GRATE for gyngure, or ober lyke. 

ex CATH. 

GRATE, or trelys wy(n)dowe 

(treaes wyndowe, P.) Cancellus. 
GRATE brede. 3 Mico. 
GRATE gynger (grate gynjors or 

oder lyke, HARL. MS. 2274.) 

Frictico, CATH.^/TZCO,CATH. p.) 
GRATYNGE of brede. Micacio, 

GRATYNGE of gyngure, and ober 

lyke. Frictura. 
GRAVE. Monumentum, sepul- 

chrum, tumulus. 
GRAVE, solempnely made, or 

gravyn (solenly made andarayyd, 

K. P.) Mausoleum, c. F. 
GRAVELLE. Arena, sabulum, 

eciam sonde. 
GRAVEL PYTTE. Arenarium. 

1 A grayle is a service book containing the responses, or gradalia, so called because 
they are sung in gradibus, or by course. It is thus described by Lyndwood : " Gra- 
dale ponitur pro libra inteyro, in quo contineri debent qfficium aspersionis aqua 
benedictte, missarum inchoationes, sive officia, Kyrie, cum versibus Gloria in excelsis, 
gradalia, Halleluja, et tractus, sequential, symbolum cantandum in Missd, Offertorium, 
Sanctus, Agnus, Communio, 8fc. qua ad chorum spectant in Misscc solennis decanta- 
tione." Provinc. iii. tit. 27. At the synod of Exeter, A.D. 1287, it was ordained that 
certain books should be provided in every parish, at the charge of the parishioners, 
among which is named the gradale. Wilkins, Cone. ii. 139. It is likewise included in 
the constitution of Abp. Winchelsey, to the same effect, A.D. 1305. Lyndw. The 
stat. 3 and 4 Edw. VI. for abolishing divers books and images, enacts " that all books 
called antiphoners, missals, grails, processionals, &c. heeretofore used for service of the 
church, shall be cleerelie and vtterlie abolished, and forbidden for euer to be vsed or 
kept in this realme." 

3 This word, which is found in the Winchester MS. only, is frequently used by the 
old writers. 

" Bithenk hou oft rape wil rewe, 

And turn to grame wel grille." Amis and Amiloun, 657. 
" Lordynges, he saide, y am aschamed, 

And sore anoyed, and agramed." K. Alis. 3310. 

In Havelok the verb to greme occurs, line 442, and the adjective gram, meaning angry 
or incensed, line 214. See also Seuyn Sages, 2703; Cant. Tales, 16,871 ; and Jamieson, 
0. Gram. Ang.-Sax. grama, molest la, gremian, irritare. 

3 It may be observed in the Forme of Cury, and all books of ancient cookery, that 
" myyd," or grated bread, was continually employed in the composition of a variety of 
dishes. Palsgrave says, " I holde a penny that I shall grate this lofe, or you can grate 
a rasyn of gynger ; " that is, a root, racine. 



GRAVYN, or grubbyn yn be erthe. 

GRAVYN' ymagys, or ober lyke 

(imagery, K. p.) Sculpo. 
GRAVYN', or puttyn yn be grave, 

or yn be erthe. 1 Humo, fyc. 

idem quod BERYYN', supra. 
GRAVYNGE in tymbyr, or metal. 

GRAVYNGE, or delvynge. Fossio, 

GR A WNS YRE, faderysfadyr(grawn- 

cyr, s. grauncer, P.) Avus, c. F. 
GRAWNEDAME, faderys moder, or 

moderys moder. Avia, c. F. et 


GRAWNGE, or gronge. 2 Grangia. 
GRAWNTE, or grawntynge. 3 Con- 

cessio^stipulacio, annutus^CATH. 

in annuo. 
GRAWNTYN'. Concedo, annuo, 

constipulor, CATH. 
GRAVOWRE. Sculptor. 
GRAVYN', or beryyd (gravon, or 

biryid, K.) /Sepultus, humatus. 
GRAVYN'O agrawowre. 4 Sculptus. 
GRAVYN', or dolvyn'. Fossus, 

GRE, or worthynesse. 5 Gradus. 

1 " To grave, ubi to bery. To grave, cespitare t fodere, percolere,foditare,pastinare. 
A graver, cespitator, cultor,fossor. A gravynge, cultural CATH. ANG. The verb to 
grave is used by most of the old writers in the signification of digging, and thence of 
depositing in the grave. Ang.-Sax. rafan,ybdere. Sir John Maundevile gives a re- 
lation of the legend regarding the origin of the trees of which the cross was formed ; 
that when Adam sent Seth to crave oil of mercy of the angel that kept Paradise, the 
angel refused to give it, " but he toke him three graynes of the same tree that his fadre 
eet the appelle offe, and bad hym, als sone as his fadre was ded, that he scholde putte 
theise three greynes undre his tonge, and grave him so. And of theise three greynes 
sprong a tree and bare a fruyt, thorghe the whiche fruyt Adam scholde be saved." 
p. 14. To grave still signifies, in the North, to break up ground with the spade. 

2 The primary meaning of the word grangia, in French grange, or grance, seems to 
have been a repository for grain, or, according to Ducange, a threshing floor ; and 
thence it implied the farming establishment generally, with its various buildings and 
appliances, as it is accurately defined by Lyndwood, in his annotations on the Constit. 
of Abp. Mepham, Provinc. lib. ii. tit. i. Spelman cites a MS. in which the name 
Thomas AtelaJ>e, that is, at the lathe, or barn, is said to be in French, Thomas de la 
Graunge. The term has even the more extended sense of a hamlet ; that is, probably, 
the assemblage of dwellings occupied by the dependants of the farm, which, doubtless, 
forming a nucleus, gave rise to the greater number of villages in ancient times. Pals- 
grave gives " graunge, or a lytell thorpe, hameau. Graunge, petit village." Huloet 
makes the following distinctions : " Graunge, or manour place without the walls of a 
citie, suburlanum. Graunge, or little thorpe, viculus. Graunge, where husbandry is 
exercised, colonial 

3 GRAWNTE, or grawnte. Confessio, MS. grawntynge, K. s. P. 

4 GRAVYN', or a grawowre, MS. off a gravowre, s. 

5 Gre is here given only in the sense of promotion to honour or distinction, in which 
also the term degree is now used at the Universities. In N. Britain gree has still this 
signification. So likewise in Chaucer, Rom. of the Rose : 

" In thanke thy seruice wol I take, 
And high of gree I wol thee make." 

It occurs frequently in the primary sense of a step, gre, Fr. " Climalum, a goynge fro 
gre to gre." ORTUS. 



(GRECE, or tredyl, K. H. or steyre, 

p. 1 Gradus.) 
GREDY of mete (in mete, K.) 

GREDY in askynge. Procax^ c. F. 

GREDY, or hasty. Impetuosus, 

GREDYNESSE of mete (havinge, 

K. P.) Aviditas. 
GREDYNESSE in askynge. Pro- 

cacitas, c. F. 

GREHOWNDE Cgresehounde, s.) 

Leporarius, veltres. 
GREY of colowre. * Gresius, elbus, 

elbiduS) CATH. 

GREY,beest. 2 Taaus,melota,CAiH. 
GREYNE of corne. Granum. 
GREYNE, or croppe of corne 3 (in 

the jere, K. yere, p.) Annona. 
GREYNESSE of heere. Canicies. 
GREYNYS, spyce (spicery, K. p.) 4 

Granum Paradisi. 

1 The term GRECE seems to be derived from the plural of gre, a step. It is thus 
used in the Wicliffite version; "}>ou schalt not stye bi grees (per gradus, Vulg.) to myn 
auter, lest Jn filj>e be schewid.'' Exod. xx. 26. " ForsoJ?e Esdras ]>e writere stood on 
J>e grees of tree (super gradum ligneum, Vulg.) whiche he hadde maad to speke J>eron." 
Esd. viii. 4. Compare iv Kings, xxiii. 3, and Dedis, xxi. 35. Sir John Maundevile 
says, in his relation of the state of the great Chan of Chatay, " the grees, that he gothe 
up to the table, ben of precyous stones, medled with gold." p. 259. And again, " Ves- 
selle of sylver is there non, for thei telle no prys there of, to make no vesselle offe, but 
thei maken ther of grecynges, and pileres, and pawmentes to halles and chambres.'' p. 
263. In the version of Vegecius, which is attributed to Trevisa, among directions how 
a strong place should be fortified by double walls, the intervening space being filled with 
earth, it is said that there should be " in the making of the inner walle, at euery fourty 
or fifty fote of lengthe, esy gresinges fro the playn grounde of the citie up to the walls." 
Roy. MS. ISA. XII. f. 100. " Gradus, a grece, a steppe. Grado, to leede, or greys." 
MED. MS. CANT. " A grece, gradus; gradare, i. gradus facere, vei per gradus ducere." 
CATH. ANG. " Coclea, turnegrece. " Lat. Eng. Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 
" Scamnum, a steppe or grice, whereby a manne gothe vppe into a hygh bedde. Ana- 
bathrum, a pulpit or other lyke place, whiche standeth on hyghe, wherunto a man must 
go vp by a ladder or grises." ELYOT. " Grece to go vp at, or a stayre, degre." PALSG. 
" Degrd, a staire, step, greese." COTG. SeeForby's observations on the word grissens, 
which still signifies stairs in Norfolk ; Craven Glossary, v. Grees ; and Nares. 

2 This name of the badger, which was taken, probably, from its colour, has pre- 
viously occurred as synonymous with BAWSTONE. The gloss on the Equivoca of John de 
Garlandid gives the following explanation : " Taxus, quoddam animal, a brocke or a grey." 
" Graye, abeest, taxe" PALSG. " Grisard, a badger, boason, brocke, or gray." COTG, 
" Graio, a gray, a brocke, a badger." FLORID. See Holland's Pliny, viii. c. 38. 

3 Croppe or corne, MS. " dnnona est seges unius anni, corne of one yere." ORTUS. 

4 " Grayns, granellum, quoddam species est." CATH. ANG. The aromatic qualities 
of cardamoms, and grains of Paradise, were anciently much esteemed. Chaucer says of 
the amorous Absolon, when he prepares to court the carpenter's wife, 

" But first he cheweth grein and licorise, 

To smellen sote, or he had spoke with here." Miller's Tale. 

They are again mentioned in Rom. of the Rose. Gerarde and Parkinson give represen- 
tations of the Meltguette, greatest sort of cardamoms, Grana Paradisi, or Guinea grains ; 
a pod shaped like a fig, and full of red seed. The true grains of Paradise were brought 


GRENE of colowre. Viridis. 
GRENE PLACE (or herbere, H. p.) 

Viridium, vel viretum, CATH. 

viridarium, COMM. 
G REN EH ED, or grenenesse. Vi- 

riditas, viror. 
GRENYN', or growe grene. Vireo, 

CATH. viresco, CATH. et c. F. 
GRENNARE, or he bat gryimythe. 

GRENNYN' wythe the tythe, as 

howndys. Ringo, CATH. etc. F. 
GRENE LYNGE, fyshe (grenlynge, 

s. grenelynge, p.) 1 
GREES, or fetnesse (gres, K.) Sa- 



<}RESSE, herbe (gres, 

Herba, gramen. 
ORES YN', or anoyntyn wythe grese. 


GRESYN', as beestys fedy(n)ge 

wythe gres (beestys in pasture, 

K. fede the with gresse, p.) 2 

Depascor, carpo, CATH. her- 

GRESYNGE, or a-noyntynge (with 

grece, p.) Soginacio. 
GRESYNGE, of beestys fedynge. 

Pastura, carptura. 
GRESHOP. Cicada. 
GRETE, in quantyte. Magnus, 

grossus, grandis. 
GRETE HERTYD, andbolde. Mag- 

GRETE HERTYD, not redy to bux- 

umnesse. Pertinax, inflexibilis. 
GRETE MANN, or worthy (man, 

K. p.) Magnas. 

GRETE OOTHE. Jusjurandum, c. F. 
GRETYN, or wepyn'. 3 Ploro, 

CATH.Jleo, lacrimor. 

from the East Indies, but the ordinary larger cardamoms seem to have been likewise so 
named. " Cardamome, graines, or graine of Paradise; also Ethiopian pepper. Ma- 
nic/net, meleyette, the spice called grains, or grains of Paradise.'' COTG. 

1 The fish here intended seems to be the cod or keeling, Morhua vulgaris, Cuv. 
which is called the green fish, probably from its colour, but as stated in Willughby's 
Hist. Pise. p. 166, from its being taken on the coast of Greenland. It abounds in the 
.Northern seas : a multitude of British and Dutch fishermen are occupied in taking and 
preparing it for transport to all parts of Europe. It is called also hwbberdeen, Island 
fish, or stock-fish. " Morue, the cod, or green fish. Morue verte, green fish.'' COTG. 
This green variety, called the Scotch cod, is most common towards the North. 

2 In the Golden Legend, Life of St. Paul, there is a relation that the head of the 
saint was found by a shepherd, who " set it up by the place where his shepe greased." 
Palsgrave gives " to grease, or grase, as a horse dothe.'' The word, as usually written, 
is more in accordance with the derivation, Ang.-Sax. grasian, gramine vesci. Forby 
gives another signification of the verb to graze, as used in Norfolk, namely, to become 
covered with the growth of grass ; in this sense it is given likewise in the CATH. ANG. 
" to gresse, herbere, herbescere." 

3 " To grete, plorare, et cetera ubi to wepe." CATH. ANG. 

" There was mad muche gredyng, 

Much weoping, much waylyng." K. Alis. 7882. 
Hampole in the Prick of Conscience terms the day of final doom 
" \>e day of greteyng, and of gouleyng, 

>e day of sorowe >at neuer salle blyne." Harl. MS. 6923, f. 83. 

See also R. Brunne, p. 148 ; the Vision of P. Ploughm. 1029, 1497 ; Chaucer, Rom. 
of Rose; and Jamieson, v. Greit. Ang.-Sax. grsedan, grsetan, clamare. 



GRETYNGE, or salutacyon. Sa- 

GRETYNGE, or wepynge. Plora- 
tus, fletus. 

GRETLY. Valde, vehementer, 

GRETE TOO of be fote. AUux> c. F. 

GREET wythe chylde. Gravidus, 

GREVAWNCE, or grevowsnesse. 
Gravamen, nocumentum, te- 

GREVAWN(C)E, or offence, or tres- 
pace (offence of trespace, K. s.) 
Offisnsa, aggra(va)men. 

GREVYD, or a-greuyd yn wrethe. 

Aggravatus, attediatus. 
GREVYN'. Gravo, aggravo, in- 

festo, noceo, CATH. 
GREVOWS. Nocivus, tediosus, 

gravis (nocuus, K.) 
GREVOWSLY. Graviter, tediose, 



GRYCE, swyne or pygge. 1 POT- 

cellus, nefrendis, CATH. et c. F. 
GRYCE, whyle hyt sokythe. Puber, 

CATH. in depttbis, nefrendis, UG. 

GRYCE, precyowse furrure. 2 Sci- 

s(i)mus, NECC. 

1 " A grise, porcellus, et cetera ubi a swyne." CATH. ANG. " Marcassin, a young 
wild boare, a shoot, or grice." COTG. Grys occurs repeatedly in this sense, in the 
Vision of P. Ploughman, 450, 2182, 4353 : in the glossary, Mr. Wright refers to the story 
of Will Gris in the Lanercost Chron. Skinner cites Gouldman's Diet, as the sole au- 
thority for the word grice, and proposes as an etymon Belg. griis, cinereus. The word 
appears to be now obsolete, or retained only in the diminutive griskin. Bp. Kennett 
in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033, gives " grice, a pig; Island, griis, vel grys, sue- 
cula; " and cites the Yorkshire Dial. p. 42, and Douglas's Virgil. See Jarnieson. 

2 Neccham, in his treatise denominibusuteusilium, writes as follows respecting female 
costume : " Camisia sindonis, vel serici, vel bissi, materiam sorciatur (i capiat.} Pe- 
nula (pane) mantelli sit ex scisimis (gris), vel experiolis (ekureus), stve scurellis, vel ex 
cuniculis, vel ex laeronibus (leeruns); cujus urla (penule) sit ex sabilino, fyc." Cott. 
MS. Titus, D. xx. with an interlinear French gloss. This kind of fur is mentioned by 
John de Garlandia, in his Dictionary, among the more costly kinds: " Pelliparii 
carius vendunt cisimum (al. scimum) et urlas de sabellino ;" upon which the following 
gloss is given, " cisimus est illud quod dicitur Gallice vare, et gris." Docum. Inedits, 
Paris sous Philip le Bel, App. 591. The esteem in which it was held appears from M. 
Paris, who states in his account of the honourable reception of the Tartar envoys by 
Innocent IV. A.D. 1248, " dedit eis vestes pretiosissimas, quas robas nulgariter appel- 
lamus, de escarleto pr&electo, cum penults etfururiis de pellibus variis cisimorum." It 
is not easy to ascertain with precision what is the animal that supplied this fur ; it 
appears to be described by Gesner as the Mus Ponticus, or Venetus, commonly called 
varius, and the fur of which was termed by the Germans Grauwerck. The terms gris 
and vitir seem, indeed, to be frequently used as synonymous, but many authorities 
may be cited from which a distinction is apparent. Much curious information on 
this subject, and on the use of costly furs in general, has been given by Ducange, 
in the first dissertation appended to Joinville. Chaucer describes the sleeve of the 
monk as "purfiled at the hond with gris" of the finest quality. Cant. Tales, Prol. 
194. Mention occurs of "grey and grys'' in Vis. of P. Ploughm. 10,065. See 
Jamieson, v. Griece. In the Invent, of the Wardrobe of Hen. V. taken 1423, are enu 
merated various garments "furrez de cristigrey ; " probably a variety of gris. 



GRYDYRYNE. Craticula, craticu- 

lum, CATH. cratis. 
GRYFFARE, or graffare. Insertor. 
GRYFFE, or graffe. 1 Surculus. 
GRYFFYN', or graffyn'. Insero. 
GRYFFYNGE, or graffynge. In- 

sercio, insertura. 
GRYFFOWN, beest. 2 Grifo, grifes, 

c. F. 

(GRYL, infra in GRYM.) S 
GRYM, or sterne (storre, K. stoore, 

H. P.) Austerus, rigidus. 
GRYM, gryl, and horryble. Hor- 

ridus, horribilis. 

(GRYMNESSE, or stornesse, K. 

stoorenesse, p.Ansteritas, rigor.) 
GRYMNESSE, or horrybylnesse. 

Horror, horribilitas. 
GRYNDYNGE of a mylle. Mola- 

tura, multura, UG. 

stone. Molaris, UG. 
GRYNDYNGSTONE, or grynstone. 

Mola, CATH. 
GRYPE, byrde. 4 Vultur. 
GRYPPE, or a gryppel, where 

watur rennythe a-way in a londe, 

1 An engrafted scion is called in Norfolk a greft, or grift, according to Forby, who 
proposes as an etymon Ang.-Sax. Srseft, sculptile. " Grafte, or gryffe of a tree, ente. 
I gryffe a gryffe, Je ente." PALSG. 

2 This fabulous animal is particularly described by Sir John Maundevile, in his 
account of Bacharie. " In that contree ben many griffounes, more plentee than in ony 
other contree. Sum men seyn that thei han the body upward as an eagle, and benethe 
as a lyoune, and treuly thei seyn sothe that thei ben of that schapp. But o griffoun hathe 
the body more gret, and is more strong thanne viij. lyouns, of suche lyouns as ben o this 
half, and more gret and strongere than an c. egles, suche as we han amonges us." He 
further states that a griffin would bear to its nest a horse, or a couple of oxen yoked to 
the plough ; its talons being like horns of great oxen, and serving as drinking-cups ; and 
of the ribs and wing feathers strong bows were made. See p. 325. Casley observes that 
in the Cotton Library there was such a cup, 4 ft. in length, silver-hooped, and inscribed 
" Griphi unguis dwo Cuthberto Dunelmensi sacer ; " another curiously mounted as a 
standing cup, on an eagle's leg of silver, is still preserved in the cabinet of antiquities 
at Paris, in the King's Library, having been brought, at the Revolution, with the spoils 
of the treasury of St. Denis. A curious account of it is given by Doublet, in his history 
of that abbey, p. 343. From an ancient MS. Invent, of the treasury of Bayeux Cathe- 
dral, it appears that three such talons were there preserved, and on solemn occasions 
appended to the altar, as precious rarities. A "come de griffoun" is mentioned in 
the Kalend. of Exch. iii. 176. The egg was likewise preserved as a valuable curiosity, 
and used as a goblet ; see the lists of the jewels and plate of Edw. III. 1338, ibid. 
pp.171, 172. " Item,j oef de griffon garnis d' argent, odpieet covercle." The griffin 
was assumed by the Le Despenser family, and the upper part appears as the crest on 
the helm of Hugh le Despenser, who died 1349, exhibited on his tomb at Tewkesbury. 
Another strikingly designed representation of this curious animal is seen at Warwick, 
at the feet of Richard Beauchamp, who died 1439. 

3 R. Brunne uses this word in the sense of stern, or cruel. He says of Rufus, 

" To riche men was he grille, of pouer held no tales." Langt. Chron. p. 92. 

It is thus used by Chaucer. See also Amis and Amiloun, 1275, 1802 ; Towneley Myst. 
p. 137 ; Covent. Myst. p. 230 ; Reliqu. Ant. ii. 166 ; Jamieson, v. Grylle. 

4 " A gripe, griphes, vultur." CATH. ANG. This obsolete appellation of the vulture 
has been derived from Ang.-Sax. gripan, rapere, but more probably from the Lat. 
gryps, or the French. " Grype, a beest, egripe." PALSG. It must, however, be ob- 


or watur forowe (a grippull, p.) 1 
A.ratiuncula) CATH. UG. in aro 
(aquagium, K. aquarium, p.) 

GRYPYN. Comprimo, rimolo, 
CATH. (involo, p.) 2 

GRYPYNGE wythe be hande, or 
ober lyke. Constrictio, com- 
pressio (striccio, P.) 

GRYSYL. Horridus, terribilis. 
GRYSTYLLE of the nose. Carti- 

GROCERE, marchawnte. 3 Gros- 

sarius, assecla, C.F. seplesarius. 
(GROME, s. p.) Gromus. 
GROMALY, herbe (gromely sede, 

K. p.) 4 Milium solis. 

served that the grype and the griffon are frequently confounded. " Gripho, nomen 
avis, a grype. Griphes vel gripe, genus animalis, a grype. Vultur est avis magna ct 
rapax : ut dicunt, de acre et non deconcubiiu concipit, a grype." ORTUS. " Vaultour, 
a vulture, geire, gripe, or grap ; a ravenous bird. Griffon, a gripe or griffon." COTG. 
Holinshed says in the Hist, of the Conquestof Ireland, B. ii. c. 18, that the " griph or 
geire is a kind of eagle, but such as is ravenous, and feedeth more vpon carren than 
upon anie foule of his owne preieng ; and for his cowardnesse carieth neither the name 
nor praise apperteining to the true eagle.'' The egg of the grype, frequently mentioned 
as a rarity much valued, and used as a drinking-cup, is probably to be referred to the 
fabulous animal, the griffon, and may have been merely the egg of the ostrich. Gower 
relates that Albinus kept the skull of Gurmund, which was fashioned as a goblet, 
" And polysshed was eke so clene, 
That no sygne of the sculle was sene, 
But, as it were, a grype's eye." Conf. Am. lib. i. 

" Item, un coupe fait d'un gripesei garnisez d 'argent endorrez, steant sur un pee de iij. 
kenettes, et le coverkel enaymellez dedeinz etdehorsoveij.]s.enetts,poisij. lb.vj.unc. di." 
List of crown jewels, &c. delivered 1 Hen. IV. 1399. In the same inventory are named 
six " hanaps," or drinking cups called " gryppeshey." Kalend. of Exch. iii. 319, 330. 
In the will of William Gascoigne, Lord Chief Justice, dated 1419, is mentioned " ciphus, 
vocatas a gryp ey, ligatus cum argento, et deaurato." Testam. Ebor. i. 393. In the 
Invent, of Fountains Abbey, taken at the dissolution, and given by Burton, occurs the 
item, " A grype schill, with a covering gilt, 27 oz." 

1 " Aratiuncula, fossa parva que instar sulci aratur," CATH. The term grype occurs 
in an award, dated 1424, relating to the bounds of lands of the Prior of Bodmin, as 
follows: " The bounde that corny th thurgh the doune goyng don to another stone 
stondynge of olde tyme in the bank of a grype, and so the diche (called Kenediche) 
and the gripe, &c." Mon. Ang. new ed. from Harl. Cart. 57 A. 35. This word is still 
used in Sussex, and many parts of England. In Norfolk, Forby states that a trench, 
not amounting to a ditch, is called a grup ; if narrower still, a grip ; and if extremely 
narrow, a gripple. See Ray, Brockett, Craven Dial, and Jamieson. A.-S. grep, sulcus. 

2 The Winch. MS. agrees here in giving rimolo, a word not found in the Catholicon. 
Involo is there rendered " in void aliquid continere, a void quod est media pars manus.'* 

3 Marchanwte, MS. The original meaning of the term grocer is defined in the stat. 
37 Edw. III. 1363, respecting " Marchauntz nomez grossers," so called because they 
" engrossent totes maners des marchandises vendables," and kept them back in order to 
sell at an improved price. Stat. of Realm, i. 379. In the following century they were 
established as a distinct trade ; seethe " Incorporatio Groceriorum Lond." Pat. 7 Hen. 
VI. and another patent in the year following, "pro custod 1 mistera Groceries." Before 
the early part of the XVIth cent, their dealings seem to have become limited to grocery, 
as now understood: thus Palsgrave gives "grocer, grossier, espicier." Seplassarius 
is explained as meaning " negotiator, qui multa venundat." See Ducauge. 

4 " Grumelle, milium, gramen solis.'' CATH. ANG. The common gromwell, or grey 



GRONGE, or grange, place. Gran- 
gia (granria, p.) 

GROYNE of a swyne (grony, K.H.P. 
groney, s. grony, orgrowynynge 
lyke a swyne, HARL. MS. 2274. ) l 
JRostrum porcinum, scropha 
porcina, KYLW. 

GRONY, magry, infra in M. 

GRONYN', as seke menu. Gemo. 

(GRONYYN, or grochyn, K. gronen 
or grutchen, p. Murmuro.} 

GRONYN', or grutchyfi priuely, 
quod dicitur (to byd, p.) j>e 
dyvelys pater noster. Mucio, 
CATH. musso, UG. in mugio. 

GRONYNGE of seke menn. Ge- 

GROYNYNGE of swyne (gronyinge, 

p.) 2 Grunnitus. 
GRONYYNGE, or grutchynge 

(groching, K.)_ Murmur. 
GROPYN', or felyn' wythe hande. 3 


GROPYNGE. Palpacio. 
(GROPYS of corne, supra in 


GROSON, or grocyn' vp, or take 
mony (grete, s.) thyngys to- 
gedur (or take all, p.) Ingrosso. 

G ROTE of mony. Grossus. 

millet, Lithospermum officinale, Linn, was formerly esteemed as a remedy for the stone, 
and other diseases ; according to the observations of Gerard, Parkinson, Langham, and 
similar writers. Tusser enumerates " gromwell seed, for the stone," among herbs 
which ought to be found in the farmer's garden. See March's Abstract. See also a 
treatise on the virtues of plants, written in XVth cent. Roy. MS. 18 A. VI. f. 76, b. 
where the following description is given : " Granum solis ys an herbe >at me clepyj> 
gromel, or lybewale ; thys herbe ha> leuys tat be euelong, and a lytyl white flour, 
and he ha> whyte seede ischape as a ston that me clepyj> a margery perl." Cotgrave 
gives " Gremil, grenil, the hearb gromill, grummell, or graymill, peare plant, liche- 
wall ; " and lithospermum is thus rendered by Elyot: *' an herb which hath sedes 
like stones, and groweth in corn, some do suppose it to be grummell." The word 
is derived by Skinner " a granis, sc. lapideis, qua pro seminibus habet, q.d. granite." 

1 Chaucer says, in the Persone's Tale, that "the Proverbe of Solomon likeneth a 
faire woman that is a fool of hire body, to a ring of gold that is worne in the groine of 
a sowe." See also the Towneley Mysteries, p. 89. In Norfolk, according to Forby, 
a hog's snout is called the grunny. Compare the Craven Glossary, v. Groon, and 
Brockett, v. Groin. " Groyne of a swyne, groyng." PALSG. Skinner derives this word 
from Fr. " Groin de porceau, the snowt of a hog." COTG. Bp. Kennett gives " grun, 
the upper lip of a beast, Bor. Island, gron, bovis labrum superius." Lansd. MS. 1033. 

2 See the note on GRUNTON', as swyne, hereafter. 

3 " Palpo, i. manibus contrectare, to groope. Palpalis, gropeable." MED. 

" Thise curates ben so negligent, and slow 

To gropen tendrely a conscience." Sompnoure's Tale. 

" He gropeth unclenly (contractat) children and maydens." HORM. " I grope a thyng 
that I do nat se, or proue a thynge, ie taste. I grope, as one dothe the wall or place 
whan he gothe darkelyng, ie vas d, taston.' 1 PALSG. " Tastonner, to feel, grope, touch, 
handle, stroke. Fouiller, to grope, search, feele all over." COTG. Thomas, in his 
Italian Grammar, gives " tentone, gropyngly, as he that goeth in the derke." Ang.-Sax. 
gropian, palpare. 

* The word GROPYS is given as it is previously found in the MS. ; but the reading 
is possibly corrupt. The Winchester MS. instead of CRAPPE, or gropys, gives crap, 
or crappis of corn'. " Acus, chaife, or craps." MED. MS. CANT. 



GROTON, or ingroton wythe mete 

or drynke (grotyyn, or ingrotyyn, 

K.) Ingurgito. 
GROVE, lytyl wode. Lucus, 

c. F. 
GROWELLE, or grewelle. 1 Li' 

gumen, puls, far inacium, c. F. 

farratum, UG. in frango, 

grumus, gruellum, COMM. 
GROVEL YNGE, or grovelyngys, 

adv. 2 Suppine (resupine^ s.) 
GROVELYNGE, nom. Suppinus 

(resupinus, s.) 
GROWYN', or waxyn'. Cresco, 

CATH. orior, UG. 
GROWE BLYNDE, or lame. 
GROWE BALL YD. Calvesco. 
GROWE BLAKE. Nigresco. 
GROWE BRYGHTE, or clere. Cla- 


GROWE ELD, idem quod GROWE 

AGYD, supra (growe olde, p.) 


GROWE NESCHE. Mollesco. 
GROWE OLDE, as clothys or ober 

thyngys lyke, bat weryn' (weryt, 

K.) Veterasco, CATH. 
GROWE REEDE. Rubesco. 
GROWE SOWYR, or sowryri'. 


GROWE WHYTE. Albesco. 
GROWE WOOD, or ma(d)de (wod, 

K. woode, or madde, or oothe, s.) 


GROWE YONGE. Juvenesco. 
(GROWE WYLDE, p. Indomesco.) 
GROWYNGE, or waxynge (or 

spryngynge, infra.) Crescencia. 
GROWNDE. 3 Fundum. 

1 " Puls est cilus ex aqud etfarindfactus; dicitur a petto, quid pellit infirmitatem, 
Anglice, gruell or pappe." ORTUS. " Grewelle, puls. Growelle, ubi potage." CATH. 
ANG. " Grus, gruell, or water wherein any corne is boiled, corne-broth. Orgee, barly 
gruell." COTG. In Huloet's Dictionary the term is applied to food that is not farina- 
ceous. " Grewell, Olus, pulmentum, zomas. Grewell, forcet, or stewed broth, offella, 

2 In Norfolk and Suffolk the phrase " to lie grubblings," or with the face down- 
wards, is still in use. See Forby and Moore ; see also Jamieson, v. Grufeling. " Gru- 
felynge, supinus. To make grufelynge, supinare." CATH. ANG. " Grouelyng, couche 
a r/ewA-." PALSG. In the Towneley Mysteries, where Isaac, about to be sacrificed, quakes 
for fear of the bright sword that was held over him, Abraham speaks thus : 

" Therfor groflynges thou shalle be layde, 

Then when I stryke thou shalle not see." p. 40. 

Horman says that " a full stomacke is digest with watche, and slepynge grouelynge 
(prond infaciem dormitione.}" Dr. Turner, in his Herbal, directs that date-stones 
should be planted " groveling." In the Romance of Kyng Alis. the word " wombe- 
lyng" occurs in a like signification, line 5647. Chaucer uses "groff" repeatedly in 
the sense of prostrate. 

" And groff he fell all platte upon the ground." Prioresse's T. 13,605. 

3 " A grunde, fundamentum, fundus, grunda, grundatorium.^ CATH. ANG. The 
word ground has in the old writers the sense of the bottom of anything, as the deep or 
abyss. Ang.-Sax. "grwad. fundus. Gower uses the expression " a groundless pit," and 
in the Golden Legend it is related that seven devils were sent to burn the ship in which 
the relics of St. Stephen were translated, " but the aungell of our Lorde plunged them 



GROWNDE, or flore. Area. 

GROWNDE of byggy(n)ge, or fun- 
dament (of a byldyng, s.) Fun- 
damentum,fundus, c. F. 

GROWNYDYD(growndid, K. ground- 
ed, p.) Fundatus. 

GROWNDYN', or sett a grownde. 

GROWYNDYN' yn a mortere 
(growndyn, K. s. grounden, p.) 
Tritus, pinsus, CATH. pilatus, 

GROWNDYN yn a mylle. Molitus, 
multus, CATH. 

GROWNDESOPE of any lycoure 

(growndynge soppis off lycure, 
HARL. MS. 2274, grownd sope, s. 
grounsop, p.) 1 Fex, sedimen. 

GROWPE, where beestys, as nete, 
standyn (grovpe of netys stal, 
K. groupe of a netys stall, H. p.) 2 
Musitatorium, KYL w. bozetaria, 
UG. v. (musatorium, K. H. 
mussatorium, P. suffusorium, s.) 

G RO wpE,yn aboorde.Incastratura. 

GROWPYD, as boordys, or ober 
byngys. Incastratus. 

GROWPYN' wythe an yryn, as gra- 
vowrys. 3 Runco, CATH. in 
runcina (incastro, K. p.) 

(the devils) downe in to the grounde of the see." Hence it also signifies the lowest 
part of a building, the foundation. Robert Brunne speaks of " J>e groundwalle J>ik " of 
Berwick Castle (Langt. Chron. p. 210.) ; and in the contract for building Fotheringhay 
Church, A. D. 1435, the foundations are termed "the ground-werk." Mon. Ang. in. 
Sir John Maundevile gives the Greek inscription which was seen on the rock whereon 
the cross of the Saviour had been set, thus rendered: " Quod vides est fundamentum 
(Baarts) totiusfidei hujus mundi, that is to seye, that thou seest is ground of alle the 
feythe of this world." p. 92. Palsgrave gives "grounde, the botome of a foundation of 
any thyng,ybM?afo'ow." 

1 " Grounde soppe in lycoure, pain trempe. Groundes, lyse of any lycour, lie." 
PALSG. The term appears to imply a sop or sippet, by which the dregs, still called 
the grounds, may be soaked up. 

2 A grup or groop signifies in Norfolk a trench, narrower than a ditch, as has been 
observed in the note on the word GRYPPE. In the North the term retains the signifi- 
cation assigned to it above. See Brockett, Craven Glossary, and Jamieson. Bp. 
Kennett likewise notes this use of the word : " groop, or grupe, a ditch or trench, es- 
pecially that which runs across the length of the byer, or cow-house ; Bor." Lansd. 
MS. 1033. Skinner suggests the derivation from Ang.-Sax. groepe, latrina, scobs. 
*' Minsorium, a grope." ORTUS. " A grupe, minsorinm" CATH. ANG. Gouldman, 
in his Dictionary, 1664, gives " a groope in stables and houses, minthorium^ from 
" minthos, dung or ordure.'* ELYOT. Mivtios, stercm: Ugucio gives the same expla- 
nation which is found in the Catholicon, " minsatorium, locus ad mingendum, quod 
recipit urinam." The reading of the Winchester MS. agrees with that of the Harl. 
text, musitatorium, but the word appears to require correction. 

3 " Runco, to grope. Runco, a gropere. Runcina, a wedehoke, and a gropynge 
yrone." MED. MS. CANT. "Runcina est quoddam arlificium fabri Hgnarii gracile et 
recurvum, quo cavantur tabule, ut una alteri connect atur ; Anglice, a gryppynge yron." 
ORTUS. " A grupynge yrene, runcina" CATH. ANG. This implement, which, as it 
has been observed in the note on the word FORMOWRE, was probably similar to 
what is now termed a gouge, called by Palsgrave " formour or grublyng yron ; " and 
used to form grooves or incisions. Ang.-Sax. grsep, sulcus. Palsgrave gives the verb 
" I growpe (Lydgate) sculpe, or suche as coulde graue, groupe, or carue : this word is 
nat vsed in comen spetche." 



GROWPYNGE. Incastracio, c. F. 
GROW(P)YNGE or gravynge yryn' 

(growpinge yron, K. p.) Run- 

cina, CATH. scrophina, CATH. 
GROWTE for ale. 1 Granomellum. 
GRUBBARE in be erthe, or ober 

thynggys (grovblare, H. grow- 

blar, p.) Fossor, confossor, fos- 

GRUBBYN' yn the erthe. Fodico, 

CATH. et c. F. 
GRUBYNGE (grublyng, H. growb- 

linge, P.) Confussio. 

(GRUBBYNGE yryn of gravowrys, 
supra in FORMOWRE, et in 
GROW(P)YNGE yryn'.) 

GRUDGYNGE of sekenesse. Sub- 
murmur, CATH. 

GRUTCHARE (gruchar, K.) Mur- 
murator, murmur atrix. 

GRUTCHYD. Murmuratus. 

GROTCHYNGE. Murmuracio^mur- 
mur, CATH. 

GRUTCHON (gruchyn, K.) 2 Mur- 
mur o. 

GRUNTARE. Grunnitor. 

1 In the Ortus agromellum and granomellum are rendered " growte ; " and idro- 
mellum is explained thus : " potus ex aqud et melle, Anylice mede or growte." " Growte, 
idromellum, agromellum, acromellum, granomellum." CATH. ANG. This term properly 
implies ground malt, or the first infusion preparatory to brewing, which is thus distin- 
guished in Harl. MS. 1002, f. 114. " Worte, siromellum, sed growte dicas agromellum." 
Ang.-Sax. grut,./ar, condimentum cerevisia. In medieval Latin it was called grutum, 
or grudum , see in Rokewode's Hist. Suff. pp. 31, 32, a document in which mention 
occurs of grudum ordei. In old French malt was called gru, or grust, according to 
Roquefort; but Palsgrave gives the word " grout that serueth to brewyng, in Fraunce 
there is none vsed." G. de Bibelesworth, who wrote in the reign of Edw. I. gives a 
curious account of the mode of brewing, in which " grout '' occurs as a gloss on the word 
" berzize," which is not found in the Glossaries, and may possibly be a barbarous com- 
pound of bere, a drink, or ber, barley, and zithum, which, according to Borel, was the 
Gaulish appellation of beer. The term grout is not used in the detailed account of 
brewing given by Harrison in the description of England, B. ii. c. 6, Holinsh. i. 169. In 
the North, according to Coles, Ray, and the Craven Glossary, grout signifies wort of 
the last running. Bp. Kennett gives the following note : " Grout, growt : in Leices- 
shire the liquor with malt infused for ale and beer, before it is fully boiled, is called 
grout, and before it is tunned up in the vessel, is called wyrt, or wort. A. -Sax. grut, 
nova cervisia. They have in the West a thick sort of ale, which they call grout-ale, 
and it is in most places a common proverb, as thick as growt. Kilian, grauwt, condi- 
mentum cerevisia." Lansd. MS. 1033. The term was not, perhaps, exclusively 
confined to denote farinaceous mixtures for the purpose of brewing ; thus land in 
Addington, Surrey, was held by the serjeanty of making in an earthen pot in the royal 
kitchen, on the day of coronation, a mess called " diligrout," as stated by Blount, 
in his Jocular Tenures, p. 50. In the Plac. Cor. 39 Hen. III. it is called " le mess 
de gyron," or if compounded with fat, it was termed " maupigyrnun" 

2 In the Wicliffite version the following use of this verb is found, Jos. x. 21 : " No 
man was hardi to grucche (e)>er to make pryuy noise, mutire, Vulg.) a3enus J>e sones of 
Israel." Sir John Maundevile speaks of " the welle that Moyses made with his bond 
in the desertes, whan the people grucched, for thei fownden no thing to drynke." It 
it said in the Golden Legend, that "when the herte is full of grace, hym oughte not 
grutche by impacyence." In the Vision of Piers P. and Chaucer's works, the word 
occurs frequently. " Fremeo, i. murmurare, to grudge. Murmuro, to grutche. Su- 

surrium dicitur murmuratio, a 

grutchynge." QRTUS. 

" To gruche, dedignari, mur- 


GRUNTYNGE. Grunnitus. 
GRUNTON', as swyne. 1 Grunnio. 
GRUTE, fylthe. 2 JLimus. 
GucAw, 3 idem quod FLOWTE, 

pype, supra in F.; et giga, 


GUMME. Gumma, vel gummi, 
CATH. et c. F. et UG. in gutta. 

(GUNNE, s.p.) 4 Petraria, Dice, et 
COMM. mangonale, KYLW. mu- 
rusculum, c. F. gunna, et idem 
estjictum (magonale. P.) 

murare, mussare, susurrare. A grucher, susurro," &c. CATH. ANG. Palsgrave gives 
the verb * I grutche, groudge, repyne, or murmure against a thyng ; ie grommelle, &c. 
I haue a greater thruste than I was wonte, as sycke folkes that be grutched of an axes. 
I groudge, as one dothe y l hath a groudgyng of the axes, iefrilonne, and iefremis. I 
groyne, I grutche, or murmure agaynst a thyng, ie grongne, ie grommelle. ' ' Skinner would 
seek a derivation from the French. " Gruger, to grudge, repine, mutter." COTG. 

1 " Grunnio, to groone, as asowe. Grunnitus, gronynge." MED. MS. CANT. Ang.- 
Sax. grunnan, grunnire. Horman says that " swyne wode for loue groyneth (subant) 
and let passe from them a poyson called aprine." Compare GROYNYNGE of swyne, 
above. Palsgrave gives the verb " I grunte, as a horse dothe whan he is spored, or as 
any beest dothe whan he com playneth, ie groigne, andie gronce, expressed in I grudge." 

2 GURTE, MS. In all the other MSS. as likewise in the printed editions, the word 
grut is given, which seems to be the correct reading, as appears also by its place in 
alphabetical order. Ang.-Sax. greet, pulvis. 

" The toun dykes on every syde, 
They wer depe, and ful wyde, 
Full of grut, no man myghte swymme." R. Coer de Lion, 4339. 

3 Various etymologies have been proposed of the word gugaw, in its ordinary sense ; 
" Crepundia, toyes or gugawes for children, as rattels, clappers," &c. Junius, by Higins. 
" Babiole, a trifle, whim-wham, gugaw, or small toy for a child to play withall." COTG. 
Skinner suggests Ang.-Sax. gegaf, nuga, or heawgas, simulachra, or the French word 

joyau, but gogue or gogaille seems more nearly to resemble it, and signifies, according to 
Roquefort, " bagatelle, plaisanterie. Gogoyer, se rdjouir," &c. It would, however, 
seem that the word is here given as synonymous with flute, and the inquiry suggests 
itself whether it had originally denoted some musical instrument, and thence been used in 
a more general signification. According to Roquefort there was a wind instrument called 
gigue, and this statement corresponds with the observation of Ferrari, that giga, Ital. may 
be derived from yiypas, a kind of flute. It is singular that, according to Brockett and 
Jamieson, a Jew's harp is called in N. Britain a gewgaw, but in that instance, as like- 
wise here, in the Promptorium, it seems probable that the term is used merely in re- 
ference to that with which idle disport may be taken, like trifles in childhood. 

"A gunne, fundibalum, murusculum. A gunner, fundibalarius, fundibalista." 
CATH. ANG. written A.D. 1483. The difficulty of ascertaining with precision the period 
of the introduction of engines from which missiles were propelled by means of gunpowder, 
arises chiefly from the circumstance, to which allusion is made by Selden, that the 
term gun, supposed by Somner to be merely a contraction of mango, or mangona, may 
have been used to denote some engine of war, long before the application of gunpowder 
to such purpose. Mr. Douce observes that the earliest mention of " gonnes " is 
found in the Romance of Kyng Alisaunder, line 3268 ; but in his note on that passage 
he says that it must not be concluded that they were used with powder, as originally 
they might have been engines of the catapult kind. Weber, Metr. Rom. iii. 306. The 
same remark applies to the account of the siege sustained by Kynge Aragus, who 


GUNXARE, or he bat swagythe a GURNARD, fysshe. Gurnardus, 

gunne. Petrarius, mangonalius. gallus marinus, COMM. 

" ordeyned hym ful well 

With gonnes, and grete stones rounde 

Were throwen downe to the grounde." Syr Tryamoure, 955. 

In the Avowynge of Kyng Arther, a "gunne" is mentioned, the effect of which is 
compared to lightning, but it is still doubtful whether the term should be understood 
to imply a projectile impelled by any ignited substance, or merely filled therewith. 

" There came fliand a gunne, 

And lemet as the leuyn." St. 65, edit, by Mr. Robson. 

It seems very probable that the missile here intended was a tube filled with Greek fire, 
or feu volant. In several MSS. of the Practica of John Arderne, a surgeon of emi- 
nence t. Edw. III. instructions are found for compounding "fewes Greyois" and 
" f ewes volants : " the latter being a liquid mixture, described as of an oily nature, with 
which a pipe being filled, and ignited by a match, would fly in any direction. A figure 
is given in the margin. He proceeds to describe "fewe volant" of another kind. 
" Pernezj. li. de soufre vif, de charbones de saux, (i. weloghe.) ij. li., de salpetre, vj. li. 
si les fetez Men et sotelment moudre sur un piere de marbre, puis bultez le poudre 
parmy vn sotille couerchief. Vest poudre vault a gettere pelottes defer, ou de plom, ou 
d'areyne, oue vn instrument qe Vein appelle gonne." See Sloane MSS. 335, 795. A 
detailed account of passages in ancient documents or chronicles which throw light on 
this obscure subject has been given by Sir S. Meyrick, in his Crit. Enquiry, and a paper 
on the history of hand fire-arms, Archseol. xxii. ; and likewise by Mr. Archibald, in 
his description of ancient artillery discovered on the coast of Lancashire, Archseol. 
xxviii. It may here suffice to state that gunpowder was known in Western Europe 
about the middle of the XHIth cent. ; and that the earliest recorded instance of its use 
in war, in this country, appears to have been in the first expedition of Edw. III. against 
the Scots, in 1327, when artillery, termed by Barbour " crakys of wer," was employed. 
See Jamieson. There can be no doubt that Chaucer uses the term " gonne," to signify 
an engine charged with gunpowder ; as in the following comparison : 

" Swift as a pellet out of a gonne, 
When fire is in the pouder ronne.' 1 House of Fame, B. iii. 

The Household of Edw. III. as appears by the ordinances which commence 1344, printed 
by the Ant. Soc. , comprised ' ' Ingyners Ivij . Artellers vj . Gonners vj." Their daily pay in 
time of war was 6d. The invention of hand fire-arms is assigned by Sir S. Meyrick, on 
the authority of Billius, to the Lucquese, in 1430 ; (Archseol. xxii. 60) yet a prior use 
of some weapons of the sort seems to be indicated. In an Inventory of the arms and 
effects of Sir Simon Burley, taken apparently after his execution, 1388, and now in the 
possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, among "petites choses ct Baynard Castell," is 
named "j. petit gonne de feer." In the Pell Records, 1 Hen. IV. 1400, payments 
appear for " quarell gunnes," at 7*. each ; for saltpetre, sulphur, and wadding ; and the 
contemporary evidence of Monstrelet shews that " bastons hfeu " were among the arms 
of the English sent to the relief of the siege of Orleans, in 1428. Hand-guns are named 
among purchases for the defence of Holy Island, 1446 ; and were used at the siege of 
Caistor, in Norfolk, about 1459. Paston Lett. iv. 316. In the version of Vegecius at- 
tributed to Trevisa, and completed 1408, in the account of military engines, allusion is 
made to "grete gonnes that shete now a daies stones of so grete peyse that no walle 
may with-stonde them ; as hathe be wele shewede bothe in the Northe cuntre, and eke 
in the werres of Wales." B. iv. c. 22, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. 


G UTTE, or tharme. Viscus, sumen. 
GUTTON'. Exentero. 

HABURYONE, or hawberk (habu- 
rion, K. p. haburgyn, s. habu- 
riune, HARL. MS. 2274.) 1 Lo- 

HACHET, or hakchyp. Securi- 

cula, CATH. 

