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• • • • 





Sakctomits i:?^' ins baj-a^^ck. 
















Neque enim ulla alia re homines propius ad Deos acceclunty quam salutem 
hominlbus </fl;j</c?.— Cicero, pro ligario, c. 3f^. 




Edinburgh r 
]print«d hf MundeU, Doig, & Stevenson. 






d^it Account of the Foteign Authors^ who have 
written on Health and Longevity, with extracts 
from their works, illustrating the opinions they 
have entertained regarding these interesting sub-- 

No. Pag. 

I. Regimen Sanitatis Salerni: or the regiment of healthy 

containing direSlions for the life of many - 3 
IL CornarOf , and the authors who immediately pre^^ 

ceded him^ • • . ^y 

Preliminary obfervations^ - ib. 

I • Marcilius Facinus, <- « . ib. 

2. Antonius GaztuSf - *- 48 

3. Platina Cremonenjis^ - ib. 
Atreatije on afoher life , by Lewis CornarOf 51 
A compendium of afoher life, - 83 
An eatnejl exhortation, * "95 


No. Pag. 

III. of the authors who hav§ written on health and 

longevity from the time of Cornaro to that of 

SanBoriusj - - - IXS 

I. Tbomais Philologus of Ravenna^ - ii6 
a. f^dus FtdiuSf •* - ib. 

3. Hieronimus Cardanus^ - 117 

4. Alexander Trajanus Petroniust - 1 19 

5. Levinuf Lemnius, - - ib. 

6. Jafon Pratenfis, - - 120 

7. Antonius Fumanellus Veronenjis^ m ib. 

8. Johannes Valverdus de Hamufco^ ib. 

9. Gulielmus Gratarolus^ - 121 
10. H^nricus Ran%omus - - ib. 

II. Mmilius Dufus, - - ib, 
12. Ferdinandus EuflatiuSy * ib. 

IV. Sanfforius, - - - l»2 

Medicina Statica^ or rufes of healthy in 
eight fiBions or apborifms^ originalfy writm. 
ten by SanBorius, chief profejfor of phyfig 

at Padua^ - - ^^3 

SanBorius to the reader^ - ib. 

An account of the weighing chair ^ I %$ 
Seft. I. Of infenjihle perfpiration^ andtheexaSf 

weight thereof f - - 127 

2. Of air and water S9 , - M^ 
Jphorifms added by the author^ - 153 

3, Of meat and drink. - - ib* 
Aphorifms added by the author y - 1 63 

4- Of fleep and vigilance^ - 166 

Aphorifms added by the author ^ - 173 

Sefl:. $• Of exercise andrejl^ - '74 

Aphorifms addedby the author^ - 17* 

J^*- Pag. 

tV» ' 6. De viherei . » - 1 79 

' Additi ab auiiorey - , lg« 

7i Of the affections of the mindy . 184 

8.' To thejlaticofhujlrix^ . 1^0 

V. Modern difcoveries regarding perfpiration, 193 

Aff. Alernethy^s experiments^ - ipr 
VI. ^ rf^ foreign authbr^ who wrote concerning 
health, from the time of SariSlorius, till the 

treaty of Utrecht, . . 20Y 

t. Rodericus a jtonjeca, ^' ^ jj,^ 

!• AureliAs jinfelmus, - . ^qj 

3. Trancifcus Rancbintis, . jl,^ 

/(* Rodtlphus Gocleriiiis^ - • ib 

5. Clattdins Diodatus , . . 2^^ 

6. Johannes Jo'nflonus, - - ib 

7. Bernariin' Rama%%ini, ^ 210 
Vn. STAtf flf*Jf of medicine among the Chinefe, 212 

Chan Seng : or, the art of procuring health 

and long life, - . - 214 

The regulatiofi of the heart and its affeBums, 2 1 6 

Tie reguiiatdTt of diet, . . 222 

Tie regulation of the a&ions of the day, 229 

The regulations for reft at night, . 236 

The mearis of happtnefsf - - 24 1 

Caufes of long life, - . ^^^ 

An encomiufh upon temperance, . 242 

VHI. Kanr on the art of preventing difeafes, - 24c 

Prittciple of dietetics, . . 248 

Ofhypocoridriafs, • . 251 

Ofjleep, - . . 25a 

Of eating and drinJlifig, - ^ ^^4 


VHI. Of ike i^npleafantfinfation produced^ hy inopm . 

portune meditation^ - • 25? 

Of alleviating and preventing dijeajes hy 

determination in breathings - 256 

Conclufion, - « ^ ,258 

IX. ^ treatife on health, hy Halle, - 2(Jo 

Definition^ objeBy and divifion of the Hygiene, %6i 
Hijory of Hygiene^ - - 263 

Hiflory of public Hygiene^ - - 265 

Of legi/lation, manners, a^dpolice^ an^opg 
ancient nations, relative to Hygiene, ib. 
Phyfical legi/lation, or legiflative Hygiene 

among the nations of antiquity, « 26g^ 
Fhy/ical legi/lation, or public Hygiene 
among the Hebrews, - - ib. 

Legijlative Hygiene of Lycurgus^ and of the 

Greeis in general^ - - 274 

Phyfical code of Pythagoras and of PlatOj, 28^ 
Zegifiative Hygiene of the Perfians, to the 

period of the infancy of Cyrus the Great, 287 
Concerning the manners and cufioms of tha 

ancients, relative to Hygiene, - 289 

Concerning the gymnaflic art, - 290 

Concerning baths and repafis^ in their rela^ 

ti&n to the gymnaftic art, 7 296 

Concerning the regulations conneQiid with 

public police among the ancients y - 302 

Public Hygiene of the modern nations, - 307 

Legi/lation, . . - ib. 

Manners and cuftoms, - - 308 

The ^mnqftic art^ and batis, and re^imen^ ib* 


N0t Pag. 

ISL* Police relat foe to pmUie beafiif. «. ^^i 

JLazarettos, hojfita/s, and prophaylaSiic 

meqfures^ - - - ib. 

Concerning prifons and workboufet^ 327 

Concerning the bealibfulnefs of cities^ 
of camps y ofjbips ; concerning colonies, ' 
draining^ %^c. - . ^2^ 

Hiflory of private Hygiene^ - . ^^. 

Concerning Hygiene^ before the era of 
Hippocrates^ - . y^^ 

Biftory of Hygiene, arranged into four 

principal epocbSf - . ,^2 

Firjl epoch^^tbat of Hippocrates, . 3^5 
Different periods of tbis epocb^ - ij,^ 

Firfl period of tbefirjl epocb, from tbe age 

of Hippocrates to tbat of Galen, - 3^0 
fiiocles, Caryjlius, « . ^-g 

P^lfi*^* ^ • . . ib, 

Plutarcbj Agathinus, - . ^^5^ 

Second period of tbefrfl epocb^ « o^jg 

Galen, - , . jj,^ 

Pqrpbyry, . . . ^79 

Oribqfius, and tbe ancient Greets, tvbo foU 

lowed Galen, . ,. . ^g^ 

^bird period of tbe frjl epocb, - ag- 

I* Arabian febool, « « j||^ 

"2,. Scbool of tbe modern Greeks, . og^ 

3 . Scbool ofSalernum^ ondEuropeanpby^ 

Jicians, to tbe revival of literature, 303 

Fourtb period of tbe Jirft epocb,—from tbe 
revival of literature to tbe time of Sancr- 
forius, . - . . 3p8 

' > 

IX* Second epocb^-^ilmi 9f San^orims^ * 405 

nird efoeb^r-RivivsJ ef At phyjical 
fciences^ - - •411 

Concermng tbt pbUofifhf rf ari^ anitf phi^ 
lofcp^nccl fiudy^ • - 414 

Trogrefs of tie nfftyral and experimental 
fciencesj mojl ufefuJ to the knowledge of 
man dvring the eourfe of the third epochs 420 

Progrefs if Hygiene in the eourfe of the 
third epochs • • • 429 

Traces of this progrefs in ihe principal works 
which have coniriluted to improve the dif* 
ferent branches of Hyg:eiU^ • 43* 

General treallfes^ - ib. 

T articular trsatifes, — Pro^efs of Hygiene 

. in the phyjical in&wledge <f man^ of 

his relations to cl^maie, of the varieties of 

^ bis phyfical confiitutiofT or of his temper* 
aments^ - - - 433 

Progrefs of Hygiend in ihe ^dy of thofe 
thiiJgs which coTicern- hsalthy - 437 

Progrefs of Hygiene in the theory tf regimen^ 445 

Fourth epochs — diftinguifhed hy the dif 
covery of the aeriform Jl::ids^ and hy the 
renovation of the chemical fciencesy 449 

jlfL hiflorical abridgment of the difcoveries 
which concern man^ which contribute to 
improve the knowledge of his phyjical 
constiiution^ and to ajjtfl ar in comprcm 
bending tlh> phenomena of his organi* 
%aii<m^> n n n 450 


No, Pag. 

IX» ConJeSures relative to the advantages which 
the phyKcaHnowledge of man and of Hy» 
giene may derive from the difcoveriei al* 
ready made, during the courfe of the 
fourth epochs • - • 458 

Mtxpofition of a plan of a complete treatife 
on Hygiene^ • - - 463 

X« On Longevity^ by Lucian^ - 47^ 










* * 


Vol. hi; 

I .* '•-* 









■ \ 



A MONG the foreign books which have been printed on 
the fubje£t of health, pofterior to the deftrufbion of 
the Roman power and empire, a work in verfe^ written 
about the end of the eleventh century, for the ufe of 
Robert, duke of Normandy, or of his father^ WIU 
11am the Conqueror, deferves firft to be mentioned* It 
is true that two Jewifli phyficians had previoufly drawn 
up, at the defire of Charles the Great, a treatife called 
Tacuiny or l!ahles rf Healthy which is publifhed under the 

_ ^^^ 1 

name oiEiluchafem EUtnithar. This book, as M^Kenzie in 
his Hiftory of Health obferves, is rarely to be met with, 
except in public libraries, which is no great lofs, being 

A % 


but a mean, perplexed, and whimfical, performance, and 
fcarce worth taking notice of, but only becaufe it hap- 
pens to be fometimes quoted by the learned« 

The dodlrines however of the univerfity of Salerne, are 
entitled to more notice ^ for, though it is dangerous, as 
has been juftly remarked, to prefcribe rules iniFcrfe, on 
Aich a delicate fubje£); as health, becaufe the mufe may 
occafionally elevate the poet above the reach of falutary pre- 
cepts, and make him forget the ph^tcian \ yet there are 
fome ufeful cfiredHons in that work, and it is curious to 
trace the progrefs of human knowledge, regarding any 
important art or fcience, from its rude beginnings, tiR it 
reaches fome degree of vigour and maturity. 

This work is fuppofed to have been drawn up about the 
year 1099, by Johannes de Mediolanus, or John of Milan, 
with the concurrence of the other phyficians of Salerne^ 
then reckoned the moft celebrated fchool for medicine in 
Europe. It was formerly in fuch high efteem, that it was call- 
ed " The Flower of Phyfic j" * and Haller enumerates above 
twenty editions of it printed at different times, fomedmes 
with, and fometimes without, a commentary. It has been 
tranflated into various languages. Into Englifh by Paynell, 
of which work two editions were printed at London in 1579 
and 1 607. But the belt edition of it in the Englifli language 
is by Dr. ?• Holland, who tranflated, at the fame time, the 
Commentary of Arnoldus de Villa Nova, which is too vo- 
luminous, however, to be reprinted in this compilation, nor 
does it feem to contain any very important obfervations. 

* Hoc opus optatur quod flos.medicinib vocatur. 





Angloruin Regi fcribit fchola tota 

Saleini : 
Si vis incolumem, ii tIs te reddere fa- 

Curas toUe gravels, irafd crede pro- 

fanum : 
Parce mero, coeoato parutn ; non lie 

tlbi vanum 
Surgere poft epulas, fomnum fuge 

Ke mi&iim retine, nee comprime 

fortiter anum. 
Hsc bene ii fervet, tu loogo tempore 



All Salern fchooi thus write to 

Englands king. 
And for mans health thefe fit advifet 

shun bufie cares, rjifib* angers, which 

difpleafe ; 
Light fupping, little drink, do caufe 

great eafe. 
Rife after meat,-,ileep not at after. 

noon, .y 

tVaterjand natures need, expcli them 

Long (halt thou live, if all thefe well 
I be done. 

Si tibi deficiant medici, medici tibi 

Haec tria : mens hilaris, requies, mo- 

derata dixta. 

When phyfick needs, let thefe thy 

do<ftors be, 
'Spare dyet, quiet thoughts, heart 

mirthful! free. 

Lrnxuna man<^, manus furgens gelida 

Uvet unda. 
Hie iliac modicum pergat, modicum 

fua membra 
Extendat, crines pe<ftat, dtntes fri* 

cet, ifta 
Confortant cerebrum, confortant cae- 

tera membra. 
Liote cale, ftapranfe, vel i, frigefce 


Sleep not too long in mornings, early 

And with coole water ^afh both 

hands and eyes, 
Walke gently forth, and ftretch out 

' every limbe. 
Combe head, rub teeth, to make them 

deane and trim. 
The braine and every member elfe, 

thefe do relieve. 
And to all parts ccAitinuall comfort 

Bathing, keep warm, walk after food 

or ftand. 
Complexions cold, do gentle warmth 





Sit brcf 18, aut nullas, tibi fomnus me- 

Fcbris, pigritics, capitis dolor, atque 

Hsc tibi proveniunt ex fomno me* 


Let little fleep, or none at allfuf- 

At afternoon, but waking keep thine 

Such fleep ingenders feavers, head* 

ache, rheames, 
Dulnefle of foul, and belcbeth up ill 

From forth the ftomach. AU thefc 

harmes enfue, 
By fleep at afternoons, beleere it 


Si fluat ad pedlus, dicatur rheuma 

catarrhus : 
Si ad fauces, bronchus : fi ad nares, 

cflo coryza. 

Rheumes from the breaft, afcending 

throu^ the nofe : 
So9ie call catarrhes, fome tyfickyfome 

the pofe. 

Quatuor ex vento veniunt in ventre 

Spafinus, hydrops, colica, et vertigo, 

hoc res probat ipfa. 

When wind within the belly you re- 

The body gets by four difeafes pain- 
Cramps, dropiie, collick, giddinefsof 


Xz magna coena, ftomacht fit maxi- 
ma pcena. 

Ut fis node levis, fit tibi coena bre- 

Great fuppers pat the ftomack to 

great pain. 
Sup lightly if good reft yon mean to 


Tu nunquam comedas, ftomachum 

ni noveris efle 
Purgatum, vacuumque cibo, quern 

fumpferis ante. ' 

Thou fliould'ft not eat imtill thy 

ftomack (ay. 
The meat's digefted, which did pafle 

that way. 



Zx defielcrio id poteris cognofcere 

Hsbc fint figoa tibi, fubtilit in ore 


DR. Holland's translation. 

For the trnc ufc of appetite to feed. 
Is natures dyct, no more then ihall 

Per ilea, pomai pira, & lac, cafeus, & 

•caro falfa, 
£t caro cervina, & leporina, bovina, 

Atra hzc bile nocent, funtque infir- 

mis inimica. 

Ova recentia, vina rubentia, pinguia 

Cum fimila para, naturae fitnt vali. 


Peares, apples, peaches, cheefe, and 

powdred meat, 
VeoifoD, hare, goats fleih, and beef 

to eat. 
All tllefe breed melancholly, corrupt 

the blood, 
Therefore not feeding on them, I 

hold good. 

Your rtcw layd egs, briflc, cheei fully 
coloured wine, 

And good fat broth in phifick we 

To be fo wholefome, that their pu- 

Doth nourifli nature very foveraign- 

Regula prefbyteri jubethoc pro lege 

' Qu6d bona iint ova, Candida, longaj 

The priefts fair daughter, held it a 

law moft true, 
That egs be beft, when they are 

long, white, new. 

Hutrit trlticum A: impinguat^ lac, 

cafeus infans, 
Telliculi, porcina caro, cerebella, 

Dulcia vina, cibus guflu jucundior, 

Sorbiiia, & ficus maturac, uvzque re^ 


Bread of red wheat, milk, and new 
made cheefe, 

Beafls tefticles, pork marrow, brain 
of thefe. 

Sweet wines, delicious meats, egs 
that are rear,^ 

Over-ripe figs and raifins, thefe ap- 

To make the body fat, and nourilh 


* Procuring corpulence, and growth 
of (lature. 



Vina probantur odore, iapore, nito- 

re, colore, 
si bona vina cvpis, quinque hstc lau- 

dantur in illis : 
Fortia, formofa, &. fragrantia, frigrida9 



Smell favour, colour, chearfull, fine, 
Thefe are the beft proofs o£a cop oC 

In choice of good wine thefe are erpr 

Strength, beauty, fragrance, cool- 

neife, fprightly leaping. 

Corpora plus augent tibi dulcia, Can- 
dida vina. 

The fweet^ft wines da mof| of all 

And cheer the fpirits, being nutria 


Si vinum rubrum nimium quandoque 

Venter ilipatur, vox limpida ttirbifi- 


^^en too much red wine ttareleflj 

we drink. 
It bindes the belly, m^ket the voice 

to ihrink. 

Allia, ruta, pyra, & raphanus^ cum 
theriaca nux, ^ 

Praeftant antidotum contra lethale 

I reade, from garlicky nuts, hearbr 

grace, or rew. 
Pears, radifh-rootS} and treacle do 

enfue : 
Such vertuous qualities, thai they all 

fcrye ^ 
As antidotes againft poyfop tp. prer 


Allia qui mane jejunofumpferit ore, 
Hun^ ignotarum non Ixdet potus a- 

Nee diverforum mutatio fada loco^ 


He that takes garlick early in the 

Needs let no drink by hina to be for^ 

Diveriity of countries he may fee^ 
And well enabled if his mind fobee. 



Lucidus ac mundus fit rite habitabi- 

lis a£r, " 
Infe&us ne^e fit» nee (dens fcetore 


DR, Holland's TRANstATio^. 

Dwell where the ayr U clears fweeCi 

wholefome, bright, . 
Infeded with no fames that hurt the 

For fweeteft ayrs do nature moil de« 


$1 noduma tibi noceat potatio vini, 
Hoc tn mane bibas iterum, &. fuerit 

If overmuch wipe hath thy brain of- 

Drink early next morning and its 
mended. . 

Gignit & humores melius* vinum 

Si foerit nigrum, corpus reddet tibi 

Tinum fit clanunque, vetus, fubtile, 

Ac bene dilutum, fallens, modera- 

mine fumpj^unu 

The better that the wines In good- 

neife be, 
The better humours they beget in 
If wine look black, it makes thy body 

If it be cleer, old, fubtile, ripe and 


Well qualified, leaping, drunk dif- 

Then with thy body it agrees moft 


K^n acidum iapiat cervifia, fit bend 

ipt granis fit cofta bonis, iatis ac tc- 


For drinking beer Or ale, thus we 

Not to be iharp or fower in any 

JLet them be cleer, well boyl'd com 

found and good. 
Stale, and^ not new ; all thefe caufc 

hc^thfull bloud. 

V' • 




Be qua potetur, ftemaehns nen inde 


Of whatfoere you driok, fee no of- 

Unto the ftomack be procured 

Temporilms veris modicum prandere 

Sed calor abftatit dapibos notet iffl- 

Antumni fruiftiucaYeas nefinttibi 

De menia fume, quantum w tempo* 

The fpring-time doth command aor 
dinners be, 

fiut light and little, fparihg in de- 

The fvmiiier feafon being foultry 

Immoderate feeding ihould be then 

The fall of leaf or autumn doth 

Eating much fruit, great harm en- 
fues thereby. 

But in the winter, cold doth then 

Such a full mealj as nature can de- 

Salvia cum ruta faciunt tibi pocula 

Adde rofo florem, miattitque poten- 

ter amorem. 

If in your drink, waiht (age is mixt 

with rew. 
It is moft wholefome poyfon to fob- 

Adde thereto rofe flowers if you 

feele the heat. 
Of Venus to wax wanton, or grow 


Nauiea non poterit h«c quern vex- i Sea-water drunk with wine doth 
are,inarinam well defend thee, 

Undam cum vino mjxtar» qui fump^ If on the fea, cafting chance to offend 
feritantc. thee. ^ 




Salvia, fal, vinumi piper, aIiia,petro- 

£x his fac falfath, ne fit commixtio 


DR. Holland's translation. 

Sage, fait, and wiife, pepper there- 
with applyed, 

Garlick and parfley, thcfc have well 
bin tryed : 

To make good fauce for any kind of 

Procuring appetite when men would 

Lotio poft menfam tibi confert mu- 

nera bina, 
Mnndificat palmas, & lumiQa reddit 

Si fore vit (anus, abloc fspe manus. 

If thou wilt walk in health, let the 

Oft walk thy hands, chiefly when 
thou doeft rife, 

From feeding at the table ; for there- 

Thou gain'ft two benefits, it clears 

the eye. 
Gives comfort to the palmes, both 

which well tended. 
Our health (thereby) the better it 


]Pani8 non calidus, nee fit uimis in- 

Sed fermentatuique, oculatus, fit be- 

nd coSus, 
£t falfus modici, ex granis validis 

Ne comedas craftam, choleram i|uia 

gignit adoftam. 
£c panis falfus, fermentatus, ben^ 

purns fit fanus, non t^lis fit tibi va- 


Not over cold not hot let be thy 

HoUow and light, but cafily leaven- 

Sparingly faked, and of the pureft 

And £ee that crafts thou de forbear 

to eat. / 

Becaufe that angry choller they be- 

Thy bread well bak't, light faltcd, 

found of grain : 
AH thefe pbfcrv'd, thou doft not cat 
in vail. 




Eft porcina caro fine vino pejor ov» 

Si tribuas vinuxn, fiierit cibui ac me« 


DR. Holland's translatxom. 

To feed on pork, whether we fop or 
dine, - ^ 

Is worfe than mutton, if we have no 

But drinking wine, therewith, it ii 
found food. 

And phyfick for the body very good* 

Bu porcorum bona funt, mala funt 

The tripes or inwards of the hog ii 

And better then of any other beaft. 

Impedit urinam muftum, folvit citd 

Bepatis emphraximi iplenis gene- 
rat lapidem^ue. 

Sweet wine to urine is^ a ftop^ or 

To loofenefle in the belly, it makes 

It harmeth both the Hver and the 

Caufing the ftone, as hath by proof 

bin feen. 

Fotus aqusfumptus comedenti in- 

commoda przftat. 
Hinc friget ftomacfaus, cmdus & in- 

de cibut. 

He that drinks water when he feeds 
on meat. 

Doth divers harms unto himfelf be- 

It cooles the ftomack with a crude 

And voids the meat again without 


font nutritlvx multvm cames vitu- I Flelh of young cales, or veal is very 



Quick in digeftioa nouriflung the 




Sunt bona gallina, & capo, turtur, 

ftarna, columba. 
Qoifcula, phafiades, merale, fixnul 

Perdix, frigellufque, Otis, tremuluf- 

que, amarcUus. 


The hen, the capon, turtle and the 

The ringnlove, quaile, lark, owfeQ 

fat and fair. 
The partridge, robin red-breaft, cock 

of the Wood, 
The pheafant, heath-cock, moreheng 

all are good, 
So the wild mallard and green p]oo> 

ver too. 
Eaten with wifdome as we ought to 


Si pifces moUes funt, magno corpore 

Si pifces duri, parvi funt plas vali- 


The fi(h of foft and biggeft bodj 

If hard and little do not them for-, 


Xiucitts & perca, & faxatilis, albica, 

Comus, plagitia, & cum carpa, gal- 
bio, truta. 

Pike, pearch, and fole, stre knowm 

for dainty fifh. 
The whiting alfo is a courtly difli s 
Tench, gurnard, and aweU-growB 

plaice in May, 
Carp, rochet, trout, thefe are good 

meat I fay. 

Luciui eft pifcis rex atque ; tyrannus 

Among our fi(h, the pike is king of 

In water none is more tyrannicall 

Vocibus, anguilUe prayae funt, fi co- 

Qui phyficen non ignorant, hsc tef- 


Who knowea not phyfick, (hould he 

nice and choice. 
In eating eclcs, becaufe they hurt the 

f oice : 




Cafeos ang^uxUs, niinis obfunt, fi co- 

Mi ttt Dsepi bibasy & rcbibendo bibas. 


Both eeles and cheeie without goo4 

(lore of wine» 
Weil drunk with them, offends at 
. any time. 

Inter prandendnm fit faepe parumque 

^ fumas ovum, molle fit, atque no- 

In feeding at our meala fome dodora 

Oft-times, and yet but little, we 

fliould drink. 
In eating egges, chufe them are fo£t 

and new. 
For otherwife, great perils may en- 


Pifum laudandum nunc fumpiimus 

ac reprobandum. 
Eft inflativum cum pellibus atque 

Pellibus ablatis funt bona pifa fatis. 

Peafe may be praysM, and difcom* 

mended too. 
According as their nature is to do. 
The huikes avoyded then the pulfe 

is good, 
Weil nouriihing not hurtfull to the 

But in the bulks they are gnawing 

And in the ftomack caufe inflations 


Lac phthifikois faQum caprinum, 

poftque cameli, 
Ac nutritivum plus omnibus eiib afi- 

Plus nutritivum vaccinum iit,*quoque 

Adfit fi febris, caput & doleat, fugi- 

cndum eft. 

Goats milk, nor camels milk, to drink 

is good. 
When agues or confumptions touch 

the bloud. 
They nourifh welL But (beyond 

all) feme fay. 
Milk of an aiTe doth nourilh more 

then they. 
Yet when as head-ach, or hot fevers 

The milk of kine and iheep are beft 





l,enit, k. humedat, foliiit fine febre 

D&. Holland's T&AHftLATMN. 

Butter doth fofteo, moiften aod 

make loofc beiide, 
Thofe bodies where no ftver doth 


laciditque, lavat, penetrat, tnundat 
42uoque feruni. 

Whey i« inciiiTe wiihing piercing 

Cleaniing, and purging where it it 

fit to do. 

Cafcus eft gelidus, ftipans, craOiis, 

quoque durus, 
Cafcus & panii funt optima fercula 

Si noo funt fani^ tunc hunc ne jun- 

gito pani. 


Cheefe is by nature cold, ftnlBng, 

grofle and hard : 
Yet good with bread, where ficknel^ 

it debar'd, 
When being found in health, for 

them it*8 good, 
But if not joynd with bread, «b» 

whokfome food. 

Ignari medici me dicunt effe noci- 

£t tamen ignorant cur nocumenta 

Ezpertis reor efle ratum, quia com« 

JLangucnti fiomacho ca(eu8 addit 

Cafeus ante cibu coofert, fi defluat 

Si conftipetur, termixiet ille dapes. 
Qui phyficen non ignorant, hasc tef« 


Cheefe doth apology his owa dm^ 

When they (unikild in phyfick) uige 

That is hurtfoll, yet through igno- 
Know not whereby his hurtfulnefie 

doth chance. 
The ftomack languiihing, cheefe doth 

And (after ftuffing cates) great eafe 

doth, give, 
A modicum thereof, after all other 

By beil phyiicians, ii allowed he 





later prandenduin fit fspe parum^ae 

Ut minus aegrotef , non inter fercula 


DR. BOLLAMd's translation. 

Often, yet little, drink in dinner 

But between meals, you muft from 

ilrink decline ; 
That ficknefle may in power lefie 

Which elfe (through drinking} (harp- 

ly doth afiayL 

Vt Vites p«Bnam de potibus incipe 


Phyficians much contend about this 

text, , 
If that with ficknefle thou wouldd 

not be vext. 
With drink begin thy fupperi Others 

Till thou have eaten firft, keep drink 

The comment therefore yeelds the 

bed diredion 
Of drinking, when we go to our re- 


Poft pifces nux fit, pofi cames cafeus 

Unicanux prodeftt nocet altera : ter- 

tia mors efl;. 
Singula poll ova, pocula fume nova. 

A new laid egge craves a good cup 
of wine, 

Drunk after it, it will the blood re- 

Nuts after fifli, cheefe after flefli, is 

In both thfifc,^ they are helpfull to 

One nut doth well, the fecond doth 

'Beware the third, it brings a deadly 





Addc pyro potum, sax eft mcdlciiia 

Wtrt pyra noftra pyrns, fine vino fnot 

pyra vims. 
Si pyra funt virus, fit malcdida py* 

Dnmcoquis, antidotum pyra funt: 

fed cnida Tcnenum. 
Cruda gravaot ftomachtun, relevant 

fed C(H^ gravatum. 
I^oft pyra da potum, poft pomum 

vade cacatum. 


When we eat pears, boldly we may 
drink wine. 

Nuts againft poyfon arc a taiedicine. 

Pears eaten (without wine) are pe- 

Becaufe raw pears are counted ve« 

Being boyPd or bak*t, weak ftomacks 
they do chear, 

Becaufe reftoratives they then ap. 

By being raw, the fiomack they of- 

But . comfort (otherwife) doth them 
attend, v 

Drink after pears, and after apples, 

The courfe that nature no way can 

Si cerafum comedas, txbt confert 

grandia dona. 
JExporgat ftomachnm, nucleus lapi- 

dem tibi tollit. 
Hinc mdipr toto corpore fanguis in- 


By eating cheries, great good doth 

To fuch as ufe them, for the learned 

Say, that they purge the ftomack, 

and befidc, 
The broken ftones and kernels have 

been tried, 
To break the bladder done, breed 

wholefome bloud. 
To fat and feed the body they be 


frrigida funt,lazint,mttkum pr^unt 
tibi pruna. ^ 

Prunes cooVand loofe the body very 

No way offenfiye, but to health ar/e 
J friendly. 




Perflca cam mufto vobis (jatur ordine 

Siunere, fie eft tnoi nacibus focian- 
do rac^mos. 

Paflbla non fpleni, tuffi valet, -^ft bo- 
na reni. 


Mud or fweet wine, with peaches we 

ihould drink, 
Elfe harm will happen by them* aa 

moft think. 
And ihew good reafons why it ihoulci 

1)C fo. 
With dry old nuts a r^fin Aill mull; 


Becaiffe in cooling ithey are dull and 

Yet raifinfrhprt the fple^ by opsla« 

As nuts are divers, and caufe inflam- 

Scropha, tumor, glandes, ficus cata- 

plaijquti cedunt, 
lange papaver ei, confrada foris tra- 
' hitofla. 

The evill that is tearmed by the 

Under the chin doth to the throat enr 

Swellings, boyls, kernels, all thefe 

holpen are. 
If you a plaifter made of figs ju'epare. 
But if the fame with poppy mtng]e4 

Broke-bones it knit« and ftr^gthcnt 
• perfectly. 

Vermiculos veneremque facit, Ted 
coilibet obftat. 

Both lice and laft by figs engender* 

ed are. 
Of thofe corrupting humours they 


Kf altiplicant miAumi ventrem dant 

mefpila ftridlum, 
Afefpila dura placent, fed molliaihnt 


Medlars ^dp~ bring Tery much in- 

creafe, ^ 

And looihefie in the belly makes ta 

ceafe: ' 

The hardeft medlars therein you may 

But get to nourifli : then the ibftell 

chufe. . 




Provocat urinam nuftum, ci td-fiv 


luic, & inflat. 

CraiTos humores nutrit cervifia, vires 

Praeftat, & augmentat carnem, ge- 
seratque cruorem. 

Provocat urinam, ventrem qiioque 
moUtt, & inflat. 

Frigidat 8c modicam. Sed plus de- 
ficcat acetam. 

Frigidat, emaceracque, melanchoUam 
dat, fperma minorat, 

Sicco^ infeilat nervos, & pinguaa fic- 

DK. Holland's translation. 

Muil doth provoke much urine, and 

fome fay, 
It doth inflate, and quickly fcours 


By drinking ale or beer grofle hu- 
mors grow, 

Strength is augmented, bloud and 
flefli alfo 

Encreafeth dayly, urine they do pro- 

Enflate the beUy, as the learn'd af- 

And furthermore, of vinegar, they 

Although it drieth, yet it cools his 

In palfage, and it makes one lean 

Being received failing, fo I mean. 

It caufeth melancholy, harms the 

Of generation, and doth ihaking 

Lean folk it hurteth, drying up their 

And unto fat folks, greatly doth no 

Rapa juvat ftomachum, novit produ- 

cere ventum, 
Provocat urinam, praeftatque in 

dente ruinam. 
Si maid co^a datur, tibi torOo lie 

generatur. , 

Ventum fope rapis, fi tu vis vivere 

Turncps dohurt^he {lomack,breadeth 

Provoketh urine, as by proof we find. 
They comfort (ight, but yet the teeth 

And gripes into the belly they do 


Rapes are the befl to nourifli, fo 
fome fay, ^ ' 

And for our urine they do clenfe the 





£geriCTir tardd cor, concoqoitor qao- 

que diir^. 
Sic qooque ventriculiu, tamen extc- 

rion probantur. 
Reddit liogna l]ibnum nntrimentum 

CoDcoStu fecilis polmo eft, cit6 labi- 

tur ipfe. 
£ft melius cerebrum gallinse, qnam 


DR. Holland's trakslation. 

Prefcriptions foo the inwards of ss 

Tbe heart is held but hardly to di* 

The maw is of like nature, flow'^in 

And therefore is no wholefom nutri« 

The tongue is faid to be of good di* 

And therefore is allow'd in our ie>» 
I feAioo. 
The like opinion of the lights we 

Though nature is fometime by diem 

Of brains, a hen's is befl of all to emt. 
And thofe of chickens are moft whole- 

fom meat. 

Semen fceniculi pellit fpitKiila cuh'« 

Of fenell-feed, our learned phyfitiant 

For breaking wind, it makes a ready 


Bis duo dat marathrum, fcbres fugat, i Four vertues in the fenell are al« 

atque venenum, 
Et pnrgat ftomachum, lumen quoque 
reddit acttum. 

It quails the ague, when it growes to 

^oyfon it foon expels, the ftomack 

Sharpens the fight, and comfortably 





fimendat vifain, fiomachum confor- 

tat anifum- 
Copia dttlcoris anifi fit meliorii. 


Anni-feeds for the ftomack whole* 

fom are. 
And quickoefie of the eye-fight they 

In fweecn^fie, goodneiTe, look how 

they exceed, 
The better bloud, and humours fiill 

they breed. 

Si criipr emanat^ fpod^um fumptum 
dt6 fanat. 

If flux of bloud at any time abound, 
Spodium doth inftantly that flux con- 

Gandet hepar fpodio, mace cor, 

brum quoqpe mofcho, 
Pulmo liquiritb, fplen, caput fioma- 

chufque galanga. 
Vas condimenti praeponi debet eden- 

Sal virus refugat, reSd infipidumque 

Non fapit efca prob^^ que datur 

abfque fale. 
Urunt res falfx vifum, femenque mi- 

£t gcnerant fcabiem, pruritum, five 


Spodium the' liver worthily doth 

And mace the heart, if ought do it 

• difcafe. 
Muik is a wondrous comfort to the 

And lycoris keeps the lights from any 

Gallingale helps the fiomack, capers 

the fpleen, 
All^thefe are wholefome phyfick, as 

I ween. ' 

Concerning fauce that doth our table 

Salt is commended bell by men of 

Poyfon it doth refill, makes favoury 

Whets on the ilkomackwi^h defire te 

eat ; 
For without fait, our food can yeeld 

no tad, 
Yet bver-ialted, meats are bad re- 

They inflate the f<ice, diminifh na^^ 

turcs feed, 
Itch, fcabs, and pulhes, they do d4ily 



' I 




Sal primd poni debet, primoque re- 

Non bene menf^ tlbi ponitur stbfqae 



Salt ihoukl be firil upon the tMt 

And laft tan'e off, when we have 

done with meat. 

Hi fervore vigent tres, falfus, ama- 

rns, acutus. 
Alget acetofus, iic fiipans, ponticus 

Un(5lu%& iniipidus, dulcb dat tcmpe- 


Three kind of tails do foon the 

body heaty 
Salt, bitter, iharp, and divers harms 

Three other favours cool in mode* 

rate kind, 
Tart, flipticall, and pontick, as I 

Three more, unfavory, unduous, 

and fweet^ 
Nor heat, nor c6ol, and therefore 

held moft meet. 

Bis duo vippa facit, mundat dentes, 

dat acotum 
Vifum : quod minus ell implet, mi* 

nuit quod abundat. 

' ; 

Four benefits come by our fops in 

They purge the teeth, they make 

them clean and fine. 
They fharp the fight, caufe good di- 

Remove fuperfluous things, that 

breed infedion. 


Omnibus adfuetam jubeo fervore diae- 

Quod fie efie probo, ni fit mutare 

necefie.. * 

Hippocrates teilis, quoniam feqnitur 

mala peilis. 

To keep a coftomary dyet, is the beft. 

Both for our health, and for mild na- 
tures reft. 

Cuftome obfervM, we may not light- 
ly leave, 

A dietarie cuftome will receive 




Fortior hsec meta eft medicinx, certa 

Quam fi Don cures, fatuc regis, & 
-male curas. 


No giddy imperfe&ion. Grave Hy- 


Gives good advice, for health and 
natures eafe. 

It is a better way to cure by dyet, 

Then lavifhneiTc, which brings all 

out of quiet. 

He that is carelefie for his proper good. 

By fuch a one, no danger is withftood. 

Quale, quid, & quando, quantum, 

quoties, ubi, redla 
Debent haec medico in villus ratione 

Ne male conveniens ingrediatur iter. 

Six diings in dyet fhould obfervedbe, 
Firft, to rtCpc^t the food in quality. 
Next, what it is in fubftance; and 

What time for mmiftration beft doth 

Fourthly, the quantity requires a 

Fifthly, how oft we Ihould the fame 

Laftly, the place is not amifle to 

And where fuch dyet beft we may 


Jus caulis foluit, cujos fubftantia ftrin- 


IJtraque quando datur, venter lazare 


Broth made of cole- worts doth both 
loofe and bind, ^ 

According as their nature is InclinM : 

Yet if the broth and fubftance both 
you take« 

Digeftion the more ibllid they will 



Dixerunt maluam veteres,. qu6d mol. 

liat aluum. 
Hujus radices rafx foluunt tibi feces* 
Vuluam movcfunt, & fluzum fzpe 


Malowes the belly much do molUfie, 
And their roots ihaven, phyiick doth 

For found purgation; hereof I am fure, 
The menftrnous flux in women they 





McBtttur mentha, fi fit depeliere len. 

Ventrift lombricos» ftomachi Termef- 

^ue Dochroi. 


Mint were bely'd, if it ihoBld wmr 

the might. 
The ftomack, wimbw, and bcUy t» 

kill -quite. 
A« worm-wood juyce, it works ia 

operation, - 
And it to health a Ibveraign prefer* 


Cor morlatur homo, euifalTia creldti 
in horto i 

Contra vim mortis non eft medico- 
men in hortis. 

Salvia conforut nerves, manuiimque 

ToUit, Sc ejus ope febris acuU fngit. 

Salvia, caftortmnque, hiveadula» pri* 
mula Tens. 

Naftnrtium Athanafia lupc fanant 
paralytica membra. 

Salvia falvatrix naturs^eonciliatrix* 

• c 

Why fliould man dy (fa doth the 

fentenee fay,) 
When fage grows in his garden day 

by day ? 
And yet all garden-phifick not pre* 

When deaths ftem power our chiefefk 

health aliails. 
Sage comforteth the nerves both 

fweet and kindly. 
The palfie-fliaking > hands it helpeth 

friendly. ' 

His power is foveraign gainft an ague 

Sage and the beaver (lone, by learn* 

ed writ. 
Lavender and the prioie-rofe of the- 

Tanfey and water-creiTcs comfort 

To all fuch members aa the palfie 

When in the verygreateft kind they 

quake. . 
Sage doth both councell and keep na- 
ture found. 
Where jage then groweth , happy ia 
I the ground. 





NobiUtat ruts- h«c, quid loffiina I Ne«dt raaft we call rew noble, by 

reddat acuta. 
Aiudlio rutoB vir quippi videbis acu- 

Cruda comefta recens oculos caliginc 

purgat. ' 

Ruta viris minuit veoerem, tnulieri- 

bus addit. 
Huta hcit caftuai, dat lumen, & in- 

gerit aftum. 
Coda & ruta £acit de pulidbus loca 



due right, 
Becaufe it cleari and pef fcdeth the 

Carnall defires (in men) it doth ap- 

But yet to women giveth no fuch 

Rew-water fprinkled in the houfe, 

kills all the fleas, 
Rew, as it caufeth chaftity, it wheta 

the wit. 
And for the eye-fight always counted 


De cepis medici non canfentire vi- 

Fellitis non efle bonas, ait ipfe Gale- 

Phlegmaticis verb multum putat efle 

Kon modicum fanas Afdepius adferit 

Przfertim ilomacho/ pulchnimque 

creare colorem. 
Contritis cepis loca denudata caplllis 
S«pe fricans, capitis poteris reparare 


Onyons (in phyfick) winneth no con- 

To cholerick folke, they are no nutri- 
ment ' 

By Galens rule. Such as flegmatick 

A ftomack good in them they do pre- 
pare. ' 

Weak appetites they comfort; and 
the fate, 

With cheerfull colour evermore they 

And when the head is naked left of 
hair, ■ 

Onyons (being fod or ftamp*d) again 

^pofitas pethibent morfus curare 

Si tritx cum mcUe prius fuerint et 


A mad dogs bytingf may recured be, 
With onyons, hony, vinegar, thefe 




£ft modicum granum, G/ccum, cali- 

dumque iinapi, 
Pat lachrymas, purgatque caput, tol- 

litque vencnuip. 


Though muftaxd-feed is held the 

(inalleft grain, 
His powerf oil heat and ftrengtlritoot 

in vain. 
^7 cauii^g tears, it purges well the 

And takes^way infeding peyfonous 


Crapula difcutitur, capitis dolor, at- 

que graTedo, 
Purpuream violam dicunt curare ca- 


The heavy head-ach, and that irk- 

fome pain. 
Which drunken furfeiting doth much 

eonflrain : 
The fmcU of violets doth foon allay. 
And cures the falling-ficknefle, as 

fome fay. 

JEgrls dat fomnum, vomitum quo- 

que tollit & ufum. 
Illius femen colicis cum melle mede- 

tur, * 

£t tuifim veterem curat H fspe biba- 


Frigus pulmonis pellit, ventrifque tu- 

Omnibus & morbis ea fubvenit arti- 


The nettle foveraign is in his degree. 
It caufeth ileep in bodies iick that 

Cafling or vomiting it dears away. 
And flegme that hurteth nature day 

by day. 

An* ancient cough it quickly doth 

For flegme thereby is foon difpatcht 

^ and fpent. 

It cures the chollick, a moft cruell 

Difeafes in the joynts it doth te- 

Cold in the lights, the bellies tu- 
mors too. 

And other harms the nettle doth un- 

^ do. 

Some fay beiide, that it doth cure 
the gout, 

I Though divers do&ors thereof make 
fome doubt. 





HfffopU9 purgans herl>a eft 2 ped^ore 

. phlegma, 

Ad pulmonis opus cum melle co- 

quenda jugata. 
VuUibus eziiqium fertur prxftare 



DR. Holland's translation. 

Hyfop a purging herb is held to be, 

And flegme from forth die breaft 
it fendeth free. 

Being 'fod with honey, then it com- 
fort fends * 

The ftomack, a|;id the lungs it much 

Purgeth the lights from flegme, and 
addes a grace, 

Bj a moft clear complexion to the 

Appoiltum cancr^s tritum cum melle 

Cum vino potum lateris fedare dolo- 

rtm ^ 

Sacpe folet, tritam ii nedis defuper 

S»pe folet Tomitum, ventremque te- 

xere folutum. 

Chervill or cinquefoyl, call it which 

you will. 
Being fteept with honey doth a can- 
, ker kills- 
Drink it with wine, the belly-ach it 

And doth affwage inflation where it 

Laftly, when laik os vomit (hall op. 

The power thereof doth heat, and 

makes to cea^. 

£nula campana reddxt prxcordia fa- 

Cum fucco ratx fuccus G. fumltur 

AflBrmant ruptis quod prodt potio 


Of enula campana thus we fay. 

It. cheers the heart, expelling grief 

The juyce of rew, and this fo well 

That they are good for fuch as bur- 

ften be. 
Wine made thereof doth clearljy 

clenfe the breft, 
Expelleth wind, and helps well to di- 

gcft. ' 




Cum vino nigrun choleram pptata 

Appolitani vctcrem dicunfr fedare 

dr.bolland's translatiow. 
Hill-wort, or peneriall fieept in 


Purgeth black chollcr, asrthc learn'd 

Befide, our elders fay, and make no 

That it melts flegme, and cleerly 
I cures the gowt.. 

lUius fuccus crines retinere fliientes 
Illitus adferitur, dentifque levare do- 

Lichenas 4\]ccus purgat cum melle 

Of water- crefles, moft opinions fay. 
Hair they retain, when it doth fall 

The tooth-ach that tormenteth grie- 

They give thereto a prefent remedy.- 
They cleanfe all Ikales that cleave 
, unto the &in, ' 
If honey to the oyntment you put in. 

CKcatis pullis hac lumina mater hi- 

(Plinius ut fcripfit) quamvit fint cni- 

ta, reddic. 


Young iwallows that are blind, and 

lack their fight, 
The damme (by celendine) doth give 

them light. 
Therefore (with Plinie) we may 

boldly fay, 
Celendine' for the fight is good al* 


Auribus inftifus vermes fuccus nccat I The juyce of willow put into the car. 

Doth kill the worms which are en« 

gendred there. 
,The rind of willow fod in vinegar. 
For taking warts away, the moft pre- 
Let teeming-women caft willow- 

flowrs away, 
Bccaufe they hinder child-birth witb 

Cortex verrucas in aceto coda refol- 

vit. X 

Hujus flos fumptus in aqua frigef- 

i^cre cogit 
Inftlndus veneHs cundos acres fti- 

£t fie deficcat, ut nulla creatio fiat. 


DR. Holland's translation. 


Confortare crocttm dixcmnt ezhlla- 

Artus defedos reficitque, hepar re- 


Saffron doth glad the heart being 

lick and ill, 
But yet too much endafl^ereth to 

DefcAlve members it doth comfort 

And next, rcilores the liver very 


Reddit facundus manfum per fcpe 

Manantemqud potes naris retinere 

Ungas'li nares intus medicamitie 


Leeks if their property is not belyde: 
To make young women fruitful^ 

hath been tryde. 
Befide, they Hint the bleedllig at the 

In greateft. violence, as fome fuppofe. 


Qnod piper eft nigrum, non eft dif- 

folvere pigrum. 
Phlegmata purgabit, concodlricem- 

que juvabit. 
Leucopiper ftomacho prodeft, tuffi- 

que, dolorique 
Utile, praBvcnict motum, fcbtif^ds 


Black pepper in diflblving is not flow, 
But quickly purgeth flcgm, as 

many know, 
Befide, t*i8 very good to help digei^ 

When other things may fail that are 

in queftion. 
White pepper, to £he (lomick corh* 

fort fends, ' 
And many wayes it from the cough 

For divers griefes it yeeldeth good 

And with a feaver ftandt in ftout 





£t mox poft efcam dormire, iiiJtQifi|ue 

liba gravase foknt auditss, ebrietaf- 


If after meat we fall to fudden flecp. 
Our food from all digeflion it dotk 

Over-much moving is hurtful too. 
And dnxnkenneiTe doth moft of ali 

In ^U thefe, let us ufe difcreet for* 


Being enemies that do offend oar 

Motui^ iooga famet) VMnitus, percuf- 
fio, cafus, 

Xbaetas, frigus, tinnitum caufiit in 
aurf* . 

Long-fafting, vomiting, and fuddeft 
fear, ♦ 

Are hurtfnll to the organ of the ear. 

Blowes, lalles, and drunkennefle are 
even as ill, ■ ^ 

And is fo cold,beleeve me if yov will. 

Such as would noifes in the ear pre- 

To (hun all thefe, think it good do- 

Balnea, vina, Venus, vei^tus, piper, 

allia, fumus, 
Tonum cum cepis, faba, lens, fletuf- 



Bathing, wine, women, boyftrous 

To harm the eye-fight always are 


The like doth p^per, garlick, dufl- 


ing finoak, ' • * 

Leeks, onyons, lentils, dray the fight 

Apd dims it as beans do. Such as ufe 
• weeping, 
I would not have mine eyes in their 

moift keeping. 
Muilard, and gazing much againft 

the fun. 
The fight thereby is utterly undone. 




Sol, coituique, ignis,- labor x^us, acu* 

mina, pulvis, 
lila no^ent oculisy fed vi^are magis. 



The violence of liift in hot defire, 
Spoyles them outright, and looking 

on the 'fire. 
Extremity of labour hurts the eye, 
And the leaft blows, bloqd-fhot it in- 

Tart and fharp fauces needs offend 

thelh muft. 
As alfo walking in a windie dufi. 
The laft is too much watching ; thefe» 

believe me, 
Avoyd/and then thine eye-iight will 

not grieve thee. 

Foenxculns, verbena, rofa, & chelido- 

nia, ruta, 
Sobvepiunt oculis dira caligine pref* 

Nam ex itth aqua fit, qus lumina 

reddit acuta/ 

Of fenell, vervein, rofes, celendine. 
With rew among them, water ilillcd 

They are mod wholefomc for to clear 

the eyem 

Sic d^ntes ferva,. porrornm collige 

Ure cum hyofcyamo fimul, utere ju- 
re decenti. 

Per fie chonion &fumum cape dente 


To cure the tooth-iich, take the, feed 

of leeks. 
When chat fell pain annoyes Mid 

fwels the cheeks: 
But feed of hen-bane mud be mixfc 

And bum them both to make die 

fmoke more ftrong. 
Hold thy mouth ore, and fo receive 

the fiime. 
The pain it fiakes, and worms ia 

teeth confume. 
If through a tunnell you the Hmoltj^ 





Nux, oleum« frig^ capitifqae, ao- 

guilUque, potus, 
Ac pomum crudum faciunt homincm 

fere raucufn* 


' Nuts, oyl, aod cold, which ilrikes in- 
to the head, 

Eeles, and raw apples, drinking late 
towards bed ; 

By all thefe hoarfeneCe in the voyce 
is bred. 

Jejuna, vigila, caleas dape, tuque la- 

infpira calidum, modicum bibe, corn- 
prime flatum. 

Hsc bene tu ifcrva, fi vis depellcre 

Si fluat ad pedlut, dicatur rheuma ca- 

6i ad fauces, branchos, fi ad nareis 
^o coryza. 

Ufe fafting, watchings, if the rheum 

poffeiTe thee. 
Hot meats and drinks avoyd, they 

not redrefle thee, 
Labour tliy body', and thy breath re- 

Infpire warm air, if the catharre do 

Beware of drinking much, it doth 

^hefe (gainft all rheumes) to thee I 

do commend. 
To know thefe rheumes, this is an 

If to the breft they flow in exalta- 
Th*are calPd catharrs. But running 

through the nofe. 
Its called coriia : others fay, the pofe. 
When by the neck it doth it felf con- 


I They tearm it branchus, ai phyii« 

Auripigmentum, fulphur mifcere me- 

Auripigmentum, whiclf fome arfe« 

nick call. 
Remember to mize brimftone the^e* 


t « 




iih decet apponi calcem, conjugcik' 

Qoatuor haec mifcct commiztis ua- 

tnor iilit. 
Fiftula curatur, qtoter ex hi* fi re- 



White lime aiid fope; thefe four by 

Svayof plaifter, 
Are able any fiftula to mai(ler« 
Obferve thefe four then, if thou 

wouldft be car*dy 
Many (thereby) of help have been 
. afliir'd.- 

bfl^bus ex denis, bis centenifque no- 

Conftat homo, denis bis dentibiis Be 

tx terceotenis decies fezquinqueque 

The bones, the teeth, and veyns that 

are in man. 
The author here doth nifmber^ as he 

Two hundred nineteen bones agree 

foine men, 
Two hundred Jorty-eight, faith aU- 

KtunWing the teethj fome^ two and 

thirty hold, 
Yet four Of them by othef s are coa- 

'Bcc$utt fome kck thofe teeth ftasd 
. iaft behind 
In child-hood. Othen till their 

greateft age they find. 
The grmders, and duales, quadrupli. 
And diem above, beneath called Ca« 

That grind, that cut, and hardeft 

things do break. 
And thofe cal'd Senfus. Nature theib 

To griflft man* food. The veyns id 

man we count, 
Three hundred fixty-five, which few 


Vol. tri. 


im^^l^^itiir ftAi»t'A;i4& I^al^^i^* 

Q^aEiidr liumores m humaflo torpore 

Sanguis cumtbQFlera,|s1iIcgtna melaD- 

Terra melanchoHtis, aqua comfertur 

i^r fangaineis, ignea vis ckolerde. 

DR. BOLi-AJfO^S TkA1f»i.A!ridw« 

Four littlRoan in tnafis body alway* 

filottd; dieter, fl^gttie^ inelatitMjr- 

And compare 
Thefe, unto thofe four feverall ^- 

Whereof they are continuall • prefi- 

To earth melancholy, to water 
. fiegme, 
The ayr to bloud, choler to fire ck* 


Humidus dl-faoguis, calet & vis acris 

Alget phlegma, humetq^s, iUific co- 

pia aquofa eft. 
Sicca cakt^olo^, ts fie igni fit finfi. 

Wngetis ficea ftieUnchdUa eft, terjse 


The bloud is hot and moyft, like ta 

the ayr, ' 

And therefore therewith carryetb 

^eft compare. 
Fiegme cold and moyft, even in his 

chiefeft matter. 
Bearing his beft refemblance with 

the water. 
Sullen is melancholy, ^hi and dry. 
And to the earth it felf doth beft apply. 
But choler being hot and dry, defires 
To meet (he xares not) with how 

many fires. 


Kanira pingucs ifti fimt atque jocan- 
, tes. 
Rumorefque novos cuplunt aiidire 

Hos Venus & Bacchus deledant, fer- 

cttla^ rifut. 

To fanguihe men, iSature hath much 

Fir ft, with a jocond fpirit they aire 
. attended. 

Defirous to hear tales and novelties* 
Women, nor wine, they gladly net 


/ ' 

BieiMElT 8ANI1>ATI8 tAX.t«irt. 


^ r 

rm MlOINAL LATIW. j I ,». BOtlAim't TAAKfttATlON. 

l« fecft hot hilaits; ft dulcia verba J Their looks arc chcarfuU and their 

lo^ueates. 1 language fweet, 

OmnilHM hi ft«dt^i habiks funt, & For any ftndy they arc prone anil 

znagis apti. 
<2w>'9>et ex cBttfa non hos facild exci. 

tat ira. 
LargM, amans, hilaris, ridens/rubei- 

que colons. 
Catifans, carnofas, Tatii audax^ atque 

benignus. , 


No common matter kindles anger's' 


Contentious company they not de* 

They are liberall loving mirthful!: 

«nd benighe, 
Flefhy and fat, capring and apt to 

No muddy countenance, but (iniling 

And bold enough, as caufes may ap« 

Phlegma dabit vires modicas, latof- 

que, farevefque. 
Fhlegttia facit pingueis, fanguia red> 

dit medtocret. 
Ocia non ftudio traduni, fed corpora 

Senfos faebes, .tardoa metna pigritia 

Hicfomnoknttts, piger, ftfpiitamine: 

plenus. ' 
Sft hnic fenfus hebes, pingsm* f»ac 

cplor albu^. 

Men that be flcgmatick, are weak of 

Moft commonly of thick and ftubbed 

And fatnefle overtaketh them amain^ 
For they are flotbfoU, and can taktf 

no pain. 
Their teoea are b«t didl, fhallov 

and dow. 
Much given to fleep, whence can no 

goodnefs grow. 
They often fpei : yet najurca kind 

HaMx bleft them with a competent 


JL£t humor cholera?, qui competit im- 

Hoc genus eft homiftua cupiciV fires, 

t>neccUere cundis* 

Choler, is fuch an humor as afpires. 
With moft impetuous, infolent de^ 

Hft coveu to excell all other men, 





Hi leviter difcunt, multum come- 
dunt, cit6 crefcunt. 

Inde & magDanimi fuht, largi, fam- 
ma petentes. 

Hirfutus, fallaz, iraicens, prodigus, 

Aflurus, gracilis, ficcus^croceiq^ue co- 

an,* Holland's tkamjlatioit. 

His miijid outfteps beyond a kin^ f 

domes ken. 
Lightljr he learns, eats much, and 

foon grows tall, 
Magnanimous, and fomewhat prodi- 

Soon movM to .anger though upon 

no caufe, 
His own will is his leafons kirgefb 

laws. I 

Subtile and crafty, felddme fpeakin^ 

A wafling unthrift, overgrown with 

Bold-fpirited, and yet but lean and 

His ikin moft ufual of a faffi'on die«. 

Reftat adhuc triftis choleras fubflan- 

tia tiigra, 
QusB reddit pravos, pertriftes, pauca 


Hi vigilant ftu^is, nee mens eft de- 
dita fomno, \ 

Servant propoiitum, fibi nil reputant 
fore tutuffl. 

iBvidtts, & triftifl^ cuptdus, dextrsque 

Where mehncholly bears the power^ 

fuli fway. 
To defperation it xnclinea sdway. 
The melancholy fpirit is dark and^ 

lad, . 
SuUcn, talks little, and his fleeps are 

For dreadfttll dreamy do very much 
. affright them, 
Start out of deep, and nothing ca» 

delight them. 

Their memory is good, and purpoiie- 

All folitary walks they heft endure* 

Becaufe to ftudy they are ftill in»- 

And being alone, it fitteth beft their 

Simple, and ytt deceitful!, not boun- 
teous. , 

But very fparing, doubtfull, fu^i- 
tious, ' 

hegimen sanitatis salbrni. 



Mon expers fraudisi timidus, lateiqae 

DR. Holland's translation. 

Earthly and heavy looks t By all 

Here melanchoUy holds his fole do* 

Hi funt humores, qui prxflant cui- 

que colores. 
Omnibus in rebus ez phlegmate fie 

color albus. 
Sanguine fit rubeus, cholera rubea 

quoque rufus. 
Si peccet fanguis, fiacies mbet, eztac 

Inflantur geiue, corpus nimiulhqjie 


Eft pulfusque frequens, plenus, mol- 
lis, dolor ingens, 

Inprimis frontis, fit conftipatio ven. ' 

Siccaq€e lingua, fitis, funt foijnnia 
-plena nibore, 

Dulcor adeft fputi, funt acria dulcia 
quxque, ' ' 

The humours tl^at coosplexion do 

extend, ' 
And colour in our bodies, thus ^ey 

I'o him is phlegtnatick, a colour 

white : 
Brownifh. and tawnie, under cholers 

The melancholy man is pale as earth, 
The fanguine ruddy, ever full of 

Yet where the fanguine doth too 

much exceed, 

Thefe inconveniences thereby do 

The bloud afcends too proudly to the 

/ace, ' 
Shoots forth the eyes beyond their 

wonted pl^e. 
And makes them fweU. The body 

luAipifli growes. 
The pulft beats thick, by vapours 

them inclofe, 

The head will ^e, and coftiTeneife 

The tongue is dry and rough, cam 

tell no news. 
Extremity of thirft, caus'd through 

great hejsit. 
And. bloody coloured dreams, which 

make men fweat. 





jfLcca&t chn\enm dextr^s dolor, afpe- 

ra lingua, «r 
Tiiaiitus, v(miitiif<|ue fre^ucns, Tigi- 

lantia multa. 
* Molta litis, pinguisqiie tgctAo, tor« 

mina ventris. 
Naufea fit, moriiis cordis, languelcit 

pnlfus adeft gracilis, durus, velozqiie, 

^ret, amarefcitqf^e, incendla feamia 



Whare cfaoler riiies too arach, tltdai 

figns will (hew. 
The tongue grows iharp and rougli* 

in fpeaking ilo^. 
More wakefulnefs then needs, tSng« 

lings in the ear, 
Ijnwonted Tomits, hatefoll they ap» 

pear* , 
Great thirft, the excrements do qnldc« 

ly Toid, 
The ftomack is too nice, as o^r-doid* 
The heart i» fiiQ of gripes, and ez- 

tream heat 
Compels the puHe impadentif to 

Bitter wd four our %ittle dten y^Sl 

And in our dreams,^ (t^aage fires i|e 

feeth to fee. 

^hlegma fupergredieos proprias in 

cOrpore leges, 
Os facit iniipidum, faAidia crebra, 

C^flarum, ftomachi, fimui occipUif- 

que dolores. 
Pulfus adeft ram; tardus, mollis, 

i^uoque indtoMy 
]Pratcedit fallax phaatafmata fomnus 


Where flegme fuperabonods, thefe 

figos will tell. 
The mouth diftaftful, nothing can rel- 

Hfli weU, 
And 2et with moyfture over^floweth 

Which makes the ftomack very fick 

and ill. 
The^fides will ake, as if theyhealen 

Loathfome will all our meat to nt 

The pulfe beats feldom. The fto« 

mack and the head. 
With gripes and pangues do feem at 

they were dead.. 
Oar fleeps are troublous, and when 

we dream, 
Of brooks and waters, then we fee 

the ftream. 

B8«m9H SAKITAXiS SA](.f A^X. 


l^umof api pk;Bp diua to i& corpo* 

re regnat, 
Wgr^ ^ttt>*% dnras pnlfai* teDiiirq,ue [ 

SoIUdtudo, timor, triftitia» foixmia 

^oacefcvnt radni, fapor & fputamir 

X<evaque prascipui tixinit,Tel iibilat 


Whf & mcUncboUjnin the bodyraigosi 
It doth indanger many dreadful pains. 
,It fills it with corrupting filthinefle, 
Makes the ikin look of blackiih ful« 

The pulfe beats hard, the urin weak 
. and thin, 
Sollicitade, fear, fadnefle, fleep it 

drowneth in, 
It raifes bitter bekhes, breeds much 

And in the eare oft breeds a ting^ 
I ling tune. 

f>afMi«i!cpt«niiB yix phlcbbotomon pe- 
tit aoBus. 

SpiritUB uberiorque exit per phlebbo- 

Spiritus ex potu vini mpx multiplica- 

Humorumque cibo damnum leote rc> 

jLumina clarificat, fyncerat pKUbbo. 

Rentes & cerebrum, calidas facir 

Vifccra purgabit, ilomachum, v^n- 

tronque coercct, 
^oros dat fenfus, dat fomnum^ tapdia 

tQlUt. , 


A feventeea years of age, fafeJy yjft 

Let youthful! bodies bloud, the lcaiQ-> 

cd fay. 
The fpirits are reftored by letting 

And to encreaie them, drinking wind 

is good. 
After blood-letting, little good they ' 

By prefent eating meat, that is but 

Phlebothomy doth purge and dear 

the fight. ' 
Cleanfeth the brain, and makes the 

marrow right. 
The fiomack and the belly it doth 

And purge the entrails ^roughly, 

every year. 
It (harpens wit, and doth indue e to 


And from the heart all painfull grief 
doth keep. ^ . 

4 . 




Auditns, Yocem, Tires produdt & 
auget. ' 


It comforts hearing, and relieves thp 

Augmenting ftrength, ^herein the| 

■ moft rejoyce. 

Tres infunt iiUs, Malas, September, 
. Aprilis, 

%*funt lunares, funt velut hydra 
dies. , 

Prima dies primi, poftremaque pofte- 

Nee languisminui, nee carplbus anfe- 
ris uti. 

Sit fenium atque inventa licet, ii faa^ 

' guis abundat, 

Omni menfe probe confert incifio ve- 

Hi funt tres menfes, Maius, Septem- 
ber, Aprilis,^ 

In quibiis eininttas, ut longo tempore 

Three fpeciall moneths, our te^t doth 

here remember. 
For letting-bloud, Aprill, May, an4 

The moon rules moft thcfe moneths, 

yet certain days, 
S5me do deny, and other fome dif- 

The firft of May, a^d the laft of 

As alfo of September they hold ilL 
Days of thefe moneths they do forbid 

to bleed. 
And think it dangerous on a goofe to 

But this is idle, for thefe moneths are 

And for our health in thefe to let pur 

For old or young if blond abouttdiDfj^ 

All moneths it maybe done advifed- 

If length of days and health you do 

Thefe are the moneths that bleeding 
I beft require. 

Frigida natura, $c frigens rcgio, dolor ♦ A cold complexJon, and a chiUy ayr. 


Aches, or ingreams tha£ to inflame 




JBalnea poft coitum, minor stas, at- 

^ue fcnilis, 
J^orbus proluca*, repletia potus & 

$2 fragilis, Tel fubtilia fenfus ftoma- 

. chifit. 
3^t f^ftiditi tibi non fimt phlebboto- 



Bathing, and wantiiig dallying i* 

thac fport. 
Where Yenu9 moil delighu(h to ff 

fort,' I 

Too young, or elfe too old, a loo{ 

difeafe, ' 
Eating ^ drinking, nature to dif^ 

Sea-fick feeling, when the ftomacka 

And empty v^yns, that loathingly dm 

All thefe forbid bloud-lettjng, and 

Not then to deal therewith in any 


time fedenda tlbi,'quando irif phleb- 

Vel quando minuis, fueris vel quan- 

do minutus. 
Un^o, five lavaf rum, & potus, faf- 

cia, motus, 
Pebent non fragili tjbi fingula men- 

te teneri. 

What Ihoald we do when we t« 

bleeding go, 
Thcfe few inftni&ions fbUowing 

will ihow. 
Before aind after, undion will do well^ 
Left the incifion, or the Teyn fhoul^ 

Yet un^on (without wln^ is not 

fo good. 
It prevents fowniog, and begets new 

Bathing is wholefome, in divers times 

And linnen cloths ought well to be 

After bloud-letting, be difcreet in' 

And trouble not the brain with tot 

much talking. 


»ailfJ|K SAIilITATI$ SAJU«V?|. 


He fiat 

Oftioutaft LATiir. 

triiles, iratos placat amin- 

^kkbbotomi^ hck. 



BiccdiDg^ rciBOTCt ntd notioiia ° froQ^ 

the hearty 
Aflwageth anger» being too malle* 

A^id thofe (fiftempered fits procar*d 

by love, 
Bloud-letting gently doth them all 


■W " » ' 

F«( plagaii) largvo aKdiocriter, ut « The orifice (or as fome fiiy) iocifion. 

cit6 fumus 
l^at ubeiiiu^Iiheiiiilque cnjor. 

When as for bleeding you do make 

Ought to b^ large, the better to con- 

Gro^e bloud, and fumes whi^ ifluc 

forth that wayw 
Grofle humors and grofle blond mnft 

needs have vent. 
In cold or liotteft times by good oqam 
^ fent. 

Sa^nine fu^n^o, fc^i horis eft vi- 

life fomni fumus k^dat Ceofibile cor- 

^e i^eryom W4i» Qon Qt tibi plaga 

$anguijie purgatos nee carps proti- 
9tts efcas. 

When bloud Is come away, ye moB; 

be fvre, 
Six hours after watdifull to endure r 


Leaft fleep raife fumes, or turning oi^ , 

that arm, 
Impoftumes breed, by doing it }eaft 

The nerves, and finews, arterios aUb, 
Offend not, if in health you. mean to- 

The bloud thus purg*d, you inilantlj^ 

may eat : , 
So that the humors be in quiet fet^ 

«fonfSir sAni'S^Tss «AUttiii. 


^^«kBia de bd« TkaUt riU oumtus. 
Bt vitet potmn phUbbolQaiatVf ho- 
IFrigida Titftbit, quia font inimiu mi- 

Xnterdidut eritque tniautis wbslo8 

Spiricus czultatque xninutU luce per 

Omnibus apta quies, &4B0CUS fiepe 


DK. m%thAVm*9 TRAMfIi4cTIOH. 

SIhui i&Uk aad wkke mnH$, -mhm 

we are let blood, 
BecanCe (at ibch tioiM} ^bttf w 

never good4 
And drinking ^en pciiprce we 

ihottld refrain, , 
With ondi^efted drink ne*re fill • 

Cold and cold ayr, with all'coI4 
things befide, 

Are then 6ur enemiei, by proof well 
tryed. • 

Cloudy and troubled ayrs are like- 
wife ill. 

With melancholy bloud the veyns 
they £11, 

Too iUrriipg^ motion, or ezcefliTe la- 

Avoid, and with foft cafe the bod^ 


Frincipi^ minuM in watis, perpcr I In thebeginmnf of a (harp difcafe, 
* •^nti«^ Then letting bloud is good, if you fa 


^utis medix multum de (anguine 

* toiler 
Sit puer atque fencx toUet utcrquc 

Vcr tollat duplnm, reliquum tempus 

tibi fimpliun. 


The middle age doth favour bleeding 

Children and aged folks may let it 

Or take but little from them. In the 

A double lofs of bloud so hurtful! 

At other times, to take but indiffer« 

And ft ill let good advic^ keep com» 





_ ft 

▼er, fltftas dextras autumbus hyemf- 

que finiilras. 
<^atisor hdsc membra, hcpat*, pes, 

eepha, cor, evacuanda. 
JEilas hepa? habec, Tcr, cor, ficq6e 

ifriao iequetur. 


Spring-time and fmnmer, if we iff* 

t^nd to bleed. 
Veins on the right fide do require as 

Autumn and winter, they the left 

fidhe crave, ^ 

In arm, or foot, as they beft like to 

The head, heart, foot, and Uver« all 

theie four,. 
Emptying require themfclyes beft to 

The heart calls for the fpring, fum- 

mer the liver, ' 
Order unto the reft is a doe giver. 


JRx falvatella tibi plurima dona mi- 

ftplen^m, hepar, pectus, vocem, prx- 

cordia purgat. 
laoaturalem tollit de corde dolorenu 

SalvateUa, the opening of that veyD» 

In any man five benefits doth gain. 

The liver it doth purge from all of- 

And from the fplene commands an- 
noyance thence. 

Preferves the floniacks mouth, and 
clears the breft, 

And keeps the voyce from being by 
harms pppreftr 

^ capitis dolor eft ex pQtu, lympha 

jEx portu nimio nam febris acuta 

Si vertex capias, vel frons sftu tribu- 

Tempora, 'fronfque fimul moderate 

fsepe fricentur, 
Morella coda 'necnon calidaque la- 


If head-ach come by drinking too 

. much wine, 

Or any other drink that mayTcfign', 

The bodies danger to an ague fit, 

Ingroffing fiimes that much perplcrz 
the wit. 

To drink cold water let him not re- 
frain, , 

Becaufe it hinders all that hurts the 

Crown of the head,or fore«-headbeiQg 

And with extremity of boat perplext : 




I&ud enim. credunt capitis prodefle 

DR. Holland's TRANSLATioir 

Chafe then the temples with miU 

And wafli them with warm water im 

good iafiiion. 
But feething motherwort therein i» 

Becaufe it gently cools,' and caulet 

reft. ' 

Temporis asftivi jejunia corpora fic- 

cant. I 

Quolibet in menfe & confertvomi- 

tiis, quoque purgat 
Humores nocuo8,(lomachu8 quos con- 

tinet intus. 
Ver, autumn us, hyems, xftas domi- 

nantur in anno. 
Tempore Ternali caHdufque aer, ma- 

Et nullum tempus melius eft phle- 

Ufus tunc homini veneris confert 

Corporis & motus, ventrifque folutio, 

Balnea, purgentur tunc corpora per 

JBftas more caiet ficca, ik nofcatur 

in ilia 
Tunc quoque praecipud choleram ru- 

bram dominari, 
Hnmida, frigida fercvla dentur, fit 
' Venus, eitra^ 

In fummer fcafop, fafting is not good, 
Becaufe it dries the body and the' 

To vomit once a month wholfom 

fome hold. 
For hurtfull humors thereby are con^ 

And voided quite away. The fto- 

mack clear, 
.Beware what next annoyance comelSi 

Spring, autumn, winter, fummer rule 

the year. 
And all their Icverall hours in them 

The vernall feafon is both moyft and 

And for bloud-letting no time bet*- 
. ter got. 

Let men with Venus meddle mo- 
For then they beft may fpaie fuc^h 

Then temperate motion, laik, nor 

fweat offends. 
To purge by bathing, phifick then 

Summer is hot and dry, red chdler 

Encreafeth, and dries all tbate mdift 

in men. 




lUoea IM>B profimu fint-zarae phlc- 

Vtiliseft ra^iief, £t €fitti aMdcxami- 

MeatcB aiotft and cool, ^ beft be. 

cooSe that feafon. 
And wlmtoDtQg with women (hews 

ihuLll reafoo. 
Bath Dot at all, and feldome open a 

Ufc little motion,' labouring much re. 

And drink bvt little^ kaft ii prove t# 





~* tflli 1 Mil 

Preliminary Obfervatiom. 

TNtli^'dark {>)5riod which intervened^ from thf time when 
thfe Rtghien SMitaiif SaUmi was written, till the 
Era when Goraaro lived, there are hardly any woilcs, ex- 
cepting thoft attributed to iFmr &acon, ax all comief^ 
with the prefent inquiry, whidi merit any particular at* 

Among the foreign authors who wrote during tlhat pe« 
riod on health and longevity, there are three, however, 
who may be mentioned, more with a view of tracing the 
progrefs that had been made in diofe inquiries, than from 
any advantage, to be derived from the dofbrinee which they 
have inculcated. 

I. Marcilius Ficinus, who tranflated the works of Plato, 
was the firfl: phyfician, after the revival of learning in 
the weftern parts of Europe,- who wrote concerning health* 
He was born in Florence, and educated in the family off 
the great Cofmo de Medicis, who appointed him preceptor 
to his fons, and beftowed a handfome eftate upon him* 
Among his other voluminous works, he publiflied a treatise 
concerning health and long life. In his dedicationtto Lau- 
rentius, gr^ndfon of Cofmus, he calls Galen the phyfician 
of the body, and Plato the phyfician of the foul. In his 
book he accordingly mixes a great deal of the fubtilties of 


a A TRiSATIsiE ON A so:^£R Lim 

Plato and Plotinus, with fome ufeful rules, copied moftly 
from Galen. To thefe, however, he adds federal ridicu« 
lous and fuperftitious precepts of his own, that ftill (hew 
the darknefs of the age in which he lived** 

2. Antonius Gazius of Padua, wrote a book concerning 
health and hng life^ which was publifhed anno 1491, by 
the title of Corona' Florida ; but this work is little known^ 
and is n6t to be tntt with in any of our public libcaries.f 

3d. Platina Cremonenfis addrefled a fiiort tteatife on 
health to Cardinal Rover ellaj anno 15^9* He was no 
phyfician^ but copied prineipally frdm Celfus all that he 
recommends; It is proper tb mention him, he being pro^ 
bably the firft who advifes delicate people to chew their 
food well, if they expe£t that the ftomach (hould digeft it; 
for how is it poflible, fay& hci '^ that thofe who fwallow 
their meat whole, (hould efcape crudities aiid eru&a« 

Several other anthers are contained In the catalogues 
of Haller and of Ploucquet, who are not taken notice 
of in Af'Kenzie's Hiftory of health, and whofe wprks are 
not known to the learned, in this iiland ; but the treatifes 
written by Cornaro, have obtained a celebrity beyond ak 

* For inftance^ i, he ^dmoniflies people to confult t good tftrologer at 
CTCry feptenaial period of their lively and when they fliall leai:n.from him 
the dangen which haog over their heads, they may then go to the phyiiciaii 
to prevent thofe dangers ; and 4, He recommends the ibtemal ufe of gold 
A-ankincenfe, and myrrh, to old people, in imitation of the wife men, who 
•fPered thefe three to the creator of the ftars, in order to obtain from him 
the beni^ influence of the three lords of the planets; viz. Sol, Jupiter, 
and Saturn. See M'K.enzie's Hiftory of health, p, 22p* 

f M*Kenzie*8 Hiftory of health, p. 334. 

% M^Keozie's Hiftory of health, p. i^i' 




mod any publication of the fort; the good intentions of the 
author, the fimplicity and unafFefted manner in which the 
work is drawn up, the garrulity with which it is written, fo 
natural to an old man, the good fenfe of many of the doc« 
trines which it inculcates, and the author having not only 
carried his own precepts into pra£bice, but fo fuccefsfully, 
as thereby to have preferved his health till he had reached 
about loo years of age, — all thefe circumftances combined, 
have tended to render his little volume a general favourite. 

But though fobriety and temperance are certainly to be 
recommended, yet to carry it to fuch an extreme, as to 
weigh one's food, or to meafure one's drink, may b^ prac- 
tifed by a few individuals, for thfe fake of experiment, but 
would never do for mankind at large. Twelve ounces of 
folid food, and fourteen ounces of liquids, may carry on a 
vegetative kind of life for many years j but few would 
wifli to continue fo lifelefs and uncomfortable a date of 
cxiftence. Cornaro tells us, that, in order to prefervc 
his health, he not only refolved to reftrift himfelf to the 
quantities above mentioned, but was alfo obliged to be 
careful to avoid heat, cold, fatigue, grief, watchings, and 
every other excefs that could hurt his health.* How could 
the bufinefs. of the world be carried on, if every man, like 
Cornaro, were to begin to follow fuch a fyftem at the 
fortieth year of his age ? ' 

Though Cornaro, however, has canied his precepts and 
his praftice to an extreme that cannot be generally adopt- 
ed, yet he has certainly great merit j i, For the good 
fenfe of many of his doftrines ; 2, For his perfeverance in 
praftifing ihem ;: and 3, For publiftiing to the world the 
refuit of his experiments. We (hall now proceed, therefore^ 
to lay before the reader the treatifes in queftion, accord- 

• S«t p. 59^. 

Vol. III. ^ ing 

ing to the beft tranflation of them that has hitherto beefti* 
printed in the Englifh language.* 


* The heft tranflation is certainly the one printed at London, for Ben- 
jamin Whyte, £leet ftreet, anno z.779. The following preface i» pr^xftd 
to it. 

Lewis Cornaro was defcended from one ol the mod illuftrlous families 
in Venice, but, by the ill condu^ of fome of his relations, had the misfor. 
tune to be deprived of the dignity of a nobleman^ and excloded from all 
honours and public employmetits in the ftate. Chagrined »t this unmerit. 
od di%racc, he retired to Padua, and married a lady of the family of Spil- 
teipberg, whofe name was Veronica. Being in pofieflion of a good eilate^. 
he watery defirous of having children ; and after a long ezpe(ftation ef 
this happinels, his wife was delivered of a daughter, to whom he gave the 
name of Glara. This was his only child, who afterwards wta married to 
John, the ion of Faotini Cornaro, x>f a rich family in Cyprus, while that 
afland belonged to the republic of Venice. Though he was hr advanced' 
in life when his daughter Clara came into the world, yet he lived to fee- 
her very old, and the mother of eight Tons and three daughters. He 
was a man of found nnderftanding, determined courage and refolutioa. 
In bis younger days he had coatradled infirmities by intemperance, 
and by indulging his too great propeniity to anger; but when 
l;ie perceived the ill confe^uence of his ^irregularities, he had com- 
mand enougfi of himfelf to fubdue his paflion and inoidiliate appetites. 
By means of great fobriety, and a ftri^ regimen in his diet, he recovered 
his health and vigour, which he preferved to an eitreme old age. -At' 
avery advanced^ftage of- life he vfrrote the following difcourfes, wherein 
he acquaints us with the irreg^ularity of his youth, his reformation of man- 
ners, and the hopes he- entertained of living a long time. Nor was he . 
miftaken in his expectation, fof :he refigncd his laft breath without any 
agony, fitting in an elbow chair, being above 100 years old. This hap- 
pened at Padua, the 2dth of April 1566. His lady, almoft as old as him- 
felf, furvived him but a (hort time, and died an eafy death. They were 
both interred in St. Antony's chufch, without any pomp, purfnant to their 
teftametttary diredions. • 

Thefe difcourfes, though written in Cornaro's old age^ were penned at 
different times, and publiflied feparately : the firft, which he wrote at the 
age of eighty-three, is entitled, A Treatife on a fober life, in which he 
declarei war.againft every kind of intemperance ;| axid his vigorous old. ' 


( 51 ) 


By Lewis CornarOf a noble Pienetian" 


It is a thing paft all doubti that cuftonii by time, be* 
Gomes a fecond nature, forcing men to ufe that, whether 
gopd ot bad, to which they have been habituated : nay, we 
fee habit, in many things, get the better of reafon. This 
ib fo undeniably true, that virtuous men, by converfing 


age fpeaks in favour of his precepts. The fecond treatife he c^mpofcd 
at the age of eighty-fix : it contains fatther encomiums on foblriety, and 
points out the means of mending, a bad conilitution. He fays that he 
came into the world with a choleric difpoiition, but that his temperate 
Way of life had enabled him to fubdue it. The third, which he wrote at 
the age of ninety-one, is entitled, An Earneft ezhottation to a fober life : 
here he ufes the ibrongeft arguments to perfuade mankind to embrace a 
temperate life, as the means of attaining a healthy and vigorous old age. 
The fourth and laft, is a letter to Barbaro, patriarch of Aguileia, written 
at the age of ninety- five : it contains a lively defcription of the health, vi- 
gour, and perfed ule of all his faculties, which he had the happinefs of 
enjoying at that advanced period of life. * 

This ufeful work \^as tranflated fome years ago into Englifh, under the 
title of Sure and certain methods ef Ifttaimng a long and healthy Ufe* The 
tranflator feems rather to have made ufe of a French verfion than of the 
Italian original : he has likewife odaitted feveral pafTages of the Italian; 
and the whole is rather a paraphrafe than a tranflation. ' This has induced' 
us to give the public an ezadl and faithful verfiun of that excellent per- 
formance, from the Venice edition in Svo, in the ye&r i<i2o;* and as a 
proof of the merit and authenticity of the wbrk, we beg leave to quote 
Mr. Addifon*s recommendation of it,Spedlator, vol. iii, N^. 195. 

*• The moft remarkable inftance of the efficacy of temperance, to- 
** wards the procuring long life, \i what v^e meet 'with id a little book 
publiflied by Le\^is Cornaro the Venetian ; which I the rather mentiou, 
becaufe it is of undoubted credit, as the late Venetian ambaflador, who 
was of the fame family,, atteftcd more than once in conv«rfation, 

it Tbe flrft edition -frM pubUlhed by the aaUi*r at Padu*, U 4to A« D« 1 538. 

^ . D » «« when 




with the wicked, very often fall into the fame vicious 
courfe of life. The contrary, likewife, we fee fometimes 
happen ; viz. that, as good morals eafily change to bad, fo 
bad morals change again to good. For inftance, let a 
wicked man who was once virtuous, keep company with a 
virtuous man, and he will again become virtuous; and this 
alteration can be attributed to nothing but the force of 
habit, which is, indeed, very great. Seeing many examples 
of this ; and befides, confidering that, in confequence of 
this great force of habit, three bad cuiloms have got foot- 
ing in Italy within a few years, even within my own me- 
mory ; the fir ft flattery and ceremonioufnefs ; the fecond 
Lutheranifm,* which fome have moft prepofteroufly em- 
braced ; the third intemperance ; and that thefe three 
vices, like fo many cruel monilers, leagued, as indeed they 
are, againfl mankind, have gradually prevailed fo far, as to 




" when he redded in England. Cornaro, who was the author of the little 
treatife I am mentioning, was of an infirm conftitution, till about forty, 
when, bf obftinately perfifting in an exadl CQ;irfe of temperance, he rc- 
•* covered a perfedl ftate of health,; infomuch, that *t fourfcore he publilh- 
** ed his book, which has been tranflated into Englifh under the title of, 
** Sure and certain methods of attaining a long and healthy life. He lived to 
give a third or fourth edition of it, and after having paiTed his hundredth 
year, died without, pain or agony, and like one who falls afleep. The 
** treatife I mention has been taken notice of by feveral eminent authors, 
»* and is written with fuch a fpirit of cheerfulnefs, religion, and good 
** fenfe, as are the natural concomitants of temperance and fobriety* 



<* The mixture of the old man in it, is rather a reconvnendation th&n a 
«• difcredit to it," 

* The author writes with the prejudice of a sscalous Romaii Catholic 
againft the do^rine of the reformation, which he here diftinguifhes by the 
name of Lutheranifm. This was owing to the artifices of the Romiih 
clergy in thofe days, by whom the reformed religion was mifreprefented» 
a% introdudlive of licentioufnefs and debauchery. 


rob civil life of its fincerity, the foul of its piety, and the 
body of its health ; I have refolved to treat of the laft of 
thefe vices, and prove that it is an abufe, in order to ex- 
tirpate it, if poffible. As to the fecond, Luthera\iifm, apd 
tlie firft, flattery, I am certain, that fome great genius or 
another will foon undertake the tafk of expofing their de- 
formity, and efFe£lually fupprelling them. Therefore, I 
firmly hope that, before I die, I fhall fee thefe three abufes 
conquered and driven out of Italy ; and this country of 
courfe reftored to its former laudable and virtuous cuf- 

To come then to that abufe, of which I have propofed 
to fpeak, namely, intemperance ; I fay, - that it is a great 
pity it (hould have prevailed fo much, as entirely to banifli 
fobriety. Though all are agreed, that intemperance is the 
offspring of gluttony, and fober living of abftemioufnefs j 
the former, neverthelefs, is confidered as a virtue and a 
mark of diftinftion, and the latter, as difhonourable and 
the badge of ^avarice. Such miftaken notions are entirely 
owing to the power of cuftom, eftabliftied by our fenfes 
and irregular appetites; thefe have blinded and befotted 
men to fuch a degree, that, leaving the paths of virtucf 
they have followed thofe of vice, which lead them before 
their time to an old age, burthened with ftrange and mor- 
tal infirmities, fo as- to render them quite decrepid before 
forty, contrary to the eflFefts of fobriety, which, before it 
was banifhed by this deftruftive intemperance, ufed to 
j^eep men found and hearty to the age of eighty and up- 
wards. O wretched and unhappy Italy ! do not you fee, 
that intemperance murders every year more of your fub- 
jeds, than you could lofe by the moft cruel plague, or by 
fire ahd fvyord in many battles ? Thofe truly (hameful 
ezR,s, now fo much in fafhion, and fo intolerably profufe, 

D 3 that 


that no tables are large enough to hold the diihes, which 
renders it neceflary to hea^ them one upon another ^ thofe 
feaftsi I fay, are fo many battles ; and hotir is it pof&ble to 
fupport nature by fuch a variety of contrary and unwholc- 
fome foods ? Put, a this abufe, for God's fakc,» for 
there is not, I dm certain of it» a vice more abominable 
than this in the eyes of the divine majefty. Drive away 
this new kind of death, as you have banifhed the4)lague, 
which, though it formerly ufed to make fuch havoc, now 
does little or no mifchief, owing to the laudable pra£lice of 
attending more to the goodnefs of the proyifions brought 
to our markets. There are means ftiii left to baniih in* 
temperance, and fuch means too,, that every man may have 
rccourfe to them without any ailiftance. Nothing more 
is requifite for this purpofe, than to live up to thefimpli- 
city di&ated by nature, which teaches us to be content 
with little, to purfue the medium of holy abftemioufnefs 
and divine reafon, and to accuftom ourfelves to eat no more 
than is abfolutely necefiary to fupport life ; confidering that 
what exceeds this, is difeafe and death, and merely gives 
the palate a fatisfa£i:ion, which, though but momentary, 
brings on the body a long and lafting train of dtfagreeable 
fenfations and difeafes, and at length deftroys it along with' 
the foul. How many friends of mine, men of the fined 
underflanding, and moft amiable difpofitioh, have I feen ' 
carried off by this plague in the flower of their youth ? 
who, were they now living, would be an ornament to the 
public, and whofe company I fliould enjoy with as much 
pleafure as I now feel concern at their k>fs. 

In order, therefore, to put a ftop to fo great an evil, I 
have, refolved, by this (hort difcourfe, to demonftrate, that 
intemperance is an abufe which may be eafily removed, 
and that the good old fpber living may be fubftituted in its 

. , . ' ^ ftcad; 


Head ; and diis ( undertake the more readily, as many 
young men of the befl: underftanding, knowing that it is a. 
^ice, have requefted it of me, mored thereto by fedog 
their fathers drop off* in the flower of their youth, and me 
{q {aund and hearty at ihe age of eighty-one. They ex* 
prefled a defire to reach the fame term, nature not forbid* 
ding tts to wifii for longevity ; and old age being, in fa&, 
that time of life in which prudence can be bed exercifed, 
and the fruits of all the other virtues enjoyed with lefs op- 
pofition, the paffions being then fo fubdued, that man gives 
himfelf up entirely to reafon* They befeecned me to let 
them know the method purfued by me to attain it ; and 
then finding them intent on fo laudable a pursuit, I have 
refdvedto tiieat of that method, in order to be of fervice 
tiot only to them, but to all thofe who may be willing to 
perufe this difcourfe. I ihall, therefore, give my reafons 
for renouncing intemperance, and betaking myfelf to a fo- 
ber courfeof life; declare freely the method purfued by 
^me for that purpofe, and then fet forth the effedis of fo 
good a habit upon me \ whence it may be clearly gathered, 
how eafy it is to remove the abufe of intemperance* X 
ihall conclude^ by (hewing how many conveniencies and 
-Ueffings are the confequences of a fober life. 

I fay then, that the heavy train of infirmities, which had 
not only invaded^ but even made great inroads in my coa.« 
ftitution, were my motives for renouncing intemperance^ 
to which i had been gteatly addi&ed ; fo that, in confe- 
quence of it, and the badnefs of mj conftitutioti, my ftp- 
mach b^ing exceedingly cold and moid, I was fallen into 
•tiifFerient kinds of diforders, fuch as pains in my ftomach^ 
and often ftitches, and fpecies of the gout ; attended by 
what was ftill worfe, an almoft continual flow fever, a 
j^njach generally out of order, and a perpetual thirft* 
" . D 4 from 


From thefc natqral and acquired difordcrs the beft delivery 
I had to hope for, was death, to put an end to the pains 
and miferies of life ; a period very remote in the regular 
courfe of nature, though I had haflened it by my irregular 
manner of living. Finding myfelf, therefore, in fuch un- 
happy circumftances between my thirty-fifth and fortieth 
year, every thing that could be thought of having been 
tried to no purpofe to relieve me, the phyficians gave me 
to underftand, that there was but one method left to get 
the better of my complaints, provided I would refolve to 
ufe it, and patiently perfevere in it. This was a fober and 
regular life, which they affured me would be ftill of the 
greateft fervice to me, and would be as powerful in its ef- 
fe£^s» as the intemperate and irregular one had been, in 
reducing me to the prefent low condition: and that I might 
be fully fatisficd of its falutary cflfcflts, for though by my 
irregularities I was become infirm, I was* not reduced -fo 
low, but that a temperate liftt, the.dppoCte in every refpef^ 
to an intemperate one, might ftill entirely recover me« 
And, befides, it in fa£^ appears, fuch a regular life, whilft 
obferved, preferves men of a bad conftitution, and far gone 
in years, juft as ^ contrary courfe has the power to deftroy 
thofe of the beft conftitution, and in their prime ; for this 
plain reafon, that different modes of life are attended by 
different effefls ; art following, even herein, the fteps of 
nature, with equal power to correA natural vices and im-> 
perfe£):ibn$. This is obvious in huft)andry and the like. 
They added, that if I did not immediately have recourfe to 
fuch a regimen, I could receive no benefit from it in a few 
months^ and that in a few more I muft refign myfelf to 
death. x 

Thefe folid and convincing arguments made fuch an im- 
prefiion on me, that, mortified as I was befides> by the 




thoughts of dying in the prime of ^life, and at the fame 
time perpetually tormented by varions difeafes, I immedi- 
ately concluded, that the foregoing contrary efFefts could 
not be produced but by contrary modes of living; a^d, 
therefore, full of hopes; refolved, in order to avoid at once 
both death and, difeafe, to betake myfelf to a regular courfe 
of life. Having, upon this, inquired of them what rules 
I (hould follow, they told me, that I muft not ufe any 
ioodp folid or liquid, but fuch as, being generally prefcrib- 
ed to (ick perfons, is, for that reafon, called diet,. and both 
• very fparingly. Thefe dire£tions, to fay the truth, they 
had before given me ; but it was at a time of life when, 
impatient of fuch reftraint, and finding myfelf fatiated, as 
it were, with fuch food, I could not put up with it, and 
therefore eat freely of every thing I liked beft ; and like- 
wife, feeling jnyfelf in a manner parched up byth^ heat of my 
difeafe, made no fcruple of drinking, and in large quantities, 
the wines that beft pleafed my palate. This, indeed, like 
all other patients, I kept a fecret from my phylicians.^ But, 
when I had once refolved to live fparingly, and according 
to the di^lates of reafon, feeing that it was no^ difficult 
matter, nay, that it was my duty as a man fo to do, I en^ 
tered with fo much refolution upon this new courfe of life, 
that nothing has been fince able to divert me from it^ 
The confequencQ was, that in a few days I began to per* 
ceive, that fuch a courfe agreed with me very well ; and 
by purfuing it, in lefs th^n a year, I found myfelf (fome 
perfons, perhaps, will not believe it) entirely freed from aU 
my complaints; 

Having thus recovered my health, I began feriouily to 

confider the power of temperance, and fay to myfelf, that 

if this virtue had efficacy enough to fubdue fuch grievous 

^iforders as mine, it muft have ftill greater to preferve me 

' ' • in 

58 A THEATJiSE OU A 80B£R LlTt. 

in healthy to help my bad conftitutionj and comfort my 
very weak ftomach. I therefore apphed myfelf diligently 
to difcoTer what kinds of food fuited me beft. But, fitft^ 
I refolved ta try, whether thofe, which pleafed my palate, 

' agreed or difagreed with my ftomach, in order to judge 
for myfelf of the truth of that proverb, which I once held 
for true, and is univerfaliy held as fiach in the highcfl: de- 
gree, ihfomuch that epicures, who give a loofe to their ap- 
petites, lay it down as a fundamental maxim. This pro* 
verb IS) that whatever pleafes the palate, muft agree with 
the ftomach and nourifh the body ; or whatever is palat* 
able muft be equally wholefome and nourifhing. The ifliie 
was, that I found it to be falfe : for, though rough and 
very cold wines, as likewife melons and other fruits, fallad, 
fifl), and pork, tarts, garden- ft ufF, paftry, and the like, were 
very pleafing to my palate, they difagreed with me npt- 
withftanding. Having thus convinced myfelf that the pro- 
verb in queftion was falie, I looked upon it as fuch ; and, 
taught by experience, I gave over the ufe of fuch meats 
and wines, and likewife of ice ; chofe wine fuited to my 
ftomach, drinking of. it but the quantity I . knew I could 
dtgeft. I did the fame by mj meat, as well in regard to 
quantity as to quality, accuftoming myfelf never to cloy 
my ftomach with eating or drinking j but conftantly rife 
from table with a difpofitron to eat and drink ftill more* 
In this I conformed to the proverb, which fays, that a 

* man, to confult his health, muft check his appetite. Hav- 
ing in this manner, and for thefe reafons, conq^uered in« 
temperance and irregularity, I betook myfelf entirely to a 
temperate and regular life ; which eflfefted in me the al- 
teration already mentioned, that is, in lefs than a year it 
fid me of all thofe diforders, which had taken fo deep a root 
ipe ^ nay, as I have already obferved^ had niade fuch a 



ftrogrefa as to be in a 'manner incurable. It had likewife 
this other good cScGt, that I no longer experienced thofe 
annual fits of ficknefs with which I ufed to be afflifhed 
while I followed'^ difierenr, that is^ a fenfual, courfe of life ; 
for then I ufed fo be attacked every year with a ftrange 
kind of fever, which fometimes brought me to death's door. 
From this difeafe, then» I alfo freed myfelf, and became ex- 
ceeding healthy, as I have continued «{rom that tinie for« 
ward. to this very day ^ and for no other reafon than that I 
never trefpafied againft regularity, which, by its infinite ef- 
ficacy, has been the caufe .that the meat I cpnlbintly eat, 
and the wine I conftantly drank, being fuch as agree with 
my conftitution, and, taken in proper quantities, imparted 
all their virtue to my body, and then left it without diffi- 
culty, and without engendering in it any bad humours. 

In confequence^ therefore, of my taking fuch methods, I 
have always enjoyed, and (God be praifed) actually enjoy, 
the beft of healths. It is true, indeed, that, befides the 
two foregoing mod important rules relative to eating and 
drinking, which I have ever been very fcrupulous to ob-< 
ferve, that is, not to take^of any thing but as much as my * 
ilomach can eafily digeft^ and to ufe thofe things only which 
agree with me ; I have carefully avoided heat, cold, and ex- 
traordinary fatigue, interruption of my ufual hours of reft, 
exceifive venery, making any ftay in bad air, and expoGng 
myfelf to the wind and fun ; for thefe, too, occafion great 
diforders. But then, fortunately, there is no grea^t difficulty 
in avoiding them, the love of life and health having more 
fway over men of underftanding, than any fatisfaftion they 
could find in doing what muft be extremely hurtful to their 
conftitution. I have likewife done all that lay in my power 
to avoid thofe evils which vre do not find fo eafy to remove* 
Thefe arc melancholy, hatred, and other violent paffions, 



which appear to have the greateft influence over our 
bodied. However, I have not been able to guard fo well 
againft either one or the other kind of thofe diforders, as 
not to fufFer myfelf now and then to be hurried away by 
many, hot to fay all, *of them; but I have reaped the 
benefit of, knowing by experience that thefe paffions have, 
in the main, no great influence over bodies governed by 
the two foregoing rules of eating and drinking, and 
therefore can do them but very little harm ; fo that it 
may, with great truth, be affirmed, that whoever obferves 
thefe two capital rules is liable, to very little inconveniency 
from any other excefl!es. This Galen, who was an eminent 
phyfician, obferved before me. He affirms, that, fo long as 
he followed thefe rules relative to eating and drinking, 
he fuffered but little from other diforders, fo little, that 
they never gave him above a day's uneafinefs. That what 
he fays is true I am a living witnefs, and fo are many 
others who know me, and have feen how often I have been 
expofed to heats and colds, .and fuch other difagreeable 
changes of weather s and have likewife feen me (owing to 
various misfortunes which have more than once befallen 
me) greatly difturbed in mind. For they cannot only fay 
of me, that fuch difturbance of mind has. done me very 
little harm, but they can aver of many Qthers, who did not 
lead a fober and regular life, that it proved very prejudicial 
to them, amongft whom was a brother of my own, and 
othe/s of my family, who, truding to the goodnefs of 
their confti^ution, did not follow my way of living. The ^ 
confequence hereof was a great misfortune to them, the 
perturbations of the mind having thereby acquired an ex- 
traordinary influence over their bodies. Such, in a word, 
was their grief and dejeftion at feeing me involved in ex« 
penfive law^fuits^ commenced againff me by great and 
3 powerful 



powerful men, that, fearing I (hould be caft, they were 
feized with that melancholy humour with which intempe- 
rate bodie$ always abound ; and thefe humours had fuch 
an influence over them, and increafed to Aich a degree, as to 
carry them off before their time ; whereas I fufFered no*' 
thing on the occafion, as I had in me no fuperfluous hu- 
mours of that kind. Nay, in order to keep up my fpirits^ 
I brought myfelf to think that God had raifed up thefe 
fuits againft me, in order to make me more fenfiUe of my 
ftrength of body and mind, and that I (hould get the bet- 
ter of therh with honour and advantage, as it in fa£): came 
to pafs : for, at laft, I obtained a decree exceeding favour- 
able to my fortune and my chara&er, which, though it gave 
me the higheft pleafure, had not the power to do me any 
harm in other refpedts. Thus it is plain, that neither, me- 
lancholy, nor any other aflFeSion of the mind, clan hurt bo- 
dies governed with temperance and regularity. 

But I muft go a ftep farther, and fay, that even misfor- 
tunes themfelves can do but very little mifchief, or caufe 
but very little pain, to fuch bodies *, and that this is true 
I have myfelf experienced at the age of feventy. I hap- 
pened, as is often the cafe, to be m a coach, whicb^ 
going at a pretty fmart rate, was overfet, and, in that condi- 
tion, drawn a confiderable way by the horfes before means 
could be found to ftop them ; whence I received fo many 
fhocks and bruifes,* that I was taken out with my head and 
all the reft of my body terribly battered, and a diflocated 
leg and arm. When I was brought home, the family im- 
mediately fent for the phyficians, who, on their arrival, fee- 
ing me in fo bad a plight, concluded that within three days 
I ihould die ; neverthelefs, they would try what good two 
things would do me } one was to bleed me, the other to 
purge me $ and thereby prevent my humours altering, afs 




they every moment exp^dled, to fuch a degree a$ to hx^ 
xnent greatlyi and bring on a high fever. But I, on the coo- 
ttary, who knew that the fober life I had led for many 
years paft had fo well united, harmonized, and difpofed, my 
humours, as not to leave it in their power to ferment to 
fuch a degree, refufed to be either bled or purged* I juft 
caufed my leg .and arm to be fet^ and fufFered myfelf to be 
rubbed with fome oils, which they^faid were proper on the 
pccafion* Thus, without ufing any other kind of remedy, 
I Recovered, as I thought I fhouid, without feeling the 
leaft alteration in myfelf, or any other bad effe&s from 
this accident \ a thing which appeared miraculous even in 
the eyes of the phyficians. Hence wfc are to inferj that 
whoever leads a fober and regular life, and commits no ex*^ 
cefs in his diet, can fuffer but very little from diforders of 
any other kind, or external accidents. On the contrary, Icon-* 
dude, efpecially from the late trial I have had, that ex^efles 
in eating and drinking are fatal. Of this I convinced my-> 
felf four years ago, when, by the advice of my phyficians^ 
the inftigation of my friends, and the importunity of my 
own family) I confented tQ fuch an excefs, which, as it will 
appear hereafter, was attended with far worfe confequences 
than could naturally be expe£ked. This excefs con£fted in 
increafing the quantity of food I generally made ufe of }• 
which increafe alone brought on me a moil cruel fit of fick* 
nefs. And, as it is a cafe fo much in point to the fubje£t 
in hand, and the knowledge of it m^y be ufeful to fome of 
my readers, I (hall take the trouble to relate it. 

