Skip to main content

Full text of "Coconut Wood Processing And Use Paper 57"

See other formats

Coconut wood 

Processing and use 

The designations employed and the presentation 
of material in this publication do not imply the 
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the 
part of the Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations concerning the legal 
status of any country, territory, city or area or 
of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation 
of its frontiers or boundaries. 

ISBN 92-5-1Q2253-4 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, 
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, 
electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior 
permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, 
with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should 
be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, OO1OO 
Rome, Italy. 

FAO 1985 


Processing and Use 


Chapter 1 THE TREE 

Properties, Utilization and Availability 

The Copra Industry 

Effect of Stem Anatomy and Structure on Utilization 



Natural Durability and Wood Preservation 

Transmission Poles 

Pulp and Paper 

Wood Fuel 

Availability of Resource 

Resource Assessment by Estimation - South Pacific 

Resource Assessment by Survey - Tonga 

Resource Assessment by Inventory - Fiji 


Quality Control, particularly relating to export 

System of Identification 


Sample Specifications 

Grading Techniques 

Grading by Basic Density 



Air Drying 
Kiln Drying 
Seasoning of Poles 




Utility Items and Curios 

Board Products 

Roundwood Products 

Fuel and Energy 

Chapter 3 LOGGING 

Oil- and Water-based Preservative Techniques 
Preparing Timber prior to Treatment 
Treatment Methods 




Selection and Felling 
Disposal of Debris 


Cutting Patterns 

Sawmill Systems for Coconut Timber 

Types of Mill used for Sawing Logs 

Sawing with a Chainsaw and Guide Attachments 

Sawblades for Coconut Stem Conversion 

Waste Disposal 

Coconut Stems as Fuel 

Charcoal Making 

Charcoal Retorts 

Charcoal Briquetting 

Activated Carbon 

Producer Gas - Gasifier 

Ethanol from Coconut Waste Products 

Power Generation Systems 

Establishment and Operation of Power Systems 






Processing and Use 

List of Illustrations 

Frontispiece: Three Densities of Coconut Wood 



1 A The Tree of Life 

IB Coconuts 

1C The Young Tongan 

ID The Young Tongan Drinks from the Coconut 

IE Copra Cutting, a Traditional Source of Income 

IF Coconut Logs, Dense on the Outside, Soft Inside 

1G Firewood from Coconut Logs 

Figure 1 . 1 Diagrammatic Section through a Coconut 



4A The Tungsten Carbide Tipped Saw 

Figure 4.1 Cutting Pattern for Centre-held Log 


Figure 4.2 Cutting Pattern for Conventional 


Figure 4.3 Cutting Pattern for Beams 

Figure 4.4 Additional Pattern for Cutting Purloins 

Figure 4.5 Cutting Pattern Relative to Selection and 


2A Coconut Wood House 
2B Frame of Building 
2C Cocowood in Water Contact 
2D Shingles 

2E Feature Wall of Cocowood 
2F Wall Cladding 
2G Block Flooring 
2H Strip Flooring 
21 Cocowood Folding Table 
2J Cocowood Chair 
2K Cocowood Desk 
2L Walking Stick 
2M Bow and Arrow 
2N Hammer Handles 
2O Eggcup 
2P Sliced Veneer 
2Q Laminated Cocowood 
2R Particle Board 
2S Power and Utility Poles 
2T A Slice of Cocowood from Bark to Bark 
roughly sanded 


5 A The Low-density Grade Collapses 
5B The Densest Grades are Strong Enough for Struc- 
tural Uses 

Figure 5.1 Chainsaw Grading Marks on Logs 
Figure 5.2 Colour Grading on Log Butt 


6A Correctly Stacked for Air Drying 


7A Debarking Poles 


3A Tractors Used for Extraction can also Power 

Small sawmills 

3B Log extracted by Draught Animals 

Figure 3.1 Cutting by Draught Animal 

Figure 3.2 Bulldozing through Roots 

Figure 3.3 Skidding Log behind Tractor 


8A Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln 


8B Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln 


8C Firewood 


Processing and Use 


Coconut Wood - Processing and Use is an in- 
troduction to methods currently in use for the utiliza- 
tion of coconut stems for wood products and fuel. 

The stems of the coconut trees become available 
for use when the tree ceases to yield coconuts as a 
result of old age, disease or hurricane damage. 

Coconut Wood - Processing and Use has been pro- 
duced for the information of those interested in the 
development of processing industries. 

The information contained in this book represents 
the most recent findings of institutions and in- 
dividuals researching the fuller use of superfluous 
coconut stems. 

The economics and management of coconut wood 
industries, and the organized marketing of their pro- 
ducts, will need increasing attention as the industries 

Sources of Information for 
Coconut Wood - Processing and Use were: 

Mr. V. K. Sulc, Mr. Rodrigo Juson and col- 
leagues, Zamboanga Research Centre, Philippines; 
Mr. R. N. Palomar and Mr. A. Mosteiro, Forpride, 
Philippines; Dr. A. McQuire and J. Klnninmonth, 

Forest Research Institute, New Zealand; Messrs. R. 
Ford, J. Turner, and J. Vaney, New Zealand Forest 
Service, Rotorua; Mr. N. Evans, Fe'ofa'aki Enter- 
prises, Tonga; Mr. R. Evans and Mr. A. Afeaki, 
Cocostem Development Co. Ltd., New Zealand and 
Tonga; and Mi; K. Bergseng, Timber Training Cen- 
tre, Rotorua. 

Other individuals were consulted and assessments 
were made of a number of coconut stem processing 
operations in selecting material to be included. 

Documents from which material has been drawn 
are cited in the bibliography. 

The editors and the Food and Agriculture 
Organization wish to acknowledge the assistance 
given by the specialists, primarily those named 
above, who co-operated in the compilation of the 
report and from whose publications valuable infor- 
mation was collected. 

The editors 

Anthony Haas 
Len Wilson 

Chapter 1 

The Coconut Tree 

The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. t is one of the most important crops of the tropics. 

It occurs in all tropical and most subtropical regions, most abundantly in Asia and the Pacific, 
thriving best on low-lying sites close to the sea with ground water and ample rainfall. 

Nuts are produced from when trees are aged five, with highest production achieved between 15 and 
50 years. Productivity declines steadily thereafter until at 60 to 70 years the tree is considered to be 

It is then, or when hurricanes or disease strike, that the mature coconut trees are suited for conver- 
sion to coconut wood. 

Properties, Availability and Utilization 

The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. t is one of the 
most important crops of the tropics. It occurs in all 
tropical and most subtropical regions, most abun- 
dantly in Asia and the Pacific, thriving best on 
low-lying sites close to the sea with ground water and 
ample rainfall. Nuts are produced from when trees 
are aged five, with highest production achieved bet- 
ween 15 and 50 years. Productivity declines steadily 
thereafter until at 60 to 70 years the tree is considered 
to be senile. 

Few plants are as versatile as the coconut. The 
most important product is the flesh of the nut (the 
solid endosperm) which, dried as copra, is the source 
of coconut oil used in the manufacture of soaps and 
detergents, edible oils and fats, oilcake, plasticisers 
and other industrial products. Worldwide copra pro- 
duction amounted to over 4.9 million metric tons in 
1982, and in the same year trade in coconut oil was 
1.27 million metric tons with a value of about 
SUS657 million. 

Local uses of coconut palm products are many: 
coir, from the husk of the nut, is a fibre used in the 
manufacture of mats, ropes, brushes and baskets; the 
hard endocarp provides charcoal; coconut milk (the 
liquid endosperm) is used in cooking and as a 
beverage; sap, obtained by tapping the inflorescence 
of the palm, is a source of sugar, alcohol and 
vinegar; the leaves provide thatch and material for 
basket weaving; the stem is used for house construc- 
tion and increasingly for other purposes to be 
described in the succeeding chapters. 

1 A The Tree of Life 

mes were drawn up accordingly. It thus happened 
that, for the first time in the history of the copra in- 
dustry, plantation owners were faced with the pro- 
blem of cutting, extracting and disposing of over- 
mature trees. 

Not only did this involve a reversal of the tradi- 
tional conservationist attitude to coconuts, but it also 
required the development of economic means of 
disposal or utilization. Stems could not be left to rot 
as the decaying wood provides a breeding ground for 

The Copra Industry 

The origins of the industry may be traced back to 
1841 when a patent was issued for the manufacture 
of soap from coconut oil. During the subsequent 
decades copra was harvested, mainly from trees 
growing wild, by traders supplying the large 
soap-making firms. Later, in the early 1900s, de- 
mand for coconut oil for butter substitutes 
stimulated the establishment of plantations. 

In view of the favourable investment climate at the 
time, much of the planting was on large estates, 
especially in the Philippines, but in addition many 
small farmers planted the coconut as a cash crop 
which remains to this day an important part of the 
economies of some island countries. 

After 1918 other crops, particularly rubber, ap- 
peared to offer better opportunities for investment 
and large-scale coconut planting diminished, then 
virtually ceased with the economic depression of the 

The vast stock of trees created during the planting 
boom continued to produce in abundance, but wild 
fluctuations in the price of copra, as well as the grow- 
ing acceptability or alternative vegetable oils, led to a 
decline in the industry with a consequent strain on 
those economies dependent upon it.' 

The main stock of productive trees was therefore 
ageing until, at 60 to 70 years old, productivity began 
to fall steeply. In countries where trade and sub- 
sistence farming remained dependent on the coconut 
the need for replanting became evident and program- 

1 B Coconuts 

the rhinoceros beetle (Orystes rhinoceros), a pest 
which attacks the core of the stem, the crown and 
young nuts; while burning or tipping into the sea 
would have proved expensive and wasteful. 7 For 
countries with a sustained internal market for timber 
- especially those relying on imports - the conversion 
and use of coconut stems offered an attractive 
economic prospect and industries were developed ac- 

The development of viable coconut wood in- 
dustries required in the first place two lines of in- 
vestigation: the structure and composition of the raw 
material, with techniques of conversion appropriate 
to these; and the location and availability of over- 
mature, diseased and dead stems. 

1C The Young Tongan 

Effect of Stem Anatomy and Structure on Utilization 

The properties and peculiarities of the coconut 
stem were summarised at the Zamboanga (Philip- 
pines) Coconut Wood Seminar in 1979. The follow- 
ing notes are derived from the proceedings of that 
Seminar 3 : 

Because coconut palms have no vascular cambium 
(lateral growing tissue) they do not increase in 
diameter with age. It is uncommon to find a stem 
over about 30 cm in diameter. Minor variations in 
diameter from one stem to another, or between 
different locations, are a reflection of the growing 
conditions for the individual stem during the early 
stages of its life. Taper is very slight (about 5 mm) 

order of 20m thus giving maximum wood volume 
per stem of about 1 m 3 . 

To obtain optimum growth and nut production the 
crowns and roots must have ample space. This limits 
the stem density in a plantation to about 100 per hec- 
tare. Thus the wood volume in a mature or over- 
mature plantation is about 100 mVha. Stems are 
often curved.This limits the length of sawlog that can 
be prepared. Although in some favourable locations 
(e.g. Zamboanga) longer logs are possible, in general 
a log of length of about four metres is the maximum 
practicable. The largest sawlog will therefore not ex- 
ceed about 300 kg in weight which is low compared 
with sawlogs from mature trees of most forest 

Most hardwoods and softwoods exhibit density 
gradients from the centre of the stem towards the 

f\f toll t/nviA 

n t*A f\f tt*lo 

ID The Young Tongan Drinks from the Coconut 

outside and from the bottom of the trunk towards 
the top. This is because the later-formed wood in any 
cross-section is usually slower growing and is com- 
posed of cells with thicker walls. With coconut stems 
the gradients are much more pronounced, but for 
different reasons. Palm stem wood consists of a 
number of scattered vascular bundles (each having 
vessels for water conduction, phloem for elaborated 
food conduction, and fibres for mechanical support) 
set in a matrix of more or less spherical parenchyma 
cells. The vascular bundles are much more abundant 

tnu/arHc thp mifciHp nf thp ctm A tvniral ct#m at 

IE Copra Cutting, a Traditional Source of Income 

metre height would have about ten bundles/cm 2 in 
the central portion and about 50 bundles/cm 2 near 
the outside." 

In a young stem the cell walls are relatively thin 
and the basic density of wood in these two zones 
could be about 90 and 300 kg/m J respectively. These 
wood cells are not dead as in normal forest trees, 
however, and the walls continue to increase in 
thickness so that by the time the palm is mature the 
density in these same two regions can be as high as 
250 and 900kg/mV 

All tissues in the basal regions of old palms (in- 
cluding the ground parenchyma cells) have thicker 
walls. Higher up the trunk the bundles are more 
abundant and up to 175 bundles/cm' have been 
found near the outside of an overmature stem at a 
height of 19.5 metres. The cells in these zones never 
develop thick walls, however, and the basic density in 
this zone was only 250kg/mV J In the central region 
of this stem (at J9.5 metres) the bundle frequency 
was 68/cm'. The basic density varies from stem to 
stem but in general the distribution of density is of 
the order shown in Figure 1.1. 

Strength and density are very closely related " so 
the density distribution governs the sawing pattern 
that must be chosen if high-strength timber is to be 
produced. Because logs are small in diameter, and 
the high-density zone is fairly narrow, it follows that 
only a few relatively small-dimension pieces of top 
strength can be produced from a stem. 

In Zamboanga the diameter average at breast 
height is approximately 32.5 cm - the maximum 
recorded is 43.6 cm. 

Up to the six metre mark the high-density zone 
(outer one-third radius) accounts for about 20 per 
cent of the total stem volume but by the time 
allowances are made for saw kerf and other wastage, 
the net recoverable very high density wood falls to 
below ten per cent of the total. The maximum size of 
member that can be cut from this high density zone is 
100 x 50mm. Although the quantity of this material 
per stem is low, the quality is uniformly high. As the 
palm has no branches there are no branch remains 
(knots) in the wood. Consequently no piece is 
weakened by the presence of natural defects. 


The actual operation of sawing coconut is difficult 
and standard steel saws will become blunted and 
unusable after relatively few cuts. Two factors pro- 
bably contribute to this: firstly, the thick-walled 
fibres are extremely hard; and, secondly, the paren- 
chyma tissues disintegrate into a fine abrasive 
powder which is not easily removed from the cut and 
which causes frictional heat increase. As the wood 
dries and the cell wall material becomes harder, these 
problems are intensified. The silical content of 
coconut wood is low so this is not a contributing fac- 
tor as in some difficult-to-saw-hardwoods. The use 
of tungsten carbide tips (or Stellite-tipped or inlaid- 
teeth) has overcome basic sawing problems but has 
increased problems of saw maintenance. More costly 
equipment and greater operator skill are required. 

Figure 1 . 1 Diagrammatic Section through a Coconut 



'* ft 





,20 m HEIGHT 






Conventional timbers have a distinct grain pattern 
caused by periodic radial growth. Even in species 
which do not show distinct growth rings the wood 
has different properties in the radial and the tangen- 
tial directions. One of the most important of these 
properties is shrinkage when the wood dries from 
fibre saturation (about 30 per cent moisture content) 
to equilibrium moisture content. Shrinkage in the 
tangential direction is approximately double that in 
the radial direction so unless the wobd is truly flat or 
quarter-sawn some distortion of shape is inevitable 
on drying. 

With coconut wood there is no such grain differen- 
tiation so material will dry uniformly and without 
cross-sectional distortion. Lateral shrinkage in any 
direction is less than three per cent when drying from 
green to 12 per cent moisture content. " 

With low density coconut wood, shrinkage is ac- 
centuated by collapse, which is not recoverable by 
subsequent reconditioning with high temperature 
steam. There is a sharp increase in this tendency to 
collapse as the basic density of material decreases 
below about 350 kg/m'. Collapse is severe. Uses for 
this type of material are very limited. The volume of 
such unusable wood is approximately 15 per cent of 
the stem total. 

IF Coconut Logs, Dense on the Outside, Soft Inside 

Natural durability and wood preservation 

The coconut palm does not form heartwood as 
most forest trees do. This affects its utilization in 
several ways. The wood is uniformly wet and ap- 
proaches saturation throughout the whole trunk; 
variations in moisture content are dependent on 
variations in density and therefore the space available 
for water. The main consequence of having no heart- 
wood is that the wood of the coconut stem has no 
natural resistance to attack by wood-boring insects 
and decay fungi. Freshly cut wood is very susceptible 
to infection by mould and stain fungi and also to at- 
tack by ambrosia beetles. Hence it is essential to dip 

timber in a prophylactic chemical solution im- 
mediately after sawing if a clean product is required. 
No part of the trunk is resistant to fungal decay but 
higher density material will take longer to rot com- 
pletely, simply because the thick-walled cells retain 
some strength for a longer period. Low density wood 
will decay in the ground within weeks whereas very 
high density wood may last for two to three years. 

Pressure treatment trials indicate that the wood 
can be treated with preservatives such as copper- 
chrome-arsenate. But the distribution of preservative 
is not as uniform as in pine sapwood where the rays 
are an important pathway of penetration, or in 
permeable hardwoods where vessels are more con- 
tinuous and free of obstruction. 

Transmission poles 

The stems have strength properties which make 
them ideal for use as transmission poles. But it is dif- 
ficult to dry them in a manner that will result in the 
preservative being concentrated in the high-strength 
outer zones, and without degrading. 

Coconut wood is known to be more susceptible to 
soft-rot decay than is pine timber. So coconut wood 
will certainly require higher preservative loadings, 
but just how much more will be required to guarantee 
an economic service life is yet to be determined. 

In the preparation of poles or posts it is first 
necessary to remove the bark so that the underlying 
wood will dry out. With most pole species this 
debarking operation is relatively simple, and effec- 
tive machines have been developed for the purpose. 
With coconut stems, however, there is a gradual tran- 
sition from wood to bark. The debarking region is in- 
definite and very fibrous. Debarking by machine is 
not yet possible. At present debarking must be done 
by hand using simple tools such as draw-knives or 
bush-knives. Treatment of poles by sap displacement 
is an alternative to normal pressure treatment but the 
deeply fissured nature of the bark makes it difficult 
to obtain an effective pressure seal on the log. Fur- 
thermore the sap-conducting elements (vessels within 
the vascular bundles) occupy only about four to five 
per cent of the total tissue volume compared with 30 
to 40 per cent for the vessels in most hardwoods and 
90 per cent plus for the tracheids in softwoods. 