HADDOK, fysche. Morius, KYLW. 
HAGAS, puddynge (hakkys, pud- 

dyngys, s. hageys, H.) 2 Tu- 

cetum, UG. in tundo. 
HAYE, net to catche conys wythe 

1 The term habergeon appears properly to be a diminutive of hawberk, although here 
given as synonymous. Wace, in his Roman de Rou, written about 1160, describes the 
Conqueror as armed, at the battle of Hastings, with a " boen haubert ; " but Odo, his 
half-brother, Bishop of Bayeux, who could not decorously assume the complete military 
equipment, and rode with a staff merely to stimulate the combatants, provided himself 
with this partial defence. 

" Un haubergeon avoit vestu, 
De sor une chemise blanche." T. ii. 220, edit, by Pluquet. 

The precept of Randolph III., Earl of Chester, to his barons, about the close of the 
XHIth cent, requires that their knights and free tenants should have " loricas, et hau- 
bergella; " and the ordinance of Hen. III. 1252, "super juratis ad arma,'' directs 
that every man, according to the rate of his land and chattels, should arm himself 
either with the lorica, the habergetum, called also in this document haubercus, or the 
perpunctum. The stat. of Winchester, 13 Edw. I. 1285, makes the same distinction 
between the hauberg' , haubergeon, and parpoint, to be used by the three classes re- 
spectively, according to their assessment. Stat. of Realm, i. 97. From these authorities 
it is evident that the habergeon was a defence of an inferior description to the hawberk ; 
and when the introduction of plate armour in the reign of Edw. III. had supplied more 
convenient and effectual defences for the legs and thighs, the long skirt of the hawberk 
became superfluous ; from that period the habergeon alone seems to have been worn. 
This, in its turn, being superseded by the cuirass, was reduced to the mere apron of 
mail ; but at the time when the Promptorium was compiled, the expensive nature of 
plate armour caused its use to be restricted, and combatants of the lower classes were 
content to arm themselves with the brigandine, or the habergeon. The value of three 
" hauburiounes," in 1374, was 13 marks : See Invent, of Edw. de Appelby, Sloane Cart, 
xxxi. 2. Milan was celebrated for the manufacture of this defence : in a document dated 
33 Hen. VI. relating to armour delivered out of the Tower, are mentioned " haberg'ons, 
some of Meleyn, and some of Westewale," that is, probably, Westphalia, or the Wes- 
terwald, where the iron-works of Solingen have long been in repute. Arcbseol. xvi. 125. 
In the Inventory of Sir John Fastolfe's armoury, 1459, are likewise found " iij. har- 
buryones of 1'Milayne." Archseol. xxi. 271. In the Wicliffite version Goliath is said 
to have had " a brasun basynet on his heed, and he was clojnd wi)> an haburion hokid 
(e}>er mailid, lorica squamatd," Vulg.) " He shal clo>e ri^tfulnesse for an haburioun 
(pro thorace, Vulg.) and he shal take certeyn doom for a basynet." Sapiens, v. 15. 
" Bilix, lorica que contexitur duobus liciis accumulatis, a hawbergion ; ita trilix. 
Pancerium est lorica, an haberyon." ORTUS. "An haberion, lorica; hec trilex est 
lorica ex tribus (liciis) confecta." CATH. ANG. " Haulbergyn of mayle, aulberyon, 
haulberion." PALSG. See Ducange, v. Halsberga ; and Jamieson, v. Awbyrchowne. 

2 This dish, now considered as almost exclusively a Northern delicacy, seems to have 
been anciently in more general esteem. A curious metrical recipe is found in the Liber 
Cure cocorum, Sloane MS. 1986, f. 103. " Omasus, i. tripa vel ventriculus qui con- 
tinet alia viscera, a trype, or a podynge, or a wesaunt, or hagges. Tucetum, hagas ; 
tucetvrius, hagas maker." ORTUS. " Haggas, a podyng, caliette de moutonS' PALSG. 


(hay net, p. hanet, w.) 1 Cassis, 

c. F. 

HAYYN' for conyys. Cassio, c. F. 

in cassis. 

HAYL. Grando. 
HAYLYN'. Grandinat. 
HAYRYF, herbe (harryyf, s.) 2 

Rubea, (sic) vel rubia minor, 
et major dicitur madyr. 

HAYYR, or hayre. 3 Cilicium. 

HAYHT, harry. 4 

HAKENEY, horse. Bajulus, equi- 
ferus. _ 

HAKKYN'. Sectulo. 

" Gogue, a sheep's paunch, and thence, a haggas made of good herbs, choptlard, spices, 
eggs, and cheese." COTG. " Tucetum^ a meate made with chopped fleshe, lyke to a gygot, 
or alowe." ELYOT. See Jamieson, and Dr. Hunter's Culinafamulatrix Medicina. 

1 Forby explains hay-net as signifying in Norfolk " a hedge net, a long low net, to 
prevent hares or rabbits from escaping to covert, in or through hedges." See also 
Moore. In a lease dated 1572, in the manor of Hawsted, Suffolk, the landlord reserves 
the right of " hawking, haying," &c. that is, rabbit-netting. Cullum's Hawsted, p. 198. 
" Haye, a net for connes, bourcettes a chasser." PALSG. " Tender -e play as, to pytche 
hayes, or nettes. Casses, nets which maybe called haies." ELYOT. " Toiles, toils, or 
a hay to inclose or intangle wild beasts in. Pan, a toyle or hay wherewith wild beasts are 
caught." COTG. The word is doubtless derived from Ang.-Sax. hsej, or heje, septum. In 
the edition of the Ortus in Mr. Wilbraham's library, clausura is rendered " a closse, or 
a heye." Haye occurs elsewhere in the sense of an enclosure ; thus in the gloss on the 
" liber vocatus equus,' 1 called in the Promptorium " Distigius," written by John de 
Garlandia, occurs " Cimiterium, chyrche-haye." Harl. MS. 1002. In the Golden 
Legend it is said, " he had foule way thorugh hayes and hedges, woodes, stones, hylles 
and valeys." f. 68, b. 

" Harife, rubium minor, herba est." CATH. ANG. The Galium aparine is called in 
the North, according to Ray, " Hariff and catchweed, goose-grease ; " according to 
Parkinson it was reckoned by the old botanists as a kind of madder ; but he does not 
give the name hayryf, which is probably derived from the asperity of its stalks. In 
some places it is called hairough. Palsgrave gives " haylife, an herbe." 

3 " Cilicium, velamen factum de pilis caprarum, Anglice a heere." ORTUS. " An 
haire, cilicium." CATH. ANG. " Hayre for parfite men, hayre." PALSG. 

" Hastily J?ei hent hem on hei3resse ful rowe, 
Next here bare bodi, and bare fot J>ei went." 

Will, and Werw. p. 172. 

In the version of Vegecius is a description of the military engine called the " snayle or 
welke (testudd), a frame of goode tymber, shaped square, keuerede and hillede alle 
a-boute wythe rawe hides, or with feltes, andheyres, for drede of brynnyng." Roy. MS. 
18 A. XII. f. 105. Among the trades, in the order of the pageants of the Play of 
Corpus Christi, at York, 1415, "hayresters" are mentioned. Drake, App. In the 
Golden Legend the term hayre is of frequent occurrence, signifying a garment of morti- 
fication. St. Thomas clothed himself with an " hard heyre, full of knottes, whiche 
was his sherte, and his breche was of the same." And again, during grievous pestilence, 
" they couered the crosse and the auters with blyssed hayres; and thus we sholde take 
on vs clothynge of penaunce." In medieval Latin a shaggy garment was termed haira, 
according to Ducange. Ang.-Sax. haera, cilicium. 

4 Chaucer describes a cart that had stuck in a deep way, 

" The carter smote, and cryde as he were wode, 

Heit Scot ! Heit Brok 1 what, spare ye for the nones ? " Frere's Tale. 
In the Eastern counties, according to Forby and Moore, the ejaculation Hait-wo ! or 


HAKKYNGE, or hewynge. Sectio. 
HAKE, fysche. Squilla, glossd 

HALE, or tente. 1 Papilio, scena, 

CATH. et c. F. 
HALE, or cyrcle a-bowte be mone. 

Halo-, c. F. 

HALLE. Aula, atrium. 
HALF, or halfundele. Dimidius, 


HALF a buschel, or eytendele (half 
or a bowndel, boshel, or ethyn- 
del, s. or tynt, H. p.) 2 Saturn, 
CATH. UG. v. in S. 

HALF a ferthynge. 3 Calcus, c. F. 
et variatur q. cum cu (q. vel 
qu, s.) 

HALY, or be-hatyd. 4 Exosus, 
c. F. 

HALYDAY (halliday, K.) Festi- 

Height ! is now used only to turn a cart-horse to the left ; and Ree ! is given by the 
latter as a command which causes a movement to the right. Bp. Kennett gives " to 
hite up and down, to run idly about, North ; Hiting, gadding abroad. Sax. yting, 
peregre. In Yorkshire for Gee oo, the carters say Hite and ree. Height nor ree, 
neither go nor drive, spoken of a wilful person." Lansd. MS. 1033. See Yorksh. Dial, 
p. 58. HAYHT is not found in any other MS. of the Promptorium. Harry appears to 
be the imperative mood of the word HARYYN', which occurs subsequently ; or possibly 
the out-cry, haro, haroll. Both the ejaculations above given occur in the Towneley 
Mystery of the death of Abel, p. 9, where Cain and his plough-boy are represented as 
tilling the ground, and the latter cries to the horses, " Harrer, Morelle, iofurthe, hyte I '' 

1 Among the effects of Hen. V. were "y. tentes de bloy carde, Sfc. ovec j. porche, 
etj. aley." 1423, Rot. Parl. iv. 240. In a letter to Sir JohnPaston, 7 Hen. VII. it is 
said respecting preparations for the expedition into France, "y e Kyng sendythe ordy- 
naunce dayly to y e see syde, and hys tents and alys be a makynge faste ; " also that great 
provision was made by the gentry, who were to accompany him, " for hors harnes, tentes, 
halys, gardyuyens, carts," &c. Past. Lett. v. 412. Among the requisites provided for 
the Earl of Northumberland, in the French campaign in 1513, at the siege of Therouenne, 
are named " haylles, tents, and pauillions." Ant. Rep. iv. 364. See also Hall's Chron. 
12 Hen. VIII. p. 618, last edit. " Hale in a felde for men, tref. Hall, a long tent in 
a felde, tente. 1 ' Elyot gives "scena, a pauyllion, or haule." The hangings of a 
chamber, as it has been observed in the note on the word DORCERE, were termed ballings, 
in Latin halts, alee, or aulaa. "An hallynge, auleum, anabatrum." CATH. ANG. 

2 Compare EYJTYNDELE, and TYNTE. Ray, Bp. Kennett, in his Gloss. Coll. Lansd. 
MS. 1033, and Grose mention another name for the same measure, in use in the North, 
namely, " frundele, a measure of two pecks." As it is called eyjtyndele, because it is 
the eighth part of a coom, so also furundel, or frundele, a corruption of furthindele, as 
being the fourth part of a bushel. Ang.-Sax. feor'San, quartus. See Cowel's Interpr. 
v. Furundellus. The term " eytendele " occurs in the Hist. Eliensis, where it is re- 
corded of Will, de Longchamp, Bp. of Ely, who died 1197, " ordinavit ut in die anni- 
versarii sui dentur pauperibus xiij. eytendeles defrumento" Angl. Sacra, i. 633. 

3 " Halfe a fardynge, calcus, calculus, minutum." CATH. ANG. See the notes on 
the word cu. Sherwood, in his Eng. French Diet. 1632, gives " a cue, la moitie d>un 
fardin, mot use seulement des escoliers d' Oxford." There is a proverbial saying of 

contempt, " I would kick him for half a farthing ;" but the cue seems to have been as 
imaginary as the bodle, of like supposed value, and in the North familiarly mentioned 
as if it really existed. See Brockett, and the other North-country Glossarists. 

4 Halo, halah, or healo, signifies in the Northern counties bashful, backward, or 
fearful. See Brockett, Craven, and Hallamshire Dialects. ' ' Honteux, shamefull, bashfull, 
helo, modest," &c. COTG. Jamieson gives heily in the sense of proud, Ang.-Sax. 



vitas, vel dies festivalis,festale, 
c. F.feria. 

HALYN', or drawyfi'. Traho. 

HALYNGE, or drawynge. Tractus. 

HALYWATER. Aqua benedicta. 

HALYWATER berere. Aquabaju- 

HALY WATER spryngelle, or 
strencle (haliwatyr styk, K. H.) 1 
Aspersorium, isopus, media pro- 
ductd; isopus, media correptd, 
Anglice ysope, herbe ; unde 

versus, Isopus est herba, Isopo 

spargitur unda. 
HALYVEY, or bote a-jen sekenesse, 

as treacle or ober lyke (haliwey, 

K.) 2 Antidotum, CATH. salu- 

HALKE, or hyrne. 3 Angulus, la- 

HALM, or stobyl (stopyll, p.) 4 

HALOW, schypmannys crye. 5 Ce- 

leuma, c. F. 

healic, excelsus, and the verb to heally, to abandon, or forsake, which seems to approach 
towards the signification of the word given above, be-hatyd. 

1 See STRENKYL, hereafter. " Halywater sprincle, uespillon, aspergoyr." PALSG. 

2 In L^amon, Arthur says that he would go into Avalon, to Argante the fair, 

" for heo sculde mid haleweie 

helen his wunden." Vol. ii. p. 546, Madden's edit. 

Compare the corresponding passage, vol. iii. p. 144, where it is said that she should 
make him all whole with " haleweije drenchen." " Balsamus est arbor, Gall, baumere ; 
balsamum gummi est predicti arboris, Gall, baume, Any. haliwey." SloaneMS. 5, f. 3. 
" Balsamum, fyc. haliwhey." Arund. MS. 42, f. 93. See TREACLE hereafter. 

8 This word seems to be taken from Ang.-Sax. heal, anffulus, or, as Tyrwhitt pro- 
poses, from hylca, sinus. It is used repeatedly by Chaucer. 
" As yonge clerkys, that ben likerous 

To reden artes that ben curious, 

Seken in every halke and every herne 

Particular sciences for to lerne." Frankel. Tale, v. 11,433. 

4 Bp. Kennett has the following note, Lansd. MS. 1033. " Haulm, straw left in an 
esh, or gratten ; stubble, thatch. Sax. hselme, culmus, calamus ; Isl. halmur, palea" 
Ray gives " haulm or helm, stubble gathered after the corn is inned." 

5 " Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, vel heuylaw romylawe (ut heue and 
howe, rombylow," edit. 1518.) ORTUS. In the MS. of the Medulla in the Editor's 
possession, " heualow, rummylow." See Ritson's Dissert, on Anc. Songs, p. li. 

" They rowede hard, and sungge ther too, 

Withheuelow and rumbeloo." Rich. C. de Lion, 2521. 

" Your mariners shall synge arowe, 

Hey how and rumbylowe." Squyre of lowe degree. 

It occurs likewise in Skelton's Bowge of Court ; Cocke Lorelle's bote, &c. This 
cry appears not to have been exclusively nautical, for it forms the burden of a ballad 
on the Battle of Bannocksburn, 1314, the alternate stanzas of which, as given in Caxton's 
Chron. terminate thus, " with heuelogh with rombilogh ; '' or, as in Fabyan, " with 
heue alowe with rumbylow." "A cor et a cry,by might and maine,with heaue and hoe." 
COTG. Hence seems to be derived the surname of Stephen Rummelowe, Constable of 
Nottingham Castle, 45 Edw. III. mentioned in Issue Roll of Exch. 1369. Compare 
CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe. 



HALOWYN',orcryyn'as schypmen 

(halo wen with cry, p.) Celeumo. 

HALPENY, or halfpeny. Obolus, 

HALPENY WORTHE, or hal(f)peny 

worthe (halpworthe, K.) Obo- 

litas, oblata (oboleitas, P.) 
HALS, or halce, throte (hols, s.) 

HALS, or nekke. 1 Collum, am- 

HALSYN', or ben halsyd. Am- 

plector, amplexor, CATH. 
HALSYNGE, or dallynge. Am- 


HALTE, or crokyd. 2 Claudus. 
HALTYN'. Claudico. 
HALT ARE. Claudicator, clau- 

dicarius, CATH. claudicaria. 

HALTYNGE. Claudicacio. 
HALWAR of holy placys (halowar, 

H. P.) Consecrator, dedicator. 
HAL WARE of holydayes. Cele- 

brator, celebratrix. 
HALWYN' holydayys. Festivo t 

festo, CATH. (celebro, P.) 
HALWYN' holy placys, or holy in- 

strumentys.Consecro (dedico, P.) 
HALWYNGE of holy placys. Con- 

secracio, dedicacio. 
HALWYNGE of holydayes. Cele- 

HALVUNDEL (halfundel, K. han- 

dele, s. haluedell, p.) 3 Dimi- 

dium, medietas (medium, P.) 
HAME, thyn skynne of an eye, or 

ober lyke (skynne of an hay, s.) 4 


1 The noun halse, the neck, and the verb to halse, to embrace, are used by most of 
the early writers. See R. Brunne, Chaucer, the Vision of P. Ploughman, &c. Ang.- 
Sax. hals, collum. " Amplexus, a clyppynge, or a halsynge." ORTUS. " An halsynge, 
amplexus ; to halse, amplexare. An hailsynge, salutacio ; to hailse, salutareS' CATH. 
ANG. ' Halsyng, accolUe. I take one in myn armes, I halse him, i'embrasse. Halse 
me aboute the necke, my sonne, and thou shalte haue a fygge, accollez moy, &c. I 
haylse or greete, ie salue." PALSG. The verb to hailse occurs in this sense of 
saluting in the Vision of P. Ploughman, 4816, 4918. See Jamieson. 

2 Compare CROKYD, or crypylle, or lame, above. " Halte, cadax, claudus. To 
halte, claudicare, varicare. An halter, claudicarius ; duplicarius, qui ex utrdque parte 
claudicat.'" CATH. ANG. Instances of the use of the word "crokyd'' in the sense of 
lame may be found in Syr Gowghter, line 673 ; Sir Tryamoure, line 228. So likewise 
in the Wicliffite version " claudum " is rendered " crokid," Matt xviii. 8. 

3 In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that " halfendele the 
profites (dimidia pars) of the knyghtes sowde shulde be kept vnder the principalle 
baner." B. ii. c. 19. In a petition from the Commons, 1442, it is said respecting the 
appropriation of a penalty, that " the halvyndele " should belong to the King, and the 
other moiety to the party suing the offender. Rot. Parl. v. 54. See also Awntyrs of 
Arthure, 625 ; edit, by Mr. Robson ; Emare, 442 ; Voiage of Sir John Maundevile, 
pp. 200, 219. Ang.-Sax. healf, dimidium, and dsel, pars. 

4 In the relation of the deception practised upon Olympias by Neptanabus, disguised 
as Jupiter Ammon, it is said, 

Neptanabus his charme hath y-nome, 
And takith him haums of a dragon, 
From his scholdron, to his hele adoun.' 

K. Alis. 385. 

The credulous Queen having no suspicion of deceit, the magician leaps upon her couch, 



HAMME. Poplex. 

HAMUR (hambyr, s. hamowre, 

HARL. MS. 2274.) Malleus, 

martellus, c. F. 
HAN, or havyn'. Habeo, pos- 

HAN, or have abhomi(n)acyon'. 

Abhominor, detestor. 
HAN, or haue dysdeyne. Dedignor. 
(HAN in mynde, K. have one in 

mynde, s.) Recorder, memoror, 

memini (memoro, commemoro, 


HANDE. Manus. 
HAND BAROW (handbarwe, K. s. 

H.) 1 Epiredium, KYLW. CATH. 
HANDE BREDE. 2 Palmus. 
HANDFULLE. Manipulus, vola, 

HANDYL of an instrument, what 

so euer hyt be. Manutentum. 

HANDE MAYDYN'. Ancilla. 
HANDLYN', or gropyn'. Palpo, 

HANDSUM, or esy to hond werke 

(esy to ban hand werke, s. 

ban sum, p.) Manualis. 
HAND TABLYS (handtabyle, s.) 3 

et UG. in dico. 
HAND LYME (hand wyrme, s.) 4 

HANGE MANNE. Furcillator, 

HANGEMENT (orhongment, HARL. 

MS. 2274.) Suspendium, sus- 

HANGYN', by the selfe. Pendeo, 

HANGYN' a thynge on a walle, or 

other lyke. Pendo, suspendo, 


and throws aside " his dragoun's hame.'' Ang.-Sax. hama, cut is. " Induvie, sloghes, 
or the homes of adders." MED. MS. CANT. Compare FLAKE, above; where the King's 
Coll. MS. adds the synonym hame. Eye signifies here an egg. See EY, ovum. 

1 Epirhedium is in the Ortus explained to be "a whele barowe, or a rounge ; " but 
the vehicle here intended is without wheels, and is still used in many parts of England. 
Tusser includes both hand-barrow and wheel-barrow among the husbandly furniture, as 
detailed in September's husbandry. Among the quaint riddles entitled "the Demaundes 
Joyous," W. de Worde, 1511, is this " Demaunde. Whan antecryst is come in to this 
worlde, what thynge shall be hardest to hymto knowe ? R. Ahande-barowe, for of that 
he shall not knowe whiche ende shall goo before." " Hande barowe, ciuiere." PALSG. 

2 The substantive BREDE of measure has occurred already. Ang.-Sax. breed, lati- 
tudo. Compare WYYD, large ynbrede. " Brede or squarenesse, croisure" PALSG. 

s " Pinav, a hand table." MED. MS. CANT. Pugillaris is explained in the Ortus to 
be " tabula manualis. Pinax, i. pugillaris, ephimeris, tabula manualis ex pind facia" 
Tablets, according to the present term, were formerly called a pair of tables, being 
formed like a diptych of two folding leaves ; by the Rtglemens sur les arts de Paris, 
t. Louis IX. 1254, it appears that they were usually of wood. It is there enjoined that 
" ceus quifont tables h escrire*' shall not make them of mixed materials, that is, tables 
" de quoi li un fuelles soit de luis, et li autre de fanne ; ni mettre avec buis autre 
maniere defust, qui ne soit plus chier que buis, tfest h savoir, cadre benus, bresil y et 
cipres." Documens Inedits, ed. Depping, p. 173. " Payre of writyng tables, tablettes." 


4 " Hande worme, ciron." PALSG. Nicot explains it to be a little worm " engendrt 
d'humeur acre et adust e en diuers endroits de la personne, mais plus communement es 
mains, qui range etfait demanyer ou il est concree : creredo t acarus," &c. See Cotgrave. 



HANGYN', or don' the offyce of an 

hangmann. Furcillo, suspendo, 


HANGYNGE. Suspencio- 
HANGYNGE of an halle. Auleum. 
HANGYNGE of a chyrcfte. Pe- 

HANGYNGE of an halle, or tente. 

Velarium, UG. v. in A. 
HANYPERE (hamper, K.) 1 Ca- 

nistrum, cartallus, CATH. 
HANS ALE. 2 Strena, CATH. 
HAPPE. Fortuna, eventus, casus, 

omen, c. r. 
HAPPE of good spede. Eufor- 

tunium, CATH. 

HAPPE of badde spede (happy or 

bare sped, P.) Disfortunium. 
HAPPY. Fortunatus. 
HAPPY, in goodnesse. Felix, 

prosper, faustus, c. F. et CATH. 
HAPPYLY (haply, HARL. MS. 

2274.) Forte, forsan,fortuitu, 

HAPPYN', or betydyn". Contingit, 

CATH. evenit. 
HAPPE weel (happyn wel, K.) 

Prosperor,fortuno, eufortuno. 
HAPPYN, or betydyn' amysse, 

Disfortuno, infortuno. 
(HAPPYN, or whappyn' yn clobys, 

infra in LAPPYN.) 3 

1 " Cophinus, hamper." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. " Calatus, a basket, or a hamper, 
or a panyer." ORTUS. Cart alias is explained in the Catholicon to be the same as 
fttetlla. Compare FYSCHELLE, above. " Hamper, panier, dosier, escrayn." PALSG. 
" Banne, benne, a maund, hamper, flasket, or great banket. Calathe, a basket, pannier, 
or hamper of osiers." COTG. The term has been supposed to be a corruption of hand- 
panier, but, as Ducange observes, v. Hanaperium, it seems to have denoted a large vessel, 
or place for storing up goblets, hanapi, Ang.-Sax. hnaeppa, calix. The hanaper office in 
the Court of Chancery derives its name from the hanaperium, a large basket wherein writs 
were deposited. Among places of deposit, in which instruments were stored away in the 
Exchequer Treasury, are named " hanaper ia de virgis of twyggys." Sir F. Palgrave 
has given a representation of one, date 3 Rich. II. 1380. Kalend. of Exch. i. pi. ii. 
See also payments to the keeper " hanaperii cancellar' pro hanaperio ligneo emp' pro 
lit. pat. imponendis ; " and for the horse that carried it. Lib. Gard. 28 Edw. I. p. 359. 

" Arrabo, i. vadimonium, an hansall ; et proprie dicitur dona arra. Pars arrabo 
venit precii, dum res bona venit, i. venduntur. Strena est bona sors, Ang lice hansell." 
ORTUS. " A hanselle, arabo, strena ; to hanselle, strenare, arrare. Erls, arabo, arra, 
SfC. ubi hanselle. To yife erls, arrare. 1 ' CATH. ANG. " Hansell, estrayne I hansell 
one, I gyue him money in a mornyng for suche wares as he selleth, ieestrene," PALSG. 
" Estreine, handselled, that hath the handsell or first use of.'' COTG. Ang.-Sax. hand- 
selen, mancipatio. It implies generally a delivery in hand, an earnest, the first use of 
a possession ; and likewise a reward or bribe, as in Vis. of P. Ploughman, 3128 ; and 
the Poem on the deposition of Rich. II. edit, by Mr. Wright, p. 30. Sir F. Madden 
explains " honde-selle " to mean a gift conferred at a particular season. Gawayn and 
the Grene Kny3t, 66. " Hansell, or a newe yeares gifte, strena." HULOET. 

3 Forby gives the verb to hap, to wrap up, happing, a covering, and hap-harlot, a 
coarse coverlit. Ang.-Sax. hsepian, cumulare. The last word is used by Harrison, in 
a passage which has been cited above, in the note on DAGGYSWEYNE. See also Huloet, 
Baret's Alvearie, and Skinner. The verb occurs in King Edward and the Shepherd. 
" The scheplierd keppid his staf ful warme, 

And happid it euer undur his harme." Hartshorne's Metr. Tales, 71. 
John Paston writes as follows : " I pray yow ye woll send me hedir ij. elne of worsted 
for dobletts, to happe me thys colde wynter." Past. Lett. iv. 91. 



(HAPPYNGE, or hyllynge, infra in 

HARAROWS, or sterne (haraiowus, 

K. haraiows, s. haraious, H. p.) 1 

Austerus, rigidus. 
HARAS of horse. 2 Equicium. 
HARDE yn knowynge, or wark- 

ynge. Difficilis. 
HARDE yn towchynge, or felythe 

(sic, felynge, s.) Durus. 
HARDY. Audax. 
HARDYLY. Audacter. 
HARDYN', or growyh' harde. 

JDureo, induresco. 
HARDYN', or make harde. Induro. 

HARDENESSE of knowy(n)ge, or 
dede doynge (hardynes of know- 
ynge of dede, or other thynge, 
p.) Difficultas. 

HARDNES in towchynge. Duricies. 

HARDE DEMARE, or domys mann 
wythe-owte mercy (harde, with- 
oute mercy, P.) Severus, c. F. 

HARDE SETT (or obstynat, p.) yn 
wyckydnesse, J>at neuer wylle 
chawnge. Obstinatus, pertinax. 

HARE, beeste. Lepus. 

HARYYN', or drawyn'. 3 Trahicio, 
pertraho (protraho, s. traho, 
traicio, p.) 

HARLOTTE. 4 Scurrus. 

1 " Atrox, cruelle or haryous. Immanis, haraious, grete, cruelle, or dredefulle." 
MED. MS. CANT. " Harageus or gret." Editor's MS. Compare the verb HARYYN'. 

2 " Equiricia, a harasse of horse." MED. MS. CANT. " An haras of horse, equaricia, 
equicium." CATH. ANG. See Ducange, v. Haracium. " Haras, a race; horses and 
mares kept only for breed." COTG. In the liber vocatus femina, MS. Coll. Trin. 
Cant. B. 14, 39, under the title of assemblies of beasts, it is said, " Haraz dit homme dez 
poleynez, Haras sey> man of coltys." In the Coventry Mystery of the Nativity, a 
citizen of Bethlehem directs Joseph and Mary in these words : 

" 3ondyr is an hous of haras that stant be the way, 
Amonge the bestys herboryd may 30 be.'* p. 147. 

3 To harry or harr, to drag by force, is a verb frequently used by the early writers, 
and still used in the North. Hampole says in the Prick of Conscience, 

" And deuylles salle harre hym vp evene 

In the ayre als he sulde stegh to heuene.'' Harl. MS. 6923, f. 62. 
See Towneley Myst. p. 247. Fabyan says, in his relation of the murder of Bp. Sta- 
pylton, 1325, " the corps of y e sayde bysshop, with hys ij. servauntes, were haryed to 
Thamys syde, where the sayd bysshop had begonne to edyfye a toure,'' &c. Part. vii. 
The following passage occurs in Golding's version of Beza's book of Christian ques- 
tions, 1572 ; " Whereas the same (the will) ought to be ruled by reason, as by a wagon- 
guider ; yet, notwithstanding, how often doth it harie him headlong awaye ? " Pals- 
grave gives the verb, " I harye, or mysse entreate, or hale one, ie harie. Why do you 
harye the poore fellowe on this facyon ? I harry, or carry by force, ie trayne, and ie 
hercelle. He haryeth hym aboute, as if he were a traytour." Ang.-Sax. hergian, 
vastare. Forby gives harriage, signifying confusion. 

4 This term did not originally denote a dissolute woman, but a low fellow, a buffoon, 
a varlet. See Sir Cleges, line 349 ; Ywaine and Gawin, line 2404 ; Chaucer, and the 
Vis. of P. Ploughman. Fox speaks of a company of sectarians who were named harlots, 
in the reign of Hen. III. Acts and Mon. i. 305 ; Lambarde's Peramb. of Kent, 178. 
" Gerro, a tryfelour, or a harlott." MED. MS. CANT. " An harlott, balator, rusticus, 
fferro, mima,joculator,pantomima,parasitaster, histrix,nugator, scurrulus, manducus. 
An harlottry, lecacitas, inurbanitas, &c. To do harlottry, scttrrari." CATH. ANG. 



HARME. Dampnum, detrimen- 

tum, dispendium. 
HARMLES. Indempnis. 
HARM YD. Dampnificatus. 
HARMYN'. Dampnifico. 
HARNEYS, or rayment. Para- 


HARNEYS, wepyne. Arma, plur. 
HARNEYS, or hustylment (instru- 

mentys longynge to howsolde, 

K.) Utensile. 

HARNEYS for hors. Falere, plur. 
HARNEYSYN', or a-rayyfi' wythe 

barneys and wepyne (harneysyn 

or artayn, p.) Armo. 
HARPE. Cithara, lira. 
HARPYN'. Cithariso. 
HARPOWRE. Ciiharista, citha- 

reda, liricen, fidicen, dico. 

HARSKE, or haske, as sundry 

frutys (bars, or harske, p.) 1 

Stipticus, poriticus. 
HAROWE (harwe, K.) Erpica, 

CATH. et KYLW. trahcL, c. F. et 

BRIT. ; et traho (We) Anglice a 


HARWYN'. Erpico, CATH. 
HASARDE, play. Aleatura. 
HASARDE (We, s. p.) or hasar- 

dowre. Aleator, UG. v. aleo, 


HAssoK. 2 Ulphus. 
H A A s T E. Festinencia, festinacio . 
HASTE, yn sodente (hayste, or so- 

dayne, s.) a Impetus. 
HASTY. Festinus, impetuosus, 

HASTYBERE, corne (hastybyr, s.) 4 

Trimensis, c. F. 

1 The Campanula trachelium, Linn, is called by Parkinson throat-wort or haske- 
wort. Skinner gives Hask-wort, Trachelium, forte a sapore austero. Compare Dan. 
Sw. and Dutch, harsk, rank, or rusty. Haskard, coarse or unpolished, appears to be 
hence derived. Herman says that " Homer declarying a very folysshe, and an haskard 
felowe (ignavum) under the person of Thersyte, sayth that he was streyte in the shul- 
ders, and copheeded lyke a gygge." Harsh is sometimes written harrish ; thus Dr. 
Turner, in his Herbal, 1562, says that " dates, if they be eaten, they ar good for the 
harrishenes, or roughnes of the throte ; " and of plums, " they that ar litle ones, and 
harde, and harrish tarte, ar sterk noughts." " Sorbum, an harryshe peare." ELYOT. 

2 " Ulphus, hassok." MED. Forby states that, in Norfolk, coarse grass, which grows 
in rank tufts on boggy ground, is termed hassock. In the foundation charter of Saw- 
trey Abbey, A.D. 1147, Simon, Earl of Northampton grants certain lands adjoining 
Whittlesea mere, the boundaries being minutely described : in one place the limit is 
defined to be " indirect e per transversum marisci, usque ad tercium hassocum a firmd 
terrd inter mariscum et Higgeneiaw." The cartulary of Ramsey supplies a repetition 
of this statement, contained in the attestation of Alex. Maufe regarding the disputed 
limits of the donation made by the Earl, his lord ; in this document the Latinised word 
hassocus twice occurs. " Pastores vero nostri super exteriores hassocos versus Walton 
inter pratum et mariseum debent stare, et animalia sua usque ad pedes suos venire per- 
mittere." Mon. Angl. orig. ed. t. i. pp. 850, 852, 853. Ducange, not being acquainted 
with the locality, interprets the word as denoting the kind of stone called tufa. In an 
account relating to the castle of Guysnes, in 1465, among the miscell. records of the 
Queen's Rememb. a statement appears as to the clearing away of " cirparum ac arun- 
dinum, segges, soddes et hassokes," which grew to the obstruction of a certain mill- 
course. The word is still used in N. Britain. See Jamieson. 

3 HASTE, yn sodence, MS. Compare SODEYNTE, hereafter. 

4 POLBERE is given hereafter as another name of a kind of barley (Ang.-Sax. bere, 



HASTYLY. Festinanter. 
HASTYLY, smertly. Impetuose, 

precipitant er. 
HASTYN', or hyyn'. Festino, ac- 

HASTYN', or hyyn' yn goynge. 


HASTLERE, bat rostythe mete 

(or roostare, infra.) 1 Assator, 

assariusy KYLW. assaria, as- 


HATTE, hed hillynge. Capellum, 

c. F. vel capellus, CATH. 
HATTE of strawe. Capedulum, 

UG. v. in C. 
HAT A RE, or he bat hatythe. Osor, 

c. F. 

HATE. Odium. 
HATYN'. Odio. 
HATYR, rent clothe (hatere, K. 

hatere, or hatyr, H. p.) 2 Scru- 

turn, pannucia, c. F. 
HATEREDE, idem quod HATE, 

(hateryd, idem quod debate, s.) 

hordeum) termed hasty from its being early, and coming to maturity in the third month 
after it is sown. Gerarde- refers the name Trimestre to the Amil-corn, or starch-corn, 
Trlticum amyleum, cultivated in Germany and the Low Countries to make starch ; but 
according to Parkinson the grain here alluded to appears to be the naked barley, Hordeum 
vernum, which, as he observes, " is not seene or sowne by any almost in this land," called 
in Germany Zeytgerste, or Titgerste, small barley, or " one for the present." It appears, 
however, that in Tusser's time the early variety was cultivated in the Eastern counties. 
" Sow barley in March, in April, and May, 
The latter in sand, and the sooner in clay." March's husbandry. 

1 The enumeration of the household of Hen. II. in the Constit. domus Regis, Liber 
niger Scacc. Hearne, i. 348, comprises " De magnd coquind host j (ostiarius , ? ) haste- 
lariee," his three men, and the " hastalarius." The latter seems to be the same as the 
" hastator," named in the ordinance for the household of Louis XI. 1261, called in 
French hasteur. See Ducange. Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Essex, among the 
household servants named in his will, 1361, as " potager, ferour, barber, ewer," &c. 
mentions " Will, de Barton, hastiler." Roy. Wills, p. 52. In the Liber cure cocorum, 
the author thus states the intention of his treatise. 

" Fyrst to 3ou I wylle schawe 
bo poyntes of cure al by rawe ; 
Of potage, hastery, and bakun mete, 
And petecure I nylle forjete." Sloane MS. 1986, f. 47. 

The chapter " de cibis assatis, of rostyd mete," comprises a singular dish, termed 
" hasteletes on fysshe day," consisting of figs, raisins, dates, and almonds, transfixed 
on a " broche of irne," and roasted ; f. 86, b. Compare Forme of Cury, p. 8. Among 
the domestic officers of the Earl of Northumberland, 1511, was a " yoman cooke for 
the mouth, who doith hourely attend in the kitching at the haistry for roisting of meat." 
Ant. Rep. iv. 244. Bp. Percy states that in Shropshire the fireplace is called haister ; 
and, according to Mr. Hartshorne, an hastener, or hasteler, is a kind of screen lined 
with tin, used for reflecting the heat in roasting. See Salopia Ant. The derivation is 
evidently from hasta. " Haste, a spit or broach." COTG. Compare ROOSTARE, or 
hastelere, hereafter. 

2 In the curious song on the Man in the Moon, printed by Ritson, it is said, 

" When J>e forst freseb muche chele he byd, 

be bornes beb kene, is hattren to tereb." Anc. Songs, p. 36. 



HAUE, supra in HAN. 

HAVE abhominacyon', and have 

disdeyne, supra in HAN.) 
(HAVYN in mende, K. or ban in 

mynde, supra. Recordor, me- 

moro, memini.} 
HAUE ynvye. Invideo. 
HAVE leysere. Vaco. 
HAVE mercy. Misereor. 
HAVE yn possessyon'. Possideo. 
HAVE levyr (have leuer, K. p.) 1 


HAVE pyte, or ruthe. Compacior. 
(HAUE suspeckte, K. H. p. Sus- 

piciO) CATH. suspecto, CATH.) 

HA WE, frute. Cinum, cornum, 

c. F. ramnum.) CATH. 

cinus, cornus. 

HAVENE. Portus, hostium, CATH. 
HAVENE kepare, or gouernare. 

Portunus, c. F. 
(HAWBERK, supra in HABU- 


HAWKE. Falco. 
HAWKYNGE. Falconatus. 
HAWNCYN', or heynyfi' (hawtyn, 

K. hawnsyn or yn heyyn, s. 

hawten, or heithyn vp, p.) 2 

Exalto, elevo, sublevo. 

When Philip Augustus fell into the river, in consequence of the breaking of the bridge 
of Gisors, Marcadeus, a captain in the host of King Richard, according to Langtoft's 
account, derided him thus ; 

" Sir Kyng rise vp and skip, for J>ou has wette M hater, 
J>ou fisshes not worj?e a leke, rise and go thi ways, 
Foj*}>ou has wette Jn breke, schent is }>i hernays." R. Brunne, p. 204. 

So likewise in the Romance of Kyng Alisaunder, the word signifies garments, attire : 
see lines 4264, 7054 ; and the Brahmins are said to live in austere penance, " thinne- 
lich y-hatered," line 5922. Ang.-Sax. hsetero, vestitus. In the Vision of P. Plough- 
man, Haukyn makes the following excuses for his soiled garment. 

" I have but oon hool hater, quod Haukyn ; 
I am the lasse to blame, 
Though it be soiled and selde clene : 
I slepe therinne o nyghtes." line 8900. 

In line 9758, the word '' haterynge " occurs in the sense of clothing. The explanation, 
however, given in the Promptorium, may suggest the comparison of the word with the 
verb, still used in Norfolk, to hatter, or exhaust by fatigue. See Bp. Kennett's Gloss. 
Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033. " To hatter, to expose to danger, to weary out, or wear out, 
as a horse by too much riding, or any utensil by too much lending is battered about : 
Kent. Isl. hsettur, periculosus." 

1 " 1 haue leuer, Vayme myeulx, i'aiplus chier. Many men had leuer se a play, than 
to here a masse." PALSG. This word is used very commonly by the old writers. Ang.- 
Sax. leof, earns, gratus, comp. leofra. See LEFE, and dere. 

2 This verb occurs commonly in a composite form, to en-hance, or in-hance, as in 
the Vision of P. Ploughm. the Wicliffite version, and Chaucer. The lintel of a door is 
termed, from its position, the haunce. " Limen signifieth not only the thrashold of a 
doore, but also the haunse. Supercilium, the haunse whyche is ouer the doore. Hy- 
perthyron, transumpte, or haunce." ELYOT. In the Nomenclator of Junius, translated by 
Higins, a distinction is made between the Vitruvian terms hyperthyrum, and super cilium, 



HAWNTARE. Frequentator,fre- 

HAWNTYN', or ofte vsyn'. Fre- 

HAWNTYNGE. Frequentacio. 

HAWNTYNGLY, or ofte. Fre- 

HAVURE, or havynge of catel, or 
o]>er goodys (havour, or werdly 
good, K. havre, or hawynge of 
catel, s. hauyre, or worldly 
good, HARL. MS. 2274.) 1 Ave- 

HE, or he bat. Hie, ipse. 

HE, thys. Iste, hie. 

HEC, hek, or hetche, or a dore 
(hecche, K. heke, or hech, s.) 2 
Antica,CATH.etc.F.etUG.i7t an. 

HEED. Caput. 

HEDARE, or hefdare (hedare, or 
hedere, s. hevedare, H. behedar, 
p.) 3 Decapitator, lictor. 

HEDYN', or hefedyn' (hevedyn, K. 
K. behedyn, p.) Decapito, de- 
collo (trunco, detrunco, P.) 

HEED BOROW (hedborwe, K. H. 
heed broth, s.) 4 Plegius ca- 

the former being rendered " the transara, or lintell," the latter " the hanse of a door." 
Cotgrave gives " contrefrontail, the brow peece, or upmost post of a doore, a haunse, or 
breast summer." At first sight it may appear doubtful whether heynyn or heyuyn (to 
heave) be the true reading ; but by considering the position in the alphabetical arrange- 
ment of the word heynynge, subsequently, the former appears to be correct. Compare 
Ang.-Sax. hean, evehere. Heithyn may be perhaps traced to Ang.-Sax. hea'So, culmen. 
In the version of Vegecius, B. iv. c. 19, it is said that the city wall, when a bastile or 
" somer castel " is brought against it, should be "enhaunsed" and made higher, and 
describes the means to be adopted by the assailants " ayenst this highething" of the 
wall. Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. " I haythe, I lyfte on heythe, ie haulce. Hayth this tester 
(haulcez ce del} a lytell. I heyghten, I set vp a heythe, ie exalse. This balke (tref) is 
heythened two foote." PALSG. 

1 In the Romance of Goer de Lion, Tancred says to King Richard that he had heard 

" That thou art comme, with gret power, 

Me to bereve my landes hower." line 1714. 

Weber interprets the word as meaning hire, possession (rythmi yratid.} "Havoir" 
occurs in Chaucer's Rom. of the Rose, line 4720, in the signification of wealth, avoir. 
Sir John Maundevile, describing the good dispositions of the folk of the Isle of Brag- 
man, says that they are neither covetous nor envious, " and thei jive no charge of 
aveer, ne of ricchesse : " p. 354. In the regulations for the government of Prince 
Edward, son of Edw. IV. 1474, is this clause : " We wyll that the hall be ordynately 
served, and strangers served and cherished accordinge to their haveures," Househ. 
Ordin. p. *29. In the Golden Legend mention is made of " coueytous men that sette all 
theyr loue in hauyour, and in solace of y e world." See Kennett, and Spelman, v. Avera. 

2 " Antica, a gate, or a dore, or hatche. Est anlica damns ingressus ab anteriori.' 1 
ORTUS. " An heke, antica.' 1 CATH. ANG. " Ostinlum, hek." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 
f. 27. " Hatche of a dore, hecq." PALSG. " Guichti, a wicket, or hatch of a doore." 
COTG. Forby gives " hack, half-hack, a hatch, a door divided across." In the North, 
a heck -door is one partly latticed and partly pannelled. See Brockett. 

3 See HEVEDARE, hereafter. "A hangeman or anheeder is odiosetoloke vpon." HORM. 

4 The head-borough, borwealder, borsholder, or tithing man, was the chief of the 
friborgh or tithing, the subdivision of ten freemen, called hand-boroughs, or franci 
pleffii, who were mutually bound to the king for the good conduct of each other. Ang.- 



HEED CYTE. Metropolis, CATH. 

monopolis^ CATH. 
HEED of garlek, lely, or oj>er lyke 

(or of a leke, HARL. MS. 2274.) 

Bulbus, KYLW. et UG. in bullo. 
HEEDLES. Acephalis, vel ace- 

phalus, CATH. 

vium, c. F. 
HEEDWERKE, sekenesse (hedake, 

H.) 1 Cephalia, CATH. 
HEEDWARKE suflFerere, or he that 

sufferythe heedwarke. Cepha- 

licus, CATH. 
HEFT. Manubrium. 
HEFT YD E. Manubriatus. 
(HEFTYN, infra in HELVYN.) 
HEFTYNGE. Manubriacio. 
HEDGE (hegge, K. s.) Sepes, UG. 

HEDGYD (heggyd, K. s.) Septus. 
HEDGYN', or make an hedge 

(heggyn, K. s.) Sepio. 
(HETCHE, or hek, p. Antica, c. F.) 
HETCHYD, as byrdys. Pullifica- 

tus >f status, c. F. in alcione. 
HEY, beestys mete. Fenum. 
HEY, or heythe (of heythe, K. for 

heyth, s. hey of height, P.) Altus> 

celsus, excelsus. 
HEY BENCHE. 2 Orcestra, CATH. 

orcistra, c. F. episedium (sub- 

sellum, P.) 

HEYESTE. Altissimus, supremus. 
HEYKE, garment (or hewke, 

infra; heyke, clothe, K. hayeste 

garment, or huke, s.) 3 Armelus, 

CATH. in armelausa, lacerna, 

CATH. levitonare, KYLW. 

Sax. heafod, caput, borh, fidejussor. In the Statute entitled Visus Franciplegii, which 
has been called Stat. 18 Edw. II. de tenendd letd, they are termed " chiefs plegges." 
Stat. of Realm, i. 246. The origin of the civil division of the territory into hundreds 
and tithings has been confidently attributed to Alfred, but, as it seems, on no suificient 
evidence. In the laws of the Confessor this system of mutual suretyship is clearly set 
forth. Anc. Laws and Inst. i. 450. See Spelman, v. Friborffa, and Borsholder. 

1 " J>e hedewarke, cephalia, cephalargia." CATH. ANG. In the edition of the Ortusin 
Mr. Wilbraham's library ciphalus is rendered " the hede werke ; " in the ed. 1518, " the 
heed ache." In a medical treatise by " Maystere Lanfranke, of Meleyn," MS. in the 
collection of Sir T. Phillipps, No. 1381, the following occurs among several prescriptions 
for the " hede warke. Make lie of verveyn, or of betayne, or of wormode, and there 
with wasshe Jnn hede thryse in J?e weke." See WERKYNGE, or heed ache, hereafter. 
In Norfolk, according to Forby, "in violent head-ache, the head works like a clock." 
Ang.-Sax. heafod -ware, cephalalgia. 

2 Compare DESE, of hye benche. ' ' Orcestra dicebatur locus separatus in cend, ubi 
nobiles sedelant" CATH. 

3 The following explanations are supplied by the Catholicon : "Armelansa vestis est, 
sic dicta quia ante et retro divisa et aperta nit, in armis tantum clausa, quasi armi- 
clausa ; et est sclavina. Ab armus (humerus) secundum Rabanum dicitur armelus, vestis 
humeros tantum tegens, sicut scapulare monachorum. Lacerna est pallium fimbriatum 
quo olim soli milites utebantur, 8fc. dicitur lacerna a latere et a cerno." In Harl. 
MS. 1002, f. 154, levitonarius is rendered " an huke ; " in the Ortus it is explained to 
be " collobium lineum sine manicis, i. dalmatica, quali Egyptii monachi utebantur; a 
taharde.'' It is scarcely possible to define the garment to which, modified by the 
fashions of different periods, the name of hewke was assigned ; it appears from citations 
given by Ducange that the huca in the XHIth cent, was furnished with a hood ; it also 
seems to have been a military garment, and sometimes even of the number of such as 


HEYL fro sekenesse. Sanus, in- 

columis, sospes. 