I fay then, that my deareil friends and relations, a£luit-' * 
ed by the warm and laudable aiFedion and regard they 
have for me, feeing how little I eat, reprefented to me, in 
conjundlion with my phyficians, that the fuftenance I toob 
could not be fufficient to fupport one fo far advaiqced inf 
^ ycarsy 


J^rSy when it was become neceflary not only to preferve 
nature^ but to increafe its vigour. That, as this could not 
be done without foodj. it was abfolutely incumbent upon 
me to eat a little more plentifully. I, on the other hand^' 
produced my reafons for not complying with their d^- 
fires* Thefe were, that nature is content with littlei and 
that with this little I had preferved myfelf i% many years f 
and that, to me^ the habit of it was become a fecond na- 
ture \ and that it was more agreeable to reafon, that, as I 
advanced in years^ and loft my ftrength, I fhould rather 
kfien than increafe the quantity of my food ; farther, that 
It was but natural to think that the powers of the ftomach 
grew weaker from day to day \ on which account I could 
fee .no reafon to make fuch an addition. To corroborate 
sny arguments, I alleged thofe two natural and very true 
proverbs ; one, that he who has a mind to eat a great 
deal muft eat but little ; which is faid f6r no other reafba 
than this, that eating little makes a man live very long ^ 
and living very long he muft eat a great deah The othev 
proverb was, that what we leave after making a htzttf 
meal does us more good than what we have eat^ But nei- 
ther thefc proverbs, nor any other arguments I could think 
of, were able to prevent their teazing me more than ever. 
Wherefore, not to appear obftinate^ or affe£t to know more 
than the phyficians themfelves ; but, above all, to pleafe 
my family, who very earneftly defired it^ from a perfuafion 
that fuch an addition to my ufual allowance would pre« 
ferve my ftrength, I confented to increafe the <)uahtity 
of food, but with two ounces only. So that, as before^- 
what with bread, meat, the yolk of an egg, and foup, I eat 
as much as weighed in all twelve ounces, neither more nor 
fefs ; I now increafed it to fourteen *, and, as before I drank 
kut fourteen ounces of wiAe» I now increafed it to (ixteen^ 



Tliis incrcafe and irregularity had, in dght days time, fuch 
an efFe£l upon me, that, from being cheerful and brifk, I 
began to be peevifli and melancholy, fo that nothing could 
pleafe me, and was conftantly fo ftrangely difpofed, that I 
neither knew what to fay to others, nor what to ^o with my- 
felf. On' the twelfth day I was attacked with a moft violent 
pain in my fidft, which held me twenty^two hours, and was 
fucceeded by a terrible fever, which continued thirty- five 
days and as many nights, without giving me a moment's 
rcfpite, though, to fay the truth, it began to abate gradual- 
ly on the fifteenth ; but, notwithftanding fuch abatement, 
I could not, during the whole time, fleep half a quarter of 
^n hour together, infomuch that every one looked upon me 
as a dead man. But, God be praifed, I recovered, merely 
by»my former regular courfe of life, though then in my 
feventy-eighth year, and in the coldcft feafon of a very cold 
year, and reduced to a mere fkeleton ; and I am ppfitive 
that it was the great,,regularity I had oBferved for fo many 
years, and that only, which refcued me from the jaws of 
death* In all that time I never knew what (icknefs was, 
unlefs I may call by that name fome fligh^ndifpofitions of 
a day or two's continuance -, the tegular life I had led, as I 
have already taken notice, for fo many years, Hot having 
permitted any fuperfluous or bad humours to breed in me ; 
or if they did, to acquire fuch ftrength and malignity, as 
they generally acquire in the fuperannuatcd bodies of thofe 
who live without rule. And as there was not any old' 
malignity in my humours, (which is the thing that kills 
people), but only that which my new irregularity had oc- 
caConed, this fit of ficknels, though exceeding violent, h^d 
not ftrength enough to deftroy me. This it was, and no- 
thing elfe, that fived my life; vi hence may be gathered, 
how great is the power and efficacy of regularity ^ and 

' how 


I \ 


how great, Hkewife^ is that of irregularity, which in ft 
few days conid bring on me fo terrible a fit of ficknefs^ 
jaft as regularity had prefervcd me in healdi for fo many * 

And it appears to me a no weak argument) that, fince Ae 
^wrorld, eonfifting of the four elen^ents, 16 upHcM by order, 
Md oar life, a» to the body, \& no other &an a Wmonious^ 
combination «f the fame four elements, fo it ftiould be pre- 
ferred and maintained by the very fame order; aiidj on At 
other hand, it mwft be worn out by fieknefs, or deft* royed by 
death, which arc produced by the contrary etfefls* By order 
the arts are more eafily learned ; by order araiies are itnder** 
ed Tt&orious ; by order, in a word, families, cities, and even 
ftates, are maintained. Hence I concluded, that orderly 
Urittg is no other than a moft certain caufe and foundation 
6f health and long life ; nay, I cannot help faying, that it 
is the only and true medicine } and whoever weighs the 

^ natter well, m\ift alfo conclude that this is redly the 
cafe. Hence it is, that when a phylician comes to vifit 
. a patient, the firft thing he prefcribes is to live regu« 
lady. ' In like manner, when a phyfician takes leave of a 
patient on his being recovered, he advifes him, as he ten« 
ders his health, to lea ^ a regular life. And it is not to ht 
dcii]d)ted, tbat^ were a patient fo recovetcd to live in that 
manner, he could never be fick again, as it removes every 
caufe of illnefs ; and fo, for the fnture, would never want 
eidier phyfician or phyfic. Nay, by attending duly to what 
I have faid, he would become his own phyfician, and, in- 
:daBd, the heft he could have ; fince, in fa£k:, no man can be 
a perfed phyfician to any one but himielf. The reafon of 
which is, that any man may, by repeated trials, acquire a 

. perfeA' knowledge of his own conftitution^ and the moft 

hidden qualities of his bpdyy and what wine and food agree 

Vol. III. E with 


1 I 



With his ftomach. NoW| it is fo far from being ?^n carfjf 
matter to know thefc things perfeftly of another, that wcj 
cannot, without much trouble, difcover them in ourfclfcs* 
fince a great deal of time and repeated trials are requifite 
for that purpofe. 

Thefe trials are, indeed (if I may fay it), more than nc- 

ceflary, as there is a greater variety in the natures and cbn* 

ftitutions of different men than in their perfons. Who could 

believe that old wine, wine that had paffcd its firft year^ 

ihould difagree with my ftomach, and new wine agree with 

it? and that pepper, which is looked upon as a warm fpice, 

Ihould not have a warm effefk upon me, infqmuch that I 

find myfelf more warmed and comforted by cinnamon 2 

' Where is the phyfician that could, have informed me of 

thefe two latent qualities, fince I myfelf, even by a loi^ 

courfe of obfervation, could fcarce difcover them ? From all 

thefe reafons it follows, that it is impoffible to be a perfe£k 

hyfician to another. Since, therefore, a man cannot have 

a better phyfician than himfelf, nor any phyfic better than 

a regular life, a regular life he ought to embrace*^ 

I do not, however, mean that, for the knowledge and 
cure of fuch diforders as often befal thofe who do not live 
regularly, there is no occaiion for a phyfician,^ and that his 
afliftance ought to be flighted. For, if we are apt to re- 
ceive fuch great comfort from friends who come to vifit 
us in our illnefs, though they do no more than teftify their 
concern for us, and bid us be of good cheer, how -muck 
more regard ought we to have for the phyfician, who is a 
friend that comes to fee us in order to relieve us, and pro» 
mifes us a cure i But, for the bare purpofe of keeping our«- 
felves in good health, I am of opinion, that we ihould con- 
fider as a phyfician this regular life, which, as we have feen^ 
^ is our natural and proper phyfic, fince it preferves men^ 



(Even thofe of a bad conftitution, in health ; makes them live 
found and hearty to the age of one hundred and upwards ; 
and prevents their dying of ficknefs, or through a corrup- 
tion of their humours, but merely by a diiflblution of their 
radical moifture, when quite exhaufted ; all which efFefts 
feveral wife men have attributed to potable gold, and the 
elixir, fought for by many, but difcovered by few. How- 
ever, to confefs the truth, men, for the moft part, are very 
fenfu^l and intemperate, ^nd love to fatisfy their appetites^ 
and to commit every cxcefs •, therefore, feeing that they 
cannot avoid being greatly injured by fuch excefs, as often 
as they are guilty of it, they, by way of apologizing for 
their condu£t, fay, that it is better to live ten jears lefs, and 
enjoy themfelves ; not conddering of what importance are 
ten years more of life, efpecially a healthy life, and at a ma- 
turer age, when men become fenfible of their progrcfs in 
knowledge and virtue, which cannot attain to any degree 
of perfedlion before this period of life. 
* Not to fpeak, at prefent, of many other advantages, I 
(hall barely mention that, in regard to letters and the 
fciences, £ar the greateft number of the beft and moft cc- 
lebrated books extant were written during that period of 
life, and thofe ten years, which fome make it their buG- 
nefs to undervalue, in order to give a loofe to their appe- 
tites. Be that as it will, I would not a£t like them ; I ra- 
ther coveted to five thefe ten years, and, had I not done fo, 
r fhould never have finifhed thofe trafts, which I have 
compofed in confequence of my having been found and 
hearty thefe ten years paft, and which I have the pleafurc 
to think will be of fervice to others. Thefe fenfualifts add, 
that a regular life is fuch as no man can lead. To this I 
anfwer, Galen, who was fo great a phyfician, led fuch a 
IJfe,- and thofe it as the beft phyfic ; the fame did Plato, 

E 2 Cicero, 


Cicero^ Ifixrates^ and many other great men of fermti; 
times, whom, not to tire the reader, I fhall forbear naming » 
and, in our pwn days, Pope Paul Famefe led it, and Cardi* 
nal Bembo ; and it was for diat reafon they lived fo long z 
likewife our two doges, Lando and Donato; befides manff 
otfiers of meaner condition^ and thofe who Ktc not onlf; 
in cities, bnt alfo in difierent parts of the country, who all 
found great benefit by conforming to this regularity. There- 
fore, fince many hare- led this life, and many a^iually lead 
it, it is not fuch a life but that mry one may conform toit^ 
and the more fo, as no great difficulty attends it ^ nothings 
indeed, being requifite but to begin in good escmeft, as the 
aboTC-mentioned Qcno affirms, and all thofe who now ^ 
live in this manner* Plato, you will fay, though he hhxi'* 
felf fired very regularly, affirms, notwitl^anding^that in re-, 
publics men cannot do to, being often obliged to' expo£e 
themfelves to, heat, cold,' and fereral other kinds of hard** 
flup, and other tlungs, which are all fo many diforders, and. 
incompatible with a regular fife. I anfwer^ as I have al- 
ready obfenred, that thefe are not diforders attended with 
any bad confequence, or which aiFed. dther health or life,, 
when the man who undergoes them^ ^bferves the rules of 
fobriely, and commits no excefs in the two pomts. concenw 
ing diet, which a republican may very well avoid ; nay,* it 
is requifite he fhoW avoid ; becaufe by fa doing, he mzy 
be fure either to efcape thofe diforders, which otherwife it 
would be no eafy matter for him to efcape while expoied 
to thefe hardfiiips, or> in cafe he fhould net efcape them, 
he may more eafily and fpeedily prevent their bad eftfls* 

Here it may be obje&ed^ and fome afiually obj|e£k, that 
he who leads a regular life, having conftantly, when well^ 
made ufe of food fit for the fick, Snd in fmall quantities^ 
has no rpfource left in cafe of iUnefs^ To this. I might, ia 


die firft place^ anTw*er, that nature, defirous to preferre 
nan in ^ood health as lofig as .poffible» informs him, her*^ 
ftif, fnomht is to aft in time of iUnefs^ for fhe immedi- 
ately deprives him, lehen fick, of his appetite, in order 
diat he Aiay eat but Stde; becaufe nature (as I have faid 
mheady) is fatisfied with little ; wher^fcnre, it is requifite 
diat a ihi^i vtrhen fick, whether be has been a regular or 
irregular liver, lhotild>ufe no meats^ but fuch as are fuited 
to his diforder ; and of thefe even in a much fmaller 
i^tianthy tJlah he was wont to do when in health. For 
were he to eat as much i» he ufed to do, he would die by 
it ; becaufe it would be only adding to the burden \vitfa 
which natuit was already opprefled, by giving her a great- 
er quantky of food than flie can in fuch circumftances 
fupport ; and this, I imagine, would be a fufficient cau^ 
tioH to any fick perfon. But, mdependent of ail this, I 
'might anfwer fome odiers, and ftiS better, that whoever 
leads a regular life eaniM be fick, ust at leaft but feip- 
dom, and for a fliort time ; becaufe, by living regularly^ 
he extirpated every feed of fickitefs ; and thus, by remov- 
ing the caufe, prevents the^efi; % to that he, who purfues 
a regular courfe of life, need not be apprehenfive of iUneb, 
as he need not be afraid of the efafib who has guarded 
againft the caufe. 

Sinte it therefore appears that a regular Ufe is ib profit- 
able and virtuous, fo lovely and fo holy,' it ought to be 
ttniverfally followed and embraced ; and the more fo^ as it 
does not dafli with the means or dUti(^ of any ftatiooi 
but is eaiy to aB ; becaufe, to lead it, a man need not 
tie Umfelf down to eat fo little as i do, or tiot to eat fruity 
fifli, and other things of that kind, from which I abftain^ 
who eat little, becaufe it is fufficient for my puny and 
irea): ftoroach i and fruit, fifli, and other things of that 

E 3 kind^ 



kind, difapee with me, which is my reaibn for not tQU^<* 

ing them, Thofei however, with whom fuch things agree* 

may, and ought to eat of them ; lince they are npt by any 

means forbid fhe ufe of fuch (uftenanc^. But then, botI\ 

they, and all others, are forbid to eat a greater quantity of 

any kind of food, eyen of .tha( which agrees with them, 

than what their ftomach$ can eafily digeft ; the fame is to 

be underftood of drink. Hence it is that thofe, with whon^ 

nothing difagrecs, ^rq not bound to pbferve any rule buf 

that relating to the quantity, ^nd not to the quality, of 

^eir food ; a rule viFhicb they may, witboi^t the lead di£* 

culty in the world, comply with. 

Let nobody tell me, that there are ntimbersi-who, though 

they live moft irregularly* live in health and fpirits, tQ 

tiiots remote periods of life, attained by the moft fober | 

for, this argument being grounded on a cafe full of uncer-^ 

tainty and hazard^ s^nd which) ^fides, fo feldoni oqcurs as 

to look more like a miracle than the work of nature, men 

ihould not fuffer them&lyes to be thereby perfuaded to live 

irregularly, nature having been too liberal to thofe who 

did fo without fufieringrby it ; a. favour which very few 

have any right to expe&. Whoever, trufting to his youth, 

or the ^rength of bis conftitution, or the goodnefs of his 

ftomach, flights thefe obfervations, muft exped to fufier 

greatly by fo' doing, and live in conftant danger of difeafe 

and death. I therefore. affirm, that an old man, even of a 

bad qonilitution, who pleads a regular and fober life, is 

Turer of a long one, than a youngs man of the beft confti- 

tution, who leads a djforderly life. It is not. to be doubted, 

however^ that a man blefled with a good confiitution may, 

by living temperately, expedl to live longer than one whofe 

conftitution is not fo good ; and that God and nature can 

difpofe matters fo, that a man (hall bring into the worl^ 



nrith hiai fo found a conftitution as to lire long and 
iicalthy, without obfeiving fuch AriQ: rules ; and then die 
an a very advanced age^ through, a mere diflblution of his 
elementary parts ; as was the cafe in Venice^ of the pro* 
curator Thomas Contarini ; and in Padua, of the cavalier 
Antonio Capo di Vaccsu But it is not one man in a hun- 
dred thoufand that fo much can be faid of. If others have 
a mind to live long and healthy, and die without (icknefs 
of body or mind, but by mere diifolution, they muft fub- 
mit to live regularly, fmce they cannot otherwife expe£i: to 
enjoy the fruits of fuch a life, which are almoft infinite in 
number, and each of them, in particular, of infinite value. 
For, as fuch regularity keeps the humours of the body 
cleanfed and purified, it fuffers no vapours to afcend from 
the ftomach to the head ; hence the brain of him, who 
lives in that manner, ^enjoys fuch a conftant ferenity that 
he is always pcrfedlly mailer of himfelf. He, therefore, 
eafily foars above the low and groveling concerns of this 
life, to the exalted and beautiful contemplation of heavenly 
things, to his exceeding great comfort and fatisfadlion 9 
becaufe he, by this means, comes to confider, know, and 
underftand, that which otherwife he would never have 
^onfidered, known, or undexftood ; that is, how great is 
the power, wifdom, and goodnefs, of the Deity, He then 
defcends to nature, and acknowledges her for the daughter 
of God, and fees, and eve^ feels with his hands, that, which 
in any other age, or with a perception lefs clear, he could 
.pever have feen or felt. He then truly difcerns the bru- 
tality of that vice into which they fall who know not how 
to fubdue their paiTions, and thofe three importunate lufts, 
which, one would imagine, came altogether into the world 
with us, in order to keep us in perpetual anxiety and dif- 
f urb^ncc, ' Thefc are, the lull of the flefh, the lull of ho- 

£ 4 nour8| 

fi 4 TREAfidB ON A SOBER 1!FX. 

noUTSi and the loft of riches ; which are apt to mcseaft 
nirith years in iuch old perfons as do not lead a regular life \ 
becaufe, in their paflage dirough the ftage of mailhoodj^ 
they did not» as they ought^ renounce fenfuaiity and thete 
paffions, and tdkt np with fobriety and reafon; virtuei{ 
which men of a regular life did not neglc£l wheii they 
pafTed through the above-mentioned ftage. Fort knowing 
fuch paifions and fuch lufts to be inconfiftent witH reafoHn 
by which they are entirely goyertied, they at once brobs 
loofe from all temptations to vicej and, inftead of being 
flaves to their inordinate appetites^ they applied tbemfelyei 
to virtue and good works ; and, by thefe means^ they alter- 
ed their condu£l, and becatne men of good and fbber lives. 
When, therefore, in procefs of time, they fee thdmfelvei 
brought by a long feries of years to their diflblution, ccti«- 
fcious that, through the fingulat mercy of God, they ha4 
fb fincerelf retinquiflied the paths of vice as tiever after- 
wards to enter themi and moreover hoping,^ through thd 
iberits of our Saviour Jefus Chrift, to die in his favour^ 
they do not fuflPer themfelves to be caft down at the 
thoughts" of death, knowing that they muff die. This is 
pslrticularly the cafe, when, loaded with honour, and fated 
with life, the/ fee themfelves arrived at that age Whicl| 
not one in many thoufands of thofe who live otherwifd 
ever attains* They have ftill the greater reafon not to b^ 
deje£ted at the thoughts of death, as it does tiot attack 
them violently and by furprize, with a bitter and painfUl 
turn of thdr humoursf, with fei^erifli fen&tions, and Ihar^ 
pains, but fteals upon them infenfibly, and vifi^ti the great- 
eft ^afe and gentlenefs : fuch an end proceeding entirely 
fl'om an exhauftion of the radical moifture, which decayiit 
by degrees, like the oil of a lamj^, fo diat they pafs gently, 


^tfaottt diiy fickncfti from this terreftrtal and mortal to a 
eeleftial and ^tctnal life. 

O holy and truly happy regularity ! How holy and hap« 
fj {bould men, in fa£l, deem thee, fince the oppofite ha- 
bit is die caufe of fncb guilt and mifery, as endeittly ap« 
pears to thofe who confider the oppofite efFe£ls of both ! 
fo that men fhould know thee by thy voice alone, and thy 
lovely name ; for what a glorious name, what a noUe 
thing, is an orderly and fober life ! as, on the contrary, the 
bare mention of diforder and intemperance is offenfive to 
our aars. Nay, there is the fame difieretice between the 
mentioning thefe two things as between the uttering of 
the words angel and devil. 

Thus I have affigned my reafons for abandoning intem- 
perance, and betaking myfelf entirely to a fober life ; with 
the method J . purfued in doing fo,, and what was the con. 
fequence of it ; and, finally, the advantages and bleffings 
which a fober life confers upon thofe who embrace it* 
3ome fenfual inconfiderate perfons affirm, that a long life 
|s no blefiing ; an4 that the ftate of a man, who has paflTed 
his feventy-fifth year, cannot really be called life, but 
death s but this is a great miftake, as I (hall fully prove : 
and it is my fincere wi(h, that all men would endeavour to 
attain my age, in order that they too may enjoy that period 
of life which of all others is the moft defirable. 

I will therefore give an account of my recreations, and 
the relifl^ which I find iat this ftage of life, in order to con* 
vince the public (which may likewife be done by all tliofe 
who know me) that the ftate I have now attained to is by 
no means death, but real life } fuch a life as by many i6 
deemed happy, fince it abounds with all the felicity that 
can be enjoyed in this world. And this teftimony they 
iriil givo, in the ferft plsice^ becaufe diey (be, and not witb-^ 



out the gr^atefl: amazement, the good ftate of health and 
fpirits 1 enjoy ^ how I mount my horfe without any aflift* 
ance, or advantage of (ittiation ^ and ho\N; I not only af- 
cend a fingle flight of ftairs, but climb up a hill from bbt-* 
torn to top9 afooty and with the greateft eafe and unconr 
cem i then how gay^ pleafant, and good-humoured, I aa\ ; 
how free from every perturbation of mind, and every dif- 
agreeable thought; in lieu of which, joy and peace have 
fo. firmly fixed their refidence in my bofom as never to de^ 
part from it. Moreover, they know in what manner I 
pafs my time, fo as npt to find life a burden ; feeing I can 
contrive to fpend every hour of it with the greateft delight 
and pleafure, having frequent opportunities of converfing 
with many honourable gentlemen, men valuable for their 
good fenfe and manners, their acquaintance with letters, 
and everj other good quality. Then, when I cannot enjoy 
their converfatipn, I betake myfelf to the reading of fome 
^ood book. When I have read as much as I like, I write; 
endeavouring in this, as in every thing elfe, to be of fer- 
vice to others, to the utmoft of my power. And all 
thcfe things I do with the greateft eafe to mjfelf, at their 
proper feafons, and in my own houfe ; .which, befides be- 
ing fituated in the moft beautiful quarter of this noble 
and learned city of Padua, is, in itfelf really convenient 
and handfome, fuch, in a word, is no longer th^ 
fafliion to build ; for, in one part of it, I can (helter my- 
felf from extreme heat, and, in the other, from extreme 
cold, having contrived the apartments according to the 
rules of architedure, which teach us what is to be ob- 
ferved in praftice. 

Befides this houfe, I have my feveral gardens fupplied 
with running waters, and in which I always find fbme-^ 
thing to do that amufes me. I have another way of di- 


^nttipg myfelf, which is, going fvtry April and May, 
9od likewife cycry Septcnabcr and Oftober, fpr fomQ 
4ay9* to enjoy an eminence belonging to me in the Euga- 
pean mounuins» and in the moft beautiful part of them, 
horned with ibuatains and gardens ; and, above all, a 
convenient and handfon^e lodge, in which place I like- 
ivife now and then make one in fome hunting party 
fuitable to my tafte and age. Then I enjoy fpr as many 
jiays my villa in the plain, which is laid out in regular 
llreets, all terminating in s| large fquare, in the middle 
of which (lands the churqh, fuited to the condition of the 
place* This villa is divided by a wide and rapid bi^anch 
of the rivei: Brenta, on both fides of which there isf a con- 
fiderable extent of country, confiding entirely of fertile 
and well cultivated fields. Befides, this diftrid): is now, 
Qod be praifed, exceedingly well inhabited, which it was| 
pot at firil, but rather the reverCe ; for it was marihy, 
and the s^lr fo unwholefome as to make it a refidence fit« 
ter for fnakjss than men. But, on my draining off jthe 
waters, the air mended, and pQople Teforted |o it fo faft, 
and inpreafed to fuch a- decree, that it ibon acquired the 
perfi^ioh in wbioh it npw appears : hence I may fay 
with truth, that I have offered in this place an altar and 
a temple to God, with fouls to adore him : thefe are 
things which affpr^ me infinite pleafure, comfort, and fa- 
tisfadion, as often as, I go to fee and enjoy them. 

At the fame feafons, every year, I revifi^t fome of tho 
neighbouring cities, and enjoy fuch of my friends as live 
there, taking the greateft pleafure in their company and 
converfation ; and by their means I alfp enjoy the con-« 
yerfation of other men of part's, who live in the fame 
places ; fuch as archite&s, painters, fculptprs, muficians, 


76 A THEATllI ^N A SC^Btll UPB. 

and h«fl>&adm6n, with ivhom this age moft cettailily 
T^hmmis. I vifit their new works ; I revifit their form* 
er 4>n€a ; and I always learn fomething which giTes me 
fatisfaftioa. I fee the palaees, gardensi ami^ities ; aadl 
with thefe the fqu^res aad other public places, the 
churches, the fortifications, leading nothing unobferved^ 
from whence I may reap either isntertftinmedC or infirac- 
tion. Btft what delights me moft is^ in my joumtes 
backwards and forwards, to contemplate the fituation and 
other beauties of the places I pafs through f fome in the 
plain, others on hills, adjoining to rivers ot fonntaitis ; 
with & great many fine houfes and gardens. Nor are my 
recreations rendered lefs agreeable and entertaining by 
my. not feeing well, or not hearing readily every thing 
that is faid to me, or by any other of my faculties ttot 
being perfed , for they are all, thank God, in the higheft 
perfedion ; particularly my palate, whi<!:h now reliflie^ 
better the fimple fare I eat, wherever I happen to bCj^ 
than it formerly did the moft delicate di&es, when t led 
an irregular life. Nor does the change of beds give tot 
any uneafinefs, fo that I fleep everywhere foundly and 
quietly, without experiencing the leaft difturbaaoe ; and 
all my dreams are pleafant and delightful* 

It is likewife with tfafe greatefl: pleafure and fatisftfttoa 
I behold the fuccefs of an undertaking £b important to thii 
ftate, — I mean that of draining and improving fo many 
uncultivated pieces of ground, an undertaking begun 
within my memory, and which I never thought I (hould 
liye to fee completed, knowing how flow repablics are 
apt to proceed in enterprifes of great importance. No* 
verthelefs, I have lived to fee it, and was even in per* 
(on in thefe marffay places ^ong with tfaofe appointed 



to fijperintend- the draining of dicm, for two months to^* 
gether^ during the greateft heats of fummery without ever 
finding myfelf the wor& for the fatigues or inconveniences 
I fuSfered ; o£ fo much efficacy is that' orderly life which 
I. everywhere conftantly lead. 

What is more, I am in the greateft hopes^ or rather 
fure^ to fee the beginning and completion of another un* 
dertaking of no lefs importance, which is that of preferv- 
ing our eftuary or port, that laft and wonderful bulwark 
of my deaf country, the prefervation of which (it is not 
to flatter my vanity I fay it, but merely to do juftice 
to truth) has been more than once recommended by 
me to this republic, by word of mouth, and in writ* 
ings which coft me many nights ftudy. And to this dear 
country of mine, as I am bound by the laws of nature ta 
do every thing from which it may reap any benefit, for 
*I mod .ardently wifh perpetual duration, and a long fuc- 
ceffion o[ every kind of profperity* Such are my gienuine 
and no trifling fatisfafbions ; fuch are the recreations and 
diverfions of my old age, which is fo much the more to .be 
valued than the old age, or even youth, of other men, be- 
cau£e being freed, by God's grace, from the perturbations 
of the mind, and the infirmities of the body, it no longer 
experiences any of tfaofe contrary emotions which tor- 
ment a. number of young men, and many old ones defti- 
tute of ftrength and health, and every other bleffing. 

And if it be lawful to compare little matters, and fuch aa 
• are efteemed trifling, to affairs of importance, I will further 
venture to fay^ that fuch are the effeds^ of this fober life, 
that, at my prefent age of eighty- three, I have 'been able 
to. write a very entertaining comedy, abounding with in- 
nocent mirth and pleafant jefts. This fpecies of compq. 
iition^ is generally the child and ofl[spring of youth, as tra-- 


^8 A THE ATI SE 0^ A SOBER XrlB-E.' 

gedjr is that of old age ; the former being, bj its facetiotli 
and 'fprightlj turn, fuited to the bloom of life, and th^ 
latter, by its gravity, adapted to riper years. Now, if 
that good old man*, a Grecian by birth, and a poet, wad 
fo ranch extolled for having written a tragedy at the age 
of feventy- three, and, on that account alone, reputed of 
found memory and underhand in g, though tragedy be a 
grave and melancholy poem, why fbould I be deemed 
lefs happy, and to have a fmaller ihare of memory and 
underftanding, who have, at an age, ten years more ad« 
vanced than his, written a comedy, which, as every one 
knows, is a merry and pleafant kind of compofition ? 
And, indeed, if I may be allowed to be an impartial 
judge in my own caufe, I cannot help thinking that I am 
now of founder metoory and underftanding, and heartier, 
than he was when ten years younger. 

And, that no comfort might be wanting to the fulnefs of 
my years, whereby my great age may be rendered lefs irk- 
fomej or rather the number of my enjoyments increafed, I 
have the additional comfort of feeing a kind of immortality 
in a fuccellion of defcendants. For, as often as I return home, 
I find there, before me, not one or two, but eleven, grands 
children, the old eft of them eighteen, and the youngeft 
two i all the offspring of one father and one mo- 
ther ; all blefled with the beft: health ; and, by' what 
as yet appears, fond of learning, and of good parts and^ 
morals. Some of the yotingeft I always play with, and> 
indeed, children from three to five are only fit for play. 
Thofe above that age I make companions of ; and, as na« 
ture has beftowed very fine voices upon them, I amufe my- 
felf, beGdes, with feeing and hearing them fing, and play on 


* Sophodesi 


V4rious iofiniaients. Naj, I iing myfelf, as I have a 
better -voice now, and a clearer and louder pipe, than at 
any other period of life. Such are the recreations of mj 
old age* 

Whence it appears, that the life I lead is cheerful, and 
Dot gloonoj, as fome perfons pretend, who know no bet- 
ter ; to whom, in order that it may appear what value I 
fet on every other kind of life, I muil declare, that I 
would not exchange my manner of living or my grey 
hairs with any of thofe young men, even of the beft con« 
ftitution, iR^ho give way to their appetites ; knowing, as 
I do, that fudi are daily, nay, hourly, fubjed, as I have 
already obferved^ to a thoufand kinds of ailments and 
deaths. This is, in faft, fo obvious, as to require no 
proof. Nay, I remember perffeftly well how I ufed to 
behave at that time of life* I know how inconfiderately 
that age is apt to ad, and how foolhardy young men, 
hurried en by the heat of their Uood, are wont to be ; 
how apt they are to prefume too mudi on their own 
ftrength in all their aSions ; and how fanguine they are 
in their expeftations ; as well on account of the little ex- 
perience they have had for the time pad, as by reafon of 
the power they enjoy in their own imaginations over the 
time to come. Hence they expofe themfelves rafhly to 
every kind of danger; and, banifhing reafon, and bowing 
their necks to the yoke of concupifcence, endeavour to 
gratify all their appetites, not minding, fools as they are, 
that they thereby haften, as I have feveral times obferv- 
ed, the approach of what they would moil willingly 
avoid, — ^I mean ficknefs and d^ath. Of thefe two evils 
one is troublefome aqd painful, the other, above all things, 
dreadful and. infupportable; infupportable to every man 
who has given himfelf up to his fenfual appetites; and 
X . to 


to yottfig. men in particular^ to whom it appears a hard-' 
ifaip to die an early death ; dreadful to thofe nHto refie£l 
oa the errors to whkh this mortal life is fabjeft, and oa 
the vengeance which the jaftice of God is wont to take 
oa finaersy bj condemning them to everhiUng puniih- 
ment. On the other hand, I^ ia mj dd s^,, (praife to 
the Almightj) am exempt from both lihefe apprehend 
^ns ; from the one» becanfe I am fmre and certam that I 
cannot fall fick^ baring removed all the caufcs of illpie& 
bj mj divine medicine ; from the other,, tifaot o£ deaiA^ 
becaufis from fo many years experience I have learned 
to obfey rea&n ; whence I not only think it a great pieced 
q{ folly to fear that which cannot be avoided, but lik&» 
wife firmly ezpeA iome confolation from the grace of 
Jefos Chrift when I ihall arrive aft that period. 

Befides, though I am Cenfible that I muft, like othecsy 
reach that term, it is yet at fo great a diftaacc that I 
cannot difcern it, becanfe I know I fhall not die except* 
bymere diflblntion, having already, by my regular conrfo 
of life, {hot up aU the other avenues of death, and there-i 
by prevented the humours of my body from making an/ 
other war upon me than that which I mnft expeA fron^ 
the elements employed in the con^>ofition of this mortal 
frame. I am not fo fimple as not to know, that, as I war 
born, fo I muft die* But that is a defiraUie death which 
nature brings on us by way of diiiblution. For nature^ 
having herfelf formed the union between our body and 
foul, knows beft in what manneir it may be moft eafily^ 
diflblved, and grants us a longer day to do it thaa* we 
could exped from ficknefs, ^htch. is violent; This ia the 
death, which, without fpeaking like a poet, I nuy call 
not death, but life. Nor can it be odierwife. Soeh- m 
death does not overtake one till «ftei^ a> very lon|( cdnrfor 
I oC 


of yearsi and in confequcnce of aa extreme weakneCs; it 
being only by flow degrees that men grow too feeble to 
walk, and unable to reafon, becoming blind* and deaf, de* 
crepid, and full of every other kiud of inirmity. Now 
I, by God's biei&ng, may be quite fnre that I am at a 
very great diftance from fuch a period. Nay, J have 
reafon to think, that my foul, haying fo agreeable a dwelU 
ing in my body, as not to meet with any thing in it but 
peace, love, and harmony, not only between its humours^ 
but between my reafon and the fenfes, is exceedingly 
content and well pleafed with her prefent fituation : and 
of courfe, that a great length of time and many years muft 
be requifite to diflodge her* Whence it muft be conclud- 
ed for certain, that I have ftill a feries of years to live ia 
health and fpirits, and enjoy this beautiful world, which is 
indeed beautiful to thofe who know how to make it fo, 
as I have done, and likewife cxptSt to be able to do, with 
God's afUftance, in the next ; and all, ^y the means oif 
virtue, and that divine regularity of life, which I have 
adopted, concluding an alliance with my reafon, and 
declaring wai: againi^ my fenfual appetites ; a thing which 
every man may da who de&res to live as he ought. 

Now, if this fober life be fo happy ; if its dame be fo 
defirable and delightful j if the poflfeffion of the bleflings 
which attend it be fo ftable and permanent^ all I have ftill 
left to do is to befeech (fince I cannot compafs my defirea 
by the powers of oratory) every man of a liberal difpofi* 
tion, and found underftandiog, to embrace with open 
arms this moft valuable treafure of a long and healthy 
life ; a treafure, which, as it exceeds all the other riches 
and bleffings of this world, fo it deferves above all things 
to be cherilhed, fought after, and carefully preferved^ 
This is that divine fobriety, agreeable to tl^e deity, the 

VoL^in^ F friend 


friend of natare, the daughter of reafon, the fifter of zSL 
•the virtnesi the compaoion of temperate living, modefl^ 
courteous, ccHitent with little, regular^ and perfect miC- 
trefs of all her operations. From her, a& from their pro- 
per root, fpring life, health, cheerfalnefs, induftrj, learn-- 
ing, and ail thofe a&ions and emplojinents worthy of 
noble and generous minds. The laws of God and maa 
are all in her farour. Repletion, excefs, intemperance, fu^- 
j)erfiaous hurnours,' difeafes,. fevers,, pains, and the daiv- 
gers of death, vanithtn-her prefe: ce, like clouds before 
th-2 fun. Her connelinefs ravifhes every well-difpofed . 
mind. Her iniiuence is fo fure, as to promife to all a 
very long and agreeable exiftence : the facility of acquir-. 
isg her i^ fucli as ought tu induce every one to look for 
her, and (hare in her vidorics." And, laftly, ihe pro- 
•mifes to be a miid and agreeable guardian of life ; as well 
of the rich as of the poor ; of the male,, as of the female 
fex; the old as of the young : being that which teacheth the , 
rich modedy; the poor frugality; men continence; womea 
<^aftity ; the old how to ward off the attacks of death ; and 
beftows on youth firmer and fecurer hopes of life. Sobriety 
renders the fenfes clear, the body light, the underftandiog 
lively, the foul briffc, the memory tenacious, our mo- 
tious free, and all our aSions regular and eafy. By 
means of fobriety, the foul, delivered, as it were, of her 
.earthly burthen^ experiences a great deal of her natural 
liberty : the fpiriss circulate gently through the arteries; 
the blood runs freely through the veins ^ the heat of the 
body kept mild and temperate, has mild and temper- 
ate effeds : and,^ lailly, our faculties being under a per- 

'fe£l regulation, preferve* a pleafing and agreeable bar- 

. 'inony. 

O moft iunoeent and holy Sobriety, the fole refreihmeiit 


t>f mature, tbe nurfing mother of human lifet the trutt 
phjfic of foul as well as of body ! How ought men to 
praife thee, and thank thee for thy princely gifts ! Since 
thou beuoweft on them the means of preferving tUis 
bleffing, I mean life and health, than which it has pot 
pleafed God we (hould enjoy a greater on this fide of 
the grave, life and exiftence being a thing fo naturally co« 
veted, and willingly preferved, by every liying creature* 
Bilty as I do not intend to write a panegjrric on this rare 
and excellent virtue, I {ball put an end to this difcourfe* 
left I ihould be guilty of excefs in dwelling fo long on fo 
pleafing a fubjed : yet as numberlefs things may ftiU 
be faid of it, I leave off with an intention of fetting forth 
the reft of its praifes at a more convenient opportunity • ' 


AiIy Treatife on a fober life has begun to anfwer my de« 
fite, in being of fervice to many perfons born with a weak 
conftitution, who, everjr time they committed the leaft ex« 
"ccfs, found themfelves greatly indifpofed, a thing which, it 
mud be allowed, does not happen to robuft people. Several 
of thefe perfons of weak conftitutions, on feeing the fore- 
going treatife, have betaken themfelves to a regular cburfe 
of life, convinced by experience of its utility. In like 
manner,' I ihould be glad to be of fervice to thofe who are 
born with a good conftitution, and, prefuming upon it, 
lead a diforderly life ; whence it comes to pafs, that, oh 
their attaining the age of fixty, or thereabouts, they are 

F 2 attacked 

84 A Ta£ATI82 ON A HOBER LlfZ. 

attacked with varioHS pains and difeafes ; fome wbh tbe 
gout, fome with pains in the fide, and others with pains in 
the ftomach, and the like, to which they would not be fal>- 
jed were thej to embrace a fober life ; and as moftof theoi 
di^ before thejr attain their eightieth year, they would lire 
to a hundred, the time allowed to man by God and nature* 
And it is but reafonable to belieye, that the intention of 
this our mother is, that we fhould all attain that term, in 
order that we might all tafte the fweets of every ftate of 
life. But, as our birth is fubjeA to the revolutions of 
the heavens, thefe have great influence over it, eipecially 
in rendering our conftitutions roboft or infirm ; a thing 
which nature cannot ward againft ; -for if (he could, we 
ihould all bring a good conftitution with us into the world. 
But then {he hopes, that man, being endowed with reaton 
and underftanding, may of himfelf compenfate, by dint of 
art, the want of that which the heavens have denied hioi; 
and, by means of a fober life, contrive to mend his infirai 
conftitution, live to a great age, and always epjoy good 

For man, it is not io be doubtedt may, by art, exempt 
himfelf in part from the influence of the heavens ; it be« 
ing the common opinion,, that the heavens give an inclia- 
ation, but do not impel us ; for which reafon the learo« 
ed fay, that a wife man rules the flars. I was bom with 
a very choleric difpofition, infomuch that there was no 
living, with me ; but I took notice of it, and confidered^ 
that a perfon fwayed by his paf&on muft, at certain times, 
be no better than a madman ; I mean at thbfe times 
when he fufiers his pailions to predominate, becaufe he 
then renounces his reafon and underftanding. I, there- 
fore, refolved to niake my choleric difpofitxon give wajr 
to reafon ^ fo that now, though born cholerici I never 



faffer anger entirely to overcome me. The man who is na- 
turallj of a bad conftitutioa may, in like manner, by dint 
of reafony and a fober life, live to a great age, and in 
good health, as I have done, who had naturally the word, 
fo that it was impoffible I (hould live above forty years, 
whereas I now find myfelf found and hearty at the age 
of eighty-fix $ and were it not for the long and violent 
fits of illnefs which I experienced in my youth, to fuch a 
degree that the phyficians gave me over, and which rob* 
bed me of vqjy radical moiflure, a lofs abfolutely irre«* 
parable, I might expeft to attain the above-mentioned 
term of one hundred. But 1 know £dr good reafons that 
it is imj^offible j and, therefore, do not think of it. It is 
enough for me that I have lived forty^fix years beyond 
the term I had a right to expe&;,and that, during this 
fo long a refpite, all my fenfes have continued perfled, and 
even my teeth, my voice, my memory, and my ftrenj^h ; 
bat what is fiill more, my brain is more itfelf now than 
ever it was ; nor do any of thefe powers abate as I ad* 
Tance in years ; and this becaufe, as I grow older, I lefiTen 
the quantity of my folid food* 

This retrenchment is necefiary, nor can it be avoided, 
fioce it is impofiible for a man to live for ever ; and as 
he draws qear his end, he is reduced fo low as to be 
no longer able to take any nouriihment, unlefs it be to 
fwallow, and that too with difficulty, the yolk of an egg 
in the fonr-and-twenty hours, and thus end by mere dif- 
folution, without any pain or ficknefs, as I exped will 
be my cafe. This is a blefllng of great importance ; yet 
may be expefted by all thofe who fliall lead a fober life» 
of whatever degree or condition, whether high, or middl- 
ing, or low 'y for we are all of the fame fpecfies, and 
compofed of the fame four elements : and, fince a long 

F 3 and 



and healthy life ought to be greatly coyeted by everj 
man, as I fball prefently fhew, I conclude, that every man 
is bound in duty to exert himCelf to obtain longevity, and 
that he cannot promife himfelf fuch a bleiEng ^without 
temperance and fobriety. ' 

Some allege that many, without leading fuch a liFe^ 
have lived to an hundreds and that in conftant health* 
though they ate a great deal, and ufed indifcriminatelj 
every kind of viands and wine ; and therefore flatter 
themfelves that they (hall be equally fortunate. But in this . 
they are guilty of two miftakes \ the firil is, that it is not 
one in a hundred thoufand that ever attains that happi« 
nefs ; the other millake k, that fuch, in the ebd, mod af- 
furedly contraf): fome illnefs, which carrier them oS*': 
nor can' they ever be fure of ending their days otherwife: 
fo that the fafeil way to obtain a long and healthy life is^ 
at leaft after forty, to embrace fobriety. This is no fuch 
difficult affair, fince hiftory informs us of fo many, who^ 
in former times, lived with the greateft temperance ; and 
I know that the prefent age furniflies us with many fuch 
inftances, reckoning myfelf one of the number : we are 
all human beings, and endowed with reafon, confequentljr 
we are matters of all our adions. 

This fobriety is reduced to two things, quality and 
quantity. The firft^ namely quality, confifts in nothing 
but not eating food, or drinking wines, prejudicial to the 
ftomach. The fecond, which is quantity, con&fts in not 
eating or drinking more than the (lomach can eafily di« 
geft \ which quantity and quality every man fliould be a 
perfeA judge of by the time he is forty or fifty, or fixty ; 
and whoever obferves thefe two rules, may be faid to 
live a regular and fober life. This is of fo much virtue 
l^^d efficacy, tl^at the humours of fuch a man's body be*. 

'' come 


memt inoft homogeneous, harmoniousy and perfect ; and, 
'when thus improved, are no longer liable to be corrupted 
-^r difturbed bj anj other diforders whatfoevjer, fuch as 
iuffering ezceflive heat or cold, too much fatigue, want of 
matural reft^ and the like, unlefs in the laft degree of ez- 
cefs. Wherefore, fioce the humQurs of perfons who ob- 
ferve thefe two rjiles relative to eating and drinKing can* 
' not poflibly be jcorrupted^ and engender acute difeafes, 
the foufces of an untimely death, every man is bound to 
comply with them $ for whoever afts otherw>ie, living a 
diforderlj inftead of a regular life, is conftantly expofed 
todifeafe and mortality, as well in confequence ot fuch dif« 
orders, as of others without number, each of ,which is 
capable of producing the fame deftruftive efFeA. 

It is, indeed, true, that even thofe who obferve the 
two rules xelaJting to diet, the obfervance of which con«- 
Ititutes a fober life, may, by committing any one of the 
ether irregularities, find himfelf the worlefor Lt a day or 
two, but not fo as to bi:eed a fever. He may like wife be 
9ffe&ed by the rpvoliition of the heavenb ; but neither the 
heavens nor thofe irregularities are capable of corrupting 
the humours of a temperate perlon 4 and it is .ut rea- 
ibnabie and natural \f, ihould be fO| as .the two irregulari- 
ties pf diet ar^ interior, ar.d the others exterior. 

But as th^ve are fome peifons Itrickea in years, who 
^re, notwithft^nding, very gLttono^s and a lege, that nei- 
ther the quantity Qor quality of their diet makes aCiy im- 
'prejQion upon them, an>i there ore eat a great deal, and 
f}£ every thing without diftinfkion, ai;d inaulge them- 
selves equally in point of drmking, becr.ufc they do tiit 
Jluow in what part of their bodies their itotnichs are iiiu- 
^te; fuch, no' doubt, are beyond ^11 mealure lenfual, and 
41aves to gluttony : to thefe 1 anfwer, that what liiey f<»j 

F 4 > 


i§^ impoffible in the nature of things, bedaufe it is impof- 
fible that every man who ^omes into the world flionld 
not bring with him a hot, a cold, or a temperate, confti- 
ttttion ; and that hot foods fhould agree fvith hot confii- 
tutions, cold with cold ones, and things that ar^ not of a 
temperate nature with temperate ones, is likewife impof^ 
fible in nature. After all, thefe epicures muft allow, 
that they ate now and then out of order, and that they 
eure themfelves by taking evacuating medicines* and 6b- 
ferving a ftrid 4ict ; whence it appears, that their being 
out of ^order is owing to their eating too much, and of 
fhings difagrceing with their ftomach. 

There are other old gluttons, who fay, that it is nacef- 
fary they ihould eat and drink a great deal to keep up 
their natural heat, which is conftantly diminifliing as 
they advance in years ; and that it is therefore necefiary 
to eat heartily, and of fuch things as pleafe their pa- 
late, be they hot, cold, or temperate ; and that, were 
they to lead ,a fober life it would be, a {hort one? To thefe 
I anfwer, that our kind mother Nature, in order that old 
men may live ftill to' a greater age, has contrived matters 
fo, that they ihould be able to fubfift on little, as I do $ 
for large quantities of food cannot be digefted by old and 
feeble {tomachs. Nor > ihould fuch perfons be afraid of 
^orteniifg their days by eating too little, iince, when they 
happen to be indifpofed, they recover by leiTening the 
quantity of theit food^ for it is a trifle they eat, when con- 
fined to a regimen, by obferving which they get rid of 
their diforder. Now, i if by reducing themfelves to « 
very (mall quantity of food, they recover from the jaw$ 
0f death, how can they doubt but that, with an increaie 
of diet, ilill coniiilent, however, with fobriety, they will 
1^ able to fupport nature when in perfeft health i 



Others fay, that it is better for a maa to fuSer every 
year three or four returns of his ufual diforders, fuch as 
the gout) pains in the fide, and the like, than be tormented 
the whole year by not indulging his appetite, and eating 
every thing his palate likes beft ; fiitce, by a good regit 
men alone^ he is fure to get the better of fuch attacks; 
Xo this I anfweri that our natural heat growing lefs and 
lefsy as we advance in years, no regimen can retain vit« 
tue fufficient to conquer the malignity with which difor- 
ders of repletion are ever attended ; fo that he mud die 
sLt lad of thefe periodical diforders, becaufe they abridge 
life, as health prolongs iu 

Others pretend, that it is much better to live ten years 
le(s, than not indulge one*s appetite. To this I an- 
fwer, that longevity ought to be highly valued by men 
of part?} as to others, it is nq great matter, if it is 
not duly prized by them, fince they are a difgrace to 
mankind, fo that their death is rather of fervice to the 
public. But it is a great misfortune that niien of bright 
parts {hould be cut off in that manner, fince he, who is 
already a cardinal, might, perhaps, by living to eighty, 
attain the papal crown ; and in the ftate, many, by living 
fome years extraordinary, may acquire the ducal digni- 
ty i and fo in regard to letters, by which a man. may rife 
fo as to be confidered as a god upon earth ; and the like 
ja every other profeiGon* 

There are others, who, though their flomachs become 
weaker and weaker with refpedt to digeftion, as they ad- 
vance in years, cannot, however, be brought to retrench the 
quantity of their food, nay, they rather increafe it. Aad| 
becaufe they find themfelves unable to digeft the great 
quantity of food with which they muft load their ft<Miiachs^ 
\>r eating twice in the four-and-twenty hours, they make 



a refoltttien to eat but once, that the-long interval between 
one meal and the other maj enable .them to eat at one fit- 
ting as much as they ufed to do in two : thu3 thej eat till 
their Itomachs, overburthened with much food, psdl, and 
ficken, and change the fuperfiuous food into bad humours> 
which kill a man before his time. I never knew any perfon 
who led that kind of life live to be very old. All thefe 
old men I have been/pead&ing of would live long, if, as 
they advanced in years,. they lefiened the quantity of their 
food, and eat oftener, but little at a time ; for old fto- 
, machs cannot digeft large quantities of food ; old mea 
ctiai^ging, in that refpeft, to children, who eat feveral 
times in the four*and-twenty hours* . 

Others fay, that temperance may, indeed, keep a man 
in health, but that it cannot prolong his life. To this I • 
anfwer, that experience proves the contrary ; and that I 
myfelf am a living inflance of it* It cannot, be faid, that 
Sobriety is apt to {bprten one*s days, as ficknefs does i 
and that the latter abbreviates life is moft certain. 
Moreover, a conftant fucceffion of good health is prefefable 
tp frequent ficknefs, as the radical moiflure is thereby 
preCerved. Hence it may be fairly concluded, that holy 
fobriety is the true parent of health and longevity. 

O thrice holy Sobriety, fo ufeful to man, by the fer« 
vices thou rendereft him ! thou, prolonged his days, by 
which means he greatly improves his underftanding, and 
by fuch improvement he avoids the bitter fruits of fen« 
(uality, which are an enemy to reafon, man's peculiar pri**" 
vilest : tnofe bitter fruits are the pafiions and perturba<- 
tio;is of the mind. Thou, moreover, freed him froxn the 
dreadful thoughts of death. How greatly is thy faithful 
^ifcij^k indebted to thee, fince, by thy aififiance, be im- 


joys this beautiful expanfe of the vifible world, which is 
really be^otiful to fuch as know how' to yiew it with ^ 
philofophic eye, as thou haft enabled me to do ! nor could • 
ly at any other time of life, even when I was J'oung, but 
altogether debauched by an iitegular life, perceive its 
beauti^s^ though I fpared no pains or expence to enjoy 
every feafon of life, Bnt I found that all the pleafures 
of that age had their alloy ; fo that I never knew, till I 
grew old, that the world' was beautiful. O truly happy 
life ! which, over and above all thefe favours conferred on 
thine old nran, haft fo imprj^ved and perfeded his fto« 
B>ach, that he has now a better relifli for his dry bread 
than he had formerly, and in his youth, for the moft ex« 
quifite dainties : and all this he has c6mpa{red by aft» 
iDg rationally, knowing, that bread is, above all things, 
man's proper food, when fsafoned by a good appetite ; and, 
whilft a man leads a fober life, he may be fure of never 
wanting that natural fauce; becaufe, by always eating 
little, the ftomach not being much burthen ed, need not 
wait long to have, an appetite. It is for this reafon that 
dry bread reliflies fo well with me ; and I know it from 
experience, and can with truth afiirm, I find fuch fweet^ 
nefs in it, that I (ho'uld be afraid of finning againft tem- 
perance, were it not for my beiog convinced of the abfo- 
lute neceffity of eating of it, and that we cannot make ufe 
of a more natural food. And thou, kind parent Nature, 
who a)3eft fo lovingly by thy aged offspring, in order to 
prolong his days, haft contrived matters fo in his favour^ 
that he can live upon very little ; and, in order to add to 
the tavour, andrdo him ftill greater fervice, haft made him 
ftitfible, that, as in his youtn he iifed to eat twice a-day, 
^hen he arrived at old age he Ought to divide that food^ 
^ which he was accuftomed before to make bi\t two. 



iineals^ into four ; becaufe, thus divided, ic will be more 
ea£Ijr digefted ; and, as in his yottth he made but two 
meals in the daj, he ihould, in his old age, make four^ 
provided, however, he leflens the quantity as his yeara 
increafe. And this is what I do, agreeably to my owa 
experience ; and, therefore, my fpirits, not opprefled by 
much food, but barely kept up, are always briik, efpecU 
ally after eating, fo that I am accuftomed then to fing a 
fong, and afterwards to write. 

Nor do I ever find myfelf the worfe for writing imme- 
diately after meals; nor is my underftanding ever clearer; 
nor am I apt to be drowfy ; the food I take bein^in too 
fmall a quantity to fend up any fumes to the brain. O 
how advantageous it is to an old man to eat but little ! 
Accordingly I, who know it, eat but juft enough to keep 
body and foul together ; and the things I eat areas follow. 
Firfl, bread, panado, fome broth with an egg in it, or fuch 
other good kinds of foup or fpoon-meat. Of flefli meat I 
eat vea.1, kid, and mutton. I eat poultry of every kind. I 
eat partridges, and other birds, fuch as thrufhes. I like<« 
wife eat fi(h; for inftance, the goldney and the like, 
amongfl: fea-jiih ; and the pike, and fuch like amongft 
freih-water fifh. AH thefe things are fit for an old man, 
and, therefore, he ouj^ht to be content with them ; and, 
confidering their number and variety, not hanker after 
others* Such old men as are too poor to allow them« 
felves provifions of this kind, may do very well with 
bread, panado, and eggs ; things which no poor man can 
want, unlefs it be common beggars, and, as we call them, 
vagabonds, about whom we are not bound to make our« 
felves uneafy, fince they have brought themfelves to that 
pafs by their indolence, and had better be dead than alive; 
for they are a difgrace to human nature* But^though a 

4 poor 



poor man (bovld eat nothing but bread, panado, and eggs, 
there is no neceffity for his eating more than his ftomach 
can digeft. And, whoever does not trefpafs in point of 
^Cfaer quantity or quality^ cannot die but by mere diflb*- 
Jntion* O what a difference there is between a regular 
and an irregular life ! One gives longevity and health, the 
other produces difeafes and untimely deaths. 

O unhappy, wretched Life, my fworn enemy, who art 
gpod for nothing but to murder thofe who follow thee ! 
How many of my deareft relations and friends haft thoa 
robbed me of^ in oonfequence of their not giving credit 
to me ! relations and friends whom I (hould now enjoy. 
But thou haft not been' able to d^ftroy me, according to 
thy wicked intent and purpofe. I am ftill alive in fpite 
of thee, and have attained to fuch an age, as to fee around 
aae eleven grandchildren, all of fine underftanding, and 
mmiable difpofition ; all given to learning and virtue ; all 
beautiful in their perions, and lovely in their maoners ; 
iRriiom, bad I obeyed thy diftateg, I fliould never have 
beheld* Nor ihould I enjoy thofe beautiful and conveni- 
ent apartments which I have built from the ground with 
fuch a variety of gardens, as required no fmall tiqie to 
attain their prefent degree of perfedion. No ! thy na- 
ture is to deftroy thofe who follow* thee before they can 
fee their hou&s or gardens fo much as finiflied ; whereas 
X to thy no fmall confufion, have already enjoyed mine 
£or a great number of years. But, fince thou art U> pef- 
-tikfitial a vice as to polbn and deftroy the whole world, 
mad I am determined to ufe my utmoft endeavours. to ex- 
tirpate, thee, at leaft in part, I have refolved to countera^ 
-f hee fo, that my eleven grandchildren (hall take pattern af- 
ter me, and thereby eatpofe thee for what thou really art, 



a mofl: wicked, defperate, and qiortal, enemy of the child^ 
xen of men. 

. ' I Ttdlly canaot help admiring, that men of fine parttf^ 
and fuch there are, who have attained a fuperior rank in 
letters, or any other profeffion, ihould not betake them* 
. ttlves to a regular life, when, they are arrived at the age 
of fifty or fixty, or as foon as they find themfelves at- 
tacked by any of the foregoing diforders, of which they 
might eafily recover ; whereas, by being permitted to get 
a-heady they become incurable. As to young men, I am 
no way furprifed at them, fince the paffions being ftrong 
at that age, they are of courfe the more eafily overpow- 
ered >y their baleful influence. But after fifty, our lives 
ihouldy in every thing, be governed by reafon, which 
teaches us, that the confequences of gratifying our palate 
and our appetite are difeafe and death. Were this plea- 
fure of the palate lafting, it would be fome excufe ; but 
it is fo momentary, that there is fcarce any diftinguiihing 
between the beginning and the end of it i whereas the 
difeafes it produces are very durable. But it muft be a 
great contentment to a man of fober life to be able to re- 
fleft thaty in the manner be lives, he is fure that what 
he eats will keep^him in good health, and be productive 
•f no difeafe or infirmity. 

Now, I was willing to make this fhort addition to my 
treatife, founded on new reafons ; few perfons caring to 
perufe long winded difcourfes; whereas (liort tra&s have 
a chance of being read by many ^ and I wifh that many 
may fee this addition, to the end that its utility may be 
more extenfive. 


( 95 ) 



Wherein the author ufes the ftrongeft arguments to per« 
foade all men to embrace a regular and fober life, in 
order to attain old age, in vrhich they may enjoj all 
the favours and bleffings that God, in his goodncfs, 
vouch£ifes to beftow upon mortals. 

JNoT to be wanting to my duty, that duty incuoibent 
upon every man, and not to loofe, at ^he fame time, the 
fatisfadign I feel in being ufeful to others, I have relblv- 
ed to take up my pen^ and inform thofe who, for want of 
converfing with me, are ftrangers to what thofe know 
and fee with whom I have the pleafure of being acquaint- 
ed* But, as certain things may appear to fome perfons 
fcarce credible, nay, impoflible, though aftually fa£l, I 
(hall not fail to relate them for the benefit of the public. 
Wherefore, I fay, being (God be praifcd!) arrived at m^ 
ninety-fifth year, and flill finding mjfelf found and hearty, 
content and cheerful, I never ceafe thanking the divine 
majefly for fo great a bleiling, confidering the ufual fate 
of other old men. Thefe fcarce attain the age of feventy 
without lofing their health and fpirits, growing melan* 
choly and peevi(h, and continually haunted by the 
thoughts of death ; apprehending their laft hour from 
one day to another, fo that if is impoi&ble to drive fuqh 
'thoughts out of thtir mind ; whereas fuch things give me 
not the leaft.uneafinefs ; for, indeed^ I cannot at all make 
them the object of my attrntion, as I (hall hertafter more 
plainly relate. I (hall, bofides, demonftrate the certainty 
I have of living to a hundred. But, to render this dif- 
fertatioa more methodical, I fhall begin by confidering 



man at his birth $ and from thence accompanj him 
through every ftage of life to his grave. 

I therefore faj, that fome come into the world with 
the ftamina of life fo weak, that they live but a few dajs^ 
or months, or years ; .and it cannot be clearly known to 
what fuch (hortnefs <of }ife is owing ; whether to fome 
iitiA n the father or the mother in begetting them, or 
to the revolutions of the heavens, or to the defeft ^of na« 
ture« fnbje^ as (he is to the celeftial influence. For I could 
never bring myfelf to believe that nature, the common 
parent of all, ihould be partial to any of her children* 
Therefore, as we cannot affign the caufes, we mud be 
content with reafoning from the effe£ls, fuch as they daily 
appear to our view. 

Others are born found, indeed, and full of fpirlts, but 
sotwithftanding, with a poor weakly conftitution ; and of 
thcfe fome live to the age of ten, others to twenty, others 
to thirty and forty; yet they do not live to eztrepie old age. 
Others again bring into the world, a perfe^ conftitution, 
and live to old age, but it is generally, as I have already faid, 
an old age full of ficknefs and lorrow,. for which t;hey are 
to thank themfelves ; becaufe they moft unreafonably pre- 
fume on the goodnefs of their conftitution, and cannot by 
any msans be brought to depart, when grown old, from 
the mode of life they purfued in their younger days, as if 
they ftill retained all their primitive vigour. Nay, they 
intend to live as irregularly when paft the meridian of life 
as they did all the time of their youth; thinking they 
ihall never grow old, nor their conftitution be ever im- 
paired. Neither do they conftder that their ftomach has 
loft its natural heat, and that they ihould, on that account^ 
pay a greater regard to the quality of what they eat, and 
what wines they drink ^ and likewife to the quantity of 




each, whicb tbejr ought to leflen : whereas, on the con* 
trary, diey aire for incfcafing itf fajing, that, as we lofe our 
health and ^vigour by jgrowiog old, we ihould endeavour to 
repair the lols by iflcreafing the. quantity of our food, iinoe 
ic 18 by fuftenance that man is preferved. 

In this, neverthekisythey are greatly miftaken, fisce, 
88 the natural heat leffens as a man grows in years, he 
ihould diminiih the qttahtity of his meat and drink; nature, 
efpeciaUy at that period, being content with little. Nay, 
though they have, all the reafon to bejiieve this to be the 
cafe, they are fb obftinate as to think otherwife ; and ftili 
follow their lifual difofderiylife. But were they to re« 
linquifli it in due time, and betake themfelves to a regu- 
lar and fober courfe, they would not grow infirm in their 
old age, but would continue, as I am, ftrong and hearty, 
ccnfidering how good and perfeA a confiitution it has 
pleafed the Almighty to beftow upon them, and would 
live to the age' of one hundred and twenty. This has 
been the cafe of others, who, as we read in many authors, 
have lived a fober live, and, of courfe, were born with 
this perfeA conftitntion ; and had it been my lot to enjoy 
fuch a conftitntion, I ihould make no doubt of attaining 
the fime age. But, as I was bora with feeble ftamina, 
I am afraid I (hall not outlive an hundred. Were others, 
too, who are alfo born with an infirm confiitution, to be- 
take themfelves to a regular life, as I have done, they 
would attain the age of one hundred and upwards, as will 
be my cafe. 

And this certainty of being able to live a .great age is, 
in my opinion, a great advantage, and highly to be va- 
lued ; none being fure to live even a fingle hour except 
fuch as adhere to the rules of temperance. This fecuricy 
of life is built on good and true natural reafons, which can 

Vol. III. G never 

98 A TRSATISft Oil ▲ aOBUL Jdlf £# 

wfcr fitUi it hmg impcAlte, xn the mtoift cC thitga^ 
that he who leads a fober aad regufaur life Ao«M breed 
enyficksefst or dieof an unmtiind deaths before the time 
ft which it it abfehifeijr iaapofihie he flmiM livcb Bat 
fooner he cannot die, as a fobee life has the Yiftne e» 
leanore aU tM nfeal caofes of fiekaefii» and fiqkaefs can- 
not happen withoal a caafe } wfaidi caafe faatng xemore^ 
fioiDftcfi is likewife reaunml ; and fiokads being temoi^ 
ed, en anrimdy and rioient death nmft be preveiMd* 

And there is no dbabt that temperance has the irirtse 
end eficacy ta remoire facb caufee ; for feice health aadU 
fidBLaefe, life and deaths depend on the goad or bed qmU^ 
tjr of the hnmoota, teaperaace correftstheir Tieioos ten* 
, deades and readers tbea pcrfeft, being poAfled of the an* 
tard power of making then unite and hold together* fo as 
re render thenji iafeparaUr, and incapable of alteration or 
fetttenting } ctroumftanoes irhich engender ccael fetreci| 
and end in death. It is traCy. indeed* and it wettld be a 
felly fee deny it, that* let oar hamoure be originaUjr ever 
fo good, time, whidi coafames every thtag, cannot hSL to 
eoafttme and exhauft them ; and diet man* as foan ae 
diat happeas, nmft die of a natnial death ; bat yet with« 
0ut fidtn^, ae will be aay cafe, who ihall die at ay ap- 
pointed ttade, when thefe hamours fliall be coafiuaed, 
which diey are not at prefent. Nay, they «re iMU per* 
h6t $ nor is it pofiUe jtbey fitonld be otherwifo in mj 
prcfent eoaditton, whea I find myibif hearty and content^ 
eating with a good appetite, and fleeping fonndly- More* 
over, all my fecaltiee are as good a^ ever, and in the high« 
eft perfeftion ; my underftandiag dearer and brighter 
than ever, ray judgment 'found, my memory^ tenacions, 
iny fptrits good, and my voice, the firft thing which is apt 
Co fell others, grown fe ftrong aad fonoroas, that 2 cannot 



ieftfiftd of whifpsriog sod fnutterinc them to fnyfelf, 9$ 
vn$ formerly my cuflom. 

And thHt »» ftU fo manf true apd fore fig09 tnd 
tokens tkai my humours aw good, and cannot wafte but 
witk fbntf as aU dioie who coaverfa vrith ne coi^ndcu 
O hqw glorions this life of minn is like to be, replace 
^ith all the felicities which nan ean enjoy on thb fide of 
the grave^ aad even exempt from that fisafnal birntaHt j 
which age has enabled my better reafiso to baniih ! be«- 
cattfty where risafon refides, there is no room for fenfttalt»> 
ty» nor for its bitter firuitSt the pi^ons and perturbations 
^ the mindf with a train of difagr«eebie apprehenQoBs* 
ffor yet oan fhe thoi^ghts of death find^oofi in my mind, 
as I baTf no feafuality to nourifli fuch thoughts* )*fet» 
cfaer can the death of grandchildren, and other tdatipns 
maai frieads, mal^e any impr^ifion on me b«t fpf a mi^ 
aaent or two, and then it i« o*rer. Still lefs aa> I liable to 
be caft down by loifes in point of fortwe, (as many hvf^ 
feen to their no fmall furpr ifc^. And this is |i bappinels 
not eo be expend by any but fueh as attain old age by (e« 
bricty, and not in eonfequence of a ftneng oonfliltttioii ( 
and foeh baay, moreover, expeft to fpend cfaeir days bap« 
pily as I do mine, in a perpetual round of amufeeaent ant 
pleafure. And bow is it poflible a man fliould not enjey 
hinofelf, who meets with no crofles or difappointments,in 
his old age, fuch as youth Is confiantly plagued witH, and 
firom which, as I fliaU prefently fliew, I have the hap* 
pinefs of being exempt. 

The firft of thefe is to do fervice to my country. O 
what a glorious amufement { in which I find infinite de- 
light, as I thereby (hew her the means of improving her 
important eftuary or harbour beyond the pof&biUty of its 

G a filling 


filling for thoufands of years to come ; fo as to fecure t6 
Venice her furprifing and miraculous title of a maiden 
city, as flie really is, and the only one in the whole world : 
flie will, moreover, thereby add to the luftre of her great and 
excellent furname of Queen of the fea. Such is my amufe- 
ment; and nothing is wanting to make it complete. Another 
amufement of mine is that of ihewing this maid and queen 
in what manner fhe may abound with provifions, by im- 
proving large tra£ts of lands, as well marlhes as barren 
fands, to great profit. A third amufement, and an amufe- 
'ment too without any alloy, is the fbewirig how Venice, 
though already fo ftrong as to be in a manner impregn- 
able, may be rendered ftill fttonger 5 and though iextremejy 
beautiful, may ftill increafe in beauty ; though rich* may 
acquire more wealth ; and may be made to enjoy better 
air, though her air is excellent. Thefe three amufements, 
all arifing' from the idea of public utility, I enjoy in the 
iiigb^ft degree. And who can fay that they admit of any 
alloy, as in fad they do not ? Another comfort I enjoy is, 
that, havit^ loft a confi^erable part of my income, of which 
my grandc^ldren had been unfortunately robbed, I, by 
mere dint of thought, which never fleeps, and without any 
fatigue of body, and very little of mind, have found a true 
and infallible method of repairing fuch lofs more than 
double^^ by the means of that moft commendable of 
arts, agriculture. Another comfort I ftill enjoy is» to 
think that my treatifp on temperance, which I wrote in or- 
der to be ufeful to others, is reallj fo, as many.affure me 
by word of mouth, mentioning that it has proved extreme- 
ly ufeful to them, as it in fa£t appears to have been -, whilft 
others inform me by letter, that, under God, they are in- 
debted to me for life* Still another comfort I enjoy is, 
that of being able to write with my own hand ; for I write 

RADCUFFE enough 


"esough to be of fervlce to others^ both on archite£ture and 
agricultuife. I likewife enjoy another fatisfaftion, which 
is that of converfing with men of bright parts and fu- 
perior underftandingy from whom, even at this advanced 
period of life, I learn fomething« What a comfort is this^ 
that, old as t am, I ihould be able, without the lead fatigue^ 
to ftudy the mod important, fublime, and difficult, fub* 
jcSs ! 

I mud farther add, though it may appear impoffible to 
fome, and may be fo in fome meafure, that, at this age, I ' 
enjoy at once two lives ; one terreftrial, which I poflefs in 
fad; the other celedial, which I poflefs in thought; and this 
thought is equal to aftual enjoyment, when founded upon 
things we are fure to attain, as I am fue to attain that celeftial 
life, through the infinite goodnefs and mercy of God. Thus I 
enjoy this terreftrial life, in confequence of my fobriety and 
temperance, ^rtues fo agreeable to the deity ; and I enjoy, 
by the grace of the fame divine majefty^ the celeftial, which. 
he makes me anticipate in thought ; a thought fo lively as 
to fix me entirely on this objciSi, the enjoyment of which I 
hold and affirm to be of the utmoft certainty. And I 
hold that dying, in the manner I expe£l, is not really 
death, but a paiTage of the foul from this earthly life to a 
celeftial, immortal, and infinitely perfe£l, exiftence. Neither 
can it be. btberwife : and this thought is fo fuperlatively 
fublime, that it cao no lodger ftoop to low and worldly ob- 
jects, fuch as the death of this body, being entirely taken* 
up with the happinefs of Uving a celeftial and divine life ; 
-whence it is that I enjoy two lives. Nor can .the termin- 
ating of fo high a gratification which I. enjoy in this life 
give me any concern ; it rather affi>rds me infinite pleafure, 
as it will be only to make room for another glorious and 
immortal life, 

G 3 Now, 

10^ A ¥tlEAtli« Oft A MitfL %lft^. 

Now, is it po&hh that any one ihould grdw tired of fe 
great a C0fnf6rc and bleffing as this trfaidtl I really enjoyy 
and which every one elfe might enjoy, by leading the Ufe 
I have led ? ati example which every one has it in hi^ powe^ 
to follow: for I am but a mere man, and no iaint ; a 
feftantof* God, to whom fo regular a life 16 extremely 

And whereas many embrace a fpiritual and contemp^- 
ti ve life, whieh is holy and commendable, the chief employ- 
ment of thofe who lesd it being to eeldbrate the praif<^ df 
God i O that they would likewife betake tbemfeltres en- 
tirely to a regular and fober life ! how much more agree- 
iible would ^y tender themfelveB in the Aght of Cod ! 
What 4 mu^h greater honour and ornament would they be^ 
to the World ! Iliey would then be confidei^ as Mtiti in- 
deed upon earth, as thofe primidve chtiftiatis were heM who 
joined fobriety to fo reelufe a life. By living, like ihefiii to. 
the 4ge of one hundred and twenry, they might, like theiH, 
expert, by die power of God) to work niimbedefs mir^eles ;: 
ahd they wouid, befidesj enjoy conftani health ^nd fpirits, 
Tiiid be always happy within themfelve^ ; whereas they are 
now, foi the shoft part, infirm, melancholy, and diflatiBfied. 
Now, 8S fome of thefe people think that thefe are txith fent 
them by God Almighty, with a view of promoting their fd- 
v^tron, that they may do penance in thid Ufe for their paft 
errors^ t cannot help laying that, in my opinion, the^ are 
greatly miftaken. For I can by no means believe that it k 
agteeiible to the deity that ntan, his favptirite creatttte, 
ihoiild live inlvm, melancholy, and diflatisfied % but rather 
enjoy good health and fpirits^ and be always content with* 
in himfelf. In this manner did the holy fathers iivCi^ and 
by fuch condttft did they daily render themfelves more ^-^ 
ceptable to the divine majefty, fo as to w6rk the great and 


_ t 


fbrpnfing mincfet we read in hiftorf. How beaatlfiil« 
liow gferkntty a fcene ibiKiU we then behold I far more 
toaumfal than in diofe ancient times, becaufe we now 
abound with fo many religions orders and monafteriea, 
whidi iUL not then exift s and were the membecB of tfaefe 
communities to lead a terapente Hfe, we JhouU then be* 
hold fnch a nnmber of venendrie old men as would cieate 
iai|iriie. Nor would they trefpafitagamft their ru)es| they 
wpuid firther improv« upon them ; Snce every religiotts 
omnmuiiitf allows its fubjefb bread, wine, and femetimes 
c^s, (fi»nie of them albw meat), befides tbups made with 
vegetables, (allads, fruit, and cakes, things which often di& 
agree with them, and even (horten their lives. But as they 
are allowed fuch things by their rules, they freely make 
ufe of them, thinking, perhaps, that it would be wrdng to 
abftain from them ; whereas it would not. It would ra- 
ther be commendable, if, after the age of thirty, they ab« 
ftained from fuch food, and confined themfelves to bread^ 
iKone, broths, and eggs : for this is the true method of pre- 
ienring men of a bad conftitutioh ; and it is a life of more 
aiidelgenoe than that led by the holy iatfaezs of the defert, 
^who Ibbfifted entiicly pn wild fruits and roots, and drad: 
daothiog but pure watery anad, nevertheleis, lived, as I have 
already mentioned, in ^ood health and fpirits, and always 
Jbappy within diemfelves. Were thofe of our days to do 
the ^fiune, ifce'y would^ like tfaem^ find the road to heaven 
tnuch eafiet j for it is always open to every faithful chrit 
feba, asanrfamour Jefus Chrift left it, when he came 
dowsi fifooL earth to Ibod bis precious blood, in order to 
jddiver us from the ityraanical fervitude of the devil i and 
all through his immenfe goodnefis. 

So that, to sake an end of tins difcoude, I fay^ that 
fince leagth of days . abomds with fo many iavours and 

G 4 bleffings. 


bleflings, and I happen io be one of thofe who are. armed 
at that ftate, I cannot (as I would not wiUingly want 
charity) bat give teftimony in favour of it, and folemnly 
aifure all mankind, that I really enjoy a great deal more 
than what I now mention ; and that I have no other rea- 
fon for writing but that of demonftratiag the great advan- 
tages which arife from longevity, to the end that their own 
conviction may induce them to obferve thofe excellent rules 
of temperance and fobriety. And therefore I never ceaie 
to raife my voice, crying out to you, my frietids, may your 
days be long^ that you maj be the better ferv^nts to tbc 




The human underftanding muft certainly have fomething 
divine in its conftitutioh and frame. How divine the in- 
vention of coriverfing with an abfent friend by the help of 
writing ! How divinely Is it contrived by nature, that men, 
though at a gireat diftance, ffiould fee one another with the 
intclle£l;ual eye, as Inow fee your lordfhip 1 By means of 
this contrivance, 1 fiiall endeavour to entertain you with 
frtatters of the greateft moment. Jt "is true> that I ihall 
fpeak of nothing but what I have already mentioned ; but 
it was not at the age df ninfety-one, to which I have now 
attained, a thing I cannot-hclp takitog notice of, becaufe, 
as I advance, in years, th^ (bunder and heartier I growi to 
flie amazement of alt tlie 'world. I, "who can account for 

^ ■ It, 


it^ am bound to fliewi that a man may enjoy a terreftrial 
paradife.aft^r eighty, which I enjoy; but it is not to be 
dbtained except by temperance and fobrie^ty, virtues fo ac- 
ceptable to the Almighty^ becaufe they are enemies to fen-^ 
fuality, and friend$ to reafop. 

^ Now, my lotd, to begin, I mull tell you, that, within 
thefe few days paft, I have been viCted by many of the 
learned dof^oss of this univerfity, as well phyGcians at 
philofophers, who were well acquainted with my age, my 
life, and manners ; knowing how ilout, hearty, and gay, I 
was ; and in whs^ perfe£lion all my faculties ftill continued ; 
likewife my memory, fprrits, and underftanding, and even 
my voice and teet^* They knew, befides, .that I conftantly 
employed eight hours every day in writing treatifes, with 
my own hand, on fubjefts ufeful to mankind, and fpent 
many hours in walking and finging. O, my lord, how me- 
lodious my voice is grown! Were you to hear me chant my 
prayers, and that to my lyre, after the example of David^ 
I am certain it would give you gre^t pleafure, my voice is 
fo muficaU Now, when they told nie that they had been 
sdready acquainted with all thefe particulars, they added, 
(hat it was, indeed, next to a miracle, how I could write 
fo much, and upon fubje^s that required both judgment 
smd fpirit. And, indeed, my lord, it is incredible, what 
fatisfaftion and pleafure I have in thefe compofitions. 
l^ut, ^s I write to be ufeful, your lordfhip may eaGly con- 
ceive whatv pleafure I enjoy. They ' concluded by telling 
me, that I ought not to hp looked upon as a perfon ad- 
vanced in years, fince all my occupations were thofe of a 
young man, and by no means like thofe of other aged per-* 
foQS, who^ when they have reached eighty, are reckonecf 
(kcrepid. Such moreover, are fubjeA, fome to the gout, 
fo(ne to the {ciatlca, and fome to other complaints, to be 


tt^&f^i from which they tnuft undergo fuch a tmoiber of 
pabfiil operations) as cannot hut refldar li& eitremely dif« 
agfeeable* Andy if by chance, one of them happens co 
e£ea|)e a Umij; iUne6, bia faculties ate impaffed> andfae can* 
not fee or hear fo well ; orelfe fails in feme one or other of 
ike corporeal facolties) he cannot wiAk, or his^ads ihake^ 
and fttppofiag him exempt from ibefe bodSy infinnides, hm 
mtmotjf his fpirits, or his underfhinding, ML him ; he is 
not cheeifttl^ pleafant^ and bappy> withia bknfdf, as i 

Befides all Aefe bleffings, t mentioned ssiodier, ^tch I 
enjoyed) and ib great a blelBiig, that they wer;: all aniaaed 
at it, fittce it is altogether befidef d^ ufual conrfeof nature. 
This bteffing is, that I had akeady iived fifty yean m' 
^te of a moft powerfai agd VMtA enemyi wluch. I 
can by no means conquer, becaafe it is natora!, or an oc« 
oak quality implanted in my body by^ nature ; and ^his is, 
diat efery year, fr6m the beginning of July titt die end «f 
Augttft I cannot drink any wine of whatever kind or 
Country; for, befides being, during thefe two months, 
qnite dilgtiftfttl to my palate, it diTagrees ^mh my itomadi. 
Thus lofing my milk, for wine is, indeed, the milk of old 
a^, and having notinng to drbik, for no change or pre- 
paration of waters can have the virtue of wme, ftor, ^ 
eoorfe, do me any good ; hating nothing, I Iky, to driiaki 
afd my ftomsfch being thereby diferdered, I can eat %«t 
very little ; and this fpare -diet, widi &e want <rf wine^ n> . 
duipes me, by the middle of Augttft, extiemely tow ; M^ 
is tbc ftrongeft capon brotiv ^ ?^y ^3th6r remedy, of fer«-. 
vifCe to me, ib that { am ready, thnough mete weaknefs> to 
fink into the grave. Hence they inferred, that ^re not , 
the nelft^wine, for I always take care iso haf#e fome. ready 
by the beginning of Septen^ber, lo come an fo Ibon, ( 


A^TH&Atl^K ON A S6B£ll l1»%» 109 

ihould be a dead man* But vrhdt furprifed them iUU mote 
was, that this new wme Ihould have po\rer efficient Co te^ 
ftore me, in two or three days, to diat degree of health and 
firength, of which the old wine had robbed me ; a ftnQ, 
they themfelves have been eye-^witnefleS of within thefe 
fbw days, and which a man muft f«e to believe it ; infiw 
much that they could not hdp trying out, *< Many of fis 
'* who are phyficians have vifited him annually for Several 
^ years paft ; and ten years ago judged it impoffible for him 
<^ to live a year or two longer, coniidering what a mortal 
^ enemy he carried about him, and his advanced age ; yet 
^ we do not find him fo weak atprefentashe u(bd to be.^ 
lUs Angularity, and the many other bkffings they fee m& 
enjoy, obliged them to confefs, that the joining of fuch & 
aumber of favours was, with f egard to me', a Q)eeia! grace 
conforred on me at my birth by natune^ oi* by the ftats ; 
and to prorre this to be a good coticteiion, whieh it redlf 
is not, (becaufe not grounded on ftrong and fufficient reafonsi 
but merely on Aeir own opinions), t^ey found themfelves 
under a neceffity to difplay their elo(|ueiiee, and to fay i 
great many very £ne things* Certain it is, mry lord, that 
eloquent^ in men of bright ^atts, has great power ; fo 
great as to induce people to believe things which have 
neither a&ifal nor poffibte ekiftence. I had, however^ 
great pleafuipe and fatisfadion in hearing them (for it muft, 
tio^ doubt^ be a hi^ entertainment 10 hear fuch men talk im 
that tkianner* 

Atiodier ^tisfaflion, withoat the leaft mixture of aHof^ 
] at the fame time enjoyed, was to tliink, that age and ex« 
^erience aire Sufficient to make a man learned, who without 
ihem would know nothing ; nOr is it furprifing they {houjd« 
fince length of days is the foundation of true knowledge* 
^ccordingty, it was by means of it alone I dilcovered their 



conclufion to he falfe. ThUs, you fee, my lord, hoiv.apt 
xn€a arc to deceive themfelves in their judgraerit of thiogs, 
when fuch judgment is not built upon a folld foundation* 
And, therefore, to undeceive them, and fet them right, I 
made anfwer, tliat their conclufion' was falfe, as I fliould 
a^lually convince them, by proving, that the happinefs I 
esjoyed was not confined to me, but common to all man- 
kind, and that every man might equally enjoy it ; fince I 
was but a mere mortal, compofed, like all otliers^ of the 
four eletments; and endued, b^Gdes exiftence and life* 
with rational and inteUefkual faculties, which are commorr 
to all men. For it has pleafed the Almighty to beftow on 
his favourite creature, man, thefe extraordinary blefiings and 
favours above other animals, which enjoy, only the » fen- 
fible perceptions, in order that fuch bleilings and favours 
may be the means of keeping him loDg in good health; fo 
that length of days is an univerfal favour granted by the 
Deity, and not by nature and the ftars. 

But man being in his youthful days moi^ of the fenfual 
than of the rational animal, is apt to yield, ito fenfual im- 
preflions; and, when he afterwards arrives at the age of forty 
' or iifty> he ought to confidcT, that he has attained the noon 
of life by the vigour of youth, and a good tone of ftomach -, 
natural Uei&ngs, wl^ch favpured him in afcending the hill ; 
but that be muft now think of going down, and approach^ 
\pg the grave with a heavy weight of. years on his back , 
and that old age is the reverfe of youth, as much as order 
is xhe reverfe of difpr^er. Hefuce it is requifite he (hould 
alfer his mode of life in regard to the articles of eating and 
prinking, on which heakh and longevity depend. And 
as the firfl part of his life was fenfii^l and irregular, 
the fecond fliould be tlpie reverfe, fince nothing, can fub- 
Cft without order, efpecially the life of man, irregularity 




being without all doubt prejudicial^ aod regularity advan- 
tageous, to the htthvui fpecies/ 

Belides, it is impofTiblc in the nature of things^ that the man 
who is bent on indulging his palate and his appetite ihould 
jiot be guilty of irregularity* Hence it was that, to avoid- 
this vice, as foon as I foundmyfelf af rived at maturer yeaca^ 
I embraced a regular and fobcr life. It is no doubt, ti^n^ 
^hat I found fome difficulty in compaffing it ;. but, in out* 
der to conquer this difficulty, 1 befieeched the Aknighty C9 
grant me the virtue of fobriety; well knowing. that he 
would. gracioufly hear my prayer. Then, confidesinjg, that 
when a man is about to undertake any thing of impdttance^ 
which he knows he can cconpafs, though not without dij^ 
ficulty, he may make it much eafier to himfelf by being 
fleady in his purpofe ; I purfued.the fame courfe. I en« 
deavoured gradually to relinquiih a diforderly life> and to ao 
cuftom myfelf infenfibly to the rules of temperance: and tfaui 
it came to pafs that a fober and regular Ufe no longer prov'* 
ed uneafy or difagreeable ; though, on account of the 
weaknefs of my conftitutipn, I tied myfelf down to fuch 
.Rxi&, rules in regard to the quantity and quality of what I 
eat and drink. 

. But others, who happen to be blefled with a ftronger 
temperament, may eat many other kinds of food^ and in 
greater quantities i and fo of wines; whereas, though 
their lives may ftill be fober, they will not be fo confined 
as mine, but much more free. Now, on hearing thefe ar- 
guments, and examining the reafons on which they were 
founded, they all agreed that I had advanced nothing but 
what was true. Indeed the youngeft of them faid, diat 
though he could not but allow the favour or advantages I 
had been fpeaking of to be common to all mankind, yet I 
enjoyed the fpeciaU grace of being able to relinquish with 



€afis on« kind of li/e, a^d embrsio^ smetbcT ; a diing wMdl 
he knew by experience to be DeaQUe^ but as dlQcnlc to 
Kbn as it bad proved eafj to me* 

> To thu I ceplied^ that^ beiag a OMrtal like himleif^ I 
lakewife found it z difficult taf|c ; but it did not become a 
ipcribn t6 flinnk horn a gleirious bot pra&ieable iindertalb*^ 
iag OQ account of the difficulties attending it, becauici w 
pcopbrtidi^ tpthefe dii^culties, is the honour he acquires by 
it in the eye of man, and the merit in the i^t of Goci. 
Our beneficent Creator is defirous, that as he brigiaallj £a^ 
90ur^ human nature with Ipngjevity, we ihould gU enjoy 
the full :|dvanrage of his intentions } knowing that, when m 
man has pafled eighty, he is entirely exempt from the biev» 
ter fruits of fenfual enjoyments, and is entirely governed 
by. the diftaces of reafoa* Vice and immorsility muft then 
leave him i hence God is willing he (huuid live to a fiUI 
maturity of years ;. and has ordained that whoever readicu 
his natural term, fliould end his days widiout fickneis by 
mere diflUution, the natural way of quitting this mortal 
life to enter upon immortality, as wUl be my cafe. For 
I am Aire to die chanting my prayers ; npr do the dread* 
ful thoughts of death give me the leafl; unea&nefs, though, 
coD&dering my great age, it cannot be fiir diftant, know- 
ing, as J do, that I was bom to die, and refledtag that 
fuch numbers hare departed this life without rta^hiag mf 

Nor does that other thought, in&parable from the foro* 
er, namely the fear of thofe tormcuts to which wicked 
men are hereafter liable, gire roe any unealEnc£i ; beeaulb 
I am a good chriftiao, and bound to believe, that I fliafli 
be &yed by the virtue of the moft iacred blood of CSbrift^ 
which he has vouchfiifeJ to flied, in order to.lkee us ftom 
dio£c tonqents. Hqw bpnttiful the life I load I hour h^* 




^ my end^ To this, the young genricman, my antago*- 
iiift) had noliiing to reply, but that he was risfolved to 
^mbvace a fober life, in oider to follow my exaxaple ; and 
that he bad taken another more important refolutioh, 
which was, that, as he had been always very defirous 
to live to be old, fo he was now equally impatient to 
reach that period, the fooner to enjoy the felicity of old 
age. ' 

The great defire I bad, my lord, to converfe with yoa 
at this dlftaiice has forced me to be prolix, and ftiU obliges 
tne to proceed^ though not much farther. There are 
many fenfualifts, my lord, who fay, that I have thrown 
away my time and trouble in writing a treatife on temper- 
ance, and other difcourfes on the fame fubje£):, to induce 
men to lead a regular life j alleging, that it is impoffible 
to conform to it, fo that my treatife muft anfwer as little 
purpofe as that of Hato on government, who took a great 
deal of pains to recommend a thing impra£licable ; whence 
they inferred that, as his treatife was of no ufe, mine will 
fliare the fame fate. Now this furprifes me the more, as 
they may fee by my treatife, that I had led a fober life for 
many years before I had compofed it ; and that J (hould 
never have compofed it, had I not previoufly been con- 
vinced that it was fuch a life as a man might lead ; zni, 
being a virtuous life, would be of great fervice to him ; fo 
that I thought myfelf under an obligation to reprefent it 
in a true light. I have the fatisfa£lion now to hear, that 
numbers, on feeing my treatife, have embraced fuch a li£e^ 
and Ihave read, that many, in times paft, have a£tually led it ; 
fi> that the objeflion to which Plato's tceatife on government 
is liable can be of no force againft mine.- But fuch fen- 
fualifts, enemies to reafon,^ and flavts to their paffion% 

^ ought 

« < 


ot^t to think tbemfelves well pff, if, whilft^thej ftudy to 
indulge their- palate and their appedte, they do aot coi^- 
tr&£l:long aod punful difeafes^ and are notiznany of them^ 
overtaken by an untimely death* - 

Leonardus LefliuSi a learned jefuit of Lotivaine, who 
lived about the end of the fixteenth century, was fo much 
pleafed with Cornarp's Treatife on fobriety, that, purely to 
recommend it^ he has written a book, entitled Hygiafticon, 
or the True method of preferving life and health to extreme 
old age. In this book he praifes a fober life as the principal 
means of health. By a fober life, he underftands, that we 
fiiould neither eat nor drink more, than what is neceffary for 
our rcfpeftive conftitutions,in order to perform the fun£tions 
of the mind with eafe. Or, to be more particular, he fays, 
that the proper meafure of meat and drink for every indi- 
vidual is fuch a quantity as his Aomach will be able to di- 
gell perfe£ily well, and will be fufficieht to fupport him 
under the employment of body or mind that Providence has 
appointed for him. But to prevent miftakes with regard 
to what the ftomach may be perfe£tly able to digefl, and 
to what may be thought fufficient to fupport men under 
their refpeftive occupations, he recommends the following 
rules ; ^ 

Fir/l, He who eats or drinks fuch a quantity as renders 
him unfit for any exertion of the mind to which his pro- 
'fe0ion calls hirti, has certainly exceeded, and ought to re- 
trench. And he, who in bodily labour or exercife, was 
adive and nimble before meals, if he becomes heavy and 
dull after meals, has certainly tranfgrefled 5 for the true 
*cnd of eating and drinking is to refrefh, and not to opprefs, 
the body. 



Spc00d, tboiigh there caatiot be .« oertem fttl4 iovacU 
Uble ^e^fure ptefcribed lo all pfHfons^ beccufe of ihp 
d^ecence ef Hges, conftitad6o8^ fui4 oecupfttions^ yet^ 
generally fpeaking^ to tbofe who ttt oid# or of a tender con- 
.fiittttioiii and live a fedehtary Ufe, twelve, thirteen, ot 
fourteen^ ounces of folid food» including breads flefii, fifli, 
and egg3» together with an equal ^ quantity of drink, will 
be fuffident. And this rule has been Verified by the 
experience chiefly of thofe ifrhofe proper employment has 
been ftudy and meditsltion. 

Tlnrdf the quality f of people's food and drink is litde 
^ be regarded, if it is but pkioi and fitch as common 
nfehis Recommended, and does not particularly difa^ree 
tvitH him who u&s it>. provided the quantity be ptoperl/ 

Fourth, td cure J^oii bf ybiir fondnefs for high-liv- 
ing, confider thefe delicacies you fit down to, not as they 
iappear on the table, but ad they will be quickly alteted 
after you have eat them ; for the richer their flavour and 
tafle is boW, the mote corrupted and acrimonious thej 
vvill bbcoihe in your body^ and the more hurtful will be 
their confe^uences. 

Our author, in the iqft place^ proves the advantages of 
JTobriety by the expisrience of fuch as made trial of it } 
fome of whoih lived in the dfefettsj on bi'e^d, dates^ fal« 
lad, and watery to a hundred years and upwards. Paul^ 
ttie hermit, fays he, died at the age of ixj years; of 

• In this he U miftaken^ f(£ the quantity of drink Ihould dccted that 

bf the folid foodi ia ahnoft all cifcttmftances of life. 

♦ "^ 

t This rule is calculated for ptrfons of a fttODg coqftitutito onlfihut 
sot for the puny or delicatet .^ 

Vou Uh . H t^bich 



which he fpent near a hundred in the defert, living, for 
the firft forty, on dates and water onlj, and for the rcf- 
maining time, on bread and water^ as Jerom teftifies. St. 
Anthony lived to lej, of which he pafled more than 
eighty in the wildernefs on bread and water, with the 
addition, at latl^ of a little fallad, according to Athanafitis. 
Arfenius, the preoeptor of the emperor Arcadius, lived 
to 1 20, of which he fpent the firft iixty-five in the focisd 
world, and the other fifty-five in the defert, with great 
abftemioufnefs. And E^iphanius lived with equal au- 
fterity to almoft 115. 

But the moft recent example, and the moft to bis pur- 
pofe, was that of Lewis Cornaro, wbo died at Padua, 
when he was above a handred years old, anno 1566. 


M .1 # • 


OF THE Authors who ha^e written on health anI) 


X HE author of the Hiftory of health ha^ given us a 
fhort account of fome of the authors who wrote on healtfai 
and longevity, between the age of Oornaro and that of 
Saa£iorius ; and as their works are either too volumin- 
ous or too infigniHcant to be inferted in this coUedion, I 
ihall therefore tranlcribe the fhort meitoorandums which 
M^Kenzie has given of them. The ohlj book thereia 

* • • . ' 

mentioned, entitled to any particular attention, is the 
one by Cardan. The great Boerhaave has fo. ftrongly 
fecommended it, that I was induced to examine it with, 
fome attention, aqd to propofe giving an analyfis of 
it; but, upon an examination, it turned out to be about 
300 pages folio, drawn t^ip m fo diftin£t and roethodi-^ 
tdl a manner, and Containing fo many judicious obferva- 
tions, that, inflead of an abftradfc or analyfis, if thefe 
inquiries ate to be profectlted, I ihould think a tranflation 
of the whole advifable. In the interim, the general vieW 
which M^Kenzte has given of Cardan's book, and^ the 
other works publiihed about the fame time^ may be con- 
fidered as fufficient, 

H a Thomaa 

316 TH03M»\S PHlLOLOGtrS, &C 

Thomas Pbilologus of Ravenna addrefled to Pope Julias 
III. a treatife, ** De vita ultra annos* no protrahenda,'^ 
which he profefiies to have coUeded with great labour 
sknd afliduitj, from the writings of the learaed. He 
complains that voluptuoufnefs and avarice had ihort- 
ened the lives of the noble Venetians to fach a degree^ 
that whereas^ formerly feveral fenators every one at 
leaft an hundred years old, ufed to appear in the ftreets 
together, venerable by their white locks and rich robes, 
there was not one to be feen in our aathor*a tinpc who 
had reached ninety: he therefore reoom.mend^ temper- 
ance and purity df manners as the principal means, to 
promote longevity. He recommends likewife, a pure air 
to thofe who defire length of days^' and is thefirft phyfician, 
1 know ofy who ceQfures the pernicious cuftom of having 
public burying places in populous cities, which taint the 
atmofphere with cadaverous fteams, aiid frequently Qcca- 
fidn fatal diflempers. '' I am aftoniihed/' continues he, 
** that the moderns fliould approve of a praftice ^hich 
'' the wifeft nations of antiejuity prohibited by the moil 
** folemn laws." 

About the middle of the fizteenth century, Vidus Vi« 
dius, a Florentiise, publifhed a large volume on the pre- 
fervation of the health of the body in general,* and of 
every member in particular, cleared (as he pretends) 
from all the errors both of the Greeks and the Arabians. 
He bad been invited to Paris by Francis f, and taught 
phyfic thiere, during the life of that auguft and munificent 
patron of learning; and, after hia death, was called 
home anno 1557, and highly encouraged by Cofmus,.duke 

I* ■ I ll.l ■ <l.ll. II I i ■ I .»! ■ II ■■ I I ■■ 

* I>e tncnda valctudine generacim libri lex, mtmbntim Hbri qnatndr- 

* lo 




fir tfiis performance concerning health, Vidlus has (o 
cicffefy adhered to the theory of Galen, *^ without one zn« 
'* ftance from his praftke to enliven It," and is fo fnll 
of the enSieSs diftinftioQS and dirifions of Avicenna, that 
titere » not one new or entertaining precept to be met 
with in his whole worl:, though he was undonlkedlj a 
man of great literature. 

The famous Hieronhnrus Cardanus is aiiother of ourvo* 
lafninotzs writers on the fubjed of health, b^tbas not add- 
ed many rule? df great importance, to thofe mentioned bjr 
former phjrficians* He was defcended from a noble familj 
inlKffian, and born at Pa via (whither his mother fled from 
the phlgce) anno 1500* He is magnified by fome, for 
bis eztfenfive knowledge in the (ciences j and wa^ fent for 
£rom Italy, as fiir as Scotland, to cijire the arcbbiihop of 
St* Andrews, which he^ did of a dangerous illnefs : but 
others hold him in fmaU efteem. His book on health and 
long life is rec&oned one «f his beft performances ^ but he 
is 8 very unequal writer. Jtte tad^es upon him to Waxne 
Hippocrates and Qalen, in things wherein all the world 
think them %o be right, except himfelf. He exclaims. 
for example, againft u&Qg any exercife that can fatigue a 
man in the fmalfeft degree, or throw him into the moll 
gentle fwibar, pr in the leaft accelerate his refpiration i 
and gravely obferves, that ttees live longer than animals, 
becaufe th^y never ftir from their places : he maintains 
that Gsden^s treatife on health is full of miftakes ;' and, 
as a proof of this, obferves, that Galen himfelf died aj: 
feVeiHy.feven, which cannot properly be called old age. 

•* Poor Catdan did not then forefee that this objcaioii 
•* (fuppolb it to have any weight) might one day be 
*♦ urged more jalUy againft himfelf, who died at fevei^ 
'* ty.five.»* • 

But, to do him juftice, he was the firil who g^ve us 

H 3 marks 


xparks or tymptoms of longevity, whiich, when thej n»e|et 
in the faiqe perfon, are, for 'the mod; part, true indicaui 
tlons of long life, viz. iji, to be defceqded from a long 
lived family, at leaft by one of the parents ; 2iUy, to be 
of a cheerful, eafj, difpofition, undifturbed by any irl;:- 
fpme care, or difc^uietude of n^ind ; anj* 3^» to be na- 
turally a long and found^ fleeper. 

'ipie quantity of aliment which he recommen4s is very 
ffnall, aft^r the n^anner of Corna^ro^ whom he sulmires 
much : and, though the abftemioufnefs which he enjoins^ 
would ill agree with perfons of an aAive and laborious 
life, and foon ezhauft their ftrength, and render thena 
iifelefs, yet to people of a delicate conftitution, full of 
care s^id dif<}uiet^des, or con^ned to a fedentary life, 
the meafure of aliment which he allows, under the re* 
flri£lions annexed to it, is perl^aps the bed ru|e of health 
in his book. 

" Thp true meafurp of eating an4 drinking,'* fays he, 
** is, that a man fliallfel no fulnefs or weight in his fto- 
'* mach, hilt ihall be able to \f alk or Write itnmediatelj 
^' after meals, in cafe either (bould be neceflary ; that his 
** ileep (hall not be difturbed or (hortened by his fupper ; 
<* that he ihall have neither headach, nor bad tafie in his 
*' mouth next morning ; and that he ihall awake refreOi- 
** ed and cheerfal after bis night's rcil.*' 

His fourth book, on old age, is the mod entertaining 
part of the whole performance. Who can forbear being 
pleafed with his cheerful and fecial difpofition at feventy- 
three, and with his lively hope, which he ftretches beyond 
the grave ? ** For my part,"' fays he,, ** I am more joyful 
V now than ever I was in my youth j I fhall die*, *tis true^ 

and leave niy friends behind me, but I {hall find others 

where I go; ^ndl know that thofe who are left behind 

** will quigkly follow me." 

'' '-N^ '- ' • . ' ' Sooq 


al:i;kand£r traiAnus. 119 

{Soon after the death of Cardan^ Alescander Trajanus ' 
Petronius publiibed his book concerning the aliment o£ ' 
the Romans, and the prefervatipn of their health, 'which ' 
he dedicates to Pope Gregory XIIL In it he treats of 
the fituation, ur, winds, waters, and healthj feafons, of 
Itpme ; an4 alfo of the food, folemn fafts, and epidemical 
ailments, of the I^omans. This book is written with 
great judgment and accuracy, and is an excellent model 
for any phyfician who inclines totdo the fame good office 
to the city in which he refides. 

Several authors, befides thofe. already named, have 
written upon the confervation of health in the iixteenth * 
century, Jbefore the celebrated Sanftorius. I (hall men- 
tion the moil eminent among them, for the fake of the 
curiotis, who may have a mind to confult them, but (hall 
net dwell long upon their works; and perhaps there 
have been but few * improvenients or variations in this 
branch of phyfic, from the times of the Greeks and Ara- 
bians down to San&orius, who ^ourilhed in the clofe of 
tWs century, 

Theff^ authors {land in order of time as follows : 

Levinus Lemnius Mras born in Zeland anno 1 50 j, and 
prafiifed phyfic for feveral years with good fuccefs ; but, 
halving had the piisfortune to loTe his wife, entered into 
holy orders; Jn confequepce of which, his writings p&rtake 
bath of mprality and phyfic. His exhortatioa to lead a 
virtuous life, in order to fecure the health both of body 
and mind, fets forth, that " health is preferved by tfc'xhper- 
•* ance in eating and drinking, wherein e::cefs is indecent 

• LiC» regies pour Ja confervation de ia fame, et cp qu*il y a i dire fur 
1« qualitez et le choix des allmens, etant un fujet ou il y a le moins de 
yariationa depuis les tems les plus anciens jufqu' au notrc. Le Clcrc Plan 
<lc rhiftorie dc la medicine, pag. 3. ' ' , 

H 4 " a$ 


ISO JABQrtf fVtATtiH^lB* 

'* as well as pernieioiiSy a4d hj a 4i0ieratipa in «K ill 
'^ other articles ^hich Galea * fnills the pvcferrafeites of 
'* heahhy but modern? call %he fii^ noo^imtiitaky not thai 
^* they are by aoj means umiataraU but becaofe ttej 

are not within the body like our blood and htmiofnrsj^ 

though thej have inflaence enough to hurt or d^ftroy 
'^ it, when a bad u£b is inade of fbem.'' 

Jafon Pratenfisy a Zelander, likewife wrote a (reatife 
Pe tuenda famtate^ a^o 1538. He regreta that hifi manj 
ayocations, and a nine month 'S illnefe, didnotpemortt hiai 
to write np to the idea whtdi he had of his £ubje8^ He k, 
neverthekiV, a Uvely writer, and a good daflkal fcholar, 
which makes his book vety entertaining, though h hw 
little or nothing new with refpeft to health- 

Antouius Fnmanellus Yeronenfis wrot^ Jit- ftnftm tt'? 
gimfie, ofmo 15409 whcrdn he declares, '* that h# follows 
** tKe fentiments of Hippocrates and Gakin*'' 

Joajines Valverdus de Hamufco» a Spaniard, publHbed 
his treatife, De amm et corporis fa^iit^e ad. Hierommum Vom 
rallum CariinaUm^ anno 155a, It is Ihort, but written with 
a great 0eid of good fenfe; and as the author had an 0ppot« 
tunity ^f ttavelling into dtffant oountrie^, his obfei^valiods 
enabled him to add this new rule to th^ tAA oiiesi vi%^ Huit 
it is necefiary to diveriify 'pur method of living according 
to the nature pi the climrate in which we m^y ehanoe t^ 
refide. 1< When I was in Scotland f (feys he) I oouU 
** not forbfear eating more frequently than I ufed to dq 
f* in vof own country.'* 


* Lemnlus did not advert, that Galen washimfelf the perfonwho intro- 
duced the appellation non-natural. 

f Cum ego, qui meridionalem magis xncolo regionem, apud Sco^o; 
Bgerem^ nox^ poteram me contiiiere« quin pluribiis vicibus cibum ailume- 
^em, quam antea elTem confuetus. 





