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Full text of "Coconut Wood Processing And Use Paper 57"

Coconut wood 

Processing and use 



The designations employed and the presentation 
of material in this publication do not imply the 
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the 
part of the Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations concerning the legal 
status of any country, territory, city or area or 
of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation 
of its frontiers or boundaries. 



M-32 
ISBN 92-5-1Q2253-4 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, 
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, 
electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior 
permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, 
with a statement of the purpose and extent of the reproduction, should 
be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, OO1OO 
Rome, Italy. 

FAO 1985 



COCONUT WOOD 

Processing and Use 



Index 



Chapter 1 THE TREE 



Properties, Utilization and Availability 

The Copra Industry 

Effect of Stem Anatomy and Structure on Utilization 

Sawing 

Seasoning 

Natural Durability and Wood Preservation 

Transmission Poles 

Pulp and Paper 

Wood Fuel 

Availability of Resource 

Resource Assessment by Estimation - South Pacific 

Resource Assessment by Survey - Tonga 

Resource Assessment by Inventory - Fiji 



Chapter 5 GRADING COCONUT TIMBER 31 

Quality Control, particularly relating to export 

System of Identification 

Grading 

Sample Specifications 

Grading Techniques 

Grading by Basic Density 

Appearance 

Chapter 6 SEASONING COCONUT TIMBER 35 

Air Drying 
Kiln Drying 
Seasoning of Poles 



Chapter 2 THE USES OF COCONUT WOOD 12 Chapter 7 PRESERVING COCONUT TIMBER 37 



Construction 

Furniture 

Utility Items and Curios 

Board Products 

Roundwood Products 

Fuel and Energy 

Chapter 3 LOGGING 



Oil- and Water-based Preservative Techniques 
Preparing Timber prior to Treatment 
Treatment Methods 



Chapter 8 ENERGY FROM RESIDUES 



41 



20 



Selection and Felling 
Cross-cutting 
Extraction 
Transport 
Disposal of Debris 

Chapter 4 PRIMARY CONVERSION 24 

Cutting Patterns 

Sawmill Systems for Coconut Timber 

Types of Mill used for Sawing Logs 

Sawing with a Chainsaw and Guide Attachments 

Sawblades for Coconut Stem Conversion 

Waste Disposal 



Coconut Stems as Fuel 

Charcoal Making 

Charcoal Retorts 

Charcoal Briquetting 

Activated Carbon 

Producer Gas - Gasifier 

Ethanol from Coconut Waste Products 

Power Generation Systems 

Establishment and Operation of Power Systems 



Footnotes 



45 



Bibliography 



47 



COCONUT WOOD 

Processing and Use 



List of Illustrations 



Frontispiece: Three Densities of Coconut Wood 



CHAPTER 1 



CHAPTER 4 



1 A The Tree of Life 

IB Coconuts 

1C The Young Tongan 

ID The Young Tongan Drinks from the Coconut 

IE Copra Cutting, a Traditional Source of Income 

IF Coconut Logs, Dense on the Outside, Soft Inside 

1G Firewood from Coconut Logs 

Figure 1 . 1 Diagrammatic Section through a Coconut 

Stem 

CHAPTER 2 



4A The Tungsten Carbide Tipped Saw 

Figure 4.1 Cutting Pattern for Centre-held Log 

System 

Figure 4.2 Cutting Pattern for Conventional 

Sawmills 

Figure 4.3 Cutting Pattern for Beams 

Figure 4.4 Additional Pattern for Cutting Purloins 

Figure 4.5 Cutting Pattern Relative to Selection and 

Grading 



2A Coconut Wood House 
2B Frame of Building 
2C Cocowood in Water Contact 
2D Shingles 

2E Feature Wall of Cocowood 
2F Wall Cladding 
2G Block Flooring 
2H Strip Flooring 
21 Cocowood Folding Table 
2J Cocowood Chair 
2K Cocowood Desk 
2L Walking Stick 
2M Bow and Arrow 
2N Hammer Handles 
2O Eggcup 
2P Sliced Veneer 
2Q Laminated Cocowood 
2R Particle Board 
2S Power and Utility Poles 
2T A Slice of Cocowood from Bark to Bark 
roughly sanded 



CHAPTER 5 



5 A The Low-density Grade Collapses 
5B The Densest Grades are Strong Enough for Struc- 
tural Uses 

Figure 5.1 Chainsaw Grading Marks on Logs 
Figure 5.2 Colour Grading on Log Butt 



CHAPTER 6 



6A Correctly Stacked for Air Drying 



CHAPTER 7 



7A Debarking Poles 



CHAPTERS 



3A Tractors Used for Extraction can also Power 

Small sawmills 

3B Log extracted by Draught Animals 

Figure 3.1 Cutting by Draught Animal 

Figure 3.2 Bulldozing through Roots 

Figure 3.3 Skidding Log behind Tractor 



CHAPTER 8 



8A Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln 

Exterior 

8B Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln 

Interior 

8C Firewood 



COCONUT WOOD 

Processing and Use 



INTRODUCTION 



Coconut Wood - Processing and Use is an in- 
troduction to methods currently in use for the utiliza- 
tion of coconut stems for wood products and fuel. 

The stems of the coconut trees become available 
for use when the tree ceases to yield coconuts as a 
result of old age, disease or hurricane damage. 

Coconut Wood - Processing and Use has been pro- 
duced for the information of those interested in the 
development of processing industries. 

The information contained in this book represents 
the most recent findings of institutions and in- 
dividuals researching the fuller use of superfluous 
coconut stems. 

The economics and management of coconut wood 
industries, and the organized marketing of their pro- 
ducts, will need increasing attention as the industries 
expand. 

Sources of Information for 
Coconut Wood - Processing and Use were: 

Mr. V. K. Sulc, Mr. Rodrigo Juson and col- 
leagues, Zamboanga Research Centre, Philippines; 
Mr. R. N. Palomar and Mr. A. Mosteiro, Forpride, 
Philippines; Dr. A. McQuire and J. Klnninmonth, 



Forest Research Institute, New Zealand; Messrs. R. 
Ford, J. Turner, and J. Vaney, New Zealand Forest 
Service, Rotorua; Mr. N. Evans, Fe'ofa'aki Enter- 
prises, Tonga; Mr. R. Evans and Mr. A. Afeaki, 
Cocostem Development Co. Ltd., New Zealand and 
Tonga; and Mi; K. Bergseng, Timber Training Cen- 
tre, Rotorua. 

Other individuals were consulted and assessments 
were made of a number of coconut stem processing 
operations in selecting material to be included. 

Documents from which material has been drawn 
are cited in the bibliography. 

The editors and the Food and Agriculture 
Organization wish to acknowledge the assistance 
given by the specialists, primarily those named 
above, who co-operated in the compilation of the 
report and from whose publications valuable infor- 
mation was collected. 

The editors 

Anthony Haas 
Len Wilson 



Chapter 1 

The Coconut Tree 



The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. t is one of the most important crops of the tropics. 

It occurs in all tropical and most subtropical regions, most abundantly in Asia and the Pacific, 
thriving best on low-lying sites close to the sea with ground water and ample rainfall. 

Nuts are produced from when trees are aged five, with highest production achieved between 15 and 
50 years. Productivity declines steadily thereafter until at 60 to 70 years the tree is considered to be 
senile. 

It is then, or when hurricanes or disease strike, that the mature coconut trees are suited for conver- 
sion to coconut wood. 



Properties, Availability and Utilization 



The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera L. t is one of the 
most important crops of the tropics. It occurs in all 
tropical and most subtropical regions, most abun- 
dantly in Asia and the Pacific, thriving best on 
low-lying sites close to the sea with ground water and 
ample rainfall. Nuts are produced from when trees 
are aged five, with highest production achieved bet- 
ween 15 and 50 years. Productivity declines steadily 
thereafter until at 60 to 70 years the tree is considered 
to be senile. 

Few plants are as versatile as the coconut. The 
most important product is the flesh of the nut (the 
solid endosperm) which, dried as copra, is the source 
of coconut oil used in the manufacture of soaps and 
detergents, edible oils and fats, oilcake, plasticisers 
and other industrial products. Worldwide copra pro- 
duction amounted to over 4.9 million metric tons in 
1982, and in the same year trade in coconut oil was 
1.27 million metric tons with a value of about 
SUS657 million. 

Local uses of coconut palm products are many: 
coir, from the husk of the nut, is a fibre used in the 
manufacture of mats, ropes, brushes and baskets; the 
hard endocarp provides charcoal; coconut milk (the 
liquid endosperm) is used in cooking and as a 
beverage; sap, obtained by tapping the inflorescence 
of the palm, is a source of sugar, alcohol and 
vinegar; the leaves provide thatch and material for 
basket weaving; the stem is used for house construc- 
tion and increasingly for other purposes to be 
described in the succeeding chapters. 




1 A The Tree of Life 



mes were drawn up accordingly. It thus happened 
that, for the first time in the history of the copra in- 
dustry, plantation owners were faced with the pro- 
blem of cutting, extracting and disposing of over- 
mature trees. 

Not only did this involve a reversal of the tradi- 
tional conservationist attitude to coconuts, but it also 
required the development of economic means of 
disposal or utilization. Stems could not be left to rot 
as the decaying wood provides a breeding ground for 



The Copra Industry 

The origins of the industry may be traced back to 
1841 when a patent was issued for the manufacture 
of soap from coconut oil. During the subsequent 
decades copra was harvested, mainly from trees 
growing wild, by traders supplying the large 
soap-making firms. Later, in the early 1900s, de- 
mand for coconut oil for butter substitutes 
stimulated the establishment of plantations. 

In view of the favourable investment climate at the 
time, much of the planting was on large estates, 
especially in the Philippines, but in addition many 
small farmers planted the coconut as a cash crop 
which remains to this day an important part of the 
economies of some island countries. 

After 1918 other crops, particularly rubber, ap- 
peared to offer better opportunities for investment 
and large-scale coconut planting diminished, then 
virtually ceased with the economic depression of the 
1930s. 

The vast stock of trees created during the planting 
boom continued to produce in abundance, but wild 
fluctuations in the price of copra, as well as the grow- 
ing acceptability or alternative vegetable oils, led to a 
decline in the industry with a consequent strain on 
those economies dependent upon it.' 

The main stock of productive trees was therefore 
ageing until, at 60 to 70 years old, productivity began 
to fall steeply. In countries where trade and sub- 
sistence farming remained dependent on the coconut 
the need for replanting became evident and program- 



1 B Coconuts 




the rhinoceros beetle (Orystes rhinoceros), a pest 
which attacks the core of the stem, the crown and 
young nuts; while burning or tipping into the sea 
would have proved expensive and wasteful. 7 For 
countries with a sustained internal market for timber 
- especially those relying on imports - the conversion 
and use of coconut stems offered an attractive 
economic prospect and industries were developed ac- 
cordingly. 

The development of viable coconut wood in- 
dustries required in the first place two lines of in- 
vestigation: the structure and composition of the raw 
material, with techniques of conversion appropriate 
to these; and the location and availability of over- 
mature, diseased and dead stems. 




1C The Young Tongan 



Effect of Stem Anatomy and Structure on Utilization 

The properties and peculiarities of the coconut 
stem were summarised at the Zamboanga (Philip- 
pines) Coconut Wood Seminar in 1979. The follow- 
ing notes are derived from the proceedings of that 
Seminar 3 : 

Because coconut palms have no vascular cambium 
(lateral growing tissue) they do not increase in 
diameter with age. It is uncommon to find a stem 
over about 30 cm in diameter. Minor variations in 
diameter from one stem to another, or between 
different locations, are a reflection of the growing 
conditions for the individual stem during the early 
stages of its life. Taper is very slight (about 5 mm) 



order of 20m thus giving maximum wood volume 
per stem of about 1 m 3 . 

To obtain optimum growth and nut production the 
crowns and roots must have ample space. This limits 
the stem density in a plantation to about 100 per hec- 
tare. Thus the wood volume in a mature or over- 
mature plantation is about 100 mVha. Stems are 
often curved.This limits the length of sawlog that can 
be prepared. Although in some favourable locations 
(e.g. Zamboanga) longer logs are possible, in general 
a log of length of about four metres is the maximum 
practicable. The largest sawlog will therefore not ex- 
ceed about 300 kg in weight which is low compared 
with sawlogs from mature trees of most forest 
species. 

