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Full text of "Cocoa and chocolate : their history from plantation to consumer"

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COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



COCOA AND 
CHOCOLATE 

Thar History 
from Plantation to Consumer 

By 

ARTHUR W. KNAPP 

B.Sc (B'ham.), F.I.C., B.Sc (Lond.) 

Member of the Society of Public Analysts; Member of the Society 

of Chemical Industry ; Fellow of the Institute of Hygiene. 

Research Chemist to Messrs. Cadbury Bros., Ltd. 




LONDON 

CHAPMAN AND HALL, Ltd. 

1920 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/cocoachocolatethOOknapuoft 



PREFACE 

ALTHOUGH there are several excellent scien- 
tific works dealing in a detailed manner with 
the cacao bean and its products from the various 
view points of the technician, there is no comprehen- 
sive modern work written for the general reader. Until 
that appears, I offer this little book, which attempts to 
cover lightly but accurately the whole ground, includ- 
ing the history of cacao, its cultivation and manufacture. 
This is a small book in which to treat of so large a 
subject, and to avoid prolixity I have had to generalise. 
This is a dangerous practice, for what is gained in 
brevity is too often lost in accuracy : brevity may be 
always the soul of wit, it is rarely the body of truth. 
The expert will find that I have considered him in that 
I have given attention to recent developments, and if 
I have talked of the methods peculiar to one place as 
though they applied to the whole world, I ask him to 
consider me by supplying the inevitable variations and 
exceptions himself. 

The book, though short, has taken me a long time to 
write, having been written in the brief breathing spaces 
of a busy life, and it would never have been completed 
but for the encouragement I received from Messrs. 
Cadbury Bros., Ltd., who aided me in every possible 
way. I am particularly indebted to the present Lord 
Mayor of Birmingham, Mr. W. A. Cadbury, for advice 
and criticism, and to Mr. Walter Barrow for reading 
the proofs. The members of the staff to whom I am 
indebted are Mr. W. Pickard, Mr. E. J. Organ, Mr. 
T. B. Rogers ; also Mr. A. Hackett, for whom the 
diagrams in the manufacturing section were originally 
made by Mr. J. W. Richards. I am grateful to Messrs. 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

J. S. Fry and Sons, Limited, for information and 
photographs. In one or two cases I do not know whom 
to thank for the photographs, which have been culled 
from many sources. I have much pleasure in thanking 
the following : Mr. R. Whymper for a large number of 
Trinidad photos ; the Director of the Imperial In- 
stitute and Mr. John Murray for permission to use 
three illustrations from the Imperial Institute series 
of handbooks to the Commercial Resources of the 
Tropics ; M. Ed. Leplae, Director-General of Agri- 
culture, Belgium, for several photos, the blocks of 
which were kindly supplied by Mr. H. Hamel Smith, 
of Tropical Life ; Messrs. Macmillan and Co. for five 
reproductions from C. J. J. van Hall's book on Cocoa ; 
and West Africa for four illustrations of the Gold 
Coast. 

The photographs reproduced on pages 2, 23, 39, 
47, 49 and 71 are by Jacobson of Trinidad, on pages 
85 and 86 by Underwood & Underwood of London, 
and on page 41 by Mrs. Stanhope Lovell of Trinidad. 

The industry with which this book deals is changing 
slowly from an art to a science. It is in a transition 
period (it is one of the humours of any live industry 
that it is always in a transition period). There are 
many indications of scientific progress in cacao cul- 
tivation ; and now that, in addition to the experimental 
and research departments attached to the principal 
firms, a Research Association has been formed for the 
cocoa and chocolate industry, the increased amount of 
diffused scientific knowledge of cocoa and chocolate 
manufacture should give rise to interesting develop- 
ments. 

A. W. Knapp. 

Birmingham, 

February, 1920. 



VI 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PREFACE 

INTRODUCTION i 

CHAPTER I 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE— A SKETCH OF THEIR 
HISTORY 5 

CHAPTER II 

CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION . . . . .17 

CHAPTER III 

HARVESTING AND PREPARATION FOR THE MARKET 45 

With a dialogue on " The Kind of Cacao the Manufac- 
turers Like." 

CHAPTER IV 

CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 81 

With notes on the chief producing areas, cacao markets, 
and the planter's life 

CHAPTER V 

THE MANUFACTURE OF COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 119 

CHAPTER VI 
v THE MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE . . .139 

vii 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

CHAPTER VII 
BY-PRODUCTS OF THE COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

INDUSTRY . ■ 157 

(a) Cacao Butter, (b) Cacao Shell 

CHAPTER VIII 

THE COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF COCOA 
AND CHOCOLATE 165 

(including Milk Chocolate) 

CHAPTER IX 

ADULTERATION, AND THE NEED FOR DEFINI- 
TIONS 179 

CHAPTER X 
THE CONSUMPTION OF CACAO 183 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 191 

A List of the Important Books on Cocoa and Chocolate 
from the earliest times to the present day 

INDEX 205 



Vlll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Cacao Pods ..... . . 2 

Old Drawing of an American Indian, with Choco- 
late Whisk, etc. ..... 6 

Native American Indians Roasting the Beans, etc. 9 
Ancient Mexican Drinking Cups : . .16 

Cacao Tree, with Pods and Leaves . . 19 

Cacao Tree, shewing Pods Growing from Trunk 20 
Flowers and Fruits on main branches of a Cacao 

Tree ........ 21 

Cacao Pods . . . . . . 23 

Cut Pod, revealing the White Pulp round the 

Beans ........ 24 

Cacao Pods, shewing Beans inside ... 25 

Drawing of Typical Pods illustrating varieties 27 
Tropical Forest, Trinidad . . . . .'29 

Characteristic Root System of the Cacao Tree . 31 
Nursery with the Young Cacao Plants in Baskets, 

Java -33 

Planting Cacao from Young Seedlings in Bam- 
boo Pots, Trinidad ..... 34 

Cacao in its Fourth Year . . . . -35 

Copy of an Old Engraving shewing the Cacao 

Tree, and a tree shading it • • • 37 

Cacao Trees shaded by Kapok, Java ... 38 

Cacao Trees shaded by Bois Immortel, Trinidad 39 

Cacao Tree with Suckers . . • • 4 1 

Cutlassing ........ 43 

Common Types of Cacao Pickers ... 46 

Gathering Cacao Pods, Trinidad • • • 47 

Collecting Cacao Pods into a Heap . . 49 

Men Breaking Pods, etc. . . . • ■ 5 1 

Sweating Boxes, Trinidad . . . • 53 

ix 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Fermenting Boxes, Java ..... 54 
Charging Cacao on to Trucks in the Plantation, 

San Thome ....... 56 

Cacao in the Fermenting Trucks, San Thome . 58 

Tray-barrow for Drying Small Quantities . 63 
Spreading the Cacao Beans on mats to dry, Ceylon 64 

Drying Trays, Grenada ..... 65 

" Hamel Smith " Rotary Dryer .... 67 

Drying Platforms with Sliding Roofs, Trinidad 68 

Cacao Drying Platforms, San Thome ... 69 

Washing the Beans, Ceylon .... 70 

Claying Cacao Beans, Trinidad . . . 71 

Sorting Cacao Beans, Java ..... 73 

Diagram : World's Cacao Production ... 80 
MAP of the World, with only Cacao-Producing 

Areas marked ...... 83 

Raking Cacao Beans on the Driers, Ecuador . 8=5 

Gathering Cacao Pods, Ecuador .... 85 

Sorting Cacao for Shipment, Ecuador . . 86 

MAP of South America and the West Indies . 89 

Workers on a Cacao Plantation .... 90 

MAP of Africa, with only Cacao-Producing Areas 

marked ....... 92 

Foreshore at Accra, with Stacks of Cacao ready 

for Shipment ...... 93 

Carriers conveying Bags of Cacao to Surf Boats, 

Accra . . . . . . . -9? 

Crossing the River, Gold Coast . . . -97 

Drying Cacao Beans, Gold Coast ... 98 

Shooting Cacao from the Road to the Beach, Accra 99 

Rolling Cacao, Gold Coast ..... 100 

Rolling Cacao, Gold Coast ..... 101 

Carrying Cacao to the Railway Station, Gold Coast 102 
Wagon Loads of Cacao being taken from Depot 

to the Beach, Accra . . . . .103 
The Buildings of the Boa Entrada Cacao Estate, 

San Thome ....... 104 



x 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Drying Cacao, San Thome . . . -105 

Barrel Rolling, Gold Coast . . . .106 

Bagging Cacao, Gold Coast . . . .107 

Surf Boats by the Side of the Ocean Liner, Accra 108 
Bagging Cacao Beans for Shipment, Trinidad no 
Transferring Bags of Cacao to Lighters, Trinidad no 
Diagram showing Variation in Price of Cacao 

Beans, 1913-1919 
Group of Workers on Cacao Estate 
Carting Cacao to Railway Station, Ceylon 
The Carenage, Grenada 
Early Factory Methods 
Women Grinding Chocolate 
Cacao Bean Warehouse 
Cacao Bean Sorting and Cleaning Machine 
Diagram of Cacao Bean Cleaning Machine 
Section through Gas Heated Cacao Roaster 
Roasting Cacao Beans .... 

Cacao Bean, Shell and Germ 
Section through Kibbling Cones and Germ 

Screens ..... 
Section through Winnowing Machine 
Cacao Grinding ..... 
Section through Grinding Stones 
A Cacao Press ..... 
Section through Cacao Press-pot and Ram-plate 
Chocolate Melangeur .... 
Plan of Chocolate Melangeur 
Chocolate Refining Machine 
Grinding Cacao Nib and Sugar '. 
Section through Chocolate Grinding Rolls 
" Conche " Machines 
Section through " Conche " Machine . 
Machines for Mixing or " Conching " Chocolate 
Chocolate Shaking Table . 
Girls Covering or Dipping Cremes, etc. 
The Enrober ..... 



13 

15 
18 

18 

20 

21 

23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
29 

3i 
32 
33 
35 
36 
37 
4 1 

4 1 
42 

43 
45 

47 
47 
48 
49 



b 



52 



XI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

A Confectionery Room . . . . . 153 
Factory at which Milk is Evaporated for Milk 

Chocolate Manufacture . . . 155 

Cocoa and Chocolate Despatch Deck . . .167 
Boxing Chocolates . . . . . 173 

Packing Chocolates ...... 177 

Factory at which Milk is Evaporated for Milk 

Chocolate Manufacture . . . .181 
Cacao Pods, Leaves and Flowers . . .187 



xn 



INTRODUCTION 

IN a few short chapters I propose to give a plain 
account of the production of cocoa and chocolate. 
I assume that the reader is not a specialist and 
knows little or nothing of the subject, and hence both 
the style of writing and the treatment of the subject 
will be simple. At the same time, I assume that the 
reader desires a full and accurate account, and not a 
vague story in which the difficulties are ignored. I hope 
that, as a result of this method of dealing with my sub- 
ject, even experts will find much in the book that is of 
interest and value. After a brief survey of the history 
of cocoa and chocolate, I shall begin with the growing 
of the cacao bean, and follow the cacao in its career 
until it becomes the finished product ready for con- 
sumption. 

Cacao or Cocoa ? 

The reader will have noted above the spelling 
" cacao," and to those who think it curious, I would 
say that I do not use this spelling from pedantry. It is 
an imitation of the word which the Mexicans used for 
this commodity as early as 1500, and when spoken by 
Europeans is apt to sound like the howl of a dog. The 
Mexicans called the tree from which cacao is obtained 
cacauatl. When the great Swedish scientist Linnaeus, 
the father of botany, was naming and classifying (about 
1735) the trees and plants known in his time, he christ- 
ened it Theobroma Cacao, by which name it is called 
by botanists to this day. Theo-broma is Greek for 
" Food of the Gods." Why Linnaeus paid this ex- 
traordinary compliment to cacao is obscure, but it 
has been suggested that he was inordinatelv fond of 



2 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

the beverage prepared from it — the cup which both 
cheers and satisfies. It will be seen from the above that 
the species-name is cacao, and one can understand 




Cacao Pods 

(Amelonado type) in various states 
of growth and ripeness. 

that Englishmen, finding it difficult to get their in- 
sular lips round this outlandish word, lazily called it 
cocoa. 

In this book I shall use the words cacao, cocoa, and 
chocolate as follows : 

Cacao, when I refer to the cacao tree, the cacao pod, 
or the cacao bean or seed. By the single word, cacao, I 
imply the raw product, cacao beans, in bulk. 

Cocoa, when I refer to the powder manufactured 
from the roasted bean by pressing out part of the 
butter. The word is too well established to be changed, 



INTRODUCTION 3 

even if one wished it. As we shall see later (in the 
chapter on adulteration) it has come legally to have a 
very definite significance. If this method of distin- 
guishing between cacao and cocoa were the accepted 
practice, the perturbation which occurred in the public 
mind during the war (in 19 16), as to whether manu- 
facturers were exporting " cocoa " to neutral coun- 
tries, would not have arisen. It should have been spelled 
" cacao," for the statements referred to the raw beans 
and not to the manufactured beverage. Had this been 
done, it would have been unnecessary for the manu- 
facturers to point out that cocoa powder was not being 
so exported, and that they naturally did not sell the 
raw cacao bean. 

Chocolate. — This word is given a somewhat wider 
meaning. It signifies any preparation of roasted cacao 
beans without abstraction of butter. It practically 
always contains sugar and added cacao butter, and is 
generally prepared in moulded form. It is used either 
for eating or drinking. 

Cacao Beans and Coconuts. 

In old manuscripts the word cacao is spelled in all 
manner of ways, but cocoa survived them all. This 
curious inversion, cocoa, is to be regretted, for it has 
led to a confusion which could not otherwise have 
arisen. But for this spelling no one would have dreamed 
of confusing the totally unrelated bodies, cacao and the 
milky coconut. (You note that I spell it " coconut," 
not " cocoanut," for the name is derived from the 
Spanish " coco," " grinning face," or bugbear for 
frightening children, and was given to the nut because 
the three scars at the broad end of the nut resemble a 
grotesque face). To make confusion worse confounded 
the old writers referred to cacao seeds as cocoa nuts (as 
for example, in The Humble Memorial of Joseph Fry, 
quoted in the chapter on history), but, as in appearance 
cacao seeds resemble beans, they are now usually 



4 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

spoken of as beans. The distinction between cacao 
and the coconut may be summarised thus : 





Cacao. 


Coconut. 


Botanical Name 


Theobroma Cacao 
Tree 


Cocos nucifera 
Palm 


Fruit 


Cacao pod, containing 
many seeds (cacao 
beans) 


Coconut, which with 
outer fibre is as 
large as a man's 
head 


Products 


Cocoa 
Chocolate 


Broken coconut(copra) 
Coconut matting 


Fatty Constituent 


Cacao butter 


Coconut oil 



CHAPTER I 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE— A SKETCH OF 
THEIR HISTORY 

Did time and space allow, there is much to be told on 
the romantic side of chocolate, of its divine origin, of the 
bloody wars and brave exploits of the Spaniards who con- 
quered Mexico and were the first to introduce cacao into 
Europe, tales almost too thrilling to be believed, of the 
intrigues of the Spanish Court, and of celebrities who met 
and sipped their chocolate in the parlours of the coffee and 
chocolate houses so fashionable in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. 

Cocoa and Chocolate (Whymper). 

ON opening a cacao pod, it is seen to be full of 
beans surrounded by a fruity pulp, and whilst 
the pulp is very pleasant to taste, the beans 
themselves are uninviting, so that doubtless the beans 
were always thrown away until .... someone tried 
roasting them. One pictures this " someone," a pre- 
historic Aztec with swart skin, sniffing the aromatic 
fume coming from the roasting beans, and thinking 
that beans which smelled so appetising must be good 
to consume. The name of the man who discovered the 
use of cacao must be written in some early chapter of 
the history of man, but it is blurred and unreadable : 
all we know is that he was an inhabitant of the New 
World and probably of Central America. 

Original Home of Cacao. 

The corner of the earth where the cacao tree origin- 
ally grew, and still grows wild to-day, is the country 



6 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

watered by the mighty Amazon and the Orinoco. This 
is the very region in which Orellano, the Spanish 
adventurer, said that he had truly seen El Dorado, 
which he described as a City of Gold, roofed with gold, 
and standing by a lake with golden sands. In reality, 
El Dorado was nothing but a vision, a vision that for 
a hundred years fascinated all manner of dreamers and 
adventurers from Sir Walter Raleigh downwards, so 
that many braved great hardships in search of it, 
groped through the forests where the cacao tree grew, 




Old Drawing of an American Indian; at his feet 

a Chocolate-Cup, Chocolate-Pot, and Chocolate 

Whisk or " Molinet." 



(From Traitez Nouveaux et Curieux du Cafe", du The 1 , et 
du Chocolate. Dufour, 1693). 



A SKETCH OF THEIR HISTORY 7 

and returned to Europe feeling they had failed. To 
our eyes they were not entirely unsuccessful, for whilst 
they failed to find a city of gold, they discovered the 
home of the golden pod. 

Montezuma — the First Great Patron of Chocolate. 

When Columbus discovered the New World he 
brought back with him to Europe many new and 
curious things, one of which was cacao. Some years 
later, in I5i9,the Spanish conquistador, Cortes, landed 
in Mexico, marched into the interior and discovered 
to his surprise, not the huts of savages, but a beautiful 
city, with palaces and museums. This city was the 
capital of the Aztecs, a remarkable people, notable 
alike for their ancient civilisation and their wealth. 
Their national drink was chocolate, and Montezuma, 
their Emperor, who lived in a state of luxurious mag- 
nificence, " took no other beverage than the chocolatl, 
a potation of chocolate, flavoured with vanilla and 
other spices, and so prepared as to be reduced to a 
froth of the consistency of honey, which gradually 
dissolved in the mouth and was taken cold. This 
beverage if so it could be called, was served in golden 
goblets, with spoons of the same metal or tortoise-shell 
finely wrought. The Emperor was exceedingly fond of 
it, to judge from the quantity — no less than fifty jars 
or pitchers being prepared for his own daily con- 
sumption : two thousand more were allowed for that 
of his household."* It is curious that Montezuma took 
no other beverage than chocolate, especially if it be 
true that the Aztecs also invented that fascinating 
drink, the cocktail (xoc-tl). How long this ancient 
people, students of the mysteries of culinary science, 
had known the art of preparing a drink from cacao, is 
not known, but it is evident that the cultivation of 
cacao received great attention in these parts, for if we 



* Prescott's Conquest of Mexico. 



8 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

read down the list of the tributes paid by different 
cities to the Lords of Mexico, we find " 20 chests of 
ground chocolate, 20 bags of gold dust," again " 80 
loads of red chocolate, 20 lip-jewels of clear amber," 
and yet again " 200 loads of chocolate." 

Another people that share with the Aztecs the honour 
of being the first great cultivators of cacao are the 
Incas of Peru, that wonderful nation that knew not 
poverty. 

The Fascination of Chocolate. 

That chocolate charmed the ladies of Mexico in 
the seventeenth century (even as it charms the ladies 
of England to-day) is shown by a story which Gage 
relates in his New Survey of the West Indias (1648). 
He tells us that at Chiapa, southward from Mexico, 
the women used to interrupt both sermon and mass 
by having their maids bring them a cup of hot choco- 
late ; and when the Bishop, after fair warning, ex- 
communicated them for this presumption, thev 
changed their church. The Bishop, he adds, was poisoned 
for his pains. 

Cacao Beans as Money. 

Cacao was used by the Aztecs not only for the pre- 
paration of a beverage, but also as a circulating medium 
of exchange. For example, one could purchase a 
" tolerably good slave " for 100 beans. We read that : 
" Their currency consisted of transparent quills of 
gold dust, of bits of tin cut in the form of a T, and of 
bags of cacao containing a specified number of grains." 
' Blessed money," exclaims Peter Martyr, " which 
exempts its possessor from avarice, since it cannot be 
long hoarded, nor hidden underground ! ' : 

Derivation of Chocolate. 

The word was derived from the Mexican chocolatl. 
The Mexicans used to froth their chocolatl with curious 
whisks made specially for the purpose (see page 6). 



A SKETCH OF THEIR HISTORY 




io COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Thomas Gage suggests that choco, choco, choco is a 
vocal representation of the sound made by stirring 
chocolate. The suffix all means water. According to 
Mr. W. J. Gordon, we owe the name of chocolate to a 
misprint. He states that Joseph Acosta, who wrote as 
early as 1604 of chocolatl, was made by the printer to 
write chocolate, from which the English eliminated 
the accent, and the French the final letter. 

First Cacao in Europe. 

The Spanish discoverers of the New World brought 
home to Spain quantities of cacao, which the curious 
tasted. We may conclude that they drank the prepar- 
ation cold, as Montezuma did, hot chocolate being a 
later invention. The new drink, eagerly sought by 
some, did not meet with universal approval, and, as 
was natural, the most diverse opinions existed as to 
the pleasantness and wholesomeness of the beverage 
when it was first known. Thus Joseph Acosta (1604) 
wrote : " The chief use of this cocoa is in a drincke 
which they call Chocholate, whereof they make great 
account, foolishly and without reason ; for it is loath- 
some to such as are not acquainted with it, having a 
skumme or frothe that is very unpleasant to taste, if 
they be not well conceited thereof. Yet it is a drincke 
very much esteemed among the Indians, whereof they 
feast noble men as they passe through their country. 
The Spaniards, both men and women, that are accus- 
tomed to the country are very greedy of this chocholate." 
It is not impossible that the English, with the defeat 
of the Armada fresh in memory, were at first con- 
temptuous of this " Spanish " drink. Certain it is, 
that when British sea-rovers like Drake and Frobisher, 
captured Spanish galleons on the high seas, and on 
searching their holds for treasure, found bags of cacao, 
they flung them overboard in scorn. In considering 
this scorn of cacao, shown alike by British buccaneers 
and Dutch corsairs, together with the critical air of 
Joseph Acosta, we should remember that the original 



A SKETCH OF THEIR HISTORY n 

chocolatl of the Mexicans consisted of a mixture of 
maize and cacao with hot spices like chillies, and con- 
tained no sugar. In this condition few inhabitants of 
the temperate zone could relish it. It however only 
needed one thing, the addition of sugar, and the in- 
troduction of this marked the beginning of its European 
popularity. The Spaniards were the first to manufac- 
ture and drink chocolate in any quantity. To this day 
they serve it in the old style — thick as porridge and 
pungent with spices. They endeavoured to keep secret 
the method of preparation, and, without success, to 
retain the manufacture as a monopoly. Chocolate was 
introduced into Italy by Carletti, who praised it and 
spread the method of its manufacture abroad. The 
new drink was introduced by monks from Spain into 
Germany and France, and when in 1660 Maria Theresa, 
Infanta of Spain, married Louis XIV, she made choco- 
late well known at the Court of France. She it was of 
whom a French historian wrote that Maria Theresa 
had only two passions — the king and chocolate. 

Chocolate was advocated by the learned physicians 
of those times as a cure for many diseases, and it was 
stated that Cardinal Richelieu had been cured of 
general atrophy by its use. 

From France the use of chocolate spread into 
England, where it began to be drunk as a luxury by 
the aristocracy about the time of the Commonwealth. 
It must have made some progress in public favour by 
1673, for in that year " a Lover of his Country " wrote 
in the Harleian Miscellany demanding its prohibition 
(along with brandy, rum, and tea) on the ground that 
this imported article did no good and hindered the 
consumption of English-grown barley and wheat. 
New things appeal to the imaginative, and the absence 
of authentic knowledge concerning them allows free 
play to the imagination — so it happened that in the 
early days, whilst many writers vied with one another 
in writing glowing panegyrics on cacao, a few 
thought it an evil thing. Thus, whilst it was praised 



12 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

by many for its " wonderful faculty of quenching 
thirst, allaying hectic heats, of nourishing and fatten- 
ing the body," it was seriously condemned by others 
as an inflamer of the passions ! 

Chocolate Houses and Clubs. 

" The drinking here of chocolate 
Can make a fool a sophie." 

In the spacious days of Queen Elizabeth, tea, coffee, 
and chocolate were unknown save to travellers and 
savants, and the handmaidens of the good queen drank 
beer with their breakfast. When Shakespeare and Ben 
Jonson forgathered at the Mermaid Tavern, their 
winged words passed over tankards of ale, but later 
other drinks became the usual accompaniment of news, 
story, and discussion. In the sixteen-sixties there were 
no strident newspapers to destroy one's equanimity, 
and the gossip of the day began to be circulated and 
discussed over cups of tea, coffee, or chocolate. The 
humorists, ever stirred by novelty, tilted, pen in 
hand, at these new drinks : thus one rhymster de- 
scribed coffee as 

" Syrrop of soot or essence of old shoes." 

The first coffee-house in London was started in St. 
Michael's Alley, Cornhill, in 1652 (when coffee was 
seven shillings a pound) ; the first tea-house was 
opened in Exchange Alley in 1657 (when tea was five 
sovereigns a pound), and in the same year (with choco- 
late about ten to fifteen shillings per pound) a French- 
man opened the first chocolate-house in Queen's Head 
Alley, Bishopsgate Street. The rising popularity of 
chocolate led to the starting of more of these chocolate 
houses, at which one could sit and sip chocolate, or 
purchase the commodity for preparation at home. 
Pepys' entry in his diary for 24th November, 1664, 
contains : " To a coffee house to drink jocolatte, very 
good." It is an artless entry, and yet one can almost 
hear him smacking his lips. Silbermann says that 



A SKETCH OF THEIR HISTORY 13 

" After the Restoration there were shops in London 
for the sale of chocolate at ten shillings or fifteen shill- 
ings per pound. Ozinda's chocolate house was full of 
aristocratic consumers. Comedies, satirical essays, 
memoirs and private letters of that age frequently 
mention it. The habit of using chocolate was deemed 
a token of elegant and fashionable taste, and while the 
charms of this beverage in the reigns of Queen Anne 
and George I. were so highly esteemed by courtiers, 
by lords and ladies and fine gentlemen in the polite 
world, the learned physicians extolled its medicinal 
virtues." From the coffee house and its more aristo- 
cratic relative the chocolate house, there developed a 
new feature in English social life — the Club. As the 
years passed the Chocolate House remained a rendez- 
vous, but the character of its habitues changed from 
time to time. Thus one, famous in the days of Queen 
Anne, and well known by its sign of the " Cocoa Tree," 
was at first the headquarters of the Jacobite party, and 
the resort of Tories of the strictest school. It became 
later a noted gambling house (" The gamesters shook 
their elbows in White's and the chocolate houses round 
Covent Garden," National Review, 1878), and ulti- 
mately developed into a literary club, including amongst 
its members Gibbon, the historian, and Byron, the 
poet. 

Tax on Cacao. 

The growing consumption of chocolate did not 
escape the all-seeing eye of the Chancellors of England. 
As early as 1660 we find amongst various custom and 
excise duties granted to Charles II : 

" For every gallon of chocolate, sherbet, and tea 
made and sold, to be paid by the maker thereof 

8d." 

Later the raw material was also made a source of 
revenue. In The Humble Memorial of Joseph Fry, of 
Bristol, Maker of Chocolate, which was addressed to 
the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury in 1776 



14 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

(Messrs. Fry and Sons are the oldest English firm of 
chocolate makers, having been founded in 1728), we 
read that " Chocolate . . . pays two shillings and 
threepence per pound excise, besides about ten shill- 
ings per hundredweight on the Cocoa Nuts from which 
it is made." 

In 1784 a preferential customs rate was proposed in 
favour of our Colonies. This they enjoyed for many 
years before 1853, when the uniform rate, until re- 
cently in force, was introduced. This restrictive tariff 
on foreign growths rose in 1803 to 5s. iod. per pound, 
against is. iod. on cacao grown in British possessions. 
From this date it gradually diminished. High duties 
hampered for many years the sale of cocoa, tea and 
coffee, but in recent times these duties have been 
brought down to more reasonable figures. For many 
years before 19 15 the import duty was id. per pound 
on the raw cacao beans, id. per pound on cacao butter, 
and 2s. a hundredweight (less than a farthing a pound) 
on cacao shells or husks. In the Budget of September, 
1 91 5, the above duties were increased by fifty per 
cent. A further and greater increase was made in the 
Budget of April, 191 6, when cacao was made to pay a 
higher tax in Britain than in any other country in the 
world. In 1919 Imperial preference was introduced 
after a break of over sixty years, the duty on cocoa 
from foreign countries being fd. a pound more than 
that from British Possessions. 

Duty on Cacao. 

^SS^^S WS I 9 I 6. i9 J 9- 

Cacao beans per lb. id. i~ld. 6d. 4-Jd. foreign, 3|d. British 

Cacao butter per lb. id. i|d. 6d. 4 1 d. foreign, 3fd. British 

Cacao shells per cwt. 2s. 3s. 12s. 6s. foreign, 5s. British 

In considering this duty and its effect on the price of 
the finished article, it should be remembered that 
there are substantial losses in manufacture. Thus the 
beans are cleaned, which removes up to 0.5 per cent.; 



A SKETCH OF THEIR HISTORY 15 

roasted, which causes a loss by volatilisation of 7 per 
cent. ; and shelled, the husks being about 12 per cent. 
Therefore, the actual yield of usable nib, which has 
to bear the whole duty, is about 80 per cent. It may be 
well to add that the yield of cocoa powder is 48 per 
cent, of the raw beans, or roughly, one pound of the 
raw product yields half a pound of the finished article. 

Introduction of Cocoa Pozvder. 

The drink " cocoa " as we know it to-day was not 
introduced until 1828. Before this time the ground 
bean, mixed with sugar, was sold in cakes. The bever- 
age prepared from these chocolate cakes was very rich 
in butter, and whilst the British Navy has always con- 
sumed it in this condition (the sailors generally re- 
move with a spoon the excess of butter which floats to 
the top) it is a little heavy for less hardy digestions. 
Van Houten (of the well-known Dutch house of that 
name) in 1828 invented a method of pressing out part 
of the butter, and thus obtained a lighter, more appetis- 
ing, and more easily assimilated preparation. As the 
butter is useful in chocolate manufacture, this process 
enabled the manufacturer to produce a less costly 
cocoa powder, and thus the circle of consumers was 
widened. Messrs. Cadbury Bros., of Birmingham, first 
sold their " cocoa essence " in 1866, and Messrs. Fry 
and Sons, of Bristol, introduced a pure cocoa by press- 
ing out part of the butter in 1868. 

Growing Popularity of Cacao Preparations. 

The incidence of import duties did not prevent the 
continuous increase in the amount of cacao consumed 
in the British Isles. When Queen Victoria came to the 
throne the cacao cleared for home consumption was 
about four or five thousand tons, more than half of 
which was consumed by the Navy. At the time of 
Queen Victoria's death it had increased to four times 
this amount, and by 191 5 it had reached nearly fifty 



1 6 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

thousand tons. (For statistics of consumption, see 

P . i8 3 ). 



This brief sketch of the history of cacao owes much 
to " Cocoa — all about it," by Historicus (the pseu- 
donym of the late Richard Cadbury). This work is out 
of print, but those who are fortunate enough to be 
able to consult it will find therein much that is curious 
and discursive. 