Pulp and paper 

Trials in the Philippines and in New Zealand have 
shown that coconut stem wood can be used for mak- 
ing pulp and paper with qualities similar to those 
made from most hardwoods, although the high pro- 
portion of fines (from parenchyma tissue) greatly 
reduces overall yields. These small parenchyma cells 
also cause problems in the manufacture of particle 


Wood fuel 

The calorific value of coconut wood (heat energy 
released on burning, per unit weight of dry wood) is 
similar to other woods. But some predrying is 
necessary before coconut wood will burn easily. To 
achieve the necessary drying, the stem must be cross- 
cut into short lengths and then split, using suitable 
equipment and techniques to overcome the lack of 
planes of weakness in the radial direction. 

1C Firewood from Coconut Logs 


The coconut palm stem has a number of features 
that make it unique as a wood source material. 

Early attempts at utilization were somewhat 
disheartening because results did not compare well 
with conventional wood from either hardwoods or 
soft woods. Many of the problems, however, were 
the result of trying to apply technology developed for 
one material to another that was quite different. 

The development of equipment and technology 
specific to coconut wood has overcome many of 
these problems. 

There is no doubt that the future will see the 
coconut stem being used as a conventional wood 
alternative in a number of applications, and in many 
instances doing the job equally well or even better. 

Availability of the Resource 

A prerequisite for the establishment of a coconut 
wood industry is an adequate supply of overmature 
or otherwise disposable stems of known volume. 
Estimates of the availability of raw material must be 
made with precision if industrial investment is con- 

A preliminary assessment may be made by a visual 
inspection of a plantation. The age of a palm can be 
calculated by counting the scars on the surface of the 
stem, while the volume of the stem is derived in the 
usual manner from height and diameter. A mature 
palm grown in the tropics will yield about one cubic 

metre of wood from which some 40 per cent recovery 
of dense and medium grades of sawnwood may be 
expected. In Zamboanga an average stem volume of 
1.158 J with stocking of not more than 115 stems per 
hectare is recorded. 

Given these assumptions of maturity and yield, the 
potential volume of industrial wood follows from a 
tree count - typically 100 stems per hectare. 

Resource assessment by estimation - South Pacific 

Prior to the Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar 
held in Tonga in 1976, all South Pacific countries at- 
tending were requested to complete a questionnaire 
on the extent and productivity of their coconut 
resources. 5 In spite of some differences in the 
methods of assessment and reliability of the data on 
which they were based, the results indicated a trend 
which may be significant for management policy in 
the future. The responses to the questionnaire show- 
ed the status of the coconut resource in the South 
Pacific to be as follows: 

Total land area 547,989 km' 

Area under coconuts 460,000 ha 

Percentage of resource considered overmature 3 1 
Percentage of resource considered immature 23 

Percentage of resource considered productive 46 

Less than half the resource was considered produc- 
tive in 1976, and it is possible that the rate at which 
this part becomes overmature will exceed the rate of 
replacement by immature stock. If that were the case, 
as much as two-thirds of the area would be available 
for logging and replanting. A subsequent study 3 
assumed that the area of the resource available for 
logging in the South Pacific over the next 50 years 
would be of the order of 350,000 ha, and that at a 
felling rate of 7,000 ha per annum an annual yield of 
roundwood of approximately 1 million m 3 would be 
available (based on a high estimate of 125 trees per ha 
and 1.25 m'per tree). 

On the same assumptions, it was calculated that in 
the Philippines 4.06 million m j per annum would be 
available from 1 .6 million ha of plantations over the 
next fifty years/ 

Resource assessment by survey Tonga 

In 1981, the Kingdom of Tonga completed surveys 
on coconut palm population, age ranges and produc- 
tivity, as a result of which quantitative information 
was obtained on the size and distribution of the 
resource of overmature stems. On this basis the 
Government announced in 1982 a policy for controll- 
ed utilization of the resource, together with the rules 


to regulate the embryonic sawmilling industry to en- 
sure its viability along with that of the copra in- 
dustry. " 

The effect was to permit the annual felling of 1.6 
per cent of the total coconut palm population, with 
the completion of a stem utilization and replanting 
cycle every sixty-two years. 

Resource assessment by inventory - Fiji 

The usual preliminary to investment in a wood- 
based industry is an inventory of the source of raw 
material. In 1977, the Japan International Co- 
operation Agency undertook an inventory of coconut 
stems on the island of Taveuni. 3 

Aerial photography of the island was completed at 
a scale of 1:10,000, followed by a stratified random 
sample to obtain information on the number and 
volume of stems. Detailed photo interpretation with 
ground control then provided details of individual 
plantations including areas, number of stems per hec- 
tare, average height and total volume. Stem volume 
tables were prepared. Individual plantation statistics 
were recorded on a 1:10,000 map and overall 
distribution of the resource was shown on a 1:50,000 
coconut location map. Reliable and detailed infor- 
mation of this type is needed by Governments in the 
preparation of plantation management plans, and by 
sawmillers for industrial feasibility studies. 


Chapter 2 

The Uses of Coconut Wood 

The denser grades of coconut wood can be used as structural material while the lower grades are 
suitable for joinery and interior use. It has proved economic to construct dwelling houses entirely of 
coconut wood. 

The denser material makes attractive furniture and is also widely used for utility items and curios. 

The roundwood has excellent strength properties and is suitable for transmission poles and fence 
posts provided the problems of preservation treatment can be overcome. 


The Uses of Coconut Wood 

As noted in the first chapter, the over maturity of 
coconut plantations and the need for their replace- 
ment by higher-yielding varieties has been the foun- 
dation of all recent work on developing the use of 
coconut wood and of appropriate processing in- 

By the 1960s, coconut producers were expressing 
alarm at the problems caused by over mature palms 
diminishing productivity and decay and infestation 
of dead and dying trees. To these has often been add- 
ed the destruction caused by hurricanes. 

Among the institutions pioneering these studies, 
special mention is justified of those in the Pacific 
region. These include the Philippines Forest Products 
Research and Development Institute; the Philippines 
Coconut Authority's Zamboanga Research Centre, 
supported by the United Nations Development Pro- 
gramme and the Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations; the Fiji Forest Department, 
the New Zealand Forest Research Institute and the 
New Zealand Timber Industry Training Centre. 

The range of studies covered are anatomy and 
wood properties, sawmilling, seasoning, preserva- 
tion, mechanical properties, engineering design, 
charcoal manufacture, wood based panels, kraft 
pulping properties, machining, house construction 
and utilization for a variety of manufactured pro- 
ducts. The U.K. Tropical Products Research In- 
stitute investigated the use of coconut wood in parti- 
cle board manufacture and other processes. 

Research and development findings were sum- 
marized at two important meetings in Tonga in 1976 
and in the Philippines in 1979. " 3 

In the meantime, small scale sawmilling industries 
were set up in parts of the Pacific in an attempt to 
market the products of the coconut wood becoming 

By 1983 mills were being operated in Tonga by the 
Government, by the Catholic Church and by a com- 
mercial operator. Growers used the" mills to have 
their own overmature stems milled. They used the 
sawn timber for their own projects. A commercial 
operator also negotiated with growers to acquire 
logs, processed them, and offered the sawn timber 
for local sale. In the Solomon Islands a commercial 
operator processed logs and offered the dense grade 
of sawn timber for export to a New Zealand com- 
pany for further processing into wall panelling and 
flooring. In Sri Lanka a semi-government agency ac- 
quired fallen stems after a hurricane and processed 
sawn timber for the local market. In Kiribati a 
mobile sawmill began operations on an outer island 
to mill timber which was freighted to the Republic's 
capital and stockpiled pending a decision on its end 

use. In another Kiribati outer island a project to mill 
stems with chainsaws to provide timber for 30 houses 
was planned. Near to Los Banos in the Philippines a 
sawmilling project was planned to supply timber for 
low-cost housing. In Zamboanga, commercial and 
Government interests tested the use of coconut 
timber as a component in a low cost housing pro- 

By 1983, coconut stem sawmills had operated also 
in Fiji, Western Samoa, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, 
Tuvalu, Papua New Guinea, India,' Indonesia, the 
People's Republic of China, and Jamaica. 

Some sawmilling projects have experienced dif- 
ficulties arising from management, technical and 
economic problems which not unexpectedly had to be 
faced in a relatively new and widely dispersed in- 
dustry. Typical of these are inadequate or irregular 
supplies of raw material, excessive transportation 
costs, insufficient attention to sawing techniques ap- 
propriate to recovery of the better grades of timber, 
imperfect seasoning and preservation practices, lack 
of quality control, incorrect assessments of markets 
and inability to compete with other materials. 

Problems of this nature can be overcome as the 
public and private sectors gain experience in process- 
ing, marketing and management. Replanting pro- 
grammes and incentives will ensure an adequate sup- 
ply of stems; demand for the wood exists or can be 
developed especially in communities lacking alter- 
native materials; and enough experience exists of 
production and utilization technology. 

The remainder of this chapter is devoted to ex- 
amples of the end-uses and products already 
demonstrated and in several cases marketed. 


Experience has shown that almost the entire range 
of coconut wood can be used in appropriate func- 
tions in the construction of buildings, particularly 

Structural load bearing components in the house 
should be made from dense timber grades. 

Trusses and internal members are made of medium 
density material and it has been possible to develop a 
wide range of advanced designs for the former. In 
addition to conventional methods of manufacture, 
nail plates and truss jigs facilitate the accurate 
prefabrication of trusses. Designs have been 
prepared covering a range of uses from small thatch- 
ed roofs, through several house types, to school 
room buildings. Floors and steps are made of hard 
material either as machined boards or parquet. The 
internal linings of the walls of houses may be made of 
soft wood, which is quite suitable for non-load bear- 
ing surfaces, although harder wood is used when a 
high finish is required. 


2A Coconut Wood House 

2B Frame of Building 

2C Cocowood in Water Contact 


External cladding, also of the softer material, re- 
quires preservative treatment to prevent damage by 
weather, as do the hard wood window frames and 
any material which is in ground contact/ 

Because of size limitations, the use of coconut 
wood in larger building necessitates the adoption of 
laminated members. This technique has proved to be 
successful. Some very advanced beams have been 
made by combining laminated coconut wood sections 
with plywood webbing/ 

The hard outer layer, or high and medium density 
grades of coconut timber have sufficient strength for 
structural use in buildings. 

Solid rounds used as posts placed on top of con- 
crete foundations may be used in house construction 

and other parts requiring strength and durability." 
Flooring joists, flooring, ceiling joists, trusses and 
framing timber can be made from dense coconut 
timber. The bottom and top studs, horizontal studs, 
top members and bracing can be made from medium 
density coconut timber. *' 

Coconut timber framing and flooring should be 
dried to the local equilibrium moisture content level 
before fixing. 

Coconut wood can be used for roofing either as 
sawn timber or shingles. When rainwater is to be col- 
lected for drinking purposes, the roofing material 
may be treated with a water proof sealant rather than 
one of the toxic water-borne preservatives. 

2D Shingles 

2E Feature Wall of Cocowood 

2F Wall Cladding 

2G Block Flooring 



The harder density coconut wood, which is ex- 
tremely attractive, can be used in the production of 
furniture, although its weight imposes some limita- 
tions on the size of pieces made entirely of this 
material. 5 Naturally this problem is easily overcome 
by utilizing coconut wood in framing and using 
lighter woods or laminating plywood to complete the 
items. Carving and fairly intricate turning is possible 
so attractive designs can be developed. 

Hard density (No. 1 grade) coconut timber is nor- 
mally preferred for decorative furniture and is ade- 
quately strong in bending and stiffness and hard 
enough to resist indentation. Its colour, texture and 
figure enhance its suitability for this purpose. 

Grade No.l coconut timber has such a striking 

21 Cocowood Folding Table 

2H Strip Flooring 

tigure, in fact, that it can in some cases be considered 
overpowering if used to excess and this point should 
be kept in mind when designing furniture. 

Selected medium density coconut timber is suitable 
for non-decorative and utility furniture manufacture. 
It is easy to screw, drill, glue and profile. Medium 
grade can also be used in conjunction with hard 
grade in decorative timber if the colour difference is 
allowed for or utilized in the design. 

Preservative treatment for coconut wood furniture 
timber is usually not necessary. 

For commercial furniture production it is 
necessary to use tungsten carbide tipped cutters on 
planers, spindle moulders, etc., in order to achieve a 
reasonable production rate. 

2J Cocowood Chair 

2K Cocowood Desk 

Utility Items and Curios 

The structure of coconut wood makes the harder 
material extremely suitable for a wide range of utility 
items with demanding specifications. The interlock- 
ing nature of the grain, which is a partial cause of the 
difficulties encountered in sawing, makes the wood 
ideal for the manufacture of tool handles with com- 

plex shapes such as axes and paint brushes where 
splitting along the grain is a problem. Furthermore, 
the resilience of coconut wood helps to absorb im- 
pact shocks in hammers and axes. By using lamina- 
tion, extremely durable saw handles can be made. 
The combination of durability and attractiveness 


should also allow coconut wood to obtain a place in 
the big market of wooden bowls and boards for carv- 
ing and servings. The high modulus of elasticity sug- 
gests that the material can be used in a range of rod 
forms, from broomsticks to surveying staffs/ 

A wood with such attractive properties may well be 

utilized increasingly for the manufacture of curio 
items. Although this market cannot dispose of large 
volumes, it could be an important cottage industry 
giving gainful employment to many people. Items 
manufactured include bookends, candlestick 
holders, trays, bowls, mugs, chessboards, salt and 
pepper shakers. 

2L Walking Stick 

2M Bow and Arrow 

2N Hammer Handles 

2O Eggcup 


2P Sliced Veneer 

2Q Laminated Cocowood 

Board Products 

Trials in the United Kingdom and in the Philip- 
pines * have been carried out on the production of 
particle board from coconuts. 

Roundwood Products 

The structure of the palm stem is ideally suited to 
its use as a utility pole since it has great strength and 
flexibility and is able to withstand high wind loads/ 
It is usually possible to select straight and defect-free 
stems suitable for power transmission lines. 

2S Power and Utility Poles 

2R Particle Board 

The stem proved to be a difficult raw material for 
the purpose, though it was technically feasible to 
make boards conforming to accepted standards. An 
economic appraisal indicated however that board 
manufacture was unlikely to be viable in local condi- 
tions where competing materials exist or the market 
is too small. 

The main problem has been to dry poles sufficient- 
ly to permit pressure impregnation with a water- 
borne preservative, Debarking is an essential 
preliminary and no suitable fully-mechanized 
method has yet been developed. The process can be 
carried out manually with a spokeshave-type debark- 
ing knife. ' The use of coconut rounds as house poles 
presents a similar problem. 


Coconut fence posts should be prepared in semi or 
quarter rounds with the less dense material removed 
before drying and pressure treatment. This produces 
a post of adequate strength which can be efficiently 

Fuel and Energy 

The uses of coconut wood for charcoal and for the 
production of gas and by-products are described in 
Chapter 8. 

2T A Slice of Cocowood from Bark to Bark roughly 


Chapter 3 


Coconut stems can be felled and extracted in the same manner as other plantation trees. 

In practical terms the felling and removal of coconut stems from plantations to a sawmill has to 
take into account the situation within the plantation - whether the area beneath the palms has been 
inter-cropped or grazed with stock, is flat or steep or rocky, whether the trees are concentrated or 

The size and sophistication of the equipment is dependent, as in other forest operations, on the 
scale of felling and the location and capacity of the sawmill being supplied. 



Coconut plantations are usually in easy and ac- 
cessible terrain. The branchless and nearly straight 
stems, and their almost uniform and modest dimen- 
sions allow the use of comparatively simple equip- 
ment for felling, extraction and transport. 

Selection and Felling 

In Chapter 5 the principles of grading coconut 
timber are described. Quality control begins with the 
standing tree which may be assessed for age and 
potential log quality before felling. 

Felling, while apparently a simple operation, is 
often complicated by the need to prepare the land for 
planting. This implies that, where the topography 
and absence of boulders permit mechanical cultiva- 
tion, it is desirable to remove the stumps or at least 
reduce them to ground level. 2 ' 3 

The extraction of the stump, together with the 
roots, is always a costly undertaking, requiring either 
heavy equipment or a costly input of labour, often 
both. If it has to be done, the roots and stump must 
be undercut so that the palm can be pulled or pushed 

to the ground by winching or bulldozing. The latter is 
unsatisfactory as it creates a massive problem of 
disposing of the stump and root system to which a 
massive ball of earth generally adheres. It commonly 
requires one man/day per stem to remove the earth 
and to expose the stump for burning (Figures 3.1, 

Uprooting of the stump is not, however, a stan- 
dard practice, because of the cost. Stump disposal 
after normal felling remains a problem. One solu- 
tion, already tested in the Philippines, may be the 
pulverising of the stump with a mechanical flail. 3 

Felling may be by axe or two-man handsaw where 
the number of trees to be felled is few, as in selective 
logging to eliminate dead, diseased or unproductive 
trees within a healthy plantation. 

Clear felling for replanting is an operation of scale 
justifying the use of chainsaws. Experience in the 
Philippines indicates that this is the most efficient 
method provided that care is taken to fell the stems in 
a uniform direction to facilitate cross-cutting and ex- 
traction. Careful training and supervision of 
operators are essential, together with suitable ar- 
rangements for maintenance. 

3A Tractors Used for Extraction can also Power Small sawmills 


3B Log extracted by Draught Animals 


Sawmill logs are neither large nor unduly heavy 
and present no problems in extraction. Depending on 
the scale of the operation and the nature of the ter- 
rain, extraction may be by draught animals, adapted 
agricultural tractors or specialised skidders. 

The water buffalo, or Carabao, can play an impor- 
tant role in moving logs in isolated areas. 

One of the most efficient and least expensive 
systems of log extraction is the use of an agricultural 
tractor with a towing bar fitted to the hydraulic lift 
arms/ This enables the butt of the log to be lifted 
clear of the ground for skidding . The same type 
of machine has proved suitable for the extraction of 
stems up to seventy feet long. 

[Figure 3.2 Bulldozing through roots]. 


Loading and hauling do not require heavy or 
highly specialised equipment for the usual scale of 
plantation operation. Loading may be done manual- 
ly when the logs are small; in other cases, by cross- 
hauling with a skidding tractor or with a hydraulic 
front-end loader. 

