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HENRY BRADSHAW 
SOCIETY 



founbeb in tU ^^t of Our £or^ 1890 



for i^t editing of (j^Are fiiturgicdf Certs. 




Vol. XXV. 



ISSUED TO MEMBERS FOR THE YEAR 1903, 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

HARRISON AMD SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE 






• • • 

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British Museum, C. 36. d. i. 



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THE 



CLERK'S BOOK 



OF 



1549- 



EDITED BY 



J. WICKHAM LEGG, 

Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and of the Society of Antiquaries of 

Ijmdon. ' 



bonbon. 



1903. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



. **"••' /XV^IL •«• ,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,,, ,^, ,,, g. 

Introduction 

Edwardian Psalters 

Clerk as church officer 

Clerk's Main Duties : Ability to sing 

,, „ read the Epistle and Lesson 

9 9 99 ICtt^xl •«• ••• ••• ••• ••« 

„ to assist in ministering Sacraments and Sacra 

ui6uUilS ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••< 

Clerk's Minor Duties , 

^ \J A Bc_ L/CUd* •• ••• •«• ••• ••■ ■•• ••• •• 

To bght lamps ... . < . 

To fold up vestments 

X O wLTTmiy eiliSkTS ••• ••• «•• ••• ••• ••• •• 

JL \J 1CL\^U il.£C»*a ••■ ••• ••• •»• ••i> ••• •• 

To keep church clean 

To light lanterns 

To serve at low mass 

To open church ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 

X \J \,0cLkLjf LKUL ••• ••• ••• ••• •■• ••• ••• •• 

To keep registers ... < . . 
Clerk's Social and' Ecclesiastical position 

* WolvUXw ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ■«■ ••• ••• *•• 

*^&^ ••• ••• ••• *•• •«• *•• *«• •«• ••• 

^^Ofl X Mtj^C ••• ••• •■• ■•• ••• ■«• ••• ••• 

Exceeding duties 

X^ UAXAL/d ■•• ••• ••• !••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Right of appointment 

* V Ages ... *c« ... aaa ... ••« ... ... «•• 

Carrjdng roimd of holy water 

XXwAV mxMOmX ■•• •«• • • p ••• ••• •■• •■• ••• 

Cakes, eggs, and sheaves 

. Glebe and House... 

JL CC0 ••• •■• ••• ••• ••« ••• »•• ••• 

^^ACA *b w QtACd ••• •«• •«• *•• ••• •«• »»• 

i^cLmvX y ••• ••• *•• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

XYXlSCdlclUCOUS •«• ■•• ••• ••• ••• •»• • • • ••• 

X xxl£ v^XjKRK S x)OOiv ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 

Order how the psalter shall be read 

Table for the order of the Psalms 

XVaICXIUmX ••• ••■ ••• ••• ■•■ •«• •«« ••« 



PAGE 

vu. 

xi. 

xi. 

xvii. 

xix. 

xxi. 

xxiv. 



,.• XXV* 

xxvii. 

xxvii. 

• a . JULXa. ' 

. . . XXX* 

• . . ^LAJkl. 

■ . • XXX1<- 

. . . xxxii. 

. . . xxxiii. 

... xxxiii.^ 

... xxxiv.r 

• .• XXXVtf 

xxxv< 

. .. XXXV* 

... xxxviii. 

xli. 

xli. 

xlii. 

xlvi. 

. . . xlviii. 

li. 

li. 

liii* 

Iv. 

Ivi. 

Ivi. 

Ivii. 

Iviii* 

. . . ul« 

I 
3 

• • • A 

5 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Mattins 

Evensong 

Quicunque vult 

Litany 
Communion 

Matrimony 

Visitation of the Sick 
Commmiion of the Sick ... 
Burial of the Dead 
Communion at Burial 
Purification of Women ... 
First day of Lent 



• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



PAGE 

17 
24 

26 

2S 

34 

42 

44 
46 

48 
52 
53 
54 



Appendices. 

L Constitutions of Parish Clerks at Coventry 
IL „ „ ,, All Saints Bristol 

in. Duties of the Clerks at St. Nicholas Bristol 

IV. Pa)mients to Clerks at St. Margaret Lothbury 

V. Ofl5ce of the Clerks at Faversham 

VI. Rules at St. Michael's Comhill 

VII. Dispute about the Clerk at Morebath 

VIII. Duties of Clerks at St. Stephen's Coleman Street 

IX. Injunctions at Doncaster 

X. The Holy Loaf at Staniord-in-the-Vale 

XI. Extracts from Visitation Articles, etc 

XII. Draft of licence to parish clerk to read prayers, etc 

XIII. Godolphin on right to appoint Clerk 

XIV. The duties of Parish Clerk at Barrow-on-Humber 

X^ \J A AiO ••• ••• ••■ ••• ••• ••• ••• •« 

^ A^ A^OfJik ••• •*• ••« ••• ••• •*• ••• 



57 

64 
66 

71 

75 
82 

84 
90 

94 
96 

98 
105 
107 
109 
III 
129 



PREFACE. 

It would hardly be honest of me to present the following pages 
to the Society with my name prefixed as Editor, unless I made 
it clear that in them I have done little but play the part of the 
rhapsodist, one who stitches and strings together the information 
brought to him by others. Mr. Cuthbert Atchley is chief amongst 
those who have so kindly furnished me with material ; in fact, 
the book ought really to be called his, and I do not know of any 
reason why he should not have edited the work in his own name, 
except that he does not live in London, and thus could not have 
daily access to the only copy of the Clerk's Book that is at 
present known to exist In arranging the materials for the 
introduction so freely offered to me, and in choosing them, I 
have not in all cases followed Mr. Atchley's recommendations, 
and he is free from all responsibility for defects thus ensuing ; 
but I must express my very sincere thanks and heart-felt 
gratitude for the generosity with which he has placed the 
results of his prolonged researches so completely at my 
disposal. 

In investigations which I have made on my own behalf I 
have been much helped by the lists of Parish and other accountSy 
.which have been published by Mr. B. L. Hutchins in Notes and 
Queries, 1899 and 1900, Ninth Series, Vol. IV. and Vol. V. I 
have found the references to the churchwardens' accounts "^ very 
valuable. 

I am also much indebted to Mr. James Christie's work, which 
has for its title. Some Account of Parish Clerks , printed at the 
expense of the Company of Parish Clerks in 1893, but not 
published. 



viii PREFACE. 

Illustrations of the duties of clerks taken from foreign sources 
have been hardly, if at all, admitted to this work. It was felt 
that such could be very much better dealt with by continental 
writers, who would have command of the manuscript and 
printed sources of such illustrations ; a lesser reason is, also, 
that the introduction and notes would be enlarged beyond what 
was desirable as an accompaniment to so small a work as the 
Clerk's Book, which, again, is also itself merely English. 

In printing the records of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
that appear as appendices, I have followed a plan which I 
cannot flatter myself will meet with general approval. I have 
given no indication of the contractions that I have expanded. 
I have done this not without a good deal of consideration and 
some misgivings. My aim has been, not thereby to give a 
better look to the page, but rather to avoid a promise of 
accuracy which, it may be feared, would not be invariably borne 
out in the performance. 

Finally, I would acknowledge with much gratitude the help so 
kindly given me by many friends and correspondents. To the 
Rev. Christopher Wordsworth I am indebted for much informa- 
tion, especially about the clerk's duties at Barrow on the 
H umber and the holy loaf at Stanford in the Vale ; to the Rev. 
F. M. Beaumont, for allowing the constitutions of the clerks at 
Coventry to be deposited in the British Museum, which enabled 
me to transcribe these documents afresh from the originals; 
to the Rev. Dr. Macray for transcripts of documents in the 
Bodleian Library ; to the Rev. J. R. Hughes for transcripts of 
documents from the parish records at Rempstone ; to Mr. J. A. 
Herbert for transcripts from manuscripts in the British Museum; 
to Mr. Robert Brown, Junior, F.S.A., for a fresh transcript of the 
clerk's duties at Barrow on the Humber ; to the Rev. Dr. J, T. 
Fowler for access to a printed book in the Library of the 
University of Durham ; to the Rev. J. Erskine Binney for 
access to the documents containing the dispute at Morcbath. 
For information and encouragement I am also indebted to the 



PREFACE, ix 

Rev. Arthur Brinckman, Mr. Alfred W. Pollard, Mr. Francis B. 
Bickley, Mr. Falconer Madan, the Rev. Sidney E. Dodderidge, 
Mr. Francis F. Giraud, Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, the Rev. H. Aldrich 
Cotton, and the Rev. A. L. Palmes. 

Dr. Edwin Freshfield must be specially mentioned for the 
abundant information that he has given me, as well as for the 
great kindness that I have always received at his hands. 

To our Treasurer, Mr. Dewick, and our Secretary, Mr. Wilson, 
I am again, as so often before, under very deep obligations. 
Their advice and time have been most ungrudgingly bestowed 
upon me ; and only those who have received similar favours at 
their hands can measure my indebtedness to their goodness and 
generosity. 

J. WiCKHAM LEGG. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The book of which a part is now reprinted was purchased for the 
British Museum in the autumn of 1876. Beyond this I am able to say 
little of the history of the copy. It was, indeed, in actual use in 
Cheshire early in the seventeenth century; but besides this, nothing 
else seems to be at present known. 

Six years after the purchase of this volume, attention was called to it 
by Mr. Maskell in the second edition of Monumenta Ritualia. In a 
note to the Ordo ad faciendum Sponsalia he gave a short account of the 
contents of the book ; but he does not make it quite plain how it is 
more "a connecting link between the old rituals and the reformed 
Prayer book," than the first prayer book of Edward VI. itself.^ 

I do not know that anyone else has described it in print. 

The book is in 4°, the leaves now measuring 189 by 140 millimeters, 
but they have been cut down by the binder. The size of a page of 
25 lines including headline and catchword is 159 by 93 millimeters. It 
is printed wholly in black, with the exception of the title page, and the 
first quire, parts of which are in red, as the holy days in the calendar. 
The type is black letter ; but when a capital W has to be used, it is in 
nearly all cases Roman. There is only one column. The number of 
lines in a full page varies from 25 to 26, 25 being more usual. 

The book is composed of two parts ; each has a separate title page 
and signatures. The first part is that containing the book for the 
clerk, now edited ; the second, the psalter. Both parts have eight leaves 
to the quire, except the last quire of the psalter, which has only six. 
To the last quire (d) of the handbook the last leaf is wanting ; its place 
is now taken by a blank leaf of modern paper, but the last leaf was 
probably also blank. The signatures of the clerk's book are in small 
black letter, with the exception of the first which is a cross; the 
signatures of the psalter are in capital black letter, from A to T. 

There is no pagination. There are forty leaves in the clerk's book, 
counting the blank leaf at its end. There are 150 in the psalter. 

The structure of the book may be thus expressed : 

>J< a — ^^=40 ff. 
A— S«T«=i5off. 

The lines of the title are printed alternately in red and black, 
excepting the two lowest, and the title is surrounded by a border of 

^ William Maskell, Monumenli Ritualia Ecdesiae Anglicanae^ Oxford, 1882, vol. i« 
p. 60, note 20. 



xii INTRODUCTION, 

architectural design ; a lintel supported by two columns which rest 
upon an ornamental base. Parts of this border are in red ; (i.) a figure 
on the left side of the upper border ; (ii.) two roundels, one in the 
extreme left of the lower border, another in the middle right hand portion 
of the side border; (iii.) the printer's device within a wreath in the 
middle of the lower border. 

The title page of the whole book has been reprinted below.* The 
title page of the psalter is as follows : 

The Psal-|| ter or Psalmes of Da-||uid, after the transla-||cion of the 
greate II Bible, poyn-||ted as it shal-||be song in || Churches || [an 
ornamental leaf] M.D. xlix. 

The colophon which occupies the verso of the last leaf is : 



Imprinted by || Richard | Grafton, prin-||ter to the || Kinges || Males- 1| 
tie II Mense Augustij || 1549 | Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum || 

The binding is in purple morocco, and modem ; lettered on the back : 
Psalter, Ordre for Mattyns^ 6-f. Lower down is R, Grafton, August 
1549. From the crown impressed on the inside of the cover, it may be 
inferred that the book was bound in this way after its entrance into the 
British Museum. Its press mark is : C. 36 d. i. 

This book seems to be of very considerable rarity. As yet, no other 
copy has been found. The bulk of the work is made up. of a psalter, 
distributed for Mattins and Evensong, as in the first Prayer Book of 
King Edward VI. Prefixed to the psalter are " diverse things " which 
are set out below,* under six headings : the first five of which are verbal 
reproductions of the orders with the same name in Edward VI.'s first 
book ; but the sixth sets forth " all that shall appertain to the clerks to 
say or sing *' at the Communion, Matrimony, the Visitation of the Sick, 
the Burial of the Dead, the Purification of Women, and the first day of 
Lent. All under the sixth heading show considerable difference from 
the like offices in Edward VI.'s first prayer book, the greater part of that 
which is to be said by the priest being left out, while that said by the 
clerks only is printed in full. The orders under this last heading are 
thus emphatically for the use of the clerk, not of the priest, nor of 
the people, and thus to the collection may very well be given the name 
of The Cleries Book, 

It should be noticed that the psalter has not been reprinted in the 
following edition. 

The order how the psalter is appointed to be read, is necessary for 
the clerk's instruction in accompanying the priest in the recitation of the 
psalter. The Kalendar, which contains the lessons for every day in the 
year, would tell the clerk the lesson or lessons which he was to read in 
the church. Mattins, Evensong, Quicunque vult^ the Litany and 
Suffrages, would need the answer of the clerk at almost every line. 
These are all printed at length. But the offices which follow, " AH that 
appertain to the clerks to say or sing " only give at length the clerk's 
portion. 

It may, perhaps, be noticed that there is no reference given in the 

' See below, p. i. ^ See below, p. 2. 



INTRODUCTION. xiii 

part that has come down to us to the variable parts of the communion 
service, which fell to the lot of the clerk in the different seasons of the 
Christian year. For example, it was his business to sing the introit, and 
a leaf or so would have sufficed to set forth the psalms assigned to this. 
Then he was also to read the Epistle/ and yet none of those for the 
Christian seasons is set forth. It does not seem likely that the book 
ever contained either introits or epistles, for such are not in the table of 
contents, even considering that the last leaf before the psalter is 
wanting. 

The earlier editions of Edward YJ.'s first book did not contain 
psalters, and thus it became advisable to provide psalters for use with 
the book, such as the latter part of the work before us. In the 
churchwardens* accounts about 1549, we find purchases of psalters 
together with the new service book. For example, at North Elmham 
in 1549, they paid sixteen shillings and fourpence "for ij books and 
ij Sawlters for the order of the new sett forthe by the Kyngs Maiesties 
Con."=* 

At Ludlow in 1549, they "payde for the parishe bookes, viz. iiij 
Mase bookes, one Paraffraces, and viij Salters xxxvj s,^^ And at 
Hawkhurst in Kent, about the same time they '* payde to Sir Petur for 
ij books of Salmes and a boke of prayer for peace vij ^."* and again in 
1550-51, they bought two psalter books, but these were three shillings 
and tenpence.^ Also at St. Dunstan's, Canterbury, in 1549-50, it seems 
likely that the same books were bought, as they " paid for ij Salters iij s, 
viij ^."^ much the same price. Also in 1548-49 at St. Matthew's, 
Friday Street, they ** payd for iij newe sawters bokes ij s. vj dr and in 
1549-50 "for iij sawter Boockes at ij s, vj d, the pece." In 1547-48, 
they bought a book of the common prayer and " two sawter bokes for 
the churche " for which they paid four shillings.' 

At Wing, Buckinghamshire, in 1549, they "payd for two sawter 
bokes iij s, iiij d,^^^ 

At Bridlington in Yorkshire, amongst other goods they had in 1552, 
a Bible, a Paraphrase, a Communion book, and " two Englesse Satters '* 
or Psalters. ® In the same collection, other psalters are mentioned*^ ; 
though not precisely said to be English, yet their enumeration with 
English books makes it likely that they were in the vernacular. 

Mr. H. A. Wilson, our Secretary, has pointed out to me that a book 
akin to the Clerk's Book is in the Library of the University of Durham. 

^ See below, p. 35. 

* A. G. Legge, Ancient Churchwarden^ accounts in the parish of North Elmham y 
Norwich, 1 891, p. 51. 

* Churchwardens' Accounts of the Town oj Ludlow^ Ed. Thos. Wright, Camden 
Society, 1869, p. 38. 

"* Archaeologia Caniianay 1 863, vol. v. p. 61. 

« p. 66. 

® Archaeologia Cantiana, 1887, vol. xvii. p. 1 12. 

"^ Journal ^ the British Archaeological Association^ 1869, vol. xxv. p. 373. 

^ Archaeologia, 1855, vol. xxxvi. p. 230. 

^ The Inventories of Church Goods, . . . Vorh, etc. Surtees Society, 1897, p. 31. 

^^ p. 169. 



xiv INTRODUCTION, 

By the courtesy of the Rev. Dr. Fowler, I have been enabled to 
examine the book, the press mark of which is : Routh Collection, 
xvii. E. 28. (2.) 

The title page is almost identical with that of the Clerk's Book. 
It is thus : 

The Psal-|| ter, or Psalmes of Dauid, cor-|| reeled^ and poinded^ as 
they shal' || be song in Churches, aftre the || Translaiion of the greate || 
Byble. 

Hereunto is added, diuers || thinges as male apeare on the || nexte 
side, wheare is expressed || the conientes of thy s || Booke. 

Anno Do. MDLII. || Mense Martij. || Cum priuilegio ad imprimen- 1| 
dum solum. || 

The title is surrounded by an architectural design the same as that 
which surrounds the title of the Clerk's Book, only the pieces are 
reversed ; the upper border is here the lower, and the right border the 
left, and vice versd. 

Of the psalter, A i. which was probably the title page, is missing. 
After the one hundred and fiftieth psalm at the bottom of the verso of 
R. viii. is : The ende of this Booke. || Imprinted by Richard Grafton, 
Printer to the || Kynges Maiestie. || 

There is no pagination. The signatures of the earlier portion are 
red a, black a, b, c, d, e, in black letter. Of these the first four quires 
are in eights, d is in four and e is in two. 

The psalter is in eights from A to R. but A i. and A vii. are now 
wanting. 

The type is black letter, and is printed in black ink throughout with 
the exception of the title page and certain initial letters in the table for 
the order of the psalter and parts of the kalendar including the festivals. 
It is in single columns. The first part of the book is in smaller type 
than the psalter. 

There are 32 lines in a full page of the first part, the size of which, 
including catchwords and headlines, is 163 by 94 millimeters. 

At the end of the first part, the verso of the last leaf (e. ii.) is blank. 

The margins have been cut down by the binder. The binding is of 
brown calf, probably of the first half of the eighteenth century. A label 
on the back is lettered : Common Prayer^ K. Edward VL 

It is bound up with an imperfect primer of 1551, quarto, Richard 

Grafton. This is described by Mr. Hoskins.^ After the psalter come 

Certain Sermones or Homelies, Richard Grafton, 155 1, which are 

followed by the Pystles and Gospels ^ of euery Sonday and holydaye in the 

yerey apparently of Sarum use, but with no title or colophon remaining. 

In spite of the identity of the titles of the two books the contents 
are not the same. The contents given on the verso of the title of the 
Clerk's Book agree verbally with those of the psalter from Durham 
as far as Cap. V. the Litany and suffrages. Then instead of Cap. VI. 
All that shall appertain, &'c., there is in the Durham book : vi. All 
the collectes vsed throughoute the yeare at the Communion, and when 

^ Edgar Hoskins, Horae^ London, 1901, p. 68. 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

there is no Communion, Thus the part which marks off the Clerk's 
Book^ from other known books disappears, and is replaced by the 
introits and collects of the first prayer book of Edward VI. from the 
first Sunday in Advent to All Saints with proper psalms and lessons on 
certain festivals. These are followed by the two collects for the King 
and the general confession and prayer of humble access in the 
communion service, with the thanksgiving after communion Almighty 
and euerlastyng God, wee moste hardly thanke the, and the blessing. 
After this are collects to be said after the offertory, the prayers for rain 
and fair weather, with which the first part ends. 

I have not discovered any noteworthy variations from the Clerk's 
Book in the early part, such as the kalendar ; or in Mattins, Even- 
song, and the Litany. 

An English psalter printed in the year before the Clerk's Book, that 
is, in 1548, follows the lines of the Latin books, and has little in common 
with those just described. Its title page is : 

The Psal || ter or Boke || of the psalmes, || where vnto is added the || 
Letany and cer- 1| tayne other de- 1| uout pra- 1| yers. 

Set forth wyth the || Kynges moste || gracious ly- 1| cence [an ornamental 
leaf]. 

Anno Do. M.D. . XLVIII. || Mensis lulij. || 

The colophon is : 

Imprinted at London || by me Roger Car, for An-||thoni Smyth 
dwellyng || in Pauls church || yarde. || 

The book is in 8° and consists of 187 pages numbered, to which are 
added 18 unnumbered, and these contain the litany. The press 
mark of the only copy known to^ me is : C. 25, b. 2, in the British 
Museum. The binding, apparently contemporary with the printing, is 
preserved. 

The contents of this book are the psalter, the canticles at lauds, 
also Benedicite, Benedictus, Magnificat, Nunc Dimittis, Te Deum^ 
and Quicunque vult, all in a translation different from that in 
Edward VI.'s first prayer book. After these comes the Litany, which 
retains the invocations of the Blessed Virgin, angels, patriarchs, apostles, 
and other orders of saints. The psalter follows the numbering of the 
Vulgate. 

At St. Margaret's, Westminster, they bought about August loth, 
1548, eight psalters in English for which they paid 13^. 4^.' It 
seems quite possible that these may have been copies of the psalter now 
described, which was published in July. Leave had been given on 
April 22nd, 1547, to Grafton and Whitchurch to print books concerning 
the divine service in English or Latin.^ These eight psalters may have 
been copies of such books, they were not merely copies of the old 
Latin psalter. The first book of Edward VI. did not come into use 

^ See below, p. 2. 

* J. Nichols, Illustrations, London, 1797, p. 13. 

s Rot. Pat. I Ed. VI. Pars. 4 m. 7. Quoted by Gasquet and Bishop, Edward VI, 
etc. 1890, chap. iv. p. 58. 



xvi INTRODUCTION, 

until Whitsunday, 1549, nearly a year after these psalters were bought, 
and compline had been sung in English in the King's chapel as early as 
Easter, 1547, and there were English mattins and evensong at St Paul's 
and elsewhere in 1548.* It seems just possible that English services in 
which these psalters were used might have been sung after August, 1548, 
at St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

There is a rhyming translation of the psalter by Robert Crowley, 
which was published on September 20, 1549, a copy of which 
Mr. Madan has shown me in Brasenose College Library. Its title 
page is : 

p;^ The Psalter of^ Dauid newely translated into Englysh || metre 
in such sort that it maye the more || decently, and wyth more delyte of 
the II mynde, be reade and songe of al men. || Whereunto is added a 
note of four ^ partes^ wyth other thynges^ || as shall appeare in the || Epistle 
to the II Readar. || i{< 

<[ Translated and Imprinted by || Robert Crowley in the yere of || 
our Lorde. M,D, xlix, the \ xx, daye of September. || And are to be 
solde II in Eley rentes in || Holbume. || i{4 

Cum Priuilegio ad Imprimendum solum. 

There is no colophon ; the greater part of the book is in black letter. 
It is in 4°. The pages are unnumbered. The structure may be thus 
expressed : 

+ , + + , A— Z, Aa— Uu*. 

The leaves measure 190 x 131 millimeters. The size of the page 
including headline and catchword is 156 x 84 mm. 

The book has been rebacked in modern times, but the sides 
are apparently contemporary with the printing. The clasps have 
disappeared. 

The contents of the book are a calendar : the address to the christian 
reader in which the author tells us he has added to the end of the book 
all the canticles that are usually sung in the church, and that in 
translating he has followed the version of Lejo Judas' : the four pans, 
Countertenor, Tenor, Plainsong, and Bass : a dedication to Owen 
Oglethorpe, then President of Magdalen College, Oxford : the psalter, 
following the numbering of the Hebrews : and after the 150th psalm a 
rhyming version of Magnificat, Nunc dimittisj BenedictuSy Benedicite, 
Te Deum, which is called the songe of Nicetus the bishope^ and Quicunque 
vult. With this the book ends. 

It does not seem that the psalms or canticles were to be sung as we 
now sing a modern metrical hymn ; but in a cadence just as the prayer 
book psalms are sung either to Anglican or Gregorian chants. But it 
would be an assumption if, without further evidence, it were stated that 

* F. A. Gasqnet and Edm. Bishop, EchvArd VI. and the Book oj Common Prc^er^ 
London, iSqo, Ch. xi. p. i8i. 

^ According to Hoefer {Nouvelle Biographie g^niralet Paris, 1858. t. xxvii. p. 134) 
Leo Judas was born in 1482 and died in 1542. He was the natural son of a priest, not 
of Jewish parentage. I have seen his Biblia, in the editions of Froschover and 
Etienne, in the Bodleian Library. 



INTRODUCTION, xvii 

these rhyming psalms and canticles were intended to be sung in the 
place of the psalms and canticles of the Ed¥rardian prayer book. It is 
true that the early editions of Edward's First Prayer book did not 
contain the psalter. But under a Tudor it would have been dangerous 
to use a book of private adventure which possessed not even the authority 
conveyed by the licence to Grafton and Whitchurch spoken of above.* 



The clerk, a church minister inferior to the deacon and priest, has 
been known in England since the days of St. Augustine and King 
Ethelbert. Rules as to his marriage and manner of living are given by 
St. Gregory the Great to St. Augustine of Canterbury*; and he is 
spoken of in the laws of King Ethelbert, which probably determine that 
his property shall be returned threefold when wrongfully taken from 
him.'* 

These officers existed also at the same time in other parts of 
Western Christendom. They are spoken of by St. Isidore of Sevile, 
and they were part of the clerical body clearly marked off from the lay 
folk.* In 655 the third canon of the ninth council of Toledo speaks of 
the minister together with the priest ; and in 666 the eighteenth canon 
of the council of Merida enjoins the parish priest to have about him 
clerks, with whom he could discharge his duty of praising God.* The 
office of the clerk was thus to praise God by singing psalms and 
canticles, and he was described by St. Isidore under the name of 
psalmista^ and men were ordained to this office without the intervention 
of the bishop, solely by the command of the priest.^ T\xt psalmista in 
St. Isidore's enumeration of the clerical degrees is the fourth from the 
lowest, the ostiarius? 

* See above, p. xv. 

*** St. Gregory the Great, Epistolae^ lib. xi. 64. (studio et labore MonachorumO.S.B. 
Venetiis, 1771, t. viii. p. 297.) 

* B. Thorp, Ancient Laws . . . England^ London, 1840, p. i. This seems to be 
the interpretation of Bede. {HisL EccUs, lib. ii cap. v. Oxon. 1896, Ed. C. Plumnier, 
vol. i. p. 90. ) In the laws of King Edgar (Thorp, p. 395) it is ordered that every priest 
at the synod have his clerk. 

^ Isidorus, de Eccles, offic, lib. ii. capp. i and 12. Venetiis, 1558. 

^ Mansi, Sacrorttm Conciliorum etc. Florentiae, 1765, t. xi. coll. 27 and 86. 

^ Solent autem ad hoc ofiicium etiam absque conscientia Episcopi sola iussione 
presbyteri eligi quique, quos probabile, in cantandi arte esse constiterit. {op, cit, cap. 
12. ) Here is an echo of the tenth canon of the fourth council of Carthage : Psalmista 
id est cantor potest absque scientia episcopi sola iussione presbyteri ofEcium suscipere 
cantandi, dicente sibi presbytero : Vide, ut quod ore cantas, corde credas, et quod corde 
credis, operibus comprobes. (H. T. Bruns, Canones Apostolorum^ etc Berolini, 1839, 
pars I. p. 142.) Gallican canons which are now often quoted as Statuta 
ecclesiae antiqua^ or stcUtita antiqua ecclesiae Arelatensis, This form appears in the 
English pontificals of Egbert (Surtees Society, 1853, p. 10.) and St. Dunstan, 
(National Library, Paris, MS. Latin 943, fo. 45.) and Archbishop Robert. (Henry 
Bradshaw Society, 1903, p. 115.) 

« Letter of St. Isidore de gradibus in J. Saenz de Aguirre, ColUctio maxima 
£oncilioruin omnium Hispania^^ ed. J. Catalani, Romae, 1753, t. iii. p. 455. 

CLERK. b 



xnii INTRODUCTION, 

The clerk being one of the clergy, the lay folk were forbidden by 
the penitential of Theodore to take the clerk's duties. The layman was 
not to read the mass lesson at the altar, nor to sing alleluia at the rood 
screen ; but he was only to recite psalms and responds, without allehna} 
From this we may gather something of the duties of the clerk in the 
time of Theodore. He could read the mass lesson or epistle, and sing 
the alleluia or chant between the epistle and gospel, and this we find 
distinctly expressed in the ninth century by Pope Leo IV. Every priest 
was .to have a clerk who should be a scholar and able to read the 
epistle or lesson, and to answer at mass, and who should also be 
sufficient to sing the psalms, that is, to take his part in the divine 
service, what we now call the breviary, or choir offices. 

Omnis presbyter clericum habeat scholarem, qui^epistolam, vel lectionem 
legat, et ad missam respondeat, cum quo et psalmos cantet.^ 

Hincmar, archbishop of Rhemes, a contemporary of Leo IV. in a 
series of questions which remind us of modem Visitation articles, asks 
if each church have a clerk who can keep a school, read the epistle, and 
sing. 

xi. Si habeat clericum qui possit tenere scholam, aut legere epistolam, aut 
canere valeat, prout necessarium sibi videtur.^ 

Four centuries later these requirements from the clerk pass into the 
general body of the canon law, in the decretals of Gregory IX. Every 
rector is to have a clerk to sing the divine service with him, and to read 
the epistle or lesson, one who is sufficient to teach in the school, and 
who is to warn the parishioners to send their children to the church to be 
instructed in the Christian faith. 

Ut quisque presbyter, qui plebem regit, clericum habeat, qui secum cantet, 
et epistolam et lectionem legat, et qui possit scholas tenere, et admonere suos 
parochianos, ut Blios suos ad fidem discendam mittant ad ecclesiam, quos ipse 
cum omni castitate erudiat.** 

Thus the three main duties of the clerk are to be able to sing ; to 
read the epistle ; and to teach. 

The ability to sing appears amongst the earliest of the clerk's quali- 
fications.^ Leo IV. distinctly states that it is the psalms which he has to 
sing ; and the psalms being the main portion of the divine service, it will 

^ § 14. Laiciis in aecclesia iuxta altare non debet lectionem recitare ad missam, nee in 
pulpito alleluia cantare, sed psalmos tantum aut responsoria, sine Alleluia. (B. Thorpe, 
Aiicieiit Laws . . . England ^ London, 1840, p. 304.) 

'-* Leoiiis IV. papae homilia\ Migne, Patrologia^ 1852. t. 115. col. 677. The 
variants of Martene and Labbe are given in this edition, but they are of no great 
importance. See also Conimonitorium cuiusqtu episcopi ad sacerdotes xiii. in Martene 
and Durand, Veterum Scriptorum etc. Parisiis, 1733. t. vii. col. 2. 

^ Hincmari Rhemensis archiepiscopi Capitula quibus de rebus viagistri et decani 
per singulas ecclesias inquirere episcopo renuntiare debeant. Migne, Patrologia^ 1852. 
t. 125. col. 779. Cf. K^ino, de ecclesiasticis disciplinisy ed. S. Baluse, Paris, 167 1. 
p. 24. No. 26. 

* Decret, Gregorii IX, lib. iii. tit. i. cap. iii. in M, L. Richter, Corpus luHs 
Canonicif Lipsiae, 1839, pars ii. col. 433. 

' Isidore, de eccles, off, lib. ii. cap. 12. 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

be the divine service which the clerk is to sing with the priest and to 
recite with him. 

Then he is to read the epistle or the prophetical lesson, or one of the 
lessons at Mattins. 

Lastly, he is to be of sufficient education to keep the parish school. 

Ability to Sing. — St. Gregory in his answer to St. Augustine of 
Canterbury, says that clerks are not only to be of good life and 
conversation but to be diligent in singing the psalms. The same 
accomplishment is noted throughout : in Leo IV. Hincmar, and the 
canon law.* Lyndwood twice notes that one of the parish clerk's duties 
is to sing ; and to sing the responds and Grails,^ that is, parts of Mass 
and of the divine service. 

According to the rules, at Coventry in 1462 the clerks were to sing 
at high mass and evensong.^ So at Faversham in 1506 they were to be 
diligent to sing and do their duty at all services to be sung by note.* 
Also at St. Michael's, Cornhill, some time before 1538, it was ordained 
that the priests and clerks should be in the quire singing there from the 
beginning of Mattins, Mass, and Evensong.® A priest was made Ruler 
or Dean of the Quire, who appointed two Rectors for every high or 
solemn feast, apparently out of the clerks. But nothing much is said 
about singing in the rules of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, written in 
1542, where it is counted among such small things that can hardly be 
set down on paper.* 

At Coventry the first clerk was to be rector chori on the south side, 
the second on the north, on feast days."' This was an office that was not 
despised even by royal persons. We read that our King Richard I. 
delighted in the divine service at the great festivals ; and that he went 
up and down the quire, stirring them up by hand and voice to sing the 
louder.^ And we all of us remember an incident in the life of Sir 
Thomas More when Lord Chancellor, his acting as parish clerk, and 
wearing a surplice.® 

^ See above, p. xviii. 

^ W. Lyndwood, Provinciale, lib. iii. tit. de concessione praebendae cap. a nostris 
maioribus^ verba clericis and sciant. 

•^ See below. Appendix I. §§ 4 and 6, pp. 57 and 58. 

* See below, Appendix V. § 4, p. 76. 

® See below. Appendix VI. § 6, p. 83. 

® See below, Appendix VIII. § 17, p. 91. 

' See below, Appendix I. §§ 6 and 50, pp. 58 and 61. 

^ Ralph of Co^geshall, Chronicon Anglicanunij Rolls Series, 1875, P* 97* Circa 
divinum officium in praecipuis solemnitatibus plurimum delectabktur . . . atque 
per chorum hue illucque deambulando, voce ac manu, ut altius concreparent, excitabat. 

^ "This good Duke oi Norfolke comming on a tyme to Chelsey to dyne with Syr 
Thomas More, found him in the Church, singing in the Quier, with a Surplisse on 
his backe : to whome (after Masse was done) as they went towardes his house, 
together arme in arme, the Duke said : Gods body, Gods body, my Lord Chancellour, 
what turned Parish Clarke ? You dishonor the ICing and his Office very much. Nay 
(quoth Syr Thomas More smyling vpon the Duke) your Grace may not thinke that the 
King your Maister and myne, wilbe offended with me for seruing God his Maister, 
or therby accompt his Seruice any way dishonoured." (William Roper, The Mirrour 
of Vertue . , , the life of Syr Thomas More, Paris, 1626. p. 83. It is to the 
same effect though not verbatim in § xvii. p. 64 of the London edition of 1729.) 

b 2 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

Immediately after the accession of Elizabeth, the clerks seem to be 
held responsible by Parkhurst for the character of the music, that it 
be modest and distinct. Grindal speaks only of ability to read. The 
Canons of 1603 speak of the clerk's "competent skill in singing (if it 
may be.)"^ And thence the demand upon this point becomes very 
usual in the visitation articles until the eighteenth century. 

An instance of the misbehaviour of a parish clerk not only in doing 
servile work on a Sunday and in refusing to kneel at proper times, but 
also in making a jest of the music in church, is found in James I.'s 
reign. 

Eastkam, Contra Thomam Milhome, Presentatur, for spreadinge mowle 
hills with a shovell in the churchyard upon the Sundaye next Septuagesima 
last being the xiiith daye of Februarie 1013 and that betweene mominge and 
eveninge prayer ; and was then taken at worke by the minister and other of the 
parishioners, and for that he doth not kneele on his knees in tyme of devine 
service when as it is fittinge he should and the rather in that he is the parishe 
clerke who ought to give good example therby unlo others that are negligent 
therin, and he hath often tymes bene admonished for to kneele by the minister 
but he doth altc^ether refuse it. And for that he singeth the psalmes in the 
church with such a jesticulus tone and altisonant voyce, viz. squeakinge like a 
gelded pigg which doth not onlie interrupt the other voyces, but is altogether 
dissonant and disagreeing unto any musicall harmonie and he hath been 
requested by the minister to leave it, but he doth obstinatlie persist and 
contynue therein.^ 

But the great rebellion, among other evils, seems to have caused 
a decrease in the qualifications and education, especially the musical 
education, of the parish clerk. So, at least, John Playford complains : 

But at this day the Best^ and almost all the Choice Tutus are lost, and out of 
use in our Churches : nor must we expect it otherwayes, when in and about this 
great City, in above One hundred Parishes, there is but few Parish Clerks to be 
found that have either Ear or Understanding to Set one of these Tunes Musically 
as it ought to be : It having been a Custom during the late Wars, and since, to 
Chuse men into such places, more for their Poverty than Skill and Ability ; 
Whereby this part of God's Service hath been so ridiculously performed in most 
places, that it is now brought into Scorn and Derision by many people.^ 

And apparently the scandal went on in the following century ; for a 
parish clerk, in a work published by the company, in 1731, says : 

My Meaning is this : The Parish-Clerk is oftentimes chosen rather for his 
Poverty^ to prevent a Charge to the Parish^ than either for his Virtue or 
Skill ; or else for some other By-end or Pur^se, more than for the immediate 
Honour and Service of Almighty God and his Church^ 

Playford adds that it was in his time the custom for the clerk to 
read out every line of the hymn before it was sung, a practice which 
some of us no doubt can remember in our youth, though it has now 
almost entirely disappeared. The parish clerk just quoted tells us of the 

^ See below, Appendix XI. pp. 98 and 99. 

'■* W. H. Hale, A Series of precedents . . . extructed from Act books ofEcclesi' 
astical Courts in the Diocese of London, London, 1847, P* 238. 

^ John Playford, Psalms and Hyntns in solemn musick London, Godbid, 1671. fo. 
Prefece a 2. [B.M. Music G. 80.] 

* The Parish Clerks Guide . . . by B. P. Parish Clerk, London, reprinted 
by John March for the Company of Parish-Clerks, 1731, p. 19. 



I 
i 
I 
I 
I 
I 

I 
I 
i 



INTRODUCTION, xxi 

custom of '* bespeaking" the psalm with these words, Let us Sing to the 
Praise and Glory of God^ which has likewise gone out of use. He 
justifies it with this analogy : "As the Priest has his Oremus^ Let us pray ^ 
so the Clerk has his CantemusJ^^ It seems clear that down to this date 
one of the chief duties of the parish clerk was to sing. 

Ability to Read the Epistle and Lesson. — This portion of the 
clerk's duties is one of the best pieces of evidence that we have of the 
good education required of those who undertook the clerk's office. 
For he who could read the Latin epistle or a lesson at Mattins must 
have possessed an education not far short of the parson himself. 

Leo IV. and the Decretals of Gregory IX. mention the reading of 
the epistle or lesson amongst the duties of the clerk ; Hincmar the 
epistle only, but doubtless under the name of epistle is included the 
prophetical lesson. For in the life of St. Godric, there is a story which 
may well represent the practice of the twelfth century ; a young clerk 
who wished to become a soldier and abandon his clerical profession, was 
made to read Misit rex Herodes^ the epistle, as it is called, at the mass 
on Lammas day, and thus, to his shame, discover his clerkly abilities.' 
Misit rex Herodes is a portion of scripture taken from the Acts of the 
Apostles, and read in many uses on Lammas day as the lesson in 
place of the epistle. 

John of Athon incidentally mentions this duty of the clerk when 
speaking of a disputed election, for when the clerk appointed by the 
parson began to read the epistle the clerk named by the parishioners 
snatched the book from the other's hand, and smote him to the 
earth with effusion of blood.* 

In 141 1 CUfford Bishop of London sanctioned an arrangement by 
which the Vicar of Elmstead was to find one clerk to help him to 
celebrate private masses on week days, and on holy days to read the 
epistle.* 

Lyndwood, who wrote later than John of Athon, affirms more than 
once that it is the business of the clerk to read the epistle.** He had also 
to sing the grail and the responds. 

In practice we find the parish clerk reading the epistle at Coventry,® 

* B. P. op, cit, p. 32. 

' Libellus de vita et vniracuHs S, Godrici., Surtees Society, 1847, cap. cix. p. 226. 

' John of Athon, Constitutiones Othoboni, de residentia Archiepiscoporum^ cap. 
Pastor bonuSi verb, sanctae obedientiae^ Appendix to Lyndwood, Provinciuie, Oxon. 
1679. p. 119. 

'* Rio. Newcourt, Repertorium^ Lond. 17 10, voL ii. p. 243. 

* Lyndwood, Provinciate Lib. iii. tit. de concessione praebendae^ cap. a noitris 
fnaioribusy ad verba Clericis and sciant, Oxon. 1679. pp. 142, 143. By the 
Customary of St. Augustine's Canterbury, written in the first half of the fourteenth 
century, the novices soon after their profession were to read the lessons and epistles, 
sing the grails and responds, and to serve in other matters of less importance. 
{Custotftary of the Benedictine Monasteries of St, Angttsttne^ Canterbury ^ and 
St, Peter f IVesttninster^ Ed. by Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, H.B.S. 1902, 
vol. i. p. 273.) 

^ See below, Appendix I. p. 61. § 54. 



xxii INTRODUCTION, 

St. Nicholas, Bristol/ and Faversham.^ At St. Nicholas, Bristol, he had 
to pay a fine of twopence, apparently every day that he failed to 
sing. 

John de Burgo notes that it is lawful for a clerk only in minor orders 
to read the epistle in the mass, if a subdeacon be not at hand. But 
at the same time he is not to read solemnly with the ornaments of a 
subdeacon.' 

So the right of the clerk to read the epistle was not to be exercised 
without restriction. In 1229 the eleventh constitution of W. de Bloys 
orders that no one shall read the epistle who is not a subdeacon except 
in case of necessity.* Necessity in the hands of a canonist has a very 
elastic meaning, and most likely the constitution only means that the 
clerk may not read the epistle if a subdeacon be present, as John de 
Burgo holds. 

At the introduction of the first book of Edward VI. there seems to 
have been no break with this custom of the past. The clerk's book 
now edited certainly contemplates in more places than one, the reading 
of the epistle and of the lesson by the clerk. In the communion 
service itself, the epistle is directed to be read either by the priest or 
clerk.* Accordingly at the communion of the sick, the epistle is given 
in full, plainly that the clerk may have it ready before him to 
read, while merely the first words of the rest of the service are 
given.* 

So too at the communion when there is a burial the epistle is given 
in full for the same reason.'' At the burial service, the priest or clerk 
is to read the lesson.® Thus it can hardly be doubted that the clerk 
continued under Edward VI.'s first book the old office of reading the 
epistle at mass and one or more of the lessons at mattins. Of this 
latter there is evidence from the accounts of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
where in 1553 they paid thirteen shillings and fourpence "for the 
pulpit, where the Curate and the Clark did read the chapters at service 
time."* And at Ludlow in 155 1 they paid three shillings and four- 
pence to the deacons, under which name the parish clerks appear, " for 
readynge the first chapter."^" 

The practice also prevailed under Elizabeth. In the metropolitical 
visitations of Grindal, whether as Archbishop of York or of Canterbury, 
he inquires whether the parish clerk is able to read the first lesson and the 

? See below, Appendix III. p. 68, § 23. 
^ See below, Appendix V. p. 76, § 4. 

^ John de Burgo, Pup ilia oculi, pars vii. de sacrauiento ordinis^ cap. v. sub fine, 
Argentini, Knoblouch, 1514, fo. cii. 

* \)t nuUus epistolam legat in ecclesia nisi fiierit subdiaconus nisi causa necessitatis. 
(D. Wilkins, Cofuilia, London, 1737. t. i. p. 624.) He was bishop of Worcester. 

' See below, p. 35. 

• See below, p. 46. 
' See below, p. 52. 
^ See below, p. 49. 

' J. Nichols, lllustratiotis of the Alatuiers, etc. London, 1797. p. 14. 
^^ Churchwardens' Accounts of the Town of LucUow, ed. Thomas Wright, Camden 
Society, 1869. p. 47. 



INTRODUCTION, xxUi 

epistle^ Aylmer, Bishop of London, makes this same inquiry in 1577,' 
and William Wickham, Bishop of Lincoln, asks the same question in 
1585' and 1588,* and another bishop of the same see, William 
Chaderton, also puts the same in 1598.^ 

After 1603, the inquiry whether the parish clerk be able to read the 
first lesson and episde does not seem to be continued. . Yet clerks not 
in holy orders continued in certain cathedral churches to read both 
epistle and gospel, for it is forbidden by Laud at Winchester in his 
metropolitical visitation of that church. It is quite reasonable that this 
should be forbidden in a church with a large staff. It has been seen 
that John de Burgo only allowed the clerk in minor orders to read the 
epistle in the absence of the subdeacon, and in a church like Win- 
chester a clerk in holy orders ought never to be wanting to assist the 
celebrant.* 

But clerks in minor orders to whom the duty of reading the gospel and 
epistle was assigned continued after the Restoration of Church and State 
in 1 660. There has been printed a list of the chapter at Worcester in 
October, 1661 : after the clerks in holy orders come the lower clerks : 

School-master ... John Toy. 

Usher ... ... ... ... ... Stephen Richardson. 

Deacon or gospeller ... ... ... Humphrey Withie. 

Subdeacon or epistler ... ... ... John Laight. 

Precentor ... ... ... ... Philip Tinker. 

Sacrist ... ... ... ... ... John Sayre.' 

That the custom of allowing clerks not in holy orders to read the 
epistle had not died out in the middle of the nineteenth century is 
shown by the following passage from one who claims to have been a 
scholar of Merton College, Oxford. 

When I was an undergraduate nt Merton College nearly fifty years ago, it 
was the custom, if there were but one priest at the altar, for one of the scholars 
to read the Epistle from the lowest chancel step on the Epistle side. . . . 
That the custom existed at that time I am certain, for I was the unfortunate 
scholar who read it.^ 

Mr. F. C. Eeles has given me the following statement : 

At Keighley in the West Riding of Yorkshire it was the custom some thirty 
or forty years ago for the parish clerk to wear a black gown and bands. He 

^ The remahts of Ecbnund Grindaly Parker Society, 1843, P* 14^) § 2^* ^^'^ P* ^68, 

§39. 

'•* Appendix E to second report of the Royal Commission on Rttualy 1868. p. 420. 

§ 31. The epistle does not appear in 1586. (p. 430.) 

^ Articles . . . Dieocs^ of Lincoln^ London, 1585, § 24. 

^ Idem^ London 1588. § 41. 

^ Idem^ Cambridge, John Legat, 1598, § 33. 

^ Itepa Dominus iniunxit, quod nullus dicti chori praesumat legere epistolas sive 
c'vangelium, nisi prius sit in sacris ordinibus constitutus. ( Works of , . , William 
Laud, Anglo-Catholic library, 1853. vol. v. p. 478.) 

^ John Noake, The Monastery and Cathedral of Worcester, London and Worcester, 
1866. p. 569. 

* Church Times, March 30. 1899. p. 377 col. ii. A letter to the editor, signed 
Mertoncttsis. 



xxiv INTRODUCTION. 

read the first lesson and the epistle. To read the latter he lett his seat below 
the pulpit and went up to the altar and took down the book from behind ; 
after reading the epistle within the altar rails he replaced the book and 
returned to his place. Keighley parish church retained a number of old 
customs at that time ; e.g, the people who sat facing across the church turned 
to the east at the Gloried s^ the older people used to bow towards the altar on 
entering the church, and the altar was decorated with a large display of plate. 
This was told me by a man who was bom and brought up there, and who 
remembers fasting communion being practised in his own family. 

The reading of the lesson also continued into our own time. Am- 
brose Fisher replying to those who complained that their forces were 
exhausted in readiing the service before they got to the really important 
part of divine worship, the sermon, says that " one of the Chapters is in 
many churches read by the Clark."' John Johnson says: "those 
Singing-Men, who read the first Lesson, are called Lay-Clerks (a 
contradictory name.) "* 

Giles Jacob says of parish clerks : " Their business consists chiefly 
in responses to the minister, reading lessons, singing psalms."® In 
Cornwall, in the first half of the nineteenth century, it was said : " A 
very short time since, parish clerks used to read the first lesson."* The 
reading of the epistle and of the first lesson by the clerk must have been 
given up on account of an increasing want of education in these church 
officers. But this ability to read is an essential part of their duty, and 
no parish clerk ought to be appointed hereafter who is unable 
satisfactorily to perform it. 

Ability to Teach. — It has been seen that together with ability to 
sing the psalms and read the epistle the clerk was also to be of 
sufficient capacity to teach the children of the parishioners.* Perhaps 
this is the least prominent of the clerk's duties in the middle ages. It 
is sometimes said that in 1237 the Constitutions of Alexander, Bishop 
of Coventry, require the clerk to be a teacher ; but it looks uncertain. 
It is true that scholars are named who take about the holy water in 
country places, but there is no exact indication that these scholars are 
to teach." An ordination of John Peckham touching the church of 
Bakewell is hardly more to the point. He requires that two clerks 
(clerici scholasHct) shall take round the holy water on Sundays and 
other festivals; but on week days they are to engage in disciplinis 
scholasticism but whether this means that they are to teach or be 
taught is not at all clear. It may mean that the two clerks kept the 
school. 

^ Ambrose Fisher, A defence of the Liturgie^ London, 1630. p. 7. 

'^ John Johnson, Clergy-man^ s Vade-fnecum^ London, 1709. Ch. xxiii. vol. i. p. 203. 

^ Giles Jacob, Neiv Law Dictionary^ ninth edition, London, 1772. s.v, parish 
clerk. 

■* R. Polwhele, Traditions and Recollections,, 1826, vol. i. p. 606. note. So also 
T. D. Fosbroke, Encyclopaedia of Antiquities ^ London, 1825, vol. ii. p. 680. 

'^ See above, p. xviii. 

® Constitutiones Alexandri Covent. episcopi, in D. Wilkins, Concilia^ London, 1737. 
t. i. p. 641. The passage is given at length below, p. li. 

' W. Dugdale, MonasticoUy ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel, Lond. 1830. vol. vi. 
part iii. p. 1246. See the passage quoted below, p. lii. 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

There is an allusion in Matthew Paris to the keeping of school by 
the parish clerk mtUtis dUbus scolas exercens in the woeful story of 
the exaction^ of the officer of the Roman court.' 

This instance comes from the thirteenth century. But during the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries I have been able to gather no 
evidence of teaching by the clerk. In the sixteenth there are these 
few. In 1506, at Faversham, the clerks or one of them had to teach 
the children to read and sing in the quire and to do service.* Also 
at St. Giles', Reading, in 1544-45, they "payd to Whitbome the clerk 
towardes his wages and he to be bound to teche ij children for the 
quere xiji*."' 

There may be an allusion to the clerk's teaching of children at 
St. Nicholas, Bristol, when he is told to take no book out of the quire 
for children to learn.* 

In Elizabethan times Dr. Raine notes that the parish clerk of 
Woodhorne, Amor Oxley, was an eminent schoolmaster*; but it is 
probably a mere coincidence. 

In the succeeding centuries there is still less material. 

\Vhite Kennett tells us that the parish clerk ought to instruct the 
children in reading and writing and rehearsing the church catechism.® 

A >vriter in the Gentleman's Magazine^ at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century complains of the ignorance of the parish clerk of his 
time, and suggests as a remedy that they should be taken hereafter from 
a better class, such as would make good parish schoolmasters.'' 

To these three chief duties were added, in the later middle ages, a 
multitude of others, many of them servile, until in our days, instead of 
the parish clerk being the man of the best education in the parish next 
to the parson, he has sunk to a lower level than that of a domestic 
servant. 

As the clerk was bound to attend the priest in the divine service, it 
was considered that it was also his duty to be with the priest in all clerical 
functions, to assist him in the ministration of sacraments and 
sacramentals ; in short, wherever the priest went on duty within or 
without the church the clerk also went. 

Some of these lesser duties of the parish clerk may now be spoken 
of, first considering that which is given him by Lyndwood, as the most 
important. 

To ASSIST IN Ministering Sacraments and Sacramentals. — This 
duty is spoken of by Lyndwood, who says that no one can have a doubt 

^ Matthew Paris, Chronica Maiora^ Rolls Series, 1880. ed. H. R. Luard, vol. v. 
p. 172. See below, p. 'Hi. for the whole story. 

*^ See below, Appendix V. p. 77, § 10. 

^ W. L. Nash, Churchwarden^ Account book for the parish of St, dies' Reading'-, 
1881. p. 74. 

** See below, Appendix III. p. 69, § 33. 

* The Injunctions . . . of Richard Barnes f Snrtecs Society, iS^o, p, 4$, 

* White Kennett, Parochial Antiquities, Oxford, 1695. Glossary jz/^ 2;^^ Clericus 
Sacerdotis. 

^ Gentleman s Magazine, 1 801. vol. 71. p. 1090. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

that this ministration belongs to the divine service.^ Thus if the clerk 
be bound to help the priest in the divine service he must be bound also 
to help him in ministering sacraments and sacramentals. 

At Faversham the first of the clerks' duties is that one of them shall 
diligently attend the Vicar or his deputy in the ministration of 
sacraments and sacramentals at all times both by day and night.^ Also 
at St. Stephen's, (!^oleman Street, the clerks were at no time to be out 
of the way, but one was to be always ready to minister sacraments and 
sacramentals to anyone that should need them, to wait upon the curate, 
and to give him warning : and that none of the clerks should go or ride 
out of town without special licence of the Vicar and church- 
wardens.^ 

Included in this greater duty is the lesser duty : 

To attend on the parson visiting the sick, — Lyndwood speaks of this, 
recommending that the clerk be clad in a surplice and carry the light.^ 
At Coventry the clerk is to go with the priest when he visits the sick 
in his ward.* So also at All Saints, Bristol.* At St. Nicholas, Bristol, 
the Suffragan went, bearing the surplice, book, oil fat, and stole.' At 
St. Michael's, Cornhill, the clerks were to be " redye at all visitacions 
accustomed."® 

At Wighton, a church belonging to York minster, the parishioners 
present, about the year 1470, that the parish clerk absents himself 
when the Vicar visits the sick, and sends only a boy with the Vicar.* 

Bale, in the following century, profanely describes the visitation of 
the sick. 

Than came he, ful lyke a religious confessour, wyth hys cake God in a boxe, 
and the parish clarke or sextan wyth a bell and a lanterne.^^ 

The parish clerk was accustomed to go with the priest to visit the 
sick in the eighteenth century ; for we find it incidentally mentioned in 
a tract published by the company of parish clerks. We, that is the 
parish clerks, are 

always conversant in Holy Places, in Holy Things ; sucji as are the Holy 
Sacraments of Baptism and the Lorcts Supper ; yea, and in the most serious 
Things too, such as the Visitation of the Sick^ where we do often attend, and 
at the Burial of the Dead?^ 

■ 

^ Provincialey lib. iii. tit. de coticessione praebendae^ cap. a nostris maioribuSy 
ad verb, deservire^ Oxon. 1679, p. 142. 
*** See below, Appendix V. p. 75, § 1. 
^ See below, Appendix VIII. p. 91, §§ 12, 13. 

* Provinciate^ lib. iii. lit. de retiquiisy cap. Digftissimum^ ad verba saltern and 
lumitie pranjioy Oxon. 1679, p. 249. 

* See beJow, Appendix I. p. 59, § 36, p. 62, § 61. 

* See below. Appendix II. p. 65, § 2. 

^ See below, Appendix III. p. 68, § 21. 

" See below. Appendix VI. p. 82, § 5. 

^ Fabric Rolls of York MinstiV, Surtees Society, 1859, p. 257. 

'® John Bale, A declaration of Edmonde Bontters articles y London, Frauncys 
Coldocke, 156 1, fo. 80. 

^* The Parish' Clerk's Guide, by B. P. Parish-Clerk, London, Company of Parish 
Clerks, 1731. p. 16. 



INTRODUCTION, xxvii 

Minor Duties. — It has been said just above that the minor duties 
of the clerk became multitudinous. The greater part of these are 
named in the following extract from the Statutes of the collegiate church 
of St. Mary Ottery, where the duties are arranged under eight heads, as 
follows : 

Item eciam sacrista idem in periculo anime sue et in virtute sacramenti 
prcstiti sepius moneat et inducat aquebaiulos et alios duos clericos ecclesie 
nuncupatos quod diligentes sint, solliciti, et devoti circa 

campanas pulsandas, 

luminaria accendenda, 

vestimenta plicanda, 

altaria ornanda, 

ignem et carbones preparandos et querendos, 

ecclesiam mundandam, 

sconsas et boettas illuminandas, 

et in privatis missis sacerdotibus ministrandum.^ 

The duties of the clerks, then, would be these : i. to ring the bells ; 
ii. to light the ritual lamps and candles ; iii. to fold up the vestments ; 
iv. to array the altars ; v. to fetch and make ready fire and coal ; vi. to 
keep the church clean ; vii. to light the lanterns and sconses ; and viii. 
to serve the priest at low mass. 

I. To ring the bells, — In Germany this was considered so important 
a part of the clerk's duty that it seems to have given him his name of 
Campanariusi^ Even to this day it is part of the duty of the ostiarius^ 
the lowest of the minor orders as the modern Roman pontifical still 
testifies, and the Latin edition of the Canons of 1603 gives the name of 
ostiarius to the parish clerk.* 

At St. Stephen's Bristol in 1393, the clerk was paid for tolling the 
bell.*' The duty is prominent amongst the constitutions of clerks from 
that of Coventry in 1462, to that of Barrow on Humber in 1713, and in 
the visitation articles of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. 
At Coventry besides ringing the day bell, and for mattins, high mass, 
and evensong, they had to ring for the sacring of the high mass, and at 
procession, for compline in Lent, and for none on Saturdays and holy 
day eves.* 

There was, besides, the ringing at funerals and obits, and upon All 
Souls' eve. Also the bells were to be rung when the bishop, the king, 

^ George Oliver, Mottasticon Dioecesis Exoniensis^ Exeter, 1846, p. 271. § 46. 