Ancient Mexican Drinking Cups 
(British Museum) 



I? 



CHAPTER II 

CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 

O tree, upraised in far-off Mexico ! 

" Ode to the Chocolate Tree," 1664. 

HOW seldom do we think, when we drink a cup 
of cocoa or eat some morsels of chocolate, that 
our liking for these delicacies has set minds 
and bodies at work all the world over i'Many types of 
humanity have contributed to their production. Picture 
in the mind's eye the graceful coolie in the sun-satur- 
ated tropics, moving in the shade, cutting the pods 
from the cacao tree ; the deep-chested sailor helping 
to load from lighters or surf-boats the precious bags of 
cacao into the hold of the ocean liner ; the skilful work- 
man roasting the beans until they fill the room with a 
fine aroma ; and the girl with dexterous fingers pack- 
ing the cocoa or fashioning the chocolate in curious 
and delicate forms. To the black and brown races, the 
negroes and the East Indians, we owe a debt for their 
work on tropical plantations, for the harder manual 
work would be too arduous for Europeans unused to 
the heat of those regions. 

Climate Necessary. 

Cacao can only grow at tropical temperatures, and 
when shielded from the wind and unimpaired by 
drought. Enthusiasts, as a hobby, have grown the tree 
under glass in England ; it requires a warmer tem- 
perature than either tea or coffee, and only after in- 
finite care can one succeed in getting the tree to flower 





1 8 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

and bear fruit. The mean temperature in the coun- 
tries in which it thrives is about 80 degrees F. in the 
shade, and the average of the maximum temperatures 
is seldom more than 90 degrees F., or the average of 
the minimum temperatures less than 70 degrees F. The 
rainfall can be as low as 45 inches per annum, as in the 
Gold Coast, or as high as' 150 in ches, as in Java, pro- 
vided the fall is uniformly distributed. The ideal spot 
is the secluded vale, and whilst in Venezuela there are 
plantations up to 2000 feet above sea level, cacao can- 
not generally be profitably cultivated above 1000 feet. 

Factors of Geographical Distribution. 

Climate, soil, and manures determine the possible 
region of cultivation — the extent to which the area is 
utilised depends on the enterprise of man. The original 
home of cacao was the rich tropical region, far-famed 
in Elizabethan days, that lies between the Amazon 
and the Orinoco, and but for the enterprise of man it 
is doubtful if it would have ever spread from this region. 
-Monkeys often carry the beans many miles — man, the 
master-monkey, has carried them round the world. 
First the Indians spread cacao over the tropical belt 
■of the American continent and cultivated it as far 
North as Mexico. Then came the Spanish explorers 
of the New World, who carried it from the mainland 
to the adjacent West Indian islands. Cacao was planted 
by them in Trinidad as early as 1525. Since that date 
it has been successfully introduced into many a tropical 
island. It was an important day in the history of Ceylon 
when Sir R. Horton, in 1834, had cacao plants brought 
to that island from Trinidad. The carefully packed 
plants survived the ordeal of a voyage of ten thousand 
miles. The most recent introduction is, however, the 
most striking. About 1880 a native of the Gold Coast 
obtained some beans, probably from Fernando Po. 
In 1 891, the first bag of cacao was exported ; it weighed 
80 pounds. In 191 5, 24 years later, the export from the 
Gold Coast was 120 million pounds. 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



*9 




Cacao Tree, with Pods and Leaves 



The Cacao Tree. 

Tropical vegetation appears so bizarre to the visitor 
from temperate climes that in such surroundings the 
cacao tree seems almost commonplace. It is in appearance 
as moderate and unpretentious as an apple tree, though 



20 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



somewhat taller, being, when full grown, about twenty 
feet high. It begins to bear in its fourth or fifth year 
Smooth in its early youth, as it gets older it becomes 
covered with little bosses (cushions) from which many 
flowers spring. I saw one fellow, very tall and gnarled „ 
and with many pods on it ; turning to the planter I 
enquired " How old is that tree ? " He replied, almost 







• - f 

1 


* 


• •'■•■"Itiii. ■*-»-»■ | 





Cacao Tree, showing Pods Growing 
from Trunk. 



reverentially : " It's a good deal older than I am ; 
must be at least fifty years old." " It's one of the tallest 

cacao trees I've seen. I wonder ." The planter 

perceived my thought, and said \- " I'll have it meas- 
ured for you." It was forty feet high. That was a tall 
one ; usually they are not more than half that height. 
The bark is reddish-grey, and may be partly hidden 
by brown, grey and green patches of lichen. The bark 
is both beautiful and quaint, but in the main the tree 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



21 



owes its beauty to its luxuriance of prosperous leaves, 
and its quaintness to its pods. 




Flowers and Fruits on main branches of a Cacao Tree 

(Reproduced from van Hall's Cocoa, by permission of Messrs. Macmillan & (. o. 

The Flozcers, Leaves and Fruit. 

Although cacao trees are not unlike the fruit trees 
of England, there are differences which, when first one 
sees them, cause expressions of surprise and pleasure 



22 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

to leap to the lips. One sees what one never saw before, 
the fruit springing from the main trunk, quite close to 
the ground. An old writer has explained that this is due 
to a wise providence, because the pod is so heavy that 
if it hung from the end of the branches it would fall off 
before it reached maturity. The old writer talks of 
providence ; a modern writer would see in the same 
facts a simple example of evolution. On the same cacao 
tree every day of the year may be found flowers, young 
podkins and mature pods side by side. I say " found >: 
advisedly — at the first glance one does not see the 
flowers because they are so dainty and so small. The 
buds are the size of rice grains, and the flowers are not 
more than half an inch across when the petals are fully 
out. The flowers are pink or yellow, of wax-like appear- 
ance, and have no odour. They were commonly stated 
to be pollinated by thrips and other insects. Dr. von 
Faber of Java has recently shown that whilst self- 
pollination is the rule, cross fertilisation occurs between 
the flowers on adjacent or interlocking trees. These 
graceful flowers are so small that one can walk through 
a plantation without observing them, although an 
average tree will produce six thousand blossoms in a 
year. Not more than one per cent, of these will become 
fruit. Usually it takes six months for the bud to develop 
into the mature fruit. The lovely mosses that grow on the 
stems and branches are sometimes so thick that they 
have to be destroyed, or the fragile cacao flower could 
not push its way through. Whilst the flowers are small, 
the leaves are large, being as an average about a foot in 
length and four inches in breadth. The cacao tree never 
appears naked, save on the rare occasions when it is 
stripped by the wind, and the leaves are green all the 
year round, save when they are red, if the reader 
will pardon an Hibernianism. And indeed there is 
something contrary in the crimson tint, for whilst 
we usually associate this with old leaves about to fall, 
with the cacao, as with some rose trees, it is the tint of 
the young leaves. 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 23 




Cacao Pods. 



The Cacao Pod. 

The fruit, which hangs on a short thick stalk, may 
be anything in shape from a melon to a stumpy, irregu- 
lar cucumber, according to the botanic variety. The 
intermediate shape is like a lemon, with furrows from 
end to end. There are pods, called Calabacillo, smooth 



2 4 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



and ovate like a calabash, and there are others, more 
rare, so " nobbly " that they are well-named " Alli- 
gator." The pods vary in length from five to eleven 
inches, " with here and there the great pod of all, the 
blood-red sangre-tora." The colours of the pods are 
as brilliant as they are various. They are rich and strong, 




Cut Pod, revealing the White Pulp 
round the beans (ceylon.) 

and resemble those of the rind of the pomegranate. 
One pod shows many shades of dull crimson, another 
grades from gold to the yellow of leather, and yet 
another is all lack-lustre pea-green. They may be 
likened to Chinese lanterns hanging in the woods. One 
does not conclude from the appearance of the pod that 
the contents are edible, any more than one would sur- 
mise that tea-leaves could be used to produce a re- 
freshing drink. I say as much to the planter, who smiles. 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 25 

With one deft cut with his machete or cutlass, which 
hangs in a leather scabbard by his side, the planter 
severs the pod from the tree, and with another slash 
cuts the thick, almost woody rind and breaks open the 
pod. There is disclosed a mass of some thirty or forty 
beans, covered with juicy pulp. The inside of the rind 
and the mass of beans are gleaming white, like melting 
snow. Sometimes the mass is pale amethyst in colour. I 
perceive a pleasant odour resembling melon. Like 




Cacao Pods, shewing Beans inside. 

little Jack Horner, I put in my thumb and pull out a 
snow-white bean. It is slippery to hold, so I put it in 
my mouth. The taste is sweet, something between 
grape and melon. Inside this fruity coating is the bean 
proper. From different pods we take beans and cut 
them in two, and find that the colour of the bean varies 
from purple almost to white. 



Botanical Description. 

Theobroma Cacao belongs to the family of the 
Stercidiaceae , and to the same order as the Limes and 
Mallows. It is described in Strasburger's admirable 
Text-Book of Botany as follows : 



26 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

" Family. Sterculiaceae. 

Important Genera. The most important plant is 
the Cocoa Tree {Theobroma Cacao). It is a low tree 
with short-stalked, firm, brittle, simple leaves of 
large size, oval shape, and dark green colour. The 
young leaves are of a bright red colour, and, as in manv 
tropical trees, hang limply downwards. The flowers 
are borne on the main stem or the older branches, and 
arise from dormant axillary buds (Cauliflory). Each 
petal is bulged up at the base, narrows considerably 
above this, and ends in an expanded tip. The form of 
the reddish flowers is thus somewhat urn-shaped with 
five radiating points. The pentalocular ovary has 
numerous ovules in each loculus. As the fruit develops, 
the soft tissue of the septa extends between the single 
seeds ; the ripe fruit is thus unilocular and many- 
seeded. The seed-coat is filled by the embryo, which 
has two large, folded, brittle cotyledons." 

The last sentence conveys an erroneous impression. 
The two cotyledons, which form the seed, are not 
brittle when found in nature in the pod. They are 
juicy and fleshy. And it is only after the seed has re- 
ceived special treatment (fermentation and drying) to 
obtain the bean of commerce, that it becomes brittle. 



Varieties of Theobroma Cacao. 

As mentioned above, the pods and seeds of Theo- 
broma Cacao trees show a marked variation, and in 
every country the botanist has studied these variations 
and classified the trees according to the shape and 
colour of the pods and seeds. The existence of so many 
classifications has led to a good deal of confusion, and 
we are indebted to Van Hall for the simplest way of 
clearing up these difficulties. He accepts the classi- 
fication first given by Morris, dividing the trees into 
two varieties — Criollo and Forastero : 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



27 



o 

« 

H 

< 

es 
O 








< 
u 

o 



o 
o 
U 




o 
Q 



28 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Extremes of Characteristics . 



Criollo. 


Forastero. 


(Old Red, Caracas, etc.) 


Grading from Cundeamor 
(bottle-necked) to Calahacillo 
(smooth). 


Pod walls. Thin and warty. 


Thick and woody. 


Beans. Large and plump. 
White. 
Sweet. 


Small and flat. 
Heliotrope to purple. 
Astringent. 



The cacao of the criollo variety has pods the walls of 
which are thin and warty, with ten distinct furrows. 
The seeds or beans are white as ivory throughout, 
round and plump, and sweet to taste. The forastero 
variety includes many sub-varieties, the kind most 
distinct from the criollo having pods, the walls of 
which are thick and woody, the surface smooth, the 
furrows indistinct, and the shape globular. The seeds 
in these pods are purple in colour, flat in appearance, 
and bitter to taste. This is a very convenient classi- 
fication. Personally I believe it would be possible to 
find pods varying by almost imperceptible gradations 
from the finest, purest, criollo to the lowest form of 
forastero (namely, calabacillo). The criollo yields the 
finest and rarest kind of cacao, but as sometimes hap- 
pens with refined types in nature, it is a rather delicate 
tree, especially liable to canker and bark diseases, and 
this accounts for the predominance of the forastero in 
the cacao plantations of the world. 

The Cacao Plantation. 

One can spend happy days on a cacao estate. " Are 
you going into the cocoa ? " they ask, just as in England 
we might enquire, " Are you going into the corn ? ' : 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



29 




Tropical Forest, Trinidad. 
This has to be cleared before planting begins. 

Coconut plantations and sugar estates make a strong 
appeal to the imagination, but for peaceful beauty they 
cannot compare with the cacao plantation. True, coco- 
nut plantations are very lovely — the palms are so grace- 
ful, the leaves against" the sky so like a fine etching— 
but " the slender coco's drooping crown of plumes " 
is altogether foreign to English eyes. Sugar estates are 
generally marred by the prosaic factory in the back- 
ground. They are dead level plains, and the giant grass 




30 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

affords no shade from the relentless sun. Whereas the 
leaves of the cacao tree are large and numerous, so that 
even in the heat of the day, it is comparatively cool and 
pleasant under the cacao. 

Cacao plantations present in different countries 
every variety of appearance — from that of a wild forest 
in which the greater portion of the trees are cacao, to 
the tidv and orderly plantation. In some of the Trinidad 
plantations the trees are planted in parallel lines twelve 
feet apart, with a tree every twelve feet along the line ; 
and as you push your way through the plantation the 
apparently irregularly scattered trees are seen to flash 
momentarily into long lines. In other parts of the world, 
for example, in Grenada and Surinam, the ground may 
be kept so tidv and free from weeds that they have the 
appearance of gardens. 

Clearing the Land. 

When the planter has chosen a suitable site, an exer- 
cise requiring skill, the forest has to be cleared. The 
felling of great trees and the clearing of the wild tangle 
of undergrowth is arduous work. It is well to leave the 
trees on the ridges for about sixty feet on either side, 
and thus form a belt of trees to act as as wind screen. 
Cacao trees are as sensitive to a draught as some human 
beings, and these " wind breaks " are often deliberately 
grown — Balata, Poui, Mango (Trinidad), Galba 
(Grenada), Wild Pois Doux (Martinique), and other 
leafy trees being suitable for this purpose. 

Suitable Soil. 

It was for many years believed that if a tree were 
analysed the best soil for its growth could at once be 
inferred and described, as it was assumed that the best 
soil would be one containing the same elements in 
similar proportions. This simple theory ignored the 
characteristic powers of assimilation of the tree in 
question and the " digestibility " of the soil constituents. 
However, it is agreed that soils rich in potash and lime 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 




32 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

(e.g., those obtained by the decomposition of certain 
volcanic rocks) are good for cacao. An open sandy or 
loamy alluvial soil is considered ideal. The physical 
condition of the soil is equally important : heavy clays 
or water-logged soils are bad. The depth of soil required 
depends on its nature. A stiff soil discourages the 
growth of the " tap " root, which in good porous soils 
is generally seven or eight feet long. 

Manure. 

The greater part of the world's cacao is produced 
without the use of artificial manures. The soil, which is 
continually washed down by the rains into the rivers, 
is continually renewed by decomposition of the bed 
rock, and in the tropics this decomposition is more 
rapid than in temperate climes. In Guayaquil, " not- 
withstanding the fact that the same soil has been cropped 
consecutively for over a hundred years, there is as yet 
no sign of decadence, nor does a necessity yet arise for 
artificial manure."* However, manures are useful with 
all soils, and necessary with many. Happy is the planter 
who is so placed that he can obtain a plentiful supply 
of farmyard or pen manure, as this gives excellent 
results. " Mulching " is also recommended. This con- 
sists of covering the ground with decaying leaves, 
grasses, etc., which keep the soil in a moist and open 
condition during the dry season. If artificial manures 
are used they should vary according to the soil, and, 
although he can obtain considerable help from the 
analyst, the planter's most reliable guide will be ex- 
periment on the spot. 

Planting. 

In the past insufficient care has been taken in the 
selection of seed. The planter should choose the large 
plump beans with a pale interior, or he should choose 
the nearest kind to this that is sufficiently hardy to 
thrive in the particular environment. He can plant 

* Bulletin, Botanic Dept., Jamaica, February, 1900. 



34 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



(i) direct from seeds, or (2) from seedlings — plants 
raised in nurseries in bamboo pots, or (3) by grafting 
or budding. It is usual to plant two or three seeds in 
each hole, and destroy the weaker plants when about a 
foot high. The seeds are planted from twelve to fifteen 
feet apart. The distance chosen depends chiefly on the 
richness of the soil ; the richer the soil, the more ample 




Planting Cacao, Trinidad, from Young 
Seedlings in Bamboo Pots. 



room is allowed for the trees to spread without choking 
each other. Interesting results have been obtained by 
Hart and others by grafting the fine but tender criollo 
on to the hardy forastero, but until yesterday the prac- 
tice had not been tried on a large scale. Experiments 
were begun in 191 3 by Mr. W. G. Freeman in Trinidad 
which promise interesting results. By 19 19 the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture had seven acres in grafted and 
budded cacao. In a few years it should be possible to 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



jd 




< 

§ 
< 
r. 

as 

< 



3C 
H 
« 
D 
O 
fa 



o 

< 



36 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

say whether it pays to form an estate of budded cacao 
in preference to using seedlings. 

There are no longer any mystic rites performed 
before planting. In the old days it was the custom to 
solemnize the planting, for example, by sacrificing a 
cacao-coloured dog (see Bancroft's Native Races of the 
Pacific States.) 

Shade : Temporary and Permanent. 

When the seeds are planted, such small plants as 
cassava, chillies, pigeon peas and the like are planted 
with them. The object of planting these is to afford 
the young cacao plant shelter from the sun, and to 
keep the ground in good condition. Incidentally the 
planter obtains cassava (which gives tapioca), red 
peppers, etc., as a " catch crop " whilst he is w r aiting 
for the cacao tree to begin to yield. Bananas and, plan- 
tains are planted with the same object, and these are 
allowed to remain for a longer period. Such is the 
rapidity of plant growth in the tropics that in three or 
four years the cacao tree is taller than a man, and begins 
to bear fruit in its fourth or fifth year. Now it is agreed 
that, as with men, the cacao tree needs protection in its 
youth, but whether it needs shade trees when it is fully 
grown is one of the controverted questions. When the 
planter is sitting after his day's work is done, and no 
fresh topic comes to his mind, he often re-opens the 
discussion on the question of shade. The idea that 
cacao trees need shade is a very ancient one, as is 
shown in a very old drawing (possibly the oldest draw- 
ing of cacao extant) beneath which it is written : "Of 
the tree which bears cacao, which is money, and how 
the Indians obtained fire with two pieces of wood." 
In this drawing you will observe how T lovingly the shade 
tree shelters the cacao. The intention in using shade 
is to imitate the natural forest conditions in which the 
wild cacao grew. Sometimes when clearing the forest 
certain large trees are left standing, but more frequently 
and with better judgment, chosen kinds are planted. 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



37 



Many trees have been used : the saman, bread fruit, 
mango, mammet, sand box, pois doux, rubber, etc. In 
the illustration showing kapok acting as a parasol for 
cacao in Java, we see that the proportion of shade trees 
to cacao is high. Leguminous trees are preferred be- 
cause they conserve the nitrogen in the soil. Hence in 
Trinidad the favourite shade tree is Erythrina or Bois 




Copy of an Old Engraving showing the Cacao Tree, 
and a tree shading it. 

(From Boniekoe s li'ori-s.) 

Immortel (so called, a humourist suggests, because it 
is short-lived). It is also rather prettily named, " Mother 
of Cacao." Usually the shade trees are planted about 40 
feet apart, but there are cacao plantations which might 
cause a stranger to enquire, " Is this an Immortel 
plantation ? " so closely are these conspicuous trees 
planted. When looking down a Trinidad valley, richly 
planted with cacao, one sees in every direction the 
silver-grey trunks of the Immortel. In the early months 



38 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



of the year these trees have no leaves, they are a mass 
of flame-coloured flowers, each " shafted like a scimi- 
tar." It well repays the labour of climbing a hill to look 
down on this vermilion glory. Some Trinidad planters 
believe that their trees would die without shade, yet 
in Grenada, onlv a hundred miles North as the steamer 
sails, there are whole plantations without a single shade 




Cacao Trees, shaded by Kapok {Eriodendron Anjrachiosum) 
in Java. 

(Reproduced from van Hall's Cocca, by permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co. I 

tree. The Grenadians say : " You cannot have pods 
without flowers, and you cannot have good flowering 
without light and air." Shade trees are not used on 
some estates in San Thome, and in Brazil there are 
cocoa kings with 200,000 trees without one shade tree. 
It should be mentioned, however, that in these coun- 
tries the cacao trees are planted more closely (about 
eight feet apart) and themselves shade the soil. Pro- 
fessor Carmody, in reporting* recently on the result 
of a four years' experiment with (1) shade, (2) nc 

* Bulletin Dept. of Agriculture, Trinidad, 1916. 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



39 




OS 

r- 

j 
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H 
OS 
O 



o 

n 



X 



X 

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4 o COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

shade, (3) partial shade, says that so far partial shade 
has given the best results. No general solution has yet 
been found to the question of the advantage of shade, 
and, as Shaw states for morality, so in agriculture, " the 
golden rule is that there is no golden rule." Not only 
is there the personal factor, but nature provides an 
infinite variety of environments, and the best results 
are obtained by the use of methods appropriate to the 
local conditions. 

Form of Tree-growth Desired : Suckers. 

Viscount Mountmorres, in a delightfully clear ex- 
position of cacao cultivation which he gave to the 
native farmers and chiefs of the Gold Coast in 1906, 
said : ' In pruning, it is necessary always to bear in 
mind that the best shape for cacao trees is that of an 
enlarged open umbrella," with a height under the 
umbrella not exceeding seven feet. With this ideal in 
his mind, the planter should train up the tree in the 
way it should go. Viscount Mountmorres also said 
that everything that grows upwards, except the main 
stem, must be cut off. 

This opens a question which is of great interest to 
planters as to whether it is wise to allow shoots to grow 
out from the main trunk near the ground. Some hold 
that the high yield on their plantation is due to letting 
these upright shoots grow. ' Mi Amigo Corsicano 
said : ' Diavolo, let the cacao-trees grow, let them 
branch off like any other fruit-tree, say the tamarind, 
the ' chupon ' or sucker will in time bear more than its 
mother.' "* There seems to be some evidence that old 
trees profit from the "chupons" because they continue 
to bear when the old trunk is weary, but this is com- 
pensated for by the fact that the " chupons " (Portuguese 
for suckers) were grown at the expense of the tree in 
its youth. Hence other planters call them " thieves,"; 
and " gormandizers," saying that they suck the sap 
from the tree, turning all to wood. They follow the 

* "How Jose formed his Cocoa Estate." 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



4 1 




Cacao Tree, with Suckers, Trinidad. 



advice given as early as 1730 by the author of The 
Natural History of Chocolate, when he says : " Cut or 
lop off the suckers." In Trinidad, experiments have 
been started, and after a five years' test, Professor 
Carmody says that the indications are that it is a 
matter of indifference whether " chupons " are allowed to 
grow or not. 

After hunting, agriculture is man's oldest industry, 
and improvements come but slowly, for the proving 
of a theory often requires work on a huge scale carried 



42 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

out for several decades. The husbandry of the earth 
goes on from century to century with little change, 
and the methods followed are the winnowings of ex- 
perience, tempered with indolence. And even with 
the bewildering progress of science in other directions, 
sound improvements in this field are rare discoveries. 
There is great scope for the application of physical 
and chemical knowledge to the production of the raw 
materials of the tropics. In one or two instances 
notable advances have been made, thus the direct pro- 
duction of a white sugar (as now practised at Java) at 
the tropical factory will have far-reaching effects, but 
with many tropical products the methods practised 
are as ancient as they are haphazard. Like all methods 
founded on long experience, they suit the environment 
and the temperament of the people who use them, so 
that the work of the scientist in introducing improve- 
ments requires intimate knowledge of the conditions 
if his suggestions are to be adopted. The various De- 
partments of Agriculture are doing splendid pioneer 
work, but the full harvest of their sowing will not be 
reaped until the number of tropically-educated agri- 
culturists has been increased by the founding of three 
or four agricultural colleges and research laboratories 
in equatorial regions. 

There is much research to be done. As yet, however, 
many planters are ignorant of all that is already estab- 
lished, the facilities for education in tropical agri- 
culture being few and far between. There are signs, 
however, of development in this direction. It is pleasant 
to note that a start was made in Ceylon at the end of 
19 17 by opening an agricultural school at Peradenija. 
Trinidad has for a number of years had an agricul- 
tural school, and is eager to have a college devoted to 
agriculture. In 1919, Messrs. Cadbury Bros, gave 
£5000 to form the nucleus of a special educational 
fund for the Gold Coast. The scientists attached to the 
several government agricultural departments in Java, 
Ceylon, Trinidad, the Philippines, Africa, etc., have 



CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION 



43 



done splendid work, but it is desirable that the num- 
ber of workers should be increased. When the world 
wakes up to the importance of tropical produce, agri- 
cultural colleges will be scattered about the tropics, 
so that every would-be planter can learn his subject 
on the spot. 




Cutlassing. 

Diseases of the Cacao Tree. 

Take, for example, the case of the diseases of plants. 
Everyone who takes an interest in the garden knows 
how destructive the insect pests and vegetable parasites 
can be. In the tropics their power for destruction is 
very great, and they are a constant menace to economic 
products like cacao. The importance of understanding 
their habits, and of studying methods of keeping them 
in check, is readily appreciated ; the planter may be 
ruined by lacking this knowledge. 



44 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

The cacao tree has been improved and " domesti- 
cated " to satisfy human requirements, a process which 
has rendered it weaker to resist attacks from pests and 
parasites. It is usual to classify man amongst the pests, 
as either from ignorance or by careless handling he 
can do the tree much harm. Other animal pests are the 
wanton thieves : monkeys, squirrels and rats, who 
destroy more fruit than they consume. The insect 
pests include varieties of beetles, thrips, aphides, scale 
insects and ants, whilst fungi are the cause of the 
"Canker" in the stem and branches, the "Witch- 
broom " disease in twigs and leaves, and the " Black 
Rot " of pods. 

The subject is too immense to be summarised in a 
few lines, and I recommend readers who wish to know 
more of this or other division of the science of cacao 
cultivation, to consult one or more of the four classics 
injEnglish on this subject : 

Cocoa, by Herbert Wright (Ceylon), 1907. 
Cacao, by J. Hinchley Hart (Trinidad), 191 1. 
Cocoa by W. H. Johnson (Nigeria), 191 2. 
Cocoa, by C. J. J. van Hall (Java), 19 14. 



45 



CHAPTER III 

HARVESTING AND PREPARATION FOR THE 

MARKET 

The picking, gathering, and breaking of the cacao are 
the easiest jobs on the plantation. 

" How Jose formed his Cocoa Estate.'" 

Gathering and Heaping. 

IN the last chapter I gave a brief account of the cul- 
tivation of cacao. I did not deal with forking, spray- 
ing, cutlassing, weeding, and so forth, as it would 

lead us too far into 
purely technical 
discussions. I pro- 
pose we assume 
that the planter has 
managed his estate 
well, and that the 
plantation is before 
us looking very 
healthy and full of 
fruit waiting to be 
picked. The ques- 
tion arises : How 
shall we gather it ? 
Shall we shake the tree ? Cacao pods do not fall 
off the tree even when over-ripe. Shall we knock off 
or pluck the pods ? To do so would make a scar on the 
trunk of the tree, and these wounds are dangerous in 
tropical climates, as they are often attacked by canker. 
A sharp machete or cutlass is used to cut off the pods 
which grow on the lower part of the trunk. As the tree 
is not often strong enough to bear a man, climbing is 




46 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




W 



- 



lA^J 



(i) Common Type of Cacao Picker. 
(2) Agostini Cacao Picker. 



out of the question, 
and a knife on a pole 
is used for cutting off 
the pods on the upper 
branches. Various 
shaped knives are used 
by different planters, a 
common and efficient 
kind (see drawing), 
resembles a hand of 
steel, with the thumb 
as a hook, so that the 
pod-stalk can be cut 
either by a push or a 
pull. A good deal of 
ingenuity has been 
expended in devising 
a " foolproof" picker 
which shall render 
easy the cutting of 
the pod-stalk and yet 
not cut or damage the 
bark of the tree. A 
good example is the 
Agostini picker, which 
was approved by 
Hart. 

The gathering of 
the fruits of one's 
labour is a pleasant 
task, which occurs 
generally only at rare 
intervals. Cacao is 
gathered the whole 
year round. There is, 
however, in most dis- 
tricts one principal 
harvest period, and 
a subsidiary harvest. 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 47 










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48 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

With cacao in the tropics, as with corn in England, 
the gathering of the harvest is a delight to lovers of the 
beautiful. It is a great charm of the cacao plantation 
that the trees are so closely planted that nowhere 
does the sunlight find between the foliage a space 
larger than a man's hand. After the universal glare 
outside, it seems dark under the cacao, although the 
ground is bright with dappled sunshine. You hear a 
noise of talking, of rustling leaves, and falling pods. 
You come upon a band of coolies or negroes. 
One near you carries a long bamboo — as long as a 
fishing rod — with a knife at the end. With a lithe 
movement he inserts it between the boughs, and, by 
giving it a sharp jerk, neatly cuts the stalk of a pod, 
which falls from the tree to the ground. Only the ripe 
pods must be picked. To do this, not only must the 
picker's aim be true, but he must also have a good eye 
for colour. Whether the pods be red or green, as soon 
as the colour begins to be tinted with yellow it is ripe 
for picking. This change occurs first along the furrows 
in the pod. Fewer unripe pods would be gathered if 
only one kind of pod were grown on one plantation. 
The confusion of kinds and colours which is often 
found makes sound judgment very difficult. That the 
men generally judge correctly the ripeness of pods 
high in the trees is something to wonder at. The pickers 
pass on, strewing the earth with ripe pods. They are 
followed by the graceful, dark-skinned girls, who gather 
one by one the fallen pods from the greenery, until 
their baskets are full. Sometimes a basketful is too heavy 
and the girl cannot comfortably lift it on to her head, 
but when one of the men has helped her to place it 
there, she carries it lightly enough. She trips through 
the trees, her bracelets jingling, and tumbles the pods 
on to the heap. Once one has seen a great heap of 
cacao pods it glows in one's memory : anything 
more rich, more daring in the way of colour one's 
eye is unlikely to light on. The artist, seeking only 
an aesthetic effect would be content with this for the 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 49 




a 

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H 

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5 o ' COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

consummation and would wish the pods to remain 
unbroken. 

Breaking and Extracting. 