Log transport, as in any forestry operation, has to 
be by the most economic means. In small scale plan- 
tation clearances unspecialised flat bed trucks, or 
four-wheel bunk trailers towed by agricultural trac- 
tors, have proved suitable. ' 

[ Figure 3.1 Cutting through stem roots) 



Before the palm trunk is cut into logs, the location 
of each cut must be marked, the length of the log 
depending on the curvature of the stem and the in- 
tended end-use. High quality stems for special uses 
such as transmission poles, for example, must be 
identified and cut accordingly. Sawmill logs are 
usually cut into four to six metre lengths, each stem 
yielding one or two logs depending on the height and 
soundness of the tree. 

Disposal of Debris 

In order to minimize infestation by the rhinoceros 
beetle and by the palm weevil, it is of great impor- 
tance to dispose of the palm fronds and the discarded 
top portion of the stem after logging. Utilization is in 
some cases possible through transport of woody 
material as fuel to nearby users, or by charcoaling on 
the spot. Otherwise all debris should be piled for dry- 
ing and then burnt. 

Figure 3.3 Skidding Log Behind Horse 


Chapter 4 
Primary Conversion 

The sawing of coconut logs calls for care in selecting cutting patterns which ensure the maximum 
yield of the higher density outer material. 

The hard and abrasive nature of the wood makes it necessary to use hardened saw teeth. 

These considerations apart, primary conversion can be satisfactorily carried out with conventional 
sawmills, although special types, designed for portability, have been developed. 


Primary Conversion 

Cutting Patterns 

Approximately 70 per cent of the cross-section of a 
coconut log is hard to medium wood, confined to the 
periphery, and of this slightly less than half may be 
recovered as sawn wood. The soft core, often exten- 
ding to 100 x 100 mm sawn, must be separated and 
graded as inferior. It is preferable to leave bark on 
the higher quality outer wood rather than include any 
of the core. Resawing for export quality can be 
undertaken as required. 

A typical cutting pattern for 200 to 300 mm 
diameter logs, designed for a centre-held log to en- 
sure separation of hard and soft material, is shown in 
Figure 4. 1 . This gives a choice of 100 x 500 mm or 75 
x 50 mm pieces plus 50 x 50 mm and 50 x 25 mm offr 
cuts. The same pattern can be used in conventional 
mills as indicated in Figure 4.2. 

Cutting patterns for beams and purlins are shown 
in Figures 4.3 and 4.4, and for grade selection in 
Figure 4.5. 

Sawmill Systems for Coconut Timber 

The most important factors in selecting milling 
equipment are portability and ability to be relocated 
if this is required; simplicity of design to avoid 
breakdowns which are difficult to repair in isolated 
situations; ease of operation as skills of operators 
will often be limited; and inexpensiveness as the in- 
dustry is often sited in poorer, underdeveloped areas. 

There are many designs of sawmill in use. In 
Tonga in 1983 there were in fact six mills operating, 
all of different design, five being manufactured in 
New Zealand and marketed as coconut wood 
sawmills, and one an old locally redesigned sta- 
tionary mill. The mill layout and operation should 
relate to the end use at which the product is aimed. 
The inflow of logs should be simple, with lifting 
avoided and limited storage space as logs should be 
milled within hours of delivery if possible. Im- 
mediately after sawing, all timber should be dipped 
in a bath of anti-sapstain chemical and then fillet- 
stacked in an orderly and systematic manner for dry- 
ing, carefully retaining grading marks applied in the 

Types of Mill Used for Sawing Coconut logs 40 

Full service tests have not been reported on all the 
mills used in milling coconut wood, but tests reported 
from the Zamboanga Research Centre in the Philip- 
pines and the Timber Industry Training Centre in 
New Zealand provide a guide to the selection of mills 
for different conditions. Other trials have been 
reported from field use in the Philippines, in Tonga 
and Kiribati. 

The specifications, advantages and disadvantages 
of these mills are as follows: 

1. Medium-size portable sawmill 

A mill of this type was designed with the assistance 
of the TITC, specifically for the milling of coconut 
stems in Tonga. It is a robust machine capable of be- 
ing towed over rough terrain without distortion to 
the frame. The main unit has jack screws at either 
end which can be wound down on to wooden pads to 
prevent movement. (The weight of the carriage 
travels from one end of the track to the other. J As it 
is on a single axle with dual pneumatic wheels it is 
desirable to jack and put solid packing under the cen- 
tral main frame to prevent movement during opera- 
tion. It is desirable but not essential to have the 
machine set up perfectly level. All parts of the unit 
are tied in rigidly together (track, carriage, headsaw, 
power unit, rollcase) and need to be in true align- 
ment to each other. 

This machine was originally designed with a 
9-gauge 1 120 mm diameter saw which is adequate for 
most coconut logs. The companion breast bench unit 
can be towed by a car on roads or a tractor in rough 
terrain. It is self contained, of rugged construction, 
with trolley tracks mounting directly on to the main 
frame. It thus stays in true alignment with the 
machine regardless of the circumstances. The power 
pack on the main unit is mounted on a frame that can 
be rolled in from its operating position, making the 
unit more compact for transporting. 

The breakdown unit requires a motor of power 
equivalent to a 75 h.p. electric motor and the 
breastbench a 30-35 h.p. motor. 

Field trial 

A production study of this type of mill was under- 
taken in the Philippines " "at the Coconut Authori- 
ty Research Station. 

The logs used were from 1 16 coconut palms felled 
and left on the ground in the field for about eight 
months, and from 241 newly felled coconut palms. 
The trunks, cross-cut to log lengths ranging from 10 
to 16 feet from the butt to the upper portion, were 
piled near a fairly level site where the mill could be set 

The portable sawmill consisted of a 1120 mm 
diameter breakdown saw and a 195 mm diameter saw 
in the breastbench. Both circular saws, equipped with 
17 and 13 stellite teeth respectively, were driven by a 
single engine. The mill was towed to the site with an 
ordinary farm tractor and was set up in one day. 

The mill was set to an engine speed of 2100 r/min 
giving an equivalent breakdown saw speed of 770 


Figure 4.1 Cutting Pattern for Centre-held Log System 

Centre Line 

Strong Weak 


Figure 4.4 Additional Pattern 
for Cutting Purloins 

Figure 4.3 Cutting Pattern for Beams 

Figure 4.5 Cutting Pattern Relative to Selection and 

Figure 4.2 Cutting Pattern for Conventional Sawmills 

B C C C B 

Oil A 

I _ I 

A IlD 





r/min which in turn generated a saw speed of 1250 
r/min in the breastbench. A 30-degree hook angle 
was maintained throughout the sawing process. A 
crew of seven men operated the mill in sawing the 
specimen with one man assisting in the gathering of 

About 16 per cent of the logs from coconut trunks 
stored for eight months could not be sawn because of 
decay, stain or holes in the core. The average sawing 
time was three hours a day. About five hours were 
spent in conducting and fetching the crew to and 
from the mill, grading and stacking the sawn timber, 
sharpening the saw, removal of sawdust, and rolling 
of the logs to the deck of the mill. 

The sawn timber was graded and stock-piled out- 
doors according to density classification. Coconut 
stumps 45 mm long were used as posts in stacking the 
sawn timber above the ground. Square 25 mm fillets 
placed across each layer of timber allowed the air to 
pass through the pile. Inspection was done once a 
week for the first month, and twice a month 
thereafter. Recovery from the old trees was 34 per 
cent and from the freshly felled trees 41 per cent. Ap- 
proximately 14 per cent of the sawn timber was of 
dense grade. 

The implications of harvesting steps cut in the side 
of coconut stems were evident in the Philippines. The 
steps reduced the recovery of sawn timber, par- 
ticularly denser grades. 

Results of the sawing tests showed that the por- 
table sawmill can operate efficiently under field con- 
ditions. The average feeding/sawing rates varied ac- 
cording to the type of log sawn as follows: butt logs, 
23.4 m/min; second logs, 30.6 m/min; third logs, 
36.3 m/min. Loss of power was observed in the 
engine when sawing butt logs at an increased feeding 
rate. An average of 30 logs were sawn per sharpen- 
ing. The stellite saw teeth with 30-degree hook angle 
had to be replaced after seven to eight sharpenings. 

The results also revealed that ten fresh logs can be 
sawn at an equivalent output of 0.7 cubic metres 
sawn timber per hour. 

Recommendations resulting from the trial: 

(a) Coconut trunks should be sawn in 'green' con- 
dition to obtain better quality timber. Building up of 
heat in the saw blade during the sawing process is 
minimised as the trunks are very wet. 

(b) There should be a saw doctor in the crew, an an- 
vil for tensioning the saw blade, and a 1.5 h.p. 
generator for the jockey grinder used to sharpen the 

(c) For commercial operations the mill should 
operate at least six hours daily with a crew of 12 men. 
Six men including the saw doctor will operate the mill 
and the remaining six will roll the logs to the deck of 
the mill, grade and stockpile the sawn timber, remove 
the sawdust and slabs, and supply water to the mill. 

In design it is almost identical to the previously 
mentioned mill. It is larger and has a three headblock 
carriage. It is transportable rather than portable, be- 
ing dismantled in sections and put on a carrier rather 
than having its own axle and draw bar. 

The unit can also be equipped with a bandsaw in 
place of the 1372 mm circular. 

The breastbench equipment and saw are identical 
to those described earlier. 

3. Light, General Purpose Portable Sawmills 

Sawmills not designed for the cutting of coconut 
but rather as simple low cost mill units suitable for 
farms or contractors with small blocks of timber are 
quite widely used but have their limitations. 

One variety is lightly constructed of RHS and 
angle iron with a steel plate sliding on the top runners 
as a table top carriage. It also has a lightly con- 
structed breastbench as part of the complete mill set 
up. Although the main unit is on its own axle for por- 
tability, setting up is not as quick and simple as the 
first mill described. 

4. Mini Mill 

There are several mini mill designs now built in 
America, New Zealand and Australia. The smallest 
of the range is probably the most suitable for cutting 
coconut logs. 

Differing from other designs where the log is fed to 
a stationary saw, this particular design has an air- 
cooled petrol motor mounted on a frame driving two 
circular saws which are mounted at right angles to 
each other. The saw unit travels along a track on the 
main framework. The saws are raised and lowered in 
relation to the log, and can also be moved laterally. 
With each pass both a horizontal and a vertical cut 
are made with the two cuts meeting accurately. These 
mills were originally designed for cutting large logs 
which were supported on skids on the ground, and 
are far less efficient in cutting small diameter logs. 
The unit is capable of milling coconut stems, but is 
not well suited to the purpose because the logs are 
small and must be rotated to recover the maximum 
high density timber. 

5. Breastbench With Light Weight Carriage 

Breastbench mill with an added light-weight, car- 
riage which is merely a heavy timber plank with metal 
bracing. It has a steel section on its underside running 
in a groove in the trolleys and the feed rolls on the 
bench and has light dogs attached that may be ham- 
mered into the log. The feed rolls are hydraulically 
powered with easy control of speed and reversing. 
This bench is ideally suited for small logs. The log is 
first broken down on the carriage to manageable sec- 
tions, then the carriage is removed and the unit used 
as a normal breastbench. Production is low but only 
three operators are needed. 

2. Larger Transportable Sawmill 

A larger sawmill was designed to meet the demands 
of milling coconut stems in the Philippines. 

6. Sawing with a Chainsaw and Guide Attachments 

Where high production is not needed, chainsaws 
are useful in log conversion and have the advantages 
of portability and low initial cost. 


Chainsaws should be of at least ten horsepower 
and chipper chains are recommended because of the 
ease of sharpening. Tension must be maintained and 
the bar and chain kept well oiled. A sprocket-nosed 
bar assists in maintaining high chain speed/ 7 "The 
saw is fixed and the log fed slowly through. 

Sawblades for Coconut Stem Conversion " 

In the milling of coconut stems as with any other 
species it is the saw blade that is the work tool used 
for reducing the log to sawn timber. If there are any 
peculiarities in a particular species (hardness, ir- 
regular grain, abrasiveness etc), the saw blade will be 
changed or the cutting speed altered. Peculiarities of 
coconut wood are its abrasive nature and the extreme 
hardness of the bundles of fibres in mature stems. 

Consequently it is not practical or economic to use 
standard plate saws, as a very limited number of cuts 
would be made before the saw became too dull to 
cut. Hard facing of the saw teeth is necessary if 
cocostems are to be sawn economically. There are 
various materials that are suitable for the hardfacing 
of saw teeth, each having its own method of applica- 
tion and maintenance requirements. 

4A The Tungsten Carbide Tipped Saw 

The materials that have been used to date are 
various grades of tungsten carbide, various grades of 
stellite, tunsweld, tungtech, carbitroning, high speed 
steel and high frequency hardened steel. 

Tungsten Carbide 

Tungsten carbide tipping of saw teeth is the most 
successful way of overcoming excessive saw teeth 
wear or dulling. The tungsten carbide tips are formed 
during manufacture to shape and dimensions suitable 
for fixing straight into recesses on the face of the saw 
teeth. Grinding to final shape and dimensions for the 
required use is carried out on the complete saw blade. 
Although tungsten carbide has been used suc- 
cessfully on handsaws and there would be no pro- 
blem on frame saws (provided there was adequate 

clearance of the tips on the back stroke) it is mainly 
used on circular saws. Tungsten carbide is not an 
economic tipping method for bandsaws because of 
the number of tips required, the type of equipment to 
service them, and the time and skill required to main- 
tain them. 

A high degree of skill is required to maintain 
tungsten carbide tipped circular saws. Relatively ex- 
pensive precision grinding equipment utilizing dia- 
mond grinding wheels is essential. A suitable 
sawshop is required which rules out servicing the 
saws in the field. The best known practical option in 
the field is a single grinder for face grinding of the 
carbide. The grinder would need to be a precision 
machine utilizing diamond wheels. The face grinding 
could be carried out only two to three times before 
the saw was sent to the sawshop for a full service. 

Tungsten carbide is available in various grades. 
These range from softer less wear resistant but tough 
material, to harder more wear resistant but brittle 
material. Most tungsten carbides have a cobalt base. 
But some are also available with a nickel base. Nickel 
is recognised as being more corrosion resistant, 
tougher and easier to braze to the sawblade. The nor- 
mal grade of carbide used on saw teeth is l.S.O. K20 
or equivalent. But for cutting coconut the next 
tougher grade l.S.O. K30 may be desirable. 

Preparing saws for tungsten tipping, and fixing the 
tips securely into the accurately ground or milled 
recesses in the saw tooth faces, requires skill and 
scrupulous attention to detail. Similarly, final grin- 
ding to produce an optimum cutting edge demands 
knowledge and skill, and good quality equipment. 
Silicon carbide grinding wheels may be used for 
rough grinding but diamond wheels are essential for 

The essentials of carbide saw use and maintenance 
can be summarised as follows: 

(a) Cleanliness is extremely important 

(b) Carbide is brittle and must be handled with care 

(c) Too large a tooth bite should not be made as the 
shock of overbiting can cause carbide breakages. 
Recommended maximum bite is approximately 1.3 
mm per tooth 

(d) The sharpness angle should be kept to at least 45 
to ensure a strong tooth point 

(e) The correct diamond grinding wheel for the job 
should be selected. Extreme care should be exercised 
while grinding 

(0 Diamond wheels are expensive items and ought 

only be used on precision grinding machines 

(g) Carbide requires great accuracy in the grinding 

finish. Angles on its face, back and sides and should 

be ground on precision grinding machines 

(h) Trained personnel ought to carry out the work. 

Stellite (Tungsten Cobalt Alloy) 

As with tungsten carbide, stellite is available in 
various grades from softer, tougher grades to harder 
more brittle grades. The tungsten carbide manufac- 
turing process requires that all components, in- 
cluding saw teeth, are formed close to their final 


shape early in the process and then fixed to their 
working place by another medium such as silver 
solder. In contrast, stellite is available in rod form. It 
can be fused directly, with heat, on to the base metal. 
Consequently, stellite can be used equally as well 
on any type of saw, including handsaws. It is used ex- 
tensively where hardwoods with an abrasive nature 
are to be cut. Grade 6 stellite, which is identifiable by 
a red tip, is the most commonly used on saw teeth. 

Cobalide 3 which is a similar material under a dif- 
ferent trade name is also quite satisfactory. A newer 
material put out by Eutectic, called Eutecbor 9000, 
has become very popular for this use and has proven 
very satisfactory. The main reason for its popularity 
is its ease of use in applying it to the base metal, it 
also has very good wear and shock resistance. 

Stellite is also available for saws as a preformed 
tip. This can be fixed to the saw using silver solder. 
However, these tips are more expensive than carbide. 

Method of Tipping 

There are three main methods of applying stellite 
to saw teeth. 

(a) A drop of molten stellite can be applied to the 
swage cup 

(b) A large deposit of stellite can be melted on to 
the end of a saw tooth which has been ground back 
slightly. The stellite is then formed with dies so that it 
looks similar to a swaged and shaped point 

(c) Molten stellite can be poured into a ceramic 
mould around the tooth point. This gives a finished 
point similar to Step b. 

The usual procedure in grinding stellite tipped saws 
is to grind the faces and backs first, then to grind the 
sides of the swage with an "equalising" machine. 
The main reason for following this procedure is that 
the size of the finished point can be more easily con- 
trolled if the side grinding is performed last. When 
grinding the fades and backs of the teeth, care must 
be taken to ensure that the feed finger does not push 
on the stellite deposit. 

It is common to find sawmills using stellite tipped 
saws running the saws to the extent that the points 
become rounded and dull. In most cases it would be 
better to change the saw before it got to this point. 
This would result in less time being taken to sharpen 
a saw. More sharpenings would be gained from the 
stellite. Sharper tips also mean production of less 
badly cut and thus wasted timber. It would also in- 
crease the overall life of the saw. 

With handsaws, this tendency to continue sawing 
too long before re-sharpening (particularly with 
softer wood) frequently leads to gullet cracks as the 
saw becomes fatigued. 

