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Full text of "The code of the state of Georgia; [Rev. ed.] / revised and corrected by David Irwin"

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eof to be fully and carefully read before them ; and they present as their 
limous conclusion, that said Commissioners have kept themselves* fully and 
fully within the pale of the powers and duties conferred, 
be mingling together in condensed and intelligible form the Common and 
ute Laws, Constitutional Provisions, and Court Decisions, and thus to place 
^hole body of all the Law within the reach of the people, was, in the opin- 
)f your Committee, the great end aimed at by the Legislature, and this end 
been kept in view, and, to every practicable and attainable extent, ably and 
ently accomplished by the Commissioners. 

Code so entirely extensive in its aims and purposes as to define in intelligi- 
orm and language out of the body of the great system of the Common Law 
ing time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the contrary, mischiefs 
'ights, duties and obligations, and to present in intimate and close connection 
iwith Constitutional and Statutory Provisions, and the judicial exposition and 
Tucti'^vjr' thereof, for their redress and enforcement, is of rare, if not in the 
no^ .{)resented, of Original occurrence. Your Committee intend to say that 
3 r\ been before so extensively attempted, that the citizen should be referred 
3 \ ole embodiment of the Law in a single volume to be exactly informed 
^re'his rights in any and every exigency, and what his remedies for their en- 
nent and protection. And it need hardly be added that to the large degree 
ich the offered Code accomplishes this great desideratum, it must and will 
lend itself to public approval and acceptance. As your Committee have 
in the discharge of the duties devolved upon them, they caused each and 
section of the Code to be read before them, and at the option, or upon the 
5j,ion of any one of its members, its sections were discussed, canvassed, and 
led, enlarged and restricted by a vote of the majority ; and your Committee 
id, that the codifiers themselves, being present, with scarce a single excep- 
.pproved, acquiesced in, and adopted all such suggestions, alterations, modi- 
^s, enlargements, or restrictions, as your Committee thought proper to 

I ^ 

ond what has been said, the limits of this report will not authorize your 

ittee to enlarge. 

"the result of their investigations,"' and in full view of the delicate respon- 
BS th^eby incurred, especially if their further suggestions shall receive Le- 
^e^^roval, they do not hesitate, with entire unanimity, to report that the 
Mfioners have ably, faithfully, and efficiently discharged the arduous duties 
d upon them, and with like unanimity recommend the Legislative sanction 
option of that which they present as "The Code of Georgia." 
■le further anxious discharge of their duties, the thoughts of your Commit- 
e been necessarily turned to consider the mode in and by which this can 

importance of a knowledge of the contents of the Code to a satisfactory 
'1 considered vote for its adoption by each member of the Legislature, has, 


- — ■ — - " •„ 4.VfA tsprvice of the Gonf^ 

the end of the Index, and to which *« Pec>a ^^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^p,,, 

M^ny of the rules of the f P-'"f ^stns of the Courts, and others being e, 

aed -by Legislative enactments and de— ^^.^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,^ ,„1,3 f be 

hodii in this Code under W™ ^ft;,, ,„thoritles, and therefore they . 
Courts should undergo a revision by the p P ^ 

omitted in this book. ^^^ „ot only by the Bench and 

As constant reference will be made to^he ^ , ^^^ ^.^.^^^^ ^^^^ ^ 1 

KEPOKT ofj;he_committee. 

. To tUe General Asser^U, of '''-^'^f Jj^ of the last sessionof thi, 
The Committee appointed ^^^^ ^^''^,, ^^ ,, „.eet the Commission, 
eral Assembly (assented to 1«*/;^;- codification of the Laws of <} 
pointed under an Act \° ^^ .f ^ ^^^^^ 

(approved 19th of »«;-'f ^^'i'^tession of the General Assembly, for t 
lefore the meeting of this present ^«^^.^°" respectfully report : 

;t of revising and fully ^^J^tvo^ u oLhem by saidresolu. 

Th^t thev have discharged the duty ul r 

JJ1% is the result of their inv-^~ ^ ^..^ Committee find 
Referring to said Act of 9lh of "'"'^J''. appointed, to prepare 
.a!tade L duty of the ^l^^^^^^^ZTZo^le, embrace in a cc 
people of Georgia a Code -h>ch shall as nea P ^^^ ^^^^^^ ,, 

LLhe Laws of Georgia whhe^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^,^ O,,,,io„. of the 
tution of the State, the Statutes o ^^^^^^ 

Court or the Statutes of England, of/>'^<'^/ ^s and duties of ^ 

Xll this enlarged and extensive chart of the P ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

. ^-.sioners before your Corn-f- ^^Code, they caused each and ev. 
"in the revision and examination of said ^ 


on the one hand, pressed strongly upon us, while on the other, the utter impossi- 
bility of canvassing and considering, within any reasonable period of time, the 
four thousand paragraphs embraced therein, has presented an obstacle almost, if 
not absolutely insurmountable. 

The mere reading of the manuscript, to inform and enlighten the Legislative 
mind as to its provisions, would occupy more than half the time limited by the 
Constitution to a Legislative session. Such reading, accompanied by the un- 
questioned power to amend and discuss according to the varied opinions and 
policy of our three hundred members, it need hardly be said, would occupy, to 
say the very least, more than all the time thus limited. 