There are planters who believe that the product is 
improved by leaving the gathered pods several days 
before breaking ; and they would follow the practice, 
but for the risk of losses by theft. Hence the pods are 
generally broken on the same day as they are gathered. 
The primitive methods of breaking with a club or by 
banging on a hard surface are happily little used. 
Masson of New York made pod-breaking machines, 
and Sir George Watt has recently invented an in- 
genious machine for squeezing the beans out of the 
pod, but at present the extraction is done almost 
universally by hand, either by men or women. A 
knife which would cut the husk of the pod and was so 
constructed that it could not injure the beans within, 
would be a useful invention. The human extractor has 
the advantage that he or she can distinguish the 
diseased, unripe or germinated beans and separate 
them from the good ones. Picture the men sitting 
round the heap of pods and, farther out, in a larger 
circle, twice as many girls with baskets. The man 
breaks the pod and the girls extract the beans. The 
man takes the pod in his left hand and gives it a sharp 
slash with a small cutlass, just cutting through the 
tough shell of the pod, but not into the beans inside ; 
and then gives the blade, which he has embedded in 
the shell, a twisting jerk, so that the pod breaks in two 
with a crisp crack. The girls take the broken pods and 
scoop out the snow-like beans with a flat wooden spoon 
or a piece of rib-bone, the beans being pulled off the 
stringy core (or placenta) which holds them together. 
The beans are put preferably into baskets or, failing 
these, on to broad banana leaves, which are used as trays. 

Practice renders these processes cheerful and easy 
work, often performed to an accompaniment of laugh- 
ing and chattering. 






HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 51 




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£ OS 



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52 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Fermenting. 

I allow myself the pleasure of thinking that I am 
causing some of my readers a little surprise when I 
tell them that cacao is fermented, and that the fer- 
mentation produces alcohol. As I mentioned above, 
the cacao bean is covered with a fruity pulp. The bean 
as it comes from the pod is moist, whilst the pulp is 
full of juice. It would be impossible to convey it to 
Europe in this condition ; it would decompose, and, 
when it reached its destination, would be worthless. 
In order that a product can be handled commercially 
it is desirable to have it in such a condition that it does 
not change, and thus with cacao it becomes necessary 
to get rid of the pulp, and, whilst this may be done by 
washing or simply by drying, experience has shown 
that the finest and driest product is obtained when 
the drying is preceded by fermentation. Just as broken 
grapes will ferment, so will the fruity pulp of the cacao 
bean. Present day fermentaries are simply convenient 
places for storing the cacao whilst the process goes 
on. In the process of fermentation, Dr. Chittenden 
says the beans are "stewed in their own juice." 
This may be expressed less picturesquely but more 
accurately by saying the beans are warmed by the 
heat of their own fermenting pulp, from which they 
absorb liquid. 

In Trinidad the cacao which the girls have scooped 
out into the baskets is emptied into larger baskets, 
two of which are " crooked " on a mule's back, and 
carried thus to the fermentary. In Surinam it is con- 
veyed by boat, and in San Thome by trucks, which 
run on Decauville railways. 

The period of fermentation and the receptacle to 
hold the cacao vary from country to country. With 
cacao of the criollo type only one or two days fermenta- 
tion is required, and as a result, in Ecuador and Ceylon, 
the cacao is simply put in heaps on a suitable floor. 
In Trinidad and the majority of other cacao-producing 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 53 




" Sweating " Boxes, Trinidad. 

The man is holding the wooden spade used for turning 
the beans. 

areas, where the forastero variety predominates, 
from five to nine days are required. The cacao is 
put into the " sweat " boxes and covered with banana 
or plantain leaves to keep in the heat. The boxes may 
measure four feet each way and be made of sweet- 
smelling cedar wood. As is usual with fermentation, 
the temperature begins to rise, and if you thrust your 
hands into the fermenting beans you find they are as 
hot and mucilaginous as a poultice. 

Time. Temperature. 

When put in 25 C. or 77 F. 

After 1 day 30 C. or 89 F. 

After 2 days 37 C. or 98 F. 

After 3 days 47 C. or 115 F. 

(After the third day the heat is maintained, hut the 
temperature rises very little.) 

The temperature is the simplest guide to the amount 
of fermentation taking place, and the uniformity of 
the temperature in all parts of the mass is desirable, 
as showing that all parts are fermenting evenly. The 



54 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



cacao is usually shovelled from one box to another every 
one or two davs. The chief object of this operation is 
to mix the cacao and prevent merely local fermenta- 
tion. To make mixing easy one ingenious planter uses 
a cylindrical vessel which can be turned about on its 



axis. 




Fermenting Boxes, Java. 
From the last box the beans are shovelled into the washing basin. 

(Reproduced from van Hall's Cocoa, by permission of Messrs. Marmillan & Co.) 

In other places, for example in Java, the boxes are 
arranged as a series of steps, so that the cacao is trans- 
ferred with little labour from the higher to the lower. 
In San Thome the cacao is placed on the plantation 
direct into trucks, which are covered with plaintain 
leaves, and run on rails through the plantation right 
into the fermentary. Some day some enterprising 
firm will build a fermentary in portable sections easily 
erected, and with some simple mechanical mixer to 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 55 

replace the present laborious method of turning the 
beans by manual labour. 

The general conditions* for a good fermentation 
are : 

(1) The mass of beans must be kept warm. 

(2) The mass of beans must be moist, but not 
sodden. 

(3) In the later stages there must be sufficient air. 

(4) The boxes must be kept clean. 

Changes daring Fermentation. 

No entirely satisfactory theory of the changes in 
cacao due to fermentation has yet been established. It 
is known that the sugary pulp outside the beans fer- 
ments in a similar way to other fruit pulp, save that 
for a yeast fermentation the temperature rises un- 
usually high (in three days to 47 degrees C), and also 
that there are parallel and more important changes in 
the interior of the bean. The difficulty of establishing 
a complete theory of fermentation of cacao has not 
daunted the scientists, for they know that the roses of 
philosophy are gathered by just those who can grasp 
the thorniest problems. Success, however, is so far 
only partial, as can be seen by consulting the best in- 
troduction on the subject, the admirable collection of 
essays on The Fermentation of Cacao, edited by 
H. Hamel Smith. Here the reader will find the valuable 
contributions of Fickendey, Loew, Nicholls, Preyer, 
Schulte im Hofe, and Sack. 

The obvious changes which occur in the breaking 
down of the fruity exterior of the bean should be care- 
fully distinguished from the subtle changes in the bean 
itself. Let us consider them separately:— 

(a) Changes in the Pulp. — Just as grape-pulp fer- 
ments and changes to wine, and just as weak wine if 
left exposed becomes sour ; so the fruity sugary pulp 

* For full details see the pamphlet by the author on The Practice 
of Fermentation in Trinidad. 



56 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 57 

outside the cacao bean on exposure gives off bubbles 
of carbon dioxide, becomes alcoholic, and later be- 
comes acid. The acid produced is generally the pleasant 
vinegar acid (acetic acid), but under some circumstances 
it may be lactic acid, or the rancid-smelling butyric 
acid. Kismet ! The planter trusts to nature to provide 
the right kind of fermentation. This fermentation is 
set up and carried on by the minute organisms (yeasts, 
'-acteria, etc.), which chance to fall on the beans from 
\e air or come from the sides of the receptacle. One 
yeast-cell does not make a fermentation, and as no yeast 
is added a day is wasted whilst any yeasts which happen 
to be present are multiplying to an army large enough 
to produce a visible effect on the pulp. Any organism 
which happens to be on the pod, in the air, or on the 
inside of the fermentary will multiply in the pulp, if 
the pulp contains suitable nourishment. Each kind of 
organism produces its own characteristic changes. It 
would thus appear a miracle if the same substances 
were always produced. Yet, just as grape-juice left 
exposed to every micro-organism of the air, generally 
changes in the direction of wine more or less good, so 
the pulp of cacao tends, broadly speaking, to ferment 
in one way. It would, however, be a serious error to 
assume that exactly the same kind of fermentation 
takes place in any two fermentaries in the world, and 
the maximum variation must be considerable. As the 
pulp ferments, it is destroyed ; it gradually changes 
from white to brown, and a liquid (" sweatings ") 
flows away from it. The " sweatings " taste like sweet 
cider. At present this is allowed to run away through 
holes in the bottom of the box, and no care is taken to 
preserve what may yet become a valuable by-product. 
I found by experiment that in the preparation of one 
cwt. of dry beans about i\ gallons of this unstable 
liquid are produced. In other words, some seven or 
eight million gallons of " sweatings " run to waste 
every year. In most cases only small quantities are 
produced in one place at one time. This, and the lack 



58 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Cacao in the Fermenting Trucks, San Thome . 
The covering of banana leaves keeps the beans warm. 

of knowledge of scientifically controlled fermentation, 
and the difficulty of bottling, prevent the starting of 
an industry producing either a new drink or a vinegar. 
The cacao juice or " sweatings " contains about fifteen 
per cent, of solids, about half of which consists of sugars. 
If the fermentation of the cacao were centralised in the 
various districts, and conducted on a large scale under 
a chemist's control, the sugars could be obtained, or 
an alcoholic liquid or a vinegar could easily be pre- 
pared. 

The planter decides when the beans are fermented 
by simply looking at them ; he judges their condition 
by the colour of the pulp. When they are ready to be 
removed from the fermentary they are plump, and 
brown without, and juicy within. 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 59 

(b) Changes in the Interior of the Bean. — What is 
the relation between the comparatively simple fer- 
mentation of the pulp and the changes in the interior 
of the bean ? This important question has not yet been 
answered, although a number of attempts have been 
made. 

As far as is known, the living ferments (micro- 
organisms) do not penetrate the skin of the bean, so 
that any fermentation which takes place must be 
promoted by unorganised ferments (or enzymes). Mr. 
H. C. Brill* found raffinase, invertase, casease and 
protease in the pulp ; oxidase, raffinase, casease and 
emulsinlike enzymes in the fresh bean ; and all these 
six, together with diastase, in the fermented bean. Dr. 
Fickendey says : ' The object of fermentation is, in 
the main, to kill the germ of the bean in such a manner 
that the efficiency of the unorganised ferment is in no 
way impaired." 

From my own observations I believe that forastero 
beans are killed at 47 degrees C. (which is commonly 
reached when they have been fermenting 60 hours), 
for a remarkable change takes place at this temperature 
and time. Whilst the micro-organisms remain outside, 
the juice of the pulp appears to penetrate not only the 
skin, but the flesh of the bean, and the brilliant violet 
in the isolated pigment cells becomes diffused more 
or less evenly throughout the entire bean, including 
the " germ." It is certain that the bean absorbs liquid 
from the outside, for it becomes so plump that its skin 
is stretched to the utmost. The following changes occur : 

(1) Taste. An astringent colourless substance (a tannin or a body 
possessing many properties of a tannin) changes to a tasteless 
brown substance. The bean begins to taste less astringent as 
the " tannin " is destroyed. With white (criollo) beans this 

• change is sufficiently advanced in two days, but with purple 
(forastero) beans it may take seven days. 

(2) Colour. The change in the tannin results in the white (criollo 
beans becoming brown and the purple (forastero) beans be- 

* Philippine Journal of Science. 191 7. 



60 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

coming tinged with brown. The action resembles the brown- 
ing of a freshly-cut apple, and has been shown to be due to 
oxygen (activated by an oxidase, a ferment encouraging com- 
bination with oxygen) acting on the astringent colourless 
substance, which, like the photographic developer, pyrogallic 
acid, becomes brown on oxidation. 

(3) Aroma. A notable change is that substances are created within 
the bean, which on roasting produce the fine aromatic odour 
characteristic of cocoa and chocolate, and which Messrs. 
Bainbridge and Davies have shown is due to a trace (0.001 
per cent.) of an essential oil over half of which consists of 
linalool.* 

(4) Stimulating Effect. It is commonly stated that during ferment- 
tation there is generated theobromine, the alkaloid which 
gives cacao its stimulating properties, but the estimation of 
theobromine in fermented and unfermented beans does not 
support this. 

(5) Consistency . Fermented beans become crisp on drying. This 
development may be due to the " tannins " encountering, in 
their dispersion through the bean, proteins, which are thus 
converted into bodies which are brittle solids on drying (com- 
pare tanning of hides). The " hide " of the bean may be 
similarly " tanned "—the shell certainly becomes leathery 
(unless washed)- — but a far more probable explanation, in 
both cases, is that the gummy bodies in bean and shell set 
hard on drying. 

We see, then, that although fermentation was prob- 
ably originally followed as the best method of getting 
rid of the pulp, it has other effects which are entirely 
good. It enables the planter to produce a drier bean, 
and one which has, when roasted, a finer flavour, colour, 
and aroma, than the unfermented. Fermentation is 
generally considered to produce so many desirable 
results that M. Perrot's suggestion j- of removing the 
pulp by treatment with alkali, and thus avoiding fer- 
mentation, has not been enthusiastically received. 

Beans which have been dried direct and those which 
have been fermented may be distinguished as follows : 



'Journal of the Chemical Society, 191 2. 
f Comptes Rendus, 191 3. 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 

CACAO BEANS 



6l 





DRIED DIRECT. 


FERMENTED AND DRIED 


Shape of bean 


Flat 


Plumper 


Shell 


Soft and close fitting 


Crisp and more or 
less free. 


Interior : colour 


Slate-blue or mud- 


Bright browns and 




brown 


purples 


,, consistence 


Leather to cheese 


Crisp 


„ appearance 


Solid 


Open-grained 


,, taste 


More or less bitter 


Less astringent 




or astringent 





Whilst several effects of fermentation have not been 
satisfactorily accounted for, I think all are agreed that 
to obtain one of the chief effects of fermentation, 
namelv the brown colour, oxidation is necessary. All 
recognise that for this oxidation the presence of three 
substances is essential : 

(i) The tannin to be oxidised. 

(2) Oxygen. 

(3) An enzyme which encourages the oxidation. 

All these occur in the cacao bean as it comes irom the 
pod, but why oxidation occurs so much better in a 
fermented bean than in a bean which is simply dried 
is not very clear. If you cut an apple it goes brown 
owing to the action of oxygen absorbed from the air, 
but as long as the apple is uncut and unbruised it 
remains white. If you take a cacao bean from the pod 
and cut it, the exposed surface goes brown, but if you 
ferment the bean the whole of it gradually goes brown 
without being cut. My observations lead me to believe 
that the bean does not become oxidised until it is 
killed, that is, until it is no longer capable of germin- 
ation. It can be killed by raising the temperature, by 
fermentation or otherwise, or as Dr. Fickendey has 
shown, by cooling to almost freezing temperatures. It 
may be that killing the bean makes its skin and cell 
walls more permeable to oxygen, but my theory is 
that when the bean is killed disintegration or weaken- 
ing of the cell walls, etc., occurs, and, as a result, the 



62 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

enzyme and tannin, hitherto separate, become mixed, 
and hence able actively to absorb oxygen. The action 
of oxygen on the tannin also accounts for the loss of 
astringency on fermentation, and it may be well to 
point out that fermentation increases the internal sur- 
face of the bean exposed to air and oxygen. The bean, 
during fermentation, actually sucks in liquid from the 
surrounding pulp and becomes plumper and fuller. 
On drying, however, the skin, which has been ex- 
panded to its utmost, wrinkles up as the interior con- 
tracts and no longer fits tightly to the bean, and the 
cotyledons having been thrust apart by the liquid, 
no longer hold together so closely. This accounts for 
the open appearance of a fermented bean. As on drying 
large interspaces are produced, these allow the air to 
circulate more freely and expose a greater surface of 
the bean to the action of oxygen. Since the liquids in all 
living matter presumably contain some dissolved 
oxygen, the problem is to account for the fact that the 
tannin in the unfermented bean remains unoxidised, 
whilst that in the fermented bean is easily oxidised. 
The above affords a partial explanation, and seems 
fairly satisfactory when taken with my previous sug- 
gestion, namely, that during fermentation the bean is 
rendered pervious to water, which, on distributing 
itself throughout the bean, dissolves the isolated masses 
of tannin and diffuses it evenly, so that it encounters 
and becomes mixed with the enzymes. From this it 
will be evident that the major part of the oxidation of 
the tannin occurs during drying, and hence the im- 
portance of this, both from the point of view of the 
keeping properties of the cacao, and its colour, taste 
and aroma. 

It will be realised from the above that there is still 
a vast amount of work to be done before the chemist 
will be in a position to obtain the more desirable 
aromas and flavours. Having found the necessary 
conditions, scientifically trained overseers will be re- 
quired to produce them, and for this they will need 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 63 

to have under their direction arrangements for fer- 
mentation designed on correct principles and allowing 
some degree of control. Whilst improvements are 
always possible in the approach to perfection, it must 
be admitted that, considering the means at their dis- 
posal, the planters produce a remarkably fine product. 




For Drying Small Quantities. 

A simple tray- barrow, which can be run under the house 
when rain comes on. 

Loss on Fermenting and Drying. 

The fermented cacao is conveyed from the ferment- 
ary to the drying trays or floors. The planter often has 
some rough check-weighing system. Thus, for ex- 
ample, he notes the number of standard baskets of 
wet cacao put into the fermentary, and he measures the 
fermented cacao produced with the help of a bottom- 
less barrel. By this means he finds that on fermentation 
the beans lose weight by the draining away of the 
" sweatings," according to the amount and juiciness of 
the pulp round them. The beans are still very wet, and 
on drying lose a high percentage of their moisture by 
evaporation before the cacao bean of commerce is 
obtained. 



64 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

The average losses may be tabulated thus : 
Weight of wet cacao from pod ioo 

Loss on fermentation 20 to 25 
Loss on drying 40 



Cacao beans of commerce obtained 



35 to 4° 




Spreading the Cacao Beans on mats to dry in the 
sun, Ceylon. 

The drying of cacao is an art. On the one hand, it is 
necessary to get the beans quite dry (that is, in a con- 
dition in which they hold only their normal amount of 
water — 5 to 7 per cent.), or they will be liable to go 
mouldy. On the other hand, the husk or shell of the 
bean must not be allowed to become burned or brittle. 
Brittle shells produce waste in packing and handling, 
and broken shells allow grubs and mould to enter the 
beans when the cacao is stored. The method of drying 
varies in different countries according to the climate. 
Jose says : " In the wet season when ' Father Sol 
chooses to lie low behind the clouds for days and your 
cocoa house is full, your curing house full, your trees 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 




66 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

loaded, then is the time to put on his mettle the ener- 
getic and practical planter. In such tight corners, amigo, 
I have known a friend to set a fire under his cocoa 
house to keep the cocoa on the top somewhat warm. 
Another friend's plan (and he recommended it) was to 
address his patron saint on such occasions. He never 
addressed that saint at other times." 

In most producing areas sun-drving is preferred, 
but in countries where much rain falls, artificial dryers 
are slowly but surely coming into vogue. These vary 
in pattern from simple heated rooms, with shelves, to 
vacuum stoves and revolving drums. The sellers of 
these machines will agree with me when I say that 
every progressive planter ought to have one of these 
artificial aids to use during those depressing periods 
when the rain continually streams from the sky. On 
fine days it is difficult to prevent mildew appearing on 
the cacao, but at such times it is impossible. However, 
whenever available, the sun's heat is preferable, for it 
-encourages a slow and even drying, which lasts over 
a period of about three days. As Dr. Paul Preuss says : 

II faut eviter une dessiccation trop rapide. Le cacao 
ne peut etre seche en moins de trois jours. "* Further, 
most observers agree with Dr. Sack that the valuable 
changes, which occur during fermentation, continue dur- 
ing drying, especially those in which oxygen assists. The 
full advantage of these is lost if the temperature used 
is high enough to kill the enzymes, or if the drying is too 
rapid, both of which may occur with artificial drying. 

Sun-drying is done on cement or brick floors, on 
■coir mats or trays, or on wooden platforms. In order 
to dry the cacao uniformly it is raked over and over 
in the sun. It must be tenderly treated, carefully 
" watched and caressed," until the interior becomes 
quite crisp and in colour a beautiful brown. 

Sometimes the platforms are built on the top of the 
fermentaries, the cacao being conveyed through a hole 
in the roof of the fermentary to the drying platform. 
* Dr. Paul Preuss, Le cacao. Culture et Preparation. 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 



67 




" Hamel- Smith " Rotary Dryer. 
(Made by Messrs. David Bridge and Co., Manchester). 
The receiving cylinders, six in number, are filled approximately 
three-quarters full with the cacao to be dried. These are then placed 
in position on the revolving framework, which is enclosed in the 
casing and slowly revolved. The cylinders are fitted with baffle plates, 
which gently turn over the cacao beans at each revolution so that 
even drying throughout is the result. The casing is heated to the 
requisite temperature by means of a special stove, the arrangement 
of which is such as to allow the air drawn from the outside to 
circulate around the stove and to pass into the interior of the casing 
containing the drying cylinders. The fumes from the fuel do not 
in any way come in contact with the material during drying. 



68 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Drying Platforms, Trinidad, with sliding roofs, 

In Trinidad the platform always has a sliding roof, 
which can be pulled over the cacao in the blaze of noon 
or when a rainstorm comes on. In other places, sliding 
platforms are used which can be pushed under cover 
in wet weather. 



The Washing of Cacao. 

In Java, Ceylon and Madagascar before the cacao 
is dried, it is first w'ashed to remove all traces of pulp. 
This removal of pulp enables the beans to be more 
rapidly dried, and is considered almost a necessity in 
Ceylon, where sun-drying is difficult. The practice 
appears at first sight wholly good and sanitary, but 
although beans so treated have a very clean and bright 
appearance, looking not unlike almonds, the practice 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 69 




£3 .3 



.Si u 



o 

h 
2; 



2 .5 

? -s 



< 



?o COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

cannot be recommended. There is a loss of from 2 to 
10 per cent, in weight, which is a disadvantage to the 
planter, whilst from the manufacturer's point of view, 
washing is objectionable because, according to Dr. 
Paul Preuss, the aroma suffers. Whilst this may be 




Washing the Beans in a Vat to clean 
off the Pulp, Ceylon. 

questioned, there is no doubt that washing renders 
the shells more brittle and friable, and less able to bear 
carriage and handling ; and when the shell is broken, 
the cacao is more liable to attack by grubs and mould. 
Therein lies the chief danger of washing. 

Claying, Colouring, and Polishing Cacao. 

Just as in Java and Ceylon, to assist drying, they 
wash off the pulp, so in Venezuela and often in Trin- 
idad, with the same object, they put earth or clay on 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 71 




Claying Cacao Beans in Trinidad. 



the beans. In Venezuela it is a heavv, rough coat, and 
in Trinidad a film so thin that usually it is not visible. 
In Venezuela, where fermentation is often only allowed 
to proceed for one day, the use of fine red earth may 
possibly be of value. It certainly gives the beans a very 
pretty appearance ; they look as though they have 
been moistened and rolled in cocoa powder. But in 
Trinidad, where the fermentation is a lengthy one, the 
use of clay, though hallowed by custom, is quite un- 
necessary. In the report of the Commission of Enquiry 
(Trinidad, 19 15) we read concerning claying that "It 
is said to prevent the bean from becoming mouldy in 
wet weather, to improve its marketable value by giving 
it a bright and uniform appearance, and to help to pre- 
serve its aroma." In the appendix to this report the 
following recommendation occurs : ' The claying of 
cacao ought to be avoided as much as possible, and 
when necessary only sufficient to give a uniform colour 
ought to be used." In my opinion manufacturers 



72 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

would do well to discourage entirely the claying of 
cacao either in Trinidad or Venezuela, for from their 
point of view it has nothing to recommend it. One per 
cent, of clay is sufficient to give a uniform colour, but 
occasionally considerably more than this is used. If 
we are to believe reports, deliberate adulteration is 
sometimes practised. Thus in Hozv Jose formed his 
Cocoa Estate we read : "A cocoa dealer of our day 
to give a uniform colour to the miscellaneous brands 
he has purchased from Pedro, Dick, or Sammy will 
wash the beans in a heap, with a mixture of starch, 
sour oranges, gum arabic and red ochre. This mixture 
is always boiled. I can recommend the 'Chinos' in 
this dodge, who are all adepts in all sorts of ' adulter- 
ation ' schemes. They even add some grease to this 
mixture so as to give the beans that brilliant gloss 
which you see sometimes." In Trinidad the usual 
way of obtaining a gloss is by the curious operation 
known as " dancing," which is performed on the 
moistened beans after the clay has been sprinkled on 
them. It is a quaint sight to see a circle of seven or 
eight coloured folk slowly treading a heap of beans. 
The dancing may proceed for any period up to an 
hour, and as they tread they sing some weird native 
chant. Somewhat impressed, I remarked to the planter 
that it had all the appearance of an incantation. He 
replied that the process cost 2d. per cwt. Dancing 
makes the beans look smooth, shiny, and even, and it 
separates any beans that may be stuck together in 
clusters. It may make the beans rounder, and it is said 
to improve their keeping properties, but this remains 
to be proved. On the whole, if it is considered desir- 
able to produce a glossy appearance, it is better to use 
a polishing machine. 

The Weight of the Cured Cacao Bean. 

Planters and others may be interested to know the 
comparative sizes of the beans from the various pro- 
ducing areas of the world. Some idea of these can be 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 73 




74 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



gained by considering the relative weights of the beans 
as purchased in England. 



Average 


weight. 


Kind. 


of one Bean. 


Grenada 


ro 


grammes 


Para 


1*0 


,, 


Bahia 


i'i 


,, 


Accra 


1*2 


,, 


Trinidad 


1*2 


,, 


Cameroons 


1*2 


,, 


Ceylon 


1*2 


,, 


Caracas 


• r 3 


,, 


Machala 


• r 4 


,, 


Arriba 


.. r 5 


,, 


Carupano 


.. r6 


> > 



Number of Beans 
to the lb. 

45° 

45° 
410 

380 

380 

380 

380 

35° 
33° 
300 
280 



The Yield of the Cacao Tree. 

The average yield of cacao has in the past generally 
been over-stated. Whether this is because the planter 
is an optimist or because he wishes others to think his 
efforts are crowned with exceptional success, or be- 
cause he takes a simple pride in his district, is hard to 
tell. Probably the tendency has been to take the finer 
estates and put their results down as the average. 

Of the thousands of flowers that bloom on one tree 
during the year, on an average only about twenty 
develop into mature pods, and each pod yields about 
ii ounces of dry cured cacao. Taking the healthy 
trees with the neglected, the average yield is from il 
to 2 pounds of commercial cacao per tree. This seems 
very small, and those who hear it for the first time 
often make a rapid mental calculation of the amazing 
number of trees that must be needed to produce the 
world's supply, at least 250 million trees. Or again, 
taking the average yield per acre as 400 lbs., we find 
that there must be well over a million acres under cacao 
cultivation. At the Government station at Aburi (Gold 
Coast) three plots of cacao gave in 19 14 an average 
yield of over 8 pounds of cacao per tree, and in 19 18 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 75 

some 468 trees (Amelonado) gave as an average 7*8 
pounds per tree. This suggests what might be done 
by thorough cultivation. It suggests a great oppor- 
tunity for the planters — that, without planting one 
more tree, they might quadruple the world's pro- 
duction. 

The work which has been started by the Agricultural 
Department in Trinidad of recording the yield of in- 
dividual trees has shown that great differences occur. 
Further, it has generally been observed that the heavy 
bearing trees of the first year have continued to be 
heavy bearers, and the poor-yielding trees have re- 
mained poor during subsequent years. The report 
rightly concludes that : " The question of detecting 
the poor-bearing trees on an estate and having them 
replaced by trees raised from selected stock, or budded 
or grafted trees, of known prolific and other good 
qualities is deserving of the most serious consideration 
by planters." 

The Kind of Cacao that Manufacturers Like* 

Planters have suggested to me that if the users and 
producers of cacao could be brought together it would 
be to their mutual advantage. Permit me to conceive a 
meeting and report an imaginary conversation : 

planter : You know we planters work a little in the dark. We don't 
know quite what to strive after. Tell me exactly what kind of 
cacao the manufacturers want ? 

manufacturer : Every buyer and manufacturer has his tastes and 
preferences and . 

planter : Don't hedge ! 

manufacturer : The cacao of each producing area has its special 
characters, even as the wine from a countrv, and part of the 
good manufacturer's art is the art of blending. 

planter : What — good with bad ? 

manufacturer : No ! Good of one type with good of another tvpe. 

planter : What do you mean exactly by good ? 

* For further information read The Qualities in Cacao Desired 
by Manufacturers, by N. P. Booth and A. W. Knapp, International 
Congress of Tropical Agriculture, 1914. 



76 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

manufacturer : By good I mean large, ripe, well-cured beans. By 
indifferent I mean unripe and unfermented. By abominable I 
mean germinated, mouldy, and grubby beans. Happily, the 
last class is quite a small one. 

planter : You don't mean to tell me that only the good cacao sells ? 

manufacturer : Unfortunately, no ! There are users of inferior 
beans. Practically all the cacao produced — good and indifferent 
— is bought by someone. Most manufacturers prefer the fine, 
healthy, well fermented kinds. 

planter : Well fermented ! They have a strange way of showing 
their preference. Why, they often pay more for Guayaquil than 
they do for Grenada cacao. Yet Guayaquil is never properly 
fermented, whilst that from the Grenada estates is perfectly 
fermented. 

manufacturer : Agreed. Just as you would pay more for a badly- 
trained thoroughbred than for a well-trained mongrel. It's 
breed they pay for. The Guayaquil breed is peculiar ; there is 
nothing else like it in the world. You might think the tree had 
been grafted on to a spice tree. It has a fine characteristic aroma, 
which is so powerful that it masks the presence of a high per- 
centage of unfermented beans. However, if Guayaquil cacao 
was well-fermented it would (subject to the iron laws of Supply 
and Demand) fetch a still higher price, and there would not 
be the loss there is in a wet season when the Guayaquil cacao, 
being unfermented, goes mouldy. I think in Grenada they 
plant for high yield, and not for quality, for the bean is small 
and approaches the inferior Calabacillo breed. Its value is 
maintained by an amazing evenness and an uniform excellence 
in curing. The way in which it is prepared for the market does 
great credit to the planters. 

planter : They don't clay there, do they ? 

manufacturer : No ! and yet it is practically impossible to find a 
mouldy bean in Grenada estates cacao. Evidently claying is 
not a necessity — in Grenada. 

planter : Ha ! ha ! By that I suppose you insinuate that it is not a 
necessity in Trinidad, where the curing is also excellent. Or in 
Venezuela ? What's the buyer's objection to claying ? 

manufacturer: Simply that claying is camouflage. Actually the 
buyer doesn't mind so long as the clay is not too generously 
used. He objects to paying for beans and getting clay. How- 
ever, it's reallv too bad to colour up with clay the black 
cacao from diseased pods ; it might deceive even experienced 
brokers. 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 77 

planter : Ha ! ha ! Then it's a very sinful practice. I don't think 
that ever gets beyond the local tropical market. I know the 
merchants judge largely by " the skin," but I thought the 
London broker . 

manufacturer : You see it's like this. Just as you associate a certain 
label with a particularly good brand of cigar so the planter's 
mark on the bag and the external appearance of the beans 
influence the broker by long association. But just as you cannot 
truly judge a cigar by the picture on the box, so the broker has 
to consider what is under the shell of the bean. One or two 
manufacturers go further, but don't trust merely to " tasting 
with their eyes " — they only come to a conclusion when they 
have roasted a sample. 

planter : But a buyer can get a shrewd idea without roasting., 
surely ? You agree. Well, what exactly does he look for ? 

manufacturer : Depends what nationality the bean is- — I mean 
whether it was grown in Venezuela, Brazil, Trinidad, or the 
Gold Coast. In general he likes beans with a good " break,'" 
that is beans which, under the firm pressure of thumb and 
forefinger, break into small crisp nibs. Closeness or cheesiness 
are danger signals, warnings of lack of fermentation, — so is a 
slate-coloured interior. He prefers a pale, even-coloured in- 
terior,- — cinnamon, chocolate, or cafe-au-lait colour and . 

planter : One moment ! I've heard before of planters being told 
to ferment and cure until the bean is cinnamon colour. Why, 
man, you couldn't get a pale brown interior with beans of the 
Forastero or Calabacillo type if you fermented them to rotten- 
ness. 

manufacturer : True ! Well, if the breed on your plantation is 
purple Forastero, and more than half of the cacao in the world 
is, you must develop as much brown in the beans as possible. 
They should have the characteristic refreshing odour of raw 
cacao, together with a faint vinegary odour. The buyers much 
dislike any foreign smell, any mouldy, hammy, or cheesy 
odour. 

planter : And where do the foreign odours come from ? 

manufacturer : That's debatable. Some come from bad fermenta- 
tions, due to dirty fermentaries, abnormal temperatures, or 
unripe cacao.* Some come from smoky or imperfect artificial 

* Cameroon cacao sometimes has an objectionable odour and 
flavour, which may be due to its being fermented in an unripe con- 
dition, for, as Dr. Fickendey says : " Cameroon cacao has to be 
harvested unripe to save the pods from brown rot." 