HEYLYN', or gretyn'. Saluto. 
HEYL, seyde for gretynge. Ave, 

HEYLYNGE, or gretynge. Salu- 

(HEYNYN, K. H. heighthyn, p. 

supra in HAWNCYN.' Exalto, 

elevo, sublevo, levo.) 
HEYNYNGE. Exaltacio, elevacio. 
HEYNCEMANN (henchemanne, H.) 1 

Gerolocista, duorum generum 

(gerelocista, s.) 
HEY STAK. Fenile. 
HEYTHE (heyght, s. heighte, p.) 

were of a defensive nature, although not so accounted by Sir S. Meyrick in his paper on 
military garments worn in England, Archseol. xix. In the Wardrobe of Hen. V. 1423, 
occur "j. heuke noier, garniz d'espanges & argent dorr', q'estoit a Count Morteyn: 
pois. viij Ib. pris la Ib. xxxij. s. en tout, xij. li. acvj. s.j. heuke de chamelet, ovecj. cha- 
peron de mesme.j. heuke d'escarlet: v. hukes de damask noier, brocMsd' argent," Sfc. 
Rot. Parl. iv. 225, 236. In an indenture of retainer preserved in the Tower, dated 
1441, for military service in France under Richard Duke of York, James iSkidmore, 
Esq. engages to serve as a man at arms with six archers, and to take for himself and his 
men " huk' of my seid lord the duk' liv'e." Meyrick's Crit. Enqu. ii. 111. The 
Ordinance of Charles VI T. dated 1448, respecting the equipment of the Francs- Archers, 
requires every parish to provide a man armed with "jacque, ou huque de brigandine." 
Pere Daniel, Mil. Franc, i. 238. In the Invent, of Sir John Fastolfe's wardrobe, 1459, 
under the head of togas, is the " Item, j. jagged huke of blakke sengle, and di' of the 
same." Archseol. xxi. 252. In King Ryence's chalenge the heralds are described as attired 
in " hewkes," and loudly crying for largesse. Percy's Rel. iii. 26. There was also a 
female attire called Hewke, Belg. huycke, which covered the shoulders and head. In 
the Acta Sanctorum Jun. vol. IV. 632, a female is described as clothed " in habitu 
seculari, cum peplo Brabantico nigro, Huckam vulgo vocant." Palsgrave gives " hewke, 
a garment for a woman, surquayne, froc ; huke, surquanie;" and Minsheu explains 
huyke, huike, or huke, to be a mantle, such as women use in Spain, Germany, and 
the Low Countries when they go abroad. Skelton mentions the "huke of Lyncole 
green " worn by Elinour Rumming. See further in Ducange and Roquefort. 

1 Chaucer describes the knight as attended by three mounted " henshmen." Flour 
and the Leaf. The pages of distinguished personages were called henxmen, as Spelman 
supposes, from Germ, hengst, a war-horse, or, according to Bp. Percy, from their place 
being at the side, or haunch of their lord. In the household of Edward IV. there were 
" henxmen, vj enfauntes, or more as it shall please the Kinge," who seem to have been 
chiefly wards of the Crown, and placed under the direction of a master of henxmen : 
their mode of living, and education at court, is set forth in the Household Book of 
Edw. IV. given among the Ordinances published by the Ant. Soc. p. 44. By the 
Stat. 3 Edw. IV. c. 5, "hensmen, herolds, purceyvauntez, ministrelles, et jouers en 
lour entreludes " were exempted from the penalties under the statute of apparel. In 
the household of the Earl of Northumberland, 1511, there were three haunsmen or 
hanshmen, who are enumerated with " yong gentlemen at their fryndes fynding, in my 
lord's house for the hoole yere : " the first served as cupbearer to the Earl, the second 
to his lady. On New-year's day they presented gloves, and had 6*. 8d. reward. Ant. 
Rep. iv. 199. See further in Pegge's Curialia, Lodge's Illustr. i. 359, and Privy Purse 
Expenses of Henry VIII. edit, by Sir H. Nicolas. " Henchman, paige d'honneur, enfant 
d'honneur." PALSG. " Pratextatus assecla, qui Gallice vocatur vnpage d'hommes; a 
page of honour, or a henchman." Junius, by Higins. " A hench-man, or hench-boy, 
page d'honneur qui marche devant quetque Seigneur de grand authorite." SHERW. 




Altitude, culmen, cacumen, sub- 

limitas (summitas, P.) 
HEY WARD. 1 AgeUarius, c. F. 

abigeus, UG. v. (messor, K.) 
(HEK, or hetche, supra in HEC.) 
HEKELE (heykylle, HARL. MS. 

2274.) 2 Mataxa, c. F. 
HEK EL A RE. Mataxatrix. 
HEKELYN*. Mataxo. 
HEKELYNGE. Mataxacio. 
HEKFERE, beeste (or styrke, 

infra.) 3 Juvenca. 

HELDYN', or bowyn'. 4 Incline, 

jlecto, deflecto. 
HELDYNGE, or holdynge. Tencio, 

detencio, retencio. 
HELDYNGE, or bowynge (clynynge, 

K.) Inclinacio, fleccio, incur- 


HELE of be fote. Talus, calcaneus. 
HEELE, orhelthe. 5 Sanitas, inco- 

HELLE. Infernus, Tartarus, 

Baratrum, Stix (Avernus, P.) 

1 The hey ward was the keeper of cattle in a common field, who prevented trespass on 
the cultivated ground. According to the Anglo-Saxon law the hserg-weard was to have 
his reward from the part of the crop nearest to the pastures, or, if land were allotted, it 
was to be adjacent to the same. See Anc. Laws and Inst. i. 441. His office is thus 
noticed by G. de Bibelesworth : 

" Ly messiers (hay ward) ad les chaumps en cure." 

11 In tyme of heruest mery it is ynough ; 
The hayward bloweth mery his home, 
In eueryche felde ripe is corne." K. Alis. 5756. 

Bp. Kennett observes that there were two kinds of agellarii, the common herd-ward of 
a town or village, called bubulcus, who overlooked the common herd, and kept it within 
bounds ; and the heyward of the lord of the manor, or religious house, who was regu- 
larly sworn at the court, took care of the tillage, paid the labourers, and looked after 
trespasses and encroachments : he was termed fields-man, or tithing-man, and his wages 
in 1425 were a noble. " Inclusarius, a heyewarde." MED. " Inclusorius, a pynner of 
beestes (al. pynder.)" OUT. " Haiward, haward, qui garde au commun tout le bestiail 
d'un bourgade." SHERW. 

2 " Hetchell for flaxe, serancg, serant. I heckell (or hetchyll) flaxe, ie cerance, and 
ie habille du lin. Am nat I a great gentylman, my father was a hosyer, and my mother 
dyd heckell flaxe ? " PALSG. " Seran, a hatchell, or heach, the iron comb whereon 
flax is dressed." COTG. Forby gives hickle, a comb to dress flax, or break it into its 
finest fibres. Teut. hekel, pecten. 

3 "Juvenca, a hekefeer beest." ORTUS. " Hecforde, ayong cowe, genisse." PALSG. 
Caxton, in the Boke for Travellers, speaks of " flesshe of moton, of an hawgher (genise,) 
or of a calfe." See Bp. Kennett's Gloss, v. Hekfore. Ang.-Sax. heahfore, vaccula. 
Forby notices a bequest of certain " heckfordes " in the will of a Norfolk clergyman, 
dated 1579, but the modern pronunciation is heifker. 

4 "To helde, ubi tobowe." CATH. ANG. In the Northern Dialects to heald signifies 
to slope, as a declivity. See Brockett, Craven Dial, and Jamieson, v. Heild. Ang.- 
Sax. hyldan, inclinare. Palsgrave gives the verb " I hylde, I leane on the one syde, 
as a bote or shyp, or any other vessell, ie encline de couste. Sytte fast, I rede you, 
for y e bote begynneth to hylde." 

6 " Salubritas, holsones, or heell. Saluber, helefull." ORTUS. " Prosper, hele- 
fulle, happy, withe-owte tene." MED. MS. CANT. " Sospitas, firmitas, salvacio, fyc. 
hele." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. " An hele, columitas, edia,fecunditas, valitudo. Hele- 
fulle, prosper, salutaris." CATH. ANG. " Heale of body, sante." PALSG. In a sermon 



HEELYN', or hoolyn' of sekenesse. 

Sano, euro, medico, medicor. 
HEELYNGE, or holynge of seke- 
nesse. Sanacio, curacio. 
HELME, or be rothere of a schyp 

(helme of be roder of shyp, s. 

helme, rother of a shyppe, H. p.) 

Temo, CATH. plectrum, CATH. 

et UG. in plecto. 
HELME of armure. Galea, c. F. 

cassis, c. F. et CATH. 
HELPARE. Adjutor, adjutrix, 

HELPE. Adjutorium, auxilium, 

suffragium,juvamen, presidium 

(subsidium, K. p.) 
HELPYN'. Juvo, adjuvo, auxilior, 

subvenio, succurro, opitulor. 
HELPYN' and defendyn'. Patro- 


HELTHE, idem quod HELE, supra. 
HELTYR (or halter, s.) Capistrum. 
HELTRYN'beestys. Capistro,CAin. 
HELVE. 1 Manubrium, manuten- 


HELVYN', orheftyn'. Manubrio. 
HEMME. Fimbria, limbug, CATH. 

et c. F. lascinia, CATH. et c. F. 

ora, orarium, CATH. 
HEMMYN' garmentys. Limbo, 
fimbrio, CATH. 

HEMPE. Canabum. 

HEMPYNE, or hempy (hempene, 

or of hempe, K. s. H.) Canabeus. 
HENNE. Galiina. 

Ingitato rium.) 
HENBANE, herbe. Jusquiamus, 

simphonica, insana, c. F. 
HENGYL of a dore, or wyndowe 

(hengyll of a shettinge, K. p.) 2 

Vertebra, vectis, CATH. et c. F. 
HENGYL, gymewe (gymmewe, K. 

gemewe, HARL. MS. 2274, P.) 

Vertinella, UG. in verro. 
HEEP. Cumulus, acervus, agger, 

(HENTYNGE, supra in CAHCH- 

YNGE.) 3 

(HEPAR, K. Cumulator.) 

HEEPYD. Cumulatus. 

HEPYN', or make on a hepe. Cu- 

mulo, accumulo. 
HEPYNGE. Cumulacio. 
HEER (here, K. s. P.) Capillus, 

cincinnus, crinis, cesaries, coma. 
HEER fyrste growynge yn' mannys 

berde. Lanugo, c. F. 
(HERBERE, H. p. supra in GRENE 

PLACE.) 4 

HERBERIOWRE. Hospiciarius, c. F. 
et COMM. 

given by Fox, as delivered by R. Wimbeldon, 1389, is this passage : " Giesy was smyt 
with mesilry, for he sold Naaman's heale, that cam of God's grace." Sir John Paston 
writes thus to his mother : " It'm it lyked yow to weet of myn heelle, I thanke God 
now y l I am nott greetly syke ner soor." Past. Lett. v. 80. Ang.-Sax. hsel, salus. 

1 " Helue of any tole, manche. Hafte of any tole, manche." PALSG. This word 
is given by Forby as still used in Norfolk. See also Moore. Ang.-Sax. helf, mannbrium. 

2 Forby states that in Norfolk hingle signifies either a small hinge, or a snare of 
wire, closing like a hinge, by means of which poachers are said to hingle hares and 
rabbits. " Hinge, or hingell of a gate, cardo," &c. BARET. Horman says, " This 
bottell lacketh an hyngill, uter amicino caret." See GYMEWE. 

3 See HYNTYN' hereafter. "I hente, I take by vyolence, or to catche, ie happe; 
this terme is nat vtterly comen." PALSG. It is used by Chaucer. 

^ See the note on the word ERBARK. 



HERBEREWE (herborwe, K. herbe- 
row, H. herborowe, p.) 1 Hos- 

HERBERWYN', or receyvyn' to 
hereboroghe (herbergwyn, K. 
herborowen, p.) Hospitor, 
CATH. et si significet to take 
herboroghe, tune est quasi de- 

HEERE BONDE (herbonde, p.) 

Vitta, c. F. et UG. v. in C. cri- 

nale, Dice, discriminale. 
HEERCE on a dede corce (herce 

vpon dede corcys, K. p. heers of 

dede cors, s.) 2 Pirama, CATH. 

piramis, c. F. et UG. in pir. 
HEERDE, or flok of beestys, what 

so euyr they be. Polia, CATH. 

armentum, CATH. 
HEERD MANN. Pastor, agaso,c.v. 

1 " An harbar, hospicium, diversorium. An harbiriour, hospes, hospita. To barber, 
hospitari. Harberynge, hospitalitas." CATH. AN G. " Herboroughe, logis. Iharbo- 
rowe, I lodge one in an inne, ie herberge. Herberiour, that prouydeth lodgyng, four- 
rier." PALSG. A station where a marching army rested was termed in Ang.-Sax. 
here-berga, from here, exercitus, beorgan, munire. In a more extended sense harbour de- 
noted anyplace of refuge, or hospitable reception. See Vision of P. Ploughm. ; Wicliffite 
Version, &c. In the Golden Legend it is related that St. Amphyabel " prayed Albon 
of herborough for the love of God ; whiche Albon without faynynge, as he y* alwaye 
loued to do hospytalyte, graunted hym herberough, and well receyued hym." Caxton 
says, in the Boke for Travellers, " Grete me the damyselle of your hous, or of your 
he(r)berow, vostre hostel." The verb is used by Sir John Maundevile in the sense 
both of giving and receiving hospitality ; he says, speaking of Bethany, " there dwelte 
Symon leprous, and there herberwed our Lord, and aftre he was baptised of the Apos- 
tles, and was clept Julyan, and was made Bisschoppe ; and this is the same Julyan that 
men clepe to for gode herberghage, for our Lord herberwed with him in his hows.'' 
Voiage, p. 116. The adjective herberous has the signification of hospitable. In the 
version prefixed to the translation of the paraphrase of Titus by Erasmus, it occurs as 
follows : "A bysshop must be such as no man can complaine on not geuen to filthy 
lucre, but herberous," &c. Titus, i. 8 ; printed by Johan Byddell, t. Hen. VIII. The 
remarkable name Cold-harbour, which occurs repeatedly in most counties at places ad- 
jacent to Roman roads, or lines of early communication, seems to have been derived 
from the station there established ; but of the strange epithet thereto prefixed no satis- 
factory explanation has yet been suggested. See Hartshorne's Salopia Antiqua, p. 253. 

2 This term is derived from a sort of pyramidal candlestick, or frame for supporting 
lights, called hercia, or herpica, from its resemblance in form to a harrow, of which 
mention occurs as early as the XI Ith cent. It was not, at first, exclusively a part of 
funeral display, but was used in the solemn services of the holy week ; thus by the 
statute of the Synod of Exeter, 1287, every parish was bound to provide the " hercia 
ad tenebras." Wilkins, Cone. ii. 139. In the account of expenses at the death of 
Thomas, Abbot of St. Augustine's, Canterbury, 1375, occurs an item, "pro corpore 
Jicto, cum hersidy W. Thorn, X Script. 2152. See further the accounts of the ob- 
sequies of Anne the Queen of Ric. II. Gough's Sep. Mon. i. 170*, and the will of that 
monarch, in which he directs that for his own interment there should be prepared " iv. 
herciee excellentiae convenientis regali." Rym. vii. 75. In the will of John de Nevill, 
1386, it is termed " hercinm." Madox, Form. 429. The Pat. 1 Hen. V. 1413, re- 
counts the orders of the King to Simon Prentout of London, " \rex chaundeler," and 
Thomas Gloucestre, " pictori nostro," for the provision and transport to Canterbury 
of the " hercea" for the funeral of Henry IV. Rym. viii. 14. The ordinance which 
regulated the charges by wax -chandlers, stat. 11 Hen. VI. c. 12, comprises a clause to 



HERRE of a locke. 1 Cardo, COMM. 
HERE, yn' thys place. Hie. 
HERYN'. Audio. 
HERYNGE wythe eere (herynge 

of here, K. p.) Auditus, au- 

dacio (audicio, s. P.) 
HEERYNGE, fysshe. Allec. 
HERKYN', and take heede, and ley 

to be ere (herkyn to, s.) As- 

HEERN,byrde (heryn, K. s. p.herne, 

HARL. MS. 2274.) Ardea. 
HERNE PANNE of }>e hed. 2 Cra- 


HERNYS, or brayne (hernys, or 

barneys, s.) Cerebrum. 
HEROWDE of armys. Curio, c. F. 
HERT, wylde beeste. Cervus. 
HERT, ynwarde parte of a beste 

(myd part, s.) Cor. 
HERTLES, or vnherty. Vecors. 
HERTHE, where fyre ys made. 

Ignearium, c. F.focarium, c. F. 

ignarium, UG. in Ge. 
HERTHESTOK or kynlym' (stocke, 

K. p. kynlyn, s.) 3 Repofoci- 

lium, CATH. vel secundum c. F. 

repofocinium, UG. infoveo. 

except " heroes affaires pur leznoblez trespassantz." Stat. of Realm, vol. ii. 287. Chaucer 
appears to use the term hearse to denote the decorated bier, or funeral pageant, and 
not exclusively the illumination, which was a part thereof; and towards the XVIth 
cent, it had such a general signification alone. Hardyng describes the honours falsely 
bestowed upon the remains of Richard II. when cloths of gold were offered " upon his 
hers " by the King and lords. 

" At Poules his masse was done, and diryge, 

In hers royall, semely to royalte." Chron. c. 200. 

A representation is given on the Roll or Brevis mortuorum of John Islyppe, Abbot of 
Westm. who died 1522, and whose corpse was placed " undre a goodlye Hersse w* 
manye lights, and maiestie, and vallaunce set w l pencells," &c. which was left standing 
until " the monethes mynde." Vet. Mon. iv. pi. xviii. " Herce for a deed corse, of 
silke, poille. Herse clothe, poille. Herce, a deed body, corps." PALSG. "He lay 
in a noble hyrst, or herse, xuggesto. There was made a noble hyrst, tumulus.'' HORM. 
In the version of Junius' Nomencl. by Higins is given " Cenotaphium, a herse, a se- 
pulchre of honour, a stately funeral." "Poille, the square canopy thats borne over 
the sacrament, or a soveraign prince, in solemne processions ; hence also a hearse, 
hearse-cloth, laid over the beer of a dead person." COTG. 

1 This word is repeatedly used in the later Wicliffite version. " And J>e herris (ej>er 
hengis) of }>e doris of J>e innere hows of J>e hooly of hooly J>mgis, and of )>e doris of >e 
hows of be temple weren of gold.'' iii. Kings, vii. 50. "As a dore is turned on his 
herre (ej?er heengis) so a slow man in his bedde." Prov. xxvi. 14. See also Prov. viii. 
26 ; Job xxii. 14. " Cardo, a here of a dore, cuneus qui inforamine vertitur." MED. 
" Har, the hole in a stone on which the spindle of a door or gate resteth ; Dunelm. 
and the harr tree is the head of the gate, in which the foot or bottom of the spindle is 
placed. Harrs, hinges, a door-har ; Westm." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033. Ang.- 
Sax. heor, hearre, cardo. 

* " Cranium, harnepanne." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. See G. de Bibelesworth. 
" Vous deuet dire moun hanapel (hernepane,) 

Mounfrount, e moun cervel (mi forred, ant my brayn.)" 

The word occurs also in Havelok, 1991 ; Coer de Lion, 5293. Ang.-Sax. hsernes, 
cerebrum, panna, patella. Minot uses the word " hernes," or brains ; p. 10. 

3 The MS., by an error of the scribe, gives repofocilium repeated twice; and the 
reading of the Winch. MS. seems still more corrupt, " reposialium, CATH. vel secundum 



HERTY. Cordialis. 
HERTYLY. Cordialiter. 
HERTYN',OF makyn' herty. Animo. 
HERTYS LETHYR, or lethyri. Ne- 

bris, CATH. 
HERTYS TONGE, herbe. Scolo- 

pendria, lingua cervi. 
HERTLYNESSE. Cordialitas. 
HERUESTE. Autumpnus. 
HESYL, tre. Corulus, columns. 
HESPE of threde. 1 Mataxa, c. F. 

et UG. haspum, c. F. hapsa, 

COMM. Jilipulus. 
HESPE of a dore. 2 Pessulum, vel 

pessula, NECC. haspa, COMM. 
HETE. Calor, estus. 

HETHE. JBruera, bruare, se- 

cundum quosdam. 
HETHE, or lynge, fowaly. 3 Bru 


HETYN', or make hoote. Calefacio. 
HETYN', or waxyn' hoote. Caleo, 

unde versus: Per memet calui, 

sub pannis me calefeci. 
HEWAR. Secator. 
HE VEDA RE (or hedare, supra.) 

Decapitator, speculator (lictor, 

HEVEDYN', idem quod HEDON', 

supra. 4 
HEVEDYNGE (hedynge, HARL. MS. 

2274, hedinge, p.) Decapitacio. 

c. F. repqficilium." The word intended may be retrqfocinium, or repofocinium. See 
Ducange. The Catholicon gives the following explanation : " Repofocilium, id quod tegit 
iynem in nocte, vel quod retro ignem ponitur ; super quod a posteriori parte foci ligna 
ponuntur, quod vulgo lar dicitur." In Harl. MS. 1738, it is rendered " an herthe 
stok, or a skrene ; " in the Ortus, " a hudde or a sterne.'' A stock (Ang.-Sax. stoc, 
truncus) may signify primarily a large log, against which, as a foundation, the fire was 
piled. The cellarist of St. Edmund's-bury held Hardwick under the Abbey, and was 
bound annually to provide " iv. Cristmesse stocke," each of 8 feet in length. Liber 
Celler. Rokewode's Suff. p. 475. Hence, probably, any contrivance whereby the fire 
was supported, so as to facilitate combustion, an object more perfectly attained by 
means of andirons (AWNDERNE, supra), was termed the hearth-stock. In Norfolk and 
Suffolk the back or sides of the fire-place are termed " the stock," and Forby derives 
the word from Ang.-Sax. stoc, locus. See KYNLYN hereafter. 

1 A hank of yarn is called in the North a hesp, or hasp, the fourth part of a spindle. 
Bp. Kennett gives ' a hank of yarn or thread, when it comes off the reel, and is tied 
in the middle, or twisted. So the twist or rope that comes over y e saddle of the thiller 
horse is called the thille hanks ; Dunelm. Perhaps from Sax. hangan, to tie or twist ; 
but it comes much nearer to the Isl. haunk, funiculus in circulum colligatus." Lansd. 
MS. 1033. Mataxa signifies the comb which serves for dressing flax, as given above 
under the word HEKELE, but implies also a hank of spun thread. See Ducange. 

2 " Pessellum, a lytel lok of tre, a haspe, a cospe, a sclott." MED. MS. CANT. 
" Pessulum dicitur sera lignea qud hostium pellitur cum seratur, Any lice a lyteke, or 
latche, or a snecke, or barre of a dore." ORT. " Haspe of a dore, clichette." PALSG. 
" Agraphe, a claspe, hook, brace, grapple, haspe." COTG. In this last sense the word 
haspa occurs in the Sherborn Cartulary, MS. in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, 
where, among the gifts of William the sacrist (Xllth cent. ?) is mentioned " Missale 
cum haspa argented." Bp. Kennett observes that in Kent, Sussex, and Oxfordshire the 
word is pronounced " haps, to haps a door or cupboard. Ang.-Sax. hseps, sera, fibula." 
Lansd. MS. 1033. This older form is also retained in Somerset, Wilts, and in N. 
Britain, hasp being the corruption. See Jamieson. 

3 Sowaly, MS. Compare FOWAYLE, and LYNGE of the hethe. 

4 " Decollo, to hefdyn." MED. " He was heeded at Towre hyll." PALSG. 



HEVENE. Celum, polum. 
HEVENELY. Celitus, adv. 
HEVENLY. Celicus, celestis. 
HEVY to bere (to beryn, K.) 

Gravis, ponderosus. 
HEVY and grevows. Gravis, et 

idem quod GREVOWS, supra. 
HEVY in sowle, and herte. Mo- 

lestus, tristis (mestus. P.) 
HEVY MANNE, or womanne, and 

not glad yn chere. Mestificus, 

mestifica, CATH. 
HEVY a-slepe(of slepe, s. p.) Somp- 


HEVYLY. Graviter, moleste, triste. 
HEVYYN', or makyfi' hevy yn 

herte. Mesti(Ji)co (mestO) P.) 
HEVYYN', or makyn' hevy in 

wyghte. Gravo, aggravo, pon- 

dero, CATH. 
HEVYNESSE yn herte. Molestia, 

tristicia, mesticia. 
HEVYNESSE of slepe. Sompno- 

HEVYNESSE of wyghte. Ponde- 

rositas, gravitas. 
HEWYN'. Seco, c. F. 
HEWYN' a-wey. Abscido. 
HEWYN' downe. Succido. 
HEVYN', or schoppyfi' to-gedyr 

thyngys of dyuerse kyndys. 

HEWYNGE (or hakkynge, supra.) 


HEWKE, idem quod HEYKE, supra 

(hek, K. hevke, s. H.) 
HETHYNNE, or paynynne (panym, 

K. P.) Paganus, etnicus. 
HYDDE. Absconditus, celatus. 
HYDYN'. Abscondo, c. F. occulto. 
HYDYNGE. Absconsio, latitacio. 
HYDYNGE place. Latibulum, ab- 

sconditum, latebra, abditorium, 

UG. in do. 
HYDE, or skynne (hyyd, or hyde, 

HARL. MS. 2274, P.) Pellis.cutis. 
HYDDYR, or to thys place (hyther, 

p.) Hue. 
HYDDYR WARDE (hydward, s. 

hytherwarde, p.) Istuc. 
HYDOWS (hiddowus, or gret, K.) 

Immanis, immensus. 
HYTCHYD, or remevyd (hichid, K. 

hychyd, s.) Amotus, remotus. 
HYTCHYN', or remevyri' (hychyn, 

K. hytchen, p. hythen, j. w.) 1 

Amoveo, moveo, removeo. 
HYTCHYNGE, or remevynge (hich- 

ynge, K. hyhchynge, HARL. MS. 

2274.) Amocio, remocio. 
HYYN, idem ^WOC?HASTYN', supra. 
HYYNGE, orhastynge. Festinacio, 

festinancia, proper 'ado. 
HYLLE. Mons, collis, libanus. 
HYLDYR, or eldyr (hillerntre, K. 

ellernetre, HARL. MS. 2274, el- 

norne tre, p.) 2 Sambucus. 

1 In Norfolk, according to Forby, to hitch means to change place : " a man is often 
desired to hitch, in order to make room ; to hitch anything which happens to be in the 
way. Isl. hika, cedere (loco.)" To hike and to hick are used in a similar sense. To 
hitch is explained by Johnson as signifying " to catch, or move by jerks," and so used 
by Pope. Skinner would derive the expression " hitch buttock, hitch neighbours," or 
" level coyl, (levez le CM/,) " used by boys in playing, who bid one another move, and 
make way for the next in turn, from Ang.-Sax. hican, moliri, niti, or Fr. hocher. See 
Jamieson, v. Hatch, and Hotch. Brockett gives to hitch, hop on one foot. 

2 See the note on the word ELDYR, or hyldyr, or hillerne tre. Ang.-Sax. ellarn, 
sambucus. In some parts of England the name hilder is still in use ; and in Germany 



HYLLY, or fulle of hyllys. Mon- 

HYLLYN' (hyllen or curyn, H. 

coueren, p.) 1 Operio, cooperio, 

tego, velo, contego. 
HYLLYNGE wythe clothys (hillinge 

of clothes, K. P.) Tegumentum, 

tegmen, velamen. 
HYLLYNGE, or coverynge of what 

thynge hyt be. Coopertura, 

coopertorium, operimentum. 
(HYLLYNGE, or happynge, infra 

HYLT of a swerde. Capulus. 
HYYNDE, beste. Damula> damus, 


HYNDYR PARTE of a beste (party, 

K.) Clunis. 
(HYNDER PARTY of a ship, K. 

hyndyr part, s.) Puppis. 
HYNDERYN', or bacchyn'(bakkyn', 

s.) Retro facio. 
HYNDRYD, or harmyd. Dampni- 

HYNDRYN', idem quod HARMYN', 

HYNDRYNGE, or harmynge. 

HYNTYD. Raptus. 
HYNTYN' (or revyn, infra; hyn- 

tyn, or hentyn, K. H. p.) 2 Rapio, 

(arripio, p.) 

the tree is called Holder. It was supposed that Judas hanged himself upon an elder 
tree, and Sir John Maundevile, who wrote in 1356, speaks of the tree as being still 
shown at Jerusalem. Voiage, p. 1 12. Of the superstitious notions in relation to this 
tree, see Brand's Pop. Antiqu. under Physical charms. 

1 The verb to hill, and the substantive hilling, appear to be in use in many parts of 
England, but are not noticed in the East-Anglian Glossaries. In the writings of the 
older authors they occur frequently. See R. Brunne, P. Ploughm. Chaucer, and Gower. 
" Cooperio, to hyll to-gyder. Tegmentum, ahyllynge, a couerynge.'' ORTUS. <4 Tego, 
to hille ; tegmen, an helynge. Circumamictus , a-bowte helynge, or clothynge. Archi- 
tector, an helyour of a hous. Cooperio, to hule, or keruere (sic.)" MED. MS. CANT. 
" I hyll, I wrappe or lappe, ie couvre : you must hyll you wel nowe a nyghtes, the wether 
is colde. Hylling, a coueryng, couverture. Hyllyng of an house, couverture, tecte." 
PALSG. " Paliatif, cloaking, hilling ouer, couering, hiding. Palter, to hill ouer," &c. 
COTG. Ang.-Sax. helan, celare. Sir John Maundevile, speaking of the Tartars, says that 
" the helynge of here houses, and the wowes, and the dores ben alle of wode." Voiage, 
p. 298. Walsingham calls the rebel Wat " Walterus helier, vel tyler." Camd. An- 
glica, pp. 252, 264. In the " Objections of Freres," Wicliffe makes the observation 
that l< Freres wollen not be apeied with food and heling," that is, clothing. The ac- 
counts of the churchwardens of Walden comprise the item " d, le klerk de Thaxstede 
pur byndynde, hyllynge et bosynge de tons les liveres en le vestiarye." Hist, of Audley 
End, p. 220. In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, it is said, " loke thou 
ordenne J>at the leves of the yates be keuered and hilled with raw hides." Roy. MS. 18 
A. XII. f. 100. Bp. Kennett has the following notes in Lansd. MS. 1033 : " Helings, 
Stragula, bed-cloaths, vox in usu apud Oxnnienses. Isl. hil, tego, hulde, texi ; Sax. 
helan. Ejusdem originis videtur esse apud Septentrionales, to hull into bed ; the hulls 
of corne, i. the husks ; a swine hull. i. a swine stie. Anglis etiam mediterraneis to hele 
est tegere. A coverlet in Derbyshire is called a bed-healing, and in some other parts ab- 
solutely a healing, and a hylling. Thatchers in Yorkshire are called helliars, and so 
are the coverers with slat in London, and most parts of England. In old authors the 
eye-brows are called helings." Compare FORHELYN, celo, and HATTE, hed hillynge. 

2 This verb occurs in most of the early writers : see R. Glouc. p. 204 ; Vis. P. Ploughm. 


HYPE of be legge. Femur. 
HYPPYNGE, or haltynge. 1 Clau- 

HYRDYL. Plecta, flecta, cratis, 

c. F. 

HYRDYS, or herdys of flax, or 
hempe. 2 Stuppa, c. F. et UG. 
in stips, napta, CATH. et c. F. 

HYRE. Stipendium, salarium, 

', C. F. 

HYRYD MAN, or servawnte. Con- 
ductius, conductia.) mercenarius, 
mercenaries (conducticius, s. P.) 

HYRYN'. Conduce. 

HYRNE. 3 Angulus. 

HYSE, or hys. Suus. 

14,258 ; Chaucer, Knight's T. 906. It is used likewise by Shakespeare. See Nares. 

" Kyng Richard his ax in honde he hente." R. Coer de Lion, 4027. 
I hente, I take by vyolence, or to catche, ie happe : this terme is nat vtterly coraen." 
PALSG. In the version of Vegecius attributed to Trevisa, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said 
of elephants used in war, " somme ordenned ayenst thies bestes fote menne wele hillede 
aboue wyth plates, havyng on her shuldres and on her helmes sharp pikes, that if J>e 
olifaunt wolde oughte henche, or catche hem (posset apprehendere) , the prickes shulde 
lette hym." B. iii. c. 24. Compare CAHCHYNGE, or hentynge ; KYPPYN, or hynton ; 
and REVYN, or by vyolence take awey, or hyntyn. Ang.-Sax. hentan, rapere. 

1 Compare the verb OVYR HYPPYN, or ouer skyppyn. Hyppynge occurs in the sense 
of hopping, Vis. of P. Ploughm. 1 1 ,488, and to hip has in the North a like signification ; 
hipping stones are stoppings at the passage of a shallow stream. The word seems here 
to be taken from the irregular movement or hopping of the halt person. Gower says 
of Vulcan, 

" He had a courbe upon his backe, 

And therto he was hippe halte." Conf. Am. 

Teut. hippelen, subsilire. Jamieson gives hypalt, a cripple ; to hypal, or hirple, to go 
lame. In Norfolk to himp and to limp are synonymous. 

2 " Stupa, hyrdes of hempe, or of flax. Stupo, to stop withhurdes." MED. MS. CANT. 
" Extupo, Anglice to do awaye hardes or tawe. Stupa, stub, chaf, or towe." ORTCS. 
Amongst the various significations of napta, given in the Catholicon, it is said " napta 
etiam, secundum Papiam, dicitur pur g amentum linV The word occurs in the Wicliffite 
version, Judges xvi. 9: "And sche criede to him, Sampson! Felisteis ben on J>ee, 
which brak J>e boondis as if a man brekith a J>rede of herdis (filum de stupd, Vulg.) 
wrifnm wib spotle." Chaucer, in the Rom. of Rose, describes the dress of Fraunchise, 
called a suckeny, or rokette, 

" That not of hempe herdes was, 
So faire was none in all Arras." 

In the original, "nefut de bourras." In Norfolk, according to Forby, hards signify 
coarse flax, otherwise tow-hards, in other parts of England called hurds ; and in many 
places a coarse kind of linen cloth is still termed harden, or hirden. The Invent, of 
effects of Sir John Conyers, of Sockburne, Durham, 1567, comprises "vij. harden 
table clothes, iv. s. xv. pair of harden sheats, xx. s." Wills and Inv. Surtees Soc. i. 2C8. 
" Heerdes of hempe, tillage de chamure (? chainvre) , estovpes." PALSG. " Hirdes, or 
towe, of flaxe, or hempe, stvpa.'' BARET. " Grettes de lin, the hards, or towe of 
flax." COTG. Ang.-Sax. heordas, stupes. 

3 " Angulus, a cornere, or a herne. Pentangulus, of fyue hirnes." MED. " An 
hyrne, angulus, gonus." CATH. ANG. The gloss on Liber vocatus Equus, renders 
V antris, darke hernys." Harl. MS. 1002, f. 113. Rob. Glouc. and Chaucer use 
this word, which has occurred previously as synonymous with HALKE. Forby gives 




HYSSYN', as edderys (heddyr, K. 

nedrys, H. nedders, p.) Sibilo. 
HYSSYNGE of eddeis, or o]?er lyke. 

Sibulus (sibilus, s.) 
HYT, or towchyd. Tactus. 
HYTTYNGE, or towchynge. Tactus. 
HYVE for bees. Alveare, alvea- 

rium,) c. F. apiarium. 
HYVYN', or put yn' hyvys. Apia. 
HY)>E, where bootys ryve to londe, 

or stonde. 1 Stacio, c. F. 
HOBY, hawke. Alaudarius, ali- 

etus, C.F. et KYLW. (sparrus, P.) 
Hoc HE, or whyche (husch, s. 

hoche, or hutche, H. p.) 2 Cista, 


HOODE. Capicium (capucium, P.) 
HODYD. Capiciatus. 
HOODYN'. Capucio (capicio, K.) 
HODYNGE. Capiciatura. 
HOGGE, swyne. Nefrendis, maialis, 

CATH. et c. F. Hec omnia UG. 

infrendere (porcus, p.) 
HOOKE (hoke, K. p.) Hamus, 

HOOKE to hewe wode, or schryd- 

ynge (hoke to hev wyth woode, 

or schraggynge, s.) Sirculus, 
c. F. (sarculus, s. P.) 

HOKYD. Hamatus. 

HOL, as pypys, or percyd thyngys 
(hole, HARL. MS. 2257, hol- 
lowe, p/) 3 Cavus. 

HOLOW, as vessellys (hoi, as 
vesselle or other lyke, K. hole, 
as vessellys, s.) Concavus. 

HOOL fro brekynge (hole, p.) In- 

HOOL fro sekenesse (or heyl, H. 
hole, P.) tSanus, incolumis, 

HOLDYN'. Teneo. 

HOLDY^N', or wythe-holdyn'. De- 
tineo, retineo. 

HOLDYNGE. Tenens. 

HOLDYNGE. Tenax, tencio, de- 
tencio, retinencia, retencio. 

HOLE, or bore, foramen. 

HOOLE, or huske (hole, s. holl, p.) 

HOOLE of pesyn', orbenys, or ojjer 
coddyd frute (hole of peson, or 
huske, or codde, K. cod frute, p.) 4 
Techa, CATH. infresus. 

" herne, a nook of land, projecting into another district, parish, or field." At Lynn, 
where the Promptorium was compiled, there is a street called Cold-hirne street, which 
traverses an angular piece of ground adjoining the confluence of the Lyn and the Ouse. 
Ang.-Sax. hyrn, angulus. 

1 HYYE, MS. The Winch. MS. agrees here in the reading "hyy," but it is evident 
that hyj?e is more correct. Ang.-Sax. hy^S, portus. Hithe occurs in names of sea 
ports, and even landing places on rivers, far from the coast. See Forby's observations 
on this word. Examples are not wanting at Lynn, where a lazar-house is mentioned at 
the spot called Setchhithe, in 1432; in the grant of Edw. VI. 1548, it is called Seche- 
hithe, or the sedgy landing. Blomf. Norf. iv. 599. Oxburgh hithe is remote from the 
main ; Woman hithe and Beck hithe occur near Cromer. 

^ HUTCHE, MS. By the alphabetical arrangement, the reading, as given from Sir 
T. Phillipps' MS. seems here to be correct. In the King's Coll. MS. the word is omitted, 
feee HUTCHE, hereafter. Ang.-Sax. hwsecca, area. 

* ' Holle, cavus, natnrd concavus, arte cavatus, inanis. An hollnes, cavitas." 
CATH. ANG. In Norfolk holl is still commonly used. Ang.-Sax. hoi, cavus. 

^ In the recipe for "blaunche perreye " it is directed to " sethe the pesyn in fyne 
leye," and then rub them with woollen cloth, and " >e holys wyl a-way." Harl. MS. 



HOOLE, or pyt yn an hylle, or 

other lyke (hole, or eryth, s.) 

Caverna t c. F. 
HOOLE of a schyppe (holle, K. p.) 

Carina, c. F. 
(HOLEN, or curen of sekenes, K. s. 

supra in HELEN, P. Sano, 

HOLYN', or boryfT (hoolen, or 

make hoolys, p.) 1 Cavo, per- 

foro, terebro. 

HOLY. Sanctus, sacer. 
HoLY,heuenly.O/&r>, UG.incelo. 
(HOLILY, P.) Sancte. 
HOLY, halwyd place (holyly hal- 

wyde places, s.) Asilum, c. F. 
HOLY HOKKE, or wylde malowe 

(malwe, K. s.) Altea, malviscus. 
HOLYNESSE. Sanctitas, sancti- 

HOLM, place be-sydone a watur 

(be-syde a water, s.) 2 Hulmus. 

279, f. 25. Skinner derives the word from Ang.-Sax. helan, tegere. " Hull of a 
beane or pese, escosse. Hull or barcke of a tree, escorce." PALSG. " Gousse, the 
huske, swad, cod, hull of beanes, pease," &c. COTG. Gerarde says that Avena nuda is 
called in Norfolk and Suffolk " unhulledotes." In the Craven dialect, the hull is the 
skin of a potatoe, or the husk of a nut, and to hull signifies to peel off the husk of any 
seed: in Hampshire the husk of corn is termed the hull. ' ' Follicula uvarum, the 
huskes, hulles, or skinnes of grapes. Pericarpium, folliculus, siliqua, the huske or 
hull, inclosing the seede." Junius' Nomencl. by Higins. 

1 " To hole, cavare, perforare, 8fc. ubi to thyrle." CATH. ANG. " Palare, cavare, 
forare, Anglice to hole, or to bore." Equiv. Job. de Garlandia. A.-S. holian, excavare. 

2 The primary meaning of the Ang.-Sax. word Holm appears to be water or ocean ; 
it implies also a river island, or a level meadow, especially near a stream. It is recorded 
in the Sax. Chron. A.D. 903, that a great fight occurred between the Kentish men and 
the Danes " set J?am Holme," but the precise locality has not been ascertained. Holm 
signifies also an elevated spot, as in the instance of the Steep-holm, so called by way of 
distinction from the Flat-holm, islands in the mouth of the Severn. Leland, in his 
Comm. in Cygn. cant. (Itin. ix. 59,) would derive Dunolmus, Durham, from dune, a 
hill, and holme, which he interprets thus : " Holme vero eminentis loci, interdum et 
sylvosi, et aguis circumsepti verticem, aut eminentiam exprimit." Bp. Kennett has 
the following remarks : " Homes, properly holms, which signified originally river- 
islands, or green islands surrounded by running streams ; from a resemblance whereof 
meadows and pasture grounds are in some places called Homes. A meadow by the late 
Abbey of St. Austin's, Canterbury, commonly called North-homes ; and a flat pasture 
in Romney Marsh is yet called the Holmes, &c. An Holm, an island, Westm. ; hence 
Holme-cultram, Holmby house, c. Mill-holms, watery places about a mill-dam, from 
mill, and Sax. holm, which signifies two things, as a hill or rising ground, and a green 
island, or place almost enclosed with water ; from whence the name of many places 
almost surrounded with water, as Axholm, Evesholm, corruptly Evesham, &c. The 
howmes, a green piece of ground near Thirske in Yorkshire, lying between the river 
Codbeck and the brook called Sewel." Lans'd. MS. 1033. In Lincolnshire, as 
especially near the Trent, the name is frequent ; as likewise in Norfolk, and in the. 
vicinity of Lynn, and denotes both low pastures, and elevations of trifling magnitude, 
but which were perhaps insulated, before draining had been effected. Simon Earl of 
Huntingdon, who founded St. Andrew's Priory, Northampton, about 1084, granted 
" tres dalos prati, et unum hulmum ;" and in the donation of H. de Pynkeneye to 
Canons' Ashby, in 1298, he bestowed " totam pasturam illam que vocatur le Hulles, 
cum duobus holmis in campis Wedone et Westone." Mon. Ang. i. 680, iii. 292. 



HOLME, or holy. 1 Ulmus, hussus. 
HOLM, of a sonde yn the see 

(holme of sownde in be see, K. 

holm or sond of the see, HARL. 

MS. 2274, of the sonde in the see, 

p.) 2 JBitalassum, c. F.vel hulmus. 
( HOLME, or halm, supra, et 

infra in STOBUL.) 
HOOLNESSE fro brekynge (hol- 

nesse, K.) Integritas. 
HOLOWNESSE of a vesselle, or 

other lyke wythe-yn forthe 

(holnes, K. of a vessell voyd 

within, H. P.) Concavitas. 
HOLRYSCHE, or bulrysche (hool 

ryschyn, K. holryschyne, HARL. 

MS. 2274. ) 3 Papirus. 
HOLSUM. /Saluber, salutiferus. 
HOLSUMNESSE. Salulritas. 
HOLT, lytylle wode. 4 Lucus, vir- 

gultum, vibranum. 
HOOME, or dwelly(n)ge place. 

HooMLY. 5 JFamiliaris, domesticus. 

1 Parkinson gives holm, as a name of the holly: in the North it is called hollin. 
Ang.-Sax. holen, aquifolium. The Gloss on Gaut. de Bibelesworth renders " hous, 
holyn.'' " Hussus est quedam arbor que semper tenet viriditatem, Anglice a holyn." 
ORTUS. " An holyn, hussus ; an holyn bery, hussum." CATH. ANG. It is said of St. 
Bernard, in the Golden Legend, that after he became Abbot of Clairvaux, " he often 
made his pottage with leues of holm." Sherwood gives *' hollie, holme, or huluer 
tree, house, housson, mesplier sauvage" In Norfolk the holly is called hulver, ac- 
cording to Forby. Compare HULWUR, tre, hereafter. 

2 " Bitalassum, a place ber two sees rennen." MED. In the Wicliffite version, Dedis 
xxvii. 41 is thus rendered : " And whan we fellen into a place of gravel gon al aboute 
wib be see (locum dithalassum, Vulg.) beihurtleden be ship." Holm seems here to denote 
the peninsula, or accumulation of alluvial deposit formed at a confluence of waters. It 
is, however, remarkable that the name does not appear to be thus applied on the Norfolk 
coast, especially in the neighbourhood of Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, 
and where such deposits are made to a vast extent by the Ouse, and other streams that 
flow into the Wash. 

3 This name seems to be derived from Ang.-Sax. hoi, cavus, and rise, juncus , but 
as the Scirpus lacustris, Linn, commonly called bull-rush, has not a hollow but a 
spongy stem, the proper intention of the term is obscure. 

4 " Holt, a wood. It is yet used for an orchard, or any place of trees, as a cherry- 
holt, an apple-holt, Dunelm. Isl. hollte, salebra." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033. 
Skinner says that holt denotes a grove, or multitude of trees planted thick together, 
and Tooke asserts that it is the p. part, of Ang.-Sax. helan, to cover, and signifies a 
rising ground or knoll covered with trees. The word occurs in Cant. T. Prol. line 6 ; 
Lydgate's Thebes ; Launfal, &c. Among the benefactions of John Hotham, Bp. Ely, it 
is recorded that in 1320 he appropriated, for the distribution of alms on his anniversary, 
" tenementum vocatum Lythgates, et Barkeres, cum quodam alneto vocato Lythgates 
holt." Hist. Elien. Ang. Sacra, i. 643. " Holte, a lytell woode, petit boys." PALSG. 
" Touffe de bois, a hoult a tuft of trees growing neere a house, and serving for a marke 
or grace unto the seat thereof." COTG. See Jamieson. In names of places it is of 
occasional occurrence, as the Holt, a wood near Havant, Hants ; Knock-holt wood, 
near Tenterden, Kent ; and in Norfolk, according to Forby, a small grove, or planta- 
tion, is called a holt, as nut-holt, osier-holt, gooseberry -holt, &c. Ang.-Sax holt, lucus. 

5 In the complaint of the Ploughman, t. Edw. III., given by Fox, under the year 
1360, the following version is cited of i. Tim. v. 8 : " He that for saketh the charge of 
thilke that ben homelich with him (suorum, et maxime domesticorum, Vulg.) hath for- 


(HOMLIMAN, or woman, K. Do- 

mesticus, domestica, familiar is.) 
HOMLY, or yn homly maner. Do- 

mestice, familiariter. 
HOONE, barbarys instrument. 

Cos, KYLW. et Dice. 
Ho NY. Mel. 

HONY COOM (honycom, K.) Favus. 
HONY SOCLE. ApiagOj UG. v. 

in A. (locusta, s.) 

HOOPE, vesselle byyndynge (hope, 

K.) Cuneus, circulus, Dice. 
HOOPYN', or settyn' hoopys on a 

vesselle. Cuneo. 
HOPE. Spes. 
HOPYN', or trustyn', or soposyn'. 

Estimo, spero, CATH. arbitror. 
HOPPE, sede for beyre (bere, 

K. p.) 1 HummuluSj secundum 


saken his fayth, and is worse than a misbeleued man :'' (in the Wicliffite version, " his 
owne, and moostof his household men.") Here, and in Gal. v. 10, Wicl. version, the 
word seems to be used precisely in the sense given to it in the Promptorium ; but it 
denotes also familiar, by acquaintance, and presuming. " Homely, famylier, through 
a quaynted,/am?7fer. Homelynesse, priuaultt. Homely, saucye, to perte, malapert." 
PALSG. Herman says that " homelynesse (fiducia) comynge of a true harte, is a maner 
ofvertue," where it seems to imply familiar confidence ; and he uses the word also 
as follows : " He was homely with her, or had to do with her." 

1 It should seem that the eala, or swatanof the Anglo-Saxons, were not compounded 
with any bitter condiment, which was essential to the concoction of beer, a drink of 
Flemish or German origin, and until the XVIth cent, imported from the Continent, or 
brewed by foreigners only in this country. The Promptorium gives HERE, cervisia 
hummulina, as distinguished from ale, which was not hopped ; Caxton, in the Boke for 
Travellers, speaking of drinks, makes the distinction, "Ale of England, Byre of Ale- 
mayne ; " and it appears by the Customs of London, Arnold's Chron. 87, that beer 
was first made in London by " by ere brewars, straungers Flemyngis, Duchemen," &c. 
a recipe for making single beer with malt and hops is given, p. 247. It has been as- 
serted that the use of hops was forbidden by Hen. VI. in consequence of a petition of 
the Commons, mentioned by Fuller, in his Worthies, under Essex, against " the wicked 
weed called hops ; M but no record of the prohibition has been found, and the petition 
does not appear on the Rolls of Parliament. In the time of Hen. VIII. some prejudice 
seems to have arisen regarding their use, for among the articles for the reform of sundry 
misuses in the royal household, 1531, is an injunction to the brewer not to put any hops 
or brimstone into the ale. Archeeol. in. 157. Hops, called in Dutch Hoppe, Germ. 
Hopffen, were introduced into England from Artois, between 10 and 15 Hen. VIII. as 
affirmed in Stowe's Chron. about the time of the expedition against Tournay. Bullein, 
in the " Bulwarke of defence,'' written about 1550, speaks of hops as growing in Suffolk. 
They are mentioned in the stat. 5 and 6 Edw. VI. c. 5, 1552, as cultivated in England ; 
Stat. of Realm, iii. 135. Among the privileges conceded to the strangers from the Low 
Countries, who settled at Stamford, 1572, is a clause regarding the free exercise of 
husbandry, in which are specified hops, and all things necessary to gardens. Strype, 
Life of Parker, App. 115. The management of hops was quickly acquired, as appears 
by the instructions given by Tusser, in March's and June's husbandry, published 
1557. See also the Treatise by Reyn. Scott, 1574; and Harrison's Descr. of Brit. 
Holinsh. i. 110. The remarks of Leonard Mascall, in his Art of Planting, under the 
head of " certeyne Dutch practises,'' p. 85, edit. 1592, are detailed, and curious ; and 
he appears to have been conversant with the method adopted in Flanders. The stat. 1 
Jac. I. c. 18, against the deterioration of hops, shows that a large quantity was still 
supplied in 1603 from foreign parts. See Beckman's Hist, of Inventions, iv. 325, and 
Cullum's Hawsted, 202. 



