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EDITED BY .... 
R. HOOPER PEARSON 
MANAGING EDITOR 
OF THE GARDENERS 
CHRONICLE 

A LIST OF VOLUMES 
IN THE SERIES IS 
GIVEN ON THE NEXT 
PAGE. . . . 



'Present-Day Qardening 

List of Volumes in the Series. 

1. SWEET PEAS. By HORACE J. WRIGHT, late Secre- 

tary and Chairman of the National Sweet Pea Society. 
With Chapter on "Sweet Peas for Exhibition" by THOS. 
STEVENSON. [Revised 1915.] 

2. PANSIES, VIOLAS AND VIOLETS. By WILLIAM 

CUTHBERTSON, J.P., and R. HOOPER PEARSON. 

3. ROOT AND STEM VEGETABLES. By ALEXANDER 

DEAN, V.M.H., Chairman of the National Vegetable Society. 

4. DAFFODILS. By Rev. J. JACOB, Secretary of the 

Midland Daffodil Society, with Preface by the Rev. W. 
WILKS, M.A., Secretary of the Royal Horticultural Society. 

5. ORCHIDS. By JAMES O'BRIEN, V.M.H., Secretary 

af the Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society. 

6. CARNATIONS AND PINKS. By T. H. COOK Head 

Gardener to Queen Alexandra at Sandringham JAMES 
DOUGLAS ; V.M.H. ; and J. F. M'LEOD, Head Gardener to 
Mr. J Pierpont Morgan. 

7. RHODODENDRONS AND AZALEAS. (The first 

popular volum* published on this subject.) By WILLIAM 
WATSON, A.L.S., Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens. Kew. 
with Preface by Sir FRED. W. MOORE, M.A.,A.L.S., V.M.H. 

8. LILIES. By A. GROVE, F.L.S., with Preface by 

H. J. ELWES, F.R.S. 

9. APPLES AND PEARS. By GEORGE BUNYARD, 

V.R H. , Chairman of Fruit and Vegetable Committee of Royal 
Horticultural Society. 

10. ROSES. By H. R. DARLINGTON, Vice- President of 

National Rose Society. (Double volume.') 

11. IRISES. By W. RICKATSON DYKES, M.A.,L.-es-L. 

With Preface by PROFESSOR I. BAYLEY BALFOUR, D.Sc., 
F.R.S., <5^c. 

12. ANNUALS, HARDY AND HALF-HARDY. By 

C. H. CURTIS, Hon. Sec. of the National Sweet Pea Society. 

13. CHRYSANTHEMUMS, By THOMAS STEVENSON, 

with chapters by C. HARMAN PAYNE and CHARLES E. SHEA. 

14. TULIPS- (The first volume on the subject in the 

English language.) By Rev. J. JACOB, Member of R.H.S. 
Narcissus and Tulip Committee. 

15. THE ROCK GARDEN. By REGINALD FARRER, 

Author of "Among the Hills," "My Rock Garden," "In a 
Yorkshire Garden," <5rc., with Preface by J. BRETLAND 
FARMER, D.Sc., F.R.S 

16. DAHLIAS. By GEORGE GORDON, V.M.H., President 

of the National Dahlia Society. 

17. CLIMBING PLANTS. By WILLIAM WATSON, 

Curator of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. With Introduction 
by W. ROBINSON. 

These will be followed by volumes on Trees and Shrubs, 
Window Gardens, Pseonies, Primulas, Cucumbers, 
Melons, Bedding Plants, Hardy Herbaceous Plants, 
Ferns, Tomatoes, Bulbous Plants, Peaches and Nec- 
tarines, Vines, Stove and Greenhouse Plants, &c. 



PLATE I (Frontispiece) 
PASSIFLORA CCERULEA "CONSTANCE ELLIOTT" 




With Introduction by 
J^. Robinson 

Author of" The English Flower Garden 91 




ex 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION ........ i 

CHAP. 

I. CLIMBING PLANTS IN GARDENS AND IN NATURE . 7 

II. HARDY CLIMBERS 12 

III. GREENHOUSE CLIMBERS 24 

IV. STOVE CLIMBERS 28 

V. CONSTRUCTION OF PERGOLAS 31 

VI. CLIMBERS FOR VERANDAHS, HOUSE WALLS, AND 

ARBOURS 35 

VII. CLIMBERS ON TREES 38 

VIII. CLIMBING ROSES 40 

IX. CLEMATIS 45 

X. IVIES 56 

XL VINES 58 

XII. ORNAMENTAL GOURDS 61 

XIII. AROIDS 67 

XIV. CLIMBING ORCHIDS 70 

XV. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF GENERA . 73 

INDEX 124 



395333 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

COLOURED PLATES 

PLATE 

I. PASSIFLORA CCERULEA "CONSTANCE ELLIOTT" 

Frontispiece 

PAGE 

II. WISTARIA CHINENSIS 15 

VI. CLEMATIS NELLY MOSER 47 

XIII. IPOMCEA RUERO-CCERULEA 65 

XV. ALLAMANDA SCHOTTII HENDERSONII . . -77 

XVIII. BOUGAINVILLEA SANDERIANA 85 

XXI. LAPAGERIAS RUBRA AND ALBA . . . . 101 
XXII. PLUMBAGO CAPENSIS 113 



BLACK AND WHITE PLATES 

III. STEM OF WISTARIA IN THE CONSERVATORY AT SYSTON 

HALL 14 

IV. CHINESE BRAMBLES 18 

V. CHINESE BRAMBLES 20 

VII. CLEMATIS ARMANDII 50 

ix 



x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATE PAGB 

VIII. CLEMATIS HENRYI . ... 52 

IX. CLEMATIS SIEBOLDII 54 

X. SOLANUM JASMINOIDES GROWING OVER PATHWAY . 56 

XI. CLIANTHUS PUNICEUS AND OTHER CLIMBING PLANTS 

IN THE GREENHOUSE, KEW .... 58 

XII. VlTIS ARMATA VEITCHII 60 

XIV. YELLOW ABUTILON ... ... 74 

XVI. FLOWER OF ARAUJIA SERICIFERA .... 80 

XVII. BOMAREA PATACOCENSIS . ... 82 

XIX. CESTRUM ELEGANS 88 

XX. GLORIOSA ROTHSCHILDIANA CITRINA ... 96 

XXIII. POLYGONUM BALDSCHUANICUM . . . .112 

XXIV. TROP^EOLUM POLYPHYLLUM . . .122 



CLIMBING PLANTS 



INTRODUCTION 

A HANDY treatise on climbing plants for gardens is a 
welcome addition to garden books. Mr. Watson has for 
many years lived among climbers from all parts of the 
world. His chapters on the best climbers for gardens and 
greenhouses will be useful to all lovers of horticulture. 
A clear fact in our gardening is that but little of the infinite 
variety and beauty of the climber is seen in many gardens ; 
this book should help to a change for the better. 

After the gift of trees of the earth-mother, the greatest 
for the gardener are the climbers that adorn them with 
infinite grace. It is needless to describe their beauty. 
Botanical and gardening descriptions of them are numer- 
ous, and nurserymen send out attractive lists of them. 
So all is well except their cultivation, which is often a 
dismal failure. Impressed with the fact that in many large 
gardens it was rare to see a trace of the beauty of climbing 
plants, and wondering why it was so, I began to make 
little experiments ; first of all, and in obedience to their 
natural habit, which is to grow on trees and bushes 
in many lands of mountain copse and shore, I have 
planted them in every position, from an orchard hedgerow 
to a grove of Magnolias, and have had much success. 

The plan was to plant one at the base of some shrub 
or tree in obedience to the natural habit of the climber, 

A 



2 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

and this is best done when the trees and shrubs are young 
and the ground is fresh, but I have done it in all conditions. 
Sometimes a tree or shrub overpowers the plant, but 
this will not happen to the freer kinds, like the Indian 
species of Clematis, which are so vigorous that one needs 
have no fear of them. They are easily raised from seed 
also, so that one is spared the trouble which comes from 
grafting. Most interest, however, came from getting the 
larger-flowered Japanese or Chinese species into picturesque 
and artistic ways. These plants creep up the tree unaided 
by training or staking, and if not as vigorous as they would 
be if planted by themselves, they are even more beautiful 
to see in the light and shadow of the tree. 

The European Clematis is very free, and will grow in a 
hedgerow. In making a fence of live plants round an 
orchard, which is the only right way to fence, we sowed 
a few seeds of these, and every year they have been a 
charm, showing sprays of flowers above the hedge as free 
as the foam of a wave. The yellow sorts, like C. tangutica, 
are well fitted for this kind of planting, and not so well for 
the flower garden, being too vigorous. I tried all the 
kinds of Clematis I could get, and nearly everyone proved 
a success. Sir Harry Veitch sent me a set of the new 
Chinese species, and they grew like briars. They are not 
particular as to soil so long as it is open. In the flower 
garden we have to keep to the more fragile kinds, which, 
when grown on their own roots, give us thousands of 
flowers. We have to cut away the decayed parts in the 
autumn, and that is the only form of pruning these get ! 
Clematises on trees we never think of pruning. More 
words have been wasted about pruning than about any- 
thing else in gardening. 



INTRODUCTION 3 

I lately read in one of the great morning papers elabo- 
rate directions for pruning Clematises ; whether one should 
prune last year's growth, or this year's growth, or some 
other year's growth. It was probably written by one of 
the " lady students " at some horticultural college. If we 
had one here we could hardly place her forty feet high in 
a Corsican pine to prune a Clematis. By giving up all 
pruning trouble is saved, and one gets a more picturesque 
result. We have plants on walls and in all sorts of posi- 
tions, and we have had no serious losses, though some- 
times a holly or an apple-tree may have been weakened a 
little. 

For climbers on walls the great thing is to see that the 
trees are not crucified, and that the natural toss of the 
plant is allowed full play. The best way to secure such a 
result is to use oak or chestnut battens in a rough simple 
way, and tie the shoots to them. All that misery of nailing 
with shreds with cold fingers on frosty mornings should 
go. It is not enough to have healthy plants ; one must also 
show their grace of form. The strongest and best of all 
ties is the red willow shoot. A few dozen red willows in a 
wet hollow will furnish a useful stock of withies cheaper 
and better than the grocer's tarred twine. 

It is a mistake to clothe walls with climbers that do not 
need any such comfort. Ivy, for instance, is often used in 
this way, although it will grow in the woods, on rocks, on 
rough banks, and in many other places. Ivy should not be 
put on a house or wall, nor should we use the rougher and 
coarser Clematises, or even the Indian C. montana, in that 
way. It is a common mistake to suppose that the north 
side of walls is against success with many things, for they 
may be better off on the north than the south side. One 



4 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

of the most beautiful climbers I have ever seen was 
a Lapageria on the north side of a wall at Caerheys. 
The finest tea roses, too, are happy on the north side of 
a wall. 

After various trials with Bamboo and wire and iron I 
came to the conclusion that the best trellising can be made 
from battens of our native Oak. Iron wire is not good, 
and the galvanised wire is not any better, but stout pencil- 
like wire may serve as a base for the smaller pieces of 
wood. 

The vines of Northern Japan and China are a perfect 
treasure-house of climbers that may be grown almost 
anywhere. I was so much taken with them that when 
planting an orchard I put vines on the apple and other 
trees with superb effect. A " practical " friend who came 
along said, " What about the apples ? " I said I did not 
care. As it happened, I got both the beauty of the vines 
and the apples too. The way these vines have run up the 
fruit trees is wonderful. Some time afterwards we made a 
pergola from the house to the stable and put Japanese, 
American, and French vines upon it. The Virginian 
Creepers, which have little pads to their fingers with which 
they fix themselves, are brilliant in woodland. Merely by 
putting one or two of them at the base of a tree one may, 
in good soil, get a noble flame of colour in autumn, and 
without doing harm to anything. 

The greatest improvement of our day for the climber- 
lover is the pergola, so common in Italy and Southern 
France. In our country we have the advantage of being 
able to grow on it a greater number of climbers than the 
Italians could in their hot sun. Growing such plants on 
walls involves pruning, and much work that is anything 



INTRODUCTION 5 

but pretty, but with the pergola we can allow the plants 
their freedom, and there is the advantage of being able to 
see all round, under, and over them. 

Many people have tried to form pergolas with deplor- 
able results. People who should know better make per- 
golas with battens of Pine, Spruce, and rustic work, which 
begin to rot soon after they are put in. Fooling about 
with sap-wood simply means waste of time and means. 

A pergola should be a want. To make it for the sake 
of making it is sure to end badly. Having fixed on a good 
position, the next thing is to give it good legs to stand on. 
No wooden supports, even the best, are much use. Some 
old stubs will last a long time, but they are not nearly as 
good as the old way of brick and stone. If it is to be 
heavily laden with climbers, a pergola must be well sup- 
ported. A 14-inch brick pillar makes the best support, or 
one of stone. It is not enough to have strong pillars they 
must be braced together ; that is, the timbers must cross 
from one side to the other, and from one pillar to another. 
For the smaller timbers much will depend on the weight 
the pergola has to carry, but generally a simple and strong 
way of fixing is the best. Close rectangular trellising 
never looks well, and it will not last. The best way is that 
of the old French and English of using oak and chestnut 
battens fixed not too closely, or according to a definite 
plan, as in the modern Frenchman's garden. 

We have tried every form of Bamboo and cane, and the 
effect at first was good, but in the end it did not do half 
as well as native Oak and Chestnut. There may be some 
more enduring tropical wood, but for the present we keep 
to these native woods. To show the need of bracing the 
pillars, I may say that when I made the garden of the 



6 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

crematorium at Golders Green, it was decided to have a 
bold pergola. The manager, with praiseworthy economy 
in starting a new affair, insisted on using old disfigured 
trees that had been cut down about the place, and the 
result was that one wild February day the whole thing was 
blown over. The pillars ought to have been braced both 
ways by stout squared timbers of Chestnut, Oak, or Larch. 

The Ivy takes care of itself in the woods and copses, 
and though some people are careful to cut it off trees, it 
is a mistake to do so. One may do it when it overpowers 
a favourite or rare tree, but generally in woodland work it 
is best to let the Ivy alone for the sake of its beauty and 
to shelter wrens and other small birds. I rather like 
taking one of the fine forms of Ivy and putting it at the 
base of a tree, with a stone over it, leaving it to climb up. 

To show how one may go to work, I may say that we 
are now planting groups of Hollies, the noblest of all ever- 
green shrubs, and when we plant a Holly we put a delicate 
climber against it, a Clematis, or the Flame Nasturtium, 
as the case may be. Some climbers are so fragile that 
they do not injure any shrub ; if it does, it can be cut away. 
Wild roses may also be beautifully treated in a natural 
way, such as our own Dog rose or the Japanese ramblers 
people are so fond of. One can only see their highest 
beauty when they are running over or falling about a tree. 
Some climbers, too, that become weeds in rich garden soil, 
may be used with good effect to clothe fences. We have 
used the Hungarian Bindweed in that way ; it is a hand- 
some plant, but whilst in the garden it ruins everything 
else, on an orchard fence it is never in the way. 

W. R. 



CHAPTER I 

CLIMBING PLANTS IN GARDENS AND 
IN NATURE 

PLANTS of climbing habit occupy an important position 
among those cultivated by man, either for use or for orna- 
ment. It may be said of one of them, the grape vine, that 
it is God's most generous gift to mankind. The records of 
its cultivation and of the making of wine in Egypt go back 
five or six thousand years. And the vine is as beautiful as 
it is useful, for although it has failed to find a great deal of 
favour in this country as an ornamental shrub, this is due 
to our practice of valuing a plant either for its economic 
properties or for its decorative character. It can be useful 
or ornamental, not both. For this reason when considering 
climbing plants for the purposes of this volume we exclude 
those that are not used decoratively. The Cucumber, 
Tomato, Melon, Sweet Potato, Pepper, Pea, Vegetable 
Marrow, and Pumpkin will not for this reason come 
under notice here, although they are all climbers of great 
importance to man as food plants. 

Our gardens owe much of their charm to plants of 
climbing habit. If we fail to make the best use of some 
of them it is either because we have not discovered their 
good qualities or we do not treat them in a way that 
enables them to display their habit to the best advantage. 
The curse of many climbers is the gardeners' method of 
'* training" them. Examples of the worst kind are the 

7 



8 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

Allamanda, Dipladenia, Bougainvillea, Passiflora, and even 
the Rose and Clematis so often twisted and tied down in 
the form of a balloon ! Could anything be less artistic, 
more unnatural, more wanting in feeling for a plant's 
character than this ? The practice began in greenhouses, 
and was probably considered necessary for purposes of 
exhibition, and although we see much less of it now, it 
has not been entirely discarded. Out of doors there can 
be no excuse for this sort of cruelty. There, at any rate, 
climbing plants may be allowed space for the proper dis- 
play of their natural habit, always with a due regard to 
what is best, not worst in nature's ways. Many plants 
that are trimmed, nailed or tied down would be much more 
effective if they were allowed greater freedom. This is 
true of all climbers. A little thought, a little inquiry as to 
what the plant likes and what is its natural habit would 
save our gardens from many ugly features and thus 
increase their charm. 

I have learnt from experience that it is worse than use- 
less to recommend in books on horticulture plants that are 
not generally known and are not likely to find their way 
into popular cultivation. At Kew one sees a considerable 
number of plants that deserve to be generally grown, but 
they haven't " caught on " with what I may call the garden- 
ing set, and they remain undiscovered by horticulture, 
though their day may yet come. I recollect that Aspara- 
gus plumosus was an inhabitant of the Succulent House at 
Kew for many years before it was discovered by someone 
and its value brought to the public notice, and there are 
not many more useful climbers to-day than this plant. 
The climbers described and recommended in this book 
therefore are those that are known by the well-informed 



CLIMBERS IN NATURE 9 

gardener to be good plants. One hundred genera have 
been selected, and the species of each that may legitimately 
claim to be of proved horticultural merit enumerated. 
Anyone wishing to find out what plants would be most 
suitable, either for the outdoor garden, the greenhouse, or 
the stove, had better first read the chapter dealing with 
the special department, and then turn to Chapter XV for 
particulars of the plants recommended for it. 

There are no doubt good plants which are not included 
in this list. In a book of this kind we must be selective, 
and strive as we may, there will be defects of commission 
and omission. Still, most requirements ought to be met 
in one hundred genera, and, at the price, if I may be 
allowed to say so, the book is comprehensive enough. 
The best one can hope for in a book such as the present is 
a safe indication, a helpful hint. To the man who means 
business and who has resourcefulness this will be suffi- 
cient. Those who want to be told everything must try 
an encyclopaedia. 

Before dealing with climbers in their purely horticul- 
tural bearing it may be worth while ttJ say something about 
them as they occur in nature, and to briefly set out what a 
climber is, and by what methods it is enabled to hold its 
own among plants that are self-supporting. 

The embraces of some climbers are of such a character 
as to strangle the trees supporting them. Ivy has had that 
kind of effect on trees in certain circumstances, but its 
embrace is nothing when compared with that of some 
members of the fig tribe, gigantic Leguminosae and species 
of Clusia. They gradually wind themselves serpent-like 
round the trunks of trees, and as they tighten by reason 
of the growth of the host, the climbers interfere with 



io PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

the conduction of sap until finally the supporting tree 
is killed outright. It may be that in the struggle for exist- 
ence this character has been developed in plants with thin 
stems to enable them to fight successfully for " a place 
in the sun." Without it they would stand a poor chance 
against umbrageous forest trees. " Sometimes one finds 
the hard basal parts of a liane (climber) twisted and coiled 
apparently round nothing. This is due to the fact that the 
original support has been killed, and then slowly rotting, 
has been denuded away by the wind and rain. Thus, many 
a liane of the tropical forest seems to have made use, 
when young, of some living plant with fairly thick erect 
stem as its first support, up which it has climbed into the 
crowns of higher trees" (Kerner). Sometimes the 
climber gets the worst of it, the encircled tree expanding 
until the pull on the coils is so great that the climber is 
killed. 

Darwin in his Movements of Plants shows how all the 
growing parts of plants are continually circumnutating, and 
that climbers, when growing, do this very markedly, the 
end of the shoot in twiners and the tendrils or leaves in 
those which have special holdfasts to enable them to climb, 
describing quite wide circles in their efforts to catch on to 
some support. Tendril-bearing plants are much less ag- 
gressive than twiners in their struggles to climb upwards. 
Tendrils are very sensitive, and are so constructed that they 
can grasp and in a short time hold fast to a twig or other 
body that may afford support. Before this happens the 
tendril is straight, but afterwards it contracts itself spirally 
in the most beautiful manner, thus forming an elastic 
spring which gives a little to pressure from wind or to the 
weight of the shoot of which it is a part. Plants with 



METHODS OF CLIMBING n 

the tendril method of climbing have an advantage over 
twiners, and this accounts for their being more numerous 
in nature. 

Climbing plants have been divided into groups accord- 
ing to their particular habit of clinging. Thus there are 
(i) Twiners, which attach themselves to supports by twist- 
ing spirally around them. Examples are the Honeysuckle, 
Hop, and Scarlet Runner. The stoutest of tropical climbers 
belong to this group. (2) Weavers. These have slender 
stems which elongate and push their way among the 
branches of other plants before developing leaves and 
lateral shoots, by means of which they hold on. Some of 
them have spines or prickles which also help them to 
cling. Examples of this group are species of Rose, Honey- 
suckle, Asparagus, and Jasminum. (3) Lattice Formers. 
Plants which lean and build themselves up against a support 
without actually clinging to it. Some of the Cotoneasters, 
Euonymus, Allamanda, and some Fuchsias are examples 
of plants with this habit. (4) Tendril Bearers. A tendril 
may be a modification of a leaf, leaf stalk, leaflet, midrib, 
stipule, branchlet or flower stalk. At first very delicate 
and motile, it often becomes hard and strong almost as 
steel. Tendrils loop themselves round a support as though 
they possessed intelligence, and until they come in contact 
with one, they move about in a manner suggestive of the 
antennae of some insect. A great variety of plants are 
tendril bearers. Some of the most familiar are the Vine, 
Passion flower, Nepenthes, Gloriosa, Cucurbits, Pea and 
Clematis. Ampelopsis and some of the species of Vitis and 
Cissus form adhesive discs at the ends of their tendrils, by 
means of which they fasten themselves firmly with a kind of 
gum secreted by the disc, which hardens quickly. (5) Root- 



12 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

ing Stems. The Ivy, Tecoma, Marcgravia, Philodendron, 
and other Aroids, some species of Cereus, Ficus repens, 
and other species of Ficus are examples of this group. 
The climbing roots of Ivy are only fixers, and do not 
absorb food unless they come in contact with soil, when 
they may change their function and perform that of ordi- 
nary roots. Thus Ivy growing on the 'ground has what 
may be termed feeding roots all along its stem. 



CHAPTER II 
HARDY CLIMBERS 

THE charm of English gardens is very largely due to 
the artistic employment of a variety of plants which are 
either climbers by nature or made to serve the purpose 
of climbers by the application of a little art. If we were 
limited strictly to plants of climbing habit for the decoration 
of buildings and other objects, we should lose the effect of 
the trained shrub and tree. The beauty of a well-trained 
Pear, Cherry, Plum, Pyracantha, Ceanothus, Cotoneaster, 
Escallonia, Edwardsia, Euonymus, and Forsythia is gener- 
ally recognised, yet not one of these is strictly a climber. 
Even Magnolia grandiflora, Eriobotrya japonica, Prunus 
triloba, and Cydonia japonica are used most effectively for 
clothing walls. It is surprising what the resourceful culti- 
vator can do in the way of adapting plants to his purposes 
by the judicious use of the knife and the wall nail. There 
are few more lovely objects than a peach, cherry, or plum- 
covered wall in the flowering season. One of the college 
buildings at Cambridge is, or used to be, almost entirely 



HARDY CLIMBERS 13 

covered with Tamarix, a glorious object at all times, and 
especially so when in flower. The Camellia when trained 
flat against the wall is both effective and happy. Sir 
Joseph Paxton used it largely in this way, and it is 
common enough grown against a wall in the south of 
England. 