'* Labbe and Cossart, Sacrosaticta Concilia^ Venetiis, 1731. t. xiv. col. 1286. 
Council of Cologne, 1300. canon xvii. JV^ campanarii sint illiterati. Prohibemus 
item ne deinceps campanarii in villis et ecclesiis parochialibus ibidem assumantur, nisi 
literati, qui in defectu respondentis ad altare, cum camisiis lineis assistant, in missis 
deservientes presbytero, ne ministrator carent socio sibi respondent e. Also for the 
same word see the Council of Triers in 1238, in Martene and Durand, Veterwn 
Scriptorum etc., Parisiis, 1733, t. vii. col. 128. Canon xvi. Campanarii sine camisia 
in superior! non serviant in ecclesia vel alias in divinis. 

* Constitutiones sive Cationes ecclesiasticiy London, John Norton, 1604. Canon 91. 

* T. P. Wadley, Notes or abstracts of the wills , , , at Bristol, Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Society, 1886, p. 42. 

5 See below. Appendix L Coventry, p. 57, §§ 2, 4, p. 58, §§ 5, 9, p. 60, §§39, 41, 
42. Also p. 61, § 49, 52, p. 62, § 66, p. 63, §§ 74, 75, 77, 79. 



xxviii INTRODUCTION, 

the queen, and the prince, came^ j this reminds us that it was ordered 
at St. Margaret's, Lothbury, in 1571, that the clerk should ring a peal 
at the passing by of the queen's majesty, by water or land.'-* 

With the exception of these lesser details, the rules were very much 
the same at St. Nicholas, Bristol, but they had also to ring the bells to 
keep off thunder and to the lady mass in Lent.^ 

At Faversham, the duty of ringing the bells seems to fall more into 
the hands of the sexton than of the clerk* ; but the clerks were to help 
the sexton when he had need.* At St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, the 
sexton rang curfew,* and also for mattins, as the clerks were to give 
him help if he wanted it, and they also rang the bells for mass, evensong, 
the Lent compline, and curfew when the sexton was away, and to ail 
manner of divine service after the use and cubtom of the city of 
London.' 

In 1 5 10, the parishioners of Wighton complain of 

a faut that our parish clerk that he hath not done his dewlie to the kirk, 
that is to say, lyngyng of the morne bell and the evyn bell. 

There is added immediately, surely by the clerk himself, 

and also a nother fawt, he fyndes that powr mene pays hym not his 
wages.® 

In 1548, they paid at Ludlow twelve pence to the deacons "for 
rynginge day belle after Easter at Mr. baylifes commaundyment.-'® 

In 157 1, at St. Margaret's Lothbury, the duty of ringing the bells is 
divided between the clerk and the sexton, the sexton ringing the 
morning and evening bell, while the clerk rings for burials, apparently 
as being the more profitable, and also the passing bell.^^ 

At Barrow on Humber, the clierk had to attend at churchings and 
burials and to toll a bell and ring a little, according to the accustomed 
manner.^^ 

Dr. W. D. Macray has given me an abstract of a document in the 
Bodleian Librarj' which is the official record, dated December 12th, 
1 47 1, of the foundation by Thomas Peyton in the church of Iselham, 
Cambridgeshire, of the ringing by the parish clerk of the smallest of 
four bells, the one called Gabriel, immediately after the death of any 
parishioner. But it was not to be rung unseasonably, in the silence of 
the night.*'* 

' p. 59, §31, p. 63, §75- 

'^ See below, Appendix IV. p. 74. 

' See below. Appendix III. p. 68, § 20, 

* See below, Appendix V. p. 78, § 19 and p. 79, §§ 20, 21. 

*p. 77Ȥ". 

" See be^ow, Appendix VIII. p. 90, § 3. 

' p. 91, § 14, and p. 92, §§ 23, 26. 

** Fabric Rolls of York Minster, Surtees Society, 1859, p. 265. 

* Churchwardens^ Accounts of the Town of Ludlow, Ed. Thos. Wright, Camden 
Society, 1869, p. 35 

^® See below, Appendix IV. pp. 72 and 73. 

" See below. Appendix XIV. p. 109, § 2. 

*^ Bodleian Library, Cambridgeshire charter 60. 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

In the visitation articles of the seventeenth century, it is often 
enquired if the clerk ring the passing bell, as well as the bell before 
divine service.* The tolling of the bell before prayers appears in the 
visitation articles of Fleetwood, Bishop of St. Asaph, in 17 ic' The 
duty of ringing morning and afternoon bells and curfew is expressly 
mentioned at Barrow on Humber in 17 13.' 

It must have been the custom for the clerk to carry about a little 
bell before a funeral; for we find it forbidden in 1583, by the 
Injunctions of Middleton, Bishop of St. David's, a convinced puritan : 

2. Item, that the Clark nor his deputie, do carie about the Towne, a little 
bell called the Sainctes bell before the Buriall, after the vse of Popishe 
superstition."^ 

Besides ringing the bells, the clerk had also to take care of them, 
and see that all things connected with them, such as the ropes, 
baldricks, and clappers were in good order.* They were also to grease 
them.* At Ludlow in 1564 they paid the deacon for mending the 
bellropes.' 

Attention to the church clock was also part of the clerk's duties, as 
the proverb testifies : The clock goes as it pleases the clerk. At Cawood 
in 1 5 10, we find him keeping the clock, ringing curfew at due times 
appointed by the parish, and also ringing the day bell.® At Pilton also 
he kept the clock.* At St. Giles', Reading, in 1534, they paid Stevyn 
Bisbrige is. 6d. " for kepying of the clock ed chyme for a yere " and to 
the same man 6s. Sd., '* for his service in the quere for a yere." Thus 
he was a clerk, but it is not likely that he was the parish clerk.*® 

2. To light the lamps. — These must be the ritual lamps and candles. 
At St. Nicholas, Bristol, the suffragan was to have a torch ready for the 
masses, daily ; and he put out all the lights in the quire and on the 
altars. Further, he was charged with all other lights and the quire 
light; also he kept two lamps burning, and saw that they had oil. 
The undersuffragan provided two torches at the high mass sacring on 
Sundays." At St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, the sexton was to light 

^ See below, Appendix XI. pp. 100 and loi. 
2 Appendix XI. p. 102. 

» See below. Appendix XIV. p. 109, § 2, p. no, §§ 3, 4, 7, 9, 10. Cf. also 
p. 102, § 7. 

* Appeftdix E. to Second Report of the Royal Com/utssion on Ritual^ 1868, p. 427. 

* Coventry, Appendix I. §§ 22, 57, 58, St. Nicholas Bristol, Appendix III. § 36, 
St. Margaret, Lothbury, Appendix IV. p. 74. St. Michael's, Cornhill, Appendix 
VI. p. 83. Barrow on Humber, Appendix XIV. § 2. 

* Coventry, Appendix I. §§ 29, 57. Barrow on Humber, Appendix XIV. § 2. 

' Churchwardens'' Accounts of the Town of Ludlow^ Ed. Thos. Wright, Camden 
Society, 1869, p. 119. 

* Fabric Rolls of York Minster, Surtees Society, 1859, p. 266. 

* Churchwardens* Accounts, Somerset Record Society, 1890, p. 70. 

1" W. L. Nash, The Churchwardens* Account Book . . . of St. Giles, Reading*, 
1 88 1, Part i. p. 49. 

" See below. Appendix III. p. 66, § 3, p. 69, § 35, p. 68, 30. The text of § 30 
seems somewhat obscure. 



XXX INTRODUCTION, 

the candles every Sunday and holiday in the year and put them out 
again. ^ 

At Coventry the senior clerk had to tend the lamp and to fetch oil 
for it.* 

At Faversham the clerk had to see that a light was in the quire while 
any mass was being sung, and the sexton had to see that it was kept up 
day and night, and that oil was supplied. The sexton also had to light 
the tapers and beams (the lights on the beams) according* to the 
solemnity of the feast, at first evensong, mattins, mass, and last 
evensong.* 

At Coventry the under clerk had to deliver to the woman about to be 
churched a taper, and bread for holy bread.* 

At St. Nicholas, Bristol, clerk and suffragan had to tend the light 
before the sepulchre until Easter Even.' 

Early in the sixteenth century, the Founders' Company in the city of 
London paid twelvepence a year to the Sexton for attending to their 
light and for ringing.® About the same time they paid fourpence to 
the Clerk and Sexton at St. Michael's, Bishops Stortford, for keeping the 
lamps at Easter. "^ 

3. To fold up the vestments, — In the latter half of the fifteenth century, 
at Yatton, there is a reward of fourpence "paide to T. Clerke for 
foldyng of the vestments," every year.' At Coventry the clerks had to 
see the book, chalice, and vestment laid up in the vestry after 
mass, and to fold up the albes and vestments every Sunday and 
holiday.* 

At St. Nicholas, Bristol, this duty had to be done on week days as 
well as on principal feasts. ^^ At Faversham the ornaments for the 
principal feast which were kept in the treasury had to be taken thence 
and brought back again by the clerks." At All Saints, Bristol, the clerk 
was to be true and profitable unto the church in keeping and guiding 
(guarding ?) the vestments, books, jewels and all other ornaments." 

In the late seventeenth century a parish clerk, writing about his duties, 
tells us that " the clerk is to take care . . of the Holy Vestments, that 
they be decently kept."** And at Barrow on Humber it was part of the 

* See below, Appendix VIII. p. 90, § 2. 
- See below. Appendix I. p. 59, § 32. 

=» See below, Appendix V. p. 76, § 2 and p. 79, §§ 22, 23. 
"* See below, Appendix I. p. 63, § 73. 
^ See below, Appendix III. p. 67, § 16. 
® Archaeological Journal^ 1806, vol. xliii, p. 170. 

' J. L. Glasscock, Records of St, MichaeCs Parish Churchy Bishop* s Stortford^ 
London, 1882, p. ii. 

* Churchwardens* Account Sy Somerset Record Society, edited by Bishop Hobhouse, 
i8qo, p. 113. 

^ See below, Appendix I. p. 57, §§ I, 37, p. 61, § 55. 
10 See below, Appendix III. p. 67, §§ 9, 18. 
** See below. Appendix V. p. 76, § 4. 
^2 See below, Appendix II. p. 64, § i. 

" The Parish Clerk's Vade Mccum, by B. P. Parish Clerk, London, Benj. Molte, 
1694, Preface to the Reader. 



INTRODUCTION, xxxi 

clerk's business to lay up carefully the communion cloth, carpet, and 
surplice.* 

Allied to this is the duty of mending and washing the vestments. At 
St. Nicholas, Bristol, the suffragan had to see that the albes, amices, 
towels and altar cloths were washed, at the expense of the church- 
wardens.^ In the tract issued by the Ecclesiological Society, instructing 
parish clerks in their duties, they are told that it is their business to see 
that " the surplices are clean and in good repair."' 

4. To array the altars, — At Coventry the clerks had to wait upon the 
churchwardens at the first evensong of every principal feast to array the 
high altar with the cloths necessary for it ; and the second clerk made 
ready the high altar every day for the priest to sing high mass.^ At St. 
Nicholas, Bristol, both clerk and suffragan saw the altars dressed on 
principal feasts. ^ At St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, the clerks had to 
bring forth the copes, vestments, and apparels for the altars, on festival 
days, with the jewels for the altars, and disarray them again as the 
season required.* At Faversham the clerks had to apparel the altars 
dnily where any priest was to sing mass, high mass, or morrow mass, or 
after. Also to apparel the altars against every principal feast with such 
apparel as belongeth to them.^ 

At Morebath one of the points agreed on in 1536 was that the clerk 
should help the churchwarden to make up the vestments and to dress 
the altars.^ 

At Coventry the clerks had to help the churchwardens at the 
beginning of Lent to cover the altar, and rood, with Lent cloths and to 
hang up the Lenten veil between the choir and the presbytery and to 
take them down again when the Easter had come." The Lenten cloths, 
Mr. W. H. St. John Hope has shown with great fulness, were white in 
colour.*" 

5. To fetch and make ready fire and coal, — Not a hundred years ago 
fire had to be struck with flint and steel, a troublesome affair. Thus in 
the early ages it had to be provided for as the duty of a special ofiicen 
The fetching of fire occurs in many of the clerks' constitutions. 

At St. Nicholas, Bristol, he is to fetch fire for the censers in a fire- 
plate, and not in the censer." At Faversham they had to see that light 
or fire was in the chancel, the clerk during the time of mass, the sexton 

^ See below. Appendix XIV. p. 109, § i. 
^ See below. Appendix III. p. 58, § 26. 

^ A few words to the Parish Clerks and Sextons of Country Parishes, Third Ed. 
London, 1846, p. 7, § ii. 
^ See below. Appendix I. p. 58, § 19, p. 63, § 80. 
' See below. Appendix III. p. 67, § 10. 
^ See below. Appendix VIII. p. 91, § 15. 
' See below. Appendix V. p. 76, §§ 2, 3, p. 77, §9. 
^ See below. Appendix VII. p. 88, § 13. 
* See below. Appendix I. p. 59, §§ 38, 25. 

" Transactions of St. Paulas Ecclesiological Society, 1886-1890, voL iL p. 233. 
" See below. Appendix IIL p. 68, § 24. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION, 

by day and night.* At St. Michael's, Cornhill, they had to provide for 
fire on all such feasts as incense was offered.* At St. Stephen's, 
Coleman Street, the sexton fetched fire in time of need, and the clerks 
had to see it ready in the censers before it was needed.' 

At Coventry the second deacon had to see that the churchwardens 
provided the coals and fire on Easter Even.* 

6. To keep the church clean, — This is of all time. At Coventry the first 
deacon had to sweep the floor of the quire and nave and the second 
clerk the floor of the south aisle, and to clean the corresponding leads, 
and to clear away the snow from the gutters lest the pipes be stopped.* 
Both had to attend to the snow on the steeple.* At All Saints, Bristol, 
the church roofs, windows, pillars, walls and floor, stalls and seats, and 
specially the altar, were to be kept clean by the clerk.' 

At St. Nicholas, Bristol, the under clerk had to sprinkle the church 
with water every Saturday to keep it from dust, to make tidy the crypt, 
the stair, and the church doors, to clear away cobwebs and dust from 
the altars and imagery. Both clerk and suffragan had to sweep the 
glass windows, church walls, and pillars, once a quarter, and the seats in 
the church when they were called upon.* 

At Faversham every week the clerks had to make clean the quire, the 
Trinity chapel, and specially over the altars, and to brush away the 
cobwebs. The sexton had to make clean the body of the church and 
the aisles every week, and every day to see the church made clean " for 
skomeryng of doggs."' 

At St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, the sexton had to sweep the church 
once a week at the least, and cast water on the ground "for Rasynge of 
dust, and to sweep the church roof four times in the year."*° The clerks 
had to sweep all the images and glass windows twice a year, at Easter 
and the translation of St. Stephen, and to keep tidy the alleys of the 
church yard." 

In the Visitation articles we find enquiries made if the clerk keep the 
church clean. Grindal askes if the parish clerk keep the books and 
ornaments of the church fair and clean, and if he cause the church 
and quire, the communion table, pulpit, and font, to be made decent and 
clean.*'* Much the same enquiries go on in the seventeenth century. 
Cosin asks if the clerk keep the church or chapel clean from noisome 
dust, cobwebs, litter, straw or any other annoyance*': and in 1710 

^ See below, Appendix V. p. 76, § 3 and p. 79, § 22. 

2 See below, Appendix VI. p. 82, § 4. 

3 See below, Appendix VIII. p. 90, §§ 5, 16. 
* See below, Appendix I. p. 62, § 63. 

^ See below, Appendix I. p. 58, §§ 11, 12, and p. 61, § 53. 

^ p. 59, § 21. 

' See below, Appendix II. p. 65, § 4. 

8 See below, Appendix III. p. 67, §§ 6, 7, 10, 12, p. 69, § 39. 

^ See below, Appendix V. p. 76, § 7, and p. 79, §§ 24, 25. 

^° See below. Appendix VIII. p. 90, §§ i, 7. 

" p. 92, § 27. 

^''* See below, Appendix XI. p. 98. 

*^ Appendix XI. p. 100. 



INTRODUCTION, xxxiii 

Fleetwood asks if the clerk keep the church clean, and mentions the 
good keeping of this part of their duty as a reason for due payment of 
their salary and perquisites, as if it had become the chief, if not the ooly, 
duty they had.* 

At Barrow on Humber the clerk had to see that the church, chancel, 
and seats, were swept, and kept handsome and decent.* 

Mr. Beresford Hope gives as evidence of the apathy with which 
elementary propriety in church matters was regarded in the reign of 
King George IV. the fact that the parish clerk used to sweep the church 
out during service time.^ 

In the little tract published by the Ecclesiological Society and 
addressed to parish clerks they are told that " the first thing which it is 
your business to do, or to see done, is the keeping the church clean."* 

7. To light the lanterns and scoHses^ that is, the means of lighting up 
the church when it was dark. Of this duty we find but little mention in 
the clerk's constitutions. At Coventry the second clerk was to bring 
out sconses for the winter time to light the quire, but nothing is said of 
his duty in lighting the candles set in the sconses.* At St. Stephen's, 
Coleman Street, it is said that the sexton, every Sunday and holiday, is 
to light the candles and put them out again ; but the rule makes no 
distinction between ordinary and ceremonial lights.^ 

8. To serve the priest at low mass. — This might almost be considered 
one of the essential parts of a clerk's duty ; for he was to read the 
epistle at mass, and thus of necessity he must serve the priest. The 
evidence for this has been given above. In England, the reading of the 
epistle by the clerk, and of his serving at the altar, had fallen into very 
great disuse in the early nineteenth century. Yet not wholly: for 
besides the instances given above of the clerk reading the epistle in 
recent times, certain correspondents of the newspapers tell us also of his 
-waiting at the altar, as the following extracts set forth. 

It was, I remember, at this dale, [thirty- five years before 1876] customary 
for the parish clerk (not in orders) to take his place within the communion rails 
as assistant, or acolyte, if that word would have been understood in those days. 

I well remember the importation of what would be called an " Evangelical 
curate," who strongly objected to this, and the clerk was forthwith ejected 
from his post at the " altar table," as we Northerns called it, greatly to his 
indignation.^ 

Mr. J. B. Wilson writes in 1880 : 

Up to a few years ago at Lower Sapey Church in Worcestershire, when the 
parson left the reading-desk at the end of Morning Prayer, and took up 

^ Appendix XI. p. 102. 

^ See below, Appendix XIV. p. 108, § 2. 

^ A. J. B. Beresford Hope, Worship in the Church of England^ London, 1875, sec. 
-ed. p. 8. 

** A frw words to the parish clerks and sextons of country parishes^ London, 1846. 
Third Ed. p. 4, § 5. 

* See below. Appendix I. p. 63, § 72. 

® See below. Appendix VIII. p. 90, § 2. 

^ A letter signed F. B. G. in the Guardian^ May 31, 1876, p. 711, under ** Reserva- 
tion for the sick." 

CLERK. C 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION, 

his position at the north side of the altar, it was the custom for the 
clerk also to go within the rails and kneel down at the south side of the 
altar. ^ 

Dr. F. G. Lee asserts that it was customary for the parish clerk in 
many Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire churches to attend upon the 
parson at the communion table, and to kneel either at or within the rails, 
and that in some cases he wore a surplice.' 

There has been a recent revival of the practice in several English 
parishes. In the early days of the ecclesiological revival it was, however, 
thought very improper that the clerk should go inside the altar rails. 
He is told in a tract published by the Ecclesiological Society that 

If old customs were kept up as they ought to be, you would never be allowed 
to go within the altar-rails ; and this I hope may some day be the case again. 
In the meantime, I would not go there needlessly : and when there, would 
behave so as to show that I knew myself to be on very holy ground.* 

At this point we leave the duties named in the Statutes of St. Mary 
Ottery. But there are still some few to be spoken of. 

Opening and shutting church, — At Coventry the senior clerk had to 
open the church doors every day at six o'clock,* while the junior needed 
only to be in the church half-an-hour before seven. At All Saints, 
Bristol, the clerk had to open and shut the church at due times, and also 
to search the church.* So at St. Nicholas, Bristol, with a search for fear 
of sleepers.® At Morebath it was agreed that when service was done, 
the clerk should knock at the church door half-an-hour after ; then if 
any would abide in the church so that the door stood open all night, the 
hurt to the church should fall upon them and not on the clerk.^ 

At St. Michael's, Cornhill, it was ordered in 1596 that the church door 
should be kept shut in the weekdays after service, whereby boys and 
others may be kept forth from doing damage. 

The Latin edition of the canons of 1603 gives the title De Ostiariis 
sive Clericis Parochialibus to Canon 91, which deals with the office of 
parish clerk.' The ostiarius in prae-Reformation times was held to be the 
lowest or first conferred of the minor orders, and according to St. Isidore 
he held the keys of the church, which he opened and shut.^° 

In the same century as these canons were passed Christopher Hervey 
calls the sexton by the name of the " Churches key-keeper."^^ 

^ Notes and Queries, May, 1880, 6th Series, vol. i. p. 356. 
2 Notes and Queries, ibid,, p. 522. 

* A few words to the parish clerks and sextons of country parishes, third edition^ 
London, 1846, p. 6, § 11. 

* See below. Appendix I. p. 57, § i. 

* See below, Appendix 11. p. 64, § i. 

® See below. Appendix III. p. 66, §§ i, 2. 
' See below, Appendix VII. p. 84, § i, 

^ The Accounts of the Churchwardens , . , St, Michael, Cornhill, 1872, p. 253^ 
® Cotistitutiones sive Canones Ecclesiastici, LiOndon, John Norton, 1604. 
10 Epistola B. Isidori, in T. Saenz de Aguirre, Collectio ntaxima conciliorum, ed. J* 
Catalani, Romae, 1753, t. iii. p. 455. 
^- See below, p. xlvii. 



I 



J 



INTRODUCTION, xxxv 

To carry the pax round the church. — This is one of the duties of the 
clerk which we find all over England. It is spoken of incidentally in 
the marriage service of the rites of Sarum/ York,' and Hereford,' 
almost in the same words in all : '* clericus statim a presbytero pacem 
accipiens, proferat aliis sicut solitum est." He carries the pax to the 
others as it has been accustomed. 

Thomas Becon says that ''the boye or parrish dark carrielh the Pax 
aboute," for the people to kiss.* Also in the injunctions for the 
Deanery of Doncaster^ we are told that " the Clarke in the like manner 
shall bring down the Fcuce** 

To keep the registers. — Thomas Cromwell in 1536 ordered registers to 
be kept of the weddings, christenings, and burials ;* and there is evidence 
that this duty was performed by the parish clerk. For example, at St. 
Stephen's, Coleman Street, in 1542, the clerks were everj' week to certify 
to the curate the names of those married, baptized, and buried, under 
pain of a penny fine.' At St. Margaret's, Lothbury, it was ordered in 
1571,* the clerk should keep the register of christenings, weddings, and 
buryings, perfectly, and should present the same every Sunday to the 
churchwardens to be perused by them, and to have for his pains 
3J. 4i/. yearly. 

In 1563 at St. Margaret's, Westminster, they bought 

a quier of paper, for the clerks to make weekly certificates unto the court 
of all buryals and christenings.*^ 

A duty of the parish clerk in the city of London, beginning before the 
injunctions of Thomas Cromwell and lasting into the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, was the drawing up of the bills of mortality. This was 
a weekly return of the number of deaths in each parish, sent to the Lord 
Mayor of London and to the King's Council. Probably it was some 
such return that is spoken of in the entry of St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
just named. 

The history of the bills of mortality has been dealt with at length by 
Mr. James Christie, *° and it does not seem necessary to go further into 
this matter in the present edition. 

Social and Ecclesiastical Position. — It has been seen that King 
Richard I. delighted to take the place of rector chori^^ and John of Athon 

* MissaU . . . Saruniy ed. F. H. Dickinson, Burntisland, 1861-83, col. 844*. 
^ Missale . . . Ebor. Surtees Society, 1874. Vol. ii. p. 192. 

' Missale . . . Herford. ed. Henderson, Leeds, 1874, p. 443. 

* Thomas Becon, The displayeng of the Popysh Masse, in WbrkeSf London, 1563, 
vol. iii. fo. xlix. b, 

^ See below, Appendix IX. p. 94. 

* D. Wilkins, Concilia^ Lond. 1737, t. iii. p. 816. 
■^ See below. Appendix VIII. § 10, p. 91. 

* See below, Appendix IV. p. 72. 

' J. Nichols, Illustrations of the Manners ^ etc. London, 1797, p. 17. 
^" James Christie, Some account of Parish Clerks, 1893, privately printed by James 
Vincent, pp. 132-147. 
^^ See above, p. xix. 

C 2 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION, 

lays down the rule that any clerk, even if he be the son of a king, must 
not be ashamed to go up to the book and read and sing in the church.' 
It may be noticed also that in the time of Henry VII. a canon of 
Newburgh did not think it beneath his dignity to ask for the place of 
parish clerk for his brother.^ And it does not seem to be universally true 
that the office of parish clerk was considered vile and mean in the un- 
reformed church as Ayliffe would suggest.* We have seen the instances 
to the contrary given above. And later on, in the seventeenth century, 
there is an instance, for the knowledge of which I am indebted to Mr. 
J. Brooking Rowe, of the parish clerk being in the holy order of a deacon : 
one Hobbes, parish clerk of Plymouth at the beginning of the troubles 
in King Charles the First's reign. 

Hobbes, — : He was in Deacon's Orders^ and so must have a Place in this 
List ; Although he was no other than Parish-Clerk of Plymouth x And having 
one Day Buried a Corpse by the Common- Prayer^ he was Threatned, that if he 
came again with his Mass-Book^ to Bury any body, he should be thrown into 
the same Grave : Which worked so much upon his Spirits, that partly with Fear, 
and partly with Grief, he Died soon after. ^ 

Upon this Mr. J. Brooking Rowe has the following note : 

It is interesting to find Walker's story of William Hobbs, the clerk of St. 
Andrew's, confirmed. He was frightened to death while burying a corpse 
in the yard, the Puritans threatening to throw him into the grave if he 
came there again with his mass- book, that is, the book of common prayer. 
In the earliest book we find him clerk, receiving ;^7 per annum, in addition 
to burial and other fees, and £,z lo^. for keeping the burial account, and lor. 
for keeping the register. He died in 1643 ; and the balance of his salary was 
paid to his widow. His successor, Henry Champlyn, who was appointed to 
keep the register by the mayor in 1653, appears to have been the clerk until 
1683, and was, I believe, succeeded by his son, who was clerk until 17 16, 
the two thus holding office for about 73 years.** 

Later on in the same century, in the reign of James II. the Act of 
Parliament which erects the new parish of St. James, Piccadilly, directs 
that the clerk of the new church shall be in priest's orders, and shall 
receive thirty pounds a year from the pew rents.* Mr. James Christie, 
examining the records of the Company of Parish Clerks in the city of 
London, is able to tell us that the parish clerks in orders, by which it 
may be inferred was meant holy orders, were recognised specially in a 
minute of 1689. Many such in the following century, he adds, joined 
the Company, and up to 1823 their membership is recognised.' 

^ Unde quicunque sis, etiamsi filius Regis, ex quo Clericali Militiae es ascriptus, 
non erubescas in Ecclesia ad librum accedere, legere, et cantare ; quod si per te nescias, 
sequere scientes. (Constitutio Othonis, tit. de Institutione Vicariorum § de iam vero^ 
verb, ecclesiis. Appendix to Lyndwood, Provinciale, 1679, p. 28.) 

^ Plumpton Correspondence i edited by Thomas Stapleton, Camden Society, 1839, 
p. 66. 

^ John Ayliffe, Parergon luris Canonici Anglicani^ London, 1726, p. 409. 

* John Walker, An attempt tovtards recovering an account of the numbers and 
sufferings of the Clergy , London, 17 14. Appendix, p. 418. 

"* J. Brooking Rowe, The Church of St, Andrew, Plymouth, Plymouth, 1875, 

p. 45- 

* See below, Appendix XI. p. 10 1. 

' James Christie, Some cucount of parish Clerks, 1893, privately printed by James 
Vincent, p. 212. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

In 1844 an Act was passed by which it was definitely made lawful 
for a person in the holy orders of Deacon or Priest to be elected parish 
clerk ; but to such person it gave no freehold, but only the same rights 
as a stipendiary curate.* At All Hallows Barking, a priest has served 
the office of parish clerk since 1884. 

The courts do not seem to agree in opinion whether ihe parish clerk 
be a spiritual person or not. In the case recorded by Godolphin it was 
held, apparently by the Court of King's Bench, that the parish clerk is a 
mere layman.^ But afterwards there was another case, in the third year 
of Queen Anne, where one Judge seems to have held that the clerk was 
not a spiritual person, while other Judges held that he was an 
ecclesiastical person and in inferior orders. 

In the Case of Parker and Cterk^ 3 AnncLe^ where Prohibition was pray'd 
to stay Proceedings in the Spiritual Court, of a Parish Clerk against the 
Church-wardens, for soe much money due to him yearly, and by them leviable 
upon the Parishioners ; it was said by Holt^ Without doubt, the Spiritual Court 
has noe original Jurisdiction here, if they doe not make the Clerk a Spiritual 
person, which will be hard to doe ; but others said, they look'd upon the 
Clerk to be an Ecclesiastical person, and in inferior Orders, and that as such, 
he might sue in the Spiritual Court for a stipend or pension.^ 

It must be owned that it seems more reasonable to agree with the 
second thoughts of the Court of Queen's Bench in the time of Queen 
Anne rather than to assert a contradiction in terms, as John Johnson 
calls it, by speaking of a lay clerk.* In* 17 10 Fleetwood, Bishop of St. 
Asaph, points out that the parish clerk was heretofore in some low sort 
of Orders and that they still kept the name of Clerici} 

The following remarks, made by Dr. Raine, the editor of Dr. Barnes' 
Injunctions^ may help us to understand in some degree the position of 
parish clerks in the north of England towards the end of the sixteenth 
century. 

At the end of this Visitation of Northumberland, it is worthy of remark, 
that in many parishes or chapelries, in which was settled a house of old descent 
and note and coat armour, we have one of the same family name acting as 
parish clerk, a fact which is not to be observed in the Visitation of the county 
of Durham, to which we proceed. The following list, derived from the 
preceding pages, leads to the conclusion that either the persons here specified 
were in such circumstances as to make even a parish-clerkship acceptable, 
or that they thus officiated because no parishioner of the humbler class was 
able to read. 

Here follow the names of some sixteen parish clerks. Dr. Raine then 
adds : 

We have, moreover, as parish clerk of Woodhorne, Amor Oxley, who 
was an eminent schoolmaster. Edward Stanley, parish clerk of Chillingham, 
was a young gentleman in the household of Sir Thomas Grey.** 



1 
2 



See below. Appendix XI. p. 102. 
See below. Appendix XIII. p. 107. 
' £dm. Gibson, Codex luris Ecclesiastici Anglicani^ tit. ix. cap. xiv. Oxford, 1761. 
t. i. p. 214. note d. 
* John Johnson, Clergy-mans* Vade-meainiy London, 1709, Ch. xxiii. p. 203. 
® See bielow. Appendix XI. p. 102. 

^ The Injunctions and other Ecclesiastical proceedings of Richard Barnes , Bishop oj 
Durham t Surtees Society, 1850, p. 45. Chancellor's Visitation 1577-8. 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

It may be that these varying statements may be explained by 
supposing that the parish-clerkship was an office sometimes filled by 
men of education and position, sometimes taken by men who had 
scarcely the qualifications to enable them barely to exercise their duties. 
This may be seen in many professions and callings; and the parish 
clerk does not seem an exception. 

Exemption from Juries, — By the 6th George IV. cap. 50, § 2, made in 
the year of our Lord 1825, a number of persons are exempt from serving 
on juries : " all officers of Customs and Excise ; all Sheriffs, Officers, 
High Constables and Parish Clerks shall be and are hereby absolutely 
freed and exempted from being returned and from serving on any 
Juries.*' It is believed that this Act is still in force. A gentleman of 
large property in Wales was summoned upon the Grand Jury oftener 
than he liked. He procured himself to be appointed parish clerk ; he 
claimed exemption on this ground and the claim was allowed by Mr. 
Justice Blackburn. And in 1S88 a man resident in West Kensington 
received a jury notice ; at the foot was a statement of various grounds 
of exemption ; one of these was the holding of the office of parish 
clerk. Having been appointed to this office in his father's parish, he 
claimed exemption, and obtained it. 

Vesture. — The clerks who accompany Maximianus in the well- 
known mosaics at St. Vitalis in Ravenna wear a vesture which is the 
forerunner of the surplice, rochet, or alb. But though the thing appears 
in the sixth century, yet the name hardly makes its appearance before 
the twelfth.* In the late middle ages we find the surplice frequently 
named as the vesture of clerks. In 1229 the sixth Constitution of 
W. de Bloys directs that he who serves at mass shall wear a surplice.^ 
By Winchelsey's Ut parochiani three surplices and one rochet had to 
be found; and Lyndwood glosses this order, saying that the three 
surplices are for the priest, deacon, and subdeacon, while the rochet is 
for the clerk.^ But there are directions of Archbishop Walter's 

^ D. Wilkins, Concilia^ Lond. 1737. t. i. p. 624. 

* The surplice is incidentally alluded to by William of Malmesbury in a work 
finished by 1 125. {Gesta PontificufUy lib. i. cap. 44. Rolls Series, 1870. p. 71. 
" canonicos cappis et superpellitiis ornaverat "), and in the laws of Edward the 
Confessor, a collection which may have been in existence before 1125 if it be spoken 
of by Henry I. (B. Thorpe, Ancient Laws . . . England^ 1840. p. 199. Law 
xxxvi. "clencis in suppelhciis.") If it could be proved that the surplice is mentioned 
in the third canon of the Council of Cayaca, a.d. 1050, as Messrs. Addis and Arnold 
maintain {Catholic Dictionary^ London, 1884, sub voce surplice : and again in the 
edition of 1897.) the first appearance of the word would be sent back more than half a 
century ; but I cannot find it in the editions of these canons by Labbe, or Mansi, or 
Saenz. Lyndwood seems to suggest that the word surplice has not the right to exist, 
because he cannot remember to have found it in the civil or canon law, nor in holy 
cripture. (Provituictle^ lib. i. tit. de off, Archi, cap. Sint Ecclesiarumy verb, altari, 
Oxon. 1679. p. 53.) It may be an example of the frequent antagonism between the 
canonist and the ritualist. However usual the word may be in liturgy, yet it ought 
not to be sanctioned unless the canonist have set his seal upon it. 

' Lyndwood, Provincialej lib. iii. tit. De ecclesiis aedificandis cap. Ut parochiani^ 
verb. Tria superpellicia and Rochetum^ Oxon. 1679. p. 252. Winchelsey is from 1294 
to 1313. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

that he who waits at the altar shall be clothed in a surplice,* and 
Lyndwood glosses the second direction which contains the word clerk, 
by noting that it is the parish clerk. In the same way, in the visitation 
of the sick, the Constitutions of Alexander, Bishop of Coventry in 1237, 
direct that the deacon or clerk accompanying the priest who carries the 
eucharist shall wear a surplice.^ Under the same circumstances 
Lyndwood thinks it better that the minister who accompanies the 
priest should wear a surplice.^ 

Chaucer *s parish clerk, the jolly Absolon, wore a surplice : 

I-clad he was ful smal and propurly, 
Al in a kirtel of a fyn wachet 
Schapen with goores in the newe get. 
And therupon he had a gay surplys 
As whyt as is the blosme upon the rys.^ 

And in the clerk's rules we find the clerk is to wear a surplice. At 
Coventry he collects offerings on Twelfth day for the reparation of his 
surplice.* He wore a surplice when at mass at St. Nicholas, Bristol.® 
At Faversham he wore a rochet.' At St. Michael, Comhill, no 
minister was to " sitt in quire during divine service without a surplice."* 

The Churchwardens' accounts and similar documents of the 
fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the sixteenth centuries show mention 
of the clerk's surplice or rochet. At St. Michael's, Bath, in 1364, the 
churchwardens paid for the mending of the parish clerk's surplice.® In 
1430 they bought a new surplice for him for four shillings and fourpence.*'* 
In 1455, there was at St. Ewen's, Bristol, "a Rochette for the Clerk."*^ 
In 1489 the churchwardens at Leicester paid for a "rochet for the clerk 
and making 2^. \d, ob."*'^ In 1502-3 at St. Michael's, Bath, they bought 
linen for a rochet for the parish clerk, two ells and a half for seventeen 
pence, and paid for the making eightpence." 

^ Lyndwood, lib. i. tit. rf? officio Archidi, cap. Sint Ecdesiarum^ p. 53. ** Qui altari 
ministrat suppellicio induatur." See also lib. iii. tit. De celebratiotu missaruiHy cap. 
Linfeamina p. 236. *' Item nullus clericus permittatur ministrare in officio altaris nisi 
indutus in superpellicio." Clericus : supple Parochialis^ adds Lyndwood. 

'■* D. Wilkins, Concilia^ London, 1737. t. i. p. 641. 

^ Lyndwood, lib. iii. tit. de reliquiis^ cap. Dignissimumy verb. Saltetfty p. 249. 

^ Chaucer, Miiler^s tale^ 134, Poetical Works ^ edited by R. Morris, Bell and 
Daldy, no date, vol. ii. p. 102. The kirtle with gores can hardly have been the 
clerical cassock that is worn under the surplice. And he was used to let blood 
(v. 140) forgetting Ecclesia abhorret a sanguine. Altogether he was no good clerk. 

^ See below. Appendix I. §§ 18 and 59, pp. 58 and 02. 

•^ See below, Appendix III. p. 67, § 18. 

^ See below, Appendix V. p. 76, § 2. 

^ See below, Appendix VI. p. 83, § 11. 

* C. B. Pearson, Churchwarden^ Accounts » , » of St. Michael without the 
ftorth gate, Bath, Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society's Proceedings, 
vol. xxiii. Taunton, 1878, p. 6. 

10 Ibid, p. 41. 

^^ Cuthbert Atchley, Inventories of the Goods of the Parish Church of St, Ewen^ 
Bristol, p. 6. (Privately printed by G. du Boistel and Co. Bristol, 1900.) 

^'■^ Thomas North, Accounts of ' the Churchwardens of St. Afartin^s^ Leicester y 
Leicester, 1884, p. 2. 

^^ C. P. Pearson, <?/. cit. p. 96. 



xl INTRODUCTION, 

At St. Margaret's, Westminster, in 1534, they paid for a surplice for 
the curate ; John More, the clerk \ Thomas Adams the clerk ; and also 
for the sexton. The curate's cost ten shillings ; the others only three. 
But in 1628, for thirteen ells of holland to make surplices for the two 
clerks and sextons at 3^. 4//. the ell they paid ;t3 ^^j. Zd} At 
Wing in Buckinghamshire in 1562 they "payde for makynge of the 
Clarkes surplas " at the same time that they also paid " for mendynge 
of the Curates surples."*** 

In 1568 at Worcester they paid \)d, "for mendyng the dark's 
surples" which they had in 1551.^ Also in 1572 at Bristol they had two 
surplices for the priest, two surplices for the clerk, as well as two long 
houseling towels, and six old albes.* 

The instances of the wearing of the surplice or rochet by the clerk 
in the sixteenth century are numerous, and it does not seem necessary 
to give here all that are known. 

From the records of the Parish Clerks' Company in London 
Mr. Christie is able to cite a rule made in 16 10 that the clerks are to 
appear at their special evensong at Guildhall Chapel in a fair white 
surplice, under a penalty. But in 1640 the rule is altered : ''he shall sit 
or stand in decent manner in his gowne.''* This is doubtless the result 
of the prevailing Puritanism of the time. 

The visitation articles of the diocese of Exeter in 1638 inquire 
if the clerk usually wear a surplice or rochet in the time of divine service.* 

About thirty years later, in the visitation articles of Dr. John Cosin, 
Bishop of Durham, in 1662, it is inquired if the parish clerk wear a 
gown and a surplice over it, if the custom have been such.' The gown, 
doubtless, means some variety of the cassock, such as vergers still 
wear in cathedral churches. 

The surplice or rochet for the clerk seems to have been in use even 
at the end of the eighteenth century. In the parish church of Bledlow, 
Buckinghamshire, an inventory was taken in 1783, and one of the items 
is this : 

A surplice without Sleeves, intended for the Clerk.^ 

Also Fosbroke says of the clerks that "in some churches they still 
wear a surplice without sleeves."® 

Of the survival of the surplice as part of the vesture of the clerk 
into the first half of the nineteenth century I have one other solitary 

* John NicnoUs, Illustrations of the Manners ^ etc. London, 1797, pp. 10 and 37. 
' Archaeologia^ 1855, vol. xxxvi. p. 235. 

' |ohn Amphlett, Churchwardens^ Accounts of St. Michael* s in Bedwardine^ 
Worcester^ Oxford, 1896, pp. 28 and 63. Here they paid in 1545 "for a peare of 
gloues for the Gierke's ease ij.d." (p. 14) I presume to keep his hands warm. 

^ J. F. Nichols and John Taylor, Bristol past and present^ 1881, vol. ii. p. 37. 

* James Christie, Sottie account of parish clerks^ 1893, privately printed by James 
Vincent, p. 175. 

^ See below, Appendix XI. p. 99. 
"* See below, Appendix XI. p. 100. 

8 This inventory wiU shortly appear in the Transcutions of St. PauVs EcclesiologiccU 
Society, 

* T. D. Fosbroke, Encyclopcsdia of Antiquities^ London, 1825, vol. ii. p. 680. 






INTRODUCTJON, xli 

witness.^ After the rise of the Cambridge Ecclesiological movement 
a clerk wearing a surplice may ofteii be found ; but this is a restoration, 
not a survival of old custom. 

Age. — Saint Cyprian tells us of one whom he had ordained reader 
that he was iilustris adolesrens and therefore it will be seen of no great 
age." And an early notice that we have of clerks supposes that they 
will be boys, before the age of puberty and incapable of marriage, for it 
allows them to marry after they have grown up.' There are traces of 
ordination even in the period of infancy.* 

We all remember the lines in Chaucer : 

Among these children was a widow sone 
A litel clei^eoun, that seve yer was of age.' 

He was already a little clergyman, though only seven years of age. 

Justinian forbad readers to be ordained before the age of i8,' and 
there may be some reminiscence of this in the ninety-first canon of 1603, 
which orders that the parish clerk shall be at least twenty years of age' ; 
and accordingly in the visitation articles of the seventeenth century we 
find inquiries whether the clerk be of the age of twenty at the 
least. 

Makriagb. — St. Gregory, answering one of the questions put to him 
by St. Augustine of Canterbury, replies that clerks who are not in holy 
orders may marry and receive their stipends from without.® Innocent II. 
in a Council held at K hemes in 1131, orders that all who had entered 
the subdiaconate and upwards and yet retained their wives should be 

' Dr. F. G. Lee, Azotes and Queries^ May, 1880, 6th Series, vol. i. p. 522. 

'■^ Cyprian, Epistolae xxxiii. Migne, Patrologia, t. 4. col. 317. 

' Canon. I. Concilium Vasense A.D. 529. 

Hoc enim placuit, ut omnes presbyteri, qui sunt in parochiis constituti, secundum 
consuetudinem, quam per totam Italiam satis salubriter teneri cognovimus, iuniores 
lectores quantoscumque sine uxore habuerint, secum in domo, ubi ipsi habitare 
videntur, recipiant : et eos quomodo boni patres spiritaliter nutrientes, psalmos parare, 
divinis lectionibus insistere, et in lege domini erudire coniendant : ut el sibi dignos 
successores provideant, et a domino praemia aeterna recipiant. Cum vero ad aetatem 
perfectam pervenerint, si aliquis eorum pro carnis fragilitate uxorem habere voluerit, 
potestas ei ducendi coniugium non negetur. 

(Labbe and Cossart, Sacrosaftcta Coficilia^ Venetiis, 1728, t. v. col. 821.) 

■* Eugenms [654-657] natione Romanus de regione prima Aventinensf, clericus a 
cunabulis. (L. Duchesne, Liber Pontificalis^ Paris, 1886, t. i. p. 341.) Other 
instances among the popes may be found in P. Batiffol, History of the Roman Breviary, 
Ch. li. § i. London, 1898, p. 55.) Inter quos quam plurimi erant lectores infantuli. 
(Victor Vitensis, de persecutione Vattdalica, Lib. v. cap. ix. Migne, Patrologia, t. 5S. 
col. 246.) The rule of St. Benedict (capp. lix. and Ixx.) encourages the offering of 
children and infants to a monastery. 

* Chaucer, Prioresses Tale, line 50. (ed. R. Morris, iii. 123.) 

^ Novellae constitttiioties Dn. lustininiani, Antv. 1567, p. 224. (thus, for 324) 
Novel. 123, Clericos autem. 

"' Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastically London, Robert Barker, 1604, No. 
xci. 

* St. Gregory the Great, Epistolae, lib. xi. 64. (studio et labore Monachorum O.S.B. 
Venetiis, 1771, t. viii. p. 297.) 



xlii . INTRODUCTION, 

put from their benefices. It may be inferred from this that clerks below 
the subdiaconate might marry, and yet not lose their benefices.* 

Lyndwood deals with the marriage of clerks in two glosses.* He 
declares that married clerks, especially if they be twice married, are 
nothing better than laymen, and that if they do not wear the clerical 
dress and tonsure they enjoy no clerical privilege. The married clerk is 
not to sit or stand among the clerks, but among the layfolk. But as is 
the custom of canonists, what he takes away with one hand, he immedi- 
ately restores with the other, and he adds at once that when unmarried 
cleiks are not to be had, married clerks may perform duty, provided 
they have not been twice married and retain the tonsure and clerical 
dress. A passage from the Decretals of Gregory IX. favours this : 

Clericus, si tonsura dimissa uxorem acceperit, qui quidem sit sine gradu, nee 
monasterio a parentibus traditus, uxorem permittatur habere, et iterum tondeatur, 
nee in vita sua uxorem dimittere audeat.^ 

There can be no doubt that married clerks abounded in England. 
Amongst other instances there are these : John Brian parish clerk of 
the church of St. Mary Aldermanbury left to Alice his wife his 
tenements and to the priory of St. Mary de ElsyngspituU his books on 
tlie canon law.* At St. Mary Bishophill York in 1416 it is complained 
that the parish clerk and his wife were hindered from entering their 
house on Sundays with the holy water according to the custom of the 
city.* In the same year the accounts of St. Michael's Bath, twice make 
mention of payments made clerico et uxori.^ In 1378 the wife of the 
parish clerk of St. Peter the less in the city of London was successful 
in her suit for the release of her husband who had spoken disrespect- 
fully of John of Gaunt.'' In 15 14 John Huyk parish clerk of Hull 
was to be buried beside his wife in the wedding porch of the church.® 

Exceeding Duties. — In the first years of Elizabeth we meet with an 

inquiry from the Pui itan Bishop of Norwich, Parkhurst, if the reader be 

exceeding his duties : 

§ 27. Whether that any reader being admitted but to reade : taketh vpon him 
to baptize, to marie, to celebrate the Lords supper or to distribute the Lords cup.' 

^ Concilium Remense, anno Domini 1131, Canon IV. (Labbe, Sacrosancta Concilia^ 
Venetiis, 1730, t. xii. col. 1463.) See also 3rd Canon of first Lateran Council under 
Calixtus IL in 1123. {ibid. col. 1333.) 

'^ W. Lyndwode, Provinciale^ Lib. iii. tit. de clericis conitigatis cap. cum ex eo verb. 
vestigia cMionum^ and tit. de coftcessione praebendae^ cap. a tiostris maioribus, verb. 
clericiSf Oxon. 1679, pp. 129, and 142. 

'^ Dtcreta Gregorii IX. lib. iii. tit. i. cap. vi. in /E. L. Richter, Corpus luris 
Caiumiciy Lipsiae, 1839, pars ii. col. 433. 

^ Reginald R. Sharpe, Calendar of Wills . . . Court of Husting London^ i%^, 
part ii. p. 24 under year 1361. See also part i. pp. 243, 253, 378, 396, 467, 509, 667, 
694, part ii. 18, jy^ 228. 

* Fabric Rolls of York Minster^ Surtees Society, 1859, p. 248. 

* C. B. Pearson, Churchwardens' Accounts . . . of St. Michael witlwtU the 
north gaie^ Bath, Somersetshire Archseological and Natural History Society's 
Proceedings, vol. xxiii. Taunton, 1878, p. 24. 

' H. T. Riley, Memorials of London, 1868, p. 425. 

** Testamenta Eborcuensia, Surtees Society, 1884. Vol. v. p. 49. 

* Jftterrogatories, in Iniunctions exhibited by John by gods sufferance Bishop of 
Norwich, London [1561] B. i. b. 



INTRODUCTION, xliii 

In the visitation articles of Matthew Parker,^ issued in 1569, it is 
asked " whether their churche or chappell be served with any readers.'* 
Apparently in the answer to this question we find more than one 
instance of the parish clerk intruding into the duties of the parson. At 
Westbere it is presented : 

That when the Parson is absent the parish clerk readeth the service* 

And at Waltham they present : 

That our parish is served by our clerk for the most part, for that our 
Vicar cometh seldom there. 

And at Tenterden : 

John Hopton readeth divine service, having received no orders, neither 
tolerated to that effect. 

While at Fairfield they complain : 

That their church is served with a Reder.**^ 

Two years later in 157 1, Grindal as Archbishop of York puts out as 
the first of his injunctions to the laity : 

I. First, We do enjoin and straightly command, that from henceforth no 
parish clerk, nor any other person not being ordered, at the least, for a deacon, 
shall presume to solemnize Matrimony, or to minister the sacrament of Baptism, 
or to deliver to the communicants the Lord's cup at the celebration of the holy 
Communion. And that no person, not being a minister, deacon, or, at the 
least, tolerated by the ordinary in writing, do attempt to supply the office of a 
minister in saying of divine service openly in any church or chapel.^ 

Sandys also when Bishop of London is said to have issued injunc- 
tions in the visitation of his new diocese, of which the last was as 
follows : 

6. That parish clerks intrude not into the priests' duty, as before they had 
sometimes done."* 

But I have looked through the Articles of his visitation of 157 1 and 
cannot find any inquiry as to exceeding their duty by the parish clerks.^ 
Also in the diocese of Lincoln in 1574 it was inquired : — 

6. Whether sithens the last visitation, ^our parish Gierke, or any other not 
being minister or deacon, or not being licensed by the Ordinarie, haue taken 
vppon them to begin or say seruice, or minister any sacraments, or distribute the 
Lords Cup, or read the Homely in your parish, what they be and what be their 
names.^ 

^ £dward Cardwell, Documefttary Annals of the Reformed Church of England^ 
Oxford, 1839, vol. i. p. 322, § vii. 

^ Home Counties Magazine^ 1903, vol. v. pp. 9, 14, 209, 288. 

^ Injunctions . . . Metropoliticall Visitation of the Province of Yorke . . . 
Anno Domtni 1 57 1, printed in the Remains of Edmund Grindal^ Parker Society, 

1843, P- ^V" 

* Sermons of Edwin Sandys^ edited by John Ayre, Parker Society, 184 1, p. xx. 

• Articles . . . visitation of the Dioces of London by the Reuerende Father in 
God Edwyn . . . London, William Seres, 1 57 1. 

^Articles . . . diocese of Lincolne . . . 7)b///a5 [Cowper] London, Rafe 
Newbery, 1574. A ii. b. 



xliv INTRODUCTION, 

And in 1588 in the same diocese it is inquired : 

Whether the Clarke be . . . suffered to reade anything in the Church, 
saue the one Lesson, and the Epistle.^ 

But this intrusion into the office of clerks in holy orders must have 
gone on ; and in some cases it was authorised by the bishop. For in 
1625-26 in the parish of Stepney, at the request of the vicar, the 
bishop did grant a licence to empower Robinson, the parish .clerk, to 
bury parishioners and to church their wives, using the prayer book forms. 
The reason given is that there was more than the curate could do single 
handed, the mortality from the plague being so great.^ These two acts, 
saying the burial service and churching women, are not so exclusively 
sacerdotal that their performance by a parish clerk might not be winked 
at in cases of great necessity. But it touches upon the scandalous when 
the parish clerk is allowed to baptize as well as read prayers, bury, 
marry, and church. In 1634 in the diocese of Winchester it was 
answered : 

Touching the Parish Clerk and Sexton all is well only our clerk doth some- 
times to ease our Minister, read prayers, church women, christen, bury, and 
marry, being allowed so to do.' 

It may be that the following inquiry is not wholly unconnected with 
this reply : 

Touching the Parish Gierke^ afzd Sexton. 

« « * * • • • 

2. Whether doth your Gierke meddle with anything above his Office, as 
churching of women, burying of the dead, reading of Prayers, or such 
like?* 

After 1630 the Bishop of Lincoln inquires : 

Whether doth the Clerk or any person not authorized meddle above his 
place, as to read prayers, bury the dead, church women, and such like ?* 

In 1 639 the Bishop of Winchester makes the same inquiry.* 

So also the Bishop of Exeter in 1 638,® the Archdeacon of Chichester 
in 1640.' 

After the Restoration the " meddling above his place " would seem 
to have been less frequent, if we may judge from its disappearance in the 
visitation articles after that revival of discipline. 

Another sort of meddling above his place may be detected in the 
giving out of notices ; a practice glanced at by the rubric contained in 

* Articles . . . Diocesse of Lincoln^ London, 1588, § 41. 

2 G. W. Hill and W. H. Frere, Memorials of Stepney Parish, Guildford, 1890-91, 
p. xvi. See below, Appendix XII. p. 104, in which the draft of a licence to the 
parish clerk is given. 

^ E. Greatorex, Reliquary , 1 894, vol. viii. new series, p. 157. 
I * Visitation Articles of Walter [Cui 11] Bishop of Winchester, London, John Norton, 

I 1639. A. iv. b. 

I ' Appendix E. to the Second Report of the Royal Comvtissioit on Ritual , &^c., 1 868, 

j p. 520, tit. 5, § 6. 

I ^ See below, Appendix XI. p. 99. 

^ See below. Appendix XI. p. 100. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

the book of common prayer after the Nicene creed, which was inserted 
at the last revision in 1662 it may be to stop such practices. We find 
it inquired into in an archidiaconal visitation in 1630. 

Proclamations of lay-businesses made in the Church \in w.] 

8. Whether hath your Parish Clerk, or any other in Prayers time, or before 
Prayers or Sermon ended, before the people departed, made proclamation in 
your Church touching any goods strayed away or wanting, or of any Leet 
court to be held, or 01 common-dayes-works to be made, or touching any other 
thing which is not meerly ecclesiastical!, or a Church-businesse ? 

Something like this persisted even into the nineteenth century. 
Sir Walter Scott speaks of a strange custom at Hexham : 

It is common for the traders in cattle, which business is carried on to a great 
extent, to carry all letters received in course of trade to the parish church, 
where the clerk reads them aloud after service, and answers them according to 
circumstances. ''* 

« 

Also in a parish near Manchester we are told : 

After Sunday morning service it was customary in the last generation for the 
parish clerk to turn bell-man and announce in the churchyard any engagements 
for the coming week, such as sales by auction, and other worldly matters in 
which the parish was interested.^ 

So too Mr. Beresford Hope, speaking of the practice known to him 
of the reign of King George IV. writes as follows : 

The clerk, a wizened old fellow, in a brown Welsh wig, repeated the 
responses in a nasal twang, and with a substitution of " w " for '*v**so 
consistent as not even to spare the Belief ; while the local rendering of ** briefs, 
citations, and excommunications," included announcements by this worthy after 
the Nicene Creed, of meetings at the town inn of ** executors "of a deceased 
Duke. . . . During the sermon this zealous servant of the sanctuary 
would take up his broom and sweep out the middle alley, in order to save him- 
self the fetigue of a week day visit. ^ 

Mr. Christopher Wordsworth informs me that his mother could 
remember hearing the clerk give out, about 18 16, invitations to 
tradesmen to tender for supplying bread for the poor of the 
parish. Mr. Vaux says that it was the clerk who published all notices 
both religious and secular during service.* 

But these instances of notice-giving do not seem so irreverent as 
the custom described by Sir Walter Scott. In fact they are akin to the 
notices now printed and affixed to the church doors, such as jury lists, 
militia service, and the like. And, when reading and writing were not 
the common accomplishments that they are now, such verbal notices 
must have been a convenience to the parishioners, and joined together 

^ J. G. Lockhart, Memoirs . , , of Sir Walter Scott ^ Edinburgh, 1837, vol. i. 
p. 192. 

'^ John E. Bailey, Old Stretford^ Manchester, 1878, p. 49. 

' A. J. B. Beresford Hope, Worship in the Church of England^ London, 1875. 
Sec. ed. p. 8. 

* J. E. Vaux, Church Folklore^ London, 1894, Ch. ix, p. 194. There is a story 
told in Blackwood s Magazine^ August, 1903, p. 170, of the parish clerk administering 
baptism in the last century, but the circumstances do not inspire confidence in the 
accuracy of the report. 



xlvi INTRODUCTION, 

the secular and ecclesiastical aspects of the parish. Nowadays, every 
effort is made to put the civil and the church notices into strictly 
separated divisions, so that the life of the parish as a whole is some- 
what obscured. 

Number. — St. Augustine, it would seem, was accompanied into 
Britain by more clerks than one. They were part of his train. But the 
clerk, who was the later companion of the parish priest, who assisted 
him in all his duties, might be but one, according to Leo IV. Hincmar, 
and the decretals of Gregory IX.* To take the place of the deacon and 
subdeacon in churches which had no large income, it was allowed by a 
bishop of Durham in the middle of the thirteenth century that there 
should be but one clerk.^ And doubtless this was the rule in most 
country parishes where the population was but small. But in London 
there may have been more often two. Brewster gives six instances in 
fourteenth century.'* 

At the end of the middle ages every considerable church might have 
had two officers in the position of the parish clerk. It is so at York,* 
Coventry,' Bristol,® and Faversham,' as well as in London.® Henry VIII. 
in the indenture between himself and the mayor and citizens of London 
directs that the new Christchurch Newgate Street shall have two clerks 
and one sexton, while St. Bartholomew the Less is to have only one clerk 
and one sexton.® 

But at Faversham it will be noted that one of the first results of the 
changes under Edward VI. was the diminution of the number of clerks. 
Time out of mind there had been two clerks ; but as the work of the 
clerk was diminished so the number was to be diminished too, and there 

* See above, p. xviii. 