78 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

drying. Some come from mould. Unfermented cacao is liable 
to go mouldy, so is germinated or over-ripe cacao with broken 
shells. Some cacao unfortunately gets wet with sea water. 
There always seems to me something pathetic in the thought 
of finely-cured cacao being drowned in sea water as it goes out 
in open boats to the steamer. 

planter : You see, we havn't piers and jetties everywhere, and 
often it's a long journey to them. Well, you've told me the 
buyers note break, colour and aroma. Anything else ? 

manufacturer : They like large beans, partly because largeness 
suggests fineness, and partly because with large beans the per- 
centage of shell is less. Small flat beans are very wasteful and 
unsatisfactory ; they are nearly all shell and very difficult to 
separate from the shell. 

planter: When there's a drought we can't help ourselves; we 
produce quantities of small flat beans. 

manufacturer : It must be trying to be at the mercy of the weather. 
However, the weather doesn't prevent the dirt being picked out 
of the beans. Buyers don't like more than half a per cent, of 
rubbish ; I mean stones, dried twig-like pieces of pulp, dust, 
etc., left in the cacao, neither do they like to see " cobs," that 
is, two or more beans stuck together, nor . 

planter : How about gloss ? 

manufacturer : The beauty of a polished bean attracts, although 
they know the beauty is less than skin deep. 

planter : And washing ? 

manufacturer : In my opinion washing is bad, leaves the shell too 
fragile. I believe in Hamburg they used to pay more for washed 
beans ; although very little, I suppose less than five per cent., 
of the world's cacao is washed, but in London many buyers 
prefer " the great unwashed." However, brokers are con- 
servative, and would probably look on unwashed Ceylon with 
suspicion. 

planter : Well, I have been very interested in everything that you 
have said, and I think every planter should strive to produce 
the very best he can, but he does not get much encouragement. 

manufacturer : How is that ? 

planter : There is insufficient difference between the price of the 
best and the common. 

manufacturer : Unfortunately that is beyond any individual manu- 
facturer's control. The price is controlled by the European 
and New York markets. I am afraid that as long as there is so 



HARVESTING AND PREPARATION 79 

large a demand by the public for cheap cocoas so long will 
there be keen competition amongst buyers for the commoner 
kinds of beans. 

planter : The manufacturer should keep some of his own men on 
the spot to do his buying. They would discriminate carefully, 
and the differences in price offered would soon educate the 
planters ! 

manufacturer : True, but as each manufacturer requires cacao 
from many countries and districts, this would be a very costly 
enterprise. Several manufacturers have had their own buyers 
in certain places in the Tropics for some years, and it is gener- 
ally agreed that this has acted as an incentive to the growers to 
improve the quality.* But in the main we have to look to the 
various Government Agricultural Departments to instruct and 
encourage the planters in the use of the best methods. 



* The Director of Agriculture, in a paper on The Gold Coast 
Cocoa Industry, says : " We are indebted to Messrs. Cadbury Bros., 
of Bournville, for a lead in this direction. They have several agents 
in the colony who purchase on their behalf only the best qualities 
at an enhanced price, and reject all that falls below the standard of 
their requirements." 



So 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




The World's Cacao Production. 

(Mean of 5 years, 1914-1918. Average world production 295,600 
tons per annum.) Diagram showing relative amounts produced by 
various countries. The shaded parts show production of British 

Possessions. 



8i 



CHAPTER IV 

CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 

When the English Commander, Thomas Candish, coming 
into the Haven Guatulco, burnt two hundred thousand 
tun of cacao, it proved no small loss to all New Spain, the 
provinces Guatimala and Nicaragua not producing so 
much in a whole year. 

John Ogilvy's America, 1671. 

WHEN one starts to discuss, however briefly, 
the producing areas, one ought first to take 
off one's hat to Ecuador, for so long the prin- 
cipal producer, and then to Venezuela the land of the 
original cacao, and producer of the finest criollo type. 
Having done this, one ought to say words of praise to 
Trinidad, Grenada and Ceylon for their scientific 
methods of culture and preparation ; and, last but not 
least, the newest and greatest producer, the Gold 
Coast, should receive honourable mention. It is in- 
teresting to note that in 19 18 British Possessions pro- 
duced nearly half (44 per cent.) of the world's supply. 
Whilst the war has not very materially hindered the 
increase of cacao production in the tropics, the short- 
age of shipping has prevented the amount exported 
from maintaining a steady rise. The table below, taken 
mainly from the " Gordian," illustrates this : 
World Production of Cacao. 
Total in tons (1 ton = 1000 kilogrammes) 

1908 194,000 1914 277,000 

1909 206,000 19*5 298,000 

1910 220,000 1916 297,000 

1911 241,000 1917 343,000 

1912 234,000 1918 273,000 

1913 258,000 1919 431,000 



82 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



The following table is compiled chiefly from Messrs. 
Theo. Vasmer & Co.'s reports in the Confectioners'' 
Union . 

Cacao Production of the Chief Producing Areas of the World. 
(i ton = iooo kilogrammes). 



Country. 


1914 


i9 J 5 


1916 


1917 


1918 


Gold Coast* ^ 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


53,000 


77,300 


72,200 


91,000 


66,300 


Brazil 


40,800 


45,000 


43. 7°° 


55, 6o ° 


41,900 


' Ecuador 


47,200 


37,000 


42,700 


47,200 


38,000 


San Thome 
Trinidad* 
San Domingo 
Venezuela 


3 X A 00 


29,900 


33,200 


31,900 


26,600 


28,400 


24,100 


24,000 


31,800 


26,200 


20,700 


20,200 


2 1 ,000 


23,700 


18.800 


16,900 


18,300 


15,200 


13,100 


13,000 


Lagos* 


4,900 


9,100 


9,000 


15,400 


10,200 


Grenada* 


6,100 


6,500 


5.5°° 


5-5 00 


6,700 


Fernando Po 


3,100 


3-9 00 


3,800 


3.7°° 


4,200 


Ceylon* 


2,900 


3>9°° 


3,5°° 


3>7 00 


4,000 


Jamaica* 


3,800 


3,600 


3.4 00 


2,800 


3, coo 


Surinam 


1,900 


1,700 


2,000 


1,900 


2,500 


Cameroons 


1,200 


2,400 


3,000 


2,800 


1 ,300 


Haiti 


2,100 


1,800 


1,900 


1,500 


2,300 


French Cols. 


1,800 


1,900 


1,600 


2,200 


1,700 


Cuba 


1,800 


1,700 


1,500 


i,5 00 


1,000 


Java 


1,600 


1,500 


1.500 


1,600 


800 


Samoa 


1,100 


900 


900 


1,200 


800 


Togo 


200 


300 


400 


1,600 


I, coo 


St. Lucia* 


700 


800 


700 


600 


500 


Belgian Congo 


500 


600 


800 


800 


900 


Dominica* 


45° 


55° 


300 


300 


300 


St. Vincent* 


100 


100 


75 


5° 


75 


Other countries 


3,200 


3,000 


3,5°° 


3.5 00 


3>5 00 


Total 


275,900 


296,100 


295,400 


344,000 


275,600 


Total British 












Empire 


102,000 


128,000 


1 20 ,000 


153,000 


119,000 



* British Possessions. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 



83 




« 
< 

O 
g 

Q 
O 

« 

I 

o 
< 

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o 

IX 
H 



84 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

SOUTH AMERICAN CACAO. 

In the map of South America given on p. 89 the 
principal cacao producing areas are marked. Their 
production in 19 18 was as follows : 

Cacao Beans Exported. 

Country. Metric Tons.* 

Brazil 4^865 

Ecuador 38,000 

(Guayaquil alone 34,973 tons) 

Venezuela 13, coo 

Surinam 2,468 

British Guiana 20 

South American Total . . 95,353 tons 



Percentage 


of 


World's production. 


l 5'4 




14/0 




5'° 




°'9 




O'OI 




IS'! 1 ?** 


cent. 



Ecuador. 

Arriba and Machala Cacaos. — In Ecuador, for many- 
years the chief producing area of the world, dwell the 
cacao kings, men who possess very large and wild cacao 
forests, each containing several million cacao trees. 
The method of culture is primitive, and no artificial 
manures are used, yet for several generations the trees 
have given good crops and the soil remains as fertile 
as ever. The two principal cacaos are known as Arriba 
and Machala, or classed together as Guayaquil after 
the city of that name. Guayaquil, the commercial 
metropolis of the Republic of Ecuador, is an ancient 
and picturesque city built almost astride the Equator.. 
Despite the unscientific cultural methods, and the 
imperfect fermentation, which results in the cacao 
containing a high percentage of unfermented beans 
and not infrequently mouldy beans also, this cacao is 
much appreciated in Europe and America, for the beans 

* These figures, and others quoted later in this chapter, are 
estimates given by Messrs. Theo. Vasmer & Co. in their reports. 






CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 



85 




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86 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



are large and possess a fine strong flavour and char- 
acteristic scented aroma. The amount of Guayaquil 
cacao exported in 19 19 was 33,209 tons. 

An interesting experiment was made in 1912, when 
a protective association known as the Asociacion de 
Agricultores del Ecuador was legalised. This collects 
half a golden dollar on every hundred pounds of cacao, 




Sorting Cacao for Shipment, Guayaquil, 
Ecuador. 



and by purchasing and storing cacao on its own account 
whenever prices fall below a reasonable minimum, 
attempts in the planter's interest to regulate the selling 
price of cacao. Unfortunately, as cacao tends to go 
mouldy when stored in a damp tropical climate, the 
Asociacion is not an unmixed blessing to the manu- 
facturer and consumer. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 87 

Brazil. 

Para and Bahia Cacaos. — Brazil has made marked 
progress in recent years, and has now overtaken Ecu- 
ador in quantity of produce ; the cacao, however, is 
quite different from, and not as fine as, that from 
Guayaquil. The principal cacao comes from the State 
of Bahia, where the climate is ideal for its cultivation. 
Indeed so perfect are the natural conditions that for- 
merly no care was taken in cacao production, and 
much of that gathered w r as wild and uncured. During 
the last decade there has been an improvement, and 
this would, doubtless, be more noteworthy if the means 
of transport were better, for at present the roads are 
bad and the railways inadequate ; hence most of the 
cacao is brought down to the city of Bahia in canoes. 
Nevertheless, Bahia cacao is better fermented than the 
peculiar cacao of Para, another important cacao from 
Brazil, which is appreciated by manufacturers on 
account of its mild flavour. Bahia exported in 191 9 
about 51,000 tons of cacao. 

Venezuela. 

Caracas, Carnpano and Maracaibo Cacaos. — Vene- 
zuela has been called " the classic home of cacao," 
and had not the chief occupation of its inhabitants 
been revolution, it would have retained till now the 
important position it held a hundred years ago. It is in 
this enchanted country (it was at La Guayra in Caracas, 
as readers of Westzvard Ho ! will remember, that 
Amyas found his long-sought Rose) that the finest 
cacao in the world is produced : the criollo, the bean 
with the golden-brown break. The tree which pro- 
duces this is as delicate as the cacao is fine, and 
there is some danger that this superb cacao may die 
out — a tragedy which every connoisseur would wish 
to avert. 

The Gordian estimates that Venezuela sent out from 
her three principal ports in 1919 some 16,226 tons of 
cacao. 



88 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

THE WEST INDIES. 

In the map of South America the principal West 

Indian islands producing cacao are marked. Their 
production in 191 8 was as follows : 

Cacao Beans Exported. Percentage of 

Metric Tons . World 's production . 

Trinidad (British) 26,177 9/7 

San Domingo 1 8,839 7'° 

Grenada (British) 6,704 2*5 

Jamaica (British) 3, 000 n 

Haiti 2,272 o*8 

St. Lucia (British) 500 o - 2 

Dominica (British) 300 o*i 

St. Vincent (British) .... 70 0*02 

West Indies Total .... 57,862 tons 21 "42 per cent. 

Br. West Indies 36,751 tons 13*6 per cent. 

Trinidad and Grenada.* 

Cacao was grown in the West Indies in the seven- 
teenth century, and the inhabitants, after the destruct- 
ive " blast," which utterly destroyed the plantations 
in 1727, bravely replanted cacao, which has flourished 
there ever since. The cacaos of Trinidad and Grenada 
have long been known for their excellence, and it is 
mainly from Trinidad that the knowledge of methods 
of scientific cultivation and preparation has been 
spread to planters all round the equator. The cacao 
from Trinidad (famous alike for its cacao and its pitch 
lake) has always held a high place in the markets of the 
world, although a year or two ago the inclusion of in- 
ferior cacao and the practice of claying was abused 
by a few growers and merchants. With the object of 
stopping these abuses and of producing a uniform 
cacao, there was formed a Cacao Planters' Associ- 
ation, whose business it is to grade and bulk, and sell 
on a co-operative basis, the cacao produced by its 
members. This experiment has proved successful, and 

* Cacao production in 1919: Trinidad 27,185 tons; Grenada 
4,020 tons. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 



89 




Map of South America and the West Indies. 
Only cacao-producing areas are marked. 



9 o 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



in 19 1 8 the Association handled the cacao from over 
100 estates. We may expect to see more of these cacao 
planters' associations formed in various parts of the 
world, for they are in line with the trend of the times 




Workers on a Cacao Plantation. 
(Messrs. Cadbury's estate in Trinidad.) 

towards large, and ever larger, unions and combinations. 
Trinidad is also progressive in its system of agricultural 
education and in its formation of agricultural credit socie- 
ties. The neighbouring island of Grenada is mountain- 
ous, smaller than the Isle of Wight and (if the Irish will 
forgive me) greener than Erin'sIsle.The methods of cacao 
cultivation in vogue there might seem natural to the Bri- 
tish farmer, but they are considered remarkable by cacao 
planters, for in Grenada the soil on which the trees grow is 
forked or tilled. Possibly from this follows the equally 
remarkable corollary that the cacao trees flourish without 
a single shade tree. The preparation of the bean receives 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 91 

as much care as the cultivation of the tree, and 
the cacao which comes from the estates has an un- 
varied constancy of quality, not infrequently giving 
100 per cent, of perfectly prepared beans. It is largely 
due to this that the cacao from this small island occu- 
pies such an important position on the London market. 
The cacao from San Domingo is known commer- 
cially as Samana or Sanchez. A fair proportion is of 
inferior quality, and is little appreciated on the 
European markets. The bulk of it goes to America. 
The production in 1919 was about 23,000 tons. 

AFRICAN CACAO. 

In the map of Africa the principal producing areas 
are marked. Their production in 191 8 was as follows : 

Cacao Beans Exported. 

Metric Tons. Percentage of 

World's production. 

Gold Coast (British) 66,343 24*5 

San Thome 19,185 7'i 

Lagos (British) 10,223 3'^ 

Fernando Po 4,220 i'6 

Cameroons 1 ,250 0*4 

Togo 1 ,000 o - 4 

Belgian Congo 875 0*3 

African Total 103,096 tons 38-1 per cent. 

British Africa 76,56610ns 28*3 per cent. 

The Gold Coast [Industrie, floremus) 
Accra Cacao. 

The name recalls stories of a romantic and awful 
past, in which gold and the slave trade played their 
terrible part. Happily these are things of the past ; so 
is the " deadly climate." We are told that it is now no 
worse than that of other tropical countries. According 
to Sir Hugh Clifford, until recently Governor of the 
Gold Coast, the " West African Climatic Bogie " is a 



9 2 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Map of Africa — with only cacao-producing 
areas marked 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 93 




94 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

myth, and the " monumental reputation for unhealthi- 
ness " undeserved. When De Candolle wrote con- 
cerning cacao, " I imagine it would succeed on the 
Guinea Coast,"* as the West African coast is some- 
times called, he achieved prophecy, but he little 
dreamed how wonderful this success would be. The 
rise and growth of the cacao-growing industry in the 
Gold Coast is one of the most extraordinary develop- 
ments of the last few decades. In thirty years it has 
increased its export of cacao from nothing to 40 percent, 
of the total of the world's production. 

Production of Cacao on the Gold Coast. 

Year. Quantity. Value. £ 

1891 o tons (80 lbs.) 4 

1896 34 tons 2,276 

1 90 1 980 tons 42.837 

1906 8,975 tons 336.269 

1911 30, 798 tons 1,613,468 

1916 72,161 tons 3,847,720 

1917 90,964 tons 3,146,851 

1918 66,343 tons l , 796, 985 

1 91 9 177,000 tons 8,000,000 

The conditions of production in the Gold Coast 
present a number of features entirely novel. We hear 
from time to time of concessions being granted in 
tropical regions to this or that company of enterprising 
European capitalists, who employ a few Europeans 
and send them to the area to manage the industry. The 
inhabitants of the area become the manual wage earners 
of the company, and too often in the lust for profits, 
or as an offering to the god of commercial efficiency, 
the once easy and free life of the native is lost for ever 
and a form of wage-slavery takes its place with doubt- 
ful effects on the life and health of the workers. In 
defence it is pointed out that yet another portion of 
the earth has been made productive, which, without 
the initiative of the European capitalist, must have lain 

*De Candolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants, quoted by R. Whymper. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 95 




96 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

fallow. But in the Gold Coast the " indolent " native 
has created a new industry entirely native owned, and 
in thirty years the Gold Coast has outstripped all the 
areas of the world in quantity of produce. Forty years 
ago the natives had never seen a cacao tree, now at 
least fifty million trees flourish in the colony. This 
could not have happened without the strenuous efforts 
of the Department of Agriculture. The Gold Coast 
now stands head and shoulders above any other pro- 
ducing area for quantity. The problem of the future 
lies in the improvement of quality, and difficult though 
this problem be, we cannot doubt, given a fair chance, 
that the far-sighted and energetic Agricultural Depart- 
ment will solve it. Indeed, it must injustice be pointed 
out that already a very marked improvement has been 
made, and now fifty to one hundred times as much 
good fermented cacao is produced as there was ten 
years ago.* However, if a high standard is to be main- 
tained, the work of the Department of Agriculture 
must be supplemented by the willingness of the cacao 
buyers to pay a higher price for the better qualities. 

The phenomenal growth of this industry is the more 
remarkable when we consider the lack of roads and 
beasts of burden. The usual pack animals, horses and 
oxen, cannot live on the Gold Coast because of the 
tsetse fly, which spreads amongst them the sleeping 
sickness. And so the native, used as he is to heavy 
head-loads, naturally adopted this as his first method 
of transport, and hundreds, of the less affluent natives 
arrive at the collecting centres with great weights of 



* " Towards this latter result Messrs. Cadbury Bros., Ltd., 
rendered great assistance. This firm sent representatives into the 
country, who proved to the natives that they were willing to pay an 
enhanced price for cocoa prepared in a manner suitable for their 
requirements. A fair amount of cocoa was purchased by them, and 
demonstrations were made in some places with regard to the proper 
mode of fermentation." (The Agricultural and Forest Products of 
British West Africa. Imperial Institute Handbook, by G. C. Dud- 
geon). 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 



97 




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COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



cacao on their heads. "Women and children, light- 
hearted, chattering and cheerful, bear their 60 lbs. 
head-loads with infinite patience. Heavier loads, ap- 
proaching sometimes 
two hundredweight, 
are borne by grave, 
silent H ausa-men , 
often a distance of 
thirty or forty miles." 
One day, not so 
many years ago, some 
more ingenious native 
in the hills at the back 
of the Coast, filled an 
old palm-oil barrel 
with cacao and rolled 
it down the ways to 
Accra. And now to- 
day it is a familiar sight 
to see a man trundling 
a huge barrel of cacao, 
weighing half a ton, 
down to the coast. The 
sound of a motor horn 
is heard, and he wildly 
turns the barrel aside 
to avoid a disastrous 
collision with the new, 
weird transport ani- 
mal from Europe. 
Motor lorries have 
been used with great 
seven years ; they have 




Drying Cacao Beans at Mramra. 

Reproduced bv permission from the Imperial Institute 

series of Handbooks to the Commercial Resources of 

the Tropics. 



effect on the coast for some 

the advantage over pack animals that they do not 

succumb to the bite of the dreaded tsetse fly, but 

nevertheless not a few derelicts lie, or stand on their 

heads, in the ditches, the victims of over-work or 

accident. 

Having brought the cacao to the coast, there yet 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 



99 




Shooting Cacao from the Road to the Beach, Accra. 



100 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



remains the lighterage to the ocean liner, which lies 
anchored some two miles from the shore, rising and 
falling to the great rollers from the broad Atlantic. A 
long boat is used, manned by some twenty swarthy 
natives, who glory — vocally — in their passage through 
the dangerous surf which 
roars along the sloping 
beach. The cacao is piled 
high on wood racks and 
covered with tarpaulins 
and seldom shares the 
fate of passengers and 
crew, who are often 
drenched in the surf 
before they swing by a 
crane in the primitive 
mammy chair, high but 
not dry, on board the 
hospitable Elder Demp- 
ster liner. 

/ 
San Thome 

(and Principe). 

We now turn from the 
Gold Coast and the suc- 
cess of native ownership 
to another part of West 
Africa, a scene of singular beauty, where the Portuguese 
planters have triumphed over savage nature. 

Two lovely islands, San Thome and its little 
sister isle of Principe, lie right on the Equator in 
the Gulf of Guinea, about two hundred miles from 
the African mainland. A warm, lazy sea, the sea 
of the doldrums, sapphire or turquoise, or, in deep 
shaded pools, a radiant green, joyfully foams itself 
away against these fairy lands of tossing palm, 
dense vegetation, rushing cascades, and purple, 
precipitous peaks. A soil of volcanic origin is 
covered with a rich humus of decaying vegetation, 




Rolling Cacao, Gold 
Coast. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 101 

and this, with a soft humid atmosphere, makes an 
ideal home for cacao. 

The bean, introduced in 1822, was not cultivated 
with diligence till fifty years ago. To-day the two 
islands, which together have not half the area of Surrey, 
grow 32,000 metric tons of cacao a year, or about one- 
tenth of the world's production.* The income of a 




Rolling Cacao, Gold Coast. 

Reproduced by permission of the Editor of " West Africa." 

single planter, once a poor peasant, has amounted 
to hundreds of thousands sterling. 

Dotted over the islands, here nestling on a moun- 
tain side, there overlooking some blue inlet of the sea, 
are more than two hundred plantations, or rocas, 
whose buildings look like islands in a green sea of cacao 

* The Gordian's estimate for the amount exported in 191 9 

is '40, 766 tons. 



102 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Carrying Cacao to the Railway Station, 
Xsawam, Gold Coast. 

shrubs, above which rise the grey stems of such forest 
trees as have been left to afford shade. 

Here, not only have the cultivation, fermentation 
and drying of cacao been brought to the highest state 
of perfection, but the details of organisation — planters' 
homes, hospitals, cottages, drying sheds and the Decau- 
ville railways — are often models of their kind. 

Intelligent and courteous, the planters make delight- 
ful hosts. At their homes, five thousand miles away 
from Europe, the visitor, who knows what it means 
to struggle with steaming, virgin forests, rank encroach- 
ing vegetation, deadly fevers, and the physical and 
mental inertia engendered by the tropics, will marvel 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 103 

at the courage and energy that have triumphed over 
such obstacles. Calculating from various estimates, 
each labourer in the islands appears to produce about 
1,640 pounds of cacao yearly, and the average yield 
per cultivated acre is 480 pounds, or about 30 pounds 
more than that of Trinidad in 1898. 




Wagon Loads of Cacao being taken from Messrs. 
Cadbury's Depot to the Beach, Accra. 

As there is no available labour in San Thome, the 
planters get their workers from the mainland of Africa. 
Prior to the year 1908, the labour system of the islands 
was responsible for grave abuses. This has now been 
changed. Natives from the Portuguese colonies of 
Angola and Mozambique now enter freely into con- 
tracts ranging from one to five years, two years being 
the time generally chosen. At the end of their term of 
work they either re-contract or return to their native 
land with their savings, with which they generally buy 
a wife. The readiness with which the natives volunteer 
for the work on the islands is proof both of the sound- 
ness of the system of contract and of the good treat- 
ment they receive at the hands of the planters. 



104 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




The Ruildings of the Boa Entrada Cacao Estate, 
San Thome. 

Unfortunately, the mortality of the plantation 
labourers has generally been very heavy, one large and 
well-managed estate recording on an average of seven 
years an annual death rate of 148 per thousand, and 
many rocas have still more appalling records. Against 
this, other plantations only a few miles away may show 
a mortality approximating to that of an average European 
city. In February, 191 8, the workers in San Thome 
numbered 39,605, and the deaths during the previous 
year, 1917, were 1,808, thus showing on official figures 
an annual mortality of 45 per thousand. Comparing 
this with the 26 per thousand of Trinidad, and re- 
membering that most of the San Thome labourers are 
in the prime of life, it will be seen that this death rate 
represents a heavy loss of life and justifies the con- 
tinued demand from the British cocoa manufacturers 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 105 

for the appointment and report of a special medical 
commission. 

The Portuguese Government is prepared to meet 
this demand, for it has recently sent a Commissioner, 
Dr. Joaquim Gouveia, to San Thome to make a 
thorough examination of labour conditions, including 
work, food, housing, hospitals and medical attendance, 
and to report fully and confidentially to the Portu- 
guese Colonial Secretary. 




Drying Cacao at Agua Ize, San Thom£. 
The trays are on wheels, which run on rails. 

If this important step is followed by adequate 
measures of reform there is every reason to hope that 
the result will be a material reduction in the death 
rate, as the good health enjoyed on some of the rocas 
shows San Thome to be not more unhealthy than other 
tropical islands. 

Cameroons. 

The Cameroons, which we took from the" Germans 
in 19 1 6, is also on the West Coast of Africa. It lags far 
behind the Gold Coast in output, although both com- 
menced to grow cacao about the same time. The 



io6 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Barrel Rolling, Gold Coast. 

Germans spent great sums in the Cameroons in giving 
the industry a scientific basis, they adopted the " estate 
plan," and possibly the fact that they employ contract 
labour explains why they have not had the same pheno- 
menal success that the natives working for themselves 
have achieved on the Gold Coast. 

Various countries and districts which are respon- 
sible for about 97 per cent, of the world's cacao crop 
have now been named and briefly commented upon. 
Of other producing areas, the islands, Ceylon and 
Java, are worthy of mention. In both of these (as also 
in Venezuela, Samoa* and Madagascar) is grown the 

* Robert Louis Stevenson was one of the pioneers in cacao plant- 
ing in Samoa, as readers of his Vailima Letters will remember. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 107 

criollo cacao, which produces the plump, sweet beans 
with the cinnamon " break." Cacao beans from Ceylon 
or Java are easily recognised by their appearance, be- 
cause, being washed, they have beautiful clean shells, 
but there is a serious objection to washed shells, namely, 
that they are brittle and as thin as paper, so that many 
are broken before thev reach the manufacturer. Ceylon 
is justlv famous for its fine " old red " ; along with 










Bagging Cacao, Gold Coast. 

Reproduced by permission of the Editor of " West Africa." 

this a fair quantity of inferior cacao is produced, which 
by being called Ceylon (such is the power of a good 
name), tends to claim a higher price than its quality 
warrants. 

CACAO MARKETS. 

From the Plantation to the European Market. 

It is mentioned above that on the Gold Coast cacao 
is brought down to Accra as head-loads, or in barrels, 
or in motor-lorries. These methods are exceptional ; 
in other countries it is usually put in sacks at the estate. 
Every estate has its own characteristic mark, which is 



io8 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Surf Boats by the Side of the Ocean Liner, Accra. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 109 

stamped on the bags, and this is recognised by the 
buyers in Europe, and gives a clue to the quality of 
the contents. There is not as yet a uniform weight for 
a bag of cacao, although they all vary between one and 
two cwt., thus the bags from Africa contain 1^ cwts., 
whilst those from Guayaquil contain if cwts. In these 
bags the cacao is taken to the port on the backs of mules, 
in horse or ox carts, in canoes down a stream, or more 
rarely, by rail. It is then conveyed by lighters or surf 
boats to the great ocean liners which lie anchored off 
the shore. In the hold of the liner it is rocked thousands 
of miles over the azure seas of the tropics to the grey- 
green seas of the temperate zone. In pre-war days a 
million bags used to go to Hamburg, three-quarters 
of a million to New York, half a million to Havre, and 
only a trifling quarter of a million to London. Now 
London is the leading cacao market of the world. 
During the war the supplies were cut off from Ham- 
burg, whilst Liverpool, becoming a chief port for 
African cacao, in 1916 imported a million bags. Then 
New York began to gorge cacao, and in 1917 created 
a record, importing some two and a half million bags, 
or about 150,000 tons. Whilst everything is in so fluid 
a condition it is unwise to prophesy ; it may, however, 
be said that there are many who think, now that the 
consumption of cocoa and chocolate in America has 
reached such a prodigious figure, that New York may 
yet oust London and become the central dominating 
market of the world. 

Difficulties of Buying. 

Every country produces a different kind of cacao, 
and the cacao from any two plantations in the same 
country often shows wide variation. It may be said that 
there are as many kinds of cacao as there are of apples, 
cacao showing as marked differences as exhibited by 
crabs and Blenheims, not to mention James Grieves, 
Russets, Worcester Pearmains, Newton Wonders, Lord 
Derbys, Belle de Boskoops, and so forth. Further, 



no 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Bagging Cacao Beans for Shipment, Trinidad. 




Transferring Bags of Cacao Beans to 
Lighters, Trinidad. 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE in 

whilst the bulk of the cacao is good and sound, a little 
of the cacao grown in any district is liable to have 
suffered from drought or from attacks by moulds or 
insect pests. It will be realised from these fragmentary 
remarks that the buyer must exercise perpetual vigil- 
ance. 