HOPPE, sede of flax (hooppe, seed 
or flax, s.) 1 Sinodulum, lino- 
dium, KYLW. (lincidulum, p.) 

HOPPYN' as fleys, or froschys, or 
other lyke. Salio. 

HOPPYN', or skyppyn', infra (or 
dawnsen, K. P.) Salto. 

HOPPYNGE, or skyppynge. Sal- 

HOPUR of a mylle, or a tramale 
(tramel, s.) 2 Taratantara, 
CA.TH.farricapsium, Dice. 

HOPUR of a seedlepe (or a seed- 
lepe, HARL. MS. 2274.) Sa- 
torium, saticulum, UG. v. in S. 

HORCOP, bastarde. 3 Manzer, 

spurms, spuria, pelignus, pe- 

ligna (pelinus, p.) 
HOORD, tresowre (horde, K.) 

Thesaurus, herarium. 
(HOORDHOWSE, infra in TRE- 

Ho RE, woman (hoore, H. p.) Me- 

retrix (pelix, P.) 
HOREHOWSE, supra in B. BOR- 

DELLE. (Lupanar)forniX) p.) 
HOREL, or hullowre (hollowr, s. 

holour, p.) 4 Fornicator, li- 

cantor, leno, rivalis, mechus, 
fornicatrix, licantrix, media 

(lecator, K. s. leciatrix, cori- 

nalis, P.) 

1 This obsolete appellation of linseed occurs in the gloss on G. de Bibelesworth. 

" Du lyn aueret le boceaus (hoppen,) 

De canbre auerez les cordeus (ropes.)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 299, b. 
In the Liber vocatus femina, MS. Trin. Coll. Cant, this passage is given as follows. 
" Ore alez a semer v're lynois, 

Now goj? to sow 3 our flex. 

Qar de lynois vous auez lez busceaux, 

For of flex 30 haue py3e hoppes." 

The Ortus gives " apium est nomen herbe, ache, or hoppe ; " and in the interpretations 
by Master Geoff rev of Joh. de Garland, de Equiv. occur " Coma, fructus corni, hoppe : 
corrnts, quidam arbor, hoppe tre, ut quidam dicunt," 1 " 1 

2 "An hopyr, ferricapsa, est molendini; saticulum, satum, seminarium." CATH. 
ANG. The proper distinction is here made between the hopper, or the trough wherein 
the grain is put in order to be ground, mentioned by Chaucer, Reve's T. 4009, so 
termed from the hopping movement given to it, and the seed-leep, which was also 
called a hopper. " Hopper of a myll, tremye.' J PALSG. " Seminarium, vas quo 
ponitur semen, an hopre." MED. It is in this last sense that Perkyn the Ploughman 
says that he will become a pilgrim, 

" And hange myn hoper at myn hals 

Instede of a scryppe." Vis. of P. Ploughm. line 3917. 

In Lincolnshire, according to Bp. Kennett, a little hand-basket is termed a hoppet ; 
and in Yorkshire a hopper is " a seed lip, or basket wherein the sower puts his corn." 
Lansd. MS. 1033. An implement of domestic use, probably for grinding grain, is men- 
tioned among the effects of Thos. Arkyndall, of Northallerton, 1499. " A leed and y e 
stane, xij. d. Ahoppyng tre, vj. d." Wills and Inv. Surt. Soc. i. 104. See TRAMALY 
of a mylle, CEED LEPE, and SEED LEPP. 

3 Palsgrave gives "horecoppe," without any French word. 

4 See HULLOWRE. Horell, Townl. Myst. " Horrell, or whoremonger, concubitor, 
libidinarius" HULOET. A debauched person was called in Fr, hourieur. 



(HORLEGE, supra in DYALE, et 

infra in ORLAGE.) 
HORNE. Cornu, et in plur. 

cornua sunt vires. 
HORNARE, or home make(r). 1 

HORNYD. Cornutus. 
HORN KEKE, fysche (home stoke, 

s. hornkek, or garfysshe, p.) 2 
HORNPYPE. 3 Palpista, KYLW. 

(psalmista, s.) 
HORONE, herbe. 4 Collocasia, 

marubium, prassa. 
HORS. Equus. 

HORSYS colere. Eph(ipp)ium, 

COMM. columbar. 
HORSE combe. Strigilis, UG. in 

HORS, gelt, or gelt horse. Can- 

terius, CATH. 
HoRSBERE. 5 Lectica, UG. in lego. 

bajulum, UG. v. in B. (bas- 

terna, s.) 
HORSYS harneys. Ep(ip)hia, c. F. 

falerum, c. F. 

HORSYS mane. Juba, CATH. 
HORSKEPARE (horsman', s.) 


1 The art of working in horn was one in which the English were formerly much 
skilled. In 1464 the homers presented a petition to Parliament against strangers, who 
came " to understond the konnyng, and feate of makyng of horns." Rot. Parl. iv. 567. 
" Homer, a maker of homes, cornettier ; horneresser, a woman, cornettiere." PALSG. 

2 " Hornkecke, a fysshe lyke a mackerell." PALSG. Esox belone, Linn. Ang.-Sax. 
horn, cornu, and ceac, gena. See GARFYSCHE. 

3 Chaucer, in the Rom. of R. speaks of the discordant sounds of "hornepipes of 
Cornewaile," which, as it has been remarked in the note on the word CORMTJSE, seem 
to have been identical with that instrument, called likewise, according to Roquefort, 
muse, in Latin musa. The rustic dance, to which the name of hornpipe was transferred 
from the instrument that served as an accompaniment, seems to be described by Jean 
de Meung, where he relates that Pygmalion took the " instrument de Comouaille" or 
" muse," and danced to animate his statue. Rom. de la Rose, 21,874. The horn-pipe 
is mentioned as a musical instrument by Spenser and B. Jonson. No explanation has 
been found of the word palpista. 

4 The plant here intended is the white horehound, Marrubium vulgare, Linn. A.-S. 
hara-hune, marrubium. " Horon, a herbe. Horehounde, herbe, langue de chien.'' PALSG. 

5 The horse-litter, or horse-bere, Ang.-Sax. bsere, feretrum, grdbatus, was used at 
an early period in England, and probably introduced from the South. See Mr. Mark- 
land's Remarks on Carriages, Archseol. xx. 445. Bede relates that Ceolfrid, Abbot of 
Wiremuth, pursued his journey to Rome, during which he died, A.D. 716, " cum ad 
hoc per infirmitatem deveniret, ut equitare non valens feretro caballario veheretur." 
W. Malmsb. relates that the corpse of Rufus was conveyed by the rustics to Winchester 
"in rhedd caballaria," which in the Polychronicon is termed a " horse here," and by 
Pabian a " horse litter." M. Westm. describes the retreat of King John from Swines- 
head, when, having lost his " bigas, et quasdam clitellas," in the Wash, and falling 
sick, he was thus carried to Newark, "facto, lecticd equestri^ descendit de palfrido, et 
ipsam intravit." G. de Bibelesworth, who wrote in the reign of Edw. I. says, 

" Pur eyse en litier (on hors bere) hom chiuauche." 

11 Basterna est theca manualis vel itineris, a carre, or a chareot, or horse lytter. Lec- 
tica dicitur currus in quo defertur lectus ; et proprie lectus portabilis, a charet or a 
horslytter." ORTUS. " Horse lytter, letiere aux cheuavto." PALSG. Horse litters, 
called by Commenius arceroc or lectica, carried by two horses, according to the fashion 
in use in Holland, are represented in the Orbis Sensualium, p. Ill, ed. 1659. 



HORSMAN, or he bat rydythe 

(horsys, s.) Equester. 
HORSMYNTE, herbe. Balsamita, 

HORSCHO (horsissho, K. horsis sho, 

p.) Bdbatum, KYLW. ferrus, 

c. F. (balatum, K. P.) 
HORSYS tayle. Penis, CATH. 
Hoos (hors, K, hoorse, p.) 1 Rau- 

cus, UG. 



HosE. 2 Caliga (osa, CATH. s.) 
HOSUN, or don on hosun (hosyn, 

or done on hosun, K.) Caligo. 

HOSEBOND (as, K.) weddyd man 

(hosbonde or husbonde, p.) Ma- 

HOSEBONDE (or husbonde, infra) 

of (wise, K. P.) gouernaunce of 

an howsholde. Paterfamilias. 
HOSEARE, or he bat makythe 

hosyne (hose3ere, K. hosiare, s. 

hoser', p.) 3 Caligarius. 
HOOSHEDE, or hoosnesse (hoshed, 

K. hoorshede, or hoorsnesse, p.) 

Raucitas, rancor. 
HOOSE, or cowghe (host, or cowhe, 

K. host, or cowgth, s. hoost, 

HARL. MS. 2274. ) 4 Tussis. 

1 The reading may seem here to be questionable, but the Winch. MS. agrees in 
giving hoos. Chaucer writes " horse of sowne," speaking of a hunter's horn. Wachter 
observes that hoarse seems to lead to Ger. hreis, hreisch, formed from Lat. raucus, but 
hoos, and hoosnesse, which occurs just below, resemble more nearly the Ang.-Sax. 
has, raucus, and hasnys, raucedo. In the Lat. Eng. Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 
is given " raucedo, hasnes." Horman says, " he hath a great haskenes, gravi asthmate 
implicatur." Compare HARSKE, or haske, above. 

2 The precise nature of the article of dress, to which the name hos was given by the 
Anglo-Saxons, it is not easy to define : it is rendered by Elfric " caliga, ocrea." In 
early illuminations their legs are frequently represented as covered by bands, as it seems, 
wound around them, and these perhaps were termed hose-bendas, which has been sup- 
posed to denote garters. The word hose is common to the Dutch, Danish, and Ice- 
landic languages, and the old French houses, or heuses, seem to have been identical 
therewith. P. Warnefridus states that the Lombards used hose (hosts}, and wore over 
them " tubruyos birreos," when on horseback. Gest. Longob. iv. c. 23. " Calceo, i. 
caligas et sotulares induere, to put on hose. Oso, i. osas calciare, to house. Caliga, 
hose ; calicula, a lytellhose." ORTUS. " An hose, caliga. Versus : Sunt ocree calige 
quos tibia port at amictus. To hose, calciare, caligare." CATH. ANG. " Hose for ones 
legges, chausses. Hosyn and shossys, cha(u)ssure. Payre of hose from the kne vp f 
demy chausses. Payre of sloppe hoses, braiettesct marinier." PALSG. In the XVIth 
cent, the term hose was used to denote the entire nether garment, comprising the upper 
stocks, or breeches, and the nether-stocks of hosen, or stockings. The directions of 
Queen Eliz. by proclamation in 1565 are curiously explicit as to the prescribed pro- 
prieties of this article of dress. Strype's Ann. Vol. i. App. 78. 

8 "An hosyrer (sic) calciator, caligator." CATH. ANG. "Hosyer, that maketh 
hosen, chaussettier." PALSG. Sherwood observes on the word "Hosier, chaussetier ; 
aujourdhui (1660) ci Londres on appelle ainsi les cousturiers qui vendent les habits 
d'homme tousfaits" 

4 "Tussis, host." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "An host, tussis ; to host, 
tussire." CATH. ANG. " Raucedo, hoocenesse ; raucidus, hooce ; raucidulus, sum dele 
hoce; raucus f hoost." MED. Forby gives hoist, a cough. Ang.-Sax. hwosta, tussis. 
" Yvresce fait fort home chatouner (creopen,) 

Home aroee (hoos) fait haut huper (3ellen.)" G. de Bibelesw. 


HOSTYN'. Oscito, UG. v. in H. 

HOSTYN', or rowhyn', or cowghyn 

(rowwhyn, H. rewyn, or cowhyn, 


HOOT. Calidusifervidus. 

et c. F. et UG. in mordeo, et in 
(plurali, s.) terme, c. F. 

(HOTYN, or hetyn, supra, P.) 

HOTYN', or make beheste (hotyn 

or behotyn, K. p.) 1 Promitto. 
HOTYNGE, or behotynge, or behest 

(behestynge, K.) Promissio. 
HOTYNGE, or hetynge. Calefactio. 
HOWE, or what (howj, or qwow, 

s.) QuomodO) qualiter. 
HOWE, or hure, heed hyllynge 

(howue, s. p.) 2 Tena, CATH. 

capedulum, c. F. sidaris, c. F. 

Compare COWYN or hostyn. The Craven dialect still retains the word hoste, hoarse- 
ness. See also Jamieson. 

1 HETYN', MS. " Spondeo, to be-hoote. Sponsor etfidejussor, aheetere." MED. MS. 
CANT. " Promitto , Anglice, to behyght. Promissio, a beheste. Dispondeo, to be-hyght, 
or to plyght trouth. Nutio, a promyse, or hyghtynge." ORTUS. " To beheste, destinare, 
vovere, promittere, fyc. A beheste, policitacio, promissum, votum."" 1 CATH. ANG. 
Compare BEHOTYN, or make a beheste, above. Ang.-Sax. hatan, jubere ; behatan, 
vovere. In the complaint of the Ploughman, given by Fox, under the year 1360, it is 
said, " though we preyen thee but a litle and shortlich, thou wilt thenken on vs, and 
graunten vs that vs nedeth, for so thou behighted vs somtime :" and again, " thou 
yhightest some tyrae, &c. He (the Pope) behoteth men the blisse of heauen, withouten 
any payne, that geuen him much money." Hote, signifying a promise, is used by R. 
Brunne ; it occurs in Townl. Myst. p. 46 ; and the verb, thou hete, het or hight, thou 
didst promise. By R. Glouc. and other writers to hote is used in the sense of to com- 
mand, or be called. 

2 This term, derived from Ang.-Sax. hufa, cidaris, is used to denote head-coverings 
of almost every description. In the satirical song on the Consistory Courts, in the 
time of Edward I. Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, 156, it is said, 

" Furst ther sit an old cherle in a blake hure, 

Of all that ther sitteth semeth best syre." 

It signifies a cap of estate, as in the bequest of John Earl of Warren, Surrey, and Strath- 
orne, 1347 : " Jeo devys h Monsr. Will- de Warennemon filz ma hure d' argent dorre 
pour Strathorne, ove le cercle ff argent dorre pour ycel." Testam. Ebor. i. 43. Margaret 
de Knaresburgh devises, in 1397, "flameolam defilo, cumj. calamandro, ac houfe ; 
pannum de lak ; tenam de cerico ; flameolam de crispo,'' &c. Ibid. p. 221. In the 
Vision of P. Ploughm. 418, allusion is made to the " howves of selk," worn by ser- 
jeants-at-law ; and Chaucer, in the Reve's Prol. 3909, uses the phrase " set his howve ;" 
and speaks of " an howve above a call." Troil. B. iii. 775. In 1482, a petition was 
preferred to Parliament by the craft of " hurers, cappers," &c. against the injurious 
use of machinery, then introduced to supersede manual labour, by means of a fulling 
mill, whereby the quality of " huers, bonettes and cappes " was depreciated. See Rot. 
Parl. vi. 233 ; Stat. of Realm, 22 Edw. IV., where they are termed " hurez, huretz," 
&c. Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, " Maulde the huue, or calle maker 
(huuetier) maynteneth her wisely : she selleth dere her calles, or huues (huues), she 
soweth them with two semes." " Pileus, a cappe, an hatte, an hove, or a coyfe." MED. 
" Tena tenet et ornat caput mulieris, Anglice a howfe, i. extrema pars vitte, qud de- 
pendent comae." ORTUS. " An howfe, tena" CATH. ANG. " Houe that a chylde is 
borne in, taye." PALSG. Sir T. Brown, in Vulgar Errors, B. v. c. 11, alludes to the 



HOWE, or Heve, propyr name. 

(Howwe, or Huwe, HARL. MS. 

2274, How, or Hw, s. Hue, p. 

Hew, w.) 1 Hugo. 
HOVE, or grownd yvy (herbe, p.) 2 

Edera terrestris. 
HOVE of oyle, as barme, and ale 

(hove, or holy, as barme of ale, 

s.) 3 Amuria, UG. in mergo. 
HOVYL, lytylle howse. Teges, 

CATH. et c. F. (tega, P.) 
HOVYL for swyne, or oj>er beestys. 

Cartabulum, c. F. (catabulum, 


HOWLE, byrde. Bubo, CATH. 
HOWLYN', as beestys. Ululo. 
HOWLYNGE of doggy s, or ober 

beestys. Ululatus. 

How LONGE. Quamdiu, quous- 

que, usquequo. 
How MANY. Quot, 
HOWE MEKYLLE (howe moche, P.) 


HOWNDE FYSHE. Canis marinus, 

HOWNDE FLYE. Cinomia, C.F. vel 

cinifex, COMM. vel cinifes, COMM. 
HOWNDYS colere (howndych co- 

lowre, s.) Millus, CATH. 
How OFTYN'. Quoclens. 
HOWSE. Domus, CATH. edes. 
HOWSELYN' wythe the sacrament 

(as the sacrament, s.) 4 Com- 

HOWSHOLDE. Familia. 

superstitious notions in regard to the caul, or membrane wherein the head of a new- 
born infant is occasionally wrapped, called the silly-how, Ang.-Sax. sselig, beatus, hufa, 
cidaris; Swed. seger hufwa. In Scotland it is termed the haly, or sily-how. See 
Brand's Popular Ant. ; Ruddiman's Gloss, to G. Douglas, v. How ; and Jamieson. 
Compare HWYR, cappe, hereafter. 

1 " Huchone, Hugo, nomen proprium viri" CATH. ANG. 

3 Ground-ivy, gill, or ale-hoof, Glechoma hederacea, Linn, was anciently esteemed 
both in medicine and as a condiment used in the concoction of ale. G. de Bibelesworth 
mentions " eyre de boys, e eyre terestre (heyhowe.)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 131. " Edera 
terrestris ys an herbe |>at me clepyj? erth yuye, or heyoue ; " its virtues are detailed, 
Roy. MS. ISA. VI. f. 74, b. In John Arderne's Practica, Sloane MS. 66, f. 61 , the use 
of " haihoue, vel halehoue, #e/folfoyt, e/horshoue," in the composition of an unguent, 
called Salus populi, is set forth. Gerard calls it ale-hoof, or tun-hoof, and states that 
" the women of our Northern parts, especially about Wales and Cheshire, do tunne the 
herbe ale-hoof into their ale." Compare TUNHOVE, hereafter. Langham, in the 
Garden of Health, 1579, details the qualities of " Alehoofe, ground iuie, gilrumbith, 
ground or Tudnoore ; " and Cotgrave gives " patte de chat, cats- foot, alehoofe, tune- 
hoofe, ground ivy, Gill creep by the ground." Skinner thought that ale-hoof was de- 
rived from all, and behofe, utilitas, from its numerous medicinal properties, but the 
derivation of the name is possibly from hof, ungnla, in allusion to the hoof-shaped leaf. 
In the West, the plant colt's-foot is called horse's hoof. It is possible that the read- 
hofe of the Anglo-Saxon herbals is the ground ivy, to which, however, the name eor"$- 
ifig was assigned. 

3 The reading here seems to require correction ; the word does not occur in the other 
MSS. or in the printed editions. Amurca is explained by Ugutio, and in the Ortus, to 
be " inferior fex olei, dregs of oyle," but Muria signifies the " superior f ex olei;" and 
HOVE here seems to be put for such impurities as float on the surface. Compare the 
verb HOVYN yn water, or o>er lycoure. 

4 In the curious directions to the parish priest regarding the instructions which he 


HOWSHOLDARE (howsalder, K.) 

Paterfamilias, yconomus. 
HOWSYN', or puttyn. yn a howse. 

HOWTYN', or cryyn'. Boo, KYLW. 
HOWTYN', or cryefi as shepmenn 
(howten, K. p. howen, j. w.) 2 

Domifero, CATH. Celeumo, CATH. 

HOWSYN', or makyn' howsys. HowTYNGE,crye. 3 Boema, CATH. 

(Domifico, CATH. s. P.) 
HOWSKEPARE. Edituus, editua, 


HOWSLEKE, herbe, or sengrene. 1 
JBarba Jovis, semper viva, ju- 
barbium, c. F. 

HOWESONE. Quamtocius, quam- 


et KYLW. Sohowe, the hare ys 

fownde, boema, lepus est in- 

HOWHYN' (howghyn, K. howwhyn, 

H.) 4 Subnervo (enerco, P.) 
HOVYN' yn watur, or ober lycoure. 5 

HOVYN' yfi' be eyre, as byrdys (as 

was bound to give his flock in the mother- tongue, at least four times in the year, it 
is said of the wine given to the laity, " Lewede men \>at underfonge> Godys body ne 
shul nowjt by-leue )>at J?at drynke J>at J>ey vnderfonge^ after here bowsel, ys any o)>er 
sacrament bute wyne and water for to brynge in >e oste J>e betere." Burney MS. 376, 
p. 93. Compare Add. MS. 10,053, f. 109. " Communico, to make comun, orhousel. 
Communio, a comunynge, or a houselynge. Cena, a souper or a houslynge.'' ORTUS. 
" Oblata, howsell." Harl. MS. 1587. " Eukaristia, howsyll." Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 
" Tohowsylle, communicare." CATH. ANG. In the Accounts of the Churchwardens of 
Walden, 36 Hen. VI. a charge occurs "pro lavacione j. manutergii pro hoselynge." 
Hist, of Audley End. In the Golden Legend it is said in the Life of St. John, " he 
said the masse, and houseled and comuned the people." Ang.-Sax. huslian, Eucha- 
ristiam celebrare ; husel, panis sacer. 

1 " House leke, iombarde." PALSG. W. Turner says that " Sedum magnum is called 
also in Latin sempervivum, in English houseleke, and of som singren, but it ought better 
to be called aygrene." Herbal, 1562. See ORPYN, hereafter. 

2 HOWCYN, MS. See the note on HALOW, schypmannys crye. 

8 HOWNTYNGE crye, MS. The alphabetical arrangement indicates an error in this 
reading, and all the other MSS., as likewise Pynson's edition, read Howtynge, cry ; 
howynge, W. de Worde, ed. 1516. In the curious Treatise, entitled the Master of the 
Game, Vesp. B. xu. and Harl. MS. 5086, will be found a detailed account of the 
proper use of "so how," and all the stimulating cries used in field sports. See also 
the " huntynge of the haare," in Dame Julyana Bernes' Boke of Huntynge, sign. d. iij. 

4 To hough, or hock the ham-strings, seems to be derivable from Ang.-Sax. boh, 
poples, or possibly the etymon heawan, secure, may be preferred. In the Wicliffite 
version, Josh. xi. 6, it is written " thou shalt hoxe the horses, subnervabis," Vulg. A 
statement in Rot. Parl. vi. 38, sets forth that in a riot in Yorkshire 1472, one Rich. 
Williamson was " speared, and hough synued." 

5 Minot, who wrote about 1350, speaks of the French fleet sent against the English 
coasts, composed of galleys, carectes, and galiotes, 

" With grete noumber of smale botes, 

Al thai hoved on the flode." iii. p. 11. 

In R. Wimbeldon's Sermon at Paul's Cross, 1389, given by Fox, it is said, " In a 
tonne of wyne the dreggis dwellen byneth, and the cliere wynehoueth aboue." Compare 
HOVE of oyle, and FLETYN. The verb to hove, in the various senses here given, appears 
to be derived from hof, the past tense of Ang.-Sax. hebban, elevare. 



bryddys, or skyis, or other lyke, 
K. hovun in ey3ire, as byrdys, or 
askyys, H. as birdis, or askes, 
p.) 1 Supervolo, supervolito. 
HOVYN' on hors, and a-bydyn'. 2 

Sirocino, KYLW. 
(HucHE, K. Cista, archa.) 
HWYR, cappe (hvyr, K. hure, H. 

huwyr, p. hurwyr, j. w.) 3 Tena, 

c. F. et UG. in teneo. 
HwKSTARE(hukstere, K.) 4 Auxio- 

nator, auxionatrix, auxionarius. 
HUKSTARE of frute. Colibista. 
HULKE, shyppe. 5 Hulcus. 
HULLOWRE, idem quod HOREL, 

supra. 6 

1 This word is evidently synonymous with hover. The reading " skyis " is question- 
able, but SKYE occurs hereafter in the sense of a cloud. See the earlier Wicliffite ver- 
sion, Deut. xxxii. 11, "As an egle forthclepynge his bryddis to flee, and on hem 
houynge (super eos volitans," Vulg.) 

2 This verb is used in this sense by R. Glouc. p. 218; Chaucer, Troil. B. v. ; Gower, 
and other writers. Fabyan speaks of Jack Cade, 1450, as " houynge at Blackhethe ;'' 
and states that at Bosworth, " some stode houynge a ferre of, tyl they saw to the 
whyche partye the victory fyll." In the description of that conflict, as given in the 
song of Lady Bessy, by Humphrey Brereton, Richard says, 

" I myselfe will hove on the hill, I say, 

The fair battle I will see." page 44. 

3 See the note on HOWE, or hure, heed hyllynge. 

4 " Auccionarius, a hukstere : Auccio, ekynge : Auccionor, to merchaunt, and huk." 
MED. " I hucke, as one dothe that wolde bye a thing good cheape, le harcelle and Je 
marchande" PALSG. Junius derives huckster from the Dutch Hoecker, a retailer, 
because he endeavours to hook, or draw in strangers ; but it seems to be allied to the 
Ang.-Sax. eacan, augere, because he sells at a higher price than the first dealer. In 
Friar Michael's Satire on the people of Kildare, written about 1308, the huckster ap- 
pears to have been a female victualler. 

" Hail be $e, hokesters, dun bi J>e lake, 
WiJ> caudles and golokes and J>e pottes blak, 
Tripis and kine fete and schepen heuedes." Harl. MS. 913, f. 8, b. 

In the oath of the beadle of the ward, and of constables, according to the Customs of 
London, is the following clause : " Ye shalbe no regrater of vitale, nor none huxter of 
ale, nor partiner with none of theym." Arnold's Chron. 93. " Hucster, a man, quo- 
quetier: Hucster, a woman, quoquetiere." PALSG. " Howkstar that sellethe meate 
and drynke, caupo." ELYOT. " Regrateur, an huckster, mender, dresser, trimmer up 
of old things for sale. Revendeur, a huckster, or regrator. Maquignon, a hucster, 
broker, horse-courser." COTG. 

6 In the version of Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said that warfare by sea 
should be suspended after the equinox, when " grete vesselles made for the nones 
(for aventure of merchaundise) as carickes, dromondis, hevy hulkis, grete cogges, and 
shippes of toure,'' may venture forth ; but the captain, who must lead his troops in 
" small and light vessels, as galeies, barges, fluynnes, and ballyngers," is dissuaded from 
the attempt. B. iv. c. 39. Walsingham relates that in the engagement between the 
Duke of Bedford and the French, 1416, " cepit tres caricas, et unam hulkam, et qua- 
tuor baling arias.' 1 '' Camd. 394. " Hulke, a shyppe, hevrcqueS' PALSG. " Orque, a 
hulke, a huge ship." COTG. 

6 This term of reproach is used by Rob. Glouc. and Chaucer, W. of Bathe's Prol. 
5836 ; and again in the Persone's Talc, as follows : " If he repreve him uncharitably of 



HULWUR, tre (huluyr, K. p.) 1 

Hulmus, hulcus, aut huscus. 
HUMLOK, herbe. Sicuta, lingua 

canis (intuba, P.) 
HUMMYNGE (hunynge,s.) Reuma 

(secundum Levsay, s.) 
HUNDRYD. Centum. 
HUNDRYD tymes. Cencies. 
HUNGYR. Fames, esuries. 
HUNGRY. Famelicus, esuriens. 
HUNGRYN', or waxyn' hungyr 

(wax hungry, s.) Esurio. 
HUN TARE. Venator. 
HUNTYNGE. Venacio, venatus. 
HUNTON. Venor. 
HURDYCE, or hustylment (hurdyse, 

H. P. hustysment, K. vstylment, 

s.) 2 Utensile (suppellex, p.) 
HURL, or debate. Sedicio, c. F. 
HVRLERE, or debate maker. Se- 

diciosus, c. F. 
HURLYN', or debatyn'. 3 Incursor, 

c. F. 
HURLYNGE, or stryfe. Incurrio, 

c. F. conflictus. 

HURTE, or hurtynge. Lesio,lesura. 
HURT, or hurtyd. Lesus. 
HURTUN, or harmyfi'. Ledo. 
HURT(EL)YNGE (hurtlynge, K.) 

Collision contactus. 
HURTELYN', as too thyngys to- 

gedur (herthyn, H. hurcolyn, s.) 

sinne, as, thou holour ! thou dronkelowe harlot ! and so forth." In the version of 
Vegecius, Roy. MS. 18 A. XII. it is said of the selection of soldiers, that "fishers, 
foulers, runnours, and gestours, lechours, and holours ne shulde not be chosen to 
knyghthode, ne not be suffred comme nyghe the strengthes, for this maner of menne 
with her lustes shulle rather nasshe the hertes of warriours to lustes, thenne hardenne 
theim to fighte." B. i. c. 7. In the Towneley Myst. the words holard and horell occur. 

Thise dysars and thise hullars, 
Thise cokkers and thise bollars, 
And alle purs cuttars, 
Bese welle war of thise men." 

Processus talentorum, p. 242. 

" Holier, houlleur ; dtbaucht, luxurieux.^ ROQUEF. See Ducange, v. Holerii. 

1 The holly is still called in Norfolk hulver, and in Suffolk hulva ; it seems to be the 
tree which is called by Chaucer "an hulfere," in the Complaint of the Black Knight. 
Skinner supposes it may be so called from its holding or lasting long, Ang.-Sax. feor, 
longe, or holding fair, as being evergreen. " Houx, the holly, holme, or hulver tree. 
Petit hou.v, kneehulver, butchers broom." COTG. Holland, in his translation of Pliny, 
speaks of the " holly or hulver tree.'' B. xxiv. c. 13. 

2 In Goer de Lion "hurdys" are mentioned repeatedly, lines 6127, 3969; "hur- 
dices," K. Alis. 2785, but evidently signify barricades, palissades, or large shields 
termed pavises. See Ducange, v. Hurdicium. It may in the sense above given have 
been used metaphorically. 

3 In a satire on the studies of the Dialecticians of the times of Edw. I. it is said, 

" Whan menne horlith ham here and there, 

Nego saveth ham fram care." Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, 211. 

" Y was hurlid, and turned upsodoun (impulsus eversus sum, Vulg.) >at y schulde falle 
doun, and J>e lord took me up." Ps. cxvii. 13, Wicl. version. John Payne writes to 
his master, John Paston, regarding the trouble that befell him in Cade's rebellion, 
1450, " and a-none aftyr y 1 hurlyng the Byshop Rosse apechyd me to the Quene." 
Past. Lett. i. 62. llormaii says of troublous times, " in that whorlynge of the worlde 



hurchyn togeder, p.) 1 Imping 'o, 

HURRON', or bomboii as bees, and 
other lyke (hurryn, or bumbyn as 
ben, K. hurren or bumbyn or been, 
or other like, P.) JBombizo. 


supra (husbond of gouernawnce, 
K. man of gouernaunce, p. 2 Pa- 

(HusBONDE, wedded man, p. 
Maritus, J. w.) 

HUSBONDYN', or wysely dyspendyn' 

worldely goodys. Dispense, ico- 

nomico, c. F. vel prudenter dis- 


HUSKE of frute, or ober lyke. 

Corticillus,cullea, claudo, 
folliculuS) CATH. et c. F. acinus 

vel acinum, c. F. 
HUSKE, fyshe (husk, fishe, K. H. 

husk of fyshe, s. p.) 3 Squa- 

mus, c. F. squarus, CATH. 
HUSKE of a note. Nuci, UG. in 

noceo (nauci, s.) 

(temporum novitate) I wiste nat what to do. Hurrelynge, murmura." " I hurle, I 
make a noyse as the wynde dothe, ie Iruys." PALSG. 

1 " Collicio, to-gidur hurtlynge. Collisus, to-gidur hurtled." MED. The sounds 
produced by the minstrels at a marriage, described in William and the Werwolf, were 
so varied and powerful that the hearers might think 

" pat heuen hastili and erpe schuld hurtel to gader, 
So desgeli it denede that al perpe quakede." p. 


This word is of frequent occurrence in the Wicliffite version. " The litil children were 
hurtlid togidere (collidebantur, Vulg.) in her wombe." Gen. xxv. 22. See also Mark 
ix. 17 ; Dedis xxvii. 41. In the Golden Legend it is said of the final Judgment, " the 
seuenth sygne, the stones shal smyte and hurtle togyder." It is used by Chaucer, 
Spenser, and Shakespeare. 

2 In the version of Macer's treatise of the virtues of herbs it is said of honysuckle, 
" if ]pe beehyues be anointed with pe ius of her leeues, pe been schalt not goo a-way ; 
be housbondes kepe her swarmes in tyme of yere by suche anoyntynge.'' Hardyng says 
of the taxation imposed by Rufus, which sorely oppressed the commons, 

" A kyng woteth not what harmeth housbandrye, 

Housbande to pill and taxe outrageously." Chron. c. 125. 

" An husband, edituus, iconimus, incola, paterfamilias." CATH. ANG. " This smythe 
is a good housbande (mesnaiyier) , for I herde hym beate with his hamer to daye afore 
foure of y e clocke. Husbande, a thriuyng man, mesnagier. Husbandes house in the 
countre, or maner place, metayrie." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. hus-bonda, damns magister. 

3 " Squarus, quidam piscis ; et dicitur a squamd, quia squamis acutus sit, unde et 
ejus cute lignum politur." CATH. Pennant states that the rough skin of the Squalus 
squatina, Linn, or Angel shark, was used by the ancients to polish wood and ivory, 
according to Pliny, ix. c. 12 ; and that in England the skin of the greater dog-fish, cat- 
fish, or bounce, Squalus canicula, Linn, called in French roussete, is applied to the 
same purpose. Zool. iii. pp. 87, 99. This last appears to be the species here called 
the huske. Palsgrave gives " husse, a fysshe, rousette ;" and Cotgrave explains 
rousset to be " a little ruddie dog-fish." " Squatina, a soole fysshe with a roughe 
skynne, wherewith fletchers doo make theyr arrowes smoothe." ELYOT. In N. Britain 
the Cyclopterus lumpus, Linn, the lump, or sea-owl, is called hush-paddle, in Germ, 
see-haess, lepus marinus. See Jamieson. Compare Teut. hesse, catus. 


HUSPYLYN', or spoylyn' (spolyyn, 
H.) 1 SpoliO) dispolio. 

HUSTYLMENT (orharneys, orhur- 
dyce, supra.) 2 Utensile, supellex. 

HUSWYFE. Materfamilias. 

HUSWYFERY. Yconomia. 

HUGE, or grete. Magnus. 

(HUTCHE, or whyche, supra in 
HOCHE. 3 Cista, archa.) 

IAGGE, or dagge of a garment. 4 

Fractillus, CATH. 
IAGGYD, or daggyd. Fractillosus. 

1 To huspil, in the dialect of Shropshire, signifies to disorder, destroy, or knock 
about. See Hartshorne's Salopia. In old French houspouillier, or harpailleur, im- 
plies a thievish marauder, " homme qui vole les gens de la campagne, vagabond." 
ROQUEF. " S'houspiller fun I'autre, to tug, lug, hurry, tear one another," &c. COTG. 
Compare gaspiller, which, according to Menage, has the same origin. 

2 " Suppellectilia, hustelment." MED. This term is used in the original MS. by the 
first hand, in Bodl. Libr. of the earlier Wicliffite version ; " Thou shalt anoynt of it 
the tabernacle, &c. and the candelstik, and the hustilmentis of it (utensilia, Vulg.)" 
Exod. xxx. 28. It occurs in several documents connected with the Eastern Counties. 
Joanna, relict of Sir T. Hemgrave, made, about 1421, a will under constraint 
of her second husband, devising to him personal effects and a sum of money, 
" 1150 marcs, with other jewel and hostelment that were mine other husbands goods 
and mine," as stated in her protest. Hist, of Hengrave, 93. John Hakone of Wyne- 
ton makes the following devise in 1437 ; " I wyll that alle necessaries and hustylments 
longyng to myn howsehold, that is to sey, to halle, chaumbyr, and kechene be disposed 
to the use of my wife." Norwich Wills, Harl. MS. 10, f. 267. In the Paston Letters, 
ii. 26, are mentioned " gonnes, crossebows, and quarells, and alle other hostelments to 
the maneur (of Caistor) belonginge." 1469, 9 Edw. IV. In 1492 Robert Parker be- 
queaths to his wife all his " hostiliaments, utenselys, and jowellys, to his house per- 
taining." Cull urn's Hawsted, 17. The word seems to be taken from the old Fr. 
oustillement, ROQUEF. " Outillemens, stuffe, movables, household furniture, or im- 
plements." COTG. 

3 Sir John Maundevile says of the Ark of the Testimony, " that arke, or hucche, 
with the relikes, Tytus ledde with hym to Rome, whan he had scomfyted alle the 
Jewes." Voiage, p. 102. By Chaucer the word is written " wiche." Caxton, in the 
Boke for Travellers, says of household stuff", " these thinges set ye in your whutche 
(huche] or cheste ; your jewellis in your forcier, that they be not stolen." " Archa, 
a whycche, a arke and a cofyre. Archula, a lytelle whycche. Cibutum, a mete 
whycche. Cista, a whycche." MED. " Hutche, a chest, co/re, huche." PALSG. Ang.- 
Sax. hwsecca, area. 

4 FractUlus is explained in the Catholicon to be " cauda vel f ragmen panni fissi / 
cauda ornatus pendens ex inferiori parte : fractUlus dicitur etiam villus in tapeto vel 
alid veste villosd.'* Horman says, " he hath a plesurein geagged clothynge, lasciniosd 
veste; " and Palsgrave gives " I iagge or cutte a garment, ie chicquette, ie deschicquette^ 
ie descouppe. I iagge nat my hosen for thrifte, but for a bragge. He is outher a 
landed man, or a foole y* cutteth his garments. Iagge, a cuttyng, chicqueture. If I 
iagge my cappe, thou hast naught to do." This strange fashion, which, as it has been 
observed in the note on the word DAGGE, prevailed during the reign of Rich. II. was 
not disused even in the XVIth cent. It is particularly noticed by Hardyng, who 
states that it was described to him by the clerk of Richard's household. 

*' Cut werke was greate both in court and tounes, 
Bothe in mennes hoddis, and also in their gounes." Chron. c. 193. 


IAY, byrde. Graculus, ut dicitur IAMYS, propyr name. Jacobus. 

secundumcommunemscolam,sed IANGELERE. Garrulator, gar- 

contrarium dicit c. F. ut patet 

infra in ROKE, bryde ; vel forte 

est equivocum : garrulus, c. F. 

IAYLERE, or gayler. Ergaster, 

KYLW. carceranus. 

IAKKE of defence, garment (iak of 
fence, s.) 1 JBaltheus. 

ruins, CATH. garrula, dicax> 

c. F. loquax. 
IANGELERE, fulle of wordys. 

Semiverbius, UG. in sereno. 
IANGELYN', or iaveryn' (iaberyn, 

p.) 2 Ga(r)rulo t blatero, c. F. 

garrio, CATH. relatro, UG. 

1 A full account of the defensive armour called a jack is given by Sir S. Meyrick, in 
bis observations on ancient military garments worn in England, Archseol. xix. 224. 
Mention of it occurs as early as 1376, in the will of Thos. de Hemenhale, who devises 
" unum iakke de rubio worstede." Transcripts from Norwich Registers, Harl. MS. 10. 
Walsingham relates that Wat Tyler's mob, in the sack of John of Gaunt' s palace at the 
Savoy, 1381, found " vestimentum preciosissimum ipsius, quale Iacke vocamus." Camd. 
p. 249. It is mentioned in the will of Henry Snayth, clericus, 1380: "Lego duas 
loricasferreas, duas bacinetts cum ventall', et duas iakkys coopertas cum fust 1 ; 1 ' and 
in 1391, Margery, widow of Sir Will, de Aldeburgh, bequeaths to her son "unum 
duplum cum loricd interius opertum cum rubeo correo capra. Item, unum iak de- 
fencionis opertum nigro velveto." Test. Ebor. i. 113, 150. Sir S. Meyrick questions 
the authority of Nicot's definition that the jack was an habiliment stuffed with cotton ; 
in the Catholicon Ang. however, written 1483, is given " a iakke, bombicinium." 
Towards the close of the XV th cent, a less cumbersome defence of a similar nature, 
termed a jacket, was more in use. Palsgrave gives " iacke, harnesse, iacq, iacque : 
iacket, seion : iacket without sleues, hocqueton : iacket that hath but four quarters, 
iacquette." Caxton says in the Boke for Travellers, " Donaas the doblet maker hath 
performed my doublet and my iaquet, mon pourpainte et mon paltocque.'* In the 
accounts of the Lestrange family, 1532, are the following entries : " Item, paid for ij. 
pownd of twyn for the iacks. Item, paid for iij. elnes of canvas for y r iack. Item, 
paid to the taylour for the wurkemanshippe of iij. iacks, ix.*. \\.d. Item, paid for 
twyn for 3our iacks. Item, paid to Matthew Smith (or the smith) for making of plates 
for the iackes, iv.,9. ij. d." The kind of jack to which this last entry relates is described 
in Lily's Euph. Eng. where it is said that the armour of the English consists of " cors- 
lets, Almaine rivets, shirts of male, iackes quilted, and covered over with leather, 
fustian, or canvas, over thick plates of yron that are sowed to y e same." It seems to 
have been identical with the brigandine. The jack may even have been occasionally 
formed with mail ; in Edw. III. i. 2, Capell's Prolus. are mentioned "jacks of gymold 
mail." Thus Florio explains " Giacco, a iacke of maile, made like a corslet, a iacket 
or shirt of maile. Giachetta, a iacket or shirt of maile :" and Cotgrave gives " laque, 
a iacke or coat of mail, and thence a iacke for the body of an Irish greyhound, &c. 
made commonly of a wild boares tanned skinne, and put on him when he is to coap 
with that violent beast." The sense in which baltheus is used in the Promptorium is 
singular ; it signifies commonly a girdle, but here COTE ARMURE, DOBBELET, and 
PALTOK, military garments, are rendered by the term baltheus. 

2 " Dap ax, yanglynge, or spekynge of mete." MED. " To iangylle, ubi to chater. 
Ia.ngyller,fictilis,poliloquus, Sfc. ubi chaterynge." CATH. ANG. " I iangyll, ie babille, 
ie cacquette : she iangleth lyke a iaye." PALSG. To jangle occurs in the sense of chat- 
tering in the Vis. of Piers Ploughm. ; Chaucer, Man of Lawes Tale, 5194 ; Gower, &c. 
" langler, to jangle, prattle, tattle saucily, or scurvily." COTG. 


IANGELYN', or iaveryn' a-3en, bat 
ys clepyd clenchyng a-jen 
(clensyng a-3en, s.) 1 Oggarrio, 

IANGELYN', and talkyfi'. Con- 
fabulor, fabulor, colloquor. 

IANGELYNGE. Garrulacio. 

IANGELYNGE, or talkynge. Con- 
fabulacio, collocucio. 

I APE. 2 Nuga,frivolum, scur(r)ili- 

IAPER. Nugax,nugaculus, CATH. 

nugigerulus, CATH. gerro, UG. 

in gero. 
lAPYN'(or tryflon, infra.) Trupho, 

illudo, c, F. ludifico (deludo^ P.) 
IARDYNE almaunde. 3 Amigdalum 

jardinum, amigdalum (jarda- 

num amigdalum, s.) 
IASPE, stone. laspis. 
lAVEL. 4 Joppus, gerro, UG. in 

gero, joppa. 

1 " Oggarrio, i. contra garrire." CATH. v. Garrio. Compare CLENCHYN 33611, or 
chaueryn a3en for prowde herte. 

2 Compare G A WDE, or iape, above. " Nugror, i. nugas facer e, trufare, vel nugas 
frequenter dicere, to tryfle, or iape, or lye. Nugax, i. vanus,fatuus, 8cc. aiaper or fole. 

Nugacitas, iaperye." ORTUS. " To,nugari ; ia.paind.e,nugans,nuffaculus. lapanly, 
nugaciter." CATH. ANG. " I iape, I tryfle, ie truffe, ie truffle, ie me bourde. I dyd 
but iape with hym, and he toke it in good ernest. Iape, a trifyll, truffe" PALSG. " II 
riest pas gas, it is no iape." Harl. MS. 219- It is said of St. Nicholas in the Golden 
Legend, that " in his yonge age he eschewed y e playes and iapes of other yonge chyl- 
dren." Fabyan relates that William Rufus was warned of his approaching end, 
"but he set all at nought, and made of it a scoffe, or a iape." Herman says, " he 
bete me cursedly with a rod, as it had ben in iape, velut per ludum. Leue thy iapys, 
mitte nugas. At the begynnynge I hadde wente thou haddeste iapyde, putavi te joco 
fecisse." Junius has detailed the use of this word, especially by Chaucer, and seeks a 
derivation by comparison with Isl. geip, jactatio. Skinner derives it from Fr. gaber. 
It appears, moreover, from Speght's Glossary, appended to Chaucer, that, having become 
of ambiguous import, the word was scarcely admitted in polite parlance ; and this is 
confirmed by Palsgrave, who gives the verb " I iape a wenche, iefout, and ie bistocque. 
It is better to iape a wenche than to do worse." 

3 Gerarde speaks of " a large sweet almond, vulgarly termed a Jordan almond." 

4 Javel or jevel is a term of contempt, which signifies, according to Bp. Kennett, " a 
rascal or base fellow. 

" Lat be, quoth Jock, and call'd him jevel, 

And by the tail him tugged." Christ Kirk, st. 7. 

Forte a Sax. ge-full, immundus, prof anus, reus, putidus , or ge-fyll. The Lieut, of 
the Tower, advising Sir Thos. More to put on worse cloaths at his execution, gave this 
reason, because he that is to have them is but a Javel : to which Sir Thomas replied, 
Shall I count him a Javel, who is to doe me so great a benefit ? " Lansd. MS. 1033. 
In Roper's Life of More the term employed is " raskall." Skelton uses the word javell 
frequently : it is one of the opprobrious epithets that are put into the mouth of Wolsey, 
in " Why come ye not to Court?" and occurs in a passage cited by Hearne, and at- 
tributed to Skelton, Glossary to Langt. Chron. v. Wroken. 
" These be as knappishe knackes. 

As ever man made, 

For javells and for jackes, 

A jym jam for a jade." Nares 




IAWNDYCE, sekenesse. Hicteria 

(hictericia, K. p. ettericia, s.) 
ICE. Glades. 
ICHE, or ylke. Quilibet. 
ICHYN', or ykyn', or 3ykyn' 

(yekyn, K. 3ichyn, s. ekyn, 

H. p.) Prurio. 
IDYL. Ociosus. 
IDELNESSE. Ociositas, ocium. 
IDYL SPEKARE. Vanidicus, 

vaniloquus, CATH. (garrilo- 

quus, K.) 

IDYOTE, nether fowle ne ryghte 
wyce (idyote, halfe innocent, 
H. P. idyothe, nodyr foole, 
nober wyse, s.) Idiota. 

IDDYR, or vddyr of a beeste 
(iddyr, pappe, K. P.) Uber. 

IESSYS, to bynde hawkys wythe 
(ieshys, to bryng wyth hawkys, 
s.) 1 Jactacula, plur. KYLW. et 
COMM. (jactula, p.jacula, w.) 

lETTYN*. 2 Verno, c. F. et alia 
supra in G. GETTYN'. 

Nares quotes Spenser, and other writers, by whom the word is used, and thinks it may 
be derived from Fr. javelle, a brush-wood faggot ; a name that might be applied to 
such fellows as Shakespeare calls " rash bavin wits." Holland, in his version of Pliny, 
speaks of the " javels," stalks, or stems of line or flax. B. xix. c. 1. See further ob- 
servations in Jamieson. Compare IOPPE, or folte, Joppus, and IAPER, Gerro. 