Most hardwoods and softwoods exhibit density 
gradients from the centre of the stem towards the 




f\f toll t/nviA 



n t*A f\f tt*lo 



ID The Young Tongan Drinks from the Coconut 



outside and from the bottom of the trunk towards 
the top. This is because the later-formed wood in any 
cross-section is usually slower growing and is com- 
posed of cells with thicker walls. With coconut stems 
the gradients are much more pronounced, but for 
different reasons. Palm stem wood consists of a 
number of scattered vascular bundles (each having 
vessels for water conduction, phloem for elaborated 
food conduction, and fibres for mechanical support) 
set in a matrix of more or less spherical parenchyma 
cells. The vascular bundles are much more abundant 

tnu/arHc thp mifciHp nf thp ctm A tvniral ct#m at 




IE Copra Cutting, a Traditional Source of Income 

metre height would have about ten bundles/cm 2 in 
the central portion and about 50 bundles/cm 2 near 
the outside." 

In a young stem the cell walls are relatively thin 
and the basic density of wood in these two zones 
could be about 90 and 300 kg/m J respectively. These 
wood cells are not dead as in normal forest trees, 
however, and the walls continue to increase in 
thickness so that by the time the palm is mature the 
density in these same two regions can be as high as 
250 and 900kg/mV 

All tissues in the basal regions of old palms (in- 
cluding the ground parenchyma cells) have thicker 
walls. Higher up the trunk the bundles are more 
abundant and up to 175 bundles/cm' have been 
found near the outside of an overmature stem at a 
height of 19.5 metres. The cells in these zones never 
develop thick walls, however, and the basic density in 
this zone was only 250kg/mV J In the central region 
of this stem (at J9.5 metres) the bundle frequency 
was 68/cm'. The basic density varies from stem to 
stem but in general the distribution of density is of 
the order shown in Figure 1.1. 

Strength and density are very closely related " so 
the density distribution governs the sawing pattern 
that must be chosen if high-strength timber is to be 
produced. Because logs are small in diameter, and 
the high-density zone is fairly narrow, it follows that 
only a few relatively small-dimension pieces of top 
strength can be produced from a stem. 

In Zamboanga the diameter average at breast 
height is approximately 32.5 cm - the maximum 
recorded is 43.6 cm. 



Up to the six metre mark the high-density zone 
(outer one-third radius) accounts for about 20 per 
cent of the total stem volume but by the time 
allowances are made for saw kerf and other wastage, 
the net recoverable very high density wood falls to 
below ten per cent of the total. The maximum size of 
member that can be cut from this high density zone is 
100 x 50mm. Although the quantity of this material 
per stem is low, the quality is uniformly high. As the 
palm has no branches there are no branch remains 
(knots) in the wood. Consequently no piece is 
weakened by the presence of natural defects. 



Sawing 

The actual operation of sawing coconut is difficult 
and standard steel saws will become blunted and 
unusable after relatively few cuts. Two factors pro- 
bably contribute to this: firstly, the thick-walled 
fibres are extremely hard; and, secondly, the paren- 
chyma tissues disintegrate into a fine abrasive 
powder which is not easily removed from the cut and 
which causes frictional heat increase. As the wood 
dries and the cell wall material becomes harder, these 
problems are intensified. The silical content of 
coconut wood is low so this is not a contributing fac- 
tor as in some difficult-to-saw-hardwoods. The use 
of tungsten carbide tips (or Stellite-tipped or inlaid- 
teeth) has overcome basic sawing problems but has 
increased problems of saw maintenance. More costly 
equipment and greater operator skill are required. 



Figure 1 . 1 Diagrammatic Section through a Coconut 
Stem 



WOOD DENSITY 
DISTRIBUTION (DENSITY IN kg/m 3 ) 



m 
s 



88 
'* ft 



8 

ft 



ft 



\ 



,20 m HEIGHT 



12m 



6m 



/-JBASE 



OUTER THIRD OF RADIUS 



Seasoning 

Conventional timbers have a distinct grain pattern 
caused by periodic radial growth. Even in species 
which do not show distinct growth rings the wood 
has different properties in the radial and the tangen- 
tial directions. One of the most important of these 
properties is shrinkage when the wood dries from 
fibre saturation (about 30 per cent moisture content) 
to equilibrium moisture content. Shrinkage in the 
tangential direction is approximately double that in 
the radial direction so unless the wobd is truly flat or 
quarter-sawn some distortion of shape is inevitable 
on drying. 

With coconut wood there is no such grain differen- 
tiation so material will dry uniformly and without 
cross-sectional distortion. Lateral shrinkage in any 
direction is less than three per cent when drying from 
green to 12 per cent moisture content. " 

With low density coconut wood, shrinkage is ac- 
centuated by collapse, which is not recoverable by 
subsequent reconditioning with high temperature 
steam. There is a sharp increase in this tendency to 
collapse as the basic density of material decreases 
below about 350 kg/m'. Collapse is severe. Uses for 
this type of material are very limited. The volume of 
such unusable wood is approximately 15 per cent of 
the stem total. 




IF Coconut Logs, Dense on the Outside, Soft Inside 



Natural durability and wood preservation 

The coconut palm does not form heartwood as 
most forest trees do. This affects its utilization in 
several ways. The wood is uniformly wet and ap- 
proaches saturation throughout the whole trunk; 
variations in moisture content are dependent on 
variations in density and therefore the space available 
for water. The main consequence of having no heart- 
wood is that the wood of the coconut stem has no 
natural resistance to attack by wood-boring insects 
and decay fungi. Freshly cut wood is very susceptible 
to infection by mould and stain fungi and also to at- 
tack by ambrosia beetles. Hence it is essential to dip 



timber in a prophylactic chemical solution im- 
mediately after sawing if a clean product is required. 
No part of the trunk is resistant to fungal decay but 
higher density material will take longer to rot com- 
pletely, simply because the thick-walled cells retain 
some strength for a longer period. Low density wood 
will decay in the ground within weeks whereas very 
high density wood may last for two to three years. 

Pressure treatment trials indicate that the wood 
can be treated with preservatives such as copper- 
chrome-arsenate. But the distribution of preservative 
is not as uniform as in pine sapwood where the rays 
are an important pathway of penetration, or in 
permeable hardwoods where vessels are more con- 
tinuous and free of obstruction. 



Transmission poles 

The stems have strength properties which make 
them ideal for use as transmission poles. But it is dif- 
ficult to dry them in a manner that will result in the 
preservative being concentrated in the high-strength 
outer zones, and without degrading. 

Coconut wood is known to be more susceptible to 
soft-rot decay than is pine timber. So coconut wood 
will certainly require higher preservative loadings, 
but just how much more will be required to guarantee 
an economic service life is yet to be determined. 

In the preparation of poles or posts it is first 
necessary to remove the bark so that the underlying 
wood will dry out. With most pole species this 
debarking operation is relatively simple, and effec- 
tive machines have been developed for the purpose. 
With coconut stems, however, there is a gradual tran- 
sition from wood to bark. The debarking region is in- 
definite and very fibrous. Debarking by machine is 
not yet possible. At present debarking must be done 
by hand using simple tools such as draw-knives or 
bush-knives. Treatment of poles by sap displacement 
is an alternative to normal pressure treatment but the 
deeply fissured nature of the bark makes it difficult 
to obtain an effective pressure seal on the log. Fur- 
thermore the sap-conducting elements (vessels within 
the vascular bundles) occupy only about four to five 
per cent of the total tissue volume compared with 30 
to 40 per cent for the vessels in most hardwoods and 
90 per cent plus for the tracheids in softwoods. 



Pulp and paper 

Trials in the Philippines and in New Zealand have 
shown that coconut stem wood can be used for mak- 
ing pulp and paper with qualities similar to those 
made from most hardwoods, although the high pro- 
portion of fines (from parenchyma tissue) greatly 
reduces overall yields. These small parenchyma cells 
also cause problems in the manufacture of particle 
board. 



10 



Wood fuel 

The calorific value of coconut wood (heat energy 
released on burning, per unit weight of dry wood) is 
similar to other woods. But some predrying is 
necessary before coconut wood will burn easily. To 
achieve the necessary drying, the stem must be cross- 
cut into short lengths and then split, using suitable 
equipment and techniques to overcome the lack of 
planes of weakness in the radial direction. 




1C Firewood from Coconut Logs 



Summary 

The coconut palm stem has a number of features 
that make it unique as a wood source material. 

Early attempts at utilization were somewhat 
disheartening because results did not compare well 
with conventional wood from either hardwoods or 
soft woods. Many of the problems, however, were 
the result of trying to apply technology developed for 
one material to another that was quite different. 

The development of equipment and technology 
specific to coconut wood has overcome many of 
these problems. 

There is no doubt that the future will see the 
coconut stem being used as a conventional wood 
alternative in a number of applications, and in many 
instances doing the job equally well or even better. 



Availability of the Resource 

A prerequisite for the establishment of a coconut 
wood industry is an adequate supply of overmature 
or otherwise disposable stems of known volume. 
Estimates of the availability of raw material must be 
made with precision if industrial investment is con- 
templated. 

A preliminary assessment may be made by a visual 
inspection of a plantation. The age of a palm can be 
calculated by counting the scars on the surface of the 
stem, while the volume of the stem is derived in the 
usual manner from height and diameter. A mature 
palm grown in the tropics will yield about one cubic 



metre of wood from which some 40 per cent recovery 
of dense and medium grades of sawnwood may be 
expected. In Zamboanga an average stem volume of 
1.158 J with stocking of not more than 115 stems per 
hectare is recorded. 

Given these assumptions of maturity and yield, the 
potential volume of industrial wood follows from a 
tree count - typically 100 stems per hectare. 



Resource assessment by estimation - South Pacific 

Prior to the Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar 
held in Tonga in 1976, all South Pacific countries at- 
tending were requested to complete a questionnaire 
on the extent and productivity of their coconut 
resources. 5 In spite of some differences in the 
methods of assessment and reliability of the data on 
which they were based, the results indicated a trend 
which may be significant for management policy in 
the future. The responses to the questionnaire show- 
ed the status of the coconut resource in the South 
Pacific to be as follows: 



Total land area 547,989 km' 

Area under coconuts 460,000 ha 

Percentage of resource considered overmature 3 1 
Percentage of resource considered immature 23 

Percentage of resource considered productive 46 



Less than half the resource was considered produc- 
tive in 1976, and it is possible that the rate at which 
this part becomes overmature will exceed the rate of 
replacement by immature stock. If that were the case, 
as much as two-thirds of the area would be available 
for logging and replanting. A subsequent study 3 
assumed that the area of the resource available for 
logging in the South Pacific over the next 50 years 
would be of the order of 350,000 ha, and that at a 
felling rate of 7,000 ha per annum an annual yield of 
roundwood of approximately 1 million m 3 would be 
available (based on a high estimate of 125 trees per ha 
and 1.25 m'per tree). 

On the same assumptions, it was calculated that in 
the Philippines 4.06 million m j per annum would be 
available from 1 .6 million ha of plantations over the 
next fifty years/ 



Resource assessment by survey Tonga 

In 1981, the Kingdom of Tonga completed surveys 
on coconut palm population, age ranges and produc- 
tivity, as a result of which quantitative information 
was obtained on the size and distribution of the 
resource of overmature stems. On this basis the 
Government announced in 1982 a policy for controll- 
ed utilization of the resource, together with the rules 



11 



to regulate the embryonic sawmilling industry to en- 
sure its viability along with that of the copra in- 
dustry. " 

The effect was to permit the annual felling of 1.6 
per cent of the total coconut palm population, with 
the completion of a stem utilization and replanting 
cycle every sixty-two years. 

Resource assessment by inventory - Fiji 

The usual preliminary to investment in a wood- 
based industry is an inventory of the source of raw 
material. In 1977, the Japan International Co- 
operation Agency undertook an inventory of coconut 
stems on the island of Taveuni. 3 



Aerial photography of the island was completed at 
a scale of 1:10,000, followed by a stratified random 
sample to obtain information on the number and 
volume of stems. Detailed photo interpretation with 
ground control then provided details of individual 
plantations including areas, number of stems per hec- 
tare, average height and total volume. Stem volume 
tables were prepared. Individual plantation statistics 
were recorded on a 1:10,000 map and overall 
distribution of the resource was shown on a 1:50,000 
coconut location map. Reliable and detailed infor- 
mation of this type is needed by Governments in the 
preparation of plantation management plans, and by 
sawmillers for industrial feasibility studies. 



12 



Chapter 2 

The Uses of Coconut Wood 

The denser grades of coconut wood can be used as structural material while the lower grades are 
suitable for joinery and interior use. It has proved economic to construct dwelling houses entirely of 
coconut wood. 