Guilielmtis GratarolnSi a Fiedmontefe, publi(hed his 
book, De litiratorumi ei eorum qui magi/tratum ggrttnt, 
cofffervanda valetudine, a)7«o 1555, ^^ inculcates a mo-* 
deration in the five following articles i namely, eating, 
drinking,^ labour, deep, ttd concubinage ; and affirms 
fhattbofe great fathers of phjfic,. Hippocrates and Galen, 
tiave recommended the fame moderation, as the principal 
means to fecure health. 

Henricus Ranzovius, a Dapifli nobleman, wrote De eon* 
/ervnuda vahtudine in privatum liherorum fuorum ufum^ 
anno 1573* The firft and moft valuable precept in his 
book, is, to worfliip and ferve God, and to pray to him for 
healtbK" iot (conddues he) though the ftar) have their 
f ^ tnfiBClncc, it wiU be always true," ^t 

iEmilius Dufus eompofed his beok, J)e iuendavakindi^ 
ne (ul Car Jam Skifaudis Ducem^ anno 15&2 j but copies' 
Gsden in every tbiiig that is material, 

lidftly^ Ferdinaaduo Eoftatiii S| fon to the famous anato* 
mift Bartholomseus Euftachius, wrote J9r 9fW hnrname 
faeidt^tt m^iBca frorogaHmff dedicated ko Pope Shctus T. 
anwo si^ This author has indeed refuted many axtgu- 
ments, i&ged to prove diat the medical art is of no tife in 
ptohmgpng fife} but is quite filent as to the means by 
which that end may be attained* 

It would make this compilation too tedious to take no* 

tice hefe of all thefe authors that have advanced fome fan-i 

cifui fpeoulations on the dilferent proportions of food at 

difibrei^ meals, which they imagined to be of great im- 

^ portadce to health \ &i€b, iet inftStnce, as Oddi de Oddis, 

whc^ ia hisrtveati£B i)^ e^mB ei prandii ffortionf, pubUffaed 

/»//«• 1570, affcrts, that people (hould make fupper their 

fqlleft and dinner their lighteft meaL 




MAHCTORius Sanctorius was bom in Iftria, a territory m 
Italy, belonging to the Venetians, and ftudied at Padua, 
where he afterwards became a c<slebrated profieflbr. He.was 
frpm thence invited to pra£kife phyfic at Venice, for the 
benefit of the citizens ; and though he left the univerfity, 
yet the republic, as a niark of efteem, c6ntinued his falary 
to his death, which happened anno 16^69 in the feventj- 
fifth year of his age. 

He opened a new fcene in phyfic, to which phyficians 
and philofophers were in a great meafure ftrangers before 
his time, and upon experiments made with amazing dili- 
gence and affiduity, foy'thirty years, he has eft^faKlhed feveral 
laws of infenfible perfpiration, a knowledge of which is lb 
ufeful for the prefervation of health. 

In order that the reader may be more fully matter of 
this fubjeft, it is propofed, in the ^firfi place, to give a 
tranflation of the work which Sandorius called Medicina 
Sfaticay or Rules of thealth, and afterwards to give a (hort 
account of the difcoveries which have fince been made re* 
garding infenfible peripiratioi). 


( 12» ) 


. AlfHO 1676* 




*T is a thing new, and not before heafd of in medicine, 
that any one (hould be able to find out the exa£l weight o^ 
infenfible perfpiration, nor has any one of th): philofopher^ 
or phyficians attempted the doing of any thing in that part 
of the medical faculty. I am the firft that bas efiayed it, 
and (if I am not miftaken), brought the art to perfedJion^ 
by reafon and the experience of thirty years. I have 
thought it fitter to deliver it in an aphoriftical, than a diex- 
odical method, for fevcral reafons : ^^Jirflf that fo I mighf 
imitate our great diftator^ whofe fteps I have always thought 
it an honour to follow. Secondly^ I was in a manner ne- 
ceffitated to do fo, in regard that the experiments them- 
fclvcs, wherein I had fpent many years, did naturally fo lead 
' me to this aphoriftjca/ way of doflrine, as that I have di- 
gcfted the aphorifms, e^ccellpntly well connefled amongfl: 
ihemfelves, in this wonderful order, as bees having fir{( 
gathered the honey from a great variety of flowers, do af- 



tCTRrai'dS) in aa excellent order and economy, dtfpofe it, 
wrought up to perfe&ion, into the little receptacles of their 

M to tli0 adirantageis of i^ aft^ I ft»S fajs Mdto^ 6nce 
it is known to all, of hpw great concern in the medical fa- 
culty, the knowledge of infenfible perfpiration is* Only I 
would have ^ t^«^ kind^ reader tak«( ^iiisr oa^ a4¥efl^f^9^efi#> 
that fince thd ft»^ t>f . hHunan ifciRiirs is fuoh that wsn are 
moxci ^ favieufiy to* oppofes^ thm ftudioufly to psomotc^ 
the advancement (^ new defighs, I know th^t manyi. not 
^onlj among the vulgar, but alfo among the learned, not 
condtt£led by a love of the truth,- but hurraed away by am- 
bition^ or the vain letchery of contradi&ion, or pure envy» 
wUl rilie up againfl; this new art, and will heavily inveigh 
againft it, though tbey sire not fo nm^li as acquainted with 
the very name of it« But if they are defirous to be followers 
of die truth,^ I (hall fo far fatisfy them all, as that they flutt 
not only apprehend the pure refined trutli in their minds 
and undetftandings, but they fliall fee it with their eyes^ 
and feel it with their hands, if they ihall but ftri£Uy ex- 
amine» by the balance, all thofe things which I hay^ de- 
livered in this, book, concerning tt» ponderation of infen- 
fible perfpiration, its caufes, time, advantages, and difad^ 
vantages, exceis and defe£i, as alfq of the air, fneatS| 
drinks, and the other fix non-natural things^ by which per- 
fpiration is obftru£);ed, or advanced. 

Let them not therefore, with a^iupercillouaf arrogance, 
make a light account of this balance, or, like fmatterers in 
knowledge, calumniate this moft excellent art, inasmuch as 
I fliail not think they deferve any other ahfwer, than that 
fmart raillery of the poet Pejrlius j when blmding them- 
felvcs like the Andabatse, aqd being obilinatc truth-hatcrs, 


they di&sov^ to all ^ world, tlmt Uiey are fM)t only dril 
£ul>06an€ and Cordubanst in the perception of the tnt(b» 
but alfo moft frivolous Afiftarchofei and crilici in 
cepfure^ of it« ' 


X H£,aphorifm8 comprehended in our book oijlatic nieJL 
ciMp publiflbed fome years fince, are found to be true, by 
the ufe of the chair placed at the frontifpiece. 

From which ehalt we gain two advantages ; the former 
by finding out Ute daily infenfible perfpiration of our bodies^ 
which perfpiration not well confidered, medicine proves 
for the mod part vain and jneffedual : for all indifpofitions 
almoft are the productions of a lei^r or larger perfpira* 
tion than is requi&te« 

The latter, in that, having feated ourfelves in this dbair,* 
we perceive, during our refe£lion^ when we are come to 
that juft proportion of' meat and drink, beyond whidi, or 
ihort of which, we are prejudiced. 

The chai^sis fet as it is reprefented in the aforefaid figure 
wherein the bc^ is fattened to the rafters, at a fecret place» 
in a room above that where you take refedlion, becaufe it 
would be fomewhat unfightly in the fame room ; as alfo by- 
reafon of the unlearned, to whom all things that are un« 
ufual feem ridiculous. Now the chair, being a fingei^* 
breadth diftaot from the floor, ftands firm, fo as that k can- 
not eafily be (haken# 

When, therefore, by reafon of the refcftiott we have 
taken, we are come to the juft weight and meafure before , 
prefcribed, then the remote part of the beam is a Uttle elo» 


▼ated, and the chair withal immediately defcends a litilei 
That defcent of the chair tells the perfon fitting in it, that 
lie has taken the requifite quantity of his refeftion. 

Now, what quantity or weight of wholefome meats it 
convenient for every one, and how much the infenfiUe 
perfpiration ought to be in their refpe&ive bodies, to-wit, 
that perfpiration which is commodioufly weighed by the 
chair, any one may eafily underftand by our book otjatic 


!• Of the Ponder ation o/inJenfibU Perfpitaiiom 
a. Of Air and WcUers. 
3. Of Meat and Drink* 
4* Of Sleep and Vigilance, 

5. Of Exercife and ReJI. 

6. OfVtnery. 

7. Of the AffeSlions of the Mind. 

8. An Anfwer to the Stdficomqftixm 


1ft£i)ICINA STATICA 1^^ 






I. If the addition of thofe things that are deficient, and 
the fubtradion of thofe that are exuberant, be dailj oiade^ 
as ta quantitj and qualitj, fuch as it ought to be« loft 
health would be recovered, and the prefent alwajs pre* 
ferved. . , ^ * 

II. . If the phyfician, who has the overfight of other 
mens* healthy be capable of judging ovlj of the feqfible 
addition, and evacuation, and knows not the quantitj of 
their dailj infenfible perfpiration, he does not cure, but 
deceive them. 

III. He onlj, who knows to what quantity, and wben^ 
the fecret perfpiration of a man's bodjr amounts to more 
or lefs, fhall find out how much, and when any thing 
ought to be added or fubtraded, in order to the preferva* 
tion or recovery of his health. 

IV. Infenfible perfpiration alone is commonly wont to 
exceed all the fenfible perfpirations put together. 

V. Infenfible perfpiration is made either by the pores 
of the body, which is tranfpirable in all its parts, and is 
inclofed in tse ikin as it were in a net; or by refpiratioa 
performed by the mouth, which^ in one day, commonly 
amounts to about half a pound : for that may be difcover- 
ed by the dewy drops upon a looking»glafsj if it be fet 
tllQfe to the mouth* 

^ VI- 


vr. If the meat and drink taken in one dij amotitit to 
the weight of e^ght pfHin&h the iofeofible tranfpiratioa 
ordinarily amounts to five pounds, or thereabouts. 

VII. The quantity of infenfible tranfpiration admits of 
fome variety, according to the diverfity of nature, climate, 
feafons, age, difeafes, alimeitt^ and other things, that are 

vni» It may be eafily ccm^puted what was the ^uanti-^ 
ty of the no&urnal perfpiration, and that of the fenfibk 
excrements* by weighing the body in the mornings before 
and lifter fenfiUe excretion. 

IX. If the weight of the body begin td be ahgmented 
Hiotethim k is wont^ vnthout any greater addition of 
meat, and drink, or a retention of the fenfible excreiiients, 
there edfues « difficulty of breathing. 

X. The body is pceferved in the fame ilate of health 
lurhen it returns to the fame weight, without any unufual 
ftoGfale evacuation t but if it be tedpced to the fame 
weight, by a more than ordinary evacuation, by urines 
MT ftool, it begins io recede from its former healths 

XI. H it be perteived by ponderation, that there hath 
been any obftrufiion c£ the perfpiration, there iiirill fuc- 
eeed, in the fubfequent days, eithet a more plentiful per-^ 
fpitation, or fome more abundant fenfible evacuation^ of 
ibme fymptom of an evil habit of the body, or a fliver. 

Xiu Much perfpiration, and a plentiful and more thad 
Hfind fenfible evacuation, are not confiftei^t together, 

Xiit. If any one does fenfibly evacuate more than is re- 
^pufite, his perfpiration is lefs than is requifite. 
, xrir. It is an ill fign, when a man goes to ftool, urinesi 
^ fweats, more thitn is requifirei and perfpires lels tfaaot 
be flK>old do. 




actr. If' the body be daily reduced to tbe fame weigb^ 
without any alteration in the evacuation of thofe things 
that are perfpirable, it will need no crifis^ and will be 
coatiniied in a found pofture. 

zvi* When the .body is one day of one [weiglrt, and 
an<)fther day of another, it argues ah introdu&ion of evil 
^uatitiss into it* 

xrn. That weighty which to any one is fuch as* thatt 
when he goes up foiiie fteepy place, he feels himfelf 
lighter than he is wont, is the exaft ftandard of good 

xviit. Evil qualities are the produftions of ezcefs,^ but 
we mnft not affirm the contrary, to* wit, that good quali- 
ties are the' produftions of defeiSt. 

* icix. Not only the weight, bat the ejtcefs alfo, is di* 
minifhed, either by the evacuation of the fenfible or in« 
fenfible crude ihatter, or by that of the fenfible of i&i- 
fenfible conceded matter. The latter conduces to health, 
the former takes away the «zcef$, but leaves the iU qua- 
lity behind. 


XX. There are two kinds of infenfible tranfpiration : the 
one is immediately made after fleeping, upon the complet- 
ing of the concoflion, and after this there is an augmentatioh 
of a man's ftrength ; the other in the time of vigilance*; and ^ 
this latter is occafioned by crude humours^ and. by reafon 
thereof the ftrength is impaired : for it is performed 
with more or lefs violence, anfwerably to the greater or 
lefs motion of the vigilance. 

xxz. That perfpiration which cafes the -body of a great^ 
aikd that an unprofitable, burthen, is not ^at which is at- 
tended with fweating, but that invifible perfpiration or 
breathing, fuch as is that which, in the fpace of four-and- 

VoL III. I twenty 


twenty hours, in the winter time, may ezhde fifty ounces, 
or more* % "* 

XXII. Invifible perfpiratjon becomes vifiblei either 
when there is an excefs of nutriment, or when there is a 
xemiffion of heat, or by reafon of violent motion. . 

XXIII. Infenlible perfpiratioo, attended by fweating, is 
not good; becaufe fweating abates the ftrength of the 
£bres. Yet fometimes it is accounted good, becaafo it 
occafions a diverfion from a greater evil. 

XXIV. The more fubtile and free from motfture the in- 
' vifible perfpiration is, the more healthy it is. 

^ XXV. All the liquid ex-crements are the more weighty, 
and fall down to the bottom ; the thick are lighter, aod 
keep up on the top, fuch as are hard and thick dreg% 
fpittle^, aod others of that kind. 

XXVI. Liquid excrements, allowing an equality as 
to quantity, take off a greater burthen from the boijf 
than the hard and confiftent. 

XXVII. Liquid meats are aUb the more weighty, and the 
foKd the more liglit ; bread and fleih are light, wine and 
broaths are heavy. A cup of wine is of equivalent weight 
to a piece of bread, though above thrice as big as it in 

xxviii. When the body feems to be more burthenfome 
•to a man, when it is not really fo, he is in. a, worfe con- 
dition than if it feem and is felt to be fuch, when it is 
really fuch. 

xxrx*- The weight of an animal may be confidered two 
»wayS| for thefe two things are confiftent, to- wit, that the 
^body may be more weighty than ufual, and yet the per- 
fon fancy himfelf lighter ; and, on the contrary, that the 
body may be lighter than ufual, yet the party feel him- 
felf heavier. 


Mkdicina statica* 151 

. XKX. If tbefe two things coacar,' to* wit, that amaa 
feel himfelf lighter than he is, and yet is not really fO) it 
13 an argameiitof a moil healthful conftitution. 

XXXI. That body which is reduced to a le& weight, 
than is proportionable to the juft computation of its 
healthful date, is in a worfe condition than that which 
acquires a greater weight than is* proportionable to its 

XXXII. When the body, by reafon of any exercife of 
itfelf, or of the mind, becomes of lefs weighty there im^ 
mediately enfues a diminution of its vigour ; which doed 
not happen if it becomes of lefs weight after fleep, when 
there is a perfeA conco&ion. 

XXXIII. If without any precedent violence there be a 
diminution of the weight, and an impairing of the vi« 
gour, the reafon is, becaufe there is not fo much reftor- 
e4 as had been loft. 

XXXIV. There are but three ways whereby an animal 
is weakened, either while the weight of the body is aug-* 
xpented, without any impairing of its vigour ; when the 
vigour is diminifhed, the fame weight of the body ftill 
remaining } or, laftly, when both vijgour and weight ad-< 
xnit of diminution. ' ^ 

XXXV. That wearinefs which enfues upon the body'^ 
becoming lefs ftrong, and of. lefs weight, is more dan- 
gerous than any other ; for pondetofity is a kind of 

XXXVI. The weight of the body communicates ftrength 
to* us, when w6 either draw any thing dovi^nwards, or 
carry, turn, or thruft, it^ 

. XXXVII* The ftrength of an old man does many times 
depend more on the weighty than the vigour, of his body : 


1 92 Ml^MCmA BTt kttCA^ 

an old aainml of little weiglit nrajr live a long time, iHit 
cannot be ftrong. 

XXXVIII. Ify after fleeping, the body be tednced to its 
Yifual' weighty without feeling anj croufale, it is well ; for 
it argues perfeft concoftion ; but if with trouble, it is 
iH. ^ 

xxxix; The bodj does not fall into any difeafe upon 
external mifcarriages, unlefs it hare fome of the entrails 
prepared for it : that preparation is difeovered by the 
more or lefs than ufual weight, occafioned no^ without 
fome precedent difturbance. 

XL. If nature be obftruded while (he is eudployed in - 
the office of perfpiration, ihe becomes prefemly defeftive 
in divers others. 

JtLT. When the head aches, the body receives tt fodden 
check in perfpiration, and becomes more ponderous. 
XLii. The firft feeds of difeafes' are more certainly dif-* 
. covered by the alteration of the uhufual perfpiratida^ 
than by the obftrudion of the offices. 

XLni. If, by ponderation^ thou fiialt find that the taaU 
ter of ufual perfpiration is retained in the body, and that 
the party does neither fweat nor urine for fome days a& 
ter, infer thence that the retained niatter prognofticates 
future corruption. 

XLiV. But if by ponderatxon thou {halt find, that upofr 
fome violent cau£e, the petfpirable matter is mere thaii 
ufually emitted out of the body, be afliiredi that the 
place where the perfpirable matters had been lodged, and 
whence they were violently evacuated, is filled with I 
crudities, which are crowded ioto the fmalleft pafiages. 
XLV. Yet if thoTe crudities which fo force their way 
id, could, as to all parts, be\rendered fluid and perfpir^ 
able, it were wdl $ but if not, the part wherein they are 




cootabed firft becomes hard, like leather, and m laft 

XLVi. If that which is perfpirable (hould oot be diffi^ 
pated^ either hy nature, or fome feverifli heat, the body 
ivottld be immediately prepared for a malignant fever. 

XLWii. Such as are in fevers are as likely to grow worfe 
And worCe, if their perfpiration be diverted by the excef- 
£ve applications of medicines from an nnftiilfulphyfician^as 
it might be if diverted by the mifearriages of the patients 
iJbem&Ives^ ^ 

ZLViif • A fmall i^uantity of ca^ffia does not divert per«« 
ipiratioo, does not impair the (Irength, but only eafes the 
body of a fuperfluous veight : but other medicines con- 
tribute more to evacuation, are diffufed to the more r&- 
zxiote parts, and render the body lighter; and yet the 
neat and drink which is reci^ved afterwards fill op the 
evacuated pafTages; thence the belly and bladder are ex- 
^ccated» and fpon after the body commonly becomes more 

XLix* Any pain o{; grief of the body obftrufls the 
pafiage of that perfpirable matter which is concoded. 

L. Any cold, even the leaft that we feel in the night 
.ivhile we are afleep, obftrufts perfpiration. 

LI. One of the xnoft frequent caufes that hinder per- 
ipiration in the fummer time is the often turning of our 
bodies in bed. 

xu* There are three internal cau&s of the obftruftion of 
perfpiration, nature's being otherwife emplo/ed, diver- 
^on, and want of ftrength. 

iin. Hence it appears by a ftatical ponderation,' that 

on the day a man takes phyfic^ and during the fpace of 

(hree hpurs after refeftioui there is little peripiration : 

• I 3 flpr 




for on fuch day of taking phjfic nature is bulled about 
fenfible evacuation ; and after meat (he is intent on the 
firft qonco&ion. 

Liv. In fluxes and vomiting perfpiration is obftrufted, 
becaufe it is diverted. 

LV. A burthenfome weight of garments is a hinderance 
to perfpiration* becaufe they abate a man's ftrength. 

LVi. The body does not perfpire every hour after the 
fame rate, in regard that after refeftion, in the fpace of 
five hours, it is commonly wont to exhale a pound, or 
thereabouts ; from the fifth hour to the twelfth, about 
three pound ; from the twelfth to the fixteenth (at 
which time we are to take refedion, or phyfic) hardly 
half a pound. 

LVII. He who takes his refeflion, or is evacuated by 
phyfic, during the hours of greateft perfpiration, fuch as 
are, for the moft part, thofe of the morning, is highly in- 
jured ; bedaufe, prefently after meat, as alfo after phyfic, 
perfpiration is extremely diverted. 

LViii. The fccret,and infenfibla perfpiration eafes us 
more than all the feifible ones put together; for, after 
fleep, before there be any evacuation of the fenfible ex- 
crements, every one feels himfelf lighter, becaufe he is 
really become lighter, by three pound, or thereabouts. 

Lix, In the fpace of one night, there are commonly 
evacuated, of urine,. fixteen ounces, more orlefs ; of con« 
co^ed excrements, by ftool, four ounces ; and by occult 
perfpiration, forty, and above* 

LX. There are niany, who, in the fpace of four- 
and-twenty hours evacuate as much, by infenfible per- 
fpiration, as they do by ilool in the fpace of fifteen days. 

LXi. How comes it then, that moft of our country- 
xntUj^ in all difeafesi mind only the evacuation by ftool 



«r urlne^ and hardlj ever think of infenfible perfpira- 

uai. If in the night thou haft perfpired more than 
Ttfaalljv but without fweating or any difturbance, be af- 
fared of th j being in perfed: health. 

LXixr. Then are we at the greateft diftance from any 
'difeafe^ when we are conae to the mean propoction of the 
latitude of healthy ponderatton, not through fpontaneous 
fenfible evacuation, or that prefcribed by the phyiician, 
or yet by fafting, but by the infeniible perfpiration which 
comes by fleep^ after per fed concoction. 


XXXV. What quantity of perfpiration is convenient for 
•every one, in order to his continuance in a mod health- 
ful conftittttion of body, you will thus find out. Obferve 
in the morning, after a fomewhat plentiful f upper over 
night, that fort of greater perfpiration, which may be 
completed in thyfelf in the fpace of twelve hours ; grant ' 
it to have amounted to fifty ounces, foiiie other morning 
after fafting over night, yet with this provifo, that, thou 
didft not exceed at thy dinner the day before, make the 
lame obfervation ; let us admit the perfpiration to have 
amounted to twenty ounces : this foreknown, pitch upon 
•that moderate proportion of meat and oiber non- natural 
caufes, which will be likely to reduce thee daily to the 
mean between fifty and twenty ounces ; and that mean 
•will be thirty-five ounces. .Thus mayeft.thou live a 
long and healthful life, nay, haply arrive to that of a 
hundred years. • ' 

Lxv. The healthful bodie,s of men, and fuch as are 
xnoft moderate in their diet, become every month more 
than ufually ponderous, to-wit, by obe poupd or two, .and 
are reduced to the ufual weight about the month's end, 

I 4 as. 

196 hamciixA tTxncA. 

•s it hft^iis to women^ but after a crifis m^debjra 
more plentiful or more muddy emiflion of urine. 

txwu Before the faid menftruftl xniBs made foo&*atfter 
4ecp« either thefe is fek 4 drowfinefs of the head^ or 
wearinefs of the bodj, and afterwaids, by a more plen- 
tiful eyacttktioirof urifie, all thitigs are quieted. 

Lxvii. The external caafes which ordinarily obftraft 
perfptrati^n are a-cold troubled* and moift, air ; fwim- 
ming in cold water ; grofs and vifeous meats ; the iatef- 
miiSon of corporeal exercife^ or that of the mind» and, ia 
robuft perfonSy over much abftineace from venery. 

LXTiii. Bxt^rnai cold oMruds perfptratioa in a wea^ 
body, becaufe its heat is diffipated i but in a robuft per- 
fon, it augments it : for the h^t is forced to the bottom, 
iand re-doplicated» and thereupon nature is corroborated, 
'lahd upon that the wbight of ^e perfpirable matter tha^ 
is retained being by her confumed, the body becomes and 
13 felt lighter, 

LXiX. The health of that body is more firm and of 
longer continuance, whofe weight, in the procefs of tkanf 
years, is neither augmented nor dimimflsed* than that of 
a body whofe weight is altered every year. 

Lxx. For a body to be reduced to its nfual pooderofi- 
ty^ by the acceffion of crude humours, is ill ; but if it be 
by the addition of fuch as are tion^od^ed^ it ismoft wbole- 
fome. / 

LXXT. It is an ill Cgn, when a healthy perfon becomes 
of lefs weight than ufual, it being fuppofed iris courfe of 
life be the fame as before^ for there is not any r^fufion of 
that wholefome matter which had been loft« 
•* LKxn. The concoftcd excremaits of the bcUy arc of 
great bulk,but little weight ; they fwim on the furfaee, 
Ify reafon of the air contsiined in them, and whatever 

I ■ 


|M]r be jSTacttfted* at one uA the fame time, nferer ez« 
cecds the third part of a pound. 

Itxxiiit If it hH>pefi that in paie day's fpace, throogh 
jbme mifcaniftge or other, ''there he fo. great a retcotioii 
of perfpiration as maj amooiit to a pound, nature is coiii« 
monlj three days emplojed in the infeafible exporgatioi| 
p£ chat which had been retatxfefl, 

Lxxiv. Then does nature make a great infenfibk eva» 
Otttion, when (he radoaTours to ^oid peripirable matterj^ 
setained bjr jraivniags and extepfioo^ of the joiDtSf 

i^xxv* The perfpiraUe matter confi^ of two parts, to- 
wit, a Hgbt, and .a pondeious* 

LffYU The ponderous part is^fo exuberant that living 
creatures are generated of, it, as poaaizefi,, Uce, and the 

hxxvn. From the more ponderous part of perfpiration 
do proceed the contagious iofe&ions of fuch as lie toge- 
ther:' for the light part raniflies, but the more ponder- 
ous, being adbefive, does infefi. 

LXXYiii. The^ who in the fcorchiog heats of fummer 
are obftruded in the exhalation of the perfpirable mat- 
ter, are incommodated by heat ; but to thofe who have 
an abfolute freedom of perfpiration the heat is not 

Lxxiz. A greater weight diflfers from a leffer equal 
healthful, becaufe the greater does the more accelerate 
old age. Be it fuppofed, that fome perfon hath his health 
as well when he weighs two hundred weight/ as at two 
hundred and 6ve pound ^ we have obferved that the 
excels of thofe five poutids did more accelerate dd age. 

LXXX. Why does animated flefli live, and not putriijr, 
as a carcafe docs ? becaufe it is daily renewed. Why 
are children in a capacity of living longer than old men ? 



biBcaufe thej may be more often renewed, fince thej begii) 
from the lowed weight of the whole latitade, and fo pro* 
ceed to the highell : for they are capable of moft of the 
healthful weights. Why is there a n^ceifitj that old 
men fliould die ? becanfe they are capable only of the 
lafl proportions of weight* But why only of thofe ? b&- 
caufe ,their fibres are hard, and^ as fuch^ cannot be any 
more renewed, whence death enfues* 

Lxxxi. Why are they cured who are fnrprifed by fome 
dangerous difeafe i becaufe they are capable 0i feveral 
forts of healthy weights : for fuch difeafes take away 
thirty pounds from men's bodies, more or lefs as the bo« 
^ies ar^ more or lefs replete, and as the difeafe is more 
or JeCs ho(^ and according to its continuancf • 


Lxxxii. Old men prolong their lives by f request. fpit- 
tings ; for tbefe being retained within the body, as being 
incapable of co£lion or digeftion, hinder perfpiration ; 
the cpnfequences whereof are fuSbcation and death. 

Lxxxiii. Old age is indeed a difeafe, but may laft a 
long time, if the body be made eaQly perfpirable. 

LZxxiv. Venery, aftual frigidity of the body, over- 
plentiful drinking, fuppiog as young men do, to be angry 
more than heeds, and much e^iiercife, all thefe (horten 
the lives of old men. 

Lxxxv. Old men reach not decrepid age by reafon of 
the weaknefs of their expulfive faculties. Thence it 
comes to, pafs ; that wh^n they drink more than it was 
requifite they Ihould^ they urine lefs, and perfpire lefsi 




than they are wont. The remedy is, that the fubtradioa 
be equivalent to the addition. 

Lxxxvi. Infenfible perfpiration being quite obilrufted, 
does not only deprive the chiefeft pacts of life, bat alfa 
one ignoble part. It deprives the chiefeft, when there is 
an apoplexy in the brain, palpitation in the heart, an ex** 
cefs of blood in the liver, and a faffbcation in the matrixs 
it deprives the ignoble part by gangrene/ 

Lxxxvir. That women are troubled with the fuffoca* 
tion does not proceed from the womb's compref&ng the 
midriiF, but from the frigidity of the corrupted feed, 
which does not want perfpiration. 

Lxxxviii. The humours of perfons troubled with the 
gout, though they are moft grofs, are diflblved only hji 
way of vapour. 

Lxxxix. Vomiting diverts tirine iand perfpiration. 

xc. The frequent turning of the body in bed, fince the 
doing of it requires the afliftance of all the mufcles, does 
Weaken and obflrud; conco£lion and perfpiration. The 
temedy is, for one to be obftinately refolved to lie in ono 
and the fame pofture. 

xci. While the knees are kept aSually warm, the feet 
are not chilled ; fnch perfons flcej) well, they perfpire 
more, and urine lefs. 

xcii, Loofenefs of the belly is taken away by thofe 
things which augment perfpiration, of which kind bath- 
ing is one. 

xciii. As the loadftone is better preferved where there 
is much iron, and wine better kept in a great veffel 
than a little one, fo fuch bodies as are more ponderous, 
yet healthy withal, do better prefcrve ftrength than 
fuch as abate in their weight, through want of aliment. 
4 - xciv. 


xcTv. Tfaej who urine more than thejr driak» do per* 
fpire little, or nothing at all. 

:rc7. Why 19 there an obftruAion of infeofible per- 
fpiratioti in intermittent finrers ? bcomfe the peccant h9« 
aonr it in the ctrcamference of the body. 

xcri> {n the dropfy, the. water in the lower part of the 
belly is not HEolvedp becapfe its drought find |iardne& 
hinder perfpiration. 

zGVii. Hot humours being got together into any part 
»re_ to be entertained with hot digeftiyes^ in. order to their 
^iflblution by iofenfible perfpirs^tion. 

xcviii. Why is fainting or fwooning beneficial in high 
fevers i 1>ecaufe it caufes fweating and a flrong perlpira- 

zcix^ If the piicking of a nerve be clo£ed up with 
milk, meal> or any fiH^h 'thing, ^he retained ichor becomes 
fo {harp and corrodingi that the patients die of convnl- 
fions, if the wound be not opened with oiL 

c. Perfpiration is beneficial in tuxnours, if it be pro- 
cured by thugs aftually and potentially n3f>ift ; other* 
wife they turn to a fcirrhus, by diflblving the tenuious 
humour, and leaving the grpfs. 

C|. If any part of the body be full of U<)od, or ibme 
other humour, as it is obferved in tumours, and in the 
pleurify itfelf, it is npt to be refrigerated 3 becaufe, the 
matter being evacuated, it is refrigerated of itfelf. 

cii. Hypochondriacal perfons are recovered of their 
diftemper, if their bodies be made perfpirable by frequent 
bathings, smd be kept to moift diet. 

cui. Infenfible perfpiration, procured by fomentations, 
in an uapurged body, attrafts more humours ^lan it dif- 
folves, as appeared in Simon's cafe. 

cnr. Thofe bodies which infenfibly perfpire much, are 
fieither purged nor blooded^ as ^t is naanifeft in children. 




Ct. How cotM lice to be generated ? beeaub tli^ per- 
fpiration of the malignant ichor, or thin matter, i» ob« 

GTi« A gangrene is presented by thofe things that pfro» 
mote perfpiration ; hj thofe that promote fuppuracioo, 
it becomes a fphaceltts»'that is, when an/ part is motdfied 
bj inflammation. 

GTii. Whj does the part affefted with a gangrene die i 
becaufe the little arteries, by reafon of the redundancy 
of blood, are not raifed up. It is remedied by fenfible 
and infenfible perfpiration. 

GViii. The mod clammy humours in robuft bodies 
make their way out through the narrowed pafTages, at 
it is manifeft by the fatnefs voided by urine^ tfs alfo by 
a mixture of water and honey injeded into a wounded 
breafi ^ and copfequently they muft make their way 
through the inienfible paflages. 

cix. By difflation, as Well the beneficial as the fuper- 
fluous matter is evacuated i but if after fleep ftrength and 
vigour be acqwred, the fuperfiuous matter only is for the 
moft part evacuated. 

ex. That difflation which h not fenfibly perceived, i$ 
natural, and is an argument of ftrength ^ but fweating 
argues the contrary. 

CXI. If, in the winter time, any part 6f the body be 
very; cold, the whole does fo far fympathife with it, that 
the concodion and perfpiration of the whole is thereby 

cxix. Swimming is more fafe towards the evening : id 
the morning the pores are flopped by the coldnefs of the 
water, whence there is feme danger of a fever. , 

cxiii. If, in the fummer time, the body lie uncovered, 
the perfpiration is obftrufted i whereupon enfue a drow- 




finefs and beavinefs of the head, and a bruifed unwatldi** 
nefs.of the body. 

cxiv. If the weight of the body be augmented in the 
fpace of five or (ix days, it i9 not to be taken off of a 
fuddco, but bj degrees ; for abftinence from food, if it 
be extraordinary, hurts the.ftomaph^ the brain, and the 
hearty and, after a while, the whole body. 
. ' cxv. In autumn, the weight of the body is augment- 
ed ; which, if it exceed the ftandard of the healthy latii 
tude, tertians, and. other putrid feyers, are apt the 
confequences thereof. 

cxyi. Things that are extreme cold in a violent fever, 
if they be not heated, prove ix\or*^?J, by reafon of the dif< 
ficulty of tranfpiration 

cxvii. Nothing is moi^e hurtful to malignant ulcers, 
* than thofe things that hinder perfpiration» as fatnefs^ oil, 


Cxviii. Of all the intermittent fevers, the quotidian 

only is not without danger ; for flegm is one pf (he chief? 
eft things that obftrud perfpiration. 
' cxix. If the perfpiration be ftopped in the neck, the 
fenfe of the pericranium is ftupiSed, as may be obferv- 
ed in perfons walking in the wind and rain. 

cxx. Nothing is more apt to take away putr€;fa&ion, 
than for one to ufe > much ventilation^ not only that 
which is procured by what is drawn in, but alfo by what 
is evacuated through the infenfible paiTages. 

cxxi. Refrigerations in acute difeafes are fymptoms 
of death, as in Hermocrates fpr they take away per- 

cxxii. After bathing, the pore's of the fkin are con- 
deufed with oil, to the end, that the alimental n^oifture 



Wing attraded may not be diflblved. In dangerous cafes 
therefore, ufe oil to clofe and not to open the pores. 

cxxiii. And ytt that courfe of diet, which we leail re« 
gard, brings us to an old age great as that of Philip. 

cxxxv. The diaphragma, or midriff*, b j contrafling it« 
felf to its principle, dilates the breail; by that dilatation is 
infpiration wrought. And by dilating itfelf, it contra£ls 
the bread, and by that contradion expiration is wrought. 

cxxv. But* the fpin&er, or the mufcle that Ihuts the 
bladder, by contraAing itfelf to its principle, clofes the 
bladder, and keeps in the urine ; by fpreadbg itfelf^ it 
slilates the bladder, and emits the urine. 


cxxvi. 1 HING5 infe&ed with the plague communicate 
the lAfeAion as long as the. next and remote caufes re« 
main; but any one of thofe failing, the poifon ceafes, 
like the motion of a clock, when, upon the breaking of 
a tooth in any one wheel, it is at a ftand. 

cxxvii. We are not infefted with the plague by cen- 
• tad, but by drawing in the peftiferous air, or the vapours 
arlfing from infe£led goods. It happens thus : the vital 
fpirit is infefted by the air, by fuch infeftion of the 
fpirit the blood is congealed, which lad being forced out* 
wards raifes carbuncles, black fpots, and buboes : if it 
remain within, it caufes death ; if it be quite expelled, 
-we are paft all danger. 

cxxviii. If the whole infeftion be forced out into car- 
buncles and buboes, it is a good fign ; if not it is mortal. 

cxxix. We are not of ourfelves infeded with . the 
plague, but it is brought to us bj others. This is mani. 



Ceft \ij the experiment of fuch as are ibttt op m ntifi^ 

cxxx. Not ally but much abont the third part^ of man- 
kind dies of the peftilence* That it is fo, maj be feen 
\ff the experiment of thofe whofe office it \% to view the 


cxxxi. They who conceive the blacknefs of the i^o^ 
to be a fign of aduftion, are miftaken ; for manj times 
sged meo, being internally and externally cold, without 
any fever, depart this life in two days time, with the 
fame blacknefs, but proceeding from a thrombus, or clots 
of blood. 

cxxxii. If a fmall quantity of blood, by reafon of the 


vital ipirit's being ^infeSed, becomes a clot of blood, and 
this laft be wholly tbruft out by buboes and carbundes, 
they are cured ; if it be not wholly forced out, they die, 
ad in the black fpots. 

cxxxiii. Confequent to this is -it, tfaatthey, who hate 
their ulcers and buboes opened, if the internal infe&ios 
be wholly come out, recover ; if not, they die« 

cxxxiv. There are two ways to pt|t' a itop to the 
plague ; to- wit, that the Cbund be feparated, and that the 
infe£ted may have place enough to air therofelves. 
There are two ways to do the latter ; to- wit, that they 
be not fent to places they abhor to come into ; and that 
their houfehold fluff be not burnt. 

cxxxv. They whi^fe lungs are thhii are eaiily in£edcd 
with the plague ; the contrary is to be affirmed of thofe 
whofe lungs are thick. It argues the ^thimiefs of the 
lungs, when any one drawingin his breath as much as he 
can, thatfingle ftroke of thepulfcis^iomewbat weaker, er 
more gentle. , 


' * 1- 

ii&BieiHA sVATitAi 14/3 

C^jpcvi. Tile pltgue is not to be compared to fire, which 
incteafes upon the addition of fuel $ but the former de-« 
creafesy though the fuel of it rifitlaxn in the fanie pofture. 

citTtxvit. The rays of the plagUe are removed from 
one place to another bj the wind j but Hot by any vio« 
lence of a lucid body. 

cxxxviu. They who prefcribef any other renicdy for 
the fliunning of the plague, befides that of flying from it, 
are either ignorant men, or cheating .quacks. 

Gxxxix. Hence it eomes to pafs, that of perfotis of qua- 
lity none almoft are cured by remedies $ but ^ery many 
of the meaner fort of people without them. 

CXL. Wky does the plague continue long? Becaufe^ 
Habile it rages, they air things that are infefted, which^ 
while they are cleanings thieves fieal and featter up and 
down ; after the plague is at a ftand, they do ndt itlfeft^ 
otherwife the plague would be perpetual. 

Becaufe fbme amoog the infefted perfons, when they 
are forced but of the city^ do not air themfelves as they 
ihottld do, by which means the infedion increafes. 

Becaufe they do not prohibit the people's afTembling id 
churches. Divine fervice at fuch timies ihbuld be pc|r-i 
formed in the open air. 

Becaufe men make ufe of chif urgeons that are flrang« 


ers, or foreigners^ who are the better pleafed the greater 
the plague is^ 

Becaufe they do not feparate the found into other 
houfes from the infe&edw 

Becaufe they ufe internal remediefs s^gainft the plague^ 
when none can be adniiniflered but what are hnrtft^I. 

Becaufe they admit poultry to be brought tq the mar- 
ket, which the found coqiiqig to handle, ^fcfr thfy h^ 

Voirf HL K beeiK 




been handled by the infefted, are afterwards thcrebj iiH 

SeSiion IL 


U A COLD air and cold bathings put ftrong bodies into 
a heat» and, by taking away what is fuperfluous, mal^e them 
lighter ; but they refrigerate weak bodies, and, by mafier- 
ing the heat, make them more ponderous. 

II. Warm air and baths aftually warm, if crudities do 
not obftru^, do alfo promote perfpiration, refr^fli the. in- 
ward parts, and render men's bodies lighter.. 

III. An external air, penetrating into the inn^rmoft parts 
of the body, through the trunks of the arteries, may make 
the body more or lefs ponderous ; lefs, if it befubtile, and 
warm -, more, if it be thick, and moift. 

. IV.. How great the ponderoufnefs of the. air is, may, in 
the jff>? place, be gathered from the greater or lefler weight 
of the dregs of alum dried before in the fun, and afterwards 
cxpofed to the air in the night tipae. . Secondly, from our 
ifeeling a greater cold than what is obferyable' in the wea- 
ther-glafs, for the moiilure or ponderoufnefs of the air is 
to us the meafure of its coldnefe. Thirdly^ from the great- 
er or lefler bending of a very thin board, efpecially if it 
be of pear tre<. Fourthly^ from the contraction of the 
ftrings of a lute, or from hemp. 

V. How gre^t the ponderoufnefs of water is, may eafily be 
underilood, if fome heavy thing be fuppofed appendant in 
the watert For that water is lighter, and confequcntly the 



ttiott wkolefbm^, wherein the heavy thing does the mote 
gravitate ; but that wherein it does Ids gravitate, is thci 
xtiore ponderous arid the more unvirholefonie* 

vt« . Th^t water which is more heavy^ and the air that is 
more muddy, and more ponderous, convert the invifible 
perfpiration into aii ichor (or thin matter) Which being 
pent in, and afterwards not dlflblved,' does for the moll 
part caufe a cachexy, or evil difpofition of the body. 

vii; In a cold healthful air perfpltation is alfo ob{trud:-« 
ed, the pores ate cpftdenfated, but the fibres are c6rto« 
borated, and the weight of that perfpirable matter which 
U rl^tain^d neithcfr htirtS nor is feit. 

viil. In a thick foggy air perfpiration is obftrufted, thd 
pafiTages are filled, but not condenfed, the fibres are loofened^ 
not ftrengthendd, and the weight of the perfpirable mat^ 
ter unevacuated hurts, and is felt« 

IX. If cold weather fuceeed a warm air« fueh as that in 
fummer time, it (hall, that day (it being fuppofed that % 
man takes the fame liberty' of drinking), hinder about a 
third part of the perfpiration, which if it be not made fen-> 
fible, is apt to difpofe the body to putrefaAion, or fomd 
evil habit. , - » 

X. The hindrance of perfpiration, occafioned by tinex« 
pe£ted cold, is more hurtful to weak bodies than that 
which is hindered by degrees^ 

XI. He who is furprifed unclothed at fuch time as a 
cool air fucceeds a precedent heat, is w6nt to perfpire lefs 
by about two pounds In one day's fpace, yet without any 
fenfible inconvenience to him. 

XII. A pleafant and fomewhat cool breeze is niore pre« 
judicial to bodies well warmed, than the cold of air and wa^ 
ter in an exceffive degree ; for the former doesf not render' 
the body lighter, but obftrufts and loofens it ; but the lat*' 

# K 3 icr 



ter obftnid» and corroborates it, and dienee h eoaias t&at 
t&e bodies are left ponderoii?* 

xin. When the tinwfaokfome qualities of die air and 
water dtfpofe bodies to a malignant putrefaAion, their 
weight (or the moft part is but little heeded ^ as if tiiis 
ihottld be die reafen cS it, that bf their co t m pli on the 
nenres becooM ftiotiger, as it is obiisrved ta diftra£ked per* 


xtT. To fwim in cold water after violmt esercEe is ex- 
tmnely pleafant^ but mortal : for theie is nothing mere 
ptermcbi» than <>ppofite motions. 

XT» That which treachennsfiy difpofes the entrails to in« 
&pofidbit, does not manjt times feem to be either heayj 

im. A pleafime gale of wind from the fouth furprifing 
a man at a iriolent exercife, is many times mortal ;. for the 
gale ocea&ons a difficuliy of breathing, and from die exer- 
eife pfoeeeds acrimony ,^ 

sfcm. It happens to thofe who^ after fuppcF^ are delir- 
ous of having a c6ofer gale of wind than is reqtftfite^ that 
the perl|>iralion of that part which is not well clothed h 
dbftrufied v but that night or the next day, moft of them 
are fnbjefl to a great a^^hing of the head* 

n^m. If bodies be fuddenly (hifted out of a warm air 
into a coofi they are injured ; becaufe tjicy are rendered of 
greater weig|it than is- requifite, ' If remold out of a cold 
air into a warm, they are alfo endamaged, becaufe ibcj 
becoiAe lefs ftrong. 

XIX. Perfons of weak conftitutions make a greater con- 
terfion of the pevfpirable matter retained into urine, in the 
winter time ; robuft perfons do the fame in the fummer. 

XX. Fanning obftru^s perfpiration, and makes dte head 
more ponderous> and more hot.- 

ivtu The wind, aft it h colder than the ftin, To is k ev«r 
cbftnidWe and hurtful tp k, but «&ore than any part to the 
bead^ becaufe it is moft expofed. 

txiv In ail feafons of the year (generally dry weather is 
more healthy than condnual rains, for it renders men's bo* 
^ies lighter. 

jntiii. In the ftimmer time, temperate bodies are lefs 
{ponderous than they are in winter, by about three pounds. 

Xxiv^ tn the fummer time men are fub]e& to wearineis^ 
tiot becaufe the body is move ponderous, but becaufe it i« 
]efs ftrong. 

Xicr. In a warm air, the body is of lefs ftrength, as well 
by reafon that with the perfpiration there is fomewhat of 
the bettt^r fpirits edialed, as b^aufe the warmth it not 

zxvi. There ia always bj a warm air fomewhat difperiL 
ed thtough the whole flcin, which Carries away widi it 
fomewhat of the internal food humour* 

scxviL In the (umnser time we are troubled with heat, 
not principally t)roceeding from the warmth of the air, for 
jcvery part of Ac body is Warmer than the fummer air, but 
becaufe there is not fo much coMnefs In the fiimmer air, as 
that the n|tt«iral heat ttmy be ftifficieatly concentrated. 
Whence it oomes |o pafs, tbat^ being fo diffufed, it caifinot 
iAfenfibly eyaouate that ped^rable mattter which isof its owa 
nature hot: which matter being )^pt in becomes fliarp^ 
and is die caufe of curbing troublodv^h much heat. 

tfvtiu When mtn^s botftes,^ m the hotteft feafetis, upon 
Seeping in the night or day time, petfpire abundantly, or 
fweat^ they become li^er, and are not that day troubled 
with any heat. 

XXSL^ If a coM air immediatety fucceed the fummer heat, 

K 3 there 



there will be dccafionedj for the rooft part, that dayj the 
retention of about a pound of the infenfible excrements. 

XXX. If the fummer prove like the fpring, fp as that 
men's bodies may be reduced to the weight anfwerable to 
the fummer, it muil. be the effeQ: of fweating, 

XXXI. At the beginning of fummer, if intenfe heat come 
of a fudden, weatinefs- and faintnefs enfue, which do not 
continue long though the fultrinefs be increafed for fom^ 
d^ys after, becaufe the weight of the perfpirab}e body is 

XXXII. The fame vigour is not fo much concerned ii| 
firuggling with a lefier, as it is with a greater, weight of the 

xxxm. Perfpiration, procured by the force of warm air 
or water, is hurtful, unlefs the malignancy of it be not ba^ 
lanced by fome greater benefit, . . 

xxxiv. Robuft bodies perfpire more in the fummet 
time by day, in the winter by night. 

xxxVt That impediment of refpiration which in the 
fummer time is apt to be introdudory to a malignant 
fever, does hardly in the winter time caufe the leaft al- 
teration ; for, in the fummer, men's bodies are filled with 
ft perfpirable matter pf a fharper nature than they are ia 

XXXVI. To fleep in the fummer time with the body un- 
covered, or abroad in the open air, does for the mod part 
difpofe it to putrefafjion, by hindering the perfpiration. 

xxxvii. The difficulty of refpiration does not heat the 
entrails, unlefs the' perfpirable matter become fharp by 
reafon of its retention} or upon the ac9ount of external 
lieat, or violent motion. 

xxxviii. In the'time when cold doea of a fi|d- 
den iucciicd Ixcat, the* incpnvfhience of exceffive venery is 



hardly perceived : but if the air re-alTume its former warmth, 
men are very fenfible of the injury they have received by 
the precedent mifcanriage. 

XXXIX. The injury men receive by the not immoderate 
exercife of venery is commonly balanced by an equal be- 
nefit) if the heat be concentrated by the cool air. 

XL. In the fummer nights men's bodies are moft dif- 
pofed to fevers, by reafon of the viciffitudeof the air, for at 
the beginning of the night, the air is inflamed, but about 
midnight it is more temperate, and in the morning cool ; 
whence it comes to pafs/ that the ufual perfpirable matter' 
18 not evacuated in fuch as fleep with 'the bed-clothes off, 
and their bodies are more ponderous; which happens not' 
io winter. 

XLi« From the autumnal equinox to the winter folfticcj 
we perfpire every day much about a pound : from thence 
to the fpring equinox we begin to perfpire more freely. 

XLli. Autumn is an unhealthy feafon, as well bj rea- ' 
fon that the perfpiration is obftruded by the cold then ' 
coming in, as for that wl^at is not perfpired becomes (harp 
and corroding. 

XLiii. Autumnal indifpofitions are avoided, if the 
body be not of greater weight in autumn than it had been ' 
in fummer. 

XLiv. That weight which is augmented by degrees is 
to be abated by degrees. 

XLV. The more than ufual weight of the body is not to 
be taken off in the fpring, but in autumn; for the cold 
air then coming in is a greater enemy to the weight, 

XLVI. Thou wilt not be troubled with any difeafe in 
autumn, if the cold weather then coming in find thee well 
furniihed with clothes, if thou ufe diuretics, and wilt be 
kept in the fame weight as before, • ^ 

K 4 XLvir. 

xLVil* He vho is well clothed perfpirei the hsHtt for 
itj a^d is rendered of lefs i^t^eight* 

XLvni. They who in the winter tim^^ are commonlf 
troubled with difeafes proceeding firom the abundance of 
humours^ are to be purged in autnmiiy and hot in the 
fpring, and ought to be teduced to the K^eight they w^e 
of at the beginning of fummer^ 

XLix. But if the difeafes proceed Irem fome linalignant 
quality, the bodies dre to be purged in the fpring, and not 
in autumn ^ for the malignancy of the quality is piore au^ 
mented in fumquer thta in winter* 

t» Tliey who at the beginning of the fpring diveft tbem« 
felves too fqon» and in autumn are backward in putting on 
their winter garn^ents, are, in fummer, apt to fall into 
fevers, and in winter tp be troublt^d with diftillatipns, 

LI. The retention of the perfptrable matter^ as it has a 
Iharp quality^ caufes feyers, and eryfipelafes} as to its -re- 


^undancyi it caufes apoftenls^ difttUatioos, or an evil habit 
of the body^ 

Lir. External cold, by concentrating the hfcat, makes na* 
ture fo mcfch the ftronger| by how much it is the mor^ 
^ble to bear about two pouiids of perfpirable matter un- 
f vacuated over and abpve its oi^dinary weight. 

JJIU ^t the beginning of wint^r^ men's bodies are eaC- 
ly reduced to their fiftu|l weight ^ but in the beginning d 
fummer it ib with muqh sido thaf they ast reduced to die 
fummer weight. 

LIT. There would be s||i Yinipterrupt^d fcealdifuihe&i 
even to the e^tre^ty of age^ if men^s bodies ii^ere kept in 
an equal weight during the four leafons of the year. 

Ly» T^fe bodi^ whofp. weights are much augmented 
and diminiihed in the fp^ce pf a y^j are'iti great dao- 


wu Tl^e greater Yariety there is of tiie 'vseight of any 
body in the.fpace of a year, and the greater the augment- 
ation or diminution of the blood is, fo nmch die worfe is 
the condition of that body. 

LVii. The augmentation of the weight happens at the 
beginning of autumn, the diminution at the beginning of 
fummer. ^ 

Lviii. Thofe bodies whofe weight is augmented, are in 
a more dangerous condition than thofe whofe weight is 


Lix. 1 HOSE parts of the body which are covered do 
healthfully perfpire ; but^y be found undovered after 
fleep, their pores are condenfated by even the warm eft 

LX. That air which is oVer cool, moift, ot whldy; ob- 
ftrufls perfpiration : whence it happens, that such as keep 
withindoors, as, for example, women, are not troubled with 
coughsi catarrhs, or inflammations of the lungs. 

Lxi. The city air is worfe than that of the country ; be- 
caufe it is more thick, and, not rarified by the wind, takes 
away the appetite. 


SeSion HI. 

!?r|. X^ ^^ ftom^chji filled with noeat^ does, while the body 
fleepa, complete the firft concodion, the perfpiration of that 




night does commonly amount to forty ounces ; if it does 
not complete it, it comes to but about eighteen. 

u. If the ftomach be quite empty and f%fttng« though 
the party fleep, he does not perfpire above eighteen 

Ill* A full body that does not concoct, perfpires much 
about the fame rate as one in a manner fading, that has 
not any thing to conco^):. 

ir* Meats that arc very nouri(hing, mutton only except- 
ed, from fupper over night to dinner the next day, do not 
ufually perfpire above eighteen ounces. 

V Many who feed plentifully on meats of little nourifli- 
ment, may, in the fpace of one night, perfpire above forty 

VI. Thofe aliments which continue bodies in their ufual 
weight are cither thofe of very much nouriflimcntt or fuch 
as caufe obllinate crudities* 

Tii. Thofe which continue them in their ufual Hghfc- 
nefs are fuch as they are accuftomed to, and eafily eva- 

yiii. Mutton is eafily conco£ked, and vaporous j for in 
a night's fpace it perfpires one third part of a pound 
more than other meats, and fuch as a man js accuftomed 

IX. The meats which are made of leavened pafte do not 
make bodies more ponderous, for they perfpire more eafily 
than turnips* 

X. A healthy pcrfon does infenfibly exhale as much in 
the fpace of one day as he docs by ftool in a fortnight; 
nay, though he once every day evacuate the concofted and 
confiftent fseces. 

XI. The full ftomach, and the empty, diminifli the per- 

. - . fpiration; 


fpiration ; the full ftomach diverts it, fey tHe cortuptiori of 
meats; the empty attrafts it, that it may be filled; 

XII. Wheii the fiill ftomach does not complete, the'fcon- 
cofUon is difcovered by the weight ; for then tht body 
perfpires lefs j but the empty ftomach is filled with wind. 

XIII. Windinefs is nothing elfe but an imperfeft kind 
of perfpirable matter. ' ' 

XIV. The robuft perfon confumes his plentiful feedlhg 
by infenfible perfpiration ; one lefs rbbaft; 'by urfiie^ a 

' weak perfon, for the moft part, by* the c6rruption of the 
chyle. ^ ' ' ' ^ 

XV. When a man forbears fupping, the ftoniach being 
empty, and no paroxyfm prefling upon a man, thefc iS a 
retention of the perfpirable matter, and that being retained^ 
becomes fliarp, and thereupon the body is prepared for hot 
diftempers. '" ^ •'.*•.. , 

XVI. That abftinence from meat which reduces men's 
bodies to a IdfTer weight, but withal filch ' as is unufiial to 
them is hurtful. , ' 

xviL Why arc there fome that die of hunger, if there- 
be never any defe£l of blood in the living creature ? Be« 
caufe the blood, making to the empty part of the belly, for- 
fakes the heart. 

XVIII. Undigefted meat, not only as to its quantity, 
but alfo as to its quality, makes the body more ponderous, 
inafmuch as it hinders per fpiratron. ^ ' 

XIX. When any one feenis to himfelf-lighter than he is,' 
and yet is not fo, it is a very good fign ; for this proceeds* 
frdm the'juices of the three concoftioris exadily digeft- 

. XX. When there is a Hghtnefs and agility of the body 
felt for a whole day tog.clicrf k argues there preceded a 



toiiGo£l!oa of the ch^^e and Mood, and thit the dregj, a$ 
it were, of the third concoftion are almoft emcuated. 

anci. Undigefted meaty the more full of nouiiihmem it 
Ut is fo much the worfe, either becaufe it caufes a |;reater 
weight or a worfe coAruptiotit . 

XXii. The bodjr is tendered teoft light by the corrup- 
tion of meat | for aU the lix^iiid e^cranfots ace at great 

laaiu The ufif of fwi^e's flefli and mnfhronnns is hnrt* 
ful^ as well becaufe tbefe do not perfpire, as becaufe they 
fuffer not other meats eaten* with them to perfpire* 

XJLVt. IJpon the eating of /wine's fleih and ijhuQiroom^ 
the body commonly |>erf|^iQe# leG^ ^)ian it is wont by a thir4 
part of a pounds 

tsv. Melons perfpifijB (b Httk, that they abaje about a 
fourth part of the ufual perfpiration, 

xm. That retention of the perfpiracicm cauftd by me* 
lonb is evacuated by nirine or fweating. 

xxvii. Grapes and green figs perfpireVbut Cttk, and 
Ibmewhat hinder the perfpiratton of other meats '^ haply 
becaufe they are fenfibly evacuated, 
, sdcviii. That kind of food does petijpire beft 6{ all, and 
convenienily nourifhes, wbofe weight is nbt felt in di6 

9:xi)c. Plentiful feeding is more hurtful in a Iblehitsry 
and idle perfon, than in ont* that is employed | for die ea*. 
txsuk are inade leaVy by teft> but vat ^fed of thdr weight 
by exercife. 

^xlat. The body p^fpires beft after that meat wbofe 
fasces are emitted in a certain confiftency. 

kitxi. Chicken's flefli fliall be of lefs nourifli^tfi^t tiian 
a ltttic6> if a man eat fo pknttfiAll; theienf as ^t it catu* 

4 not 

HMneiRA 9rAmoJk0 


not be evacuated otbenmfe than by tbe way ef 

itvSH. By pendetatioa ycnt vifl find om when fading 
eonduees to your keakl^, aiad when it does not : it w31 be 
heahbfiit, if them be any thing o! die pveeedent day's re* 
fe£Hon left to be {lerfptred, if theie be not^ it will be nn- 

ncxm. When the body is reduced by ^et to a weight 
below the kflbr ftandard of its healthy weighty what it 
1oAb« of its ftrength is irrecoverable. But that there is a 
lefo and greater weight in referen ce to health, you win 
find by the 64th aphorifin of the firft ieftion|.and by the 
tfotli of this third. 

acxxnr. If thoo canft but find out every day what quan- 
tity o(meat is convenient for thee, thou wilt know how to 
preferve thy vigour and life a long time, and that thou wilt 
difcover by the fame aphorifm. 

xxxT. The ftrength of nature is not a little impaired, 
when a man's fuppcr amounts fometimes to four pound, 
fonaietimcs to fix. 

zxxvx. That is the moft healthful proportion of meat, 
when after eating the body performs whatever it has to do 
with the fame agility, as if it were fading. 

xxzTn. The body alfo is much more burthened by 

dght pounds of meat eaten in a day at one meal, than by 

ten pounds takjen in the fame fpaceof time at three feveral 


xxxvm. That quantity of meat is the moft wholefome 

for every man, which may without any trouble be' over- 
come by t^e conco'flive faculty ; and that is done, if fo 
much be confumed as is received into the body i for thefe 
things will be difcovered by ponderation. 



: xxxix. Thatqiiiamit^f pf ;meait b po be received iiit6 the 
body which nature is able to concoft, digeft, and perfpire. 
. XL. If nature could digeft a hundred pound weight of 
mea^^ and there be given but ninety-nine pqundsi the. ani- 
mal would upon that accoiwit be deftroycd in.proce&of 
time. . ' • 

XLT. Then will meats of good nutriment and juice pro- 
mife thee a long connnuance of health, when the quantity 
of perfpiration is in the mean, between excefs and defed 2 
the excefs, after a plentiful fupper of meats of eafy per- 
fpiration commonly, amounts,, in the fpace of one nighti 
to forty ounces or thcreabautff, the def^ft but to. fourteen. 
That proportion therefore of meat, which will bring thee 
to two-and-twenty ounces, which. i$ tbe mean between the 
other two, will pron^ife thee .infallible health and long 

XLii. The opinion of Celfus is not fafo for all per&ns, 
to-wit, that in the ufe of the fix not n^ttjral things, men 
ought fometimes to be fparing, and fometimes to exceed. 

XLiii. Bodies are with lefs trouble reduced to their ufu- 
al weight, if men take four pounds of meat at dinner, and 
four at fupper, pbferving ^ convenient intcry^U, than if they 
take fix at dinner and two at fupper. 

XLiv. That perfon deftroys himfelf by degjpces, who eats 
once a-day bcfides his ordinary mealsj .whether he eat lit- 
tle or much. 

XLV. The body is made toore ponderous by four ounces 
of meat that is of much nutriment, fuch as pork, eels, and 
and all fat things, than by fix ounces of meat that is of 
little nouriihmcnt, fuch as are fniall fiflics, chickens, finall 
birds, and the like, 

XLVI. If there be any difficulty in the concoftion of 

meat which is of little nourifliment, it will happen only in 


Mbdicina statica; 159 

the firft conco£lion ; but if there be a difficulty in the con- 
coAion of meat of much nutriment^ it ^ill happen in all 
the concoAions* 

XL VII. Meat of little^nutdment moiftensand loofens the 
bellyi is foon digefted, and readily promotes the perfpira- 
tion of men whether flecping or waking. 

XLViii. Meat of much nutriment binds the belly, if it 
be not corrupted, is of difficult concoftion, and perfpires 

xtix. Where there is a difficulty of concodlion, there is 
but a flow perfpiration. 

L. Not that meat which is fluid, but that which is of 
better jujce ought to be eaten firft, for the pylorus or 
ftomach-gut, is not at the bottoms in men, as it is in dogs* 

XL Three inconveniences are confequent to men's feedr- 
ing on variety of meats; there is an excefs of eating, the 
coQCoAion is lefs, ai^d the perfpiration lefs. 

Lii. The time of leaft perfpiration is, when the ftpmack 
is fuU, efpecialiy.with variety of meats*. 

1.111. They who vomit up their fupper do immediately 
jemove the pain of their ftomach, but th^ next morning 
they feel their bodies i^ore ponderous : for vomiting di- 
verts perfpiration, by attra£ting the perfpirable .matter to 
.the inward parts } which matter^ upon the fcore of. its be- 
ing (harp caufes laffitude and heat, upon that of, its redun^ 
dancy, it caufes heavinefs. 

Liv. That perfon, who eats more thaa is requifite^ is 
nouriffied lefs than is requifite. 

. Lv* They who in their youth are immoderate in their 
diet, make the (lomach larger than it ihould be, whence it 
.comes tq pafs, that it proves a hard matter to reduce; them 
afterwards to a moderate diet. 

4 LVI. 

LVi. If any one be deCfous to be reduced to a modente 
diet, let liim ufe food of Httle niUfiment, and ib the fto- 
mach foon difburtbening itfelf of it^ will be eontra^d^ 
and reduced to a lefs oapaoky. 

x^TU. Ydu will find wKat quantity of meat you (boulci 
eat, if for feveral days together you obferve that the body 
after fleep is without any trouble reduced to the fame 

Lviii. If after a plentiful fupper the body be of lefs 
weight the next day, |t happens either byreafoajof the 
corruption of the meat, or becaufa nature is ftirred up to 
jocpel that whioh is beneficial, which is extremely: hurtful: 
^r the ^y is ptepared lor difeafes wh^ii diofe. thisgs 
which are beneficial aae evacuated, and cruditiea kept 
widiin the body. 

zvf^ If a man's fupper amount to eight pouhds, v^ 
what he has eaten be corrupteyi in the ftomach, t&e ntit 
jday the body will be of le6 yireigbl, than if tho (upper had 
been of three pounds, and the moat had not beeo corrupt 

Lie. Thofe meats that Bte moft eonducirc to ^rfym* 
tion are not c(»Tupted ; nay, after watching whole nights, 
they keep, a man from wearinefs and heavinefs* 

i.aci. Meats net apt to perfpire are wont to caufe d^- 
•flaruSlons, corruptiofis, hffitude, penfirenefe, and p6n« 

IrXiu Then Is a li^ring creature in the wotft condition, 
when after the conco£lion is completed, the body feeffis 
to be more borthenfome than ordinary, while yet it is of 
le& weight. 

uun. if any one has been exceffiye in eating or drink- 
ing, and ther^ enfue thereupon fuch fenfible eracuations as 



t ^ 

iive greater than ufaal^ the body is, next day, lighter than 

LXiv- Liquid meats, fuppofing an equality as to quanti- 
ty, are more ponderous than the folid ; the liquids go to 
the bottom, the folid keep on the top : a cup of wine, oV 
mefs of broth, is of more weight than a whole loaf, 

Lxv. If excefs in drinking make the eyes, as it were, full 

• » • ■ .■ , » 

of tears, it is a fign the body has not perfpired as much as 

it fhould have done. 

LXVi. If after much drinking you fweat or urine much^ 

it is an argument of either great ftrength or great weak* 


Lxvii. The drinking of cold water obftruQs infenfibld 

pcrfpiration, but augments the fenfible. 

Lxviii. In thefe our days, drinking, even in temperate 
perfons, is difproportionate : for men eat commonly after 
ihe rate of twelve ounces, but drink after that of forty; 
and above. 

LXix. In a man of moderate diet, the no£l:urnal per- 
fplration fometimes amounts to three pound ; in a perfon 
who feeds plentifully, the flomach being empty before^i 
and ftrong, it may arndunt to five pounds. 

LXX. If a body be in its ftandard of greater weight, fad- 
ing is beneficial to it, if in its mean, it is hurtful, if in its 
iefler weight, it is much more hurtful. 

LXxi. If after long fading the body be plentifully fed, 
the perfpiration amounts to a pound more than it ufually 

LXXII. To eat immediately after irnmoderate exercife of 
body or mind is hurtful 5 for the wearied body pcrfpires 
•with fome difficulty, 

LXXiTi. When fober perfons, and fucTi as are moderate 
ift their diet, die betimes, their friends wonder at the ftrange- 

VoL. IK. L ncfs 


nefs of it» becaufe diey know noduttg of infenfibl6 per- 

Lxxiv. Excefs of meat and drink does not only k6ep 
the acrimoiiy bf the perfpirable matter which is tetained 
lutking in the body, but alfo the depraved affe£Hon6 6f the 
parts, efpecially of thofe that are not the principal, and 
that for a long time ; which aSeftions, when the bodies are 
purged, or brought low by 'much fading, break forth of a 
fudden, and turn into violent diftempers. 

LXXV. That phyfician who is to regulate the diet of 
princes, if he be ignorant how much, and when, they daily 
perfpire, deludes apd does not cure them» and if he do 
them any good, it is by chance* 

Lxxvi* For about the fp^ce of four hours after meat 
mod people do hardly perfpire a pound, thence to the ninth 
hour two pound, from the ninth to die fixteenth hardly a 

Lxxvii. Then is it the proper time to take refefliony 
when the body (hall be reduced to that weight, yet healths 
ful, which it was of a little before the party had eaten the 
day before. And this only ApoUo himfelf fliall find out 
without the balance. 

Lxxvni. But if the unufual weight of the over-night's 
drinking be not taken off, either by the ftrength of the 
conco£live faculty, or by corruption the next day, take the 
advice of thefe two verfes. 

Si n9Burnatibi mceatpotatU vtni. 

Hoc tu mane bibas iterum, \ifuerit medicina. 

If over night thou taPJl a dofe^ 

AndJind^Jl thyftlf amifs^ 
Thou mujl ne^t morfi another take-: 

No remedy lih this. 


LXXiX. If the healthftil weight of the bodj, after fup« 
^er, amount to two hundred pound weight, the bodj be« 
ing rendered lets healthful by immoderate venery (hall 
Weigh about a hundred ninety-ei^^t pounds, becaufe 
that remiifion of vigour is the hindrance i^hy two 
pounds of the aliments tannot, at leaft without fome 
trouble or anguifli, be converted into the healthful 

Lxzz. Meat of eafy petfj^ratioh does more eafily , and 
with muchlefs trouble, recruit the wafted ftrength of thofe 
who ufe venery^ than does that of difficult perfpiration^ 
or of much nutriment. 

i«xzxi/New wine, though fomewhat muddy, if it be 
conceded in ^he ftomach, does not only perfpire itfelf, 
but very much promotes tht perfpiration of odier meats. 
This quality alfo have thofe hot things that are flatulent. 

L.:ianin. Onions, garlic, mutton, pfaeafants^ but above 
all, the cyrenaic juice, promote the perfpiration of meats 
not eafily perfpirable. 


Lxtxxxi. A VERT fmall quantity of food is not em- 
braced by the ftomach. Thence S>me8 it, that it is not 
concoded, it dot% ftot nounfli, it does nOt pfstfpire. 

Lxx^iv. Infehfible perfpiration is an excitement bf the 
third concoction ; if therefore the firft concodion be not 
performed neither will the third. 

Lxxicv. If that quantity of food whkh amounts to 
about four pound be hrutful, taken all at once in a day, 
the fame quantity, divided into two or three meals, may 

La te 



be healthful r the repletion of the ^elly diverts infeofible 

Ixxxvx. The inconveniences attending extraordinary 
fading are thefe, the head is filled with, humours, the 
temples beat^ the hjpochQndnes^re dilated, and a t^eari- 
nefs of the arms and thighs. 

Lxxxvii. That . emptinefs of the (lomach which is oc- 
cafioned by the fcantinefs of meat is greater than that 
which is Qccailoned by phyfic ; which latter does indeed 
excite fenfible evacuation, but diverts the iufenfible. 

. Lxxxviii. In flegmatic confiitutions, if the flomacb 
be empty in the morning, by reafon of their not having 
Tapped the night before, dry food is very beneficial, fach 
as bifcuit. 

Lxxxix, No mail will fall into any difeafe, if he care- 
fully provide that he be not troubled with crudities. 

xc. It is'fafer for aged jperfons to take their refedion 
thrice in a day, as Antiochus did, than twice, or to eat 
much at once ; for it much obilrufls perfpiration. 

xci. Why did not Antiochus eat fifli at fupper? Bc- 
caufe they hinder perfpiration : after ileep perfpiration is 
very good, which not performed, there is a remiffion w 
flrength and vigour. 

. xcii. The coldnefs and clammincft of the juice of cu- 
cumbers is kept in the veins, nay, other unwholefome 
juices, though of eafy conco£lion, by obftruAing the 
perfpiration, caufe malignant fevers. 

XCII I* Why does the corruption- of meat caufe wean- 
nefs ? ^Becaufe it diverts perfpiration. But how? Be- 
caufe is caufes the coeliac difeafe. But^why does the 
coeliac difeafe caufe wearinefs ? Becaufe there comes oat 
along with the excrements fomewhat of the former well 

conco&ed meal. • 



xciv. If any ones goes with a tired body to fupper, or 
to wafli himfelfy thcr« enfues, immediately after fleep, a 
certain chtllnefs over the body, aod weariaefs ; yet about 
twelve hours 'after fupper all is well again; becaufe 
dien the concodion and perfpiration is good. 

xcv. Meat after violent exercife is hurtful, as well by 
reafon it is not einbraced, as that it diverts perfpiration. 

xcvi. He who goes to fupper with a diilurbed mind, 
digeils much lefs than another, who is undifturbed and 

2CVII. Drinking between dinnef and fupper is hurt* 
ful : but if we drink fo much the lefs at fupper the hurt- 
fulnefs is taken off. 

Xcvui. Vomiting after fupper weakens a man, not only 
upon this fcore, that it voids the aliment, but alfo becaufe 
it diverts per^iration. 

xciz. If a mam exceed in meat and drink once or twice 
an a month, though he does not fenfibly evacuate the next 
day, yet he weighs lefs than ufual. 

c. He who 'confines himfelf to a regular diet, wants 
the conveniences of thofe perfons who exceed once or 
twice a-month : for the expulfive faculty being ftirred up 
by redundancy excites fo great a perfpiration, as without 
ftatics nobody would believe. 

CI. In a cold body honey is good, becaufe it nourifiies 
amd perfpires ; in a hot it isrhuitful, becaufe it turns into 

cii. Nothing more obftruAs perfpiration, than for a 
man tor drink while the chyle is preparing. 

cm. The liver does not attra£l the chyle, by reafon of 
its ooolnefs, much lefs does k expel the perfpirable mat* 

' L 3 CIV. 


cur. la a healthy nuuBy if the belly be loole, it dther 
happens through foine defcft ip the concoftioii, or the 
diftribodon of the chylct bj reafon of the obftroAioii of 

CT. There ^e two thhigs extremely prc^odidal to 
good health, Ti^B;. to give np the bodj wholly to a floA- 
f ul repofei and to eat before tl^e coocoftioa of what ^ 
been eaten before* 


Seaion IF. 

I. Unbisturseb flieep is fo great a pronutfer of pe»r 
{piration, that, in the fpace of feven hoars, fifty ounces 
of the oonco&ed perfpirable natter do commonly exhale 
ont of llrong bodies. 

II. A man fleeping the fpace of ieven hovrs is went, 
infenfibly, healthfully, and without any Tiolence, to per- 
fpire twice Sfs much as one awake. 

lit. That perfpiration of a fleeping perfon whii:h is sU 
tended with mnch fweating, is not more plentiful than 
any kind of infenfible perfpir ation without fweating. 

IT. After a good night's reft the body is felt of kb 
weight, as well ^y reafon of the augmentation of ftreagth 
as by that of the exhalation of at the^ leaft about three 
pounds of excrements. 

V. Difiurbed fieep does commonly obftruA one third 
part of a pound of the ufual perfpiration. 

▼I. In undifturbed reft, the, perfpiration is fometimes 
greater, allowing the fame proportion of time, than in 
yiolent exercife. 


lISmCXNA $TAT|CA* 167 

Til. lo: the morniog fl^pi but after the comfletiag of 
the firft Gonco^Oi a pound aS the perfpiraUe excrements 
do cooimonlj exhale in tbefpace of one hour^ but if it be 
not completed, there is not a fourth part exhaled* 

VIII. Thofe thin^ which hinder fleeping do alfo ob* 
ftnift ttie perfpiratiou of the conco&ed perfpirable mat*^ 

IX. Short fleeping proceeds from the acrimony of the 
perfpirable matter, which is not evacuated ; hut the re<* 
teotion of the perfpirable matter is commonlj occafioned 
by nature's being more than ufually employed about 
focne other internal fun^ione. 

X. The acrimony of the perfpirable matter which is 
retained, very often afcends up to the head, difturbs fleep^ 
and diverts the perfpiration of the fuperior parts. 

XI. If any one, after ileep, &els a kind of pain in his 
arms, or imagines them more than ufually wearied, it is 
an argument that the body is of greater weight than na« 
ture can long endure. 

3ai. They who fleep with their feet and legs uncovered, 
are deprived of as much perfpiration as may amount to 
a pound in the fpace of one night. 

XIII* A continual agitation of the body in bed is more 
di^turbant than fwift running $ for in the motion of a 
perfon running, the mufdea only of the inferior parts are 
moved, in that of a perfon lying along, the mufcles of the 
wbole body in a manner are in motion. 

ziv. Perfpiration is more obftruded in perfoos fleep* 
ing by a cool foutherly gale of wind, than it is in per* 
(bns awake by a great cold. 

XV. If the ntght^s reft be lefs than uiiial, there is a di« 
ipinution in the exhalation of the concocted perfpirable 
matter, but the perfpiration of crudities is augmented. 

L 4 xvr. 


XVI. A^fter meats of eafy perfpiration men's bodies are 
rendered rather weak than weighty ; but after thofe of 
difficult perfpiration thej become both weak and 

XVII. The perfpiratioq o^cafioned by fleep differs in 
fpecies from that which comes by vigilance ; the former 
implies the evacuation of concoAed perfpirables without 
acrimony, and with a recruiting of the ftrength ; the lat- 
ter, that of crudities, and is (harp, violent, and with feme 

XVIII. A perfon fleeping perfpires twice as much as 
one waking. Thence came that remarkable faying, twt 
hours of reft in a perfon awake are but equivalent to ooe 
of fleep. 

XIX. I have found, by experience, that in the fpace of 
:^ven hours the infenfible perfpiration in a perfon fleep- 
ing, as to many, amounted to about forty ounces ; in one 
awake but to twenty. 

XX. He who goes to bed with an empty ftomach per- 
, fpires that night about a third part lefs than he is wont 

to do. 

XXI. Ferfons of a choleric confiitution, who go to bed 
with a ftomach quite empty, have thefe inconveniences ; 
the belly and head are filled with crudities, their teoaples 
beat, their fleih waftes away, they are trouUed with 
vehement flretchings about the arms and hands, fometimes 
a heart-butning, or corrofion of the mouth of the ilo- 
macby vertigoes and epilepfies j as it happened to Diodo- 


X'Xii. After a perfpiration greater than we are wont 
to have, a more plentiful fupper promifes a longer and 
founder fleep.. 


XXIII. A lefs than the ufual perfpiration is the foretell. 
cr of difturbed fleep, and a troublefome night. 

XXIV. If, after a fliort and unquiet fleep, the flefli be 
found cold, and that thereupon a feverifli fit fucceed^, in 
weak perfons it commonly preiignifies death, in ftrong a 
long continuance of ficknefs. 

XXV. Bj change of lodging fleep is difturbed, and the 
perfpiration is lefs. For unwonted things, thotfgh better, 
are prejudicial to body and mind. 

XXVI. Men dream more in a bed they are not accuf- 
toined to than in that they conftantly lie in* - 

XXVII. They who fleep and do not dream perfpite well^ 
and fe on the contrary. 

XXVIII. Sleep about four hours after meat is beft ; for 
then nature is leaft employed about the firft concodion, 
it better recruits what was loft, and more promotes per- 

XXIX. If about five hours after fupper you weigh a 
perfon juft awaked out of his fleep you will find that he 
hardly perfpired a pound ; if it be done eight hours afteii 
fleep, you will find that he has perfpired three ^ound. 

XXX* If a man's fleep be fliorter than it is wont to be, 
there is fomewhat of the perfpiration obftruded, which if 
'it be tiot- repaired in the fubfequent days by a more plen- 
tiful perfpiration, there is fome danger of a fever. 

XXXI. If there be a retention of any part of the ufual 
perfpiration, the next day, or after dinner, we are over* 
come with fleep, and in an hoar's fpace perfpire abou^ a 
pound : or the night following, our fleep is fo much the 
longer, the more expedient it was that we fiiould*per- 
fpire more than ufually ; otherwifc we fall into a fen- 
fible crifis, or into a difeafe. 



xxiai. OfcitatioD, and the flretching of the joints af- 
ter fleep denote that the body has perfpired very well^ a^ 
it is related of cocks, fxniting themfelves with their 
wings before thej crow. 

xxxiii. The ofcitations and eztenfions of the joiots 
and limbs^ which happen immediately after fleep, are 
raifed out of the plenty of perfpirablesi excellently well 
prepared for evacuation. 

xxxiVt Men's bodies perfpire more in half an hour's 
fpace, by yawning, gaping, and il retching out of the bo- 
dyt than in three hours of any other time. 

XXXV. They who adminifter fyrupSf or other medicines^ 
to fick perfons during the time of their heft perfpiratiooi 
which is commonly for the fpace of two hours after fleep, 
injure them ; but in the- fubfeqoent hours they ^o them 

XXXVI. In paroxyfms, or any great fits of iicknefs, ga{><; 
ing and ftretching of the body figoify the concentration 
of the heat, but the evacuation of a great quantity oC 
Itcrxmcmious perfpirable matter that had been r^taine^. 

XXXVII. In ap hour's fleep at noon, after meat, mea's 
bodies commonly evacuate fometimes a pound, Ibtnetiines 
half a pound, of excrements infenfiUy perfyirable ; a 
pound, if there be ought retained of the precedent day's 
perfpirauon ; h^if ^ pound, if nothing, 

XXXVIII. }f ought of the precedent clay's perfpirajtioB 
|»e retained, and that it be nol; evacuated by ile^eping at 
noon, immediately after fleep there is feU a great heayi- 
nefs of the head, and a very affli^ive pain, 

XXXIX. If within four hours after fleep the meat a man 
has eaten be corrupted, immediately thefe two incoave* 
niences mutually confequent one to the other wiU foUow^ 
to«i|fit, an obftruflbion of perfpiration, and watching. 

\ Xt. 


3^L. Thftce is no caufe does more frequently interrupt 
Aeep than the corruption of a man*s meat. This is 
caufed by the fympatby there is between the ftomacb and 
the brain. 

XLt, Sleep is better in winter than in fummer, not 
becanfe men's bellies are hotter, or their deep longer, but 
I^ecanfe before day«>light their bodies are a&uallj hotter^ 
and as fuch are apt .to^perfpire very much, whereas in 
fammer they are more cold, 

XLII* Purity of difcourfe, and agility of body after 
fleepy4U'e indications that the body has perfpired that night 
commonly at lead three pounds. 

XXJIU (jightoefs of the head after deep at noon de- 
notes that there had not been any thing retained of the 
precedent day's perfpiration. 

XLXV. Sleep moiftens all the external and internal parts, 
becaafe it attenuates the peri'pirable matter, and being 
fo mtteanated it difperfea it into all the members* 

XLT. Vigilance ftirs from the centre to the cir^um-* 
flerence thit blood wh^ch is lefs prepared for perfpiration 
than it is in fuch as are afleep. 

XLYi. By fleep the humours are concentrated, the in- 
flncnt heat is united to the innate, tbirft is taken away» 
xmlefs eholer be predominantt there is a converfion made 
of the blood into the fecond mQifturesi and the bodies be* 
come lighter. 

XLYii. By fleep the animal fpirits languiih j by Tigil* 
ance the vital at d natural fpirits languiih. 

XL VIII. By vigilance the animal fpirits [are corrobor- 
ated, but the vital and natural languiflu 

xux. By fleep the internal parts are more heated, and 
are alfo made more light, hy vigilance the external 
pt^ts are made more hot, and alfo t^ore light. 


L. By too much fleep the internal and external psrts 
grow cold^ the humours are forcibly crowded in, and 
made imperfpirablej and the bodies are rendered more 

LI. Choleric bodies are extremely prejudiced by ex- 
ceffive fleeping, not becaufe the excrements of the third 
concodion are made imperfpirable, but becaufe ihey be- 
come extreme fliarp, and are afterwards noxious to the 
head and other entrails. 

Lii. In perfons fleeping with the bed-clothes caft off, 
perfpiration is more obfti ufled than it is in perfons awake, 
who have no clothes on .; as well by reafon of the quiet 
pofture of ,fuch as are afleep, as alfo for that the heat of 
the external parts retreats inward. 

Liii. A more than ufual watching renders men's bo- 
dies, during the firft fubfequeiit days after k, more pon- 
derous, and more weak. They are more ponderous, be- 
caufe, after tlie evacuation of the perfpirable excreraentfi, 
there is left behind a certain juice, which, of itfelf, is 
ippude, and, by accident, ponderous *; they afe weaker, 
becalifb where there is any crudity, there is noconveifion 
made, and confequently the (Irength is impaired. 

LIT. If after immoderate watching a man fleep fevek 
hours, the perfpiration will be more than ui'ual, by about 
SL pound* 

LV. Continued watching- renders men's bodies more 
ponderous, not by reafon of the greater perfpiration, or 
fenfible evacuation, but becaufe the recruit of fat an4 
flefli is not anfwerable to what had been wafted. 

L.VI. In the morning the body both is, and is felt lefs 
ponderous ; it is fo, becaufe by the precedent fleep three 
pound of perfpirable excrements were evacuated ; it is fa 
felt, not only becaufe it is lighter^ but alfo in regard that 



hj the concoftion of the, meats that were eaiily perfpir« 
able there is an augmentation of ftrength. 

LYii. A man's bodj may become more ponderous bj 
unufual watching, if the meat^ wherewith it is fed, be 
unfit for perfpiration. 

L.YIII. There isfo plentiful an exhalation of the bodj in 
perfoQs ileepingi that not only the fick lying with the 
found, but alfo the found among themfelves do mutually 
communicate their good oi'evil difpofitions. 


iiix. xV.FT£R meat fleep ; after fieep conco£tion -, after 
concodiion^ tranfpiration is beft. 

liX. Diacydonium, or marmalet, not taken immedi« 
ately. after fupper but after the firll fleepi excites fleep, 
provided there be nothing drunk after it. 

JLXI. Diacydoniuni, or marmalet, taken with a little 
cinnamon, ilrengtheneth the ftomach ; and that being 
flrengthened, fleep always follows. 

Lxii. A fmall quantity of generous wine and garlic 
caufe fleep and perfpiration, but if a man take more than ^ 
is requifite they obftru£l both; however they convert 
the perfpirable matter into fweating. 

I4XIII. That man will doubtlefs come to a great age 
who does daily conco£l and digeft well ; concoflion is 
caufed by fleep and reft i digeftion by vigilance and ex- 

Lxiv. If the wearincfs enfuing after fleep be taken ofF 
by ufual exercife, the defe£): was in the digeftion> and not 
in the conco£Uon. 1 


174 MEDtCINA StAtlCA4 

txv. When we rife from deep with oar ufuftl weightt 
t>ut with greater unweildinefs, if it be not taken oKhf 
our accuftomed exercife, it fignifies an accumulation of 
crudities, corruption of meat, or immoderate coition. 

ixvu Unufual ileeping at noon is hurtful to all the td* 
trails, and checks perfptratiott* 

i^xvii. Wearinefs or unweildine& after deep is taken 
ofFby thofe things which facilitate perfpiration : thefe are 
abilioence, exercife, vigilance, and anger. 

i/sviii. If the body lie loofe and dat, fleep is hurtful ; 
if it be contraded) it is good : the entrails lying clofe and 
compaded together having eafj concoftlon, but when 
they are loofe, by one's lying at length, they haire a diffi- 
cult concofiion. 

LXix. If in found perfons, a cold fweat enfue af^er 
fleep it argues they perfpire lefs than i^ey ihould do, 
and in procefs of timci if the fame thing happens, they 
are troubled with the gout. 

isx. By immoderate fleep, and exceffive drinkitig of 
wine, the ftrength is fufibcated } by exceffive vigilance and 
exercife, it is diflblved I all thefe diminifli concodion, and 
thkt diminiihed, there is a floppage of reguifite peN 

d^ £±££CIS£ Al^D BEST. 

Se&ion t^. 

I. X HE occult perfpiration of a man'tf body is lels ia 
violent motion, than it ia in the morning, nine or tea 
hours from the time he had fupped« 


Mkdicika statica# 175 

Ii« thkt idiich is evacuated in violent motion by the 
pores h fweat, and an occult perfpirable matter : but, as 
it is violent, it is raifcd for the mod part out of uncbncofted 
juices : ,for it feldom happens that there (hould be fo great 
t. coUe£lion of concodied perfpirable matter in the body as 
ts evacuated by violence. 

III. Sweating always proceeds from a violent caufe, and 
as fuch (as ftatical experiments make it appear) it obftru^ 
the occult evacuation of conco£led perfpirable matter. 

IV. The body perfpires much more lying quietly in bed 
than turning from one fide to another by frequent agita* 

V. Cheerful and angry perfons are lefs wearied by long 
travelling than the fearful and penfive: for the former 
{>erfpire more healthfully, but the other lefs. 

VI. Thofe bodies which are admitted to refe£Hen^ after 
immoderate exercife^ receive much prejudice i becaufe, as 
they are wearied and burthened with meat^ they perfpjre 

VII- Exercife from the feventh hour to the twelfth after 
refedion, does infenGbly diflblve'more in the fpace of one 
hour than it does in three honors at any other time* 

Till. Infenfible evacuation after violent exercife ob« 
{bru£ls the fuccei&ve recruiting of that which is wafted : 
nay, if the fame violence Ihould continue, the body will 
be rendered fo light, that in many there would be fome 
danger of a future confumption* 

IX. By exercife men's bodies are made lighter : for all 
the parts, efpecially the mufcles and ligaments, are cleanfed 
from excrements by motion, the perfpirable matter is pre- 
pared for exhalation, and the fpirits are made more tenuis 
eus, or fubtile. 


X. Motion prepares bodies for the evacuation of fen- 
Cble and infenfible excrements ; reft does it rather for that 
of the infenfible onfy. 

XI. If the body lie quietly in the bed after fupper for 
the fpace of ten hours, it fnall perfpire excellently well : if 
It reft there yet^ fomewhat longer, there follows immedi- 
ately a diminution of both fenfible and infenfible eyacua« 

XII. Long reft renders indifpofed bodies more weighty^ 
as well in regard the perfpirable excrements are prepared 
for evacuation by motion, as alfo for that the meat and 
drink, if fuch as the patient is not accuftomed to, or more 
in quantity than is requifite, are not digefted ; and thence 
proceed all inconveniences, and many times death. 

XIII. If a perfon who has kept his bed long be troubled 
with pain in the feet, the remedy is walking ; if one that 
is upon a journey be fo troubled, the remedy is reft. 

XIV. There are two kin4».of exercifes,. one of the body, 
the other of the mind : that of the body evacuates the fen^ 
fible excrements ; that of the mind the infenfible rather, 
and efpecially thofe of the heart and brain, where the mind 
is feated. 

x\. An exceflive reft of the mind does more obftrufit 
perfpiration than that of the body. 

XVI. The exercifes of the mind which moft conduce to 
the cheering up of the fpirits, are anger, fudden joy, fear^ 
and forrow. 

XVII. Men's bodies refting in bed, and agitated with a 
vehement motion of the mind, for the moft part becooic 
more faint, and lefs ponderous, than if there be a tranquil- 
lity of mind, with a violent motion of the body, as it hap- 
pens at tennis, or any game at ball. 




Stviii. Bj immoderate exercife the excrements of the 
firft and fecond conco<^ion are for the moft part difperfed 
through the compafs of the whole body, and therefore 
the belly is hardened ; yet are the bodies made lighter^ 
becaufe the infenfible evacuation is much greater than 
the excretion of the fenfible excrements - made by the 

XIX. Violent exercife of mind and body renders bodies 
of lighter weight, haftens old age, and threatens untimely 
death: for, according to the philofopher, thofe perfons 
that are exercifed die fooner than fuch as are not. 

XX. Violent exercife takes off from a body filled with 
meat or crude humours a lefs than ufual weight of the 
fenfible excrements ; of the infenfible, almoft nothing at 

. XXI. By exercife the body peffpires lefs, by fleep, more^ 
and the belly is more loofened. 

XXII. Fri£lions and cupping-glafies, in bodies full of 
crudities, obftru£l perfpiration. 

xxiii. Then is exercife moft wholefome ; when, after 
the completing of the firft and fecond cohco£lion, the 
body is reduced twice in a day, before meat, to its ufiial 

XXIV. Swimming immediately after violent exercife, is 
hurtful ; for it very much obftru3s perfpiration. 

XXV. Violent exercife in a place where the wind blows 
is hurtful. 

XXVI. From the wind proceeds a difficulty of refpira- 
tion, from the motion, acrimony. 

XXVII. Riding relates more to the peripirable matter of 
the parts of the body from the waift upwards, than down- 
wards : but in riding, the amble is the moft wholefome, 
the trot the moft unwholefome, pace,. 

Vol. III. M xxvnr. 


178 MEDICmA 8TAtlGA« 

XXVII7. Waftage in fedan or horfe litter, as alfo gpktg 
by water, does not fo much difpofe bodies to due perfpira- 
tion, as walking. 

XXIX. The motion of a boat and litter, if it be continued 
long, is moft wholefome ; for thetl only it does wonder* 
fully difpofe the body to due perfpiration. 

XXX. Riding in a coach or chariot is the moft violent 
of any way : for it does not only caufe the unconco£led 
perfpirable matter to exhale out of the body, but alfo of.« 
fends the folid parts of the body^ and particularly the 

XXXI. Leaping dx)es at firft attrad: the ftrength inwards, 
then impetuouily forces it to the external parts, and with 
a certain violence expels the concofked matter, together 
with the unconco£led. 

' Xxxii. The ex<etcife of the top, confifting of moderate 
and violent motion, to-wit, walking and the agitation of 
the arms, promotes perfplratioQ. 

XXXIII. Moderate dancing, without any capering or 
jumping, comes near the comme'ndation of moderate walk- 
ing ; for it moderately expels the conGo£ted perfpirable 
matter. ' 


XXXIV. WThen there is a defe£t of perfpiration in fottndl. 
bodies, it is remedied by exercife. 

XXXV. By immoderate exercife the fibres are hardened) 
whence follows old age, which is an univerfal hardnefs 
of the fibres : this hardnefs, by condenfating the palTagess 



bbftrufis the heat ; foftnefs, by keeping thetn open, caufes 
length of life. 

xxlyi. He who would have a youthful face long, let 
him avoid fWeating^ or perfpiring too much through heat* 

DE ventre/ 

Sectio Sexta^ 

t. JNiMiA abflinentia a coitu, et nimiiis ufus, impediun^ 
perfpirationemf fed nimius ufus magis. 

II. Pod coitum imnioderatum quarta pars folitse per- 
fpirationis in plutribus prohiberi folet. 

III. Mala a njmio coitu orta mediate a prohibita per^ 
fpiratione, immediate I laefis conco&ricibus dependent. 

IV. Cognofcitur coitum profeciiTe, G a fequenti fomno 
nulla fentiatur laffitudO| nee uUa corporis mutatio faAa fit 
in gravitate, vel levitate. 

V. Diuturnae venpreorum cogitationes, modo gravius, et 
modo levius efEciunt corpus; gravius fi plfno, levius & 
vaQuo fiant ftomacho. 

VI. Pod nimium coitum cum muliere, quam maximd 
concupita, non fentltur illico lafiitudo : animi enim con- 
folalio juvat tunc perfpirationem cordis, et auget ejus ro« 
buTj unde in ipfo quod amittitur, prbmptius remittitur* 

M 1 ni. 

> The clafiGical reader, will eafily perceive why this chapter is not tranilated, 


viu Fropenfi ad coitum fi texnperent libidinemi iltico 
fuccedit corporis agilltas, quia tales melius perfpirant. 

VIII. Immoderatus coitus facit perfpirare cruda, quae 
deinde carnes frigidas efficiunt. 

IX. Coitum non nocuiiTe, hsec indicant : urina aeque 
co£la ut ante, corporis agilitas, refpiratio facilior, et idem 
fere corporis pondus perfi^vcr^ns ; eadem tamea fervata 
eorum qux ingeruntur quantitate et qualitato. 

X. Prxfens vulnus immoderati coitus eft ftomachi re- 
frigeratio : ftiturum, prohibita perfpiratioj unde facile fiunt 
palpitationcsin fuperciliis et artubus^ et deinde in membris 
obtinentibus principatum, , 

XI. Coitus in xftate magis nocet : non quia corpus ma- 
gis perfpirat, fed quia codlioi cum fit minor, deperditum 
difficilius refarcitur* 

XII. In a£tu venefeo multum crudi perfpiratur, et fi dia 
duretf cruda transfer untur a centro ad corporis ambitum, 
fiunt obftru£lioneSj et inde alvus fupprimitur. 

Xiiu Quanto quis majori coeundi cupiditate conflagrati 
tasto ejus ufus immoderatus minus laedit. 

XIV. Coitus immoderati detrimentum praecipue man!- 
feftatur poft fomnum fequentem ; tunc enim ex Staticis 
experimbntis cognofcitur perfpirationem effe impeditami et 
cibum efle male digeftum, nee non ftomachum valde te- 

XV. Coitus laedere folet primam co£lionem, prime di- 
minuendo perfpirationis proptitudinemi^ deinde in crudam 
qualitatem'conv^rtendo cibiim. 

xyi. Qui ooitu utit\ir, et fperma non emittit, minus dc- 
bilitatur. Itidem fi die fequenti utatur, et emittat quod 
die precedenti fuit praeparatu^^ minus debilitatur. 

XVII. lUi qui coeuodo fperma ex ftudio son emittunt, ia 



tumorem tefticulorum facile incidunt: fperma cnim eft 

xyizi. Coitus immoderatus poft ftomachom Isedit magis 

XIX. Coitus immoderatus Ixdlt Tifionem^ quia ab oculis 
fubducit maximam (pirituum copiam ; inde tunicae oculo- 
rum prxdurse et rugofae, nee non meatus minus pervii red- 

XX. A diminuta perfpiratione fibrae tunicarum oculoruni 
opaciores ; inde vifio fit per fpatia perexigun, tjualia funt 
in cancellis : Specilla uniuBt obje£la in cufgideniy ut dif* 
tinde per unum folum fpatium videatur* 

XXI. A coitu immoderato difliinuitur calor naturalis ; a 
diminuto calore diminuta perfpiratio ^ a dkninuta perfpira- 
tione flatus et palpitatio. ^ 

xzxx. Coitus immoderatus pollulat cibos paucos, et boni 

XXIII. Coitus calefacit jecur et renes, quia excitatus 
calor minus exhalat : refrigerat vero ftomachum, cerebrum 
et cor, quia per meatus patentiorcs excitatus omnino, et 
proprius aliqua ex parte propterea refolvitur. 

XXIV. Hinc coitus immoderatus in hcpate bilem, in 
renibus nephriticum afFeftum, in ftomacho crudum fuc- • 
cum, in cerebro catarrhum, et in corde palpitationem et 

XXV. Edulia'poft nimium coitum fi flatus gignant^ ut 
oftreacea et muHum, perniciofa : impediunt enim ne ad 
confuetum pondus corpora reducantur. 

XXVI. Macilentis magis nocet coitus, quia magis cale« 
fiunt, et magis refrigerantur. 

xxyii. Coitus immgderatus illico maxime leve eSiclt 
corpus, quamvis deinde pcrfpirationem prohibeat : eft 
enim vehemens corporis et animi mot us ^ corporis, quia 

M 3 omnia 


omnia membra conquaflantur : animi, quia refolvitar quod 
colligat animum corpori, fpiritus fcilicet vitalis. 

XXVIII. Si poft coitum fomnus laborem £acit, ex coitu 
major fa£la eft ablatio^ quam ex fomno fa£la fit vitalis fpi« 
ritus additio. 

XXIX. Foft nimium coitus ufum» fomnus trahit cruda 
ad cor ; unde languor, prohibita perfpiratio, et ponderis 
augmentum. ^ 

XXX. Senes ex ufu moderati coitus fiunt poQderofiores 
et frigidiores : jurenes veto leviores et calidiores. 

XXXI. Coitus in juvenibus, animalem, vitalem, et na- 
ti;iralem facultatem roborat : animal^m per ipotum expur- 
gate et fopitaih excitat ; naturalem per evacuationem fupeu 
flui ; et vitaleni per laptitiam. 

XXXII. Cibu^ copiofior folito, poft immoderatum coU 
turn, interimeritj nifi fuccederet aliquae ciborum corrup- 

XXXIII. Dum eft coeundum, parum vel nihil come- 
dendum : dum eft comedendum^ parum yel nihil coeun- 

XXXIV. Si poft coitus exceilTum nulla perfentitur lafli- 
tudo, malum : id perinde ac in phreneticis fit ab incenfis 
fpiritibuSj^ qui exiccando, brevi fpatio, roborant nervos ct 
tendines, fed paulo poft imminuitur fpirituum generatio j 
Ct vires derepcnte caduntit 




xxxv« Coitus juvat excitatus a natura : a mente men* 
tern et memoriam Isedit* 

XXXVI. In debili ob coitum augetur corporis pondus : . 
quia minus perfpirat. 

XXXVII. Coitus importunus impedit perrpir^tum, quia 
dinunuit vires : unde corpus fit majoris ponderis, nifi fe- 
quatur alvi fluor. 

XXXVIII. Nimius coitus calefaciendo et cxficcando mag- 
nam jaduram facit : fi vero infenfibili perfpiratione remit- 
tatur caliditas, et alimento ficcitas, nullam. 

XXXIX. Corporis agitatio in coeundo, inftar canum, ma- 
gis nocet^ quam feminis emiilio : haec folum yifcerai ilia 
omnes nervos et vifcera defatigat. 

XL. Ufu8 coitus k cibo, ^t ftando, Iscdit a cibo, vlfce- 
rum officia divertit; ftandoj mufculos et eorum utilem 
perfpiratum diminuit. 

XLi. Poft motum, coitus infalubris^ poft cibum, non 
ita ; poft fomnum, (aluberrimus. 

XLii. Coitus calefacit jecur, et refrigerat fiomachum ; 
a ftomacho, crudus fuccus ; i, jecore, bilis : unde poracea, 
et oris moxfus* Hemedio eft villus tenuis et libera per- 

M 4 ?> 




Semon VIL 

\. Amongst the affefiions of die mind, anger and ala- 
crity render men's bodies lighter, fear and fadnefs, more 
ponderous \ and the reft of the afiedion^ operate anfwer- 
ably to their participation of thefe, 

II. In grief and fear that which is lighter perfpires, but 
uphat is more ponderous is left behind ; in gladnefs and 
anger there is a perfpiration af both^ 

III. Hence it coipes to pafs that fuch as are fubjed to 
fear and grief are apt to be troubled with obftru&ionsj 
hardnefs of the parts, and hypochondriacal afiedlions. 

• IV. Such as are angry or joyful feel no wearinefs in 
travelling ; for their bodies eaftly perfpire the grofs matter; 
which happens npt when they are troubled with grief or 

V. The ponderous part of perfpirable matter being more 
than ufually retained in the body, difpofes a man to fadnefs 
and fear} but the light part difpofes him to gladnefs and 

VI. Nothing contributes more to freedom of refpiration 
than £atisfa6iion and confolation of mind. 

VII. By fadnefs and fear the members moft full of rnoif* 
ture are eafily indurated. 

VIII. Grief and fear' obftruft the perfpiration of the 

rrofs perfpirable e:(crement$ \ and the obfirufiion of per- 
" fpiration, 




fpiration, from what caufe foever it proceeds^ caufcs grief 
and fear. 

IX. Grief, if it continue long, brings a coldnefs on the 
flefli i for it hinders the exhalation of the grofs portion of 
the perfpirable matter. 

X. Hence it comes, that that fever which a man falls 
into after much grief, difcovers itfelf in cold fweats, and 
thofe many times mortal, 

XI. The acrimony of the perfpirable matter which is re- 
tained by the means of grief, is conveniently taken off by 
alacrity i for pleafant humours are thereby difFufed 
through the body, and thereupon ponderofity and acrimony 
arc taken off from it. 

XII. Anger and hope take away fear, and joy taketh 
away fadnefs : for a paffion of the mind is overcome, not 
by medicines, but by fome contrary paflion ; (or contra- j^ 
ries are under the fame genus. 

XIII. It does not imply any contradidlion to affirm, 
that the retention of the perfpirable matter in melancholy 
petfons is cold and acrimonious, or hot: fuch are the 
livers of hydropical perfons who are in fevers 5 to-wit, 
they are cold in r^fpefl of the natural heat, and hot in re- 
fpeft of the adventitious. 

xiT. Difeafes proceeding from melancholy and a clofe 
muddy air, agree in this, that they are immediately occafi- 
oned by the groffnefs of the perfpirable matter which is 
retained : for grief does intrinfically obftruA the excre- 
tion of the grofs matter, and the muddy air does it extrin. 