In the opinion, then, of your Committee, to read without amendment and dis- 
cussion, would be idle and useless waste of time and money ; and to read, 
amend, and discuss, impracticable. 

Entertaining these opinions, and seeking the best solution of the difficulties, 
your Committee were naturally led to refer to the precedents set and acted upon 
by your sister States under similar circumstances. So far as such precedents 
will sanction and justify the recommendation to which they are led, they have 
been pleased to find that, in almost every State, Revised Codes have been adopted 
by a simple Legislative act, such as your Committee offer with this report, and 
upon the action and report of a committee, leaving other considerations, amend- 
ments, and discussions, of course, to the power and wisdom of the Legislature 
after publication. 

With the exception of Virginid, your Committee believe that the action of the 
States has been uniformly such as they now recommend. In that State the other 
policy was pursued. Each section of its Code was subjected to a thorough revi- 
sion, and separate adoption by its whole Legislative Department. The result 
was that its session was extended to a period over six months, and, of course, at 
a very great cost to the State. Your Committee, from a partial and cursory 
examination of the Code of that State, will be permitted to add, in no censorious 
spirit, that the benefit of this course is not manifest in the results. Other Codes 
adopted upon the plan which your Committee feel constrained to suggest, com- 
pare most favorably with this Code of Virginia. 

Your Committee believe thai^they could give satisfactory reasons for the opin- 
ion entertained, that the labor, time, and money which might be expended in a 
Legislative reading, revision, and examination of the Code, might be really detri- 
mental, rather than beneficial, to its efficiency, harmony, and entire plan and struc- 
ture ; but the limits of a report forbid all such attempts. 

If the Code now presented were a new system of jurisprudence, or had the 
Comftiissioners attempted to graft upon our system any new features extracted 
frotn others and unharmonious with our own, or even if alterations in a well de- 
lilted public policy had been attempted, your Committee would have paused, 
hesitated to recommend the mode of adoption suggested, without at least calling 
the special attention of the Legislature to such new and essential changes. 


But at an early stage of our revision and examination, the codifiers announced 
the leading principle by which they had attempted to guide their labors, and your 
Committee report the same prominent in all the amendments and changes made 
at their suggestion. This principle was, to attempt no change or alteration in any- 
well defined rule of law which had received Legislative sanction or judicial expo- 
sition, and to add no principle or policy which had received the condemnation of 
the former, or was antagonistic to the settled decisions of the latter. 

The prominent and leading power of change exercised in construction and re- 
vision has been to cut and unravel Gordian knots, resulting from conflicting deci- 
sions of the Courts ; to reconcile actual ^nd apparently discordant legislation, har- 
monij^ing all conflicts to what seemed to be settled and favored public policy ; to 
remedy existing defects by wise and harmonious provisions; and to supply omis- 
sions which the practice and experience of the Courts had discovered and made 
manifest in existing legislation. In short, the great end and aim has been to re- 
concile, harmonize, render consistent, the body of the law, so as to give shape 
and order, system and efficiency, to the sometimes crude, and often ill expressed, 
sovereign will of the State. 

A settled conviction on the mind of your Committee that the codifiers have, to 
a degree as complete and perfect as might reasonably be expected, accomplished 
these and like ends, has won for the Code, as an entirety, their cordial and unani- 
mous approval. Your Committee will not conceal that some particular sections 
and provisions have not met this unanimous concurrence. When differences 
arose, careful and anxious consideration and discussion followed, and minorities 
did not hesitate to yield — all being satisfied that, as a whole, the Code was enti- 
tled to and should receive, as it does receive, their unanimous and unquali^ed 
approbation and recommendation. 

Your Committee fully believe that such would be the result of any examina- 
tion and revision by the Legislative Department. 

Your Committee do not deem it inappropriate to their duties to add, that the 
proper printing and publication of the Code, if adopted, becomes a subject of 
much interest and importance. Its plan and structure accompanies this report. 
A reference thereto will render most manifest the necessity, in tliqi^publiGatiou, of 
rigidly adhering to the plan. The numerical order of its paragrapRs, and.its re- 
ferences in one title, section, or paragraph, to another, must be preserved. In- 
the use and value of the Code, its Index becomes of the highest importance. 

These, and like considerations and reflections, lead your Committ^^to suggest 
that none other than those who constructed the Code, who devised Tts^ plan, and 
are familiar with its details and manuscript, can so well superintend "its publica- 
tion and prepare its Index. Your Committee have further to add, that^it is- .pro- 
vided in the Code itself that it shall not take effect until the 1st of October, Iji^l, 

thus giving time for its publication. -r^ t**!^ 

It is further provided, and your Committee think wisely, to meet anjy insu^ 
flciency of the Code, that all questions not embraced or provided for therein,. sJaall h€^ 


decided and settled by existing laws, and that the Code does not interfere with, 
or in any manner abrogate or repeal, local legislation. 

If in the views thus presented by your Committee, they shall have the concur- 
rence of the Legislature, they present as part of this report, a bill to adopt 
the Code, and a bill to provide for its publication. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 


Committee on part of Senate. 

Committee on part of House. 


An Act to approve, adopt and make of force, in the State of Georgia, a Revised Code of 
Laws, prepared under the direction and by authority of the General Assembly thereof ; 
and for other purposes therewith connected. 