The denser material makes attractive furniture and is also widely used for utility items and curios. 

The roundwood has excellent strength properties and is suitable for transmission poles and fence 
posts provided the problems of preservation treatment can be overcome. 



13 



The Uses of Coconut Wood 



As noted in the first chapter, the over maturity of 
coconut plantations and the need for their replace- 
ment by higher-yielding varieties has been the foun- 
dation of all recent work on developing the use of 
coconut wood and of appropriate processing in- 
dustries. 



By the 1960s, coconut producers were expressing 
alarm at the problems caused by over mature palms 
diminishing productivity and decay and infestation 
of dead and dying trees. To these has often been add- 
ed the destruction caused by hurricanes. 

Among the institutions pioneering these studies, 
special mention is justified of those in the Pacific 
region. These include the Philippines Forest Products 
Research and Development Institute; the Philippines 
Coconut Authority's Zamboanga Research Centre, 
supported by the United Nations Development Pro- 
gramme and the Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations; the Fiji Forest Department, 
the New Zealand Forest Research Institute and the 
New Zealand Timber Industry Training Centre. 

The range of studies covered are anatomy and 
wood properties, sawmilling, seasoning, preserva- 
tion, mechanical properties, engineering design, 
charcoal manufacture, wood based panels, kraft 
pulping properties, machining, house construction 
and utilization for a variety of manufactured pro- 
ducts. The U.K. Tropical Products Research In- 
stitute investigated the use of coconut wood in parti- 
cle board manufacture and other processes. 

Research and development findings were sum- 
marized at two important meetings in Tonga in 1976 
and in the Philippines in 1979. " 3 

In the meantime, small scale sawmilling industries 
were set up in parts of the Pacific in an attempt to 
market the products of the coconut wood becoming 
available. 



By 1983 mills were being operated in Tonga by the 
Government, by the Catholic Church and by a com- 
mercial operator. Growers used the" mills to have 
their own overmature stems milled. They used the 
sawn timber for their own projects. A commercial 
operator also negotiated with growers to acquire 
logs, processed them, and offered the sawn timber 
for local sale. In the Solomon Islands a commercial 
operator processed logs and offered the dense grade 
of sawn timber for export to a New Zealand com- 
pany for further processing into wall panelling and 
flooring. In Sri Lanka a semi-government agency ac- 
quired fallen stems after a hurricane and processed 
sawn timber for the local market. In Kiribati a 
mobile sawmill began operations on an outer island 
to mill timber which was freighted to the Republic's 
capital and stockpiled pending a decision on its end 



use. In another Kiribati outer island a project to mill 
stems with chainsaws to provide timber for 30 houses 
was planned. Near to Los Banos in the Philippines a 
sawmilling project was planned to supply timber for 
low-cost housing. In Zamboanga, commercial and 
Government interests tested the use of coconut 
timber as a component in a low cost housing pro- 
gramme. 

By 1983, coconut stem sawmills had operated also 
in Fiji, Western Samoa, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, 
Tuvalu, Papua New Guinea, India,' Indonesia, the 
People's Republic of China, and Jamaica. 

Some sawmilling projects have experienced dif- 
ficulties arising from management, technical and 
economic problems which not unexpectedly had to be 
faced in a relatively new and widely dispersed in- 
dustry. Typical of these are inadequate or irregular 
supplies of raw material, excessive transportation 
costs, insufficient attention to sawing techniques ap- 
propriate to recovery of the better grades of timber, 
imperfect seasoning and preservation practices, lack 
of quality control, incorrect assessments of markets 
and inability to compete with other materials. 

Problems of this nature can be overcome as the 
public and private sectors gain experience in process- 
ing, marketing and management. Replanting pro- 
grammes and incentives will ensure an adequate sup- 
ply of stems; demand for the wood exists or can be 
developed especially in communities lacking alter- 
native materials; and enough experience exists of 
production and utilization technology. 

The remainder of this chapter is devoted to ex- 
amples of the end-uses and products already 
demonstrated and in several cases marketed. 



Construction 

Experience has shown that almost the entire range 
of coconut wood can be used in appropriate func- 
tions in the construction of buildings, particularly 
houses. 

Structural load bearing components in the house 
should be made from dense timber grades. 

Trusses and internal members are made of medium 
density material and it has been possible to develop a 
wide range of advanced designs for the former. In 
addition to conventional methods of manufacture, 
nail plates and truss jigs facilitate the accurate 
prefabrication of trusses. Designs have been 
prepared covering a range of uses from small thatch- 
ed roofs, through several house types, to school 
room buildings. Floors and steps are made of hard 
material either as machined boards or parquet. The 
internal linings of the walls of houses may be made of 
soft wood, which is quite suitable for non-load bear- 
ing surfaces, although harder wood is used when a 
high finish is required. 



14 




2A Coconut Wood House 




2B Frame of Building 



2C Cocowood in Water Contact 




IS 



External cladding, also of the softer material, re- 
quires preservative treatment to prevent damage by 
weather, as do the hard wood window frames and 
any material which is in ground contact/ 

Because of size limitations, the use of coconut 
wood in larger building necessitates the adoption of 
laminated members. This technique has proved to be 
successful. Some very advanced beams have been 
made by combining laminated coconut wood sections 
with plywood webbing/ 

The hard outer layer, or high and medium density 
grades of coconut timber have sufficient strength for 
structural use in buildings. 

Solid rounds used as posts placed on top of con- 
crete foundations may be used in house construction 



and other parts requiring strength and durability." 
Flooring joists, flooring, ceiling joists, trusses and 
framing timber can be made from dense coconut 
timber. The bottom and top studs, horizontal studs, 
top members and bracing can be made from medium 
density coconut timber. *' 

Coconut timber framing and flooring should be 
dried to the local equilibrium moisture content level 
before fixing. 

Coconut wood can be used for roofing either as 
sawn timber or shingles. When rainwater is to be col- 
lected for drinking purposes, the roofing material 
may be treated with a water proof sealant rather than 
one of the toxic water-borne preservatives. 





2D Shingles 



2E Feature Wall of Cocowood 



2F Wall Cladding 



2G Block Flooring 





16 





Furniture 

The harder density coconut wood, which is ex- 
tremely attractive, can be used in the production of 
furniture, although its weight imposes some limita- 
tions on the size of pieces made entirely of this 
material. 5 Naturally this problem is easily overcome 
by utilizing coconut wood in framing and using 
lighter woods or laminating plywood to complete the 
items. Carving and fairly intricate turning is possible 
so attractive designs can be developed. 

Hard density (No. 1 grade) coconut timber is nor- 
mally preferred for decorative furniture and is ade- 
quately strong in bending and stiffness and hard 
enough to resist indentation. Its colour, texture and 
figure enhance its suitability for this purpose. 

Grade No.l coconut timber has such a striking 



21 Cocowood Folding Table 



2H Strip Flooring 

tigure, in fact, that it can in some cases be considered 
overpowering if used to excess and this point should 
be kept in mind when designing furniture. 

Selected medium density coconut timber is suitable 
for non-decorative and utility furniture manufacture. 
It is easy to screw, drill, glue and profile. Medium 
grade can also be used in conjunction with hard 
grade in decorative timber if the colour difference is 
allowed for or utilized in the design. 

Preservative treatment for coconut wood furniture 
timber is usually not necessary. 

For commercial furniture production it is 
necessary to use tungsten carbide tipped cutters on 
planers, spindle moulders, etc., in order to achieve a 
reasonable production rate. 





2J Cocowood Chair 



2K Cocowood Desk 



Utility Items and Curios 

The structure of coconut wood makes the harder 
material extremely suitable for a wide range of utility 
items with demanding specifications. The interlock- 
ing nature of the grain, which is a partial cause of the 
difficulties encountered in sawing, makes the wood 
ideal for the manufacture of tool handles with com- 



plex shapes such as axes and paint brushes where 
splitting along the grain is a problem. Furthermore, 
the resilience of coconut wood helps to absorb im- 
pact shocks in hammers and axes. By using lamina- 
tion, extremely durable saw handles can be made. 
The combination of durability and attractiveness 



17 



should also allow coconut wood to obtain a place in 
the big market of wooden bowls and boards for carv- 
ing and servings. The high modulus of elasticity sug- 
gests that the material can be used in a range of rod 
forms, from broomsticks to surveying staffs/ 

A wood with such attractive properties may well be 



utilized increasingly for the manufacture of curio 
items. Although this market cannot dispose of large 
volumes, it could be an important cottage industry 
giving gainful employment to many people. Items 
manufactured include bookends, candlestick 
holders, trays, bowls, mugs, chessboards, salt and 
pepper shakers. 





2L Walking Stick 



2M Bow and Arrow 



2N Hammer Handles 



2O Eggcup 





18 





2P Sliced Veneer 



2Q Laminated Cocowood 



Board Products 

Trials in the United Kingdom and in the Philip- 
pines * have been carried out on the production of 
particle board from coconuts. 




Roundwood Products 

The structure of the palm stem is ideally suited to 
its use as a utility pole since it has great strength and 
flexibility and is able to withstand high wind loads/ 
It is usually possible to select straight and defect-free 
stems suitable for power transmission lines. 




2S Power and Utility Poles 



2R Particle Board 



The stem proved to be a difficult raw material for 
the purpose, though it was technically feasible to 
make boards conforming to accepted standards. An 
economic appraisal indicated however that board 
manufacture was unlikely to be viable in local condi- 
tions where competing materials exist or the market 
is too small. 



The main problem has been to dry poles sufficient- 
ly to permit pressure impregnation with a water- 
borne preservative, Debarking is an essential 
preliminary and no suitable fully-mechanized 
method has yet been developed. The process can be 
carried out manually with a spokeshave-type debark- 
ing knife. ' The use of coconut rounds as house poles 
presents a similar problem. 



19 



Coconut fence posts should be prepared in semi or 
quarter rounds with the less dense material removed 
before drying and pressure treatment. This produces 
a post of adequate strength which can be efficiently 
preserved. 

Fuel and Energy 

The uses of coconut wood for charcoal and for the 
production of gas and by-products are described in 
Chapter 8. 



2T A Slice of Cocowood from Bark to Bark roughly 
sanded 




20 



Chapter 3 

Logging 



Coconut stems can be felled and extracted in the same manner as other plantation trees. 

In practical terms the felling and removal of coconut stems from plantations to a sawmill has to 
take into account the situation within the plantation - whether the area beneath the palms has been 
inter-cropped or grazed with stock, is flat or steep or rocky, whether the trees are concentrated or 
scattered. 

The size and sophistication of the equipment is dependent, as in other forest operations, on the 
scale of felling and the location and capacity of the sawmill being supplied. 



21 



Logging 



Coconut plantations are usually in easy and ac- 
cessible terrain. The branchless and nearly straight 
stems, and their almost uniform and modest dimen- 
sions allow the use of comparatively simple equip- 
ment for felling, extraction and transport. 



Selection and Felling 

In Chapter 5 the principles of grading coconut 
timber are described. Quality control begins with the 
standing tree which may be assessed for age and 
potential log quality before felling. 

Felling, while apparently a simple operation, is 
often complicated by the need to prepare the land for 
planting. This implies that, where the topography 
and absence of boulders permit mechanical cultiva- 
tion, it is desirable to remove the stumps or at least 
reduce them to ground level. 2 ' 3 

The extraction of the stump, together with the 
roots, is always a costly undertaking, requiring either 
heavy equipment or a costly input of labour, often 
both. If it has to be done, the roots and stump must 
be undercut so that the palm can be pulled or pushed 



to the ground by winching or bulldozing. The latter is 
unsatisfactory as it creates a massive problem of 
disposing of the stump and root system to which a 
massive ball of earth generally adheres. It commonly 
requires one man/day per stem to remove the earth 
and to expose the stump for burning (Figures 3.1, 
3.2). 

Uprooting of the stump is not, however, a stan- 
dard practice, because of the cost. Stump disposal 
after normal felling remains a problem. One solu- 
tion, already tested in the Philippines, may be the 
pulverising of the stump with a mechanical flail. 3 

Felling may be by axe or two-man handsaw where 
the number of trees to be felled is few, as in selective 
logging to eliminate dead, diseased or unproductive 
trees within a healthy plantation. 

Clear felling for replanting is an operation of scale 
justifying the use of chainsaws. Experience in the 
Philippines indicates that this is the most efficient 
method provided that care is taken to fell the stems in 
a uniform direction to facilitate cross-cutting and ex- 
traction. Careful training and supervision of 
operators are essential, together with suitable ar- 
rangements for maintenance. 



