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Full text of "The clerk of Oxford in fiction"

THE CLERK OF OXFORD 
IN FICTION 

| AMUEL-F-HULTON 



no 



JiiiVERSlTY 

IIRP&BY 




THE CLERK OF OXFORD 
IN FICTION 






THE 

CLERK OF OXFORD 
IN FICTION 

BY 

SAMUEL F. HULTON 



"j'AY SEULEMENT FAICT ICY UN AMAS DE FLEURS 
ESTRANGIERES, N'Y AYANT FOURNY DU MIEN QUE 
LE FILET X LES LIER." 

MONTAIGNE, Essais, 1. iv. ch. xii. 



WITH TWELVE ILLUSTRATIONS 



GEORGlO, DOMINO CVRZON, PlO CANCfiLLARlO 



METHUEN & GO. 

36 ESSEX STREET W.C. 
LONDON 






First Published in 1909 



JUN 2 4 1965 



PREFACE 

HE who would include within a portable volume 
the complete story of Oxford Clerks in Fiction is 
as onewho strives to " shut up the sea with doors." 
For, in the first place, he must fetch his beginning from 
the very beginning of all things ; \K A/oV ap-fcopwog, 
he must open with a description of the visit to the 
classic Ford and the naming thereof, at an uncertain 
date, by Europa and her bovine abductor : he must then 
rescue all that has survived the long navigation from 
the first ages to our own, tales of the foundation of the 
City by Mempric, shortly before that monarch was 
devoured of wolves at Wolvercote, of the University by 
Greek Philosophers who sailed, strange shipmates, with 
the Trojan Brutus to Albion, and the like : while, in 
connection with these ancient traditions, he must note 
various theories held by modern writers with regard to 
the origin of the place; as, for example, that by the 
ingenious Niebuhr, who, observing that caps have 
tassels and that the streets of Oxford are not macada- 
mized, comes to the conclusion that the University was 
originally colonized by the Pelasgi, which he further 
confirms by detecting in the periodical departure and 
return of the inhabitants, according to the vacations, 
traces of the migratory habits of that famous tribe. 
And supposing all this to have been accomplished, and 
that the writer, still undaunted, pass from the mythic 



vi THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

to the heroic age, he will then discover, that, during the 
many centuries which form this second period of his 
work, a succession of versatile scholars followed their 
books in the already famous Schools of Oxford : St. 
German, for instance, that " malleus Pelagianorum," 
Gildas of holy memory, the Venerable Bede, St. John 
of Beverley, Scotus, that great clerk who made the 
immortal repartee to King Charles the Bald, and who 
was eventually slain by Freshmen with their table- 
pointels or penknives, St. Grimbald, St. Neot, and 
others who for learning, piety, or wit were of a catholic 
reputation : he will read moreover legends, such as that 
one, in the life of St. Frideswyde, of " the youth clothed 
in white, and of pleasant speech, and comely counte- 
nance," who, meeting the fugitive virgin and her two 
companions in what are now known as Christ Church 
Meadows, " rowed them in his ship-boate to Bampton, 
some ten miles distant up stream, within the space of 
one hour " ; and he will become aware that the Uni- 
versity was already in those earliest times a little 
world in itself, and that the Oxonian was even then 
equipped with the very aptitudes, physical and mental, 
which distinguish him to-day. And as he realizes 
how vast, as regards both time and subject, is the task 
he has enterprized, then though the work may have 
been begotten with his first dawn of day, when the 
light of common knowledge began to open itself to his 
younger years, he may yet well doubt that the darkness 
of age and death will cover both it and him long before 
the performance. 

No such superhuman task will be attempted here. 
Time and space alike forbid that what follows should 
be more than the mere fragment of a wondrous tale ; 
and I have thought it best, therefore, to take up the 



PREFACE vii 

story of the immemorial Clerk of Fiction at the point 
where it begins to run parallel with that of the mush- 
room Clerk of History, and to carry it down no further 
than to the end of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. Some one has said -that "the Middle Ages 
lasted at Oxford until the Great Exhibition of 1851," 
that year having marked the commencement of a series 
of radical changes in the constitution and educational 
system of the University. At that date, then, I have 
paused, as on the verge of a precipice. There be some 
things, and these so-called reforms are among them, 
which are of such a nature that either to speak of them 
or to hold one's peace is alike unsafe. The best policy 
is to keep at a distance from them ; for though Truth 
may be the best mistress a man can serve, it has been 
well observed withal, that "whosoever in writing a 
modern history shall follow too close at her heels, she 
may haply strike out his teeth for his labour." 

And from another point of view also, this work must 
be regarded as a fragment. In dealing with the com- 
plicated web of life in a microcosm such as is an Uni- 
versity, a writer, if he would make an epic, must follow 
a single strand of the twisted yarn. Here, out of the 
many stories of many varieties of Oxford Clerks which 
were offered for choice, I have taken for my clew that 
of the peculiar local product, styled, in the Canterbury 
Tales, by excellence " the Clerk of Oxenford " ; a clew 
which first fully revealing itself in Chaucer's poem, and 
reappearing at intervals in mediaeval manuals of wit 
and humour, in character-sketches such as those of 
Overbury, Earle, and Saltonstall, and in the essays of 
Steele and Addison, Amherst and Johnson, runs on 
unbroken through more modern works of fiction. 
Immortal himself, "the Clerk" supplies a link where- 



viii THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

with to connect together the short-lived generations of 
Oxford. Such having been my choice, little mention 
will be made here of the character, with whose sayings 
and doings Fiction, when dealing with academical life, 
has chiefly concerned itself, namely, "the Young 
Gentleman at an University " ; the youth known in 
the seventeenth century as the " Rascal-Jack " or 
" Tarrarag," in the eighteenth as the " Slicer " or " Man 
of Fire," and described in our own times by Mark 
Pattison as the " Fast Young Man," or the " Ruffian of 
the Playground." This favourite actor must play but 
a minor part in the following pages, because the pursuit 
of social and athletic accomplishments, though followed 
doubtless with more success at Oxford than elsewhere, 
is after all but a common denominator of Youth 
throughout the World, whereas the object of this work 
is an examination of those endowments, which have 
been for centuries so peculiarly his own, as to entitle the 
" Clerk of Oxford " to a distinct Kingdom of Nature. 
He then is the single thread of interest which has 
guided me in the following selection of prose and 
verse. Thus the principal chapters contain portraits 
of the hero drawn at various dates by contemporary 
artists; and they are introduced by lines, the work of 
Oxford Hands, in which those didactic notes may be 
detected, " full of high sentence and sounding in moral 
virtue," which from Chaucer's day onward have formed 
the " Clerk " - motif, and have ever rendered that 
typical Oxonian a Man of Mark, not only among 
ignorant lay-folks, but also among lettered Scholars 
of other Seminaries of sound learning and religious 
education. In the minor chapters, the varying 
fortunes of the University, during some six 
centuries of its existence, are briefly narrated in verse, 



PREFACE ix 

most of which is contemporary with the events it 
describes : but from such excursions this work, com- 
posed in rondo-form, invariably returns to its principal 
theme, that the reader may note how powerless have 
been success and adversity, war, and religious and 
political persecutions, to vary the essential nature and 
property of the Oxford Clerk. Unchanged amid the 
changing scenes around him, he it is who gives a 
rounded and symmetrical form to the whole composi- 
tion. 

And, finally, it must be admitted, that, even when 
this work is regarded as a fragment, that fragment is 
itself fragmentary ; for so great is the mass of material 
which is relevant to it, that it is impossible to set it 
all out fully here. I have therefore quoted only what 
seemed to me to be the less obvious and common part 
thereof; and even then I have found it necessary to 
abridge some of the selected documents, for otherwise 
it had been difficult to bring so great vessels into so 
small a creek. 



CONTENTS 

CHAP. PAGE 

PREFACE ....... v 

I. CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1400 A.D . i 

II. EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY . . 27 

III. CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1500 A.D . 45 

IV. EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY . . 64 
V. CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1600 A.D . 91 

VI. HALCYON DAYS . . . . . .122 

VII. THE GREAT REBELLION . . . .154 

VIII. THE PURITAN USURPATION . . . .191 

IX. RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION . . .205 
X. CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1700 A.D . 242 

XI. POLITICAL PERSECUTION .... 273 

XII. THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES AT OXFORD . 313 

XIII. CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION CONCLUSION . 361 

INDEX ....... 379 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FACING PAGE 

THE CLERK OF OXFORD ..... 2 

From the Ellesmere MS. of the Canterbury Tales 

NEW COLLEGE ....... 37 

From the MS. of THOMAS CHANDLER, Warden 1454-1475 ; 
here reproduced from Archceologia, vol. liii. PI. xv. 

BURNING OF RIDLEY AND LATIMER . . -74 

From JOHN FOXE'S Acts and Monuments (1784), iii. 429 

OXFORD CROWN-PIECE, A.D. 1644 .... 164 

From INGRAM'S Memorials of Oxford, vol. ii. 

ESCAPE OF CHARLES I. FROM OXFORD, A.D. 1646 . 185 

From True Information of the Beginning and Cause of all our 
Troubles; 1648 

OXFORD MEMORIAL MEDAL, A.D. 1648 . . . 192 

From ANTHONY WOOD'S Historia . . . Univ. Oxon., i. 414 

SCHOLARS AT A LECTURE ..... 240 

From a Print by HOGARTH, 1737 

DR. SYNTAX AT OXFORD (ROWLANDSON) . . .297 

From WILL. COMBE'S Tour in Search of the Picturesque 

A COLLEGE GATE (WATSON AND DICKENSON) . . 299 

INTRODUCTION OF THE POPE TO THE CONVOCATION AT 
OXFORD (GILLRAY) ..... 338 

INSTALLATION OF LORD GRENVILLE AS CHANCELLOR OF 

THE UNIVERSITY (GILLRAY) .... 339 

THE CLERK OF OXFORD, A.D. 1814 . . . .361 

From R. ACKERMANN'S History of Oxford 



THE CLERK OF OXFORD 
IN FICTION 

CHAPTER I 
CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1400 A.D. 

"Tails Universitas est Oxoniensis, 
Qualis Sol fulgoribus radians immensis ; 
Iste Mundi splendor est Ilia lux Anglorum 
Super bonos malosque lucet lux amborum." 

ANON., circa 1400 A.D. 

" 'Omnis amor clerici, amor clerici ! ' 
Scribitur Oxoniae ad ostium studii : 
Si amorem clerici habere nequiam 
Osculabor ostium et cito fugiam. 

' Al clerkyn love, clerkyn love ! ' 

Ys ywyrt at Oxinfort on ye scolow's door ; 

Yf clerkyn love have y ne may, 

I may kyss ye scoldor, and farin my way." 

MS. of the 1 4th century, in the Library 

of the Corporation of Leicester. 
Retrospective Review, N.S., vol. i. 419 

AMONG the genre portraits drawn by Chaucer in 
the Book of the Tales of Canterbury, appear the 
earliest sketches of the mediaeval Oxonian. 
Of these, the most finished is that of " the Clerk of 
Oxenford," one of the dramatis personae of the Tales, 
and the representative of the University in that " com- 
\ 



2 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

pany of sundry folks " which made the famous pilgrimage 
to the shrine of St. Thomas : 

A Clerk ther was of Oxenford also, 
That unto logik hadde longe y-go. 1 
As lene was his hors as is a rake, 
And he nas nat right fat, I undertake ; 
But loked holwe, and ther-to soberly. 
Ful thredbar was his overest courtepy; 2 
For he had geten him yet no benefyce, 
Ne was so worldly for to have offyce. 
For him was lever have at his beddes heed 3 
Twenty bokes, clad in blak or reed, 
Of Aristotle and his philosophye, 
Than robes riche, or fithele, or gay sautrye. 4 
But al be that he was a philosophre, 
Yet hadde he but litel gold in cofre; 
But al that he mighte of his freendes hente, 
On bokes and on lerninge he it spente, 
And bisily gan for the soules preye 
Of hem that yaf him wher-with to scoleye. 6 
Of studie took he most cure and most hede. 
Noght o word spak he more than was nede, 
And that was seyd in forme and reverence, 
And short and quik and ful of hy sentence. 
Souninge in moral vertu 6 was his speche, 
And gladly wolde he lerne, and gladly teche. 

Contrasted with the Clerk of Oxenford is " hende 
Nicholas," the hero of the Miller's Tale : 

Whylom ther was dwellinge at Oxenford 
A riche gnof, that gestes heeld to bord, 7 
And of his craft he was a carpenter, 
With him ther was dwellinge a povre scoler, 

1 Y-go betaken himself. 2 Overest courtepy uppermost short-coat. 

3 " He would rather have at his bed's head." 

4 Fithele fiddle ; sautrye psaltery. 

6 " He prayed for those who paid his school expenses." 

6 Conducing to moral virtue, etc. 7 A rich churl, who took in lodgers. 




THE CLERK OF OXFORD 

FROM THE ELLES1MERE MS. OF THE CANTERBURY TALES 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 3 

Had lerned art, but al his fantasye 

Was turned for to lerne astrologye; 

And coude a certeyn of conclusiouns 

To demen by interrogaciouns, 

If that men axed him in certein houres, 

Whan that men sholde have droghte or elles shoures, 

Or if men axed him what sholde bifalle 

Of everything, I may nat rekene hem alle. 1 

This clerk was cleped hende Nicholas, 2 
Of derne love he coude, and of solas; 3 
And ther-to was he sleigh and ful privee, 
And lyk a mayden meke for to see. 
A chambre hadde he in that hostelrye, 
Allone, withouten any companye, 
Ful fetishly y-dight with herbes swote; 
And he himself as swete as is the rote 
Of licorys or any cetewale; 
His Almageste and bokes grete and smale, 
His astrelabie, longinge for his art, 
His augrim-stones layen faire apart, 4 
On shelves couched at his beddes heed; 
His presse y-covered with a falding reed; 5 
And al above ther lay a gay sautrye, 
On which he made a nightes melodye, 
So swetely, that al the chambre rong; 
And " Angelus ad Virginem " he song ; 6 
And after that he song the kinges note ; 
Ful often blessed was his mery throte. 
And thus this swete clerk his tyme spente 
After his freendes finding and his rente. 7 

1 He knew a selection of problems, wherewith to decide questions as 
to coming weather, and other future events. 

2 Hende courteous. 8 Derne secret. 

4 Almageste an astronomical treatise ; astrelabie, an astronomical 
instrument ; augrim-stones, counters for calculation. 

5 Falding reed a red cloth. 

6 For this hymn, see Appendix to Chapter I. 

7 According to the money provided by his friends and his own income. 
See Chaucer's Works, ed. by W. W. Skeat, 



4 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

This Carpenter had wedded newe a wyf, 
Which that he lovede more than his lyf; 
Of eightetene yeer she was of age ; 
Jalous he was, and heeld hir narwe in cage ; 
For she was wilde and yong, and he was old, 
And demed himself ben lyk a cokewold, etc. 

A third sketch is that of " joly Jankin, sometyme clerk 
of Oxenford," and fifth husband of the Wife of Bath. 

Oxford Society at the close of the fourteenth century, 
with its fusion or confusion of nations and classes, 
furnished the student of human nature with a bound- 
less field for observation. To the University which 
had produced a succession of Schoolmen such as Bacon 
and the " subtle " Scotus, Burley the " perspicuous " 
and Bradwardine the " profound," the " invincible " 
Ockham, and other " resolute," " irrefragable," and 
" solid " Doctors, came scholars, not only from England, 
Ireland, Wales, and Scotland, but also from France 
and Italy, Sweden, Bohemia, and Poland, and rendered 
it for a time the most famous of the seats of learning, 
nay, rather a little world in itself. Its schools attracted 
old and young; regular and secular; all sorts and 
conditions of men, from children of small tradesmen, 
artisans, and even villeins, up through many intervening 
grades, to sons of noblemen and lords of parliament. 
High and low, rich and poor, there met together : and 
before the century closed, there could have been seen, 
living among the needy Fellows of Queen's College, 
the "eleemosynary boys," the impotent folks who fed 
in the hall, and the indigent poor who received the 
statutory pea-soup at the gate of the College, a youth 
destined to be the greatest of English kings, 
" triumphator Galliae, hostium victor et sui, Henricus 
quintus, hujus Collegii et cubiculi, minuti scilicet, olim 
magnus incola." l 

1 Inscription under Henry's portrait at Queen's College. This founda- 
tion claims Edward the Black Prince also as an alumnus ; and it would 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 5 

Many-coloured was life in the mediaeval University. 
Although no School for Saints, it was here, never- 
theless, that St. Edmund of Abingdon wedded the 
image of Our Lady with a ring, and vowed to cleave 
in spousehood to Her alone all his life long. Here, 
too, in his undergraduate days, St. Richard of Wych 
resigned to his brother a landed estate, and a maiden 
to whom he was betrothed; and though the local 

appear that Crecy as well as Agincourt was won in the playing fields of 
Oxford. 

See Poem on Queen Caroline rebuilding the lodgings of the Black 
Prince and Henry V at Queen's College, Thomas Tickell (1733) : 

"Where bold and graceful soars, secure of fame, 
The pile now worthy great Philippa's name, 
Mark that old ruin, Gothic and uncouth, 
Where the Black Edward passed his beardless youth, 
And the fifth Henry for his first renown 
Outstripped each rival in a student's gown. 

In that coarse age were Princes found to dwell 
With meagre monks and haunt the silent cell : 
Sent from the Monarch's to the Muse's Court, 
Their meals were frugal, and their sleeps were short ; 
To couch at curfew-time they thought no scorn, 
And froze at Matins every winter morn ; 
They read, an early book, the starry frame, 
And lisped each constellation by its name ; 
Art after art still dawning to their view, 
And their mind opening as their stature grew. 

Yet whose ripe manhood spread our fame so far, 
Sages in peace and demigods in war ! 
Who stern in fight made echoing Cressi ring, 
And mild in conquest, served his captive king? 
Who gained at Agincourt the victor's bays, 
Nor took himself, but gave good Heaven, the praise 
Thy nurselings, ancient dome," etc. 

See also Triumph of Isis, Thomas Warton (1749) : 

" Not all the toils of thoughtful peace engage ; 
'Tis thine to form the hero and the sage. 
I see the sable-suited prince advance, 
With lilies crowned, the spoils of bleeding France 
Edward The Muses in yon hallowed shade 
Bound on his tender thigh the martial blade, 
Bade him the steel for British freedom draw, 
And Oxford taught the deeds that Cressi saw." 



6 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

school of dancing was remarkable for energy and 
variety, eschewed such frivolous amusement, that he 
might devote himself to the more congenial pursuit of 
logic. 1 And if, after the death of St. Thomas Cantelupe 
(1282), Oxonians no longer 

Strove to wind themselves too high, 
For sinful man beneath the sky, 

there were still, doubtless, in Chaucer's day, many who 
led the retired and blameless existence mapped out 
for the docile in College Statutes. On the other hand, 
there were men whose exceptionally high spirits or 
extraordinarily low morals constantly stimulated the 
growth of the University police system; leaders in 
the battles between the Nations, Northern, Southern, 
Welsh, and Irish, into which the Clerks were divided, 
and in the physical encounters between Town and 
Gown; promoters .of feuds between Masters and 
Students, Faculty and Faculty, and the disciples of 
rival Schoolmen ; scholar-poachers and scholar- 
highwaymen ; rakehells, haunters of taverns and 
brothels. Again, love of life and adventure, and the 
pleasures of society, led as many to the crowded city, 

1 Acta Sanctorum (April i), vol. x. 278 : " Ricardus autem dixit 
fratri suo, 'Non, carissime frater, non propter hoc turbetur cor tuum, 
nam adeo curialis ut fuisti erga me, ero et erga te. Ecce restituo tibi 
terram et chartam, sed et puellam, si sibi et amicis suis placuerit, 
nunquam enim os ipsius deosculatus sum.' Confestim igitur Ricardus 
reliquit tarn terram quam puellam, et ad Studium Universitatis Oxoniae . . . 
se transtulit, ubi Logicam addidicit." Oxford dancing was already of 
repute in Chaucer's day. The poet writes of Absolon, the parish-clerk, 
in the Millers Tale, 

"In twenty manere coude he trippe and dance, 
After the scole of Oxenforde tho, 
And with his legges casten to and fro." 

St. Richard's views appear, however, to have been extreme : " Juvenis 
choreas, tripudia," (Square dances as well as round ? ) " et vana consimilium 
spectaculorum genera sic detestando fugiebat, ut nee blanditiis nee 
coaetaneorum suasione contra naturam aetatis ad ea flecti posset vel 
induci." 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 7 

as did zeal for knowledge. If some stole what they 
could from their famishing stomachs and half-covered 
bodies in order to buy books, others neglected study 
for the care of food and dress, and would "boosen 
their breasts, and pinch their bellies, to make them 
small waists ; and strain their hosen to shew their 
strong legs; seeming to challenge God of gifts he 
had given them, and to amend him in his craft as if 
he failed therein." " Sunt pueri pueri, vivunt pueriliter 
illi," remarks the author of a mediaeval Pilgrim's Scrip ; 
and, again, " Per pisces et aves multi periere scolares " ; 
while in a third passage, laying aside his frosty beard 
and other philosophical shew, and speaking so familiarly 
that the most wild and haggard heads must needs 
listen to the wholesome warning, he notes under the 
heading "Juventus," " Alea, Bacchus, Amor mulierum, 
reddit egenum ; Nunquam qui sequitur haec tria, dives 
erit:" 1 and, sure enough, among the lusty youth of 
Oxford were to be found slaves of dice, draughts, and 
the "inordinate" game of chess; patrons of the jovial 
supper ; and alas ! many of whom it was said, that 
they might have been made scholars, could they but 
have learned to decline "mulier": sportsmen, too, 
" who gave the bread of the children of men to hawks 
and hounds": in short, followers of all those various 
distractions from study, against which a succession of 
College-founders pronounced anathema. Even in the 
crowded lecture-room, the enthusiast of the time, who 
had crossed land and sea to be initiated into the 
mysteries of knowledge, might yet find himself in a 
minority. The thyrsus-bearers were indeed many, but 
the inspired few : and by the side of laborious and life- 
long soldiers of wisdom stood those who "offered 
but the fuming must of their youthful intellects to 
philosophy, reserving the clearer wine for the money- 

1 "Carminum proverbialium, totius humanae vitae statum breviter 
delineantium, necnon utilem de moribus doctrinam jucunde proponentium, 
loci communes in gratiam juventutis selecti." 



8 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

making business of life," and favourites of fortune, 
who, "helped by the influence of great men, were 
permitted to proceed, like goats, by leaps and bounds, 
over the academical course " ; 1 while if the University 
could boast sons of genius, whose application and 
achievements seemed to the common scantling of the 
day nothing less than superhuman, she numbered also, 
among her children, many of whom it was written, 

Oxoniam multi veniunt, redeunt quoque, stulti. 

In studying such a Society, an artist might well have 
been led to select violently contrasting types of men 
and manners, and "to cover his canvas with sanguine 
paint-splashes " ; and the temptation to do so has in 
fact proved too strong for most of those who have 
left fancy pictures of University life during this period. 
Thus all the wisdom of " a great clerk Grosseteste " or 
an " admirable Doctor Bacon," of whom 

We read how busy that he was 
Upon clergy an Head of Brass 
To forge, and make it for to tell 
Of such things as befell ; 

and all the seven years' labour that he laboured, are 
brought to confusion by the half minute's "lachesse" 
of some supernaturally simple and careless scholar- 
servant. 2 St. Edmund of Abingdon, clothed in his 

1 See Richard de Bury, Philobiblon, chap. ix. 148, 152 (1345 A.D.). 

2 It would seem that to Grosseteste, rather than to Bacon, belongs the 
credit of having invented those, philosophizing Brazen-heads, for the 
fabrication of which the Oxford of fiction became a great centre during 
the Middle Ages (Gower, Confessio Amantis, iv. 234 ; and Richard of 
Bardney, de Vita Rob. Grosthed, cap. xx., in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
vol. ii.): and, moreover, while the few sentences which Bacon's "Head" 
uttered before its premature dissolution, were of no great philosophical 
value, Grosseteste's masterpiece appears to have been endowed with the 
genuine "Oxford Manner," and, in the public lectures which it delivered 
on Saturdays, to have "corrected errors, and to have readily solved all 
the great problems of humanity " ; as Bardney puts it, 

" Tempore Saturni loquitur Saturnia proles; 
Corrigit errores, consulit in dubiis." 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 9 

customary suits of stiff and knotted horsehair, preaches 
the Crusade to a congregation of well-dressed Oxonians 
in All Saints' Churchyard. The Devil sends " weather 
dark and grisly " to break up this open-air service ; 

"Grisliker" weather than it was, might not on earth 

be; 
And folks, for dread of their clothes, fast go to 

flee; 

the Confessor, himself unmoved, prays Heaven for 
protection against the coming tempest ; and with such 
success, that, whereas on the north side of the High 
Street where he stands, "not a drop of rain falls to 
disturb a man's mood," on the south side the storm 
bursts like a great flood, overwhelming those who, in 
fear for their raiment, have deserted the preacher: 
Faith and Austerity keep dry and clean ; Vanity and 
Faithlessness are " well washed and wet to the skin." 3 
And then there are the two portraits which Richard 
de Bury has left us in the Philobiblon (1345 A.D.); the 
one of himself as a refined bibliomaniac, the other, 
in contrast therewith, of one of those young Oxford 
Philistines to whom he was about to hand over the 
delicate treasures of his library. "You may see," he 
writes of the latter, "some headstrong youth lazily 
lounging over his book. His nails are black as jet, 
and with them he marks any passage that pleases 
him. He inserts a multitude of straws in different 
places, so that the halm may remind him of what his 
memory cannot retain ; . . . and when spring-time 

This art of shaping the most rough and lifeless material into Mercuries, 
and of inspiring them with vitality and wit, had been brought to 
perfection by Chaucer's time in the Oxford Schools ; see Chaucer's 
House of Fame, iii. 175; and the story of the Oxford "Head" which 
prophesied the dethronement and death of Richard n, in Anthony Wood's 
Annals under the year 1388, and Knighton's Chron. Angliae, v. 

1 Metrical Life of St. Edmund the Confessor > edited from Laud MS. 
108 (1295-1305 A.D.) by Carl Horstmann for the Early South English 
Legendary (Early English Text Society). 



io THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

comes, the volume will be stuffed to its great injury 
with primroses, violets, and quatrefoil. He does not 
fear to eat fruit and cheese over the open pages, or 
carelessly to carry a cup to and from his mouth ; and 
because he has no wallet at hand, he drops into books 
the fragments that are left. Continually chattering, 
he is never weary of disputing with his companions, 
and while he alleges a crowd of senseless arguments, 
he wets the book, lying half open in his lap, with 
sputtering showers. Aye, and then hastily folding 
his arms, he leans forward upon it, and by a brief 
spell of study, provokes a prolonged nap ; and then 
by way of mending the wrinkles, he folds back the 
leaves to their no small hurt. Whenever he finds an 
extra margin about the text, he will write thereon any 
frivolity that strikes his fancy, or will cut it away to 
use as material for letters ; and he is shameless enough 
to employ the leaves from the ends, inserted for the 
protection of the book, for various uses and abuses," 
etc. When, however, Chaucer's studies of the Oxford 
Clerk are examined, it is seen that his art is more 
subtle than that of his brother-writers. He does not 
secure his effect by thus forcing extremes to meet; 
nor is there anything of the caricature about his 
portraits of "joly Jankin," "hende Nicholas," and 
"the Clerk of Oxenford." Their circumstances are 
comfortable. They all own books in days when 
books were rare and of great price. Nicholas has also 
a set of astronomical instruments ; and rents a private 
chamber, when poorer men were content to live, three 
or four together, in one room. The Clerk is the proud 
possessor of a horse, although a lean one, and rides to 
Canterbury instead of making pilgrimage on foot. 
Nor are they remarkable for great virtue or great 
vice. Their position, indeed, in mediaeval Oxford, as 
far as regards morals, must have corresponded closely 
to that occupied, in comparatively recent days, at 
Worcester College by " the Smilers," men of moderate 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. n 

tastes and habits, who were placed in hall at a table 
between that of " the Saints " or serious men, and the 
table of the fast and festive set known as " the Sinners." 
Jankin is perhaps a prig; but the Clerk and Nicholas 
represent respectively life grave and life gay, as lived 
by average undergraduates in a mediaeval University, 
before Colleges were numerous, and "shades of the 
prison-house had closed upon the growing boy." In 
The Prologue, and the Tale of Beryn, an attempt made 
by an anonymous author, in the early part of the 
fifteenth century, to continue the Canterbury Tales> the 
" Clerk of Oxenforth " takes the broad view that " in 
order to guard against error, it is commendable to have 
a very knowledge of things reprovable " ; and Chaucer's 
Nicholas carries on an intrigue with his landlord's 
wife, which is accompanied by many humorous 
but coarse incidents. In short, their behaviour 
testifies to the accuracy of Dr. Jowett's conjecture, 
"that the people of the Middle Ages were probably 
very like ourselves, only dirtier in their habits." x 

1 Life of Dr. Benjamin Jowett, by Dr. Evelyn Abbott and Dr. Lewis 
Campbell, ii. 147. Comp. also an early sketch of English scholars at 
the University of Paris, drawn by "Dan Burnel, the Asse" in Nigel's 
Speculum Stultorum, A.D. 1180. 

"Inde scholas adiens, secum deliberat utrum 

Expediant potius ista vel ista sibi. 
Et quia subtiles sensu considerat Anglos, 

Pluribus ex causis se sociavit eis. 
Moribus egregii, verbo vultuque venusti, 

Ingenio pollent, consilioque vigent. 
Dona pluunt populis, et detestantur avaris ; 

Fercula multiplicand et sine lege bibunt : 
'Wessayl' et 'drinkhayl,' necnon persona secunda, 

Haec tria sunt vitia quae comitantur eos. 
His tribus exceptis, nihil est quod in his reprehendas ; 

Haec tria si tollas, coetera cuncta placent." 

Anglo-Latin Satirical Poets (Rolls Series) 

"Then sage Burnel considered well, with due deliberation, 

What faculty his choice should be, what sect or class or nation ; 
But chiefly then the Englishmen were praised for wit and cunning, 
For pregnant parts and generous hearts, all mean behaviour shunning. 



12 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

These average men Chaucer then proceeded to 
invest with certain qualities and peculiarities, of which, 
while some were specially typical of the Oxford of 
his day, others were already, and still are, characteristic 
of members of that University. For the pilgrimage 
to Canterbury at the close of the fourteenth century 
was not the first occasion on which "the Clerk of 
Oxenford" had represented Oxford among various 
estates of men. As early as the year 1197, when the 
Schools had but lately risen to the dignity of a 
Studium Generale, his quiet demeanour, fastidiousness 
on the score of language, and zeal to receive and 
impart instruction, had already attracted the notice of 
strangers, and made the city remarkable as one 
" wherein abounded men of discretion, skilled in mystic 
eloquence, weighing the words of the law, bringing 
forth from their treasures, to him that asketh, things 
both new and old." 1 He figured again at the recep- 
tion of Boniface of Savoy in 1252, when Oxonians, 
"by their courtesy, dignity of bearing, style of dress, 
and gravity of manners," so impressed the Provencal 
clerks who accompanied the Archbishop, that they 
were fain to recognise Oxford as a worthy rival of 
Paris. 2 Rendered immortal by Chaucer, he has lived 
on unchanged, with the same striking peculiarities now 

Much he approved the rule they loved, whose prudent care had striven 

To cheer with wine the discipline that drier souls had given. 

Three sins alone these gallants own, though these are black and 

heinous ; 

They seek relief in good roast beef, from Scotus and Aquinas ; 
With merry souls they drain their bowls ; and then, when each is 

mellow, 

With lighter head each seeks his bed to play with his bedfellow. 
And pity 'tis they sin in these, for sages wise declare to us, 
From sins but three had they been free, their lives had been more 

virtuous." 

THOMAS WRIGHT, England in the Middle Ages 

1 Letter of Senatus, Prior of Worcester, to the Prior of Osney, quoted 
in Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, II. ii. 348, by Hastings 
Rashdall. 

2 Matt. Paris, Chronica Majora, v. 353 (Rolls Series). 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 13 

fairly represented, now exaggerated in caricature, by 
writers of successive ages. Changes in the conditions 
of life at Oxford, such as the gradual contraction of 
the University from a cosmopolitan to an insular, and 
from a democratic to an aristocratic society, and the 
decay of the "unattached," and the growth of the 
collegiate, system of residence, have brought about 
the extinction of many old, and the formation of many 
new, varieties of men ; but in the specific character of 
this general ancestor of both old and new, they have 
effected no material modification. Five centuries have 
not weakened the pulse of life in the "Clerk of 
Oxenford." Unsuperseded as yet by any of the 
divergent modern varieties, differing from him, though 
they do, so widely in bodily and cerebral development, 
this aboriginal stock still predominates in the Oxford 
of to-day, over athletes by flood and field; over 
politicians; and men of fashion: the rock pigeon 
among tumblers, carriers, and runts, those birds of 
great size and massive feet; trumpeters; jacobins and 
fantails. 

At the same time, the Clerk and his companions 
distinctly belong to fourteenth-century Oxford. 

When Chaucer was composing the Tales (1386-1400), 
Wycliffe, the last of the great Schoolmen, was but 
lately dead, and the fame of the University still stood 
very high. In her, indeed, the intellectual life of 
England was focused. While the Schools of 
Cambridge had yet to make themselves a name, and 
while with the " arundiferous Cam " there was associated 
as yet in the minds of men a reputation for eels rather 
than for education, 1 the country, for two centuries 
past, had looked to " the hallowed bank of Isis' goodly 
flood" 2 for a never-failing supply of persons well- 
qualified to serve both in Church and State, " to resist 
heretics by their sapience, and to comfort and counsel 

1 J. Thorold Rogers, Six Centuries of Work and Wages, p. 105. 

2 Drayton, Polyolbion^ nth Song, 399. 



14 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

the king by their teaching and witty discipline." 1 So 
long and so complete had been this dependence, that 
historians, unable to account satisfactorily for the 
steady march of civilization in the past, except by 
ascribing the initiation and direction of such progress 
to Oxford, drew the natural conclusion that the founda- 
tion of the University must have followed very closely 
upon the discovery of the British Isles. Vague guesses, 
with which, in the absence of reliable evidence, modern 
writers must perforce be content, such as "that the 
history of Oxford began in the year 912, when, accord- 
ing to the Saxon Chronicle^ Eadward the Elder took 
possession of the place," " that the name was acquired 
by the classic ford, because at that spot oxen very 
frequently passed over the river," and "that the 
University probably owed its origin to a migration of 
Masters and Scholars from France in or about the 
year 1167," would not only have failed to satisfy the 
scientific curiosity of their mediaeval predecessors, but 
would have seemed to them wholly unworthy of a 
City "which was A. per se," and of a University, to 
which, as Richard de Bury writes, "the Palladium 
had been recently transferred from Paris." Barriers 
in the path of .sober research but provided them with 
an excuse to soar into the region of imagination and 
conjecture, and to seek there more worthy genealogies. 
Thence they fetched that simple and poetic etymology, 
which finds in the place-name Oxford the words of 
encouragement addressed either by Europa to her 
bovine abductor, or by the virgin Frideswyde to her 
milk-white steed. 2 Thence came the myths of the 

1 Chronicle of John Hardy ng, chap. no. 

2 In Oxoniensis Academia (John Pointer, 1749), in a description of the 
Conduit which was set up at Carfax by Otho Nicholson in 1610 (removed 
to Nuneham Park 1787), appears the following explanation of the open 
work thereon, consisting of the capital letters O, N. (i.e. the initials of 
the founder's names), and of the figure of a lady riding on an ox over a 
ford (said to be the figure of Queen Maud, sister to the Emperor) : 
" Under all, just over the cistern, is the brazen figure of Europa daughter 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 15 

foundation of the city, at the very dawn of civilization, 
by Mempricius, the contemporary of Homer and the 
prophet Samuel, and of the University by philosophers 
who accompanied the Trojan Brutus to Albion. 
Thence came those tales which formed the creed of 
all loyal Oxonians through the Middle Ages; but 
which, within the last thirty years, modern historians, 
" slitting the thin-spun lives " of the kings and heroes, 
scholars, saints, and virgins, which were worked into 
it, have finally condemned "as an elaborate web of 
fiction woven at the close of the fourteenth century." l 

But it was to excellence in the arts of war, no less 
than to excellence in those of peace, that Oxford owed 
her pre-eminence. In the " Historiola," inscribed about 
the year 1375 in the Chancellor's book, she boasts her- 
self to be " not only first in point of foundation of all 
the Studia then existing among the Latins, the most 
general in the number of sciences taught, and the most 
firm in the profession of Catholic Truth, but also the 
most distinguished for the number of her privileges " ; 2 
and these privileges are the trophies of victories lately 
won over many and various foes, of Exercises by the 
performance of which her children have qualified them- 
selves to rank as Graduates in the science of attack and 
defence, to be hailed Masters of Arms as well as of Arts. 

of Agenor, King of Phoenicia, with whom Zeus being in love, transformed 
himself into a bull, and carried her away into this part of the world. She 
is represented riding upon an ox, and crying ' ON, ON ! ' Hence the 
town, according to tradition, was called ' Ox, on !-ford."' 

Anthony Wood, in his City of Oxford (Oxford Histor. Society) 
vol. n. 132, writes: " Before we go any further, we must insert an old 
tradition that goeth from father to son of our inhabitants. When 
Frideswyde had been so long absent from hence, she came from Binsey, 
triumphing with her virginity, into the City, mounted on a milk-white ox 
betokening innocency ; and as she rode along the streets, she would forsooth 
be still speaking to her ox, ' Ox, forth ! ' ' Ox, forth ! ' ; or, as 'tis related, 
* Bos, Perge ! ' that is, ' Ox, go on ! ' or ' Ox, go on forth ! ' And hence 
they say that our City was thereafter called ' Ox-forth ! ' or * Oxford.' " 

1 Hastings Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, II. 

". 323- 

2 Early History of Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc.), p. 10, 



1 6 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

The story of the University's triumphs over Friars, Arch- 
deacons of Oxford, and Bishops of Lincoln ; over rival 
Schools at Stamford ; over Jews ; and, above all, over 
the Mayor and Commonalty of Oxford, belongs to 
the department of History : and has not the glorious 
record of them been written in the books of the 
chronicles of Anthony Wood ! Here it will be sufficient 
to note that " the bands of half-starved students who 
towards the end of the twelfth century began to pour 
into the town/' " the groups of shivering scholars huddled 
round a teacher as poor as themselves in porch and 
doorway," have now, after a strenuous youth, grown into 
a corporation which has made itself supreme within the 
walls of the city, and practically independent of con- 
trol from without. 

Such is Chaucer's Oxford ; 

TravTonopos, airopos err' ovdev c 



and in the resourcefulness of their art, Chaucer's 
Oxonians are no unworthy sons of a subtle mother. 
The poet puts Nicholas, Jankin, and u the Clerk," each 
of them in turn, to the trial, and, thanks to his liberal 
education, no one of them is found wanting; 

crofybv TL TO p.r)xavov re^j/aff inrfp e\7riS' 
Trore p.ev KOKOI/, aXXor' eTr' ecr$A6j> e 



And, first, "hende Nicholas." "Opportunity is the 
Bay or Port of Fancy," writes Richard Brathwaite in his 
Comment on the Miller's Tale : l " Many storms and 
billows did this amorous student suffer ; many rubs and 
oppositions did he encounter ; before he was wafted to 
the long-expected harbour . . . To be short, as Fancy 
cannot endure to be long, on a day when the Carpenter 
is gone to Oseney, our youthful Boorder boords his 
amorous Hostess, and that so familiarly as it requires a 
curtain for the love of modesty. Passionate are his 

1 A Comment upon two Tales of our Ancient Poet, Sir Jeffray Chaucer ; 
by R. B. (1665), edited for the Chaucer Society by C, F E. Spurgeon. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 17 

Enter-breaths, intimate his Love, desperate his Life, if 
he may not enjoy that, without which he desires not 
any longer to live. But Alison seems relentless. 
Nothing daunted, however, by this repulse, Nicholas 
takes quite another course, and hopes to obtain by an 
easy parley what he cannot win by a violent assault. 
Nor is he frustrate of his hopes. Alison yields to his 
entreaties, and swears to be at his commandment, pro- 
vided that opportunity prevent all occasion of her 
husband's jealousy. Her consent quickens Nicholas' 
conceit. Playing the part of a profound astronomer, he 
persuades the * sely jalous ' Carpenter, that it has been 
revealed to him in a trance, how all the world shall be 
overwhelmed by a deluge ; and suggests, as a way of 
escape from the imminent danger, that they three 
should take refuge in three kneading-tubs, with hatchets 
to cut them down from the roof where they are to be 
tied, when the Flood has once entered. Accordingly, at 
the appointed time, Nicholas, Alison, and the Carpenter, 
climb into the troughs ; and when the last-named has 
at length gone to sleep, the other two descend, and 
take amorous solace together below. Nicholas has a 
fine world on't. His Host is encaged ; his Hostess in 
his arms embraced ; and his rival Absolon, the amorous 
parish-clerk who serenades Alison, is dismissed with 
ignominy. Nor does his wit desert him in the hour of 
retribution. When, instead of harrowing the feelings of 
others, he himself is scarified ; when the Carpenter, 
hearing his cries of pain, and thinking the deluge is 
come, cuts the ropes by which his tub is tied, and crashes 
to the ground; and the neighbours, great and small, 
rush in at the uproar; the Scholar is not discon- 
certed, but is ready with an explanation of the equivocal 
position. With more than frontless impudence, he 
avouches that it was the Carpenter's own distempered 
conceit which brought him to his misfortune ; for, stand- 
ing in awe of a second Noah's flood which out of his 
own brain-sick phantasy he had long imagined, he had 



1 8 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

caused tubs to be hanged in the roof, and had prayed 
the Clerk and Alison to sit there with him for company. 
This the two had been forced to condescend to, neither 
being willing to incur his displeasure, nor cross the fury 
of his temper. So merry a relation changeth the com- 
mon people's admiration into laughter. When the 
Carpenter vows and swears, they will not listen, but jeer 
him as a madman ; and by their light credulity they 
vindicate the wantons from dishonour." 

Nicholas' triumph was no great one; indeed, he him- 
self admits, 

A Clerk had litherly biset his while, 
But if he could a Carpenter beguile ; 

and it is pleasant to turn from this exhibition of a de- 
plorable cunning in matters of secret and illicit love, to 
observe elsewhere the equally skilful handling by 
another Oxonian of difficulties which too often attend 
the honourable estate of matrimony. " Joly Jankin " 
was the fifth husband of the Wife of Bath ; 

My fifth housbonde, God his soul blesse, 
Which that I took for love, and no richesse, 
He som-tyme was a Clerk of Oxenford, 
And had left scole, and went at hoom to bord. 

During the lifetime of her fourth husband, the Wife, 
" bewitched " by the appearance and conversation of the 
Scholar, volunteered that, " should she ever be a widow, 
he should wed her " ; and accordingly, within a month 
of her husband's funeral, the marriage was solemnized. 
As the Wife allows, 

He was, I trowe, a twenty winters old, 
And I was fourty, if I shall seye sooth; 

and this disparity of age, coupled with incompatibility 
of temper, soon threatened to wreck the happiness of 
the wedded pair. Jankin attempted to check his wife's 
inveterate habit of gossiping from house to house; but 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 19 

she, " by nature a verray jangleresse," persisted in doing 
as she had done before. No sooner did he attempt to 
restrain her of her range, than she would have had him 
re-convey to her the lands and goods she had bestowed 
upon him at marriage. Her request met with a firm 
refusal ; as Brathwaite puts it, " though a meer Scholar, 
he was no such Gooselin." He plied her with lectures 
out of old Roman stories, and confirmed them with 
Holy Writ ; but she valued these goodly precepts and 
proverbs "not worth the bloom of a hawthorn." He 
read aloud, whenever he had leisure, " a book of wikked 
wives," wherein were recorded the history and fate of 
Eve, Delilah, Clytemnestra, Xantippe, and other women 
famous or infamous. The Wife's patience was soon 
exhausted. One night, as he read, she suddenly tore 
three pages from the book, and struck him a blow on 
the cheek, so that he fell backward into the fire. 
Springing up "like a mad lion," he felled her to the 
ground. The crisis had come. The breach between 
husband and wife seemed irreparable. And yet, though 
Courts of Love, those tribunals of high authority which 
interpreted the regular code of amorous jurisprudence 
existing in this romantic age, had ruled, that, even 
under ordinary circumstances, " true love could not exist 
between married persons," l the tact of Jankin, in the 
present peculiarly hopeless case, was such, that a recon- 
ciliation was effected, and the reunited pair lived ever after 
in affection and kindliness, one towards the other. The 
Wife, it is true, in the concluding lines of her Prologue, 
attributes this happy consummation to the fact that 
her husband consented to burn the objectionable book, 
and " to give her the bridle in her hand " to have the 
governance of his house, land, and tongue: but the 

1 Eleanor of Provence presiding over a Court of Love, composed of the 
highest married ladies in Europe, examined and affirmed a judgment of 
Ermengarde, Countess of Narbonne, in the momentous words : " Dicimus 
et stabilito tenore firmamus, amorem non posse inter duos jugales suas 
extendere vires." 



20 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

actual principle, by the adoption of which Jankin re- 
tained his wife's wayward affections so successfully, 
that, in the lengthy retrospect which she took of her life, 
he figured as the best beloved of her five husbands, 
appears in an earlier passage, and testifies to the pro- 
found knowledge of the " gaie science " possessed by 
this youthful Oxonian. Says the Wife, 

Now of my fifthe housbond wol I telle ; 
God lete his soule never come in helle ! 
And yet was he to me the moste shrewe; 
That fele I on my ribbes al by rewe, 
And ever shal unto myn ending day 

And then she proceeds to give a reason why she is 
so charitable in her blessings towards him, who was so 
shrewd in his blows towards her. " True it is he gave 
me store of rib-roast, imagining belike I was of the 
nature of the wall-nut tree that must be cudgelled 
before it be fruitful : but though he gave me correction, 
he had another winning way to gain my affection : 

For thogh he hadde me bet on every boon, 
He coude winne agayn my love anoon. 
I trowe I loved him beste, for that he 
Was of his love daungerous to me. 
We wommen han, if that I shal nat lye, 
In this matere a queynte fantasye; 
Wayte what thing we may nat lightly have, 
Ther-after wol we crye al-day and crave. 
Forbede us thing, and that desyren we; 
Frees on us faste, and than wol we flee." 

Excellent in wisdom, Jankin had realized that the way 
to win women is seemingly to wean the affections 
from them. Proffered ware, be it ever so precious, is 
disvalued by them ; far-fetched and dear-bought is 
good. He was therefore sparing and nice in his love. 
He caused his wife now and then to bite o' th' bridle 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 21 

and to fast, that her stomach might become stronger for 
the next feast : 

Follow women they will fly you : 
Fly but women they'll draw nigh you : 
If you would a woman prove, 
Seem to love not, when you love. 

And, last, "the Clerk of Oxenford." It was the 
season of the year, just entering into May, when 
Chaucer's daisies spring. " Small fowls " were singing, 

The thrustelis and the thrusshis in the glad morning, 
The ruddok and the goldfinch : 

Tubal himself, the first musician, with key of harmony, 
could not unlock so sweet a tune. In the brooks, trout 
were beginning to leap; and the salmon had left the 
sea, to take his pastime in fresh waters. Turtles sat 
billing among the little green boughs, and bees began 
to go abroad for honey. In the fresh grass "pry- 
merosis " and many another flower were newly blowing, 
to comfort the eye, and to make glad the heart of Man. 
Nature, indeed, was mindful of all her children, many 
though they were : and now, at her call, this greatest of 
her great wonders, the Oxford Clerk, bidding farewell 
to his books for a season, plunged forthwith into the 
unwonted dissipation of a pilgrimage to Canterbury. 1 
He found hknself among "new men, strange faces, 
other minds." He was rallied by the genial host of the 

1 Cf. Chaucer, Legend of Good Women, Prologue : 

"And, as for me, though that my wit be lyte, 
On bokes for to rede I me delyte, 
And in myn herte have hem in reverence, 
And to hem yeve swich lust and swich credence, 
That there is wel unethe game noon, 
That from my bokes make me to goon : 
But hit be other upon a haly-day, 
Or elles in the joly time of May ; 
When that I here the smale foules singe, 
And that the floures ginne for to springe, 
Far wel my studie, as lasting that sesoun ! " 



22 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Tabard Inn for his silence and " shamfastnesse," and 
when the time came for him to tell a tale, he was en- 
treated not to speak above the heads of his audience : 

" Sir clerk of Oxenford," our hoste sayde, 
"Ye ryde as coy and stille as dooth a mayde, 
Were newe spoused, sitting at the bord; 1 
This day ne herde I of your tonge a word. 
I trowe ye studie aboute som sophyrne, 
But Salomon seith, 'every thing hath tyme.' 
For goddes sake, as beth of bettre chere, 
It is no tyme for to studien here. 
Telle us som mery tale, by your fey; 
For what man that is entred in a pley, 
He needes moot unto the pley assente. 
But precheth nat, as freres doon in Lente, 
To make us for our olde sinnes wepe, 
Ne that thy tale make us nat to slepe. 

Telle us som mery thing of aventures ; 
Your termes, your colours, and your figures, 
Kepe hem in stoor, til so be ye endyte 
Heigh style, as when that men to kinges wryte. 
Speketh so pleyn at this tyme, I yow preye, 
That we may understonde what ye seye." 

Such fears were groundless. The Clerk acquitted 
himself with complete success. He told the story of 
Grisildis, which he had learned at Padua from 
Petrarch; but while, with the superior taste of an 
Oxonian, he omitted the Italian's long and "im- 
pertinent proheme," he added to the tale an "envoy" 
all his own, wherein, with that didactic tone which has 

1 The Clerk's deportment was strictly correct. Chaucer had probably 
in his mind here, the following passage from a Commentary upon 
Boethius' Disciplina Scholastic^ written by William of Wheatley, who 
flourished at Oxford about 1300 A.D. (MS. Exeter College) : " The 
scholar who has assumed, or is about to assume, a name of so great 
reverence as that of Master of Arts, ought to be so chaste and modest in 
word, look, and action, that he may resemble a virgin newly-espoused" 
(" gestu perinde ac verbis virginem viro recens enuptam referens"). 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 23 

ever been the keynote of the Oxford Manner, he 
pronounced the age of masterful Walters and patient 
Grisilds to be passed away, and that of Men and Super- 
men to be at hand ; and " in words of high sentence " 
prepared all wedded men for the temper, the manners, 
and the policy of the New Woman, or " Archewyfe," of 
the day. And the story won greater praise than did 
any other of the series : 

This worthy Clerk, whan ended was his tale, 

Our hoste seyde, and swoor by goddes bones, 

" Me were lever than a barel ale 

My wyf at hoom had herd this legende ones; 

This is a gentil tale for the nones ; 

As to my purpos, wiste ye my wille; 

But thing that wol nat be, lat it be stille." 1 

In the Prologue^ and the Tale of Beryn, the Clerk's 
triumph is complete. There it is told how his philo- 
sophical and logical training enabled him to act readily 
and correctly in a difficulty which threatened to break 
up the good fellowship of the Canterbury Pilgrims. 
The " Sompnour " had blamed the Friar for disclosing 
too intimate an acquaintance with vicious habits, and 
had vowed vengeance on him for telling a tale of a false 
" Sompnour " : 

So cursed a tale he told of me, the devill of helle 

him spede 
And me, but yf I pay him wele, and quyte wele 

his mede. 

But " the Clerk " interposed :- 

The Clerk that was of Oxenforth unto the Somp- 
nour seyd, 

" Me semeth of grete clerge that thow art a mayde ; 
For thou puttest on the Frere, in maner of repreff, 

1 Original but rejected end-link to the Clerk's Tale. See Chaucer's 
Complete Works, ed. by W. W. Skeat, vol. iv. 424, vol. v. 351. 



24 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

That he knoweth falshede, vice, and eke a theff, 
And I it hold vertuouse and right commendabill, 
To have a very knowlech of things reprovabill, 
For whoso may eschew it and let it pas by; 
Or els he myght fall theron unward and sodenly. 
For thoughe the Frere told a tale of a Sompnore, 
Thow oughtist for to take it for no dishonore; 
For of al craftis and of eche degre, 
They be nat al perfite, but som nyce be." 

It was, indeed, no mere boast of Richard de Bury 
that " Paris spent furtive vigils in the vain attempt 
to emulate the subtlety of Oxford " ; for to " Mater 
Oxonia," as to an Oracle, all questions might be sub- 
mitted for solution, whether questions of the Faith, as 
to which Wycliffe said " suche doutes we shulden sende 
to the scole of Oxenforde," or such mundane " aenig- 
mata " as the right and proper ways to tame a Shrew 
or to maintain peace in a company of Pilgrims. 1 An 
excellent spirit and knowledge and understanding were 
found in the " Clerk of Oxenforth," the shewer of hard 
sentences and dissolver of doubts. And the tribute 
paid to his wisdom was all the greater, because it was 
rendered by the. Knight; for in those days when a 
poor but ambitious youth found but two avenues for 
advancement open to him, those of Arms and of 
Learning, and when he must have hazarded his 
fortunes on either the "Rouge" or the " Noir," con- 
siderable jealousy existed between the two professions. 
" Cedant Arma Togae ! " was an admission rarely to be 
found on a warrior's lips : and such a generous recogni- 
tion by a Soldier of the practical value of a Scholar's 
education, as that which was made by the "verray 
parfit gentil knight," is probably unique : 

" Lo ! what is worthy," seyd the knight, " for to be a 
Clerk ! 

1 Richard de Bury, Philobiblon, chap. ix. sec. 146 ; Select English Works 
of Wycliffe, ed. by Thomas Arnold, i. 93. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1400 A.D. 25 

To sommon among us then this mocioune was ful 

derke. 

I comend his wittis and eke his clerge, 
For of either part he saveth honeste." 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER I 
THE HYMN OF CHAUCER'S OXFORD CLERK 



Angelus ad Virginem 

subintrans in conclave, 
Virginis formidinem 

demulcens inquit, " Ave ! 
Ave, regina Virginum ! 
Cell terraeque dominum 
Concipies 
et paries 
intacta, 
Salutem hominum, 

tu, porta celi facta, 
Medela criminum." 

" Quomodo conciperem 

que virum non cognovi ? 
Qualiter infringerem 

quod firma mente novi?" 
"Spiritus sancti gratia 
perficiet haec omnia. 
Ne timeas, 
sed gaudeas 
secura ; 
quod castimonia 

manebit in te pura 
dei potentia." 

Ad hec Virgo nobilis 

respondens inquit ei, 
"Ancilla sum humilis 

omnipotentis dei ; 
tibi celesti nuncio 
tanti secreti conscio 
consentiem ; 
et cupiens 
videre 

factum quod audio, 
parata sum parere 
dei consilio." 



Gabriel fram evene king 

Sent to ye maiden swete, 
Broute hire blisful tiding, 

And faire he gan hire grete ; 

"Heil be thu, ful of grace arith ! 

for gode's sone this evene lith 

so for mannes louen 

wile man bicomen, 

and taken 
fles of ye maiden brith, 

manken fre for to maken 
of senne and deules mith." 

Mildeliche im gan andsweren 

ye milde maiden thanne ; 
"Wiche wise sold ichs beren 
child with-huten manne?" 
Th' angle seide, "ne dred te nout ! 
Thurw th' oligast sal ben iwrout 
this ilche thing, 
warof tiding 
ichs bringe : 
al manken weth ibout 

thur thi swete chiltinge, 
and hut of pine ibrout." 

Wan ye maiden understud 

And y' angle's wordes herde, 
Mildeliche with milde mud 

to y' angle shie andswerde ; 
" Hure lordes henmaiden, iwis, 
ics am, yat her abouen is ; 
aneftis me 
fulfurthed be 
thi sawe, 

that ics, sithen his wil is, 
maiden with-huten lawe 
of moder hauen ye blis." 



26 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Angelus disparuit ; Ye angle went awei mid than, 

Et statim puellaris al hut of hire sichte ; 

Uterus intumuit And hire wombe arise gan 

vi partus salutaris, thurw th' oligastes rnithe ; 

quo circumdatur utero In hire was Crist biloken anon, 

novem mensium numero ; Suth god, suth man, ine fleas 

post exiit, and bon; 

et iniit And of hire fleas 

conflictum, iboren was 

affigens humero at time ; 

crucern qui dedit ictum war-thurw us kam god won, 

soli mortifero. ye brout us hut of pine 

and let him for us slon. 

Eya mater domini ! Maiden moder makeles, 

que pacem reddidisti of milche ful abunden, 

Angelis et homini Bid for us im that the ches, 

cum Christum genuisti. at warn thu grace funde, 

Tuum exora filium that he forgiue hus sinne and wrake 

Ut se nobis propitium and clene of euri gelt us make ; 

exhibeat, and eune blis, 

et deleat whan hure time is 

peccata, to steruen, 

prestans auxilium hus give, for thine sake, 

vita frui beata him so her for to seruen 

post hoc exsilium. that he us to him take. 

Arundel MS. 284. f 154 (circa 1250-1260 A.D.) 
(Academy^ vol. xx. p. 472) 



CHAPTER II 

SELECT DOCUMENTS DESCRIBING THE EARLY 
GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 

I. RISE OF THE OXFORD SCHOOLS 

" r I ^HE Honorable Historic of frier Bacon and frier 
Bongay," made by Robert Greene, utriusque 
Academiae in Artibus Magister, 1594. 

SCENE I. Oxford circa 1250 A.D. The Regent House 
Enter MASON, BURDEN, and CLEMENT, three Doctors 

Mason. Now we are gathered in the Regent House, 
It fits us talk about the king's repair; 
For he, trooped with all the western kings 
That lie along the Dantzick seas by east, 
North by the clime of frosty Germany, 
The Almaine monarch, and the Saxon duke, 
Castile, and lovely Elinor with him, 
Have in their jests resolved for Oxford town. 

Burden. We must lay plots of stately tragedies, 
Strange comic shews, such as proud Roscius 
Vaunted before the Roman emperors, 
To welcome all the western potentates. 

Clement. But more ; the king by letters hath foretold 
That Frederick, the Almaine emperor, 
Hath brought with him a German of esteem, 
Whose surname is Don Jaques Vandermast, 
Skilful in magic and those secret arts. 



28 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Mason. Then must we make all suit unto the friar, 
To friar Bacon, that he vouch this task, 
And undertake to countervail in skill 
The German ; else there's none in Oxford can 
Match and dispute with learned Vandermast. 



SCENE II. Oxford 

Enter KING HENRY in ; FREDERICK n, Emperor of 
Germany, "Stupor Mundi" ; CASTILE; ELINOR; 
VANDERMAST and FRIAR BUNGAY 

Emperor. Trust me, Plantagenet, these Oxford Schools 
Are richly seated near the river side: 
The mountains full of fat and fallow deer, 
The battling pastures lade with kine and flocks, 
The town gorgeous with high-built colleges, 
And scholars seemly in their grave attire, 
Learned in searching principles of art. 
What is thy judgment, Jaques Vandermast? 

Vandermast. That lordly are the dwellings of the 

town, 

Spacious the rooms, and full of pleasant walks ; 
But for the doctors, how that they be learned, 
It may be meanly, for aught I can hear. 

Bungay. I tell thee, German, Hapsburg holds none 

such, 

None read so deep, as Oxenford contains : 
There are, within our academic state, 
Men that may lecture it in Germany 
To all the doctors of your Belgic Schools. 

Henry. Stand to him, Bungay: charm this Vandermast ; 
And I will use thee, as a royal king. 

Vandermast. Wherein dar'st thou dispute with me? 

Bungay. In what a doctor and a friar can. 

Vandermast. Before rich Europe's worthies put thou 

forth 
The doubtful question unto Vandermast. 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 29 

Bungay. Let it be this: Whether the spirits of 
pyromancy or geomancy be most predominant in 
magic ? 

Vandermast. I say, of pyromancy. 

Bungay. And I, of geomancy. 

Vandermast. The cabalists that write of magic spells, 
As Hermes, Melchie, and Pythagoras, 
Affirm that 'mongst the quadruplicity 
Of elemental essence, " terra " is but thought 
To be a "punctum" squared to the rest; 
And that the compass of ascending elements 
Exceed in bigness as they do in height; 
Judging the concave circle of the sun 
To hold the rest in his circumference. 
If then, as Hermes says, the fire be greatest, 
Purest, and only giveth shapes to spirits, 
Then must those demones that haunt that place, 
Be every way superior to the rest. 

Bungay. I reason not of elemental shapes, 
Nor tell I of the concave latitudes, 
Noting their essence, nor their quality; 
But of the spirits that pyromancy calls, 
And of the vigour of the geomantic fiends. 
I tell thee, German, magic haunts the ground ; 
And those strange necromantic spells 
That work such shews and wondering in the world, 
Are acted by those geomantic spirits, 
That Hermes calleth "Terrae Filii." 
The fiery spirits are but transparent shades, 
That lightly pass as heralds to bear news; 
But earthly fiends clos'd in the lowest deep, 
Dissever mountains, if they be but charg'd, 
Being more gross and massy in their power. 

Vandermast. Rather these earthly geomantic spirits 
Are dull, and like the place where they remain; 
For when proud Lucifer fell from the heavens, 
The spirits and angels that did sin with him, 
Retained their local essence as their faults, 



30 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

All subject under Luna's continent: 
They which offended less, hang in the fire, 
And second faults did rest within the air; 
But Lucifer and his proud-hearted fiends 
Were thrown into the centre of the earth, 
Having less understanding than the rest, 
As having greater sin and lesser grace ; 
Therefore such gross and earthly spirits do serve 
For jugglers witches and vild sorcerers ; 
Whereas the pyromantic genii 
Are mighty, swift, and of far-reaching power. 
But grant that geomancy hath most force; 
Bungay, to please these mighty potentates, 
Prove by some instance what thy art can do. 

Bungay. I will. 

Emperor. Now, English Harry, here begins the game ; 
We shall see sport between these learned men. 

Vandermast. What wilt thou do? 

Bungay. Shew thee the tree, leav'd with refined gold, 
Whereon the fearful dragon held his seat; 
That watch'd the garden call'd Hesperides, 
Subdued and won by conquering Hercules. 

Vandermast. Well done ! 

\Here Bungay conjures ; and the tree appears 
with the dragon shooting fire 

Henry. What say you, royal lordings, to my friar? 
Hath he not done a point of cunning skill ? 

Vandermast. Each scholar in the necromantic spells 
Can do as much as Bungay hath performed. 
But as Alcmena's bastard raz'd this tree, 
So will I raise him up as when he liv'd, 
And cause him pull the dragon from his seat, 
And tear the branches piecemeal from the root. 
Hercules ! Prodi, Prodi, Hercules ! 

[Hercules appears in his lion's skin 

Hercules. Quis me vult? 

Vandermast. Jove's bastard son, thou Lybian Her- 
cules, 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 31 

Pull off the sprigs from off the Hesperian tree, 
As once thou did'st to win the golden fruit. 

Hercules. Fiat ! [Here he begins to break the branches 

Vandermast. Now, Bungay, if thou canst by magic 

charm 

The fiend, appearing like great Hercules, 
From pulling down the branches of the tree, 
Then art thou worthy to be counted learned. 

Bungay. I cannot. 

Vandermast. Cease, Hercules, until I give thee charge. 
Mighty commander of this English isle, 
Henry, come from the stout Plantagenets, 
Bungay is learn'd enough to be a friar ; 
But to compare with Jaques Vandermast, 
Oxford and Cambridge must go seek their cells 
To find a man to match him in his art. 
I have given non-plus to the Paduans, 
To them of Sien, Florence, and Bologna, 
Rheims, Louvaine, and fair Rotterdam, 
Frankfort, Lutrech, and Orleans : 
And now must Henry, if he do me right, 
Crown me with laurel, as they all have done. 

Enter BACON 

Bacon. All hail to this royal company 
That sit to hear and see this strange dispute. 
Bungay, how stand'st thou as a man amaz'd? 
What, hath the German acted more than thou? 

Vandermast. What art thou that questions thus? 

Bacon. Men call me Bacon. 

Vandermast. Lordly thou look'st, as if that thou wert 

learned ; 

Thy countenance, as if Science held her seat 
Between the circled arches of thy brows. 

Henry. Now, monarchs, hath the German found his 
match. 

Emperor. Bestir thee, Jaques, take not now the foil, 
Lest thou dost lose what foretime thou did'st gain. 



32 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Vandermast. Bacon, wilt thou dispute? 
Bacon. No, unless he were more learn'd than Vander- 
mast: 
For yet, tell me, what hast thou done? 

Vandermast. Rais'd Hercules to ruinate that tree, 
That Bungay mounted by his magic spells. 
Bacon. Set Hercules to work ! 
Vandermast. Now, Hercules, I charge thee to thy 

task: 
Pull off the golden branches from the root. 

Hercules. I dare not. See'st thou not great Bacon 

here, 
Whose frown doth act more than thy magic can? 

Vandermast. By all the thrones and dominations, 
Virtues, powers, and mighty hierarchies, 
I charge thee to obey to Vandermast. 

Hercules. Bacon, that bridles headstrong Belcephron, 
And rules Asmenoth, guider of the north, 
Binds me from yielding unto Vandermast. 

Henry. How now, Vandermast; have you met with 

your match? 

Vandermast. Never before was't known to Vander- 
mast, 

That men held devils in such obedient awe. 
Bacon doth more than art, or else I fail. 

Emperor. Why, Vandermast, art thou overcome? 
Bacon, dispute with him and try his skill. 

Bacon. I come not, monarchs, for to hold dispute 
With such a novice as is Vandermast: 
I came to have your royalties to dine 
With friar Bacon here in Brazen-nose; 
And, for this German troubles but the place, 
And holds this audience wfth a long suspense, 
I'll send him to his academy straight, 
That he may learn by travel, 'gainst the spring, 
More secret dooms and aphorisms of art. 
Vanish the tree ; and thou, away with him ! 

Exit the Spirit with Vandermast and the tree 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 33 

II. SUPREMACY OF THE OXFORD SCHOOLS 

De Laude Univ. Oxoniae, by Tryvytlam, circa 1400 A.D. 
(Oxford has surpassed all Academies ancient and 
modern ; and is recognized as an oracle, to which all 
intellectual questions may be referred for solution. The 
Oxford Clerk is, even at this early date, remarkable for 
a promptness in didactic work, and a passion for 
enlightening the dark world which lies outside the 
University.) 

Non Romam alloquor urbem egregiam, 
Non villam Cecropis, non Achademiam, 
Verum te, maximam Anglorum gloriam, 
Alumnus invoco Matrem Oxoniam. 

Tu firma moeniis, arvis irrigua, 
Pratis pulcherrimis mire melliflua, 
Fecunda frugibus, quaeque placentia 
Ministras civibus in summa copia. 

Mater militiae cum apta fueris, 
Ut turres indicant adjunctae moeniis, 
Tamen perfectius dotata diceris 
Minervae munere, donoque Palladis. 

Plus tibi contulit magna scientia, 
Quam unquam fecerit armorum copia; 
Beata diceris per orbis climata, 
Sed quia singulis solvis aenigmata. 

Grandaeva siquidem mater in filiis 
Prae cunctis urbibus gaudere poteris, 
Cum plene cogites, quot proles parturis 
Quae mundum repleant doctrinae rivulis ! 

Si te prioribus villis jam comparem, 
Athenas Cecropis fatebor sterilem, 
Et Achademiam urbem inutilem 
Quae quondam dederat doctrinam uberera. 
3 



34 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Pallebit livida domus Romulea ; 
Impar putabitur ejus scientia, 
Quanquam plus vicerit artis peritia, 
Quam armis fecerit vel quam potentia. 

Quodcunque pinxerant poetae garruli, 
Quidquid discusserant veri philosophi, 
Quod magnum dixerant veri theologi, 
Ad instar exprimis Solaris radii. 

Antiqua respuens ut dicam propius, 
Quidquid ediderit pulchra Parisius, (i.e. Paris) 
Ut verum fatear, informas melius, 
Licet haec opera distentat latius. 

In te geritur quidquid scientiae 
Vel artis quaeritur cum gratia; theoricae 
Diceris thalamus, platea practicae, 
Et cunctae merito fons sapientiae. 

Olim innotuit inter proverbia, 
Regnorum sicuti narrat historia, 
Quod quis interrogat, quaerat in Abela, 
Ubi tune forsitan florebant studia : 

Nunc procul dubio si quicquam quaeritur 
Cuj usque ratio non clare cernitur, 
Mater Oxonia quaesita loquitur 
Quidquid in dubiis latens ambigitur. 

III. THE FOUNDATION OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES 

Between the years 1439 and 1447, Humphrey, of 
whom Lydgate writes, 

Duke of Glocester men this prynce call, 
And, notwithstanding his estate and dignitie, 
His courage never doth appall 
To study in bokes of antiquitie, 

presented to the University some 600 MSS, "moun 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 35 

bien mondain" "my worldly goods" as he called 
them. These were placed at first, together with those 
which had belonged to Bishop Cobham (d. 1327), in 
a chamber above the House of Congregation on the 
north side of St. Mary's Church. In 1488, some forty 
years after Humphrey's death, they were removed, with 
the other literary treasures of the University, to the 
recently completed building over the Divinity School, 
known as Duke Humphrey's Library. The collection 
was dispersed when the library was pillaged by the 
Commissioners appointed by Edward VI for the 
Reformation of the University. The following lines 
describe the arrangement of the books as made during 
Humphrey's lifetime. They form stanzas 12 and 13 
of Prooemium I of a Metrical Translation of Palladius 
De Re Rustica, now preserved at Wentworth Woodhouse, 
and which was probably a presentation copy given to 
the Duke. (Athenaum, Nov. 17, 1888.) 

plu . . . cxxx 

At Oxenford thys lord his bookis fele 
Hath eu'y clerk at work. They of hem gete 
Metaphysic ; phisic these rather feele ; 
They natural, moral they rather trete; 
Theologie here ye is with to mete ; 
Him liketh loke in boke historical. 
In deskis xii hym selve as half a strete 
Hath boked their librair uniu'al. 

For clergie or knyghthod or husbondrie, 

That Oratour Poete or Philosophre 

Hath treted told or taught, in memorie 

Eche lefe and lyne hath he as shette in cofre; 

Oon nouelte unnethe is hym to p'fre. 

Ytt Whethamstede and also Pers de Mounte, 

Titus and Antony, and I laste ofre. 

" At Oxford this lord's many books keep every 
Clerk at work. They of them get metaphysics. 



36 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Others are moved by physical studies, others again 
by natural science. Some study morality. Theology 
is here to be met with. Many like to look into 
history. This lord has furnished their universal 
library with books in twelve presses, like half a street. 
For everything about religion husbandry or chivalry, 
that orator poet or philosopher hath treated of, he 
hath shut up, each leaf and line, in his memory, as in 
a coffer," etc. John Whethamstede, Abbot of St. 
Albans, presented Humphrey with Cato Glossatus, the 
Granarimn, and two other books of his own composition. 
Peter de Monte, a Venetian, dedicated to the Duke 
his work De Virtutum et Vitiorum inter se Differentia. 
Another Italian, under the name " Titus Livius de 
Frulovisiis Ferrariensis," wrote at Humphrey's request 
a Life of Henry v; and Antonio de Beccaria, the 
Duke's secretary, translated for him into Latin six 
tracts of Athanasius (now in British Museum). 

IV. THE FOUNDATION OF COLLEGES 

(illustrated by poems on the foundation by William 
of Wykeham of St. Mary College of Winchester in 
Oxford, commonly known as New College, in the year 
1379, and that by William of Waynflete of Magdalen 
College in 1448. "The plan which became accepted 
as proper for an Oxford College was itself the result of 
many tentative steps and of gradual progress. Till 
the magnificent foundations of Wykeham, there was 
no example of a College built on a consistent plan, and 
completely furnished with chapel, hall, lodgings, kitchen, 
cloister, and cemetery, all grouped regularly and com- 
pactly round a quadrangle, and conforming to one 
consistent architectural design. This result of former 
experiences once attained, it was never again forgotten ; 
and New College has served as a model which all 
succeeding Colleges at Oxford imitated more or less 
closely " : T. G. Jackson in Wadham College). 







NEW COLLEGE, OXFORD, C. 1J54 

FROM WARDEN CHANDLER'S M.S. J HERE REPRODUCED FROM " ARCHAEOLOGIA, " VOL. Ill, PL. XV 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 37 



i. NEW COLLEGE 

L'immortal Collegio di Maria 

Madre del Redentor, Nuovo chiamato ; 

Che fu da 1'Alma, eletta e pia, 

Del buon Wicam, gran Cancellier, fondato 

Con tanta architettura e maestria 

In ogni parte, e cosi ben dotato, 

Che non d'un Vesco sembra un opra tale, 

Ma di Reggia Potenza e Imperiale. 

Due gran Collegii extrusse il gran Wicamo, 
L'uno in Ossonia qui, 1'altro in Guintone; 
Ma pur che questo sol Collegio chiamo, 
Si star puo d'ogni Piazza al parragone? 
Non pur sicur da battaria di mano, 
Ma il muro puo resistere al cannone, 
Fianchi, Terreno, Maschi, e Cavalieri, 
Che tal Comar non ha, Rabo, ne Algeri. 



Gomara, 
Rabat, and 
Algiers 
boast no 
such forti- 
fications. 



Fosse con acqua viva, e Munitione 
Aste, Picche, Moschetti, Arme all' usunza 
Che ben potriavsi armar tante Persone 
Quant' a difesa tal fori a bastanza: 
Altr' acque ha dentro; vettovaglie buone; 
Tesor, Legna, Carbone, in abondanza: 
Orti, Quadri, Ambulacri, e Laberinti, 
Frutt' e Fior da spalliere ornati e cinti. 

Una Torr' ha, che ben salva e riguarda 
La gran Porta real da i fianchi chiusa: 
Non gia molto eminente, ma bastarda, 
Tal qual ne le Fortezze hogi di s'usa: 
L'altra di dentro maggior, piu gagliarda, 
Serva il Tesoro, e TAula tien rinchiusa 
Da la sinistra; e qual buon Cavaliero 
Discopre il Fosso; e'l Forte tutto intiero. 



Arms for 

defence. 

Water and 

Food. 

Treasures. 

Gardens. 



Tower at 
entrance. 



Muni- 
ment- 
tower. 



38 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Bell-tower. 



Chapel. 



TenChaplains, 
Three Clerks, 
Sixteen 
Choristers, 
Seventy 
Scholars; ten 
being students 
of Civil, ten of 
Canon Law ; 
and fifty being 
engaged, first 
in the pursuit 
of Philosophy, 
then of Theo- 
logy. 

The Warden, 



V'e un quadro Campanil, tant eminente 
Che s'erge al Ciel, in gran Torre formato: 
Si forte, maschio, robusto, eccellente, 
Che tal non fu sour il terren fondato; 
Capace si che ben vi puo la gente 
Habitar per difesa, e in ogni lato 
Signoreggiar 1'Aperto, il Tempio intiero, 
Con TAula, e Piattaforma, e Cavaliero. 

U'alte Colonne e Guglie e circondato 

II Tempio, al Claustro opposto a manca mano 
Musica e letta ; un Organo indorato 
Che ben competer puo con TOrvetano: 
II Chor con tanta e tal arte intagliato 
Che ne stupisce affatto 1'occhio humano: 
Mostran 1'ampie finestre in Ornamento 
Mirando il Vecchio e '1 Nuovo Testamento. 

Catanvi i salmi Cappillan e Choristi 
Con Clerici, che fan trente Persone ; 
Theologi, Philosophi, e Leggisti, 
Settanta sono in tutta perfettione: 
Horatori e Poeti in un commisti, 
Di tal virtu, che non ha parragone : 
La trina Libraria puo dar la mano 
(Ben dire ardisco) a quella in Vaticano. 

Quadrato e '1 tutto ; e ogni allogiamento 
Di grado in grado, ha la sua differenza: 
Tien il Guardiano un Reggio Appartamento 
Conveniente a sua nobil Presenza: 
Proprii e communi servi, a complimento ; 
L'entrate equale a contant' eccellenza: 
Magnanimo il Custode e liberale; 
Collegio Illustre, Sant', e Hospitale. 

Educa e nutre il Guinton, qual materno 
Alvo, piu degni spirti a perfettione 
Per 1'altro di Maria; e se'l ver scerno, 
Rendita men non ha, ne men persone : 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 39 

Ma questo al buon Mercuric ed al tremendo 
Marte fu fabricate in conclusione; 
Accio che Propugnacul fosse mtiero 
De la Christiana Fe, che crede il vero. 

****** Wykeham's 

Cio fe Wicam per volunta superna; Arms; Ar- 

gent Two 

La cui Arme ha tre rose e dui sostegni ; chevronels 

Quasi con questi i dui Collegii assegni, sable be- 

^ ' . tween three 

Le Rose i Tempii eretti a gloria eterna. roses gules, 



Raccolta rfalcune rime del Cavaliero Ludovico j^bed vert 
Petrucci, Nobile Toscano ; Oxoniae; Ex- 
cudebat Josephus Barnesius ; 1613 

Petrucci, a soldier of fortune, after serving in Crete 
for the Venetians, and afterwards in the Hungarian 
wars, retired to England, and came up to Oxford in 
the year 1611. He spent about four years there, as a 
Commoner, first of St. Edmund's Hall, and then of Balliol 
College. In the Oxford memorial poems to Sir Thomas 
Bodley, Justa funebria T. Bodleii (1613), to which 
he contributed some Italian lines, Petrucci styled 
himself "Cavaliero Italiano, nobile Toscano, del Col- 
leggio Baliolense, humile e indegno figluolo di tutta 
1'Academia." 

2. MAGDALEN COLLEGE 

Waynflete, by this encouraged, sets his thought 
Wholly upon his building, which now threats 
The middle sky, built of hewn stone being brought 
From Headington's deep Quarr-pits, which repeats 
The founder's fame, as in a song. The Hall 
Spacious within and high without, even beats 
The flitting air with pinnacles thick and tall ; 

The Church, adorned in comely sort, shews forth 
The praise and glory of the Founder's worth. 

Then the brave Tower lifts up his stately head 
And threateneth Heaven. What said I? threaten- 
eth? No, 



40 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

It bears up Heaven, whose weight might well be 

led 

Upon his high-reared top ; if Atlas grow 
Feeble through age, and cannot bear the weight 
Of Jove's majestic palace, he may throw 
His burthen on this Tower, whose strong-made height 
Would bear that burthen on his mounted brow, 
Under which Atlas, weak through age, doth bow. 

Nor are his inmates aught inferior deem'd 
To his exterior beauties ; whose sweet chime 
If by a skilful ringer rightly teemed, 
Surpass the spheres' sweet music at the time 
When sage Pythagoras did hear their notes, 
Which music, since unheard, was then at prime: 
These sing aloud with never wearied throats, 

And trowling in each other's neck, send out 
Delicious notes and tunes heard round about. 

Cloisters engirt the College round, and serve 
Instead of galleries, to meditate 
Or walk and talk, and certainly deserve 
Abundant praise; but I must dedicate 
My Muse to other matters : yet will say 
Since Bullen's Victor's rage did ruinate 
England's fair abbeys, to this very day 

They want copartners, and must stand alone 
Unmatch'd, unparallelled by any one. 

The building's inward wall, which doth behold 
The goodly quadrangle, is strongly drest 
With fair and stately pillars, which uphold 
Rare hieroglyphics, in which are express't 
Mysteries worth marking, which as now 
Few can to any grounded meaning wrest: 
A misery, that such mysteries should bow 

Under Oblivion's yoke; but Time prevails 
'Bove all, when man and man's invention fails. 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 41 

Into this quadrangle with spacious lights 
Looks a fair Library, which Waynflete fill'd 
With full eight hundred books. They which did write 
Best in what tongue soever, it naught skill'd, 
Were there laid up. This place enlarg'd, requires 
Of some praiseworthy man to be upheld 
In its due estimation, and desires 

That some as benefactors at their charge 
The number of its volumes should enlarge. 

Without the College, on smooth Cherwell's brink, 
Lie pleasant walks reared from the low-laid ground : 
Down on th'one side the bubbling flood doth sink, 
Whose parted stream doth quite encompass round 
This place of pleasure, and thus gliding on 
The rugged stones, doth make a murmuring sound: 
And to raise up more delectation, 

The scaly people, living there at ease, 
Dance in the crystal waters what they please. 
****** 

Here's a full quire of sweet-tuned harmony 
The birds chirp out the treble ; and the wind 
Whistling among the leaves deliciously, 
Maintains the tenor; then the waters kind 
Kissing the stones, the counter-tenor blaze; 
And lest one part were wanting, here we find 
Minerva's honey-birds buzzing the base: 

All things in one so sweetly do consent 
To give the walkers a complete content. 

Those that enjoy this pleasant place are told 
A hundred and six ; of which in order thus : 
First, forty Fellows who this palace hold : 
Thirty Demies: two Readers which discuss 
On both philosophies: one more, whose charge 
Is lecture-wise to explain the tenebrous 
Hard knots of Scripture: one, who writes at large 
Of all the college acts : two more, whose care 
Is to teach those, that fit for grammar are. 



42 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

The quire consists of twenty-nine ; wherein 
There are four chaplains, who by turns do say 
The clergy prayers; and more eight clerks there 

been, 

And sixteen choristers, over whom bears sway 
One who doth teach them how to sing with ease, 
Whose nimble fingers on the organs play 
Gravely-composed Church music : and all these, 
With different notes which sweetly do accord, 
Sing Allelujahs to the living Lord. 
****** 

And lest unruly ruffians might offend 
Their studious minds, he hath encompass'd round 
The College with a wall, which might defend 
His scholars both from fear of any wound, 
And make resistance 'gainst an army's might : 
And, ere our valour-murdering guns were found, 
Did well perform that charge, for I dare write 

The students, with few friends but meanly 

strong, 

Might have maintained it 'gainst a kingdom's 
wrong. 

Within this wall is placed a beauteous grove, 
Like Pindus, where the sacred Muses dwell, 
Or like th'Epirian woods, in which great Jove, 
Nursed by Melissus' gracious girls, did dwell. 
Here naught doth want to furnish recreation; 
The studious scholar here may study well, 
Mars and the Muses here have habitation; 

Here are both walks to meditate, and places 
To exercise one's mind in warlike graces. 

The swift-winged arrow, which such slaughter 

made 

In France, hath here butts to be levelled at; 
The heavy bar here sometimes as a slade 
Is foot-pitch'd off, and like a massy bat 



EARLY GROWTH OF THE UNIVERSITY 43 

Whirl'd o'er the head, divides the foggy air; 
Here do they leap, and leaping vertebrate 
The yielding earth; here many men repair 
Their sickly bodies, and herein do find 
By conference contentment to the mind. 

This is both Campus Martius, to augment 
Our bodies' strength with valorous exercise ; 
And Tempe, studious scholars to content 
With its delights. On the one side there lies 
Good store of gardens dress'd with borders fine, 
In which are glorious flowers pleasing the eyes, 
And fruitful trees, which each in other twine ; 
These keep out heat and cold, and also suit 
The Fellows, whose they are, with walks and 
fruit. 1 

Now Waynflete, knowing that man's life was prone 
To all unstaidness, by a prudent care 
Furnished the house with Statutes, which alone 
Might always keep the house in awe, and are 
So absolutely made that naught might miss 
Which may be added to them. To prepare 
Like fortune to that house that founded is 

By worthy Foxe, these laws were imitated, 
And were from hence into that house trans- 
lated. 

Now nothing wanted but a worthy name 
To make the work complete ; and as our Queen 
Christened Sir Thomas Gresham's worthy frame, 
Than which a fairer Burse was never seen, 

1 Ralph Agas' Map of Oxford (1566) shews the whole of what is now 
called " the Grove " divided into several sections and described as 
"Gardeins, Orchardes, Pastures, and Walkes." Part of the ground 
covered by these divisions is now occupied by the New Buildings, while 
part remains open and unplanted. ( College History Series Oxford Mag- 
dalen College.} 



44 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

So royal Henry named this stately place, 
Than which a fairer never yet hath been, 
Magdalen College surely worth the grace 

Of such a namer, since the World can boast 
Of no such College in its spacious coast. 

PETER HEYLIN (Magdalen College), Memorial 
of Bishop Waynflete, circa 1619; ed. from 
the original MS. by J. R. Bloxam for the 
Caxton Society 



CHAPTER III 

CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1500 A.D. 

' ' Oxoniam quare venisti, praemeditare ; 
Nocte dieque cave tempus consumere prave." 

Lines on a glass window in Merton 
College, temp. Henry vm 

" Now if a pore man set hys son to Oxford to scole, 

Both the fader and the moder hyndyd they schal be ; 
And if ther falle a benefyse, hit schal be gif a fole, 

To a clerk of a kechyn, ore into the chauncere. 
This makyth the worschip of Clerkys wrong for to wry, 

Seth sekelar men schul have mon soulys in kepyng, 
And pytton here personache to ferme to a bayle, 
And caston doune here howses and her housyng, 

Her paryschun destroy. 
Clerkys, that han cunnyng, 
Schuld have monys soule in kepyng ; 
But thai mai get no vaunsyng 
Without symony." 

Poems of John Awdelay (fl. 1426) 

Percy Soc. Publications, xiv. 32 

OXFORD was not always to be justified of her 
children in so triumphant a manner as she had 
been of Chaucer's Clerks. A hundred years 
later, and the tales that are told of her, are of a Uni- 
versity fallen upon evil days, her students diminished in 
number, her learning neglected and despised. 

Among Scholars, indeed, she had lost prestige, as, 
with the violent suppression of the first great Oxford 
Movement, her Schools were brought again under the 
ecclesiastical yoke, and the intellectual vitality and 

45 



46 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

freedom of thought which had marked them in the 
fourteenth century, were slowly stifled in the early years 
of the fifteenth. Nor, as Scholasticism became barren, 
did any fruitful system of education spring up quickly 
in its place. " The Schools were full of quirks and 
sophistry ; all things, whether taught or written, seemed 
trite and inane," writes Anthony Wood of the state of 
Oxford in the year 1 508 ; and though all the English 
Scholars who were pioneers of Humanism, were 
Oxonians, from Duke Humphrey, Grey, John Free, 
Fleming, and Tiptoft, to Grocyn, Linacre, Latimer, 
More, Colet, and Lily, the New Learning met with but 
a half-hearted welcome from the University at large. 
In the streets, "Trojans," under the leadership of 
" Priams " and " Hectors," waged war upon the 
" Greeks," probably with hard crabstick and old iron, as 
well as with the more academical artillery of syllogism 
and enthymeme; and in the pulpits those whom 
William Tyndale called "old barking curs, Dun's 
disciples and the dross called Scotists," continued to 
denounce the study of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, as 
heretical ; until, with the commencement of the 
Reformation period, Oxford became engrossed for a 
time in theological controversy to the exclusion of all 
other interests. 

In the Ship of Fools (1509), Alexander Barclay gives 
a Scholar's view of the typical scholar-fool of the time, 
"the plougher of sand," "the spider weaving subtle 
webs out of its own bowels," and who studied the art 
of logic, not for the purpose of striking out truth by the 
hard encounter of arguments, but merely to cavil and 
carp, and find out a knot in every rush. The poet, 
indeed, with a delicacy which is in itself strong evidence 
that he was educated at one or both of the English 
Universities, does not mention either Oxford or 
Cambridge among those seats of learning, "Paris, 
Padway, Bonony, Orleance, Tholows" and others, to 
which men hastened, and from which they returned 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 47 

even greater blockheads than when they set out: but 
there are, nevertheless, on board his celebrated " navy," 
among those who neglected " gramer and the laudable 
sciences, for sophistrie, logike, and their art talcatife," 
and passed their lives in two monosyllables, the " est " 
of assertion and the " non " of denial, " many present 
from this our royaulme, as well as from beyond the 



But most I mervayle of other fools blinde, 

Which in divers sciences are fast laboring, 

Both day and night, with all their heart and minde, 

But of Gramer know they little or nothing, 

Which is the grounde of all liberal cunning; 

Yet many are busy in Logike and in Lawe 

When all their Gramer is scarcely worth a strawe. 

One with his speech round turning like a wheele, 
Of Logike the knottes doth louse and undo 
In hande with his Sylogismes ; and yet doth he feele 
Nothing what it meaneth, nor what longeth therto; 
Nowe Sortes 1 currit, now is in hand Plato; 
Another commeth in with Bocardo and Pherison, 
And out-goeth againe a foole in conclusion. 

There is naught else but "est" and "non est/' 
Blaberinge and chiding, as it were beawlys 2 wise; 
They argue naught else but to prove a man a beast, 
" Homo est asinus " is cause of muche strife. 
Thus passe forth these fooles the dayes of their life 
In two syllables, not getting advertence 
To other cunning, doctrine, or science. 