Section 1. The General Assembly of the State of Georgia do enact, That the 
Revised Code of Laws prepared under its authority, by Richard H. Clark, Thos. 
R. R. Cobb, and David Irwin, Esqs., and revised and fully examined by its 
committee, and recommended and reported for adoption (the manuscript whereof 
now being on file in the Executive Department), be, and the same is hereby, 
adopted as the Code of Georgia ; to be of force and take effect on the first of 
January, 1862. 

Provided, That the adoption of the Code shall not operate so as to repeal an 
Act entitled "An Act to define the liability of the husband for the debts of the wife, 
and to define the liability of the property received through the wife for the debts 
of the husband existing at the time of the marriage," approved 28th February, 
1856 ; or to punish any Judge, Justice, or Minister, for joining in marriage any 
female under the age of twenty-one without the consent of her father or guardian. 

Section 2. And be it further enacted, That all laws and resolutions of a pub- 
lic and general character passed at this present session of the General Assembly, 


"be incorporated in and made part of said Code ; and that the duties and powers 
of the codifiers be continued to that end, with authority to place the same in 
proper and appropriate form and connection, and to correct any conflicts which 
may be created thereby with its existing provisions. And that the performance 
of the further duties by said codifiers, as required in this section, be submitted to 
the revisal, examination and approval of His Excellency the Governor, before 
the publication of said Code. 

Section 3. Be it further enacted^ That the laws of the State of Georgia, 
having reference to the city of Savannah, etc., as codified by order of the City 
Council of Savannah, by the City Attorney of Savannah, be and the same is 
hereby, declared and made a part of the Code of Georgia and the laws thereof — the 
manuscript copy whereof is now on file in the Executive Office. 

Assented to Dec. 19th, 1860. 





; ^^^ / 

The late war and its results, having produced so many radical changes in the 
Constitution and Laws of Georgia, a revision of the Code of the State becanae a 
matter of necessity. Prompted by an appreciation of that necessity, as well as 
the suggestions of his friends, the undersigned entered upon the work Of carefully 
revising said Code, so as to exclude therefrom all such parts as had been repealed 
or superseded, and to include all laws passed since the adoption of said Code 
which were of force at the adjournment of the General Assembly of 1866, thus 
making the Code conform to the 5th Clause of the 1st Section of the 5th Article 
of the Constitution of Georgia, adopted by the Convention of 1865. All parts 
of the Code that have been repealed or superseded have been left out, and all laws 
still of force, that were never embodied in the Code, have been arranged under 
appropriate heads. The head-notes and sections have been rearranged and re- 
numbered, and the new laws are included in brackets, with references to the au- 
thorities in which they may be found. A new and enlarged Index has been made, 
which, it is hoped, will enable any lawyer or citizen readily to find the law on any 
given subject. By resolution of the General Assembly, His Excellency Governor 
Jenkins appointed a committee, composed of Gen. Andrew J. Ilansell, Col. Logan 
E. Bleckley, and Col. Nathaniel J. Hammond, to examine the work ; and after a 
careful and elaborate examination, this committee of distinguished lawyers re- 
ported to His Excellency that the revision of the Code was thorough and accurate. 
The undersigned did not feel at liberty to change even the wording of the laws 
passed since the adoption of the Code, but embodied them just as they were en- 
acted by the Legislature. The work has been tedious and difficult, and the 
undersigned does not claim that it is perfect ; but, having done the very best that 
time, circumstances, and his official duties would allow, he places it before a gen- 
erous profession and an indulgent people, 


> i tJt te'4i^'i k "^ I )^d 




PART FIRST. — The Political and Public Organization of the State. 

PART SECOND.— The Civil Code. 

PART THIRD.— The Code of Practice. 

PART FOURTH.— The Penal Laws. 



TITLE I. — Divisions and Jurisdictions, 

Chapter 1. — Of the Boundary, Sover- 
eignty and Jurisdiction 5 

Article 1. The boundary of the State. 5 
Article 2. The sovereignty and juris- 
diction of the State' 7 

Article 3. Coast Survey 7 

Chapter 2.— The Political [and Judicial 

Divisions of the State 8 

Article 1. Counties 9 

Article 2. Congressional Districts. ... 12 
Article 3. Judicial Districts and Cir- 
cuits 14 

TITLE II.— Citizenship, 
Chapter 1. — Who are Citizens 14 [ Chapter 2. — Expatriation. 

TITLE 111,— The Executive Department, 


Chapter 1. — The Governor, his Powers 

and Duties 16 

Chapter 2. — The Executive Office, and 

residence of Governor 20 

Chapter 3. — State House Officers. . ,. . . 21 

Article 1. Secretary of State. . . /. .^. . 21 

Article 2. Treasurer ». .! 


Article 3. Comptroller General 27 

Chapter 4. — Of other officers ^f^he Ex-^ 

ecutive Department. . . j 4(f 31 

Article 1. State Librarian 81 

Article 2. G^overnor's Messenger ^nd 

State HPhse Guard « 32 

Chapter 5. — General Regulations as to 

Offices and Officers 33 

Article 1. Of Eligibility, Qualification, 

•. , Ck)raraissjops,,etc .*....... 33 

Article 2. Official Oaths 36 

Article 3. Official Bonds, and Dis- 
charge of Sureties 38 

Article 4. Delivery of books to succes- 
sors 4^ 

TITLE IV. — Legislative Department. 