Cacao Sales. 

Before the Cocoa Prices Orders were published 
(March, 191 8) the manner of conducting the sale of 
cacao in London was as follows. Brokers' lists giving the 
kinds of cacao for sale, and the number of bags of each, 
were sent, together with samples, to the buyers some 
days beforehand, so that they were able to decide 
what they wished to purchase and the price they were 
willing to pay. The sales always took place at 1 1 o'clock 
on Tuesdays in the Commercial Sale Room in Minc- 
ing Lane, that narrow street off Fenchurch Street, 
where the air is so highly charged with expert know- 
ledge of the world's produce, that it would illuminate 
the prosaic surroundings with brilliant flashes if it 
could become visible. On the morning of the sale 
samples of the cacaos are on exhibit at the principal 
brokers. The man in the street brought into the broker's 
office would ask what these strange beans might be. 
" A new kind of almond ? " he might ask. And then, 
on being told they were cacao, he would see nothing 
to choose between all the various lots and wonder why 
so much fuss was made over discriminating amongst 
the similar and distinguishing the identical. He might 
even marvel a little at the expert knowledge of the 
buyers ; yet, frankly, the pertinent facts concerning 
quality, known by the buyer, are fewer and no more 
difficult to learn than the thousand and one facts a lad 
must have at his linger ends to pass the London 
Matriculation ; they are valued because they are in- 
accessible to the multitude ; only a few people have 
the opportunity of learning them, and their use may 
make or mar fortunes. The judgment of quality is, 



ii2 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

however, only one side of the art of buying. We have 
to add to these a knowledge of the conditions prevail- 
ing in the various markets of the world, a knowledge of 
stocks and probable supplies, and given this know- 
ledge, an ability to estimate their effect, together with 
other conditions, agricultural, political and social, on 
the price of the commodity. The room in which the 
sales are conducted is not a large one, and usually 
not more than a hundred people, buyers, pressmen, 
etc., are present. Not a single cacao bean is visible, 
and it might be an auction sale of property for all the 
uninitiated could tell. The cacao is put up in lots. 
Usually the sales proceed quietly, and it is difficult to 
realize that many thousands of bags of cacao are chang- 
ing hands. The buyers have perfect trust in the broker's 
descriptions ; they know the invariable fair-play of 
the British broker, which is a by-word the world over. 
The machinery of the proceedings is lubricated by an 
easy flow of humour. Sometimes a few bags of sea- 
damaged cacao or of cacao sweepings are put up, and 
a good deal of keenness is shown by the individuals 
who buy this stuff. It is curious that a whole crowd of 
busy people will allow their time to be taken up whilst 
there is a spirited fight between two or three buyers 
for a single bag. 

Whilst the London Auction Sales are of importance 
as fixing the prices for the various markets, and reflect- 
ing to a certain extent the position of supply and de- 
mand, only a fraction of the world's cacao changes 
hands at the Auction Sales, the greater part*of it being 
bought privately for forward delivery. 



Prices and Quotations . 

The price of cacao is liable to fluctuations like every 
other product, thus in 1907 Trinidad cacao rose to one 
shilling a pound, whilst there have been periods when 
it has only fetched sixpence per pound. On April 2nd, 
19 1 8, the Food Controller fixed the prices of the finest 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 113 

















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£ * 2 5 



8 S 



ii4 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

qualities of the different varieties of raw cacao as 
follows : 

British West Africa (Accra) 65s. per cwt. 

Bahia 

Cameroons / 

San Thome f 85s. „ ,, 

Congo I 

Grenada 

Trinidad 1 

Demerara 90s. ,, „ 

Guayaquil | 

Surinam 

Ceylon 

Java 100s. ,, 

Samoa J 

The diagram on p. 1 13 shows the average market pri 
in the United Kingdom of some of the more importa 
cacaos before, during, and after the war. The mc 
striking change is the sudden rise when the Goven 
ment control was removed. All cacaos showed a sut 
stantial advance varying from 80 to 150 per cent, o 
pre-war values. Further large advances have taken plac. 
in the early months of 1920. 

The Call of the Tropics. 

Many a young man, reading in some delightful book 
of travel, has longed to go to the tropics and see the 
wonders for himself. There can be no doubt that 2 
sojourn in equatorial regions is one of the most edu- 
cative of experiences. In support of this I cannot dc 
better than quote Grant Allen, who regarded th> 
tropics as the best of all universities. " But above al 
in educational importance I rank the advantage ol 
seeing human nature in its primitive surroundings, 
far from the squalid and chilly influences of the tail- 
end of the Glacial epoch." ..." We must forge 
all this formal modern life ; we must break away fron 
this cramped, cold, northern world ; we must fint 
ourselves face to face at last, in Pacific isles or Africar 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 



"5 



forests, with the underlying truths of simple naked 
nature." 

Many will recall how Charles Kingsley's longing to 
see the tropics was ultimately satisfied. In his book, 
in which he describes how he " At Last " visited the 
West Indies, we read that he encountered a happy 
Scotchman living a quiet life in the dear little island 




Group of Workers on Cacao Estate. 

ome are standing on the Drying Platform, which is the roof of the 

Fermentary. 



f Monos. " I looked at the natural beauty and re- 
>ose ; at the human vigour and happiness ; and I said 
o myself, and said it often afterwards in the West 
ndies : ' Why do not other people copy this wise 
cot ? Why should not many a young couple, who 
ave education, refinement, resources in themselves, 
at are, happily or unhappily for them, unable to 
;ep a brougham and go to London balls, retreat to 
)me such paradise as this (and there are hundreds like 



n6 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

it to be found in the West Indies), leaving behind them 
false civilisation, and vain desires, and useless show ; 
and there live in simplicity and content ' The Gentle 
Life ' ? " 

The Planter's Life. 

Few who go to the tropics escape their fascination, 
and of those that are young, few return to colder climes. 
Some become overseers, others, more fortunate, own 
the estates they manage. It is inadvisable for the in- 
experienced to start on the enterprise of buying and 
planting an estate with less capital than two or three 
thousand pounds ; but, once established, a cacao 
plantation may be looked upon as a permanent invest- 
ment, which will continue to bear and give a good 
yield as long as it receives proper attention. 

In the recently published Letters of Anthony Farley 
the writer tells how Farley encounters in South America 
an old college friend of his, who in his early days was 
on the high road to a brilliant political career. Here he 
is, a planter. He explains : 

" My mother was Spanish ; her brother owned this place. When 
he died it came to me." 

" How did your uncle hold it through the various revolutions ? " 

" Nothing simpler. He became an American citizen. When 
trouble threatened he made a bee-line for the United States Con- 
sulate. I'm British, of course. Well, just when I had decided upon a 
political life, I found it necessary to come here to straighten things 
out. One month lengthened itself into a year. I grew fascinated. 
Here I felt a sense of immense usefulness. On the mountain side 
my coffee-trees flourished ; down in the valley grew cacao." 

" I grow mine on undulations." 

" You needn't, you know, so long as you drain." 

" Yes, but draining on the flat is the devil." 

" Anyhow, I always liked animals — you haven't seen my pigs 
yet — and horses and mules need careful tending. A cable arrived 
one morning announcing an impending dissolution. I felt like an 
unwilling bridegroom called to marry an ugly bride. I invited my 
soul. Here, thought I to myself, are animals and foodstuffs — good, 
honest food at that. If I go back it is only to fill people's bellies with 
political east wind." 



CACAO PRODUCTION AND SALE 117 

" To come to the point, I decided to grow coffee and cacao. I 
cabled infinite regrets. The decision once made, I was happy as a 
sandboy. J'y suis,j'y reste, said I to myself, said I. Nor have I ever 
cast one longing look behind."* 

This is fiction, but I think it is true that very few, 
if any, who become planters in the tropics ever re- 
turn permanently to England. The hospitality of the 
planters is proverbial : there must be something good 
and free about the planter's life to produce men so 
genial and generous. There is a picture that I often 
recall, and never without pleasure. A young planter 
and I had, with the help of more or less willing mules, 
climbed over the hills from one valley to the next. 
The valley we had left is noted for its beauty, but to 
me it had become familiar ; the other valley I saw 
now for the first time. The sides were steep and 
covered with trees, and I could only see one dwelling 
in the valley. We reached this by a circuitous path 
through cacao trees. Approaching it as we did, the 
bungalow seemed completely cut off from the rest of 
the world. We were welcomed by the planter and his 
wife, and by those of the children who were not shy. 
I have never seen more chubby or jolly kiddies, and I 
know from the sweetness of the children that their 
mother must have given them unremitting attention. 
I wondered indeed if she ever left them for a moment. 
I knew, too, from the situation of the bungalow in the 
heart of the hills that visitors were not likely to be 
frequent. The planter's life is splendid for a man who 
likes open air and nature, but I had sometimes thought 
that their wives would not find the life so good. I was 
mistaken. When we came away, after riding some 
distance, through a gap in the cacao we saw across the 
valley a group of happy children. They saw us, and all 
of them, even the shy ones, waved us adieux. 



* Quoted from the New Age, where the Letters of Anthony 
Farley first appeared . 



n8 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Carting Cacao to Railway Station, Ceylon. 




The Carenage, Grenada. 



ii9 



CHAPTER V 

THE MANUFACTURE OF COCOA AND 
CHOCOLATE 

The Indians, from whom we borrow it, are not very nice 
in doing it ; they roast the kernels in earthen pots, then free 
them from their skins, and afterwards crush and grind 
them between two stones, and so form cakes of it with 
their hands. Natural History of Chocolate, 

R. Brookes, 1730. 

Early Methods in the Tropics. 

AS the cacao bean is grown in tropical countries, 
it is there that we must look for the first attempts 
at manufacturing from it a drink or a food- 
stuff. The primitive method of preparation was very 
simple, consisting in roasting the beans in a pot or on 
a shovel to develop their flavour, winnowing in the 
wind, and then rubbing the broken shelled beans be- 
tween stones until quite fine. The curious thing is that 
on grinding the cacao bean in the heat of a tropical day 
we do not produce a powder but a paste. This is be- 
cause half the cacao bean consists of a fat which is 
liquid at 90°F., a temperature which is reached in the 
shade in tropical countries. This paste was then made 
into small rolls and put in a cool place to set. Thus was 
produced the primitive unsweetened drinking choco- 
late. This is the method, which Elizabethans, who 
ventured into the tangled forests of equatorial America, 
found in use ; and this is the method they brought 
home to Europe. In the tropics these simple processes 
are followed to this day, but in Europe they have 
undergone many elaborations and refinements. 



120 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

If the reader will look at the illustration entitled 
" Women grinding chocolate," he will see how the 
brittle roasted bean is reduced to a paste in primitive 
manufacture. A stone, shaped like a rolling-pin, is 
being pushed to and fro over a concave slab, on which 
the smashed beans have already been reduced to a paste 
of a doughy consistency. 




4 fig. ; Fig. i Fig. 2 

Early Factory Methods. 

Fig. i is a workman roasting the cacao in an iron kettle over a 
furnace. He has to stir the beans to keep them from burning. Fig. 2 
is a person sifting and freeing the roasted kernels (which when 
broken into fragments are called " nibs ") from their husks or shell. 
Fig. 3 shows a workman pounding the shell-free nibs in an iron 
mortar. Fig. 4 represents a workman grinding the nibs on a hard 
smooth stone with an iron roller. The grinding is performed over a 
chafing-dish of burning charcoal, as it is necessary, for ease of grind- 
ing, to keep the paste in a liquid condition. 

Early European Manufacture. 

The conversion of these small scale operations into 
the early factory process is well shown in the plate 
which I reproduce above from Arts and Sciences, pub- 
lished in 1768. 

A certain atmosphere of dreamy intellectuality is 



MANUFACTURE 



121 




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122 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

associated with coffee, so that the roasting of it is felt 
to be a romantic occupation. The same poetic atmos- 
phere surrounded the manufacture of drinking choco- 
late in the early days : the writers who revealed the 
secrets of its preparation were conscious that they were 
giving man a new aesthetic delight and the subject is 
treated lovingly and lingeringly. One, Pietro Metas- 
tasio, went so far as to write a " cantata " describing its 
manufacture. He describes the grinding as being done 
by a vigorous man, and truly, to grind by hand is a 
very laborious operation, which happily in more recent 
times has been performed by the use of power-driven 
mills. 

Operations on a large scale followed the founding of 
Fry and Sons at Bristol in 1728, and of Lombart, " la 
plus ancienne chocolaterie de France," in Paris in 
1760. In Germany the first chocolate factory was 
erected at Steinhunde in 1756, under the patronage 
of Prince Wilhelm, whilst in America the well-known 
firm of Walter Baker and Co. began in a small way in 
1765. From the methods adopted in these factories 
have gradually developed the modern processes which 
I am about to describe. • 

MODERN PRACTICE. 

As the early stages in the manufacture of cocoa and 
of chocolate are often identical, the processes which 
are common to both are first described, and then some 
individual consideration is given to each. 

(a) Arrival at the Factory. 

The cacao is largely stored in warehouses, from 
which it is removed as required. It has remarkable 
keeping properties, and can be kept in a good store for 
several years without loss of quality. Samples of cacao 
beans in glass bottles have been found to be in perfect 
condition after thirty years. Some factories have stores 
in which stand thousands of bags of cacao drawn from 
many ports round the equator. There is something 



MANUFACTURE 



123 




Part of a Cacao Bean Warehouse, showing Endless 

Band Conveyor. 

(Messrs. Cadbury Bros'. Works, Bournville). 

very pleasing about huge stacks of bags of cacao seen 
against the luminous white walls of a well-lighted 
store. The symmetry of their construction, and the 
continued repetition of the same form, are never better 
shown than when the men, climbing up the sides of a 
stack against which they look small, unbuild the mighty 
heap, the bags falling on to a continuous band which 
carries them jauntily out of the store. 

(b) Sorting the Beans. 

As all cacao is liable to contain a little free shell, 
dried pulp (often taken for twigs), threads of sacking 
and other foreign matter, it is very carefully sieved 



124 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



and sorted before passing on to the roasting shop. In 
this process curios are occasionally separated, such as 
palm kernels, cowrie shells, shea butter nuts, good 
luck seeds and " crab's eyes." The essential part of one 
type of machine (see illustration) which accomplishes 
this sorting is an inclined revolving cylinder of wire 




Cacao Bean Sorting and Cleaning Machine. 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. J. Baker & Sons, Ltd., Willesden. 



gauze along which the beans pass. The cylinder forms 
a continuous set of sieves of different sized mesh, one 
sieve allowing only sand to pass, another only very 
small beans or fragments of beans, and finally one 
holding back anything larger than single beans (e.g., 
" cobs," that is, a collection of two or more beans stuck 
together). 

Another type of cleaning machine is illustrated by 
the diagram on the opposite page. 

This machine with its shaking sieves and blast of air 
makes a great clatter and fuss. It produces however, 
what the manufacturers desire — a clean bean sorted to 



size. 



MANUFACTURE 



I2 5 




Diagram of Cacao Bean Cleaning Machine. 

This is a box fitted with shaking sieves down which the cacao 
beans pass in a current of air. Having come over some large and very 
powerful magnets, which take out any nails or fragments of iron, 
they fall on to a sieve (|-inch holes) which the engineer describee as 
" rapidly reciprocating and arranged on a slight incline and mounted 
on spring bars." This allows grit to pass through. The beans then 
roll down a plane on to a sieve (f-inch holes) which separates the 
broken beans, and finally on to a sieve with oblong holes which 
allows the beans to fall through whilst retaining the clusters. The 
beans encounter a strong blast of air which brushes from them any 
shell or dust clinging to them. 

(c) Roasting the Beans. 

As with coffee so with cacao, the characteristic 
flavour and aroma are only developed on roasting. 
Messrs. Bainbridge and Davies (chemists to Messrs. 
Rowntree) have shown that the aroma of cacao is 
chiefly due to an amazingly minute quantity (0.0006 
per cent.) of linalool, a colourless liquid with a power- 
ful fragrant odour, a modification of which occurs in 
bergamot, coriander and lavender. Everyone notices 
the aromatic odour which permeates the atmosphere 



126 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



round a chocolate factory. This odour is a bye-pro- 
duct of the roasting shop ; possibly some day an enter- 
prising chemist will prevent its escape or capture it, 
and sell it in bottles for flavouring confectionery, but 
for the present it serves only to announce in an appetis- 
ing way the presence of a cocoa or chocolate works. 

Roasting is a delicate operation requiring experience 
and discretion. Even in these days of scientific man- 
agement it remains as much an art as a science. It is 



CHflRoinfe Hoppc^^, 




I "RoftiiTE^ ~E>RPvUE.U Suxov 



Q> "ZlUflMCR 



VnRnwt i 



Section through Gas Heated Cacao Roaster. 



conducted in revolving drums to ensure constant 
agitation, the drums being heated either over coke 
fires or by gas. Less frequently the heating is effected 
by a hot blast of air or by having inside the drum a 
number of pipes containing super-heated steam. 
The diagram and photo show one of the types of 



MANUFACTURE 



127 




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25 « 



128 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

roasting machines used at Bournville. It resembles an 
ordinary coffee roaster, the beans being fed in through 
a hopper and heated by gas in the slowly revolving 
cylinder. The beans can be heard lightly tumbling 
one over the other, and the aroma round the roaster 
increases in fullness as they get hotter and hotter. The 
temperature which the beans reach in ordinary roas ting 
is not very high, varying round i35°C. (275°F), and 
the average period of roasting is about one hour. The 
amount of loss of weight on roasting is considerable 
(some seven or eight per cent.), and varies with the 
amount of moisture present in the raw beans. 

There have been attempts to replace the aesthetic 
judgment of man, as to the point at which to stop 
roasting, by scientific machinery. One rather interest- 
ing machine was so devised that the cacao roasting 
drum was fitted with a sort of steelyard, and this, when 
the loss of weight due to roasting had reached a certain 
amount, swung over and rang a bell, indicating dram- 
atically that the roasting was finished. As beans vary 
amongst other things in the percentage of moisture 
which they contain, the machine has not replaced the 
experienced operator. He takes samples from the 
drum from time to time, and when the aroma has the 
character desired, the beans are rapidly discharged 
into a trolley with a perforated bottom, which is brought 
over a cold current of air. The object of this refine- 
ment is to stop the roasting instantly and prevent even 
a suspicion of burning. 

After roasting, the shell is brittle and quite free from 
the cotyledons or kernel. The kernel has become 
glossy and friable and chocolate brown in colour, and 
it crushes readily between the fingers into small angu- 
lar fragments (the " nibs " of commerce), giving off 
during the breaking down a rich warm odour of 
chocolate. 

(d) Removing the Shells. 

It has been stated (see Fatty Foods, by Re vis and 



MANUFACTURE 



129 



Bolton) that it was formerly the practice not to remove 
the shell. This is incorrect, the more usual practice 
from the earliest times has been to remove the shells, 
though not so completely as they are removed by the 
efficient machinery of to-day. 

. In A Curious Treatise on the Nature and Quality of 
Chocolate, by Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma (1685), 
we read : " And if you peel the cacao, and take it out 
of its little shell, the drink thereof will be more dainty 
and delicious." Willoughby, in his Travels in Spain, 
(1664), writes : " They first toast the berries to get off 



t)Htu )0~/Z a * 5trim6-< Hb«d 






Ge.wn 


Rtioirr 1% 


C e 




i'-BvTTtR 









Cacao Bean, Shell and Germ. 



the husk," and R. Brookes, in the Natural History of 
Chocolate (1730), says : " The Indians .... roast 
the kernels in earthen pots, then free them from their 



130 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

skins, and afterwards crush and grind them between 
two stones." 

He further definitely recommends that the beans 
" be roasted enough to have their skins come off easily, 
which should be done one by one, laying them apart 
. . . for these skins being left among the chocolate, 
will not dissolve in any liquor, nor even in the stomach, 
and fall to the bottom of the chocolate-cups as if the 
kernels had not been cleaned." 

That the " Indian " practice of removing the shells 
was followed from the commencement of the industry 
in England, is shown by the old plate which we have 
reproduced on p. 120 from Arts and Sciences. 

The removal of the shell, which in the raw con- 
dition is tough and adheres to the kernel, is greatly 
facilitated by roasting. If we place a roasted bean in the 
palm of the hand and press it with the thumb, the 
whole cracks up into crisp pieces. It is now quite easy 
to blow away the thin pieces of shell because they offer 
a greater surface to the air and are lighter than the 
compact little lumps or " nibs " which are left behind. 
This illustrates the principle of all shelling or husking 
machines. 

(e) Breaking the Bean into Fragments. 

The problem is to break down the bean to just the 
right size. The pieces must be sufficiently small to 
allow the nib and shell readily to part company, but it 
is important to remember that the smaller the pieces 
of shell and nib, the less efficient will the winnowing 
be, and it is usual to break the beans whilst they are 
still warm to avoid producing particles of extreme 
fineness. The breaking down may be accomplished by 
passing the beans through a pair of rollers at such a 
distance apart that the bean is cracked without being 
crushed. Or it may be effected in other ways, e.g., by 
the use of an adjustable serrated cone revolving in a 
serrated conical case. In the diagram they are called 
kibbling cones. 



MANUFACTURE 



»3> 




Section through Kibbling Cones 
and Germ Screens. 



(J) Separating the Germs. 

About one per cent, of the cacao bean fragments 
consists of " germs." The " germ " is the radicle of the 
cacao seed, or that part of the cacao seed which on 
germination forms the root. The germs are small and 
rod-shaped, and being very hard are generally assumed 
to be less digestible than the nib. They are separated 
by being passed through revolving gauze drums, the 
holes in which are the same size and shape as the 
germs, so that the germs pass through whilst the nib 
is retained. If a freakish carpenter were to try separ- 
ating shop-floor sweepings, consisting of a jumble of 
chunks of wood (nib), shavings (shell) and nails (germ) 
by sieving through a grid-iron, he would find that not 
only the nails passed through but also some saw-dust 
and fine shavings. So in the above machine the finer 



132 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

nib and shell pass through with the germ. This germ 
mixture, known as " smalls " is dealt with in a special 
machine, whilst the larger nib and shell are conveyed 
to the chief winnowing machine. In this machine the 



±!mc ..i rt^ori -vgien-e 




JBli-jlJUL ' 



Section through Winnowing 
Machine. 

mixture is first sorted according to size and then the 
nib and shell separated from one another. The mixture 
is passed down long revolving cylindrical sieves and 
encounters a larger and larger mesh as it proceeds, and 
thus becomes sieved into various sizes. The separation 
of the shell from the nib is now effected by a powerful 
current of air, the large nib falling against the current, 
whilst the shell is carried with it and drops into another 
compartment. It is amusing to stand and watch the 
continuous stream of nibs rushing down, like hail in a 
storm, into the screw conveyor. 

This is the process in essence — to follow the various 
partially separated mixtures of shell and nib through 
the several further separating machines would be 



MANUFACTURE 



r 33 



tedious ; it is sufficient for the reader to know that 
after the most elaborate precautions have been taken 
the nib still contains about one per cent, of shell, and 
that the nib obtained is only 78.5 per cent, of the 
weight of raw beans originally taken. Most of the 
larger makers of cocoa produce nib containing less than 
two per cent, of shell, a standard which can only be 
maintained by continuous vigilance. 




Cacao Grinding. 

A battery of horizontal grinding mills, by which the cacao nibs 
are ground to paste (Messrs. Cadbury Bros., Bournville.) 

The shell, the only waste material of any importance 
produced in a chocolate factory, goes straight into 
sacks ready for sale. The pure cacao nibs (once an 
important article of commerce) proceed to the blenders 
and thence to the grinding mill. 



(g) Blending. 

We have seen that the beans are roasted separately 
according to their kind and country so as to develop 
in each its characteristic flavour. The pure nib is now 
blended in proportions which are carefully chosen to 
attain the result desired. 



134 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

(//) Grinding the Cacao Nibs to Produce Mass. 

In this process, by the mere act of grinding, the 
miracle is performed of converting the brittle frag- 
ments of the cacao bean into a chocolate-coloured fluid. 
Half of the cacao bean is fat, and the grinding breaks 
up the cells and liberates the fat, which at blood heat 
melts to an oil. Any of the various machines used in 
the industries for grinding might be used, but a special 
type of mill has been devised for the purpose. 

In the grinding room of a cocoa factory one becomes 
almost hypnotised by a hundred of these circular mill- 
stones that rotate incessantly day and night. In Messrs. 
Fry's factory the " giddy motion of the whirling mill " 
is very much increased by a number of magnificent 
horizontal driving wheels, each some 20 feet in diam- 
eter, which form, as it were, a revolving ceiling to the 
room. Your fascinated gaze beholds " two or three vast 
circles, that have their revolving satellites like moons, 
each on its own axis, and each governed by master 
wheels. Watch them for any length of time and you 
might find yourself presently going round and round 
with them until you whirled yourself out of existence, 
like the gyrating maiden in the fairy tale." 

In this type of grinding machine one mill stone 
rotates on a fixed stone. The cacao nib falls from a 
hopper through a hole in the centre of the upper stone 
and, owing to the manner in which grooves are cut in 
the two surfaces in contact, is gradually dragged be- 
tween the stones. The grooves are so cut in the two 
stones that they point in opposite directions, and as 
the one stone revolves on the other, a slicing or shear- 
ing action is produced. The friction, due to the slicing 
and shearing of the nib, keeps the stones hot, and they 
become sufficiently warm to melt the fat in the ground 
nib, so that there oozes from the outer edge of the 
bottom or fixed stone a more or less viscous liquid or 
paste. This finely ground nib is known as " mass." It 
is simply liquified cacao bean, and solidifies on cooling 
to a chocolate coloured block. 



MANUFACTURE 



i35 



Fteio H< 



co u ceo 




Section through Grinding Stones. 

This " mass " may be used for the production of 
either cocoa or chocolate. When part of the fat (cacao 
butter) is taken away the residue may be made to yield 
cocoa. When sugar and cacao butter are added it yields 
eating chocolate. Thus the two industries are seen to 
be inter-dependent, the cacao butter which is pressed 
out of the mass in the manufacture of cocoa being used 
up in the production of chocolate. The manufacture 
of cocoa will first be considered. 

(i) Pressing out the excess of Butter. 

The liquified cacao bean or " mass," simply mixed 
with sugar and cooled until it becomes a hard cake, 
has been used by the British Navy for a hundred years 
or more for the preparation of Jack's cup of cocoa. It 
produces a fine rich drink much appreciated by our 



136 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



hardy seamen, but it is somewhat too fatty to mix 
evenly with water, and too rich to be suitable'for those 
with delicate digestions. Hence for the ordinary cocoa 
of commerce it is usual to remove a portion of this fat. 
If " mass " be put into a cloth and pressed, a golden 
oil (melted cacao butter) oozes through the cloth. In 

practice this extraction of the 
butter is done in various types 
of presses. In one of the most 
frequently used types, the 
mass is poured into circular 
steel pots, the top and bottom 
of which are loose perforated 
plates lined with felt pads. A 
numberof such potsare placed 
one above another, and then 
rammed together by a power- 
ful hydraulic ram. They look 
like the parts of a slowly col- 
lapsing telescope. The "mass" 
is only gently pressed at first, 
but as the butter flows away 
and the material in the pot 
becomes stiffer, it is subjected 
to a gradually increasing 
pressure. The ram, being 
under pressure supplied by 
pumps, pushes up with 
enormous force. The steel 
pots have to be sufficiently 
strong to bear a great strain, as the ram often exerts a 
pressure of 6,000 pounds per square inch. When the 
required amount of butter has been pressed out, the 
pot is found to contain not a paste, but a hard dry cake 
of compressed cocoa. The liquified cacao bean put 
into the pots contains 54 to 55 per cent, of butter, 
whilst the cocoa press-cake taken out usually contains 
only 25 to 30 per cent. The expressed butter flows 
away and is filtered and solidified (see page 158). All 




A Cacao Press. 

Reproduced by permission ot Messrs 
Lake, Orr & Co., Ltd. 



MANUFACTURE 



137 




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138 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

that it is necessary to do to obtain cocoa from the press 
cake is to powder it. 

(j) Breaking Down the Press Cake to Cocoa Pozvder. 

The slabs of press-cake are so hard and tough that 
if one were banged on a man's head it would probably 
stun him. They are broken down in a crushing mill, 
the inside of which is as full of terrible teeth as a giant's 
mouth, until the fragments are small enough to grind 
on steel rollers. 

(k) Sieving. 

As fineness is a very important quality of cocoa, the 
powder so obtained is very carefully sieved. This is 
effected by shaking the powder into an inclined rota- 
ting drum which is covered with silk gauze. In the 
cocoa which passes through this fine silk sieve, the 
average length of the individual particles is about 
0.001 inch, whilst in first-class productions the size of 
the larger particles in the cocoa does not average more 
than 0.002 inch. Indeed, the cocoa powder is so fine 
that in spite of all precautions a certain amount always 
floats about in the air of sieving rooms, and covers 
everything with a brown film. 

(/) Packing. 

The cocoa powder is taken to the packing rooms. 
Here the tedious weighing by hand has been replaced 
by ingenious machines, which deliver with remarkable 
accuracy a definite weight of cocoa into the paper bag 
which lines the tin. The tins are then labelled and 
packed in cases ready for the grocer. 



139 



CHAPTER VI 

THE MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 



Since the great improvements of the steam engine, it is 
astonishing to what a variety of manufactures this useful 
machine has been applied : yet it does not a little excite 
our surprise that one is used for the trifling object of grind- 
ing chocolate. 

It is, however, a fact, or at least, we are credibly informed, 
that Mr. Fry, of Bristol, has in his new manufactory one 
of these engines for the sole purpose of manufacturing 
chocolate and cocoa. 

Berrow's Worcester Journal, 

June 7th, 1798. 

WHAT I am about to write under this heading 
will only be of a general character. Those 
who require a more detailed exposition are 
referred to the standard works given at the end of the 
chapter. In these, full and accurate information will be 
found. The information published in modern Ency- 
clopaedias, etc., concerning the manufacture of choco- 
late is not always as reliable as one might expect. Thus 
it states in Jack's excellent Reference Book (19 14) that 
" Chocolate is made by the addition of water and 
sugar." The use of water in the manufacture of choco- 
late is contrary to all usual practice, so much so that 
great interest was aroused in the trade some years ago 
by the statement that water was being used by a firm 
in Germany. 



140 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Specimen Outline Recipe. 

Ingredients required for plain eating-chocolate. 

Cacao nib or mass 33 parts. 

Cacao butter 13 ,, 

Sugar 53J „ 

Flavouring ■ | ,, 

100 parts 



Since eating-chocolate is produced by mixing sugar 
and cacao nib, with or without flavouring materials, 
and reducing to a fine homogeneous mass, the prin- 
ciples underlying its manufacture are obviously simple, 
yet when we come to consider the production of a 
modern high-class chocolate we find the processes in- 
volved are somewhat elaborate. 

(a) Preparing the Nib or " Mass." 