Details of methods of forming and grinding stellite 
tips have been omitted from this account. But it must 
be recognised that considerable skill, and the use of 
precision equipment are necessary for satisfactory 
saw performance. For these reasons most smaller 
mills used for cutting coconut wood have favoured 
the use of circular saws with inserted teeth which are 
rugged, easy to maintain by face grinding, and can be 

easily and quickly replaced when too worn for fur- 
ther grinding. The most satisfactory inserted tooth 
for cutting coconut to date has been a stellite inlaid 
tooth. This is a standard carbon steel tooth with a 
coating of stellite over the top and side surfaces, ap- 
proximately one to two mm thick. Wear resistance is 
good. Only face grinding is necessary. Filing is not 
possible. Grinding is best done on a hand gulleting 
machine with the saw removed from the rig. A good 
finish must be maintained with angles accurate and 
face square. Portable jockey-type grinders which 
clamp on to the saw blade have been used in small 
coconut mills, but none seem to have been really 
satisfactory for maintaining a good cutting edge. 


Tungtech is a powder application that can be used 
to harden the surface of any base metal. The alloy 
powder containing particles of tungsten is applied 
through a special oxy-acetylene torch to the surface 
of pre-heated base metal. The flame sweats the alloy 
powder into the surface of the material. This has only 
been used in trials so far. It has proven successful on 
heavier gauge circular saws. Some skill and care is re- 
quired in this application as misuse of the heat will 
result in melting and rounding the cutting edges. 

As the coating of powder is quite thin even a light 
grind would remove it. Therefore it must be applied 
to the tooth after sharpening. 

A thin layer is then applied to the face of the tooth. 
The tooth is again ground lightly on the back to 
regain a sharp cutting edge without removing the 
hard facing from the face of the tooth. 


Carbitroning is the deposition of materials such as 
tungsten carbides and titanium carbide from an elec- 
trode of these materials by spark action on to the sur- 
face of the saw teeth. The electrode which is held in 
the electrical machine designed for this method of 
coating is vibrated against the tooth surface. The 
vibration makes and breaks contact causing sparks 
which transfer the molten carbide to the tooth. The 
thickness of the deposit layer will only be up to about 
0.07 mm (.003 inch). For this reason the method is 
not entirely efficient as in some species, acids in the 
timber apparently will eat under the layer lifting it 
off. However cutting time is claimed to be increased 
up to five times and longer. 

High speed steel 

High speed steel is used in the form of inserted saw 
teeth. As with the stellite inlaid teeth the high speed 
steel teeth were designed for use in cutting species 
that ordinary carbon steel would not cut effectively. 
These bits can be used in inserted tooth saws for cut- 
ting coconut, but are not as wear resistant as the 
stellite inlaid teeth, nor as economical. 


Waste Disposal 

Waste products or by-products from the fell- 
ing and milling of coconut trees are either a costly 
embarrassment to dispose of or a potential additional 
resource. The most important consideration with 
regard to removal of the trunks and other debris 
from coconut plantations is the phytosanitary aspect 
- the potential threat of pests on the newly established 
plantations. Rotting logs and other decaying debris 
provide ideal breeding places for two major coconut 
pests, the coconut beetle Oryctes rhinoceros and 

palm weevil Rhynchophorus schach (Oliv). 

Disposal of the woody waste left over from milling 
is a problem. Burning is the cheapest and safest 
means. Discarded round logs, generally from the up- 
per softer trunk, are best cut to approximately half- 
metre lengths, split and stacked to partially dry. They 
can then be burned, or used for some form of fuel 
(charcoal, gas, firewood). Palm fronds and the 
"palmit" or delicate fleshy bud in the crown of the 
tree become available as useful by-products if 
organised collection and disposal is carried out. 


Chapter 5 

Grading Coconut timber 

Grading coconut timber according to low, medium and heavy densities is important, since the dif- 
ferent grades have different end uses. Timber of mixed densities is more likely to twist and degrade. 

Grading should begin at the commencement of logging, and be followed through the sawnwood 
conversion process. 

The development of a uniform grading standard would help to promote local and export 

Timber can be graded visually or by more elaborate techniques. A simple colour coding system is 
appropriate for use in recording grades. 


Grading Coconut Timber 

Quality Control, Particularly Relating to Export 

In the course of coconut market research and pro- 
duct development it has been established that no im- 
porter in any of the countries surveyed is prepared to 
make a commitment to purchase large volumes of 
coconut wood unless both quality of material and 
reliability of supply are guaranteed. It is also 
desirable that uniform grading should be established 
within the various producing countries. 

When any country considers the establishment of a 
coconut milling and processing industry, there 
should be emphasis on an overall control which is 
sufficient to co-ordinate quality standards. This con- 
trol should not restrict efficient management but 
should aim to protect and foster the interests of the 
country, the coconut industry and its customers. An 
enforceable quality standard provides such a control. 

It is first necessary to inspect standing trees so that 
a judgement can be made as to a tree's age, by means 
of length of leaf, nut production and the 
characteristic thinning of the stem below the crown. 
Suitable trees are then marked, felled and cut to 

Before extraction, every log must be marked to 
establish from what part of the tree it comes. It is 
convenient when sawing to length to make a single 
chainsaw niche on the lower end of base logs, two 
niches for second logs and three niches for upper logs 
(see Figure 5.1). Then, after the logs are stockpiled 
butts are painted different colours on the lower end 
(base logs RED, second logs GREEN and third logs 
YELLOW). On the reverse ends they should be 
painted with a WHITE band extending 70mm in 
from the circumference (see Figure 5.2). 

System of Identification 

The maintenance of quality control of coconut 
wood is not merely a matter of inspection and 
grading at the point of sale or export. Because of the 
widely varying densities of material within each log, 
and the difficulty of differentiating these by super- 
ficial inspection after sawing has taken place, it is 
essential that grading and identification of the wood 
from different parts of a log and from different logs 
along the length of a tree be carried out in the planta- 
tions at time of felling. Such a grading system, con- 
sisting of colour-coding the butts of logs immediately 
after the trees are felled and cut to length, whereby 
the colour markings remain on each timber piece 
after the logs are sawn, has been developed and 

The general principles of this grading system are 
as follows: 

Figure 5.1 Chainsaw Grading Marks on Logs 

Chainuw Cuts in Field 

Base Log 

Second Log 

Third Log 

Painted Ends of Logs Before Sawmilling 

Base End 

Upper End 

Figure 5.2 Colour Grading on Log Butt 


After such an identification system as described 
above is in place, quality specifications are then 
necessary in relation to each end use. 

In the local house-building market little further 
grading would be required, though general informa- 
tion on the characteristics and appropriate use of 
each grade should be available. 

For other building construction, which may be 
subject to local government regulations or building 
codes, more detailed specifications are required. 

Timber should be graded hard, intermediate or 
soft, corresponding to high, medium and low den- 
sities. The technical limits between the grades are: 

High Density above 500 kg/m j 

Medium Density between 500 and 350 kg/m'. 

Low Density less than 350 kg/m j . 

As a rule only high density coconut timber is ac- 
ceptable for structural purposes. 


Sample Specifications 

Specifications for coconut timber drawn up by a 
timber exporting company 46 are as follows: 

-Milling tolerance minus nil plus 2.5 mm 

-Minimum basic density 400 kg/m j - for medium 
density and 600 kg/m j - for high density 

-Maximum moisture content E.M.C. of supplying 

-Timber must be clean and free from defects such 
as bark, rot, collapse, sapstain, brown spot, twist, 
cup, spring, checking, warp, wane or other visible 

-Timber should be milled within eight hours of fell- 
ing trees 

-Dip all timber in approved anti-sapstain solution 
immediately after milling 

-Protect timber from rain after dipping 

-Transport timber to drying yard immediately 

-Re-dip in anti-sapstain solution prior to stacking. 
It is preferable that this is carried out under cover to 
avoid any chance of chemicals being diluted by rain- 

-Fillet stack timber in proper drying racks pro- 
tected from rain and direct sunlight within 24 hours 
of milling. 

The anti-sapstain solution utilized was a pro- 
prietary mixture of captapol and chlorothalomil, 
maintaining a minimum concentration of 0.4 percent 

Packing specifications for rough sawn timber 
established for export control were that all timber for 
shipment should be steel banded, using 75 x 25 mm 
fillets under all-steel banding. Packets should be 
banded on 100 x 50 mm gluts to facilitate forking. 
Packets should contain timber of like specification 
and be in packets of no greater than one cubic metre. 
After drying to E.M.C. packets must not be exposed 
to wet conditions. 

Grading Techniques 

Techniques which have been examined include 
visual grading, basic density determination, and 
grading by weight. Checks on density can be made by 
means of the Janka hardness test. 

Visual grades may be as follows: 
C-l (clear one- face) 

-Clear of step or wane on one face 

-Step or wane can appear on up to half of the 
thickness away from the clear side of the board 

-Solid spot can appear on the clear face, but 
in area less than two percent of the face, and in- 
dividual areas of less than 0.5 cm 7 

-No string spot allowable 

-Lengths to a minimum of one metre 

C-2 (clear both faces) 
-Clear of step or wane on both faces 
-All sides square 

-Spot as described in C-l, for both faces 
-Lengths as described in C-l 


-Wane allowable up to half an edge and half 
one face 

-Step allowable on one edge all across; but 
not more than one-quarter width of the face; 
OR one face all across but not more than one- 
third of the edge 

5A The Low-density Grade Collapses 

-Hard spot allowable in any quantity in 
medium and hard density, and 20 per cent area 
of any face in soft density 

-String spot allowable up to five percent of 
the surface area of any face 

Grading by Basic Density 

The basic density of a piece of coconut timber is in- 
formation of considerable value in grading and 
utilization of the timber. It is calculated as the oven 
dry weight of a sample divided by its green volume. 
The procedure is relatively simple and can be used 
within the trade to check the quality of a consign- 

Density is closely correlated with hardness which 
may be measured by the Janka test. This measures 
the pressure required to compress a metal ball of 
standard diameter for a measured distance into a 
timber sample. Tests carried out on the wood from 
the peripheral zone of butt logs from coconut trees 
from Tonga showed an average resistance of 10,950 
newtons radially and 10,800 newtons tangentially at 
12 percent moisture content. Comparative figures for 
other timbers are :' 7 

European Oak 

North American Oak 





Radiata Pine 








2250N - 



The figures illustrate the significantly higher hard- 
ness rating of selected coconut wood. 



The appearance of coconut wood is distinctive. 
The grain is strong and irregular so that the texture is 
variable. There is also a noticeable colour variation, 
sometimes related to density, the denser wood being 
darker. It has also been noted that there are two 
varieties of tree, one which produces very dark wood 
and the other a lighter wood. There is thus oppor- 
tunity for the production of a range of colour grades 
in joinery or decorative features. It follows that col- 
our classification of the wood during processing is 
sometimes advantageous. 

5B The Densest Grades are Strong Enough for Struc- 
tural Uses 


Chapter 6 

Seasoning Coconut Timber 

Coconut sawn timber dries readily as 25 mm boards but thicker sizes dry very slowly. 
Degrade is not severe apart from collapse in material below 350 kg/m j basic density 16. 
Sawn timber should be sorted according to density before seasoning. 


Seasoning Coconut Timber 

Coconut sawn timber dries readily as 25 mm 
boards but thicker sizes dry very slowly. Degrade is 
not severe apart from collapse in material below 350 
kg/m j basic density. " Sawn timber should accor- 
dingly be sorted according to density before season- 

Air Drying 

The moisture content of coconut sawn timber 
ranges from 90 per cent to 180 per cent. The risk of 
stain and mould in air drying is such that appropriate 
chemical dip or spray treatments should be applied 
before stacking. For the same reason, protection 
from rain is desirable and air drying should be car- 
ried out in an open-sided roofed shed. 

6A Correctly Stacked for Air Drying 

Similar drying times have been reported from 
several Pacific Island countries. ' 25 mm boards 
dry from green to equilibrium moisture content (17 
to 20 per cent) in 9 to 10 weeks, while 50 mm material 
may require 6 months or more. 

Kiln Drying 

The New Zealand Forest Service, Forest Research 
Institute, has recommended kiln schedules as a result 
of studies on material from Tonga/ 

25 mm Material 

Moisture Content' 




Final conditioning 

Dry Bulb 
Temp C 

60 (140F) 
71 (160F) 
77 (170F) 

Wet Bulb 
Temp C 

51 (125F) 

1 Average moisture content of the two sample boards 
of the highest moisture content. 

Drying time is six to seven days in a commercial 

50 mm Material 

Preliminary air drying to 25-30 per cent moisture 
content is recomended since 50 mm pieces cannot be 
satisfactorily kiln-dried from green. J Drying may 
take five to six days on the following schedule. 

Moisture Content 

Final conditioning 

Dry Bulb 
Temp C 


Wet Bulb 
Temp C 

54(130 F) 




The denser grades of coconut do not have a high 
differential shrinkage so the tendency to distort is not 
severe. Twist is commoner than bow or spring. 2 Col- 
lapse is the most obvious seasoning degrade, increas- 
ing progressively below about 350 kg/m J basic densi- 
ty at which level it may not be recoverable. In denser 
material, reconditioning after drying gives good 
recovery from collapse. 3 

Seasoning of poles 

Because coconut wood has a high moisture content 
and is very prone to fungal infection it requires 
special care in drying in the round before preservative 
treatment. IS Debarking is essential and the material 
should be stacked in sheds or under a rain-shedding 
cover in locations with good air movement. 


Chapter 7 

Preserving Coconut Timber 

Coconut wood in contact with ground or water requires preservation if it is to last more than a few 

Coconut wood for interior uses, such as furniture, flooring or walling, does not generally need to 
be treated with preservatives, although in some environments the timber (particularly low density 
wood) should be treated against termites and other wood borers. 


Preserving Coconut Timber 

Provided the timber is adequately seasoned, 
coconut wood can be treated by the vacuum/pressure 
method using copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives. 
It can be used in the sawn form for weatherboards 
and verandah decking, in either sawn or round form 
for house piling, in the round or quarter round form 
as posts, and in round-form as poles. 

Material which has been treated and exposed in 
service trials indicates that if used clear of the 
ground, a life of 20 years could be anticipated, and 
rounds or quarter rounds used in contact with the 
ground should have a service life at least in the order 
of 15 years. l9 

Coconut wood in contact with ground or water re- 
quires preservation if it is to last more than a few 
years. Coconut wood for interior uses, such as fur- 
niture, flooring or walling, does not generally need to 
be treated with preservatives, although in some en- 
vironments the timber (particularly low density 
wood) should be treated against termites and other 
wood borers. 

In some environments all densities of sawn timbers 
will need protection against termites and other wood 

Some uses exposed to the weather may not justify 
full strength treatment. The preservation required 
may be necessitated by standards and local building 
codes, or by the length of life required. Housing 
from coconut timber which has been brush treated 
with preservative will give the house a longer life than 
a thatched roof house of lesser quality. Local 
economics can determine the preservative and length 
of building life desired. 

It is preferable and more feasible to avoid ground 
contact by placing a house on foundations with a 
waterproof barrier between the foundation and the 

Health standards and public attitudes to the use of 
preservatives with toxic ingredients provide further 
cause for concern at the suitability of different types 
of preservation. 

Load bearing poles, from fence posts to electric 
transmission poles, require higher standards of treat- 
ment. Coconut wood can be used inside buildings 
without treatment. Insects are not a major threat to 
dry wood. 

When exposed to the weather but not in contact 
with the ground some protection is required. 
Pressure treatment with copper-chrome-arsenate to 
intermediate retentions (five to ten kg commercial 
salts/mO gives excellent results. Brush-coating dry 
wood with creosote or copper naphthenate will give 
good protection but retreatment will be necessary 
every three to four years. Surface pre-treatment with 
inorganic salts (e.g. 12 per cent acid copper 

chromate) followed by one or two coats of latex 
emulsion stain will give a good and durable surface. 

Preservative requirements for ground-contact 
timber, e.g. posts and poles, are still unresolved, and 
more well-controlled tests are needed before a confi- 
dent assessment can be made of the suitability of 
treated coconut wood in this situation. The most 
crucial factor seems to be making absolutely sure that 
the wood does not become infected by any fungi bet- 
ween felling and final treatment . * ' 

Coconut stem wood is not very susceptible to at- 
tack by wood boring insects and will give good ser- 
vice without treatment if it is protected from the 
weather. If protection from insects must be ensured 
the wood can be readily treated with boron by diffu- 

Exposed to the weather or in ground contact 
coconut wood is perishable and preservative treat- 
ment is essential. Debarking round poles and posts is 
an extremely difficult task but is necessary if they are 
to be treated by conventional pressure methods or 
hot and cold bath. The wood must be at least partial- 
ly air-dried before treatment and this must be done 
under cover. Provided the outer zones are well dried, 
good retention and distribution can be achieved with 
creosote by hot and cold bath, and copper-chrome- 
arsenate by vacuum/pressure. 

Pressure sap displacement of unbarked logs has 
proved impracticable . * 

Oil- and Water-based Preservative Techniques 

There are two general types of wood preservatives. 
These are the oil-type such as creosote and pen- 
tachlorophenol, and the water-borne salt-type such 
as copper-chrome-arsenate. 

A black or brownish oil made by distilling coal tar 
or coal-tar creosote, is effective for preserving wood, 
but its colour, and the fact that creosote-treated 
wood cannot be painted satisfactorily, make this 
preservative unsuitable for finished timber where ap- 
pearance is important. In addition, the odour of the 
creosoted-wood is unpleasant. Nevertheless, coal-tar 
creosote can be satisfactorily used in treatment of 
fence posts and posts of low-cost houses where the 
materials are used externally and in ground contact. 

Pentachlorophenol solution preservative generally 
contains five per cent solution of chlorinated phenols 
in a solvent of liquid petroleum gas. The heavy oil re- 
mains in the wood for a long time and does not usual- 
ly provide clean or paintable surfaces. Pen- 
tachlorophenol solutions are usually applied to wood 
for exterior use. 


Copper-chrome-arsenate preservative is highly 
soluble in water. This is sold in the market under 
trade names such as Tanalith C, Boliden K33, 
Celcure AP. Copper-chrome-arsenate is now prefer- 
red and more widely accepted than coal-tar 
creosote/pentachlorophenol because it leaves the 
wood clean, paintable and free from objectionable 
odour after treatment. Furthermore, coal-tar and 
pentachlorophenol have become more costly than the 
water-borne preservatives. However CCA is not ac- 
ceptable for the treatment of roof shingles where the 
roof is to be used as a catchment for drinking water. 