It seems, however, improbable that "the rude 
uplandish man" of the time, and "the man in the 
mediaeval street," had persuaded themselves of the 
advantages of the New over the Old Learning, and 

1 Socrates, 2 roaring out, 



48 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

looked with disfavour upon Oxford as the stronghold 
of an effete Scholasticism. Some other reason must be 
sought to account for the appearance of numerous 
caricatures of the " Clerk of Oxenford," in tales which 
circulated among the people at the close of the fifteenth 
century : and this reason is probably to be found in the 
want of worldly success which now attended the 
laborious and gifted Scholar. 1 The poor but ambitious 
man looked upon the University as the door to the 
Church, and academical distinction as the passport to 
clerical preferment. When, then, after the enforcement 
of the Statute of Provisors, rights of patronage were 
shamelessly abused, and many an ignorant priest could 
be found holding ten or twelve benefices, and being 
resident on none, while well-learned scholars in the 
Universities, which were able to teach and preach, held 
neither benefice nor exhibition, the chief attraction of a 
University career was gone, and learning became in his 
eyes a worthless and contemptible possession. It is, 
indeed, to this denial of reward to merit, that Oxford 
herself, with a wealth of allegory and metaphor which 
increases as^the agony grows more intense, attributes her 
decline in the fifteenth century. " Once she had been as 
a fruitful vine ; now she is withered and barren. She is 
cast aside even as the mud which is by the way-side. 
Like Rachel she weeps for her children, and will not be 
comforted, because they are not ; for of all those many 
thousands of students who had once resorted to her, not 
only from England, but from all other Christian 

1 A hundred mery Tales first printed by John Rastell at the signe of 
the Meremayde at Powlys Gate, nexte to Chepesyde (1525) : The Jests of 
Scogin, of which no earlier edition is now to be found than that of 1626 ; 
Thomas Colwell, however, as early as the year 1565, obtained a license to 
print The Geystes of Skoggon : Merie Tales newly imprinted and made by 
Master Skelton, poet Laureate, imprinted at the signe of St. John 
Evangelist by Thomas Colwell (circa 1565). Many of the stories collected 
in these popular manuals of witticisms were current in the fifteenth 
century ; and John Scogin and Skelton, the Oxonian wits who figure as 
the heroes of some of them, flourished about the year 1480 See Old 
English Jest-books i ed. by H. C. Hazlitt. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 49 

countries as well, scarcely one now is left. And this 
transformation is due, not so much to war and pestilence, 
as to contempt of the claims of learning and virtue. 
' Studientz espirituelz, fitz, et profitables,' are not 
nourished in their high enterprise. They labour on 
until old age comes upon them, without reward. No 
one looks upon them with the eye of promotion. On 
the other hand, the ignorant and the vicious, by favour 
and corruption, are advanced to high places and profit ; 
* extolluntur, proh dolor! ut alios doceant, qui seipsos 
docere nesciunt/ Nor are these merely selfish 
complaints. It is true the University, * England's 
goodly beam,' will expire, if devoted Scholars are not 
comforted ; for how can burning and shining lights be 
looked for, if oil and wick be not supplied to the lamps ? 
But should Oxford fall, Church and State will fall with 
her. For unless it be guided by a Shepherd's hand, the 
silly people, like a wandering sheep, inevitably strays 
from the right path. There are, indeed, already abroad 
in the land, simple laics, who dare to bellow forth their 
pestiferous opinions, and with swinish snouts to profane 
the mysteries of Sacred Writ, that pearl of great price 
(' de mysteriorum Sacrae Paginae pretiosissimis 
margaritis porsinae fauces, proh dolor!, pascere 
presumunt simplicium laicorum '). And if poisonous 
thorns of Ignorance be permitted to choke the fair rose- 
garden of Learning; if Peter's Ship, now tossing 
between the rocks of Scylla and the whirlpool of 
Charybdis, be still left in the hands of unskilled 
mariners who know not how to meet the coming 
tempest ; then surely will greater and more intolerable 
heresies against God and Man quickly spring into life ; 
rebellion and obstinacy against our sovereign lord the 
king ; red ruin, and the breaking up of laws." l 

1 See Rot. ParL iii. 301, 468, iv. 81, for years 1392, 1402, and 
1415. Wilkin's Concilia, iii. 381, 528, for years 1417 and 1438. 
Richard Fleming, bishop of Lincoln's preface to the Statutes of Lincoln 
College, Oxford, A.D. 1429. Epist. Academicae (Oxford Hist. Soc.), 

4 



50 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Fact and fiction alike testify that these complaints 
were well grounded. Thomas Gascoigne tells the tale 
of Fulk de Birmingham, a half-witted person who had 
been playmate of some great man (probably the king), 
and who received the Archdeaconry of Oxford, twelve 
prebends, and a rectory or two ; who was utterly 
ignorant and illiterate ; was never ordained ; never 
visited Archdeaconry, prebend, or rectory ; was daily 
drunk, and wholly incapable of managing his affairs. 1 
Caxton shews what qualities now made for worldly 
repute, in a sketch, drawn doubtless from the life, which 
is to be found at the conclusion of the Epilogue to his 
Aesop (1484): 

" There were dwellynge in Oxenford two prestes, both 
Maystres of Art, of whome that one was quyck and 
coude putte hymself forth, and that other was a good 
symple preest. And soo it happed that the Mayster 
that was pert and quyck, was anone promoted to a 
benefyce or tweyne, and after to prebendys, and for to 
be Dene of a grete prynce's Chappel, supposynge and 
wenynge that his felow, the symple preest, shold never 
have be promoted, but be always an Annuel, or at the 
most a parysshe preest. So, after long tyme, that this 
worshipful man, this Dene, came rydynge in to a good 
paryssh with a X or XII horses, lyke a prelate; and 
came in to the Chirche of the sayd parysshe, and found 

pp. 153, 169, and 185, for the year 1438, and p. 357 for the year 
1471. 
Cf. Hoccleve, De Regimine Principum, circa 1412 A.D. : 

"Alias ! so many a worthy clerke famous 
In Oxenforde and in Cambrigge also, 
Stonde unavauncede, whereas the vicious 
Favelle hath Churches and prebendes mo 
Than God is plesede with : Alias ! of tho 
That wernen vertu, so to be promotede, 
And they helples in whom vertu is notede." 

1 Thomas Gascoigne's Loci e libris veritattim (edited by J. Thorold 
Rogers), Introduction Ixvi. Gascoigne began to reside in Oxford not later 
than 1416, and was almost constantly there from thit time till his death 
in 1458. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 51 

there this good symple man, somtyme his felawe, which 
cam and welcomed hym lowely. And that other hadde 
hym, ' good morowe, Mayster John ! ' and toke hym 
sleyghtly by the hand, and axyd hym where he dwellyd. 
And the good man sayd ' In this paryssh.' ' How, 1 
sayd he, 'are ye here; a sowle preest, or a paryssh 
preste?' 'Nay, sir/ sayd he; 'for lack of a better, 
though I be not able ne worthy, I am parson and curate 
of this parysshe.' And then that other avaled his 
bonnet, and said, ' Mayster parson, I praye yow to be 
not displeasyd. I had supposed ye had not be 
benefyced. But, I pray yow/ said he, 'what is this 
benefyce worth to yow a yere ? ' ' Forsothe/ sayd the 
good symple man, ' I wote never ; for I make never 
accomptes therof, how wel I have had it four or five 
yere.' ' And knowe ye not/ sayd he, ' what it is worth ? 
It should seme a good benefyce.' ' No, forsothe/ said 
he ; ' but I wote wel what it shalle be worth to me.' 
' Why/ sayd he, ' what shalle it be worth ? ' ' Forsothe/ 
sayd that other, 'if I doo my trewe dylygence in the 
cure of my parysshes in prechynge and techynge, and 
doo my parte longynge to my cure, I shalle have Hevene 
therfore ; and yf theyre sowles ben lost, or any of them, 
by my defawte, I shall be punysshed therfore; and 
herof am I sure.' And with that word the ryche Dene 
was abasshed, and thought he shold do better, and take 
more hede to his cures and benefyces, than he had done. 
This was a good answere of a good preest and an 
honest. And wyth this tale I wylle fynysshe alle these 
fables." 

Alas ! no such improving reflections as these, occur 
to the compiler of Scogiris Jests, when he relates how 
that great Oxford Wit secured the passage of an 
imbecile pupil through an examination for Orders. 
" Here a man may see that Money is better than 
Learning," is in fact the only and deplorable lesson 
which he draws from the tale. " There was," he writes, 
" a husbandman beside Oxford, who gave Master 



52 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Scogin a horse, that he might help to make his son a 
Deacon. Now when the slovenly boy, almost as big as 
a knave, had with great toil learned the nine Christ- 
cross-row letters of the alphabet, he said, * Am I past 
the worst now ? Would God I were ; for this is enough 
to comber any man's wit alive ' ; and Scogin then knew 
that his pupil would never be anything else but a fool. 
Accordingly, when Orders were about to be given, he 
bade the boy's father to send in a letter three or four 
gold pieces : and this the man was content to do, that 
his son might become a deacon. Then said Scogin to 
his scholar, ' Thou shalt deliver this letter to the 
Ordinary when he doth sit in Oppositions ; and as soon 
as he feeleth the letter, he will perceive that I have sent 
him some money ; and he will say to thee, " Quomodo 
valet magister tuus ? " that is to say, " How doth thy 
master ? " Thou shalt answer, " Bene," that is " Well." 
Then will he say, " Quid petis ? " " What dost thou ask ? " 
and thou wilt answer, " Diaconatum," " to be deacon." 
Then shall the Ordinary say, " Es tu literatus ? " " Art 
thou learned?" and thou wilt say, " Aliqualiter," 
" Somewhat." Thou hast then but these three words to 
bear in mind, " Bene," " Diaconatum," and " Aliqualiter." ' 
Now it came to pass, when the scholar went to the 
Oppositions and delivered the letter, the Ordinary said, 
* Quid petis ? ' and the scholar, remembering Scogin's 
words, answered, ' Bene.' When the Ordinary heard 
him say so, he said, ' Quomodo valet magister tuus ? ' 
to which the scholar replied, * Diaconatum.' The 
Ordinary did then see that he was a fool, and said, ' Tu 
es stultus ' ; to which the youth said, ' Aliqualiter,' that 
is ' Somewhat.' ' Nay,' said the Ordinary, ' not 
Aliqualiter, but Totaliter,' 'a stark fool.' Then the 
scholar was amazed, and said, ' Sir, let me not go home 
without my Orders. Here is another angel of gold for 
you to drink.' ' Well,' said the Ordinary, ' if you will 
promise me to study your book and learn, you shall be 
a Deacon at this time.' " 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 53 

The unhappy lot of the unrewarded Scholar was all 
the more conspicuous, because for other conditions of 
men, the physician and lawyer, the husbandman, artisan, 
and labourer, the fifteenth century and the early years 
of the sixteenth formed a period of substantial 
prosperity. 1 Then it is, that in the words of the 
mediaeval couplet, 

Dat Galenus opes, dat Justinianus honores, 
Sed Genus et Species cogitur ire pedes. 

The great Physician, honoured Lawyer, ride, 
While the poor Scholar foots it by their side. 

Many a devotee of learning at Oxford, Cambridge, 
and Paris, who had not wherewith to buy himself books 
as well as food and raiment, saw with envy, that " men 
who put their Arts in their males as soon as they had 
learned their parts of reason, which is the first book of 
grammar, and took them to the winning as Merchants 
and Brokers, soon amassed money, and possessed 
volumes without number." Not that these successful 
business-men ever read the precious works they owned. 
They bought them merely that they might win a 
reputation for wisdom : " Like as a cock, when he 
shrapeth in the dust and findeth a clear-shining gem, 
beholdeth it and letteth it lie, for he had lever have 
some corn to eat, so these not-wise men but looked 
upon their books when they were new and fine, and 
then turned away to fill their bellies and come to their 
foolish desires." 2 These, again, were days, when the 
rude man of the country " boasted stately clothes, wore 
his hair bushed out like a fox's tail, and had gold in 
abundance," 3 while the ragged Scholar, begging his way 
to Oxford, would crouch to some rich chuff for a meal's 
meat, and sing " Salve Regina " outside the Manorhouse 

1 J. Thorold Rogers, Hist, of Agriculture and Prices ; iv. pp. 23, 61. 
3 Mirror of 'the World, Caxton, 1481. 
3 Ship of Fools, Alex. Barclay, 1509. 



54 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

for alms. 1 When such things were, it was small wonder 
that burgher and " uplandish " man held the pains taken 
at the Universities by ardent students to be but lost 
labour, and judged Money to be better than Learning, 
and " an ounce of mother-wit to be worth a pound of 
clergy." 

As a rule then, the Clerk of Oxford cuts now but an 
awkward figure in fiction. Occasionally, indeed, a tale 
is found which suggests that his traditional resourceful- 
ness was not wholly lost. For instance, they tell of a 
"pleasant shift" that was done by an Oxonian, who, 
when he was to proceed Master of Arts, contracted with 
an Alderman of the town to supply furs for his gown 
and hood at the charge of six pounds ; and said to him, 
" I will pay thee the next time that you and I do meet 
together." Now, some long time after, this Clerk went 
one day towards Carfax, and there he espied the Alder- 
man ; and when he saw him, he turned back. But the 

1 See Lansdowne MS. 762 (7) : "A process or exortation to tendre the 
chargis of true husbondys" (temp. Henry vn), in which contributions to 
support poor scholars are mentioned among the regular burdens to which 
the land was subject. After tithes, purveyance, taxes, rent, tribute to 
friars, and silver to priests that go to Rome, have been paid, 

"Then cometh Clerkys of Oxford and make their mone ; 
To her scole hire most have money." 

Anthony Wood, in his Annals of the University, under the year 1461, 
tells a tale of wandering scholars earning their suppers by composing 
epigrams. Robert Copland, in the Hye Way to the Spyttell House (circa 
1535), has the lines : 

"These rogers that dayly syng and pray 
With 'Ave, Regina ! ' or ' De Profundis,' 
'Quern terra Ponthus,' and ' Stella Maris ': 
At every doore there they foot and fridge, 
And say they come fro Oxford and Cambridge ; 
And be poore scholars, and have no maner thing, 
Nor also frendes to kepe them at learning : 
And so do lewtre for crust and crum, 
With staffe in hand and fyst in bosum." 

See the series of statutes which affect scholar-beggars; 12 Richard II, 
chap. vii. ; n Henry vn, chap. ii. ; 22 Henry vm, chap. xii. ; 14 
Elizabeth, chap. v. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 55 

Alderman made good footing after him, and, overtaking 
him, said, "Sir, you promised to pay me my money, 
when we did next meet. Pay me then now." " Now ? " 
exclaimed the Wit; "Nay, not so. We meet not 
together now, for you did but overtake me. When we 
do meet, you shall have your money ; but, if I can, I 
will not meet you these seven years, even though I have 
to walk backwards." Then there is the tale of " Jack," 
Scogin's scholar-servant ; " how he made his master pay 
a penny for the herring bones." On an occasion when 
sickness was in the city, Scogin went out of Oxford and 
dwelt at St. Bartholomew's ; and he had a poor scholar 
named Jack, to dress his meat for him. 1 Now on a 
Friday he gave his scholar a penny, and said, " Go to 
Oxford Market, and get me four herrings for this penny, 
or else bring none." Jack could get but three herrings 
for the penny ; and when he brought them back, Scogin 
said he would have none of them. " Sir," said Jack, 
" then will I : and here is your penny again." And 
when dinner-time was come, Jack set bread and butter 
before his master ; and roasted the herrings, and sat 
down at the lower end of the table, and did eat the 
herrings. Then said Scogin, " Let me have one of your 
herrings, and you shall have another of me another 
time." Jack answered, " If you will have one herring, it 
shall cost you a penny ; for you will not get a morsel 
here, except I have my penny again." And while they 
wrangled together, Jack made an end of the herrings. 
Now it chanced that a Master of Arts, one of Scogin's 

1 In times of pestilence, Fellows and Scholars of Colleges, by express 
permission of the statutes of their Societies, would retire from Oxford to 
some more healthy spot in the vicinity. Thus Oriel College, of which 
Scogin is reputed to have been an alumnus, migrated to St. Bartholomew's ; 
Exeter College to Kidlington ; Lincoln College to Gosford ; Trinity College 
to Garsington and Woodstock ; and Merton College to Cuxham, Islip, and 
Eynsham ; while, for more than two hundred years, All Souls' College 
compelled its tenants at Stanton Harcourt Parsonage, by a covenant in the 
lease, ' ' to find four chambers furnished with bedding, for so many of the 
Fellows of the College as should be sent there, whenever any contagious 
disorder should happen in the University." 



56 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

fellows, did come to see him ; and when Scogin espied 
him coming, he said to Jack, " Set up the bones of the 
herrings before me." " Sir," said Jack, " they shall cost 
you a penny." " What ! " exclaimed Scogin, " Wilt thou 
shame me? " " No, Sir," answered Jack ; " Give me my 
penny again, and you shall have the bones ; or else I 
will tell all." Then did Scogin cast down the penny, 
and Jack brought up to his master's place the herring 
bones ; and when the Master of Arts entered, Scogin 
bade him welcome, and said, "If you had come sooner, 
you should have had fresh herrings for dinner." Thus 
did Jack make his master pay a penny for the herring 
bones. 

These tales of ready wit, and others, such as " What 
Master Skelton, the laureate, did, when after eating salt 
meates at Abingdon, he lay at the Angel Inn at Oxford, 
and awoke athirst," and " How Scogin and a chamber- 
fellow, a collegioner, managed to fare well during Lent," 
do indeed appeal to the popular raconteur of the day, 
and he commends those famous Oxford Wits, saying, 
"it is good for every man to help himself in time of 
need with some policy and craft, or be it no deceit or 
falsehood be used." But more often, " a meere Scholar, 
a meere Ass," is his maxim ; and where Chaucer genially 
rallied, he coarsely ridicules the want of worldly wisdom 
in the Oxford Clerk. He is no respecter of persons, and 
all ranks in the University fare alike. Thus the novice 
or Freshman goes with a company of wild scholars to 
steal conies, and is told not to warn the quarry in any 
way of their design. " At last it was his fortune to 
espy a stocks, whereupon he cried aloud, ' Ecce, cuniculi 
multi ! ', in English, ' Loe, where are many conies ! ' : and 
straightway the conies ran to their berries : for which 
his felowes chiding him, he said, * Why ! who a devill 
would have thought that conies could understande 
Latine ! ' ' Then there is the tale of the senior man 
who studied "the judicials of astronomy" to his own 
undoing. " Upon a tyme, as he was rydyng by the 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 57 

way, he came by a herdeman, and he asked this herde- 
man how far it was to the next town. ' Syr,' quod the 
herdeman, 'it is rather past a mile and a half; but ye 
need to ryde apace, for ye shall have a shower of rain 
ere ye come thither.' ' What,' said the scoler, ' maketh 
thee say so? There is no token of rain, for the clouds 
be both fayr and clere.' ' By my troth,' quod the 
herdeman, ' but ye shall find it so.' The scoler then 
rode forth ; and it chanced, ere he had ridden halfe a 
myle further, there fell a good shower of rain ; and thys 
scoler was well washyd and wett to the skin. Then 
torned he him back, and rode to the herdeman, and 
desyryd him to teach him that connyng. * Nay/ quod 
the herdeman, ' I wyll not teach you my connyng for 
nought.' Then the scoler profferyd him XL shyllyngs 
to teach him that connyng. The herdeman, after he 
had received his money, sayd thus ; ' Syr, see you not 
yonder black ewe with the whyte face ? Surely when 
she daunseth, and holdith up her tayle, ye shall have a 
shower of rain within halfe an houre.'" The days of 
" hende Nicholas," with his successful weather forecasts, 
were indeed passed away ; for the moral, to be drawn 
from this story, is, " that the connyng of herdemen and 
shepardes, as touchinge aulteracyons of weder, is more 
sure than the judicials of astronomy." l Finally, when 
the new-made " Mayster of Arts " ventures to London, 
he falls an easy prey to " the mery gentilman of Essex 
which was ever disposyd to play many pranks and 
pageants." " Meeting this gentilman in Poulys, the 
scoler prayed him to give him a sarcenet typet ; and 
the gentilman, more liberal of promise than of gyft, 
graunted him that he should have one, if he would 
come to his lodging to the sign of the Bull without 
Bishopsgate in the next morning at six of the clock. 
This scoler then came next morning ; and the two went 

1 In folk-lore, one-year-old sheep, known to the Fancy as "hogs "or 
" n ggets," are believed to gambol like young lambs, when a change in 
the weather is probable. This they do especially in the month of March. 



58 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

together, till they came to Saint Laurence Church in 
the Jewry. There the gentilman espied a priest intently 
engaged in the celebration of the Mass ; and he told the 
scoler, ' Yonder is the priest that hath the typet for you. 
Knele down in the pew, and I will speke to him for it.' 
Then went this gentilman to the priest, and said, ' Sir, 
here is a scoler, a kynnysman of mine, greatly dyseased 
with the chyn-cough. I pray you, when Mass is done, 
give him three draughts of your Chalice.' The priest 
graunted him this ; and torned him to the scoler, and 
said, ' Sir, I shall serve you as soon as I have said Mass.' 
The scoler therefore tarried, trusting that, when Mass 
was done, the priest would give him a typet of sarcenet ; 
and the gentilman in the meanwhile departed from the 
Church. Now, when Mass was said, the priest put wine 
in the chalice, and came to the scoler knelyng in the 
pew, proffering him to drink of it. This scoler looked 
upon him, and mused, and said, ' Why, mayster parson, 
wherefore proffer you me the chalice ? ' * Marry,' quod 
the priest, ' for the gentilman told me you were dyseased 
with the chyn-cough, and prayed me that for a medicine 
ye might drink of the chalice.' ' Nay, by Seint Mary/ 
quod the scoler, 'he promysed me ye should delyver 
me a typet of sarcenet.' ( Nay,' answered the priest, ' he 
spake to me of no typet ; but he desyred me to give 
you drink for the chyn-cough.' Then, too late, did this 
scoler lerne that it is foly to truste to a man to do a 
thinge that is contrary to his old accustomed condy- 
cyons ; and he said, ' By Goddes body, he is, as he was 
ever wont to be, but a mokkyng wretch ; but if I live, 
I shall quyte him ' ; and so departyd in great anger." 

The Clerk of Oxenford, his virtues and foibles, his 
logic and his high style, now serve to point a moral 
rather than to adorn a tale. " A rich frankelyn having 
by his wyfe but one childe and no mo, for the great 
affection that he had to the said childe, found hym to 
scole to Oxforde for the space of II or III year. Thys 
young skoler, in a vacacyon tyme, for his disporte, came 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 59 

home to his father. It fortuned afterwarde on a day, 
the father, mother, and the young skoler being seated at 
table, the young skoler sayde, ' I have studied sophistrie, 
and by that science I can prove these two chekyns in 
the dysshe to be thre chekyns.' * Mary ! ' sayde the 
father, ' That wolde I fayne see.' The skoler then toke 
one of the chekyns in his hande, and sayde, ' Lo ! here 
is one chekyn ' ; and incontinente he toke both the 
chekyns in his hand joyntely, and sayde, 'here is two 
chekyns : and one and two makyth three : ergo here 
is three chekyns.' Then the father toke one of the 
chekyns to himselfe, and gave one of the chekyns to his 
wife, and sayde thus ; ' Lo, I will have one of the chekyns 
to my parte ; and thy mother shall have another ; and, 
because of thy good argument, thou shalt have the 
thirde to thy supper : for thou gettest no more meate 
here at this tyme.' " These popular tales show also the 
change which had come over the "high style" of the 
Clerk. A hundred years before, this style had been 
"short and quick and full of high sentence." Then 
French influence was to be marked in the construction 
of English prose ; and Chaucer, as Skinner writes in 
his Etymologicon, was " introducing French words by 
waggon-loads into our English vocabulary." But now, 
in their attempt to construct what Dante calls "an 
illustrious vulgar tongue," to refine it and make it a 
fitting instrument for the various requirements of courtly 
conversation and literature, Oxonians were Latinizing 
the English language. They were striving, as did 
Rabelais' young scholar of Limouzin in later days, 
"par veles et rames locupleter le vernacule de la 
redundance Latinicome." x "You must crucify the 
quadrangle, and ascend the grades, and you will find 
him perambulating his cubicle near the fenester," said 
" the scoler of Oxenforde that delytid moche to speke 
eloquente English and curious termes," as he directed a 

1 Rabelais, bk. ii. chap. vi. Comment Pantagruel rencontra ung Limousin 
qui contrefaisoit le languaige Francois. 



60 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

porter to a friend's rooms in College. " And pray, Sir, 
what is a fenester?" asked the man. "It is the dia- 
phanous part of an edifice, erected for the introduction 
of illumination," answered " the skoler." And when he 
took his shoes, " which were pyked before, as they used 
that tyme," l to be clouted, he would say to the cobbler, 
" O thou curious artificer, that hast perfected the art of 
repairing old and decayed calcuments, I pray thee set 
two triangles and two semicircles upon my subpeditales, 
and I shall pay thee for thy labour." Upon which the 
cobbler, because he understood him not half, answered 
him shortly, "Sir, your eloquence passeth my intelli- 
gence; but if I meddle with it, the clouting of your 
shoon shall cost you ten pens." 

Thus already the time had got a vein of making the 
Clerk ridiculous, and of putting upon his profession 
various absurdities which were to render him a laughing- 
stock to succeeding generations. Nor is it only as the 
follower of unprofitable and ill-respected arts, that he 
is now ridiculed ; but often also, as being distinguished 
by the weak health, dull spirits, and eccentric manners, 
that are bred in a retired life free from bodily exercise 
and those disports which most men use. And this is 
due y> the fact, that, owing to a change in the system 
of residence at Oxford, the lawless " unattached " scholar, 
who lived as he listed, was becoming a " rara avis " ; 
freshmen being now usually caged in a College, which, 
with its hall, chapel, and recreation-ground, was intended 
to supply, and doubtless did supply to docile youths, 
all the necessaries of life within its massive gates. 
Subjected to an elaborate code of discipline, the Clerk 
henceforward had but few opportunities of displaying 
prowess, either in sport in Beaumont Fields, or in 
earnest in the many faction-fights which enlivened the 
streets of mediaeval Oxford. Then, again, in the old 
days, as a " chamberdekyn," he had depended for his 

1 The "time" is that of Edward iv, before the exaggerated "square 
toes " of the Tudors had been introduced. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 61 

scanty subsistence to no small extent upon the means 
derived from the chase, and had won a name for skill 
and daring as a poacher and a raider of hen-roosts. 
But as soon as he became the inmate of a College, he 
passed from this savage and predatory to what may be 
called a pastoral state ; a step towards civilization, which 
was figuratively described by fifteenth-century Oxford 
in the famous legend of the " All Souls' Mallard " : 
when once he became a member of an endowed Founda- 
tion such as Archbishop Chichele's, he no longer needed 
to hunt for a precarious dinner in the neighbouring farm- 
yards or amid the reeds of Isis and Cherwell ; his 
former quarry was now ready to his hand, and moreover 
specially fattened for the table, in the " pullo-phylacium," 
"domus gallinarum," or collegiate fowlhouse; to use 
the words of the All Souls' Allegory, " the Mallard or 
wild Drake was discovered, imprisoned and grown to 
a vast size, in the foundations of the College." 1 It is, 
indeed, to this conversion of the Clerk of Oxford during 
the great college-building period (1375-1458), from a 
free and hardy self-helper into a beneficiary leading a 
confined and comparatively soft existence, that are 
due portraits of the time which represent him " living a 
monastic life sequestered from the tumults and troubles 
of the world, a mere spectator of other men's fortunes 

1 The above interpretation of the Mallard Legend is confirmed, when 
examination is made of the chief features of the Feast of the Invention of 
the Mallard, a festival observed in old days annually, but, since 1701, in 
the first year of each century only. " Mallard Night," as it is called, opens 
with a pretended search for the tutelary Bird in various parts of the College, 
which is conducted by the junior Fellows who bear torches and sticks ; 
time and implements, it will be noted, being those which a primitive 
poacher would deem most favourable for his illicit sport : the Night closes 
with a chorus of triumph over the captured quarry, known as the ' ' Mallard 
Song," and a prolonged orgie after the habit of the primitive poacher. It 
is clear that the festival was originally instituted by the College authorities 
for the purpose of effecting a yearly catharsis of any predatory passions 
that might survive among the alumni : and that such a precaution was by 
no means unnecessary, is shewn by the frequent outbursts of those passions 
which occurred until comparatively recent times in societies which did not 
encourage a like purgation. 



62 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

and adventures." And, as time went on, this seclusion 
became more complete. In the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, senior members of endowed institutions had 
often engaged in the active management of College 
property. They had farmed estates with bailiffs, and 
had bred and sold horses ; they had been their own 
bakers, brewers and architects ; and had thus been 
brought into contact with agricultural labourers, grooms 
and farriers, masons and bricklayers ; and had purchased 
agricultural instruments, baking and brewing utensils, 
and building material. They had kept minute accounts 
of expenses, and had schemed to increase the income 
of their foundations. But when, as one of the results of 
the great revolution in the system of agriculture in 
England which followed the Black Death, bailiff-farming 
gradually gave way to farming by tenants at a fixed 
rent, and when the business of baking and brewing 
became general, and the contractor and middleman 
appeared in the land, Fellows of Colleges had fewer 
opportunities of acquiring and of displaying a practical 
knowledge of secular business ; and rapidly deteriorated, 
in the opinion of the vulgar-spirited, into " mere College 
authorities who lived retired from the world, and were 
as children in commercial matters." In an age of 
extending trade and great material prosperity, and when 
it was thought to be the duty of every man, one way or 
another, " to bestirre his stoompes," the Clerk was 
pictured " sitting in a corner with a pot of beer and a 
pound of beef at his side, concluding syllogisms ; reading 
all things and professing none." He was declared, by 
the successful merchant and daring adventurer of the 
day, " to spend the winter with his nose over the fire ; 
and in summer to plod along with his eyes bent down- 
wards, as though he sought pearls among the pebbles, 
or staring into the element as if to see when the man 
in the moon would come out among the stars." Though 
he read sometimes of the famous deeds of men of action 
in the past, " the base-minded fellow was never the more 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1500 A.D. 63 

ready to do vigorous service himself; but was as one 
who thrust his head into a tub, and cried, ' Bene vixit 
qui bene latuit/ ' he hath lived well that hath loitered 
well." 3 Such were some of the popular views of the 
Clerk and his life. To a generation which knew no 
other content but wealth, bravery, and town-pleasures, 
the contemplative student was a proverb of reproach, 
philosophers were but madmen, and poor scholars an 
example to take heed by. 



CHAPTER IV 
EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

ACADEMIAE OXONIENSIS BREVE CHRONICON 
AB ANNO INCARNATIONIS 1524 

USQUE AD ANNUM 1603 

A.D. 1524 

" r T~^HE occasion of the Erection of Christys Church 
in Oxford by the Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, 
the number of the work folk, what he there 
pretended " being Caput 7 of the History of Grisilde 
the Seconde^ a narrative in verse of the Divorce of Queen 
Katharine of Arragon, written by William Forrest, 
sometime Chaplain to Queen Mary I, and edited from 
the Author's MS. in the Bodleian Library for the 
Roxburghe Club by the Rev. W. D. Macray. In 
the poem Queen Katharine appears as " Grisilde," 
Henry VIII as " Walter." Here I have modernized the 
spelling. 

At time when this man in high favour stood, 
Walter with him talking familiarly, 
A certain gentleman with much sober mood, 
As then a suitor, stood there aloof by, 
On whom as Walter that time cast his eye, 
He asked him, with countenance "beninge," 

If that with him then he would any thing; 
6 4 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 65 

To whom the party thus entered his suit, 
Beseeching his grace to grant his licence 
A scholar of his, his school here to permute 
Beyond the seas, to do his diligence 
For more acquiring, by study's pretence, 
Of literate knowledge for years two or three, 
The abler after to serve his Majesty. 

At whose contemplation Walter furtherway 
Condescended to his humble request, 
And to the Cardinal he there did say, 
" I marvel why our folk are so earnest 
Their youth beyond sea to have interest, 
To the consuming of our Royalm's treasure ; 
Have we not Schools them at home to recure?" 

" Sir," quoth the Cardinal, " pleaseth your grace 
Me to assist in that I do pretend, 
I shall so work in convenient space 
As fast hitherwards to cause them to descend 
As ever thitherwards they did themselves bend ; 
And other also of each Christian port 
For the like purpose hither to resort." 

" My lord," quoth Walter, " further your pretence 
Which is, I perceive, some study to begin, 
And ye shall be sure of our assistance 
What way so ever ye think best therein." 
Upon which occasion he did not lyn,* *lyn= 

The plot devised and curiously cast, ielay). 

To set therewith in hand wondrously fast. 

Most cunning workmen there were prepared The tri- 

With speediest ordinance for every thing, workmen^ 

Nothing expedient was there aught spared and lack ' 

That to the purpose might be assisting; overseers, 

One thing chiefly this was the hindering, was the 

The work-folk, for lack of good overseers, Sling^ 

Loitered the time, like false triflers, the work. 



66 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

They were thus many, a thousand at the least, 
That thereon were working still day by day ; 
Their payments continued, their labours decreast, 
For well near one half did naught else but play. 
If they had truly done what in them lay 
By so long space as they were trifeling, 
At his fall had been little to doing. 

Man's vain The work was wonderful passing curious, 

before And too much set forth to his vain glory; 

God's Too much it cannot be too glorious 

ferredfthe To His honour that reigneth eternally; 

work can Th' other preferred, that being laid by, 

never take _,. . A . 

g 00 d The work cannot take prosperous success; 

success. Of the godly I take therein witness. 1 

1 Cf. Rede me and be not wrothe, by William Roy and Jerome Bar- 
low, English Observant Franciscans: Strasbourg, 1528 (Arber Reprints) : 
"Dialogue between two prestes servants, named Watkyn and Jeffraye" : 

Watkyn. In those parties it is verified 
That he hath a College edified 
Of marvellous foundation. 

Jeffraye. Thou mayest perceave by reason 
That vertue shall be very geason 

Among a set of idle losels, 
Which have riches infinite, 

The wealth and worldly delight, 
Given to pleasure and to nothing els. 

Watkyn. They rede there both Greke and Ebrue. 

Jeffraye. I will not say but it is true 
That there be men of great science : 
Howbeit where pride is the beginning, 

As we see by experience, 
And if thou consider well, 
Even as the Tower of Babel 

Began of a presompcion, 
So that College, I dare undertake, 

Which the Cardinal doth make, 

Shall confound the region. 
What is it to see dogges and cattes 

Gargell heddes and Cardinall hattes, 
Daynted on walls with moche cost, 

Which ought of dute to be spent 

Upon povre people indigent 
For lacke of fode utterly lost, 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 67 

There should have been read within that precinct, 
To th' instruction of all that thither came, 
The seven Sciences seriously link't, 
As in their orders the Schoolmen can name; 
The Readers to have been men of great fame, 
The picked purest through all Christiandom, 
If meed or money might cause them to come. 



But how ever it was, God's aid there did lack, 
It had not else quailed, as it sheweth yet; 
That Pride therein had aught hindered back, 
I trust Humility shall perfectly complete, 
To set up God's House, as me seemeth meet, 
For His inestimable benevolence 
Shewed of His grace to her magnificence; 



God's aid was 
not there 
assisting 
because of 
pride ; God 
grant humility 
to fulfil that 
which pride 
lacked grace 
to do. 



Our noble Queen Mary it is that I mean; 
Who, as she is most noblest now of all, 
That noble work not yet finished clean, 
Nobly God grant her to make it formal, 
To His honour and glory special : 
Her other affairs first brought to good fine, 
God through His grace her heart thereto incline. 



Wishing our 
noble Queen 
Mary time and 
power to finish 
what is lacking 
in that noble 
foundation. 



So have we here said the cause original, 
How Frydeswide's House a Study became 
By the great travel of the Cardinal, 
Whose soul God shield from the infernal flame, 
And prosper in virtue the Students of the same; 
They endeavouring so, virtuously, 
No doubt to God's pleasure shall much edify. 



A.D. 1530 

Oxford and the Great Divorce. In this year King 
Henry proposed to the University a question concern- 
ing his marriage with Queen Katharine, sometime the 



68 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

wife of his brother, Prince Arthur: "An divino et 
naturali jure sit prohibitum ne frater uxorem fratris, 
etiam mortui sine liberis, ducat uxorem " ? 

Caput 9 of the History of Grisilde the Seconde 



Walter, to 
appease the 
worldly 
rumour, 
causeth his 
case to be 
disputed at 
Oxford. 



Yet for that Walter would not be thought 
Of heady power to work contrariously, 
He sent to Oxford, as plans he sought 
To have his case there tried by the Clergy ; 
At which traveling certainly was I, 
Attending upon a certain good man, 
Wherefore in the same I somewhat say can. 



John Long- 
land was Chief 
Commissioner: 
Friar 
Nicholas, 
chief Solicitor 
for the King, 
was openly 
withstood. 



Thither was sent as Chief Commissioner 
The Bishop of Lincoln, one John Langeland, 
With certain other that well could flatter, 
The learned judgment there to understand; 
Where one friar Nicholas took much in hand, 
As chief Defendant in the foresaid case, 
Who found himself matched even to the hard 
face. 



Those that 
spake against 
the King, were 
disdained and 
threatened ; 
those who 
supported 
him, were 
rewarded, 
cheered, and 
made much of. 



The Uni- 
versity Act 
was deferred, 
because five 
incepting 
Doctors 
would not 
agree to the 
divorcement. 



But there was used no indifferency ; 
Such as by learning made against the King, 
They were redargued most cruelly, 
Threatened also to forgo their living; 
On th' other side all thereto inclining, 
They had high cheering with meed otherway; 
Falsehood triumphing, Truth quaking for fray. 

That time an Act there should have gone forward, 
Where seven famous Clerks that Inceptors were, 
Because in this case Five would not draw toward, 
It was deferred to their heavy cheer, 
For that their chief friends were presently there; 
Mawdelay, Mooreman, Holyman, also 
Mortimer, Cooke, with other two mo, 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 69 

These Five in nowise would grant their consents, 
The Regent Masters were of the same mind; 
Rather they granted to forgo house and rents 
Than wittingly so to shew themselves blind; 
The Proctors, for gains they hoped to find, 
Through friendship they made, obtained the grace 
Of Bishop Langeland the Act to take place. 

The matter long time there hanging in suspense, 
Without having th' University's Seal 
As to confirm Walter's foresaid pretence, 
For which the Bishop hard threatnings did deal, 
To his reproach and hindrance of good heal ; 
If so that some there had had him at large, 
I would of his life have taken no charge. 

For on the outgates, where he by night lay, 
Were Ropes fast nailed, with Gallows drawn by, 
To this intent, as a man might well say, 
" If we so might, such were thy Destiny." 
His servants oft handled accordingly, 
As one indeed making water at a wall, 
A stone right heavy on him one let fall. 



Women that season in Oxford were busy; 
Their hearts were good, it appeared no less; 
As Friar Nicholas chanced to come by, 
"Alas," said one, "that we might this knave dress 
For his unthankful daily business 
Against our dear Queen, good Grisilidis; 
He should evil to cheave, he should not sure miss.' 

With that a woman, I saw it truly, 
A lump of osmundys let hard at him fling : 
Which missed of his noddle, the more pity, 
And on his friar's heels it came tryteling, 
Who suddenly as he it perceiving, 
Made his complaint upon the woman, so 
That thirty the morrow were in Bocardo. 



These five, 
and the 
Regent 
Masters, 
would rather 
surrender all 
than give their 
consents. 



Popular hatred 
of Bishop 
Longland. 
On Lincoln 
College gates 
were gallows 
drawn with 
chalk, and 
ropes of hemp 
nailed thereon, 
to signify that 
he and his were 
worthy the 
like for their 
going against 
the truth. 



Women in Ox- 
ford sided with 
the Queen, and 
had foiledFriar 
Nicholas, 
if their hands 
might have 
served to their 
hearts. 

I 

One of them 
threw a lump 
of iron at him, 
which missed 
his head and 
rolled on to his 
heels : and on 
his complaint 
thirty women 
were lodged in 
Bocardo 
prison, in the 
North Gate. 



70 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



The Regent 
Masters stood 
firm. The 
Bishop called a 
secret Con- 
vocation of his 
supporters, 
and there they 
stole the Uni- 
versity Seal 
and affixed it 
to such false 
instrument as 
they had con- 
trived. 

The sorrow of 
many good 
Graduates for 
this stealing 
the Seal. 



The consent 
of Oxford was 
forced and 
stolen from 
her. May 
God reward 
the traitors 
after their 
deserts ! 



There they continued three days and three nights, 
Till word was sent down from Walter the King, 
Who fret at the heart, as vexed with sprites, 
That Grisildy's part they were so tendering, 
To all that so did, this word down sending, 
That magre their teeths, he would have his forth, 
And ere long time make some of them small worth. 

But yet for all that the Five foresaid Clerks 
With most of the Regent Masters, that tide, 
For all the threatnings that flatterers barks, 
From that was the right, they would no wit slide. 
The Bishop Langeland did thus then provide, 
A Convocation of certain to call, 
And got the Seal consented of all. 

For which was weeping and lamentation; 
I was then present and heard their complaint : 
"Alas!" they said, "in pitiful fashion 
Now is good Oxford for ever attaint ! 
Thou that hast flourished, art become faint! 
Thou wert unspotted till this present day, 
With truth evermore to hold and to say. 

" But notwithstanding, considering as thus 
Thou wert with power and might overlaid, 
Thou therefore remain'st innoxious, 
As doth by violence the ravish't maid. 
Every one his duty on each pate be paid; 
That is, who of us hath wronged the right, 
God to their deserts their doings requite! 

"This to this end we put in remembrance 
To the knowledge of our posterity, 
That all, that season, made no dissemblance, 
But ten to one stuck to the verity ; 
But chief that ought, had no sincerity. 
False Ambition and keeping in favour 
Declared in this much lewd behaviour." 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 71 

Walter presented with th' University's Seal, The King's 

Seeming to him all had condescended, mgthe 

The merrier that day he made his full meal; University's 

Now had he all things as he pretended. 
Forwards he went, he was not defended, 
The good silly Grisild for to put down, 
And in her stead his new minion to crown. 



A.D. 1549 

This year was a Commission appointed by King 
Edward VI to visit the University "in capite et 
membris," one of the Commissioners being Dr. 
Richard Cox, Dean of Christ Church. 

" Of Doctor Cockes, Dean of Christys Church, most 
devillish disordering there, and of his despoiling the 
said Church and other in Oxford to the maintenance 
of his filthy and vile carnality " Caput 7 of the History 
of Grisilde the Seconde 

Now learning is worthy of preferment The fruit of 

And of all degrees to be magnified, P erfe ,_ ct learn ', 

_ . ing, how much 

For learning rendereth the low excellent, it furthereth 

And the excellent witty to be tried; 
Learning and wisdom together allied, 
As friends and kin of consanguinity, 
They needs shall work to much utility. 

Admixed with Grace, I mean, as no less, But learning, 

For Science, Saint Paul saith, the mind doth void of s ra ce, 

. ,, leads men to 

inflate : fles hi y folly 

Of Science hath many had plenteousness, as it: did Dr - 

And void of Grace hath proved far ingrate; 
Using their learning after devillish rate; 
As Doctor Cockes, with a Comb thereto set, 
Through fleshly folly caught in the Devil's net. 



72 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Abhorring his order of sacred Priesthood, 
A whore he took ; wife could he take none, 
For contrary vow he made unto God 
When of his Ministers he took to be one ; 
And for he would not to the Devil alone, 
He wrought by all means others to entrap 
With him for ever to curse their mishap. 

He wrought by his holy stinking Martyr 
Peter, that Paul his breath could not abide, 
For that, like Satan's true knight of the Garter, 
His holy doctrine he here falsified, 
That who of Priests in marriage was not tied, 
He was afflicted turmoiled and tost, 
To loss of living and some other cost. 1 

So much abhorred this vaging varlet 
All signs of goodly conversation, 
That whereso a priest with shaven crown he met, 
He shook him up with detestation, 
And in Oxford his ordination 
Was, whoso there a crown on him did fit, 
His College he should for his crown's sake amit. 

This was a worthy famous Doctor, 
This was a man worthy of preeminence, 
This was a Christian true Professor, 
This was a man of right intelligence ; 
The Devil he was ! I say my conscience, 
He was, I say, an arrant cursed Thief; 
His acts declare, ye need no further preif. 

1 Cox and Peter Martyr, being married, brought their wives into Christ 
Church, being the first of all that did so ; and not only permitted the 
Canons to marry, or any Head of a College or Hall, but suffered women 
and idle huswives to enter into each House to serve there : which was 
looked upon as such a damnable matter by the Catholics, that they styled 
the lodgings that entertained women and children, " coney buries ": 
Anthony Wood, Annals, sub anno 1549. 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 73 

He robbed the Church of Frydeswyde, I say, 
Of Chalices, Crosses, Candlesticks with all, 
Of silver and gilt, both precious and gay, 
With Copes of tissue and many a rich Pall, 
Dedicate to God above aeternal. 
And other Colleges may him well curse, 
For through him they are yet far the worse. 

He was chose Chancellor for faults amending; 
He mended indeed from good to the bad ! 
He was a Chancellor of the Devil's sending, 
Never was Town that such an other had ; 
So made he ordinance that a proud lad 
With men right reverend might shew him checkmate 
And went disguised in ruffian rate. 

He set them all clean out of discipline, 
And saw them settled in heinous heresy; 
He let them at will wickedly incline, 
He nothing to virtue did edify, 
But what to good order was contrary ; 
So wrought he, that, truly to make report, 
As the Dean was, so were the most sort. 1 



A.D. 1554 

In this, the first year of the reign of Queen Mary, 
Edward Anne, one of those whom Jewell had instructed 
in religion, having, through the zeal he bore to reforma- 
tion, made a copy of verses against the Mass, Mr. 
Walsh, the Dean of Corpus, of which College Anne was 
a scholar, whipped him in the common hall, giving him 

1 Anthony Wood, Annals, i. 100, etc. ; Cox became Chancellor of the 
University in 1547; "he permitted certain rude persons to abuse the 
Catholic Religion in ballads, libels, etc.; to make copes and surplices 
ridiculous, and to act the saying of Mass like the mumbling of charms by 
an old canjurer ; and suffered youths to nose and impudentize the Doctors 
and Masters of the old stamp without correction." 



74 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

a lash for every line. " Never surely," saith Mr. Andrew 
Lang, " was poet taught so sharply the merit of brevity." 

Precatio contra Missam, anno Mariae primo, per 
Edouardum Annum, Juelli alumnum. 

(Joannis Juelli Vita Laurentio Humfredo autore: 
1573). 

" Supplex oro patris veniant coelestis ad aures 

Ex animo paucae quas recitabo preces: 
Ecce patent aditus; patet alti janua coeli ; 

Ad summum votis jam penetrabo Deum. 
Summe Pater, qui cuncta vides, qui cuncta gubernas, 

Qui dat cuncta tuis, qui quoque cuncta rapis, 
Effice ne maneat longaevos Missa per annos, 

Effice ne fallat decipiatque tuos. 
Effice ne coecos populorum reddat ocellos, 

Missa docens verbo dissona multa tuo : 
Effice jam rursus Stygias descendat ad undas 

Unde trahit fontem principiumque suum." 
Respondet Dominus spectans de sedibus altis, 

" Ne dubites recte credere, parve puer : 
OKm sum passus mortem, nunc occupo dextram 

Patris, nunc summi sunt mea regna poli: 
In coelis igitur toto sub corpore versor, 

Et me terrestris nemo videre potest. 
Falsa sacerdotes de me mendacia fingunt ; 

Missam quique colunt, hi mea verba negant. 
Durae cervicis populus me mittere Missam 

Fecit, et e medio tollere dogma sacrum : 
Sed tu crede mihi, vires scriptura resumet, 

Tolleturque suo tempore Missa nequam." 

A.D. 1556 

On March 21, Thomas Cranmer was burnt in 
Canditch over against Balliol College. 

Like Mutius, Cranmer, thou diddest burn thy 
hand : 




?o 

I 



11 



12 



l\* 
5 SB 

si 
^ ^ 

o a" 

P ^ 
X < c 
O P a 

*^ D h 

lii 
1M 






EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 75 

Oh, but I injure thee thus to compare: 
Nothing was like, the fire, the cause, the man ; 
Yet likest thee, of all that storied are. 
He had a Theatre of Men to see 
What thou did'st represent to Angels' eyes : 
He burnt his hand to cinders carelessly 
Which thou by burning diddest sacrifice: 
Thou diddest sow thine hand into the flame, 
Which he consum'd and could not reape againe: 
Thy Love did quench the burning of the same, 
Acting with pleasure what he did with paine. 
In him 't was wonder that he did presume 
To touch the flame with flesh contaminated ; 
In thee J t was wonder that the flame did burn 
An holy hand to glory consecrated. 

Chrestoleros ; seven bookes of Epigrames by T. B. 

(i.e. Thomas Bastard, New College, 1586- 

90), London, 1598 

A.D. 1561 

Many were the changes in Religion by which Oxford 
was troubled in the days of Henry VIII, Edward VI, 
Mary, and Elizabeth, as indeed appears in the story of 
the strange adventures of the Relics of St. Frideswyde 
and the body of Catharine, wife of the Reformer, Peter 
Martyr. 

Henry vm. The shrine of St. Frideswyde plundered ; 

1538. 
Edward VI. Catharine Martyr buried in the Cathedral; 

1553- 

Mary. Catharine's body exhumed and cast upon a 
dunghill in the Dean's stable-yard ; 1557. 

Elizabeth. James Calfhill, sub-dean of Christ Church, 
deputed to reinter the body. At this time the 
Relics of St. Frideswyde were discovered carefully 
bestowed in two silken bags and hidden in the 
obscurest part of the Cathedral. These were now 



76 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

placed by Calfhill in a coffin with Catharine's body, 
and were buried at the east end of the Church ; 
1561. 

"De Sancta Frideswida et Catharina Martyre, Jac. 
Calfhillus " : Encomiastica Carmina de Catharina, P. 
Marty ris uxore ; Argentinae, 1561. 

Ossa Frideswidae sacro decorata triumpho 

Altari festis mota diebus erant. 
E tumulo contra Catharinae Martyris ossa 

Turpiter in foedum jacta fuere locum. 
Nunc utriusque simul saxo sunt ossa sub uno ; 

Par ambabus honos et sine lite cubant. 
Vivite nobiscum Concordes ergo, Papistae : 

Nunc coeunt Pietas atque Superstitio. 



A.D. 1565 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, now lately elected 
Chancellor of the University, visited Oxford. 

" In Adventum Illustrissimi Comitis Leicestrensis, 
cum primum Cancellarius Oxoniensis Academiam ac- 
cederet" 

Ad illustrissimos Comites Warwicensem et Leicestrensem 
Oratio gratulatoria Bristoliae habita, April, 1587 : Oxon; 
ex officina typographica Josephi Barnesii : I2 mo . 

Redditur Oxonio Bustis Erepta Repente 
Te Veniente Salus; Das Vrbi Dudlee Lucem; 
Exhilaras Vultu ; Spem Cedit Amabile Nomen. 
Consilit E Luctu Languens Academia, Regnat, 
Invidiosorum Voces Suppressit, Ovatque. 
Xerxis Opes Nomenque Jacent ; En Nobile Sidus 
Indevincibilis Superat Comes Omnia Mundo. 
Egregius Splendor Laudisque Excelsa Cupido 
Efficiunt Similem Ter-magnis Regibus Esse. 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 77 

Non Secus Interius Splendet Viget Intima Virtus ; 
Accumulansque Tuas Laudes, AEterna Triumphans 
Vivet Saecla, Magisque Vigens Lucentia Tanget 
Astra Sono ; Et Coelo Veneranda Locabit Amantem. 

These capitals form the following complimentary 
inscription : ROBERTUS . DUDLEUS . CANCELLARIUS . 

OXONIENSIS . COMES LECESTRENSIS . VIVAT . LAETUS . 
MULTA . SECULA! 

A.D. 1566 

The University being pretty well recruited and settled 
with good government, it pleased Queen Elizabeth to 
visit it in her Progress taken this year. 

AD OXONIAM 

(Elizabethan Oxford'. Reprints (Oxford Hist. Soc.), 
P- 233). 

R Regia Virgo venit : laetos celebrato triumphos ; 

Exuperans Reges, Regia Virgo venit. 

G Grata peregit iter, cum primum visa veniret, 

I Invisit cum te, grata peregit iter. 

A Accipis ecce tuam Reginam, Oxonia felix, 

V Vincentemque viros accipis ecce tuam. 

I Incipias hilares hilaris celebrare triumphos, 

R Regia Virgo tibi grata peregit iter. 

G Gaudia summa dedit veniensque videndaque, visa 

O O certe plusquam gaudia summa dedit 

T Tu properare jube laetantes carmine vates, 

I Ingenium prodant tu properare jube; 

B Blateret ipse suos versus, recitetque Cherillus, 

I Ignarus quamvis blateret ipse suos. 

G Gaudeat et Faunus cum Phoebo, et quisque 

triumphet ; 

R Regia Virgo tibi grata peregit iter. 

A Accipiantque sonos mirantia rura canoros, 

T Te laetam noscant accipiantque sonos. 

A Adjuvet atque tuas voces campana cadentes, 



78 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

P Perstringatque aures, adjuvet atque tuas. 

E Ex quocunque modo poteris, celebrate triumphos ; 

R Regia Virgo tibi grata peregit iter. 

E Ergo triumphus eat ; sed non satis istud ; at isto 

G Grandius baud possis ; ergo triumphus eat. 

I I cito, cuncta para; Regina, Oxonia, tecum est; 

^T_ Tarda, quid hie cessas? I cito, cuncta para. 

I I cito, parva para, nam sedula pauca parare 

T Tanta digna nequis; I cito, cuncta para. 

E Et tamen ilia licet sint parva et pauca, tri- 
umpha ; 

R REGIA . VIRGO . TIBI . GRATA . PERE- 
GIT . ITER. 



A.D. 1577 
The Assize at Oxford, known as " the Black Assize." 

" There be daungerous diseases unknowen to the most 
part of Physicians, as that disease especially which was 
at Oxford at the Assizes anno 1577, and began the 
6th day of July; from which day to the I2th day of 
August next ensuing there died of the same sicknesse 
510 persons,, all men and no women. The chiefest of 
which were the two Judges, Sir Robert Bell, Lord 
Chiefe Baron, and Maister Sergeant Baram ; Maister 
Doile, the High Sherriffe ; five of the Justices ; foure 
Counsaillours at the Law ; and one Atturnie. The rest 
were of the Jurers and such as repaired thither. All 
infected in a manner at one instant, by reason of a damp 
or mist which arose among the people within the Castle- 
yard and Court-house, caused, as some thought, by a 
traine and trecherie of one Rowland Jenkes, booke- 
binder of Oxford, there at that time arraigned and 
condemned ; But, as I thinke, sent onely by the will of 
God, as a scourge for sin shewn chiefly in that place and 
at that great assembly, for example of the whole realme ; 
that famous Universitie being, as it were, the fountain 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 79 

and eye that should give knowledge and light to all 
England. Neither may the Universitie of Cambridge 
in this respect glory over Oxford, as though they had 
greater priviledge from God's wrath ; for I read in Hall's 
Chronicle, in the I3th year of King Henry VIII, that 
at the Assize kept at the Castle in Cambridge, in 
Lent anno 1522, the Justices and all the Gentlemen 
Baillives, and others resorting thither, took such an 
infection, that many gentlemen and yeomen died, and 
almost all which were present, were sore sick and 
narrowly escaped with their lives." 

THOMAS COGAN, 
The Haven of Health, London, 1589 

" Hear now, I pray, the poor Knight's Lamentation, 
wherein he earnestly bewayleth the late loss of divers 
worthy gentlemen's lives ; a dirge which appeareth in a 
book called A Poor Knight, his pallace of private 
pleasures, gallantly garnished with goodly galleries of 
strange inventions, and prudently polished with pleasant 
posies and other fine fancies of dainty devices and rare 
delights ; the same being written by a Student of 
Cambridge, and published by I. C. Gent ; imprinted at 
London ; Richard Jones, Over against Saint Sepulchres 
Church; I579-" 1 

" Stand still, ye fiends of Limbo Lake, ye hellish 

hounds, give ear, 
Stay, Theseus, on thy whorling wheel, hark what I 

shall declare ; 
Come, plunge in pit of painful plight, ye Furies three, 

I pray; 
Oh Pluto, mark my doleful mone, give ear what I 

shall say; 
And rue with me the rueful chance, and mone the 

ill success, 

1 Three Collections of English Poetry of the latter part of the i&h 
century, Roxburgh Club Publications, 1844, 



So THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

The doleful dole, the heavy hap, the dumps of deep 

distress, 
Which Oxford Town hath had of late, most fresh 

and new in mind; 
Hark, hark, ye dames of Stygian flood and wail by 

course of kind, 
As, though no tears of Furies' eyes will ease the fatal 

fall, 
Yet plaints of you which Furies be, may move the 

mind of all 
To say with me, as I have said, Alas!, help to 

deplore 
And wail that chance, like to which chance no 

chance has chanced before 
In Oxford Town, or English soil, since worthy 

Trojan's time, 
Since Brute in coast did seek by fame to clustering 

clouds to climb. 
Oh strange disease, most strange to tell, and strange 

to call to mind, 
As thundering Fame hath tolde for truth, as reason 

did her bind. 
Alas ! alas ! I rue to think, I tremble for to 

tell, 
My fainting heart is much appalled, my soul in grief 

doth dwell ; 
But yet alas ! what boot to mone, where tears will 

not avail ? 
No gentle words will fence the fort where denting 

death assail ; 
No sugared terms will stay his stroke ; no force will 

make him fly; 
No subtil skill of mortal minds ; he weigheth no 

hideous cry; 
No worthy acts can banish death, or cause him to 

relent ; 
No fame, no name for good deserts, no days in justice 

spent, 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 81 

Can him intreat to hold his hand ; no hope for future 

gain 
Which will redound to common wealth, can cause 

him to abstain : 

But oft that impe by whirling wind is blasted to decay 
And soonest bears the withered leaves, whereof most 

hope doth stay. 
Of Trojan soil let Hector say ; let Pyrrhus speak 

for Greece, 
Or join Achilles, if you please, and Paris with his 

piece : 
Macedon's Prince may tell his tale, and Caesar may 

discharge ; 
That good Hamilcar's eldest son by proof may tell 

at large 
What need I range? since ranging far doth breed 

to great annoy, 
Since Bell and Barham may blaze forth, which once 

were England's joy. 
Ah sounding Bell ! ah Barham bold ! (I mean in 

Justice' cause), 
Ah true maintainers of the right and strengtheners 

of the laws ! 
How oft can Westminster report, whose record cannot 

lie, 
Your true deserts in pleas of price, your worthy wits 

to try! 

How oft can all Assizes say, " Lo Bell! Lo Barham he ! 
Perdy in skill of lawyers' trades, those worthy 

champions be ! " 
How oft hath Bell been sounded of through every 

shire and town, 
How oft hath Barham through his deeds achieved 

high renown ! 
But out, alas !, the Bell is broke and Barham's tongue 

doth stay, 
For Death hath struck, whose daunting darts each 

worldling must obey; 

6 



82 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Both Judge and Sheriff, Sheriff and Clerk, yea Clerk 

and Crier, all 
Must give account before the Judge, when Christ 

his crier call ; 
And well, I hope, hath Bell deserved, and Barham 

shall have meed, 
With all the rest above the skies, whereas the Angels 

feed. 
And you, ye doughty knights, whose corps be laid 

in mourning grave, 
Whose bones shall long be kept in store, a good 

reward shall have : 
And though ye wail, ye Templars all, for them which 

ye did know, 
Which oft within your costly courts their sage advice 

did shew; 
Yet since the Fates have cut their clews, since 

Lachesis hath said 
That she would stretch her hand no more, then be 

you well a-paid, 
And stay from murmuring at their fate, such fatal 

hap had they, 
Whom God had long ordained before to visit in 

that day; 
As few have seen or heard the like, with watery 

eyes lament, 
With salted sighs and gushing tears, which all in 

vain be spent, 
In Oxford town and anywhere where fame hath 

blown her blast, 
And scalding sighs in sundry breasts hath vowed 

for aye to last. 
What shall I say? What shall I write? Or shall 

1 leave my verse? 
How can my hand hold fast my pen these dolors 

to rehearse? 
Nay, nay, a grief as great as that did more augment 

my pain, 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 83 

Which yet hath lurked, concealed fast, but cannot so 

remain. 
E'en for your sakes, ye Students all, whose griefs 

increase my smart, 
For whom my mind was troubled sore, all flattery 

set apart ; 

Not mine alone, but thousands more, did see them- 
selves agreeved, 
And asked on knees of mighty Jove, your time might 

be releeved. 
How many hearts have wept with us which never 

saw that towne, 
How many cheekes were moist'ned here with teares 

that ran adowne ! 
Should Cambridge smile and Oxforde weepe, then 

Cambridge were unkind ; 
Nay, nay, my harts, your swelling smart did beat 

in every mind, 
And floodes of teares for you did flow, repleat with 

mestful mone, 
So Cambridge sware that Oxforde towne shall never 

mourn alone. 
May God forbid that Cambridge hart should ever 

harden so, 
That would not send forth gushing teares, to weep 

for Oxforde's wo. 
For why? no hart was hardned so, though it were 

made of brasse, 
That would not weepe for Fraunce his fall, when 

fierce Affliction was; 
And rue with Antwerpe's ruinous ruthe : alas ! what 

hart had hee, 
That would not say " Antwerpe, adew," or " Fraunce, 

Christ fight for thee"! 
Then who could cease (although he would) your fate 

for to deplore? 
Sith wounds that sticke more nere the bone, do 

breed the greater sore 



84 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

And though the case were far unlike to Fraunce and 

Antwerpe's ruthe, 
Yet was your case as straunge to tell, as Fame hath 

told for truth : 
Yea, though your chance were much more less, yet 

ought we to complain, 
Sith that your joy increase our mirth, your wo doth 

bring our pain. 
Then what was left for Cambridge town, when 

Oxforde felt the rod, 
But still to waile and wepe for you ; and pray to 

mighty God, 
That hee, when his good pleasure was, his heavy 

hand would stay, 
And with his power, as well hee can, remove his 

scourge away. 
And cease not you, as wee for you, to Jove for us 

to call, 
That hee would hold his stroke away, and keepe 

our town from thrall : 
That you which felt his heavy hand, and wee which 

rued the same, 
May join in one to laud the Lord, and praise his 

holy name. 
And bee content to beare the blow, which hee to 

you hath lent; 
Though you had taste of bitter pangs, good harts, 

yet be content: 
For why? when God shall thinke it good, in the 

twinckling of an eye 
Hee can remove that hee hath sent, your constancy 

to try. 
Till then wee weepe and pray for you, and listen 

what insue, 
Desiring Christ to stay his hand. From Cambridge 

thus 'Adew'!" 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 85 

A.D. 1592 

It being now twenty-six years since Queen Elizabeth 
visited the University, she this year came again, that she 
might take her last farewell thereof, and behold the 
change and amendment of Learning and Manners that 
had been made in her long absence. 

Apollinis et M us arum Euktika Eidyllia in serenissimae 
Reg. Elisabethae auspicatissimum circum Oxoniam 
adventum decimo die Calend. Octobris, anno 
MDLXXXXII-. Oxoniae: Excudebat Josephus 
Barnesius: Elizabethan Oxford'. Reprints (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.) : 

Ergo ades, Elisabeth, nostros visura penates, 

Pieridumque domos? 
Ergo ades ut spectes exercent qualia nostrae 

Ludicra bella Scholae? 
Hie nobis supremus honos: en erigit omnes 

Nominis aura tui ! 
Coelica Diva vides reficit quam suaviter omnes 

Numinis aura tui : 
Cernis ut ampla cohors juvenum per compita passim 

Densat utrinque vias : 
Per vicos glomerata frequens stant ordine longo 

Gens onerata stolis ; 
Hi tibi gratantes clamant, lectissima Princeps, 

" Vivat Elisa diu ! " 
Vivas, et firma teneas pro jure precantur 

Regia sceptra manu : 
Tu parili studio doctas feliciter artes 

Dulcis alumna fove ! 
Praeside te nostri florescant rostra Lycaei; 

Principe te vigeant ! 
Sic veniente die subsellia nostra sonabunt, 

Et fugiente canent; 
" Vivat Elisa diu nobis ! Post funera semper 

Vivat Elisa Deo ! " 



86 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

A.D. 1603 

On March 24 Queen Elizabeth died, that benefactress 
of the University; under whose rule the Oxonians had 
increased in number, holiness, and virtue. Thereupon 
the most ingenious of the Academians did exercise their 
fancies in verses lamenting her death : 

(Oxon. Acad. Funebre Officium in memoriam 
Elisabethae Reginae : Oxoniae ; Josephus Barnesius, 
almae Academiae typographus ; 1603) 

Chronogram 
Morlens Deo fLoret eLIsa (=1602) 

Viva fuit mundi flos; est nunc mortua coeli: 

Haud periit: moriens floret Elisa Deo. 
(Date of death according to old style = A.D. 1602.) 

Anagram 

Elizabetha Tudora Regina 
In zelo gratia a deo habetur 

Te tua nobilitas reginam fecit; et ipse 
Zelus te gratam fecit, Eliza, Deo. 

Tumulus Elisae 

Quae jacet hoc tumulo, rogitas? Decus orbis, Elisa. 
Quae fuit ilia, rogas? Nomen Elisa sat est. 
Urges? habe. Fuit beata (dum fuit) 
Princeps Angligeni gloria stemmatis, 
Grata cunctis et superis amata : 
Corporis forma Venus, et Diana 
Mente, Pallas ingenii nitore, 
Necnon omnigenis Pallas in artibus; 
Junonis animum pectoris claustro gerens: 
Ergo Diana, Venus, Pallas, Elisa, tuo 

Cum Junone jacent tot numina magna sepulchro. 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 87 

Anima Elisabethae pinnata, 

de se et republica et ecclesia 

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A.D. 1603 

Queen Elizabeth being now dead, King James came 
to the throne ; to whom the University addressed a 
Book of Verses in token of loyalty : 

(Acad. Oxon. Pietas erga Jacobum Regent : Oxoniae : 
Excudebat Josephus Barnesius, Acad. Typographus : 
1603) 



88 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Francis, 
Baron 
Norris of 
Rycote 
John 
Howson, 
bishop of 
Oxford, 
1619. 



Chronogramma in annum Christi, in quo inauguratus 

Jacobus Rex 
regeM Dat sCotla brItann!s( = A.D. 1603) 

Reginam quondam Scotis dedit Anglia, Regem 
Scotia restituit jam tandem grata Britannis: 
Millenus nobis et sexcentesimus annus 
Tertius antiqua plantam de stirpe reduxit. 

Anagramma 

Jacobus Steuartus 

A tribus es vocatus 

Quo tria te jam regna vocant, perge, inclyte 
Princeps ; 

Hiberni et Angli Principem et Scoti vocant. 
A tribus es Populis communi jure vocatus ; 

Pietate, amore, lege communi, regas ! 

In idem 

Oxoniae si quis quaerat, cur, magne Jacobe, 

Rex es Vocatus a Tribus, triplici die, 
Sufficiat ratio haec : numero Deus impare gaudet, 

Atque hominum in urbe semper est ordo triplex. 
Primum nempe gradum qui Nobilitate refulgent, 

Docti "secundum, tertium Populi tenent. 
Norricius primus, Procancellarius Howson 

Regem secundus, Vicecomes vocat ultimus. 
Si voce hac triplici, Clarum Qui stirpe potentes, 

Docti Eruditum praedicant, Populus Pium, 
Expectent ergo Heroes, Doctaeque Cohortes, 

Populusque, Regem Nobilem, Doctum, Pium. 

THOS. JAMES, Bibliothecarius Publicus 

Proclamation of King James at Oxford 

Prodiit hinc subito vox unica grata Britannis 
Magnanimum nobis Jacobum accedere regem. 
Pandite nunc Helicona, Deae ; quid deinde secutum? 
Vos meministis enim, vos et memorare potestis. 



EARLY TRIALS OF THE UNIVERSITY 89 

Primus ibi ante omnes, nam non mihi visa tacebo, 
Nuntius Oxonian venit ipse Noritius heros, 
Antiquis illustris avis et Marte verendis; 
Constitit ut medio, magna comitante caterva, 
Os humerosque Deo similis, mirantur et omnes 
Quae nova fata ferunt. Cava buccina sumitur inde; 
Ter canit ; et sonitus ter rauca reverberat Echo. 
Turn sic exorsus. Placet omnia ferre per auras. 
Quid juvat haec celare diu? Cognoscite Elisam 
Jam superas adiisse domos, data fata secutam ; 
Ipse patrum ritu, quibus haec concessa potestas, 
Nuntio legitimum Jacobum accedere regem. 
Obstupuere omnes; cunctis vox faucibus haesit; 
Spemque metumque inter stat saxea turba per 

urbem ; 

Ac si Gorgoneae spectaverat ora Medusae. 
Spes jubet esse hilares; prohibet timor; omnia 

mortem 
Et vitam intentant: Neutrumque et utrumque 

videtur ; 

Quid facerent? Nequeunt tantos sufferre dolores: 
Nee possunt contra tantam sperare salutem. 
Postera lux oritur, niveo signanda lapillo. 
Nuntius accelerat Londini missus ab urbe; 
Indubitata novi manifestans gaudia regis: 
Quoque magis credatis, ait, decreta potentum 
Aspicite heroum quae promulganda feruntur. 
Dixit; et Howsono, quo non integrior alter 
Praefuit Oxoniae, dedit inclyta jussa legenda: 
Vir pius haud potuit tantos celare triumphos; 
Convocat; occurrunt primaevi Heliconis alumni; 
Res patet; applaudunt, induti et corpora cocco, 
Invaluit quod more loci, sollenniter omnes 
Jacobum referunt per singula compita Regem. 
Quis turn laetitiam, quis et omnia gaudia fando 
Explicet, aut possit verbis aequare triumphum? 
Jam stabat veneranda phalanx, gravitate Catones, 
Queis risisse novum, plaudentes, vertice ab ipso 



90 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Pilea tollentes; Tantos agit ardor amantes: 1 
Affectu hos sequitur, superat clamore juventus. 
Flamrnat amor; solem radiantem pilea condunt: 
Et quoties nomen Jacobi fertur ad aures, 
Ingeminant, Vivat ! ; Vivat!, loca muta reclamant; 
Nee clamasse semel satis est, juvat usque morari 
Et tales audire et tales reddere voces. 
Te Maecenatem clamant Heliconis alumni ; 
Te doctum docti, te fortia pectora fortem ; 
Te mites mitem, superantem laude priores. 
Singula quid referam? Te, te, ter maxime princeps, 
Spem, votum, agnoscit ter felix Anglia Regem." 

JOHN PRIDEAUX, Exeter Coll : Socius 
(Bishop of Worcester, 1641) 

1 Cf. John Davies, Microcosmos : Oxford, 1603. 

"Her Eies, witnesse my eies, lights of the Land, 
Oxford and Cambridge, distill'd joyfull teares, 
With cries among ; for loe the Doctors stand 
Prest with the presse, filling the World's wide Eares 
With shouts of joy, that fainted late with feares. 
Up go their Caps ! so Gravity for joy 
Doth Light become, and Age like Youth appeares ; 
Which doubled mirth, to see Eld play the Boy, 
And, with Cap tost till lost, to sport a Toy." 



CHAPTER V 

CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1600 A.D. 

" Nascitur in tenebras animal puer inscius infans : 
Conferat Oxoniam se ; cito fiet Homo." 

Epigrams, iii. 45, by JOHN OWEN (New College, 1582) 

" A creature born i' th' dark, rude, infant, child, 
To Oxford sent, will soon a Man be stil'd." 

Owen's Epigrams englished, by THOMAS HARVEY, 1677 

' ' Oxford and Cambridge, Cambridge and Oxford, 
Would both of you I might please with a word ! 
You in your wombes good and bad clarkes do nourish, 
And, like kinde mothers, tenderly do cherish: 
Though some you breed to amplify your fame, 
Yet others do ye nurse yourselves to shame. 
So fatally it fares with famous Schooles ; 
They send foorth famous men, some wise, some fooles." 

JOHN DAVIES of Hereford, The Scourge of Folly, 
Epigram 216. Oxford, 1603 



T 



O speak plainly of the disorder of Athens, who 



playing at dice, such quaffing of drink, such 
daliaunce with women, such dauncing, that in my 
opinion there is no quaffer in Flanders so given to 
tippling, no courtier in Italy so given to riot, no creature 
in the world so misled as a student in Athens. Such 
a confusion of degrees, that the Scholar knoweth not 
his duty to the Bachelor, nor the Bachelor to the 
Master, nor the Master to the Doctor. Such corruption 
of manners, contempt of magistrates ; such open sins, 



92 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

such privy villany ; such quarrelling in the streets, such 
subtil practises in chambers ; as maketh my heart to 
melt with sorrow to think of it. 

" Moreover, who doth know a Scholar by his habit ? 
Is there any hat of so unseemly a fashion, any doublet 
of so long a waist, any hose so short, any attire either 
so costly or so courtly, either so strange in making or 
so monstrous in wearing, that is not worn of a Scholar ? 
Have they not now, instead of black cloth, black velvet ; 
instead of coarse sackcloth, fine silk? Be they not 
more like courtiers than scholars, more like stage-players 
than students, more like ruffians of Naples than dis- 
puters in Athens? I would to God they did not 
imitate all other nations in the vice of the mind, as they 
do in the attire of their body ; for certainly, as there is 
no nation whose fashion in apparel they do not use, so 
there is no wickedness published in any place that they 
do not practise. . . . 

" Is it not become a by-word among the common 
people that they had rather send their children to the 
cart than to the University, being induced so to say for 
the abuse that reigneth in the Universities ; who sending 
their sons to attain knowledge, find them little better 
learned, but a great deal worse lived, than when they 
went ; and not only unthrifts of their money, but also 
banckerouts of good manners ? Was not this the cause 
that made a simple woman in Greece to exclaim against 
Athens, saying, ' The Master and the Scholar, the Tutor 
and the Pupil, be both agreed ; for the one careth not 
how little pains he taketh for his money, the other how 
little learning ' ? " 

Thus wrote John Lyly of Magdalen College in 
Euphues, The Anatomy of Wit (1579): "That the 
envious led thereunto by malice, the curious by wit, and 
the guilty by their own galled consciences," straightway 
reported this passage to be an attack directed against 
Oxford, appears from the " Address to my good friends, 
the Gentlemen Scholars of Oxford," which the author 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 93 

affixed to a second edition of Euphues ; 1 and that the 
cap which the Oxonians of the time thus hastily put on, 
proved no misfit, is evident from the attempts to enforce 
a general reformation of manners made by successive 
Chancellors of the University, from the Earl of Leicester 
to Archbishop Laud. 2 

The Middle Ages are said to have lasted at Oxford 
"down to the date of the Great Exhibition" of 1851 ; 
but, at the time when Lyly wrote, the University was 
suffering from the disorders and irregularities which 
attended the transition from the early to the late stage 
of this mediaeval period. There, as elsewhere, the times 
were " times transhifting " ; the noise and din of the 
outside world reaching even Democritus Junior, as he 
led his "sequestered and monastique life, ipse sibi 
theatrum," at Christ Church. " I hear," he writes, " new 
news every day. Now come tidings of maskings, revels, 
sports, plays . . . new discoveries and expeditions. 
To-day we hear of new lords and officers created ; to- 
morrow of some great man deposed; and then again 
of fresh honours conferred. Beside those ordinary 
rumours of wars, plagues, fires . . . meteors, comets, 
apparitions, prodigies . . . shipwrecks, piracies, sea- 
fights and such like, which these tempestuous times 
afford, ... there come also new books every day, 
pamphlets, currantoes, stories, whole catalogues of 
volumes of all sorts ; new paradoxes, opinions, schisms, 

1 English Reprints, John Lyly : Euphues , The Anatomy of Wit ; 
Euphues and his England, edited by Edward Arber (1868), pp. 30, 
139, 207. 

2 Leicester's letter ot reproval to the University in 1582 is a mere 
paraphrase of the above passage from Euphues (Anthony Wood, Annals, 
ii. 213). For the general depravity of Oxford during the period, drinking, 
gaming, smoking, excess in apparel, neglect of academical dress, and 
irreverence to seniors, see Annals under the years 1588, 1590, 1606, 1608, 
1623, and Register of Magdalen College, edited by W. D. Macray, pp. 
103, in. For years 1630, 1633, 1639, etc., see Library of Anglo-Catholic 
Theology ; Laud's Works, vol. v. (History of Chancellorship}, pp. 49, 
&3> 2 59> on drinking houses ; the wearing of boots and spurs, long hair, 
slashed doublets ; and tavern-haunting. 



94 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

heresies, and controversies in philosophy and re- 
ligion." 1 

Of such disturbing influences, there were two which 
especially affected the community at Oxford. Though 
the oscillations were less violent than they had been in 
the reigns of Henry, Edward, and Mary, the pendulum 
of Religion ;was still swinging with a vengeance ; passing, 
as it did, from the Establishment laid down by Arch- 
bishop Parker at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, to 
the Calvinism patronized by Leicester during his 
Chancellorship of the University (1564-1588); and from 
the Calvinism of Leicester to the Arminianism of Laud 
(1606-1641). Oxford was in fact a battleground, where 
a series of indecisive victories and defeats was being 
fought; where bitter feelings of partisanship, and "an 
infinity of trifling and base controversies " divided each 
College against itself, and where " the pulpit was used 
for purposes either of private revenge or of attacks on 
public authority." Such a condition of things did 
not make for discipline. " The persons of the chief 
Governors of the University and the Heads of Houses 
were deeply disgraced ; their authority was greatly 
weakened; whilst the junior sort were drawn to an 
utter contempt of those whom they heard openly and 
confidently condemned and depraved." 2 

In addition to these religious convulsions, a social 
revolution was on foot. Educational reformers, from 
Sir John Elyot onward, had eagerly advocated the 
higher education of " children of gentlemen, which 
were to have authority in the public weal " ; and some 
of them had lived to regret the success of their ex- 
hortations. "The Devil gets him to the University": 
lamented Latimer in 1 549 ; " He causeth great men 
and esquires to send their sons thither, and put out 

1 Robert Burton (B.N.C. 1593; Ch. Ch. 1599-1639), The Anatomy of 
Melancholy (1621), " Democritus Junior to the Reader." 

2 See "Articles drawn up by the Vice-Chancellor and Heads of Houses 
against the Puritans," Anthony Wood, Annals, 1602. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 95 

poor scholars that should be divines " ; and Ascham 
echoed the lament. 1 For Society at this time invaded 
the Universities, and converted them to its own uses. 
It was but a few years, since, " fleshed with the abbey- 
lands, and their teeth set on edge," these "new set- 
up great men and esquires " had frankly requested 
Henry VIII to distribute among them the endowments 
of colleges ; and now they were gaining the same end by 
' packing " at elections to fellowships and scholarships, 
and by " making bribage " in grammar-schools which 
sent boys to the Universities. Parts, learning, poverty, 
and election, were of no avail against their wealth and 
influence. " Except one be able to give the regent or 
provost of a House a piece of money, ten pound, twenty 
pound, yea, an hundred pound, a yoke of fat oxen, a 
couple of fine geldings, or the like, though he be never 
so toward a youth, nor have never so much need of 
maintenance, yet," continues Philip Stubbes, "he comes 
not there, I warrant him. If he cannot prevail this 
way, let him get letters commendatory from some of 
reputation, and perchance he may speed in hope of 
benefit to ensue." 2 To the same effect writes R. C. 
(probably Richard Corbet, the celebrated Christ Church 
wit and poet) in Time's Whistle (1614-16): 

Loth am I to rip up my nurse's shame, 
Or to accuse for this those schooles of fame, 
The Academies; yet for reformation 
Of this abuse, I must reprove the fashion 
Of divers' seniors, which for private gaine 
Permit some ignorant asse, some dunce, attaine 
A Scholler's, or a Fellow's place among 'em. 
Some think, perhaps, of malice I do wrong 'em; 

1 Sir John Elyot, The Governour> i. chap. iv. (1530): Latimer's 
Sermons^ Parker Society, i. pp. 69, 203 : Ascham's letter : Strype, 
Memorials of Cranmer, bk. ii. chap. vi. 

2 Philip Stubbes (Worcester College), Abuses in Ailgna (i.e. Anglia), 
pt. ii. 20(1583). 



96 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

But the poor student knows it to be true, 
Which wanting means, as often wants his due. 

To get preferment who doth now intend, 

He by a golden ladder must ascend. 

That cursed gold doth bear so great a sway, 

That nurseries of learning do decay ; 

For not the means of taking our degrees 

Are quite exempt from bribes ; for double fees 

A Dunce may turn a Doctor, and in state 

Walk in his scarlet : oh, unhappy fate ! 

When paltry pelf doth worthless ignorance 

Unto the top of learning's mount advance. 1 

The Poor Poor scholars had fallen upon evil days. Many, no 

ar ' doubt, who were not willing to give up a University 

career, earned a precarious living by acting as servants 

1 Timers Whistle, by R. C., Early English Text Society. For charges 
of taking bribes brought against Heads of Houses, see History of Corpus 
Christi College (Oxford Hist. Soc.); History of New College, pp. 121, 
132, 138 (College} History Series ; Oxford', New College} ; and 
Register of Magdalen College, ed. by W. D. Macray. See also Description 
of England in 1577, by William Harrison ; and Stat. 31 Eliz. chap. 6. 
Cf. also the quaint poem, " Tom Tel-troth's message and his Pen's 
Complaint," written by Jo. La. Gent (John Lane), London, 1600 : 
" England's two Eyes, England's two Nurceries, 
England's two Nests, England's two holy Mounts, 
I meane England's two Universities, 
England's two Lamps, England's two sacred Founts, 

Are so pulled up, pulled out, and eke pulled downe, 
That they can scarce maintaine a wide-sleav'd gowne. 

Lately as one Came o'er a Bridge, he saw 

An Oxe stand o'er a Forde to quench his drouth ; 

But lo ! the Oxe his dry lips did withdraw 

And from the water lifted up his mouth ; 

Like Tantalus, this drie Oxe there did stand : 
God grant this dark Enigma may be scan'd. 

And Rhetoricke adornde with figures fine, 

Trick 'd up with tropes, and clad in comely speech, 

Is gone a pilgrim to the Muses nine, 

For her late wrong assistance to beseech : 

Now rich Carmudgeons best orations make 

Whilst in their pouches gingling coyne they shake." 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 97 

to rich students, or by performing menial work in 
Colleges, although they were fain " to heel their tutor's 
stockings at least seven years," or to live the life of a 
" Pierce Fennyless, that made clean shoes in both 
Universities, a pitiful battler all his time ; full often 
heard with this lamentable cry at the buttery-hatch, 
' Ho, Lancelot ! a cue of bread and a cue of beer ' ! ; 
never passing beyond a farthing, nor ever munching 
commons but on gaudy-days." 1 But such services 
were now felt to be irksome and beneath the dignity 
of a gentleman ; 2 and the prevailing dearness of living 
and dearth of patronage, " haec tanta caritas rerum et 
haec nulla caritas hominum," drove many from the 
studious walls of Oxford. Their hapless fate is often 
depicted in contemporary fiction. " Troth, and for my 
part, I am a poor gentleman and a scholar," laments 
George Pyeboard in The Puritan ; " I have been matri- 
culated in the University, wore out some six years 
there, seen some fools and some scholars, some of the 
city and some of the country, kept order, went bare- 
headed over the quadrangle, eat my commons with a 
good stomach, and battelled with discretion. At last 
having done many sleights and tricks to maintain my 
wit in me, I was expelled the University for stealing a 
cheese out of Jesus College." 3 Some followed the 

1 See the case of Flamineo, the poor scholar, in John Webster's White 
Devil or Vittoria Corombona, 1612 ; and of Pennyless in The Black Book, 
1604; Thomas Middleton's Works, ed. by Alex. Dyce, vol. v. "Cue" 
or "q " stands for the Latin "quadrans." 

2 See History of Corpus Christi College (Oxford Hist. Soc.), pp. 50, 51. 

3 The Puritan, or the Widow of Watling Street (1607). By George 
Pyeboard is supposed to be meant George Peele, the celebrated Oxford 
Wit and Poet; a "peel" being a board with a long handle which 
bakers used for putting pies in and out of the oven. The association of 
Jesus College with Welsh students and cheese evidently followed very 
closely upon its foundation in 1571 by Hugo 'Price, Treasurer of St. 
David's : cf. the ancient lines on the College : 

"Hugo Preesh built this Collesh 
For Jesus Creesh and the Welsh geesh 
Who love a peesh of toasted cheesh 
here it eesh I" 

7 



98 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

example given of old time by Roger Bacon's discarded 
scholar-servant, the storied Miles, and " rode to hell 
upon the devil's back " ; and some, with Glanvil's 
" scholar-gipsy," " roamed the world, but came to 
Oxford and their friends no more." l Others returned 
home to become burdens to their families. They re- 
fused to learn a trade, " to leave books and turn block- 
heads." As Scholars, "they disdained to spend their 
spirits upon such base employments as hand labour " ; 
but, at the same time, they did not shrink from " eating 
their families out of house and home." " A crumb of 
learning makes your trade proud," says the Clown to 
the Scholar Laureo, in the comedy of Patient GrissiL 
"Would you could leave Latin and fall to make 
baskets ! You spend all day peeping into an ambry, 
and talk of monsters and miracles to no purpose. You 
think 'tis enough if at dinner you tell us a story of 
pigmies, and then munch up our victuals ; but that 
fits not us : or the tale of the well Helicon, and then 
drink up our beer. We cannot live upon it." 2 

It is of this social, rather than of the religious, revolu- 
tion, that clear traces are to be found in contemporary 
fiction. The capture of the Universities by the wealthier 
classes, and the patronage given to learning, and the 
visits paid to Oxford and Cambridge, by both Elizabeth 
and James, created a demand for sketches of academical 
life: and this demand was met by a generous supply 
in such popular works as Sir Thomas Overbury's 
Characters, John Earle's Microcosmography, and Wye 
Saltonstall's Picturae Loquentes, of numerous " pictures 

1 Robert Greene's Honorable History of Friar Bacon, 1594; Glanvil's 
Vanity of Dogmatizing, 1661 : " There was lately a lad at the University 
of Oxford who was by his poverty forced to leave his studies there ; and 
at last to join himself to a company of vagabond gipsies. Among these 
extravagant people, by the insinuating subtilty of his carriage, he quickly 
got so much of their love and esteem as that they discovered to him their 
mystery," etc. See Matthew Arnold's Scholar -Gipsy. 

2 The pleasant Comedy of Patient Grissil, by William Haughton 
(Oxford), in collaboration with Henry Chettle and Thomas Decker j 
1613. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 99 

of the Oxford world quaintly drawn in various colours," 
and of many " witty descriptions of the properties " of 
sundry Oxford types and celebrities. 1 

Indeed, a fairly complete gallery can be formed. 
There are portraits even of the " University Dun," " a An Uni- 
follower cheaply purchased, for his own money hath 
hired him, and he will wait upon your stairs a whole 
afternoon, and dance attendance with more patience 
than a gentleman-usher " (Earle) ; and of a " Townsman A Towns- 
in Oxford," " whose phrase savours somewhat of the ma ? ir \ 

f c Oxford. 

University, being fragments gleaned out of men s 

mouths ; while he gives his words with a punctual stiff 
pronunciation, as though they were starched into his 
mouth and dare not come out faster for fear of ruffling. 
He takes ill words, for he knows he deserves them, and 
yields the supremacy of the wall to any gown ; but he 
loves not a scholar in his heart, for he sides against 
them though it be but at a foot-ball match. He 
frequents sermons at St. Mary's,, only to spy out his 
debtors, whom he afterwards haunts at their colleges, 
and troubles by knocking at their chamber-doors ; but 
receives no answer, for he is known as well there as a 
Sergeant in the Inns of Court, and alike hated. He's a 
burr that sticks close to freshmen's gowns, and one that 
strives to writhe the pliantness of youth to all ill 
actions " (Saltonstall). Earle has contributed likenesses 
also of the " Carrier " and the " Colledge Butler." The A Carrier, 
former is "an ambassador between father and son, 
bringing rich presents to the one, but never returning 
any back again. . . . He is the young students' joy 
and expectation, and the most accepted guest, to whom 
they lend a willing hand to discharge him of his burden. 
His first greeting is commonly ' Your friends are well ' ; 

1 Sir Thomas Overbury (Queen's College, 1595-8), "A Wife, now 
the widow of Sir Thomas Overbury, etc., whereunto are added many 
witty characters," etc. (1614). John Earle (Ch. Ch. or Merton College, 
1619), Microcosmographie, etc. (1628). Wye Saltonstall (Queen's College, 
1619), Picturae Loquentes (1631). 



TOO THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

and in a piece of gold he delivers their blessing. You 
would think him a churlish blunt fellow, but they find 
An old in him many tokens of humanity." " The old Colledge 
Butier ge Cutler ... is never so well pleased with his place as 
when a gentleman is beholding to him for shewing him 
the Buttery, whom he greets with a cup of single beer 
and sliced manchet, and tells him 'tis the fashion of the 
College. He domineers over Freshmen when they first 
come to the Hatch, and puzzles them with strange 
language of Cues and Cees, and some broken Latin 
which he has learnt at his Bin." 1 

Of the more important characters thus brought upon 
A meere the academical stage, " the meere Fellow of an House " 

TT 11 -f 

an House. d a i ms precedence. His development had been a rapid 
one. Polydore Vergil, writing of Oxford in the year 
1534, had conjectured that "along with many Masters 
and Governors of Colleges who were remarkable for 
lively teaching and profound learning, there might, 
peradventure, be issuing from that learned theatre of 
the world, others which were nothing egregious in these 
points, but were content to run the race of their lives 
luxuriously in the University" ("qui omne curriculum 
vitae ibidem sese molliter curando transigunt "). 2 
William Harrison, again, in his Description of England 
in 7577, wrote that " after forty years of age, the most 
part of students do commonly give up their wonted dili- 
gence, and live, like drone bees, upon the fat of Colleges." 
But these mild hints are scarcely preparation sufficient for 
the startling apparitions which Giordano Bruno introduces 
to the reader of La Cena de le Ceneri (1584), dialogue I : 

Smitho. Parlavan ben Latino ? 

Teofilo. Si. 

Smi. Galantuomini ? 

1 "Cue" is half a farthing, formerly denoted in College accounts by the 
letter "q," for "quadrans." "Cee," a term current in Universities for a 
certain quantity of beer ; the sixteenth part of a penny's worth. 

2 Polydore Vergil, English History (Camden Soc.), p. 219. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 101 

Teo. Si. 

Smi. Di buona riputazione ? 

Teo. Si. 

Smi. Dotti? 

Teo. Assai competentemente. 

Smi. Bencreati, cortesi, civili ? 

Teo. Troppo mediocremente. 

Smi. Dottori ? 

Teo. Messer, si ; padre, si ; madonna, si ; madre, si ; 
credo da Oxonia. 

Smi. Qualificati? 

Teo. Come no ? Nomini da scelta, di roba lunga, vestiti 
di velluto, un de quali avea due catene d'oro lucente al 
collo ; e 1'altro, per Dio, con quella preziosa mano, che 
contenea dodici anella in due dita, sembrava un richissimo 
gioielliero, che ti cavava gli occhi ed il core, quando la 
vagheggiava. 

Smi. Mostravano saper di Greco ? 

Teo. E di birra eziandio. 

Smi. Com' eran fatti ? 

Teo. L'uno parea il comestabile de la gigantessa e 
1'orco, 1'altro 1'amostante de la dea de la riputazione. 