From what has been said it will be evident that there 
are many free-growing shrubs, and a considerable number 
of what are known as trees that may be turned to account 
in the furnishing of walls and fences. Good use is some- 
times made of the wall for the double purpose of affording a 
certain amount of protection and giving support to shrubs 
that are too tender to bear a more open position. The 
walls at Kew and in other gardens where large collections 
are grown are wholly employed for this purpose. Quite a 
long list of tender shrubs which are happy when grown 
close to a wall might be given from the Kew experience 
alone. The purpose of this book, however, is not so much 
to show how many plants there are that could be 
grown against walls, with advantage to the plants them- 
selves, as to point out the best of those which have been 
successfully cultivated in this manner. 

The most useful climber in the world is the Ivy, a 
strong statement perhaps, but one which few Englishmen 
would gainsay. It will make the ugliest of buildings pic- 
turesque, it will clothe old tree trunks, cover walls and 
fences, and form picturesque pillars at comparatively little 
cost ; it will furnish the ground as no other shrub can ; 
it will grow in conditions where few other plants will 
live ; and as for soil, almost any kind will satisfy the Ivy 
indeed, it will grow where there is scarcely any soil at all. 
"A rare old plant is the Ivy green." There are so many 



14 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

varieties, hundreds of them according to some authorities, 
all developed from the common Hedera Helix, a native of 
Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. Its garden history 
will be found in another part of this book. 

Next in value to the Ivy we should place Ampelopsis 
Veitchii, a plant with many names, which need not trouble 
us here, except to mention that its name in botanical works 
is Vitis inconstant. Like the Ivy it can be used to cover a 
multitude of sins of the architect and gardener. Like the 
Ivy, too, it is very good-natured, as the townsman well knows. 
Among the many plants that we owe to Japan it is doubt- 
ful whether there is one which has proved such a blessing 
as this little clinging vine. 

Wistaria chinensis (see Plates II and III) is a noble 
climber, unquestionably the most beautiful we possess as a 
flowering plant. It is not as much used as it deserves to be, 
probably owing to its requirements being somewhat exact- 
ing, for its shoots must be trained and pruned regularly to 
keep it in order. It loves sunshine, in fact will not thrive 
unless it gets plenty, and it behaves as if it would live for ever 
when planted at the foot of a south wall where there is ample 
room for its shoots to extend. In this respect it resembles 
the Vine (Vitis vinifera), another noble climber, whose 
merits as a decorative plant gardeners overlook. Because 
it does not behave well in the open air as a fruit-producer, 
the vine appears to have fallen into discredit as a decora- 
tive plant. Here and there one sees it flourishing, generally 
in old gardens, clinging to buildings, or clothing a summer- 
house, and it is also to be seen in a few places scrambling 
over trees, where its summer effect is most picturesque. 
Many species of Vitis have lately been imported from China, 
some of which are certain to become favourites when they 




PLATE III. STEM OF WISTARIA IN THE 
CONSERVATORY AT SYSTON HALL 



PLATE II 
WISTARIA CHINENSIS 



, 




HARDY CLIMBERS 17 

are better known. There is a collection of them on a 
pergola at Kew, where their characters may be studied 
with advantage. 

Clematis occupies a leading place among our best outdoor 
climbing plants. Everyone loves our native Traveller's Joy 
(Clematis Vitalba), yet it is not as frequently seen in the 
garden and park as it deserves to be, for it does not interfere 
materially with the tree or shrub to which it clings for sup- 
port, and it might be seen much more frequently in the 
woodland. It must have plenty of sunshine, and, of course 
it likes lime, as all Clematises do. There is the lovely C. 
montana with its several varieties, and for gardens in the 
south the New Zealand C. indivisa might be turned to good 
account. The larger flowered species and garden forms, of 
which C.Jackmanii\s a typical example, have not yet found 
the place in open-air gardening for which they are emi- 
nently fitted. We see them as balloon-trained specimens 
at our exhibitions, and following the lead of the trade 
exhibitors we attempt their cultivation only as pot plants, 
with the exception of places that might be counted on 
one's fingers, where the large-flowered red Clematises are 
afforded generous treatment as wall climbers. 

Rose, Honeysuckle and Jasmine, these are the climbers 
whose praises are sung by poets and whose charms are 
portrayed by artists, for they play a large part in the beau- 
tifying of the English garden, from the cottager's small 
enclosure to the most spacious domain. Honeysuckle and 
Jasmine are beloved because of their fragrance ; they are 
not very showy in flower, yet they are always a delight, par- 
ticularly when they receive a little attention from the culti- 
vator, Honeysuckles especially being responsive to good 
treatment. 

B 



i8 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

A most useful plant is the Winter Jasmine (J. nudiflorum), 
which bursts into bloom in December. We owe it, as we 
do so many good things, to Japan. It always looks its best 
when against a wall, probably because of the shelter from 
wind that it gets in such a position. Its Chinese sister, 
/. primulinum, has not yet distinguished itself in English 
gardens, appearing to be too tender to be grown outside, 
in the neighbourhood of London at any rate, though we 
have seen it flowering nicely in a sheltered position against 
a south wall in November. Properly it ought not to be 
classed as a climber, though it is pretty certain to be 
treated as one in English gardens. The great Burmese 
Honeysuckle (Lonicera Hildebrandtiana), although a magnifi- 
cent climber in its mountain home, has yet to prove its use- 
fulness in this country. In the greenhouse it is a straggler, 
and not free with blossom. Mr. Veitch grows and flowers 
it well in his Exeter nursery, and it has done fairly well out- 
of-doors here and there in Cornwall and in South-west 
Ireland ; possibly if some clever breeder would exercise his 
art in crossing honeysuckles he would produce hybrids 
combining the vigour of say L. etrusca and L. Hildebrandii 
with the floral qualities of our native species and the North 
American L. sempervirens. 

Roses must have a chapter to themselves. After all, 
when we begin to talk about beautiful hardy climbers, one 
is certain to begin with "Well, there are Roses/' And 
there are Roses nowadays, climbers such as our grand- 
fathers never dreamt of, thanks in the first place to the 
introduction of R. Wichuraiana and Crimson Rambler, and 
in the second place to the success of the breeder who has 
combined the qualities of these two with so many of our 
other garden roses. There were, of course, numerous beauti- 




PLATE IV. CHINESE BRAMBLES 

Rubus coreamts, R. thibetamis, R. corchorifolius 



CLIMBING ROSES 19 

ful roses of scandent habit fifty years ago, memories of them 
as seen clothing cottages in country places in England 
are cherished by most people. They were of the type of 
Flora, Ruga, Dundee Rambler and Fe'licite' Perpetue, and 
they are among the best of what are popularly known as 
rambler or pergola Roses to-day. No more need be said 
here of the qualities and uses of climbing Roses. Their 
relations the Brambles (Rubus) have jumped the garden 
fence owing to the introduction from China of a number of 
promising climbing species (see Plates IV and V). There 
is a good collection of them near the Pagoda at Kew, and 
some appear to have qualities which should prove attractive 
horticulturally. Distinctly climbing in habit, they have a 
wide range of leaf variation, and as they appear to be quite 
hardy there should be no difficulty in proving their worth. 
Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons, who introduced most of them 
through their collector Mr. Wilson, believed in them, for 
they exhibited collections of them periodically at the shows. 

A useful climber, whose merits have been overlooked, 
is Hydrangea scandens ; it clings like Ivy, and has bright 
green, heart-shaped leaves, which are deciduous. The 
flowers are not of much account ; indeed, they are rarely 
produced. It has decided merit as a wall climber, as it 
covers a large area in a comparatively short time, and is 
quite hardy. 

The claims of certain annuals as climbers must not be 
overlooked. The Scarlet Runner Bean, though considered 
too vulgar by some people for a place among decorative 
plants, is as beautiful as it is useful. The climbing Tro- 
paeolums are general favourites. They are capable of doing 
a great deal in a short time towards blotting out unsightly 
objects, and they are in themselves full of attractions. It is 



20 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

surprising what can be done in this way with the aid of a 
threepenny packet of seeds and a little imagination. The 
Canary Creeper ( T. aduncum) is of the same quality, except 
that it has small flowers and is less robust. This is the 
place to call attention to the claims of T. speciosum, the 
pride of some gardeners, the despair of others. T. pen- 
taphyllum and T. tuberosum also are not without attractions. 
The three last-named species are, of course, perennial, 
though their stems are annual. If there is one annual 
climber which has received the full share of popular favour 
it is the Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus), but the beautiful 
perennial species of the genus might well be more in 
evidence in gardens in every class. Calystegia, Convol- 
vulus, some of the gourds (see separate chapter), and 
Lophospermum deserve to be included here. The merits of 
the Hop also should not be overlooked. Gardeners are 
too ready to relegate to a back place or pitch out altogether 
plants whose associations are not strictly horticultural. 
The Japanese Hop (Humulus japonicus) is a quick growing 
annual with handsome foliage and large panicles of feathery 
flowers, which have a rather unpleasant odour. It likes 
a sunny position, and if the seeds are sown in April it will 
romp away. 

A list of the genera which furnish the best hardy 
climbers is here given. For particulars as to species and 
treatment the descriptive list given under Chapter XV 
should be consulted. 



Abelia. 

Aconitum. 

Actinidia. 

Akebia. 

Ampelopsis. 



Aristolochia. 

Berberidopsis. 

Bignonia. 

Boussingaultia. 

Calystegia. 




PLATE V. CHINESE; BRAMBLES 

^. omeiensis, and R. biflorus var. quinqueflorus 



EVERGREENS FOR WALLS 21 



Celastrus. 

Clematis. 

Convolvulus. 

Eccremocarpus. 

Ercilla. 

Fuchsia. 

Hedera. 

Humulus. 

Hydrangea. 

Ipomcea. 

Jasminum. 

Kadsura. 

Lardizabala. 

Lathyrus. 

Lonicera. 

Lycium. 

Maurandia. 

Menispermum. 



Muehlenbeckia. 

Mutisia. 

Passiflora. 

Periploca. 

Phaseolus. 

Polygonum. 

Rhus. 

Rhyncospermum. 

Rosa. 

Rubus. 

Schizandra. 

Smilax. 

Solanum. 

Stauntonia. 

Tecoma. 

Tropaeolum. 

Vitis. 

Wistaria. 



EVERGREEN SHRUBS FOR WALLS 

Boundary walls are often necessary, but no one likes 
to see a naked wall. It is therefore usual to hide them 
either by covering them with Ivy or planting a line of 
shrubs or trees in front of them. There is another, and 
in some situations a more appropriate way, and this is by 
covering them with a selection of evergreen shrubs. Ivy 
is good, but it is common. There are walls on which no 
evergreen except Ivy would thrive ; for them Ivy must be 
used. 

Where there is light and air, assuming of course that 
the wall is not wanted for the cultivation of fruit, and that 
deciduous plants would not do, as the wall would be prac- 
tically bare in winter, then evergreen shrubs should be. 



22 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

used. There are plenty of them, so that a collection might 
be indulged in, especially if the wall is in a conspicuous 
place. 

There are walls of this kind in the Royal Gardens, 
Kew. They were formerly boundary walls, and they 
have been utilised for shrubs that required protection, 
many not being climbers. They have become quite an 
interesting feature of the place. Some are deciduous, 
and for our present purpose they need not be con- 
sidered. A list of the evergreens only is given here. 
With few exceptions they are plants which are not 
sufficiently hardy to grow permanently in the open in 
this country except in such counties as Devon and Corn- 
wall. Even with the protection afforded them at Kew 
by the wall which supports them they sometimes get 
frostbitten. Some have been in their present position for 
at least fifty years. They are not nailed flat against the 
wall, the main branches only being fixed, the others only 
shortened when necessary. Thus treated, many of them 
have formed a perfect screen of foliage a foot or more 
through, completely hiding the wall and at the same time 
presenting a pleasing, even decorative, front. 

The treatment may possibly be called mutilation, a mis- 
use of plants which cannot do themselves justice when 
nailed against a wall and kept more or less cropped. 
It is pardonable, however, in such conditions as are de- 
scribed above. If the plants were not grown in this way 
they couldn't be grown at all. Needs must when the 
climate drives ! It is not pretended that the appended list 
includes all evergreen shrubs that may be successfully 
used as wall screens, but the selection is considered suffi- 
ciently embracing for most gardens. 



EVERGREENS FOR WALLS 23 



EVERGREEN SHRUBS FOR WALLS 



Adenocarpus decorticans, Spain 
foliolosus, Canaries 

Anthyllis Hermanniae, S. Europe 
Aristotelia Macqui, Chili 
Azara microphylla, Chili 
Bupleurum fruticosum, Medit. 
Camellia, Japan 
Ceanothus, N. America 
Choisya ternata, Mexico 
Convolvulus Cneorum, S. Europe 
Corokia Cotoneaster, New Zea- 
land 

Cotoneaster, India and China 
Crataegus. See Pyracantha 
Discaria longispina, Chili 
Edwardsia. See Sophora 
Eriobotrya japonica, Japan 
Escallonia, S. America 
Euonymus radicans, Japan 
Fabiana imbricata, Chili 
Feijoa Sellowiana, Brazil 
Garrya elliptica, California 
macrophylla, Mexico 
Thurettii, Garden hybrid 
Griselinia littoralis, New Zealand 
Jasminum humile, Himalaya 
primulinum, China 
Leptospermum laevigatum, Aus- 
tralia 
Ligustrum Henryi, China 



Lonicera Henryi, China 
Magnolia Delavayi, China 

grandiflora, U.S.A. 
Myrsine africana, Himalaya, &c. 
Myrtus communis, Medit. 

tarentina 

Olea europaea, Asia Minor 
Olearia macrodonta, N. Zealand 
Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, China 
Schwerinii, China 

,, subrotunda, China 

Pittosporum Ralphii, N. Zealand 
crassifolium, New 

Zealand 

Pyracantha angustifolia, China 
coccinea, S. Europe 
crenulata, Himalaya 
Rhaphithamnus cyanocarpus, 

Chili 

Schinus Bonplandianus, Brazil 
Sophora tetraptera, New Zealand 
var. microphylla 

Stranvaesia undulata, China 
Trachelospermum jasminoides, 

Japan 

Tricuspidaria dependens, Chili 
Umbellularia californica, Cali- 
fornia 

Viburnum macrocephalum , China 
rhytidophyllum, China 



24 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 



CHAPTER III 

GREENHOUSE CLIMBERS 

A LARGE number of plants of strictly climbing habit, and 
many others which are not climbers, but are made to serve 
that purpose, are grown for the decoration of spacious 
greenhouses and conservatories. They could not well be 
grown so as to display their attractions of leaf and flower 
unless they had the support of pillars or strained wires 
near the rafters (see Plate XI) which fortunately provide 
generally suitable conditions of light and air, and at the 
same time afford easy means of screening with greenery 
more or less unsightly features. It is worth while to grow 
some climbers in tall greenhouses even though they do not 
flower. Such large structures as the Palm House and 
the Temperate House at Kew would have an unfurnished 
appearance were it not for the climbers which are freely 
used to drape pillar, gallery, and rafter. In smaller houses 
there is little or no need to use climbers for the purposes 
mentioned, but as a number of these plants can be really 
well grown only in small houses, their cultivation is 
practised to a considerable extent solely for the sake of 
the plants themselves. At the same time, no good grower 
of orchids would have climbers over his plants, as they 
interfere with the regulation of sunlight and air in the 
house, and they often harbour insects and other pests. 

The best of all structures for the display of plants of 
climbing habit is the corridor greenhouse, usually a long, 
lofty, narrow structure connecting a group of greenhouses 



CULTIVATION 25 

or potting sheds. Corridors were a feature of importance 
in the old South Kensington Garden, and at Chatsworth 
they are still important because of their extent and the 
large variety of climbers they contain. The Chatsworth 
corridors were copied at the Crystal Palace by Sir Joseph 
Paxton, and forty years ago these also contained an inter- 
esting collection of greenhouse climbers. In the Botanic 
Gardens at Edinburgh and at Cambridge there are 
large corridors, richly furnished with climbers. The late 
Mr. Joseph Chamberlain was justly proud of the corridor 
which connected his house with his orchid and other 
greenhouses at Highbury. It had a tiled floor, was lit by 
electricity, whilst climbing plants on each side, with hang- 
ing baskets overhead, furnished it. It was a delightful pro- 
menade in which those who wished could talk and smoke 
comfortably, whilst others interested in the contents of the 
plant houses could go their own way without a guide. 

Climbers intended to cover a large area must be pro- 
vided with plenty of root room. Just as grape vines are 
treated liberally with respect to soil, so all strong growing 
climbers must have proper provision for root extension. 
Fortunately many of them are able to forage on their own 
account, for it is not unusual to find roots intended to 
occupy a small amount of space growing out under stages 
and into paths, and even through the outside walls to 
the soil beyond. Plants that succeed in doing this are 
almost capable of looking after themselves. At the same 
time proper borders should be made in which the drain- 
age and soil are sufficient to provide what the plant re- 
quires, and to keep it healthy. In corridors where the 
floor is tiled or flagged a border 2 feet wide should be 
made. As far as the welfare of the plants can be con- 



26 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

sidered the floor had better be soil covered with a layer of 
fine gravel, but that is a detail which circumstances must 
decide. Where the floor is tiled the border should be 
raised above the floor level and kept in position with up- 
right tiles or other edging. This serves to prevent water 
running from the paths into the borders. The soil for the 
border must be good in quality, and although certain plants 
require a particular kind of soil, Lapageria and Dipladenia 
for example must have pure peat generally a mixture of 
good turfy loam, leaf mould, and coarse sand suits green- 
house climbers. Peat is not recommended to be mixed 
with other soils, because in a border it is apt to become 
sour and cause mischief. 

In most conservatories and greenhouses root accom- 
modation can be provided under the side stages or at the 
foot of pillars, where the border should be made as recom- 
mended. Failing this, boxes or large pots have to be 
used. For some climbers it is an advantage to have 
the roots quite under control, and for this reason pot or 
box is preferable for them. They can be specially fed, or 
for the purpose of resting or checking growth water can 
be withheld for a time. These large root receptacles are 
unfortunately unsightly, still they can be utilised for trailing 
plants, which serve to hide them. 

When climbers are to be grown in pots standing on the 
stages in small houses their treatment must be, to some 
extent at any rate, the same as that given to the occupants 
of the house generally. They will require training and 
keeping within bounds, the treatment that is best in such a 
position being the restricted or short spur system as 
practised for grape vines. They then flower better, and 
are less likely to outgrow their space. 



CULTIVATION 



27 



Climbers are always most effective when their stems are 
allowed to grow with a certain amount of freedom. A 
tangle of shoots is natural, and if they are flowering plants 
their flowers produce a more pleasing effect than when 
strict training is practised. 

A list of climbing plants for cultivation in greenhouses, 
corridors and conservatories, limited strictly to plants of 
climbing habit, would exclude a number of shrubs which 
are grown as climbers. It has already been pointed out 
that it is difficult to draw the line between shrubs that 
are climbers and those that are not, and for our pur- 
pose it is not necessary to draw it. The following plants 
are known to be suitable for the purposes named. It is 
only necessary to mention the genera here. The alpha- 
betical list under Chapter XIV should be consulted as to 
species : 



Abutilon (see Plate XIV). 

Acacia. 

Asparagus. 

Bignonia. 

Bomarea. 

Bougainvillea. 

Cassia. 

Clematis. 

Clianthus. 

Cobaea. 

Fuchsia. 

Habrothamnus (Cestrum). 

Hibbertia. 

Hidalgoa. 

Ipomoea. 

Kennedya. 

Lapageria. 



Lathyrus. 

Lonicera. 

Mandevilla. 

Passiflora. 

Pereskia. 

Plumbago. 

Rhodochiton. 

Rosa. 

Rubus. 

Ruscus. 

Senecio. 

Solanum. 

Stauntonia. 

Tacsonia. 

Tecoma. 

Thunbergia. 



28 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 



CHAPTER IV 
STOVE CLIMBERS 

HORTICULTURALLY the only difference between climbers 
for the greenhouse and climbers for the stove is one of 
temperature. Large tropical houses are not numerous in 
this country, for the very good reason that they are costly 
to maintain, and as the means necessary to provide the 
required temperature have to be mainly artificial, plants 
so cultivated are rarely happy. The conditions in nature 
are very different from those provided by hot water pipes 
and a liberal use of the hosepipe and syringe. Most 
important of all, direct sunlight is too often wanting for 
the successful cultivation of plants which in nature are 
generally exposed to bright sunshine. Climbers have 
developed the habit of struggling upwards in the effort to 
grow beyond the canopy of foliage of the trees which shut 
out the direct sunlight. They require an abundance of 
light and air for their proper development, and for the 
production of flowers and fruits. It is for this reason that 
climbers from distant tropical regions do not flower in 
cultivation with us satisfactorily; they miss the sunshine 
and air which they get on the roof of the forest in the 
tropics. Such plants as the Bauhinia, Camoensia maxima, 
Hodgsonia heteroclita, Hexacentris, and some of the Aris- 
tolochias are of this character. At the same time there 
are many tropical climbers which can be successfully 
grown in plant houses. 

In these days stove plants are less popular than they 



STOVE CLIMBERS 29 

were half a century or less ago, and there is no getting 
away from the fact that a tropical plant house is often so 
hot and moist that the plants in it can only be inspected 
in more or less discomfort. Nevertheless there are still 
among us horticulturists who love to cultivate plants from 
tropical countries, many of which are climbers of great 
beauty and charm. It would not be difficult to build a 
glass house specially adapted for the cultivation of tropical 
climbers. Such a house should be constructed so as to 
admit the maximum amount of sunshine, the borders 
heated from below, and the air warmed by means of hot 
water pipes fixed near the roof. 

A serious defect in all our artificially heated plant 
houses is that the heat comes from below, and in tropical 
houses in winter this is injurious to plants. One of the 
most striking examples of what is meant is the Palm House 
at Kew, the roof of which is iron and glass and the floor 
open-iron grating, below which are many rows of hot water 
pipes. To maintain the required temperature in winter 
these pipes have to be kept hot, and the effect of the 
heated dry air rising from below and impinging against 
the delicate under surface of the leaves is harmful to most 
plants. Climbers, which are necessarily near the roof, do 
not suffer so much as the plants lower down, but even they 
would be happier if the conditions with respect to temper- 
ature were better. 

A list of climbers suitable for a tropical house might 
include some of the plants mentioned in the list for a 
greenhouse. Many plants are fairly adaptive with respect 
to temperature. Vitis vinifera, for example, which may be 
grown in the open air in England, and is also quite happy 
under ultratropical treatment ; the common Passion flower 



30 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

Passiflora coerulea grows flowers and fruits against a south 
wall in England, yet it is also quite happy in the green- 
house and conservatory, and is nowhere more successful 
than in a tropical house. Solatium Wendlandii grew and 
flowered well out of doors in the garden of the late Sir 
Trevor Lawrence at Burford, and it is now fairly common 
as a greenhouse plant, yet it is a native of the tropical 
forests of Brazil, and it has never been seen anywhere in 
greater luxuriance than in the hot, moist Water Lily House 
at Kew. 

At the same time many tropical plants will not thrive 
in other than a stove temperature. The following list of 
genera is an attempt at a selection of climbers which 
require a tropical climate and which are known to be 
cultivated in the gardens of this country as ornamental 
plants : 



Allamanda. 

Aristolochia. 

Beaumontia. 

Bignonia. 

Cereus. 

Clerodendron. 

Clitoria. 

Combretuin. 

Dioscorea. 

Dipladenia. 

Gloriosa. 

Hoya. 

Marcgravia. 

Monstera. 



Mucuna. 

Odontadenia. 

Oxera. 

Passiflora. 

Petraea. 

Philodendron. 

Pothos. 

Selaginella. 

Smilax. 

Solandra. 

Stephanotis. 

Strophanthus. 

Thunbergia. 