Preparing Timber Prior to Treatment 

All coconut timber to be treated must be free from 
defects to attain satisfactory treatment and good per- 
formance thereafter. Treatment of timber by diffu- 
sion using water-borne preservatives may be done on 
freshly-cut sawn timber to permit movement of solu- 
tion into the wood. For other methods drying before 
treatment is essential. Drying the material before 
treatment permits adequate penetration and uniform 
distribution and reduces risks of checking and the 
consequent exposure of untreated timber. 

It is also of great importance that all machining 
should be done prior to treatment. This includes in- 
cising of wood to improve the penetration of preser- 
vative and machining operations such as planing, 
cutting, and boring. 

For round coconut timber, debarking should be 
done to accelerate drying. The bark greatly retards 

7A Debarking Poles 

moisture removal from the inner zone of the log 
thereby prolonging drying and risking decay and in- 
sect infestations to the log. Under Zamboanga condi- 
tions, it takes three to four months air drying of 
debarked round coconut timber to ensure good 
preservative treatment. 

Treatment Methods 

Preservative treatment of timber is undertaken by 
pressure or non-pressure processes. The pressure 
method of treatment is unlikely to be feasible in rural 
areas, where the relatively simple non-pressure pro- 
cesses can be readily adapted to local facilities. 

Brush Treatment 

Brush treatment is the simplest method of applying 
wood preservative . A minimum of five per cent pen- 
tachlorophonol or five per cent copper-chrome- 
arsenate can be used in treatment of dried coconut 
wood. One to three coatings may be applied depen- 
ding on the dry ness of the material. In most cases, 
however, wood treated by this method is recom- 
mended for internal use only. 


Cold soaking of well-seasoned coconut timber 
generally achieves better preservative penetration and 
retention than does brushing. The timber is soaked in 
a three to five per cent copper-chrome-arsenate solu- 
tion for one to eight hours depending on the intended 
use. Material treated by this method can be used for 
construction of buildings. 


Hot and cold bath 

The hot and cold bath process involves the heating 
of coal-tar creosote, or pentachlorophenol in heavy 
petroleum oil, with the material totally immersed 
during the duration of treatment. The wood is heated 
in the preservative in an open tank for several hours, 
then immediately submerged in cold preservative for 
at least an equal number of hours. For well-seasoned 
coconut timber a hot bath of two or three hours 
followed by a cold bath of like duration or more is 
apparently sufficient. Longer periods are preferable, 
especially during heating, to ensure that the wood is 
properly penetrated by the preservative. During the 
hot bath (at about 100C), air in the wood expands 
and is forced out. In the cold bath, the residual air in 
the wood contracts, thereby creating a partial 
vacuum, and the preservative solution enters the 

A double diffusion process, using a water-borne 
preservative, involves the immersion of wood in a 
copper sulphate solution which is then heated to 
about 80 C for three to six hours and cooled over- 
night. The material is then immersed in an equal mix- 
ture of cold sodium dichromate and arsenic pentox- 
ide solution for one or two days. The preservative 
penetration and retention are satisfactory for the 
treatment of power electric poles and fence posts. 
The copper sulphate solution is highly corrosive to 
metal, so the treating tank should be constructed of 
stainless steel. 

Other treatments using ammonia solutions of 
preservatives, and ammonia to precipitate the 
chemicals in the wood, have been developed at the 

Forest Research Institute, New Zealand, and are cur- 
rently being tested at Zamboanga. The objective 
in these developments is to produce a safe, 
economical treatment for moderate decay hazards. 

The plant may be a standard vacuum/pressure unit 
installed at a permanent location. Schedules used for 
this technique will give a high standard of 
protection. 77 

Logs should be cut to pole or post length and peel- 
ed or sawn into timber as soon as possible after the 
palms have been felled. Once processed into the form 
in which it will be dried the wood should be given a 
prophylactic treatment with a good fungicide. Dipp- 
ing is preferable to spraying, but if spraying is the on- 
ly alternative, a complete coverage should be en- 
sured. Indications are that the best chemical mixture 
is Captafol (0.4 per cent a.i.) plus Chlorothalonil (0.5 
per cent a.i.). 

Drying stacks should be erected with care. The site 
should be elevated, free draining, clear of vegetation 
and open to sun and wind. Bearers should be of con- 
crete or adequately treated wood, and should be at 
least 500 mm high. The stack should be protected 
with covers which should extend beyond the stack in 
all directions, to a distance equal to at least one 
quarter of the stack height. The timber should be 
open stacked using treated fillets or, in the case of 
posts, in the form of an open crib so that air can 
move freely. Stacks should be marked to show the 
date of erection, and the material should remain in 
stack for a period of five to 24 weeks, dependent on 
whether it is sawn, quarter round or full round. 

Drying and preservation schedule 





Solution vacuum 
cone. (-85 kPA 
(comCCA) 25 in) 


(200 psi) 

(-85 kPA 
25 in) 


Exposed 7 



5 weeks 

2^o 20 min 

45 min 

10 min 


Exposed 7 





10 weeks 
12 weeks 

2% 20 min 
6% 30 min 

60 min 
120 min 

10 min 
10 min 

250-350 l 





6% 30 min 

120 min 

10 min 



1 Exposed to the weather but not in ground contact 

2 Depending on density, e.g. minimum of 250 litres/m 3 for hard high-density wood 

3 For structural or high value components, solution concentrations of 3 to 4 per cent are recommended 


Chapter 8 

Energy from Coconut Wood Residues 

Coconut wood, especially of high density, will make good charcoal. Any charcoal kiln or process is 
suitable. But a system using old oil drums is cheap, simple and effective. Briquetting charcoal is 
possible with any starchy binder such as sorghum. 

Coconut wood can be used in direct fired boilers although it must be well dried before it will burn. 

Coconut wood if adequately dried, can be used for gasifiers. 


Energy from Coconut Wood Residues 

Coconut Steins as Fuel 

Coconut wood is similar to other woods in its 
characteristics as a fuel, though the range of densities 
within the stem leads to variation in the energy poten- 

Less than 20 per cent by volume of an average 
coconut stem is suitable for conversion to timber, 
and the remainder, together with sawmill residues, is 
readily usable for charcoal making and for the pro- 
duction of energy. 

Charcoal Making 

Many rural areas in the Asia-Pacific region make 
use of the traditional earth pit for conversion of 
coconut stems and shells to charcoal. The method re- 
quires only a small investment in tools and equip- 
ment but, because of the lack of control of the car- 
bonization process, yields are low and the quality of 
charcoal inferior. 

More modern methods, at various levels of 
sophistication, are now being applied. A portable 
metal kiln was constructed for the Philippine 
Coconut Authority in Zamboanga to a design similar 
to the kiln developed by the United Kingdom 
Tropical Products Institute. J Yields from this kiln 
averaged 20 per cent recovery. 

The approximate chemical analysis of the charcoal 
is: fixed carbon 70 per cent; volatile combustible 
matter 16 per cent; moisture content 12 per cent; ash 
2 per cent. 

Tests were undertaken on another kiln based on 
the TPI Mk IV design with a volume of eight m J . The 
main difference in design was that instead of being of 
all-metal construction, the bottom cylinder was made 
of two layers of brick. The inside layer was firebrick 
lined with clay, while the outside layer was the stan- 
dard building brick. This kiln had eight openings, 
four covered with chimneys which could be rotated 
from opening to opening to provide varying air flows 
to facilitate even .burning and carbonization. The 
material used for charcoal was waste material from 
logging, and some waste slabs from sawmilling. 

In Tonga, a simple kiln is constructed from a 44 
gallon drum. A slot 14 cm wide and 73 cm long is cut 
along one side. The billets of cocowood are loaded 
through this slot a little at a time. The kiln is started 
by lighting a fire on the bottom, with the slot facing 
horizontal to the ground. As the billets start burning 
the kiln is tilted so the slot is gradually moved to a 
vertical position, billets being added until the kiln is 
full. When the billets are burning well, the cover is 
put on, and the kiln turned until the slot is once again 
facing the ground. The kiln is left sealed until cool. 

8A Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln Ex- 

Several other drum designs have been used or 
described, differing mainly in the number and 
placements of air vents and therefore of operating 
techniques. Measurement of the efficiency of these 
kilns are however often imprecise since production 
operations do not have consistent descriptions of the 
nature, weight and moisture content of the initial 
charges. Suffice to say that the simplicity of the drum 
system (steel or brick) makes it appropriate where 
more elaborate systems cannot be justified. 

8B Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln In- 

Charcoal Retorts 

Charcoal retorts differ from kilns in that the 
charge is sealed in a closed chamber and the heat is 
supplied externally, without an initial combustion 
stage. The efficiency of the retort lies in its recycling 
of effluent waste gases from the central chamber 


holding the wood block charge to the fire box. After 
an initial firing to begin the reaction, the gases 
become the fuel source to carry the reaction to com- 
pletion. The charcoal conversion process is achieved 
with a low energy input, and pollution is eliminated. 
The design of the retort and combustion process en- 
sure a consistent quality and higher yields. Industrial 
charcoal is produced, with an average fixed carbon 
content of 80 per cent, for a capital outlay little in ex- 
cess of the traditional brick kiln method. 

Charcoal retorts are capable of converting 11 
metric tons of wood to four metric tons of charcoal 
in a 48-hour cycle including loading, firing, conver- 
sion, cooling, unloading and bagging. With the waste 
wood used in the initial firing of the retort, the wood 
to charcoal conversion ratio is between 3 Vi to 4: 1 for 
air-dried wood at 20 to 25 per cent moisture content. 

is fed in through nozzles. When that takes place basic 
gas production starts. 

The gas produced is led through a bed of charcoal 
which causes reduction to the main fuel gas, carbon 
monoxide (CO). The by-products of distillation such 
as tar are cracked to form hydrogen and the final 
moisture of producer gases is: 

Combustible gas 

Carbon Monoxide 



Non Combustible gas 

Carbon dioxide 

20 per cent 

19 per cent 

1 per cent 

9 per cent 
5 1 per cent 

Charcoal Briquetting 

Coconut stem charcoal has a lower fired-carbon 
and higher ash content than wood (and coconut shell) 
charcoal. Briquetting, although not necessarily in- 
creasing the fired-carbon content increases the densi- 
ty necessary for industrial applications, to approx- 
imate that of coke. J 

Briquetting is the process of compressing the char- 
coal to form a compact, uniform mass of higher den- 
sity and strength than the original material. Studies 
on the briquetting of charcoal from coconut stems, 
carried out in the Philippines using sorghum flour as 
a binder 3 , showed that a suitable charcoal-to-binder 
ratio is of the order of 16:1. 

Activated Carbon 

Activated carbon can be made from coconut wood 
charcoal by the removal of hydrocarbon tars adher- 
ing to the carbon, to create a vast network of 
molecular capillaries to increase and improve the ab- 
sorptive power of charcoal. Activated coconut-shell 
charcoal can be best applied ingas and vapourabsorp- 
tion because of its high density. The activated low- 
density wood charcoal and coconut-trunk charcoal 
are best suited to liquid purification. 

Since coconut-shell charcoal is comparable to the 
so-called charcoal produced from dense; trees in 
structural strength and low-ash content, it can be a 
reliable source of carbon for the manufacture of 
various chemicals such as carbon disulfide, calcium 
carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon 
monoxide; paint pigments; Pharmaceuticals; 
moulding resins; black powder, electrodes; catalyst 
reactor; brake linings; and gas-cylinder absorbent. 

Heat energy to mechanical energy: 

5 kg of wood/hour yields approximately 6 hp/hour 


5 kg of wood/hour yields approximately 4 kW/hour 


The hearth module is the actual gas-making com- 
ponent of the system and is supplied as the standard 
stock item. All other components of a particular 
gasifier system are custom made or assembled from 
stock parts to suit the purchaser's special needs, 
whether they are for heat generation or for engine 
fuelling. Where producer gas is intended for use in 
process heating operations such as timber drying and 
gas cooling, filtration need not be employed. Where 
producer gas is intended for use in engine fuelling 
operations, cooling and greater purity of the fuel gas 
is essential and therefore appropriate equipment is 
added to the plant to obtain this result. 

Ethanol from Coconut Waste Products 

The production of ethanol from grains and sugar- 
rich crops has been practised for thousands of years. 
Toddy and arrack from the sap of the coconut palm 
are a well-known example. 

The alcohol has been used mainly for drinking, for 
medical purposes and sometimes for chemical pro- 
duction. Cost of production has not been an issue. 
Modern techniques have however lowered costs of 
production and in some countries ethanol is already 
produced for energy use from prime agricultural pro- 

Considerable advances have been made in the use 
of cellulosic materials for ethanol production. Recent 
testing of coconut utilization of the softer inner core 
of the stem has shown promising results. 5 * 

Producer Gas - Gasifier 

Gasifiers work by drying wood with heat radiating 
from the hearth zone at the bottom of a producer. As 
the wood works its way towards the hearth it turns 
into charcoal. The charcoal reacts with the air which 

Power Generation Systems 

Mechanical and electrical power generation fuel 
led by wood, straw and similar materials has been 
practised commercially for over one hundred years. 
The earliest systems used steam and hot air external 


combustion engines. More recently internal combus- 
tion engines have been used in conjunction with 
various methods of converting the fuel to combusti- 
ble gas. 

Other systems incorporating closed cycle gas tur- 
bines and engines are being developed and could 
come into regular use in the future. 

The main factors limiting the use of wood or 
woody material as fuel for power generation have 
been economic rather than technical and thus any 
evaluation of the potential must be concerned 
primarily with the economics of the systems, in- 
cluding saving of foreign exchange. The economics 
are determined by factors such as fuel costs, capital 
cost, plant efficiencies, labour costs etc. 

The low cost of oil fuels and their simplicity of use 
were the major reasons why there was a move away 
from solid fuels at the beginning of this century. 

At present there are two basic systems which can 
practically and economically be applied to generating 
power from coconut wood and other wood wastes. 
One system is burning with or without gasification 
and generation of steam to operate engines or tur- 
bines. The other system is direct gasification from 
wood or charcoal to produce a fuel suitable for use in 
internal combustion engines. 

The degree of complexity, the safety hazards and 
capital cost are similar for both burning and gasifica- 
tion plants. The most significant differences are in 
the fuel consumption rates. Gasification direct from 
wood uses about half as much wood as either a direct 
burning system or charcoal-making followed by 
gasification system, to produce the same energy out- 
put. The steam engine has however advantages in 
simplicity of operation and reliability. 

Establishment and Operation of Power System 

There are many possible reasons for considering 
power generation based on wood. Before commenc- 
ing such a project it is necessary to consider many 
factors in order to be sure that the project will be pro- 
fitable and desirable. 

The higher capital cost of wood-fuelled systems as 
compared with diesel systems result in higher fixed 
costs. This makes it verv important to achieve high 

utilization. Greatest effectiveness can be achieved 
from a wood-fuelled system where there is a steady 
load without large peak demands and the plant is us- 
ed to supply the base load demand of an existing 
system. This latter condition can be planned so that 
the load is shared between the wood and the diesel 
plants in such a way that the wood system generates 
at or near full output most of the time. The use of 
diesel is restricted to those times where the demand is 
high thus making maximum use of its facility for 
quick start-up and shut-down whilst dramatically 
reducing total diesel fuel consumption. 

Electric power must be reliable. Many consumers 
need continuous supply or a very low incidence of 
failures if losses or hazards are to be avoided. For ex- 
ample, fish freezers at a base port, hospitals and 
large industries may be seriously jeopardised by 
power shut downs. 

A wood-fuelled plant which is not connected to 
another system will usually require some duplication 
of equipment and some diesel engine stand by capaci- 
ty, although the smallest systems such as for villages, 
may not need these features. 

Because of the bulky nature of wood fuel, it is im- 
portant, in locating a plant, to minimise roading and 
transportation costs. Thus power plants will general- 
ly be near the fuel source rather than close to the con- 
sumers to be supplied. 

8C Firewood 



7 FAO Production and Trade Yearbook Vol. 36 

2 Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings 
held in Nukualofa, Kingdom of Tonga, 25-29 Oc- 
tober 1976, under the New Zealand Aid Programme 
for the South Pacific Region. Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, Wellington, New Zealand 1977 

3 Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, Manila 
and Zamboanga 22-27 October. A meeting spon- 
sored by Philippine Coconut Authority, New 
Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Asian and 
Pacific Coconut Community. Published by the 
Philippines Coconut Authority. 

4 Coconut Industries, 1981. International Coir 
Development Newsletter, Number 1. 

3 Cocostem Development Co. Ltd. ,1978. Coconut 
Wood Parquet Plant for Tonga: Feasibility Report. 

6 Decena, A.S., Dela Cruz, R.Z. and Penid, B.J., 
1976. Forpride Digest. Vol.V 

7 Evans, Rex D., January 1979. Coconut Wood: The 
Pacific's Great Untapped Resource. Asia Pacific 
Research Unit, Wellington. 

9 Evans, Rex D., 1978. Parquet Flooring from 
Coconut Wood: Research Review 1 March 1978. 
Cocostem Investigation Unit, Asia Pacific Research 
Unit and Evans(QS) Company, Wellington 
9 Ford R.J.,1982. New Zealand Bilateral Aid 
-Cocostem Utilisation Project, Zamboanga City, 
Philippines, October 1980-December 1982. Report to 
the Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Well- 

70 Grimwood, Brian E., et al, 1975. Coconut Palm 
Products: Their Processing in Developing Countries. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, Rome. 

77 Groome, J.G. and Associates, January 1982. 
Small Scale Power Generation: Coconut Wood and 
other Wood Wastes. Prepared for Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 

77 Hicksons Timber Impregnation Co (NZ) Ltd., 
April 1980. Recommended Specifications for the 
treatment of Coconut Wood, Auckland 
n Jensen P. ,1979. Skidding Bar. Coconut Wood 
-1979: The Proceedings, Zamboanga 
14 Kinninmonth, J.A. 1977. Drying sawn timber of 
coconut. Coconut Stem Utilisation Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976 

n Kinninmonth, J.A. The Air Drying of Sawn 
Timber. New Zealand Forest Service Reprint 
Number 42. 