In the third and fourth dialogues are lively sketches 
of two Oxford Doctors, with whom Bruno disputed 
about the motion of the earth, at Fulke Greville's house 
in London ; " two fantastic puppets (" due fantastiche 
befane"), two night-mares, two shadows, two quartan 
agues," as he calls them. There is Nundinio, who 
opens the discussion " with a heavenly glance upward, 
and a gentle smile on his lips " ; but, before long, " is 
shewing his teeth, squaring his jaws, knitting his brows, 
and shrieking with rage." A little later, the Doctor 
Torquato takes up the argument. " He assumed a 
solemn look, such as that which Divom Pater is said to 
have worn, when, sitting in the council of the gods, he 
fulminated his terrible sentence on the profane Lycaon. 
Having glanced at his golden necklace, and stared at 



102 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

the breast of the Nolan as though he missed a button 
there, he sat upright, drew his arms from the table, 
shook his shoulders, snorted somewhat, settled his velvet 
cap upon his head, twisted his moustache, composed his 
perfumed visage, arched his eyebrows, and expanded his 
nostrils. Then resting his left hand upon his left side, 
placing together three fingers of his right hand, and 
dealing blows from right to left, he began to fence, 
speaking as follows," etc. Needless to relate, the Oxonians 
lost both the argument and their tempers, and departed 
hurriedly without saluting their opponent ; Greville felt it 
his duty to apologize for their incivility and ignorance, and 
to invite the stranger's compassion for a land " widowed 
of all good literature so far as related to philosophy and 
mathematics " ; and the blameless and triumphant Nolan 
concludes his tale by grouping Oxford Doctors gener- 
ally into a " costellazione di pedantesca ostinatissima, 
ignoranza, e presunzione, mista con una rustica incivilita 
che farebbe prevaricar la patienza di Giobbe." 

Bruno was one who imagined every place where he 
came, to be his theatre ; and not a look stirring, but his 
spectator : and these accounts are tinged without doubt 
with mortification at the indifference which had been 
shewn by Oxford to his learning and originality. 1 

1 Bruno visited Oxford in the year 1583, heralding his coming by the 
following letter : " To the most excellent Vice-Chancellor of the Academy 
of Oxford, to its illustrious Doctors, and famous Masters, greeting from 
Philotheus Jordanus Brunus of Nola, doctor in perfected theology, a pro- 
fessor of pure and blameless wisdom, a philosopher known and approved 
by the foremost Academies of Europe ; to none a stranger, save to churls 
and savages ; a waker of slumbering souls, a queller of presumptuous and 
kicking ignorance ; in all his actions betokening a general love of man- 
kind ; . . . hated by spreaders of folly and by hypocrites, but loved by 
men of proof and zeal, and applauded by the nobler spirits " (Dedication, 
etc., of the Opening of the Thirty Seals}. On his arrival at Oxford, he 
was permitted to lecture on the immortality of the soul and the ' ' five-fold 
sphere" ; and when "the noble and learned Polonian, Albertus Alasco," 
visited the University, he took part in one of the public disputations which 
were held for the delectation of the prince (1583). No English record 
of his performances exists, and Anthony Wood, the observant Oxford 
historian, does not even mention his name ; but Bruno gives his own 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 103 

Other foreign scholars, John Hotman, for instance, who 
visited the University in 1581, and Isaac Casaubon, 
who was there in 1613, acknowledge in the most 
generous terms the courtesy and hospitality they met 
with from all. 1 At the same time, the malicious 
artist could have cited, without much difficulty, many 
instances of placemen in Colleges, clerks emulating the 
pride and ostentation of the courtier, to prove his 
portraits no mere caricatures : and, further, it must be 
admitted, that, on the whole, the foreigner has not 
handled Oxford Dons with any more severity than did 
their own compatriot in the following character-sketch. 2 
"A meere Fellow of an House," wrote Overbury, "ex- 
amines all men's carriage but his own ; and is so kind- 
hearted to himself, he finds fault with all men's but his 
own. If he hath read Tacitus, Guicchardine, or Gallo- 
Belgicus, he contemns the late Lord Treasurer for all 
the state policy he had; and laughs to think what a 
fool he could make of Solomon, if he were now alive. 

account of what happened, in La Cena de le Cenert, dialogue 4. " Go to 
Oxford," he exclaims, "and make them tell you what happened to the 
Nolan when he disputed with their professors before the Polish prince and 
the English nobility. Make them tell you how that chicken in stubble, 
the poor Doctor whom the University put forward as its coryphaeus on 
that momentous occasion, attempted to answer his arguments, and how 
fifteen times he was left stuck fast in as many syllogisms. Learn, too, with 
what discourtesy the swine ("quel porco") behaved, and with what 
patience and humanity that other responded, shewing that he was 
Neapolitan -born and nurtured under a more benignant sky. Let them 
tell you in what manner they brought to an end the Nolan's public lecture. " 
In his valedictory oration to the University of Wittenberg, where he con- 
trasted their generous treatment with that which he had met with else- 
where, Bruno describes what that "manner" was. " You Wittenbergers 
did not thrust out your noses ; you did not sharpen your jaws against me, 
as they did at Oxford. You did not puff out your cheeks, and beat your 
desks, and stir up your scholastic rage against me" (De Lampade Com- 
binatorial). In La Causa, Bruno withdrew many of the charges he had 
brought against Oxford. 

1 John Hotman, Letters under the year 1581 ; Life of Isaac Casaubon , 
by Mark Pattison. 

2 Sir Thomas Overbury gives two sketches of " a meere Fellow " in his 
Characters, of which the above is a combination. 



104 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

He wears his apparel much after the fashion ; his means 
will not allow him to come too nigh ; they afford him 
mock-velvet and satinisco, but not without the College's 
next lease's acquaintance. He hath sworn to see 
London once a year, though all his business be to see 
a play, walk a turn in Paul's, and observe the fashion. 
He will not leave his part in the privilege over young 
gentlemen in going bare to him, for the Empire of 
Germany; and at meals he sits in as great state over 
his Penny Commons, as ever did Vitellius at his greatest 
banquet. He is a Pedant in shew, though his title be 
Tutor; and his Pupils in broader sense are Schoolboys. 
On these he spends the false gallop of his tongue ; and 
with senseless discourse tows them along, not out of 
ignorance. He shews them the rind, conceals the sap ; 
and by this means he keeps them the longer, himself 
the better. He hath learned to cough and spit and 
blow his nose at every period, to recover his memory ; 
and studies chiefly to set his eyes and beard to the 
new form of learning. His religion lies in wait for the 
inclination of his patron ; neither ebbs, nor flows, but 
just standing water between Protestant and Puritan. 
His dreams are of plurality of benefices and non- 
residency; and when he wakes, he acts a long grace 
to his looking-glass, against the time he comes to be 
some great man's chaplain. He hath less use than 
possession of books. He is not so proud but he will 
call the meanest author by his name ; nor so unskilled 
in the heraldry of a study, but he knows each man's 
place. If he be to travel, he is longer furnishing 
himself for a five miles journey than a ship in rigging 
for a seven years voyage. He is never more troubled 
than when he is to maintain talk with a gentle- 
woman, wherein he commits more absurdities, than 
a clown in the eating of an egg. He thinks himself 
as fine when he is in a clean band and a new 
pair of shoes, as any courtier doth when he is first 
in a new fashion. Lastly he is one that respects no 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 105 

man in the University, and is respected by no man 
out of it." 

In these days, the first-born of wealthy parents, " who A Young 
would have estate and observance enough, how little wit ma 
soever he might attain to," was usually bred at home, Univer- 
with tutors and preceptors to wait upon him and play 
with him ; and completed his education abroad. " He 
visited Italy or the Emperor's Court, or wintered in 
Orleance, whence he returned the complete and admired 
man of the world, and qualified to court his mistress in 
broken French, wear his clothes in the latest fashion, 
sing some outlandish tunes, and discourse of lords and 
ladies, towns, palaces, and cities." x A University career 
was, nevertheless, looked upon as a step, although a low 
one, on the ladder of fashion ; 2 and here and there, at 
Oxford, might be found gilded youths, who had been 
sent thither, not to obtain knowledge, for they reckoned 
no more of their studies than did Spend-alls of their 
cast suits ; but to keep them from the common riot of 
the time: like little children, whom their parents put 
to school to keep them from under feet in the streets. 
Such idle young boys, who spent their days loitering in 
shops or lounging in the public market, and were known 
in the University Statutes as " Scurrivagi " or " Tru- 
tanni," were classified by Dr. Ralph Kettell of Trinity 
College either as " Tarrarags " " these were the worst 
sort, rude rakehells " or as " Rascal-Jacks, Blind- 

1 Robert Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, pt. i. sec. 2, mem. 3, subs. 15 
(1621). 

2 The various grades of Fashion are shewn in Overbury's Character, 
"the Inns of Court man": "he is distinguished from the scholar by a 
pair of silk stockings and a beaver hat, which makes him contemn a 
scholar as much as a scholar doth a schoolmaster. By that he hath heard 
one mooting, and seen two plays, he thinks as basely of the university, as 
a young sophister doth of his grammar-school. He talks of the university 
with that state, as if he were chancellor ; finds fault with all alterations 
and the fall of discipline, with an ' It was not so, when I was a student,' 
although that was within this halfyear. . . . He is as far behind the 
courtier in his fashion, as the scholar is behind him, and the best grace in 
his behaviour is to forget his acquaintance." 



1 06 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Cinques, Scobber-lotchers " "these did no hurt; were 
sober, but went idling about the College Grove, with 
their hands in their pockets, and telling the number of 
the trees or so." l It is an offender of the latter class, 
that Earle describes in his sketch, a " Young Gentleman 
A Rascal- of the University." " He comes to Oxford to wear a 
gown, and to say hereafter he has been at the university. 
His father sent him thither, because he heard there were 
the best fencing and dancing schools. From these he 
has his education ; from his tutor the oversight. The 
first element of his knowledge is to be shewn the 
Colleges, and initiated into a tavern by the way, which 
hereafter he will learn of himself. The two marks of 
his seniority are the bar velvet of his gown, and his 
proficiency at tennis, where, when he can once play 
a set, he is a freshman no more. His study has 
commonly handsome shelves; his books neat silk 
strings, which he shews to his father's man, and is 
loath to untie or take down for fear of misplacing. 2 
Upon foul days, for recreation, he retires thither, and 
looks over the pretty book his tutor reads to him, 
which is commonly some short history or a piece of 
Euphormio, for which his tutor gives him money to 
spend next day. His main loitering is at the library, 
where he studies arms and books of honour, and turns 
a gentleman critic in pedigrees. If you speak to him 
as a scholar, he telleth you, you mistake him ; he is a 
gentleman ; and loath to mar his style with that title. 

1 See Laudian Statutes, Tit. xv. chap, ii., "de coercendis otiosis et 
male feriatis scholaribus in civitate oberrantibus " ; and "Life of Ralph 
Kettell" (1563-1643) in John Aubrey's Brief Lives, ed. by Andrew 
Clarke, vol. ii. p. 26. 

2 Cf. The Compleat Gentleman, Henry Peacham (1622) : "Parents take 
their sons from school, as birds out of the nest, ere they be flidge, and 
send them so young to the university, that scarce one among twenty 
proveth aught. . . . These young things of twelve, thirteen, or fourteen, 
have no more care, than to expect the next carrier, and where to sup on 
Fridays and fasting nights ; no further thought of study, than to turn up 
their rooms with pictures, and place the fairest books in openest view, 
which, poor lads, they scarce ever open, and understand not." 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 107 

Sometime, upon entreaty, he vouchsafeth to be a 
Bachelor, and thinks he hath done the degree great 
grace in taking it. His companion is ordinarily some 
stale fellow, that has been notorious for an ingle to gold 
hat-bands ' (i.e. tuft-hunter), ' whom he admires at first, 
afterward scorns.' . . . But he is now gone to the Inns 
of Court, where he studies to forget what he learned 
before, his acquaintance and the fashion." If Earle's 
young gentleman was no worse than a " Rascal-Jack," 
it is to be feared that Burton's " Antonius, tiro, films A Tar- 
Stephanionis, nobilis e rure," rapidly developed into a rarag ' 
" Tarrarag " of the " Tarrarags " : 

Aequivocus. Optatus mihi advenis, Antoni ; quo tarn 
diluculo ? 

Antonius. Ad publicas lectiones. 

Aeq. Ad lectiones? Quid ita? 

Ant. Ut ediscam. 

Aeq. Et quid edisces, si Diis placet? 

Quot sunt predicabilia ? Nugas has apage, sis. 

Ant. Has Nugas vocas? 

Aeq. Nugas omnium nugacissimas. 

Ant. Itane? 

Aeq. Ita. Quid tibi cum genere et specie? 

An tu filius et haeres, isque patris unicus? 

Ant. Quid inde? 

Aeq. Quid tibi ergo cum scientiis? 

Viderint has tricas fratres natu minimi, 
Quos ad servitutem novercans natura peperit, 
Vile vulgus, inopes, et id genus hominum, 
Quos ad laborem damnavit tristis Horoscopus. 

Ant. At quid vis interim faciam? 

Aeq. Quid faciam, rogas? 

En tibi pictas chartas et omne genus aleae; 
Hae Musae sunt studiis aptiores tuis. 
Da te mihi per dies aliquot discipulum modo; 
Dedocebo te mores istos, efrmgam de novo, 
Et efrlciam te peritissimum omnium artificem. 



1 08 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Ant. Artificem cujus artis? 

A eg. Artis potatoriae, 

Veneris, aleae, ut potare possis strenue, 
Et cum decore fumum e naribus evomere, 
Obvios salutare, et ambire dominam. 

Ant. At compotationes hasce interdixit serio pater. 

Aeq. Interdixit pater? quid? eris etiamnum puer? 

Ant. Jussitque ut darem operam studiis noctes et 
dies. 

Aeq. Non refert quid jussit, satis superque doctus es. 

Ant. Egone doctus sum? 

Aeq. Potes chartis nomen apponere? 

Ant. Possum. 

Aeq. Iterum dico, satis superque doctus es. 

Ant. Sed Latinum vult pater. 

Aeq. Bene se res habet. 

Audi, hoc ubi memoriter edidiceris, 
c Qui nescit dissimulare, nescit vivere/ 
Ne quid ultra de Latinitate cogitaveris. 

Ant. Qui demum tempus impendam ? 

Aeq. Etiamne rogitas? 

Tu sis solicitus de cane venatico, 
De cantu et chorea, venatione et aucupio, 
De lanista et domina; haec studia te magis 

decent. 
Sed heus tu, invitor ego ad proximum oeno- 

polium 

Hac nocte ad coenam ; eris hospes meus, 
Aderunt puellae illic, combibones optimi, tibi- 

cines ; 
Pergraecabimur una ; genio noctem addixi- 

mus. 

Ne quid haesites; mecum ibis; eris acceptis- 
simus. 

Ant. Quando ita suades, Aequivoce, due quovis, 
sequar. l 

1 Robert Burton, Philosophaster, written 1606, revised 1615 ; acted in 
Christ Church Hall by Students in 1617. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 109 

In spite, however, of religious and social problems, 
in spite of proud and ignorant Dons, and youths who 
ruffled and roisted it out, exceeding in apparel and 
haunting riotous company, the first half of the seven- 
teenth century was emphatically the learned age in 
the history of Oxford. If the question "whether it 
were becoming for eldest sons to be wise men/' was 
undecided, it was generally agreed, that, for a younger 
brother of the period, wit was like to be his best 
revenue. " If he were not prepared to marry a rich 
widow, to take to the king's highway and strike fair 
for Tyburn, or to live the poor gentleman of a Company 
in the Low Countries and to die without a shirt," l he 
must to the University, there to qualify himself to 
secure a place at Court, to serve some great man, or 
to compass a benefice. When, too, it was a paradox 
of the time, " that the Court made better scholars than 
the Universities, for if a monarch vouchsafed to be 
teacher, every man must blush to be non-proficient"; 
and it was written of King James, "his Kingdom was 
of Wits, in every knowledge An Academy, and his 
Court a Colledge," 2 all the world wished to be of 
repute for nimble intelligence and ready learning. For 
these reasons, Oxford was thronged with Scholars and 
" would-be " Scholars. There is the pedant " who dare The 
not think a thought that the nominative case governs Pedant - 
not the verb" (Overbury); and "the Dunce," " that The 
most unprofitable of God's creatures, being, as he is, Dunce - 
put clean beside the right use; made fit for the cart 
and flail, and by chance entangled among books and 
papers " (Overbury). The " plodding student " is a The 
kind of " alchymist that would change the dull lead 
of his brain into finer metal. He has a strange forced 
appetite for learning ; and, to achieve it, brings nothing 
but patience and a body. His study consists much in 

1 "Younger Brother," Earle's Microcosmography -. 

2 Hugh Holland, A Cypress Garland to the sacred forehead of our late 
Soveraigne^ 1625. 



no THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

the sitting-up till after midnight, in a rug-gown and 
night-cap, to the vanquishing of some six lines ; yet 
what he has, he has perfect, for he reads it so long 
to understand it, till he gets it without book. . . . He 
is a great discomforter of young students by telling 
them what travel it hath cost him, and how often his 
brain turned at philosophy ; and makes them fear study 
as a cause for duncery. . . . He is like a dull carrier's 
horse, that will go a whole week together, but never 
out of a foot's pace; and he that sets forth on a 
Saturday, shall overtake him " (Earle). The special 
A Bold product of the age is, however, the Scholar-Mountebank, 
w ^k h* s sophistical buzzing, and his parcel-Greek, 
parcel-Latin gibberish ; the philosophaster, theologaster, 
poetaster ; whose maxim is, 

Ne dubites ; unica virtus erit impudentia ; 
Nescire, aut haesitare, stolidum existimo. 1 

There is the bold forward man "who thinks no vice 
so prejudicial as blushing. He is still citing for 
himself that a light should not be hidden under a 
bushel ; and, for his part, he will be sure not to hide 
his, though it be but a snuff or a rush-candle. If he 
be a scholar, he has commonly stepped into the pulpit 
before a degree ; yet into that, before he has deserved 
it. He never defers St. Mary's beyond his regency, 
and his next sermon is at St. Paul's Cross. . . . He 
is one that has all the great names at Court at his 
fingers' ends, and their lodgings ; and with a saucy 
' My lord ' will salute the best of them. ... Of all 
disgrace he endures not to be non-plussed, and had 
rather fly for sanctuary to nonsense which few, than 
to nothing which all, descry. . . . Wiser men, though 
they know him, yet take him for their pleasure; or, 
as they would do a sculler, for being next at hand. 
Thus preferment at last stumbles upon him, because 
he is still in the way ; and his companions, that flouted 

1 Robert Burton, Philosophaster. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. in 

him before, now envy him, when they see him come 
ready for scarlet, whilst themselves lie musty in their 
old clothes and colleges" (Earle). With him may be 
classed " the pretender to learning, who would make A Pre- 
others more fool than himself, for though he knows Learning, 
nothing, he would not have the world know so 
much. . . . He is tricked out in all the accoutrements 
of learning, and at the first encounter none fares 
better. He is oftener in his study than at his book, 
and you cannot please him better than to deprehend 
him ; yet he hears you not until the third knock, and 
then comes out very angry as interrupted. You find 
him in his slippers, and a pen in his ear, in which 
formality he was asleep. His table is spread wide 
with some classic folio, which is as constant to it as 
the carpet, and hath lain open in the same page this 
half-year. His candle is always a longer sitter-up than 
himself, and the boast of his window at midnight. He 
walks much alone in a posture of meditation, and has 
a book still before his face in the fields. His pocket 
is seldom without a Greek Testament or Hebrew Bible, 
which he opens only in the Church, and that when 
some stander-by looks over. He has sentences for 
company, some scatterings from Seneca and Tacitus, 
which are good upon all occasions. He is a great 
plagiary of tavern wit, and comes to sermons only 
that he may talk of Austin. His parcels are the mere 
scrapings from company, yet he complains at parting 
what time he hath lost. . . . He talks much of 
Scaliger and Casaubon and the Jesuits, and prefers 
some unheard-of Dutch name before them all. . . . He 
is a great nomenclator of authors which he has read 
in general in the catalogue, and in particular in the 
title, and goes seldom as far as the dedication. He 
never talks of anything but learning, and learns all 
from talking. Three encounters with the same man 
pump him, and then he only puts in or gravely says 
nothing. He has taken much pains to be an ass, 



H2 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

though not to be a scholar ; and is at length discovered, 
and laughed at " (Earle). 1 

A Meere In Overbury's " Meere Scholar," and Earle's " Down- 
Scholler. T igfa Scholar," may be recognized studies, taken from 
right two different and opposite points of view, of the " Clerk 
Scholler. Q f Qxenford." Among many changes, he had remained 
practically unchanged ; one of the few survivors of that 
society which had lived and moved in mediaeval Oxford, 
and was now disappearing so quickly. But though the 
forte and foible of his character were still much as they 
had been in Chaucer's day, the attacks which he now 
had to parry, were delivered in different lines, and at 
closer quarters, than formerly. For the world of learn- 
ing and the world of fashion were now brought together, 
corps a corps, in the University ; and although in the 
ideal gentleman of the time might be allied the graces 
of both the Schools and Society, elsewhere " the meere 
Scholar " and " the meere Gallant " were ever at dagger's 
drawing, one with the other. That is one only of many 
nimble interchanges of mutual contempt which is re- 
corded in Oxford Jests? when a scholar walking next 
the wall, a courtier jostled him. " What is the matter ? " 

1 For such a Pretender to learning at work in London, see 7"he Return 
from Parnassus, written for a Christmas play at St. John's College, 

Cambridge, 1602, and printed 1606. 

Page (speaking of his master Amoretto, late of Cambridge University), 
" Presently the great linguist, my master, will march through St. Paul's 
Churchyard, come to a book-binder's shop, and, with a big Italian look 
and a Spanish face, ask for a Ronzard, a Dubartas, Aretine, and the 
hardest writers in Spanish ; then turning, through his ignorance, the 
wrong end of the book upward, use action in this unknown tongue after 
this sort : first, look on the title, and wrinkle his brow ; next, make as 
though he read the first page, and bite a lip ; then with his nail score the 
margent, as though there were some notable conceit ; and lastly, when 
he thinks he has gulled the standers-by sufficiently, throws the book 
away in a rage, swearing he could never find books of a true print since 
he was last in loadna, enquire after the next mart, and so depart." 
For a corresponding sketch, see Time's Whistle, by R. C. (1614-16) 
(Early English Text Society, No. 48), Satire ii. 797. 

2 Oxford Jests a collection of witty jests, merry tales and pleasant 
joques collected by W. H. (William Hickes, Tapster at the Star Inn, 

Oxford), 1669. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 113 

asked the man of letters. " I do not choose to give any 
fool the wall/' answered the man of fashion. " But I 
do/' retorted the other; and gave it him. In this 
theatrical age, indeed, when from the Universities to 
London thronged scholars " with dorsers full of lament- 
able tragedies and ridiculous comedies," both characters 
were inclined to overact their parts ; " the pert Juvenal," 
on whom had fallen a double portion of the overweening 
conceit of the Humanist, as well as " the gentleblood and 
swash-buckler, who preferred an ounce of vain-glory and 
strutting before a pound of Learning." " I have fashioned 
all in the university," boasts Phantastes, in Barten 
Holyday's Marriages of the Arts (1617-18) ; "the philo- 
sopher who shews the severity of his profession by the 
ruggedness of his gown, and the merry wanton gallant 
with his rich apparel, the fair false diamond on his 
finger, and the gilt watch which he draws out in the 
market place, though there be a clock within view of his 
eye, to shew he reckons not his day by the people's 
dyall." And it was not only by a pedantic veneration 
for deep learning that the lettered shewed his contempt 
for the unlettered coxcomb, but also by what appeared 
to the latter to be a conscious assumption of a careless 
and fantastic carriage, and a studied neglect of all 
the little qualifications and accomplishments which 
made up the character of the well-bred man. " What 
Monsieur Malegoe is this, that so displays the fretted 
buffe tafifety facing of his threadbare cloak ? " asks the 
poet in Anthony Nixon's Straunge Footpost (London, 
1613), when " the poore scholler" passes by. " Cannot 
he walke uprightly like an honest man, but jet it so 
like a jennet, and wagge his head to and fro like a 
weathercocke. Fie upon it !, what rusticall legges he 
maketh ! like a tennant, or a country curate that never 
came nearer a University than Lincoln Minster. Odit 
profanum vulgus. He is none of your Plebeians in his 
own conceit, but Apollo's grandson christened in the 
Pirennean or Hyporennean fount." The Clerk was in 
8 



H4 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

fact artificial enough to affect simplicity ; he defied 
social amenities, not because he was by nature rude and 
slovenly, but because he thought such behaviour to be 
in keeping with the pose, which he had assumed, of a 
man of wisdom who found such things unworthy his 
attention. " I am he that hates manners worse than 
Timon hated men," says Grobian, the head of a Club of 
Oxford Pedants: "And what did he hate them for? 
Marry, for their foolish apish compliments, niceties, 
lispings, cringes. I'll tell you, fellow-Grobians, what 
our sport is to-night. You shall see the true shapes of 
men, such as nature made 'em, not in the visor and 
shadow of garbs and postures ; pure pate men, such as 
ne'er swathed their feet in socks for fear of the grain of 
their own bodies ; whose beards and hair have never 
impoverished the wearers, that wisely banish a barber 
as a superfluous member from their commonweal. A 
tailor is admitted, but one of the primitive time, that cuts 
out long bellies, short skirts, codpiece, you know, and most 
canonical round knees. They are men who fly a perfumer 
as the infection. Cooks indeed they have, for necessity, 
not for riot, fellows that never lick their fingers, but carry 
in their countenances the profits of their places. Here's 
true and honest friendship : no slight * god-speeds,' but a 
' how do you ? ' so well set on that you shall remember 
the salute a week after. We doff our heads sooner than 
our hats, and a nod includes all ceremonies. Our Scholars 
are right too, such as you would swear did look to nothing 
but their books, very plod-alls of Art ; not a leaf turned 
over, but you have his hand he hath read it, and his 
mark is as true as Peter's thumb on a haddock : no 
regard of apparel : Libertines you may judge them by 
their clothes, and Nazarites by their hair : their gown is 
like a dun at their backs, which they would shake off. 
Then, for the matter, no grand sallets and kickshaws of 
learning, but the very bruise of Divinity," etc. 1 

1 Grobiancts Nuptials, edited from a Bodleian MS., by A. Brandl and 
E. Schmidt for Ernst Ruehl's Palaestra, 1904. The date of the play is 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 115 

A philosopher of this persuasion, who wilfully neglected 
discourses on polite behaviour, Philbert's Philosophy of 
the. Court, Castiglione's Cortegiano, Guazzo's work on 
Conversation, and the like outlandish braveries; and 
who persisted in devoting his mind so wholly to his 
mind, that he gave little or no thought to his manners ; 
could expect small mercy at the hands of " the meere 
Courtier." " The Scholar is an intelligible Ass," writes 
the worldly Overbury, " or a silly fellow in black, that 
speaks Sentences more familiarly than Sense. The 
antiquity of his University is his Creed, and the 
excellency of his College (though but for a match at 
football) an Article of his Faith. He speaks Latin 
better than his Mother-tongue ; and is a stranger in no 
part of the World, but his own Country. . . . His 
ambition is that he either is, or shall be, a Graduate ; 
but if ever he get a Fellowship, he has then no fellow. 
He was never begotten, as it seems, without much 
wrangling, for his whole life is spent in Pro and Contra. 
. . . That he is a complete Gallant in all points, Cap 
a pie, witness his horsemanship and the wearing of his 
weapons. - He is commonly long-winded, able to speak 
more with ease than any man can endure to hear with 
patience. . . . University jests are his universal dis- 
course ; and his news, the demeanor of the Proctors. . . . 
J Tis a wrong to his reputation to be ignorant of any- 

there conjectured by the editors to be the year 1640, and the authorship is 
attributed to Roger Shipman and William Taylor of St. John Baptist 
College, Oxford : but in a letter dated Jan. 16, 1636-7 (State Papers , 
Domestic, 1636-7), Dr. Richard Baylie, President of the College, writes 
to Archbishop Laud, " Young Charles May presented us with a mock 
shew on Saturday last. The subject was slovenry itself, the marriage 
of Grobian's daughter to Tantoblin, but the carriage and acting so 
handsome and clean that I was not better pleased with a merriment 
these many years." At this date, Shipman had not matriculated, and 
Taylor was a freshman. May matriculated in 1634, and became B.A. 
in 1638. 

The philosophic Oxford Grobian should be compared with his naturally 
brutal original in Dedekind's Grobianus de simplicitate morum, Frankfort, 
1549. 



1 16 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

thing, and yet he knows not that he knows nothing. 
He gives directions for husbandry from Virgil's 
Georgics, for Cattle from his Bucolics; for warlike 
Stratagems from his Aeneids, or from Caesar's Com- 
mentaries. 1 He orders all things, and thrives in none. 
His ill luck is not so much in being a fool, as in being 
put to such pains to express it to the world ; for what 
in others is natural, in him with much ado is artificial. 
In a word, he is much in profession, nothing in practice." 
For the defence appears John Earle; something of 
" a meere Scholar " himself, for Lord Clarendon wrote 
of him, " that no man was more negligent than he in 
his dress and habit and mien ; no man more wary and 
cultivated in his behaviour and discourse : insomuch as 
he had the greater advantage when he was known, by 
promising so little before he was known." " The down- 
right Scholar," he maintains, " is really good metal in 
the inside, though rough and unsecured without, and 
therefore hated of the Courtier that is quite contrary. 
. . . He has not put on the quaint garb of the age, 
which is now become a man's total. He has not 
humbled his meditations to the industry of compliment, 

1 Cf. The Elder Brother, John Fletcher (Cambridge) ; probably com- 
pleted and revised by Philip Massinger (St. Alban's Hall, Oxford), London, 
1637 ; Act i. Sc. ii. 

(Brisac, a country gentleman; and Charles, his son, described as "a 
meere scholar.") 

Brisac. In your care 

To manage worldly business, you must part with 
This bookish contemplation, and prepare 
Yourself for action ; to thrive, in this age, 
Is held the palm of learning. You must study 
To know what part of my land's good for the plough, 
And what for pasture ; how to buy and sell 
To the best advantage; how to cure my oxen 
When they're o'ergrown with labour. 

Charles. I may do this 

From what I've read, Sir; for what concerns tillage, 
Who better can deliver it than Virgil 
In his Georgics? And to cure your herds 
His Bucolics is a masterpiece, etc. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 117 

nor afflicted his brain in an elaborate leg. His body is 
not set upon nice pins, to be turning and flexible for 
every motion, but his scrape is homely and his nod 
worse. He cannot kiss his hand and cry, 'Madam!', 
nor talk idle enough to bear her company. His 
smacking of a gentlewoman is somewhat too savoury, 
and he mistakes her nose for her lips. A very wood- 
cock would puzzle him in carving, and he wants the 
logic of a capon. 1 He has not the glib faculty of sliding 
over a tale, but his words come squeamishly out of his 
mouth, and the laughter commonly before the jest. He 
names this word ' college ' too often, and his discourse 
beats too much on the university. The perplexity of 
mannerliness will not let him feed, and he is sharp set 
on an argument when he should cut his meat. He is 
discarded for a gamester at all games but one and 
thirty, and at tables he reaches not beyond doublets. 
His fingers are not long and drawn out to handle a 
fiddle, but his fist cluncht with the habit of disputing. 
He ascends a horse somewhat sinisterly, though not on 
the left side, and they both go jogging in grief together. 2 

1 Cf. Robert Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, pt. i. sec. 2, mem. 3. 
subs. 15 : " Because they cannot ride a horse, which every clown can do ; 
salute and court a gentlewoman, carve at table, cringe and make congies, 
which every common swasher can do, hos populus ridet : they are laughed 
to scorn and accounted silly fools by our Gallants." 

2 The scholar on horseback was a never-failing subject for ridicule See 
Thomas Bastard (New College, 1586-90), Chrestoleros ; seven bookes of 
epigr antes, by T. B., London, 1598 (ed. by A. B. Grosart), lib. iv. 30. 

" Melus was taught to speake, to read, to write, 
Yet clerkly sooth he can do none of these ; 
He learned Logicke and Arithmeticke, 
Yet neither brawls nor ciphers worth a peaze. 
The Musicke Schoole did teach him her sweet art, 
He dealt with Rhetorique and Astrologie, 
Yet neither can he chaunt it for his part, 
Ne can he tell a tale, or prophecie : 
And yet he rides as Scholer-like, ('tis thought), 
As never any ; yet was never taught." 

See, too, " Eques Academicus," among the Poems of Vincent Bourne 
(Trinity College, Cambridge, 1714). 



n8 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

He is exceedingly censured by the Inns of Court men, 
for that heinous vice, being out of the fashion. He 
cannot speak to a dog in his own dialect, and under- 
stands Greek better than the language of a falconer. 
He has been used to a dark room and dark clothes, and 
his eyes dazzle at a sattin suit. The hermitage of his 
study has made him somewhat uncouth in the world, 
and men make him worse by staring on him. Thus is 
he ridiculous, and it continues with him for some 
quarter of a year out of the University. But practise 
him a little in men, and brush him o'er with good 
company, and he shall out-balance those glisterers, as 
far as a solid substance does a feather, or gold, gold- 
lace." 

Such is the portrait-group of early seventeenth- 
century Academians presented by artists of the time ; 
and, of it, it may be affirmed, that, " though change of 
fashions has unavoidably cast shadows upon some 
places, the picture as a whole, being drawn from 
unchanging nature, stands out as true to-day as when 
it was originally composed." l 

Except, indeed, so far as it deals with new fashions 
and manners, subsequent fiction has added little or 
nothing to the work of Overbury, Earle, and Saltonstall. 
In their day, academical society, though still in a state 
of flux, was nevertheless falling into those few shapes 
which it has maintained ever since ; and after the 
Characters, Microcosmography, and Picturae Loquentes^ 
wit's descant upon the plain song of Oxford "types" 
tends to monotony. The old familiar faces and figures 
reappear again and again, but thinly disguised, in later 
work dealing with University life. College-servants and 
townsmen " whose speech savours of the university," 
live again in the periodicals of the eighteenth century. 
There is the Alderman who rejoices to make classical 
allusions, and who, when a scholar excites laughter by 
saying of a tough goose that " it was probably one of 

1 Preface to Microcosmography ', edition published 1732. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 119 

those which saved the Capitol," takes the earliest 
opportunity to make the same remark of an old hen. 
Tradesmen chop logic on the most sublime topics : the 
shoemaker affirms, to the general satisfaction of his 
audience, that " the world was eternal from the 
beginning, and will be so to the end of it"; and the 
mercer, discoursing on politics, wonders " What a deuce 
we would have ! I'm sure," says he, " there's not a 
happier island in England than Great Britain ; and a 
man may choose his own religion, that he may ! whether 
it be Mahometism or Infidelity." A Music-master, 
criticising Smith's Harmonic, is of opinion " that it is not 
worth a farthing ; it might teach the Thievery mayhap ; 
but, as for the Praticks, he knows a betterer method " ; 
while a Scout, with an excellent knack of his own of 
using hard words, advises a fellow-servant " to be true 
to his wife ; for Idolatry would surely bring a man to 
Instruction at last" 1 Much as he did in the days of 
Saltonstall, the Townsman "takes ill words of the 
Gownsman, and loves him not in his heart." No novel 
on University life can be called complete, which does 
not include at least one Town and Gown fight. The 
" meere young Gentleman of the University " in fiction, 
invariably threatens to horsewhip the daring tailor who 
ventures to present his account for payment, declares 
that tradesmen should be resisted by gentlemen as so 
many duns and rascals, and affirms that he never knew 
one in his life who was not a complete raff; while the 
Scholar chimes in with a riddle, and likens the Town 
to a Roman Fleet, "for," says he, "the City Fathers 
are all ' naves,' their sons ' puppes,' and their daughters 

1 The Student or Oxford Miscellany (1750), i. 53. The London 
Evening Post of May 1 8, 1756, quotes the following inscription from 
a sign -board at Oxford : 

" Here are Fabricated and Renovated Trochiliac Horologies, Portable 
and Permanent, Linguaculous and Taciturnal : whose Circumgyrations 
are performed by Internal Spiral Elasticks or External Pendulous 
Plumbages : Diminutives, Simple or Compound, invested with Argent 
or Aurate Integuments." 



120 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

' nautae.' " The " meere young Gentleman " himself, 
whether " Rascal-Jack " or " Tarrarag," has a hundred 
reincarnations in the " Smarts," " Loungers," " Loiterers," 
"Dashing Men," " Slicers," and "Men of Fire," who 
figure so prominently in eighteenth-century sketches of 
Oxford life. His ill-regulated career affords indeed the 
most telling materials for fiction ; and, as a general rule, 
University and College authorities, and reading men, are 
introduced merely in order to set off his lawlessness and 
high spirits. Thus Heads of Houses, when they are 
not pompous and tyrannical disciplinarians, are heavy 
stupid recluses, such as those of whom the Devil's 
Almanac for 1745 predicted, that "they would be so 
insensibly translated from the animal to the vegetable 
world, that men would hardly perceive any material 
alteration in the individual." Tutors, again, are drawn, 
almost invariably, after the manner of Overbury's 
" meere Fellow of a House " : they are pedantical and 
pedagogical: "their every motion is syllogistical and 
strictly conformable to Mode and Figure. They enter 
a room in ' Barbara/ and salute the company in ' Darii ' ; 
they pay their devotions in 'Ferio' and dance in 
* Baralipton.' " l And, for the same reason, the reading 
man is distinguished by "his chin being stuck in his 
neck, a sneaking bookish look, plodding gait and dirty 
linen ; while he never opens his lips but, like a Brazen-head, 
in sentences." In short, in dress and manner he serves as 
a foil to the orators of the coffee-houses, the champions 
of the High Street, and the jockies of Port Meadow. 2 

1 Nicholas Amherst, Oculus Britanniae (1721). 

2 James Miller (Wadham College), Humours of Oxford (1730). Com- 
pare Pope's rendering of Horace Epistles, lib. II. ii. 

" The man who, stretched in Isis' calm retreat, 
To books and study gives seven years complete, 
See ! strowed with learned dust, his night-cap on, 
He walks, an object new beneath the sun ! 
The boys flock round him, and the people stare ; 
So stiff, so mute, some statue you would sware 
Stept from its pedestal to take the air ! " 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1600 A.D. 121 

And as with the plays, poems, and periodicals of the 
eighteenth century, so with the novels of the first half of 
the nineteenth. " We have," writes Dr. Mark Pattison, 
" the stereotyped parts of the fast undergraduate beset 
with duns, contrasted with the slow reading-man in 
woollen socks and spectacles, who is his butt ; the 
deluded father, the inefficient proctor, a pompous and 
incapable tutor; a gyp, thievish and patronizing; the 
breakfast and the wine party ; the ruffian of the play- 
ground, who is the admired hero of the bevy of charm- 
ing girls who come up to Commemoration in pink 
ribands. The fast young man is the first part ; the 
reading student is only brought upon the scene to be 
guyed ; and the senior part of the University become 
stage Dons, who are only there to provoke our derision 
by various forms of the witty description of Donnism, 
' a mysterious carriage of the body intended to conceal 
the defects of the mind/" 



CHAPTER VI 

HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 AD. 

" How these curiosities would be quite forgott, did not such idle 
fellowes as I am, putt them down." JOHN AUBREY (1626-97), Trinity 
College, Oxon. ; Brief Lives, ed. by Andrew Clarke, i. 232. 

To THE UNIVERSITIE OF OXENFORD 

THOU Eye of Honour, Nurserie of Fame, 
Still teeming Mother of Immortall Seed ; 
Receive these blessed Orphanes of thy breed 
As from thy happy issue first they came. 
Those flowing Wits that bathed in thy foord, 
And suckt the honie-dew from thy pure pap, 
Returne their tribute backe into thy lap, 
In rich-wrought lines that yeelde no idle woord. 
O let thy Sonnes from time to time supplie 
This Garden of the Muses, where dooth want 
Such Flowers as are not, or come, short and 

scant, 

Of that perfection may be had thereby: 
So shall thy name live still, their fame nere die, 
Though under ground whole worlds of time they lie : 

Stat sine morte decus. 
JOHN BODENHAM, Belvidere or the Garden 
of the Muses, 1600 

OXFORD 

To mount above Ingratitude, base crime, 
With double lines of single-twisted rime, 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 123 

I will, though needlesse, blaze the sun-bright praise 
Of Oxford, where I spent some gaining days : 

For, Oxford, O, I praise thy situation 
Passing Parnassus, Muses' habitation; 
Thy bough-deckt dainty Walkes, with Brooks beset, 
Fretty, like Christall Knots in mould of Jet; 
Thy sable Soile's like Guian's golden Ore, 
And gold it yeelds manured ; no mould can more. 
The pleasant Plot, where thou hast footing found, 
For all it yeelds, is yelke of English ground : 
Thy stately Colleges, like Princes' Courts, 
Whose gold-embossed, high-embattl'd Ports, 
With all the glorious workmanshippe within, 
Make Strangers deeme they have in Heaven bin, 
When out they come from those celestiall places, 
Amazing them with glorie and with graces: 

But in a word to say how I like thee; 
For place, for grace, and for sweet companee, 
Oxford is Heaven, if Heaven on Earth there be. 

JOHN DAVIES of Hereford, Microcosmus, 1603 

Veni Oxford cui comes 
Est Minerva, fons Platonis. 
Unde scatent peramoene 
Aganippe, Hippocrene ; 

Totum fit Atheniense 

Immo Cornu Reginense. 

To Oxford came I, whose copesmato 
Is Minerva, Well of Plato ; 
From which seat doth flow most seemlie 
Aganippe, Hippocrene; 

Each thing there's the Muses' minion; 
Queen's College Horn speaks pure Athenian. 
RICHARD BRATHWAITE (Oriel College), 
Barnabae Itinerarium, 1638 



I2 4 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY (opened 1602 A.D.) 
Bibliotheca nova Oxon. ad Lectores 

Quaeritis Autores? "Coram, quern quaeritis, adsum," 

Quisque in classe sua classicus autor ait. 
Tanti operis quantum reliquo vix extat in orbe 
Quaeritis autorem? Bodleus autor erat 

JOHN OWEN (New College), Epigrams, 
3rd book: London, 1612 

Authors seek ye ? " Ready before your eyes ! " 

Each classic author in his classis cries. 
Of this great work scarce paralleled on earth 
Seek ye the Founder? Bodley gave it birth. 

Owen's Epigrams, englished by THOMAS 
HARVEY, 1677 

PINDARIQUE ODE 
The Book 

Humbly presenting it selfe to the Universitie Librarie 
at Oxford. 

(From the original in the author's own hand, written 
at the beginning of the copy of his Poems, folio, Lond. 
1656, presented by Abraham Cowley to the Bodleian 
Library. The book has the following inscription written 
in it by bishop Barlow : " Liber Bibliothecae Bodleianae, 
ex dono Viri et Poetae optimi, D. Abrahami Cowley, 
authoris ; qui pro singulari sua in Bodleium Musasque 
benevolentia, Oden MS. insequentem, Pindari foeliciter 
imitatricem, composuit, et manu propria exaratam 
apposuit, VI. Calend. Jul. MDCLVL") 

(i) 

Hail, Learning's Pantheon! Hail, the sacred Ark, 
Where all ye World of Science does embark ! 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 125 

Which ever shalt withstand, and hast soe long withstood 
Insatiat Time's devowring Flood ! 

Hail, Tree of Knowledge ! thy Leaves' Fruit ! which 
well 

Dost in ye midst of Paradise arise, 
Oxford, ye Muses' Paradise ! 

From which may never Sword the Blest expell. 

Hail, Bank of all past Ages, where they lie 

T'enrich with Interest Posteritie ! 

Hail, Wits illustrious Galaxie; 

Where thowsand Lights into one Brightnes spread, 

Hail, Living Universitie of the Dead ! 

(2) 

Unconfused Babel of all Toungs, which ere 
The mighty Linguist Fame, or Time, the mighty 
Traveller, 

That could Speak, or this could Hear! 
Majestique Monument and Pyramide, 
Where still the Shapes of parted Soules abide 
Enbalmed in Verse! exalted Soules, which now 
Enjoy those Arts they woo'd soe well below! 
Which now all wonders printed plainly see 

That have bin, are, or are to bee, 

In the mysterious Librarie, 
The Beatifique Bodley of the Deitie ! 

(3) 

Will yee into your sacred throng admit 
The meanest British Wit? 

Yee Generall Councell of the Priests of Fame, 
Will yee not murmur, and disdain 
That I a place amoungst yee claime, 
The humblest Deacon of her train ? 

Will yee allow mee th' honourable Chain? 

The Chain of Ornament, which here 
Your noble Prisoners proudly wear? 



126 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

A Chain which will more pleasant seem to mee, 

Than all my own Pindarique Libertie. 

Will ye to bind mee with these mighty names submit, 

Like an Apocrypha with Holy Writ? 
What ever happy Book is chained here, 
Noe other place or people needs to fear : 
His Chaine's a Pasport to goe everywhere. 1 

(4) 

As when a seat in Heaven 
Is to an unambitious Sinner given, 

Who casting round his wondering eye 
Does none but Patriarchs and Apostles there espie, 

Martyrs who did their lives bestow, 

And Saints who Martyrs lived below, 
With trembling and amazement hee begins 
To recollect his frailties past and sins ; 

Hee doubts almost his Station there ; 
His Soule says to it selfe, How Came I here? 

It fares no otherwise with mee, 
When I myselfe with conscious wonder see 
Amidst this Purified Elected Companee: 

With hardship they and pain 

Did to this happiness attain ; 
Noe labours I, or merits can pretend, 
I think Predestination only was my Friend. 

1 Cf. Nichols' Progresses of James /, p. 554, note : the King, during his 
visit to Oxford in 1605, remarked on seeing the chained books in the 
Bodleian Library, "Were I not a King, I would be an Oxford man ; and 
if it were so that I must be a prisoner, if I might have a wish, I would 
have no other prison than this library, and be chained together with these 
good authors." 

See, too, Oxonii Encomium, by Edward Benlowes (1672). 

" Tu bene juncta Scholis jactas spolia inclyta Mundi. 
Num tibi par moles? Tantis oppressa tropaeis 
Tigna gemunt ; Heroes in isto carcere regnant 
Captivi, gaudentque suas subisse catenas. 
Haud secus ac victi Victores undique stipant 
Currus : Ista tuos ornant devicta Triumphos, 
Queis tecum certasse fuit meruisse Coronas." 



HALCYQN DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 

(5) 

Ah that my Author had been tyed, like Mee, 
To such a Place and such a Companee, 
Instead of severall Countries, severall Men, 

And Business which the Muses hate, 
Hee might have then improved that small Estate 
Which Nature sparingly did to him give; 

He might perhaps have thriven then, 
And settled upon mee, his child, somewhat to live; 
'T had happier bin for Him as well as Mee: 

For when all, alas ! is donne, 

Wee Books, I mean you Books, will prove to bee 
The best and noblest Conversation: 

For though some Errors will get in, 
Like Tinctures of Original Sin, 
Yet sure wee from our Father's wit 
Draw all the Strength and Spirit of it, 
Leaving the grosser parts for Conversation, 
As the Best Blood of Man's employed in Generation. 

ABRAHAM COWLEY (M.D. Oxford, 1657) 

MERTON COLLEGE GARDEN 

by John Earle, Fellow of Merton College, 1619; 

Bishop of Worcester, 1662 ; translated to Salisbury, 

1663. See John Aubrey's Natural History of Surrey -, 

iv. 167. 

Hortus, delitiae domus politae, 
Quo Mertona minus beata cultu 
Vincit cultior et trahit sorores, 
Quis te carmine scribat eleganti 
Quale munditias tuas decebit? 
Quod non erubeant tua ambulacra 
Inter gramina natum et inter herbas. 
Hoc nunc accipe qualecunque munus 
Nuper quod spatiis vaganti in istis, 
Laetus aera dum bibo recentem, 



128 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



(*? testa or 
fenstra) 



(*?nota) 



Effluxit mihi paene nescient!, 
Dum quid vis temere Camoena dictat: 
Nam quae non ibi nascitur Camoena? 
Quis non hie vel inambulans poeta est? 
Hortus blandulus, optimus recessus, 
Quo non Hesperii magis juvabunt, 
Et quos fabula ramulos inaurat, 
Vatum somnia, flosculos poetae; 
Nee quos Italus Atheos, supremi 
Exspes Elysii, laborat hortos. 
Ipsa en ! Simplicitas placebit una ; 
Non hie Daedaleas amabis artes, 
Ducta multiplici nee herba gyro 
Et fallit simul et tenet videntem : 
Non hie fictitios habes Leones, 
Nee Pardi modo Tygridisve rictus, 
Et quas dispositas solent in hortis 
Feras fingere: quid feras in hortis? 
Nulla in Cornua torta Belluamque, 
Nulla in Literulas secatur herba; 
Non Insignia Regiumve nomen 
Doctus flosculus exprimit, nee ulla 
Gramen tonsile scribitur figura; 
Nee quadratave circulive florum, aut 
Malis artibus educata Planta 
Festa* clausa latet peculiari, 
Et quidquid nimis insolente cura 
Excultum nimio perit labore. 1 
Hie nulla tibi constat arte pura 
Naturae manus, innocens voluptas 
Ipsa quam dedit hortulana solum 
Hawkinsi 2 minimo labore iota,* 
Alta gramina, vividumque sepe, 

1 Many College gardens at this time displayed knotted beds laid out in 
curious and complicated geometrical patterns, arbours, mazes, artificial 
mounds, and topiary works as, for example, the King's and the Founder's 
Arms in New College Gardens. 

2 Thomas Hawkins, the gardener. 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 129 



Crinitumque solum, comataque arbor, 
Et septa innumeris onusta baccis, 
Inter quae area fusa larga aperta 
Primo te excipit, allicitque visu 
Exercens hilares bonosque lusus. 
Quantae Jupiter ! artis et cachinni 
Festi dum posita toga togati 
Stricto corpore ludicros perite 
Inclinant globulos, et orbe ligni 
Currenti fluidas comant arenas : 
Clamor aera percutit canorus, 
Si metam, artifice evoluta dextra, 
Adserpit rotula, insequensque rursum 
Tangentem globus excutit secundus : 
Quae buctaria,* gratulationes ! 
"O quantus tibi ludus est ! Valere ! " 
Mox in devia versus ambulacra, 
Quae spargit tibi arena, cingit arbor, 
Frondes implicitae super coronant, 
Libens continuas subitis umbras ; 
Una ad horridulae modum cavernae 
In longum porrigitur petente * rictu ; 
Haec meta breviore terminatur, 
Disserentibus aptior, citasque 
Festinantibus ambulationes : 
Errat stridula persilitque ramos 
Avis frondiferi inquilina tecti : 
Passim in arbore figitur sedile, 
Fultum cortice, racemulis* opertum; 
Hie paucas metues sedens procellas, 
Et tantum Jove grandinante sparsus 
Securus pluvias rides minores ; 
Et Phoebus minima repulsus arte 
Vix interjicit hie jubar minutum. 
Haec munimina tarn serena praestant 
Non Laurus sterilis, inopsve Myrtus, 
Nee Buxus ita fronde delicata, 
Arbor sed gravidis recurva pomis 



(*? vic- 
toria) 



(*?patente) 



(*?ramuKs) 



130 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



(*? plane, 
(*?quae) 



(*?qua... 

catena) 

(* ? ramis 
or carrus) 



(*?lepi- 
dum) 



Et succi teneri Pyri recentes, 
Et, quum serior apparebit aestas, 
Nux infantula, pendulumque Prunum 
Parens cui titulum dedit Damascus : 
Non umbra est tibi inutilis, sed ipso 
Pastus et simul abditusque fructu, 
Cujus fercula sunt suae latebrae; 
Decerpis tenebras tuas, et uno 
Umbra rarior est minorque porno. 

Hinc edita mentis elevantur, 
Hunc solum artificis vides laborem. 
Captas frigora, liberumque solem, 
Campis desuper incubans amoenis ; 
Agellumque vides senis morosi, 
Quern calcat nimis improbus viator 
Clamoso male devorandus ore; 
Olim et nobilibus serenda plantis, 
Quae super piget, inchoabit annus, 
Galeni foliis dicata septa. 
Dein per pascua proximosque colles, 
Excurrit vagus hinc et hinc ocellus, 
Ifleam arboribus suis latentem, 
Et plani * viridaria Cowleiana 
Quod* nulla violant aratra ruga, 
Et quas Bartholomaeus iliceto 
Obscurat casulas sacro frequenter. 
Hinc hiulcam tibi Shotovere barbam 
Impexumque nemus licet videre, 
Nudam quae terit orbitam catenae* 
Nexus multiplices habens caballus 
Essedarius insidetque racemus* 
Grata pondera devehens togati. 
Retro Pyramides locosque sacros, 
Templa perpetuis dicata Musis, 
Et totam simul aestimabis urbem, 
Et quidquid globus errat ambulantum 
Ipsos perspicies et ambulantes. 

Hie tu seu lapidem* tenes libellum 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 131 

Ut nunquam tibi sic placeat* libellus ; (*? placet) 

Seu quid propitia roges Minerva, 

Ut nunquam tibi promptior Minerva est ; 

Seu blandos tibi misceas susurros 

Ut nunquam tibi dulcior sodalis ; 

Seu carmen meditaberis venustum 

Nunquam lenius evocata Musa. 

JOHN EARLE (Merton College) 

THE BONNY CHRIST CHURCH BELLS 

The campanile of Oseney Abbey contained what was 
thought to be the best peal of bells in England. One 
of these, destined to become the present " Magnus 
Thomas Clusius" of Christ Church, was dedicated to 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, and bore the inscription, 

"In Thomae laude resono BIM BOM sine fraude"; 

and it was on hearing this bell ring, which he had 
re-christened " Mary " for joy at Queen Mary's reign, 
that Dr. Tresham, Vice-Chancel lor, exclaimed, "O 
bellam et pulchram Mariam ! ut sonat musice ! ut tinnit 
melodice ! ut placet auribus mirifice ! ", words which 
were clearly in the mind of the composer of the 
following lines. On the suppression of Oseney Abbey 
in 1545, seven bells were removed thence to the 
campanile of Christ Church. 

The catch " Hark, the bonny Christ Church Bells ! ", 
set to the music of Henry Aldrich, Dean of Christ 
Church, appeared first in the Pleasant Musical 
Companion, 1726, sixteen years after the Dean's death. 
Words, as well as music, are usually attributed to 
Aldrich; but the former belong, at any rate in spirit, 
to the Halcyon Days (1600-1636), and I have included 
them in this chapter with Corbet's poems on "Tom," 
and White's catch " Great Tom is cast." 

In 1680 ten bells were hung in Christ Church 
campanile, " Tom " being removed thence and reserved 



132 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



(The shrill 



out prepara- 

Sling o h f 6 

Tom) 



for the tower over the great gateway. The peal was 
increased to twelve bells in 1898. 

Oh the bonny Christ Church Bells! 

One two three four five six ; 
They are so woundy great, 

So wondrous sweet, 
And they trowl so merrily, merrily. 
Oh the first and the second bell, 

That every day at four and ten, 
Cry " Come, come, come, come, come, to Prayer ! " 

And the Verger troops before the Dean. 

Tingle, tingle, tingle, goes the small Bell at nine, 

To cal1 the ^ e ^ ts home 5 

But there's never a man 

Wil1 leaVG his Can ' 

Till he hears the mighty TOM. 

Aedis Christi campanulae ! 
Bis tres in numero, 
Magnificae 

Dulcisonae 
Pulsantque hilare hilare. 

Prima, et prima a prima, 

Hora quarta et decima, 
Ait " Adsis, adsis Precibus ! " 

Ambulante Vergifero. 
Tintinnuit hora tintinnabulum 

Ut redeat domum, 
At combibo 

Manet intro 

Dum Thomas det sonum ; 
Ac nemo sat 
Sibi putat 

Nisi THOMAS edit BOM. 
HENRY BOLD, fl. 1627-83 ; New College, 
1645 : Latine Songs with their English > 
a posthumous collection ; 1685. 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 133 

'Ev r&> vao) XpiVrov e 



Kai KpoTOVCTLV i\apa>$ l\ap)S 



Ats 

Etcrep^ou, ep^ov els Ev 

Kat 



TlVVL TLVVL Tl TO K(o8(OVlOV KoXel 
EtS OLK.OV (plXoTTOTOVS, 

'AXX' ovdels TO K.av Xffyfi ecos av 
Tov r)x<a8r) a.KOVcrr) TOM. 

Notes and Queries, i st Series, vol. xii. p. 1 1 2 



To "YONGE TOM" OF CHRIST CHURCH 

The following lines are from Ashmol. MS. 36, f. 260, 
and have been printed in Notes and Queries, 3rd Series, 
ii. 494. Other and shorter versions of the poem appear 
in Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, x. 466, and among 
the Poems of Richard Corbet, edited by Octavius 
Gilchrist. Richard Corbet of Christ Church took his 
Master's degree in 1605, and became Dean of Christ 
Church in 1620. 

" Tom " has been recast at least three times since his 
removal from Oseney Abbey to Christ Church in 1 545 : 
in 1611, as described in the following lines; in 1653; 
and finally in 1680: Wood's Life and Times, Oxford 
Historical Society, i. 185, ii. 484-90. 

Until the year 1680, "Tom" hung with the rest of 
the peal in Christ Church campanile ; and besides per- 
forming his ordinary duty of announcing the closing of 
College-gates at night, rang out in honour of thanks- 
giving days, victories, installation of Canons, etc. : 
Woods Life and Times, ii. 162, iii. 151, 255. Wood 
usually refers to " Tom " by his name, and " the great 
bell of Christ Church " which announced the deaths of 
members of the' Society, was therefore probably some 



134 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

other one of the peal ; at any rate, " the great bell " rang 
out for the death of a student in Dec. 1682, a date when 
" Tom " was not in a position to perform such a duty : 
Wood's Life and Times, iii. 33. 

After emerging from the foundry in 1680, as 
" Magnus Thomas Clusius Oxoniensis, renatus Aprilis 
VIII, MDCLXXX, cura et arte Christ. Hodson/' 
"Tom" was hung in 1682 in Wren's Tower over Christ 
Church gateway, and " rang out for the first time after 
he had been recast," on such an appropriate day as the 
anniversary of the glorious Restoration, May 29, 1684: 
Wood's Life and Times ^ iii. 95. 

Bee dum, you infant Chimes, thump not the 

mettle, 

That ne'er outrunge the tinker and his kettle; 
Cease all your petty larums, for today 
Is Yonge Tom's resurrection from the clay: 

And know when Tom shall ringe his loudest knells, 
The bigg'st of you'll be thought but dinner bells. 

Old Tom's growne yonge againe the fiery cave 
Is now his cradle that was erst his grave. 
Hee grewe upp quickly from his mother earth; 
For all you see, is but an howre's birth: 
Looke on him well my life I dare engage 
You nere saw preteyer babie of his age. 

Some take his measure by the rule some by 
The Jacob's staffe take his profunditie ; l 
And some his altitude : some bouldly sweare 
Yonge Tom's not like the olde ; but Tom, nere 
feare 

The Criticke Geometrician's lyne, 

If thou, as loude as ere thou did'st, ringe nine. 2 

1 Jacob's staffs an instrument used to take distances and altitudes. 

2 At nine p.m. Tom tolls 101 times in honour of the number of Students 
upon the old foundation, and gives the signal at which all Scholars are 
required to repair to their Colleges and Halls, and all gates are to be 
closed. Univ. Statutes, "Stat. de Nocturna Vagatione." 



; HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 135 
Tom did noe sooner peepe from under grounde 
ut straight St. Marie's tenor lost his sounde. 1 
h how his Maypole founder's hart did swell 
T ith full moone tydes of joy, when that crackt 
bell, 
Choaked with envie and his admiration, 
Runge like a quart pott to the Congregation. 
Myles, 2 what's the matter? Belles thus out of 
square 
hope St. Marye's Hall wont longe forbeare. 
ou cockscombe-pate, the Clocke hangs dumbe in 

towre, 
nd knowes not that foure quarters makes an 

howre. 

Now Broute's 3 joys ringe out : the Churlish Cur 
Nere laughes aloude till great belles catch the 
mur. 4 

This (puny) Bell is proude, and hopes noe other 
But that in time hee shal be greate Tom's brother : 
Thou'rt wise, if this thou wishest : bee it soe : 
Let one henn hatch you both; for thus much know, 

Hee that can cast great Christchurch Tom so 
well, 

Can easily cast St. Marye's greatest bell. 

1 "The very day that Tom was cast, St. Marie's tenor was burste in 
a peal " Note in Ashm. MS. Richard Corbet's name appears on the 
fifth bell of St. Mary's Church, as junior proctor, 1612. Five was the 
usual number of bells for a parish peal ; and as the present tenor or sixth 
bell is dated 1639 (too late for Corbet's poem), the probability is that the 
bell which records his name was recast in 1612, to replace "St. Marie's 
tenor," which he represents above to have been " choaked with envie" on 
the day " yonge Tom " was recast. So that a probable date can thus be 
arrived at of the above attempt to recast Tom. 

2 Myles = "The Clarke of the Universitie," Ashm. MS.: perhaps 
Edward Miles, bookseller, mentioned as " Clericus Universitatis " in 
1619; see Register Univ. Oxon. (Oxford Hist. Soc.), vol. ii. pt. i. p. 405. 

3 Broute = "Name of the Bel-caster," Ashm. MS. 

4 To catch the mur = to catch a severe cold with hoarseness. 



136 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Rejoyce with Christchurch and looke higher, 

Oseney, 

Of Gyante Belles the famous treasury: 
The base vast thunderinge Clocke of Westminster, 
Grave Tom of Linconne, Hugh Excester, 

Are but Tom's eldest brothers, and perchance 
He may call cozen with the bell of France. 1 

Nere grieve, old Oseney, at thy heavy fall : 
Thy reliques build thee up again ; they all 
Florish to thy glory ; their sole fame, 
When thou art not, will keepe great Oseney 's name. 
This Tom was infant of thy mightie steeple, 
Yet hee is Lord Controwler of a people. 

Tom lately went his progresse, and lookt oer 
What hee ne'er saw in many yeares before : 
But when hee saw the old foundation, 2 
And little hope of reparation, 

Hee burste with greife ; and lest he should not 
have 

Due pomp, hee's his owne bellman to the grave. 

And that there might of Tom bee still strange 

mention, 

Hee carried to the grave a newe invention : 
They drew his browne bread face on pretty gines, 
And made him stalke upon two rowlinge pinnes ; 3 
But Sander Hill 4 swore twice or thrice by heaven 
Hee nere sate such a loafe into the oven. 

1 Tom of Lincoln was cast in 1610, and weighs 9894 Ibs. ; "Hugh 
Excester" should probably be read "huge Excester"; the great bell in 
Exeter Cathedral being known as the Peter Bell. The "bell of France" 
is perhaps the great bell of Rouen, once supposed to be the largest in 
Europe ; it was melted down for cannon during the Revolution. 

2 Old foundation, " Christ Church," Ashm. MS. 

3 Tom was drawn to his new locality by engines upon rollers. 

4 Sander Hill, the " Christ Church Butler," MS. Ashm. ; perhaps 
the Alexander Hill who was admitted to the trade of "white baker" in 
1599: see Register of the University, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 338 (Oxford Hist. 
Society Publications). 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 137 

But Tom did Sanders (vex), his Cyclops maker, 
As much as hee did Sander Hill the baker: 
Therefore, loude thunderinge Tom, bee this thy 

pride, 

When thou this motto shalt have on thy side, 
" Great World, one Alexander conquered thee, 
But two as mightie men scarce conquered mee." 

Brave constant spirit, none could make thee turne, 
Though hanged, drawne, quartered, till they made 

thee burne; 

Yet not for this, nor tenn times more, be sory, 
Synst thou wast martyred for the Churche's glorie, 
But for thy meritorious sufferinge, 
Thou shortly shalt to heaven goe in a stringe: 
And though wee grieved when thou wast thumpt 

and banged, 
W 7 e all bee glad, Great Tom, to see thee hanged. 

To THE FOUNDER OF GREAT TOM 

(Parnassus Biceps, a collection of poems edited by 
Abraham Wright of St. John Baptist College: 1656. 
The following poem is attributed to Richard Corbet 
of Christ Church in Additional MSS, No. 22602, Brit. 
Mus.) 

Thou that by ruine doest repaire, 
And by destruction art a founder; 
Whose art doth teach us what men are, 
Who by corruption shall rise sounder: 

In this fierce fire's intensive heat 

Remember this is Tom the Great: 

And, Cyclops, think at every stroke When Tom 

With which thy sledge his sides shall wound, at 9 p . m ., 
That then some statute thou hast broke College gates 

TT71 . . , are not closed 

Which long depended on his sound ; in accordance 



And that our Colledge Gates doo cry 

They were not shut since Tom did die. noctumavaga- 



tione. 



The tradesman 
must time his 
drinking by 
the curfew bell 
of Carfax 
Church, which 
rings at 8 p.m. 
and 4 a.m. 



And Scholars 
have no warn- 
ing that the 
hour is come 
when they 
must call for 
the bill and 
repair to their 
respective 
Colleges. 



138 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Think what a scourge 'tis to the City 
To drink and swear by Carfax bell, 
Which bellowing, without tune or pity, 
The day and night divides not well ; 

But the poor tradesman must give oer 
His ale at eight, or sit till four. 

We all in haste drink up our wine, 

As if we never should drink more ; 

So that the reckoning after nine 

Is larger now than that before: 

Release this tongue which once could say 
"Home, Schollers ! Drawer, what's to pay?" 

So thou of order shalt be Founder, 
Making a ruler for thy people, 
One that shall ring thy praises rounder 
Than t' other six bells in the steeple: 

Wherefore think, when Tom is running, 
Our manners wait upon thy cunning. 

Then let him raised be from ground, 
The same in number weight and sound ; 
For may thy conscience rule thy gaine, 
Or would thy theft might be thy baine ! 



fflV ID 


=3 


a 





r""*' ^ 


r 





Great Tom is Cast, 



and Christ Church Bells ring 







6, 



and Tom comes last. 



MATTHEW WHITE, organist of Christ Church, 1611 ; 

Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1629. 
Catch as Catch can> or the Musical Companion , 1667. 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 139 

To THE LADY ELIZABETH PAULET 

"Lines to the Lady Paulet, upon her Gift to the 
University of Oxford, being the Story of the Incarna- 
tion, Passion, Resurrection, and Ascension of our 
Saviour, exactly wrought by herself in Needlework." 

(Three poems on this gift, one of them being by the 
admirable Mr. William Cartwright of Ch. Ch., are given 
in Parnassus Biceps, a collection made by Abraham 
Wright of St. John Baptist College, Oxon., of " several 
choice pieces of poetry composed by the best Wits in 
both Universities before their Dissolution" (1656). 
Others upon the same subject appear in MS. Bodley, 22. 

Lady Elizabeth Paulet's portrait, attributed to Daniel 
Mytens the elder, hangs in the Ashmolean Gallery. 
She wears a fine apron of cut-work, perhaps her own 
creation ; and holds in her left hand a small picture of 
the Magdalen made in needlework. Her gift to the 
University is recorded in the Register of Convocation to 
have been accepted on July 9, 1636. The work is 
there described as the " Life of our Blessed Lord 
depicted in needlework, byssina" (i.e. of silken) "et 
aurata textura," and as being the gift of a lady whose 
name is not mentioned, but who is graced with the 
appellation " heroina." It appears that the tapestry is 
no longer in existence: see Annals of the Bodleian, 
W. D. Macray.) 

Madam your Work's a Miracle : and You 
The first Evangelist, whose skilful Clue 
Hath made a road to Bethlehem : now we may 
Without a Star's direction, find the Way 
To the cratch, our Saviour's Cradle; there Him see, 
Mantled in Hay, had not your Piety 
Swath'd Him in Silk; they that have skill, may see 
(For, sure, 't is Pricked) the Virgin's Lullaby: 
The Oxe would fain be Bellowing, did he not fear 
That at his Noise the Babe would Wake and Hear. 



140 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

And as each passage of His Birth's at strife 

To excel, so e'en the Death's drawn to the life : 

See how the greedy Soldiers tug to Share 

The seamlesse Coat, as if your Work they'd Tear ! 

Look on His Reed ! That's natural : on His Gown ! 

That's a pure scarlet : so Acute's His Crown, 

That he who thinks they are not Thorns indeed, 

Would he were Prick'd, until his ringers bleed ! 

His Cross a skilful Joiner cannot know 

(So neat 't is framed,) whether 't be Wood or no: 

So closely by the curious Needle pointed, 

Had Joseph seen 't, he knew not where 't was 

Jointed. 

His Side seems yet to Bleed and leave a stain, 
As if the Blood now Trickled from the vein : 
Methinks I hear the Thief for Mercy call ; 
He might have Stole 't 't was nere Lock'd up at 

all. 
See how He Faints ! The Crimson Silk Turns 

Pale, 

Changing its grain. Could I but see the Veil 
Rent, all were finish't ; but that's well forborn ; 
'T were pity such a Work as This were Torn. 
Turn but your eyes aside, and you may see 
His pensive Handmaids take Him from the Tree, 
Embalming Him with Tears; none could express, 
Madam, but You, death in so fit a dress; 
No Hand but Yours, could teach the Needle's Eye 
To drop true Tears, unfeignedly to Cry. 
Follow Him to His virgin tomb, and view 
His corpse environ'd with a miscreate Crew 
Of drowzy Watch, who look as though they were 
Nere bid to Watch and Pray, but Sleep and 

Swear : 

The third day being come, and their Charge gone, 
Only some Relicks left upon the Stone, 
One Quakes, another Yawns, a third 's in haste 
To Run, had not your Needle made him Fast: 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 141 

And to excuse themselves, all they can say 

Is that they dreamed some one Stole Him away: 

You, Madam, by the Angel's guidance have 

Found Him again, since He Rose from the Grave: 

So zealous of His Company, no Force 

Could Part you, had not Heaven made the 

Divorce : 

Where He remains till the Last Day: and Then 
I pray with joy You there may Meet Again. 

To A LADY THAT PRESENTED THE TEN COM- 
MANDMENTS CUT OUT IN PAPER- WORK TO ST. 
JOHN BAPTIST COLLEGE IN OXFORD 

(Rawlinson MS., D. 390, f. 86. It is to be feared this 
interesting work has perished.) 

Let Scribblers brag no more, with Pen endowed, 
Nor Printers of their new-found art be proud, 
Who might, were not profaner eyes denied, 
See here, and blush to see themselves Outvied. 
No drenching Pen in blackest Ink ; no fear 
Of Blots or Blurs or daubing Fingers here : 
A Lady Virgin writing has designed, 
Writing as fair and spotless as her Mind. 
White-handed Women now b' afraid to Write, 
For this way you Worke best that are most White. 1 
Let babbling Poets no more stories tell 
Of ye famed Writing of fair Philomel ; 
Nor the Chineses of their Bark of Tree, 
(Sacred, cause 't ne'er was read, nor ere wil be) ; 
For neither Art nor Poet's fancy yet 
Have any way invented so compleat. 
Printers can only Stamp the Letters down, 
And make Impressions with What's not Their 
Own; 

1 Probably the Lady was one of the White family, and kin to Sir 
Thomas White, who founded St. John Baptist College in 1555. 



142 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

This Double Artifice we find in You 

You make the Letters and the Printing too. 

Italian, Roundhand, Court, and Text shall now, 

With all old Writing, out of fashion go ; 

They that can't Work their Thought out, they will 

call 

As Dull as Those that never Think at all. 
Be sure there is some Magic in this Pen; 
More Charms than in French Billets-doux are seen : 
Let those that fain would draw their lovers in, 
Write them love-letters Thus; they're sure to win: 
Had Ovid made his carefull lovers send 
Their fond Epistles after This Way penn'd, 
Dido had kept her fond Aeneas still, 
And mad Medea Jason at her will. 
But while I praise the Art with which you write, 
The Subject still I had forgotten quite: 
The Ten Commandments a fit choice indeed ! 
For when God Speaks, he doth Fresh Writing 

need: 

Had you but lived of old, of any tribe 
God had chose You, not Moses, for His Scribe; 
And once This Writ, and This Fair Hand 

employed, 

He ne'er had suffered them to be Destroyed. 
Ages to come shall still admire this Piece, 
And sooner a Commandment lose than These; 
So long, till Puzzled Mortals shall not know, 
Moses or You, which was the First o' th' Two. 
But why then to St. John's presented? Thus 
God blessed the World with them, and You bless 

Us; 

But not in Thunders and in Lightnings sent, 
But those pure Flames alone that Love can vent; 
So by Your Means, but that e'en God was There, 
St. John's would have excelled Mount Sinai far. 
Yet this Misfortune, Madam, we shall find ; 
We are Afraid to Shew 'em in any kind ; 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 143 

For Whosoever doth This Writing View, 
The First Commandment Breaks and Worships 
You. 

UPON THE BURNING OF A GRAMMAR SCHOOL AT 
OXFORD l 

A grievous Lamentation 

Upon a Conflagration 

Of the Muses' Habitation 

What heat of learning kindled your desire, 
You Muses' Sons, to set your house on fire? 
What love of honour in your breasts did burn 
Those sparks of virtue into flames to turn? 
Or was't some higher cause? Were the hot gods, 
Phoebus and Vulcan, friends once, now at odds, 
(And here so revell'd? then ne'er let the dolt 
Be praised for making arms and thunderbolt; 
Let poets' pens point only his disgrace, 
His clubby foot, horned front, and sooty face.) 
Whate'er was cause, sure it was an event 
Which all the Muses justly can lament; 
And, above all, for rhyme's sake, Polihimney 
Bewails the downfall of the classic chimney. 
There you may see how without Speech or Sense 
Lay the sad ashes of an Accidence. 
What number here of Nouns to rack did go, 
As Domus, Liber, and a many mo! 
No Case or Sex the furious flame would spare; 
Each Gender in this loss had common share; 

1 Oxford Drollery^ pt. iii. : Oxford Drollery, being New Poems and 
Songs, the first part composed by W. H. (William Hickes) ; the second 
and third parts upon several occasions made by the most Eminent and 
Ingenious Wits of the University : Oxford, 1671. The earliest appearance 
of the above poem which I have been able to trace, is that made in a book 
published in 1635, an( ^ entitled The Grammer Warre or the Eight Parts 
of Speech (being a translation by W. Haywarde made in 1569 of A. Guarna's 
Bellum Grammatical] . There the poem is called "The lamentable 
burning of a Pettie Schoole." The book has an introduction by I. S, 



144 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Here might you see the rueful Declinations 
Of fifteen Pronouns and four Conjugations: 
Some Gerunds Di, and some Do, overcome; 
And some with heat and smoke are quite strooke 

Dum : 

Supines were gasping upward, void of senses ; 
And Moods grew mad to see Imperfect Tenses: 
Adverbs of Place fell from their lofty stories, 
As Ubi, Ibi, Illic, Intus, Foris: 
Conjunctions so disjoined, as you would wonder; 
No coupling scarce, but it was rent asunder. 
The Prepositions knew not where to be; 
Each Interjection cried " Heu ! " " Woe is me ! " 
For the due joining of which things again 
A neighbour called ; " Qui mihi " came amain ; 
Else sure the fire had into flame so turned 
That Gods, Men, Months, Rivers, Winds, and all 

had burned. 

Then gan the flame the Heteroclites to cumber, 
And poor Supellex lost her plural number; 
Of Verbs there scarce had scaped one in twenty, 
Had there not been perchance As in Praesenti: 
(Yet for all this the fire so great it waxes, 
That it did quite undo my lord Syntaxis: 
Had Noun and Verb been there, O none could 

bail ye,. 

For it destroyed old Verbum Personale. 
Had the Figura but appeared, it would have shewn 

ye a 

Burning trick, for it destroyed Prosodia : 
Which is the cause, I fear, as late I see J t, 
Our verses run so lamely on their feet; 
For Jambicks, Spondees, and the rest o' the crew 
Were utterly destroyed. So had you been too, 
Had you been there ; but yet our honest Billy 
Nere so much loved the rules of William Lilley, 
As to be burned for 's sake ; but stood aloof to see 
Both Masculine, Feminine, Neuter, all i' fire to agree). 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 145 

LOVE-SONGS OF SCHOLARS 

Aspire, my gentle Muse, inflame my breast; 
Then thus my gracefull love shall be exprest: 
Her Brow is like a brave Heroicke line 
That does a sacred Majestic inshrine. 
Her Nose Phaleuciake-like in comely sort 
Ends in a Trochie, or a long and short. 
Her Mouth is like a pretty Dimeter; 
Her Eie-browes like a little longer Trimeter. 
Her Chinne is an Adonicke; and her Tongue 
Is an Hypermeter somewhat too long. 
Her Eies, I may compare them unto two 
Quick-turning Dactyles for their nimble View. 
Her Neck Asclepiad-like turnes round about 
Behind, before a little bone stands out, 
Her Ribs like Staves of Sapphickes doe de- 
scend 

Thither, which but to name were to offend. 
Her Armes, like two lambickes, rais'd on high, 
Doe with her Brow beare equall Majestic. 
Her Legs, like two strait Spondees, keep a pace 
Slow as two Scazons, but with stately grace. 
BARTEN HOLYDAY (Ch. Ch.), Technogamia, or 
the Marriages of the Arts, a Comedy 
acted by the Students of Christ Church 
in Oxford before the University at 
Shrovetide (London, 1618) 



I loved a lass, a fair one, 
As fair as e'er was seen; 

She was indeed a rare one, 
Another Sheba Queen. 

But fool as then I was, 

I thought she loved me too; 

But now alas ! she's left me, 

Falero, lero, loo. 
10 



146 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

In summer-time to Medley 

My love and I would go; 
The boatmen there stood ready 

My love and I to row. 
For cream there would we call, 

For cakes and pruines too ; 
But now alas ! she's left me, 

Falero, lero, loo. 

Her cheeks were like the cherry, 

Her skin was white as snow; 
When she was blithe and merry, 

She angel-like did shew: 
Her waist exceeding small, 

The fives did fit her shoe: 
But now alas ! she's left me, 

Falero, lero, loo. 

As we walked home together 

At midnight through the Town, 
To keep away the weather 

O'er her I'd cast my Gown : 
No cold my Love should feel, 

Whate'er the heavens could do: 
But now alas ! she's left me, 

Falero, lero, loo. 

Like doves we would be billing, 

And clip and kiss so fast; 
Yet she would be unwilling 

That I should kiss the last. 
They're Judas-kisses now, 

Since they have proved untrue, 
For now alas ! she's left me, 

Falero, lero, loo. 

If ever that Dame Nature, 

For this false lover's sake, 
Another pleasing creature 
Like unto her should make; 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 147 

Let her remember this, 

To make the other true, 
For this, alas! has left me, 

Falero, lero, loo. 

No riches now can raise me, 

No want make me despair ; 
No misery amaze me, 

Nor yet for want I care. 
I have lost a world itself; 

My earthly heaven, adieu ! 
Since she alas ! has left me, 

Falero, lero, loo. 

GEORGE WITHER, Magdalen College, 1604, 
A Love Sonnet (abridged) 

OXFORD FARE 

"Dulcissimis Capitibus invitatio ad frugi prandiolum 
una cum billa dietae." 

A poem by John Allibond of Magdalen College : 
matric. 1616; Master of Magdalen College School, 
1625-32; Rector of Bradwell, Gloucestershire, 1636- 
1658: and author of the well-known Rustica Acad. 
Oxon. nuper reformatae Descriptio . . . A.D. 1648. The 
present poem has been printed in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, April 1823 ; and in the Register of Magdalen 
College, ed. by J. R. Bloxam, II, Register of Clerks, 
p. 48. 

Evasit annus, ex quo Janus 

Commisit conjugales manus, 

Atque ipse amoris veteranus 
Emeritus sum factus. 

Porrexi ora, te ministro, 
Maritali turn capistro, 
Et Cythereo pulsus oestro 

Spes sum longas nactus. 



1 48 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Brawne. 



Ribbe and 
Rumpe of 
Beefe. 



Pye. 



Hen and 
Bacon. 



Pigge. 



Tongue 
and Udder. 



Dat mandata bifrons Deus, 
Celebretur Hymenaeus 
Quotannis: nisi mavis reus 
Esse indecori, 

Parendum est; Familiares 
Properate nostros lares 
Adire, et epulas vulgares 
Admovere ori. 

Proebebit aper colli partem 
Tortoris passus scitam artem, 
Quae prima famis feret Martem 
Pugnantem saevo ense : 

Sequetur assi costa bovis, 
Et salibus conditum novis 
Ejusdem tergus, dignum Jovis 
Quod apponatur mensae: 

Autocreae fumabunt, quales 
Divinos celebrant Natales, 
Unde odor aromaticalis 
Cerebrum intrabit. 

. Et cum gallina pmgue lardum 
Quod satiare possit guardum, 
Unless the hastye Cooke hath marr'd 'um, 
Mensam onerabit. 

Praeterea non decimalis 
Porcellus auribus et malis 
Ad latus finis adest, qualis 
Judaeis olim nefas. 

Insuper tenellum uber, 
Cui Romanum impar tuber, 
Et linguam, si quid ejus super- 
est, gustare te fas. 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 149 



Ascendit avis dein solium 
Quae salvum facit Capitolium, 
1 Brodwellianum pasta lollium, 
Coctis malis mersa. 

Et quam transmiserunt Indi, 
En ! volucris est presto scindi, 
Cepis, uti mos, hie inde 

Olentibus conspersa. 

Post apparatum demum istum, 
Cum ovis una farre pistum 
Lac sequitur; cui saccharum mistum 
Saporem dulcem proebet. 

Secunda erunt fercula 
Sales et epigrammata, 
And now and then our pocula 
Stans promus exhibebit. 

Et tamen nequid desit plane 
Nimietati Anglicanae, 
Habebitis convivae sane 

A foolish second service. 

Uxoris cura vobis partum 
Fumans en ! pippino-tartum, 
Quod, post fundo vulsam chartam, 
Frustatum quadris parvis, 

Discindit structrix. Ecce nostrum 
Longum gerens avis rostrum 
Invasit solum, quae in posterum 
Ignotas oras petit. 

Et hybernum sequens gelu 
Par anatum, ap<rgv KVU 0q\v, 
Whereof a part my wife will deal you 
And friendly bid you eate it. 

1 Either Broadwell, near Bampton in Oxfordshire ; or Bradwell in 
Gloucestershire, the rectory of which Allibond held from 1636 till his 
death in 1658. 



Goose. 



Turkey. 



Custard. 



Pippin- 
tart. 



Wood- 
cocke. 



Ducke and 
Mallard. 



ISO THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Larkes. Si minores quaeras aves, 

Quibus magis forsan faves, 
Alaudas scilicet vous avez 

With sugar crumbes and sawce. 

Fruite and Postremo caseum tractemus, 

Cheese. Et horna poma degustemus ; 

Et tandem gratias agemus 

Cum "Soli Summo Laus." 

Apud vos si forte pondus 
Habeat vester Allibondus, 
Adeste; dabit promus condus 
E meliori vini testa. 

Vocat hospitalis Hymen ; 
Calcate nostrum vestrum limen; 
Citate, quisque, gradum ; 

TOUT 



EPULAE OXONIENSES 

or a jocular relation of a banquet presented to the 
best of Kings by the best of Prelates, in the year 1636 
in the mathematick library of St. John Baptist's 
College a poem by Edmund Gayton, Fellow of St. 
John Baptist College, describing the entertainment 
of King Charles I by Archbishop Laud, Chancellor 
of the University of Oxford. 

THE SONG 

It was (my staff upon 't ! *) in Thirty Six, 
Before the Notes were wrote on great Don Quix, 2 
That this huge Feast was made by that High Priest 
Who did caress the Royalest of Guests; 
Oves and Boves ; yes, and Aves too, 
Pisces, and what the whole Creation knew. 

1 Gayton was superior Bedell of Arts and Physic, in 1636. 

2 Gayton published his Pleasant Notes upon Don Quixote in 1654. 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 151 

For every creature there was richly drest, 
As numerous as was great Nevil's feast. 1 
Here we crave leave only to make you smile, 
For in the Term we must be grave awhile, 
At the exhibit of a banquet brought 
Where all our gown-men were in marchpane wrought. 2 

The ladies watered 'bout the mouth to see 
And taste so sweet a Universitee. 
In mighty chargers of most formal paste 
A Convocation on the board was plac't : 
In Cap and Hood and narrow-sleeved Gown, 
Just as you see them now about the Town : 

With this conceited difference alone ; 
The Scholars now do walk, and then did run. 
There might you see, in honour of his place, 
Mr. Vice-Chancellor with every Mace; 
The greater Staffs in thumping marchpane made, 
The smaller, the small stick of the small blade. 

And, after these, as if my brethren's call 
Had fetched them up, (Sol, Hal, and Stout Wil. 

Ball,) 

In humble postures of a bowing leg 
Appeared the Doctors, Masters Reg., non Reg.: 
Then in a mass, a sort of various Caps, 
(But could not hum, for sealed were their Chaps), 

1 The Inception-banquet of George Nevil, brother to the great Earl of 
Warwick, October 1452. The University was entertained for two days : 
on the first, 600 messes of meat were served ; and on the second, 300, for 
the Scholars and certain of the Proceeder's relations and acquaintance : 
see Anthony Wood, Annals, A.D. 1452. 

2 Thomas Crosfield, Fellow of Queen's College, and at this time resident 
in the University, writes in his diary: "The baked meats served up in 
St. John's were so contrived, that there was first the forms of archbishops, 
then bishops, doctors, etc. , seen in order ; wherein the king and courtiers 
took much content" (Laud's Works (Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology), 
vol. v. p. 152, History of Chancellorship}. 



152 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Crowded the Senate, as if they'd mind to heare 
Some speech, or fall upon themselves the cheare. 
It put their Majesties unto the laugh, 
To see the Bedels resigne up every staff, 
And were eat up ; not, as it used to be, 
Returned by his gracious Majestic. 

I think that Jeffrey, waiting on the Queen, 1 
Devoured at one champ the Verger clean. 
But then (O rude!), as at a Proctor's choice 
In run the Masters, just like little boys, 
So did the Ladies and their servants fall 
Upon the marchpane Shew, Doctors and all. 

The Noblemen, like to Clarissimos, 
Grandees of Venice, did adorn these shews 
In velvet round-caps some, and some in square, 
(A spectacle most excellent and rare :) 
But their good Ladyships most courteously 
Simpered, and eat the soft Nobility. 

Never was Oxford in such woeful case, 
Unless when Pembroke did expound the place: 2 
Here lay a Doctor's Scarlet, there a Hood 
Trod under foot, which others snatch't for food : 
Caps, Gowns, and all Formalities were rent, 
As if the Show had been i' th' Schools in Lent. 3 

1 Jeffrey Hudson, the dwarf; who entered Queen Henrietta's service 
about the year 1630. 

2 The parliamentary visitation, conducted by Philip, Earl of Pembroke, 
when Colleges were purged of all royalist members (1648). 

3 " ( Coursing' in the Schools, which in olden times had been intended 
for a trial of skill in logic, metaphysics and school divinity, now ended 
not infrequently in affronts, hissing, stamping with the feet, and shoving with 
the shoulders between members of rival Colleges" : see Life of Anthony 
Ashley Cooper (Exeter College, 1636), by W. D. Christie: cf. Laud's 
Works, v. 71, 216; Wood's Life and Times, Oxford Histor. Soc., i. 
299-300, ii. 75, 83; and Mars Togatus or Fighting in the Schools, in 
Edmund Elys (Balliol College, 1651), his Dia Poemata or Poetick Feet 
standing upon Holy Ground, London, 1655. 



HALCYON DAYS, 1600-1636 A.D. 153 

Chorus 

If in the Trojan Horse inclosed were 
Men of the Helmet, Target, Sword, and Spear ; 
If by ingenious Pencil ere was cut 
The learned Homer's Iliads in a Nut ; 
Why in a Bisk or Marchpane Oleo 
Might not a Convocation be a Shew, 
Where, for to please the beauteous Ladies' bellies 
Masters were set in Paste, Scholars in Jellies? 



CHAPTER VII 

THE GREAT REBELLION 

OXFORD IN THE GREAT REBELLION 

NOW you will find the World hath been so 
tost, ^ 

The Music of our Academe is lost; 
For since the State in Civill Warres has burned, 
Our silken Hoods have all to Scarfes been turned ; 
'Mongst us there's scarce a Verse, nay Line, without 
"Charge!", "To the Front!", "To the Reere!", and 
"Right about!" 

Musarum Oxon. Epibateria, Oxford, 1643 

THE OXONIAN IN THE GREAT REBELLION 






Treasure of Armes and Artes, in whom were set 
The Sword and Bookes, the Camp and Colledge met ; 
Yet both so wove, that in the mingled throng 
They both comply, and neither neither wrong; 
But poised and tempered, each reserved its seat, 
Nor did the Learning quench, but guide the Heate. 
The Valour was not of the furious straine; 
The Hand that struck, did first consult the Braine: 
Hence grew Commerce betwixt Advice and Might ; 
The Scholler did direct, the Souldier fight. 

" Elegie on C. W. H., slaine at Newark," Men- 
Miracles, by.M. LL., Student of Christ 
Church (i.e. MARTIN LLUELLYN), 1646 



154 



THE GREAT REBELLION 155 

A.D. 1641 

ON THE EVE OF THE WAR 

Oxford acknowledges the mercy of Heaven in bring- 
ing the King safe home again from Scotland, to be the 
defender of the Muses against a Fanaticism that would 
banish from them both maintenance and glory. She 
begs Charles to protect Learning from Ignorance; 
that Ignorance which, coupled with Self-Conceit, was 
engendering at the time in the most dull and mechanic 
breasts the pestilent conception that they as well under- 
stood the mysteries of Faith and Purity of Religion, 
as did the most orthodoxal and learned Divines and 
Doctors. 1 

EucJiaristica Oxon. in exoptatissimum Caroli regis e 
Scotia Reditum gratulatoria, Oxon. 1641 

We are revived : 't is Treason now to faint : 
Just with such joy Angels receive a Saint, 

1 The leading case on this point is that of the inspired Cobbler How, 
and his Sermon on the Sufficiency of the Spirit -without Humane Learning 
(1640). 

' ' What How ! How now hath How such Learning found 
To cast Art's curious image to the ground? 
Cambridge and Oxford must their glory now 
Vail to a Cobbler, if they know but How : 
Though big with Art, they cannot overtop 
The Spirit's teaching in a Cobbler's Shop." 
Cf. Insignia Civic as ; the Regiment of grutching Anti- Royalists, 
Oxford, 1643. 

"Their envious mouthguns they discharge at home, 
Where every Cobbler is a Statesman grown. 
Knowing how to Mend the Commonwealth, these Fools 
Would have no King, no Learning, and no Schools, 
No Crosses, Bells, no Service that's Divine, 
But Sermons made in Tubs and Casks of Wine. 
By Ignorance they would pull Phoebus down ; 
And, like to Phaeton, every Cobbling Clown 
Would mount into the Chariot of the Sun, 
And Set the World on Fire, as he'd have done." 
See, too, the punning "Epitaph" on How, among Robert Heath's 
Epigrams , London, 1650. 