Chapter 1. — Of the General Assembly.. 43 

Chapter 2. — Subordinate Officers of the 
General Assembly 4S 



TITLE V. — Judicial Department, 

Chapter 1. — General Provisions as lo 

the Judicial Power 

Chapter 2. — The Supreme Court and its 


Article 1. The Supreme Court and its 


Article 2. The Clerk 

Article 3. The Reporter 

Article 4. The Sheriff. 

Chapter 3. — The Superior Courts and 


Article 1. The Judges 

Article 2. The Clerks 

Article 3. The Receiver 

Chapter 4. — The County Court and its 


Article 1. The County Court 

Article 2. The County Judge 

. Article 3. The County Solicitor 

Article 4. Clerk of the CounUy Court. 
Article 5. The Sheriff and Bailiffs of 
County Court V 







Chapter 5. — The Inferior Court and its 

Officers 76 

Article 1. The Court and its Justices. 76 

Article 2, The Clerk 78 

Chapter 6.— The Ordinary 8D 

Article 1. The Ordinary and his Court SO- 

Article2. As Clerk 83 

Article 3. As School Commissioner.. . 85' 

Chapter 7. — Sheriffs and their Deputies 86 

Chapter 8. — State's Attorney and Attor- 
neys at Law 90 

Article 1. Attorney General.. , 91 

Article 2. Solicitor General 92^ 

Article 3. Attorneys at Law 95 

Chapter 9. — Justices of the Peace and 

Constables 103 

Article 1. Justices of the Peace and 

their Courts 103 

Article 2. Constables 108 

Chapter 10. — Corporate Courts Ill 


Chapter 1. — Militia Districts 

Chapter 2.— Ipcorporation of Counties, 

Contracts, and Property, 

Chapter 3. — County Revenue 

Article 1. From Taxation 

Article 2. From other sources 

Chapter 4. — Certain County Officers. . . 

Article 1. Treasurer 

Article 2. Surveyor 

Article 3. Coroner 

County Organization, 

112 Chapte^^^Rblic Roads, Bridges, and 

Ferries 133 

113 Article 1. Public Roads 133 

116 Article 2, Road Commissioners and 

116 their duties 141 

119 Article 3. Bridges and Ferries 144 

122 Article 4. Railroad Crossings. 149 

123 Article 5. Private Ways 151 

128 Article 6. Mining 154 

130 Chapter 6.— The County Poor 155 

TITLE YU.—Fuhlic Revenue, 

Chapter 1. — Taxation by the State 159 

Article 1. Persons and Property Ex- 
empt 159 

Article 2. Persons and Property taxed 160 
Article 3. tILxcs on Banks, Railroads, 

etc 162 

Article 4. Taxes, how returned an.d 

3 collVted . y \ . A- • > ^..V-^:-^^ \ 164 

Articles. Delinquei*tTax-^aj^rs,ahn^ - 

Proceedings against them 172 

Article 6. Delinquent Collectors and 

Receivers 175 

Article 7. Tax Receivers 177 

Article 8. Tax Collectors 180 

Artid£j9. Compensation of Collectors 

andlleceivers 182 

Article 10. Miscellaneous Provisions 182 
Ch^ter 2.A-Revenue from other sources 183 

Kf ^ Y-JtF.^Ae^ P%8l^c:Jb%ht, 

Chapter 1.— The Public Debt 

r: '•' 

^'■'>', V . 

TITLE IX..— Public Property, 

Chapter 1. — Public buildings 188 

Chapter 2.— The lands of the State 188 

Chapters. — The Western and Atlantic 
Railroad, and its government. 189 

Chapter 4. — Stocks and other funds. 
Chapter 5.— Other public property. . 





TITLE X,-^FuhUc Printing. 

Chapter 1. — The Public Printer — his 

duty and compensation 199 

Chapter 2.— Other printing 202 


Chapter 3. — The Compiler 

Chapter 4. — Distribution of Laws and 
other documents 203 

TITLE XL— Public Defense. 

Chapter 1. — Persons subject to military 

duty, exemptions, etc 205 

Chapter 2. — Military organization 209 

Article 1. Military force, and how com- 
posed 209 

Article 2. The Volunteers 210 

Article 3. Cavalry Corps 214 

Article 4. The Militia 215 

Article 5. Elections 217 

Chapter 3. — Organization of the Staff of 

the Militia 218 

Chapter 4. — Courts Martial 221 

Chapter 5 — Preservation of order at pa- 
rade 223 

Chapter 6. — Provisions of local applica- 
tion 224 

Chapter 7. — Miscellaneous Provisions.. 227 
Chapter 8. — Public arms and arsenals . . 230 

TITLE XIL— Education. 

Chapter 1. — University of Georgia 232 

Chapter 2 — Georgia Military Institute. . 236 

Chapter 3. — Academy for the Blind 239 

Chapter 4. — Academy for Deaf and 

Dumb 241 

Chapter 5. — County Academies. .' . ..... 242 

Chapter 6.-Common Schools and educa- 
tion of the poor 243 

Chapter 6. — 

Article 1. Educational Fund 243 

Article 2. How paid out 245 

Article 3. Educational Fund of the 

Counties 246 

Article 4. How managed 247 

Article 5. Beneficiaries of the Fund. . 250 

TITLE XllL—Mections hy the People. 