16 Kinninmonth, J,A., 1979. Drying of Coconut 
Wood/ Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, 

17 Kloot, N.H. and Bolza. E., 1977. Properties of 
Timbers Imported into Australia. CSIRO, Australia 

18 Little, E.C.S., April 1975. Report to the Govern- 
ment of the Philippines on Coconut Wood Utiliza- 
tion. UNDP/FAO Coconut Research and Develop- 
ment project 

19 McLean, Murdoch, Managing Director, Hickson 
Timber Impregnation Co. NZ Ltd., March 1983. 
Seasoning and Treatment of Coconut Posts and 
Poles. Cited by A. McQuire in A Note on the Treat- 
ment of Coconut Wood With CCA Preservative. 
New Zealand 

20 McQuire, A.J., 1977. The Durability and Preser- 
vative Treatment of Coconut Palm Wood. Coconut 
Stem Utilisation Proceedings, Tonga, 1976 

21 McQuire, A.J., 1979. Exposure Tests of Treated 
and Untreated Coconut Stem Wood in the South 
Pacific. Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, 

" Meadows, D.J., 1977. The Coconut Industry - 
Problems and Prospects, Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar, Tonga, 1976 

23 Meylan, B.A., 1978. Density variation with Cocos 
nucifera stems New Zealand Journal of Forestry 
Science, Volume 8 (3): 369-83 

24 Mosteiro, Arnaldo P., January-March 1978. For- 
pride Digest, Volume VII, Number 1 

25 Palomar, R.N., [1980a] Preservation Techniques 
of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Palm Timber for 
Electric Power /Telecommunication Poles and Fence 
Posts Mimeo. Zamboanga Research Centre. 

36 Palomar, R.N., [1980b] Charcoal Making. 
Mimeo. Zamboanga Research Centre 
" Richolson, J.M., August 1980. Coconut Stem 
Utilisation Programme Information Note (3): Ther- 
mal Insulation of Coconut Wood. A Review of 
Utilization possibilities for Over-mature Coconut 
Palm Stems in Fiji. Department of Forestry, Suva 

29 Richolson, J.M. and Swarup, R., 1977. A brief 
review of the anatomy and morphology of the 
coconut palm (Part I) with a report on its basic 
physical properties (Part II). Coconut Stem Utilisa- 
tion Seminar Proceedings, Tonga ; 1976 

30 San Luis, Josefina M. and Estudillo, Calvin P., 
1976. Charcoal Briquetting - An Outlet for Wood and 
Coconut Trunk Wastes. Forpride Digest, Volume V, 
pp. 73-74 

31 South Pacific Commission, April 1957. Practical 
Uses for Coconut Timber. Quarterly Bulletin, 

" Standards Association of Australia. Australian 
Standards 1975: Use of Timbers in Structures 

33 Tamolang, Dr. Francisco N., 1976. The Utilization 
of Coconut Stems and other Parts in the Philippines. 
NSDB Technology Journal, Volume I, Number 2, 

34 [Tongan] Coconut Review Committee, February 
1982. A Review of the Coconut Replanting Scheme 


and Aspects of the Coconut Industry related to 
Coconut Production, Kingdom of Tonga. Ministry 
of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests Planning Unit 
Technical Publication No. 1/82 
35 Turner, John, 1982. Philippines Mini Mill Opera- 
tion at San Ramon, August September 1982. Report 
to [New Zealand] Ministry of Foreign Affairs Aid 

" Walford, G.B., 1979. Structural Use of Coconut 
Timber. Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, 

37 Walford, G.B. and Orman, H.R., 1977. The 
mechanical properties of coconut timber and its 
design capabilities in construction. Part 1 - Basic 
strength properties. Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976 

38 FAO - Kandeel S.A. 1983 
FAO - Sulc V.K. 1983 

39 Bermelt C. 

40 Bergseng K. Timber Industry Training Centre, 
Rotorua NZ 

41 Evans N. Fe'ofa'aka Enterprises NZ 

43 Hicksons Timber Impregnation Co. (NZ) Ltd 

43 Juson R.A. Zamboanga Research Centre, Philip- 

44 McQuire A.J. Forest Research Institute, Rotorua 

45 Philippine Coconut Authority, Zamboanga 
Research Centre 

" Palm Pacific Hardwoods Ltd 

47 Schilling M 

48 Siers J 



Aldamez, E.L., 1983. Cocowood utilization (at 
Pola Mindoro). Cocowood Training at Zamboanga 
Research Centre, Philippine Coconut Authority 

Allison, R.W., 1976. Examination of parenchyma 
tissue in coconut kraft pulps. Forest Products 
Laboratory Report FP/PP60. Rotorua, New 

Asian and Pacific Coconut Community. The 
Cocommunity Newsletter. Published bi-monthly. 

Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, 1977. 
Report of the Cocotech Meeting, Manila, Philip- 
pines, 19-23 April 1977 

Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, April 
1981. Coconut Statistical Yearbook. Compiled and 
expanded by APCCC Statistics Division, Jakarta 

Astell, A.S., 1981. The primary conversion of 
coconut stems into sawn timber. Working Document 
PHI/71/523. Philippines, FAO/UNDP 

Astell, A.S., and Richolson, J., 1977. Handsaw 
conversion of Fiji coconut palm logs. Coconut Stem 
Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 351-60 

Balzer, A.H., 1977. Chain saw trials with coconut 
wood. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Pro- 
ceedings, Tonga, 1976: 346-50 

Bauza, E.B., Katigbak, S.G., Zerrudo, J.V., and 
Lauricio, P.M., 1983. Coconut trunks for novelty 
boxes. NSTA Technology Journal 3 (3): 79-83 

Banzon, J.A., and Velasco, J.R., 1982. Coconut 
production and utilization. Philippine Coconut 
Research and Development Foundation Inc 

Beca Carter Holdings & Ferner Ltd and Scott, 
G.C., 1976. Forest Industries Energy Research Sum- 
mary. New Zealand Energy Research and Develop- 
ment Committee 

Bedford, G.O., 1976. Uses of virus against the 
coconut rhinoceros beetles in Fiji. Pans 22 (1): 11-25 

Bergseng, K., 1974. Report on trial sawing of 
coconut palm logs from Tonga. Rotorua, New 
Zealand Timber Industry Training Centre 

Bergseng, K., 1977. Machining of coconut palm 
wood. Proceedings Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar, Tonga, 1976: 221-26 

Bergseng, K., 1977. Sawing coconut stems. Pro- 
ceedings Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar, Tonga, 
1976: 111-32 

Bergseng, K., 1982. Sawmilling and machinery. 
Development of coconut timber use. CHOGRM 
Working Group on Industry Seminar, Honiara, 
Solomon Islands 

Bergseng, K., and Higgins, P. J., 1978. Coconut 
palm sawing trials conducted in the Philippines. 
Report to Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Philippines 

Bergseng, K., et al, 1983. Sawmilling of coconut 
palm. Unpublished Document 2332A. Rotorua, 
New Zealand Timber Industry Training Centre 

Bisset, J., 1945. The kiln drying of coconut palm 
(Cocos nucifera). Division of Forest Products 
Report, CSIRO, Australia 

Bollard, A., 1979. Coconut Wood: T-shirt and 
tapa cloth. A handbook for small rural business for 
the Pacific. Noumea, South Pacific Commission 

Boyd, J.D., 1973. Notes on strength of coconut 
palm trees as poles. Division of Forest Products 
Report, CSIRO, Australia. Unpublished 

Buxton, M.J., 1970. Notes on the economic 
feasibility of the manufacture of particle board from 
coconut timber in Western Samoa. Report of 
Tropical Products Institute, United Kingdom 

Casin, R.F., Generalla, N.C., and Tamolang, 
F.N., 1977. Preliminary studies on the treatment of 
coconut lumber with vinyl monomers. Coconut Stem 
Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 

Casin, R.F., and Tamolang, F.N., 1977. Seasoning 
characteristics of coconut lumber and poles. Coconut 
Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 

Casin, R.F., and Generalla, N.C., 1978. Utilisation 
of coconut palm timber; Its significance in some 
developing countries in the tropics. Philippines, 

Centre for Technology Delivery (undated). Project 
Plan: Madera Imelda 

Child, D., 1974. Coconuts. 
Kingdom, Longman Group 

2nd ed. United 

Child, D., 1982. Commercial aspects of sawmill- 
ing. Development of coconut timber use. CHOGRM 
Working Group on Industry Seminar, Honiara, 
Solomon Islands 

Child, D., 1982. The products and the market. 
Development of coconut timber use. CHOGRM 
Working Group on Industry Seminar, Honiara, 
Solomon Islands 

Chittenden, A.E., Flaws, J.L., and Hawkes, A.J., 
1969. Particle boards from coconut palm timber. 
London, Tropical Products Institute Report G43:9: 

Commonwealth Heads of Government 
(CHOGRM) Regional Meeting, December 1982. 
Development of Coconut Timber Use: Seminar 


Report. CHOGRM Working Group on Industry, 
Honiara, Solomon Islands 

Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
held at Nukualofa, Kingdom of Tonga, 25-29 Oc- 
tober 1976. Proceedings compiled and edited by A.K. 
Familton, A.J. McQuire, J.A. Kininmonth, A.M.L. 
Bowles. Wellington, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 

Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila & Zamboanga 22-27 
October. A Meeting sponsored by Philippine 
Coconut Authority, New Zealand Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, Asia and Pacific Coconut Com- 
munity: The Proceedings, Edited by A.K. 
Familton, A.J. McQuire, E.N. Balingasa, D.J. 
Meadows. Philippine Coconut Authority. 

Contact Consult, 1982. The Australian import 
market for timber and timber products. Prepared for 
Department of Trade and Resources, Australia. Ref . 

Cornelius, J.A., 1973. Coconuts: A Review. Lon- 
don, Tropical Science 1 (1) 

Cortes, T.R., 1983. Prospects of cocowood utiliza- 
tion in the Bicol Region 3. Cocowood Training at 
Zamboanga Research Center. Philippine Coconut 

Cousins, W.J., and Meylan, B.A., 1975. 
Longitudinal slicing of Cocos nucifera and illustra- 
tions of its anatomy. Physics and Engineering 
Laboratory, [New Zealand] Department of Scientific 
and Industrial Research 437 (19) 

Cruz, I.E., 1981. Producer gas from wood: Its pro- 
duction and utilization in internal combustion 
engines. NSDB Technology Journal of Philippines 6 
(1): 38-29 

Cumber. R.A., 1957. The rhinoceros beetles in 
Western Samoa (Ecological Studies). Noumea, South 
Pacific Commission Technical Paper 707 

Cummins, N.H.O., 1973. Fuel value of wood: The 
calorific value of coconut palm wood. Forest Pro- 
ducts Laboratory Report FP/AL 4. New Zealand 
Forest Research Institute. Unpublished 

Dandy, A.J., and Wright, C.P., 1977. 
Characteristics of charcoal from coconut and 
mangrove. Suva, School of Natural Resources, 
University of the South Pacific. Unpublished 

Decena, A.S., 1975. Study on the sawing 
characteristics of coconut (Cocos nucifera) trunk: 
Co-operative Project. College, Philippines, FOR- 

Decena, A.S., and Penid, B.J., 1977. The 
economics of three lumber conversion systems for 
coconut trunks. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar, 
Proceedings Tonga, 1976: 357-70 

Decena, A.S., and Penid, B.J. 1977. Production 
costs of coconut lumber products. 1. Treated Stone 

Cut. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar, Proceedings 
Tonga, 1976: 457-60 

De Coene, A., 1981. A report to the government 
of the Philippines on a marketing study of coconut 
timber products. Rome, Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations 

De La Cruz, R.Z., et al t 1975. Sawing of coconut 
trunks into lumber. FORPRIDECOM Technical 
Note 156 

De La Cruz, R.Z., and Sibayan, D.V., 1975. Study 
on sawing characteristics of coconut trunks. College, 
Philippines, FORPRIDECOM Library Special 
Report. Unpublished 

Doyle, J.,1978. Coconut Tree Survey of 
Tongatapu, Nukualofa 

Eala, R.C., and Tamolang, F.N, 1977. Exploratory 
study of machining properties of coconut timber. 
Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 455-56 

Eala, R.C., and Tamolang, F.N. , 1977. Face 
veneer from coconut trunk. Coconut Stem Utilisa- 
tion Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 470-72 

Eala, R.C., and Tamolang, F.N., 1977. Special 
treatment of 'soft' coconut timber. Coconut Stem 
Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 

Elazequi, T.A., Villanueva, E.P., and Bawagan, 
B.O., 1979. Dissolving pulp from coconut trunk 
(Cocos nucifera) chips in the Philippines. FOR- 
PRIDE Digest 8 (2): 40-47 

Endaya, P., 1983. Prospects of cocowood utiliza- 
tion in Region I. Cocowood Training at Zamboanga 
Research Centre. Philippine Coconut Authority 

Escolano, J.O., et al, 1970. Offset book and wrap- 
ping papers from blends of coconut coir and abaca 

Espiloy, E.B., Jr, 1977. Coconut trunk for power 
and telecommunication poles. College, Philippines, 
FORPRIDECOM Technical Note 182 

Espiloy, E.B., Jr, and Tamolang, F.N., 1977. Ben- 
ding strength of full-sized coconut trunk poles. 
Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 427-32 

Estudilio, C.P., and San Luis, J.M., 1969. Char- 
coal briquettes from coconut (cocos nucifera Lin.) 
trunk. Progress Report 744/d. College, Philippines, 

Estudilio, X.P., and San Luis, J.M., 1977. Char- 
coal production and utilization of coconut shells and 
trunk in the Philippines. Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 199-220 

Evans, Rex D., 1978. Parquet flooring from 
coconut wood: Research Review 1 March 1978. 


Hamilton, New Zealand Cocostem Investigation 
Unit, Asia Pacific Research Unit and Evans (QS) 

Evans, Rex D., January 1979. Coconut wood: The 
Pacific's great untapped resource. Wellington, Asia 
Pacific Research Unit 

Evans (QS) Company, 1978: Coconut wood par- 
quet plant for Tonga: Feasibility Report. Hamilton, 
New Zealand, Cocostem Development Co Ltd 

Familton, A.K., 1977. Discussion paper on country 
questionnaires. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar, 
Proceedings Tonga, 1976: 299-318 

Familton, A.K., 1978. What is happening among 
the coconuts? Wellington, Asia Pacific Forum 4 (9) 

Familton, A.K., 1979. Coconut wood - 1979: The 
objectives. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, 

Faniel, R., 1969. Report on the feasibility of 
establishing a particle board factory based on 
coconut wood. Annex II. UNIDO Regional Tour 

Fiji. Department of Agriculture, 1972. Record of a 
workshop on the coconut industry in Fiji held on 1-3 
May 1972, at Fiji College of Agriculture, Koronivia 

Fiji. Department of Agriculture, 1973. Commodity 
study paper: Coconuts. Unpublished 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1976. Revitalisation 
of copra industry: The potential utilization of 
coconut timber. Unpublished 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1977. Brush and dip 
preservatives treatment of coconut weatherboarding. 
Fiji Information Note (a). Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 409-10 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1977. Mobile 
pressure treatment facilities. Fiji Information Note 
(b). Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 411-12 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1977. Coconut Palm 
wood charcoal. Fiji Information Note (c). Coconut 
Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Experimental 
coconut house. Fiji Information Note (a) 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Low density 
coconut weather-boarding brush and dip preservative 
treatment, Fiji Information Note (b) 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Thermal in- 
sulation of coconut wood. Fiji Information Note (d) 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Mechanical 
peeling of coconut palm logs. Fiji Information Note 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Treated 
coconut fence post. Fiji Information Note (0 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Mechanical 
splitting of coconut palm logs. Fiji Information Note 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Parquet floor- 
ing service trials. Fiji Information Note (i) 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Production of 
coconut wood charcoal with Mark V kiln. Fiji Infor- 
mation Note (1) 

Fiji. Department of Forestry, 1979. Production of 
coconut wood charcoal with Tongan kiln. Fiji Infor- 
mation Note (n) 

Floresca, A.R., 1979. Bolt bearing properties of 
coconut palmfcocos nucifera L.) timber compared 
with those of some Philippine woods. Forpride 
Digest 8 (2): 52-61 

Fluidyne R & D Ltd. Wood and crop residue fuel- 
gas producers. Brochure. Auckland, New Zealand 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, 1981. Jamaica coconut wood utilisation. 
Report prepared for the Government of Jamaica 

Food and Agriculture Organization /United Na- 
tions Development Programme/United Nations In- 
dustrial Development Organization, 1983. Regional 
coconut wood utilization training programme RAS- 
81-110. Training handouts coconut wood utilization. 
Managerial Training Course. 

Ford, R.J., 1982. New Zealand Bilateral Aid - 
Cocostem Utilization Project, Zamboanga City, 
Philippines, October 1980 to December 1982. Report 
to the Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Well- 
ington, New Zealand 

FORPRIDECOM, Undated. Development of par- 
ticle board on a pilot plant commercial scale using 
plantation and secondary wood species and 
agricultural fibrous waste materials v. coconut trunk 
and wood/coconut particle mixtures. Unpublished 

FORPRIDECOM, Undated. Experiments on the 
utilization of coconut trees as building materials and 
pallets. Unpublished 

FORPRIDECOM, 1975. Charcoal from coconut 
trunk and activation of charcoal. Unpublished 

FORPRIDECOM, 1975. Strength related proper- 
ties of green coconut trunk from Tiaong, Quezon. 