156 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

As we greet your Returne. The Soul that's gone 

And widdowed till the Resurrection, 

Comes not more welcome to the Trunk, than You 

To Us, who are our Life and Glory too. 

Factious Report had raised so many Feares, 

That 't was our serious wish to have no eares : 

Sometimes the Rumour was, our Schooles should be 

Made an Exchange, yet yield Divinity; 

'T was thought an Heresy to take Degrees, 

Nor was Use-money worse than Bedel's Fees : 

This made some credulous Braines watch late and 

sweat, 

Studying to learn the Arte, Artes to forget. 
Nor was this all our Fright ; 't was further said, 
They 'Id have our Purse as Empty as our Head : 
Should some have had their Wish, Divines had 

binne 

Threadbare as Poets, Wealth had binne a Sinne, 
And Titles, Popery; although there be 
Neither in Parts and Paines a Parity, 
Yet Stipends should be Equal ; no Reward 
The more for him that Studied or Dranke hard. 
But Your Approach confutes these Pamphlets: 

We 

Laughing at them, return to the Library. 
You shed your beames to Worth in order; thus 
Your gifts, like Nature's, are still various: 
Though learned and reverend Patriarchs have bin, 
As dangerous Books, still like to be called in, 
Yet Preachers shall be Schollers : You'll advance 
Goodnesse and Art, not Lungs and Ignorance. 
****** 

R. WEST, Student of Christ Church. 



A.D. 1642 

Aug. 23 : The Royal Standard was set up at 
Nottingham. A double Chronogram on the year 1642, 



THE GREAT REBELLION 157 

the one in Latin, the other in the English of that 
Latin : 

tV DeVs laM propItIVs sis regl regnoqVe hVIC 
VniVerso ! 

O goD, noVV sheVV faVoVr to the king anD this 

VVhoLe LanD ! 

ABRAHAM WRIGHT (St. John Baptist College), 
Parnassus Biceps, 1656 

Sep. 12: A body of rebel troopers entered Oxford, 
and put their horses for the night into Christ 
Church meadows. Many of them came into Christ 
Church to view the cathedral and the painted windows 
therein, much admiring at the idolatry thereof. Wood's 
Life and Times, Oxf. Hist. Soc. 

" Christ Church Windows, a poem in defence of the 
decent ornaments of Christ Church, Oxford, occasioned 
by a Banbury brother who called them idolatrous"; 
found among Cleveland's poems in J. Cleaveland 
Revived (1658), but not included in Clievelandi 
Vindiciae, or Cs genuine poems (1677); attributed to 
R. W. in MS. CLXXVI, Corp. Christ. Coll. Library. 
Banbury was long infested by Puritans. It was there, 
that " Zeal-of-the-Land Busy " lived, who gave up 
baking Banbury Cakes, because they were eaten at 
bridals, maypoles, and other profane feasts (Ben Jonson, 
Bartholomew Fair, 1614); an d also the fanatic "who 
hanged his cat on Monday, for killing of a mouse on 
Sunday," as recorded in R. Brathwaite's Barnabys 
Journal (\6-tf>\ 

You that prophane our Windows with a tongue 
Set, like some Clock, on purpose to go wrong; 
Who when you were at Service, sighed because 
You heard the Organ's Music, not the Daws ; 
Pitying our solemn State; shaking the head, 
To see not ruins from the Floor to the Lead : 



158 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

To whose pure nose our Cedar gave offence, 

Crying, It smelt of Papist's Frankincense; 

Who walking on our Marbles, scoffing said 

Whose Bodies are under these Tombstones laid? 

Counting our Tapers Works of Darkness, and 

Choosing to see Priests in blew Aprons stand, 

Rather than in rich Copes which shew the art 

Of Sisera's Prey embroidered in each part: 

Then, when you saw the Altar's Bason, said 

Why's not the Ewer on the Cupboard laid ? 

Thinking our very Bibles too profane, 

'Cause you ne'er bought such Covers in Duck-lane: 1 

Loathing all Decency, as if you'ld have 

Altars as foul and homely as a Grave : 

Had you one spark of Reason, you would find 

Yourselves, like Idols, to have Eyes, yet Blind. 

'Tis only some base niggard Heresie 

To think Religion loves Deformity; 

Glory did never yet make God the less, 

Neither can Beauty defile Holiness. 

What's more magnificent than Heaven, yet where 

Is there more Love and Piety than there? 

My Heart doth wish, were't possible, to see 

Paul's built with Precious Stones and Porphyry: 

To have our Halls and Galleries outshine 

Altars in Beauty, is to deck our Swine 

With Orient Pearl, while the deserving Quire 

Of God and Angels wallows in the Mire. 

Our decent Copes only distinction keep 

That you may know the Shepherd from the Sheep, 

As Gaudy Letters in the Rubrick show 

How you may Holy Days from Lay Days know ; 

Remember Aaron's Robes, and you will say 

Ladies at Masque are not so rich as they: 

Then are the Priest's Words Thunder-Claps, when he 

Is Lightning-like ray'd down like Majesty. 

1 Duck-lane, West Smithfield ; a place generally inhabited by sellers 
of old and second-hand books. 



THE GREAT REBELLION 159 

May every Temple shine like those at Nile, 

And still be free from Rat and Crocodile ! 

But you will urge, both Priest and Church should be 

The Solemn Partners of Humility 

Do not some Boast of Rags? Cynics . deride 

The pomp of Kings, but with a greater Pride. 

Meekness consists not in the Clothes, but Heart; 

Nature may be Vain-glorious well as Art: 

We may as Lowly before God appear, 

Drest with a Glorious Pearl, as with a Tear; 

In His High Presence, where the Stars and Sun 

Do but Eclipse, there's no Ambition. 

You dare admit gay paint upon a Wall; 
Why then on Glass that's held Apocryphal : 
Our Bodies Temples are: look in the Eye, 
The Window, and you needs must Pictures spy ; 
Moses and Aaron and the King's Arms are 
Daub'd in the Church, where you the Wardens were ; 
Yet you ne'er fin'd for Papist: Shall we say 
Banbury is turned Rome, because we may 
See th' Holy " Lamb " and " Christopher " ; nay more, 
The "Altar-Stone" set at the tavern door? 1 
Why can't the Ox then in the Nativity 
Be imaged forth, but Papal Bulls are nigh? 
Our Pictures to no other end are made, 
Than is your Time and 's Bill, your Death and 's Spade ; 
To us they're but Mementos, which present 
Christ's Birth, except His Word and Sacrament. 
If 't were a Sin to set up Imagery, 
To Get a Child were flat Idolatry: 
The Models of our Buildings would be thus 
Directions to our Houses, Ruins to us; 
Hath not each Creature which hath daily breath 
Something then which Resembles heaven or earth? 

1 Until about 1770, in a niche in a piece of stonework about ten feet 
high, standing under the sign of an inn in Banbury, called the Altar-Stone 
Inn, was a stone, pronounced by antiquaries to have been a Roman 
Altar : see J. N. Brewer's Oxfordshire, p. 525. 



1 60 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



The Re- 
surrection. 



The En- 
tombment. 



The story 
of Jonah. 



Suppose some Ignorant Heathen once did bow 
To Images: may We not See them now? 
Should We love Darkness and Abhor the Sun, 
'Cause Persians give it Adoration ? 
And plant no Orchards, because Apples first 
Made Adam and his lineal race Accurst? 
Though Wine for Bacchus, Bread for Ceres went, 
Yet both are used in the Sacrament. 
What then if these are Popish Reliques? Few 
Windows are elsewhere old, but these are new; 
And so exceed the former, that the Face 
Of these comes short of th' Outside of our Glass : 
Colours are here mixed so, that Rainbows be, 
Compared, but Clouds without variety. 
Art here is Nature's Envy : this is he, 
Not Paracelsus, that by chymistry 
Can make a Man from Ashes, if not Dust, 
Producing Offspring of his Mind, not Lust : 
See how he Makes his Maker, and doth draw 
All that is meant i' th' Gospel and the Law: 

Looking upon the Resurrection, 
Methought I saw a blessed Vision, 
Where not His Face is merely drawn, but Mind 
Which not with Paint, but Oil of Gladness, Shined : 

But when I viewed the next pane, where we have 
The God of Life transported to the Grave, 
Light then is Dark, all things so Dull and Dead 
As if that part o' th' window had been Lead. 

Jonas, his Whale did so men's eyes befool 
That they have begged him for th' Anatomy School : 
That he saw Ships at Oxford, one did swear, 
Though Isis yet will scarcely Barges bear: 1 

1 In 1624, an Act of Parliament (21 Jac. I, c. 32) was made "for the 
opening of the Thames from Burcote by Abendon to Oxford." Crosfield 
of Queen's College records in his diary: "On Aug. 31, 1635, a barge 
was brought up the Thames to Oxford, which was the first ever came." 
Previous to this date, owing to the river being choked up, there was no 
water-carriage higher than Maidenhead : see " Historic Towns " Series, 
Oxford, 137. 



heart of the 

SC3-J 



THE GREAT REBELLION 161 

Another, soon as he the Trees espied, 
Thought him i' th' Garden on the other side. 

See in what State (though on an Ass) Christ went ! The entry into 
This shews more Glorious than the Parliament. 

Then in what awe Moses his Rod doth keep The passage of 

The Seas ; as if the Frost had glazed the deep, ^TJwfiSfe 

The raging Waves are to themselves a bound stood upright, 

Some cry Help, help ! or Horse and Man are drowned ! ^ * ^ epths 
Shadows do everywhere for Substance pass, gealed in the 

You'd think the Sands were in an Hour-glass. 

- 

You that do live with Surgeons, have you seen xv. 8. 
A spring of blood forced from a swelling vein ? 
So from a touch of Moses' Rod doth jump Moses and the 

A Cataract : The Rock is made a Pump; Rock - 

At sight of whose O'erflowings, many get 
Themselves away for fear of being Wet. 

Have you beheld a sprightful Lady stand 
To have her Frame drawn by the Painter's hand? 
Such lively look and presence, such a dress, 
King Pharaoh's Daughter's Image doth express : Pharaoh's 

Look well upon her Gown, and you will swear daughter. 

The Needle, not the Pencil, had been there: 
At sight of Her, some Gallants do dispute 
Whether in Church 'tis lawful to Salute. 

Next, Jacob kneeling; where his kid-skin's such, Isaac and 
As it may well cozen old Isaac's touch. Jacob. 

A Shepherd, seeing how Thorns went round about Abraham's 
Abraham's Ram, would needs have Helped it Out. sacrifice. 

Behold the Dove descending to inspire Pentecost 

Th' Apostles' Heads with cloven tongues of fire; 
And in a Superficies there you'll see 
The gross dimensions of Profundity: 
'Tis hard to judge which is best built and higher, 
The Arch Roof in the Window or 'n the Quire. 

All Beasts, as in the Ark, are lively done ; The Ark. 

Nay, you may see the shadow of the sun : 
Upon the Landskip if you look a while, 
You'll think the Prospect at least Forty Mile. 
11 



1 62 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

There's none needs now go Travel, we may see 
Jerusalem, At Home Jerusalem and Nineveh, 

Nineveh, A , ~ . . 

Sodom. And Sodom now in r lames: one glance will dart 

Farther than Lynce with Galilaeus' Art. 
Elijah's Seeing Elijah's Chariot, we fear 

doT sla ~ There is some fier y P rodi gy i' th> Air - 

Purifica- When Christ to purge His Temple holds his Whip, 
Temple^ 6 How nimbly Hucksters with their baskets skip ! 
St. Peter. St. Peter's Fishes are so lively wrought, 

Some Cheapen them, and ask where they were 

Caught. 

Here's Motion painted too : Chariots so fast 
Run, that they're never gone, though always past. 

The Angels with their Lutes are done so true, 
We do not only Look, but Hearken too, 
As if their Sounds were Painted : thus the wit 
O' th' Pencil hath drawn more than there can Sit. 

Cease then your Railings and your dull Complaints. 
To pull down Galleries and set up Saints 
Is no Impiety: now may we well 
Say that our Church is truly Visible. 
Those that, before our Glass, Scaffolds prefer, 
Would turn our Temple to a Theater. 
Windows are Pulpits now : though Unlearn'd, one 
May Read this Bible's New Edition. 
Instead of here and there a Verse, adorn'd 
Round with a lace of paint, fit to be scorn'd 
Even by vulgar eyes, each Pane presents 
Whole Chapters with both Comment and Contents. 
The Cloudy Mysteries of the Gospel here 
Transparent as the Chrystal do appear. 
'T is not to see things Darkly, through a Glass; 
Here you may see our Saviour, Face to Face : 
And whereas Feasts come Seldom, here's descried 
A Constant Christmas, Easter, Whitsuntide. 
Let the Deaf hither come ! no matter though 
Faith's Sense be Lost, we can a New Way shew ; 



THE GREAT REBELLION 163 

Here we can teach them to Believe by th' Eye; 

These Silenced Ministers do Edifie : 

The Scripture's Rays contracted in a Glass, 

Like Emblems, do with Greater Virtue pass : 

Look in the Book of Martyrs ; you will see 

More by the Pictures than the History: 

That price for things in colours oft we give, 

Which we'd not take to have them, while they live ; 

Such is the power of painting, that it makes 

A living sympathy 'twixt men and snakes. 

Hence then Paul's Doctrine may seem more Divine, 

As Amber through a Glass doth Clearer shine: 

Words pass away, as soon as headache gone ; 

We Read in Books, what Here we Dwell upon ; 

Thus then there's no more fault in Imagery 

Than there's in the Practice of Piety ; 

Both Edify: what is in Letters there, 

Is writ in plainer Hieroglyphics here. 

'Tis not a New Religion we have chose; 

'Tis the same Body, but in better Clothes. 

You'll say they make us Gaze, when we should Pray, 

And that our Thoughts do to the Figures stray: 

If so, you may conclude us Beasts : what They 

Have for their Object, is to Us the Way. 

Did any e'er use Perspective to see 

No further than the Glass? or can there be 

Such Lazy Travellers, so given to sin, 

As that they'll take their Dwelling at an Inn? 

A Christian's Sight Rests in Divinity : 

Signs are but Spectacles to help Faith's Eye. 

God is a Center dwelling on these words 

My Muse a Sabbath to my Brains affords: 

If then nice Wits more solemn proof exact, 

Know this was meant a Poem, not a Tract. 1 

1 The windows described in this poem were those which, "admirably 
well-performed by the exquisite hand of Abraham Van Ling, a Dutch- 
man," were placed in the Cathedral about the year 1630, Brian Duppa 
being Dean of Christ Church at the time. Many of them must have 




1 64 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

A.D. 1643 

After the battle of Edgehill, Oxford became the 
headquarters of the royal army and the chief seat of 
the royal government. Her Schools were converted into 
Magazines for Military Stores, her Colleges into lodg- 
ings for Courtiers and Soldiers ; and her Sons of all 
degrees and ages took up arms for the King. In this 
year a malignant fever, known as the camp disease, 
became prevalent in the crowded city, and many a good 
Scholar-Soldier was untimely snatched away thereby. 

"To my Lord B. of S. on New Yeares Day, 1643," 
perhaps John Digby, Earl of Bristol (of Sherborne), the 
diplomatist. 

Though with the course and motion of the year, 

Not only Stars and Sun 

Move where they first begun ; 

But Things and Actions do 

Keep the same Circle too, 
Returned to the same point in the same Sphere. 

Griefs and their Causes still are where they stood, 

'Tis the same Cloud and Night 

Shuts up our Joys and Light: 

Wars as remote from Peace, 

And Bondage from Release, 
As when the Sun his last year's Circuit rode. 

Though Sword and Slaughter are not parted hence, 

But We, like Years and Times, 

Meet in unequal chimes, 

Now a Cloud and then a Sun ; 

Undo, and are undone; 
Let loose and stopped by th' Orb's intelligence: 

perished during the Puritan Usurpation, and when the fanatic Henry 
Wilkinson, a Canon, " tore down the painted windows of the Cathedral 
and stamped furiously upon them " : but three at any rate survived until 
modern times, namely "Sodom and Gomorrah," "Christ disputing with 
the Elders," and the ever memorable "Jonah and his Gourd," dated 
respectively 1634, 1640, and 1631. 



THE GREAT REBELLION 165 

Though Combats have so thick and frequent stood, 

That we at length may raise 

A Calendar of Days, 

And style them Foul or Fair 

By their Success, not Air; 
And sign our Festivals by Rebels' Blood. 

Though the sad years are clothed in such a dress 

That times to times give place, 

And seasons shift their grace, 

Not by our Cold or Heat, 

But Conquest or Defeat : 
And Loss makes Winter ; Summer, Happiness. 

Nay, though a greater Ruin yet await; The new 

Such as the Active Curse 

Sent to make Worst Times Worse, 

Death's keen and secret Dart, 

The Shame of Herbs and Art, 
Which proves at once our Wonder and our Fate: 

Though these conspire to sully our request 

And labour to destroy 

And kill our New Year's joy: 

Yet still your wonted Art 

Will keep our wish in heart, 
Proportion'd not to th' rimes but to your breast. 
Thus in the Storm you Calm and Silence find, 
Not Sword nor Sickness can approach your mind. 
MARTIN LLUELLYN, Stud, of Christ Church, 
Men-Miracles, 1646 

"Mad Verse, glad Verse, bad Verse: Cut out, and 
slenderly stitched together by John Taylor," Oxford, 
May 10, 1644 ( Works of John Taylor, the water-poet, 
Spenser Society). John Aubrey writes in his Brief 
Lives-. "Anno 1643, at the Act time, I saw John 
Taylor at Oxford. I guess he was then near 50. I 



1 66 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

remember he was of middle stature, had a good quick 
look, a black velvet, a plush gippe, and silver shoulder- 
belt." Anthony Wood adds, that " he kept a common 
victualling house, and was much esteemed by the Court 
and the poor remnant of the Scholars, for his facetious 
company and for the pasquils which he wrote against 
the Roundheads." 

Much about Easter-time I came to Oxford, 
Where are some few knaves and some Misers fox- 
furred : 

In Christ Church garden then a gladsome sight was, 
My sovereign King and many a Peer and Knight 

was, 

The hopeful Prince, and James, Dux Eboracensis, 
Whom God preserve from Rebels' false pretences ! 
The Sunne of Sacred Majesty did frustrate 
My former griefes, and all my joys illustrate : 
His gracious Eye did see where I did stand, straight 
He came to me, put out his royal hand straight, 
Which on my knees I humbly kneeled and kissed it; 
I rather had left all I had, than missed it. 
But now at Oxford I am safe arrived, 
How to be well-employed my brains contrived ; 
My purse was turned a Brownist or a Roundhead, 
* A com jr or a u ti^ Crosses * in it were confounded : 
with a For some employment I myself must settle ; 
cross. Fire must k e had to boyle the pot and kettle. 

Then by my Lords Commissioners, and also 
By my good King, (whom all good subjects call so), 
I was commanded by the Water Baillie 
To see the rivers cleansed both nights and daily; 
Dead Hogges, Dogges, Cats and well-flay'd carrion 

Horses, 

Their noisome corpses soiled the water-courses; 
Both Swines and Stable-dung, Beasts, Guts, and 

Garbage, 
Street-dirt with gardeners' weeds and other herbage : 



THE GREAT REBELLION 167 

And from these waters' filthy putrefaction 
Our meat and drink were made, which bred infection. 
Myself and partner, with cost, pains, and travel, 
Saw all made clean from carrion, mud, and gravel ; 
And now and then was punished a delinquent, 
By which good means away the filth and stink went. 
Besides, at all commands we served all warrants 
To take boats for most necessary arrants, 
To carry ammunition, food, and fuel, 
The last of which, last winter, was a jewel ; 
Poor soldiers that were maimed or sick or wounded 
By the curst means of some rebellious roundhead, 
To carry and recarry them, our care was, 
To get them boats, as cause both here and there was. 
Thus have I been employed ; besides, my trade is 
To write some pamphlets to please Lords and 
Ladies. 

"On April 26, Reading capitulated to the Earl of 
Essex. The great want at Oxford at that time (if 
any one particular might deserve that style, where all 
necessary things were wanted) was ammunition. The 
fortification moreover was very slight and unfinished, 
and there was no public magazine of victual in store ; 
while the Court, a multitude of nobility and ladies and 
gentry, with which it was inhabited, bore any kind of 
alarm very ill. If Essex had made any show of moving 
with his whole body that way, I do persuade myself 
Oxford and all those parts had been quitted to them " : 
Clarendon's History of the Rebellion. Essex however 
stayed at Reading, and in the beginning of May 
convoys of arms and ammunition reached Oxford from 
Queen Henrietta ; and Charles was placed in a position 
to defy any force that could be sent against him. 

"A Letter sent to London from a Spie at Oxford, 
written by owle-light, intercepted by moonlight, printed 
in the twilight, dispersed by daylight, and may be read 



1 68 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

by candle-light, ' To his Hon. and Worshipful friends, 
Mr. Pym and to all worthy members, authors and aiders 
of this holy Rebellion': which letter was intercepted 
and taken prisoner by John Taylor at Layghton Buzzard 
on Thursday 22nd of April : Printed in the year 1643 " 
(John Taylor's Works, Spenser Society). 

Most religious, renowned, and notorious Patriots. 

The extreme necessitie that these parts are in 
through the scarcity of all kinds of victuals, makes me 
conceive that the Malignants cannot hold out long. 

The wants and extremities in the King's party are 
for the most part in the particulars following : Tobacco- 
pipes, in the first place, are but four for a penny ; 
Wheat is dear at three shillings and eight-pence the 
bushel ; Mault is at the high price of eighteen shillings 
the quarter ; Beef is so scarce that they are fain to pay 
twenty-pence the stone for it, and they cannot have it 
at that rate neither, till every stone weight be as dead 
as a stone ; their Mutton and Veal is such that if you 
had it in London, you would not give it to your dogs ; 
besides which, they are fain to dress it with old wood 
so tough that no creature is able to eat it ; also their 
Potage and Brpath is made so scalding hot*, they are 
forced to blow 'em or let 'em stand and coole : they 
have not one Baker in Oxford that hath the art to bake 
stale bread ; and the Brewers do brew their Beere and 
Ale so new that for the present it is not for any one's 
drinking ; all manner of Fish (fresh and salt) is at such 
prices that no man can buy any at all without credit or 
ready money; Horse.-meat is in that want, that one 
load of threshed oats here is valued at the price of two 
loads of hay with you there, for the lowest price is 
twelve shillings a quarter ; Grass is eaten so bare that 
the horses are fain to feed as high as their eyes for 
seven miles compass about the city ; and though Stable- 
room be hard to be had often, yet they are so foolishly 
mannerly that they will not put the Churches to that 



THE GREAT REBELLION 169 

use, as you know me and our armies do in the most 
places where we come. 

Thus have I shewed you briefly the miserable con- 
dition of Oxford, and that in all appearance the 
Malignant Forces will not stay long here ; so that it 
is the most politick point of War, and the safest and 
speediest way to win a City, Town, Castle, Strength, or 
Fortress, when the Inhabitants are weakest and most 
unable to make resistance; and men are never in worse 
case to stand in opposition than when they are hunger- 
starved with want and necessity. 

But alas ! dear Brethren (in Iniquity), you have let 
leap such a whiteing, and slipped such an opportunity 
in not making upon Oxford all this while, the King and 
his armies being busy at Bristol and at the siege of that 
brave stiff-necked garrison and city of Gloucester; so 
that Oxford might have been taken, if his Ess Ex- 
cellency, and the valiant nicknamed Conquerour, 1 had 
but looked upon it with forty men and one gun, as 
easily as you may go to Islington and eat a mess of 
cream ; but such advantages you have let slip, so that 
now you may cast your caps at it. 

On July 14, Queen Henrietta Maria entered Oxford, 
bringing with her much-needed money, arms, and 
ammunition. She was greeted in her new character 
of a warrior-queen by Oxford Clerks in a collection of 
poems, called Musarum Oxon. Epibateria, Oxford, 1643. 

The Birth of Princes our chief theme has been; 
For Schollars now, the Safety of the Queen. 
We now do run to meet you in the Field, 
Wherein we see your Fanne turned to a Shield; 
Upon your Cheeks the Royal Colours lie, 
The Rose and Lily in full Majestic: 

1 Sir William Waller, the parliamentary general, named "William the 
Conqueror" after his successes in Monmouthshire and Gloucestershire 
during March and April 1643. 



1 70 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Your lovely Look Commander is in Chief 

Of all our Hearts ; your Hands pour out relief 

To needy Soldiers; 'mongst your female train 

The Lady Money follows to sustain 

Your army with full force, which was not got 

By the Publike Faith, that handsome sugar'd Plot. 

Your sweet celestial Voice doth far more cheer 

Than any Trumpet, and forbids all fear. 

Among these poems is one composed by John Beesly, 
Fellow of New College, wherein he prays the Queen to 
enlighten a benighted nation : for, as Lord Clarendon 
writes in his History of those Times, " the people were 
infatuated into all the perverse actions of folly and 
madness . . . under pretence of zeal to religion, law, 
liberty, and parliaments (words of precious esteem in 
their just signification), they were furiously hurried into 
actions introducing atheism, and dissolving all the ele- 
ments of Christian religion ; cancelling all obligations, 
and destroying all foundations of law and liberty ; and 
rendering, not only the privileges, but the very being of 
parliaments desperate and impracticable." Beesly also 
describes the panics, fears, and suspicions which the 
war has excited in the Oxford Garrison. 

Great Luminary of our Clouded Sphere, 
In long Night of your Absence did appear 
Prodigious Works of Darknesse : Men grew blind 
Not only in the Eyes but in the Mind ; 
Walk't raving in their Dreames, acting new Rex 
About the Land, carelesse of Age and Sex. 
And once among the Ancients as was done 
By shrillest noise to help the groaning Moone 
With bells and basons, so were we faine here, 
Amidst this great Eclipse, to fright out feare 
With drums and trumpets: such loud Tumults 

made 
That few men know what they have done or said. 



THE GREAT REBELLION 171 

In this State Babell or Theomachie 

We nickname all things : Truth itselfs a Lie ; 

Atheisme, Religion ; Fury is termed Zeale ; 

Blood-thirsty Faction, Love to Commonweale ; 

Rapine is thrifty skilful Art ; to bring 

Armes against Charles is to Defend the King. 1 

Anything else but what men should, they doe 

In this eclipse of Sense and Reason too 

In Thessaly and such enchanted places 

All Things wear Masks and Vizards and strange 

Faces ; 

Coaches beat up alarms ; Forts made of Styles ; 
Bushes and Thistles go for Ranks and Files : 2 
All this in Calm of Peace, when Panick Feares 
Made us take Knives for Rapiers, Rods for Speares : 
But now we 'gin to smart ; in earnest we 
Do put in practice sceptick theory. 
Each Pit and Wrinkle in the brow entwines 
And wraps up strange unthought-upon designes. 
Spies, Scouts, and Traitors now-a-days go in 
The shape of dearest Friends and nearest Kin : 
Each man is least of all he seems or tells ; 
Thus they which boast of Faith, are Infidels : 
With some men all Apparel's voted down, 
Lest Men in Women's clothes should take a town : 
If their own messengers return again, 
They're either bribed, or changed to other men. 
Arrested Packets are ript up and read 
All backwards : A perhaps must now be Z ; 
Or in their Analytics C is D, 
And this must meane dreadfull State Mystery: 

1 See "The Oxford Riddle," post. 

2 See WoocTs Life and Times (Oxford Hist. Soc.) : "March 13, 
1643 : Sir Jacob Astley, governor of Oxford, ordered men to lop the 
trees and cut up the hedges about St. Clement's parish and toward Head- 
ington Hill, for the better discovery of the enemy, and clearer passage for 
shooting at them : June 12. 1643 ; Houses in St. Clement's Parish pulled 
down, and Bartholomew's grove cut down, for fear the enemy should 
harbour there." 



172 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Dove-houses must be search't, lest they bring home 
Some other winges and pennes beside their owne : 
The innocent white paper they suspect 
As soiled with guilty letters, and infect 
With Onions, Lemons, and Salt Ammonick, 
Milk, Egges, or Allum, some such magick trick, 
To charme the eyes of Saints. Therefore they dare 
Not trust the Dayrie or the Druggist's ware; 
Thus hath their Rack of Fancy all things wrest 
Who hatched that Chaos in their ruder breast. 1 

Come then, dispel and scatter, Queen of Light, 
These foggy vapours of the dreadful night ; 
Clear up these Mists of Error; break that Cloud 
That it dissolve not into Storms of Blood. 



THE OXFORD RIDDLE 

suggested by the contradictions and perplexities of 
the time (Single-sheet, printed by Leonard Lichfield : 
Oxford, 1643). 

There dwells a people on the earth, 
That reckons true Allegiance, Treason ; 
That makes sad War a holy Mirth; 
Calls Madness Zeal ; and Nonsense, Reason : 

1 See State Papers, Domestic, 1645, Preface, p. ix, and State Papers, 
Domestic, Addenda 1625-49, p. 657. Disguises were many : one spy 
was arrested at Newport-Pagnell, disguised as a fiddler (1644), and another 
was detected at Carlisle with despatches hidden in his wooden leg (1645) : 
in one case, despatches were conveyed between Raglan and Denbigh 
Castles, quilted in a truss of linen and tied next to the body of a woman- 
messenger ; in another, a woman, "Scotch Nan," travelled with letters 
hidden in her dress between the King and the Marquis of Montrose. 
Communications were frequently written in lemon -juice and the invisible 
ink of the period. Cyphers were prevalent. Words were often spelt 
inversely ; intelligence was frequently conveyed under guise of merchants' 
correspondence ; or romantic names were substituted for real ones : 
see letter dated Jan. 8, 1644, describing events at Oxford, from 
" Fidelia" to " Philitia," in which the King is mentioned under the name 
" Silvander " ; Queen, as " Eunabia Silvander"; Duke of Hamilton as 
" Polimuse," and Rupert as " Sylvia." 



THE GREAT REBELLION 173 

That finds no Freedom but in Slavery; 

That makes Lies Truth; Religion, Knavery: 

That robs and cheats with Yea and Nay : 
Riddle me, riddle me, who are They ? 

They hate the Flesh, yet kiss their Dames ; 
They make Kings great by Curbing Crowns ; 
They Quench the Fire by Kindling Flames; 
And settle Peace by Plundering Towns. 
They Govern with Implicite Votes, 
And Stablish Truth by Cutting Throats: 

They kiss their Master, and Betray : 
Riddle me, riddle me who are They? 

That make Heaven Speak by their Commission ; 
That stop God's peace and boast His power; 
That teach bold Blasphemy and Sedition, 
And pray High Treason by the hour ; 
That damn all Saints but such as they are, 
That wish all Common, except Prayer ; 

That idolize Pym, Brook, and Say : 
Riddle me, riddle me, who are They? 

That, to enrich the Commonwealth, 

Transport large gold to foreign states ; 

That housed in Amsterdam by stealth, 

Yet lord it here within our gates ; 

That are staid men, yet only Stay 

For a light night to Run Away ; 

That Borrow to Lend, and Rob to Pay : 
Riddle me, riddle me, who are They ? 

A.D. 1644 

May 29, on Wednesday, being the eve of the As- 
cension, Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, generalissimo 
of the parliament forces, and Sir William Waller, going 
with their forces from Abendon over Sandford Ferry, and 
so through Cowley and over Bullington Green, to the 



174 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

end that they might go towards Islip, faced the City of 
Oxford for several hours, whilst their carriages slipped 
away behind them. This gave some terror to the 
garrison of Oxford, his Majesty being then therein ; and 
great talk there was that a siege would quickly follow. 
Then were drawn up by Bishop Duppa, and printed by 
Leonard Lichfield, typographer to the University, two 
Prayers, the one for the Safety of his Majesty's Person, 
the other for the Preservation of the University and 
City of Oxford, to be used in all Churches and Chapels. 
And the second of these Prayers was, as follows : 

A PRAYER FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE 
UNIVERSITY AND CITY 

O Almighty God, who art the only sure Refuge and 
strong Tower of defence to all them that put their trust 
in Thee, receive our humble Petition ; save this City, 
this Nursery of the Church, and Thy afflicted People, 
from the hands of their Enemies. We know that 
unless Thou keep the City, the Watchman 
watcheth but in vaine; unless Thou defend us, our 
Foundations which are laid in dust, cannot stand firme. 
We acknowledge our weaknesse, and that which makes 
us weaker, our sinfull demerit. But Thou art both the 
Lord of Hosts and the Prince of Peace, able to destroy 
the strongest Army with an Army of most despicable 
Creatures, with things of nothing, with sudden weak- 
nesse and follies, with a Rumour or Imagination. Thou 
canst bring us to the brink of Destruction, and call us 
back againe. Look down therefore, most mercifull 
Lord, upon this Place, and according to Thy wonted 
goodnesse resist the Proud, and give grace to the 
Humble that runne to the shadow of Thy wings for 
succour. Thou that stillest the raging of the Sea and 
the madnesse of the People, say to the one as to the 
other, hither shall thy proud waves come, and no further. 
Suffer not the purpose of our Oppressors to prosper. 



THE GREAT REBELLION 175 

nor their Force to prevaile ; But set Thy hook into their 
nostrils, and turne them back or confound them accord- 
ing to Thy good pleasure and secret wisdome, by which 
Thou disposest all Events beyond the meane and reach 
of Man : But arme Thy lowly Servants with Faith and 
Patience, raise our Spirits, guide our Consultations, 
strengthen our Hands, help our Wants, blesse our En- 
deavours with successe ; That we being delivered like 
them that dreame, may praise Thee as men waked out 
of dust ; and having seen and escaped Thy Rod, may 
serve Thee ever hereafter with true obedience through 
Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour. 

A.D. 1645 

THE SIEGE OF OXFORD BY FAIRFAX, SKIPPON, 
BROWNE, AND CROMWELL 

For Browne, for Skippon, Cromwell, and for Fairfax, 
We have a well-stringed Instrument at Cairfax* ; (* a gal- 
And then, if they do but their worke by halves, lows) 
The Parliament will hang 'em up like Calves. 
Oxford Besieged, etc., by IO-TA (JOHN TAYLOR), 1645 

From May 22 to June 5 was Oxford besieged. By a 
scheme of fortification designed by Richard Rallingson 
of Queen's College, and perfected by Bechman, the 
Swede, the City had been rendered practically impreg- 
nable : " The rivers were so ordered by locks and 
sluices, especially at St. Clement's Bridge, that the town 
could be surrounded by water, except the north part. 
That part had so many strong bulwarks so regularly 
flanking one another, that nothing could be more 
exactly done." William Sanderson, in his Life and 
Reign of King Charles (1658), mentions as one of the 
incidents of the siege, that " at the first coming of Fair- 
fax to Marston, as he walked on the bowling-green, 
an eight-pound bullet whisked over his head, and 
moved his hat-brim." 



1 76 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Fairfax and Browne Oxford before sat down : 
For the Defendants all the meadows drown, 
Slight out their forts, and all the suburbs fire. 
Cromwell doth from the King's pursuit retire ; 
For Cromwell had for a time followed the 

King: 

But now recalled, doth to the leager bring 
His well-armed Troops : while Fairfax views the 

town, 

And o'er the bowling-green rides up and down, 
A cannon-bullet from the works doth fly, 
Pity it missed ! which wafts his head close by : 
And makes his Excellence in great fear 
Once vaile his beavour to a Cavalier. 

Stratologia, by A. C., 1662 * 

" On June 2, about one of the clock at night, Colonel 
William Legge, the Governor of Oxford, made a 
successful night sally towards Headington. Fifty-two 
of the enemy were killed, ninety-two were brought in 
prisoners. Also were taken 30 or 40 cows " : Anthony 

1 Stratologia, or the History of the English Civil Warrs in English Verse, 
by an Eye-witness of many of them, A. C., London, 1662. In the 
Epistle to the Reader, which follows the Dedication, this Oxford Minstrel- 
boy, probably Anthony Cooper, writes : 

When first for Oxford, fully there intent 
To study learned Sciences I went, 
Instead of Logicke, Physicke, School Converse, 
I did attend the armed Troops of Mars ; 
Instead of Books, I, Sword, Horse, Pistols, bought, 
And on the Field I for Degrees then fought. 
My years had not amounted full eighteen, 
When I on field wounded three times had been, 
Three times in sieges close had been immured, 
Three times imprisonment's restraint endured. 
In those sad times, these verses rude were writ, 
For poesie a season most unfit : 
Yet is my subject high, the history true, 
Presented in this book unto thy view : 
Well nigh each skirmish, stratagem, siege, fight, 
In these late warrs we here present to sight. 



THE GREAT REBELLION 177 

Wood, Annals, sub anno 1645. Three days later, 
the siege was hastily abandoned, and the theatre of war 
was shifted from the neighbourhood of Oxford. 

(Men- Miracles and other Poems , by M. LL. (i.e. Martin 
Lluellyn), Student of Christ Church, Oxford, 1646) 

THE SPY OF THE BUTTERY; OR THE WELSH DOVE: 
WALIAS 

Jack Price the feirce 
To the Cook Dicke Peirce 
This newes was to tell her 
From the King's Cellar. 

Dicke, I had writ to thee before 

But filthy Fairfax say no more ! 

Thou know'st 't would be a dismal hearing 

To send a Letter out pickearing. 

Your better sort of Letters go 

With Pistols at the saddle-bow; 

And though surprized, they much condole, 

And are dismissed upon parole: 

But mine, once snapped, goes sure to prison, 

Nay faith ! perhaps they slit its weason : 

And oh the rogues ! how they would vapour 

To see the carcas of Cap-paper ! 

Yet now, at last, thou see'st, it comes : 

But stay here, Dicke, and wipe thy thumbs! 

And now if friend gain friend's belief, 
I've tasted naught but powdered Beef; 
And, Sirrah, that, in my opinion, 
Green as the driven Leek or Onion. 
Come, Dick, 't would make your palate whine, 
To spit salt-petre and void brine. 
I would the King was bound to dubbe 
Each man, whose gut's a powdering tubbe ; 
A friend of yours, if he were righted, 
Would not be long from being knighted. 

12 



1 78 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

But that's all one: I long to stickle 

For such another fortnight's Pickle. 

Our Beef was Salt: but, heark it, Cozen, 

We killed Fresh Roundheads by the dozen ! 

I think the varlets dare not utter 

How dear they paid for our fresh butter. 

By my consent, if they would tarry, 

The rogues should rent the Kingdom's dairy. 

Methinks their pay was fair and good ; 

A Pail of Milk was two of Blood ; 

And ere their Butter 'gan to coddle, 

A Bullet Churned i' th' Roundheads noddle. 

Then for their Cheese, when they begun it, 

We oped their Veins to let out Runnet : 

On Botley Causeway, on our words, 

Their Brains lay thicker than their Curds. 

And now I think on't, I can't choose 
But give you more account of th' newes : 
Fairfax in person northward lay, 
Thou know'st he drinks that climate's whey ; 
But oh ! his Tent, his Tent, alack ! 
'Twas neither Green, nor White, nor Black ; 
But in such Colour it appears, 
That Mortal Sees, and Mortal Fears : 
Riddle the Rainbow's colours round, 
Or pluck a Pedlar's pack to the ground, 
See ribbons which may bind your artirs, 
See points, and, if you can, see gartirs ; 
I say this Pedlar or that Cloud 
More Dismal Colour ne'er allowed : 
'T was Flaming Crimson, Dick ! which did por- 
tend, 

Oh ! Oxford, Oxford, thou art at an end ! 
Like some fell Comet, sure this must affright us, 
Like that o'er the famed City sacked by Titus; 
Or like a Flame breathed out by furze or bavins, 
And Flame, you know, frights horses worse than 
spavins. 



THE GREAT REBELLION 179 

Into this Dismal Tent this Fierce Knight comes: 
" Mum ! " quoth the Trumpets ; " Be unbraced, ye 

Drums ! " 
Then thrice o'er head bright glistering blade he 

shakes ; 
Thrice were our eyes much dazzled for their 

sakes : 
After some pause, and pause, you know, was 

fitten 

He Plucked his Gauntlet off, his Iron Mitten; 
"Oxford!" quoth he, "on thee I'll have no pity, 
For I am sent from far by the Committee. 
The Still-born Child shall rue the day, 
For want of Butter, Milk, and Whey : 
Deceased Infants, (dire mishap !) 
Shall wish their Coffins full of Pap : 
Custards from thee 't is I will thrust, 
That shake like Agues baked in Crust: 
No more, no more of Fresh Cheese dream 
Which, like an Island, floats in Cream ! 
I and my Men will eat eft soons 
Th' Island with knives, the Sea with Spoons: 
Thy Cheese-cakes framed, I make no doubt, 
Sometimes with plums, sometimes without, 
I'll send to London's lycorish sisters; 
They'll cool their bodies more than glisters : 
When they are full, this fame may be begun, 
I am their General and their Islington." 

At this, one night, it must be said, 
Our Governor, that gallant Blade, 
But to the wise, thou know'st, few words, 
He drew us out ; we drew our swords ; 
In th' twinkling of a zealous eye 
Down fell their Foot ; their Horse, they fly ! 
We killed and took, like mice in cupboard, 
Two hundred varlets, Dick, and upward. 
In what a case, Dick, think'st thou then 
Was Fairfax Fierce, the Dairy-man ! 



i8o THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



(*taw = to 
take aim, 
as with 
a " taw " 
at marbles 
(?), or to 
make 
ready for 
action) 



And which shook most, guess by his screetches, 

His earthquake Custards, or his Breetches ! 

To Marston bridge, who scaped, went; 

There stood the Bloody dairy-Tent ! 

Slashed to the Bridge they come, but, one supposes, 

Without the Bridges of their Noses ! 

At other ports lay Browne and others; 
In time they'll curse they e'er had mothers : 
'T was Browne, I say; and thou may'st tell it, 
Oh, that's a heart of oak like billet ! * 
We clawed him from each counterscarf; 
Sure his Accounts come short at 's Wharf! 
From every Port we killed the maggots, 
" There's one ! there's two ! " so on, like Faggots. 
The east line common soldiers kept; 
The north the honest townsmen swept; 
The west was manned by th' loyal scholars, 
Whose gowns, you slave, are black as colliers. 
They taw'd * it ; faith ! their guns would hit 
As sure as if they'd studied it: 
They rammed their bullet, they would ha 't in; 
Bounce went the noise, like Greek and Latin ! 
And for their Colonel moreover, 
It was the valiant Earl of Dover : 
The knaves talked much of the Siege of Troy, 
And at this Siege they leaped for joy: 
They defied Fairfax and his forces, 
Said he was Sinon, and brought Wooden Horses. 
Now for the south port, Dick, there, I say, 
The noble loyal stout Lord Keeper lay ; 

1 A favourite jest of the Royalists upon Sir Richard Browne, the rebel 
general, who began life as a wood-monger. Cf. John Taylor's burlesque 
account of the imaginary capture of Oxford, entitled Oxford Besieged, 
Surprized, and Pittifully Entered, the 2nd of June 1645 (Taylor's Works, 
Spenser Society) : " The Illustrious Bold Browne, in whose Braine the 
Art of Armes is Billeted, he most Terribly, Fearfully, drew his Trenchant 
Sword, wherewith he Chopped in sunder the Faggot-band of his Fury, 
insomuch that his flaming Valour, like a burning Bavin, appeared most 
Refulgently perspicuous to the besieged Oxonians." 



THE GREAT REBELLION 181 

His men made the rascals cry they were mistaken 

To show their hungry teeth at Friar Bacon * ; * Bacon's 

They conjur'd 'em, i 1 faith ! and laid them dead ^Foll^ 

As if each Helmet was a Brazen-head : Bridge. 

I think the knaves will hardly be in heart, 

Where Courage is, and they suspect Black Art : 

'Tis strange, by both the buckles of my girdle, 

The Devil took Roundheads, 'cause they were o' 

th' Circle; 

Yet Pluto cried they need not be so eager, 
For why? their Heads alone were in that Figure. 
But to conclude, Dick, all ports played their 

parts, 

As though they had some ringer in those Arts; 
And all the Rebels are run hence so fast, 
As 't were from Bacon and from Vandermast. 



ON THE CREEPLE SOULDIERS MARCHING IN OXFORD 
IN THE LORD FRANCIS COTTINGTON'S COMPANEE 

Stay, Gentlemen ! and you shall see a very rare 

sight ; 
Soldiers who, though they want Arms, yet will 

Fight; 

Nay, some of them have never a Leg, but Will 
Their Governor*; and yet they'l Stand to it still. * William 

Legge, 
Governor 

Then room for Cripples ! here comes a Companee, of Oxford 
Such as before I think you did not see: 

Ran tan tan ! with a Spanish march and gate 
Thus they follow their leader according to his 

wonted state. 

What I should call them, I hardly do know: 
Foot they are not, as appears by the show; 
By the wearing of their Muskets, to which they 

are tied, 
They should be Dragooners, had they horses to ride ; 



1 82 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



* Marten 

Van 

Tromp, 

the famous 

Dutch 

Admiral. 



* Holly 
Bush Inn 
in St. 
Thomas 
Parish, 
Oxford. 



And yet now I think on 't, they cannot be such, 
Because each man hath taken his Rest for a 

Crutch ; 

To these their Officers need not to say at alarms, 
"Stand to your Colours and handle your Arms!" 
Yet that they are Soldiers, you safely may say, 
For they'l Die before they will Run Away; 
Nay, they are stout, as ever were Vantrumps,* 
For, like Widdrington, they fight on their very 

Stumps. 

They have keen Ostrich Stomachs, and well Digest 
Both Iron and Lead, as a dog will a breast 
Of mutton But now to their Pedigree ! 
That they are Sons of Mars, most writers agree; 
Some conceive from the Badger, old Vulcan, they 

came, 

Because, like him, they are Mettle-men and Lame: 
The moderns think they came from Guys of 

Warwick ; and 

Some think they are of the old Herculian band, 
For, as by his foot he was discovered, so 
By their Feet you their Valour may know; 
And though many wear Wooden Legs and 

Crutches, 

Yet, by Hercules, I can assure you such is 
Their Steeled Resolution, that here 
You'll find none that will the Wooden Dagger 

wear. 

They're true and trusty Trojans all, believe me, 
And stride their Wooden Palfreys well ; 't would 

grieve me 

To see them tire before they get 
Unto the Holly Bush,* but yet 
If they should faint at the end of the town, 
They may set up their horses and lie down. 
Most of these Fighters, I would have you know, 
Were our brave Edgehill Myrmidons a while 

ago, 



THE GREAT REBELLION 183 

Who wear their limbs, e'en as their looser rags, 
Ready to leave them at the next hedge, with brags 
That, through the merits of their former harms, 
They die like Gentlemen, though they bear no 

Arms. 

Now some will suspect that my Muse may be, 
'Cause she's so Lame, one of this Companee; 
And the rather, because one Verse sometimes 
Is much shorter than his Fellows to hold up the 

rhymes. 

I confess that before Cripples to Halt is not good, 
Yet, for excuse, she pleads she understood 
That Things by their Similies are best displayed, 
And for that cause her Feet are now lambick 

made. 

A.D. 1645-6 
THE DARKENING FORTUNES OF THE KING 

" Carol sung before His Majesty in Christ Church on 
Christmas day, 1645, when after his deplorable 
defeat at Naseby he made Oxford his winter 
quarters " : Men-Miracles, by Martin Lluellyn, Student 
of Christ Church, 1646. 

Great Copie of this Solemn Day 

Which you Transcribe afresh, 
And make Afflictions your Array, 

As God made His of Flesh ; 
God Humbled best by Afflicted Kings is shewn, 
Because their Height is nearest to His Own. 

Though in His Train the Oxe appeare, 

And to His Court intrude, 
It was no Breach of Reverence There 

What's Nature is not Rude: 
This Act the Oxe with Innocence befell 
They cannot Sin, who know not to do Well. 



1 84 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

But some into your palace gat 

And reared a threatening head ; 

Some whom your Pastures have made fat, 
And your own Cribbe hath fed : 

The Wanton Beasts who to this temper rise, 

Are Ripe and Fit to fall a Sacrifice. 

The Beasts who to His Cradle came, 

There at His Manger stood, 
Not to build Triumphs on His Shame, 

But to Receive their Food : 
But Here the Herd now Surfeited doth stand, 
And being Full, learns to Despise the Hand. 

But as the Treasure in the Mine 

Is Treasure still, though Trod, 
So in this Cloud our Sun You Shine, 

And God in Flesh was God : 
For God and Kings are still beyond us placed, 
And Highest still, though ne'er so low Debased. 

A.D. 1646 

On May i, Fairfax again appeared before Oxford. 
The place was well provisioned and provided with 
ammunition, while the indomitable Scholars and 
Soldiers under the gallant Governor, Thomas Glemham, 
were prepared to defend it at all costs. 

SONG IN THE SIEGE OF OXFORD 

Fill, fill the Goblet with Sack ! 
I mean, our tall black jerkin jack, 
Whose hide is proof against rabble-rout, 
And will keep all ill weathers out : 
What though our Plate be coined and spent, 
Our Faces we'll next send to the Mint ; 
And 'fore we'll basely Yield the Town, 
We'll Sack it ourselves, and Drink it down. 



THE GREAT REBELLION 185 

Accurst be he that doth talk and think 
Of Treating, or Denies to Drink ! 
Such dry hop-sucking narrow Souls 
Taste not the Freedom of our Bowls; 
They only are Besieged, while We 
By Drinking purchase Liberty; 
Wine doth Enlarge and Ease our Minds ; 
Who freely Drinks, no Thraldom finds. 

Let's Drink then, as we used to Fight, 
As long as we can Stand, in spite 
Of Foe or Fortune ! Who can tell ? 
She with our Cups again may Swell. 
He neither dares to die or fight, 
Whom harmless fears from healths affright: 
Then let Us Drink our Sorrows Down, 
And Ourselves Up to Keep the Town. 

ROBERT HEATH, Occasional Poems, 1650 

Unfortunately, on April 27, Charles had taken the 
fatal step of leaving "the faithful City." At three 
o'clock in the morning, in a disguised manner, with his 
hair and beard closely trimmed, and in the habit of a 
serving-man, he passed through the East Gate of 
Oxford, in attendance upon Master John Ashburnham, 
and went to surrender himself to the Scottish Army. 

CHRONOGRAM = 1646 

reX Inter sCotos oCCVLte In Castra reCessIt 
oXonlo, rVrl Malo fLoraqVe faVente. 

Chronometra Memorabilium Rerum, Canta- 
brigiae, 1646 

On June 24, Oxford was surrendered by the King's 
command. The scholars and soldiers of the garrison 
were deeply grieved, and indignantly declared that " the 



1 86 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

City would never have been given up, had not the 
ladies etc. of the Court required fresh butter for their 
early peas": "deinde solid jactitare in Aulicorum 
ludibrium Urbis deditionem nil aliud suasisse quam 
butyri recentis, quo utique pisa precocia tingerent 
curiales foeminae et ductorum amasiae, penuriam " : 
Wood, Hist, et Antiquit. Univ. Oxon., sub anno 1646. 



CHRONOGRAM = 1646 

ter IVnl oCtaVa, CIVILIs teMpore beLLI, 
oXonla Vrbs reLIqVIs regnl est aCCensa tropaels 

(On the thrice eight ; i.e. 24th day of June, Oxford 
City was reckoned among the rest of the trophies of 
the kingdom.) 

Chronometra Memorabilium Rerum, Canta- 
brigiae, 1646 



THE SIEGE AND FALL OF OXFORD 

(Stratologia, or the History of the Civil War in Verse, 
by A. C., 1662.) 

(Even Oxford falls under the fate) 
Of all the rest of the King's garrisons : 
Here Fairfax self, with all his mirmidons, 
Had lain some months, and done what in him 

laid 

The place to force ; batteries most furious made ; 
And many desperate bold attempts to scale ; 
Nor could his mines nor hand-granads prevail. 

Never was place with greater gallantry 
Defended nor assailed : the Enemy 
Thought it more honour Oxford to regain 
By storm, than all those holds they yet had 

ta'en ; 



THE GREAT REBELLION 187 

Those undertakings great they did review 
Accomplished late, how o'er the works they flew 
At Bristol, Basing, Dartmouth and elsewhere; 
And shall their fury be resisted here ! 
What ! Shall this Town not yield when they com- 

mand ! 
Shall this 'twixt them and their great triumph 

stand ! 

Nay, Cromwell knew it was the only Town 
Which interposed betwixt him and a Crown. 
Rather than Oxford shall their hopes defer, 
Rather than Glemham shall protract the war, 
As many pioneers they swear they'll bring 
As Oxford all shall into Isis fling 
With spades ; the City all to fire they vow ; 
Man, woman, child, to put the sword unto; 
And, ere of sudden conquest they will fail, 
On one another's shoulders mount and scale. 

Not their attempts though bold, much less their The 



vants, of 

The valiant and resolved Glemham dants ; Scholars 

Not only Oxford bravely he defends, ThtmaT 

But often sallying out, some hundreds sends Glemham, 

Of these insulting foes to Erebus. of* 

The Muses proud, to Mars propitious, garrison, 

For Schollars, now turned Soldiers, stoutly fought, cast ^ 
And more by Swords, than Words, for honour Carleo- 

sought; i^a* 

The Gown indeed did love the Royal Cause cense 

Consisting with Religion and the Laws, 
Which, life and limb, they ventured to maintain Oxonium 

Most bravely : What ! Oxford by storm be ta'en ! phium." 
They vow they'll rather on the works all die. 
Glemham doth therefore all their powers defy: 
If Oxford yield he must, conditions good 
He'll have, or with the town resign his blood. 
Shall the King's Fort, Metropolis, submit 
To terms unworthy, not becoming it ! 



1 88 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

First to worse straits than ere he yet endured 
1 f s t le Car ~ l n Carlisle, in these walls he'll be immured ; 
Glemham Not only Mice, Cats, Horses shall be meat, 

SafiSf But Boots and Shoes > na y Humane Flesh they'll eat. 

eat Dogs These brave resolves enforce the Enemy 

^Master ^ n no ^ e terms with Glemham to agree; 

David And Oxford yielded : The two Princes are, 

hS tdlS Ru P ert and Maurice, shortly to repair 

Memoirs To forraign parts : the Duke of York must go 

of excellent His n ble brother and his Bisters to, 

personages. Now at St James's ; for the Parliament 

Had all the royal children up there pent, 

Except the Prince, who had escaped their hand ; 

From Exeter of late they did command 

The youngest daughter thither to be brought; 

What they'll do with them, divers things are thought : 

Let Royalists pray and presage the best ! 

This absent, is a safety to the rest. 

But whither doth my wandering Muse digress? 

These Articles the Roundheads, nothing less, 

Perform : this the Oxfordians fully finde," etc. 

The Entry of Fairfax into Oxford ; his magnanimity ; 
and how he preserved the Bodleian Library: "When 
the City was taken, the first thing General Fairfax did, 
was to set a guard of soldiers to preserve the Bodleian. 
He was a great lover of learning ; and had he not taken 
this special care, that noble library had been utterly 
destroyed, because there were ignorant senators enough 
who would have been contented to have had it so " : John 
Aubrey, Brief Lives (ed. by A. Clark), i. 250. Cardinal 
Mazarin is said to have had the sum of .40,000 ready 
to buy MSS from the University and College Libraries: 
Wood's Life and Times (Oxford Hist. Soc.), i. 128. 

(Lines by Dr. Henry Fairfax (Magdalen College, 
Oxon., D.D. 1680), in Fairfax MS. 32 f. 145, Bodleian 
Library.) 



THE GREAT REBELLION 189 

Nam postquam Oxonium junxisset foedere dextras, 
Atque suas tanto Custodi tradidit arces, 
Quam subito Dux ipse trahit de pectore curas 
Hostiles, hauritque animo contagia pacis ! 
Ingreditur nudas portas cum milite casto ; 
Et tanquam turbam Dux ipse animaverat omnem, 
Nee mortem timuere viri, nee strupra puellae; 
Nusquam terror erat gladiis, et coedibus omnes 
Sponte sua tenuere manus, sine foedere justi. 
Interea Dux ipse graves sub pectore curas 
Concipit intentus Musis Gentique Togatae. 
" Ite " ait, " o juvenes, et cingite milite forti 
Bodlei sacros aditus et templa verenda; 
Cingite doctorum mentes secretaque magna; 
Nee sinite aeternos bellum violare Penates." 
Dixerat ; et dicto citius fugere per urbem 
Armati genii, statimque ad claustra steterunt 
Talis Victor erat ; sic ipsa pericla juvabant, 
Securumque fuit vinci: Spoliator adorat 
Captivas arces, et se putat esse minorem : 
Nam turn magne tuo sedem Bodleie sacello 
Quaerebat, jam jamque tuis se voverat aris. 
Ergo, age, in aeternum nostris habitabit in oris, 
Inque domo famae super omnia saecula vectus 
Inter Doctorum castas versabitur umbras; 
Tecum, Digbeie, et tecum, Seldene, loquetur ; 
Quodque magis, quod nee capiunt haec carmina nostra, 
Bodleii genio, genio Laudique fruetur. 

SONG AT THE SURRENDER OF OXFORD 

(Poems lyrique, inacaronique, heroique, by Henry 
Bold of New College in Oxford, 1664.) 

Thou Man of Men, whoe'er thou art 
That has a loyal royal heart, 
Despaire not, though thy Fortune frown ; 
Our Cause is God's, and not our own: 



190 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

'Twere sin to harbour jealous feares ; 
The World laments for Cavaleers, Cavaleers. 

Those Things, like Men, that swarm i' th' Town, 

Like Motions, wander up and down ; 

And were the Rogues not full of blood, 

You'd swear they men were, made of wood : 

The fellow, feeling wanton, swears 

There are no Men but Cavaleers, Cavaleers. 

Ladies bepearl their Diamond Eyes 

And curse Dame Shipton's prophecyes; 

Fearing they never shall be sped 

To wrestle for a maidenhead : 

But feelingly with doleful tears 

They sigh and mourn for Cavaleers, Cavaleers. 

Our grave Divines are silenced quite 
Eclipsing thus our Church's light; 
Religion's made a Mock, and all 
Good Ways, as Works, Apochryphal ; 
Our Gallants baffled ; Slaves made Peers ; 
While Oxford weeps for Cavaleers, Cavaleers. 

Townsmen complain they are undone; 

Their fortunes fail, and all is gone : 

Rope-makers only live in hopes 

To have good trading for their ropes, 

And Glovers thrive by Roundheads' ears, 

When Charles returns with Cavaleers, Cavaleers. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE PURITAN USURPATION 

MODO quis deus aut editus deo 
Pristinam gentis miseratus indolem 
Si satis noxas luimus priores 
Mollique luxu degener otium, 
Tollat nefandos civium tumultus, 
Almaque revocet studia sanctus, 
Et relegatas sine sede Musas 
Jam pene totis finibus Angligenum, 
Immundasque volucres 
Unguibus imminentes, 
Figat Apollinea pharetra, 

Phineamque abigat pestem procul amne Pegaseo ? 
JOHN MILTON, adj. Rousium, Oxon. Acad. 
Bibliothecarium, 1646 

We'll down with all th' Varsities 

Where Learning is profes't, 
Because they practise and maintain 

The language of the Beast : 
We'll drive the Doctors out of doors, 

And Arts, whate'er they be; 
We'll cry both Arts and Learning down : 

And hey ! then up go We ! 
FRANCIS QUARLES, The Shepheard's Oracles, 1646 

A.D. 1648 

The University of Oxford held out for some two years 

after the City had surrendered to Sir Thomas Fairfax. 

191 



192 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

So desperate indeed was the obstinacy of the resistance 
offered to those who were appointed, under the parlia- 
mentary ordinance of May I, 1647, to visit and reform 
the University, that it was not till the spring of 1648, 
and then only by violence, that the Loyalists were 
crushed. On April 1 1 of that year, the Earl of Pembroke, 
as Chancellor of the University, appeared on the scene, 
and superintended the expulsion of such Heads of 
Houses as refused to submit to the Visitation. This 
was followed, on May 2, by the wholesale ejectment 
of all contumacious members of Colleges. "Thus 
within the compass of a few weeks an almost general 
riddance was made of the loyal University of Oxford, 
in whose room succeeded an illiterate rabble swept up 
from the ploughtail and the dregs of the neighbouring 
University. Such cruelty was there shewed, such 
tyranny acted by the Clergy Visitors, and such altera- 
tions made by them, that never the like, no, not even 
in those various times from King Henry VIII to Queen 
Elizabeth, was ever seen or heard of. ... But lest the 
sufferings of the victims should stand unrecorded to 
posterity, hundreds of silver and brass Medals were 
made and dispersed into divers countries. On one 
side was the Effigies of an Altar, and this wrote upon 
it, 'P.M. Acad. Oxon. 1648'; and, on the reverse, this 
' DEO, Ecclesiae, Principi Victima.' At the same time 
also were the said words weaved in black ribbon with 
silver and gold letters, and commonly worn by Scholars 
and others" : Anthony Wood, Annals, II. ii. 614. 

The arrival in Oxford of Pembroke, "that long- 
legged piece of impertinency whom they miscall 
Chancellor"; his reception by "a few inconsiderable 
and ill-faced Saints, Dragooners in Divinity, mounted 
upon miserable hackneys, some ten or twelve scholars, 
freshmen and all, and some country Parsons who 
brought up their sons for fellowships " ; the attendance 
of soldiers as a protecting force ; the partiality of 
Pembroke for foul language; his intelligence, which 



THE PURITAN USURPATION 193 

compared very unfavourably with that of the steed upon 
which he was mounted ; 

" Quin ille vivus, Comite multo doctior, 
Arrexit aures et diu attentus stetit; 
Togata Dominum cum salutaret cohors, 
Nee usitatum Button accineret Ave, 
Domini Caballus visus interpres sui 
Adhiniisse fertur illi gratias " ; 

the brutality with which the Chancellor executed his 
mission; and the conference of degrees upon his 
ignorant supporters ; 

" Ille sibi passimque aliis largitur honores, 
Non tamen et mores poterat meritumque creare: 
Deliros jam Theologos, Puerosque Magistros 
Cernimus; in Cunas Cathedrae, inque Crepundia 

versa est 
Laurea Bacca": 

all these scandals afforded matter for infinite jest to 
the bitter writers of squibs, such as Pegasus, or the Flying 
Horse from Oxford ; Newes from Pembroke and 
Montgomery, or Oxford Manchester' d ; The Owle at 
Athens ; Tragi-comoedia Oxoniensis, and others. 

PEMBROOKE'S PASSE FROM OXFORD TO HIS GRAVE 
(July 5,1648?) 

Hence ! Mountebank of Honour, hence away ! 
And seek some cavern, where the chearefull day 
Ne'er made enquiry, where continued night 
May ne'er expose thee to the shame of light. 
Base property of State, time-serving Thing, 
Thy Servant's Slave, and Rebel to thy King; 
Thou Puppet, who can'st neither speak nor move 
If Say and Oldsworth teach not and approve; 
For which records to after times will shew 
Thee an ungrateful Fool in Folio, 

'3 



194 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

O how would Pembrooke, thy brave brother, grieve 

To see his Heir thus play the under-shrieve, 

And force the dwellings of the Muses' sons 

To give th' Unlettered their possessions : 

And, with a borrowed dress of power, sit 

To cry up Ignorance and banish Wit: 

In which thy honour, as thy soul, is tainted ; 

Compared with thee, Manchester may be sainted : 

Had Martin done 't, or Mildmay, who in evil 

Are listed journey-workers to the Devil ; 

Or had thy sacrilegious Tutor Say, 

Or Cromwell, made the finde a holiday 

By such an act as must his realm advance, 

And perish this by growth of ignorance ; 

It might be borne, nor should we cozened be 

From such impostors, when such arts we see : 

But that good Pembrooke, who in no man's hearing 

Was ere condemned but for the switch and 

swearing ; 1 
One who, we know, had ne'er been dipped in 

treason 

Had he been left into his proper reason ; 
A mere concurring rebel, that doth cry, 
Like a half-entered whelp, for company; 
For the great Doctors of so great a School 
To be confuted by so great a Fool, 
There lies the Wonder ! which thus solved must 

be;- 

This Age produceth naught but Prodigie ! 
A hundred horse his Lordship had to boote; 
He knew his own wit never else could do 't : 
Arms are a powerful Ergo ; and make Schism 
And Folly good, maugre a Syllogism. 
Hadst thou but sense of wit, thou would'st be slain 
With the just rhymes composed in thy disdain ; 

1 In 1607, a Scottish courtier "switched Pembroke on the face" at 
Croydon races, and he not offering to strike back, there was ' ' nothing 
spilt but the reputation of a gentleman/' 



THE PURITAN USURPATION 195 

And to each angry Muse an object stand, 
Till rhymed to death like rats in Ireland. 1 
But we will bridle Fancy, nor let loose 
Too much brave fury on so tame a Goose: 
No, thou shalt feel ere long the chastening rod, 
First of the abused King, next of thy God ; 
And when just Heaven shall due vengeance take, 
And to ingrate thee an example make, 
Apollo's sons shall in a chorus laugh, 
And fix upon thy tomb this Epitaph: 

The Epitaph 

Pembrooke here lies underlaid 
Who his God and King betrayed : 
To which sins he joined this other: 
To commit Rape upon his Mother. 
Whoso unto this Grave goes 
And reads, is prayed to hold his nose; 
His very name, thus blasted, must 
Be e'en more nautious than his dust. 



Rustica Academiae Oxoniensis A Rustical Description of the 

nuper reformatae Descriptio in University of Oxford lately reformed 

Visitatione Fanatica^ 1648 ; cum in a Fanatical Visitation, 1648 ; 

Comitiis ibidem anno sequente ; with the Committees in the follow- 

et aliis notatu non indignis ing year ; and other things worthy 

abridged (by John Allibond, D.D., to be noted -(a free rendering by 

Magdalen College) Edward Ward, 1717) 



Rumore nuper est delatum, Whilst out of Town strange news 

Dum agebamus run, alarmed 

Oxonium iri reformatum My ears, which sounded oddly, 

Ab iis qui dicti " Puri." That Oxford was to be reformed 

By Dunces called the "Godly. 

1 It was once a prevalent opinion in Ireland that rats in pasturages 
could be extirpated by anathematizing them in rhyming verse or by 
metrical charms, 






1 96 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



ii 



Decrevi itaque confestim, 
Obstaculis sublatis, 

Me oculatum dare testem 
Hujusce novitatis. 



I soon resolved, if no ill chance 
Should cross my resolution, 

To make my eyes the evidence 
Of this new Reformation. 



Ill 

Ad Scholas primum me trahebat 

Comitiorum norma 
Queis olim quisque peragebat 

Solenniter pro forma : 



III 



First drawn to the Schools, b' 

Assemblies' Rules, 
I found them much polluted, 
Where Scholars once instead of 

Fools, 
In solemn form disputed. 



IV 



Expecto Regies Professores ; 

Comparuere nulli : 
Nee illic adsunt Inceptores, 

Nee Togae nee Cuculli. 



IV 

I King's Professors did expect 

As usual, but I found none, 
Nor young Inceptors, but th' 

Elect 

With neither Gown nor Hood 
on. 



Calcavi Atrium Quadratum 
Quo Juvenum examen 

Confluxit olim ; video pratum 
Quod densum tegit gramen. 



Then cross the Quadrangle I pass, 
Where Youth was wont to 

prattle, 
But found the same oer-run with 

grass 
Enough to fatten cattle. 



VI 

Adibam lubens Scholam Musices 
Quam Foeminae et Joci 

Ornassent pridem, sed Tibicines 
Jam nusquam erant loci. 



VII 

Conscendo Orbis illud decus 
Bodleio fundatore : 

Sed intus erat nullum pecus 
Excepto Janitore. 



VI 



To the Musick School I next 

repaired 

By Ladies once frequented, 
But saw no sports, no musick heard, 
The place seemed quite ab- 
sented. 

VII 

Mounting the Bodleian Pile, I 

stepped 

To view the kingdom's glory, 
There only found the knave that 

kept 
That famed Repository. 



THE PURITAN USURPATION 



197 



VIII 

Neglectos vidi libros multos, 
Quod minime mirandum ; 

Nam inter Bardos tot et Stultos 
There's few could understand 



VIII 

Where piles of books in woeful case 
Neglected lay at random, 

Because the Saints had not the 

Grace 
Or Wit to understand 'em. 



IX 

Dominico sequente die, 
Ad sacra celebranda, 

Ad Aedes propero " Mariae," 
Nam "Divae" vox nefanda 



IX 

Next Sunday, I to "Mary's" went 
To hear the text expounded ; 
Plain "Mary's," for the style of 

"Saint" 

Was plundered by the Round- 
head : 



Ingressus sedes Senioribus 
Togatis destinatas, 

Videbam Cocis et Sartoribus 
Et Lixis usurpatas. 



XI 

Procancellarius recens prodit 
Cui satis literarum ; 

Quod vero quisque probus odit, 
Est Conscientiae parum. 



And entering where the Seniors used 
To loll and hear the Sermon, 
Saw Cooks and Scullions sit con- 
fused 

With Botchers and such 
Vermin. 

XI 

In pomp appeared the new morose 
Book-learn'd Procancellarius, 

Hated by all good men, because 
His conscience is nefarious. 



XII 



Procuratores sine Clavibus 
Quaerentibus ostendas : 

Bedellos novos sine Stavibus, 
Res protinus ridendas. 



XII 

Next, what I ne'er observed 

before, 

Saw Proctors sine Clavibus ; 
And, that which made me laugh 

the more, 
New Bedells sine Stavibus. 



XIII 

Suggestum conscendebat fungus 

Insulsa quaeque fundens : 
So dull a fool was ne'er among 

us, 

Pulvinar sic contundens. 
(Edmund Stanton, Pres. of 
C.C.C.) 



XIII 

At length a little Mushroom 

stuffed 
With nonsense, climbed the 

pulpit ; 
Sure cushion ne'er before was 

cuffed 
By such an empty Dulpate. 



198 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



XIV 

Defessus hac Dulmanitate 
Decrevi Venerandos 

Non adhuc pulsos civitate 
Amicos visitandos. 



XIV 

Tired with dull cant, much 
tongue, no brains, 

And looks enough to fright ye, 
I moved to see my reverend friends 

Not yet expelled the city. 



XV 



Collegium petii Animarum 
Nunc proprie sic dictum : 

Nam rerum hie corporearum 
Vix quicquam est relictum. 



XV 

To All Souls' College first I steered, 
Whose name was well adapted, 

For few Corporeal Things ap- 
peared, 
The house itself excepted. 



XVI 

Hie quaero Virum suavitate 

Omnimoda politum ; 
Responsum alibi ingrate 

Custodem custoditum. 
(Dr. Sheldon ejected from the 
Wardenship of All Souls', and im- 
prisoned. ) 

XVII 

Ad Corpus Christi flecto gressum 
Qua brevitate possum : 

Jurares novis probris pressum 
Et furibus confossum. 



XVI 

I sought the Warden, that sweet 

good man, 

Polite in every knowledge, 
But heard with grief my friend 

was ta'en, 
To Prison from the College. 

XVII 

I then to Corpus Christi went 
So oppressed with malediction, 

That you'd have sworn, twixt 

thieves they meant 
Its second Crucifixion. 



XVIII 



Ecclesiam Christi susque deque 
Jactatam mox et versam 

Et sobolem heu ! longe lateque 
Percipimus dispersam. 



Christ Church was tumbled up 
and down 

By sanctified ill-nature, 
And all her children of the gown 

Were forced abroad to scatter. 



XIX 

Rogavi ubi sit Orator 

Divinae plane mentis : 

Proh facinus ! incarceratur 

Facundae decus gentis. 
(Dr. Hammond of Ch. 

University Orator.) 



Ch., 



XIX 

I Hammond sought, divine his 
sense ; 

But found incarceration 
Eclipsed that sun of eloquence 

And glory of the nation. 



THE PURITAN USURPATION 



199 



XX 

Hinc domum peto Precursoris, 
Quern triste passum fatum 

Recenti narrant vi tortoris 

Secundo decollation. 
(St. John's beheaded a second 

time, when the President, Dr. 

Bayly, was ejected.) 



xx 

Hence to St. John's, who'd 
undergone 

One sad Decapitation ; 
There found tormentors carrying on 

A second Decollation. 



XXI 



Turn Sancto Praeside cadente 

Discipuli recedunt ; 
Et Cacodaemone regente 

Nee bibunt jam nee edunt. 



XXI 

Their holy President being lost, 
The Scholars leave their 

College, 
And whilst a Hell-born rules the 

roost, 

Are barred of food and 
knowledge. 



XXII 

Heu ! pulchra domus, nuper laeta 

Dulcissimis fluentis, 
Nunc coeno penitus oppleta 

" Canalis " putrescentis. 
(Dr. Cheynel appointed Presi- 
dent.) 



XXII 

Alas ! fair House, delightful once, 
Where pleasant streams 

abounded, 

Now poisoned by a dirty Dunce, 
Foul Channel, and a Round- 
head. 



XXIII 

Adire nolui Trinitatem 

Quam nostis prope stare; 
Haereticam Societatem 

Ne videar damnare : 



XXIII 



Old Trinity, tho' near I came, 
I passed for her impiety ; 

Because 't was dangerous to con- 
demn 
That Heretick Society; 



XXIV 



Nam tanta desolatione 

Quam quis nefandam dicet, 
Occurrunt nusquam Tres Personae 

Scruteris usque licet. 




XXIV 

For in these wicked times, so 

blind 
Were Youth and those who 

taught 'em, 
That nowhere could a Churchman 

find 

Three Persons, had he sought 
'em. 



200 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



XXV 

Reverse tristis fertur casus 
Et miserandum omen 

Collegii, cui Rubens Nasus 
Prae foribus dat nomen. 



xxv 

Then musing on the wretched case 

And miserable omen 
O' th' College, from whose Nose 
of Brass 

The House derives its nomen ; 



XXVI 



Dederunt illi Principalem 
Rectores hi severi, 

Distortis oculis et qualem 
Natura vult caveri. 



XXVII 



Mox Aedes ingredi conatus 
Non unquam senescentes 

Stupescens audio ejulatus 
Horrenda sustinentis : 



XXVI 

Here their harsh Rulers placed a 

dull 

Damned Principal t' enslave 'em, 
Whose eyes distorted in his skull 
Made Nature start that gave 
'em. 

XXVII 

Entering New College, by and by, 
Where Age can find no quarter, 

Amazed I heard the horrid cry 
Of one that suffered torture : 



XXVIII 

Quod dulce nuper Domicilium 

Ingeniis alendis, 
Nunc merum est ergastulum 

Innocuis torquendis. 
(Will. Collier tortured in a room 
beneath New College hall, lighted 
matches being held under his hands, ) 



XXVIII 

A pleasant House, built with 
intent 

Our freeborn youth to cherish, 
And now a Bridewell to torment 

The loyal, till they perish. 



XXIX 



Ad flentem me recipio tandem 
Flens ipse Magdalenam ; 

Et gemens video eandem 
Vacuitate plenam : 



XXIX 



To weeping Magdalen I stroll, 
Myself a weeping brother, 

There sighing find that College full 
As empty as another : 



XXX 

Pro Praeside cui quenquam parem 
Vix aetas nostra dedit, 

En vobis stultum Capularem 

Ad clavum jam qui sedet : 
(Dr. Goodwin, vulgo vocatus 

" Nine-caps " : see Spectator, No. 

494-) 



XXX 

In room o' th' President, a man 
No age produced a greater, 

A humdrum Dotard leads the van 
And rules as Gubernator : 



THE PURITAN USURPATION 



201 



XXXI 

Quam vereor ne diro omine 

Septem regrediantur 
Daemonia, divino numine 

Quae quondam pellebantur. 
(Seven devils, once driven out of 
Magdalen, are returning to her. ) 



XXXI 

These direful omens made me 

even 

Dread all those devils to- 
gether 
Driven out of yore, in number 

seven, 
Were now returning hither. 



XXXII 



Quocunque breviter flectebam 
Aut dirigebam visum, 

Id totum induit, quod videbam, 
Aut lacrimas aut risum : 



XXXII 



Where'er I strolled, or whatsoe'er 
I thought worth looking after, 

Induced me still to shed a tear, 
Or else provoked my laughter : 



XXXIII 



Ingemui, dum viros video 
Doctissimos ejectos; 

Et contra, alternatim rideo 
Stolidulos suffectos. 



XXXIII 

I wept to see the Learn'd denied 
Th' enjoyment of their places, 

But smiled to see the same 

supplied 
By dull unthinking Asses. 



xxxiv 

Collegia petis? Leges duras 
Habes ; nil fas videre 

Praeter aedes et structuras ; 
Scholares abiere : 



xxxv 

Culinas illic frigescentes, 
Capellas sine precibus, 

In Cellis cernas sitientes, 
Et Aulas sine Messibus. 



Survey the Colleges ; you'll find 
Hard laws, but nothing right- 

ful, 

Except the buildings now re- 
signed 

By the Scholars to the Spite- 
ful : 

xxxv 

Cold Kitchens, where no meat 
they dress ; 

Chapels without devotion ; 
Dry Cellars ; Halls without a mess 

To keep the jaws in motion. 



xxxvi 

In Templis quaeris Conciones 
Aut quidquid est decorum ? 

Habebis haesitationes 
Extemporaneorum. 



xxxvi 

No Sermons in their Churches 
heard ; 

From decent rites they vary 
For hums and haws of picked beard 

And prayers extemporary. 



202 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

XXXVII XXXVII 

Heu ! ingens rerum ornamentum The world's great ornament, alas ! 

Et aevi decus pridem : The age's pride and honour, 

Quo tandem pacto hoc perventum O tell me how it comes to pass 

Ut Idem non sit Idem? The Same's the Same no 

longer ! 

XXXVIII XXXVIII 

Nam vix a quoquam, quod nar- But so 't is, as 't was once made 

ratur known 

Obventum olim somnio, By some old dreaming author, 

Compertum erit, si quaeratur Oxford should not in Oxford 

Oxonium in Oxonio. Town 

Be found by those who 
sought her. 

A.D. 1651 

" The members of the Little Parliament oft considered 
among themselves of the suppressing Universities and 
all Schools of Learning as heathenish and unnecessary ; 
and many persons of debauched principles would not 
only preach but write against Humane Learning": 
Anthony Wood, Annals , ii. pt. ii. 657. 

Alma Mater 

Many do suck thy breasts, but now in som 
Thy Milk turns into Froth and spumy Scum ; 
In others it converts to Rheum and Fleam, 
Or some poor Wheyish Stuff instead of Cream. 
In som it doth Malignant Humors breed, 
And make the head turn round as that-side Tweed ; 
These Humors vapour up into the Brains 
And so break forth to odd Fanatic Strains ; 
It makes them dote and rave, fret, fume, and foam ; 
When they should speak of Rheims, they prate of 

Rome; 

Their theam is Birch, their preachment is of Broom. 
Nor 'mong the Forders only such are found, 
But they who pass the Bridge, are just as Round. 



THE PURITAN USURPATION 203 

Som of thy Sons prove Bastards, sordid, base, 
Who having sucked thee, throw dirt in thy face ; 
When they have squeezed thy Nipples and chaste 

Papps, 

They dash thee on the Nose with frumps and rapps ; 
They grumble at thy Commons, Buildings, Rents, 
And would bring thee to farthing Decrements. 
Few by thy Milk sound Nutriment now gain 
For want of good concoction of the brain : 
But this Choice Son of thine is no such Brat; 
Thy Milk in him did so coagulate 
That it became Elixar, as we see 
In these Mellifluous Streams of Poesie. 

JAMES HOWELL (Jesus College, Oxon., 1610), 
Eulogistic Lines prefixed to the Comedies, 
Tragi-comedies, with other poems of that 
miracle of the age, the late Mr. William 
Cartwright of Christ Church : London, 
1651 

A.D. 1659 

" No sooner was Richard, Lord Protector, removed, 
than by the dissention and obstinacy of two wicked 
parties, the Rump and the Army, the Nation was 
almost ruined. The persons who had formerly got the 
revenues of the King, loyal Nobility and Gentry, and 
the Church, began to gape after the lands of the 
Universities, and thereby to overthrow Learning " : 
Anthony Wood, Annals, sub anno 1659. 

The Church's Patrimony, a rich store, 
Alas ! was swallowed many years before. 
Bishops and Deans we fed upon before, 
They were the Ribs and Sirloins of the Whore. 

Now let her Legs, the Priests, go to the pot; 

They have the Pope's eye in them ; spare them not ! 

We have fat Benefices yet to eat; 

Bell and our Dragon Army must have meat: 



204 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Let us devour her limb-meal, great and small, 

Tythe Calves, Geese, Pigs, the Petitoes and all ; 

A Vicaridge in Sippets, though it be 

But small, will serve a squeamish Sectarie. 

Though Universities we can't endure, 

There's no false Latin in their Lands, be sure; 

Give Oxford to our Horse, and let the Foot 

Take Cambridge for their booty, and fall to't ! 

Christ Church I'll have, cries Vane: Disbrow swops 

At Trinity : King's is for Berry's chops. 

Kelsey takes Corpus Christi : All Souls, Packer : 

Grave Creed, St. John's : New Colledge falls to 

Hacker. 

Fleetwood cries, Weeping Magdalen is mine: 
Her tears I'll drink instead of muscadine : 
The smaller Halls and Houses scarce are big 
Enough to make one Dish for Hazelrig. 
We must be sure to stop his mouth, though wide, 
Else all our fat will be i' th' fire, they cried ; 
And when we have done these, we'll not be quiet; 
Lordships and Landlords next shall be our diet. 
Thus talked this jolly crew; but still mine Host, 
Lambert, resolves that he will rule the rost. 

ROBERT WILD (St. John's College, Cambr.), 
Iter Boreale, 1660 



CHAPTER IX 

RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION (1660-1689) 
I. POEMS ON AFFAIRS OF STATE 

"Tho' here new Towers and Buildings daily rise, 

And Arms thrown off, we wear the peaceful Gown, 
Our Hearts admit no Change, know no Disguise, 
Prepared with Pen and Sword t' assert the Crown." 

Lines addressed to James, Duke of York, in the 
Sheldonian Theatre, May 21, 1683 

" T T PON the remove of the most Rev. William 

y^J Laud, Archbishop of Canterburie, his body, 

from Allhallowes, Barking, London, to St. 

John's Colledge in Oxford; July the xxi st 1663": 

Extract from the Vestry Minute Book of Allhallows 

Church, under the date July 1663 See Notes and 

Queries ', 3rd Series, iii. 3. 

When first Injustice pack't up his High Court, 
When Usurpation grav'd a Broad Seal for't; 
When Death in Butcher's dress did th' Axe advance, 
And Tragike Purpose with all circumstance 
Of fright and feare, took up the fatall stage 
To set Rebellion in its Rule and Rage ; 
When Friendship fainted, and lay Love starke dead, 
When few owned him whom good men honored 
Then Barkinge home, thus by the world forsook, 
The butchered body of the Marty re took ; 

205 



206 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Tore up her quiet marble, lodged him sure 

In the chief chamber of her sepulture; 

Where he entire and undisturbed hath bin, 

Murther'd and mangled tho at J s laying in : 

Where he's untainted too, free from distrust 

Of a vile mixture with rebellious dust; 

To make that sure, brave Andrewes begged it meet 

To rot at coffin's, and to rise at 's feet. 1 

But now our learned Laud J s to Oxford sent : 
St. John's is made St. William's monument; 
Made so by 'mselfe; this pious Prelate's knowne 
Best by the Books and Buildings of his owne : 2 
Whom, tho' th' accursed Age did then deny 
To lay him where the Royal Reliques lye 
Which was his due, at 's bodye's next remove 
He'll Rise and Reigne amongst the Blest above." 

" Upon the Picture of King Charles the First in St. 
John's Colledge Library, Oxon. Written in the 
Psalms "Jeremiah Wells (St. John's College), Poems 
upon divers occasions , Oxford, 1667. 

In the Library of St. John Baptist College, Oxford, 
is a portrait of King Charles the First, with the 
penitential Psalms written in a minute hand in the 
lines of the hair and face. Charles n, when he visited 
Oxford in 1663, asked it of the College, and could not 
be refused; but when he thanked the Society for its 
loyal reception of him, and invited them to say what he 
could do for them in return, they straightway begged 
him to restore to them the Martyr's picture. 

With double reverence we approach and look 
On what's at once a Picture and a Book; 

1 Capt. Eusebius Andrews, a devoted Royalist, beheaded and buried in 
Allhallows Church, April 23, 1650. 

2 In 1636, Laud's quadrangle at St. John Baptist College was completed, 
and new rooms assigned therein by special direction for the Library. 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 207 

Nor think it Superstition to adore 

A King made Now more Sacred than Before. 

Here no fond Artist at our sight lets in 

The sly debauchery of painted sin, 

Provoking real Lust by feigned Art, 

As if his Pencil were a Cupid's Dart; 

Nor no dissembling Painter's flattering Glasse 

Turns gross Deformity to beauteous Grace, 

And mending Doubly Counterfeits a face. 

The Object's here Majestick and Divine; 

Divinity does Majesty enshrine ; 

Each adds to th' other lustre; such a thing 

Befits the image of a Saint and King. 

Each Lineament o' th' Face contains a Prayer ; 

Phylacteries fill the place of Common Hair, 

Which, circling their beloved Defender, spread 

Like a True Glory round his Royal Head. 

His Mouth with Precepts filled, bespeaks our Ear, 

Summons that Sense too, bids us See and Hear: 

Both are Divine; Blest Moses thus did see 

At once the Tables and the Deity: 

Thus Faith by Seeing comes ; Religion thus 

Enamours, when to th' Senses obvious: 

This sight should work a Miracle on the Rout, 

Make them at once both Loyall and Devout. 

No massy Crown loads his diviner Brow; 
This would Debase, cannot Adorne him now; 
'Tis farre too gross 'mong Spirits to have place ; 
A greater Majesty shines in his Face. 
Thus after Death eternized, he outvies 
The New Rome's Saints and the Old's Deities, 
While Pilgrims from the world around shall 

come, 

Not to adore thy Birthplace or thy Tomb, 
No Sacred Relique, or Remains of thine, 
Thy Statue or thy Picture, Hearse or Shrine, 
But the bright Lustre of thy heavenly Brow, 
Thyself thus plac't in Glory here Below, 



208 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

But well has Art, lest our weak sight should fail, 

Covered our Moses with a double veil ; 

First, then, i' th' middle of some brightest day, 

Oppose thy sight to the Sun's fiercest ray ; 

Outface him in his Zenith : if this light 

Do not destroy, but purify, thy sight, 

Then mayest thou draw the Outer Veil, and pry 

Into this Image of Divinity: 

But not the Next; some mystery sure there was, 

That we must yet but see thee in a Glass. 

Had Moses seen thy radiant Majestic, 
That Prophet had resigned his Veil to Thee; 
Nor had he needed it; wert Thou in sight, 
His twinkling Splendour had held in its light: 
His Veil had hid his pious Shame, and Hee 
Had Doubly been obscured, by That and Thee: 
His dazzling Lustre, though Adored Before, 
Had only served to shew that Thou had'st More : 
And well thou might'st; for that Divinity 
He only Gaz'd upon, is Lodged in Thee: 
Thy Countenance does with Innate lustre shine, 
Whose every Feature's, like Thyself, Divine; 
The Lines and Thee so like in every thing, 
That while. we see the Psalms, we read the King; 
Inabled thus Thyself, Thyself t' inspire, 
To be at once the Sacrifice and Fire; 
Glorious Without, thy Body's every part 
Is fashioned, as thy Soul, after God's heart. 
Those Parcels of Religion we adore 
In Others, are Completed Here, and More. 
That Impress of the Deity in the Mind 
By Others stampt, we in thy Body find; 
Thy frame so like Divine in ev'ry part 
That thou did'st not Resemble it, but Art. 
The Artist has Defined, not Drawn, thee here, 
Nor is't a Picture but a Character ; 
The Emblem of thy Mind : Posteritie 
May hence learn what Thou Wert, and They Should Be ; 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 209 

Thy own Example: safely may'st thou go, 
Thyself the Passenger and Conduct too ; 
Know but Thyself; All Other things are known; 
All Science here is Self-reflexion. 

The Presbyterian Maxim holds not here, 
That calls Locks impious, if below the ear; 
When every fatal clip lops off a Prayer, 
And he's accursed that dares but cut thy Hair. 
The Mad Phanatick, seeing these thy rays, 
Struck with the light, falls on his knees, and prays ; 
And blind with lustre that did round him shine, 
Acknowledges the Vision is Divine, 
And washing off his hypocritic paint, 
He reconciles the Subject and the Saint. 
Those Madder Zealots, that as soon as come 
From the Arabian Impostor's Tomb, 
Put out their eyes the Image to retain, 
Counting all future objects are but vain, 
Would here be saved the labour, and should find 
True Miracles Strike their beholders Blind : 
Nor would they rest, till come where they might be 
Blest with the lasting sight of Heaven and Thee. 
And now, blest Spirit, while thy glorious Ghost 
Remains above, may we thy Mantle boast; 
Still, like Apollo, 'mong our Muses sit, 
Improving both our Piety and Wit: 
Still with us as our Guardian Angel stay, 
Thou 'rt full as glorious and as bright as They. 
To our new Troy Thou the Palladium be; 
May we Ourselves lose when we forfeit Thee, 
From Thee Protection may we find, and Light; 
Safe in thy Guard ; and in thy Lustre, Bright. 
May our continued Piety load thy Ears 
With Pilgrims' Vows and with our Daily Prayers; 
And may'st Thou oft 'mong us descend and see 
What's far too Holy to be aught but Thee. 
Resolve our scruple, since none other can; 
Our too much Piety makes us Profane; 
14 




210 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

While seeing thy lustre so divinely clear, 

We scarce believe thou art in Heaven, but Here. 

THE OXFORD ALDERMAN'S SPEECH TO THE DUKE 
OF MONMOUTH, WHEN HIS GRACE MADE HIS 
ENTRANCE INTO THAT ClTY, SEPTEMBER 1680 

"On Sep. 16 and 17, 1680, the Duke of Monmouth, 
natural son of Charles II by Lucy Waters, was at 
Oxford, racing in Port Meadow by the means of Lord 
Lovelace. The University took no notice of him : but 
Alderman Wright, with a crew, cried out * God save him 
and the Protestant Religion ! ' ' A long satirical ballad 
on Monmouth's entertainment by the Alderman on this 
occasion is printed in Wood's Life and Times (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.), ii. 496. 