3A Tractors Used for Extraction can also Power Small sawmills 




22 



3B Log extracted by Draught Animals 




Extraction 

Sawmill logs are neither large nor unduly heavy 
and present no problems in extraction. Depending on 
the scale of the operation and the nature of the ter- 
rain, extraction may be by draught animals, adapted 
agricultural tractors or specialised skidders. 

The water buffalo, or Carabao, can play an impor- 
tant role in moving logs in isolated areas. 

One of the most efficient and least expensive 
systems of log extraction is the use of an agricultural 
tractor with a towing bar fitted to the hydraulic lift 
arms/ This enables the butt of the log to be lifted 
clear of the ground for skidding . The same type 
of machine has proved suitable for the extraction of 
stems up to seventy feet long. 

[Figure 3.2 Bulldozing through roots]. 










Transport 

Loading and hauling do not require heavy or 
highly specialised equipment for the usual scale of 
plantation operation. Loading may be done manual- 
ly when the logs are small; in other cases, by cross- 
hauling with a skidding tractor or with a hydraulic 
front-end loader. 

Log transport, as in any forestry operation, has to 
be by the most economic means. In small scale plan- 
tation clearances unspecialised flat bed trucks, or 
four-wheel bunk trailers towed by agricultural trac- 
tors, have proved suitable. ' 



[ Figure 3.1 Cutting through stem roots) 




23 



Cross-Cutting 

Before the palm trunk is cut into logs, the location 
of each cut must be marked, the length of the log 
depending on the curvature of the stem and the in- 
tended end-use. High quality stems for special uses 
such as transmission poles, for example, must be 
identified and cut accordingly. Sawmill logs are 
usually cut into four to six metre lengths, each stem 
yielding one or two logs depending on the height and 
soundness of the tree. 



Disposal of Debris 

In order to minimize infestation by the rhinoceros 
beetle and by the palm weevil, it is of great impor- 
tance to dispose of the palm fronds and the discarded 
top portion of the stem after logging. Utilization is in 
some cases possible through transport of woody 
material as fuel to nearby users, or by charcoaling on 
the spot. Otherwise all debris should be piled for dry- 
ing and then burnt. 

Figure 3.3 Skidding Log Behind Horse 




24 



Chapter 4 
Primary Conversion 



The sawing of coconut logs calls for care in selecting cutting patterns which ensure the maximum 
yield of the higher density outer material. 

The hard and abrasive nature of the wood makes it necessary to use hardened saw teeth. 

These considerations apart, primary conversion can be satisfactorily carried out with conventional 
sawmills, although special types, designed for portability, have been developed. 



25 



Primary Conversion 



Cutting Patterns 

Approximately 70 per cent of the cross-section of a 
coconut log is hard to medium wood, confined to the 
periphery, and of this slightly less than half may be 
recovered as sawn wood. The soft core, often exten- 
ding to 100 x 100 mm sawn, must be separated and 
graded as inferior. It is preferable to leave bark on 
the higher quality outer wood rather than include any 
of the core. Resawing for export quality can be 
undertaken as required. 

A typical cutting pattern for 200 to 300 mm 
diameter logs, designed for a centre-held log to en- 
sure separation of hard and soft material, is shown in 
Figure 4. 1 . This gives a choice of 100 x 500 mm or 75 
x 50 mm pieces plus 50 x 50 mm and 50 x 25 mm offr 
cuts. The same pattern can be used in conventional 
mills as indicated in Figure 4.2. 

Cutting patterns for beams and purlins are shown 
in Figures 4.3 and 4.4, and for grade selection in 
Figure 4.5. 



Sawmill Systems for Coconut Timber 

The most important factors in selecting milling 
equipment are portability and ability to be relocated 
if this is required; simplicity of design to avoid 
breakdowns which are difficult to repair in isolated 
situations; ease of operation as skills of operators 
will often be limited; and inexpensiveness as the in- 
dustry is often sited in poorer, underdeveloped areas. 

There are many designs of sawmill in use. In 
Tonga in 1983 there were in fact six mills operating, 
all of different design, five being manufactured in 
New Zealand and marketed as coconut wood 
sawmills, and one an old locally redesigned sta- 
tionary mill. The mill layout and operation should 
relate to the end use at which the product is aimed. 
The inflow of logs should be simple, with lifting 
avoided and limited storage space as logs should be 
milled within hours of delivery if possible. Im- 
mediately after sawing, all timber should be dipped 
in a bath of anti-sapstain chemical and then fillet- 
stacked in an orderly and systematic manner for dry- 
ing, carefully retaining grading marks applied in the 
forest. 



Types of Mill Used for Sawing Coconut logs 40 

Full service tests have not been reported on all the 
mills used in milling coconut wood, but tests reported 
from the Zamboanga Research Centre in the Philip- 
pines and the Timber Industry Training Centre in 
New Zealand provide a guide to the selection of mills 
for different conditions. Other trials have been 
reported from field use in the Philippines, in Tonga 
and Kiribati. 



The specifications, advantages and disadvantages 
of these mills are as follows: 

1. Medium-size portable sawmill 

A mill of this type was designed with the assistance 
of the TITC, specifically for the milling of coconut 
stems in Tonga. It is a robust machine capable of be- 
ing towed over rough terrain without distortion to 
the frame. The main unit has jack screws at either 
end which can be wound down on to wooden pads to 
prevent movement. (The weight of the carriage 
travels from one end of the track to the other. J As it 
is on a single axle with dual pneumatic wheels it is 
desirable to jack and put solid packing under the cen- 
tral main frame to prevent movement during opera- 
tion. It is desirable but not essential to have the 
machine set up perfectly level. All parts of the unit 
are tied in rigidly together (track, carriage, headsaw, 
power unit, rollcase) and need to be in true align- 
ment to each other. 

This machine was originally designed with a 
9-gauge 1 120 mm diameter saw which is adequate for 
most coconut logs. The companion breast bench unit 
can be towed by a car on roads or a tractor in rough 
terrain. It is self contained, of rugged construction, 
with trolley tracks mounting directly on to the main 
frame. It thus stays in true alignment with the 
machine regardless of the circumstances. The power 
pack on the main unit is mounted on a frame that can 
be rolled in from its operating position, making the 
unit more compact for transporting. 

The breakdown unit requires a motor of power 
equivalent to a 75 h.p. electric motor and the 
breastbench a 30-35 h.p. motor. 



Field trial 

A production study of this type of mill was under- 
taken in the Philippines " "at the Coconut Authori- 
ty Research Station. 

The logs used were from 1 16 coconut palms felled 
and left on the ground in the field for about eight 
months, and from 241 newly felled coconut palms. 
The trunks, cross-cut to log lengths ranging from 10 
to 16 feet from the butt to the upper portion, were 
piled near a fairly level site where the mill could be set 
up. 

The portable sawmill consisted of a 1120 mm 
diameter breakdown saw and a 195 mm diameter saw 
in the breastbench. Both circular saws, equipped with 
17 and 13 stellite teeth respectively, were driven by a 
single engine. The mill was towed to the site with an 
ordinary farm tractor and was set up in one day. 

The mill was set to an engine speed of 2100 r/min 
giving an equivalent breakdown saw speed of 770 



26 



Figure 4.1 Cutting Pattern for Centre-held Log System 




Centre Line 







Strong Weak 




Weak 





Figure 4.4 Additional Pattern 
for Cutting Purloins 



Figure 4.3 Cutting Pattern for Beams 



Figure 4.5 Cutting Pattern Relative to Selection and 
Grading 



Figure 4.2 Cutting Pattern for Conventional Sawmills 



B C C C B 



Oil A 



I _ I 



A IlD 



/ 





(i) 



(U) 





27 



r/min which in turn generated a saw speed of 1250 
r/min in the breastbench. A 30-degree hook angle 
was maintained throughout the sawing process. A 
crew of seven men operated the mill in sawing the 
specimen with one man assisting in the gathering of 
data. 

About 16 per cent of the logs from coconut trunks 
stored for eight months could not be sawn because of 
decay, stain or holes in the core. The average sawing 
time was three hours a day. About five hours were 
spent in conducting and fetching the crew to and 
from the mill, grading and stacking the sawn timber, 
sharpening the saw, removal of sawdust, and rolling 
of the logs to the deck of the mill. 

The sawn timber was graded and stock-piled out- 
doors according to density classification. Coconut 
stumps 45 mm long were used as posts in stacking the 
sawn timber above the ground. Square 25 mm fillets 
placed across each layer of timber allowed the air to 
pass through the pile. Inspection was done once a 
week for the first month, and twice a month 
thereafter. Recovery from the old trees was 34 per 
cent and from the freshly felled trees 41 per cent. Ap- 
proximately 14 per cent of the sawn timber was of 
dense grade. 

The implications of harvesting steps cut in the side 
of coconut stems were evident in the Philippines. The 
steps reduced the recovery of sawn timber, par- 
ticularly denser grades. 

Results of the sawing tests showed that the por- 
table sawmill can operate efficiently under field con- 
ditions. The average feeding/sawing rates varied ac- 
cording to the type of log sawn as follows: butt logs, 
23.4 m/min; second logs, 30.6 m/min; third logs, 
36.3 m/min. Loss of power was observed in the 
engine when sawing butt logs at an increased feeding 
rate. An average of 30 logs were sawn per sharpen- 
ing. The stellite saw teeth with 30-degree hook angle 
had to be replaced after seven to eight sharpenings. 

The results also revealed that ten fresh logs can be 
sawn at an equivalent output of 0.7 cubic metres 
sawn timber per hour. 

Recommendations resulting from the trial: 

(a) Coconut trunks should be sawn in 'green' con- 
dition to obtain better quality timber. Building up of 
heat in the saw blade during the sawing process is 
minimised as the trunks are very wet. 

(b) There should be a saw doctor in the crew, an an- 
vil for tensioning the saw blade, and a 1.5 h.p. 
generator for the jockey grinder used to sharpen the 
teeth. 

(c) For commercial operations the mill should 
operate at least six hours daily with a crew of 12 men. 
Six men including the saw doctor will operate the mill 
and the remaining six will roll the logs to the deck of 
the mill, grade and stockpile the sawn timber, remove 
the sawdust and slabs, and supply water to the mill. 



In design it is almost identical to the previously 
mentioned mill. It is larger and has a three headblock 
carriage. It is transportable rather than portable, be- 
ing dismantled in sections and put on a carrier rather 
than having its own axle and draw bar. 

The unit can also be equipped with a bandsaw in 
place of the 1372 mm circular. 

The breastbench equipment and saw are identical 
to those described earlier. 

3. Light, General Purpose Portable Sawmills 

Sawmills not designed for the cutting of coconut 
but rather as simple low cost mill units suitable for 
farms or contractors with small blocks of timber are 
quite widely used but have their limitations. 

One variety is lightly constructed of RHS and 
angle iron with a steel plate sliding on the top runners 
as a table top carriage. It also has a lightly con- 
structed breastbench as part of the complete mill set 
up. Although the main unit is on its own axle for por- 
tability, setting up is not as quick and simple as the 
first mill described. 

4. Mini Mill 

There are several mini mill designs now built in 
America, New Zealand and Australia. The smallest 
of the range is probably the most suitable for cutting 
coconut logs. 

Differing from other designs where the log is fed to 
a stationary saw, this particular design has an air- 
cooled petrol motor mounted on a frame driving two 
circular saws which are mounted at right angles to 
each other. The saw unit travels along a track on the 
main framework. The saws are raised and lowered in 
relation to the log, and can also be moved laterally. 
With each pass both a horizontal and a vertical cut 
are made with the two cuts meeting accurately. These 
mills were originally designed for cutting large logs 
which were supported on skids on the ground, and 
are far less efficient in cutting small diameter logs. 
The unit is capable of milling coconut stems, but is 
not well suited to the purpose because the logs are 
small and must be rotated to recover the maximum 
high density timber. 

5. Breastbench With Light Weight Carriage 

Breastbench mill with an added light-weight, car- 
riage which is merely a heavy timber plank with metal 
bracing. It has a steel section on its underside running 
in a groove in the trolleys and the feed rolls on the 
bench and has light dogs attached that may be ham- 
mered into the log. The feed rolls are hydraulically 
powered with easy control of speed and reversing. 
This bench is ideally suited for small logs. The log is 
first broken down on the carriage to manageable sec- 
tions, then the carriage is removed and the unit used 
as a normal breastbench. Production is low but only 
three operators are needed. 