FORPRIDECOM, 1975. Summary of results ob- 
tained from.the study of the sawing characteristics of 
coconut trunks. Unpublished 

Francia, F.C.and Escolano, E.U. 1973. Proximate 
chemical composition of the various parts of the 
coconut stem. Philippine Lumberman 19 (7): 26-30 


Francia, F.C., 1980. Utilization of coconut trunks 
and its waste material. Unpublished 

Fremond, X., and Ziller, R., 1966. The Coconut 
palm. Berne, International Potash Institute 

Garcia, M.L., and Reyes, A.V., 1977. Exploratory 
tests on the natural susceptibility of coconut wood to 
termites. Proceedings Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar, Tonga, 1976: 395-402 

Garcia, P. A., 1983. Prospects of coconut wood 
utilization in Central and Western Visayas. 
Coco wood Training at Zamboanga Research Centre. 
Philippine Coconut Authority 

Goodwin, J.J., 1977. Construction of small 
demonstration houses using coconut timber. Forest 
Products Laboratory Report TE75. Rotorua, New 
Zealand Forest Research Institute. Unpublished 

Gough, O.K., 1977. Seasoning and the seasoned 
recovery of timber from overmature coconut palms 
(Cocos nuctfera). Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar 
Proceedings, Tonga 1976: 371-86 

Grimwood, B.E., 1975. Coconut palm products. 
FAO Agriculture Development Paper 99: 211-19 

Groome, J.G., and Associates 1982. Small-scale 
power generation coconut wood and other wood 
wastes. Prepared for Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations, Taupo, New 

Hannam, G., 1978. Report on investigation into 
the North American flooring market. Wellington, 
Cocostem Development Co Ltd. Unpublished 

Haas, Anthony, Kitson G., and Groome J.G., 
1982. Vanuatu's Coconut Stem Product Export 
Markets. Commonwealth Secretariate. Unpublished 

Haseloff, James, Mohamed, Nizar A. and 
Symons, Robert H., 1982.Viroid RNAs of 
cadang-cadang disease of coconuts. Nature 

Hawkes, A.J., and Robinson, A. P., 1979. The 
utilization of coconut palm timber as an aggregate 
with cement. Philippine Journal of Coconut Studies 
4 (1) : 14-26 

Herda, P.T., Carter Indonesia/South Tree 
Technology Ltd, 1983. Coconut wood utilisation in 
Indonesia. Volume 1 Technical Report; Volume 2 
Financial Report; Appendices. A study prepared for 
the Directorate General of Estates, Ministry of 
Agriculture, Government of Indonesia 

Hickson's Timber Impregnation Co (NZ) Ltd, 
1980. Recommended specifications for the treatment 
of coconut wood 

Hopner, T., 1957. Faserstoffe aus cocusund cycas. 
Das Papier II (299): 498-500 

Howard, R.C., 1979. Utilization of coconut 
timber: Machining - Adding value and marketing. 

Manurewa, New Zealand, Marketing Engineers Ltd. 

Industries Assistance Commission Report, 1978. 
Timber and Timber Products and Plywood and 
Veneer, Report 168, 12 May, Canberra, Australia 

Industries Assistance Commission 1978. Furniture. 
Report 188, 27 November. Canberra, Australia 

Industries Assistance Commission, 1981. Draft 
Report on wood and articles of wood. Canberra, 

International Coir Fibre Development Associa- 
tion, 1980. Coconut Wood. International Coir 
Development Newsletter Special Issue 3 (2): 4-8 

International Coconut Development Association 
(ICDA). Coconut Industries. Quarterly, Stockholm 

International Trade Centre, 1970. The parquet 
market in France. Geneva 

International Trade Centre, 1971. The market for 
parquets in Italy. Geneva 

International Trade Centre, 1971. The parquet 
market in Austria. Geneva 

International Trade Centre, 1971. The parquet 
market in the United Kingdom. Geneva 

International Trade Centre, 1971. The parquet 
market in the Netherlands. Geneva 

International Trade Centre, 1971. The parquet 
market in the Federal Republic of Germany. Geneva 

International Trade Centre, 1977. The changing 
pattern of the market for floor coverings in the 
Federal Republic of Germany. Geneva 

Japan. JICA, 1978. Report of an analytical survey 
of coconut forests in Taveuni Island of Fiji 

Jansen, A.K., 1974. Experimental boron treatment 
of coconut timber. Unpublished notes 

Jensen, P., 1979. Briefing Paper: Drying saw 
material. Paper presented to Meeting Coconut Wood 
- 1979, Manila-Zamboanga. Unpublished 

Jensen, P., 1979. Briefing Paper: Sawmilling. 
Paper presented to Meeting Coconut Wood - 1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga. Unpublished 

Jensen, P., 1979. Log volume and form factor of 
Cocos nucifera L. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 
1979, Manila- Zamboanga: 80-88 

Jensen, P., 1979. Cell-wall densities for Cocos 
nucifera and Pinus radiata. Proceedings Coconut 
Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 113-19 

Jensen, P., 1979. Skidding bar. Proceedings 
Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 67-75 


Jensen, P., 1979. Technical information - 
graveyard test of Cocos Nucifera L. Proceedings 
Coconut Wood T 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 137-38 

Jensen, P., 1979. Recovery in sawn timber from 
Cocas nucifera logs. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 
1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 88-90 

Jensen, P., 1979. Technical information on 
sawmills. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga: 90-97 

Jensen, P., 1979. Machine costs for tractors, 
timber jacks and equipment. 

Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zam- 
boanga: 197-206 

Jensen, P., and Killmann, W., 1979. Production 
costs of sawn coconut timber. Proceedings Coconut 
Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 207-40 

Jensen, P., and Killmann, W., 1979. Utilization of 
palm wood (Cocos nucifera L.). Proceedings 
Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 75-79 

Juson, R.A., 1983. Sawmilling tests on the Varteg 
sawmill under field conditions. PCA-Zamboanga 
Research Center Research 

Juson, R.A., 1983. Sawmilling of coconut stems. 
Third PCARRD SMARC Co-ordinated review and 
evaluation of ongoing and completed research pro- 
jects. Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines 

Juson, R.A., 1983. Machining of coconut wood. 
Third PCARRD SMARC Co-ordinated review and 
evaluation of ongoing and completed research pro- 
jects. Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines 

Juson, R.A., and Killmann, W., 1980. Drying of 
coconut timber. PCA-ZRC Agricultural Annual 
Report. Unpublished 

Kandeel, S.A., 1983. Curricula for coconut wood 
utilization training. PCA-Zamboanga Research 
Center RD-02-83 

Kandeel, S.A.E., Corcuera, M., and Kherallah, I., 
1983. Chemical analysis of coco-wood different den- 
sity groups. PCA-Zamboanga Research Center 
Research Paper 

Khandeel, S.A.E., Madrazo, R., Corcuera, M. 
and Kherallah, I., 1983. Energy from coconut (Cocos 
nuciferajstem wood. Energy generation and conser- 
vation session. Forest Products Research Society 
37th Annual Meeting Conference, Virginia, U.S.A. 

Katzer, G.R., and Ward, A.F., 1978. The Fore 
Furnace: A versatile biomass burner. New Zealand 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 

Kaul, K.N., 1960. Anatomy of plants. Palm-; 
Bulletin 51. Lucknow, National Botanic Gardens 

Killmann, W., 1979. Buildings and structures - 
Houses. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga: 167-687 

Killmann, W., 1983. Some physical properties of 
the coconut palm stem. Wood Science and 
Technology Journal 17: 167-85 

Kinninmonth, J.A., 1974. Drying sawn timber of 
coconut. Timber Drying Report TD1. Forest 
Research Institute, New Zealand Forest Service. Un- 

Kinninmonth, J.A., 1977. Drying sawn timber of 
coconut. Proceedings, Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar, Tonga, 1976: 133-46 

Kinninmonth, J.A., 1979. Current state of 
knowledge of drying of coconut wood. Proceedings 
Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 104-13 

Kinninmonth, J.A., 1979. Some physical proper- 
ties of coconut wood. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 
1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 141-49 

Klauditz, W., 1969. Investigation of coconut palm 
logs: Potential suitability for the manufacture of par- 
ticle boards. Braunschweig, West Germany, Institut 
fur Holzforschung 

Kloot, N.H., 1952. Mechanical and physical pro- 
perties of coconut palm. Australian Journal of Ap- 
plied Science 3 (4): 293-323 

Kloot, N.H. , and Bolza, E., 1977. Properties of 
timbers imported into Australia. CSIRO, Australia 

Lauricio, P.M., and Floresca, A.R., 1977. 
Preliminary test on the spike-holding capacity of 
coconut palm timber for use as rail-road sleepers. 
Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 461-64 

Lauricio, F.M., and Tamolang, F.N., 1977. The 
strength and related properties of coconut trunk 
(Cocos nucifera. LJ. Coconut Stem Utilization 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 425-26 

Laxamana, N.B., 1977. Coconut trunk and shell 
for activated carbon. Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 447-54 

Laxamana, N.B., and Bawagan. P.V., 1973. Char- 
coal production at FORPRIDECOM. Forpride 
Digest 2 (3/4): 11-14 

Laxamana, M.G., and Tamayo, G.Y., 1978. Dry- 
ing characteristics of coconut lumber. Technology 
Journal NSDB 3 (3): 48-55 

Leather, R.I., 1972. Coconut research in Fiji. Fiji 
Agricultural Journal 3/4 (1): 3-9 

Levy, C.R., 1975. The field evaluation of perusion 
(HPSD) process for treatment of round timber in 
Papua New Guinea. Proceedings IUFRO Division S. 
Meeting at Abidjan 


Levy, C.R., 1976. A note on insect pests of coconut 
wood. Unpublished 

Leyland Watson and Noble/Chandler Fraser & 
Larsen, 1982. Feasibility study on electric power 
generation from wood and coconut wastes. Prepared 
for the Government of Western Samoa 

Little, E.C.S., 1974. Coconut logs for fence post 
trial (end of first year report) 1973-74. Department of 
Agriculture, Tonga. Unpublished 

Little, E.C.S., 1975. Report to the Government of 
the Philippines on coconut wood utilization. Un- 

Little, E.C.S., 1978. The MINICUSAB kiln for 
rapid small-scale manufacture of charcoal from 
scrub, coconut wood and coconut shells. Ap- 
propriate Technology 5 (1): 12-14 

Lockyer, Ross, 1983. Coconut Timber Utilization 
Manual. Prepared for the Republic of Kiribati. New 
Zealand Bilateral Aid Programme 

Lopez, Rosemary Luna, 1983. Coconut Palace. 
Mabuhay, Philippine Airlines, February: 43-45 

Lorenzana, L.M.C., 1981. Preservation of planta- 
tion grown species for poles and banana props. 
Seminar sponsored by Pacwood Inc and Hickson's 
Timber Preservation Pte Ltd, Philippines 

McConchie, D.L., 1975. Physical properties of 
Cocos nucifera.Wood Quality Report 2. Rotorua, 
New Zealand Forest Research Institute 

Mackie, K., Burton, R. and Whitworth, D., 1980. 
Coconut stem wood as a substrate for wood 
hydrolysis: Initial data. Forest Service Forest 
Research Institute. Unpublished 

McLaughlan, J.M., 1974. Glue line shear tests on 
coconut palm timbers. File Note 51/5/2. New 
Zealand Forest Research Institute. Unpublished 

McLean, Murdoch, Managing Director, Hickson's 
limber Impregnation Co NZ Ltd, March 1983. 
Seasoning and treatment of coconut posts and piles. 
Cited by A, McQuire in A Note on the treatment of 
coconut wood with CCA preservative. New Zealand 
Forest Service Reprint 1370 

McPaul, J.W., 1964. Coconut growing in Fiji. 
Bulletin 38. Department of Agriculture, Fiji 

McQuire, A.J., 1972. Treatability of some Western 
Samoan timber. Forest Products Division Report 
425. New Zealand Forest Research Institute. Un- 

McQuire, A.J., 1975. Report on a visit to study 
coconut wood utilization in the Philippines. Travel 
Report 9. New Zealand Forest Research Institute. 

McQuire, A.J., 1977. The durability and preser- 
vative treatment of coconut palm wood. Coconut 
Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 


McQuire, A.J., 1978. Treatment and performance 
of coconut wood. Rotorua, New Zealand Forest 
Research Institute. Unpublished 

McQuire, A.J., 1979. Anatomical and mor- 
phological features of the coconut palm stem in rela- 
tion to its utilization as an alternative wood source. 
Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zam- 
boanga: 24-28 

McQuire, A.J., 1979. Exposure tests of treated and 
untreated coconut stem wood in the South Pacific. 
Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zam- 
boanga: 125-29 

McQuire, A.J., 1979. Treatment and use of 
coconut stem wood. PEACESAT, 1979, Forest Pro- 
ducts Division, New Zealand Forest Research In- 
stitute. Unpublished. 

McQuire, A.J., 1982. Preservation requirements. 
Development of coconut timber use. CHOGRM 
Working Group on Industry Seminar, Honiara, 
Solomon Islands 

McQuire, A.J., 1982. An overview of coconut 
timber technology. Development of coconut timber 
use. CHOGRM Working Group on Industry 
Seminar, Honiara, Solomon Islands 

McQuire, A.J., and Carter, L.C., 1976. Pressure 
treatment of coconut wood fence posts with cop- 
per-chrome-arsenate preservatives. Wood Preserva- 
tion Report FP/WP 12. New Zealand Forest 
Research Institute. Unpublished 

McQuire, A.J., and Madrazo, R., 1983. Develop- 
ment in coconut tree utilization. 15th Pacific Con- 
ference, New Zealand 

McQuire, A.J., and Palomar, R., 1982. The treat- 
ment of coconut roof tiles or shingles with cop- 
per-chrome-arsenate preservatives. New Zealand 
Timber Preservation Authority 

Madrazo, R., and Juson, R., 1983. Sawmilling 
tests on the mobile dimensional saw under field con- 
ditions. PCA-Zamboanga Research Center Research 
Paper RP-02-83 

Madrazo, R., and Sulc, V., 1983. Coconut wood 
utilization research at Zamboanga Research Center 

(The) Malaysian Timber Industry Board, 1968. The 
Malayan grading rules for sawn hardwood timber, 
1968 edition. Kuala Lumpur, Forest Department 

Malca, S., 1979. Coconut panel board and process 
of making. Philippines Patent Office Library 


Manalo, F.D., 1983. Prospects of cocowood 
utilization in Western Mindanao. Cocowood Train- 
ing at Zamboanga Research Center. Philippine 
Coconut Authority 

Manas, A.E., 1974. Tannin extraction of Philip- 
pine tannin bearing material: IV. CoconutfCocos 
nucifera L.) coir dust. Philippine Lumberman 20 (3): 

Manas, A.E., and Tamolang, P.M., 1977. Tannin 
content of coconut tree bark, coconut trunk and 
coconut trunk core. Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 503 

Mangahas, A.G., Lauricio, P.M., 1977. Coconut 
lumber pallets. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar 
Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 465-66 

Martin, J., 1976. New insight in coconut log preser- 
vation. Marist Training Center, Tutu, Taveuni, Fiji 

Martin, J.F., 1978. New insights in the preserva- 
tion of coconut timber: The Tutu insertion process. 
Australian Forest Research 8 (3/4):227-37 

Meadows, D.J., 1977. The coconut industry - pro- 
blems and prospects. Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 53-64 

Meadows, D.J., 1979. The current state of coconut 
stem utilization from palm felling to the 
end-products. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga: 15-20 

Meadows, D.J., Sule, V,. Palomar, R. and 
Jensen, P., 1980. L'Utilization du bois de cocotier. 
Oleagineux 35 (7): 365-69 

Medrano, R.N., 1976. Design, fabrication and 
operation of drum kilns for charcoaling coconut 
shells. NSDB Technology Journal 1 (2): 26-35 

Medrano, R.N., Lauricio, P.M., 1977. Specific 
gravity and shrinkage of coconut palm timber (Cocos 
nucifera'LJin the Philippines. Coconut Stem Utilisa- 
tion Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 325-26 

Mendoza, A.M.R., 1977. Harvesting coconut 
stems. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Pro- 
ceedings, Tonga, 1976: 103-110 

Mendoza, A.M.R., 1979. The coconut replanting 
program and the need for coconut wood utilization. 
Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zam- 
boanga: 9-15 

Meniado, J.A., and Lopel, F.R., 1977. Stem 
anatomy of Cocos nucifera L. Coconut Stem Utiliza- 
tion Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976:323-24 

Meylan, B.A., 1978. Density variation in Cocos 
nucifera.New Zealand Journal of Forest Science 8: 

Middleton, P., 1982. Capital requirements. 
Development of coconut timber use. CHOGRM 

Working Group on Industry Seminar, Honiara, 
Solomon Islands 

Middleton, P., 1982. The need for feasibility 
studies. Development of coconut timber use. 
CHOGRM Working Group on Industry Seminar, 
Honiara, Solomon Islands 

Middleton, P., 1982. Value of the resource. 
Development of coconut timber use. CHOGRM 
Working Group on Industry Seminar, Honiara, 
Solomon Islands 

Miller, W.C., 1972. Distribution of parquet floor- 
ing during 1969. USDA Forest Service Research 
Paper NEZ 18 

Mosteiro, A. P., 1971. Preliminary study on the 
treatment of coconutfCocos NuciferaL.) trunks and 
other palm species for electric power transmission 
poles. Wood Preservation Report 6 (6): 11-14. Col- 
lege, Laguna, FORPRIDECOM. 

Mosteiro , A.P., 1979. Machining properties of 
coconut wood. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979 
Seminar, Manila-Zamboanga: 173-75 

Mosteiro, A. P., 1981. Preservation of coconut 
palm wood for villagers in the tropics. NSDB 
Technology Journal 8 (2): 40-47 

Mosteiro, A.P., 1981. Utilization of coconut 
lumber for furniture manufacture. Philippine Coun- 
cil for Agriculture and Resources Research 

Mosteiro, A.P., and Casin, R.F., 1973. Split 
coconut trunks treated by the hot and cold bath 
methods for use as electric transmission poles. Pro- 
gress Report. FORPRIDECOM Library. Unpublish- 

Mosteiro, A. P., and Casin, R.F., 1975. Coconut 
timber preservation and utilization in the Philip- 
pines. FORPRIDE Digest: 40-52 

Mosteiro, A. P., and Casin, R.F., 1976. The 
preservative treatment of coconut (Cocos nuciferaLJ 
palm timber for electric power and telecom- 
munication poles. NSDB Technology Journal 1 (1): 

Mosteiro, A.P., and Casin, R.F., 1979. Coconut 
timber preservation and utilization in the Philip- 
pines. FORPRIDE Digest 5: 40-52 

Mosteiro, A.P., and Siriban, R.F., 1979. Coconut 
wood preservation in the Philippines. Proceedings 
Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 123-25 

Nazma, P. Ganapathy, Sasidharan, N., Bhat, K., 
and Gnanahran, P., 1981. A handbook of Kerala 
timbers. Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) 
Research Report 9: 59-63 


New Zealand. Department of Trade and Industry 
[1980] Cocowood utilization in the Philippines. 
Reference T3/M1 51/2/12. Unpublished 

New Zealand Forest Industry Review, 1976. 
Research into coconut wood. Forest Industry Review 

New Zealand Forest Research Institute, 1974. Can 
coconut produce wood as well as nuts? Bulletin in the 
Scries on What is new in forest research 15 

Ontalan, L.D., 1983. Prospects of cocowood 
utilization in Northeastern Mindanao. Cocowood 
Training at Zamboanga Research Center. Philippine 
Coconut Authority 

Orman, H.R., 1974. The strength properties of 
coconut palm timber. Timber Engineering Report. 
New Zealand Forest Research Institute. Unpublished 

Pablo, A. A., and Tamolang, F.N., 1977. Panel 
products from coconut palm. Coconut Stem Utilisa- 
tion Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 479-83 

Paddon, A.R., 1978. Report of a visit to Fiji, 13 
June to 9 July 1978. London, Tropical Products In- 
stitute Report R763 

Paddon, A.R., and Marker, A. P., 1980. Charcoal 
production using a transportable metal kiln. Rural 
Technology Guide 12. London, Tropical Products In- 

Palm Pacific Hardwood, P.O. Box 2951, 
Auckland, January 1982. Brochure on Decorative 
timber flooring 

Palm Pacific Hardwood, Undated. The world's 
newest building products step right out of history ... 