PERGOLAS 31 



CHAPTER V 
CONSTRUCTION OF PERGOLAS 

A PERGOLA has come to be looked upon as a necessary 
feature in a good class garden. As a support for climbing 
plants it has many advantages, and for that reason its 
usefulness must be considered in a book about climbers. 
At the same time one cannot overlook the fact that in 
some gardens the pergola is an eyesore, and that some 
pergolas which one sees would be an eyesore anywhere. 
Italy, where the pergola, a kind of balcony or arbour, had 
its origin, is a land of sunshine, where coolness and shade 
are desirable for the greater portion of the year. There is 
much less need for them in the gardens of these islands, 
where a balcony against the house, a well-placed summer- 
house, a group of trees with spreading branches, or even 
one of the spreading chestnut tree pattern afford shade 
and shelter, and are more appropriate. 

But we have adapted the pergola to another purpose, 
namely, as a more or less ornamental feature in itself, 
climbing plants being trained over it as a kind of excuse 
for its being there. In this respect the pergola is no 
worse than the great majority of other structures that are 
allowed in the garden. Some, such as the greenhouse 
and the shelter or summer-house, are tolerable because 
they have a definite use. But many gardens are spoilt 
by silly attempts to add variety by the introduction of 
what are supposed to be works of art in the shape of 
temples, statues, well-heads, sundials, elaborately designed 



32 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

seats, fountains, summer-houses that are not inviting, and 
pergolas. My advice therefore to those who are worried 
by a pergola that has become troublesome is, sweep it 
away and plant trees or shrubs in its place ; and to those 
who feel inclined to build one I would say, think twice 
and thrice before deciding. A pergola in the wrong place 
is distressing ; an ugly pergola is a sin against art ; a well 
placed pergola of good design, suitable for climbing plants, 
may be a delightful feature and a source of interest during 
summer ; but it will not be cheap, and it will need a lot 
of attention from the gardener ; it must be well furnished 
with the right kind of plants. There are such pergolas 
in England, but not many. 

The most pergolarised garden I have seen is that 
formed by the late Lord Battersea, at Overstrand, near 
Cromer. Most of the walks appeared to be roofed with 
pergolas, on which grew a great variety of climbers. In 
summer the plants were both attractive and interesting, 
so much so that one did not notice the effect of the 
pergolas in the general scheme. Probably in winter they 
would give the garden a kind of bird-cage look. 

There are sometimes positions in a garden where a 
pergola would not be unsuitable. The best is as a cover- 
ing to a walk from the house to a shelter house or other 
structure; or to an entrance gate. Even then it must 
be considered from several standpoints, for it sometimes 
happens that a pergola has been erected where it destroys 
the best view in the garden. Another likely position is 
over a path running parallel to a tall hedge, the latter 
to form one side of the pergola, as it were. It must 
not be forgotten that the plants trained up and over a 
heavy- topped pergola cannot be properly seen from 



PERGOLAS 33 

the inside. There are pergolas whose roofs have become 
a thick tangle of climbers which seen from inside is a 
mere thatch of stems and leaves, all their charms being 
displayed above outside, where only the birds can enjoy 
them. 

No heavy form of pergola can look well in a garden 
in this country. At any rate, I have never seen one that 
I would not have removed had it been mine. The lighter 
they are in construction the better. Larch and other poles 
are recommended, and some designs for them are simply 
treillage arranged pergolawise. The objection to wood is 
that if used in any thickness it has a heavy look, and if 
made of light material it does not last long. There is 
nothing like iron for lightness in effect, and durability. 
Gas piping i J-inch in diameter is excellent for the standards 
or pillars, and they can be kept in position at the top 
by an iron rod J-inch in diameter, turned at each end so 
as to hook into the upright pipes. These rods can be 
either straight or curved to taste. Thus a number of iron 
arches spanning the path are formed, and they can be 
connected at the sides by fixing rods along the top of 
the standards. The plants are trained on these so as to 
form a series of arches, and there is no danger of a tangle 
of shoots overhead ; moreover the plants can be easily 
seen from the path, and they get room and the maximum 
of light. There are two pergolas of this kind at Kew, 
one near the rock garden, devoted to roses, another, near 
the pagoda, on which a collection of hardy species of Vitis 
and the Wistarias are trained. For the greater part of the 
year these two pergolas are unattractive, one may say they 
are downright ugly throughout the winter. Indeed I have 
never seen a pergola in winter in this country that wasn't. 

C 



34 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

How to make a pergola and keep it from becoming dull 
and irritating at any time is a question which has yet to 
be answered. By clothing it with evergreen climbers one 
might make it passable in winter, but it would never have 
a gay time, would be a dull object always. A mixture 
of rose, clematis, honeysuckle, and evergreen might be 
managed, but it would be difficult to keep in balance. 
The choice of plants would depend on space and situa- 
tion, and there is great variety to select from. A pergola 
devoted entirely to Wistaria would be magnificent when 
the plants were in bloom. The rose pergola at Kew 
is a beautiful sight in June, when most of the plants, all 
of the Rambler type, are in full blow. The grape vine 
would be an excellent plant to use in this way, and in 
sunny localities it might be fairly fruitful. 

From what has been said it will be seen that I do not 
recommend the pergola except solely as a structure for the 
accommodation of climbing plants. As a purely archi- 
tectural feature in the garden I have no patience with it. 
The plashed alleys of the sixteenth-century gardens served 
the purpose at least as well, and were less unsightly 
in winter. I may be wrong, but I certainly am a heretic 
in this question of architectural art in the garden. To 
me a block of stone of fantastic form with a sundial on 
it is affectation make-believe. Naked human figures in 
stone stuck about in the garden should either be covered 
or taken indoors in cold weather ; when I see them I feel 
disposed to offer them a muffler, an umbrella, or a Bur- 
berry. The unattractive seats in stone that are becom- 
ing fashionable must be meant for the ladies whose 
Sandow clothing does not admit of sitting down. Surely, 
the garden should be comfortable, peaceful, beautiful 



VERANDAHS, WALLS AND ARBOURS 35 

without affectation's artful aid, made so by plant, leaf, 
and flower, all after nature's best, healthy and pleasant 
to look at. 



CHAPTER VI 

CLIMBERS FOR VERANDAHS, HOUSE WALLS, 
AND ARBOURS 

THE pergola is a sort of verandah-archway, and the 
objections that have been raised to it may be urged to 
some extent against other contrivances of the kind. Arch- 
ways are not always suitably placed ; they are sometimes 
ridiculous both in form and position, spanning a straight 
path midway between entrance gate and house for ex- 
ample, a common enough spot for one, yet as absurd as a 
door would be if placed there. An arch should suggest an 
entrance to somewhere ; a change of scene ; therefore the 
most happily placed arch in the garden is that spanning a 
gateway, or at the opening in a boundary fence separating 
say the pleasure from the kitchen garden. A well-built 
arch in such a position, clothed with a suitable climber, is 
good to look at. A bold stone archway as an entrance to 
a garden, with a climbing rose, clematis, or vine clinging 
to it, is better than any post or stone pillar. Climbers on 
arches must be allowed to grow with a certain amount of 
freedom, close cropping or training only spoils their effect. 
The ivy-clad entrance, although somewhat sad looking, is 
better than bare stone or wood. There is nothing to beat 
a good rose, one that makes long, strong shoots and flowers 
profusely. 



36 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

The open-sided summer-house or arbour offers suitable 
support for hardy climbers ; Tecoma, Clematis, Passiflora, 
Polygonum, and Wistaria for flowers, and Aristolochia, 
Hutnulus, Menispermum, and Vitis for foliage. Most 
roses are objectionable because of their thorns. The 
same selection will serve for the verandah, adding For- 
sythia, Jasminum, Berberidopsis, Lonicera, Fuchsia, and 
Calystegia, for their flowers and fitness of habit. 

On the flat walls of houses and other buildings where 
some protection from cold is afforded there are more than 
enough suitable climbers for the many positions there 
provided. On walls facing south the sun-loving plants 
must be given preference, and in very sheltered places 
even tender plants, such as Clianthus puniceus, Mutisia 
decurrens, Trachelospermumjasminoid.es, and Solatium Wend- 
landii, S. crispum, and S. jasminoides may be tried. Ivy 
and Ampelopsis Veitchii are good enough for any position, 
and if climbers are required to cover walls in the quickest 
time, and with the minimum amount of attention, these 
are the plants to do it. If I were limited to the use of one 
climber for a wall, my choice would be this Ampelopsis. 
There remain the shrubs, such as Cotoneaster, Pyracantha, 
Ceanothus, Euonymus, Cydonia, and Edwardsia, all good 
wall plants requiring only a little shaping. They need to 
be nailed to the wall, as many of the true climbers do, 
unless wire supports are provided. Really good wall posi- 
tions should not be lost sight of for pears, plums, and 
cherries. Many a gable end is turned to account by men 
who know what is needed to grow first-rate pears. These 
fruit-trees when in flower are a pleasing sight, and in the 
autumn when the fruit hangs thick on the branches they 
are still more pleasing, Roses on buildings are a common 



CHOICE OF ASPECT 37 

enough feature. They are dealt with in the chapter devoted 
to them in this book. 

Cultural details for these hardy climbers will be found in 
the descriptive list (Chapter XV), but a few general direc- 
tions may be given here. Most important of all is position. 
It isn't much use planting tender plants in exposed places, 
nor those that require plenty of sunshine in positions 
where they will not get it. Therefore, when making a 
selection attention should be paid to the needs of the plant 
with respect to exposure. As to soil, it pays to do these 
plants well from the first, and if borders do not already 
exist where the climbers are to be put, suitable borders 
should be made. It may be sufficient for each plant to 
take out a barrowful or so of soil, and to see that the 
drainage is all right before refilling the hole with a suitable 
compost. Some plants are not particular, will grow in 
anything that can be called soil ; still one never knows 
what has been filled in at the foot of walls, and it is poor 
economy to risk it without making examination. 

Pruning is an operation for which it is difficult to give 
directions of a general character. So much depends on 
the nature of the plant, its habit of growth and time of 
flowering ; also on the position it occupies. As a rule 
hardy climbers require little pruning. Those grown for 
their flowers may have their shoots shortened soon after 
the flowers are over, but it will probably be necessary to 
examine them again in early spring. Evergreen climbers 
require no more pruning than is needed to keep them in 
position. Such plants as the grape vine, Passion flower, 
and Wistaria are best spur-pruned in winter. 



38 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 



CHAPTER VII 
CLIMBERS ON TREES 

IT has already been shown that the natural support for 
a climbing plant is a tree or stout shrub. In nature 
climbers have nothing else to climb, except perhaps a 
rocky projection. There is, however, often a struggle for 
position, and the ill effects of some climbers, such as Ivy, 
on the host plant make it inadvisable to set climbers to 
grow over trees or shrubs that are themselves of value. 
No gardener who knows the habits of ivy allows it to 
fasten itself on a tree, unless it be one of no importance. 
Yet there are a few climbers which are not unkind to their 
hosts. Clematis, Tecoma, Roses, and Vines, which are not 
twiners, and therefore have not a tight and ever-tightening 
embrace, may be allowed to climb and hang themselves 
upon trees without danger. 

In his book on Hardy Trees and Shrubs, Mr. W. J. 
Bean gives some useful hints on tree climbers. "The 
establishment of a climber in close enough proximity to a 
tree to enable it to overrun it requires some consideration. 
It is often of little use planting it at the base of the trunk. 
Although frequently selected, that spot is too dry and too 
shady, except in decrepit trees or trees with tall, bare 
trunks. If any branches come near enough to the ground 
to enable the newly planted climber to be attached to them, 
that is usually the best place to select. It may be neces- 
sary, however, to secure the branch against being blown 
about too roughly by storm, and so pulling out the climber 



CLIMBERS ON TREES 



39 



with it. A stout post set in the ground may serve at once 
for the climber to grow up and to secure the branch to. 
The establishment of a climber on living trees and shrubs 
is also hampered and delayed by its having their active 
roots to contend with. A good plan in this case is to sink 
a tub or barrel, with the bottom knocked out, level with 
the surface of the soil, and fill it with rich soil, in which 
the climber is to be planted. This allows it to grow free 
from interference by other roots for a year or two and thus 
get firmly established. If the tube be of soft wood, it may 
be allowed to remain and decay." 

In making a selection of climbers to be grown as above 
described, one must be guided by the position, size, and 
character of the garden, and the size and habit of the trees 
or shrubs to be used as hosts. The following are gener- 
ally useful, being easy to establish and able to look after 
themselves pretty well. 



Ampelopsis quinquefolia. 

Veitchii. 

Aristolochia Sipho. 
Celastrus articulatus. 
Clematis calycina. 

Jackmanii. 

montana. 

Vitalba. 

Humulus Lupulus. 
Hydrangea scandens. 
Lonicera etrusca. 

Hildebrandtiana. 

japonica. 
Menispermum canadense. 



Polygonum baldschuanicum. 
Rosa Banksiana. 

gigantea. 

,, moschata. 
Other climbing roses. 
Solanum crispum. 

jasminoides (see 

Plate X). 
Vitis Coignetiae. 

Labrusca. 

vinifera. 
Wistaria chinensis. 
multijuga. 



40 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 



CHAPTER VIII 
CLIMBING ROSES 

MANY species of Rosa are climbers, and gardeners have 
succeeded in adding to the number by crossing them with 
each other and with species that are not climbers. The 
king of climbing Roses is R. gigantea, a native of Upper 
Burma, and known as a garden plant in Europe for the 
last twenty-five years. So far it has resisted all attempts to 
raise a good hybrid from it, at any rate none has been 
recorded, and it has proved awkward in other ways. That 
it has qualities of a high order may be seen from the 
following account of it in Burma : " Rosa gigantea grows 
in profusion immediately opposite the window I am now 
writing at, and for a hundred yards or more away. The 
boles of some of the plants are as thick as a man's thigh. 
It is a creeper, and does not flower until it gets over or 
beyond the tree it climbs. These specimens are on large 
evergreen trees, and their roots are in limestone and vege- 
table mould, through which run springs of pure water. . . . 
The whole of a large group of trees on the southern and 
western side is covered up to fifty and eighty feet in height 
with the Roses, and when in full bloom they look like a 
sheet of white, and the air all round is deliciously scented. 
It is certainly a glorious sight." The flowers are six inches 
across and milk white. If only we could get Roses with 
this habit, and as free flowering as the best of our climbing 
garden sorts are, how useful they would be. 

The most popular climbing Roses to-day are descen- 



CLIMBING AYRSHIRE ROSES 41 

dants from two wild species, namely R. multiflora and R. 
Wichuraiana, both natives of China and Japan, the former 
a true climber, the latter a trailer, with stems many feet 
long and shining evergreen leaves. Crimson Rambler, a 
variety of R. multiflora^ set the fashion when it was intro- 
duced from Japan in 1893. It revealed the rose in a new 
character, or, at any rate, one which had not attracted 
much attention before, and the breeder set to work to raise 
more of the same type. They are with us now by the 
dozen, one might almost say hundred. Thanks to these 
loose-growing, free-flowering, easily-cultivated Rambler 
Roses, our gardens are now really rich in rose effects 
produced with the aid of the pergola, arch, pillar, and 
wall. If only R. gigantea could be induced to breed with 
some of them, but that may come. 

Climbing decorative Roses are now a feature at flower 
shows ; indeed, they enable Rose experts to make far more 
effective displays than were possible when specimen roses 
were ugly, formal things, quite unlike anything in nature, 
or yet in art worthy of the name. It is so much easier, too, 
to grow roses on natural lines, and the climbing trailing 
sorts are just what was needed to wean men from a liking 
for the severely-pruned, painfully-staked rose bush. 

Mr. Pemberton says the Hybrid China Roses (gallica 
X indica), a production of the early part of the nineteenth 
century, were the pioneers of autumn flowering Roses : 
" What a sensation the advent of these, for the most part 
strong-growing, free-flowering pillar Roses, must have 
created. Nothing like them had been seen before. . . . 
Some few are with us still, and may they long continue. 
Amongst these is Blairii No. 2, raised by Mr. Blair in 
1845, a most rampant grower, throwing out shoots ten or 



42 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

twelve feet long, and quickly covering wall or pillar. . . . 
It is frequently to be seen covering the front of old farm- 
houses, for it at one time obtained great popularity. Two 
other excellent examples of the Hybrid China are Mme. 
Plantier, pure white, sent out in 1835, and Fulgens, a bril- 
liant crimson." 

There are some useful climbing garden Roses among 
the Ayrshire group (R. arvensis\ which are good-natured 
and free-flowering. Three of the best of these are Dundee 
Rambler, Bennett's Seedling, and Splendens. The so-called 
evergreen Roses are descendants of R. sempervirens. This 
species has long, slender, green shoots, armed with red 
prickles, and bearing shining green leaves, which remain 
fresh on the plant well into the winter. Felicite* Perpetue 
is one of the best of its offspring. 

There are climbing Hybrid Perpetual Roses which 
should not be overlooked. They may be called extenders 
rather than climbers, as they have long, whip-like shoots, 
and, with a little training and pruning, may be made to 
grow to a fair length. Mr. Darlington recommends these 
in preference to true rambler sorts for pillars, pointing out 
that they require management to keep them furnished at 
the base. Examples of them are Aimee Vibert, Ards 
Rover, Climbing Caroline Testout, Climbing F. K. Druschki, 
Climbing La France, and William A. Richardson. Trier 
and Longworth Rambler are two good late flowering varie- 
ties, and are first rate for the pergola or pillar. 

It is not worth while here to go into the question of cul- 
tivation and the selection of sorts for special purposes, 
seeing that all this and a great deal more can be found 
in Mr. Darlington's excellent book on Roses, one of the 
" Present-Day Gardening " series. 



CLIMBING BANKSIAN ROSE 43 

Climbing Roses for the conservatory must not be 
overlooked. Is there any Rose, or any kind of flower 
whatever, more delicately lovely than a Marshal Niel? 
It is exactly fifty years since this Rose was introduced 
to the public. Of unknown parentage, with a habit, 
foliage, and flowers that distinguish it from all other 
Roses, deliciously fragrant, perfect in form and colour, 
the Marchal stands out by itself. It requires skill to 
get the plant to do its best, but, when that is accom- 
plished, what a glorious best it is ! I have seen it planted 
to replace Grape Vines in a large vinery, and the 
plants in winter produced flowers literally in thousands. 
That was forty years ago, when a good Marechal Neil bud 
was sold for sixpence. It is one of the very best forcing 
Roses, but one of the worst for mildew. Still, it is no 
doubt first among climbing varieties for the greenhouse 
to-day. Next to it would come Gloire de Dijon, older 
even than the Marechal. Dean Hole has said, "Were I 
condemned to have but one rose for the rest of my life, 
I should ask for a strong plant of Gloire de Dijon." It is 
a sturdy grower, produces flowers by the hundred, and 
stands glasshouse treatment well. William Allen Richard- 
son has similar qualities. Its flowers are smaller, but in 
bud they are delightful, and their colour, two shades of 
orange or orange and cream, is pleasing. Whilst being 
at home in the open where Roses will grow, it is good 
as a greenhouse climber. It is an excellent button-hole 
flower. 

One of the best climbing Roses where it gets what it 
wants, and one of the least satisfactory where the condi- 
tions are unfavourable, is the Banksia Rose. The Rev. J. H. 
Pemberton recently wrote in the Garden that *' it is the most 



44 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

rampant of the summer-flowering Roses, and retains its 
mildew-proof foliage right through the winter and until the 
new spring growth appears ; and for this reason it is the 
best of all Roses for covering bare walls, especially the 
southern front of a house, no matter how high. It will run 
up twelve or fifteen feet in one year, and eventually right 
up to the eaves, round the windows, and even over the 
roof. The Virginian Creeper is not in it compared with 
the double yellow Banksia. It never seems to grow old ; 
twenty, thirty years hence will find it as vigorous as when 
it was first planted. If some cannot make it flower, the 
cause will probably be found in climate and treatment. 
As to climate, it is quite hardy, and is never injured by 
winter frost. But it comes into flower in May, sometimes 
in April. One month before it flowers the clusters of buds 
are formed. This is an anxious time for fruit-growers, and 
the weather that destroys the Peach blossom will destroy 
the swelling buds of the Banksia unless they are protected. 
The overhanging eaves of the house will generally afford 
the buds sufficient protection. With reference to the next 
point, treatment, all soils suit it, but a warm, gravelly soil, 
no matter how hungry and dry, is the best. No, it is not 
in the soil wherein lies the difficulty, but in the pruning. 
Unlike the multiflora, the strong rods made the first year 
will not bloom from the laterals the second year. The 
blooms are borne on the laterals of the laterals, and in the 
third year. In other words, the strong rods take three 
years before they bear flowers. Therefore, if we treat the 
Banksia as we do Crimson Rambler or Blush Rambler, for 
example, we shall be cutting out all the next year's flower- 
ing wood. If you have space, prune it but seldom ; but if 
it grows beyond bounds, remove most of the strong, long. 



CLEMATIS 45 

jointed rods (leaving a few for future blooming), and keep 
as much of the short, twiggy growth as you can, for that 
alone the next summer will bear flowers." 



CHAPTER IX 
CLEMATIS 

THE history of the Clematis as a garden flower up to 1872 
was well told by the late Thomas Moore, and the fullest 
cultural instructions, based on long experience, given by 
the late George Jackman in a book published by John 
Murray in the year named. We are there told of the 
increasing popularity of the Clematis as a hardy, free- 
flowering climber, and of the great improvement effected 
by breeders in the size, form, and colours of the flowers. 
The breeders of new varieties appear to have included 
continental as well as English workers, but it is doubtful 
if any one of them did anything like as much to make 
the Clematis beautiful, easy to grow, and popular, as 
Mr. Jackman did in his nursery at Woking, and his 
sons are still engaged in the task. The book referred to 
is probably out of print now ; perhaps the proprietors 
could be induced to bring out a new edition of it, for 
beyond the fact that more crosses have been made and 
a number of species added to those grown forty years 
ago, there isn't much to be said that has not already been 
well said by Messrs. Moore and Jackman in their book, 
The Clematis. 

The first hybrid Clematis recorded was raised in 1835 
in Henderson's Pine-apple Nursery, St. John's Wood. 



46 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

This was followed by many seedlings of Belgian origin. 
M. Lemoine, Nancy ; Messrs. Simon-Louis, Metz ; M. Carre*, 
Troyes; M. Briolay-Goiffon, M. Dauvesse, Orleans; and 
Herr Rinz, Frankfort, were other pioneer breeders of 
Clematis. Messrs. Cripps & Son, Tunbridge Wells, were 
among the foremost breeders and growers of them in 
England, and down to quite recently their nursery was 
famous for its collection of varieties. Mr. Charles Noble, 
Sunningdale, also raised many, whilst the late Mr. Ander- 
son-Henry, Edinburgh, was easily first among amateur 
raisers of new hybrids. 

According to Moore and Jackman the species from 
which all the earlier hybrids and seedlings were derived 
were C. patens, C. lanuginosa, C. Fortunei, now called 
C. florida, and C. Standishii, and as Standishii is now 
reckoned a variety of C. patens, we have three species only, 
all Japanese, as the progenitors of the army of named 
sorts (180 are listed in Moore and Jackman's book) raised 
and grown in gardens up to the end of the nineteenth 
century. 

To these have to be added the crosses of recent origin, 
those between C. coccinea and various garden sorts being 
perhaps the most distinct. They have smaller, fleshier 
flowers than the patens-lanuginosa type, and although less 
showy, perhaps, they possess both grace and beauty. 
Still more recent are the crosses between C. montana 
and the big-flowered garden sorts ; this section is also a 
decided gain. 

The possibilities of Clematis now are endless, a number 
of distinct species having been introduced, mainly from 
China, during the last ten years or so, and as the genus 
appears to respond readily to the attentions of the 



PLATE VI 
CLEMATIS NELLY MOSER 



CLEMATIS 49 

hybridiser, he can if he wishes ring all sorts of changes 
with them. The best of the new introductions are : 

C. montana rubens : Flowers claret-coloured, produced in May. 

C. tangutica : Yellow-flowered. Often in bloom in November. 

C. Meyeniana: Flowers white, in large, loose panicles. A 
robust evergreen. 

C. Armandii (see Plate VII) : A tall climber, evergreen, with 
large bold cymes of white, Anemone-like flowers. 

C. Dennisce (Sanderi): The Australian form of C. indivisa, 
evergreen, the long shoots crowded with axillary panicles of white 
star-like flowers, the red and yellow stamens forming a conspicuous 
brush-like cluster in the centre of each star. 