2. Larger Transportable Sawmill 

A larger sawmill was designed to meet the demands 
of milling coconut stems in the Philippines. 



6. Sawing with a Chainsaw and Guide Attachments 

Where high production is not needed, chainsaws 
are useful in log conversion and have the advantages 
of portability and low initial cost. 



28 



Chainsaws should be of at least ten horsepower 
and chipper chains are recommended because of the 
ease of sharpening. Tension must be maintained and 
the bar and chain kept well oiled. A sprocket-nosed 
bar assists in maintaining high chain speed/ 7 "The 
saw is fixed and the log fed slowly through. 



Sawblades for Coconut Stem Conversion " 

In the milling of coconut stems as with any other 
species it is the saw blade that is the work tool used 
for reducing the log to sawn timber. If there are any 
peculiarities in a particular species (hardness, ir- 
regular grain, abrasiveness etc), the saw blade will be 
changed or the cutting speed altered. Peculiarities of 
coconut wood are its abrasive nature and the extreme 
hardness of the bundles of fibres in mature stems. 

Consequently it is not practical or economic to use 
standard plate saws, as a very limited number of cuts 
would be made before the saw became too dull to 
cut. Hard facing of the saw teeth is necessary if 
cocostems are to be sawn economically. There are 
various materials that are suitable for the hardfacing 
of saw teeth, each having its own method of applica- 
tion and maintenance requirements. 




4A The Tungsten Carbide Tipped Saw 



The materials that have been used to date are 
various grades of tungsten carbide, various grades of 
stellite, tunsweld, tungtech, carbitroning, high speed 
steel and high frequency hardened steel. 



Tungsten Carbide 

Tungsten carbide tipping of saw teeth is the most 
successful way of overcoming excessive saw teeth 
wear or dulling. The tungsten carbide tips are formed 
during manufacture to shape and dimensions suitable 
for fixing straight into recesses on the face of the saw 
teeth. Grinding to final shape and dimensions for the 
required use is carried out on the complete saw blade. 
Although tungsten carbide has been used suc- 
cessfully on handsaws and there would be no pro- 
blem on frame saws (provided there was adequate 



clearance of the tips on the back stroke) it is mainly 
used on circular saws. Tungsten carbide is not an 
economic tipping method for bandsaws because of 
the number of tips required, the type of equipment to 
service them, and the time and skill required to main- 
tain them. 

A high degree of skill is required to maintain 
tungsten carbide tipped circular saws. Relatively ex- 
pensive precision grinding equipment utilizing dia- 
mond grinding wheels is essential. A suitable 
sawshop is required which rules out servicing the 
saws in the field. The best known practical option in 
the field is a single grinder for face grinding of the 
carbide. The grinder would need to be a precision 
machine utilizing diamond wheels. The face grinding 
could be carried out only two to three times before 
the saw was sent to the sawshop for a full service. 

Tungsten carbide is available in various grades. 
These range from softer less wear resistant but tough 
material, to harder more wear resistant but brittle 
material. Most tungsten carbides have a cobalt base. 
But some are also available with a nickel base. Nickel 
is recognised as being more corrosion resistant, 
tougher and easier to braze to the sawblade. The nor- 
mal grade of carbide used on saw teeth is l.S.O. K20 
or equivalent. But for cutting coconut the next 
tougher grade l.S.O. K30 may be desirable. 

Preparing saws for tungsten tipping, and fixing the 
tips securely into the accurately ground or milled 
recesses in the saw tooth faces, requires skill and 
scrupulous attention to detail. Similarly, final grin- 
ding to produce an optimum cutting edge demands 
knowledge and skill, and good quality equipment. 
Silicon carbide grinding wheels may be used for 
rough grinding but diamond wheels are essential for 
finishing. 

The essentials of carbide saw use and maintenance 
can be summarised as follows: 

(a) Cleanliness is extremely important 

(b) Carbide is brittle and must be handled with care 

(c) Too large a tooth bite should not be made as the 
shock of overbiting can cause carbide breakages. 
Recommended maximum bite is approximately 1.3 
mm per tooth 

(d) The sharpness angle should be kept to at least 45 
to ensure a strong tooth point 

(e) The correct diamond grinding wheel for the job 
should be selected. Extreme care should be exercised 
while grinding 

(0 Diamond wheels are expensive items and ought 

only be used on precision grinding machines 

(g) Carbide requires great accuracy in the grinding 

finish. Angles on its face, back and sides and should 

be ground on precision grinding machines 

(h) Trained personnel ought to carry out the work. 



Stellite (Tungsten Cobalt Alloy) 

As with tungsten carbide, stellite is available in 
various grades from softer, tougher grades to harder 
more brittle grades. The tungsten carbide manufac- 
turing process requires that all components, in- 
cluding saw teeth, are formed close to their final 



29 



shape early in the process and then fixed to their 
working place by another medium such as silver 
solder. In contrast, stellite is available in rod form. It 
can be fused directly, with heat, on to the base metal. 
Consequently, stellite can be used equally as well 
on any type of saw, including handsaws. It is used ex- 
tensively where hardwoods with an abrasive nature 
are to be cut. Grade 6 stellite, which is identifiable by 
a red tip, is the most commonly used on saw teeth. 

Cobalide 3 which is a similar material under a dif- 
ferent trade name is also quite satisfactory. A newer 
material put out by Eutectic, called Eutecbor 9000, 
has become very popular for this use and has proven 
very satisfactory. The main reason for its popularity 
is its ease of use in applying it to the base metal, it 
also has very good wear and shock resistance. 

Stellite is also available for saws as a preformed 
tip. This can be fixed to the saw using silver solder. 
However, these tips are more expensive than carbide. 

Method of Tipping 

There are three main methods of applying stellite 
to saw teeth. 

(a) A drop of molten stellite can be applied to the 
swage cup 

(b) A large deposit of stellite can be melted on to 
the end of a saw tooth which has been ground back 
slightly. The stellite is then formed with dies so that it 
looks similar to a swaged and shaped point 

(c) Molten stellite can be poured into a ceramic 
mould around the tooth point. This gives a finished 
point similar to Step b. 

The usual procedure in grinding stellite tipped saws 
is to grind the faces and backs first, then to grind the 
sides of the swage with an "equalising" machine. 
The main reason for following this procedure is that 
the size of the finished point can be more easily con- 
trolled if the side grinding is performed last. When 
grinding the fades and backs of the teeth, care must 
be taken to ensure that the feed finger does not push 
on the stellite deposit. 

It is common to find sawmills using stellite tipped 
saws running the saws to the extent that the points 
become rounded and dull. In most cases it would be 
better to change the saw before it got to this point. 
This would result in less time being taken to sharpen 
a saw. More sharpenings would be gained from the 
stellite. Sharper tips also mean production of less 
badly cut and thus wasted timber. It would also in- 
crease the overall life of the saw. 

With handsaws, this tendency to continue sawing 
too long before re-sharpening (particularly with 
softer wood) frequently leads to gullet cracks as the 
saw becomes fatigued. 

Details of methods of forming and grinding stellite 
tips have been omitted from this account. But it must 
be recognised that considerable skill, and the use of 
precision equipment are necessary for satisfactory 
saw performance. For these reasons most smaller 
mills used for cutting coconut wood have favoured 
the use of circular saws with inserted teeth which are 
rugged, easy to maintain by face grinding, and can be 



easily and quickly replaced when too worn for fur- 
ther grinding. The most satisfactory inserted tooth 
for cutting coconut to date has been a stellite inlaid 
tooth. This is a standard carbon steel tooth with a 
coating of stellite over the top and side surfaces, ap- 
proximately one to two mm thick. Wear resistance is 
good. Only face grinding is necessary. Filing is not 
possible. Grinding is best done on a hand gulleting 
machine with the saw removed from the rig. A good 
finish must be maintained with angles accurate and 
face square. Portable jockey-type grinders which 
clamp on to the saw blade have been used in small 
coconut mills, but none seem to have been really 
satisfactory for maintaining a good cutting edge. 



Tungtech 

Tungtech is a powder application that can be used 
to harden the surface of any base metal. The alloy 
powder containing particles of tungsten is applied 
through a special oxy-acetylene torch to the surface 
of pre-heated base metal. The flame sweats the alloy 
powder into the surface of the material. This has only 
been used in trials so far. It has proven successful on 
heavier gauge circular saws. Some skill and care is re- 
quired in this application as misuse of the heat will 
result in melting and rounding the cutting edges. 

As the coating of powder is quite thin even a light 
grind would remove it. Therefore it must be applied 
to the tooth after sharpening. 

A thin layer is then applied to the face of the tooth. 
The tooth is again ground lightly on the back to 
regain a sharp cutting edge without removing the 
hard facing from the face of the tooth. 



Carbitroning 

Carbitroning is the deposition of materials such as 
tungsten carbides and titanium carbide from an elec- 
trode of these materials by spark action on to the sur- 
face of the saw teeth. The electrode which is held in 
the electrical machine designed for this method of 
coating is vibrated against the tooth surface. The 
vibration makes and breaks contact causing sparks 
which transfer the molten carbide to the tooth. The 
thickness of the deposit layer will only be up to about 
0.07 mm (.003 inch). For this reason the method is 
not entirely efficient as in some species, acids in the 
timber apparently will eat under the layer lifting it 
off. However cutting time is claimed to be increased 
up to five times and longer. 



High speed steel 

High speed steel is used in the form of inserted saw 
teeth. As with the stellite inlaid teeth the high speed 
steel teeth were designed for use in cutting species 
that ordinary carbon steel would not cut effectively. 
These bits can be used in inserted tooth saws for cut- 
ting coconut, but are not as wear resistant as the 
stellite inlaid teeth, nor as economical. 



30 



Waste Disposal 

Waste products or by-products from the fell- 
ing and milling of coconut trees are either a costly 
embarrassment to dispose of or a potential additional 
resource. The most important consideration with 
regard to removal of the trunks and other debris 
from coconut plantations is the phytosanitary aspect 
- the potential threat of pests on the newly established 
plantations. Rotting logs and other decaying debris 
provide ideal breeding places for two major coconut 
pests, the coconut beetle Oryctes rhinoceros and 



palm weevil Rhynchophorus schach (Oliv). 

Disposal of the woody waste left over from milling 
is a problem. Burning is the cheapest and safest 
means. Discarded round logs, generally from the up- 
per softer trunk, are best cut to approximately half- 
metre lengths, split and stacked to partially dry. They 
can then be burned, or used for some form of fuel 
(charcoal, gas, firewood). Palm fronds and the 
"palmit" or delicate fleshy bud in the crown of the 
tree become available as useful by-products if 
organised collection and disposal is carried out. 



31 



Chapter 5 

Grading Coconut timber 



Grading coconut timber according to low, medium and heavy densities is important, since the dif- 
ferent grades have different end uses. Timber of mixed densities is more likely to twist and degrade. 

Grading should begin at the commencement of logging, and be followed through the sawnwood 
conversion process. 

The development of a uniform grading standard would help to promote local and export 
marketing. 

Timber can be graded visually or by more elaborate techniques. A simple colour coding system is 
appropriate for use in recording grades. 



32 



Grading Coconut Timber 



Quality Control, Particularly Relating to Export 

In the course of coconut market research and pro- 
duct development it has been established that no im- 
porter in any of the countries surveyed is prepared to 
make a commitment to purchase large volumes of 
coconut wood unless both quality of material and 
reliability of supply are guaranteed. It is also 
desirable that uniform grading should be established 
within the various producing countries. 

When any country considers the establishment of a 
coconut milling and processing industry, there 
should be emphasis on an overall control which is 
sufficient to co-ordinate quality standards. This con- 
trol should not restrict efficient management but 
should aim to protect and foster the interests of the 
country, the coconut industry and its customers. An 
enforceable quality standard provides such a control. 



It is first necessary to inspect standing trees so that 
a judgement can be made as to a tree's age, by means 
of length of leaf, nut production and the 
characteristic thinning of the stem below the crown. 
Suitable trees are then marked, felled and cut to 
length. 

Before extraction, every log must be marked to 
establish from what part of the tree it comes. It is 
convenient when sawing to length to make a single 
chainsaw niche on the lower end of base logs, two 
niches for second logs and three niches for upper logs 
(see Figure 5.1). Then, after the logs are stockpiled 
butts are painted different colours on the lower end 
(base logs RED, second logs GREEN and third logs 
YELLOW). On the reverse ends they should be 
painted with a WHITE band extending 70mm in 
from the circumference (see Figure 5.2). 