Palm Pacific Hardwood, Undated. Specifications 
and fixing instructions for panelling brochure 

Palmer, E.R., 1972. The production of activated 
carbon from coconut palm timber. New Zealand 
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 
Report CD2150 

Palmer, E.R., and Gibbs, J.A., 1979. Pulping 
trials on the wood from the trunk coconutfCocos 
nucifera). London, Tropical Products Institute 
Report L52 

Palomar, R.N., 1979. Pressure impregnation of 
coconut sawn lumber for building construction 
material. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga: 129-36 

Palomar, R.N., 1979. Technical information: 
Charcoal making. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 
1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 176-77 

Palomar, R.N., 1979. Technical information on 
preservation. Proceedings Coconut Wood-1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga: 120-23 

Palomar, R.N. [1980] Charcoal making. 
PCA-Zamboanga Research Center. Unpublished 

Palomar, R.N., 1980. Coconut wood preservation 
for the rural areas. PCA-Zamboanga Research 

Palomar, R.N., [1980] Preservation techniques of 
coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Palm timber for electric 
power/telecommunications poles and fence posts. 
PCA-Zamboanga Research Center. Unpublished 

Palomar, R.N., 1980. Training on wood preserva- 
tion. PCA-Zamboanga Research Center 

Palomar, R.N., 1982. The role of coconut timber 
utilization in national development. PCA Workshop, 
Tagaytay City, Philippines: 106-110 

Palomar, R.N., and Sulc, V.K., 1981. Preservative 
treatment and performance of coconut palm timber. 
Seminar Pacwood and Hickson's Timber Preserva- 
tion Ltd, Philippines 

Palomar, R.N., and Sulc, V.K., 1983. Exposure 
test of surface treated sawn coconut timber. 
PCA-Zamboanga Research Center ZRC-RP-04-83 

Pande, J.N., 1957. A note on the preservative 
treatment of palmyra (Borassus flabellifera) and 
coconut (Cocos nuciferajpalms. Journal of Timber 
Dryers and Preservers Association of India 11 (3): 2-9 

Papua New Guinea. Copra Marketing Board, 
January 1972. Coconuts and copra. Konedobu, 
Department of Information and Extension Services 

Parthasarathy, M.V., and Klotz, L.H., 1976. Palm 
wood anatomical aspects. Wood Science and 
Technology 10 (3): 215-29 

Parthasarhty, M.V., and Tomlinson, P.B.T., 1967. 
Anatomical features of metaploem in stems of Sabul, 
Cocos and two other palms. American Journal of 
Botany 54(1): 1144-55 

Patel, J.S., 1938. The coconut: A monograph. 
Madras, Government Press 

Peat, N., 1982. Coconut winning as a new timber 
source. New Zealand Forest Industries 

Penid, B.J.,ef a/,1975. Report on the manual saw- 
ing of coconut trunk. College, Philippines, FOR- 

Philippine Coconut Authority, 1976. The Philip- 
pine Coconut Industry. Market Promotions Division 

Philippine Coconut Authority, 1977. Preparation 
and treatment of coconut stem for fencing. Coconut 
Wood Utilization Division, Zamboanga Research 
Center Report 


Philippine Coconut Authority, 1979. Research into 
the utilization of coconut wood 

Philippine Coconut Authority, 1980. The uses of 
coco timber. Philippine Council for Agriculture and 
Resources Research and Development Technology 2 
(7): 1-16 

Philippine Coconut Authority, 1981. Philippine 
Coconut Authority 1981 Annual Report. Quezon City 

Philippine Coconut Authority, Undated. Spec- 
trum of coconut products. Quezon City, Public In- 
formation Office 

Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources 
Research and Development (PCARRD), 1982. Char- 
coal as supplementary fuel for cement production. 
Technology 4 (5): 1-12 

Pieries, W.V.D., 1936. An essay on the uses of the 
coconut palm. Ceylon, Coconut Research Scheme 

Pieries, W.V.D., 1938.Rhinoceros beetle breeding 
in split coconut logs. Tropical Agriculture 90:297 

Piggot, C.J., 1964. Coconut growing. Oxford 
University Press 

Pomier, M., 1967. Coconut research at Rangiroa. 
South Pacific Commission Technical Paper 153 

Powell, R. 1957. Practical uses of coconut timbers. 
South Pacific Commission Quarterly Bulletin 

Rich, Stuart U., 1970. The marketing of timber and 
wood products. McGraw Hill 

Richardson, Dennis, 1981. Coconut charcoal could 
fuel ships. Pacific Islands Monthly May:14 

Richolson, J.M., 1979. The unique properties of 
coconut palm wood. South Pacific Bulletin fourth 

Richolson, J.M., 1980. A review of utilisation 
possibilities for over-mature coconut palm stems in 
Fiji. Suva, Department of Forestry 

Richolson, J., 1982. Charcoal from coconut 
timber. Development of coconut timber use. 
CHOGRM Working Group on Industry Seminar, 
Honiara, Solomon Islands 

Richolson, J.M., and Alston, A.S., 1977. Coconut 
palm wood charcoal, a potential source of heat 
energy for rural and semi-rural areas of Fiji. Part I. 
Production with simple steel drum kiln. Part II. 
Cooking with cast concrete charcoal stove. 
UNESCAP Regional Workshop on Biogas and other 
rural energy resources, University of the South 
Pacific, Fiji, 20 June to 8 July 

Richolson, J.M., and Swarup, R., 1977. A brief 
review of the anatomy and morphology of the 
over-mature stem of the coconut palmfCocos 
nucifera L.) (Part 1). Proceedings Coconut Stem 
Utilisation Seminar, Tonga, 1976: 65-102 

Powter, A., 1976. Papua New Guinea shake and 
shingle manual. Port Moresby, Department of 
Primary Industry, Office of Forests, Forest Products 
Research Centre 

Purey-Cust. J.R., 1983. Regional coconut wood 
utilization training programme managerial course. 
Report of the Tongan representative 

Purseglove, J.W., 1968. Tropical crops, 
monocotyledons. London, Longman Group. 
(Volumes 1 and 2 combined 1975) 

Ramos, A.N. and Miciano, R.J., 1966. The 
mechanical properties of coconut palm 
(Cocos nucifera L.) 

Ramos, A.N., and Sasondoncillo, R.W., 1971. 
Mechanical properties of coconut palm (Cocos 
nucifera L.^from Los Banos, Laguna. Co-operative 
Progress Report. College, Philippines, FOR- 

Reyes, E.P., et al, 1958. Coconut charcoal briquet- 
tes. Philippines Journal of Science 87 (1): 33-36 

Reyes, G.P., Jr., 1982. The Asian and Pacific 
Coconut Community. Development of coconut 
timber use. CHOGRM Working group on Industry 
Seminar, Honiara, Solomon Islands 

Salita, A. A., 1973. An exploratory rotary veneer 
cutting of coconut trunks. A special project. College, 
Philippines, FORPR1DECOM 

Salita, A.A., and Tamolang, F.N., 1977. Utiliza- 
tion of coconut timber residues for parquet flooring. 
Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 467-69 

Sampson, H.C., 1923. The coconut palm. London, 
John Balesons, Daniela Sons Ltd 

San Luis, J.M., and Banzuela, A.Y., 1976. A 
preliminary study on the production of coconut shell 
charcoal briquettes. FORPRIDECOM Library Pro- 
ject ID-76/ITD-CP-D-1 

San Luis, Josefina, M., and Estudillo, Calvin P., 
1976. Charcoal briquetting - An outlet for wood and 
coconut trunk wastes. Forpride Digest V: 73-74 

Santiago, C.A., 1983. Cultivation of Tainga ng 
Daga"04wr/cw/ar/0spp.) on coconut trunks. NSTA 
Technology Journal 8 (2)-' 24-27 

Sasondoncilio, R.S., 1975. Mechanical properties 
of coconut palm (Cocos nuciferaL.) from Los Banos, 
Laguna. Forpridecom Library. Unpublished 

Segaar, C.F., Undated. The tropical timber and 
timber products market in the Netherlands. Rotter- 


dam, The Centre for the Promotion of Imports from 
Developing Countries (CBI) 

Semana, J.A., and Ballon, C.H., 1977. Hardboard 
from coconut trunk. Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 473-77 

Seneviratne, Gamani, 1981. Cracking the coconut 
market. United Nations Development Forum 
Business Edition, 16 February 

Sibayan, D.V., and Decena, A.S., 1976. Study of 
the sawmilling characteristics and recovery of 
coconut (Cocos nucifera L .) trunk. Philippine 
Lumberman 22 (4): 15-17 

Siriban, F.R., and Tamolang, F.N., 1977. 
Preliminary treatment of green coconut (Cocos 
nuciferaL.) lumber by non-pressure methods. 
Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 403-408 

Siriban, F.R., and Mata, P.O., 1977. Stake tests of 
treated and untreated coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) 
Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 421-26 

Smart, D.W., 1974. Coconut palm timber for par- 
ticle board. Fletcher Timber Co Ltd, New Zealand. 

South Pacific Commission, 1957. Practical uses for 
coconut timber. Noumea, Quarterly Bulletin, April. 

South Pacific Commission, 1982. Presentation of 
the 190 kW gas-generators feeding the public net- 
work of the commune of Bora-Bora - Operation 
results, produced by S.A. Electricite de Tahiti, rev. 
ed. Noumea 

Stacey, D.L., 1970. Report on particle board 
manufacture as it affects Western Samoa. Bangkok, 
FAO Report 

Sudborough, J.J.,ef a/, 1920. Wood distillation. 
Parts 3 and 4. Journal of Indian Institute of Science 3 
(9): 285-89,293 

Sudo, S., 1977. Anatomical properties in relation 
to variations in density in coconut wood. Anatomy 
and identification. Tokyo, Wood Technology Divi- 
sion, Government Forestry Experimental Station. 

Sudo, S., 1979. Variations in some important 
anatomical properties and density in the stems of 
coconut (Cocos nucifera) in relation to suitability for 
pulp making. Ibaraki, Forestry and Forest Products 
Research Institute. Unpublished 

Sudo, S., 1980. Variations and density in the stem 
of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Forestry and 
Forest Products Research Institute Bulletin 312: 81-101 

Sulc, V.K., 1977. Coconut stem utilization at the 
Philippine Coconut Authority Research Center. 
Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976: 327-45 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Briefing paper: Design of dif- 
ferent structures in PCA Timber Utilization Divi- 
sion. Paper presented to Meeting Coconut Wood - 
1979, Manila-Zamboanga. Unpublished 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Briefing paper: Grading coconut 
wood. Paper presented to Meeting Coconut Wood - 
1979, Manila-Zamboanga. Unpublished 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Briefing paper: Design and 
mechanical properties of coconut wood as used in 
PCA. Paper presented to Meeting Coconut Wood - 
1979, Manila-Zamboanga. Unpublished 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Glossary of defects. Proceedings 
Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 98-100 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Grading coconut wood. Pro- 
ceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Coconut wood lamination. Pro- 
ceedings Coconut Wood 1979, Manila-Zamboanga: 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Technical information: Possibili- 
ty to use low density coconut wood for thermal in- 
sulation. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga: 167 

Sulc, V.K., 1979. Design and mechanical property 
of coconut wood as used in PCA Zamboanga 
Research Center, Timber Utilization Division. Pro- 
ceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, Manila-Zamboang 

Sulc, V.K., 1980. A report on the 1980 inspection of 
CCA-treated coconut electric poles and pole stubs. 
PCA-Zamboanga Research Center, Philippines. Un- 

Sulc, V.K., 1982. Tonga report on coconut wood 
utilization. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organiz - 
ation of the United Nations 

Standards Association of Australia [1975]. 
Australian Standards 1975: Use of timbers in struc- 

Standards Association of New Zealand, 1979. 
Limited relaxation of ban on wood shingles. News 
Release: 10 December 

Tamolang, F.N., 1976. Studies on the potential 
uses of coconut trunk in the Philippines Chemical 
Society of the Philippines/National Science Develop- 
ment Board Seminar 

Tamolang, F.N., 1976. The utilization of coconut 
trunk and other parts in the Philippines. NSDB 
Technology Journal 1 (2): 36-48 

Tamolang, F.N., 1976. Studies on the utilization of 
coconut trunk and other parts in the Philippines. 
Proceedings of Seminar Workshop on Coconut In- 


dustrial Research: 144-58. Tagaytay City, Philippine 
Coconut Authority 

Tamolang, F.N., 1979. Utilization of coconut 
trunk: An economic conservation approach and a 
business opportunity. Paper read in the Second 
World Recycling Congress, 20-22 March 1978 in 

Tamolang, F.N., et a/,1958. Fiber dimensions of 
certain Philippine broadleaved and coniferous 
woods, palms and bamboos II. TAPPI 41 (10: 

Tamolang, F.N., and Valbuena, R.R., 1960. Fiber 
dimensions of certain Philippine woods, bamboos, 
agriculture crops, wastes and grasses III. TAPPI 43 
(6): 527-34 

Tansinsin, L.G., 1981. Availability and process of 
indigenous materials. NSDB Technology Journal 6 
(1): 39-47 

Technology Resource Centre, 1983. Technical in- 
formation on cocowood (or coco-lumber). Manila. 

Thampan, P.K., 1982. Handbook on coconut 
palm. 2nd ed. New Delhi, Mohan Primlani, Oxford 
& IBH Publishing Co 

Timber Promotion Council, Australia, 1980. Speci- 
fying and ordering structural timber. Blackburn, 
Technical Advisory Brochure 1 

University Press 

P.B., 1961. Anatomy of 
II. Palmae. London, Oxford 

Tomlinson, P.B., and -Zimmermann, M.H., 1967. 
The wood of monocotyledons. Zurich, Bulletin of 
the International Association of Wood Anatomists 2: 


[Tongan] Coconut Review Committee, February 
1982. A review of the coconut replanting scheme and 
aspects of the coconut industry related to coconut 
production, Kingdom of Tonga. Ministry of 
Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests Planning Unit 
Technical Publication 1/82 

Tropical Products Institute, 1969. Postulated cost 
structure for particle board plant in Western Samoa 
using coconut palm timber. London 

Tropical Products Institute, 1978. Interim report 
on the utilization of coconut palm timber (Cocos 
nucifera LJas an aggregate with cement. London. 

Tropical Products Institute, 1979. Laboratory pro- 
duction of charcoal and charcoal briquettes from Fi- 
jian coconut palm timber. London. Unpublished 

Turner, John, Undated. Philippines mini mill 
operation at San R^mon, August-September 1982. 
Report to [New Zealand] Ministry of Foreign Affairs 

Aid Assignment. 

Turner, J.C.P., 1983. Report to the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs on two years Bilateral Aid Assign- 
ment, Philippines 

Uprichard, J.M., 1977. Kraft pulps from coconut 
stem wood f Cocos nucifera LJ the blending of 
coconut stem wood pulps with those from Pinus 
species. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Pro- 
ceedings, Tonga, 1976: 249-97 

Vaney, J.C., 1982. Report to the Secretary, 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Wellington, on assess- 
ment of the New Zealand Bilateral Aid coconut 
sawmill project in Kiribati, 13-14 September 1982. Un- 

Vergara, J., 1983. Prospects of cocowood utiliza- 
tion in Southern Tagalog Region. Cocowood Train- 
ing at Zamboanga Research Center. Philippine 
Coconut Authority 

Villegas, B.M., and Buencamino, J.A., 1982. The 
threshold family income of a coconut farmer (or why 
it is urgent that we think short-term for the coconut 
farmer. In the long run he may be dead), Part 1. 
Economics and Society Series B. Manila, Center for 
Research and Communication 

Walford, G.B., 1974. The strength of coconut 
palm poles. Forest Products Division Report 488. 
Forest Research Institute of New Zealand. Un- 

Walford, G.B., 1979. Coconut wood in structures. 
Overseas Travel Report. Forest Products Division, 
New Zealand Forest Service. Unpublished 

Walford, G.B., 1979. Structural use of coconut 
timber. Proceedings Coconut Wood - 1979, 
Manila-Zamboanga: 150-56 

Walford, G.B., and Goodwin K.J., 1976. Struc- 
tural properties of green coconut timber from Fiji. 
Forest Products Laboratory Report FP/TE76. 
Forest Research Institute of New Zealand 

Walford, G.B., and Orman, H.R., 1977. The 
mechanical properties of coconut timber and its 
design capabilities in construction. Coconut Stem 
Utilisation Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 174-98 

Watanabe, H., 1978. Report of an analytical 
survey of coconut forest in Taveuni Island of Fiji 
(Addendum). Japan Forest Technical Association 

Western Samoa. Western Samoa Trust Estate Cor- 
poration, 1976. WSTEC crop debris utilization 


Yudodibroto, H., 1979. The potential use of im- Zerrudo, J.V., and Escolano, J.O., 1976. Coconut 

pregnated coconut wood for power line poles in rural for paper pulp. Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar 

areas of Java. International Research Group on Proceedings, Tonga, 1976: 493-502 

Wood Preservation Working Group III, Preser- Zimmermann, Martin H., and Tomlinson, P.B., 

vatives and Methods of Treatment. Document 1974 vascular patterns in palm stems: Variations of 

Number IRG/WP/3130 t h e Rhapis principle. Journal of the Arnold Ar- 
boretum 55 (3): 402-24 

Foto-Tipo-lito SAQRAF - Napoli 

4- 1 o 

/ ' ; 

"> TS