'-^ Ad augendum vero divini cultus obsequium ordinamus et disponimus ; ut in 
singulis ecclesiis, quarum facultates ad hoc sufficiunt, sint diaconi et subdiaconi, sicut 
decet, Deo ministrantes. In aliis vero ecclesiis saltern unus clericus idoneus, et honestus, 
Qui in tonsura decenti congruo habitu deserviat sacerdoti, ne ecclesiae debitis officiis 
aefraudentur ; ita quod idem clericus nullatenus uxoratus existat, nee deserviat in 
altari. 

(Constitutiones Walteri de Kirkham, episcopi Dunelm. a.d. 1255, in D. Wilkins, 
Concilia^ London, 1737, t. i. p. 707. Cf. Constitutions of Norwich, 1257, ibid, p. 
733. Acts of the Synod of Ely, 1364, ibid. vol. iii. p. 61, where these rules are 
repeated in substance. ) 

^ Samuel Brewster, Collectanea Ecclesiastical London, 1752, p. 405. In an Essay 
concerning the Office and Duties of Parish Clerks. 

* See Testamenta Eboracensia^ vol. v. Surtees Society, 1884, p. 13. In 1509 a 
bequest is made to every parish clerk and underclerk in the city of York and its 
suburbs. 

' See Appendix I. pp. 57 and 61. 

« See T. P. Wadley, Notes or abstracts of the Wills . , , at Bristol^ Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Society, 1886, pp. 9, ii, 42, 137. 
'' See Appendix V. p. 75. 

* See Appendix VIII. p. 91. 

In the early sixteenth century the Founders* Company paid iiijaT. to the ij parish 
clerks. {Archaeological Journal y 1886, vol. xliii. p. 170.) Money was also paid to 
the sexton for keeping their light and for ringing. 

^ William TroUope, A History of the Royal Foundation of Chrisfs Hospital^ 
London, 1834. Appendix I. p. viii. 



I 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

Lyndwood, glossing the chapter a nosiris maioribus^ mentioned 
above, notes upon the words Rectores et Vicarii that in a church where 
there are a Rector and a Vicar it is more desirable that the Vicar 
appoint the clerk. Lyndwood has said previously that the parishioners 
might be claiming the appointment against the Rector or Vicar. But 
this custom of the parishioners did not die out though condemned ; for 
later, in the time of Henry VII. Sir William Catton, a canon of 
Newburgh, asks of Sir Robert Plumpton to use his influence that " my 
brother, your trew servant, myght have that service of the clarkship, 
trustyng to God he should please the parishioners according to his 
dutie."^ The patronage seems to have been in the parishioners of 
Cukeswald (Coxwold) and the other candidates to have been two sons 
of the clerk late deceased. 

Also in 1527 at Hawkhurst in Kent there was a dispute between 
the parson and the parishioners, which was settled by a compromise 
arranged by the Archbishop of Canterbury. It is curious that the 
parson who agrees to pay the clerk's wages (forty shillings a year, no 
unusual sum in those days) yet resigns to the parishioners his right of 
appointing the clerk. 

Memorandum That in the yere of our Lorde m v c xxvij. mr. Drien beynge 
person, ther arose a contencion betwene the said person and the parochyans 
aboute the Fyndynge of a surjjles, wher as the said person would [have] forced 
the parishe to Fynde for hym or the curate a surples with sieves the whiche the 
parish denyed beynge before accustomed to Fynde but onely a Rochett, wher- 
upon the said person denyed the Fyndynge of the Clerck. This matter beynge 
brought before the bisshoppe Warrame dyde then determen and with the said 
person and parochyans the bysshope decreed that from thence forth the parishe 
should ever after fynd the curate or person one Sieved Surplys, and the person 
to Fynde continewally every yere for clerks wages fortie shyllyngs an alwayes 
the parishe to choose the Clerck. Present at Knoll at this conclusion takyn 
these persons folowynge 

[Here follow the names of 13 parishioners, p 

In the diocese of London in 1540 we find the parishioners 
neglecting to elect a parish clerk, and the parson choosing the clerk in 
default of such election. 

[1540] Tolkshunt militis. The sexte day of October presented at Witham, 

before Mr. Officiall ther sittyng, thes articles following hi me, Richard 

Baldwyer, parson of ToUeshunt Knyghtis. 

♦ ♦ ♦ * * ♦ 

Also wher for lacke of a parishe [clerk ?] lawfully chosen by the parishe, and 
admytted hi the ordinary, I was constrayned to chose me one George Ponde, 
whiche hathe ben admitted hi you, and hathe helpid me this xviii weeks past, 
to ministre sacramentis and sacramentallis, with all other devyne service not- 
withstanding thefy] will note through the meanes of Laurence pay him his 
wagis.^ 

• 

^ Plumpton Correspondence i edited by Thomas Stapleton, Camden Society, 1839, 
p. 66. 

'^ Churchwardens' accounts of Hawkhurst, edited by W. J. Lightfoot, Archaeologia 
Cantiana, 1863, vol. v. p. 78. 

^ W. H, Haley Series 0/ Precedents . . . Ecclesiastical Courts in the Diocese of 
London, London, 1847, p. 113. Laurence had met the parson on the King's high way, 
and there smote him and strake him sondry and diversely. 

CLERK. d 



1 INTRODUCTION, 

In the reign of Elizabeth* there are enquiries about the appointment 
of the parish clerk in the visitation articles which show that the 
appointment had not yet become wholly the right of the parson. 
Grindal in his metropolitical visitation of the province of York in 1 5 7 1 
enjoins : 

that no parishe Clarke be appoynted agaynst the good will, or without the 
consent of the person, vicar, or curate, in any Parishe.'^ 

Matthew Parker enquires in 1575 at a metropolitical visitation of 
the province of Canterbury. 

Whether the parishe clarkes be admitted without the consent of the Parson 
or Vicar.* 

But Grindal making a visitation of the same province in 1576 
merely inquires " whether the parish Clerk be appointed according to 
the ancient custom of the parish.'* So does Aylmer Bishop of London 
in the next year.® And there is some evidence that in the city of 
London especially the parishioners claimed the right of electing the 
parish clerk. The example set by Grindal is also followed at Lincoln 
in 1585® and 1598.' But after 1603 there is a great change ; for in 
this year it was ordered by the 91st Canon that parish clerks should be 
chosen by the Parson or Vicar ; and this choice was to be signified to 
the parishioners the next Sunday following during the time of divine 
service.® This was the only recognition that remained of the claim of 
the parishioners to appoint : and there are traces of an inclination to 
withstand the alteration. 

Before the passing of the canon it is noted at Salehurst " in Aprill 
1597 " " Item the minister hathe ever chosen the parish Clarke and one 
of the Churchwardens and bothe the Sydemen." And later on a note 
that James Prichard was appointed Clark in 16 14 solely "by my father*s 
[that is, the vicar's] power."® There must have been some movement 
in the parish which caused the insertion of this note. There is an 
account of the appointment of the parish clerk by the vestry against 

• 

^ It is sometimes said that according to the canons of 1571 the parish clerks were 
appointed by the parishioners. I cannot help thinking that this is due to a mistrans- 
lation of the word Aedituus as parish clerk, an error into which John AyliflFe himself 
has fallen. [Parfrgon, London, 1726, p. 409. ** By a Book of Canons in Queen 
Eltzabeth^s'RQigVi[\.'D, 1571. Parish-Clerks are in Z^z/m termed -^ditui. ") But the 
contemporary translation of these canons, lately reprinted for the first time since 1 571 
(W. E. Collins, Canons of \yj\ in English and Latin, S.P.C.K. 1899, p. 60) gives 
aeditui as churchwardens ; and this is clearly enough the meaning of the word, as the 
context shows. 

'^ § 21. Appendix E, to Second Report of the Royal Commission on Ritual^ 1 868, p. 
415. 

'* Ibid, § 32, p. 417. 

^Remains of Edmund Gri^idaly Parker Society, 1843, P» ^68, § 39. 

^ Report . . . Ritual Commission, %'^i, ^. /^20. 

* Articles to be enquired . . . within the Dieocsse\ of Lincohi, London, Johiv 
Windet, 1585, § 24, signature B. j. verso. 

' Articles to be enquired of within the Diocesse of Lincolne, Cambridge, John Legat, 
1598, § 33, p. 10. See notes by Whitgift on the appointment of parish clerks. (John 
Strype, Annals of the Reformation, Oxford, 1824, vol. iv. p. 63.) 

® See below, Appendix XI. p. 99. 

• Sussex Archaeological Colltctions, 1873, ^^1. xxv. pp. 155 and 157. 



i 



INTRODUCTION. li 

the nomination of the parson in the registers of St. Bartholomew 
Exchange in 1630.^ 

John Godolphin, writing in the seventeenth century, says that "if 
custom prevail for vestry to elect this is better than a canon because 
custom in temporals can only be taken away by Act of Parliament, a 
clerk being a mere layman."* This extraordinary statement appears to 
have been a dictum of the Court of King's Bench, contradictory as such 
an opinion may seem to the meaning of the word clerk. I have heard 
another impossible expression, a lay deacon, because the deacon 
followed a secular employment. Possibly the judges only intended to 
state that a parish clerk need not necessarily be in holy orders, and 
might follow a trade or other business. 

With the desuetude into which the office fell in the nineteenth 
century there would be naturally in our time very few or no disputes as 
to the right of electing the parish clerk. But in the Act of 1844 it is 
provided that where the appointment is by others than the parson, it 
is to be subject to the approval of the parson.* 

The fact that a parish clerk cannot be dismissed from his office at the 
mere nod of the parson and churchwardens is some evidence of the 
importance of his office. A mere menial servant would not have had 
this privilege. He claimed a freehold, and consequently it was a hard 
matter to dislodge him from his office of parish clerk, whatever his 
conduct might be.* But the act of 1844 made it possible to prosecute 
him before the Archdeacon, and to eject him from any premises 
occupied by him as parish clerk.* 

Wages. — Under this heading may be pursued still further the duties 
of the clerk, especially those duties for which he received particular 
remuneration. The sources of these wages or rewards of the clerk are 
many ; and it will be convenient to consider them under several heads. 

I . The carrying round of holy water, ^ From this office the clerk derives 
his name of aquaebatulus. The constitutions of Alexander, Bishop 
of Coventry in 1 237, speak of this. The poor scholar is to take round the 
holy water in country places ; but no clerk who serves in the church is 
to live of the fees thus received. 

De aqua beftedicta.^ 

Ad hec. Quia oportet in ecclesia dei esse pastores et doctores/ nee est 
diuisio inter pastores et doctores cum alia diuidat apostolus. Dicit enim. Ipse 

^ Vestry Minute Books of the Parish of St. Bartholomew Exchange, edited by 
Dr. Edwin Freshfield, London, Rixon and Arnold, 1890, p. 99. 

2 See Appendix XIII. p. 107. A quotation from John Godolphin, Repertorium 
Caftofticum, cap. xvii, § 15. London, 1687. Third ed. p. 193. 

3 7 and 8 Victoria, Cap. 59, § 3. 

* "The Ordinary cannot deprive the Parish- Clerk, tho' he may Censure, and Ex- 
communicate him for any Fault ; but they only, who put him in, can deprive him." 
(J. Johnson, Clergy-ffiait^ s Vade-Mecum, London, 1709, vol. i. p. 204, ch. xxiii.) 

* See below, Appendix XI. p. 103. See §6 of the Act. 

* British Museum, Vesp. E. iii. fo. 142. b. formerly 132. b. See D. Wilkins, Coti- 
ciliay Lend. 1737, t. i. p. 641. 

d 2 



lii INTRODUCTION, 

quidem dedit alios quidem apostolos et euangelistas, alios pastores et doctores. 
Hie nullam fecit diuisionem. Precipimus igitur ut illi quorum interest videant 
ut in singulis locis ubi est regimen scolarum : sint tales qui sciant alios doctrina 
instruere et uelint eos exemplo bone vite informare, Sed quia plerique scolares 
carent necessariis quorum scientia multi per gratiam dei poterunt edificari:^ 
uolumus ut scolares ferant aquam benedictam. per villas rurales. si sint qui 
postulent et indigeant. 

««■*««■ 

Item, precipimus sub pena suspensionis ut nuUus clericus qui seruit in ecclesia 
viuat de aqua benedicta. 

The eleventh constitution of W. de Bloys in i 229 also directs that this 
office is only to be given to the poor scholars.^ So also a constitution 
attributed to Boniface or Robert Winchelsey directed that the profits of 
carrying round the holy water should be assigned to the poorer clerks. 

Much to the same effect is a constitution of John Peckham in 1280. 

Volumus insuper ibidem esse duos clericos scolasticos per parochianorum 
de quorum habeat vivere elemosinis industriam eligendos, qui aquam benedic- 
tam circumferant in parochia et capellis diebus dominicis et festivis in divinis. 
ministrantes ofHciis, et profestis diebus disci plinis scolasticis indulgentes.* 

How poor these aquaebaiuli were, and how unsparing in their 
exactions were the ofl^icers of the Roman court, the following story 
from Matthew Paris teaches us. It was written in the same century as 
the foregoing constitutions. The scene is laid in France. 

Harum quoque in Francia factarum extorsionum unam, quia turpissimam,. 
duximus memorandam. Contigit ut memoratus papalis exactor obvium haberet 
unum clericulum de villa venientem, aquam in vasculo cum aspersorio et frusta 
panis, data sibi pro aspersione aquae benedictae, baiulantem. Cui Romanus^ 
insidiator ait, "Ad quantum pretium ascendit beneficium hoc tibi ab ecclesia 
concessum per annum?" Cui clericus, laqueorum ignarus Romanorum, re- 
spondit, ** Ad viginti, ut aestimo, solidorum." Cui Romanus iam se manifes- 
tans, ait, " Hie ergo assurgunt ad fisci commodum per annum viginti et quatuor 
denarii, scilicet duo solidi." Et suffocavit ipsum pauperem ostiatim mendican- 
tem, dicens, "Redde domino regi quod debes." Unde pro ilia substantiola 
persolvenda cogebatur ille pauperculus, multis diebus scolas exercens, venditis 
in parvisio libellis, vitam famelicam et codrinam protelare. Talibus igitur 
omissis sermocinationibus collateralibus, ad materiam redeamus principalem.^ 

By Lyndwood's time, the right of the parish clerk to the benefit of 
holy water was well established. He could claim something from every 

^ Constitutiones . . . W. de Bloys, Worcester, Wilkins, op. cit, p. 624. 
^ W. Dugdale, Monasticotiy ed. Caley, Ellis, and Bandinel, Lond. 1830, vol. vi.. 
part iii. p. 1246. 

' Matthew Paris, Chronica Maiora^ Rolls Series, 1880, ed. H. R. Luard, vol. v. 
p. 172. [a.d. 1250.] Mr. J. A. Herbert of the British Museum has been kind enough 
to give me the following transcript which shows the carrying of holy water to have been 
a custom of the Gallican Church very similar to that in England : 

Audivi de quodam milite qui morabatur in quadam villa in dyocesi Parisiensi 
sita. Quidam autem pauper et religiosus scolaris diebus dominicis portabat 
aquam benedictam in parrochia ilia secundum consuetudinem Gallicanam. (MS. 
Harl. 463, fo. 6. <$ ; a 14th century MS. of the Exempla of Jacques de Vitry, 
Bishop of Acre, afterwards Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum, ob. 1240. The above 
passage is printed from a Paris MS. in Crane's edition of the Exefupla of J, de 
Vitry ^ Folk Lore Soc. 1890, p. 47.) 



i 



INTRODUCTION, liii 

householder.^ At Coventry the senior clerk had every Sunday to bear 
holy water to every house in his ward, and to have his duty of every 
man after his degree quarterly. Also every Sunday he and his fellow 
brought their holy water stock with water to be blessed.* So also at 
St. Nicholas, Bristol, the clerk had to take the holy water to every 
house, abiding so convenient a space that every man might receive his 
holywater.^ And at Faversham* and St. Stephen's, Coleman Street,® 
the clerk was to bear holy water every Sunday in the year. 

At the conclusion of the great dispute at Morebath in 1536 one of 
the points agreed upon as to the dues to be given to the clerk was this : 
that he should go about the parish with his holy water when men have 
shorn their sheep, to gather wool to make him a coat to go in the livery 
of the parish.^ 

Other things connected with the holy water had to be seen to by the 
clerks. At St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, for example, after mattins on 
Sunday they had to make ready the water and salt to be blessed.' At 
St. Nicholas, Bristol, the suffragan had to see that fresh water was in the 
holy water stocks ; the clerk had to provide the bunches of twigs for 
sprinkling holy water, not only for the church, but for him that went 
about with the holy water.® At Faversham the clerks had to keep clean 
the holy water stoops of laten.® At St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, the 
clerks had to cleanse the font and fill it again with clean water at Easter 
and Whitsuntide and oftener if need require^^ ; and at Coventry at these 
two feasts, the first clerk was to see that water was brought to the 
church for the blessing of the fonts, and also a barrel of water prepared 
on Maundy Thursday for the washing of the altars. ^^ 

Closely connected with the holy water is the holy loaf. The holy 
loaf was blessed after the holy water on Sundays,^'* and the delivery of 
it was the cause of a demand by the parish church clerk for a reward, 
the holy loaf halfpenny. 

At StilHngton in 1472 they complained that the vicar demanded a tithe 
of beer, contrary to custom ; and also every Sunday the parish clerk's 
halfpenny called the haly bred halfpeny}^ 

At Coventry the first clerk had to see the holy loaf cut every 
Sunday according to every man's degree, and he gave it to those on 

' Unusquisque Paterfamilias die quolibet Dominico Clerico deferenti aquam 
Benedictam aliquid secundum exigentiam Status sui tribuat. {^Provinciate^ Lib. iii. tit. 
de concessione prebendae cap. a nostris maioribus ad verb. Compellantur, Oxod. 

1679. p. 143- ) 
2 See below, Appendix I. p. 58, §§ 14, 17, p. 63, § 78. 

' See below, Appendix III. p. 68, § 21. 

* See below, Appendix V. p. 77, § 12. 

^ See below, Appendix VIII. p. 91, § 18. 

* See below. Appendix VII. p. 88, § 13. 

■^ See below. Appendix VIII. p. 92, § 28. 

* See below. Appendix III. p. 66, § 3, and p. 68, § 21. 

* See below, Appendix V. p. 1%^ § 14. 

^^ See below. Appendix VIII. p. 91, § 2. 

^1 See below. Appendix I. p. 58, § 20, p. 62, § 64. 

" Missal . . . Saru?n, ed. F. H. Dickinson, Burntisland, 1861-1883, Col. 33** 

" Fabric Rolls of York Minster^ Surtees Society, 1859, p. 254. 



liv INTRODUCTION, 

the north side of the church. The second clerk dealt the holy bread 
to those on the south side.^ At St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, the clerks 
every Sunday after mattins had to prepare water and salt for holy water 
and to cut the holy loaf.* 

But the giving of holy bread, together with the giving of holy water, 
did not survive the changes of the sixteenth century. In 1543 a man 
is enjoined penance for giving his dog holy bread in contempt of the 
ceremony of holy bread.' And the first years of Edward VI. saw the 
ceremony of taking holy bread made voluntary,* so that it becomes 
dubious if the directions at Doncaster were issued by commissioners 
appointed by the Protector Somerset. Both holy water and holy 
bread were then ordered, but it is said that the parish clerk is not 
hereafter to go about the parish with holy water ; but nevertheless, 
instead of that labour, he is to accompany the churchwardens and 
register the names of the persons that give and the sums given to the 
poor.* 

And in the first prayer book of Edward VI. it appears to be under- 
stood that the holy loaf has disappeared, and in its place its value was 
to be given at the time of the offertory towards defraying the expenses 
of the bread and wine for the communion.® Consequently we find in 
the fifth year of Edward VI. anno Domini 1551, that there was a fresh 
arrangement made as to the wages of the clerk at Reading. 

At this day it was concludid and aggreid that from hensforthe euery 
inhabitant of the parisshe shall here and pay euery Sonday in the yere \d. for 
euery tenement as of old tyme the Holy Lofe was used to be paid and be 
received by the parisshe dark wekely, the said dark to have euery Sonday for 
his pajmes \d. And m\d. residewe to be paied and delyuered euery Sonday to 
the churchewardens to be employed for bred and wyne for the communyon.^ 

Yet the holy loaf returns under Mary, as the very curious and 
interesting document from Stanford in the Vale shows us.® The disuse 
of holy bread is said to have begun as early as 1547, the ** second'' 
year of Edward VI. The money collected for the holy bread 
was devoted to the supplying of bread and wine for the communion, 
and with this is an enumeration of the houses wont to give the holy 
loaf. 

Though after Mary the holy loaf may be found here and there in 
parish registers, yet it had ceased to be a direct source of profit to the 
clerk. 



' See below, Appendix I. p. 58, § 18, p. 62, § 59. 

^ See below, Appendix VIII. p. 92, § 28. 

' W. H. Hale, A series of Precedeiits, London, 1847, p. 124. 

* Edward Cardwell, Documentary Annals of the Refortned Church of Engla^idy 
Oxford, 1839, vol. i. p. 35. 

^ See below, Appendix IX. p. 95. 

^ See the third and fifth rubrics at the end of the Communion Service in Edward 
VI. 's first book. (Grafton, 1549, fo. cxxxiii. bJ) 

' Charles Kerry, A history . . . St. Laisrrence, Reading, Reading, 1883, p. 48. 

^ See below, Appendix X. p. 96. See the contemporary explanation of holy bread, 
holy water and tht pax in Edm. Bonner's Articles to be enquired &^c., 1554. Signature 
C. i. 



INTRODUCTION, Iv 

2. CakeSy £ggs, and Sheaves, Lyndwood tells us that besides the 
claim the parish clerk could make upon every householder for the holy 
water brought every Sunday, he had the right to demand from every 
household one loaf at Christmas, eggs at Easter, and sheaves in the 
Harvest.^ 

In the settlement of the great dispute at Morebath it was agreed that 
the clerk should have " a steche of clene corne to euery howsseholde "^ • 
and there are directions how it should be compounded for. 

Traces of the right to cakes and eggs last into the following century. 
I am indebted to the Rev. J. R. Hughes, Rector of Rempstone, for a 
transcript from his registers of 1629 which shows the custom of 
giving eggs at Easter to the clerk to have persisted to that year, but by 
courtesy. So also a peck of barley for every yardland, but the time of 
paying this had been postponed from harvest to the weeks between 
Christmas and Lady Day. 

22nd November, 1629. 

The wages of the Clarke of the Parish Church of Rempston. 

At Easter yearely he is to have of every Husbandman one pennie for every 
yard land^ he hath in occupation. And of every Cottager two pence. 

Furthermore he is to have for every yard land one peche of Barley of the 
husbandmen yearely. 

Egges at Easter by Courtesie. 

For every marriage two pence. And at the churching of a woman his dinner. 

The said Barley is to be payed between Christmasse and the feast of the 
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Marie. 

This is signed by the Clerk, an Ex-clerk, the Rector, and several 
parishioners. 

At Houghton le Spring 1658 the buns at Christmas and the eggs at 
Easter were still paid. 

That the Clerk's wages of this parish is ixfl?. upon a plow, iiijaf. upon a 
cottager to be paid yearely at Easter time. Also for a Christning yi. a Buriall 
4^. a marriage 4//. and asking the banes 2d, 

That the Sexton's wages is 2d, a plow, each cottage a ob, a Christning 2d, 
for a grave in the Quire yyd, in the Church iiij^. in the yard \}d. And buns at 
Xtmas and egs at Easter yearely.* 

Robert Story, who was himself a parish clerk, has left some lines 
describing his emoluments. It would seem that the egg which he 
claimed at Easter had already developed into the chicken : 

Learn, next, that I am Parish Clerk 
A noble ofhce, by St. Mark ! 
It brings me in six guineas clear 
Besides et cetcras^ every year. 



^ Et quod in Natali Domini habeat a singulis Domiciliis unum Panem, et etiam 
certa Ova ad Pascha, etin Autumno certas garbas. {Proinnciale^ Lib. iii de conccssione 
praebendae cap. a nostris viaioribiis^ ad verb, compellantur^ Oxon. 1679, p. 143.) 

2 See below, Appendix VIL pp. 85 and 88, §§ 4 and 8. 

' A yardland varies in amount. It may be as much as 25 or 40 acres. 

* Churchwarden^ accounts of Pittington^ Surtees Society, 1888, p. 318. The 
number of acres in a ploughland is uncertain, but it is rated at ;£"50 a year. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION, 

Nor less the sport, when Easter sees 

The daisy spring to deck the leas ; 

Then, claimed as dues by Mother Church, 

I pluck the cackler from the perch ; 

Or, in its place, the shilling clasp 

From grumbling Dame's slow opening grasp. ^ 

3. Glebe and House, The clerk sometimes had a house and also a 
glebe. About 14 11 it is complained at St. Michael le Belfrey in York 
that the parish chaplain and parish clerk have no house assigned to 
them.' In 1590 they payd "for mendyng the dark's house"* at St. 
MichaePs Worcester. 

In 1653 at St. Edmund's, Salisbury, there must have been a clerk's 
house and garden, for both are spoken of, and the clerk was to 
have forty shillings " by the yeare in lewe of his house."* I owe this 
reference to the kindness of Mr. Christopher Wordsworth, who has 
besides given me several other instances drawn from his own observation 
in country parishes as well as from the Charity Commissioners' Reports. 

Mr. Vaux speaks of a clerk's glebe at Barton Turf, Norfolk, where 
the rent of three acres known as " dog whippers land '* is paid to him.* 

A cottage and garden formerly belonged to the parish clerk of 
Saltwood, Kent, but it has lately been sold. 

In the Act of 1844 it is expressly enacted that the parish clerk when 
suspended from his office may be ejected from the premises which he 
holds as parish clerk.* 

4. Fees, These again have varied sources. The present rubric 
in the marriage service directs that the accustomed duty to the priest 
and clerk shall be laid upon the book at a certain moment in the 
service. Other fees seem due by custom ; at funerals, for ringing 
the bell, churchings, baptisms. In Beaumont and Fletcher's play, the 
Spanish curate talks thus with his sexton : 

Let weddings, christ'nings, churchings, funerals. 
And merry gossipings, go round, go round still ; 
Round as a pig that we may find the profit.'^ 

These occasions probably represent the chief sources of the clerk's 
fees. The amount varies very considerably, and most likely the 
variations have always followed the position and wealth of the persons 
whom the parish clerk thus assists. A table of the fees at St. Margaret's, 

* Robert Story, Poetical Works^ London, 1857, p. 109. In a " Reply to an Epistle 
from Mr. Gourley, 1828." 

' Fabric Rolls of York Minster^ Surtees Society, 1859, p. 250. 
' John Amphlett, Churchwardens^ Accounts of St. Michael* s in Bedwardiney 
Worcester y Oxford, 1896, p. 100. 

* H. J. F. Swayne, Churchwardens* Accounts of S. Edmund and S, Thomas , 
Sarum, Wilts Record Society, 1896, p. 230, last lines. In the same volume, p. 310, 
a sexton's house is spoken of under the year 1620. 

* J. E. Vaux, Church Folklore, London, 1894, p. 199. 

* 7 and 8 Victoria, Cap. 59, § 6. 

' Beaumont and Fletcher, The Spanish Curate, III. ii. The merry gossipings are 
perhaps the ales. 



I 



INTRODUCTION. Ivii 

Lothbury, in 157 1, is given below,* and it may be compared in some 
respects with the fees allowed in a country parish in Sussex much about 
the same time. 

April 18 1597. 

Memorandum that the dutyes for Churchinge of women in the parishe of 
Salehurst is vnto the minister yad, ob. and vnto the Clarke 'iyd. 

Item the due vnto the minister for a marriadge is xxj^/. And vnto the 
Clarke \]d, the Banes, and iiij^. the marriadge. 
Item due for burialls as followeth 
To the minister in the Chancell xiijj. iiij^. 

To the Clarke in the Chancell vjj. viijaf. 

To the parish in the Church yjj. yvCyd, 

To the Clarke in the Church vj. od. 

To the Clarke in the Churchyard for great Coffins ijj. \yi, 

for great Corses vncoffined ijj. o 

for Chrisomers and such like Coffined jj. \\\]d, 

and vncoffined o xij^. 

for tolling the passing bell an houre j^. 

for ringing the sermon bell an houre jj. o^. 

To the Clarke for Carying the beere o iiijflf. 

if it be fetched o \}d. 

Item at fimeralls the minister is to haue the mourning pullpit Cloth, and die 
Clarke the herst Cloth 

Item the minister hathe ever chosen the parishe Clarke and one of the 
Churchwardens and bothe the Sydemen 

Item if they bring a beere or poles with the Corps the Clarke is to haue 
them 

If any Corps goe out of the parish they are to pay double dutyes and to 
haue leaue 

If any Corps come out of an other parish to be buryed here, they are to pay 
double dutyes besides breakinge the ground ; which is xiijx. 4//. in the 
Church and 6j. viij^. in the Churchyard 

For marryage by licence double fees both to the minister and clerke''* 

5. Clerks^ Ales, These were part of the Wakes or Revels, which are 
known under the generic termination of ale, as Church ale, bride ale, 
Whitsun ale, bid ale. The clerk's ale was for the benefit of the parish 
clerk, and was commonly held at Easter.' At Morebath it was agreed 
that the clerk should have his " hyre mette at ester of euery howse 
holder '' ; but as Easter had passed in the year of the great contention 
without a clerk's ale, it was agreed that it should be upon Trinity 
Sunday that year only.* 

But unfortunately for the Ales they were commonly celebrated on 



^ See Appendix IV. p. 72. Appendix VII. p. 88, §§ 10, 11, Appendix XIV. 
p. 1 10, § 10. See also above, p. Iv. for Houghton le Spring. See also a table made 
in 1630 for St. Bartholomew Exchange. ( Vestry Minute Books, edited by Dr. Edwin 
Freshfield, London, printed by Rixon and Arnold, 1890, p. 106.) 

* From Salehurst Parish Books, Sussex Archaeological Collections y 1873, ^^^* ^x^* 

p. 154- 

* There may be notes of the clerk's ale about 1457 in the Transactions of the Bristol 

and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society y 1890-91, vol. xv. pp. 166, 167, 169. 

* See below, Appendix VII. pp. 85 and 88, §§ 3 and 14. 



Iviii INTRODUCTION, 

the Sunday/ and the rise of Puritanism, with its insistence upon the 
Jewish keeping of the " Sabaoth," proved fatal to them. The judges 
ordered them to be discontinued as early as 1594 according to Prynne, 
who prints the documents at length* ; but about 1633, the judges in 
the west again forbad wakes and revels. This coming to the ears of 
Dr. Laud, just elected Archbishop of Canterbury, he asked his 
suffragan, Dr. William Pierce, Bishop of Bath and Wells, to make 
some enquiry how these had been managed of late. The answer as 
to clerks' ales is as follows : 

Touching Clerke-ales (which are lesser Church-ales) for the better 
maintenance of Parish-Clerks, they have bin used (untill of late) in divers 
places, and there was great reason for them ; for in poore Countrey Parishes, 
where the wages of the Clerke is very small, the people thinking it unfit that 
the Clerke should duly attend at Church, and lose by his office, were wont to 
send him in Provision, and then feast with him, and give him more liberality 
then their quarterly pa3anents would amount unto in many years. And since 
these have bin put down, some Ministers have complained unto me, that they 
are afrayd they shall have no Parish Clerks for want of maintenance for 
them.' 

Dr. Pierce's answer was not forgotten by the Parlinmentarians. 
The Commons accused him in 1642, and the fifth article of 
impeachment asserts that he "both by precept and example most 
prophanely opposed the sanctification of the Lords day, by approving 
and allowing of prophane Wakes and Revels on that day " : and the 
articles end with the discovery of " what a desperately prophane, 
impious, turbulent Pilate the Bishop is."* 

The more sober-minded and reasonable people seem to have found 
no great harm in these ales. John Aubrey speaks well of them* and 
White Kennett, with regret, says they were abolished by the " nice 
Puritans."* 

6. Salary, The churchwardens' accounts give us abundant 
information as to the amount of wages paid to the parish clerk by these 
officers ; but only a few instances may be here given from these and 
other sources. The French clerk spoken of by Matthew Paris in the 
thirteenth century had only 20 sous a year.'' At the end of the 

^ The prejudice against these ales, or indeed against any manner of recreation on a 
Sunday, is plain in Philip Stubbes' Anatomic of Abuses^ 1583 (edited for the New 
Shakspere Society, 1877-79, pp. 137 and 150.) " Some spend the Sabaoth day (for 
the most part) in frequenting . . . May-games, Church-ales, feasts, and 
wakeesses : ... In foot-ball playing, and such other deuilish pastimes. " 

^ It is from these that P. Heylin {Cyprianus Anglicus, Part ii. Lib. iv. a.d. 1633, 
London, 1771, p. 242) and D. Neal, History of the Puritans^ vol. ii. chap. v. 
London, 1733, vol. ii. p. 246) seem to have drawn their accounts of this affair. 

^ William Prynne, Canterburies Doomey London, 1646, p. 151, Signature V. 2. 
The pagination of this work is irregular. 

^ Articles of Accusatiott and Impeachment of the House of Commons . . 
against William Fierce, London, 1642, pp. 4 and 8. 

^ Topographical Collections of John Aubrey, ed. J. E. Jackson, Wiltshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, 1862, p. 10. See also notes to 
Appendix X. 

® White Kennett, Parochial Antiquities, Oxford, 18 18, vol. ii. p. 309. 

■^ See above, p. Hi. 



INTRODUCTION. lix 

fifteenth century at Craffield, the sexton or clerk had 4^. \d. a year.* 
At St Giles, Reading, about 1520, they paid the clerk for his years 
wages 26x. 8^.* 

In the middle of the sixteenth century the clerk's wages, as might be 
expected from the decrease in the value of money, rose considerably. 
In Henry VIII. 's new foundation of Christ Church, Newgate Street, the 
two parish clerks had £fi^ and the sexton £,\ yearly. It was to be 
the same as St Bartholomew the Less.' At St Michael's, Comhill, in 
1556, the year's wages were £,(i 6j. &/.* In the country the clerk's 
yearly wages were not far off from those in London. At Bishop's 
Stortford in 1546 they were £,\} It will thus be seen that the clerk's 
wages in the middle of the sixteenth century were in London as high 
as those recorded by the clerk poet, Robert Story, in the tirst half of the 
nineteenth century.® But at the end of the seventeenth century the 
priest who served the office of parish clerk at St. James', Westminster, 
was to have £^yi a year,' the highest salary from anything like an 
endowment that I have yet met with. 

But in some parishes they seem to have been extraordinarily low. 
The churchwardens' accounts of Came in Dorsetshire from 1696 to 
1 780 show that ten shillings a year was the usual amount paid the clerk 
during this time ; and where it is said he was paid twelve shillings it is 
very likely that the two extra shillings were for the washing of the surplice.* 
The churchwardens' accounts for the eighteenth century at Bledlow, in 
Buckinghamshire, have lately been under my notice, and the annual 
charge for the clerk's wages is only ten shillings. 

The quarterage, a sum paid every quarter to the clerk, is spoken of 
by Lyndwood' amongst other of the clerk's dues, and it may be found 
as late as the seventeenth century. At Morebath it was agreed that the 
clerk should have a penny a quarter of every householder.*^ I am not 
as yet confident that it was the same as the duty paid for the holy 
water. 

The collecting of the clerk's wages or fees led to trouble, and pro- 
ceedings in the ecclesiastical courts. In 1 465, Thomas Walynger refused 
payment towards the light on the beam and the salary of the parish 

^ W. Holland and J. J. Raven, Crat/Uld, London, 1895, pp. 22 and 30. The 
church ales abound in these churchwardens' accounts. 

2 W. L. Nash, Church-warden^ Account Book , , , St. Giles Recuiing^ 1881. 
p. 10. 

' William TroUope, A history of the Royal Foundation of Christ's Hospital^ 
London, 1834. Appendix L p. viii. 

^ Accounts oj the Churchwardens . . . Saint MichaelyCorfthill,tdi,OwtX9}\2LTid. 
Waterlow, privately printed about 187 1. p. 129. 

* J. L. Glas-cock, Records of St. Michacts Parish Churchy Bishops Stortfordy 
London, 1882, p. 46. 

^ See above, p. Iv. 

' See below, Appendix XI. p. 102. 

® My son has given me these notes from Came, and he has also helped me with 
the papers from Morebath, printed as Appendix VII. 

^ Provinciate, Lib. iii. de concessione praebetuiae, cap. a twstris maioribus, ad verb. 
compellantur, Oxon. 1679. p. 143. See also Appendix IV. p. 71. 

10 See below, Appendix VII. pp. 85 and 88. §§ 2 and 9. 



Ix INTRODUCTION. 

clerk. A little later on Peter Cornel would not give the clerk his fee at 
marriage, and one declined the clerk's wages. ^ Much about the same 
time, by rules made between 1455 and 1469, we find at All Saints', 
Bristol, that refusal of communion was to follow refusal to content the 
clerk.^ The disturbance at Morebath in 1531 and 1536 was owing to 
the objection of some parishioners to pay the accustomed dues.^ 
Excommunication was threatened in Warham's time with satisfactory 
results : 

In the Visitation of Archbishop Warham^^ a little before the Reformation, 
one Inhabitant was enjoya'd, Quod solvat ad Salarium Aquaebaiuli ibidem 
cessiottein suatn ; and two others, Sub poena Excommunicationis ^ ad solvend* 
salarium Aquaebaiuli ibidem, ut alii Parochiani solvunl ; and, in another 
place,® it is noted as follows, Iconomi dixerunt, quod cmnes subtrahentes 
Salarium Aquaebaiuli, satisfecerttnt et composuerurU.^ 

A well known antiquary, whose acquaintance with the parish records of 
the city of London is very great, thinks that it is quite likely that 
hereafter it will be proved that the money collected for the clerk was 
the source of the church rate of modern times, abolished some years 
ago, by making the payment voluntary. The sum collected under the 
name of the clerk's wages was, he tells me, applied to all sorts of church 
purposes. 

Miscellaneous. — The clerk in former times had his seat close by 
the parson, below him or at his side. It was his practice tc precede 
the parson from the vestry to the reading desk at the beginning of 
divine service. There is evidence that the clerk had a seat to himself 
in the quire in mediaeval times, for at the visitation St. Maurice at York 
it is complained that the desks on both sides of the quire, where the 
parish chaplain and the parish clerk used to sit, need repair.*' 

As this was in 14 16 it seems hardly possible that the first pew erected 
for a clerk was in 1627.® And in the visitation articles of the diocese 
of Norwich in 1620 it is inquired whether there be a seat for the clerk 
near the parson.® 

Some instances have been brought forward of women having served 
the office of parish clerk, and that decisions have been given in the 
courts in favour of the practice. ^° Certainly strange notions have been 
entertained in Westminster Hall as to the character of the parish clerk ; 
but they hardly agree with the facts taught by the history of the 

^ W. H. Hale, Series of Precedents and Proceedings . . . from Act books of the 
Ecclesiastical Courts in the Diocese of London, London, 1847. pp. 2, 3, 14. 

'-^ See below. Appendix II. p. 64. 

^ See below. Appendix VII. p. 84. 

^ Reg. Warh. f. 60. a f. 62, 6, \in w.] 

® f. 68. a. \in m.] 

® Edm. Gibson, Codex Juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani, tit. ix. cap. xiv. Oxford, 
1761. t. i. p. 214, note d. 

■^ Fabric Rolls of York Minster, Surtees Society, 1859, p. 248. 

^ See All the Year Round, 1880, vol. xxvi. (new series) November 6, p. 54. «. 

' Articles . . . diocese of Norwich, London, 1620, sign. B. 3, § 4. 

*® All the Year Round, 1880, vol. xxvi. (new series) p. 83. 



INTRODUCTION, Ixi 

parish clerk. If parish clerks be in an inferior degree of orders, no 
woman can possibly be a parish clerk, for she is incapable of receiving 
orders. She may in some degree perform part of the menial duties of 
a parish clerk, which consist in keeping the church clean, or opening 
the doors and the like ; but the higher duties such as reading in the 
church, singing, and attending at the altar, cannot be performed by a 
woman. 

Instances of the office having passed from father to son through 
several generations have been quoted as something extraordinary. But 
in a village with a small population, and indeed elsewhere, offices often 
tend to become hereditary in a family. 

The parish clerks of London have been a company since the year 
1422, and they were granted a charter by Henry VI. in 1442, and the 
company still exists/ There was a guild of clerks at Lincoln in 1381, but 
it is uncertain if they were parish clerks. It was apparently dissolved 
about 1549.^ 

It may be worth while to give here an instance of a penance inflicted 
upon a parish clerk for misbehaviour, at the end of the eighteenth 
century, when discipline was not, it is commonly said, at its highest in 
the Church of England. 

In January, 1799, the Dean of Middleham cited the parish clerk into 
his court and pronounced the following sentence : 

That Thomas Ibbotson should be suspended from the ofiice of parish clerk, 
without forfeiting the wages, until after the loth day of February then next, 
being the first Sunday in Lent ; that he do not approach the Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper on that day, that, by ihe prayers of Lent, he might be fitted for 
it at the festival of Easter ; and, lastly, that, on the first Sunday of the ensuing 
Lent, he should stand during service until the Nicene creed was read, before 
the font under the gallery, and then depart to a private seat, after having read 
distinctly the following acknowledgement, viz. 

" I, Thomas Ibbotson, do acknowledge that, on the day of the Feast of 
Circumcision, I behaved very irreverently in the House of God : that I 
interrupted the divine service, and conducted myself in such a manner, both in 
the church and out of it, as to give just cause of offence to the congregation then 
present : that I was led to this misconduct by resentment, and not being 
perfectly sober at the time, for which I beg pardon of Almighty God, and do 
promise to order myself with greater sobriety and decency for the time to 
come."* 

There are many allusions to the parish clerk in general English 
literature. We all of us remember the description that Crabbe gives of 
the parish clerk of a hundred years ago; of his fall from a proud 
austerity of life to the practice of stealing the money collected at the 
offertory. Probably also a good view is given mcidentally of what 
manner of man the parish clerk then was.* Another aspect is given of 
the clerk of that same period by Dr. Johnson, who hearing a wish that 

* James Christie, Sonie account of Parish Clerks, 1893, privately printed by the 
Company, p. 25. 

' Christopher Wordsworth, Notes on Mediaeval Services in England, London, 
1898, p. 149. 

* Documents relating to . , . Middleham, Camden Society, 1847, p. 42. 

* See the Borough, Letter xix. 



Ixii INTRODUCTION, 

better provision were made for parish clerks, said, " Yes, sir, a parish 
clerk should be a man who is able to make a will, or write a letter for 
anybody in the parish."^ He could see that unless the clerk were 
adequately paid his education was not likely to be as high as his duties 
demanded ; and that his office has been, since the great rebellion, much 
degraded, there seems good evidence to show, while there are many 
wishes expressed in the literature of the eighteenth century for a 
restoration of the office to better things. The activities of the 
nineteenth century, so often misplaced, appear to have done hardly any- 
thing to improve the parish clerk. This introduction may be ended by 
an extract from the preface of a little work wTitten by a parish clerk for 
parish clerks at the end of the seventeenth century, and thus coming 
from the period between 1660 and 1730, which has not unjustly been 
described as the golden age of the Church of England. 

To THE Reader. 

The Parish Clerk is an Officer to be chosen by the Minister of the Parish 
(unless Custom prevail to the contrary) .... A Parish Clerk then is 
not so mean and contemptible an office as some people render it. He is more 
than a Door- Keeper in the House of God, he is Servus in Sacris, conversant 
in all the Holy Offices of the Church ; whose Life and Conversation ought to 
be such, that he be Habitually prepared at all times to Communicate with the 
Sick, &c. The Clerk is to take care about the Elements proper to be used in 
the Holy Sacraments ; of the Holy Vestments, that they be decently kept to 
the Honor of God, and the Reputation of that particular Church he hath the 
honour to serve. In a word, the Parish- Clerk ought to be an exact Pattern of 
Conformity in all the respective Offices of the Church, by whose good example 
the congregation may be excited to Reverence and Devotion, viz. Kneeling 
at Prayer, standing up at the Creed, bowing at the name of Jesus, &c.^ 



^ J. Bos well, Life of Samuel Johnson, June 3. 1 781. 

2 The Parish Clerks Vade-Mecum, by B. P. Parish Clerk. London, Benj. Motte, 
1694* 






THE 



CLERKS BOOK 



or 



1549- 



I ' ■»»^»- « ^» ■ ^m ^-^^ip^^^i^^^^^— ^^^^— — ^■^■^11^^— ^— — ^^^M^^»^>^ 



/ € The Psalter [^. I 

or Psalmes of Dauid, cor- 
rected and poyncted, as 
thei shalbe song in Churches 
after the translacion 
of the greate 
Bible. 



H Hereunto is added, diuerse thyn- 

ges as male appere on the next 

side, where is expressed 

the contentes of 

this boke. 

A° Domini. M.D.XLIX. 

Mense Augustij.f 



CLERK. 



/ The contentes of this boke. [* i. v. 

I. First, the ordre how the Psalter shalbe red. 

II. The table for the ordre of the Psalmes. 

III. The Kalender for the ordre of common praier. 

nil. The ordre for Mattyns and Euensong the whole yere. 

V. The Letanie and Suffrages. 

VI. All that shall apperteigne to the clerkes to saie or syng, 
at the ministracion of the Communion and when there is 
no Communion. 

At Matrimonie. 

The visitacion of the Sicke. 

At Buriall of the dedde. 

At the Purificacion of women. 

And the first daie of Lent. 

Here is to bee noted, that throughout this boke of the 
Psalter, ye shall find ouer the hed of euery leaf Moneth. 
First, ii. iii. liii. dale. &c. Which signifieth, that forasmuche 
as the Psalter is appoyncted to bee redde ouer euery .xxx. 
daies, ye shall nede no more, but turne to the daie of the 
Moneth, titled ouer the hedde of the leafe, and there ye shall 
finde bothe where Mattins for that daie beginneth, and also 
Euensong. 



/ C The ordre how the Psalter is appoyncted [*. 2. 

to be redde. 

'HPHe Psalter shalbe red through once euery Moneth, and 
^ because that some Monethes, be longer then some other 
be : It is thought good, to make them euen by this meanes. 

To euery Moneth, as concernyng this purpose, shalbe 
appoyncted lust .xxx. dales. 

And because January and Marche hath one dale, aboue the- 
saied nombre, and February whiche is placed betwene them 
bothe, hath onely xxviii. dales, February shall borowe of either 
of the Moneth.es, of January and Marche one dale, and so the 
Psalter whiche shalbee redde In February, muste bee begon 
the last dale of January, and ended the firste dale of Marche. 

And where as Male, luly, August, October, and December, 
hath xxxl. dales a pece, it is ordered that thesame Psalmes, 
shalbee red the last dale of thesaied Moneth, whiche were 
redde the daie before, so that the Psalter male be begon again 
the first dale of the next Monethes ensuyng. 

Now to knowe what Psalmes shalbe redde euery dale, looke 
in the Kalendar the nombre that is appoyncted for the Psalmes, 
and then find thesame nombre in this table, and vpon that 
nombre shall you see, what Psalmes shalbe saled at Mattins, 
and Euensong. 

And where the .C.xix. Psalme Is deulded Into .xxli. porclons, 
and Is ouer long to be red at one tyme : it is so ordered, that 
at one tyme shall not bee red aboue foure or fiue of thesaied 
porcions, as you shall percelue to bee noted in this table. 

And here Is also to bee noted, that in this table, and In all 
other partes of the seruice, where any Psalmes are appoyncted, 
the nombre is expressed after the greate Englishe Bible, whiche 
from the .ix. Psalme, vnto the .C.xlvili. Psalme (folowyng the 
diuision of the Ebrues) doth vary in nombres from the common 
Latin translacion. 

This Is also to be noted, that whensoeuer there bee any propre 
psalmes or lessons, appoyncted for any feast, moueable or 
vnmoueable, then the Psalmes and Lessons appoyncted in the 
Kalender, shalbee omitted for that tyme. 



B 2 



/H A table for the ordre of the Psalmes, to be [^. 2. v. 

said at Mattins and Euensong. 





C Mattins. 


C Euensong. 




I 


I. 2. 3. 4. 5 


6. 7. 8. 




2 


9. 10. II. 


12. 13. 14. 




3 


15. 16. 17. 


18. 




4 


19. 20. 21. 


22. 23. 




5 


24. 25. 26. 


27. 28. 29. 


- 


6 


30. 31- 


32. 33. 34. 




7 


35- 36. 


37. 




8 


38. 39. 40. 


41. 42. 43. 




9 


44. 45. 46. 


47, 48. 49. 




10 


50. 51. 52 


53. 54. 55. 




II 


56. 57. 58. 


59. 60. 61. 




12 


62. 63. 64. 


65. 66. 67. 




13 


68. 


69. 70. 




14 


71. 72. 


73- 74. 




IS 


75. 76. 77. 


78. 




16 


79. 80. 81. 


82. 83. 84. 85. 




17 


86. 87. 88. 


89. 




18 


90. 91. 92. 


93. 94. 




19 


95- 96. 97. 


98. 99. 100. lOI. 




20 


102. 103. 


104. 




21 


105. 


106. 




22 


107. 


108. 109. 




23 


no. III. 112. 113. 


114. 115. 




24 


116. 117. 118. 


119. Inde. 4. 




25 


Inde. 5. 


Inde. 4. 




26 


Indc. 5. 


Inde. 4. 




27 


120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 


126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 


131- 


28 


132. 133. 134. 135. 


136. 137. 138. 




29 


139. 140. 141. 


142. 143- 




30 


144. 145. 146. 


147. 148. 149. 150. 





5 



C Ianuary. 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 










C Psalmes 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson. 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson. 


A 


Kalend. 


I 


Circumcisio. 


I 


Gene. 17 


Roma. 2 


Deut. 10 


CoUos. 2 


b 


4. No. 


2 




2 


Gene, i 


Math I 


Gene. 2 


Roma. I 


c 


3- No. 


3 




3 


3 


2 


4 


2 


d 


Prid. No. 


4 




4 


5 


3 


6 


3 


e 


Nonas 


5 




5 


7 


4 


8 


4 


f 


8. Id. 


6 


Epiphania. 


6 


Esay. 60 


Luke 3 


Esay 49 


Ihon. 2 


g 


7. Id. 


7 




7 


Gene. 9 


Math. 5 


Gene. 11 


Roma. 5 


A 


6. Id. 


8 




8 


12 


6 


13 


6 


b 


5. Id 


9 




9 


14 


7 


IS 


7 


c 


4. Id. 


10 




10 


16 


8 


17 


8 


d 


3. Id. 


II 




II 


18 


9 


19 


9 


e 


Prid. Id. 


12 




12 


20 


10 


21 


10 


f 


Idus. 


13 




13 


22 


II 


23 


II 


g 


19. kl. 


14 




14 


24 


12 


25 


12 


A 


18. kl. 


15 




15 


26 


13 


27 


13 


b 


17. kl. 


16 




16 


28 


14 


29 


14 


c 


16. kl. 


17 




17 


30 


15 


31 


15 


d 


15. kl. 


18 




18 


32 


16 


33 


16 


e 


14. kl. 


19 




19 


34 


17 


35 


I. Cor. I 


f 


13. kl. 


20 




20 


36 


18 


37 


2 


g 


12. kl. 


21 




21 


38 


19 


39 


3 


A 


II. kl. 


22 




22 


40 


20 


41 


4 


b 


10. kl. 


23 




23 


42 


21 


43 


5 


c 


9. kl. 


24 




24 


44 


22 


45 


6 


d 


8. kl. 


25 


Con. Paule. 


25 


46 


Actes. 22 


47 


Actes 26 


e 


7. kl. 


26 


1 


26 


48 


Math. 23 


49 


I. Cor. 7 


f 


6. kl. 


27 




27 


50 


24 


Exodi. I 


8 


g 


S kl. 


28 




28 


Exodi 2 


25 


3 


9 


A 


4. kl. 


29 




29 


4 


26 


5 


10 


b 


3. kl. 


30 




30 


6 


27 


7 


II 


c 


Prid. kl. 


31 




I 


8 


28 


9 


12I 












^ 









^ The signature i{< 3 appears within the last rule below the line for the last day of the month. 



€ February. 



Mattins. 



Euensong. 



d 

e 
f 

g 
A 

b 

c 

d 

e 

f 

g 
A 

b 

c 

d 

e 

f 

g 
A 

b 

c 

d 

e 
f 

g 
A 

b 

c 



Kalend. 

2. No. 
I No. 

Prid. No 
Nonas 

8. Id. 

7. Id. 

6 Id. 

5. Id. 
4. Id. 

3. Id. 
Prid Id. 
Idus 

16 k] 
IS kl 
14 kl 

13 kl 
12 kl 
II. kl 
10. kl 

9 kl 

8 kl 

7. kl 

6. kl 
5 kl 
4 kl 
3 kl 

Prid. kl. 



I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 

M 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 

22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 

28 



Purif. Mari 



Mathias. 



C Psalmes. 



2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

IS 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 
28 

29 



I. Lesson 

Exodi. 10 
12 

H 
16 

18 

20 

22 

24 
33 

35 

Leuit. 18 

20 

Nume. II 

13 

15 

17 

19 
21 

23 

25 

27 

29 

31 

33 

35 
Deut. I 

3 
5 



2. Lesson 

Marke i 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 

Luk. di. I. 

di. I 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 



I. Lesson 

Exod. II 

13 
15 
17 
19 

'21 

23 

32 

34 
40 

Leuit 19 

Num. 10 

12 

14 
16 

18 

20 
22 

24 
26 
28 
30 
32 
34 
36 
2 



Deut. 



4 
6 



2. Lesson 

1. Cor. 13 

14 

15 

16 

2. Cor. I 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 
I 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

I 

2 

3 
4 

5 



Gala. 



Ephe. 



€ Marche. 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 










C Psalmes. 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson 


d 


Kalend. 


I 




30 


Deut. 7 


Luke 12 


Deut. 8 


Ephe. 4 


e 


6. No. 


2 




I 


9 


13 


10 


Philip. I 


f 


5. No. 


3 




2 


II 


14 


12 


2 


g 


4, No. 


4 




3 


13 


15 


H 


3 


A 


3- No. 


5 




4 


15 


16 


16 


4 


b 


PridNo 


6 




5 


17 


17 


18 


Collos. I 


c 


Nonas. 


7 




6 


19 


18 


20 


2 . 


d 


8. Id. 


8 




7 


21 


J^ 


22 


3 r 


e 


7 Id. 


9 




8 


23 


20 


24 


4 


f 


6. Id. 


10 




9 


25 


21 


26 


I.Tessa, i 


g 


5. Id. 


II 




10 


27 


22 


28 


2 - 


A 


4. Id. 


12 




II 


29 


23 


30 


3 


b 


3. Id. 


13 




12 


31 


24 


32 


4 


c 


Prid. Id. 


14 




13 


33 


Ihon. I 


34 


5 • 


d 


Idus. 


15 




H 


losue I 


2 


losue I 


2. Tess. I ' 


e 


17. kl. 


16 




15 


3 


3 


4 


2 .' 


f 


16. kl. 


17 




16 


5 


4 


6 


3 . 


g 


15. kl. 


18 


• 


17 


7 


5 


8 


I. Tim. I . 


A 


14. kl. 


19 




18 


9 


6 


10 


2.3 


b 


13 kl. 


20 




19 


II 


7 


12 


4 


c 


12. kl. 


21 




20 


13 


8 


14 


5 


d 


II. kl. 


22 




21 


15 


9 


16 


6 


e 


10 kl. 


23 




22 


17 


10 


18 


2. Tim. I 


f 


9. kl. 


24 




23 


19 


II 


20 


It. 


g 


8 kl. 


25 


Annunciacio.t 


24 


21 


12 


22 


3 


A 


7. kl. 


2d 




25 


23 


13 


24 


4 


b 


6. kl. 


27 




26 


ludic. -I 


14 


ludic. 2 


Tit. I 


c 


5. kl. 


28 




27 


3 


15 


4 


2. 3 


d 


4.kl. 


29 




28 


5 


16 


6 


PhUe. I 


e 


3 kl. 


30 




29 


7 


17 


8 


Hebre. i 


f 


Prid. kl. 


31 




30 


9 


18 


10 


2^ 



^ Below this but within the rule is the signature mark it^ .4. 



s 



€ Aprill. 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 




1 
1 






C Psalmes 


• 

I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson. 


g 


Kale[n]d 


I 




I 


ludic. II 


Ihon. 19 


ludic. 12 


Hebre. 3 


A 


4 No. 


2 




2 


13 


20 


14 


4 


b 


3 No. 


3 




3 


15 


21 


16 


5 


c 


Prid. No. 


4 




4 


17 


Actes. I 


18 


6 


d 


Nonas. 


5 




5 


19 


2 


20 


7 


e 


8. Id. 


6 




6 


21 


3 


Ruth. I 


8 


f 


7. Id. 


7 




7 


Ruth. 2 


4 


3 


9 


g 


6. Id. 


8 




8 


4 


5 


i.Regum.i 


10 


A 


5. Id. 


9 




9 


i.Regum.2 


6 


3 


II 

1 


b 


4. Id. 


10 




10 


4 


7 


5 


12 ! 


c 


3. Id. 


II 




II 


6 


8 


7 


13 


d 


Prid. Id. 


12 




12 


8 


9 


9 


lacob. I 


e 


Idus. 


13 




13 


10 


10 


II 


2 


f 


18 kl. 


14 




14 


12 


II 


13 


3 


g 


17. kl. 


15 




15 


14 


12 


15 


4 


A 


16 kl. 


16 




16 


16 


13 


17 


5 


b 


15 kl. 


17 




17 


18 


14 


19 


I. Peter, i 


c 


14 kl. 


18 




18 


20 


15 


21 


2 


d 


13 W. 


19 




19 


22 


16 


23 3 


e 


12. kl 


20 




20 


24 


17 


25 


4 


f 


II kl. 


21 




21 


26 


18 


27 


5 


1 g 


10 kl. 


22 




22 


28 


19 


29 


2. Peter i 


A 


9 kl. 


23 




23 


30 


20 


31 


2 


b 


8 kl. 


24 


24 


2.Regum I 


21 


2.Regum I 


3 


c 


7. kl. 


25 


Marke Eua. 25 


3 


22 


4 


I. Ihon. I 


d 


6. kl. 


26 




26 


5 


23 


6 


2 


e 


5. kl 


27 




27 

1 


7 


24 


8 


3 


f 


4. kl. 