1 Jesses or gesses, used in falconry, are thus denned by Nicot: " Gects (gets, or 
giez) sont deux petites courroies courtes de peau de chien, une en chaque jambe du 
faulcon pres la serre ; au dessus desquels sont les sonnettes tenons ct une autre petite 

courroye apart." Latham says that " Jesses are those short straps of leather which 
are fastened to the hawks legges, and so to the Lease by Varvels, Anlets, or such like." 
The origin of the term is evident, as signified by the Emperor Fred. II. in his treatise 
de arte Venandi, ii. c. 38 ; namely, " ob hoc jacti dicuntur, quod cum eis jaciuntur 
falcones, et emittuntur ad prcedam^ They are also called Getti. See Ducange and 
Menage. In " Dame Julyans Bernes Processe of hawkyng " it is stated that " Hawkys 
have abowte theyr leggys gesses made of leddyr moost comynly, some of sylke, whyche 
scholde be noo lenger but that the knottys of theym sholde appere in myddys of the 
left honde, bytwene the longe fyngre, and the leche fyngre ; by cause the Lewnes sholde 
be fastenyd to theym wyth a payre of Tyrettys," &c. St. Alban's Book, sign. b. iij. 

2 This word does not appear to be retained in the East Anglian dialect. Tusser uses 
it both in the sense of strutting about ostentatiously, and of actively busying oneself, or 
bustling to and fro. In the interesting account of his own life, he says that his desire 
was ease and contentment, and to live uprightly, 

" More than to ride with pomp and pride, 

Or for to jet in others debt." Stanza 38. 

In his Epistle to the Lady Paget, prefixed to his Book of Huswifery, among the quali- 
ties of a good housewife, he says that she "should jetty from morning to night." 
Palsgrave gives the following illustrations of the use of this word : "I iette, I make a 
countenaunce with my legges, ie me iamboye. I wotte nat what his herte is, but he 
ietteth horriblye in his pace. I iette w l facyon and countenaunce to setforthe myselfe, 
ie braggue. I get, I use a proude couutenaunce and pace in my goyng. Se I praye the 
howe this countrefayte gentilman getteth, comment ce gentyllastre bragyue en se pro- 
menant. I go a iettynge or a ryottynge, ie raude. Dothe thy father fynde the in the 
tmiversyte to go a iettynge a nyghtes ? te bailie ton pere exhibition a Vuniuersite pour 
aller rauder?" Cotgrave gives " Batre les rues, to iet, reuell, or swagger vp and down 
the streets in the night. lamboyer, to iet, or wantonly to go in and out with the legs. 
Fringuer, to iet or brave it, to be fine, spruce, trimme, to wantonise it," &c. Anchoran, 



IKYL (iekyll, w.) 1 Stiria, UG. in 

stuprum, CATH. et c. F. 
Tec HE, or 3iche (ikche, or 3ykche, 

s.) Pruritus. 
(!KYN, supra in YCHYN, H. 

echyn, p.) 
ILDE, be-twene too freshe waters 

(iyld, s.) 2 Amnis. 
ILDE, londe in the see (iylde, K. ile, 

w.) Insula. 

(!LKE, or eche, supra in ICHE, p.) 
IMAGE. Imago, statua. 
IMAGE on a grave, in mynde made 

of be dede (in meend of ]>e ded 

man, s.) Colossus, c. F. et CATH. 
IMAGYN'. Imaginor. 
IMNE (impne, H.imme, P.) Impnus. 
IMNERE. Imnarium. 
IMP A RE, or graffere (gryffar, K. p.) 

Insertor, surculator. 
IMPE, or grafFe (gryf, K.) Sur- 

culus, novella, CATH. novellus, 


IMPYD (or grafFed, p.) Insertus. 
IMPYN', or graffyfi' (gryffyn, K.) 3 

in the Gate of Tongues, p. 178, says that " one made to avoide his countrey wandereth 
abroad, and gaddeth and ietteth up and downe, vagatur." Ed. 1633. " To jet up and 
down, vapor, spatior, tolutatim incedere. To jet like a lord, incedo. To jet to and 
fro, volito. A jetter, gradarius." GOULDM. Compare GETTYN and GETTARE. 

1 The Gloss on Gaut. de Bibelesworth renders " esclarcyl, en ychele." Arund. 
MS. 220, f. 300, b. In Gawayn and the Grene Kny}t, 732, occurs the word "iisse- 
ikkles :" and by Chaucer it is written " iseickle." " Stiria est gutta fluens, vel 
cadens congelata, a nykle." MED. MS. CANT. " Stiria est gutta frigore concreta 
pendens guttatimque stillans, a yokle." ORTUS. " Stirium, hysehykylle." Vocab. 
Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. "An i^okelle, stiriumS* CATH. ANG. Grose gives iccles as 
a word used in the North ; and it is given in the Craven Dialect, as likewise ice- 
shackles ; see also Brockett, v. Ice-shoggle, and Jamieson, v. Isechokill. Ang.-Sax. 
ises-sicel, glacialis stiria. Compare THOWE of snowe, or yclys, or yce, hereafter. 

3 An island in the Severn, about 4 miles N. of Worcester, called by Flor. Wigorn. 
" Beverege," and at the present time Bevere, served as a retreat to the people of that 
city when it was burned by Hardicanute, A.D. 1041, on their resisting the payment of 
tribute. See the Sax. Chron. Langtoft gives a relation of these circumstances. 
" But \>o )?at fled wij> her godes to }>e ilde of Seuerne, 
And J>at wer in J?e ilde duelled J?er for drede, 

Untill J?e Kyng turned, and his wrath ouer 3ede." R. Brunne, p. 56. 
In another passage, p. 151, he relates that Richard Coeur de Lion took possession of 
two islands in the Mediterranean, one " that ilde hight Labamare," which is described 
as situated in the straights of Messina; and another "ilde" called " Griff bnie," 
meaning, perhaps, Sicily. In Kyng Alisaunder the word " ydle," as printed by Weber, 
seems to be the same word, varying by local pronunciation. 

" Euerych ydle, euerych contrey, 
He hath y-soughth, par ma fey ; 
An ydle he passeth y-hote Perfiens." 5908. 

3 The verb to imp, Ang.-Sax. impan, inserere, and the substantive imp, a graft, 
scion, or young shoot, occur in the Vis. of P. Ploughm. 2746 ; and are used by Chaucer. 

Of what kynd of ympe in gardein or in frith 

Ymped is, in stocke fro whence it came, 

It sauourith euer, and is nothyng to blame." 

Hardyng's Chron. c. 98. 


IMPYNGE (or graffinge, p.) In- 


IN, of herboroghe (or herborwe, 

K. inne, p.) Hospicium, diver- 
sorium, c. F. 
IN AM EL YD. 1 Inamelatus. 

See also Seuyn Sages, 574. " Insicio, impynge." MED. "An impe, uli a grafte." 
CATH. ANG. "Ympe, or grafFe, insita, inscita.'' Vocab. Harl. MS. 1587. "Impe, 
a yonge springe. Impe or grasse, pasturage." PALSG. " Empeau, an impe to grafFe." 
COTG. Among the disbursements of Thos. Lucas, Sol. Gen. to Hen. VII. when Little 
Saxham Hall was erected, 1507, is a payment " for setting stokkes for graffes, impesof 
cherys, damsayns, and filberdes." Rokewode's Hund. of Thingoe, 145. See Nares. 

1 The application of enamel to every description of ornamental work in metal was 
much used in England from the Anglo-Saxon times, until the XVIth cent. The 
number of existing specimens is, indeed, small ; owing, probably, to the precious 
metals having been most frequently employed for enamelled works, which have been 
melted down to form ornaments suited to the successive changes of fashion ; but an- 
cient wills and inventories, especially the lists of crown jewels printed in the Kalendars 
of the Exchequer Treasury, afford abundant evidence of the profusion of enamelled 
plate and jewellery in England. There may be but insufficient evidence to show that 
the earliest works of this kind, such as fibulae, and minor personal ornaments, were 
executed by British artificers ; but the character of ornament which is presented by 
them, the mention that is made in early records of the skill of our countrymen, and 
the distinctive term of Opus Anglicanum, to designate their ornamental works in metal, 
give to such a supposition a high degree of probability. A specimen of interest pre- 
served in the Brit. Mus. appears by the legend to have been the ring of Ethelwulf, King 
of Wessex, from 836 to 858, father of Alfred. See Archseol. vii. pi. xxx. It is of gold, 
and appears to be properly an enamelled work, the field, according to the ordinary pro- 
cess of the earlier period, being chiselled out to receive a vitrified metallic compound 
of a dark blue colour, which was fixed by fusion in the cavities formed by the tool, and 
set off the design produced by those parts of the metal that had been left in relief. 
Another mode of workmanship, in some degree analogous, appears in the jewel at the 
Ashmolean Museum, attributed to Alfred ; a specimen recently discovered in London, 
Archseol. xxix. pi. x. and a few other instances. In these a semi -transparent substance, 
which appears to be rather a vitreous paste than a true enamel, fills the spaces in the 
field of the design, the outline being formed, not by chiselling the solid metal, but by 
means of thin fillets of gold, attached to the surface of the plate, and serving to detach 
the variously coloured portions of the design. At a later period the pre-eminent skill 
of the enamellers of Limoges caused their work to be highly esteemed in other coun- 
tries. It appears that the tomb of Walter de Merton, Bp. Rochester, 1274, was made 
by Magister Johannes de Limogia, who came to England for the purpose. See the 
Executor's Accounts, Thorpe's Gust. Roff. 193. At the Reformation this memorial was 
destroyed ; but the enamelled effigy in Westminster Abbey, representing Will, de Va- 
lence, who died 1296, if not the work of John of Limoges, affords an interesting spe- 
cimen of the art practised at that place. The prevailing use of ornaments of this nature 
appears also from the Constit. of Will, de Bleys, 1229, and Walt, de Cantilupe, 1240, 
Bishops of Worcester, prescribing, among the sacred ornaments to be provided by the 
parishioners, " ij. pyxides, una argentea, vel eburnea, vel de opere Lemovitico, in qua 
hostia reserventur." Wilk. Cone. i. (523, 666. Several of these exist ; but the most 
curious enamelled ornaments of this period, as connected with England, are the small 
shrines called cofri Lemovicenses, on which is represented the martyrdom of St. Thomas 
of Canterbury. One of these is in the possession of the Ant. Soc. and another at Here- 
ford Cathedral. Enamel was likewise made available for the decoration of sepulchral 



INAMELYNGE. Inamelatura. 
INBROWDYD (inbrowdred, j. w.) 

INBROWDYD clothe (inbrowdred, 

p.) 1 Frigid, CATH. et c. F. 
INCHE. Digitus, pollicium, KYLW. 

(pollex. P.) 
INGRES. Incrementum, excre- 

mentum, CATH. excresc(ens)ia 

(augmentum, P.) 
INCRESYN', or moryrT. Augeo, 

adaugeo, augmento. 
INC RES E, or grow or wax more. 

Accresco, CATH. excresco. 
INDAWNGERYD. Indomigeratus . 
INDENTYD. Indentatus. 
INDENTYNGE. Indentacio. 
INDENTURE. Indenture ciro- 

graphus, UG. in grama. 
INDYFFERENT, neytherfulle of j>e 

to party e, nej>er of tothere (ne)>er 

of }>e to party, ne of J>e to]?er, K.) 

INDYTE letterys, as clerkely speke 

(or clerkly spech, s.) Dicta. 
INDYTYD, as clerkly speche (in- 

dy ted or endited of clerkly speche, 

p.) Dictatus. 
INDYTYD be lawe, for trespace. 


(INDITYN fortrespas, K. indyte, p. 

INDYTYNGE of clerkly speche 

(as clerkly speche, p.) Dictamen. 
INDYTYNGE, or indytement for 

trespas. Indictacio. 
INDWYN, and yeve warysone. Doto. 
INDWYNGE. Dotacio. 
(INGYNE, supra in ENGYNE.) 
INHERYTE, or receyve in herytage 

(inerytyn, or receyuyn to eri- 

tage, K.) Heredito. 
INFECTYN, or brynge to sekenesse, 

as menne take wythe pestylence, 

or as leprys done hele menne be 

brethe, or other towchynge (as 

lepers doj> hole men, s^) Inficio. 
INFORMYN, or techyn'. Informo, 

instruo ; et alia sunt infra, in 


(INGROTON wythe mete or drynke, 

supra in GROTON.) 
INIOYNON, or put to, and chargyn' 

to be done (puttyn to a charge 

to be downe, s. inioynen, p.) 

Injungo, impono. 
INYOYNYD (inionyyd, K. inioyned, 

p.) Injunctus. 
INKE. JEncaustum, c. F. vel in- 

caustum, CATH. attramentum. 

brasses, to a much greater extent, probably, than might be supposed from the few ex- 
amples that have been preserved. In the XVth cent, the older process of chiselling 
out the design was abandoned, and a mode of enamelling, wholly superficial, came into 
general use ; it appears to have been first adopted in Italy, but was practised for more 
than a century, in the greatest perfection, at Limoges. Chaucer speaks of " fine ena- 
maile " and gold " amiled." Rom. of Rose. Spenser uses the word " aumaild," and 
in some documents the word is written "anelyd." Compare ANELYN, or enelyn me- 
talle, above. Horman says that " goldsmithes use annuelynge, and gravynge, utuntur 
tor entice :" and Palsgrave gives the verb " I ammell, as a goldesmyth dothe his worke. 
Your broche is very well amelled, vostre deuise estfort bien esmaillee. I enamell, ifi." 
See Wharton's Eng. Poetry ; Ducange, v. Esmaillator, Limogia, Smaltum, 8fc. 

1 IMBROWDYD, MS. " Frigia dicitur quedam vestis que alio nomine dicitur acu- 
picta." CATH. 



INKEHORNE. Attramentarium, 

c. F. incaustorium. 
INMEUABLE. Immobilis. 
(INNIOLF, threde to sow wythe 

schone or botys, infra in LY- 

NYOLF. Indula, licinium.) 
INNOCENT. Innocens. 
(INOYNTED. Inunctus, P.) 
INPOYSYON, or poysnyn (poysyn, 

K. s. inpoysen or poysen, p.) In- 

INPRENTYD (imprentid, or im- 

pressyd, K.) Impressus. 
INPRENTYN (imprentyn, K. s.) In- 

INPRENTYNGE. Inpressio. 

Morosus, bene morigeratus.) 
INSESUN, or seson, or worldely 

goodys (insesyn in werdligody s, K. 

or sesun some, &c. p.) Insesino. 
INSYGHT (insythe, K.) Inspexio, 



INSPYRACYONE. Inspiracio. 
INSTORON' (wythe nedefulle 

thyngys, or astoryn, supra.) 


INSTRUMENT, or toole. Instru- 

INSURYN', or make suere (svyrte, 

K.) 1 Assecuro. 
INTENCYONE, or mevynge (sic, s. 

intent or menynge, K. p.) In- 


INTERDYTE. Interdictus. 
INTERDITE, or interdytement (in- 

terdyten, s.) Interdictum. 
INTERDYTYN'. Interdico. 
INTERLARDE, of fet flesche (inter- 

layed of fat flesshe, P.) Abdomen, 


INTERLOGE of a pley. 2 Prelu- 

dium, interludium, CATH. 
INTERPRETOWRE, or expownere. 

INTYCYN, or steryn to doon a dede 

(or tycyn, &c. s.) Incito, instigo. 
INTRAYLE, or yssu of a dede 

beeste (intrelise, K. intralyze, H. 

intralyce, P.) Intesti(n)um ; et 

alia infra in issu. 
INTRYKYD, or insnarlyd. Intri- 

catus, illaqueatus. 
INTRYKYN', or snarlyn'. 3 Intrico, 


1 Chaucer uses the word to ensure in the sense of affirming byword of mouth ; it had 
also that of betrothing, or promising in marriage. " I ensure, I trouthe plyght, as man 
and a woman togyther, ie fiance. I herde saye they were maryed, oreuer I knewethey 
were ensured togyther. I insuer by maryage, id. Howe, saye you be they maryed so 
sone, I wyste nat that they were insured yet. I insuer, iepromayts, ie assure. 1 ' PALSG. 
In Henry Vlllth's Primer, 1545, in the lesson at matins, the following verse occurs: 
" The aungell Gabriel was sent from God into a cytie of Galile named Nazareth, to a 
virgyn which was ensured to a man whose name was Joseph." Luke i. 27. 

2 On the subject of interludes much information has been brought together by Mr. 
Payne Collier, in his Hist, of Dramatic Poetry. In the XVth cent, they were much 
in fashion, and a special clause of exception is made in the Stat. of Apparel, 3 Edw. 
IV. 1463, in favor of * l ministrelles, et jouers en lour entreludes.'' It was only in 
1542 that it was enjoined that no plays or interludes should be acted in the churches. 
" Interlude, moralitL" PALSG. 

3 Chaucer speaks of one " that love most entriketh," (Assemblie of Foules) and the 
word is likewise used by Gower, Conf. Am. IV. It is evidently taken from the French 



Illaqueacio, in- 
Vanus, in- 


INVEYNE, or vayne. 

INVEYNLY, or wythe owte pro- 

fytte (inveyn, or wit owtyn 

profy3t, K. profyth, s.) Vane, 

invanum, inutiliter. 
INVYE, or envye. Invidia, invi- 

dencia, c. F. 

INVYOUSE. Invidus, c. F. 
INVYSYBLE. Invisibilis. 
(IOBBYN wythe the bylle, supra 

in BYLLYN'.) 1 

IOGLYN' (iogelyn, K. p.) Pres- 
tigior, CATH. UG. et c. F. 

IOGULOWRE (iogulour, K. ioge- 
lowre, p.) 2 Mimus, CATH. et 
UG. prestigiator, CATH. et UG. 
in magi, et c. F. histrw, CATH. 

IOGULYRYE, or iogulment (iogul- 

" Intriguer, to intricate, insnare, involve, intangle." COTG. " I entryke, I hynder or lette. 
He that is entryked (empeschf) with worldly busynesse is nat mete to be a studyent." 
PALSG. See Ducange, v. Intricare. Ital._"mtricare, to intricate, to intangle, to 
inwrap, to garboile." FLORIO. See SNARYN, or snarlyn. 

1 To job signifies in the East Anglian dialect to peck with the beak, or with a mat- 
tock ; and is used in the former sense by Lestrange and Tusser, who directs boughs to 
be stuck among runcival pease, upon which they may climb (February's husbandry.) 
" So doing, more tender and greater they wex, 

If peacock and turkey leave jobbing their bex." 

Holland, in his version of Pliny, B. x. c. 18, says that birds that "job and pecke holes 
in trees,'' are of the race of spights, martins, or wood-peckers ; and speaks of " wood- 
pecks, or jobbers," c. 29. " Becquer, to pecke or bob with the beake. Becquade, a 
pecke, job, or bob with a beake. Hocher, to shake, jog, job, nod." COTG. " Sitta, a 
bird called a nutjobber." GOULDM. Willughby, in his Ornithology, describes the nut- 
hatch, or nut-jobber, Picus cinereus. Ash gives to job, in the sense of striking suddenly 
with a sharp instrument, as the word is used in Shropshire. See Hartshorne's Salopia. 

? In Domesday mention occurs of thejoculator and the joculatrix regis, T. i. f. 38, 
b. and 162: Ang.-Sax. geoselere, prestigiator. The juggler and the minstrel are, as 
Wharton observes, frequently confounded together. Music formed a part of the en- 
tertainments provided by both, and it was not, perhaps, until the XlVth cent, that the 
two denominations were properly distinguished. The juggler was called also TREGET- 
TOWRE, a term which occurs in the Promptorium. His performances were very varied, 
comprising sleight of hand, tricks of all kinds, tumbling, and buffoonery. Strutt has 
collected much information on this subject in his Sports, B. iii. c. iv. Chaucer, in the 
third Book of Fame, seems to distinguish the jugglers from the minstrels and musicians, 
and speaks of them as playing with magicians, " tragetours, and Phetonisses, charme- 
resses," &c. ; but in the Rom. of the Rose he mentions minstrels and jugglers, as if 
their performances were similar. He repeatedly alludes to the wonderful tricks which 
were exhibited by them. " Balatro, a yogelowre. Pantomimus, a iogeloure. Paras- 
citaster, id." MED. " To iugille,.;oc/flH. A iuguler, gesticulator, Hfc. ubi a harlott. 
A iugulynge, gesticulacio,jocamen." CATH. ANG. Horman says, " The iugler carieth 
clenly under his gublettis, prestigiator scite visum ludificat cum acceptabulis. A 
iugler with his troget castis (vaframentis) deceueth mens syght." " logelour, batel- 
levr. logelyng caste, passe, passe. I iogyll, ie ioue de pas pas. Mathewe iogyled y e 
cleanest of any man in our dayes. I iuggyll, &c. ie iougle." PALSG. In the Northum- 
berland Household Book, 1511, a reward of 6*. Sd. is appointed " to the Kyngs iugler, 
if he haue wone." See Essay on ancient Minstrels, Percy's Reliques, i. xcii. 



rye, K.) Prestigium, CATH. et 

UG. in magi, pancratium, UG. 

et CATH. mimilogium, UG. in 


IOYE. Gaudium, gloria. 
IOYE, and gladnesse yn chere. 

Leticia, jocunditas, exultacio. 
IOYE yn herte. Jubilus-> jubilacio. 
IOY, or pley bat begynnythe 

wythe sorow, and endythe wythe 

gladnes (ioye or myrthe bat be- 

gynnyt wit sorw, &c. K.) 1 70- 

media, CATH. 
IOY, or pley bat begynnythe wythe 

gladnesse, and endythe wythe 

sorow (and grevowsnesse, s. 

ioye or myrthe bat be-gynnyt 

wit gladnes, &c. K.) Tragedia, 

IOYN, or make ioy (ioyin, K. s. 

ioyen, p.) Gaudeo, jocundor, 

letor, exulto. 
IOYNYN, or ionyon. Jungo, com- 

pagino, pango, conjungo. 

IOYNTE. Junctura. 

IOYNTE, or knytty(n)ge to-gedur, 
what so they be (knyttynge to- 
gedur of what thyng so it be, 
K. cutting togeder, p. putty nge, 
w.) Compago, compages. 

IOYNTE, or hole of the knokylle 
bone (cleped the whirlebone, 
K. P.) Ancha, c. F. et hie di- 
citur whyrlebone. 

IOL, or heed (iolle, K. s. p.) 2 

IOLY. Vernus, lascivus, c. F. re- 
dimitus, gaudiosus. 

IOLYTE. Vernancia, c. F. las- 
civia, c. F. gaudiositas. 

ION, propyr name (lone, s. lohn, 
p.) 3 Johannes. 

(IONE, proper name, H. P. Jo- 

IONYOWRE (ioynour, p.) Com- 
paginator, pactor, archarius, 
arcularius, BRIT, et UG. in 

1 See PLEY, hereafter. 

2 " Brancus, a gole or a chawle." Vocabulary, Harl. MS. 1002. Skinner gives 
" Jowl, caput, parum deflexo sensu ab A.S. ceole, fauces, hoc a Lat. gula ; hinc a jowl 
of ling nobis appellatur non tantum caput sed etiam oesophagus." The term is applied 
likewise to the heads of other kinds of fish, as the sturgeon. " Iolle of a fysshe, teste" 
PALSG. " A jole of fish, fauces piscium. Joll, as of salmon, &c. caput. 11 GOULDM. 
Compare CHAVYLBONE, or chawlbone. An extraordinary prescription, the chief in- 
gredient being a fat cat, is given in Sloane MS. 1571, f. 48, b. " for bolnynge vndur >e 
chole." In the Master of Game mention occurs of the " iawle bone " of a wild boar. 
Vesp. B. xn. f. 34, b. " Bucca, mala inferior, 8fc. the cheeke, iawe, or iowll." 
Junius, by Higins. 

3 This proper name was anciently used as a term of contempt, especially as applied 
by the Reformers to the lower classes of the Romish priesthood. See Todd's note on 
Spenser, Sheph. Cal. May, 309 ; Dr. Wordsworth's Remarks on the Life of Lord 
Cobham, Eccl. Biog. i. 265. John Bradford, writing to his mother, in 1553, on the 
revival of Popery, says, " now let the whoremonger ioy, with the dronckard, swearer, 
couetous, malicious, and blynd bussard Syr lohn, for y e masse wil not bite them, nei- 
ther make them to blushe as preaching woulde." Martyrs' Letters, p. 292, orig. ed. 
In Reliqu. Ant. i. 1, an instance occurs where the priest is termed Sir John, early in 
XVth cent. ? " Ian, as lean, John, also a cuckold. " Ian de blanc, the consecrated 
bread, tearmed so by the Calvinists. Ian gipon, a gull, sot, ninny, fop, cokes.'' COTG. 



IOPPE, or folte. 1 JoppuS) c. F. 


IOPPERYE, or foltery. Jopperia. 
IOROWRE (or iurowre, infra.) Su- 


IoROWRYE(iorory, P.) Susurrium. 
IOWEL, or iuelle. Jocale, clino- 

diurn, KYLW. (monile, P.) 
IOVELERE, or iuelere (ioweller, 

K. P.) Jocalarius. 
(IOWYN' wythe the bylle,as byrdys, 

supra in BYLLYN', et in IOB- 

BYN. Rostra.) 

IOWNCYNGE, or grete vngentylle 

mevynge (iownsynge, or gentil- 

mevynge, K. ioyuncynge, s. iont- 

inge, p.J 2 Strepitus. 
IOWPE, garment. 3 Jupa, NECC. 
IOWE, or chekebone (iovwe, s.) 

lows of frutys, or herbys, or other 

lyke (iowse or iwse, K.) Jus, 

IOWTYS, potage. 4 Bra.mca, KYLW. 

vel brissica, KYLW. cum c. r. 

juta, COMM. (brastica, P.) 

1 Compare IAVEL. In N. Britain a bigheaded, dull, lazy-looking fellow is called a 
Jupsie. See Jamieson. Coles gives " Jobelin, a sot, or fool." 

2 To jounce signifies in Norfolk " to bounce, thump, and jolt, as rough riders are 
wont to do." FORBY. Shakespeare uses " jauncing " in a similar sense. Rich. II. 
V. 5. " lancer vn cheval, to stirre a horse in the stable till he swart with all ; or as 
our to jaunt ; (an old word.)" COTG. 

3 Neccham, in his Treatise de nominibus utensilium, written early in the Xlllth 
cent, describing the ordinary dress of the master of the family, when at home, says, 
" perhendinaturus (li asuiurner) jupam habeat penulatam (fure) et tunicam (cote) 
manubiis (manches) et birris (geruns) munitam et manubiatam,' 1 &c. Titus, D. xx. 
f. 7, b. When mounted for the journey he was to wear the capa, with sleeves and 
hood. Thejupa appears to have been a long garment worn by all classes, secular and 
religious, and both sexes. See Ducange. It was loosely made, for Chaucer uses the 
comparison " riueling as a gipe ; " but the diminutive term jupon seems to imply that 
the military garment so called, which fitted the person closely, was a kind of jupa. 
Chaucer mentions the gipon as part of the attire of the knight, Cant. T. Prol. v. 75, 
and Knight's T. v. 2122. A full account of the jupon, or guippon, will be found in Sir 
S. Meyrick's Treatise on Military Garments worn in England, Archseol. xix. 236. la 
Ly beaus Disconus the garment is termed a " gypell." In N. Britain a kind of short 
cloak for women, as also a wide coat, is termed a jupe. 

* Sir John Maundevile says of the monks of Mount Sinai, that they drink no wine, 
" but }if it be on principalle festes, and thei lyven porely and sympely, with joutes and 
with dates." Voiage, p. 71. In the Vision of P. Ploughman, Wrath describes himself 
as having been cook in a monastery. 

" I was the Prioresse potager, 

And maad hem joutes of janglyng." 2787. 

Gower speaks of Diogenes gathering " ioutes" in his garden ; in the context they are 
called " wortes." Conf. Am. B.vii. Numerous recipes for preparing joutes occur in books 
of ancient cookery : in a curious collection in the possession of Sir T. Phillipps is the 
following : " Nou greybe we loute Dore", of moni muchel y-wylned. Ye clene bete, 
and sclarie hokke i-boilled and wel i-bakked in an crouhhe clene y-washen. Hakke 
ioutes gentil and veire ; do to jeoj^en ouer \>e fure grece of pork, hakke saffron, and 
peopur," &c. XlVth cent. .MS. Heber, 8336. The metrical recipe in the Liber cure 
cocorum, Sloane MS. 1986, p. 97, gives a longer list of pot-herbs for compounding 




IPOCRYSYE. Ipocrisis. 
IPOCRITE. Ipocrita. 

IRYNE. Ferrum. 

IRKESOUM (irksum, K. p.) Fas- 


IRKYN'. Fastidio, accidior. 
ISYL of fyre. 1 Family UG. in 

scindo (CATH. p.) 
ISYLKAKE, or chesekake, or ey- 

kake bakyne vndyr askys. 2 Fla- 

micia, COMM. 
ISOPE, herbe. Isopus. 
Issu, entre. Ingressus. 
Issu (or, K. p.) owt-gate. Exitus, 

Issu (of) a slayne beeste (flayn, s.) 3 

Intrale, vel in plur. intralia, 

enteria, extum, UG. in suo. 
IVE (ly, s.) Judeus. 
IUCE, idem quod IOWCE, supra. 
(IUELLE, supra in IOWEL.) 
I VEL SPEKARE. Maledicus, c. F. 

IEWESSE. Judea. 
IUGE, or domysman. Judex. 
IUGEMENT, or demynge. Ju- 

IVY. Edera. 

IVYL, or wykkyd. Mains, iniquus. 
IVYL, or wykkydnesse. Malum, 

EVYL, or sekenesse. Egritudo, in- 

IUNYPYR, tre. Juniperus. 

joutes, " cole, borage, persyl, plum tre leues, redde nettel crop, malues greue, rede brere 
croppes, auans, violet and prymrol." These were to be ground in a mortar, and boiled 
in broth. Compare the directions for " Eowtus of flesshe," and " Jowtus of Almaund 
mylke," Forme of Cury, pp. 13, 45. Joutes are given under the head of " Potage 
dyuers," Harl. MS. 279. See also Julius, D. vm. f. 91, 94. Sloane MS. 1571, f. 36, b. 
" lowtes, hee lappates." CATH. ANG. See Ducange, v, Jutta. Armoric, Joud, puls. 

1 G. de Bibelesworth, in the chapter on domestic matters, lighting the fire, &c. says, 

" Va quere breses en vne teske (a pot schoord.) 
Gardez vos draas de falemecches (from hiseles.)" 

Arund. MS. 220, f. 302, b. 

The MS. in Public Library at Cambridge, according to Reliqu. Ant. ii. 84, gives the 
reading "flaumecches, huyssels." " Est scintilla proprie accensa, favilla vero ex- 
tincta, a ysel." MED. " Favilla, i. scintilla, ysyle or sperkell. Versus: Ardet scin- 
tilla, non ardens esto favilla.'' ORTUS. " A ise\\e, favilla, or a sperke." CATH. ANG. 
Ang.-Sax. ysle, favilla. Bp. Kennett has the following note amongst his Gloss. Coll. 
Lansd. MS. 1033 : " Isles, embers, hot ashes, Lane. Easles, in Essex. Icelandic, Eysa, 
cinis ignitus." This word is still used in N. Britain : see Jamieson, v. Aizle, Eizle, or 

2 Eykake is a cake compounded with eggs. Compare EY, ovum. Flamicia signifies 
a FJLAWNE. See the note on that word. 

3 In stat. 12 Ric. II. c. 13, 1338, it is ordered that the "fymes, et autres ordures 
des issues et entrailles sibien des lestes tuez, come des autres corruptions," cast into 
the ditches adjoining to towns, shall be removed, under a penalty of .20. In the 
English version the word here is rendered " garbage." Stat. of Realm, ii. 59. In the 
Office of the Cellei-esse of Barking, the " yssues of the larder " are explained to be the 
hides, inwards, and tallow of oxen, &c. which were sold, and of which she was charged 
to render an account. Cott. MS. Nero, D. vm. Mon. Aug. i. 81. " Les issues d'vne 
leste, the head and intrals of a beast." COTG. 


IVOR, or ivery (iwr, or iwery, H. 

yvory, s. iuyr, p.) JEbur. 
IURDONE, pyssepotte. 1 Jurdanus, 

madella, c. F. madula, c. F. urna. 

IVRYE, where Ivys dwelle (Iwry, 
s.) 2 Judea, Judaismus. 

IURYSDICTION (or an auctorite, p.) 

1 " Madula, lordeyne or pisse-potte. " MED. "A lordane, maclula, madellum, 
minsariumS* CATH. ANG. Walsingham relates the appropriate punishment imposed 
upon a quack physician, who was compelled to ride through London with his face to 
the horse's tail, his neck garnished with " duce ollae, quas lordanes vulgo vocamus.'* 
A.D. 1382, ed. Camd. 288. Holinshed, who calls him "a coleprophet," turms them 
" two iorden pots." Chron. iii. p. 440. Chaucer speaks of urinals and "jordanes" 
(Pardonere's Prol.), and if not identical, they seem to have been similar in form. See 
the marginal sketch in Sloane MS. 73, f. 138, b. where it is said, in the directions for 
preparing vermillion, "take a good thicke Jordan of glas," which, after being well 
covered with luting, was to be used as a sort of crucible. It is precisely of the same shape 
as the glass vessel usually held by the leech, or water-doctor, in ancient representations. 
The word is found in the Vision of P. Ploughman, and is used by Shakespeare. Skinner 
thinks it is not derived from the name of the river Jordan, but from Ang.-Sax. gor, 
sordes, and den, receptaculum ; an etymology which has been adopted by the author of 
the Craven Glossary. The derivation from Armoric, dourden, urina, has also been sug- 
gested. Blount states that the Jordan was a double urinal, but offers no explanation. 

2 The Jewish community being regarded as the property of the Sovereign, is termed 
in ancient records "Judaismus Regis, Judaismus noster, or communitas Judaeorum nos- 
trorum , " and the Jews were bound to reside only in royal cities and boroughs. See 
" Les Estatutz de la Jeuerie," t. Edw. I. Stat. of Realm, i. 221. They were marked 
by a badge, and although it does not appear that they were compelled to dwell in one 
part of a city, appropriated to them, as is the Ghetto in the cities of Italy, yet they 
seem to have congregated in a district, probably on account of the detestation in which 
they were held, and it is remarkable, that although more than five centuries have 
elapsed since they were totally expelled by Edw. I. in 1290, the memorial of their settle- 
ments in many cities in England is still preserved in the local name of Jewry. M. Paris 
speaks of the Judaismus at Worcester, which was ravaged by Rob. de Ferrars in 1264 ; 
and Rob. of Glouc. says of the great outrage at the accession of Richard, Coeur de Lion, 

" Ther was many a wilde hine, that prest was ther to, 

And wende in to theGywerie, and woundede, and to drowe," &c. p. 485. 

R. Brunne uses "Juerie" in a like signification. See Chaucer's account of the 
" Jewerie " in a Christian city in Asia ; Prior. T. 13,419. Besides the Old Jewry in the 
metropolis, there is still the Jewry at Canterbury. Leland speaks of the street at Win- 
chester, leading from the High Street to the North Gate, " caullyd the Jury, by cause 
Jues did enhabite it, and had theyr synagoge there," Itin. iii. f. 71, and says of Warwick, 
" The suburbe without the East-Gate is called the Smithes streete ; I hard ther that the 
Jues some tyme dwellyd in it." Itin. iv. f. 165, a. In ancient deeds relating to Warwick 
"theJurye" is mentioned, and the Jury street still exists. At Lynn, where the 
Promptorium was compiled, the Jews had formed a numerous settlement at an early 
period, and there is still the Jews' street. Blomf. Norf. iv. 578. In low Latin the part 
of a city reserved for the Jews was called Judcearia, Juderia, Jutaria, or Judaea, in 
French Juierie, Juirie, or Juterie ; wherein, in some countries, they were compelled 
exclusively to dwell. See further of the early settlements of the Jews in England in 
Dr. Tovey's Anglia Judaica, and Caley's Observations, Archseol. viii. 389. 



IURNALLE, lytylleboke.Z)mma/. 
luRNEY. 1 Dieta. 
IURNEY, of walkynge. Viaglum. 
IUROWRE (iurrour, K. P.) idem 

quod i GROW RE, supra? 
(IVRROWRY, H. P. or iorowrye, 

supra. Susurrium, CATH.) 
IUSSELLE, or dyschelle, dyshemete 

(iuschel, or dishel, s.) 3 Jussel- 

lum, COMM. 
I us TARE. Hastilusor. 

IUSTYN wytlie sperys. Lancino, 

CATH. hastiludo. 
IUSTYNGE. HastiluduS) hastilu- 

IUSTE, potte. 4 O(e)noferum, c. F. 

(CATH. p. justa, s.) 
IUSTYCE. Justiciarius. 
IUSTYFYYN', or make rygh(t)efulle 

(rythfulle, K.) Justifico. 
IUWERE (iver, H. iwere, s. iuwr', 

p.) Remedium. 

1 Diela, according to the Catholicon, signifies a day's journey : the term occurs in 
this sense in Bracton and Fleta, where it is said that " omnis rationabilis dieta constat 
ex xx. milliaribus." Chaucer uses the word in this sense, Knight's T. 2740 ; Chaucer's 
Dream, 1945 ; and also in that of a day's work, Rom. of Rose, 579. Journey had also 
the signification of a day's conflict, in like manner as the expression " the day " is used 
at present. Thus in the Paston Letters it is said of the Battle of St. Alban's, 1455, that 
*' alle the Lordes that dyed at the jorney arn beryed at Seynt Albanes ; " and the en- 
gagement is termed " the male journey " of St. Alban's, meaning, apparently, the dis- 
astrous battle. Vol. i. 108,110. See Jamieson, 0. Jorneye. In Norfolk, Journey implies 
the time a man is at plough, about six hours ; if he works nine, two Journeys are taken. 

2 In the Catholicon susurro is rendered murmurator, and susurrium, murmur, latens 
locutio. Both the English and Latin words are here evidently onomatopeias, and in 
like manner the sound produced by different birds is termed jurring, or jarring. In the 
Liber vocatus Femina, MS. Trin. Coll. Cant., amongst the noises of animals, it is said 
that " Colure ierist, et cok chaunt, coluere iurrut, andcok syngeb." To jurre signifies 
also to strike harshly against any thing, in which sense it is used by Holland, Pliny, 
B. ix, 30 ; Livy, p. 963. Cotgrave gives " Bocquer, to butte or jurre. Heurter, to 
knock, push, jur, joult, or hit violently against." Jamieson gives jurr as signifying the 
noise of water falling among loose stones. 

3 Jusselle was a compound of eggs and grated bread, with saffron and sage, boiled in 
broth. The name seems to have been taken from the ancient dish called Juscellum by 
Apicius. See directions for making " Jusshell '' in the Forme of Cury, pp. 28, 97 ; 
Harl. MS. 5401, p. 198. The Liber cure cocorum supplies, under the head de 
Potagiis, the following metrical recipe for " lusselle." 

" Take myud bred and eyren bou swynge 
To horn to-gedur wyth out lettyng ; 
Take fresshe brothe of gode befe, 
Coloure hyt wyth safron bat is me lefe ; 
Boyle hyt softly, and in bo boylyng 
Do ber to sage, and persely 3oyug." Sloane MS. 1986, p. 58. 

Elyot gives " Miwttal, a meate made with chopped herbes, a iussell." See Ducange 
v. Jussellum, fmd Juscellum. " Jossel, an hodge-podge. North." Grose; Craven Dial. 

4 ppotte, MS. " Obba, quidam vas liguidorum, Anglice a iuste." MED. " Ono- 
phorum, a crostell, or a wyne potte. Jnsta, olla monachi." ORTTJS. According to 
Ducange the term justa demesuralia occurs in the signification of a certain measure, by 
which wine was served to the monks. So likewise in the Consuetudinary of Evesham, 
printed by Dugdale from the document in the Augmentation Office, the "justa" is 



KABLE, schyppe rope. Curculia, 

CATH. rudens, c. F. restis, CATH. 
KACE, happe. Casus. 
KACE, of closynge. 1 Capsa. 
KACE, or casse for pynnys (or 

nedelys, H. P.) Capcella. 
KACCHYN' a-wey (kachyn, K.) 2 

Abigo, CATH. 
(KAHCHYNGE, or dryuynge, K. H. 

katchynge, P. Minatus.) 
KAGE. Catasta. 
(KAKE, K. H. p. Colirida, torta.) 
KALENDERE. Calendar ium. 
KALENDYS. Kalende, plur. 
KALLYN', or clepyfi'. Voco. 
KAMPYN'. 3 Pedipilo. 
KARDE for wulle. Cardus (c. F. 

dicit quod cardi sunt pectines 

ferrei, P.) 

KARDYN'. Carpo, CATH. 

KARYYN'. Veho. 

Quere plura vocabula in C. liter d, 
supra, sub hac sillabd CA in 
principio dictionis. 

KEY of a lok. Clavis. 

KEY, or knyttynge of ij. wallys, or 
trees yn an vnstabylle grownde 
(key of stathe, K. in one stable 
grounde, p.) 4 Loramentum, 
CATH. et c. F. vel caya, secun- 
dum communes cartas. 

KEYAGE, or botys stondynge. 
Ripatum, UG. in D. 

KEKYYN', or priuely waytyn' 
(kekyn, K. H. s. p.) 5 Intuor, 
observe, c. F. (*peculor, K.) 

KELARE, vesselle. Frigidarium. 

(KELARE, infra in KYMLYNE.) 

named as the measure by which drinks were at certain seasons to be served by the cel- 
lerer. Mon. Angl. i. 149. Roquefort states that the Juste contained about a pint, but 
the Juta, which Ducange considers as synonymous, is accounted to hold two quarts. 

1 Clothynge, MS. and s. The other MSS. and Pynson's edit, give closynge. Compare 
CASE, of closynge. 

2 KATCHYN, MS. See CACHYN' a-way. Compare Teut. Ketsen, sectari, cursare. 
In Arund. MS. 42, f. 11, b. it is said that Capillm Veneris " mundefye)> be lunges, and 
J>e breste, and cacche)? out wykede materes in hem;" aud that " margery perles r 
wastyn, and fordon, and cacchen out of be body wykede humors ; " f. 12, b. 

3 See CAMPYN'. In ancient deeds cited in the Hist, of Hengrave, p. 11, mention 
occurs of " le camping close," near Fornham St. Genevieve, where Montford, Earl of 
Leicester, was defeated in 1173 ; and the name has been supposed to have some con- 
nection with that occurrence, but more probably was given to a close appropriated to 
camping, the favourite game of the Eastern counties. Sir Thos. Brown gives to kamp 
in his list of Norfolk words. Tusser speaks of the game, in December's Husbandry, as 
beneficial to grass land. In a publication by M. Stevenson, 1673, entitled " Norfolk 
drollery," is a poem in reference to this ancient game, and it is fully described by Forby. 

-* Loramentum is explained in the Catholicon to mean boarding or frame-work com- 
pacted together, as in the construction of a ceiling. Stathe, which here is found only 
in the King's Coll. MS. occurs hereafter, as follows, STATHE, waterys syde. Stacio. 
It signifies a landing-place for merchandise, or quay, and several instances are found at 
Lynn and Hull. Ducange, v. Caya, rejects Spelman's derivation of this word ; " Kaia, 
area in littore, e compactis tabulis trabibusque, clavium instar, Jirmata, Sax. cseg," 
clavis, which, however, here appears to be the correct etymology. " Key to knytte 
walles toguyder, clef." PALSG. 

5 KEBYYN', MS. Compare WAYTYN, or a-spyyn. Observe. Chaucer uses the verb 
to kyke in the sense of gazing with a fixed look. Nicholas is thus described, when, to 
deceive the carpenter, he pretended to be distraught, or in amazement : 


KELYN', or wax colde be hyt selfe 

(kelyn be be self, K.) Frigeo, 


KELYN, or make colde. Frigefacio. 
KELLE. J Reticulum, retiaculum, 

CATH. et UG. in teneo (reciolum, 

s. P.) 
KEMYN' here. Como, CATH. 

KEME wulle, or othere lyke. Pec- 


KEMYNGE of here, or wulle. Pec- 


KEMPE eel (sic, K. H. s. p.) 2 
KEMPE of herynge, or spyrlynge. 
KEMPTE. Pectinatus, comptus. 
KEMPS TARE. Pectrix. 

" This Nicholas sat ever gaping upright, 
As he had kyked on the newe mone." Miller's Tale, 3445. 

Brockett and Jamieson give to keek or keik, to look with a prying eye, to spy narrowly. 
Su. G. kika, intentis oculis videre. Compare Teut. kijcken, Belg. kyken, spectare. 

1 " Reticula, a lytell nette orkalle. Reticinellum, akalle." ORT. " A kelle, reticulum, 
reticinellum. A kelle knytter, reticularius." CATH. ANG. The fashion of confining the 
hair in an ornamental network, which occasionally was jewelled, seems to have obtained 
in England from the time of Hen. III. until that of Elizabeth, and an endless variety 
of examples are afforded by illuminated MSS. and monumental effigies. It was termed 
calle or kelle, a term directly taken, perhaps, from the French cale, Lat. calantica or 
callus ; and it had also the appellation " creepen," crespine, still retained in Southern 
Europe to denote the picturesque head -dresses of the females, formed with net-work of 
coloured silk, and which still present many of the fashions of ancient times. The head- 
attire of the lovely lady who led in Sir Galrun to the court of King Arthur is thus 
described (Anturs of Arther, ed. Robson, p. 14.) : 

" Her fax in fyne perre was frettut and fold, 

Her counter-felit and hur kelle were colurt ful clene." St. 29. 

See Kynge of Tars, 365 ; the Grene Knight, 261 ; Cant. Tales, 6600 ; Troil. iii. 775 ; 
Townl. Myst. p. 312, c. In the minute description of the attire of Elizabeth, Queen 
of Hen. VII. as she appeared before her coronation, 1487, it is said that she wore 
" her faire yelow hair hanging down pleyne byhynd her bak, with a calle of pipes over 
it." Lei. Coll. iv. 220. Hall mentions the "kail" worn by Anne of Cleves at her 
first interview with Hen. VIII. 1547- "Call for maydens, retz de soye." PALSG. 
Amongst the occupations of the ancient ladies of the court of Elizabeth, Harrison men- 
tions " caulworke." Descr. of Eng. Holinsh. Chron. i. 196. The term caul is applied 
likewise in other significations. Amongst the pertinencia piscatorum, Harl. MS. 1002, 
f. 153, is given " Calle or pu(r)snett, reticulum." The omentum of a slaughtered beast 
is called in Norfolk the kell. " Kell in a woman's belly, taye." PALSG. The super- 
stition respecting the membrane which sometimes covers the head of a new-born infant, 
termed the caul, and in the North the silly-how, noticed by Grose and Brand, has been 
mentioned in the note on the word HOWE, p. 250. " Ang.-Sax. cylla, uter." SKINNER. 
2 The signification of KEMPE, as applied to fish, is very obscure. Kemp, from Ang.- 
Sax. cempa, miles, signifies a knight or champion, and thence implies excellence 
or superiority, as in strength, or unusual size. See the remarks of Ihre on Su. G. 
kaempe, athleta. " A kempe, ubi a giande." CATH. ANG. Kempe may therefore here 
denote an eel of the largest size, called otherwise a fausen eel, or a spitchcock. In 
the version of Junius' Nomenclator, v. Anguilla, Higins observes, " prcegrandis, a 
fausen eele, minima, a grigge, media, a scaffling diet fur." See Gesn. de Aquat. lib. iv. 
Palsgrave gives " Kempe eele," without any French word. 



KEENDE, or kynrede (kende, or 
kenrede, K. or kynde, p.) Genus, 
progenies, prosapia, stirps. 

KENDE, or kynde of thyngys bat 
Godd cowrsly hathe insett (bat 
God hathe made, K. cursly, H. bat 
God cowrsly insette, s.) Natura. 

KENDE, or kynde, or fre (of, K.) 
herte, and gentylle (fre or ientyll 
of herte, p.) Gratus. 

KEENDLY, or frely (kyndly, or 
frendly, H. p.) Gratanter, 

KENDLY, after j>e cowrs of kende 
(aftyr kynde, K. kende, or kindly, 
or after curtsy of kinde, p.) 

KENDLYNESSE of a gentyl herte 
(kendnesse, K. p.) Gratitudo. 

KENE, or scharpe. Asper, acutus. 

KENEL for howndys. Cantularium, 
cubile, canicularium, KYLW. 

KENET, hownde. 1 Reperarius, 
venaticus, caniculus, COM M. (le- 
porarius, KYLW. K. s.) 

KENNE, or teche. 2 Doceo, instruo, 

(KENNYN, or knowyn, K. H. s. P. 

KENNYNGE, or knowynge (token- 
yng, K. kennynggys, or know- 
ynggys, s.) 3 Cognicio, agnicio. 

KENNYNGE, or techynge. In- 
struct, informacio, doctrina. 