Stout Hannibal, before he came of age, 
Perpetual wars with Rome was sworn to wage: 
You lead us to such wars ; O Happy We ! 
Great Prince, you are a Soldier good as he ; 
Though some will say, to give the devil his due, 
He was as good a Protestant as you ; 
You to that Whore of Whores, the Whore of 

Rome, 

Devoted from your own fair mother's womb, 
Tho' in the schools of Jesuits true bred, 
You scorned to learn of them to Write or Read, 
A Protestant the more to be admired 
That never was Instructed but Inspired : 
So unconcern'd from Popery you pass; 
No use of Understanding in the case; 
True Interest, that all other things o'erpowers, 
And generous Indignation made You Ours; 
E'en so in Spain to Mass come trading Jews, 
Cast Drabs turn Quakers but to spite the Stews. 
But fears and jealousies of you we scorn, 
That were so true a Son of Honour born; 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 211 

And since have made both Gog and Magog bleed ; 
Act but the Demagogue, you'll do the deed: 
You'll Ram and Dam proud Anti-Christ to Hell ; 
But force him first to work one Miracle; 
He that with four hard words and one grave Nod 
Turns an insipid Wafer into God, 
Were you a dough-baked Duke, with less ado 
To Prince of Wales may Transubstantiate You. 
Do You but say 't, we'll swear that You are so ; 
And rather kiss your hand than kiss his toe. 
Resolved, resolved ! it shall not be gainsaid ; 
Faith ! we'll believe your Mother was a Maid. 

Why should you think Ambition any Crime? 
We'll make you duke of Venice in due time; 
Or if you scruple to Usurp the Crown, 
Having once raised Us, yourself may then sit down ; 
You and your friends shall have the foremost place, 
Perhaps we'll join Sir Armstrong to your Grace; 
Whether You reign or He, 't is much as one, 
Great Alexander's dear Hephaestion. 

But when You come to reap these goodly fruits 
Sweet Sir, remember then Our humble suits : 
First ; let the lordly Bishops go to pot : 
'T is plain their Lordships all are in the plot ; 
They hold none Lawful Heirs but Lawfully Begot! 
Our Commonwealth's a castle in the air, 
If still we pray for King in Common Prayer: 
These paltry Scholars, blast them with one breath ! 
Or else they'll rhyme your Grace and Us to death. 
Then O brave We ! Then Hey for our good Town ! 
Then Up go We, when Wit and Sense go Down ! 

SONG ON THE DISSOLUTION OF THE OXFORD 
PARLIAMENT, 1681 

The last Parliament held at Oxford opened on 
March 21, 1681, and was dissolved on March 28, after 
seven days' existence. Many songs and poems on the 



tj 



212 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

life and death of this " mushroom " or " week "-ed 
Parliament, the attempts made by the violent Whigs 
to intimidate or coerce Charles II into giving his con- 
sent to the Exclusion Bill, the King's firmness in 
defence of his brother, and his abrupt dissolution of 
parliament, may be found in the Ballad Society's 
Publications, Roxburghe Ballads, vols. iv., v., and also in 
Wood's Life and Times (Oxford Hist. Soc.), ii. 533. 

Local disappointment at the short life of the Parlia- 
ment is described in the following lines. Oxford 
tradesmen had been expecting to reap a harvest from 
the Members, and charged exorbitant rates for accom- 
modation, etc. As Stephen Penton of St. Edmund 
Hall writes in his Guardian's Instruction, "they put 
Dutch rates upon their houses, so that, as 't was said, 
under five or six pounds a week, a Whig could not have 
room to talk treason in." 



OXFORD IN MOURNING FOR THE LOSS OF HER 
PARLIAMENT 

or 

LONDON'S LOUD LAUGHTER AT HER FLATTERING 
HERSELF WITH EXCESSIVE TRADING 

A Pleasant New Song 

Now Tapsters, Vintners, Salesmen, Tailors, all 
Open their mouths and for their losses bawl 
The Parliament is gone : their hopes now fail ; 
Palled is the wine and egar grows the ale. 
Now rooms late let for twenty pounds a week, 
Would let for twelvepence, but must lodgers 

seek: 

London rejoices who was sad before, 
And does in like coin pay off Oxford's score. 

To the tune of " Packington's Pound" or "Digby's 
Farewell." 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 213 

(1) London now smiles to see Oxford in tears 
Who lately derided and scoffed at her fears, 
Thinking her joys they should never be spent 
But that always they'd last with the Parliament: 
But oh ! she's mistaken, for now they are gone, 
And fairly have left her to grieve all alone. 

(2) Now Vintners and Tapsters that hoped for such 

gain 

By cheating the people, have cause to complain: 
The Cooks that were stored with provisions, now 

grieve, 

While London, to hear it, doth laugh in her sleeve. 
And now the fat Hostess who lives by the sins 
Of those who brought many, to whimper begins. 

(3) So dolefully toll now the Bells, that of late 
With loud sounds did a pleasure to hear them 

create ; 

The Inn-keepers late that so prodigal were 
Of standings, have horse-room enough and to spare ; 
Whilst London rejoices to think of the time 
When Oxford Bells jangled and scarcely could 

chime. 

(4) Now Salesmen and Sempstresses homeward do 

pack, 
No more cries the Shoemaker, "What do you 

lack?" 

The Tailor by thimble and bodkin doth curse, 
And swears that his trading could never be worse; 
Yet home again barefoot poor pricklouse must 

trudge, 
Whilst Oxford he bans, and his labour doth grudge. 

(5) The Chairmen who thought to return with a 

load 
Of silver to London, to store their abode, 



214 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Now homeward must foot it, though 'tis with much 

pain; 

And creep in their chairs to secure them from rain ; 
When night does approach, there their lodging they 

make, 
For a better to purchase no money they take. 

(6) The Coffee men wish that in London they'd 

stayed 

And not to have rambled in hopes of a trade; 
Their shops of sedition did fail of their end, 
And back now their puddle to London they send ; 
While she doth deride them, and flout them to 

scorn 
To see their ears hanging as if they're forlorn. 

(7) While Chirurgeons, of all, the best trading will 

find; 
For the Cracks having fled, they have left work 

behind, 

That doubtless repentance unfeigned will cause: 
The Goldsmiths and Drapers now stand at a pause, 
* Padders How to plan in their journey the Padders * to 'scape; 
waynfen While London for joy at their follies does leap. 



(8) She hears the loud sounding of Oxford's great 

bell, 

Which the Town's heaviness plainly doth tell; 
How the laughter they lately against her did vent 
For enjoying the Court and the Parliament, 
Is now turned to weeping, and each one sits sad 
To think what a loss by dissolving he's had. 

(9) Remember then, Oxford, how London you flout, 
For she'll be still even with you, 't is no doubt : 
England's chief City must still bear the bell, 

For near it, the most part, the King he will dwell, 
And cheer her with favours, while Oxford sits sad, 
And many lament the bad trade they have had. 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 215 

THE OXFORD HEALTH 

or 

THE JOVIAL LOYALIST : A New Song 
London, 1681 

(abridged from Ballad Society Publications, Roxburgh* 
Ballads, v. 37.) 

We will be loyal and drink off our wine 
Though Pope and though Presbyter both should 

repine. 

No State Affairs shall ere turmoil our brain ; 
Let those take care to whom they appertain. 
We'll love our King, and wish him happy days, 
And drink to all who daily speak his praise: 
We'll Loyal prove, and ever more will be 
With Plotters and with Plots at enmity. 

Tune of " On the Banks of the River," or " Packing- 
ton's Pound." 

Here's a health to the King and his Lawful 

Successors, 

To Tantivy Tories and Loyal Addressers ! 
No matter for those who promoted Petitions 
To poison the Nation and stir up Seditions. 
Here's a health to the Queen and her ladies of Honour ! 
A pox on all those who put sham plots upon her! 1 
Here's a health to the Duke and the Senate of Scotland 
And to all Honest Men that from Bishops ne'er 
got land. 2 

1 The infamous Whig informer, Titus Oates, had lately accused the 
Queen of an attempt to poison the King. 

2 See letter of Dr. Zacheus Isham, Dean of Christ Church, to Dr. 
Edmund Borlase, dated March 31, 1681 : "We have a long story here of 
a private conference between the King and the Earl of Shaftesbury, who 
proposed to him the declaring of the Duke of Monmouth to be legitimate, 
and the enriching of himself by Church lands ; but the King rejected 
both proposals as unjust " : Henry Ellis, Letters illustrative of English 
History, 2nd Series, iv. 165. 



2i6 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Here's a health to L'Estrange and to Heraclitus, 
And true Tory Thompson who never did slight us ! l 
And forgetting Broom, Paulin, and alderman Wrightus, 
With Tony and Bethel, Ignoramus and Titus, 2 
Here's a health to our Church and to all that are for it ! 
A shame to all Papists and Whigs who abhor it! 
Safe may she be still from new ways of Refiners, 
And justice be done to all Protestant Joiners ! 3 

Then come all you Loyalists, though the Whigs 

mutter, 
And all about nothing do keep up their clutter ; 

1 "A new dialogue between Heraclitus and Towser" had recently been 
published, "Towser" being the nickname bestowed on Roger L'Estrange, 
the Tory pamphleteer who was bravely exposing the iniquities of Gates. 
Nat. Thompson was a writer of loyal songs, a collection of which he issued 
in 1685. 

2 Brome Whorwood and Alderman Wright represented Oxford City in 
the Whig interest in Parliament, 1681. Paulin, an Oxford mercer and a 
Whig fanatic, "was at this time nearly broke, because of his quarrels 
with the university authorities, all trade having been withdrawn from him 
and his creditors falling upon him" (Prideaux, Letters to Ellis, May 1681, 
Camden Society). "Tony" is the Whig leader, Antony Ashley Cooper, 
1st Lord Shaftesbury. Slingsby Bethel and Henry Cornish, as Sheriffs, 
had systematically packed juries in the Whig interest : "the Law was in 
fact become a captive of the Faction, like a Dog in a String, to snarl and 
bite only as they encouraged. Bills preferred against Whigs for high 
treason were invariably thrown out by Grand Juries, with the indorse- 
ment " Ignoramus." 

3 One of the most noisy of the " Whig dogs" at the time of the Oxford 
Parliament, in his threats against the King and the Catholics, had been 
the foolish vapouring "Protestant Joiner," Stephen Colledge. He had 
brought with him his famous "Protestant Flail," a kind of life-preserver 
designed by him for use against the Papists : 

"This Flail was invented to thrash the brain 
And leave not behind the weight of a grain 

With a thump. 

At the handle end there hung a weight 
That carried with it unavoidable fate 
To take the Monarch a rap on the pate. 
It took its degree in Oxford Town, 
And with the Carpenter it went down 
With a thump." 
On July 8, 1681, Colledge was indicted at the Old Bailey for high 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 217 

In spite of the Pope or Jack Presbyter either, 
We'll always be merry, and will regard neither. 
Although they may Tory and Tantivy name us, 
We care not a pin : there's none honest will blame us. 
We'll drink to the King and his Lawful Successors 
And to all those who prove themselves Loyal 
Addressers. 



VERSES ON THE COMING OF THE WHIG, LORD 
LOVELACE, TO OXFORD FROM GLOUCESTER 
GAOL IN DECEMBER 1688, AFTER THE LANDING 
IN ENGLAND OF THE PRINCE OF ORANGE 

With him came some 300 followers, among whom 
were some Townsmen of Oxford who went out to meet 
him, and several pitiful rascally fellows with no arms 
but bills and staves: see State Trials, xii.-8i. 

The following poem is attributed to John Smith, 
second master at Magdalen College School, and appears 
in the Miscellany, edited by John Dry den in 1716, 
2nd part, 198. 

A late expedition to Oxford was made 
By a Protestant Peer, and his brother o' th' blade, 
Who his Lordship in triumph from Gloucester con- 
veyed ; 

Which nobody can deny. 

Had you seen all his myrmidons when they 

came to us, 

Equipped in their threadbare gray coats and high shoes, 
You'd have sworn not the Gaol, but all Hell was 
broke loose ; 

Which nobody can deny. 

treason, but according to the corrupt practice above mentioned the Grand 
Jury returned the bill with the finding "Ignoramus." The following 
week, a bill was presented against him at the Oxford Assizes ; the Grand 
Jury found it "vera billa," and Colledge was tried, found guilty, and 
hanged at Oxford. 



2i 8 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

In rank and in file there rode many a man ; 
Some marched in the rear and some in the van ; 
And for want of their hats, they had head-pieces 
on; 

Which nobody can deny. 

Tho arms were not plenty, yet armed they come, 
With stout oaken plants and crabtree sticks some, 
To cudgel the Pope and the Bald-pates of Rome: 

Which nobody can deny. 

Some had two able legs, but never a boot ; 
And on their tits mounted, they bravely stood to 't; 
But for the name of a horse, they'd as well gone 
on foot; 

Which nobody can deny. 

In all these gay troops, 'mongst twenty scarce 

one 

Had halbert or pistol, sword, carbine, or gun ; 
A sign they did mean no great harm to be done; 

Which nobody can deny. 

One horse wore a halter among all the rest; 
Nor had the dull wight half the sense of his beast, 
And he of the two did deserve the rope best ; 
Which nobody can deny. 

Here were many gallants, I warrant you, that 
Had ribbons of orange, and seaman's cravat; 
The defect of their arms was made up in state; 

Which nobody can deny. 

Here Mordant and G on their pampered 

steeds prance ; 

D , Brab , G next, and J. Willis advance 

Who phyzed at the Switzer who caned him in 
France ; 

Which nobody can deny. 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 219 

In this cavalcade, for the grace of the matter, 
Lord Lovelace rode first, and the next followed 

after ; 

They galloped up town first, and then down to 
water ; 

Which nobody can deny. 

The Mayor and his brethren in courteous fashion, 
Bade him welcome to town in a fine penned 

oration, 

And thanked him for taking such care of the 
nation ; 

Which nobody can deny. 

His Honour the next day, in courtship exceeding, 
Returned a smart speech to shew them his breeding, 
Which, when J t is in print, will be well worth the 
reading ; 

Which nobody can deny. 

Having thus far proceeded to secure the town, 
The guards were straight set, and the bridge 

beaten down ; 

And tho' no great courage, his conduct was shewn; 
Which nobody can deny. 

Next night, alarums our warriors surprise; 
Drums beat, trumpets sound, and at midnight all 

rise 

To fight the King's army that came in disguise; 
Which nobody can deny. 1 

"On Thursday night (Dec. 6), about three o'clock, was a great alarm 
all the town over, that a party of the king's dragoons were coming to 
plunder the city. The townsmen betook themselves to their arms ; and 
an arch of Magdalen College bridge was broken down to prevent the enemy 
coming in. Next day people were ferried over the Cherwell ; and 
afterwards planks were laid over the chasm for the convenience of 
passengers and market people " : State Trials, xii. 8 1 ; Wood's Life and 
Times (Oxford Hist. Soc.), iii. 286. 



220 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

The Cits were straight armed, expert men and 

able, 
With prongs and with coal-staves marched next 

whooping rabble, 
In as great a confusion as ever was Babel; 

Which nobody can deny. 

In the midst of a mob, two stout draymen 

appear ; 

To guard Mr. Ensign, a huge nasty tar 
Who flourished a blanket for colours of war, 

Which nobody can deny. 

At the foot of the colours, blithe Crendon did 

go, 

Who played a new tune you very well know; 
His bag-pipes squeaked nothing but Lero, lero ; l 
Which nobody can deny. 

And had the dear Joys now but come in the 

nick, 

I fancy they'd shewn them a slippery trick, 
And marched more nimbly without their musick ; 
Which nobody can deny. 

Lines by Dr. Thomas Smith of Magdalen College 
upon Dr. Jane, Regius Professor of Divinity, and those 
Heads of Houses, who, in a Convocation holden in July 
1683, na d zealously passed the famous Decree of Passive 
Obedience, and now tacitly condemned the same by 
causing the printed copies thereof to be removed from 
the halls and public places where they had been hung 
in triumph; and who, moreover, on Dec. 12, 1688, 

1 The song "Lillibullero," by the Whig, Thomas Wharton. Crendon 
was a local piper of repute. His name appears in both of the Speeches 
which were spoken in the Theatre by the Terrae Filius in 1703. In the 
first, Mander, Master of Balliol, is described as a "potator indefessus, in 
Alehouses adeundis frequentior Crendonio " : The University Miscellany, 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 221 

entered into an Association to defend the Prince of 
Orange who came to pull the King, his uncle and 
father-in-law, out of his throne: State Trials, xii. 83. 

In Janum bifrontem 

Cum fronti sit nulla fides, ut carmina dicunt, 
Cur tibi bifronti, Jane, sit ulla fides. 

In Associationem a quibusdam Oxoniensis 
Academiae Doctoribus initam 

Nuper sacrileges infandi schismatis ausus 

Atque monarchomachos perculit Oxonia : 
Oxonia antiquae fidei verique magistra, 

Regibus efftiso sanguine fida suis. 
Unde haec fluxa fides? haec inconstantia morum? 

Scottorum foedus sic revocare decet? 
Fallimur. En Matrem non haec infamia tangit: 

Dediscunt pauci quam dedit Ilia fidem. 

II. POEMS ON ACADEMICAL AFFAIRS 

"The Oxford Clerk at work and play, in 1667 A.D.," 
from Oxonium Poema, by F. V. (Francis Vernon, 
Student of Christ Church, 1654), 1667. 

Aspicit adversa Wadhamum sede Johannes, 
Hirsuta non fronte minax, non asper ut olim, 
Sed comptus, silvaeque tenax habitator opacae. 
Inter utrumque jacet non magno semita calle The Caus- 

Aequa tamen, junctamque viam sibi cernit equestrem ; leadT^* 1 
Hanc tu carpe ducem, et campos dimittet in illos the New 
Quos Nova dixerunt prisci Vivaria Patres : Parks. 

Quid tituli varias prodest exquirere causas? 
Prata vides, non ilia feris studiisque Dianae 
Inclyta, sed teneris stadia haud incommoda Musis. 

Vidimus hie doctam certatim ludere pubem Athletic 

Et firmos monstrare toros teretesque lacertos : 



222 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Hie etiam, magna Juvenum occurrente caterva, 
Modest Oxonii castas memini rubuisse puellas. 

Hie niveos errare greges spectabis, et ipsas 
Volvere se saturas per opima cubilia vaccas: 
Schollars Est aliud genus, (haud numero te, Frater, in isto 
pate as Pone puer !) juvat hos Logico mugire boatu, 
they walk. Distinguo "-que, " Probo "-que, et acuti rixa Lycaei : 
Hos cernes flagrare oculis, magnoque tumultu 
Non intellectas portare in praelia Formas 
Mox Burgersdicius tumidus crepat, hinc Brerewoodus 
Hinc et Aristotelis tonat Organon, inde fragore 
Insolito Sandersonus diverberat aures ; 
Jamque Poloniacis acer Smiglecius armis 
Emicat, oppositus stat Keckermanus atrox vi : 
Nee mora, cum totam videas ardere Conimbram, 
Et Complutenses vibrare incendia Patres. 
Parte alia nigras longo movet ordine turmas, 
Aspera bella ferens, nee segnior ardet Aquinas. 
Inde Gigantaeus per vasta volumina Suarez 
Sternit in astra viam, ac imponit Pelion Ossae; 
Quern premit assistens praeacuta cuspide Vasquez. 
Dejicit extructos contorto fulmine montes 
Scheiblerus, magnasque quatit moles Herebordus. 
Tandem Combachius furit, atque Magirus et in- 

gens 
Nescio quid Batavum demurmurat Isendornus. 1 

Sic argumentis concurritur; horrida strident 
Nomina, et insano rumpunt sese omnia bombo. 

1 Authors and books cited are: Frangois Burgersdyck (1590-1629), 
Logica\ Edward Brerewood (B.N.C., 1581), Tractatus quidam Logici, 
Oxford, 1628 ; Robert Sanderson (Lincoln College, 1603), Logicae Arlis 
Compendium, 1618; Martinus Smiglecius, a Polish Jesuit (1562-1618); 
Bartholomaeus Keckerman, Prussian Calvinistic divine (1573-1609); the 
writers of the University of Coimbra in Portugal, and of the University of 
Alcala in Spain (Collegium totius Complutensis Academiae) ; Francisco 
Suarez, Spanish Jesuit theologian (1548-1617) ; Gabriel Vasquez, Spanish 
writer (1551-1604); Scheibler's Metaphysics', Adrian Herebord's Melete- 
mata; Magirus, either John the Mathematician (1615-1697), or Tobias 
the philosopher and theologian (1586-1651) ; and Gilbert Van Isendoorn, 
Dutch philosopher (1601-1657). 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 223 



Ite procul nugae tetricae, longumque valeto 
Turba gravis pad, placidaeque inimica quieti ! 
Tractemus lites coram Praetore, sodales ! 
Infelix campo quisquis se torquet aprico. 

Tu potius, Frater, per mollia gramina gressus 
Colloquio risuque feres; frontemque severam 
Deponens, laetos comitabere laetus amicos, 
Aut si solus eris, spirantes suaviter auras 
Ore leges, terrasque teres, nubesque volantes 
Aspiciens, magnum tacitus venerabere Numen, 
Et prece digna putes jucundae munera lucis. 
Sed si tantus amor Musas captare fugaces, 
Nee tibi fas lectis erit abstinuisse libellis, 
Vel bona Gassendi lassabit pagina dextram, 
Vel tibi subtiles reteget Cartesius artes, 
Aut meus Euclides docilem te ducet alumnum, 
Et solus feret in penetralia summa sacerdos. 
Parce, precor, rixis coelum vexare salubre, 
Et non sanguineis aciem disponere campis. 

Dicite, Pierides, verna quis splendor in hora, 
Quantus honos Patrum, totosque effusa per 

agros 

Quanta seges Juvenum, necnon et plurima Virgo 
Quot vibrant flores totidem movet ore colores, 
Et trahit assiduis fluitantia carbasa ventis. 
Instat turba procul pisces superare natando, 
Quae fluvii petit amplexus, et verbere molli 
Tentatura undas humeros denudat eburnos : 
Ille recens secto gaudet se volvere foeno, 
Perque suos nidos trepidas agitare cicadas : 
Alter at in stagno ran as spectare natantes 
Gestit, et humanas imitantia membra figuras. 
Ille diem facili gaudet producere risu 
Fronde super fultus, placidosque recondere soles : 
Tristior alter erit, dumque ad vaga flumina fer- 

tur, 
Virgilium aut magni carmen memorabit Horati. 



J. V. Ex Aede 
Christi. 



Petri 

Gassendi, 

Philosophia 

Epicurea 

Rene des 

Cartes, 

Euclidis 

Elenienta. 



Swimming in 
Merton Pool 
and Schollar's 
Pool. 

Tumbling in 
the hay. 

Frogs swim- 
ming. 

Telling stories 
under a hay- 



224 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Leaping. Hie saltu nitet, hie jacto secat aera disco, 

Wrestling. Hie socium dura sudat detrudere lucta. 

Playing at Non omnes unum studium rapit; undique venis 

Dissimili pulsu sanguis micat, et trahit artus ; 

Concordesque ferunt animos discordia vota. 

Pars humiles texit calathos atque ordine j uncos 

Complicat, aut varias pingit sibi flore corollas. 
Making Trim- Pars quoque gramineae residens in margine ripae 
rustesTnd Non regressuros educit arundine pisces: 
flowers. Quidam oculis lustrat rimans qua lucius haeret 

Fixus et invigilat sociis latebrosus edendis. 

At tu qui Musas atrata veste fateris, 
Searching for Immundum versare lutum, chobasque latentes 
crawfish 1 Eruere, aut melius tectos tibi quaerere cancros, 

Parce, nee invideas miseris ignobile lucrum: 
Water-rats, Nam mihi saepe sorex latebris mordere sub illis 
toads, snakes. yi SUSj e t informis prodire in sidera bufo 

Aut inopem fecit pallere volubilis anguis. 
Denique quis finis tantos exponere ludos 

Et cunctos numerare jocos, juvenumque labores ; 
Bacon's Study Omnia quae summa spectat Baconus ab arce, 
Bridge f Et reserit praeceps Iflaea in litora flumen ! " 

Iffley. ' 



Lines to my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury upon his 
famous erection, the Theater at Oxford-, printed for C. S. ; 
London, 1675. 

(The Sheldonian Theatre was opened July 9, 1669.) 



What bold Erection starts not to appear 
In competition with thy Theater? 

Pompey's great Structure most admired stood, 
Yet mingled 't was twixt Excellent and Good ; 
Though its Perfection some in vain protect, 
Compared with Thine, 't was Ruins when Erect. 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 225 

This Model would renew fierce Nero's frown, 
The Murderer of his Mother and his Town ; 
Striving to sample This, he soon would find 
His artless Platform fall so far behind, 
The Furies would award him equal Doom 
For Building up, as for his Burning, Rome. 

The adverse French and Spaniards here Accord, 
Agreeing praises to This Work afford, 
And Pity those, whose commendations fall 
Or on their Louvre or Escurial ; 
And waving them, send Artists Here to see 
Not what Great Courts Are, but Ought to be. 

Near Earth's deep centre the Foundation lies; 
While the Roof bids Good Morning to the Skies, 
Whose unsupported Arch floats in the air 
As if no Buildings, but a Bird hung there. 
As Mahomet's Tomb contends the ground to press 
And seems restrained below by emptiness; 
Did no Attractive Agent buoy up all, 
Without his Epilepsy he must fall, 
And his blind Votaries, who under kneel, 
The Fatal Pressure of their Prophet feel; 
The Tomb had crush't and covered them, ere this, 
And been Their Monument as well as His : 
These arches swim aloft, secure from harm, 
Without the fraud of his Magnetick Charm, 
Where once arrived, themselves protect, 
Instructed by mysterious Architect : 
Angles to Angles, Squares to Squares apply; 
Each Stone is Loadstone to his next Ally. 1 

1 The tomb of Mahomet was generally believed to hang in the air with- 
out any visible supporter, between two loadstones artificially contrived 
above and below. ' ' The flat roof of the Theatre has no pillars to support 
it, being kept up with braces and screws, and whose main beams are made 
up of several pieces of timber, from sidewall to sidewall 80 feet one way, 
and 70 the other, whose lockages are in some respects not to be paralleled 
in the world" : Oxon. Academia, by John Pointer, 1749. 

*5 



226 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

To some less wary in distinguishing, 
The bare name " Theater " depraves the thing : 
Thither they come, entangled in their fears 
Of meeting Savage Objects; Panthers, Bears, 
Wolves, Lions, Tigers ! These, thus prepossest, 
Expect some Splendid Desert; at the best, 
Africk immured ! for such, they have been told, 
Were all the Ancient " Theaters " of old. 
But all the Sights in this Majestick Frame 
Are like the Spectators Tractable and Tame : 
No mangled Gladiators here intrude; 
No Tragick nor no Mimick Interlude ; 
The Uni- But all the hours they solemnly beguile, 
A C r t slty And ne'er excite our Sorrow nor our Smile. 

The Doctors of all Faculties and Arts 
Outshine their Scarlet with their Radiant Parts: 
Few hours in gravest state of questions spent, 
Opponents brandish Dint of Argument, 
Till, in subjection to Victorious Brains, 
The captive Adversary sighs in chains. 
Divinity Of all the Statelies in this Orb's dispose, 
Act ' The Choicest Canton is reserved for those 

Who prove all praise, e'en to this Theater lent, 
Most due to that above the Firmament: 
And such the sacred Sons of Aaron be, 
Who'd fain confute us into Eternity. 
If some in heat of disputation stray 
From Saint Ignatius to Loyola, 
Them the profound Professor soon recalls 
By Fathers, Schools, Councils, Originals: 
Such was the grave, the primitive Decree, 
But some Divines are now o' th' Livery ; 
Religion's Artifice, and Shopmen ply it, 
Not to gain Proselytes, but Custom by it; 
Their Sermons sell their Wares: who can in- 
vade 

With stoutest Lungs, O! he's the Man of 
Trade ! 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 227 

Next these, the learned Aesculapian train Physick 

Seek to retrieve their lost rights, but in vain; 
'Gainst Bills and posting Empricks they inveigh, 
And prove no Pestilence devours like they 
In pension with the Grave; their surest Trust 
(The Serpent's curse) is "Thou shalt eat the Dust." 



Next, Civil Sanctions guarding man from man ; Civil Law. 
Rich treasures left us by Justinian, 
Codes, Pandects, Digests, set a shore to Pride 
And Wrong throughout the World. Who can decide 
Which of the two have more Extensive Claws, 
The Roman Eagles or the Roman Laws? 

Throngs of Learn'd Youth fill up the lower space; Regent 
Hoods, whose Reverse are Silks, their shoulders grace, 
Shoulders, which, three years since, did only claim 
Less-graduate Furrs, the Ermine of the Lamb. 
These, seven long years, the Liberal Arts obey; 
At seven years' end, as Liberal as They. 

What Structure else but Prides it to Reveal 
Treasures? which Bashful This would fain Conceal. 
Thus Indian Kings' Exchequers heap up store, 
But in their Mines lies infinitely more. 
Her Sacred Oracle's Inspired Lungs, The 

Above, all Truths, below they speak all Tongues. 
Spain, Gascon, Florence, Smyrna, and the Rhine, and, below 
May taste their Language here, though not the Jilting 

Wine : Office. 

The Jew, Mede, Edomite, Arabian, Crete, 
In these deep Vaults their wandering Ideoms meet, 
And to compute are in Amazement hurl'd 
How long since Oxford has been All the World. 1 

1 The Theatre was first used for printing in September 1669. The 
type-foundry was set up in the basement, while printing took place on the 
floor, except at the time of the Act. The first book completely printed at 



228 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

AN OXFORD GUIDE, 1691 

From Academia, or the Humours of Oxford, by Mrs. 
Alicia D'Anvers, wife of Knightly D'Anvers of Trinity 
College, and daughter of Samuel Clarke, esquire bedel 
of the University : 1691. 

(John Blunder, man-servant, visits his young master 
at Queen's College, and, on his return home, describes 
Oxford to his fellow-servants.) 

There's in the Cellar, to my thinking, 
Queen's A Horn, or something else to drink in, 

Hom e Which, being filled full as it can hold, 

'Tis his that drinks it off, I'm told: 
But here's the thing that makes the rout; 
When you drink deep, it flies about, 
And douts one's eyes, and makes one cough, 
So that one ne'er can tope it off. 1 

the Theatre was Epicedia Univ. Oxon. in obitum Henriettae Mariae, 
1669. 

See James Duport's Mtisae subsecivae, 1676, "In Theatrum Oxon. et 
Proelum Typographicum " : 

"Bellositana Actus qui mine spectantur arena, 

Praesentes laudant suspiciuntque Sophi : 
Bellositana olim monumenta perennia Proeli 

Venturi relegent suspicientque Sophi. 
Sermo ad praesentes, ad seros charta nepotes 

Dimanat ; nempe haec permanet, ille fugit. 
Verba volant, sed Scripta manent ; Vox viva docebit 

Viventes ; Libros Saecla futura legent. 
Praesenti simul et venture prospicit aevo 

Qui Scenam Musis erigit atque Typos. 
Sheldoniano omnis cedet labor ergo Theatro, 

Ni praestet Proelum forte Typographicum." 

1 The Horn presented to Queen's College by Robert Eglesfield, the 
Founder, and which is still used as a loving-cup at the College Gaudy. 
It was one of the regular sights of Oxford. When Charles n and his 
Queen visited the College in 1663, "they were met at the chapel door with 
the horn full of beer, and there they drank " : Wood's Life and Times 
(Oxford Hist. Soc.), i. 499. The Morocco Ambassador, in 1682, "viewed 
the Chapel and Hall ; but when the Horn was presented to him full of 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 229 

And cause they'll have no Freshmen here, 
At first the Scollards salt one's Beer. 1 

Tom asks, what fine things to be seen 
Beside the College of the Queen ? 
Cries John, A many in the Town : 
First, there's a houge'ous masty Clown, 
As you go into th' Physick Garden; The Phy- 

M aster ne'er shewed me, but I stared in. Garden. 

The Yat's all hung about with whimwhoms, 
As Fishes' bones and other thingums : 

beer, he refused to drink, saying in his own language and a proverb of 
his country, ' God preserve me from horns ! ' " : Hist. MSS Commission, 
I2th Report, Append, pt. vii. p. 186. 

If the drinker lift the vessel too hastily to his mouth, the air gets in and 
forces a quantity of liquor in his face. 

The Horn is thus described in Ballard MS. 47 (170) : 

"On the top a Jove's Eagle from gold lustre borrows, 

And it ends in a Fish, like the picture in Horace : 

An Emblem as good as you'd possibly wish ; 

Like an Eagle you'll soar if you drink like a Fish. 
As Doctors on boxes, in letters of gold, 

Write on the outside what the inside doth hold, 

So ' Wacceyl ' 's inscribed on this Horn of all mirth, 

The Elixir, the Syroup of Health, and so forth. 
But beware of its motions with due circumspection, 

Or your clothes will lament a large winy ejection : 

If you turn it awry to revenge your disgrace, 

Tho it push not, egad ! it will fly in your face." 
1 The symbolic pickling of the Freshman ("Bejaunus," "Becjaune," 
or " Yellowbeak") by the administration to him of a pinch of salt, 
"sal sophiae," in a glass of wine, beer, or water, formed the conclusion 
of the elaborate student-initiation ("Depositio Cornuum") practised in 
medieval Universities. Whitgift's pupils at Trinity College, Cambridge 
(1567-77) paid, for their "saltyng" and the entertainment of the senior 
men who superintended the rite, sums varying according to their respective 
rank ; see British Magazine, xxxii. 361, 508 : while John Owen (New 
College, Oxford, 1582) attributes the pungency of his epigrams to his 
"peppering" at Winchester, and his "salting" at Oxford : 

"Oxoniae salsus, juvenis turn, more vetusto, 
Wintoniaeque, puer turn, piperatus eram. 
Si quid inest nostro piperisve salisve libello, 

Oxoniense sal est, Wintoniaeque piper." 
At Exeter College, in 1637, it was the custom on "fresh nights" for 



230 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

A tree cut This Giant stands as you come first in. 

into the J 

shape of a r or I took heart at last to thrust in ; 

giant. His Head has got an Iron Cap on, 

To keep off showers, or what might happen ; 

His Face is like a Man's to see to, 

And yet his Body's but a Tree too : 

Strutting SL holds a Club on's shoulder 

Which makes him look more fierce and bolder; 

And I was told there was another, 

Which now is dead and was his Brother : 

I went on th' other side to eye 'n, 

Not caring much to come too nigh 'n ; 

Lest with his club he should be doing ; 

But the Folks said one might go to him : 

But for my part I did not care 

To look in's face he did so stare. 1 

There lies a Tooth, I tell a Fib too, 

Some call't a Tooth, but most a Rib do. 

senior men to "tuck" freshmen, that is, to grate off with the thumb-nail 
all the skin from the lip to the chin, and then to cause them to drink a 
beer-glass of salt and water; so too at Merton College in 1647 : see Life 
of the first Lord Shaftesbury, by W. D. Christie, i. 15, and Wood's Life 
and Times (Oxford Hist. Soc.), i. 138. "Savage tricks of mustarding, 
salting and grubbing freshmen " were still practised at Magdalene College, 
Cambridge, in 1679 (Hist. MSS Commission, 5th Report, 483). In 1680 
certain "poor children" of Queen's College, Oxford, were given the choice 
of a whipping or of expulsion, for exacting "fresh fees" ; see Flemings at 
Oxford (Oxford Hist. Soc.), i. 313; and in 1682 James Wilding of St. 
Mary Hall paid eleven shillings and sixpence for "fresh fees and drink," see 
Collectanea, i. 255 (Oxford Hist. Soc.). The Compleat Mendicant (1699) 
refers to a custom of " seasoning freshmen " at a stone on Headington Hill. 
"Fresh fees" and salted drink are mentioned in a poem " Iter Academi- 
cum, or the Gentleman Commoner's Matriculation " (Nicholas Amherst, 
Terrae Filius^ xli., A.D. 1721). Hearne in 1731, and Huddesford in 
1772, declared traces of student-initiation to exist in many Colleges ; 
and finally an Oxonian informed the editor of the notes on Whitgift's 
pupils in the British Magazine , 1847, that "going to the Buttery to 
drink salt and water had formed part of the ceremony of his admission to 
College." 

1 The Physic Garden, founded by Henry, Earl of Danby, in 1632, became 
famous under its first superintendent, Jacob Bobart (1632-1679), and his 
son of the same name (1679-1719). Several poems on the celebrated 
Giants cut in yew, " Bobart's ' Yew-men of the Guard,' " are found in the 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 231 

A vast thing 'tis, whateer it be, 
And put there for a Rarity. 1 
When you are gone a little further 
You happen just on such another; 
A Crane it is, as People tell ye, 
Growing from a Tree-Stalk by the Belly. 
Whether alive or no's, no knowing; 
Her Bill touts up, just as if crowing. 2 



Wood Collection in the Bodleian. Cf. Carmina Ojtadresimalia ab Aedis 
Christi ahimnis composita, ed. by C. Este, 1723 : 

An Natura intendat Monstrum ? Neg. 
Hortus ad Auroram Phoebeis fertilis herbis 

Stat, Bobartanae cura laborque manus. 
Hie Corydon vastos immani mole Gigantes 

Aspicit, et pallens stat revocatque gradum, 
Terribiles horret vultus oculosque minaces, 

Pectoraque atque humeros clavigerasque manus. 
Rustice, sume animos : non hie Titania cernis 

Monstra, licet Tellus his quoque mater erat. 
Innocuos tantum taxos Natura creavit ; 

Humana geminus surgit ab arte Gigas. 

These triumphs of the topiary art are mentioned as still surviving, in a 
poem addressed by John Burton of Corpus College to the Botanical Garden, 
"vegetabilis Regina mundi" ; Opusctila miscellan. metrico-prosaica, 1771 ; 
and also in William Stukeley's Itinerary, vol. i. 44, 2nd ed. 1776 ; but 
they were numbered by Wade, Walks in Oxford, 1817, among "objects 
of vulgar admiration which had long since given way to the natural and 
graceful dispositions adopted by modern taste." 

1 A great Whale-bone. 

2 Cf. Examen Poeticum Duplex, London, 1698 : 

Una est omnium rerum materia? Aff. 
In laeta ponit dum formas Daedalus herba, 

Arboris et docta brachia falce metit ; 
Pyramis hie tonsis assurgit lenta racemis, 

Et teres in viridi cespite frondet Olor. 
Hie viget Aeacides non jam mortalis, et arbor 

Una Dei telum reddit et una Deum. 
Inde gravem Alciden taxus jam laeta reponit, 

Cui quondam tristem proebuit usta rogum. 
Planta eadem crescit varia sub imagine ; cultor 

Si jubet, est Heros ; si jubet, ales erit. 

So, too, Thomas Tickell, "taberder of Queen's Coll.," in his poem, 



232 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Astronomy 
School. 
Musick 
School. 



Arith- 
metick 
School. 



Library. 



Two 
Globes. 

Ccelestial 



Terres- 
trial. 



The Schools, de 'e mark, 's a very fair place 
With Rooms built round it, but a square place 
The Doors all something writ upon, 
By which there's something may be known. 

That School's to learn ye conjuring, 
} T other to Whistle and to Sing, 
And how to play upon the Fiddle, 
To keep the Lads from being idle. 
But what to greater good amounts 
A School they have to teach Accounts ; 
By which each one may cast up nearly 
How many Farthings he spends yearly. 

A Door I spied was open standing, 
I budged no farther than my band in: 
But by a Schollard I was holp in, 
A civil youth and a well spoken; 
We went together up a staircase, 
Going till coming to a rare place 
As thick of Books, as one could thatch 'um ; 
And Ladders stood about, to reach 'um. 
On each side were two round things standing, 
Made so to turn about with handing: 
By one they knew, as I am told, 
When weather would be hot or cold, 
What time for setting and for sowing, 
When to prune trees the best for growing: 
By this they make the Almanacks 
And twenty other harder knacks : 

The other thing, when round it's whirl'd, 
Shews all the Roads about the World; 

Oxford, 1707 : 

"How sweet the landskip ! where in living trees, 
Here frowns a vegetable Hercules ; 
There famed Achilles learns to live again, 
And looks yet angry in the mimic scene ; 
Here artful birds, which blooming arbours show, 
Seem to fly higher, while they upward grow : 
From the same leaves both arms and warriors rise, 
And every bough a different charm supplies." 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 233 

May find, if well you look about, 

There all the Ponds and Rivers out: 

But that the Schollard was in haste so, 

He would have shewn our house at last too. 1 

So I went all about the Meeting: 
Some People in their Pews were sitting ; 
Tho but a few, here and there one, 
The Minister not being yet come ; 
I'll say't, I longed to hear the Preaching, 
1 warrant, aye, 't was dainty teaching. 
I asked a young Youth what it meaned 
That all them Conjuring Books were chained: Chained 
He said they being full of cunning, 
It seems, would else have been for running: 
Before they had them chains, they say 
A number of them ran away. 

As I went on, the Folk that reads 
Would many times pop up their heads, 
And douck 'urn down (may hap) again : 
And these are called the Learned Men. 
They look for all the world as frighted ; Students 

But were I to be hanged or knighted, 
I can't imagine what mought ail'd 'um, 
For could they think one wou'd a steal'd 'um ; 
Well, by and by, there's one comes to me, 
I thought the Fellow might have knew me, 
He said I must not make a stumping, 
And that it was no place to jump in; 

1 Cf. " An Oxford Ramble," an eighteenth -century song : 

"And in the middle stood two things, 

As round as any ball ; 
They told us 't was the picture of 

The world and sea and all : 
And they that did them understand, 

And rightly turn them round, 
Could tell us what o'clock it was 

In the world that's underground," 



234 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Whop Sir, thought I, and what's ado here, 
About the nails that in one's shoes are ; 
He told me that the men were earning 
A world of something by their learning, 
And that a noise would put them out, 
So that they ne'er could bring 't about. 
Well, 'cause he made a din about 'um, 
I daff'd my shoes, and went without 'um. 
That Fellow gerned and cried " What's that for ? " 
I said, ' And what would you be at, Sir ? 
My shoes I take under my arm 
Rather than do their Worships harm, 
Because I would not leave the room, 
Until the Minister be come." 
At that he laughed so, for my part 
I thought the fool would break his heart; 
I was so mad to see 'n flout me, 
I longed almost to lay about me ; 
But thinking that might there be evil, 
I thought 't were better to be civil : 
Tying my shoes upon my feet, 
I went down stairs into the street. 
###*#* 

The next place that I comes you in, 
Was the most lovely spacious thing; 
To know the name is no great matter, 
But now I think on 't, 't is the Thatter ; 
The The Thatter yard about beset is 

With holly and with iron lattice, 1 
The ends of which same bars made fast are 

1 John Evelyn's Diary, July 1669 : "I dined with the Vice- Chancellor, 
and spent the afternoon in seeing the rarities of the public libraries, and 
visiting the noble marbles and inscriptions now inserted in the walls which 
compass the area of the Theatre, which were 150 of the most ancient and 
worthy treasures of that kind in the learned world. Now, observing, that, 
people approaching them too near, some idle persons began to scratch and 
injure them, I advised that a hedge of holly should be planted at the foot 
of the wall, to be kept breast high, only to protect them : which the Vice- 
Chancellor promised to do the next season." 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 235 

In posts of stone or alabaster, 
And upon every postes top 
There's an Old Man's Head set up; 1 

About there stand a many brave stones Antiquities 

Which are for all the world like grave-stones; ISenJ 6 " 

I marie why they were carried there, 
No Folks belike are buried there. 
The House is round our Master has, 
You know, a round-house in the close; 
This is much such another building, 
Save for the painting and the gilding, 
The leading on the top; and then too 
'T is twenty times as big again too ; 
A-top of all 's a little steeple 
But ne'er a bell to call the people. 
Down in the Cellar folks are doing 
Something that makes a world of bowing; 
Some throw black balls, their heads some throwing 
As if they backwards were a-mowing; Printing- 

Stooping a little more to view 'urn, beneath 

They kindly asked me to come to 'urn ; the 

Theatre. 

A world of paper there was lying, 

Besides a deal that hung a-drying ; 

They being wet, as I suppose, 

Were hung on lines, as we hang clothes, 

The folks below began to hollow 

" Whop, you there, honest country fellow ! 

We'll print your name ; what is 't, I wonder ? " 

Says I, "One's John, Sir; t' other Blunder." 2 

1 See Oxonii Dux Poeticus> M. Aubry, 1795 : 

" Si quorum fuerint capita ista horrenda requiras 

Quae propter Latam stant numerosa Viam, 
Caesareos totidem vultus truncataque signa, 

Haud veri semper nuntia, Fama refert : 
Terricula at pueris, ego credo, erecta protervis, 
Ne nocua hi laedant proxima tecta manu." 

2 Cf. Through England on a side-saddle in the time of William and 



236 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Well, in comes I where men were picking 

Of little things that make a nicking ; 

And he that sent me, not to cheat me: 

Came up, as I came in, to greet me: 

He told me, them small things were letters, 

And that the men themselves were setters ; 

And so, would you think it ! why, this same too 

Bid one o' th' Fellows do my name too ; 

And so a' did, and down we went 

To have John Blunder put in prent ; 

And here 't is for you all to look on 't, 

See if they have not made a book on 't : 

And out John read it in a tune, 

"John Blunder; Oxford; Printed June": 

But coming to the figures, was, 

But that Tom helped him, at a loss, 

Not knowing what i' th' world to do 

To know if that was one or two; 

At last 't was found to be One Thousand 

Six Hundred, Seventy and a Dozen. 

Says John, The Printers are such Sots, 

This bit of paper cost two Pots : 

Beside it cost me two pence more 

To one that sits to dup the door 

That is quite, as it were, within there, 

Where one sees all that's to be seen there; 

So in went I with this same maiden, 
And not till I came out, I paid 'en ; 
It is the finest place, that ever 
My eyes beheld, it's wrought so clever: 
Roof of The top's all pictured most completely, 
Theatre. Squared into golden frames so neatly; 
Why, there is drawn a power of things, 
Nay, I dare say, they all are kings, 

Mary i being the Diary of Celia Fiennes, circa 1695 : " Under the 
Theatre is a roome which is fitted for printing, where I printed my name 
severall times." 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 237 

Brest up in silken garments finely: 

Some look ye sour, and some look kindly. 1 

* ##### 

I thought I'd as good as slip o'er one day, 
Look ye, because the same was Sunday ; 
For my share, I was loth to choose 
That day to go a-seeking shows. 
But going down to Queen's, to see 
If my young master well might be ; 
And passing over Carryfox, 
Which is the market-place of Ox- 
-Ford, where two little Pigmies stands 
Such nimble-twiches of their hands; Carfax 

Just o'er the place where Folks sell butter, Church ' 

And with two hammers keep a clutter; 
It being their business (so belike) 
To knock, whene'er the Clock shall strike, 
A Bell, that's hung ye so between, 
That so they might be sure to see J n ; 
Alive, sure as a band a band is, 
With heads no bigger than one's hand is ; 
As long, let's see, if I can tell now, 
About as long as from my elbow. 2 

****** 

1 The ceiling of the Sheldonian Theatre was elaborately painted by 
Streater ; and equally elaborate descriptions of the work can be found in 
Plot's Natural History of Oxfordshire, and in Urania, by Robert Whitehall 
of Merton College, 1669. The latter, after a very lengthy explanation of 
the artist's design, concludes as follows : 

"These to the life are drawn so curiously, 
That the Beholder would become all Eye, 
Or at the least an Argus : so sublime 
A phantsie makes essayes to Heaven to climb ; 

That future ages shall confess they owe 

To Streater more than Michael Angelo." 

2 Cf. Carmina Quadresimalia (ed. by C. Este), Oxford, 1723 : 

An qtricquid movetur ab alio moveatur? Aff. 
Vidistin celeres quae machina nuntiat horas, 

Et quali passu noxque diesque fluunt ? 
Hie gemini Heroes magni more Herculis adstant ; 
Fustis utrumque armat, pellis utrumque tegit. 



238 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Christ 
Church. 



Cathedral 
service. 



Why, I have seen New College Mount 

And stood ye a good while upon 't ; l 

And Magdalen Walks, and Christ Church fountain, 

A thing that makes a mighty sprounting: 

Well, Monday comes, and hardly neither 

Before day-break I hies me thither; 

But I found out by people's saying 

These organs would not yet be playing, 

And that I might go home again 

And come and hear 'em just at ten ; 

By then the bells had all done ringing 

The Folks were come and set a-singing; 

Tempus adest. Ambo trepidantia fustibus aera 

Ter quater impellunt ; ter quater aera sonant. 
Non matutinus signat constantior horas 

Gallus, non solis certior umbra diem. 
Miratur Corydon molemque ictusque Gigantum, 

Et quis eos rogitat spiritus intus agit. 
Non anima hoc praestat, non vita infusa per artus ; 

Hoc fabri labor est, artificisque manus. 

1 The Mount, commenced in 1529-30, and completed in 1648-49, had 
stone steps and winding walks up to the top ; and the top was encompassed 
with rails and seats. Various topiary works, including a Dial, and the 
King's and the Founder's Arms, adorned the gardens : 

"Then we went out of that fair place, 

All up upon a Hill ; 
And just below a Dial did grow 

Much like a waggon-wheel : 
'T was bigger by half, which made me laugh, 

Just like a garden-knot ; 
When the sun shone bright, it was as right 
As is our Parson's Clock." 

." The Oxford Ramble" (eighteenth-century song) 

"On Gardens next we feast our ravished eyes, 
Where verdant Yew with so much art doth rise, 
And, to th' ingenious artist's great applause, 
Green hideous beasts distend their peaceful jaws : 
A lofty Mount impending oer the plains 
Artfully raised with cost immense and pains, 
From whence we see the lofty spires arise, 
And with their summits touch the azure skies." 

Oxford, the seat of the Muses, James Heany, 1738 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 239 



There's some are fat, and some are lean, 

And some are boys and some are men ; 

But what I'm sure will make you stare 

They all stand in their shirts, I swear: 

Each one, when they come in, stand still 

Bowing and wriggling at the sill ; 

I looked awhile, and marked one noddy, 

Something he bowed to, but no body; 

For these, and other things as apish, 

The Townsfolk term the Scollards Papish. 

The organs set up with a ding, 

The white-men roar, the white-boys sing; 

" Rum, Rum," the Organs go, and " Zlid " ; 

Sometimes they squeak out like a pig: 

They gobble like a Turkey Hen, 

And then to " Rum, Rum, Rum," again : 

What with the Organ, Men and Boys, 

It makes ye up a dismal noise; 

All being over, as I wis, 

Out come they like a flock of geese. 1 

The place as I went in at, there, 
A kind of Gatehouse, as it were; 



Surpliced 
choir. 

Bowing to 
the altar. 



Tom 
Tower. 



1 Cf. William Prynne (Oriel College), Histriomaslix (1633), P- 285 : 
" As for the Divine Service and Common Prayer, it is so chaunted and 
minced and mangled of our costly curious and nice Musitions . . . that it 
may justly seeme, not to be a noise made of men, but rather a bleating of 
brute beasts ; whiles the coristers ney descant, as it were a sort of Colts, 
others bellow a tenour, as it were a company of Oxen ; others barke a 
counterpoint, as it were a kennell of Dogs ; others rore out a treble like 
a sort of Buls ; others grunt out a base, as it were a number of Hogs ; so 
that a foul evill-fav cured noise is made." 

See too " An Oxford Ramble " (eighteenth century) : 

" In the middle of prayers just up the stairs 

Was Bagpipes to my thinking ; 
And the people below fell a-singing too, 
As tho they had been drinking." 

Organs, however, were no novelty at Oxford. One, probably replacing 
an earlier one, was set up at New College in 1458. St. John's had 
one in 1489, All Souls' in 1458 : see Degrees in Music ^ C. F. Abdy 
Williams, 



240 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Great 
Tom. 



Magnus 
Thomas 
Clusius. 



Brazenose. 



Lincoln. 



Academi- 
cal dress. 



A top of which a Bell is hung, 

Bigger than ere was looked upon : 

I understood by all the people 

'T was bigger than our Church and Steeple: 

At nine at night, it makes a Boming 

And then the Scollards all must come in. 

Now I've told all that ere I see, 
Unless the Brazen Nose it be, 
Clapt on a College Gate to grace it, 
And shew, mayhap, they're brazen-faced ; 
And there's another thing I think on, 
The Devil looking over Lincoln ; 
Their faults, be sure, he kindly winks on, 
The other Colleges he squints on ; 
A world of pity 't was, I swear, 
That our young master was not there. 1 

Bess willing yet to be more knowing, 
Demands what clothes the Schollars go in? 
For the most part (says John) they wear 
Such kind of Gowns as Parsons' are ; 
Some Trenchers on their heads have got 
As black as yonder Porridge Pot ; 
And some have things, exactly such 
As my old Gammer's mumbles Pouch, 
Which sits upon his head as neat 
As 't were sewed to 't by every pleat: 
Some, I daresay, are very poor tho, 
They wear their Gowns berent and tore so, 
Hanging about them all in littocks 
That they can hardly hide their buttocks. 
When they want money, I believes, 
The lads are fain to sell their sleeves, 

1 There was over the gateway of Lincoln College, until about the year 
1740, a leaden grotesque, like that at Lincoln Cathedral. John Pointer 
(Oxoniensis Academia, 1749) writes: "The Image of the Devil, that 
stood many years on the Top of this College, (or else that over Lincoln 
Cathedral) gave occasion for that Proverb, 'To look on one, as the Devil 
looks over Lincoln,' " 




THE LECTURE (HOGARTH, 1736) 



SHEWING VARIOUS STYLES OF ACADEMICAL HEAD-DRESS. THE.LECTURER IS KNOWN 
TO REPRESENT MR. FISHER OF JESUS COLL., OXFORD, REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY 



RESTORATION AND REVOLUTION 241 

For, look ye, many a time I meet, 

May happen, twenty in the street, 

With handsome Gowns to look upon, 

And ne'er a Sleeve to all their Gowns. 

You know young Master for a M eater 

Was for his years a handsome Eater; 

Well, and his Sleeves are gone already, 

And his was a new Gown too, Betty; 

And hangs about his legs in shatters, 

I swear, 'has torn it all to tatters. 

I held a jag aloft to shew 'n 

And bid 'n let the tailor sew J n : 

He laugh't and cried, " Why, that's no fault, John/' 

He tore 't to pass ye for a Saltman. 1 

Now you have all, let's go to bed; 

I well 'y long to lay my head: 

And John that motion made because 

Their eyes by this time all drew straws; 

All thank him round, Sue, Bess, and Tom, 

And went to roost all everyone. 



1 A "Saltman" is a senior man as opposed to a "Freshman." A 
jed gown has always been a sign of seniority. Cf. ' ' Tyro magis 
ipiens, quod toga scissa magis," Carmina Quadresimalia, ed. by 
Este, 1723, i. 22 : 

"Then up we got, and out we went, 

To see this gallant town ; 
And at the gates we met a Man 

In a sad ragged Gown : 
As for his sleeves, I do believe 

They were both clean torn off; 
And instead of a Hat, he wore a Cap ; 
'T was a Trencher covered with cloth." 

"An Oxford Ramble" (eighteenth century) 

" Gentlemanly Dress : However neat you may be in other parts of 

>ur dress, with regard to your Academicals the case is just the contrary. 

ic more tattered your gown is, and the more variegated are its colours, 

ic more fashionable it is esteemed. A new gown is an unerring symptom 

)f freshness " : Hints on Etiquette for the University of Oxford, 1838. 



16 



CHAPTER X 

CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION, CIRCA 1700 A.D. 

OXONII ENCOMIUM, 1672 

We have fair Padua, Lovain, Leyden seen ; 

At Theirs, as, Oxford, at Your Lectures been : 
They Arts' Chief Maids of Honour are ; but You, 
ARTS' QUEEN ! 

Benevohis, Anagram for (Edward) Benlowes 
(St. John's College, Camb.) 

Bless'd we whom bounteous Fortune here has thrown, 
And made her various blessings all our own ! 
Nor Crowns nor Globes, the Pageantry of State, 
Upon our humble easy Slumbers wait, 
Nor aught that is Ambition's lofty theme 
Disturbs our Sleep and gilds the gaudy Dream. 
Touched by no ills which vex th' unhappy Great 
We only Read the Changes of the State ; 
Triumphant Marlborough's arms at distance hear, 
And learn from Fame the rough events of war ; 
With pointed Rhymes the Gallic tyrant Pierce, 
And make the Cannon Thunder in our Verse. 

See how the matchless Youth their hours improve 
And in the glorious way to knowledge move; 
Eager for fame, prevent the rising sun 
And watch the midnight labours of the moon ! 
Nor tender years their bold attempts restrain 
Who leave dull time and hasten unto Man ; 
Pure to the Soul, and Pleasing to the Eyes, 
Like Angels, Youthful, and like Angels, Wise. 

THOMAS TICKELL (Queen's College), Oxford, 1707 

IN the crowded years between the accession of the 
first, and the abdication of the second, James, 
England, the " Anglia plena jocis" of Elizabethan 
days, put away childish things ; and, one by one, in 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 243 

the University where " life had once run gaily as the 
sparkling Thames," the enchantments of Youth grew 
faint and died away. 

Down almost to the outbreak of the Great Rebellion, 
Oxford breathed from her towers all the merriment of 
the Middle Ages. " Mirth is as necessary to health as 
are Food and Sleep," had been the truth revealed, 
centuries before, by Grosseteste to her infant mind. 1 
" Dum sumus in mundo, vivamus corde jucundo ! Care, 
away ! care, away i " were the words inscribed in no 
less serious a volume than the University letter-book 
during the dark days of the fifteenth century, and were 
at once an echo of the great Clerk's maxim and a fitting 
preface to letters which are a compound of pathos and 
playfulness. 2 And under Elizabeth and James, the 
same joy of life still reigned and ruled in all classes of 
the community. A glad perennial youth was not yet 
become the exclusive possession of the Undergraduate ; 
but through the wisdom of the Wise also, as it did in 
later days through the philosophy of Dr. Johnson's 
fellow-Collegian, Mr. Edwards, " cheerfulness was some- 
how always breaking in." Into the most mournful of 
their academical dirges over kings, warriors, and scholars, 
this happy breed of men admitted poems shaped into 
the forms of altars, pyramids, and wings ; chronograms, 
anagrams, and acrostics, those whetstones of patience 
to such as practise them ; puns ; and many another 
dainty device and disport of wit. Welcoming mirth 
even into their most solemn assemblies, they introduced 
among the grave questions sanctioned for discussion at 
their Public Acts, others which lent themselves to 
humorous treatment by the disputants ; while, on the 
same occasions, the Terrae Filius was permitted to 
burlesque academic disputations, and with Fescennine 

1 Dixit enim Grosseteste (fl. 1224 A.D.): "Tria sunt necessaria ad 
salutem temporalem ; Cibus, Somnus, et Jocus" : Monumenta Franciscana % 
i. 64. 

2 Epistolae Academicae, 1421-1503 (Oxford Hist. Soc.), Introduction. 



244 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

liberty to make the foibles and frailties of those in 
high places the subject of his merry fictions and well- 
contrived ironies. 1 Now sober as judges, now jocular 
as Merry-Andrews, they would seem to have required 
in the serious dramas of University life much the same 
qualities as were demanded by an Elizabethan audience 
in the contemporary theatre: noise, wit, comic relief, 
actuality, exuberance, and spontaneity. Success in the 
Schools was celebrated by feasting. Drinking-bouts 
tempered the sobriety of new-made Bachelors and 
Masters. At Inceptions in Grammar, an inferior degree 
in Arts sought usually by would-be schoolmasters, the 
Vice-Chancellor delivered to the candidate, instead of a 
book, " a palmer and a rodde " ; " the Bedyll purveyed 
a shrewde boy " ; and the incepting Master proved his 
qualification for future office by " beting the boy openly 
in the Scolys " : and many another academical function 
might well have been styled, as were plays at the time, 
" a lamentable tragedy mixed full of pleasant mirth." 2 

No stronger testimony is there to the existence of 
this irrepressible vivacity than that afforded by col- 
lections of such pieces of humour as then prevailed in 
the University ; shewing, as these do, how ready must 
have been the laugh, how near the surface the springs 
of hilarity, which required so slight an incitement to 
call them forth. 3 These Foundling Hospitals of Wit 
were put together in days when Doctors Merryman, 
Diet, and Quiet were still reckoned to be the Student's 

1 For ft quaestiones " and " theses," see Register of the University, vol. ii. 
pt. i. 170 (Oxford Hist. Soc. ): such questions occur as, "An critici e 
republica literaria sunt expellendi ? ", "An Amor sit morbus?", "An 
contingatsi mul amare et sapere?", " Eadem est curatio amantium et 
amentium," " Criticorum labor est occupatissima vanitas," "An quisquam 
sibi stultus videatur ? ", " An impudentia sit tolerabilior verecundia ? " 

2 Hastings Rashdall, Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, u. 
ii. 598; Register of the University (Oxford Hist. Soc.), ii. 8; George 
Peacock, Observations on the Statutes of Cambridge ; Appendix A. XXXVI, 
Book of Matthew Stokys. 

8 See Gratiae Ludentes, by H. L., Oxon., 1628; Anthony Wood's Modius 
Salium ; William Hickes' Oxford Jests and Grammatical Drollery. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 245 

best physicians ; and when it was still held that there 
was nothing, beside the goodness of God, which pro- 
moted health so well as Mirth, especially Mirth used at 
supper and towards bed -time; and if the "honest 
jokes" preserved therein fail to please in this our so 
nice age, they may then have served "to unbend the 
mind " of some painful Clerk as he took his evening 
walk in the fields, or to set the company in a roar on 
some festival night in a College hall, when Fellows and 
Scholars gathered round the great central brazier, a not 
over-critical family party, " to take solace in songs and 
other reputable sports, to compare one with another, 
and to read and recount poems, histories, and wonders 
of the world." Famous personages figure in some few 
of these academic jests. Queen Elizabeth visits Oxford ; 
and the gallant Mayor, as he rides through the water at 
her side, checks his horse when it would drink, saying, 
" I will teach my steed better manners than to drink 
before your Majesty." King James remarks of his 
entertainment at the Universities, that whereas Isaac 
Wake, the Oxford Orator and the proud possessor of 
an elaborate Ciceronian style, invariably sent him to 
sleep, the Cambridge deputy-Orator, Antony Sleep, 
never spoke, but he kept him awake and apt to laugh. 
" Thou little morsel of Justice, prithee let me alone, and 
be at rest ! " exclaims a drunken Fellow, lying on Penni- 
less Bench beneath Carfax Church, to a Proctor who is 
none other than the busy and diminutive Mr. William 
Laud of St. John Baptist College : " Proctor cum parva 
Laude," is the description given by hissing Undergradu- 
ates of Laud's co-Proctor, the unpopular Christopher 
Dale (A.D. 1603): "laudatur ab 'his/" puns the future 
Martyr by way of comforting his colleague. Elsewhere, 
among tales of Jacobean Heads of Houses, Proctors, 
Doctors, and Oxford Eccentrics, long since forgotten, 
we read of the simple Freshman or Puny, who " wished he 
were a Crow, that he might fly to an Orchard, and fill 
his pockets with faire plummes, and come again," searched 



246 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

his dictionary to find the Latin for " aqua vitae," and pro- 
nounced " Finis " to have been a great writer, because he 
found his name at the end of so many books ; and of 
the Student of the second year, or " Poulderling," who 
swore that he once drank as good beer as ever he did 
in his whole life, and who, when he was rallied for 
wearing but one spur, retorted, that, if one side of his 
horse went on, it was improbable the other would stay 
behind. Then lived at Oxford, at any rate in fiction, 
the Fellow who would not have men venture into the 
water until they could swim, and who was of opinion 
that Magdalen Grove would be a better grove if the 
trees were cut down ; the countryman who, seeing the 
man's skin tanned in the School of Medicine, vowed it 
would make good buck's leather; and the discreet 
Alderman who assured his Brethren that they would 
easily overthrow the University in a lawsuit, if by 
searching the ancient records they could shew Henry I 
to have been before Henry II. Nor must that Founda- 
tioner be forgot, who, when reprimanded by the Head 
of his College for wearing an extremely short gown, 
answered, " Good sir, have patience awhile, for it will 
be long enough, I warrant you, before I have another " ; 
nor yet that Bachelor whom the Vice-Chancellor fined 
for wearing boots contrary to the statute, saying to him, 
" Your boots shall cost you ten groats " ; "I thank your 
Worship," said the Wit ; " for my shoemaker told me 
they should cost me ten shillings." Hard though their 
lot was, poor Scholars were not yet degenerated into the 
despised and dejected servitors of the eighteenth 
century. One of them, dropping a neat's tongue which 
he was carrying to the dinner-table, apologized with the 
remark that it was a mere " lapsus linguae " ; another, 
arrested by the Proctor in the act of bringing a jug of 
beer into the College under his gown after nine of the 
clock at night, explained that he had been sent by his 
master to the stationer's to borrow Bellarmine's Works, 
and that it was that which he had under his arm ; 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 247 

"whence a jug with a big belly is called a Bellarmine 
to this day " : l to a third, begging at her coach-side, 
Queen Elizabeth said, " Pauper ubique jacet " ; and, 
with a broad humour in keeping with those spacious 
days, came the retort, 

" In thalamis hac nocte tuis, regina, jacerem, 
Si verum hoc esset, pauper ubique jacet." 

So, too, the reminiscences of his Oxford life, to be 
gleaned from Edmund Gayton's Pleasant Notes upon 
Don Quixote, shew the University as being still " the 
simple child, that lightly draws its breath, and feels its 
life in every limb." 2 To illustrate what strange im- 
pressions strong fancies make upon men, Gayton tells 
of the Scholar who was elected to the high and mighty 
place of Mock Emperor or Christmas Lord in a College. 
" The office was conferred upon him by seven mock 
electors with much wit and ceremony ; he ascended his 
chair of state, which was placed upon the highest table 
in the hall ; and, at his instalment, great pomp, rever- 
ence, and signs of homage were used by the whole 
company. Such an effect had this upon him, that, 
having a spice of self-conceit before and being soundly 
peppered now, he was instantly metamorphosed into the 
stateliest, gravest, and most commanding soul alive ; his 
pace, his look, his voice, his garb were altered ; and so 
close did this imaginary humour stick to his fancy, that 
for many years he could not shake off this one night's 
assumed deportment ; no, not until the time came that 
drove all monarchical imaginations out, not only of his 

1 But see New English Dictionary, sub ' ' Bellarmine " : Jugs with long 
necks and capacious bellies were called bellarmines, because they were 
designed by the Protestants in the Low Countries as burlesques upon 
Cardinal Bellarmine. In excavations made in the quadrangle near the 
Sheldonian Theatre during August and September 1899, fragments of 
Bellarmines, pipes, and eating and drinking vessels were found in greater 
profusion than almost anything else : see Buried Oxford Unearthed, by 
F. H. Penny. 

2 Pleasant Notes upon Don Quixote, by Edmund Gayton (St. John's 
College, 1625), London, 1654. 



248 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

head, but everyone's." 1 Strange occasions of quarrel put 
the writer in mind of the two students, " one a Master, 
the other a Bachelor of Arts, walking in their College 
grove, of whom one made the supposition, ' If thou and 
I should haply find a purse of gold, how should we 
divide it ? ' The Master, like the lion, asked the greater 
share : the Bachelor said, ' Simul occupantes, aeque 
dividentes,' ' Equal purchase, equal share.' The 
Master would not forego his privilege of seniority ; the 
Junior insisted upon his title of half. At last it grew 
so hot, that they fell to cuffs, and banged one another 
devoutly ; until weary of their blows, they began to 
examine the ground of their falling out, and discovered 
it was no other than about the dividend of a purse 
which was never yet found." Then, "the knackings 
of Sancho Panza's teeth" remind this commentator 
upon " Don Quixote," of " a strong fancied man, a 

1 Many of the Colleges at Oxford were wont to elect at Christmas an 
officer whose function it was to preside over the festivities of the season. 
For an account of the reign of a Christmas Lord at St. John Baptist 
College in 1607, see " A True and Faithfull Relation of the Rising and 
Fall of Thomas Tucker, Prince of Alba Fortunata, Lord St. John's," etc., 
printed in Miscellanea Anliqua Anglicana, from the MS. of Griffin Higgs 
(matric. St. John's College, 1606 ; Dean of Lichfield, 1638). Anthony 
Wood, in his Annals, ii. 136, writes : " On the iQth of November, being 
the Vigil of St. Edmund, king and martyr, letters under seal were 
pretended to have been brought from some place beyond sea, for the 
election of a King of Christmas, or Misrule, sometimes called, with us of 
Merton College, Rex Fabarum. . . . His authority lasted till Candlemas." 
Peter Heylin notes in his Diary: "Nov. 20, 1617; Mr. Holt chosen 
Christmas Lord at Magdalen College, and solemnly inaugurated on the 
2nd of January following ; in which I represented an ambassador of the 
university of Vienna": "No. 23, 1619; Mr. Stonehouse chosen Lord, 
and solemnly inaugurated in the Christmas holidays ; in which pomp I 
represented the Duke of Helicon, the first peer of his principality." 
Thomas Warton found entries in the audit book of Trinity College of 
disbursements made for the entertainment of a " Princeps Natalicius" 
there, in 1559 : see Oxford Hist. Soc. Publications, Collectanea, 
i. p. 40. Bishop Poynet of Winchester, in a reply to a pamphlet written 
by Thomas Martyn (fl. 1539) against marriage of priests, writes : " They 
might easily perceive that in playing the Christmas Lord's minion, in New 
College in Oxon, in thy fool's coat, thou did'st learn thy boldness and 
begin to put off all shame." 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 249 

Scholar and a good Trencherman, who was bidden to a 
feast, and some of the principal dishes to be served 
thereat were mentioned to him ; whereupon he went 
into training for the coming tooth-encounter, and, on 
the day before the banquet, did eat but slenderly, and 
took methodical exercise. But oh ! the mischance ! no 
sooner was he asleep that night, than his heightened 
fancy presented all the catalogue of the dishes to his 
soul as lively as if he had been at table. And it wrought 
real impressions upon his body, so that he managed his 
hand as if he had a knife in it ; and ever and anon he 
cried out, ' Sir, pray hand me the Spring of Pork ; pray 
advance the Rump of Beef this way ; the Chine of 
Bacon, oh the Chine ! With your leave, Sir, the Chine ; 
and then the first dish again ! ' ; while in his compliments, 
his teeth kept minim and semibreve time so excellently, 
that his chamber-fellows did lie there and laugh, 
wonderfully pleased to see their friend so singularly 
contented in the same instant at bed and board. At 
length the Scholar waked : but he remembered nothing 
of his banquet; nor would he believe the auditors' 
relation, until by woeful experience he found his face so 
swelled, and his gums so battered by the repercussions 
of his grinders, that he was not able to stir his jaws, nor 
to partake of the good cheer at the feast, except it 
were the liquid part of it." 

Such were some of the quaint old-world customs and 
thoughts and stories which lingered on in the University, 
to receive their death-blow in the Great Rebellion and 
the Puritan Usurpation which followed it. These were 
things which the Restoration was unable to restore ; 
and they had become, most of them, mere memories, 
when Queen Anne ascended the throne. 

This gradual failure of the zest for " joca," in which 
once the whole learned community had taken solace, is 
of interest, because it resulted from causes which were 
also the chief of those which converted early mediaeval 
into late mediaeval Oxford in the course of the seven- 



250 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

teenth century. For, firstly, England was passing at 
the time from youth to manhood. As Sydney Smith 
of New College puts it, "our ancestors up to the 
Conquest were children-in-arms, chubby boys in the 
time of Edward I, striplings under Elizabeth, but men 
in the days of Queen Anne " ; and the influences under 
which the country aged apace had nowhere greater 
effect than at Oxford. There Nature herself, and even 
Supernature, seem to have felt the shock, as an old 
world made way for a new. Thus, at the first approach 
of the Puritan, the Fairies had fled the spot ; their 
dances ceased, and the sound of their merry tabor was 
heard no more : then, as the Parliament triumphed in 
the war, the Bees, whose ancestors, attracted by the 
honeyed eloquence of Vives, had settled beneath the 
leads of his study in Corpus, began to decline in 
strength ; on the murder of King Charles, as though 
the female sympathized with the male monarchy, they 
quickly came to naught : and, later, when the utilitarian 
Fellows of New College heralded the Age of Reason 
by advancing their quadrangle a storey higher, Echo, 
who haunted Magdalen water-walks, and had been wont 
in happier days to repeat whole hexameter verses, 
straightway took offence, and " was never quite the 
same afterwards." 1 To descend to mere Man, it is easy 
to trace, in academic addresses and functions, the 
passage from an age of Creation to one of Criticism, 
from the exuberant fancifulness of Youth to the self- 

1 See the " Faeryes' Farewell," among the poems of Richard Corbet of 
Christ Church : 

" Witness, those rings and roundelayes 

Of theirs which yet remain, 
Were footed in Queen Marie's days 

On many a grassy plain : 
But since, of late, Elizabeth, 
And, later, James came in, 
They never danced on any heath, 
As when the time hath bin." 

For the tale of the bees of Corpus, and the Magdalen Echo, see Dr. 
Robert Plot's Natural History of Oxfordshire (1677), chaps, i. and vii. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 251 

consciousness and self-analysis of Middle Life. That 
first fine careless rapture, with which, either as a 
" chorus suavis Cygnorum Isidis ad Vadum incolentum," 
the stripling Oxford had mourned the death of Kings 
and Scholars ; or, as " a joyous nest of singing birds," 
had welcomed in every language but her own, the visits 
of Elizabeth and James, the betrothal of Charles, " the 
appearance of a shoot upon the Caroline Vine," " the 
blooming of a rosebud in the Caroline garden," was now 
lost beyond recapture. A mature University, and one 
which was being hailed by Dryden, Trapp, and Cibber 
as "the modern Athens," the Court of Appeal from 
London on all points of taste and learning, felt it 
beneath her dignity to tolerate the waggish knavery, 
the merry unrest, of her younger members. From her 
formal and unemotional addresses and poems, she 
banished puns, acrostics, and their kind, as being what 
Addison of Magdalen termed "so many antiquated 
forms of false wit." The Terrae Filius disappeared 
from her Public Acts ; his conceits were declared to 
have become " pedantic and out of date " ; his broad 
pleasantries, " unfit for ears polite." The ideal form of 
entertainment which the University authorities now 
strove to provide on those occasions is well described 
in Lines addressed to my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury 
upon his famous erection^ the Theater at Oxford (printed 
for C. S., London, 1675): 

To some less wary in distinguishing, 
The bare name 'Theater' depraves the thing: 
Thither they come, entangled in their fears 
Of meeting Savage Objects ; Panthers, Bears, 
Wolves, Lions, Tigers! These, thus prepossest, 
Expect some Splendid Desert; at the best 
Africk immured ! for such, they have been told, 
Were all the Ancient ' Theaters ' of old. 
But all the Sights in this Majestick Frame 
Are like the Spectators Tractable and Tame: 




252 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

No mingled Gladiators here intrude ; 
No Tragick, nor no Mimick Interlude; 
But all the hours they solemnly Beguile, 
And ne'er Excite our Sorrow nor our Smile. 

Timid visitors might lay aside their fears : Oxford 
Lions were fast becoming very Mild Beasts. It was 
now more in accordance with the spirit of the time that 
skulls should be cracked with ponderous arguments 
than that spleens should be tickled with straws and 
feathers ; and accordingly nothing was admitted hence- 
forward to the programme at the Act of a more lively 
nature than florid orations, philosophical disputes, and 
mildly humorous Latin dialogues composed by College 
tutors and recited in the Theatre by their titled pupils. 1 

And, secondly, the social revolution, which had 
commenced at Oxford in the days of Overbury and 
Earle, and was completed in those of Steele, Addison, 

1 See Joseph Addison on Puns, etc. , in Spectator, Nos. 56-62 ; and 
John Eachard on the "Terrae Filius" and the Cambridge "Tripos" in 
Grounds for the Contempt of the Clergy, 1670. For examples of recitations 
at the Act, see " Auctio Davisiana," a Latin poem on the sale of the books 
of Richard Davies, an Oxford bookseller, in 1689, which was composed 
by George Smalridge of Christ Church, afterwards Bishop of Bristol (a 
translation appears in Booklore}, and also "Jus Pilei Oxoniensis," recited 
at the Public Act about 1696, and included in Musarum Anglican. 
Analecta, ii. 89. 

See The Oxford Act, London, 1693: 

" Now the full-buttoned Youth appear, 
And squeakings fill the Theatre : 
Their parts well-conned say over prettily, 
Nay, humour all things wondrous wittily : 
The prettiest littlest harmless Baubles, 
Young unfledged Lords and callow Nobles ; 
The Ladies might, nor would they scare 'em, 
For Nosegays in their Bosoms wear 'em. 
Bought Wit is best; and, it has been said for it, 
It must be theirs who fairly paid for it. 
One sings, though in Heroicks oddly, 
A Catalogue of the New Bodley ; 
While from another you may hear 
Our swingeing the French Fleet last year." 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 253 

and Amherst, accounted for the discontinuance of many 
an ancient social function ; for, in its course, many new 
elements were introduced into academical society 
which failed to combine freely with the old ; and, under 
their influence, the College family circle with its homely 
joys gradually broke up, and fell apart into its com- 
ponent particles. Thus, when the strong hand of 
Elizabeth no longer restrained them, married Heads of 
Houses straightway brought their wives and children 
within the precincts; and ''womankind, which," as the 
mediaevally-minded Wood remarks, "was beforetime 
looked upon, if resident in colleges, as an abomination 
thereunto," now first, for good or for ill, established her 
footing in Oxford. As the prudent Queen had foreseen, 
these newcomers "were not content to live as the 
companions of learned and exemplary men ought to do, 
and, like sad and discreet matrons, to bestow their time 
in devout and godly exercises. They intruded and 
pressed themselves into academical affairs ; and took 
and called their colleges as their own, as ' their lodgings,' 
' their gates,' ' their gardens/ ' their porters,' ' their 
tenants,' etc." The old-fashioned celibate Fellow was 
soon shocked by the issue of such a work as The 
Countesse of Lincolne's Nurserie, a treatise on infant- 
nurture, from the University Press (1622) that Press 
which, on its restoration in 1585, had proudly boasted, 
" Non nugae, non aniles fabulae, hie excudentur : ea 
solum ex his praelis in lucem venient quae sapientum 
calculis approbentur et Sybillae foliis sint veriora " : 1 
he was disgusted by the debate at the Public Act of 
such questions as " An uxor perversa asperitate, potius 
quam humanitate, sanetur," and "An liceat marito 
verberare uxorem ? ", problems which every married 
man should thrash out for himself in the privacy of his 
own domestic forum : and, as " places of Students 
become troubled by Babes, and buildings, reared to 
keep societies of men engaged in prayer and study, 

1 Early Oxford Press (Oxford Hist, Soc. Publications), pp. 15, 117. 




254 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

were quickly appropriated by nurses and children," he 
sadly realized that a new influence had converted the 
Father of his College into a mere Paterfamilias, and 
had destroyed the old intimacy, founded on a common 
life and common interests, which once had existed 
between the Head and the other Members of the 
Collegiate Body. A second disintegrating force came 
into play when youths of the wealthier classes began 
to resort to the University ; for Gentleman-Commoners 
were " apt to think that when they left school, they 
should manage themselves," and consequently proved 
far less patient of discipline than were Foundationers. 
As Stephen Penton of St. Edmund Hall wrote in his 
Guardians Instruction (1688), "a boy, when he is 
plumed up with a new suit, fancies himself a fine thing ; 
and because he has a penny commons more than the 
rest, thinks he ought therefore to be abated a penny- 
worth of learning, wisdom, and virtue " : and the honest 
Tutor, who is not content to be " a mere Jack-mate and 
hail-fellow-well-met" with such a pupil, but attempts 
"to promote his towardliness and proficiency, and to 
discipline him into good manners, politics, and religion," 
prepares for himself " a life of infinite care and anxiety." 
It is clear, indeed, that even if Baker and Miller, in 
their Comedies, have exaggerated the antagonism that 
existed between Men of the class of Cormorant Calf 
of Ba-lial College, Gentleman-Commoner, Mr. Soakwell 
of Magdalen, and Beau Trifle of Christ Church, and 
Fellows of the type of Haughty and Conundrum and 
Doctors Paunch, Codshead, Ginnipig, and Belcher, a 
gulf was nevertheless opening between Governors and 
Governed in the University ; and that the evolution of 
the relations which exist between the modern Don and 
the modern Undergraduate was already accomplished. 1 
And while Seniors and Juniors were thus drifting apart, 
the old equal comradeship no longer existed among the 

1 See Thomas Baker, An Act at Oxford, 1704, and James Miller 
(Wadham College), The Humours of Oxford, 1730. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 255 

latter as a body ; for Gentleman-Commoners, Scholars, 
Battelers, and Servitors formed separate groups, dis- 
tinguished, one from the other, not merely by nice 
distinctions in cap and gown, but by more marked 
diversities of taste and social position. " Low " was the 
epithet used by "bucks of the first head," with their 
claret and arrack-punch, to describe the sprightly 
youths who drank ale, smoked tobacco, and sang 
Bacchanalian songs : " slow " was that applied by the 
latter to sober students who passed the evening over 
Greek and the water-bottle. Steele's " Man of Fire " or 
" Slicer " loved to stand at a coffee-house door, and 
sneer at passers-by less foppish than he. " Demme, 
Jack; there goes a prig! Let's blow the puppy 
up ! " Amherst's " Smart " would say to some boon- 
companion ; and forthwith " they would stare in the face 
of some plain man who did not cut so bold a dash as 
they did, would turn him from the wall and raise a 
horse-laugh to put him out of countenance." In short, 
a strict code of etiquette, great part of which survived 
till comparatively recent times, now impeded familiar 
intercourse between the various sets of men which made 
up the Undergraduate world. The original " Clerk of 
Oxenford " rode all day without speaking a word to 
his fellow-pilgrims, because he was meditating upon 
some "sophyme." Not so the four very gentlemanly 
Oxonians, who in the eighteenth century travelled 
inside the coach from Oxford to Birmingham without 
exchanging a single remark on the way. They were 
silent because they had not been formally introduced 
to one another; and when, at the conclusion of the 
journey, one of them had his toes accidentally trodden 
upon, and, in the agony of the moment, ejaculated 
" Dem ! " he was held to have committed a deplorable 
breach of good manners. 1 

1 For traces of the survival of this Code of Manners, see the remarks 
of a commentator on this tale, in Hints on Etiquette for the University of 
Oxford (1838): "If a man speak to another before he has been 






256 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

And beside causing a break-up of the College family 
circle, the social revolution brought about a change in 
the system of residence at Oxford ; and from this 
resulted the decay of many a festive observance. The 
University was no longer a home to the Oxonian, as 
she had been in the days when, after he had once been 
brought up as a mere child to some grammar-school, 
his residence in the University city had been an un- 
broken one for years, and perhaps for life. Now he 
would make his first appearance there, as one of " those 
massy fellows from the great Schools," " Maypole Fresh- 
men, that were tall cedars before they came to be 
planted in the Academian Garden ; who were fed with 
the papp of Aristotle at twenty years of age, and sucked 
at the duggs of their mother, the University, though 
they were high Colossus's and youths rampant." l Nor 
was residence continuous as of old ; for Vacations, which 
had once meant merely a respite from University 
Exercises, were now being developed in the modern 
sense of the word. " The Long," indeed, was already 
in 1570 a regular institution; 2 but, towards the close 

introduced, he violates one of the first rules of Oxford etiquette. In the 
company of strangers, a man may whistle ; he may behave as if there 
was no one in the room but himself; but let him not speak, except to 
his dog, or, if he be at an inn, to the waiter," etc. See too the "Hard 
Case" in Ye Round Table, an Oxford periodical (1878): "A., an under- 
graduate unprovided with academicals, is accosted by B., a Proctor, who 
requests him to call at his rooms the following morning. A. has never 
been introduced to B. What should A. do ? " 

Certain events, again, justify a man in holding no further intercourse 
with a former acquaintance. Thus "you may cut a friend," says the 
New Art, teaching how to be Plucked, a work attributed to Edward 
Caswell (B.N.C., 1835), "because he wears a white hat in winter; 
because he has taken to reading ; because he would not go to Abingdon 
with you in a tandem ; because he has taken to wearing his cap and 
gown ; because his wine is bad ; because his rooms are up three flights of 
stairs ; because another man says he is an ass ; because his hat is narrow- 
brimmed ; because it is a bore to nod ; because his dog hurt yours," etc. 

1 Anthony Wood's speech as a freshman, Wood's Life and Times 
(Oxford Hist. Soc.), i. 140; Dialogue on Education, by Lord Clarendon 
(1670), Clarendon Tracts. 

2 For the development of the Long Vacation from its origin in the 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 257 

of the seventeenth century, the Gentleman-Commoner is 
found to be indulging in other and frequent intervals 
of absence from Oxford. 1 Then Colleges gradually 
relaxed the rigour of Statutes which permitted those 
on their foundations but a few days' absence in the 
course of the year ; travelling became more rapid ; 2 and 
eventually " the City seated rich in everything, girt with 
wood and water, pasture, corn, and hill," was as a desert 
at both the most genial and the most jovial seasons of the 
year. It became, in fact, more difficult for the ardent 
Scholar to obtain permission to stay in the University 
after the end of term than it had once been for the idle 
Scholar to obtain leave of absence, for the authorities 
made it clear by every means in their power that his 

occasional removal of a College, commencing in the fifteenth century, from 
Oxford to some neighbouring village, on account of plague, scarcity of 
provisions, or insanitary state of the town, see Register of Magdalen 
College, New Series (W. D. Macray), vol. ii. Preface. 

1 See Stephen Penton, The Guardian's Instruction or the Gentleman's 
Romance, 1688 : " It is a common and very great inconvenience, that, 
soon after a young gentleman is settled and but beginning to begin to 
study, we have a tedious ill-spell'd letter from a dear sister who languishes 
and longs to see him ; and this, together with rising to prayers at six 
o'clock in the morning, softens the lazy youth into a fond desire of seeing 
her too. Then, all on a sudden, up posts the liveryman with the led 
horse, enquires for the College where the young squire lives, finds my 
young master with his boots and spurs on beforehand . . . and the next 
news of him is at home. Within a day or two he is invited to a hunting- 
match ; and the sickly youth who was scarce able to rise to prayers, can 
now rise at four of the clock to a fox-chase." "Peregrine Pickle (1751) 
kept his own horses, attended all the races within fifty miles of Oxford, 
and made frequent visits to London, where he used to lie incognito during 
the best part of many a term." 

2 In Bracton's time, circa 1250, it was held to be an impossibility to 
travel from Oxford to London in one day : see Select Passages from the 
Works of Bracton and Azo (Selden Soc. Publications), Introd. p. xxii 
and p. 149: " De Actionibus" " Ut si dicas, existens Oxoniae, ' Hodie 
Londoniae dare spondes?', talis stipulatio erit inutilis, nisi tempus 
adjicitur quo fieri possit id quod deducitur in stipulationem ; quia omnino 
impossible erit." 

Anthony Wood, on April 26, 1669, makes the following entry in his 
Diary : " Monday was the first day that the flying coach went from Oxon 
to London in one day. A. W. went in the same coach, having a boot at 
each side." 



258 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



*The 

College 

consisted 

of but 

eight 

Members. 



* i.e. 

Sandford, 
where the 
Doctor 
was court- 
ing a lady. 



presence in the vacant seat of learning was no longer 
desirable. " I cannot prevent you from remaining in 
College during the Long Vacation, if you insist upon 
it," said an eighteenth-century Dean to the younger 
Fellows and the Demies of Magdalen ; " but I give you 
fair warning that you must attend Chapel twice a day, 
and, as I shall order dinner myself, you must not be 
surprised if your commons are somewhat shorter than 
you may like. There are some devils that can only be 
cast out by prayer and fasting, and I consider you to be 
of that sort." l ' 

Oxford Society, then, at the close of the seventeenth 

1 Story told by Dr. John Shaw (Demy, Magdalen College, 1764) to 
Dr. Routh : see manuscript note at the end of Anthony Wood's Modius 
Salium in British Museum. Cf. The Oxford Magazine (1768), i. 140, 
"Admonition" by Dr. Sharpe, Principal of Hertford College, dated 
June 27, 1757 : " Notice is hereby given that the buttery and kitchen will 
be put out as usual on Saturday, July 16, being the last day of term ; by 
which time the several members of this House are desired to repair to their 
respective homes, that the tutors and officers of the College may be at 
liberty to go where their engagements and amusements call them. " The 
admonition was burlesqued by the wits of the time : 
" Noverint omnes per praesentes, 

Quotquot in Coll. Hertford sunt studentes, 

Quod termino mox exituro, 

Viz. mense Julii prox. future, 

Nil erit istic quod voretur, 

Ipsa culina extinguetur ; 

Quin ut omnino vacet domus, 

Cum coquo exulabit promus ; 

Discedant omnes, (inquam, sex) ;* 

Haec Consuetude, haec est Lex : 

Ad suos se recipiant ruri, 

Quod ventri sat est, inventuri, 

Tune Principalis, tune Tutores, 

Quisque secundum suos mores, 

Habebunt tempus otiandi, 

Et quo fert animus, vagandi. 

Illi, quo vadent de future, 

Nee novi sane, neque euro. 

Ipse de me jam sabulosum 

Ad Vadum tendam Arenosum."* 

For the discomfort of life at University College during the Christmas 
and Easter vacations (1810), see Life of 'Shelley -, by T. J. Hogg. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 259 

century, in respect of its constitution, its divisions, and 
its mode of life, had already reached the state, in which 
it was destined to remain, practically unchanged, until 
the date which has been set as a limit to this work. The 
ancient simplicity of life was gone : Anthony Wood 
noted in his old age the change of tone and taste which 
had come over the place since his youth, in the words, 
" Scholars now aim to live, not, as Students ought to do, 
temperate grave and plain in apparell ; but, as Gentle- 
men, to keep horses and dogs, to turn coalholes and 
studies into receptacles for bottles, to swash it out in 
dress, and to wear long periwigs " ; and to live, not so 
much as a Student as a Gentleman, was the aim alike 
of the "Queen Anne" Undergraduate and of his 
Georgian and early- Victorian successors. And the 
Fiction of that period of 150 years, whether when 
dealing with the vices or with the virtues of Oxford 
life, tells the same tale. The "poor Scholar" is no 
longer the favourite hero of academical romance, but 
gives precedence to the "Young Gentleman at the 
University." Thus the captious Novelist loves to dwell 
upon the temptations to extravagance, dissipation, and 
evil companionship which beset "the easy-natured in- 
experienced undergraduate of quality " in the course of 
his career ; and the guileless youth is shewn " surrounded 
by those undesirable attendants who seem necessarily 
to form part of the equipage of wealth and position." 
If, for a moment, the townsmen, in Robert Burton's 
Philosophaster, viewed the first coming of well-to-do and 
high-spirited gownsmen with some apprehension, they 
quickly recovered themselves, and recognized that there 
was a bright side to the picture : 

" Oderint ; irrideant ; 

Contemnant ; cornutos vocent ; deteriores non sumus. 
Me vocent nasutum, rubicundum, sordidum, 
Et vocent usque, dum me vocent divitem," 

exclaimed Rubicund us ; 




260 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

" Solvant, inquam, solvant ! Quod reliquum est, eat ! " 
cried the philosophical Sordidus ; 

" Quando vos vultis, idem et mihi placet," 

acquiesced the more timid Cornutus; and the three 
worthies settled down to prey upon the careless new- 
comers. Earle's " University Dun," and Saltonstall's 
" Townsman who sticks like a burr to freshmen's gowns, 
and strives to lure the pliantness of youth to all ill 
actions," became regular institutions ; x and as the 
academical cap and band developed into the modern 
square-cap and tassel, so the youth who in Earle's time 
"was notorious for an ingle to gold hat-bands," de- 
veloped into the scientific tuft-hunter of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries ; rules for the conduct of his 
sport appeared in the Lounger^ an eighteenth-century 
periodical; 2 in the year 1820, the well-known song- 

1 Cf. the Speech to Convocation of R. Bathurst, Vice -Chancellor, upon 
the sporting barbers of Oxford, printed in his Life, by Thomas Warton : 
"Ipsi otio abundantes, aliorum nequitiis et voluptatibus subministrant. 
Pisces, aves, lepores sectantur ; immo quod animal est prae coeteris 
omnibus fraudi opportunum, etiam novitios scholares in laqueos suos 
pelliciunt ; imberbium ora, si non smegmate, certe fucis oblinunt, et quibus 
genas non possunt, marsupia saltern expilant," etc. 