28 


28 


9 


25 


10 


4 


g 


3. kl. 


29 


29 


II 


26 


12 


5 


A 


Prid. kl. 


30 


30 


13 


27 


14 


2. 3 Ihon. 



1 

C Maib. 

1 


Mattins. 


« 

Euensong. 










C Psalmes 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


b 


Kalend. 


I 


Phi. & lames 


I 


2. Reg. 15 


Actes. 8 


2 Reg. 16 


ludas. I 


c 


6 No. 


2 




2 


17 


28 


18 


Roma I 


d 


5- No. 


3 




3 


19 


Math. I 


20 


2 


e 


4. No. 


4 




4 


21 


2 


21 


3 


f 


3. No. 


5 




5 


23 


3 


24 


4 


g 


Prid. No 


6 




6 


3.R^um.i 


4 


3. Regum 2 


5 


A 


Nonas 


7 




7 


3 5 


4 


6 


b 


8. Idiis 


8 




8 


5 6 


6 


7 


c 


7. Id. 


9 




9 


7 


7 


8 


8 


d 


6. Id. 


10 




10 


9 8 


10 


9 


e 


5. Id 


II 




II 


II 9 


12 


10 


f 


4. Id. 


12 




12 


13 10 


14 


.11 


g 


3. Id. 


13 




13 


15 II 


16 


12 


A 


Prid. Id. 


14 




14 


17 12 


18 


^3 


b 


Idus 


IS 


15 


19 


13 


20 


14 


c 


17 kl. 


16 




16 


21 


14 


22 


15 


d 


ih kl. 


17 




17 


4. R^um I 


15 


4 Reg. 2 


16 


e 


15 kl. 


18 




18 


3 


16 


4 


I. Cor. I 


f 


14 kl. 


19 




19 


5 


17 


6 


2 


g 


13 kl. 


20 




20 


7 


18 


8 


3 


A 


12 kl. 


21 




21 


9 


19 


10 


4 


b 


II kl. 


22 




22 


II 


20 


12 


5 


c 


10 kl. 


23 




23 


13 


21 


14 


6 


d 


9 kl. 


24 




24 


15 


22 


16 


7 


e 


8 kl. 


25 




25 


17 


23 


18 


8 


f 


7 kl. 


26 




26 


19 


24 


20 


9 


g 


6 kl. 


27 




27 


21 


25 


22 


10 


A 


5 kl. 


28 




28 


23 26 


24 


II 


b 


4 kl. 


29 




29 


25 


27 


I. Esdre. i 


12 


c 


3 kl. 


30 




30 


I. Esdr. 2 


28 


3 


13 


d 


Prid kl 


31 




30 


4 


Marke i 


5 


14^ 



^ Below this but within the rule is the signature mark ^ . 5. 



10 



C lUNE. 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 










CPsalmes. 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


e 


Kalend. 


I 




I 


I. £sdr.6 


Marke 2 


I. Esdr. 7 


I. Cor. 15 


f 


4. No. 


2 




2 


8 


3 


9 


16 


g 


3. No. 


3 




3 


10 


4 


2. Esdr. I 


2. Cor. I 


A 


Prid No 


4 




4 


2. Esdr. 2 


5 


3 


2 


b 


Nonas. 


5 




5 


4 


6 


5 


3 


c 


8. Id. 


6 




6 


6 


7 


7 


4 


d 


7. Id. 


7 




7 


8 


8 


9 


5 


e 


6. Id. 


8 




8 


10 


9 


II 


6 


r 


5. Id. 


9 




9 


12 


10 


13 


7 


g 


4 Id. 


10 




10 


Hester, i 


II 


Hester. 2 


8 


A 


3 Id. 


II 


Bamabe Ap. 


II 


3 


Actes 14 


4 


Actes 15 


b 


Prid. Id 


12 




12 


5 


Mar. 12 


6 


2. Cor. 9 


c 


Idus 


13 




13 


7 


13 


8 


10 


d 


18 kl. 


14 




14 


9 ' 14 

1 


lob. I 


II 


e 


17. kl. 


15 




IS 


lob. 2 , 15 


3 


12 


f 


16. kl. 


16 




16 


4 


16 


5 


13 


g 


15. kl. 


17 




17 


6 


Luke. I 


7 


Galla. I 


A 


14. kl. 


18 




18 


8 


2 


9 


2 


b 


13. kl. 


19 




19 


10 


3 


II 


3 


c 


12. kl. 


20 




20 


12 


4 


13 


4 


d 


II. kl. 


21 




21 


14 


5 


15 


5 


e 


10. kl. 


22 




22 


16 


6 


17. 18 


6 


f 


9. kl. 


23 




23 


19 


7 


20 


Ephe. I 


g 


8 kl. 


24 


Nat. Ihon. ba. 


24 


Mala. 3 


Matth. 3 


M»la. 4 


Mat. 14 


A 


7. kl. 


25 




25 


lob. 21 


Luke. 8 


lob. 22 


Ephe. 2 


b 


6 kl. 


26 




26 


23 1 9 


24. 25 


3 


c 


5 kl. 


27 




27 


26. 27 


10 


28 


4 


d 


4 kl. 


28 




28 


29 


II 


30 


5 


e 


3. kl. 


29 


S. Peter. 


29 


31 


Actes. 3 


32 


Actes. 4 


f 


Prid. 


30 




30 


33 


Luke. 12 


34 


Ephe. 6 



II 



C lULY. 



Mattins. 



Euensong. 



g 
A 

b 

c 

d 

e 
f 

g 
A 

b 

c 

d 

e 

f 

g 
A 

b 

c 

d 

e 
f 

g 
A 

b 

c 
d 
e 
f 

g 
A 

b 



Kalend. 

6. No. 

5 No. 

4. No. 

3. No. 
Prid No. 
Nonas 

8. Id. 

7. Id. 
6. Id. 

5. Id. 

4. Id. 

3. Id. 
Prid. Id 
Idus. 
17. kl. 
16. kl. 
15- kl. 
14 kl. 
13. kl. 
12 kl. 
II. kl. 
10 kl. 

9 kl. 

8 kl. 

7 kl. 

6 kl. 
5 kl. 

4. kl 
3 kl 

Prid. kl. 



I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 

22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 



Magdalen. 



lames apost. 



4L Psalmes 

I 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
30 



I. Lesson 

lob. 35 
37 
39 
41 

Prou. I 

3 

5 
7 

9 
II 

13 

15 

17 

19 
21 

23 

25 

27 

29 

31 
Eccls. 2 

4 
6 

8 

10 

12 

2 

4 
6 

8 

10 



Ihon 



lere. 



2. Lesson 

Luke .13 
14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 

21 

22 

23 

24 
I 

2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 



Pro. 



I. Lesson 

lob. 36 

38 
40 

42 

2 

4 
6 

8 

10 

12 

14 
16 

18 

20 

22 

24 
26 

28 

30 
Eccles. I 

3 
5 
7 

9 

II 

lerem. i 

3 
5 

7 

9 
II 



2. Lesson 

Philip. I 

2 

3 

4 

Coll. I 

2 

3 
4 

1. Tes. I 

2 

3 

4 

5 

2. Tes. I 

2 

3 

1. Tim. I 

2.3 

4 

5 
6 

2. Tim. I 

2 

3 

4 
Tit. I 

2. 3 

Phile. 
Hebre. i 

2 

3 



12 



C August 


1 

Mattins. 


Euensong. 










C Psalmes 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


c 


Kalend. 


I 




I 


lerem. 12 


Ihon. 20 


lere. 13 


Hebre. 4 


d 


4. No. 


2 




2 


14 


21 


15 


5 


e 


3 No. 


3 




3 


16 


Actes I 


17 


6 


f 


Prid No 


4 




4 


18 


2 


19 


7 


g 


Nonas. 


5 




5 


20 


3 


21 


8 


A 


8. Id 


6 




6 


22 


4 


23 


9 


b 


7. Id. 


7 




7 


24 


5 


25 


10 


c 


6. Id. 


8 




8 


26 


6 


27 


II 


d 


5. Id. 


9 




9 


28 


7 


• 
29 


12 


e 


4. Id. 


10 




10 


30 


8 


31 


13 


f 


3. Id. 


II 




II 


32 


9 


33 


lacob. I 


g 


Prid. Id 


12 




12 


34 


10 


35 


2 


A 


Id us. 


13 




13 


36 


II 


37 


3 


b 


19. kl. 


14 




14 


38 


12 


39 


4 


c 


18. kl. 


15 




15 


40 


13 


41 


5 


d 


17. kl. 


16 




16 


42 


14 


43 


I. Peter i. 


e 


16. kl. 


17 




17 


44 


15 


45-46 


2 


f 


15. kl. 


18 




18 


47 


16 


48 


3 


g 


14. kl. 


19 




19 


49 


17 


50 


4 


A 


13- kl. 


20 




20 


51 


18 


52 


5 


b 


12. kl. 


21 




21 


Lamen. i 


19 


I^men. 2 


2. Pete. I 


c 


II. kl. 


22 




22 


3 


20 


4 


2 


d 


10. kl. 


23 




23 


5 


21 


Ezechi. 2 


3 


e 


9. kl. 


24 


Bart. Apostle. 


24 


Ezechi. 3 


22 


6 


I. Ihon I 


f 8. kl 


25 




25 


7 


23 


13 


2 


g 


7. kl 


26 




26 


[I] 4 


24 


18 


3 


A 


6. kl. 


27 




27 


33 


25 


34 


4 


b 


5. kl. 


28 




28 


Daniel, i 


ie 


Daniel. 2 


5 


c 


4 kl. 


29 




29 


3 


27 


4 


2. 3. Ihon 


d 


3 kl. 


30 




30 


5 


28 


6 


lude I 


[e] 


Prid. kl. 


31 




30 


7 


Math. I 


8 


Roma. I 



13 



C September 


• 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 






1 
1 


C Psalmes 








1 












I. Lesson 


2. Le6son 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


f 


Kalend. 


I 




I 


Dani. 9 


Math. 2 


Dani. 10 


Roma. 2 


g 


4. No. 


2 


^ 2 


II 


3 


12 


3 


A 


3. No. 


3 > 


3 


13 


4 


14 


4 


b 


Prid. No 


4 


4 


Ose. I 


5 


Ose. 2. 3 


5 


c 


Nonas 


5 




5 


4 


6 


5.6 


6 


d 


8. Id. 


6 




6 


7 


7 


8 


7 


e 


7. Id. 


7! 


7 


9 


8 


10 


8 


f 


6 Id. 


8 

1 


8 


II 


9 


12 


9 


g 


5. Id. 


9 




9 


13 


10 


14 


10 


A 


4. Id. 


10 




10 


loel. I 


II 


loel. 2 


II 


b 


3. Id. 


II 


1 

II 


3 


12 


Amos. I 


12 


c 


Prid. Id. 


12 




12 


Amos. 2 


13 


3 


13 


d 


Idus. 


13 




13 


4 


14 


5 


14 


e 


18. kl. 


14 




14 


6 


15 


7 


15 


f 


17. kl. 


15 




15 


8 


16 


9 


16 


g 


16. kl. 


16 




16 


Abdias. i. 


17 


lonas. I 


I. Cor. I 


A 


15. kl. 


17 




17 


Ihon. 2. 3. 


18 


4 


2 


b 


14 kl 


18 


1 18 


Miche. I 


19 


Miche. 2 


3 


c 


13. kl 


19 




19 


3 


20 


4 


4 


d 


12. kl. 


20 




20 


5 


21 


6 


5 


e 


II. kl. 


21 


Maethewct 


21 


7 


22 


Naum. I 


6 


f 


10 kl. 


22 




22 


Naum 2 


23 


3 


7 


g 


9. kl. 


23 




23 


Abacuc I 


24 


Abacuc 2 


8 


A 


8. kl. 


24 




24 


3 


25 


Soph. I 


9 


b 7. kl. 


25 




25 


Soph. 2 


26 


3 


10 


c , 6. kl. 


26 




26 


Agge. I 


27 


Agge 2 


II 


d 


5. kl. 


27 


27 


Zacha. i 


28 


Zach. 2. 3 


12 


e 


4. kl. 


28 


28 


4. 5- 


Marke i 


6 


13 


f 


3. kl. 


29 


Michaell 29 


7 


2 


8 


14 


g 


Prid. kl 


30 




30 


9 


3 


10 


15 



14 



C October. 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 










C Psalmes. 






















I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson. 


A 


Kalend. 


I 




I 


Zach. 


i[i] 


Mark. 4 


Zach. 12 


I. Cor. 16 


b 


6. No. 


2 




2 




13 


5 


14 


2. Cor. I 


c 


5. No. 


3 




3 


Mai. 


I 


6 


Mai. 2 


2 


d 


4. No. 


4 




4 




3 


7 


4 


3 


e 


3. No. 


5 




5 


Toby. 


I 


8 


Toby. 2 


4 


f 


Prid No 


6 




6 




3 


9 


4 


5 


g 


Nonas. 


7 




7 




5 


10 


6 


6 


A 


8. Id. 


8 




8 




7 


II 


8 


7 


b 


7. Id. 


9 




9 




9 


12 


10 


8 


c 


6. Id. 


10 




10 




II 


13 


12 


9 


d 


5. Id. 


II 




II 




13 


14 


14 


10 


e 


4. Id. 


12 




12 


ludit. 


I 


15 


ludith. 2 


II 


f 


3. Id. 


13 




13 




3 


16 


4 


12 


g 


Prid. Id. 


14 




14 




5 


Luk. di. I 


6 


13 


A 


Idu.5. 


IS 




15 




7 


di. I 


8 


Gala. I 


b 


17. kl. 


16 




16 




9 


2 


10 


2 


c 


16. kl. 


17 




17 




II 


3 


12 


3 


d 


15. kl. 


18 


Luke Euang. 


18 




13 


4 


14 


4 


e 


14. kl. 


19 




19 




15 


5 


16 


5 


f 


13- kl. 


20 




20 


Sap. 


I 


6 


Sap. 2 


6 


g 


12 kl. 


21 




21 




3 


7 


4 


Ephe. I 


A 


II. kl 


22 




22 




5 


8 


6 


2 


b 


10. kl. 


23 




23 




7 


9 


8 


3 


c 


9. kl. 


24 




24 




9 


10 


10 


4 


d 


8. kl. 


25 




25 




II 


II 


12 


5 


e 


7. kl. 


26 




26 




13 


12 


14 


6 


f 


6. kl. 


27 




27 




15 


13 


16 


PhiUp. I 


g 


5. kl. 


28 


Simon & lu. 


28 




17 


14 


18 


2 


A 


4. kl. 


29 




29 




19 


15 


Eccls. I 


3 


b 


3. kl. 


30 




30 


Eccls. 


2 


16 


3 


4 


c 


Prid. kl. 


31 




30 




4 


17 


5 


Colics. I 



15 



CNOUBMBER. 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 










CPsalmes. 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson 


2. T^esson 


d 


Kalend. 


I 


All sainctes. 


I 


SapL 3 


He. II. 12 


Sapi. 5 


Apo. 19 


e 


4. No. 


2 




2 


Eccl. 6 


Luke. 18 


Eccl. 7 


CoIIos. 2 


f 


3- No. 


3 




3 


8 


19 


9 


3 


g 


Prid. No. 


4 




4 


10 


20 


II 


4 


A 


Nonas. 


5 




5 


12 


21 


13 


I. Tes. I 


b 


8. Id. 


6 




6 


14 


22 


15 


2 


c 


7. Id. 


7 




7 


16 


23 


17 


3 


d 


6. Id. 


8 




8 


18 


24 


19 


4 


e 


5. Id. 


9 




9 


20 


Ihon I 


21 


5 


f 


4 Id. 


10 




10 


22 


2 


23 


2. Tes. I 


g 


3. Id. 


II 




II 


24 


3 


25 


2 


A 


Prid. Id. 


12 




12 


26 


4 


27 


3 


b 


Idus. 


13 




13 


28 


5 


29 


I. Tim. I 


c 


18. kl 


14 




14 


30 


6 


31 


2.3 


d 


17. kl. 


15 




IS 


32 


7 


33 


4 


e 


16. kl. 


16 




16 


34 


8 


35 


5 


f 


15. kl. 


17 




17 


36 


9 


37 


6 


g 


14. kl. 


18 




18 


38 


10 


39 


2. Tim. I 


A 


13- kl. 


19 




19 


40 


II 


41 


2 


b 


12. kl. 


20 




20 


42 


12 


43 


3 


c 


II. kl. 


21 




21 


44 


13 


45 


4 


d 


10. kl. 


22 




22 


46 


14 


47 


Tit I 


e 


9. kl. 


23 




23 


48 


15 


49 


2. 3 


f 


8. kl. 


24 




24 


50 


16 


51 


Phile. I 


g 


7. kl. 


25 




25 


Baruc. i 


17 


Banic. 2 


Hebre. I 


A 


6. kl. 


26 




26 


3 


18 


4 


2 


b 


5 kl. 


27 




27 


5 


19 


6 


3 


c 


4 kl. 


28 




28 


Esaie. i 


20 


Esaie 2 


4 


d 


3.kl. 


29 




29 


3 


21 


4 


5 


e 


Prid. kl. 


30 


Andrew Apo. 


30 


5 


Actes. I 


6 


6 



i6 



C December. 


Mattins. 


Euensong. 










C Psalmes 


I. Lesson. 


2. Lesson 


I. Lesson 


2. Lesson. 


f 


Kalend. 


I 




I 


Esaie 7 


Actes. 2 


Esaie 8 


Hebre. 7 


g 


4. No. 


2 




2 


9 


3 


10 


8 


A 


3. N. 


3 




3 


II 


4 


12 


9 


b 


Prid No 


4 




4 


13 


5 


14 


10 


c 


Nonas. 


5 




5 


15 


6 


16 


II 


d 


8. Id. 


6 




6 


17 


di. 7 


18 


12 


e 


7. Id. 


7 




7 


19 


di. 7 


20. 21 


13 


f 


6. Id. 


8 




8 


22 


8 


23 


lacob. I 


g 


5. Id. 


9 




9 


24 


9 


25 


2 


A 


4. Id. 


10 




10 


26 


10 


27 


3 


b 


3. Id. 


II 




II 


28 


II 


29 


4 


c 


Pri.1. Id 


12 




12 


30 


12 


31 


5 


d 


Idus 


13 




13 


32 


13 


33 


I. Pet. 1 


e 


19. kl. 


14 


/ 


14 


34 


14 


35 


2 


f 


18. kl. 


15 




15 


36 


15 


37 


3 


g 


17. kl. 


16 




16 


38 


i^ 


39 


4 


A 


16. kl. 


17 




17 


40 


17 


41 


5 


b 


15. kl. 


18 




18 


42 


18 


43 


2. Pet. I 


c 


14 kl. 


19 




19 


44 


19 


45 


2 


d 


13. kl. 


20 




20 


46 


20 


47 


3 


e 


12 kl. 


21 


Thomas apo. 


21 


48 


21 


49 


I. Ihon. I 


f 


II. kl. 


22 




22 


50 


22 


51 


2 


g 


10 kl. 


23 




23 


52 


23 


53 


3 


A 


9. kl. 


24 




24 


54 


24 


55 


4 


b 


8. kl. 


25 


Nati. domini 


25 


Esaie 9 


Math. I 


Esaie 7 


Tit. 3 


c 


7. kl. 


26 


Stephen. 


26 


56 


Acte. 6. 7 


57 


Actes. 7 


d 


6. kl. 


27 


Ihon Euan. 


27 


58 


Apoca. I 


59 


Apo*. 22 


e 


5. kl. 


28 


Innocentes. 


28 


lere. 31 


Actes. 25 


60 


I. Ihon. 5 


f 


4 kl. 


29 




29 


Esaie. 61 


26 


62 


2. Ihon. I 


g 


3 kl. 


30 




30 


63 


27 


64 


3. Ihon I. 


A 


Prid. kl. 


31 




30 


65 


28 


66 


lude. I 



C An ordre for Mattyns daily through the yere. [a.i. 

^^^ The priest beeyng in the quier, shall begin with a loude 
voyce, the Lordes praier, called the Pater noster, 

OUR father whiche art in heauen, hallowed bee thy name. 
Thy Kyngdome come. Thy will bee doen in yearth as it 
is in heauen. Geue vs this day our daily bread. And forgeue 
vs our trespasses, as we forgeue them that trespasse against vs. 
And leade vs not into temptacion. But deliuer vs from euill. 
Amen. 

Then likewise he shall saie. 
O lorde open thou my lippes. 

Answere. 
And my mouthe shall shewe furth thy praise. 

Priest. 
O God make good spede to saue me. 

Answere. 
O lorde make hast to helpe me. 

/Priest. [a. i. v. 

Glory be to the father, and to the sonne : and to the holy 
ghoste. 

As it was in the beginnyng, is now, and euer shalbe : worlde 
without ende. Amen. 

Praise ye the Lorde. 

C And from Easter to Trinitie Sondaie. 
Alleluya. 

'p^ Then shalbe saied or song without any Inuitatory this Psalme, 
Venite exultemus. &*€, in Englishe, as foloweth, 

OCome, lette vs syng vnto the lorde : let vs hartely reioyce 
in the strength of our saluacion. 
Let vs come before his presence with thankesgeuyng : and 
shew ourself glad in hym with Psalmes. 

For the Lorde is a greate God : and a greate kyng aboue all 
Goddes. 

In his hande are all the corners of the yearth : And the 
strength of the hilles is his also. 

CLERK. C 



u^ 



1 8 MATT INS, 

The sea is his and he made it : and his handes prepared the 
drie lande. 

O come, let vs worship and fal doune : and knele before the 
lorde our maker. 

/For he is (the lorde) our God : And we are the [a. ii. 
people of his pasture, and the shepe of his handes. 

To daie if ye wil heare his voyce, harden not your hartes : 
As in the prouocacion, and as in the daie of temptacion in the 
wildernesse. 

When your fathers tempted me : proued me, and sawe my 
workes. 

Fortie yeres long was I greued with this generacion, and 
saied : it is a people that do erre in their hartes, for thei haue 
not knowen my waies. 

Unto whom I sware in my wrathe : that thei should not 
entre into my rest. 

Glory be to the father, and to the. &c. 

As it was in the beginnyng. &c. Amen 

^^1^ Then shall folowe certain Psalmes in ordre, as thei been 
appoyncted in a Table made for that purpose, excepte there bee 
propre Psalmes appoyncted for that daie. And at thend of euery 
psalme through out the yere, and likewise in the ende of Benedictu^^ 
BenedicitCy Magnificat^ and Nunc dimittis^ shalbe repeated. 

Glory be to the father, and to the. &c. 

f[ Then shalbe red .ii. lessons distinctly with a loude voyce, that 
the people maie heare. The first of thold /testament, [a. ii. v. 
the seconde of the newe. Like as thei bee appoyncted by the 
Kalendar, except there be proper Lessons assigned for that day ; the 
minister that readeth the Lesson, standyng and turnyng him so as he 
mai best bee heard of all suche as bee present. And before euery 
lesson, the minister shall saie thus. The firste, second, third .iiii. 
Chapiter of Genesis, or Exodus, Matthewe, Marke, or other like as is 
appoincted in the Kalendar. And in the ende of euery Chapiter he 
shall saie. 

Here endeth suche a Chapiter of suche a booke. 

'p^ And (to thende the people maie the better heare) in suche 
places where thei dooe syng, there shall the Lessons bee song in a 
plain tune, after the maner of distinct readyng : and likewise the 
Epistle and Gospel. 

'p^ After the first Lesson shall folowe Te deum in Englishe, daily 
throughout the yere, except in Lent, all the whiche tyme in the place of 
Te deum shalbee vsed Benedicite omnia opera domini domino^ in 
Englishe as foloweth. 



MATTINS, 19 

Te deum. 

"1X7' E praise thee, O GOD, wee knowlege thee to be the 
^ ^ lorde. 

Al the yearth doth worship thee, the father euerlastyng. 

To thee all Angelles crie a loude, the heauens and all the 
powers therein. 

To thee Cherubyn, and Seraphyn, /continually do crie. [a. iii. 

Holy, holy, holy, lorde God of Sabaoth. 

Heauen and yearth are full of the maiestie of thy glory. 

The glorious compaignie of the Apostles praise thee. 

The goodly felowship of the Prophetes, praise thee. 

The noble armie of Martyrs, praise thee. 

The holy Churche throughout al the worlde doth knowlege 
thee. 

The father of an infinite Maiestie. 

Thy honorable, true, and onely sonne. 

Also the holy ghost the comforter. 

Thou art the kyng of glory, O Christ. 

Thou arte the euerlastyng sonne of the father. 

When thou tookest vpon thee to deliuer manne, thou diddest 
not abhorre the Virgins wombe. 

When thou haddest ouercomedt the sharpenesse of death : 
thou didest open the kyngdome of heauen to all beleuers. 

Thou sittest on the right of God, in the /glory of the [a. iii. v. 
father. 

We beleue that thou shalt come to be our Judge. 

We therefore praie thee, helpe thy seruauntes whom thou hast 
redemed with thy precious bloud. 

Make theimf to bee nombred with thy sainctes, in glory 
euerlastyng. 

O Lorde saue thy people : And blesse thyne heritage. 

Gouerne them and lift them vp for euer. 

Daie by daie we magnifie thee. 

And we worship thy name euer world without ende. 

Vouchsafe, O Lorde to kepe vs this daie without synne. 

O Lorde haue mercie vpon vs : Haue mercie vpon vs. 

O Lorde, let thy mercie lighten vpon vs : as our trust is in 
thee. 

O Lorde, in thee haue I trusted : Let me neuer be confounded. 

Benedicite, 

/^ All ye woorkes of the Lorde, speake good of the Lorde : 
^^ praise hym, and /set hym vp for euer. [a. iiii. 

O ye Angels of the lorde, speake good of the Lorde : praise 
Jiym, and set hym vp for euer. 

C 2 



90 MATT INS. 

O ye heauens speake good of the lorde : praise hym, and set 
hym vp for euer. * •• 

O ye waters that be aboue the firmament, speake good of the 
lord : praise him and set hym vp for euer. 

O all ye powers of the Lorde, speake good of the lorde : 
praise hym, and set him vp for euer. 

O ye Sonne and Moone, speake good of the Lorde : praise 
hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye Starres of heauen, speake good of the Lorde : praise 
hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye showers and dewe, speake good of the Lorde: praise 
hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye wyndes of GOD, speake good of the Lorde : Praise 
hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye fire and heate, praise ye the lord : /praise hym, [a. iiii. v. 
and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye Wynter and Sommer, speake good of the lorde : praise 
him, and set him vp for euer. 

O ye Dewes and frostes, speake good of the lorde : Praise 
hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye frost and cold, speake good of the lorde ; praise him, 
and set him vp for euer. 

O ye ise and snowe, speake good of the lorde : praise hym, 
and set him vp for euer. 

O ye nightes and Daies, speake good of the Lorde : praise 
hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye Light and Darkenesse, speake good of the Lord : Praise 
hym, and sette hym vp for euer. 

O ye lightnynges and cloudes, speake good of the lorde : 
praise hym, and set him vp for euer. 

O lette the yearth speake good of the Lorde : yea, let it 
praise hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye Mountaignes and Hilles, speake good of the Lorde : 
praise hym, and sette/ hym vp for euer. [a. v. 

O al ye grene thynges vpon the yearth, speake good of the 
Lorde : Praise hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye welles, speake good of the lorde : praise hym, and set 
hym vp for euer. 

O ye seas and fluddes, speake good of the lorde : praise him, 
and set him vp for euer. 

O ye whales, and all that moue in the waters, speake good of 
the lorde : praise hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O all ye Foules of the Ayre, speake good of the lorde : praise 
hym, and set him vp for euer. 

O all ye Beastes and Cattell, speake good of the lorde : praise 
hym, and set him vp for euer. 



MATTINS, 11 

O ye children of men, speake good of the lorde : praise hym, 
and set hym vp for euer. 

O let Israeli speake good of the lorde : praise hym, and set 
hym vp for euer. 

O ye priestes of the lorde, speake good of the Lorde : praise 
hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye seruauntes of the Lorde, speake /good of the [a. v. v. 
lorde : praise hym, and set him vp for euer. 

O ye spirites and soules of the righteous, speake good of the 
lorde, praise hym and set hym vp for euer. 

O ye holy and humble men of harte, speake ye good of the 
lorde : praise ye him and set hym vp for euer. 

O Ananias, Azarias, and Misaell, speake ye good of the lord : 
praise ye hym, and set hym vp for euer. 

Glory be to the father, and to the sonne and to the holy 
ghost. 

As it was in the beginnyng, is nowe, and euer shalbe : worlde 
with. &c. Amen. 

C And after the second lesson, throughout the whole yere, shalbe 
vsed Benedictus^ in Engilshet as foloweth. 

p)Lessed bee the lorde God of Israeli : for he hath visited and 
^ redemed his people. 

And hath lifted vp an home of saluacion to vs : in the house 
of his seruaunt Dauid. 

As he spake by the mouth of his holy /Prophetes : [a. vi. 
whiche hath been sencef the worlde began. 

That wee should bee saued from our enemies : and from the 
handes of all that hate vs. 

To perfourme the mercie promised to our fathers : and to 
remembre his holy couenaunt. 

To performe the othe whiche he sware to our father Abraham : 
that he would geue vs. 

That wee beeyng deliuered out of the handes of our enemies : 
might serue him without feare. 

In holinesse and righteousnesse before hym : all the daies of 
our life. 

And thou child, shalt be called the prophete of the hiest : for 
thou shalt go before the face of the lorde, to prepare his waies. 

To geue knowlege of saluacion vnto his people : For the 
remission of their synnes. 

Through the tendre mercie of oure God : whereby the dale 
spryng from an high hath visited vs. 

To geue lighte to theim that sitte in /darknesse, and [a. vi. v. 
in the shadowe of death : and to guyde our feete into the waie 
of peace. 



21 MATTINS, 

Glory be to the father, and to the. &c. 
As it was in the beginnyng. &c. Amen. 

^^1^ Then shalbe saied daily through the yere, these praiers 
folowyng, aswell at Euensong as at Mattins, all deuoutly knelyng with 
a loude voyce. &c. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 
Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 
Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

^^ Then the minister shall saie the Crede, and the Lordes 
praier in Englishe. 

Answere. 
But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

Priest. 
O lorde shewe thy mercie vpon vs. 

Answere. 
And graunt vs thy saluacion. 

Priest. 
O lorde saue the Kyng. 

Answere 
And mercifully heare vs when we call vpon thee. 

Priest. 
Indue thy ministers with righteousnes 

Answere. 
And make thy chosen people ioyfull. 

/Priest, [a. vii. 

O lorde saue thy people. 

Answere. 
And blesse thyne inheritaunce. 

Priest. 
Geue peace in our tyme, O lorde. 

Answere. 

Because there is none other that fighteth for vs, but onely 
thou, O God. 



MA TTINS. 23 

Priest. 
O God, make cleane our hartes within vs. 

Answere. 
And take not thyne holy spirit from vs. 

Priest. 
The Lorde bee with you. 

Answere. 
And with thy spirite. 

([ Then shall daily folowe three Collectes. The firste of the dale, 
whiche shalbee thesame that is appoyncted at the Communion. The 
second for peace. The thirde for grace to Hue well. And the twoo last 
Collectes shall neuer alter, but daily bee saied at Mattins, throughout 
al the yere, as foloweth. The priest standyng vp and saiyng. 

([ Let vs praie. 

^^^ Then the Collect of the daie. 
^^^ The second Collect for peace. 

//^ GOD, whiche art aucthor of peace, and louer of [a. vii. v. 
^^ Concorde, in knowlege of whom standeth our eternall life, 
whose seruice is perfecte fredome : defende vs thy humble 
seruauntes, in al assaultes of our enemies, that wee surely 
trustyng in thy defence, maie not feare the power of any 
aduersaries : Through the might of lesu Christ our lorde. 
Amen. 

([ The third Collect : for grace. 

O Lorde oure heauenly father, almightie and euerliuyng 
GOD, whiche hast safely brought vs to the beginnyng of 
this daie : defende vs in the same, with thy mightie power, and 
graunt that this daie we fall not into sin, neither runne into any 
kynd of daunger, but that al our doynges, maie be ordred by 
thy gouernaunce, to do alwaies that is righteous in thy sight : 
through lesus Christ our lorde. Amen. 



24 EVENSONG, 



/An ordre for Euensong throughout the yere. [a. viii. 

([ The priest shall sale. 

2^ Our Father. &c. 

Then likewise he shall saie. 
O God make spede to saue me. 

Answere. 
O Lord make hast to helpe me. 

Priest. 

Glory be to the father, and to the. &c. 
As it was in the beginnyng. &c. Amen. 
Praise ye the Lorde. 

([ And from Easter to Trinitie Sondaie. 

Alleluya. 

([ As before is appoincted at Mattins. 

^^ Then Psalmes in ordre, as thai bee appoyncted in the Table for 
Psalmes, excepte there bee propre Psalmes appoyncted for that daie. 
Then a Lesson of the olde Testament, as is appoyncted likewise in 
the Kalendar, excepte there bee propre Lessons appoyncted for that 
daie. After that (Magnificat) in Englishe, as foloweth. 

\MagnificaL [a. viii. z/. 

My soule doth magnifie the lord. 
And my spirit hath reioysed in God my sauior. 

For he hath regarded the lowlinesse, of his handmaiden. 

For behold from hencefurthe all generacions shall call me 
blessed. 

For he that is mightie, hath magnified me : and holy is his 
name. 

And his mercie is on theim that feare hym, throughout all 
generacions. 

He hath shewed strength with his arme he hath scattered the 
proude in the imaginacion of their hartes. 

He hath put doune the mightie from their seate, and hath 
exalted the humble and meke. 

He hath filled the hungery with good thynges, and the riche 
he hath sent emptie awaie. 



EVENSONG, 25 

He remembryng his mercie, hath holpen his seruaunt Israeli : 
As he promised to our fathers, Abraham and his sede for euer. 
Glory be to. &c. As it was. &c. Amen. 

\^V Then a Lesson of the Newe testament. And after that [b. i. 
(Nunc dimittis) in Englishe, as foloweth. 

Nunc dimittis Luke, ij\ [in m.] 

T Orde, now lettest thou thy seruaunt depart in peace 
-*— ' Accordyng to thy woorde. 

For mine lyes haue seen : thy saluacion. 

Whiche thou hast prepared : before the face of all people. 

To be a light to lighten the Gentiles : and to be the glory of 
thy people Israeli. 

Glory be to the father, and to the. &c. 

As it was in the begin. &c. Amen. 

^^^ Then the Suffrages before assigned at Mattins, the Clerkes 
kneelyng likewise, with three Collectes. Firste of the daie : Seconde of 
peace : Thirde for aide against all perilles, as here foloweth. Whiche 
twoo last Collectes shalbe daily saied at Euensong, withouc alteracion. 

f[ The second Collect at Euensong. 

r\ God, from whom al holy desires, all good counsailes, and 
^^ all iuste woorkes doo procede : geue vnto thy seruauntes 
that peace, whiche the worlde cannot geue, that both our 
hear/tes maie be so set to obeye thy commaundementes, [b. i. v. 
and also that by thee, wee beyng defended from the feare of 
oure enemies, maie passe oure tyme in reste and quietnesse : 
Through the merites of lesu Christ our sauior. Amen. 

f[ The third Collect for aide against al perils. 

T Ighten our darkenes we beseche thee, O lorde, and by thy 
•" greate mercie, defende vs from al perils and daungers of this 
night, for the loue of thy onely sonne our sauior lesu Christ. 
Amen. 



26 EUENSONG.-): 



f[ In the feastes of Christmas, Thepiphanie, Easter, the Assencion, 
Pentecost, and vpon Trinitie Sondaie, shalbe song or saied immediatly 
after Benedictus^ this confession of our Christian faithe. 

Quicunque uult [in m.] 

T 71 /"Hosoeuer will be saued : before all thynges it is necessary 
^ ^ that he hold the catholike faithe. 

Whiche faithe, except euery one do kepe holy and vndefiled : 
without doubt he shall perishe euerlastyngly. 

And the catholike faithe is this : that wee worship one God in 
Trinitie, and /Trinitie in vnitie. [b. ii. 

Neither confoundyng the persones : nor deuidyng the 
substaunce. 

For there is one persone of the father, another of the sonne, 
and another of the holy ghost. 

But the Godhed of the father, of the sonne, and of the holy 
ghoste, is all one : the glory equall, the maiestie coeternall. 

Suche as the Father is, suche is the sonne : and suche is the 
holy ghost. 

The father vncreate, the sonne vncreate : and the holy ghost 
vncreate. 

The father incomprehensible, the sonne incomprehensible : 
and the holy ghost incomprehensible. 

The Father eternal, the Sonne eternall : and the holy ghost 
eternall. 

And yet thei are not three eternalles : but one eternall. 

As also there bee not three incomprehensibles, nor three 
vncreated : But one vncreated, and one incomprehensible. 

So likewise the father is almightie : the sonne almightie, and 
the holy ghost /almightie [b. ii. v. 

And yet are thei not three almighties : but one almightie. 

So the father is God, the sonne is god : and the holy ghost is 
God. 

And yet are thei not thre Goddes: but one God. 

So likewise the Father is Lorde, the sonne lorde : and the 
holy ghost lorde. 

And yet not thre lordes : but one lorde. 

For like as wee bee compelled by the Christian veritie : 
To acknowlege euery persone by hymself to be God and lorde. 

So are we forbidden by the catholike religion : to saie there 
be three Goddes or three Lordes. 

The father is made of none : Neither created nor begotten. 

The sonne is of the father alone : Not made nor created, but 
begotten. 



EVENSONGS 27 

The holy ghost is of the father, and of the sonne : neither 
made nor created, nor begotten, but procedyng. 

So there is one father, not thre fathers one sonne, not thre 
sonnes : one holy ghost, /not three holy ghostes [b. \\\. 

And in this Trinitie, none is afore or after other : none is 
greater nor lesse then other. 

But the whole three persones : be coeternall together and 
coequall. 

So that in all thynges, as is afore said : the vnitie in Trinitie,. 
and the Trinitie in vnitie, is to be worshipped. 

He therefore that will be saued : muste thus thynke of the 
Trinitie. 

Furthermore it is necessary to euerlastyng saluacion : that he 
also beleue rightly in the incarnacion of our Lorde Icsu Christe. 

For the right faithe is that we beleue and confesse : that our 
lorde lesus Christ the sonne of God, is God and man. 

God of the substaunce of the father, begotten before the 
worldes : and manne of the substaunce of his mother, borne in 
the worlde. 

Perfect God and perfect man : of a reasonable soule, and 
humain fleshe subsistyng. 

Equall to the father as touchyng his /Godhed : And [b. iii. v. 
inferior to the father, touchyng his manhode. 

Who although he bee God and man : yet he is not twoo, but 
one Christ. 

One, not by conuersion of the Godhede into fleshe : but by 
takyng of the manhod into God. 

One altogether, not by confusion of substaunce : but by 
vnitie of persone. 

For as the reasonable soule and fleshe is one man : so God 
and man is one Christ. 

Who suffered for our saluacion : descended into hell, rose 
again the thirde daie from the dedde. 

He ascended into heauen, he sitteth on the right hande of the 
father, GOD almightie : From whence he shall come to iudge 
the quicke and the dedde. 

At whose commyng all men shall rise again with their 
bodies : And shall geue accompt of their awne workes. 

And thei that haue dooen good, shall go into life euerlasting : 
and thei haue doen euill into euerlastyng fire. 

This is the Catholike faithe : whiche / except a man [b. iiii. 
beleue faithfully, he cannot be saued. 

Glory be to the father, and to the. &c. 

As it was in the beginnyng. &c. Amen. 






THE LETANIE AND SUFFRAGES. 



<[ The Letanie and Suffrages. 

/~\ God the father of heauen : haue mercie vpon vs miserable 
^-^ synners. 

O God the father of heauen : haue merde vpon vs miserable 

synners. 

O God the sonne, redemer of the worlde: haue mercie vpon 
vs miserable synners. 

O God the sonne, redemer of the worlde : haue mercie vpon vs 
miserable synners. 

O God, the holy ghoste, procedyng from the father and the 
sonne : haue mercie vpon vs miserable synners. 

O God the holy ghost, procedyng from the father and the sonne : 
haue mercie vpon vs miserable synners. 

O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinitie, three persones and one 
God : haue mercie vpon vs miserable synners. 

/O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinitie, thre persones and [b. iiii. v. 
one God : haue mercie vpon vs miserable synners. 

Remembre not Lorde, our offences, nor the offences of our 

forefathers, neither take thou vengeaunce of our synnes : spare 

vs good lorde spare thy people whom thou haste redemed with 

thy moste precious bloud, and bee not angrie with vs for euer. 

Spare vs good Lorde. 

From al eutl and mischief, from synne, from the craftes and 
assautes of the Deuill, from thy wrathe, and from euerlastyng 
<lampnacion : 

Good Lorde deliuer vs. 

From blindnes of hart, from pride, vainglory, and hypocrisy, 
from enuie, hatred, and malice, and all vncharitablenesse : 
Good Lorde deliuer vs. 

From fornicacion, and all other dedly sinne, and from all the 
dcceiptes of the worlde, the fleshe, and the deuill : 
Good Lorde deliuer vs. 

From Lightnyng and Tempest, from plague, pestilence, and 
/amine, from battaill, and murder, and from sodain death : 

/Good Lorde deliuer vs. [b. v. 



THE LETANIE AND SUFFRAGES, 29 

From all sedicion and priuie conspiracie, from the tyranny of 
the bishop of Rome and all his detestable enormities, from all 
false doctryne and heresy, from hardenesse of harte and 
contempt of thy worde and commaundement : 

Good Lorde deliuer vs. 

By the misterie of thy holy incarnacion, by thy holy natiuitie 
and circumcision, by thy baptisme, fastyng, and temptacion : 

Good Lorde deliuer vs. 

By thyne agonye and bloudy sweate, by thy Crosse and 
Passion, by thy precious death and buriall, by thy glorious 
resurreccion, and ascencion, by the commyng of the holy 
ghost : 

Good Lorde deliuer vs. 

« 

In all tyme of our tribulacion, in al tyme of our weal the, in the 
houre of death, in the daie of Judgement : 

Good Lorde deliuer vs. 

We synners do beseche thee to heare vs, O Lorde GOD, and 
that it male please thee to rule and gouerne thy holy Churche 
vniuersall in the right waie : 

/We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. [b. v. v. 

That it male please thee to kepe Edward the .vi. thy seruaunt 
our kyng and gouernor : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to rule his hart in thy faithe, feare 
and lone, that he maie alwaies haue affiaunce in thee, and euer 
seke thy honor and glory. 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to be his defender, and keper, geuyng 
hym the victorie ouer all his euemies.t 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That It maie please thee to illuminate all Bishoppes, Pastours, 
and Ministers of the Churche, with true knowlege and vnder- 
standyng of thy woorde, and that bothe by their Preachyng 
and liuyng, thei maie sette it furthe, and shewe it accordyngly : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to endue the lordes of the Counsaill, 
and all the nobilitie with grace, wisedom, and vnderstandyng : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 



30 THE LETANIE AND SUFFRAGES, 

That it maie please thee to blesse and kepe /the magis- [b. vi. 
trates, geuyng them grace to execute iustice, and to maintein 
truthe : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to blesse and kepe all thy people : 
We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to geue to al nacions, vnitie, peace, 
and concord : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to geue vs an harte to loue, and 
dread thee, and diligently to Hue after thy commaundementes : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to geue all thy people increase of 
grace, to heare mekely thy worde : and receiue it with pure 
afifeccion, and to bryng furth the fruites of the spirite : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to bryng into the vi^aie of truthe, all 
suche as haue erred, and are deceiued : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to strengthen suche as do stande, 
and comfort and helpe the weake harted, and to raise vp theim 
/that fall, and finally to beate doune Sathan vnder our [b. vi. v. 
fete: 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please the to succour, helpe and comfort all that 
bee in daunger, necessitie and tribulacion : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde, 

That it maie please thee to preserue all that trauaill by lande 
or by water, all women laboryng of child, all sicke persones and 
young children, and to shewe thy pitie vpon all prisoners and 
captiues : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to defende and 'prouide for the 
fatherlesse children and widdowes, and all that bee desolate and 
oppressed : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 



THE LETANIE AND SUFFRAGES, 31 

That it male please thee to haue mercie vpon all men : 
We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That It maie please thee to forgeue oure enemies, persecutours 
and slaunderors, and to turne their hartes : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to geue and pre/serue to our [b. vii. 
vse the kyndly fruites of the yearth, so as in due tyme we maie 
enioye theim : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

That it maie please thee to geue us true repentaunce, to 
forgeue us all our sinnes negligences, and ignoraunces, and to 
endue vs with the grace of thy holy spirite, to amende our Hues 
accordyng to thy holy worde : 

We beseche thee to heare vs good Lorde. 

Sonne of God : we beseche thee to heare vs. 

Sonne of God : we beseche thee to heare vs, 

O Lambe of God, that takest awaie the synnes of the worlde : 

Graunt vs thy peace. 

O Lambe of God that takest awaie the synnes of the worlde : 

Haue mercie vpon vs. 

O Christ heare vs : 

O Christ heare vs. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 

Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 

/Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. [b. vii. z/. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Our father whiche art in heauen. &c. 
And lede vs not into temptacion. 

But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

The versicle. 
O Lorde deale not with vs after our synnes. 

Answere. 
Neither reward vs after our iniquities. 



32 THE LETANIE AND SUFFRAGES. 

f[ Let US praie. 

/^ God, mercifull father that despisest not the sighyng of a 
^^ contrite harte, nor the desire of suche as be sorowfull, 
mercifully assist oure praiers, that we make before the in al our 
troubles and aduersities, whensoeuer thei oppresse vs : And 
graciously heare vs, that those euilles whiche the craft and 
subteltie of the deuill or man worketh against vs, be brought to 
naught, and by the prouidence of thy goodnesse thei maie bee 
dispersed, that we thy seruauntes beeyng hurte by no persecu- 
cions, maie euermore geue thankes vnto thee, in thy holy 
Churche : thorowe lesus Christ our Lorde. 

/O Lorde arise, helpe vs, and deliuer vs for thy name sake. [b. viii. 

O God wee haue heard with our eares, and our fathers haue 
declared vnto vs, the noble woorkes that thou diddest in their 
daies, and in the old tyme before them. 

O Lorde arise, help vs, and deliuer vs for thine honor. 

Glory be to the father, the sonne, and the holy ghost : as it 
was in the beginnyng, is now, and euer shalbe world without 
ende. 

Amen. 

From our enemies defende vs, O Christ : 
Graciously loke vpon our affliccions. 

Pitifully behold the sorowes of our hart : 
Mercifully forgeue the synnes of thy people. 

Fauorably with mercie heare our praiers 
O Sonne of Dauid haue mercie vpon vs. 

Bothe now and euer vouchsafe to heare vs Christ : 
Graciously heare vs, O Christ, graciously heare vs, O Lorde Christ. 

'^^ The versicle. 
O lorde, let thy mercy be shewed vpon vs : 

^^ The answere. 
As we do put our truste in thee. 

f[ Let us praie. 

/T 1 rE humbly beseche thee, O father, mercifully to [b. viii. v, 

^^ looke vpon our infirmities, and for the glory of thy name 

sake, turne from vs those euils, that we most righteously haue 

deserued : and graunt that in al our troubles wee maie put our 



THE LETANIE AND SUFFRAGES. 33 

whole truste and confidence in thy mercie, and euermore serue 
thee in purenesse of liuyng, to thy honor and glory : Through 
our onely mediator and aduocate lesus Christe our lorde^ 
Amen. 

A Lmightie God, whiche haste geuen vs grace at this tyme 
-^^ with one accorde to make our common supplicacions vnto 
thee and dooest promise, that when twoo or three be gathered 
in thy name, thou will graunt their requestes : Fulfill nowe, O 
lorde, the desires and peticions of thy seruauntes, as maie be 
moste expedient for thenj : grauntyng vs in this worlde, 
knowlege of thy truth, and in the worlde to come, life 
euerlasting. Amen. 



CLERK. D 



A 



34 AT THE COMMUNION. 



/C All that appertain to the clerkes to say or syng [c. i. 



at the ministracion of the Communion, and when there is no 
Communion. 
At Confirmacion. 
At Matrimonie. 
The visitacion of the sicke. 
At buriall of the dedde. 
At the purificacion of women. 
And the first daie of Lent. 



At the Communion. 

Clerke. 
First the PsaUne appoyncted for the Introite. 

Priest. 
Almightie God. &c. 

Answere. 

iii. Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 
iii. Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 
iii. Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Priest. 
Glory to God on high. 

Answere. 

And in yearth peace, good wil towardes menne. 

Wee praise thee, wee blesse thee, wee worship thee, wee 
glorifie thee, we geue thankes to thee, for thy greate glory, O 
/Lorde God heauenly Kyng, God the father almightie. [c. i. v. 

O Lorde the onely begotten sonne lesus Christ, O Lorde 
God, lambe of God, sonne of the father, that takest awaie the 
synnes of the worlde, haue mercie vpon vs : thou that takest 
awaie the synnes of the worlde, receiue our praier. 



AT THE COMMUNION, 35 

Thou that sittest at the right hande of God the father, haue 
mercie vpon vs : for thou onely art holy : Thou onely art the 
Lorde. Thou onely (O Christe) with the holy ghost, art moste 
high in the glory of God the father. Amen. 

Priest. 
The Lorde be with you. 

Answere. 
And with thy spirite. 

Priest. 

fE Let us praie. 
Almightie God, &c. 

Priest or Gierke. 
The Epistle. 

Priest. 
The holy Gospell written. &c. 

Answere. 
/Glory bee to thee O lorde. [c. ii. 

Priest. 
I beleue in one God. 

Answere. 

The father almightie, maker of heauen and yeartb, and of al 
thynges visible, and inuisible : And in one Lorde lesu Christ, 
the onely begotten sonne of God, begotten of his father, before 
al worldes, God of God, light of light, verie God of verie God, 
begotten not made, beeyng of one substaunce with the father, 
by whom all thynges were made, who for vs men, and for our 
saluacion, came doune from heauen, and was incarnate by the 
holy ghost, of the virgin Mari, and was made man, and was 
Crucified also for vs, vnder Poncius Pilate, he suffered and 
was buried, and the thirde daie he rose again accordyng to the 
scriptures, and ascended into heauen, and sitteth at the right 
hand of the father: And he shall come again with glory to 
iudge bothe the quicke and the ded^ 



^ Here the Creed ends atmiptljr, at the bottom of the page, but not at the end of a 
line. 

D 2 



36 AT THE COMMUNION, 



/i^%f The Offertorie. [c. ii. v. 



Gierke. 

Matth. V. [in m.] 

Let your light so shine before menne, that thei maie se your 
good workes, and glorifie your father whiche is in heauen. 

Matth. vz, [in m.] 

Laie not vp for your selfes treasure vpon the yearth, where 
ruste and Mothe dooth corrupt, and where theues breake through 
and steale : But laie vp for your selfes treasure in heauen, where 
neither rust nor Mothe doth corrupt, and where theues do not 
breake through nor steale. 

Math. vij\ [in m.] 

Whatsoeuer ye would, that menne should do vnto you, euen 
so do you vnto them, for this is the lawe off the Prophetes, 

Mate, vij, [in m.] 

Not euery one that saieth vnto me, Lorde, Lorde, shall entre 
into the kyngdome of heauen, but he that doth the wil of my 
father whiche is in heauen. 

Luke. xix. [in m.] 

Zache stode furthe, and saied vnto the Lorde, behold lorde,. 
the halfe of my goodes I geue to the poore, and if I haue doen 
any wrong vnto any man, I restore foure /folde. [c. iii. 

/. Cor. ix. [in m.] 

Who goeth a warfare at any tyme at his awne cost ? who 
planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruite thereof? Or 
who fedeth a flocke, and eateth not of the milke of the flocke. 

L Cor. ix. [in m.] 

If we haue sowen vnto you spiritual! thynges, is it a greate 
matter, if we shall reape your worldly thynges ? 

i. Cor. ix. [in m.] 

Dooe ye not knowe, that thei whiche minister aboute holy 
thynges. Hue of the sacrifice. Thei whiche waite of the altar 
are partakers with the Aultar, euen so hath the Lorde also 
ordeigned : that thei whiche preache the Gospell, should Hue of 
the Gospell. 



AT THE COMMUNION, 37 

ij. Cor, ix, [in m.] 

Thei whiche soweth Htle, shall reape litle, and he that soweth 
plenteously shal reape plenteously. Let euery man do 
accordyng as he is disposed in his hart, not grudgyngly, or of 
necessitie, for God loueth a cherefull geuer. 

Gala vu [in m.] 

Let hym that is taught in the woorde, Minister vnto hym 
that teacheth in all good thynges. Bee not deceiued, God is 
/not mocked. For whatsoeuer a man soweth, that shall [c. iii. v, 
he reape. 

Gala vL [in m.] 

While we haue tyme, let vs doo good vnto all menne, and 
specially vnto them, whiche are of the houshold of faithe. 

/. Tuno. vi [in m.]( 

Godlinesse is great riches, if a manne bee contented with that 
he hath : for wee brought nothyng into the world, neither maie 
we cary any thyng out. 

i. Tinio vi, [in m.] , 

Charge theim whiche are riche in this worlde, that thei bee 
ready to geue, and glad to distribute, laiyng vp in store for 
theimselfes a good foundacion, against the tyme to come, that 
thei maie attain eternall life. 

Hebre. vi. [in m.j 

God is not vnrighteous, that he will forget your workes, and 
labor that procedeth of loue, whiche loue ye haue shewed for 
his names sake, which haue ministered to the sainctes, and yet 
do minister. 

Hebre. xiij. [in m.] 

To do good and to distribute, forget not, for with suche 
sacrifices God is pleased. 

i. John iii, [in m.] 

Whoso hath this worldes good, and seeth his brother haue 
nede, and shutteth /vp his compassion from hym, how [c. iiii. 
dwelleth the loue of God in hym. 

Toby, iiij, [in m.] 

Geue almose of thy goodes, and turne neuer thy face from 
any poore man, and then the face of the lorde shall not be 
turned awaie from thee. 

Toby, iiij, [in m.] 

Be merciful! after thy power: If thou haste muche, geue 
plenteously, if thou hast litle, doo thy diligence gladly to geue 
of that litle, for so gatherest thou thy self a good reward, in 
the daie of necessitie. 



38 AT THE COMMUNION. 

Prouer, xix. [in m.] 

He that hath pitie vpon the poore, lendeth vnto the Lorde, 
and looke what he laieth out : it shalbe paied again. 

Psal. xlL [in m.] 

Blessed be the man that prouideth for the sicke and ned/; 
the lorde shall deliuer hym, in the tyme of trouble. 

Priest. 
The Lorde be with you. 

Answere. 
And with thy spirite. 

Priest. 
Lift vp your hartes. 

Answere. 
We lift them vp vnto the Lorde. 

Priest. 
/Let vs geue thankes to our lorde God. [c. iiii. v, 

Answere. 
It is mete and right so to do. 

Priest. 
It is very mete, right and our bounden. &c. 

Gierke. 

Holy, holy, holy, Lorde God of hostes, heauen and yearth 
are full of thyglorie: Osanna in the highest. Blessed is he 
that commeth in the name of the lorde : ^Glory to thee in the 
highest. 

Priest. 

Let vs praie for the whole state of Christes Churche. 
Almightie and euerliuyng God. &c. 
And leade vs not into temptacion. 

Answere. 
But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

Priest. 
The peace of the Lorde bee alwaie with you. 

Answere. 
And with thy spirite. 



AT THE COMMUNION. 39 

Gierke in the Communion tyme shall saie or syng. 

ii. O Lambe of God that takest awaie the synnes of the 
worlde : have mercie v/pon vs [c v. 

O lambe of God that takest awaie the s}mnes of the worlde : 
graunt vs thy peace. 

Sentences to be saied or song, euery daie one after the holy 
Communion. 

Math, xvu [in m.] 

If any manne will folowe me, let hym forsake hymself, and 
take vp his Crosse and folowe me. 

Marke xiij. [in m.] 

Whosoeuer shall indure vnto thende, he shalbe saued. 

Luke. i. [in m.] 

Praised be the lorde God of Israel, for he hath visited and 
redemed his people : therefore let vs seme hym all the daies of 
our life, in holinesse and righteousnesse accepted before hym. 

Luc. xij. [in m.] 

Happie are those seruauntes, whom the lorde (when he 
commeth) shall find wakyng. 

Luc. xij. [in m.] 

Be ye ready for the sonne of man will come, at an houre 
when ye thynke not. 

Luc. xij. [in m.] 

The seruaunt that knoweth his Masters wil, and hath not 
prepared hymself neither hath doen accordyng to his will, 
shalbe beaten with many stripes. 

lohn. iiij. [in m.] 

The houre commeth and nowe it is, /when true [c. v v. 
worshippers shall worship the father in spirite and truthe. 

.V, nohI\ [in m.] 

Beholde, thou art made whole, synne no more, least any 
worse thyng happen vnto thee. 

Ikon. viij. [in m.] 

If ye shall continue in my worde, then are ye my very 
disciples, and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make 
you fre. 

Ilwn. xij. [in m.] 

Whyle ye haue light, beleue on the light, that ye may be the 
children of light. 



40 AT THE COMMUNION, 

Ihon xiiij. [in m.] 

He that hath my commaundementes and kepeth theim, 
thesame is he that loueth me. 

lohn xiiij. [in m.] 

If any man loue me, he will kepe my worde, and my 
father will loue hym, and we will come vnto hym, and dwell 
with hym. 

Ikon, XV, [in m.] 

If ye shall bide in me, and my woorde shall abide in you, 
ye shall aske what ye will, and it shalbe doen to you. 

Ihon, XV, [in m.] 

Herein is my father glorified, that ye beare muche fruite, and 
become my Disciples. 

Ihon, XV, [in m.] 

This is my commaundement, that you loue together, as I have 
loued you. 

Roma, viij. [in m.] 

/If God bee on our side, who can bee against vs ? Fc. vi. 
whiche did not spare his awne sonne, but gaue him for vs all. 

Roma, viij, [in m.] 

Who shal laie any thing to the charge of Gods chosen ? It is 
God that iustifieth who is that can condempne } 

Roma, xiij, [in m.] 

The night is I passed, and the daie is at hande, let vs therefore 
cast awaie the deedes of darkenesse, and put on the armour of 
light. 

/. Cor, i, [in m.] 