The nib is obtained in exactly the same way as in 
the manufacture of cocoa, the beans being cleaned, 
roasted and shelled. The roasting, however, is gener- 
ally somewhat lighter for chocolate than for cocoa. The 
nibs produced may be used as they are, or they may be 
first ground to " mass " by means of mill-stones as 
described above. 

(b) Mixing in the Sugar. 

Some makers use clear crystalline granulated sugar, 
others disintegrate loaf sugar to a beautiful snow- 
white flour. The nib, coarse or finely ground, is mixed 
with the sugar in a kind of edge-runner or grinding- 
mixer, called a melangeur. As is seen in the photo, the 
melangeur consists of two heavy millstones which are 
supported on a granite floor. This floor revolves and 
causes the stationary mill-stones to rotate on their 
axes, so that although they run rapidly, like a man on 
a "joy wheel," they make no headway. The material 
is prevented from accumulating at the sides by curved 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 141 




Chocolate Melangeur. 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. Lake. Orr & Coy. Ltd. 



OWWHITC "Roui.r.R5 




u mr.s 



Plan of Chocolate Melangeur. 



142 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



scrapers, which gracefully deflect the stream of material 
to the part of the revolving floor which runs under the 
millstones. Thus the sugar and nib are mixed and 
crushed. As the mixture usually becomes like dough 
in consistency, it can be neatly removed from the 
melangeur with a shovel. The operator rests a shovel 
lightly on the revolving floor, and the material mounts 
into a heap upon it. 




Chocolate Refining Machine. 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. J, Baker & Sons, Willesden. 

(c) Grinding the Mixture. 

The mixture is now passed through a mill, which 
has been described as looking like a multiple mangle. 
The object of this is to break down the sugar and cacao 
to smaller particles. The rolls may be made either of 
granite (more strictly speaking, of quartz diorite) or 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 



143 




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of polished chilled cast iron. Chilled cast iron rolls 
have the advantage that they can be kept cool by having 
water flowing through them. A skilled operator is 
required to set the rolls in order that they may give a 
large and satisfactory output. The cylinders in contact 
run at different speeds, and, as will be seen in the 
diagram, the chocolate always clings to the roll which 
is revolving with the greater velocity, and is delivered 
from the rolls either as a curtain of chocolate or as a 
spray of chocolate powder. It is very striking to see the 
soft chocolate-coloured dough become, after merely 
passing between the rolls, a dry powder — the explan- 
ation is that the sugar having been more finely crushed 
now requires a greater quantity of cacao butter to lubri- 
cate it before the mixture can again become plastic. 
The chocolate in its various stages of manufacture, 
should be kept warm or it will solidify and much time 
and heat (and possibly temper) will be absorbed in 
remelting it ; for this and other reasons most chocolate 
factories have a number of hot rooms, in which the 
chocolate is stored whilst waiting to pass on to the 
next operation. The dry powder coming from the rolls 
is either taken to a hot room, or at once mixed in a 
warm melangeur, where curiously enough the whole 
becomes once again of the consistency of dough. The 
grinding between the rolls and the mixing in the 
melangeur are repeated any number of times until the 
chocolate is of the desired fineness. Whilst there are a 
few people who like the clean, hard feel of sugar crys- 
tals between the teeth, the present-day taste is all for 
very smooth and highly refined chocolate ; hence the 
grinding operation is one of the most important in the 
factory, and is checked at the works at Bournville by 
measuring with a microscope the size of the particles. 
The cost of fine grinding is considerable, for whilst 
the first breaking down of the cacao nibs and sugar 
crystals is comparatively easy, it is found that as the 
particles of chocolate get finer the cost of further re- 
duction increases by leaps and bounds. The chocolate 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 145 









V» iUB Caouto 




Section through Chocolate Grinding Rolls. 
may now proceed direct to the moulding rooms or it 
may first be conched. 

(d) Couching. 

We now come to an extraordinary process which is 
said to have been originally introduced to satisfy a 
fastidious taste that demanded a chocolate which 
readily melted in the mouth and yet had not the cloy- 
ing effect which is produced by excess of cacao butter. 
In thi* process the chocolate is put in a vessel shaped 
something like a shell (hence called a conche), and a 
heavv roller is pushed to and fro in the chocolate. 
Although the conche is considered to have revolution- 
ized the chocolate industry, it will remain to the unin- 
itiated a curious sight to see a room full of machines 
engaged in pummelling chocolate day and night. 
There is no general agreement as to exactly how the 
conche produces its effects — from the scientific point 



146 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

of view the changes are complex and elusive, and too 
technical to explain here — but it is well known that if 
this process is continued for periods varying according 
to the result desired from a few hours to a week, char- 
acteristic changes occur which make the chocolate a 
more mellow and finished confection, having more or 
less the velvet feel of chocolat fondant. 

(e) Flavouring. 

Art is shown not onlv in the choice of the cacao beans 
but also in the selection of spices and essences, for, 
whilst the fundamental flavour of a chocolate is deter- 
mined by the blend of beans and the method of manu- 
facture, the piquancy and special character are often 
obtained by the addition of minute quantities of 
flavourings. The point in the manufacture at which the 
flavour is added is as late as possible so as to avoid the 
possible loss of aroma in handling. The flavours used 
include cardamom, cassia, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, 
lemon, mace, and last but most popular of all, the 
vanilla pod or vanillin. Some makers use the choice 
spices themselves, others prefer their essential oils. 
Many other nuttv, fragrant and aromatic substances 
have been used ; of these we may mention almonds, 
coffee, musk, ambergris, gum benzoin and balsam of 
Peru. The English like delicately flavoured confect-j 
ions, whilst the Spanish follow the old custom of 
heavily spicing the chocolate. In ancient recipes we 
read of the use of white and red peppers, and the 
addition of hot spices was defended and even recom- 1 
mended on purely philosophical grounds. It was given,] 
in the strange jargon of the Peripatetics, as a dictum - 
that chocolate is by nature cold and dry and therefore 

ought to be mixed with things which are hot. 

1 

(/*) Moulding. 

Small quantities of cacao butter will have been added 
to the chocolate at various stages, and hence the finished 
product is quite plastic. It is now brought from the 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 147 




" Conche " Machines. 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. J. Baker & Sons, Willesden. 



Ch 




OCOURTI 



M 



^ #HtttitmttH^ 






Section through " Conche " Machine. 



148 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




Machines for Mining or " Conching " Chocolate 

hot room (or the melangeur or the conche) to the mould- 
ing rooms. Before moulding, the chocolate is passed 
through a machine, known as a compressor, which 
removes air-bubbles. This is a necessary process, as 
people would not care to purchase chocolate full of 
holes. As in the previous operations, every effort has 
been made to produce a chocolate of smooth texture 
and fine flavour, so in the moulding rooms skill is 
exercised in converting the plastic mass into hard bars 
and cakes, which snap when broken and which have a 
pleasant appearance. Well-moulded chocolate has a 
good gloss, a rich colour and a correct shape. 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 149 

The most important factor in obtaining a good 
appearance is the temperature, and chocolate is fre- 
quently passed through a machine (called a temper- 
ing machine) merely to give it the desired temperature. 
A suitable temperature for moulding, according to 



r\om-p j t oki • 










Toot nrrn 



V/heeu 



Chocolate Shaking Table. 

Zipperer, varies from 28°C. on a hot summer's day to 
32°C. on a winter's day. As the melting point of cacao 
butter is about 32°C, it will be realized that the butter 
is super-cooled and is ready to crystallize on the slightest 
provocation. Each mould has to contain the same quan- 
tity of chocolate. Weighing by hand has been aband- 
oned in favour of a machine which automatically 
deposits a definite weight, such as a quarter or half a 
pound, of the chocolate paste on each mould. The 
chocolate stands up like a lump of dough and has to be 
persuaded to lie down and fill the mould. This can be 
most effectively accomplished by banging the mould 
up and down on a table. In the factory the method 
used is to place the moulds on rocking tables which 
rise gradually and fall with a bump. The diagram will 
make clear how these vibrating tables are worked by 



150 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

means of ratchet wheels. Rocking tables are made which 
are silent in action, but the moulds jerkily dancing 
about on the table make a very lively clatter, such a 
noise as might be produced by a regiment of mad 
cavalry crossing a courtyard. During the shaking-up 
the chocolate fills every crevice of the mould, and any 
bubbles, which if left in would spoil the appearance of 
the chocolate, rise to the top. The chocolate then passes 
on to an endless band which conducts the mould 
through a chamber in which cold air is moving. As 
the chocolate cools, it solidifies and contracts so that it 
comes out of the mould clean and bright. In this way 
are produced the familiar sticks and cakes of chocolate. 
A similar method is used in producing " Croquettes " 
and the small tablets known as " Neapolitans." Other 
forms require more elaborate moulds ; thus the chocol- 
ate eggs, which fill the confectioners' windows just 
before Easter, are generally hollow, unless they are 
very small, and are made in two halves by pressing 
chocolate in egg-shaped moulds and then uniting the 
two halves. Chocolate cremes, caramels, almonds and, 
in fact, fancy " chocolates " generally, are produced 
in quite a different manner. For these chocolats de 
fantaisie a rather liquid chocolate is required known as 
covering chocolate. 

Specimen Outline Recipe. 

Ingredients required for chocolate for covering cremes, etc.: 

Cacao nib or mass 30 parts 

Cacao butter 20 ,, 

Sugar 49! ,, 

Flavouring \ ,, 



100 parts 



It is prepared in exactlv the same way as ordinary 
eating chocolate, save that more butter is added to 
make it flow readily, so that in the melted condition it 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 151 




Girls Covering, or Dipping, Cremes, etc. 
(Messrs. Cadbury Bros., Bournville.) 

has about the same consistency as cream. The oper- 
ations so far described are conducted by men, but the 
covering of cremes and the packing of the finished 
chocolates into boxes are performed by girls. Covering 
is light work requiring a delicate touch, and if, as is 
usual, it is done in bright airy rooms, is a pleasant 
occupation. 

The girl sits with a small bowl of warm liquid 
chocolate in front of her, and on one side the " centres" 
(cremes, caramels, ginger, nuts, etc.) ready for cover- 
ing with chocolate. The chocolate must be at just the 
right temperature, which is 88°F., or 3i°C. She takes 
one of the " centres," say a vanilla creme, on her fork 
and dips it beneath the chocolate. When she draws it 
out, the white creme is completely covered in brown 
chocolate and, without touching it with her finger, she 
deftly places it on a piece of smooth paper. A little 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 




The Enrober. 
A machine for covering cremes, etc., with chocolate. 

Reproduced by permission ot Messrs. Savy Jeanjean & Co., Paris. 

twirl of the fork or drawing a prong across the chocolate 
will give the characteristic marking on the top of the 
chocolate creme. The chocolate rapidly sets to a crisp 
film enveloping the soft creme. There are in use in 
many chocolate factories some very ingenious cover- 
ing machines, invented in 1903, which, as they clothe 
cremes in a robe of chocolate, are known as " en- 
robers " ; it is doubtful, how r ever, if the chocolates so 
produced have ever quite so good an appearance as 
when the covering is done by hand. 

It would be agreeable at this point to describe the 
making of cremes (which, by the way, contrary to the 
opinion of most writers, contain no cream or butter), 
and other products of the confectioner's art, but it 
would take us bevond the scope of the present book. 
We will only remind our readers of the great variety 
of comestibles and confections which are covered in 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 531 




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i54 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

chocolate — pistachio nut, roasted almonds, pralines, 
biscuits, walnuts, nougat, montelimar, fruits, fruit 
cremes, jellies, Turkish delight, marshmallows, cara- 
mels, pine-apple, noisette, and other delicacies. 

Milk Chocolate. 

We owe the introduction of this excellent food and 
confection to the researches of M. D. Peter of Vevey, 
in Switzerland, who produced milk chocolate as early 
as 1876. Many of our older readers will remember 
their delight when in the eighteen nineties they first 
tasted Peter's milk chocolate. Later the then little firm 
of Cailler, realising the importance of having the 
factory on the very spot where rich milk was produced 
in abundance, established a works near Gruyeres. This 
grew rapidly and soon became the largest factory in 
Switzerland. The sound principle of having your 
factorv in the heart of a milk producing area was adopted 
by Cadbury's, who built milk condensing factories 
at the ancient village of Frampton-on-Severn, in 
Gloucestershire, and at Knighton, near Newport, Salop. 
Before the war these two factories together condensed 
from two to three million gallons of milk a year. Whilst 
the amount of milk used in England for making milk 
chocolate appears very great when expressed in gallons, 
it is seen to be very small (being only about one-half 
of one per cent.) when expressed as a fraction of the 
total milk production. Milk chocolate is not made from 
milk produced in the winter, when milk is scarce, but 
from milk produced in the spring and summer when 
there is milk in excess of the usual household require- 
ments, and when it is rich and creamy. The import- 
ance of not interfering with the normal milk supply to 
local customers is appreciated by the chocolate makers, 
who take steps to prevent this. It will interest public 
analysts and others to know that Cadbury's have had no 
difficulty in making it a stipulation in their contracts 
with the vendors that the milk supplied to them shall 
contain at least 3.5 per cent, of butter fat, a 17 per 



MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE 155 




Factory at Frampton, Gloucestershire, at which Milk is 
Evaporated for Milk Chocolate Manufacture. 
(Messrs. Cadbury Bros., Ltd.). 

cent, increase on the minimum fixed by the Govern- 
ment. 

Specimen Outline Recipe. 

Ingredients required for milk chocolate : 

Cacao nib or mass (from 10 to 20 per cent.), say 10 

Cacao Butter 20 

Sugar 44! 

Milk solids (from 15 to 25 per cent.), say .... 25=(200 parts 

of milk.) 
Flavouring £ 

100 



Milk chocolate consists of an intimate mixture of cacao 
nib, sugar and milk, condensed by evaporation. The 
manner in which the milk is mixed with the cacao nib 
is a matter of taste, and the art of combining milk with 
chocolate, so as to retain the full flavour of each, has 



156 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

engaged the attention of many experts. At present there 
is no general method of manufacture — each maker 
has his own secret processes, which generally include 
the use of grinding mills, melangeiirs, conches, mould- 
ing machines, etc., as with plain chocolate. We cannot 
do better than refer those who wish to know more of 
this, or other branch of the chocolate industry, to the 
following English, French and German standard works 
on Chocolate Manufacture : 

Cocoa and Chocolate, Their Chemistry and Manufacture, by R. 

Whymper (Churchill). 
Fabrication du Chocolat, by Fritsch (Scientifique et Indur- 

trielle). 
The Manufacture of Chocolate, by Dr. Paul Zipperer (Spon). 



J 57 



CHAPTER VII 

BY-PRODUCTS OF THE COCOA AND 
CHOCOLATE INDUSTRY 

Of Cacao Butter — 

It is the best and most natural Pomatum for Ladies to 
clear and plump the Skin when it is dry, rough, or shrivel' d, 
without making it appear either fat or shining. The Spanish 
Women at Mexico use it very much, and it is highly esteem 'd 
by them. The Natural History of Chocolate, 

R. Brookes, 1730. 

Of Cacao Shell— 

In Russia and Belgium many families take Caravello at 
breakfast. This is nothing but cocoa husk, washed and 
then boiled in milk. 

Chocolate and Confectionery Manufacture, 
A. Jacoutot. 

Cacao Butter. 

IN that very able compilation, Allen's Organic 
Analysis, Mr. Leonard Archbutt states (Vol. II, 
p. 176) that cacao butter " is obtained in large 
quantities as a by-product in the manufacture of 
chocolate." This is repeated in the excellent book on 
Oils, by C. A. Mitchell (Common Commodities of 
Commerce series). These statements are, of course, 
incorrect. We have seen that cacao butter is obtained 
as a by-product in the manufacture of cocoa, and is 
consumed in large quantities in the manufacture of 
chocolate. When, during the war, the use of sugar for 
chocolate-making was restricted and little chocolate 
was produced, the cacao butter formerlv used in this 
industry was freed for other purposes. Thus there was 
plenty of cacao butter available at a time when other 
fats were scarce. Cacao butter has a pleasant, bland 



158 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

taste resembling cocoa. The cocoa flavour is very per- 
sistent, as many experimenters found to their regret 
in their efforts to produce a tasteless cacao butter 
which could be used as margarine or for general pur- 
poses in cooking. The scarcity of edible fats during 
the war forced the confectioners to try cacao butter, 
which in normal times is too expensive for them to use, 
and as a result a very large amount was employed in 
making biscuits and confectionery. 

Cacao butter runs hot from the presses as an amber- 
coloured oil, and after filtration, sets to a pale golden 
yellow wax-like fat. The butter, which the pharmacist 
sells, is sometimes white and odourless, having been 
bleached and deodorized. The butter as produced is 
always pale yellow in colour, with a semi-crystalline 
or granular fracture and an agreeable taste and odour 
resembling cocoa or chocolate. 

Cacao butter has such remarkable keeping properties 
(which would appear to depend on the aromatic sub- 
stances which it contains), that a myth has arisen that 
it will keep for ever. The fable finds many believers 
even in scientific circles ; thus W. H. Johnson, in the 
Imperial Institute Handbook on Cocoa, states that : 
" When pure, it has the peculiar property of not be- 
coming rancid, however long it may be kept." Whilst 
this overstates the case, we find that under suitable 
conditions cacao butter will remain fresh and good for 
several years. Cacao butter has rather a low melting 
point (qo°F.), so that whilst it is a hard, almost brittle, 
solid at ordinary temperatures, it melts readily when 
in contact with the human body (blood heat 98°F). 
This property, together with its remarkable stability, 
makes it useful for ointments, pomades, suppositories, 
pessaries and other pharmaceutical preparations ; it 
also explains why actors have found it convenient for 
the removal of grease paint. The recognition of the 
value of cacao butter for cosmetic purposes dates from 
very early days ; thus in Colmenero de Ledesma's 
Curious Treatise on the Nature and Quality of Chocolate 



BY-PRODUCTS OF THE INDUSTRY 159 

(printed at the Green Dragon, 1685), we read : " That 
they draw from the cacao a great quantity of butter, 
which they use to make their faces shine, which I have 
seen practised in the Indies by the Spanish women 
born there." This, evidently, was one way of shining in 
society. 

Cacao butter has been put to many other uses, thus 
it has been employed in the preparation of perfumes, 
but the great bulk of the cacao butter produced is used 
up by the chocolate maker. For making chocolate it is 
ideal, and the demand for it for this purpose is so great 
that substitutes have been found and offered for sale. 
Until recently these fats, coconut stearine and others, 
could be ignored by the reputable chocolate makers as 
the confection produced by their use was inferior to 
true chocolate both in taste and in keeping properties. 
In recent times the oils and fats of tropical nuts and 
fruits have been thoroughly investigated in the eager 
search for new fats, and new substitutes, such as illipe 
butter, have been introduced, the properties of which 
closely resemble those of cacao butter. 

For the information of chemists we may state that the 
analytical figures for genuine cacao butter, as obtained 
in the cocoa factory, are as follow : 

Analytical Figures for Cacao Butter. 

Specific Gravity (at 99°C. to water at 15-5 C.) '858 to "865 

Melting Point 32 °C. to 34°C. 

Titer (fatty acids) 49 C. to 50°C. 

Iodine Absorbed 34% to 38% 

Refraction (Butyro-Refractometer) at 40 C. 45'6° to 46*5° 

Saponification Value 192 to 198 

Valenta 94 C. to 96°C. 

Reichert Meissel Value 10 

Polenske Value 0*5 

Kirschner , 0*5 

Shrewsbury and Knapp Value 14 to 15 

Unsaponifiable matter °"3% to °"8° l( 

Mineral matter o'02%too'05% 

Acidity (as oleic acid) °"°% to 2*0% 



i6o COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Although the trade in cacao butter is considerable, 
there were, before the war, only two countries that 
could really be considered as exporters of cacao butter ; 
in other words, there were only two countries, namely, 
Holland and Germany, pressing out more cacao butter 
in the production of cocoa than they absorbed in 
making chocolate : 

Export of Cacao Butter. 

Tons (of iooo kilogrammes) 
1911 1912 1913 

Holland 4> 6 57 5>47 2 7> l6 ° 

Germany 3,611 3,581 1,960 



8,268 9,°53 9,120 



During the war America appeared for the first time 
in her history as an exporter of cacao butter. Hitherto 
she was one of the principal importers, as will be seen 
in the following table : 

Imports of Cacao Butter. 

Tons (of 1000 kilogrammes) 

1912 1913 

United States 1 ,842 1 ,634 

Switzerland 1 ,821 1 ,634 

Belgium 1,127 I » I 97 

Austria-Hungary 1 ,062 1,190 

Russia 955 M97 

England 495 934 

The next table shows the imports (expressed in 
English tons) into the United Kingdom in more recent 
years : 

Imports of Cacao Butter. 

Year 1912 1913 1914 i9 x 5 x 9 l6 J 9 ] 7 

Tons 477 912 1512 599 962 675 

The wholesale price of cacao butter has varied in 
the last six years from 1/3 per pound to 2/ n per pound, 
and was fixed in 191 8 by the Food Controller at 1/6 



BY-PRODUCTS OF THE INDUSTRY 161 

per pound (retail price 2/- per pound). The control 
was removed in 19 19, and immediately the wholesale 
price rose to 2/8 per pound. 



Cacao Shell. 

Although I have described cacao butter as a by- 
product, the only true by-product of the combined 
cocoa and chocolate industry is cacao shell. I ex- 
plained in the previous chapter how it is separated 
from the roasted bean. As they come from the husking 
or winnowing machine, the larger fragments of shell 
resemble the shell of monkey-nuts (ground nuts or pea 
nuts), except that the cacao shells are thinner, more 
brittle and of a richer brown colour. The shell has a 
pleasant odour in which a little true cocoa aroma can 
be detected. The small pieces of shell look like bran, 
and, if the shell be powdered, the product is wonder- 
fully like cocoa in appearance, though not in taste or 
smell. As the raw cacao bean contains on the average 
about twelve and a half per cent, of shell, it is evident 
that the world production must be considerable (about 
36,000 tons a year), and since it is not legitimately 
employed in cocoa, the brains of inventors have been 
busy trying to find a use for it. In some industries the 
by-product has proved on investigation to be of greater 
value than the principal product — a good instance of 
this is glycerine as a by-product in soap manufacture- 
but no use for the husk or shell of cacao, which gives it 
any considerable commercial value, has yet been dis- 
covered. There are signs, however, that its possible 
uses are being considered and appreciated. 

For years small quantities of cacao shell, under the 
name of " miserables," have been used in Ireland and 
other countries for producing a dilute infusion for 
drinking. Although this " cocoa tea " is not unpleasant, 
and has mild stimulating properties, it has never been 
popular, and even during the war, when it was widelv 
advertised and sold in England under fancy names at 



1 62 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

fancy prices, it never had a large or enthusiastic body 
of consumers. 

In normal times the cocoa manufacturer has no 
difficulty in disposing of his shell to cattle-food makers 
and others, but during 19 15 when the train service 
was so defective, and transport by any other means 
almost impossible, the manufacturers of cocoa and 
chocolate were unable to get the shell away from their 
factories, and had large accumulations of it filling up 
valuable store space. In these circumstances they 
attempted to find a use near at hand. It was tried with 
moderate success as a fuel and a considerable quantity 
was burned in a special type of gas-producer intended 
for wood. 

Cacao shell has a high nitrogenous content, and if 
burned yields about 67 lbs. of potassium carbonate 
per ton. In the Annual Report of the Experimental 
Farms in Canada, (1898, p. 151 and 1899, P- 851,) 
accounts are given of the use of cacao shell as a manure. 
The results given are encouraging, and experiments 
were made at Bournville. At first these were only 
moderately successful, because the shell is extremely 
stable and decomposes in the ground very slowly in- 
deed. Then the head gardener tried hastening the 
decomposition by placing the shell in a heap, soaking 
with water and turning several times before use. In 
this way the shell was converted into a decomposing 
mass before being applied to the ground, and gave 
excellent results both as a manure and as a lightener 
of heavy soils. 

On the Continent the small amount of cacao butter 
which the shell contains is extracted from it by volatile 
solvents. The " shell butter " so obtained is very in- 
ferior to ordinary cacao butter, and as usually put on 
the market, has an unpleasant taste, and an odour which 
reminds one faintly of an old tobacco-pipe. In this 
unrefined condition it is obviously unsuitable for edible 
purposes. 

Shell contains about one per cent, of theobromine 



BY-PRODUCTS OF THE INDUSTRY 163 

(dimethylxanthine). This is a very valuable chemical 
substance (see remarks in chapter on Food Value of 
Cocoa and Chocolate), and the extraction of theo- 
bromine from shell is already practised on a large 
scale, and promises to be a profitable industry. Ordin- 
ary commercial samples of shell contain from i'2 to 
1*4 per cent, of theobromine. Those interested should 
study the very ingenious process of Messrs. Grousseau 
and Vicongne (Patent No. 120,178). Many other 
uses of cacao shell have been made and suggested ; 
thus it has been used for the production of a good coffee 
substitute, and also, during the shortage of sawdust, 
as a packing material, but its most important use at 
the present time is as cattle food, and its most im- 
portant abuse as an adulterant of cocoa. 

The value of cacao shell as cattle food has been known 
for a long time, and is indicated in the following analysis 
by Smetham (in the Journal of the Lancashire Agri- 
cultural Society, 1914). 

Analysis of Cacao Shell. 

Water 9-30 

Fat 3-83 

Mineral Matter 8 - 20 

Albuminoids i8'8i 

Fibre 13-85 

Digestible Carbohydrates 40'oi 

IOO'OO 



From these figures Smetham calculates the food units 
as 102, so that it is evident that cacao shell occupies a 
good position when compared with other fodders : 

Food Units. 

Linseed cake 133 Maize (new crop) 99 

Oatmeal 117 Meadow hay 68 

Bran 109 Rice husks 43 

English wheat 106 Wheat straw 41 

Cacao shells 102 Mangels 12 



1 64 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

These analytical results have been supported by 
practical feeding experiments in America and Ger- 
many (see full account in Zipperer's book, The Manu- 
facture of Chocolate). Prof. Faelli, in Turin, obtained, 
by giving cacao shell to cows, an increase in both the 
quantity and quality of the milk. More recent experi- 
ence seems to indicate that it is unwise to put a very 
high percentage of cacao shell in a cattle food ; in small 
quantities in compound feeding cakes, etc., as an 
appetiser it has been used for years with good results. 
(Further particulars will be found in Cacao Shells as 
Fodder, by A. W. Knapp, Tropical Life, 1916, p. 154, 
and in The Separation and Uses of Cacao Shell, Society 
of Chemical Industry's Journal, 1918, 240). The price 
of shell has shown great variation. The following figures 
are for the grade of shell which is almost entirely free 
from cocoa : 

CACAO SHELL. 

Average Price per Ton. 

Year 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 

Price 65/- 70/- 70/- 70/- 90/- 128/- 284/- 161/- 

Price per Food Unit. 

July, 1 91 5. Jan., 1919. 

s. d. 5. d. 

English Oats 3 i\ 3 8 

Cotton Seed Cake 2 5 3 11 

Linseed Cake 1 7 3 5 

Brewers Grains (dried) 1 6J 3 8-i 

Decorticated Cotton Cake 1 6 3 3 J 

Cacao Shell 8} 1 4I 

The above table speaks for itself ; the figures are from 
the Journal of the Board of Agriculture ; I have added 
cacao shell for comparison. 



1 6 5 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE OF 
COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Before the Spaniards made themselves Masters of 
Mexico, no other drink was esteem 'd but that of cocoa ; 
none caring for wine, notwithstanding the soil produces 
vines everywhere in great abundance of itself. 

John Ogilvy^s America, 1671. 

THE early writers on chocolate generally be- 
came lyrical when they wrote of its value as a 
food. Thus in the Natural History of Chocolate, 
by R. Brookes (1730), we read that an ounce of chocolate 
contains as much nourishment as a pound of beef, 
that a woman and a child, and even a councillor, lived 
on chocolate alone for a long period, and further : 
Before chocolate was known in Europe, good old 
wine was called the milk of old men ; but this title is 
now applied with greater reason to chocolate, since its 
use has become so common, that it has been perceived 
that chocolate is, with respect to them, what milk is 
to infants." 

A more temperate tone is shown in the following, 
from A Curious Treatise of the Nature and Quality of 
Chocolate, by Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma, a 
Spaniard, Physician and Chvrurgion of the city of 
Ecija, in Andaluzia (printed at the Green Dragon, 
1685) : 

So great is the number of those persons, who at present 
do drink of Chocolate, that not only in the West Indies, 
whence this drink has its original and beginning, but also 
in Spain, Italy, Flanders, &c, it is very much used, and 
especially in the Court of the King of Spain ; where the 
great ladies drink it in a morning before thev rise out of 
their beds, and lately much used in England, as Diet and 



166 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Phisick with the Gentry. Yet there are several persons that 
stand in doubt both of the hurt and of the benefit, which 
proceeds from the use thereof ; some saying, that it ob- 
structs and causes opilations, others and those the most 
part, that it fattens, several assure us that it fortifies the 
stomach : some again that it heats and inflames the body. 
But very many steadfastly affirm, that tho' they shou'd 
drink it at all hours, and that even in the Dog-days, they 
find themselves very well after it. 

So much for the old valuations ; let us now attempt 
by modern methods to estimate the food value of cacao 
and its preparations. 

Food Value of Cacao Beans. 

In estimating the worth of a food, it is usual to com- 
pare the fuel values. This peculiar method is adopted 
because the most important requirement in nutrition 
is that of giving energy for the work of the body, and 
a food may be thought of as being burnt up (oxidised) 
in the human machine in the production of heat and 
energv. The various food constituents serve in varying 
degrees as fuel to produce energy, and hence to judge 
of the food value it is necessary to know the chemical 
composition. Below we give the average composition 
of cacao beans and the fuel value calculated from these 
figures : 

Average Composition and Fuel Value of freshly roasted 
Cacao Beans (nibs). 

Co mposition . Energy-giving power 
Calories per lb. 

Cacao Butter 54 - o = 2,282 

Protein (total nitrogen 2-3%) 11-9 = 221 

Cacao Starch 6*7 1 _ 

Other Digestible Carbohydrates, etc. 187 1 

_. , (Theobromine .... ro 
Stimulants | Caffein ^ 

Mineral Matter 3-2 

Crude Fibre 2'6 

Moisture 1*5 

ioo"o 2,975 



COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE 167 

It will be seen from the above analysis that the cacao 
bean is rich in fats, carbohydrates and protein, and 
that it contains small quantities of the two stimulants, 
theobromine and caffein. In the whole range of animal 
and vegetable foodstuffs there are only one or two 
which exceed it in energy-giving power. If expressed 




Cocoa and Chocolate Despatch Deck at Bourn ville. 

in quite another way, namely, as " food units," the 
value of the cacao bean stands equally high, as is shown 
by the following figures taken from Smetham's result 
published in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural 
Society, 19 14 : 

" Food Units." 

Turnips 8 

Carrots 12 

Potatoes 26 

Rice 102 

Corn Flour 104 

Wheat 106 

Peas 113 

Oatmeal 117 

Coconut 159 • 

Cacao Bean 1 83 

These figures indicate the high food value of the raw 
material ; we will now proceed to consider the various 
products which are obtained from it. 