2 "This form of sport, so little known outside the precincts of the 
University," writes a master of the craft in that periodical, "has the 
advantage over fox-hunting, in that it can be pursued all the year round, 
and is not liable to be interrupted by frost : moreover, far from being an 
expensive amusement, it is frequently found to be extremely profitable to 
its followers. . . . With regard to the best places to find in, it may be 
observed that Livery Stables and Billiard Rooms in the forenoon, and 
Port Meadow and the High Street of an evening, are usually esteemed the 
best lodging for game of this kind. It may, however, be sometimes 
necessary to try their own rooms ; but it has been observed that those 
* tufts' who take much to laying in such places, are of a cowardly nature, 
and seldom shew good sport. As to the method of hunting them, you are 
not only to press them very hard at first, and to keep as close to them as 
possible afterwards ; but you must be careful never to head them or turn 
them back, for the * tuft,' though a simple animal, is at times a very 
obstinate one too ; and any endeavour to make him go the way he does 
not choose to go, may be fatal to your sport, it being well-known that a 
* tuft ' when once suffered to get away from you, is scarcely ever 
recovered again. In conclusion, as the beaver when closely pressed by 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 261 

writer, T. H. Bayly of St. Mary Hall, published his 
popular ballad, " The Man with the Tuft," 

" I ever at College 

From Commoners shrank, 
Still craving the knowledge 
Of Persons of Rank," etc. ; 

while, in 1848, Theodore A. W. Buckley, the brilliant 
Scholar of Christ Church, produced his monumental 
work, The Natural History of Toadies, and " Tuft "- 
hunters. Turning to the brighter side of Oxford life, 
we find that, in Anne's reign, Clubs were already in 
existence, nay more, flourished in almost the same 
number and infinite variety as they do now : philo- 
sophical, literary, political ; and others of a nondescript 
character, such as those which are burlesqued in the 
Spectator, the "Witty," "Nonsense," and "Punning" 
Clubs, the" Banterers," the " Dull Men," the " Handsome 
Club," and that merry species, which seeming to have 
come into the world in masquerade, associated them- 
selves together under the name of the " Ugly Club." * 

hunters, has been known to leave behind him that part of his body for 
which he knows he is pursued, and thus, by sacrificing a part, save the 
rest, so the creatures we have been describing, are often obliged to make 
valuable deposits for the benefit of their pursuers, particularly when 
driven into taverns and coffee-houses, whence there would be otherwise 
no escape : indeed, I am informed that Commissions in the Army and 
Presentations to Livings have been dropped by 'tufts' when properly 
hunted, and which have never failed to free them from further persecution. 
And that such may be the good fortune of all my readers who are fond of 
this amusement, is my most earnest wish." 

1 For an example of "bantering," see "A bantering, adverbial de- 
clamation written by Mr. Thomas Brown of Christ Church upon a pair 
of bellows at Mother Warner's in Oxford, for the use of Mr. Alfred 
Carpenter," Thomas Browris Works. As to punning, the art would 
seem to have survived the persecution of the higher critics, such as Addison. 
About the year 1722, what has been pronounced by Lamb to be the best 
pun in the language, was perpetrated at Oxford: "A scholar, passing 
through a street, made to a fellow who had a hare swinging on a stick over 
his shoulder, and accosted him as follows : ' Prithee, friend, is that thy 
own hare or is it a periwig ? ' " (Prose Miscellanies > by Swift and Sheridan ; 
and Charles Lamb, Elia). 



262 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

No doubt successors could be found at the present day 
to the brilliant figures who move in the periodicals of 
the early eighteenth century: to Valentine Frippery, 
for instance, " the pride of the dancing school, with an 
easy slide in his bow and a graceful manner of entering 
a room," Jack Flutter " in his stiff silk gown, flaxen tie- 
wig, broad bully-cocked hat, white stockings, and thin 
Spanish-leather shoes," and Robin Tattle, " that handy 
man at a tea-table"; to the Scholar-Nimrod, whose 
studies were confined to treatises on the Chace and 
Farriery; and to the "Dashing Men," "Slicers," and 
" Men of Fire," prolific parents of a hundred " Jerry 
Bucks," "Peregrine Pickles," and "Bob Logics." The 
Lounger and the Loiterer are not yet extinct. " Dapper- 
wit" still writes "sonnets to his lady's thimble-case": 
when the " high midsummer pomps " come on, and 
crowded trains draw up in the Great Western Station, 
his heart beats at the sight of a pretty face as wildly 
now as ever it did in some long-past June, when all the 
vehicles in England, from the Coach-and-Six or Landau 
with two postillions down to the One-horse Chaise and 
sober Sulky, whirled passengers up to the Oxford Act, 
and he saw white fustian riding-habits and satin waist- 
coats make their entry at the East Gate, and Dunstable 
Bonnets mix with Square Caps, and Gown and Petticoat 
go by the side of Gown and Cassock. Nor, though two 
hundred years have flown since John Dry of St. John 
Baptist College sang the " Nymphs who graced Oxonian 
Plains," and the " Signers' Club " laid aside canes and 
snuff-boxes, to toy with ribands, broken fans, and 
girdles, in memory of their loves, has time yet silenced 
those strains or stilled those passions. Beauty still 
reigns over all, from Headington to Hinksey: Spirat 
adhuc Amor ; spirantque commissi calores Isiaci fidibus 
canori ! x 

1 For poems of the time addressed to the " Toasts" of Oxford, see John 
Dry's Merton Walks, or the Oxford Beauties (1717); Nicholas Amherst's 
Strephon's Revenge, a Satire on the Oxford Toasts ( 1 720), and his Oculus 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 263 

It now remains to consider briefly what effect was 
produced upon the typical Oxford Clerk by the changes 
wrought in academical society during the seventeenth 
century ; for the mention of such common denominators 
of Youth throughout the world, as are the tastes for 
love and dress, sport and society, would be irrelevant 
in a work, the proper object of which is an examination 
of those endowments which are so peculiarly his own 
as to entitle the Clerk of Oxford to a distinct Kingdom 
of Nature, had not the increasing prevalence of such 
tastes in the University at this time wrought a notice- 
able change in him, and led him to develop what had 
been till then a comparatively neglected side of his 
character. He may have read and marked that 
Dialogue on Education (1670), in which Lord Clarendon, 
but lately her Chancellor, urged Oxford to promote 
the growth of social and manly, as well as of intellectual, 
accomplishments ; to encourage the acting of both 
English and Latin plays, as being the most natural way 
to introduce assurance and grace of speaking ; and not 
only to permit Schools for Dancing, Fencing, Riding 
and the like Exercises, but to countenance them with 
suitable Structures and endowed Professorships. Or, 

Britanniae (1724); George Woodward's Oxford Beauties (i73); an d 
Alma Mater, a satirical poem by a Gentleman of New Inn Hall (1733). 
Some of these effusions are unpleasant, and all of them are long. Shorter 
and sweeter are the "Verses on Miss Brickenden's going to Nuneham by 
water," to be found in the Oxford Sausage ; and the following "Acrostic 
Lines on Miss Betty Tracy's being chosen Lady Patroness for the year 
1737 of the High Borlace" (An Oxford Tory Club) : 

"B-y Wisdom, Virtue, and by Beauty sway'd, 
E-rst the Borlaceans chose a favourite Maid. 
T-hree Goddesses to please, th' Electors strove, 
'T-was Pallas, Dian, and the Queen of Love ; 
Y-et never did they all the choice approve. 
T-his union, sought in vain for ages past, 
R-esistless Tracy has compelled at last. 
A-greed the jarring Deities appear ; 
C-onsenting now, they with one voice declare 
Y-e've chose a Patroness Wise, Chaste, and Fair." 

Ballard MS. 47, f. 74 



264 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

again, he may have listened to the advice which Steele 

of Merton gave in the Guardian^ No. 94 (1713), that 

the poor Scholar, instead of dividing his day between 

the study and the alehouse, " a morning bookworm, an 

afternoon maltworm," should devote some moments of 

his leisure to the acquisition of " such elements of good 

breeding and of such little necessary foppery, as would 

shorten his way to preferment and better fortune." 

However this may have been, it is clear that, while the 

old shy and shabby type of reading-man still continued 

to abound, there was now springing up by his side a 

race of Scholars who sought to bring themselves into 

closer harmony with the changed conditions of their 

environment. Thus the modern view with regard to 

what is known as "talking shop" was now beginning 

to prevail. In Jacobean days it had been " all the 

fashion with the merry and facete, to interlard their 

common discourse with quotations from the poets and 

sentences from classic authors," but " now," writes 

Anthony Wood in his old age, "one that discourseth 

scholarlike, viz : by quoting the Fathers, disputing 

theologically at meals, or producing a verse suitable 

to the occasion, is accounted pedantical and paeda- 

gogical. Nothing but news and affairs of Christendom 

is discussed ; and that generally in coffee-houses." 

Thomas Warton, writing a little later, in his Companion 

to the Guide, throws further light upon the way of life 

and manner of conversation which were now in vogue 

among the learned. " Learning," he says, " is no longer 

a dry pursuit, for all species of reading can be perused 

over appropriate liquors. In our coffee-houses we study 

amorous tales over arrack-punch and jellies, insipid 

odes over orgeat and capillaire, politics over coffee, and 

defences of bad generals over whipt syllabubs." Then, 

too, Philosophy was now at last realizing that, if it was 

not to become dronish, useless, and directly opposite to 

the real Knowledge and Practice of the World and 

Mankind, it must no longer sever itself from the more 






CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 265 

sprightly Arts and Sciences : as Warton puts it, " the 
Scholar is now discovering the Schools of the University to 
be more numerous than he has hitherto supposed. Hence- 
forward he must reckon among them spacious Edifices, 
vulgarly called Tennis Courts, where Exercises are 
regularly performed morning and afternoon; Billiard 
Tables, where the Laws of Motion are exemplified ; 
and Nine-pins and Skittle Alleys, designed for the 
instruction of Youth in Geometrical Knowledge, and 
particularly for proving the Centripetal Principle. Peri- 
patetics begin to execute the Courses proper to their 
system on the Parade. Navigation is studied on the 
Isis; Gunnery on the adjacent hills; Horsemanship in 
Port Meadow and on Bullington Green, and the Henley, 
Wycombe, Abingdon, and Banbury Roads. The Axis 
in Peritrochio is admirably illustrated by a Scheme in 
a Phaeton; and the Doctrine of the Screw demon- 
strated most evenings in private rooms, together with 
the Motion of Fluids." In short, there are signs that 
the sedentary Scholar was beginning to turn his atten- 
tion to the pursuit of active sports and of social 
accomplishments. And it is this combination in his 
person of the Student with the embryo Athlete and 
the embryo Man-of-the- World, which makes the Clerk 
of this period so valuable and indispensable a link in 
the chain of Fiction. As the Pageant of sequent Clerks 
passes before the reader's eyes, this one " holds a glass, 
Which shews him many more ; and some he sees, Who 
two-fold " ' Firsts ' " and treble " ' Blues ' do bear ; this 
one gives a hand to Chaucer's Pilgrim Clerk on the one 
side, and, on the other, to those Admirable Crichtons 
of our own day, who have proved that he who runs 
may also read, and that it is but a step from the bank 
of the eight-oar to the Bench of Justice. 

Now it was that the Clerk essayed his first short 
flights in Society circles ; and numerous contemporary 
records shew how novel and remarkable appeared the 
fledgeling's attempts to support himself in a strange 




266 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

element. A Scheme to Town has taken the place of 
a Pilgrimage to Canterbury. London is already fast 
becoming a suburb of Oxford ; and to London the 
Clerk goes down, once or twice a year, with his quarter- 
age in his pocket ; and there he indulges in a round of 
diversions, until, his finances exhausted, he is obliged 
to return to small beer and half-penny commons again. 
His preparation for the journey and his feats of horse- 
manship are still celebrated in prose and verse as they 
were in the days of Overbury and Earle : 

From hence a Hat-band borrowed, thence a Hat, 

From one a Riband, t'other a Cravat ; 

That both Boots Fellows were, I dare not say, 

But yet our rusty Spurs less kin than they. 

One friend a mouldy Scabbard did afford, 

Another kindly lent a broken Sword ; 

To both at last an Aged Belt we got, 

And, after all, with much ado, a Coat. 

Never did Carrier's beast upon his back 

Carry so many parcels in his pack. 

But up we got, patched up from Head to Collar ; 
Nine Tailors make a Man, nine Men a Schollar. 
Speedier by far than thought, our Coursers flee; 
Shotover Hill is the first place we see; 
Here when we would alight, and lead the way, 
No compliments would make our coursers stay : 
A dart was once Shot over; but we flew, 
As if we now had been Shot over too. 1 

1 Poems ^lpon several occasions, Iter Oriental e, by Jeremiah Wells 
(St. John's College), 1666. Cf. Carmina Quadresimalia ab Aedis Christi 
alumnis composita, ed. by C. Este, 1723 : 

An omne Corpus componatur? Aff. 
Dum Granta migrare paras, patria arva patremque 

Visurus, laceram ponis, alumne, togam. 
Mox circum volitans notum ignotumque lacessis, 

Instrumenta equiti quaelibet apta petens. 
Sufficit hie ensem longam, latum ille galerum ; 

De latere alterius cingula rapta geris. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 267 

The Scholar's attempts to throw off the habits and 
manner of the Academic, and assume the dress and 
bearing of a Man of the Town, meet with varying success. 
Banter, the pseudo-Oxonian in George Farquhar's play, 
Sir Harry Wildair (1701), boasts that "though he has 
been sucking Alma Mater these seven years, and in 
defiance to legs of mutton, small beer, crabbed books, 
and sour-faced doctors, he can dance a minuet, court 
a mistress, play at picquet, or make a paroli with any 
Wildair in Christendom." He declines to fight a duel 
with Fireball, the sea-captain, " because, as an Oxonian, 
he has a right to be very impertinent " ; and when 
Colonel Standard declares him to be " the most impudent 
young dog he ever met with," he answers that he is 
" a Master of Arts " and pleads " the privilege of his 
standing." In short, in spite of the University, he is a 
pretty gentleman. On the other hand, Jack Lizard is 
mightily embarrassed with an immoderately long sword, 
which bangs against his calf and jars upon his right 
heel as he walks, and comes rattling behind him as he 
runs down stairs, while its appearance suggests to his 
sister Annabella the idea that he must have stolen it 
from the College kitchen. 1 "How is my Manner? my 
Mien? Do I move freely?" asks young Book wit of 
his friend Bob Latine, in Steele's comedy The Lying Lover 
(1704). " Have I kicked off the trammels of the Gown, 
or does the Tail on't seem still tuck't under my arm, 
where my hat is, with a pert Jerk forward, and a little 
Hitch in my Gate like a Scholastick Beau? This wig, 
I fear, looks like a Cap. My Sword, does it hang 
careless ? Do I look bold, negligent, and erect ; that is, 
do I look as if I could kill a man without being out of 

Est qui dissimiles ocreas tibi commodat ; uni 

Hie properat calcar suppeditare pedi. 
Hie tibi cum modico proebet femoralia nummo ; 

Collectam in nodum commodat ille comam. 
Sic compostus ovas pavone superbior ; at mox 

Cum Grantae repetas moenia, corvus eris. 
1 The Guardian, No. 143 (1713). 



268 THE CLERE OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Humour? I horridly mistrust myself. I fancy people 
see I understand Greek. Don't I pore a little in my 
Visage? Ha'nt I a down bookish Lour, a wise Sad- 
ness? I don't look gay enough and unthinking." 
Latine " I protest you wrong yourself. You look 
very brisk and ignorant." Bookwit " Oh fie ! I am 
afraid you flatter me." The youth, in fact, who, 
two days before, was in hanging sleeves at Oxford, 
becomes a jaunty Town Spark in a moment, and 
uses the advantages of a learned education and a 
ready fancy, in making love, personating the character 
of a soldier, fighting imaginary battles, and treating 
ladies. 

In every case, however, the Clerk is eventually found 
out. He is merely acting a part ; and no one can long 
continue masked in a counterfeit behaviour, nor can any 
man, as Plutarch says, so change himself, but that his 
heart may be sometime seen at his tongue's end. 
Sooner or later, " the natural manner of the Academic, 
which has in it something very characteristic and 
different from the Town-bred Coxcomb's, discovers him 
to the slightest observer." His speech betrays him ; for 
" the University has given a very particular turn to his 
conversation," and " he speaks in a tone elevated with 
the dignity of academical declamation." " Though the 
ambition of petty accomplishments has found its way 
into the receptacles of learning, he has not realised 
that to trifle agreeably is a secret which the Schools 
cannot impart; and when his intention is perhaps 
merely to entertain and instruct his hearers, he is 
paradoxical and particular in his notions, formal in his 
phraseology, and unable to accommodate himself with 
readiness to the accidental current of conversation." 
Such are a few of the criticisms passed upon "the 
harmless Collegiate " by the Guardians, Babblers^ 
Connoisseurs, and Ramblers of the eighteenth century ; 
and it will be noticed that they are but echoes of that 
passed by mine Host of the Tabard Inn upon the 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 269 

Pilgrim Oxonian, some three hundred years before. 1 
Of their justice, the reader can judge from the examples 
given in the Guardian and the Babbler of the Clerk's 
table-talk. " At supper, the first night after his arrival 
from the University, Jack Lizard told us, upon the 
appearance of a dish of wild-fowl, that, according to the 
opinion of some natural philosophers, they might be 
lately come from the moon. Upon which the Sparkler 
bursting out into a laugh, he insulted her with several 
questions relating to the bigness and distance of the 
moon and stars ; and after every interrogatory, would 
be winking upon me, and smiling at his sister's 
ignorance. Jack gained his point ; for his mother was 
pleased, and all the servants stared at the learning of 
their young master. Jack was so encouraged with this 
success, that for the first week he dealt wholly in 
paradoxes. It was a common jest with him to pinch 
one of his sister's lapdogs, and afterwards prove he 
could not feel it. When the girls were sorting a set of 
knots, he would demonstrate to them that all the 
ribbons were of the same colour, ' or rather,' says Jack, 
* of no colour at all.' My Lady Lizard herself, though 
she was not a little pleased with her son's improvements, 
was one day almost angry with him ; for having 
accidentally burnt her finger as she was lighting the 
lamp for her tea-pot, in the midst of her anguish Jack 
laid hold of the opportunity to instruct her that there 
was no such thing as heat in fire. In short, no day 
passed over our heads, in which Jack did not imagine 
he made the whole family wiser than they were 
before." 

The Babbler, No. 77, records the hard case of Tom 
Welbank, the young Oxford Daniel who was thrown to 
the London Lions. It must have been about the year 
J 738, when Tom came down from the University, and 
lodged at an uncle's near the Haymarket. " Now this 

1 The Connoisseur ) No. xi ; The Babbler, No. 77 ; The Guardian, 
No, 24 ; The Rambler, Nos. 157, 179. 



270 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

uncle lived in a very genteel manner, and frequently 
saw the best company; and conceiving from Oxford 
reports a very high opinion of his nephew, he made a 
party on purpose to display the talents of the boy, who 
was previously advised to exert himself on the occasion. 
The company consisted of two noblemen in the 
Ministry, an eminent divine, a celebrated physician, a 
dramatic writer of reputation, the late Mr. Pope, and 
Lady Mary Wortley Montague. The time after dinner 
was passed in one of those unmeaning random sorts of 
conversation, with which people generally fill up the 
tedious interval to an entertainment ; but after the cloth 
was taken away, poor Tom was singled out by Lady 
Mary, who asked him, with the elegant intrepidity of 
distinction, if he did not think London a much finer 
place than Oxford. Tom replied, that, if her ladyship 
meant the difference in size or magnificence of building, 
there could be no possibility of a comparison ; but if 
she confined herself to the fund of knowledge which was 
to be acquired at either of the places, the advantage lay 
entirely in favour of Oxford. This reply he delivered 
in a tone confident enough, but rather elevated with the 
dignity of academical declamation ; however, it would 
have passed tolerably, had he not endeavoured to blaze 
out all at once with one of those common-place 
eulogiums on classical literature, which we are so apt 
to meet with in a mere scholar quite raw from an 
university. In this harangue upon the benefits of 
education, he ran back to all the celebrated authorities 
of antiquity, as if the company required any proof of 
that nature to support the justice of the argument ; and 
did not conclude without repeated quotations from the 
Greek and Latin writers, which he recited with an air 
of visible satisfaction. Lady Mary could not forbear a 
smile at his earnestness ; and turning to Mr. Pope, ' I 
think, Sir,' says she in a half-suppressed whisper, * Mr. 
Welbank is a pretty scholar, but he seems a little 
unacquainted with the world/ Tom, who overheard 



CLERKS OF OXFORD, 1700 A.D. 271 

this whisper, was about to make some answer, when Mr. 
Pope asked him if there were any new poetical geniuses 
rising at Oxford. Tom upon this seemed to gain new 
spirits, and mentioned Dick Townly who had wrote an 
epigram on Chloe, Ned Frodsham who had published 
an ode to Spring, and Henry Knowles who had actually 
inserted a smart copy of verses on his bed-maker's sister 
in one of the weekly chronicles. Mr. Pope wheeled 
about with a significant look to Lady Mary, and 
returned the whisper by saying, ' I think indeed, 
Madam, that Mr. Welbank does not know a great deal 
of the world.' One of the statesmen, seeing Tom rather 
disconcerted, kindly attempted to relieve him by 
expressing a surprise, that so many learned men as 
composed the University of Oxford, should seem so 
disaffected to the Government. He observed it was 
strange that learning should ever lean to the side of 
tyranny ; and hinted that they could never fall into so 
gross an error, if, instead of poring over the works of 
the antients, they now and then took a cursory dip into 
the history of England. There was a justice in the 
remark, which poor Tom, being unable to answer, was at 
a considerable loss to withstand : however, thinking 
himself obliged to say something, he ran out in praise 
of all the antient histories, and concluded with a 
compliment to the good sense of the University in 
giving them so proper a preference to the flimsy 
productions of the moderns. The nobleman turned 
away in disgust ; and it was the general opinion of the 
table that Tom would make a pretty fellow when he 
knew a little more of the world." 

A century had passed away since Overbury and 
Earle had drawn their sketches of the Scholar, and 
since Henry Blount had advised him, on entering the 
world, "to unlearn somewhat the learning he had got at 
the University ; as a man who is buttoned or laced too 
hard, must unbutton himself before he can be at ease." 
In the course of that century a transformation had been 




272 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

wrought in almost every aspect of academical life : so 
complete, indeed, had it been at one moment, that her 
loyal sons had been unable for the time " to find Oxford 
in Oxford City." 1 But social revolutions, wars, and 
religious persecutions had failed to change the nature 
and property of the Oxford Clerk ; and now, after the 
storms of the seventeenth century, he repaired his 
drooping head ; his " style " was as " high " as it had 
ever been ; his " speech still beat upon the University " ; 
and he still drew his decisions upon modern problems 
from the ancient classics. His passion was still to 
instruct, rather than to amuse, his audience: like his 
ancestor of Chaucer's day, "he would gladly teach," 
" producing from his treasure-house things both old and 
new." And the verdict passed upon him by the world 
was still the same. To his detractors he was no other 
than "an intelligible Ass"; to his admirers, "sound 
metal, but unsecured, who, were he brushed over with 
good company, would outweigh the courtier as gold 
doth gold tissue." 

1 See Chapter VIII. above, Rustica Acad. Oxon. Descriptio^ last verse. 



CHAPTER XI 

POLITICAL PERSECUTION (1714-1760) 
SELECT VIEWS OF OXFORD 

"ViRTUTE SE INVOLVIT" 

I. ACADEMICAL VIEWS 

" I had brought to Oxford the ideal of a College a place for the educa- 
tion of youth ; for the improvement and completion of early learning 
during the vigour of life ; and of external repose and internal activity for 
a few old votaries of knowledge, who probably in consequence of that 
devotion, had continued an unmarried life till age had left them with only 
a few friends or distant connections. To this ideal the English Colleges 
did in a great degree answer a century ago : but they are at variance with 
it in the present day. " 

JAMES BLANCO WHITE, Oriel College, circa 1826 

EXCEPT where otherwise noted, the following 
poems are from the Carmina Quadresimalia, ab 
Aedis Christi alumnis composita et ab ejusdem 
Aedis Baccalaureis determinantibus in Schola Naturalis 
Philosophiae publice recitata, vol. i., edited by C. Este, 
[723; vol. ii., by Anthony Parsons, 1748. 

" Carmina Quadresimalia sunt quae primo die Quad- 
resimae publice in Scholis recitantur a Baccalaureis 
determinantibus. Cum sint ex Epigrammatum genere, 
potius ad delectandum videantur quam ad docendum 
comparata." 
18 






274 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

THE RIVER 

An Mixtio sit alteratorum miscibilium Unio? Aff. 

Nympha I sis medios agros dum laeta pererrat, 

Incaluit madidae Tamus amore Deae : 
Serpit amans tacitus, sinuosaque brachia circum 

Fundit, et aeterno foedere jungit aquas. 
Jam torrens idem, et limes datur unus utrique, 

Nee doluere vices ille vel ilia suas. 
Tamus amat quidquid sua dulcis amaverat Isis; 

Et quod Tamus amat, Tamus et Isis amant. 
Agnoscas nullam Tami, nullam Isidis undam, 

Cum nunc imperium Thamisis unus habet. 

GODSTOW NUNNERY 

whither Fair Rosamund, soon after the arrival in 
England of Queen Eleanor, retired to spend the rest 
of her days, " Rosemounde ywis, That so vair womman 
was, and at Godestowe ibured is," as Robert of Gloucester 
wrote in his Chronicle^ line 9859. 

An Oinnia vergant ad Interitum? Aff. 

Qua nudo Rosamunda humilis sub culmine tecti 

Marmoris obscuri servat inane decus, 
Rara intermissae circum vestigia molis, 

Et sola in vacuo tramite porta labat: 
Sacrae olim sedes riguae convallis in umbra 

Et veteri pavidum relligione nemus; 
Pallentes nocturna ciens campana sorores 

Hinc matutinam saepe monebat avem ; 
Hinc procul in media tardae caliginis hora 

Prodidit arcanas arcta fenestra faces : 
Nunc muscosa extant sparsim de cespite saxa, 

Nunc muro avellunt germen agreste boves : 
Fors et tempus erit, cum tu, Rhedecyna, sub astris 

Edita cum centum turribus ipsa rues. 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 275 



SHOTOVER 

The following derivation of " Shotover " is supported 
by George Wither (Magdalen College) in Abuses Whipt 
and Stript (1613), where, in describing the wonders 
which he saw as an Oxford Freshman, he writes: 

"Yet old Sir Harry Bath was not forgot; 
In the remembrance of whose wondrous shot, 
The forest by, (believe it, those who will:) 
Retains the surname of Shotover still." 

Local tradition still tells of one, Harry Bear, who 
lived in Headington, close to the quarry which is called 
" Harry Bear's Pit," and who was wont to communicate 
with a friend who lived at Wheatley, by shooting an 
arrow over the hill. The figure mentioned in the 
following lines as being cut in turf about the third 
milestone from Oxford, was on the old London Road 
branching from Headington Hill along Cheyney Lane, 
and going over Shotover to Wheatley. This road 
passes within a quarter of a mile of Harry Bear's Pit 
(Oxford Magazine , March n, 1903). 

Shotover is probably identical with the Scotorne of 
Domesday. It appears in the Close Rolls and Patent 
Rolls of John and Henry III as Scotore, Shotore, 
Shotovre. As to the fantastic derivation " Chateau 
Vert," see The Early History of Oxford (Oxford Hist. 
Soc.), p. 348. 

An motus projectorum fiat ab impetu a projiciente 
impresso ? Aff. 

Itur ad Augustae qua celsa palatia, collem 
Tertius Oxonii signat ab urbe lapis. 

Agmine pastorum procul hinc certante sagittis, 
Nomen ab eventu fertur habere locus. 



276 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Dum multi exercent aequo certamine vires 

Imbellique vibrant irrita tela manu, 
Unius e manibus, sinuato fortiter arcu, 

Emissum telum trans juga summa volat. 
Facti signa manent ; hominisque immania membra, 

Qua stetit Arcitenus, gramine ficta virent. 
Quicunque immodicum teli mirabere jactum, 

Aspice quanta manus projicientis erat ! 



THE LEADEN STATUES OF THE NINE MUSES SET 
UP ON THE CLARENDON BUILDINGS, A.D. 1717. 

An quicquid recipitur, ad modum recipientis 
recipiatur ? Aff. 

Musarum statuas Corydon dum suspicit, ornant 

Quae Clarendoniae culmina celsa Domus, 
" Thyrsi," inquit, " magnae nunc ora agnoscis Elisae ; 

En arcto amplexu Biblia Sacra fovet." 
" Non ita," Thyrsis ait ; " quam tu tibi fingis Elisam, 

Anna est; virginibus cingitur ecce suis: 
Venerat Oxonium ; memini, sic ora ferebat ; 

Ibat femineo sic comitata choro." 
Risit, et " O coecas mentes ! " Fanaticus inquit : 

"Virgo Maria haec est foemina, Missa liber. 
Jam celsis Idola locis statuuntur; easdem 

Roma colit meretrix et Rhedecyna deas." 



LINES ON THE SAME 

(Poems on several Occasions, by Nicholas Amherst of 
St. John's College, 1720.) 

In Oxford, crowds of stupid bards are found, 
Where, of all places, bright ones should abound ; 
Dull plodding blockheads without sense or fire 
Toil hard for Fame and to the Bays aspire: 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 277 

From deep Logicians shallow Wits commence, 
Old dogs at Rhyme, no matter for the Sense; 
If but the lines flow smooth and jingle well, 
The man's a Poet and his verses sell. 
Nor is it strange, but rightly weigh the thing, 
That our soft bards so indolently sing, 
Or that the Genius of the Place is Dead, 
When our inspiring Muses Breathe in Lead : 
High on the stately dome, with harp in hand, 
These lumpish Deities exalted stand ; 
Fixed as a Public Mark, that all may know 
What wretched Heavy Stuff they Print below. 

"MERCURY" IN "TOM" QUAD., CHRIST CHURCH 

From Lusus alteri Westmonasterienses, curantibus 
Jacobo Mure, Henrico Bull, et Carolo B. Scott, 1865-7. 
A statue of Mercury, the body of which was of lead, 
and the head and neck of bronze, was presented to 
"the House" by Dr. Antony RadclifTe in 1695, and 
gave the name to the fountain in " Tom " Quadrangle. 
The story of the deposition of the figure, which was 
carried out some seventy years ago, is as follows : 
Coming to Chapel one morning, men beheld the 
eloquent grandson of Atlas arrayed in surplice, Doctor's 
hood, scarf, bands, and trencher-cap. A frost had 
hardened the water in the basin, and given access to 
the god during the night; but the ice had been care- 
fully broken, so that no one could approach him in the 
morning without a plunge into freezing water, five feet 
deep. The Dean, " king Gaisford," in his rage and 
fury, commanded that the statue should be removed. 
The bronze head rests among the Wake Archives in 
the Library: Notes and Queries, loth Series, iii. 32. 

Nonne hoc monstro est simile ? 

In platea, Wolseie, tua stat Mercurius, qui 
Plumbeus exiles ejaculatur aquas. 



278 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Quid vult hoc monstrum ? Levis est deus ille, deique 

Materies etiam debuit esse levis. 
Ah sensi tandem ! Voluisti symbolon artis 

Et disciplinae symbolon esse tuae : 
E quovis non Mercurius fit stipite; at ilium 

Posse vel e plumbo te fabricare mones. 



HEADS OF HOUSES 

From "the Speech that was to have been spoken 
by the 'Terrae Films' in the Theatre at Oxford, 
July 13, 1713, had not his mouth been stopped by the 
Vice-Chancellor," London, 1713. 

Triumphant plenty with a cheerful grace 

Basks in their eyes, and sparkles in their face. 

How sleek their looks ! how goodly is their mien ! 

How big they strut behind a double chin ! 

Deep sunk in down, they by my gentle care 

Avoid th' inclemencies of morning air, 

And leave to tattered crape the drudgery of prayer. 



From Lusus Westmonasterienses^ ed. by R. Prior, 1730. 

Egit securus multos Academicus annos, 

Absente et podagro praeside, praeses erat : 
Prorogat in lucem placidos impune sopores, 

Et linquit pueris taedia longa precum. 
Tandem experrectus, repetensque negotia vitae 

Ignavae, nigrum purgat in igne tubum ; 
Curarumque et longa librorum oblivia potat; 

Qui non est senior, doctior esse velit. 
Scilicet ad summos dudum hie pervenit honores; 

Paret ei promus, subjiciturque coquus: 
Exauctas epulas quoties lux festa reducit, 

Primus decumbit : non ita primus abit. 
Quid petat ulterius? Nimis hunc, Fortuna, beasti ! 

Cui quod edat, satis est, et nihil est quod agat. 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 279 

From the Squib, known as the " Norwegian Owl," 
Gentleman s Magazine, Oct. 1767; Notes and Queries ', 
2nd Series, ii. 101. The date of the composition of 
the Squib was between the year 1719, when Sir Hans 
Sloane became President of the College of Physicians, 
and the year 1726, when Bernard Gardiner, Warden of 
All Souls', died. During this period the Vice- 
Chancellorship was held from 1719 to 1722 by Robert 
Shippen, Principal of B.N.C., and from 1723 to 1726 
by John Mather, President of C.C.C. Shippen is 
mentioned in the squib, but not as Vice-Chancellor. 
Mather was unmarried as late as July 1724, the date 
of the publication of Nicholas Amherst's Oculus 
Britannia*, for he is addressed therein as being " blest 
with collegiate honours and no wife " ; but in the 
squib he is made to refer to his " placens uxor." The 
date of the composition may therefore be placed at 
about 1725. 

"Viro insignissimo, necnon Patrono et Benefactori 
munificentissimo, Domino Hans Sloane, Equiti aurato, 
Collegii Medicorum inter Londinenses Praesidi " : 

DOMINE, Bubonem Norvegensem, pignus amoris 
tui, avem perraram perpulchramque, in quam tota stu- 
pet Academia, laeti accepimus incolumem ac sanam. Per 
me igitur gratias quam maximas rependit Venerabilis 
Domus Convocations, quae mihi in mandata dedit ut 
gratias hasce celeriter et sine mora rependerem, ne 
ingrati animi nota inureretur nobis, neve ignorare 
videamur quanti pretii tarn insigne beneficium 
aestimari debet. 

Edwardus Whistler, legatus academicus, mihique 
consanguineus, (utpote uxor illius eandem matrem, licet 
diversum patrem, cum mea uxore jactat) jussu meo ad 
vicum rusticum, vulgo vocatum Wheatley, fecit iter, 
ut ibi praestolaretur adventum Bubonis, eamque ad 
Oxoniam deduceret prima nocte, sine ullo tubarum aut 
tympanarum strepitu, et, si fieri potuit, private fallen- 



280 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

tique modo ; cavere enim necesse esse duxi, ut nullam 
molestiam facesserent Reginae avium vel lascivi Juvenes 
vel profanum Vulgus; utque nihil accideret per quod 
fieret publicae perturbatio pacis. Pulsante Thoma 
Clusio, ipse cum coeteris Collegiorum Praefectis primum 
salutavi Bubonem in hospitio meo. Avem discumbere 
fecimus super mollem lecticam juxta focillum ; in eodem 
lecto quotidie requiescit, somno ac cibo potuque parurn 
indigens, et vitam agens vere collegialem. 

Postero die quam Bubo in gremium Almae Matris 
Academiae recepta, convenerunt apud Golgotha 1 singuli 
Collegiorum et Aularum Praefecti, ut novo hospiti 
hospitium assignarent, deliberarentque qualem victum 
cultumque praestare ei par esset. 

In hoc venerabili Congressu ipse pro more primus 
surrexi, et sequentia verba feci 

" Insignissimi Doctores, Vosque egregii Procuratores, 
est mihi placens uxor ; sunt etiam quam plurima muaera 
a me volente nolente obeunda, quae atram caliginem 
obducunt diei, quae noctes insomnes reddunt. Quando- 
quidem ita res se habet, etiam atque etiam a vobis, 
Fratres fraterrimi, rogo, ut Bubo, quae mihi sollicitae 
jucunda oblivia vitae suppeditabit, quaeque uxori curis 
domesticis gravatae innocuum movebit risum, et me 
absente meas vices geret, ut haec optatissima Bubo, 
inquam, inter domesticos meos adsciscatur, mihique 
perpetuus fiat hospes. Verum enim verosi huic veoe- 
rando Coetui secus statuere in hac re visum fuerit, 
tamen sorte mea contentus abibo, et memet paratum 
praestabo publicae voci assentiri, atque viris parere 
quorum sententia nunquam sortilegis discrepuit 
Delphis." 

Sic fatus resedebam, et protinus Dominus Doctor 

1 An apartment in the Clarendon Printing-house, "by idle wits and 
buffoons nick-named Golgotha, i.e. the place of Sculls or Heads of Colleges 
and Halls, where they meet and debate upon all extraordinary affairs which 
occur within the precincts of their jurisdiction" : Nicholas Amherst, Terrae 
Filius, No. xi. (1721). 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 281 

Delaune, reverendus Sancti Johannis Baptistae Praeses, 
surrexit dixitque l 

" Insignissime Vice-Cancellarie ; de via recta devius 
aberras. Non ea mens, non id propositum fuit a Domino 
H. Sloane, ut Bubo senesceret ad instar fratris nostri 
Matthei Hole 2 intra Collegii parietes, donee procumberet 
a lethi jaculo ictus: sed data est Avis ut enecaretur 
coquereturque, nobisque exquisitissimas proeberet dapes. 
Mihi enim credite, vel si mihi fides parum sit adhibenda, 
credite Plinio, qui in Naturali sua Historia aperte pro- 
fitetur carnem Bubonis esse sapore praestantissimum et 
omni alii cibo longe anteponendum. Crastino igitur 
die, iterum conveniamus apud hospitia Domini Vice- 
Cancellarii, ibique assata Bubone epulemur, et saluti 
Domini Hans Sloane propinemus Gallicum vinum eo 
modo quo par est, vel potius sine ullo modo vel mensura." 

Domino Doctori Delaune respondit Dominus Doctor 
Dobson, Collegii Trinitatis Praeses laudatissimus, 3 et 
sequentem orationem habuit : 

1 William Delaune, President of St. John Baptist College (1697-1728). 
Hearne declares that he earned the name of Gallic by his systematic neglect of 
duty while he was Vice-Chancellor, and charges him with embezzling the 
contents of the University Chest. He was reputed also to be a gambler. 
In his speech above, he shews himself an epicure, Nicholas Amherst 
dedicated to him a poem, called "The Bottle-screw" : 
"And thou, who if report says true 
In pocket always bear'st thy Screw, 
Accept, Delaune, in youthful lays 
The homage which the Poet pays." 

Thomas Wagstaffe (New Inn Hall, 1660), in the sportive epitaph which 
he composed on Delaune in his lifetime, has the lines : 

" Qui et ut delicatulae serviret gulae, 
Unumquidquid, quod quidem erat bellissimum, 
Carperet, ac cyathos sorbillaret suaviter," etc. 

Nichols, Literary Anecdotes, i. 36 

2 Matthew Hole, after spending the greater part of his life in a Somer- 
setshire vicarage, became Rector of Exeter College at the age of seventy- 
five. He died in 1730 at the age of ninety-five : "the heavy old woman," 
Hearne; "Dr. Drybones," Nicholas Amherst, Terrae Filius, Nos. xxiv, 
xxx (1721), and Oculus Britanniae (1724). 

3 William Dobson, President of Trinity College (1706-31): see 
" Recipe for making a Head of an House after the Dobson kind " in the 



282 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

" Non assentior tibi, Domine Doctor ; est enim 
adagium satis notum, ' si me ames, ama etiam canem 
meum.' Quod si canis amandus est magistri gratia, ita 
debes ratiocinari ; si colis Dominum H. Sloane, colenda 
est etiam Bubo ejus. Jam vero si pectore homicidali 
avem mactemus et devoremus, ipse Dominus Hans 
Sloane metuet ne eadem sors ei contingat, si quando 
intra limites Academiae fuerit deprehensus. Quocirca 
ab hoc sanguinolento proposito vestras cohibete manus, 
et aliquod melius inter nos ineamus consilium." 

Relapso in sedem Dom. Doct. Dobson, sese ad 
eloquendum accinxit Dom. Doct. Holland, Collegii 
Mertonensis Gustos admirandus, 1 atque ita est exorsus : 

" Si quid est in me ingenii, Judices, quod vos sentitis 
quam sit exiguum, aut si quaeexercitafcio dicendi in qua 
me non infitior mediocriter esse versatum, earum rerum 
omnium vel in primis haec Bubo fructum a me repetere 
prope suo jure debet. In medium igitur proferam quod 
mens in pectore suadet in hoc solenni negotio esse 
faciendum, quodque et vobis et toti Academiae (cui 
Deus sit semper propitius), maxime in gloriae et laudis 
perennitatem cedat. Hortum Botannicum supereminent 
aedes in hospitium Professoris nostri Botannici ex- 
structae, quae amoenum hunc Hortum omni genere 
leguminis olerisque consitum grato et ridenti vultu 
aspectant. In hisce aedibus cohabitet Bubo una cum 
Professore Botannico, qui, ave (quod absit) aegrotante, 
ei opem praesentem ferat, reducatque ad integram sani- 

" Speech that was to have been spoken by the Terrae Filius in the Theatre 
at Oxford, 1713," " Recipe an old heavy country parson : extract all re- 
mains of common sense and common honesty ; and then put in gravity, 
formality, hypocrisy, and pretended conscience ; of each a large quantity. 
Add stupidity, quant, suff. Fiat Compositio simplex; Give him the 
Degree of Doctor of Divinity, and then S. Caput Mortuum." 

1 John Holland, Warden of Merton College, 1709-34- Hearne writes 
of his appointment to be Warden : " I believe he will make a better gover- 
nor than his predecessor ; but as for Parts and Learning he has very 
little, and upon that account is commonly called 'Dull John.' But these 
are qualifications not minded nowadays ": Hearne Collections (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.), ii. 227. 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 283 

tatem arte sua vere Apollinea. Ne vero Professor ipse, 
qui Bubonis curae nullo non tempore totus vacabit, 
damnum vel minimum sentiat in praxi medicinali, 
solvatur ei obolus quadransve a singulis qui Bubonem 
visendi causa Botannicum frequentabunt Hortum. 
Hinc larga excrescent emolumenta, quae egregii Pro- 
fessoris fidelitatem et curam abunde remunerabunt, 
suppeditabuntque non solum et illi et Buboni victum 
competentem, verum etiam quidquid horum animantium 
desiderat vita." 

Hanc orationem vix peroraverat Dom. Doct. Holland, 
cum Dom. Doct. Gardiner, 1 Collegii Omnium Animarum 
Gustos eminentissimus, valde motus de sede prosiliit, et 
hasce iratas voces contra Hollandum projecit : 

1 Irritable and devoid of tact, Bernard Gardiner, during his wardenship 
of all Souls' (1702-26), waged continuous war against a heterogeneous band 
of Fellows, which included Jacobites, Non-jurors, rabid Whigs, Tories, 
Deists, and Republicans. As Vice-Chancellor, he put an end to the 
orations of the Terrae Filii at the Act. The Speech which was to have 
been delivered by one of those jesters in the Theatre in 1713, contains 
much scurrilous abuse of him, and concludes with the announcement of a 
" Footrace to be run shortly between him and Doctor Tadlow, the whole 
length of the Divinity School ; the best of three heats : allow weight for 
inches : prize, a rump of beef and ale proportionable." Tadlow was re- 
garded in Oxford as an animated road-roller, and was the subject of the 
following epigrams, composed either by Dr. Abel Evans or Dr. Conyers : 

"When Tadlow walks the streets, the paviers cry, 
' God bless you, Sir ! ' and throw their rammers by." 

" The paviers bless his steps, where'er they come ; 
Chairmen dismayed fly the approaching doom." 

" Ten thousand tailors with their length of line 
Strove, though in vain, his compass to confine ; 
At length, bewailing their exhausted store, 
Their packthread ceased, and parchment was no more." 

On Tadlow's death, Gardiner became the heaviest weight in the Uni- 
versity : see Nicholas Amherst's Ocuhis Britanniae, 1724 : 

" If size and stature raise a deathless name, 
How vast your praise, how bulky is your fame ! 
Without a rival, sir, the streets you tread, 
The greatest, wittiest man since Tadlow's dead ; 
Since that huge Atlas fell, you reap alone 
The thanks of all the paviers in the town." 




284 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

"Tace, Circuliuncule, tace, inquam. Ego assatam 
Bubonem comedere cum Doct. Delaune mallem, vel 
crudam vel plumatam Avem protinus deglutire, quam 
cum fatuo Doct. Holland suffragan ut Bubo apud 
Hortum Botannicum asservetur, ibique publicum spec- 
taculum fiat. Nemo enim nescit Socios meos ea esse 
ignava atque nugaci indole praeditos, ut si perpetuus 
ingressus pateret, perpetui evaderent Buboni comites. 
In Sacello ita, necnon in Bibliotheca, ac in toto Collegio 
meo, foret infrequentia summa; rueret Disciplina: 
ruerent Exercitia : ruerent Artes. At tales minas 
avertat Coelum, aut haec mea avertet Dextra." 

Sic fatus anhelans recumbit, surrexitque Dom. Doct. 
Gibson, Collegii Reginensis Praepositus acutissimus, 1 
qui haec gVea -/rrsposj/ra vpofftvfia : 

" Domine Doctor Gardiner, quare tarn iracundus, tarn 
feiox, tarn contumeliosus es in bonum fratrem nostrum 
Doct. Hollandum ? Profecto vultus magis rabidus et 
magis truculentus apparet, quam Caput Apri illius 
quern pauper puer de Collegio meo trucidavit decollavit- 
que, unico armatus Aristotelis libro. 2 Dico autem tibi, 
quod ni tu malus esses gubernator, nullam causam 
haberes trepidandi de Sociis tuis. Sis tu igitur mihi 
similis, et tui Socii erunt similes meis, quos libere 
permittam Bubonem visere toties quoties volunt." 

Ad haec verba Dom. Doct. Gardiner surrexit, et 
laeva manu prehenso Domini Doct. Gibson jugulo, 
dextra comminuisset eum, ni Bedellus Theologiae eo 
instanti intrasset, narrassetque Bubonem ita male se 
habere ut respueret escam a manibus uxoris mea. Hoc 
audito, singuli Praefecti domum festinanter se re- 
ceperunt, ut quisque a suo Collegio ablegaret Medicum 
qui aegrotae Buboni opem pro viribus ferret. Ipse 
vero, monitu doctoris Shippen, aequum esse censui ad te 

1 John Gibson, Provost of Queen's College, 1716-1730. 

2 Legend of a Scholar of Queen's College who, being attacked by a wild 
boar in Shotover Forest, thrust a volume of Aristotle down its throat, and 
choked the animal. 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 285 

de rebus hodie inter nos gestis scriptitare, simulque 
humiliter petere ut nobis quam primum praecipias quid 
in hisce arduis negotiis agendum sit. Hoc igitur in 
praecordiis persuasum habe me paratissimum esse tua 
exsequi mandata, et memet praestare nullo non tempore, 
cum omni cultu et gratitudine, tuum servum fidelissi- 
mum humillimum. 



THE FELLOW OF A COLLEGE 
An Idem semper agat idem ? Aff. 

Isis qua lambit muros, ibi cernere possis 

Cum veteri Socium consenuisse lare: 
Huic idem vitae rerumque revertitur ordo 

Normaque stat rigido non violanda seni ; 
Nam constans sibi, sole torum surgente relinquit, 

Et redit ad notum sole cadente torum ; 
Huic eadem multos felis servata per annos, 

Huic eadem lectum parvula sternit anus ; 
Conviva assiduus, lumbo venerandus ovino 

Pascitur, et totos credo vorasse greges ; 
Mox numerat passus sub aprici moenibus horti ; 

Mox terit assueta scripta diurna manu; 
Communem historias repetitas narrat ad ignem, 

Dum tria sumuntur pocula, tresque tubi. 
Quoque die hoc fecit Carolorum tempore, idemque 

Temporibus faciet fors, Frederice, tuis. 

A FELLOW'S EVENING SONG 

(James Miller (Wadham College), The Humours of 
Oxford, a comedy acted at the Theatre Royal in 1730, 
The Vocal Miscellany, 1738.) 

What class in life, tho' ne'er so great, 
With a good Fellowship can compare? 
We still dream on at our old rate 
Without perplexing thought or care. 



286 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Whilst those in business, when opprest, 
Lie down with thoughts that break their rest; 
They toil, they slave, they drudge; and then 
They rise to do the same again. 

An easier Round of Life we keep: 
We eat, we drink, we smoak, we sleep, 
We reel to bed, there snore; and then 
We rise to do the same again. 

Come, come, let us drink 

And give a loose to pleasure; 
Fill, fill to the brink ! 

We know no other measure, 
What else have we to do 

In this our easy station, 
But that we please, pursue, 

And drink to our Foundation ? 



A FELLOW'S MORNING Vows 

(Autobiography of William Taswell, D.D. (Ch. Ch.), 
1681, Camden Society, Miscellanies > ii.) 

"Oorpea KCU Kapirovs p.rf dvKK\i(riv 'HeXioto 

OVK e$eAo> (payelv fj /xeya 8e"i7rvov 
Ovde 7Tteu> rpLrarov TO iroTrjpiov 

Kai yap X@* s K(pa\r) \iav 

y\VK.vs /3Xe(^>aporti' t(piavfv VTTVOS 

Tourou papTvp ftrrj fjujvas es eTrra Qcbs. 



THE LOUNGER 
An motus sit mensura temporis? Aff. 

Aversus studiis, nee Musae deditus ulli, 
Multiplici longum content arte diem. 

Mane novo captat rorantis frigora campi ; 
Septimaque in lento ponitur hora gradu : 

Octava notae petit otia grata popinae, 
Nonaque ad placidas Isidis errat aquas. 




POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 287 

At decima floras inter plantasque vagatur, 

Lustrat et arboreos terque quarterque duces : 
Undecima celeri properat per compita gressu, 

Et redit ad modicas, ventre monente, dapes. 
Hunc anus assueta redeuntem conspicit hora, 

Et "prandendi," inquit, "jam mihi tempus adest. 
Non ego Knibbeas 1 artes, non consulo solem ; 

Certius hie medium denotat erro diem." 



THE BEDMAKER 
A n idem corpus possit esse in duobus locis ? Neg. 

Dipsas, anus sparsae quadrata per atria pubis 

Quae sternit lectos una, nee ipsa celer: 
Dum matutinum pro more deambulat orbem, 

Ecce inter multos anxia pendet heros: 
Ocyus alter aquas, alter jentacula poscit; 

Tertius, " heus ! cura ut sit mihi flamma domi." 
Ad quemvis ait ilia, " locum modo mittar ad unum ; 

Sed neq eo esse illic hie et ubique simul." 

TENNIS-PLAYERS 

An motus projectorum fiat per impulsum a projiciente 
impressum f Aff. 

Vos 6 qui grato exercentes membra labore 

Optatis belli dicier arte pilae, 
Fidite ne semper, qui provolat obvius, orbi ; 

Tyrones dubios hie malus error habet. 
Ambo notent oculo dextram ferientis acuto, 

Ambo suspiciant ut pila missa volet. 
Oppositam frustra sperat contingere metam, 

Qui non ante videt qua pila tundet humum. 
Cum lusor validum contorqueat arte lacertum, 

Chordarum implicitam nexilis ordo rotat; 

1 Knibb Oxonii faber horologicus. 



288 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Turn celer obliquo sinuatur in aere gyro, 

Transverse et piano subsilit icta solo : 
At cum de nervis acri sonat incita pulsu 

Et trajecta super retia radit iter, 
Turn se humilis longis prope terram saltibus urget, 

Non nisi sollerti percutienda manu. 
Qua vi jacta cadet, quove impete pulsa resurget, 

Judicium semper dextra moventis erit. 



THE FRESHMAN 
An Natura abhorreat a Vacuo? Aff. 

Cum primum Isiacas subeat puer inscius arces, 

Humescit modicis sobrius ecce scyphis : 
Mox comes ad cyathos segnem irritare laborat, 

Tyro magis sapiens quod toga scissa magis ; 
" Cur sic divinos expelles nectaris haustus ? 

Sic olim memini sic ego cautus eram. 
Unde orae cyathis, tibi quos fabricantur in usus, 

Ad summas vinum ni geniale fluat? 
Si verum dixit veri celeberrimus auctor, 

Nil Natura Parens quod sit inane probat. 
Hinc seu parca mihi fuerit, seu copia vini 

Largior, usque tamen pocula plena bibam. 
Te, Natura, ducem sequar usque, parabitur aequus 

Vel Bacchus calici, vel tibi, Bacche, calix. 5 ' 

OXFORD ANTIQUARIANS 

In January 1712, a Roman pavement was discovered 
by a farmer while ploughing, at Stunsfield or Stones- 
field, a village some two miles from Woodstock : see 
Thomas Hearne's Discourse concerning the Stunsfield 
tessellated pavement'. "Some think the figure portrayed 
thereon, to be that of Oudin, the Danish god, with the 
odd horse that is commonly assigned him ; but the 
figure is, in my opinion, Apollo Sagittarius, with a 









POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 289 

Patera or Cup in his left hand, and a Dart in his right. 
The animal resembles a Griffin. I think some regard 
was had, in designing the figures, to the story of 
Apollo killing the Python " : but compare John 
Pointer's Account of the Roman Pavement, etc., Oxford, 
1713: "The human figure does not represent Apollo, 
but Bacchus. It is not a Dart, but a Thyrsus in the 
right hand ; not a Patera, but a Cantharus in his left. 
The animal figure is not a Monster, but a Panther." 

An quodlibet fiat ex quolibet? Aff. 
Dum curvo Corydon terram molitur aratro, 

Effosso retegit saxa sepulta solo. 
Multa pavimentum distinguit tessera pictum, 

Areaque ornatu versicolore nitet. 
Spectatum occurrunt vicino ex rure coloni, 

Doctaque gens arces quae colit, Isi, tuas. 
" Hanc," inquit Lycidas, " Oberon sibi condidit aulam, 

Nocturnum hie Lemures instituere chorum." 
Hie ait, " En ! aquila immensum secat aethera pennis, 

Cernis ut Idaeus surgat ad astra puer." 
Alatum agnoscit nasutior ille draconem, 

Cappadocisque videt spicula et ora ducis. 
Conspicit hie Bacchum inversa pro more diota, 

Dum sua thyrsigerum fert tigris Inda Deum. 
Pro libitu varias excudit quisque figuras ; 

Figmentumque novum dat nova quaeque dies. 
Lis sub judice adhuc ; fors est venientibus annis 

Eugenium referet Malburiumque lapis. 

AN OXFORD DUN 

From the Splendid Shilling of Mr. John Philips of 
Christ Church, 1703. 

Happy the Man who void of cares and strife 
In silken or in leathern purse retains 
A Splendid Shilling: He nor hears with pain 
New Oysters cried, nor sighs for cheerful Ale; 






290 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

But with his friends, when nightly mists arise, 
To Jun'per's Magpye or Townhall repairs : 
Where mindful of the nymph whose wanton eyes 
Transfixed his soul and kindled amorous flames, 
Chloe or Phyllis, he each circling glass 
Wisheth her health and joy and equal love; 
Meanwhile he smokes and laughs at merry tale, 
Or pun ambiguous, or conundrum quaint. 
But I, whom griping penury surrounds, 
And hunger, sure attendant upon want, 
With scanty offals and small acid tiff, 
(Wretched repast !) my meagre corpse sustain ; 
Then solitary walk, or doze at home 
In garret vile, and with a warming puff 
Regale chill fingers; or from tube as black 
As winter chimney, or well-polish'd jet, 
Exhale mundungus, ill-perfuming scent: 
Nor blacker tube, nor of a shorter size, 
Smokes Cambro-Briton (vers'd in pedigree, 
Sprung from Cadwalader and Arthur, kings 
Full famous in romantic tale), when he 
O'er many a craggy hill and barren cliff, 
Upon a cargo of fam'd Cestrian cheese 
High overshadowing, rides, with a design 
To vend his wares, or at the Arvovian mart 
Or Maridunum, or the ancient town 
Yclep'd Brechinia, or where Vaga's stream 
Encircles Ariconium, fruitful soil ! 
Whence flow nectareous wines, that well may vie 
With Massic, Setin, or renown'd Falern. 

Thus while my joyless minutes tedious flow, 
With looks demure and silent pace, a Dun, 
Horrible monster ! hated by gods and men, 
To my aerial citadel ascends ; 
With hideous accents thrice he calls ; I know 
The voice ill-boding, and the solemn sound. 
What should I do? or whither turn? amazed, 
Confounded, to the dark recess I fly 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 291 

Of wood-hole; strait my bristling hairs erect 

Through sudden fear; a chilly sweat bedews 

My shuddering limbs, and (wonderful to tell !) 

My tongue forgets her faculty of speech ; 

So horrible he seems ! his faded brow 

Entrenched with many a frown, and conic beard, 

And spreading band, admired by modern saints, 

Disastrous acts forbode; in his right hand 

Long scrolls of paper solemnly he waves, 

With characters and figures dire inscribed, 

Grievous to mortal eyes ; (ye gods avert 

Such plagues from righteous men !) : behind him 

stalks 

Another monster, not unlike himself, 
Sullen of aspect, by the vulgar called 
A Catchpole, whose polluted hands the gods 
With force incredible, and magic charms, 
Erst have endued ; if he his ample palm 
Should haply on ill-fated shoulder lay 
Of debtor, strait his body, to the touch 
Obsequious, (as whilom knights were wont,) 
To some enchanted castle is conveyed, 
Where gates impregnable, and coercive chains, 
In durance strict detain him, 'till in form 
Of money, Pallas sets the captive free. 

Beware, ye debtors, when ye walk, beware. 
Be circumspect; oft with insidious ken 
This caitiff eyes your steps aloof, and oft 
Lies perdue in a nook or gloomy cave, 
Prompt to enchant some inadvertent wretch 
With his unhallowed touch. So (poets sing) 
Grimalkin, to domestic vermin sworn 
An everlasting foe, with watchful eye 
Lies nightly brooding oer a chinky gap, 
Portending her fell claws, to thoughtless mice 
Sure ruin. So her disembowelled web 
Arachne in a hall or kitchen spreads 
Obvious to vagrant flies : she secret stands 



2 9 2 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Within her woven cell : the humming prey, 
Regardless of their fate, rush on the toils 
Inextricable, nor will aught avail 
Their arts, or arms, or shapes of lovely hue; 
The wasp insidious, and the buzzing drone, 
And butterfly, proud of expanded wings 
Distinct with gold, entangled in her snares, 
Useless resistance make: with eager strides 
She tow 'ring flies to her expected spoils ; 
Then, with envenom'd jaws, the vital blood 
Drinks of reluctant foes, and to her cave 
Their bulky carcases triumphant drags. 

OXFORD "TOASTS" 

From Strephoris Revenge (1718), a satire written by 
Nicholas Amherst of St. John Baptist College in 
answer to an eulogistic poem on the " Oxford Beauties," 
entitled Merton Walks, which had been brought out by 
John Dry in the preceding year. In the preface to his 
satire, Amherst writes : " I am not the only one who 
has taken notice of the almost universal Corruption of 
our Youth, which is to be imputed to nothing so much 
as to that Multitude of Female Residentiaries who have 
of late infested our Learned Retirements, and drawn off 
Numbers of unwary young Persons from their Studies. 
... It is indeed become highly scandalous to carry the 
least Mark of a Philosopher about us ; a grave Counte- 
nance and a sober Habit, are treated as the Object of 
Ridicule; and the Person who appears not to have 
made the Beau Monde the greatest part of his Studies, 
is sure to be laughed at for a dull plodding Wretch, a 
mere Clown, and a Pedant: There appears on the 
Foreheads -of the greatest Part of our Students an 
unthoughtful Openness and Levity ; and in their Dress 
an unbecoming Shewiness and Affectation ; Silk Gowns, 
Tye Wiggs, and Ruffles are become necessary Accom- 
plishments for a Man of Sense; and our Colleges, 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 293 

instead of grave Philosophers and Literati, swarm with 
Smarts, Foplings, and Consummate Coxcombs." 

With generous grief I mourn our Oxford's fate, 
Her fading glories and declining state ; 
Homer and Virgil quit disgraced the field, 
And to the skilful Dancing-Master yield ; 
Our Colleges grow elegantly dull ; 
Our Schools are empty and our Taverns full. 
The gowned Youth dissolves in amorous dreams, 
And Pedantry to him all Learning seems ; 
He wastes his bloom in Vanity and Ease, 
And his chief Studies are to Dress and Please. 

If through the lonely smiling meads I stray, 
And by the Charwell pace my thoughtful way, 
Loud Female Laughters reach my distant ears, 
Before my eyes the tawdry Manteau glares; 
I shun th' approaching sight, to madness wrought, 
And lose in air the scattered train of thought. 

If to the Tavern social Mirth invites, 
With constant Pain I spend the joyless nights ; 
Scrawled on the Glass I read the hated Names, 
While my swoln Breast with Indignation flames ; 
The whining Blockheads each his Toast assign, 
And pall with nauseous praise the generous 

wine : 

I fret, I rail, with angry bile I fume 
And broken Pipes and Glasses strew the room. 

Nay, if at Church I bend the suppliant knee, 
Not then from their damned presence am I free: 
Just as in fervent transports I expire, 
And my Soul mounts on wings of hallowed fire, 
Some haughty worthless Minion meets my sight 
And checks devotion in its middle height. 
Beauties of every sort and size appear, 
That please all fancies and all prices bear; 
The Tall and Short, the Jolly and the Lean, 
Of every age from Forty to Fifteen ; 



294 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Black, Brown, and Fair are ranged in different Pews, 
That Amorous Customers may pick and choose: 
Here sanguine Youths, disposed for married lives, 
And future Parsons are supplied with Wives. 

Still on, my Muse, and say what various Arts, 
What Cheats are practised on unthinking hearts ; 
When in full Balls, in dazzling splendours gay, 
Their active limbs and breeding they display : 
With antick airs they speed their steps around, 
And to the riddles foot the trembling ground ; 
The damask shoe, enriched with curious art, 
And scarlet stocking, pierce the coxcomb's heart; 
Charmed with her pretty shape and swimming air, 
He swears that Venus is not half so fair : 
How quick her eyes, how matchless is her face, 
How skilfully she moves ! With what a grace ! 
Caught by inveigling Arts and wily Charms, 
He throws himself distracted in her arms ; 
The ready Priest his curse with Marriage crowns ; 
He weds and in a fortnight hangs or drowns ! 

But fly, oh ! fly from their destructive Charms, 
Fly from th' embraces of their opening arms ; 
Or else you will bewail, alas ! too late 
Your ruin'd Fame and your abandon'd Fate. 

I know a Youth whom not ignobly born 
His careful Sire, to polish and adorn 
His tender artless mind, to College sent ; 
He came, and oh ! behold the dire event ! 
New from the Rod, and Stranger to Mankind, 
Each fair Appearance won his easy mind ; 
As yet Experience had not fledged his wings, 
But as they seemed, he judged of Men and Things. 
With him each glaring Female was divine; 
Gay were the Tawdry, and the Shewy Fine. 
Thoughtless and unsuspecting of deceit, 
Through the dark guise he could not see the Cheat : 
When now but a few moons had passed away, 
To Female Cunning he became a Prey. 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 295 

Now he to vicious idle courses takes, 
His Logick-Studies and his Prayers forsakes; 
Puffed up with Love, a studious life he loathes, 
And places all his Learning in his Clothes: 
He " Smarts," he Dances, at a Ball is seen, 
And Struts about the room with saucy mien. 
In vain his Tutor with a watchful care 
Rebukes his folly, warns him to beware; 
In vain his Friends endeavour to control 
The stubborn fatal byass of his Soul; 
In vain his Father with o'erflowing eyes 
And mingled threatenings, begs him to be wise: 
His Friends, his Tutor, and his Father fail; 
Nor Tears, nor Threats, nor Duty will prevail ; 
His stronger Passions urge him to his Fall, 
And deaf to Counsel, he contemns them all. 
In wedlock-sheets he stains his generous birth, 
And basely mixes with plebeian earth: 
Too late, disheired, he vents unfruitful sighs, 
For ever banished from his Father's eyes. 

Forewarned, oh! shun the glittering tempting bait, 
And learn from hence the fond Adventurer's 

Fate; 

Learn hence the fair Impostor to despise, 
Your fame, your welfare, and your peace to prize. 
Fear not abroad to find some pitying Dame, 
With artless beauty crowned and spotless fame, 
Blooming and sweet as opening roses are, 
Chaste as Minerva, and as Laura fair. 

And Thou, 1 who whilom on Oxonian Plains 
Carol'st with lavish art thy fulsome strains, 
Forbear, rash Bard, to stain thy fairest rhymes 
With the most impious of these impious times; 
Preserve unbroken thy poetic trust, 
And only publish praise, where praise is just; 
Forbear, nor vainly thus expect renown ; 
For see ! the Muses and Apollo frown ! 

1 The author of Merton Walks. 



296 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

THE MAP OF LIFE 

From the Progress of Discontent > written in 1746 by 
Thomas Warton of Trinity College, Oxford, Sir Thomas 
Pope's foundation : 

Cum juvenis nostras subiit novus advena sedes, 

Continue Popi proemia magna petit: 
Deinde potens voti, quiddam sublimius ambit, 

Et Socii lepidum munus inire cupit : 
At Socius mavult transire ad rura Sacerdos ; 

Arridetque uxor jam propriique lares : 
Ad rus transmisso vitam instaurare priorem, 

Atque iterum Popi tecta subire juvat. 
O pectus mire varium et mutabile ! Cui sors 

Quaeque petita placet, nulla potita placet. 

When now mature in classic knowledge 
The joyful youth is sent to College; 
His father comes, a vicar plain, 
At Oxford bred in Anna's reign; 
And thus, in form of humble suitor, 
Bowing, accosts a reverend Tutor ! 
" Sir, I'm a Gloucestershire divine, 
" And this my eldest son of nine ; 
" My wife's ambition, and my own, 
" Was that this child should wear a gown : 
" I'll warrant that his good behav'our 
" Will justify your future favour ; 
"And for his parts, to tell the truth, 
" My son's a very forward youth ; 
" Has Horace all by heart you'd wonder 
" And mouths out Homer's Greek like thunder. 
" If you'd examine, and admit him, 
" A scholarship would nicely fit him ; 
"That he succeeds 'tis ten to one; 
"Your vote and interest, sir! 'tis done." 

Our pupil's hopes, though twice defeated, 
Are with a scholarship completed : 










O u 

p <J 






POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 297 

A scholarship but half maintains, 

And college rules are heavy chains: 

In garret dark he smokes and puns, 

A prey to discipline and duns ; 

And now, intent on new designs, 

Sighs for a Fellowship and fines. 
When nine full tedious winters past, 

That utmost wish is crown'd at last; 

But the rich prize no sooner got, 

Again he quarrels with his lot: 

" These Fellowships are pretty things, 

" We live, indeed, like petty kings : 

" But who can bear to waste his whole age 

" Amid the dulness of a College, 
" Debarr'd the common joys of life, 
"And that prime bliss a loving wife? 

" O ! what's a table richly spread, 

" Without a woman at its head ! 

" If but some benefice would fall, 

" Then feasts and dinners ! farewell all ! 

"To offices I'd bid adieu 

" Of dean, vice-praes. of bursar too ; 

" Come, joys that rural quiet yields, 

"Come, tithe and house and fruitful fields!" 1 

Too fond of liberty and ease, 
A patron's vanity to please, 
Long time he watches, and by stealth, 
Each frail incumbent's doubtful health; 

1 Cf. Letter of Humphrey Prideaux (Christ Church, 1668-86 ; Dean of 
Norwich, 1702), Oxford, July 9, 1685 : " I believe my time in the College 
will now be short. I have been here long enough to begin to be weary 
of a place where now every one almost is my junior ; and therefore have 
resolved to retire to my living, and fix for good and all there ; and in order 
hereto, I have hearkened to proposals of marriage that have been made to 
me ; and because they are such as are very advantageous, I have already 
got so far as the sealing of articles whereby I have secured to myself 
^3000 ; but after the death of the father and mother whose only child the 
gentlewoman is, I believe there will be at least ^1500 more. I little 
thought I should ever come to this ! " (Letters of Prideaux to John Ellis > 
Camden Soc. Publications). 






298 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

At length and in his fortieth year, 

A living drops two hundred clear ! 

With breast elate beyond expression, 

He hurries down to take possession : 

With rapture views the sweet retreat 

" What a convenient house ! how neat ! 

" For fuel here's sufficient wood ; 

" Pray God the cellars may be good ! 

*' The garden that must be new plann'd 

" Shall these old-fashioned yew-trees stand ? 

"O'er yonder vacant plot shall rise 

" The flow'ry shrub of thousand dyes : 

"Yon wall that feels the southern ray, 

"Shall blush with ruddy fruitage gay: 

"While thick beneath its aspect warm, 

" O'er well-rang'd hives the bees shall swarm ; 

" From which, ere long, of golden gleam, 

" Metheglin's luscious juice shall stream : 

"This awkward hut, o'ergrown with ivy, 

"We'll alter to a modern privy: 

" Up yon green slope of hazels trim, 

"An avenue, so cool and dim, 

"Shall to an arbour at the end, 

" In spite of gout, entice a friend. 

" My predecessor lov'd devotion 

"But of a garden had no notion." 

Continuing this fantastic farce on, 
He now commences country parson. 
To make his character entire, 
He weds a cousin of the Squire; 
Not over weighty in the purse, 
But many Doctors have done worse : 
And though she boasts no charms divine, 
Yet she can carve, and make birch wine. 

Thus fixed, content he taps his barrel ; 
Exhorts his neighbours not to quarrel ; 
Finds his churchwardens have discerning 
Both in good liquor and good learning; 




POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 299 

With tithes his barns replete he sees, 
And chuckles o'er his surplice fees; 
Studies to find out latent dues, 
And regulates the state of pews; 
Rides a sleek mare with purple housing, 
To share the monthly club's carousing; 
Of Oxford pranks facetious tells, 
And but on Sundays hears no bells; 
Sends presents of his choicest fruit, 
And prunes himself each sapless shoot ; 
Plants cauliflowers, and boasts to rear 
The earliest melon of the year; 
Thinks alteration charming work is, 
Keeps bantam cocks, and feeds his turkeys ; 
Builds in his copse a favourite bench, 
And stores the pond with carp and tench. 
But ah ! too soon his thoughtless breast 
By cares domestic is opprest; 
And a third butcher's bill, and brewing, 
Threaten inevitable ruin : 
For children fresh expenses yet, 
And Dicky now for school is fit. 
"Why did I sell my college life," 
He cries, "for benefice and wife? 
" Return, ye days ! when endless pleasure 
" I found in reading or in leisure ! 
" When calm around the Common Room 
" I pufFd my daily pipe's perfume ! 
" Rode for a stomach, and inspected 
" At annual bottlings, corks selected : 
" And dined untaxed, untroubled, under 
" The portrait of our pious Founder ! 
"When impositions were supplied 
" To light my pipe or soothe my pride ! 
" No cares were then for forward peas 
"A yearly-longing wife to please; 
"My thoughts no christ'ning dinners cross't, 
"No children cried for buttered toast; 



300 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

" And every night I went to bed 
"Without a modus in my head." 

O trifling head and fickle heart! 
Chagrin'd at whatsoe'er thou art; 
A dupe to follies yet untried, 
And sick of pleasures scarce enjoyed ! 
Each prize possess't, thy transport ceases; 
And in pursuit alone it pleases. 

From TJie Vanity of Human Wishes, by Samuel 
Johnson of Pembroke College, Oxford, 1749. 

When first the college rolls receive his name, 
The young enthusiast quits his ease for fame; 
Resistless burns the fever of renown, 
Caught from the strong contagion of the gown : 
Oer Bodley's dome his future labours spread 
And Bacon's mansion trembles o'er his head. 1 
Are these thy views? Proceed, illustrious youth; 
And Virtue guard thee to the throne of Truth ! 
Yet should thy soul indulge the generous heat, 
Till captive Science yield her last retreat; 
Should Reason guide thee with her brightest ray, 
And pour on misty Doubt resistless day; 
Should no false Kindness lure to loose delight, 
Nor Praise relax, nor Difficulty fright; 
Should tempting Novelty thy cell refrain, 
And Sloth effuse her opiate fumes in vain; 
Should Beauty blunt on Fops her fatal dart, 
Nor claim the triumph of a Lettered Heart; 
Should no Disease thy torpid veins invade 
Nor Melancholy's phantoms haunt thy shade; 
Yet hope not life from grief and danger free, 
Nor think the Doom of Man Reversed for Thee. 

1 There was an ancient tradition at Oxford, that Bacon's Study, a room 
over the archway of a tower which stood on Folly Bridge, would collapse, 
when a wiser than Roger passed beneath it. The Study stood until the 
year 1779, when the Oxford Street Commissioners, fearful lest the prophecy 
should be fulfilled, in self-defence, demolished the building. 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 301 

Deign on the passing world to turn thy eyes, 
And pause awhile from Letters, to be Wise : 
There mark what ills the Scholar's life assail, 
Toil, Envy, Want, the Patron and the Gaol : 
See Nations, slowly wise and meanly just, 
To Buried Merit raise the tardy bust: 
If dreams yet flatter, once again attend, 
Hear Lydiat's life and Galileo's end : 
Nor deem, when Learning her last prize bestows, 
The glittering eminence exempt from Foes; 
See, when the Vulgar 'scapes, despised and awed, 
Rebellion's vengeful talons seize on Laud : 
From meaner minds though smaller fines content, 
The plundered palace or sequestered rent, 
Marked out by dangerous parts, he meets the shock, 
And Fatal Learning leads him to the Block : 
Around his tomb let Art and Genius Weep ; 
And Hear his Death, ye Blockheads, Hear and 
Sleep ! 

II. POLITICAL VIEWS 

" Oxford, that magnificent and venerable Seat of 
Learning Orthodoxy and Toryism." BOSWELL'S Life 
of Johnson. 

(a) TORYISM 

A.D. 1715 

No sooner had George I ascended the throne than 
the loud howling of the "Whig dogs" broke forth 
against Oxford : 

"The High Church Rebel" to the tune, "Begging 
we will go." 

At Oxford, Bath, and Bristol 
The Rogues designed to rise, 

But George's care and vigilance 
There's nothing can surprise: 

So to Tyburn let them go ! 



302 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

"A New Song" to the tune, "Which Nobody can 
deny." 

When at Oxford, that eminent Structure of Study, 
In riots and treasons their Heads are turned 

giddy, 
The Streams must be foul, where the Fountain 

is muddy; 

Which nobody can deny. 

"A Whig Riddle for the Tory Omen-hunters" to 
the tune, "You Fair Ladies." 

Go ask the Men of Oxford, why 

Some Wights that late wore Garters, 

Come to be canonized as Saints 
Ere they Commenced as Martyrs; 

Let Alma Mater shew a reason 

Why Loyal Feasting's counted Treason. 

" Rue and Thyme "a song to the tune, " The Vicar 
of Taunton Dean." 

As I walked along fair London town, 

The rascally Tories flocked up and down ; 

Tho a Thanksgiving Day, they looked wretchedly 

blue, 
Stuck up with their Rosemary, Thyme, and Rue : 

Fa la la! Fa la la! The Perkinite Crew! 

Then a Student of Oxford came next in the throng, 
Swears he'll bring in Perkin before it be long; 

He'll stand for the High Church and Chevalier too 
But if Tyburn should catch him, the Time he 
will Rue: 

Fa la la! Fa la la! The Perkinite Crew! 

Collection of State Songs, etc., that have been 
published since the Rebellion, and sung in 
several Mug-houses in the Cities of London 
and Westminster ) London, 1716 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 303 

Epigrams on the descent made, Oct. 6, 1715, upon 
Oxford by Colonel Pepper with his regiment of dragoons 
to search for Jacobite officers, and on the despatch to 
Cambridge on Nov. 19 by George I of the valuable 
library which had belonged to Dr. Moore, Bishop of 
Ely: 

THE OXFORD EPIGRAM 

The King observing with judicious eyes 

The state of his two Universities, 

To Oxford sent a troop of horse: for why? 

That learned body wanted loyalty: 

To Cambridge books he sent, as well discerning 

How much that loyal body wanted learning. 

JOSEPH TRAPP, Wadham College, Oxford 

THE CAMBRIDGE REPLY 

The King to Oxford sent a troop of horse, 
For Tories own no argument but force; 
With equal skill to Cambridge books he sent, 
For Whigs admit no force but argument. 
SIR WILLIAM BROWNE, Peterhouse, Cambridge l 

One of the favourite methods used by the troublesome 
Whig minority at Oxford, known as the " Constitution 
Club," to provoke honest Jacobites, was to assemble at 
some tavern in the town on the 28th of May, and to 
celebrate the birthday of the Hanoverian Usurper by 

1 The epigrams have been put into Latin, as follows : 

" Regia Musarum inspiciens vigilantia sedes, 

Quam bene disposuit munus utrique suum ! 
Granta, tuos libris prudens ditavit alumnos ; 

Militis armati te, Rhedecyna, manu. 
Huic nempe obsequium, sapientia defuit illi ; 
Floruit haec doctis, altera mancipiis. 

"Rex ideo turmis Rhedecynam implevit et armis, 

Quod vires istic pro ratione valent : 
Granta, tuas libris ornavit amantior aulas, 
Quod tibi pro summis viribus est ratio," 



304 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

bonfires, illuminations, and uproarious songs ; and they 
effected their object the more easily because all good 
Tories were preparing to welcome on the following day, 
May 29, the anniversary of the glorious Restoration. 

"A Song for the 28th of May, the birthday of our 
glorious Sovereign, king George " to the tune of " The 
King shall enjoy his own again." 

The Time is now come 

That we fear not France or Rome 
Nor all the rebel Tory Crew: 
The Rebels we will hang, 
And the Tories we will bang, 
As our Forefathers used to do: 

Let J em fight us if they dare, 
Let 'em rant and let 'em swear; 
We'll make them after Perkin run : 

Tis the 28th of May, 

Let us revel it away, 
For joy that the King enjoys his own. 

Then bring up the Jug 

To us friends of the Mug: 
We'll toast the Royal Health round : 

For the birth of the King 

Let us quaff laugh and sing; 
His day with gay frolic be crowned. 

The mob we need not fear ; 

There's enough of us here 
To beat all the Tories in town : 

We have got a better day 

Than the 29th of May, 
For the King of our Hearts has his own. 

Raise the faggots higher, 
We'll have no kitchen fire 
To celebrate King George's day: 
Who the deuce would care 
Tho the Doctor were here 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 305 

And his Duke who did our friends betray? 

Our mugs now let us mind; 

We have three good toasts behind 
The Prince, the Princess, and Carter John. 

In all the month of May 

We will keep no other day 
But the King's, who now enjoys his own. 

While the bonfires blaze 

With our Healths and Huzzas 
To joy we all our friends unite. 

Tomorrow they say 

We are threatened with a fray; 
But a fig for that! we'll laugh tonight. 

And if they dare come out 

To try the other bout, 
The word is " George," and their work is done 

For in all the month of May, 

We'll have no such merry day 
As the King's, who now enjoys his own. 

A.D. 1750 

Cambridge was at this time displaying a fulsome spirit 
>f flattery rather than loyalty towards the house of 
Brunswick. Its chancellorship was bestowed on that 
most ignorant and ridiculous of mortals, the Premier, 
le Duke of Newcastle. The prosecution, conviction, 
and savage punishment of some honest young Oxonians 
who had boasted over their cups their attachment to the 
House of Stuart, afforded another opportunity of " sup- 
porting the throne"; and William Mason (St. John's 
College, Cambridge) bid high for preferment by the 
mblication of Isis t an Elegy, in which he contrasted 
the loyalty of Cambridge with the disaffection of its 
sister University. This poem drew an answer, called 
The Triumph of Isis, from the younger Tom Warton, 
then a Scholar of Trinity College, Oxford, twenty-two 
20 



306 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

years of age : see Studies in Oxford History (Oxford 
Hist. Soc.), Oxford during the Eighteenth Century^ by 
J. R. Green, p. 172. 



"ISIS, AN ELEGY," by William Mason 

(The river Isis appears in " all the awful negligence 
of woe," and reviews the past ; sees patriotic sons like 
Sydney, Raleigh, Hampden, Addison, and Locke; and 
recalling the days when she boasted as proud a name 
as did the Ilissus, she proceeds to lament as follows :) 

Alas ! how changed ? Where now that Attic 

boast ? 

See Gothic license rage o'er all my coast ! 
See Hydra Faction spread its impious reign, 
Poison each breast, and madden every brain ! 
Hence frontless crowds, that not content to fright 
The blushing Cynthia from her throne of night, 
Blast the fair face of day, and madly bold 
To Freedom's Foes infernal orgies hold : 
To Freedom's Foes, ah ! see the goblet crowned ! 
Hear plausive shouts to Freedom's Foes resound ! 
The horrid notes my refluent waters daunt; 
The Echoes groan ; the Dryads quit their haunt. 
Learning, that once to all diffused her beam, 
Now sheds by stealth a partial private gleam, 
In some low cloister's melancholy shade 
Where a firm few support her sickly head, 
Despised, insulted by the barbarous train 
Who scour, like Thracia's moonstruck rout, the 

plain ; 

Sworn foes, like them, to all the Muse approves, 
All Phoebus favours, or Minerva loves. 
Are these the sons my fostering breast must rear, 
Graced with my name, and nurtured by my care ! 
Must these go forth from my maternal hand 
To deal their insults through a peaceful land 






POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 307 

And boast, while Freedom bleeds and Virtue groans 
That Isis taught Sedition to her Sons ! ! ! 
Forbid it, Heaven ! and let my rising waves 
Indignant swell, and whelm the recreant Slaves ! ! ! 



"THE TRIUMPH OF Isis," by Tom Warton 

("The silver-slippered virgin, treading lightly the 
smooth surface of the dimply flood," approaches, and 
exhorts the poet :) 

When Freedom calls and Oxford bids thee sing, 
Why stays thy hand to strike the sounding string? 
When thus, in Freedom's and in Phoebus' spite, 
The venal sons of slavish Cam unite 
To shake yon towers ; when Malice rears her crest ; 
Shall all my sons in silence idly rest? 

Still sing, O Cam, your favourite Freedom's cause, 
Still boast of Freedom while you break her laws : 
To Power your songs of gratulation pay, 
To Courts address soft flattery's soothing lay. 

Let Granta boast the patrons of her name, 

Each pompous fool of fortune or of fame : 

Still of Preferment let her shine the Queen, 

Prolific parent of each bowing Dean : 

Be hers each Prelate of the pampered cheek, 

Each courtly Chaplain, sanctified and sleek: 

Still let the Drones of her exhaustless hive 

On fat Pluralities supinely thrive: 

Still let her Senates titled Slaves revere, 

Nor dare to know the Patriot from the Peer; 

For Tinselled Courts their Laurelled Mount despise, 

In Stars and Strings superlatively wise ! 

'Tis Ours, my son, to deal the sacred bay 
Where Honour calls, and Justice leads the way; 



30 8 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



The 

Library, 
built from 
funds left 
by Dr. 
Radcliffe 
(died 

1714), was 
opened on 
April 13, 
1749. 



A concert 
managed 
by Handel. 



Dr. 

William 

King, 

Principal 

of St. 

Mary's 

Hall, 

and head 

of the 

Jacobite 

party at 

Oxford. 



To wear the well - earned wreath which Merit 

brings 

And snatch a gift beyond the reach of Kings: 
Scorning, and scorned by, Courts, yon Muses' 

bower 
Still nor enjoys, nor asks the smile of Power. 

E'en late, when Radcliffe's delegated train 

Auspicious shone in Isis' happy plain ; 

When yon proud Dome, fair Learning's complete 

shrine, 

Beneath its Attic roofs received the Nine; 
Mute was the voice of joy and loud applause 
To Radcliffe due and Isis' honoured cause? 
What freeborn crowds adorned the festive day, 
Nor blushed to wear my tributary bay ! 
How each brave breast with honest ardour heaved 
When Sheldon's fane the patriot band received ! 

While Music left her golden sphere on high, 
And bore each strain of triumph to the sky ; 
Swelled the loud song, and to my Chiefs around 
Poured the full Paeans of mellifluous sound. 

But lo ! at once the swelling concerts cease, 
And crowded theatres are hushed in peace; 
See on yon Sage how all attentive stand 
To catch his darting eye and waving hand ! 
Hark ! he begins with all a Tully's art 
To pour the dictates of a Cato's heart ; 
Skilled to pronounce what noblest thoughts in- 
spire, 

He blends a Speaker's with a Patriot's fire; 
Bold to conceive, nor timorous to conceal, 
What Britons dare to think, he dares to tell. 
In frowns and smiles he gains an equal prize, 
Nor meanly fears to fall, nor creeps to rise: 
Bids happier days to Albion be restored, 
Bids ancient Justice rear her radiant sword; 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 309 

From me and from my country wins applause 

And makes an Oxford's, a Britannia's cause. 1 

Ye venerable bowers, ye seats sublime 

Clad in the mossy vest of fleeting time ; 

Ye stately piles of old munificence, 

At once the pride of Learning and defence, 

Where ancient Piety, a matron hoar, 

Still seems to keep the hospitable door ; 

Ye Cloisters pale, that lengthening to the sight, 

Still step by step to musings mild invite ; 

Ye high-arched Walls, where oft the bard has caught 

The glowing sentiment, the lofty thought; 

Ye Temples dim, where pious Duty pays 

Her holy hymns of ever-echoing praise; 

Lo ! your loved Isis from the bordering vale 

With all a mother's fondness bids you hail. 

Hail, Oxford, hail ! Of all that's good and great, 

Of all that's fair, the guardian and the seat; 

Nurse of each brave pursuit, each generous aim, 

By Truth exalted to the throne of Fame ; 

Like Greece in science and in liberty; 

Like Athens learn'd, like Lacedaemon free. 

(&) ORTHODOXY (1730-1768) 

" Johnson : ' Sir, the expulsion of six students from the 
University of Oxford, who were Methodists and would 

King's speech contains many thinly- veiled allusions to the "butcher 
Cumberland " and his officers "heroes isti, qui quum, non modo hostibus 
sed suis moliantur exitium, inde tamen nomen et gloriam quaerunt. . . . 
Hoscine ut colat populus ! Hoscine ut nos Oxonienses colamus ! . . . 
Quam me pudet igitur istius oratorum et poetarum assentationis, quae tales 
viros, immanitate naturae insignes, semideos fecit et praedicavit ! " After 
alluding to Government spies " detestabiles isti delatores, qui ita res 
nostras modo turbarunt " the orator adroitly contrived to excite the 
Jacobite feelings of his audience by introducing many times into his 
peroration the word " Red eat ! "Thus " Red eat nobis Astraea nostra ! " 
"Redeat magnus ille Genius Britanniae ! " " Redeat, efficiatque ut 
revirescat respublica ! " Each time he made a considerable pause after 
the word, and drew forth the enthusiastic applause of the honest 
Jacobites who thronged the Sheldonian Theatre. 



! 



310 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

not desist from publicly praying and exhorting, was 
extremely just and proper. What have they to do at an 
University who are not willing to be taught, but will 
presume to teach ? Where is religion to be learnt, but 
at an University ? Sir, they were examined, and found 
to be mighty ignorant fellows/ Boswell : ' But was it 
not hard, Sir, to expel them, for I am told they were 
good beings.' Johnson : ' I believe they might be good 
beings, but they were not fit to be in the University of 
Oxford. A cow is a very good animal in a field, but we 
turn her out of a garden/ 

" One day when Dr. Johnson and Sir Robert Chambers 
were together in the garden of New Inn Hall, Sir 
Robert occupied himself in collecting snails and 
throwing them over the wall into the adjoining premises. 
The Doctor thereupon reprimanded him, and pro- 
nounced his behaviour unmannerly and unneighbourly. 
'Sir/ said Sir Robert, 'my neighbour is a Dissenter/ 
1 Oh ! ' exclaimed the Doctor, ' if so, my dear Chambers, 
toss away, toss away as hard as you can ! ' " BOSWELL'S 
Life of Johnson. 



INTERCESSION FOR THE UNIVERSITY 

Teacher divine, with melting eye 

Our ruined Seats of Learning see, 
Whose ruling scribes Thy truth deny, 

And persecute Thy saints and Thee, 
As hired by Satan to suppress 
And root up every seed of grace. 

As Heretics and Lollards still 

Thy faithful confessors they brand, 

With all their strength and knowing skill 
The Spirit and His work withstand; 

In league with Hell, Thy throne t' o'erthrow, 

And raise the kingdom of Thy foe. 



POLITICAL PERSECUTION, 1714-1760 311 

Whose knowledge, vain, unsanctified, 
Fills every synagogue and chair, 

Whose guile and unbelief preside, 

And wage with Heaven immortal war: 

The prophet's nursing schools are these, 

And sinks of desperate wickedness. 

True prophets once they surely bred 
And champions for th' incarnate God, 

Who lived Thy dying Love to spread, 
Who sealed the record with their blood, 

The Truth, the Way, the Life of Grace, 

Blasphemed by this degenerate race. 