System of Identification 

The maintenance of quality control of coconut 
wood is not merely a matter of inspection and 
grading at the point of sale or export. Because of the 
widely varying densities of material within each log, 
and the difficulty of differentiating these by super- 
ficial inspection after sawing has taken place, it is 
essential that grading and identification of the wood 
from different parts of a log and from different logs 
along the length of a tree be carried out in the planta- 
tions at time of felling. Such a grading system, con- 
sisting of colour-coding the butts of logs immediately 
after the trees are felled and cut to length, whereby 
the colour markings remain on each timber piece 
after the logs are sawn, has been developed and 
tested. 

The general principles of this grading system are 
as follows: 



Figure 5.1 Chainsaw Grading Marks on Logs 



Chainuw Cuts in Field 




Base Log 



Second Log 



Third Log 



Painted Ends of Logs Before Sawmilling 





Base End 



Upper End 



Figure 5.2 Colour Grading on Log Butt 



Grading 

After such an identification system as described 
above is in place, quality specifications are then 
necessary in relation to each end use. 

In the local house-building market little further 
grading would be required, though general informa- 
tion on the characteristics and appropriate use of 
each grade should be available. 

For other building construction, which may be 
subject to local government regulations or building 
codes, more detailed specifications are required. 

Timber should be graded hard, intermediate or 
soft, corresponding to high, medium and low den- 
sities. The technical limits between the grades are: 

High Density above 500 kg/m j 

Medium Density between 500 and 350 kg/m'. 

Low Density less than 350 kg/m j . 

As a rule only high density coconut timber is ac- 
ceptable for structural purposes. 



33 



Sample Specifications 

Specifications for coconut timber drawn up by a 
timber exporting company 46 are as follows: 

-Milling tolerance minus nil plus 2.5 mm 

-Minimum basic density 400 kg/m j - for medium 
density and 600 kg/m j - for high density 

-Maximum moisture content E.M.C. of supplying 
country 

-Timber must be clean and free from defects such 
as bark, rot, collapse, sapstain, brown spot, twist, 
cup, spring, checking, warp, wane or other visible 
imperfections 

-Timber should be milled within eight hours of fell- 
ing trees 

-Dip all timber in approved anti-sapstain solution 
immediately after milling 

-Protect timber from rain after dipping 

-Transport timber to drying yard immediately 

-Re-dip in anti-sapstain solution prior to stacking. 
It is preferable that this is carried out under cover to 
avoid any chance of chemicals being diluted by rain- 
fall 

-Fillet stack timber in proper drying racks pro- 
tected from rain and direct sunlight within 24 hours 
of milling. 

The anti-sapstain solution utilized was a pro- 
prietary mixture of captapol and chlorothalomil, 
maintaining a minimum concentration of 0.4 percent 
captapol. 

Packing specifications for rough sawn timber 
established for export control were that all timber for 
shipment should be steel banded, using 75 x 25 mm 
fillets under all-steel banding. Packets should be 
banded on 100 x 50 mm gluts to facilitate forking. 
Packets should contain timber of like specification 
and be in packets of no greater than one cubic metre. 
After drying to E.M.C. packets must not be exposed 
to wet conditions. 



Grading Techniques 

Techniques which have been examined include 
visual grading, basic density determination, and 
grading by weight. Checks on density can be made by 
means of the Janka hardness test. 

Visual grades may be as follows: 
C-l (clear one- face) 

-Clear of step or wane on one face 

-Step or wane can appear on up to half of the 
thickness away from the clear side of the board 

-Solid spot can appear on the clear face, but 
in area less than two percent of the face, and in- 
dividual areas of less than 0.5 cm 7 

-No string spot allowable 

-Lengths to a minimum of one metre 
accepted 

C-2 (clear both faces) 
-Clear of step or wane on both faces 
-All sides square 

-Spot as described in C-l, for both faces 
-Lengths as described in C-l 



Utility 

-Wane allowable up to half an edge and half 
one face 

-Step allowable on one edge all across; but 
not more than one-quarter width of the face; 
OR one face all across but not more than one- 
third of the edge 




5A The Low-density Grade Collapses 



-Hard spot allowable in any quantity in 
medium and hard density, and 20 per cent area 
of any face in soft density 

-String spot allowable up to five percent of 
the surface area of any face 

Grading by Basic Density 

The basic density of a piece of coconut timber is in- 
formation of considerable value in grading and 
utilization of the timber. It is calculated as the oven 
dry weight of a sample divided by its green volume. 
The procedure is relatively simple and can be used 
within the trade to check the quality of a consign- 
ment. 

Density is closely correlated with hardness which 
may be measured by the Janka test. This measures 
the pressure required to compress a metal ball of 
standard diameter for a measured distance into a 
timber sample. Tests carried out on the wood from 
the peripheral zone of butt logs from coconut trees 
from Tonga showed an average resistance of 10,950 
newtons radially and 10,800 newtons tangentially at 
12 percent moisture content. Comparative figures for 
other timbers are :' 7 



European Oak 

North American Oak 

Teak 

Tawa 

Rimu 

Sapele 

Radiata Pine 

Kwila 



5050N 

5600N 

5050N 

6300N 

2850N 

5600N 

2250N - 

8050N 



5550N 
6250N 
5550N 
7100N 
3550N 
6250N 
2800N 
8900N 



The figures illustrate the significantly higher hard- 
ness rating of selected coconut wood. 



34 



Appearance 

The appearance of coconut wood is distinctive. 
The grain is strong and irregular so that the texture is 
variable. There is also a noticeable colour variation, 
sometimes related to density, the denser wood being 
darker. It has also been noted that there are two 
varieties of tree, one which produces very dark wood 
and the other a lighter wood. There is thus oppor- 
tunity for the production of a range of colour grades 
in joinery or decorative features. It follows that col- 
our classification of the wood during processing is 
sometimes advantageous. 

5B The Densest Grades are Strong Enough for Struc- 
tural Uses 




35 



Chapter 6 

Seasoning Coconut Timber 



Coconut sawn timber dries readily as 25 mm boards but thicker sizes dry very slowly. 
Degrade is not severe apart from collapse in material below 350 kg/m j basic density 16. 
Sawn timber should be sorted according to density before seasoning. 



36 



Seasoning Coconut Timber 



Coconut sawn timber dries readily as 25 mm 
boards but thicker sizes dry very slowly. Degrade is 
not severe apart from collapse in material below 350 
kg/m j basic density. " Sawn timber should accor- 
dingly be sorted according to density before season- 
ing. 

Air Drying 

The moisture content of coconut sawn timber 
ranges from 90 per cent to 180 per cent. The risk of 
stain and mould in air drying is such that appropriate 
chemical dip or spray treatments should be applied 
before stacking. For the same reason, protection 
from rain is desirable and air drying should be car- 
ried out in an open-sided roofed shed. 




6A Correctly Stacked for Air Drying 



Similar drying times have been reported from 
several Pacific Island countries. ' 25 mm boards 
dry from green to equilibrium moisture content (17 
to 20 per cent) in 9 to 10 weeks, while 50 mm material 
may require 6 months or more. 

Kiln Drying 

The New Zealand Forest Service, Forest Research 
Institute, has recommended kiln schedules as a result 
of studies on material from Tonga/ 



25 mm Material 



Moisture Content' 

Green 

100 

60 

Final conditioning 



Dry Bulb 
Temp C 

60 (140F) 
60(140F) 
71 (160F) 
77 (170F) 



Wet Bulb 
Temp C 

54(150F) 
51 (125F) 
60(140F) 
76(168F)4hr 



1 Average moisture content of the two sample boards 
of the highest moisture content. 

Drying time is six to seven days in a commercial 
stack. 



50 mm Material 

Preliminary air drying to 25-30 per cent moisture 
content is recomended since 50 mm pieces cannot be 
satisfactorily kiln-dried from green. J Drying may 
take five to six days on the following schedule. 



Moisture Content 

30 
25 
20 
Final conditioning 



Dry Bulb 
Temp C 

60(140F) 
66(150F) 
66(150F) 
71(160F) 



Wet Bulb 
Temp C 

54(130 F) 

57(135F) 

70(158F) 

70(158F)8hr 



The denser grades of coconut do not have a high 
differential shrinkage so the tendency to distort is not 
severe. Twist is commoner than bow or spring. 2 Col- 
lapse is the most obvious seasoning degrade, increas- 
ing progressively below about 350 kg/m J basic densi- 
ty at which level it may not be recoverable. In denser 
material, reconditioning after drying gives good 
recovery from collapse. 3 

Seasoning of poles 

Because coconut wood has a high moisture content 
and is very prone to fungal infection it requires 
special care in drying in the round before preservative 
treatment. IS Debarking is essential and the material 
should be stacked in sheds or under a rain-shedding 
cover in locations with good air movement. 



37 



Chapter 7 

Preserving Coconut Timber 



Coconut wood in contact with ground or water requires preservation if it is to last more than a few 
years. 

Coconut wood for interior uses, such as furniture, flooring or walling, does not generally need to 
be treated with preservatives, although in some environments the timber (particularly low density 
wood) should be treated against termites and other wood borers. 



38 



Preserving Coconut Timber 



Provided the timber is adequately seasoned, 
coconut wood can be treated by the vacuum/pressure 
method using copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives. 
It can be used in the sawn form for weatherboards 
and verandah decking, in either sawn or round form 
for house piling, in the round or quarter round form 
as posts, and in round-form as poles. 

Material which has been treated and exposed in 
service trials indicates that if used clear of the 
ground, a life of 20 years could be anticipated, and 
rounds or quarter rounds used in contact with the 
ground should have a service life at least in the order 
of 15 years. l9 

Coconut wood in contact with ground or water re- 
quires preservation if it is to last more than a few 
years. Coconut wood for interior uses, such as fur- 
niture, flooring or walling, does not generally need to 
be treated with preservatives, although in some en- 
vironments the timber (particularly low density 
wood) should be treated against termites and other 
wood borers. 

In some environments all densities of sawn timbers 
will need protection against termites and other wood 
borers. 

Some uses exposed to the weather may not justify 
full strength treatment. The preservation required 
may be necessitated by standards and local building 
codes, or by the length of life required. Housing 
from coconut timber which has been brush treated 
with preservative will give the house a longer life than 
a thatched roof house of lesser quality. Local 
economics can determine the preservative and length 
of building life desired. 

It is preferable and more feasible to avoid ground 
contact by placing a house on foundations with a 
waterproof barrier between the foundation and the 
wood. 

Health standards and public attitudes to the use of 
preservatives with toxic ingredients provide further 
cause for concern at the suitability of different types 
of preservation. 

Load bearing poles, from fence posts to electric 
transmission poles, require higher standards of treat- 
ment. Coconut wood can be used inside buildings 
without treatment. Insects are not a major threat to 
dry wood. 

When exposed to the weather but not in contact 
with the ground some protection is required. 
Pressure treatment with copper-chrome-arsenate to 
intermediate retentions (five to ten kg commercial 
salts/mO gives excellent results. Brush-coating dry 
wood with creosote or copper naphthenate will give 
good protection but retreatment will be necessary 
every three to four years. Surface pre-treatment with 
inorganic salts (e.g. 12 per cent acid copper 



chromate) followed by one or two coats of latex 
emulsion stain will give a good and durable surface. 

Preservative requirements for ground-contact 
timber, e.g. posts and poles, are still unresolved, and 
more well-controlled tests are needed before a confi- 
dent assessment can be made of the suitability of 
treated coconut wood in this situation. The most 
crucial factor seems to be making absolutely sure that 
the wood does not become infected by any fungi bet- 
ween felling and final treatment . * ' 

Coconut stem wood is not very susceptible to at- 
tack by wood boring insects and will give good ser- 
vice without treatment if it is protected from the 
weather. If protection from insects must be ensured 
the wood can be readily treated with boron by diffu- 
sion. 

Exposed to the weather or in ground contact 
coconut wood is perishable and preservative treat- 
ment is essential. Debarking round poles and posts is 
an extremely difficult task but is necessary if they are 
to be treated by conventional pressure methods or 
hot and cold bath. The wood must be at least partial- 
ly air-dried before treatment and this must be done 
under cover. Provided the outer zones are well dried, 
good retention and distribution can be achieved with 
creosote by hot and cold bath, and copper-chrome- 
arsenate by vacuum/pressure. 

Pressure sap displacement of unbarked logs has 
proved impracticable . * 



Oil- and Water-based Preservative Techniques 

There are two general types of wood preservatives. 
These are the oil-type such as creosote and pen- 
tachlorophenol, and the water-borne salt-type such 
as copper-chrome-arsenate. 