C. Wilsonii: A long-stalked, large, white-flowered variety of the 
polymorphic C. montana^ flowering in late autumn. 

C. Sieboldii (see Plate IX) : A new Clematis with neatly formed 
white perianth of six segments, showing off finely a central mass of 
purple, linear, modified, barren stamens. Flowers 3^ inches' 
diameter. 

The cultural requirements of Clematis may be called 
quite ordinary. They prefer a loamy soil, light rather 
than heavy, and they like lime or chalk mixed with it in 
the proportion of a spadeful to a barrowload. They also 
enjoy an annual mulch with rotten farmyard manure, 
which should be applied in winter. The shoots are self- 
supporting, but they require a little arranging at the start. 
Where there is plenty of room the less pruning they get 
the better ; all that is needed being a kind of combing out 
to get rid of brash and prevent overcrowding. This should 
be done in early spring before new growth starts. In some 
positions, however, a decided pruning may be necessary, 
and some varieties in some positions require to be annually 
close pruned ; this should be done in spring. The Jack- 
manii race is the hardiest and most useful of all because 

D 



50 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

of its good nature and free summer and autumn flowering 
habit. The many forms of it may be used in various ways, 
either on pergolas, arches, summer-houses, verandahs, 
pillars, house fronts, old trees, or as trailers over rock- 
work. Hop-pole treatment is not unsuitable for them ; 
they may also supplant Ivy as drapery for old walls, 
and ruins. 

The general method of propagation for Clematises is 
by grafting, done in warmth in early spring or even winter. 
The stock used is the fleshy root of C. Vitalba, and the 
scion a young shoot, or portion of one, prepared for the 
purpose by forcing into early growth the plant of which 
stock is required. With proper appliances and just that 
skill in cutting and fitting which is got by experience, it 
is easy to raise any number of plants of a given variety, or, 
at any rate, as many as there are scions available, for the 
expert grafter does not anticipate a single failure. 

But grafting is not really necessary ; one might go 
further and say it is not the best way to propagate Clema- 
tises. On this point I will quote here what Professor 
Balfour stated in his Problems of Propagation : " The com- 
mon belief is that Clematises are difficult to strike, and 
propagation by grafting is frequently adopted. They are 
really not difficult to strike from cuttings, if the cutting be 
made through an internode. Internodal cuttings may be 
struck within a fortnight. It is otherwise if nodal cuttings 
are used. These callus well profusely indeed but refuse 
to form roots either from the callus or from the stem above 
it. Doubtless this has given rise to the widely spread 
belief that it is difficult to strike cuttings of Clematis. An 
internodal cutting is a portion of a shoot, the base of which, 
instead of being just below the joint or node, is some dis- 




PLATE VII. 



CLEMATIS ARMANDII 



CLEMATIS 51 

tance lower down, an inch or so below the node. There 
appear to be a number of plants for which the internodal 
cutting is preferable to the other. Why there should be 
this difference has not been explained." The node is the 
point where the leaf axils with their buds occur, and the 
internode the stem intervening between two nodes. 

As to the cultivation of Clematis and the up-to-date 
sorts worth growing, Messrs. Jackman & Son, Woking, who 
specialise in these plants, say the best time to plant is October 
and November, or in the spring. They recommend for 
each plant the digging of a hole 2 feet deep and square, 
and loosening the bottom before putting in prepared soil. 
The hole should first be partly filled in, the plant being 
then carefully taken out of the pot and the crocks removed, 
setting the ball in the middle and filling up with more soil, 
pressing it firmly, so that when finished the ball of roots 
shall be from i-J to 2 inches below the surface of the 
ground ; finally, the soil should be booted firm round the 
plant. Being rampant growers, Clematis prefer a moist 
soil, though thorough drainage is indispensable to good 
healthy development ; and the vigour of the plant must be 
kept up by annual manurings with horse or cow manure. 
On dry, hot soils cow manure would probably be preferable, 
whilst on heavy soils a thorough dressing of good leaf- 
mould would be beneficial. Mulching with half-rotten 
dung is another mode of manuring ; the operation should 
be performed annually on the approach of winter, its effect 
being to increase the strength of the plant and the size of 
the flowers. 

Pruning is one of the important points of good manage- 
ment. The pruning of the varieties belonging to the 
Calycina, Anemoniflorce, Azures ^ Florida, and Lanuginosa 



52 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

types should take place in the months of February or 
March, and consist in removing the weak, straggling, or 
overcrowded branches. Some sorts flower from the old 
or ripened wood ; therefore, to secure blossoms, the strong, 
one-year-old wood should be trained in, as far as it 
has become thoroughly ripened, beyond which it may be 
cut away, the retained parts being so disposed as to fill 
up vacant spaces. The varieties of the Viticellce and 
Jackmanii types being summer and autumn bloomers, 
flowering on the young or summer shoots, the aim in 
pruning should be to favour the development of vigorous 
young shoots, by cutting back the summer growth each 
season, say in November. The ground should then be 
mulched, as advised above. The varieties of the Viornce 
section should have the shoots cut off to where they have 
died down. 

The following list is from Messrs. Jackman's catalogue : 

CALYCIN^E 

Evergreen climbing winter bloomers, with small flowers borne 
in January and February on the old or ripened wood. 

C. calydna (balearicd) : Creamy- white, dotted on inside with 
purple spots. 

C. cirrhosa : White, evergreen, winter-flowering. 

ANEMONIFLOR^E 

Spring bloomers. The medium-sized flowers are borne in axillary 
clusters on the old and ripened wood in May. 

C. montana : White, Wood Anemone-like. 

C. montana grandiflora : White. 

C. montana rubens : Claret-red, autumn flowering. 




PLATE VIII. 



CLEMATIS IIENRYI 



CLEMATIS 53 



AZUIUE 

Large-flowered spring bloomers, flowering from the old or ripened 
wood in May and June. 

Fair Rosamond: Bluish-white, with an indistinct, wine-red bar. 
Lady Londesborough : Silver-grey, paler bar. 
Miss Bateman : White, chocolate-red anthers. 
Miss Crawshay : Solferino-pink. 
Mrs. George Jackman : Satiny- white with creamy bar. 
Sir Garnet Wolseley : Bluish ground with bar of plum-red. 
Stella : Light violet with bar of deep red. 
The Queen : Delicate lavender. 

FLORIDA 

Large-flowered summer bloomers, flowering from the old or 
ripened wood. The following all bear double flowers : 

Belle of Waking: Silvery-grey. June. 

Countess of Lovelace : Bluish-lilac, rosette-shaped. June, July. 

Duchess of Edinburgh : The best of the double whites, deliciously 
scented. June, July. 

Lucie Lemoine: White, rosette-shaped, pale yellow anthers. 
June, July. 

LANUGINOS^E 

Large-flowered summer and autumn bloomers, flowering succes- 
sionally on short, lateral summer shoots from July to October. 

Alba Magna : Pure white, remarkably broad sepals. 
Beauty of Worcester : Bluish-violet, with prominent white 
stamens, produces single and double blooms. 
Bella Nantoise : Delicate lavender. 
Blue Gem : Pale cerulean- blue. 
Fairy Queen : Pale flesh, with pink bar. 
Gloire de St. Julien : White, with yellow stamens, very large. 



54 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

Grand Duchess : Bluish-white. 
'Henryi (see Plate VIII) : Large, finely formed, creamy-white. 

Imperatrice Eugenie : Large pure white. 

Jeanne D'Arc: Greyish- white. 

King Edward VII : Violet-purple with bars of crimson. 

Lady Caroline Neville : French-white, mauve bars. 

La France: Deep violet-purple. 

Lanuginosa Candida : Greyish-white. 

Lawsoniana : Rosy-purple with darker veins. 

Lord Neville : Dark plum colour. 

Madame Van Houtte : White, suffused with mauve. 

Marcel Moser : Mauve- violet with red bar. 

Marie Boisselot : Pure white. 

Mrs. Hope: Satiny-mauve, bar darker. 

Nelly Moser (see Plate VI) : Light mauve with bright red bar, 
large. 

Otto Froebel: Greyish- white, very large. 

Princess of Wales : Deep bluish-mauve with a satiny surface. 

Purpurea elegans : Deep violet-purple. 

Queen Alexandra : Pale lavender with lilac-purple base, silvery- 
white down the centre. 

Robert Hanbury : Bluish-lilac edged with red. 

Sensation : Rich satiny-mauve. 

William Kennett: Deep lavender. 

VITICELLjE 

Large-flowered summer and autumn bloomers, flowering con- 
tinuously in profuse masses on summer shoots. 

Ascotensis: Azure-blue, large. 

Kermesina: Bright red. 

Madame Grange : Crimson-violet with red bar. 

Ville de Lyon : Carmine-red, a deeper shade round the edges. 

Vitictlla alba : Greyish-white. 

tuxurians: White, very free. 




PLATE IX. 



CLEMATIS SIEBOLDII 



CLEMATIS 55 

JACKMANII 

Mostly large-flowered, flowering successionally in profuse, con- 
tinuous masses on summer shoots from July to October. 

Alexandra : Pale reddish-violet. 
Comtesse de Bouchaud: Satiny-rose. 
Gipsy Queen : Dark velvety-purple. 
Guiding Star : Purplish, shaded crimson. 
Jackmanii : Violet-purple, very floriferous. 

alba: White. 

rubra : A red-purple variety of the same habit and 

as floriferous as its parent. 

superba : Dark violet-purple. 

Madame Edouard Andre : Bright velvety-red, free. 
Magnifica : Purple with red bars. 
Mrs . Cholmondeley : Light blue. 
Prince of Wales : Deep pucy-purple. 
Rubella : Rich claret-purple. 
Snow White Jackmanni : Free-flowering white. 
Star of India : Reddish-plum with red bars. 
The President : Deep violet, reddish towards the centre. 
Thomas Moore : Rich purple-violet. 
Tunbridgensis : Bluish-mauve. 
Velutina purpurea : Blackish-mulberry. 

PANICULATE 

Small-flowered, blooming profusely on summer shoots from July 
to October. 

Buchaniana : Pale yellow, sweet-scented. 
Flammula: White, sweet-scented. 

rosea purpurea : Rosy-purple, sweet-scented. 

Graveolens : Yellow. 
Paniculata: White. 
Vitalba: White, " Traveller's Joy." 



56 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

VIORN> 

Climbing, sub-shrubby, flowering successionally on summer 
shoots from July to September. 

Cocdnea: Scarlet. 

Crispa: Pinkish-white, sweet-scented. 



CHAPTER X 
IVIES 

THESE exceedingly useful plants have already been praised 
in this volume. Forty years ago, before gardening books 
were anything like so plentiful as now, they formed the sub- 
ject of a charming monograph by Shirley Hibberd. If there 
is one leaf thoroughly well known to every British man, 
woman, and child, it must be the leaf of the Ivy, for it thrives 
in the most unpromising corners of the smokiest towns, and 
there are also abundant opportunities for seeing it growing 
wild in the country. It is one of the most universally 
popular of all plants, a circumstance which is no doubt 
somewhat assisted by the meaning attached to Ivy in the 
so-called language of flowers : it stands for friendship, and 
has the mottoes, " I cling to thee," and " I die where I am 
attached." Ivy is the badge of the Clan Gordon. 

Seeing that Ivy was associated with both Christian and 
Pagan festivals, it is not remarkable that it should have 
been adopted as a tavern sign, being, no doubt, derived 
from the very ancient sign of " The Bush," which was intro- 
duced to this country by the Romans, and which is the 
explanation of the proverb, " Good wine needs no bush." 




PLATE X. SOLAXUM JASMIXOIDES GROWING OVER PATHWAY 



IVIES 57 

Although Ivy is so generally beloved it has been re- 
peatedly assailed by a few people on two grounds. Re- 
garding the first, that its presence on trees is injurious to 
them, this cannot be gainsaid. It has a strangling effect 
and checks the circulation of sap. In course of time Ivy will 
kill the strongest tree. But the idea that the plant is a 
parasite capable of obtaining nourishment from a living 
host is erroneous. 

The second objection to Ivy concerns its presence 
on buildings. Those keenly alive to architectural beauties 
assert that a cloak of vulgar Ivy in many cases conceals 
the builder's greatest triumphs ; and many people believe 
that it renders buildings damp. As regards covering what 
is beautiful it is obvious that some discrimination should 
be exercised, but it cannot be denied that very often, 
in masking the ugly, Ivy is a public benefactor. A wall 
originally damp becomes drier when Ivy-clothed, for the 
leaves shoot off the rain, and the stem-roots suck the 
moisture from the fabric to feed the plant. 

Few plants are as variable as Hedera Helix. But it is 
only within the last half century that much advantage has 
been taken of this peculiarity. As the result of Ivy hunting 
in the woods, purchases from gardens, and cross-breeding, 
Mr. Hibberd obtained more than two hundred varieties, 
many of them with the most diverse characteristics. Fifty 
of the best were named and put into commerce, and 
others have since been added. The Kew Hand-list of Trees 
and Shrubs contains ninety-three varieties, all represented 
in the cultivated collection, and the best nurserymen offer 
ample selections. 

One of the museums at Kew forms an object-lesson in 
being charmingly clothed with a wealth of the best and 



58 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

most distinct varieties. The main collection of Ivies at 
the National Garden will be found growing over the up- 
turned butts of trees. MKew, also, it can be seen to 
what great advantage Ivymay be used to cover the bare, 
shaded ground beneath trees, while prominent among the 
various ways in which this ubiquitous, general utility plant 
is made effective use of are its being made to grow over 
posts about eight feet high, which stand at intervals in 
beds occupied by low-growing shrubs, and to cover balus- 
trades and what would otherwise be an unsightly barrier 
of hanging chains. The grafted, so-called tree Ivies have 
their distinct uses. 

It may be repeated that Ivy is unequalled for covering 
bare places under trees. Ivy on walls is much improved 
in appearance by being clipped once a year. It is not so 
harmful to buildings as some people suppose, but, although 
picturesque, a covering of Ivy is very bad for trees. Algeri- 
ensis variegata, atropurpurea, aurea elegantissima, digitata, 
flavescens, Maderiensis variegata, marginata media, palmata 
aurea } rhombea, and triloba are some of the best of the 
climbing varieties. Cuttings root very easily out of doors. 



CHAPTER XI 

VINES 

THE term vine belongs properly to Vitis vinifera, the Grape 
Vine, the wine-bearer, but in the United States it has come 
to be used for any trailing, climbing, or running stem. 
The same loose application of terms is to be observed in 
the use of Rose, Lily, and Apple. The Americans are given 



VINES 59 

to this sort of thing ; they call Ampelopsis Boston Ivy, 
Cobcea scandens is their Cup and Saucer Vine, and Cissus 
discolor they have named the Climbing Begonia, as if there 
were not true Begonias that are climbers ! In this country, 
when we speak of Vines we mean Grape Vines, although 
there is a tendency to describe as Vines all the species 
of Vitis, which is as illogical as it would be to call all 
Pyruses pears, or all Prunuses plums. 

The Vine is a king among climbing plants. Where it 
grows wild it clings to tall trees, covering them with a 
luxuriant canopy of handsome foliage and fruiting abun- 
dantly. Man has tamed it and made it contribute both 
food and drink. How he has succeeded, everybody knows. 
Here we are to consider the Vine only as an ornamental 
climber, in which aspect it is still a king. Gardeners appear 
to overlook its claims, except as a producer of grapes. If 
only they would plant it where it could have full liberty 
of growth, against buildings, arches, arbours, pergolas, 
verandahs, trees, or to run along the top of an old 
wall, the charm of its stems and leaves would perhaps 
enlighten them. In autumn the colours of the leaves equal 
those of any oak, thorn, or maple, whilst at all times their 
form is delightful, to the artistic eye at any rate. 

There is a variety, called purpurea, which has leaves 
of port-wine colour, especially in autumn, and another, 
called lacmtosa, with elegantly slashed leaves. But one 
need not trouble about varieties, except perhaps for ex- 
posed positions, where Royal Muscadine, or Chasselas 
Vibert, or Grove End Sweetwater would most likely do best, 
and with good fortune these would probably bear bunches 
of palatable fruit. Indeed, the varieties of the Grape Vine 
are very numerous. It is said that the French Government 



60 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

once made a collection of them, and they got together 
in a nursery at Luxembourg 1400 varieties, and this did 
not exhaust the number ! 

As Barron says, the Vine will grow in any good garden 
soil, provided it is well drained, and the position is light 
and airy. It is perfectly hardy so far as growth is con- 
cerned, our climate being deficient only where the pro- 
duction of good fruit every year is the object ; then glass- 
house protection is needed. 

There are other species of Vitis which have the habit 
of growth and the large, handsome foliage of V. vinifera ; 
moreover, they are as hardy and as easy to manage as 
that plant is. Altogether some thirty species are of this 
character, every one good growers and effective in the 
garden. Some are North Americans ; for example, V. 
Labrusca.) the Fox Grape, V. vulpina, which, from its name, 
should be the Wolf Grape, V. cordifolia, V. cestivalis and 
V. californica, the last named a first-class plant in this 
country. Of Asiatic species the best, in addition to the 
Grape Vine, are V. Thunbergii, V. Romanetii, V. Davidii 
(Spinovitis), and V. Coignetia. The Hop-leaved V. hetero- 
phylla is not a strong grower, but it has elegant foliage, 
and there is a variety of it with variegated leaves. The 
great delight of the Hop-leaved Vine is its turquoise-blue 
berries, shining like porcelain, really more like a work 
of art than the unaided effort of a climber on the wall. 
They are rather small and in clusters. The plant only 
thrives in a sunny, sheltered position. 

The newer species from China have not yet fully shown 
what they can do here, though so far they promise very 
well. Messrs. Veitch, with the assistance of Wilson, im- 
ported quite a number of them, which they have exhibited 




PLATE XII. 



VITIS ARMATA VEITCHII 



GOURDS 61 

periodically at flower shows. The best appear to be V. 
megaphylldy with large bip innate leaves, quite unlike the 
ordinary run of Vines ; F. Thomsonii, which has digitate 
leaves of a purple colour ; and F. armata, with prickly 
stems. Other named Chinese species of Veitchian intro- 
duction are V. Delavayi^ V. flexuosa y V. obtecta> V. serjana- 
folia and F. armata Veitchii (see Plate XII). 

We owe to China a better knowledge of F. Thunbergii, 
formerly confused with the American F. Labrusca. Its 
foliage at the close of summer assumes rich colours crim- 
son, green, and yellow ; and in the warmer parts of the 
British Islands it is quite happy in the open air. In the 
garden of Canon Ellacombe, Bitton, for example, it is a 
striking object. At the same time it is not equal to F. 
Coignetice, also Chinese, which in the nursery of Mr. A. 
Waterer, Woking, is magnificent in autumn, when the 
leaves are at their best. One has only to see it to realise 
the value of the big-leaved species of Vitis as garden plants. 



CHAPTER XII 
ORNAMENTAL GOURDS 

" THERE be divers gourds, some wild, others tame, for the 
garden, some bearing fruit like unto a bottle ; others longer 
and bigger at the end, keeping no certain fashion." Thus 
Gerard, in his Herbal, modestly describes the family of the 
Melon, Cucumber, Pumpkin, Loofah, Colocynth, Squash, 
Calabash, and Choco. Economically considered, the Gourd 
family is of great value to man as supplying food, medicine, 
ornament, musical instruments, and domestic utensils. 



62 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

Here we need only consider those members of it which 
have a value as decorative garden plants. 

Tropical Gourds are always well represented in one of the 
stoves at Kew. They are trained to wires under the roof, 
where they get plenty of sunshine ; and being planted in a 
border of rich soil, pretty much as Cucumbers and Melons 
are, they grow and fruit freely. Formerly they were grown 
in the Palm House, their stems being trained to upright 
rods reaching from floor to roof. Most of the species cul- 
tivated are raised annually from seeds sown in February, 
the young plants being grown in pots until they are half 
a yard or so high and are strong enough to be planted in 
the border. This is about 18 inches wide and deep, and 
is formed of turf and good loam and manure on a slate 
shelf about a yard above the floor. It will be seen from 
these particulars that the treatment is essentially that prac- 
tised by the market grower for Cucumbers. That it is 
successful will be admitted by anyone who has seen the 
plants in fruit at Kew in autumn. They include species of 
the following genera : Benincasa, Citrullus, Cucumis, Cucur- 
bita, Gurania, Lagenaria, Luffa, Momordica, Sechium, Tel- 
fairia, and Trichosanthes. 

Sixty years ago Sir William Hooker wrote : " One of the 
tropical stoves at Kew has been rendered attractive for 
some years past by the introduction of various cucurbita- 
ceous plants trained against the roof. It is a family of 
plants that has been too much neglected, for they present 
no small degree of beauty in their flowers, and their fruits 
are remarkable in their size, or form, or colour, and often 
their utility." These words are just as true to-day as they 
were sixty years ago. How many gardeners who have to 
furnish large conservatories ever think of including cucur- 



GOURDS 63 

bitaceous plants among the climbers ? Yet there are few 
more effective objects than a Snake Gourd when in fruit, 
or a Jove's Club, or a Bottle Gourd, or a Hedgehog Gourd. 
When Momordica mixta first fruited in the Water Lily House 
some twenty years ago it created quite a sensation. The male 
plant (some of the species are dioecious) had been grown 
at Kew many years before a female was obtained. Both 
sexes bear large, handsome, star-shaped flowers, creamy- 
white with an eye-like blotch of purple ; but the glory of 
this Gourd is its fruit, which is larger than an ostrich egg, 
and, when ripe, a glowing crimson. Another pretty species 
of the same genus is M. involucrata, which has thin stems, 
Ampelopsis-like leaves, bell-shaped flowers, and ovate fruits 
2 inches long, coloured scarlet. M. Charantia and M. muri- 
cata have equally attractive fruit, and when they split open 
they reveal rows of large seeds of purple colour. Surely 
the Snake Gourds (Trichosanthes), with their white, deep- 
fringed flowers, are worth a place among pretty flowered 
plants ; moreover, when their long, writhing, brightly 
coloured fruits are ripe, they are as fantastic as they are 
decorative. 

The great variety of form in the fruits of the Gourd 
family is indicated by their popular names, such as Apple, 
Orange, Pear, Gooseberry, Bottle, Custard, Club, Snake, 
Turban, &c. Nathaniel Hawthorne has said that if ever 
Providence made him wealthy, he would have a service of 
plate or porcelain wrought in the shape of Gourds of his 
own growing. 

A considerable number of Gourds may be cultivated 
out of doors in this country. Being all sun lovers, they 
must be allowed all the direct sunlight possible. This can 
be best managed by training them on rough poles or on 



64 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

arches, arbours, or pergolas. A pergola devoted entirely 
to Gourds could easily be made a striking feature in 
summer. The plants require to be grown on in warmth, 
raising them from seeds sown in spring, and as they will 
not stand frost, they must not be set outside before the 
first week in June. Lateral shoots must be stopped and 
the flowers fertilised to ensure a set of fruits. The soil 
for them should be light and rich, say a mixture of loam, 
three parts, and well rotted stable manure, one part. They 
must be kept fairly moist at the root, watering in dry 
weather being necessary. A mulch with light manure is 
helpful to growth and fruitfulness, and it does most good 
if applied about mid-August. In dry, hot weather the 
plants are all the better for a sousing overhead with water 
in the evening. 