XV. They who carry grief along with them to their beds, 
pcrfpire fo much the Icfs that night •, and the next day 
their bodies continue more than ufually ponderous. ^ 

xvi^ In yenerous meditations, the grofs part of the per- 



fpirablc excrements, is with grief retaing^J ; which part, 
upon the evaporation of the fubtile, becomes yet more grofs 
and more cold : if this be pent up together, it caufes an 
almoft invincible coldnefs in the head, and a hardly curable 
palpitation in the heart, or other members. 

XVII. Melancholy is two ways overcome, either by a 
free perfpiration, or fome continual fatisfa£lion of the 

XVIII. If mens bodies become lighter after grief than 
after joy, it muft of neceflity happen either by reafon of a 
lefs quantity of meat, or by that of their more tranfpirable 

XIX. The confolation of the mind, from whatfoever 
caufe it proceeds, opens the pafiagesi and very much pro- 

^ motes perfpiration. 

V XX. If, after anger, there immediately enfue fome con- 

folation of the mind ^ or the contrary happen, men's bodies, 
allowing an equal proportion of aliment, are lighter the 
next day, than they would be if only anger or joy had con- 

XXI. As there is a fudden period put to fome great 
pleafure by a fmall evacuation of feed : fo all other immo- 
derate afieflxons of the mind may be abated and taken off, 
by fome evacuation of the perfpirable matter. 

XXII. Fear and grief, as we find by ftatical experimentSi 
^ I are taken oflF by the evacuation of the grofs perfpirable ex- 
crements ; anger and alacrity by that of the tenuious. 

^^ '^ XXIII. If any one find himfelf in a merry jocund hu- 

mour, without any caufe, it proceeds from a greater free- 
dom of perfpiration, and his body will be found the next 
day of lefs weight. 
XXIV. Moderate joy infenfiby evacuates what is fuper- 




fluous; immoderate joy, both what is fuperfluous and 
i/irhat is beneficial. 

XXT. Moderate joy aiEfts the conco&ive faculties ; for 
nature, not being burthened with that which is fuperflipuSf 
does much better perform her fun£lions. 

XXVI* Unexpe&ed joy is more hurtful than that which 
18 looked for : for it does not only excite the evacuation of 
the excrements of the third conco£tion, but alfo the ex- 
halation of the vital fpirits ; but the expe£ted joy promotes 
only that of the excrements. 

XXVII. Joy and anger take off from the body what 
makes it more ponderous, and what renders it more light ; 
grief and fear take av/ay only what makes it more lightj^ 
but what makes it more ponderous is left behipd. 

XXVIII. A continual gladnefs for many days together 
hinders fleep, and renders a man weaker. 

XXIX. If any one, after moderate joy, finds himfelf lighter, 
it does not proceed principally from the evacuation of the 
whole body, but from that of the heart and brain, whence 
what is evacuated is lead of all, as to quantity, and greateft, 
as to virtue. 

XXX. Thofi; aliments which <^en and facilitate perfpir- 
ation produce joy, thofe that obftrufi: it, grief. 

XXXI. Parfley, and other aliments that are opening, in- 
duce joy 5 pulfe, fat meat, and other things which incraf- 
fate, and prefently fill the cavities of the paffages, Cftufe 

XXXII. If the cavities of the paffages be evacuated, and 
afterwards prefently filled, it was rightly faid of Hippocra- 
tes, that evil paffions of the mind are generated. 

XXXIII. To thofe who are fubjeft to anger, immoderate 
cxercife is very hurtful j for their paffages are immediately 
emptied, and with much violence are filled up again 5 



whence it came that Hippcrcrates forbade choloric perfonft 
to ufe fri6lions and.wreftling. 

xxiciv. In a perfon who ufes no exercife of body or 
mi4!|| the paflages are not emptied, nor are there any evil 
pafFions of the mind contra£led. 

%XXT. A body lying all along does perfpire more and 
becomes of lefs weightj if the mind be vehemently adive, 
than if the body were in a very fwift motion, and the mind 
were idle. • 

xxxvi. The fliifting of the body from one place to 
another makes a longer alteration of the body than of the 
mind itfelf. 

XXXVII. The paflions of the mind are concerned about 
the internal fubjeft, which rather. moves, than is moved: 
inafmuch, as it is leaft as to quantity, and greateft as to 
virtue, like the fperm of man ;^nd by the difpofal thereof, 
in feveral manners, is the origin of perfpiration, or pondcr- 
oGty, and lightnefs. 

xxxviii. Thofc *^odies which perfpire more than tifually, 
not occafioned by any motion of the body, but through 
fome vehement agitation of the mind, are with greater dif- 
ficulty reduced to their ufual and healthy perfpiration. 

XXXIX. An immoderate afFeflion of the mind is more 
hurtful than an immoderate motion of the body.. 

XL. Thibody would pine away, and be deftroyed through 
idlenefs, were it not for the motion of the mind \ but the 
contrary cannot b^ affirmed. 

XLi, A vehement motion of the mind differs from a 
vehement motion of the body; the latter is taken off by 
reft and fleep ; the former by neither reft nor fleep. 

XLii. Let thofe forbear gaming whofe thoughts are al- 
tpgether upon winning ; becaufe if they always have good 




fottunei out of exceflire joy, they will hardly flccp in the 
xiighti and, in time, will find the want of the exhalation 
of the conco£i:ed perfptrable matter. 

xLiii. A moderate vi£tory is. more wholefome tb|n 2 
glorious one. 

XLiv. Study is longer endured in a viciiTitude of ibe 
aiFeflions of the mind, than if it be without affedion, or 
without any change of aiFedions \ for perfpiration becomes 
more moderate and more wholefome. 

ZLV. Study, without any afie£kion, hardly endures an 
hour \ with any one afie£tion, hardly four hours ; with 
viciilitude of affe&ions, as at dice, at which kind of gam- 
ing men feel, one while the joy for winning, another, fad- 
nefs for lofing, it may continue night and day. 

XLVi. In all ftudy continual fadnefs difturbs the good 
conilitution of the heart, and excefs of gladnefs hinders 
flecp y for every excefs is deftruftive to nature. 

XLVii. They who are fometimes merry, fometimes fad| 
fometimes angry, fometimes timorous, hay6 a more health- 
ful perfpiration than they who continue in one and the 
fame, though that a conftantly-good a£Ee£lion. 

XLvni. Gladnefs makes the diaftole and the fyftole more 
eafy j grief and fadnefs render them more difficult. 






Seawn Fill. 

I. 1 HE ftaticomaftix, while he attributes the cure of 
difeafes to the pofition of the heavens, paralogifes, by affign- 
ing a more common caufe than he needed to have done. 

II. The fool firft denies, yet afterwards admits, ftatics 
or ponderatlon, affirming that there is a diverfity of weight 
in a guilty perfon, and an innocent. In like manner, he 
firft denies that the fpirits of fwine arc light ; and after- 
wards he would have their getting up to any place to pro- 
ceed from the lightnefs of their fpirits. 

III. He who is experienced in ftatics, knows tlie weight 
of the excrements, though he neither fee them, nor weigh 
them. He weighs the body before, and agaiq, after all 
evacuation ; what is deficient is their weight : and fo it is 
no unfeemly thing to weigh the excrements, as the trifler 

IV. No ftudent in phyfic, befides the fool himfelf, but 
knows, that the vital faculty is dliFufed into the arteries, 
and the animal into the nerves, by rays, and iiot by fpirits; 
as he imagines^ 

V. The fool thinks that lightnefs, as to the balance, iti 
living bodies, proceeds from the plenty of fpirits J it feems 
he never knew that dead bodies are lighter than the living, 
and that living bodies, after coition, weigh lefs. 

VI. He belies the author, affirming that the faculty of 
moving bodies upwards is no other than the fpirits thein- 
felves ; whereas the author affirms, that the fpirits «re ina- 
nimate, and that they gravitate more tha» 5|ir« 




VII. He is out again, when he affirms that fhen's bodies 
are colder in the night time ; therefore they perfpire little 
or nothing. Nor did he ever obferve, that the pulfe and 
noAurnal perfpiration are figns of a more hot body* 

VIII. The fool thinks that living bodies are lighter than 
the dead ; never having taken notice, that butchers, fifli- 
mongers, and fuch as deal in fwine, when they fell the 
living, make a deduction of ten pounds in the hundred 

IX. The extravagant man never thinks of the difference 
there is between one's being light, if weighed in the balance^ 
and the fame perfon's feeling himfelf lighter. A man may 
be fenfible of his being very ponderous, and yet be lighter 
in the balance. 

X. We know the weight of the body by mcafurc, not by 
imagination, as our inconfiderate fool does, who imagines 
that flegm is mote ponderous than blood, yet never obferv- 
ed, that the former does fwim on the top ; and that by 
rerfon of flegm the body is not really, but is felt, of greater 
weight. But why ? becaufe it obftrufts perfpirati(Mi. 

XI. He charges the author with a falfity in making him 
affirm that infenfible perfpiration is a difflation of the flefli, 
when he affirms no fuch thing. In the winter-time, there 
are about fixty ounces perfpired in the fpace of one day 
with eafe 9 if that perfpiration were of flefh, ^ man's body 
would be deftroyed. 

XII. Gal^n made no mention of ftatic medicine, there-' 
fore it is a v^ilx fcience. He is doubly miftaken ; firft, ber 
caufe he-«evef read his fix books I)e Tuenda, Slc. Second- 
ly, it does not follow, Galen faid nothing of it,' therefore 
it is vain : we have found out many inilruments, and thofc 
not contemptiblci which were not known before our times. 

4 XIII. 




.XI II. Thefamousauthor of the Commentary od the 1 2tb 
of the firfl: fe£tion of apborifms, affirms, that the meat is 
proportioned to the difflation, and, Com. i^th, that thert 
is a greater difflation in the winter-time, therefore it is re* 
quiGte there fhould be more meat eaten ; it is therefore r6- 
quifite the weight fliould be known ; all which the trifling 
ftaticomaftix denies. 

xiT. The fool, making no esTperiments himfelff denies 
thofe things that others have found true by experience* 
He boldly adds this aflertion,— if thirty-fix ounces be per- 
fpired in the fpace of one night, there will be thirty-two 
of flefli, and four of excrements. 

XV. The trifling anfwerer puts the lie on all authors, 
affirming that the fpirits are more tenuious than the air. 
Are they not made of the blood and air ? does not the air 
pafs through the whole body ? but the fpirits remain in- 
clofed in vcflels. 

XVI. He affirms that a plentiful perfpiration dpes not 
ttike away from the body one ounce of its weight. Tljerc 
is no temerity deferves\ greater punijQiment, than fuch a 
man's, as makes no account of experience, yet oppofes ex- 
perience. We have found it certainly true, that in the 
fpace of a night, the body weighs lef$ by three pounds, and 
that after coition, men's bo<^ are lighter, a» to the ba- 
lance. Therefore the fool is chargeable with a lie.- 

XVII. He affirms, that after an immoderate purgation of 
the termes, bodies are more ponderous; after an extraordi- 
nary retention of them, more light. A fatal error to the 
inconfiderate man, who does not diftinguifh between being 
heavy, in reference to the balance^ and one's fe^ng him- 
felf heavy. 4 



Oanctorius deferves .great commendatipu for the pro- 
digious pains he took in fo nicely and minutely obferving^ 
for fo long a fpace of time, the diiFerent changes of the 
quantity of perfpiration upon different ocgaGons. 

But is it not amazing, that in thirty years fpace, he 
fhould never once have thought on inhalation, or reforp- 
tion from without ? If inhalation or reforption is not con- 
Cdered, it is plain, that only the apparent, not the real, 
quantity of perfpiration can be found by ftatical experi- 
ments. If, for example, the body, after ten hours, is 
found lighter than it was by ten ounces, without any 
fenfible difcharge, it doth not follow, that juft ten 
ounces, and no more^ are exhaled during that fpace, be- 
caufe two ot three ounces might have been gained in the 
fame time by the way of reforption j in which cafe, the 
real quantity of perfpiration is not teii, but twelve or thir- 
teen, ounces ; fo that weighing the body fhews only the ex- 
cefs of the latter above the former, as Dr. Arbuthnot hath> 
and I believe the firft, diftin£lly and explicitly taught. ' 

A lad, at Newmarket, having been almoft ftarved, in or- 
der that he might be reduced to a proper weight for riding 
a nxatch, was Weighed at nine o'clock in thii morning, and 
again at ten o'clock, and he was found to have gained near 
30 ounces in the courfe of an hour, though he had only 

N ounces. 


drank half a glafs of wine in the interval.^ A gentleman 
in the city was lately weighed before dinner, and was high- 
ly offended to find from his weight, not long after dinner, 
that he muft have eat, unlefs fome deceit was played on 
him, above two pounds of beejF-ftcaks, fo ipucb had he in- 
creafed in weight. 

In the year 1779, Dr. Ingenhouz difcovered that the 
animal body threw out azotic and fixed airs. In the very 
fame year, Mr. Cruickfhanks, the celebrated author of a 
work on the abforbent fyftem, and ledurer on anatomy in 
London, publifhed a fimilar difcovery y and in juftice to 
both charafiersi I muft obferve, as I heard from Dr. Ing- 
enhouz, that their refpe£tive works were in the prefs at 
the fame time. This however is not the only inftance of 
two perfons, ignorant of each others purfuits, happening 
to hit upon the fame thing. Nothing was more fimple 
than the experiment of thefe philofophcrs 5 the hand was' 
immerfed under quickfilver and the bubbles of air coIle£l^ 
ed, and it was difcovered, that the diicharge from the fur- 
face of the body was,- 

1. Two parts ^xed air* 

2. One part azotic air. 

3. A quantity of aqueous fiuidy which contained the dif- 
ferent falls of the body. 

To thefe difcoveties, confirmed by Mr. Abernethy, lec- 
turer on anatomy at Bartholomew's hofpital, was added 
an important faft, that the abforbents had the power of 
feparating the oxygen air from the azotic, that is, of de- 
compoGng our atmofpnere, as alfo of abforbing fisted and 
other airs. 


f From Dr. Witibn's Chemical Eflajs. 



Thtrmometer between 50® and 6o**« 

I filled arid inverted, fays Mr. Abernethy, a jar in quick^ 
filvcr, and threw up into it one meafure of atmofpheric 
air, which could contain feven ounces of water The 
iquickfilver was deprefTed two inches and a half from th6 
top of the jar. After moving my hand ten minutes be- 
neath the furface of the quickfilver, to detach any common 
air which hiight adhere to it, I put it up into the air in 
the jar, and there retained it for the fpace cf an hour* 
Before I withdrew mj hand, I deprefled it beneath the 
furface of the quickfilver, ftill keeping it within the glafs> 
and agitated it in this fituation, for ten minutes : this was 
done that I might not remove any of the air, which was 
the fubjedl of the experiment. The fame conduft was 
purfued in ail the fi:bfcfquent experiments * After five 
hours expofure of the hand to this air^ the quantity in the 
glafs was diminijhed about half an ounce. It might have 
been expe<fied that the perfpiration would have increafed 
the bulk of the air^ but in this experiment, the abforption 
feemed to furpafa in quantity the fecretion; 

I now threw up into the jar lime water, by which nearly 
an «>unce of air was rapidly abforbed, and the lime was 
precipitated ; the remaining air being examined by the ad« 
dition of nitrous gas, was found to contain nearly' one 
Qxth lefs of oxygen gas, than it did before the experiment. 

In another fimilar experiment, after the hand had con- 
tinued nine hours in the air, I found more than one ounce 
meafure of Carbonic gas, or fixed air, had been produced, 
and the remaining air being examined by the eudiometer, 

N 1 contained 



contained one fourth lefs of oxygen than before the experi- 

It might, perhaps, here be inquired, does the oxygenous 
gas of the atmofphere contribute to the formation of the 
carbonic gas ? — ^Both reafon and experiment reply that it 
does not i for if oxygenous gaa combined with carbon on 
the furface of the (kin, much heat fliould be produced at 
the time of their combination ^ but this produdlion of heat 
is not found to take place. Experiments alfo (hew that 
carbonic gas is perfpired from the veffels j for into what- 
ever air the hand be immerfed, the quantity of carbonic 
gas given out will be nearly the fame. This is a point 
which I have determined by careful experiment- 

expehiment II ► 

Having filled and inverted :i jar in quickfilver, I put up 
Into it a feven- ounce meafure of abiotic gas* I purfued 
the plan related in the former experiment, to avoid adding 
to, or abftrafting from, this air. After two hours expof- 
ure' of the hand, on throwing up lime water, a rapid and 
conCderable diminution of air followed ; fo that rather 
more than an ounce of carbonic gas was produced, when 
no oxygen was prefent. The increafe of the quantity of 
tarbonic gas is accounted for in this experiment, b)" the 
heat of the atmofphere being greater, which difpofed the 
(kin to more copious perfpiration. 

I' made fimilar experiments with the hydrogenous and 
nitrous gafes : in thefe an equal quantity of carbonic gas 
was produced ; and when the hand was furrounded .by 
oxygen, the quantity of carbonic gas was not much greater. 




thermometer ahput Jo**. 

1 next wiflied to difcover what efFe£l the a&ion of the 
hand would produce on carbonic gas. 

Into a glafs jar filled with, an4 inverted in, quickfilver, I 
introduced fix ounces of carbonic gas, and expofed my 
hand to it, for the fpace of nine hours, in the manner, and 
with the precautions, before related. In that time the air 
was reduced in quantity to lefs than three ounces. A por- 
tion of the carbonic gas was examined, by the addition of 
lim.e water, before the experiment, when it was almoft 
wholly abforbed, an unexaminable bubble only rernained. 
When the rerriaining gas was examined by lime water, af- 
ter the experiment, a confiderable quantity of azotic gas, 
which doubtlefs exhaled from the haild, was found mixed 
with It. 

I twice repeated this experiment, with fimilar events, 
though with rather lefs diminution in the quantity of car- 
bonic gas : it was however fufficiently evident, that the ' 
abforption of this gas by the fkin was very copious and 


Thermometer 8o^* 

TTie abforption of carbonic gas makes it difficult to af- 
certain precifely the quantity perfpired, fince that gas whicli 
is thrown out from the body by fecretion, will probably be 
re-admitted by abforption : I therefore wifhed to difcovgj. 
the quantity of carbonic gas perfpired in one hour. 

The hand being retained one hour in five ounces of ni- 
trous gas, ao afcent nor deprefllon of the quickfilver was 

N 3 jremarked* 


remarked. On the introduflion of lime water into the 
glafS) Jix drams of carbonic gas were abforbed. 

In a fimilar experiment with atmofpheric air, after the 
expiration of an bour, the quickfilver had rather rifen, and 
three drams of carbonic gas were difcovered by Hme water. 
In another experiment, iii which hydrogenous gas was em- 
ployed,yb«r drams of carbonic gas were found at the ter* 
mination of an hour. 

All the laft related experiments were performed in very 
hot weather. If two draniS pf carbonic gas were emitted 
in an hour, as the quantity ufually obtained in five hours 
was but one ounce, it would be a fufficient demonftration 
of the abforption of a part of the air perfpired. Neither 
are thefe experiments conclufive as to the precife quantity 
of air emitted \ for even in an hour part of tliat which is 
exhaled will be again imbibed. When I firft attempted 
the experiments with carbonic gas, I fuppofed that the ab- 
forbents would receive it relu£lantly \ iot I thought tliat 
matter which was thrown out from the Ikin in fuch quan- 
tities, could neither be requifi^e nor falutary to the body. 
The experiment proved that I was miftaken, and there are 
reafons to fliew the falubrity of this gas. When it is ad- 
mitted into the ftomach, it is generally found beneficial 
When employed as a local application, its ftimulus is ufe^ 
ful, and when in combination with the blood, it probablv 
produces ec^uallj^ ferviceable efiectSt 

Thermometer between 60®. and'jo^^ 

The experiments that have been related, indiftinftly 
(hew/ that g (mall quantity of one kind of air, when mix^ 

•' e4 


ed with a larger proportion of another, can be abftraAed 
from it by the adion of the animal body. This circum- 
ftance will be hereafter fully proved. I will now relate 
an experiment that was made in fupport of this opinion, 
as it was performed beneath quickfilver, and in the fame 
manner with thofe which immediately precede it. 

Into a jar, filled with, and inverted over, quickfilver, 
three meafures of a^Qtie gas and three of carbonic were 
introduced \ the two airs deprefied the quickfilver two 
inches and a half, and occupied the fpace of feven ounces 
of water« After five hours expofure of the hand, the air 
contained in the jar filled the fpace of only five ounces and 
a half of water \ on putting up lime water to this air^ it 
was diminiflied to three ounces. In this experiment one 
ounce and a half of carbonic gas appears to have been re- 
moved, and half an ounce of azot ; but if you admit that 
one ounce of carbonic gas was per fpired during this ex- 
periment, and one third of an ounce of azotic, the quanti«* 
ty of air eftimated to be abforbed is increafed, but the 
proportions -remain unaltered* 


Thermometer 6o^j 

In the experiments with common air, I have mentioned 
that it contained lefs oxygen after it had undergone the 
operation of the hand, than before it became the fubje£b 
of experiment. A qiieftion here occurs, does this variation 
proportionably arife from the addition of the one gas, or the 
removal of the other ? That it is owing to abforption will, 
1 believe, .be evident, from the following cxperiments«-r^ 

JM" 4 Although 


Although the addition made to any kind of air cannot be 
accurately afeertained when water is employed, yet, if the 
hand removes any portion of air, that removal will be 
afcert'cdne J by exaniinatioii j neither does the eoiperiment 
appear liable to deception. In the e:jiperiments next re« 
latcd, the air was confined by water ; this gave me an op- 
portunity of ttfing larger veflels, and expofing a greaier 
extent of furface of the^ fkin to the conta^ of the air. I 
forbore particularly to- remark the quantity of air abforbed 
in tlie foregoing experiments ; for thoug.h it correfpoodecl 
to thofc which I (hall next relate, yet the correfpio^defice 
was not uniform, ,and the degree of abforption was lefs 

evident. RADCLIFFB 

I filled and inverted a jar in Water, and put up into i{ 
twenty-four ounces, by meafure, of ^tmofj>herie air ; to 
this the hand was expofed for twelve hours, the fame pre- 
cautions being ufed to avoid adding to, or taking from, the 
air contained in the jar. The water had rifcn in the vef- 
fel,' and about two ounces and a half of the air were re- 
moved ; that whiph remained was examined by the eudi- 
ometer, when two meafures of it, and one of nitrous gas, 
filled ihe fpace of nearly two meafures, and one third of 
another : it therefore follows, that about one half of the 
^fual quantity of oxygenous gas was removed from the 
other part of the atmofphei^e. That there could be no 
addition of nitrogenous gas capable of fo greatly altering 
the proportions of thefe gafes, muft, I think, be too evi- 
dent to need argument for its proof. Similar experiments 
were afterwards made with correfpondent events. In the 
experiments made under quickfilver, the abilrafiion of 
oxygen wiih equally evident and confiderable \ it therefore 
appears, that the animal body is capable of taking away the 


- . » V 

MR. abebnetht's experiments. 201 

oxygen, when in intimate mixturci with a piuch greater 
quantity qf a2ot» The atidity with which oxygen h ab- 
forbed, will be made ftiil more confpicuoiifly evident hf 
the foUowing comparative experiment. 


I filled and inverted two jars in water, into one I put 
twenty-four ounces, by meafuiey of axotic gas, intos the 
pther the like quantity of oxygen. The hand was put into . 
thefe airs alternately, and retained there for an hour each 
time : after it had been expofed to each for eight hours, 
the water rofe one eighth of an inch in the bottle contain- 
ing the azotic gas, and nearly a whole inch in that con-^ 
taihing the oxygen. On cftimating the quantity removed, 
by weighing the water which filled the bottles to the dif^ 
ferent marks, it appeared that one twentittb part only of the 
abiotic gas was removed, but one third of the oxygenous gai 
was gone. The remaining oxygenous gas was found to 
contain one eight more of azotic gas than before the 
experiment. I next examined the degree of celerity with 
which other gafes would be imbibed. 


Having filled and inverted a jar in water, and put into 
it thirteen ounces of nitrous gas^ I retained my hand in 
fhis air, at different times, five hours, in which time three 
ounces were abforbed. My hand being retained for as 
many hours in a like quantity of hydrogen gasy not more 
than one ounce and a half was removed. 

The removal of a quantity of oxygen gas from common 
air, is furely a curious circumllance 5 if this be the efFe£l 



of an adion in the abforbing veflels, it muft much exalt our 
ideas of their fubtility, and their aptitude, or difpofitioo, 
to admit one fpecies of matter, and to rtjeOt another. That 
the abftradion of one air, in preference to another, de- 
pends upon this caufe, I believe will not, on reflexion, be 
doubted; it might indeed be fafpe&ed^ that oxygenous, 
gas was feparated from the atmofphere by the ikin, as it is 
in the lungs by chemical attraction : but it has been 
proved that carbonic gas is removed with equal celerity ; 
and experiments on animal fubftance fiiew in them a dif- 
poCtion rather to part with, than to imbibe, carbonic 
gas. The removal of this air is therefore not likely to be 
the effcSt of chemical affinity. The different degrees of 
celerity with which odier gafes are admitted, feem to efta- 
blifh the opinion, that the removal of one kind of air in 
preference to another is the eSc6k of an aftive fiUBing 
power in the abforbing veflels* 

The experiments which have been related fatisfadorily 
provii the quality of the aerifor|n perfpiration ; perhaps 
the proportions may occaGonally vary, but, as nearly as I 
can determine, it conGfts of rather more than iivo parts of 
cariomc, with the remainder of azotic gas. The quantity 
of the matter perfpired is with lefs certainty afcertained ; 
'in one hour I obtained Jiwr drams of carbonic gas : but it 
fhould be remembered, that thefe experiments were made 
in very hot weather i and it alfo defer ves notice, that the 
quantity of the cutaneous perfpiration is fubjed to great 
variety* In every experiment abforption was found to be 
equal to perfpiration, in many it was much more copious; 
efpecially when the air to which the (kin was expofed was 
falutary to the conftit ution. The oxygenous and carbonic gafes 
are very readily imbibed ; whilft the nitrous^ hydrogenous^ 
4 and 


and axotic gafesi tardily gain admittance into the abforbing 
veflels. In experiment v. from about half of the furface of 
the hand two ounces and a half of carbonic gas were abforb^ 
ed in five hours \ in other experimentSi from the hand and 
wriftj there was imbibed, 

In eight hours 8 ounces of oxygenous gas. 

In five hours 3 do. — nitrous gas. 

In five hours i^ do. — hydrogenous gas» 

|n eight hours | do* — azotic gas. 


Thermometer 65 ^ . 

J next endeavoured to afcertain the quantity and quality 
of aqueous perfpiratipn« 

I introduced my hand and fore arm into a glafs jar cover, 
ed with bladder \ an aperture was left in tl>e bladder, to 
admit my arm, round which the bladder was tied \ fo that 
the afcent of any vapour was prevented. In (ix hours I 
procured nearly three drams of limpid taftelefs water. The 
quantity colle£led correfponds with the refult of Mr. 
Cruikfhank's experiments, who obtained the water of per. 
fpiration in the fame manner. Half of this liquid v/as eva- 
porated by a gentle heat \ there remained a fmall refidue 
on the glafs, which had a very flight taftc of fait. The 
other half was fufFered to fland many days, in which time 
no change appeared : it did not then alter the colour of 
the vegetable blue. Into one portion of this watery liquor 
inarine acid was dropped, which caufed no coagulation or 
precipitation of animal matter; into the other fome cauftifc 
alkali was poured> which produced lio vifible efFed. I 


therefore concluded that the water of perfpiration in a date 
of health, contains little or any thing, except a very fmall 
portion of fait. 

Peifpiration is generally faid to be fenfible,or infenfible; 
perhaps it may be better diftinguiflied by curiform or 
watery. It may be expeded, that a general edimate of 
the quantity of this fecretion (hould be attempted ; but the 
difficulties which oppofe any accuracy of (latement are 
conGderable. In thefe experiments the procefs was not 
continued under its ufual circumftances ; th« arm was fur- 
rounded by water, or quickfilver ; and when in the latter 
fluid, the circulation was in fome degree interrupted by its 
afcenfion and prefTure againft the edge of the jar. For 
the uncertainty which thefe circumftances occaGon, allow- 
ance mufl; be made \ but before an eftimate of the quantity 
of perfpiration be attempted, the extent of the furface of 
the body iliould be known. Mr. Cruickfliank fuppofes 
the extend of the hand to be to that of the body as one to 
fixty; it is much more, according to my computation. 
After ineflFedually endeavouring in different ways to mea- 
fure the furface of the body, I concluded that I fhould ap- 
proach neareft to its true extent by meafuring the circum- 
ference of the trunk and limbs at different parts ; and hav- 
ing thus obtained the mean circumference, I could thea 
calculate the extent of their furface, as if they were cylin- 
ders, the dimenfions of which were afcertained. The fur- 
face of the head, hand, and foot, I computed, by applying 
paper, cut as the occafion required, over thefe parts ; af- 
terwards placing the feparate pieces of paper fo as,to form 
an extended plane, I meafured its extent. I fhall mention 
thefe meafurments, that the reader may correct them if he 
(hould think them in the leaft erroneous. If a man be five 


feet fix inches high, I will fuppofe the mean circumference 
of the trunk of his body to be thirty-three inches, and its 
length, from the top of the ({emum to about the hip, 
twenty- two inches. 

Square mdies^ 
The extent of furface of the trunk w31 there- 
fore be • . • /' • • • • 726 
The circumference of the neck 13 mche8»it» length 

from the fternum to the chin 3 inches • 39 

The furfacC of the head». and back of the neck 286 

The mean circumference of the arm 10 inches, its 

length 12. Surface of both arms . .. 240 

The mean circumference of the fore arm 8 inches, 

its length xo. Surface of both fore arms . 160 

The furface of the hands and wrifts meafuring to 

,the extremities of the bones of the fore arm 140 

•The mean circumference of the thigh 17 inches, its 

length 16. Surface of both thighs » » 544 
The mean circumfercnde of the leg 1 1 inches^ its 

length 14. Surface of both legs . . . 308 

Surface of both feet . . . - • iBz^ 

Allow for folds of the fkin, inequalities of the fur- 

face, 3cc. . • • . • • i75 

The extent of the furface of the body will be . 2700 

The fuperficial extent of the hand and wrift, according 
to this calculation, is to that of the body as one to about 
thirty-eight and a half. 

In experiment iv. the leaft quantity of carbonic gap 
emitted from the hand, in one hour, was three dran^s by 
meafure 5 it may be fuppofed that the heat of the weather 
increafed the fccretion from the ikin ; let us therefore con- 
fider two drams as the ordinary quantity. If then the per- 
fpiration of all parts were equal, ft'OiTUy-fev^n dram mea^ 


206 MR. abernethy's experiments* 

funs iff carbonic gas and one third of that quantity of as^ 
otic guSi would be emitted from the bodjr in the fpace of 
one hour. If we alfo fuppofe pefpiratioii to be at all times 
equal| nearly three gallons of air would be thrown out from 
the body in the courfe of one day. Although the quantity 
of air pcrrpired is fo large, yet the weight of the body will 
not be n:iuch altered by its lofs ; it is the aqueous per/pira-^ 
tion by which this will be principally diminiftied. When 
the thermometer was between 60*^ and 70°, I obtained 
about thirty grains oi fluid from my haftd and part of the 
fore arm in an hojir j the furface from which this fecretion 
was made I compute to be ontf twenty-fifth part of the ex- 
tent of the body. The fuppofition being allowed, that 
perfpiration is at all times, and in every part, equal, about 
two pounds and a half'ts the lofs of water which the body 
would in one hot day fuftain. In moft of the experiments 
which I have made, the ahforption of air was equal to the 
perfpiration; in many it was much greater, cfpecially if 
the air was falubrious^ to which the Ikin was expofed. 
Experiment ri. makes is appcar^probable, that if the naked 
body was expofed to fre(h currents of the atmofphere, that 
only the oxygenous parts would be abforbed ; the decompofi- 
tion of which, in the body, -would produce an increafe of 
animal heat, which might in fome degree make up the lofs 
fuftained by the cxpofure. Our clothing probably pre- 
vents very much this eflba, and perhaps makes it Icfs ne- 
ceflary. If the perfpired carbonic gas be confined by our 
garments, it feems likely that it will be rtakcn up again by 
the abforbents. Whether the body does ufually imbibe 
water from the atmofphere, adequate to thfc lofs fuftained 
by aqueous perfpiration, is uncertain. But I am inclined 
to fuppofe, that the abforption of air from the flcin is near- 
ly equal to the fecretion. 






An attempt to analyfe the numerous foreign authors who 
wrote regarding health and longevity) from the time of 
SanftoriuSi till the peace of Utrecht) would be in4eed a 
laborious undertaking \ but the author of the Hiftory of 
Health having given a fliort account of fome of the mod 
remarkable amongfl them, it may be fufficient to extrafk. 
from his work the particulars which he mentions* 

He begins with remarking the great advantage which • 
phyficians derive from, a knowledge of the nature and 
quantity of infeniible perfpiration^ afcertained by SanAori- 
us i and the glorious difcovery of the circulation of the 
bloody which the immortal Harvey publifhed about th^ 
year i6a8. Some of the following authors, .however^ 
could not avail themfelves of thefe important dxfcovcries« 
being made pofterior to their time. 

Rodericus a Fonfecai a Portuguefe of Lifbon, principal 
profeflbr of phyfic in the univerfity of Pifa, and afterwards 
of Padua, publi&edy anno 1602, a treatife De tuinda vale* 


* Eztradled from M*Kenzie*8 Hiftory of Health, page 291. 


tmStu it ptoducenda vUof ai Ferdinandtnn MeJRcem magmm 
Heirurut dueem i in which he {ffopofec to ddndttct the 
inlirm as well as the robuft, to a healthy old age. He de* 
dates that he colleAed his rules from the Greeks atid the 
AraMitiSf hot move {>artictthrly firom Galen's fix books of 
Pirefenring health. The fix things neceflary to human lifey 
ate hf ham calkd the fix inftruments * by which health is 
maintatned. He was undoubtedly a man of learning and 
good fenfe, and has made a judicious colledHon of ufeftd 
iNcoepts from the ancients. 

Attveliiis Anfelmus of Mantua publiihed his Gemo^ 
mka fiv€ de fetmm regimine^ anm l6o6* He was chief 
phyfidan to the duke of Mantua^ though but a young man, 
asd dedares^ that he writes concerning old age, becaufe it 
is die ofoly period of life, in which a man may be properly 
fiid to livet as it exceb all other periods in underftandittg 
•nd prudence. '^ CMd people are much oUiged to him for 
^ his* good opinion of them \ bur it is obrious that his rules 
" to diie£k ^m muft be grounded upon the experience of 
«< oAera.** To him (hall be fiibjoined, 

FhmdfettS Ranehinus, profeflbr at Montpelier, who alfii 
poMiihed a Geroeomice de femsm cof^ervaiione^ et fitdBum 
morhrum atrmtione^ anno 1625. It is a Tery judicious per- 
formance, and (hews the anther to have been a man of 
erudition and good undetftanding* 

Rodolphtts Goclentus, a German pfayfician, dedicated a 
tfcadfe, De vita proroganda^ to Frederi^ count palatine of 
the Rhine, and Odu> landgtwre of Heflfe, tmm i6o8. He 

• laftmaHmta ilk» cub fvibaftftrvttur hatmh dififester expUcisdi 
flnt : luic Tcro font niiaier# iot aSr,^bii«»feC9fk Icfr 


€dlle£ked his materials from feveral hiilorians, philofophersj 
andphyficians, ancient and modern \ and has illuftrated 
his medical precepts with hiftorical fadis^ which renders 
them both ufeful and entertaining. 

Claudius Diodatus^ phyfician to the bifhop of Ba(il, 
pi^bliihed, anno 1628, his Pantheon Hygiajlicon HtppO'" 
cratic^m Hernkticum^ de hominis vita ad centum et viginti 
anfios falubriter producenda* But notwithftanding the 
great* expectation which he raifes by this high titlej his 
book (full of the vain .]|oJfts of the chymi{ls)H0i;calcuIatld 
xather tq obtrude particular noftrums than to give prudent 
rules fpr the goveyunent of health. 

Johannes Jo^ftonus, a Polifh* phyfician, of good rc^ 
putation, addreffed to a m)bleman of that country a treatifc ' 
called Jj^ Hygieines recetijita^ anno 1661. He difcourfes 
of the ^9c tt^riMkents of health, and recites the common 
Tulesin a neat Roman ftyle. * « ^ 

Some authors of this period have taken the trouble to 
write againft particular for^of fopd in comjjnoa ufe. To 
give but one inftanfce, Joannes P.etrus Lotichius publiihed 
a difllertation againft cheefe, anno 1643, cn^i^^^^ Tm^a^ 
tus medicus phihkgicus novus de casei nequitia, which fecms 
to be rather ludicrous than ferious or valuable. 

I (hall take notice of one foreign performance more, con- 
cerning health, beqaufe it is fomewhat different from any 
that we have hitherto mentioned. 


. * I thought, hf his B«me, that he wa« a Scotsman, but Xtiund my 
miftake in the foUowiog paragraph : *' N«>o iogiratuui tibi et rciiqux no- 
** hilitati futurum, fi nic patriiB laribus icllitucrem, rcddita tandem, per 
** Sueci regis mortem , pace.' * 

Fa. III. o 



N » - 

Iiithve year 171.0, Bernardin H^^g^fLUii* prioeif)^ ^fOf 
feffor of phyiic in the univerGty of Padua, piki»il^e4 ^}^f^ 
itix the ufc of Kaynald^ duke of Mo4en^.ei^trtled»jP^ ^i«- ^ 
dpum vaktudine iuenda cor^mentatifh] .IThe^.J^e^t^/p^r^ 
gQod .prince, fays W; is the greateft Wefljag^agjiij^yfjt? 
the public*^ Andthjs he. oonfimis by. the ei^ai^j^e cif the 
Romans, who ftlUnto the utmqft gri<:f aci^^^^^A^^^^H^ 
upon hearing that Germanicus was <iaiigeroufly iUat^.j* 
tiochj aii^,|>I«fi?ot.lyA ufMU a fuddeir Tcport that; he^ew 
. better, ra^|^tb exceb of jqj intj^ the C^pito], .burftii^ithfi ? 

'^.doofSj and crying out, *• Rome is faie, our country 13 hajjiy,* 
«' Gei^a^icus lives !" But foon after, when thej wcreaffgjed 
that ie wa» dead, gave way to their fur^ l>roke dgwn the 

••- temples of the godsj overturned their altars, and, thre^^Ae 
guardian deities of Rome into th^ftrects. , ^■ 

A prince who regards his health, conjpues h^ ilfoa}^ 
permit his phyGcian to remind him of the following^g^ti- 
culars. — '. , 

I, He fliould be put in mind of the annual ^h^get of 

,the feafons,^inat.hls clothes, palace, f urnitu^e,^ ^pd .^^^^^^^^ 

of living, may be adapted to them., ,. . ,._ \ \ 

2» Hd.£hould be adveitifed when any epid^ical diQ^- 

per begins to fpread, tlipt.hb may remove in^.^^^ippxp 

healthy air. , . j..^^,,, .^ 

3, As the, variety of delicacies, jwhic|% cov^^thf.t^les 
of princes, is a great temptation to excefs, they ihould be 
exhorted to partake of a moderate quantity of fuch things 
only as they know by experience to agree with their con- 

■ ftitution. ... :..'- • - y. .■ ' 

4, Princes fliould not be fatigued With bufineis foon af- 
. ter dinner, nor with any bufmefs at all after Xupj)er,^ iuJt 

Ihould follow the exatnple of AuguAus CsdEar^t.wha would 

< isei^ 

f m .f 



Mither read nor write letters after fupper, left they {hould 
difturb his fleep. 

5y It is ihameful in a prince to be a drunkard, and 
thereby become the jeft of the mob ;- as Claudius Tiberius 
]S[ero wasy in derifioni called Caldius Biberius Mero. Let 
princes imitate Julius Caefar, who, as Suetonius informs 
us, vim parcijimus fuit s and AuguftuSy who rarely drank 
aboTC three glafles after fupper. 

6, Manly exercifes, fuitable to their high rank^ according 
to the cuftom of the country, and efpeciaDy riciiqg on horfe- 
back, fhould be recommended to princes. They ihould alfo' 
indulge themfelv^ in other innocent and genteel recrea- 
tions, and nevgr Fail to admit young people to partake of 
their diverfions* 

7, The conftitution of the prince Ihould be carefully 
ftudied/ and well underftood by his phyfician : and his 
diet, exercife, and evacuations, ought to be regul^fed ac- 

8, No man is ignorant of the bad efle£ts which violent 
paffions produce in the human body. Anger, fear, griefy 
and even exceflive joy, have been the caufes of death to 
many. And princes are fo far from having any right of 
exemption from thefe paflions, that they are generally more 
expofed to them than any of their fubje£is. *< Let a man 
'' read (fays our author) the forty*fifth* chapter of the 

O a ** feventh 

* Pliny there mentions the Vexations Auguftas met with from his 
worthlefs iflbciates, Lepidus and Mark Antony.— The neceflity of 
concealing himfelf for three days in a ditch, after a defeat ; feditions an4 
mutinies in the army ; hatred of baniihed citizens ; ihares laid to take hit 
life away; treachery and wickednefs of his own £unily and friends; 
peftilence and famine in Italy ; a fixed refolution to die, in confequence of 
which he fafted four days, whereby he was brought to death's door ; 
and, at laft, the mortification of leaving the fon of ^his enemy his heir and 
fttcceflbr to the empire. 



" feventh book of Pliny's Natural hiftory, and when he has 
'* confidered the many misfortunes, dangers, terrors, and 
^ real calamities which Auguftus encountered, let him ho* 
** neftly declare whether or not he envies that exalted ruler 
« of the tvorld." It fhould, therefore, be the phyfician's 
ftudy to know what paflions his prince is mod prone to, 
that, in the favourable moments of good humour, he may 
refpeftfuUy recommend a diet and regimen proper to fub- 
due thofe enormities. 




It cannot be faid dutt medicine has been negle£ied among 
the CfainefC) for they have a great number of ancient au« 
tbors .who treat of it, having applied themfelves thereto 
from the fonndatiijfi of the empire. 

But as they were very littled Verfed in natural philofo* 
phy, and not at all in anatomy, fo that they fcarce knew 
the ufes of the parts of the human body^ and confequently 
were unacquainted wiA the caufes of distempers^ depend- 
ing on a doubtful fyftem of the ftrufkure of the human 
frame, it is no wonder they have not made the fame pro- 
grefs in this fcience as our phyficians in Europe. 

However, the ftudy of medicine has always been great- 
ly eftcemed by this nation : not only becaufe it is ufeful for 
the prefervation of life, and the recovery of health, but be« 
caufe they believe there is a clofe conneflion between it 
and the motions of the heavens* 

There were formerly imperial fchools for the improve- 
ment of medicine; but the phyficians at prefent in greateft 
etteem, are thofe whofe anceftors were phyficians before 
them, and transmitted thdr kpowledge from father to fon* 

But the only particulars mentioned by Du Halde, cbn- 
ne&ed with our prefent fubje£l, are contained in the fol- 
lowing eytraClSi 




Though Tycn hath numbered our days, and is the'maf- 
ter of thenii yet if taken rightly, it may be faid he Hath 
left them in our own difpofal \ for the fupreme Tyen is no 
refpe£ler of pcrfons : ndthing moves him but. virtue 5 and 
whofocver pra£tifeth it, hatb within himfelf a fure evidence 
of his friendfhip^ They then who would prolong their life 
muft immediately iludy to be virtuous. A regular care o{ 
the body, fupported by the conftant prs^ice of virttte, will 
make that conftitution hail and ilrong, from whence will 
follow a long and happy life* Give me leave in this place 
to relate what happened to myfelf. 

The blind fondnefs of a mother, who had not the rcfo 
lution to contradi£t me in my infancy, but indulged my 
appetite in every thing, entirely ruined my conftitution, 
and loaded me with infirmities. My father, who had already 
loft my two elder brothers^ and who in an advanced age 
had no child but me, was inconfolable. He had applied 
to the moft able phyficians*, but their medicines only is-^ 
creafed my diforden When there were no hopes of my 
recovery, my fathci faid within himfelf, there is but one 
way left to fave my fon, and that is to do works of cha- 
rity, which move the heart of Tyen : from that time he fet 
himfelf upon building bridges, "repairing highways, giving 
clothes to the poor, tea to travellers, and fending vi&uals 
to the pKfoners, fo that in one year's time he was at a con- 
f7.derable expence in thefe charitable works \ nor was this 
in vain 5 it was vifible that, without ufing any phyfic, I by 
little and little regained an bealthy look> my ftomach and 




my ftrength returned, and mj father found me in a condi- 
tion fit to applj myfclf to lludy ; he provided me an able 
mailer^ and of a very mild temj)er fuitaWe to my delicate 
conftitution \ but my application to reading at length occa- 
(ionec^a very dangerous relapfe^ out of which I with great 
dii&culty efcaped. Then my father made me a choice col- 
leflion of more tnan one hundred books of^hyfic, and gave 
me orders to confine my ftudy to thjit fcience. *This/ faid he, 
' will do you fervice, and make you helpful to others.* I read 
thofe long treatifes, but fo^ far from learning to recover my 
ftrength thereby, that I perceived it grow lefs every day ; fo 
I gave over phyGc, and bent my thoughts fincerely to practice 
virtue : I confulteJivith able perfons, I peruf<5d alfo fome 
books proper to my defign, and adding my own refleftions 
to what I had learner I framed for myfelf a regimen of 
life, which hath fucceeded perfeftly .well with me •, for 
from a lean and infirm ftatc, I in a few years found my- 
felf plump and found j and for one of my age I have a frcfli 
colour, a body ftrong, ' and free from all indifpofition, afid 
fee myfelf the head of a numerous family, which enjoy 
perfedi health. 

In fliort, among the many maxims which have been 
communicated to me in converfation, or which I have found 
in books, fome not fufficiently warranted I rejefted, otlier^ 
which were fcarce intelligible I cleared up, • and out of all 
I have formed to myfelf a plan of life, which hath eftablifli- 
cd me in my prefent happy ftate: however confined my 
obfervations may be, yet I believe the world will be obli- 
ged to me for making them public, becaufe they may be 
of ufe to preferve men from the infirmities fo common in 
life, and to procure them, as I have done, an agreeable 
old age, without having my hearing, fight, or any other of 
my fciifcs, impaired thereby. 

0*4. Thefe 






Thefe maxims may be reduced to four heads, which con- 
iift in the regulation of, !• The heart and its afie61ions; 
2. The ufe of diet ; 3. Tfie bufinefs of the day ; 4. Rcet 
at night. 



1 HE heart is in man what the roots are to the tree, and 
the fpring to the river ; it prefideS over the whole man, atid 
as foon as the art of governing it is known, tHe faculties of 
the foul and the five fenfes are likewi^ under command ^ 
it ought therefore to be our firft care to keep a guard over 
the defires and afFe£l:ions of the heart ; and that your care 
may be attended with fuccefs — 

I . Employ not yhurfelf in any thoughts and dejigns but 
ivhat lead to virtue. The principal duties of fociety are 
th^, — fidelity to the fupreme magiftrate, obedience to pa- 
rents, moderation and equity. Upon the pradlice of thefe 
virtues every one fliould, when he retires in order to make 
his evening reflexions, ferioufly examine himfelf. Limit 
not your endeavours only to the perfefting yourfelf, but 
ftri^e moreover to make your virtue beneficial and ufeful. 
Comes there then any thought into your head ? are you about 
to fay any thing ? do you form any fcheme in your mind ? 
refleft upon it before hand, and afk yourfelf thefe quef- 
tions : — Is what I think, wha%I am about to fay or do, be- 
neficial or injurious to others ? If it be beneficial, fpcak or 
adl, notwithftanding the difficulties that difcourage you ; 
if it be injurious, never allow yourfelf in fuch views, dif- 
courfes or attempts. 

Further, that you may keep from b^ing furprifed into 
the committing what is wrong, watch every nr.o.nent over 


AMONG irH£ CHp}£SS. HlJ 


your hearty defcend often into yourfeli^ and pardon your- 

felf no fault. It is only by vigorous endeavourS) efpeckdiy 
dt the beginning, that we imptort in virtue* A man thus 
attentive and watchful over himfeif, though he muft, ac- 
cording to die courfe of human affairs, be expofed to va- 
rious accidents, yet he will find by experience the cSk&s 
of a fecret protefiiion, whidi by unknown ways will pre* 
ferve him from every misfortune. 

Q. Keep pake in your hearts When a man's heart is 
filled with agreeable views, and fuch as are agreeable for 
maintaining union in civil fooiety, his thoughts (hine forth 
in his countenance; his inward joy and (erenit^yof mind 
fparkle in all the ^mter man, and every one perceives the 
true and folid fweetnefs and fatisfaflion which he taftes in 
the inmoft recedes of his foul. This Is what the ancients 
would have us underftand by thefe figurative expreifions: 
a fereneiky, a fine fun, a gentle zephyr, charming clouds, 
infpire men, and even birds, with joy ; on die other hand, 
gloomy weather, boifterous wind, heavy rain, violent thuur 
der, and continual lightnings, terrify the very birds, who 
fly for ibelter to the thickeft woods. A wife man therefore 
fiiould always appear with a countenance breathing that 
peace and tranquillity which he enjoys within himfelf. 

It is a maxim, that violent paiSons, fuch as hatred, an« 
ger, forrow, rend the heart. As it is no eafy matter to live 
in fociety without frequent fubje&s of difpute and unea- 
finefs, we ought to take prudent meafures, and be upon 
our guard, againft thefe enemies of our peace. Am I 
threatened with a troubkfome affair, I meet the ftorm 
with a compofed mind, and endeavour to quell it. Am I 
involved againft my will, I labour to furmount it^ 
without loSng any thing of my ufual freedom of temper. 
Have I taken wrong meafues, I am not obftinate in jufti- 
% fying 

a?0 THE AfiT OF Jid^EPJiCJN»* 

are In mourning for the death of their neareft rektionsi or 
undone by a fire, or fome other like accident ^ and whilft 
many others feek to end their miferies with their UveSj bj 
violent means. When I .compare my felf with thefe un« 
I^ippy perfonsy and fee myfelf free from t)ie evils with 
which they are furrounded, cannot I he content with mj 

He who qe:iK)r.met with croiles knows not the value of 
z quiet life. Thofe which I have e^cperienced axe now of 
great ufe to me ^ for befides the two great fits of Ccknefs 
abeady mentioned, which had brought me through much 
pain to the gates of death, I yery narrowly efcaped itiip- 
vreck. Whep. a difappointm^t befals ixie, I make myfelf 
eafy by thus realoQing with myfelf.— Is there any thing ia 
this affiiir cospparable to any one of thofe trials which I have 
alre^4y .gone throHgh i Pid we recur to thfi fsa^ renpued j 
in aiiii£Uoa^ we ihould learn from our ow;p experience) 
that it is in our .power, with a little reflexion, tp make a 
good ufe of that portion of hs^pinefs wh^ch Tyep hath 
given us. Qn the contrary, he who (ets^io hounds to hU 
defires, were he to acquire the riches and glpry of an .em- 
pire, would ftill tlunk he ws^ted eyery th^lg» Let as 
conGder that our powers are limited 9 let ;iot then -our de- 
fireft be unbounded ; let us take things as they come ; and 
<;fpCQialIy be careful nqt to giye up oucfelves to continaal 
folicitude and anxiety, which will rob u^ of ;t^ mqft v^alu- 
able moments .of life. 

The celebtated Yen, my countr^tmen, had a fine maxim 
— « If," faid he, «* your date of life be mended, think kb 
upon .what you huve not than upon .what you have ; odier- 
wife you will be always defiring, and will never fee your 
defires iatisfied* If you fall belpw your former condition, 
lay thus tp yourfelf t what is left isfufficient -, my fuhAance 

S may 

may ht taken from me, but none £ball rob me 6f fhe tran« 
quitlity of my heart, which is the grcateft of all goods.** 
with fuch fehtiments, notwithftanding the decreafe of your 
fortune, you t^ill be richer than you imaging. This is the 
moral of that ancient fable. Seeing a gentleman before 
me on a fine horfe, while I was mounted upon an afs ;— Ah ! 
faid I to myfelf, hqw different is my conditioii from his ! 
but, upon turning my head, I faw a good likely country- 
man driving a heavy wheelbarrow : O then ! faid I, if I am 
hot his equal who goes before me, at lead I am much hid 
better who follows me. This fable is fufficient, on fome 
occafions, to revive my (pirits. I have wrote it on a fcroll, 
and fet it up in my ftudy, that I may ftiH ^all it to mind* 

IV. When you enjoy a good ftatc of health, know the 
value of it, and ftudy to preferve it. Difeafes and infir- 
mities are the lot of man, and it is difficult for him to be 
entirely free from them. The flighter ones embitter life, 
by thtir variety and continuance ; the greater are attended 
with fears and apprehenfions. Every part of life is fubjedJ: 
to mifery. Infancy is, if I may fo exprefs myfelf, con- 
demned to cries and wailings ; manhood and old age arte 
expofed to the long abfence of a family, to changes of for* 
tune, and to grievous diftempers. We fee others who have 
much more reafon to complain ; fuch as are born or be- 
come d^af, blind, dumb, half paralytic, cripples,^ and thofe 
who have loft the ufe of all their Kmbt, I have already 
told you what I fufFered from a complication of diftempers. 
X have rid myfelf of them, and now enjoy a found and vi- 
gorous health ; I have my hearing quick, my fight clear, a 
good appetite, and a cheerful temper. Another may acquire 
firm health as well as I ; but when it is once obtained^ he 
|bould know how to prefenre it. 
' Oae 



One of the beR means is, to refift that natural propendty 
which we have to fenfual pkafuresi and to ufe very mo- 
derately even the allowable. An old man, wlio feels him» 
felf as lively and eager after pleafures as if he was in the 
vigour of his age^ fliould l^arn to reftrain himfelf by the 
following refie£tions ;—* After the fiftieth year, man is in 
his decline i the blood begins to run weak, the fpidts fail, 
and feeble old age is not far off« Though a mjui could 
promife himfelf to live an hundred years, is that fc long 
a term ? and will he not foon be at the end of that race I 
But are there maqy who arrive at an hundred years ? Our 
life is fo ihort, that we ought to avoid every excefs that 
may make it yet £borter« Do we not perceive that our 
^nd draws nigh, when^ in reading, the eyes are fubje£b to 
daz2lings; when the feet ftagger with walking; when, 
after meals, the nouriihment loads the ftomach; whenj 
after having fpoke fome time together, we find ourfdves 
out of breath ? does not all this teach us, that w^ are not 
young, and that we mud bid adieu to pleafures, which 
will quickly confume the weak remains of health, which 
it is of fo great moment to hufband for the prefervation of 
life I The lamp, fays the proverb, goes out when the oil 
is fpent : . more oil may be added to the lamp, as the fiamq 
wafles it ; but if the radical moifture of the body be once 
confumed, have we any means to repair that lofs ^ This 
ftquires ferious refledion. 




J^S muR eat and drink to fupport the body. The 
noui^thment which we take, if it be well regulated| keeps 
the ftomach in a (ituation agreeable to it. The ftomach is 
the conco£ter and digefter of food, the firft fource of the 
blood, vital fpirits, juices and humours difperfdd into the dif<« 
ferent parts of the body, to maintain their natural. vigour. 
He, therefore, who regards his health, ought to be very 
exa£t in obferving certain rules relating to eating and 

I. Let hunger f and the want you feel within^ regulate your 
Joodi and take great care that you do not offend in quantity^ 
£xcei!ive eating hurts the vital fpirits, and fatigues the ilo« 
mach. The vitiated chyle, carried into the mafs of blood, 
makes it thick, and unapt to a fpiritous fermentation. For 
the fame reafon, never think of drinking but when you 
.are dry ; quench your third without excefs. Too much 
drink damages the blood, and fills the ftomach with wind^ 
by precipitating the indigefied chyle \ ropy wine occafions 
wind in the fermentation, whence follows an inflation. 

n. Breahfqfl early. The air is drawn in by the noftrils, 
and the juices of the earth by the mouth, the exhalations 
of which we take in. It greatly concerns us never to go 
out of doors fafting ; this caution is efpecially neceflary in 
epidemical difte^pers, or in going among (ick people. In 
winter, a glafs or two of wine is an excellent prcfervative 
againft unwholefome air. It is good to take fome food^ 
but in a fmall quantity, which, ferves to employ and fettle the 
ftomach, and is a fort of cordial. In fuipmer, it prevents 
injuries from bad air, and keeps off colics, vomitings, 
^yfenteries, ^c. In winter^ it fortifies againft fevere cold 




and noifome fogs. In fpring, it is of great virtue againft 
high winds^ the ferein, (an nnwholelbme vapour that falls 
after funfet in hot countries), and dews, fo frequent and 
plentiful in that feafon. 

I rife very early \ and before I have either waihed my 
face, or cleanfed my mouthj I fwallow a porringer of rice 
gruel, taking a little of the rice. Barley or rice gruel are 
agreeable to the ftomach, and to very good purpofe moiilen 
, the ferment inclofed in it. For want of rice gruel, I ufe 
warm water, fveeetened with a little powdered fugar. 

III. Make an hearty meal about no^n, on the plainell 
meats, which are moft wholefome and nouriihing. Suffer 
not fome forts of ragouts, which are invented only to pro- 
voke or pleafe the appetite, to come on your table. There 
arc five forts of 'high fauces, and each of them» if fre- 
quently ttfed, hath unwholefome qualities : Meats too ialt 
offend the heart ; too four, the ftomach ; too bitter, the 
lungs; too poignant, the liver, by their tartnefs; too fweet. 
the reins. But what is moft to be avoided in feafoiung» is 
too much fait* Salt flackens the motion of the blood, and 
occaiions a difficulty of breathing. Salted water flung into 
the blood of a creature juft killed, immediately curdles it. 
Hence, they whofe common food is fait meats, have a 
pale complexion, a flow pulfe, and are full of corrupt 

Accuftom yourfelf therefore to the fimpleft food; it will 
preferve you from many difeafes, anyd keep you in perfefl 
health* But take care .to eat .your meat hot; never eat cold 
meat, efpecially when it is fat. This fort of food, bj 
fiaying too k>ng in the ftomach, will produce crudities, 
which occafioa grimes, a diarrboeai and fuch 1 ike dif* 


IT, Eat JloHulfy and chetti your meat well, 

I. This flow chewing breaks the food in pieces, ihixes 
it with the faliva, reduces it to a proper finenefs, which is 
the firft dififolution, and fits it for the ferment.atIon of the 

a. The digeftion thus begun by the teeth, and by the 
help of the faliva, is eafily perfe£ted by the ferment of the 

3. Thus we efcape many accidents, which befal fuch as 
eat haflily ; fuch as coughs, hiccups, and the itfi^ that is, 
an irritation of the gullet^ which is fometimes mortal. 

What can be at once more difagreeable and ridiculous, 
than to fee a man catch his meat as a tiger feizes his prey, 
to eat in a hurry, cramming his mouth inccflTantly with both 
hands, as if he was fighting for it, or feared it ihould be 
thatched from him ? 

V. D^ »&tfo fat gratify your appetite^ as t9 rife from tatle 
quite faiiated, A large quantity of food difturbs the fto* 
mach, and hurts digeftion. Though you have, at the 
fame time, a ftrong ftomach, and which eafily digefts its 
food, do not employ its whole ftrength, but keep fome of 
it in referve. I will explain my meaning by a fimilitude : 
A man who can lift or carry an hundred weight, if loaded 
with only fourfcore, is not much fatigued } but lay on him 
a load much heavier, his too-extended nerves will feel the 
weight, his bones will not bear up under it, and, after a 
few fteps, he will ftagger and fall backwards. The appli* 
cation is eafy. When we are accuftomed to a fober life, 
the ufe of meats is much more beneficial. In ihort, it ia 
by long fuficring of hunger and thirft that we (hould learn 
moderation. The fatisfyin^ to the full the demands of 
either, is th« ready way to cxpofe u? to certain ficknefs; 

Vol III. P 


becaufe neither the anitaal nor vital fpirits will be fufficient 
for their fun£iions. 

VI. Sup betimes, andjpdringly. It is better to eat oftener^ 
if there be a neceffity* It is ufual, in fummer, in the fifth 
and fizth moons, when the days are longeft, to make four 
meals ; the firft at early rifing, the fecond at eleven, the 
tlurd towards funfet, and the fourth juft before bedtime. 
In the other feafons of the year, three meals are enough. 
I would have every one determine, as hear as tnay be, the 
quantity of rice and other food to be taken at one meal^ 
agreeably to his conftitution and way of life ; and that he 
ihould keep to that rule, making it a law to himfelf never 
to tranfgrefs it, unless on fome occafions, when the victuals 
pleafe th^ palate, and give an inclination to take more than 
Ordinary ; but this temperance is mod neceflary at fupper, 
which ought to be very light. 

Generally fpeaking, eat no meats which are iiard of 
digeftion^ fuch as thofe whofe fubftaneie is glewy'and 
Vifcous. Abftain from meats half raw or very fat ; thofe 
that are cooked up with rich fauces ; from high feafoned 
ragouts^ which carry fire into the bowels; from new com, 
which men are fond of eating at its firft coming, and 
wUch is not wholefome till it is come to maturity, by in* 
fenfible fermentation, and evaporating its plenteous volatile 
and pungent falts^ This advice chiefly tegards old perfons, 
and thofe of a weak ftomach. 

• vn. Tate care that your f^d he tender, and thoroughly 
Jireffedi for if it be hard, and not eafily chewed, the fio- 
mach will with difficulty digeft it. Fle(h that is tougb^ 
fibrous, or half dreffed, is very hard of digeftion. When 
a man is in the firength and Vigour of his age, when the 
blood hatK all its fire, and the ftomach is Arong, he will 
fufitr lefs inconvenience from fuch kind of food; but it 




IV ill Infallibly make him Cck, if he be of a weak ftomach, 

or advanced in years. As for my own part, I give orders 

that the rice, flefli, fiih, rootSj herbs, and in general every 

thing that is brought to my table, be thoroughly done, and 

very tender^ otherwife I would not touch it- 

VIII. Sleep not till two hours after yoar meals. The food 
which paffes by the gullet into the ftomach fliould be 
ground and diffolved there, that it may be able to circulate, 
be filtratedj and affimilated. Sleep taken immediately after 
fupper deprives the ftomach of the liberty of afting updn the 
aliments, which not being fufficiently attennuated, ftagnatc 
there^ caufing crudities, four belehings, and often a lien- 
tery, and confirmed diarrhosa. If this continues for fome 
time, there appears a wannefs in the face, and the body 
becomes languifhing, feeble, and bloated. The digeftion 
being thus hindered by unfeafonable fleep, chylification' is 
obftru£l;ed, and the vitiated chyle being difperfed, by the 
circular motion, into all the bowels, and ftopt there by its 
thicknefs, becomes more and more coagulated by its de- 
praved acid, which is the fource of a multitude of diftem- 
pers, from the obftruftions which happen in the glands. 
I advife, then, walking a while after meals. This gentle 
motion facilitates digeftion. Take care, alfo, that you do 
not eat immediately after a violent fit of anger. Anger 
caufes an effervefcence in the juices that are ftrained 
through the falivary glatids ; the faliva, with its noxious 
ferment, goes into the ftomach^ infefts the chyle, and cor- 
rupts the mafs of blood. 

IX. Begtti your meal with drinitng a little tea. It moiftens 
the throat and 'ftomach, and preferves jthe radical heat and 
moifture from rude attacks. Clofe alfo your meal with a 
cup of tea, to wafh your mouth and teeth ; it is a method 
which will^faften them, and prcferve them even to old 

P 2 age. 



age. I do not advife drinking much either of tea' of any 
other liquor. The ftomach does not like to be too moift} 
a little drynefs and beat put it in a condition moft fuitable 
to its fun£tions. I freely own I do not love tea \ and 
when I ^m obliged to drink it« I perceive my ftomach 
naufeates it. The weaknefs of my conftitution in youth 
may have contributed to this averfion. I do not diftin- 
guiih even the heft tea from the worfl. This fometimes 
draws upon me' the raillery of my friends ; but I in my 
turn hiugh at their nicenefs, and pleafe myfelf with my 

But it is a common faying^/ he who does not love tes, 
covets wine. (The Ghinefe, as I have obferved, make 
their wine of diftilled rice, and it is very ftrong.) I do 
indeed drink wine ; but P never take more than four or 
five fmall gl^es : more than that would give ihorthefs 
of breath, a dizzinefs, ficknefs at ftomach, and next 
day I ftiould be like one ezpediing a fit of ficknefs. 
Wine, moderately taken, refreflies drooping nature, re- 
vives its forces, and gives to the blood and pulfe their 
natural vivacity ; but drunk to excefs, it produces 
windy fermentations, obftru£lions in the reins, and fouls 
the ftomach. 

Nothing appears to me either more (hameful, or more 
unwdrthy reafonable men, than the contending at a feaft 
who ftiall drink moft bumpers, or ftiall fooneft empty his 
bottle. For my part,, when I entertain my friends, I invite 
them cheerfully to drink two or three glafles to put them 
in good humour ; but I ftop there, without preffing them 
farther, or infifting on compliances which would deftroy 
their health : thefe are my maxims in diet ; they are eafy^ 
and if they arc praftifed, I am fure they will be found be- 




'In the common aflions of life, wc are attentive enough to 
great matters, which give a vifible blow to health ; but 
there are many fmall ones which are looked upon as trifles, 
and thought below notice ; and yet due care with regard 
to thefe trifles may keep us from many inconveniencies* 
and a -contrary condu£l ihorten the term of years which 
Tycn defigned us. 

In general, our life depends upon the regular motion of 
the fpirits : of thefe there are three forts^ the vital which 
we call tjing: the animal, which we call hi; and a third 
degree of fpirits, much more noble, more free from mat- 
ter, and to which the name of fpirit does much better 
agree, which are called shin. 

The vital fpirits produce the animal, and of both thefe 
18 begotten a third degree of fpirits defigned for inteUeftual 
operations. If the vital fpirits happen to fail, the animal 
muft unavoidably droop ; and this fecond fort of fpirit be- 
ing exhaufted, the third cannot fubfifl, and the man mull 
die. It concerns! us therefore not idly to wafte thefe three 
principles of life, either by an immoderate ufe of f(^fual 
pleafures; or by violent labour, or by too intenfe and conftant 

application of the mind.* 

I. The 

• What the Chincfe author here fays, agrees well enough with the 
fentinients of a modern writer. Thus the latter ezpreflies himfelf, and it 
will ferve as an illuftration. < AH the fprings* fays he < of a human body 
would be ufelefs and una&ive, if (^od had not produced and appointed tjie 
irital fpirits, to make them a^, and to imprint on them a lively motion ; 
and the animal fpirits to put the internal and external fenfes in exercife : 
Sq he has difpofcd, a» the general inftrument of the vegetative foul in the 

P '7 animal 


I. Ttie moft important advice, which I can give, for 
maintaining the bodj in a due temperament, is to be 
very moderate in the ufe of the pleafures of fenfe ; for all 
ezcefs weakens the fpirlts. Do not labour to difcover 
what is out of the reach of your fight, and you will pre- 
ferve the liver in good order } liearken not after any thing 
with a too earned attentivenefs, and your kidnies will 
be found ; abfiain from too naucb and too frequent fpit- 
ting and fpawling, and your limgs will be well ; under^ 
take not very curious and fine works, and the heart will 
keep its force and vigour : when you have fuffered hunger, 
don't immediately eat much ; and above all, keep from 


animal, the arterial blood, which is alfo called the vital fpirit, when it hath 
been wanned and purified in the heart. The animal fpirits are much fa- 
perior to the vital, as they are the inflrument of a more noble life. i. 
The particles which compofe the animah fpirits are much (mailer, and 
)3iore fubtle, than thofe which compofe tbe vital ^. The particles of the 
animal fpirits move in every fenfe feparately as the particles of air ; thi$ 
is the Chinefe i/. The particles of the vital fpirits keep gliding one over 
another as the parts of water ; this is the Chinefe t/tng. 3. The particles 
of the animal fpirits are fo rapid, that they are imperceptible to all the 
fenfes ; and the fineiib part of thefe (pif its is called s&Im. The operations 
pf growth, nouriihment, &c, are vit^l operations, and afcribed to the Chi- 
nefe tfifig. Thofe of perception, both by t^ie internal and external fenfes. 
^^-e animal operations. The animal fpirits, according to the ancients, are 
nothing but a fubtle air, a very fine breath J exactly anfwering to the i/. 
It is a compofition pf fmall bodies, in a l^rifk and continual motion, like 
*thofe particles which make the flame of a lighted torch, thefe fpirits ac- 
cording to the moderns, are nothing bu^ a fubtle humour, which flows 
from the brain into the nerves wi^h fuch impetuous force, that, if «peo- 
cd, they are very difficult to be ftcpt.* The author I quote, means by the 
animal fpirits, a pure and fubtle breath, which anfwers to the Chinefe 
Jki; and, moreover, a flame finer than that of aquavitx, which istheChi^ 


food of a crude and cold nature, left the ftomach ihould 
fa£&r by it: this regards the internal parts. 

As to external aflioi^s ; walk not too long at oncOi for 
your nerves will be fatigued by it ; ftand not for hours 
together in one pofture, for the bones will hardly fupport 
you ; fit not too long, the flefh will fuffer by it ; lie not 
down more than is neceflary, for thereby the blood will 
be lefs fluid, and it will have more difficulty to pafs 
through the veins. 

In different feafons there are alfo rules to be obferved 
to defimd yourfelf from too great heats and colds : in win-* 
ter keep not yourfelf too hot, ndr in fummer too cold; 
My maxim is to prevent in time all forts of diftempers^, 
and to take precautiqns againft their weakeft attacks. 

n. As foon as you are awake, rub over your breaft> 
where the heart lies, yrith your hand feveral times, left, 
coming warm out of bed, the cool air ihould feii&e you on 
a fudden, and flop the pores of t|)e body, which, would 
occafion jheums, and other inconveniencies ; whereas a 
few frictions with the palm of the hand put the blood in 
motion at its fource, and prevent from many accidents : 
in wa(hing your face, as foon as you are out of bed, 
keep your eyes (hut, left the falts of the gum of the eyes, 
and the fweat, entering with the water there, fret, and at 
length produce a ferous inflammation. 

III. As of all the palfions whicti ruffle us, anger does 
the moft mifchief, fo of all the unwholefome affeftions of 
the air, wind is the moft dangerous, efpecially when it 
\omes through any narrow paflage, is cold and piercing, 
and furprifes us unawares ; it iniinuates into the body, 
penetrates the nerves and arteries, and often caufes 
the torturing pains of the gout, palfy, and fuch like 
grievous difeafes. < The ancient proverb, therefore; -adr 

P 4 ^ vifc% 


vifes us to avoid a blaft of wind as carefallj as the 
point of an arrow, Likemfe, after hot bathing, or hard 
labour, when the body is in a fweat, bj no meaoi leave 
of any of your clothes, nor expofe yottrfelf to the fcefli 
air ; for this light refirelhment may cqU yes d«ar« The 
eold air clofes the pores, and theoee comes a gathering of 
ill humours, which would have foand vent this way, 
eitherby fenfiblefweat,or infenfiblo perf|nration,efpeciaHy 
at the feet, the back, and belly, which (bould not feel the 
cold. Therefore, even in fummer, when we wear very 
thin cloaths, it is proper to covet the lower -belly with a 
large cotton cloth, to pteferve it ftbm colical difotders, 
which fuddeo cold would occafioii there* ' I know the re- 
medy in this cafe is fndorifics ; but though they <^re the 
prefent diforder, they weaken the ma& of blood, and 
alter its fermentation, vyhen fimilar and heterogeneoas 
particles are evacuated promlfcuoufly* 

iVw In the fourth and fifth moons, May and June, if 
there be long and continued rains, as it happens- in fome 
fouthern provinces, the dampnefs of houfes fhonld be re- 
medied by burning odoriferous herbs in them, or wood 
well dried, and which makes a clear fire. Ht who fits 
or lies down in a moid place is in danger of a-fit of the 
palfy, or at lead a very obftinate flux. In fultry w^thef, 
when you fweat much, fhift your linen frequently, hot 
do not put on what hath been jufi dried in the fun. 

V. When the juice is fqueezed out of the canes, don't 
burn the wood and hufks under your eyes, that fort 
of fire having the malignant quality of clouding the fight. 
You will find the famie inconvenience by burning train 
oil inflead of common oil. Muik, and the blofiToms of 
young oranges, contain imperceptible infefts ; therefore do 

i)Ot put your nofe to them, left thcfe fmall vermin get up 

j» ■ . • ... • 



Co the brttn. The air is fall of imperceptible eggs of 
TariouB CmvAl infeds, which we fuck into the ftoquach 
with our breath ; but thej cannot be hatched there, fo^ 
ivant of a fit medium ; whereas the infcAs which lay their 

* • 

little eggs in the xneallj cup of flowers, maj be drawn up 
hj the nofe, with a ferment proper to hatch them. 

yi. During the jthree fpring months, when nature i^ 
on all fides in a ferment, we fliould conform ourfelves to 
it: to this end, we ihould ftir about, and walk, that the 
Jimbs maj be more pliant ; for a fedentar j and unaSive 
life are at this feafon dire^llj contrary to health. If there 
ihould be fome warm days, don't leave off your wintqr 
clothes too foon, nor all at once, but by degrees, left you 
ihould be furprifed with fuddeti cold weather, which ii^ 
that feafon very commonly fucceeds heat* 

VII. In fummer, the fpirits in the body are much fpent, 
the reins are weakened, the radical moifture is wafted, 
and, if I may nfe the exprefiion, evaporates in water 
and fweat. At this time, w^ ought to take our ipeat a 
little warm, and adapted to procure a moderate heat 
within. , If, after violent exercife, you drink what is 
warm, and capably of raifing a fweat, let it take its 
courfe, and be not fo ill advifed as to ftop it, by throwing 
off your clothes, much lefs by wiping it off" as faft as it 
rifes, or with a wet cloth j nor is it good while you fweat 
to fan yourfelf. 

VIII. During the three winter months, when the wa- 
ters have not their free courfe, the blood in our veins 
becomes flow, heavy, and apt to turn four. The vefllli 
being too full for want of perfpiration, this fuUnefs hin- 
ders the free motion of the fluids, and makes it tou ilow ; 
befides, the air being full of nitre, which is drawn in by 
the breath, carries into the mafs of blood ftimulat.i».g par- 

I tielos. 


ticlesy'bj which the chyle is clogged, and contrafts aa 
acidity. It is tlrerefore neceflary to redouble your care 
to maintain the natural heat, and vital fpirits ; do not 
then, during that feafoo, ftir out of doors, but upon great 
necefl^ty ; keep yourfelf warm within, and rife not too 
early, left you be' pinphed by the firft cold of the white 
frofts* W^ar clothes fit to keep you warm, but do not 
load yourfelf with fur. Don't hover continually over a 
a fire, which may caufe a violent inward fermentatioD, 
.enough to give you a fever* Efpecially, be advifed to 
wear a double girdle, about four or five inches broad; for 
the heat which that keeps up in the reins, warms the reft 
of the bodyt . 

IX. In travelling, if jou go by water, as it is not eafj 
to provide, rife in the morning, furnilh yourfelf before- 
hand with fome pills of ti whangs, and as foon as you 
awake fwallow three or four drams of them in a cup of 
warm water. Thefe pills are called ti whangs becaufe 
the ti whang is the principal of its five fmfdl ingredients \ 
but for want of thefe pills you may take the ti wbang by 

If, in travelling by land, you crofs mountains burnt 
up by the fun, though ever fo dry, do not drink of 
fpring or river water on which the fun ihines ; for, be- 
fides that it hath at that time pernicious qualities, it is 
often full of the fpawn of innumerable infeds. 

If you travel in the midfl: of winter, and your feet are 
frozen, as foon as you come into your inn, order fome 
water to be brought juit lukewarm, and bathe your feet 
and hands with it, rubbing them gently to foften them, 
and to recal the natural heat into the veins and arteries. 
After that firit operation, you run no rifle in wafliing them 
in ever fo hot water ; but if, neglecting that precaudoo, 



you plunge your feet all at once into boiling water, the 
frozen blood coagulates, the nerves and arteries will be 
Jjurt by it, and you are in danger of being lame ever 
after. In like manner, when you come in benumbed 
ivith cold, it is not wholefome prefendy to drink any 
(bing hot, but ftay h^f an hour before you drink,* 


* The t$ tvbang is apthing elfe b^t the root of the great comfrey. Th<; 
beft grows in the proyince of Ho w^/r, about the city of IVhay kingy whence 
it is called vfbay king ti xuBtnig, Thefe roots, when dry, arc as big af 
one's thumb, and a great deal longer. This root has excellent properties; 
inuch is afcribed to its virtues in Europe, much mere In Cbina, A Chinefe 
phyfician, who is a chriflian, afiirms, that the richer fort, who regar4 
their health, take every morning fome fmall pills of iJ wbangy jufb as 
we fee many in Europe drink coffee or chocolate. Some cut this root into 
little ilices, and boil it, or elfe diftil it in 6alnto maria\ others bruife 
it, make it up into a bolus, and fwallow it in warm water. It is ufuall|' 
compounded with five ingredients, vix. aromatics, cordials, diuretics, gentle 
fudorifics, and weak acifds, the better to quicken and convey to the vifcera 
the virtue of the // whang, which always predominates in thefe pills. 0£ 
thefe ingredient^ the principal is fu iin. You muft not confouad this 
^oot with the tu fu Hn, v^hich is the efquina ov China root. The tu f» 
iin is very common in China, and exceeding cheap. The /u lin, which is 
very much elleemed, and is very dear, tafles fweet, is of a temperate 
quality, and has nothing hurtful in it^ or that needs a corre<5^ive. It is a 
good remedy in difeafes pf the liver and ftomach, in the dropfy and 
^hma. What there is of heat in it helps to cut the phlegm that annoys 
the mouth and throat, and difperfe windinefs in the ftomach ^and fides; 
moreover, it appeafes grief of heart, and the violent diforders which 
Strife in the mind by ^ excefs of forrow or fear ; it relieves the great 
drynefs of the i?iout|i and tongue ; it hath the double virtue of curing a 
violent flux and a flpppage of urine; it flays immoderate vomitiings 
and convulfipns in children ; a.nd, by flrengthening the kidnies, difpofes 
women with child for an eafy labpur. No vjpegar nor acid meats mufl be 
taken while this medicine is ufed. It may perhaps be afked, what fort of 
(hnib grows from the fu iin, of what figure arc its leaves, flower, and 

friiit? The Chinefe herbal^fl, wh^ never fails to take notice of thefe 

. • ■ * ■ . ■■ • • . 




1 SHALL take notice of particulars, ivhich maj appeal 
of little importance, and pe^rhaps be treated as trifles $ 


particulars in treating of plants, ^oes not afcribe t6 ihtfii lim eitker (bft, 
or leaves, or flowers ; which gives room to conjeffture that it Ctnght to be 
placed in the clafs of troffles. There is ^ood fu Hh to be met with ii 
the province of Shen Ji\ and .there is iince found better in the province oC 
Tun noHy which only is uf^pd at court, where a pound of it is fold for a 
taeL A merchant, fays Father DentrecoUes, brought me one of thefe rooti 
a foot long, but not fo thick in proportion, and as broad as one's haodi 
which weighed three pounds : I believe that the reddifli bark which covered 
the white fubflaiice confiderably increafed t^e weight tA it. The fn Ik 
grows alfo in the province of Cbe iyangy and is ufed in the fouthero 
provinces, where it bears a good price \ but is not comparable to that of 
Tun nan, A learned phyfician gives this reafon for it, vM. the /k /m of 
Cbe kyang^ being of a fpungy fubftance, hath lefs body and ftrength than 
that of Tun nan, and cannot refill the Iharp and nitrous air of Pe^bitig; 
on the contrary, the /u lin of Tun nan and SBen Ji is folid, has few porei, 
and is very ponderous. This difference of texture, according to the re- 
marks of a Cbinefe author, comes from hence, that the mountain pinet, 
fuch as thofe of Sh^n Ji and Tun nan^ are of a more folid fubftance than 
thofe which grow by or near the lea. But it may be faid, to what pi^rpofe 
do you lie e fpeak of pines ? This is the reafon of it, and it confirms the 
conje£lure already made concerning the nature of the fu lin : the Chinefe 
herbalilb, fays Father Den trecolles, affirms,"!. That the good/W lin is found 
tinder ground, upon mountains or in valleys, near thofe places where old 
pines have been cut : 2i That it is formed and receives its growth from 
a very fpiritous fubftance communicated from thofe pines, and fpreadiog 
in the foil ; upon which account I have been of opinion, that the fu lin 
might be formed and grow in the fame manner as truffles, which are 
not faHened to the earth by any perceptible root. .Perhaps the fii tin a 
a fort of funguS; from the great roots of pines which have been cut, whofe 
Butricious juiee^ kept in the earth, runs to a mafs, and produces chat fob- 



^itt experience has convinced me, that thefe very things, 
infignificaat as they feem, are not to be negleded ; fince, 
bj obferving them, thej contribute to the prefervation of 

I. As there remains, in the evening, in the mouth and 
between the teeth, an imwhblefome filth from the food 
of the daji or foul vapours from the ehtraiU, before you 


fbmce, vrhicfa is at firft foft, and more ot lefi fpongry in proportion' to 
the fatnefs of the pine. The fit lin^ which I have had in my hands, 
feemed to me to hare had no roots to conned it to thofe of the pine; 
and books<iay nothing of them. Now,, did it firmly cohere to the root» 
•f the felled pine, it might be confidered as a fort of mifsletoe of tfiofe 
roots, just as the pine hath mifsletoe on the outfide, which is not faftened 
to it by any fibre, though it be nourilhed by it. Theie are the €onjedure» 
of this father, which will perhaps put ils on fearching in Eur^pt after the 
fu lin^ on the mountains whence pines have been long fince cut. The 
fame phyfician, adds Father DentrecoUes, having affured me that the/if Um 
18 planted and cultivated, I then thought myfetf miftaken in my conjedure 
of placing it in the dafs of Truffles ; but when he told me that he did 
Aot think it had a ftalk and leaves when planted, I returned to my ia9t 
•pinion ; for having read in the didionary of the academy, that there 
are places whither they tranfplant fmall truffles, to make them larger, 
and that, being tranfplanted, they flioot neither flalk, branches, nor leaves, 
it feemed to me pofflble to be thus with the planted and cultivated 
fu Uh, Here are two obfervations to be made, which I ought not to 
omit; the firft is, that the fu I'm is prepared for ufe, by taking off the 
rind, which is ufelefs, and flightly boiling the inner fuftance; the fecond 
29, that, according to the Chinefe herbaHft, to find the good/« /in, whofe 
fubftance is folid and dofe, fuch as comes from Tun natty you muft fearch 
for it about fix foot round the great pines, digging fix or feven feet 
deep. It is pretended, that from the place where it is £ound, there arifes 
a fine vapour, which the ikilful diftinguiih by the eye. The good /» //« 
has this property peculiar to itfelf, that it lies in the ground without 
rotting, or damage by worms ; and the longer it lies, the more it grows^ 
and the better it is. 


go to bed, rinfe your mouth well with water, or with tti^ 
lukewarm, and rub yctir teeth with a foft pliant bruflt, 
to keep them clean. You will then ffecl, in the mouth 
and upon the tongue, an agreeable frelhnefs* This prac- 
tice will fe€m a little troublefonie, but It will be only at 
iirft ; for after a felv days you will find pleafure in if, 
and if, by forge tfulnefs; or any other accident, you omit 
it, you will not be tafy. 

II. The middle of the fole of the foot is as the outlet ani 
opening of a great many fources of the fpirits difperfed aU 
over the body ; the veins and arteries which end therei 
are like the inouths of rivers, which muft be kepf ttpen, 
otherwife they are opprefled and overflow. The fiiligi- 
nou^ vapours of the blood are carried ofi' by infenfible 
perfpiration ; and as viciotis humours di£charg« thedi- 
felves upon the legs, fome way muft be opened to fatDi^ 
tate that perfpiration. It is a healthy cuflotn, when you 
are undrefTed, and ready for the bed, to take your foot ia 
one hand, and with the o^her fmartly rub the bottom of 
it as long as ycu can, and till you feel there a great heat) 
then rub feparately every toe till you are weary. This is 
an eSedual method for preferving and repairing the vital 
and animal fpirits.* 


* What is here recommend^, I have feen pradifed, fays P. Dcntrecollcs, 
fcy an Englifh gentleman, ph board whofe (hip I was. He ufcd every 
night to have his feet rubbed by one of his fervants, following probably 
an Englifh prcfcription, which in t' is agrees with our author's maxim. 
The European phyficians advife plaiftcrs to the folcs of the feet, to allay 
burnings of a fever attended with dilirioufnefs, and to mitigate the iharp, 
pains of the cholic. This makes it credible, that the pradice recom- 
mended by our Chinefe author might be ufeful to fuch as would fubmit 
to it. 



f lit. Before you He down, do not amufe yourfclf with 
things that fliock the imagination, and leave impreiSons 
"which may difturb your reft; fuch as apparitions of fpirits, 
nxonftrous births, ftrange feats of legerdemain, or tragical 
fiories. , Thefe render your fleep unquiet, which will in- 
terrupt the elaboration of the fpirits, and ftop perfpira- 
tion, fo necefiary to health. 

IV. As foon'as you are in bed, you fhould lull the heart 
to ileep ; I mean, you fliould compofe it, and caft afide 
every thought which may banifli fleep. Lie upon either 
fide, bend your knees a little, and fleep in that pofture, 
-which wUl prevent the diffipation of the vital and animal 
fpirits, and keep the heart in goo4 cafe. Every time 
you awake, ftretch yourfelf in bed. This will render 
the courfe of the fpirits, and the circulation of the bloody 
more free. Sleep not in the pofture of a dead man, fays 
Confii^us ; that is, lie not on your back. Let not your 
hands reft upon your breaft or heart, and then you will 
have no frightful dreams, or fancy that fome yen^ or evil 
fpirit, opprefles you, and hold$ you, as it were, benumbed^ 
fo that you cannot help yourfelf, by fliaking or changing 

V. When once you are in bed, keep filence, and re« 
frain from all talking. Of the internals, the lungs ar6 
the tendereft, which are placed above the others, and 
ferve for refpiration, and formation of the voice : when, 
therefore, you are laid down in a proper pofture, they 
incline to and reft upon the lide ; whereas, if you talk, 
you force the lungs to raife themfelves in part, and, by 
ftrongly heaving, they fliake all the other noble internal 
parts. A comparifon Will help to make you underftand 
me. — The voice, which comes from the lungs, is like the 
found from a bell ; if the bell be not hung, you damage 





it by ftriking it to make it found. It is faid, that Con- 
fucius made it a law to bimfelf not to fpeak after he was 
in bed, no doubt for this reafon.*. 

Ti. Sleep with your head waA face uncovered^ that you 
may breathe more purely and freely. Accuftom yonxfdf 
to fleep with the mouth fliut ; nothing tends more to 
pireferVe the radical moifture, ^hich vaniihes and eva- 
porates through an open mouth. The leM^ incoave- 
nience that can happen from it, is an eaiij lo& of 
teeth ; for the air, by continually paf&ng in and out be* 
tween them, hurts, and by degrees loofens them. Be- 
fides, one is liable to draw in grofs particles or malignant 
influences ji whichj paffing through the mouth, iniinuate 
into the body, infed the blood, and give riiie to various 

VII. Sleep not oa the ikins of tigers or leopards. If 
the hairs of thefe creatures enter never fo little into the 
flelh, you will find how venomous they are. Neither 
fleep in. the air, on the dew, upoa , cold ftooes, or in 
a damp place, nor even upon beds or chairs that arc 
vamifhed. Such indifcretion will occafion palfies, riog- 
worms, and cold diilempers. It is alfo dangerous to 


* This author reafons according to his flender notions ot Boanomf; for 
it is plain he knew but tittle of the ftrudure of the lungB, the iepanttioi^ 
of its lobes, and how eafy it changes its figure. He is ignorant alio of 
the offific of the midriff, which is the a^ve inftrument of refpiration; 
Ikicey by contradling its mufdes, it admits the air into the langs, and 
expels it, by relaxing them. Would he hav% thofe dumb who, by mere 
weaknefs, or in extreme eld age, are confined to their beds for whole 
years ? He feeks too muck for myilery in the filence which Confii^a» 
kept at night: he then forbore to talk with his difciples, probably 
becaufe he had difcourfed enough with them in the day, and wasted 


•• I 


"[^ Al«0NO THE CHINESE. 241 

reft ones felf in chairs, or on Hones, heated bj the fun. 
A malignant heat might infinuate into the bodj,. fix 
the /humours in. fome one place, and caufe an abfcefs 
there. * •' . 

Thus you have a fummary of -the precepts, which the 
Chinefe phyfician gives to preCerve health, and to pro- 
long life to extreme- old age. We may no ■ doubt be 
furprised to find the Cidnefe (who are fo little verfed 
in the fcience of anatomy, which is the moft important 
part of phyfic, fof difcovering the caufes of difeafes) 
reafoning as if they underflood it. They fupply what is 
wanting in this part by experience, , and by their fkill in 
determining by the pulfe the difpofition of the inward 
parts, in order to reilore them to their natural (late by- 
proper medicines* And, when all is done, no more fick 
perfons die under their hands, than do under thofe of the 
moft able phyficians in Europe. 

Upon the whole, the perfonal experience of a phyfician, 
who knew how to recover his own health, which was 
ruined in his childhood, ought, methinks, to give weight 
to thofe means which he tried. Yet I doubt whether the 
rules he prefcribes will be as well approved in Emrope 
as they are in Ghina« 


The way to live happy, is not to be perplexed with too 
many cares } and happinefs in one's ftation is the way to 
enjoy a long life. One man, by too much adivity, lofcs 
what another gains by being entirely maftcr of himfelf. 

Fol. Ill . Q^ 



1 HE care of inculcating virtue upon your children will 
recommend you and your family a great deal more than 
the fined buildings can. It is a common^ but an ill founded, 
opinion, that the northern climate is a great deal better than 
the fouthern provinces, and that the inhabitants of the for- 
mer live much longer^, and in greater plenty, than ihofe 
of the latter. This long and happy life ought not to be 
attributed to the goodnefs of the climate, but to the wife 
conduft of the inhabitants. 

To convince you of this, let us enter into a fmall detail. 
In the northern provinces, the richeft ladies give fuck to 
their own children themfclves, and don't feek for any nurfcs 
upon whom they may devolve that care ; but in the fouth- 
ern provinces, women of the mbft ordinary r^nk hire 
ftrange nurfes, at a very dear rate. In the northern pror 
vinces, they who have lands, cultivate them with tlieir own 
hands ; or at leaft they look over the cultivation of them, 
fparing neither fatigue nor care. In the hot countries, 
tney farm tHeir lands out, and live quietly upon their rents, 
breeding up their children in fo . much idlenefs, that they 
don^t fo much as know a waggon, and can fcarce diftinguifli 
the five forts of grain neceffary to the' fubGftence of life. 
In the north, wives and maids -are at no exp^nce for paint, 
which they fcldom or never uf? ; their clothes are of home- 
fpun (lufF, and the ornaments of their heads are very mo- 
deft. It is otherwife with the fouthern countries, where 
the women muft have gold, pearls, and bodkins for their 
hair, fet with diamonds, in order to drefs themfelves. If 
in one family there are wives, daughters, daughters and 
(ifters-in-law, what expence does this Cngle article require ' 

* ^ If 

Ali^ONG THE CHINESt:. 243 

If an entertainment is prepared in the northern countries, 
it coniifts of pigs» flieep, pullets, ducks, pulfe, and fruits 
growing upon the fpot ; and thefe entertainments are very 
ft^ldom made, and never but upon extraordinary occafions. 
But in the fouthern provinces, they are treating their friends 
every moment with thefe kinds of entertainments, and the. 
houfe refounds with the noife of the mufic and the founds 
of the inilruments. An hundred forts of precious furni- 
ture arc expofed to the eyes of the gueft ; and the fervices 
are.compofed of the fruits of the four feafons, and the 
meat of every proyince. 


Our longeft-lived emperors were * Han vu ti, Lyang 
vu ti, and Song kau tfong ; the firft living 70, and the 
other two upwards of 80 years. The maxim of Han vu ti 
was, that temperance was the beft phyfic. Lyang vfi ti 
faid of himfelf, that he had lain thirtj years in an apart- 
ment feparate from his wives. As for Song kau tfong, 
though he was naturallj of a ftrong conditution, jet he 
was always very moderate in his ufe of pleafures, and 
xnafter of his paiSons. 


Li king ta, though capable of the greateft pofts, would 
never enter into them. He retired to the mountains 
Ki chew, that he might fludy the dodrine of the philo- 
fophers Lan and Chwang. Many years after he retired, 

Qj^ \ Wang 

* HaDg, Lyang, Song, are the names of three dynattiei. 


Wang Shew Ching, Lyn Chongi and others, paid him ^ 
vifit, and alked him for the fecret of preferving life and 
health. What are our bodies, anfwered he, but a eom- 
pofition of blood and animal fpirits ? That pretended 
iniraculous ftone which people talk of, is only a com- 
pound of vegetables, flones, and nietals. How abfurd is 
it to believe, that this compofition can^ ever prefcrve or 
reioftate the blood and the fpirits in their vigour and due 
circulation ! To live always frugally, without buftle, in 
quiet, and, above all, in a great abflraftion of heart and 
mind, is the great medicine, and the precious ilone, whofe 
virtues are fo rare. 





■ *i 




> ■ ♦. 


It is no eafy matter to gee an' Engliih coat fitted on 
the German philofoplier. This will account for the un«. 
couthnefs and irregularity in the following paper. Aa 
elegant tranflation of any of the works of the celebrated 
Kant is a mere impol]ibility«-^At one time grave and 
deeply metaphyfical, at another jocdfe and indirefily 
fatirical ; hi^ language and arguments are now meafured 
and precife, now irregular and difllife. This is^peculi-^ 
arly charafteriftic of fuch of his works as were written 
at an fidvantfed period of his life* Add to thi^^ that 
when he onde gets involved in metaphyfical tranfcen* 
dentalitks^ his eacpreffions are fo profoundly myftical ad 
to be fcarcely Goo^preheniible, even to his own country* 
iBeUk . ' 

But) even with all thefe defeSs, his works certainly 
contain a great deal of fterling matter ; < and the mofl 
trifling compolition of a man who has pf odaced fuch a 
fenfation on, the philofophical'wo^ldy by fubmitting a cd&e 
tinued fyftem of ideas^ cannot be altogether unworthy of 
notice* . . * 


In tranflating his Treatife on the art of preventing 
difeafes, I have endeavoured to flick as clofe as pofliblc 
to my original ; conceiving, that every facrifice ought to 
be made in order to preferve the plain mj^aning of the 

[This TreaCife bears the following title : Fou der 'Mack Ja 
Gemulh*s durch den hlojfen Vorfat% feiner hrankbaften Gefibk 
Meifter %u feln. Englifh, On the Power of the Mind m over' 
coming unpleafunt Senfatlons by mere Refolution.'] 

Tratjflatcdby ^(fhn C. Colquhouny Efq. 

1 HE univerfal means propofed at the outfet, regards 
; only the fcience of Dietetics; that is, it is merely of 
qjegative effed, confidered a*s the art of preventing dif- 

But fuch an ;art prefuppofes ^ certain |fower .of the 
mind, which philofophy alone, or the fpirit of philofophj, 
can produce ; and to this power merely does the dietetic 
proportion announced in the title refer. 

As I cannot illuftrate this propofition by examples 
drawn from the experience of others, I inuft neceffarily 
confult my own; and when I have made known tne re- 
fult, I may then put the ijuellion to others, — Whether or 
not they have made fimilar obfervations ? 

There are twa wiihes which are entertained by the 
generality of mankind, Viz. health and' long life. But 



the former wifti Is not the neccffary condition of the latter j 
it is quite unconditional. The poor wretch, who has been 
for years lying in the hofpital, in a (late of (icknefs and 
debility, is often heard to exprefs the wifh that death might 
foon deliver him from fuffering. But this wifh is not ut- 
tered from the heart. It is i-ndeed di£l:ated by reafon ; but 
oppofed by a ftronger principle, — ^that of natural inftinft. 
£ven when he hails death as his deliverer, he (till demands 
a (hort delay ; he continually finds fome pretext for the 
procraflination of his peremptory decree. The fanatic re- 
folution of the fuicide to put a period to his exidence 
forms no exception from this general obferv^tion ; becaufe 
it mud be regarded merely as the cfFefl: of a momentary 

With regard to health as the fecond natural wifli, it is 
not fo eafily afcertained. One may conceive himfelf to be 
in perfeft health, (he may judge of the agreeable feel- 
ings of life), and yet be ignorant whether he is fo in 

Every caufe of natural death is difcafe, whether it is 
perceived or not. There are many perfons of whom we 
fay, without wifhing to ridicule them, that they are always 
flckly, yet never fick 5 whofe diet is a continual alternate 
departure from, and recurrence to, a particular mode of 
living ; and who, notwithftanding, live to a good old age ; 
although, perhaps, they may not have made any great ex- 
ertion of their powers. But how many of my friends and 
acqaintances have I furvived^ who, having adopted a 
regular mod^ of living, and perfevcr i in it, boafted of 
the enjoyment of pcrfeft health, while, in the meantime, 
the feeds of death (difeafe), which hy in them unper- 
ceivcd, were rapidly proceeding towards their develope- 
ment, although the perfons themfelves were inconfcious of 

0^4 any 


any malady. Every caufe of natural death, as was faid 
above, is difeafe ^ but the connection between the caufe 
and its tWcSt we cannot poi&bly feel; the underilandiog 
alone can perceive it, wl^ofe judgment may be erroneous v 
but our fenfations do not deceive us ', and^ for thcs reafon, 
we generally believe ourfelves to be in a ftate of health, 
unlefs our feelings inform us of the contrary. But the 
abfence of thefe feelkigs adrnits of no other expreffions 
for the ftate of the frame, than that it is ap|)arentl]r 


1 HE dodrine of dietetics muft not proceed upon the 
notion of eafe ; for this faving of bur powers and fe^ingSr 
brings on weaknefs and imbecility, and a gradual decay of 
our viul powers, from the want of exetcife, as a too fre« 
quent and too violent exertion exhaufts them^ The doc- 
trine of the Aoics^/tf/lme et abjline^ ass principle of dietetics^ 
belongs not only to practical philofophy, conlidered as 
moral fcience) but like wife when regarded as «r9 medica- 
irix. This art aflumes then the form of philofophy, when 
the mere power of reafon in mankind, in overcoming 
fenfations by a governing principle, determines their man- 
ner of living. On the other hand, when it endeavours to 
excite or avert thefe fe^fations, by external corporeal 
means, the art becomes merely empiric and mechanical. 

An exo^fs of warnnftl^ of fleep, and the tender treaf- 
ment of a healthy perfon, are to be confidered as evil ha« 
bits, which originate from the notion of eafe.' 

I. In confulting my own experience, T can by no means 
fubfcribe the prefcriptioq — * One ought to keep his head 
* and feet warm** I have found it, on the contrary, much 





niore conducive to health to keep both cold ; .to which the. 
Ruffians add the bread ; and my reafon for this is, that by 
following this ma^im, one is not fo liable to catch cold. 
It is indeed much more comfortable to wafli the. feet, in 
-winter, with warm water, than with coldj but we are 
thereby expofed to the danger of tdrpidity in the blood- 
vefTels, which, in. old age, often produces an incurable 
difeafe in the feet. . To keep the belly warm in cold wea- 
ther might, however, be laid down as a dietetic prc- 
fcription, on account of the bowels it contains, with 
the nature of whi{:h a confiderable degree of heat is con- 

II. To fleep much at a time, or at intervals, is a method 
of avoiding thofe cares to which we are expofed, when 
awake. But it is indeed fingular, that mankind ihotild 
defire long life, in order to confume the greater part of it 
in fleep. This notion of eafe, however, as a means of 
promoting longevity, contradicts itfelf in. the end. For 
the habit of awaking, and again falling afleep, alternately, 
in long winter nights, is hurtful and deftruftive to the whole 
nervous fyftem,. and, in deceitful reft, in the higheft degree , 
debilitating > and this facrifice to cafe is therefore a caufe of 
the ihortnefs of life. 

The couch is the neft of numberlefs difeafes. 

III. To beftow upon ourfelves a careful and delicate 
treatment, in old age, merely for the fake of fparing our 
powers, by avoiding inconveniences, as, for example^ to 
avoid going abroad in bad weather, or, in general, to de- 
legate that labour to others which we ourfelves might un* 
dertake, and to hope for longevity by this means, is like- 
wife contradi£lory . to its end, and rather tends to produce 
what we wiih to avoid— a fpeedy old age and (hortnefs of 
life. ' ' ■ 

It has often been a fubje£): of diipute, whether or not 



t 1 < 


the ftate of marriage contributes to promote longevity. I 
have indeed obferved, that unmarried perfons, or thofe 
who were early left in a ftate of widowhood^ prefervej for 
the moft part, longer a youthful appearance than married 
perfons ; which feems to indicate long life. Perhaps the 
latter betray, in- their harftier features, the marks of a con- 
jugal ftate } which leads us to fuppofe them fhorter lived. 
But in examining this principle, I have, under the conduA 
of experience, difcovered a fa£l, which feems to be de- 
cifive to the contrary. I found, in.the whole lift of perfons 
who had lived to an extraordinary age (iao*i6o), not a 
fingle one unmarried; nay, they had all been married 
feveral times, and moft of them again in the laft days of 
their lives* In fome families, longevity is hereditary ; and a 
connection formed with fuch a family might perhaps lay 
the foundation of another. 

A habit of philofophiGng, without perhaps being really 
a philofopher, is likewife a means of averting many un- 
pleafant fenfations, and, at the fame time, the intereft we 
feel in the employment, produces a certain aftivity of mind, 
which renders us in a manner independent of external ac- 
cidents ; and although it is a mere play, ftill it is powerful 
in its effefts, by preventing the vital powers from becoming 
torpid from the want of exertion. 