A black or brownish oil made by distilling coal tar 
or coal-tar creosote, is effective for preserving wood, 
but its colour, and the fact that creosote-treated 
wood cannot be painted satisfactorily, make this 
preservative unsuitable for finished timber where ap- 
pearance is important. In addition, the odour of the 
creosoted-wood is unpleasant. Nevertheless, coal-tar 
creosote can be satisfactorily used in treatment of 
fence posts and posts of low-cost houses where the 
materials are used externally and in ground contact. 

Pentachlorophenol solution preservative generally 
contains five per cent solution of chlorinated phenols 
in a solvent of liquid petroleum gas. The heavy oil re- 
mains in the wood for a long time and does not usual- 
ly provide clean or paintable surfaces. Pen- 
tachlorophenol solutions are usually applied to wood 
for exterior use. 



39 



Copper-chrome-arsenate preservative is highly 
soluble in water. This is sold in the market under 
trade names such as Tanalith C, Boliden K33, 
Celcure AP. Copper-chrome-arsenate is now prefer- 
red and more widely accepted than coal-tar 
creosote/pentachlorophenol because it leaves the 
wood clean, paintable and free from objectionable 
odour after treatment. Furthermore, coal-tar and 
pentachlorophenol have become more costly than the 
water-borne preservatives. However CCA is not ac- 
ceptable for the treatment of roof shingles where the 
roof is to be used as a catchment for drinking water. 



Preparing Timber Prior to Treatment 

All coconut timber to be treated must be free from 
defects to attain satisfactory treatment and good per- 
formance thereafter. Treatment of timber by diffu- 
sion using water-borne preservatives may be done on 
freshly-cut sawn timber to permit movement of solu- 
tion into the wood. For other methods drying before 
treatment is essential. Drying the material before 
treatment permits adequate penetration and uniform 
distribution and reduces risks of checking and the 
consequent exposure of untreated timber. 

It is also of great importance that all machining 
should be done prior to treatment. This includes in- 
cising of wood to improve the penetration of preser- 
vative and machining operations such as planing, 
cutting, and boring. 

For round coconut timber, debarking should be 
done to accelerate drying. The bark greatly retards 

7A Debarking Poles 



moisture removal from the inner zone of the log 
thereby prolonging drying and risking decay and in- 
sect infestations to the log. Under Zamboanga condi- 
tions, it takes three to four months air drying of 
debarked round coconut timber to ensure good 
preservative treatment. 



Treatment Methods 

Preservative treatment of timber is undertaken by 
pressure or non-pressure processes. The pressure 
method of treatment is unlikely to be feasible in rural 
areas, where the relatively simple non-pressure pro- 
cesses can be readily adapted to local facilities. 

Brush Treatment 

Brush treatment is the simplest method of applying 
wood preservative . A minimum of five per cent pen- 
tachlorophonol or five per cent copper-chrome- 
arsenate can be used in treatment of dried coconut 
wood. One to three coatings may be applied depen- 
ding on the dry ness of the material. In most cases, 
however, wood treated by this method is recom- 
mended for internal use only. 

Soaking 

Cold soaking of well-seasoned coconut timber 
generally achieves better preservative penetration and 
retention than does brushing. The timber is soaked in 
a three to five per cent copper-chrome-arsenate solu- 
tion for one to eight hours depending on the intended 
use. Material treated by this method can be used for 
construction of buildings. 




40 



Hot and cold bath 

The hot and cold bath process involves the heating 
of coal-tar creosote, or pentachlorophenol in heavy 
petroleum oil, with the material totally immersed 
during the duration of treatment. The wood is heated 
in the preservative in an open tank for several hours, 
then immediately submerged in cold preservative for 
at least an equal number of hours. For well-seasoned 
coconut timber a hot bath of two or three hours 
followed by a cold bath of like duration or more is 
apparently sufficient. Longer periods are preferable, 
especially during heating, to ensure that the wood is 
properly penetrated by the preservative. During the 
hot bath (at about 100C), air in the wood expands 
and is forced out. In the cold bath, the residual air in 
the wood contracts, thereby creating a partial 
vacuum, and the preservative solution enters the 
wood. 

A double diffusion process, using a water-borne 
preservative, involves the immersion of wood in a 
copper sulphate solution which is then heated to 
about 80 C for three to six hours and cooled over- 
night. The material is then immersed in an equal mix- 
ture of cold sodium dichromate and arsenic pentox- 
ide solution for one or two days. The preservative 
penetration and retention are satisfactory for the 
treatment of power electric poles and fence posts. 
The copper sulphate solution is highly corrosive to 
metal, so the treating tank should be constructed of 
stainless steel. 

Other treatments using ammonia solutions of 
preservatives, and ammonia to precipitate the 
chemicals in the wood, have been developed at the 



Forest Research Institute, New Zealand, and are cur- 
rently being tested at Zamboanga. The objective 
in these developments is to produce a safe, 
economical treatment for moderate decay hazards. 

The plant may be a standard vacuum/pressure unit 
installed at a permanent location. Schedules used for 
this technique will give a high standard of 
protection. 77 

Logs should be cut to pole or post length and peel- 
ed or sawn into timber as soon as possible after the 
palms have been felled. Once processed into the form 
in which it will be dried the wood should be given a 
prophylactic treatment with a good fungicide. Dipp- 
ing is preferable to spraying, but if spraying is the on- 
ly alternative, a complete coverage should be en- 
sured. Indications are that the best chemical mixture 
is Captafol (0.4 per cent a.i.) plus Chlorothalonil (0.5 
per cent a.i.). 

Drying stacks should be erected with care. The site 
should be elevated, free draining, clear of vegetation 
and open to sun and wind. Bearers should be of con- 
crete or adequately treated wood, and should be at 
least 500 mm high. The stack should be protected 
with covers which should extend beyond the stack in 
all directions, to a distance equal to at least one 
quarter of the stack height. The timber should be 
open stacked using treated fillets or, in the case of 
posts, in the form of an open crib so that air can 
move freely. Stacks should be marked to show the 
date of erection, and the material should remain in 
stack for a period of five to 24 weeks, dependent on 
whether it is sawn, quarter round or full round. 



Drying and preservation schedule 



Use 


Material 


Size 


Drying 
Period 


Initial 
Solution vacuum 
cone. (-85 kPA 
(comCCA) 25 in) 


Pressure 
(1400kPA) 

(200 psi) 


Final 
vacuum 
(-85 kPA 
25 in) 


Minimum 
absorption 
(Litres/m' 


Exposed 7 


Sawn 
Timber 


25mm 
thick 


5 weeks 


2^o 20 min 


45 min 


10 min 


250-350' 


Exposed 7 

Ground 
contact 


Sawn 
Timber 

Posts 


50mm 
thick 
Quarter 
Round 


10 weeks 
12 weeks 


2% 20 min 
6% 30 min 


60 min 
120 min 


10 min 
10 min 


250-350 l 
200 


Ground 
contact 


Poles 


Round 


26-24 
weeks 


6% 30 min 


120 min 


10 min 


200 



Notes: 

1 Exposed to the weather but not in ground contact 

2 Depending on density, e.g. minimum of 250 litres/m 3 for hard high-density wood 

3 For structural or high value components, solution concentrations of 3 to 4 per cent are recommended 



41 



Chapter 8 

Energy from Coconut Wood Residues 



Coconut wood, especially of high density, will make good charcoal. Any charcoal kiln or process is 
suitable. But a system using old oil drums is cheap, simple and effective. Briquetting charcoal is 
possible with any starchy binder such as sorghum. 

Coconut wood can be used in direct fired boilers although it must be well dried before it will burn. 

Coconut wood if adequately dried, can be used for gasifiers. 



42 



Energy from Coconut Wood Residues 



Coconut Steins as Fuel 

Coconut wood is similar to other woods in its 
characteristics as a fuel, though the range of densities 
within the stem leads to variation in the energy poten- 
tial. 

Less than 20 per cent by volume of an average 
coconut stem is suitable for conversion to timber, 
and the remainder, together with sawmill residues, is 
readily usable for charcoal making and for the pro- 
duction of energy. 



Charcoal Making 

Many rural areas in the Asia-Pacific region make 
use of the traditional earth pit for conversion of 
coconut stems and shells to charcoal. The method re- 
quires only a small investment in tools and equip- 
ment but, because of the lack of control of the car- 
bonization process, yields are low and the quality of 
charcoal inferior. 

More modern methods, at various levels of 
sophistication, are now being applied. A portable 
metal kiln was constructed for the Philippine 
Coconut Authority in Zamboanga to a design similar 
to the kiln developed by the United Kingdom 
Tropical Products Institute. J Yields from this kiln 
averaged 20 per cent recovery. 

The approximate chemical analysis of the charcoal 
is: fixed carbon 70 per cent; volatile combustible 
matter 16 per cent; moisture content 12 per cent; ash 
2 per cent. 

Tests were undertaken on another kiln based on 
the TPI Mk IV design with a volume of eight m J . The 
main difference in design was that instead of being of 
all-metal construction, the bottom cylinder was made 
of two layers of brick. The inside layer was firebrick 
lined with clay, while the outside layer was the stan- 
dard building brick. This kiln had eight openings, 
four covered with chimneys which could be rotated 
from opening to opening to provide varying air flows 
to facilitate even .burning and carbonization. The 
material used for charcoal was waste material from 
logging, and some waste slabs from sawmilling. 

In Tonga, a simple kiln is constructed from a 44 
gallon drum. A slot 14 cm wide and 73 cm long is cut 
along one side. The billets of cocowood are loaded 
through this slot a little at a time. The kiln is started 
by lighting a fire on the bottom, with the slot facing 
horizontal to the ground. As the billets start burning 
the kiln is tilted so the slot is gradually moved to a 
vertical position, billets being added until the kiln is 
full. When the billets are burning well, the cover is 
put on, and the kiln turned until the slot is once again 
facing the ground. The kiln is left sealed until cool. 




8A Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln Ex- 
terior 

Several other drum designs have been used or 
described, differing mainly in the number and 
placements of air vents and therefore of operating 
techniques. Measurement of the efficiency of these 
kilns are however often imprecise since production 
operations do not have consistent descriptions of the 
nature, weight and moisture content of the initial 
charges. Suffice to say that the simplicity of the drum 
system (steel or brick) makes it appropriate where 
more elaborate systems cannot be justified. 




8B Zamboanga Research Centre Charcoal Kiln In- 
terior 



Charcoal Retorts 

Charcoal retorts differ from kilns in that the 
charge is sealed in a closed chamber and the heat is 
supplied externally, without an initial combustion 
stage. The efficiency of the retort lies in its recycling 
of effluent waste gases from the central chamber 



43 



holding the wood block charge to the fire box. After 
an initial firing to begin the reaction, the gases 
become the fuel source to carry the reaction to com- 
pletion. The charcoal conversion process is achieved 
with a low energy input, and pollution is eliminated. 
The design of the retort and combustion process en- 
sure a consistent quality and higher yields. Industrial 
charcoal is produced, with an average fixed carbon 
content of 80 per cent, for a capital outlay little in ex- 
cess of the traditional brick kiln method. 

Charcoal retorts are capable of converting 11 
metric tons of wood to four metric tons of charcoal 
in a 48-hour cycle including loading, firing, conver- 
sion, cooling, unloading and bagging. With the waste 
wood used in the initial firing of the retort, the wood 
to charcoal conversion ratio is between 3 Vi to 4: 1 for 
air-dried wood at 20 to 25 per cent moisture content. 



is fed in through nozzles. When that takes place basic 
gas production starts. 

The gas produced is led through a bed of charcoal 
which causes reduction to the main fuel gas, carbon 
monoxide (CO). The by-products of distillation such 
as tar are cracked to form hydrogen and the final 
moisture of producer gases is: 



Combustible gas 

Carbon Monoxide 

Hydrogen 

Methane 

Non Combustible gas 

Carbon dioxide 
Nitrogen 



20 per cent 

19 per cent 

1 per cent 



9 per cent 
5 1 per cent 



Charcoal Briquetting 

Coconut stem charcoal has a lower fired-carbon 
and higher ash content than wood (and coconut shell) 
charcoal. Briquetting, although not necessarily in- 
creasing the fired-carbon content increases the densi- 
ty necessary for industrial applications, to approx- 
imate that of coke. J 

Briquetting is the process of compressing the char- 
coal to form a compact, uniform mass of higher den- 
sity and strength than the original material. Studies 
on the briquetting of charcoal from coconut stems, 
carried out in the Philippines using sorghum flour as 
a binder 3 , showed that a suitable charcoal-to-binder 
ratio is of the order of 16:1. 