There is a very good list of showy fruited Gourds, with 
figures of many of them, in Robinson's Vegetable Garden, 
an English edition of Les Plantes Potag&res, by Messrs. 
Vilmorin-Andrieux & Co., which, by the way, is a most 
comprehensive and trustworthy work on garden vegetables 
of all kinds. There they are described under the headings 
of Cucumbers, Gourds, Pumpkins, Melons, and Fancy 
Gourds. The seeds are cheap, and whilst it has to be 
remembered that the plants of this family intercross 
readily, thus rendering purity of race somewhat precarious, 
the seeds supplied by respectable dealers are fairly true 
to name. 



PLATE XIII 
IPOMOEA RUBRO-CCERULEA 



E 



AROIDS 67 



CHAPTER XIII 
AROIDS 

A NUMBER of species of tropical Aroids are climbers. 
They form long, rope-like stems which attach themselves 
to the trunks of trees by means of aerial roots after the 
manner of Ivy. Some of them are like Ivy, too, in being 
dimorphic, the strictly climbing stems having comparatively 
small leaves and clinging quite close to their support, as 
Ivy does, whilst the later, mature stage of the plant is 
characterised by large leaves and a less clinging habit. 
Some of the Philodendrons develop stems a hundred yards 
long ; they climb to the tops of the highest trees and then, 
liana-like, extend from tree to tree, their long, string-like, 
aerial roots often reaching the ground, where they take 
firm root, and become quite taut. In large tropical houses 
these climbing Aroids may be turned to excellent account 
for covering walls or clothing pillars with striking vegeta- 
tion. Their value for these purposes is displayed in the 
Aroid House (No. i) and the Palm House at Kew. Here 
the genera Anthurium, Philodendron, Epipremnum, Mon- 
stera, Rhaphidophora, Scindapsus, and Pothos are repre- 
sented by many species, and some of them are as remark- 
able for their large, handsome, often fragrant flowers as 
for their magnificent foliage. 

These Aroids all enjoy a warm, moist atmosphere and 
plenty of moisture in the soil, and they are as easy to pro- 
pagate from stem cuttings as Ivy is. Once started at the 
foot of a wall, pillar, or Palm trunk they do all the rest 



68 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

themselves, clinging, climbing, and developing their leaves, 
and later producing their flowers annually with no assist- 
ance from the gardener except in summer a daily drench- 
ing with water, which they like, and in most cases, an 
annual pruning to keep them within bounds. A selection 
of species of the different genera mentioned should include 
the following : Anthurium Andreanum, Epipremnum mira- 
bile, E. giganteum, Monstera deliciosa, M. dilacerata, M. 
obliqua, M. tenuis (Marcgravta paradoxa), Philodendron 
Andreanum^ P. Corsianum, P. Carderi, P. crinitum, P. eru- 
bescens, P. gloriosum, P. laciniosum, P. nobile, P. Mantei, 
P. ornatum, P. Selloum, P. verrucosum, Pothos argenteus, 
P. celatocauliS) P. scandens, Rhaphidophora decursiva, R. land- 
folia, R. pertusa, Scindapsus hederaceus, S. perakensis, S. 
pictus, S. pteropodus. 

One of the plants included in this list deserves more 
than mere mention, and that is Monstera deliciosa. It has 
stout clinging stems as thick as a man's wrist, and its roots 
encircle the trunk of a tree like strong twine. Its leaves 
are nearly a yard wide, heart-shaped, the margins some- 
times deeply slashed (laciniated), the blade pierced with 
large perforations between the principal veins. This 
character alone distinguishes the plant from all others. 
From the axils of the stout, sheathing leaf-stalks enormous 
arm-like flowers are developed ; they consist of a boat- 
shaped, fleshy, yellow spathe, inside which is a thick cylin- 
drical spadix, composed of a large number of fleshy white 
pistils, arranged spirally, with the short, thick anthers 
between. This spadix enlarges and finally becomes an 
elongated cone, about a pound in weight, green, not unlike 
a pine-apple, and when ripe it is as juicy, fragrant, and 
delicious in flavour as any pine-apple. The "pips" separate 



AROIDS 69 

readily. Writing about this tropical Aroid fifty years ago 
Dr. Lindley said : " Viewed as a fruit-bearing plant its 
interest is exceptional ; for although it is some years grow- 
ing to a flowering age and the fruit takes twelve months to 
ripen, yet as supplying a novel article of dessert of the 
richest and most recherchi character, it might be usefully 
cultivated for its produce in those establishments where a 
variety of fruits is prized and where space can be afforded." 
The plants at Kew fruit annually, and when at their best 
their fragrance permeates the whole house. 

Another remarkable species of Monstera, introduced 
from Nicaragua in 1870, was for many years cultivated 
under the name of Marcgravia paradoxa. In its juvenile 
or clinging form this plant has leaves of the size and shape 
of average oyster shells, which, together with the stem, 
are pressed flat against a tree trunk, up which it climbs 
for 12 or 15 feet, when it changes in habit and the 
leaves become nearly a yard long and wide, deeply pin- 
nate as in some big Polypodium, and no more like the 
juvenile leaves than a penny is like a peacock's feather. 
Another plant, known in some gardens as Pothos aurea, 
and having when young short-stalked, roundish, ovate 
leaves 6 inches long and coloured green and yellow, 
grew up at Kew into a big, pinnate-leaved Rhaphi- 
dophora. 

Marcgravia proper is a genus which may be briefly 
described here. The species are epiphytic climbers, dimor- 
phic, as the Ivy is, the juvenile leaves being small and 
pressed flat against the host plant, whilst those on mature 
shoots are thick and fleshy, and these shoots do not 
attempt to cling. The flowers are known to be handsome, 
but although I have known several species in cultivation, 



70 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

for many years not one has ever been induced to flower. 
The common species is M. umbellata, a native of Tropical 
America. It is a good plant to serve the purpose of Ivy 
under tropical conditions. 



CHAPTER XIV 
CLIMBING ORCHIDS 

IT is remarkable that in an order of such magnitude as 
Orchidaceae, with a very wide distribution and so rich in 
species of epiphytic habit, there are very few species that 
are climbers. Orchids have small, light seeds, which are 
easily carried considerable distances by the wind and other 
agencies, and they are thus naturally placed in suitable 
positions for growth. Their clinging roots enable them to 
fasten themselves firmly to the branches of trees, and as they 
can obtain all the nourishment they require from the humus 
collected in the fissures of the bark, or the dead cortical 
layer of the bark itself and that provided by the atmosphere, 
few have any occasion to climb. They are not quite so 
dependent as, say, the Mistletoe, but they have very little 
chance of prospering unless they can fasten on to the backs 
of other stronger plants. A number of them so develop 
fairly long stems, and so far as they go they behave like 
climbers ; but their extended growth is in search of fresh 
root-hold and not a struggle for a place in the sun. There 
are, however, several genera which have a claim to a place 
in a treatise on climbing plants, namely, Renanthera, 
Vanda, and Vanilla. 



RENANTHERA AND VANDA 71 

RENANTHERA 

This Eastern genus of about half-a-dozen species, all 
with an elongated stem, is best known in gardens by R. 
coccinea, which has stems sometimes 20 feet long. It clings 
by means of stem roots, and when it is happy it produces 
a magnificent panicle of butterfly-like scarlet flowers. It 
can only be grown successfully in a large house. I have 
seen it in great glory in the large conservatory at Chats- 
worth, where it had grown to the top of a birch-tree trunk 
about 20 feet high, which was well furnished with the 
stems and roots of the Orchid. It is grown in the same 
way in the Mexican House at Kew, where it flowers now 
and then. R. coccinea grows in woods in Cochin China. 
It is cultivated in the gardens of China for its gorgeous 
flowers, of course. One of the oldest plants in the famous 
collection of Orchids formed by the late Sir Trevor Law- 
rence was a specimen of R. coccinea, which in 1911 had 
been in his possession thirty-three years, and was said to 
have been brought to this country from China as long ago 
as 1815. 

VANDA 

This large and varied genus contains two species which 
may be called climbers, namely, V. teres and V. Hookeriana. 
The former is wild in the woods of Lower Bengal and other 
parts of India, where its stems grow to a length of many 
feet and attach themselves to trees by means of their stem 
roots. In this country we do not allow the stems to grow 
to any length a yard at the most being considered long 
enough ; and as the plant will stand beheading like any 
Cactus, and is supposed to flower all the better for it, there 
does not appear to be any good reason for letting it grow 



72 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

longer. However, it is undoubtedly a climbing Orchid, and 
one would like to see it grown as such. There is no saying 
what stems 20 feet or so long would produce in the way of 
flowers. 

V. Hookeriana, a native of Malaya, has the habit and 
general characters of F. teres ; but the leaves are shorter, 
the scape is longer, and the flowers are about half the size 
of that species. The colour of V. teres is white or rose, 
the lip being yellow or purple ; that of F. Hookeriana is 
a delicate yellow and pink, with a purple and white lip. 
There are not many old plants of V. Hookeriana in cultiva- 
tion in British collections, for it is rather a difficult plant 
to keep in health. On the other hand, few Orchids are 
easier than F. teres. Both species enjoy sunshine and 
plenty of water in the growing season. 

VANILLA 

Vanilla is a genus of climbers. About fifty species have 
been described, but only one of them has any claim to con- 
sideration as a garden plant, and that is Vanilla planifolia, 
which yields the Vanilla of commerce. A native of Mexico, 
it is now widely cultivated in tropical countries. " From 
historical accounts we know that Vanilla was used by the 
Aztecs of Mexico as an ingredient in the manufacture of 
chocolate prior to the discovery of America by the Spaniards, 
who adopted its use ; and Morren states that it was brought 
to Europe as a perfume about the year 1510, at the same 
time as indigo, cochineal, and cacao, and ten years before 
the arrival of tobacco " (Kew Bulletin). 

The plant is said to have been in cultivation in this 
country in 1807, when, according to Andrews, it flowered 
in the garden of the Right Hon. Charles Greville at Pad- 



ABELIA 73 

dington. Professor Charles Morren, Lie"ge, was the first 
to produce fruit of it in quantity. He obtained fifty-four 
flowers on one plant, which he fertilised artificially, and 
every one developed a pod. Morren suggested that Vanilla 
might be made to pay as a cultivated crop in this country 
if the plants were properly grown and the flowers artifici- 
ally fertilised. In recent times Vanilla pods have been 
produced in quantity by plants grown at Syon, Kew, and 
elsewhere. The plant is worth growing in any stove with 
a view to its fruiting, the odour of the " beans " when they 
are ripe being particularly agreeable. The rope-like stems 
grow to a length of 20 feet or more. They have white 
aerial roots, and oblong fleshy leaves about 8 inches long. 
The flowers are produced in short racemes from the leaf 
axils, and are Cattleya-like ; and 4 inches across, cream 
yellow, with a few lines of orange on the lip. The beans 
are about 8 inches long. The plant requires moist tropical 
conditions. It will cling to a wall by means of its roots, 
or it can be trained on wires under a roof. There is a 
prettily variegated form of it in cultivation. 



CHAPTER XV 
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF GENERA 

IN the following chapter the genera are taken in alpha- 
betical order. The most useful species are selected for 
remark in each case in the hope that these will be more 
useful to amateurs than printing exhaustive lists. The 
cultural advice is based on knowledge obtained and long 
experience. 

ABELIA 

The species of Abelia are showy shrubs of the Honey- 
suckle order, which in most parts of the country require 



74 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

the protection of walls. Only two species are much 
grown. A. chinensis (rupestris\ Rock Abelia, the hardiest, 
is of close habit, and its white, pink-tinted, fragrant flowers 
appear in late summer. A. floribunda, Mexican Abelia, 
bears drooping clusters of long-lasting, rosy-purple flowers, 
and is worthy of cultivation under glass. Both are ever- 
green. Abelias prefer light soil, and are propagated by 
cuttings in summer, or by layers in spring. Among the 
rarer species, A. triflora and A. spathulata deserve mention. 

ABUTILON 

The taller-growing species and garden varieties of 
Abutilon, of which there are a large number, some remark- 
able for floral beauty and others for ornamental foliage, are 
well adapted for growing as greenhouse roof or pillar 
plants. A. Darwinii, bright orange flowers with darker 
veinings, A. megapotamicumj red and yellow flowers, and 
A. venosunij very large orange flowers with red veins, with 
their forms and hybrids, rank high among greenhouse 
climbers, besides being useful for outdoor summer effect. 
They succeed best planted out in loam and peat. Cuttings 
of the young wood strike freely in early spring or in Sep- 
tember. When growing they should be fed liberally, but 
require to be kept almost dry from late autumn until the 
end of winter. 

ACACIA 

Some of the cultivated species of this large genus of 
Leguminosae make long, straight shoots, and are well 
adapted for training on greenhouse rafters or pillars, where 
they are very effective when in flower from Christmas 
onwards. They are A. Bailey ana^ A. leprosa, A. retinodes, 




PLATE XIV. 



YELLOW ABUTILON 



AKEBIA 75 

and A. Rtceana. These will flourish in a temperature little 
above freezing point in winter. They should be pruned 
after flowering, and when grown in pots they are all the 
better for spending the summer in the open air. Propaga- 
tion is effected by seeds, or cuttings of half-ripened wood 
with a heel. A few of the species are successful as out- 
door plants in exceptionally mild districts. 

ACONITUM 

One of the Monk's Hoods, Aconitum uncinatum, a North 
American hardy perennial, attains as much as 8 feet in 
height, with branched stems and large lilac-coloured flowers 
in loose racemes. It succeeds well in partial shade, and is 
easily propagated by root division, or from seeds sown as 
soon as ripe in a cold frame. 

ACTINIDIA 

Hardy and ornamental deciduous summer-flowering 
shrubs, related to Camellia, and mostly natives of China 
and Japan. They have axillary corymbs of waxy white or 
yellow flowers. They should be planted in rich soil. 
A. Kolomikta, which should have the shelter of a wall, has 
its leaves beautifully tinted in autumn. A. chinensis, of 
strong climbing habit, has edible fruits with the flavour of 
ripe gooseberries. A. polygama has fragrant flowers, and 
A. volubilis (twining) is very free in growth. Increased by 
seeds, layers, or cuttings taken in autumn. 

AKEBIA 

A. lobata and A. quinata are pretty, strong-growing 
shrubs from China and Japan, which are hardy in most 



76 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

places. Their purple flowers (male and female), borne in 
drooping racemes, are succeeded by curious sausage-like 
fruits, violet in colour when ripe. They make good trellis 
plants, or may be allowed to ramble over other shrubs. 
Sandy loam with peat suits them best, and they can be 
increased by cuttings taken in summer, or by division. 



ALL AM AN DA (see Plate XV) 

Allamandas form scandent, deciduous shrubs ; their 
long, free-growing stems are clothed with whorls of large 
laurel-like leaves which enable the plants to climb trees. 
Their fragrant flowers, usually very large and bell-shaped 
with wide-spreading lobes, are borne in axillary racemes, 
and in all the species except A. violacea they are yellow. 
A cathartica, A. grandiflora, A. nobilis, A. Schottii, with its 
vars. Hendersonii and magnified, and A. violacea, are well- 
known garden plants. They are all robust growers except 
A.grandiflora, which is happiest when grafted on A. Schottii. 
They may be trained against pillars or rafters in tropical 
houses, or by pruning they may be grown as shrubs 
supported by a stake. In winter they require to be kept 
dry at the root, and in March the shoots should be cut 
back to short spurs. The prunings may be used as cut- 
tings, for they strike root freely. 

AMPELOPSIS 

Fast-growing and ornamental hardy deciduous shrubs, 
of very easy cultivation in any soil or situation, and 
brilliantly coloured in autumn. Ampelopsis is nearly 
allied to Vitis, and is incorporated therein by some 



PLATE XV 
ALLAMANDA SCHOTTII HENDERSONII 




i 



I 




ARISTOLOCHIA 79 

botanists, as well as having been endowed with other 
names. The best known are : A. quinquefolia (hederacea), 
Virginian Creeper, of which there is a superior variety 
called muralis or Englemannii, more capable of clinging to 
a bare wall without other support : Veitchii (syn. A. tricus- 
pidata, Vitis inconstans, &c.), a native of Japan, with short 
branched tendrils provided with suckers, capable of holding 
fast to any surface ; not quite so finely coloured in autumn 
as A. quinquefolia, but to be preferred to it ; nn&A.bipinnata, 
North America, a beautiful plant, less rapid in growth 
than the preceding. Propagation is effected by cuttings, 
either inserted outdoors under a hand light in September, 
or in moderate heat in the spring. 

ARAUJIA (Physianthus) 

Free growing climbers with hairy, ovate leaves, and 
white or pink Stephanotis-like flowers; natives of tropical 
and sub-tropical America. The best species are A. grandi- 
flora and A. sericifera (albens) (see Plate XVI), both white 
flowered, and they can be grown either in the stove or 
the greenhouse. They require a compost of sandy v loam 
and peat, with good drainage. Propagated by seeds sown 
in heat in spring, or by cuttings of the side shoots. Araujia 
flowers have the power of entrapping insects, as is shown 
in the Plate, kindly lent with others by the editors of the 
Gardeners Chronicle. 

ARISTOLOCHIA 

This is a large, polymorphic genus, chiefly tropical and 
most abundant in South America. The stems in many of 
the species are twining, and they sometimes grow rapidly to 
a great length. The flowers, which are exceptionally large 



8o PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

in some species, are very remarkable in form, some, such 
as A. gigas, A. gigantea, A. Goldieana, and A. brasiliensis, 
being among the most wonderful, both as regards size and 
shape. Many have an objectionable odour, but when 
grown in a large house this is scarcely perceptible except 
at very close quarters. One of the most charming is A. 
elegans, the flowers of which are pleasing in form and 
prettily marked, and they have no odour. The best garden 
sorts are, in addition to those named, A. clypeata y A. 
labiosa, and A. leuconeura, the last named having large, 
heart-shaped, bright green leaves, with ornate reticulating 
yellow variegation. There are several hardy species, the 
best of which is A. Sipho, known as Dutchman's Pipe, a 
useful climber for covering verandahs, &c. They all like a 
rich soil, plenty of moisture when growing, and they love 
sunshine. Propagated from cuttings. 

ASPARAGUS 

A great many species of this widely distributed genus 
are twiners, their wiry stems sometimes growing to a 
length of 50 feet or more. They have become popular 
in gardens in recent years, owing to the introduction 
from Africa about thirty years ago of A.plumosus, which 
has proved to be a most useful plant to decorators. 
Another very serviceable species is A. medioloides, popularly 
known as Boston Smilax, also a native of South Africa. 
These two are cultivated by market gardeners, who train 
the stems up strings and then cut them at the base to 
be used in decorations. Other good climbers, suitable for 
clothing pillars in warm conservatories, are A. africanus, 
A. Duchesnei, A. falcatus, A. laricinus, A. racemosus, A. 




PLATE XVI. FLOWER OF ARAUJIA SERICIFERA 

Showing mode of capture of Moth. 

A, pollen masses ; B, their stalks ; C, proboscis of moth ; 
D, head of moth; E, portion of antenna. 



BEAUMONTIA 81 

retrofractus, A. scandens, and A. umbellatus. The last- 
named has somewhat large, star-like flowers. These plants 
all have fleshy roots, and they revel in rich soil, plenty of 
water, and a sunny position, with as much heat as they can 
get. Propagated from seeds or division. 

BAUHINIA 

A large and widely distributed genus of tropical trees 
or climbers, with peculiarly bilobed leaves, circinate 
tendrils, and usually large, showy flowers. B. Vaklii, the 
" Maloo " of India, often climbs over the tallest forest trees, 
and with its rope-like, twining stems sometimes strangles 
them. It is a useful climber for a large tropical conser- 
vatory, such as the Palm House at Kew. B.ferruginea is 
another large-leaved species which is useful in the same 
way. Neither of these has been known to flower in this 
country. B. corymbosa is a beautiful climber with small 
green leaves and flowers in corymbs on the smaller 
branches, the red buds and pink open flowers being very 
decorative. It is a native of China, as also is B. yunnan- 
enszs, a somewhat similar plant. These two are happy in 
an ordinary greenhouse. 

BEAUMONTIA 

Beaumontia is an Indian genus of evergreen climbers 
with large, opposite leaves and handsome, white flowers 
produced in crowded clusters on the short shoots. B. 
grandiflora, the best known, sometimes climbs to the top 
of high trees, and under cultivation it will, with a little 
management, cover a large pillar or rafter, and flower 
most profusely in early spring. The flowers in form and 

F 



82 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

size suggest Lilium longiflorum; they are fragrant and they 
last well. In sub-tropical countries this plant is grown to 
cover large buildings, verandahs, and pergolas. B.fragrans, 
a recent introduction, has shorter flowers and a different 
calyx, otherwise it generally resembles B. grandiflora. The 
plants are all the better for an annual pruning on short- 
spur lines. 

BERBERIDOPSIS 

A monotypic genus related to the Barberry. B. cor- 
allina, a native of Chili, with spiny-margined leaves, and 
termina, drooping racemes of coral-red flowers, may be 
grown on a south wall in most parts of this country, and, 
in addition, it is worthy of a place in the cool greenhouse. 
It is propagated from seeds, sown in spring, by layering in 
autumn, or by cuttings of new wood. 

BIGNONIA 

A large genus of handsome American, free-growing, 
usually scandent shrubs, some of which have tendrils. B. 
capreolata, the Cross Vine of the Southern United States, 
is the hardiest, and may be grown on a south wall. It has 
orange-brown tubular flowers produced in summer, and 
slender shoots, as much as 20 feet in length. Those that 
are grown under glass are only suitable for large houses ; 
they should be planted out, and trained up the back wall of 
a lean-to structure, or on trellis wires near the glass. 
Thinning the shoots so as to assist ripening of the wood 
is essential to a good display of flowers. B. Chamberlaymi, 
B. magnificat, B. regalis, B. speciqsa, and B. venusta are 
favourites for stove cultivation. A compost of two parts 
fibrous loam, one of rough peat, and one of leaf mould, 




PLATE XVII. BOMAREA TATACOCENSIS 

Colour of flowers Carmine 



BOUGAINVILLEA 83 

and sand, is required, with good drainage. Propagation is 
effected by cuttings in .spring, or by layering. 



BOMAREA 

A genus of twining Alstroemerias, the stems in some of 
the species growing to a length of 20 feet or more. They 
resemble lilies in not developing lateral shoots, so that if a 
growing stem is topped it is incapable of further growth. 
The leaves are peculiar in being twisted on their petiole, 
so that they are really upside down. The flowers are 
produced in terminal umbels, and in some species these 
umbels are several feet across. They are exactly like the 
flowers of Alstrcemerias in form, and in colour they are 
invariably bright and attractive. They all grow best in a 
sunny, airy greenhouse, preferring a peaty soil and plenty 
of water in summer. Their stems will twine round a pillar 
with pretty effect, and when they are in flower they are most 
decorative. The species in cultivation are B. Caldasiana, 
B. Carderij B. multiflora> B. oligantha^ B. patacocensis (con- 
ferta) (see Plate XVII), and B. Salsilla (oculata). Propagated 
by division or from seeds. 

BOUGAINVILLEA (see Plate XVIII) 

The Bougainvilleas are scandent shrubs which, like 
some Roses, are dependent on their straggling habit of 
growth and stout spines for success in climbing. Like 
Roses, too, they may be grown, with a little management, 
to be self-supporting bushes. They are very popular 
garden plants in tropical countries, where they often form 
stout, woody stems and cover a large amount of space 
with their interlacing branches. They endure severe 



84 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

pruning; indeed, they are all the better for an annual 
spurring, particularly when they are grown up pillars or 
against a wall in a conservatory. The hottest house is 
not too hot for them, yet they can be successfully grown 
in an ordinary greenhouse if only they are allowed plenty 
of summer sunshine. Broadly speaking, the only species 
is B. glabra, but it has sported freely, the most distinct 
varieties being spectabilis, Sanderiana, Cypheri, latemtia, 
and Maud Chettleburg. The last-named has salmon-red 
flowers ; but it is not so floriferous as the others, the best 
being Sanderiana. 