True philofophy, on the other hand, which finds an in- 
tereft in the whole of the obje£b of reafon, produces a 
feeling of power which can, in a certain degree, alleviate 
the bodily infirmities of age, by a reafonable appreciation 
of the value of life. But new opening profpe£ls in the 
enlargement' of our ideas, although they may not properly 
belong to philofophy, are produftive of the famci or a 
fimilar efte£): ; and the mathematician^ who has an imme- 
diate intereft in the fcience, is, in fo far, likewife a philo- 



pher^ and enjoys the beneficial confequences of fuch an 
exertion of his powersi in a% freih and unexhaufted old 


Mere trifles, in a ftate void of anxiety, produce alfo, to 

thofe of more limited capacities, almoft the fame efFe£i:; 

and thofe who, with nothing to do, are ftill continually 

employed about fomething, generally attain a good age* 

A certain man, pretty much advanced in life, was greatly 

intereAed in bringing all the clocks in his room to ftrike * 

the one after the other, and no two ^t the fame time 5 

which labour gave himfelf and the watchmaker occupation 

enough during the whole day. Another fouitd fu£Scient 

employmfr^ in the care and feeding of his finging birds, 

in order to fill tip the time between his own meals and 

fleep. An old woman of fortune, who occupied herfelf 

the whole day wtth her fpinning wheel, intermingling her 

labour with infignificant converfation, complained,, ab a 

very advanced age, as one would upon thelofs of an 

agreeable company, that, as (he could no longer feel the 

thread between-her fingers, ihe was in danger of dying for 

innuu , 


JL HE weaknefs of allowing ourfclves to become the prey 
of difagreeable feiifations, which have no determinate ob- 
jeft, without attempting to overcome them — the hypocondria 
vaga^ a difeafe which does not originate from any bodily 
indifpofition, but is, in fad, a mere creature of the ima- 
gination, by which the patient fancies himfelf afBi£):ed 
with all manner of difeafes of which he has read or heard 
— this is the dire£l reverfe of that power of the mind by 
which we are enabled to overcome unpleafant fenfations.' 




It is the terror of evils whieh might affliA mankind^ with-^ 
out their being able to oppofe them, were they reAy lo 
take place ; a fort of phrenzy, which may indeed proceed 
from fome difeafed matter not immediately falling under 
the cognizance of the fenfesi but is merely reprefented by 
the imagination as 9n evil which awaits us. In this cafe» 
the felf^tormentor {heauttmtimoruminos\ without calling 
his own courage into exertion, in vain demands the aid of 
the phyfician ; whilft himfelf alone^ by a proper regimen 
of his own thoughts, can do away thofe oppreflive rq>re- 
fentations of evils, which might perhaps be incurable wero 
they really to take place. 

On account of my flat and narrow cheft, which leaves 
little room for the motion of the heart and lungs, I have 
always had a natural difpofition towards hypocondriafis \ 
which, in my earlier year^, rendered me even diigufted 
with life* But the confideration, that the caufe of this 
obftruflion was perhaps nxerely mechanical, and could not 
be removed foon, led me to pay little attention to it ; and 
whilft I felt my breaft heavy and full> my head was not- 
withftanding clear and cheerful \ which cheerfulneis did 
not fail to communicate itfelf in foctety, not by fits and 
ftarts, as is ufual with hypocondriac perfons, but naturally 
and defignedly. 

/ The obftru&ion ft ill remains ; for the caufe of it lies in 
my bodily frame. But I have overcome its influence on 
my thoughts and anions, by turning my attention afide 
from this feelingi as if I had nothing to do with it. 


Among the unpleafant fenfations, may be reckoned 
that of being unable to fleep at our accuftomed time^ or 
i to 


to keep ourfclves awake ; but particularly the former. To 
chafe away all thought is, indeed, the ufual advice given 
by the phyfician in a cafe of this kind ; but ftill the fame 
thoughts recur, or others in their ftead. Here, however, 
there is no other dietetic counfel than, upon the confciouf* 
nefs of any rifing thought, to turn the attention immediately 
from it, when, by the interruption of that one thought, a 
gradual confufion of ideas arifes, by which theconfcioufnefs 
of our external fituation is removed, and a quite difierent 
order takes place; an. involuntary play of the imagination, 
in which, by means of a wonderful artifice of the animal 
organization; the body becomes incapable of external mo«. 
tion, while it is ftill alive to, and extremely agitated by, the 
internal or vital motion. 

This agitation is caufed by dreams, which, . although 
when awake we may not be able to recal them to our re- 
colle&ion, muflb have taken place ; becaufe in the cafe of a 
total want of them-*-if the nervous powers, which proceed 
from the brain, the feat of our reprefentations, did not 
woric in combination with the mufcular powers of the 
bowels*— life could not be for a moment fuftained. For 
this reafon, it is probable that all animals dream when they 

Every perfon, however, who has gone to bed, and pre« 
pared himfelf for ileep, will fometimes find his endeavours 
to procure it, by thus averting his attention from his ruling 
thoughts, unfuccefsful. In this cafe, he will feel fo;ne- 
thing fpaftic in the brain $ which circumftance coincides 
with the obfervation, that a man is always, immediately 
^lipon awaking, about half an inch taller than if he had re^ 
piained in bed awake. 

As want of fleep is a common complaint of infirm old 
f ^e, I have felt, for about a year paft, attacks fomething 



£milar to the cramp, accompanied with very acute pain, 
although with none of that real and Tifibk motion of the 
parts aflFed^edi as generally attend cramps* Thefe paios I 
fuppofed to be fits of the gout, according to the defcription 
others gave me of that difeafe : I therefore had recourfe to 
the phyfician. 

But, in the meattttme, becoming rather impatient at 
finding myfelf prevented from fleepingi I fummonedup 
my ftoic principles, and tamed my thoughts with eameft- 
nefs towards fome indifferent obje£l^ (as,- for exam^e, to- 
wards the comprehenfive name of Cicero) in order to avert 
my attention from thefe fenfations ; by which means they 
very foon became blunted, and werie finally overcome hj 
drowfinefs. And this remedy I can at all times repeat 
with equal fuccefs, whenever my fleep is interrupted by 
attacks of this kind. But to convince me that thefe pains 
were not merely imaginary, I perceived, in the morning, 
that the toes of my left foot wefe very much inflamed. I 
am perfuaded, that many attacks of the gout, cramps, and 
epileptic fits, and even the podagra, which has been fo 
long held incurable, might be alleviated, and perhaps by 
degrees totally removed, by means of this firm^refolution 
at every new attack ; provided that our fenfual regimen did 
not oppofe the cure. , 


"pOK thofe who are young, and in a ftate of pcrfeS health, 
it is certainly the mod judicious plan to confult merely the 
appetite with regard to their diet, both as to the time and 
the quantity. But in infirm age, a certain habitual, ap- 
proved, and wholefome, mode of living ought to be adopt- 


ed and followed out from day to day ; provided the necef- 
fary exceptions are made for the want of appetite. In old 
age, for example, the appetite rejefts a quantity of liquid 
(foup or water), and requires more fubflantial food, and 
more irritating beveridge, in order to promote the motion 
of the bowels and the circulation of the blood. In aged 
people, water requires a longer period of time before it is 
received into the blood, if it does not contain liquid par- 
ticles aflimilated with the blood (fuch as wine). The de- 
fire which the appetite feels towards drinking water— 
thirft is, for the moft part, a mere habit, and can be over- 
come by the firm refolution not to yield to it ; and by this 
means the defire is brought within the meafure of the na- 
tural want. The drinking a quantity of water is likewifc 
prejudicial to fleep, becaufc the warmth of the blood 15 
thereby leffencd. 



1 HOUGHT is to the philofopher a means of nouriihmenty 
without which he could not live when alone and awake. 
But to employ ourfelves in deep meditation over a certain 
determined objefb, when engaged in eating or walking, 
produces, in rhe firft cafe, hypochondriacs, in the fecond, 
giddinefs* In order, therefore^ to avoid thefe unpleafant 
fenfations, by means of a dietetic principle^ it is only requi- 
fite to devote a certain portion of time to their different 
employments alternately, and during the period allotted to 
recreation, to fet afide all ferious meditation, and, to allow 
full fcope to the more mechanical play of the imagination. 
Unpleafant fenfations of t^is kind often take place when, 
at ufual times, being without fociety, we employ ourfelves, 

2 at 



at the fame time^ in reading or meditation ; becaufe the 
vital power is, by this labour of the head, drawn away 
from the ftomach, which we are loading. 

I^ have found by my own experience, and heard from 
others whom I have confulted on the fubje£l, that ferious 
thinking, when walking, very foon fatigues lus ; while, on 
the other hand, if we give ourfelves up to the full play of 
*the imagination, the motion is reftorative. 

This fatigue is ftill fooner brought on when, with the 
motion and meditation, is joined converfation with axi" 
other. In this cafe, we very foon find ourfelves compelled 
to fit downi in order to purfue the fubje£fc of difcuifion. 
Walking in the open air, by prefenting to the vi<^w a con* 
tinual change of- obje£ts, has the eSc(k of preventing the 
' attention from being entirely abforbed by any one indi* 
• vidually. . »• ' 

' . ■ 


SouE years ago, I was at times affii£ied witli cold io my 

headj and a cough, which became fo much the more un- 

* pleafant, as they generally made their appearance at night 

when I went to bed. 

Having become impatient at being thus prevented from 

' lleeping, I refolved, in order if pofiible to remedy the for- 

mer difeafe, to draw breath through the nofe with my lips 

clofed. This I did at fir ft with fome, difficulty, but by per- 

feverance the pipe became always clearer, and at lad I fuc« 

ceeded in performing this operation with perfeft eafe^ and 

immediately fell afleep. 

In order to put a ftop to the cough, which is occafioned 
by the irritation produced by the air we breathe through 



the mouth upon the top of the windpipe, it was neceflaiy 
to have recourfe to feme immediate operation of the mind, 
and not taany medianical means; viz. to avert the atten- 
tion entirely from this irritation, and to fix it upon fome 
other objeA, (as mentioned above in the cafe of fits of the 
cramp). By this means the preflure of the air was oppofed : 
The exerdon, however, drove the blood to my face, as I 
plainly felt ; but the faliva produced by the fame irritation 
prevented its ufual efie£is, and I was aeceflarily obliged to 
fwallow the moifture. This operation of the mind requlrest 
indeed, a very ftrong degree of refolution, which is, how- 
ever, well rewarded by the beneficial tStCts it produces. — 
It is certainly a very important dietetic prefcription to en- 
deavour to acquire a habit of drawing breath through the 
nofe, fo as to perform this operation in the fame manner 
even in the moft profound fleep. One who has acquired 
this cuftom, will awake immediately, as foon as he opens 
his mouth; at firft a Kttle frightened, as was the cafe with 
myfelf, before I became properly habituated. When one 
is obliged to walk faft, or to move up hill, a ftill greater 
degree of refolution is requifite ; but in every cafe it would 
be better to moderate the exertion than to make an excep- 
lion from the rule. This principle may, in like manner, 
be applied to every kind of fevere exercife. 

My young friends and pupils have praifed this dieteti<i 
maxim as approved and falutaty ; nor have they treated it 
as one of thofe trifling domefiic remedies, which are intro- 
duced for ^he purpofe of fuperfeding the (kill of the phyfi- 
cian. It deferves notice, that, although, in fpeaking for 
any length of time, thf z&. of breathing would appear to 
be performed through the mouth, which is fo often open- ^ . 
ed ; and, of courfe, this rule tranfgrefled with impunity ; 
yet this is by no means the cafe. The operation is per- 

VoL. III. R formed 



fonqcd UkewUb through tb« nofe ^ foTj were the nofe ftu& 
e4 at the tii9e» we ihovtd % of the orator — ^< be fpeaks 
*^ through the nofe;" wherea^^ in reality^ he does not; 
a9d» on the other hand) if the aofe i» ckar, we fay ** he 
^ does not fpeah through the nofe," whiles in fa£i„ be 
doe8 : A.fii^la» eontradiAion in terms, indeed, as Ptofef* 
for Lichtenbeig huikK>roufly, but very juftly, ot^efves. 

Many otber beneScial eonfefueiiccs might be enumeiat- 
ed, as preceding from tbia habit of breathing through the 
nofe* lt$ e Ada in the c^k of cough have already htVEt 
mentioned^ I have libewife found 'that,, when very thirfty, 
and haying no othti means of quencMng my tbtrft at haad, 
I have been aiMe to allay this unpleafimt (enfation by means 
of ftveral ftrong draughca of breath through the nok. 


Thofe difeafea, which can be oyercome by the meie le- 
folution of man, aie aU of the ^fiic kmd $ but k eaanot 
be faid that, via vwfa^ all difeafes of tlua kitid can be over- 
come by refolut»in» For fome of thefe at« of fueh a nature, 
that our endeavours to fubje^ them to our deterestnatioB 
tend ouly to increafe the complaint. This is, indeed, the 
cafe with myfelf* I have been for iwit, time affiled with 
that malady^ which, about a year ago,t was defciibed in 
the Copenhagen Gazette as <^ an epidemical catarrh, ac- 
<^ cdmpanied with oppreflion of the head/*— a difealie 
which has in a manner dilbiganiaed my intelk^Eual frame, 
and rendered me incapable c^ undertaking any fort of fe- 
vere merital labouf : and, as this oppreflion has thrown 
itfislf upon the natural infirmity of old age, it will probably 
end only with liie* 


*< '■ I ■ "- iWil H" >■»■! I^y«— »0*— i— ■ 

a T^is treatife was imritteB in 1797. 


To this, then, does the art of prolonging life bring as at 
laft ; that we are merely tolerated among the living, a fitu- 
ation certainly not the moft defirable. But for this.I have 
myfelf to blame. For why (hould I not give place to the 
rifing generation ? Why fhould I rejeA the common en* 
joyments of life, in order to protrad my exiftence to an 
unufual length, and bring the death-lifts into confufion by 
my example? Why fhould I attempt to fubjeA to my 
own determination that which was formerly denominated 
late,— to which mankind were wont to bow in bunulity 
and devQtioni — ^by propofing dietetic maxims, which are 
not likely to become general, or to fuperfede the theia*^ 
peutic prefcriptions of the apothecary ? 




Translated horn the Eneyciope£e MethoJBfiu ; Sujet, Mtictne 
Tome 7. P^ I. Livraison 65. Voce Hygiene* 

Considerable progrefs had been made in printing this 
volume, containing the do£lTine8 of foreign authors on die 
fu6je£l of healthy before I had an opportunity of perufing 
-what the authors of the French Encyclopedia had publilhed 
regarding it| and upon examining that great worki I was 
much pleafed to find that the celebrated Hall^ had been 
employed in that department, and had written a treatife 
under the word or title Hygiene^ which is extremely method* 
ical, and ably drawn up, and to which there is annexed die 
plan of a complete work upon the fubjeA. 

Tet various reafons have induced me to tranflate this work, 
and to lay before the^reader the annexed plan to it. In the 
firft place, diough the treatife was intended merely as a 
iketch, yet it is one of the beft works on health that has 
hitherto appeared, and therefore merits every poffible atten- 
tion. In the fecond place^ it contains the fulleft inform- 


HYOlltNE, BT HALLb/ 261 

ation^ that can be laid before the reader, of the nore recent 
dodrined of the moft intelligent men on the continent, re- 
garding health. And in the third place, the EncjcbpeJie 
Jfeiiodique is fo vaft a'work, that few perfons in this country 
have accefe to it. And conlequently » tranflation of any 
paper which it contains, fo ably drawn up, is. peculiarly 

Ther^ was alfo an additional inducement to tranilate it^ 
from the liberality with whieh the author does juftice to the 
works on health which have been written in diis country. 

Upon comparing die plan of a complete tireatife on heahh 
drawn, up by Halli, with die fyftem which I hare purfoed^ 
it will be feen that die faoie objedls may < be obtained, by a 
^fierent arrangement, and yet that no. material point may 
be omitted in either: die former plan feems, on the whole^ 
to be beft calculated for a fcientific, the latter for a popular 
work. Indeed, in- the plan adopted by Hall^ diere are too* 
many divUions and fiibdivifions for a treaiife at all intended 
for the ufe of the bulk of mankind—^f that, howerer, die 
reader will be the better enabled to judge by examining bodu 


HwQKiAj or HYQMENSy IS that department of medicine^ 
the obje^ of which is the prefervation of health. 

Medicine may with propriety be divided into (wo great 
departments: one of which embraces every circumftance j 
interefting to man in a ftate.of health i this is the dodlrine 
of Hfgeia or Hfgtene^ in the moft exteoiive import of that 
term : the other has ' for its obje&, all that concerns him 
in a ftate of difeafc} this is the art of healing, Fiatriqut, 
{from the Mf/uut /ano, I heal), or, if .the reader prefer the 

R 3 exprellipn 


nqpneffion iht^aptutiei^ taking lint #ord; as ire iialrc done 
the tena Hfgimc^ in its moft eattfofive «ece|fta|i(m. 

Sack of thdk two divifions fiippK^f<^ Ijif9>die i^atomieal 
ftid dsemlcal knowledge of man s the firft Oodfiderixi^ bim 
in a ftatt o£ licalth^ add the Xecopd lA a fta/fce of difeafe: 
iMbi The phyfiologieal knowledge of ht» fuiiiQioa$> and of 
their phenomena; the former department ftill i^ardiif 
Jhim in the eojo^eot of li$ hedithf the latter o¥enakea bj 
difeafe: pbf An abqnaintadce with thofe influonces to 
which he is eapiofed in eadi. of thefe eondkions, whether 
iutesSzAjt or in eon^equeoce of his Jieceffitie8» and of the 
|hri of hk nature : hjtty^ The advantages which taxf 
llf d^bred 'from thefe inflnences, either for the prefetraticn 
^rhss. heakh, or for renonng his difbifes, 
, ' Bst, gener9ily» in treating of Hygiinty or the daffriae tf 
JkiMkbi we fFT^ceed'opon the fiippo06on» that the reader 
has already- aequhled the knowlcc^e of anatomy and of 
vcfaeraiftry f it is ai£b taken for granted that he is acquaint- 
ed with the phenomena of heafab and dF life eomptefaend* 
•ed under the term pbyfioAogy* 

The knowledge of thofe influeneesi to whofe aftton man 

while in the enjoyment of his health is expofed, and of the 

advantages which may be derirect from them for his pro- 

^ tefiion from difeafes, ftill remains to be confidered ; and the 

*^ Moft compf ehienfive treatifes on hygSine are generally Mnit- 

/ ed to the inveftigation of this part of the fubjeA, 

But even when cireufnfci9)ed within thefe bounds, die 
dodrine of 'heahh embraces obje6h of a taft extent : for it 
is neceflary to underftand, iim^ The various condidons 
which a healthy ntah m^y experieiicc in refpe& to the in- 
fluences to wluch he is expofed \ this is the ftudy of tem- 
peramtnts and f>f conftkuthm : 2eb, The caufes» the nature, 
ffnd the efledis of thefe infldtnces } this is what has been 



rtTj prepofte^9ully termed the ncn-naturats : ^ttd. The me- 
thod of regulating or of modifying thefe influences, fo as 
to render ^tm conducive to the prefervation of health; 
this department of the fubjed has been properly denomin* 
mted regimen or dietetic* 

The three trads afcribed to Hippocrates and Intitled, Be 
lii£ta^(X\%^t AfdrnfX fumUh lis with an example^ with ati 
imperfed one indeed, of this triple divifion ; but the exe- 
xmtion of at is very defeOive ; and of thefe three books, the 
fecond is ^at which has accomplilhed its objed with the 
jpreateft exadnefs* 

In this article, I (hall content myfelf with exhibiting a 
general table- of the luftory of hygi^ne^ whether public or 
private. I teferve for a preliminary difcoUife on this fub*- 
jed;, the complete detail of the plan, according to which, 
in my opinion, this department of medicine ought tp be 


The firil obfervations of man neceflarily had for their 
obje£l the el(e£ts of regimea. It is alfo extxemely probable, 
that before men fought a remedy for their difeafes in jnedi- 
ctnal fubftances, they began with moderating the ufe pi 
aliments; and that diet, whether fuggefted by nature or 
dired^ed in confequence of obfervation, became their firft 
refource in the treatment of their maladies. It is, however 
temarkable, that Hippocrates, claiming the invention as his 
own, congratulates himfelf for having determined the juft 
proportion of diet, relative to temperaments, to circum<- 
itances, and to different periods of difeafe. , We may ac- 
<:ount for this faft by confidering, that among men, art 
il^nning its career by a fmall number of obfervations, at 

R4 firft 


firft extended its progrefs by annlogjfj and ended in a rou- 
tine. Men of ardent and impatient mi^ds have l)y reafoning 
generalized fome portions of experience, and framed fyftems 
of rules, to which fome of their difciples ftriftly adhere, and 
which are neglefled by the vulgar : ,but the taik of reducing 
this routine of pra£lices to principles, and of fubftituting a 
fyftem of obfervation$, an4 of laws conrefponding to the 
intentions of nature, in of a confufed experience, 
fupported by the credit of the example, and of the tradi- 
tion of their Others, has been referved for ^en of great 
genius and of real obfervation. 

This progrefs pf the human mind is evidently delineated 
to us in the page of hiftory. . 

Hipi>ocrates in his ^excellent treatife concerning aricmt 
tnedicinef (nt^t ft^yfiua^ hr^wnOp exhibits to us the reprefent- 
ation of the firft attempts to illuftrate the nature q£ ifygiene 
or of regimen. It is from thefe attempts, as he informs us, 
that medicine dates its origin } and it is to them that he 
refers us, with the view of demonftrating the folid found- 
ation of an art, which he undertook to defend againft the 
aflaults of its defamers. 

In this manner, as he remarks, the choice, the prepar- 
ation, and the admixture of aliments, have given birth to the 
art of medicine, and are themfelves the offspring of obferv- 
ation. This fame obfervation has alfo fliewn, that thefe 
preparations, this fele£tion, and mixture, muft have become 
more heceflary according to the difference of temperaments \ 
that man, whole conftltutlon began to be undermined by 
difeafe, could not make ufe of the fame food adopted by 
him who enjoyed a perfefi: ftate of health. Hence proceed- 
ed rules and regimen ; and ^hat name could be given tofuch 
an invention more charaBerifiic of its nature than that ofmedl* 
cine? (fays Hippocrates), Jince its ohjeB had been^ by changing 




the regwun 'vMcb produced hvth hisfufftringt und Ifh dtfeafes^ 
to fecurey thefupfOrty the healtit <»»d th prefervatwn oj man^ 
TS h tv^futrt ri «y try iuf/Ui imm^tt^w Siv rts 9r(«9ifx«9 ^AAw 

Ob(et?atioi) foon fubjoined to the regulated quantity of 
aUmenty the meafure and projpiortion of exerci&.and of reft, 
2iB well as pf ileep and of watchfulneCs ; and the fecond 
ftep of has been the introdu^ion oC gymnaJUcs^ to 
•which the ufe of baths muft be added^ which» efpeciklly in 
hot climat^Sf have become one of the daily necefiaries of 
maOf as well as an obje^ of pleafure and of luxury. 



The influence of thefe firft obfervations, upon the hap- 
pinefs,' the prefervation, the nu)ral and phyfical perfeditoii 
of man, and the advantage refulting from political aflbcia- 
tions, foon ftruck men of fuperior minds, deftined to give 
an impulfe to the age in which they lived. 

Thus do we perceive that the firft founders of fociety, 
philofophers, and legiflators, have eftabliOied upon thefe 
important obje^is, the foundation of their phyfical inftitu- 
tion, and an eflential part of their legiflation \ andl whilft 
they made the divinity, the principle of truth, the feeling 
of necei&ty, as v^ell as the force of example to interpofe, 
for the purpbfe of infuring a greater degree of reverence 
to their laws, they alfo introduced thefe ufeful cuftoms ; in- 
fomuchi that men were prompted to felf-prefervation,^and 



to ac<^lerate their progrefft to perfedioii, by the linked ia- 
flueiice of reafoa, of authority^ c£ habit) and of fuperffi- 

Hence arofe a diftin^Hon between puHic and frhaie by- 
pine i a difthi£lion of great importanee, and which never 
conftituted a part of the law or government of any nafioB, 
but in agea the moft remote. The legi&tWB of modem 
timea have negleAed diis dt|>artmeAt of the ancient code, 
whiehy by wife regnhtions, ptepared gener^idns heal% 
and Tigoroaa. Widiout doabt, the tnoients we^ more 
conwiced than the modems of the mnf oal depenibnce be- 
tween the phyfical «nd moral mtneSf and of the neceffity 
of uniling the laws which e»^n te mp flrmoeand wiidom 
to tbofe winch are ena&ed to check excefiea and to pttnifli 
crimes. Perhaps they thought diat great empires were lels 
Circulated for thofe whoiefome rules than fmaU republics: 
perhaps die modem fyftems of military tai£H£s, rendering 
^die ftrength of die inditidual of left importance for fucceis 
in war, have occafioned this unfortunate indifierence. 

The Chaldeans, and above all the Eg^^ttanSf who were 
in die habit of uniting all die vfefal fcienoes and aU poUtc 
inftitutions to their reli^ovs myfteries, were die firft, as 
far as our knowledge extends^ who joined thele two dqpart- 
ments of medicine and of legiflation. We ought not, at 
leafti to afcribe this honour to the inhalntants of India, to 
whom fome piulof<^hers have allowed a priority of claim 
over the natives of Egypt and of Chddea. 

It will be oniveifally admitted, that the Hebrews and 
the Greeks borrowed tl^ greateft part of their cuftoms 
ffMi the Egyptiane. Mofes has copied them more exa^ilyi 
bj impreffing upon his laws, refpeAkig r^;imen, a myf- 
terious ai)d a religious charader. This folemn charader 
was the only reftraint which could bind an ignorant and 



fupaHftU^oiM xBfiliittxlef the pMn d^u^ltions oE reafim 
would bave ne«ef fecured tbdr obedience to a code of re- 
g««laK ceremo^Sj the aim of which ^a$ the prefervatioa 
of their beptkh and exifteocei but the aegieA of whieh 
would not hate been jiioduAive of an cffefk fuffickotljr 
inftantapeeus ix> Jn^rktf i^on their miodi the feeling of 
fear and pf terror. 

Pythag^iis addrefled hitnf^If to pupils who liftened to 
him wkh emhuGaftn ; but bis kiftradions extended oqc 
beyond the precin£ls of his own fchool. 

Lyctt^gua and Minos incorporated their precepts with 
the lofe of their oountry» and the io^Hreffion of their virtue 
which they left behind them> co-operatii^ with national 
pride^ cci|iented their tenets» in which their fellow citizens 
acquiefced wilh all the reference due to laws. 

The public gamesj and the prizes ofiisred to the fuccef^ 
fill comp<^Qr in the difiereot exercifes io Greece^ refulted 
from tbofis political inftitutions defigned to form the body^ 
and to import to it a fuperior degree of vigour and ftrength. 
The moft iUuftrious citizens were emulous pf the glory to 
be reaped in thefe fields of conteft ) and the gymnafia 
were the firft fchopls in which dM youth were trained up 
for all kinds of triumj^ 

Anwing the Romaas thefe inftitutions loft much of their 
utility } the glory refultingl from the public games was 
abandoned to flavdi and gladiators i and inftead of thofe 
pacific and honourable contefts, which charmed the en- 
lightened inhabitants of Geeece, bloodthirfty Rome facri- 
ficcd human vijliias od the altars of her pleafures. Certain 
tranfient modes of fafliionf which in the age of the em- 
perors, introduced again fome dtftinguiflied perfonages up- 
on the public (UgCy do not merit any (hare of our attention 
ifi this place^ Thefe whims originated rathec in a deprav- 


ation of moraby and in die negleft of erery fpecies of d^ 
corum, than in any national eftablifhment for the purpofe^ 
and the glery of having completely fubdned modefty, was 
the only triumph which accrued to both fexes from thefe 
ibameful excefles. It was not'thiis that the Spartan women 
prcfented themfehres to the light of their (iellow citizens ; 
the idea entertained of their virtue fuppKed the plaKie of 
garments, whilfi it commanded the refpe£b of the fpeftators^ 
and their utmoft ambition was to ihew themfelves worthy 
of fupplying the country with heroes. 

The gymnafia, however, were kept up among die Romans^ 
and the defcription of the builditigs allotted to thefe pue- 
pofesy which has been handed down to us, proves that they 
attached great importance to the gymnaftic art ; and diat 
they included it among the principal departments of the 
education of youth. 

Public baths were conftru&ed at Rome on a fcale of the 
greateft magnificence j but the pra€Uce of them could only 
be regarded either as an objeft of fenfuality or of health to 
individuals, fince it was not united with the gymnaftic art; 
it is when thus aflbciated alone, that baths can be ranked 
among public and national inftttuti<m6. 

To the account of public Hygiene, mud be placed the 
care, with which, among the Romans, the ediles attended 
to the cleanlinefs of cities. Thejexpences devoted to die 
repair of fewers, and to the purpofe of procuring an abun- 
dant fupply of water to a great city, ard attefted to us hj 
monuments, which time has refpe&ed, and of which tl^ 
indolence of the modern Romans ftill avails itfelf. In gen- 
eral, we may fearch for the materials from which the hit- 
tory of public Hygiene among the ancients may be oom- 
pofed, itm, In their legiflation ; 2<&, In their cuftoms and 


^ mannors; 


maimers ; j^, In their regulations reading tbe public 




A bird's eye view of what the legiflators of antiquity 
have accomplifhed for the prefenration of bealtbf will not 
be devoid of utility in this place ; and the circumftances of 
our pre&nt fituation beftow a new intereft on this fub- 

I do not cpnCder what Mofes has left us on this topic 
as deferring of any very ample detail All the meafures 
• whi(^ he adopted for the prefenration of health, are refer- 
able to three principal obje£b« The prohibition of certain 
kinds of food, ablutions prefcribed for legal uncleannefles, 
and the feclufion of certain diftempers regarded contagious, 
efpedaUy leprofy. 

Some writers affign a regard to health as the origin of 
die rite of circumcifion ^ but I do not find it ftated in any 
work, that the inhabitants of Arabia and of Syria had been 
fubjeded to any topical afiedion in the parts removed by 
circumcifion. The pra£tice of this operation in the ifland 
of Madagafcar, among nations who in other refpeAs do not 
appear to have any notion of Judaifm, or of Mahomedifm, 
do not tend to give additional confirmation to this opi- 
nion. ' 

In refpe£t to the legal prohibition of certain articles of 
food, it is, in my opinion, very difficult to affign a reafon 
why fo many fpccies of animals were pi^ofcribed among the 


Hebrews. It hawvret has hetn imagined^ thiat the \efnlff 
being a very common difeafe among them, and fwine bring 
fubje£t to a certain kind of derangement of the adipofc 
membrane, very andogoas to leprous defdrnnity, tlierc was 
groand for the belief, that. the nfe of the flefli of diis ani. 
mal was apt to commanicate a predifpofition to leprofy.^ 
However improbable fuch an opinion may be, it aflumed 
fome afcendency over the minds of men at a period when 
onr knowledge of animal pbyfics was limited to a few 
weak analogies^ and it is to thefe analogies that the pr6- 
icription of all diefe animals, which were regarded at ooo- 
ftitoting one individiia) clafs, is to be afeftt>ed, becavfie one 
of thefe animals, upon fome fimilar reafon, appeared fo^i- 
dous. The hog appearing at fifft figfaf entitled to be rack* . 
cd among thofe animals who bave the hoof cl^t, and yet 
being remarkable on aeeoimt of its inability to chew die 
cnd^ which is a fwaS&cxi common to almeft adl die animals 
of diis clafs, it follows from thoscisGumftaace, that die 
imion of the power of rumination with the diarafker of a 
forked hoof, appeared an efiential attribute of diofe animalst 
wbofe flefli is to be regarded as £dubrious food* Coofider- 
ing the matter m this light, it was coaclnded, that two 
clafis of animals ought to be excloded from the ardde of 
diet; iftj that compofed of the ruminating animals diat 
are not eloign footed ; 7dy that of cloven footed animals 
wl^ch are not endowed widi the faculty of mmmadbn. 


* The flefh of bogs is well known to be ubwholefome in £gjpt| and 
•ther countries of the eaft, where they are fed differently from what they 
are In Europe ; and, it is probable, experience of this fort induced the 
taftem Iq^iilaters, Mofes and Mahomet, t« forbid \tt vfe by m articl* it 
their fcfp«4tive codes of laws. TaAiis&ATot. 

• « 

HYGlBKEy BY »AJLL2. 271 

Moreover^ tbofe animals whoCe feet have toes havp been 
arranged in the fame clafs with fuch as have the feet un-^ 
forked i fo that thofe among them that chew the cud have 
been excluded from the number of thofe articles of food» 
the ufe of which has been permitted by the law.' 

This precept refulted in a greater uniformity in ihe regi- 
men of this people ^ for the kinds of animal food author* 
ized by their law were reduced to a fmall number, fioce 
among the birds and £(hes» dbete were fimilar prohibitiona 
which eiclttded from the range of falutary food, numerous 
tribes of winged fowls^ of fifliesy and of amphibious am* 

This unifornuty in their regimen, rendered neceflary by 
the prohibitions fanftioned by their religion, joined to the 
abfolute interdi&ion of foreign alliances, and eten of one^ 
tribe with another, muft have preferved among the indivi- 
duals of the Jewi(b nation, a peculiar analogy with refpeft 
to thofe features and phyfical cbaradlers whidi conftitute 
national refemblances. It has thus been alleged that the 
race of the Jews is fenfibly diftinguiflied in the various dU 
mates, and in the midft of thofe very different nations^ 
among wh6m this people is fcattered« I know not, how- 
ever, whether it would be an eafy taflc, to analyfe the linea* 
mentsof thb rpiemblancei and with regard to myfelf, I 
never could explain them with fuch precifion as to fatisfy 
my own mind. 

It is a more eafy taik to comprehend the chjt€t for which 
legal purifications were inftituted, in warm climates, where 
the rapid putrefa£lion of animal fubftances, the profufe 
perfpiration, and the odour of that excretion, efpecially 
among individuals of a red complexion, a colour which is 
abundantly common in thefe countries, are fo many caufea 
•f unhcalrhinefs, which ablutions counterafl;. The Arabs* 



who ate defcended from the patriarchsi the anceftors of 
the Hebrews, and from whom have fprung the firft Maf- 
fttlm'ans, fcrupuloufly adhere to the fame prafiices. Maho- 
met found them prevalent in that country, and prefcribed 
them to his followers. It is well known that, in thofe 
countries fo often ravaged by the plague in our times, the 
bed piophylaftic againft this contagion, is the immerfion 
in water of all thofe* bodies that are capable of communis 
eating it. Thefe remarks enable us to ai&gn a reafonable 
motive for the purifications prefcribed in the law of Mofes. 
This Icgiflator invefted cleanlinefs with the authority of a 
religious precept ; and chofe rather to carry the pra&ice of 
this virtue to the moft fcrupulous minutenefs, than to run 
|he rijOc of fufiering it to be neglected in circumftances of 
importance* It is a very fingular fad, that this people,' 
who have been able to preferve fo many phyfical traces of 
the firft diftinguiihing charafters of their anceftors, ihould 
be almoft everywhere remarkable for an exceflive degree 
of flovenlinefs, wherever the individuals of it are found 
united together within the fame limited fpace ; as is ob- 
fervable in Rome, in certain cities of Germany, and in all 
riiofe places where there is a particular ward or quarter 
appropriated to this nation. If we may take it for granted, that 
this propenfity to uncleanlinefs is hereditary, this fuppofition 
furniihes a ftili more fatisfadory reafon why their legiila- 
tor has taken fo much care to render cleanlinefs obligatory 
on a nation, whom he knew to be little inclined to the 
pradice of this domeftic virtue. 

With refped to the fecluiion of certain difeafes deemed 
contagious, and efpecially the leprofy, the Mofaic code ex- 
hibits the fame chara£teriftic features, that is, an exceiEve 
degree of precaution. We are ignorant of the nature of 
the leprofy, of the walls, and of the buildings ; but we 


everywhere obferve the ilioft ftttdioi» care to deftroy even 
the (hadow of contagion. The leprofy of the HebteWs ap« 
pears to have been the difieafe denominated elephatitii^s in 
modern prafibice ; and the dtfcrepandes which the defcrip* 
tion given of it by the Hebrew bwgivery feems at firft 
fight to prefent, diiappear, as the citizen Chamferu has 
remarked, when we confult the context, and obferve, that 
the expreiBons from which the tranflators have inferred, 
that the leprofy produced pits, or depreffions of the (kin, 
inftead of forming piojediing tttbercles, only fignify, that 
this derangement of the ikin penetrated below its furface, 
and extended through its thicknefs, fo that the expreffion, 
pit or depreffion, has been fnbftttuted £br that ci dep^ or 
penetra^on. We know that the terms of die Hebtew Ian« 
guage lead to fimikr miftakes, from the number of figmfi- 
cations of which the fame word is fofcepttUe. This pofi- 
tion being admitted, and the leprofy and elephantiaGs being 
alfo the fame difeafe, it might excite our aftoniftment, that 
perfons labouring under this diften^r, which in our cii« 
mate is in no inftance infe£tiou8, and whofe contagious 
nature is ^ven very problematical in warm regions, fliould 
be fo rigorouily exduded from the community among the 
Hebrews, if an exoei&ve degree of precaution in every other 
point refpe£bing health, had not been one Of the diftin- 
guifbing chara&eriftics of the ceremonial code of this peo- 
ple.* It may, moreover, be obferved, that the hideous and 
Vol. III. S difgufting 

* The contagious nature of lef^y 8|)pesr8 to be pitfved from tiie me* 
dical liiftories of the French army in Sgypt. Thefe accounts do not aii«r 
thorize us to identify leprofy with elephantiafis, and this latter difeafe is 
not infcdious. See Xelatkn ChhurgUak^ \^e, par D, I-arrey, Doaeur< 
&c, 8vo. Paris, 1^04, translator. 


dUgttfting afpcA of perfons attacked by this fnghtfol ma- 
ladyi mail hare infpiied this averfion, and countenamied 
the prejudices, of thoife who regarded it as contagious. It 
is perhaps to this frightful appearance alone, that the cur- 
rency whidi the fame opinion has obtained in our American 
colonies^ where lepers are with die fame care excluded 
^m focietjT) is to be traced. 




All the d>ferFances applicable to the prefenration of 
heaiA contained in the ceremonial inftitutes of the He* 
brews are limited to thefe points alone. For we do not 
obfenre any traces of a public iaftttution authorized by thdr 
law» which had for its objeft to promote the phyfical per* 
it&ioa of man. The £rft bws in ancient hiftory wluch fur- 
nifli us with examples of fuch an eftabliihment are thofe of 
Lycurgus. It b, indeed, true, that the laws of Crete had 
ahready prefcribed public education and eating in common. 
But what the Cretans had done in this refpe£l:, the Spar- 
tans executed with ftill greater efficiency, fince Lycurgus 
occupied himfelf with the taik of eftablifliing the empire 
of the laws upon the foundation of public manners, which 
he framed and prepared by inftitutions ftill ntore power, 
f ul than the laws themfelves* 

It is proper to remark in this place, as fug^fting con« 
fideratiohs which are by no means foreign to the phyfical 
knowledge of man, that the art of forming his manners, is 
perhaps of much greater importance than the art of pre- 
fcribing him laws 5 quid leges Jine mmbus vana proficiuni^ 


MYGlfiNE, BY HALLE. 275 

Manners are a fpecies of habit, by which man is carried 
along, as it were infenGbly and contrary to his inclinations, 
^hich gives an uniform direfiion to all his adlions and to 
all his ideas. The tendency of this dire£tion ought always 
to be to urge him on to what is right, but lefs by precepts 
than by an irrefiftible impulfe. It is by addreffing his fenfes 
through the medium of external obje£b, by inftitations^ 
monuments, feafts, and public folemnities ; that man, al- 
ways prone to imitation, always difpofed to accommodate 
himfelf to the objedis with which he is furrounded, is 
prompted to a£bion. It is therefore a point of great im« 
portance, when we wi(h to change the manners of a nation, 
to erafe every trace of its ancient habits, and to delineate 
everywhere the image of thofe which we arc inclined to 
fubftitute in their place. In general, laws addrefs the 
underftanding ; and manners fubjugate man through the 
inftrumefntality of the fenfes. No people underftood better 
the influence of manners than the Greeks; and no legifla- 
tor availed himfelf more of this influence than Lycurgus.^ 
But however nearly allied thefe confideratioiis may be to 
the phyfical hiftbry of man, we muft Itinit our inquiries,' 
in this place, to that department of that eminent man's- 
legiflation, which has for' its objed: the prefervation of 
health, or the perfe£Hon of our fpecies. 

In ftudying the legiflation of ancient nations, we muft 
sever forget that their chief aim was to furniOi the ftatc 
with hardy citizens and able defenders. Every citizen was 
afoldier; and every private confideration was invariably 
facrificed to the interefts of the republic. It is in this 
order of things that we muft fometimes feek for the origin 
of cuftoms, which in our own times appear barbarous and 

Sa ft 



It was an eftaUUhed cuftom at Spartas as amoog die 
moft aocient ftates of Gre€Qe» as well as at a latter period 
amoi^ tbe Romass, to decide upon the fate of every in&nt 
at its Urdi \ and according to its ftieng^» and the tndica- 
dons which it gave of a found conftitutibn» to receive it 
into die nundier of the llvtng» or to exchide it from this 
privilc^ when its condition authorized the prefunptioB 
that, in its luture life» it would only become afeetde beingi 
detttute of ability to ferre its country. 

Among all other. nationsy die parents themfehres were 
the. arbiters who gave judgment in this eafe^ atSparta» 
diey were the elders of the tribe^ who decided fblemnly 
upon it in the name of the rqpuUic. The Spartans un- 
doubtedly were of opinion^ that the poffibiltty of ftrengtb* 
ening a feeble conftitudon ought to be deemed a haaard 
too difadvantageous, and did not imagine that men, lb little 
befriended by nature^ would indemnify tbetc country for 
the debility of their oigans» by the extent of their know- 
le4ge, or the eminence of their virtues. 

The Thebans did not admire this barbarous cuftom ; aad 
perhaps the recpUedion of the fate of CBdipus, wass among 
tUs people, the cade of an exception, fo accordant to the 
dilates of humanity. 

We muft not, however, eftimate the lofs which I^acede- 
mon muft have fuftained from» a proferipdon of diis nature, 
by that which the lame law would have occafioned among 
ourlelves. The licendoulhels of parents, their debaucfaeryt 
their e0eminacy, their weakn/QiSi fuperinduced by a wretch* 
ed fyftem of educadon, muft among modem nations have 
greatly multiplied thole feeble beings, whom death feems 
td claim from the firft ftage of their infancy, and who can 
only be refcued from his grafp by dint (tf attention and of 


MYGIil^E, BY HALLE. 277 

vigilance. Independent of all this, Lycnrgus had turned 
his attention to the great objed of preparing vigoions ila* 
mina, and fought^ in the education of th: Spartan women^ 
the ingredient of that ftrength of body, which, ' combined 
with energy of fool, was to form the heroes whom he wi(h- 
ed to give to his country. 

It was with the view of accomplifhing this important 
purpofe, that until the time of marriage, the Spartan wch* 
men, trained up to the fame exercifes with the men, derit^ 
ed from a mafcuKne and fevere education that ftrength 
wluch they were to tranfmit to their children. 

At the period of their marriage, they ceafed to frequent 
the gymnafium, and devoted themfelves to the difcharge of 
thofe important dudes, which the honourable Ctuation of 
wives and of mothers impofed upon them. 

It is a very ancient opinion or prejudice/ that fomething 
is conveyed to the child from the external impreffions with 
which the mother is afie&ed during pregnancy. While 
this period lafted, the eyes of a Spartan vToman vi^ere con- 
ftantly feafted with images, which recalled the idea of 
beauty combined with ftrength. Thus careful were this 
people, that every circumftance concurred to prepare a race 
of heroes ; and prior even to his birth,' a Spartan was not 
to be regarded as an ordinary mortal. 

Scarcely had he appeared in the world, when the eyes 
of his country were fixed upon him^ and his education 
became the moft important concern of the ftate. It was a 
cuftom among the ancient Greeks, of which the hiftory of 
Achilles furhiflies us with an example, to immerfe the new* 
bom infant in cold water at the moment of its birth. Other 
nations made their children pafs through the fire. Le Clerc^ 
(Hift. of Medicine, Bopk I, c. xiv,) after having extrafted 

S 3 from 


from Plato all that this philofo^er has urged againft He* 
rodicusy and agunft gymnaftic mediciney quotes the ex- 
ample of the Lacedemonians, who plunged their children 
in wine immediately on their birth. He addsy that thefe 
republicans concerned themfelves little about the accidents 
which might refult from this meafurcy being perfuaded 
that thofe to whom it proved fataiy would have never be- 
come robuft and hardy citizens* He obfenresy without 
quoting bis authorityy that the children thus treated fre- 
quently died of an attack of epilepfj. Le Clerc and his. 
author have undoubtedlyy in this placey miftaken epilepfy 
for ietanuSf or locked jawy which is frequently induced in 
new bom infantSy by cold and moift temperature ; and, in 
generaly by every kind of irritatiouy efpecially in warm 

. The young Spartansy in earJy infancy aloncy were intruft- 
ed to the care of their parents. This period extended to 
the age of feven years ; and during this timCy fo favour- 
able for the developement of their organs, all their phyfical 
and moral faculties unfolded themfelves in perfed^ liberty. 
Their limbs were not (hackled with ftrait bondsy their 
minds were not enflaved by the harfhnefs of a premature 

When they reached the feventh year of their age, they 
became the children of the ftatej'and from this period 
they began to inure themfelves to fatigues proportionate to 
their age. Their fports, always performed in public, as 
well as their exercifesy were conftantly direfked to the fame 
end \ that of hardening their bodies gradually againft ez^ 
ternal impreilions, of bracing their limbs, and of carrying 
their motions to the higheft pitch of improvement. When 
they attained to the age of twelve, they began to lay afide 



their loofe flowing hair, and the long dref8 of infancy ; 
they dripped themfelves even of their coat, ftockings, and 
ihoes, and clothed with a fimple cloak, and fpending almoft 
the whole day in the gymnafium, by the moft rigid mode 
of* living, by the moft violent ezercifes, and by the ftri£left 
temperance, they were trained up to a military life, which, 
in the ancient fyftems of education, was the moft indifpeni^ 
ible of all acquirements, fince every citizen was a foldier. 
Forthe fpirit of conqueft and of fway uncea/Ingly torment* 
ed thefe reftlefs nations, who have bequeathed to pofterity 
the fineft models of wifdom and of humanity combined 
with the moft deplorable examples of ferocious war. 

The Spartans were lefi» accuftomcd to the u(e of baths 
than the other ftates of Greece. !I?hey appear to have 
been familiar with the ufe of the dry ftove, fince in the 
public baths of Rome, that department of the building ap- 
propriated to this kind of ftove was denominated the Laco^ 
nicum* But they were habituated to bathing ot immerfion 
in the flowing ftream of their rivers. 

In the Spartan fyftem of education, there was a cuftom 
which merits particular notice in this place, on account of 
the diverfity of its efieds upon the morals of the different 
ftates of Greece. In fad, fuch an ufage fuits a nation d|f- 
tinguiflied for its wifdom and for the ftri^inefs of its morals^ 
and ferves to carry its virtue to a ftill higher pitch, which, 
on the contrary, can only increafe licentioufneis and difli- 
pation in ftates abandoned to pleafure, and corrupted by 
effeminate luxury. Thefe obfervations are applicable to the 
cuftom eftabliflied at Sparta, and which I^ycurgus had bor* 
rowed from the Cretans, of cementing tender attachments 
among the youth, by means of which, friends infeparably 
united, interefted in the glory and honour of their affociates, 

S 4 became 


became mutual snilni£bor8y whofc Aiperintetideiiee refoked 
in more advantageous confequeneeS) than all the feveritj 
exercifed hj thor mafters. The puUicky of their inter- 
coorfe was the fecurit j of their virtues ; anil we may more- 
over place the utmpA confidence in the purity of an 
inftttution of this nature, among a people, whofe women 
impreiled upon their contemporaries, and handed down to 
pofterity, an Mgh opinion of theii virtues and of their mO' 
4efty ; alt&pugh they fcomed, even in the eyes of the pub- 
lic, the nfe of thofe veils which are rather to be con&dered 
as the emblems of virtues than as its guardians. 

On the contrary, it is well known into what profligacy 
of cendu£l tbefe intimate i^nriations degenerated among 
Ae Athenianst among whom even the virtues of a Socrates 
were not exempt from fufpicion, and appeared debafed fay 
the devote<d attachment wUch the yolmg AlciUades pro* 
fe&d for hiiku It may veadily be conceived, that the infti< 
tutions €»f Sparta could not })e natundifed at Athens widi 
facility J atyd among nations addiAed to this fpecies of de- 
bauchery, a (^generated and enfeebled race muft needs 
have fufimd tl^ puni(hment due to thofe injuries com- 
ixutted on the moft facred laws of nature* 

To the exereifes by which their early infancy was invi- 
gorated, fueceeded'a feries of real contefts among the Spar- 
tan yc^th* who had attained the age of eighteen. They 
were taught to deipife and reiift pbin upon every occafion; 
they enpountered that feeling in a more formidable (hape 
in the midft of their pleafures than in the field of battle. 
{nftead'of being abandoned to dtemfelves, in an age in 
which the turbulent pai&ons predominate, they were at 
this period ftirnifhed with new incentives to their courage, 
and all their paSions controuled or abfbrbed by the love of 



.3ieir conntryy kindled in their fouls exquifite enjoyments^ 
and delivered them up to a ^ecies of intoxication^ unac« 
companied by pleafure. 

Senfualtty experienced every difcour^gement; and the 
black hroth of Sparta, which gratified an appetite excited 
by violent exercife, was undoubtedly a diflx which a Spar- 
tan alone could reliih. The artSi the ofispring of imag{n« 
ation, and which aiibrd it fo agreeable an exercife, werer 
enly rendered familiar to the Spartans as far as they infpir* 
ed noble and manly fentiments* To the art of oratory this 
people were ftrangers ; their eloquence confifted in ftrength 
and precifion of ideas ; their poetry was pregnant with fire 
and enthufiafm ; and their mufic admitted only of grand 
and forcible modulations, calculated to prompt to daring 
and courageous enterprises. 

Time impairs the noblefl: inftitutions ; but it is remark* 
able, that the vices^ which at firft changed thofe of Lycur* 
gus, were the very oppofite to thofe which generally under- 
mine and enfeeble the primitive^ virtues of infant dates* 
Such was the nature of the impulfe communicated to the 
Spartans by their firft inftitutions, that, inftead of ten^i^ 
to enfeeble the fentiments with which they infpired them^ 
they tranfgrefled the limits which the legiflator prefcribed 
to them ; firmnefs and courage .were converted into fero- 
city and barbarity i the pride of the ftem virtues extinguifh* 
ed the very fentiments of humanity ^ and inftead of refting 
fatisfied with rendering their bodies hardy and vigoroust 
they fubjeded them with a favage joy to the moft unavail- 
ing punifhments. The fteadinefs with which the Spartana 
per fevered in the firft track which Lycurgus pointed out to 
them, evidently refulted from the care exercifed by that 
legiflator to prcferve them from all commixture with foreign 


2g8 avOUKE) BY HAtLE* 

nations. He ladier chofe to dqprive them at the «rt8, the 
offspring of luxury and of commerce, provided.they remsun* 
ed ftranger^ to the corruption which followed in their tram } 
and it was perhaps a more advantageous alternative for 
them to preferve all the roughnefs of a firft impreffioiH 
than to fufier its original traces to be edaced» in aHbciatioos 
which never introduce degance, of manners without its 
^ncomitant vices. 

In fine, the greateft eulo^m which can be pafied upon 
the phyfical tnftitutions qf Lacedemon is^ that in no other 
diftrift of Greece could man lay claim to purer and noUef 

» _ 

blood than circulated in the veins of the S^partans. (Sec 
Travels of the young Anacharfis.) 


It was not under the formal fan£iion of laws, that the 
other ftates of Greece received fuch of their pra£):ice$ as 
are conneSed with the prefervation of public healths and| 
in general, thefe objects are far from being fo nearly allied 
tc Irgifiative ena£l:ments as to the manners aod cuftoms q{ 

There are, however, two men who merit a place in the 
rank of lawgivers ; and whofe precepts, confidered in their 
relation to public hygiene^ may be compared with the code 
of LycurgUs. Thefe arc Pythagoras and Plato. The former, 
with no other defign than that of eftablifhing a fchool of 
philofophy, became almoft the legiflator of a nation ; and 
the latter, in devifing a fyftem of laws fpr ftates, was fimply 
denominated a philofopher* 

Sobriety and temperance were the original bafis of the 
dUetetic laws of Pythagoras \ and abftinence from certain 



fttbfianceS} as well as a vegetable regimen^ were only ccmk 
clttitons deduced from a firft principle; the objed of which 
was to procure, in conjunAion.with bodily health, the per- 
fe&ion of the intdleflual fun&iotis. Certain prohibitions 
could not be confidered as ftri& and rigorous precispts, ex« 
cept for his difciples alone, who, like all the ibllowers of* 
religious or philofophical fchools, .always take merit to 
themfislTes, in increafing the feverity of obfervances, whiift 
they not unfrequently lofe (ight of the end for which they 
were inftituted, viz. the phyfical and moral perfediion of 
man. The man who iheds the blood of an oz or of a 
(beep, will be habituated more eafily than another to wit- 
nefs the effiifion of that of his fellow creature ; inhumanity^ 
takes pofieffion of his foul \ and the profei&ons, whofe ob« 
]c6l is to facrifice animals for the purpofe of fupplying the 
neceffities of men, impart to thofe who exercife them a 
ferocity, which their relative conne&ipns with fociety but 
imperfe^ly ferve to mitigate. Would it be a true infers* 
ence from thefe premifes, that the tbirft of blood is one of 
thofe depravities to which the human fpecies abandon 
themfelves with the leaft relu£lance ? and ought men to 
be compared with thofe carnivorous animals, among which 
the colour, or the fmell, or the tafte of bloody awaken a 
terrible inftin^l, which prompts them to forget even the 
very mafter whom they formerly car^fled, and from whom 
they received their nourifliment i 

There is another obfervation which I equally refer to the 
phyfical organization of man, and which owes its origin to 
that kind of religious fchool eftabliihed by Pythagoras. It 
relates to the influence of fymbols and of fymbolical obferv« 
ances, in engraving the maxims of morality upon the human 
mind. He had learned this method among the Egyptian 

4 priefts ; 


ptiefts ; but he hsd not confidered that man, faperftttioizs 
ftom his birth, loon attaches himfelf to the type, winlft he 
everlooks the idea of which ii is the emblem, lays hold of 
the image to fubftitute it in the place of the thing repre- 
felted, and by diis means becomes more refigions without 
improving his condu£i* There is little rea(bn to donbe, 
diat idolatry and fnperftition bad their origin in fymboUcal 
and myfterious language, which, covering truth w^ a 
ve9| exUbited her only under emblematical appearances* 
But this inquiry is le& immediately conneded with die 
ioBrine ofbedhhy than with th^ nature of man. 

We may obfenre here, as one of the circumftanccs which 
tnoft decidedly contribute to bodily health, the care ezercif* 
cd by the Pythagoreans in regulating all the emottiuis of 
Ac foul, not only by the ftudy of philofoi^ and of the 
l|)ecttlative fciencesi not only by the precepts and pra£Hces 
of the mildeft morality, but, moreover, by the ule of mufici 
by^the peaceable profpeA of agreeable folitudes, in general} 
by all thofe means, which dxffiifing ferenity over our exter- 
nal fenfes, tranfmit into our f9ttls the placid afle^Kons of 
our eyes and of our ears. 

I have not thought it fuperfiuou^ to dwell for a moment 
upon thefe confidertions ; fince the fyftem of Pythagoras 
was not confined within the linuts of his owi) fchpol, but 
became, during a certain period, the law of a Grecian co*. 
lony eftabliflied at Crotona, which was deftroyed only by 
the jealoufy of certain perfons, who, on account of their 
viceS} were refufed admiffion into this fociety. A nation 
of j^lofophers, governed by the mildeft laws, among 
whom the pallions kept in perpetual fubjefiion to the do- 
minion of reafon, would have never interrupted peace, 

union, and equality, would undoubtedly have been a noble 



{pc&tck, and "k rich fource of obferrationt for all tbofi: 
who devote themfelvea to the ftudy of the phyfical audi 
moral qualities of man — a chimerical &bric } but whick 
it was an honourable attempt to have reared to a cotaia 
he^htt in fpite of the inevitable deftru&ion which humaft 
depravity prepared for it. The phyfical t&Qt of an tuAi- 
tution of this nature upon fucceifive generationSf in one cf 
the fineft clifl»tes in the worid, is unfortunately a problena 
which has not yet been folved, which ofiers itfelf to our 
meditation^ but vdiich will fumiih few pages in die luftorj" 
of public bfg&nim 

The fine chimera which oceuned to the mind of Plato» 
whik orgaaiai^g his ideal republic^ a^rds little new ma** 
teriab adapted to our purpoft^ and the divtfion of the 
education of die claCi of warriors^ between the gy mnaftic 
art and mufici is the only circuoidlance which we deem 
worthy of obfarvation in thi$ place. It merits our attentioa^ 
both becaufe this department of Plato's plan is fiippocled 
upon the experience of the ftates of Greece, and becanfe 
the kpflator^s ohjed was to counterbalance the phyficai 
effi^ of one of thefe inftitutions by dx>fe of the odier : 
ii^bpuch that mufic cured the foul of that rudeneb and 
f|iv^ di^fltioQ with which the ezerciCes of die gymaa* 
(ium infeAed it| whilft thefe, on the other hand, in inri*^ 
gorating die body, and in accuftoming it to endure the 
m<^ fisvere laboim, guarded die body agatnft diat eflfemi* 
nacy and want of energy wluch reCiilied from die eficde 
of mufic. We may, however, remark in this place, that by 
die term mufic, Omtvws), Phto and the ancients uadetftooA 
alfii every (iibje^ comprehended under the jurifdiftion o£ 
the mufissi that is, all the i^ulative fiaeaces. It is neverw 
thelefs certain, that mufic, properly fo called, occupied a 




confpicQOtts place among the inftitutioni of Greece* They 
fegarded it as poflefling extenfive influence, both phyfical 
and moral, over the minds of men ; (ince the kings and 
the ephori enaAed a difhonourable decree againft an Ionian 
muiician who had juft introduced into Sparta innovationsi 
vhich, by beftowing more voluptuous modulations on mu- 
fic» appeared to them calculated to corrupt the youth. In 
ether countries of Greece, feveral laws prefcribed the 
number of ftrings which the lyre (hbuM pofiefs, and pro- 
Ubited any additioil to this number under the fevereft 
penalties* Plato himfelf confiders the changes introduced 
into mufic as fymptomatic of depravity of monds, and as 
a prefage ominous to the community. He prefcribed to the 
pupils of his republic the Dorian and Phrygian modulations; 
of which, the former was energetic and manly, die latter 
Irfty and noble. But he prohibited the Lydian meafurei 
calculated to introduce languiihing plaintivenefs ^ and the 
Ionian, which breathed fc^ voluptuou&tefs. Whatever 
may be in this, one expreffion of this great mvi, inftruds 
Its as to the objefi which be had in view when he com* 
pofed his fyftem of public education-^*' When you arrive 
^ in a city/' he obferves, <* you wiQ perceive that educa^ 
** Hon is negle£ked, if there be a want of phyficians and 
** of judges.'^ 

I do not examine here in detaB what Ariftotk has ad* 
vanced after Plato, and the affiftance which many other 
phiiofophers of antiquity have been abk to afford, eidier 
by their a£fcions or by their writings, in advancing the per- 
k&ion of the fpecies. There are few things deferring of 
attention in thefe, which ought not to be referred to the 
remarks juft now made, and which have not been borrow- 


ti from the examples quoted in the preceding difquiG- 


It 18 near the time of Pythagorasi that is, in the fixtli 
century before the Chriftian era, that we muft fix the 
epocha at which Xenophon reprefents Cyrus leaving the 
feyere feminary of the Perfians, and exhibiting at the court 
of Aftya^ges, an example *of a manly education, of a fobriety,, 
a wifiiom, and an abftemioufnefs, which appeared an incom- 
prehenfible phenomenon to the voluptuous courtiers of the 
emperor of the Medes. 

Let not the Cyropaedia be regarded merely as an ingeni- 
ous romance; this romance, at leaft, cannot be coniidered 
as bttUt upon a foundation entirely fabulous. • Is it to be 
imagined that Xenophon would have placed before the eyes 
of his fellow citizens fo fine a pl£lure of a foreign anrl a 
rival nation of the Greeks, had he not entertained a fettled 
opinion upon this point, efpecially at a period when, dege- 
nerated from its real fplendour, and debafed by luxury and 
efleminacy, the Perfian nation no longer furnifhed any 
traces of that unchangeable glory which is the infeparable 
and exclufive xrompanion of virtue ? 

Among the Perfians, of whofe manners, before the era 
at which this nation was blended with the Medes, Xeno« 
phon has left us fo exquifite a flcetch, the education of 
children was not intruded to their parents. The chfLi was 
the property of the natbn ; and from the age of fix or fe ven 
years, was under the fuperintendance of magiftrates, fe- 
le£ttd ircr- among the elders, and who we-^e chofen for 
the ipeciai purpofe of prefiding over the education ( f he 



jouth. During the period of ten years, they were inured 
to every fpecies d exercife ^ they rofe at break of day, ate 
io common, not in the houfes of their parents, but in thofe 
of the mafters to whofe charge they were con6ded. They 
were there accuftomed to endure hunger and thirft, and to 
reft fatbfied with a frugal repaft. Their drink was water.; 
bread and eardamon (is«^3«^y, which tnmflators interpret 
by the term nqfturtiump or water^crijffis) conftituted their 
food ; and their exercife confifted in bendbg tke bow and 
in throwing the javelin* 

When arrived at the age of puberty, (till leverer exsiciies 
were allotted to them ; and until they reached their twenty* 
fifth year, they ferved an apprenticelhip to war, in all its 
various forms. They flept in the open air, under arms; 
they accompanied to the chace the chief of the nation, fuf« 
tained in this exercife the reprefentation of hofiile conflifb, 
endured cold, and every fpecies of inclemency of weather; 
ate only once in the day, and fed upon the game taken by 
the hunters ; on all other occafions they were fatisfied widi 
the fimple eardamon added to their bread. Such of them 
as did not participate in the fatigue of the chace, engaged 
in exercife among themfelves, and contended with one an* 
other for the prize and glory of dexterity and ftrength* 

They attsuned their twenty- fifth year befoit they aflbciat* 
ed with the full grown men. This people were not anxious 
to gather the fruits of maturity in the age of expectation ; 
and they did not prematurely exhauft the refources of the 
ftate. Every adult carried arms for the fpace of twenty- 
five years. At the age of fifty, he was inrolled in the clals 
of old men $ and from this period he never engaged in 
warfare, except in thofe confii£ts which were maintained^ 
in defence of his own habitation and of the national terri- 
tones* Such was the order of the laws refpeding the edo* 

* cation 


cation and employment of men in a warlike and invincible 
nation, which did not fink under the efibrts of the Greeks, 
until a period when incorporated with the Medes, and enerv- 
ated by luxury, and by the riches acquired from the nations 
which it conquered, it extended its dominion far beyond its 
proper limits,— and whofe defendants firmly fuftained all 
the weight of the pride and* of the power of Rome. 

One remark ftill remains to be made on this people, 
which is not foreign to the fubje£); under difcuflion. The 
laws prohibited them frohi blowing their nofes and from 
fpitting in public, as well as from retiring from their exer- 
ctfes for the purpofe of fatisfying the calls of nature. This 
fingular prohibition, as Xenophon obferves, would be in- 
explicable, did we not confider, that the excefliTe temperance 
of this people in limiting the ufe of food to what was in- 
difpenfably neceflary, from this circumftance alone, render- 
ed evacuations lefs preffing and lefs frequent, the copiouf- 
tiefs of which is in general proportioned to the fuper- 
aibundance of floidSi and to the imperfe£Hon of digeftion. 


There is an authority paramount to that of the laws i it 
is the authority of manners. By mannersi I underftand in 
this article, all that is univerfally eftablifhed among men by 
the nearly irrefiftible influence of habit and of imitation. 
This is the precife import of the Latin expreflion tnoSf mores. 
We violate laws, but we never violate manners ; or at leaft 
ibis violation is never committed by the vulgar; and the 
Fulgar conftitute the bulk of nations. Manners, then, are 
.ane of the moft important obje£ts of inquiry^ both in » 

VoL.jn. - T one 

1 / 

pbjrfic^l and to a moral point of view-^ laws give us an 
ideapftbelcfg^atoT'aabilitiCii maimars indicate Uieftreiigth 
of aatiomt 



The next important confideration on the fubje£l of hj- 
gihte^ with whicb the manners of ancient nations fumifb 
usi is the gymaaftic art. This at firft eonftitut^d the na- 
tural cxercife of ibldiers ; and Homer, in certain parts of 
the Hiadi gives us a lively defcripdon of real military gym* 
.naftics. The prizes offered to dexterity and ftrength in 
thefe innocent wreftlingsy and the intereft which they ex- 
cited both aniong the fpefiators and among the competitorsj 
ibon converted thcfe warlike inftitutioas into pleafant ihew]^ 
which decorated the leifnre intervals of peace, and mingled 
with the public feafts. Hercules and Pelops inftituted 
^ames of this kind \ and Iphitus,^ king of Elis, after dieir 
example, revived them at the eftablifliment of the Olym* 
pic games. Philofophers and phyGcians footi perceived, 
how greatly conducive thefe exercifes we^re to health and 
ftrengthi to what perfeAion a young man attained by the 
habitual ufe of them, how many ailments vanifhed in the 
midft of thofe various and complicated motions which they 
rendered neceflary, and what enei^y thefe motions impart- 
ed to the preferving and depurating fun£lions» They ob- 
fervedi that even convalefcents, in adjufting the ufe of thefe 
exercifes to their refpe£kive degrees of ftrength, recovered 
more expeditiouily from a long and painful train of mala- 
dies. They communicated their obfervations to their fellow 
citizens, and the practice of gymnaftic exercifes was foon 
more extended. Buildings were conftrufted with the view 
of giving countenance to this eftabliihment, and of uniting 



HVGlSNlty BY HAhhJt. S9l 

it with other inftitutions which compofed the echicatioa of 
youth i and it is obvious how much the gyoinaftic art coo- 
tributed to the peifedion and prefervation of man* 

It is ftom confidering the relation betwedi its pra£):Ice 
and the prefervation of healthi that the invention of this 
art has been afcribed to Herodicus^ although before his 
time Iccius bad delivered Xome precepu refpe£ting it. It 
has been faid of Herodicus, that he preferved his life, and 
attained to a great age, in fpite of a (ickly conftitution, by 
the ufe of gymoaftic exercifes ; and it was on account of 
this care of his health, that Plato regarded his condu£i as 
f eprehenfible *, fince this philofopher was of opinion,* that an 
infirm conftitution eftranges man from the public intereft, 
and confines his attention entirely to himfelf ; and that to pro* 
long fuch lives, is equally injurious to the republic and to 
tbofe unfovtiuiate individuals, whofe evidence is for a long 
period protra£ied in the midft of their infirmities. Whence 
happened it that a man of Plato's penetration had not re- 
marked, that many individuals of infirm conftitntions have 
been gifted with great perfpicacity of underftanding, and 
by their wifdom and counfel have proved infinitely ufeful, 
both in refpe^l to their own private concerns and to the 
public weal ? 

But let us return to thq confideration of gymnaftic in- 
ftitutions. We have feen that the .ancient Perfians made 
great ufe of thefe in the time of Cyrus. The progrefs of 
this art accounts for the diftin£lioh which Plato, Ariftotle, , 
and Galen made, between military gymnaftics^ the moft an- 
cient of all, atU^ic, or, in the language of Galen, ixceftiot^ 
ahh gymnqftics^ and medical gymfiqfiics, or real gymnaftics ; 

Ta the 

• See the Third Book of hii RepubUc 


die objeft of which was the prefervation of healthy and the 
peifeftum of the fpecies. This laft fort conftituted an ef- 
fential department of the education of youth. Vano * 
remariuy that whilft the Romans employed themfelves in 
agricttltufe, and derived from the purity of their moralsi 
and from the labours of the field, that ftrength and vigour 
which picferve health, they remained ignorant of the gym- 
naftic art. This fpecies of exercife became necefiary, when 
they quitted their fields, to furrender themfelves to the te- 
dious floth of their cities and to fatal ina^vity. Phyficians, 
from the time of Varro to die fall of the empire, care&dly 
inculcated this pradice, for the cure of difeafes, and for 
the prefervation of health. And Plutarch informs us, diat 
in his time, thefe ufirful exercifes were univerfally pra^ 
ed.f We have already adverted to die excefles of which 
this people were guilty in this refpeA linder the emper« 

Medicinal or true gymnaftics, that fpecies, viz. which was 
comprehended in the education of youth, and to which 
meh in all ages have had recourfe for the prefervation of 
their health, differed from the athletic, not ftriAly by the 
nature of the exercifes, but by the degree in which tbey 
were pra^lifed. In reality, the ohjtdt of the athletic fpecies 
was, not to impart to the body all the permanency of a 
vigorous fl:ate of health, but all the ftrength which it coold 
poiBbly acquire. Whence refulted^an exceiEve ftrength of 
conftitution, which was denominated athletic ; and of which 
certain ancient ftatues gives us an idea, for fuch men aie 
very rarely obferved in our times. All the ancients repro- 

• De re Raft. lib. ii. Proem. 

f See Mercurial de Arte Gymmtfi. JJb» i» eaf» f. 



bate this ezceffiTe degree of bodily vigour; they regard it as 
furpaffing the boundaries of nature, as injurious to the 
mental fun£lions» and even to the ftability of health. 

It is to the athletic, at lead to the abufe of the gymnaftie 
art, improperly underftood, and carried to an immoderate 
length, that the following aphorifin of Hippocrates, which 
the ordinary copies give us in thefe terms, muft undoubt-^ 
edly be applied : £y r^^ yvftft&ruuHn m Ur Sut^f fvi{^» ^f «• 

XHxtrm «ry he} ii )C^^^» inttutv v» Afticm m tvt^ui* Avny (v^w^i^ 
fii fi^tHiffy Tm MAf» i^hf ttnt$^i^ AiiCii ti Wtf^, &c. That 
^A <*^ gymnafiic exercifes^ it is dangerous to attain to the bigbeft 
degree of vigour^ if this vigour hepufbed to the lajl extremity to 
which it can arrive. InfaSt^ tlnsflate of the body cannot aU 
ways remain at the fame pointy or maintmn its potion without 
variations* Since then it cannot thus permanently fu^ort itfelfi 
and that neverthelrfs it is not fufeeptible of any amelioration^ it 
muft necejfarily grow woffi. It is on this account that it is 
u/^ to reduce ^hout delay this^ eucefs of vigour, that the 
body may recruit itfelfapartf i^c. 

Viltebrune is not inclined to underftand this aphorifm 
as referring to athletic gymnaftics, but only to medicinal 
gymnaftics ; and inftead of yv^MruMiVo, ingymnaftica de£tisp 
he fubftitutes «0«W0-< {k fv4<n'), in Hs qua ad bonum haiitum 
exercentur* Lorry espfaim this paflage difierently, and 
applies it to thofe who make the gymnaftic art their prin- 
cipal occupation, as for example, the athletes, and to thofe 
who were ambitious of attaimng to that degree of ftrength 
which chara£kerized that race. This is alfo the opinion of 
Bofquillon^ and ouny reafons, which it were ufelefs to 
fpecify in this place, induce me to prefer their opinion to 
that of ViUebrune. But be this as it may, it is eafy to con* 

T 3 ceive, 

\ i 


ceivCi that thofe who devoted themfelireai whether from 
tafte or from their particuliar fitaatioti in focietyi to At 
conftant pradice of gymnallic exercifesj arriving graduaDy 
at a point vrhich is the excefs of bodily ftrength and vigour, 
could not continue their ordinary etercifcs, without being 
expofed to danger; and that, in order to refume dietn with- 
out inconveniences, the ftrength ttius acquired and carried 
to excefii muft of neceffity be diminiflied, {thtOiitif x\mf fti 
fi^ttii^i), in ordef to reftore to the invigorating aftlon of 
the gymnaftic art, the requifite (i)acc of time for produdng 
its eflfefts without breaking the fprlngs of the body, (7i* 
.^dxtf «g;^» ifa$^^a'i6i xdifi tl trS^). And, in this fenfe, the 
exprcffion Jtmt^i'^a-ta^^ fi/larathn, is at leaft as intdligiblc as 
the word «>«««v^<©j, rip^/e^ which Villcbtune fubftitutes in 
its place. 

The authority of Galen, who himfelf witneffed the cf- 
fctfts ' of gymnaftics, the authority upon which the vulgar 
text refts, will appear on this point equivalent to that of 
the manufcripts quoted in the reli)eaable work of Ms 
learned critic. Still farther, the word Jifx6ii^(rio$ appears to 
correfpond much better than die other to the remarkable 
expreffion Aw^f rif wi|/ijf ^h fi^c^^^, tar ttduce quickly tfm ex* 
ctffive vigour i which fignifies, to remove it by cnfeeblhig 
remedies, that fubftitute in its place an artificial and ad- 
vantageous debility. This is the import of the word |t;^- 
^inn^ Jinking^ confidentut^ which Hijf pbctates aftcfrwards 
adopts to cxprcfs the change that muft be cflfeacd, for the 
purpofc of preventing the refults of this excelfive ftrength; 
a change, in accomplilhfaig which, he alfo direfts the ap- 
plication of a wife moderation, and which he wMhes to b6 
adjufted to the temperament of the patient. . And foon af- 
ter, he ufes the word %%mtrm^ evacuations, to which he 
again contrafts the term m/^^f^nt, rejorOtions^ or, accord- 


HVOlEKfi, BY ttALLJ, 295 

Ing to Villebranei enm^ttv&tti. And, 6n ^11 occafions, he 
recommends raeafures and proportions fuited to the condi- 
tion of the perfon who is brought back by thefe changes t<> 
a moderate degree of ftrength and vigour. 

From this difcuffion ii feems evident, that in this ftate of 
preternatural vigour, fuperinduced by the immoderate ufe 
of gymnaftic exercifesi phyfieians were obliged to weaken, 
and, if the expreffion may be ufed, to fiik, or reduce, by 
means of proper evacuations, the perfon who had attained 
this excefs of ftrength ; and afterwards to reftore him by a 
WcH concerted plan of recovery to that moderate or middle 
ftate, which alode is compatible with a permanent ftate of 
health. Hippocrates, in fa£t, fpeaks exprefsly to the fame 
purpofe, in the fubfequent part of the paffage quoted above, 
and in the fame aphorifm : (Anil ri^ %vuvlv(n»q U t^ t^mr^f 

which figniiies — we muji not pu/h this debilitating procefs too 
far^ for that nvould he dangerous ; hut it muJi he accommodated 
to the conftitutiort of the perfon upon whom the experiment is 
performed* For thefe precautions are equally applicable to eva^ 
cuationSf which, carried to an extreme lengthy are produffive of 
dangerous eJfeBs. And again, the procefs of refioration, if car- 
ried afrefb to an excefjive degree, would alfo be attended with 

Galen alfo informs us, that wreftlers were fubjcft to 
fudden accidents, as burfting of blood-veflels, and haemor- 
rhages \ and Mercurialis quotes St. Jerome, wfio affirms, 
that they never attained to a advanced age \ and who cor* 
roborates on this point the authority of Hippocrates and of 
Galen^i' adduced above. The explanation of this remark- 

• » ■ - 

able aphorifm was certainly not a point of trivial import- 

T 4 ance 

296 BYG1KN£» BY UAtLB. 

aace to' the medical hiftory of the gynmaftic aft« I (ha& 
not here enter into any practical details relati?e to this art^ 
fo much n^leAed in thefe days* One of my coUeagues 
wiH without doubt have in this refpcdl gratified the CTpe£l- 
ations of his readers in the article gjmnafiics* 



The pradice of bathing was too nearly connected with 
'the general fyftem of ezercifes, not to include places appro- 
priated to both the one and the other^ in the £u&e efitaUifh- 
ments ^ an important department of the Gymnafium was 
a£Bgned to baths and ftoves. Among the Romans efpe- 
cially, much more than among the Greeksj the edifices 
reared for the pra£Uce of bathing were €onftru£led with 
tafte and magnificence \ and yet public baths were not* till 
a very late periodj| eftabliihed at Rome. The people were 
admitted into thefe baths upon paying a very moderate 
fum ; aad the hours in which admiifion was granted were 
regulated by the laws. Arrangements of police maintain- 
ed decorum in thofe places % and it was not till the period 
of degeneracy and corruption, which prevailed under the 
infamous emperors^ that the fexes were obferved promif- 
cuouily mixed together. So predominant over the manners 
of nations, efpecially in corrupting them, is the influence 
of thofe by whom they are governed I The peQple imitate 
and defpife their rulers* 

The hot and tepid batjbs, the moift and dry ftoves, (/0O0- 
fiicum), the cold bath, and above all, bafons in which 
fwimming might be pradifed, were the principal depart- 
ments of the public baths i infomuch that they ferved either 
for the purpofc of deanlinefs ', and, in this point of view^ 

"^ the 



ilie exercifes'themfelyes rendered their ufe in<UfpeDfable ; 
either to reftore to the body the flexibility, to the fluids the 
li<p)id]ty5 and ta the pores of the ikin the permeability, of 
wUch violent exercifes had deprived them : or to f umifli a 
new field of ezercife, equally adapted with all the reft to 
ftrengthen the body, without exhaufting it, and to put all 
its limbs in motion. I fpeak not here of any accommoda- 
tions which fenfiudity foperadded to all thefe ufeful objeds 
of attention : the gymnaftic art did not authorize thefe ef- 
feminate conveniences^ more calculated to enervate man, 
than to advance his progrefs to perfeAion. 

Alternation of heat and cold, produced either by fuccef- 
five immerfions in baths of difierent temperature, or by the 
affttfion of cold water upon a body, which had juft quitted 
the hot bath, [oalida lavatiff)^ was one of the pradiices in 
moft conunon ufe amoi^ the anciepts. Hippocrates, when 
fpeaking of regimen in difeafes, and even in acute diforders, 
adverts to the precautions which the afiiifion of cold water 
to coming out of the bath demanded, according to the dif- 
ferent kinds of afie&ions, to which the body had been 
expofed : and Galen treats of the fame fubje^.* There 
was alfo a period at which the ufe of the cold bath was in 
general vogue s and Antonius Mufa, the phyficiao of Au-i 
gufttts, appears to have been the perfon who introduced it« 
Augufttts, according to report, had been cured of a difeafe 
by this pra£^ice« This &(hion continued i and the inha- 
bitants of Rome boafted of the hardihood with which thej| 
immerfed their bodies in the coldeft water. Seneca makes 
k a fubjedi of exultation, and fays of himfelf, t We tan^ 
tus PfjcbnbtteSf qui kalendis Januariis in Euriputn falor 
ham. Plutarch and Galen remonftrated againft the ufe 



* GaL Comm. iii, la Ub. de vi^u in ftciitit»<« 449 cd. de Chartief. 
t Epift, S3. 

298 HYdI£K£, hV HALL«. 

of c(M water, as I fhall hare occafion to dbfetre in Ac 

Swimming alfo was peculiarly regarded as an eflendal 
part of the education of youth ; and the fame importance 
was attached to it, as to reading or the knowledge of letters. 
(Neque literal dididt, nee natare^ ftitt vhit, feftry^ftMim ttti* 
vetrtcf) — ^^ has learned neither to read nor toftmm^ was the 
eharader given of a perfon whom they wiflied to ftigmaltee 
as grofsly ignorant. 

The pradices which followed or accompanied the ufe 
of baths were not attended to with lefs care thftn the baths 
themfelves. Frictions, frequent manipulations, pre#ure 
upon the mufcular parts and upon the joints, die form and 
the materials of the inftruments appointed^ to remote firom 
the furface of the (kin the fubftances which a^kered \o it 
after the bath (JMgiles)^ brufhes, epilateires^ 8tc. were ob- 
je£ls of attention which phyficians themfelves did iMH over* 
look. And Galen, Oribafius, ^ius, ice. have not negtei^- 
ed to defcribe the greater part of thefe prad^cea in iSI^ 
works. 09y inunAions, whether fimple or perfumed, oc« 
cttpied a diftinguiflied place among thefe praAices; and 
even abftrafied from their application, both during exercife 
and in the bath, the ufe of them was kabitual among many 
perfons in all conditions. Every perfon knows the veceran 
Ibldier's reply to Auguftus, when he queftioned him coa« 
ceming the meafures which he adopted for the prefervation 
#f his health during fo long a fife ; [extus oko^ intus mulfi;) 
hf the external afplicdtiffn of ^/, aid by the internal tfi ^ 
Pweet wine, or mu/l, faicf he : wifiiing to be underftood as 
afcribing his protraded Kfe^ and his exceflent health, to die 
ufe of external inun£lions, which rendered him independent 
of the influence of viciffitudes of temperature or perfpir* 

. . . atiQOf 

atton^ and to a laxative ftate of his bovrelsi maintaioed by 
the ufe of the juice of the grape. 

The conjttit^lion of the various kinds of exetdfes iitrith 
the bathS) regulated the proportioti and the hour of dieir 
repafts ; infomuch that the confidenition of the gymnaftic 
art a!otie compivhends almoft the whole {vhjtfk of bygiifte* 
It is in {ti& to the life of baths genei^Uy eftabliflied among 
the Romans^ and adopted by alntoft every dafs of citizensi 
that the cuftom of making the /upper, or the repaft of th« 
evening, the principal diet; and that of being reclined on 
couches, during the time employed in this repaft, muft be 
afcribed. The other diets could only be light for men who 
divided the day between their neeeflkry avocations^ exereife 
and thebath, and v;ho were alfo to bathe in the evenings 
Confidered in its relation to health, the hour of fupper was 
equally remarkable. It correfponded, on the one hand, to 
the termination of bufinefs, that is, to the moment when 
man, fatigued with the motions of the day, had refi'efhed 
himfelf in the bath, where all the expedients to which he 
then had recourfe, had facilitated and completed the cuta- 
neous evacuations, and confequently fintlhed the daily elu« 
triation of the body ; in (hort, at the moment when both 
foul and body enjoyed the greateft degree of liberty of 
which they are fufceptible. At this period a reafonable 
forgetfulnefs of the cares of the day perntitted a pure gaiety 
to exhilerate all their enjoyments, and to embellifli their 
focial intercourfe with all the charms that can refult front 
a complete exoneration from anxiety. On the other hand^ 
the fupper was followed by a long ceflation from labour, 
and by fleep during the night. Thus does it appear^ that 
in this order of afllairs, every thing promoted the digeftbn 
of ihe aliment^ and confpired to efFe£t a complete repar* 
ation ot the lofs fuftained by the body throughout the day. 




The repsiftfl takeftMuring the day feemed only intended to 
haften with greater facility the hour of fupper. They did 
not interrupt the ufual bufineft^ and abftemious people did 
not paufe or fit down to table on their account. Auguftusy 
according to Suetonius, dined in his litter on a morfel of 
bresld and a little fruit. Wbil^ returning hmefr^m the palace 
in my fedan^ I ate an ounce tf breads nmtb a few grapes^ 
at Duradna : Dum leStica ex regui domum redio panis unciam 
cumpaucis acines uva Duradna comedu^ And Seneca, /peak- 
ing of his dinner if makes ufe of thefe expreffions: Pams de* 
indejiccus^ etjitie menfa prandium^ pofl qu9d nonfunt Idvands 
manus: 1 then take fotne dry breads and dine withwt Jitting 
down t9 table J after which there is no neceffityfor wajbing my 
bands. After all, we may believe that every Roman did 
xx>t reftridi himfelf to this degree of fobriety ; it is never^ 
thelefs certain, that the dinn^r^ prandium^ was but a light 
repaft \ and as they did not dine on coming out of the bath, 
during this diet they did not refume the reclined pofture. 

The order of the dilhes during the repaft was alfo, as 
among us, regulated according to cuftom \ and this cuftom 
was not perhaps the moft confonant to the principles upon 
Vhich the do£irine of health ought to be eftabUflied. Cel- 
fus condemns the cuftom of his own time, at leaft in as far 
as people of delicate ftomachs were concerned ; and there 
is a pretty ftrong analogy between the divifion of the dif- 
ferent parts of a repaft in that time, and the difierent courfes 
upon our tables. The ancients, or at leaft the Romans, 
divided their repaft into firft and fecond tables or courfes, 
{prima etfecunda rnenfg.) The firft courfe was compofed 
of animal food and other very nutritive fare ; and the fecond 
was made up of fruits and delicacies. It is of this latter 
part of the repaft that Celfus fpeaks : {Secunda menfa iwo 


* Suet, Odav. j lb. ep. 85. 


JtwMcbo mMnoeety in imbeeUh coacefcits Ji quis itaque hoc 
forum valet f palmulaSf pwnaque et JimiRa melius primo cih 
affumit) : The feamd courfe is not detrimental to a foutid 
Jltmachy hut it is i^t to cau/e acidity in a weak one ; Jhfuld 
any one there/ore lahur under a debility of this organ, he 
nvill db better to begin vnth dates, apples, andjimilar articles* 
Celfus, a little before^ had alfo obfenred, that it is a more 
eligible plan to begin the repaft with articles of food feafon- 
ed with fait, and with pot-herbsi and the like. Cibus afaU 
famentis, oleribus,Jimilibufque rebus, melius incipit. And in an- 
other place, the fame author remarks, imbecilHma materia ejl 
omne olut; Pot-herbs are of all articles of food the leafl nutria 
tive. He condemns then the cuftom of ending the repaft 
with light aliments, the fole advantage of which is to ex- 
cite appetite, or to gratify the palate. 

Without inquiring in this place, how far this opinion is 
founded in truth, it is ftill worthy of remark, that the art 
of prefenting to men fatiated with ibod, and already fuffi- 
ciently nouriihed, viands which awaken eztinguiflied appe« 
tite, and excite pleafure and defire without necei&ty, is^ 
treacherous and dedrudive. This art was cultivated among 
the ancients, as among ourfelves : it was even carried to a 
degree of criminal perfe£]lion; as it appears that their fe- 
cond courfes had a confiderable refemblance to our own 
fricafiees and deicrts. However fimple and light fuch food 
may be, yet if it be taken often, the concofting faculties 
are cloyed j it muft undergo in the ftomach an alter- 
ation, very different from that which proper digeftion 
would have produced. It is this morbid change which 
Celfus points out by the expreflion coacefcit ; to which 
muft be fubjoined the alteration which Hippocrates 
designated by the word x»vc-tiiu, an expreflion which in 
my opinion ought to be underftood as defcriptive of cer- 
tain articles of food, liable to excite burning eruSations, 


aOS HYSZSHBt S¥ HiXl.1. 

as I think I hare fufficirody piOTed under iim article All* 

An inveftigation refpeAing the modes of clothings and 
birad-drefies, ufed among .the ancients^ equally appertains 
to their cuftoms and manners, and is no leik conne^d 
with medicine^ confidered in its relation to the do£trine of 
health ; but I (hall have occafion tp ofier fome reflections 
on this fubje^t iti treating of the manners aqd cuftoms 
eonne£led with this do£krine prevalent in modern times, 
and when I come to inftitute a comparifon between the 
various modes of dr^fs adopted by different nations. 

I might extend to a much greater length this difquifition, 
lefpeding the medical and phyGcal hiftory of manners and 
cttftoms among the ancients 9 but many of the topics which 
might be fubjoined h^re would have no necefiary connec- 
tion widi public hygilne^ and will fall to be treated of with 
more advantage and convenience in other articles of this 


- The only department of public police which ought to 

be the fubjefl; of difcuffion in this place, is that which 

relates to the healthfulnefs of dwellings, and, in generali 

to the health of men, colle£led in cities, in camps, in (hipS| 


The fituation of cities, the dire£%ion of their buildings, 

and the order in which the ftreets (hould be divided, the 

arrangements favourable to their cleanlinefs, are the prin- 

cijpal objeds which claim the attention of men invefted 

with public offices. 


* Ch. i, § a. 

Ancient hiftory affords us a memorable inftance of » citj 
which recovered its healthfulnefs on changing its po&tion* 
This was the city of Salapia, now called Sa/p^. Vitruvius 
inibrms us^ that fituated at firft on the north«weft fide of 
a marlh called Sahpina palus^ the ibuth*eaft winds convey* 
ed to it noxious effluvia from this fwamp. They removed 
it four miles from its former fituation, to the fouth-eaft V^ 
the marih : befidesi M. Hoftilius opened up a drain from 
the morafs, towards the £ea » in confequence of which, all 
the infalubrity which proved fatal to the inhabitants of this 
^ity entirely difappeared. 

Hippocrates has devoted a great portioid of his treatifc 
on, air f vHUer^ and JUuation^ to obfervatiqns calculated to 
throw light on this department of public h^ine. In a{cer<- 
taining what muft be the refult of difierent expofures to 
'the windS| and that of fituations relative to the foil and 
wateri he has neceffarily furniihed us with the elements of 
public hygt^ne^ and laid the foundation upoa which the rules 
or meafures of police, refpe^ng the mod unexceptionable 
plan of arranging houfes, ought to be eftabliflied* 

Vitruvius, who wrote in Italy, and who was one of thofe 
artifts who ftudied arcbite£lure with the deepeft attention, 
not only in regard to the fufficienCy of the buildings, but 
(till more in refpedt to their healthfulnefs, has left us fome 
dire£tions relative to the proper Situation of cities. He ad- 
vifes that they (hould be built on elevated ground, at a 
diftance from morafies. If they are fituated in the vicinity 
of the fea, he difapproves of their facing the fouth or the 
weft, or of their being expofed to the influence of hot 
windst He recommends that cellars and public granaries 
(hould be placed towards the north, and obferves, that a 
fouthern expofure is not fai[ourable to th^ir utility as ftore* 
houfes for prQvifion» 



The infpedion of the entrails of animalsi a monument 
of the moft abfurd fuperftition, ceafcs to be contemptible 
when it is appKed to the* purpoCe of afcertaining the in* 
fluence of air, water, and fituation, upon living creatures* 
Vitruvius informs us, that the ancients infpeAed the liver 
of animals, in order to judge of the nature of the water of 
a country, and of the falubrity of its nutritive productions. 
From this fource they derived inftrufiion refpefiing the 
choice of the moft advantageous fituations for building 
cities. The fize and difeafed condition of the liver, is in 
faA a pretty fure indication of the unhealthtneis of paftute 
grounds, and of the deleterious quality of the water, which, 
efpecially when it is ftagnant, produces in cows, and par- 
ticularly in (heep, fatal difeafes, that have often their feat 
in the liver; as for inftance, die rot, which frequently de- 
Uroys whole flocks in marfhy countries^ The fple^n is alfo 
a yifcus, very apt to be aflFefied by thefe qualities; and ob- 
ftru&ions of this organ are very common in that diftrift of 
Italy in which Vitruvius wrote. He mentions two cities, 
fituated in the immediate vicinity of one another, Gnojits 
and Ccriyna, which were yet charaderized by the fdlow* 
ing remarkable difierence. In the territory of Cortjtta, 
animals had a very fmall fpleen, which, on the con- 
trary, acquired an aftoniihing fize in the domains of 

Farther, in the cafes in which the vicinity of a morafs 

could not be avoided, Vitruvius obferves, that if the morafs 

be near the fea, or If it be fituated on the north or the 

north-eaft of the city, it. is much lefs hurtful, either on 

account of the faltnefs of the water of the fea, which com* 

municates with it, and retards the putrefadion of animal 

and vegetable fubftances; or on account of the nature of 

the winds, which carry off its exhalationsi and corred 



their dcleteriotts efie&i by the greater degree of coldnefs 
and drynefs of the air confequent on their blowing. Hi 
alfo remarks* that marihes (ituated near the fea* but raifed 
above its level, are lefs to be dreaded than others ; becaufe 
they can be remedied by an outlet into the fea, which can 


eafily be effected. ,Now it is a reniarkable circumftance^ 
that Vitruvius obfervesi that for thefe reafons the vicinity 
of morafles had not rendered Aquileia* Altinaj or Ravenna* 
infalubrious {)laces of refidence ; and yet Lancifi, in the 
beginning of this (laft) century, informs us, that Aquileia in 
ancient times fo flourifhing, fo popular, and fo renowned, 
had been entirely deftroyed, and that the peftilential miafms 
of the marflies which had depopulated it, were the only 
caufes to which its deftiru^tion could be afcribed. t^ noftro 
mvo reViquias aiium et veterisfcrtuna vejilgta retinet, nullis aiiis 
armts everfa^ quam corrupto ex aquls harentlbus a&e .* This is not 
the only example which Italy affords us of a phyfical change 
in its foil ; and the fame Lancifi obferves, that the marihes 
of Italy are now furpriCngly increa&d in point of number 
from what they were in paft ages \ infomuch that cities, 
celebrated in ancient times, have been overwhel^ied by 
their waters. Nos autem in eo agimus feculof in quo enomnter 
auSla funt paludes^ et eoufque excreverunt^ ut celeberrimg quon^ 
dam idries primttm innataniihus aquis obruta^ dein longa oHivione 
fepulta^ vix ac ne vix quidem notnen ferudverunt pofteris me" 

We are all acquainted with the care which the Roman 
en^perors, Julius Caefar and Auguftus, took to drain the 
Pontine marihes, and with the very fhort duration of the 
fuccefs that attended their labours. For it appears, that 
their efforts at leaft effe£ted a temporary completion of 

Vol. III. , tr their 

* De Nos. Paiud. Effluviis, Lib. i, p. i> c 3. 

f lb. de Sy Iva Cifterna et Senninetse, non nifl per partes excidenda. { aj . 


their objed, as die foUowiag paflage from Horace's Art 
pf Poetry prores : ' 

Sterilifjue £u pabii^ aptaque remh 
Vicinas urbes aHt^ ft grave fintii earatrum. , 

But tbeir works have bcciv deftroyed by the incrcafc of 
the waters, as has fince been the fate of the works under- 
taken at the command of Quintus tbe Sixth ; and I know 
not whether thefc dire£led by Pius tb? Sixth, in our own 
days, hare been attended with more complete fuccefst But 
be this as it may, this objeA is affiiredly one of the moft 
important which appertain to public bygiinei and it is 
one of thpfe in which tbe induftry of medeni times b in 
no refpedl inferior to the labours of the ancients* 

The refpeA which the Ediles enjoyed among the Romans, 
the nature of their funftions, the abundatoce of water con- 
veyed into the city by the aquedu£bs, the remains ftill ex* 
iiting of the fewers appropriated to the prefervation of 
cleanlinefs, the cemeteries everywhere fituated without die 
walls of the eitieS| Caefar^s attention in creating particular 
Ediles, denominated C«rM/<x, whofe province was to watch 
over the prefervation of corn, and the reparadon of public 
granaries, may be adduced as fp many proofs of the care 
exercifed by the anciepts about every thing which CQul4 
contribute to the prefervation pf ^ealtbt 

The health of men afiembled in camps, and in (hipsi and 
of aroiies on their march, equally excited the public atten- 
tion, yfc ]cnow that among the provifioh which a foldier 
carried^ was included, befides a quantity of rice, a bottle fiill 
of yinegari intended to be mixed with their water, for die 
purpofeof comppfing a falubrious and antifcepri^ drink, 
which the Romans denominated Po/ca. This regimen muft 
certainly have contributed to maintain good h^th among 



ihe troqps^ but there, can be no doubt, that independ- 
ent of military difcipKnje, the ftri£t obfervance of which 
was foxonducive to die fu(;ceft of their arma, a rigorous 
police of health wa^ alfo eftabliflied iii thetrfcamps. How 
caiv the fa£t othqrwife be accounted for, that in a fteat 
number of diftant expeditions, of long duration, and fome 
of them chequered with viciilitudes of good and bad for- 
tune, the Roman armies had not been vifited with many 
more fignal examples of deftruflive epidemics ? . 



The labours of the modems to fupport eftablifliments of 
public hygihte^ are not to be found in their codes of laws ; 
if we except the inhabitants of the eaft, among whom legal 
ablutions, a xtViBt of Hebrew legiflation, combined with 
the peculiar obfervances of the Mahometan religion, accord 
with the exigencies which refult from the heat of the cli-^ 
mate, and are in truth important provifions for the prefenr- 
ation of health. The legal prohibitions of certain articles 
of food correfpond in a great me^fure to thofe of Mofes ; 
and the .profcription of wine, a degree of perfection aimed 
at by one fe£l, only among the Jews, that of die Nazareens, 
is truly a ftatutory prohibition among thd^foHowers of Maho* 
mtu It is, moreover, fo ill-contrived, that it is sdmoft um« 
verfally evaded ; and it has given rife to another abufe, that 
of opiumy the dangers of whi<jh gi;eady exceed in magni* 
tude thole which could ever refult even from the exceffive 
ufe of fermented liquors. 

The laws of the Chriftian church ought not to be review- 
ed in this place \ )heir fole objeA is to conduA man to • 
degree of moral perfe^ion by the aid of fenfible objeds^ 

Ua iin^ 


and to itftram bim from excefles by abftinence and teoi- 
perance. The excefles indulged in, at table efpecially^ ap- 
peared to the chufch the caufe of almoft aH others; and 
this conclttfion is lanAioned by feafon. Many of the par<p 
ticiilar inftittttiona of the church bear a refemblance to 
ihofe of Pythagoras ; bat it has been the fate both of the 
former and of the latter, that men, haraig their attention 
often more engrofled with their ftrift execution than widi 
the end to the attainment of which they are fi&lervient^ 
and being at the fame time lefs religious than fuperftitbos* 
bare expofed them to the derifion of tfaofe who form thdr 
judgment from a fiiperficial view of things, and even to the 
contempt of certain philofophers« It muft alfo be allowed, 
that many of die dietetic cuftoms in|3roduced into £he Chrif- 
ti^p church, have nqt been devifed with due attention to 
tlM? £dubrity of /pertain kinds of food, wd move efpecially 
ave not calculated for all climates. We Audi dwell ftill lels 
fipon mpnaftic inftitotions, many of which have rather 
ain^^d^ at painful privations ttian at vUeful obfenances. 
The heft pf them are afluredly thofe Vf ho have banifbed 
indolf nce> and modified meditation by means of exerdfes, 
manual labour, andf above all, the cultivation of the toll. 
It is;imox]£ them at lea^ that purity of m»iners has been 
Ipngeft preferved. 

It is not then i% the legiflation of fnodem nations that 
we niuft feek for the rudiments of public hygSne. 


'' • . 


^ With regard to eftabliOied inftitutbns,^ topra^ces^and 
to cuftoms, we find nothing among modem ftates whid^ 



cor^efponds to the gymhkftic fchools of the ancients. Oar 
ikiilttary gymnaftics tfaemfelves do not admit of a compari- 
ibn with them. In thefe, men are calculated upon as the 
different points of the furface and foliditjr of a body, geo- 
metrically confidered. They are difaiplined to preferve in 
this body a complete order and uniformity, to a£t in obe« 
dience to, and as it were by the impulfe of a Ijpring, which 
communicates to all the parts an ifoohronoos movement. 
' But no attention is paid either to their fafety, or ftrength, 
. or perfeAion, as individuals ; at leaft, there is no eftablifli* 
ed pra&ice, no exifting hw,^ which has this obje£l for its 
end^ and the folicitude of a few military men, more en- 
lightened and more attentive than their brethern, the writ- 
ings of Ibme phyficians, friends to humanity, are all the 
monitments Which prove that the fate of thefe human vic- 
tims, deftined to be facrificed to the pride and caprice of 
the rulers of this earth, has erer ekcited any (hare of in- 

It muft however be granted, that before the invention of 
gunpowder^and the new fyftem of military ta£kics, in which 
the ttfe of gunpowder has refulted, the touinaments of chi- 
valry, and a number of feudal extravagances, conftituted 
a fpceies of military gymnaftics, really prodii Aive of advan- 
tageous efie^s. The knights^ pf chivalry> animated by two 
-very powerful motives^ glory and love, fx^rctfed themfelves 
in combats, where ftrength and agility at once triumphant, 
formed them- for courageous enterprizes, and trained up for 
the ftate brave vrarrioits and intrepid defenders. But could 
k be believed that the only place in Europe at this moment, 
where the elements of a tolerable phyfical inftitution of 
this nature are to be found, is the feraglio of the Grand 
Sultan, in the education of the young Icoglans, who are 

deftined to compofe his life guards ? 

U3 It 


It were neverthelefs an z€t of injuftice to exclude, from 
the number of gymnaftie practices, die games common in 
our colleges. Thofe of the hand-ball, of teanist of the foot- 
ball, e{ prifoiibars^ and many othets,' as they ftimulate felf- 
h>ve, by the honour of a vidory due at once, to ftrengtfa, 
to agility, and to adroitnefs, wer^ invented with perfe£l 
propriety for die putpofe of developing the ^M^le mufcular 
power of the body, of perfe£ling the external fenfe^, hj 
incveafilig th^ir accuiracy and precifion, and of imfokUng ib 
the youth the germs of move than one fort of ufeful induf- 
Ory. The tennis refembles in many refpe£b'die game which 
Gaien fo much extols under the name of the /mail ioH, 

The eftabli(hment of public badis, and the praxes re- 
fpe£ling them have not been handed down to us from' and- 
quity^ The Ruffians amd the Turks are the only European 
nations ariiong whom- there are public buildings appropriat- 
ed to baths. In both thefe nations vapoor baths are chiefiy 
ufed. Among the former, they flog the nahed body in the 
badi with branches of trees 9 and in; coming out of it, they 
frequendy roll themfelves in the (now, or immerfe their 
bodies in cold and congealed water* The Turks foak and 
knead, as it were, their limbs; to inoreafe thdr flexibilityr 
The obfervadons ftatjed above concmiing immerfions or af^ 
fufions of cold water on coming out of the hot bath, or 
from ihz Spartan (dry) ftove, are fuflkiently applicable to 
the cuiloms eftabltflied among the Ruffians. This altem^ 
ation muft both harden and ftrengthen the body, and, 
above aU, render it independent of the moft noxious eSkS^ 
of viciffitudes oi temperature. 

This pradice brings to our recolledion a cuftom preva- 
lent aniong certain northern nadons, of immerfing thek 
new-born infants in cold water or in fnow. The nadons 
% * who 


who inhabit a milder climate, hare been inclined to imitate 
this example \ the moft robuft infants^ have refifted its ef- 
fe£ls, perhaps derived advantage from it; but the moft 
feeble have funk under it. It ought, moreover, to be con- 
fideredi that the utility of this prance to children^ who 
are to pafs their lives in a warm or temperate climate and 
atmofphere^ and in the midft of welWegulated cities, can*' 
not be the fame ^ith what accrues from it to thofe who 
muft live like favages, or endure almoft the fame degree of 
hardfhip in a fro2en atmofphefe, furrounded with fogs. 
The fafeft pra£lice is, to enable &em by degrees to endure 
the viciffituded of the atmofphefe, and bathing with cold 
water, but not to plunge them into it at the moment of their 
birth ; that is, at the infant Ulrhen they cotte out of abath, the 
temperature of which always amounts to 30 degrees, Reaum. 
We know Itkewife that the (kme danger arifing from the 
cold vtciffitudes of the atmofphere^ is fo much the greater, 
in proportion to the heat of the climate which we inhabit ; 
fince^ in America, the impreffion communicated by cold 
and moift air, and more efpecially the air of the fea, cooled 
by the breezes, is one of the moft firequent caufes of tetanus 
or locked jaw, which fo often attacks new4xim infants dur-*. 
ing the firft weeks fubfequent to their birdi, and againft 
which the ouly prophyla£lic means are to enable them to 
endure thefe viciffitudes.* 

The unfrequent ufe ^hich modem nations have hithertcr 
made of batho, has eftabliihed a remarkable difierence be- 
tween their repafts, the hours appropriated to them, the 
rtfpeftive quantities of food confumed, and the mode pf 
conduft adopted on thefe occafions, and the cuftoms of 
the ancients in this refpedl. It ixrould be a difficult taik to 

U 4 point 

• See Dazllk^s Direafei of th%Nfcpoet, and hif tratUe so Tctanuv 



point out the advantages or difadvantages refulting from 
this difiereoce* Habit has became a law ; and the greatefl: 
lots which we have in reality fuftained in this cafe» confifts 
in the proportion of exercifes and the utility of baths. 