1 68 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Food Value of Cocoa. 
Average Composition and Fuel Value of Untreated Cocoa. 

Composition. Energy-giving power 
Calories per lb. 

Cacao Butter 28*0 = 1,183 

Protein i8'3 = 340 

Cacao Starch 10*2 / 

Other Digestible Carbohydrates, etc. 28*4 I 

. , . Theobromine nc 

Stimulants ^ n- • .i 

Canein o - o 

Mineral Matter 5"o 

Crude Fibre 4'o 

Moisture 4'o 

ioo"o 2,241 



7i ; 



(" Soluble " Cocoa, i.e., cocoa which has been treated with alkaline 
salts, is almost identical in composition, save that the mineral matter 
is about 7" 5 per cent.). 

As cocoa consists of the cacao bean with some of the 
butter extracted — a process which increases the per- 
centage of the nitrogenous and carbohydrate consti- 
tuents — it will be evident that the food value of cocoa 
powder is high, and that it is a concentrated foodstuff. 
In this respect it differs from tea and coffee, which 
have practically no food value ; each of them, however, 
have special qualities of their own. Some of the claims 
made for these beverages are a little remarkable. The 
Embassy of the United Provinces in their address to 
the Emperor of China (Leyden, 1655), in mentioning 
the good properties of tea, wrote : " More especially 
it disintoxicates those that are fuddl'd, giving them 
new forces, and enabling them to go to it again." The 
Embassy do not state whether they speak from personal 
experience, but their admiration for tea is undoubted. 
Tea, coffee, and cocoa are amongst our blessings, each 
has its devotees, each has its peculiar delight : tea 
makes for cheerfulness, coffee makes for wit and wake- 
fulness, and cocoa relieves the fatigued, and gives a 
comfortable feeling of satisfaction and stability. Of 



COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE 169 

these three drinks cocoa alone can be considered as a 
food, and just as there are people whose digestion is 
deranged by tea, and some who sleep not a wink after 
drinking coffee, so there are some who find cocoa too 
feeding, especially in the summer-time. These sufferers 
from biliousness will think it curious that cocoa is 
habitually drunk in many hot climates, thus, in Spanish- 
speaking countries, it is the custom for the priest, after 
saying mass, to take a cup of chocolate. The pure cocoa 
powder is, as we saw above, a very rich foodstuff, but 
it must always be remembered that in a pint of cocoa 
only a small quantity, about half an ounce, is usually 
taken. In this connection the following comparison 
between tea, coffee and cocoa is not without interest. It is 
taken from the Farmer's Bulletin 249, an official public- 
ation of the United States Department of Agriculture : 

Comparison of Energy-giving Power of a Pint of Tea, 
Coffee and Cocoa. 













Fuel 


Kind of Beverage 


Water 

/o 


Protein 

/o 


Fat 

/o 


Carbo- 
hydrates 

% 


value 

per lb. 

Calories 


Tea 












(o"5 oz, to 1 pt. water) 

Coffee 

(1 oz. to 1 pt. water) 

Cocoa 


99' 5 
98-9 


0"2 
0*2 






o-6 

0-7 


1 S 
16 


(o - 5 oz. to 1 pt. water) 


97' l 


o-6 


°'9 


ri 


65 



These figures place cocoa, as a food, head and shoulders 
above tea and coffee. The figures are for the beverages 
made without the addition of milk and sugar, both of 
which are almost invariably present. A pint of cocoa 
made with one-third milk, half an ounce of cocoa, and 
one ounce of sugar would have a fuel value of 320 
calories, and is therefore equivalent in energy-giving 
power to a quarter of a pound of beef or four eggs. 
Cocoa is stimulating, but its action is not so marked 



1 70 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



as that of tea or coffee, and hence it is more suitable for 
young children. Dr. Hutchison, an authority on diet- 
etics, writes : " Tea and coffee are also harmful to 
the susceptible nervous system of the child, but cocoa, 
made with plenty of milk, may be allowed, though it 
should be regarded, like milk, as a food rather than a 
beverage properly so called." 

Hozv to Make a Cup of Cocoa. 

Tea, coffee and cocoa are all so easy to make that it 
is remarkable anyone should fail to prepare them per- 
fectly. Whilst in France everyone can prepare coffee 

to perfection, and many 
fail in making a cup of 
tea, in England all are 
adepts in the art of tea- 
making, and many do not 
distinguish themselves in 
the preparation of coffee. 
Cocoa in either country 
is not always the delight- 
ful beverage it should be. 
The directions below, 
if carefully followed, will 
be found to give the cha- 
racter of cocoa its full expression. The principal con- 
ditions to observe are to avoid iron saucepans, to use 
boiling water or milk, to froth the cocoa before serving, 
and to serve steaming hot in thick cups. 

The amount of cocoa required for two large break- 
fast cups, that is one pint, is as much as will go, when 
piled up, in a dessert spoon. Take then a heaped 
dessert-spoonful of pure cocoa and mix dry with one 
and a half times its bulk of fine sugar. Set this on one 
side whilst the boiling liquid is prepared. Mix one 
breakfast cup of water with one breakfast cup of milk, 
and raise to the boil in an enamelled saucepan. Whilst 
this is proceeding, warm the jug which is to hold the 
cocoa, and transfer the dry sugar-cocoa mixture to it. 




COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE 171 

Now pour in the boiling milk and water. Transfer back 
to saucepan and boil for one minute. Whisk vigorously 
for a quarter of a minute. Serve without delay. 

Digestibility of Cocoa. 

We have noted above the high percentage of nutrients 
which cocoa contains, and the research conducted by 
J. Forster* shows that these nutrients are easily assimil- 
ated. Forster found that the fatty and mineral con- 
stituents of cocoa are both completely digested, and the 
nitrogenous constituents are digested in the same 
proportion as in finest bread, and more completely 
than in bread of average quality. One very striking 
fact was revealed bv his researches, namely, that the 
consumption of cocoa increases the digestive power 
for other foods which are taken at the same time, and 
that this increase is particularly evident with milk. 
Dr. R. O. Neumannf (who fed himself with cocoa 
preparations for over twelve weeks), whilst not agree- 
ing with this conclusion, states that : ' The con- 
sumption of cocoa from the point of view of health 
leaves nothing to be desired. The taking of large or 
small quantities of cocoa, either rich or poor in fat, 
with or without other food, gave rise to no digestive 
troubles during the 86 days which formed the dur- 
ation of the experiments." He considers that cocoas 
containing a high percentage of cacao butter are prefer- 
able to those which contain low percentages, and that 
a 30 per cent, butter content meets all requirements. 
It is worthy of note that 28 to 30 per cent, is the quan- 
tity of butter found in ordinary high-class cocoas. 

As experts are liable to disagree, and it is almost 
possible to prove anything by a judicious selection 
from their writings, it may be well to give an extract 
from some modern text book as more nearly express- 
ing the standard opinion of the times. In Second Stage 

* Hygienische Rundschau, 1900, p. 305. 
-j- Die Beicertung des Kakaos ah Nahrungs- und Genussmittel, 1906. 



172 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Hygiene, by Mr. Ikin and Dr. Lyster, a text book 
written for the Board of Education Syllabus, we read, 
p. 96 : " . . .in the better cocoas the greater part of 
the fat is removed by heat and pressure. In this form 
cocoa may be looked upon as almost an ideal food, as 
it contains proteids, fats, and carbohydrates in roughly 
the right proportions. Prepared with milk and sugar it 
forms a highly nutritious and valuable stimulating 
beverage." 



Stimulating Property of Cocoa. 

The mild stimulating property which cocoa possesses 
is due to the presence of the two substances, theo- 
bromine and caffein. The presence of theobromine is 
peculiar to cocoa, but caffein is a stimulating principle 
which also occurs in tea and coffee. Whilst in the 
quantities in which they are present in cocoa (about 
1 .5 per cent, of theobromine and 0.6 per cent, of caffein) 
they act only as agreeable stimulants, in the pure con- 
dition, as white crystalline powders, they are powerful 
curative agents. Caffein is well known as a specific for 
nervous headaches, and as a heart stimulant and diuretic. 
Theobromine is similar in action, but has the advantage 
for certain cases, that it has much less effect on the 
central nervous system, and for this reason it is a very 
valuable medicine for sufferers from heart dropsy, and 
as a tonic for senile heart. That its medicinal proper- 
ties are appreciated is shown by its price : during 191 8 
the retail price was about 8 shillings an ounce, from 
which we can calculate that every pound of cocoa 
contained nearly two shillingsworth of theobromine. 

" Soluble " Cocoa. 

Whilst Forster states that treated cocoa is the most 
digestible, experts are not in agreement as to which 
is the more valuable foodstuff, the pure untouched 
cocoa, or that which is treated during its manufacture 



COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE 173 

with alkaline salts. The cocoa so treated is generally 
described as " soluble," although its only claim to this 
name is that the mineral salts in the cocoa are rendered 
more soluble by the treatment. It is also sometimes 
incorrectly described as containing alkali, but actually no 
alkali is present in the cocoa either in a free state or as 




Boxing Chocolates. 



carbonate ; the potassium exists " in the form of phos- 
phates or combinations of organic acids, that is to say, 
in the ideal form in which these bodies occur in foods 
of animal and vegetable origin " (Fritsch, Fabrication 
da Chocolat, p. 216). 

Food Value of Chocolate. 

I ate a little chocolate from my supply, well knowing the miracu- 
lous sustaining powers of the simple little block (from Mr. Isaacs, 
by F. Marion Crawford). 

Whilst the food value of cocoa powder is very high 



i74 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

the drink prepared from it can only be regarded as an 
accessory food, because it is usual to take the powder 
in small quantities — just as with beef-tea it is usual to 
take only a small portion of an ox in a tea-cup — but 
chocolate is often eaten in considerable quantities at a 
time, and must therefore be regarded as an important 
foodstuff, and not considered, as it frequently is con- 
sidered, simply as a luxury. 

The eating of cacao mixed with sugar dates from 
very early days, but it is only in recent times that it has 
become the principal sweetmeat. What would a " sweet- 
shop " be to-day without chocolate, that summit of 
the confectioner's art, when the rich brown of chocolate 
is the predominant note in every confectioner's 
window ? What would the lovers in England do 
without chocolates, which enable them to indulge 
their delight in giving that which is sure to be well 
received ? 

As a luxury it is universally appreciated, and be- 
cause of this appreciation its value as a food is some- 
times overlooked. 

During the war chocolate was valued as a compact 
foodstuff, which is easily preserved. Dr. Gastineau 
Earle, lecturing for the Institute of Hygiene in 1915 
on " Food Factor in War," said : " Chocolate is a 
most valuable concentrated food, especially when 
other foods are not available ; it is the chief constitu- 
ent of the emergency ration." Its importance as a con- 
centrated foodstuff was appreciated in the United 
States, for every " comfort kit " made up for the 
American soldiers fighting in the war contained a cake 
of sweet chocolate. 

There are a number of records of people whose lives 
have been preserved by means of chocolate. One of 
the most recent was the case of Commander Stewart, 
who was torpedoed in H.M.S. " Cornwallis " in the 
Mediterranean in 19 17. He happened to have in his 
cabin one of the boxes of chocolate presented to the 
Army and Navy in 191 5 by the colonies of Trinidad, 



COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE 175 

Grenada, and St. Lucia, who gave the cacao and paid 
English manufacturers to make it into chocolate. He 
had been treasuring the box as a souvenir, but being 
the only article of food available, he filled his pockets 
with the chocolate, which sustained him through many 
trying hours.* 

We have already seen the high food value of the 
cacao bean : what of the sugar which chocolate con- 
tains ? Sugar is consumed in large quantities in England, 
the consumption per head amounting to 80-90 lbs. per 
year. It is well known as a giver of heat and energy, 
and Sir Ernest Shackleton reports that it proved a 
great life preserver and sustainer in Arctic regions. 
Our practical acquaintance with sugar commences at 
birth — milk containing about 5 per cent, of milk 
sugar — and when one considers the amazing activity 
of young children one understands their continuous 
demand for sugar. Dr. Hutchison, in his well-known 
Food and the Principles of Dietetics, says : ' The 
craving for sweets which children show is, no doubt, the 
natural expression of a physiological need, but they 
should be taken with, and not between, meals. Chocol- 
ate is one of the most wholesome and nutritious forms 
of such sweets." 

Both the constituents of chocolate being nourish- 
ing, it follows that chocolate itself has a high food 
value. This is proved by the figures given below. 

As with cocoa, we have first to know the composition 
before we can calculate the food value. The relative 
proportions of nib, butter and sugar, vary considerably 
in ordinary chocolate, so that it is difficult to give an 
average composition : there are sticks of eating chocol- 
ate which contain as little as 24 per cent, of cacao 
butter, whilst chocolate used for covering contains 
about 36 per cent, of butter. 

As modern high-class eating chocolate contains 



* See West India Committee Journal ', p. 55, 191 7. 



176 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

about 31 per cent, of butter, we will take this for 
purposes of calculation : 

Average Composition and Fuel Value of English Eating 
Chocolate. 

Composition Enet gy-giving power 
Calories per lb. 

Cacao Butter 31*4 = 1 ,327 

Protein (total nitrogen 0-78%) 4-1 = 76 

Cacao Starch 2*3 \ , 

Other Digestible Carbohydrates, etc. 6'4-f 

„ . , ^Theobromine .... o"l 
Stimulants { r> a ■ . 

iCartein 01 

Mineral Matter V2 

Crude Fibre o'o. 

Moisture ro 

Sugar 52-3 = 973 

ioo - o 2 .538 



In Snyder's Human Foods (191 6) the official analyses 
of 163 common foods are given. They include prac- 
tically everything that human beings eat, and only 
three are greater than chocolate in energy-giving power. 

The result (2,538 calories per lb.) which we obtain 
by calculation is lower than the figure (2,768 calories 
per lb.) for chocolate given by Sherman in his 
book on Food and Nutrition (191 8). Probably his figure 
is for unsweetened chocolate. The table below shows 
the energy-giving value of cocoa and chocolate com- 
pared with well-known foodstuffs. The figures (save 
for "eating" chocolate) are taken from Sherman's book, 
and are calculated from the analyses given in Bulletin 
28 of the United States Department of Agriculture : 

Fuel Value of Foodstuffs. 

Foodstuff as Calories Foodstuff as Calories 

Purchased. per lb. Purchased. per lb. 

Cabbage 121 Beef Steak 960 

Cod Fish 209 Bread (average white) 1,180 

Apples 214 Oatmeal 1,811 

Potatoes 302 Sugar 1,815 

Milk 314 Cocoa 2,258 

Eggs 594 Eating Chocolate . . 2,538 



COMPOSITION AND FOOD VALUE 177 




> 
z 

« 

o 

m 

H 

< 

W 
H 
< 
_) 
O 
O 

o 

X 

u 

a 
g 

2 

u 
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178 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Food Value of Milk Chocolate. 

The value of milk as a food is so generally recog- 
nised as to need no commendation here. When milk is 
evaporated to a dry solid, about 87*5 per cent, of water 
is driven off, so that the dry milk left has about eight 
times the food value of the original milk. Milk choco- 
late of good quality contains from 15 to 25 per cent, of 
milk solids. Milk chocolate varies greatly in com- 
position, but for the purpose of calculating the food 
value, we may assume that about a quarter of a high- 
class milk chocolate consists of solid milk, and this is 
combined with about 40 per cent, of cane sugar and 
35 per cent, of cacao butter and cacao mass. 

Analysis and Fuel Value of Milk Chocolate. 

Energy-g ivirtg 

power. 
Calories per lb. 

Milk Fat and Cacao Butter 35-0 = 1,480 

Milk and Cocoa Proteins 8 - o = 149 

Cacao Starch and Digestible Carbohydrates 3-0 = 56 

Stimulants (Theobromine and Caffein).. o'2 

Mineral Matter 20 

Crude Fibre 0-3 

Moisture i'5 

Milk Sugar and Cane Sugar 50-0 = 930 



2,615 



It will be noted that the food* value of milk chocolate 
is even greater than that of plain chocolate. It is highly 
probable that milk chocolate is the most nutritious of 
all sweetmeats. It is not generally recognised that when 
we purchase one pound of high-class milk chocolate 
we obtain three-quarters of a pound of chocolate and 
two pounds of milk ! 



i79 



CHAPTER IX 

ADULTERATION AND THE NEED FOR 
DEFINITIONS 

Those that mix maize in the Chocolate do very ill, for 
they beget bilious and melancholy humours. 
A Curious Treatise on the Nature and Quality of Chocolate, 
Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma, 1685. 

COCOA. 

COCOA might conveniently be defined as con- 
sisting exclusively of shelled, roasted, finely- 
ground cacao beans, partially de-fatted, with 
or without a minute quantity of flavouring material. 

The gross adulteration of cocoa is now a thing of the 
past, and most of the cocoa sold conforms with this 
definition. Statements, however, get copied from book 
to book, and hence we continue to read that cocoa 
usually contains arrowroot or other starch. In the old 
days this was frequently so, but now, owing to many 
legal actions by Public Health Authorities, this abuse 
has been stamped out. Nowadays if a Public Analyst 
finds flour or arrowroo*t in a sample bought as cocoa, 
he describes it as adulterated, and the seller is prose- 
cuted and fined. Hence, save for the presence of cacao 
shell, the cocoa of the present day is a pure article 
consisting simply of roasted, finely-ground cacao beans 
partially de-fatted. The principal factors affecting the 
quality of the finished cocoa are the difference in the 
kind of cacao bean used, the amount of cacao butter 
extracted, the care in preparation, and the amount of 
cacao shell left in. 



180 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

The presence of more than a small percentage of 
shell in cocoa is a disadvantage both on the ground of 
taste and of food value. This has been recognised from 
the earliest times (see quotations on p. 128). In the 
Cocoa Powder Order of 191 8, the amount of shell 
which a cocoa powder might contain was defined — 
grade A not to contain more than two per cent, of shell, 
and grade B not more than five per cent, of shell. The 
manufacturers of high-class cocoa welcomed these 
standards, but unfortunately the known analytical 
methods are not delicate enough to estimate accurately 
such small quantities, so that any external check is 
difficult, and the purchaser has to trust to the honesty 
of the manufacturer. Hence it is wise to purchase cocoa 
only from makers of good repute. 

CHOCOLATE. 

We have so far no legal definition of chocolate in 
England. As Mr. N. P. Booth pointed out at the 
Seventh International Congress of Applied Chemistry : 
" At the present time a mixture of cocoa with sugar 
and starch cannot be sold as pure cocoa, but only as 
' chocolate powder,' and with a definite declaration 
that the article is a mixture of cocoa and other in- 
gredients. Prosecutions are constantly occurring where 
mixtures of foreign starch and sugar with cocoa have 
been sold as ' cocoa,' and it seems, therefore, a proper 
step to take to require that a similar declaration shall 
be made in the case of ' chocolate ' which contains 
other constituents than the products of cocoa nib and 
sugar." We cannot do better than quote in full the 
definitions suggested in Mr. Booth's paper. 

The author refers to the absence of any legal stand- 
ard for chocolate in England, although in some of the 
European countries standards are in force, and points 
out, as a result of this, that articles of which the sale 
would be prohibited in some other countries, are per- 
mitted to come without restriction on to the English 
market. 



ADULTERATION AND DEFINITIONS 181 




Wharf at Factory at Knighton, at which Milk is 
Evaporated for Milk Chocolate Manufacture. 
(Messrs. Cadbury Bros., Ltd.) 

He suggests that the following definitions for chocol- 
ate goods are reasonable, and could be conformed to 
by makers of the genuine article. These standards are 
not more stringent than those already enforced in 
some of the Colonies and European countries : 

(i) Unsweetened chocolate or cacao mass must be prepared ex- 
clusively from roasted, shelled, finely-ground cacao beans, 
with or without the addition of a small quantity of flavouring 
matter, and should not contain less than 45 per cent, of cacao 
butter. 

(2) Sweetened chocolate or chocolate.— A preparation consisting 
exclusively of the products of roasted, shelled, finely-ground 
cacao beans, and not more than 65 per cent, of sugar, with 
or without a small quantity of harmless flavouring matter 



1 82 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

(3) Granulated, or Ground Chocolate for Drinking purposes. — 
The same definition as for sweetened chocolate should apply 
here, except that the proportion of sugar may be raised to not 
more than 75 per cent. 

(4) Chocolate-covered Goods. — Various forms of confectionery 
covered with chocolate, the composition of the latter agreeing 
with the definition of sweetened chocolate. 

(5) Milk Chocolate.- — A preparation composed exclusively of 
roasted, shelled cacao beans, sugar, and not less than 15 per 
cent, of the dry solids of full- cream milk, with or without a 
small quantity of harmless flavouring matter. 

Mr. Booth further states that starch other than that 
naturally present in the cacao bean, and cacao shell in 
powder form, should be absolutely excluded from 
any article which is to be sold under the name of 
" chocolate." 



<«3 



CHAPTER X 

THE CONSUMPTION OF CACAO 

The Kernels that come to us from the Coast of Car aqua, 
are more oily, and less bitter, than those that come from the 
French Islands, and in France and Spain they prefer them 
to these latter. But in Germany and in the North (Fides sit 
penes antor em) they have a quite opposite Taste. Several 
People mix that of Car aqua with that of the Islands, half in 
half, and pretend by this Mixture to make the Chocolate 
better. I believe in the bottom, the difference of Chocolates 
is not considerable, since they are only obliged to increase 
or diminish the Proportion of Sugar, according as the 
Bitterness of the Kernels require it. 

The Natural History of Chocolate, 
R. Brookes, 1730. 

THE war has caused such a disturbance that the 
statistics for the years of the war are difficult 
to obtain. For many years the German publica- 
tion, the Gordian, was the most reliable source of 
cacao statistics, and so far we have nothing in England 
sufficiently comprehensive to replace it, although useful 
figures can be obtained from the Board of Trade re- 
turns of imports into Great Britain, from Mr. Theo. 
Vasmer's reports which appear from time to time in 
The Confectioners' Union and elsewhere, from Mr. 
Hamel Smith's collated material in Tropical Life, and 
from the reports of important brokers like Messrs. 
Woodhouse. In 19 19 the Bulletin of the Imperial 
Institute gave a very complete resume of cacao pro- 
duction as far as the British Empire is concerned. 



1 84 COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 

Great Britain. 

Since 1830 the consumption of cacao in the British 
Isles has shown a great and continuous increase, and 
there is every reason to believe that the consumption 
will easily keep pace with the rapidly growing pro- 
duction. One effect of the war has been to increase the 
consumption of cocoa and chocolate. Many thousands 
of men who took no interest in " sweets " learned from 
the use of their emergency ration that chocolate was a 
very convenient and concentrated foodstuff. 

Cacao Beans Cleared for Home Consumption. 
Year. English Tons. 

1830 450 

1 840 900 

1 850 1 ,400 

i860 1,450 

1870 3,100 

1 880 4,7 00 

1 890 9,000 

1900 16,900 

19 10 2 4>55° 



Retained in 


Home 


he country 


Consumption 


tons. 


tons. 


27-45° 


24,600 


28,200 


23,200 


29,600 


24,900 


54,400 


40,300 


64.75 


29,300 


53- IO ° 


4 I .3°° 



Cacao Beans Imported into United Kingdom. 

Total 
Year. Imported 

tons. 

1912 .... 33,600 

1913 35.°°° 

1914 4 I -75° 

1915 .... 81,800 

1916 88,800 

1917 .... 57,900 

The above figures are compiled from the Bulletin 
of the Imperial Institute (No. I, 19 19). The total im- 
ports for 191 8 were 42,390 tons. This sudden and 
marked drop in the amount imported was due to short- 
age of shipping. There were, however, large quan- 
tities of cacao in stock, and the amount consumed 
showed a marked advance on previous years, being 
61,252 tons. 



THE CONSUMPTION OF CACAO 185 
The Board of Trade Returns for 19 19 are as follow : 
Cacao Beans Imported into United Kingdom. 
From 



British West Africa, 
British West Indies 

Ecuador 

Brazil 

Ceylon 

Other Countries 



Total 



72,886 tons 

13,219 tons 

9,153 tons 

3,665 tons 

903 tons 

13,820 tons 

113,646 tons 



Home Consumption 64,613 tons 

It will be noted that the import of British cacao is 
over 75 per cent, of the total. 

Before the war about half the cacao imported into 
the United Kingdom was grown in British possessions. 
During the war more and more British cacao was im- 
ported, and now that a preferential duty of seven 
shillings per hundredweight has been given to British 
Colonial growths we shall probably see a still higher 
percentage of British cacao consumed in the United 
Kingdom. 

Value of Cacao Beans Imported into the United Kingdom (to 
Nearest £1,000). 





Total value of Cacao 


From British Possessio 


Year. 


Beans Imported. 


Value. 


Per cent 


1913 .. 


£2,199,000 


£1,158,000 


5*1 


1914 .. 


£2,439,000 


£1,204,000 


49"4 


1915 .. 


£5,747,000 


£3,546,000 


6r 7 


1916 


£6,498,000 


£4,417,000 


68-o 


1917 .. 


£3,498,000 


£3,010,000 


86-o 


1918 .. 


£3,040,000 


£2,549,000 


83-8 


1919 .. 


£9,207,000 


£6,639,000 


72-1 



That the consumption of cacao is expected to grow 
greater yet in the immediate future is reflected in the 
prices of raw cacao, which, as soon as they were no 
longer fixed by the Government, rose rapidly, thus 
Accra cacao rose from 65s. per hundredweight to over 
90s. per hundredweight in a few weeks, and now 
(January, 1920) stands at 104s. (See diagram p. 113). 



i86 



COCOA AND CHOCOLATE 



World Consumption. 

The world's consumption of cacao is steadily rising. 
Before the war the United States, Germany, Holland, 
Great Britain, France, and Switzerland were the prin- 
cipal consumers. Whilst we have increased our con- 
sumption, so that Great Britain now occupies second 
place, the United States has outstripped all the other 
countries, having doubled its consumption in a few 
years, and is now taking almost as much as all the 
rest of the world put together. It is thought that since 
America has " gone dry " this remarkably large con- 
sumption is likely to be maintained. 

World's Consumption of Cacao Beans. 

(to the nearest thousand tons) 
i ton = iooo kilograms. 



Country. 
U.S.A 


Pre-war 

Tons. 

68,000 

51,000 

30,000 

28,000 

28,000 

10,000 

7,000 

6,000 

6,000 

5,000 

3,000 

2,000 

2,000 

1,000 

1,000 

5,000 


War Pe 

Average of 
1914, 5A&7. 

Tons. 
103,000 

28,000 

25,000 

41,000 

35,000 

14,000 
2,000 
1,000 
7,000 
4,000 
4,000 
5,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 

8, 000 


nod 

1918 

Tons. 

145,000 

? 

2,000 
62,000 
39,000 
18,000 

? 

1,000 
6,000 

p 

9,000 
6,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 

11,000 


Post-zvar 

1919. 

Tons. 

145,000 

13,000 

39,000 

66,000 

46,000 

21,000 

2,000 

8,000 

8,000 

? 

? 

6,000 

? 

? 
? 

26,000 


Germany 

Holland 


Great Britain .... 
France 


Switzerland 

Austria 


Belgium 

Spain 


Russia 


Canada 


Italy 


Denmark 

Sweden 


Norway 


Other countries 
(estimated) 

Total 


1 252,000 


283,000 


305,000 


380,000 



The above figures are compiled chiefly from Mr. 
Theo. Vasmer's reports. The Gordian estimates that 



THE CONSUMPTION OF CACAO 187 

the world's consumption in 191 8 was 314,882 tons. 
In several of our larger colonies and in at least one 
European country there is obviously ample room for 
increase in the consumption. When one considers the 




Cacao Pods, Leaves and Flowers. 

Reproduced by permission of Messrs. Fry & Soiif, Ltd., Bristol. 

great population of Russia, four to five thousand tons 
per annum is a very small amount to consume. It is 
pleasant to think of cocoa being drunk in the ice- 
bound North of Russia — it brings to mind so picturesque 
a contrast : cacao, grown amongst the richlv-coloured 
flora of the tropics, consumed in a land that is white 
with cold. When Russia has reached a more stable 
condition we shall doubtless see a rapid expansion in 
the cacao consumption. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



i.9 1 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BOOKS ON 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE ARRANGED IN 

ORDER OF DATE OF PUBLICATION. 

1600-1700 

RAUCH, Joan. Franc. 

DISPUTATIO MEDICO DICETETICA DE AERE ET 

ESCULENTIS, DE NECNON POTU? Vienna 1624 

[Condemns cocoa as a violent inflamer of the passions.] 

COLMENERO, Antonio de Ledesma. 
[Treatise on Chocolate in Spanish entitled :] 

CURIOSO TRATADO DE LA NATURALEZA Y 

CALIDAD DEL CHOCOLATE, DIVIDIDO EN 
QUATRO PUNTOS. Madrid 1631 
Translated into English by Don Diego de Vades- 

forte 1640 

Translated into French by Rene Moreau J &13 

Translated into Latin by J. G. Volckamer 1644 

Translated into English by J. Wadsworth 1652 

Translated into Italian by A. Vitrioli 1667 
Moreau's translation edited by Sylvestre Dufour 

1 67 1 and 1685 

and translated into English by J. Chamberlaine 1685 
[for titles, etc., see under translators] 

DE VADES-FORTE, Don Diego. 

[The magnificent pseudonym of J. Wads- 
worth.] (Translated by.) 

A CURIOUS TREATISE OF THE NATURE AND 
QUALITY OF CHOCOLATE by Antonio de Ledesma 
Colmenero. London 1640 



i 9 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

MOREAU, Rene. (Translated by) 

DU CHOCOLAT DISCOURS CURIEUX by Antonio 

de Ledesma Colmenero. pp. 59. Paris x ^43 

[VOLCKAMER, J. G. Translated by.] 

CHOCOLATA INDA, OPUSCULUM DE QUALI- 
TATE ET NATURA CHOCOLATAE by Antonio de 
Ledesma Colmenero. pp. 73. Norimbergae 1644 

(In same volume with this is " Opobalsamum Orient- 
alae " and " Pisonis Observationes Medicae." Total 
pp. 224.) 

WADSWORTH, J. (Translated by.) 

CHOCOLATE: OR AN INDIAN DRINKE ETC. by 
Antonio Ledesma Colmenero. London 1652 

STUBBE(S), Henry. 

THE INDIAN NECTAR OR A DISCOURSE CON- 
CERNING CHOCOLATA. pp. 184. London 1662 

BRANCATIUS, Franciscus Maria. 

DE CHOCALATIS POTU DIATRIBE, pp. 36. Rome 1664 

PAULLI, Simon 

COMMENTARIUS DE ABUSU TABACI . . . 

THEE. Argentorati (see 1746) 1665 

VITRIOLI, A. (Translated by.) 

DELLA CIOCCOLATA DISCORSO. [From Moreau's 
translation of Colmenero's book.] Rome 1667 

SEBASTUS MELISSENUS, F. Nicephorus. 