BOUSSINGAULTIA 

Half-hardy, tuberous-rooted plants. B. baselloides, the 
only well-known cultivated species, has alternate, entire, 
fleshy leaves, and long clusters of small, fragrant, whitish 
flowers ; the rapid growing, red-tinged, twining stems pro- 
duce tubercules, which are an easy means of increase. 
Generally grown as a climber or trailer in a warm house, 
to flower in autumn ; sometimes also as a basket plant. A 
rich sandy compost and a sunny position suit it. 

C^ESALPINIA 

An ornamental genus of Leguminosae, most of the 
species being tropical and held in little favour in this 
country because they are large-growing and take a long 
time to grow to the flowering stage. C.japonica (sepiaria), 
a wall-plant of spreading habit, has spiny branches, bipin- 
nate leaves, and golden flowers with reddish anthers, pro- 
duced in large, terminal racemes. C. Gilliesii is a beautiful 



PLATE XVIII 
BOUGAINVILLEA SANDERIANA 



CASSIA 87 

semi-hardy species not often met with. One of the finest 
is C. (Poinciana) pulcherrima, the Barbadoes Fence-Flower, 
a great favourite in the tropics, but not much grown by 
English gardeners. They are not easy to propagate, but 
cuttings placed under a bell-glass in heat are likely to 
succeed. 

CALYSTEGIA 

Bearbind. Hardy herbs, nearly related to Convolvulus. 
They are of easy cultivation, and should be trained up wires 
against a wall or provided with pea sticks. Propagation 
by means of the underground runners or by seeds. The 
best are C. hederacea, v&r.florepleno, which has pink flowers ; 
C. sylvatica, white flowers, and its rose-coloured variety. 



CANTUA 

Scandent South American shrubs, usually trained against 
walls or pillars in the greenhouse ; although C. buxifolia 
(dependent), which has tubular, red flowers, produced in 
drooping clusters at the ends of the branches, may be 
planted out in sheltered positions in the mildest districts. 
C. bicolor has short-tubed scarlet and yellow flowers. The 
plants are of fairly easy culture, and are propagated by 
cuttings inserted in sandy soil under a hand-glass. 

CASSIA 

An extensive genus of yellow-flowered leguminous 
shrubs and herbs, few members of which are in cultivation 
in gardens. The best-known species, C. corymbosa from 
Tropical South America, forms a large bush, with dark 



88 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

green, pinnate leaves and flowers in large corymbs, and 
may be treated as a greenhouse climber. It is propagated 
by cuttings of half-ripened wood, inserted in heat during 
spring, and is of easy cultivation. 

CELASTRUS 

Staff-tree. Climbing evergreen or deciduous shrubs. 
The free-growing C. scandens is excellent for covering 
bowers or trellis work. It has terminal racemes of yellowish 
flowers, succeeded by ornamental yellow fruits. C. articu- 
latus is equally valuable. They thrive in ordinary soil, and 
are best increased by layering the young growths in autumn. 
There are also greenhouse and stove species, which are 
propagated from cuttings of ripened wood ; but these are 
little cukivated. 

CEREUS 

The climbing species of Cereus are all night flowering. 
They cling by means of aerial roots, and where the con- 
ditions are favourable the stems grow many feet in 
length. They are happiest when trained against a wall in 
a lean-to house, but they do well enough when fixed about 
a pillar or along a rafter in a warm house. Of course they 
must be in a position where they will get plenty of direct 
sunlight. They root freely in an open loamy soil, in which 
brick rubble has been mixed. The best known are C. 
fulgiduSj C. grandiflorus, C, Lemairii, C. Macdonaldia, C. 
Napoleonisy C. nycticalus, and C. triangularis. 

CEROPEGIA 

A widely-distributed genus in the tropics. All the species 
are perennial, with a tuberous rootstock, twining stems, and 




PLATE XIX. 



CESTRUM ELEGANS 



CISSUS 89 

dull-coloured flowers of singular form. They are not 
common in gardens, their flowers appealing only to those 
who find interest in queer things. There is a good collec- 
tion of them at Kew, where they are grown on rafters or on 
trellises. The showiest are C. elegans, C. Monteiroce, C. 
Sandersonii, C. Thwaitesii, and C. stapeliceformis. They like 
a moist, warm house and partial shade. 

CESTRUM (see Plate XIX) 

Ornamental stove, greenhouse, and half-hardy shrubs, 
some of which are known as Habrothamnus. The favourite 
greenhouse species are C. elegans (see Plate XIX), which has 
downy branches and leaves, and red-purple flowers, freely 
produced in large terminal cymes ; C. Newellii, much like 
C. elegans y but with scarlet flowers ; and C. aurantiacum, 
with glabrous leaves and golden flowers in terminal 
panicles, produced in winter. Of easy culture, they 
should be spurred hard back after flowering. They are 
excellent for planting in greenhouses, to cover walls or 
pillars, and they repay generous treatment. They are pro- 
pagated from cuttings taken in summer. 

CISSUS 

This genus is characterised by cymes or corymbs of 
small, greenish, yellow, or purplish flowers, and simple 
trifoliate or palmate leaves. Some authorities have sunk 
it in Vitis ; but it is certainly better for gardeners to con- 
sider it distinct. The foliage of C. discolor, a native of Java, 
is a bright, velvety green, beautifully mottled with white, 
the under side deep reddish-purple, and the stems coral 
red. With generous treatment it is one of the best stove 



90 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

climbers having ornamental foliage, and may be grown 
either in large pots or planted out. The size and colour 
of the foliage is much improved by bottom heat. C. ama- 
zonica has attractive reddish leaves, veined with silver. C. 
antarctica, the Kangaroo Vine, introduced from New South 
Wales by Sir Joseph Banks in 1790, has plain green foliage, 
and is nearly hardy. C. Lindenii, a native of Columbia, 
and C. Martinii, Cochin China, which attains large dimen- 
sions, are other notable species. The king of the genus 
is certainly C. pterophora (gongylodes), Brazil, whose great 
size, handsome appearance, and singular habits are well 
known to visitors to the Water Lily House at Kew. The 
long green and red, bell-rope-like, leafy branches are 
trained from girder to girder, and send down whipcord- 
like, red roots, reaching to the water. Also, after its season 
of growth, each dependent branch bears at its extremity an 
elongated tuber ; finally these drop off, and take root if 
circumstances are favourable. The tendrils are also very 
curious, exhibiting three modes of attachment by clasp- 
ing, by the discs, and by the adhesive tissue. Propagation 
by cuttings. 

CLEMATIS 

Chapter IX, p. 45, is devoted to this genus. 

CLERODENDRON 

Some of the tropical species of this extensive genus are 
climbers, C. Thomsons (Balfouri), which has deep red 
flowers with pure white calyces, abundantly produced and 
long lasting, being the most popular. C. splendens is of 
similar habit, with rich crimson flowers, while those of 



CLIANTHUS 91 

C. speciosum, a hybrid between the two, are deep rose 
coloured, C. scandens being white flowered. These may 
be planted out or grown in pots, and liberally treated in 
a tropical temperature, with a rest in winter, when they 
require little or no water. Plunging the pots in bottom 
heat for a time when restarting growth in January or 
February is good for them. The climbing species are 
propagated by cuttings of ripened wood taken when the 
plants are pruned after flowering. 



CLIANTHUS 

An Australasian genus whose two species are distin- 
guished as being among the most brilliantly flowered of 
the leguminous order. They are plants which most gar- 
deners cultivate, but whilst one species gives no trouble 
the other is difficult, and many have given it up in despair. 
The difficult one is C. Dampieri, the Glory Pea, raised 
from seeds, has herbaceous stems, silky leaves, and 
bright red flowers with large purple blotches. It is 
propagated by grafting quite young seedlings on young 
plants of the Bladder Senna (Colutea). C. puniceus, the 
Parrot's Bill, has long, scandent shoots, green leaves, 
and elegant pendant racemes of scarlet flowers. It is 
a good pillar plant, whereas C. Dampieri appears to 
best advantage either against a south wall or as a trailer 
from suspended baskets. C. magnificus is a strong-growing 
variety of puniceus (see Plate XI). Clianthuses are.generally 
grown under glass, but they may be seen growing out of 
doors as wall plants in the south-west. A good compost of 
loam, peat, and sand is required. 



92 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 



CLITORIA 

Tropical evergreen leguminous climbers with axillary, 
pea-like flowers. There are about thirty species, wide- 
spread over the tropics, but few of them are in cultivation. 
Of these C. Ternatea is the best known, its flowers azure- 
blue with a fringed ring of white. Introduced to England 
as long ago as 1739, it is still a favourite in tropical col- 
lections. Clitorias are best grown from seeds, in a com- 
post of peat, loam, and sand. 



COBJEA 

Fast-growing, perennial greenhouse climbers which may 
be grown either in pots or planted out, or outdoors as an- 
nuals. C. scandens, a native of Mexico, has pinnate leaves, 
and tubular campanulate flowers, 3 inches long, at first 
greenish, but changing to dark purple. The growth is so 
rapid that the plant is frequently employed for covering 
large trellises and wall areas out of doors and in large 
conservatories. The amount of growth a plant is capable 
of making in one season is prodigious. The variety varie- 
gata has golden variegated leaves ; this is propagated by 
cuttings of the young shoots taken in spring. In the 
United States C. scandens is popularly known as the Cup 
and Saucer Vine. It is largely grown out of doors there. 



COMBRETUM 

Climbing or erect-growing evergreen shrubs, some of 
which are of considerable beauty. The climbers should 



DIOSCORjEA 93 

be planted out in the stove to mount up pillars, and then 
be trained along the rafters. After flowering, the shoots 
require to be close pruned and thinned. Propagated by 
cuttings of the young side shoots taken off with a heel. 
C. purpureum has large, flat racemes of purplish-crimson 
flowers ; those of C. grandiflorum are scarlet. There are 
said to be yellow and white flowered species. 



CONVOLVULUS 

Bindweed. Annual or perennial herbs and sub-shrubs, 
the majority being twiners. C. arvensis, with white or pink 
flowers ; C* septum, the common Bindweed, large white 
flowers ; and C. soldanella, which has the merit of thriving 
in pure sand, are attractive when in flower, though per- 
haps chiefly notable as troublesome native weeds. Other 
cultivated species are C. mauritanicus and tricolor, the 
latter an annual. The greenhouse species do best in a 
compost of loam, leaf soil, and peat. The closely related 
Ipomceas are more showy plants. 



DIOSCORJEA 

Yam. Ornamental-leaved climbers, including both hardy 
and tender species, with large tuberous roots. Their white 
or yellow flowers are inconspicuous. In winter the roots 
should be stored in dry sand. The most ornamental is 
D. multicolor, of which there are varieties with prettily 
variegated foliage. Should be planted in a rich, loamy 
soil, and be liberally watered whilst growth is active. 
Propagated by division. 



94 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

DIPLADENIA 

Tropical American twiners with tuberous roots and 
large, trumpet-shaped, pink, red or purple flowers, freely 
produced throughout the summer. The favourite sorts 
are : D. amabilis, rich crimson ; D. Brearleyana, rich crim- 
son, very free ; D. atropurpurea, crimson-purple with 
deep -yellow throat ; D. boliviensis, white suffused with 
pink, and D. splendens. Dipladenias look best when their 
shoots are trained up pillars or rafters, and they may also be 
trained on wire trellises. They require close pruning after 
flowering, and to be kept warm and moderately dry during 
winter. Plenty of heat and moisture should be provided 
to induce vigorous growth in spring, when they should 
be replanted in fibrous peat and sand. Propagation by 
cuttings of the young shoots in spring. 

ECCREMOCARPUS 

The popular scarlet-flowered E. 'scaber will survive all 
but exceptionately severe winters in most places if its roots 
are protected. The leaves terminate in a branched tendril. 
It is an excellent plant for walls, trellises, and pillars, as it 
grows quickly, and flowers in July or August. The yellow- 
flowered E. longiflorus is also worth a place in the garden. 
Propagation by seeds sown in March in gentle heat ; flowers 
being produced the same year. 

ERCILLA 

E. spicata, a native of Chili, is an evergreen with dark 
green leaves and reddish flowers abundantly produced in 



GLORIOSA 95 

early summer. It clings to walls as Ivy does, and is there- 
fore a useful outdoor plant for mild districts. Cuttings 
should be taken in July, and inserted in light soil under a 
hand-light on a warm border. 



FICUS 

The species that will grow on walls have the merit that, 
once started, they quickly cover a considerable space, and 
always present a fresh green appearance. F. stipulata 
(repens), a native of China and Japan, half-hardy, thriving 
outdoors in summer, is a greenhouse, Ivy-like plant, while 
F f radicans and F.falcata, of similar habit, should be grown 
in the stove. They like sandy loam, and are readily pro- 
pagated by cuttings. 

FUCHSIA 

Some of the species attain the dimensions of small 
trees ; thus plants of the beautiful and free-flowering F. 
corallina may be seen 20 feet in height against buildings 
in the west of England. Fuchsias for training on green- 
house rafters or pillars should be planted in good loamy 
soil, and they require to be kept dry at the roots in winter. 
A large exhibit of vigorous horizontally-trained fuchsias 
was a feature of the International Horticultural Exhibition 
at Chelsea. Clipper, General Greenfell, Mrs. Marshall, 
Mrs. Rundle, Olympia, and The Shah are the best garden 
varieties for growing as climbers. 

GLORIOSA 

The Gloriosas are tropical, tuberous-rooted plants, with 
lily-like flowers, in racemes on the ends of the annual 



96 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

stems ; the petals are narrow and reflexed, and coloured 
red and golden yellow. The leaves have tendril-like 
apices. G. superba, G. Rothschildiana (see Plate XX), and 
G. virescens (Plantii) are the species usually cultivated. 
G. Carsonii is equally desirable. Propagation by seeds or 
division of the tubers. They thrive in equal parts of peat 
and loam. Liberal heat and moisture are essential in the 
season of growth, and complete rest in winter. 



HARDENBERGIA 

A small Australian genus with papilionaceous flowers, 
well adapted for training up the rafters of a greenhouse. 
H. comptoniana produces numerous racemes of purple 
flowers in spring. H. monophylla has smaller leaves and 
flowers, and there are red and white flowered varieties of 
it. Propagated by seeds, or cuttings of the firm young 
side shoots in spring, and cultivated in a compost of peat, 
loam, and sand. 

HEDERA 
Chapter X (Ivy), p. 56, is devoted to this genus. 

HIBBERTIA 

Showy climbing or bushy greenhouse shrubs, easy of 
cultivation, with yellow or white flowers, nearly all of them 
natives of Australia. The climbing species chiefly culti- 
vated is H. dentata, which has thin twining stems, copper- 
coloured leaves, and bright yellow flowers ij inch across. 
It is a constant bloomer. H. volubilis has twining stems, 
green leaves, and large yellow flowers. A compost of peat 




-J 



HOYA 97 

and loam should be used, with plenty of sand to keep it 
porous. Propagation by cuttings, inserted in sandy peat 
under a hand-glass. 



HIDALGOA 

A Central American genus allied to Dahlia and Core- 
opsis. H. Wercklei, the climbing Dahlia, is the only intro- 
duced species, and is a quick-growing greenhouse herba- 
ceous climber, attaining 20 feet or more. Its flowers are 
bright scarlet above and yellow underneath, resembling a 
single Dahlia ; it has elegant, much-divided leaves, and 
climbs by means of long, twining petioles. Propagated 
by cuttings. 

HOLBCELLIA 

A monotypic Himalayan genus. H. latifolia (also known 
as Stauntonia latifolia), which may attain to 20 feet in 
length, and is of easy cultivation, is a good climber for a 
cool greenhouse. The purplish, fragrant flowers, borne in 
axillary racemes, appear in spring, and the foliage is thick 
and shining. It may be planted against a building or high 
wall in a warm district, but will not flower so freely as 
under glass. Propagation by cuttings of the half-ripened 
shoots in spring. 

HOYA 

Wax Flower. A genus comprising about fifty species, 
several of which are favourite stove twiners. The stems of 
some (notably H. carnosa) attach themselves to damp walls 
by aerial roots, as Ivy does, and are capable of thriving thus 

G 



98 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

even without roots in the soil. They like peat and are 
easily propagated by cuttings. H. campanulata has elegant 
umbels of good-sized, amber-coloured flowers ; H. carnosa, 
pinkish-white flowers, is suitable both for the greenhouse 
and the stove ; H. imperialis, a truly noble plant, has thick 
leathery leaves, and reddish flowers, 3 inches across, borne 
in large umbels. It should be remembered that new flowers 
are produced on the old flower stalks as well as on the 
young wood. 

HUMULUS 

H. Lupulus, the common Hop, is a vigorous, twining 
perennial of great beauty when in fruit, and is sometimes 
to be seen employed to good effect in gardens, notably 
as a covering for bowers, or allowed to run wild over 
shrubs. H.japonicus, which is much like the English Hop, 
has a variety lutescens with leaves of a golden tint. Pro- 
pagation by division in spring or from seeds. 



HYDRANGEA 

H. petiolaris (H. scandens) is a Japanese plant, which' 
resembles Ivy in its mode of growth. It is quite hardy in 
the south, and well adapted for covering tree stumps, but 
requires a wall or cool conservatory in northern counties. 
It has white flowers, in flat-topped cymes, 8 to 10 inches in 
diameter. It likes a rich, loamy soil, and is increased by 
cuttings. 

IPOMCEA (see Plate XIII) 

Chiefly tropical plants resembling convolvulus. /. pur- 
purea (Convolvulus major), and its numerous forms, /. 



JASMINUM 99 

Bona-nox, I. coccinea, L Learii, /. rubro-ccerulea, and /. 
versicolor (better known as Mina lobata } which see) may be 
grown in warm places as half-hardy annuals, being raised 
under glass, hardened off, and planted out at the end of May. 
Most of the preceding, with the addition of /. ternata and 
7. Quamoclity merit cultivation for summer-flowering in sandy 
loam in the warm greenhouse. The evergreen /. Hors/allice, 
which produces its beautiful rose-crimson flowers in autumn 
or early winter, is best propagated by layering. /. Briggsii 
is a robust, evergreen climber which in a roomy tropical 
house covers a large area, and flowers freely in midwinter ; 
the flowers are rose-red in large clusters. 



JASMINUM 

Hardy, greenhouse, or stove-shrubs, evergreen or de- 
ciduous, mostly of climbing or trailing habit, with showy, 
salver-shaped, white or yellow flowers, often very fragrant. 
The most popular hardy species are the familiar yellow 
winter-flowering /. nudiflorum, and the white summer- 
flowering J. officinale, of which there is a variety known as 
/. affine with larger flowers. The evergreen summer- 
flowering J. primulinum, more recently introduced from 
Yunnan, has yellow flowers 2 inches across, and is hardy 
in southern gardens. J. revolutum (humile), Indian yellow 
Jasmine, is sufficiently hardy for wall cultivation. They 
like rich loam, and are easily increased by cuttings inserted 
under glass in July. /. gracillimum, from Borneo, with 
loose heads of fragrant white flowers, is a desirable warm 
house climber. J. Sambac, var. flore pleno, bearing fragrant 
white flowers produced at all seasons, is the best of the stove 
kinds ; it should be planted out and trained up a pillar. 



ioo PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

KADSURA 

The only generally cultivated species is K. japonica, 
which is a not quite hardy climbing shrub, with solitary 
yellowish-white flowers, produced in summer, and suc- 
ceeded by heads of scarlet berries ; there is also a varie- 
gated form. It requires the protection of a wall, but is 
not particular as to soil. Propagation by cuttings of 
nearly ripe wood inserted in sand under a bell-glass. 

KENNEDYA 

An Australian genus of perennial legumes, with flowers 
mostly red or nearly black, which appear in spring in 
racemes. Those most cultivated are : K. nigricans, black 
and yellow ; K. prostrata {Marryattce), scarlet (the best of 
all) ; K. rubicunda, red. These are all strong growers 
which succeed best if planted out, but also do well when 
grown in pots and trained over trellises. They require 
liberal treatment when in active growth, and rest during 
winter. Propagation by cuttings or seeds in spring. 

LANTANA 

Naturally loose-growing shrubs, several of the Lantanas 
have been made to serve as greenhouse climbers, their 
variously coloured, Verbena-like heads of flowers being 
freely produced for the greater part of the year. They 
grow best when planted out in a sunny position in the 
greenhouse or conservatory. L. salvifolia (delicatissima), 
with pale purple flowers, is perhaps the best ; it is hardy if it 
has the protection of a wall in the milder districts. It may 
also be grown as a pot shrub or as a summer bedding 
plant. Propagation in spring by cuttings. 



PLATE XXI 
LAPAGERIAS RUBRA AND ALBA 



LARDIZABALA 103 



LAPAGERIA (see Plate XXI) 

A greenhouse twiner with fleshy roots, and thin wiry 
stems which grow to an indefinite length and branch 
rather freely ; leaves heart-shaped, dark green, leathery, 
the largest about 3 inches long ; flowers axillary, solitary 
or several together, on a short pedicel, pendulous, narrow 
bell-shaped, about 3 inches long, sepals and petals thick 
and wax-like, rose-red to crimson, with numerous whitish 
spots ; produced throughout the summer. The variety alba 
has pure white flowers. Lapageria blooms possess such 
substance that it is possible to keep them fresh for three 
weeks in a cut state, provided the water is changed with 
unfailing regularity. Being a native of Chili, the plant is 
hardy in places like South Cornwall, but it is grown most 
successfully in a cold greenhouse if it be planted in a well- 
drained bed of peat and kept uniformly moist. Care must 
be taken to preserve the fresh, sucker-like growths from 
slugs, which otherwise may eat them as fast as they come 
up. The Lapageria requires semi-shade. Propagated by 
layers. 

LARDIZABALA 

A small genus related to Berberis. L. biternata, a 
native of Chili, is the only cultivated species. It is a 
tall and fast-growing evergreen, with glossy, dark green 
leaves, and purple flowers in drooping racemes, notable 
as appearing in mid-winter. It may be planted against a 
wall in the milder districts in light soil, but it rarely flowers 
well out of doors. Propagation by cuttings of the half- 
ripened shoots. 



104 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

LATHYRUS 

A large genus, widely dispersed, and containing quite a 
number of desirable species which are over-shadowed by 
the popular Sweet Pea (L. odoratus). Lord Anson's Pea 
(L. nervosus), with lovely blue flowers, and L. grandiflorus are 
notable among the annual species. L. latifolius, rose-col- 
oured, and its var. albus are perennials, attaining 5 to 7 feet, 
with deep-feeding roots which are patient of transplanting. 
L. splendens, " Pride of California," is a first-rate greenhouse 
perennial with crimson flowers, as large as those of a Sweet 
Pea, produced in racemes containing as many as ten. It 
requires a sunny position in loam and peat. 

LITTONIA 

A genus of Liliaceae, of which L. modesta, a native of 
Natal, is the only cultivated species. It is a greenhouse 
plant with bell-shaped, orange flowers and bright, shining 
green leaves, and it resembles Gloriosa (see p. 95) in habit 
and general appearance, its cultural requirements being 
similar. 

LONICERA 

An extensive genus, confined to the Northern Hemis- 
phere, and containing many ornamental climbers. The 
best hardy sorts are : L. Periclymenum, our common wild 
Honeysuckle, and L. Caprifolium, a naturalised species 
which much resembles it ; L. flava. North America, large 
yellow, rather tender ; L. flexuosa, Japan, fragrant, of pink 
and yellow tints ; L.japonica, evergreen, pale yellow vars. 
aureo-reticulata and Halliana are very popular ; and Z-. semper- 



LYGODIUM 105 

virens } the North American Trumpet Honeysuckle, showy 
scarlet and yellow. These all prefer a sunny position and 
a rich, tight soil. They should not be planted with other 
shrubs which will compete for soil nourishment, nor will 
they flower well in shade. L. Hildebrandtiana y a strong 
growing Burmese species, with large, apricot-yellow flowers ; 
and L. etrusca, var. superba, orange-yellow, are excellent 
for large greenhouses. Easily propagated by cuttings or 
layers. Climbing Loniceras flower on the young wood. 