I do not intend to difcourfe in this place concerning 
the choice of aliments, or the art of feafoning them. 
In the degree of fimplicity attained in tins refpefl, the mo- 
dems appear tp have the advantage over the ancients; if 
we compare the ftate of copkery in France with that of 
which Appius has left us fuch fp^cimens» as fupprefs every 
defire of iqiitation. Habit, moreovett converts into a deli- 
cate morfel what would excite, the ftrohgefl naufea in a 
ftomach unaccuftomed to certain feafonings. We might 
quote a thoufand inftances of this truth in all countries 
and in all nations* What European would imagine that he 
could ever bear the cauftic tafte of pimento, to which 
neverthelefs he becomes habituated after he has lived fome 
time in our colonies, or in the Indies ? Who will believe 
that the Perfians caii en,duj:e the habitual ufe of affa-fcttiJa, 
more efpecially when he (hall be informed that this fetid 
gum as it comes to us» by no means approaches in point of 
fmell or tafte to what it poflefies in the country in which 
it is colle£led ? What apparently merits a greater (hare of 
our attention is, the change which it feems mufl; have been 
the eile£t either of certain kinds of aliments umverfal)y 
adopted, or of other fubftances, the ufe of which has been 
introduced inta common life at different periods. Among 
thefe may be reckoned fermented liquors, didilled fpiritSj 
tea, coffee, chocolate, fugar. We may inftance alfo in the 
ufe of tobacco, fo univerfally eft^bliihed for more than a 
century, and known aUnoft for two centuries.. We are 
perfcaiy aware of the general effefts which thefe fub- 
Itances ptoduce on individuals; but it is impoi&ble to 
^ * afcertain 


afeertain the changes experienced by the fpecies in confe- 
quence of their ufe ; and whether the lives of men have 
been prolonged or (hortenedy whether their health has been 
more or lefs perma^ent^ fince the introdudion of thefe ar- 
ticles into common ufe. Nothing very remarkable has been 
' obferved relative to thefe points^ if we except the_fa£%) that 
the very general ufe of coffee^ has certainly diminifhed the 
exceffive indulgence in fermented liquors among a numer- 
ous clafs of the community. 

With regard to the particular examination of different 
forts of aliments or of feafonings, thefe are detailed at du9 
length under their refpeftive artfcles. * We ought alfo to 
attend to topography in our inquiries concerning the regi- 
men adopted by different nationsi which^ in this refpeft, are 
regulated either by local circumftancesi or ftil} more by the 
Uifluence of climate ; the effeds of which diverfifying the 
neceffities of the inhabitants} contribute to render more 
general the ufe of certain fubftances lefs univcrfally em* 
ployed among other natiotfs. The complicated difquifition 
into which this view of the fubjefi would lead us^ would 
extend this article to too great a length. 

'In fpeaking of the cuftoms prevalent aifiong the ancients, 
I have not mentioned their vedments or drefs ; it is in fafb 
among the modem cuftoms that, in this refpedl, we meet 
with pra£iices x^ry replicant to the order of nature, and 
the eile£ls of which have a remarkable influence both upon 
health and life. The only circumftance relative to 'the 
mode of drefs adopted by the ancients which deferves our 
notice, is, the difierence between the coftumesof the inha- 
bitants of the weft and north, and thofe of the fouthem 
and oriental nations, as well as between the drefs ufed in 
war, and that worn in the time of peace. A long loofe 



* See Alimentt, &c 

314 ttVGI£K£, BY HALL£. 

lobe, and only held together by a girdle, -was the tiabif 
worn in peace, among all the nations of the eaft and of the 
fouthi even in Europe. It is (till in ufe among the Turks, 
and the Ruffians themfdves have continued to adopt this 
kind of drefs* The drefs ufed in war was always (horter 
and lighter, for the purpofe of being better accommodated 
to promptitude of a£iion, and to celerity of motion* On 
the contrary, this (hort drefs, with fome (light difierenees, 
has always been adopted in peace and war among the 
northern, nations, as, for example, among the Gauls, the 
Germans, and the Scythians, a reftlefs, admire, and warlike 
race. In all countries, hpwever, the women wore a long 
habit ; and we know that among the Scythians, the men, 
when afie£ted with a certain diftemper, which induced im- 
potency, (5iiAm« wth^ femimnus morbus)^ quitted the habit 
of their fex, and, aiTuming a long drefs, ailbciated with th6 
women, participating at the fame time in their labours and 

One important obfervation, however, ftiU remains tela** 
five to the veftments of women. Although a long habit 
was generally adopted by them, as chara&eriftic of cheir 
fex, a Angular di&rence ftill Hiftinguifhed the garments 
worn by the females of the north from the drefs .adopted 
by thofe of the eaft and fouth. The ihape of the latter 
was -always fuch, that fixed to and refting upon the ihoul- 
ders, it fell in a waving manner over the re(t of the body; 
and was held together only by girdles, tied either unde^ 
the breaft or above the haunches. On the contrary, the 
habit worn in the north, had always been divided into two 
parts, the one covering the inferior half of the body, ex* 
tending to the feet, and tied above the haunches, forming 
what is now denominated a petticoat; the other, fixed above 
the (boulders, fupplying in a greater or lefs degree the place 



t( a watficoati as far as the girdle, and then defcending 
fomewhat lowet above the petticoat. The petticoat efpe- 
daily is the diftinguifhing chara3eriftic of the drefs tif ofn 
in the north and weft; and this circnmftance is what coi^ 
fers lAiportanfce on the prededing remarks. 

The wonten, tying their j^ticoait above the haunches^ 
mud have held it fomewhaf tight to prevent its getting 
loofe and falling. The cold forqed then!i to wear many of 
thefe at the fam^ time ; and their haunches appeared bulky 
both by the number of petticoats^ and by the thicknefs 
which their folds Colleded about the waift^ neceflfarily oc- 
cafioned in that part of the body. This thicknefs contraft*- 
ed with the flender form of the body to the waift, has fug« 
gefted the advantages and pretended charms of a fine thin 
ihape. Thefe advantages becoming more ftriking by being 
oppofed to the extraordinary fwelling of the hannchesy the 
women have endeavoured to improve the beauty of their 
fiiape by ^carrying thefe contrafta beyond aH bounds. They 
have iioi only ridicutoufly overloaded and fwelled their 
haunches; they have tigbteiKd and fqueezed beyond mea-' 
fure that part of the body which join9 them. Hence, bodies 
of every fort o£ fliapci in other words^ thofe narrow moulds 
in which they endeavour to caft the breaft and the abdo- 
meuy by compreffing the bones of the thorax, and making 
them aflume, inftead of thdr natnral form^ widened at the 
bafis^ the fliape of an inverted cone. Hence compreffion 
of the vifeera, and a thoufand other evils, which will be 
confidered under other articles of this Diftionary. 

The bodies of infants were foon fubje£led to thefe ab' 
furd and pernicious experiments, their parents being folici- 
tous that their delicate breads ihould grow in moulds 
which would have imparted to them forms difavdwed by 
nature. People thus perfuaded tbemfelves that the body 



of an iafapt required thefe preternatural fupports, and <le* 
ceived by the weaknefe which their children co]itra£led 
from the ufe of thefe fatal machiiiesj mothers have accufed 
nature, conceived that they might re&ify her errors^ en* 
fibebled her refources, for the purpofe of enjoying the un- 
fortunate privilege of fupplying them. No creature, how- 
everi enjoys a greater degree of ftreiigth and of firmnefs 
than the infant whofe powers of body are permitted to un- 
fold themfelves without reftriAion or conftraint. All his 
mufcles exercifed in balancing his body, and in maintain- 
ing an equilibrium, early acquire the neceflary bulk, and 
that habit of aftion by which they are ftrengthened. Whilft 
in the infant, conftahtly propt and kept in an inflexible 
fheathi the fame mufcles remaining in a date *^of preter- 
natural inafiion^ acquire neither the ftrength nor the yo- 
Itime which they ought to poflefs, and the infant bends and 
totters whenever he ceafes to be thus fupported. We have 
been of opihion, that thefe fatal precautions muft have im* 
mediately imrolved their abettors in a fucceffive train of 
errors : and the clothes in which the new born infants were 
fwathed, have rendered them a fpecies of immovable mum- 
mies from the moment of tfieir birth, whofe piercing and 
woful cries in vain proteft agatiift the injuries inflifted on 
nature. It was in vain, that when it became necefiary to 
relieve them from thefe ihackles for the purpofe pf remov- 
ing their ordure, they teftified by their joy and tranquilUty 
the horror with which this barbarous cufiom infptred them. 
PrejudicCi equally infenfitile to the expreffion of their plea- 
fure as to that of their fuiFerings, haftened to abridge their 
happinefs, by conHgning them again immediately to thefe 
painful bonds. They fliiSled their renovated cries by rock- 
ing their cradles ; and fleep induced by the uniformity of 
motion, or filcnce rendered neceffary by the inutility of 

. complaint. 


complaint, impofed at laft upon the mother, under the falfe 
appearance of a deceitful calm» 

Pbyficians to no purpofe expoftulated againft thefe 
abufes. It Mras neceiFary that they aflailed by th6 
aUtlioritative voice of a man, who could clothe the cold de^ 
dudlions of reafon in new language, whofe energetic re« 
proaches put ftupidicy itfelf to the blufh ; and who knew 
to confound man by contrafting his conduct with the dic« 
tateg of nature. Lefs anxious than phyGcians to inculcate, 
to demonftrate, and to convince, RoufTeau knew to com« 
mand and to infure obedience. He was moreover acquaint- 
ed with the method of reftoring women to a juft fenfc of 
that very zStOxag duty, which they had almoft invariably 
intruiled to mercenary nurfes, by demonfttating to them 
what real charms adorn a mother who opens her bofom to 
her infant, and who does not deprive him of that aliment 
which nature prepares for him. He thus reftored our bodies 
to their liberty, and motliers to their duty. Philofophj 
triumphed over vanity. Let it, however, be obferved, ta 
the glory of his eloquence, but to the fliame of humanity^ 
that for thia triumph flie is more indebted to enthufiafm 
tKan tq reafon. 

In truth, the Frenchman^ too lively to paufe imme* 
diately on obtaining his end, too* headfirong to recognize 
the measures qf wiidom with fufficient promptitude, has 
exaggerated (and, alas! what has he not exaggerated!) the 
precepts of the philofopher. Miftaking the force of the 
impulfe, which it was neceiTary to communicate to him, 
for the purpofe of making him defert efiablilhed habits, he 
abandoned himfeif to the contrary excefles without rtftrainr. 
He believed that a young and tender infant, ftili warm and 
moift from his mother's womb, might be treated like a 
hardy foldier, inured to the frofts of winter, and to the 



fcorcbing rays of a fummer's fun : in this tdfyt&y he eres 
forgot the inftrudlions communicated by the brute creatioa 
itfelf. He was equally miftakien both in rc^;ard to his mind 
and body ; he confooaded licentiourneft with liberty % he 
abandoned his pupil inftead of directing him; and above 
allf he was not aware that a chitd, prone to imitation^ re^ 
<eives the rudimeaits of his education from example 9 and 
Aat we muft not exped that the perfon who is a conftant 
eye*witnei8 of every error and of every vice, fhould make 
any progrefs in virtue or in wifdom. This celebrated revo* 
Jution has at lead refolted in one confolatory truth } we 
learn froisi it ithat the roots of prejudices are not ^w^s fo 
4eep]y fiited ^s is apprehended* 

In refpeS: to the inhabitants of the eaft and of the weft, 
<3/[ the north and of the fouth, the coverings of the head 
exhibin differences fufficiently remarbablci and accoirdant 
with the differences obferved between their refpefiive 
drefles. The natives of the foutb and of the eaft of Earope, 
and of Afia^ in generali have had and ftill have the head 
habitually qpvered.. They even proceed the length of cut- 
ting -off the hair with which nature fumiflied them^ for the 
purpofe of fubftituting in its place caps and turbans. Thofc 
x)f the north and eaft hasre either had the head j^ncovered, 
or hare covered it only occafionally^ Qur hats^ wfaieb fa- 
ihton had introduccfl a long period befoce we availed our- 
felves of their ufe, are now worn only occafionally, and, in 
general, we lay them afide in the houfe. The Turk& and 
Arabs, on the contrary, wear their head«drefs without in- 
termiflion. The .tidra and mitre of the Medes, were alfo 
habitually worn a^iong the ancients, although thefe nations 
had preferved their hair. The Phry^n .cap continued al- 
3)vays m vogue, whilft the Grecians went with the heads 
^covered. Among(t the Romans^ the inhabitants of the 


\ 4 


cUy, even under the moft fcorching rays of the fani cover- 
ed their heads only with a flappet of their clothes ^ the 
peafants alone ufed a head-drefs} and in the city, the cap, 
which among us has become the emblem of liberty, was at 
Rome the diftinguifhing badge of flavery. Ferhap& th<} 
very pra£iice of placing a cap upon the head of a pike, to 
fignalize the epocha of national deliverance, in reality r^ 
prefents Only the trophy, of recovered freedom, and was 
invented for the folc purpofc of reprefenting the deftruc- 
tion o^ flavery, the fymbol of which was the cap,, by the 
courage and power of arms, denoted by the pike. 

In indicuting a comparifon between the Greeks and Ro* 
mans, the founders of the liberty of Europe, and nations 
living under the yoke of defpotifm, they pretended to cha* 
ra£^erize the difference botween their governments, by the 
moft marked di(lin£)ions between their fafiiions and' cus- 
toms. But, independent of political confiderations, it ap« 
pears that, in general, men have experienced a more ur- 
gent neceflity of prote£ling the head from the rays of a 
burning fun, than from the tmpreflions of cold and froil;. 
This difference is alfo to be obferved in the contraft which 
Xenophon draws between the cuftoms ofthe Medes in this 
refped, and tbofe of the Perfiaps, who inhabited a wild 
and mountainous country. With regard to the effe£ls 
which the difference pf thefe cuftoms muft have produced 
on the body, and particularly on (be head, this U not the 
place to give a full eftimate of them* The remark of Hip- 
pocrates upon the difference obferved between the flcuUs of 
the Egyptians, and thofe of the Perfians, flait^ in a battle, 
is well known. The heads of the Egyptians, accuftomed 
from their infancy to endure the heat of the fun with their 
heads naked and ihaven, prefented harder and thicker fkulla* 




dian the heads of the PerfianSi habituated to hare £hat part 
of the body defended with thick toverings. 

Hie euftom of iharixig the head, in the mod confider- 
able number of tbefe countriesy in which they are in the 
habit of decking it with a fplendid apparatus of coveringSi 
is periiap^ to be afcribed to cleanlinefs, and to the defire of 
&Ting trouble, thah to any other caufe, among nations ex- 
tremely attentive to their beard; whilfl: among the nations 
of Europe, the interefts of the beard have been gecerally 
facrificed to thofe of the hair. 

We might indulge here iri a (hort diicuffion concerning 
die remnant of a cuftomi for a long period adopted by the 
Europeans, viz. that of kneading the hair with mutton fuet 
and ftarcfay formed into an impervious mafs, with which 
they covered the hairy fcalp. A defcription of this nature 
appears applicable only to the Hottentots \ and yet this is 
what all of us have obfervcd upon the heads of our fathers 
and even upon our own. We are (till converts to the 
utility of befmearing our hair with tallow, and of powder- 
ing it with ftarch; and the thick layer of it which is col- 
ledled in their interftices, appears to us an aliment adapted 
to promote theif growth and prefervation. The copious 
perfpiration which exhales from the head, throughout the 
whole extent of the hairs, is doubtlefs conGdered as an 
ufelefs evacuation ; and as (by a law of our organization^ 
and by the fupplies which provident nature, appears to have 
prepared for the purpofe of indemnifying our errors) hobic 
leflens th& inconveniencies arifing from any cuftom, wc 
believe that nature has willed the neceffities which we our- 
felves h&ve occaGoned. We do not conGder that neither 
the ancients^ nor the inhabitants of the eaft, ever adopted 
this cuftom ; although their women were equally careful 
^f their hair, as conftituting one of the ornaments mod 


' J 

kVdlEi^B, BV HAiLB. SH 


conducive to thdr beauty. Their moft induftrious refearch 
led only to the ufe of perf umeS) and to the application of 
volatile oikj in order to give pliancy to their hair, never to 
the kneading of it with un£iuou8 fubftahces. In our days^ 
however, diofe abfurd cufloms begin to go iiltd defuetude) 
thanks to the predominant influence of faihion : for let us 
not deceive ourfelvesi but candidly acknowledge, that to 
fathioli reafon is frequently indebted for her triumphs. 


The attention with which governments watch over dif« 
ferent ol^afls conneded with public healthy is perhaps one 
of thofe pcHntsi relative to which modem nations can bear 
the moft advantageous comparifon with the ancients. 


One of the moft important ardcles of public police is to 
guard againft die introdu£tion of contagious difeafes. Ilie 
lasarettoes eftabliflied in the fea-*ports of the Meditenanean^ 
for fubje£ling merchantmen to the tefts of a quarantine, 
have protected Europe from a plague which periodically 
tages on the <eaft and fouth coafts of that, fea ; and the 
contagious attacks of which have, on difterent occafions^ 
depopulated Marfeilles, Medina, Naples, and Rome. The 
quarter of the Franks at Conftaatinople is, by a ftxvBt pro* 
liibition of intercourik with the infeded, very generally 
prefenred from this difaftxous malady; whilft the Turk> 
lulled into a falfe fecurity by his belief in the do£lrine of 
predeftination, fuiFers his brethren to be cut otf, and dies 
himfelf^ the vi£tim of his blindnefs. It thus appears, that 
fequefttatlon or feclufion of the infe^ed, is the only pre- 

V^UUL* X fervatin 


fervative meafure to which the public police can have f e- 
coarfe, to ward off peftilential contagion. The managers 
of jtfae lazaretto of Marfeilles have publiflied a det»l of 
their labonrs^.to accomplifh this purpofe. In the 17th 
century. Cardinal Gafiddt printed a voluminous work 
on the means employed at Rome to arreft the progrefa of 
the plague in 1656} which, imported from Sardinia into 
Italy, fpread its ravages to Naples, to Civita-Vecchia, and 
to Rome. This curious and interefting work, concerning 
public police, is ihtitled, Hieronym.:Cardinali$ GafiaUL,. 
traSlatus ie avertenda et profliganda pefle^ poUtico-ltgaUsy e^ 
lueuhratus tempore qua ipfe lamocomhrum prmio, omx/amtaiis 
comtntj/arius generalis fuit^ p(/te urbem invadenie anno 1656-7, 
ae nuperrime Goritmm depopulante, typis commiffusJ* This 
work is now fcarce, and defenres to be confulted, both be- 
caufe the plague, wnich the author defcribes, has not found 
a place in the colle£lion concerning the plague of Marfeilksii 
publiflied by Chicoyneau^ and becaufe it alfo contains a 
more ' complete enumeration of the contagious difeafes, 
which in different ages have ravaged die earth, and have 
been charaderized under the name of plagues, .than this 
laft performance. The collection of Cbicoyneau is alfo a 
body of information on public police. The fecond part of 
it comprehends the principles, illuftrated at confiderable 
length. When we confider how feldom the plague has 
invaded chriftian Europe fince 1720, compared widitbe 
frequency of its vifits previous to that epocha, we muft 
admit the importance and fuccefs of this department of 
public police, and acquiefce in the utility of lazarettoes, built 
for the purpofe of defence againft the inroads of conta^on. 
The eftablifliments, which have for their objed fiecu- 
rity agaiflft the plague, much too modem, if we con- 

« In foL BQDooui 1684, e Camersdi ty]pognplM maooleffiaftS. 



fider the number of contagious diftempers of this kind 
which have *defolated Europe, and the univerfe in gen* 
ei^l, bring to our recoUefiion a more ancient inftit^U'* 
tion, of which no traces now remain, becaufe the plague 
agabft which it was direded has difappeared in Europe ; 
that of hofpitalsi for the reception of patients affliAed 
with the leprofy. The crufades had introduced leprofy 
into Europe ; and the prejudice concerfling the contagious 
nature of the difeafe, induced tl\e cuftom of fecluding 
thofe. unfortunate perfons who had been attacked by it, 
and of aflembling them together in hofpitals built for that 
purpofe. This malady has difappeared, more perhaps be- 
caufe the climate was not favourable to its generation, 
than in confeqtience of the precautions employed for reCft- 
ing its propagation. In fafi, it is well known that, in our 
climate at leaft, this difeafe is in no inftance contagious, t 
But be this as it may, this inftitution of hofpitals, for the 
reception of lepers, has partly, at leaft, given birth to our 
modem hofpitals ^ concerning the utility of which* no 
i^fonaUe doubt could ever have exifted, if it had fortunate- 
ly occurred to their founders, that the more extenfive thefe 
eftaUifbments are, the more odious they in reality appear ; 
and if the ambition of exhibiting to the view of fuperficial 
travellers an enormous mafs, bearing the refemblance of 
national benevolence, had not made them lofe fight of the 
true method of rendering them ufeful, and of carrying 
their adminiftration to perfeflion. Thefe defeats are how- 
ever perceived; and the meafures already fu|;gefted in 
every part by able phyficians, will without doubt be car- 
ried into immediate execution. 
Thefe great hofpitals will be divided^ houfcs of recep- 

Xa tion 

f See foot-note, p. 273. txanIi 

\ i 


tion will be formed, and as many as pof&ble of the defti- 
tute fick will be accommodated in private habitations. 
The former will be built upon a fcale only fufficiently ex- 
tenfive to afford falutary accommodation to the poor be- 
longing to each diftrift, or to thofe who labour under 
difeafes, the treatment of which requires means of reliefi 
which can only be adminiftered in public eftabltfliments: 
the latter, appropriated to the poor, wfaofe hsdAtatiom are 
too unhealthy, or too incommodious, will be prep(»tioned 
to the population of thoie limited wards or departments to 
•which they fiiall be deitined. In ihort, all the poor who 
can be relieved or attended to in thefe, will be fent neither 
to the hofpitals nor to the houfes of reception. We ifaall 
then be enabled to organize a fyftem for the relief of the 
poor, which will be truly conducive to the prefervation of 
their health, and of fubjeding it to an admimftration 
planned upon principles of real utility. Whatever apparent 
profufioh the greateft number of the hofpitals eftablifhcd 
in this country may indicate, there is fcar^ely any of ^em 
which is not extremely defe£Hye in regard to economical 
management, to the adminiftration of remedies, and <tf the 
means of relief, or to the falubrity of their local fitoa- 

In Italy, above all in Spain, all thefe accommodation 
are united, and, it may even be a,flBrmed, carried to an 
unreafonable degree of fuperfluity. In thefe places, lazy 
indigence finds an afylum, whicb is favourable to its ufe- 
leiTnefs. The hofpitals in Vienna, and libove all thofe 
cftabliflied in England, have been highly celebrated. The 
day will undoubtedly come when we Ihall have nothing to 
envy them on this account. Ahready, as far as houfes of 
reception and lodgments for the poor are concerned, ufe- 
ful and valuable eftablifhments have been erefled, and 
. s ftand 

HYCajBKE^ BY HALL£. 325 


ftand as bonouf a^le monuments of the humanity o£ 
Frenchmen. The fuccefa with which the labours of a rery; 
refpe^iable and interefting focietyi long known under the 
name of CbariU fnaternelle^ have been (;rowned) is well 
known : could it again be eftabliflied among us, the bonds 
of the moft facred of connexions n^ight then be ftraiten- 
ed ; .atld by foothing the forrows of the mothers, and ren- 
dering their fruitf ulnefs a bleHi^g to tbem» citizens, might 
be preferred for the country. 

This rpfpe£table aflbciatipn |iad the merit of .faying a 
great number of infants, whom corruption of, morals, mis* 
fortune, or (hame, had accumulated in the foundling hofpi- 
tals, and almoft all of whom were there expofed to it^evitablo 
death. It was during the fame period that the vigilance 
of our magiftrates was occupied on a grand experiment, 
the refuk of which, although unfavourable, taught us at 
leaft this important UFuth, that the rearing of infants 
by fpoon-meat, or artiiicisd nurfii^, isj upon a great 
eftabliihment, impra£licable ; fincp . the condition moft 
eflendal to the fuccefs of this difficult operation is want. 
ing, the inmiediate communication, bet ween the mother 
and her child, and that fpecies of incubation, which 
fuppKes a portion of animal heat, neceflary to the new- 
born child in the earlieft ftages of the a£iion of its pul« 
monary organs. This truly patriotic experiment has taught 
us the d£9erence between artificial nurfing, fuccefsfully 
pra&ifed in private houfes, in the hands, upon the knees, 
and even in the bofoms of parents, and the fame mode of 
nurCng, inefie£tuaUy attempted, although apparently un- 
der all. the conditions neceflary to its fuccefs, upon child- 
ren coUeded together, committed to the charge of women, 
all whofe care and attention were neceflarily limited folely 
to the object of watching the infants in their cradles, and 

X 3 . . of 


0f diftributing to them, with' preciflon and regolarity, the 
food confidered moft fuitable to their age. How ought 
this fa£l to gire doable force to our gratitude, to the 
founders of a fociety, which hzd for its obje£l to proteft 
the virtues of mothers, and the lives of their children. 

It was alfo during the -fame period that eftabliOmaents 
were formed for the treatment of children who were fup» 
pofed to be born tnfe£led with the confequences of a 
crime, which ought not at leaft to involve innocence in dif» 
grace. It was an pbjed ^well worthy of the curiofity of 
men vrho devoted their time to the prefervation andreftov- 
ation of health, that the experiment made on a grand ficale, 
proves the poffibility of conveying both die alimdie and 
the remedy at the fame time from the bread erf an iii£e£l- 
ed nurfe to the body of a difeafed child. 

In fnch enterprizes, the failure of fuceels does not £me- 
rion reproach, and ought not to datnp our aeal. It is only 
among thofe who meditate much upon the interefts of hu- 
manity, that its real benefidors are to be fbuild. 

But this age, in difputing with diofe that are paft die 
palm of difi[x>veries ufeful to the ^eferration of man, 
will be able to record in the catalogue of its own, the art 
of preferving whole generations from one of the moft de- 
ftrU6iire feourges of population, that of the fmalL^poi. 
Inocuhtwn^ pra£itfed from a remote period for the prefer?* 
ation of beauty, among i barbarous nation, with whom 
beauty was an article of commerce, foon appeared worthy 
of the attention of philofophers, and of the invefttgation of 
phyficians. A woman of real courage, and whofe genius and 
chara£ter were even fuperior to her charms. Lady WoriUy 
Montague^hziitM^ fubmitted tp the experiment :t her chDd> 


f Thisaflcition is oot well founded. Lady Mary'Wortley Montagoe 
kerfclf fubmitted to no fuch expcriiQcm. translatok. 


ren followed her example. She perceired, in the fuccefe 
confequeat on her trial, the iafety of her own country, 
and the advantages refalting to the whole of Europe. One 
fortunate experiment ftruck widi aftonilhment the minds 
of all her contemporaries, furmounted every objedion, and 
filenced every prejudice, dup^ frmnafaBi. Other writers 
will fttfficiently unfdd, and with much greater ability than 
I pollefs, the hiftoty of this celebrated experimefit. They 
will fpeak ^f the eftaUtfliment of an hofpital for inoculate 
ing the poor in Londim s^out the year 1750 ; of the intro» 
d4i£lion of inoculation into the foundling hofpital of the 
fame city, of the meafunss adopted in the military fchool 
of France for inoculatii^ the pu ils : they will record the 
rules of the inoculating foctety of Chefter \ they will cele- 
brate this operation pra£lifiBd on many thoufand individuals 
in entire vUages of Fnincbe*Comt^, by the courageous 
Girod, whom the inhabitants of dat country, refcued for 
a long period from the fcourge of the fmall pox, ftill re- 
gret and revere as their common father. And while 
they render thanks to heaven, that free and enlightened 
nations vofaintarily embrace this voluntary pra&ice, they . 
will aUb ext<ri[ the happy exercife of an abfolute fovereignty 
over nations ftill funk in ignorance and ftupidity, byre- 
cording the means employed by Catherine II, for the pur- 
pole of conferring this iaeftimaUe benefit upon the nations 
fubjedied to her fway. The fceptre of defpotifm wielded 
by beneficent hands, fometimes ceafes to be the fcourge of 


Prisons, as well as hofpitals, in colledlihg together a 
great number of men, colle£l alfo and eVoIve moft zdtivc 
caufes of mortality. The ftory of the ajizes at Oxford^ 

X 4 and 


and of the bhel bok at Cak^a, has h€tn retordfid a thou* 
iand times. And z (hort time before the era of the leroki- 
tion,. we wimefled fimilar difafters in the prsfon of the 
fmugglers mthetity tf Orkanu. The neceflary atteotieQ 
to the prefervation of heal^ \^% tbcr efoiei a debt dixe from 
fiocietyi not lefs to the man accnfed or guilty, than to Um 
who is infirm and indtgentt Prifptis and hofpkak have 
excited the active folicitude of one of the moft cdebiated 
friends of humanity^ of one of the firft citizens of the 
world, of the refpeAable and tenerable Hmwaird. The 
only man, perhaps, fince the b^innii^ of time, who tsa* 
veiled, not to withdraw his atfeention from die.eares of 
life, not to admire the monuments of art, or to csjoy the 
contempbtion of nature in her diverfified atttie^ not to 
jlttdy governments, or to pry into their fecret tranfad^ions, 
not to eibtain any peiifonal intetefk or advanu^^i but lole« 
ly for the benefit of humamty, to vifit the abodes of. aiiicf 
tion and of mifery,. and to place before .the eyes of men a 
pi£lure of the various nieans by which they have mnhi* 
plied the calamities of their fellow^csealiices, «id of the 
meafures which they ought to h^e adopted for the pun? 
pofe of increafing their happineis.. What a noble example 
given by one man to the nniverfe I The ffftem of prifiMis 
is ftill more remote from perfe£iion than tiut of bo^itab* 
Societies of learned men amoi^ us have however pid>lifl»* 
ed to the world excellent refleflions .relative to both tfaefe 
departments, which, were it not for the onhafqiy a^peft 
of the times, would, undoubtedly have enlightened the 
folicitude of governments. 

More fortunate than Hti^ari^ and not lefs the fSriend of 
humanity, the refpe£lable fienfamin Thmfm (CwtU Rum' 
ford\ has witnefi^d charitable eftajblifliments, formed un- 
der his eye in Bavaria, the ofispriflf of his cai^e and atlen* 


\ / 

^ # 


6on, in which cfetj thing dial €an render nien> In^PTt 
and healthy^ and good) ia fiibmitttd to tht ftridwft ^alcii« 
lation) and to die teft of the moft dftmonftradf e experienOKi 
Tfaere» in one of the conntriee of Europe^ mhat mendtdtjr 
debafed and degraded man to the lowdl. pitdi of depravity, 
both with reiped'tohis moral difpofilions and tohispfayGcal 
i:on(licmion ; be devifed means of reftmog the idle, to 
labour^ the man funk in depravity to virtuei the indigent 
to the cbnvenienciea. of ii£s and to^ hs^^pinefs. There the 
beggar, reficoed from floth, from irflctefihds,. frdm £kfa^ 
from Tico, and from contempti bk&s his beneBuSlor> hap-* 
py in the ^nfoymeot of life, in being indebted far it to Us 
labour, aiid in 'receiving falotafyfoodi^'vi^^U^ttt hi|niiKaiioi|| 
wA without remorfe. 


Whbrbver men are coUe&ed together, it is neeefiarf 
to fuperintend the bealthfttlnefe of the indnTures withm 
which thfiy are afiembled. PuUic pla<^, temples, apait- 
mcnts for public fbows^ c^mps, fliips» ^es, ought at all 
times to excite this watchful attentioiu Halfs gave th^ 
firft model of ventibtors, adapted to renew the current 49( 
the air by accelerating its modons. Thefe ii^fuments 
have been emplojfcd both on board of (hips, and qn difier^ 
ent other 4>ccafioas. They have aifo been conftruffced in 
yariotts ways* But the theory of fire, now better under- 
ftood> ha^ furniflied ftiU more efficacious means of accom* 
IpfUfliing the fame end ^ and in exhanftiag the virulent ef- 
feds of ^Ith, either in public iewers or in private habit« 
adons^ the joint operatioii of thefe two agents has proved 
adyantageous in obviating the danger of noxious exfaal* 



atiaof ; aad the oSso&fcotb of an m£ei£liou8 odour* Bat 
the Ulpbatf of faniidti^ chiefly depends upon the art of 
cooftrttAiiig tlieaiy fi> as to afibrd to the air accefs and 
cgi€& without obftni^on* The healthfiiliiefs of great 
cities muft aUb frequently reftdt lirom the art of arrangii^ 
the.cMn&ion of the ftreetS) of fixtog the fitnatum of places 
of public refefty and of majntaaiing a free circolation of 

Let us not hefitafee to rendor juftide to men to .iriiom we 
^se indebted (or the prectons gift of pure and free aar, at 
tfaooghf yiddtng to the force of circumftances^ they have 
fed from their agitated country. Let us never ibrget that 
we owe to the Barm de BnUuil the liberty of bridges and 
quayss upon a river which conveys fetriltty and.abundana 
into one of the fineft cities in Euiope ; that it was under 
Ins admittiftratbn, fruitful in gyand and ufeful uodevtak- 
ing8» that the mnifier cf f^i^^ converted under our eyes, 
a foul cemetery, a loathfome chamel hourfe, teemii^ 
with ail the affliftive attributes of deftrufiiony into a fpa- 
cious placC) acceffiUe to an a&ive intercourfe) and ezpofed 
to a falttbrious atmofphere ; diat in fpite of the ^pprehea- 
fions and rempnftrances of the prgudiced) fo mai^ thou- 
&nds of dead bodies were dug up, without accident) witb* 
out tumult) and with the greateft decency ;, that the mo- 
tion^ of a great population were not interrupted by it) or 
their eyesofiended with any affli£ling fped:acle) nor the public 
health threatened with any alarming difafter; and that, in 
the midft of this irUome labour, the eye of the curious 
obfisfver could ftill with fecurity penetrate the myfteries of 
natmre, in the flow deftru&ion of beings, and could draw 
from thence interefting knowledge concermng thofe trans- 
mutations, whofe produdls will perhapSf at a future pcv 
riod, pave the way to ufefjul difcpvcries^ 



Itie health of foldiers coUefled in campsi of failors a(^ 
^bled in (hipsi has given birth to many ufefu! works; 
and the obienrations of Pringle on this fubje£b have acquir* 
ed very great celebrity. ^ Lind^ Prijpmmir^ znd PtwgU, 
have enlightened navigators bj their obfervations and die- 
oxies, conc^ning the regimen of failors ; whilft the im» 
mortal CotA has experimentally proved what fuceeft may 
refult from diefe rules, pra£iifed withunderftanding; and^ 
in this re^>eA, has exhibited to Europe a new example, by 
bringing back, from a long and perilous voyage, the whole 
crews of three (hips, with the lofs only of one man, whom 
the unconfirmed ftate of his health, at his departure, had 
already threatened with the near approach of death* 

Refpe&able works have inftrufted the Europeans coa* 
cerning the method of efcaping the dangers' which await 
them in their colonies, fituated in thofe burning climates^ 
where die thirft of gold has prompted them to endure the 
influences of an unfriendly acmofphere. The terror infpir« 
ed by the moft deftru£tive maladies, would have expelled 
diem from thefe countries on their firft eftablifliment in 
them, if avarice had not been infenfible to the fear of 
death. But more efpecialiy was it nedeffary to inftrufl 
tjiem in the art of preferring the health of thofe unfor- 
tunate flaves, whom they condemn to moiften, with dietr 
fweat, a foreign land, fertilized by their labours 6nly for 
their mafters. Le C. Dazille is one o£ thofe who have 
executed this laft tafc with the greateft fuccefs, in his ob- 
fervations on tetanus, and the difeafes of negroes : and the 
colonies are indebted to him for the prefervadon of many 
of their inhabitants. But all thefe labours reflet more 
honour upon the fpirit of humanity, and upon the talents 
of fome refpe^lable individuals, than upon the rigilant 
attention of governments. It is only public works, and 




libM ads of legiflatiaE^ foch as thefej that can covfer 
b^noiir oo admiiiiftratioiu 

The ▼ok€ of phSoibrphj and <tf learned meiii was for a 
Umg pttiod heard» in almoft every country, before* the bene^ 
ficeni hands of their rulers were obferved pouring confola« 
tka into the bofom of the wretched. The works ofLancjfi 
had esnfted for a long time before the reft of Europe had 
eoaceived the vaft utility of removing from the environs of 
citiesy and pf populous pbces of abode^ thofe foci of dao* 
geioos emanations^ whencse fpring nudignant intermUtem 
fivers^ a clals of difeafes almoin as deftruftive, peibai^ 
more inCdious, than the plague kfelff It was however at 
the folicitation of the Italian gpvernsoenti that this cele« 
btated phyfieian compofed Ua treatifes, colleOred tpgedier 
vnder the title oi Dt Nfxiispaludum ^uvibi and his re- 
markable diftrtatkm Defflva S^mimia non n^ per partu 
0SfiadenJa^ Th^ operatiims in the Pontine marihes direct- 
ed by Sextus V, and the work of Cardinal Gaftaldi, already 
quoted, alfo prove, that it was in Italy that works of this 
nature, fo eflentially conned^ed with the health of the cid- 
tmh fi^ became objeds of fpedal attention to government. 
|t is^ however, only in our own days th^t the works no- 
ce£iry lo change the influence and (emperature of a 
f otintry, which for a long period had remained, ttphealdiy» 
;md overfpread with fwamps, have been executed in the 
neighbourhood of Rochefort} and Europe, aa well as 
France, ftill exhibit great trails of country covered widi 
noxiotts and ufdefs moraiTes. In Piedmont and in the 
Milanefe, government framed laws for removing the 
rice fields from the great cities, juftly apprehenfive that 
their exhalations prove injurious* to the inhabitants of 
thefe cities } and ftruck with the difmal fpedacle of the 
difeafes^ which jprulb, the unfprtunate cul^yators of rice^ 



and cut them off in the meridian of Iife| it <^durred to 
the rulers of that country to eiatninCi whether there 
be any means of multiplying this taluable food at lefs ex* 
pence, and without facriScing fiorty years of the lites df a 
numerous population to the obje£t of rearing it to mwas* 
ity, and of houfing it. 

It is on your account, ye inhabitants of cities, that 
fttch facrifices are made ! It is around you that all the 
folicitudes of governments rally, to avert from you etery 
fpecies of noxious influence! It is for you that fo much 
labour is beftowed on the improvement of the public roads; 
it is for your convenience that fpacious and fSdubrtous 
walks are formed ; and that thofe deep refervoirs in whidi 
your inanimate remains fufier decompofition, are removed 
from your fight. It is moreover for your ufe, that artificial 
fewers, more commodious than the but t>f the poor, are 
dug ; and that pipes, deftined to pour forth ialubrious wa« 
ter, are ere£led at a vaft expence, whether yon aie indebt* 
cd for their conftru£tion to the vigilance of your magif* 
trates, or to the a£tive induftry of your fellow citizens. 
In ihort, it is in the midft of you that the fiibjefl tXtfygtha 
is in reality ftudied and reduced to pradice ; and yet, widi 
this difference, to which we are no longer permitted to 
4rfcribe the defers of an oblblete regimen \ with this dif-- 
ference, I fay, diat the diftrids where the groans of mifery 
are heard, or to which painful and* laborious induftry t«* 
ibrts for flielter, feem forgotten and abandoned, whiHt the 
moft fuper fluous afliduities accumulate round opulence and 
efieminacy. In vain have we witneffed the moft unezped- 
ed inftances of the vicifiitttdes of fortune. Every thii^ 
around us has experienced a change, except our infenfibi-* 
lity to the diftrefles of the unhappy. Let the indigent thea 
avail themfelves of their liberty, not to abandon themfelves 



to the blind and tttmultnous exceffes of an unprofitable' 
iiiry ; not to aVenge tfacmfdres of the negle& which they 
fn^fer, by fpreading rain around them \ but in a manly and 
lofty tone, to claim that care and attention which are due 
to them; to point out in the vicinity of the fumptuous edi- 
fices of an opulent city, the nuifance of a muddy turUd 
river,* which circulates in the midft of thm afylums, and 
'Whofe courfe might be ufefuUy altered, its pure water, and 
the advantages derived from it, not contaminated by noxious 
mialms \ and without any odier trouble than that of appro- 
priating to diis ufefttl objefl, treafures, fo often pro£- 
gaily fquandered for the accompliihment of culpable pur- 




Private hygOtie is that which afcertains, by means of 
tules deduced from obfervation, how far a man, anrious 
to preferve his health, ought, according to his age, his 
conftitution, and the circumftances in which he is placed, 
to avail lumfelf of the ufe of thofe obje£ls with which he 
is fnrrounded, and of his appropriate powers, whether for the 
purpofe of fupplying his wants, or of gratifying his plea- 


* The Sievre at Paris is in the Ibdlions of the Gobelins, and of the bo- 
tanic garden. The 'Society of Medicine has compofed a treatife an tbis 
fobjed, in the iequel of its memoirs for 17S9. 


Thefe rules are either general and deduced from the 
univerfal laws of the animal economy, and of its reladons 
with furrounding obje£ts ; or particular and referabiei a^ 
ther to the different conftitutions of individualss or to the. 
diverfity of things accommodated to their ufe* 

In the hiftory of this branch of iygihiet I do not propofe 
to give a fuller or lefs complete lift of the authors who 
have treated of it j my fole objed is to delineate a ikeldi 
of the progrefs which the fcience has gradually made by 
the aid of obfervation. The general hiftory of medicine^ 
configned to an abler pen than mine, will exhibit,- under 
the chronology of authors, a table, of which any that I 
could offer in this place would be only an extra£l. 

It is in the woAs of Hippocrates, or in thofe which are 
afcribed to him, and whofe authors were cither contempo- 
rary with, or flouriflied a very (hort time prior or pofterior 
to, the father of medicine, that we recognize the firft 
rudiments and firft precepts of the art of preferving 

But before the eziftence of the art, men had been in<^ 
ftruAed by the progrefs of obfervation ; and tins piogitfs 
is attefted to us in the writings of ancient authors. 

Mofes, in his hiftory of the world, has defcribed the dif<* 
ferent fubftances which man fucceffivtly included in the 
range of alimentary matter. He rcprefents him as at firft 
faithful to reafon, then tranfgreffing the rules which it pre* 
fcribes i obedient to the laws of neceffity, but yielding to 
the charms of pleafure with too faint a refiftence s fatisfy- 
ing his hunger wi^th the fruits with which the trees in a 
happy climate abundantly fupplied him; then with the 
herbs and corn which he obtained from a more avaricious 
earth as the reward of his labours, with the milk of his 
flocksi and, finally, with their fleih ( fubje^ing alfo the 



juices of vegetables to the procefs of fermentatioBj and ei- 
tnik'mg {torn them liquorsi which recruit his ezhaufied 
ftreogth, but which> when indulged in to excefs^ intoxicate 
and deprive him of his reafon* He exhibits to us the dur* 
ation of his life^ dafmaifliilig in proportion as he created to 
himfelf new wants i and the necel&ty of having recourfe 
to a mixture of aliments, derived from both the vegetable 
and animal kingdoms, and to a more numerous clafs of 
difierent fubflances for his fuppGort, becdme more urgent, 
whilft his vital powers decteafe dailj in vigour. Hei points 
0ut to us his conftitutioh at once undermined bf his ciimesi 
perpetuating an hereditary debility in his race, and the ex* 
cefies of fathers affixing the feal of definition even to 
their pofterity. In truth, the longevity of certain hermits, 
vtho recurring to a vegetable diet, and to the (tri^beft tern* 
perance^ have exceeded the ordinary term of human life; 
^nd the example of the celebrated Cornaro, feem to de- 
lnonftrate« that by tranTgrefling the boundaries of real 
want, and yielding to the fblicitations of pleafure, man has 
aSually abridged the duration of his life. 

Kature has attached pleafure to want; but tibe fofrmerof 
thefe guides afaaoft always decoys her followers to a greater 
diftatice from the right path than the latter. Reafon has 
been given us for the purpofe of adjufting the quarrel be* 
tween them; but man, who has once acknowledged the 
fiipremacy of pleafure, recognizes with difficulty the exa£l 
province of neafon : be has deferted the tree of life, and 
he is no longer permitted to gather its fruits. 

The hieroglyphics of £gypt, where Mofes was brought 
%ip and educated^ and the fables of Greece, foggeft to us 
die idea of their common origin, and of the fimpleft veget^t 
able diet always charaAeriftic of the earlieft ages of the 
world; of different preparations perverting, in the courfe 



of time, the fimplicity of the primeval modes of living; 
and finally, of man afiailing the lives of the lower animals, 
and devouring their flefh for the purpofe of fupporting his 
own ekiftence^ 

According ta Dr. Mackenzie,* the different fpecies of 
aliments were 'introduced into ufe in the following order 
of fuccei&on: fruits, corns, culinary plants, bread, milk, 
fifh, flefh, wine, beer. This lafl beverage, according to 
Herodotus, was invented by the Egyptians ; and it feems 
to have been defcribed by Mofes attan earlier period, fince 
in many pafiages of Leviticus f and of Numbers, j: this le-< 
giflator makes mention of other intoxicating liquors beGdes 
wine, which are exprefled in .the Greek text of the Sep* 
tuagint by the word ^<M(tf, the root of which is Hebraic, 
and fignifies /« intopiicate^ To thefe kinds of aliments mufl 
be fubjoined, butter, honey, olive oil, eggs, and cheefe. 

Thefe early inventions were foon followed by more com- 
plicated preparations, according as fenfuality awakened, or as 
necefBty obliged mankind, to meafure the refiftance of the 
food which was to undergo the afEmilating procefs, by the 
diminifhed a&ivity of their enfeebled organs. In this man- 
ner does Hippocrates, with an able and corre£l pencil, 
{ketch in his treatife concerning the ancient flate of medi* 
cine, (vf(i it%xtuiii mi(n.^)i the hiftory of the improvements 
fuccefBvely beftowed upon aliments ; and points out to his 
readers, man, taught as nmch by pain as by pleafure, to 
choofe, to prepare, and to transform the different fub- 
fiances which ferve him for nourifhment, and thus dete£t- 
ing, in his experience, the &rft elements of the do£trine of 
health and of medicine* In fa£);, if with Mofes we admit 

Vol. III. Y the 

• Hlttory of Health, ch. 3. 
t Ch. XV, 9. X Ch. vi, 3. 


the. hereditary debilitj of the human body from the abufe 
of enjoyments, we may conceiTe, that a nourUhment, at 
firft falutary, afterwards became too courfe for his deUUtat- 
ed organs ; an uneafy fenfation thus became inftrumental 
in afcertaining the meafure and modifications of regimen. 
Eor^ obferves Hippocrates,- jou cannot find any meafure^ anj 
balance^ mr any other calculation^ to whicb you may appeal nvith 
tnore certainty^ .than to the fenfations themfelves which the iody 
experiences. -^fiir^$9 )f, Hi r«^/Miy, »3s «(<lf««y, SHuu «AA#ir 9^<n 

If thefe fenfations had been fufficient to eftablifli the 
roles of regimen, there would have been no occafionfor 
the interference of art. For, as Hippocrates again remarks, 
where no perfon is ignorant, and where every perfon isinfiruS^ 
ed either by cti/hm or by necejfity^ no perfon can with prcprietj 
be defignated an artifi.f The wants, the errors, and the in- 
firmities of men, however increafing, obfervations accumu- 
lating, and tradition becoming inadequate to ihe talk of 
colle£ting and tranfnditting them to pofterity, art arofe, and 
its neceffity was recognized. In proof of its reality, Hip- 
pocrates quotes the cafe of the gymnaftic phyficians; wb9 
daily, he obferves, make new obfervations on the aliment and 
drink f which procure to the body an increafe tfjlrength and of 

The ftudy of regimen had been earned to an exceflive 
degree of refinement prior to the era of Hippocrates, fince 
Herodotus obferves of the Egyptians, that having believed 
themfelves to have deteSfed, that the greatefl number ofdifeefes 
originate in the abufe of aliment ; they took care every month to 


* L. C. edit, de Van-der-Linden, { x6. 
t lb. J 9. 4 lb. 

devote three fucctjtve days to vomiting and purging thett^ehMs^ 
hj the ufe (fclyjkrs^ in ftrder to preferve their health. — 'Xt^j- 

This pradice 6f vottiking, which was denominated ^r- 
fnaijkj {rv^fMt^fi6t)y lAr&s introduced Atttfttg thfc Romans; 
but ralhcr ftoAi the view of its fubfcriiency to the gfatifi* 
cations of the table, than from its tendency to promote 
health. Aiid it appear^ firom many paflages of HippocrateS) 
that, in hb tiAie, the Oreeks had occafional recourfe to 
gentle means of exciting von^iting, and of evacuating the 
ftomach. But Herodotus, like a man of found judgment, 
aftet' having obfenred that the Egyptian^ w^re the healthieft 
mtfi in' Africa, afcribes this ad? atitag6 lets to thefe prac- 
tices, than to the unifcrrnfiity of temperature i!n theit cli- 
mates, xl(^here, he obferres, the feafotis are not fubj6£t to 
any viciffitudes. Independent of all this, and although th6 
regimen introduced by Pythagoras, and the inftitutions of 
Lycurgus, had preceded, the age of Hippocrates and of 
Plato by a long feries of years ; although Iccus, a phylician 
of Tarcntum, had, fome years before, recomAiendcd the 
union of the gymnaftic art with the moft temperate regi- 
men, for the prefervation of health; although this laft 
phyfician acquired fuSlcient reputation to render the diet of 
Iccus a proverbial expreffion, to fignify a very temperate 
and fimple repaft,* Plato dill afcribes the invention 6f medi^ 
cinal gynraaftics to Herodicus ; and Hippocrates aflumes 
to himfelf the honour of having determined with precifion, 
the proportions of reginlcn, cith^ for invalids or for people 

T2 in 

g Euterpe, Glafgow edit. { 77^ 

* See Steph.of Byzant * quoted by Mackenzie ia his HHlory of Health « 

940 Hygiene^ by halle. 

in the foil enjoyment of health. Hippocrates'claim to this 
improvement may be found aflerted in the firft and third 
books of his treatife on the, Regitnen of People in Health ; 
and in that intitled, concermng the Regimen in acute Dif" 

In this latter performancei Hippocrates exprefsly ob- 
ferves, that the ancients left nothing in writing on diet which 
deferves being mentioned s and' that they have paffed over this 
important article injilence* — «t«( lil wi^) «ii$ imhm «? «^mm 
iuny^cti^Mf, iiif «!<•» A«yy, xmr^t fMy» vvr* wa^mcmt. In the 

firft book on diet, the author of that book begins by point- 
ing out how many dejiderata the works of the ancients 
leave unfupplied on this fubje£t ; and he adds at the end 
of his preface^ IJhall explain what none of my predecejfors 
have attempted to demoitftrate- — mmw % (luil lw%%H^itn fuHtH 
rm w^Tt^Sf inXStguh *y*f I«-i9m|w, luii rttvrm mmi« sri. He 
afterwards more particularly afliimes to himfelf, the merit 
of having determined the times, and the fj^mptoms, 
wluch precede derangement of healdi, and the means 
of preventing the confequences by the refpe&ive propor- 
tion of food and of exercife.t He conftantly reprefents 
himfelf as the author of thofe invcQtions in the third bode, 
where fpeaking of the combination of exercifes with ali- 
ment) and of their utility for preventing difeafes, in thofe 
cafes in which health becomes precarious, he adds, in thoft 
cafes^ our ohjeEt muji not be to preferve health by the agency cf 
remedies; and I my/elf am the perf&n who in thefe dijcoveries 
has made the nearefi approach to the true end: but none has 
yet exaSlly attained it. — &■# J* «cv* iS* w« rm ^m^fuuuiit Urn' 
T4M vyutZfi^tu. n fih if }v9«r«i> 9!u^itlnvtu ifytr» rS o'^v fftt ul^^rrtu, 
TO ^6 «e»^<Cf; iiiiH,% And, in the fequel of the fame book* 

' ■ ■III-' 

•f Ibid. § iv, cd. de Van-der •Linden. 

t Lib. de Dicta, $ i. 

HVgIENB, by HALLE. 34l 

while proceeding to the fecond part of his fubjef):, fpeak* 
ing of the fame difcoveriesi he farther obferves, tvith regard 
to this invention / honourable to me who am its author^ hM^^ 
for thofe who are inJhruSfed in it^ and to which none of my 
predecejffhrs have even attempted to afpire^ I conjider it as the 
tnoft important of all. - — rl it to l^tv^fMt KxXh fin if/ui rf h5^«»t<, 

ffVvBeivttiy v^og UwMfrx ri^ «AA« IroAAv x^tvct ilfveu k%i9Tt, || 

This coincidence between the three books, concerning 
regimen, and that concerning regimen in acute complaints, of* 
which Hippocrates is univerfally regarded as the author, 
gives fome confirmation to Dr. Mackenzit^s opinion, who 
thinks that this celebrated phyfician is alfo the author of 
the three other book?, although Leclerc afcribes them to 
Herodicus. The writer of the article gymna/lics (old Ency- 
clopedie), adduces as proof, that thefe books are not the 
compofition of Hippocrates, the contempt which, in his 
opinion, the minute information concerning the gymnailic 
art contained in them merits. This argument appears to 
me of little force, refpedling an ait 'which we never prac- 
tifed, which was fo familiar to the Greeks, and fo import- 
ant in the eftimation of that people ; and of which the 
author of that book could fpeak with fome precifion, with- 
out appearing tedious or unimportant to his contemporaries. 
If any thing, however^ csn render the opinion of thofe who 
afcribe thefe books to Ji^rodicus, more probable, it is that 
the third appears to correfpond in many refpe£ts with the 
very fevere criticifm of Plato on Herodicus,^ fince, in this 
book, the author generally treats of perfons who experience 
fome change in their health, or fome debility in the exer- 
cife of their fund:ions, and lays down rules of regimen 

Y 3 fuitable 

■ I '■ " I ■ I I I III I I— 1— ■— M<p».— .— — 

!l lb. f xx» 

% s 

342 HYGJEUE^ BY liAL;.£« 

fuiuble to thefe dcrangetp^ntSj vith t^e intention of ob- 
viating their confoqu^ncos* And CYenflalo's critiqifiii it&If 
hei^ at bottpfPy to be r^^arded as a ^^w^jnxi upon ihs au- 
tbor» fince he reproaches him en the fcore of lus fvccdft 
alone } our philofc^her being averfe from prolonging a Ufct 
which be regards as burdcQ^ the iodividlKd» and nifi- 
lefs to the ftafe. 

Thus is it, that the prigiiuof the fcience^ thgt is, .of bj* 
giefie, reduced to fixed principles, by the refults of ohfenr- 
ation, cannot be traced far beyond the era of Hippocrates^ 
and oi Herqdicus Us m^fter; and if any one Cbould de^ 
iiderate more e^^tended details, concerning the naonumentd 
of anterior date, relatiye to this fubje^> \\t cannot read a 
more fatisfa^ory tre^tiCe,. in this refpe^» than the hiftory ^ 
which Dr. James Maqk^nzk gives of thcfe remote times, 
in his wprk in titled, tbe Hi/lor^ QfHeabb^ and the Art ^ 
pre/erving it!* I ought to. apprise the reader, that I my- 
felf fliall borrow msny pafl^ges from this work, which I 
{hall take care to quote, whenever an qppQrtvnity offi?rs it« 
felf of transferring th^m to this article. 


In reducing the hiftory pf ao art tP certain epochs, 
there is an effential difference between the wethod of at 
fuming, as rallying ppipta, the period? at which celebrated 
men have acquired fpme reputation in it by their works, 
and that of rcftriaing our inquiries tP thofc epochs alone, 
in which the art has been really progreffire* , ThisJaft fyt 
tem, which alone is truly interefting, is very barren in re* 


* Second edit. Ediiv 1769. 


fyeSt to reynarksJ^le eras : the other fyftein» is that which 
alffloft all medical hiftorians have followed. 

Aceordiiig to the fecond fyftem, we can only enumerate 
four priocipal epochft in the hiftory of hygiine. The firf^ « 
is that iia. which the artj reduced for the firft time to pre^ 
cepts, foumi^^i pn regular o^fervationi has given birth to 
works which.baFC lived in the efteem of pofterity. This 
epoch is that of. mppoeraUs^ with whom muft be aflbciat- 
ed his mafter. Herodicus^ and Polyiius, his fon-in-law and 
pupil. Its commencement may be dated from the birth 
of HippocrattSy that is, from the 460th year before the 
cfariftian era. The great number of ages which we QiaU 
comptifip. between the fixft epoch and the fecond, ought 
not to excite the reader's, aftoniihment, when he confiders 
that during this period^ of confiderable duration, nothing 
really new has been Gonftru&ed on the baits eftabliQied by 
Hippocrates ; and that his principles had been only more 
or lefs developed^, in proportion as the fpirit of obferv^tion 
had, in a greater or lefs degree, extended its influence 
among pfayficians. For, with refpe& to the (budy of .ana- 
tomy, cultivated fuccefsfully after his time by Hexoghilus 
and ErafiftiAtus, its effeds in accelerating thd progrdklof 
hygihie were, at that period, very inconfiderable ; and I do 
not deem thofe times, in which its motion was rather re* 
trograde than progreifive, better intitled to be indadedt in 
the number of the epochs of theart; as. for iiiftance, 
when it was perverted by the introduction bF iubtie^ iitm 
quifitions concerning the degrees ofi&Ai/and of #W% of 4&3M0^ 
and of tmifiure^ whidi infeded the laffc perbds of Ae 
Arabian fchool ; or whea the extravagant feoleiSesof the 
aibpts decoyed>phyfician€ from the path of true obfinrvtition, 
to dire£t their attention to the inveftigatioti of th9fe diie^ 
mical fecrets, the poflefTprs of v^hibhinibring the gifroPd 

Y 4 fort 


tort of immoitality to others, were ignorant of the means 
of appropriating it to themOslVes. 

2(bf I pisice the feeond epoch of the 2tn at the period 
at which the celebrated San^ofittf difcovered the pheno- 
metaa of infenfiUe perfpiration^ and their conne£Hon with 
all the f an£lions of the animal e<!onoi»f , efj^ially with 
the inequalities of regimen, and with the variatioas of the 
atmofphere. SanBmus was bom in I57i. We muft then 
fix the epoch, the honour of which is exclufiveljr due to 
him, towards the end of the fixteenth centmy. 

3^10, The renovation of phyfics* before the middle oC &6 
feventeenth century, by the experiments of TorricMi and 
oi Pafiah the difcovecy of the weight of the air, and of 
its aAion on bodies by reafon of that wei^t; the circolar 
tion of the blood) already demonftrated by Harvey^ in the 
beginning of that century ^ the labours of Mdpbigi^ of 
Hahs^ and of fo many other celi^brated natural piulofophers, 
whO| devoting their time to the inv'eftigation of animal phy- 
fics, have thrown a new light on every departnient of medi- 
cine. They paved the way for the entire revolution which 
it expeiieciced in the renowned fchool of B^erbaawi and 
whatever movements the glory of this celebrated epoch 
may have received from them, we may affinn, that the 
phyfical fciences are indebted to it for all the preciGon to 
which they have attained fince tl^tt. period. It is a fingolar 
fa&, that of the men who diftinguiihed thoaafelves in this 
noble xsvolution^ if we excelpt thofe who devoted themfelves 
^moft texcluGvely to the mathematical fciences^ a very con- 
fiderable numl^er were phyficians. This reyoludon has laid 
the foundation of all that has been accompliihed during 
the greateft half of the fixteenth, and during three fourths 
of the:prefent (laft) century. We alfo owe to this great 
in^puifirt communicated to the phyfical. fciencesi all the 



cfaai^es which Stahlf Baerbaave^ and, fmce tfaor tinoC) the 
Barons^ the RoueUes^ the MdcguerSf have introduced into 
chennfiftrjf!, and. the light which the fct(ince of medicine has 
derived from the fame foiirce. 

' I have thought it proper to feparate this latter epoch 
from that of SanSorius^ although they are fo neatly con* 
tiguoua ; becaufe Sanfforius had it fcarcely in his power 
to derive any afliftance firom the'fources of which his fuc* 
ceflbrsavaUed themfidves;. becaufe in a period when the 
wifeft phyficians were thofe; who fccupuloufly traced the 
footfteps of the ancient Greek8> who confined themfelves 
to the ftudy of their works, and were occupied in.oonfii^m- 
ing the precepts of their mailers by new obfervations, he 
alone had the courage to extend the range of his inquiries, 
which they feemed to have drcumfcribed j who opened 
.up for hi^felf a new path, and pointed out to.hisfuc- 
ceffbrs a method, hi^erto ttti.knowfl» of penetrating the^fe* 
crets of nature. 

4/0, I do not hefitate to fix the fourth and laft epoch at 
the immediate opening pf the brilliant career, upon which 
Prieftleyi Blacky LavojfieTf as well as many of our phyficians, 
who, either by fertile inventions, or by their zeal to pro- 
pagate knowledge by the method of inftru£tion, have fo 
wipll deferved of the arts, of the fciences, and of medi- 
cine, entered with fuch diftinguiflied fuccefs. This epoch, 
remarkable for the difcovery of the gafeous fluids, of the 
chemical a£lion pf air on bodies, and by that of the com- 
pofition and decompofition of water, has put into our hands 
many of the keys which open the fan£tuary of nature. Let 
us hail the fuccefs which has already iiluftrated this era, 
and which fumiihes indications of ftill more profperous 
events in future times. Phyficians will henceforth be able 
to flatter themfelves, with the hope of deriving from che- 
3 miftry 

« i 


miftry more certain knowledge, and left hfpotibetiGal exw 
planatioDS of the pmcipai phenomena of the antn^ai ecx^ 
nomy \ &nd cbemiftry, that noble fcience, afafolutely un- 
known to the ancients, will amply expiate thofe errors widi 
wUch its infancy debafed our art. We &all moreoTer wit- 
nefe another feiiilt of that fortunate aUtaaee, contsaAed m 
our own time, between the experimental and mathematical 
fciences^ I mean, that medicine, enriched with a ftiil greater 
iiumber of acquired fa^ls, will be able to appfoach with 
aocelorated pace towards that exaA and demo&ftiative 
courfe, which they fo frequently aceule her of having 
abandoned, and without which fiic cannot flatter hcr&If 
with the hope of obtaining any (hare of real fuccefs, or of 
permanent glory. 

I proceed, meanwhile, to refume the hiftory of hj^m^ 
and to give an outline of its revolutions till die prefect 
time, and of the changes which, in future, we may fuppofe 
it deftined to experience. 



The birth of Hippocrates has been fixed about the 460th 
year before the chriftian era. Pythagoras, refpe£ling whom 
every circumftance which anfwers my purpofe in this article, 
has been recorded in the hiftory of public hygiene^ was bora 
about the (Jodth year before the fame era.* Tlie period 
in which he flouriihed, then, was 140 years prior to the 


* Traveis ^f Anacharfisy Vol. ir. Table •£ epochs of the Ciedan hif- 

I|YQl£K£» BY HA{^L^» S4f 

age of Hippocrates. It was during the epodi of Pytha* 
gosaSi that medicine and philofophy, combined tcigetber^ 
werei according to the ot^fenr^tipn of {ieclerc> pra^iifed ^ 
the feme individual^* 

Hippocrates, the fame author ftiU farther ^bfenrei, iipM 
tl\e authprity o£ Celfus, was the fylli p^rfon who feparated 
tl^efe branches of knowledge* . T)^ (^^araiion wfis not^ 
l^owever^ a divorce} and phyficiaqs ne«^ <:eal^d to be con- 
yerfant in pbilofophy. $ttt this divifiqn refulted in a double 
advantage ; {^, the exercife of ^fe twd profe^gns becom* 
ing daily more extenfiye, medicine^ in order to b«; pt^iML 
with advantage, required that the fame individual ihouU 
confecrate all his time to this ible obje^ : ^4» Philofpphy 
devoted herfdf to fyftematic explications of all the pheno- 
mena of the umverfe } foxi after that of feeing, the 6rQ; defir^ 
which man feels is to comprehend, and his impatient n^ind 
fcarcely perceives efie&s, when itjprings forwards towards 
their caufes,. without conCderii^ at how great a diftance 
they are removed from it, and th^t this diftance q^n be 
overtaken only by obfervation. This fpirit of fyftem was 
peculiarly calculated to injure medicine ', which, unfortu- 
nately, fince ■ that period, has been but too much enQaved 
by its influence. I thus enumerate the feparatioa of fyf*- 
tematic philofophy from medicine, an^ong the firft progref* 
five fteps made by the art. Hippocrates not only refrained 
from*iUuftrating the theory of ifiedicine upon the principles 
of the philofophy of his age; he was moreover unwilling 
that this faculty of interpreting the phenomena of nature 
on theoretical principles Ihould be abufed in its application 
to obje£ts, the explication of which fliould be entirely the 
refuU of obfervation and experience. This opinion is ob- 
vioufly maintained in the treatife concerning thejlate ofmedi^ 
cine among the aacient^f (arf^ic^pgdW I«t^«$)« The author 

3 of 


of this traAi whom Boerhaave, in oppofition to Gaien^ 
and to fome other writers, belieres to have been Hippocrates, 
oppofes with remarkable fofidity of argument, and by an 
appeal to fadis, a fyftem common in his time. Tbtfe^ 
tobferves he, in the beginning of his treatife, have very much 
deceived iiemfelves in their fnultifariotss reafwingfj whs, being 
incHned tojpeak or U nmite cencerning medicine^ have affumed as 
the bcfis of their explanatioffff heat, or cold, or drynefs, or two^' 
ture. Or any other doBrine niohich they have been pleafedto adopt, 
narrowing, as it wA^e, the ioundarieif (k fi^x^ «y>m$) oythe 
art, and, attributing to the agency of one or two caufes, by <k 
Imf of which theypretefid to explain every thing, the principal 
eaufe ofdifeafes,andofdeatb\ He confiders this fyftem as 
an innovation introduced in his time, when he fays, bat my 
defign is to recur again to the con/ideration of thofe, who have 
fflatK/bed a new method of cultivating our art, by building it upon 
hyp^heiieal fuppofitiom.k And he afterwards adverts to 
the phyfical and evident efFefis of aliment on our bodies, 
and fliews their incompatibiltty with the do£irxne \i^ch 
he combats. 

The other books in which Hippocrates appears to found 
the theories, both of internal caufes and of regimen, as 
well as certain modes of treatment in difeafes, upon the 
qualities againft which^ he has juft now argued, confidcred 
as prinaples of the faculties of our bodies, are acknow- 
ledged to be fpurious. We ought not then to deduce from 
their authority any argument for denying his being the 
author of the former dofbine, which in every other refped 
is abundantly rational. The'opinion, that experience is para- 
mount to every other conGderation in medicine, that every 
procefs of reafoning muft be condu£l;e!a in conformity to 


§ Van-der-LiDd6ii> lb. } aa. 


its dictates, and that the mi^d muft be guarded againft the 
infanity of attempting to comprehend every thing, is, there- 
fore, to be regarded as one of the firft fteps of progreffive 
improvement at which phyficians arrived after the birth 
of philofophy. For^ obferves Hippocrates in his precejfts, 
(«r«^«fyiA«flM), in order to praBife nudicine^ we muft not atfijl 
occupy ourfehes in firming proceffes ofreafming chthed nvitb 
Jome^probaUUty^ but diduce our reqfonings firom ob/ervation* 
-— }m yi fihu»^ A^pyia-jMdf «-(«n^«y ^t^tntS^v^eet^^fla Inr^vetft «XA« 

r^iCi furci htyu. This much, then» Hippocrates accom- 
plifhed, by feparating medicine from philofophy. 

I conceive it neceflary to begin this branch of my fubjeflr, 
by giving this explanation of the meaning which ought to 
be affixed to the poiition, that medicine was feparated from 
philofophy ; and of the idea which we ought to entertain 
of this primary charaSer of the epoch of Hippocratej afcrib- 
ed to it by Leclerc. 

This epoch ought to be divided into different periods ; 
and the firft of thefe periods may be extended from the 
time of Hippocrates to that of Galen. The fecond will 
comprehend Galen, and the ancient Greeks who followed 
him. The third will embrace the Arabia[n fchool, from 
which that of the modern Greeks, among whom Aftua« 
rius was the only phyfician, who merits any particular 
attention, can fcarcely be diftinguiihed.- During the- fame 
period arofe the fchool of Salernum, more famous than 
praifeworthy ; and yet, till the revival of letters, after the 
facking of Conftantinople, there appeared in Europe many 
i^markable and eminent men, independent of the chemifts, 
who adhered to the fyftem of' medicine laid down in its 
conceited jargon. Laftly, a fourth divifioit of this epoch 
will correfpond to the period elapfed between the revival 



of learning and of the Greek dpftrine, and the *epoch of 



The works of Hippocrates, whether confidered as relat- 
ing to hygiene f or as connefied with the other departntents 
of medicine, are charaAerized by the following remarkable 
peculiarity, that to the moment at which natural philofophy 
and chenuftry diffiifed new light upon medicine, they were 
always, regarded as a common text -book, on which the moft 
valuable medical performances could only be confidered as 

The breyity and concifenefs of the^ text have rendered 
illuftrations necefiary ;' accumulated experience of the dif- 
ferent influences to which man is naturally fubjefi, or 
voluntarily fubmits himfelf, has added new force to thofe 
previoufly obferved , but almoft all the original ideas are 
to be found in thefe primitive works. Whether we afcribe 
to Hippocrates the invention of thefe elements of the art, 
or whether he is only to be regarded as the able digefter 
of the dofirine eftabliibed in the fchool of G>s previous 
to his time, the treatifes which he has left us are always 
to be confidered as one of the fineft monuments of anti- 

The Books concerning Hygiene attributed to Hippocrates* 

imo, The excellent treatife concerning a/r, water, and 
Jituation, («%$< H^m^ iSittrmy 9^ rlzrm,) This is univerfally 
regarded as the work of Hippocrates. In this traft, he 
difcourfes of the various efiFe^ which are the fenfible 
indications of the different qualities of the acmofphere, of 



windd) of water, of the fituation of cities relative to thefe 
obje&Si of their expofure to different points of the horizon, 
and of the chara£kera of falubrity and infalubrity which 
refult from ftich an expofure, as well as of the phyCcal 
and moral (fconfiitiitioti of the people who are expofed to 
thefe influences. He alfo mentions the different feafomt 
of the year, and their effe£ls upon the human body. Finally, 
he fubjoins to thefe general obfervations particular remarks, 
charadieriftic of the moral and phyfical habits of the Afiatic 
and European nations. Among the former, he diftinguifhes 
thofe of the eaft apd thofe of the Mreft, m the number of 
whom he includes the African ftates known in his time, 
that is, the inhabitants of Egypt and of Lybia. Among 
the European nations, he expatiates at very great length 
on the Scythians^ on the Sauromates ; and compares the 
ftates of Europe in general with thofe of Afia. The in- 
fluence of government on the moral and phyfical qualities 
of a people alfo appeared to him an ohjtdt worthy of great 
attention; and it is as a republican that he traces the 
criteria which diftinguifh free nations from thofe fubjed- 
cd to the yoke of an arbitrary power. Thefe criteria 
appeared to him imprefied in a fenfible manner both upon 
their moral and phyfical conftitution. 

ado, The treatife on food, («^/ Tg«^?«)» is like the preced- 
ing, in the judgment of almoft all the critics, a genuine 
produ£%ion of Hippocrates. This piece is chara£lerized 
by lefs order and method ; but we find in it marks of pro- 
found meditation, and of truly philofophical views. The 
author treats of the peculiar nature of alimentary fub- 
ftances, of their proportions, with the age and tempera- 
Qients of individuals, of their varieties, and of the me- 
chafaifm of their application. The abruptnefs of the lan- 


guage often gives an air of obfcurity to the difcourfei 
I have given a iketch of the univerfal topics difcufled in 
this book, at the beginning of the article Aliment. 

3/w, The treatife concerning tbefalubrity ^ regimen^ (««fi 
iuurm vf^m^ is written chiefly for the inftruAion of men 
who» living in a ftate of privacy and ^fengagement from 
a£l:ive buGnefs, can apply themfelves mth fome detail to 
the care of their health. Such are thofe whom the author 
denominates iit^raU privati homines* The author of this 
txzSti in the opinion of a great number of critics, was 
Polybius, the fon-in-taw of Hippocrates. The qualities o£ 
ieat and of cold, of drjne/s and of moifture^ are the priBcipal 
indications which he fpecifies^ with the view of regulating 
the diet, according to the feafons, the age, fez, and tem- 
perament of the individual. Upon this fubjed, it is proper 
to obferve, that the author of the book cvncerning ihejlate 
of medicine among the ancients^ has not rejedied thefe confi- 
derations, but difapproved of the ufe which was made of 
them, by regarding them as explanatory of all the pheno- 
mena of health and of difeafes, and of all the efieds of 
aliment and of medicine. The author of this book, alfo, 
lays down fome rules to facilitate the extenuation of too 
corpulent people, and to reftore to a good plight fuch as 
are emaciated. The bafis of his regimen turns principally 
upon the choice of aliments and drinks; upon exercife, 
baths, inun£tions, and the means of exciting vomiting, 
according to circumftances, and to different temperaments. 
A more complete idea of the contents of this beok will 
undoubtedly be given under the article of Regimen. 

The three books on diet, (wt^i h«umg)t which Leclerc> as 
I have already obferved, afcribes to Herodicus, have been 
alfo attributed by different critics to other phyGcians, fome 
of whom lived prior to Hippocrates. Galen attaches little 



Talue to the firft^ in which a few excellent remarks are 
interfperfed among a farrago of obfcure illuftrations^ re- 
fpeding the nature of things^ and the generation of man. 
On the contrary, he, as well as Celfus, confiders the fecond 
and third worthy of the father of medicine ; more efpe- 
cially the fecond, in which the qualities and varieties of 
aliment are explained at great length. It is, however, evi- 
dent, that the firft and third, at leaft, are the compofition 
of the fame author; not only becaufe in each of thefe the 
author claims to himfelf the invention of regimen, as was 
dated above, but, becaufe in the firft, the writer premifes, 
that he will fpecify the fymptoms -which are the harbingers 
of difeafe; and by the afliftance of which, we can pre- 
fcribe the regimen calculated to avert their confequences, 
and executes his promife in the third book; which is alfo 
one of the inventions of which he boafts. 

In the firft book, he exprefles himfelf in the following 
manner : / have alfo found out the means of previoufly afcer- 
tainingf and before man is attacked by them^ {v^ tS KUfinr rot 
i¥^^mwnf..,w^timx^ita^i), the difeafes which mUft originate in 
both kinds ofexcefs^ (of aliment and of exercife). For thefe 
difeafes are notfuddenly generated^ their elements gradually ac'^ 
£umulate^ and tbiy at laji appear when thefe are united^ {tt^^tt^ 
ftt^tuffltu), J have then afcertained the derangements which 
man eptperiences before his health is dejiroyed by difeafe% and the 
means of reftoring him to a found ftate of health J^ In the 
third book, at the commencement of the firft part of that 
book, he makes ufe of the following expreffions: Ihave 
however deteBed the prognoftic ftgns (s-^efy^mf) of thofe things 
ivhicb predominate in the body^ wbethff aliment prevails over 

Vol. III. Z exercife^ 

* Lib. J} de Diseta, ed. Van-der-Liodeny ^ zii. 


iitetc^f 6r ipc&c^ ffidmintiUs o^)if ofUmfHtf at 'tudl as ibs 
tnHbod rf fimedying each <ifthefi.etKeeffis^ ani ^ Jtadjmg and 
conifnhinding^ hefsrehand^ {w^ luetet^aUntmi^ ihi Jkte of 
healthy in order to preifiHt difeafes i at U<^^ to guard agaitp 
indulging m too great and too frequMt exeejfes^ fit then ^e 
ifnufi have recourfe to ttmedieSi &C.'f In prbceediDg to the 
jecondpart, he thus eiprefles himfelf: Notp^ tny ifpifention 
con^s^ firfty in difcerning thefymftoms ivhicb precede an at- 
tack of diferfe^ (fW a v^eidftsi^if fdif «(«* t^ xdft^ttf), tlxn in 
perceiving the changes which bodiis es^erience, wbnher the 
quantity offiod eitceids the digfie ofacercifey or the iegree 
of exercife futpaffes the quantity of foods or Hjohetbet both 
one and the other mutually maintain a juji proportion. 
For the eucefs cf Athir gerietOtii Sfiafes^ and boahb tefidn 
from their mutual agreement.X 

We fee, then, that the fame fyfteih guides the author of 
thefe two bookd $ that the idead and the expifeflions are the 
fame, and, confequently, that they came frddk the £une 
pen. The firft book, which ha» been imprbp^siiy divided 
into two, begins by hying it down a$ a priheiplex diat die 
equilibrium of health depends upon a juft pfoportimi be- 
tween food and exercife. Our author th^n pfoeeeds to 
explain the nature of man, which he ^ftabliChes %tpw Ae 
tmioxi of the tmro principles of w&tet atid of fini, from 
which are deriiTed the £t>ur prinlary ({ilalitied. This ffahi 
of reafoning fufficiently prdf es that At atith^ Of this book 
is a dtfiereht perfon from the waiter of the treatife con* 
ceming the ftate of ancient medicine. This book cootaim 
fome curious pstflages illtiftratii^e of A6 philofbphy of die 
ancients. The fedbnd bo6k, much ti^ie h^f^otf on 


" • % ■ 

t lb. Lib. St, f I. t lb. $ 19. 


the (vbjtGt of our inquiriesj and replete with excellent 
cbfervationsi contains, in the fir ft place, remarks on the 
cffe£ts of the different regions of the atmofpherei and of 
the winds: the author then difcufies the qualities and 
varieties of aliments. I have given a pretty full account 
of this- part in the article Aliment, p. 710, and following, 
of this Di£i;ionary} and I flatter myfelf that I have in 
fome sefpe£ts contributed to render certain capital terms 
of the Greek text more intelligible. This book Is then 
concluded with fome obfervations on the different ingre- 
dients of iS^^g:^/?^, and efpecially on baths, dietetic yomitSu 
and, above all,, on the different kinds of gymnaftic exer* 

The obje£): of the third book, is to determine the rules 
and meafures of all things, the ufe of which contributes to 
the fupport of Ufe and health. It is divided into two prin- 
cipal parts ^ of thefe, one is appropriated to thofe '< who 
compofe the ftro/i numerous clafi of men^ {run 'tr^kXurt rSt 
av^^MWf)^ who live upon fuch aliments as opportunity fup- 
plios, who are forced to labour^ who are obliged to pafii 
theur lives in travelling, or depend for their fubfiftence on 
maritime commerce." Food, drink, the principal kinds of 
exercifes, baths, dietetic vomitings, methodical direfliions, 
according to dircumftances and to the temperature of the 
(eafons, conftitute the obje£t of the precepts given by the 
author in the firft part of the fecond book. 

But, after having given this feries of general precepts, 
which he conliders as applicable to the greateft proportion 
of the human race, who caiinot pay any particular atten- 
tion to the prefervation of their health, {rS ntxi^et rSf M^i* 
vAif), he paffes on to the expofition of particulars which 
fuit the condition of thefe, who,, leading a more ina£tive 
)ife| do not experience, any real enjoyment without thepojjef* 

Z 2 /ton 


J!on of health g and whofe leifure affords them time to ajh 
ply themfelves to all the inquiries necefiary for its preferf- 
ation. It is in this part of his book^ that he UnGtlj invef- 
tigates the diftinguifhing marks which predi£l alterations 
of health, and the manner in which health vacillates to- 
wards different indifpofitionsi which he regards as the 
germs of difeafes. The degree of importance which he at- 
taches to each of thefe alterations, that the generality of 
mankind negledl, fuggefts to him the proportion of dietetic 
means, by which hp refifts their progrefs. We here per- 
ceive, that that fcrupulous attention to his own cafe, by 
which the author is conftantly occupied, has incurred the 
juft cenfure of Plato, and of all the philofophers, who are 
perfiiaded that man lives not exclufively for his own in- 
tereft. After all, this part, as well as the firft, contains 
many interefting particulars, and curious obferrations. 

5/0, The book concerning dreams^ {jn(t itvmmy, principal- 
ly fuggefts obfervations relative to the conne£iion of dreamsi 
with variations of regimen, and to the precautions which 
they point out for the prefervation of health. Many con- 
fider this book as the fequel of the third book, on diet. 
This opmion is not deftitute of foundation. There is, in 
fad, a very obvious connexion between the topics difcuS- 
ed in this book, and thofe illuftrated in the fecond part of 
the third book on diet, where all the effefts of plethon, 
and of errors in regimen, are conGdered. Thefe errors arc 
the caufes of the greateft part or thofe difquietudes which 
difturb reft and fleep. And it is eafy to perceive that the 
iame hand executed both of thefe works. 

6t0i The treatife on the regimen in acute difeafes^ (tn^< Jwk- 
riK «{uvO> ^s generally divided into four books ; but the regi- 
men which (hould be prefcribed to the fick is handled in ^ 
three firft alone \ the fourth^ which is not confidered as the 



Cbmpofition of Hippocrates, contains only the hiftory of dif- 
ferent difeafesj and their diagnoftic and prognbftic fymptoms, 
as well as the method of cure. Thefefirft three books, univer- 
fally afcribed to Hippocrates^ and confidered as one of his 
Qiofl: important produflions, have no very clofe connexion 
with the fubje£l: oi hygiene. The author, however, adverts to 
feveral of its principles, by comparing the habits of a per- 
fon in a found ftate of health with the exigences of a iiate 
of difeafe ; and by contrafting the eife£i$ of aliments, of 
drinks, of baths, as well as of the different kinds of regi- 
men, upon man, confidered both in a ftate of health and 
of difeafe. The firft book is intitled, efpecially in fome 
editions, concerning //^», that is, the decodlion of barley, 
(zn^i vlKrdim) \ and its principal obje£l in reality is to ex- 
plain the efFefks of this article of food, particularly appro- 
priated to the fupport of patients during the courfe of acute 

7»i©, The book concerning the ufe of liquids^ {vt^t tif^St 
;^|iiV<(^), is alfo limited to the confideration of morbific af- 
fediions^ both internal and external ; but we likewife find 
in it fome refle£tions which are not foreign to the preferv- 
ation of health 5 as aye alfo to be found fcattered in differ- 
ent other treatifes, fuch as that concerning the different re* 
gions inhabited by man, (^n^i rl-^m rtiv kmt iv^^u-jm) \ concern^ 
ing winds f (nt^i ^vo-m*) ; concerning thejlate of medicine in anm 
dent times ^ («•«{« «^;c«f«j$ m^wnCi^ &c. 

In refpeft to Polybius, the fon-in-law of Hippocrates, 
and his fucceffor in the fchool, which he had eftablifhed, 
we have mentioned every thing that came to our know- 
ledge, when treating of the book afcribed to him by Galen, 
that, viz. concerning healthy regimen. 

Z 3 moGLfi^ 



l}iocLES Carysti'us, wbo lias been called the fecond 
Hippocratesj i3 only knovm to us by the ktter which he 
wrote to Antigonus, one of Alexander's facceflbrsj and 
which we find preferved in the editions of Paulus Egineta^ 
at the end of the firft book^ ch. loo, under the title of 
Prophyla^ic eptftle of Diodes^ (AioxA£»$ Ixt^tXn '3f^c^v}uckIixK' 
It is of the fame purport with the third book on diet. Dio- 
clesj in this letter, fpecifies the fighs which precede di& 
eafesy and the pfbphylaftic means to be adopted, when 
the(e fymptoms make their appearance. He divides di£- 
eafes into thofe of the head, of the bread, of the abdomen, 
andpf the bladder. The author then proceeds to treat of 
the prefervative meafures which correfpond to the changes 
induced in out bodies, by the influence of the feafons ; and 
obfervations of this nature conclude the letter. The topics 


difcufled in this morfel of antiquity are necefiarily rery 
vagucs 2nd do not convey to us the idea of any remark- 
able progrefs of the fcience. The author of the artide 
Ancient PhyJicianSy (Di^ionaire Encychpedique de Medicine)^ 
places the age in which Diodes flourilhed, at the diftance 
of 72 years from the era of Hippocrates. 



Cmlsus^ {Aurelius Cornelius Celfus\ according to the {ame 
author, wrote in the 30th year of our era> and mull have 
been born about the nth year before the commencement of 
the chriftian difpenfation. More frequently the elegant and 
judicious tranflator of Hippocrates, than an original, we 
recognize more order and method in his works than iu 
thofe ^ his mafter. His age is beyond queftion much in- 
debted to turn; but he did not greatly accelerate the pro- 


gveis df the art. IThc G^ft book of hU wo^ks contains the 
precepts reU^^^e to Jicalth. He begins by ^n expofition of 
the regim^sn adapted to ftrp^ healthy, and robuft people; 
and then.giv«3'|he rules fuitable to thofeof a weakly con* 
(iitjition, aiid.^o.iny,9lids; andj iinally^ the precej^ts^ the 
obfetvance^i^f ,wbi<^h is rendered nectary by the feafonsi 
or wihich ^x< u(efiil in the different circ^ff^ancespf life* 

In his firA.vchapfii^rt be^ l^ys down two renii^^^jble n^es;. 
His. fitfi general ina»m is» that a ntian of a good ^o];iftit]a- 
tion> and an the full enjoyment of besdth^ ought not to 
conficte btmfelf to ^ny invariable law. A very wife pre- 
cept, from .which.rj8fMlt3 a not^bje propofitipn, iinproperiy 
cenfured by fome aiitbors, wbp hgve npt e^itered in^o its 
geaeralfpirit. Of he proppCtiopi is the -foJiPiWing : jftq^ plut 
ji^j ^moJo fion amplius cffUnur^ s Jmifii^fs to ^f^ceedJtb^Jfri^ 
meafure of necejjtty^ fometimes to cpf^fi^iOHl^^V^.^ ^^^ <?/ 
hounds. : This. is certainly the true imp^J:. of^tfee ej^pyc^on 
.fujio.^' zndoSe^zius has not altc;n4ed to^ jtsprppef jlpgQifiqa^ 
tiolii .when he reploaches Celfus as tb^, advocate. pf.glii|>. 
tony a»d drti^kennefs. It is certain, fh^t t^e ftri£l and 
precifc.hj4r.jrf.neceflity is not calculated for t^9fe,who«9- 
joy a. Vigorous ftftte. pf bealthj hut for thofe ii\9j»e w|io ^rp 
pbliged jto watch over tbemfelyes with a rig9i^us attentic^ 
ztki nheti Sanftonus has made thefoUow^Qg^ r4fl(B^i5)p, 
Ceffi /mknfid ,twfi ompiius tuta eji^ ^he Im ii^ :iiothi;)g 
which the avKbor himft^f had npt a4Y^.9«ed in the fubfe- 
quent chapter. £!elfus, moreover, deduces from. $hej(9^e 
ptopofitian .ati inference relative to .the f^uftoms pf bis own 
time, and to ^e ufe wbifh.ii^as n^ade of the gyinn^(tic 
art. Thi^ inlerence confoms wjhat I haye li^ in the fii^ 
part of. Uus article, concerning the true f(^fe of an .aphpr- 

Z 4 ifm 

*.S9i^,3, ^p|i..45». 


ifm of Hippocrate8.f The text of Celfus is as follows; 
Sed ut bujus generis exercitationes cibique necejfarii funt Jk 
atbletid fupervacui. Nam et iniermtjjus propter aUquas ctvUes 
fieceffitates ordo exercitationis corpus affigit ; et ea corpora que 
mere eorum repleta funt^ celerrime et fenefcunt^ et egrotant. 
But as this kind of exercife and of food is necejfary^ Jo violent 
epeercifes are fuperfluous ; for both the order of exercife being 
interrupted on account of fome neceffary avocations ^ injures the 
hody^ and thofe bodies which afttr the manner of the athletics 
have become lu/lyf very quickly both grow old andjlcklj, 

A fccond very remarkable and very important propoii- 
tion, to whichj in my opinion^ the abufe of antidotes^ in 
certain inftances, is attributable, is the following : Cavefi' 
dumque ne - in fecunda valetudine^ adverta prafidia confuman" 
tur. -^and we muji take care lefty in good healthy our refources 
inftchneftjbould be nimfied. 

' Farther, the precepts of Celfus chiefly relate to regimen, 
and to the choice of aliments and of drinks, lo the ufe of 
baths, the proportions and mutual relations of diet and of 
labour; to dietetic voniitings or fyrmaifm, and to gym- 
naftic ezercifes. The part of his work in which the regi- 
men adapted to people of weak and delicate conditutions is 
confidered,' is replete with judicious obferVations. For thefe 
we are indebted to this author ; or he was -at leaft the firft, 
as far as we knew, who explained them, with a method 
aiid perfpicuity which we do not find in the works of Hip- 
pocrates. We here perceive, either that himf<^lf was die 
fubje£l: of his OMrn obfervations, or at leaft' that he has de- 
rived his precepts immediately from the ftudy of nature. 
In' the number of pedple of weak conftitutions, he includes 
the greateft part of men of letters, and of the inhabitants 


f Sc<5);. i| aph. 3. 


^i cities, ^uo in nutnero magna pars urbanorum^ wnnefque pern 
tupldi liter arum f tint. 

After this dircuiSonj Celfus proceeds to the variations of 
regimen, which different conftitutionsi different periods of 
life, fex, and the feafons, render nec^ffary. . He afterwards 
explains the regimen adapted to perfons labouring under 
different infirmities, and that which is nioft proper to avert 
the effefts of peftilential contagions* In the fecond bookj 
from the beginning of chapter iSth, he explains the pro- 
perties and qualities of aliments and of drinks. We here 
find many of the obfervations of Hippocrates interfper&d 
among thofe which are peculiar to our author ; and, un^ 
fortunately, we alfo meet with claflifications very much at 
variance with found phyfics, of fubftanices eflentially dif-* 
ferent in their nature, arranged under the fame order, and 
with contradi£l:ions which feem inexplicable.. We ihall 
find in this book, cucumber included in the order of fub- 
fiances, which Celfus defignates by the expreSion qu^ ioni 
fucci/unt, which afford good juices $ and the fame vege* 
table, in the fubfequent chapter, claffed witli. thofe ^qu4f 
tnalifuccifuni) which yield bad juices. This divifion itfelf 
prefents us with nothing that is perfpicuous or intelligible ; 
and, in the order of cooling fubftancesy we find coriander 
aflbciated with cucumts, &c. But, notwithftanding thefe 
inconfiilencies, Celfus is one, of the authors in the Hippo* 
cratic era, from whom, thofe who think for themfelves 
derive moil profit, and by the perufal of whofe works they 
will beft inform themfelves concerning the ilate of medi« 
cine among the ancients. 

Dr. Mackenzie, in his work, elucidates in ample detail 
the moft remarkable precepts of this phyfician, as well as 
thofe of moft of the other writers. I ihall not enlarge fo 
much upon them in this place, becaufe fuch a defcriptioq 


woaM extend this article to too great a letq^fli.; and he^ 
caafe it is more natural to referve the full confideration of 
Ae^fubjcfiyiiar the article of Recxj^en^ to which I hope to 
give my moft ferious attention. 

• • • - « 


PtUTAfiCHt who was not a phyfician, has left us an ex- 
cellent treatifci intitled^ ilyiwim wct^mfyixftcmc, — frectptsfot 
tie prefervatim. of health. Tltts treattfe contains no ncv 
ideas; but anewiHuftratibn of ideas^ with which phjfi* 
ckns Jiad been previouily famiHar. And in the hiftory of 
oiitr arty it- it^ proper to diftingm&the epochs at which the 
intermixture of philofe^y has inhanced the value of medi^' 
cine, iind exiiended its empire over the minds of man. The 


fliew "of fcience, a!nd of accurate denftonftrationsj makes 
little impreffion upon^he rulgar. Plutarch^ wttlh a loofer 
chain ef reafoning, but with ftriking coniparifotis, and «i 
enchanting ftyie, adorned the precepts of the art^ and con- 
ciliated to them the afiedions of his readers. His precepts 
were reduced to practice byhimfelf; and a long Mfe^ a 
vigorous health, the ^nrefbrvation cf all hi^ faciidties un- 
impaired till a very advianoed age, confimved the trudi of 
what he had written. Among odier kinds of exercifes, he 
highly eftimated reading with a loud voice ; and we fee 
that this ctifliom was generally regarded by the ancients as 
produdive of the moft falutary confequences. He attadies 
little value to fyrmatfm or dietetic vomitings, fo often prac- 
tifed among the ancients. He confiders them as an inven- 
tion favourable to gluttony^ but contrary to nature, and hurt- 
ful to health. The little importance which Plutarch attaches 
to cold bathings fo univerfally prevalent in his time, is a 
faft no Icfs remarkable. On this fubjefk he exprefle^ Km- 
felf in the following manner : p^vr^f x^fr^^h "^^x^? 'f^^» ^'' 

HirOI£K£,l%lr HALLE* SSS 

iH$cltHh 9^ futfixh ju«Xx^9 S iSymvw tr<. '^^hi habit tf plunging 
9ne'sf iff into the cold bath after fuerttfesy is rather the imcon* 
fiderate aSi of a young htan^ than a falutary cufiom. He 
confidcrS) that, hamiening if the body^ and that infenfibility tp 
theinfiwncss tfeMtemal (Aje^^ (itMr^uiSiat k^s rtt eS^mj^ <nt)^ 
^oT«r« -!« 9<6fMr^); -i^hich, he obferres, to rebilt from the 
ufe of the cold bath^ as noxioua to tlie ixiteriMl fun£lions^ 
and unfriendly to^erfpiration. He fobfomstliefe confider- 
ations: That the petfons who orp acetf/lomed to ihe ufe of£oUt 
lathsy neceffarilyreiapft'imo ibeit pi^emfien and fprupdous r^- 
guhnty ofr£gimen^ whitAfin-hiyepimon^ engit to be M^oided, 
iaving their attention rclways 'occupied in guarding again^ 
iraffgrejing the 'Jiriil rules 'rf this regimm$ infotimehf as tht 
leafl error ^ouM fobn be punned hy feitdl codfeq^nces, . he 
refpeBtt)the warm bath, hfTiiAsy you may much more fre^ 
quently tranf^refs againjl it ^Jhimfltsnity* hi ^itruth, a$^ di* 
tnination oftoite and vf ^vigour ^-which the badyinayfi^akn from 
its tfe, is of far lefs moment than the advantages derivfdfrom 
ity on itcctnmt rf properties fo favourMe and vonducpoe. to the 
procefs of dig^ion,* ... r . . 

This is not the ^lace to itiireftigSite either the crudi or the 
falfehood of this opinidn'^f Fkitavcfh^ Itis oniy poroper 
to otferve, that the'Romatis adopted the- ufe dF^ the cold 
bath, efpedaliy from the reign of« Atiguftus, whofe life^ as 
has been'faid, Antonius Mtfa faved^ bj its application ; that 
they had even carried this pra£Hce to the verge of tnfanity, 
and perhaps to exceib; Seneta^boafls'of hb vigour in this 
rcfpedr Tantus itgo pj^cbrotutes^! t Finally^ that Plutarch 
wrote this'treatife nearly -about die time when AgathimuSf 
a celebrated phyfician who pra£Hfed at Rome, extolled in 


■ ■ . . ■ — - — — 

* Plut. L c. ed. of Hen. Steph, 757}, in Svo, Grxcb p. %%'Jt Lat« aa6. 


the higheft degree the habitual ufe of the cold bath, fot 
men as well as for children* But Agathinus recommended 
the ufe of the cold b^th only after moderate exercifci at 
the moment when one feels his body a^tirCi and before he 
takes food. He direded frequent and fudden immerfions, 
intermixing dry fridlionsi and adding the exercife of fwim- 
ing/ He did not wifli that the temperature of the water 
(hould be reduced to the freezing point ; and he did not 
believe, that with thefe precautionsi any great danger 
might be apprehended, in very, hot weather, from bathing 
even after fupper. It does not appear that he advifed the 
ufe of the cold bath in the firft ftage of infancy ; but he 
condemned the application of the hot bath, at this age, as 
moft prejudicial to health.. This fpecies of the bath he 
regarded as ufeful only to men who had been fatigued, or 
whofe bowels were tardy and conftipated.* Galen quotes 
Jgathtnus in many places } but is filent as to his opmions 
relative to hygiene* 

The truth is, that Plutarch had certainly gone^too far in 
exaggerating the limitations which the ufe of the cold bath 
requires, and that its advantages have always been recog- 
nized by found obfervers, if on every occafion we avoid 
the raihneb which mighjt render its ufe dangerous, and do not 
contrad a habit in this refped, the afcendency of which 
would fooner or latter become troublefome. I do not 
fpeak here of Plutarch's two difcourfes, concerning die 
ufe of animal food, (yn^l eic^u^»YUf)f in which he expoftu- 
lates againft this cuftom, more by philofophical reafonings 
ihan from confiderations of its effe£ts on health. For oar 
author himfeif, as Mackenzie obferves, did not abftain from 


t See OriJ)af. qoU. lib. x, -cap. ;, 



the ufe of this kind of food ; and he appears to have com* 
pofed thefe difcourfes, rather with the view of fubmitting 
to the public fome ingenious opinions entertained by him^ 
than of introducing a reform in the cuftoms of his time. 

To the authors who have written on hygiene^ during the 
period now under confideration, we may add thofe who 
have treated on aliments. Galen mentions Xenocrates, 
who lived under the reign of Tiberius» and had written a 
treatife on fiihes, included in the colleflion of Photius ; 
but which, as Mackenzie remarks, comprehends little that 
is really ufeful. Diofcorides, who flouriihed under Nero, 
has inferted in his work different articles concerning ali-« 
ments; their feafonings and qualities, among the medicines 
which compofe its principal fubje£b. Thefe articles are 
efpecially to be found in the fecond and fifth books, and 
in general they poiTefs but a moderate (hare of merit. 
We muft not clafs Calius Apicius in the number of the 
authors who have written on hygiene^ although he collect- 
ed all the receipts on cookery extant in his time. He lived 
under the reign of Trajan, But Pliny, the naturalift, who 
flourifhed under Vefpafian and Titus, furnifhes all that 
curiofity can defire, concerning the natural hiftory of ali- 
mentary fubftances, concerning the properties attributed 
to them, and concerning the p^adiices of the Romans in 
his age : and the charms of his ftyle, the profound and 
philofophical reflexions with which his work is complete, 
comjpenfate for the errors and credulity which we are 
obliged too frequently to lay to his charge. 

While fpeaking of the j)hilofophers who, in this agc,i 
employed themfclves in difquiGtions connedied with the 
prefervation and phyfical perfeAion of the human race, it 
would be an unjuft omiffion to pafs over the name of 
Aulus Ge/lius. In the twelfth book, ch. i, of the Attic 




HighiSi NoBes Attic^^ of this author, we find a paffage 
wcMTthy of notice* concerning the fackling of infants hf 
their mothers, and the inconveniency of mercenary nurles^ 
who in Rome were generally fele£led from among the 
Saves. It is Faverittuiy, a celebrated philofopher of ffiat 
peitody born at Aries, who is fuppo&d to addrefs himfetf 
to the mother of a Roman lady.. 

^mem tnaterpuella parcmdum ei iffe diceret^.aAibendaf^ 
fue puero mttrices, iic..*^Oro te inquitj muUer,.m.Sine earn 
Mam mtegram ejpt matrem JUu fm....'BUreeque ifim prodf- 
giofae multeres ftmtem ilium fanBiJ/tmum corporis^ geatru 
kimani eifucatorem, arefacere et extinguere, cam periada 
fttoque (tfoerji carruptiqui la&ts^ laborant} tanquam pulm 
gbr^udinii Jibi infignia ekveHtf/let.**.Non idem' faaguu efi 
mmc in uherihmt^ qui in uterofuit f Nonnt hoc qnoqu$ m 
rr folertia natura evident e/l, quad pq/lquam fangm iUe 
9pifex in penetralihus ftdi omne eorptfs bominis^Jlnxitf ai* 
i^entante Jam partus tempore ^ in fupernas fe partes prof ent^ 
ad fovenda vitee ac lucis rudiment'a prerjtd efl^ e^ recens 
natis notum etfamiliarem viBum offert / ^uamohrem mm 
Jruftra creditum ejl^ Je intus valeat^ adjingendat corporis 
atque animi Jimilitudines vis et natures feminis^ nonjicuf 
ad eandem rem laBis quoque ingenia et proprietaies vakre. 
Neque in bominibus id folum^ fed in pecudihus animadvert 
fum; nam ft ovium laSie beecK^ aut caprarum agni aloH^ 
tur^ cohjlat ferme in his lanam^ duriorem, in iHis capiUam 
gigni teneriorem..»»^U£ef mahm^ igiturratitf ejl, nobiRta- 
tem iftam modo nati bominis^ corpufque et animum bene in* 
geniatis primordiis tncboatum^ infitivo degeneriqae alimetita 
la&is alieni c'orrumpere ?..,Si preefertim^ ijta quamadpra^ 
hendum laBe adbibehitis^ aut ferva^ aut fervilis efi^ et, ut 
plfvumquefolet, externa atque harbara natianis ;Ji improla^ 
Ji informisf Ji impudica^ Ji temulenta ejl. 

« When 

<^ When t}ie y6atig ^$Hmiygtl% mother faid that (be muft 
he fpa^e<i, and m^rfes provided for the ichitdv I intreat you, 
womatt/' fold' he, " al4b\r her to be tJic fole and enthrc 
mother of litr 6#tt:fon...Manf unnatural women endeavout 
to diif^y up ^d e^K^ngCiifh that facred fountain of the body 
and nouriihment qf man, with grea4rha2faFd, turning and 
corrupting the channel of their milk, le(l it fhould render 
the diftin£l:ions of their beauty lefs attradiive ... Is not. 
that blood wfkieh id now in die breaft, the fame which 
was in the womb? Is not the wifdom of nature evi- 
dent dfo in this inftance, that as foon as the blood, 
which is the arti&ery hais formed tiie Eotiy wkhin its pehe- 
tr^fia^ it rifes into the upper parts, whe^ the period of pan- 
titritbn' approkches, to dierifii the firfl: principles' of fife 
and light, fupplying known and fomiUar food to the new* 
born infants ? Wherefore it is not without reafon believec^ 
that as the power and.quality of the femen avail to form 
likenefies of the body itiA miitd^ in the fame degree alfe 
the nature and properties of the mi& avail toward afie3ili|r 
the feme purpofe. Nor b this confined to th^ human race, 
btrt is obferved alfo in beads. For, if kids are i»rought up 
by the milk of a (heep, or lambs with that of goats, ir is 
plain by experience, that in the latter is produced a coarfer 
fort of wool, and in the former a'fofter fpecies of hair.«, 
What,. I would afk, can be the reafon, that you fhouU 
corrupt the dignity of a new*bom human being, formed ia 
body and mind upon principles of diftinguiflied excellence, 
by the foreign and degenerate nouriihment of another's 
milk ?...Particularly if ihe, whom you hire for the purpoie 
of the fupplying the milk, be ai flave, or of a fervile condi^ 
tion, or, as it often happens, of a foreign and barbarous 
nation, or if ihe be difhoneft, or defotmedi or unchafte, 
or ^ drunkard.'^ 

I only 

V i 


I only extra& from this eloquent piece» fuch claufes as 
contain ideas, and reafonings moft intimately allied to the 
phyfical knowledge of man. The whole paflage merits a 
perufal in the original* Favorinui, whom jJulusGelUus 
makes the principal character in this dramatic fcene^ liTe4 
in the reign of Adrian. 