And wilt Thou let the fountains fail, 

Or flow through earth with streams impure? 
Thy Gospel must at last prevail, 

Thy Word from age to age endure; 
And Learning fastened to the Cross 
For ever serve Thy glorious cause. 

CHARLES WESLEY (Ch. Ch.), Hymns of 
Intercession, 1758 

" On some late expulsions from E H , O d, 

of certain gentlemen for holding the doctrines of Election, 
Perseverance, and Justification by Faith alone, man's 
natural impotency to good and the efficacious influence 
of the Spirit." 

Rejoice ye Sons of Papal Rome, 

No longer hide the head ; 
Mary's blest days once more are come, 

And Bonner from the dead. 

Where Cranmer died and Ridley bled, 

Martyrs for Truth sincere, 
See Cranmer's Faith and Ridley's Hope 

Thrust out and Martyred there. 



312 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Another containing good Advice to young 
Gownsmen : 

Ye jovial Souls, drink deep and swear 

And all shall then go well ; 
But oh ! take heed of Hymns and Prayer, 

These cry aloud E X P E L. 

London Chronicle, March 19-22, 24-6, 1768 



CHAPTER XII 

THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES (1760-1850) 

An Omnia vergant ad Interitum? Aff. 
Me nee Musica Turba vocat, nee nobilis Ille 
Quern merito jactas doctum, si fama, Patronum ; 
Nee Camerae Communis amor, qua rarus ad alta 
Nunc tubus emittit gratos laquearia fumos ; 
Sed novus Oxonii vestitus, sed nova rerum 
Quae surgit facies, paulatim et nascitur ordo. 
Ergo novis rebus, ceu nosti, inimicus, ad Almam 
Confugio, officii veteris memor usque, Parentem, 
Ut, dum pauca manent veteris vestigia formae, 
Postremum his oculis videam, jubeamque valere. 

"Oxford Revisited in 1773 Dialogus in 
Theatro Sheldoniano habitus July 8," 
Selecta Poemata, ed. by Edward Popham 

r I ^HE heterogeneous documents brought together in 

this chapter have this in common ; they are 

suggestive in their various ways of the close of 

what has here been called the later mediaeval period of 

Oxford's story, and also of the birth and growth of the 

ideas prevalent in the modern University. They are 

grouped under the following heads : 

I. Decay of Jacobitism and growth of Modern 
Toryism. 

1. Carmen introductorium Pietati Oxon.> etc. 

(1760). 

2. Verses on the arrival of Queen Charlotte in 

England (1761). 
313 



314 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

3. Odes, etc., on the visit to Oxford of the 

Prince Regent (1814). 

4. Macaronic lines on the visit to Oxford of 

Princess Victoria (1832). 

II. Growing disposition to murmur and unquietness 

(1793). 
The College Cat, by Robert Southey. 

III. The New Examination System (1800), and its 

consequences. 

1. Letter in verse from an Undergraduate 

(1810). 

2. Macaronic lines from The New Art teaching 

how to be Plucked (1835). 

3. Song from S. R. Hole's Oxford Parodies 

(1840-44). 

IV. Relaxation of the old Classical Monopoly. 

Specimen of a Geological Lecture by Professor 
Buckland 



V. Fanatical Attacks upon the Educational System 

and Discipline of the University (1834). 
Black Gowns and Red Coats, by George 
Cox of New College. 

VI. Decay of Orthodoxy. 

1. Introduction of the Pope to the Convocation 

at Oxford, 1809, by J. Gillray. 

2. Installation of Lord Grenville as Chancellor, 

1810, by J. Gillray. 

3. Black Gowns and Red Coats, 1834. 

VII. Intestinal Feuds bred by Neo-Catholic Movement. 

1. The Hampden Controversy (1836-42). 

2. The Oxford Argo (1845). 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 315 

VIII. Destruction of mediaeval Oxford by the extension 

of the railway system. 
Viae per Angliamferro stratae (1841). 

IX. Eve of Revolution. 

Revolutionary Manifesto, issued June 1 849. 



I. DECAY OF JACOBITISM 

With the accession of George III (1760), a new 
political era commenced at Oxford. In the fervour of 
its zeal, the University presented to the King through 
the Vice-Chancellor a printed book of Verses of con- 
dolence and of congratulation in different languages, 
entitled Pietas Oxoniensis. 

" Carmen introductorium Pietati Oxoniensi praefigen- 
dum, auctore Gerardo Higgenbroccio, in Artibus 
inceptore" (from the Companion to the Guide^ Thomas 
Warton, ed. published 1806). 

Nuper spiravit homo 
Cui Georgio nomen fuit; 
Nunc ille abiit domo, 
Dum coelum adhuc pluit. 

Hie erat noster rex, 
Nos eramus ejus grex; 
Nunc heu ! inter nos non est, 
Nee nobis interest. 

Non fuit altus homo,* 
Nee fuit valde brevis; 
Non fuit gravis homo, 
Nee fuit valde levis. 

Non erat valde pinguis 
Non erat valde gracilis ; 
Probatur omnium linguis 
Multum clemens et facilis. 



(* Describ- 
itur per- 
sona Regis 
nuperi.) 



3i6 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Patriae dilectae vixit hie amicus, 
Nee regem meliorem facile dicas. 



INCIPIT ODA 

Sublatus est; O flete, 
Nee amplius ridete, 
Dum finis venerit hujus anni, 
O magnus populus Britanni : 
Flora tu quoque, Rhedecyna, 
Magnorum artium officina, 
Pullata tunica incede 
Pro hoc defuncto bono rege. 
Consurgant simul omnia 
Collegiorum Capita; 
Omnes Poetae capitales, 
Australes vel septentrionales ; 
Qui sunt Duces aut Marchiones, 
Nunc semel in vita Marones, 
Seu filii tantum sint Baronum, 
Seu etiam Baronettorum ; 
Sive sint Scoti seu Hiberni, 
Nil interest, nam sunt fraterni; 

Omnes Doctores ; 

Ambo Proctores; 
Qui sunt Regentes vel Tutores ; 

In tecto qui sedetis 

Sublimi vel profundo; 

Qui pileo gaudetis 

Quadrato vel rotundo ; 
Qui vinum generosum combibatis, 
Vel molle Mildo tantum audeatis; 
Vel quibus marsupium obesum, 
Vel quis marsupii levis est pertaesum ; 
Vel qui coenaculo in communi 
Volumina volvatis fumi, 
Vel qui tabernas frequentatis 
Habentes satis otii gratis ; 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 317 

Qui colitis Musas divinas, 
Qui colitis Musas equinas, 
Qui colitis Musas caninas, 
Sive sint qui colant porcinas: 

Omnes et singuli praedictorum, 
Seu versuum Fabri bonorum, 
Seu versuum Fabri malorum, 
Consurgant simul et petant Londinium ; 
Sed prius scribant aliquid divinum, 
Quo regis aures placide palpentur : 
Qui scribit optime, hie erit Precentor: 

Testentur suum jam amorem 

Fundendo lacrymarum rorem ; 

Omnes paranto laureos ramos ; 

Hi pendeant super aureos hamos; 

Sic tumulum regis defuncti 

Celebrent honore largo cuncti : 

Qui non plorare noscit, 

Meretur hie flagellum; 

Quis jam non fingere possit 

Poemation tenellum? 

In unum constipentur 

Omnes lacrymae botellum ; 

Lauri omnes colligentur 

In fascem per Bedellum. 

Lacrymae congestae amarae 

Amariores fient, 

Cui Isidis Camoenae 

Lacrymas benigne cient. 



Gratulatio Univ. Oxon. in Regis Georgii III 

inaugurationem 
Vice-Can. Prolocutor 

Illustris Princeps, hie botellus, 
Quern meus secum fert Bedellus, 
Includit chymicam parationem, 
Avus ne tuus sit in oblivionem ; 



318 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Lacrymis ex singulis et cunctis 

Quas unquam fudimus defunctis 

Nostris principibus vel regibus, 

Cum pereant duris legibus, 
Hae, inquam, hae sunt longe amarissimae 
Quas hie inclusas gerimus, Rex carissime : 
His ossa magna digne conspergantur 
Tarn boni tarn humani Principis, 
Qui solus est cunctorum qui laudantur 
Qui maxime hos rores meruit laudis. 
En quoque hue portamus laureos ramos 
Quos habemus ecce ! super aureos hamos, 
In altum regis tumulum pendeanto 
Et ejus nomen semper celebranto : 

Praeterea porto alium 

Spirituum Botellum, 

Per eundem meum hunc 

Fidissimum Bedellum ; 
His recreantur animi Britanni; 
His excitentur gaudio perenni, 
Quod tu, tarn pius Princeps et serenus, 
Imperii magni sumis jam habenas : 
Hos, Princeps bone, accipere digneris ; 
Gratias turn dabimus cordibus sinceris. 
Jam vale ! Nunc nos ad Oxoniam ibimus ; 
Sed prius audi nos haec sentientes ; 
Pellemus a te impetus recentes, 
Cum te vel simul stabimus vel peribimus." 

" Verses on the expected arrival in England of Queen 
Charlotte (A.D. 1761), by a Gentleman of Oxford 
Containing the sentiments, images, metaphors, machinery, 
similes, allusions, and all other poetical decorations of 
the Oxford Verses which appeared on that auspicious 
occasion " : The Oxford Sausage (1764). 

Yes, every hopeful son of rhyme 
Will surely seize this happy time, 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 319 

Vault upon Pegasus's back, 
Now grown an academic hack, 
And sing the beauties of a Queen 
(Whom, by the way, he has not seen); 
Will swear her eyes are black as jet, 
Her teeth are pearls in coral set ; 
Will tell us that the rose has lent 
Her cheek its bloom, her lips its scent; 
That Philomel breaks off her song 
And listens to her sweeter tongue ; 
That Venus and the Graces joined 
To form this Phoenix of her kind, 
And Pallas undertook to store 
Her mind with wisdom's chiefest lore: 
Thus formed, Jove issues a decree 
That George's Consort she shall be: 
Then Cupid (for what match is made 
By poets without Cupid's aid?) 
Picks out the swiftest of his darts, 
And pierces instant both their hearts. 

Your fearful prosemen here might doubt, 
How best to bring this match about, 
For winds and waves are ill-bred things, 
And little care for Queens and Kings ; 
But as the Gods assembled stand 
And wait each youthful bard's command, 
All fancied dangers they deride 
Of boisterous winds and swelling tide; 
Neptune is called to wait upon her, 
And Sea-Nymphs are her Maids of Honour; 
Whilst we, instead of eastern gales, 
With vows and praises fill the sails; 
And when, with due poetic care, 
They safely land the royal fair, 
They catch the happy simile 
Of Venus rising from the sea. 
Soon as she moves, the hill and vale 
Responsive tell the joyful tale; 



320 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

And wonder holds th' enraptured throng 

To see the goddess pass along; 

The bowing forests all adore her, 

And flowers spontaneous spring before her, 

Where you and I all day might travel, 

And meet with nought but sand and gravel : 

But poets have a piercing eye, 

And many pretty things can spy 

Which neither you nor I can see; 

But then the fault's in you and me. 

The King astonished must appear, 

And find that fame has wrong'd his dear; 

Then Hymen, like a bishop, stands 

To join the lovers' plighted hands ; 

Apollo and the Muses wait 

The nuptial song to celebrate. 

But I, who rarely spend my time 
In paying court or spinning rhyme; 
Who cannot from the high abodes 
Call down, at will, a troop of Gods; 
Must in the plain prosaic way, 
The wishes of my soul convey. 
May Heaven our Monarch's choice approve, 
May he be blest with mutual love, 
And be as happy with his Queen 
As with my Chloe I have been, 
When wandering through the beechen grove, 
She sweetly smiled and talked of love ! 
And oh! that he may live to see 
A son as wise and good as he; 
And may his Consort grace the throne 
With virtues equal to his own! 

Our courtly bards will needs be telling 
That she's like Venus or like Helen; 
I wish that she may prove as fair 
As Egremont and Pembroke are; 
For though by sages 't is confest 
That beauty's but a toy at best, 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 321 

Yet 't is, methinks, in married life 

A pretty douceur with a wife: 

And may the minutes, as they fly, 

Strengthen still the nuptial tie; 

While hand in hand, through life they go, 

'Til love shall into friendship grow : 

For tho' these blessings rarely wait 

On regal pomp and tinselled state, 

Yet happiness is virtue's lot 

Alike in palace and in cot: 

'Tis true, the grave affairs of state 

With little folks have little weight, 

Yet I confess my patriot heart 

In Britain's welfare bears its part; 

With transport glows at George's name, 

And triumphs in its country's fame; 

With hourly pleasure can I sit 

And talk of Granby, Hawke, and Pitt; 

And whilst I praise the good and brave, 

Disdain the coward and the knave. 

At growth of taxes others fret, 
And shudder at the nation's debt; 
I ne'er the fancied ills bemoan; 
No debts disturb me, but my own. 
What though our coffers sink, our trade 
Repairs the breach which war has made; 
And if expenses now run high, 
Our minds must with our means comply. 

Thus far my politics extend, 
And here my warmest wishes end 
May Merit flourish, Faction cease, 
And I and Europe live in peace! 

The loyalty of the University was again displayed on 
the occasion of the visit to Oxford, in 1814, of the 
Prince Regent and his guests, the Emperor of Russia 
and the King of Prussia, with their distinguished suites. 
At the great reception in the Sheldonian Theatre, " old 
31 



322 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Blucher" became the hero of the day. In retiring from 
the building he was almost pulled to pieces by his 
admirers, and was heard to remark that " it was the 
hottest struggle he had ever been in " : Recollections of 
Oxford, by G. V. Cox. 

Odes and Poems recited in the Theatre (specimen) 

Oxford, thy mossgrown venerable towers, 
The Muses' seat, thy academic bowers, 
Welcome the good, the loyal, and the brave, 
Who've rescued Europe from the tyrant's powers : 
E'en Isis opes her clear translucent wave 
In this heart-cheering peaceful happy hour ; 
And rapid Cherwell contemplates no more 
Those who on Science' classic pages pore, 

Save where some maniac sits all alone; 

For lo! to meet the Princes all are gone, etc. 

Lines on the creation of General Prince Blucher a 
D.C.L., from Lusus alteri Westmonasterienses^ ed. by 
James Mure, Henry Bull, and C. B. Scott. 

Coram Academiacis rubro dum tectus amictu 

Stat Blucher, haec clara voce Professor ait : 
" Insignissime tu Vice-Cancellarie," clamat, 

"Vosque Procuratores, nimis egregii, 
Praesento ecce Virum, qui non Civilia curat 

Ulla; nee arbitrii Jus, nisi bella, sapit. 
Civili date Jure gradum : " Stupet inscius Heros ; 

Et Ductor, verso nomine, Doctor abit. 1 

All the best features of modern Toryism were dis- 
played by the University on the occasion of the visit 

1 It was in this year 1814 that Madame de Stael is said to have asked 
the University to confer upon her the degree of D.C.L., and to have 
perpetrated the following lines when her modest request was not 

granted : 

" Oxford no more, but Cowford be thy name, 
To rear up Calves to thy eternal shame (" 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 323 

of the Duchess of Kent and the Princess Victoria to 
Oxford on Nov. 2, 1832. 

"Poema canino-anglico-latinum super adventu recenti 
serenissimarum Principum ; 

non 
Cancellarii proemio donatum aut donandum ; 

nee in 

Theatre Sheldoniano recitatum aut recitandum " 

(by Robert Lowe, commoner of University College, 

afterwards Lord Sherbrooke) 

Dicite praeclaram, Musae, mihi dicite Kentae 
Duchessam, Princessque simul Victoria nostro 
Singatur versu, Conroianusque triumphus ; * * Sir John 

Et quam shoutarunt Undergraduates atque Magistri ; cr eated 
Et quantum dederit Vice-Chancellor ipse refreshment. D -C.L. 

Rainy dies aderat; decimam strikantibus horam 
Jam clockis, portae panduntur ; then, what a rush was, 
Musa, velim, memores : si possis, damna recounta, 
Quae juvenum nimis audaces subiere catervae, 
Quot periere capi, quot gownes ingemuere 
Vulnera vae ! nimium loyales testantia vires. 

Fugerat all patience, cum jam procedere troopum 
Sensimus, et loudo Mavortia trumpeta cantu 
Spiravere : venit, venit, Oh ! carissima conjux 
Guelphiadae; ad currus equites spatiantur anheli. 
Versibus hie fortes liceat celebrare cohortes, 
Norrisiasque manus Abingdoniamque juventam : 
Multa the rain, et multa lutum, permulta caballi 
Damna tulere illis : necnon wiva cuique criebat 
Absentem ob dominum, neque enim gens est ea, cui 

sit 

Flectere ludus equos et pistola tendere marko, 
Ast assueta to plough, terramque invertere rastris. 

Quid memorem quanto crepuit domus alta tumultu ? 
Intremuere Scholae, celsa suspecta cathedra 
Intremuit Christchurch, tremuit Maudlenia turris, 
Ratcliffique domus, geminisque University portis, 



324 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Doctorum stipata choro pokerisque tremendis 
Royalty ubi ingressa est, super omnes scilicet ilia 
Guelphiadas felix, dextram Rhedycina benignam 
Cui dedit, accepitque sinu, propriamque dicavit. 
Consedere duces, et turn Vice-Chancellor infit, 
" Si placeat vestrae, Celsissima, majestati, 
" Nos tuus hie populus, tuaque haec Universitas omnis 
" Supplicibus coelum manibus veneramur, ut adsit 
" Omne good et pulchrum tibi filiolaeque serenae, 
" Quae matris guided auspiciis, eductaque curis, 
" In modern literis, Graecis etiam atque Latinis, 
" Triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbes 
" Imperio explebit, regnumque a sede Londini 
" Transferet, et nostram multa vi muniet Oxford." 

Insequitur loud shout; loud shoutis deinde quietis, 
Kentea pauca refert, sed non et pauca fuerunt 
Clappea, nee paucis se gratified esse fatetur 
Curtseis, tanto mage gens perversa fatigat 
Plausibus assiduis non inflexibile collum. 

Qualis ubi ingentes, coacha veniente, portmantos, 
Greatcoatosque, bagosque humeros onerare ministri 
Bendentis vidi, quern dura ad munia mittit 
Angelus, aut Mitre, vicinaque Stella Gazellae. 
Ilia refert "We thank you, kind Sir, for the honour 

you've done us. 
" Nought's interested us more in the tour, which we 

have just been taking, 
" Than this our reception in Oxford. I beg to assure 

you that I shall 
" Always endeavour to teach my daughter whatever 

is useful, 
" That she may be fit to reign over a great and 

glorious people." 

Dixerat ; et strepitu prodis, Conroie, secundo, 
Phillimori deducte manu, tibi tegmen honoris 
Obvolvit latos humeros subjectaque colla ! 

Jamque silent cunei; turn rhetor with paper in 

hand, 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 325 

Ore rotundato narrat fortisslma facta 
Herois, narrat fidum Princessis amorem, 
Multaque dicta before, et quae race postera dicet, 
Protulit in totum fertur vox clara theatrum 

OIK sedato respondet pectore Praeses 
"Admitto causa te, Vir fortissime, honoris 
" Doctoris gradui civili in Jure Periti" 
Heu ! nimium felix, civilia condere jura 
Nescius, aut tenues lingua distinguere causas, 
Non Lincoln's Inn ilium, non Intima Templa 

tulerunt, 

Furnipulive aedes clarum boastavit alumnum ; 
Nee tamen inde minus juris consultus abibat 
Suffragiis doctis, et serto templa forensi 
Vinxit, et insigni laetus terga induit ostro 
Ah ! nullas miserum causas subitura reorum. 

Turn subito Praeses, all things jam recte peractis, 
" Nos hunc concursum extemplo dissolvimus," inquit 
Exoritur clamorque virum, clangorque tubarum. 
EfFudit vacuis turbam domus alta cathedris, 
Una eademque via Princessam effudit et ipsam. 
Curritur ad Christchurch, de Christchurch curritur 

All Souls. 

Alfredi tandem fessas domus alta recepit 
Hospitio of the best, sed quod magis hearty voluntas 
Commendat domini cum sedulitate feloiim, 
Plurima quam nitida quae stant opsonia mensa 
Scrubbatumve platum, kidglovative ministri. 

Quis cladem illius luncheon, quis dishia fando 
Explicet? haud equidem quanquam sint voices a 

hundred, 

Cast iron all, omnes dapium comprendere formas, 
Magnificaeque queam fastus evolvere coenae. 
Egressis (neque enim possunt eatare for ever) 
Gens effraena ruens, nondum graduatia pubes, 
Ingeminat loudos plausus ; hip hip hurra coelum 
Percutit ; high wavere capi ; quadrangulus huzzas 
Audiit, atque imis tremefactus sedibus High Street. 






326 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Turn forte in turri, sic fama est, reading-man alta 
Invigilans studiis pensum carpebat, at ilium 
Startulat horrid uproar, evertitur inkstand, ibi omnis 
Effusus labor, impurus nam labitur amnis 
Ethica per Rhetoricque, expensive fulgida bindings, 
Virgiliumque etiam heroas, etiam arma, canentem. 

Sit satis haec lusisse Peryaeam mihi pennam 
Fessa adimit Nonsense, botelas glassasque claretque 
Poscit, inexpletum cupiens haurire trecenta 
Pocula, terque tribus Princessam tollere cheeris. 
Ergo alacres potate viri nee fortia doctor 
Pocula si quis amat, nee si commonrooma magistrum 
Mensa tenet socium, nee si quis bachelor aut si 
Non graduatus erit, idcirco sobrius esto; 
Sic honors acceptos nobis celebramus in Oxford 
Hoc juvat et melH est non mentior hie mihi finis. 



II. CROWING DISPOSITION TO MURMUR AND 
UNQUIETNESS 

"The College Cat" 

Toll on, toll on, old Bell ! I'll neither pass 
The cold and weary hour in heartless rites, 
Nor doze away the time. The fire burns bright; 
And bless the maker of this Windsor Chair! 
Of polished cherry, elbow'd, saddle-seated, 
This is the throne of comfort ! I will sit 
And study here devoutly, . . . not my Euclid, 
For Heaven forfend that I should discompose 
That spider's excellent geometry ! 
I'll study thee, Puss ! ; not to make a picture, 
I hate your canvass cats and dogs and fools, 
Themes that disgrace the pencil Thou shalt give 
A moral subject, Puss. Come look at me ! . . . 
Lift up thine emerald eyes ! Ah, purr away, 
For I am praising thee, I tell thee, Puss; 
And Cats, as well as Kings, love flattery. 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 327 

For three whole days I heard an old Fur-gown 

Bepraised, that made a Duke a Chancellor : 1 

Bepraised it was in Prose, bepraised in Verse; 

Lauded in pious Latin to the skies ; 

Kudos'd egregiously in heathen Greek ; 

In Sapphics sweetly incensed ; glorified 

In proud Alcaics; in Hexameters 

Applauded to the very galleries, 

That did applaud again, whose thunder-claps 

Higher and longer with redoubling peals 

Rung, when they heard th' illustrious Be-furbelow'd 

Heroically in Popean rhyme 

Tee-ti-tum'd, in Miltonic blank bemouth'd ; 

Prose, verse, Greek, Latin, English, rhyme, and blank, 

Apotheosi-chancellor'd in all ; 

Till Eulogy, with all her wealth of words, 

Grew bankrupt, all too prodigal of praise, 

And panting Panegyric toil'd in vain, 

O'ertask'd in keeping pace with such desert. 

Though I can poetize right willingly, 
Puss, on thy well-streak'd coat, to that Fur-gown 
I was not guilty of a single line: 
'T was an old Furbelow, that would hang loose 
And wrap round anyone, as it were made 
To fit him only, so it were but tied 
With a blue riband: 

What a power there is 
In beauty! Within these forbidden walls 
Thou hast thy range at will, and when perchance 
The Fellows see thee, Puss, they overlook 
Inhibitory laws, or haply think 
The statute was not made for Cats like thee: 
For thou art beautiful, as ever Cat 
That wanton'd in the joy of kitten-hood. 

1 In July 1793 wa s the public installation of the Duke of Portland as 
Chancellor of the University. Convocations were held on three successive 
days for the recitation of prize poems, compositions, and complimentary 
verses. 



328 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Ah ! stretch thy claws, thou democratic beast ! 

I like thy independence. Treat thee well, 

Thou art as playful as young Innocence: 

But if we act the governor, and break 

The social compact, nature gave thee claws, 

And taught thee how to use them. Man, methinks, 

Master and Slave alike, might learn from thee 

A salutary lesson : but the one 

Abuses wickedly his power unjust ; 

The other crouches spaniel-like, and licks 

The hand that strikes him. Wiser animal, 

I look at thee familiariz'd but free ; 

And thinking that a child with gentle hand 

Leads by a string the large-limbed elephant, 

With mingled indignation and contempt 

Behold his drivers goad the biped beast. 

ROBERT SOUTHEY, Balliol College, 1793 

III. THE NEW EXAMINATION SYSTEM, AND ITS 
CONSEQUENCES 

With the Examination Statute of 1800 and the 
subsequent introduction of the class system, Oxford 
became infected by the modern manias for competition 
and for reducing everything to a palpable concrete 
result. 

" Poetical Account of an Oxford Examination " 

An epistle addressed by a young man to his father 
in the country, and accompanied by Dr. Coplestone's 
first pamphlet (1810), repelling the attacks upon Oxford 
made by Sydney Smith in the Edinburgh Review, 
Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine ', iii. 280. 

Since the cold cutting jibes of that Northern Review 
Have tormented and teazed Uncle Toby and you, 
I'm exceedingly happy in sending you down 
A defence, which is making much noise in the town, 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 329 

Of all our old learning and fame immemorial, 
Which is said to be writ by a Fellow of Oriel. 
Not that this is designed to elude your command 
Of presenting a picture of things as they stand : 
Alma Mater is altered, you plainly will see, 
Very much, since you entered in seventy-three. 

Her externals, indeed, remain nearly alike 
With a reverend awe the beholders to strike : 
The scarves of our Masters, the wigs of our Doctors, 
The staves of our Bull-dogs, the sleeves of our 

Proctors ; 
Though e'en here some small matters, it must be 

confess'd 
Have been changed, and the men are less decently 

dressed ; 

Some canonical rules to oblivion are creeping, 
And from under some gowns, boots and gaiters are 

peeping ; 
But the things that are marked by most grave 

alterations 
Are the Schools without doubt and the Examinations. 

You remember of old 't was a thing understood, 
These might almost be managed by puppets of 

wood ; 

The mounting of pulpits, the bowing, the chatting, 
The chopping of Logic, the rhyming of Latin 
These things had no value, except as forerunners 
Of fine flowing bumpers and fat greasy dinners, 
And a Bachelor's Gown adorned every young man 
Who could sport th' examining Masters a can ! 
r e Saturnian Times ! Thousands sigh o'er your lapse, 
r et your joyous return is not distant perhaps : 

Yet at present these things wear a different look ; 
'hey have managed it so, Sir, by hook and by 

crook, 

That 5 pon honour ! 't is now quite a rarity grown 
To see a young gentleman alter his gown. 



330 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Their questions so strict are, their looks are so blue, 
He's a lucky young dog that can squeeze himself 

through. 

What peril, good Lord ! modest merit environs 
From four fiery young Masters just hot off the irons ! 
While ingenuous youth appears humming and ham- 
mering, 

No pity they feel for your stuttering and stammering ', 
They screw up their brows, and their eyebrows they 

knit, 

The more burning your blush is, the sharper's their wit : 
At each Attic retort and each recondite pun, 
You the titter can hear round the gallery run, 
Till you're quite overpowered with their dignified fun ; 
At last they just hint you may seat yourself down, 
And relinquish all thought of a graduate gown, 
Till you line with more Greek your unclassical 
crown. 



The all-pervading and tyrannical influence of the 
Honour Schools at Oxford in the present day is but 
too well known. The examination system has in fact 
grown in strength, until it has become the master, 
instead of being the servant, of teaching. That, already 
before 1850, degree-examinations had become, as it 
were, nightmares to the Undergraduate, appears from 
the famous ballad, too long to be set out here, entitled 
" The Rime of the New-made Baccalere," and also from 
the following poems : 

From the New Art, teaching how to be Plucked, 
Oxford, 1835, a work attributed to Edward Caswell, 
B.N.C 

Oh fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, 
Sleevatos Bachelors ! neque enim sub sidera nightae 
Ad bookas sweatant ; neque dum Greatomia quartam 
Lingua horam strikat, saveall sine candle tenentes 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 331 

Ad beddam creepunt semasleepi; nee mane prima 
Scoutus adest saevus tercentum knockibus instans 
Infelix wakare caput. Sed munera Mater 
Ipsa dat Alma illis, keepuntque secantque chapellam 
Quandocunque volunt. Si non velvete minaci 
Ornati incedunt, non pisces ad table higham 
Quaque die comedunt, ast illis cuttere semper 
Quemque licet tutorem ; illis lectura nee ulla ; 
At secura quies et nescia pluckere vita. 

From " Oxford Parodies,' 5 appearing at the end of 
Hints to Freshmen, a work attributed to S. R. Hole, 
B.N.C., 1840-44 (late Dean of Rochester). 

Song, to the air "The days that we went gipsying." 

O the days we read those musty books, a short 

time ago, 
Were certainly the seediest a man could ever 

know; 
We filled no glass, we kissed no lass, our hacks grew 

fat and sleek, 
We thought it dissipation if we rode them twice a 

week. 
We rose up early in the morn, we sat up late at 

e'en, 

And naught but horrid lexicons about us could 
be seen ! 

Unheeded lay our meerschaums then, our " Lopez " 

bound in green ; 
The undisturbed blue-bottle was on our team-whip 

seen; 
The goblets in our foxes' heads ne'er shone with 

good Bordeaux, 
But we took a glass of something mild, and talked 

about "Great-go." 
We rose up early, etc. 



332 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

We got parental letters then, in which 't was 

gravely vowed 

How "harrowed" all would be at home, if we per- 
chance were " ploughed " : 
And, what was worse, those horrid "duns" an early 

payment wished, 

Till, what twixt ticks and tutors too, we felt com- 
pletely "fished." 
We rose up early, etc. 

'T is past ! 't is past ! 't is won at last ! My Muse 

no longer grieves ; 
We sweep adown the High Street now in our long 

silken sleeves ; 
And envious Undergraduates sigh forth as we draw 

near, 
" O crikey ! How I wish I was a ' New-made 

Baccalere'": 
They rise up when they like at noon, they sit 

up late at e'en, 

And hunt and quafif and smoke and laugh the 
whole term through, I 'ween. 

IV. RELAXATION OF THE CLASSICAL MONOPOLY 

In the year 1819, the Lords of the Treasury, at the 
instigation of the Prince Regent, founded and endowed 
a Readership in Geology at Oxford. Buckland received 
the appointment, and delivered his inaugural address on 
May 15. 

"Specimen of a Geological Lecture by Professor 
Buckland," a poem attributed to Philip Shuttleworth, 
Warden of New College, 1822; Bishop of Chichester, 
1840: Fugitive Poems collected by C. G. Daubeny, 
Notes and Queries, 5th Series, xii. 302. 

In Ashmole's ample dome, with looks sedate, 
Midst heads of Mammoths, Heads of Houses sate; 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 333 

And Tutors close with Undergraduates jammed, 
Released from cramming, waited to be crammed : 
Above, around, in order due displayed, 
The garniture of former worlds was laid : 
Sponges and shells in lias moulds immersed, 
From Deluge fiftieth to Deluge first ; 
And wedged by wags in artificial stones, 
Huge bones of horses, now called mammoth's 

bones ; 

Lichens and ferns which schistose beds enwrap ; 
And understood by most Professors, trap. 
Before the rest, in contemplative mood, 
With side-long glance th' inventive Master stood, 
And numbering o'er his class with still delight, 
Longed to possess them cased in stalactite: 
Then thus, with smile supprest ; " In days of yore 
One dreary face Earth's infant planet bore; 
Nor land was there, nor Ocean's lucid flood, 
But mixed of both, one dark abyss of Mud ; 1 
Till each repelled, repelling, by degrees 
This shrunk to Rock, that filtered to the Seas. 
Then, slow upheaved by subterranean fires, 
Earth's ponderous crystals shot their prismy spires; 
Then granite rose from out the trackless sea, 
And slate for boys to scrawl, when boys should be. 
But Earth as yet lay desolate and bare: 
Man was not then but Paramoudras were. 
'T was silence all and solitude ; the Sun, 
If Sun there were, yet rose and set to none, 
Till, fiercer grown the elemental strife, 
Astonished Tadpoles wriggled into life, 
Young Encrini their quivering tendrils spread, 
And tails of Lizards felt the sprouting head; 
(The specimen I hand about, is rare, 
And very brittle ; bless me, Sir, take care ! ) : 

1 Cf. Shuttleworth's lines, 

"Some doubts were once expressed about the Flood; 
Buckland arose ; and all was clear as Mud." 



334 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

And, high upraised from ocean's inmost caves, 
Protruded Corals broke th' indignant waves. 
These tribes extinct, a nobler race succeeds ; 
Now Sea-fowl scream amid the plashing reeds ; 
Now Mammoths range where yet in silence deep 
Unborn Ohio's hoarded waters sleep ; 
Now ponderous Whales 

(Here, by the way, a tale 
I'll tell of something, very like a whale. 
An odd experiment of late I tried, 
Placing a snake and hedgehog side by side ; 
Awhile the snake his neighbour tried t' assail, 
When the sly hedgehog caught him by the tail, 
And gravely munched him upwards, joint by joint ; 
The story's somewhat shocking, but in point.) 
Now to proceed : 

The Earth, what is it ? Mark its scanty bound ; 
T is but a larger football's narrow round: 
Its mightiest tracks of ocean, what are these? 
At best but breakfast tea-cups full of seas. 
O'er this a thousand deluges have burst, 
And quasi-deluges have done their worst. 

Allow me now this map of mine to show, 
T is Gloucestershire ten thousand years ago. 

It being the intention of the versifier to produce at 
present only a specimen of his intended work, he has 
omitted the following fifty lines, exclusively geological, 
and concluding with 

These bones I brought from Germany myself; 
You'll find fresh specimens on yonder shelf. 

As also a digression of 2300 lines, of which the 
concluding couplet runs thus : 

So curl the tails of puppies and of hogs; 
From left to right the pigs, from right to left the 
dogs. 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 335 

And also, for the same reason, the still more digressive 
digression, which is terminated by the following admir- 
able reflection the whole passage consists of 5700 
fresh lines 

Not wild, but tame cats only, tear their prey. 

The concluding couplet, which is given without altera- 
tion from the mouth of the learned lecturer, is here 
subjoined, solely because it seems an additional proof, 
if such were wanting, of the close connection which 
exists between geological speculations and not the ideas 
only, but also the language, of complete poetry. It 
will be observed that though intended only as a common 
sentence of adjournment, it has all the fluency and grace 
of the most perfect rhythm, and of its own accord 
" slides into verse and hitches into rhyme " : 

Of this enough; on Secondary Rock 
To-morrow, gentlemen, at two o'clock. 



V. FANATICAL ATTACKS UPON THE UNIVERSITY 

"Black Gowns and Red Coats" 

or 
Oxford in 1834 

A Satire (by George Cox, Fellow of New College) 
addressed to the Duke of Wellington, Chancellor of the 
University, Field Marshal in the Army, etc. 

Arms and the Man I sing this song my last 
Who Europe's trumpet filled with glories past, 
Like the fifth Charles, in wisdom's weakest hour, 
Fatigued with palaces but fond of power, 
Forsakes his Apsley House, and packs his trunks, 
To rule o'er cloisters and to mope with monks. 
Of the Church Militant our fathers spoke; 
The Army Clericized is now the joke. 



336 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Said I, to mope with monks? Monastic vows, 
Thank God ! are passed but now, the monks' 

carouse ! 

Say rather, to regale, mid Oxford's spires, 
On the rich cellars of her Tuck-like friars ; 
Praise and be praised ; and find in Tory shrine 
Its flattery's fumes more fuddling than its wine. 
Fill high the bowl ! a thousand covers wait 
The word of battle round the warrior's plate; 
A thousand beakers ruddy to the brim 
Shed the iced current of their veins for him ; 
Dread is the carnage ; piles of chickens slain 
Sink with gashed breast and strew th' embattled 

plain ; 

Hark! the cannon of champagne corks flying; 
See ! rent fragments of the bons bons lying ! 
War to the knife was once his bloodier work ; 
His watchword now is breakfast to the fork. 1 

How strange the changes, as our life extends, 
We see around us in our foes and friends ! 
Strangest of all, were Ovid's numbers mine, 
Thy Metamorphosis, great Duke, should shine: 

Touched by the magic wand, from off thy head, 
Drops the plumed casque the hilted sword is fled 
The gorgeous epaulettes resign their place 
The tranquil band supplies the flashing lace 
Emblem of wisdom, with nice balanced ends, 
In curly pomp the sapient wig descends 
The flat round cap extends its velvet brim 
The flowing gown enwraps the martial limb; 
And the worn soldier stands a new-born sage, 
The boast jest pity of a wondering age. 

Yet hail! great Hercules, none less than thou 
Could cleanse th' accumulated ordure now; 

1 One of the great features of the Installation, etc., of the Duke as 
Chancellor of the University, was a dejeuner to 1000 persons. 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 337 

Bring pioneers the vast morass to drain, 

With pike and musket storm th' unyielding train ; 

Come with thy baton plant thy guns of bronze, 

Field-marshal Chancellor, dragoon the Dons ! 

Thrice hail, great Hero ! though thy dauntless front 

In camp or senate bears the battle's brunt, 

Unmov'd alike, which e'er around thee play, 

Napoleon's batt'ries or the fire of Grey; 

Though such thy grasp, that as thy brow grows 

bare, 

Fame with her bays has twined her olive there; 
Though such thy name, no equal charm may suit 
To frighten Europe or to puff a boot, 
Here is a task for all thy varied powers, 
Thy promptest hand, thy most deliberate hours ; 
A harder field than that where Marmont fled 
A sturdier foe than those Massena led 
A fence more strong than ere Reform-bill set: 
Oxford shall yield thy proudest triumph yet. 

Speak but of change; see mustering Masters form 
In scarf and hood to face the coming storm, 
Doctors and Deans to Convocation march, 
Gleams the red robe and rustles loud the starch : 
See Balliol's chief in front, like Ajax, stand 
Firm in the broad-hemmed breast-plate of his band ; 
While from the ramparts round, at many a gap, 
For burnished helmet peeps the trencher-cap. 
Up, proctors, up, the foe is on the town 
Flood the dank moat gird on the velvet gown 
Hark ! the proud war-cry of the Christ Church 

clan 

Pembroke and Queen's send many a murky man 
And first class heroes gather in a row 

[uge piles of books to hurl them on the foe ; 

[ere Lexicographers and dull divines 

Irush with their ponderous tomes th' advancing lines ; 

'here M tiller's Dorians and the rule of Dawes 
Whizz through the air and crack th' invaders' jaws ; 

22 



338 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Greyson alone avoids the dangerous sport 
And fearing hides behind a pipe of port. 

Well may he fear ! Already all who think, 
View their own choice with wonderment, and shrink ; 
Shrink from their champion's iron-featured traits, 
Doubt while they court, and tremble as they praise. 
They fondly hoped beneath his drowsy reign 
Each dear abuse unquestioned to maintain ; 
Beneath the aegis of his wing to creep, 
And grunt in dull security to sleep. 
They fondly hoped, untroubled as before, 
O'er many a fat plurality to snore, 
Each vice with sleek hypocrisy to hide, 
And figleaf sloth decorously with pride. 
Well may they start to see his eagle eye 
Watching to pounce upon their nest from high, 
To find their cunning framed its own rebuke 
And caught a Tartar, when it sued the Duke. 

VI. DECAY OF ORTHODOXY 

(1) The Introduction of the Pope to the Convocation at 
Oxford by Cardinal Broad-Bottom, by James Gillray, 
published Dec. 1809. The Oxford Convocation has 
assembled to elect a Chancellor in the room of the 
Duke of Portland (died Oct. 30, 1809). Lord Grenville 
habited as a Cardinal is presenting the Catholic Petition 
for the vacant Chancellorship. The Devil to whom he 
presents it, leads an Italian greyhound (Lord Grey) in a 
string. The Marquis of Buckingham holds up the Devil's 
tail. The Archbishop of York and the Bishops hold 
Mass-books, shewing that they intend to vote for 
Grenville. Lord Temple carries the cup containing the 
consecrated wafer. The Pope introduces Napoleon under 
his train. 

(2) Installation of Lord Grenville as Chancellor of the 
University, by James Gillray, published August 1810. 
On Dec. 14, 1809, after a hotly contested election, 





THE INSTALLATION OF LORD GKENVILLE, AS CHANCELLOR OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

(GILI.RAY ; 1809) 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 339 

Grenville polled 406 votes for the Chancellorship, Lord 
Eldon 293, and the Duke of Beaufort 288. Grenville's 
Installation took place Jan. 10, 1810. He is here 
shewn in a balloon, dropping " Letters to Earl Fingal " 
(he had published one to the Earl on Catholic Emancipa- 
tion). On the upper part of the balloon may be seen 
the face of a person (probably Dr. Hodgson, Principal of 
Brazenose) whose hand drops promises to members 
of Convocation. Buckingham and Stafford view the 
scene from the windows of the Radcliffe. Fox, as a 
bird, tries to assist the ascent of the balloon with his 
breath. The Archbishop of York appears in a state 
carriage. Sir Watkin Williams Winn and two brothers 
are huzzahing in an open chaise drawn by Welsh goats. 
Sheridan has doffed his harlequin's jacket and wand ; it 
was rumoured at the time that he would have had a 
Doctor's degree conferred upon him, had he been able to 
raise money sufficient to purchase a gown. Lord Henry 
Petty with a chimneysweeper's brush, is dancing merrily. 
Crowe, the public orator, lies asleep. 

(3) Black Gowns and Red Coats y 1834. Attacks, such 
as the following, led to the relaxation in 1854, and the 
abolition in 1871, of University Religious Tests, those 
bulwarks which had so long preserved Oxford as a 
stronghold of the Church : 

"Black Gowns and Red Coats" (1834), pt. v 

Ah ! not in hampering system's close restraint 
In which such fires no sooner blaze than faint, 
Nor mid the soil which Oxford's pomp supplies, 
Can Genius thrive nor Piety arise. 
'T is not in Schools where Aristotle's page, 
Though great his praise, excludes each recent 

sage, 

As if Spinoza, Bacon, Locke, Voltaire, 
Helvetius, Bentham, ne'er had breathed the air; 
'T is not in Chapels where the bellows pant, 
As the strained organ roars the changeless chant; 



340 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Or the hack chaplain dozes as he reads 

With twang mechanical the galloped creeds ; 

'T is not in scenes like these, that minds extend 

Their powers of thought or weigh their beings end. 

To prayer, to prayer ! when belfries startle here 

With sounds unwelcome sloth's reluctant ear, 

No bending crowds with instant homage kneel 

Rapt in the trance of Faith's extatic zeal : 

Oxford in vain her tolling tempest showers 

With iron voices from a hundred towers ; 

In vain o'er hill and valley mighty Tom 

With mouth monastic swings the loud bim bom ; 

Vain is such summons, since before the fire 

The lazy Senior hears the chime expire 

Content in Common Room to lounge at rest 

And crack by turns his walnuts and his jest ; 

While surpliced Scholars, as if souls were driven 

To bliss by force and bullied into heaven, 

Rush to the farce, as Dean or Censor leads, 

To count in haste their worse than rosary beads 

Perchance to while the time with some lewd theme, 

To sketch in prayer-books, or at least to dream, 

And know that, while in chapel, no one cares 

How ill or little they may say their prayers. 

Out on such drones ! 'T is well for them, indeed, 
To scorn a Chalmers' preaching or his creed ; 
'T is well the lance at Papists' heads to tilt 
From walls a Wykeham or a Waynfleet built, 
And threaten, should they rise to earth again, 
To drive their Founders from their own domain. 
'T is well in church their eyes on heaven to fix 
For Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics, 
Call them their brothers, pray to see enroll'd 
Such scattered stragglers in one Christian fold ; 
If sallying forth, they in their acts applaud 
The rage of Bonner and the pride of Laud ; 
Pronounce them dogs, pour out their hoarded spleen, 
And spit upon their Gentile gaberdine. 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 341 

" Degrees for Methodists ! " Old Magnus cries, 
" What ! open Oxford's gates to common spies ! 
Let straight-haired Puritans behind the baize, 
To turn their eyes up at our Green-room ways ! 
Let scholars battel who can cast accounts, 
And waken conscience to surcharged amounts ? 
Fie on Lord Grey ! Pray God these Whigs may fall ! 
They've no religious principles at all." 
'* Admit Dissenters ! Frightful ! " lisps my dear, 
" What ! bring those vulgar working people here ! 
Some low-born grocer or some mercer saint, 
To rob my Johnny's honours ! I shall faint ! " 
" The Church in danger ! " shouts the cassocked 

crowd ; 

" The Church in danger ! " echoes long and loud 
Portentous spell-word ! at whose direful notes 
Even loaves and fishes stick in reverend throats, 
Bristles the hair on every Bishop's wig, 
And hands let fall the tributary pig. 
Danger forsooth ! Oh ! could their necks but bow, 
The danger ne'er had been so small as now: 
The kiss is proffered, they withhold the cheek: 
The hand is stretched, they spurn it in their pique : 
'T is they whose pride will cause the ills that flow, 
Who feed the snakes of Discord as they grow, 
Till last their terror vainly will retract, 
And mourn too late the suicidal act 

This is the vision of her future fate, 
If thus relentless Oxford bars her gate, 
If thus she turns her faithful friends to foes, 
And rights withholding, justifies their blows; 
To sit like Niobe, a thing of stone 
A childless mourner o'er her desert throne 
Stripped of her church-rates plundered of her 

stalls 

Spoiled of her tithes the Rachel of her halls. 
May heaven avert such ruin ! even today 
I seem to hear the gathering thousands say, 



342 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

"Bring the black cattle! let them first atone 
The burning insults to our honour shewn ! 
Let them be taught that others too can look 
On the dread records of that mystic Book, 
Can read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest, 
And Heaven alone may judge who profits best. 
'T is true our Whitfield's learning once supplied 
To Pembroke's gloom a lustre since denied ; 
'Tis true our Wesley shines the brightest name 
On Lincoln's dingy register of fame : 
But we, their flock, the children of their prayers, 
Robbed of their honours but in pain their 

heirs ; 

Not held forsooth as worthy to undo 
The sacred latchet of a churchman's shoe ; 
Are spurned rejected told we must not stain 
The pure, chaste precincts of their Oxford fane. 
And why ? Because we will not meanly stoop 
To play th' impostor, or affect the dupe : 
Since we refuse to truck our souls away 
By mocking oaths for baubles of a day, 
Or swear to childish statutes only made, 
Like frowns coquettish, to be disobeyed : 
Since darkly soaring, crookedly sublime, 
We bravely scorn their wondrous stairs to climb 
Those forty steps save one, built up on high 
To make men's passage surer to the sky, 
Like Babel piled with too presumptuous view, 
Like Babel doomed to end in jargon too." 

VII. INTESTINAL FEUDS BRED BY THE NEO- 
CATHOLIC MOVEMENT 

Oxford is divided by intestinal feuds into hostile 
camps. The Arians take up arms under Hampden, the 
Tractarians under Newman, the Retractarians under 
William Palmer, and the Detractarians under Charles 
Golightly. 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 343 

(a) The Hampden Controversy 

On May 5, 1836, Convocation by a majority of 
474 to 94 directed that Dr. Hampden, then recently 
appointed to the Oxford Divinity Chair, should be 
suspended from certain privileges and duties belonging to 
the Professorship, such as assisting in the appointment 
of Select Preachers and acting as one of the judges on 
any complaint of heretical teaching made to the Uni- 
versity. On June 7, 1842, after great excitement, Con- 
vocation negatived by a majority of 115 the proposal of 
the Hebdomadal Board to rescind the decree of 1836. 

Westminster Review, vol. xxxviii. p. 147, July 1842 

" We turn to the Convocation held at Oxford on the 7th 
ult., prior to which our reporter was enabled to give 
the public from his own peculiar sources of in- 
formation, particulars of the nature and object of the 
Convocation, which, but for his zealous exertions, 
would have been confined to the party with whom 
they originated. 

" It is almost needless to state that the object was, 
in consequence of the rapid spread of liberal opinions 
at the University, among the Heads of Houses, since 
the accession to office of Sir Robert Peel, to abrogate 
the Statute of May 5, 1836, passed against Dr. 
Hampden, Regius Professor of Divinity, and to rein- 
state him in certain privileges annexed to his office. 
The following papers, relating thereto, fell into the 
hands of the reporter of the Morning 1 Chronicle. 






" ' (Private and Confidential) 

" ' - - College, Oxford, 
May 28, 1842 

" ' REV. AND DEAR SIR, I am directed by the Vice- 
Chancellor and Heads of Houses to request, in the 
most particular manner, your attendance at a Convoca- 



344 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

tion to be held on Tuesday, the 7th of June, when 
matters of the most urgent importance will be brought 
under your notice. The nature of these matters is ex- 
plained in the speech, which it is the intention of the 
Vice- Chancellor to deliver on introducing the subject to 
the Convocation : and as it is desirable that both the 
motion itself, and the reasons which induce the Heads 
of Houses to propose it, should not by any accident get 
circulated among the uncandid and misjudging vulgar, 
I send you the accompanying copy of the speech in 
the original Latin. I trust, however, that the adoption 
of that learned language will occasion you no great 
inconvenience. All the words which we use, can be 
found in Ainsworth's excellent Dictionary, which 
probably occupies a prominent place in your library ; or 
of which, in case you should happen to be without a 
library, you will without doubt be able to procure a loan 
from the next apothecary or some other neighbour. 
You need not be alarmed at the prospect of any diffi- 
culty from the use of Latin idioms, which, in all proba- 
bility, you have totally forgotten, even if you ever knew 
them for I am proud to say that the University of 
Oxford has never been guilty of a slavish adoption of 
the language of the sect of the Papal Schism, but has 
always piqued itself on writing Latin in an idiom of its 
own, which you will find intelligible by the meanest 
capacity. 

"'I send you, together with the draft of the Vice- 
Chancellor's speech, a card which you will find illustra- 
tive of the last paragraph of his speech ; and conclude 
with again begging your early attendance on this oc- 
casion of such deep importance to the best interests of 
the Church and State. 

" ' I am, with my best compliments to Mrs. , and 

your interesting family, Rev. and Dear Sir, very 
sincerely yours, 



- 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 345 

"' Inclosure I 

" ' Speech to be spoken by the Vice-Chancellor, in 
Convocation, on Tuesday, June 7 : 

" ' Habeo honorem vobis proponendi rescindere statu- 
tum quoddam quod in praesenti tempore inconveni- 
entissimum invenimus. Placebit meminisse ut, in anno 
1836, statutum magna majoritate portaverimus, quo 
condemnavimus Doctorem Hampden, turn nuper 
positum in regia sella divinitatis. Causa assignata 
hujus voti singularis erat certa doctrina de Trinitate, 
quam nasus acutus carissimi nostri Pusey in oblito 
quodam doctoris istius opere opportunissime detruserat, 
et in lucem traxerat. Vos autem habetis nimium 
sensum supponere talem absurditatem impulisse nos 
votum illud proponere, aut nos singulum damnum de 
doctrina ilia aut ulla alia curavisse. Hoc erat satis 
bonum Puseyo isto, Puseyitisque, publicoque; nos 
autem, in hoc voto dando, ut in aliis rebus, panibus et 
piscibus oculum omnino habuimus. Detestabilis ista 
administratio, vulgo " Melbourne " vocata, res summas 
gerebat: causaeque ecclesiae et civitatis magnae 
consequentiae erat, ut omni modo administrationem 
illam quam fortiter pertunderemus ; quia dum in 
potentia manebat, omnis pinguetudo ecclesiae liberalibus 
vorabatur. Hacpropter votum illud petebamus, 
portabamusque, nominaliter contra doctrinas Doctoris 
Hampden ; sed (ut feliciter de segete et saccharo nuper 

ixit vir ille facetus et practicalis Galley Knight) 
realiter contra Radicales. 

" ' Nunc autem, ut feliciter dixit qua parte Virgilius, 
ille celeberrimus poeta, 

"Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur ut ilia." 

"'Radicales sunt penitus eversi: Peelus est in 
potentia. Peelus autem in potentia est res totaliter 
differens Peelo in oppositione. Si tuto possemus 



346 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

subvertere ilium, non singulum momentum in officio 
maneret, quia nobis videtur facere omnia ea quibus alii 
tantum loquebantur de. Videte autem, fratres carissimi, 
in qua lamentabili positione ponuntur Ecclesia, amicique 
Ecclesiae ! Si subvertimus Peelum, mortuae certitudini 
habemus Johannulum. Haec est res non singulo 
momento contemplanda. Necesse est igitur ut faciamus 
quodcunque vult Peelus. Peelus vult praetendere esse 
liberalis ; necesse igitur est ut nos etiam liberates esse 
pretenderemus. Et, ut condemnatio Doctoris Hampden 
opus suum omnino peregit, sine ullo damno possumus 
liberalem cursum incipere revocando illam. Invenimus 
longiore familiaritate Doctorem ilium Hampden non 
esse tarn malum socium quam dicebamus. Moderatione 
magna opus est in momento praesenti ; et judicatum est 
nobis melius esse omnibus partibus linquere questionem 
illam de Trinitate (quae certe est questio difficilis, et 
una de qua multi homines respectabiles in omnibus 
temporibus dubitaverunt et adhuc dubitant,) supra 
pedem questionis apertae. Non celo possibile esse ut 
habeamus etiam ultra pergere : nemo scit quam longe 
ibit Peelus : sed quid possumus facere ? 

"'Magna res est ponere homines rectae sortis 
in vacantibus Episcopatibus : Peelus autem dat 
Episcopatus : ergo si Episcopatus obtinere volumus, 
necesse est placere Peelo. Vos autem, rustici mei 
fratres clerici ! quibus observationes meas praecipue 
dirigo, probabiliter dicetis, " Quid nobis cum Episcopatu ? 
Sumus homines quieti, sine patronis, sine magnis 
talentis : non exspectamus esse Episcopi ; non omnes 
possumus." Estnulla sciens : episcopus potest esse tarn 
quietus quam vult: et quanto quietior, tanto melius. 
Non opus est magno talento esse Episcopus : omnes 
habetis satis: et bene scio nullum esse periculum 
principiorum vestrorum stantium in via vestra. Et 
quamvis non omnes potestis esse episcopi, potestis 
omnes accipere beneficia de illis qui habent bonam 
fortunam episcopatus obtinere. 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 347 

"'Sed ut probabiliter dketis unam avem in manu 
valere plus duobus in arbusto, precor vos meminisse, ut 
illis qui nobiscum vota dabunt, damnatum bonum 
prandium paratum sit. Non necesse est loqui : hoc 
tantum postponit horam prandii : nee prandium decet 
esse frigidum. Sola res quam habetis facere, est vota 
dare. Si autem Puseyitae isti spurcissimi, iniquissimi, 
impransi, impransurique, habeant impudentiam vobis 
resistere (ut scimus illos magnum flagellum fecisse), vos, 
o rustici clerici ! potestis vos utiles facere, ut faciunt 
Rustici Domini in Domo Communium, infernalem 
strepitum edendo, et clamitando " Quaestio ! quaestio ! 
dividite ! dividite ! ", omnigenarumque bestiarum 
aviumque obscenarum voces imitando. Tanto citius 
prandium obtinebitis, cutesque vestras vino implebitis.' 

"Enclosure No. II 

" ' The Principal and Fellows of College request 

the honour of the Rev. Mr. 's company at dinner 

in the College hall, at three o'clock on Tuesday, June 7th. 

" * The dinner will not be served till after the close of 
the meeting of Convocation.' 

" It is to be regretted that early intelligence, however 
much desired by the public, if prematurely published, is 
sometimes attended with the inconvenience of changing, 
perhaps entirely, the course of anticipated events. 
There is a perverse tendency in human nature to follow 
in certain cases the rule of contraries, so that when an 
individual finds that intentions have transpired which 
he had privately formed and communicated in confidence 
to a few friends, he takes a pleasure in disappointing 
public expectation by doing exactly the reverse of that 
which he had at first resolved upon. This changeable- 
ness appears to be considered essential to dignity of 
character, as a needful assertion of freedom and 
independence of action. . . . 

" The friends, then, of Dr. Hampden have reason to 



348 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

lament that the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford deemed it 
incumbent upon him to act upon the said rule. He 
had not foreseen the possibility of his speech being 
published in the Morning Chronicle. . . . The speech, 
moreover, was not only published, but even translated, 
for the use, it would appear, of the undergraduates ; on 
the ground, we presume, that the Vice-Chancellor would 
be the more open to attack, if sentiments so remarkable 
for the candour with which they are expressed, were 
rendered into plain English, for the benefit of those alike 
unaccustomed to hear truth spoken and to the refined 
obscurities of the Latin tongue. 1 

1 We subjoin the translation ; but the reader will at once perceive that it 
does not do justice to the spirit of the original, and that no attempt even 
is made to give the meaning of some of the more emphatic expressions : 

"I have the honour of proposing to you to rescind a certain statute 
which at the present time we find very inconvenient. You will be pleased 
to remember that in the year 1836 we carried a statute by a large 
majority, in which we condemned Dr. Hampden, then lately placed in the 
royal Chair of Divinity. The assigned cause of this somewhat singular 
proceeding was a certain doctrine concerning the Trinity, which the sharp 
nose of our dearest Pusey most opportunely ferreted out in some forgotten 
work of the Doctor, and dragged to light. You however have too much 
sense to suppose that we had no better reason than the one assigned for 
the vote, or that we really cared ('singulum damnum') for the doctrine 
in question more than for any other. Such an absurd plea did well enough 
for Pusey and the Puseyites and the public ; but we, as in other things, 
had solely an eye for the loaves and fishes. That detestable administra- 
tion, commonly called ' The Melbourne,' then carried on the government ; 
and it was of great consequence to the cause of Church and State that we 
should attack that administration as completely as possible in every way, 
since, while it remained in power, all the fat of the Church was devoured 
by the Liberals. For this reason we desired the resolution to be adopted, 
and we carried it, nominally against the doctrines of Dr. Hampden, but 
(as that facetious and practical philosopher, Galley Knight, has happily 
said regarding corn and sugar) in reality against the Radicals. 

" Now, however, as the celebrated poet Virgil has somewhere observed, 

'Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur ut ilia.' 
' The times are changed, and we must change with them.' 

' ' The Radicals are utterly overthrown : Peel is in power. But Peel in 
power is a totally different thing from Peel in opposition. If we could 
safely upset him, he would not remain a single moment in office, because 
he appears to us to do all those things which the others only talked about. 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 349 

" These untoward circumstances necessarily led to an 
anxious consultation on the part of the Vice-Chancellor 
and the Heads of Houses upon what should be done ; 
and the reader will not be surprised to learn that 
the result of the conference was that the speech 
should not be spoken, and, in fact, that it should be 
disavowed. 

But see, my dearest brethren, in what a lamentable position both the 
Church and the friends of the Church are placed ! If we upset Peel, to a 
dead certainty we have Johnny. This is a thing not to be thought of for a 
single moment. It is therefore necessary that we should do whatever Peel 
wishes. Peel wishes to pretend to be liberal : it is therefore necessary 
that we also should pretend to be liberal. And as the condemnation of 
Dr. Hampden has quite done its work, we can begin a liberal course, 
without any harm, by reversing it. We find on further acquaintance, that 
Dr. Hampden is not such a bad fellow as we used to say. Great modera- 
tion is necessary at the present time ; and we have judged it better on 
every account to leave the question of the Trinity, (which certainly is a 
difficult question, and one in which many respectable men at all times 
have doubted, and will doubt), on the footing of an open question. I do 
not conceal the possibility of our having to go even further. Nobody 
knows how far Peel will go. But what can we do ? 

" The great thing is to put men of the right sort into the vacant 
bishoprics : but Peel has the giving of the bishoprics : therefore, if we 
wish to obtain bishoprics, we must please Peel. But you, my reverend 
country brethren, to whom I chiefly address my observations, will probably 
say, 'What are bishoprics to us? We are quiet men, without patrons, 
without great talents : we do not expect to be bishops : we cannot all 
be so. ' There is no knowing : a bishop may now be as quiet as he likes ; 
and the quieter, the better. It does not require great talents to be a 
bishop : we all have enough : and I know well there is no danger of your 
principles standing in your way. And although you cannot all be bishops, 
you may all receive benefices from those who have the good fortune to 
obtain bishoprics. 

" But, as you will probably say that a bird in the hand is worth two in 
the bush, I pray you to remember that a dinner (* damnatum bonum ') will 
be prepared for those who give their votes to us. There is no necessity for 
talking ; it only postpones the dinner hour ; and the dinner ought not to 
get cold. The only thing you have to do is to give your votes. But if 
those dirty iniquitous undined and undinable Puseyites should have the 
impudence to resist us, (as we know they have made a great whip for 
the purpose) you, O country clergymen ! , may usefully employ yourselves, 
as the country gentlemen do in the House of Commons, in making an 
infernal noise, and shouting, ' Question ! question ! ; Divide ! divide ! ', 
and imitating the voices of all manner of unclean beasts and birds. So 
much the sooner will you get your dinner, and fill your skins with wine." 



350 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

" An unforeseen embarrassment, however, arose, from 
certainly the unpardonable neglect of the friends of 
the Vice-Chancellor, who when they intimated to the 
country clergy that the above speech was 'a weak 
invention of the enemy,' gave no other explanation of 
the sentiments entertained by the authorities, and forgot 
to state that the inclosure relative to the dinner was 
at all events a bona fide invitation. Hence, to a con- 
siderable section of the country clergy, it was by no 
means clear how it was their interest to vote ; and 
many stayed away (fearing to commit themselves by 
a false step), upon whose votes on the right side the 
most implicit confidence might otherwise have been 
placed. Others, again, from the same cause, and con- 
founded by a report industriously spread at the time, 
that Mr. Newman had been appointed classical tutor 
to the Prince of Wales, thought it on the whole safest 
to vote as on a former occasion. The result was, there- 
fore, that although as many as 125 changed sides, there 
was yet a majority of 1 1 5 against the revocation of the 
Statute. Of that majority, however, more than one 
half, it is known, would have voted with the friends of 
Dr. Hampden, if in certain matters relating to 'res 
temporales' they had been furnished with a 'sufficient 
reason.' Indeed, we have good authority for stating 
that should any decided step be taken by the present 
Government in the disposal of its patronage, such as 
the elevation of Dr. Hampden to the episcopal bench, 
the parties referred to will hasten to retrieve their error. 
We are told that a clergyman, not without influence, 
and said to be related to the Bishop of Exeter, observed, 
that the moment all doubt was cleared up upon the 
essential point, 

1 Qua via felis saltet,' 

it would be seen that the Oxford clergy had not lost 
that veneration for ' the powers that be/ in which the 
true principles of orthodoxy consist; and, rather than 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 351 

lie under the imputation of not being willing to go far 
enough, he himself would propose, if required, that 
Herr Straus should be invited to fill the Chair of 
Regius Professor of Divinity, on the retirement or 
elevation of its present occupant. V. L." 

(b) "The Oxford Argo" 

by an Oxford Divine (Henry Bellenden Bulteel, 
B.N.C.), 1845 

Arise, my soul, and bear thee 
Aloft on eagle's wing; 
Awake, my heart, prepare thee ! 
Burst forth at length and sing ! 

Go see where ancient Isis 
Pours down her classic tide, 
Where many a turret rises 
Where Oxford sits in pride : 

At many a Hall and College 
By many a traitrous stroke, 
The Tree of Christian Knowledge 
Falls like the forest oak. 

The deadly Upas springing 
From Christ Church' cloistered pile, 
Her poison fast is flinging 
Throughout Britannia's isle: 

The spreading boughs what numbers 
Lie heedless underneath ! 
Not deeming that their slumbers 
Must prove the sleep of death: 

Soon, soon, the tainted breezes 
Come stealing o'er the brain; 
The soft delirium pleases : 
They sleep nor wake again. 



See Tract 
90. 



Bishop of 
Oxford. 



352 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Cleft from the noxious branches 
They've formed a keel and mast; 
The framework swift advances ; 
The Bark's complete at last. 

They've found a wondrous pilot ; 
They've found a ready crew : 
O may it ne'er be my lot 
To sail with hearts untrue ! 

There's Newman wise and simple, 
How saintly is his smile ! 
Alas ! beneath each dimple 
Lurk treachery and guilt. 

By him the light impeded 
Makes Churchmen ready quite, 
Soundhearted and soundheaded, 
To swear that wrong is right. 

There's Pusey's gloomy visage 
His down-cast eye and head, 
The foremost man of this age 
To prove his God his bread. 

There's Hook, that priest judicious; 
There's Blomfield spruce and prim ; 
One looks ahead suspicious, 
One keeps the boat in trim. 

There's Philpotts, seven times heated 
As ne'er he was before, 
Half-surpliced, half-unseated, 
Tugs at his broken oar. 

Beside him gentle Bagot 
Absorbed in slumber seems ; 
He dreams of fire and faggot, 
But seldom tells his dreams : 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 353 



See 'neath his apron creeping 
The self-denying Nine: 
Graves for their names to sleep in, 
Kind Muse, to each assign ! 



Nine of a 
committee 
who would 
deny burial 
to dis- 
senters. 



There's Keble feebly chaunting; 
There's Palmer cursing sore 
The Principle that's wanting 
To keep him safe on shore. 

There's philosophic Sewell, 
Morality's bright gem, 
Convinced that all would do well, 
Might he but pilot them. 



Non-natural, but real, 

There's Balliol's "honest knave," 

Emits a blast "ideal" 

To puff them o'er the wave. 



w. G. 

Ward, his 

Ideal 

Church. 



By heathen gods directed, 
There's Williams at the sail, 
In paper bags collected 
Holds back the "Gospel Gale." 

See, see ! the Vessel's ready, 
Her main-sail woos the breeze, 
And all her hands are steady, 
Their hearts are all at ease. 



Isaac 
Williams, 
Tract No. 
80, on 
"Reserve 
in com- 
municat- 
ing 

Religious 
Know- 
ledge." 



Ah, bark ! thy cargo weighs thee 
Down to the Ocean's brim, 
False confidence betrays thee; 
Thou can'st not, shalt not swim ! 



354 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Is there no God in Heaven, 
No righteous power, to rise 
Against thy cursed leaven, 
Thy lewdness, and thy lies? 

Shall vile Prevarication, 
Shall doctrine false as Hell, 
Deceive the British Nation, 
And make thy Cargo sell? 

See, see ! the lightning's flashing, 
The blazing, tottering mast, 
The timbers crackling, crashing! 
God's Vengeance burns at last ! 

By one fell flash benighted 
Thy helpless helmsman falls ; 
That pilot, erst farsighted, 
Now rolls two sightless balls. 

A second flash she's riven ! 
Her magazine beneath, 
Lit by the fire of Heaven, 
Bursts forth in flames and death ! 

Like the red rocket burning, 
Up to the stars they're shot; 
Down to the deep returning 
They sink then rise and rot ! 

Ezek. Come, birds of every feather, 

xxxix. 17. Come, fish of every fin, 

Rev. xix. , 

17. Come, seize the prey together, 

The rich repast begin ! 

Of haughty Laudian bishop, 
Of semi-Popish priest, 
Ye vultures, eat the flesh up, 
Ye sharks, devour the rest! 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 355 

Else from the floating masses 
Shall foul miasma rise, 
Earth poison with its gases 
And putrefy the skies. 

Ah, Bark, thy course is ended ; 
How terrible thy lot ! 
Their ways they should have mended, 
But they repented not. 

Weep, weep, my soul, their error, 
Pour down a secret flood; 
What tho their end be terror, 
They're still thy flesh and blood. 

Let no fierce exultation 
Burst from this breast of mine ; 
Thine might have been their station, 
God might have given them thine. 

But see ! the remnants scattered 
By God's avenging hand, 
In thousand fragments shattered 
Unite at His command : 

To milestone huge He's bound them 
With adamantine chain, 
All round and round and round them, 
And round them once again. 

The ponderous mass upheaving, 
Great Gabriel's reared on high, 
With strength beyond conceiving, 
And dashed it from the sky: 

Down, down, thou wide world's wonder, 
Beneath the yielding wave, 
Ten thousand fathoms under, 
Go, seek thyself a grave ! 



356 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Sink, Argo, sink for ever! 

A bottom and a shore 

Thy keel shall touch no, never ! 

Sink, and be found no more ! 

Amen ! we long to see it : 
Repeat, ye Saints, Amen ! 
Ye Angels, shout " So be it ! " 
Again, again, again ! 



VIII. DESTRUCTION OF MEDLEY AL OXFORD 

"Viae per Angliam ferro stratae," A.D. 1841 lines 
attributed in Halkett and Laing's Dictionary of Anon. 
and Pseudon. Literature to Thomas Legh Claughton 
Trinity College, Oxon., 1826; Bishop of Rochester, 
1867; of St. Albans, 1877; but declared in Walter 
Hamilton's Parodies to be the work of Frederick 
Fanshawe, Balliol College, 1838; Fellow of Exeter 
College, 1842-55; Headmaster of Bedford Grammar 
School, 1855-74. 

The poem suggests the modification of its mediaeval 
aspect which Oxford was destined to suffer after the 
coming of the railway, the constant disturbance by 
visitors of its ancient academical seclusion, and the 
loss of that distinctive character which had once marked 
the conversation and social tone of the residents. On 
June i, 1840, the Great Western Railway was opened 
as far as Steventon, near Didcot, to and from which 
place Oxford passengers were conveyed by omnibuses. 
The influence of the University authorities was exerted 
to keep the railway at a distance, but in 1844 a branch 
line was opened to Didcot from a station near Folly 
Bridge. The line to Banbury was opened in 1852. 

Tartareae Musae, vehementi voce canamus 
Carmen in infernos quod semper tradat honores 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 357 

Artifices illos, Speculators, atque Mechanics, 

Quos ferrum fumusque juvant nebulaeque vaporis 

Non ego viginti librarum proemia quaero, 

Nee mea mens turpi decepta cupidine lucri ; 

Carmina non fingo mentes motura Leonum 

Infirmas, puerisque diu plaudenda sonoris 

Aut Sheldoniaco tumide recitanda Theatre 

Tempus erat quondam cum tuta petorrita nobis 
Proebebantque viam portmanteaus atque trahebant 
Coachae quadrijugae; sed nunc stabula alta, 

tabernae, 

Aurigae, Guardi, perierunt turpiter omnes : 
Omnia cuncta silent, nam " Salisbury, Mountain, and 

Co., Sir," 
Jack Adamumque diu celebrem, 1 una eademque 

tenet nox: 

1 Aurigae apud Oxonienses quondam notissimi. " Salisbury, Mountain, 
and Co, Sir," is a line of a once popular Oxford song, called "Tantivy 
Trot," which was written by Rowland E. E. Warburton (Corp. 
Christ. College) about the year 1834, in honour of the "Tantivy," a 
coach running between London and Birmingham via Oxford. The 
famous coachman, Edward Cracknell, who once drove 125 miles at a 
sitting, held the ribbons between London and Oxford, Henry Salisbury 
between Oxford and Birmingham : 

" Here's to the dragsmen I've dragged into song, 

Salisbury, Mountain, and Co, Sir ! 
Here's to the Cracknell who cracks them along, 
Five twenty-fives at a go, Sir ! " 

Jack Adams is mentioned in another song in connection with the 
"Defiance," a coach which ran between Oxford and London via 
Dorchester, Henley, and Hounslow : 

"From the box of the 'Royal Defiance,' 

Jack Adams, who coaches so well, 
Set me down in the region of Science 
In front of the 'Mitre' Hotel." 

Tom Mountain was a coachman connected with the night-coaches 
running between Worcester and London, and Birmingham and London, 
via Oxford. 

All three celebrities are mentioned in W. Bayzand's In and out of 
Oxford, 1820-1840, those palmy days when Oxford could boast of 
having in and out, every twenty-four hours, royal mails and coaches number- 
ing seventy-three at least : see Oxford Hist. Soc., Collectanea, iv. 267. 



* On the 
subject of 
the corpses 
of donkeys 
and post- 
boys, see 
Pickwick 
Papers. 



358 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Postchaisos etiam virides flavosque tenebrae 
Obscurant atrae : vosque, o clarissima roadi 
Ornamenta diu, (defuncta cadavera quorum 
Quis vidit?*), juvenes antiqui, nomine Postboys, 
Extinctum genus, ah ! periistis morte suprema ; 
Impia nam diri redierunt saecla metalli 
Temporibus nostris, et ferro cuncta moventur. 

Eustoni static misceri murmure magno 
Incipit, et longo nectuntur syrmate currus, 
Visuri Eboraci muros fumumque Leodis. 
Machina detrahitur vinclisque ligatur aenis, 
Ac manet eructans, fundoque exaestuat imo. 
Turn campana sonat, stipatus ut Omnibus intrat 
Moenia Depoti, Bagmenque effundit, et omnes 
Quos vehit ad trainum seros argentea sixpence. 
Ascendunt currus baggos tiketumque gerentes 
Quisque manu cauta, quod nulli amittere fas est ; 
Nam si forte cadat sublatum flamine venti, 
Quanquam per divos jurares atque parentes, 
Officer iratus nil crederet ; inde Policemen 
Caerulei apparent, qui te committere quaddo 
Et bis viginti solidos multare minantur. 
Non hie Havannae placidos emittere fumos 
Audendum est ; argilla brevis, teretesque cigarri 
Hinc absunt; densi satis una nube vaporis 
Omnia miscentur. Vosque o ! procul este profani, 
Ite canes catulique simul, quos femina molli 
Veste tegens gremio foveat, vigilemque Policeman 
Nequidquam fallat: 

Jamque iterum campana sonat, suspiria fundens 
Machina progreditur, Zephyri velocior aura, 
Mobilitate viget viresque acquirit eundo; 
Tarda quidem primo, sed nunc impulsa vapore 
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter tunnela condit. 



Hie quoque jamdudum ferro via tecta fuisset 
Oxoniae, si non Vice-Chancellor ipse petition 



THE PASSING OF THE MIDDLE AGES 359 

Proctoresque ambo fecissent, atque Senatum 

Acriter orassent oblatum expellere Billum ; 

Quo ne Londino juvenes incurrere possent 

Urbi damnosae, patriosque expendere nummos, 

Talorum in jactu, visendis atque theatris. 

Sed precor, o sapiens Vice-Chancellor, accipe miti 

Pectore consilium ; et si ferrea munera nobis 

Haec iterum Occiduus male gratis offerat Ingens, 

Ne pete, suavis Hyems,* avertere flamine saevo * Philip 

Commoda tanta viae Rhedecynae rursus ab urbe : p^of St 

Tempus enim juvenum pariter nummosque parentum John's 

Sic minus expendes, static Stephanaea caballis Vice-Can. 

Mox deserta foret, plorarent Squeaker et omnes 

Queis curae est rapidos juvenes imponere screwis. 



IX. EVE OF REVOLUTION 
" Revolutionary Manifesto " 

Circulated in Oxford at Commemoration, 1849; at a 
moment when a coming Royal Commission to inquire 
into the state of the University was beginning to be 
talked of as a possibility (attributed to Walter 
Waddington Shirley, Scholar of Wadham College, after- 
wards Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History): see 
Notes and Queries, 1st Series, vols. viii. 584, ix. 113. 

LIBERTY! FRATERNITY! EQUALITY! 

The cry of Reform has been too long unheard. Our 
infatuated rulers refused to listen to it. The term of 
their tyranny is at length accomplished. The Vice- 
Chancellor has fled on horseback. The Proctors have 
resigned their usurped authority. The Scouts have 
fraternized with the friends of Liberty. The University 
is no more. A Republican Lyceum will henceforth 
diffuse light and civilization. The Hebdomadal Board 
is abolished. The Legislative Powers will be entrusted 



360 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

to a General Convention of the whole Lyceum. A 
Provisional Government has been established. The 
undersigned Citizens have nobly devoted themselves 
to the task of administration. 

Signed Citizen CLOUGH (President of the Executive 

Council) 
SEWELL 

BOSSOM (operative) 
JOHN CONINGTON 
WRIGHTSON l 

FLOREAT LYCEUM! 

1 The Vice-Chancellor mentioned in the Squib was Dr. Symons, 
Warden of Wadham College, well known as a keen but inefficient 
horseman. Of the signatories, Arthur Hugh Clough (Balliol College) 
was in sympathy with the revolutionary movements across the Channel 
of the year 1848, and had been in Paris with Emerson during May of 
that year. William Sewell (Exeter College), Professor of Moral Economy, 
was preparing to publish his pamphlet, The Nation, the Church, and the 
University of Oxford. Bossom was the porter of B.N.C. John 
Conington, for some years after he took his degree, was looked on as a 
dangerous innovator by the Oxford Tory party. Henry Wrightson was 
an aged and eccentric Fellow of Queen's College. 







THE CLERK OF OXFORD, A.D. 1814 
FROM R. ACKERMANN'S "HISTORY OF OXFORD' 



CHAPTER XIII 
CLERKS OF OXFORD IN FICTION CONCLUSION 

THE PILGRIM'S SCRIP 

Being maxims selected from a work entitled Mottoes for Crackers , forming 
together a complete Freshmarfs Manual ^ Oxford, circa 1850. 

Early Rising 

In the morning when the Scout 
Comes to call you, tumble out : 
With old Morpheus boldly grapple, 
Or you will be late for Chapel. 

Recreation 

When the morning's work is done, 
Put your books by, one by one ; 
Take a walk or make a call, 
But be sure you're back for "hall." 

Costttme 

Always wear your Cap and Gown, 
Prudent Freshman, in the town ; 
When a walk you're bent upon, 
You may put your "Beaver" on. 1 

Driving 

When out in a tandem invited to go, 

Say "Thank you; but driving's forbidden, I know; 

If you've leave, I will come : but I dare not till then " : 

You are pretty sure not to be troubled again. 

1 " In beaver " = " in a tall hat" (and the costume which accompanies 

it) ; in mufti, instead of in academicals. 

361 



362 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Boating 

To avoid any danger to life and to limb, 
Don't go on the water until you can swim ; 
And unless you can cut a respectable figure, 
Be content with a tub, and eschew an outrigger. 

Cricket 

If at Cowley some day, when engaged in a match, 
You miss at a crisis a difficult catch, 
You can't be surprised if you hear a friend mutter 
That your fingers partake of the nature of butter. 

Shooting 

If to sporting you're inclined, 
Guns are all forbidden, mind : 
Should you doubt it, please to look 
At that Statute in the Book 

Which in every Freshman's hand is, 

"De bombardis non gestandis." 

Etiquette 

If at parties they press you to take a cigar, 
Say " I cannot indeed, for I promised Papa " : 
But, if tempted to smoke, you begin to feel queer, 
Run into the bedroom at once there's a dear ! 

Diligence 

He who would the dons delight, 
Hard must study, day and night ; 
Never play at Cards or Pool, or 
He will find them growing cooler. 

Idleness 

Many youths who come to College 
With a little stock of knowledge, 
When they go away, how sad ! 
Leave the little stock they had. 

THE history of the Oxford Clerk in fictional litera- 
ture has now been brought down to what may be 
called modern times. The object of this work has 
been to portray rather than to dissect, and not so much 
to analyse a complex character as to trace the descent 
of the most remarkable of its elements through the 
changes and chances of some six centuries of academical 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 363 

life. It now remains to suggest a reason, why character- 
istics, which one might think were common to scholars 
of all Universities, should nevertheless have been practi- 
cally appropriated to Oxonians, since those early days, 
when the possession of them rendered the Clerk of 
Oxford at once a Man of Mark in Chaucer's eyes, while 
at the same time the poet apparently could detect no 
points in the manner and conversation of the Clerks of 
the " Soler-halle " at Cambridge, which might serve to 
distinguish them from any other " testif and lusty " 
youths of the time. 

The patient study of Fiction leads to the conclusion 
that the Genius Loci, who has been present at Oxford 
from the first, is the tutelar God of great Leaders and 
of great Movements; and that a certain seminary 
strength, infused into matter by the soul of the place, 
has, from first to last, manifested itself in the tempera- 
ment, actions, and language of her children, and has 
imparted thereto a peculiar emphasis which compels 
attention and provokes criticism. The mental attitude 
of those who have been educated in another place, shews 
something of the natural characteristics of the dead level 
country in which their lot has been cast ; its meaning 
is too often elusive and retiring ; while the point, from 
which it can be seen and appreciated, is sometimes far 
to seek. Unsettled in their convictions, over-conscious 
of difficulties, and fearful of rash guidance, they hesitate 
to take any definite course of action themselves, and 
vouchsafe little to their disciples but the advice of 
warning and criticism. Not so the Oxonian. Nature 
never meant him for a negative character; and his 
beauties and blemishes, like those of Mater Oxonia 
herself, go out to meet the eyes even of those who do 
not look for them. While the painful scientist of 
another Studium seems unable to convince himself of 
the world's existence, the Clerk of Oxford looks as if 
the whole universe belonged to him. In spite of 
invidious references made to him, such as Overbury's 



364 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

" meere Scholar who thinks it a wrong to his reputation 
to be ignorant of anything, and yet he knows not that 
he knows nothing " ; Arundel's " babbling beardless boy, 
who wants to fly before he can crawl, to read before he 
can spell ; and, with his nose in the air, ventures to assert 
the most outrageous opinions in the face of authority " ; 
and Richard de Bury's " presumptuous youth, who 
judges of everything as if he were certain, although he 
is altogether inexperienced " ; in spite of these and 
other censures, he is fully persuaded that the wisdom of 
his University embraces all that is worth knowing, and 
that, when he has attained to it, he has reached finality 
of knowledge. 1 " The excessive profusion of the sciences 
studied at Oxford is such, that a science which is there 
neglected may be regarded as unworthy the name " ; 2 
"all that there is to know, I know it; what I don't 
know, isn't knowledge," have been the first and great 
Articles of his Faith from the fourteenth century to the 
twentieth. 

To him Oxford is the same infallible oracle that she 
was of old ; and the devotion which he pays her, either 
consciously or unconsciously, is a life-long devotion. 
But not content with rendering her his own personal 
worship, he is zealous to convert others to the faith : 
"Beata diceris per orbis climata, quia singulis solvis 
aenigmata," he cries with Tryvytlam; and summons 
men from all lands to do adoration at her shrine, to 
imbibe her august traditions, and to carry away her 
words to the ends of the world. 3 To him she is still the 
enchantress, before whom kings of the earth, when they 

1 See Overbury's character-sketch of the "meere Scholar," quoted in 
Chapter V. above ; Archbishop Arundel's censure of the Oxonians who 
defended the condemned propositions that had been put forward by 
Wycliffe, in Wilkins' Concilia, iii. 322 (A.D. 1409) ; and Richard 
de Bury on Oxford Clerks generally, in Philobiblon, cap xvii. 
(A.D. 1345). 

2 ' ' Oxoniae singulae (scientiae) sic docentur, ut scientia quae illic 
respuitur, nullatenus licita censeatur": Ex libro Cancellarii, circa 1375 
A.D., Munimenta Acad. (Rolls Series), ii. 367. 

3 See Tryvytlam's poem in Chapter II. above. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 365 

enter within her walls, become as blind men ; having 
eyes, they see not, until they are enlightened by her 
counsels : 1 at her command, Brazen-heads, nay even 
Blockheads, still "unfold strange aphorisms": Horns 
speak pure Greek, and Echoes babble in Hexameters, 
by her so potent art ; and he, the Clerk, upon whom 
rests a double portion of her spirit, feels himself by 
hereditary genius a shewer of hard sentences, a dissolver 
of doubts ; like his great ancestor of Chaucer's day, " he 
would gladly teach." 2 " Ergo " is his master, that 
" vetustum ' Ergo hoc ' Oxoniense," whose dominion was 
already old in Petrarch's time; and he is ready, as were 
the members of the Union, when that Society included 
Lowe, Manning, and Gladstone, "to investigate and 
solve all the great problems of humanity ; eager also to 
cross swords with every foe; and only too glad to 
illumine the path of all those whom he judges to be 
misguided or in darkness. No mere petty considerations 
occur to his fresh ingenious mind ; no sad premonition 
that the world will go on much the same, whatever his 
eloquent tongue may utter." 3 And it is this conscious- 
ness of having himself found Wisdom and the Place of 
Understanding, and this craving to give light to a 
benighted world, which, expressed as they are in every- 
thing that goes to make up the Oxford Manner, have 
made the typical Oxford man, if not always an accept- 
able, at any rate invariably a striking figure in Society. 
This is no place either to sympathize with, or to censure, 
those who fail to appreciate him. There is no account- 
ing for taste : some cry " Hey for Garsington ! " and 
some cry " Hey for Horsepath ! " : some like him ; some 
do not. It is sufficient here to shew, that the intensity 

1 See the legend of Earl Algar, and the superstition which made Kings 
of England fear to enter Oxford, in Wood's City of Oxford, Oxford 
Historical Society, i. 234-5, ii. 128-30. 

2 See Robert Greene's "Friar Bacon"; and the story of the Queen's 
College Horn in Brathwaite's poem at the head of Chapter VI., and that 
of the Magdalen College Echo in Chapter X. 

3 Life of Robert Lowe t Lord Sherbrooke t by A. P. Martin. 



366 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

of the Oxford Manner is such, that it rarely fails to 
excite violent emotions in those who come within the 
sphere of its influence, whether they be emotions of 
profound respect, or those of the most acute exasperation. 
There is no need to add to the illustrations which 
have been already given, of the nature of the Clerk's 
conversation, of his high style, and of his tendency to 
sacrifice the art of pleasing to the zest for instructing 
his audience. What, however, is worthy of further 
remark, is the fact that the didactic intention which 
pervades his speech, pervades also his silence. Chaucer's 
Pilgrim rode " coy and still, and spake not a word all 
day"; yet his stillness was a stillness which could be 
felt, insomuch that it inspired the genial host of the 
Tabard Inn with fear that the Scholar was preparing 
to launch some improving moral lecture upon his 
fellow-travellers. Much the same strong impression 
was made upon the society around him by the eloquent 
silence of Mr. Walden, the Oxonian whom Richardson's 
heroine, the lively Miss Harriet Byron, met at Lady 
Betty Williams' dinner-party : " While the voluble 
worldling, Sir Horace Pollexfen, was conversing in a 
manner infinitely agreeable to the gay, and to those 
of the company who wished to drown thought in 
merriment, the Man of the College looked as if he 
was putting the baronet's speeches into Latin, and 
trying them by the rules of grammar. He seemed, 
on anything the other said, half to despise him ; while 
it was evident he grudged him the smile that sat upon 
everyone's countenance, and that he pitied us all, and 
thought himself cast into unequal company." x " Here 
comes a University man ! " writes the author of Hints 
on Etiquette for the University of Oxford (1838): "He 
hurries along, as if every minute were worth gold. From 
his face you would guess that he knows his Scapula and 
Facciolati by heart. And what a scrutinizing gaze he 

* Sir Charles Grandison, Letters XL, XII. , XIII. , XIV., by Samuel 
Richardson (1753). 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 367 

fixes upon the ground ! He is solving some problem 
of Euclid, or unravelling one of the choruses of the 
Agamemnon? In short, even at times when, like the 
stars, the Clerk of Oxford is "without real voice or 
sound," this earthly luminary, like the heavenly bodies, 
is still preaching some great lesson : to admirers and 
detractors alike, and in all ages, his very silence has 
been pregnant with meaning; and the very sight of 
him a vision and sermon in one. 