Activated Carbon 

Activated carbon can be made from coconut wood 
charcoal by the removal of hydrocarbon tars adher- 
ing to the carbon, to create a vast network of 
molecular capillaries to increase and improve the ab- 
sorptive power of charcoal. Activated coconut-shell 
charcoal can be best applied ingas and vapourabsorp- 
tion because of its high density. The activated low- 
density wood charcoal and coconut-trunk charcoal 
are best suited to liquid purification. 

Since coconut-shell charcoal is comparable to the 
so-called charcoal produced from dense; trees in 
structural strength and low-ash content, it can be a 
reliable source of carbon for the manufacture of 
various chemicals such as carbon disulfide, calcium 
carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon 
monoxide; paint pigments; Pharmaceuticals; 
moulding resins; black powder, electrodes; catalyst 
reactor; brake linings; and gas-cylinder absorbent. 



Heat energy to mechanical energy: 

5 kg of wood/hour yields approximately 6 hp/hour 

(Engine) 

5 kg of wood/hour yields approximately 4 kW/hour 

(General) 

The hearth module is the actual gas-making com- 
ponent of the system and is supplied as the standard 
stock item. All other components of a particular 
gasifier system are custom made or assembled from 
stock parts to suit the purchaser's special needs, 
whether they are for heat generation or for engine 
fuelling. Where producer gas is intended for use in 
process heating operations such as timber drying and 
gas cooling, filtration need not be employed. Where 
producer gas is intended for use in engine fuelling 
operations, cooling and greater purity of the fuel gas 
is essential and therefore appropriate equipment is 
added to the plant to obtain this result. 



Ethanol from Coconut Waste Products 

The production of ethanol from grains and sugar- 
rich crops has been practised for thousands of years. 
Toddy and arrack from the sap of the coconut palm 
are a well-known example. 

The alcohol has been used mainly for drinking, for 
medical purposes and sometimes for chemical pro- 
duction. Cost of production has not been an issue. 
Modern techniques have however lowered costs of 
production and in some countries ethanol is already 
produced for energy use from prime agricultural pro- 
ducts. 

Considerable advances have been made in the use 
of cellulosic materials for ethanol production. Recent 
testing of coconut utilization of the softer inner core 
of the stem has shown promising results. 5 * 



Producer Gas - Gasifier 

Gasifiers work by drying wood with heat radiating 
from the hearth zone at the bottom of a producer. As 
the wood works its way towards the hearth it turns 
into charcoal. The charcoal reacts with the air which 



Power Generation Systems 

Mechanical and electrical power generation fuel 
led by wood, straw and similar materials has been 
practised commercially for over one hundred years. 
The earliest systems used steam and hot air external 



44 



combustion engines. More recently internal combus- 
tion engines have been used in conjunction with 
various methods of converting the fuel to combusti- 
ble gas. 

Other systems incorporating closed cycle gas tur- 
bines and engines are being developed and could 
come into regular use in the future. 

The main factors limiting the use of wood or 
woody material as fuel for power generation have 
been economic rather than technical and thus any 
evaluation of the potential must be concerned 
primarily with the economics of the systems, in- 
cluding saving of foreign exchange. The economics 
are determined by factors such as fuel costs, capital 
cost, plant efficiencies, labour costs etc. 

The low cost of oil fuels and their simplicity of use 
were the major reasons why there was a move away 
from solid fuels at the beginning of this century. 

At present there are two basic systems which can 
practically and economically be applied to generating 
power from coconut wood and other wood wastes. 
One system is burning with or without gasification 
and generation of steam to operate engines or tur- 
bines. The other system is direct gasification from 
wood or charcoal to produce a fuel suitable for use in 
internal combustion engines. 

The degree of complexity, the safety hazards and 
capital cost are similar for both burning and gasifica- 
tion plants. The most significant differences are in 
the fuel consumption rates. Gasification direct from 
wood uses about half as much wood as either a direct 
burning system or charcoal-making followed by 
gasification system, to produce the same energy out- 
put. The steam engine has however advantages in 
simplicity of operation and reliability. 



Establishment and Operation of Power System 

There are many possible reasons for considering 
power generation based on wood. Before commenc- 
ing such a project it is necessary to consider many 
factors in order to be sure that the project will be pro- 
fitable and desirable. 

The higher capital cost of wood-fuelled systems as 
compared with diesel systems result in higher fixed 
costs. This makes it verv important to achieve high 



utilization. Greatest effectiveness can be achieved 
from a wood-fuelled system where there is a steady 
load without large peak demands and the plant is us- 
ed to supply the base load demand of an existing 
system. This latter condition can be planned so that 
the load is shared between the wood and the diesel 
plants in such a way that the wood system generates 
at or near full output most of the time. The use of 
diesel is restricted to those times where the demand is 
high thus making maximum use of its facility for 
quick start-up and shut-down whilst dramatically 
reducing total diesel fuel consumption. 

Electric power must be reliable. Many consumers 
need continuous supply or a very low incidence of 
failures if losses or hazards are to be avoided. For ex- 
ample, fish freezers at a base port, hospitals and 
large industries may be seriously jeopardised by 
power shut downs. 

A wood-fuelled plant which is not connected to 
another system will usually require some duplication 
of equipment and some diesel engine stand by capaci- 
ty, although the smallest systems such as for villages, 
may not need these features. 

Because of the bulky nature of wood fuel, it is im- 
portant, in locating a plant, to minimise roading and 
transportation costs. Thus power plants will general- 
ly be near the fuel source rather than close to the con- 
sumers to be supplied. 



8C Firewood 




45 



Footnotes 



7 FAO Production and Trade Yearbook Vol. 36 
(1982) 

2 Coconut Stem Utilisation Seminar Proceedings 
held in Nukualofa, Kingdom of Tonga, 25-29 Oc- 
tober 1976, under the New Zealand Aid Programme 
for the South Pacific Region. Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs, Wellington, New Zealand 1977 

3 Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, Manila 
and Zamboanga 22-27 October. A meeting spon- 
sored by Philippine Coconut Authority, New 
Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Asian and 
Pacific Coconut Community. Published by the 
Philippines Coconut Authority. 

4 Coconut Industries, 1981. International Coir 
Development Newsletter, Number 1. 

3 Cocostem Development Co. Ltd. ,1978. Coconut 
Wood Parquet Plant for Tonga: Feasibility Report. 
Wellington 

6 Decena, A.S., Dela Cruz, R.Z. and Penid, B.J., 
1976. Forpride Digest. Vol.V 

7 Evans, Rex D., January 1979. Coconut Wood: The 
Pacific's Great Untapped Resource. Asia Pacific 
Research Unit, Wellington. 

9 Evans, Rex D., 1978. Parquet Flooring from 
Coconut Wood: Research Review 1 March 1978. 
Cocostem Investigation Unit, Asia Pacific Research 
Unit and Evans(QS) Company, Wellington 
9 Ford R.J.,1982. New Zealand Bilateral Aid 
-Cocostem Utilisation Project, Zamboanga City, 
Philippines, October 1980-December 1982. Report to 
the Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Well- 
ington. 

70 Grimwood, Brian E., et al, 1975. Coconut Palm 
Products: Their Processing in Developing Countries. 
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, Rome. 

77 Groome, J.G. and Associates, January 1982. 
Small Scale Power Generation: Coconut Wood and 
other Wood Wastes. Prepared for Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
Taupo. 

77 Hicksons Timber Impregnation Co (NZ) Ltd., 
April 1980. Recommended Specifications for the 
treatment of Coconut Wood, Auckland 
n Jensen P. ,1979. Skidding Bar. Coconut Wood 
-1979: The Proceedings, Zamboanga 
14 Kinninmonth, J.A. 1977. Drying sawn timber of 
coconut. Coconut Stem Utilisation Proceedings, 
Tonga, 1976 

n Kinninmonth, J.A. The Air Drying of Sawn 
Timber. New Zealand Forest Service Reprint 
Number 42. 

16 Kinninmonth, J,A., 1979. Drying of Coconut 
Wood/ Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, 
Zamboanga 

17 Kloot, N.H. and Bolza. E., 1977. Properties of 
Timbers Imported into Australia. CSIRO, Australia 



18 Little, E.C.S., April 1975. Report to the Govern- 
ment of the Philippines on Coconut Wood Utiliza- 
tion. UNDP/FAO Coconut Research and Develop- 
ment project 

19 McLean, Murdoch, Managing Director, Hickson 
Timber Impregnation Co. NZ Ltd., March 1983. 
Seasoning and Treatment of Coconut Posts and 
Poles. Cited by A. McQuire in A Note on the Treat- 
ment of Coconut Wood With CCA Preservative. 
New Zealand 

20 McQuire, A.J., 1977. The Durability and Preser- 
vative Treatment of Coconut Palm Wood. Coconut 
Stem Utilisation Proceedings, Tonga, 1976 

21 McQuire, A.J., 1979. Exposure Tests of Treated 
and Untreated Coconut Stem Wood in the South 
Pacific. Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, 
Zamboanga 

" Meadows, D.J., 1977. The Coconut Industry - 
Problems and Prospects, Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar, Tonga, 1976 

23 Meylan, B.A., 1978. Density variation with Cocos 
nucifera stems New Zealand Journal of Forestry 
Science, Volume 8 (3): 369-83 

24 Mosteiro, Arnaldo P., January-March 1978. For- 
pride Digest, Volume VII, Number 1 

25 Palomar, R.N., [1980a] Preservation Techniques 
of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Palm Timber for 
Electric Power /Telecommunication Poles and Fence 
Posts Mimeo. Zamboanga Research Centre. 

36 Palomar, R.N., [1980b] Charcoal Making. 
Mimeo. Zamboanga Research Centre 
" Richolson, J.M., August 1980. Coconut Stem 
Utilisation Programme Information Note (3): Ther- 
mal Insulation of Coconut Wood. A Review of 
Utilization possibilities for Over-mature Coconut 
Palm Stems in Fiji. Department of Forestry, Suva 

29 Richolson, J.M. and Swarup, R., 1977. A brief 
review of the anatomy and morphology of the 
coconut palm (Part I) with a report on its basic 
physical properties (Part II). Coconut Stem Utilisa- 
tion Seminar Proceedings, Tonga ; 1976 

30 San Luis, Josefina M. and Estudillo, Calvin P., 
1976. Charcoal Briquetting - An Outlet for Wood and 
Coconut Trunk Wastes. Forpride Digest, Volume V, 
pp. 73-74 

31 South Pacific Commission, April 1957. Practical 
Uses for Coconut Timber. Quarterly Bulletin, 
Noumea 

" Standards Association of Australia. Australian 
Standards 1975: Use of Timbers in Structures 

33 Tamolang, Dr. Francisco N., 1976. The Utilization 
of Coconut Stems and other Parts in the Philippines. 
NSDB Technology Journal, Volume I, Number 2, 
April-June 

34 [Tongan] Coconut Review Committee, February 
1982. A Review of the Coconut Replanting Scheme 



46 



and Aspects of the Coconut Industry related to 
Coconut Production, Kingdom of Tonga. Ministry 
of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forests Planning Unit 
Technical Publication No. 1/82 
35 Turner, John, 1982. Philippines Mini Mill Opera- 
tion at San Ramon, August September 1982. Report 
to [New Zealand] Ministry of Foreign Affairs Aid 
Assignment 

" Walford, G.B., 1979. Structural Use of Coconut 
Timber. Coconut Wood - 1979: The Proceedings, 
Zamboanga 

37 Walford, G.B. and Orman, H.R., 1977. The 
mechanical properties of coconut timber and its 
design capabilities in construction. Part 1 - Basic 
strength properties. Coconut Stem Utilisation 
Seminar Proceedings, Tonga, 1976 



38 FAO - Kandeel S.A. 1983 
FAO - Sulc V.K. 1983 

39 Bermelt C. 

40 Bergseng K. Timber Industry Training Centre, 
Rotorua NZ 

41 Evans N. Fe'ofa'aka Enterprises NZ 

43 Hicksons Timber Impregnation Co. (NZ) Ltd 

43 Juson R.A. Zamboanga Research Centre, Philip- 
pines 

44 McQuire A.J. Forest Research Institute, Rotorua 
NZ 

45 Philippine Coconut Authority, Zamboanga 
Research Centre 

" Palm Pacific Hardwoods Ltd 

47 Schilling M 

48 Siers J 



47 



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