Chapter 1. — Qualification of voters 251 

Chapter 2. — Elections of Members of the 

General Assembly 253 

Chapter 3. — Elections for Governor, 
Members of Congress, Electors of 
President, Vice-President, Judges, 

and Solicitors 256 

Article 1. Provisions applicable to all 257 

Article 2. For Governor 257 

Article 3. For Members of Congress. . 258 

Article 4. Electors for President and 

Vice-President 259 

Article 5. Judges of Superior Court 
and Solicitors General 260 

Chapter 4. — For Justices of the Inferior 
Court, Ordinal y, and County Offi- 
cers 261 

Chapter 5. — Justices of the Peace and 
Constables 263 

Chapter 6. — Contested Elections 263 

TITLE XIY .—Elections hy the Qeneral Assembly. 
Chapter 1.— For United States Senators 265 | Chapter 2.— Other Officers 


TITLE XV. — Police and Sanitary Regulations. 

Chapter 1. — Lunatic Asylum 266 

Article 1. The Trustees 266 

Article 2. Superintendent 267 

Article 3. Admission and disposition 

of patients 268 

Chapter 2. — Health, Hospitals, Infection 

and Quarantine 272 

Chapter 3. — Physicians and Druggists. . 276 
Chapter 4. — Tavern and Retail License. 279 

Chapter 5. — Vendue Masters and Auc- 

tioneeers 280 

Chapter 6.— Estrays 281 

Chapter 7. — Marks and brands 283 

Chapter 8. — Enclosures and fences 283 

Chapter 9. — Firing the woods 284 

Chapter 10.— Mills and Millers 285 

Chapter 11. — Gunpowder 286 


TITLE XVI. — Regulations of Agriculture, Trade, and Commerce, 

Chapter 1. — Banks and Banking 286 

Article 1 . Bank returns 287 

Article 2. Obligations and Penalties. 288 
Articles. Forfeiture of Charters and 

liability of Stockholders 291 

Chapter 2 .— N'otaries Public 293 

Chapter 3. — Ships and Seamen 294 

Article 1 . Pilotage 295 

Article 2 . Seamen 304 

Chapter 4. — Inspection 807 

Article 1 . Flour and grain 307 

Article 2. Wood, Tobacco, etc 310 

Article 3. Liquors 313 

Chapter 5.— Weights and Measures 315 

Chapter 6. — Regulations for particular 

branches of Trade and Agriculture. 310 

Article 1 . Cotton, Kice, etc 316 

Article 2. Cultivation of Rice 319 

Article 3 . Oysters and Turtles 321 

Article 4. Fishing 322 

Article 5. Boats and Crews 323 

Article 6 . Peddlers 324 

TITLE XNll.— Salaries and Fees of Officers. 

Chapter 1. — Executive Department and 

Officers thereof. : : 326 

Chapter 2. — Other Officers appointed 
by the Governor 327 

Chapter 3. — Officers not appointed by 

the G-overnor, but paid by the State 327 
Chapter 4. — The Legislative Department 328 
Chapters. — The Judicial Department. 328 




Chapter 1 . — Of the different kinds of 
Persons — their Status and Riglits . . 331 

Article 1. Of Citizens 331 

Article 2. Of Aliens and Residents. . 333 

Of Persons, 

Article 3. Of Persons.of Color 334 

Article 4. Of Corporations 335 

Chapter 2. — Of Domicil, and the man- 
ner of changing the same 340 

TITLE IL— 0/ the Domestic Relations. 

Chapter 1.— Of Husband and Wife 341 

Article 1. Of Marriage and Divorce. . 342 
Sec. 1. Marriages — how and by 

whom contracted 342 

Sec. 2. Divorces, and how obtained 345 
Sec. 3. Of Alimony 348 

Article 2. Of the Rights and Liabili- 
ties of Husband and Wife, and 
herein of Dower 350 

Article 3. Of Marriage Contracts and 

Settlements 354 

Chapter 2.— Of Parent and Child 356 

Article 1. Legitimate Children, and 
herein of Adoption 356 

Article 2. Illegitimate Children, or 
Bastards 358 

Chapter 3.— Of Guardian and Ward. . . 359 

Article 1. Guardians and Minors 359 

Sec. 1. How and by whom appoint- 
ed 360 

Sec. 2. Their Powers, Duties, and 

Liabilities 364 

Sec. 3. Settlements, Resignations, 

and Letters of Dismission 367 

Article 2. Guardians of Lunatics and 

Idiots 370 

Article 3. Foreign Guardians 373 

Chapter 4.— Of Master and Servant 374 

Article 1. Indented Servants and Ap- 
prentices 374 

Article 2. Laborers in Factories 377 

TITLE III. — Of Relations Arising from Other Contracts. 