DE CHOCOLATIS POTIONE RESOLUTIO MOR- 
ALIS. pp. 36. Naples 1671 

SYLVESTRE DUFOUR, P. [Edited by.] 

DE L'USAGE DU CAPHE, DU THE, ET DU 
CHOCOLAT. pp. 188. Lyon 1671 

[The part on chocolate, pp. 59, is a revision of Moreau's 
translation of Colmenero's book, plus B. Marradon's 
dialogue on chocolate.] Translated into English by J. 
Chamberlaine (which see). 1685 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 193 

HUGHES, William. 

THE AMERICAN PHYSITIAN . . . WHERE- 
UNTO IS ADDED A DISCOURSE ON THE 
CACAO-NUT-TREE, AND THE USE OF ITS 
FRUIT, WITH ALL THE WAYS OF MAKING 
CHOCOLATE. London 1672 

AUTHOR NOT GIVEN. 

DESCRIPTION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE 
COCOA TREE. Phil. Trans. Abr. 11. pp. 59. 1673 

BONTEKOE, Willem. 

Sundry short treatises in Dutch on Cocoa and Choco- 
late, about 1679 

AUTHOR NOT GIVEN. 

THE NATURAL HISTORY OF COFFEE, TEA, 
CHOCOLATE, TOBACCO AND ALSO THE WAY 
OF MAKING MUM. pp. 39. Printed for Christopher 
Wilkinson. London 1682 

[Condemns chocolate on account of its containing " such 
a corrosive salt " as sugar. Mum is a peculiar kind of 
beer made from wheat malt.] 

MUNDY, Henry. 

OPERA OMNIA MEDICO-PHYSICA DE AERE 
VITALI, E^CULENTIS ET POTULENTIS CUM 
APPENDICE DE PARERGIS IN VICTU ET 
CHOCOLATU, THEA, CAFFEA, TOBACCO. 

Oxford 1680. Leyden 1685 

SYLVESTRE DUFOUR, P. 

TRAITEZ,NOUVEAUX ET CURIEUX DU CAFE, 
DU THE ET DU CHOCOLAT. [The treatise on 
chocolate is compiled from the Spanish of Colmenero 
and B. Marradon.] pp. 403. a la Haye. 1685 

(With additions bv St. Disdier) pp. 404. a la 

Haye. 1693 

Published by Deville. pp. 404. Lyon 1688 

The above in Latin (bv J- Spon), "TRACTATUS 
NOVI DE POTU CAPHE, DE CHIENSIUM, 
THE, ET DE CHOCOLATA." pp. 202. Paris 1685 
A further Latin translation of the above, " NOVI 
TRACTATUS DE POTU CAPHE DE CHI- 
ENSIUM, THE, ET DE CHOCOLATA." 
pp. 188. Geneva 1699 



194 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

CHAMBERLAINE, J. (Translated by). 

THE MANNER OF MAKING COFFEE, TEA AND 
CHOCOLATE, pp. 116. London 1685 

[A translation of Sylvestre Dufour's compilation, the 
part on Chocolate entitled " A Curious Treatise of the 
Nature and Quality of Chocolate," being- a translation 
of Colmenero's book.] 

BLEGNY, Nicholas de. 

LE BON USAGE DE THE, DU CAFFE, ET DU 
CHOCOLAT POUR LA PRESERVATION ET POUR 
LA GUERISON DES MALADES. pp. 358. Paris 1687 

pp. 358. Lyon 1687 

MAPPUS, Marcus. 

DISSERTATIONES MEDICAE TRES DE RECEP- 
TIS HODIE ETIAM IN EUROPA, POTUS CALIDI 
GENERIBUS THEE, CAFE, CHOCOLATA. pp.66. 
Argentorati ^95 

1701-1800 
DUNCAN, Dr. 

WHOLESOME ADVICE AGAINST THE ABUSE OF 
HOT LIQUORS, PARTICULARLY OF COFFEE, 
TEA, CHOCOLATE, ETC. pp. 280. London 1706 

AUTHOR NOT GIVEN [by De Chelus.] 

HISTOIRE NATURELLE DU CACAO ET DU 

SUCRE. pp. 227. Paris 1719 

pp. 228. Amsterdam 1720 

pp. 404. Amsterdam 1720 

pp. 95. London J 7 2 4 

BROOKES, R. [the above by De Chelus.] 
(Translated by). 

NATURAL HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE. 

pp. 95. Printed for J. Roberts, London 1724 

pp. 95 Printed for Browne, London '7-5 

pp. 95. Printed for J. Roberts, London 1730 

ACT OF PARLIAMENT, George II, 1723. 

Relating to "LAYING INLAND DUTIES ON COF- 
FEE, TEA AND CHOCOLATE." London 1724 

BRUCKMAN, F. E. 

RELATIO DE CACAO. Brunswick 1738 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 195 

BARON, H. T. 

AN SENIBUS CHOCOLATAE PUTUS ? Paris 1739 

PAULI, S. [PAULLL] 

A TREATISE ON TOBACCO, TEA, COFFEE AND 
CHOCOLATE. Translated by Dr. James, pp. 171. 
London (see 1665) J 746 

N.N. [pseudonym of D. CONCINA.] 

MEMORIE STORICHE SOPRA L'USO DELLA 
CIOCCOLATA IN TEMPO DI DIGIUNO ETC. 
Historical memoir on the use of chocolate upon fast 
days. pp. 196. Venice 1748 

STAYLEY, G. 

THE CHOCOLATE MAKERS OR MIMICKRY 
EXPOSED. An Interlude. Dublin. 1759 

AUTHOR NOT GIVEN. 

OBSERVATIONS SUR LE CACAO ET SUR LE 
CHOCOLAT. pp. 144. Paris 1 772 

SMITH, Hugh. 

AN ESSAY ON FOREIGN TEAS, WITH OBSER- 
VATIONS ON MINERAL WATERS, COFFEE, 
CHOCOLATE, ETC. London 1794 

1801-1900 

PARMENTIER 

ON THE COMPOSITION AND USE OF CHOCO- 
LATE. Nicholson's Journal. London 1803 

GALLAIS, A. 

MONOGRAPHIE DU CACAO, pp. 216. Paris 1827 

MITSCHERLICH, A. 

DER KAKAO UND DIE SCHOKOLADE. Berlin 1859 

GOSSELIN, A. 

MANUEL DES CHOCOLATIERS. pp. 53. Paris i860 

MANGIN, A. 

LE CACAO ET LA CHOCOLAT. Paris 1862 



196 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

HEWETT, C. (of Messrs. Dunn and Hewett.) 

CHOCOLATE AND COCOA, GROWTH AND PRE- 
PARATION, pp. 88. London 1862 

COMPAGNIE COLONIALE. 

CHOCOLATE : ITS CHARACTER AND HISTORY. 

pp. 37. Paris 1868 

HOLM, J. 

COCOA AND ITS MANUFACTURE. Rivers, Lon- 
don. 

SINCLAIR, W. J. 

BEVERAGES, TEA, COCOA, ETC. (Health Lectures, 
Vol. 4). Manchester 1881 

SALDAU, E. 

DIE CHOCOLADE-FABRIKATION. pp. 232. Vienna 
(see 1907) 1881 

MORRIS, D. 

CACAO : HOW TO GROW IT. pp. 45. Jamaica 1882 

(see 1887) 

TRINIDAD Agricultural Association. 

CURING OF COCOA DISCUSSED, pp. 6. 1885 

BARTELINK, E. J. 

HANDLEIDING VOOR KAKAO-PLANTERS. pp. 

68. Amsterdam 1885 

English Translation, "THE CACAO PLANTERS' 
MANUAL." pp. 57. London 1885 

BAKER, W., & Co. 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE, pp. 152. Dorchester, 
Mass., U.S.A. (see 1891 and 1899) 1886 

MORRIS, D. 

CACAO : HOW TO GROW IT. pp. 42. Jamaica 1887 

(see 1882) 

ZIPPERER, P. 

DIE CHOCOLADE FABRIKATION. pp. 181. Ber- 
lin (see 1902 and 1913) 1889 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 197 

BANNISTER, R. 

CANTOR LECTURES ON SUGAR, COFFEE, TEA 
AND COCOA, pp. 77. London 1890 

BAKER, W., & Co. 

THE CHOCOLATE PLANT AND ITS PRODUCTS. 

pp. 40. Dorchester, Mass., U.S.A. (see 1886 and 1899) 1891 

HART, J. H. 

CACAO, pp. 77. Port of Spain, Trinidad (see 1900 

and 191 1) 1892 

HATTON, J. 

COCOA, pp. 22. London 1892 

HISTORICUS. 

COCOA: ALL ABOUT IT. pp. 114. London (see 
1896) 1892 

GORDIAN, A. 

DIE DEUTSCHE SCHOKOLADEN UND ZUCKER- 
WAREN INDUSTRIE. Hartleben's Verlag. Ham- 
burg- 1895 

ROQUE, L. De Belfort de la. 

GUIDE PRATIQUE DE LA FABRICATION DU 
CHOCOLAT. Paris 1895 

HISTORICUS. 

COCOA : ALL ABOUT IT. pp. 99. London (see 
1892) 1896 

VILLON. 

MANUEL DU CONFISEUR ET DU CHOCOLAT. 
Paris 1896 

GOLDOS, L. 

MANNUAL DE FABRICACION INDUSTRIAL DE 
CHOCOLATE, pp. 261. Madrid 1897 

OLIVIERI, F. E. 

CACAO PLANTING AND ITS CULTIVATION, pp. 

34. Port of Spain, Trinidad (see 1903) ^97 



198 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

EPPS, James. 

THE CACAO PLANT, pp. n. (Transactions Croy- 
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BAKER, W., & Co. 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE, pp. 71. Dorchester, 
Mass., U.S.A. (see 1886 and 1891) 1899 

HART, J. H. 

CACAO, pp. 117. Port of Spain, Trinidad (see 1892* 
and 191 1) *9 00 

JUMELLE, H. 

LE CACOYER : SA CULTURE ET SON EXPLOI- 
TATION, pp. 211. Paris 19 00 

MENIER. 

HISTORIQUE DES ETABLISSEMENTS MENIER. 
(Printed for Exposition Universelle.) pp. 44. Paris 1900 



MODERN WORKS, 1901-1920. 
(a) Cacao Cultivation. 
SMITH, H. Hamel. 

SOME NOTES ON COCOA PLANTING IN THE 
WEST INDIES, pp. 70 i9 01 

WILDEMAN, E. de. 

LES PLANTES TROPICALES DE GRANDE CUL- 
TURE—CAFE, CACAO, ETC. pp. 304. Bruxelles 1902 

PREUSS, Paul. 

EXPEDITION NACH CENTRAL UND SUD- 
AMERIKA. Berlin. French translation of part of the 
above, "LE CACAO, CULTURE ET PREPARA- 
TION " (from Bulletin Societe d'Etudes Coloniales). 
pp. 249 1902 

EITLING, C. 

DER KAKAO, SEINE KULTURUND BEREITUNG. 

pp. 39 1903 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 199 

OLIVIERI, F. E. 

TREATISE ON CACAO. pp. 101. Trinidad (see 
1897) 1903 

KINDT, L. 

DIE KULTUR DES KAKAOBAUMES UND SEINE 
SCHADLINGE. pp. 157. Hamburg 1904 

STEUART, M. E. 

EVERYDAY LIFE ON A CEYLON COCOA 

ESTATE, pp. 256. London I 9°5 

CHALOT, C. and LUC, M. 

LE CACOYER AU CONGO FRANCAIS. pp. 58 1906 

FAUCHERE, A. f 

CULTURE PRATIQUE DU CACAOYER ET PRE- 
PARATION DU CACAO, pp. 175. Paris 1906 

PRUD'HOMME, E. 

LE COCOTIER. CULTURE, INDUSTRIE ET 
COMMERCE, pp. 491 1906 

DE MENDONCA, Monteiro. 

BOA ENTRADA PLANTATIONS, SAN THOME. 

pp. 63. London I0 < 7 

MOUNTMORRES, Viscount. 

MAIZE, COCOA, RUBBER, pp. 44. Liverpool 1907 

SALDAU, E. 

DIE SCHOKOLADEN FABRIKATION. Vienna 

(see 1881) 1907 

WRIGHT, H. 

THEOBROMA CACAO OR COCOA. pp. 249. 
Colombo i9°7 

RAFAELI, V., and MAXIMILIANO, E. 

HOW JOSE' FORMED HIS CACAO ESTATE, pp. 

18. Trinidad i9°7 

TORAILLE, C. F. 

STOLEN FROM THE FIELDS. A TREATISE ON 
CACAO AND ITS CULTIVATION. Trinidad 1907 



200 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

HUGGINS, J. D. 

HINTS TO THOSE ENGAGING IN THE CULTI- 
VATION OF COCOA, pp. 24. Port of Spain, 
Trinidad 19 08 

SMITH, H. Hamel. 

THE FUTURE OF CACAO PLANTING. pp. 95. 
London 19 08 

ATBE. 

EL CULTIVO LAS DISERSAS INDUSTRIAS DES 
COCO. pp. 42. Quito 1909 

HART, J. H. 

CACAO, pp. 307. Duckworth, London (see 1892 and 
1900) 19 11 

SMITH, H. Hamel. 

NOTES ON SOIL AND PLANT SANITATION ON 
CACAO AND RUBBER ESTATES, pp. 603. Bale, 
London 19 11 

CARVATHO, d'Almeida. 

A ILHA DE S. THOME E A AGRICULTURA PRO- 
GRESSIVA. (Includes Culturas de Cacoeiro.) pp. 
228. Lisbon 1912 

JOHNSON, W. H. 

COCOA : ITS CULTIVATION AND PREPARATION. 

pp. 186. (Imperial Institute.) London 191 2 

AUTHOR NOT GIVEN. 

CACAO CULTURE IN THE WEST INDIES, pp. 
75. Havana. (Published by German Alkali Works, 
Cuba.) 19 12 

HENRY, Yves. 

LE CACAO, pp. 103. Paris 1913 

SMITH, H. Hamel. 

THE FERMENTATION OF CACAO, pp. 318. Bale, 
London 1913 

MALINS-SMITH, W. M. 

PRACTICAL CACAO PLANTING IN GRENADA. 
(West India Committee Circular, April to December.) 1913 



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HALL, C. J. J. van. 

COCOA, pp. 512. Macmillan, London 1914 

KNAPP, A. W. 

THE PRACTICE OF CACAO FERMENTATION. 

pp. 24. Bale, London !9 X 4 



(b) Chocolate Manufacture. 
BESSELIGH, N. 

DIE SCHOKOLADE. pp. 74. Trier. 

ZIPPERER, P. 

MANUFACTURE OF CHOCOLATE, pp. 277. Ber- 
lin, London and New York (see 1889 and 1913) 1902 

DUVAL, E. 

CONFISERIE MODERNE 1908 

BOOTH, N. P., GRIBB, G. H., and 
ELLIS-RICHARDS, P. A. 

THE COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS OF CHO- 
COLATE. Reprinted from the A nalyst. pp.15. London 1909 

FRITSCH, F. 

FABRICATION DU CHOCOLAT. pp. 349. Paris 1910 

FRANCOIS, L. 

LES ALIMENTS SUCRES INDUSTRIELS (Ch o- 
colats, Bonbons, etc.) pp. 143. Paris 1912 

WHYMPER, R. 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE : THEIR CHEMISTRY 
AND MANUFACTURE, pp. 327. Churchill, London 1912 

ZIPPERER, P. 

DIE SCHOKOLADEN-FABRIKATION. pp. 349. 
Berlin (see also 1889 and 1902) 1913 

JACOUTOT, Auguste. 

CHOCOLATE AND CONFECTIONERY MANU- 
FACTURE, pp. xv, 211. J. Baker & Sons. London 



202 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(c) General. 

WINTON, A. L., SILVERMAN, M., and 
BAILEY, E. M. 

[ANALYSES OF CACAO AND COCOA.] Report 
Connecticut Agri. Expt. Station, U.S.A. pp. 40. 1902 

HEAD, Brandon. 

THE FOOD OF THE GODS. pp. 109. London 1903 

STOLLWERCK, W. 

DER KAKAO UND DIE SCHOKOLADEN IN- 
DUSTRIE, pp. 102. Jena 1907 

U.S. CONSULAR REPORT NO. 50 
(Dept. of Commerce and Labour.) 

COCOA PRODUCTION AND TRADE, pp. 51. 
Washington 1912 

CASTILLO, Ledon. 

EL CHOCOLATE, pp. vi, 30. Mexico 1917 

BULLETIN IMPERIAL INSTITUTE. 

COCOA PRODUCTION IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

pp. 40-95. London T 9'9 

KNAPP, A. W., and McLELLAN, B. G. 

THE ESTIMATION OF CACAO SHELL (reprint 
from Analyst), pp. 21. London T 9 J 9 



The bibliography above is made as complete as 
possible as far as bound books in English are con- 
cerned. It also gives the more important continental 
publications. Should any errors or omissions have 
been made here or elsewhere, the author will be grate- 
ful if readers will point them out. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 203 

PERIODICALS. 

Onlv one or two of the important papers in current 
literature are mentioned. Much valuable material is 
to be found in the following : 

Cacao Production 

The papers published by the various departments 
of agriculture (especially those of Trinidad, Grenada, 
Philippines, Java, Ceylon, Gold Coast, Kew, etc.), 
the Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, The West India 
Committee Circular, Tropical Life, West Africa, Der 
Tropenpflanzer , etc. 

Statistics 

The Gordian, Tea and Coffee Trade Journal. 

Manufacture 

The Confectioners' Union. 

Chemistry 

The Analyst, the Journal of the Society of Chemical 
Industry, and the Journal of the Chemical Society. 



INDEX 



207 



INDEX 



Asterisks denote illustrations. 



ACCRA, 74, 91, 114, 1S5 {see also 

Gold Coast) 
Acids produced by fermentation, 57 
Adulterants, 163 
Adulteration, cocoa, 179 

chocolate, 180 

Agostini cacao picker, 46, *^6 
Agricultural colleges, 42 

education, 90 

Alcohol produced by fermentation, 

.52, 57 
Alkaline treating of cocoa, 173 
Allen, Grant, 1 14 
Altitude, cacao cultivation, 18 
Alligator cacao, 24 
Anal)- tical composition — cacao bean, 
166 

cacao butter, 159 

cacao shell, 163 

chocolate, 176 

cocoa, 168 

milk chocolate, 178 

ARRIBA, 74, 84 (see also Guayaquil) 
Aztec, 5, 7, 8 



Bacteria — fermentation, 57 
Bagging cacao beans, ^107, *uo 
BAHIA, 74, 87. 114 
Bainbridge and Davies, 125 
Baker & Co., Walter, 121 
Beans, 3, 167, *i2g 

breaking machine, 130 

breaking of, into fragments, 130 

changes — fermentation, 57 

characteristics of, 75 

size and weight of, 74 

use as money, 8 

Bibliography, 191 
Blending, 133 
Booth, N. P., 75 1S0 
Botanical description, 25 
Bournville, 128, 144, 162 
Boxing chocolates, * 173 
BRAZIL, 38, 82. 84, 87, 185 
Breaking cacao pods, 50, *5i 
Brill, H. C. ^9 
BRITISH GUIANA, 84 



BRITISH WEST AFRICA, 18 = 

also Gold Coast) 
Buying cacao, 109 
By-products, 157, 161 



{see 



Cacao beans, {see beans) 

Cacao butter, 135, 157, 159, 166, 
168, 171, 176, 178 

keeping properties, 158 

melting point, 149, 15S 

pressing out of, 135 

Cacao, cultivation, 17, 38, 116 

definition, 2 

explanation name, 1 

introduction into Europe, 10 

keeping properties, 122 

manufacturers' requirements, 75 

picker, 46, *^6 

preparations, popularity of, 15 

shell, {see shell) 

Cacauatl, 1 

Cadbury Bros., 15, 154 

Cadbury, Richard, 16 

Caffein, 166, 168, 172, 176, 178 

Cailler & Co., 154 

Calabacillo, 23, *27, 76 

CAMEROONS, 74,82,91, 105, 114 

CARACAS, 74, 87 

Carmody, Professor, 38, 41 

CARUPANO, 74, 87 

Catch crop, 36 

CEYLON, 18, 42, 52, 68, 70, 74, 81 
82, 106, 1 14, 185 

Chittenden, Dr., 52 

Claying, 70, *"]\, 76, 88 

Clearing the land, *2g, 30 

Clifford, Sir Hugh, 91 

Climate, cacao cultivation, 17 

Criollo, *27, 34, 52, 59, 87, 107 

Chocolate, 176, 180 

Chocolate, ancient usage, 10 

covering recipe, 150 

covering, suggested legal defin- 
ition, 182 

definition, 3 

derivation of word, 8 

fascination of, 8 



208 



INDEX 



Chocolate, houses and clubs, 12 

powder, 180 

recipe, 140 

suggested legal definitions, 181 

sustaining value, 174 

Chocolatl, 7, 8 
Chupons, (see suckers) 
Cocoa, 168, 169 

definition, 2 

digestibility of, 171 

how to make, 170 

origin of word, 3 

powder, introduction of, 15 

Coconuts, distinction between and 

cacao, 3 
Colouring beans, 72 
Colour, cacao bean, 25, 77 

cacao butter, 158 

cacao flowers, 22 

cacao leaves, 22 

cacao pods, 24, 48 

changes during fermentation, 

57. 59. 61 

Columbus, 7 

Composition (see analyses) 

Compressor, chocolate, 148 

Conching, 145 

Conche machine, *I47, *I48 

CONGO, 82, 91, 114 

Consumption, 15, 184 

Britisli Isles, 184 

World, 186 

Contract labour, Cameroons, 106 

San Thome, 103 

Cortes, 7 

Covering ci ernes, * 151 

CUBA, 82 

Dancing, cacao beans, 72 

De Candolle, 94 

Decauville railways, 52 

DEMERARA, 114 

Diseases, cacao tree, 43 

DOMINICA, 82, 88 

Drying, 62, *63, 64, *6^, *6^, *68, 

*6g, *8 5 , * 9 8, *io5 
Dryers, artificial. 66, *67 
Duty, 13, 185 
Duty, cacao beans, 14, 185 

cacao butter, 14 

cacao shell, 14 

Earle, Dr. Gastineau, 174 
ECUADOR, 52, 81, 82, 84, 185 
Enrobing machine, 152, *I52 
Enzymes, 59, 61, 66 
Exports, cacao butter, 160 

beans, 84 

Extracting beans from pod, 50 



Faber. Dr. von, 22 
Faelli, Professor, 164 
Fat (see cacao butter) 
Fermentation, 52, 76 

changes during, 55 

control of, 63 

good effects of, 60 

loss of weight, during, 64 

period of, 52 

temperature of, 53, 55, 59, 61 

Fermenting boxes, *54, *58 
FERNANDO PO, 82, 91 
Fickendey, Dr., 55, 59, 61 
Flavouring chocolate, 146 
Flowers, *2i, 22, 74 
Flowers, percentage fruiting, 74 
Food value, cacao bean, 166 

chocolate, 173, 176 

cocoa, 168 

milk chocolate, 178 

old opinions, 165 

Forastero, * 2 j, 34, 53, 59, 77 

Forster, J., 171, 172 

Freeman, W. G. , 34 

FRENCH COLONIES, 82 

Fritsch, J., 173 

Fruit, cacao, 21 

Fry, J. S. & Sons, 14, 15, 122, 134 

Fry, Joseph, 3, 13 

Fungi, 44 

Gage, Thomas, 8, 10 
Gathering, 45, *47, *4g, *85 
Geographical distribution, 18 
Germ, cacao, 59, *I29, 131 

screens, * 1 3 1 

separation of, 131 

Germination, prevention of, 6t 
GOLD COAST, :8, 42, 74,81,82, 

91, 94, 107 (see also Accra) 

native industry, 94 

Gordon, \V. J., 10 

Gouveia, Dr., 105 

Grafting and budding, 34, 75 

GRENADA, 30, 38, 74, 76, 81, 82, 

88, 90, 1 14 
Grinding, 120, 134, *i43 

mill, cocoa, *i33, 134, *'35 

machine, chocolate, 140, *I42, 

*'45 
Grousseau & Viconge, 163 
GUAYAQUIL, 32, 76, 84, 109, 114 

(see also Arriba and Machala) 

HAITI, 82, 88 

Hart, J. H., 34 

Height, cacao tree, 20, 36 

Historicus, 16 

History, cocoa and chocolate, 1 



INDEX 



209 



Home of cacao, 5 
Husk, (see shell) 
Hutchison, Dr., 170, 175 



Illipe butter, 159 
Immortel, Bo is, 37 
Imports, cacao butter, 160 

cacao bean, 185 

Incas, 8 

Insect Pests, 44 



JAMAICA, 82, S8 

JAVA, 18, 37, 4-', 54, 68, 70, 82, 106, 
114 

Knapp, A. W., 75, 164 



LAGOS, 82, 91 
Leaves, cacao, 22, *i87 
Linnaeus, 1 
Linalool, 60, 125 
Loew, Dr. O., 55 



MACHALA, 74, 84 (see also Guaya- 
quil) 

MADAGASCAR. 6S, 106 

Manufacture, chocolate, 140 

cocoa, 134 

early methods of, *g, 119, *i20 

*t2i, 129 

loss on, 14 

milk chocolate, *i55, *i8i 

Manufacturers' requirements, 75 

Manure, 32 

cacao shell as, 162 

Map, Africa, *92 

South America, *89 

World, *83 

MARACAIBO, 87 

Markets, cacao, 107 

Mass, 134, 136 

Melangeur, 140, * 141 , 144 

MEXICO, 1, 7, 18 

Milk chocolate, 154, 178, 182 

suggested legal definition, iS2 

recipe, 155 

Montezuma, 7 

Mosses, cacao tree, 22 

Moulding chocolate, 146 

Mountmorres, Viscount, 40 

Mulching, 32 



Neumann, Dr. R. O., 171 

Nib, 15, 120, 128, *i29, 130, 134 



Nib, percentage shell, 133 

yield of, 1 ^ 

Nicholls, Dr. L., 55 
Nursery, cacao, *33 



Odour, cocoa, 77, 146, 161 

fermentation, 60 

Orellano, 6 



Packing chocolates, * 177 

cocoa, 138 

PARA, 74, 87 

Perrot, Professor, 60 

PERU, 8 

Pests (see diseases) 

Peter, M. D., 154 

Picker, cacao, 46, *^6 

PHILIPPINES, 42 

Plantation, cacao, 27, *io4 

Planting, 32, '34, 37 

Pod, *2, 5, 23, "23, *25, *28, *i87 

picking of, 46 

yield of cacao, 74 

Polishing beans, 72, 78 
Pollination, cacao flowers, 22 
Press cake, 138 

cocoa, *i36, *i37 

Pressing cocoa, 136 

Preuss, Dr. Paul, .66, 70 

Preyer, Dr. Axel, 55 

Price, cacao, 86, 96, 112, *i 13, 185 

cacao butter, 160 

cacao shell, 164 

chocolate, 13 

theobromine, 172 

PRINCIPE, 100 

Production of cacao, Africa, 91 

British Possessions, 81, 82, 183 

British West Africa, 91 

British West Indies, 88 

Gold Coast, 94 

increasing ot, 75 

San Thome and Principe, 100 

shell, 161 

South America, 84 

West Indies, 88 

World, *8o, 81, 82 

Pruning, 40 

Pulp, cacao, '24, 25, 52, 55, 60 



Rainfall, cacao cultivation, 18 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 6 
Refining machine, *i42 
Research Association, vi 
Revis and Bolton, 128 
Richelieu, Cardinal, 11 
Roaster, *I26, 128 



2IO 

Roasting, 119, 1 15 

loss on, 1J7 

Rocking tables, 140, 

Root system, * J t 



INDEX 



'4D 



Sack, Dr., 55, ot> 

Sa >s of cacao, 1 1 1 

s \m \\ \, ,j, 

S WIO \, Ba, 106, 114 

SANCHEZ, 91 

s \\ DOMINGO • . B8, 

■ 

^ \\ THOME, 38, 5- 

11 ^ 
Schutte im Hofo, Dr. A., 55 
Seed, selection of, 3a 
Shade, 36, V>7> '38, '39, 00. 10 
Shaking table, chocolate, 1 t >, 
Shell, caca >. * 1 19, 1 1> 1 , 163 
butter, !<>-• 

coffee substitute, ibj 

as feeding stuff, 16a, 

in finished cocoa, 180 

iood units, 1 63 

fuel, 16a 

manure, it>- 

removal of, 1 jo, I iS 

separating machine, 13a, ' 

tea from, 161 

Sherman, H. C, 176 

- ■ . : s 
Si se, bea n 

coco. 1 particles, 138 

sugar particles, 144 

Small s 

Smetham, V , 163, 1 07 

Smith, H. 1 

Sin dei , Harry, 17b 
S 1 30 

Soluble cocoa, 168, 17 2 
is, *73, *8t>. 
Sorting-cleaning machine, 124, 

Stimulating properties, 60, 17: 
ST. I UCIA, Ba, 88 

StOI ">u cacao, i a a, *i-", 

- VINCEN r. 8a, 38 

Suckers, to. *4' 

Surf boa • 

3URIN kM 1 ja.Sa, B4, 114 

S 

S »gs, 57. t>o 



Tamil 



8a, i)i , 



'4 l > 



'a- 



14. 



raste, fermentation, 59 
Temperature, cacao cultivation, i s 
covering chocolate, 151 

fermentation, 53, 35, ^g, 6l 

germination, 6] 

chocolate moulding, 14Q 

— bean roas 
Tempering machine, 14Q 
[Vii\th nt ma cacao, < . 
Theobromine, in bean, 1 t>t> 

chocolate, 17b 

cocoa, it>S, 17a 

fermentation, 60 

milk chocolate, 17s 

shell, it>_- 

TOGO, 8a, 91 
Transport of cac 

*o7. "99, * ioo, *ioi," 

*iob, 107, *ioS; * i 10 
Tree, cacao, U), * 19 

growth, 40 

yield of, 74 

TRINID \P, 18, 30, 34. 37 

,.-, 68, 70, 7-. 74, :■ 
3a, B8, 103, 1 14 






4'. 4-. 



Van Houten, C. J , 15 
Varieties of cacao, a€ 

•1 , rheo., 183, 186 
VENEZUELA, 18,70, 76, J1.83.84 

1 06 



Ig cacao beans, 68, *; 

Watt, S * 
Weight, bag of 

loss on dryin g 

loss on fermentation, 04 

loss in roas ig, 18 

WEST INDIES, B8 

3 r INDIES, BRITISH, - 
Wind-screen d ees, 30 
Winnowing on ichine 1 se* shell sep u - 

atiiik; machine) 
Whisk, 



'gi 57 
Yield, cacao pod, 74 

cacao tree, 74 

per acre, 74, 103 

Zipperer, P., 140, 164 



THE WESTMINSTER PRESS 

HARROW ROAD 

LONDON 



86 7 4