And, finally, it would seem that this zeal to instruct 
and elevate has been manifested, not only more clearly, 
but also more constantly, at Oxford, than at other 
Studia : for while elsewhere the Clerk has occasionally 
been forgetful of his watch and has slumbered at his 
post, here there has never been wanting the intellectual 
Athlete, alert and eager to snatch the torch of learning 
from his predecessor, to run his course with joy, and to 
hand on the courier flame to the next in the race. It 
cannot be denied, indeed, that Oxford too has passed 
through what have been condemned as dark ages in 
the history of her Schools ; but, on close examination, 
it appears, that, if her reputation for learning suffered 
a partial eclipse at such times, the natural force and 
energy of her sons knew no abatement ; and, strangely 
enough, it is for those very periods of gloom that 
Fiction has reserved the brightest examples of her 
perceptive enthusiasm. Thus the hero of the first 
Oxford novel came up to the University about the 
year 1460; that is, before the close of what historians 
have called "the century of intellectual torpor which 
followed the death of Wycliffe." The name of John 
Scogin of Oriel does not indeed appear among those 
of the great Oxford Reformers. Though, as an Under- 
graduate, he may have paced New College Cloisters in 
colloquy with Grocyn, and, as a Master of Arts, have 
rambled in Magdalen Grove with the youthful Colet, 
and dined with Linacre and the Fellows of All Souls' 
at a table where the Founder's injunction of plain 



368 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

living and high thinking was not yet wholly forgotten, 
he took nevertheless no prominent part in the religious 
and intellectual struggles of his day. Yet the story of 
his life, as told in the " First and Best Part of his Jests," 
shews that the prevailing tone in his character was that 
irresistible craving to enlighten a dark world, which, 
from first to last, and through good report and ill, has 
been the keynote of the Oxford Manner. If latter- 
day critics, " content with examining the things which lie 
before them, and blind to the truths which lie hidden 
beyond," have pronounced him a mere buffoon, his 
original biographer has taken no such narrow " Goswell 
Street" view of a complex character. To him, the 
lightest act of the celebrated Wit conveys some grave 
moral lesson, and the wildest extravagances are vehicles 
of sound arguments ; while his keen eye detects a thinly- 
veiled didacticism behind each happy shift, each merry 
device, in his hero's adventurous career. Thus, from 
one tale " a man may learn, that, when he asks advice, 
he should be clear in his words and not speak in 
parables; for mishearing causeth misunderstanding"; 
from another, that "divers times one may do a thing 
in sport, and at the last it do turn into good earnest." 
Here is laid down the useful warning, " In matters of 
love, let a man make no body of his counsel, lest he 
be deceived " ; there, the equally sound advice, " No 
one, if he love himself and his profit, should lend his 
horse or his weapon or his wife to another, for by it 
never cometh gain." " Believe not every word that 
another doth speak; for some do lie, some do jest, 
some do mock, and some do scorn " ; " it is an unhappy 
house where a woman is the master"; "let no man 
think that there was never so great a flood but that 
there may be as low an ebb " ; thus, line upon line 
and precept upon precept, is built up a popular system 
of moral philosophy. And the teacher plants his educa- 
cational platform, with a like confidence, in University 
lecture-rooms, peasants' cottages, and the palaces of 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 369 

kings. No sooner had he come to Court, than he built 
a great fire before the gate, and set thereon a sow of 
exceeding fatness, and bought twenty pounds of butter 
and poured them over the sow's buttocks. Then said 
the courtiers to him, " Why dost thou grease and baste 
the sow that is already over-fat ? " : and he answered 
them, " I do but as lords and kings do, and as everyone 
doth ; for he that hath enough, shall have more given 
him ; and he that hath nothing, shall go without." And 
when he would build him an house, he asked the king 
for five hundred oaks. " Will not one hundred suffice ? " 
inquired the Monarch. " Yea," replied the Sage ; " but 
if I had asked one hundred at the first, I had received 
but twenty. Therefore it is good to ask more than 
enough of great men, for then one shall have somewhat." 
Danger could not check, nor could death chill, the genial 
flow of these sententious remarks. " Remove him ! " 
said the king, on an occasion when the Oxonian's 
freedom of speech and behaviour had given great 
offence: "and, as soon as he has made selection of a 
tree, hang him thereon " ; and forthwith Scogin was led 
away to Windsor Forest. There he wandered up and 
down all day, as though deliberating upon his choice 
of a gibbet. His escort grew weary, and besought him 
to come to a decision ; but he reproved them, saying, 
" Make no haste, for it would grieve the best of you to 
be hanged." Faint with hunger and thirst, they saw 
their prisoner refresh himself at intervals from a private 
store of provisions, "a bottle of wine and sucket, 
marmalade, and green-ginger," while he murmured to 
himself, " God knows the pangs of death are dry." At 
nightfall he dismissed his guard, saying, " You seem to 
be a very honest sort of men. Go then to your king, 
and have me commended to him ; and tell him I will 
never choose a tree to be hanged on. For that man is 
a madman, who may save his own life, and yet will 
:ill himself." 1 And when at last he lay dying of an 

1 With regard to this tale, the student of the Dietetical History of the 
24 



370 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

incurable complaint, he turned to those who stood 
round his bed, and remarked, " I should be resigned to 
death, if only I might live long enough to eat Christmas 
pie ; for Christmas pie is good meat " ; in these simple 
words teaching the world, as his appreciative biographer, 
perhaps not unnecessarily, explains, that " a man is loth 
to die, although there be no remedy ; and that he who 
can rejoice in mirth without sin, that same is happy." 
Such was John Scogin of Oriel. While the form of 
instruction he adopted was often grotesque and un- 
expected, beneath it lay a gravity more sober than 
seriousness itself; and when he laid aside the guise of 
the conventional teacher, he did so that he might speak 

University should note, in connection with the rise of "Oxford Marmalade " 
to the prominent position which it now holds in all civilized communities, 
that here Scogin of Oriel, at a date some time near the close of the fifteenth 
century, refreshes himself with that confection. The earliest uses of the 
word "marmalade" are those made of it by Oxonians. This delicacy 
took a place of honour at the elaborate banquet given by William Warham 
(New College, 1475-88), when he was enthroned Archbishop of Canterbury 
in 1509 ; the supper of leche Florentine, tart melior, joly ipocrass, tench 
florished, lamprey," etc., provided on that occasion for the Archbishop's 
high steward, Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, a Cantab, concluding 
with the service of "marmalade, succade, and comfits" (Antiquities of 
Canterbury, William Somner and Nicholas Battely, Appendix to Sup- 
plement, p. 26). Again, the Register of Magdalen College, i. 71 (W. D. 
Macray), shews that, already in 1517, it was the custom at that College to 
temper the austerity of the mediaeval biscuit, or "wafron," with this ex- 
cellent substitute for butter. William Tyndale (Magdalen Hall, 1510) 
mentions "marmalad" in conjunction with "succad, green-gynger, and 
confiettes " in one of his sermons ( Works, p. 229) ; Sir Thomas Elyot 
(St. Mary Hall, 1514) praises the sweetmeat in his Castel of Helthe 
(1541) ; and light refreshments offered to the king's messengers at Exeter 
College in 1549 included "marmaladye and succade" (Registrum Coll., 
Exon, C. W. Boase, p. 38). Finally, when John Lyly of Magdalen 
College published Euphues in 1580, marmalade would seem to have 
already gained the extraordinary popularity which it has maintained ever 
since. " Euphues," he writes, " would die if he did not talk of love once 
in a day ; and therefore you must give him leave after every meal to close 
his stomach with love, as with marmalade." It is pleasant to conjecture 
that Colet may have introduced the foreign delicacy to his University, and 
that its rapid rise in academical esteem may have followed some reference 
made by Linacre to its medicinal value, when those two pioneers of the 
New Learning returned from Italy to Oxford in or about the year 1491. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 371 

to his disciples with the greater clearness and pathos. 
Oxford fulfils herself in many ways; and if Scogin's 
method was one all his own, his goal was none the 
less the common goal of all genuine Oxford Clerks: 
to be, in Gest and Diet alike, a Leader of the People 
by his counsel. 

Such good men and true, neither the pell-mell of 
war, nor the hurly-burly of revolution, has been able 
to divert from their aim. During the Great Rebellion, 
for example, when the clerical Band was brought into 
close contact with the military Cuff and the Ruff of 
the Courtier, the genuine Clerk preserved his essential 
characteristics unimpaired. Though he put on armour 
and served in the ranks, he retained, as it were, 
square-cap under helmet, and academical toga beneath 
back- and breast-piece. His immortal Manner still 
distinguished him from the every-day warrior; and 
his actual fighting was, as Chaucer would have put it, 
" after the scole of Oxenford " : 

" Treasure of Armes and Artes, in whom were set 
The Sword and Bookes, the Camp and College met, 

His Valour was not of the furious straine ; 
The Hand that struck, did first consult the Braine : 
Hence grew Commerce between Advice and Might; 
The Scholler did direct, the Soldier fight." 

MARTIN LLUELLYN, Student of Ch. Ch., 

Men- Miracles ', 1646 

Nor did the Genius Loci depart, when, after the 
triumph of the Rebels, the University was in danger 
of being reformed out of existence by the Puritans, 
and it seemed to her loyal sons that " Oxford could 
no longer be found in Oxford City." Too quick 
despairers, these latter may have been reassured, 
though disgusted, by the following caricature of an 
" Academick " : 



372 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

"Think not to daunt us with a daring Eye: 
The maze of Logick, or Maturity 
Of your taught Science and Intangled Rules, 
The Scum and Dregs of Academick Pools, 
Boast not of these : nor strive with censure nice 
T' esteem your dear-bought Wisdome by the price. 
Come now, my Spark, thou o' th' OXONIAN 

RACE, 

And let a Word of Reason interlace 
With thy Ambition. Grammar is thy sphere, 
And thou canst travel in no path but there : 
Thou of Philosophy no more hast known, 
Than what Tradition and the Books have shown ; 
Thou keep'st the track, and only goest by course, 
And I must tell you that each carrier's horse 
Performs thy task, and has as much to be 
Admired for, or admired at, as thee. 
What say'st thou now? Says not th' Impartial 

Test 

That Art's but feeble, Nature is the Best. 
Suppose your fancy leads you into Court, 
Perhaps you're able to speak Latin for't, 
And now and then spew out a word of Greek, 
But for Invention you are far to seek ; 
You to the Book must go, if you would ken 
The Customs and Moralities of Men : 



Yes, You it is, 'gainst whom my Muse doth roar, 
That have been taught each Science and no more; 
Yet of a little make as great a Show, 
As IF YOUR KNOWLEDGE HAD NO MORE TO 
KNOW." 

Poems by HUGH CROMPTON, the Son of Bacchus 
and the godson of Apollo ', being a Far die 
of Fancies, or a Medley of Mustek stewec 
in four Ounces of the Oyl of Epigrams^ 
London, 1657 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 373 

Nor has Fiction failed to supply the eighteenth- 
century University, which History notices only to 
condemn as " the embodiment of sloth and prejudice," 
with many a reincarnation of her traditional energy. 
"In my youth," writes Steele of Merton College, " it 
was a humour in the University, when a fellow pre- 
tended to be more eloquent than ordinary, or had 
set himself to triumph over us with an argument, or 
to inform us about some matter whether we would or 
no, I say it was a humour in such cases to shut one 
eye, or for each man in the company to offer the 
orator a pinch of snuff" ; but it is clear that these 
extraordinary precautions were insufficient to check 
such "voluntary rhetoricians" as "Jack Lizard," 
"Tom Welbank," and those apostles of sweetness and 
light whose tragi-comical adventures are recorded in 
the Rambler and the Idler. " Gelasimus, Verecundulus, 
and Gelaleddin," Samuel Johnson of Pembroke College 
in Oxford tells us, "returned home, confirmed in the 
doctrine inculcated at the University, that nothing was 
worthy of serious care but the means of gaining and 
imparting knowledge; and they entered the world, 
prepared to show wisdom by their discourse and 
moderation by their silence, to instruct the modest 
with easy gentleness, and repress the ostentatious by 
seasonable superciliousness"; in short, and to quote 
once more Chaucer's line on the original Clerk of 
Oxford, "gladly would they learn and gladly teach." 
It is true that the author of the Vanity of Human 
Wishes then goes on to tell how his three young 
heroes were quickly brought to confusion. Gelasimus, 
the mathematician, found to his dismay that " algebraic 
axioms had little weight with ladies, and that approxi- 
mations to the quadrature of the circle but slightly 
recommended him to elegant acquaintance"; while 
the eloquent demonstrations of the Newtonian system 
of philosophy which were made by Verecundulus at 
the dinner-table, "not only failed to add to the 



374 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

satisfaction of the company, but even provoked several 
hints of the awkwardness of young scholars." So too, 
when Gelaleddin proceeded "to practise all the arts of 
narration and disquisition in his family circle, his 
kinsmen heard his arguments without reflection and 
his pleasantries without a smile. Contrary to his 
expectations, the learned did not visit him for consulta- 
tion; and when he endeavoured to attract notice in 
public places by the copiousness of his talk, the 
sprightly were silenced and went away to censure in 
another place his arrogance and pedantry, while the 
dull listened patiently for a while, and then wondered 
why a man should take pains to obtain so much 
knowledge which would never do him any good," etc. 
But though these young enthusiasts failed, it is clear 
that their failure cannot be attributed to any " sloth or 
prejudice." On the contrary, it was their very spirit 
that doomed them ; the blind impetuosity, or, as 
Johnson calls it, "the precipitation of inexperience," 
with which they threw themselves into the conflict 
between the ideals of Oxford and those of the degraded 
England of the second George. But probably in no 
case has Fiction joined a clearer issue with History 
than in that of " Mr. Walden." In the very year when 
Gibbon found "all practice of teaching to have been 
given up at Oxford ; and that instead of discoursing 
upon such amusing and instructive topics as literary 
questions, the Fellows of Magdalen talked of nothing 
but College business, Tory politics, personal anecdotes, 
and private scandal," in that very year, Samuel 
Richardson produced this sketch of "the man of the 
College." 1 There can be little doubt which picture 
is the more true to life, that of the great novelist, or 
that of the future historian. A youth of sixteen, 
Gibbon, after residing but a few weeks at Magdalen, 
thought himself capable of measuring the abilities 
Tutors and Professors, and able to take a complete 
1 Sir Charles Grandison, by Samuel Richardson, 1753. 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 375 

survey of the discipline of a great University which 
consisted of five-and-twenty separate societies. His 
argument limps with a compound fracture of that 
most elementary rule of logic " Syllogizari non est ex 
particulars" And while his picture, if true at all, is 
true only of certain individuals, and relates only to a 
portion of time, to a point in the surface of the world 
of Oxford, in Richardson's work, all times, all places, 
are embraced. The great painter of nature never 
swerves from the truth ; for the " Clerk of Oxenford " 
who has been, is, and ever will be the same, is the 
model he has copied. In Mr. Walden's conversation 
at Lady Betty Williams' party, the didacticism of a 
Jack Lizard is combined with the serene complacency 
of a Tom Welbank in the all-sufficiency of Oxford 
wisdom. Thus, " after dinner, the man of the College, 
not choosing to be eclipsed by the man of the Town, 
put forth the scholar. 'Pray, Sir Hargreave,' said he 
to the frivolous baronet, * May I ask you You had a 
thought just now, speaking of love and beauty, which 
I know you must have found in Tibullus,' (and then 
he repeated the line in an ' heroic ' accent) : ' which 
University had the honour of finishing your studies, 
Sir Hargrave? I presume you were brought up at 
one of them.' 

" ' Not I,' said the baronet : ' a man, surely, may 
read Tibullus and Virgil too, without being indebted 
to either University for his learning.' 

" ' No man, Sir Hargrave,' replied Mr. Walden, ' in 
my humble opinion } (and with a decisive air he spoke 
the word 'humble'), 'can be well grounded in any 
branch of learning, who has not been at one of our 
famous Universities.' 

Then, a little later, he remarks to Miss Harriet 
Byron : '"I asked you, Madam, whether you knew 
anything of the learned languages. It has been 
whispered to me that you have had great advantages 
from a grandfather, of whose learning and politeness 



376 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

we have heard much. He was a scholar. He was of 
Christ-Church in our University, if I am not mistaken. 
To my question you answered that you knew not 
particularly which were the learned ones : and you 
were pleased to throw out hints in relation to a lesser 
and greater University: by all of which you mean 
something/ 

" * Pray, Mr. Walden,' began Miss Byron 
" ' And pray, Miss Byron,' answered he, 1 1 am afraid 
of all smatterers in learning. Those who know a little 
and ladies cannot know to the bottom they have 
not had the happiness of a University education,' etc. 

Strangely enough, he then proceeded to compel this 
London dinner-party to discuss one of those " literary 
questions," which, according to Gibbon, were so lament- 
ably neglected at Oxford. " ' A colloquy upon the 
topic of the learned languages,' said he, in reproof of 
the frivolous chatter of Sir Hargrave Pollexfen, 'may 
tend as much to edification, as most of the subjects 
with which we have been hitherto entertained.' " Nor, 
when the lofty argument was concluded, did the man 
of the College suffer the conversation to sink to its 
former low level. When the company spoke of love, 
he quoted Tibullus in an heroic accent ; when of plays, 
"he forced in, with a preference to Shakespeare, his 
Sophocles, his Euripides, his Terence; of the merits 
of whose performances, indeed, no one present but 
himself could judge, except by translations. Nor 
would he be excluded from the subject of the reigning 
fashions, and decency and propriety of dress; but 
suggested the adoption of his Spartan jacket descending 
only to the knees of the women, in place of hoops ; 
and the wearing of the Roman toga for the men. At 
this point, however, Miss Barnevelt broke in upon the 
scholar ; but by way of approbation of what he said ; 
and went on with subjects of heroism, without per- 
mitting him to rally and proceed, as he seemed 
inclined to do." 



CLERKS OF OXFORD CONCLUSION 377 

" After praising what he had said of the Spartan and 
Roman dresses, she fell to enumerating her heroes 
both ancient and modern. Achilles, the savage 
Achilles, charmed her. Hector, however, was a good 
clever man. Alexander the Great was her dear 
creature, and Julius Caesar was a very pretty fellow," 
etc. 

Many another case might be quoted from the 
records of Fiction to prove, that, even at times when 
the University's message to the world has been but a 
narrow one, her messengers have been none the less 
as alert, confident, and insistent as ever. And when 
the year 1851 is reached, the date which has been set 
as a limit to this story, and unstinted abuse is once 
more being poured upon Oxford and all her works, 
the Clerk is found to be displaying the same strength 
and steadfastness of faith in himself and his University, 
as have rendered him a Man of Mark from the begin- 
ning. " He is not as other men are," writes Mr. 
J. R. Greene of him, as he appeared at the time; "he 
has a deep quiet contempt for other men. Oxford is 
his home, and beyond Oxford lie only waste regions 
of shallowness and inaccuracy": "he directs his mind, 
before it has been sufficiently disciplined by less lofty 
and dangerous studies, to the investigation of the 
most exalted and sacred subjects," declares another 
critic, echoing, though in politer language, the censure 
of Archbishop Arundel, quoted above ; " he is as one 
who endeavours to build a house, either with no scaffold- 
ing at all, or at least with one of the slightest 
description." 1 And his immortal "manner" still 
strikes all beholders ; nay, he is even himself at times 
appalled by the sense of his personal distinctness : 
" Perhaps/' said the Stranger, in Newman's Loss and 
Gain (1848), "I can read you, Sir, better than you 

1 The opinion of an eminent "critic, educated at Rugby, and destined 
to be a professor at Oxford," delivered in 1843 quoted in Christopher 
Wordsworth's Scholae Academicae. 






378 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

can me. You are an Oxford Man by your appearance." 
Charles assented : " How came you," he asked, " to 
suppose I was of Oxford ? " " Not entirely by your 
looks and manner," replied the Stranger, " for I saw 
you jump from the omnibus at Steventon ; but with 
that assistance it was impossible to mistake." " I 
have heard others say the same," said Charles; "yet 
I can't myself make out how an Oxford man should 
be known from another. It is a fearful thing," he 
added with a sigh, "that we, as it were, exhale our- 
selves every breath we draw." 

Renewing his youth in fresh activities from age to 
age, the Clerk embodies in visible form the unbroken 
continuity of the intellectual life of Oxford. " In him 
the University possesses the last bond which links her 
generations together, the last memorial of a tradition 
of discipline. He has formed, and still forms, the back- 
ground of all the variety and movement of academical 
life." For Oxford is in truth a place of brief-lived 
generations. But four short years, and those who are 
now but new-come within her walls, will have com- 
pleted their sojourn. Another busy tribe of flesh and 
blood will be knocking at the gate; and these 
momentary men, their sayings and doings, their 
manners and fashions, will pass away, even as the 
memory of a guest who tarried but a day. The Clerk 
alone abides ; his Gests and Diets alter not : Oxoniae 
hodie est una multitudo; eras erit alia: Ille vero non 
mutatur; semper idem est; SOLUS MOBILITATE 

STABILIS. 



INDEX 



Academia, or the Humours of Ox- 
ford, by Alicia D'Anvers, quoted 
as "An Oxford Guide, 1691," 
228-41 

Academiae Oxon. Pietas erga Jaco- 

bum Regem (1603) quoted, 87-90 

Acrostic lines, on the visit of the 

Earl of Leicester to Oxford, 76 ; 

on the visit of Queen Elizabeth to 

Oxford, 77 ; on Miss Betty Tracy 

being elected Lady Patroness of 

the High Borlace Club, 263 note 

Act, the University, described in 

verse, 226 ; humorous ' ' quaes- 

tiones" and "theses" at, 244 

note ; recitations at, by * ' young 

unfledged Lords and callow 

Nobles," 252 note 

Aldermen, Oxford, see " Oxford 

Aldermen " 

Aldrich, Henry, his catch "Oh the 
bonny Christ Church Bells!", 
with renderings of the same in 
Greek and Latin, 132 
Allibond, John, his " Dulcissimis 
Capitibus invitatio," etc., 147; 
his Rustica Acad. Oxon. nuper 
reformatae Descriptio, 195 
All Souls' College, legend of the 

Mallard of, explained, 61 
Amherst, Nicholas, on Oxford Dons, 
120; his lines on the leaden 
statues of the Muses set up on 
the Clarendon Buildings, 276 ; on 
William Delaune, President of St. 
John Baptist College, in "The 
Bottle-screw," 281 note ; on Ber- 
nard Gardiner, Warden of All 
Souls', in the Oculus Britanniae, 
283 note; on Oxford "Toasts" 
in Strephon's Revenge, 292 
Anagrams, on the death of Queen 
Elizabeth, 86 ; on the accession 
of James I, 88 



" Angelus ad Virginem," the Hymn 
of Chaucer's Oxford Clerk, in 
Latin and English, 25 

" Anima Elisabethae pinnata, de se 
et republica et ecclesia bene gestis," 
being lines in the shape of wings 
written on Queen Elizabeth's 
death, 87 

Anne, Edward, his Latin Verses 
against the Mass, for which he 
was flogged in Corpus Christi Col- 
lege hall, receiving a lash for 
every line, 74 

Antiquarians, Oxford, Carmen 
Quadresimale on the disputes of, 
289 

Apollinis et Musarum Eidyllia in 
Reg. Elisabethae adventum (1592) 
quoted, 85 

Arundel, Thomas, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, his description of the 
Clerk of Oxford, 364 

Aubry, M., his Latin poem, Oxonii 
Dux Poeticus, quoted on the 
stone heads in front of the 
Sheldonian Theatre yard, 235 

Awdelay, John, lines on abuse of 
Church patronage in fifteenth 
century, 45 

Babbler, The, story from, of Tom 
Welbank, the young Oxford 
Daniel who was thrown to the 
London Lions, 269 

Bacon, Roger, his Brazen-head a 
failure when compared with that 
of Grosseteste, 8 note ; description 
from Robert Greene's play, 
"The Honorable Historic of 
frier Bacon," of his defeat of the 
German scholar Vandermast, 
27-32 

Baker, Thomas, his play, An Act at 
Oxford, 254 note 



379 



38o THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Barclay, Alexander, descriptions 
quoted from his Ship of Fools of 
the Scholar-fool of the day, 47, 
and of the "rude man of the 
country," 53 

Bastard, Thomas, epigrams quoted 
from his Chrestohros on the burn- 
ing of Cranmer, 74, and on the 
Scholar on horseback, 117 note 

Bathurst, Ralph, President of 
Trinity College, on Oxford 
Tradesmen, 260 note 

Bedmaker, Carmen Qtiadresimale 
on a, 287 

Bees of Corpus Christi College, 
settle beneath the leads under the 
study of Vives ; on the murder of 
King Charles they decline and 
die, 250 

Beesly, John, his lines on the panics 
and hardships of the Oxford 
Garrison during the Rebellion, 
quoted from Musarum Ox on. 
Epibateria, 170 

Benlowes, Edward, lines quoted 
from his Oxonii Encomium on 
the Bodleian Library, 126 note, 
and on Oxford, 242 

"Black Assize, The," at Oxford, 
poem by a Student of Cambridge 
on, 79-84 

"Black Gowns and Red Coats," by 
George Cox, lines quoted from, 
attacking the educational system 
of Oxford, 335, and advocating 
the admission of Dissenters to the 
University, 339 

Blucher, Prince, Latin lines on his 
being created D.C.L. in 1814, 
322 

Bodenham, John, lines on Oxford 
quoted from his Belvidere or the 
Garden of the M^lses, 122 

Bodleian Library, the, Cowley's 
Pindaric Ode on, 124-27 ; Ed- 
ward Benlowes' lines on, 126 
note ; King James' remark on the 
chained books in, 126 note ; 
description of, in Alicia D'Anvers' 
Academia, 232-34 

Bold, Henry, his Latin rendering of 
"Oh the bonny Christ Church 
Bells ! " from Latine Songs with 
their English, 132 ; and his 
"Song at the Surrender of Ox- 
ford " from Poems lyrique, maca- 
ronique, heroique^ 189 



Brathwaite, Richard, quotations 
from his Comment upon two 
Tales of our Ancient Poet, Sir 
Jeffray Chaucer, 1 6-2 1 ; verses 
on Oxford from his Barnabae 
Itinerarium, 123 

Brazen-heads, Oxford in Middle 
Ages great centre for fabrication 
of, 8 note 

British Magazine on the initiation 
or ' ' salting " of Freshmen at 
Cambridge in 1567, 229 note 

Browne, Sir William, his " Cam- 
bridge Reply" to the "Oxford 
Epigram " by Joseph Trapp 
( I 7 I 5)> 33 > a Latin rendering 
of the Reply, 303 note 

Bruno, Giordano, quoted on Ox- 
ford Dons, 100-2 ; his dis- 
putation with two of them at 
Fulke Greville's house, 101 ; his 
letter to the University of Oxford, 
his lectures there, and the treat- 
ment he met with, 102 note 

" Buckland, Professor, Specimen of a 
Geological Lecture by," a poem 
by Philip Shuttleworth, Warden 
of New College, 332-35 

Bulteel, Henry, his poem, "The 
Oxford Argo," on the Oxford 
Movement, 351-56 

Burton, Robert, his Anatomy of 
Melancholy quoted on the social 
and religious convulsions of his 
day, 93 ; and on the ridicule of 
Scholars by Gallants, 117 note ; 
his comedy ' ' Philosophaster " 
quoted on the "Young Gentle- 
man at a University," 107, on 
the Scholar-Mountebank of the 
day, no, and on Oxford Towns- 
men, 259 

Bury, Richard of, his sketch of an 
Oxford Clerk with his books 
quoted, 9 ; his Philobiblon quoted, 
7, 8, 9, 10, 14 

"Butler, An old College," character- 
sketch by John Earle, 99 

Calfhill, James, his Encomiastica 
Carmina de Catharina P. Mar- 
ty ris uxore quoted on the burial 
of Catherine Martyr in a coffin with 
the Relics of St. Frideswyde, 76 

Cambridge, Student of, his poem 
on the "Black Assize" at Ox- 
ford, 79-84 



INDEX 



Cambridge, University of, in four- 
teenth century more famous for 
eels than for education, 13 ; 
mustarding, salting, and grubbing 
Freshmen at, 229 note ; politics 
of, described in Warton's "Tri- 
umph of Isis," 307 ; effect of its 
system of education on the mind 
compared with that of Oxford, 

363 

Carfax Church, Carmen Qiiad- 
resimale on the clock of, 237 note 

Carmina Quadresimalia, on the 
topiary works in the Physic Gar- 
den, 231 note ; on Carfax Church 
clock, 237 note ; on the River 
and Godstow Nunnery, 274 ; on 
Shotover, 275 ; on the Fellow of 
a College, 285 ; on the Lounger, 
Bedmaker, and Tennis - Player, 
286-87 5 n the Freshman and the 
Antiquarian, 288 

Carol sung before Charles I in 
Christ Church on Christmas Day, 
1645, 183 

Caroline, Queen, Verses on the 
expected arrival of, in England 
(1761), from the Oxford Sausage, 
3i8 

Carrier, the University, character- 
sketch of, by John Earle, 99 

Caxton, William, story of the " two 
prestes of Oxenford" in the 
Epilogue to his ALsop, 50 ; 
story of successful business-men 
and their books from his Mirror 
of the World, 53 

Charles I, " Epulae Oxonienses," 
a poem on the entertainment of, 
by Archbishop Laud at Oxford, 
150 ; greeted as a defender of 
learning by R. West, Student of 
Christ Church, 155 ; receives 
John Taylor, the Water-poet, in 
Christ Church garden, 166 ; carol 
sung before, in Christ Church, 
183 ; chronogram on his flight 
from Oxford in disguise (1646), 
185 ; lines upon his picture in St. 
John Baptist College Library, 
206 

Chaucer, Geoffrey, sketches of Ox- 
ford Clerks by, 2, 3, 4 ; comments 
on, 1-25 

Christ Church, foundation of, as 
described in Grisilde the Seconde, 
a poem by William Forrest, 



Chaplain to Mary I, 64-67 ; lines 
from Rede me and be not ivrothe 
on buildings of, 66 note ; " The 
Bonny Christ Church Bells " with 
Greek and Latin renderings, 
132-33 ; poems on " Tom " being 
cast, 133-38 ; poem on the Win- 
dows of the Cathedral (1642), 
157 ; carol sung before Charles I 
in, 183 ; a visit to, described in 
the poem, Academia, or the 
Humours of Oxford, 238 ; Car- 
men Quadresimale on ' ' Mer- 
cury," 277 

"Christmas Prince," the, a director 
of Christmas revels at various Ox- 
ford Colleges, 248 note 

Chronograms, on death of Queen 
Elizabeth, 86 ; on accession of 
James I, 88 ; on outbreak of 
Rebellion, 157 ; on flight of 
Charles I from Oxford, 185 ; on 
the surrender of Oxford, 1 86 

Clarendon, Lord, his Dialogue on 
Education, quoted on the erection 
at Oxford of Schools, and endow- 
ment of Professorships, for Danc- 
ing, Riding, and Fencing, 263 

Clarendon Buildings, Carmen Quad- 
resimale and lines by Nicholas 
Amherst on the leaden statues of 
the Muses upon the, 276 

Classical Monopoly, Relaxation of 
the, at Oxford, poem on the, 332 

Clubs, various kinds of, at Oxford 
about the year 1700, "Witty," 
"Nonsense," "Punning," etc., 
261 

Coffee-houses at Oxford and liquors 
served in, about the year 1700, 
described, 264 

Cogan, Thomas, his Haven of 
Health quoted on the "Black 
Assize " at Oxford, 78 

Colet, John, pioneer of Humanism 
at Oxford, 46 ; possible con- 
nection with "Oxford Marma- 
lade," 370 note 

Collection of Whig Songs on Ox- 
ford Jacobites (1716), 301-7 

Colledge, Stephen, the "Protestant 
Joiner," lines on his "Protestant 
Flail," etc., 216 note 

Colleges, foundation of, illustrated 
by Petrucci's Italian poem on 
New College, and Heylin's verses 
on Magdalen College in his 



382 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Memorial of Waynflete, 37-44 ; 
effect of College-building on sys- 
tem of residence at Oxford and 
on the Clerk of Oxford, 60-63 ; 
migration of, in cases of pestilence 
in Oxford, to neighbouring vil- 
lages, 55 note 

Compleat Mendicant, The (1699), 
on "seasoning Freshmen at a 
stone on Headington Hill," 230 
note 

Cooper, Anthony, his Stratologia, 
or the History of the Civil War 
in Verse (1662) quoted, 176, 186 

Copland, Robert, his Hye Way to 
the Spyttell House quoted on 
Scholar-beggars, 54 note 

Corbet, Richard, his Time's Whistle 
quoted on bribery and corruption 
at Oxford (1614), 95 ; poems by, 
on the casting of "Tom" of 
Christ Church, 133-38 ; his 
" Faeryes' Farewell " quoted, 250 
note 

Corpus Christi College, story of the 
Bees of, 250 

Countesse of Lincolne's Nurserie, 
The, a treatise on the nurture of 
infants, publication of, by the Ox- 
ford University Press (1622), 
follows closely upon the admission 
of the wives of Heads of Houses 
within the precincts of Colleges, 

2 53 

Cowley, Abraham, his Pindaric Ode 
on the Bodleian Library, 124-27 

Cox, George, his "Black Gowns 
and Red Coats, or Oxford in 
1834," quoted on fanatical attacks 
then made upon the University, 
and on the claims of Dissenters 
to admission therein, 335-42 

Cox, Richard, Dean of Christ 
Church, iniquities of, described in 
the poem of William Forrest, 
Chaplain to Queen Mary I, 71-73 

Cranmer, Thomas, lines by Thomas 
Bastard on martyrdom of, 74 

"Creeple Souldiers marching in 
Oxford," poem on the (1645), 
181 

Crompton, Hugh, his lines on the 
Clerk of Oxford, 372 

Dancing " after the scole of Oxen- 
ford," described by Chaucer, 6 
note ; views of St. Richard of 



Wych upon, in his undergraduate 
days, 6 note ; proposal of Lord 
Clarendon to establish at Oxford 
Schools and Professorships of, 263 

D'Anvers, Alicia, her poem Aca- 
demia quoted as "An Oxford 
Guide, 1691," 228-41 

Davies, John, of Hereford, his 
Microcosmos quoted on Oxford 
enthusiasm at James I's accession, 
90, and in praise of Oxford, 122 ; 
his Scourge of Folly on Oxford 
and Cambridge Schools, 91 

Devil's Almanac, prophecy with 
regard to Heads of Houses in 
1745 from, 120 

Dons, Oxford, development of, 100; 
Polydore Vergil on, 100 ; William 
Harrison on, 100 ; Giordano 
Bruno on, 100-2; Sir Thomas 
Overbury on, 103-5 > Nicholas 
Amherst on, 120; Mark Pattison 
on, 121 ; completion of evolution 
of modern, 254 ; Carmen Quad- 
resimale on, 285 ; evening song 
of, 285 ; morning vow of, 286 

Dress, academical, in 1691, 241 ; 
etiquette with regard to, 241 
note ; verse from Mottoes for 
Crackers on (1850), 361 

Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester, 
acrostic lines on his visit to Ox- 
ford, 76 

Dun, Oxford, character-sketch of, 
by John Earle, 99 ; lines on, from 
John Philips' Splendid Shilling, 
289-92 

Duport, James, lines from his 
Musae subsecivae on the Shel- 
donian Theatre and the Printing 
Office beneath it, 228 note 

Duppa, Brian, his " Prayer for the 
Preservation of the University 
and City" (1644), 174 

Earle, John, character-sketches from 
his Microcosmographie (1628) of 
an Oxford " Dun " and an Oxford 
"Carrier," 99 ; of an old " Col- 
lege Butler," 100 ; a "Young 
Gentleman at an University,' 
1 06 ; a " Plodding Student " and 
a "Bold Forward Man," no 
a " Pretender to Learning," in 
a "Down-right Scholar," 116 
his poem " Hortus Mertonensis,' 
127-31 



INDEX 



383 



Echo, the Magdalen College, effect 
on, of New College quadrangle 
being raised a storey, 250 

Edmund, St., the Confessor, as an 
undergraduate weds the image of 
Our Lady with a ring, 5 ; interest- 
ing miracle in All Saints' Church- 
yard by, 9 

Edward, the Black Prince, educated 
at Queen's College ; Crecy won 
in the playing fields of Oxford, 5 
note 

Edward vi, Royal Commission of, 
at Oxford, 71-73 

Elizabeth, Queen, Oxford Verses on 
her visits of 1566 and 1592, 77, 
85 ; on her death, 86-87 ; story of 
the gallant Mayor of Oxford and, 
245 ; story of the broad repartee 
of a poor Scholar to, 247 ; her 
sound views on the admission 
within the precincts of the wives 
of Heads of Colleges, 253 

Elyot, Sir Thomas, praises " Oxford 
Marmalade" in his Castel of Helthe 
(1541), 370 note. 

Encomiastica Carmina de Catha- 
rina, P. Marty ris uxore (1561) 
quoted, 76 

English Scholars at Paris (1180), 
lines on, from Nigel's Speculum 
Stultorum, and English rendering 
of the same by Thomas Wright, 
n note. 

" Epulae Oxonienses," Edmund 
Gayton's poem describing enter- 
tainment at Oxford of Charles I 
by Archbishop Laud, 150-53 

Etiquette, Oxford, as to academical 
dress, 241 note ; growth of a Code 
of Manners in eighteenth century, 
255 ; as to speaking to another 
before he has been introduced to 
one, 255 note ; ias to cutting a 
former acquaintance, 256 note 

Eucharistica Oxon. in Caroli regis 
e Scotia Reditum (1641) quoted, 

155 

Europa, visit to, and naming of, 
Oxford by, 14 note 

Examen Poeticum Duplex (1698) 
on topiary works in the Oxford 
Physic Garden, 231 note 

Examination, introduction in 1800 
of new system of, and conse- 
quences thereof; poems on, 
328-32 



Exeter College, initiation of Fresh- 
man in 1637 at, 229 note; 
"Oxford Marmalade" in 1549 
at, 370 note 

Fairfax, General, besieges Oxford ; 
his hat blown off by a cannon- 
ball, 176 ; his threats against 
Oxford, 179 ; his magnanimity at 
surrender of the City, and his pro- 
tection of the Bodleian Library, 
1 88 

Fairies, desertion of Oxford by, on 
approach of the Puritan, 250 

Farquhar, George, his play Sir 
Harry Wildair quoted on the 
Oxonian in Town (1701), 267 

Fletcher, John, his Elder Brother 
quoted on the " meere Scholar," 
116 note 

Forrest, William, Chaplain to Mary 
I, his poem Grisilde the Seconds 
quoted on the erection of Christ 
Church, 64-67 ; on the Great 
Divorce, 67-71 ; on Edward vi's 
Royal Commission of 1549, 71-73 

Freshman, student - initiation or 
" salting " of, 229 note 

Frideswyde, St., her visit to, and 
naming of Oxford, 15 note. 
James Calfhill's lines on the burial 
of her Relics in a coffin with the 
body of Catharine Martyr, 76 

Gascoigne, Thomas, his tale of 
abuse of Church patronage in the 
fifteenth century, 50. 

Gayton, Edmund, his poem "Epulae 
Oxonienses," 150-53 ; stories of 
Oxford life from his Pleasant Notes 
upon Don Quixote, 247-49 

Godstow Nunnery, Carmen Quad- 
resimale on, 274 

Grammar School, lines on the 
Burning of a, at Oxford, 

143-44 

Green, John Richard, his sketch of 
the Clerk of Oxford, 377 

Greene, Robert, scenes from his 
"Honorable Historic of frier 
Bacon" describing the defeat by 
Bacon of the German scholar 
Vandermast, 27-32 

Grobiana's Nuptials (1636), a play 
by Charles May of St. John 
Baptist College, quoted on a Club 
of Oxford Pedants, 114 



384 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 

Grosseteste, Robert, original in- 
ventor of philosophizing Heads of 
Brass ; his masterpiece endowed 
with the genuine " Oxford 
Manner," 8 note ; his maxim on 
the necessaries of life, " soninus, 
cibus, et jocus," 243 



Hampden Controversy, skit on the, 

343-51 
Haughton, William, sketch of the 

"poor scholar" Laureo in his 

play, Patient Grissil (1613), 

98 
Heads of Houses, lines on, from 

Lusus IVestmonasterienses, 278 ; 

a Meeting of, described in the 

skit "The Norwegian Owl," 

279-85 

Heany, James, his Oxford, the Seat 
of the Muses (1738) quoted on 
New College Garden, 238 note 

Heath, Robert, his ' ' Song in the 
Siege of Oxford," 184 

Henrietta Maria, Queen, poems 
from Musarum Oxon. Epibateria 
on her arrival in Oxford (1643), 
169-72 

Henry ill, visit of, to Oxford, de- 
scribed in Robert Greene's play 
" Honorable Historic of frier 
Bacon," 27-32 

Henry v, an alumnus of Queen's 
College, 4 ; lines by Tickell on 
the rebuilding his lodgings there, 
5 note 

Henry vin, the Divorce of, and 
Oxford University, William For- 
rest's poem on, 68-71 

Hertford College, Admonition by 
Principal of, that Members must 
leave Oxford during the Long 
Vacation, and burlesque of, 258 
note 

Heylin, Peter, verses on the founda- 
tion of Magdalen College from 
his " Memorial of Bishop Wayn- 
flete," 39-44 

Hoccleve, his De Regimine Prin- 
cipum quoted on abuse of Church 
patronage in the fifteenth century, 
50 note 

Hole, Samuel R., Song on Oxford 
Examinations from his Hints to 
Freshmen, 331 

Holland, Hugh, his Cypress Gar- 
land( 1625) quoted on James I, 109 



Holyday, Barten, his Marriages of 
the Arts quoted on the fantastic 
carriage of Scholars (1617), 113 ; 
a Scholar's Love-song by, 145 

How, the inspired Cobbler, and his 
Sermon on the Sufficiency of the 
Spirit without Humane Learning, 
epigrams on, 155 note 

Howell, James, poem by, describing 
the designs of the Little Parlia- 
ment (1651) against Oxford, 202 

Hymn of Chaucer's Oxford Clerk, 
ic Angelus ad Virginem," with an 
English rendering, 25 

Insignia Civicas ; the Regiment of 
grutching Anti- Royalists (1643) 
quoted on the inspired Cobbler 
How, 155 note 

Inscription in "high style" upon a 
watchmaker's signboard at Oxford 
(1756), 1 19 note 

"Isis, an Elegy," by William 
Mason, quoted on Oxford Jaco- 
bites, 306 

"Jack," Scogin's scholar-servant, 
* ' how he made his master pay a 
penny for the herring bones," 55 

Jacobitism at Oxford, poems on the 
prevalence of (1715-1760), 301-9 ; 
decline of, poems evidencing, 
315-26 

James I, chronogram, anagram, and 
poem describing the proclamation 
of, at Oxford, 88-90 ; puns of, 
on the Oxford and Cambridge 
Orators' names, 245 

Jane, Dr., Epigram " In Janum 
bifrontem " reproving his treach- 
ery towards James n, 221 

Jankin, "joly," one of Chaucer's 
Oxford Clerks, and fifth husband 
of the Wife of Bath, 18 ; his 
resourcefulness in dealing with 
the problems of married life, 

1 8-2 1 

Jesus College, lines on the founda- 
tion of, 97 note 

John Baptist, St. , College, lines on 
the presentation by a lady of the 
Ten Commandments cut out in 
Paper-work to, 141 ; " Epulae 
Oxonienses," a poem on the enter- 
tainment of Charles I by Arch- 
bishop Laud at, 1 50 ; lines 
describing the removal of Laud's 



INDEX 



385 



body from Allhallows, Barking, 
to, 205 ; poem on the portrait of 
King Charles I in the College Lib- 
rary, 206; "Christmas Prince" 
at, 248 note 

Johnson, Samuel, his Vanity of 
Human Wishes quoted, 300 ; 
stories of, in connection with 
Oxford Orthodoxy, 309 ; his 
sketches of the Clerk of Oxford, 

373 

Jowett, Benjamin, his conjecture 
"that the people of the Middle 
Ages were very like ourselves, 
only dirtier," examined, 1 1 

Kent, Duchess of, Robert Lowe's 
macaronic lines on her visit to 
Oxford (1832), 323-26 

Kettell, Ralph, classifies "idle 
young boys" at Oxford as 
" Tarrarags " and " Rascal -Jacks, 
Blind-Cinques, Scobber-lotchers, " 

'05 

King, Dr. William, leader of the 
Oxford Jacobites, his Speech in 
the Theatre (1749) quoted, 309 
note 

"Lady, that presented the Ten 
Commandments cut out in Paper- 
work to St. John Baptist College, 
To the," verses, 141 

Laud, William, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, poem, " Epulae 
Oxonienses," describing his enter- 
tainment of Charles I at Oxford, 
1 50 ; lines on the removal of his 
body from Barking to St. John 
Baptist College, 205 ; reply of a 
drunken Fellow to, when Proctor, 
245 ; his co-Proctor styled " Proc- 
tor cum parva Laude," 245. 

Library, Duke Humphrey's, descrip- 
tion of foundation of, in lines 
contemporary with the event, 35 

Linacre, William, Oxford pioneer 
of Humanism, 46 ; possible con- 
nection of, with "Oxford Mar- 
malade," 370 note 

Lluellyn, Martin, poems quoted 
from his Men- Miracles (1646) on 
the Oxonian during the Great 
Rebellion, 154 ; on the troubles 
of the time, 164 ; and on a night 
sally made by the Oxford garrison 
(1645), 177; a carol sung before 



the King at Christ Church (1645), 
183 

Lovelace, Lord, verses on his com- 
ing to Oxford (1688), 217-20 

Love-songs of Scholars (1600-1636), 

145-47 

Lowe, Robert, his " Poema canino- 
anglico-latinum " on the visit of 
the Duchess of Kent and Princess 
Victoria to Oxford (1832), 323 

Lusus alteri Westmonasterienses , 
lines from, on ' ' Mercury " in 
Christ Church, 277 ; on the crea- 
tion of Prince Blucher a D.C.L., 
322 

Lusus Westmonasterienscs, lines 
from, on the Head of a College, 
278 

Lyly, John, quotations from his 
Euphues on disorders at Oxford 
( I 579) 9 J -93 ; on the popularity 
of " Oxford Marmalade," 370 
note 

Macaronic Poems ; John Allibond's 
Rustica Acad. Oxon. Descriptio 
(1648), 195 ; Robert Lowe's 
' ' Poema canino-anglico-latinum" 
(1832), 323; lines on new-made 
Bachelors of Arts from the New 
Art, teaching how to be plucked 
(1835), 33 5 " Viae per Angliam 
ferro stratae" (1841), 356 

Magdalen College, descriptive poem 
by Peter Heylin on, 39-44 ; 
"Christmas Prince" at, 248 
note ; the Echo in the water- 
walks of, and New College 
quadrangle, 250 ; " Oxford Mar- 
malade " and, 369 note 

"Marmalade, Oxford," history of, 
and connection with the Oxford 
pioneers of the Renascence (1490- 
1580), 369 note 

Martyr, Catharine, wife of the 
Reformer; James Calfhill's lines 
quoted on the burial of her body 
in a coffin with the Relics of St. 
Frideswyde, 76 

Mason, William, his " Isis, an 
Ele gy>" quoted on Oxford Jaco- 
bites, 306 

May, Charles, the probable author 
of Grobiana's Nuptials, 115 note 

Mempric, founds City of Oxford ; is 
devoured of wolves at Wolver- 
cote ; see " Preface " 



386 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Merton College, lines on a glass 
window at, 45 ; John Earle's 
" Hortus Mertonensis," 127-31 ; 
initiation of Freshmen at (1647), 
230 note; "Christmas Prince" 
at, 248 note 

Methodists, persecution of, at Ox- 
ford, 309-12 ; Charles Wesley's 
Hymns of Intercession quoted, 
310; verses from the Morning 
Chronicle (1768) on, 311 

Middleton, Thomas, sketch of the 
poor Scholar, " Pierce Penny- 
less," in his Black Book, 97 

Miller, James, his play The 
Humours of Oxford (1730), 254 
note 

Milton, John, lines of, on the state 
of Oxford after its surrender 
(1646), 191 

' ' Monmouth, Duke of, Oxford 
Alderman's Speech to" (1680), 

210 

Mottoes for Crackers, forming to- 
gether a complete Freshman's 
Manual (1850), quoted, 361 

Movement, the Oxford, see " Ox- 
ford Movement " 

Musarum Oxon. Epibateria, quoted 
on Oxford University during the 
Rebellion, 1 54 ; and on arrival 
of the Queen at Oxford (1643), 
169-72 

New Art teaching how to be Plucked 
(1835) quoted, on . Oxford Eti- 
quette, 256 note ; on new-made 
Bachelors of Arts, 330 

New College, descriptive poem by 
Ludovico Petrucci on, 37-39 ; 
topiary works in Garden described, 
238 note; "Christmas Prince" 
at, 248 note ; effect of raising the 
quadrangle a storey upon the 
Magdalen College Echo, 250 

Newman, John Henry, his Clerk of 
Oxford, "Charles," in Loss and 
Gain (1848), 378 

Nicholas, "hende," one of 
Chaucer's Oxford Clerks, sketch 
of, 3 ; his resourcefulness in 
matters of "derne" or secret 
love, 16-18; his hymn "Angelus 
ad Virginem" with an English 
rendering, 25 

Nigellus, lines from his Speculum 
Stultorum on English Scholars at 



Paris (1180), with an English 
rendering by Thomas Wright, 1 1 
note 

Nixon, Anthony, his Straunge Foot- 
post (1613) quoted on the fantastic 
carriage of the poor Scholar, 113 

"Norwegian Owl, The" (1725), 
a squib on Heads of Houses, 
279-85 

Overbury, Sir Thomas, his sketches 
of a " Fellow of an House," 103 ; 
an "Inns of Court man," 105 
note; a "Pedant" and a 
"Dunce," 109; a " Meere 
Scholler," 112 

Owen, John, his epigrams quoted, 
on Oxford education, 91 ; on the 
Bodleian Library, 124 ; on his 
"peppering" at Winchester and 
"salting" at New College, 229 
note 

Oxford, Zeus and Europa visit and 
name, 14 ; St. Frideswyde visits 
and names, 14 

Oxford Act, The, see "Act" 

Oxford Act, The (1693) quoted, 252 
note 

' ' Oxford Alderman's Speech to the 
Duke of Monmouth, The " ( 1 680), 

2IO 

Oxford Aldermen, tales of, 54, 118, 

246 
"Oxford Argo, The," poem on 

the Oxford Movement, quoted, 

351 
Oxford Dancing, see " Dancing 

after the scole of Oxenford " 
Oxford Etiquette, see "Etiquette" 
Oxford Fare, poems on, by John 

Allibond and Edmund Gayton, 

147-53 
Oxford Guide, an (1691), being a 

selection from D'Anvers' Aca- 

demia, 228-41 
"Oxford Health, The" (1681) 

quoted, 215-17 
" Oxford in Mourning for the loss 

of her Parliament "(168 1 ), 212-14 
Oxford Jests, by W. H. (1669), 112, 

244 
"Oxford Marmalade," rise of, and 

connection of, with the Oxford 

pioneers of the Renascence, 369 

note 
Oxford Movement, the, poems etc, 

on, 342-56 



INDEX 



387 



Oxford Orthodoxy, in eighteenth 
century, 309 ; decline of, in 
nineteenth century, 338 - 
42 

Oxford Portraits herein, the chief: 
"The Clerk of Oxenford," 
"Hende Nicholas," " Joly 
Jankin" (Chaucer), 2, 3, 16-25; 
" A headstrong Youth with his 
Books" (Richard of Bury), 9; 
"Two Prestes, both Maysters of 
Arts, one pert and quyck, the 
other a good symple preest" 
(Caxton), 50; "John Scogin, of 
Oriel" (Anon.), 51, 55, 368-71 ', 
" Scholar - beggars " (Copland), 
54 note ; group including a 
"Poor Scholar," a " Mere Fellow 
of an House," a "Young Gentle- 
man of the University," a 
"Rascal-Jack," a "Tarrarag," 
a "Pedant," a "Dunce," a 
"Plodding Student," a "Bold 
Forward Man," a "Pretender to 
Learning," a "Mere Scholar," 
a " Down-right Scholar" (Over- 
bury, Earle, Burton, Giordano 
Bruno, and other artists), 96-112 ; 
a "Slicer" or "Man of Fire" 
(Steele); a "Smart" and a 
"Prig" (Amherst), 255; "Val- 
entine Frippery," "Jack Flutter," 
and " Robin Tattle " (Amherst), 
"Dapper-wit" (Anon.), 262; 
"Banter" (Farquhar), "Book- 
wit," "Bob Latine" (Steele), 
267; "Jack Lizard" (Steele), 
267, 269; "Tom Welbank" 
(Anon.), 269; "Heads of 
Houses " (Anon. ), 278 - 85 ; 
"The Fellow of a College," 
"The Lounger," "The Bed- 
maker," "The Antiquarian" 
(Carmina Quadresimalia), 285- 
89; "An Oxford Dun" (John 
Philips), 289; "An Oxford 
Toast" (Amherst), 292; "Mr. 
Walden" (Samuel Richardson), 
366, 374;" "Gelasimus, Vere- 
cundulus, and Gelaleddin " 
(Samuel Johnson), 373 ; 
"Charles" (John Henry New- 
man), 378 

"Oxford Ramble, The," an 
eighteenth-century song, quoted, 
233 note, 238 note, 239 note, and 
241 note 



" Oxford Riddle, The" (1643), 
quoted, 172 

Oxford, The Clerk of, Chaucer's 
sketch of, 2, 12, 21-25 ; ashewer 
of hard sentences and dissolver of 
doubts, 24, 33 ; his characteristics 
unchanged through the changes 
of some six centuries, 13; cari- 
catures of, during the decline of 
the Oxford Schools in the fifteenth 
century, 56-63 ; character-sketches 
of, by Overbury and Earle, after 
the social revolution of the seven- 
teenth century at the Universities 
had commenced, 112-18; por- 
traits of, after the Rebellion, 
Puritan Usurpation, Restoration 
and Revolution, and after the 
completion of the social revolution, 
263-72 ; suggestions why the 
"Oxford Manner" has always 
been so remarkable in the eyes of 
Masters of Fiction, 363-78 

Oxford "Toasts," see "Toasts" 

Oxford Townsmen, sketch of, from 
Saltonstall's Ptcttirae Logttentes, 
99; The Student or Oxford 
Miscellany (1756) on, 119 ; riddle 
about, 1 19 ; Robert Burton on 
(1606), 259; Ralph Bathurst on, 
260 note 

Oxford University, "Lux 

Anglorum," I ; flourishing state 
of, at close of fourteenth century, 
mixed society and many-coloured 
life at, 4-1 1 ; pre-eminence of, 
13-16, 27-33 5 an oracle to which 
all intellectual questions might be 
referred; "maxima Anglorum 
gloria," 33 ; poems on foundation 
of libraries and colleges at, 35-44; 
her decline in fifteenth century, 
her learning despised, her scholars 
diminished in number, "Rachel 
weeping for her children," 45~54 ; 
poems on her trials during the 
troublesome reigns of Henry vin, 
Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth, 
64-90 ; her recovery under 
James I and Charles I, eviction 
of poor scholars by sons of the 
wealthy, and commencement of 
a social revolution, 91-96 ; the 
learned age in her history, 109; 
poems describing the "halcyon 
days " (1600-1636), 122-53; her 
state during the Rebellion, 154- 



388 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



190, and the Restoration and 
Revolution, 205-41 ; her condi- 
tion at the close of the seventeenth 
century, 242-58 ; academical 
society already in a state in which 
it was to remain practically un- 
changed for 1 50 years, 259 ; poems 
describing her virtuous repose 
(1716-1760), and Whig songs 
against Oxford Jacobites, 274- 
312 ; poems describing the passage 
of the Middle Ages at, 313-60; 
the effect of her system of educa- 
tion compared with that of the 
system administered in another 
place, 363-65 

Oxford University Press, proud 
boast by, on its revival (1585), 
influence of wives of Heads of 
Houses on, and publication by, 
of The Countesse of Lincolnes 
Nurserie (1622), 253 

Oxon. Acad. Funebre Officium in 
memoriani Elisabelhae quoted, 86 

Oxonium Poema by F. V. quoted 
as "The Oxford Clerk at work 
and play in 1667," 221-24 

Palladius' De Re Rustica, Metrical 
Translation of, Prooemium to, 
quoted on the foundation of a 
library at Oxford by Duke Hum- 
phrey, 35 

Pattison, Mark, quoted on Fiction 
dealing with University life, 12 1 

Paulet, Lady Elizabeth, lines on 
her gift of needlework to the 
University (1636), 139 

Peacham, Henry, his Complcat 
Gentleman quoted, 106 note 

Pembroke, Earl of, expels loyal 
members of the University (1648), 
lines on his ignorance etc. quoted 
from contemporary squibs, 193-95 

" Pembrooke's Passe from Oxford to 
his Grave" (1648), 193-95 

Penton, Stephen, his Guardian's 
Instrtiction (1688) quoted on 
Gentlemen-Commoners, 254 ; on 
the growth of vacations, 257 note 

Petrucci, Ludovico, descriptive 
Italian poem on New College 
(1613), 37-39 

Philips, John, lines quoted from 
his Splendid Shilling on Oxford 
Duns (1703), 289-92 

Philobiblon, see "Bury, Richard of" 



Physic Garden, poems on the 
topiary works in, 229 

' ' Poema canino-anglico-latinum " 
by Robert Lowe (1832), 323-26 

Pope, Alexander, lines on Clerk of 
Oxford, 1 20 note 

Prayer for the Preservation of the 
University and City (1644), 174 

Prologue, The, and the Tale of 
Beryn, fifteenth-century continua- 
tion of the Canterbury Tales, 
quoted on the Clerk of Oxford, 
II, 23, 25 

Puritan, The (1607), the poor 
Scholar, "George Pye board, "in, 97 

Puritan Usurpation at Oxford (1646- 
1660), poems on the, 191-204 

Quarles, Francis, verse from his 
Shepheard's Oracles (1646) on 
the Puritans' hatred of Universi- 
ties, 191 

Queen's College, Edward the Black 
Prince and Henry v alumni of, 
5 ; poems on, by Tickell and 
Warton, 5 note ; its famous Horn 
"speaks pure Athenian," 123; 
description of Horn, 228 

Railways, effect on Oxford of exten- 
sion of, 356 ; " Viae per Angliam 
ferro stratae" (1841), a macaronic 
poem, 356-59 

Rebellion, the Great, poems etc. 
on Oxford during, 154-90 

Restoration, the, poems on Oxford 
at the time of, 205-217 

Rettirnfrom Parnassus, The (1602), 
sketch of a " Pretender to Learn- 
ing" from, 112 note 

Revolution (1688), poems on the, 
217-21 

"Revolutionary Manifesto, A," 
issued during Commemoration 
(1849), 359 

Richard, St., of Wych, as an Under- 
graduate resigns an estate and a 
maiden to his brother, that he 
may devote himself to logic, 5, 
6 ; extreme views on subject of 
dancing taken by, 6 note 

Richardson, Samuel, his sketch of 
the Clerk of Oxford, "Mr. 
Walden," in Sir Charles Grandi- 
son, 366, 374 

Riddles ; a Scholar's, "Why is Ox- 
ford Town like a Roman Fleet ? " 



INDEX 



389 



and the answer thereto, 119; 
" The Oxford Riddle" (1643), *7 2 

"Salting" or initiation of Fresh- 
men, 229 note 

Saltonstall, Wye, character-sketch 
of an Oxford Townsman from his 
Picturae Loquentes (1631), 99 

Scogin, John, tales of, 51, 55, 
367-71; in Gest and Diet a 
genuine Clerk of Oxford, 371 

Sheldonian Theatre, lines on erec- 
tion of (1669), 224-27; James 
Duport's lines in his Musae 
subsecivae on the Theatre and 
Printing-house beneath, 228 note ; 
Robert Whitehall's lines on the 
roof of, 237 note 

Ship of Fools y I see "Alexander 
Barclay" 

Shotover, George Wither's lines and 
a Carmen Qiiadresimale on, 275 

Shuttleworth, Philip, Warden of 
New College, his ' ' Specimen of 
a Geological Lecture by Professor 
Buckland," 332 

Southey, Robert, his poem "The 
College Cat," 326-28 

Steele, Richard, advises Clerk of 
Oxford to "acquire a little neces- 
sary foppery," 264; "Jack 
Lizard" and his sword, 267; 
"Bookwit" and "Bob Latine" 
in London, 267 ; "Jack Lizard's }> 
table-talk, 269; method adopted 
in his Oxford days to check 
"voluntary rhetoricians," 373 

Stubbes, Philip, his Abuses in 
Ailgna (1583) quoted on bribery 
at Oxford, 95 

Student-initiation at Oxford, history 
of, 229 note 

Stunsfield or Stonesfield, Carmen 
Qiiadresimale on discovery of a 
Roman pavement at, 288 

Tadlow, Dr., heaviest weight in Ox- 
ford (1713), epigrams on, 283 note 

Taylor, John, the Water-poet, verses 
by, on his arrival in Oxford 
(1643), 166 ; squib on failure of 
Lord Essex to advance on Oxford 
(1643), 167 ; quotations from his 
Oxford Besieged (1645), 175, 180 
note 

Tennis-players, Carmen Quadresi- 
male on, 287 



Tickell, Thomas, lines on Queen's 

College, 5 ; on topiary works in 

the Physic Garden, 232 note ; on 

Clerks of Oxford, 242 
Time's Whistle by R. C. (1614) 

quoted on bribery at the Univer- 

sities, 95 
" Toasts," Oxford, poems addressed 

to, in eighteenth century, 262 note; 

Nicholas Amherst's Sirephoris 

Revenge quoted on, 292-95 
" Tom Tel-troth's Message " by Jo. 

La., poem on bribery at the Uni- 

versities (1600), quoted, 96 note 
Trapp, Joseph, the "Oxford Epi- 

gram" (1715) by, 303 
Trinity College, " Christmas 

Prince " at, 248 note 
Tryvytlam, his De Laude Univ. 

Oxoniae quoted, 33 
Tuft-hunting at Oxford, develop- 

ment of, 260 ; rules for conduct 

of the sport of, 260 note 
" Tumulus Elisae," 86 
Tyndale, William, his sermons and 

"Oxford Marmalade," 370 note 

Vacations, development of, in 

modern sense, 256-58 
Vandermast, German scholar, defeat 

of, by Roger Bacon, as described 

in Robert Greene's play "The 

Honorable Historic of frier 

Bacon," 27-32 
Vergil, Polydore, on Oxford Dons, 

100 
Vernon, Francis, his Oxonium 

Poema (1667) quoted on the 

Clerk of Oxford, 221-24 
"Verses on the coming of the 

Whig, Lord Lovelace, to Oxford " 

(1688), 217 
Viae per Angliam ferro stratae," 

macaronic poem on the extension 

of the railway to Oxford (1841), 



Victoria, Princess, Robert Lowe's 
macaronic poem on her visit to 
Oxford, 1832, 323-26 

Vives, Ludovicus, and the Bees of 
Corpus Christi College, 250 

Warburton, Rowland, his song 
"Tantivy Trot "quoted, 357 note 

Ward, Edward, his English render- 
ing of Allibond's Rustica Acad. 
Oxon. Descriptio, 195-202 



390 THE CLERK OF OXFORD IN FICTION 



Warham, William, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and "Oxford Mar- 
malade" (1509), 370 note 

Warton, Thomas, lines on the 
Black Prince at Oxford, 5 note ; 
his Companion to the Guide 
quoted on Oxford cofifee-houses, 
264 ; his poem 7^he Progress of 
Discontent (1746), 296-300; his 
Triumph of I sis (1750) quoted 
on Oxford Jacobites, 307 ; his 
skit on Pietas Oxoniensis (1760), 
315-18 

Wells, Jeremiah, lines from his 
Poems on divers occasions (1667) 
on King Charles I's portrait at 
St. John Baptist College, 206- 
10 ; on the Clerk of Oxford's 
preparation for a visit to London, 
266 

Wesley, Charles, his "Hymn of 
Intercession for the University," 
310 

Whig songs against Oxford Jaco- 
bites, 301-7 

White, Matthew, organist at Christ 
Church (1611), his catch " Great 
Tom is cast," 138 

Whitehall, Robert, lines from his 



Urania (1669) upon the ceiling 
of the Sheldonian Theatre, 237 
note 

Wild, Robert, lines from his Iter 
Borcale upon the nefarious designs 
of the Rump and the Army 
against Oxford, 203 

Winchester College, John Owen's 
epigram on his "peppering" as a 
new boy at, circa 1578, 229 note 

Wither, George, love-song by, 145 ; 
lines on Shotover Hill, 275 

Wives of Heads of Colleges, their 
admission within the precincts, 
and the result thereof, 253 

Worcester College, "Smilers," 
"Saints," and "Sinners" of, 10, u 

Wright, Abraham, a poem "To 
the Founder of Great Tom," 137, 
and chronograms in Latin and 
English on the outbreak of the 
Great Rebellion, 157, quoted from 
his Parnassus Biceps (1656) 

Ye Round Table,*. Hard Case quoted 
from, on Oxford Etiquette, 256 
note 

Zeus, visit to Oxford of, 14 note 



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MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



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Cowper (William). THE POEMS. 
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Cox (Harold), B.A., M.P. LAND 
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INDIA IMPRESSIONS. With 84 Illus- 
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Crawford (F. Q.). See Danson (Mary C.). 

Crofts (T. R. N.), M. A., Modern Language 
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Cross (J. A.), M.A. THE FAITH OF 
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Cruikshank(Q.). THE LOVING BAL- 
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Cunliffe (Sir F. H. E.), Fellow of All Souls' 
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Cutts(E. L.) t D.D. See Leaders of Religion. 

Daniell (Q. W.), M.A. See Leaders of 
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THE DIVINE COMEDY. Translated 
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THEPURGATORIOOFDANTE. 
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D'Arcy (R. F.), M.A. A NEW TRIGON- 
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Davenport (James). THE WASH- 
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Davey (Richard). THE PAGEANT OF 
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Dawson (Mrs. Nelson). See Little Books on 
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Dearmer (Mabel). A CHILD'S LIFE OF 
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Demosthenes. AGAINST CONON AND 
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Library and Little Books on Art. 
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tions. Second Edition. Cr. 8vo. zs.6d.net. 
THE PARISH CLERK. With 31 

Illustrations. Third Edition. Demy 8vo. 

js. 6d. net. 
Dixon (W. M.), M.A. A PRIMER OF 

TENNYSON. Second Edition. Cr. 8v<>. 

zs. 6d. 
ENGLISH POETRY FROM BLAKE TO 

BROWNING. Second Edition. Cr. too. 

zs. 6d. 
Dobbs (W. J.), M.A. See Textbooks of 

Science. 
Doney(May). SONGS OF THE REAL. 

Cr. 8vo. 3J. 6d. net. 
Douglas (Hugh A.). VENICE ON FOOT. 

With the Itinerary of the Grand Canal. 

With 75 Illustrations and n Maps. Fcap. 

8vo. $s. net. 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Douglas (James). THE MAN IN THE 

PULPIT. Cr. 8vo. vs. 6d. net. 

Dowden (J.), D.D., Lord Bishop of Edin- 
burgh. FURTHER STUDIES IN THE 
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Drags (O.). See Books on Business. 

Draper (P. W. M.). See Simplified French 
Texts. 

Driver (S. R.), D.D., D.C.L., Regius Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew in the University of 
Oxford. SERMONS ON SUBJECTS 
CONNECTED WITH THE OLD 
TESTAMENT. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

See also Westminster Commentaries. 

Dry(Wakeling). See Little Guides. 

Dryhurst (A. R.). See Little Books on Art. 

Du Buisson (J. C.), M. A. See Churchman's 
Bible. 

Duguid (Charles). See Books on Business. 

Dumas (Alexandre). THE CRIMES OF 
THE BORGIAS AND OTHERS. 
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THE CRIMES OF URBAIN GRAN- 
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THE CRIMES OF THE MARQUISE 
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THE CRIMES OF ALI PACHA AND 
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MY MEMOIRS. Translated by E. M. 
WALLER. With an Introduction by ANDREW 
LANG. With Frontispieces in Photogravure. 
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A Colonial Edition is also published. 
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Duncan (David), D.Sc., LL.D. THE LIFE 
AND LETTERS OF HERBERT 
SPENCER. With 15 Illustrations. Demy 
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Dunn(J.T)., D. Sc. , and Mundella (V. A.). 
GENERAL ELEMENTARY SCIENCE. 
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Dunstan (A. E.), B.Sc. (Lond.), East Ham 
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Durham (The Earl of ). A REPORT ON 
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Dutt(W. A.). THE NORFOLK BROADS. 
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Colour by W. DEXTER, R.B.A., and 16 

other Illustrations. Demy 8vo. IDS. 6d. net. 

See also Little Guides. 



Earle(John), Bishop of Salisbury. MICRO- 
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THE WORLD DISCOVERED. Post 
i6tn0. 2s. net. 

Edmonds(Major J. E.), R.E. ; D.A.Q.-M.G. 
See Wood (W. Birkbeck). 

Edwards (Clement), M.P. RAILWAY 
NATIONALIZATION. Second Edition, 
Revised. Crown %vo. zs. 6d. net. 

Edwards (W. Douglas). See Commercial 
Series. 

Edwardes (Tickner). THE LORE OF 
THE HONEY BEE. With many Illustra- 
tions. Cr. 8&ff. 6s. 

Egan (Pierce). See I.P.L. 

Egerton (H. E.), M.A. A HISTORY OF 

BRITISH COLONIAL POLICY. A 

Cheaper Issue, with a supplementary chapter. 

Second Ed., Revised. Demyftvo. is.6d.net. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Ellaby (C. G.). See Little Guides. 

Ellerton (F. Q.). See Stone (S. J.). 

Epictetus. See Aurelius (Marcus). 

Erasmus. A Book called in Latin EN- 
CHIRIDION MILITIS CHRISTIANI, 
and in English the Manual of the Christian 
Knight. JScap. 8v0. 35-. 6d. net. 

Ewald(Carl). TWO LEGS, AND OTHER 
STORIES. Translated from the Danish 
by ALEXANDER TEIXEIRA DE MATTOS. 
Illustrated by AUGUST A GUEST. Large Cr. 
8v0. 6s. 

Fairbrother(W. H.), M.A. THE PHILO- 
SOPHY OF T. H. GREEN. Second 
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Fea (Allan). SOME BEAUTIES OF THE 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. With 
82 Illustrations. Second Edition. Demy 
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THE FLIGHT OF THE KING. With 
over 70 Sketches and Photographs by the 
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| SECRET CHAMBERS AND HIDING- 
PLACES. With 80 Illustrations. New and 
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A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Ferrier (Susan). See Little Library. 

Fidler (T. Claxton), M.Inst. C.E. See 

Books on Business, 
i Fielding (Henry). See Standard Library. 

Finn(S. W.), M.A. See Junior Examination 
Series. 

Firth (J. B.). See Little Guides. 

Firth (C. H.), M.A., Regius Professor of 
Modern History at Oxford. CROM- 
WELL'S ARMY: AHistoryof the English 
Soldier during the Civil Wars, the Com- 
monwealth, and the Protectorate. Cr. %vo. 
6s. 

Firth (Edith E.). See Beginner's Books. 

FitzQerald (Edward). THE RUBAIYAT 
OF OMAR KHAYYAM. Printed from 
the Fifth and last Edition. With a Com- 
mentary by Mrs. STEPHEN BATSON, and a 
Biography of Omar by E. D. Ross. Cr. 
8v0. 6s. See also Miniature Library. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



PitzGerald (H. P.). A CONCISE HAND- 
BOOK OF CLIMBERS, TWINERS, 
AND WALL SHRUBS. Illustrated. 
Fcap. 8v0. 3-y. 6d. net. 

Fitzpatrick (S. A. O.). See Ancient Cities. 

Flecker (W. H.), M.A.,D.C.L., Headmaster 
of the Dean Close School, Cheltenham. 
THE STUDENT'S PRAYER BOOK. 
THE TEXT OF MORNING AND EVENING 
PRAYER AND LITANY. With an Introduc- 
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Fletcher (J. S.). A BOOK OF YORK- 
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by WAL PAGET and FRANK SOUTHGATE, 
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8v0. }*. 6d. net. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Flax (A. W.), M.A., William Dow Professor 
of Political Economy in M'Gill University, 
Montreal. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES. 
Demy 8vo. <js. 6d. net. 

Foat (F. W. G.), D.Litt., M.A., Assistant 
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LONDON: A READER FOR YOUNG 
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Ford (H. G.), M.A., Assistant Master at 
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Books. 

Forel (A.). THE SENSES OF INSECTS. 
Translated by MACLEOD YEARSLEY. With 
2 Illustrations. Demy Zvo. ioj. 6d. net. 

Fortescue (Mrs. G.). See Little Books on 
Art. 

Fraser (J. P.). ROUND THE WORLD 
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Fifth Edition Cr. 8vo. 6s. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

French (W.), M.A. See Textbooks of Science. 

Freudenreich (Ed. von). DAIRY BAC- 
TERIOLOGY. A Short Manual for 
Students. Translated by J. R. AINSWORTH 
DAVIS, M.A. Second Edition. Revised. 
Cr. 8v0. 2s. 6d. 

Fulford (H. W.), M.A. See Churchman's 
Bible. 

Fuller (W. P.), M.A. See Simplified French 
Texts. 

Fyvie (John). TRAGEDY QUEENS OF 
THE GEORGIAN ERA. With 16 Illustra- 
tions. Second Ed. Demy'Otvo. izs.6d.nef. 

Gallaher (D.) and Stead (W. J.j. THE 
COMPLETE RUGBY FOOTBALLER, 
ON THE NEW ZEALAND SYSTEM. 
With 35 Illustrations. Second Ed. Demy 
8vo. ioj. 6d. net. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Gallichan (W. M.). See Little Guides. 

Gambado (Geoffrey, Esq.). See I. P. L. 

Gaskell (Mrs.). See Little Library, Stan- 
dard Library and Sixpenny Novels. 

Gasquet, the Right Rev. Abbot, O.S.B. See 
Antiquary's Books. 

George (H.B.),M. A., Fellow of New College, 
Oxford. BATTLES OF ENGLISH HIS- 
TORY. With numerous Plans. Fourth 
Edition. Cr. 8vo. 3-f. 6d. 

A HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE 



BRITISH EMPIRE. Third Edition. 
Cr. 8vo. 3J. 6d. 

Gibbins (H. de B.), Litt.D., M.A. IN- 
DUSTRY IN ENGLAND : HISTORI- 
CAL OUTLINES. With 5 Maps. Fifth 
Edition. Demy 8v0. los. 6d. 

THE INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF 
ENGLAND. With Maps and Plans. 
Fifteenth Edition, Revised. Cr. 8710. ?s. 

ENGLISH SOCIAL REFORMERS. 
Second Edition. Cr. ?>vo. 2s. 6d. 

See also Hadfield (R. A.)., and Commer- 
cial Series. 

Gibbon (Edward). MEMOIRS OF MY 
LIFE AND WRITINGS. Edited by 
G. BIRKBECK HILL, LL.D Cr. 8v0. 6s. 

THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE 
ROMAN EMPIRE. Edited, with Notes, 
Appendices, and Maps, by J. B. BURY, 
M.A., Litt.D., Regius Professor of Modern 
History at Cambridge. In Seven Volumes. 
Demy 8v0. Gilt top. 8s. 6d. each. A Iso, 
Crown 8v0. 6s. each. 
See also Standard Library. 

Gibbs (Philip). THE ROMANCE OF 
GEORGE VILLIERS : FIRST DUKE 
OF BUCKINGHAM, AND SOME MEN 
AND WOMEN OF THE STUART 
COURT. With 20 Illustrations. Second 
Edition. Demy Sv0. 15^. net. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Gibson (E. C. S.), D.D., Lord Bishop of 
Gloucester. See Westminster Commentaries, 
Handbooks of Theology, and Oxford Bio- 
graphies. 

Gilbert (A. R.). See Little Books on Art. 

Gloag (M. R.) and Wyatt (Kate M.). A 
BOOK OF ENGLISH GARDENS. 
With 24 Illustrations in Colour. Demy 
8i>0. los. 6d. net. 

Godfrey (Elizabeth). A BOOK OF RE- 
MEMBRANCE. Being Lyrical Selections 
for every day in the Year. Arranged by. 
Fcap. 8vo. vs. 6d. net. 

ENGLISH CHILDREN IN THE OLDEN 
TIME. With 32 Illustrations. Second 
Edition. Demy 8v0. js. 6d. net. 

God ley (A. D.), M.A., Fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxford. LYRA FRIVOL A. 
Fourth Edition. Fcap. 8v0. 2s. 6d. 

VERSES TO ORDER. Second Edition. 
Fcap. 8vo. zs. 6d. 

SECOND STRINGS. Fcap. Zvo. 2*. 6d. 

Goldsmith (Oliver). THE VICAR OF 
WAKE FIELD. With 10 Plates in 
Photogravure by Tony Johannot. Leather, 
Fcap. -3,2mo. 2S. >d. net. 

See also I.P.L. and Standard Library. 

Gomme (G. L.). See Antiquary's Books. 

Goodrich -Freer (A.). IN A SYRIAN 
SADDLED Demy 8v0. 75. 6d. net. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Gorst (Rt. Hon. Sir John). THE CHIL- 
DREN OF THE NATION. Second 
Edition. Demy 8v0. js. 6d. net. 

Goudge (H. L.), M.A., Principal of Wdk 
Theological College. See Westminster Com- 
mentaries. 



A 2 



10 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



Graham (P. Anderson). THE RURAL 
EXODUS. The Problem of the Village 
and the Town. Cr. &vo. 2S. 6d. 

Granger (F. S.), M.A., Litt.D. PSYCH- 
OLOGY. Third Edition. Cr. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

THE SOUL OF A CHRISTIAN. 
Cr. 8r/<7. 6s. 

Gray (E. M'Queen). GERMAN PASS AGES 
FOR UNSEEN TRANSLATION. Cr. 
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Gray (P. L.), B.Sc. THE PRINCIPLES OF 
MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY. 
With 181 Diagrams. Cr. 8z>o. 3$. 6d. 

Green (G. Buckland), M.A., late Fellow 
of St. John's College, Oxon. NOTES ON 
GREEK AND LATIN SYNTAX. 
Second Ed. revised. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 

Greenidge(A.H.J.),M.A.,D.Litt. A HIS- 
TORY OF ROME : From the Tribunate of 
Tiberius Gracchus to the end of the Jugur- 
thine War, B.C. 133-104. Demy 8vo. 
los. 6d. net. 

Greenwell (Dora). See Miniature Library. 

Gregory (R. A.). THE VAULT OF 
HEAVEN. A Popular Introduction to 
Astronomy. Illustrated. Cr. 8vo. 2S. 6d. 

Gregory (Miss E. C.). See Library of 
Devotion. 

Grubb(H. C.). See Textbooks of Technology. 

Hadfield (R. A.) and Gibbins (H. de B ). 
A SHORTER WORKING DAY. Cr. 
8vo. 2S. 6d. 

Hall (Mary). A WOMAN'S TREK FROM 
THE CAPE TO CAIRO. With 64 Illus- 
trations and 2 Maps. Second Edition. 
Demy 8z>o. i6s. net. 

Hall (R. N.) and Neal (W. G.). THE 
ANCIENT RUINS OF RHODESIA. 
Illustrated. Second Edition, revised. 
Demy 8vo. ios. 6d. net. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Hall (R. N.). GREAT ZIMBABWE. 
With numerous Plans and Illustrations. 
Second Edition. Demy 8vo. los. 6d. net. 

Hamel (Frank). FAMOUS FRENCH 
SALONS. With 20 Illustrations. 
Third Edition. Demy 8vo. 12$. 6d. net. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Hamilton (F. J.), D.D. See Byzantine Texts. 

Hannay (D.). A SHORT HISTORY OF 
THE ROYAL NAVY, 1200-1688. Illus- 
trated. Demy 8z>o. -js. 6d. net. 

Hannay (James O.), M.A. THE SPIRIT 
AND ORIGIN OF CHRISTIAN 
MONASTICISM. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

THE WISDOM OF THE DESERT. Fcap. 
8vt>. 35. 6d. net. 

Hardie(Martin). See Connoisseur's Library. 

Hare (A. T.), M.A. THE CONSTRUC- 
TION OF LARGE INDUCTION COILS. 
With numerous Diagrams. Demy 8vo. 6s. 

Harvey (Alfred), M.B. See Ancient Cities 
and Antiquary's Books. 

Hawthorne (Nathaniel). See Little Librarj'. 

Heath (Frank R.). See Little Guides. 

Heath (Dudley). See Connoisseur's Library. 

Hello (Ernest). STUDIES IN SAINT- 
SHIP. Fcap 800. 3 j. 6d. 



Henderson (B. W.), Fellow of Exeter 
College, Oxford. THE LIFE AND 
PRINCIPATE OF THE EMPEROR 
NERO. Illustrated. New and cheaper 
issue. Demy 8z>0. js. 6d. net. 

AT INTERVALS. FcafSvo. ys.6d.net. 

Henderson (M. Sturge). GEORGE 
MEREDITH : NOVELIST, POET, 
REFORMER. With a Portrait in Photo- 
gravure. Second Edition. Crown &vo. 6s. 

Henderson (T. F.). See Little Library and 
Oxford Biographies. 

Henderson (T. F.), and Watt (Francis). 
SCOTLAND OF TO-DAY. With 20 
Illustrations in colour and 24 other Illus- 
trations. Second Edition. Cr. 8z>0. 6s. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Henley (W. E.). ENGLISH LYRICS. 
CHAUCER TO POE, 1340-1849. Second 
Edition. Cr. 8z>o. 2s. 6d. net. 

Henley ( W. E.)and Whibley (C.) A BOOK 
OF ENGLISH PROSE, CHARACTER, 
AND INCIDENT, 1387-1649. Cr. 8vo. 
2s. 6d. net. 

Henson(H. H.), B.D., Canon of Westminster. 
| LIGHT AND LEAVEN : HISTORICAL 
AND SOCIAL SERMONS. Cr. 8z'o. 6s. 

Herbert (George). See Library of Devotion. 

Herbert of Cherbury (Lord). See Minia- 
ture Library. 

Hewins (W. A. S.), B.A. ENGLISH 
TRADE AND FINANCE IN THE 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. Cr. 8vo. 
as. 6d. 

Hewitt (Ethel M.) A GOLDEN DIAL. 
A Day Book of Prose and Verse. Fcap. 
Sz'o. 2s. 6d. net. 

Hey (H.), Inspector, Surrey Education Com- 
mittee, and Rose (G. H.), City and Guilds 
Woodwork Teacher. THE MANUAL 
TRAINING CLASSROOM : WOOD- 
WORK. Book I. 4/0. is. 

Hey WOOd (W.). See St. Francis of Assisi. 

Hill (Clare). See Textbooks of Technology. 

Hill (Henry), B.A., Headmaster of the Boy's 
High School, Worcester, Cape Colony. A 
SOUTH AFRICAN ARITHMETIC. 
Cr. 8vo. 3^. 6d. 

Hind(C. Lewis). DAYS IN CORNWALL. 
With 16 Illustrations in Colour by WILLIAM 
PASCOB, and 20 other Illustrations and a 
Map. Second Edition. Cr. 8z>o. 6s. 

Hirst (F. W.) See Books on Business. 

Hoare (J. Douglas). A HISTORY OF 
ARCTIC EXPLORATION. With 20 
Illustrations& Maps. DemyZvo. fs.6d.net. 

Hobhouse (L. T.), late Fellow of C.C.C., 
Oxford. THE THEORY OF KNOW- 
LEDGE. Demy 8ve>. IQS. 6d. net. 

Hobson(J. A.), M.A. INTERNATIONAL 
TRADE : A Study of Economic Principles. 
Cr. 8v0. 2S. 6d. net. 

PROBLEMS OF POVERTY. An Inquiry 
into the Industrial Condition of the Poor. 
Seventh Edition. Cr. 8v0. 2S. 6d. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



ii 



THE PROBLEM OF THE UNEM- 
PLOYED. Fourth Edition. Cr.8v0. zs.6d. 

Hodgetts (E. A. Brayley). THE COURT 
OF RUSSIA IN THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY. With 20 Illustrations. Two 
Volumes. Demy 8v0. z^s. net. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Ilodgkin (T.), D.C.L. See Leaders of 
Religion. 

Hodgson (Mrs. W.) HOW TO IDENTIFY 
OLD CHINESE PORCELAIN. With 40 
Illustrations. Second Edition. Posf&vo. 6s. 

Holden-Stone (G. de). See Books on 
Business. 

Holdich (Sir T. H.), K.C.I.E. THE 
INDIAN BORDERLAND: being a 
Personal Record of Twenty Years. Illus- 
trated. DetnyZvo. ~ios.6d.net. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Holdsworth (W. S.), M.A. A HISTORY 
OF ENGLISH LAW. In Two Volumes. 
Vol. I. Demy 8z>0. IDS. 6d. net. 

Holland (H. Scott), Canon of St. Paul's. 
See Newman (J. H.). 

Holhvay-Calthrop (H. C.), late of Balliol 
College, Oxford ; Bursar of Eton College. 
PETRARCH : HIS LIFE, WORK, AND 
TIMES. With 24 Illustrations. Demy 
8v0. i2s. 6d. net. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Holt (Emily). THE SECRET OF POPU- 
LARITY : How to Achieve Social Success. 
Cr. 8v0. 2 s - 6d. net. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Holyoake(Q. J.). THE CO-OPERATIVE 
MOVEMENT OF TO-DAY. Fourth Ed. 
Cr. 8vo. zs. 6d. 

Hone (Nathaniel J.). See Antiquary's Books. 

Hook (A.) HUMANITY AND ITS 
PROBLEMS. Cr. Zt>o. 55. net. 

Hoppner. See Little Galleries. 

Horace. See Classical Translations. 

Horsburgh(E. L. S.),M.A. WATERLOO : 
With Plans. Second Edition. Cr. 8v0. 5*. 
See also Oxford Biographies. 

Horth(A. C.). See Textbooks of Technology. 

Horton(R. FAD.D. See Leadersof Religion. 

Hosie (Alexander). MANCHURIA. With 
Illustrations and a Map. Second Edition. 
Demy 8vo. 7$. 6d. net. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

How (P. D.). SIX GREAT SCHOOL- 
MASTERS. With Portraits and Illustra- 
tions. Second Edition. DemyZvo. -js. 6d. 

Howell (A. Q. Ferrers). FRANCISCAN 
DAYS. Being Selections for every day in 
the year from ancient Franciscan writings. 
Cr. 8v0. 3^. 6d. net. 

Howell (G.). TRADE UNIpNISM NEW 
AND OLD. Fourth Edition. Cr. Zvo. 
as. 6d. 

Huggins (Sir William), K.C.B.. O.M., 
D.C.L.,F.R.S.THE ROYAL SOCIETY. 
With 25 Illustrations. Wide Royal two. 
4,1. 6d. net. 

Hughes (C. E.). THE PRAISE OF 
SHAKESPEARE. An English Antho- 



logy. With a Preface by SIDNEY LEE. 
Demy 8v&. 35. 6d. net. 

Hughes (Thomas). TOM BROWN'S 
SCHOOLDAYS. With an Introduction 
and Notes by VERNON RENDALL. Leather. 
Royal ^zmo. zs. 6d. net. 

Hutchinson (Horace G.) THE NEW 
FOREST. Illustrated in colour with 
50 Pictures by WALTER TYNDALE and 4 
by LUCY KEMP-WELCH. Third Edition. 
Cr. 8v0. 6s. 

Hutton (A. W.), M.A. See Leaders of 
Religion and Library of Devotion. 

Hutton (Edward). THE CITIES OF 
UMBRIA. With 20 Illustrations in Colour 
by A. PISA, and 12 other Illustrations. Third 
Edition. Cr.8v0. 6s. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

THE CITIES OF SPAIN. With 24 Illus- 
trations in Colour, by A. W. RIMINGTON, 
20 other Illustrations and a Map. Third 
Edition. Cr. %vo. 6s. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

FLORENCE AND THE CITIES OF 
NORTHERN TUSCANY, WITH 
GENOA. With 16 Illustrations in Colour 
by WILLIAM PARKINSON, and 16 other 
Illustrations. Second Edition. Cr. 8v0. 6s 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

ENGLISH LOVE POEMS. Edited with 
an Introduction. Fcap. 8vo. %s. 6d. net. 

Hutton (R. H.). See Leaders of Religion. 

Hutton (W. H.), M.A. THE LIFE OF 
SIR THOMAS MORE. With Portraits 
after Drawings by HOLBEIN. Second Ed. 
Cr. 8vo. $s. 

See also Leaders of Religion. 

Hyde (A. G.) GEORGE HERBERT AND 
HIS TIMES. With 32 Illustrations. 
Demy 8z>0. IDS. 6d. net. 

Hyett(F. A.). FLORENCE : HER HISTORY 

AND ART TO THE FALL OF THE REPUBLIC. 

Demy 8vo. -js. 6d. net. 

Ibsen (Henrik). BRAND. A Drama. 
Translated by WILLIAM WILSON. Third 
Edition. Cr. %vo. 35. 6d. 

Inge (W. R.), M.A., Fellow and Tutor of 
Hertford College, Oxford. CHRISTIAN 
MYSTICISM. (The Bampton Lectures of 
1899.) Demy 8vo. izs. 6d. net. 
See alsoLibrary of Devotion. 

Ingham (B. P.). See Simplified French 

Innes(A. D.), M.A. A HISTORY OF THE 

BRITISH IN INDIA. With Maps and 

Plans. Cr. 87>o. 6s. 
ENGLAND UNDER THE TUDORS. 

With Maps. Second Edition. Demy 8z>0. 

TOS. 6d. net. 
Jackson (C. E.), B. A., Senior Physics Maste 

Bradford Grammar School. 

of Science. 

Jackson (S.), M.A. See Commercial Series. 
Jackson (F. Hamilton). See Little Guides. 
Jacob (F.), M.A. See Junior Examination 

Series. 



12 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



James (W. H. N.). See Brooks (E. E.). 

Jeans (J. Stephen). TRUSTS, POOLS, 
AND CORNERS AS AFFECTING 
COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. Cr. 
8vff. zs. 6d. 

See also Books on Business. 

Jebb (Camilla). A STAR OF THE 
SALONS : JULIE DK LESPINASSE. With 
20 Illustrations. Demy 8v0. ios. 6d. net. 
A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Jeffery (Reginald W.), M.A. THE 
THIRTEEN COLONIES OF NORTH 
AMERICA. With 8 Illustrations and a 
Map. Demy 8vo. "js. 6d. net. 

A Colonial Edition is also published. 

Jeffreys(D. Gwyn). DOLLY'S THEATRI- 
CALS. Super Royal i6mo. zs. 6d. 

Jenks(E.), M.A., B.C.L. AN OUTLINE 
OF ENGLISH LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 
Second Ed. Revised by R. C. K. ENSOR, 
M.A. Cr. 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Jenner (Mrs. H.). See Little Books on Art. 

Jennings (Oscar), M.D. EARLY WOOD- 
CUT INITIALS. Demy \to. ais. net. 

Jessopp (Augustus), D.D. See Leaders of 
Religion. 

Jevons (P. B.), M.A., Litt.D., Principal of 
Hatfield Hall, Durham. RELIGION 
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i6 



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i8 



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20 



MESSRS. METHUEN'S CATALOGUE 



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Wells (Sidney H.) See Textbooks of Science. 



GENERAL LITERATURE 



21 



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ONE ANOTHER'S BURDENS. 
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LEY'S SECRET. 
A MOMENT'S ERROR. 
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JACOB FAITHFUL. 



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THE TWICKENHAM PEERAGE. 

THE GODDESS. 

THE JOSS. 

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Mathers (Helen). HONEY. 

GRIFF OF GRIFFITHSCOURT 

SAM'S SWEETHEART. 

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Mitford (Bertram). THE SIGN OF THE 

SPIDER. 

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THE WALL. 

Nesbit (E.) THE RED HOUSE. 
Norris(W. E.). HIS GRACE. 
I GILES INGILBY. 

THE CREDIT OF THE COUNTY. 
I LORD LEONARD THE LUCKLESS. 
I MATTHEW AUSTIN. 
CLARISSA FURIOSA. 
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SIR ROBERTS FORTUNE. 
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THE TWO MARYS. 

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WHEN VALMOND CAME TO PONTIAC. 
THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. 
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OF A THRONE. 
I CROWN THEE KING. 
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CHILDREN OF THE MIST. 
THE POACHER'S WIFE. 
THE RIVER. 

A. T. Quiller Couch). THE 
ITE WOLF. 
Ridge (W. Pett). A SON OF THE STATE. 
LOST PROPERTY. 
GEORGE and THE GENERAL. 
Russell (W. Clark). ABANDONED. 
A MARRIAGE AT SEA. 
MY DANISH SWEETHEART. 
HIS ISLAND PRINCESS. 
Sergeant (Adeline). THE MASTER OF 

BERCHWOOD. 
BARBARA'S MONEY. 
THE YELLOW DIAMOND. 
THE LOVE THAT OVERCAME. 
Stirtees (R. S.). HANDLEY CROSS. 
MR. SPONGE'S SPORTING TOUR. 
ASK MAMMA. 

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COUSINS. 

THE BABY'S GRANDMOTHER. 
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THE FAIR GOD. 

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TURERS. 

Weekes (A. B.). PRISONERS OF WAR. 
Wells (H. G.). THE SEA LADY. 
White (Percy). A PASSIONATE 

PILGRIM. 






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