LYCIUM 

Hardy, or nearly hardy, thorny shrubs, two species of 
which are well known in gardens, namely, L. chinense, the 
Tea-tree or Box-thorn, which will thrive in almost any 
situation, and is a good seaside plant, with purplish flowers 
and scarlet fruits ; and L. pallidum, from Arizona, a less 
vigorous grower, with peculiar greenish tubular flowers 
produced in May and June. Propagation in autumn or 
spring by cuttings. 

LYGODIUM 

Elegant stove and greenhouse ferns, readily distin- 
guished by their thin, wiry, climbing fronds (stems), which 
are permanent and become interlaced. Those cultivated 
are : L. dichotomum (ftexuosum), a sturdy climber ; L. 
japonicum, resembling the preceding but less robust ; L. 
palmatum, a cool house pillar plant ; L reticulatum ; and 
L. scandens (volubile), which has stems up to 15 feet. A 
compost of peat, loam, and sand in equal parts suits 
them. 



106 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

MANDEVILLA 

Mandevillas are tall-growing shrubs, chiefly natives of 
tropical America. M. suaveolens, the only species cultivated, 
is a handsome, deciduous, half-hardy plant with large, white 
flowers. Introduced from Buenos Aires, where it is known 
as Chilian Jasmine. Planted out in peat and loam in the 
greenhouse, and trained up the rafters, it is quite at home, 
and it can be grown out of doors in mild districts if some 
protection is afforded in winter. Propagated by cuttings 
of the small side-shoots. 

MARCGRAVIA 

A tropical American genus of epiphytal shrubs, notable 
for their Ivy-like habit, with two stages of growth, the 
juvenile stage having ovate leaves and clinging closely, 
while the mature stage has lanceolate leaves and does not 
cling. M. umbellata (dubid) is a useful wall plant for the 
stove. The plant known in gardens as M. paradoxa is 
Monstera tenuis, while that grown as M. indica is a Pothos. 
Propagated by cuttings. See also p. 69. 

MAURANDIA 

Mexican herbs with showy violet, purple, or rose- 
coloured flowers. In addition to being cultivated in green- 
houses the best-known species, M. Barclayana and M. 
scandens and their varieties, are well adapted for covering 
trellises out of doors in summer, and they succeed best in 
moderately rich, sandy loam. Plants raised from seeds 
sown in gentle heat in early spring will flower the same 
summer if planted out in a sheltered place at the end 
of May. 



MONSTERA 107 



MENISPERMUM 

Moon seed. M. canadense is a tall and fast-growing, 
North American, hardy, twining, deciduous shrub of the 
easiest cultivation. It has large, heart-shaped leaves and 
long, feathery panicles of small, yellowish flowers, produced 
in summer, and succeeded by clusters of black berries. 
The only other cultivated species, M. dauricum, a native 
of Eastern Asia, is inferior. Propagated by root divisions 
or by cuttings in spring. 

MINA 

This genus of Convolvulaceae is now included in 
Ipomcea. M. lobata (Ipomcea versicolor) from Mexico is 
frequently cultivated. It is a tall, very slender, branching, 
leafy climber, with twining stem and branches. The long- 
stalked three to five-lobed leaves are bright green above, 
pale beneath. The flowers, bright rosy-crimson at first, 
changing as they expand, first to orange, and then to pale 
yellow, are about i inch long, and borne in racemes. It 
may be grown in warm places as a half-hardy annual, and 
merits cultivation as a summer-flowering occupant of the 
greenhouse. 

MONSTERA 

Evergreen tropical Aroids. M. deliciosa (Tornelia fra- 
grans) has stout, fleshy, scandent stems, and large, leathery, 
heart-shaped leaves, with numerous slit-like perforations ; is 
sometimes used for grouping with other plants in the out- 
door sub-tropical garden. See Chapter XIII (Aroids), p. 67. 



io8 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 



MUCUNA 

Tropical Leguminosae, with showy purple, red, or 
greenish-yellow flowers in axillary racemes, most of the 
species being tall, twining shrubs. Several are in cultiva- 
tion, but they are rarely met with except in botanic 
gardens. The pods of M. pruriens and M. prurita are 
densely covered with short, intensely irritant hairs, hence 
their name of Cow-itch or Cow-age. M. utilis is known as 
the Velvet Bean. M. imbricata has great, drooping racemes 
of large, blackish -purple flowers, like bunches of black 
grapes. Mucunas require to be planted out in good loam, 
in a warm house, and trained near the glass. Propagation 
by seeds, or cuttings of half-ripened young wood. 

MUEHLENBECKIA 

M. complexa is a semi-hardy climber from New Zealand, 
with thin, wiry stems, which form a dense interlacing 
mass, small roundish leaves, and green, inconspicuous 
flowers. It requires a sunny position in well-drained or 
sandy soil, and can be planted to clothe a pillar or as a 
trailer in the rock garden. M. adpressa^ from Australia, 
has larger, heart-shaped leaves and long racemes of whitish 
flowers. Both can be cultivated in a cool greenhouse ; 
they require slight protection in cold winters if outdoors. 
Propagation by cuttings in early summer. 

MUTISIA 

Climbing South American Compositae, chiefly known to 
gardeners because a few of the species are semi-hardy in 



PASSIFLORA 109 

the mildest parts of Great Britain. Nearly all have large 
flowers, but they are not easy of cultivation. M. Clematis 
has red flowers ; M. decurrens is deep orange, 4-5 in. across ; 
M. ilicifolia has flowers varying from white to rose, leaves 
holly-like; should be grown under glass. The leaves of 
some of the species terminate in tendrils. It is said that 
many gardeners have killed M. decurrens by planting it in 
hot and dry positions, whereas it requires moisture, cool- 
ness, air, sunshine, and a few slender sticks to ramble 
over. It grows well in South Cornwall. 

ODONTADENIA 

O. speciosa (Dipladenia Harrisit), the only cultivated 
species, has large racemes of trumpet-shaped yellow 
and orange flowers, delicately scented. The lanceolate 
leaves are a foot long, smooth, and dark green. Planted 
in a border in a tropical house is the best treatment ; if 
grown in pots, plenty of root room and thorough drainage 
are necessary. Propagation by cuttings of the young 
shoots. 

OXERA 

A genus of climbing shrubs, natives of New Caledonia. 
O. pulchella, the only cultivated species, is a strong grower, 
with the habit of Clerodendron Thomsonce, and large 
panicles of tubular, yellowish-white flowers, freely pro- 
duced in winter. It requires a sunny position in a stove, 
and rich, loamy soil. Propagated by cuttings. 

PASSIFLORA (see Frontispiece) 

A large genus of wide distribution and great diversity of 
character. A few of the species have become established 



no PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

garden climbers, the most popular being P. coerulea, which 
may be successfully grown either in a stove, a greenhouse, 
or against a sunny wall. The variety t( Constance Elliott " 
is illustrated in the Frontispiece. It ripens its fruits freely 
out of doors. There are several good hybrids between this 
and other species, namely P. kewensis (Raddiana x coerulea), 
P. Munroi (alata x ccerulea\ P. ccendea-racemosa, &c. The 
best tropical species are P. amabilis (cardinalis\ P. macro- 
carpa, P. quadrangularis, P. racemosa, P. Raddiana (Ker- 
mesina), P. vtolacea, P. vztifolia, and P. Watsonii. These are 
all free growers, their stems are supported by tendrils, and 
they have showy flowers. They are satisfied with ordinary 
cultural conditions, and they are easily propagated by cut- 
tings. P. edulis, P. maliformis, and P. macrocarpa have 
edible fruits. 

PERIPLOCA 

Silk Vine. P. grceca, the only species cultivated, is a 
hardy, twining, fast-growing shrub of old introduction from 
South Europe related to Stephanotis. It has long slender 
stems, which form a dense mass, and are covered with 
clusters of greenish-brown, hairy flowers in July and 
August. They have a marked unpleasant odour. Pro- 
pagated by seeds or cuttings. 



PETR^A 

Beautiful tropical American shrubs with opposite, 
coriaceous leaves, and violet-purple or bluish flowers 
appearing in summer. Those of P. volubilis, Purple 
Wreath, an extremely handsome twiner, are disposed in 
terminal, elongated, nodding racemes. P. macrostachya 



PHILODENDRON in 

has lilac flowers in longer, pendulous racemes. Both 
species require rich soil and a sunny position in a stove. 
Propagation by cuttings in light sandy soil. 

PHASEOLUS 

Kidney Bean. An extensive genus, few of the species 
of which are of horticultural value, although P. vulgaris is 
of great importance in the vegetable garden. The Scarlet 
Runner Bean (P. vulgaris, var. multiflorus) is decidedly 
ornamental when in flower, and seedsmen offer what they 
call the Ornamental Runner Bean (not for culinary use), 
which has purplish foliage, purple and white flowers, and 
short, broad, purple pods. P. Caracalla, Climbing Snail 
Flower, is a tropical perennial with purple and yellowish, 
spirally twisted flowers, remarkably snail-like in appear- 
ance. Although universally cultivated, P. vulgaris is not 
anywhere clearly known as a wild plant. 

PHILODENDRON 

A large genus of Aroids, of trailing or scandent habit. 
Some have very large leaves, others being small and 
variegated. P. Andreanum, leaves large, shining dark green, 
with coppery reflections ; P. corsianum, leaves heart- 
shaped, pale green and bronze ; P. Carderi; P. erubescens; 
P. gloriosum ; and P. laciniosum (quercifolmm) can be recom- 
mended. They require shade, with plenty of moisture and 
heat, and an open compost of loam or peat. Propagated 
by dividing the stems into three-jointed lengths, which soon 
take root in brisk heat ; or the tops of plants may be 
inserted as large cuttings. 

See Chapter XIII (Aroids), p. 67. 



ii2 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 



PLUMBAGO (see Plate XXII) 

Leadwort. A genus comprising hardy perennial herbs, 
in addition to the popular South African P. capensis, a 
scandent shrub, whose pale blue flowers are borne well- 
nigh continuously, and which is admirable for planting out 
either in the greenhouse or stove, as well as for summer 
bedding. There is a white-flowered variety. The flowers 
are produced on young wood, so that cutting hard back after 
flowering, and allowing the plants to rest in winter by keep- 
ing them on the dry side, are advisable. Propagation by 
cuttings of nearly ripe wood. The soil should be good 
fibrous loam, sand, and a little peat. 

POLYGONUM 

Differing vastly from most of its many fellows, P. bald- 
schuanicum (see Plate XXIII) is a free-growing climber of 
considerable beauty, with sprays of rosy-tinted flowers pro- 
duced in summer and autumn. It appears to best advantage 
when rambling over bushes, or draping some little-valued 
tree. It may be cut down by frost, but it soon grows again. 
Grafting on pieces of its own roots is the surest method 
of increase. The North American P. cilinode is a vigorous 
climber, which is covered with small, white flowers in autumn. 

POTHOS 

Tropical climbing Aroids, branching freely, the lower 
branchlets rooting, of spreading habit above. Few are 
in general cultivation. P. celatocaulis, Borneo, is useful 
for covering walls and the stems of tree ferns ; its rich 




PLATE XXIII. POLYGONUM BALDSCHUANICUM 



PLATE XXII 
PLUMBAGO CAPENSIS 



H 



RHYNCOSPERMUM 115 

dark-green leaves lying perfectly flat on the surface over 
which it climbs. Other ornamental climbing sorts are P. 
nigricans and P. scandens. It is doubtful whether several 
plants included under Pothos which have not yet flowered 
in cultivation really belong to that genus. Propagation by 
cuttings. See also Chapter XIII (Aroids), p. 67. 

RHODOCHITON 

R. volubile is an attractive greenhouse climber from 
Mexico, with cordate leaves, and pendent flowers with 
reddish calyces and nearly black corollas, freely produced. 
It succeeds in loam and peat. Propagation by seeds in 
early spring or by cuttings of the young shoots in summer. 

RHUS 

A large genus of chiefly hardy trees and shrubs, widely 
distributed, and celebrated for their poisonous properties. 
R. Toxicodendron, the Poison Ivy of North America and 
Japan, has large ternate leaves that colour well in autumn. 
Unfortunately the slightest contact between any portion of 
the plant and the bare skin of some people causes such a 
severe and long-continued skin eruption that its planting 
cannot be recommended. Formerly distributed as Ampe- 
lopsis Hoggit. Propagation by seeds or root cuttings. 
Plants in rich soil colour best in autumn. In America the 
planting of Poison Ivy is prohibited. 

RHYNCOSPERMUM 

Fragrant, white-flowered, evergreen shrubs, natives of 
Asia. R. (Trachelospcrmuni) jasminoideS) China and Japan, 



u6 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

is an attractive, easily managed greenhouse climber, and 
hardier than was formerly thought. It should be planted in 
light or peaty soil, with the protection of a wall in a warm 
situation, and the stem should be covered if likely to be 
subjected to severe frost. R. crocospermum (R.jasminoides 
angustifolid) is hardier, with orange-centred flowers. Pro- 
pagation by cutting of the young shoots in heat. 

ROSA 

The many beautiful climbing Roses, which thanks in a 
measure to the popularity of the pergola are now better 
represented in many gardens than formerly, are dealt with 
in Chapter VIII, p. 40. 

RUBUS (see Plates IV and V) 

A number of species, chiefly Chinese, are ornamental 
climbers. R. deliciosus, Rocky Mountain Bramble, one of 
the finest of the hardy sorts, is without spines, out will 
clothe a wall ; it has white flowers resembling Dog Roses. 
R. odoratus is well adapted for planting under trees, has 
large clusters of purple flowers, and fragrant leaves. R. 
phoenicolasiiiSj Japanese Wineberry, has scandent stems 
covered with reddish hairs, and its leaves are white under- 
neath. R. ulmifolius has stems which attain 15 to 18 feet 
in length ; there is a variety with double pink flowers. R. 
moluccanusy the Himalayan Blackberry, and R. reflexus, 
stems 30 feet or more, are two of the most ornamental of 
the more tender species, being serviceable as greenhouse 
pillar plants. Rubuses are easy to grow, but respond to 
liberal cultivation. Division or layering the young growing 
shoots are methods of propagation. 



SELAGINELLA 117 

RUSCUS 

R. androgynus (Semele androgyna), Climbing Butcher's 
Broom, a native of the Canary Islands, is very ornamental 
with its fresh green, pinnate foliage, like gracefully droop- 
ing branches. It thrives in any rich soil ; but, attaining to 
very large dimensions, it is unsuitable for an ordinary con- 
servatory, being seen to great advantage in such exceptional 
positions as against the circular staircase in the Temperate 
House at Kew. It does not object to shade. 

SCHIZANDRA 

A small genus of chiefly deciduous, climbing, hardy 
shrubs from the Far East, allied to Magnolia. The best 
known is S. chinensis (Maximowiczia chinensis) y which 
attains to 20 feet, and has rosy-carmine flowers, produced 
in summer, and succeeded by clusters of scarlet berries, 
which persist during the greater part of the winter. It 
needs a sheltered place to do well, but is hardy in most 
localities if protected in winter. A rich sandy loam with 
partial shade is best, against a trellis or wall. Propagation 
by cuttings of the ripened shoots. 

SELAGINELLA 

A very large genus of plants with a superficial resem- 
blance to ferns, but belonging to a different natural order 
(Lycopodiacese). Most of the species are tropical, about a 
hundred being in cultivation ; but many of them are much 
alike. The only one of note as a climber is 5. Wildenovii, 
a native of India, whose reddish stems attain as much as 



n8 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

20 feet in length, with frond-like branches 2 feet long, the 
scale-like leaves steel-blue in colour. With liberal stove 
cultivation it quickly forms a tangle of stems and branches. 
It requires good drainage and to be kept rather moist 
and shady. Propagation by stem cuttings. 



SENECIO 

Two species of this vast genus are meritorious garden 
climbers. S. macroglossus, Cape Ivy, is a handsome, yellow- 
flowered, glossy-leaved, soft-wooded evergreen, particularly 
well adapted for dwelling-room cultivation or planting in 
window-boxes as a trailer for summer display. S. mikani- 
oides, German Ivy, is a yellow-flowered, much-branched 
climber with slender stems, which attain several feet in 
length, and it blossoms in winter. It is naturalised here 
and there on the south-west coast. Both species are easy 
to cultivate and propagate. 



SMILAX 

Green Briar. A very large genus of Liliaceae, widely 
distributed, of which several species are valuable, some as 
greenhouse and others as hardy foliage plants. The roots 
of several constitute Sarsaparilla of commerce. For indoor 
cultivation S. aspera, S. australis, and S. macrophylla are 
generally selected. For outdoor planting, in good, dry 
soil in sheltered places, preferably wall-trained or rambling 
over tree-trunks, 5. aspera, S. Cantab, S. laurifolia, and S. 
rotundifolia are a good selection. Propagation by root 
division. 



STAUNTONIA 119 

SOLANDRA 

Large-flowered tropical American shrubs, of which S. 
grandiflora is fairly well known in gardens. It is a vigorous 
grower, with fleshy branches and leaves and large, tubular, 
Datura-like, white flowers, which change to a creamy-yellow. 
An excellent plant for a sunny position in a large stove, it 
should be noted that if allowed too much root-space and 
continuous moisture it does not flower well. Small flower- 
ing plants can be had by inserting cuttings of the flowering 
shoots. S. longiflora has white flowers with a purplish tinge. 
S. Hartwegii has very large, orange-coloured flowers. 
Propagation by cuttings. 

SOLANUM 

An immense genus, many members of which have been 
introduced to cultivation, but few of them are notable as 
ornamental climbers. 5. jasminoides (see Plate X) has 
wreaths of starry, white flowers, and is hardy on a wall or 
building in the south ; in colder districts it requires and 
deserves green-house cultivation. 6". Wendlandii, one of 
the very best of warm house climbers, has enormous, 
terminal clusters of bright blue-purple flowers ; while S. 
Seaforthianum, mauve flowers, and S. pensile, purple and 
white flowers, are also elegant and free, summer-blooming 
stove plants. They thrive in loam, and are easily pro- 
pagated by cuttings. 

STAUNTONIA 

A small genus of hardy evergreen shrubs allied to 
Berberis, natives of China and Japan. 6*. hexaphylla t which 



PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

has small, white, fragrant flowers appearing in April, and 
sometimes succeeded by large, oval, purple fruits, may be 
grown on walls in the milder districts. Sandy loam and 
a sheltered position suit it, but it is liable to suffer 
severely if subjected to drought. Propagation by cuttings 
of the young, half-ripened shoots. (For S. latifolia see 
Holbcellia.) 

STEPHANOTIS 

A genus of Asclepiads comprising about fifteen species. 
Only one is well known in gardens, namely, the beautiful 
5 1 . floribunda, the Clustered Wax Flower or Madagascar 
Chaplet, so popular by reason of its pure, white, tubular, 
fragrant blossoms, produced in great profusion, and dark 
green Camellia-like foliage, leathery in substance. It 
succeeds best planted in a small bed of turfy loam in 
the stove, and trained up a trellis or on the roof. Propa- 
gation in spring by cuttings of the previous year's growth. 
The Elvaston variety is preferred as being of compact 
habit, and extra-floriferous. The fruit bears a resemblance 
to a very large plum. 

STREPTOSOLEN 

S. Jamesoniiy from Columbia, is a favourite sub-shrubby 
evergreen greenhouse plant resembling Browallia, with 
orange-coloured flowers in large terminal corymbose 
panicles, freely produced in spring. It thrives in good 
sandy loam. Propagation by cuttings. 

STROPHANTHUS 

A genus of tropical African and Asian shrubs or small 
trees, with quaint variously-coloured flowers, often re- 



TECOMA 121 

markable by reason of long, tail-like expansions of the 
corolla lobes. 5. Bullenianus, whose flowers combine pink, 
yellow, and purple, and 5. Petersianus, var. grandiflorus, 
red and yellow, are desirable stove climbers, others of the 
more usually cultivated species being comparatively dwarf. 
They require loam and peat. Propagation by cuttings in 
heat. 

TACSONIA 

Tropical American climbers with conspicuous pendulous 
flowers resembling those of Passiflora, the two genera 
being also alike in their cultural requirements. The 
following are suitable for planting in a well-drained and 
sunny greenhouse border : T. insignis, large crimson 
flowers ; T. manicata (ignea), scarlet flowers, strong-growing ; 
T. mollisima, long-tubed, pink flowers ; T. Van Volxemii, 
crimson flowers, very free and strong-growing ; and T. 
exoniensis (Van Volxemii x molltsima). Propagation by 
cuttings of the young shoots in spring. 

TECOMA 

Trumpet Creeper. The tall-growing North American 
T. radicansj which produces very snowy orange and scarlet 
flowers in autumn, and clings to walls like Ivy, is hardy 
in most parts of the country. There are well-marked varie- 
ties in major, flava, speciosa, grandiflora, and purpurea. 
7*. grandiflora (China), and its varieties, have more showy 
flowers and larger foliage, but are not so hardy. T. capensis 
is a greenhouse species, best treated as a pot shrub. Propa- 
gation by root cuttings, cuttings of the young shoots, or by 
layering. The semi-hardy Tecomas deserve to be more 



122 PRESENT-DAY GARDENING 

used as wall creepers in the milder districts. They require 
good, well-drained soil, plenty of sunshine to ripen the 
wood, abundant moisture in summer, but very little in 
winter. In sub-tropical countries they are popular garden- 
plants. 

THUNBERGIA 

T. alata and its varieties, with stems 4 to 5 feet long, and 
flowering profusely from July to October, are valuable for 
outdoor cultivation treated as half-hardy annuals in 
warm, sunny places ; they are also popular in the green- 
house and stove. T. grandiflora, a strong-growing tropical 
species with large racemes of pale blue flowers, and its var. 
alba ; T. laurifolia^ very similar to T. grandiflora ; and 
T. affinis, with purplish-violet flowers marked with yellow 
throat, form a trio for the stove. Propagated by seeds or 
cuttings. 

. TROP^EOLUM (see Plate XXIV) 

Nasturtium. A South American genus, chiefly in- 
habiting the mountains. There are annual and perennial 
species, some fibrous, others tuberous-rooted. The best 
perennial sorts are T. Leichtlinii, orange flowers ; T. poly- 
phyllum (see Plate XXIV), yellow flowers, tuberous-rooted ; 
T. speciosum y bright scarlet flowers ; T. tuberosum, scarlet 
and green flowers, with slender stems, 10 to 12 feet high, 
not hardy in all soils. For covering arbours, &c., the tall- 
growing annuals, T. Lobbianum, T. major, and T. peregrinum 
(Canary Creeper), are very effective. Tropaeolums flower 
with the greater freedom in poor soil ; in better soil they 
make more vigorous growth, and continue in bloom much 
later. They are also useful for greenhouse decoration. 




PLATE XXIV. 



TROP/EOLUM POLYPHYLLUM 



WISTARIA 123 

The annuals are easily raised from selected seeds, sown 
in the open, but the double-flowered varieties can only be 
raised from cuttings, which are easily rooted in bottom 
heat. The leaves of T. major are eaten in salads, the 
green fruits are pickled, and the tubers of T. tuberosum are 
a favourite South American vegetable. 



VITIS 

See Chapter XI (Vines), p. 58, also Ampelopsis, p. 76. 

WISTARIA (see Plates II and III) 

A small genus of leguminous deciduous shrubs, natives 
of China, Japan, and North America, and quite the noblest 
of hardy introduced woody climbers. Their beauty when 
trained against buildings is very well known, and they are 
also well adapted for rambling among trees, particularly 
the Laburnum, which flowers at the same time. Wistarias 
should have good soil, and they grow fast when well 
established. The best species are W. chinensis, the first 
to be introduced, of which there are white- and double- 
flowered varieties, and the less familiar W. multijuga, also 
from China, later flowering and remarkable for its very long 
racemes, which sometimes exceed 3 feet in length. There 
are blue and white flowered varieties of this also. Pro- 
pagation by layers in summer. 