Christ lesus is made of God, vnto vs wisedome, and 
righteousnesse, and sanctifiying, and redempcion, that (accordyng 
as it is written) he whiche reioyseth should reioyse in the lorde. 

i. Cor, iij. [in m.] 

Knowe ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the 
spirite of God dwelleth in you ? If any man defile the temple 
of God, hym shall God destroye. 

/. Cof, vj, [in m.] 

Ye are derely bought, therefore glorify God in your bodies, 
and in your spirites, for thei belong to God. 

Ephe, V, [in m.] 

Be you folowers of God as dere children, and walke in 
loue euen as Christe loued vs, and gave himself for vs, an 
of/feryng and a Sacrifice of a swete sauor to God. [c. vi. v. 



AT THE COMMUNION, 41 

Priest. 



The lorde be with you 

Answere. 
And with thy spirite. 

Priest. 
tr Let vs praie. 
Almightie and euerliuyng. &c. 

Answere 
Amen. 



42 MA TRIMONIE. 



C At Matrimonie. 

The Gierke shall sale or syng with the priest, this Psalme. 

Beati omnes. PsaL Cxxviij, [in m.] 

TDLessed are al thei that feare the lorde: and walke in his 
■^ waies. &c. 

Or els this Psalme. 
Deus miseria\tur\.^ PsaL Ixvij, [in mj 
God be merciful! vnto vs and blesse. &c. 

Priest. 
Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Answere 
Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 

Priest. 
Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Answere.t 

/Priest. [c. vij. 

Our father whiche art in heauen. &c. 
And leade vs not into temptacion. 

Answere. 
But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

Priest. 
O lorde saue thy seruaunt and thy handmaide. 

Answere. 
Whiche put their trust in thee. 

Priest. 
O Lorde, sende them helpe from thy holy place. 

Answere. 
And euermore defende them. 

Priest. 
Be vnto them a tower of strength. 



MATRIMONIE. 43 



Answere. 
From the face of their enemie. 

Priest. 
O lorde heare my praier. 

Answere. 
And let my crie come to thee. 

Priest. 
Let us praie. 
O God of Abraham. &c. 



44 THE VISITATION OF THE SICKE. 



/The visitacion of the Sicke. [c. vii. v. 

Priest 
Peace be within this house. &c. 
Domine exaudu Psal, Cxliij. [in m.] 
Heare my praier. Psal. CxliiL 

Antheme. 

TD Emembre not Lorde our iniquities nor the iniquities of our 
-'-^ forefathers spare vs good lord, spare thy people whom thou 
hast redeemed with thy moste precious bloud, and bee not angrie 
with vs for euer. 

Priest. 
Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Answere. 
Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 

Priest. 

Lord haue mercie vpon vs. 

Our father whiche art in heauen. &c. 

And leade vs not into temptacion. 

Answere. 
But deliuer vs from euil. Amen. 

Priest. 
O lorde saue thy seruaunt. 

Answere. 
Whiche putteth his trust in thee. 

/Priest. [c. viii. 

Sende hym helpe from thy holy place. 

Answere. 
And euermore mightely defende hym. 

Priest. 
Let the enemie haue none aduauntage of hym. 

Answere. 
Nor the wicked approche to hurt him. 



THE VISITATION OF THE SICXE. 45 

Priest. 
Be vnto hym, O lorde, a strong tower. 

Answere. 
From the face of his enemie. 

Priest. 
Lorde heare my praier. 

Answere. 
And let my crye come vnto thee. 

Priest. 
Let vs praie. . 

O lorde loke doune. &c. 
Heare vs almightie. &c. 
Derely beloued. &c. 
Our lorde Jesus Christ. &c. 
O moste merciful! God. &c 

Then this Psalme. 
In te domine^ PsaL lxxiij\\ [in m.] 
In thee O lorde. &c. 

Antheme, 

\r\ Sauior of the worlde saue vs, whiche by thy crosse [c. viii. v, 
^^ and precious bloud hast redemed vs, helpe vs we beseche 
thee O God. 

PriesU 

The almightie lorde. &c. 
As with this visible oyle. &C4 

Then this psalme^ 
How long wilt thou forget me. &c» 



46 AT THE COMMUNION OF THE SIC ICE. 



The Communion of the sicke. 



Psal. Cxvii. [in. m.] 

O Praise the Lorde, all ye nacions, laude hym all ye people : 
For his merciful! kyndnesse is confirmed toward vs, and 
the truthe of the lorde endureth for euer. 

Glory be to the father, and to the. &c. 
As it was in the begin. &c. Amen. 

Priest, 
The lorde be with you, 

Answere. 
And with thy spirite. 

Priest. 
Let vs praie. 

/Almightie euerlastyng God. &c. [d. i. 

The Epistle. 
Hebre. xu [in. m.] 

My Sonne, despise not the correccion of the lorde, neither 
faint when thou art rebuked of him : for whom the Lorde 
loueth, hym he correcteth, yea and he skourgeth euery sonne, 
whom he receiueth. 

The Gospell. 
Verely, verely. &c. 

The Preface. 
The lorde be with you* 

Answere. 
And with thy spirite. 

Priest. 
Lift vp your. &c, vnto the ende of the Canon. 



AT THE COMMUNION OF THE SICKE. 47 

p;^ When the sicke persone is visited, and receiueth the holy 
Communion, all at one tyme, then the priest for more expedicion, 
shall vse this ordre at the visitacion. 

The antheme. 

Remembre not lorde. &c. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Our father whiche art in heauen. &c. 

/And lede vs not into temptacion. [d. i. v. 

Answere. 
But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

Let vs praie. 

O lorde loke doune. &c. 

With the firste parte of the exhortacion, and all other thynges vnto 
the psalme. 

In te domine sp^raut], PsaL xxxL [in. m. 

In the lorde haue I put my trust. &c. 

And if the sicke desire to be annoy nted, then shall the priest vse the 
appoyncted praier, without any psalme. 



AT THE BURIALL OF THE DEDDE. 



i[ At the buriaU of the dedde. 

Priest or clerk shall saie or syng. 

lohn xi. [in. m.] 

I Am the resurreccion and the life (saith the lorde) he that 
beleueth in me, yea, though he were dedde, yet shall he Hue. 
And whosoever liueth and beleueth in me shall not dye for 
euer. 

Job. xix, [in. m.] 

IKnowe that my redemer liueth, and that I shall rise out of 
the yearth, in the last dale, and shalbe couered again in my 
skynne, and shall se God in my fleshe : yea, and my self shall 
beholde hym, not /with other, but with these same iyes. [d. ii. 

L Timo. vi. lob i. [in m.] 

VVee broughte nothyng into this worlde, neither maie wee 
cary any thyng out of this worlde. The lorde geueth, and 
the Lorde taketh awaie. Euen as it pleaseth the lorde, so 
commeth thynges to passe : Blessed bee the name of the Lorde. 

At the graue the priest or clerke shall saie or syng. 

lob. xiiiu [in m.] 

MAn that is borne of a woman, hath but a shorte tyme to 
Hue, and is full of misery: He commeth vp and is cut 
doune like a floufe, he flieth as it wer a shadow and neuer 
continueth in one staie. 

In the middest of Hfe, wee be in death, of whom maie we seke 
for succour but of thee, O lorde, whiche for our synnes iustely 
art moued : yet O lorde God moste holy, O lorde moste mightie, 
O holy and most merciful sauior, deliuer vs not into the bitter 
paines of eternall death. Thou knowest lorde, the secretes of 
our hartes, shut not vp thy merciful! iyes to our prayers : But 
spare vs Lorde moste holy, O /God moste mightie, O [d. ii. v, 
holy and mercifull sauior, thou moste worthy ludge eternall, suffre 
vs not at our laste houre, for any paines of death, to fall from 
thee. 

The priest castyng yearth vpon the corps, shall saie. 
I commende thy soule to God the father almightie. &c. 






-■^ 



AT THE BURIALL OF THE DEDDE, 49 

The priest or clerke shall sale or syng. 

Apoca, xiiij, [in m.] 

I Heard a voyce from heauen, saiyng vnto me, write : Blessed 
are the dedde whiche die in the lorde. Euen so saith the 
spirite, that thei rest from their labours. 

Priest. 

Let vs praie. 

We commende into thy handes. &c. 

The priest or clerke shall saie or syng these Psalmes. 

Dilexi quonzlam], PsaL CjcvL [in m.] 

T Am well pleased : that the Lorde hath heard the voyce of 
^ my. &c. 

Domine probastt. PsaL Cxxxix, [in m.] 

Lorde thou haste searched me out and knowen me. &c. 



o 



Lauda anima, PsaL Cxlvi. [in m.] 

P Raise the lorde (O my soule) while I Hue I will praise the 
Lorde : yea, as long as I haue any beyng, I will. &c. 

/The priest or clerke shall reade this lesson. [d. iii. 

i. Cor. XV, [in m.] 

CHrist is risen from the dedde, and become the firste fruites 
of theim that slepte. For by a manne came death, and by 
a man came the resurreccion of the dedde. For as by Adam all 
dye: Euen so by Christ shall all bee made aliue, but euery 
man in his awne ordre. The first is Christ, then thei that 
are Christes at his commyng. Then commeth thende when 
he hath deliuered vp the kyngdom to God the father, when he 
hath put doune all rule, and all aucthoritie and power. 
For he must reigne, till he hath put al his enemies vnder his 
fete. The last enemie that shalbee destroyed, is death : For he 
hath put all thynges vnder his fete. But when he saith, all 
thynges are put vnder hym, it is manifest that he is excepted, 
whiche did put all thynges vnder hym : when all thynges are 
subdued vnto hym that putte all thynges vnder hym, that God 
maie be all in all. Els what do thei, whiche are Baptized ouer 
the dedde, if the ded rise not at all? Why are they /then 
baptized ouer theim ? yea, and why stande we alwaie in [d. iii. v, 
leoperdy ? By our reioysyng whiche I haue in Chris te lesu our 
lord, I die daily. That I haue fought with beastes at Ephesus 
after the maner of menne, what auauntageth it me, if the dedde 
rise not again ? Lette vs eate and drynke, for to morowe we 
shall dye. Bee not ye deceiued : Euill woordes corrupte good 

CLERK. E 



so AT THE BURIALL OF THE DEDDE. 

maners. Awake truly out of slepe, and synne not, for some haue 
not the knowlege of God : I speake this to your shame But 
some menne will saie : how arise the dedde ? With what body 
shall the! come ? Thou foole, that whiche thou sowest, is not 
quickened excepte it dye. And what sowest thou ? Thou 
sowest not the body that shalbe : but bare corne as of wheate, 
or of some other, but God geueth it a body at his pleasure, to 
euery sede his awne body. All fleshe is not one maner of flesh : 
but there is one maner of fleshe of men, another maner of fleshe 
of beastes, another of Fishes, another of birdes. There are also 
celestiall bodies, and there are bodies terrestriall. But the glory 
of the /celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is [d. iiii. 
another. There is one maner glory of the Sonne, and another 
glorye of the Mone, and another glorye of the Starres. For as 
one starre differeth from another in glory : so is the resurreccion 
of the dedde. It is sowen in corrupcion, it riseth again in 
incorrupcion. It is sowen in dishonour, it riseth again in 
honour. It is sowen in weakenesse, it riseth again in power. It 
is sowen a naturall body, it riseth again a spiritual body. 
There is a naturall body, and there is a spirituall body : as it is 
also written, the firste man was made a liuyng soule, and the 
laste Adam was made a quickenyng spirit Howbeit, that is 
not first that is spirituall : but that whiche is naturall, and then 
that whiche is spirituall. The first man is of the yearth 
yearthy : The seconde man is the Lorde, from heauen heauenly. 
As is the heauenly, suche are thei that are heauenly. And as 
wee haue borne the Image of the yearthy, so shall we beare the 
image of the heauenly. This sale I brethren, that fleshe and 
bloud /cannot inherite the Kyngdome of God, nither [d. iiii. v. 
doth corrupcion inherit vncorrupcion. Behold, I shewe you a 
mistery, we shall not all slepe : But wee shall all bee chaunged, 
and that in a moment, in the twinkelyng of an iye, by the last 
trompe. For the trompe shall blowe, and the ded shall rise 
incorruptible : and wee shalbee chaunged. For this corruptible 
must put on incorrupcion : and this mortall muste put on 
immortalitie. When this corruptible, hath put on incorrupcion^ 
and this mortall hath put on immortalitie : Then shalbe brought 
to passe, the saiyng that is written : death is swallowed vp in 
victory. Death where is thy styng ? Hell where is thy victory ? 
The styng of death is syn : and the strength of synne is the 
Lawe. But thankes be vnto God, whiche hath geven vs victory, 
through our lorde lesus Christ Therefore my dere brethren, 
bee ye stcdfast and vnmoueable, alwaies riche in the woorke of 
the Lorde, forasmuche as ye know, how that your labor is not 
in vain in the lorde. 



AT THE BUR I ALL OF THE DEDDE, 51 

/ The lesson ended the priest shall saie. [d. v. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 
Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 
Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Our father whiche art in heauen. &c. 
And leade vs not into temptacion. 

Answere. 

But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

Priest. 
Entre not (O Lorde) into Judgement with thy seruaunt. 

Answere. 
For in thy sighte no liuyng creature shalbe iustified. 

Priest. 
From the gates of hell. 

Answere. 
Deliuer their soules O lorde. 

Priest. 
I beleue to se the goodnesse of the lorde. 

Answere. 
In the lande of the liuyng. 

Priest. 
O lorde graciously heare my praier. 

Answere. 
And let my crie come vnto thee. 

Priest 
/ tl Let vs praie. [d. v. v. 

O lorde, with whom do Hue. &c. 



E z 



AT THE BURIALL OF THE DEDDE. 



At the Communion when there is a Buriall 

The introit. 
Quemadmodum, Psal, xlii, [in m.] 

Like as the Harte desireth the waterbrokes : so longeth my 
soule after. &c. 

The Epistle. 

i. Thessa, iiii. [in m.] 

1 Would not brethren, that ye should be ignoraunt concerning 
them whiche are fallen a slepe, that ye sorowe not as other 
do, whiche haue no hope. For if wee beleue that lesus died, 
and rose again : Euen so them also which slepe by lesus, wil 
God bryng again with hym. For this saie we vnto you in the 
worde of the lorde : that wee whiche shall Hue, and shall remain 
in the commyng of the Lorde, shall not come ere thei whiche 
slepe. For the lorde hymself shall descende from heauen, 
with a shout, and the voyce of the Archangel /and [d. vi. v. 
trompe of GOD. And the dedde in Christ shall rise firste: 
then wee whiche shall Hue (euen we whiche shall remain) shalbe 
caught vp with theim also in the Cloudes, to mete the Lorde 
in the aire. And so shall we euer bee with the lorde : where- 
fore comfort yourselfes one another with these wordes. 

The Gospell. 
Ihon. vi. [in m.] 

lesus said to his disciples. &c. 



J^T FURIFICACTON, 53 



t[ At the Purificacion of women. 

This Psalme. 

Leuaui oculos, PsaL Cxxi, [in m.] 

T Haue lifted vp mine iyes vnto the hilles : from whence 
-■■ commeth my. &c. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 
Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 
Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 
Our father whiche art in heauen. &c. 
And leade vs not into temptacion. 

Answere 
But deliuer vs from euill. Amen. 

/Priest. [d. vi v. 

O lorde saue this woman thy seruaunt. 

Answere. 
Whiche putteth her trust in thee. 

Priest. 
Be thou to her a strong tower. 

Answere. 
From the face of her enemie. 

Priest. 
Lorde haret my praier. 

Answere. 
And let my crie come to thee. 

Priest. 
Let vs praie. 
O almightie God. &c. 



54 THE FIRST DAIE OF LENT. 



The first daie of Lent, commonly called Ashwednesdaie. 

After the cursses ended, the Gierke with the priest shall saie this 
psalme. 

Miserere mei PsaL li. [in m.] 

LJAue mercie vpon me (O God) after thy great goodnesse, 
^•^ accordyng vnto the multitude of thy mercies, do away 
myne offences. &c. 

/Priest. [d. vii. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Answere. 
Christ haue mercie vpon vs. 

Priest. 

Lorde haue mercie vpon vs. 

Our father whiche art in heauen. &c. 

And leade vs not into temptacion. 

Answere. 
But deliuer vs from euilL Amen. 

Priest. 
O lorde saue thy seruauntes. 

Answere. 
Whiche put their trust in thee. 

Priest. 
Sende vnto them helpe from aboue. 

Answere. 
And euermore mightely defend them. 

Priest. 
Helpe vs O God our sauior. 

Answere. 

And for the glory of thy names sake deliuer vs. 
And be merciful! vnto vs synners for thy names sake. 



THE FIRST DAIE OP LENT 55 

Priest. 
O lorde heare my praier. 

/Answere. [d. vii. v. 

And let my crie come tp thee. 

Priest/ 

Let vs praie. 
O lorde we beseche thee. &c. 

Clarke or Minister to saie or syng this Antheme. 

T^Vrne thou vs, O good lorde, and so shall we be turned : be 
^ fauorable (O lorde) be fauorable to thy people, whiche 
turne to thee in wepyng, Fastyng, and praiyng : for thou art a 
mercifull God, ful of compassion, long sufieryng, and of a greate 
pitie. Thou sparest when we deserue punishement, and in thy 
wrathe thynkest vpon mercie, spare thy people, good lorde, 
spare theim, and let not thy heritage be brought to confusion : 
heare vs (O lorde) for thy mercie is great and after the multi- 
tude of thy mercies looke vpon vs. 



4PPENDIX I, 57 



APPENDIX I. 



The Constitutions of the parish Clerks at Trinity Church 

Coventry made in 1462. 

[The constitutions were printed by Thomas Sharp in his Illustrations 
of the History . . . Holy Trinity Church Coventry^ published at 
the Coventry in 1818. They were also reprinted in the British 
Magazine y 1834, vol. vi. p. 262. By the kind offices of the Rev. F. M. 
Beaumont, Vicar of Holy Trinity, Coventry, and Hon. Canon of 
Worcester, the manuscript was deposited at the British Museum for the 
purposes of transcription and editing. It consists of two leaves of 
paper ; on the first, recto and verso, are written the duties of the first 
deacon ; on the second, those of the second deacon, both sides of the 
paper being written upon. 

The leaves measure 1 2 inches by 8 J or f . They are now fastened 
into a large folio book with other memoranda, many of which were 
edited by Thomas Sharp in his History, 

The writing is of the common hand of the middle of the fifteenth 
century.] 

Memorandum that these be the constitucions off the offesse 
off the dekyn off the trinite churche made in the yere off owr 
lorde a Mcccclx and ij yer 

[i.] In primis the dekyn schall euery day hopyn the churche durrs 
at vj off the clok and delyuer to the pryste that syngythe the trinite 
masse a boke and a chales and a vestment and wan masse ys don to se 
the sayd boke and chales and vestment be leyd vp in the vestre. 

[2.] Item the sayd dekyn schall ryng all in to matens with hys Felo 
at euery comemoracion and ix lessons. 

[3.] Item the sayd dekyn schall beyr Forthe the bokes ^for matens 
and masse* belongyng to the sowthe syde off the quere and wan matens 
ys don to beyr them in to the vestre A gayne. 

[4.] Item the sayd dekyn schall ryng with ys Fellow to hye masse 
and syng in the quere at the masse and wan masse ys don to se that 
the chales and the bokes be lokkyd sur in the vestre 

\ 

1 — ^1 Written over^ on the struck out. 



&] 



S8 APPENDIX I. 

[5.] Item the sayd dekyn schall be at the churche a gayn be iij off 
cloke to help to ryng all in to Evynsong yff yt be a commemoracion or 
a Feste off ix lessones or dowbuU Feste. 

[6.] Item the sayd dekyn schall syng evynsong on the sowthe syde 
in the quer and yff that yt be wolyday or dowbull Feste the sayd dekyn 
schalbe rectur in the quer For the sowthe syde off the quer. 

[7.] Item wan evynsong ys don the sayd dekyn schall make sur 
the vestre and se that all the boks be in. 

Item he schall lokk the churche durrs at a convenyant own 
Item the sayd dekyn schall ryng day bell with won bell euery 
day. 

[10.] Item he schall Fynde a dekyn to rede the gospell at hye masse 
euervery^ sonday and woly day. 

[11.] Item he schall se the ^florthe off the* quere and the florthe off 
the body off the churche be swepyd euery tyme wan yt hathe nede. 

[12.] Item the sayd deken schall se that the leds ovyr the quer and 
ovyr the body off the churche be made clene euery time wan they 
haue nede '^and yff yt be a snowe to voyd the guttars leste they [be] 
stoppyd^ 

[13.] Item the sayd dekyn schall set a Form at the priory dur on 
palm sonday For^ the stacions wen that ys don he schall cawse yt to be 
set a for the rode for the prest to syng ave rex, 

[14.] Item the sayd dekyn shall bryng a woly water stoke with 
water for hys preste euery sonday for the preste to make woly water. 

[15.] Also the sayd dekyn schall hyng a towell abowte the Fantt att 
estur and at wytsontyd. 

[16.] Item he schall se that ther be iij copys browght down to the 
Fant For prysts to syng rex sanctorum, 

[17.] Item the sayd dekyn schall euery sonday beyr woly watur of 
hys chyldern to euery howse in hys warde and he to haue ys dewty off 
euery man affter hys degre quartarly. 

[18.] Also the sayd dekyn schall se [that] the woly cake euery 
sonday be kyte a quordyng for euery manes degre and he shall beyr 
the woly bred to serve the* pepyll in the northe syde off the churche 
and he to go to them on the xijth day For hys offyrryng to the 
reparacione off his syrples. 

[19.] Item the said dekyn and his felow schall euery^ princypall 
feste avat* wayte on the Churche wardens at the thryd peell off the 
fyrste evysong to a ray the hye awter with clothys nessessary For yt. 

[20.] 'Also the sayd dekyn' schall worden® a barrel! on schere 
thursday and on ester evyn and on wyttson evyn For hys part a gayne 
the byttar^ bryng water for the awtars and the fantte. 

^ Thus y for every ; and d2Ly follmvs, struck through, 

2 — ^ interlined. Read floor of the quire. ' interlined. 

* sates on the northe Folkes : struck through. ® day : struck out, 

® avat : struck out. ' — ^ Repeated, 

^ ordain, make ready. 

^ See Murray's New English Dictionary ^ under Bitter, one who has charge of a fire 

bucket : " 1467. E, E, Giles 382. That the bitters be redy with hur horses and bittes 

to brynge water." A bit is a butt or cask. 



APPENDIX u 59 

[21.] Item the sayd dekyn schall at euery snowe be with hys Felowe 
and voyd the florthe off the stepyll and caste owte the snowe for 
rotyng the tymber. 

[22.] Also he schall se in his quarter that the clapurs off the bells 
hyng in ordur and to se the bawdryks be sur and yffe they be nott to 
schewe to the churche wardens that they may^ be mendyd in sesen and 
to schewe \o them'* the bell ropps in lyk manner. 

[23.] Also he schall se the pallmes be brennyd For the askys that 
schalbe dawlte on aske wensday. 

[24.] Also he schall provyd For palme' on palmsonday for his 
parte. 

[25.] Also he schall* wache the sepulcur on Astur evyn tyll the 
resurreccion be don then he and hys Felow schall take downe the 
lenttyn clothys a bowte the awter and a For the rode. 

[26.] Also he schall orden on schere thursday a byrche besom for 
the pryst that waschythe the awtars. 



[27.1 Also iij dyssiplyn rodds For hys parte. 



And* he schall helpe ®to sarue® the parechschones of bred and 
alle and theise things at niylbornes derege' and master meynleys and 
other dereges^ that bye made of the churche cost. 

[29.] And® hys Fellowe schall gresse the bellys and Fynde greyse 
ther to wan they haue nede. 

[30.] And they schall haue the profetts off the bells wan they ryng 
for any quorse or obett. 

[31.] Also the sayd dekyn and hys Felow schall ryng the bells at 
the Cummyng off the kyng and the quene and the prince yff they 
Fawte® the dekyn and hys felow to beyr the losse. 

[32.] Item the sayd dekyn schall tende the lampeand to Feche oyle 
and ryschys weyr the church wardens wyll a syne ym. 

[33.] Item the sayd dekyn schall kevyr the pylpyt with a pall wan 
any doctor prechys. 

[34.] Also the dekyn^^ schall fynde a dekyn to be)!: the crysmatory 
to the Fantte wan they go a pressession in ester weke. 

[35.] Item he schall hyng Forthe the vykars banar" on the churche 
woly day and to take yt downe a gayn the viij th day. 

[36.] Item the sayd dekyn schall go with the preste wan he gothe to 
veset the sek in hys warde or else won in hys stede. 

[37.] I4;em also the sayd dekyn and his Fellow schall euery sonday 
and hye day Folde vp the albus and vestmentts that be ocupyed that 
day. 

[38.] Item the sayd dekyn and hys Felow schall helpe the churche 
wardens to cover the awter and^^ the rode ^^in lent'^ with lentyn clothys 

* interlined, '-*— 2 interlined, 

^ agayn : struck out, * interlined. 

° any who : struck out, ^ a word illegible^ struck out, 

' dirge. ^ /^ ^^^ space above is schall struck out, 

^ make default, they struck out. " and hys Felowe : struck through, 

^^ interlined^ over a word struck out and illegible. 

1* repeated. 13— is interlined. 



6o APPENDIX I. 

and to hyng the vayle in the quere and the churche wardens schall gyffe 
them money to drynke. 

[39.] Item the sayd dekyn schall ryng the grete belP to complyn 
every setter day in lentt. 

[40.] Also the dekyn [shall] Feche every quors to churche in *Hys 
syrples' that dessessythe in hys warde and he to haue For hys labur^ 

[41.] Item the sayd dekyn schall euery setterday and woly evyn be 
at churche with hys felyschep and ryng noon as the Fest requerythe. 

[42.] Item he shall knoll to hy masse sacryng euery sonday and 
woly day he won quarter and hys Felow a noder and euery pressescion 
day to knoll the pressescion lyke wysse. 

[43.] Item at euery pressescion to brynge Forthe pressescionars a 
quordyng For hys syde off the quere and to se they be born in to the 
vestre wan the presscion ys don. 

[44.] Item he schall se the durr at the hye* awter ende be lokkyd 
ther as the sacramente standythe and the manewells* be brought in at 
euery wedyng in hys warde* wan the weddyng ys don. 

[45.] Also he schall haue off euery pardenar that cummyth ij d and 
the sayd dekyn schall lende to ym a syrples to go with the preste 
into the pylpyt. 

[46.] Also the sayd dekyn schall go on all halowe® day at evyn a 
mong the pepyll in the northe syd off the churche and '^gedyr money off 
them for the ryngars that ryng for all crystyn soils. 

[47.] Item he schall fynde won to ryng a pressescion euery sonday 
and his fellow lykewysse.® 



^ a word struck out, ^ — ^ written in margin, 

^ There is no space here in the manuscript^ but tt runs on direct to the next Item. 

"* interlined, * manuals. 

* euyn : struck out, "^ gedyll : struck out, 

^ erid of first leaf , 



APPENDIX I. 6i 



[Constitution of the office of Second deacon.] 

Memorandum that thes be the constituciens be longyng to 
the offesse off the seconde dekyn off the trinite churche 

[48.] In primis the dekyn schalbe at churche euery woke^ day alfe 
owr* a For vij a cloke and ryng the second bell a peell to matens yff yt 
be a feste of ix lessons or a comemoracion yff yt be fowU fest' he schall 
ryng ij belles at the seconde pell. 

[49.] Item the sayd deken schalbe at churche and helpe to ryng all 
in to matens *and masse and evynsong* with hys Felow yff yt be a Ferry* 
he schall ryng won bell ym selfe a sartayn space as the ordynall 
spesyffythe. 

[50.] Item he schall berr Forthe off the vestre all syche bokes 
nessessary For the northe syde off the quer for mattens and masse and 
evynsong and he schall syng in the quer daly serves on the same northe 
syd and yff yt be sonday or woly day he schalbe* rectur and be gyn all 
the salmys' for that syd oflf the quer and wan sarves ys don he schall 
beyr all syche bokes as ys ocupyd on that syde and ley theme in ther 
place wyche ys ordenyd For them 4n the vestre® 

[5 1.] Item he schall dg hys dewty at evynsong in lyke maner, 
52.] Item the said dekyn schall ryng Curffew euery nyght at viij off 
the cloke and wan yt ys don he schalP serche the churche all abowte 
lest ther be any person lyeng in any sete or corner and then lokk the 
churche dur suire. 

[53.] Item the sayd dekyn schall swepe the Florthe off the ^^sowthe 
syde^* hyell off the churche euery tyme wan yt athe nede and also make 
clene the ledes off the same hyell wan yt ys nede and at euery snowe to 
voyd the guttars off the same hyell lest the pypys be stoppyd. 

[54.] Item he schall^^ be subdekyn euery sonday and woly day at 
pressescion and masse ^^and reade the pystill.^* 

[55.] Item he schall euery woly day help^^ hys felow to folde vp all 
syche albys and westements that ar ocupyed that day and at^* euery 
pressescion bryng forthe pressescionars a cording for hys syd off the 
quer and wane the pressescion ys don to ley them in ther place a gayne 
^n the vestre.^** 

^ interlined. First woke was written and afterwards an r has been written 
between o and k, to make worke day. 

2 half an hour. ' full feast. 

*— * interlined. ^ feria, a week day. 
• a letter here struck out. 

' a word beginning with two ff struck out, ^ — ® interlined. 
^ a word beginning with s struck through. 
10 — 10 interlined^ written over north, strtuk through. 

^' two letters struck out. m_12 interlined. 

^ ay and one letter struck out. ^* repeated. 
15 — 15 interlined. 



62 APPENDIX /. 

[56.] Item the sayd dekyn schall haue all the weddings that the 
wemen be In hys warde and he schall kepe the oiferyngs at the masse of 
the sayd weddings and wan masse ys don he schall^ bryng vp the boke 
that the preste wedd them with and also the ij tapyrs off the vykars 
Vyche be ocupyed at the masse.* 

[57.] Item the sayd dekyne schall greyse the belles and fynde 
gresse ther to he won quartar and hys Fellow the todur and also he 
schal se in hys quartar that the bawdrykes off the bells be sur ^and the 
clapurs off the belles hung in ordur^ yff they be nott he schall schewe 
the churche wardens that the bawdrykes may be mendyd in seson. 

[58.] Item he schall se the bell ropps in lyke maner also he schall 
knyll the pressescion euery presescion day and also euery sonday and 
woly day knyll to hye masse sacrying in his quarter. 

[59.] Item he schalse the woly bred be dawlte euery sonday on 
the sowthe syde off the churche euery man in his degre and he to go 
among them on twylffe day at evyn song to haue hys reward towards 
the reparacione of hys syrples. 

[60.] also he schall be with hys Felowe and se that the palmes be 
brennyd For askys a gayne aske wennysday also he schall provyde For 
palme *agayne palme sonday* suffyscyant *for hys^ warde. 

[61.] Item the said dekyn schall go with the preste wan he gothe 
with the sacramente to any sek body in hys warde. 

[62.] Item he schall feche euery quors in hys warde to churche in 
hys syrples and he to haue For hys labur* 

[63.] Item the sayd dekyn schall on ester euyn go to the churche 
wardens and cawse theme to provyd For coUys that the halowd Fyr 
schal be off and the sayd dekyn schall se the coUys be leyd on the sowthe 
syde off the Font and he to se they be conuenyantly kyndyld a gayne 
the prestes com to halow the Fyr. 

[64.] also he schall provyde for a vessell and hys Fellow a nodur For 
the byttar'' wan he schall bryng watur For the Fante. 

[65.] Item he schall wache the sepulcur on gode Fryday att nyght 
also he schall se that the dur at the hye awter ende® wer the sacrament 
standythe and the manewells* lythe be euery day lokkyd. 

[66.] also he schall euery sonday and woly day ryng the seconde 
peell to matenes at syche howr as ^*ys wont to be. 

[67.] also he schall helpe the^^ hys Fellow to make clene the florthe 
off stepyll wan yt athe nede and also to caste owte the snowe off the 
stepyll ywan ther ys any. 

[68.] Item he schall orden on scherthe thursday at the waschyng of 
the awtars a byrche besom^* and hys Felowe a nodur ^^and iij dysplyng 
roddes.*' 

^ by struck out. * — ^ added, 

3 — ^ interlined. * — * interlined. 

^ — ^ repeated. 

^ Here the manuscript runs on to the next Item without a space, as in § [40.] above. 

■^ See abovey note to § [20.] ® be : struck out. 

^ manuals. ^" hys : struck out. 

^^ thus : followed by ayt struck out. ^'-^ For : struck out. 

18 — 13 interlined. 



APPENDIX /, 



63 



[69.] Item the sayd dekyn schall se ther be wyn to powr on the 
crossys off the awters and also a woly water stoke For to beyr the water 
that schall wasche the awtars and hys Felow anoder. 

[70.] Also the sayd dekyn schall go on all hallow day at evyn among 
the pepyll in the sowthe syde off the churche and gedyr off them money 
For the ryngars that ryng For all crysten soils, 

[71.] Item the sayd dekyn schall hyng the wyrys ovyr the hy awter 
at crystymas with yve and candyls off the vykars coste. 

[72.] also the sayd dekyn schall on the dedycacion day in the 
momyng bring Forthe in to the quer syche skonsys for to set in candyls 
For the quer^ as be ordenyd ther For the wyntur tym and he schall wan 
the seson ys don that they be leyd in ther place a gayn that ys in the 
neydur almery be hynde the hye awter. 

[73.] Item he schall delyuer to the churchyng off women a tapur and 
bred For woly brede. 

[74.] Item he schall ryng For quorsyes and obetts and haue alfe the 
profett off the belles and the todur dekyn the wodur alffe. 

[75.] Also he schall ryng a gayne the cummyng off the byschap and 
off the kyng the quene and the prynce. 

[76.] also he schall euery prynsypall Feste at the Ferste evynsong 
sens ^the pepill in'* the sowthe syd off the churche. 

[77.] also he schall fynd^ alffe the ryngars to ryng a pressescion euery 
sonday and woly day. 

[78.] also he schall euery sonday bryng his woly water stoke with 
water For to be made* woly water and hys felow like wyse. 

[79.] also he shall ryng tocomplyn euery feryall day in lentt with the 
Fyrste bell. 

[80.] also he schall euery day make redy the hye awter For the 
preste to syng hye masse and he schall Feche Forth the masse boke and 
the chales and se the preste haue bred and wyne and he schalP cawse 
a chylde to a tende to the preste at masse and wan masse ys done he 
schall beyr vp the boke and the chales in to ther place agayne 

[81.] also he schalle help to sarve at euery drenkyng after euery 
derege done at the coste of the churche.* 



^ and : struck out. 

^ we : added and struck out. 

* and : added and struck through. 



^ — ^ interlined. 

* interlined. 

* This section is a later cuxditicft. 



64 APPENDIX II, 



APPENDIX II. 



Constitutions for the Parish Clerk at All Saints Bristol 

between 1455 and i469, 

[I owe the transcript of this document to the kindness of Mr. 
Cuthbert Atchley, by whom it was taken from a large volume bound in 
leather, and entitled on the back Minutes of All Saints Parish in the 
Reign of Edward IV. This volume is still in the possession of the 
parish. The rules for the Clerk occur on p. 4 and they were written 
between 1455 and 1469.] 



Constytucyons and Ordynawnces for the Clarke ys fyndyng 

Memorandum hit ys ordeynyd and assygned by the greement of the 
paryschons that vij of hem to fynde the Clerke ys bord on hole yer and 
vij another yer and so yerly to be fownd by the Assygnement of the 
procutores and euery man of the parysche to pay to his wagys qwarterly 
as they schall be sett and stended by suche iij as schall be chosen 
by the parysche that ys to sey on of the worschypfuU and ij of the mene 
of the seyd parysche. and he that schall dysobey fro hens-forward to 
pay and content the Clerke for the tyme be)mg aftyr the stenting and 
setcyng of suche iij men so y-chosyn when by the procutores other 
clerke hit ys axyd of hem. then hit schall be lefuU for the procutores to 
content the Clerke of the Churche money as moche as can not be 
leveyd vn-to the Fest of Estyr And then they so dysobeyeng and with- 
holdyng a-geynst this ordynawns be compellyd to abste)m hem fro her 
howsyll vn-tyll suche dewtes afor expressyd be payed and to the 
Churche restoryd. 



The Clerke ys charge 

[i.] In primis he to be trewe and profytabyll vn-to the Churche 
vn-to hys power as yn kepyng and gydyng the vestymentes and Bookes. 
Jewellys and all other Ornamentes longyng to the seyd Churche and to 
see that the Churche Doorys be y-openyd and schutte yn dewe tymys 
and by hym sewrly serchyd other by sum other man of trewe and sadde 
Dysposycyon. 



APPENDIX II. 65 

[2.] Item he to be lovyngly attendant vn-to the vicary yn tyme of 
D)rvyn seruyce and yn vysytyng of the Seeke and to be obedyent vn-to 
hym yn all thynges that ys lawful! concemyng the lawde of god and of 
the Churche and trewly to yelde vn-to the vicar all maner Oblacyons 
and all maner of thynges that ys loste with-yn the Churche that cum ta 
his hondes that trewe enqwery myght be had to whom hit longyth vn-to, 

[3.] mor ouyr that he ber no talys by-twene the vycar and his: 
bretheryn nother by-twene hym and his paryschons nether by-twene- 
Neyghbor and Neyghbor wher-by eny Occasyon of Stryfe or Debate 
schuld growe yn tyme on, 

[4.] AU-so to see the Churche y-kept clene yn Rofys. Wyndowy^ 
Pylloures Wallys and the grownd Stallys Segys^ and specyally the 
Awters. 



* seats. 
CLERK, 



66 APPENDIX III, 



APPENDIX III. 



Duties of the Clerks at St. Nicholas Church, Bristol, 

IN 1481. 

E[ owe this again to the kindness of Mr. Cuthbert Atchley, who has 
lished the document in the Transactions of St, FauPs Ecdesiological 
Society^ 1902, Vol. V. "part ii. p. 107, with many learned notes, of 
which advantage will hereafter be taken. 

The document is transcribed from a volume belonging to St. Nicholas 
Church, Bristol, which is bound in leather and made up of leaves of 
vellum, containing inventories, wills, and memoranda of vestry agree- 
ments, benefactions. The document printed below begins on fol. 32.] 



/Howe the Clerke And the Suffrigann of 1 

Seynt Nicholas Churche Aught to do j [Fol. 32.] 

In the sayde Church After the vse laudable of yeris paste and the 
Agrement nowe of all the worshypfuU of the paryshe the yere of owre 
lorde M» CCCC lxxxj« 

[i.] The suffygannt Avgh to fastenn the Churche Dorys with a 
Dewe serche in the sayde Churche for fere of Slepers. 

[2.] And at a dewe Seasonn in the momynge to set Opyn the 
Dores and the entre-close Dore vndyr payne' of such Damage as shal-be 
leveyde of his s-merites* 

[3.] The sayde suf&ygann to se Oyle in the .ij. lampes. And also 
that they be brennynge and cleane Water in the holy water Stokkes 
vnder the payne of ij* as ofte as he is fownde fauty in Any of this. 

[4.] The sayde suflfrygann to Rynge the ffurste Pele to Mateyns of 
conuenient lenght and to Euensonges. The Clerke the seconde Pele 
And bothe at the Ryngyng of the laste pele With ij Bellys the payne 
of the firste euer ij* The seconde iij*. And at the thyrde whoo that 
fayles iiij*. 

[5.] The Satyrday the Clerke and the sufifrygann to Ryng None 
with ij Belles A pele of leyneth Convenient with-owte Any fayle 
excepte Dowbyll ffestes vndyr payne of iiij* to eche that fayles in this 
same 



* Pain, i.e. penalty. 

' The s ^ his hoi bten reduplicated and one carried forward to the next word^ 
merits, i.e. deserts, what is cbte to him. 



APPENDIX IIL 67 

[6.] The sayde suffrygann euery Satorday to spring^ the churche 
with water for Resyng of Dowste And so to streke hit vndyr payne of 
vj^ tociens quociens as he fayles [notandum in different ink in the 
margin\, 

[7.] The sayde suffrygann to pare* the Crowde* the Steyre and the 
Church Dores and so to be had a-weye as ofte as nedyth [under] payne 
of iiij** tociens quociens 

[8.] The Gierke and the suffrygann bothe to leye furthe The Bokes 
in the quere at the seconde pele both a-fore Mateyns and also A-fore 
Evensonges and the seruyce so ended and donn to sette the sayde 
Bokes elapsed and seurely in there place [under] payne of ij^ to eche 
that fayles tociens quociens 

[9.] The Gierke and the suffrygan to see in principall fest-is that 
the Copys to be borne at the sensyng Auters be Redy/ [fol. 32 vers6\ 
Apon the awtere by-fore the* begynnyng of Evensonges And in lyke 
wyse at Matenys And second Evynsonge And they bothe to se the 
foldyng vppe vndyr payne of iiij^ tociens quociens 

[10.] The Gierke and the suffrygann to se in pryncipall festes the 
Avters Dressyd in the Ghurche above . at there Charge. And to se i 
Coppeweste* avoyded and Duste fro Auters and ymagery . vndur payne 
of vj**. tociens quociens. 

[11.] The suffrigann to goo with the Curate and to wayte oponn His 
koope* and sensor .at all his sensynges vndyr payne of j** tociens 
quociens [notandum in different ink in the margin^, 

[12.] The Gierke and suffrygann to Swope the Glasynn wyndowys 
Churche wallys and Pillars . euery quarter ooneys vndyr payne of iiij'* 
to eche of them as ofte as they fayle 

[13.] The suffrygan to Rynge Curfew . with onn Bell at . ix . of 
the Glokke A conuenyent Pele . the Mowntnance of Halfe a quarter of 
An owre large . vndyr payne of ij*^ 

14.] The Gierke and the suffrygann to Dresse vppe the Bysshopes 
Sete A-yeniste . Seynte Nicholas Daye vndyr payne of vj** a-pece. 

[15.] The Gierke and the suffrygann to Dress vppe the sepulcure 
takyng for a Soper vj**. 

[16.] The Gierke and the suffrygann to se the lyght ouer Estere 
evynn a-boute the Sepulcure takyng for ther dyner iiij'*. 

[17.] The suffrygann to se dayle . for the hight Awter whenn 
Matenns ys Donn that there be Redy . A-yenste the hight masse wyne 
and water and to set onn the Awter bothe Boke and Chalice [under] 
the payne of ij** tociens quociens 

[18.] The Gierke and suffrygann in there Surples to Resseve of 
the Vicary [his] Chiseple . and other of his ornamentys . and they to 
fold hit when Mas ys donn the workyn-dayes [under] the payne of a 
j**. tociens quociens. 

^ sprinkle. ^ prepare, make tidy. 

* crowd is the usual name for what we now call a crypt. 

* byg : struck out. * cobwebs. 



* cope 



F 2 



68 APPENDIX III, 

[19.] The Gierke to ordeyne the Sonday .and ffestes the Belles . at 
the Hight Masse Sacrynge to be Ronge solempnely and euer[y] fferyall 
day to knoll . to Sacrynge [under] the payne of [iiij**. written aver an 
erasure] tociens quociens. 

[20.] The suffrygann to be charged . with Ryngyng . for Dundoure* 
vnd5rr i>ayne of vj** tociens quociens Also vpponn the same payne to 
Rynge to Oowre lady masse in lente seasonn a computante Pele. 

[21.] /The Gierke to ordeynn Spryngals* for the Ghurche. [fol. 33.] 
And for hym . that visiteth the Sondayes . and dewly . to bere his 
holy water. To euery howse Abydyng soo conuenient a space . that 
euery mann may Receyue . hys Holy water [under] payne of iiij"* tociens 
quociens. 

[22.] And the Suffrygann to weyte vpponn the preeste in visitacionn 
of seke beryng with hym . the Surples . Boke oile-fate and stole. And 
in daye-time . in the suffrygans Absence abowte suche sayde occupa- 
cionns The Gierke to se for the saue-garde of the Ghurche. 

[23.] The Gierke to synge in Redynge the Epistele Dayly . vndyr . 
payne of ij** and vpponn the same payne to Ring the complene pele in 
lente seasonn. 

[24.] The suffiygann to vette' fire or do to* be vette for the Sensores 
in the fire-plate And not in the sensoure vnd5rr payne of j**. 

[25.] The suffrygann to vette oyle for the lampes in the churche 
above as oftenn-times as nedith . [under] the payne of a . j**. 

[26.] The suffrygann to se that Awbes Amys Towels* And avter 
Glothis . be had to wesshyng . The procurators^ p^iyeng there-fore And 
to be Redye . a-yenste ffestys [under] the payne of ij** 

[27.] The Gierke to be chargyd with Ryngyng of None . and 
Curfewe in principal! festes And others . Acordyng with a . solempne 
and a . conuenient pele in lenght . At viij of the Glokke . vndire payne 
of yj**. tociens quociens 

[28] The suffirygann to wame the procuratours that the sensours . 
Gandylstykkys And Shippe' be Redye seite fourth® be-fore the last pele 
the pe)me of a . j**. the koope* also before euery euynsong whann hit 
shall be vsid the sayd sofrygann shall se Redy . in the Quere vndyr 
payne . of . j"^. tociens quociens 

[29.] Hit was so accostemyd . And nowe agreed . of olde that the 
Gierke shold take for Ryngyng of A parrosshyng** there [fore, struck out] 
firo None m-to viij. And a morowe firo viij in-to None with . v. Belles 
iij*. iiij^ And no more . from hens-forward . vndyre the payne of vj^ 
viij**. tociens quociens. 

[30.] Jtem the vndirsofregann^^ whiche at the ordynaunce Here-of 
His Gallyd lymner shall se that . ij Torches . inthe Sondaye be brennyng 
at the hygh Masse sacryng And for all other /lyghtes [fol. 33 verso] 

^ thuiider. * bandies of twvs lor sprinkUng holy water. 

* fetch. * cause to be fctSied. 

^ albs, amices, towels. * churchwaidens. 

^ the vessel to hold the incense^ ^ A bknk s{mc« and ensure here. 

' cope. ^ a parishioaer. 

^ The under^sttfGtagaik 



APPENDIX III. 69 

save the quyre lyghtes a-cord5nig to euery feste and in the feriall. 
Dayes . the suffrygann to be chargid with the same . and with the quere. 
lyght . at all tymes vpponn the payne of ij** 

[31.] The suffrygann and the Gierke to weyte vpponn the quere 
Dayly . and The Gierke at Gesonys . accordyng to kepe . the Organs . 
vndyr payne of iiij**. tociens quociens. 

[32.] The Gierke and the suffrygann Aught to vette to Ghurche 
the Grosse . as well the poore as the Riche vndire the payne of . ij^. 
tociens quociens 

[33.] The Gierke aught not to take no Boke oute of the quere . for 
Ghilderynn to lerne In with owte lisence of the procu[ra]tours vndyr 
payne . that the Gurate . and the procu[ra]tours Assignn hem 

[34.] The Gierke and the suffrygann in seruyce tyme Aught not to 
absente them from the Quere . with-owte licence of the Gurate . or his 
debited And nether of hem . to be . absent from . ony Euynsong . Masse 
Mateyns or eny othyr devyne seruice with-owte licence bothe of the 
Gurate and of the procurators vndyr payne of iiij^ tociens quociens. 

[35.] The suffrygann to se that there be a torche Redy for the 
Masses that ys sayde in the Ghurche . Dayly. And the Torches . to 
put owte fro all maner Awterys And the quere [under the] payne of a 
. j**. tociens quociens 

[36.] The Gierke to fynd Ryngars and Ropys for the Bellys with 
Dewe serche of the Bawderykys and Glaperys .at all tymys. And 
suffyciently to warne the procurators whenn nede ys . to a-mende the 
sayde Bawderykes . Glaperys . or Whelys vndyr such payne as the Gurate 
or His Debited with the proctors and . ij . or . iij . of the WhorshipfuU 
of the parroche Woll assignn as ofte as nede ys. 

[37.] The Gierke and the suffrygann to Ryng Dayly to Hyght Masse 
at the Gustenable owre [under the] payne of ij** eche of Hem tociens 
quociens. 

[38.] Also the suffrygann to fynde palme.and fiourys A-yenste 
palme-sonday at his Goste . vppon payne of xx^ 

[39.] And also tlie Gierke and the suffrygann to make Glene the 
segys" in the churche whann they be callyd vpponn 

[40.] /All othyr thynges longyng to eny of there seruice . [fol. 34.] 
the Gurate or his debite^ . with the proctors^ shall certyfye hem whenn 
eny nede shall Happynn in tyme Gomyng 

And all theys sayde Paynes oonly to Returne 1 
To the Wele off Seynte Nicholas Ghurche. J 

DEO GRAGIAS. Ricardus {notarial mark] Blewet. 

[In a different hand^ and i?i black instead of rusiy coloured ink,] 

Thy ben the Gaswell Avaylis* longgyng to the Gierke & 
the SufTfrygan. 

^ deputy. ^ churchwardens. 

2 seats. * casual avails, or perquisites. 



70 APPENDIX III. 

[i.] In primis the Gierke to haue the vaylys of the bellis the Banys^ 
And ofuery Pardoner for the Surplyse &c. 

[2.] Also the Gierke to haue the vaylys on Seynt Nicholas nyghth 
goen^e wyth Sospitati 

[3.J Also the Glerk to haue the herse cloth when Any such fall 
that is kept vppon the graue Durynge the month with ij lampis on at 
the fete the tothir At the hed of graue As the vsage ys 

[4.] Jtem the Suffrygan to haue the vantage of the Grossis^ . that 
is to sey for euery Corse that decessith in the paryssh iiij**. 

[5.] AU-so the Suflrygan to haue the vantage of the viigyn on 
Alhallon day. Where fore he muste se dayly that the westmentes of 
the hy Auter be foldyd when masse is do . & so y-put upp &c 

[6.J Also where hit was of old vsage that the vantage of weddyngges 
was longgynge to the Gierke. Therefore to put A-way Al varyans in 
tyme to come. Hyt is ordeynyd by the Agrement of the parysshons 
with the will And consent of the Gierke and Sufi&ygan. That the 
Suffiygan hens-forward shuld haue the Awaylys of Weddyngges. And 
the Gierke to haue for A knowlegge of the same. Halfe die A-vantagge 
for the leyenge of Al maner Herses that shal4>e leyde on the Ghurch 
Except for Al such herses that ys zerely kepte of olde fimdacion 
longyth to the Sufirygan only &c. 



^ The foes for riTipng r>«^ bell$, at^c. publishiiu: bairns. 

' Thai is, for cttnyiiig the cross before the funeral processiazx. 



APPENDIX IV, 71 



APPENDIX IV. 

Notes of the Payment of the Clerk and Sexton at 
St. I^argaret Lothbury in 1434 and 1571. 

[The first of these two documents is taken from Mr. James Christie's 
Same Account of Parish Clerks^ privately printed in 1893. It may be 
fouild on p. 21, and it is said to be copied from a document of the 
Commissary Court of London. I regret that I cannot trace it further. 

The second is taken from Dr. Edwin Freshfield's edition of the 
Vestry Minute Book of the parish of St, Margaret Lothbury in the City 
of London y 1^71-1677 y privately printed in 1887 by Messrs. Rixon and 
Arnold. The items begin on p. i.] 

[1434.] 

This is the Ordenaunces and the settyng that the pryncipall 
Maysters and Wardeynes and aller the hole Parichouners hatha 
ordenyde and sette unto the Clerkes wages of Seynt Margaretes 
in Lothbury, to have quarterly a quarter and ^her sensyng 
decesyd^ theye to hold hem to theyre quarterage, John Cosier 
and William Denman then being Churchwardens. 

Be hit hadden in mynde that the 7th day of Fevereller, in the yere 
of our Lorde, 1434, that Robert Large, Alderman of London, and Sir 
John Hockle, Parson, withe alle the pryncipall Maistres and Wardeynes, 
with alle the comontie of the Pariche of Seynte Margaretes, in 
Lothebury, hath ordenyde and chosyn foure honeste men of the same 
Pariche, to sette every house of the Pariche after his quantite that he 
beryth of his howse hyre : 

first, a howse of 3J. 4^/. be yere, one halfpenny a quarter to both 
Clerkes ; 

also a howse of 6s, Sd, be yere to both Clerkes one penny a 
quarter ; 

also a howse of ioj. be yere to both Clerkes one penny halfpenny 
a quarter ; 

also a howse of 13J. 4^/. be yere to bothe Clerkes two pence a 
quarter ; 

also a howse of 16^. Sd, be yere to bothe Clerkes two pence half- 
penny a quarter ; 

* — * The reading seems to be corrupt. 



72 APPENDIX IV. 

also a howse of 20s, be yere to bothe Clerkes three pence a 
quarter ; 

and also a howse of 23^. 4^. be yere to bothe Clerkes three pence 
halfpenny a quarter ; 

and so goying upwarde every nobyll one penny, the whiche was 
ordened and sette be thes foure men and thes been here namys : 
Thomas Babthorpe, Thomas Eston, Watir Adam, John Coddam, and 
whan these foure men had wrytyn and sette this quarterage in this 
maner they browte yt up to all the principalis and all the comonte of 
the sayd Pariche forsayd ; and all they were accordyd thereto. 

[1571.] 

Ordinances mad by the hole consent of the parrishiners in 
the parrishe of Sainct Marget in Lothberie 

iij® Die February anno 157 1 \in m,] 

♦ ♦ ♦ * [fo. 14 

Item the clarcke shall have for his wages for the hole 
yeare the some of 4134 

Item the clarcke shall kepe the regester of cristeninge 
weddinge and buryinge perfectlye, and shall present the 
same everie sondaie to the churche wardens to be perused 
by them, and shall have for his paines in this behaufe 
yearelye o 03 4 

Item the Sexton shall have for his wages and for ringinge 
the bell eveninge and morninge as he is accustomed, yearlye 
the some of i 00 00 

more for candells to ringe with evening and morninge 00 00 08 

/Item it is ordayned that whose sonne or servant shalbe [fo. 14. d. 
found to misuse Ihon a Wood sexton, in word or dede wherbye he maie 
not quietlye execut and accomplishe soche servis, as the parish hathe 
appointed him to doe, the parentes or masters of soche sonnes or 
servant shall paie the churche warden for the time beinge xijd. a yeare 
to the use of the powre for everie soche default. And if anye soche 
do denie, to paie the same xijd. beinge of them reasonablely requiered, 
and complaint mad therof to the Masters of the parishe at a vestrie, he 
or theie shalbe dismissed, from his or theire pewe or pewes in the 
churche. And if yet he or they shall continewe obstinat, and not paie 
the same some of xijd. as is aforesaid, then further complaint, shalbe 
mad therof, to the busshop, or his ordinarye. 

Theise men whose ^names are heare under written are appointed 
side men for this yeare this 3 daye of Februarie 157 1. 

Mr Carpenter 
Mr Langwithe 
Abraham Smithe 
Edward Fawkener 

Item it is graunted, by the consent of the vestrie holden this present 
^3. daie of Februarie 15 71. uppon good consideration ther uppon had, 



APPENDIX IV, 73 

that the churche warden shal be allowed, the some of eyght shillinges, 

for a recreation or dinner, for the churche wardens and the side men, 

at the daie of the Archdeacons Visitacion yearelye to be donne. 

Mr. George Smithe is appointed by the consent of the vestrie, to 

accompanie and assist Ihon Pelsant now churche warden, in the 

collection and gatheringe upp, of the clarkes wages for the yeare past, 

whiche the said George Smith left uncollected in his time the yeare 

past. 

« « « « « 

/An order or rate to be paied by the parrishioners in this [fo. 15. ^. 
parrishe for weddinges cristeings churchinges and berrialls. 
The profit of the great bell and the chardgis is for the parishe. 

Item for ringinge one bowers knell wythe the great bell 
to the parrishe xijd. 

Item for ringinge the great bell a fore nowne or after 
nounes knell to the parrishe iijs. iiijd. 

Item the clarcke shall have of the church warden for 
ringinge the great bell for one howers knell ijd. 

Item the clarcke shall have for ringinge a fore nownes 
knell or after nownes knell of the warden viijd. 

Item the parishe shall have for breakinge the grownd for 
a pyt, in the side chanselles xs. 

Item the parrishe shall have for breakinge the grownd for 
a pit in the churche vjs. viijd. 

Item the clarcke shall have for takinge upp the stones 
and savinge them hoale and makinge the pyt in the churche 
or chansell ijs. 

Item the clarcke shall have for a fore nowne or after 
nownes knell as heare after followeth 

For the fore bell xijd. 

For the second bell xvjd. 

For the third bell xxd. 

Item the clarck shall have for the pit at soch a buriall 
being in the churche yard one the north side of the churche viijd. 

And being one the south side for the pit and makinge of 
the pavement againe xxd. 

Item the clarcke shall have for one howers knill and for 
the pit of a childe, or person not passing the age of xiiij 
yeares xd. 

/Item the clarcke shall have for the like pit and [fo. 16 
knell for one above xiiij yeares of age xvjd. 

Item the clarcke shall have, for cristeninge and churchinge 
for them bothe iiijd. 

Item the parson and the clarcke shall have at every 
weddinge, in the daie xvjd. 

Item the clarcke shall have for tolinge the passinge bell 
everie time iiijd. 

Item the clarcke shall have for pit and knell, and for a 
poore bodie not able to paie more xd. 



74 APPENDIX IV, 

Item the clarcke shall find rope and bawdrickes and bear all chardges 
of the iij lesser belles and shall ringe a peale at the passinge bye of 
the queines majestie, by water or land 

* Excepted the breking of the belles, wheles or frames or 
clapers wich the parrishe shall ber the charges of. 

Iteme the dark shall have for Ringenge of Every peale 
att a Buryall yf they will have it thatt pay the funeralles 
the some of viijd.' 



* — ^ added by another hand. 



APPENDIX V, 75 



APPENDIX V. 



The Office of the Parish Clerks at Faversham in 1506, 1548, 

AND 1593. 

[By the kindness of Mr. F. F. Giraud I have been allowed to inspect 
the documents now under his care that belong to Faversham. Those 
now. printed are contained in two folio volumes, 16 by 10^ inches. 
They have been spoken of by Mr. Riley in the Historical Manuscripts^ 
Sixth Report . . . Part i. p. 500. 

The rules of the time of Henry VII. and of Edward VI are in the 
volume labelled on the back : A. 1448 to 1606 Wardmotes accounts^ and 
bound in half rough calf. 