Chapter 1.— Of Partnership 378 

Article 1. General Principles 378 

Article 2. Rights and Liabilities of 
Partners among themselves 380 

Article 3. Rights and Liabilities as to 

Third Persons 381 

Articled Limited Partnerships.; 382 

Chapter 2.— Of Debtor and Creditor. . . 387 



Article 1. General Principles 

Article 2. Acts void against Creditors 389 
Article 3. Mortgages and other Liens 390 

Sec. 1. Mortgages 390 

Sec. 2. Other Liens 392 

Article 4. Insolvent Debtors 397 

Sec. 1. How Discharged 397 

Sec. 2. Prison Bounds 401 

Sec. 3. Property Exempt from Sale 401 

Article 5. Interest and Usury 404 

Chapter 3. — Of Bailments 405 

Article 1. General Principles 405 

Article 2. Of Carriers, and herein of 
Railroad and Steamboat Companies 400 

Article 3. Of Hiring 409 

Article 4. Of Deposits. 412 

Article 5. Of Loans «, 414 

Article 6. Of Mandates, Pledges, or 
Pawns 415 

Chapter 4. — Of Principal and Surety. . 417 

Article 1. Of the Contract 417 

Article 2. Relative Rights of Creditor 

and Surety 418 

Article 3. Rights of Surety against 

Principal 419 

Article 4. Rights of Sureties among 

themselves 422 

Article 5. Rights of Sureties as to 

Third Persons 422 

Chapter 5. Of Principal and Agent. . . . 423 
- Article 1. Relation of Principal and 

Agent among themselves 423 

Article 2. Rights and Liabilities of 

Principal as to Third Persons 425 

Article 3. Rights and Liabilities of 

Agent to Third Persons 426 

Article 4. Of Overseers 428 

TITLE TV. — Of Property, and the Tenure hy ivJiicJi it is Held. 
Chapter 1.— Of Realty 429 | Chapter 2.— Of Personalty 432 

TITLE y. — Of Estates, and the Rights attached thereto. 

Chapter 1. — Of Absolute Estates, or in 

Fee Simple 433 

Chapter 2.— Of Estates for Life 435 

Chapter 3. — Of Estates in Remainder 

and Reversion 436 

Chapter 4.— Of Estates for Years 438 

Chapter 5. — Of Landlord and Tenant. . 439 

Chapter 6. — Of Estates upon Condition 441 
Chapter 7. — Of Tenancy in Common. . 442 

Chapter 8.— Of Trust Estates 443 

Article 1. Of their Creation and Na- 
ture. 443 

Article 2. Of Trustees, Appointments, 
Powers, etc 445 

TITLE yi.— 0/ Title, and the Mode of Conveyance, 

Chapter 1.- 
Article 1. 
Article 2. 
Article 3. 
Article 4. 

-Of Grants 449 

Grants Generally 449 

Of Head Rights 451 

Of Land Lotteries 454 

Of Processioning 454 

Chapter 2.— Of Title by Will 456 

Article 1. Of the Nature of Wills— by 

whom and how executed 457 

Article 2. Of Probate and its Effects 460 

Article 3. Of the Executor 463 

Article 4. Of Devises and Legacies. . 466 

Article 5. Of Revocation 469 

Article 6. Of Nuncupative Wills 470 

Chapter 3. — Of Title by Descent and 

Administration 471 

Article 1. Of Inheritable Property, 
and the Relative Rights of Heir 

and Administrator 471 

Article 2. Of Administration 473 

Sec. 1. Different kinds of Adminis- 
trators, and Rules of Granting 

Letters 473 

Sec. 2. Of their Appointment, Bonds, 

and Removal 476 

Sec. 3. Inventories, Appraisements, 
and Returns 479 



Section 4. Of Managing the Estate, 

and Paying Debts 481 

Sec. 5. Of Receiving and Making 

Titles on Bonds for Titles 485 

Sec. 6. Of Administrator's Sales. . 486 
Sec. 7. Of Distribution, Advance- 
ments, and Provision for Family 
Sec. 8. Of Commissions and Extra 

Compensation 493 

Sec. 9. Of Final Settlements and 

Receipts, and herein of Interest. . 495 
Sec. 10. Of Letters of Dismission 

and Resignation 497 

Sec. 11. Of Removing Proceedings 

to Another County 499 

Sec. 12. Of Foreign Adm'rs 500 

Chapter 4.— Of Title by Judicial Sale. . 500 

Chapter 5.— Of Title by Contract 502 

Article 1 . Of Private Sales 502 

Article 2. Of Gifts 500 

Chapter 6.— Of Title by Escheat and 

Forfeiture 508 

Chapter 7.— Of Title by Prescription. . 509 
Chapter 8.— Of Conveyance of Title. . 511 

Article 1 . Generally 511 

Article 2 . Of Covenants and War'nty 513 
Article 3. Of Registration 513 



TITLE VII.— O/ Contracts. 

Chapter 1. — General Principles 516 

Chapter 2.— Of the Parties 518 

Chapter 3. — Of the Consideration 519 

Chapter 4. — Of Illegal and Void Con- 
tracts 520 

Chapter 5. — Of Construction of Con- 
tracts 521 

Chfipter 6. — Court Contracts 523 

Chapter 7. — Of Negotiable Contracts. . 525 
Article 1 . Of Negotiable Paper, and 

How Transferred 525 

Article 2. Of Indorser's Notice and 

Protest 526 

Article 3. Of the Rights of Holders. 527 

Article 4. Of Damages 528 

Chapter 8 . — Of Contracts of Insurance . 529 

Article 1 . Fire Insurance 529 

Article 2. Life Insurance 532 

Article 3. Marine Insurance 532 

Article 4. Mutual Insurance 534 



Chapter 9.— Of Defenses to Contracts, 

Article 1. Denial of the Contract. . , 

Article 2. Denial of its Obligation, 

and herein of Acts of Opposite 


Articles. Payments, and herein of 

Appropriation of Payments 537 

Article 4 . Performance, and herein of 

Tender 538' 