INDEX 



ABELIA, 20 
Abelia chinensis, 74 

floribunda, 74 

spathulata, 74 

triflora, 74 
Abutilon, 27 

Abutilon Darwinii, A. megapotamicum, 

and A. venosum, 74 
Acacia, 27 

Baileyana, 74 

leprosa, 74 

retinodes, 74 

Riceana, 75 
Aconitum, 20 
Aconitum uncianum, 75 
Actinidia, 20 
Actinidia chinensis, 75 

Kolomikta, 75 

polygama, 75 

volubilis, 75 
Adenocarpus decorticans, 23 

foliolosus, 23 
Akebia, 20 
Akebia lobata, 75 

quinata, 75 
Allamanda, 8, n, 30 
Allamanda cathartica, 76 

grandiflora, 76 

nobilis, 76 

Schottii and vars. Hendersonii and 

magnifica, 76 

violacea, 76 
Ampelopsis, n, 20 
Ampelopsis bipinnata, 79 

quinquefolia, 39, 79 

Veitchii, 14, 36, 39, 79 
Anderson-Henry, Mr., 46 
Anthurium, 68 
Anthurium Andreanum, 68 



Anthyllis Hermannioe, 23 
Araujia grandiflora, 79 

sericifera (albens), 79 
Arbours, climbers for, 35 
Aristolochia, 20, 30, 36 
Aristolochia brasiliensis, 80 

clypeata, 80 

elegans, 80 

gigantea, 80 

gigas, 80 

Goldieana, 80 

labiosa, 80 

leuconeura, 80 

Sipho, 39, 80 
Aristotelia Macqui, 23 
Aroids, 67 

Aroids at Kew, 67 
Asparagus, II, 27 
Asparagus africanus, 80 

Duchesnei, 80 

falcatus, 80 

laricinus, 80 

medioloides, So 

plumosus, 8, 80 

racemosus, 80 

retrofractus, 81 

scandens, 81 

umbellatus, 81 
Aspect, importance of, 36 
Ayrshire roses, 42 
Azara microphylla, 2 

BALFOUR'S Problems of Propagation, 

5 

Barren, A. F., 60 
Bauhinia, 28, 8 1 
Bauhinia corymbosa, 8l 

ferruginea, 81 

Vahlii, 8 1 



124 



INDEX 



125 



Bauhinia yunnanensis, 81 
Bean, Mr. W. J., 38 
Beans, varieties of, ill 
Beaumontia, 30 
Beaumontia fragrans, 82 

grandiflora, 81, 82 
Begonia, climbing, 59 
Benincasa, 62 
Berberidopsis, 20, 36 

corallina, 82 
Bignonia, 20, 27, 30 
Bignonia capreolata, 82 

Chamberlaynii, 82 

magnifica, 82 

regalis, 82 

speciosa, 82 

venusta, 82 
Bomarea, 27 
Bomarea caldasiana, 83 

Carded, 83 

multiflora, 83 

oligantha, 83 

patacocensis, 83 

Salsilla, 83 
Bougainvillea, 8, 27 
Bougainvillea glabra and its varieties : 

spectabilis, Sanderiana, Cypheri, 
lateritia, and Maud Chettleburg, 84 

Boussingaultia, 20 

Boussingaultia baselloides, 84 

Briolay-Goiffon, M., 46 

Bupleurum fruticosum, 23 

C/ESALPINIA GlLLIESII, 84 

japonica, 84 

pulcherrima, 87 
Calabash, 61 
Calystegia, 20, 36 
Calystegia hederacea, fl. pi., 87 

sylvatica, 87 
Camellia, 23 

Camellia and Sir Joseph Paxton, 13 
Camoensia maxima, 28 
Canary Creeper, 20, 122 
Cantua, bicolor, 87 

buxifolia, 87 
Cape Ivy, 118 
Carr, M., 46 
Cassia, 27 

Cassia corymbosa, 87 



Ceanothus, 12, 23, 36 

Celastrus, 2 1 

Celastrus articulatus, 39, 88 

scandens, 88 
Cereus, 12, 30 
Cereus fulgidus, 88 

grandiflorus, 88 

Lemairii, 88 

Macdonaldise, 88 

Napoleonis, 88 

nycticalus, 88 

triangularis, 88 
Ceropegia elegans, 89 

Monteiroae, 89 

Sandersonii, 89 

stapeliseformis, 89 

Thwaitesii, 89 
Cestrum aurantiacum, 89 

elegans, 89 

Newellii, 89 
Cherry, 12 
Chilian Jasmine, 106 
Choco, 61 
Choisya ternata, 23 
Cissus, ii 

Cissus amazonica, 90 

antarctica, 90 

discolor, 59, 89 

Lindenii, 90 

Martinii, 90 

pterophora (gongylodes), 90 
Citrullus, 62 

Clematis, 8, 11, 17, 27, 34, 36, 38, 39, 

45 
Clematis Armandii, 49 

calycina, 39 

coccinea, 46 

Dennisae, 49 

Fortunei (florida), 46 

indivisa, 17 

Jackmanii, 17, 39, 49 

lanuginosa, 46 

Meyeniana, 49 

montana, 17, 39, 46 

montana rubens, 49 

patens, 46 

Standishii, 46 

tangutica, 49 

- Vitalba, 17, 39, 50 

Wilsonii, 49 



126 



INDEX 



Clematis, cultivation of, 49 

list of varieties of, 52, 53, 54, 

55.56 

new Chinese species of, 46 

propagation of, 50 

the first hybrid, 45 
Clerodendron, 30 
Clerodendron scandens, 91 

speciosum, 91 

splendens, 90 

Thomsonae (Balfouri), 90 
Clianthus, 27 

Dampieri, 91 

magnificus, 91 

puniceus, 36, 91 
Climbers for greenhouses, 24 

for the stove, 30 

for verandahs, house walls, and 

arbours, 36 

hardy, 12 

known as lattice formers, 1 1 

known as weavers, 1 1 

require plenty of root room, 25 

that bear tendrils, 1 1 

that form adhesive discs at end of 

tendrils, II 

that twine, 10, II 

with rooting stems, 1 1 
Climbing Butcher's Broom, 117 

plants in their natural habitats, 9 

roses, 40 

Snail-flower, in 
Clitoria, 30 
Clitoria Ternatea, 92 
Clustered Wax-flower, 120 
Cobaea, 27 

Cobaea scandens, 59 

scandens and C. s. variegata, 92 
Colocynth, 61 

Combretum, 30 
Combretum grandiflorum, 93 

purpureum, 93 
Conservatory, roses for the, 43 
Construction of Pergolas, 3 1 
Convolvulus, 20, 21 
Convolvulus arvensis, 93 

Cneorum, 23 

mauritanicus, 93 

sepium, 93 

soldanella, 93 



Convolvulus tricolor, 93 

Corokia Cotoneaster, 23 

Corridor, the, 24 

Corridors at the Old Kensington Gar- 
den, Chatsworth, Crystal Palace, 
Cambridge and Edinburgh Botanic 
Gardens, and Mr. Chamberlain's 
garden at Highbury, 25 

Cotoneaster, 12, 23, 36 

Cow-itch or Cow-age, 108 

Crataegus, 23 

Cripps & Son, Messrs. , 46 

Cucumber, 7,61, 62 

Cucumis, 62 

Cucurbita, 62 

Cucurbitaceous plants at Kew, 62 

Cucurbits, II 

Cup and Saucer Vine (Cobaea), 92 

Cydonia, 36 

Cydonia japonica, 12 

DARLINGTON, Mr. H. R., and Hybrid 

Perpetual Roses, 42 
Darwin's Movements of Plants, IO 
Dauvesse, M., 46 
Dioscoraea, 30 
Dioscoraea multicolor, 93 
Dipladenia, 8, 26, 30 
Dipladenia amabilis, 94 

atropurpurea, 94 

boliviensis, 94 

Brearleyana, 94 

splendens, 94 
Discaria longispina, 23 

ECCREMOCARPUS, 21 

Eccremocarpus longiflorus, 94 

scaber, 94 
Edwardsia, 12, 23, 30 
Epipremnum, 67 
Epipremnum giganteum, 68 

mirabile, 68 
Ercilla, 21 
Ercilla spicata, 94 
Eriobotrya japonica, 12, 23 
Escallonia, 12, 23 
Euonymus, II, 12, 36 
Euonymus radicans, 23 
Evergreen shrubs for walls, 21 



INDEX 



127 



FABIANA IMBRICATA, 23 
Feijoa Sellowiana, 23 
Ferns, climbing, 105 
Ficus falcata, 95 

radicans, 95 

repens, 12 

stipulata (repens), 95 
Forsythia, 12, 36 
Fuchsia, 11, 21, 27, 36 
Fuchsia corallina, 95 
Fuchsias, varieties of, 95 

GARRYA ELLIPTICA, 23 

macrophylla, 23 

Thurettii, 23 
Gerard, 61 
German Ivy, 118 
Gloriosa, II, 30 
Gloriosa Carsonii, 96 

Rothschildiana, 96 

superba, 96 

virescens (Plantii), 96 
Gourds, ornamental, 61 

varieties of, 63 
Green Briar, 118 
Greenhouse climbers, 24 
Greenhouse, the corridor, 24 
Griselinia littoralis, 23 
Gurania, 62 

HABROTHAMNUS, 27 
Hardenbergia comptoniana, 96 

monophylla, 96 
Hardy Trees and Shrubs, 38 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, on beauty of 

Gourds, 63 

Hedera Helix, 14, 21, 57 
Henderson's Pine-apple Nursery, 45 
Hexacentris, 28 
Hibbertia, 27 
Hibbertia dentata, 96 

volubilis, 96 
Hidalgoa, 27 
Hidalgoa Wercklei, 97 
Himalayan Blackberry, 116 
Hodgsonia heteroclita, 28 
Holbcellia latifolia, 97 

Hole, the late Dean, and Rose Gloire 

de Dijon, 43 
Honeysuckle, 11, 17, 34, 105 



Hop, the, 20, 98 

the Japanese, 20 
House walls, climbers for, 36 
Houses, tropical, heating of, 29 
Hoya, 30 

Hoya campanulata, 97 

carnosa, 96, 97 

imperialis, 97 
Humulus, 21, 36 
Humulus japonicus, 20, 98 

Lupulus, 39, 98 

lutescens, 98 
Hydrangea, 21 
Hydrangea petiolaris, 98 

scandens, 19, 39, 98 

INTRODUCTION, i 

Clematis for fences, 2, 3 
Clematis, non-pruning of, 3 
Flame Nasturtium on Holly, 6 
Ivy not to be planted on walls, 3 
Ivy on trees, 6 
Pergolas, 4, 5, 6 
Roses on tree stems, 6 
Trellising made of oak battens, 4 
Vines trained on apple-trees, 4 

Ipomoea, 21, 27 

Ipomoea Bona-nox, 99 

Briggsii, 99 

coccinea, 99 

Horsfalliae, 99 

Learii, 99 

purpurea, 98 

Quamoclit, 99 

rubro-coerulea, 99 

ternata, 99 

versicolor, 99 
Ivies at Kew, 57 

Shirley Hibberd's monograph on, 56 

varieties of, 58 

Ivy, 12, 13, 14, 19, 21, 35, 36, 56, 57, 
58,67,69 

American Boston, 59 

on buildings, 57 

the badge of the Clan Gordon, 56 

JACKMAN, George, and Moore, Thomas, 

The Clematis, 46 
Jackman & Son, 51 
Japanese Wineberry, 116 



128 



INDEX 



Jasminum, u, 17, 21, 36 
Jasminum affine, 99 

gracillimum, 99 

humile, 23, 99 

nudiflorum, 18, 99 

officinale, 99 

primulinum, 18, 23 

revolutum, 99 

Sambac, fl. pi., 99 

KADSURA, 21 

Kadsura japonica, 100 

Kangaroo Vine (Cissus antarctica), 90 

Kennedya, 27 

Kennedya nigricans, 100 

prostrata (Marryattse), 100 

rubicunda, 100 
Kerner on climbing plants, 10 
Kew, Aroids at, 67 

cucurbitaceous plants at, 62 

Hand-list of Trees and Shrubs, 57 

Ivies at, 58 

Palm and temperate houses at, 24 

pergolas, 33 
Kidney Bean, ill 

LAGENARIA, 62 

Lantana salvifolia (delicatissima), 100 

Lapageria, 26, 27 

Lapageria alba and rubra, 103 

Lardizabala, 21 

Lardizabala biternata, 103 

Lathyrus, 21, 27 

Lathyrus grandiflorus, 104 

latifolius, 104 

nervosus, 104 

odoratus, 20, 104 

splendens, 104 
Leadwort, 112 
Lemoine, M., 46 
Leptospermum laevigatum, 23 
Ligustrum Henryi, 23 

Lindley, Dr., on Monstera deliciosa, 69 
Littonia modesta, 104 
Lonicera, 21, 27, 36 
Lonicera Caprifolium, 104 

etrusca, var. superba, 18, 39, 105 

flexuosa, 104 

Henryi, 23 

Hildebrandtiana, 18, 39, 105 



Lonicera japonica and varieties, 39, 104 

Periclymenum, 104 

sempervirens, 18, 104 
Loofah, 6 1 
Lophospermum, 20 
Luffa, 62 

Luxembourg, 1400 varieties of the 

Vine at, 60 
Lycium, 21 
Lycium chinense, 105 

pallidum, 105 

Lygodium dichotomum (flexuosum), 105 

japonicum, 105 

palmatum, 105 

recticulatum, 105 

scandens (volubile), 105 

MADAGASCAR CHAPLET, 120 
Magnolia Delavayi, 23 

grandiflora, 12, 23 
Mandevilla, 27 
Mandevilla suaveolens, 106 
Marcgravia, 12, 30 
Marcgravia paradoxa, 68, 69, 106 

tenuis, 106 

umbellata (dubia), 70, 106 
Maurandia, 21 

Maurandia Barclayana, 106 

scandens, 106 
Maximowiczia chinensis, 117 
Melon, 7, 61, 62 
Menispermum, 21, 36 
Menispermum canadense, 39> IO 7 

dauricum, 107 
Mina lobata, 99 

Mina lobata (Ipomcea versicolor), 107 
Momordica, 62 
Momordica Charantia, 63 

involucrata, 63 

mixta, 63 

muricata, 63 
Monstera, 30 
Monstera deliciosa, 68 

deliciosa(Torneliafragrans),68, 107 

dilacerata, 68 

obliqua, 68 

tenuis, 68 
Moon seed, 107 

Moore and Jackman, The Clematis t 
46 



INDEX 



129 



Mucuna, 30 

Mucuna imbricata, 108 

pruriens, 108 

prurita, 108 

utilis, 1 08 
Muehlenbeckia, 21 
Muehlenbeckia adpressa, 108 

complexa, 108 
Mutisia, 21 
Mutisia Clematis, 109 

decurrens, 36, 109 

ilicifolia, 109 
Myrsine africana, 23 

Myrtus communis and var. tarentina, 23 

NEPENTHES, n 
Noble, Charles, 46 

ODONTADENIA, 30 

Odontadenia speciosa (Dipladenia 

Harrissii), 109 
Olea europaea, 23 
Olearia macrodonta, 23 
Orchids, climbing, 70 

Kew Bulletin^ extract from, on 
Vanilla, 72 

Renanthera, 71 

Renanthera coccinea, 71 

coccinea at Chats worth and 
Burford, 71 

Vanda, 71, 72 

Vanda Hookeriana, 71, 72 

teres, 71, 72 
Vanilla, 72 

Vanilla at Syon House at Kew, 73 
Vanilla pods first cultivated at Lie'ge 

by Prof. Morren, 73 
Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, 23 

Schwerinii, 23 

subrotunda, 23 
Oxera, 30 

Oxera pulchella, 109 

PARROT'S BILL, 91 

Passiflora, 8, 21, 27, 30, 36, 109 

Passiflora amabilis (cardinalis), no 

coerulea, 30, no 

coerulea-racemosa, no 

edulis, no 



Passiflora kewensis, no 

macrocarpa, no 

maliformis, no 
Munroi, no 

quadrangularis, no 

Raddiana (Kermesina), no 
- violacea, no 

vitifolia, no 

Watsonii, no 
Passion flower, 11, 29, 37 
Paxton, Sir Joseph, 25 
Pea, Glory, 91 

Pear, 12 

Pears, Plums, and Cherries, 36 
Peat in borders becomes sour, 26 
Pemberton, the Rev. J. H., on hybrid 

China Roses, 41 
Pepper, 7 
Pergolas, construction of, 31 

Kew, 33 
Periploca, 21 
Periploca grseca, 1 10 
Petraea, 30 

Petraea macrostachya, 1 10 

volubilis, no 
Phaseolus, 21 
Phaseolus Caracalla, 1 1 1 

vulgaris, ill 
Philodendron, 12, 30, 67 
Philodendron Andreanum, 68, in 

Carderi, 68, 1 1 1 

Corsianum, 68, in 

crinitum, 68 

erubescens, 68, in 

gloriosum, 68, in 

laciniosum, 68, ill 

Mamei, 68 

nobile, 68 

ornatum, 68 

Selloum, 68 

verrucosum, 68 
Philodendrons, 67 
Pittosporum crassifolium, 23 

Ralphii, 23 
Plum, 12 
Plumbago, 27 
Plumbago capensis, 112 
Poison Ivy, 115 
Polygonum, 21, 36 

Polygonum baldschuanicum, 39, 112 
I 



130 



INDEX 



Polygonum cilinode, 112 
Pothos, 30, 67 
Pothos argenteus, 68 

celatocaulis, 68, 112 

nigricans, 115 

scandens, 68, 115 
"Pride of California," 104 
Propagation of Clematis, 50 
Pruning climbers, 37 
Prunus triloba, 1 2 
Pumpkin, 7, 61 

Purple Wreath, 1 10 
Pyracantha, 12, 36 
Pyracantha angustifolia, 23 

coccinea, 23 

crenulata, 23 

RHAPHIDOPHORA, 67 
Rhaphidophora decursiva, 68 

lancifolia, 68 

pertusa, 68 

Rhaphithamnus cyanocarpus, 23 
Rhodochiton, 27 
Rhodochiton volubile, 115 
Rhus, 21 

Rhus Toxicodendron, 1 1 5 
Rhyncospermum crocospermum, 116 

jasminoides, 115 
Rinz, Herr, 46 

Robinson's Vegetable Garden and 

illustrations of grounds, 64 
Rocky Mountain Bramble, 116 
Rosa, 21, 27 
Rosa arvensis, 42 

Banksiana, 39 

gigantea, 39 

in Upper Burmah, 40 

moschata, 39 

multiflora, 4i 44 

sempervirensj 42 

Wichuraiana, 18, 41 
Rose, 8, u, 17 

Rose, Aime'e Vibert, 42 

Ards Rover, 42 

Banksian, 43, 44 

Bennett's Seedling, 42 

Blairii, 41 

Blush Rambler, 44 

Climbing Caroline Testout, 42 

F. K. Druschki, 42 



Rose, Climbing La France, 42 

Crimson Rambler, 18, 41, 44 

Dundee Rambler, 19, 42 

Fe'licite' Perpetue, 19, 42 

Flora, 19 

Fulgens, 42 

Frau Karl Druschki, 42 

Gloire de Dijon, 43 

Longworth Rambler, 42 

Mme. Plantier, 42 

Marshal Niel, 43 

pergola at Kew, 34 

Ruga, 19 

Splendens, 42 

volume, the, in " Present - Day 

Gardening " series, 42 

William A. Richardson, 42, 43 
Roses, 18,33, 34, 35, 36, 38 

climbing, 40 

for the conservatory, 43 

hybrid China, 42 

Perpetual, 42 
Rubus, 21, 27 

new species of, from China, 18 
Rubus deliciosus, 116 

moluccanus, 116 

odoratus, 116 

phoenicolasius, 116 

reflexus, 116 

ulmifolius, 116 
Ruscus, 27 

androgynus, 117 

SCARLET RUNNER BEAN, 19, in 
Schinus Bonplandianus, 23 
Schizandra, 21 
Schizandra chinensis, 117 
Scindapsus hederaceus, 68 

perakensis, 68 

pictus, 68 

pteropodus, 68 
Sechium, 62 
Selaginella, 30 
Selaginella Wildenovii, 117 
Semele androgyna, 117 
Senecio, 27 

Senecio macroglossus, 118 

mikanioides, 118 

Shirley Hibberd's monograph on Ivies, 
56 



INDEX 



Silk Vine, 1 10 
Simon-Louis, Messrs., 46 
Smilax, 21, 30 
Smilax aspera, 118 

australis, 118 

Cantab, 118 

laurifolia, 118 

macrophylla, 118 

rotundifolia, 118 
Solandra, 30 
Solandra grandiflora, 119 

Hartwegii, 1 1 9 

longiflora, 119 
Solanum, 21, 27 
Solanum crispum, 36, 39 

jasminoides, 36, 39, 119 

pensile, 119 

Seaforthianum, 119 

Wendlandii, 36, 119 

out of doors at Burford and 
in Water Lily House at Kew, 30 

Sophora tetraptera and var. micro- 

phylla, 23 
Squash, 61 
Staff-tree, the, 88 
Stauntonia, 21, 27 
Stauntonia hexaphylla, 119 

latifolia, 97, 120 
Stephanotis, 30 
Stephanotis floribunda, 120 
Stove Climbers, 28 
Stranvsesia undulata, 23 
Streptosolen Jamesonii, 120 
Strophanthus, 30 
Strophanthus Bullenianus, 121 

Petersianus and var. grandiflorus, 

121 

Summer-house, open-sided, 36 
Sweet Pea, 20, 104 
Sweet Potato, 7 

TACSONIA, 27 
Tacsonia exoniensis, 121 

insignis, 12 1 

manicata, 121 

mollisima, 121 

Van Volxemii, 121 
Tamarix on college buildings, 13 
Tea-tree or Box-thorn, 105 
Tecoma, 12, 21, 27, 36, 38 



Tecoma capensis, 1 21 

grandiflora, 121 

radicans, 121 
Telfairia, 62 
Thunbergia, 27, 30 
Thunbergia affinis, 122 

alata, 122 

grandiflora, 122 

laurifolia, 122 
Tomato, 7 

Trachelospermum jasminoides, 23, 36, 

Training, artificial, unsatisfactory, 8 
Trees, climbers on, 38 

strangled by climbers, 10 
Trichosanthes, 62 

(Snake Gourds), 63 
Tricuspidaria dependens, 23 
Tropseolum, 19, 21 
Tropseolum aduncum, 20 

Leichtlinii, 122 

Lobbianum, 122 

major, 122, 123 

pentaphyllum, 20 

peregrinum, 122 

polyphyllum, 122 

speciosum, 20, 122 

tuberosum, 20, 122, 123 
Tropical climbers, 28 
Trumpet Creeper, 121 

UMBELLULARIA CALIFORNICA, 23 

VELVET BEAN, 108 
Verandahs, 35, 36 
Viburnum macrocephalum, 23 

rhytidophyllum, 23 
Vine, II 

Vine, Chasselas Vibert, 59 

Cup and Saucer, 59 

Grove End Sweetwater, 59 

Royal Muscadine, 59 
Vines, 58 

Vitis, ii, 21, 33, 36 
Vitis sestivalis, 60 

armata, 6 1 

californica, 60 

Coigneti&e, 39, 60, 6l 

in Mr. Waterer's nursery, 
Woking, 61 



132 

Yitis cordifolia, 60 

Davidii, 60 

Delavayi, 61 

flexuosa, 61 

heterophylla, 60 

inconstans, 14, 79 

Labrusca, 39, 60, 61 

laciniosa, 59 

megaphylla, 6 1 

obtecta, 61 

purpurea, 59 

Romanetii, 60 

serjanae folia, 6 1 

Thomsonii, 61 

Thunbergii, 60, 6 1 



INDEX 



Vitis Thunbergii in Canon Ellacombe's 
garden, 61 

vinifera, 14, 29, 39. $8 

vinifera laciniosa, 59 

purpurea, 59 

vulpina, 60 

WALLS, evergreen shrubs for, 21 
Wax-flower, 97 x 

Wistaria, 21, 33, 36 
Wistaria chinensis, 14, 39, 123 

multijuga, 39, 123 

YAM, 93 



THE END 



5/iS 



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