The Elizabethan rule is in the other volume, labelled on the side 
Feversham t Wardmote Book begining t in the 1st qf Queen Elizabeth 
and ending in Ye ^th year of K. Charles Ye 1st. 

The use of capitals by the scribe is capricious and I do not feel at 
all sure that I have rightly interpreted his letters. My aim has been to 
reproduce the text exactly, but I have only seen the manuscripts once. 

Mr. Giraud has edited these in Archaeologia Cantiana 1893, vol. 
XX. p. 203 for the first time with any exactness and completeness. 
Edward Jacob {History of the town and port of Faversham^ 
London, 1774, p. 166.) printed the two duties of 1506 but somewhat 
inexactly, and with no attempt at representing the old spelling.] 

[The Parish Clerk's duties in 1 506.] 

/ij^ [fo. 6 

The^ Articles of the Office of the Parish Clarks of the Parish 
Churche of Fauersham by them to be fulfilled and executed by them as 
hereafter folowoth whych Articles ware made and enacted at a comon 
Wardmote holden at Fauersham forsaid the Sonday next after the fest 
of All Seynts the xxij**^ yere of the reigne of Kyng Henry the vii byfore 
me Robert Wythiott Mayor of the same towne togeder with the 
lurattes and Comons of the same. 

[i.] In primis* the said Clarkis or one of theym dilygently shall 
intende vpon the Vicar or his depute in m)mystracion of the 
Sacrements and Sacrementallis at all tymes both be daie and nyghte as 

^ Orders for the Clarkes of the chorch 1506 ; written in margin in later hand, 
2 j. cla : in margin. 



76 APPENDIX V. 

oft as nede shall requyre and to be delygent and obedient to the Vicar 
or his depute in all suche lefuU thynggs and comaundements as shall 
belong to their office to be don. 

[2.] Item^ The said clerkis or one of theym shall daily intende in 
his Rogett' at morowe masse and at high masse, apparell the auters and 
to Revest the prests syngyng the said masses and see that lighte or fire be 
contynually in the chaunsell or chirche before none euery day while 
their is any masse to be songe as of olde tyme hath be acustomed. 

[3.] Item.' the said clerkys or one of theym daily shall apparell 
the auters wher any prests is to syng masse after the morowe Masse and 
bere and bryng to the auters the chalice masse boke and cruetts with 
wine and water, and bere a gayne to the vestry the same masse boke 
chalice and other ornaments whoche shalbe occupied at the said masses 
as of olde tyme hath be acustomed. 

[4.] Item* the said clerkys at euery masse be note shall syng the 
grayle at the vpper dexte in the body of the quyer and the pistell. and 
to be dylygent to syng all the office of the masses be note, and to be 
dilygent to syng and doo ther dute at all seruyces to be songe be note, 
and to bryng forth suche bookis in to the quyer as shalbe necessarye as 
well for masses to be songe in the said chirche as any other seruice ther 
to be song be note, and to bryng forth in to the quyer att euery 
principall feste surplyces. rochetts. coopis and other ornaments as shall 
proue for the conuenyent seruyce accordyng to the solempnyte of the 
/fest and to ley the same books half on the oon side of the [fo. 6 b. 
quyer. and the other halff of the)an on the other side, and at euery 
pryncipale feste the said clarkis and euery of theym shall dilygently 
come to the wardeyns *of the wardeyns* of the said churche for the 
tyme beyng and shewe theym what ornaments shalbe necessary to be 
occupied for the prjnicipall fest. and theruppon to helpp theym to 
fett the same ornaments out of the tresour house in to the vestrye 
and ther dilygently to gyde theym and order theym as of olde tyme 
hath be accustomed, and after the pryncipall fest is past to folde vp 
the coopis and other ornaments manerly and bryng theym agayne 
dilygently in to the said tresour house. 

[5.] Item® the said clarkis or one of theym at all tymes whanne ony 
seruyce shalbe don by note shall sett the quyer not after his owne brest 
but as euery man beying a synger may synge conuenyently his part, and 
wher playn songe fayleth one of theym shall leve faburdon and kepe 
the playne songe vnto the tyme the quyer be sett agayne 

[6.] Item^ the said clarkis or one of theym dayly shall fett and putt 
in to the cruetts freshe water for the prestis to synge with and see the 
said cruettis to be made clene within. 

[7.] Item** the said clarkis or one of theym euery weke shall make 
clene the quyer the trynite chapelP and specially ouer the auters and 

^ ij. cla : in margin. '^ Rochet. 

* iii. cla : in margin, * iiij. cla : in margin. 
^ — ° Thus^ repeated. ^ v. cla : in m. 

^ yj. cla : in m. ^ vij. cla : in m. 

* several words erased^ the first of which is and ; the last chapell. 



APPENDIX V. 77 

about theym and brusshe away the cobwebbis as well as ouer the auters 
in the quyer and chappellis as ouer the wallis and wyndowes of the same 
and shall apparrell all the said auters ayenst euery pryncipall fest with 
suche apparrell as belong! th to theym. 

[8.] Item^ the said clarkis or one of theym or a sufficient man 
for theym shall lye nyghtly in the churche stepill. and from all 
hallowtide vnto the fest of the annunciation of our lady they or one of 
theym or ther sufficient depute shalbe in the churche euery nyght by .vii. 
at clok. and from the fest of the annunciacion of our lady vn to the fest 
all hallow the same clarks or one of theym or their sufficient depute 
shall nyghtly be in the said churche by .viii. at clok at the forthest. 

[9.] /Item' the said clarkis and either of theym shall be [fo. 7 
obedyent to the Mayor Juratts and Comons of the said towne and not 
to haue no sklaunderous words ne make none occasion of debate in 
words nor in dede bitwene the curatt and parisshyns ne betwene 
parisshen and parisshen. 

[10.] Item* the said clarkis or one of the)rm asmoche as in 
theym is shall endeuour theymself to teche children to rede and 
synge in the quyer and to do seruice in the churche as of olde tyme 
hath be accustomed thei takyng for their techyng as belongith 
therto. 

[11.] Item* the said clarkis and either of theym at all tymes whan 
the sextayne of the said church shall lak helpp to ryng to Evynsong 
mateyns or masse thei and either of theym for lak of suche help shall 
helpp the said sextayne as moche as in theym is to ring for the spedynes 
of the seruice ther to be don. 

[12.] Item* the said clarkys and either of theym or their sufficient 
depute euery sonday in the yere shall beer haly water to euery mannes 
house as of olde tyme hath be accustomed, and if the same clarkis 
or any of theym make defaute in bering of holy water in the said 
forme, thanne he or thei so makyng defaute shall forfaite for euery 
suche defaute viiid. and this mony to be levied by the churche wardeyns 
for the tyme beyng to thuse of the said churche. Prouided alway if the 
said clarks or any of theym be occupied with any besynes for the 
parisshe or if ther fell any pryncipall fest on the sonday. then the said 
clarks and either of theym shalbe excused in beryng of holy water 
the same pryncipall fest and discharged of their penalte for euery suche 
pryncipall fest. 

[13.J Item the said clarkis and euery of them shalbe alway delygent 
to the church wardeyns of the same churche for the tyme beyng and 
obedient to theym and dilygently do and execute all such lefuU 
commaundements as to theym or to any of theym shalbe commaunded 
by the said wardeyns or any of theym for any thyng concernying the well 
of the said parishe and as shalbelong to their office. 

[14.] /Item the said clarkis and euery of theym shall skoure [fo. 7 b. 

* viij. cla : in m, ^ ix. cla : in m. 

^ X. cla : in m, * xj. cla : in m. 

' xij. cla : in m. 



78 APPENDIX V, 

and kepe dene the holy water stoppis of laton and the basyn and ewer 
whoche be ordeigned for christenyng of childern and theym so kepe 
and skoure and make clene as often as nede shall requyre in that 
behalue. 

[15.] Item from hensforth euery clark when he is admytted to th- 
office of the clerkshipp in the said chirche shall swer vpon a booke that 
he on his behalf shall endevor hym self as moche as in hym is truly to 
fulfill and execute all the said articles and eueryche of theym. 



[The Sexton's duties] 

/* [fo. 8 

The articles of the office of the Sextayne of the parishe of Fauersham 
be hym to be fulfiUid and executed as hereafter folowyth which articles 
war made and enacted at a comon wardmote holden at Fauersham 
forsaid the Sonday next after the fest of the Epiphany of our Lorde the 
xxii yere of the raigne of Kyng Henry the vii*** by fore me Robert 
Wythiott then being Mayor of the said towne togeder with the luratts 
and comons of the same towne.^ 

[16.] In primis* the said sextayn or his sufficient depute euery 
nyght shall lye in the said churche stepill. 

[i 7.] Item' the said sextayn or his sufficient depute euery nyght from 
all halowtide vn to the fest of the annunciation of our lady nyghtly 
shalbe in the said churche or stepill by .vii. at clok in the euyn and ther 
shall contynue abyde and lye from that howre vnto .vii. at clok on the 
next murowe. and from the annunciacion of our lady vnto all halowtide 
the same sextayn or his sufficient depute nyghtly shalbe in the church 
or stepill by .viii. at clok in the euyn and ther shall contynue and ly from 
that howre vnto .v. at clok in next momyng. and euery nyght the same 
sextayn or his sufficient depute at .viii. at clok shall ryng couurefewe by 
the space of oon quarter of an hour with such a bell as of olde tyme 
hath be accustomed. 

[18.] Item* the said sexta)Tie or his depute euery day in the 
momjmg in somer shall open the churche doores at .v. at clok and in 
wynter at .vi. at clok. 

[19.] Item* the said sextayn or his depute euery saterdaie seynts 
Euyns and pryncipaU fests shall ryng noone with as many bells as shalbe 
conuenient for the Saterdayes seynts £v}^ns and pryndpaU fests and as 
shalbe longe accordyng to the tyme. and at aftemoone at eueryche of the 
said dales ryng to evynsong with as many bellys as belong to the tyme 
at a conuenyent hour as of olde tyme hath be accustomed, and on the 
morowe of eueryche of the said dsiies to ryng to matjms and masse and 
exynsong accordyng as belongith at conuenyent hours and as many 



* Ordcis lor the sexton to observe 1506 adtUd in hand of nghtanik century^ 

* ja da : lit m- * g. da : in m. 

* iij. da : w» iw- * iiij. da : in m. 



APPENDIX V, 79 

peelys/ as of olde tyme hath be accustomed, and on the werk [fo. 8b. 
daies to ryng euery dale to masse at a conuenyent hour as shalbe 
requyred by the vicar or his depute as of olde tyme hath be accustomed. 

[20.] Item^ the said sextayn or his depute whan he shall rynge noone 
or to the first Evynsong matyns masse and last Evynsong or to any 
other seruice he and such persons as shall ryng with him shall rynge in 
dewe ordor and in as good tyme as they may or can. and not to rynge 
to long tyme our to short tyme but as it is conuenyent. 

[2 I.J Item* the said sextayn or his depute euery werke day shall 
toll three tymes to the morowe masse with the iiij**^ bell at .v. of the clok 
in somer and at .vi. at clok in wynter. and at the first tollyng he shall 
strike xxx strokis with the claper of the same bell, at secund tollyng 
within a quarter of an hour after xv. strokes, and at the third tollyng vi. 
strokis and after as sone as the parish clark hath ronge all in to the morowe 
masse with the litell bell the same sextayn or his depute shall toll yn iii. 
strokis with the said fourth bell, and besides this the same sextayn or 
his depute euery werkeday shall tolle to the sakeryng of the high masse 
with the first bell the ij**® bell and the iii^® bell as hath be of olde 
tyme. 

[22.] Item' the same Sextayn or his depute euery dale shall make 
provision for the lightyng of the lampe in the quyer bifore any prest 
goo to masse and so to se it contynue as long as ony masse is to be 
songe ther. and besides this the same sextayn or his depute daily and 
nyghtly shall kepe the lamp in the quyer to brenne if he have oile 
therfore. and if he lak oile thanne he or his depute diligently to 
complayne to the churchwardeyns for the tyme beyng or to som of theym 
for the spedy reformacion therof. 

[23.] Item* the said sextayn or his depute euery holy evyn at 
the first evynsong mattyns, masse and last euynsong shall light the 
tapers and bemys accordyng to the solempnyte of the fest and custome 
of the said churche he takyng for his labour for lightyng of euery of the 
said bemys as of olde tyme hath be accustomed and vsed. 

[24.] /Item' the said sextayn or his depute euery saterday at [fo. 9 
none shall fell the holy water stoppis in the body of the churche with 
fresshe water and as often in the weke as nede shall requyre and euery 
day in the mornyng to see the churche made clene for skomeryng* of 
doggs. 

[25.] Item' the said sextayn or his depute euery weke shall make 
cleen the body of the churche and the crosse His® from dust or other 
filthes and also on the evyn of euery pryncipall fest and brusshe away 
all the cobwebbis and make cleen ouer and about all the auters wallis 
and wyndowes in the body of the said churche as often tymes as nede 
shall requyre. 

[26.] Item® If their com any bestis in to the churcheyerd by 

^ V. cla : in m. ^ yj. cla s in m. 

' vij. cla: in m, * viij. cla : m m, 

^ jx. cla : in m. • evacuation. 

7 X. cla : in m. * aisles. 
* xi. cla : in m. 



8o APPENDIX K 

escape or non closure of the churche wallis thann the same sextayn or 
his depute shall dryve theym out in as hasty tyme as he can and if any 
person or persones of his or their wilfuU mynde putt any best in to the 
said churche yerd ther to pastur then the same sextayn or his depute in 
the namys of the churche wardeyns for the tyme beyng curtesly shall 
goo to the owner or owners of the said bestes and requyre theym to fett 
them away and if the same owner or owners vppon suche request refuse 
to do then the same seytayn or his depute immediately after suche 
relusell made shall dryve the said bestis to the lordis pounde and ther to 
remaigne vn to the tyme the owner or owners of them haue agreed with 
the Vicar or his depute for that offence the same sextayn takyng for his 
labor for euery best so offendyng and dryuen to the pound id. 

[27.] Item^ the said sextayn and his depute shalbe diligent to the 
Vicar and his depute and diligently shall doo and obserue all leful 
commaundements concemyng his office whoche to hym or his depute 
shall be commaunded by the said Vicar or his depute. 



[1548.] 

/Statut for makyng of Lawes within the Towne of [fo. 48 

Fauersham. 



Anno 1 548 E yj ij tempore Thome Ardem Maioris \in m,] 



And whereas there hath bene, tyme wherof no mannys mynde hath 
bene to the contrarye Twoo Clercks, whiche haue hadd at the equall 
charges of the Towne iiij^ euery of theym of whiche viij" hath bene 
recowped and taken toward the fynding of one sexten xxvi® viii^ for as 
moche as thise payments hath growen in consideracon of suche great 
travayll as the clerks haue heretofore susteyned in thexecucion of their 
office which travaills, for asmoche as they be decreased* and dymynisshed 
so the Inhabitants of the said towne having respect thereunto haue thought 
it mete to abate not onely the clerks wages but the number of the clerks, 
and yet not mynding to haue the same somes so abated to be extincted 
and discharged, but to remayne to good vses as the same did before 
conclude establisshe and agree that it shalbe ordeyned and decreed in 
manner and forme folowyng That is to saye 

[i.] that there shalbe no moo clercks then one within the said 
parisshe churche and that the same clerk shall haue for his wages yerely 

liij* iiij*^ 

[2.] and that also there shalbe a sexten within the said parisshe, 
which said sexten shall yerely haue for his wages xxvj* viij^ 

[3.] and the other iiij^ sterling shall yerly for euer be paid to and for 
the wages of the Comon caryer^ before rehersed 

^ xij. cla : in m, ''^ godes honor mynisshed : interlined in later hand, 

3 The common caryer was the scavenger. 



APPENDIX V, 8r 

[4.] and euery parisshoner. to paye and make contribucion for the 
payment of the said viij^^ so appoynted, to and for the payment of 
the parisshe Clerk Sexten and Carter in /lyke forme and after [fo. 48b. 
suche seuerall porcions as here tofore they or any of theym haue paid 
and bene assessed or taxed when they hadd ij Clerkes and that it shalbe 
lawful! for the mayor for the tyme beyng, to commytt to warde euery 
such person refusing to paye to the same as they haue done before 
there to remayne, till they haue paid ytt. 



[1593.] 
/An act touchinge the Sexten of the Church in m, [fo. 36 

[i.] Yt ys agreayd bye the foreseide Maior luratts and Comynaltye 
here assemblyd and gatheryd together that the Saxten from henceforthe 
shall giue attendance at the Churche and rynge to Seruyce as heretofore 
of late tyeme hathe byn vsyd within the same towne 

[2.] and that the same sexten shall yerelye for hys wages haue payed 
hym bye the Churchewardens of the same Towne for the tyeme beinge 
xl* of lawfull monye of Inglande quarterlye at the fower vsuall feaste 
dayes of the yere viz. at the Feaste daye of the Natyvytie of our lorde 
God, The Annuncyacion of our ladye S* Marye the Vyrgyn the natyvytye 
of S* John the Baptyste and S* Mychaell the archangell bye euyn 
porcions, and also that the same saxten shall lykewysse yerelye haue 
payed hym bye the Chamberleyns of the same towne for the yere 
beinge xl^ of lawfull monye of Inglande at the foreseide feaste dayes 
bye the lyke porcions for ringynge to sermons 

[3.] and further that the same Sexten shall haue hys accustomed 
fees for towlynge of the passinge bell ringinge of knelles ryngynge to 
buryalls makynge of graues as well in the Churche as in the Churchyard 
as ys allreadye sett downe in a Table now hangynge in the churche for 
thstt purpose, and moreouer for the rynginge of the greate bell to euerye 
funerall sermon/ the some of vi* viii^ [fo. 36b. 

[4.] In consyderacion of which hys foreseide wages and fees to be 
payed as aforeseide the seide Sexten shall dayelye througheout the 
whole yere rynge Curfewe with the fowreth Bell at eyghte of the Clocke 
in the Euenynge bye the space and tyme of one quarter of an hower 

[5.] And also that the same Saxten shall daylye thorowhe the whole 
yere rynge the fowerthe Bell for a daye Bell at fower of the Clocke in 
the momynge bye the lyke space and tyme. 



CLERK. G 



82 APPENDIX VI. 



APPENDIX VI. 



Rules for the Priests and Clerks at St. Michael's Cornhill 

BEFORE 1538, WITH AN OrDER MADE IN 1 587. 

[These are taken from a book edited by Messrs. A. J. Waterlow and 
W. H. Overall, privately printed about 187 1. The title is : The accounts 
of the churchwardens of the Parish of St, Michaely Cornhill^ in the City 
of London, The transcript is taken from a copy of the work now in 
the Library of the Society of Antiquaries.] 

/Rules of the Church [p. 206 

Hereafter Followe the Rewles whiche must be obserued and kept of 
all the pristes and Clarkes belonging to the same Churche of Saint 
Michell. 

[i.] /You muste pray For the Beneffactors of this Churche of [p. 207 
Saynt Michaell and specially for the sowle of Richard Atfeld some tyme 
Parson of this Churche, the which forsayde Richard with the consent 
and agrement of the Bysshop of London and other worshipfull men of 
the same parishe hath ordened and establysshed matens, hie Masse and 
evynsong to be celebrated and song daily in the foresaide churche to 
the honor of God and of saincte Michaell begynnyng in the yere of oure 
Lord 1375 Anno E : 3 : 48 

Item tempus a quo regule fuerunt composite erat 163 . Ante annum 
christi 1538. 

[2.] Furst he hathe ordened due howres of ringing to seruice That 
is to say to ring in to matens at seuen a clock, To hie Masse at nyne a 
clock, to Evynsong on workdayes at ij a clock and on holy dayes 
according to the lawdable custome of the Citie. 

For the Clarkes. 

[3.] Also he hathe ordened that the Clerkes shall kepe the dew 
howres of ringing according as they have used in old tyme, and that 
the saide Clarkes shall not goe owt of the quyre into the bodie of the 
Churche nor into the Churche yard to walk at the tyme of devyne 
seruyce Where as they should be than present without a reasonable 
cause of payne to forfett ijd. 

[4.] Also they shall provyde For Fyre at all such Feastes as incense 
is accustomed to be offered vnto Allmightie God with other thinges 
necessary to the office according to the solempnyte of the Feaste. 

[5.] Also they shalbe redye at all visitacions accustomed and used 
to dooe theire diligence and servyce in payne of Forfeating ijd. 



APPENDIX VI. 83 

For the prystes and clarkes 

[6.] Also that aswell Pristes as Clerkes by and by after the thryd 
peall shalbe present in the quyre in theire shurples singing theire from 
the beginnyng of Mattens, Masse and Evynsong unto the end of them 
all, without a reasonable excuse in payne of Forfeating as oft as they 
shall so doo ijd. 

[7.] Also hathe decreede that one discrete preste shalbe/ [p. 208 
chosen by the Parson or in his absens by his deputye to be a Ruler or 
Deane of the quyre in executing and seying the dyvyne seryce 
executed according to the lymytacion or assignement of the ordinall. 

[8.] Also he hathe ordened that there shalbe two Rectors every 
highe or solempne Feast as the Deane shall appoynte them. 

[9.] Also he hathe ordened that there shalbe every dowble feast 
at the hye Awlter and Masse a Deacon and a Subdeacon standing at the 
hie Altare with the Prist according to thassignement of the Deane. 
And at all other holydays a Deacon onely to be with the Prist. 

[10.] Also that every Pryst disposed to celebrate shall say Masse 
before the hie Masse except there be a bodie present to be buryed or 
els some other reasonable cause doo lett it. 

[11.] Also that as well Prystes as other Ministres shall not jangle 
nor talke one with an other in the tyme of devyne servyce nor doo any 
thing els but his dutye and that no Minister of this Churche shall sytt 
in the quere without his shurples in the tyme of dyvyne servyce. 

[12.] Also that the Pristes shall not absent themselues from 
Matens, Hie Masse nor Evynsong whan as they ought to be there for 
any trentall or other derege except he have lycence of the Deane. And 
as oft as anny be from Mattens Masse or Evynsong for eche of them 
to Forfett ijd. 

[13.] Also that the Pristes according to theire cowrse shall have two 
and two of them every weke one day of recreacion and that on the 
worke day from the hiest to the lowest of bothe sydes by the lycence of 
the Deane. 

[14.] That yf ony of them that belongeth to the quyre taking wages, 
be absent from Matens, Masse or Evynsong shall Forfett as oft for eche 
of them ijd. 

•K- « * -K- -x- 

/iS^r- [p. 245 

I St November \in m.] 

Hit is orderyd that the clarke and Sexton duringe the hole tyme of 

sarvyse and sarmons shall not departe out of the churche upon the payne 

of iijs. iiijd for every default and that yf the Churchwardens do not see 

this order executyd then the Churchwardens to paye iijs iiijd to the use 

of the poore. 

* * * * * 

/It is agred that the youngest Churchewarden shall have the [p. 246 
kepynge off the belles and the Clarke shall have the lowance set downe 
by the tabell For the belles as he hath had beifore, and he to beare the 
chargis off all the ropes and bawdryckes For the belles so often as nede 
shale requyre at the appoyntemente off" the Churchewardene. 

G 2 



84 APPENDIX VIL 



APPENDIX VII. 



The Dispute about the Clerk at Morebath in 1531 and 1536. 

This was partly edited in the Western Antiquary, Plymouth, 1893, 
vol. xi. p. 186, and an account of the dispute appears in the church- 
wardens' accounts printed by the Somerset Record Society in 1890, 
p. 222. It has been more completely edited by the Rev. J. Erskine 
Binney in Devon Notes and Queries, 1903, April and July. This 
transcript has been compared with the original manuscript but the 
proof not. The manuscript when examined was in the custody of 
Mr. Binney at Exeter, but it is still the property of the parish of 
Morebath. 

It is a very curious account of a prolonged quarrel as to the dues 
to be paid to the clerk, caused apparently by a mere handful of 
parishioners.] 

/Not the clerkescheppe of Morebath. [p. 356 

Memorandum that anno domini 1531 at mychelmas: Sir christofer 
trychay that tyme beyng Vicar here and this parrysse they cowde not a 
gre for a clerke : by cause the clerke cudde not haue hys duty : there 
fore the Vicar at that tyme wolde fynde them no clerke no longer : 
where a pon the Vicar and this parrysse dyd so a gre that the order of 
this clerke scheppe : was putte vn to the Vicar . and to .v. men 
chosyn by the parrysse : and as this v men and the vicar cudde a gre 
a pon the clerkescheppe : so the parrysse wolde be contendyd to per- 
forme the same : so a pon this : at laste the vicar and thes v men 
were this agreyd that fro thens forth . for the loue of god . and to 
incresse the more loue yn hys parryssyn : the vicar was contendyd to 
fynde them a clerke as he hadde don be fore : and the clerke schulde be 
chardyd with no thyng : but to keppe on challis and the key of the 
churche dore . as he wyll keppe hys one : thys were we a greyd. 

[i.] Item more ouer a gayn : thes v men dyd this a gre : that fro 
thens forth when seruys ys don : with yn halfe a nowr after . the clerke 
or on for him schall knoke the churche dore : and yff there be any 
perssons with yn the churche when he dothe knoke : and yff they wyll 
not cum forthe then by and by : but they wyll tary styll with yn the 
churche : where a pon at laste preuenture^ when they cum forth . they 
lett stonde oppe the churche dore all the nyzth after : and yff any 

1 sic, (p'). 



APPENDIX VIL 85 

suche fortune there be. Where by the churche doo take any hurte • . ' 
the payne and the iupardy schall reste to them . and not to the clerke : 
that doo remayne yn the churche . after warde the clerke hath 
knokkyd the church dore. 

[2.] More ouer a gayn : we were this agreyd : that fro thens forthe 
the clerke schall have .j.^. a quarter of euery howsse holder. 

[3.] Item a gayn we were this a greyd : that the clerke here after 
this schall haue hys hyre mette at ester of euery howse holder when he 
dothe in quyre for hyt. 

[4.] Item a gayne we be this a greyd . that fro thens forth . the 
clerke schall haue a steche of clene corne to euery howsseholde : and 
for lacke of clene corne to pay on steche of suche as he hathe ^and yff 
he have no corne : then schall he pay v^d? erely for hys steche and a 
coter \]d, and no mor.^ 

[5.] /More over a gayn . by cause besenys hath byn oftyn [p. 357 
tymys yn payment of this steche yn tymys paste, ther fore now we be this 
agreyd : that fro thens forthe : when the clerke dothe sende for hys 
steche : he schall have hem and yff he be cutte : and yff the clerke be 
not servyd when he dothe cum for hys steche : the owner of that come 
schall keppe the clerk ys steche saffe . tyll ihe clerke doo sende for hem 
a gayn : and yff hyt be hurtyd when the clerke dothe cum for hyt a 
gayn : then hyt schall be to the clerke hys plesure where he wyll take 
the steche that ys sett owt for hem : or ells to leve the steche . and the 
owner of the corne schall pay hem iiij^. yff rye be a bow viij^. a 
bossyll : and yff yt be under viij^. a bossyll he schall pay the clerke 
iij^. for hurtyng of hys steche : 

[6.] Soo now a pon all thes powyntis : ys the vicar and ys v men 
full a greyd : and ys v men have promyssed vn to the vicar sub- 
stanssially . that they wylt se the clerke truly payd of all suche dutis as 
ys expressyd be fore with out any trobyll or vexacion anno et die 
predict. 

Thys byth the v men namys William tymwell at Wode Richard 
Raw lohn norman at corte richard hucly and Thomas norman. 

/Nota : that here follyzth a fresse warde madyn® a pon [p. 92 
the clerkescheppe of morebath madyn by m. John sydam and 
by 3 men of the parysse : (chosen for the same causse : and* 
by the consent of the hole parysse :) that was William tymwell 
at Wode and John norman at corte and Ric hucly. 

[7.] Memorandum that anno domini 1536 . at mychelmas tyme . 
William leddon wolde not pay hys steche of corne un to the clerke . 
a cordyng to the warde that was made by v men of the parysse anno 
domini 153 1 at mychelmas tyme : (as hyt apperyth a pon the boke of a 
cowntis the same ere :) vt supra . and also William sceley and brochole 

^ — * added in different ink. * ii. added before the ij. 

* struck through, ^ different hand. 



86 APPENDIX VIL 

'when they hadde no come : they* wolde not pay the \]d? for a steche . 
a cordyng to the warde : Nother the ij cottis at exbryge dyde not pay 
there quarter lage truly 'vn to the clerke* : but they ij 'howssholdis at 
exbryge* payd ij//. for there steche truly y now 'ons a ere^ ; both John 
Don and John nicoll also : a cordyng to the warde of the v men : and 
also a cordyng to the warde of Sir William trystram sum tyme Vicar of 
bawnton : and by John norman at Wode :) where a pon now^ for lacke 
of tru payment : the vicar that fownde the parysse a suffycyent derke 
be fore that tyme : wolde not' mell no more with the clerkscheppe : by 
cawsse he cowd not have hys duty truly payd with out dysplesir takyn 
of hys parryssen : Wherefore to a voyd ther dysplesure . the vicar 
wamyd out the clerk at crystesmas follyng after the date of this present 
wrytyng : desyryng the parr)*sshe hole to be contendyd to provyde hem 
a new clerk agayn our lady at lent than foll}nfig : for he wolde melle no 
more with hyt : so a pon thys our lady day . then bejmg a pon 
pait* sonday : was cum : and clerke the parr^-sse hadd prouydyd none : 
where a pon for lacke of a clerke a gayn the besy tyme of ester : the 
parr)3se vniuersall desyryd the vicar that he wolde fynde them a clerke 
tyll l>tell ester day then follyng a pon a better prouision : and so dyde 
he at there desyre : and when that day was cum : communicacion was 
hadd and they coude not a gre a bowte a clerk : where a pon hyt was 
put forth at Visitacion the thursday folhTig thoo at Vplumnian^ (where 
as our auctorite was grawntyd out at that tyme : that iiij honyst men 
chosyn by the hole parr^^sse . schald rule and goueme the pairysse yn 
all causis concemyng the welthe of the chuiche: as hyt apperyth a 
pon the cownte bok anno predicto . Vnder the offycyaU ys sele) A pon 
the wyche complajTite: they ware commaundyd that came at that 
visitacion* (that was the vicar Sir christofer trychay : and John Norman 
at cowfte : and harry hurly ward}^! : and thomas Rumbelow . that 
spelyd John swyzth at that tjnie :) to goo home and take 'and [p. 93 
desyre' Mr. John sjxlam* \t[i to them : and all suche order as mr. John 
sydam . and iiij men of the parrysse : by the hole panysse electyd . doo 
make a pon the clerke scheppe: the vicar and the panysse scfaalbe 
contentyd with all : A pon this ther was a fresse day sett of communi- 
cacion to be hadd : that was in \"igilia sancti georgij . beyng a pon a 
sonday : and so at that day : came thether mr. John s\-dam> and mathew 
the sumner : and askyd of euer>- man of the panysse by name : Whether 
they wolde be contendyd to chewse iiij men of the parysse : and all suche 
ordor as mr. S3'dam and this iiij m«ai doo make a pon the derkescheppe . 
the reste to be contendyd with all : ^now how say ye to this the panissyn 
•they said*) a pon this they sayd they were contendyd : where a pon the 
iiij men ware chosyn by the hole panysse that schulde se a ordcH" 
takyn^^* with mr. Sydam a ix>n the derkescheppe : ^the wyche iiij men : 

* — ^* inUr lined, * a-Vnca /^ iiij.il 

* imUr.ym£d. * palm. * ITpkaauiL 

* BiMTage Webber Emyn {?; Droe (?) wis pel yn ai this visiisdcn. 
* — * ojiofj im ac 

* 7~it Ttiffrd 2riL'i I read svdazc stanis im lie maxMs^ti iiMS z svdm zrili x ffser 
ihexsi. 

^—> imUramed, » imterlimed 



APPENDIX ViL 87 

ware the same selfe perssons : that ware chosyn a fore : and admyttyd 
by the ordinary to rule and goueme the churche gooddis as ys 
expressyd a pon the boke of a countes and^ under the ordinaris 
auctorite) and when thes men ware all chosyn then was the parryssyn 
hole axsemynyd^ a gayn : to kno there mynddis whether they wold be 
contendyd to byde all suche ordor as mr. Sydam and thes iiij men doo 
make . or noo : and there ware xxvj yn on parte that was contendyd 
that mr. Sydam and thes forsayd iiij men^ schuld se a nordor takyn a 
pon the clerkscheppe : and there was v men of the other part that wolde 
not be orderyd by no man : ^quod essent Thomas norman Ric Webber 
William norman and John at borston^ : where fore at this tyme they 
cowde not a gre a bowt a clerk ; yn so moche that we hadd no clerk 
tho at eu[en]song foUyng : nother the morow : that was sent iorge ys 
day : for lacke where of the church was holy sirvyd that day : yn so 
moche that the morow a pon sent iorge ys day : when the vicar 
schulde say mas for markis chylde at exbryge : tho mark was 
glade to goo to iohn at cowrtis to fett the churche dore key 
and the challys : and also he fette the wolde John watervs to 
helppe the vicar to mas : be fore he coud haue ony mas sayd 
for hys chylde : and all was for lacke of a clerke : And when* mas 
was don : we went to William at tymwellis to the be trothyn of margyd 
tymwell and william tayler : and there all that day we resonyd schamfully 
a bout our clerkscheppe : yn so moche that mark and william leddon 
ware a most by the eris for the same cawsse : by cawsse that william 
leddon hadd not brosth homme hys come be fore mychellmas : as well 
as he dyd the tuysday a fore the visitacion (the wyche was halfe a bossyl 
of rye and the laste pec by hyppe [)] / so yn conclusion the [p. 94 
parrysse hole concludyd there and sayd lett vs haue a fresse day of 
communicacion and we woUe be orderyd every on of vs : where a pon 
they desyryd the vicar to finde them a clerke a gayn. tyll a fresse day of 
communicacion and at the parryssyns desyr so dyde he tyll the sonday 
a fore rogacion wyke : and yn the mayne space mr hu powlytt kept 
cowrte at morebath : and he exortyd thes for sayd v perssons and so 
dyde mr hu stycly also : that they schulde be contendyd to be orderyd 
as the moste parte of the parrysse ware : and yff they wolde not : he 
wolde ordor them he sayd : so a pon this there was a fresse day sett* of 
communicacion to be hadd : a gayn the wyche day there was sett owt a 
cytacion to a cyte all such perssons as wold not be orderyd by mr 
Sydam and by the iiij men : so yn conclussion when the day was cum 
that this mater schulde by resonyd a gayn : the wyche was the Sonday 
a fore rogacion wyk. as ys expressyd be fore : there was the parrysse 
syngulerly demawndyd a gayn by name to kno whether they wolde be 
contendyd that mr Sydam and iij of thes men electyd by the parrysse : 
schuld se a nordor takyn yn this clerkscheppe or no : (for the iiijthe 
man was syke that tyme : that was Robert at hayne) and they sayd ye : 
all that ware yn the churche that tyme : (and there lackyd no mo^j that 

^ interlined. ^ examined. 

* — ^ interlined, * interlined. 

^ interlined. 



88 APPENDIX VIL 

day but william at tymwell and william leddon and william scely : and 
by cawsse that euery man was contendyd to byde the ordor of mr iohn 
Sydam and of this iij men : the cytacion that was fett* was voyde : 
so a pon this : mr sydam and thes iij men at the parryssyn ys ynstans : 
toke the mater yn hande : and so with mr sydams advysse this was the 
ordor that they dydde make : and so concludyd and sayd : that fro 
thens forth this schalbe the clerkes duty by owr a ward to have (what so 
euer he hath hadde a fore this) to this entent : to haue the more vnite 
and pece a mongg vs : and to haue the churche the better seniyd) this 
hyt ys : 

[8.] primo he schall have a steche of clene corne of heuery howsse ; 
where as there ys corne a pon the bargan: (as brochole and wother 
moo) and he that hath noo clene corne schall pay a steche of wotis : 
and that hath no corne schall pay the clerke iij^.* for hys steche : ^and 
\]d. a coter^ as hyt hath byn yn tymis past. And vnder this maner the 
clerke schall demande hys steche : and he schall cum for hem and yfF 
he be a redy : and yff not : he schall cum a gayn : and then yff the 
steche be not sufiicyent : he schall leue hem : tyll that sum of 
/the parssons that made the warde doo se the steche : and then [p. 95 
yff the steche be sufficient after there iustment : then the clerke schall 
fett hem : and yff he be not sufficient : then the clerke with owt any 
besenys schall fette a steche with Richarde hucly (and yf hyt be yn the 
weste parte of the parrysse) and yff hyt be yn the yeste parte of the 
parrysse : he must fett hys steche with John norman at cowrte : for this 
ij men be surty to the clerk : to se all hys dutis payd truly vn to hem 
that this men have orderyd : Mrith owt any trobyll or vexacion : and the 
hole parryssyn hath made there ansswer vn to this for sayd ij men : 
that they wyll were them harmlis : and yf any frowarde felow woUe 
not pay hys duty to the clerke acordyng to this a warde. And also and 
yff the clerke be warnyd to fett hys steche and preuenture he can not 
cum fore him by and by : then the ouner of the grownde schall keppe 
him tyll he cum : 

^9.] Also he schall haue \d, a quarter of every howssholder : 

"lo.l And the clerke schall haue at every weddyng ij//. : 
I I.J Also at euery corsse present and at every monyzth ys end that 
ys song by note the clerke schall haue ij^. : 

[12.] Also the clerke schalbe chargyd with no thyng sauing ondly 
with on challis and with the churche dore key : this for to keppe and 
hyde as he wyll doo hys one : 

[13.] Also he schall goo a bowt the parrysse with hys holy water 
ons a ere when men have schorne there scheppe to gether sum wolle to 
make him cotte to goo yn the parryssyn ys lyuery and here fore the 
clerke schall helppe the wardyn to make up the vestmentis and to 
dresse the auters &c. 

[14.] Also this ere ondly for losyn of hys duty yn tymys paste : the 
parryssyn shall helppe to drenke him a cost of ale the sonday a pon 



1 



jV. '^ altered to m\. 



' — ^* interlined Coter is a quarter. 



APPENDIX VII. 89 

trinite sonday (et sic factum esset et ibi essent omnes. duntaxat : 
Borston et scely ; Webber et William Norman) 

also at euery ester 'het after' the clerke schall gether hys hyre mett : 
and then the parrysse schall helpe to drenke him a coste of ale lyn the 
churche howsse.^ 

[15.] and this ys all the warde that mr iohn Sydam and William 
tymwell at wode and John norman at cowrte and Richard hucly dyde 
make a pon the clerke scheppe anno et die predicto : before the 
parryssyn and iohn dysse : then beyng bayly there under mr hu 
powlytt and Mathew the sumner : &c. 

In wyttnyssyng where off; this notte was made here a pon this 
cownte boke to testyfy truly the clerke ys duty and owr award to a voyd 
all other vnconueniens. 



' — ' inlirlinfa. 



90 APPENDIX VIII. 



APPENDIX VIII. 

The Duties of the Parish Clerks and Sexton at St Stephen's 

Coleman Street in 1542. 

[This account of the duties of the parish clerks has akeady been 
printed by Dr. Edwin Freshfield in Archaeologia^ 1887. vol. L p. 49. 
with a number of other documents illustrating the history of this church. 
Dr. Freshfield has given me every help in collating the manuscript with 
the proof and I am much indebted to him for his courtesy.] 

/The Inuentory. ... To thentent the tow parish Clarkes [p. 15 
of the same churche shall haue charge and kepinge of them att all tymes 
hereafter shall be redye and dehuer agayne or to be delyuerd. To the 
saide vicar and Churche wardens. Or to their successours all the same 
goodes luels and omamentes when they or aiether of them shall be 
therto required. 



The Sexton's Devtie/ [p. 148 

[i.] Also the sexton shall swepe the Churche and the yelle therof 
euery weke ons at the least and cast water on the grounde for Rasynge 
of dust 

[2.] Also he shall light the candulls euery sounday and holyday yn 
the yere and doo them owt ayene as tyme requiereth. 

[3.] Also he shall Rynge curfie whan it ys rounge with one bell and 
caU for help whan it ys rounge with moo. 

[4.] Also he shall blow the Organs euery. sounday and holyday in 
the yere. 

[5.] Also he shall here the crosse on procession, and carie holywater 
euery sounday and fete^ fyre in tyme of nede. 

[6.] Also he shall make the pittes for dead bodies depe I nough for 
comipte heyers.^ that is to say for men and women .iiij. fote depe and for 
children iij fote deep. 

[7.] Also he shall swepe the churche roffe .Iiij. tymes yn the yere the 
churche fyndyng bromes and polles therfor 

[8.] Also whan any procession is about^ 



1 fetch. 

3 against corrupt airs, to prevent escape of foul gas. 

' A cross in the left marpn ; tke seMttnce d^tnus off Jketr at tke bottom of the page. 



APPENDIX VIII. 91 

/The Devtie of the tow Clarkes [p. 149 

[9.] Also they shall clenesse the founte and feille it agayne with 
clene water twysse yn the yere at paschall and att witsountyd and after 
yf nede requier 

[10.] Also they shall euery weeke Certifye to the Curat and the 
churche wardens all the names and sir names of them that be wedded 
Christened and hurried in the same parish that weeke sub pena of a j*^ to 
[be] paid to the churche 

[ii.] Also the goodes of the churche that belongeth to ther kep)nig 
they shall treat and kepe it in the most best maner and savynge it from 
harme or perisshinge to the vttermost of ther powers. 

[12.] Also that the saide clarkes to be at noo tyme owt of the way 
but one to be alwayes redy to mynester Sacramentes and sacramentalles 
what soo euer shall nede. to wayet vpon the Curat and to geve hym 
warnyng. 

[13.] Also that none of the saide Clarkes shall goo or ryde owt of 
the towne with owt speciall lycence hadde of the vicar and churche 
wardens. ^ 

[14.] Also vpon euery sounday and other holydayes to helpe the 
sexton to Rynge the secounde pele to matens in deve tyme and to masse 
Evensonge and yn the lent tyme to complene. and also in the absence of 
the sexton to rynge curfie. 

[15.] Also they shall dayly bringe forthe the Bookes that be longe to 
the quier and Receyve them agayne to ther savegarde as they will answer 
for them on principall dayes and other festiall dayes they shall bringe 
forth the Coppes vestementes and apperellis for the aulters in the 
Churche with the Ivelles* to be set on the saide aulters and they to 
dysaray them agajme as the tyme requireth. and bringe the sayd Ivelles 
and Ornamentes into ther owne kepynge for the discharge of them 
selffes. 

[16.] Also they shall serve the Curat and preest with the coppes and 
see fier fet^ and redy in the sensours afore it nede and to set children to 
do service in the saide quier. 

[17.] To light the tapers to the sensours and to see them borne or 
revesterid and the quier to be senced and many moo small thinges as 
syngyng and Redyng and preparing the bookes and Turnyng^ theroff to 
the dyvine service afore it begyne as of a laudable and an Auncient 
custome hath ben vsed in tymes past. 

[1 8.1 Also they shall here holy water euery sounday in the yere.'* 
1 9.] Also the clarkes shall fette and bringe in all such casuelltes* as 
be longeth to the Churche wardens [and] to the churche be hoveffe® and 
iff any casuelltes fall yn any churche wardens absence as beynge owt of 
towne they shall apply them selffes to bring them yn to the said churche 
wardens for the tyme being.' 

^ Jewels. ^ fire fetched. 

^ The 2 interlined, ^ An asterisk follows this word. 

* fees. * behoveth. 

^ End of p. 149. All this written in bookhand. 



93 



APPENDIX VIII. 



/Statutum* De oflficio Clericorum et quomodo se [p. 154 
habcbuiit crga Curatum presbiteros et parochianos omnes. 

[ao.] In primis Clerkys in ther office shal fynde sufficient 
Surcte to the Curatt and Chirche wardens to kepe alle Bokys all 
vc»tmenies all Ivellys and se to alle the avter clothes and wasschynge of 
hem, and to the amendynge of hem at alle tymes as thei wer thayie 
owne, 

[tu] Item they schal be obedient to the Curate and to alle the 
nrt^slys in the C^hirche* doynge to hem reverence, and be ledy Day and 
W\>iht and at alle tymes to §00 with the Curate or his Debite' to yisitte 
the set^ke. and io help to mynx-strynge of the Sacrameates gladly. 

|ij.) Item they shal be diligent and redy dayly both holiday and 
wark^\iaY to alle Oiuine seruice that is don in the Chirche of seynt 
Stt^phan and not ra:^»^elyng nor tale telKnuge in tyme of dicine service 
bi^ exemplar of IVuocion. 

\i\A Item thei shal be redv to mvnvster Bokvs. vestmentesw Chalv 
and all other thvng^^ nevx^ssyirv t<* the Curate, to the roomir:^ mi 
|vr^^te Ai>d tv^ all vvher vrestes of the sayd Chircfce, d:ar k to sav^ 




hvvulAx^ At'^e: :hc ^wie oc^^.x^x of lor ^oc^. 

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APPENDIX VIIL 93 

ij d ob, and a ob loffe for the Cantelle subpena of a j*^ to the Chirch 
to be payd. 

[29.] Item thei shal see the profett of the Curate in offeringys in 
wax. in wyne. in brede. In purificacions and in alle other Rightes and 
Dewtys that longe to the avter of god in Incresynge multiplyinge at ther 
power. 

[30.] Item thei shal make no contencion nor baate nor hevenesse 
betwene the Curate and the Parisschons nor of no other Preste. And 
if thei here any Confeterice or Imagynacion or Sklawndyr of malice 
a gaynce the Curate or of any other preste that longes to the said 
fchirch in all haste thei shal in confession telle hit to the Curate, and 
the namys of the personys that so ymagynn. 

[31.] Item thei* be obedient in all lefull thynges to alle the 
Parisschons and curtes in beryng in behauyng hem selfe. In answer to 
higth and to lowe as seruauntes and membris of the Chirche of Godde 
askynge theyre quartage. their Casuallys.^ and other thynges that long to 
hem be right, ameabully. and if any man or woman contraye and will 
not pay ther dewty to informe the Curate and the Chirch wardens and 
they shal sette remedy with grace of God. 

And yf ony persone be breker of this good and goodly ordinaunce. 
The Indyngnacion of Almyghty God falle he Inne. Amen/ 

Dat* etc. 



* A mark of omission^ and shal ts written in the margin. 

* The fi^es. See above ^ p. 69, last line but one : and p. 91, tine ^from bottom. 



94 APPESDIX IX. 



APPENDIX IX. 

[Taken from Number 21 of a Collection of Records . . . referred 
to in the Second Fart of the History of the Reformation of the Church of 
Knglandy by Gilbert Burnet, London, 1680, p. 126. The manuscript 
from whence these injunctions are taken is said to belong to 
Dr. Johnson. They are reprinted from Burnet by Wilkins {Concilia^ 
iv. 29), by whom they are assigned to the second year of King 
Edward VI. But I feel some hesitation in accepting this date.] 

Injunctions given by the King's Majesty's Visitors^ to all and 
every the Clergie and Laity, now resident Vithin the Deanry of 
Duncastre. 



Item. You shall every Sunday^ at the time of your going about the 
Church with Holy Water, into three or four places, where most 
audience and assembly of People is, for the declaration of the 
Ceremonies, say, distinctly and plainly, that your Parishioners may well 
hear and perceive the same, these words. 

Remember Christ s Blood-shedding^ 
by the which most holy sprinklings 
of all your Sins you have free pardon^ 

And in like manner, before the dealing of the Holy Bread, these 
words, 

Of Christs Body this is a Token ; 
which on the Cross for our Sins was broken ; 
wherefore of his Death if you will be partakers^ 
of Vice and Sin you must beforsakers. 

And the Clarke in the like manner shall bring down the Faxe, and 
standing without the Church Door,* shall say loudly to the People these 
words ; 

This is a Token of joyful Feace, which is betwixt God and Mens 
Conscience: Christ alone is the Feace-^maker^ which straitly commands 

Feace between Brother and Brother, 

« 

And so long as ye use these Ceremonies, so long shall ye use these 
Significations. 

^ Is this a misreading for choir door} 



APPENDIX IX. 95 

Item, The Church-Wardens of every Parish-Church shall, some 
one Sunday^ or other Festival day, every Month, go about the Church, 
and make request to every of the Parish for their charitable Con- 
tribution to the Poor ; and the sum so collected, shall be put in the 
Chest of Alms for that purpose provided. And for as much as the 
Parish-Clark shall not hereafter go about the Parish with his Holy 
Water as hath been accustomed, he shall, instead of that labour, 
accompany the said Church- Wardens, and in a Book Register the 
Name and Sum of every Man that giveth any thing to the Poor, and 
the same shall intable ; and against the next day of Collection, shall 
hang up some-where in the Church in open place, to the intent the 
Poor having knowledg thereby, by whose Charity and Alms they be 
relieved, may pray for the increase and prosperity of the same. 



I 



96 APPENDIX X. 



APPENDIX X. 



The Holy Loaf at Stanford in the Vale, Berkshire, in the 

Reign of Queen Mary Tudor. 

[This document has been already edited from the registers of the 
parish by Mr, Walter Haines and printed in the Antiquary^ 1888. vol. 
xvii. p. 70. By permission of the Rev. H. Aldrich Cotton I have 
collated this edition with the registers at Stanford in the Vale.] 

/The Fyfte parte of this boke. [fo. x. 

Here Followyng ys the ordre of the geueyng of the looffes to make 
holy bred with videlicet of where hyt begynith and endythe what the 
hooll valure ys in what porsyons hit ys deuyded and to whome the 
porsions be dew and thowgh hit be written in the fyuet parte of the 
dyvision of the boke before in the begynning with thes worddes (how 
monay shall be payed towardes the charges of the Communion) ^ye shall 
vnderstande that in the tyme of Scysme when this Realme was 
deuyded from the Catholyc Churche the wiche was in the yer of owr 
lord god 1547 in the second yer of Kyng Edward the syxt all godly 
ceremonyes and good vsys were taken owt of the Churche Mrith in this 
Realme and then the monay that was bestoyd one the holy bredde was 
Turned to the vse of fyndyng brayd and wyne for the Communyon and 
then the olde order beying browght* vnto his prystyne state before this 
boke was wrytten cawsyd me to wryte with thys terme. 

(The ordre of the geuying of The loofes to make holy bredde of.)^ 

Inprimis the geuing of the holy lofe takyth his begynnyng at a pece 
of Grownde caulyd Ganders at the wrytting here of in the Tenure of 
Thomas coUens. The whiche pece of ground cavled ganders ys a 
cottage and when that grownde caulyd ganders doth begyn then doo all 
the cottages in the Towne geue in ordre with the other grounddes and 
howsses Rownde abowte vntyll that come to* the sayd ground caulid 
ganders agayne and theyre leuyth. 

And at the seconde goyng abowte the Towne yt begynnethe at Rychard 
Snodnams howse the yonger wyche howse ys next to the vicarage one 
the northe syde and then dothe all yardlandes halffe yardlandes cotsettuUs* 

* — ^ The passage is crossed out in the original by a later hand. The word 
" Scysme " is almost obliterated. 

- interlined, 

" Cotsettulls = Cotsethlands. Under this see Murray's New English Dictionary, 
Also Cottager's lands, Cotlands. 



APPENDIX X, 97 

and meeses geue vntyll hit hathe gone Rownde a gayne and be comm 
to ganders, and theyre and then begyneth the Thyrde tyme and so 
Rownde a bowte the Towne a gayne. So that cotages geue but at euery 
seconde tyme goynge abowte. There be sum howsses in the parishe 
that hathe notte geuen the holy looffe at eny tyme that euer eny of the 
parishe at this wrytting ^knew of and they be theys The parsonage. The 
vicarage. The ferme cavled the manor howse a cottage belonging to the 
vicarage, a smythes forge one the Greene and the churche howse cauled 
the Gylde hawU. 

Here after foUowyth the ordre of geuyng of the whoU Townesheepe 
as well cottages as others with the names of Them that helde suche 
growndes and howssis at the wryttinge here of with an addyson one 
theyr heddes who hathe a cottage to avoyde varyans when theyr Tyme to 
geue for the holy Loofe shall come. 

[Here follow the names of one hundred parishioners, which are now 
omitted.] 

Thus endyth geuyng of the breade to make holy bredde off Throwgh 
the whole Towne bothe wher yt begynneth and endyth. 

The wholl valure of The carges^ cumyth to \]d. ob and yt ys Thus 
devided. 

The offer to the curates hand Too peny worth of bread with a halfepeny 
candull or a halfepeny for the candull putte in to a Taper and browght 
vppe to the preste at the hyghe altar, of the Too penyworthe of bredde 
they Resyue a halfepeny lofe wholl for to be delyuered to The next 
that shall geue the holy loofe for a knowledge to prepare agaynst the 
soomeday folloyng. And thus I make an ende of this matter. 



^ — * interlined. ^ charges. 

CLERK. H 



APPENDIX XI, 



APPENDIX XI. 



Extracts from Visitation Articles, Injunctions, and like 

Documents. 

Iniunctions exhibited by lohn [Parkhurst] by gods sufferance 
Bishop of Norwich, London, John Day [1561.] 

([ For Clarkes and theyr dutie. [B. iii 

WHether that the songe in the Churche be modest and distincte so 
deuised and vsed that the ditte may plainly be vnderstand. 

2. Whether they vse to sing any nomber of psalmes, dirige lyke, at 
the buryall of the deade or do any other thing otherwise then it is 
appointed by the comon order of the seruice boke. 

3. Whether they vse to ring oft or longe peales at the buryall of the 
dead or vse muche iangling in festiuall daies in ringing none or curphew. 

Articles . . . in the Metropoliticall Visitation of , , , Edmonde 
[Grindal] Archbishop of Yorke, London, William Seres, 1571. 

39. Whether anye Parishe Clarke be appoynted agaynst the good 
will, or without the consent of the person, vicar, or curate, whether he 
be not obedient to the person, vicar, or curate, especially in the time of 
celebration of di nine seruice, or of the Sacraments, or in any preparation 
therevnto. And whether he be able, and readie to read the first 
Lesson, the Epistle, and the Psalmes, with aunswere to the suffrages as 
is vsed, and whether he keepe not the bookes, and ornaments of the 
Church, fayre and cleane, and cause the Church and Queere, the 
Communion Table, the Pulpet, and the Font to be made decent and 
cleane, agaynst seruice time, the communion, sermon, and baptisme ? 

Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiasticall . . . Imprinted at 
London by Robert Barker, Anno 1604. 

J[ Parish Clearks 

xci. 

Parish Clearks to be chosen by the Minister, 

NO Parish Clearke vpon any vacation shal be chosen within the 
Citie of London, or elsewhere within the Prouince of Canterbury, 
but by the Parson or Vicar : or where there is no Parson or Vicar, by 



APPENDIX XL 99 

the Minister of that place for the time being : Which choyce shall be 
signified by the saide Minister, Vicar, or Parson, to the Parishioners the 
next Sunday following in the time of Diuine Seruice. And the said 
Clearke shallbe of twenty yeeres of age at the least, and knowen to the 
sayde Parson, Vicar or Minister to be of honest conuersation, and 
sufficient for his Reading, Writing, and also for his competent skill in 
singing (if it may be.) And the saide Clearks so chosen, shall haue 
and receiue their ancient W'^ages, without fraude or diminution, either 
at the handes of the Church-wardens at such times as hath been 
accustomed, or by their owne collection according to the most ancient 
custome of euery Parish. 

Articles . . Diocesse of Exeter . . . Joseph [Hall] Lord Bishop 
of Exeter^ London, Thomas Harper, 1638. 

[Parish Clarke in m.] 

6 1 Item, Whether in the absence of your Minister, or at any other 
time, hath your Parish Clark, or any other Lay person, said Common 
Prayer openly in the Church, or any part of the Divine Service, which 
is proper to the Priest ? 

62 Item, Whether your Parish Clark or Sexton hath had due 
regard to the Ornaments of your Church, and to the clean keeping of 
your Church, and the Seats and Pews therof from dust or anything 
which might be noysome ? 

63 Item, Is your Parish Clark of the age of twenty y^ere at the 
least, and of honest conversation, and sufficient for his reading, 
writing and competent skill in singing, and doth hee usually weare his 
Surplesse or Rochet in the time of Divine Service, and whether hath 
any detained his accustomed wages at the accustomed time of payment ? 
And is the said Clark approved by your Ordinary, and sworn to 
obserue and execute his said office accordingly ? 

64 /tern, What wages or what quarterly or yeerly payment in mony, 
or what other benefit is your Parish Clark to have, according to the 
ancient custome of your Parish? Declare and specific the same in 
your presentment. 

Articles to be enquired of in the Ordinary Visitation of the 
Right Worshipful lames Marsh, D,D, Archdeacon of Chichester, 
Holden Anno Dom, 164.0. London, B.A. for Richard Meighen, 
1640. 

0/ Parish Clarkes and Sextons, [B. 2. v. 

HAue you a fit Parish Clarke aged twenty yeares at least, of honest 
conversation, able to read and write, diligent in his office, 
seruiceable to his Minister ; is he approued by the Ordinary : hath he 
taken his Oath as is required ? 

2 What wages hath your Clarke and Sexton according to the ancient 
Custome of the Parish : are the wages duly payed, or by whom kept 
backe ? 

H 2 



lOO APPENDIX XI. 

3 Doth your Clarke and Sexton doe their duty in keeping the 
Church cleane, the doores locked, or is anything lost or spoil'd in his 
Church through his default : doth he suffer any vnreasonable ringing, or 
any prophane exercise in your Church ? 

4 Hatli your Parish Clarke or Sexton taken vpon him to meddle with 
any thing aboue his office, as Churching of women, burying of the 
dead, or such like ? 

Articles to be enquired of within the Diocese of London . . . 
William [Juxon] Lord Bishop of London, London, Richard 
Badger, 1640, Sign. 4. b. 

Whether do you the Churchwardens of every Parish within the Citie 
and Suburbs of London (according to the Kings Majesties Letters 
Patents, under the great Seal of England in that behalf granted) suffer 
your Parish Clerk to gather his wages himself, in as full and ample 
manner as the same hath formerly beene gathered, in or by colour of his 
name, without diminution, upon pretence of pewage, or the like, and 
without any manner of disturbance or interruption or forbidding 
anyone so to pay the same unto him, and whether do you assist your 
Clark in collecting his wages (if need be) according to his Majesties 
said Leiters Patent : and whether doe you duely present all such persons 
of your Parish as refuse to pay the said Clarkes accustomed wages, as 
by his Majesties said grant, you are required and commanded ? 