1 The kenet is mentioned in the " Maystere of the Game; c. xiij. of rennynge 
houndis. There ben also rennynge houndes, some lasse and some moor ; and J?e lasse 
byn clepid kenettis, and ]>es houndes rennen wel to al maner game, and J>ei servene for 
al game ; men clepin hem heirers, and euery hounde J?at ha]? J>at corage wii falle to be 
an heirere of nature with litel makynge," &c. Vesp. B. xn. f. 65. From this passage 
it might be supposed that harriers were originally so termed as being well adapted for 
close pursuit, and not from their being specially used in hunting the hare. Roquefort 
gives " harier ; presser, harceler, poursuivre." In " Dame Julyans Bernes doctryne, 
in her Boke of huntynge," it is said, " Thyse ben the names of houndes. Fyrste there 
is a Grehoun(de), a Bastard, a Mengrell, a Mastif, a Lemor, a Spanyel, Raches, Ke- 
nettys, Teroures, Butchers houndes, dunghyll dogges, Tryndeltaylles, and pryckeryd 
currys ; and smalle ladyes popees that bere awaye the flees, and dyuers smale fawtes." 
Sign. e. ij. v. ed. 1496. Roquefort gives " chiennet, chenet ; en 6as Lat. chenetus," 
as signifying a little dog ; and the term occurs in the satirical Anglo-Norman poem, 
descriptive of the lady of the XlVth cent, and her dogs, who, as it is said, "pius ad 
cher un kenet he nul vache hou tor." Rel. Antiqu. i. 155. 

" La troverez les kenez sayllaunz cum grifiloun, 

E les graunz leverez raumpanz cum lyoun." Harl. MS. 209, f. 7, b. 
In the ancient romances the kenet is mentioned as used in the chace of the deer, and 
the wild-boar. See the descriptions of the hunting parties of King Arthur and his 
knights, in the Anturs of Arther, st. iv. ; Avowynge of King Arther, st. vi. ed. Robson, 
pp. 2, 60. They here appear to have been led in couples, and used with the bounds 
called raches, and berselettes, besides greyhounds. It seems, therefore, that they were 
the smaller dogs, which served to find the beast of chace, and on that account kenet is 
here rendered reperarius. Venaticus is rendered in the Ortus " a spanyel." " A 
kenit, caniculus" CATH. ANG. See also Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyjt, line 1701, 
ed. Madden. Palsgrave gives "kenet coloure, cendre.^ 

2 In the Vision of P. Ploughman the verb to kenne repeatedly occurs in this sense. 
See also Syr Gawayn and the Grene Knyjt, line 1484 ; Towneley Myst. pp. 9, 10. 

3 Will. Worcester uses the term kenning to denote a distance at sea, pp. 179, 313 ; 


(KEO, or chowghe, supra in 
. CADAW, et infra in KOO, 

BRYD. Monedula.} 
KEPARE, Custos, conservator) 

KEPARE of an howse. Edituus, 

KEPARE of an howse, or an howse 

holdare. Paterfamilias. 

KEPYN'. Ctwtodio, servo, conservo. 
KEPYNGE. dutodia, observacio, 

KER, where treys growyn be a 

watur or a fenn. 1 Cardetum. 
(KER for aldyr, H. p. Alnetum.) 
KERCHE, or kyrchefe. 2 Peplum, 

terestrum, CATH.Jlameum, c. p. 

flameolum, COMM. 

and it appears from Leland that 20 miles was accounted as a kenning, probably, as the 
extreme distance within ordinary sight. " Scylley is a Kennyng, that is to say, about 
a xx. miles from the very Westeste pointe of Cornewaulle." Itin. iii. f. 6. See also 
f. 13. In the North, according to Brockett, half a bushel is called a kenning. 

1 In the Mayster of Game it is said of the Roe, " They hauntene in strange hattes of 
wood, or in stronge hethys, and somtyme in carres, and comonly in hie contrees." 
Vesp. B. xii. f. 32, b. John Crane, of Norton Suhcors, Norwich, bequeathed to his 
wife, in 1484, " all the londs, merys, marysses, alderkars,'' &c. in Norton. Transcripts 
from Registers at Norwich, Harl. MS. 10, f. 195, b. Camden, in his Remains, under 
Surnames, explains car as signifying " a low waterie place, where alders do grow, or a 
poole." Car signifies in Norfolk, according to Forby, a wood or grove on a moist soil, 
generally of alders. Brockett gives carr, flat marshy land, or a small lake. So like- 
wise Leland, in his description of the N. Riding, says, " there is a praty car or pole in 
Bishop's Dale.'' Itin. v. f. 116. He speaks repeatedly of "low medowes, and morisch 
ground ful of carres." Itin. i. f. 40, 66, 74. In Lord North's Household Book, 1512, 
a warrant is given for taking swans from the carre of Arrom, in the lordship of Lekin- 
field, Yorkshire. See Jamieson, v. Carse, and Kerss. Compare ALDYRKYR, in the 
Promptorium. Su. G. kaerr, Isl. kaer, palus. 

2 The kerchief, derived from the French couvre chief, or creveche, a covering for the 
head, the heated-daft of the Anglo-Saxons, was, until the XVIth cent., almost an in- 
dispensible portion of female attire. Illuminated MSS. and monumental effigies present 
an endless variety of the fashions of its arrangement. R. Brunne, describing the flight 
of the Empress Maud from Oxford across the frozen Thames, 1142, says that she wore 
only her smock, but her features were decently veiled. (Langt. Chron. p. 122) : 

" Wipouten kirtelle or kemse, saue kouerchief alle bare vis." 

See Coer de Lion, 1031. Chaucer, in the Man of Law's Tale, calls it a " kercher," 
and alludes to the usage that the widow should conceal her face with the " coverchefe," 
as so frequently seen on sepulchral effigies. Wife of Bathe's Prol. 6171. The kerchief 
was formed of silk, crape, or any thin tissue, which, when necessary, was rendered stiff 
by starch. See STARCHE for kyrcheys. The material termed " plytes " seems to 
have been imported from Flander or Germany. Isabella Belgrafe bequeaths, in 1401, 
" iij. peces^awz', videlicet ij. de serico, et j. de kryspe ; " and in 1402 the wife of a 
tanner at York mentions her " flameola de threde ; i}. flameola de cipres, et j. lampas 
volet." In the will of Isabella de Wyleby, 1415, she devises "flameolum de Jcrespe ; 
j . plice de lawnd ; j. flameolum de Parysse ; flameolum de Reyns," &c. and to the 
nursery women of Raby Castle, where she died, " rotulum de flameolo de coton." 
Testam. Ebor. i. 280, 289, 383. The material called plites is named in the Compotm for 
the collection of the subsidy on importations to Hull, 1400 : " M.iiij c flammeoV voc* 


KERVARE be-forne a lorde. 1 Esca- 
rius, CATH. cironomon, DIST. 

KERVARE, or kuttare. Scissor. 

KERVARE, or gravowre. Sculptor. 

KERVYN'or cuttofi'. ScindojCATH. 

KERVYN', or gravyfi'. Sculpo. 

KERVYNGE, or kuttynge. Scissura. 
KERVYNGE, or gravynge. Sculp- 


KETYL, or chetyle, or caudrone. 

Cacabus, lebes. 
KETYLLE HAT. 2 Pelliris, UG. in 

pello, galeruS) COMM. 

plites vaV xxj. K." Frost's Hist, of Hull. The stat. 3 Edw. IV. c. 5, forbade the sale, 
after Mich. 1465, of " ascune lavne, nifels, umple, ou ascun autre manere dez couvre- 
chiefs dount le price cTun pUte passera x.s.:" these were of foreign manufacture. 
" Amiculum, a bende or a kerchyfF." MED. " Multicium, vestis subtilis, asylken cote, 
a kercher,factum de serico." ORT. In Pynson's Boke to ierne French are given "a 
kyrcherr, ung keruuerchief; a neckyrchiar, ung collerette ; " and Palsgrave has " cour- 
chefe, quevuerchief." " Kerchiefe worne with a paste or rolle, tcenia. Kerchiefe 
worne vpon the head, chekes, or eares,/bca/e.'' HULOET. Compare VOLYPERE, kerche. 

1 u Cironomon (a keruere) mensis, lectis assistit aleptes (a surgyone, or a chamber- 
leyne.)" Distigius, Harl. MS. 1002, f. 113. The functions of the trencheator, or ecuyer 
trenchant, at the table of the sovereign or noble, were regarded as of an honourable 
nature, and regulated by prescribed ceremonial. The details thereof may be learned 
from the Household Ordinances of the English Court, published by the Ant. Soc. ; the 
ceremonial of the inthronization of Abp. Neville, 1466, Leland, Coll. vi. ; the order for 
the government of a nobleman's house, 1605, Archseol. xiii. 315, and similar docu- 
ments. At the coronation of Hen. IV. the office of carver was claimed by the Earl of 
Somerset, half-brother to the King, in right of his earldom of Lincoln ; and on ordinary 
occasions the office was discharged by Bannerets, or Knights bachelors, who were called 
Knights of chamber, or, in their absence, by the Knights of household. See Liber 
Niger Edw. IV. Househ. Ord. 32. The Lords Henry Neville and Clinton were the 
Chief carvers at the court of Hen. VIII. 1526 ; and at all times the office seems to hare 
been held by men of rank, and was conferred by patent. See the Treatise de scissurd 
ciborum, et servicio dominorum diversis temporibtis, Sloane MS. 1986, t. Hen. VI. 
especially the chapter de cultellis domini, in the Treatise de officiariis in curiis domi- 
norum, which has been edited by Mr. Halliwell for the Percy Soc. Boke of Curtasye, 
p. 28. The minor details of the craft are given in the Boke of Kerving, W. de Worde, 
1508. " Karuer afore a Prince, Escvier trenchant. I kerue as a lordes karuer dothe 
at his table, le trenche. I put the towell aboute a karuer or seruer's necke, that shall 
serue a greate man at his table, le encolle la touaille." PALSG. The proceeding to 
which allusion is here made was conducted with ceremony, and was termed arming 
the carver ; see Leland, Coll. vi. 7 ; Archseol. xiii. 332. At certain times both the 
carver and sewer performed their services kneeling on one knee, as represented in the 
illumination which exhibits the death of Earl Godwin at the table of Edw. the Conf. 
Vitell. A. xiii. Strutt's Regal Ant. pi. 2. 

2 Pelliris appears to have been a helm of leather, which was called also a palet, a 
word occurring in the Promptorium. By Uguitio it is explained to have been " galea 
ex corio vel pellej 1 to which, in the Ortus, is added, "Anglice, a helme of lether. 
Galerus, a coyfe of lether." Id. Sir W. Langford, in 1411, bequeaths to his son a 
" haberion," and a " ketill hatte," which is considered by Sir S. Meyrick to have been 
identical with the visored capelline, or steel hat, represented in Crit. Enquiry, ii. pi. 48. 
It would appear from the Promptorium that the kettle hat was exclusively formed of 
leather ; it is, however, probable that^the name was likewise given to the chapel de 
fer, or capellus ferreus , used from the time of Edw. II. until the XVIth cent, the form 




KEVLE, or kevyl, for hors. 1 Mor- 

dale, camus (sic, s. chamus, P.) 
KEWTYN', as cattys. Catillo, c. F. 

glatio, CATH. 
KEWTYNGE of cattys. 2 Catillatus, 

glaticus (glatatus, P.) 
KYBYTE. Cubitus. 
KYCHYNE. Coquina, culina, po- 

pina (fulina, CATH. p.) 
KECHYNE knave. Lixa. 
KYCHYNE gotere. Alucium. 
KYDE, beest. Edus. 
KYD, fagot. 3 Fassis (fasciculus, P.) 

KYGGE, or ioly (kydge, H. kyde, 

P.) 4 Jocun dus, hillaris, vern osus. 
KYLLYD. Interfectus, occisus, 

KYLLYN, or slone (slen, K. slayn, 

s.) Occido, interjicio. 
KYLLYN', as bocherys don bestys. 


KYLLYNGE. Mactacio, interfeccio. 
KYLNE (f)or malt dryynge (kyll, 

p.) U(s)trina, c. F. 
KYMLYNE, or kelare, vesselle 

(kynlyn, s. p.) 5 Cunula. 

being at all times nearly the same, and from the wide projecting brim bearing much 
resemblance to a caldron. It is, however, certain, that armour of leather was silvered 
over, to give it the appearance of metal, and it is highly probable that cuir-bouilli, 
which supplied defences of a very serviceable nature, and more commodious than plate 
armour, was extensively used. The form of the kettle hat, at the period when the 
Promptorium was compiled, may be seen in the drawings in Rous' Life of Rich. Beau- 
champ, Earl of Warwick, Julius, E. TV. Strutt's Horda, vol. ii. 

1 The reading of the MS. is here canus, which seems to be corrupt. " Chamus, 
genus freni, i. capiatrum , et pars f rent, moleyne." MED. " Camus, a byt, or snaffle." 
ELYOT. The Promptorium gives CHAVYLBONE, mandibula, which may possiblv give a 
clue to the derivation of the term kevyl, a bit for a horse. It has not been noticed as 
retained in any provincial dialect in England, but Jamieson gives " Kewl, a halter 
brought under the jaws of an unmanageable horse, and passed through his mouth." 

2 Catillare signifies to mew as a cat ; but glatire properly denotes the noise of 
dogs ; Fr. ylatir. See Ducange. Palsgrave gives " Kewtyng, bringyng forthe of yonge 
cattes, chattementS* 

3 " A kidde, ubi fagott." CATH. ANG. " Kydde, afagotte,/<z/<wrde." PALSG. Ray 
gives kid, a faggot, among North-country words ; it is likewise noticed in the Craven 
and Salopian Dialects. Gouldman gives it as synonymous with faggot ; and Skinner, 
as a word in use in Lincolnshire, as it were "fasciculus lignicadui." 

* Kedge, brisk, budge, hale and lively. Suff Ray and Moore. Kedgie. Caigie ; Jamieson. 
Forby gives kick, signifying in Norfolk a novelty or a dash ; and kicky, showy. Both 
words are given in a like sense by Jamieson. ''He's in high kick," is a proverb in the 
Craven Dialect. Compare Su. G. kaeck, Germ, keck, Isl. kiaekr, audax, animosus. 

6 Cumula, MS. In a Roll of 2 5 Edw. I. among the Miscellaneous Records of the 

Queen's Remembrancer, a payment occurs " Stephano le loignur, pro j, Kembelind 

aubtus cisternam Regis, vij.d." The Latin-Engl. Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 

gives, under the head " adbrasoriumpertinencia, Kymnelle, cuna ; Kunlione, cunella." 

11 He goth, and geteth him a kneding trough, 

And after a tubbe, and a kemelin." Miller's Tale, 3622. 

Thos. Harpham of Yoi-k bequeaths, in 1341, " unum plumbum, unam cunam, qu&vocatur 
maskefat, et duasparvas cunas qua vocantur gylefatts, duas kymelyns, et duos parvos 
barellos." Testam. Ebor. i. 3. " Kynmell, tjuevue, quevuette.'* PALSG. Skinner gives 
kemeling, as signifying in Lincolnshire a brewing vessel ; and Ray, among North-country 



KYNLYNE, or herthestok (kynny, 
erthestock, K. kymlyn, H. p.) 
JRepofocilium, c. F. et CATH. 

KYYNDE, idem quod KEENDE, 



KYNLYD, as fyyr (kyndelyd as 
fyer, K. kynlyn, s. kyndled, p.) 
Accensus, succensus. 

KYNLED, or kyndelyd in forthe 
bryngynge of yonge beestys 
(kyndelid in bryngforthe of 
bestys, K.) F status^ CATH. 

KYNDLYN' fyyr (kynlyn, s.) Ac- 
cendo, succendo. 

KYNDLYN, or brynge forthe yonge 
kyndelyngys (kinlyn, K. s.) l Feto, 
effete^ CATH. profundo, UG. in 
foveo, utrumque UG. v. in P. 

KYNLYNGE, as fyyr, and ober lyke 

(kyndelyng of fyer, K.) Ac- 

censio, succensio. 
KENLYNGE, or forthe bryngyngof 

yonge beestys (kin deling, K. 

kyndlinge, p.) Fetura, CATH. 
KYNLYNGE, yonge beeste (kynde- 

lynge, s.) Fetus. 
K.YNGE. Rex. 
KYNGDAME. Regnum, 
KYNGYS commawndement. Mun- 

diburdium, c. F. (edictum, p.) 
KYNGYS fyschare, lytylle byrde. 

Isida> c. F. qui earn optime 

describit, et vivit parvis pisci- 

KYNGYS purs, or burs. Fiscus, 

UG. in foveo. 
KYNNYSMAN, or woman. Con- 

tribulis, consanguineus. 
KYNREDE. Generacio, progenies, 

prosapia, tribus (stirps, P.) 

words, has kincmel, or kemlin, a powdering tub. Compare Kimnal, Salopian Dialect ; 
Kimmen, Jamieson. A killer, according to Forby, is a shallow tub, distinct from a cooler, 
and so called, as he states, from A.-S. kylle, cadus. Compare KELARE, Friyidarium. 
1 Marvellous tales are given by ancient writers regarding the production of gems in 
Eastern countries by serpents, which, lying in the sun, have thereby conceived. 

" Swich is this addres kyndlyng, 

Preciouse stones withouten lesyng.'' K. Alis. 5680. 

The expression " yenimina viperarum," Vulg. Luke, iii. 7, is in the Wicliffite version 
rendered " kindelyngis of eddris." In the Mayster of Game, Vesp. B.xn. f. 20, b. and 21, 
it is said, "the hares han nosesone of her loue, for in euery monthe of theyere neshal 
not be )>at some ne be with kyndeles, the hare berej? ij monthes her kyndels, and 
whanne bei han kyndeled, )>ei likkene her kyndels as a biche dooth her whelpes." 
Rous, Hist. Reg. Angl. ed. Hearne, p. 130, cites the lines attributed to Thos. of Ercildon. 

" The hare shall kendyll on the harth-stone, 

My dere son, than byld thy hows of lyme and of stone." 

In the St. Alban's Book mention is made of "a kyndyll of yonge cattes." Palsgrave 
gives the verb to " kyndyll as a she hare or cony dothe, whan they bring forthe yonge. 
A conny kyndylleth every moneth in the yere, porte des petis." Skinner gives the 
word as used in relation to rabbits, and derives it from Ang.-Sax. cennan, parere. See 
Craven Gloss, v. Kennle, and Jamieson, Supp. r. Kendle. Compare Belg. kinderen, 
to be in child-bearing ; Germ, kindlein, proles. 



KYPPYN', idem quod HYNTON, 

supra (hentyn, K. heuyn, p.) 1 
KYPPYNGE, or hyntynge (hent- 

ynge, K. P.) Raptus. 
KYPTRE of a welle. 2 Telo, c. F. 

et CATH. ciconia, c. F. (te- 

lena, K.) 

(KYRCHEFE, supra in KERCHE.) 
KYRNEL of frute. 3 Granum,gra- 

KYRNEL of a notte. Nucleus, 

CATH. UG. in noceo, nuculus, 
c. F. 

KYRNEL, or knobbe yn a beeste, 
or mannys flesche (knoble, s.) 4 
Granulum, glandula, c. F. 

KYRVYN', or grubby n' (supra in 
delvyn, K. kyrmyn, s. kyrryn, p.) 
JFodito, c. F. et CATH. fodio, 


KYRSTYONE, or Crystyone, propur 
name (Kirstiane, K. Kyrstyan, or 

1 The verb to kippe, signifying to snatch up hastily, occurs frequently in Havelok : 

" And Robert kipt ut a knif long, 

And smot him thoru the rith arm." 2407. 

See also lines 894, 1050 ; and K. Horn, 1208 ; R. Glouc. p. 125 ; R. Brunne, &c. It 
is still in use in the Northern dialect. See Brockett and Jamieson, v. Kep ; and Bp. 
Kennett's Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033 : "To kep, or cep, Bor. to catch, as, kep the ball." 
" To kep, vide to catch." GOULDM. Ang.-Sax. cepan, Teut. keppen, capture. 

2 The Catholicon gives the following explanation : " Telonem hortulani vacant 
lignum quo hauriunt aquam, a longitudine dictum ; hoc Hispani ciconiam dicunt, quia 
imitelur avem illam rostrum levantem et deponentem : hujus lignum modo saepefit super 
puteos." Horman says, " the buckette is of fro the swepe or flayle, and failed into 
the welle ; urnula ciconie sive teloni e.vcidit." The term seems to be derivable from 
Ang.-Sax. cepan. In the North the hooks by which a pot is suspended, a contrivance 
somewhat similar to the telo for raising water, are termed kilps, or pot-kelps, according 
to Ray. " A kylpe of a caldrone, perpendiculum." CATH. ANG. See Brockett and 
Craven Dialect, v. Kelps. 

3 G. de Bibelesworth says, speaking of eating an apple, 

" La pepigniere (the skore) vous engettez, 

Si les pdpignes (be kurnelles) ne plauntez." 

Forby states that kernel signifies, in Norfolk, a grain, as " a kernel of wheat, a kernel 
of salt." The archaic use of the word, as denoting grain, appears in the Ortus : 
" Granum, Angiice corne, a kyrnell. Granellum, graynes, or a lytel kyrnel. Gramino, 
to borionne or kyrnell. Grano, i. grants implere, to kyrnell." " A kyrnelle, enuclea, 
yranum, nucleus. To kyrnelle, granare, granescere." CATH. ANG. In Coverdale's 
Version of the treatise by Wermulierus, entitled The precious Pearl, 1560, f. 80, it is 
said that " when the corn is threshed, the kernell lieth mixed among the chaffe, and 
afterward are they disseuered with the fanne or wendle." Plot speaks of corn full of 
11 kernell." Hist. Oxf. p. 245. Compare CEEDE of corne, as kyrnel. Ang.-Sax. cyrnel, 

4 " Glandula,, nodus sub cute, a waxynge curnelle.'' MED. In Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 
de infirmitatibus, are mentioned " Glandulli, wax kyrnel." " Waxyng kyrnels, glande, 
glanders. Kyrnell or knobbe in the necke, or other where, glandre.^ PALSG. " Tolles, 
a waxynge kernell." ELYOT. The books of the ancient leeches contain numerous re- 
medies ; see Boorde's Breviary of Health, c. 14, 75, 165, " of carnelies in the flesh," 
&c. ; and Langham's Garden of Health. 


Krystyan, s.) Christina (Chris- 
tiana, s. p.) 

Tunica, subuncula. 
KYS, or kus. 2 Osculum, basium. 
KYSSYD. Osculatus, basiatus. 
KYSSYN' (kyssen, or ben kissed, 
P.) Oscular. 

KYSSYNGE. Osculacio, osculatus. 
KYTLYNGE. 3 Catillus, catuncu- 

KYX, or bunne, or drye weed 

(bunne of dry wed, H. s. p.) 4 

Calamus, c. F. 
KNAST, or gnaste of a kandel 

1 It would be scarcely possible to define the garments, varied according to the fashion 
of the day, from the Ang.-Sax. cyrtel, tunica, to the kirtle of crimson velvet provided 
amongst the Parliament robes of Edw. VI., to which this appellation was successively 
applied. It denoted garments worn by both sexes : R. Brunne speaks of the Empress 
Maud as taking flight from Oxford " withouten kirtelle or kemse," p. 122; Chaucer 
describes the " kirtell of a light waget " as part of the smart attire of Absolon, the 
parish clerk ; Miller's T. 3322. Walter de Bruge, canon of York, bequeathed in 1396, 
".;'. gounam, cumj. curtill, el j. capucio." Test. Ebor. i. 210. The kirtle, as female 
attire, seems to have been a close-fitting garment, as appears in the description in Sir 
Launfal of the two " gentyll maydenes ilasced smalle, jolyf, and welle;" and Rob. 
Henrysoun, t. Hen. VI. says, in the Garment of good Ladies, 

" Her kirtle should be of clean Constance, 
Lacit with lesum love." 

John Payn relates in his letter to his master, John Paston, that in Cade's rebellion his 
wife's dwelling was attacked, and the mob " lefte her no more gode but her kyrtyll 
and her smook." Paston Lett. i. 62. As worn by men, the kirtle seems generally to 
have been a short garment, and closely girt ; but the " kirtell de rouge tartarin," 
which formed part of the state robes of the Knights of the Bath, was full, and long- 
skirted. " A kyrtelle, ubi a cote. A cote, tunica, tunicella.^ CATH. ANG. " Kyrtell, 
a garment, corpset, surcot, cotelle." PALSG. " Kyrtell, cottron." Boke to lerne French, 
Pynson. Duwes, in the Introductory for to lerne French, written for the Princess 
Mary, gives " the kyrtell, le corset; the kyrtell, la cottelette." See Strutt's Dresses, 
ii. 238, ed. 1842 ; Douce's Illust. of Shakespeare, Hen. IV. part ii. ; and Nares. 

2 In the Wicliffite version this word is written " cos, cosse," Luke xxii. 48. R. 
Brunne uses the verb " cussed ; " see also R. Glouc. p. 15. In the North it is still 
pronounced cus, or kuss ; see Craven Dial, and Brockett. A.-Sax. cos, osculum. 
Compare cus, p. 111. 

3 " Catulus, a whelpe or a kytlynge." ORTUS. " A kythynge (sic), catulus, catu* 
laster.'* CATH. ANG. In the earlier Wicliffite version, Deut. xxxiii. 22 is thus ren- 
dered : " To Dan he seith, Dan, keetlyng of a lyon (catulus leonis, Vulg.) shal flowe 
largely fro Basan." Palsgrave gives the verb to " kyttell as a catte dothe, chatonner. 
Gossyppe, whan your catte kytelleth, I praye you let me haue a kytlynge (chatton.)" 
" Chatonner, to kittle, or bring forth young cats. Caller, to kittle as a cat. Faire ses 
petits, to whelp, kittle, kindle, farrow," &c. COTG. See Holland's Plutarch, p. 179 ; 

Pliny, xxix. c. 4. Forby gives kitling, a young cat. See Ash, the Cheshire Glossary, 
and Jamieson. 

4 This word occurs in the gloss, in the chapter on brewing by G. de Bibelesworth. 
" Allumet amy cele lefrenole (t>e kex.)" Arund. MS. 220, f. 300. In the Vision of 
P. Ploughman it is said that glowing embers serve not the workmen in a winter's night 
so well 


(knast of candelle, K.) 1 Emunc- 
tura (secundum Levsay, spi- 
mictura, s. emictura, p.) 

KNAVE (or ladde, infra.)" 2 Garcio. 
KNAWYN', or gnawyn', or fowly 

" As dooth a kex or a candle, 

That caught hath fir and blaseth." 11,804. 

In an Herbal, the date of which is perhaps contemporary with the Promptorium, it is 
said that there are two species of hemlock, " tame and wilde. The 2 spice is cowh 
ynowh, to mykel, saf fore pore mennys eldynge, and childus pleynge ; pey call en it pe 
grete homeloc ; the stalkes stonden whit and ser eueryjere. In some contre it is called 
kex, in some contre wodewhistel." Arund. MS. 42, f. 23. Eldynge here signifies fuel; 
see EYLDYNGE, above, p. 136. Allusion is made to the use of the stalks of hemlock 
instead of candles, in Turn, of Tottenham, 201. " Eruca, a humlocke, or a keyclogge." 
ORTUS. " Keckes of humblockes, tviau. Kickes, the drie stalke of humlockes or 
burres, tvyav. Kixe, tviau. ^ PALSG. " Sagaperium, a gumme or rosyn, whiche 
runneth out of a kyxe or tree, called ferula." ELYOT. " Canon de suls, a kex or 
hollow stick, or branch of elder, or a pot-gun made thereof. Segue, Hemlocke, hom- 
locke, herbe Bennet, Kex." COTG. " Kecks, i. hollow stalks and sticks, cremium." 
GOULDM. Holland, in his version of Pliny, B. xxv. c. 7 says that the stem of gentian 
" is hollow as a kex," and void within ; and of line or flax, B. xix. c. 1, that " the long 
buns of the stalkes will serve very well to maintaine fire under kills and leads." 
Shakespeare speaks of " hateful docks, rough thistles, kecksies, burs; " the proverbs, 
as dry as a kex, as hollow as a gun, or as a kex, are common ; and the word is still 
used provincially. See Brockett, Craven, Hallamshire, Salopian, Wiltshire Glossaries, 
&c. " Kexes, kaxes, or kixes, a Fr. G. cigue, utrumque a Lot. cicuta." SKINNER. 
Bunne, given here as synonymous with kyx, is so given likewise previously, p. 55 ; 
where BUNKYYDE, the reading of the MS., appears to be erroneous : the King's Coll. 
MS. gives Bunne, kyx, but possibly a kid or faggot of buns may be intended. This 
word occurs in the later Wicliffite version, Isai. i. 31 . " And joure strengthe schal be 
as a deed sparcle of bonys (ether of herdis of flex) ;" in another MS. " bones (eiper of 
herdis)," where three of the MSS. give " stobil," and the earlier Version " sparke of 
a flax top (favilla stupce," Vulg.) Ang.-Sax. bune, fistula. 

1 gnaste, or a kandel. Enamctura, MS. " Emungo, id est sorties auferre de naso 
vel candeld, to snuffe. Emunctorium, a snuffynge yron." ORTUS. In the earlier Wic- 
cliffite version in the Bodl. MS. by the first hand, Isai. i. 31 is thus rendered : " And 
^oure strengthe shal ben as a gnast of a flax top (favilla stupce, Vulg.) and aoure 
werk as a sparcle (scintilla)," where the corrected reading of the ordinary copies, 
instead of " gnast," is " deed sparke," in the later version " deed sparcle." " Lichi- 
num, gnaiste or knast of a candell. Lichinus, gnast of pe candyl." MED. " Lichinus, 
candell weyke." ORTUS. In the Winch. MS. this word not only occurs in its proper 
place, but is repeated at the end of the letter K after the word KUNY, as follows : 
" KNASTE, or gnaste off a candel. Muco. Versus; Est nasi muco, candele sit tibi 
muco." This was perhaps a marginal addition, misplaced by the transcriber. Compare 
Dan. gnist, Swed. gnista, I eel. gneisti, scintilla. 

2 The term knave long retained the simple meaning of the Ang.-Sax. cnafa, puer :. 
thus, in the Wicliffite version, " peperit filium masculum," 1 Vulg. is rendered " sche 
bere a knaue child." Apoc. xii. 5. Chaucer says of Griselde, 

" She a daughter hath ybore, 

All had hire lever ban borne a knaue child." Clerk's Tale. 



bytyn' (knavyn, or gnavyn, s.) 

KNAVYNGE, or gnavynge (MC, s. 

knawynge, K. H. p.) Corrosio. 
KNEE. J Genu. 
KNEDARE of paste (or pastare, s.) 

Pistor, et plura alia infra in 


KNEDYN' paste. Pinso, UG.pistrio. 
KNEDYNGE. Pistura. 
KNELARE. Geniculator, genu- 

flector, geniculatrix. 
KNELYN'. Geniculor, 

niculo, CATH. genuflecto. 
KNELYNGE. Genuflectio, geni- 

KNYFE. Cultellus, culter (cul- 

trum, P.) 

KNYLLYNGE of a belle. 2 Tintil- 

KNYGHTE (knyte, K. knyth, H. 
knyjht, s.) Miles. 

KNYGHTE awnterows (knyht 
a-ventowrs, s.) 3 Tiro, c. F. 
et CATH. (BRIT, s.) 

KNYGHTE-HOODE. Milicia, ti- 

KNYTTE. Nodatus, nexus, con- 

KNYTTYN' a knotte. Nodo,necto, 

KNYTTYN' yn wylle, or cumnawnte 
(knyttyn to-gedyr in wyle or 
comnawnt, K. cvnaunt, H. co- 
nawnt, s. couenaunt, p.) 4 Fe- 
dero, confedero. 

In Arund. MS. 42, f. 26, it is said of Carduus that it is " on of be noblest mete J>at is 
for be matrice ; wommen desyren it, for it disposith hem to haue cnaue children." " A 
knafe, Me et hec calcula, garcio" CATH. ANG. " Knaue, quocquin, uillain." PALSG. 

1 KENE, MS. kne, K. s. Palsgrave gives the following curious observation, to illus- 
trate the use of the verb to kneel : " The men of this countray knele vpon one knee 
whan they here masse, but y e frenche men knele vpon bothe.'' 

2 In W. Thorpe's recital of his examination by Abp. Arundel, 1407, he states that 
when charged with having preached heresy at St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, he made answer, 
" As I stood there in the pulpit, busying me to teach the commandment of God, there 
knilled a sacring bell, and therefore mickle people turned away hastily, and with noise 
ran fro towards me ;" this circumstance called forth the expression which had been 
construed into heresy. " I knolle a belle, fe frappe du batant." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. 
cnyllan, campand signum dare. Bp. Kennett remarks that in Yorkshire a passing 
bell is called " a sawl-knill, from Ang.-Sax. sawl, anima, and cnyll, campance pul- 
satio: 1 Lansd. MS. 1033. 

3 Tyro is explained in the Catholicon to be novus miles, noviter electus ad militlam , 
but implied, perhaps, more properly, the novice in arms, who sought occasions for 
warlike exercise at home and abroad, until his approved prowess should entitle him to 
the honour of knighthood. See Ducange, the Memoirs of St. Palaye, and other writers 
on chivalry. Scarcely any of the ancient Romances afford a more graphic and stirring 
picture of the education and adventure of the Tyro than the life of le petit Jehan de 
Saintrd, written about the period when the Promptorium was compiled. The practice 
of wandering on the uncertain quest of adventure was by no means laid aside when the 
novice had won his spurs. *' Knyght of aduentures, cheualler errant. 1 ' PALSG. 

4 The verb to knit is used by old writers in the sense of to unite. Thus in Sloane 
MS. 3548, f. 99, b. is given an extraordinary nostrum " for to knyt synous J>at are 
brokyne. Take greyte wormes )>at are called angeltwycthys, and lat hem dry in J>e 
sunne, and j?en beyte hem to powder, and strew J>at powder in >e wounde, and yt shall 



KNYTTYNGE to-gedyr. Nodaeio, 

connodacio, connexus. 
KNYTTYNGE, or ioynynge, or ra- 

betynge to-gedyr of ij. bordys, 

or oj>er lyke. ( Gumfus, C.F. s. 

gumphus, P.) 
(KNOBBE of a mannys hande, or 

in another part of him, K. H. 

knoble, s. knolle, p.) 1 Callus, 

C. F. CATH. 

KNOBBE yn a beestys backe or 

breste, J>at ys clepyd a gybbe 

(knoble, s. knowe, P.) Gibber, 

gibbus, CATH. 
KNOBBE, or knotte y(n) a tre. 

Vertex, CATH. (cortex, s.) 
KNOBBYD, as hondys or other 

lymmys. Callosus. 
KNOBBYD, or knottyd as trees. 

Vertiginosus, verticosus. 
KNODON (knedid, K.) Pistus. 
KNOKYL of an honde (knokil- 

bone, K.) Condilus, c. F. et 


KNOKYLLE BONE of a legge. 

Coxa, c. F. 

KNOKKYN' (knollyn, s.) Pulso. 
KNOPPE (or knot, K.) 2 Nodus, 

KNOPPE, or bud of a tre (burge 

of a tre, H. p.) Gemma, c. F. 

(germen, s.) 
KNOTTE. Nodus. 
KNOTTE yn the fleshe, vndyr the 

skynne. Glandula. 
KNOTTY. Nodosus. 
KNOTTY, wythe-in the flesche. 

KNOWYN'. Cognosco, agnosco, 

nosco, CATH. 

KNOWYNGE. Cognicio, agnicio. 
KNOWLECHYN', or ben a-knowe 

be constreynynge. Fateor. 
KNOWLECHYN', or ben a-knowe 

wylfully. Conftteor. 
KNOWLECHYNGE, or beynge a- 

knowe. Fassio, confessio. 
Koo, bryd, or schowghe. 3 Mone- 

knytte to-geder. Pro&atum est sepissime." Palsgrave gives the following verbs: 
" I knytte a knotte, le none ; Knytte your purse faste, for their be shrewes a brode. I 
knyt as a matte maker knytteth, le tys, coniugated in I wayue. I knyt bonettes or 
hosen, le lasse. I knyt one vp, I take hym vp, I reproue hym, le reprouche. I knytte 
vp a mater, I make an ende or conclusyon of a matter, le determine. I knytte vp a 
man, Iholde hym shorte, or kepe hym from his libertye, le tiens court." 

1 This term is used to denote in general any swelling in the flesh. Chaucer describes 
the Sompnour's visage, from which no detergent could remove the evidences of surfeit. 

" That him might helpe of his whelks white, 

Ne of his knobbes sitting on his chekes." Prol. v. 636. 

" Knobbe, or rysing after a stroke, bigne. Kyrnell, or knobbe in the necke, or other 
where, glandre.^ PALSG. Andrewe Boorde, in the Breviarie of Health, 1575, gives a 
detailed account of the kinds, cause, and cure of nodi, or " knottes, knobbes, knorres, 
or burres, the which is in man's flesh or fatnesse ;" c. 109. 

2 " A knoppe of a scho, bulla. To knoppe, bullare. A knoppe of a kne, inter- 
nodium." CATH. ANG. The word knop, or knob, in its various significations, seems to 
be derived from Ang.-Sax. cn&p,jugum, and denotes any protuberance, as a button, a 
bud, or the head of a sore. "Knoppe of a payre of beedes, hovppe. Knoppe of a 
cuppe, pomeau de covuerleque. Knoppe wede, an herbe." PALSG. 

8 See the note on the word coo, above, p. 84. Ang.-Sax. ceo, comix. In the Gloss 



duta, CATH. et c. F. et cetera 

in C. (nodula, P.) 
KOCAY, priuy. Cloaca. 
KOCATRICE. Basiliscus, CATH. 

et cetera in C. supra (coca- 

drillus, P.) 
KOK, bryd. Gallus. 
KOKE, mete dytare. Cocus. 
KOK ENEY. 1 Carinutus, coconellus, 

vel cucunellus ; et hec duo no- 

mina sunt ficta, et derisorie 

dicta ; delicius. 

KoKEREL. 2 Gallulus (galluncu- 

lus, vel gallinellus, s.) 
KOKYS COOM. Cirrus, c. F. galla, 

in libra equivocorum. 3 
KOOTE, garment. Tunica. 
KOTE, lytylle howse (or coote, 

or cosh, supra.) Tugurrium, 

(casa. P.) 
KUKOW, bryd (kukhowbryd, K.) 

Cuculus, cucula. 
KUKSTOLE (for flyterys, or schy- 

derys.) 4 Turbuscetum, cadurca. 

on G. de Bibelesworth, "chouwe" is rendered "a co brid." " Koo, a byrde." 
PALSG. In the nun's lament for her bird, killed by the cat, all the fowls are enume- 
rated who are to be bidden to the funeral : 

" the churlysshe chowgh, 

The route, and the kowgh : 

At this placebo, 

We may not well forgo 

The countrynge of the coe." Skelton, Philip Sparrow. 

1 " Delicius, puer in deliciis matris nutritm, a cokenay. Collibista, qui recipit 
munuscula pro usurd et servicio aliqud, et qui vendit collibia, et dicitur a cokenay.'' 
MED. MS. CANT. The term seems here to signify a little cook. In the Vision of P. 
Ploughman, line 4371, it had been supposed to have this meaning ; but Mr. Wright, 
in his Glossary, suggests that it implies some kind of meagre food, as a small cock, 
which, by comparison with Turnam. of Tottenham, Anc. Poet. ii. 24, and Heywood'a 
Prov. pt. i. c. xi. seems highly probable. " Coquine, a cockney, simperdecockit, nice 
thing.'' COTG. " A cockney, niais, miffnot, cailhette. A waspish cockney dame, 
guesplne^ SHERW. " A cockney, or child tenderly brought up ; mammothreptus, 
vinciolus, pedagium, delitice puerij' &c. GOULDM. Tusser uses the word in this last 
sense, as given in the Promptorium : speaking of the nursery, and defects of early 
training, he says, in his Points of Huswifery, 

" Some cockneys, with cocking, are made very fools, 

Fit neither for 'prentice, for plough, nor for schools." 
See the note on the word COKNAY, p. 86 ; and Fuller's Worthies, London. 

2 In the Household Book of Sir John Howard, in 1466, is the item, "for yonge 
kokerelles to make of capons, ix.rf." " Kockerell, cochet." PALSG. 

3 The treatise here cited is attributed to Joh. de Garlandid, and has been printed. 
MSS. of it may be found in Harl. MS. 4967, art. 18 ; Arund. MS. 52, art. 14. 

4 See the note on CUKSTOKE, p. 107, where the reading cukstolle, according to the 
other three MSS. is probably more correct. The following observation occurs amongst 
Bp. Kennett's Coll. Lansd. MS. 1033 : " A goging stool, a ducking stool, or cucking 
stool, called in Domesday cathedra stercoris, properly a gonging stool, gong stool, or 
gang stool. Sax. gong stole, sellafamiliaris, a close stool." That such was sometimes 
its form is proved by the engraving in Boys' Hist, of Sandwich, which exhibits the 
cucking-stool and wooden mortar used there for the punishment of scolds ; see pp. 
500, 785. In a satire on the evil government of the times of Edw. II. it is said, in 
reference to the corrupt dealings of the assisours, (Polit. Songs, ed. Wright, 345.) 




KUNY, or conye of mone (mony, 
K. keny of mony ; s. kuwn, or 
koyne of money, p.) Num- 
isma, c. F. et CATH. 

(Kus, supra in KYS.) 

Nota, quod multa vocabula vi- 
dentur hie esse ponenda sub 
literd K. in principle, ut que 
incipiunt in KA. Ko. et Ku. 
que causa brevitatis emisi ; 

sed querenda sunt in C. literd^ 
ubi A. o. v. sequuntur C. im- 

LAB BE, or he that can kepe no 

counsel (that can not kepyn non 

consel, K.) 1 Anubicus, anubica, 

CATH.futilis, CATH. et UG. in 


LABEL LE. 2 Labellum. 

u The pilory and the cucking-stol beth i-mad for noht." 

It seems also to have been called thewe, as in the Plac. in Itin. apud Cestriam, 14 
Hen. VII. cited by Blount, it is recorded that George Grey. Earl of Kent, claimed in 
bis manors of Bushton and Ayton, to punish offenders against the assize of bread and 
ale, " per ires vices per amerciamenta, et quarto, vice pistores per pilloriam, bracia- 
tores per tumbrellum, et rixatrices per thewe, hoc est ponere eas super scabellum 
vocatum a cucking stool." In cases where fine was substituted for the cucking-stool, 
as a punishment, the lord became liable to the forfeiture of his manorial liberties, as in 
the case of the Dean of Lincoln, in 1384, who fined transgressors of the assize of bread 
and ale, in certain of his manors in Derbyshire, whereas "puniendi sunt per pillorium 
et tumbrellum, et non per amerciamenta ;" for that offence, and the deficiency of pil- 
lory and tumbrel, his liberties were seized, and forfeited into the King's hands. Pat. 8 
Ric. II. The tumbrel seems to be occasionally mentioned as distinct from the stool, 
and sometimes as the same mode of punishment, and from the examination of the stool 
and its carriage still preserved at Warwick, it is obvious that the two might be used 
either singly or together, according to local usage, and the nature of the offence. An 
extent of the manor of Marham, in Norfolk, taken about the commencement of the 
XVth cent, states that W. Beleth, who held the chief manor, claimed "habere liber- 
tatem infurch 1 , tumbrelV ', thewe, emendacionem forisfacture pistorum, brasiaturum, 
mensur', galone, weyf, et stray," and that the Abbess of Marham enjoyed the like 
liberties. Orig. Roll, in the possession of Sir Thos. Hare, Bart. In the XVlth cent, 
the punishment of the cucking stool was still fully in use : by the stat. 3 Hen. VIII. 
c. 6, as the penalty of fraudulent practices by carders or spinners of wool, the offender 
was to be " sett upon the pillorie or the cukkyngstole, man or woman, as the case 
shall require." Stat. of Realm, iii. 28. In Mr. Beesly's Hist, of Banbury will be 
found several notices regarding the pillory, " kockestoll," and tumbrell, in use at that 
place as late as the reign of Elizabeth. Harrison, who wrote his description of England 
about 157J), says in the chapter of sundry kinds of punishments, " scolds are ducked 
vpon cucking stooles in the water." " Cucke stole, selle a ribauldes.^ PALSG. 

1 LABLE, MS. labbe, H. s. P. Compare BLABBE, or labbe, wreyare of cownselle ; 
BEWRAYER of counsel, and DYSCURER of cownselle. This word is used by Chaucer : 
" Quod tho this sely man, I am no labbe, 

Ne, though I say it, I n'am not lefe to gabbe." Miller's T. 3506. 
Compare the Dutch labben, Belg. lapperen, to blab, or gossip. Labb, Dialect of Exmoor. 

" It is not obvious in what sense this word is here to be taken : the Ortus follows 
the explanation given in the Catholicon, " labellum, i. parvum labrum, a lytellelyppe." 
It appears from citations given by Ducange that label/us, lambellus, or lablellus, denoted 
a pendant ornament of dress, or the heraldic label, in which sense it occurs in the grant 
of a crest, 1324, Rym. vii. 763. See the observations of Upton on the differences of 



LABOWRE. Labor (vellabos, s.) 
LABOWRERE. Laboratory labo- 


LABORYN'. Laboro. 
LACE. Fibula, laqueum, Dice. 

(laquear, K.) 
LACE of an howserofe. 1 Laque- 

area, COMM. 

LACYD. Laqueatus,fibulatus> C.F. 
LACYN, or spere wythe a lace. 


LACYNGE. Laqueacio,Jibulacio. 
LADDE, or knave. Garcio. 
LA DDE, thwonge (thounge, K. 

thang, s.) Ligula. 
LADDYD. Ligulatus. 
LADY. Domina> Hera, 

LADYLLE, pot spone. Concus* 

Dice, coclear, NECC. 
LADYN', wythe byrdenys. Onus- 

tus, oneratus. 
LADYN', or chargyn' wythe bur- 

denys. Onero, sarcino, UG. in 

LADYN', or lay water (say water, 

s. lauyn water, p.) 2 Vatilo. 
LAGGYD, or bedrabelyd (or be- 

laggyd, supra.) Labefactus, 

paludosus, CATH. 
LAGGYN', ordrablyn'. 3 Palustro 

(labefacio, P.) 
LATCHE, or snekke (lahche, K. 

lach, s.) 4 Clitorium, vel pes- 

sula, NECC. (pessulum, KYL w. s.) 

arms termed by him linguta, or lalellcs ; Mil. Off. iv. p. 255. Fortescue describes 
the habit of the Serjeant-at-law as consisting of " roba longa, ad instar sacerdotis, cum 
capitio penulato circa humeros ejus ; et desuper collobio, cum duobus labelluhs, quales 
uti solent doctores legum in Universitatibus quibusdam." Laud. Legum Angl. V. 51. 
This hood with labells, as it is called by Dugdale, appears in illuminations copied from 
Roy. MS. 19 C. IV. and Harl. MS. 4379, in Strutt's Dresses, ii. pi. 80, 112 ; and in 
the latter, the hood being brought up over the head, the use of the labels, which are 
attached together under the chin, is apparent. There was also a furred hood with long 
labels, worn by ecclesiastics, representations of which are supplied by the Missal of 
Philippe le Bo'n, Harl. MS. 2897, the figure of Will, de Rothwell, Archdeacon of 
Essex, who died 1361, given by Messrs. Waller, in their beautiful series of Sepulchral 
Brasses, and other examples. Horman says, in the chapter " De fortund iratd," 
of misfortunes and perils, f. 129, " I wyll recompense the with a labell, reponam 
appendice quddam;" and Palsgrave gives "labell, hovppe." " Houppe, a tuft, or 
topping; a tassell or pretty lock. Lambeau, a labell." COTG. "A labell hanging on 
each side of a miter, infula. Labelles hanging down on garlands, or crownes, lemnisci." 

1 In the Ortus laquear, laqueare, and laquearium are explained as signifying " Con- 
junct to trabium in summit ate domus, a seelynge of a howse." 

2 " I laade water with a scoup, or any other thyng out of a dytche or pytte, le 
pvyse de Veaue. I lade, I take in water, as a shyp or bote that is nat staunched, le 
boy de Veaue." PALSG. This verb is used by Shakespeare, Hen. VI. pt. 3, Act ii. 
In Sussex and Hants, to lade means to take water from a vessel or pond by a scoop 
or pail, and in Somersetshire the utensil employed for this purpose is termed a lade- 
pail. Ang.-Sax. hladan, haurire. 

3 Compare BE-LAGGYD. Ang.-Sax. lagu, aqua. Horman says, "there is rysen a 
fray amonge the water-laggers, amphorarios." In the Northumberland Household 
Book, 1511, it appears that the "laggs" of wine, when the cask ran low, were to be 
made into vinegar. See Jamieson, v. Laggerit. 

4 Compare CLYKETT, clilorium , and SNEKKE. " Lache, or snecke of a dore, locquel. 


LATCHESSE, or tarryynge (lahches, 
or teryinge, K. lahchesse, s. 
latche, p.) 1 Mora y tarditas. 

LACHET of a schoo. Tenea, UG. 
v. in T. 

LATCHYD, or speryd wythe a leche 
(sic, lahche, K. s. sperd with a 
laspe or latch, H.) Pessulatus. 

LATCHYD, or fangyd, or hynt, 

fangyd with handes, or other 

lyke, P.) Arreptus, c. F. 
LATCHYN', idem quod FANGYN, 

supra in F. 2 

LATCHYN, or snekkyn. Pessulo. 
LATCHYNGE, or sperynge wythe a 

lacche. Clitura, pessulatus. 
LAY HARPE. 3 Sambuca, KYLW. 