Articles. Accord and Satisfaction.. 539 
Article 6. Arbitrament and Av>'ard. . 540 
Article 7. Pendency of Another Ac- 
tion, and Former Recovery 541 

Article 8. Set-off and Recoupment. . . . 542 

Article 9. Limitation of Actions. .. . 543 

Sec. 1. Periods of Limitation.... 543 

Sec . 2 . Exceptions and Disabilities 545 

Sec . 3 . New Promise 546 

Chapter 10. Of Breach of Contract, and 
Damages , 547 

TITLE VIII.- — Of Torts or Injuries to Person or Property, 

Chapter 1. — General Principles 549 

Chapter 2. — Of Injuries to the Person.. 551 

Article 1. Physical Injuries 552 

Article 2. To' Reputation 553 

Sec. 1. Libel and Slander 553 

Sec. 2. Malicious Prosecution 554 

Article 3. Other injuries to the Person 555 

Sec. 1. False Imprisonment 555 

Sec. 2. Malicious Arrest 556 

Sec. 3. Nuisances and other injuries 

to Health 556 

Sec. 4. Indirect injuries to Person. . 558 

Chapter 3.— 

Article 1, 

Article 2. 

Article 3. 
Chapter 4.— 

Article 1. 

Article 2. 

Article 3. 

Article 4. 
Chapter 5.— 

Of injuries to Property. . . . 559 

To real estate 559 

To personalty generally. . . 560 

By railroad companies 561 

Of Defenses 566 

Justification 566 

Satisfaction, and herein of 

, 567 

Limitation of Actions 568 

Other Defenses 568 

..^ 569 

•Of Damages 

TITLE IX.— 0/ JSquity. 

Chapter 1.- 
Chapter 2.- 
Chapter 3- 
ny . . . . 
Chapter 4.- 
Chapter 5.- 
Chapter 6.- 
Chapter 7.- 
Chapter 8.- 
Chapter 9.- 
Chapter 10. 

-General Principles 571 

-Of Discovery 573 

-Of perpetuation of Testimo- 


-Of Accident and Mistake.. 
-Of Account and Set-off. . . . 
-Of Administration of assets 

-Of Charities 580 

-Of Election 581 

-Of the Execution of Powers 582 
-Of Fraud 583 

Chapter 11. — Of partition 584 

Chapter 12. — Of specific performance. . 585 

Chapter 13. — Of trusts and trustees 586 

Chapter 14. — Of extraordinary remedies 587 
Article 1. Of mandamus, quo warran- 
to, and prohibition 587 

Article 2. Of injunctions 588 

Article 3. Of ne exeat and quia timet 589 
Article 4. Of bills of peace and inter- 
pleader 591 



TITLE I. — Of the Judges, Sessions, and Adjournments of Courts. 

Chapter 1. — Of the Supreme Court 593 

Chapter 2. — Of the Superior and Inferior 

Courts 594 

Article 1. Number and times of ses- 
sions 594 

Article 2. Of the adjournments of the 

Superior and Inferior Courts 598 

Chapter 3.— Of the Judges of the Supe- 
rior Courts 599 



TITLE II.— (9/ Actions. 

Chapter 1. — General Principles 601 

Chapter 2.— Of Attachments 603 

Article 1. Of issuing Attachments... . 603 
Article 2. In what manner, on what 
property executed, and proceedings 

thereon 608 

Articles. Proceedings on Garnishment 610 
Article 4. Pleadings and Defenses. ... 612 
Article 5. Replevy, and disposition of 

property attached 615 

Article 6. Claims, and proceedings 

therein 616 

Article 7. Lien of Attachments, Gar- 
nishments, and Executions 618 

Chapter 3. — Of Petitions and Process. . 619 
Article 1. General Provisions. ...... 619 

Article 2. Particular Cases 621 

Chapter 3. — Article 2. — 

Sec. 1. Against joint, and joint and 

several Contractors 622 

Sec. 2. In ejectment 623 

Sec. 3. Against Corporations 62..1 

Sec. 4. Against Trustees 628 

Sec. 5. Against Executors, Adminis- 
trators, and Guardians 620 

Sec. 6. Particular Forms 630 

Chapter 4.— Of the Venue ■. . . 634 

Chapter 5. — Of Bail in Civil Cases. .... 636 
Article 1. Bail at the Commencement 

of the, Action 636 

Article 2. Bail 'pendente lite 640 

Article 3. Proceedings Again=;t Bail. . 641 
Article 4. Bail in Action for Personalty 642 

Chapter 6.— Of Making Parties 644 

Chapter 7. — Of Abatement, Retraxit, 

Dismissal, and Renewal of Actions 640 

TITLE III. — Of Defenses, and Proceedings Pending Action. 