Articles . , , in the first Episcopal Visitation of , . , fohn 
[Cosin] by Divine providence Lord Bishop of Durham, London, 
T. Garth wait, 1662, p. 10. Titul. v. Concerning Parish Clerks and 
Sextons. 

I. T_I AVE you belonging to your Church or Chappeiry a Parish 
-*- ^ Clerk aged 2 1 years at the least ? Is he of honest life and 
Conversation? and sufficient or able to perform his duty in reading, 
writing and singing ? Is he chosen by your Minister, and doth he 
duly attend him in all divine Services at the Church ? Doth he wear a 
Gown when he so attendeth and a Surplice over it, if heretofore the 
Custome hath been such among you ? Are his wages duly paid unto 
him ? or who with-holdeth the same from him ? 

2 DOTH he or your Sexton (if there be any such appointed in 
your Parish) diligently look to the doors of your Church, that they be 
locked and opened at due time ? And doth he keep your Church or 
Chappel clean from noysome dust, cobwebs, litter, straw, or any other 
annoyance? Doth he toll or ring the Bells at the due accustomed 
hours before the beginning of divine Service Morning and evening, 
that the people may be warned to come unto the Church ? And when 
any person is passing out of this life, doth he upon notice given him 
thereof, go and toll a Bell, as hath been accustomed, that the neigh- 
bours may thereby be warned to recommend the dying person to the 
grace and favour of God ? 



APPENDIX XL loi 

Articles of Visitation and Enquiry within the diocess of Ely, in 
Second Episcopal Visitation of . , . Peter [Gunning] by Divine 
Permission Lord Bishop of Ely ifi the fifth year of his Translation, 
London, S. Roycroft, 1679. 

[Can. 91. in m,] [p. 16 

VIII. Have you a Parish-Clerk aged 20 years at the least, chosen 
by your Minister, of honest Hfe and conversation, and sufficiently able 
to perform his duty in reading, writing and singing ? and doth he duly 
attend the Minister in all Divine offices at the Church ? doth he keep 
clean the Church, and carefully look to it, and to the Books ? and is he 
payed the ancient and usual wages as hath been accustomed ? 

[Can. 92. /« m.] 

IX. Doth your Clerk, or your Sexton (if there be any such in your 
Parish) diligently look to the doors of the Church, that they be locked 
and opened at due times, and that the Bells be toird and rung at the 
due and accustomed hours before the beginning of Morning and 
Evening Service, that the people may be warned and invited to come to 
the Church ? and when any j^erson is passing out of this life, doth he 
upon notice given thereof toll a Bell as hath been accustomed, that 
devout and charitable persons may thereby be warned to recommend 
the Soul of the dying person to the grace, mercy, and peace of God 
Almighty ? 

[Can. 67. in m.] 

X. Do they at the instance of any, make any grave in any part of 
the Church (except in such Isles where some person hath propriety) 
without the express consent of your Minister ? 

Anno Regni Jacobi II. Regis . . . Primo. 

An Act for Erecting a new Parish to be called the Parish of 

St. fames within the Liberty of Westminster, 

******* [p. 16 

likewise to nominate a fit Person in like Orders [Priests] to be Clerk of 
the said Parish and Parish Church, and one or more Sexton or Sextons, 
to which Clerk and Sextons respectively there shall be such and the like 
Dues, Fees, Perquisites and Profits paid and allowed as are or have at 
any time been paid or payable or belonging to the Clerk and Sextons of 
the said Parish Church of St. Martin respectively ; which said Preacher, 
assistant. Clerk and Sexton or Sextons and every of them shall con- 
/tinue in his said place during his or their Natural Lives, if they [p. 17 
shall so long inhabit there, except for some Offence or Misgovernment 
by them or any of them committed, (and unless for Cause reasonable 
proved) they shall be displaced by the said Rector for the time being by 
and with the Consent of the said Vestrymen or any six or more of 
them. 



I02 APPENDIX XL 

And be it Enacted That the Churchwardens of the said Parish of St. 
James for the time being, shall and are hereby Required from time to 
time to pay the yearly sum of Thirty pounds to the Clerk to be appointed 
as aforesaid out of the Profits of the Pews in the said Church. . . . 

Articles of Enquiry . . . William [Fleetwood] by Divine 
Permission Lord Bistiop of St, Asaph, 17 lO. 

p. 56. 4. Have you a Parish-Clerk of the age of 21 years of Sober 
Life, and well Qualified for his Office ? 

5. Is he Paid his accustomed Salary, Dues, and Perquisites, belonging 
to his Place ? 

6. Doth he keep the Church clean, and carefully look to the Books, 
and all Things committed to his Charge ? 

7. Doth he Open and Shut the Church Doors at due Times, and 
Toll the Bell, or Bells, at the usual Hours before Prayers, that People 
may have sufficient warning to come to Church ? 

4. 5> 6, 7. *Tis very fit that all who any ways relate to the Church, 
be of sober Life, and rightly qualified for their Office. The Parish- 
Clerks were heretofore in some low sort of Orders, and had their part 
in assisting at the Divine Service, and they still keep the name of 
Clericij and ought to be of exem:)lary and good Behaviour- And if 
they discharge their Office well, especially that part of it of keeping the 
Church clean, they will deserve, and ought to have their Salary duly 
paid, and none of their accustomed Perquisites withheld. But if they 
are negligent, or slovenly in their Churches, or live not soberly, they 
are to be presented, and, if they are found incorrigible, they are to be 
remained from their Places, to make room for those who will live, and do 
their Business better. 

7 and 8 Victoria, Cap. 59. An Act for better regulating the 
offices of Lecturers and Parish Clerks, [29th July, 1844.] 

II. And be it enacted, That when and so often after the passing of 
this Act as any Vacancy shall occur in the office of Church Clerk, 
Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk, in any District, Parish, or Place, it shall 
be lawful for the Rector or other Incumbent or other the Person or 
Persons entitled for the Tim.e being to appoint or elect such Church 
Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk as aforesaid, if he shall think fit, to 
appoint or elect a Person in the Holy Orders of Deacon or Priest of the 
United Church of England and Ireland to fill the said office of Church 
Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk ; and such Person so appointed or 
elected as aforesaid shall, when duly licensed as herein-after provided, be 
entitled to have and receive all the Profits and Emoluments of and 
belonging to the said Office, and shall also be liable in respect thereof, 
so long as he shall hold the same, to perform all such spiritual and 
ecclesiastical Duties within such District, Parish, or Place as the said 
Rector or other Incumbent, with the Sanction of the Bishop of the 
Diocese, may from Time to Time require ; but such Person in Holy 



APPENDIX XL 103 

Orders so appointed or elected as aforesaid shall not by reason of such 
Appointment or Election have or acquire any freehold or absolute Right 
to or Interest in the said Office of Church Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or 
Parish Clerk, or to or in any of the Profits or Emoluments thereof, but 
every such Person in Holy Orders as appointed or elected as aforesaid 
shall at all Times be liable to be suspended or removed from the said 
Office, in the same Manner and by the same Authority, and for such or 
the like Causes, as those whereby any stipendiary Curate may be 
lawfully suspended or removed ; such Suspension or Removal neverthe- 
less being subject to the same Power of Appeal to the Archbishop of the 

Province to which any stipendiary Curate is or may be entitled. 
* ♦ * ♦ * 

V. And be it enacted, That if at any Time it shall appear, upon 
complaint or otherwise, to any Archdeacon or other Ordinary that any 
Person not in Holy Orders, holding or exercising the Office of Church 
Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk in any District, Parish, or Place 
within and subject to his Jurisdiction, has been guilty of any wilful 
Neglect of or Misbehaviour in his said Office, or that by reason of any 
Misconduct he is an unfit and improper Person to hold or exercise the 
same, it shall be lawful for such Archdeacon or other Ordinary forthwith 
to summon such Church Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk to 
appear before him, and also by Writing under his Hand, or by 
such Process as is commonly used in any of the Courts Ecclesi- 
astical for procuring the Attendance of Witnesses, to call before 
him all such Persons as may be competent to give Evidence or 
Information respecting any of the Matters imputed to or charged 
against such Church Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk as 
aforesaid ; and such Archdeacon or other Ordinary shall and may, if 
he see fit, examine upon Oath, to be by him administered in that 
Behalf, any of the Persons so appearing or attending before him 
respecting any of the Matters aforesaid, and shall and may thereupon 
summarily hear and determine the Truth of the Matters so imputed to 
or charged against such Church Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk 
as aforesaid ; and if upon such Investigation it shall appear to the 
Satisfaction of such Archdeacon or other Ordinary that the Matters so 
imputed to or charged against such Church Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or 
Parish Clerk are true, it shall be lawful for the said Archdeacon or 
other Ordinary forthwith to suspend or remove such Church Clerk,* 
Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk from his said Office, and by Certificate 
under his Hand and Seal directed to the Rector or other officiating 
Minister of the Parish, District, or Place wherein such Church 
Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk held or exercised his Said Office, 
to declare the said Office Vacant, and a Copy of such Certificate shall 
thereupon, by such Rector or other officiating Minister, be affixed to the 
principal door of the Church or Chapel in which the said Church 
Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk usually exercised his said office ; 
and the Person or Persons who upon the Vacancy of such Office are 
entitled to elect or appoint a Person to fill the same, shall and may 
forthwith proceed to elect or appoint some other Person to fill the same 



104 APPENDIX XL 

in the Place of the said Church Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk so 
removed as aforesaid: Provided always, that the exercise of such 
Office by a sufficient Deputy who shall duly and faithfully perform the 
Duties thereof, and in all respects well and properly demean himself, 
shall not be deemed a wilful Neglect of his Office on the part of such 
Church Clerk, Chapel Clerk, or Parish Clerk, so as to render him liable, 
for such Cause alone, to be suspended or removed Therefrom. 



APPENDIX XII. 105 



APPENDIX XII 



Draft of a licence to a parish clerk to read prayers, 

church, and bury. 

[This document has been copied from MS. Rawlinson D. 818 in 
the Bodleian Library. It is the draft of a licence to Thomas Dickenson, 
parish clerk of Waltham Holy Cross, given by Dr. John Mountain, 
Bishop of London, sometimes to read prayers, church women, and bury 
the dead. 

I owe my knowledge of the document to the Rev. W. D. Macray, 
LittD.] 

John by the providence of God Bishop of London To alU [f. 174. 
our welbeloved in Christ, Thomas Dickenson parishe Clerke of the 
Churche and parishe of Waltham holy crosse in the Countie of Essex 
and of our Dioces and iurisdiccion of London sendeth greting in the 
Lorde 

Whereas we have receyved certificate from the right worshipfull 
Master Joseph Hall Doctor of Divinitie Deane of the Cathedrall 
Churche of Worcester and preacher at Waltham holy crosse aforesayd 
that the parishe of Waltham aforesayd is very spacious and large many 
of the howses in the same parishe being far of from the Churche by 
reason whereof the Curate ^of the same Churate* of the same Churche 
cannot at all tymes be had to performe the^ duetye^s etcetera of his office 
and calling- in visiting the sicke buriall of the dead churching of women 
and other busines belonging to his office and calling without further 
helpe he being called vppon to performe seuerall services at one and the 
same tyme 

and therevppon petition hath byn made to vs and our say^ Chaun- 
cellor *in regard of the multitude of Churche busines there* to graunt 
our* licence and aucthoritie to you the sayd Thomas Dickenson 
^sometimes in absence of* '^to assist'- the Curate there -in burying [f. 1 74^ 
of the^ *to reade praiers churche and bury* dead corpses in that parishe 
^n the absence of the Curate there, or when he cannot conveniently in 
his owne person performe the same,'^ and our sayd Chancellor hath 
decreed* the same to be graunted 

* struck through, '^ — ^ struck through. 

* The struck through and his luritten in margin. 
* — •* intrrlined. 

^ a w beginning the line has been written before creed and then struck out. 



io6 APPENDIX XIL 

We therefore the Bishop aforesayd in regard of the necessitie of 
this service to be performed and to thintent that the Curate there may 
have more libertie and the better oportunitie to visit the sicke and 
performe the other dueties of his calling have and doe for the reasons 
before expressed licence and aucthorize you the sayd Thomas 
Dickenson now parishe Gierke of that Churche and parishe from tyme 
to tyme hereafter 4n the absence of the Curate there or when the 
Curate cannot conveniently performe his duetie in his owne person 
'sometimes to reade prayers* to bury such* ^sometimes to reade praiers in 
the Churche of Waltham holy crosse aforesayd and to church women 
and to bury suche* dead Corpses as hereafter shalbe to be buryed in 
your parishe Churche or Church yard in the absence of the Curate there 
or when the Curate cannot conveniently performe the same duetie* in his 
owne person, so as in the same premisses^ you observe and kepe the 
wordes and order prescribed in the booke of common prayer now by 
lawe established and not otherwise. 

In witnes whereof we have caused the scale of our Chancellor Vhich 
we vse in this behaulfe' to be set to these presentes. 

Dated at London this 12 of January according etcetera. 162 1. 



i_i struck through, ^ — ^ interlined and struck through. 

8 — ^3 interlined, * interlined, 

® burialls struck through and premisses interlined. 



APPENDIX XIIL 107 



APPENDIX XIII. 



John Godolphin on the right to Elect the Parish Clerk. 

0/ Parsons and Parsonages. 

* * ♦ ♦ * 

CHAPTER XVII. 

* ♦ * ♦ * 

Whether the Parson may appoint the Parish Clerk ? 

(15.) At a Synod in 44. Ed. 3. a Canon was made, That the Parson 
of every Church of England shall appoint the Parish-Clerk. And at 
another Synod held in An. 1603. a Canon was made to the same effect ; 
and yet it doth not take away the Custom where the Parishioners or 
Church-wardens have used to appoint the Clerk because that is 
Temporal, which cannot be altered by a Canon.* If the Clerk of a 
Parish in London hath used time out of mind to be chosen by the 
Vestry^ and afterwards Admitted and Sworn before the Archdeacon, 
and he refuse to Swear such Clerk so Elect, but Admits another 
chosen by the Parson : In this Case a Writ may be awarded, com- 
manding him to Swear the Clerk chosen by the Vestry. 22 Jac. 
WalpooPs Case. The like Writ was granted for the Clerk of the 
Parish of St. Fosters^ London. Mich. 16. Car B. R. between Orme 
and Pemberton? The Parishioners of the Parish of Alphage in 
Canterbury prescribed to have the Nomination and Election of their 
Parish Clerk, and the Parson of a Parish by force of a Canon, upon 
voidance of the place of the Parish-Clerk, elected one to the Office : 
The Parishioners by force of their Custom elected C. the Parson, 
supposing this Election to be Irregular, for that it was against the 
Canon sued C before Dr. Ne[sK}//ian Chancellor of Canterbury^ and 
the said C. was by Sentence deprived of the Clerkship of the Parish, 
and another Clerk of the Parish Admitted. C, moved for a Prohibition, 
and had it granted by all the Court ; for it was held. That a Parish- 
Clerk is a meer Lay-man, and ought to be deprived by them that put 
him in, and no others ; and the Canon which willeth that the Parson 
shall have Election of the Parish-Clerk, is meerly 'void to take away the 
Custom, that any person had to Elect him. Vid. Stat, 25 ZT. 8. That 
a Canon against Common Law, confounding the Royal Prerogative of 
the King, or Law of God, is void ; and Custome of the Realm cannot 

^ M. 24 Jac. B. R. Walpole & Gale, per cur. & Roll. Abri. ver. Prerogative, lit Y. 
- Roll ib. lit L. 



io8 APPENDIX XIII. 

be taken away but by Act of Parliament. Vid. 21 Ed. 4. 44. And it 
was Resolved, That if the Parish-Clerk misdemean himself in his 
Office, or in the Church ; he may be Sentenced for that in the 
Ecclesiastical Court to Excommunication, but not to Deprivation : 
And afterwards a Prohibition was granted by all the Court ; and held 
also, That a Prohibition lieth as well after Sentence in this Case as 
before.^ And in Germin's Case, Whereas the Church-wardens and 
Parishioners of K. surmized Ihey had a Custom to place a Clerk there 
by the election of the Vestry : the Parson sued them in the Ecclesi- 
astical Courr, to have his Clerk placed there, according to a late Canon 
made : It was the Opinion of the Court, that it was a good Custom, 
and that the Canon could not take it away ; wherefore a Prohibition 
was granted.- 

(John Godolphin, Repertorium Canonicum^ Chap. xvii. § 15, London, 
Atkins for Chr. Wilkinson. Third ed. 1687. p. 19a.) 



^ Pasch, 8 Jac. C. B. Gaudy vers. Dr. Neutnan. Brownl. Rep. par. 2. [This is 
almost word for word as in Richard Brownlow's Reports (a second Part) London, 
16152. p. 38.] 

*■* Trin. 21 Jac. B. 'K.Jermin^s Case Cro. par. 2. 



APPENDIX XIV. 109 



APPENDIX XIV. 

The Office of the Parish Clerk of Barrow on 

humber about 1713. 

[The following transcript was made by Mr. Robert Brown, Junior, 
F.S.A. from the Town's Book of Barrow on Humber ; and it has been 
very kindly placed at my disposal for the purposes of this work. The 
book from which the extract is taken is a manuscript of forty-eight 
pages and is in the old vellum binding ; it appears to contain a com- 
plete list of the parishioners and landowners in a.d. 1709. On p. i 
is "the Towns Book of Barrow containing the Dues and customs 
belonging to the said Town One Thousand seven Hundred and 
nine'' also "the ministers Tiths and Dues 1713." 

On p. 4 begins " the office and Duty of the parish Clerk." 

On the last page of the book the sections which relate to the clerk's 
wages are repeated. 

The book, says Mr. Brown, who has added several notes, is a com- 
pilation of different dates. One page is headed ** the Townes paines 
maid and Agreed by the lury in Barrow Court Anno Dom. 1553," and 
the entry may be of that date. 

The document has been printed by Mr. Christopher Wordsworth in 
the Lincoln Diocesan Magazine for May and June, 1901, from a tran- 
script found by accident and apparently made many years ago ; which, 
however, does not accord in all particulars with the text as now edited. 
The same may be said of that printed by the late Mr. Thomas 
North, F.S.A. in the Antiqiiary^ 1880, vol. ii. p. 95.] 

/The office and Duty of the parish Clark. [p. 4 

[i.] Item. — He is to atend the Church or within the parish when he 
is officiated in his function : he ought carefully to lay up the Comunion 
Cloth Carpet and Surp[lice] Cloath Cushun Books and other things 
Appertaining to the Church. 

[2.] Item. — He is to see that the Church Chan[c]ell and seats be 
swept and keep hansome and Deasent ; he ought to attend the Church 
at such times as there is any manner of Churching or buriall and to tole a 
bell and Ring a lettle According to the accustome manner ; he must be 
carfull that no boys or Idle persons Janle the bells or abuse the 
Church or windows ; he shall or is to pike grease or oyle and keep the 
Bells in good order ; and if they be defected in any thing he is to 
aquant the churchwardens that they be mended in convenient time. 



no APPENDIX XIV. 

[3.] Item. — He is to Ring a Bell att nine a Clock in the morning 
and at 4 at afternoon every working day from munday in the first whole 
week of Lent untill Easter. E.x.[cep]t such days as there are praye[r]s 
in the Church. 

[4.] Item. — He is to Ring a bell every working day in the mo[rn]in 
break of the day and continue the Ringing thereof untill allst^ day and 
also to Ring a Bell every eve about sunseting till Harvest be fully 
ended ; which bells are to begin to [ring] from the first begin[ning]. of 
Harvest. 

[5.] Item. — He is to provide and pay a workman for mowing [p. 6. 
and stowing upon the 14 acre dale belonging to the westcote and to 
see the ordering and bringing to the Church before midsumer day and 
to pay the waineman for Loading there of every Load four pence ; he 
is to give notice to the owner or farmer occupior of Wistcote \sic), 

6.] Item. — About a week before Christmas and Easter that hee 
before other of those feasts send one Load of strow to the Church stiell 
where the Clark shall receive It and take care to Lay it in ye seats and 
in^ and in^ Like maner pay the wainman for every Load 4^/. which 
strewing of strow shall at Last belong to the Clark. 

[7. "I Item. — He is to ring a bell for the ringing of the Cor phew 
begin ing at St. Andrews eve and ending at Candlemas eve and provide 
Candles for the Ringers and continue in the bell House all the time of 
ringing and be carefull that nothing their Suffer abuse or Damage. 

/The Clark's Wages 171 5 May 12th. [p. 7 

[8.] Item. — Hee is to Receive at Easter for every plough Land eight 
pence ; and after that rate for every greater or Lescer quantity : Like- 
wise of every Cottager 3^/. except such as do recive Colliction. 

[9.] Item. — for every plough Land he is to have for ringing 9 a Clok 
Bell 4 of the Clok Bell and night bell and Day Bell 2 pecks of wheat 
and rye or masheldine^ and after the rate for a greater or Lesser quan- 
tity of l^and. 

[10.] Item. — He is to have at every wedding or marrige in the parish 
dd, for every passing bell 4^. for every soull knell 4^. : If the friends of 
any deceased person desire to have the great bell Rung a little before 
the Corps be brought to the Church the Clark for Ringing the bell 
shall have one shilling ; If any person shall willingly or carefully over 
turn A [a] bell the Clark may demand of him one shilling for that 
offence which if he denys to pay the Clark may sue for it in the Cort 
and be Jnsested by the parishoners therin 1715. 



All Saints? *— ' and in : repeated. ^ Cf. mashlum, mixed grain. 



NOTES. Ill 



NOTES. 



P. 1. Over the top of the title page is written : hie \two words illegible] 
liber Feb. 25, 1602. Rector de Gawsworth. 

Dr. Scott thinks that the two words which cannot now be read, even after 
the application of ammonium sulphide, may be William Brownall^ who 
according to George Ormerod was Rector of Gawsworth in 1597. {History 
of . , , Chester^ London, 1819, vol. iii. p. 294.) The latter word 
certainly appears to end in ell. 

On the right hand edge is written vertically : William Moreton. 

P. 2. No. VI. of the table of contents gives no mention of confirmation, 
which occurs immediately after the communion on p. 34, below. As a 
matter of fact no order for confirmation appears in this book, though in the 
order for confirmation of Edward VI.'s first book there are versicles and 
responds in which it might be supposed that the clerk took a part. The 
word confirmation probably slipped into p. 34, by carelessness. 

The Prayer Books that appeared before the publication of this book 
had no psalter attached to them. The last paragraph Here is to be 
noted^ therefore, is needed to explain the way to find the psalms of the 
day. 

P. 8. 7 he ordre how the Psalter^ &^c. appears in full in Edward VI.'s first 
book : the last paragraph This is also to be noted is taken from the Ordre 
howe the rest of holy Scripture, &^c, a leaf beyond. 

P. 4. This is also identical with the table in Edward VI.'s first book. 

PP. 6- 16. The /Calendar. I do not detect any important difference 
between the Kalendars of the two books. 

P. 17. In the margin a seventeenth century hand has written the 
references to the psalms from which O Lord open thou my lips and O God 
make good speed to save me are taken. Similar references are scattered in 
the margin, together with tryings of the pen, of which no notice will be 
hereafter taken in these notes. 

The ordre for Matty ns is that in Edward VI.'s first book. 

P. 24. Ordre for Euensong is that of Edward VI.'s first book. 

P. 26. This headline Evensong over Quicunque vult is to be found in the 
first book of Edward VI.'s, and in the Durham book (see above, p. xiv.) and 
in the Elizabethan edition of 1559, the headline is Euening prayer. But in 
editions of 1596 and 161 5, it has become Quicunque vult. This was again 
altered in 1661, and became At Morning prayer. 

The version of Quicunque vult is that of Edward VI.'s first book, not of 
the psalter of 1 548. 

Grafton's edition of Edward VI.'s first book, Mense Martii, has instead of 
Christian veritie the words Christian unitie. (B.M. C. 25 m. 14.) 



112 NOTES. 

P. 28. The text of the Litany is that of Edward VI.'s first book, not of 
the psalter of 1 548, which retains the invocation of the mother of God, the 
angels, and saints generally. But its place is not the same. In 
Edward \'I.'s first book it comes after the order for the Conmiunion. Here 
it comes immediately before. 

F. 84. Ail thai appertein^ &c. has Confirm<icion immediately after 
Communion^ but the book does not contain the order for Confirmation, and 
the table of contents (p. 2.) also omits the word in the list. 

After this place Edward VI.'s first book is no longer followed verbally. 
Those parts which are read or sung by the clerk become prominent, while 
the priest's part is often omitted. The variation shows itself early ; for the 
Introit is marked as coming first of all and nothing is said of the Lord's 
prayer, which the priest repeats at the opening of the Order in Edward VI.'s 
first book, though the cue of the collect follows after the introit 

P. 85. Here, after Let us praie, there is again a somewhat unintelligent 
following of Edward VI.'s first book, as the collect of the day which came 
before the collect for the King is wholly omitted, and only the collect for the 
King has its cue. 

The epistle, it should be noted, may be read by the priest or clerk. 

The creed is left imperfect 

P. 36. The Offertorie. The oflfertory sentences are from Edward VI.'s 
first book. 

When I was young it sometimes happened that the clergyman who read 
the epistle read the offertory sentences, but this custom now seems entirely 
to have died out. 

The two exhortations before them in Edward VI.'s first book are omitted 
here. 

P. 38. The Preface being the priest's part is left out, and only Sanctus 
given in full in which the clerk joins. The whole of the canon (as it is called) 
is omitted, together with the confession : the latter omission is remarkable, 
as the confession might, under the rubric of Edward VI.'s first book, very 
reasonably be recited by the clerk. It runs thus : Then shall this generall 
confession be tnade, in the name of all those that are mynded to receaue the 
holy Communion^ eitJter by one of theim, or els by one of the Ministers^ or by 
the Priest him selfe. The absolution, comfortable words and prayer of 
humble access, as might be expected, are not given. John Merbecke's 
Booke of Common praier noted (Grafton, 1550) does not contain the 
confession, but the canon is given at length. 

P. 30. Agnus Dei and the anthems at the Communion are as in 
Edward VI.'s first book. 

P. 41. Here again only the cue for the thanksgiving after Communion 
appears ; and none of the Collects to be said after the Offertory^ when there 
is no Communion is printed. These, however, appear in the Durham book. 
(See above, p. xiv.) 

'Y\ii^ c\x&\^ Almighty and euerliuyng^ \i\v\\^ in one of Edward VI.'s first 
books it is Almighty and everlasting, (B.M. C. 25, m. 14.) 

P. 42. Of the Form for Matrimony, nothing is printed until the psalm, 
when the clerk joins in its recitation ; the Kyrie, Lord's prayer, and versicles 
are printed, as the clerk joins in these. 

The psalms are not given in full as in Edward VI.'s first book, for the 
clerk would have them at hand in the psalter at the end of the book. 



NOTES, 113 

P. 43. Only the cue of the first of the final prayers appears. There is 
nothing of the final exhortation. 

P. 44. Peace be within this house is somewhat different from the early 
books of Edward VI. which have Peace be in this house. 

The versicles and responses appear, but only the cues of the priest's parts 
are given. 

P. 46. In this Communion of the sick is shown very markedly the desire 
to omit whatever is not said by the clerk. The epistle is given at length, 
being read by the clerk ; but the collect and gospel and canon have nothing 
but the cues. 

The Kyrie^ to which in Edward VI.'s first book is added .the note, 
without any more repetition^ is wholly omitted ; though it might be expected 
that the clerk would have taken his part in answering once Christ have 
mercy upon us. 

P. 48. In Merbecke's Booke of Common praier noted (Grafton 1550, 
sign. Q. ii.) these three opening verses are treated as response with a 
versicle. So also is Man that is borne with In the middest, 

I commende is struck out and in the margin is written For as much ; 
almightie is also struck out and after is written : For as much as it hath 
pleased Aim, god to tak vnto himself e the soule of this our brother. These 
are attempts in the seventeenth century, perhaps early, to accommodate 
the book to the Elizabethan prayer book. 

P. 49. In margin opposite Let us prcUe is [0]mit al that foloweth. This 
is again a signal to the user of the book in the seventeenth century. 

In the lower margin under ps. C. xlvi. is written Hue [usque]. 

These notes appear to be in the same hand as the writing of the top of 
the title page. 

The lesson is given at length for the benefit of the clerk. 

P. 50. In lower margin of sign. d.'iv. b, is written in a hand like that on 
sign. d. ii. b. 

Aim, god with whom do live the sp, of the depart, hence in the lo : and in 
wh. the soule ofthos that be elect. 

Aim, god who art the resurrection and life in whomsoever beL sh. Hue, 

P. 51. Parallel with the head line is also written : omit alle the end, 

P. 62. The epistle is given at length for the benefit of the clerk. 

P. 68. Under Purificacion of women is written in same hand as before : 
For as much as it hath pleased god to give you safe deliverance and hath. 
After O almightie God etc. is written : which hast safly deliver, 

P. 54. Nothing is given of the homily or of the " Curses," to which the 
answer of Amen might have been led by the clerk. 



Notes to Appendix I. 

p. 67. It will be seen from the items of this Appendix that the " deacons " 
at Coventry performed duties very similar to those of the parish clerk. At 
Ludlow, also, from 1541 to 1564 there were "deacons" who rang the bells, 
read the first chapter, wore surplices, and had a "deacons chamber." 
Thomas Higges, being deacon, was paid £^. 6. 8 for a whole year s wages. 

CLERK. I 



114 NOTES. 

{Churchwarden^ accounts of the Town of Ludlow^ ed. Thos. Wright, Camden 
Society, 1869, pp. 8, 35, 47, 119, 134, 139, and elsewhere.) All that we know 
of them points to the Ludlow " deacons " being parish clerks, as those at 
Coventry were. It seems to be much the same at St. Nicholas Bristol where 
bequests to " the deacon and suffragan " and " the clerk and suffragan " occur 
in wills, apparently meaning the same officers. (T. P. Wadley, Notes or Ab- 
stracts of the Wills . . . «/ -5rr>/^/, Bristol and Gloucestershire Society, 
1886, p. II.) 

The deacon and suffragan are also spoken of in 140 1, at St. Mary Redcliffe. 
(p. 61.) 

§ I. Vestment here includes all the mass vestments, and is not limited to 
the chasuble. 

P. 58. § 7. Compare the order at St. Michael's Comhill in 1596 : *' It is 
ordred that the Saxton shall after service don presently carry in the Bible 
and service books to the vestry to be locked for the better saffetie of them 
and that the Church dore shalbe kept shut in the week daies after service 
times whereby boys and others maie be kept forth frome doeing damage." 
(Waterlow and Overall, Accounts . , . St. Michael Comhill^ 1872, 

P-253.) 
§ 9. See below Appendix III. § 13, Appendix VI. § 3. 

§ 10. This section seems to suggest that in the beginning the "deacon" 
was a man in deacon's orders, and thus able to read the gospel himself : that 
he ceased to be in holy orders and became a mere clerk, when he had to find 
a real deacon to perform this part of his duties. See also below, § 34. The 
practice of setting men in minor orders, or no orders at all, to do the office 
of sub-deacon or deacon seems very widely spread. The singing men at 
Worcester and Winchester in the seventeenth century read the epistle and 
gospel. (See Introduction, p. xxiii.) 

Or the opposite may be suggested. In St. Cyprian's days the reader read 
the gospel. {Epistolae^ xxx. and xxxiv. ed. Migne.) Is it that when first 
instituted the clerk read the gospel as his fellow read the epistle, but that 
an increasing desire to limit the service of the altar to men in holy orders 
was the cause of the clerk being made to find a deacon to sing the gospel ? 

§ 12. At St. Ewen's Bristol, in 1457-8 they paid \]d. "for the clansyng of 
the gutters of the churche whan the grete snow was " ( Transactions of the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archceological Society ^ 1890-91, vol. xv. p. 168.) 
Similar items may be met with elsewhere. But at Coventry the clerks had 
to do this work. See § 53. Also at Bledlow in 1782. 

§ 13. The priory door at Coventry may be the same as the priory gate of 
which Thomas Pennant speaks : " Pass by Cookstreet Gate, on the outside of 
the city, and a little further, by the Three Virgins, or Priory Gate, between 
which there is a complete part of the wall." {fourney from Chester to 
London, London, 1782, p. 150.) In Hamper's copy of Dugdale's Antiquities 
of Warwickshire, preserved in the British Museum [C. 45. k. 2.] there is a 
plan in the first volume with priory gate marked to the north of Holy Trinity 
Church. 

The form was very likely a thing at which the priest could kneel, what we 
now call a litany desk. It was easily moveable, for it was to be brought away 
from the priory door to the body of the church before the rood. The Rev. 
Dr. Fowler has pointed out "a forme to serve in procession tyme" at 
Cheswardine, Salop, in the time of Queen Mary Tudor. 

{The Ornaments of the Rubric, Alcuin Club Tracts, 1897, p. 48, by 
J. T. Micklethwaite, quoting from the Rev. Dr. J. T. Fowler, Church TimeSy 
December 7th, 1883, p. 901. col. ii.) 

And at Syon they had on Ash Wednesday for the seven penitential psalms 
" a lytel forme " for the priest and his ministers, taken away when the seven 



NOTES. 115 

psalms were ended. (G. J. Aungier, History and Antiquities of Syon Mon" 
astery^ Westminster, 1840, p. 343.) Also, after compline, before taking holy 
water, there was a "forme or deske" that "the president only may lene to" 
and kneeL {iind. p. 334.) 

If they followed at Coventr>' the Sanira processional, the priory door might 
well be the place of the first station, during which the executor officii had to 
kneel, and thus might be glad of the support of a "form." In like manner, 
the priest had to kneel at Ave rex noster sung before the rood. {MisscUe 
adusum . . . 5an//y7, Burntisland, 1 861 -1883, col. 262.) 

Ai/e rex noster is an anthem found in many parts of western Christendom ; 
in Spain, Germany, and France, as part of the procession on Palm Sunday. 

At Bristol they made in 1 572, a charge of two pence for " 4 legs and 4 bal- 
lusters to the forme to kneele at procession tyme." (J. F. Nichols and John 
Taylor, Bristol past and present^ Bristol, 1881, voL ii. p. 37.) The litany in 
£hzabeth's time was thus still called procession, and Robert Burton later 
on uses the same word : " We may doe well therefore, to put this in our 
prccessiont amongst the rest : from all blindnesse of hearty from pride^ 
z'azne-glory^^ etc. {The Anatomy of Melancholy^ Part i. Sect. 2, Memb. 3, 
Sub-section 10, at end. Oxford, 162 1, p. 143.) 

§ 14. The holy water stock would seem to be moveable ; what is now 
called the holy water bucket. 

§ 1 5. At Easter and Whitsuntide the font was hallowed, and fresh water 
brought. See below § 20. 

This towel is spoken of in the Sanim manual. " Verumtamen in sabbato 
sancto pasche et in vigilia penthecostes peracta consecratione fontium 
non infundetur oleum neque crisma : nee ulterius in officio baptismi 
procedatur nisi forte aliquis assit baptizandus : sed lintheamine mundo 
cooperiantur : et usque ad completorium pasche et penthecostes reseruentur. 
ut si forte his diebus aliquis baptizandus aduenerit : fecundatis et sancti- 
ficatis fontibus olei et cnsmatis infusione baptizetur." {Manuale ad usum 
insignis ecclesie Sarum^ Rothomagi, loan. Richardus, 1501, fo. xliii. b.) 
About 1850 the custom still prevailed at West Luccombe in Somerset of 
covering the font with a linen cover after the water was poured in for 
baptism. {Hierurgia Anglicana^ ed. Vernon Staley, London, 1902, voL i. 
p. la) At Milan a sort of linen canopy is hung over the font continuously. 

§ 16. Rex sanctorum angelorum is a metrical hymn, called a litany in the 
Sarum books, sung returning from the blessing of the font at Easter and 
Whitsuntide. The Sarum rubric directs that it shall be sung by three clerks 
of the upper grade in silk copes, two of which are to be red, the third white. 
{Processionale ad usum . . . Sarum^ ed. Henderson, Leeds, 1882, 
p. 90.) This also favours the idea that at Coventry the Sarum Missal 
was in use, as the other printed missals do not have Rex sanctorum 
angelorum, 

§ 17. This carrying of holy water gave his name to the clerk, aguae- 
baiulus; and was a source of profit to him. See Introduction above, p. li. 
and Lyndwood, Proz^inciale^ Lib. iii. tit. De concessione prcubendae^ cap. 
a fiostriSy Oxon. 1679, P- ^42- 

§ 18. On Sundays the holy cake was blessed after the blessing of 
the holy water, and then distributed, {Missale . . . Sarum, 6d- F. H. 
Dickinson, Burntisland, 1 861- 1883, col. 33** and 36**) "cut according 
for every man's degree." 

The xii. day is the twelfth day after Christmas, the Epiphany. See § 59, 
below. The mending of the surplice doubtless became a mere excuse for 
demanding a Christmas box. 

§ 20. This takes one back to a time not so very long ago when there was 
no system of waterworks, and water laid on in every building. There used 

I 2 



Ii6 NOTES, 

to be in English villages a man who came with a horse and butt, the bitter, 
who brought potable water to peoples' houses. 

The water on Easter even and Whitsun Eve was for the new water that 
was to be blessed in the font. That on Shere Thursday (Maundy Thursday) 
was for the washing of the altars. A birche besom for this (§ 26) was to be 
provided by the first deacon, and wine and a holy water bucket were to be 
had ready by the second (§ 69.) 

" 1 509. For water for the funt on Wytson-yevyn. . . . 

"1520. For water to be halowed on Maundy Thursday for the alters 
and Estureven for the fountain." (? Font ; St. Mary Hill, 1520, in Nichols, 
Illustrations^ London, 1797, pp. 105 and 108. 

" 1 549-50. Paid for water for the Founte for one yere Sm* y]d. 

"1550-51. P'd to ihe water bearer for water viij^. 

" 1 556-57. Payd For wattar For the Fontt at Whyt sonteye i^/." 

(Churchwardens' accounts for St. Matthew, Friday Street, edited by W. 
Sparrow Simpson, Journal of the British Archceo logical Association^ 1869, 
vol. XXV. p. 361.) 

P. 69. § 23. This is further evidence that the palms and branches hallowed 
and distributed on Palm Sunday furnished the ashes for the following Ash 
Wednesday. It was so at Syon. (G. J. Aungier, History and Antiquities of 
Syon Monastery^ Westminster, 1840. p. 343.) 

§ 24. The palm on Palm Sunday seems more often to have been found by 
the churchwardens. The charge, including cake and bread, appears in the 
churchwardens' accounts. 

" Flowrs obleyes, and for box and palme ayenst Palme sondaye o. o. 6." 

" For palme flowrys and cake on Palme Sonday o. o. 10." 

(St. Mary Hill, in Nichols, Illustrations, London, 1797, pp. 11 1 and 105, 
i486 and 1 510.) 

" Paide for palme, boxe, yewe, flowers, and cakes for Palme Sondaie 
viijd. ob." 

(Waterlow and Overall, Accounts , , . St, Michael Comhilly London, 
about 1872, p. 128.) 

" Paid for Syngyng brede on Palm Sonday ij." 

{Ch^x\ts Ktxty, A history . . . St. Lawrence Reading, KesLding, iSS^. 
p. 49, year 37-38 of Henry VI H.) 

"152 1. Item spent uppon palme sonday for caks, flowers, box and 
palm, vijd." 

"1556. Item for palme flowers and cakes for palme Sondaye xijd." 

(St. Peter chGa.p, /oumal o^ the British Archaeological A ssoctation, 1068, 
vol. xxiv. p. 261 and 263.) 

There is a description of the Palm Sunday procession contained in a 
dialogue given below. Though the conversation is somewhat onesided, 
yet by leaving out the interpretation of the ceremonies and questions upon 
them, a tolerably consecutive account of the procession can be supplied. 
It is written from a standpoint not scoffing at, nor yet wholly approving of, 
the old ceremonies, and it appears amongst the collected Workes of one 
Thomas Becon printed in 1563. If it be Becon's, it may be evidence of the 
grave deterioration of character that took place in ten years when he wrote 
The Displaying of the Popish Mass. 

" In the begynnynge of the Procession the people goethe oute hauynge 
euery one a Palme in theyr hand followynge the Crosse which is couered 
with a clothe . . . that whiche they beare in dede in theyre handes, 
is not properlye called a Palme, for they are the bowes of a Salow tree, but 
bycause we haue no Palmes growinge in this londe, therfore do we beare 
them in stede of Palmes . . . Than go they forthe withe the Crosse, 
vntyll they come vnto a certayne stedde of the Chyrche yearde, where they 



NOTES, 117 

stonde styll, and in the meane season, the preste rede the gospell . . . 
The Gospell beynge once done, than goth the people forthe withe the crosse 
that is couered, and euen streyglitwayes not farre from them come other 
people and the preste wyth the Sacrament, whyche haue wyth them a crosse 
bare and vncouered, prycyked ful of grene Oliues and Palmes ... ye 
shall note, that there come forthe certayne chyldren before the naked 
Crosse, syngynge a certayne songe, whiche begynnethe. En Rex uenit. 
Beholde the Kynge commeth . . . After the songe of the chyldren, the 
Preste goeth forthe with the Sacrament and certayne people also wythe the 
naked Crosse, vntyll hey mete wythe that Crosse, that is obuelated and 
couered. They are not so soone met, but the bumbled Crosse vanyshe awaye, 
and is conueyed from the company streyghtwayes. Than all the whole 
people enclose togyther wyth great ioy, syngyng and makyng melody 
triumphantly foUowynge the naked crosse, bearynge in theyr handes euer>' 
one a Palme, in some places also they beare grene herbes in the stede of 
Oliues . . . These thynges once done, than the people gothe somewhat 
further vnto the chyrche dorewarde, and there stondeth styll . . . 
Immediatly after certayne chyldrenne stondyng vpon an hygh place right 
agaynste the people, synge wythe a lowde voyce a certayne Hympne, in the 
prayse of oure Sauioure lesus Christ, whych begynnethe, Gloria laus . . . 
At the end of euery verse, the chyldren caste downe certayne cakes or breades 
wythe floures . . . These thynges once done than gothe the procession 
forth vntyll they come to the chyrche dore whyche, whan they come vnto it, 
is sparred, and certayne chyldren in the chyrche syngyng. The songe 
beyng once done, the Preste taketh the crosse in his hand, and putteth 
the dore from hym with it, and so openeth it, and entreth in with all the 
other people after him . . . Whan they are once entred into the chyrche, 
whereby heauen is signifyed, than dothe all the people knele downe, and the 
prest pluckyng vp the clothe, wher with the crucifyxe was couered, and 
makyng it open to all that are there presente, syngethe a certayne songe, the 
people in the meane season prayeng and gyuynge thanckes vnto God, And 
so endeth the Procession." 

{A Potacion or drinkyngefor this holy tyme of Lent ... by Theodore 
Basille, London, John Mayler for John Gough, 1543. Brit. Mus. C. 21. a. 7. 
This is printed among Thomas Becon's Workes in the edition of 1 563.) 

The "bumbled Crosse" would seem to be the cross that is covered. 
Bumbles are a bandage or blindfolding, for blinkers for horses. See 
Dr. Murray's New English Dictionary^ s.v. 

There is an allusion to the meeting of the two crosses, and the casting of 
cakes in another work written in the form of a dialogue, but altogether on the 
protestant side. 

"They haue their laudable dumme ceremonies with lenten crosse, and 
vptide crosse, and these two must iustle, til Lent breake his uecket. Then 
cakes must be cast out of the steple, that al the boys in the parish must 
lie scambling together by the eares. tyl all the parish falleth a laughing, . 
. . But Lord what Apes play made thei of it in great Cathederal churches, 
and Abbaies ? 

" Nich. What did they there ? 

" Oliu. One comes forth in his albe, and his long stole (for so they call 
their girdet that they put aboute theyr neckes) thys must be leashe wise, as 
hunters weares their homes. This solempne syre, played Christes part, a 
gods name. Then another companye of singers, chyldren and al, song in 
priksong, the lewes part. And the deuil (the deacon I should haue said) read 
the middel text. 

" Nicho, What dyd the prest at the alter al this while ? 

" Oliu, He stood mum, and played ludas, that betrayed his Mayster. 



ii8 NOTES, 

And in the meanetime, because it was teadiouse to be vnoccupyed, such 
playne soules as thou art, made crosses of palme, to set vpon your dorss, and 
to beare in your purses." 

{A Dialogue or familiar talke between two neighbours^ Roane, Michael 
Wodde, 1554. sig. D. iii. Brit. Mus. C. 25. c. 26.) 

§ 25. The sepulchre, wherein after Evensong on Good Friday were 
deposited the Eucharist and the cross {Processionale Sarum^ ed. 
Henderson, Leeds, 1882, p. 72.) was watched by the second deacon on Good 
Friday night (§ 65.) and by the first deacon on Easter Even, until the procession 
which preceded the Mattins of Easter Day. {Breviarium . . . Sarum^ 
cd. Procter and Wordsworth, Cambridge, 1882. fasc. i. col. dcccvii.) 

The Lenten cloths that covered the images and the crosses during Lent 
were taken down after this procession, and before Mattins. {ibid. col. dcccix.) 
At St. Helen's Abingdon in 1555 they paid the sexton eightpence "for 
watching the sepulter two nyghtes " (Nichols, Illustrations^ p. 141.) So at 
St. Michael's Worcester, he had in 1543 twopence beyond his wages. (John 
Amphlett, Churchwarden^ Accounts of St, MichaePs in Bedwardine, 
Worcester^ Oxford, 1896, p. 12.) If the clerk were paid more as a rule for 
this watching of the sepulchre, we see why it is expressly said at Coventry 
that the watching is to be part of his duties, so that he could not claim an 
extra fee. 

§ 26. The rites at the washing of the altars on Maundy Thursday will be 
found in the Sarum Processional, ed. Henderson, 1882, p. 59. 

" Aftyr hygh masse, or els aftyr mete, al the autyrs schal be made bare, 
and the mynyster of the sextry schal ordeyn for two bysoms made of boxe 
and ewe that was halowyd on palme sonday for waschyng of the autyrs, and 
he, or els the mynyster of high masse, schal helpe the sextayn to halowe the 
holy watyr, and ordeyn for cruettys of wyne and cuppys for to powi*e watyr 
up on the autyr." (G. J. Aungier, op. cit, p. 348.) 

§ 27. The discipline rods were for use on Good Friday. Sir Thomas 
More speaks of the lady who wept when she remembered " that the priest 
had on good friday with the dyspelying roade beaten her hard vppon her 
lylye white hands." (Quoted by D. Rock, Church of our Fathers^ London, 
1853. vol. iii. part ii. p. 241. as in controversy with Tindal. I have been 
unable to find the quotation.) 

In 1 5 10 at St. Mary at Hill together with the " watur of MawnJy Thursday 
and Estur ewe" they bought " disseplynyng roddis, and nayles, for the 
sepulchre." (Nichols, Illustrations^ p. 105.) 

"Palme stickes, ludas bels with candels blowen out at the ende of euery 
Psalme and lesson, crepinge to the crosse with egges and apples, dispelinge 
with a white rodde, wasshinge of aultares." 

([lo. Olde.] A short description of Antichrist^ fol. 8. British Museum G. 
11,694.) 

The mention of the discipline rods is with other things connected with 
passion tide : palm, tenebrae candles, creeping to the cross, and washing of 
altars. William Lambarde likewise speaks of them with other Lenten cere- 
monies : " their takinge of Ashes, coveringe of Images, strewinge of Flowers, 
bearinge of Palmes, soundinge of Clappers, beatinge on Bookes, disciplinge on 
the Heades and Handes, ceasinge of Belles at one Tyme, and soundinge with 
Belles, Voyce, and Organs, like a black Sanctus at an other Tyme." 
{Dictionarium Angliae Topographicutn^ London, 1730. p. 459, sub voce 
Wytney.) 

"For disciplining rods and trash for the sepulchre, is, id. For keeping 
clean the Pdrdon Churchyard, i6d. For Easter Even a quarter of coals for 
the holy fire, 5^." (T. B. Murray, Chronicles of a City Church , , , St, 
Dunstan in the East, London, 1859. p. 13. accounts for 1494.) 



NOTES. 119 

Discipline rods were used also at other times, as we may see at Rome at the 
present day. 

" This yeare, the Sondaie after AU-hallowe daie, did certene prestes ther 
penaunce at Poules, and went before the procession, ech of them in a whit 
shirt, with a tapere in one hand, and a whit rode in the other. In the 
procession, the busshopp came and displed them, and then kyssed them. 
Then they stode before the preacher at Poules Crosse till the praiers were 
made ; then did the preacher disple them, and so they put of ther whit 
vesture, and stode all the reast of the sermond in ther clothes." (J. G. 
Nichols, Narratives of the . . . Reformation^ Camden Society, 1859. p. 289. 
in 1555, perhaps 1554.) 

§ 28. John Meneley was appointed Vicar of Holy Trinity in 1443 : he 
was also a canon of Lichfield, llobert Melborn had an anniversary by an 
indenture dated in 1440. (Thomas Sharp, Illustrations of the History 
. . . Holy Trinity Church Coventry^ Coventry, 18 18, pp. 5 and 18.) 

See also note to § 81. 

§ 29. At St. Michael's Bath, it was the churchwardens who found the 
grease for the bells : in 1460, " in campanis unguendis per an. iij^." and in 
1474 "pro unguento empto pro campanis per an. ijV." (C. B. Pearson, 
Church wardens Accounts . . . of St. Michael without the North Gate, 
Rath, Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society's 
Proceedings, vol. xxiii. Taunton, 1878, pp. 54 and 70.) 

§ 32. There does not seem to have been more than one lamp in the 
church. Rushes were much used in the middle ages to put on the floor 
whether in churches or dwelling houses. See App. XIV. p. no, for a con- 
tinuance of the custom into the eighteenth century. Mr. Cuthbert Atchley 
informs me that it is continued at St. Mary Redcliflfe to this day, but 
only at Whitsuntide. 

§ 33. The sermon by a doctor was marked in othe/ ways than by the 
mere covering of the pulpit with a cloth. There is a scurrilous tract on the 
mass printed at Strassburg in 1554, which contains these lines : 

But looke ye call your selfs master doctor 
And Graduate of the vniuersite, 
Preache in your hoode, and set forthe your honor 
And so declare what learned men ye be. 

(Hugh Hilarie, The resurreccion of the masse, Strasburgh, 1554, sig. 
C. iii.) 

The precedence of a doctor of divinity is marked at the trial of Ridley 
and Latimer. Latimer was thought not to have taken this degree. When 
Ridley was examined, a cloth was laid on the table before him ; it was 
removed when Latimer took his place. (J. Fox, -/4^/^j &c. 1555. October, 
ed. 1563, p. 1372. The pulpits in the frontispiece have cloths hanging over 
them.) 

§ 34. After evensong in the Easter week there was a procession to the 
font, two deacons at Salisbury bearing the oleum catechumenorum and the 
chrisma. {Processionale . . . Sarum, ed. Henderson, Leeds, 1882, 
p. 94.) In a parish church it seems likely that both these oils were kept 
together in one chrismatory, so that one deacon sufficed. 

§ 35. The church holy day is doubtless the feast of dedication which 
lasted a week. Whether the banner were hung from the steeple and 
whether on the banner were blazoned the vicar's arms cannot be told from 
this description. 

At St. Margaret Pattens about 1 506 they bought " a lynen with a Redde 
crosse to hynge up on the dedycacon day." (W. H. St. John Hope, 
Archaeological fournal, 1885, vol. xlii. p. 320.) 

§ 36. See below § 61, It would seem to have been the usual practice for 



120 NOTES. 

the clerk to accompany the parish priest visiting the sick. See above 
Introduction, p. xxvi. 

§ 38. The pictures and images in the church as well as the altar and 
rood were covered with white linen veils from the first Sunday in Lent to 
Easter. Abundant evidence of this use of white cloths in Lent has been 
brought by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope. ( Transactions of the Saint PauPs 
Ecclesiological Society^ 1886-90, vol. ii. p. 237.) The vail in the quire was 
hung between the presbytery and the quire. 

" This tyme of Lent, whiche is a tyme of mournyng, all thynges that make 
to the adoumement of the chyrche wherof the Images are parte, are either 
layde asyde or els couered, to put vs in remembraunce that we ought nowe 
to lamente and mourne for oure soules dead in sinne, and continuallye to 
watche, praye, faste, giue almes, and do such other workes of Penaunce.'* 

(Theodor Basille, A Potacion or drinkinge for this holy tyme of Lent^ 
London, 1543, fo. lix.) 

P. 60. § 39. As early as the time of yElfric's Canons, food was not 
taken in Lent till after evensong ; (B. Thorpe, Ancient Laws . . , 
England^ 1840. p. 487, Canon xl.) and accordingly in laxer times evensong in 
Lent was sung early, so that men might go to dinner much at their usual 
time. 

Thus Sir Thomas More tells us that evensong in Lent was sung before 
noon {The apology ^ Ch. xxxi. in Workes^ London, 1557, p. 895.) as it still is 
abroad. But compline remained at the same hour as usual, so that the bell 
on Saturday had still to be rung. 

§ 41. " But that men vse in saturdaies and vigilies to ryng holy at 
midday compellith nat men anon to halo we, but warnythe them of the haliday 
foUowynge." {Dives and Pauper^ the thridde precept, xiv. chap. London, 
Pynson, 1493, sign. 1. i. ^.) 

In 1540 at Fairstead the churchwardens were to "ryng to even-songe on 
Saterdaiis and other festivall evens." (W. H. Hale, Series of Precedents 
. . . extracted from Act- Books of Ecclesiastical Courts in the Diocese of 
London^ London, 1847. p. 114.) 

In 1 541 at Tey parva they complain of the parson that "he saith non 
evyn-songe upon the Saterdaie at any time in the yere." {ib, p. 123.) 

§ 45. Twopence seems a large sum for the hire of the surplice ; but if we 
believe Chaucer it can hardly have been a venial sin to relieve so bad a man 
of some of his ill gotten gains. 

" Radix omnium malorum. est cupiditas. 
Thus can I preche agayn the same vice. 
Which that I use, and that is avarice." 

{Prologue of the Pardoner^ 140-143, ed. Richard Morris, iii. 89.) 

In 1 5 19, Lestrange of Hunstanton gave the pardoner threepence the first 
Sunday in Lent, and a penny on the third Sunday. {Archaeologia^ 1834. vol. 
XXV. p. 420.) Yet at Christmas only fourpence was offered, (p. 449.) 
Payment by the parishioners at the same rate must have greatly enriched 
the pardoner. 

§ 46. At Ashburton in Devonshire, they collected in 1498-9 the sum of 
xixd. for the bells on the eve of All Souls. (J. H. Butcher, Parish of 
Ashburton in the i$th and i6tk centuries, London, 1870 p. 11.) 

This ringing of bells on All Hallows' day at even continued late into the 
sixteenth century. John Hooper tried to stop it at Gloucester in 1551. 
{Injunctions, § xxxv. in Later Writings, Parker Society, 1852, p. 147.) But 
it continued in some places until 1569, for it is forbidden in that year by John 
Parkhurst, Bishop of Norwich. " 3. Item, that vppon all sainctes daye and 
other like times, ther be no ringing of belles after Euening prayer, or any other 



NOTES. 121 

superstitious ceremony vsed, to the maintenaunce of poperie, or praying for 
the dead, and that if any such shal be hence forth vsed, the same with the 
names of suche as shall ofFende therein, to bee presented to the Ordinary." 
{Second Report of the Commissioners . . . Rubrics, Orders^ Directions, 1868. 
Appendix E. p. 404. See also Aylmer, Bishop of London, in 1577. p. 419. 
Article 8, and many others to the same effect.) 

P. 61. § 49. The ordinal usually means the Pie, the Directorium 
Sacerdotum, which Mr. Christopher Wordsworth edited for this 
Society in 1901 and 1902. But in the Sarum pie the directions for 
bellringing are not prominent, if they exist at all. In this case, the word 
ordinal probably refers to some local custom that was written down, and 
thus could be said to specify. 

§ 53. Compare §§ 11 and 12 above. 

§ 54. This second clerk had to be sub-deacon himself and read the 
epistle while the gospel was only to be read by a deacon whom the head 
clerk had to find. (See above, § 10.) 

P. 62. §§ 56-68. Compare corresponding sections in the head clerk's 

duties. 
§ 63. The new fire had to be blessed on this day at the beginning of the 

ceremonies of Easter. A charge for coals at Easter is very common. As 

example of such there is : 

" For two quarters of colis for the fire to be hallowed o. o. 1 1." 

(St. Mary Hill in 1517. Nichols, Illustrations, London, 1797, p. 107.) 
" Item for colis to be hallowed on Easter yeve id." 

(W. L. Nash, Churchwarden^ account book for the parish of St. Giles 

Reading, Reading, 188 1. p. 13. anno 1520.) 

Other entries make it possible that some of the coals were used for keeping 

the watcher of the sepulcre a little warm. Thus at Ludlow in 1540 they paid 

fourpence " for colis agaynst Chrystmas, Ester, Whitsontyd and Alhalontyd 

to sense with and to weeche the sepulcre." 
{Churchwardens* Account for the town of Ludlow, Camden Society, 1869, 

p. 5.) 

P. 68. § 69. See above, notes to § 26. 

§ 70. See above, notes to § 46. 

^71. There is a noteworthy coincidence with this at Reading. At St. 
Lawrence, in 1 506, they paid " for sysis to the holy bush at Christmas, ix //." 
(C. Kerry, History of St. Lawrence, Reading, Reading, 1883, p. 52). Sysis 
are small wax tapers. Here the churchwardens seem to have paid for these 
decorations ; at Coventry, the Vicar. At St. Ewen*s Bristol, in 1456-57, 
the churchwardens paid "for condels and bowes a geyne Cristesmas." 
(Sir John Maclean, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archae- 
ological Society, 1890-91, vol. xv. p. 168.) Till the middle of the nineteenth 
century it was the custom for the clerk or sexton to deck the church with 
holly at Christmas. We may remember the rebuke, recorded in Washington 
Irving's Sketch Book, that was given by the parson to the sexton for setting 
mistletoe among the greens with which he had decorated the church, and 
the clerk's musical duties which Master Simon, the cousin of the squire, so 
well discharged. 