(cithera, symphonia, melos, s.) 

or caw3t (lahchid, or takyn, K. | LAYKYN', or thynge bat chyldryn' 

Latche of a dore, clicquette, locquet. Sneke latche, locquet, clicquette. I latche a 
doore, I shytte it by the latche, le ferme a la clicquette." PALSG. 

1 In the Vision of P. Ploughman this word signifies negligence, Fr. lachesse. 

" The lord, of hus lacchese, and hus luther sleuthe, 

By nom hym al that he hadde." 

See also line 4973. Chaucer says in the Persone's Tale, " Then cometh lachesse, that 
is, he that whan he beginneth any good werk, anon he wol forlete and stint it ;*' and 
uses the adjective "lache," sluggish or dull ; Boec. B. iv. Gower observes that the 
first and chief point of sloth is " lachesse," which has this property, to leave all things 
in arrear. Conf. Am. B. IV. See Jamieson, v. Lasche. Palsgrave gives the verb " I 
latche, I lagge, I tary behynde my company, Je tarde, and le targe." 

2 To latch, signifying to seize or catch, is a verb the use of which occurs in R. Brunne, 
p. 120 ; the Vision of P. Ploughm. 1279 ; Crede, 934 ; Cov. Myst. p. 29, &c. Chaucer 
speaks of a " nette or latch," set by Love to snare birds. In Will, and the Werwolf it is 
used in the sense of embracing : 

" Certes Sire J>at is so>, sede Will'm >anne, 

And lepes Ii3tli him to, and lacches him in armes." p. 163. 

See also p. 25. In Arund. MS. 42, f. 17, b. it is related how the wood of aloes is 
obtained, which grows on the mountain tops, near a lake beyond Babylon, and falling 
into the water, either from age and decay, or blown by the wind, the " folk |>at dwellen 
in J>at countre, or nere, casten nettys, or oj>er sley3tes, and lacchyn it, and so it is had." 
Palsgrave gives the verb " I latche, I catche a thyng that is throwen to me in my handes, 
or it fall to the grounde, le happe. If I had latched the potte betyme, it had nat fallen to 
the grounde." Forby gives to latch as used in Norfolk in this sense ; and Brockett 
states that it is still retained in the Northern dialect. Ang.-Sax. Jaeccan, prehendere. 

3 Cithara is rendered, in the Medulla, " a harpe," in the Ortus " a lewte ; " and in 
the latter occurs " cithnriso, to synge with a harpe." LAY HARPE seems here to 
denote the instrument in its use as an accompaniment to the voice. Thus Chaucer says, 

" Thise old gentil Britons in hir dayes 
Of diuers auentures maden layes, 
Rimeyed in hire firste Breton tonge 
Which layes with her instrumentys they songe." Cant. T. 11,022. 

See Tyrwhitt's observations on the derivation of the word lay. Ang.-Sax. ley, canticum. 
As, however, sambuca is defined by Papias, and other glossarists, to have the sense of 
" cithara rustica," lay harp may, possibly, imply the instrument used by the vulgar. 
The instrument called gymphonia, according to Uguitio, was a tamburine. 


pley wythe. 1 Ludibile, UG. lu- 

dibulum, adluricum, adri 

vel adros. 
LAY, londe not telyd. 2 Subce- 

tinum, c. F. (subsennum, KYLW. 

LAY, man or woman, no clerke. 

IlliteratuS) laicus, agramatus, 

c. F. 

LAK, or &efa,wte.Defectus, drfeccio. 
LAKE, orstondynge watur. Lacus, 

c. F. et CATH. 
LAKKYN', or blamyn' (dyspresyn, 

s.) 3 Vitupero, culpo. 

1 Lading, signifying a child's toy, is a word still used in the North, a^ Brockett 
observes. In the Towneley Myst. Mak tells the shepherds that his wife brings him 
every year " a lakan," and some years twins. The verb to layke, Ang.-Sax. lacan, 
ludere, and the substantive layke, disport, occur frequently in the old writers. See Sir F. 
Madden' s Glossaries to Will, and the Werwolf, and Gawayn ; Seuyn Sages, 3310; 
Minot, p. 10 ; Vision of P. Ploughm. line 341 ; Townel. Myst. pp. 96, 102, 141 . The 
local use of the verb is noticed in the Cheshire and Craven Glossaries, as likewise by 
Brockett. Skinner remarks that it is commonly heard throughout the North, a cir- 
cumstance which he is disposed to attribute to the Danish occupation. Dan. leeger, 
ludo. Bp. Kennett gives if Leikin, a sweet-heart, Northumb. ab A.-Sax. lician, 
placere." Lansd. MS. 1033. 

2 The Gloss on G. de Bibelesworth gives " terre freche, leylond ;" in the MS. in 
Sir Thos. Phillipps' collection, " leyje." " Rus, a leylonde. Ruricola, a tyleare of 
leylonde." MED. MS. CANT. " Selio, a lee lande." ORTUS. " Novale, falowe. Sellio, 
dnffliceleye." HARL. MS. 1002, f. 148. "A leylande, selio, frisca terra. Ley, is- 
calidus, isq-ualidus." CATH. ANG. " Iscolidus, a felde untylde." MED. "Lay lande, 
terre novuellement labovree." PALSG. " Rudetum, lande which hath leyen leye, and is 
newly put in tylthe.'' ELYOT. In the poem entitled the Hunttyng of the Hare, it is 
related how the hare escaped, " and feyr toke up a falow ley," no more to be seen 
by her pursuers. Ed. Weber, 152. Lay-land, according to Bailey, is fallow or un- 
ploughed land, and there are many places which have thence derived the name. Ang.- 
Sax. ley, terra inculta, novale. Forby observes that in central Suffolk a coarse old 
pasture is called a lay. Compare SOMYR laylond. Novale. 

3 Compare DYSPREYSYN', or lackyn'. " Vituperium, blame or lacke." ORT. Tolakk, 
depravare, Sec. ubi to blame." CATH. ANG. In the Vision of P. Ploughman, Envy says 
that when his neighbour met with a customer, whilst he sold nothing, he was ever ready 

" To lye and to loure on my neghebore, 
And to lakke his chaffare." 2736. 

. Chaucer uses the word precisely in the same sense, in Rom. of Rose. Fabyan, in 
" Lenuoy " of his viith part, excuses himself as unable to adapt his Chronicle to the 
liking of every reader, 

" And specyally to suche as haue theyr delyghtynge 
Euer wyth dysclaunder moste wryters to lacke, 
And barke whyle they maye, to sette good wryters a backe." 

" I lacke a thynge, I fynde faute at it, le trouue h redire. I lacke, I wante a thynge, 
Pay fault e. I lacke a penne.'' PALSG. Compare Dutch laecken, minuere, deterere. 
Lydgate uses the substantive lack in the sense of dispraise. See his poem to put in re- 
membrance of virtue and vice, of the diligent and the indolent. (Minor Poems, p. 84.) 

" Of whiche the reporte of both is thus reserved, 
With lawde, or lack, liche as they baue deserved." 



LAM, or loom, yonge scheep. 


LAME. ] Claudus. 
LAMYN, or make lame. Acclau- 

dico (claudico, K.) 
LAMMESSE. 2 Festum agnorum, 

vel Festum ad vincula Sancti 

LANE. Lanella, viculus (venella, 


L/ANERE. 3 Ligula, UG. in ligo. 

LANGAGE, or langwage. Idioma, 

LANGDEBEFE, herbe. Buglossa, 

CATH. lingua bovis. 
LANGELYD, or teyyn' to-gedyr. 

LANGELYN, or byynd to-geder. 4 

Colligo (compedio, p.) 
LANGURYN* yn sekenesse (lan- 

geryn, K.) 5 Langueo. 
LANRET,hauke. Tardarius, KYLW. 

1 Lame was formerly used in a more general sense than at present. In the Golden 
Legend it is related that a poor man came to St. Loye, " that hadde his honde styffe, 
and lame." " Lame of onehande, manchet. Lame of all ones lymmes,jt>m?/tt*. Lame- 
nesse, mehaygneteS' PALSG. Ang.-Sax. lam, claudus. 

* On the calends, or first of August, the festival of St. Peter ad vincula, it was cus- 
tomary in Anglo-Saxon times to make a votive offering of the first-fruits of the harvest, 
and thence the feast was termed hlaf-maesse, Lammas, from hlaf, panis, and msesse, 
missa, festum. In the Sarum Manual it is called Benedict novorum fructuwn. 
" Lammas, a feest, la Sainct Pierre aux liens. 1 ' PALSG. See Brand's Popular An- 

3 Compare THOWNGE, or lanere. " Lignla, a laynere, et fascia. Corriffia, a thong 
of lethur, or a layner." MED. " Ligula, a leynerde." Vocab. Harl. MS. IOCS?. "A 
lander, ligula, ligar. To lan^ere, ligulare." CATH. ANG. " Lanyer oflether, lasniere." 
PALSG. " Laniere, a long and narrow band, or thong of leather." COTG. Magister 
Joh. de Garlandia, speaking in his Dictionary of the trades of Paris in the Xlllth 
cent, says that the Merchants who dwelt on the great bridge sold " capistra, et lom- 
baria, vel lombanaria, ligulas et marsupia de corio porcino vel cervino,- " where the 
gloss is as follows : " ligulae, lanieres, velformechaz." In the accounts of Lucis le 
Borgne, tailor of Philippe de Valois, printed by Leber, is the item, in 1338, " ij. livres 
de soie de plusieurs couleurs, pour faire lanieres pour le Roy." Charles VI. in 1398, 
in consequence of a change in the fashion of nether garments, granted licence to the 
chausettiers of Paris to sell " chausses garnies d" aiguilettes OH lanieres. 1 ' Leber, Invent. 
467. Laniers, usually called points, from the tags with which they were tipped, were 
much used in ordinary dress, and for attaching the various portions of armour : when 
so employed they were termed arming points. Archseol. xvii. 296. In Chaucer's bril- 
liant picture of the preparations for a tournament, the following duties appear to have 
pertained to the esquires : 

" Nailing the speares, and helmes bokeling, 

Gigging of shields, with laniers lacing." Knight's Tale. 

In Norfolk the lash of a whip is called the lanner, or lanyer, which in Suffolk denotes 
only the leathern lash. See Forby, and Moore, v. Lanna. 

4 In the North to langel signifies to hopple, or fasten the legs with a thong. " Lanyels, 
side-lanyels, hopples for horses. Yorksh. Dial. p. 44." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033. 
See Grose, Craven Dialect, and Jamieson. To langle, in Norfolk, implies to saunter 
slowly, as if it were difficult to advance one foot before the other. 

6 Sesekenesse, MS. R. Brunne says that Adelard, King of Wessex, abdicated in 


LANTERNS. Lanterna, vel la- 
ter na, lucerna. 

LAPPE, skyrte (lappe, barme, K.) 1 
Gremium (birrus, c. F. s.) 

(LAPPE of the ere, infra in 
TYPPE. Pinnula, c. F.) 

LAPPYN', or whappyn' yn clobys 
(happyn to-gedyr, s. wrap to- 
geder in clothes, p.) 2 Involvo. 

LAPPYN', as howndys. Lambo. 

LAPPYNGE of howndys. Lambitus. 


favour of Uttred his cousin, " and died in langoure ;" p. 6*. Chaucer speaks of Damian 
as one that " langureth for loue." Merch. Tale, 9741. Fr. langourir, ROQUEF. 

1 The word lap, according to many ancient writers, signified the skirt of a garment. 
Thus G. de Bibelesworth says, 

" Car par deuant avez esJcours (lappes,) 
Et d'en costd sont vos girouns (sidgoren.)" 

It denoted likewise the hinder skirt, as in Seuyn Sages, 899, where the herdsman is 
described as picking haws, and filling with them first his " barm," and afterwards " his 
other lappe." In Emare also, v. 652, Egarye, being cruelly exposed with her child, 
conceals her face "with the hynther lappes" of her large and wide surcote. See 
moreover Amis and Amiloun, 988 ; Chaucer, Clerk's Tale, 8461. In the Life of St. 
Dominic, in the Golden Legend, it is related that on a certain occasion, when the friars 
had little bread, there came two young men, " whiche entred into the refectorye or 
fray tour, and the lappes of theyr mantells y 1 henge on theyr necke were full of breed," 
which they gave to the Saint. " Lappe, or skyrt, gyron." PALSG. " Gabinus, a garment 
with two lappes, wherof the one cast backward," &c. ELYOT. Ang.-Sax. lappa t> /ftndrfa. 
The word is also used, by analogy, to denote the lower part of the ear : " A lappe of y e 
ere, cartilagia, legia." CATH. ANG. Horman says that " yf the lappe of the eare wax 
redde, there is somewhat amysse. Ldbo rubescente aliquod peccatum est." 

3 " Plico, to folde, or lappe. Volvo, to turne or lappe." MED. " Obvolvo, to lappe 
about. Involutus, i. circumdatus, lapped or wrapped. Involutio, a lappynge in. 
Epiphio, i. equnm totaliter ornare, lappynge of a horse." ORTUS. " To lappe, volvere, 
convolvers. To lapp in, intricare, involvere. A lappynge in,'' &c. CATH. ANG. This 
verb is used most commonly in the sense of wrapping, as a garment. See Cheuelere 
Assigne, p. 101 ; Wicl. Version, Math, xxvii. 59; Gower, Conf. Am.; Cov. Myst. 
p. 125. In the Wicliffite version it is written repeatedly " wlappe,"as in Isai.xxxvii. 1, 
" Whanne Kyng Ezechie hadde herd, he to rent hise clojns, and he was wlappid in a 
sak (pbvolutus est sacco," Vulg.) See also Job, iii. 5. ; Mark, xv. 46. John Paston 
writes to his wife, about 1490, for a plaster of her "flos unguentorum," to be applied 
to the knee of the Attorney-general, to whom he was under obligation ; and bids her 
write " whethyr he must lape eny more clothys aboute the playster to kepe it warme, 
or nought." Paston Letters, V. 346. To bi-lappe signifies to surround, or close in. Sir 
Amiloun in a dream saw his brother Amis " bilappid among his fon " Amis and Amil. 
1014. Hampole uses the compounded word "umbilape" (Ang.-Sax. umbe, ymb, 
circurn), as in the Prick of Conscience, where he says amongst the pains of hell, that 
the " vermyne salle vmbelape >aim all abowte." Harl. MS. 6923, f. 94. Latimer, in 
his Vth sermon on the Lord's Prayer, says, "Note here that our Saviour biddeth us to 
say, us ; this us lappeth in all other men with my prayer." Palsgrave gives the fol- 
lowing phrases : " Lappe this chylde well, for the weather is colde, enuelopez bien, &c. 
Lappe this hoode aboute your head, affublez vous de ce chaperon." " Plisser, to plait, 
fould, lap up, or one within another, whence also to plash." OOTG. To lap is still 
used in the sense of wrapping, in Warwickshire. Compare WAPPON, or hyllyn wythe. 
clothys : Tego; and WAPPYN, or wyndyn a-bowte yn clothys : Involvo. 



LAPWYNKE, or wype, byrde (lappe- 

wynge, K. lapwhyng, s.) Upipa. 
LARDE of flesche. Larda, vel 

lardum, c. F. 

LAARDERE. Lardarium. 
LAARDYD. Lardatus. 
LARDYN flesche, or other lyke. 


LAARDYNGE. Lardacio. 
LARGE, hey, longe, and semely. 

Procerus, CATH. 
LARGE. Largus, amplus. 
LARGYN, or make large. Amplio, 


LARGELY. Largiter. 
LARGENESSE. Largitas. 
LARKE, byrde. Alauda. 
LASCHE, stroke. Ligula (fla- 

grum, P.) 
LASCHE, or to fresche, and vn- 

savery (laysch, H.) 1 Vapidus, 

CATH. insipidus. 
LASSCHYN* (lashyn, supra in 

betyn, K.) Ligulo, verbero. 

LASCHYNGE, or betynge. Verier 

(verberacio, P.) 
LASTEofalle. Ultimus, novissi- 

mus, postremus, extremus. 
LASTE, save one. Penultimus. 
LATE, not redyly. Tarde. 
LATE, tyme passyd. Nuper. 
LATE frute. Sirotinus. 
(LATEN, or laton, metall, P. Au- 

ricalcum, electrum.) 
LATENERE, or latennare (latonere, 

s.) Erarius, CATH. aurical- 


(LATHE, supra in BERNE.) 2 
LATHE, for howsys (latthe, K. p. 

lath the for howsynge, s.) Tig- 

nusy vel tignum, COMM. c. F. 

latha, KYLW. et NECC, tigillum, 

c. F. et NECC. 


LAATYN', wenyn', or deniyn'. 4 
Puto, reor, opinor (reputo, p.) 

LAATYN to ferme (or fermyn, p.) 
Loco, c. F. 

1 Lash, or lashy, signifies in Norfolk soft and watery, as applied to fruits. Forby 
derives the word from Fr. Idche. A lash egg is an egg without a fully-formed shell. 
Palsgrave gives only " lashe, nat fast, lache. Lasshnesse, laschetd." In the North 
cold and moist weather, when it does not actually rain, is called lasche. Brockett. 

3 " Horreum est locus ubi reponitur annona, a barne, a lathe. Grangia, lathe or 
grange." ORTUS. " Orreum, granarium, lathe." Vocab. Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. 
" A lathe, apotheca, horreum." CATH. ANG. This word is used by Chaucer, Reve's 
Tale, 4086. Harrison, speaking of the partition of England into shires and lathes, 
says, " Some as it were roming or rouing at the name Lath, do saie that it is derived 
of a barn, which is called in Old English a lath, as they coniecture. From which 
speech in like sort some deriue the word Laistow, as if it should be trulie written 
Lathstow, a place wherein to laie vp or laie on things." Descr. of Eng. Holinsh. Chron. 
i. 153. Skinner gives Lath as most commonly used in Lincolnshire, and derives it 
from to lade, because it is loaded with the fruits of the earth. Bp. Kennett notices it 
also as a Lincolnshire word, and gives the derivation Ang.-Sax. gelaftian, congregare 
fruges. Lansd. MS. 1033. It is retained in the dialect of the North. See Hallamshire 

3 Latchyn, MS. This verb occurs after LATE blod ; and is not found in the other MSS. 

* The verb to lete of, signifying to take account of or esteem, is used by R. Brunne, 
as in the phrases, " J>er of wel he lete bei lete of him so lite." Langt. Chron. p. 
45. In the Vision of P. Ploughm, to lete occurs repeatedly in the same sense, as in 



LAATYN' huly (latyn haly, K. H. 

S.P. orasemys, H.p.) 1 Indignor, 

LATYN', orlevyn (leuynorletyn, p.) 

Dimitto-) relinquo, derelinquo. 
(LATYN, or demyn in word, or 

hert, s. Arbitror, rear.) 
LATYN, or sufferyfi a thynge to 

been (to be doon', s.) Permitto. 
LATE blod. Fleobotomo, UG. et 

KYLW. flegbotomo, KYLW. 
LATYNE (spech, s.) Latinum 

(Romanum, P.) 

LATONERE, or he J>at vsythe 

Latyn' speche (Latonyster, or he 

bat speky]> Latyn, s.) 2 Latinista. 
LA TON', metal (laten or laton me- 

tall, p.) 3 Auricalcum, UG. in 

aer, electrum, c. F. 
LAWE. Jus, lex. 
LAWE brekare. Legirumpus. 
LAW of Godde. Phas, unde 

versus; Phas lex divina, jus 

est humana potestas. 
LAWFULLE. Legitimus, juri- 

dicus, legalis. 

the line " all that men saine, he lete it soth." See also v. 4132, 9595, &c. Jamieson, 
under the word Lat, has cited several passages where it is used by the poets of the 
North. Ang.-Sax. Isetan, putare, admittere. Compare the provincial use of the verb 
to lete, or leeten, to pretend or make a show of, given by Junius and Mr. Wilbraham 
as retained in Cheshire. See also Jamieson, v. Lait and Leet. 

1 Compare HALT, or behatyd, Exosus. " Huly, peevish, fretfull. When a man is 
not easily pleased, or seems captious and froward, he is said to be huly, and a huly 
man ; Dunelm." Bp. Kennett, Lansd. MS. 1033. 

2 Selden remarks that acquaintance with the Latin tongue was considered such an 
attainment that Latinista, Latinator, or Latinarius, became significant of an interpreter 
in general. Hugo Latinarius is mentioned in Domesday. Latinier, as Roquefort ex- 
plains it, signified commonly an Interpreter, truchement, or dragoman. He cites the 
Roman de Garin, where mention occurs of a Latinier, whose attainments extended to 
speaking " Roman, Enalois, Gallois, et Breton, et Norman." Sir John Maundevile, 
speaking of the routes to the Holy Land, says of the one by way of Babylon, " And alle 
weys fynden men Latyneres to go with hem in the contrees and ferthere bejonde, in to 
tyme that men conne the langage." Voiage, p. 71. In R. Coer de Lion, 2473, 2491, 
K. Alis. 7089, the words latymer, latimeris, as printed by Weber, "lave the same sense. 

3 Latten, a hard mixed metal much resembling brass, was largely used in former 
times, especially in the formation of sepulchral memorials. The precise nature of its 
composition does not appear to have been accurately ascertained. It is repeatedly 
mentioned as a metal of a bright and golden colour ; Chaucer uses the comparison that 
Phoebus " hewed like latoun." Gower speaks of it as distinct from brass, as it seems 
properly to have been, although occasionally confounded therewith, and even with 
copper. " Auricalcum, i.fex auri, laten or coper." ORTUS. " Auricalcum, Anglice 
goldefome; Electrinum, latyne." Harl. MS. 1002, f. 149. "Latyn metall, lain." 
PALSG. Latten was probably obtained from Germany. In the covenants for the work- 
manship of the effigy of Richard Beauchamp, 1454, by Thos. Stevyns, copper-smith of 
London, the metal is described as "latten," or " Cullen plate," (Cologne?) the value 
of which was lOd. a pound. The remote derivation of the word is very obscure : it 
was probably adopted in England from the German Letton, or French laiton. Compare 
Dutch lattoen, Isl. laatun, Ital. oftone, lattone, Span, alaton, laton. Plate tin had also 
the appellation latten. See Forby and Brockett, and the remarks of Nares and Jamieson, 




LAVENDERE, herbe. Lavendula. 
(LAUENDER, wassher, p. or lawn- 

dere, infra. 1 Lotrix.) 
LA WERE, or lawyer. Legista, 

Jurista, legisperitus, jurispe- 

ritus, scriba. 
LAWHYN' (lawyn, K. laughen, p.) 

LAWHYN to skorne (lawyn, K. 

lawgben,. P.) Derideo, irrideo. 

LAWGHYNGE(lawhinge, K.*)Risus. 

LAWMPE. Lampas (lampada, P.) 

. Ticendulwm,c.'F. 

LAWMPERY. Murena, lampreda. 

LAWMPEROWNE (lamprun, p.) 
Lampredula, murenula. 

LAWNCEGAY. 2 Lancea. 

LAWNCE.NT, or blode yryne (lawn- 
set, K. lawncot, s.) Lanceola, c. r. 

LAWNCHE, o(r) skyppe. Saltus, UG. 

LAWNCHYN, or skyppyn ouer a 
dyke, or ober thyngys lyke (ouer 
a dyche, p.) 3 Perconto,persalto. 

LAWNCYN, or stynge wythe a 

1 This term is used by Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, Prol. 358, and is taken 
from the French. ' ' Lau(e)ndre, a wassher, lauendiere. Laundre that wassheth clothes," 
id. PALSG. " Candidaria, lotrix pannorum, a wasshere, and alavyndere." MED. " Al- 
tiatrix, candidaria, blecherre, or lawnderre." Vocab. Harl. MS. 15&7. " A lawnder, 
candidaria, lotrix." CATH. ANG. Caxton says, in the Boke for Travellers, " Beatrice 
the lauendre shall come hethir after diner, so gyue her the lynnen clothis." W. Thomas, 
in his Rules of Ital. Grammar, gives " lauandaia, a launder that wassheth cloathes." 
See Jamieson, v. Layndar. 

2 The precise nature of this weapon, as likewise the etymology of its name, is still 
questionable ; it was probably adopted in this country from the French, but the deri- 
vation from the name of an Eastern or Moorish weapon, called zagaye, arzegaye, OF 
assagay, seems more reasonable than that which has been proposed, lance aigue. That 
it was a missile weapon is apparent from Guill. de St. Andre, who wrote about the 
middle of XlVth cent, and speaks of throwing " dardes, javelots, lances-gayes ;" but 
Guiart seems to mention the " arehegaie " as a thrusting weapon, rather than a mis- 
sile. Carre gives a comparison of the Lance-guaye, or archegaye, of the Franks, with 
the Oriental zagaye, and considers them as missiles. Armes des Fran9ais, p. 198. From 
" the Rime of Sire Thopas," which describes him as going forth to ride with " alaunce- 
gay " in his hand and long sword at his side, it appears to have been a weapon carried 
for occasional defence, rather than a proper part of equipment for war or the tourna- 
ment." Cant. T. 13,682. The stat. 7 Ric. III. c. 13,. confirming the stat. of North- 
ampton, 2 Edw. III. c. 3, against riding, or appearing in public assemblies, with force 
and arms, ordains " qe desoremes nulle homme chivache deinz el Roialme armez ne 
ovesque lancegay deinz mesme de Roialme ; les queux lancegayes soient de tout oustez 
deinz le dit Roialme, come chose def endue par nostre seigneur le Roi, sur peine de 

forfaiture dicelx lancegaies, armures, et autres herneys quelconges." Compare stat. 20 
Ric. II. c. 1 ; Stat. of Realm, ii. 35, 92. In the Rolls of Parl. V. 212, there is a 
petition for vengeance by the widow of a person who had been murdered in 1450 by 
a gang of men " arraied infourme of werre, with jakkes, salettez, longe swerdes, long- 
debeofs, boresperes, and other unmerciable forbodon wepons," one of whom "smote 
him with a launcegay thorough the the body, a fote and more." In 1459 there were 
found in the Great Hall of Sir John Fastolfe, at Caistor, Norfolk, cross-bows, a boar, 
spear, a target, " xxj. speris : Item, j. launcegay." Archseol. xxi. 272. "Launcegay, 
iaueleyne." PALSG. 

3 Perconito, MS. perconto, p. ; a verb apparently derived from contus, a pole. " To 
launch, to take long strides. That long-legg'd fellow comes launching along." FOKBY. 


spere, or blode yryne (lawnchyn, 

K. s.) Lanceo. 
(LAUNDE clothe, p.) 
LAWNDE. of a wode. 1 Saltus, UG. 

in salio. 

LAVOWRE (lawowre, K. lavre, H. 

lawere, s.) Lavatorium. 
LA(U)RYOL, herbe (lawryal, K. 

lawryol, s.) Laureola. 

LAWNDERE (or lavendyre, K. la- 

vunder, H.) Lotor, lotrix. 
LEE of threde. 2 Ligatura. 
LABBARDE (lebbard, K. s. p.) 

LEECE, or lees, of howndys. 3 

KYLW. veltrea. 
LECHE, mann or woman. 4 Medicus, 

LECHE, wy(r)m of be watur 

1 Camden, in his Remains, explains laund as signifying a plain among trees. Thus 
in the account of the hunting expedition, Ipomydon, 383, the Queen's pavillion was 
pitched at a "laund on hight," whence she might command a view of all the game of 
the forest. Compare Vision of P. Ploughm. 5028, 10,248 ; Chaucer, Compl. of Black 
Knyght; Shakespeare, Hen. VI. pt. i. III. 1. In Cullum's Hawsted a rental dated 
1509 makes mention of " 9 acres in campo vocato le lawnde." " Indago, a parke, a 
huntyng place, or a lawnde." GRTUS. "A lawnde, saltus." CATH. ANG. " Launde 
a playne, launde." PALSG. "Lama, a launde or playne. Landa, id." W.Thomas, 
Ital. Gr. " Lande, a land or launde, a wild untilled shrubbie or bushy plaine." COTG, 

2 Compare LEGGE. Forty threads of hemp-yarn are termed in Norfolk a lea. The 
"lea "by which linen yarn was estimated at Kidderminster, contained 200 threads. Stat. 
22 and 23 ar. II. c. 8. 

3 " A lese, laxa.^ CATH. ANG. " Lesshe for a grehounde, lais, lesse." PALSG. In 
the note on the word FUTE, p. 183, it was suggested that the term feuterer might thence 
be derived ; Sir F. Madden likewise, in his Glossary to Gawayn, had explained 
" Vewter," Gawayn and Grene Knyjt, 1 146, as denoting the huntsman who tracked the 
deer by the fewte or odour. It seems probable, however, that the derivation given by 
Blount, Bp. Kennett, and other glossarists, is more correct. The Gaulish hounds, of 
which Martial and Ovid speak, termed vertagi, or veltres, appear to have been grey- 
hounds, and hence the appellations veltro, Ital. viautre, vaultre, Fr. Welter, Germ, 
The Promptorium gives GREHOWNDE, veltres, p. 209 ; and from the practice of leading 
these dogs in couples, the leash appears to have received the name veltrea, here given, 
a word unnoticed by Ducange. The " mmisteriitm de Veltrarid " is mentioned in 
Rot. Pip. 5 Steph. In the Household Constitutions of Hen. II. Liber Niger Scacc. 
i. 356, amongst the stipends assigned to the different officers connected with the chace, 
is the statement, " Veltrarii, unusquisque iij.d. In die, et ij.d. hominibus suis ; et uni- 
cuique leporario ob. in die." Blount has cited the Tenure of Setene, in Kent, by the 
service of providing one veltrarius, to lead three greyhounds, when the King should go 
into Gascony, as appears by Esch. 34 Edw. I. and Rot. Fin. 2 Edw. II. where the word 
is written vautrarius. Various details regarding the duties of the " foutreres," and 
their fee, or share of the produce of the chace, will be found in the Mayster of Game, 
.Vesp. B. xn. f. 99, 104, b. Of the dogs termed veltres, veltrahi, vertragi, &c. see 
further in Ducange, v. Cants. At a later time the vaultre was a mongrel hound, used 
in hunting bears and boars, as Nicot observes, " C'est une espece de chien entre allant 
et mastin, dont on chas&e aux ours et sang Hers." The feuterers appear to have been 
.at a later period termed " children of the lesh : '* they were four in number, in the 
household of Hen. VIII. 1526, as appears by the Ordinances of Eltham. 

. 4 Compare FYSYCIAN', or leche, p. 163. "A leche, aliptes, empiricus, medicus, cirur- 
gicus, A leche house, Icuiiena, quia infirmi ibi laniantur" CATH. ANG. " Leche, a surgion, 


(wurme, H.) Sanguissuga, 

LECHE of flesche, or o)>er mete. 1 

LEED, metalle. Plumbum. 

LEEDARE, or plummare (plum- 
bare, s.) Plumbarius. 

LEDARE, or gyde. JDuctor, di- 

LEEDYD. Plumlatus. 
LEEDYN' wythe leed. Plumbo. 
LEDYN', or wyssyfi. Duco, con- 

duco, perduco. 
LEDYN' A-WEY. Abduco. 
LEDYN' A-3EN. Reduco. 
LEDYN YN. Induco, introduco. 
(LEDEN OUER, p. Transduco.) 

servrgion. I leche, I heale one of a sore wounde as a cyrurgyen dothe. legueris" PALSG. 
Ang.-Sax. laece, medicus. The appellation was used to denote those who professed any 
branch of the healing art, as well as the ladies, who frequently supplied the place of the 
regular practitioners. Amongst the innumerable treatises of the ancient herbalists few 
afford a more curious insight into the practices of leech-craft, about the period when the 
Promptorium was compiled, than Arund. MS. 42. The author, who had a herb-garden 
at Stepney, states that he "knew a lady, J?e lady Sowche, be beste Godys leche of Bry3th- 
lond, in women," and recounts her practice in preparing a nostrum, termed " nerual." 
f. 22. The fourth, or ring finger, was called the leech finger, from the pulsation 
therein found, and supposed to be in more direct communication with the heart, as in 
the tract attributed to Joh. de Garlandia, under the title of Distigius, Harl. MS. 1002, 
f. 115, it is said, " Stat medius (medylle fyngure) medio, medicus (leche fyngure) jam 
convenit (accordyt) effro. 1 " In another line the fingers are thus enumerated : " Pollex, 
index, medius, medicus, auricularis." CATH. ANG. See Brand's Popular Antiquities. 

1 The term leche, which occurs frequently in connection with ancient cookery, had 
two distinct significations. It denoted such viands as it was usual to serve in slices, 
probably for the sake of convenience, before the general use of forks. " Lesche, a long 
slice, or shive of bread, &c." COTG. The nature and variety of dishes thus to be served 
may be learned from Harl. MS. 279, where recipes are given for 64 different " Leche 
vyaundys ;" and where the meaning of the verb to leche is evident from such directions 
as the following : " Brawn in comfyte leche it fayre wyth a knyff, but not to binne, 
and ban }if bou wolt bou my3t take be rybbys of be bore al bare, and chete hem en- 
longys borw be lechys, an so serue forth a leche or to in euery dysshe." f. 27, b. 
Compare the use of the verb to " leshe," Forme of Cury, pp. 36, 56, 57 ; " yleeshed," 
p. 18. Compare the " leychedbeefe" as ordered for supper in the dietary of the Prin- 
cess Cecill, with the item " beefe sliced," in the Ordinances of Eltham, Househ. Ord. 
pp. *38, 181. R. Holme gives this signification, iii. p. 78, and another sense, namely, 
" a kind of jelly, made of cream, isinglass, sugar, and almonds." p. 83. " White leach, 
gelatina amigdalorum." BARET. " Leche made of flesshe, yelee." PALSG. One leche- 
meat appears to have formed an ordinary portion of every course, as may be gathered from 
the bills of fare at various great festivities, HarL MS. 279, f. 44, and from the accounts 
of the installation feasts of Abp. Nevill, 1466, Lei. Coll. vi. 6; of Abp. Morton, 1478, 
Arnold's Chron. 239 ; and the coronation banquet of Elizabeth, Queen of Hen. VII. 
1487, Lei. Coll. iv. 226. The various kinds of " leche " named in these documents 
appear to have ranged with " suttleties," such as "leche Lumbart gylt, partie gelly, 
leche porpul, damaske, reiall, ciprus, rube, Florentine," &c. See further the Roll of 
Cookery appended to the Household Ordinances ; the Liber cure cocorum, Sloane MS. 
1986 ; and Cott. MS. Jul. D. vin. Skinner interprets brawn lechyd, which is men- 
tioned in the St. Alban's Book, as signifying " aper medicatus, aromatis conditus ;" as 
if the term had some connection with Ang.-Sax. Irece, medicus. 



LEDYN TO. Adduco. 

(LEDE wythe a carte, supra in 

CARTYN'. Caruco, CATH.) 1 
LEEDYNGE wythe leed. Plum- 

LEDYNGE, or wyssynge (wysynge 

in the way, K. gydinge, p.) Du- 

LEDYR, or lebyr, or lethyr (leyre, 

or lebyre, s. leddyr, or lethyr, 

p.) 2 Corium. 

LEDDERE, or ladder. Scala. 
LEDDYR stafe. 3 Scalar ium, sea- 

lare, CATH. 
LEEF of a book, or a tre, or ober 

lyke. Folium. 
LEEFEO a vyne. Pampinus, UG. 

in pando. 

LEFE, and dere. 4 Carus. 

LEFTE, or forsakyn'. Dimissus, 
derelictus, relictus. 

LEFT, or thynge bat ys on the 
lyfte syde. Sinister. 

LEFT hande. Sinistra, leva. 

LEFT hande man (handid man, 
K. s.) Mancinus, CATH. 

LEFULLE, or lawfulle. Licitus. 

LEG. Tibia. 

LEG harneys. Tibialia. 

LEGGE, ouer twarte byndynge 
(ouer wart, s. ledge, p.) 5 Li- 
gat or ium. 

LEGENDE (boke, s.) Legenda. 

LEGISTER. Legista, jurista. 

LEGYON' (or legivn', s.) Legio. 

LECHERY (lehcherye, K. lechchery, 

1 An instance of this use of the verb to lead has been already given in the note on 
CARTYN', p. 62. Sir John Maundevile uses it in the sense of carrying, generally, as in 
the following passage : " That arke or hucche, with the relikes, Tytus ledde with hym 
to Rome, whan he had scomfyted alle the Jewes." Voiage, p. 102. In the Liber Niger 
Regis Edw. IV. an ordinance is given that no seller of wheat for the use of the King's 
house " be compelled to lede or carrye his wheete, pourveyed for this household, 
towards the Kinges garner," more than the distance of 10 miles at his own cost. 
Household Ordin. p. 68. A municipal regulation, cited in Beesley's Hist, of Banbury, 
p. 233, prescribed in 1564, " that no maner of person shall feche, leed, or cary any 
donge or mucke furthe of the towne, but betwene the fyrst day of May and the feest of 
Seint Michell th' Arckangell.'' Among the trades enumerated in the order of the pa- 
geants of the play of Corpus Christi at York, 1415, occur "water leders.'' Drake's 
Hist. App. " I lede a man or thynge aboute a towne vpon a hardell, or after a horse, 
Je trayne." PALSG. 

2 The marked distinction made by the author, in this and several other instances, 
between the Saxon character J? and the equivalent expression th, is deserving of notice. 
It is probable that the reading of the MS. HERTYS LETHYR, or lethyr 1 , as it has been 
printed, p. 238, is faulty, and the following correction may be suggested, le)>yr, or 
lethyr. Ang.-Sax. leiSer, corium. Bp. Kennett gives "leer, leather, hence Banda- 
leers. Leer, corium. Kilian." Lansd. MS. 1033. 

3 The explanation of scalar e given in the Catholicon defines it as signifying " lignum 
transverso in scald positum, quod et hoc interscalare dicitur." "A ledder staffe, 
scalare." CATH. ANG. The transverse bars are more commonly termed the rounds or 
rungs of the ladder. Chaucer speaks of the " ronges " of a ladder, Miller's T. 3625. 

4 Lefe, or lief, beloved, is a word which occurs in most of the old writers. Chaucer 
and Gower use it as a substantive. Ang.-Sax. leof, dilectus. " Lefe, lyefe, dere, cher. 
Lefenesse, cherete. Lefe or yuell." PALSG. 

6 In Norfolk a bar of a gate, or stile, of a chair, table, &c. is termed a ledge, accord- 
ing to Forby. " Ledge of a dore, barre. Ledge of a shelfe, apvy t estaye." PALSG. 


s. letchery, p.) Luxuria, me- 
chia,fornicacio* Venus. 

LECHOWRE (lehchour, K.) For- 
nicator, lectator, leno, fornica- 
trix, lectatviX) mecha, lena (le- 
cator, P.) 

LEYARE, or werkare wythe stone 
and mortere. 1 Cementarius. 

LEYD, or put. Positus. 

LEY for waschynge (or lye, infra, 
leye, K. lye for wesshynge of 
heddys, s.) 2 Lixivium, c. F. et 
UG. in luxos. 

LEYYNGE of a thynge. Posicio. 

LEYN', or putty n (to, s.) Pono, 
depono (repono, s.) 

LEYN' eggys, as hennys (eyryn, 
K. eyre, s.) Ovo, c. F.pono. 

1 In the accounts of works at the palace of Westminster and the Tower during the 
XlVth cent, preserved amongst the miscellaneous records of the Queen's Remem- 
brancer, mention is made continually of " culatores," 1 or stone layers. See also the 
abstracts of accounts relating to the erection of St. Stephen's Chapel, in the reign of 
Edw. III. printed in Smith's Antiqu. of Westm. In the contract for building Fother- 
inghay Church, 1425, the chief mason undertakes neither to " set mo nor fewer free- 
masons, rogh setters ne leye(r)s," upon the work, but as the appointed overseer shall 
ordain. Dugdale, Mon. iii. 164, Collegiate Churches. 

- Lixinum, MS. and s. Uguitio gives lixen, aqua, whence "lixinum, quia sit ex aqud 
et cinere." Arund. MS. 508. The early romances and Chaucer's poems afford evidence 
that yellow or light-coloured hair was in special esteem. The fashion prevailed at a 
very early period, as appears from the writings of Tertullian, who reproaches Christian 
women with an affectation of seeking to resemble in this respect those of Germany and 
Gaul. The art of producing this colour artificially was termed crocupkantea, and is 
condemned by St. Cyprian and St. Jerome as a sinful vanity, and by Galen as preju- 
dicial to health. At the time when the Promptorium was compiled this fashion con- 
tinued in full force, and numerous artificial expedients had been devised for supplying 
the defect of nature, by means of some vegetable decoction or lie, whereby, with sub- 
sequent exposure to the sun, the hair might be made to assume the desired colour. The 
herbals and medicinal treatises of the XVth cent, indicate a great variety of processes 
which were adopted for colouring or preserving the hair. In Arundel MS. 42, f. 82, 
the decoction of madder is recommended to make it red, and the juice of sage applied 
in the hot sun to make it black ; f. 77, b. The virtues of the lily are commended for 
making hair to grow again, and the oil of hazel nuts as infallible against " mowtynge 
of here," f. 59 ; and an effectual depilatory " for-doyng here " is given at f. 35. The 
strangest substances were in request for such purposes : thus in Jul. D. vin. f. 79, b. 

*' lixivium de cinere fimi columbi" is recommended as an approved remedy against 
the falling of hair. The extent to which such artificial aids were made available at a 
later period appears from the numberless prescriptions given by Gerarde, Parkinson, 
Langham, in his Garden of Health, 1579, and similar writers. See the satirical ob- 
servations of Bulwer on this subject, in the Artificial Changling, 1653. Horman, who 
wrote at the commencement of the reign of Hen. VIII. says that " maydens were 
sylken callis, with the whiche they keepe in ordre theyr heare made yelowe with lye ; 
comas lixivio ruffatas sive rutulatas. Women chaunge the naturall colour of theyr 
heare with crafty colour and sonnyng. Some cherisshe theyr busshis of heare with moche 
kymbeynge and wesshynge in lye. He maketh his heare yelowe bycause he wolde seme 
lustye ; rutilat capillos ut vegetus appareat. His heare was lyght ambre." Vulgaria, 
1519. To such practices allusion is perhaps made in the Promptorium by the word HEED 

-WASCHYNGE, which will be found above, p. 232. "Lee, lixivium, lorium." CATH. 
ANU. Palsgrave gives only " lye to wasshe with, lessiue." Ang.-Sax. leah, lixivium. 


LEYN TO, or put to (leyn to, or 

ley to, s.) Appono. 
LEYN, or leye waiowre. Vadio, 


LEYN to wedde. Pignoro, im- 

LEYNYN' (lenyn, or restyn, K.) 

Podio, appodio. 


LE(Y)NYNGE staffe. 2 Calopodium, 

podium, c. F. CATH. 
LEYSERE. Oportunitas. 
LEEK, or garleke. Alleum. 
LEEK, or porret. Porrum, CATH. 

c. F. 

LEEK pottage. Porrata, CATH. 
LEEM, or lowe (lawe, H.^Flamma. 
LEMMAN. 4 Concubina, amasia. 

1 Levynge, MS. lenynge, K. s. P. 

* Podium is explained in the Catholicon and Ortus to be "baculus super quern innitimur, 
cum quo sepe terramferimus, a lene.*' Ducange cites the Usus Ord. Cisterc. c. 68, where 
by this term is implied "pars formee monachicce, cui monachi, cum procumbunt, inni- 
tuntur;" and it seems possible that allusion is here made by Friar Geoffrey to the staff 
which, according to the usage in some establishments, served to give an occasional 
support during the long services of the choir, an object which was more usually attained 
by means of the misericorde, orformella. In some of the German churches the use of 
the leaning staff is still retained, and a remarkable specimen, apparently of German 
workmanship, now preserved in the De Bruges collection at Paris, was intended, as 
Lenoir supposed, to answer this purpose. The curious character of its ornaments in- 
dicates its having been fashioned for some sacred use, and the lion statant, by which it is 
surmounted, gives it, in some measure, the form of the Tau staff, as it has been termed. 
Hist, des Arts en France, pi. xxxvii. ' Leanyng stocke, appuialS' PALSG. 

3 Leme, a shining light, Ang.-Sax. leoma, jubar, is a word not uncommonly used by 
the old writers; see R. Glouc. p. 186; Vision of Piers P. 12,324; Cant. Tales, 
14,836. " Fufyus, lemynge >at touchethe. Fulgur, lemynge J>at brennethe. Casma r 
brennynge of the leeme of the fyre.'' MED. MS. CANT. In the Abbbreviata Chronica 
printed by the Camb. Antiqu. Soc. from the MS. at Caius Coll. it is recorded, A.D.. 
1402, " hoc anno apparuit stella comata, Anglice vocata lemyng sterr, prognosticanS 
bellum futurum, vid. bellum Salopie." Fabyan relates that in 7 Will. Rufus "grysly 
and vncouth syghtes were sene, as hostes of men fightyng in y e skye, and fyre lemys 
and other." Compare GLEMYNGE, or lemynge of lyghte, p. 198. See also hereafter 
STEEM, or lowe of fyre, and STEMYNGE, or lemynge of fyyr. Bp. Kennett notices learn 
as signifying a flash or blaze of fire, in Durham ; Lansd. MS. 1033 ; and Brockett gives 
learn, as retained in the Northern Dialect. 

4 Junius derives this term from Ang.-Sax. leof, dilectus, and man, denoting the 
human species generally, without distinction of sex. Hickes in his A.S. Grammar gives 
leue-mon, amasius, Norm. -Sax. ; by R. Glouc. the word is written lefmon, p. 344 ; 
and in the Winchester MS. of the Promptorium leefman' is given as synonymous with 
SPECYAL, concubyne, the man. The editor of the Towneley Mysteries would deduce an 
argument for the antiquity of that work from the fact that lemman occurs therein solely 
in the primary and simple sense of a person beloved. It is thus used also by R. Brunne, 
p. 236 ; but it more commonly denotes one loved illicitly, or with mere gallantry, as 
the word is used by Chaucer and Gower, and applied to either sex. " Bassaris, a mylche 
cowe, or a prestys lemmande.'' Vocab. Harl. MS. 1002. "A leman, amasius, amasia, 
concubina, focaria, peleae ; pelignus, peliyna, filius vel filia ejus; multicuba, multi- 
gamus, polidamas. A lemanry, concubitus, concubinatus." CATH. ANG. "Amasius, 
qui intemperate amat, a lemman, or a louer. Amasia, i. mulier qui amat sine lege, at 
lemman. dncuba, i. concubina, vel succuba, a lemman. Concubina est que ad usum 



LEMYN', or lowyn' as fyyr (as 

lowe of fyre, K. H. p.) 1 Flammo. 
LEMYNGE, or lowynge of fyyre. 

LEND A RE, or he bat (lendythe, 

H. s.) a thynge. Fenerator, 

LEEND, lym of a beeste (or ludd- 

ok, infra, lende, K. p.) 2 Lumbus. 

LEENDYN. Presto, fenero, CATH. 

feneror, CATH. mutuo (concedo, 

H. credo, P.) 
LENDYNGE. Mut(u)acio. 

LENE, not fet. Macer, macilen- 

LENESSE, or lennesse (sic, s. 
lene fleshe, K.) Macies, ma- 
credo, macritudo, CATH. 

LENYN, or make lene. Macero. 

LEENGE, fysche. 3 Lucius ma- 
rinus (longenus, P.) 

LENGTHE. Longitudo. 

LENTE,holytyme. Quadragesima. 

LEEP, or baskett (lepp, K.) 4 
Sporta, calathus, corbis, CATH. 
et c. F. canistrum. 

Veneris non legitime tenetur, a lemman." ORTUS. " Lemman, concubine, amovrevse." 
PALSG. Herman remarks that " some loue theyr lemmans (pallacas) better than theyr 
true wyfe." Compare SPECYAL, hereafter. 

1 Compare GLEMYN, or lemyn, p. 198. See Gawayn and the Grene Knyjt, 591, 
1137, &c. ; Vision of P. P. ; Townel. Myst. p. 92. Ang.-Sax. leoman, lucere. 

2 In the later Wicliffite version Job xl. 21 is thus rendered: "His (i. Behemot) 
strengl>e is in his lendis, (lumbis, Vulg.) and his vertu in the naule of his wombe." 
See also Judith viii. 6 ; Luke xii. 35. Chaucer describes the milk-white and well 
plaited "barm-cloth" or apron, worn by the carpenter's wife "upon hire lendes." 
Miller's Tale, 3238. 41 A lende, lumbus." CATH. ANG. " Lumbus, a leynde, vel 
idem quod ren, a nayre. Lumbifractus , broken lended.'' ORTUS. Ang.-Sax. lendenu, 

3 Caxton, in the Boke of the fayt of armes, ii. c. 16, speaking of things with which 
a garrison ought to be well supplied, mentions " grete foyson of ling fysshe, and ha- 
burden." In Sir John Howard's Household Book the following item is entered by his 
steward, A.D. 1465 : " My mester payde at Yipswyche viijs. ivd. for xxxij. leenges ;" 
and in the provision for Hengrave in 1607 the item occurs, " bought at Sturbige fayre 
of great organ lynge, xxj." Rokewode's Hengrave, 210. " Lynge, fysshe, co/m." 
PALSG. The ling, dsellus longus, received its name from the length of the fish, as 
Skinner and Willughby suppose ; it was supplied from the Northern seas, and probably 
retained the name by which it was known to the fishermen in those regions. Teut. 
linghe, Dutch, leng, piscis ex asellorum genere. Keeling is doubtless of cognate deri- 
vation ; compare also GRENE LYNGE, above, p. 210. 