Galen, bom at Pergamos, a city of AGa Minor, in tlie 
130th year of the Chriftian era, was the perfon who (after 
Hippocrates) moft ably elucidated the art of medicine, by 
the extent of his knowledge, and by the excellence of his 
writings. Having deeply imbibed the Hippocratic fpirit by 
repeated perufal of the Coan fages^ works, he has analyfed 
his writings, and enriched his dodrine, by happy applica- 
tions : and anatomy, which in his time had already made 
great progrefs, eminently contributed to give a greater de- 
gree of preciiion to his ideas. Thefe advantages, it mnSL 
be confefled, are counterbalanced by fome defedls, by a 
copioufnefs which is often diffiife, and by a degree of 
minute fubtility. He it was, who, independently of the 
little folidity of the famous doftrine of heat and of cold, 
of moifture and of drynefs, which he embraced, fubjoined 
to it the extreme and ufelefs fubtility of the four degrees, 
into which he divided each of thefe imaginary qualities* 
It was by means of thefe divifions, purely hypothetical, 
that he pretended to claffify and to define the difierent 
properties of aliments and of medicines. This dodirine 
was afterwards diffufed, and had great fuccefs, in the Ara- 
'bian fchool. It conftituted a great part of the knowledge 



of phyficians of Europe, during the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries, who were acquainted with Arabian wri- 
ters dlone, andj with Galen, through the medium of the 
Arabian fchool. This dodirinc reigned until the learned 
men of the Greek empire were fpread over Europe, and, 
Mrith their manufcripts, carried thither the tafte of anti- 
quity. From that time, the works of Hippocrates became 
the abfolute ftandard of the fchools, as well in Italy, as in 
France, and in England. 

It is very aftonifhing, that fo fine a genius as Galen^ 
fhould have attached fo much importance to fpeculations, 
fo little fufceptible of accurate demonftration } and that a 
knan, who in other refpe£ks fcattered fo much philofophy 
through his writings, who has compofed the admirable trea« 
tife de ufu partium^ (hould be the very perfon who indulged 
himfelf in fuch frivolities. We meanwhile fee, that full of 
Teneration for Hippocrates, he was averfe from afcribing 
to him the treatife intitled C$ncerning the Jlate of tuediane 
among the ancients^ ijn^} tt^x^^ <irr^<«ii()> the author of 
which oppofes this very dofkrine, already become faihion- 
able in his time, revived afterwards and amplified by 
Galen ; and, for the purpofe of overturning it, makes ufe 
of the moft folid reafonings, dilated by the fimpleft ob* 

With refpe£b to the do£krine of hygiene^ Galen ought tp 
be confidered, either as an original author, or as comment- 
ator on Hippocrates. 

The original works of Galen are, fix books on the Prefetv* 
ation of healthy (JtyHmf) : a book containing a difquifition 
on this queftion, // hygiine (rl vynuv) dependent on medicine, 
or on the gymnafiic art f another book having this title, Con* 
cermng the beft complexion {KarM%tu)i) of the body, the means by 
which it may be known and defended from the caufes which can 

Vol. III. ' A a dejlroy 


dejlrv^ it : another, treating of the conftitutiony of a good cart' 
JUtution^ &c. (£'£<$» iv$/«,) and of the difference between it and 
an athletic conjiitution : three books, concerning the properties 
of aliments ; oqe upon the aliments^ which form good or had 
juices^ (*^C' ^^Xfl^'^t ^ fteuco^vfutcg r^e^«ly); another on atte* 
nuating diet, {9%^} Mwlvv^mg iiximif) ; another on the exerci/e 
defignated that of' the fmall ball^ {fMx^nf ^tU^«^\ a fpecies of 
game analogous to that of the hand ball. To the books of 
Galen on hygiene^ is ordinarily joined the treatife intitled, 
on the method of recognizing^ and of/nsringf the pqffions of the 
fouly that is, the excefles which refult from their indulg- 
ence. To this piece, Chartier adds another, which has 
nearly a Gmilar title, and contains analogous precepts, un« 
lefs, that in the former of thefe titles, he makes ufe of the 
expreffion, rmv %» rjf 4v;tji w«^An», — (fthe pafftons of the foul ; 
and, in the latter, of the term rm \» r*). ^x^ «!jt«i^«f£ftTiiv, 
^'^fthe errors of the foul. But, in both books, the text of 
Galen, exhibits on each occafion the laft term Hfut^^unti, 
faults or errors. 

It is afliiredly a very wife and a very juft idea, to clafs 
the precepts of philofophy with the means 'mod condacire 
to the prefervation of health. Laftly, a fubjefl of great 
importance, and worthy of deicp conGderation, is that of 
which Galen treats in his book on habits, {vt^i rm Um^,) 
Different fragments, and certain other treatifes, afcribed to 
Galen, might be fubjoined 5 but they add nothing to what is 
contained in the above : and the fpirit as ^ell as do&inc 
of Galen will be fuflkiently comprehended by the pcrufal 
of thofe which have juft now been quoted. If we fubjoin 
to thefe his three commentaries on the treatife of Hippo- 
crates, concerning air, water, and ftuatton ; a commentary 
on the book attributed to Polybius, concerning the falubrity 
of the regimen of individuals ; and four commentaries on Ac 



book intltled de alimenio ; we (hall have all that Galen has 
left us of any importance on hygiene. The abridgment of 
LacuHa^ intitled epitome Galeni operum^ and publiflied at 
Lyons in 1643, gives a pretty complete account of the works 
of Galen ; the prolixity of which required this afliftance. 
It alfo enables us to turn over the original text without lofs 
of time, whenever we have occafion to confult it. 

Mackenzie gives a very good idea of all that Galen has 
added to the knowledge communicated by his predeceiTors 
on the doftrine of hygiene, 

** In order to adapt his rules concerning hygiene to perfons 
under all circumftances, Galen divides mankind into three 
claifes. In the firft, he reckons thofe who are naturally 
found and ftrong, and at liberty, from their affluence, ta 
beftow what time and care they pleafe on their health. 
In the fecond, he places fuch as are of a delicate and infirm 
conflitution. And his third clafs, contains thofe whofe 
neceflary occupations, in public or private life, will not 
permit them to eat^ fleep, or ufe exercife, at regular 
hours. ^' 

** As to the firft clafs, he obferves, that to preferve health 
and life, as long as is confiilent with the life of man, it is 
neceffary that the ftamina of the organs (hould be naturally 
good. For fome," he fays, " are fo crazy, that Efculapius 
himfelf could fcafce prolong their lives beyond three/core* This 
clafs he divides into four periods ; viz. infancy, youth, 
manhood, and old age. Two of thefe periods, namely, 
infancy and old age, had been touched upon but flightly 
before his time* But as to youth and manhood, whether 
of robuft or tender conflitutions, the general rules cftablifh- 
cd by Hippocrates and Others, for preferving health, arc, 
for the mod part, the fame which Galen alfo recommends, 
and therefore need not be repeated here/* 

A a 2 To 

V 4 


<' To be briefj there are four articles with regard to the 
prefcrvation of health, which Galea has confidered more 
attentively than any that went before him, viz. i, infancy; 
2, old age; 3, the difierence of temperaments ; and 4, the 
care neceflary to be taken by thofe whofe time is not in 
their own power, &c." 

Dr. Mackenzie afterwards enters into a fuccindl detail 
concerning the moft important rules, which Galen gives 
for pteferving ^e lives and health of men, in thefe four 
periods of life. I fliall not follow him in the difquifition, 
which belongs rather to the article of regimen, than to an 
hiftorical article. I (hall content myfelf with enlarging 
upon three objefts, which are more immediately conne6\- 
ed with the hiftory of the art : thefe are, 

1, The oAgivi of the term non^naturals^ to fignify the 
objefis which appertain to hygiine. 

2, The hiftory of cold baths^ efpecially in their appKca- 
tion to infants. 

3, The eftabliihmem of the do£trine of the four tem- 
peraments, and of their four degrees, which, notwitbftand- 
ing its abfurdity, for fo long a period, kept pofieifion of the 

I, ^^ The epithet of n^iMMhtrals^ applied to the thbogs 
moft efiential to the fupport of human life> appears extreme- 
ly (hockmg and contradi^ory,** as Mackenzie has ob£:T?ed: 
xior does it feem lefs extraordinary/' lay9 he, *^ that the ofe 
of an expreifion, fo iU-fancied> which arofe merely £rom the 
jargon of the peripatetic fcbools, &ould fov fo long a pe- 
riod have continued current among phyficians. The origin 
of it appears to be derived from a paiTage^ wfaeve • Galea 
divides things relatii^ to the kumaot body into three dafies. 
The firft, confifting of tho(e things which are naiural to it; 
the fecondi of things which are mthmiurai, that is> beyond 

•« die 


<' the pale of its nature ; the third, of things which are 
extra-natural^ that is, of things different from the ordinary 
courfe of nature. The following are the words of Galen, 
copied from the Latin verfion of the book de Qculis^ afcrib- 
ed to him : * Qui fanitatetn vult reJHtuere decenter^ debet 
invefligare feptem XES NATUXJLESf qua/unt, elementa, com' 
flexsonesy hutfiores^ membra^ virtutes^Jpiritus, et operationes. — 
Et R£S NON'NATURALESf qua funt fex^ aer^ ciius, potuSy 
inanitio et repletio, motus et quies^ fomnus et vigilia, et acck 
dentia animi, Et RMS EXTRA- N4TU RAM ^ qua funt tres^ 
morbus, caufa morbi^ et accidentia morbum comitantia. From 
this fantaftical diftin£lion, the epithet of non-naturals firft 
arofe, and has been retained in common ufe to this day $ 
though it cannot be underftood without a commentary. 
Hoffman, for example, when he applies this epithet to air 
and aliment, accompanies it with the following explan- 
ation ; * A veteribus ha J^ES NON-NATURALES appellantur, . 
quoniam extra corpsris ejentiam conftituta funt.^ t This ex« 
planation. of Hoffman applies extremely well to air and to 
aliment ; but how can it be transfened to evacuations, to 
' fleep and to watchfulnefs, to motion find to reft, and to the 
affe^aions of the fdul ?" 

II, We hare feen that the ufe of the cold bath had 
been introduced by Antonius Mufa ; extolled by Agathinus, 
and condemned hyP/utarch, by very inconclufive arguments. 

Galen was far from adopting the opinion of AgathinuSi 
refpe£ting the ufe of the cold bath. In whatever eftima- 

A a 3 tion 

■!■■■»' ■ ■■■ I ■-■■.■■■ I. I I.., ■ I 

♦ It is found in Chattier's edition, torn, x, $ 3, c. a, p. 510. The 
Qreek text has not reached our timet. Mackenzie's quotation, in which 
he does not mention the edition, (pecifies Clafs vm, lib. de O^ulis, parte 
tenia, cap. a. 

t DilT. 3. Dccad. See Mackenzie's Hift. &c. Introdudtionj p, 4, note; 



tion it may be heldj on account of its ftrengthening eSeQf 
he did not wifh that it £hould be applied before the grovti^ 
of the body was completed. The age at which he fixed 
the comniencement of its ufe, was the middle of the fourth 
feptennary, that is, about the twenty-fourth year. He 
farther direded, that the young man who had recourfe to 
cold bathing, fliould have a good conftitution, and enjoy 
an uninterrupted ftate of good health; that his temper 
(hould be chearful and open, that is, that he Qiould have 
no predifpofition to melancholy, or hypochondriafis. He 
advifed, that the beginning of fummer fhould be chofen 
for acquiring this habit, that there might be fufiicient time 
for being inured to it before the return of winter : that 
the day fele£led for commencing this praflice {hould be 
calm, and as warm as poilible for the feafon ; that the 
hotteft time of the day (hould alfo be chofen for immer- 
fion into the cold water ; and that the gymna/terium, or the 
place where the people ftripped themfelves, fliould be of a 
proper degree of temperature. According to- Galen, alio, 
cold bathing fliould be preceded by frictions, quicker and 
harder than ufual ^ and after the cuftomary unQions, the 
young man ought to engage in the moil violent exercifes. 
After thefe preliminary practices, *^ let him plunge in," fays 
Galen, ^^ quickly ; becaufe nothing can bring on a greater 
degree of fliivering, than entering gradually into cold water, 
infomuch, that every part of the body is affefled in fucceflion. 
Let not the water into which he immerges be either lukewarm 
or frozen.'* " If tepid water,^* obfcrves this great phyiician, 
• has not the advantage of exciting the flux and reflux ofbeaJLf 
(» wcieiTBH Bf^fctic'Mi IzrXecvuKXnc-i fy) water nuhofe temperature is 
dimini/hed to the point of freezings takes too fafl a hold of 
thofe who are not accu/lomed to it^ and the cold aJfeBs the 
vital parts ^^ The young man, he adds, will be able -by de- 

jf pecs 



grees to accuftom himfelf to endure water of the freezing 
temperature ; but, in his firft attempts, he muft not expofe 
hinacfelf to w^ier which is too cold, Sec* 

Before entering on thefe details, Galen obferves, * a nvell 
formed healthy body^ ought not to be tva/hed in cold water 
during the progrefs of its growth ^ UJl this progrefs Jhould be 
retardfid,^\ But it is chiefly in refpe£b to the moft tender 
age, that he ftrenuoufly oppofes the ufe of the cold bath. 
•* Let us leave," fays he, ** this cuftom to the Germans, the 
Scythians, and other barbarous nation?, as alfo to the wild 
boars and bears, never advifing any perfon to run the ha« 
zard of infli£t:ing a fudden death on a new-born infant, in 
the hope of (Irengthening and rendering him hardy, if he 
dies not in courfe of this dangerous experiment."! There 
is certainly fome truth in this ftatement ; but it is a falfe 
afiertion, that the ufe of the cold bath is naturally a caufe 
capable of retarding the growth of the body ; and between 
the praflice of plunging a new-born infant in water of the 
temperature of ice, and the entire profcription of cold 
bathing till the age of twenty^four years, there are certain- 
ly a great number of intermediate gradations. We confider 
Dr. Mackenzie's refleftions on this fubjcft deferving of 
being quoted in this place; inafmuch as they were fuggeft- 
ed to him by this paflage of Galen, in a very pertinent nptc, 
and are very worthy of being known. 

He obferves, in the context, that the pra£lice recom- 
mended by Galen of rubbing the body of the new-born 
infant with fait, has for a long time gone into defuetude, 
and has been advantageoully fuperfeded by that of cold 

A a 4 bathing, 

« De Saniut. tuend. lib. ili, c. 4, ed. de Ghartier. 
|> lb. % lb. libr i, c. 10. 


bathing, employed nvith proper precautions. He then ftatcs 
in a note, *' that the cold bath, by ftrengthening the folid$, 
and promoting a free perfpiratton, gives livelinefsj warmthi 
and vigour^ to infants ; highly conducive to prevent ricketSi 
broken bellies, fcrophulous difbrders, and coughs, to which 
children are extremely obnoxious in fome countries. And 
nature herfelf feems to have pointed out this remedy to 
men, both in the ancient and new world. Virgil informs 
us, that it was a cuftom in Italy, long before, the building 
of Rome, to plunge their new-bom infants in the coldefl 

Durum ajlirpe genus y natos adflumina primum, 
Deferimusy ftvoqUe gelu duramus et undis** 

*' And William Pen, in his letter to Dr. Bainard^f has 
the following words i ^ I am ajfured that the American In* 
dians wa/h their young infants in coldjlnatfu^ asfoon at born^ 
in allfeafons of the year! 

'< With regard to infants of a ftrong conftitution, there 
can be no obje£tion to the ufe of cold bathing, efpecially if 
(to avoid a fudden tranfition from the warmth in which a 
foetus was formed to an oppofite extreme) parents would 
defer it to the next fummer after the child is bom. But 
to guard againfl: any poffibility of danger to the infant from 
this daily and quick immerfion of the whole body, let tbe 
nurfe obferve whether he becomes warm and lively imme- 
diately upon his being taken out of the water, or foon after 
he is rubbed dry and drefled \ if fo, the cold water will 
undoubtedly prove of fervice to him : but if, oa the con- 

• Msa, lib. ix, 603. 

f Hiftory ef cold Baths, part ii, p. dpi. 


traryi the child becomes chilly and pale, and efpecially if 
any of bis limbs (hould be contra£ted or benumbed with 
the cold, and continue fo for fome time after he is rubbed 
dry and drefled, the ufe of the. bath muft be intermitted 
for a few days, and tried again when the child is brifker j 
or, in cafe the fame fymptoms (hould return, it muft be 
quite laid afide." 

If it (hould be replied to thefe teftimonies, that the prac- 
tice of the cold bath is not neceffary to render infants ftrong 
and vigorous, I (hall very readily acquiefce in the truth of 
the aflertion: but the oppofer of this cuftom muft alfo 
grant, that it is not (b prejudicial as has been believed ; 
that it muft nece(rarily contribute to fortify young children 
againft the inclemencies of the feafons; and, above all 
againft the varieties of temperature, fo often hurtful to 
thofe who are clothed with fo much care, and are feclud- 
ed with fo much folicitudie from all atmofpherical impref- 

in, I proceed to the doftrinc of heat and of cold, of 
drynefs and of moifture, and of the four degrees into which 
Galen has divided thofe qualities of bodies. He does not 
apply thefe diftinftions to aliments, but to medicines. The 
fubftance of his obfervations on this fubjeft is as follows. 
I fay the. fubftance, becaufe the diffufe ftylc of this writer 
does not permit me to infert in this place an entire trans- 
lation of the paffage. " Whatever may be the quality of a 
medicine^ 'whether heaty csld, dryneff^ or moifture^ we muft re^ 
fer it to a middle Jtate^ which cotiftitutes what may be called 
the perfeB temperament^ (ri ftx^«r«y, ri i«fiw). Having ajfum^ 
ed this for thefubjeB of our eomparifon^ a body^ whatever may 
be its nature f whofe condition may be conftdered as tempered^ in 
proportion as medicinal fubfances are removed from the tempera^ 
thent of this hody^ they become^ in refpeB to it, more or lefs hot^ 



coldi Jf'yt or moifi\ fome to ihefirjl degree^ others to thefecondf 
thirds fourth. Thus is it, he adds, that the oil ef rofes, [ri 
fiitff\ being in the firft degree of cold^ the fourth degree, mil 
be filled with hemlock, the Juice of poppy , tnandrake, and ben- 
bane : and dill, at wellasfenu'-greeif being in thefirjl degree 
of heat i the fourth will be poffeffed by canflic fuhflances. We 
may reckon in the fame manner with regard to drynefs and 
woi/lurf. Jt is of confequence, he fays, net to confound tbefe 
degrees • I prepofe to my f elf to execute this claj^ftcatumf not- 
by the aid of probabilities and conjeSiures, but by precife and 
accurate experiments : a work abounding with difficulties, but 
calculated to confirm and infure the progrefs of medicine. This 
will be the eye by whofe affi/lance truth will be recognized and 

Such are the eulogies which Galen pafTes upon this {]{- 
tern of cla0ification, of which he was not the inventor, bat 
which he boafts of haying carried to a great degree of per- 
feflion. The middle term is man in general, and each 
individu?il in particular ; and in each individual, the organ 
of touch, or the fl^in efpecially. This arrangement he ac- 
companies with the following obfervation : that as the con- 
ftitution of each individual is different, what may be claff- 
^d in the number of hot fubftances for one, will be fome- 
times fqund in the number of cold fubftances for another, 

Whatever truth may be in this theory when ftripped of 
its hypothetical garb, I fhall reft fatisfied with having ad- 
verted to it in this place, as more worthy of occupying a 
diftinguiihed place in the hiftory of errors than in that of 
the progrefs of the art. ^^d I (hall remind my readers, 


T! — — ^« 

• t Lib. iU, de Medicam. (unp.facttlt. ed. Ghartieri cap, 13. 


that the fame man, fpeaking of the qualities of aliments^ 
a wor]c replete, with excellent obffsrvations, obfervest 
that he {hall have recourfe to experience alone in order to 
determine them; and not to any procefs of reafoning 
founded upon the fuppofitious propierties of thefe fub- 
(lances. He has alfo given us fgme very ufeful remarks, in 
the three books written by him on this fubjecl. I have 
bad occalion to give a fuccin£); account of this performance 
under the article Aliment. 

I (hall clofe this article, as Mackenzie has done, by quot- 
ing a remarkable paflage of Galen, extracted from his Trea- 
tife on the prpfervatipn pf health, ^^ I befeech all perfons, 
fays he, '^ who ihall read this treatife, not to degrade them* 
felves to a level with the brutes, or the rabble, by gratify-* 
ing their floth,.or by eating and drinking promifcuoufly 
whatever pleafes their palates ; or by indulging their appe- 
tites of every kind. But whether tbey underftand phyGc 
or not, let them confult their reafon, and obferve what 
agrees, and what difagrees, ' with them; that, like wife 
men, they may adhere to the i|fe of fuch things as are con- 
ducive to their health, ajid forbear every thing which, by 
their own experience, they find to do them hurt ; and let 
them be afiured, that, by a diligent obfervation and practice 
of this rule, they may enjoy a good fliate of health, an4 
feldom (land in need of phyfic or phyficians." 


BpTw^EN Galen and Oribafius, who, after Galen, was 
the firft of the Greek phyficians whofe wri^ngs have come 
down to us, an interval of two centuries elapfed. In this 
fpace of time we ought not to forget the celebrated Por- 
phyry; the pupil of Plotinus and Longinus, men of'flill 



greater celebrity. He was one of thofe extraordinary inen| 
who, lefs occupied with the harmonious proportions of na- 
ture, than with fpeculations fuggefted by their own genius, 
and fearching for virtue beyond the boundaries of human 
nature, and not as an inmate of the human breaft itfelf, 
regard it as an inflexible rule, to the obfervance of which 
man mud be bound down ; and to which maft be facrific- 
ed, not only his prejudices and h^s habits, but even his fa- 
culties and his organs. 

Porphyry was a native of Tyre $ he lived about the mid- 
dle of the third century, and wifhed to reftore the abfte- 
mious fyftem of the Pythagoreans. Plotinus, his mafter, 
a Pythagorean philofopher, had acquired great refpe£l on 
account of his virtues. He was the oracle of Iiis umei 
and the firft families in Rome intruited to him the inftruc- 
tion and education of their children. It appears that Por- 
phyry, who fucceeded to his fchool, wifhed to avail him« 
felf of the advantages of his fituation, for the purpofe of 
reviving a fe£(, whofe fevere virtues and peculiar pradiifes 
were congenial to his own difpofition, and afforded him an 
opportunity of adling a confpicuous part after Plotinus had 
difapp^ared from the fcene. He wrote a book on abftinence 
from animal food, of which Bourigny has given us a trans- 
lation. This book is addreifed to Firmus Caftrkius^ an 
apoftate from his fchool, to whom he recounts the advan- 
tages accruing from the regimen which he had abandoned, 
and how much it contributed, not only to bodily health, 
but to the perfcftion of the foul. He eftablifhes his fyf- 
tem upon thefe two fundamental propofitions ; ifi, " That 
a conqueft over the appetites and paflions will greatly con- 
tribute to prcferve health, and to remove diftempers :" 2^^ 
*' That a fimple vegetable food, being eafUy procured and 



eafily digefted, is a mighty help towards obtaining this con- 
iqueft over ourfelves.$ 

In fupport of his firft propolltionj he adduces the ex- 
ample of fome of his friends^ who, for a long period, were 
tormented with the gout both in their feet and hands ; in- 
fomuch, that they were under the neceflity of being car« 
ried about from place to place, for eight years fucceffivelyy 
without ever obtaining any relief, yet were perfeftly cared^ 
by divefting themfelves of the care of amailing riches, and 
by turning their thoughts to philofophy j and at once 
got rid of their mental torments, and of their bodily fufer* 
ingsl He then afks, whether animal diet, rich and furnp*. 
tuous> does not require more expence, and, at the fame 
time, more incite to irregular paffions and appetitesi than 
a diet compofed of flmple vegetables ? From thefe pre« 
mifes, he deduces conclulions of a very comprehenfive 
nature i and which, in Dr. Mackenzie's opinion, <' favour 
more of the rant of an enthufiaft, or of the mortification of 
a 'hermit,, than of the found mind of a well inftru£);ed 
natural philofopheri" 

I {hall fay nothing farther 'of a perfon, who, perhaps^ 
had (tronger pretenfions to the chara£ter of a whimfica) 
man, than of a rational being ; and whofe writings have 
added nothing to our ftock of knowledge^ 



Ojhijsasivs, and the Greek phyCcIans, denominated the 
ancient Greets f and the laft of whom was Paulus Mgineta^ 
have borrowed all their obfervations on hygiene from Galen, 



X See Mackenzie} b. lit 


and other writers who appeared earlier than thcmfclvej, 
and of many of whom we are entirely ignorant. Alexandet 
efTralles^ the moft original among them, has left us no- 
thing on the prefervation of health. According to Freind, 
Oribajtus lived in the middle of the fourth century, towards the 
year 360 ; and Paulus Mgineta in the middle of the feventh 
century, about the year 640. Mackenzie obfenres, that 
Oribafius was the firfl of the ancient phyGcians who ez- 
prefsly recommended exercife on horfeback, for the fake of 
health* ^^ This exercife, above all others, ftrengthens the 
body and ftomach, clears the organs of the fenfes, and whets 
their a£livity.'' He adds, what in the prefent times will 
fcarcely be believed, but what is neverthelefs true in cer- 
tain ctrcumftances, ^< that this exercife is very hurtful to the 
bread.'* * Mackenzie goes too far in afcribing thcfe pre- 
cepts to Oribafius. That phyfician only colle£led what 
many authors before him had written ; and this paflage in 
partic\ilar, as Oribafius himfelf acknowledges, is eztrad- 
ed from the thirtieth book of Antillus. Oribafius had un- 
dertaken thefe colle£tions (tnedidna colieBanea) by the order 
of the emperor Julian^ who had formed the defign of bar- 
ing all that wae really ufeful extracted from the writings 
of the phyficians, already become too voluminous, and col- 
le£led together into a complete body of medicine. 

Mackenzie notwithftanding, in attributing to OribaGus 
the firft direflions relative to the utility of exercife on 
horfeback, obferves, that Galen diftinguiihes two kinds of 
cxercifes.f ABive epcercife^ in which the body moves itfclf 
fpontaneoufly ; pa/Jive exercife^ in which the body is moved 

* Colled. Med. lib. vi, c. 24. 
\ De Sanitac. tuend. lib. ii, c. 11. 


by a foreign impulfe : and that he remarks, that exercife 
on horfeback is a mixed kind of exercife, participating of 
each. Mackenzie moreover obferves, that the ancients 
being unacquainted with the ufe of ftirrups, this exercife 
was ftill more fatiguing to them than to us. He adds, that 
many ages before OribafiuSf the Greeks reckoned riding 
on horfeback healthful ; and quotes, on this fubje£t, a very 
remarkable pafiage from a work of Xenophon, intitled, •<- 
KCf»fMxii^ ^on dome/tic econofny*X This paflage is to be found 
in the dialogue between Ifchomachus and Socrates, Ifcho^ 
machus having related to Socrates the exercife which he per- 
formed on horfebackj to infpe£l; the labour carried on in 
the country : Socrates highly approves of this mode of ex- 
ercife; " which/' fays he, " gives you at the fame time 
both health and (trength of body/' — w yytettw n»i rnf 

jSetius^ born in the city of Amida, in Mefopotamia, is 
placed by Freind at the beginning of the fixth century. He 
has added little to what Galen advanced relative to hygiene. 
He treats of this fubje£t particularly in the fourth book of 
the firfl: Tetrabible. He is fomewhat more particular than 
Galen in his remarks, on the health of infants, the choice 


of nurfes, &c. In the third book, he defcants at large on 
the ufe of exercifes, fri£tions, and baths, and yet advances 
nothing new upon the fubjefl:. But in the preface to his 
firft book, he fpeaks of the changes which the fenfible 


I Mackensie's quotation correfpouds to an edition whick he has not 
fpecified. He only fays (Xenophon in his economics, lib. ii, {3). The 
book intitled Eeenomics, is not divided into two in the/o//o edition of Paris, 
1725. This book makes the fifth of thofe called atrtfAvnfAtMvfAdrM, orMf 
morahilia ; and the paflase in queftioq is to be found there, pp. 850, £, and 
%Si% A and B. 

9S4f HYGIJBk£» fiV HALLB* 

qtlalities of fpirits, in their progreb to maturity! ezperiencei 
and of the different properties in which thefe changes re- 
fult. Thofe who will perufe this diflertation, ought not to 
fuSer themfelves to be difgufted by a phrafeology^ wluch 
the accuracy of modern phyfics and chemiftry may conCdcr 
as reprehenfibk. Amid the exceptionable theories of tbele 
times, they will be able to recognize obfervationsi which 
evince that the author was habitttted to the ftudy of nature. 
i^rry highly eftimates this piece of Actms ; and we may 
here, with propriety, en pajfant^ caution thofe who wi(h to 
derive any advantage from reading the ancients, to attend 
lefs to their manner of explaining the phenomena of nature, 
and to their modes of exprefflon, than to the folidity of 
their ideasi and to the firm bafis upon which thefe explan- 
ations are built. By adopting tins plan, we may find in 
the writings of the ancients, fome valuable remarks, fome 
important fa^s, and even the elements of ibme modern 
difcoveries ; of which, it may excite our aftonifliment that 
they fhould ever have z gltmpfe, furniflied as they were 
with ftieh fcanty means of affiftance. 

Oribq/ius and Aetius have adopted and extended the 
Galenical do£kriae concerning the degrees of heat and oE 
cold, but they ftill limited its application to medicine. 

Pm$d of M^neta is poflefled of as few claims to ori^- 
ality> as an author, as thofe who have jnft now been men- 
tioned. His firft book contains the whole of his difqui&* 
tions on fubje£):s relative to the prefervatioti of health) 
and all the informatioa which we receive from him is to 
be found in the works of his predeceflbrs. With this au« 
thor, we clofe all the obfenrations which we have to offer 
concerning the fecond period of the firft epoch. We per- 
ceive, that, after Galen, all th^e writers who belong to this 
period, with the exception oiAhpcander TraUius^ who wrote 


X 9 


nothing on the doftrine of hygiene^ have left us almoft no- 
thing which they had not derived from foreign fources. 
We are neverthelefs indebted to them for the prefervation 
of a variety of details, relative to the cuftoms of their times, 
and efpecially to the gymnaftic art, to the ufe of baths, of 
exercifesy and of fridlions ; and we moreover derive from 
them very full and accurate information refpe£ling the 
data of medicine^ in the ages which preceded their own. 


The third period, of which I am going to exhibit a very 
rapid (ketch, offers to us, if I am permitted fo to expreft 
myfelf, three dynafties almoit contempQrary ; but among 
which, that of the Arabians acquired a decifive afcendency, 
and imprefled its charafter upon the two others by an ob- 
vious preponderancy. 

Thefe three dynafties, or rather thefe three fchools, are 
the Arabian fchooly the fchool of the modern Greeks ^ and 
that of Italy f or ihc/ciool of Salernum. The Arabian fphool 
has the priority in point of time. 

Freind points out to us two principal epochs, at which 
the Grecian medicine had been able to penetrate into the 
eaftern parts of Afia. The firft was the alliance of Sapor, 
king of Perfia, wich the emperor Aurelian, whofe daughter 
he married. The emperor commiffioned a number of phy- 
ficians to accompany his daughter, aod thefe probably efta- 
blifhed themfelves at Nibur, or Nifabury the capital of 
Chorazas, built by Sapor in 272, in honour of his quecQ. 
Schools, and generations of phyficians, were confequently 
formed in that city; as we have feen that the race of the 

Vol. III. B b Afclepiade« 


Afclepiades hereditarilf pradifed medicine in Greece. 
Hence it is, obfenres Freind, that the moft celebrated Ara- 
bian phyficians were educated in the oriental regtofrs^ and 
there acqmred their knowledge of literature and of medi- 

It is neverthelefs certain^from what the fame author^inhis 
eflay on the hiftory of medicine, under the article oiUranm^ 
has obferved, that the Arabians had not made any very dif- 
tinguiflied progrefs in this art, previous to the fecond epochi 
that is, before Altxandna pms taken in 64a. It is believed 
that, on that memorable event, the Saracens, who attached 
great importance to medicine, in which Mahomet himfeif 
pretended to be very learned, muft have faved, from the 
general wreck of the Alexandrian library, thofe books alone 
to which they alcribed fome merit in this rdpe£b. But, 
although this fuppofition ihottld be gro«ndlefs, it is affui;- 
edly very natural to conclude, that from an intercoide 
with thofe learned men, who at that period refided in 
Alexandria, and to whom, as is well known. Antrum the 
general of the caliph Omar's forces, was very favourably 
inclined, the Arabs might have imbibed a fpecies of know- 
ledge, analogous in other refpefis to their tafte ; and thus 
have diffufed over the eaft the principles of the Greek 

Freind obferves, that the firfl: tranflation of the works of 
the Greek phyficians in the eaft, had been made into the 
Syriac language, by Aaron in 622; at which period 
Paulus j£gineta alfo lived. And confequently the origin 
of the 'well-known Arabian fchool can be traced back to 
the age of the laft furvivor of the ancient Greek phjG- 

The Arabian writers whofe works have come down to 
us, ought to be divided into two fchools, that of the eaft, 



and that of the weft. The eafit$n fcbool is confidenUf 
older than the other, tmrapkn and Rhaz^Sj however, 
who were the mod ancient of thofe whofe writings have 
reached our time, lived, the former, about the end of the 
ninth, and the latter at the beginning of the tenth century. 
And the laft writer of this fchool, whofe name de£iprves to 
be mentioned, is Avicenna, who lived in the end of the 
tenth and the beginning of the eleventh century. But, prior 
to thefe, there were many other celebrated writers, whofe 
works have perifhed in the wreck of ages ; but whofe mc«* 
mory has been handed down to pofterity by HaUy Aikas. 
Among thefe were Aar^n^ M&ferjavye^ the family of the 
Bachtifua^ Hanatn, Ifaae the fon of Hwdin^ and the elder 
MefuL To thefe fucceeded iirapum and Rba%ts ; and 
this latter phyfician was followed by H^iy Aibas^ whofe 
work is attributed by fome critics to I/aac, furnamed die 
Ifraelitey an author prior to Rhazes, but none of whofe 
writings now remain. This work, intitled JPiutttchni^ or 
the whole eflence of the art, is an abftraA of all the pre« 
ceding writers, ahnoft all of whom have been copied them- 
felves, or have copied the Ghreeks, and who yet have left 
us excellent obfervations, and very accurate defcriptions of 
difeafes unknown to, or imperfefbly d>ferved by, the an* 
cients. Avicenna fucceeded Haly, fince he was bom in the 
fame period at which the latter publiflied his work, that is 
in 980. 

We may trace back the origin of the weftcrn Ichool to 
the era at which Abdarhaman defcended from the family 
of the OmmiaJes, whom the Abaffidis had deprived of the 
caliphate, fled to the weft, and was received in Spain, 
where the Saracens, who had already been eftaUiihed in 
that kingdom fince the year 7 1 1 of our era, acknowledged 
him as their legitimate caliph. This event took place about 

Bb2 the 


the year 756, or the 139 of the hegira. At that period, 
jiimanzor reigned in the eaft, and patronifed the arts and 
fciences. The caliphs of the w^ft dAfcovered themfelyes 
emulous of the fame glory ^ until the Moorifh kings of 
Morocco feized upon their throne towards the year 1030, 
or the 420 or 42 1 of the begira^ and difpkyed the fame 
attachment to the arts. Neverthelefs, the firft known 
writer upon medicine, whom the wcftern fchool produced, 
was Avenzoar^ a contemporary of AvUenna. We ieam 
from his authority, that celebrate fchools were eftabliihed 
in Spain, and efpecially at Toledo, previous to his owa 
time; but it alfo spears that, till the age oi Averrboes^ 
a native of Cordova, and who died in Morocco in 1 198, 
or 595th year of the hegira, the writers of the eaftem fchool 
were little known in that of the weft, either from the ef- 
f e£l of wars, or pn account of the hatred which the houfe 
of the Omaiades harboured againft that of the Abajjidti, 
Avenzoar might have been- a contemporary of Avicenna; 
and, at the fame ttme» his life flight have been nearly pro- 
longed to the time of Averrbqes, if it be true, as hiftorians 
afiure us, that he lived to the age of 135 years. They add, 
that he clofed this very long life, without experiencing any 
infirmity throughout its whole courfe. After AverrboeSi 
Freind places Alhucafist whom he conCders as the £une 
per fon with Alzaharavmsy and who is the lafl: writer of the 
weftern fchool deferving of any confideration. The period 
in which he lived is confequently fixed near the thirteenth 

There is another clafs of phyficians, who may be con- 
fiilered as appertaining to the Arabian fchools. This clafs 
is compofed of the Jews, They praAifed medicine, both 
in the eaft and weft. Freind remarks, that they had an 
academy in Afia, from the ^04th year of our era^ and 




that they had a (hare in the nfiedical eftabfifhments of the ' 
Moors in Spain in 714; that) efpeciatty ab6ut the end of 
the tenth century, tliey were throughout Europe generally 
the teftanftrufted in' the fdiencci Guhivated by the Ara- 
bians, atid that they'were ordinarily itivitfed'ds phyficians 
to the coKifts of the caliphs, the kings, artd cteh of the 
popes. At the commcnceiAent * of' the nift'th century, the 
Je^ Farragut^ 'AViA^ Bnbahtlyd t<«erc- pfiij'ficiaris to Charles' 
magne's sfnd deeded the tiiWes cM&^'Taceuni /anitatis, or 
tables ''of hcakli. Tlicfe tabids wtfre tfce faffte'l^Ith thofe 
publiihed under the name- <^' !BiMiffem<MtfMkar, or, at 
lead, iftFremd's ophfibn^'** fSfihef had thte^'ircateft re- 
femblance td HWe tafter. ^ -' '^f '' - - -.^i. 

Thcfe fcHodfe have contriliiit^d very litWe-t'a the dbarihe 
of hygiene. RhazeV'-tinA'' A^eeitnit ^xtraglcd frdm Gilen 
all that they ha?6 Hi^itteii -ori this fubjefkl' Among the 
books dedicated by-lthaies -to^'-Ahnanzor; pl^ince of Cho* 
rn'^ln, there is one mt\i\tA-€in'Ae Prffhrvaticn of Health i' 
a\id Ai)ieennd% writings <rfi ^Ws .filbjcfl: are ftill lefs deferv- 
ihg of th& attention' '^i tbotd who have peruJTed the' ancient 
Greeki.' . . ; *. .';i •• : . ♦ 

On this fubjed many^ obfervations may be made with 
advantage.' - .v . * 

iwj(?, Gymnaftic'exercifci were per^rtcd and infcnfibly 
abandoned, in proportion as the Roman <?mpirc lofl its 
fplendour. " It does not appear- that, after'thc era of the 
Arabians, any part of the ancient gymnaftic art was prac- 
tifed, if we except -bathing^ public eftablifhments of which 
were prefervtd in the eafti ^ ' . 

idoy Two great errors cHept into the fpeculations of phy- 
ficians concerning the dodrine of hygiene; the firft was 
that of the influence of the celeftial bodies on the health, 
the lifci and the fate of man ; and the abfurd pretenfion of 

B b 3 reading 


readitig their ddkinies in the ret okttotift of the planeu. 
The fecQpd wa« thai of fearcbiiig ia pardcubor medicines 
fat antidotes agaiiift difeafesi and of afcribing te thefe die 
excliifiTe virtue of prefermg the health of the body. The 
imagination of the Arabsj fondly attached to the manrei- 
loua, was better fuited to rtfearches of this natiur<;9 (deili- 
tute as they were of foiiadatioa, and incapable of being 
defended by any rational firoof^ than to the ilow progrefs 
of obfenratfon^ whieh proceeds only ftep by ftep, which 
never haft^iy overleaf any interval, and which places faith 
in any dik^m^, only in ptt)porti»n as the conne&iop of 
fads fubfifting between them deqionft^ee their ag^reemcnti 
and eftabliflies their truth. It was alfo a very acc^table 
^ifcovery to find in VLp0n4um the means of prokmgiag life 
without renouncing cmy of ^ fenfuaji enjoymeotS} tod 
without being obliged to have re^urlia to the true antidote 
againft the evils by which it is abridged* tim i8» to pro- 
dence and temperance* Gakn informs us^ that from the 
time of Herophihis, 1^34 ycM tbeiore our erai accordiDg 
to the author of article Aii€i£iiT.PitTsl^iAKs^)e(M(QpcfitioaS| 
to which great efficacy in the prefervation of health was 
attached, were known under th^ pompous title of the 
hands of the gods. Pliny alfo fpeaks of certain pasuuias^ 
much celebrated in Us time, ^hat virtues have not been 
afcribed to the tbma^ oi Anirmmiehif The Anibiaiis 
invented different forts (rf. this drug. R»ger BacQn^ Ltrd 
Verulam, die great Bacon hiqifelft attached o^edit to thefe 
abfurd premilies ^ and the cbemifts» htftly« filled up the 
meafure of thefe extravagancies, . which htiotc their time 
required only to be afibciated to the ridiculous pretenfion 
of making gold. 

pio, The do^ine of the four degrees, pafled from the 
Greeks who fucceeded Galea to the Arabiimt. Among 



thefe there were however feme who rejed[ed it; and 
Frehid remarks, that Averrioef accufes AHind^ author of a 
work concerning the degrees of medicinal fubftances, of 
having carried the niceties of thefe diftindiions too far, and 
of having attempted to form the fcale of the properties 
upon the model of the fcale of mufical tones, and of arith- 
metical pro^reffions. He reproadies him with having mif- 
underftood the fenfe <^ Galen, in what he advanced on 
this fubje^.' Mod of the authors of this defcription haVe 
limited the application ^f this fyftem to medicine alone ; 
but Charlemagne's phy&ians, Farragtit and BuhaUlya^ ex- 
tended this dodrine to aliments^ and to all the fubftances 
which, after lAe example of Galtn, thofe phyficians de- 
nominated mn^iiotura/f* The woi4c intided Tuceuni Sanim 
Mhy and puUtflied in the name of EUucitf^m Elfsmii0r, a 
phyfician of Bagdad; is afcribed to them. All, the aliment- 
ary fubftances to which Aeirienoiriedgeexteiukd, and all 
the cb^t&s conne£ked with iygiene are arranged in thefe 
tables caUed taecum. Thefe taUes ave divided into compart* 
ments, called dbmus ot houfes^ appropriated to the difftirent 
kinds of obfervations relative to each fubjeSk. In the fourth 
column or houfe, are anranged the degrees of heat, of cold, 
of moi'fture, or of drynefs, which in their opiniiMi conref- 
ponded to each obje6i. John Scboti has publiflied an edi- 
tion of this MTork, with that of Aibengu^ and Alkind^ as 
well AS of the tieatife of Bubahylia^ concerning iimilar dzU 
fifications of dtfeafes, under the title ci tacmni ngritudinufn. 
He has Cubjoined figures which reprefeat each fort of ali- 
ment, and every thing charaderiftic of the fix objedls 
termed mn^naturals. This edition appeared in Strafburg 
in 153 1 • One would blufh to dwell for a moment on thefe 
abfurdities, if they did not eflentiidly belong to the hiftory 
of the art, and if they had not ferioufly occupied the atten- 

B b 4 tioD 


tion of the fchools from the time of Gilcn. to the revival of 
letters in Europe ; a fpace which comptdicnds thnteen-ceo* 
tories : what a fpace, and what a void ! 


I'he modern Greeka will not gfibrd us any very cxtcn- 
iive field for obfervations. Frcind concludes the laft of the 
ancient Greeks with Paulus Mginetd. Falladius^ Tbch- 
pbilus^ and Stephen of ByzanHum$ although the age in which 
ihey lived be very uncertain, arp placed by him at the hcaA 
of the modern Greeks ; and* moreover, their works coatam 
nothing conncfted with the fubjeft of which I am treating. 
The others, alfo, fona aperies very barren of information 
adapted, to. our p\irpo&. They extend from the tenth to 
the thirteenth century, th$.t i$i from, tortus to .Myreffus. 
In ^his catalogue, ftill lefs r^maxd^s^ie than numerous. Si- 
fftficp Seikiy/d^ tranfcriber of Miffi. Ffelfus^ le/t us foqie re- 
marks on the iiature of aliment, and dedicated this treatife 
to the emperor Michel Ducas. Qut the moft remarkable 
perfon of this feries is Aiiuarius. His works include many 
. objcfls deferving of attention; and are very inftrudlve 
concerning the .(late of medicine in his own tinae, and in 
thofe which preceded him : befides this, they pp^is the 
.merit of being well written ; a charadier to which the au- 
thors of this age are little entitled ; but they contain kw 
remarks relative to hygiene. The third book» pt) the method 
of curing difeafes^ contains fome hints concejrning the pre*> 
fervation of health, concerning r^imen, the choice of ali- 
ments, the ufe of baths, and of exercife. Of thefe objeSs 
we have a fummary view from the ninth to the twelfth 
chapter \ but no new information is to ^be derived from this 
difquifition. It is remarkable^ that in the fixth chapter of 


% # 


die fifth booki ^aqiid a group df antidotes, the compoGticm 
of which was knoi^n to Aftuatiusi he defcribe^'one which 
he denominates famt^ts^ and of which he affures us, that a 
dofe of the fize.of a. lentil, .taken daily in wine, would 
defend the perfon to whom it v/a$ adminiHeTed from aU 
kinds of infirmities and difeafes throughout the whole 
period of his life. The defci:<ption of this nofirwn atone 
gives us »n idea of the author's charaAer^ aod of the 
knowledge prevalent in his -time, without , being under 
-the neceifity of fubjom^ng that this fame r«^ was alfo 
endowed with the property o^ expjdling deptons and evil 


Salernum had already been celebrated from the middle 
of the feventh century, for the cultivati<Mi of letters ; and 
the Hebrew, -Arabic, and Latin languages, were pubHcly 
taught in that city. Such was the reputation of Salernum 
in the time of Charlemagne, that in the year 802, this 
emperor founded a college in it; therfirft, obferves Frdnd, 
which had been eftabliftied in Europe : at leaft we (hall 
not with fome authors contend that the fchools of Bologto 
and of Paris were inftituted prior to that of; Salernum. 
We may leave thefe refearches to th^' vanity of focieties, 
who fometiihes feem to glory more, in dates buried i» the 
recefie^ of ages, which infure them the merit of ancient 
ufeleflhefs, than in the number of their works and labours^ 
by which they ought to have proved ibeir exiftekice. 

The firft diftinguUhed perfon whom this fchool produced 
was Coriftantine of Carthage, fumamed the African. He 
was mafter of all languages 9 and was in all appearance, 


fiiys IVeiiidj die &ft who imported iftto Italy die know* 
ledge ef tbe Gred: Md Ambian medidiie» He iirei to^ 
■wMds die end of the elevemii eetitttry. The date aA^pteA 
\>Y Freitnl is i^d» He was iavked to Salemum by Robot 
Guifeafd. But we eannot ^uote him among the aathois 
who imptt)ved the dofikrine of hygiene. 

Hie fthoet of $alemttm had ibon become cetebtated, by 
a worfc for which it was indebted for almoft the whole cf 
its reputation. It was that eompofed by John rfMUan^ 
and addreflbd, in nanoe of the whok fchool, to Robert 
4iike of Nonnandy, the fon of Witiiam, at that period the 
titular king of England, although he afterwards dedined 
that throne, who pafled through Saiernum in his way from 
the Ht^y land» h is on this account that the wodc in qaefr 
tion begins with this verfe^ 

Jtnglorum regi fcrtbtt jchola iQta Salerni, 

. Robert had been wounded in the arm, in which a fiftu- 
lotts ttker remsuiiedf that required the advice of the phyfi- 
cians of Salemum* The work of thefe gendemen is entire^ 
ly deroted to precepts refpedUng the dodlrine of tygi^$ 
with the exception of one chapter concerning the nicer, 
and fome others on die practice of bkmd-letting, and cer- 
tain other remedies. They dwell chiefly on aliments, and 
their ttfe *, but are very fcanty in their obfenratioas on die 
0rher departments of iygihte. But the only remarkable and 
aftonidiing eircumftance refpe£ting this performance, once 
fo very cek^rated, is the reputation which it had acqiured, 
and the number of commentators who had been at the 
pains to make it the bafis and theme of their refiefHons. 
Among thefe are Ammtd dd VUla-tiovaj Curim^ CnBha, 
C^fiflffHfbn, Ren/ M^reau ;* and, in our own time, a phy- 
£eian of die faculty of Paris, Lfvachet de la Ftutrk. 



t See Rend Moreau*8 own work. 


JHoriat/s work contains many interefting obfer?ationsi 
and in the commentaries of Arnaud de Villa-nova^ there 
are alfo many remarks which merit attention, and are wor* 
thy of another vehicle. Lommius, in the dedicatory epiftle 
of his commentary on the firft book of CelfuSj intitled^ 
de Samtate tuenda^ gives a very appoCte character of the 
phyficians of Salernum's work, when he fays of this pro« 
du£lion, *' qud vix/cio, an quicquam in Uteris medii^um in* 
elegantius ftty aut indo^ius.** Ii\ this letter he witl^ fS^^^ 
propriety exprefles his aftoniihment to fee phyfi^cians ne« 
gleding to read the ancients, efpecially Celfus, fpr. die 
purpofe of devoting themfelves to meditations on fo verf 
miferable a performance. 

Mackenzie having occaiion, when treating of the ScMa 

Salernitanay to advert to thofe phyficians who employbi 

themfelves in writing verfes, places Cqftor Durante^ phy-« 

fician to Pope Sextus Quintus, firft in order after Join of 

Milan, He forgot Eobanus of HeflTci who wrote with, at 

lead, an equal degree of elegance, and lived about the end 

of the fifteenth and beginning of the fixteenth centurf. 

He acquired great reputation by his poems, infomuch that 

fome of his contemporaries (tiled him the Homer, and 

others the Ovid, of his time. He (rompilcd a poem Dm 

tueada bona valetudine, divided into three parts : the firft 

comprehends the elements, the (ecolid the general preceptt 

of iygi^ne^ the third fome reflections upon the properties 

of medicines. There is fubjoined to it a fmall poem of 

y. B. Fiera of Mantua, intitled Qxnek^ and dedicated to 

Raphael Rearins. Mereau fpeaks with commendation of 

the works both of Eobanus and Durante, But Mackenzie 

confiders Dr. Armjlronf^s Art ofprrferving Healthy as by 

far the bed poetical perforntance on this fubjed. As to 

myfelf, I fhall join to it a Latin poem, full of imagination, 

c» of 


of 1>eauttes^ and of elegance, which Citizen Geofiroy has^ 
puUiihed in our own time, intitled Hygiene^ and where the 
jdence of found phyfics appears to acquire new eclat front 
being clothed with the charms of poetry. Had it been my 
intention to quote every remarkable performance of this 
kind, I would have mentioned the Padotrophiaj or the art 
of fackling children, of Scavola de Sainte Martbe : and the 
CixlRpadiay or the education of childreni by Claude ^il/et, 
(Caividtus Latus)^ of which there have been two editions 
very diffeifent in refpeft to the following circum fiance : in 
fte fitft Mqzarin is treated with all the feverity of fatirc; 
but ih the fecond, being bribed by the douceurs of that 
minifler to alter his opinion, the author ha^ made him the 
ffib}e£t of a fulfome panegyric : a melancholy example, and 
but too frequently copied, of the venality of men of letters! 
But it would be a long and ufelefs labour to give a com- 
plete catalogue of all the poetical works on hygiene^ ^fpe« 
ctally if we credit Ren^ Moreauy who reckoned upwards 
a 140 that had written on this fubje£l befbre his time; 
(he lived in the time of Cardinal Richelieu). My objefi, 
liowever, is not fo much to give a lift of authors, as to 
trace with all the ability of which I am poflefl^d, the rife 
and pfOgrefs of the art. In truth, it is not with the hiftory 
of individuals, or with the number of artifts, that we arc 
chiefly concerned \ but only with the acceffions which they 
have made to the labout*s of their predeceflbrs, and with 
the new rays of light, which their writings have thrown 
on the fcience of man and on the art of his preferr- 

The Schola Salermtatta, which occafioned this fhort <fi- 
grefiion, or at leaft the work to which its name has been 
affixed, aj^eared in the beginning of the twelfth century, 
that is^ after the year 1 100. This fchoolj as well as thof« 


of Paris and Bologna, have conferred on mankind a ftill 
greater obligation) by diffufing over Europe a tafte for 
ftudy : and from that moment, a multitude of univerfities 
and of colleges were founded in Italy, in France, in Ger- 
manyi and in England. The twelfth, thirteenth, and four^ 
teenth centuries were the eras of the births of almoft al! 
th^ univeriities ; the firft foci of learning in times of igno- 
rance ; and fince, the nu>numents of Grothicifm in times of 

Roger Bacon^ Arnaud de FiHa^novat Peter de Albano, 3rc. 
appeared in England, in France, and in Italy, towards the 
end of the thirteenth and at the commencement of the 
fourteenth centuries, before the revival of Grecian litera- 
ture. They diftinguifhed themfelves above all their con- 
temporaries by talents, which, in another period, would 
have greatly forwarded the progrefs of the art. Aftrology 
and the folly of alchymy infed:ed moil of the celebrated 
mtn of thofe times. Artiaud de Villa^nova was the only 
writer whofe labours contributed in any remarkable degree 
to illuftrate the do£^rine of health. He compofed a trea- 
tife De reginiine Sanitatis : another oq the fame fubje£l:,ad- 
drefled to the king of Arragon \ a treatife De confervanda 
juventute et retardanda JeneBute ; and a commentary on a 
part of the work of the phyficians of Salernum. Thefe 
treatifes contain excellent refie£lk>ns; and in different 
parts of them the author fpeaks of the choice of air, 
relative to the expofure of houfes, and to habitations ia 



wants, and that requifitcto gratify our pleafutes; how 
much we are the dupes of our own peculiar fenfations; 
above all, fince the art of perverting the gifts of nature, 
has created us artificial wants and factious appetites, and 
taught us to call every feeling by the name of hunger which 
is not blunted by fatiety. 

Lewis Cornaro, who died,, at the age of more than loo 
years, in 1566, wrote four treatifes on the advantages of a 
fober life. He was ^3 years when he wrote the firfl> S6 
when he publifhed the fecond ; the third appeared after 
he had completed his 91ft year \ and the laft was compof- 
ed in the 95th year of his age. From the age of 35 to 40, 
he faw himfelf attacked with a multiplicity of difeafes, 
which feemed to threaten him with a fpeedy diiTolution. 
Thofe complaints were pains of the ftomach and of the 
loins, with attacks of colic, fits of the gout, and an infati- 
able third accompanied with fever. Remedies were of no 
avail. His phyficians declared to him, that the only re- 
maining refource confided in a regimen of extreme fobriety 
and regularity : he refdved to adopt it : he foon perceived 
the utility of thehr advice : the quantity of food which be 
daily confumed was reduced to twelve ounces of foUd 
nouriihment, compofed of bread, of the yolk of eggs, of 
fledi, fifli, &c. ; and the quantity of liquid (the Italian 
text mentions qfvnne) amounted to fourteen ounces. 

Cornaro has made many other obfervations worthy of 
remark. The fird is, that adhering to fo rigid and fo ttn£k, 
2L regimen, he found himfelf wonderfully little afiedled by 
the events and accidents which are productive of fatal con- 
fequences to thofe who do not live with the fame regular- 
ity;* an advantage which he experienced on two contin- 
gencies. One of thefe occafions was, when a terrible legal 
procefs, carried on principally againd himfelf, yet coft his 

^ brother 

HVoHeME, br tlAtLE. 


btother ahd many of his relations their livesi had no inju- 
rious ct^cBt whatever on his health. The other, when 
overturned in his carriagei and having his head and whole 
body bruifed, his foot and his arm diflocatedi he recovered 
without the aid of any of thofe means which are con&der- 
ed as indifpenfable to cScGt a cure in fimilar cafes^ 

Another obfervation, equally deferving of attention, re- 
fpe£ls the obligations which habit impofes on ust Cornaro^ 
accuftomed to live upon twelve ounces of folid food, and 
fourteen of liquids, or of wine, {omie quatordici di vifto)$ 
fuflered himfelf to be perfuaded, at the age of 78 years, to 
increafe this proportion to fourteen of the former, and fix- 
teen of the latter. His ilomach became difordered; he fell 
into ennui and melancholy, and was feized with a fever^ 
which continued thirty-five days ; and from which he re-^ 
covered only by returning to his former proportions. 

We may give the hiftory of Cornaro a place among the 
fine experiments which have been made on the fubje£l of 
hygiine; and which confequently have contributed to fix 
the principles, and to accelerate the progrefs, of the art. 

Leonardus LeJiuSf a celebrated jefuit, who lived about the 
end of the fixteenth century, before the death of Comaro^ 
(truck with the beauty of this example, wrote a work on 
this fubje£t:, which he clofes with a lift of diftinguiihed 
men, whom the fobriety of their lives carried beyond the 
ordinary period of human life. This book is intitled Hy» 
giqfticon^feu vera ratio valetudinis bona; and the firft edition 
was publifhed in 1563, at Anvers. Lefiius was not the 
only perfon whom the example of Cornaro had determined 
to write on the prcfervation of health. Thomas PhlMogus 
of Ravenna had already written a treatifc, intitled De Vita 
ultra annos 120 protrahenda^ printed at Venice 1553. He 
alludes to one period at which Venice witneflcd many of 

Vol. III. C c her 


her fenators at the age of i oo years appearing in publici 
{unrounded with the veneration which their age, their dig* 
nitiesy and their virtues, procured to them \ and afcribes to 
debauchery, and to the want of fobriety, the paucity of 
fimilar examples in his own time. He was the firft, ob« 
ferves Mackenzie, who cenfured the cftablifliment of ce- 
meteries in the miAtt of cities. Cardanus, a man whofe 
ufefulnefs to fcience would have been infinitely greater, 
bad his judgment equalled his genius and erudition^ alfo 
wrote four books- on the prefervation of health. In the 
three firft he treats of aliment, and in the fourth of old 
age. The example of Cornaro is the theme of his admir- 
ation, and conftitutea tl^e foundation of his precepts. He 
cenfures Galen } and alleges, in proof of the juftice of his 
reproaches, that that celebrated phyficiaji died at the age 
of 77 years : but Cardanus was fully perfuaded that hixn- 
felf would not furvive his 75 th year. Another proof of 
this extraordinary genius's want of candour and accuracy 
is, that he condemns exercife as injurious to health ; and 
that comparing the longevity of trees to the common dur- 
ation of the lives of animals, he attributes the long life of 
the former to their being deftitute of locomotion. 

Among the produ£tions of this age, the laft place ought 
not to be ailigned to Jerome Mercurialises treatife on the 
gymnaftic art, in fix books : the three firft books treat of 
different objedls relitive to exercife, and to the different 
kinds of exercifes praftifed among the ancients ; the three 
laft treat of the cfieds of thefe exercifes, and of their uti- 
lity to ftrengthen the body, and to preferve its health. It 
would be difficult to unite a founder judgment and a greater 
(hare of erudition, than this excellent author exhibits. 
Haller, however, accufes him of fuch a prepofiei&on in 
favour of the ancients, that he is not only entirely filent on 


flVoiENE, BV HALLE. 403 

the iubjeflt of tfee feiertifes in ufe among the moderns, but 
even conderiiils riding, aid ptodu£live of inconveniencies in- 
jurious to health : without doubt, obferves Haller, becaufe 
this cxercJfe was not one of thofe in which the ancients 
delighted to engage. With regard to this fifft reproach 
caft on our author, we ought in fom.e meafure to rtflridl its 
applicatioh. It muil however be allowed, that although 
Mercurialis has, in imitation of the ancients, praifed ridiAg 
in the ninth chapter of his third book ; although, in the 
eighth chapter of the Hxth book, he fpeaks of it as a fpecies 
of exercif^ highly calculated to maintain the health of thofe 
who do not labour under any difeafe, and ufeful even in 
imp6ffe£t digeilioti : in his laft chapter, he defcants at fui- 
ficient length upon the inconveniencies of hard trotting or 
galloppilig in difeates ; and repeats, with fome degree of 
complacency, the reproaches with which Hippocrates and 
fome others have loaded riding, efpecially hard riding or 
cantering, iihputing to this kind of cicrcifc, wlien conti- 
nued for a long time, dif^afes of the inferior extremities, 
and impotence, brought oh by long pfeiTute on the tefticles. 
This difeafe was common among the Scythians* But we 
ought to add, as has already been obferved, that the an« 
cients, unacquainted with the ufe 6f (linrups, mufl: have 
felt in a ftill greater degree thefe inconveniencies. With 
regard to ambling, or a broken' pace, {equitatio in afiurcom" 
bus vel toluiariis\ he prefers it to every other fpecies of 
riding, on account of its e'afinefs and fprigHtlinefs. I'n 
refpeft: to the other accufation brought againft Mercurialis^ 
of having filehtly pafTed over the exercifes pra£tifed by the 
moderns, there is alfo fome foundation for it. There is 
however little difficulty iii excufing him, when we confider 
that fince the revolution of chriftianity, and that which 
the Arabs had introduced into Europe, gymnaftic exercifes 

C c 2 had 


had gone into abfolute defuetude i and thati properly fpeak* 
ing, he had no reafon to make any farther mention of the 
gymnaftic art. 

The date of the treatife written by Bacon, intitled Hif- 
ioria Vita et Mortis^ fliould be fixed about the end of the 
period and epoch of which I am now fpeaking. The au- 
thor^s obje£l is to inveftigate the caufes of natural death, 
and, in this way, to afcertain the means of protracting, as 
far as is confident with the laws of human nature, the 
ordinary term of life. The living man fuftains a continual 
lofs of the energies of life, and his loffes are continually 
repaired ; but this reftoring faculty is at length exhaufted, 
and man dies. Human life would be protracted as long as 
the organization of our bodies permits, by diminifhing the 
adivity of chofe caufes, which diflipate, weaken, anddefboy, 
and by maintaining the energy of that power which repairs, 
foftens, and renders flexible, the parts whofe induration 
refills the efieQs of the reftoring faculty. It was upon thefe 
fimple ideas, that the illuftrious Bacon eftablifhed plans of 
refearches, worthy of being deeply confidered, and which even 
at prefent can furnifli great and important materials forre- 
fledlion. In moft of the fubjeCis of which he treats. Bacon 
himfelf has rarely put his finifliing hand to the work; but 
he always prefcnted vaft views, plans of refearches preg- 
nant with important confequences, a ftriking renunciatioa 
of prejudices, and of ideas accredited from habit j a con- 
tinual appeal to experiment, a conftant endeavour to adhere 
ftri£l]y to nature; and to aflume her for his fole and en- 
tire guide. Bmcon was truly a great man, and placed, ac- 
cording to the order of time, between the era of the revival 
of literature and that of the firit progreifive fteps of the 
phyGcal fciences. He feems to have appeared for the pur- 
pofe of terminating the barren admiration of the ancients, 



which pervaded the minds of men, of making the ftudy o^ 
nature follow in fucceffion the ftudy of books^ and of add* 
ing to the riches accumulated by the patient inveftigators 
of antiquity, the (till more fertile produce of an a£tive and 
pf an indefatigable experience. 


The circulation of the blood bad not yet been difcover* 
ed ; philofophers had not learned to eftimate the weight of 
the air, and were ftill ftrangers to the phenomena of the 
barometer ; the thermometer had not been invented ; and 
the means of obfervation, hitherto imperfe£t and inaccurate, 
left to man, curious to ftudy nature and to appreciate her 
phenomena, only the hope of guei&ng pretty nearly refpeft*^ 
ing them, and no appearance of being able to calculate the 
amount of his own obfervations. 

SanSorius appeared, and had already entertained the 
firft idea of a thermometer, that of a fixed point, from 
which its graduation could commence, and of the appli- 
cation of this inftrument to examine the degree of febrile 
heat. But what confers immortality on his name, is his 
fine fuit of experiments on inlbnfible perfpiration, which 
he conceived with a degree of genius equal to the patience 
exercifed in carrying them into execution. He conceived 
the defign of comparing the food confumed with the qu^.n- 
tity of excretions evacuated from the body, and of weigh- 
ing them comparatively; of weighing the body itfelf in the 
dxiFerent circumftances, connected with diet and evacua- 
tions ; and by this means he -ormed a ftri£t eftimate of the 
quantity of ingredients which efcape from the body through 

C c 3 the 

406 ^ HYGIENE, BY HA^-t-?. 

the pe^rfpiratory pores. He accompliibed (lill p:iore : he 
obferyed with great fagacitj the differept rejatios^s and va* 
riations of this eqi:cretionj of ivhich no thepry had been of- 
fered previous to his time. He knew the n^odifications 
which it experienced from all the caufes >rhich affeft the 
body, in what proportion it is augmented, diminiihed, ac- 
celerated, retarded ; the connediion of its variations widi 
the condition of the body, s^nd with the fenfations of un- 
eafinefs and of comfort, of levity and of weight, which 
affe£l; us in the different circumftances of life. The whole 
do£hine of hea|tl^ ijs mimately popne^ed with this fyftem 
pf obfervation, infpmuch, that the work of SanSorius is 
itfelf a real treatife on hygiene* And to whatever degree 
pf perfieAion many learned men, Qnce bis time, may have 
carried refearches of this: nature, ttie glory refulting from 
their labours has no more obfcur^d his reputation tha;i;i the 
lucubrations of ancient and modeip phylicians have efiaced 
from our minds the recoUe£lion of ^ the ii^Ork$ of Hippo- 
prates. The ^eld is always vaft \ it app^^rs ev^ to incicafe 
in extent at the prefent time \ but thf; Ipace ov^r wl^ch the 
iirft invei^tor travelled, (till exhihifs the pofts. which he 
eftabliihed in the courfe, and up^ ^hicb are conf^ntly 
fixed the eyes of his fucce^s and riysds. 

Neverthelefs, eyep before t)ie time of S<m3qptfy another 
perfon had firft conceived the idea which this phyCdan fo 
ably developed and executed. This perfon, Nicolas it Cufa^ 
wrot^ a dialogue concerning ftatical expenm^n^j and the 
advantages v^hich phyficians mig^ d,^rive from their appli- 
cation to the human body, fq; the purpofe of afcertainiDg 
tl)e proportion of fenfi,bile and infen£i|^e evacuations. But 
men of genius had not made any progress in a career which 
^e h,ad only pointed out, and upon which none had entered 
before San^orius. Nicolas was born "at Cufa. a fmall town 



of the eledorate of TreveSj and lived in the fifteenth cen- 
tury. San3orius was bom at Ci^ d^Iffriaf in the gulf of 
Triefte, and appeared towards the end of the fixteendi 

The body perfpiresj and the evacuation from the whole 
furface of the ikin, and from the lungs, although almofl: 
infenfible, is not on that account the lefs copious. It ex- 
ceedsj according to SanEhrius^ the quantity of all the other 
evacuations taken together. This evacuation chiefly takes 
place, and is more abundant in the morning, after the ter- 
mination of ikep. Then the body, which has thrown off 
all its iuperfluities, returns to the fame weight which it' 
pofTefled at the^fame hour on the preceding day. The 
furplus of weight which the food and drink confumed had 
added to it, difappears, partly by the nutrition whicl|^ re« 
pairs the lob it fuftained, and partly by excrementitious 
evacuations. Such is the order of nature. 


If perfpiration be dindniflied, and the k>fs be not indem- 
nified by other fenfible evacuations, the body increafes in 
weight, and fooner or later becomes difeafed ; or it is ul- 
timately untoaded by a more abundant perfpiration^ and 
then returns to its former weight. 

But the term weight of the body has two vpry difierent 
iignifications. In one fenfe, we underftand by it the weight 
which the balance afcertains; in the other, the weight 
which is indicated by fenfation. The weight pointed out 
by the balance is an augmentation of volume ; that iadrcat* 
ed by fenfatton, is an additional load, which refults from a 
difpropcHTticm between the mafs of the body and the activity 
of its powers. A body may be heavier to the balance, and 
yet lighter to the fenfation ; this is fymptomatic of a great 
increafe of its a^ivity and vigour. It can be lighter to the 
balance, and heavier to the fenfation ; this is a fign of a 

great , 


great diminutioii of its powers, and of its natural a&i?it]F. 
The body may be light in both thefe fenfed ; it is then 
fimply a diminution of fubftance. It can alfo be heavier 
in each of thefe meanings ; this is a proof of its being over- 

The diminution of perfpiration, demonftrated by the 
-balance, is fymptomatic of indifpofition ; and reciprocally, 
pains, iufferings, and all bodily diforders, as well as men- 
tal difquietudes, leflen the quantity of perfpiration. 

Ezcefs of perfpiration, excited by violence, is equally 
produ£iive of difordera which affed the health ; and die 
body can only recover its found ftate by returning to regu* 
larity, and to the natural meafure of perfpiration. 

An mcreafe of all the other evacuations, points out, or 
produces, a diminution of perfpiratioHi and fupplies its 
. place. But perfpiration is ^e evacuation of robuft people; 
evacuations by ftod and urine efpecially, counterbalances 
it, and fupplies its place, in weaker conftitutions ; and fiJi- 
vation in old men. 

Perfyiration is retarded or dimimihed by pains of body 
and difquietudes of mind, cold during fleep, exceiBve heat, 
when it caufes toffing of the body in bed, the proceft of 
ifigeftion, the efied of a meiictne, the fenfible evacuations 
^ugmeuiDcdrtgo great a load of clothes and coverings, which 
fat^e die body. 

Partial cold has greater influence on the procefs of per- 
fpiration, than die cold which afiefbs the whole body. 

Cold augments the perfpiration of thofe ^ho enjoy a 
vigorous ftate of health ; but diminiflies this evacuation in 
people of feeble conftitutions. The heat which, in the 
hotteft time of fummer, excites painful fenfations, inter- 
fttpts perfpiration; that, on the contrary, which fuflfers 


\ I 


the perfpirable matter to efcape freely, is produ&ive of no 

After taking foodt the body perfpires only one pound 
during the fpace of five hours i in the feven following 
hours, the quantity perfpired amounts to three pounds; 
and during the four fubfequent hours, it perfpires fcarcelf 
half a pound. This is the time in which we ought to 
have recourfe to a fupply of food : it is alfo the period 
which fliould be feleded for the adminiftration of medi«- 

Petfpiration alone imparts a greater degree of relief than 
all the other evacuations taken together : the perfpiration 
which follows fleep eafes the body before any other fenfibte 
evacuation is experienced. 

Nature is three days in re-eftabltfliing the proportioa 
diflblved by the retention of only one pound of perfpirable 
matter, in oppofition to her laws. 

In the fpace of a month an increafe of wieight generally 
fupervenes in the human body, which difappears'at tbr 
end of the month by a crifis ^ this crifis is induced by 
means of a copious difcharge of turbid uriiie. It difcovers 
itfelf by a degree of laffitude, and heavinefs of the heady 
and appears to fupply the place of the periodical evacM9« 
tions of the female fex. 

Would you wi(h, by an examination of ^he infenfible 
perfpiration, to fix the proportions favourable to the pro« 
longation of health, and of life, to an extreme old age f 
obferve, after a pretty liberal repaft, what quantity of per* 
fpirable matter will be evacuated at the end of twelve hours. 
Suppofe, if you pleafe, this to amount to fifty ounces : ckh 
ferve then, after a day of fading or of abftinence, which 
ihall not have been preceded by any excefs, the lo& which 
you ihall have fuftained. Let us fuppofe this to be twenty 

ounces : 


ottoces : take a middle term between thefe proportions of 
regimeni and yen (hall obtain, fays SanBoriusj a meafure 
whkh will produce a perfpiration of thirty-five ouaces: 
this will be the meafure required. 

The means of prolonging the exiftence of old meiii 
would be to maintain the flexibility of their organs, and a 
fkee perfpiration. 

Sudi are the principal pofitions which SanBorius has 
eftabhflied concerning the general fyftem of infenf^ble per- 
fpiration. He has not publiihed his experiments in deisili 
but recorded only the refults. Accurate ob&nrations 
hare fince dcmonftrated, that thefe refults are not ail of 
them equally exadl ; allowance, however, ought to be made 
fox the variations of which difference, of climate and of 
temperature are neceflarily productive ; for it muft not be 
forgotten that SanBorius made his obfervations in Italy 
and that the refults obtained by Dodart in France, Xeil in 
England, Gorter in Holland, Rolnnfon in Dublin, Rye 
IB Cork in Ireland, and Linings in South Carolina, have 
demonftrated, that upon the fuppofition of the general in- 
fluence deduced by SanBorius from his experiments beii^ 
perfectly well-founded, the proportion of infl:aotaneous per- 
fpiration muft neverthelefs vary from diflFerence of temper- 
ature, whatever in other refpefis may have been the 
ftrength and vigour of the temperaments of the fubjeds 
upon whom the experiments are performed. 

Thefe firft principles, laid dctwn by SanBorius^ are col- 
leAed together in the firft fe£kion of his work : in di£ 
fubfequent fe£iions he examines the influence of the at- 
mofphere, of baths, of the feafons, and of the different 
hours of the day, &c. ; that of folid/ood iind drink, both 
in refpe£b to their quantity and quality ; the effed of fleep 
and of watchfttlne(S| of ezercife^ of venery ; and, finallf) 


be afcert^ins the derangements which the p^iSon^ of the; 
foul occaGpn in the fundiion of the perfpiratory organ, 

§anfiorms b?id no fooner opened this pafT^ge to fam^^ 
than jealoufyi inimical to eyei^y fpecies of glory, and mor« 
efpecially to that which is founded on the moft foJid bafist 
bufied itfelf in uwlermining his reputation. That reproach 
by which (lupi4ity is fo deeply alarmed^ the reproach of 
innovatm r appe^ to eftabliihed pr^£licesj that power fo 
victorious over i^othful fpirks \ that pretendedy that indo* 
len( refpe£t for antiquity \ fo little creditable to it| and fo 
fatal to the progrefs of the fciences, were all combined for 
the purpofe of rendering abortive the ^bfbrvatioiis of a man 
who had been willing to make fome additions to tb^ labours 
of the ancients: The inquifition however was not appeal* 
ed to^ but one Obiciu* publiihed a work againft hinij under 
the infolent title of Staticornqfty^c^ that iSy the Scatirge ff 
Jlatics. It is of no confeqnence to obfervci tbat thi$ man 
had his partizans } but his x^^wfi has been prefe;rved to pos- 
terity by that of San^^orius, as the fai^e of Homer h^ tranf- 
mitted to us the name of ZjoUus* 


The date of the phyGcal and mathematicaLfQ^epces is 
not an inquiry foreign to the hiAory of medicine* Slower 
in her prpgrefa th^n the es^riq^qnt^ fciencea> becaufe (be 
is almoft entirely confined to contemplative, obferyation^ 
and becaufe fhe is not permitted to avail herfclf of the aid. 
of experiment, but under the greateft rejdridionst medicine 
is illuminated by the reflefi:ion of the light diffufed over the 
'Other departments of the ft^dy of n^tuxe- Qf all the 



branches which compofe our art, tygihu is that which has 
the moft erident conne£lioii with the other phyfical fciences. 
We are therefore the more authorized in this place to re- 
view the grand epochs, diftinguiihed by the moft remark- 
able cfibrts of the human mind« 

During the fifteenth and fixteenth centuries, the ftudy 
of the daffies had gradually re-eftabli(hed true principles, 
die refults of obfenration. It performed a (lill more eminent 
ferrice; it infptred a£Hve minds with the hopes of elevat- 
ing themfelves to the level of the ancients, of participating 
in their glory, of meriting in conjunflion with them die 
honour of inftrufling and enlightening mankind, and of 
cultivating the fi^ld of nature, while engaged in the fearch 
of truth, 

Aftronomers had already fubje£ted the opinions of the 
ancients to a new ordeal of examination. Nearly a cen- 
tury before, Copermcus had announced, that the fun is in 
the focu^ of the planetary fyftem, and that the earth is 
carried round it, like Mercury, and Venus, and Mars, and 
Jupiter, and Saturn. This innovation of do£^rine had not 
roufed the attention of the fchools, or awakened the jca* 
loufy of the ecclefiaftical inquifition. The honour of this 
perfecution was referved for Galileo, The polarity of the 
loadftone was known; and the compafs, invented many years 
before, ferved to 'guide the path of the mariner. Kepler had 
juit calculated the orbits of the planets, and determined the 
laws of motion to which they are obedient. He was the 
firft perfon who illuftrated phyfics by the aid of mathema- 
tics. Gefner^ Rondelet^ Mathiolus^ Doddenr^ Qe/alpinus^ AU 
drovanduSf Pro/per jilpinus^ had already enriched natural 
hiftory by their refearches. The Bauhins had lately dif- 
fufed over botany the firft rays of fyftematic obfervation ; 
s(nd this besiutiful department of natural hiftory began to 



aflume the (hape of a fcience. Chemiftry, (till enveloped 
in myftery and enigma» was however indebted for many 
remarkable iz€t% to the labours oiR^ger Bacon, of Raymond 
Lullyi and of Paracelfusi and anatomy had already been 
cultivated with great fuccefs by FaUopiuSj Fejaliusy Bota/uSf 
Rioian, and Dulaurens. 

The feventeenth century comnaenced its career with 
great efibrts and with great fuccefs. Galileo confirmed the 
doArine of Copernicus^ invented the telefcope; and his 
pupil Torricelli demonftrated the gravity of the air; 
whofe progrefiive diminution, according to the different 
heights of the atmofphere, was foon calculated by PafcbaL 
This latter philofopher, at the fame period, folved the prin« 
cipal problems of the equilibrium of fluids. Harvey proved^ 
by inconteftible experiments, the whole fyftem of the cir- 
culation of the blood. Afellius difcovered the ladieal veins. 
Endowed with lefs folid, but more ardent, genius, VanheU 
mont (hook off the yoke of antiquity ; and with whatever 
juftice he may have incurred the reproaches of the fage 
friends of nature, the fire of his enthufiafm undoubtedly 
haftened the birth of chemiftry, and prepared her for ex- 
hibiting her wonders. In this manner was propo(ed an 
honourable ftruggle bcftween the ancients and the moderns* 
Defcartes opened the field of combat and of vifiory. He 
taught natural philofophers to calculate and to doubt ; 
and in his method, prepared that inftrument which, in a 
fubfequent age, was to overturn the edifice reared by him- 
felf. It appeared that the fchools wiflied to have their 
oracles. Ariftotle, worthy of another fpecies of wor(hfp, 
had been the idol of the univerfities ; and Defcartes became 
the obje£k of adoration in his time» 



414 ftVOI^^V :»t HALii. 


ArrERbftvkigtraeed^wHh all the abilitf whidhi could exert, 
the unequal progrefs of the human mmd) fohittfanes mote 
. tzfid and ibmetiities more ilow, and fometimes letTOgiadei 
in the read of obfefvation; having now reached an epochi 
vhen ks accekfated nKirch tS| if I may itfe the ezpreffion, 
precipitated towards every point of the ftudy of nature : 
let me be permitted to paufe^ and to examine what gmdes 
k had fek£ted in this route $ how it has bad fofl&eient dif- 
cernment to find caufes in their effeds, and, mtdtiplying 
obfenratioii by e^^rimentf to foar by t!he aid of reafdn to 
the knowk(^e of principled ; to what laws it muft be obe- 
dient to pretent its going aftray in thi^ career ; how medi- 
(dtte and hygiene have been able to fliare iii the general 
movement $ and how it (hall be competent for them in fu- 
ture ages to def ive from if ftill greater advantages. 

The art of making progrefs in the fearch of truths is pro- 
perly what we now underftand by th<S term phihfipbf. 
Whatever may be the end which man wiflies to attstini 
whatever may be the nature of the fcience which he pro- 
pofes to acquire v let him inveftigate the connedHons and 
relations of objefi:s with one anotjier, for the purpofe of 
arranging them into a whde^ which facilitates their ftudy 
and the acquiGtion of the knowledge of them : let him ob» 
ferve the different properties of their mafles> and the man- 
ner in which they ad upon each other, counterbalance! 
interferci or participate in each other's motions, that he 
may be enabled to appreciate and calculate tiie laws to 
which their maffes are fubje£k : let him explore their com- 
ponent ingredients with an attentive eye^ and obferve their 


JtYGiJBNB, BY HAI^tB. 41£ 

etemeat falling afunder or entering into union, and form* 
tog by their concoarfe perpetual changes : let hiiki. thus 
daily increafe his information refpeding the myfterious 
transformations of nature i or let him confider this eternal 
principle of motion and of adion in all liying beings, in. 
ereafiag and reproducing itfelf, this (ioigular faculty of per- 
ceptioa and of fenfatfon, which is confideFed to be the ex* 
clufive appurtenance of animals ; and attempt tor afcertain 
the direftion which thefetwopowers^featedintbe intemdl 
parts of ovgamxed bodies, gbe to the laws of their masflesy 
and. to the combinations of their elements. In fliovt, con^- 
irerfant in all theSb matters, from deep meditation on thttm^ 
and fiximg his eyes fometimes 6n himielf and his feliow* 
creatures^ fometimes the patient and docile pupil of naCuse^ 
fometimes emboldened to become her interpreter, to- folicit 
and importune her to reveal her fecrets i fometimes believ- 
ing that he has acquired the a&endency over her, and can 
force her to dsv»c& from her uficalcourfe, and purfue a 
new one,, let him congratulate bimfelf in being able to 
prevent or repair the diforders which threaten his exiib- 
ence. In a word^: whether he attaches him&lf to natural 
hiftory or to phyfics, wfaediev he be a chemift, a pfayfiolo^ 
gift,, or a phyfician, he muft in one and all of thefe puP* 
fuitsbe zphiiof^heti that is to fay^ whilet engaged in tjie 
ftudy of fadis, in. arranging them according to thofe rela- 
tions which enabk him to perceive and to feize on their 
connexions and their confequeaces, he muft know how to 
metliodiae his obfervations> and to nq^late his experiments, 
and ftill more to appreciate them, to deduce from them all 
the conclufions o£ which they admit, and no inference 
whidi they do. not legitimately fanftion* It is noceflary^ 
that having his imagination and enthufiafm under complete 
fubje£tion, in the midft of all this intelleAuai exercife, he 

3 may 

416 Ht^OIENS, BV ifAtUf. 

may be able to fonn a proper judgment bpth of himfelf 
and. of otheirsy to feparate what he clearly perceives from 
that of which he has only obtained a glimpfe ^ to eftaUifli 
a diftin£i boundary between the field over which he has 
travelledi and the deceitful profpeA that frequently unfolds 
itfelf to his view.j to eftimate the value of theories, and to 
diftinguiih tbofe which are the complete and neceflary re- 
fult of h£kSf from thofe that are only the bond of connec- 
tion between them^ and merit only the name of methods s 
to avail himfelf of thefe provifionally^ and only as oiAri" 
adnis thread, not only to enable him to penetrate into the 
labyrinth, but alfo to dire£l him to find the way out of it. 
And thus let him proceed fometimes flowly, and fometimes 
with rapidity, always with caution, without lofing ligiit of 
the true road which leads to the temple of truth. 

To fupply all thefe conditions, and to enable him to at- 
tain to the knowledge of truth, the philofopher has three 
guides, reafottingy exferiment^ and £alcuUtion. Hence arife 
three modes of operation. One is the art of deducing ac- 
curate inferences from eftablifhed premifes, fuch, for in- 
ftance, are fundamental truths: this is what conftitutes 
rational philofophy. The fecond is, that of proving thefe 
principles, and of confirming the inferences, by demon- 
ftrating them to the fenfes by means of experiment : this 
is what forms experimental philofophy. Laftly, the third is 
the art of meafuring, of appreciating, and of verifying the 
fenfible refults of experiment by the aid of calculation: 
this is termed mathematical pbilofophji. From the combin- 
ation of thefe methods of inveftigation refult the complete 
demonftration of the truths which are the objed of our 
inquiry. They reciprocally affift each other. Reafon folicits 
the aid of experiment to eftablifh her principles ; and the 
inaccuracy of our fenfes requires the precifion of calcu- 
3 lation 

\ t 

Hygiene, by halle* 417 

ration to meafure the extent and value of the produfls 
which refult from experiment. It is not however always 
poflible to avail ourfelves at the fame time of the combin* 
cd affiftance of all thefe methods. But we may conftantly 
affirm^ that a Ccience has reached the acme of improve- 
ment when it can build its reafoning upon the bafis of ex- 
periment, and confirm experiment by means of calculation. 
It is on this account that the knowledge of gafeous fluids, 
and the new methods of meafuring caloric, by rendering 
almoft all the elements of bodies, of which fo great a 
number cfcaped without the knowledge of the ancient che- 
niifts, appreciable and fufceptible of calculation, have en- 
abled modern chemiftry to take fo brilliant a flight. And 
when flie fhall afcertain the proportions both of light and 
of eleffriciiyf which aft fo confpicuous a part on many of 
her operations, what degree of accuracy will (he not im- 
part to the precifion at which (he has already arrived ? It 
is undoubtedly from our inability to feparate from the air, 
to confine, and to calculate, all the emanations, whether 
odorous or inodorous, which change its properties, that eu- 
diometry is (till fo treacherous and deceitful. It is, in fine, 
by that beautiful and enchanting harmony between reafon, 
experiment, and calculation, that the admirable experiments 
of Coulomb f his excellent eleftrometer and his magnetometer, 
will always conftitute a memorable era in the hiftory of 
magnetifm and eleftricity. Medicine and phyjtology ftill, un- 
fortunately, prefent us with elements equally unfufceptible 
of calculation and certainty, and confequently with experi- 
ments too frequently inaccurate, uncertain, and deceitful. 
May the methods of availing ourfelves of the aid of the 
fenfitive and nervous organ, and of afcertaining the degree 
of its influence over the moving and contrafting fibre, with 
which we have been fupplied, enable us to approach nearer 
Vol. III. ITd to 


to the point of perfe&ion which we ftill obferve at Co yaS 
a dtftance I 

If, after haring explained the refources by which the 
human mind can attain to the knowledge of the truths we 
wifh to fatisfy ourfelves in refpe£): to the ufe it has made 
of the means thus put in its power, we ihall fee that the 
moft memorable era of the rational phihfopby afcends to the 
period at \9\i\c\i Ariftotle publifhed his hgic^ a truly admir- 
able performance, containing a mafterly analyfis oi the 
human underftanding, where, by the relation of two de- 
monftrated propofi'tions, which z6t the part dl things Imwn^ 
he teaches the art of deducing from them a third ; that is» 
of finding out an unknown truths whofe exiftence is a con^ 
fequence neceflariiy refulting from the truth of the two 
former propofitions. From this fource fpring comUnationss 
which, by their fecundity, link fome truths to others, wliofe 
pedigree embraces every propofition which the mind of 
man can compafs or afcertain. This art, carried to per- 
fedion by the meditations of the fineft genius of antiquity, 
this geometrical method, transferred fi'om the abftrad 
fciences to other fpeculations of the human mind, has 
neverthelefs, like all other excellent things, been egregixmf* 
]y abufed ; and what ought tp have been the touchftone of 
truth, and one of the moft precious inftruments of its rc- 
fcarch, has become the means of clothing error with the 
external fcrhblancc of what is right. Apparently^ for a 
long period » the vehicle of all the nonfenfe and puerilities 
of the fchools, fyllogifm, in the eftimation of fome modem 
phtlofophers, deferves to be laid afide as a dangerous wea- 
pon. But whatever care may have been taken to difguife its 
forms, or to narrow its limits, whenever inferences are de- 
duced without comparing them with their premifes^or with* 
out giving a full deinonftratioA of the latter, our procefs of 



reafoning mud necefTarily be falfe and illogical. Authority 
has for a long time ufurpcd the place of demonfliration, 
not lefs in medicine than in every other branch of fcience ; 
and prejudices mud be the offspring of authority, when 
unfupported by obfervation. 

Bacon and Defcartes flood forth as the opponents of 
authority ; and, from the time of this laft philofopber, a 
prddilefiion for experiment began to overturn many opi- 
nions which had obtained a currency on the faith of the 
^ ancients. We ihall therefore refer the moft memorable 
epoch of the experimental philofophyy not lefs to him than to 
the age in which he lived ; and if, in our profeiTion, any 
individual could claim the honour of having created this 
fpecies of philofophy, this perfon, as has already been ob* 
ferved, would be San^orius. But experiment, while it 
makes an impreflion upon our fenfes, does not always en- 
able them to comprehend the phenomena which it prefents 
to them. By deducing confequences more comprehenfive 
than the hSts which are their premifes^ by generalizing 
partial relations, by laying hold of one only more promi- 
nent and fenfible than the reft, from amidft an affemblage 
of qaufes, fplendcd theories have been engendered, which 
feemed to have experiment for their bafis, and which ex^- 
periment has overturned. ' To this fubje£t, the remarkable 
expreifion of Hippocrates, ** experiment is deceitfuiy and to 
form a judgment of it is a difficult {or dangerous) task^ — nh 
vH^at (r<p»Xi^ii, nT% K^trk jc^xwh^** is very applicable. And 
what art has given more indubitable proofs of the truth of 
this affertion than the art of medicine ? 

We muft then have recourfe to calculation for the pur- 
pofe{ of appreciating the value of experiment. And it is at 
the commencement of the eighteenth century^ at tl^e epoch 
when Newton demonftrated the power of calculation, in 

D d 2 unfolding 


unfolding the theories of attrafkion,' of light, and of 
colours, that I place the moft brilliant period of the ma<' 
tbematical phiiofophy. It was this philofophy which enabled 
him, not only to afBrm, but alfo to predi£l, long before- 
hand, the reiults of experiment, when he announced the 
combuftibiHtj of the diamond^ and the cempojition of voter. 
Since that period, philofophers have become more and 
more cautious, in deducing their confequences, and in 
forming their theories ; and the afpe£i of the fciences has 
changed in proportion as they have become more com- 
pletely fufcepcible of calculation. 

Such, in my opinion, is the ide*a which we ought to form 
to ourfelves, of the influence of the fpirit of philofophy oa- 
every department of the ftudy of nature. 


All the fciences fo fuccefsfuUy cultivated in the coaxfe 
of this era, have participated more and more of the impref- 
iion of this fpirit. The methods of the ftudy and clafiiG- 
cation of fubfiances had already begun to fmooth the field 
of natural hijloryy when Tournefort publiQied his fyftem, to 
which we owe the fuccefs of Linnaus, wiio has affixed his 
feal to every department of this beautiful fcience, and of 
whom fo many celebrated naturalifts boaft as their common 
preceptor. The Jujfiens^ for their part, had prepared them- 
felves, during a long period, to explore a new route in the 
fame career; and the phyQcian finds the virtues, the prin- 
ciples, and the organic chara£ters of plants, united in a 



truly admirable manner, in the analogies, a table of which 
they have delineated to us. 

The natural philofopher poffeffing in fucceflion the ther- 
mometer, the firft idea of which is due to San3orius^* the 
barometer, the pendulum, the air-pump, optical inftru- 
mcnts, and all the machines of experimental pbyfics, 
weighed the air, examined its pKyHcal properties, ftudied 
the phenomena of a vacuuhi, thofe of the percuilion and 
of the fall of bodies, received froin Newton the knowledge 
of light, of the colours which compofe it, of the different 
relations of its refra£lion, and in the fyttem of attradion, 
bad a tranfient view of the univerfality of that powerful 
law by which bodies a£t upon each other in the invcrfe 
ratio of the fquare of their refpcftive diftances, and from 
which almoft all the motions of the univerfe proceed ; a 
new and powerful agent univerfally difFufed, and almoft 
univerfally unknown, obeyed the voice of Dufay^ of NolUt^ 
and of Franklin^ and voluntarily rufhed forth from all the 
bodies of nature. Air and water combined, prefented to 
the attentive obferver's eye, the phenomena of alternate 
fblution and precipitation, which e;(plaineil a multiplicity 
of atmofpheric meteors ; and the bafis of the hygrometrical 
theory, eftabliUhed by L^roy^ received frefh acceffions of 

D d 3 improvement 

* Sanfforius demohftrated his thermometer to his pupils, id his ledluKs, 
thirtecB years before the defcription of it was publiflied in his commenta- 
ries on Avieenna, (qucftion fixth), printed in 1615; confequeptly fix years 
before J)rdM hcd explained his own in x6i8. He had alfo fuggeftcd the 
idea of a computing pendulum, before that inftmment had been invented 
by GaliUp, and applied to clock-making by Hvygbetu^ (queftion fifty fix). 
SanSorius had intended his thermometer to mcdlutc the temperature of 
patienu in fever, and in the diflTcrent condiiions in which the natural hcac 
appeared changed. 


improvement and utility in the hands of Deluc and of 
Saujfure. In ftiort, man immcrfed into the atmofphere 
was no longer fiirrounded with a world of enigmas, and 
ceafed to contemplate with a blind aftonifliment the me- 
teors with which he was encompafled. 

Medicine, while (he recollcfts the errors and deceitful 
promifcs of the pupils of Paracelfus^ will not forget that 
to the VanhelmoniSy already endowed with a better genius, 
fucceeded in chemiftry, men juftly celebrated for their 
knowledge of the art of healing. Whatever may have 
been the fate of the theory founded on the imaginary prin- 
ciple of phlogifton, it will preferve with veneration the 
names of Beccher, of Siahli of Boerhadve^ and of H^man» 
It will recal to our remembrance that we are chiefly in- 
debted to Stahli for having baniflied from the fciencc the 
reveries of alchymy, and the follies of the univerfal reme- 
dy ; and in the works of the- two latter, it will difcover 
that if fuch men have not derived from the chemical art 
other refources for that of healing difeafes, and preferving 
the life of man, it was becaufe in all probability an immut- 
able law, referves the mod powerful efforts of the human 
mind for certain eras ; and becaufe, for the improrement 
of individuals, a& well as for the developement of their 
phyfical and moral powers, there are ages and periods in 
which thofe powers nluft remain ftationary. Theories of 
fermentation, ftill imperfcfl: indeed, were neverthelcfs pro- 
pofed, and were ready to receive a greater degree of perfec- 
tion from the knowledge of the gafeous fluids. The theory 
of affinity, explained by Geoffroy^ threw new light on the 
changes and transformations which take place in chemiftry, 
and was afterwards to iwrm&i' Scheele and Bergman with 
powerful inftruments of analyfis. f^enel, in the midft of 
this (laft) century, and B/ack after hidi, recognifed the 



aatuft of the principle which charadierizes the acidulous 
fftitietal watcfBi and paved the road for the diCcoveries of 
the prefent day. Macbride and PrifigU applied the fame 
principie, .which is evolved during effi^rvefcence and fer- 
mentation, to medical ufe, and deteded its antifceptic pro« 
perty. Bedcori analyfed or feparatcd the two principles 
which coimpoCs the farina of wheat \ and RouelU difcover* 
«d, in altndft all vQgtt^bks^ that glutinous matter, whofe 
ftriking analogy with animal fubftances he had already, 
aiinwnceiii. Car/A^i^r excited the diftruft of chemifts 
withrefp^ to the nature of the produ£ls of analyGs hj 
fire, fub(titttte4 in its place an analyfis which is aceompliih* 
ed with %ieu^ accuracy, by means of water and alcohol, 
^tyi applied it with feme f uccels to the knowledge of medi« 
cisftl; fubftances* Thus chemiilry began to (how itfelf 
capable jOf.eftablifliingy upqn a more folid foundation, the 
hop^ of fttpniibing new light to the knowledge of man, and 
had already afforded the mod efficacious afliftance to medir 

The ftudy of anatomy no longer confined its range to a 
barren ctmtemplation of lifelefs organs. The circulation 
difcovered by Harvey^ and the ceurfe of the la£teal veins 
obfenled by ^Jellius^ eftabliOied in the midil. of this inert 
mafs a principle of motion, and canals of reparation. The 
ledures of Rudheci^ and of Bartholine^ brought to view dif- 
ferent parts of the lymphatic iyftem, which, at a much 
latter period, were to be formed into a curious and vaft 
whole, by the refearches of Hen»fon^ of Hunter^ of Sheldon^ 
and of Mqfcafnt. The art of inje£ting mbtltiplied ad infi* 
nitum the vifible branches of the vafcular fyftem^ and 
Ruyjch excited a doubt, whether any other fubftance but 
veflels entered into the fl:ru£lure of the body. Leuwenhoeck^ 
caUsBg the power .of the microfcope to the affiftance of ana- 

D d 4 tomy, 

424 HYGIENE, fiy HAL.LB. 

tomj, difcovered a world, where it had been believed that 
the organization of living beings terminated. Afaipiigr, 
Duvemeyf WinfioWf Rrreifi, Cowpfr^ Attinus^ Valfaha^ 
Mtnrgagnij Sec* explained with greater precifion the ana* 
tomy of the organs of Jenfe, of the vifcera, of the muf- 
ctthr fyftcmi and die di£ferent organical difocders, which 
induce, follow, or accompany different difeafes. . Wiiiis 
and Vieuffens had, before their time, faccefsfully begun an 
expofitiott of the nervous fyftem, and of the anatomy of 
the brain; our acquaintance with which organs, has, in 
the prefent age, been fo greatly extended by the labours of 
MecheU of Wdier^ of Scarpa, and of Vicq-d^azyr. 

To thefe efforts, to advance the fcience of the anatomy 
of the human body, were added the knowledge borrowed 
from comparative anatomy. Perrault^MolphigiiDeGfaaf, 
Grew, and Snoammerdam, opened a career, in which, not- 
witbilanding the excellent works of Z)40iM<0ii' •cm quadru- 
peds, and Hunttf^^ refearches, a complete performance is 
ftill a defideratum. Vicq-'tPaxyr taught us to conceive the 
poffibility and the advantages of fqch a performance ; and 
we now obferve the execution of this ufeful prcjedl advancr 
ing, under the happieft aufpioes, by the anatomical re* 
fearches of our colleague Cuvier, already multiplied to fo 
great an extent. Thus does the bond of connexion be- 
tween anatomy, phyfiology, and the ftudy of organized 
bodies, become daily (Ironger and clofer. It is by the aid 
of this union that the principal fun&ions of the body ha?e 
been examined with a degree of fuccefs, which, perhaps, 
at a future period, will a£brd medicine, and the do£lrine 
of bygienCf juft caufe of felf-congratulation. 

The phenomena of generatiofiy and thofe of the Jeveltpe^ 
ment cfthefatuSf which had firft been inveftigated in birds 
and quadrupeds hy-Fairicitis and Harvey, were afterwards 




illuflrated in the chick by Haller^ and fince by Manduyi 
and Vicq-d'azyr ; whilft the celebrated Hunter traced the 
progrefs of tho foetus in man» almoft from the moment of 
conception to its complete evolution. Vail/ant^ at the be- 
ginning of this (laft) century, while engaged in developing 
the mechanifm of generation in plants, removed the bound- 
ary wluch appeared to feparate the vegetable from the ani- 
mal kangdom, and thus fixed the bafis of the fexual fyftem 
of Lifmeus. Perfpiration^ whofe phenomena had been fo 
admirably* illuftrated by SanBorius in Italy, was brought to 
the teft of the fame experiments by Dodart in Paris, by 
Ke'tl in England, by GorUr in Holland, by Robinfon and 
Rye in Ireland, by Linings in Carolina : and Gorter, efpe- 
cially, beftowed on this doftrine a new degree of precifion; 
whilft the celebrated Hales, by inftituting a comparifon 
with refpeiQ: to this fun£tion, common to all beings who 
live in gir^ between vegetables and animals, multiplied the 
relations which unite the two organized kingdoms. Du 
gefiion, for a long period, explained upon mechanical prin- 
ciples, or upon different hypothefis of fermentation, at that 
period equally remote from being properly underftood with 
digeftion itfelf, was ultimately fubje£ied to accurate experi- 
ments by Reaumur^ whofe trials have fince been repeated 
with equal fuccefs ; and this fun£tion placed in a new point 
pf view by the jibbe SpaUanzani. 

But one of the moft illuftrious epochs in phyfiology, one 
of thofe which have had the moft decided influence on the 
fcience of medicine, is that when Holler, penetrating into 
the fan£iuary of nature, demanded from her the fecret 
concerning the fources of a£lion and of fenfation, and un- 
folded, by a long feries of ingenious experiments, his the- 
ory of irritability^ and of the relations between the nervous 
and mufcular fyftems. Whence happened it, that the phe- 


someuaf whick now fo generally occupy the atCentioti of 
phyfiologiftsy did not then prefcnt themfelvcs to the care« 
f ttl eye of fuch aa obferver ? Be this as it may, from that 
momcfnti all the theories concerning the animal fan£lioi» 
jiflttmed a new dire£lion« FinaUji offificatvm and its pro* 
gre&s firft obferved by Duhamel and Herijfani^ haive ofiered 
to phyfiologifts a very interefting fpe^acle; whiift the 
pra6lical obfervations of Ihvid^ on Jpontaneous necr^fit^ and 
the ingenious eiperiments of TCroja^ on artificial lutr^fist 
snd tbejr4prqdu£fii»n ofhmeSf have developed this intercftidg 
department of the myftery of nutrkioa» and placed the ob* 
ferver in the footfteps of nature^ in one of her mod curious 
operations. Thus has obfervation gradually occupied the 
province of c(Hije£lures ; human and comparative pbjfio* 
logy oes^d to be a field, opened to the excurlions of ima* 
gination alone; and theories» experiencing a more &Ud 
fupportj foon afiumed the fhape which they (hould always 
pofiefsi and appeared to be the refult of fads compartd 
together, and of inferences Reduced from the obfenratioo 
of their relations. 