§ T^. By the Roman Rituale of Paul V. the woman, as she kneels to be 
churched, holds a lighted candle in her hand ; but I do not find any 
direction for this in any of the English manuals that I have looked at ; nor 
could Mr. Cuthbert Atchley in his careful Essay on the Ceremonial use of 
lights {Some Principles and Services of the Prayer Book historically 
considered, Rivingtons, 1899, P* 26, note 2), find any but incidental notices. 



122 NOTES, 

The York Manual {Manuale . . . EdoK Surtees Society, 1875, P- 22 
see also p. 214*), however, speaks of the holy bread to be blessed and given 
to the woman, in accordance with the following canon : 

Item, quando mulieres post puerperium venerint ad purificationem, 
sacerdotes tantummodo dent eis panem benedictum, et corpus Domini nullo 
modo eis proponatur, nisi expresse petant, et prius confessae fuerint. 
(Council held at Durham 1220, D. Wilkins, Concilia^ London, 1737, t. i. 

p. 579.) 
§ 79. See above, notes to § 39. 

§ 81. Apparently the eating and drinking at these dirges took place in the 
church. 

In 1506 at St. Mary at Hill they paid a penny " For hyryng three gallon 
pots to here drinke about the chircnc for the pepyl of the parish [which is 
the deceaseds wyll ; and he that spendyth more to pay it out of his own 
purse without any allowance.] " (Nichols, Illustrations^ p. 104.) 

See above, § 28. 

Some of the details of this kind of drinking at dirges are shown in the 
following extract from Strype's edition of Stow : 

^^ Margaret Atkinsotiy Widow, by her Will, October 18. 1544, orders. That 
the next Sunday after her Burial, there be provided two Dozen of Bread, a 
Kilderkin of Ale, two Gammons of Bacon, three Shoulders of Mutton, and two 
Couple of Rabbits. Desiring all the Parish, as well Rich as Poor, to take 
their Part thereof: And a Table to be set in the Midst of the Church, with 
every Thing necessary thereto." 

(John Stow, A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster^ edited by 
John Strype, London, 1720, vol. i. p. 259. In margin : Regist, Land.) 



Notes to Appendix II. 

p. 64. Memorandum^ etc. Compare the first paragraph of Appendix 
IV. p. 71, and the dispute at Morebath in Appendix VII. p. 84. There is in 
both these a committee of the parishioners who are chosen to look after the 
affairs of the church. 

§ I. The care of the vestments, books, and jewels, the opening and 
shutting of the church doors are the duty of the clerk in many other places. 
It was the Sexton's at St. Michael's Cornhill, in 1596. (See note to 
Appendix I. p. 58, § 7.) 

The church was t) be searched also at St. Nicholas, Bristol (Appendix III. 
p. 66, § I.) and at Morebath. (Appendix VII. p. 84, §1.) 

P. 66. § 2. This care for lost goods is not to be found in any of the 
other rules. 

Notes to Appendix III. 

The notes to which the initials C. A. in square brackets are attached are 
by Mr. Cuthbert Atchley. 

This set of rules is remarkable for the fines set out for any neglect of 

duty. 

P. 66. § 3. The two lamps would be the lamp before the rood, 
mentioned in the accounts for 1521-22, 1534, and 1539-40; in 1547-48 it is 
"the lanipe that dyd brene befor the Rodlofft": and that "within the 
ynterclows" (1523) i.e. in the quire before the high altar. The lamp before 
the Lady-altar was bought in 1532. [C. A.] 



NOTES, 123 

P. 67. § 10. The dressing of the altars meant putting on the front and 
over front, and the ridells, and displaying the "Jewels" on the reredos. 
"Jewels" included all such things as images, caskets, monstrances, etc. 
The practice is still retained in royal chapels. Besides the high altar the 
accounts mention our Lady altar and St. John's altar. In 1 556, the accounts 
mention the "four altars": and there were four in 1432. {Vestry -book ^ 
fol. 12). [C. A.] 

In later times the clerks were paid for brushing the cobwebs and dust 
from the altars and imagery : 1527, for Brusshyng of the highe aulter and 
the Rode loffte, xxd. There was begun in 1468, a notable new work over 
the high altar in the quire, called a " Reredors." It contained an image of 
St. Nicholas on the north side of the altar, one of St. Blaise on the south, 
and in the middle an image of the Trinity above and of our Lady below ; all 
gilt. {Vellum-leaved Vestry -book^ io\, 24.) In 1542 43 are payments for 
makyng and gilding the images of Adam and Eve and the Angel, and a 
mitre for an image of St. Clement. [C. A.] 

§ 13. To the amount of a full half of quarter of an hour. Curfew seems 
to have been rung at St. Nicholas for the whole town. [C. A.] 

§ 14. For the boy bishop. The Mayor and Corporation attended both 
evensongs and mass of St. Nicholas, 6. December, listened to the boy- 
bishop's sermon and received his blessing. After dinner they waited his 
coming at the Gildhall, playing dice the while ; and when he arrived, his 
chapel {i.e. choir) sang, and he and they were served with bread and wine. 
{The maire of Bristow is Kalendar by Robert Ricart^ Camden Society, 
1872. p. 80.) In 1528. Pd. to the clarke for dressyng vp the byshopes 
stale, viij^. [C. A.] 

§ 1 5. The Host and a Crucifix were buried in the Sepulchre from Good 
Friday till Easter morning. 1530: Pd. to the Clerkes to sett vppe the 
sepulcur, x^. Similarly in 1520. [C. A.] 

P. 68. § 30. The under suffragan, at this date called Lymner, appears 
to be a different person from the suffragan ; probably a third clerk. [C. A.] 

§ 35. It would seem that only one torch was to be ready for each mass. 
During the middle ages it was very common to have one light only at the 
altar during the celebration of the Eucharist. There is abundant testimony 
for this from the canon law, liturgical writings, and pictures. 

P. 70. §2. Sospitati dedit aegros olei perfusio, Nicholaus naufragantum 
affuit praesidio is the beginning of the prose that used to be sung in the 
Sarum use after the ninth respond at mattins on the feast of St. Nicholas, 
6. December. Evidently the clerks went roimd the parish singing this 
hymn after the fashion of the Waits and Carol-singers of later days, and the 
"avails" or "tips" obtained on this occasion went to the parish-clerk. 
[C. A.] 

For the text of Sospttatt see Procter and Wordsworth, Brevtartum . . . 
Sarum^ Cambridge, 1886. fasc. iii. col. 36. For numerous other references 
see U. Chevalier, Repertorium Hymnologicuin^ Louvain, 1889-97, sub voce 
Sospitati dedit. 

It may be remembered that parish clerks are under the patronage of 
St. Nicholas. The London Company was the Fraternity of St. Nicholas. 

§ 3. The following was the distribution of the " blacks " at Christchurch 
Canterbury in 16 14, November 25th. 

"It is agreed that the Blacks of funeralls shalbe disposed as folio weth 
vizi. 

" That the herse cloth which compasseth the rales of the solemne herse 
where soever in the church shalbe for the sacrist 

" The Stoole cloathes shalbe to the vestiars 



124 NOTES, 

"And the Bere cloath which lyeth ouer the graue shalbe to the Bell 
ringers." (Acta Capitula, 1608-28. p. 131, in the Treasury at Canterbury.) 

See also above, Introduction, p. Ivii. 

§ 5. What is the vantage of virgin on All Hallows' day ? The fee would 
seem to have been of some amount ; for in return the suffragan was to 
perform a daily service. 



Notes to Appendix IV. 

p. 71. The expression quarterage^ which holds so large a place in the 
payment of the clerk, here makes its appearance in 1434. This document 
shows a very interesting process going on of rating houses according to 
their value for the benefit of the clerks. 

The Elizabethan table of wages may be compared with that given in the 
Introduction, p. Ivii. 



Notes to Ajppendix V. 

p. 76. § 2. In 1506 it was not so easy to obtain light or fire as now, 
when lucifer matches are everywhere at hand. At St. Mary Ottery, for 
example, they kept a light continually burning in the church, not only for 
reverence of the body of Christ, but aleo for those who might want fire. 
(G. Oliver, Monasticon Diocesis Exoniensis^ Exeter 1846, p. 273, § 2.) 

It has been said that a light was necessary for the due celebration of 
mass : at least one candle had to be burning, usually on or near the altar. 
It is just possible that the light or fire which was to be continually in the 
chancel before noon every day was to serve for all the masses said in the 
church. 

See below, note to § 22, on p. 79, where the sexton has to keep the 
lamp in the quire burning day and night. 

The clerk is to wear a rochet as in so many other cases. (See above, 
Introduction, p. xxxix.) 

§ 3. There does not appear to be any ceremony indicated here, such as 
was practised at Sarum at high mass after the introit, when bread, wine, and 
water were brought to the altar. {Missale . . Sarum, Burntisland, 
1861-1883, ed. F. H. Dickinson, col. 589.) We are dealing here with the 
ceremonies of low mass, and it. will be noticed that the clerks brought in the 
chalice and took it out again into the vestry ; nowadays the priest carries 
it himself. As at Faversham so did the sufifragan at St. Nicholas Bristol, 
(see above, p. 67, § 17) but at high mass. In Mr. Percy Dearmer's Dat 
Boexken vander Missen (Alcuin Club, 1903, p. 8), there is a Flemish 
woodcut showing the subdeacon bringing in the cruets, and the deacon the 
chalice, to the altar. 

§ 4. Mr. Giraud has pointed out to me the place at the west end of the 
parish church, which is called the treasury. Above it is the room in which 
the sexton is said to have slept. See note to § 8. 

§ 5. Breast here is the voice ; see Shakspere, Twelfth Night, II. iii. 18. 
*' The fool has an excellent breast ... so sweet a breath to sing, as the fool 
has." Also line 54. Cf. Dr. Murray, New English Dictionary, sub voce. 

Faburdon is faux-bourdon, ** a simple kind of Counter point to the Church 
Plain Song." (Geo. Grove, Dictionary of Music, 1880, Macmillans.) The 
same authority tells us that it was much in use in England in the fifteenth 
century. 



NOTES. 125 

§ 6. To synge with is to sing mass with, that is, the fresh water was to be 
used for the mixing of the chalice, and for rinsing it out after the cdmmunion 
of the priest. 

Probably the cruets were of metal, not, as in our more economical days, 
of glass, and therefore there would be the greater need of careful cleansing 
of the inside. 

P. 77. § 8. It was not unusual for a man to sleep in some part of the 
church to guard against thieves. At Ludlow they had a deacon's chamber 
in Elizabethan times. {Churchwardens;' Accounts . , . of Ludlow, 
Camden Society, 1869, p. 139.) 

§ 10. To teach children to read implied in 1506, instruction in the 
rudiments of Latin, especially if they were also to help in the quire and 
service in the church. 

P. 78. § 14. The ba^on and ewer which be ordained for the christening 
of children may be found elsewhere. In 1522, Agas Herte of Bury 
bequeathed " to the chyrche of Seynt Jamys a basen and a ewer of pewter 
hamerd, to be vsyd at crystnyng of chyldern in the seyd chyrch as long as 
it will indure." ( Wills . . , of Bury. ed. by Samuel Tymms, Camden 
Soc. 1850, p. 116.) Also William Holme, Vicar of Mathesay, left in 1466, 
"j. pelvim cum lavacro ; et volo quod huiusmodi pelvis et lavacrum 
deserviant temporibus baptizationis infancium." ( Testamenta Eboracensia, 
Part ii. Surtees Soc. 1855, P- 279.) 

§ 15. This oath is apparently different from that to be taken at 
admission to the office by the archdeacon ; it is a separate promise to 
observe the local order. 

§ 16. See above, notes to § 4. 

§ 19. See above, notes to § 41, of Appendix I. 

P. 79. § 22. See above, note to § 2 on p. 76. 

§ 24. skomeryng of doggs. The expression is found in Elizabethan 
writers. The following quotation shows the word used much in the same 
sense as in the text : 

a brace of grey hounds. 
When they are led out of their kennels to scumber. 

Massinger, The Picture, V. i. 61. 



Notes to Appendix VI. 

The fines for neglect of duty appear again in this set of rules, but not so 
uniformly as at Bristol. (Appendix III.) 

P. 82. § 2. Whatever may have been the practice in cathedral churches 
and monasteries, this is evidence again that mattins were not sung at 
midnight in parish churches, but much later in the day. Here at 
St. MichaePs it is seven in the morning. This may also have been the hour 
at Coventry ; certainly not before half past six, for this was the time at 
which the second clerk had to ring for mattins. (See above, p. 61. § 48.) 
Nine o'clock is the usual hour for high mass, but evensong was often sung 
at three, not at two o'clock. It was at three at Coventry. (§ 5. of 
Appendix I.) 

P. 83. § 7. The ordinal in this case is most likely the Sarum Pie, or 
Directorium Sacerdotum. It has been lately edited for this Society by 
Mr. Christopher Wordsworth. 



126 NOTES, 

§ 9. High mass on holidays not doubles was served only by a deacon. 
It seems likely that one of the clerks took upon him the office of subdeacon, 
and read the epistle. 



Notes to Appendix VII. 

p. 84. This is a very interesting and unusual document. Morebath, a 
small parish on the borders of Devonshire and Somerset, under 3,500 acres 
in extent, " in the hundred of Bampton, and in the deanery of Tiverton, lies 
about two miles from Bampton, and nine from Tiverton. The small village 
of Exebridge is partly in this parish, and partly in that of Brushfield, in 
Somersetshire." (Lysons, Magna Britannia^ vol. vi. Devonshire, London, 
1822. p. 355.) 

P. 85. § 4. A steche of dene corne. See F. H. Stratmann, Middle 
English Dictionary^ by Henry Bradley, Oxford, 1901. Sub voce Stiicche, a 
piece, fragment, y>wj/«»/. But in this document it would seem to have a 
more definite meaning, 
line 12 from bottom. 

Timewell, East and West, are shown close to Morebath on the 25-inch 
Ordnance map. 

P. 86. 

line 6. Sir William Trystram Vicar of Bawnton />. Bampton which 

is near to Morebath. 
line 12. The vicar seems here to have discharged the clerk on his own 

authority, 
line 14. Our Lady at Lent is the annunciation, March 25, which fell 

this year on Palm Sunday. Here we pass into 1 537 : Easter day 

being on April i. 
line 19. Lytell ester day seems to have been Low Sunday, 
line 9 from bottom. Vigilia Sancti Georgii, A^ril 22. St. George is 

the patron saint of Morebath. 

P. 87. 

line 20. We see how needful a clerk was for the celebration of mass. 

line 15 from bottom. In 1532 Sir Hugh Paulet was in the commission 
of the peace for Somerset. {Cal. State Papers^ Henry VIII. vol. v. 
No. 1694. Entry ii.) He was the eldest son of Sir Amias Paulet. 
{Diet. Nat. Biography.) 

line 13 from bottom. Mr. Hu Stycly may be Hugh Stukeley, one of 
the family of Stukely of AfFeton. A Sir Hugh Stucley died in 1560. 
{Diet. Nat. Biography ») He seems to have been a man of some 
local importance, as he is joined with Hugh Paulet in trying to 
quell the disturbance. A Hugh Stucle came into Affeton in the 
fifteenth century by marrying the heiress. (Thomas Westcote, 
View of Devonshire^ Exeter, 1845, p. 470. note.) 



Notes to Appendix VIII. 

p. 91. § 9. The clean water is for the blessing of the font at Easter 
and Pentecost. They bought water at Coventry for the font at these seasons. 
See above Appendix I. p. 58. § 20. 

§ 10. This is in obedience to the injunctions of Thomas Cromwell. (See 
Introduction p. xxxv.) 



NOTES, 127 

§ 14. In Lent time to compline. Evensong was said in Lent before 
dinner. See the notes to § 39 of Appendix I. 

§ 15. The jewels which adorned the altars were any kind of plate, gold 
or silver. The high altar of Westminster Abbey was adorned in this way 
for the coronation of King Edward VII. and the effect is said to have 
been magnificent. (See Guardian^ 1902. August 13. p. 11 49. col. iii.) 

P. 92. § 27. It may be supposed that by the translation of St. Stephen 
is meant his invention, celebrated on the 3rd of August. 

P. 93. § 30. Shall in confession tell it to the Curate and the names of the 
persons &^c. Does this mean sacramental confession ? 

Notes to Appendix IX. 

p. 94. In a blank column of a Sarum Breviary written in the fifteenth 
century, there has been added by a later hand the following verses, as an 
anthem to a part of Miserere in the vernacular. The manuscript is now in the 
British Museum.' (Add. MS. 32,427. fo. 141.) 

Remember your promys made yn baptym 
And crystys mercyffull bloud shedyng 
By the wyche most holy sprynklyng 
Off all your syns youe haue fre pardun. 

Attention was called to these verses in 1879 by the Rev. H. T. Kingdon, 
who has since become bishop of Fredericton. A facsimile of the anthem 
with the musical notes is also given. ( Wiltshire Archceological and Natural 
History Magazine^ Devizes, 1879, vol. xviii. p. 62.) 

The verses were also known to Latimer : 

What maister Latimer being bishoppe of Worcester taught al them 01 his 
dioces to say, in geuing of holy water. 

|[ Remember your promise in baptime, 
Christ his mercy and bloudshedding, 
By whose most holy sprinkeling 
Of al your sinnes you haue free pardoning. 

What to saye in geuing of holy bread. 

|[ This is a token of ioyfull peace 
Betwene God and mans conscience. 

(John Fox, Actes and Monuments^ London, 1563. p. 1348.) 

Notes to Appendix X. 

p. 98. Strictly speaking January 28th, 1548, to January 28th, 1549, is the 
second year of Edward VI. but this note, almost contemporary, strengthens 
the suspicion that the ceremony of the holy loaf had been put down before 
the issue of Edward's first book. 

line 8 from bottom. In Queen Mary's reign, J. Whayre and T. Colens 
were churchwardens. (Lewin G. Maine, A Berkshire village^ 
Oxford, 1866, p. 102.) 
last line. Yardlands, Yardland "is a quantity of land, different 
according to the place or country ; as at Wimbleton in Surrey, 
it is but fifteen acres, in other counties it is twenty, in some 
twenty-four, and in others thirty, and forty acres." (Giles Jacob, 
Netii Law Dictionary^ London, 1772.) 
Cotsettulls. " The piece of arable land (of about 5 acres) held along with 



128 NOTES. 

his cot by the Old English cotset or cottar." (Murray's New English 
Dictionary^ sub voce Gotland.) 

P. 97. 

line I. meeses^ messuage, dwelling house with garden. 

line 4. Some of the houses that have not given the holy loaf can still 

be traced. The parsonage to the north of the church had at the 

time of my visit only just passed out of the hands of the 

Ecclesiastical Commissioners into private hands. It was called 

the rectory. The vicarage, close to the rectory, is inhabited by 

the Vicar. The farm called the manor house is to the south of 

the church, and was once the property of the family of Knollys 

and still shows traces of its former estate : and there is yet a 

smith's forge on the green. But I could not identify the church 

house, or Ganders. 

Of the Church house Aubrey says : " In every Parish is, or was, a 

church howse, to which belonged spitts, crocks, etc., utensils for dressing 

provision. Here the Howsekeepers met, and were merry and gave their 

Charitie : the young people came there too, and had dancing, bowling, 

shooting at buttes, etc., the ancients sitting gravely by, looking on. All 

things were civill and without scandall." (John Aubrey, Topographical 

Collections^ ed. by J. E. Jackson, Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural 

History Society, Devizes, 1862. p. 10.) Mr. Jackson remarks in a note that 

" in many parishes in Wiltshire there is still to be met with some old house 

called * The Church House ' where this took place." At Stanford in the 

Vale there is still a feast kept by the people on the day of St. Denys, in 

whose honour the church is dedicated. 

Notes to Appendix XIV. 

p. 109. Barrow-on-Humber is in Lincolnshire, opposite to Hull, and 
close upon 6,000 acres in extent. 

§ I. I think this means that the clerk is to attend the parson at the 
church or anywhere within the parish when the clerk is officiating in his 
function, as helping in visiting the sick, baptising infants in peril of death, or 
any other duty away from the church. 

P. 110. § 4. We may compare the following extract from a newspaper. 
" The parish clerk of Driffield attained his eightieth birthday last week ; and 
on Saturday he completed his fifty-fifth year of ringing the harvest bell at 
five o'clock every morning for 28 days during harvest." {Standard^ 
September 22nd, 1903, p. 8, col. 4.) 

§ 5. Mr. Christopher Wordsworth suggests very reasonably that it would 
be better to leave out the item before § 6 and to make a fresh paragraph or 
item at " he is to give notice " : so that the item would run thus : 

§ 6. He is to give notice to the owner or farmer occupier of Westcote 
about a week before Christmas and Easter, etc. 

In the text I have preserved the arrangement of the manuscript. 

§ 6. " The Rushbearing. . . . This ceremony consists of carrying to 
church the rushes intended to be strewed on the clay floor under the 
benches, which are piled neatly up in a cart, and a person constantly attends 
to pare the edges with a hay knife, if disordered in progress." (G. Ormerod, 
History of , , . Chester^ London, 181 9, vol. i. p. liv.) 

§ 8. " Plowland ... in respect of repairing the highway is settled 
at ;^5o a year." (Giles Jacob, New Law Dictionary^ London, 1772.) But 
see the third Essay in F. W. Maitland, Domesday Book and beyond^ 
Cambridge, 1897. 



INDEX. 



Absolon, clerk in Chaucer, zxxix. 

AediiuuSf 1. n, 

Aelfric, Canons, 12a 

Age of Clerk, xli. 99, 100, loi, 102, 

Albs, 59, 61, 68. 

Ale, Clerk's, Ivii. lix. n. 88. 

All Saints, Bristol, Clerk's rules, 63, 122. 

visit sick, xxvi. 

care of ornaments, xxx. 

clean church, xxxii. 

open church, xxxiv. 

wages, Ix. 
All Souls, gathering, 60, 63, 7a 

ringing xxvii. 120. 
Almighty and ever living Gody canon, 38. 

post communion, 41. 

mentioned, xv. 
Almighty everlasting God, 46. 
Almighty God unto whom all hearts, 34. 

whose kingdom, 35. 
Almighty God with whom do live, 113. 
Almighty God which hast given us grace 

at this time, 33. 
Almighty, God who art the resurrection, 

113. 
Altar, arraying, xxxi. 58, 63, 67, 76. 

serving, xxxiii. 87, 126. 
Amices, 68. 
Anne, Queen, xxxvii. 
Appoint, see Choosing. 
Aquaebaiulus, li. 1 1 5. 

mentioned, xxvii. xlviii. Hi. Ix. 
As with this visible oil, 45. 
Asaph, St. visitation, 102. 
Ash Wednesday, commination, 54. 

mentioned, xii. 

palms burnt, 59, 62, 116. 
Atchley, Cuthbert, vii. 64, 66, 121, 122. 
Athon, John of, xxi. xxxv. xlviii. «. 
Aubrey, John, Iviii. 128. 
Augustine, St. Canterbury, xvii. xix. xli. 
xlvi. 

customary of Abbey xxi. n, 
Ave rex noster, 58, 1 15. 
Ayliffe, John, Parergon, xxxvi. 1. «. 
Aylmer, Bp. visitation, xxiil 1. 121. 

CLERK, 



Bakewell, xxiv. 

Baldwyer, Richard, xlix. 

Bale, John, xxvi. 

Baptism by parish clerk, xliv. xlv. n 

fees for, Ivi. 
Barnes, Richard, Injunctions, xxxvii. 
Barrow on Humber, viii. xxvii. xxviii 

xxix. xxx. xxxiii. 109, 128. 
Bartholomew, St. the less, lix. 
Bartholomew, St. Exchange, li. Ivii. n, 
Basille, Theodore, Potation, 117, 120. 
Barton Turf, Norfolk, Ivi. 
Bason and Ewer, 78, 125. 
Beaumont and Fletcher, Ivi. 
Beaumont, F. M. viii. 57. 
BecUi omnes, 42. 
Becon, Thomas, xxxv. 
Bells- 
ringing, xxvii. 

mentioned, 58, 59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 
68, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 91, 92, 98, 
100, loi, 102, 109, no, 121. 
Saturday, 60, 78, 1 2 1, 
care of, xxix. 
fees for, Ivi. Ivii. 70, 81. 
Benedict, rule, xli. «. 
Bettedicite omnia opera, 17. 

mentioned, xv. xvi. 18, 19. 
Betiedictus, 21. 

mentioned, xv. xvi. 
Beresford Hope, A. J. B. xxxiii. xlv. 
Bickley, Francis B. ix. 
Binney, J. Erskine, viii. 84. 
Bishop, boy, 67, 123. 
Bishop Stortford, see Michael, St. 
Blacks, funeral, Ivii. 70, 123. 
Bledlow, Bucks — 
surplice, xl. 
wages, lix. 
snow, 114, 
Blessed are all they that fear, 42. 
Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, 

21. 
Blois, W. de. Constitutions, xxii. xxxviii. 

lii. 
Boniface, canon of, xlviii. lii. 

K 



I30 



INDEX. 



Books — 

care, 57, 58, 61, 64, 67, 68, 76, 91, 
92, 98, loi, 102, 109. 

carrying, xxvi. 
Bread, holy, see Jjoaf, 
Bread — 

singing, 92. 

for communion, liv. 96. 
Brian, John, xlii. 
Bridlington, psalter, xiii. 
Brinckman, Arthm*, ix. 
Bristol, xl. xlvi. 115, see All Saints and 
SS. Nicholas, Stephen, Ewen, Mary 
Redcliffe. 
British Magazine, 57. 
Brown, Robert, jun. viii. 109. 
Burgo, John de, xxii. xxiii. 
Buiml of the Dead — 

order, 48, 

mentioned, xii. 34. 

communion at, 52. 

Epistle read by clerk, xxii. 

clerks at, Ivi. 60, 62, 63, 90, 91, 98, 
109. 

performing, xliv. 100, 105. 
Burnet, Gilbert, 94. 

Burton, Robert, Anatomy of Melancholy, 
115. 



Cake, holy, see Loaf. 
Cakes— 

at Christmas, Iv. 

Palm Sunday, 116. 
Calixtus II. xlii.;;. 
Came, Dorset, lix. 
CampanariuSy xxvii. 

Candles, xxix. xxxiii. 90, 97, 121, 123, 
124. 

churching of women, xxx. 63. 
Canon, 38. 

mentioned, 46. 
Canon law, xviii. xix. xxi. 123. 
Canons of 1603, xx. xxiii. xxvii. xxxiv. 1. 
98, 107. 

44 Edward III. 107. 
Canterburjr — 

visitation, xxii. xliii. xlvii. 

canon, xlviii. 

dispute, xlix. 

See Augustine, St. 
Car, Roger, xv. 
Carthage, 4 Council, xvii. ». 
Casuals, 91, 93. 

Catton, Sir William, xxxvi. xlix. 
Cawood, xxix. 
Cayaca, council, xxxviii. n. 
Censers. 67, 68, 91. 
Censing by clerks, xxxii. 63, 67, 82. 
Chaderton, William, xxiii. 
Chalice, brought in, 124. 



Character of clerk, Ixii. 
Charles I., xxxvi. 
Chasuble, 67. 
Chaucer, Absolon, xxxix. 

little clergeon, xli. 
Chichester — 

visitation, xliv. 99. 
Choosing of Parish Clerk, xlviii. Ixii. 98, 

100, 107. 
Chrismatory, 59, 119. 
Christ is risen from the dead, 49. 
Christchurch, Newgate, lix. 
Christening of children, 73, 78, 91, 125, 

see Baptism. 
Christie, James, vii. xxxv. xxxvL 71. 
Church house, 97, 128. 
Churching of women, see Purification. 
Cleaning church, xxxii. 58, 62, 65, 67, 

69, 77, 79, 90, 92, 98, 99, 100 loi, 
102, 109, 123. 
Clerks, to say or sing, 2, 34. 

to sing, 58, 61. 
Clifford, Bp. of London, xxi. 
Coals at Easter, 62, 118, 121. 
Collects — 

Mattins, 23. 

Evensong, 25. 

Communion, 34, 35. 

Communion of sick, 46. 

mentioned, xv. 
Collins, W. E.,1. n. 
Cologne, Council, xxvii. n. 
Commination, 54, 113. 

Clerks, xlviii. 
Common Prayer book, xlviii. see Edward 

VI. 
Communion — 

order for, 34. 

mentioned, xxii. 2, 23. 

of the sick, order for, 46. 

epistle read by clerk, xxii. 35, 46, 

52. 
Communion, sentences after, 39. 

Communion Table, 98. 

Company, Parish Clerks, xxxvi. xl. Ixi. 

123. 

, Compline — 

Saturday, 60, 120. 

ringing for, xxvii. 60, 63, 68, 91, 

120. 

English, xvi. 

Confirmation, mentioned, 34. 

Contents of Clerks* book, 2. 

Copes — 

Easter even, 58. 

principal feasts, 67, 76, 91. 

evensong, 68. 

Cosin, John, Visitation, xxxii. xl. 100. 

Cotsettulls, 96, 127. 

Cotton, H. Aldiich, Stanford-in^the- 

Vale, ix. 96. 



INDEX. 



131 



0)yentiy— 

Alexander, Bp. of, xxiv. xxxix. IL 
rules for clerks, viiL 57, 113. 
name for, 113. 
clerks sing, xix. 

read epistle, xxi. 
visit sick, xxvi. 
ring, xxviL 
lamps, XXX* 
churching, xxx. 
vestments, xxx. 
array altar, xxxi. 
fetch coals, xxxii. 

,, water for font, 58, 126. 
clean church, xxxii. 

„ snow, 1 14. 
light lanterns, xxxiiL 
open church, xxxiv. 
surplice, xxxix. 115. 
number, xlvi. 
holy water, liii. 
holy loaf, liii. 
Sarum books, 115. 
Coxwold, xlix. 
Crabbe, Borough^ Ixi. 
Creed — 

Apostles', at Mattins, 22. 
Athanasius, 26. 
Nicene, 35. 
Cromwell, Thomas, xxxv. 126. 
Cross, 70, 90, 117. 
Crowley, Robert, psalter, xvi. 
Curfew, xxviii. 61, 67, 78, 90, 91, 98, 

no, 123. 
Curll, Walter, visitation, xliv. «. 
Curses on Ash Wednesday, $4, 113. 
Cyprian, St., xli. 114. 



David's, St., visitation, xxix. 
Deacon — 

reading gospel, 58. 

at mass, 83, 114, 126. 
Deacons — 

name for clerks, 57, ^8, 59, 61. 113. 

as parish clerk, xxxvi. xxxvii. 102. 
Dead, burial of, see Burial. 
Dearly beloved^ visitation of sick, 45. 
Dedication day, 59, 63, 1 19. 
Denjrs, St., Stanford, 128. 
Deus misereatury matrimony, 42. 
Dewick, E. S., ix. 
Dilexi quontam, 49. 
Dickenson, Thomas, parish clerk, I05y 

106. 
Directorium Sacerdottim^ 83, 121, 125. 
Dirige, 59, 63, 98. 

feast at, 122. 
Discipline rods, 59, 62, 118. 
Divine Service, clerk sings, xviii. xix. 
xxvi. 



Doctor preaching, 59, 1 19. 
Doddridge, Sidney £., ix. 
Domine exaudi^ 44. 
Domine probastiy 49. 
Doncaster, injunctions, xxxv. 94. 
Driffield, 128. 
Duchesne, L., xli. n, 
Dunstan, St., Canterbury — 

psalter, xiii. 

Pontifical^ xvii. tu 
Durham — 

psalter viii. xiiL 

Council, 122. 

visitation, xl. 100. 

number of clerks, xlvi* 



Easter — 

font, 58, 62, 91, 1)5, 116. 

sepulchre, 59, 62. 

coals, 62. 
Eastham, xx. 

Ecclesiological Society (Cambridge), 
xxxi. xxxiii. 

revival, xxxiv. xli« 
Edmund, St., Salisbury, Ivi. 
Edward the Confessor, laws, xxxviii. n, 
Edward VI.— 

second year, 94, 96, 127. 

first prayer book, xi. xii. xiii. xv. 
xvii. xxii. liv. iii, 113, 127. 

clerk's diminution in number, xlvi. 

holy loaf, liv. 127. 
Edward VII. coronation, 127. 
Eeles, F. C, xxiii. 
Egbert, Pontifical ^ xvii. n. 
Eggs at Easter, Iv. 
Election, see Choosing. 
Elizabeth, Queen, xx. xxii. xxv. xxviiL 

xiii. 1. 113, 115, 124. 
Elmham, North, psalter, xiiU 
Elmstead, xxi. 
Ely, visitation, loi. 
Enrexvenit, 117. 

Epiphany, surplice, xxxix. 58, 62, 1 15. 
Epistle — 

communion, 35. 

mentioned, xiv. 18. 

at communion of sick, 46, 113. 

burial of dead, 52. 

clerk reads, xiii. xvii. xix. xxi. 
xxxiii. xlviii. 35, 61, 68, 76, 98, 113. 
Ethelbert, King, xvii. 
Eugenius, xli. n. 
Evensong, order for — 

mentioned, xii. xv. in. 

in Lent, 120. 

clerks at, xix. xxvii* 58, 63, 66, 67, 
77, 79, 82, 83, 91. 

Saturday, 120. 

English, xvi. 



I3« 



INDEX. 



Ewen, St., Bristol, xxxix. 114, 121. 
Exceeding; duties, xlii. 99, 100. 
Exeter, visitation, xl. xliv. 99. 



Faux bourdon, 76, 124. 
Faversham — 

clerks' rules, 75, 124. 

clerks sing, xix. 

read epistle, xxii. 

teach, XXV. 

minister sacraments, xxvi. 

ring bells, xxviii. 

lamps, XXX. 

vestments, xxx. 

array altars, xxxi. 

clean church, xxxii. 

fetch fire, xxxi. 

rochet, xxxix. 

number, xlvi. xlvii. 

holy water, liii. 
Fees, Ivi. 

Fire, fetching, xxxi. 76, 82, 91, 124. 
Fisher, Ambrose, xxiv. 
Fleetwood, William, visitation, xxix. 

xxxiii. xxxvii. 102. 
Font — 

hallowing, 58, 62, 115, 126. 

cleaning, 91, 98. 

procession to, 59, 115. 
For as much as it hath pleased^ 113. 
Form for kneeling, 1 14. 
Fowler, J. T., viii. xiv. 114. 
Freehold, clerk's, li. 
Freshfield, Dr. Edwin, ix. 71, 90. 
Funerals, bells at, xxvii. xxix. See 
Burial. 



Gabriel, passing bell, xxviii. 

Gaunt, John of, xlii. 

Gentlematf^s Magazine^ xxv. 

George IV., King, xxxiii. xxxviii. xlv. 

Germany, clerk in, xxvii. 

Giles', St., Reading — 

teaching, xxv. 

keep clock, xxix. 

fees, lix. 
Giraud, F. F., ix. 75, 124. 
Glebe and House, Ivi. 
Gloria laus^ 117. 
Glory be to the Father^ 17. 

at end of Psalms, 18. 
Glory be to thee O Lord, 35. 
Glory to God on high, 34. 
Gloves for Clerk, xl. n, 
God be merciful unto us^ matrimony, 

42. 
Godolphin, John, li. 107. 
Godric, St. xxi. 



Gospel — 

communion, 35. 

mentioned, 18. 

read by reader, 1 14. 

communion of sick, 46. 

„ burial of dead, 52. 

Grafton, printer,' xii. xiv. xv. xvii. ill. 
Grail, clerk sings, 76. 
Grave, making, 73, 81, 90, loi. 
Gregory, St., the Great, xvii. xix. xli. 
Gregory IX., Decretals , xviii. xix. xxL 

xlii. xlvi. 
Grindal, Edm. Visitation, 1. 98 — 

if able to read, xx. xxii. 

keep church clean, xxxii. 

exceeding duties, xliiL 
Gunning, Peter, Visitation, 10 1 



Haines, Walter, Antiquary, 96. 

Hall, Joseph, Visitation, 99. 
Dean of Worcester, 105. 

Harvey, Christopher. See Hervey. 

Have mercy upon me O God, 54* 

Hawkhurst, psalter, xiii. 
dispute, xlix. 

ffear my prayer, visitation of sick, 44. 

Hear us almighty, visitation, 45. 

Hearse cloth, Ivii. 70, 123. 

Henry I. , xxxviii. n, 

Henry VII., xxxvi. xlix. 

Henry VIII. , xlvi. xlvii. lix. 

Herbert, George, xlvii. 

Herbert, J. A., viii. Hi. n, 

Hereford Missal, xxxv. 

Hervey, Christopher, xxxiv. xlvii. 

Hexham, custom, xlv. 

Hincmar, xviii. xix. xxi. xlvi. 

Hobbes, Plymouth, xxxvi. 

Holly, Christmas, 121. 

Holy, holy, holy, preface, 38. 

Hooper, John, Gloucester, 120. 

Hope, W. H. St. John, xxxi. 120. 

Houghton le Spring, Iv. Ivii. 

House and Glebe, Ivi. 

How long wilt thou forget me, 45. 

Hughes, J. R. , viii. Iv. 

Hull- 
married clerk, xlii. 
Barrow opposite, 128. 

Hutchins, B. L., vii. 

Huyk, John, xlii. 



/ am the resurrection and the life^ 48. 

/ am well pleased, 49. 

I believe in one God, 35. 

I commend thy soul to God, 48, 113. 

/ have lifted up mine eyes, 53. 

/ heard a voice from heaven, 49. 

/ know that my redeemer, 48. 



INDEX. 



I3S 



I would not brethren^ 52. 

Ibbotson, Thomas, Ixi. 

In te domine, 45, 47* 

In thee O lord^ visitation, 45, 47. 

In the midst of life^ 48, 113. 

Incense. See Censing. 

Introit — 

mentioned, xiii. xv. 34. 

communion of sick, 46. 
at burial, 52. 

Invitatory, omitted,- 17. 
Irving, Washington, 121. r 
Iselham, Cambridgeshire, xxviii. 
Isidore, St., xvii. xxxiv. 
// is very meet right ^ 38. 



Jacob, Edw., History . . . Faver- 

sham, 75. 
Jacob, GUes, xxiv. 
James II., xxxvi loi. 
James, St., Westminster, xxxvi. lix. loi. 
Jesus said to his disciples, 52. 
Jesus, bowing at name, Ixii. 
Jewels, 64, 90, 91, 92, 122, 123, 127. 
John of Athon. See Athon. 
John de Burgo. See Burgo. 
Johnson, Doncaster Injunctions, 94. 
Johnson, John, xxiv, xxxvii. xlviii. 
Johnson, Dr. Samuel, Ixi. 
Judas, Leo, xvi. 
Juries, exemption, xxxviii. 
Justinian, xli. 
Juxon, William, Visitation, 100. 



Kalendar, 5 — 

mentioned, xii. xv. 1 11. 
Keighley, old customs, xxiv. 
Kennett, WTiite, xxv. 
Kingdcn, H. T,, bishop, 127. 
King's Bench, Court, xxxvii. li. Ix. 



Lamps, to light, xxix. 

mentioned, xxxiii, 59, 66, 68, 79, 90, 
122, 124. 
Lanterns, xxvi. xxxiii. 
Lateran Council, i, xlii. //. 
Latimer, 119, 127. 
Laud, William — 

visitation^ xxiii. 

clerk's ales, Iviii. 
Lauda anima, 49. 
Laurence, St. Reading — 

holy loaf, liv. 

holly, 121. 
Lee, F. G., xxxiv. xli. n. 
Leicester, rochet, xxxix. 
Lent cloths, xxxi. 59, :i8, 120. 

compline, 60, 63, 68, 91. 



Lent, first day of, 34, 54. 
Leo IV. xviii. xix. xxi. xlvi. 
Lessons — 

(in Kalendar) 5-16. 

mentioned, 18, 21, 24, 25, 51. 

burial of dead, 49, 113. 
Lesson, clerk reads, xviii. xix. xxi. xxiv. 

xlviii. 98. 
Let us sing to the praise, xxi. 
Levavi oculos, 53. 
Licence to read services, xliv. 105. 
Lift up your hearts, 3S. 
Lighten our darkness, 25. 
Like as the hart, 52. 
Lincoln — 

visitation, xxiii. xliii. xliv. 1. 

guild, Ixi. 
Litany, 28 — 

mentioned, xv. 

invocation of saints, xv. 

desk, 114. 
Loaf, holy, liii. — 

mentioned, 58, 62, 92, 94, II5» 
127. 

churching of women, xxx. 63. 
Locking church, xxxiv. 58, 61, 64^ 66/ 
100, 102. 

altar, 60, 62. 
London — 

visitation, xxiii. xliii. 1. 100, I2I. 

right to elect, 1. 

licence, xliv. 105. 

Elmstead, xxi. 

number, xlvi. 

sexton, xlvii. 

election, xlix. 
Lord have mercy — 

Matti'ns, 22. 

Litany, 31. 

Communion, 34. 

Matrimony, 42, 112. 

Visitation of the sick, 44, 47, 1 13* 

Burial of the dead, 51. 

Purification of women, 53. 

Commination, 54. 
Lord 710W lettest thou thy servant, 2$. 
Lower Sapey Church, xxxiii. 
Luccombe, West, font, 115. 
Ludlow — 

clerks, 113. 

reading, xxii. 

ring bells, xxviii. xxix. 113. 

psalterj xiii. 
L)mdwood — 

clerks sing, xix. 
„ read, xxi. 

sacraments, xxv. 

visitation of the sick, xxvi. 

surplice and rochet, xxxviii. xxxix,' 

marriage, xlii. 

choosing, xlix. 

K 2 



»34 



INDEX. 



Lyndwood {continued) — 
holy water, lii. 115. 
cakes eggs and sheaves, Iv. 
quarterage, lix. 



Macray, W. D., viii. xxviii. 105. 
Madan, Falconer, ix. xvi. 
Magnijficaty mentioned, xv. xvi. 24. 
Malmesbury, William, xxxviii. n. 
Man that ts borti of a woman ^ 48, 1 13. 
Manchester, custom, xlv. 
Manuals, 60, 62, 121, 122. 
Margaret, St. Lothbury, clerks, xxviii. 
Ivii. 71. 

register, xxxv. 
Margaret, St., Westminster — 

psalters, xv. 

clerks reading, xxii. 

register, xxxv. 

surplice, xl. 
Marriage, see Matrimony — 

of clerks, xli. 

mentioned, xvii. xli. 
Marsh, James, visitation, 99. 
Mary, SL Aldermanbury, married clerk, 

xlii. 
Mary, St. Bishophill, York, married 

clerk, xlii. 
Mary, St. Elsynspitull, married clerk, 

xlii. 
Mary, St. Ottery, minor duties, xxvii. 

light, 124. 
Mary, St. Redcliffe, 114. 
Mary Tudor, Queen, liv. 96, 144, 127. 
Maskell, W. Monumenta, xi. 
Mass, clerks at, xviii. xix. xxxiii. 57, 61, 
67, 68, 69, 76, 77y 79, 828, 3, 92, 
126. 
Matrimony, order for, 42. 

mentioned, xii. 2, 34. 

pax at, xxxv. 

allowed, xli. 

see Weddings. 
Matthew, St. Friday St. psalter, xiii. 
Mattins, order for, 17. 

mentioned, xii. xv. xix. xxi. xxvii. 
XXX. 24, 25, III, 118, 123. 

English, xvi. 

hour of, 82, 125. 

clerks at, xix. xxviii. 57, 61, 66, 67, 
77, 79, 82, 83, 92. 
Maundy Thursday, washing, 58, 59, 62, 

118. 
Maurice, St. York, Ix. 
Merbecke, Book noted^ 113. 
Merida council, xvii. 
Merton College, Oxford, epistle, xxiii. 
Meynley, dirge, 59. 
Michael, St. Bath, xxxix. xlii. 



Michael, St. Bishop Stortford, lamps, xxx. 

salary, lix. 
Michael, St., Comhill, Clerk's rules, 82. 

clerks sing, xix. 

visit sick, xxvi. 

fetch fire, xxxii. 

shut church, xxxiv. 114. 

salary, lix. 

care for books, 1 14. 
Michael le Belfry, St. York, Ivi. 
Michael, St. Worcester, Ivi. 
Middleham, Dean of, Ixi. 
Middleton, Bishop, xxix. 
Milan, font, 115. 
Milbome, dirge, 59. 
Milbome, Thomas, misbehaviour, xx. 
Minor duties, xxviL 
Miscellaneous notes, Ix. 
Miserere meiy 54. 
Misit rex ff erodes, xxi. 
More, Sir Thomas, xix. 1 18, 220. 
Morebath — 

dispute, 84. 

mentioned, viii. 126. 

array altars, xxxi. 

shutting church, xxxiv. 

holy water, liii. 

wages, Iv. Ivii. lix. Ix. 
Mountain, John, Bp. of London, 105. 
My son despise not, c- pistle, sick, 46. 
My soul doth magnify , 24. 
Mylborne, dirge, 59. 



Newburgh, canon of, xxxvi. xlix. 
Nicetius, Te Deum, xvi. 
Nicholas, St., Bristol — 

duties of clerks, 66. 

name for, 114. 

read epistle, xxii. 

teach, XXV. 

visit sick, xxvi. 

ring bells, xxviii. 

light lamps, xxix. xxx. 

vestments, xxx. 

array altar, xxxi. 

fetch fire, xxxi. 

clean church, xxxii. 

open church, xxxiv. 

surplice, xxxix. 

holy water, liii. 
Nicholas, St., day, 67, 70, 123. 

London company, 123. 
Norfolk, Duke of, xix. «. 
North, Thomas, 109. 
Norwich, injunctions, xxi. xlii. 98, 120. 

visitation, Ix. 
Notices by clerk, xlv. 
Number of clerks, xlvi. 
Nunc dimittisy 25. 

mentioned, xv. xvi. 



INDEX. 



135 



O all ye works of the Lord^ 19. 

O Almighty God^ purification of women, 

• 53. 
O come let us stng unto the Lord, 17. 

O GodffOfn whom all holy desires, 25. 

O God merciful father that despisest fiot, 

32- 
O God of Abraham, matrimony, 43. 

O God we have heard with our ears, 

Litany, 32. 

O God which art the author of pecue, 23. 

O Lamb of God that takes t, 39. 

O Lord arise help us, 32. 

O Lord look down, 45, 47. 

O Lord our heavetily father, 23. 

O Lord thou hast searched me out, 49. 

O Lord we beseech thee, 55. 

O Lord with whom do live, 51, 

most merciful God, 45. 

O praise the Lord, introit, sick, 46. 

O Saviour of the world, 45. 

Oath, clerks, xxvii. 78, 99, 107, 125. 

Obedience, clerks, 65, 69, 76, 77, 80, 92, 

92, 93> 98. 
Obleys, Palm Sunday, 1 16. 
Of Christ^ s Body this is the token, 94. 
Offertory, 36. 

mentioned, 112, 124. 
Oglethorpe, Owen, xvi. 
Oil for lamps, xxix. xxx. 59, 68. 
Oil vat, xxvi. 68, 119^ 
Opening church, xxxiv. 

mentioned, 57, 61, 64, 66, 92, ic», 
loi, 102. 
Ordinal, 83, 121, 125. 
Organs, 69, 90. 
Ostiarius, xvii. xxvii. xxxiv. 
Our father, beginning of mattins, 17. 

end of mattins, 22. 

beginning of evensong, 24. 

Litany, 31. 

communion, 38. 

matrimony, 42. 

visitation of sick, 44, 147. 

purification of women, 53. 

Burial of the dead, 51. 

Commination, 54. 
Our lord /esus Christ, 45. 
Overall, W. H., 82. 
Oxley, Amor, xxv. xxxvii. 



Palms, burnt, 59, 62, 116. 

provided, 62, 69. 

carried, 116. 
Palm Sunday, Coventry, 58, 59, 62, 114, 

116. 
Palmes, A. L., ix. 
Pardoner, surplice, 60, 70, 120. 
Paris, Matthew, xxv. lii. Iviii. 
Parker, Matthew, visitation, xliii. 1. 



Parkhurst, John, injunctions, xx. xlii. 

98, 120. 
Passing bell, xxviii. xxix. 73, 81, lOO, 

lOI. 

Pater noster, see Our father, 17. 

Pax, Clerk carries, xxxv. 

Peace be within this house, 44, 113. 

Peckham, John, xxiv. xlviii. 

Penance inflicted, Ixi. 

Peter, St., the less, married clerk, xlii. 

Pew rents for clerk, 102. 

built, Ix. 
Peyton, Thomas, passing bell, xxviii. 
Pierce, William, clerk's ales, Iviii. 
Pilton, xxix. 
Playford, John, xx. 
Plowland, no, 128. 
Plumpton, Sir Robert, xlix. 
Pollard, Alfred W., ix. 
Ponde, George, xlix. 
Pontifical, Roman, xxvii. 

English, xvii. «. 
Position, social and * ecclesiastical, 

xxxv. 
Postcommunion, 39, 41. 
Powlet, Mr. Hugh, 87, 89, 126. 
Praise the Lord O my soul, 4q. 
Prayers or preces — 

at Mattins, 22. 

Evensong, 25. 

Matrimony, 42. 

Visitation of the sick, 44. 

Burial of dead, 51. 

purification of women, 53. 

commination, 54. 
Prayers, clerk licenced for, 105. 
Prichard, James, 1. 
Priest as Parish Clerk, xxxvi. xxxvii. lix. 



loi, 102. 



Priests, St. Michael, Cornhill, 83. 
Priory door, Coventry, 58, 114. 
Procession, xxvii. 60, 61, 62, 63, 114, 
115. 

to font, 59, 119. 

Palm Sunday, 116. 
Processioners, 60. 

Sarum, 115, 118, 119. 
Psalmista, name of clerk, xvii. 
Psalms, table of, 4. 

mentioned, 18, 24. 

sung, 98. 
Psalter, order for, 2, 3, 4. 

mentioned, xii, 18, 24, iii. 

Edwardine, xi. 
Pulpit, xviii. 98. 
Purification of women, order, 53, 

mentioned, xii. 34, 113, 121. 

fees, Iv. Ivii. 

Clerk at, xxx. Iv. 63, 73, 93, 109. 

performing, xii v. 100, 105. 
Puritanism, clerk's ales, Iviii. 



136 



INDEX. 



Quarterage, WiiL lix. 93, 124. 
tumadmodum^ 52. 
Quicunque vult^ 26. 

mentioned, xii. xv. xvi. iii. 



Raine, James, xxxvil 

Ravenna, mosaics, xxxviii. 

Read, ability to, xviii. xx. xxi. 98, 99, 

100, lOI. 
Reader — 

age, xlL 

exceeding duties, xlii. xliii. 
Reading. Su SS. Giles, Laurence. 
Rector ckori^ clerk, xix. xxxv. 61, 83. 

Rector, parish, xviii. 
Register — 

weddings, etc. xxxv. xxxvi. 91, 126. 

gifts to the poor, liv. 95. 
Remember Chrtsfs Blood sheddif^y 94, 

127. 
Renumber not Lord our iniquitiesy visit- 
ation, 44, 47. 
Rempstone, viii. Iv. 
Rex sanctorum^ 58, 1 1 5. 
Rhemes council, xli. 
Richard I. xix. xxxv. 
Ridley as Doctor, 119. 
Riley— 

Historical MSS. 75. 

Memorials, xlii. n. 
Rituale, Paul V. 121. 
Robert, Pontifical, xvii. n. 
Rochet, clerk's, xxxviii. xlix. 761 99) 

124. 
Roman G>urt exactions, Iii. 
Rowe, J. Brooking, ix. xxxvi. 
Rush bearing, 128. 



Sacraments and Sacramentals, xxv. xlix. 
Ixii. 75, 91, 92, 98. 

mentioned, xlvii. xlviii. 
Sacring, high mass, xxvii. xxix. 68, 79. 
Salary, Iviii. 

at Plymouth, xxxvi. 

St. JameSi Piccadilly, xxxvi. 
Hawkhurst, xlix. 
Salehurst, 1. Ivii. 
Saltwood. Kent, Ivi. 
Sandys, Edwin, visitation, xlii. 
Sarum — 

Breviary, 118, 123, 127. 

Manual, 115 

Missal, xxxv. liii, 115. 

Processional, 115. 118, 119. 
Saturday, bells, 63, 78. 
Schere Thursday. See Maundy. 
Schoolmasters as clerks, xxv. 
Scott, Sir Walter, xlv. 
Seat near parson, Ix. 



Sepulchre, E^ter, xxx. 59, 62, 67, Ii8» 

123. 
Sexton, xlvii. 72, 7^1 ^> 8i> 9^* 

122. 
Sharp, Thos. Illustraiiotis, 57. 
Sheaves in harvest, Iv. 
Shutting church. See Locking. 
Sick — 

visitation of, 44. 
communion of, 46. 
clerks at, xxvi. xxviii. 59, 82, 120. 
Sing, ability to, xvii. xviii. xix. 2, 34, 58, 

61. 
Singing, Clerks, 76, 98, 100, loi. 
Skomering of dogs, 79, 125. 
Smyth, Anthony, xv. 
Snow, clearing away, xxxii. 58, 59> 6i» 

114. 
Social and Ecclesiastical Position, xxxv. 
Sospitaii dedity 70, 123. 
Stanford in the Vale, viii. liv. 96, I27» 

128. 
Steche of corn, 85, 88, 126. 
Stephen's, St. Bristol, bells, xxvii. 
Stephen, St. Coleman, St, clerk's rules, 

clerk's sing, xix. 

translation of, xxxii. 92, 127. 

minister sacraments, xxvi. 

ring bells, xxviii. 

light lamps, xxix. 

array altars, xxxi. 

fetch fire, xxxii. 

clean church, xxxii. 

light lanterns, xxxiii. 

register, xxxv. 

number, xlvii. 

holy water, liii. 

holy loaf, liv. 
Stepney, licence, xliv. 
Stillington, liii. 
Stole, xxvi. 68. 
Story, Robert, Iv. lix. 
Stubbes, Philip, Anatomie, Iviii. n, 
Stycly, Mr. Hugh, 87, 126. 
Subdeacon, 61, 83. 
Suffrages at Matins, 22. 

Evensong, 24. 

Litany, 31. 

Matrimony, 42. 

Visitation of the sick, 44. 

Burial of the dead, 51. 

Purification of women, 53. 

Commination, 54. 

clerk answers to, 98. 
Surplice, Clerk's, xix. xxvi. xxxviii. xlix. 
58, 62, 67, 76, 83, 92, 99, 100. 

priest's, 68, 83, 109. , 

pardoner's, 60, 70. 
Sydam, Mr. John, 86, 87, 88, 89. 
Sydenham, see Sydam. 



INDEX. 



137 



Table of Psalter, 4. 

mentioned, 18, 24. 
Tale bearing, clerk's, 65. 
Tapers, see Candles. 
Te Deum^ 19. 

mentioned, xv. 18. 
Teach, ability to, xviii. xix. xxiv. 
Teaching clerk, xviii. xxiv. 69, ^^, 
The Almighty lord, 45. 
The peace of the Lord be always, 38. 
Theodore, penitential, xviii. 
This is a Token of joyful Peace, 94, 127. 
Toledo, 9, Council, xvii. 
ToUeshunt, xlix. 
Towel, font, 58, 115. 
Triers, Council, xxvii. «. 
Trinity mass, 57. 

Church, Coventry, 57. 
Trychay, Sir Chr. 84, 86. 
Trystram, Sir William, 86, 126. 
Turn Thou us O good Lord, 55. 
Twelfthday, gathering, xxxix. 58, 62, 115. 



Ut parochiani, xxxviii. 



Vails, clerk's, 70. 
Vaison, council, xli. n, 
Vaux, J. E. Folklore, xlv. Ivi. 
Venite exultemus, 17. 
Verily Verily, gospel, sick, 46. 
Vestments, attending to, xxx. 

mentioned, xxxi. Ixii. 57, 59, 61, 64, 
70, 76, 88, 91, 92, 114, 122. 
Vesture of Clerks, xxxviii. 

See Surplice and Rochet. 
Victoria, 7 and 8, xxxvii. li. lyi. I02. 
Visitation of the sick, order, 44. 

mentioned, xii. 2, 34. 

clerks at, xxvi. Ixii. 25, 59, 65, 68, 

75, 91. 



Wages, Clerk's, li. 

mentioned, xlix. 71, 80, 81, 83, 99, 
icx), loi, 102, no. 
Walker, John, Sufferings, xxxvi. 
Waltham Holy Cross, licence, xliv. «. 

105. 
Walynger, Thomas, lix. 
Warham, William, visitation, xlvii. 
settlement by, xlix. Ix. 



Washing altars, 58, 62, 63, 65, 118. 

linen vestments, 68, 92. 
Water, holy, li. 

mentioned, xxiv. xlii. xlviii. lix. 58, 
63, 65, 68, IT, 79, 88, 90, 91, 92, 

94,95, "5- 
cruets, 76, 92, 118, 125. 

mass, 125. 

works, 115. 
Waterlow, A. J., 82. 
We brought nothing into this world, 48. 
We commend into thv hands, 49. 
We humbly beseech' thee O father, 32. 
We praise thee O God, 19. 
Weddings — 

clerks at, 60, 62, 91. 

fees at, Iv. Ivii. 70, 73, 88, no. 

See Matrimony. 
Whitchurch, printer, xv. xvii. 
Whitgift, 1. n. 
Whitsun eve, font, 58, 91, 115, 116, 

126. 
Whosoever will be saved, 26. 
Wickham, William, visitation, xxiii. 
Wighton, visitation of sick, xxvi. 

bells, xxviii. 
Wilkins, D., Doncaster Injunctions, 94. 
Wilson, J. B., xxxiii. 
Wilson, H. A., ix. xiii. 
Winchelsey, ut parochiani, xxxviii. 
Winchester — 

epistler, xxiii. 114. 

clerk exceeding duties, xliv. 
Wine for Eucharist, 92, 96. 
Wing, Bucks, psalter, xiii. 

surplice, xl. 
Women as clerks, Ix. 
Worcester — 

epistler at cathedral, xxiii. 1 14. 

surplice, St. Michael's, xl. 
See Blois, W. de, and Latimer. 
Wordsworth, Christopher, viii. xlv. Ivi. 

109, 121, 128. 
Woodhome, xxv. 
Write, ability to, xxv. 99, 100, loi. 



Yardland, Iv. 90, 96, 127. 

Yatton, xxx. 

York, visitation, xxii. xliii. 1. 

clerks, xlvi. 
York. See SS. Maurice, Michael. 

Manual, 122. 

Missal, XXXV. 



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