4 In the later Wicliffite version the following passage occurs : " Whanne sche my^te 
not hele, Jeanne sche took a leep of segg, (fiscellam scirpeam, Vulg.) and bawmede it 
with tar and picche, and puttide the yong child wijnime." Exod. ii. 3. Compare 
Dedis ix. 25 ; ii. Cor. xi. 33. See also Towneley Myst. p. 329. " Alepe, canistrum, 
cophinus, corbis, tyc. ubi a baskyt. A lepe maker, cophinarius, corbio." CATH. ANG. 
" Cartallum, a basket or a lepe. Cofinus, vas vimineum ad opus servile deputatum, a 
hande basket. Cofinulus, a lytyll lepe. Corbulus, a lytell lepe or basket.'' ORTUS. 
" Lepe, or a basket, corbeille." PALSG. See Jamieson, v. Lippie. Bp. Kennett, in 
his Glossarial Collections, Lansd. MS. 1033, has the following observations on this 
word : " Leap, in Yorkshire a large osier basket bore between two men, for the use of 
carrying corn to be winnowed, &c. called commonly a wheat-leap. Sax. leap, calathus, 
tpeciatim seminatoris corbis. A seed leap, or seed lip ; Wilts. A leap, a weel to 


LEEP, for fysshe kepynge, or 
takyrige. 1 Nassa, CATH. et UG. 

in no. 

LEEP, or styrt (lepp, or skypp, K. 

sterte, s.) Saltus. 
LEPARE, or rennare. Cursor. 
LEPARE, or rennar a-wey. Fugax, 


LEPYNGE, or rennynge. Cursus. 
LEPYNGE a-wey. Fuga. 

LEPYR, or lepre (seke, K. p.) man, 
or woman, or beeste. Leprosus. 

LEPYR, or lepre, sekenesse. 2 Lepra. 

LERARE, lernare, or techare. Doc- 
tor, instructor, informator. 

LERARE, or lernare, or he bat re- 
ceyvythe lore (bat takyt infor- 
macyon, K. takethe lernynge, 
p.) Discipulus. 

LERYN, or receyue lore ofa-nothere 

catch fish ; Lancashire. An ozier basket borne between two men for the use of carrying 
chaff out of a barn is called in Northamptonshire and Bucks a bear-leap. Isl. laupur, 
scrinium quo lanifices linum servant. A leap or lib, half a bushel ; Sussex. A seed 
leap, or lib, a basket to carry corn on the arm to sow ; Essex. Lepa, 31 Edw. I. est 
tertia pars duorum bussellorum. Ext. Man, de Terringr, com. Sussex." Forby gives 
lep, or lepe, a large deep basket, and seed lep, a basket for the use of the sower, or car- 
rying chaff to feed horses. Moore mentions lib, doubting whether the word is still in 
use in Suffolk. Grose gives leap as a North-country word. Plot speaks of the "cubb 
or beer-lip " used to make a cavity in a rick, to prevent heating. Hist. Oxf. p. 256. 
Compare CUELLE, baskett, or lepe, above, p. 101, and BARLYLEPE, p. 25. 

1 This term occurs in the later Wicliffite version, in the description of Behemoth : 
" Shul marchaundis departe him ? wher J?ou shalt fille nettis wi)> his skin, and a leep 
of fishis (gurgustium piscium, Vulg.) wij> his heed ?" Job xi. 26. " A lepe for fysche, 
fiscella, gurgustium." CATH. ANG. "Nassa, quoddam instrumentum ex viminibus 
tamquam rhete contextum, ad capiendos pisces, a pyche or a fyshe lepe. Piscina, 
a chesefat, or a fysshe lepe." ORTUS. " Lepe to take fysshe, nasse a prendre 
poyson. Thou cannest nat bringe this leepe (nasse) downe to the botome, except thou 
tye a stone to it." PALSG. " Nasse, a wicker leap, or weel for fish." COTG. " Leaps 
to take eeles, caudecce" GOULDM. The stat. 4 Will, and Mary, c. 23, forbids all 
persons not owners of fisheries to keep " any net, angle, leap, piche, or other engine 
for the takeing offish." Stat. of Realm, vi. 415. Bp. Kennett observes that the term 
is in use in Lancashire and in Leicestershire. Ang. -Sax. leap, nassa. Compare FYSCH 
LEEP, above, p. 163. 

2 It has been affirmed that leprosy was brought into Europe by the crusaders ; in 
the Ang. -Sax. vocabulary, however, which has been attributed to JElfric, occurs the 
word " leprosus, hreoflig, oftSe licftrowera." Jul. A. II. f. 123. In the Assisa de 
Forestd, which is of uncertain date, but is assigned by Manwood to 6 Edw. I. it is 
enacted that if any beast of chase be found wounded or dead, " caro mittatur ad domum 
leprosi, si qua propefuerit" or otherwise given to the infirm and poor. Stat. of Realm, 
i. 244. In Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, there were several spital 
houses, or hospitals of lepers. The most ancient, the hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, was 
founded in the reign of Stephen by Petrus Capellanus for a prior and twelve brethren, 
of whom three were to be lepers. See Parkins' account of Lynn, Blomf. Norf. iv. 608. 
Mackarell, in his Hist, of that town, p. 255, mentions a bequest to the leprous men and 
women in 1408 ; and Parkins records the devise of Stephen Guybon to every house of 
lepers about Lynn, in 1432, namely at West Lynn, Cowgate, Herdwyk, Setchehithe, 
Mawdelyn, and Geywode. The number of these charitable institutions in England was 
considerable; permission had been granted by Pope Alex. III. in 1179, that leprous 
persons, being excluded from all communion with their fellow-men, might, wherever 



(betawt of another, K. lerne or 

be taught, p.) 1 Disco, CATH. 

LERYN', or techyn' a-nother. Do- 

ceo, instruo, informo. 
LERYNGE, or lernynge, or lore 

(teching, K.) Doctrmct, in- 

structio, informacio. 
LEES, or false. 2 Falsus. 
LEES, for howndys, idem quod 

LE(E)CE, supra. (Laxa,letra, 

P. sic, pro veltrea 9) 
LESARDE wy(r)m (worme, s.) 

Lacertus, c. F. 
LESSE. Minus, adv. 

LESYN', or lese. Perdo. 
LESSYN, or make lesse. Minuo, 

diminuO) minoro. 

supra; lejynge, s. liynge, P.) 3 


LESYNGE berare. Mendifer. 
LESYNGE, or thyngys loste (of 

thynge loste, s.) Perdicio. 
LESYNGE, or losynge of a thynge 

bowndyn' (boounde, s.) Solucio. 
LESKE (or flanke, supra.) 4 In- 

guen, c. F. 
LESSONE. Leccio. 
LESTE, sowtarys forme. Formula, 

they should form a congregation, have a church for themselves. These hospitals were 
of the Augustine order, and included amongst the religious houses which were surren- 
dered 26 Hen. VIII. The formalities with which the seclusion of lepers was effected, 
and the restrictions imposed upon them, may be learned from the Manual e ad usum 
Sarum. Hentzoer, who visited England during the reign of Elizabeth, speaks of the 
English as very subject to the disease of leprosy. "A lepyr, lepra, elefancia, missel la. 
A leprus man, leprosus, misellus." CATH. ANG. Horman says, ''He hath made a 
leper, or a lasar house ; hierocomion condidit." " Lepar, a sicke man, lasdre. Lasar, id. 
Lypre, the sickenesse, lasderie." PALSG. The term mesel is very commonly used to de- 
signate a leprous person, and appears to be directly taken from the French mesel; some 
writers have, however, supposed a distinction to have existed between mesellerie and 
ladrerle. See MASYL, hereafter. 

1 The double signification of the verb to lere occurs in most of the old writers ; R. 
Glouc., R. Brunne, and Minot use it in both senses ; Chaucer uses it in that of 
learning, Frankel. T. 1106 ; and it signifies teaching, Vis. of Piers P. 4742, 9551 ; 
Townel. Myst. p. 38, &c. Ang.-Sax. Iseran, docere. A rhyming epitaph, inscribed on 
brass, is found at Grundisburgh, Suffolk, dated 1501, to the memory of a person, 

" Which decessyd, as yee shall lere, 
The vj. day off September." 

2 Les is used by R. Glouc. as an adjective ; as a substantive, lees, a falsehood, occurs 
more frequently. Lese, Gawene and the Carle, 7, 265 ; " Withouten lees," Chaucer, 
Rom. of Rose, 3904 ; les, leasse, Townel. Myst. Cov. Myst. Ang.-Sax. leas,falsus. 

3 " Nuga, a scorne, a lesynge, a bourde, a trifulle. Nugicanus, a singer of lesinges. 
Feria, lesing, or chirche-werk." MED. "A lesynge, mendacium, Sfc. ubi a lee." 
CATH. ANG. Ang.-Sax. leasung, mendacium. 

4 " A leske, ipocundeia.'" CATH. ANG. (" Ipocundie, i. coste molles." MED.) " No- 
mina membrorum, mes flanks, my laskes." Harl. MS. 219, f. 150. " Leske by the 
belly, ayne." PALSG. Bp. Kennett gives " Lisk, that part of the side which is between 
the hips and the short ribs. Yorkshire." Lansd. MS. 1033. Skinner gives lesk as 
most commonly used in this sense in Lincolnshire ; see also Brockett and Jamieson, 
v. Lisk. Compare Dan. and Swed. liuske, Belg. liesch, inguen. 



CATH.formipedia, Dice, calo- 

podia, c, F. 
LESTE, nowmbyr, as heryngys, 

and other lyke. 1 Legio. 
LEEST of alle. Minimus. 
LESTAGE of a shyppe. 2 Saburra, 

LESTYN, or induryn'. Duro, 

LESTYNGE, or yndurynge (du- 

rynge, K. p.) Perduracio. 
LEEST wurthy. Eximius (sic, P. 

exilimus, s.) 
LETANYE. Letania. 

LETTE GAME, or lettare of pley. 
JPrepiludius, c. F. in prepedio. 

LETTYN'. Impedio, prepedio. 

LETTYNGE. Impedimentum. 

LETTYNGE, or longe taryynge, and 
a-bydynge. Mora. 

LETTYR. Littera, grama. 

LETTERYD. Litteratus. 

LETERONE, or lectorn^, deske 
(lectrone, K. letrone, or lectrun, 
H. P. leteron, or letervn, s.) 3 
Lectrinum, lectorium, pluteum, 
c. F. lectrum, c. F. (pulpitum,c. F. 
discus) secundum li. equi, p.) 

1 The stat. Hen. III. de mensuris, and the stat. 31 Edw. III. de allece vendendo, ordained 
that a last of herrings should be accounted by ten thousand, and the hundred by six score, 
the highest price being fixed at 40s. the last. Stat. of Realm, i. 354. In " the Costis for to 
make hering at the Coeste," printed with Arnold's Chron. p. 263, it is stated that to 
make a last " ye shal bye fresh hering out of the ship, x. m. ; vj. score, andiiij. heringis 
for the c. xij. barellis ful packed is a last of white hering, and xx. cadis rede hering is 
a last, v. c. in a cade, vj. score iiij. heringis for the c," Of " Rede sprottis x. cades 
maketh a last, xij. c. in euery cade." In the summary of the office of the Celleresse of 
Barking is the " Memorandum, that a barrell of herring shuld contene a thousand her- 
rings, and a cade off herryng six hundreth, six score to the hundreth." Mou. Angl. i. 
83. " Last of fysshe, xij. barelles, lay. 11 PALSG. A last of unpacked herrings, ac- 
cording to Coles, is 18 barrels. See Ducange, v. Lasta. 

2 " A lastage, or fraghte of a schippe, saburra." CATH. ANG. Saburra signifies the 
ballast of a ship, " multitude lapidum, vel inutilis sarcina navis, que solet esse de la- 
pidibus et arendS' CATH. " Lestage, the balast of a ship." COTG. " A last or lastage, 
onus, saburra. To lastage, vide balast." GOULDM. The stat. 21 Ric. II. c. 18, re- 
citing that the beacons and outworks of the town of Calais were decayed, in consequence 
of the rages of the sea, ordains that ships coming thither from England "portent 
ovesque eux tout lour lastage des bones piers convenables pur V estuffure de /esBeeknes," 
&c. Stat. of Realm, ii. 108. See Ducauge, v. Lastagium. Of the custom exacted for 
freightage, termed lestagium, see Spelman's Glossary. Ang.-Sax. hlsest, onus navis, 
behlsestan, onerare. Belg. lastagie, ballast. 

3 The lectern is not named amongst the appliances of sacred use enumerated by 
^Elfric, Cott. MS. Julius, A. u. f. 126, b. ; in the Regula Bened. mention, however, 
occurs of the rseding-scamol. The various uses of the lectern in cathedral or collegiate 
establishments may be gathered from the ancient rites of Durham, in which it 
appears that there was a pelican " lettern " of brass at the north side of the high 
altar, where the Epistle and Gospel were sung ; a second lower down in the choir, 
in the form of an eagle of brass, used at mattins, or other times when the legends were 
read ; and there was also a " letterne" of wood, like a pulpit, standing and adjoining 
to the organ over the door of the choir. It seems highly probable, as Mr. Rudge sup- 
poses, that the white marble desk discovered in 1813 near the site of the abbey church 
of Evesham, formed part of the lectern that was erected about 1218 by Thos. de Mar- 
leberg, at that time sacrist, nd subsequently Abbot, according to the following record : 


LECTURE (letture, K. lettrure, 
H. P.) Lectura (Jitteratura, P.) 
LETUARYE. Electuarium, CATH. 
LETUCE, herbe. Lactuca. 
LEVE. Licencia. 

LEVECEL be-forne a wyndowe, or 
other place. 1 Umbraculum, c. F. 

LEVE(Y)NE of dowe (leveyn, or 
dowe, s. P.) Frumentum, zima-, 
c. F. (fermentum, H. s. p.) 

" Fecit lectricium retro chorum, quod prius non e.rat factum in ecclesid Eveshamensi, 
et legebantur lectiones juxta tumbam S. Wilsini." Cott. MS. Vesp. B. xxiv. This 
lectern is represented in Archseol. xvii. pi. 23. A lectern of marble, resembling such 
as is quarried in Derbyshire, exists at Crowle, in Worcestershire ; it appears to be a 
work of the XHth cent. Another beautifully-sculptured specimen is preserved in the 
ancient abbatial house at Wenlock, Salop. In the former instance alone, the arrange- 
ment whereby the desk was supported on small columns may be ascertained. Of the 
moveable lecterns of a later period numerous specimens have escaped the ravages of the 
XVIth and XVIIth centuries. Carved lecterns of wood exist at Bury, Huntingdonshire, 
date about 1300 ; at Ramsey ; Swanscombe, and Lenham, in Kent ; Hawsted, in Suffolk ; 
and in many other churches. Those of brass are mostly of the XVth cent, or later 
date. At Rouen Cathedral an ancient lectern of iron may be seen, which, being hinged 
together like afnldistorium, and furnished with a socket for a candle on one side, might 
be folded up when not in use, and laid aside, so as not to encumber the area of the 
choir. The lectern was adorned with a covering, frequently termed the "des-cloth," 
of rich material conformable to the suit, or complete vestment, of which it formed a 
part. In the Inventory of the Church of St. Faith, in the crypt at St. Paul's, 1298, is 
mentioned " pannus de pal ad lectrinium." In the Wardrobe Book 27 Edw. I. amongst 
the furniture and ornaments of the royal chapel, occurs " unum manutergium curium, 
sutum de auro et serico, pro lectrone." p. 352. John of Gaunt bequeathed, 1399, a 
richly-embroidered vestment of white satin to the high altar at St. Paul's, the " cou- 
verture pour la letteron " forming an item in the description, as likewise in that of a 
vestment of red cloth of gold, wrought with gold falcons, devised by him to the " Mous- 
lier de N. Dame de Nicole." Test. Ebor. i. 227, 228. " Lectrinum, lectrum, etlegium 
pro eodem, scilicet pro pulpit o ; et dicuntur a lego, a pulpyt, or a lectrone.'' ORTUS. 
" A lettrone, ambo, descus, lectrinum, orcista." CATH. ANG. " Lecterne to syng at, 
levtrayn.'' PALSG. See further in Ducange. 

1 The etymology and precise meaning of this word are exceedingly obscure : it is used 
by Chaucer, in the tale of the Cambridge scholars, who came to the Miller of Trump- 
ington to have their grain ground, and left their horse under a pent-house or out- 
building, instead of putting him into the " lathe;" the Miller, to play them a shrewd 
trick, slipped off the bridle, and let the horse run. 

" He looked up and doune, till he had y found 
The clerkes horse, there as he stood ybound, 
Behind the mill, under a lessel." Reve's Tale, 4059. 

Tyrwhitt prints the word " levesell," and its meaning here is less obscure than in a 
passage in the Persone's Tale, where it again occurs. Chaucer defines the difference 
between pride in the heart of man, and pride shown in external show and costly array : 
" But nathelesse, that one of these spices of pride is signe of that other, right as the 
gaye leuesell at the taverne is signe of the wine that is in the seller.'' Speght, who had 
here consulted the Promptorium, explains the word as signifying a bush, or a hovel, 
which is repeated by Skinner, with the suggestion that it may be derived from the 
French " lais, vepres, virgulta, additd term, dim. ell." This derivation seems little 
to the purpose. According to Cotgrave lais, or layes, are^trees left as marks in cutting 
a copse wood. Tyrwhitt in his notes says confidently that the word is derived from 



LEVEL, rewle. Equicium, (c. F. 

regula, P.) 

LEVEL, rewle. 1 Perpendiculum. 
LEVENE, or lygfrtenynge (levyn, 

H. s.) 2 Fulgur, coruscacio, 


LEVENESSE, or belevenesse. Fides. 
LEVENESSE, or grete troste (leve- 

neste, or grette tryst, s. leue- 

nesse or trust, p.) Confidencia. 
LEVYN', or loelevjn'. 3 Credo, CATH. 
LEEVYN', or forsakyn' (levyn, or 

blevyn, K. H.) Relinquo, de- 

relinquO) dimitto, desero. 
LEEVYN', sesyn', or be stylle. 

Dimitto, desisto. 
LEWDE, not letteryd. Illitteratus, 

agramatuS) c. F. (incipiens. P.) 
LEWDE, vnkunnynge, or vnknow- 

ynge yn what so hyt be. In- 

scius, ignarus (laicus, K. p.) 
LEWDENESSE of clergy. 4 Illitte- 

LEWDENESSE of on-conynge 

Ang.-Sax. lefe, folium, and setl, sedes, but afterwards confesses himself dissatisfied with 
that explanation ; yet still holds to the notion that in the second passage allusion is 
made to the bush, the ancient sign of a wine-shop, and cites Chatter-ton's Elinour and 
Juga, attributed to Rowley, where the hunter is said to rouse the fox from " the 
lessel." In the Editor's MS. of the Medulla, umbraculum is rendered " an oumbrelle;" 
in the Canterbury MS. " an amerelle ;" in Harl. MS. 2270, " an vtnbrelle." 

1 LEVER, MS. and s. " Leuell, a ruler, niueav.'* PALSG. Ang.-Sax. laefel, libella. 

2 The lightning, or any sudden gleam of light, is frequently termed by the old 
writers levene, a word which has been derived from Ang.-Sax. hlifian, rutilare. See 
Lye, and Jamieson, v. Levin. R. Brunne, describing the engines devised by Richard 
Coeur de Lion, to throw wild-fire and stones, at the siege of Acre, says that " as leuen 
J?e fire out schete." Langt. Chron. p. 174. Compare Havelok, 2690; Ywaine and 
Gawin, Rits. Metr. R. i. p. 17 ; Cant. Tales, 5858 ; Gower, Conf. Am. ; Townel. 
Myst. pp. 39, 116 ; Cov. Myst. 156. Fabyan relates that in 7 Hen. I. " was sene an 
vncouth starre, whyche nyghtely appered at one howre, and continued so by the space 
of xxv. days ; and fore agaynst that, oute of the Eest parte, appered a great leuyn or 
beme of bryghtnes, whyche stretched towarde the sayde starre." Spenser uses the word 
"levin" repeatedly. " Fulgur, leuenynge that brenneth. Fulgetmm, a shynynge of 
leuenynge that brenneth. Fulmen, leuenynge, or lyghtnynge." ORTUS. "Tolevyne, 
or to smyte wyth lewenynge, casmatisere, fulgore fulminare. A levenynge, casma, 
fulgur, fulmen, fulgetrum, ignis. A levenynge smyttynge,y^ora/ws." CATH. ANG. 

In the Vocabulary, Roy. MS. 17 C. XVII. are given " Fulgor, fulmen, lewenynges. 
Fulgurat, (it) lewnes." Palsgrave gives the verb it " leueneth as the lyghtenyng dothe, 
il esclere. Dyd you nat se it leuen right nowe ?" " Leving, vide lightning." GOULDM. 

3 The verb to leve is used in this sense by R. Glouc. p. 30 ; it occurs repeatedly in 
the Vision of P. Ploughman. See also Chaucer, Tale of Melib. ; Gower, Conf. Am. iii. 
Ang.-Sax. lyfan, concedere, leafnes, venia. 

4 Clergy, as it has been remarked in the note, p. 81, signifies erudition, precisely 
according to the sense of the French clergie; and the word is thus to be understood in 
the term " benefit of clergy." See Barrington's observations on stat. 4 Hen, VII. 
The use of the word in this acceptation is, however, a striking evidence of the general 
ignorance that prevailed amongst all classes, churchmen alone excepted, so that the 
community might be classed under two great divisions, clerks and " lewede," R. Glouc. 
p. 471; or "lered and lewed,'' R. Brunne, p. 8. It is needless to cite instances of 
the frequent use of the word lewd in its primitive signification by the old writers. 
Ang.-Sax. Isewd, lewed, laicus. " Lewde, agramatus, illiteratus, laicus, mecanicus. 



(vnknowynge, p.) Insciencia, 


LEWKE. not fully hote. 1 Tepidus. 
LEWTE, cuppe. 2 Culusus, COMM. 
LEWTE, pot or vessel of mesure. 

Fidelia, CATH. 
LEWTE, or lytylle feythe. Fide- 

cula, CATH. 
LETHY, or weyke (or screte, 

infra ; leyth, s.) 3 Flexibilis. 

LYARE, or gabbare. Mendax, 

LYBERALLE, or fre in yevynge 

(gyuynge, p.) Liber alis, mu- 

LYBERALYTE, or frenes of herte. 

LYCHE, dede body. 4 Funus, ga- 

bares, c. F, et UG. in Gabriel 

dicit gabaren, vel gabbaren. 
LYCHE, lady or lorde (lysch to 

Vnlettyrde, ubi lewde." CATH. ANG. " Leude of condycions, maluays, villayn, maul- 
graneux. Leude worde, entresayn. Leude frere, bourdican." PALSG. Herman says, 
"I am not so leude (adeo sum iners) but I knowe or spye what thou goest about. 
This matter is utterly marred by thy leudnes (ignavid.} I make as though J sawe nat 
thy leude paiantis (conniveo tuts ineptiis). Here is leude or naughty wyne (illaudatum 
vel spurcum)." 

1 "Lewke, tepidus. To make lewke, tepifacere. To be lewke, tepere." CATH. 
ANG. " Leuke warme, or blodde warme, tiede." PALSG. Ang.-Sax. wlac, tepidus. 

2 Culusus is given only in the Harl. and Winch. MSS. The word is not noticed by 
Ducange, and possibly is erroneously written for culullus, which, according to Papias, is 
calix fictilis. " Fidelia, olla vel ciphus, or a cherne." MED. Ang.-Sax. lift, poculum. 

3 " Lentus, slowe and febulle, or lethy, moyste." MED. MS. CANT. " Lentesco, to 
waxe slowe or lethy, i. tardum esse." ORTUS. Nich. Munshull also gives in his verbale, 
Harl. MS. 1002, f. 131, " lentesco, to wex lethy." " Lethi occurs in the Vision of 
P. Ploughm. 5979, and is explained by Mr. Wright as signifying hateful, but its precise 
meaning is not obvious. In a Treatise on Obstetrics, of the later part of XVth cent. 
Add. MS. 12,195, particular instructions are given " at what age a maydyn may vse of 
drwrery," and it sets forth the evils arising from the anticipation of the age of puberty, 
"for trewly and sche vs bat deduyt or bat tyme, on of bes iij. thynges, or elles alle 
schalle falle to her : owder sche xalle be baren, or her brethe schalle haf an yll savore, 
or sche xalle be to lythy, or lauy of her body to o>er ban to here hosbonde ; but for be 
ij. fyrst 30 xalle fynde medysignus here after, and be iij. is vnne curabylle." " Lethe, 
delyuer of ones lymmes, souple." PALSG. Lathy is given by Moore as a Suffolk epi- 
thet, signifying thin in person. Ang.-Sax. li'S, tener. Compare LYTHE, hereafter. 

4 Leik, Havelok, 2793, and liche, Vision of P. Ploughm. signify a living body, as in 
line 5599, where Dame Studie is described as " lene of lere, and of liche both :" it is so 
used likewise in K. Alis. 3482. This is perfectly in accordance with the signification of 
the Ang.-Sax. etymon lice, corpus, a body, either living or dead. The latter seems, 
however, to have been the more usual sense of the word. Chaucer, in the Knight's 
Tale, 2960, speaks of the " liche-wake " at the burning of the corpse of Arcite. In 
the North the custom of watching the corpse, termed lyke-wake, is not entirely laid 
aside : see Brockett, v. Lake-wake, and Jamieson, v. Lyk-waik. It is by corruption 
termed late-wake ; Pennant, Tour in Scotl. i. 112. The term is evidently derived from 
Ang.-Sax. lie, cadaver, and wa?cce, vigilia. A full account of the usages and abuses 
customary on these occasions will be found in Brand's Popular Antiqu. and Ducange, 
v. Vigilice. In the Invent, taken 1421, church of St. John Baptist, Glastonbury, printed 
by Warner, are mentioned "iij. lyche bells ; " in the Invent, of St. Dunstan's, Can- 
terbury, 1500, termed " bells formortuarys." G. Mag. vol. viii. N.S. In the ordinance 



lady or lorde, s.) 1 Ligius (do- 
minus ligius, P.) 

LYCH E, man or womann.(Z^ms, p.) 

LYCORYCE (or lycuryce, p.) Li- 
quericia,c.F. (lingricia, licori- 
cia, P.) 

LYCURE (lycowre, s.) Liquor. 

LYCURE, or brothe of fysche, and 
overly ke. Liquamen,CAT:H. C.F. 

LYDE, wesselle hyllynge (lyde, or 
lede, p.) Operculum. 

LYDER, or wyly (liyire, or wily, K. 
lydyr, H. ledyr, s. lydir, p.) 2 
Cautus, et alia infra in WYLY 
(cautulosus. P.) 

LYDRON, or lyderon (lydrun, or 
lyderyn, H. p. lyderon, or lydron, 
s.) 3 Lidorus. Hec quedamglosa 
super correctione JBiblie. 

LYE, supra in LEYE. 

LYE, or lyes of wyne (lyje, s. p.) 
Lia, c. F. tartarum, c. F. 

LYFE. Vita. 

LYYF, hooly. Devotus, sanctus. 

LYFTYN'. Levo. 

LYFTYN' VP. Sublevo, pendo, 

(LYGGYN, infra in LYYN.) 

LYTHE, idem quod LYM (or 
membre), infra. 4 

of Abp. Peckham, 1280, which sets forth the articles to be provided by the parishioners, 
these bells are designated as " campance manuales pro mortuis." Wilk. Cone. ii. 49. 
Of the local use of the term lich-gate, signifying the outer gate of the cemetery, beneath 
which the corpse is placed, whilst awaiting the officiating minister, see the Glossary of 
Architecture, Cheshire and Shropshire Glossaries. In the West, the path by which the 
corpse is carried to the grave is known as the leach-way ; in Cheshire it is called the 
lich-road. Coles gives " lich fowles, carcass bird, scritch-owls, night-ravens." 

1 The term liege is commonly used by the old writers in the two -fold sense which is 
here given to it, denoting both the chief and the subject, as bound by the ligantia, or 
bond whereby they were reciprocally connected. Palsgrave gives only " Lege lorde, 
souerayn, liege." See Spelman and Ducange, v. Ligius. 

3 LEDER, MS. Lither, or lidder, has in the North the signification of idle or sluggish. 
In the Vis. of P. Ploughman the expression " luther sleuthe '' occurs ; and " lithere " in 
King Estmere. One of the evils of the times enumerated in the curious lines, Roy. 
MS. 7 A. VI. f. 38, b. is that "Lex is layde, and lethyrly lukes." Tusser speaks of 
the unprofitableness of the " litherly lubber." Lyndsay uses the word "lidder" in the 
sense of backward or shy, which approaches more nearly to that assigned, to it in the 
Promptorium. 4< Desidieux, idle, lazie, lither, slouthfull. Ignave, lazy, lither," &c. 
COTG. " Lither, fingard, festard, faineant, nice, oisif, paresseux." SHERW. See 
Brockett, v. Lither, and Jamieson, v. Lidder. 

3 In the description of the march of Alexander's army the poet describes the various 
classes of which the host was composed, high and low, knight and knave, 

" Mony baroun, ful wel y-thewed, 

Mony ledron, mony schrewe." K. Alis. 3210. 

Weber explains the word ledron as signifying here a leper, or any mean person. 
Skelton uses the word, in the poem entitled Sclaunder, and false detractions. 
" But my learning is of an other degree, 

To taunt theim like lyddrons, lewde as they be." 

" Laideron, somewhat ugly, pretty and foule." COTG. It must, however, be observed 
that as lidorus has not been found in the Latin glossarists, it cannot be asserted posi- 
tively that LYDRON is to be taken in this sense in the Promptorium. 

4 The term " lithes," occurring in Havelok, 2163, is explained by Sir F. Madden as 



LYTHE fro lythe, or lym fro lym. 

LYGHTE, or bryghmesse (liht of 

brytnes, K. lythj, H. light, p.) 

Lux, lumen. 
LYGHTE, or wyghte (liht of wyhte, 

K. light of weight ormesure, p.) 1 

LYGHT of knowynge, or werkynge. 

LYGHTE, or bat bynge batyevythe 

lyghte, as sunne, and candel, and 

ober lyke. Luminare. 
LYGHTE FOOTE (liht fotyd, K.) 

Levipes, UG. in alo, alipes, c. r. 

acupedius, UG. in acuo. 
LYGHTE HANDYD. Manulevis, 


LYGHTEYN', or kyndelyn' fyyr or 

candelys (or lystnyn candelys, or 

odyr lyhtys, s.) Accendo. 
LYGHTYN chargys or byrdenys (or 

wyhtys, K. wettys, s.) Deonero. 
LYGHTEYN', or make wyghtys 

more esy (lightyn burdens, heuy 

weightis, P.) Allevio. 
LYGHTELY, or sone. Leviter. 
LYGHTLY, or esyly. Faciliter. 
LYGHTENYN', orleuenyn'(lithnyn, 

as levyn, K. lyhtyn, s.) Co- 

ruscat, fulmino. 

LYGHT(E)NYNGE (or leuene, P.) 

Corttscacio, fulgur^fulm en. 
LYGHTESUM, or fulle of lyghte. 

LYGHTESUM, or esy (lihtsum, K.) 

LYGHTESUMNESSE, or esynesse. 

LYGHTESUMNESSE, of bryghte- 

nes (or lyht, s.) Luminositas. 
LYYN, or lyggyn (lyin, or ligyn, 

K.) Jaceo, CATH. 
LYYN' YN, or yn chylde bedde (liyn 

in of childe in childe bed, p.) 

Decubo, c. F. 
LYYN, or make a lesynge (Iy3yn, 

or gabbyn, H.) Mentior. 
LYKE. Hoc instar. 
LYKE, in lykenesse. Similis. 
LYKDYSSHE. Scurra, c. F. et 

CATH. papas-, UG. in popa. 
LYK BROWSE. Ambroninus, de- 

licatus, deliciosus. 
LYKYN', or haue lyste (or plesyn, 

K. p. lykyn or lystyn, s.) De- 
LYKYNGE, or luste (lyste, s.) 

LYKYNGE, or lusty, or craske. 

Delicativus, crassus (delecta- 

tivus, s.) 

signifying the toes, the extreme articulations. In the Grene Knight, 56, the expression 
" wounded both lim and lighth " is found; and in Syr Gawene and the Carle, 190, 
" lyme and lythe." The usher of King Arthur's court is described as repulsing Sir 
Cleges with these discourteous words, 

" I schall the bette euery leth, 
Hede and body, wythout greth, 

Yf thou make more pressynge." Sir Cleges, 292. 

See also Cant. Tales, 14,881 ; Townel. Myst. 327 ; and the citations given by Jamieson. 
Ang.-Sax. lift, artus. " Oute of lythe, dislocatus, luxus.^ CATH. ANG. It should be 
noticed that the order of the Harl. MS. has been here left unaltered ; possibly the word 
was written by the first hand LYGTHE, as would appear by the alphabetical arrangement. 



LYKENARE, or he bat lykenythe. 

A.ssimilator, assimilatrix. 
LYKENESSE. Similitudo, effigies^ 

assimilacio, instar, CATH. 
LYKENESSE, fygure, or forme (fi- 
gure off forme, s.) Figura, 

LYKENYD. Assimilatus. 
LYKNYN'. Similo, assimilo. 
(LYKNYNGE, s. Assimilacio.) 
LYKKARE, or he bat lykkythe. 

Lecator, UG. (lambitor, p.) 
LYKKYN, as beestys wythe tongys. 

Lingo, CATH. 
LYKKY(N)GE of howndys, or ober 

beestys. Lictus, licacio, vel lica- 

citas : hec omnia UG. in lingo. 
LYKPOT fyngyr. 1 Index. 
LYLY, herbe. Lilium. 
LYM, or membre (or lythe, supra.) 


LYME, or mortare. Calx. 
LYME, to take wythe byrdys. 

LYME 3ERDE. Viminarium, COMM. 

viscarium (yirga viscilenta, s.) 

LYMYN wythe bryd lyme. Visco. 

LYME wythe lyme, idem quod 
WHYTON wythe lyme, infra in 
W. 2 (lymyn or whytlymyn, K. 
qhythlymyn, H. qwytyn, s.) 

(LYMOWS, supra in GLEYMOWS. 
Limosus, viscosus, glutinosus.) 

LYNCENT, werkynge instrument 
for sylke women (lyncet, a 
werkynge stole, K. H. p.) 3 Li- 
niarium, KYLW. 

LYYNDE, tre. Tilia-, c. F. 

LYNE, or rope. Corda, funiculus 
(cordula, p.) 

LY(N)GE of the hethe (lynge, or 
hethe, K.) 4 Bruera, vel brueria, 
c. F. mirica, secundum multos, 
et timus secundum extraneos 
altellos (aliarum terrarum, p.) 

LYYNGE, or gabbynge. Mendacium. 

LYYNGE, or lyggynge. Jacencia. 

LYYNGE YN, of chylde bedde. 
Decubie, c. F. 

LYNE, or lynye. Linea. 

LYNEAGE, or awncetrye. Effe- 
mum, c. F. (escenium, s.) 

In the other MSS. as likewise in the printed editions, this and the succeeding nouns 
and adjectives, as far as LYGHTESUMNESSE, or bryghtenesse, are placed differently, 
being found after LYSTLES-HEDE, as if written LYTHE, &c. In all the MSS. and the 
printed editions the verbs are placed between LYSPYN and LYVYN, as if written 


1 " A lykpotte, index, demonstratives." CATH. ANG. 

2 idem quod whyly, infra inM. MS. See WHYTON wythe lyme. Calcifico,decalceo. 

3 This word may perhaps be read LYNCEUT. An entry occurs in the Household 
Book of Sir John Howard, 1465, " for a lynset, viij.rf." p. 483. " Licia, be thredes, 
whych sylk women do weaue in lyncelles or stooles." ELYOT. 

4 Compare HETHE, or lynge, fowaly, p. 238. This name of the Calluna vutgaris, 
Linn, occurs in the Tale of Robin Hood, Hartsh. Metr. T. 189. It is still retained in 
the North, according to Brockett ; but Jamieson states that in Scotland various species 
of grass growing in mossy ground are called ling. In Arund. MS. 42, f. 23 b. it is said 
that " in Wilteshire nere Shaftesbery, is an heth >at groweb ful of J>at (Junipere femel) 
and of lynk, and J?e lynk is heyere )>an J>at, and is faste by an heyh wey." " Erica, 
brya silvestris, sweete-broome, heath, or linge." Junius, by Higins. Skinner gives 
ling as the common appellation of heath in Lincolnshire. Moore says that in Suffolk 
it signifies the turf of heath or heather. Dan. lyng ; Isl. ling,,/rwte.r, species ericce. 




LYNYD, as clothys. Duplicatus, 

liniatus, garnitus. 
LYNYN' clothys. Duplo, duplico. 
LYNYNGE of clothe. Deploys 

(duplicatura, P.) 
LYNYNE clothe, or clobe of flax. 

LYNYOLF, or inniolf, threde to 

sow wythe schone or botys 

(lynolf, H. P. to sew wyth shon', 

or bokys, s.) 1 Indula, c. F. lid- 

nium, Dice, et KYLW. 
LYNKE, or sawcistre. 2 Hi$la, 

hirna, c. F. utrumque UG. in 

hirquus, salcia, UG. ibidem. 
LYNT, schauynge of lynen clothe. 

Carpea, secundum sururgicos 

et c. F. 

LYONE (or lyvn', s.) Leo. 
LYONESSE. Leonissa (vel lea, s.) 
LYOWRE, to bynde wythe precyows 

clothys. 3 Ligatorium, redimi- 

culum, CATH. et c. F. (vitta, P.) 
LYPPE. Labium, labrum ; et 

nota quod labium est hominis, 

et labrum vasis : hec UG. v. 

in L. 
LYQUYDE, or moyste. Liquidus, 

liquus, c. F. 
LYSPARE. JBlesus, blesa, sibilus, 

sibila, CATH. 

LYSPYN yn speche. /Sibilo. 
(LYSPYNGE, K. s. p. Sibilatus, ble- 

sura, CATH.) 
LYST, or lykynge (or talent, 

infra.) Delectacio. 

1 Lignioul, or lignel, signifies, according to Roquefort, the strong thread used by 
shoemakers or saddlers. " Liynoul, ligneul, shoemaker's thread, or a tatching end." 
COTG. Brocket gives liniel as a word still in use in the North. Compare Lingan and 
Lingel, which have the like meaning; Jamieson. " Lyngell that souters sowe with, 
chffgros, lignier. Lynger to sowe with, poulcier." PALSG. This term denotes also 
a thong or strap. " Linffula, a lachet or lingell. Cohum, a thonge or lyngell, wher- 
with the oxe-bowe and the yoke are bounden together." ELYOT. " A lingel, lingula, 
ligula." GOULDM. See Nares. 

2 Forby gives "link, a sausage ; we call two together a latch of links. In some 
counties a far more correct expression is used, a link of sausages." Links have the 
same meaning in Suffolk, and Ray speaks of black-puddings, or links, as a term used 
in the South. See Rops, North C. words. " Andouille, a linke, or chitterling; a 
big hogs-gut stuffed with small guts, cut into small pieces, and seasoned with pepper 
and salt. FriquenelleSj slender and small chitterlings, or linkes." COTG. 

3 Compare FRENGE, or lyowre. Tenia. In the third book of the Boke of Curtasye, 
de Officiariis in curiis dominorum, it is said that the garciones, or grooms, were to 
make pallet beds, and beds for lords, 

" That henget shalle be with hole sylour, 

With crochettes and loupys sett on lyour." Sloane MS. 1986. 

That is, with hooks and eyes sown to the binding of the bed-furniture. In the House- 
hold Book of Sir John Howard payments appear, in 1465, to " the bedmaker at London 
for lyere for the grete costere, v.*." for canvas, and making the " costeres." 
Househ. Exp. in England, presented to the Roxburghe Club by B. Botfield, Esq. p. 486. 
In the Wardrobe accounts of Edw. IV. edited by Sir H. Nicolas, a delivery appears in 
1480, for the office of the beds, of 551b. " corde, and Hour for liring and lowping " of 
certain hangings of arras. See further in the Indexes to those accounts, and the Privy 
Purse Expenses of Eliz. of York, 1503. 



LYST, or fre wylle. Arbitrium, 

LYST A RE, clothe dyynge (or ly- 

taster of clob dyynge, s. lytstar, 

p.) 1 Tinctor. 

LYYST of clothe. Forago, CATH. 
LYYST, or lysure. Strophium 

(CATH. s.) 
LYYSTE, lysure, or schrede, or 

chyppyngys, what so euer hyt 

be. Presegmen, c. F. 
LYSTY (or lusty, infra.) Delec- 


(LYSTYLY, infra in LUSTYLY.) 
LYYSTERRE (lystyr, H. lystore, 

s. listyr, p.) 2 Lector (delec- 

tor, s.) 

LYSTYN, or herkyn'. Asculto. 
(LYSTYN, or lykyn, supra in 


LYSTLES. Desidiosus, segnis. 
LYSTLES-HEDE. Segnicies, de- 

sidia, CATH. pigricia. 
(LYSURE, supra in LYST, s.) 3 
LYTERE of a bed. 4 Stratus, stra- 

torium, c. F. 
LYTERE, or strowynge of horse, 

and other beestys. Stramentum, 

LYTERE, or forthe brynggynge of 

beestys. Fetus, fetura, c. F. 
(LiTH, liht, lihtnynge, lihtsum, 

lihtsumnesse, &c. K. H. s. p. vide 

supra.) 5 

1 " Tinctor, a litster, or heuster." MED. Sir Thos. Phillipps'MS. " Tinctor, tinc- 
trix, a lyster." ORTUS. " A littester, tinctor, tinc.trix." CATH. ANG. Walsingham 
relates that the Commons made a rising in the Eastern Counties, in 1380, at the 
time of Jack Straw's rebellion, their leader in Norfolk being " quodam tinctore de 
Norwico, cujus nomen erat Johannes Littestere," who called himself King of the 
Commons, and was beheaded by the Bp. of Norwich : ed. Camd. 263. In the Paston 
Letters, iii. 424, mention occurs of another Norwich " lyster." The word occurs also 
in the Towneley Mysteries. At Lynn, where the Promptorium was compiled, the 
continuation of Broad Street, otherwise Websters Row, is called Lister Gate Street. 
See Jamieson. 

2 The reader, who occupied the second place in the holy orders of the Church, is 
probably here intended. In the Vision of P. Ploughman mention is made of " lymi- 
tours and listres ;" 2747. Mr. Wright, however, supposes that the word signifies 

3 The term " liser " occurs in the Vision of P. Ploughman, 2891, in connection with 
the " drapiers," or weavers of cloth. " Lister e, the list of cloth, or of stuffe; the 
edge, or hem of a garment." COTG. Palsgrave gives also " Lyste of clothe, lisiere. 
I lyste a garment, or border it rounde aboute with a lyst, ie bende d'une lisiere. I 
haue lysted my cote within to make it laste better, am nat I a good housebande ? Lyste 
on a horse backe, raye. Lyste of theeare, mol de I'oraylle" Compare SCHREDE, and 
STEMYNE, or stodul, or stothe yn a webbyshonde (in a webbys eend, s.) Forago. 

4 The process of making " litere " for beds is set forth in the chapter on the duties 
of the grooms, " garcionum." Sloane MS. 1986. Boke of Curtasye, ed. Halliwell, 
p. 19. 

5 In the other MSS. the words from LYTHE to LYGHTESUMNESSE, given above, 
pp. 303, 304, are placed here. They are not, however, in all cases written in conformity 
with this position in the alphabetical arrangement, being mostly in the King's Coll. MS. 
written Liht, Lihtsum, &c. ; in Sir Thos. Phillipps' MS. Lythj, or bryghtnesse, &c. ; 
and in the Winch. MS. Lyth, Ly3th, Lyhth, Lyhtsum. These irregularities are to be attri- 
buted to the second hand, who, writing by ear, vitiated the spelling of the original MS. 



LYTYL, or sumwhatt. Parum, 

modicum, adv. 
LYTYLLE, not grete yn quantite. 

Parvus, modicus (paucus, P.) 
LYTYLLE BETTER. Meliusculus. 

pusius, CATH. parvulus, pusio, 

pusillus, c. F. 
LYTYL FEYTHE (or lewte, supra; 

litil fey3t, K. lytyll in feyth, p.) 

Fidecula, CATH. 
LYTYLLE LYARE. Mendaculus, 

CATH. mendacula. 
(LYTYLL MAYDEN, P. Puella.) 
LYTYLLE MANN. Homuneio, ho- 

mullus, homunculus. 
LYTYLLE MANN, or dwerfe (litil- 

man or dwarw, K. dwerwe, H. s. 

dwerue, P.) Nanus, c. F. ses- 

sillus, CATH. 

LYTYN' clothys (littyn, K. P. lytyn, 

or lete, s.) 1 Tingo. 
LYTYN', or longe taryyfi'. 2 Moror. 
LYTYNGE of clothe (littinge, K, p.) 

LYTYNGE, or longe taryynge. 

Mora, morositas. 


LYVELY, or qwyk, or fulle of lyyf 

(liyfly, ful of liyf, K.) Vivax. 
LYVELY, or qwykly (liyfly, K.) 


lines, K.) Vivacitas. 
LYVELODE, or lyfhode (liyflode, 

K.) 3 Victus. 
LYFLODE, or warysone (liyflode, 

K. lyuelode, H. p.) 4 Donati- 

LYVEREY of clothe, or ober 3yftys. 5 

Liberata (liberatura, p.) 

1 " Tingo, to dye, to coloure, or to lytte." MED. " To litte, colorare, inficere, 
tingere, tincture. A littynge, tinctura." CATH. ANG. Ray gives " to lit, to colour 
or dye : a linendo, sup. litum." N. Country words. It is also given by Jamieson, but 
is not noticed by Brockett, or the other Northern Glossarists. Isl. lita, tingere. 

2 In the Vis. of P. P. 12,067, the good Samaritan is described as hastily quitting 
the dreamer, saying, " I may no lengerlette." See also 11,524. A. -Sax. latian, tardare. 

3 lyshode, MS. 

4 Compare WARYSON. Donativum, possessio. The term here implies a pension for 
services; a largess in money or grain; a dole given to veteran soldiers. "Dona- 
tivum, yifte of knyghte. Emericio est liberacio ab officio cum remuneracione, a ware- 
sone." MED. 

5 A livery denoted whatever was dispensed by the lord to his officials or domestics 
annually, or at certain seasons ; whether money, victuals, or garments. Even in the 
Saxon times there appears to have been a distribution of this nature, the gafol-hwitel, 
saga vectigalis, of the Laws of Ina, which was, as Spelman observes, a kind of livery. 
The term chiefly denoted external marks of distinction, such as the roba estivalis, and 
hiemalis, given to the officers and retainers of the Court, as appears by the Wardrobe 
Book, 28 Edw. I. p. 310, and the Household Ordinances. The practice of distributing 
such tokens of general adherence to the service or interests of the individual who 
granted them, for the maintenance of any private quarrel, was carried to an injurious 
extent during the reigns of Edw. III. and Rich. II. and was forbidden by several 
statutes, which allowed liveries to be borne only by menials, or the members of gilds, 
&c. See Stat. of Realm, ii. pp. 3, 74, 93, 156, 167- The " liveree des chaperons" 
often mentioned in these documents, was an hood or tippet, which, being of a colour 
strongly contrasted to that of the garment, was a kind of livery much in fashion, and 


LYVERESONE. 1 Corrodium, UG. v. 
LYVYN', or havyn' lyyf. Vivo, 
, CATH. 

LYVYR, wythe-yn beestys body 

(lyuyr or leuyr, p.) Epar. 
LYVYR WORTE, herbe. Epatica. 

well adapted to serve as a distinctive mark. This, in later times, assumed the form of 
a round cap, to which was appended the long liripipittm, which might be rolled around 
the head, but more commonly was worn hanging over the arm, and vestiges of it may 
still be traced in the dress of civic livery-men. The Stat. 7 Henry IV. expressly per- 
mits the adoption of such distinctive dress by fraternities, and " les gentz de mestere," 
the trades of the cities of the realm, being ordained with good intent ; and to this pre- 
valent usage Chaucer alludes where he describes five artificers of various callings, who 
joined the pilgrimage, clothed all "in o livere of a solempne and grete fraternite." 
Prol. v. 365. By the same Stat. lords, knights, and esquires were allowed, in time of 
war, to distinguish their retainers by similar external marks, the prototypes of military 
uniforms. In the metrical paraphrase of Vegecius, entitled " Of Knyghthode and 
Batayle," Cott. MS. Titus, A. xxni. f. 22, it is said that ancient usage had ordained 
three kinds of signs in an army, vocal, semivocal, as trumpet or clarion, and a third 
which is