In the midft of all thefe labours, medicinej leaning upon 
the traditions of paft ages, proceeded with a timid ftep in 
the path of experience. Continually occupied in compar* 
ing the phenomena which obfervation affords to her viewi 
with what the' ancients have advanced upon the fobrjed \ 
and difcovering perhaps too much anxiety to find in the 
works of the ancients, what (be ought to perceive in die 
refult of obfervation ; contemplating with a curious and 
eager eye, and taking an a&ive part in the xnvcft^tions 
ci the natural and experimental fciences, and neverthelefs 
receiving the light imparted by them with the diftruft and 
referve natural to tbofe who have been long deceived; 
(baking off the yoke of prejudices with teludlance, but 



once extricated from their trammelsj abandoning them for 
ever ; not having the command of the time whidi nature 
has reckdnecf, and which ought to be feized, becaufe it it 
on the wing; and yet refponfible for the refolt of her trials^ 
(he advjinced fiowljTi and refembled^ in her dilquietudee^ a 
fteward whd is accountable for a precious depofit intrufted 
to his care. Powerful inftromentSi unknown to the an- 
cients, mercury and cinchona j ict* have notwithftanding 
placed her in a condition to contend with advantage againft 
nature herfelf, in the cure of fome defperate difeafes. She 
can alio affift nature in her falutary tendencies, by the 
mod efficacious means, among which muft afluredly be 
reckoned ete^ricity : and her movement, bolder and more 
certain in the treatment of external maladies, has enabled 
her to make great additions to the knowledge and fuccefs 
of former times. But if we confider medicine in her tout 
enfemhky and in her conneftion with the philofophy of the 
art, we obferve her efforts to arrive at perfe£):ion, charac- 
terized by the different kinds of trials. 

\mo^ The critical doBrine of the ancients in acute difeafes, 
built upon the theory of concoBion^ and of obedience to the 
motions of nature, received a greater degree of precifion, 
by more extenfive obfervation concerning crifes, and by the 
more minute, if not more philofophical, ftudy of their prog- 
noftic fymptoms. 

^do^ The progrefs oi praBical obfervers^ gradually liberals 
ed from the power of prejudices, and fubjed:iDg their fyf- 
tem to the teft of experience, has been dir6£ked by Syden* 
ham^ Meadf Freindy Tortiy Huxam^ de Haen, and Stoll. 

^tioy Modern theories^ attempting to conne^ all the phe^ 
nomena with a fmatl number of principles, all incomplete 
when confidered as a whole, but almoft ail of them true 
in fome of their parts, ufeful if they are regarded asthc 



means of fimplifying ftudy, and of conneding a number 
of fa£ts, by enabling the fludent to feize upon their moil 
prominent relations \ hurtful or perniciousi if we exdoiive- 
ly view them as a faithful reprefenration of nature, aod 
as the law of the art, but generally difappearing at the 
patient's bed* fide ; exhibit to us in turn the fuccefs of the 
fchools of &tably of Boerhaave^ of Hoffman^ of QuUtn^ and, 
in the prefent day, of Brown. 

Lafi^y^ ^he methodical fpirit^ and that important art 
of deicribii^ with precifion, and of claffifying with fao 
cefsy of throwing individuals into groupes, and of ar- 
ranging fpecies together into orders, of delineating the 
great outlines of their general charaders, and of blending 
with precifion their ihades of difference ; a valuabk art, 
fprung up in the bofom of the natural fciences, aod tranf- 
mitted through them to medicine^ has given birdi to n0/^ 
hgioal methods / among which muft pre-eminently be dit 
tinguiihed the nofologies of Sauvagei^ of f^ogelf of Culltn^ 
and the pyretology of Selle. Nor ought we at the fame time 
to forget, that the illuftrious Linnaus occupied himfelf in 
this field of labour, to which phyficians are indebted, f(» 
at lead a degree of precifioi^i till this period, unknown in 
medical language. 

If we fubjoin to all thefe improvements, that degree of 
perfeAion to which the moral and intellectual knowledge 
of man fo intimately allied to the ftudy of bis pbjiicai 
faculties, the iipprovement which the analyfis of hisfenl*' 
tions and ideas, that of the underftanding and of the pai- 
fions, fo accurately delineated, before this epoch, by Msi^ 
Uigne 2XxA by Bacon^ have received from the woibofir 
ccurtcs^ of Mftlebr^ncbes of Nieol^ and of the philofophenof 
Fort'Toyaif of Loch, of Leibnitz, of RouffeaUt of &/»^M 
and o£ the firltedkors of the Encychpedie; we (hall have a 



(ketch of all the elements fubfervient to the phyfical know- 
ledge of man, to the art of preferving his health, and of 
advancing the perfeftion of his nature, which the fciences 
enlightened by the fpiric of philofophy, and, above all, by 
the experimental philofophy, have f urniflied. 

« * 



Ik this epoch, hygiene was far from having reaped all 
the advantages which it might have derived from fo many 
fources of aililtance. I fpeak hera of hygi^m^ coactM«led 
and reduced into theory and precepts by men who feri* 
oufly applied themfelves to the talk. Although I have al« 
ready given a favourable reprefentation of many writers, 
and others are ftill entitled to the fame juftice, it may, in 
general, be obferved, that this branch occupied a very in« 
confiderable place in the plans of iludy and of infttudion. 
I confider it, however, as the bads of the medical know- 
ledge of man, and, in many refpe£ts, as the key to the art 
of healing. This indifference, as I have afferted in an« 
other place,* appears to me to originate from two caufes : 
" imo^ From the circumftance that men, little attentive to 
whatever affe£ts them when in the fall enjoyment of their 
healthy are injBnitely more impatient to obtain deliverance 
from, the fufferings which annoy them; phyficians on this 
account have refdved, in preference, to devote their 'atten- 
tion to that depaitmenc of- their art; froih which they de- 
rive a greater proportion 6f praife dnd'bf confidence, and 
which is more conducifl^e to their perfonal kitereft^ without 
confidering that fuccefs, inthii branch of the profc«ffion, 


■fum— ^1,1 i i ,» , 1 ■•« ■ » >■ ■ II ^1 II ■ I « ,«i I <ii»^— .aJh. 

* Jbourcroy's Journal, entitled MttUcint iclairett &c. torn, iv, p. 326. 


can acquire true foUdity^ only from an intimate knowledge 
of the circumftanoes, connedled with a itate of health. 
2do, Another caufe dl this indifference to the ftady of iy- 
giine is, tbt modern govemmenta, much Jefs occupied than 
the ancient governments with the taik of endowing men 
with ftrong and vigorous conftitutions, have much more 
generally depended on the art of profiting by their vices 
and defe&s, and of calculating their produce^ than on the 
art of improving their phyfical and moral education : from 
thefe mercenary viewa» they have generally been indaced 
to abandon a fyftem which conftituted the glory and die 
fuccefs of the ancient ftates^ and which gave true philo- 
fophers great influence over the perfection and happinefs 
of nations/' 

Down to the end of the feventeenth centuryi all the 
works which treat of hygiene are limited — i^, to trealifes 
concerning the do£lrine of perfpiration, which was a very 
favourite topic of inveftigation with men poflefied of real 
ability: 2^, to commentaries on that futile produdioSi 
known by the name of Scioia Ssierrtitanat and which Rem 
Moreau adorned with illuftrations worthy of another text : 
3^, to compilations more or lefs ufeful from the works of 
the ancients, fuch> for indance, is \ht work of Gonthier of 
Roanno^ (intitled Ei^ercitationes hygM/ik^)^ in which we find 
feme pniTages worthy of remark, relative to the pra£tices 
of his time ; and the treatifc of ifomws, intitled De re ci^ 
baria* Towards the middie and the end 9f that century, 
and about the ccmimencement of the eighteenths the phy- 
fical theoiy of atmofpheri): air began to be applied, to ufe- 
ful purpof<^. MayoWf afterwards f^ £pr long a^posiod for- 
gotteuj appjcars to have conjjsQm^d. it$ ti?ue.effi$£\$> in re- 
fpiration and combuftion. Boyle^ and afterwards li^UeSy 
invcftigated the changes which deprtrmi.M^io£*Jk%.l«e(pir* 



zmiitjf without being able to afcertain them. Hales and 
Suttpft occupiecl themfelves in improving the means of re- 
novating it. Arbuthnot published bi$ treatifes on air and 
alimenti and propofed to himfelfi in this manner, to fub* 
jefk to a new examination, all the branches of the do^rine 

Locke wrote upon education, and upbraided the mothers . 
and teachers of his time, for the care they took to deprive 
their children and their pupils of the falutary impreflion of 
cold air, and for training them up in effeminacy, and in 
ftudied delicacy ; of real detriment to their heahh, inftead 
of ftrengthening and rendering them hardy^ by a manly 
fyftem of education, equally advantageous to tliclr body 
and to their mind. Ramazzini devoted himfelf to inquiries 
concerning the health of artifans, and the difeafes to which 
they are obnoxious. Winjlow demonftrated the injurious 
eSeds of whalebone days on the conftitukion of females 
and of children. But neither Locke nor Winjkw contri- 
buted to reform the manners of their contemporaries. It 
was about the middle of this (laft) century, that Rouffeau 
finally fubverted all the ancient opinions on thefe fubjefis. 
His leflbns were repeated by a crowd of authors. During 
the fame period, multiplied obfervations concerning the 
proper regimen in inoculation, and the treatment of fmall- 
poz, demonftrated that the influence of frefh and renovat- 
ed air, far from being prejudicial in thefe eruptive difeafes, 
was often of advantage in them, and even necefiary; and 
that the regimen fuited to inoculated patients, ihould not 
be exclufivcly regarded as a hot regimen. Thefe fafts 
completely changed the method of regimen, both with re- 
fpeft to medicine and hygiene^ as well as the theory of the 
education of children j not without occafioning them to 
degenerate into many exceiles and exaggerations. 

» Laftly, 


Laftly, works worthy of the pablic efteem, and of ttvU 
OU8 conGderation^ have attached the name of Ttjoi to fome 
branches of the do ferine of hygiine / in which he has sdm- 
ed at preferving the health of the people, of young perfons, 
and of fome clafles of citizens particularly ezpofed to dif- 
eafes which refult from dtfierent occupations in life. But 
thefe performances, as well as many others equally refpcd- 
able, have not by any means introduced thefe changes into 
lygiene, that might be expe£ied from the ftate of the phy- 
fical fciences, down to the fourth epoch. 


To give a more accurate and ufeful account of the fu\>- 
je£l of which we treat, we proceed to give as ample an 
explanation as is poffible in a rapid (ketch of the difierent 
branches of prefervative medicine ; and, after a review of 
the works moft diftinguiflied either by their fuccefs or by 
their merit, to conGder what advantages have accrued to 
each of thefe branches, from the ftate of the fciences dur- 
ing the epoch, the hiftory of which we have detailed. 


If wc conGder the general treatifes written on hygihte 
during this epoch, we find them included in the ancient 
divifion, for the fir ft idea of which we are indebted to 
Galco. This divifion embraces the whole. Thefe treatifes 
are to be found in the complete fyftems of medicine of 
Sinmrtm and of Riverius^ &c. and in the colle£lion of 


tttCt£l7£, BY HALJL&4 4BS 

Wotks in ^hich ytatckr has developed the ntedical htllory 
of his mafter Sidhl. I have already mentioned the ^ork 
inticled Exercitationes hygid/Hc^t of Cdhthier^ and the coin«* 
mentaties of Rene Menau on the Schold Satfrnitam* Geerp 
Cheyne often differed from all hU contemporaries m tefpeA 
to the opinions and pra£lices adopted in his treatifei intitled 
De ir^mtoruth vaietudihe tuinia. In that t{ra& he preached 
up the do£^rine of an almoft exclufive vegetable diet. It 
appears to have been his intention in this petfofmaace to 
revive the tenets of Pythdgoras. and of Porphyry g and» Ukli 
the ancients, he recommends the practice of dietetic vomit- 
ings. In other refpeftsi this author is diftinguiflied by a 
great {hare of genius and of knowledge. Finally, one of 
the moft refpefkful and (diitofophically written wprksf al- 
though very concife, is that which conftitutes the commen<- 
laries of Lirry on the ftatics of SafiB&rius. 



On& of the principal foundations of the phyfical ftudy 
of man is the influence of climates on his conftitution. 
This ftudy is founded upon the aggregate of geological 
and phyGcal knowledge, and, ^above all, upon the theory 
of the atmospheres upon the natural fciences, and upon 
the inveftigation of the dif&rent ahimal^^ vegetable, and 
mineral produ£tions, both in their coniie£lion virith the 
climate, and as they indicate the hature of the foil, and of 
its influence on the creatures by whom it is inhabited. 
Laftly, it is aUb founded upon the mathematical means ot 
. Vol. IIL Ee determ 


detenniniiig the fcale of populattODi and of appfecia&ig 
the caufes which make its proportions to vary, according 
to the relation of tbefe proportions, with the circumftances 
that ztkGt its lalubrity, with political events, with epi- 
demics, &c. Thus all the phyfical and natural Iciences, 
contribute to the improvement of this branch, which alfo 
reqiures an acqu^tance with travels, the muldplicitjr of 
which, during this epoch, has fumiihed ample fubje^l for 
refle£lion to the phyfician, who wifhes to afcertain with 
feme precifion the ftrength of thofe bonds that connect 
the conilittttion of man with the country which he bhabits. 
Zimmerman and Bergman hzve given us ftri&ures on phy- 
fical geography in general ; and the former* has defcribed, 
in a very ingenious manner, the rdations of men and of 
animals with the climates and regions of the earth. Prof- 
fer ji/pinui,f about the end of the fixteenth and begimung 
of the feventeenth centuries, wrote his obfervations on the 
Egyptians, and on the date of medicine in Egypt ; and his 
treatifes contain a topography of that country, delineated 
by the hand of a mafter. Pj/on^ Marcgraff^ and Bmtiui^X 
have defcribed, with almoft an equal degree 9f ability, the 
' topography of Brazil, and of fome parts of South America. 
Certain treatifes, and fome particular memoirs, delineate 
the hiftory 6f different other regions. Biit few, works pre- 
fent a more accurate table, or a more perfe& model of this 
fpecies of writing than the .memoir upon the topography of 


* Spenwun Z9^ogUige9grapbUm- Zimmernum. 

"t* Hifiorh MMt, JBgypt. et de mttSeuia JBgy^orum* 

% GulUL PifinU th Indim utrwfq^e re naturale et meduiMa ; to nvhlch is an- 
nexed the natural hiftory of Chili, bj Marcgraff, and ths treatife dt me^ 
<»« iMrnov of Bbmittfk 

HVgIENE, BV HALtife. idS 

ifarfesllesy by Dr. Raymond^ inferted in the fecond volume 
of the memoirs of the Society of Medicine. This fociety 
have undertaken to draw up a defcription of France, con- 
fidered under the view of the medical knowledge of cli- 
mates ; and a great number of materials have been already 
colle£ied for the execution of this defign. 

The knowledge of the varieties which the phyfical con^ 
'ftitution of man prefents, and of the temperaments in 
which it refuItS) is one of the moft important of all the ful>- 
je£)s, the ftudy of which'contributes to the full illuftration of 
the dofkrine of health. It is very aftonifhing) that with all 
the affiftance derived from tlxe prefent advanced date of 
anatomy, our progrefs in this department of knowledge 
fliould have bjeen fo inconfiderable. This interefting fub- 
je£): of inquiry has been almoft exclufively intruded to the 
habit of obfervation. Scarcely has any, one attempted to 
reduce experience to theory. We repeat what the ancients 
have left us on this fubjeAi without giving ourfelves the 
trouble of appreciating its imports Their priitiitive qualities 
reduced to the four principal temperaments, whofe deno^ 
hiinations are derived from real or fuppofed humours, ftill 
conftitute the amount of what the great Boerhaave has 
prefented to the public on this fubjed, in his Inftitutions 
of Medicine. This do£trine, which has now become obfo« 
lete, and which no perfon has lately been at the trouble to 
revive, has yet received a great modification, more in the 
minds than in the works of phyficians, from the knowledge 
of irritability, and fyftems of medicine built upon that 
knowledge. We find, in the preliminary obfervations to 
the fecond volume of Lorrfs treatife on Aliment,* a ftate- 

> £ e 2 ment 


« Page X to 89. 


meat of the authors' ideas upon the j^jfical (ources of tEe 
differences among men, in which- he fi^gefts fome Terf 
ingenious eonliderations i but as thej ave oitfj fubor^ate 
to his principal yiewi they are not fo developed, or fo pce- 
eife, as a treatife on temperaments would reqjaife. 

With regard to works eicpreftly written on this fubjefi, 
one might almpft affirm, that the beft which we are in 
poficllionof atthisday, isftiU the treatile written in the be- 
ginning of the feventeenth centurft bj Uminui Itemmut, 
mtithd De oon^btd^mbw^ where the tbcoreticSil dirifions 
of temperaments, although founded upon the ancienl hj-^ 
pothefesy are brought together by ^ method fuffidestlf re^- 
mote from obfenration and the pfaftical ftudy of man» 
The pen drops from the hand whik we contemplate fnch 
an expofition of fuch a fubje^l I The re^^?e rdarions 
of all the fyftems pf the parts which .enter into tfa^ com- 
po&tion of man, of ^ lymphatic fyflem to the iangui- 
ferous fyftem, of the nervous fyftem to the mufcular fyf« 
tem^ of the cellular fyftem to the yafeular fyftem, of fenfi- 
bility to ftrength, the mutual relations pf the vifcera to one 
another, and the refpediive propottions of the difierent 
parts of the general fyftem^, confidered in the difierent 
regions in which they are diftributed} of the cerebral 
region to the pulmonary and abdominal regions s of die 
trunk to the extremities; of the centres to the fur&ces; 
all thefe relations, fo true, fo poQtive, fo important, fo fuf- 
eeptible of. being ea^y verified, both firom the fenfiUe 
differences ^mpng meur and by the phenomena which ac- 
eompany the fiiccefiive periods of life : Were thefe then 
confiderations fo frivolous, fb ufelefs, or (b fupetficial, as 
not to reward the labour of colle£ling together all the 
fcattered ideas refpefting them into a con^lete work upon 


Ae fabjed ? But tliis is not the place to extend this dif- 



After thefe prelimmary remarks^ heceflary to eftabliih 
the knowledge of man, and of men, or of xhtfulyiQ ofhy* 
gtene^ the principal obje£t of our reflexions is the. tnflu<n 
•ences to which he is expofed. Phyficians hav« always 
arranged thisftudy under the ancient divifion, known by 
the title of the^;v non^naiurals. I have alreiidy afcertained 
the import of this ftrange term ; and it appears to me that 
the phrafe^ matter of hygi^ne^ might with propriety be fub- 
ftituted in its place> fince thofe things,. and the proportion 
in which their ufe is limited, are in reality the inftruments 
and the means of which we avail oiirfelyes for the purpofe 
of obtaining the prefenration of health. 

The knowledge of atmofpheric air, and of its influence 
upon man, has more efpecially received great accefiions 
from the progrefs of phyfics throughout the whole extent 
of this epoch. The thertnotnetery although its fenfible phe- 
nomena do not indicate any accurate proportion of the 
quantities of caloric, correfpondent to its degrees ; the ba- 
rometer, pointing out the changes in the weight of the 
atmofpherical column, and agreeing, although imperfe£tly, 
with the diflferent conditions of the water diflblved in the 
air; the hygrometer, fufceptible without doubt (^ a new 
degree of improvement ; but already accordant with me* 
teors intimately conne£l'ed with health j the proper means 
of afcertaining the ftate of atmofpherical eleBricityy to which 
freih ac^eflions of knowledge wilt undoubtedly add a new 
degree of precifion,- are, important inftruments which me- 

E 6 3 dical 


' dical meteorology and bygihe have advantageoafly employ* 
cd. The experiments of Duhamel and of TtUet^ tfaofe of 
Fordyce^ oi Banks ^ and of Blagden, on the degree of heat 
to which man can be expofed confident with fafety \ the 
knowledge acquired by thefe experiments of the property 
by which the body in all temperatures maintains its peca- 

\^ liar degree of heat^ have overturned the prejudices acqai- 

efced in on the authority of the great Boerhaave. 

Arbuthmfs treatife on air, notwithftanding, ftill remain- 
ed the moft complete of all thofe whicb^ in courfe of this 
epoch) had been particularly appropriated to the inveftiga- 
tion of hygiene i and yet elefkncitj was not known at the 
time in which Arbuthmt wrote. To this treatife we are 
therefore obliged to fubjoin thofe of the natifral philofcphers 
who wrote on eleftricity^ hygrometry^ and tnetcorok^. 
We muft add to thefe the p^rufal of the writings of the 

V phyficians who have treated of epidemic difeafes^ and who 

have attended to their agreement with the variations of die 
atmofphere: fuch are Sydenham^ Huxham, Lind, Hillary^ 
and| in our own country, a great number of excellent ob- 
fervers ; to whom may now be added, all the works' upon 
epidemical conftitutions of the atmofphere, brought fcsr- 
ward by the eftablifiimeht of the medical fociety, or col- 
le£ted in their memoirs. The works publiflied on the 
danger of burying in cities, on the mepLitifm of privies; 
thofe to which the vaft exhumations, attempted, propofd, 
or executed^ at different times, have given rife, and die 
moft important of which are the compofition of Vicq-d*Azyr 
and of Tbourets ought to occupy here a place more confpi* 
cuous, in proportion as they exhibit ftriklng' praAical 
proofs, added to thofe adduced of the 1 theory, and rel^ore 
to their due degree of importance, propofitions fometimes 
eftabliflied upon a b^is whofe folidity was not fufficiendy 




appredated. But tfaefe works bear the impreffion of the 
fourth epoch, to which thejr belong. 

To the reflexions of Locke^ to the obfervation of Win* 
slow and of Bujon^s to the impreffive remonftrances of 
Rouff^u^ upon the clothing of infants, repeated in a thou* 
fand fhapes by phyfictans and'by authors, 'who have writ- 
ten on education, fcarcely any thing can be added. A 
treatife ptt|)lifhed on drefs, by citizen Alphmfo le Roy^ al-' 
though it contains fome ingenious remarks, is aflliredly.far 
from conveying a fufficieht degree of information in the 
prefent ftate of things. And even long before the era in 
which we live, a great many hints, applicable to this fuh- 
je£t, could have facilitated. its developement* In truth> 
whether we cohfider garments as having an influence on 
mufcular powers, determining either their dire^on, or the 
relations, of their fi^ed to their movable attachments, and 
thus entering into a combination with the theory, of the 
gymnaftic art ; or whether we regard them as defending 
the body from the influence of the atmofphere, the know** 
iedge . acquired concerning ^ni^ial mechanifm, and the 
views already fuggefted by FrankUn, and feveral other 
natural philofophers, concerning the conducing properties 
of bodies for heat, might have afibrded room for a ^ much 
greater number of ufeful refle£lions upon their materials 
and their form. In the prefent day, this objefi . might be 
ftill more fatisfadiorily.accompliflied. 

If we except the defcriptions v/hich either phyficians or 
naturalifts and travellers have given us of the public bathsy 
frequent in Rui&a, in Finland, in the countries inhabited 
by the Turks, and in the Ea(t Indies, the moderns have 
made no addition to the knowledge . left us by the ancients 
concerning iatbs / and almoft all bur modern writer^ have 
treated of them more. in their relation to medicine than ia 

E e 4 their 


their conneAioti with the doBrine of iiokL We fisdj 
'however, in Lwry^s ccnnmentariea <m SattSorius^ theeJe- 
ments of many ufcf al confidenuions on this Aibjed^ wmthy 
of bemg phiced in new points of view in the prefeot 
day, CqfmeHor% and aU ihi^ o/flkatknimaik U the skin, 
whether for preferring ^ckanlioefe, or fo^ b^htening the 
l^lendonr of its beauty, ar^ in the very fame predicament. 
And a work in which the aiitbpf embeUiflied his precepts 
with all the gvaces of an ingenious fifiion, under the name 
of AidikiTy cannot now be regarded as anfwering com- 
pktely the objeA of bygiim^ 

The ftibjed of aliment has been treated more folly and 
more fecceftfully than any other in the courfe oi this 
epoch. In this reipeA, however, the era under review 
muft be divided into two periods. The firft teraunates 
wiA Afiuthna 3 and the work of that phyfician on a&ment 
may be regarded as its completion. Dusing Ais period, 
certain authors publifhctd vesy voluminous perfommnces, 
more replete with true erodinon than with tme phyfics. 
Such are the treatifes of fi/and/i, of Nomatfs, and of Jdd^ 
cbior Sibimsy on aliments. They are very valuable, fince 
they biing together into one point of view, the labours of 
the ancients, and enable us thoroughly to comprdkad 
their do£lrine on the fubje£l in queftioo. Others, anumg 
whicb^ may b^ reckoned Arkujimffs treatife, dtfplayiog z 
kfs prolix erudition, ofkr an application, too frequendy 
ittufory indeed, of the chemical knowledge of the draes, 
iuid more efpecially of analyfis by fire; but we find in 
them a more philoibphical order, and pra£lical obfervatioos, 
well arranged, and which indicate a correft underftanding 
and a found judgment. 

•In the fecond period, chemiftry, unfolding the means of 
« inore fimpk analyfis, has in a greater degree faeifitated the 


V i 


examination of animal and vegetable fubftance8» and the 
comparifon of their charafkeriftic qualities^ The analyfi^ 
of the faf ina of wheat, by fimple wa(hing in cold water, 
performed in Italy by Biccari^ and in Germany by Keffd' 
Meyer i its feparation into zjlarcby matter and a glutinoos 
fubfiance^ awakened the attention of all chemifts and phy« 
ficians. The labours of Reuelle added to thefe firfl: views 
of the fubjefl, all the knowledge that could be acquired 
from the ufe of the inftruments, of which, at that period, 
he had it in his power to avail himfetf. The C^parate con- 
fideration of the glutinous fubftancei and its infolubility 
in the greateft number of menftrua, excited many doubts: 
with regard to the falubrity of the farina of whey, em-^ 
ployed as nourifhment for infants, , and afforded a handle 
for many exaggerations, which I have endeavoured ^o e(li« 
mate under the article Aliment. The analyfis, although 
ftill imperfed of milk, of albi^men, of the yolk of an egg, 
and of the blood, have already thrown great iight on the 
effential chara£iers of the nutritious matter. More pro* 
found inveftigatioii of the produ£^s of vinous fermentation 
has conduced to die knowledge of fermented liquors, and 
enabled us to form more accurate ideas of the effc€t« 
which refult from their ufe. - 

All the moft accunte knowledge which at that, period 
could be obtained, with regard to the peculiar nature of 
the alimentary fubftance, to the varieties of alimenf in 
which it^.is contained \ with refped); to the nat^r^ of mu<« 
cous bodies^ whether found in mucilages, in facch^rine 
fubilances, in fermentible juices, pr in gelatinous fub- 
ftances, both animal and vegetable, has been condenfed 
with equal fagacity and erudition, by the celebrated Lorry ^ 
in his treatife on aliments i which I confider as the befl: 
fummary of all the information acquired on this fubjefl, at 



the end of this epoch. I have given a very comptehenfive 
view of this treatife in the article devoted to this objefi. 
Cullifif m the beginning of his Materia Medu(h bsallb. 
given excellent obfervations on the dtfierent parts of tbe 
nutritious matter. 

Laftlys it would be highly unjuft to omit quoting here 
among the number of men whgfe wor)cs have chiefljr coo" 
tributed to the improvement of this branch of the art, the 
xefpe£kable name of Parmentier^ whofe labours^ conftandj 
dire£led to public utility, have difcovered the nature of 
many nutritive fubftanceS} particularly of farinaceous fub- 
ftances, and vindicated from unmerited contempt the/o/o* 
ioe^ ong of the mod abundant and moft ufeful (pedes of 
aliment. This worthy, citizen has acquired a ilronger title 
to our gratitude, inafmuch as we are perhaps at this day 
indebted to him for our efcape from all the horrors oi a 
terrible famine, with which we were threatened by the 
wicked machinations of men, notwithfbanding of the fer- 
tility of our foil, and of the multiplied gifts of nature. 
. Botany, by the accuracy of its defcriptions, has taoght 
us to diftinguilh the ufeful aliment and agreeable feafoQ- 
ing, from the fatal poifoxi, in a clafs of aliment, at prefent 
in too great requeft ; and the obfervations of Paidit and of 
BuUiard on mulhrooms and poifonous plants, ought not to 
be paiTed over in this place without praife and acknowledge 
ment. Let us be equally attentive to beftow a (hare of the 
glory due to thefe learned men, upon thofe who have en- 
lightened the citizens with refped to the danger by which 
they are too frequently threatened, and at whofe inftiga- 
tion laws have been promulgated, prohibiting the ufe of 
veflels and uteniils of copper and lead in thofe cafes in 
which thefe metals can be attacked by folid food and 
liquids, and can convey into our bodies the germs of de* 



% t 


ftrudtODi in the deceitful garb of falubrious nouriflimetity 
and lurking under the charms of an agreeable liquor* 
Navier^s effays efpecially merit a particular attention on the 
part oi chemical phyfician^> by multiplying the means of 
deteAing and deftroying this perfidious enemy. 

Gorietf by determining with ftill greater accuracy than 
SanBerius the moment of moft copious peripiration which 
follows fleepi by proving^ that till the very moment of our 
wakening, thi^, like the other evacuations, is almoft entire- 
ly inipeded ; that it is in the moments immediately fub- 
fequent to our awaking from fleep, that this, as well as all 
the other excretions, burft forth with greater impetuoCty 
and profu£on, prepared by reft, and excited by all the 
moving powers, which at this period refume a new degree 
of adivity ; by thus aiEfting us in incorporating together 
the theory of aliments, of evacuations, of fleep, of repofe, 
and of exercifes, Garter has fumiihed the do£lrine of 
hygiene with a bafis, upon which important conGdenu 
tions, fubfervient to the prefervation of man, can reft with 
greater folidity. 

The more accurate analyfis of the bilci made by modem 
chemifts; the different fta,tes of the phofphoric acid in 
urine, afcertained by them with a greater degree of preci* 
fion than by their predeceflbrs ; the univerfality of this acid 
recognifed in the animal economy, in the bafe of bones, 
and even in the gaftric juices, have placed the agents and 
produAs of digeftion in a new point of .view, have author- 
ized us to take for granted the bond of connection between 
the different conditions of the fubftances evacuated, with 
the order and derangement of this funAion, as well as 
with the ord^r and derangement of oi&fication, and have 
paved the way to new and important views of thefe pro- 
ceffes, and to the ufeful labours of Berthokt^ of Fauquelin^ 


444 RVeiBNE, BY HAl^Lfir 

and of Fourcr^yf on gouty difeafes^ en ^he ^flfereaees he^ 
twecn the phyfiology of man, and of the lower aftnub, 
and on the chara&eriftic features of thofe changes wUck 
take place m the fucceffive periods of life. 

Of the knowledge of mufcttlar motion and of animd 
mechantfmi tnveftigated afrefli by certain anatomifts, fob* 
jeCtei to calculation by the celebrated B^relHi in Us trea- 
tife De matu ammaliumf thefe authors could not form m 
accurate eftimate, becaufe| although they bare gifcn an 
eza& meafurement of the inftrument, they could not pot 
fibly fubjedl the power itfelf to pfecife eakulation. Never- 
thelefsi if they have not been aUe to difcover tk-total 
amount of die force and of the Tariable adion whicb it 
exercifeSy they have atlcaft afcertained with predfiofltk 
diflerent elements of ^i^hidi it confiffs; and die ufefd 
views which they have propofedj undefervedly overlooked 
fince their time, ought not to be entitely loft on thdr k- 
ceffors. T)ie ftudy of the gymnaftic art^ now for a loo; 
period abandoned ; that of its influence upon die deve* 
lopement of the corporeal organs, and upon the art of pre- 
venting diftortion, more by natural than by artificial means, 
which ought to be rcfcrvcd for the cure of difeafcs, dcfcrvtt 
at length to receive more efficacious afliftanee from aDunal 
phyiics, too much negleded on the frivolous pretext of 
their infufficicncy. Phyficians have too frequently repeat* 
edt and in the prefent day ftill too frequently repeat, tbtt 
the calculation of phyfics, and the produfts of chemiftryt 
are always too remote from the refults of nature. The 
works of nature is a probtem compofed of what is known 
and conftant, taken in conjanflion with what is unknown 
and fubjed to change. Shall they always thus continue to 
perfuade us, either that the investigation of tfcis problcffl 

muft be abandoned j or that, in order to enable us to efti- 



Ibaee ^hat is unkoowai and to 6x the ftudy of what b 
variable) we ought to negled the conftant and calculable 
^meats of the problem in queftion i 

Laftly, the influence which the moral part ot man 
poflefles over his phyfical natnrc} the power which our 
fen&s, our paflion6» and the inceUedual part of our confti* 
tiitioii, exercile over the fundions which preferve our ex« 
iftence, whatever gfiiftance pbyficians may have received 
from philofephers on thefe fubjedsy have been explained 
by the fomier in a very vague manner^ The phenomena 
of the comparative developement of our phyfical^ moral, 
and inteUe&aal facuhiesA of their derangement, and 6( the 
relations between them, demonftrated by the accideats of 
health and difeaie$ have, however^ placed in the hands of 
pbyficians moft multifarious means of accompliihing this 
delicate analyfis. They ought confequently to have beea 
able, with greater ability than other inqutrets, to follow 
nature in the interefting details of this kind <rfobfervations$ 
and they ought to .have put themieives in a condition of 
furnishing more useful lefibns, and more aecurate confider^ 
ations to phHofophers. . 


The idea of the improvement of regimen neceflfarily re« 
fults from the improved knowledge of man, and from the 
knowledge of the things to wfaofe influence he is espofed. 
The former is the eondufion of a problem, of which the 
latter are the data. We have prefented to th^ reader a 
flcetch of the hiftory of public hjphu z with regard to pri* 
vate bygi^9 and to the generad details of regimen, they are 
particularly to be found in general treatifes, and in thofe 
which coilccm aliments r -The fecond vciume of Lorrf^ 


work^ Arbutbmfs performance before his time; and at i 
more ancient period, Lommiu/s excellent commentary oA 
the firft book of Ceifas, in titled De tuenda vaietudim; i^ 
unfortunate Bennefs inveftigations concerning the regimen 
beft adapted to the preferration of fuch as are tbreatencd 
with pulmonary afie£lionS| colle£led together in his trea- 
tife called Theairum taUdorum^ comprehend the beft ob- 
fervations which can be compiled on the theory of regi* 
.men, whether calculated for thofe who enjoy a permanent 
ftate of health, or for thofe whofe exiftence is feeble and 

I ha?e already mentioned what regards the education 
and regimen of infants, and the revolution wUch on this 
fubje£i, has taken place amongft us, eftabliflied opoo ob* 
fenrationS) for a long period forgotten by the tiflfi^ty of 
mothers and of teachers, but efientially true and ufehl. 
The confequences deduced ffom thefe obferrations, how* 
ever, fometimes pufhed too far^ compel u^ to repeat to 
thofe men whofe judgment is overpowered by improper 
ideas ; who are acquainted with a few principles onlfi 
without any inclination t6 perceive their ftades.of dife- 
encc ; who contemplate all men with the fame eye, allcir- 
cumftances under the fame point of view; who appKciate 
the powers of nature by their own preconceived opinionsn* 
ther than their own opinions by the laws of nature; compel 
ttS) I fay, to repeat to them, that every thuig beyond the 
bofindaries ol truth is error^ that every general inference 
deduced from one fa£l, or from many fa&Si andapplie<l 
to every cafe without diftin£bion, . neceffarily exceeds thefe 
boundaries; that the fuccefs of a rafli experiment fioelT 
demonftrates the extent of nature's refources, bat does not 
authorize them to expofe themfelves to the charge of hxf* 
ing furpafled her limits. In (hort, to bring to their ^' 


lediion the obfervation of the excelleiit Horace^ an obferv- 
ation fo often verified among all mankind, Dum vitanffiulU 
vitiaf in contraria currunU One of the works which has 
met with the moft* favourable reception amongft us, fince 
the time of Rouffeau^ 19 the fmall treatife of Jl/. deFourcrvj^ 
counfellor to the bailliwick of Clermont, intitled Children 
educated according to the order of nature. It is now in the 
hand of every mother; and although it had only this merits 
it would be worthy of great attention. The precepts which 
it lays down are juft and ufeful ; but their import efpecial- 
ly reiquires to be appreciated with difcemment, and to be 
underftood with <he reftridions, which circumftances, the 
ftrength or the weaknefs, and the fufceptibility of indivi* 
duals, render indifpenfably neceflary. 

As to what remains, on this fubje£t, if the writings of 
philofophers little converfant in medical fcience, have, on 
this account, the difadvantage of not being applicable in 
every cafe, we ought to find this error re£):ified ii¥ the 
works of phyficians on the fame fubjed. The knowledge 
of the difeafes of children, /the habit of perceiving their 
approach, of preventing and of treating them, gives to 
their precefits a greater variety, and a more extenGve ap- 
plication. Without mentioning the works ezclufively con- 
fined to the treatment of difeafes, there are others which 
treat of phyfieal education in general; and of thefe, al- 
though the epochs at which they were publifiied ftamp 
upon them different impreflions according to the opinions 
prevalent at the time, there have at different periods been 
diftinguiflied in our own country, tbofe of Brouzet^ of Rau* 
liny of DefefsartSy and of little treatife of citizen Saucerotte, 
xemarkable^-fbr. its brevity, Jts fimplicity and pcrfpicuity. 
I do not confider it tjiecefiaryi upon a fubje£t on which fo 

' ■ ^ . little 



fittle new has been adYaiiced^ to reootd tbertml&eRNis ihjriti 
of foreigners* 

We are fat ftom bebg in pofleffien of Co toasyirorb 
on the health of old men, as on that of chflArm. IfaS) 
however feeble 'and tottering at the* two CMmkies rf 
ttfe» has equal need of fupport» and the aged Mdes r^ 
qnire confolation. This M^eSt engaged Galen'i altentioD; 
and there exifts a treatife) of the eommeaccment of the 
feventeenth eentoiy» mtitfed ./A^iif£i.«6tfyvfOffl»0. This a* 
ample has not had many imitatAa. It has beenderml 
fixr our age> to liquidate the debt iacurted by the prt* 
ceding, and to fill up with advantage this bmdi iff ovr 

I have ranked in the nund>er of the works wiuch hx^ 
contributed to the imfMKwement of bfgihie^ hmm^ 
treatifes on the difeafes of artifts. In fad, it is truly in 
the ftudy of thefe difeafes^ that the phyfician ought to fedt 
for the leflbns of experience^ as to what is condacive to 
the prefervation of fo nnny ufeful nien» to whom (ocietj 
•owes its enjoymrnts* So important a confideratioD vobM 
it be, to remove them from thofe influences, oftcii danpr* 
ous and fometimes fatal, by which they are furrottQ<le'l 
and yet a hygiene of artifts is (till a defideratum in the me* 
dical art. The Society of Medicine intended to attempt » 
work of this kind, which ought to conftitute ad eiTentia] 
part of the coUeAion of arts and tra6is publiOied by ^ 
Academy of Sciences* Citizen Pajot des Charm has al- 
ready enriched it with valuable obfcrvations, made in tic 
midft of workhoufes. But the zeal and the knowledge rf 
this rcfpeftable obfervcr were unaccompanied with ttot 
acquaintance with medicine which was rcquifitctoglve'"^ 
remarks all the utility aftd all the extent of which they a^ 




t AmU ^t^ ccp^t bere wlia^ b;a$ ^Jifcady beep advfua^ed 
t;0ii^rqu9g pipy gcis^u ^1|0 h^Vf wxi^en on due h^k of 
the ppQT) pf tbe poq^^ o^ n^a of l^ttess, of max of 
U^Qaioth pf <9)4ie^» qf f^^oq^ of Europciin^ who travel to 
irppi^al cjinuite^f 9xjA of tbp io^^bit^Qts <Qf our colomey. 
ABusf the mmes of Plm^m^ of Poriius^ and of Ramazzim^ 
vrbu^b ai4pc(? tbe feiepteeptji cejRtuty ; o»r own (Jaft) ri^- 
gifteffSy with gF9^&l ac^noji^dgmentSy the names of 
Privgff^ of ZM|tf» of HUhry^ of Jdu^mclf of P$t/f9Mni^r 
De/pfrrmesr^ of |)ie illuftiiplis Co^it, of the venerable 7j^/t 
iind of Daxilie^ aljre^dy q^ote4> M<1 wOisthy of having thek 
names afato i;e{ieat^» 

fO'^^RTH £90C|f f 



Without daring to flatter myfelf, that I have unfolded 
to an extent worthy of the fubjedl, the hiftory of that 
epoch* whofe prindpal features have now been traced* I 
believe that I have given a pretty exaf): view of the changes 
which the ^xx of prefenrio^ hegkh has experienced during 
its coAtiutt^tiQni and of the ^principal points to which its 
progxeis qi^n be refeijed* 

In the .epoch which jemains for us to examine* we 
ought to confine ourfi^Iyes lefs to the works already pub^ 
liihcd on hygi^ne^ than to the means which we enjoy of 
attempting works of this nature with greater fuccefs. We 
are in ppfleflion of new and powerful fources of aflxftanee $ 
we can confequently pherifh greater expeAations. 

VoL-lIL Ff Not 

4Sd HYOlEirE, BT HALliT* 

• • ■ • ft . 

Not only has it happened,- that certaiti works c»f dift 

tini have appeared hot a fevir "years ago-, bat itmhy, ffom* 
the' 4»a tare of* tlieir fubje£hi>' aM of the details into ^AiA' 
Aetr authors have entered, afe efientiaUy connefked «ith 
thofe whieh ware given to the pubUcdadag the tMtt 
epoch; do not differ from them by any efiential chara&er, 
and h^ve^been aflbciated with' them in' the taUe of which 
we^etchecf the outline. The reports mslde to miatfters 
by the Society of Medicine, concerning the regimes of 
failors ; and tb^ works of the competitors for itspfizes^ on 
the fub{e£l of tnilkarf hy^hre^ which will be paUibol 
without any unneceiiary delay, maybe arranged is die 
fame clafs ; and in refpeA to general treatifes, the work of 
chi^en ^oifttelh has lately been diftinguiflied ^moMg 'onr- 
feltes; and in Germany^ the^works publiflied at }en% by 
Dr. Chri^opher Hit am Hufeland: I fatisfy myfeU with flU- 
Itiding to thefe in this place, in order to confine my i^age 
at prefent to the examination of thofe means oi improve- 
ment pointed out to us by the progrefs which the phyfical 
and ehemical fdences have made in the pbje& applicable 
to the knowledge of man^ and to the prefervadon of 


The fourth epoch, which now occupies oUr attention, is 
chiefly remarkable for the difcoveries of gafeous fluids, and 
•f the compofitioa of water^ i^nd^ by the theory of pxygen ; 

• bv 


hy the theory of calcnric, and hf the new meins of ap|)re- 
'dalfng attd of calealaritig its e}u^ntiKcif*by the imprbved 
"Ifireory dif 'dearicity; arid by the accutaty of theiftftrtis. 
•Thetits cbntrived to calculate it^ fttertgthi or to det^eft i^ 
¥airfteft 'kppe^rahces ; by the difcbvery of the phenomena 
of galvanifm ; by the progrefs of comparative anatdmy r ih 
fine, 'by the precifibtf gi^n to the hhguage of fcifeface, 
throtrgh the iiiftrunlcfntMity of the new fyftcta of nomeir- 
clatnre. '• ' ' •'•....... 

An abler Ipen has ttticfed, in the DlBiona^ ofChemiftf^^ 
^helftftory of the difcovery of claftic fltiids *, of which the 
geniiis of Vanheirrtont had obtained a glihipfe at the begin! 
niiig t>f the fevcnteenth century ; 'v/hofe phenomena in 
tonibtrflion and fefpira*tion had been briefly deKncated by 
Mayow in 1669— a difcorery Which Bo^le and Hdles had 
afterwards improved by experiments, whofe refults they had 
not antiiiipated ; which Black and Vehtt have? alfo forefcen 
in thtii' works, u[jon the principle which renders Waters acid-*^ 
vXo^y and which yet efcaped the perception of every eye, till 
Prieftky glorionfly opened the career, the palnos of which 
were referved for Lavoi/iei'. * 

Ffa Th^ 

- -• 

* Tke tiifcovery of oxygen ga9, that great fource of animal life and o^ 
animal heat, of which the very ingenious Dr. Mayow, as appears from hi^ 
©flays on the Nitro-aerial and Fiery Spirit, had but a faint and conjeAural 
glidiple^ obfcured by much (infatisfa€lory reafoning add inadmiffible hy- 
pothcfi8,JN»8 4xruitil7 firil ckkibited-byDr.Prieftky, aii^,abimt the fame 
.tiaie, (unknown however to each other), by the immortal Mr. Scheele of 
Stockholm, although Hall^ aflerts in the text that the palm of this difco^ 
very is due to Lavoifier. Dr. Prieftly obtained oxygen gas, or, as he term, 
ed it, dephlogifticated au", ih June or July 1774, from the red oxyd of 
sxercury, orifprecipitate ^ei^y^ ; and from minium, or the rcdt>xydof lead. 
This fadk he publicly mentioned, at Lavoificr's table at Paris, in the 
prcfence of that great and unfortunate "philolbplicr ahd of his lady, 
who had no pretibus knowledge of this interdftiD]^ fluiti, and expreflki 
ed their furprife at the pheDomtna related by Pri^ilhy, in tift mbnt^ 



4^2 k^QlZ^^^YJlAXJ^. 

The jQipx^ of ,9jtiiH>fyheric .^ on <mhlfi(fi^ i^i^jit^ 
combinations ,with Kor^ zifi fifdrffftiB^ xbei fpcinat(<|p ^ 
ofjdV^ apd the phfifiooipa of (^ qn&foCtiw 9t>d 4ceooBr 
gofkion of W^» itfc oot defti](ie4 £oir tbe fi:^ Wm^fif 
exciting a. bancn admimticio ; 'vf t))e& jquqi ^necogs^f^^ 

lecrct of bi$ own e^uftence. 

»•.■"• - 

. The comf^im pffhfi aim^h^:^, and the prt>po|ttiaiu«p£ 
its component parts* haire at laft diiccifered the Qa|Wfi4i|F 
the air in which we lift. Bat yet the tfrt gf eu^omfi% 
and all the means. ei9plo]i:ed for carq^ing it to ^ ak S ^ n, 
have only proved the T^ieticaof thei^ picoporiioasi ao^k 
is in vain that we, have Utherto expelled fkom endionctty 
fatisfa£tory j)^ oofs of its degree ojf ialubxity. In order to 
obtain certain knowledge on tjus poii)t^ we xnuft ha»^.,,r&- 
courfe to the examination of its effe^ .vqpon die a)9Jin9i^ 
wUch refpire it> to ^e alterations iqdUiced by thrnyi^^ffit 
which contaminate itj and to the phenqmeoja of a^ijfms, 
Vft are at lead: already well aware,, ^at of all the pcniims 
which infe£l the atmofpbece, the tcioft virulent knoiniy 
among thofe by whofe cau&s we are commonly farsQ^i^ 
ed, are the combinations which form carbonic add^ <ar^f9fl» 
fited hjgrogen^ and Julphurated hjdrogtn. 

The identity of the produ&s of comhiftim and rt^rti6m% 
the fimilar changes which the sdr experiences at the fame 
dme in the lungs, and on the furface of the 9va^ the new 
qualities which th^ blood acqmres in paffiog throvg^.tbe 
pulmonary vefiels, exhibit, under a new pointcf view, the 


of Q6kober of tiie fame year. About thfi iaf^c time, he ispeatfif tbe ex« 
pcriment9 which had formezly procuird him his 49h]o|^iUcf^fd airn la 
the prefetice of many of the fcientlfic chemifts'of I'aris, at th; cttehratei 

M. 1fx«dai&e^«( TKAlltLATOK. 

HtMtM, BIT HALL]^« 4S$ 

i^ flu^tfft tf man tidth' the aSr Wlflcli he lire^tliedy atid with 
thb atmol^ere in ^l&ch he is immetfed. Trom that pe- 
tUA f &ic ^/Mgjtit anid dafticity of the air have ceafeti to 
aifl: thit'moft promineAt part in the thbofy of its uies m^ 
refpfraWon. * To**c phyfiologSfs eye, thelife of irian, aV 
wel] as that of the lower animafsj has become the refult of 
the ctfmbitiations bf a fluid deftined to efie£i:' a contitiual 
renovation of the futface of the globe, iri all thoft? points 
WHkh are fttbmitted to its afiion. But is' this vaft fouti- 
tain of IHe inezhattftible ; and in the itiidft of its continual 
ioffi^sf^ and of its perpetual atterations, how can it recover^ 
Its flrcngthj or recruit its ezhanfted energy ?' 

Hie fine experiments of IngenJ)oufz oa vegetables^ Teem 
to unvdl this myftery of aatui^. The property which light 
appears to excite into aftion in vegetables, of pouring a 
ftream of pune air into the bofom of the a'tmofphere, efpe-' 
cially of difcharging it in the greateft abundance, when in 
contaft vi^th water, and' with carbonic acid, announces to 
us tbfkt being vefted with a (undion, which is the exa£fc 
counterpart of the refpiration of animals ; and points out' 
to us animated beings mutually furnifliing therofelves with 
the materials of life, and nature alternately reftoring to 
both the reqnifite proportions of atmofphere, always chang- 
able, antf always capable of being repaired. 

In iHt midft of theft combinations and transformations 
of belies, one* fugitive fubftance appears and difappears, 
efcapes the notice of ourfenfbs, declines to fubje£l itfelf 
to the teft of the balance, incalculable in its mafs, undefin- 
able in its nature. Caloric ^ which the thermometer points 
out to ns withdttt inftfu6ilng us in its proportions, ul-* 
timately fufiers itfelf to be arreftcd. One of its moft con- 
ilant efied:s becomes the meafufe of its quantity } and- a^ 
portion of thi3 fubftaiDce^ formerly inappreciable in the 

F f 3 centre 

centre of. the caknrimeterii no longec(eY9to the.OiUailjtflool' 
of Lasaufier and oli. Laplace. In thf procf;& of vs^taikuiA 
the ajotmal fufl^: a great prqpoctioinx)f .this, fi^aace la 
eXcape. This,pjcxq>ottion| goib pared with the qnanti^of 
i;grboniq acid^ formed, with that of t^e oxygen gai of 
which the atmofphere is deprived^ ieems ta fnbftaathitg£k of. vefpiratipn \ 'and* this prodii& corse- 
fpondfl to . the w^ter that efeapes inuhe form of Taposr 
from the veficles of • the lungs. Caloric united to. arterial 
blood, and tranfmitted with it to the di&rent paits oft&e 
body, pardy, at leaft, unfold to os.the fcwet of ammal 
temperature^ and of the means employed l;)y natorc iave- 
pairing itsJofies. . 

With this theory is conneAed that of the frmnfimffim^ 
cahfic through the different bodies of nature^ by the iitter- 
▼ention of their condu£iing properties. A gfieat vamty 
of phenomena, till lately very little known, ehicidated by 
.Benjdtnin ^hmnjm^ Count Rumford, difisover to ns the 
manner in .which this principle is tranfmitted dnoogh 
elaftic flnids and Itqijdidsj and. the art of prop^pting, of 
confining, of prefervingy and of diftributing heat, coniri* 
butes to improve thofe of conftra&iag our hahitadoii% of 
clothiflg our bodies, and of preparmg pur aliments. 

New inftruments of analffis^ funoffaed hy the combia- 
^tions of that a£liv«, univerfal, transfonaing principle, :ths 
hafe of oxygen gas, difoover to us, inthcanidft of 'gnmd 
analogies ft r iking differenees . between ^ the . principal, wge- 
taUe and animal ft4hjiances» Both.of.tkmn ace convened 
into oxalic acid. But the azotic jaf,^«rhich»tbe lattgr<emits 
in fuch abundance, proves that thevce(emblancs>.betsFeen 
tbem is not in every infbmoe entirdy 09aipi(tf(>;>,3Hko<z>m- 
4)c>fition of ammonia, formed of the f^me chara£teriftrc prin« 
ciple of animal fubftances, yim^Axoijdro^m'gttsi revealed 
/ifi the hands of Bertbokt a fecre^ which the chemi(tS| 

£ar fe long a^ pesiod,f h^d jdemandpd of :natoief aiid fiofxifo 

iong a .period received a; fief ufal. Two cbfies^ o£ .fu]aiBaxu:e» 

are faond diftin£lly fonaed<^. vegetables .anil<Qnijaal%;a3fift 

the tkeorj) of animaltzation is. iketcbed ojituf . . > . -itt 

. One of the' moft fiiigular.prQdtt£t& of anisial^ovg^Mdzaji^. 

tioixy pi^hotwsf' and. the fj3$fpboric acid, in which4lt reiultsi 

akoadyi wiell known in the bafia of bone^ and in' the anfanftl 

iibf Of' have been traced in the aliments^ in the excxementidr 

tious fluidsi in the, formation of thethairy ofthe Jiocasfand 

of the ikin of animals, in the gaftric juices, in the noteitl^ 

tious iiuids, and in that which is confeorated to. reprodus* 

tion. Bertboletf Foutcro^ and ^^Mfw^ffi, have, •examined 

iheir relations and differences, in gouty difea&s, in the 

compariipn of people of different ages^ in that i^A men 

with. the lower animals; and if we are ftilli uoaciluaintod 

with the method of its formation, we at leaft ohtainLft 

glimpfe of its conne£tion with the phafes of life^: and with 

the derangements of the animal economy, in.moft.oftfaie 

difeafes which affliA hunlanity. i. , m -i. 

Lavoifigr and Seguin have alfo endeavoured to infcorm 

themfdves of the phenomena oi perfpiration^ and to fubje£t 

it to experiments, whofe apcuracy leav^ nothing to defiare 

upon this fubje£b* Others are .doubtlefs. invited to finidi 

the labours which they left incomplete; as for us, kt us 

refrab in. this place from fuperadding. to. immortal. regrets^ 

ihamefol.and deplorable recollections. 

While modem chemiftry has acquired ib many elaiina 

upon oor acknowkdgments, Goukmb has fubje&ed ele£kri« 

jcity to calculation \ he has meafuned its xxnnutefl;' pvo^wc- 

tions, and.detennined the progredions, ^whicb^jitfoibiiis 

tpthe different .points of the fnrfacesof hooltes«.M Inrfioe, 

.' > - .F f 4 . . *i V.) < i i^hifi 

^ . " ' ' ' ■ lii ' . ' Ji :;.uij';j 1. "j f .l T 

• the article Ahmxnt, ch. i, fe^. 3. ^ ,,■ . , 

in iMMMMf iimi cwoiwy pcnuitt tnBU^ w ^n^imoif «mic 
'^Mtforeii^ and AeMtanoeapptecBMsaft the dsgiftt.W 
•it* a6Hon. nte ac«MMlitoi andnDdfaiw k-m kfait««« 
im^i tkf dtudfkr 9f deBrickff iorealsd^ «nd imptaMd 'fay 
JbiiMr, JDiir«i*iy JffiUfl^ftN^ ttid Rudt ftscnm^ c«Bcft te 
'iiiMtfft tMOCBtf ftttttcfcdl dmuffli die ntmifahiKr, atuiMtti 
4fa flAMtain die akeredbnt whitib it MfauMttuMafiea^ 
liencBSf fiont tkie iel|iiraiien of aiBmalta 

Ab wMQipcAed prodigy u jirepavingyanA ttflMMm^ 
^«Uek' iHUIr amid i» many e^Mrinfento aad nbtaikm 
fcad iM-pcioeiired, corner as k were, ifoaiaM^^ 
it&tf tD SakrnnPs attention. That combined AMpWitM ^ 
vecfee andvf mufiBles^'witliirhick nature gememtMmetoMs 
lbs whx^ idwibiillemi of moti4n»ifirigtedfotti'lbe'yMiMg 
Iti^pdd^ madi¥e» and» in i^peaattiGe,compleidf depftftd «f 
Wk^ it fmesEpcAediy re^ea, at the iidbiai of ioppfe 
coataft^ eflBUiCbed or fareken beewa^e* th^ fAHfei ef die 
cisde of condudiors upon "vlueh k tefts. O*^ tbe-^iie 
kand, the rapidity of «oaimiiiricatioa» and the ^mtsmf^of 
the eonda&tf8| feen^.to eftaldtfli 1ictt«reen tfaefe.|db^Qo* 
mena^ and thofe eC deftrieiitfi ftrodg* ansdogies^ wlack 
other obfmations appeaMo deftiof* Oo dio <fth^ faao^ 
the fteadinefs of rthe pfac ito m w H <a» i^deyefijient of the U^ 
ttre of the necveB^ iiidepeiadeiift.of the conipiete iSsTecadoii 
ef vtfaeir trunks andepeadent of die. didhna^ either of die 
jnatBior of the. mdividitidlftom* which they are taken^ pra- 
ted diat the parts fepanrted heddfBr96t)dgitoai, or cenip 
m i ina atg hff oocanaof profi^r intermediat ieems to {oAH 
o^raffimiladQg itB cawTe lo diatiMfhjlch-.ia the Imng body 
fiippoTts the iO^tural iaflaence of i^ nsrvpaa or the aonf- 
oiiar £fAeiii3« »WhajC wiU be the confeqa^nces of the dif- 
covery of a prppeity fo very ftorprigng I ij|p%,w^ p;faia 
irom giving a decifion on this point.. 

wmaxm^ by aAiJ». .447 

KnaUyy thettBilMliii's eye fui^oya ia fueoiffitiO:.^Uitiie 
lb#er ttiiMky Md ^Mfpekce^ th«ir ftiiiAiirM m^^hiiK^ 
tfiai^he lui6 Aavvn^a imiiAd' bftwotn att tte ^fftemft 
«Udi€«mpofeited{y^iimei»fiGM«ft^ IFtoOimM 

tDinfeAs^ Qm«0^ imeiigatttt jiHd 4M)tap«»^l^ 
of die Tifoera ; and the difpofitions of >die aamaus ,^d die 
mofeular iyftdtts. He (hews in whait orderft of sniittals;ltbie 
ckyk dtttthtea fay Ae iidiaence of a contMSHlelieaM atld 
of arterial veflels, and is carried frtitn de eentre to thoes- 
cremhiea and (iir&cea, to be afte^nrayds ttcondnffaed to- 
wank llie centre : hi what other ordet^ the fame tvH^ on* 
ly efl^fed into tlie intervals between the Tifeera» fi>akB thofe 
pans ^iiAoch it appears to nourifli^ only by watering Aem. 
He unfolds in each of them tfie ftru&ure rf thofe organs 
by wfitch the atitiofphere or cSrcnmambient. fluid is- fUb- 
mittcd to* the mechanifin of a true re^icarion, whell ic g the 
inBi be^ that this atmofphere, whatever be its natttre^ recdv- 
ed ihto hitigs properly formed^ diere finds a nutHtidbs fluid 
tarried thither by pulmonary treflels; whether the fans 
atmo(|>taTe, cohwyed by appropriate vefibls, appears to gb 
in qiiefl: of the liuttitiou^' flifid as far t» the heart ; whether 
being diflemlhated^throbghottt the tx>dy by means of hs re- 
fplratoify pores, it everywhere comes into eontaA with the 
juice poured out iH the w4iole esmnt of the animal's body. 
Cwier points out to tfs the ttniverfality of this funfiion of 
refpiration, fiij^aridr dven td that i»f the circulation, and at 
ways maintaining a cohftdht affitiity with the reftorinj^ 
fluid, and ctf Afe(|uedtiy widl Itutriiion. Thus do we ob- 
ferrci, that fhe fi^ft eiid i}f the tfrganlaatkMi of animated 
beings, thefup^tt-c^lifcf however complicated or^fimple 
may be its hfecK2Uli<ia¥; is aliA^ys f efolved into otferptoblem 
alone, that of eiUblUMng it pirpetttat relation bet^^eadie 
circitmambient fluid and the ilbiieiiraty juicel^ i. r-^ v 


:r . ' , . . ■ r •.• • 



: . •: • . . . ^ 

. go nunjr fuccefsfal U\>.Qup appear to ^nlaige the bori- 
zon of nature to our fight ; and it is only by a retrpfpedivc 
yj^w of pad age9> and by refled^ing on h'ow many illulions 
t^nthttfiafm has frequently introduced into oitr theories; that 
we are Xaught to paufe and to fay^. o/je plaufible error done 
auf^ during many ageSf exclude us from tJx path tl^at coniuBi 
io^ truth. But if we ought to fpeculate with caution, we 
pught not at leaft to relinquifli hope, while we indulge in 
the contemplation of the confequences announced to us bj 
tbefe premifes. 

One foUtary truth, clearly demonftrated, can fonn a 
bond of conDe£lion between all the branches of hjfetie, 

* ^ ^ ft 

Let the changes which the air. experiences, and which it 
operates in our organs^ and in our fluids, be equally well 
e^lained throughout the animal economy, as in thefoi- 
xnonary f un£bions : let us attajn to an equal degree of cer- 
tainty refpeding the effeds of the atmofpherical.flui(l> Id 
all the parts in which it enters into feme combination with 
t}ie nutritious matter: in the ftomach and intedines, vitli 
the alimentary mafs, or with the aliment V^hich tfiip^^ 
to afford nourijhment^ and is about to be. ,CQ|??(S'^^'^ '^^^ 
chyle J in the lungs, with the aliment wbicii is redi u 
,j^art imth its nutritious matter^ md which jrefents itfelf to 
its aftion in the chyle completely formed, and in the Wood 
jrnmediatcly after its reccpQon j .at tbjs fijrface of the fcn 
with the alin;ient which is about to be veM with nutriitoia 

Jjroperties, and whicl^,^ under the form, gf lypR^^i g.diftuicfl 


• i 

mnarmBj by kajlls* 4SB§ 

in the lymplnlic fyftem, and in the fubcutaneous cellular 
webs, MvJth the fame lymph united'with the fat, and chatig* 
ed Into milk in the mammury organs,' where^lt dbeysfo 
<<quidi:ly ^d'fo' obvionfly the infloence of atmpfphertcal 
contaA, in what females diftingai&iby^he name ^ tBe 
cfant^rfthe mUk; and we (hall have a more complete and 
a lefs conjeflural theory of the relations of the a£lion* <^ 
the air with nutrition. 

. .To this, let us fubjoin a more perfe£): knowledjge of the 
relations which unite the excretory fan£lions, and their 
produ£bs, with^the different changes which the food under-^ 
goes in the body. Let us fuffer ourfelves to be perfuaded 
that the carbonic acid, and the aqueous vapour, formed in 
the lungs ; that the fame produ£t;s formed in the perfpir- 
atory organs ; that the water, which is freqiiehtly precipi- 
tated with fuch rapidity, efpecially in the firft moments of 
digeftion, towards the urinary canals; that the different 
gafeous fluids evolved in the inteftinal paffages ; in fiiort, 
that the bile which filters through the Miliary pores, fituat* 
ed near the vafcular fyftem of the vena portse, are only 
different refults of the fame means which nature employs 
in different parts of the body, and of the circulation to de- 
prive the blood and the alimentary juice of a part of their 
carbon and hydrogen. We (hall then have a pofitive proof, 
as well as an explanation, of that important obfervation, fo 
much extolled by medical phyfiplogifts, that all the evacu- 
ationS) whether in their natural order, or in a ftate of dif- 
ea(e, are partly deftiiied mutually to fupply each other^ and 
ought to be regarded as fubordinate parts of ons individual 
univerfal operation. ' 

In refpe£l; to that other produ£l« e^ally important,* 
which is evolved in. the midft of all thefe proceffes, caloric^ 
yi^ {>y iXKaa3 of experin^nt, we (ball onie day fatisfy ouf^ 


4ift WXUBMIU By Hf^rMilh 

iSrimia .-thtt it ia iwt only diieii(ag6d iiidK;friaoiiaif€f» 
gf^M^k ia tbe vpfoponUoM wkieh arfwcf tolhe^caMbitt ii w 
a£^«4vdit ovygctt gas fiunifiieB tke hafisf tmtllttkjtiiBilb 
iofaifd'by analogMM meti» at die ffMtfaee tf thslBn} 
Aai-il is pcrhapsi aUb estricaled. m other pmpoitMii^ bf 
tlpa tsaMformatiaQS foiled iftAe biliary, mtefthal} »i 
unsary paffiges^ fuperadding to: thta.die knoMPiedgtiofibi 
CQoftant and eren tectprocal lelatjoiis bc tw c en. tte intaifiqf 
of animal heat ai|d the degree of fiifcepdfaility in the mt^ 
om. and m^idar carganss we fltatl, in the firftplace, ob* 
tain a ftill more compveheofif e idea ef dbe ittooa tf 
nature to generate animal temperature; «e flidi better 
perceire ih^ advantages of a cold and denfe air over tht 
which i^ warm and ratified, toproaroeeihofecomkiBBdaiiri 
of which tbi&heat is a produft^ and we ftall bcfofefM 
of a theory of the ajUon of firee and venovatol sv tipoo 
the cntaneous orgaqa in children, in nurfas, eod in fteoi 
who take exercife in open air, end in empdvc complamis* 
We Ihali alfi) be able to account for die diffirreoceiiduch 
are perceptible in the flsini and in the whole cattuKOA 
lymphatic fyftemj between men bnnight np in die ohfctf- 
ity of dties, and in low moift fituadons, and dioft vb 
are enveloped in the circulating air ef .plains, and iriu Bve 
in dry and dcfated fitnations* We (hall Ou/tsik be aUe 
ta explain the varietica of animal -heat daMg digeAioai 
and in the difietent periods which ibace m Ac ynmii 
that proceft. Finally* . we ftttU ftiil fardatr/bsffe it in out 
l^wer to (ketch the ibeoryvofi febrile} heM^ or ef^eold, in 
pnie^onary ,. inteftinal, and biHom^ maMJM 

If to thefe refults we fubjoin the tbeofjhiif^dweBikivA- 
ing powers rf calpricrConfiderM ip tn^Qbt»iiht tffoo* 
fafaftaaces with which we ,are. im94ni^if:t»^^'^^ 
wUt^h art.«flp%d,tB <Hl^ JMi^i or wtteir fittft W»»«*^- 

mmaifty^r UA^h-k ill' 

nmtMi tSa^'Acmy of the produahm wi mli li)r%r^i^ 

evtta «xtenu% sf{)plied, poffdKs #f ^^ck^ng smd velii^'' 
iDgy^Mdcdd of %kiii«lfig and impedhfg'lhe fiifi€):i&fi§ <$f 
the nCiVMS mnd Urmfetfiftr lyfteaVB : -tf we fttfo dl^tettnbli^ 
in 11V hat degree tbefe phetiODnetia f^fk^iny either iti gevteHll' 
or in the |Mtftie«l«r «afe» •iif indhldmfos )f k bt ernipi^mii' 
for lie to afdertsrtn a% w4iCH: pefnt eit«m«I cdld, aecardMg^ 
to age, temperafiRentei and circumftances, promotes -^^ft' 
combinatiena whkh gentfratis airimal he^tvat wkftt Mj^^' 
0ii the oof^rary^' ought the point fe be pheedi at Ti(1ik%^ 
this oatoral heat is fe f ar furpaffbd fey the ealternal c^sKI'/' 
that it^eftilts in tite diminotfon or extinftion of the mov- 
ing! powers: we <Aiall then be pofleffed of a complete 
theory of the utSity^iid dailgefs ef coM or of heat, rdai 
tive to the efie^ of the air, batte, and drefs ; and wefh^H 
a][fo obtain dK folallon of fo many queftions, fe often d!f« 
cufled and fo erroneoufly decided, i^htive ti} edocatibn, to 
the ireatment of cutaneous dife'afes, to the tegimeh of 
niirfes, of children, of adults, and of old men* ' 

It is not neceffary for me to etitei^ fsirther on thefe 
ob}e&s, or to fubfom other examples, in order tolhew 
how fertile in eonfequehees, one felttary faft, (uHy per^^ 
ceiired, may boeome ; how mueh the progi*efi^ of 'the phf^ ' 
fic^ftl aaid chemical feiebe^s, aided by -the dHikbteries of ' 
cdnparatlvee ahaMmyi ttHift c^iicerndiiMe who'derote their' 
tiais to: the ftsdy ^t^kj^e, itid edotnbnte (o the foltrtidiit 
ofifo many'grfat aild^iitlponant'^fMltl^n^V how,'' m ihor^ii^'^ 
all the theories ^re^tfAbig ^KMafef^, 'teMjyetaments,' JH'J'^ 
drefs^ aliBieiiis,^e«areiiMs,'''ex^(fe;'atW (^d#&queh(ly iddt}« 
cation 8ndTegsine»|t«tt]r fbiriA thMSWy l^ueftiohs ixilvi^^! 
fivdy, whicb-havie Juft wii*» \mn 'iri^po(M? ' ' ' ' '*^*^* 

How^libie wmM k> bti'^^rim W Hi^ im^aht 'i^t' 



valuable art^ to which I wiOi ufef uUy to cotifecrate mf 
labours and my life» the perfediion of a language whofe 
ezpreffions would be ids borrowed from theories wUch 
dcftroy each etiier in faeeeffion, and mlbte enumerathre <£ 
£sifib wluch aie unmntable; whofe comfdund' words em* 
vsyang A jnft idea of what they expvefs, might form a hn* 
gmge' clear and coneife ; and whofe influence over our ideas 
WiQiild no longer refult in the inevitable effe£k of an em* 
bkmaticali metaphovical, and inaccurate language^ the in- 
Mwenience, viz. of leading us to miftake the terms of a 
ODnvcotion for the. voice of nature^ cOuM be fupofadded to 
vhut has been advanced { * 

Heve I clofe thiis diicourfe, whofe objeA has been to 
ftnriew the htftory of the arjt and its refources ; the progrefs 
^Rrhich it has a£i:ually made» and that which it might have 
Inade; the connection of this art with {all the other 
fciences, and the neceiGty under which the man who de- 
votes himfelf to its ftudy labours, of cultivating and be- 
coming acquainted with them. It was. not my intention 
to quote all the works worthy of being noticed^ and to 
Iketch a plan of a library of bygi^m, I have confidered not 
men in particular, but the human mind in general, as a 
beipg whofe life is conq)ofed of a fuccei&on of ages, and is 
divided by unequal intervals, between the attempts of in- 
fancy, its fimple and ingenious fpirit, and the hopes whidi 
it teaches us to entertain, the frivolous porfuits, the pie- 
ji^dices, and the incredulity- of the fecond period; the ebaU 
lition, the imaginat4<Ki9- and* the ert<9rs of youth; finally, 
the firm confidence which experience communicates in 
mature age, and the great efibrts which: iti-OB capable oi 
ij^aking when it afcertainsc its force$^ and dbte diftance o£ 
the end which it wiibcs to reach. . 

' - • • ^ :« * ^ •••'(I'suBjonr 

nrhitit^^ BY ifALLr.' H^ 

i .' f . . . * ^' - ' t ' li* . »'' "■ • ' • • ' ' 

CluuBjroiKlicre a plan of a treadfe xxa Aj^iMe» ahnoft liaik 
^f^:tQ what Lfaspre iaferted in thie fourth roianu^ p« ajfjf^ 
. .of die Journal pabli&ed by. Gitizen Aiifrtv/f tindor <cho 

(.title of Medi^itti iUaftrat^d by tlutpbjficdlfaiwnces^ • I git^ 
. fit withojfft adding in this place any elttctdations ofiwhidr 
;.^it may be fulceptible^.becaxire J hope to leaUae itia- 
'f one of the. preliminary difeonrfiMoafterward^.to be pn^r 

.fixed,. to }the whole Didionary of ^Medicine, wher« I. 
iball prefcntit to. the pablid wkh fome impravementtf^ 

the.n^ceffity of which experience, has already tau|ht» 

tut whidi require) to be farther premeditated*] . . 


» f 



.^ Htoiene^ as well a» the art of healing, is only the rc- 
fttic of patttcttlar obfervations compofed and generalized. 
Tbcie^obfervatidnshave been colleftcd from the experience 
€)f kH ageS) and of atl countries ; they have varied accord* 


in^ to the circumftances of the timtsf, and to thefituation 
of places ; to'their analogies' and difierences the art is in^* 
dobted'for its exiftence. 

t-^* It is on diitf account* that Thave deemed it ufefurtd 

premife, by way of introdu£)ii6n to hjgi^tiff imoi phyj^id 

, and medical geography ; 2doy pbyjiiid and medical knoivled^e 

^^hiftory : itfaefe are^fo to fpeak^ the patterns which we imi-^ 


«M mwi^tM^ »r «4l«|.^ 

tate ; they aibertain the pra&ical and pofittve department 
upon which the tiieoredcal and general braneh of the art 
is eftablifbed* 

^ flM Ai^et «f dM tbfiOKtieal mil general iiiai6eii, 
"whieh itfaiitMiee the ckmeata of the ast, it to piofofe 
ndes oondttcifc to Ae pM fei¥»d dii of he^lih> Tfidk fKm 
cepl9 have fiof their €«d to aJKiAttii the ofii of thofe thiogt 
lehidiiiiixafter to oov fieeeflkioB atid tqi ow .eojoymeots ; 
and even to feitle ilie meaflorr whifshin ihe esaici^ of our 
monil ond phyfieal iMokies» ieadeptod to dye AuAitoton 
erf man, to the civeamftaqeea in sfuchheis fdecedf and* of 
oowfeqpienee, oeoefiMry to hie pBcferaation, Xbia oaeafiMre, 
on the one hood, eom^onds to ftho netuce of jmn; and, 
on4he other, to the mmufxc of things, and to dhdo^inflMOce 
upon our organs and our conftitutions. 

^^ Thus the ftudy of ifgiine is necefiarily divided into 
three parts. 

<< The firft includes the knowledge of the healthy many 
in ail thofe conditions, which dhrerfify his wants and facol* 
ties. The fecond.has for its objeft the knowledge of the 
things which he ufos and enjoys, and of thdr eSc6t» upon 
his conftitution and organs. The third comprehends the 
laws deduced from thefe fomxiips of lQao)9rli:dgt^ wd jdeterfi. 
mioes the bounds widuA whu^h his oyoymeJMs muft be 
liimted> if be wbquU V9<b Ao ^v^y <» »confirff>f4 ftafip si 

^ In the laneiiaflte of ithe fchoQl&« thefe thiee Kranrligg 
may be denominaud Ae jf^i^^th^ fi[^(<^^ jml dM? m^nr 
of hjg^mm 

** SftttibeKe <3 a iemod diyifipn ^ ifae iiiib^^ of|;seat 
iynpoitance in thii9{ibqs, mi 'Of which I phfenrje fpw oc. 
amides in the worb of thofe who have ^Uiieated of ijigH^ : 
fltbpugh I Ml far ^m aUqgiAg 4iat ^ey ^avqjlovedaokied 



this diftin£bion| it x3 that of ptMic hygiene and of private 
hygihte^ according as man is confidcred^* coUedikivdy) or in 
fociety, or in his individual capacity. It is in puiUc hygiene 
that the philofophical phyfician becomes the legiflator's 
foul and advifer \ and, in this refpe£b| many fine examplea 
have been handed down to us from antiquity. 

'< A complete treatife on hygiene OBght, in my opinion, 
to be clofed with what I confider an import^mt inquiry^ 
the confideration of the light which hygiene re^&s on the 
art of healing. In truths the different (hades of the date 
of health conduS: us to die difierent difpolitions which 
render us obnoxious to difeafe. The varied effe£is which 
the things that man ufes and enjoys produce upon his con- 
ftitution, lead us to the caufes which derange and difturb 
his healthy and the difference of the meafures within 
which his enjoyments ought to be confined, according to 
the diverfitaes of his conftitution, places us in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the variations of regimen, fuited to the 
different conditions of the man who labours under dif- 

*< The connexion of public hygiene with the meafures 
rendered neceflary by epidemic plagues, completes the table 
of thefe relations. 

<< Such, then, are my motives ; and fuch the bafis upon 
which ! have conftrufted the plan of which I here exhibit 
the firft fkctch. I have given fome idea of the manner in 
which it fhould be executed, in the arti(cles AJri^a^ ^g^Sf 
or different periods of life ^ (regimen of), JJfeiHons of the foul ^ 
(hygiene), jiir^ Atmofpberey jiliments^ Europe^ &c. of Ency- 
clopedical D ftionary of Medicine." 

Vol .III. G g ffyoiWE^ 




I, Natural Hiftory of Man, in difierestt climates ; or, Pfy 

Jical and Medical G^graphy. 

II, Natural Hiftory of Man, in difFerent ages^ or, fhj^cd 

and Midkal Kmfvledge af'Hiftory. . 

DiviGon of Hygiene into Three Parts. 

SubjeB of Hygiene : 

Or the knowledge of Man, in a finind State of Health> 
in his Relations, and* in his Differences; that Is to 
fay, infoeiety^ or in his individual cc^cUj* 


Matter of Hygiene : 

Or the knowledge of thofc things wbidi Man \k or 
enjoys, improperly denominated NofMaturalh ^^ 
of their Influence upon our Conftkution and our 


Mearjf or Rules ^Hygiene ; • > '-, ,' i 

Or Rules which determine th^ meafure t^ithin which 
the ufe of the things called Non-naturals ottg^t ^o 
be reftrained for the prefervationof'Mani confiJcr- 
ed either as a member of fociety^ or in his coHeftw^ 
capacity, or as an individual. 






Dlvifton of this Firft Part into Two SeSiionr, 

Sect* I. Knowledge of Man in a found State of Healtfai 
confidered in Society or in his relative Capacity. 

i» Relations refulting from Climates and Situations* 
2, ■■ from Afibciations in common 

Habitations or Places of Abode. 
2, — ' ■ from Uniformity in the Mode 

of Living v^ith regard to Occupations^ with (e*- 

gard to the common ufe of Air, of Food, 5cc. 
4, ' I' from Uniformity in Cuftoms and 

Manners^ Laws, Governments, &c. 

Sect. IL Knowledge of Man, confidered individually, or 
in his Peculiarities. 

1, Peculiarities relative to different Periods of Life. 

2, I !■ to the Sexes. 

3, " .1,1 to Temperaments.* 

4, ■ to Habits. 

5, . to Profeffions. 

6, to different Circumftances of 

Life 5 Poverty, Convalefcence, Travels, &c. 

G g 2 PART 

•I hope to give in one of the articles of this Di»ftionary fome ideas con- 
icerning a new claifification of confutations and of temperaments. 




Divifton of the Second Part into Six ClaJisA 

CLASS I. Circumfufa : 

Or things with which wc are farroQnded> 

II. Applicata: 

Or things applied to the Surface of the Body. 

III. Ingefta: 

Or things deftined to be introduced into the 
Body by the primary Paflages. 

IV. £Mrr//<s, Excretions : 

Or things ^c&ined to be expelled firotn the 

V. Gejlof Adions : 

Or Funflions which arc excrcifcd by the to* 
luntary Motion of the Mufcles and OrgaoS' 

VI. P^rc///4) Perceptions; 

Or Fundiions and Impreffions wiuch depend 
upon the 3enfibilky and Organization of 

the Nerves. 


f One part of this claffification is borrowed from the divifiooof tbe 
occaiioi^al caufes of difeafes, adopted by the ancients, and ftated by Bao' 
hoove in his Inititutions of Medicine, paragraph 744. This diviiioB isii* 
mited to four principal articles; circumfufa^ ingefta^ excretOt tig^^i ^^ 
the ancients thus expreffed, ra V^u *ft in^ijm, guit actui auU^l '* 
irf0r^f0fu$m, qum apfaumttur; t« «twv^>«, qu* ewutumtun <• ''^'^^ ' 
qus geruntur. The dfvifion which I propofe appears to mc more coinpK - 
and more applicable to hygiene. 

CiRcUMFUSJ^ divided into Two Orders* 


Order I. Atmofphere, 

I, Air, and Subftance8 which are diflblved 

in it, mixed or combined with it. 
2> Solar Heat and Light ; artificial Heat and 


3, Electricity. 

4, Magnetifm, and Influences. 

5, Natural Changes of the Atmofphere ; Suc- 

ceffion of the Seafbns \ Temperatures ; 
Meteors, &c. 

Order II. Land^ Situation, and Water. 

1, Climates. 

2, £xpofures» 

3, Soil. 

4, Natural Changes of the Globe, Earth- 

quakes, Inundations, &c. 

5, Artificial Changes of Places, Culture, 

Habitations, fcc. 


AppicatAj divided into Five Orders* 

OgDER I. Drefs i Garments, Ligatures, Machines, Beds, 


II. Cofmetics / Attention to the Hair, to the Beard^ 
to the Skin, Faints, Perfumes. 

G g 3 Okber 



Ordbr IIL Cieanlinefs / Baths, Lotions, Stoves, &c. 

IV. FriBiws and UnSions^ (pra£iifed among (lie 

V. Medicinal jlpplicationt ; as Amulets, && 


Ingest J y divided into Tine Orders, 

Order L Aliments. % 

1, Simple Aliments; Vegetable, Animal, fa. 

2, Compound Aliments. 

3, Seafonings. 

4, Preparation of Aliments, Cookery. 

Order U. Drinks. 

1, Water. 

2, Aqueous Juices of Vegetables and of 


3, Infufions and Blixtures In Water. 

4, Fermented Liquors, and Infufions in thcfe 


5, Alcoholic Liquors, and Infufions in thefe 


Order III. Non^evacuants, preventive Remedies^ Vc' 


X See the plan %i the diviiion of aliments, conformable to vegetabloai»I 
animal analyiis, of which I have given a iketch in this Didionarf) ^^^ 
Aliment, art. t. paragr, 3. 

HYOIBK£» BY UALhU^ 47 1 

quASs IV. 

ExcRETJj dividid into Tfvo Orders • 

Order I. Natural Evacuations. 

1 1 Conti&uai* 
2) Daily. . 
39 Periodical* 

4, Extraordinary a&d irregular; Lochia^ 
feminal £vacuati(m$* 

Order IL Artificial Evacuations. 

ii Sanguineous. 
. 'df Ulcerous. 

3i Medigiiial> Tobacco, Enemasi FurgativeS| 

Gestj^ divided into Four Orders^ 

Order I. Watching. 

Order II . Sleep. 

Order IIL Motion and Locomotion. 

X, General Motion ; imprefled, fpontanlousj 

2, Partial y of the Limbs, of the Organs of 
the V<Hce, of Speech, &c« 

OrdeH IV. R^. 

I, Abfolute, or Inaftion. 
2i With a£tive Difpolition, without Loco« 
modon i FofitioD, Station, Efforts. 




PmRCEPTAj divided into Four Orders* 

Order I. Senfationt. 

I, The external Senfes. 

2i Hunger^ Thirft ; and the Senfadonof all 

our phyfical^ morale intdieflual} and 

habitual Wants. 
3i Phyficat Love. 
4, Sympathy and Antipathy. 

Order II. FunSions of the S&ul.% 

1, Faffive AffeAions \ agfeeable^ painful. 

2, A£lm Afie£tion8; AttachmentiATofion. 

Order III. FunBions of the Mind. 

1 1 Intelligence. 
2| Imagination. 
3» Memory. 

Order IV. Debility ^ or Privation rf Perceptim* 

If Of the Senfes ; Apathy. 
2) Of the Soul $ Indifference. 

3, Of the Mindi Inaftivity. 

4} £anui ; Reftleffnefs^ IJmffin^s of Mid 



f See conceiBiflg this important claffification, tbcv^diAtc^^^ 
ihs Soul {bygient) of this Di^onary. 




Or Rules for the Prefenration of Man, by the well-regulated 

Ufe of the Things called Non^naturah. 


Arrangement of this Third Part into Two Divtfions* 

DIVISION I. Public Hygiene: 

Or Rules for the Prefervatlon of Man, 
confidered as a Member of Society, or 
in his coIk£tiTe Capacity. 

II. Private Hygihe : 

Or Rules for the Prefenration of Man^ 
confidered as an Individual. 

Public Hygiene^ arranged into Four SeBions. 

Sect. L Rules of Publie Hygiene relajtive 
To Climates and Situations. 

11. To common Places of Abode or Habitations. 

III. To the common Mode of Living ; in refped to 

common Occupations, to the common Ufe 
of Air, of Aliments, &c. 

IV. To Cuftoms, to Manners, to Laws, &c. 


474 HYGI£KE, BY HALlsUf 

Prifjte HYGiENEy TH Three SeSions. 

Sect. I. Genera/ Princes of Regimen. 

II. Rules relative to ^he Nature of Air, of AUmestSi 
&c.) ox xkkQ.G^neralities rf Regimen. 

Ill* Rules relative to the Differences among' Indivi- 
duals 5 or the ParticuUrkies o/Rfgitm* 

Section L 
General Principles of Regimen^ Four Orders. 

Ckp. I, In the Manner; Ufe, Abufc. 

2, In the Meetfure ,- Exccfs, Privation. 

3, In the Order; Regularity, Irregularity. 

4» In the Duratioety ox Continuity; Habits, Changes- 

Section II. 
Generalities of Regimen: 
Divided into Six Orders, according to the Divifion of the 
Second Part of Hygiene into Six Clafles. (^f ^^ 


Section IIL 
Particularities of Regimen: Divided into Six Orders. 

Ord. r, Regimen in difereat Fieriod^ of Jiife. 

2, ' of Sexes. 

3 1 of Temperaments. 

4, relative to Habits. 

j^ — ; relative to Profeffions. 

6, — relative to Circumftances of Life; Pover- 
ty, Travels, Convalefcence, &c# 



Consequences of HYGIENE^ or its Connections 

with the Art of Healing. 

I. Species of G>nne&ions: concerning the Differences of 
Man in a found State of Health, with the predifpof- 
ing Caufes to Difeafes* 

1 1 Of Man in his focial Capacity ) epidemical and 
endemial Difpolltions. 

2} Of Man confidered as an Individual \ individual 
Difpofitions toDifeafes, according to the Pe- 
riod of LifCji Sex, Temperament, &c« 

II. Species of Conne£tionS| concerning the Knowledge of the 

things called Non-naturals, with the occqfional Caufes 
of Difeafes dependent on the State of the Air, &c. 

III. Species of Connections, concerning the prophyta^ic Rules 

of Hygiene i with prefervative and curative Precept s* 

1, Of epidemic and endemial Difeafes. 

2, Of fporadic Difeafes. 

* t 



This little piece of Lucian's is (to speak in the language of 
painters), in his vorst manner ; being nothing more ikn 
an enumeration of persons who were remarkable for tiie 
length of their lives. It. was customary, it seems, attkt 
time, on the birth.days of great men, for poets, orators, 
and all the herd of flatterers, to send ihem compliments 
on the occasion. ' This is one which our orator seat to 
Quintillus, who, with his brother, was pnefect of Greece, 
under the emperor Marcus Aurelius, whom he likewise 
takes the opportunity of paying his court to. ThougB 
there is not much wit or humour in this treatise on Lon- 
gevity, I would recommend it to those amongst my readers 
who use spectacles, to whom it may probably afford s6ine 

Accept, moft excellent QuintilluSi as a fmall tribute, my 
lift of long-livers, which I was admoniflicd to prtfcflt to 
you by a dream, that I had on that night when you gave 
a name to your fecond fon, when I prayed to the gods that 
both you and your children might live a long and bappi 
life, wc}l knowing that length of days to you would prove 



a blefling to all mankind, and particularly to me and mine: 
for to me alfo the dream feemed to prefage fomething good: 
as It appeared, therefore, to be the will of the gods that I 
ihould offer to you fomething in my own way, and fuitable 
to my profeffion, on this aufpicious day, the day of youc 
birth, I here fend you an account of all thofe who were 
remarkable for having lived long, and enjoyed health of 
body and mind $ whence you may reap the double advaii- 
tage, firft, that of a cheerful and well-founded hope that 
you may yourfelf arrive at a good old age, and fecondly, 
the convi£lion you will receive from the examples which I 
will produce, that thofe only can enjoy perfe£i; health and 
long life, who take the greateft care both of mind and 

The life of Neftor, the wifeft of the Greeks, was, ac- 
cording to Homer, extended to three times the natural age 
of man, and he is defcribed as the model of xnduftry and 
application. TireGas alfo, as the tragedians inform us^ 
lived more than fix ages j and moft probable it mud be, 
that a man dedicated, as he was, to the fervice of the gods, 
and inured to temperance and fobriety, (hould attain to 
length of days. Whole nations of men are celebrated for 
their longevity, on account of their manner of living, as 
the Egyptians, who were called facred fcribes } * the AjQy- 
rians and Arabians, interpreters of myfteries ; the Indian 
Brachmans, deeply (killed in philofophy; thofe who are 
called the Magi, prophets and holy men amongft the Per- 
fiajQs^. Parthians, Ba£brians, Choramians, Saoians, Medes^ 
with^many other barbarians; thefe were all remarkably 
long-lived and healthy, owing moft probably to that tern* 


• See Diodoft Sic* €■ zvi. n. t6. -- - 


perance and abftinence which their ftudies obliged tbem 
to. Eren at this time there are whole nations that lire 
much longer than others ; the Seres in partxcular^ who are 
faid to extend life even to three hundred years ; fome at- 
tribute this longevity to the air, others to the foil, and 
Others to their manner of living, for they drink, it is faid, 
nothing but water. Hiftory telb us that the Athotes* alfo, 
frequently live to a hundred and thirty, and the. Chaldeans 
to above a hundred, feeding on barley bread, which 
ftrengthens the fight, and makes their fenfes quicker and 
more powerful than thofe of other men. 

But I have fpoken hitherto only of thofe people who, 
we are toW, lived longer than others, either from the tern- 
pcrature of the air, their manner of living, or both toge- 
ther; it is neceffary I (hould alfo add, for your future hope 
and comfort, that in every climate, and in every air, men 
have frequently enjoyed long life, by the means of proper 
exercife, and ufing that diet which conduced moft to health 
and ftrength. 

I fhall divide my narrative into feveral parts, according 
to the feveral ranks of men, beginning with kings and 
leaders ; happy to number amongfl: them our own augud 
and pious emperor, whofe life is the glory and happinefs 
of his people : thefe illuftrious examples you may yourfeif 
hope to imitate, and by pra£lifing their temperance, inherit 
their longevity. Numa Pompilius, the moft profpefous and 
happy of Roman kings, and who made the worlhip of the 
gods his peculiar care, is faid to have lived to fourfcore and 
upwards ^ and Servius TuUius, another king of the Romans, 
to the fame age ; and Tarquin, their laft fovereign, after 
his banifliment to Cumae, enjoyed life in perfeft health for 


— ------ - -^ 

* The ialiabitants of mount Acbos. 



more than ninety years. I could mention many other kings, 
as well as the Roman, together with fereral perlbns of in- 
ferior rank, both at Rome and in other parts of Italy, who 
lived to a great age. We mud call in hiftory to refute 
the opinion of thofe who find fault with our air as un- 
wholefome, and which flatters us with the pleafing hope 
that our prayers will be crowned with fuccefs, and that 
the lord of the earth and feas,*" who is already far advanc- 
ed, will long rule, over this land, and attain to a great and 
happy old age. Arganthonius, king of the Tarteilians, 
lived a hundred and fifty years, as we learn from Herod- 
otus the hiftorian, and the poet Anacreon; though by ibme 
the account i& deemed fabulous. Demochares and Timaeus 
tell us, that Agathocles, king of Sicily, died at ninety-five ; 
we are informed' likewife by Demetrius and others, that 
Hiero lived to ninety-two, after a reign of feventy years. 
Ameas, king of Scythia, died at ninety, fighting againfl: 
Philip, on the banks of the Ifther. And Bardylis, fovereign 
of the Illyrians, is faid to have fought on horfeback at the 
fame age ; and Teres, king of the Odryfians, as Theo- 
pompus f tells us, died at ninety-two. Antigonus^ Codes, 
king of Macedonia, and fon of Philip, fell in the battle 
with Seleucus and LyiGimachus, covered with wounds, when 
he was eighty-one years old, as we are informed by Hiero- 
nymus, who accompanied him in that expedition, and who 
tells us alfo, that Lyfimachus, king of the Macedonians, 
fell in the war ag^nft Seleucus, when he was juft four- 
fcore. Antigonus, fon of Demetrius, and nephew of the 



* A pretty high ftrained compliment ; but we muft reaember it wjis 
paid to an emperor, 
t The celebrated hiftorian* 


one-eyed Antigonus, ruled over Macedon four*and-forty 
, years^ and lived to eighty, according to Medius and other 
writers; and Antipater, the fon of lolausi a man of gieat 
f>ower and authority, who was governor to many of the 
lings of Macedon, died upwards of eighty. Ptolemy oi 
Lagus, the mod profperous prince of his time, poilefled the 
kingdom of Egypt to the eighty-fourth year of his age« an<i^ 
two years before he died, refigned it to his fon Ptolemy 
Phi]adelphus, the only child who furvived him. Philo- 
taurus^ the eunuch; the firft who acquired the kingdom of 
Pergamus, held it for a long time, and died at fourfcote ; 
and Attalus, furnamed Philadelphus, another king of the 
fame place, who was vifited by Scipio the Roman general, 
lived to the age of eighty-two. Mithridates, king of Pdn- 
tus, furnamed the Builder, died^ after his flight firom Anti-- 
^onus, at eighty-four, as Hieronymus and other writers in- 
form us. The fame hiftorian fays that Ariarathes, king of 
the Cappadocians, lived eighty-two years, and might pro- 
bably have furvived many more, if he had not been taken 
prifoner in the battle againft Perdiccas, and condemned to 
the crofs. The Elder Cyrus, king of Perfia, according to 
the monumental infcriptions, (and this is confirmed by 
Oneiicritus, who wrote the life of Alexander), when he 
was a hundred years old, meeting with one of his friends, 
whom he had been long in fearch of, and hearing from Mm 
that many perfons had been put to death by his fon Cam- 
byfes, who reported that it was done by order of his father, 
partly on account of his fon's cruelty, and partly becaufe 
he had been himfelf accufed of conniving with him, died 
of grief. Artazerxes, furnamed Mnemon, on account of 
Jiis extraordinary memory, whom the Younger Cyrus wa- 
ged war with, died at eighty-fix, Dinon fays ninety-four. 
Another king of Perfia of the fame name, who, as Udorus 


die hiftorian teports, reigned in his time, was cut off by 
^reafon at the age of ninety-three, his brother Go(tthres 
<:6nfpiri^ agarnft him. Sinarthocles, king of the Par- 
^hiansi on his return from Scythia, took pofTei&on of his 
Jcingdom at fourfcore, and reigned feven years : and Tl- 
granes, king of Armenia, who weti^t to war with Lucut- 
lus, was eighty*fi[ve when be died. Hyfpafines, who ruled 
over the Characians and other people bordering on the Red 
fea, tiYed to the fame age; and Tiiaeus, the third king from 
him, Was carried off by a difeafe at ninety-two. Artabazus, 
the feventh fovereign from Terasus, was brought into the 
kingdom by the Parthians at eighty- fix, when he began his 
reign. Mnaiires, likewife, another king of that nation, 
•lived to ninety^ X. .Mafiniffa, king of Numidia, arrived 
at his ninetieth year. • ' That Afander, whom Augudus 
made governor of the Bofphoriis, fought both on foot and 
horfebsick at the age of ninety, and was inferior to none ; 
• three years after he ftarved Mmfelf to death, being piqued 
at the citizens for deferting him, and going over to Scri- 
bonius. Ifidorus, the Caracenian, tells us, that Goefius, 
who was his contemporary, and king of the Omanians> in 
Arabia Felix, lived to a hundred and fifteen : thefe< are all 
the princes whom hiilory has celebrated for their lon- 

But as many^philofophers, and men of letters, who take 
more care of themfelve^s, have alfo lived to a great igtf I 
ihali endeavour, as far as any records will fupply us wilJi 
informaiiion, to eiHimerate thefn. And firft, for the phito- 
fophers : Demoofitus of Abdera, was turned of a hundred 
and four, when he voluntarily abftained from all food, and 
died*. Xeiiophilus^ the muGcian,. and remarkable fpr bis 
perfefb knowledge of the Pythagorean fyftem, lived at 
Athens, to the age of a hundred and five, and upwards^ as 

VcL. III. Hh we 


^e are told by ^riftoxenus. SoloO) Thalesi ^nd Pktacus, 
three of the feven wife meni were each of them at lead a 
hundred years old. Zeno, the priqce of ftcic plulofephers, 
at die age of ninety-eight, as he was coming into the 
fchooli ftumbled, we are told, and immediately cried out, 
<< Doft thou call me ?" * he then returned home^ refufed 
all manner of fuftenanqe* and died. Cl^anthes^ his dif- 
ciple and fucceflbr, had an impoftume in his lip when he 
was ninety-nine, and refolvcd to die in the feme manner; 
but receiving letters from his friends, requefting him to do 
fomething for them, he took a little fuftenance^ performed 
what they required, then ftarved himfelf, and died* Xeno- 
phanes, the fon of Deji^inusi a djliciple of Ardielous, the 
naturalift, lived to the ag^ of nii^ety-pne. ^enocrates, a 
fcholar of Plato's, to,eighty-fQur.. Carneades, pdncipal 
of the New Academy, to eighty-five ; QiryCppus, fourfcore-, 
. and Diogenes, the Seleuci^n, a ftpic phiiofppjlier, eighty- 
eight. Fofidonius, the philofopher and hiftorian, a native 
of Aparhea in Syria, but afterwards made 9 citiatea of Rhodes, 
died at eighty-four; and Critolaus, the peripatetic, at eighty- 
twp and upwards. The divine Plato lived to ei^y-one. 
Athenodorus, of Tbarfus, who was tutor to Auguftus, and 
prevailed en him to. exempt that' city frotn all taxes, for 
which theTharilans paid him annual worfhip as one of thdr 
heroes, died, in his native country, at <igi^-two ; and KeP* 
tor^ the ftoic, of the. fame pUc^, precep^tpt to Tiberius, at 
. ninety-two. Xenophon, aUb, the fon .of Qr7ttu$, lived to 
upwar<ib of n'^ety. .Thefe were the iJMnous fhibCophers, 
who \i?ei:e remarkable for their longevity* ..r 

. Amongft 


« SjpeakiDg to Uie earth. 

AtxUmgfi' tbe; faiftdrians, the rmoft s^xtraofdiilary in tfai$ 
refpe£l: was Etefibius, who is faid to have dropped down 
dead as he was walking, at the age of a hundred and twenty- 
four, accorffng to Apollbdorus. Hiefdnymus, d hrabus 
wairrior, irfer receiving innumerable wounds, add 'a life! of 
labour, 'lived* to upwards of a'hufidfed and ^iai*;* '^i^'Ag^- 
thatcMdes informs us, in hitf nirith book of the Hiftc/ry o^ 
Afia, where' Re eXpfeflis his admifatioti of a man >Vhil*\^as 
able to perform all the offices of it, and had the tife 6f his 
fcnies,* and Was iw pcrfeft health, to the very laft mbihefit. 
Hdlailicus,^tJheLefblan, Hved to eighty-five; ahd iPhere- 
cyd^^ Syrus'to eiadly the fame age. TicfiaeUs, t^e Tau- 
romenian to hincty-iix. Arifllobtllu^Si of Caffaridra, is faid 
to have lived tiil ninety, havm^ begunrta write his hiftory 
when he 'was cightyi-^6ttr, as he teMs ns'hitnffelf in the pre-' 
face to It.' " PMybnis; Ton of Lyiiotttas, the'Me^d6j)o1itart, 
as he wa^ cortiing out of the' countt'y,"feli from his? hbtfe, 
and! ctttitraftcd af diforder which catHed hith^off juft oh the 
dayfhzrt corripfeted his eighty-fecohdyear; tmdHypfictates, 
the Amyceniah, a writer, anda'hianof the deepefl erudi- 
tk)n, lived to the'age of tiineiy-two'k' 

Amongft rhe oratori,Gorgia^i byfome called the fophift,' 
died, by a voluntary abdinence frbih alT food, at a hundred 
and eight : ^hen he was afltecl What could be the caufc of 
hi^ Kving fo long, and ret^nfitg*his' health and' fenfes jto 
Tuch an extraordinary old age, he' ufed to fay, it was owing 
t© his flaying At home, and Tiot indulging at otSeV men's 
tabW^ Ifocrates wrote his famous panegyric 'af ninety-fix j 
and in his ninety-ninth year, when he was told that Philip 
had beateh the Athenians at Chaeronaea, he repeated, in a 

H. mournful 

aiMirfiful 4one^ thia verfe of Euripides, applying it Icrinm- 

iUfr: ♦ ' ' ^- 

• * When Cadmus erd his much lov*d 3i4on left/ . 

U\d th^n.acl4in^ th^t Greece heocefortb wf>uid:be red«c- 
ed to flavery, he expired. ApQ.llo4oni5»' of FcrgamnB^ the 
rhetor JQian and preceptor.toAuguftuaCse&ry. together; with 
Athj^nodorusy the philofopher^ of Tarfus» Uyed to the^acne 
?g^ 9^ eighty-two i and Ppjtamont am oiator. of fome tiolc, 
to ninety. ^ '; 

. Aoioogfl; the poet$» Sophocles^ the fainous tragic writer, 
died at ninety-five, being choked with a grape-ftoae: to- 
wards the clofe of his life, his fon lophon accufed him 
publicly of being out of his fenfesi when he produced be- 
fore the judges his (EdipusColoneus;f a fufBcient proof of 
the foundnefs of his mind, infomuchthat the court beftow- 
cd the higheft encomiums on him, and condeained the fon 
as a madman, in fuppoGng his father to be fo. Cratinus, 
the comic poet, lived to upwards of ninety, having juft be- 
fore gained the prize by his Pytine. Philemon alfo, ano- 
ther comic writer, laid himfelf down quietly on his bed, at 
the age of ninety-feven^ and perceiving an afs devouring 
the figs which hgd been, brought for his own dinner, he 
called his fervant, and ordered him to bring the afs fome 
wine, then burft into a Iqud laugh, which choked 1dm, 
and he died. Epijcharraus, likewife, another comic writer, 
is faid to have lived to the fame age. Anacreon, the writer 
of fongs, was eighty-five when he died ; and SteCcfaorus, 
the ode-maker, of the fame age* Simonides, the Cxan, was 
above ninety. 


♦ From the Phryxut of Euripides, The line it ftill extant in tbe fng- 
fnems, as pnblifhed bx^Barnesj itis siuotcdM^hfJkaitofltunnm 
\ See Cl|^o4« St^^sfikwU.i^^Bhq^tngj i^iaKwifevtaM-By Val. l^jsmw 


Amongft ibe grammariansy Eiatoftheaes* the Cyreottant 
fpn of AgiauSy who is mentioned hj fome, not only as a 
grammarian, but a poet, a geometrician, and a philofopher, 
alfo liv«d ta eighty-two^ Lycurgui, the legiflator of Sparta, 
is laid tp^liave been eighty-ifive* 

Thefe arettUtbe'pdnces^tid learned men whom I have 
been Mt to coUeA. I promiibd to give you an account of 
fome Romans and italiaas Kkewife,^ who were rematrkably 
long-lived; but thefe, by divine permiffion,* I propofi^ 
moft venerable QgintiUus, to mention in another triadfe on 

«Gr. Bun ^x^fufm. Dm vltntikuty or, as the carriert iky, God williof. 


. < . ■ ...... 



'•-.■»■••• . XT 

r- r -, 



♦ T 

, . . . , I . . r • • . «/ 

The following mlfprlnti hainng iiiifortiiiiatet)^ triipt-iiitcr thcrl^ttatire^^ 

Pag^ 300 line 9, for aiitu* xtd^fuinhi ^ >i^ -, 

i-. 319 n&d ^7, fof mpf^rdies read T* • - - ^" - J 

360 line 5« for mere read ffror^. . 

d I 

Jfift^ }ine 14, fof tBteri-ftetread 'aMrJ%, » - ♦ ' ' ' ^ ^ ^ ^ 
?7rr 5|ia line jWy for influknu read it^e/rmcHv . .j ; Q '^ 1 . 
~" 433* liote, for naiuraic read naturalu