Chapter 1.— Of Defenses— Pleas 648 

Article 1. General Provisions 648 

Article 2. Particular Pleas 650 

Sec. 1. To the Jurisdiction 650 

Sec. 2. Of Set-off 651 

Sec. 3. Of Usury 652 

Sec. 4. Of Failure of Consideration 652 

Sec. 5. Of Non est Factum 652 

Sec. 6. Of other Pleas 653 

Chapter 2. — Of Amendments 654 

Article 1. — General Principles 654 

Article 2. Particular Cases 656 

Sec. 1. Of Amending A^erdicts, Judg- 
ments, and Executions 656 

Sec. 2. Of Amending Official Re- 
turns 657 

Sec. 3. Of Amending Records 657 

Sec. 4. Of other Amendments 658 

Chapter 3. — Of the Production of Papers 658 

Chapter 4. — Of Continuances 662 

Chapter 5. — Of Garnishments 664 

TITLE IV. — Of the Verdict and Judgment. 

Chapter 1. — Of the Verdict and Judg- 
ment 668 

Article 1, Of the Verdict and its Re- 
ception 669 

I Article 2. Of entering Judgments. ... 670 
Articles. Effect and Lien of Judgment 671 

Article 4. Of Attacking Judgments. . 673 
Article 5. Transfer of Judgments. . . . 675 
Article 6. Confession of Judgment. . . 675 
Article 7. Of dormant Judgments, and 
Revival thereof 678 

TITLE v.— 0/ Appeals. 

Chapter 1.— Of Appeals 677 

Article 1. In what Cases Allowed.. . . 677 
Article 2. When, by whom, and how 
Entered 678 

Article 3. Effect of Appeal 681 

Article 4. How and when tried 681 

TITLE VL— 0/ Executions. 

Chapter 1. — Of different kinds of Exe- 
cutions 682 

Article 1. When and how Issued and 
Returned 682 

Article 2. Ga. Sas., how Executed and 
Proceedings thereon 684 

Article 3. Of a FL Fa., how Levied, 
and Proceedings thereon 686 

Article 4. Of Sales under Execution — 

when and how made 687 

Article 5. Of the Satisfaction of Exe- 
cutions 689 

Chapter 2.— Of the Stay of Executions. 690 
Chapter 3. — Of the Illegality of Execu- 
tions 690 

Chapter 4. — Of Forthcoming Bonds. . . . 692 



TITLE Nil.— Of Costs in Civil Cases, 

Chapter 1. — Costs iu Civil Cases 693 

Article 1. How Taxed 693 

Article 2. How Collected 695 

Chapter 2.— Fees of Officers of Court. . 695 

TITLE YllL—JSTew Trials, 

Chapter 1.— Of New Trials 705 

Article 1. By whom and for what 
causes allowed 705 

Article 2. When, where, and how 



TITLE IX.— 0/ Claims. 

Chapter 1. — Of claims to propertjan ex- 
ecution 707 

Article 1. How and by whom inter- • 
posed 707 

Article 2. When, where, and how tried 709 
Chapter 2. — Of claims at other judicial 
sales 710 

TITLE X.—Of Evidence. 

Chapter 1. — General principles 711 

Chapter 2. — Of the rules governing the 

admission of testimony 713 

Article 1. Of the general rules 714 

Article 2. Of hearsay evidence 715 

Article 3. Of admissions and confes- 
sions 717 

Article 4. Of parol evidence to affect 

written 719 

Chapter 3. — Of discovery from parties. . 720 
Chapter 4. — Of records and other writ- 
ten evidence 721 

Article 1. Of records and public docu- 
ments 721 

Chapter 4. — 

Article 2. Of private writings 724 

Chapter 5. — Of oral testimony 725 

Article 1, Witnesses— their attendance 

and fees 726 

Article 2. Of the competency of wit- 
nesses 727 

Article 3. Of the examination of wit- 
nesses 729 

Chapter 6. — Of interrogatories and depo- 
sitions 731 

Chapter 7. — Of perpetuating testimony. 734 

TITLE XL— (9/ Juries. 

Chapter l.-~Of Grand Juries 735 

Article 1. Of the qualification of Grand 

Jurors 735 

Article 2. How selected, drawn, and 

summoned 735 

Article 3. Oath of the Grand Jury. . . 737 
Article 4. Of the power and duty of a 

Grand Jury 738 

Chapter 2. — Of Special Juries 739 

Chapter 3.— Of Petit Juries 740 

Article 1. Of the qualifications of Petit 

Jurors 741 

Article 2. How selected, drawn, sum- 
moned, and sworn 741 

Chapter 4. — Special Provisions 742 

TITLE XIL — Of Proceedings Against Ofjicers of Court. 
Chapter 1. — Of Proceedings against Officers of Court 744 

TITLE XIII. — Of Proceedings to Foreclose Mortgages. 

Chapter 1. — ^Mortgage on Real Estate — 
how foreclosed 747 

Article 1. Of the application — when 
and how made 748 

Article 2. Defenses, Pleas — when and 
how made 748 

Article 3. Of the Judgment, Disposi- 
tion of Property, etc 749 

Article 4. Of the proceeds of sale — 

how appropriated 749 

Chapter 2. Proceedings to foreclose a 

Moitgage on Personalty 750 

Article 1. Of the application— by whom 

and how made 750 

Article 2. Of defenses — when and how 

made-. 751 



TITLE XIV. — Of Proceedings to Ustahlish Lost Papers. 

Cliapter 1. — Lost papers — when, where, 

and how established 753 

Article 1. How established in the Su- 
perior Courts 753 

Chapter 1. — Article 2. How established 

in a Justices' Court 755 

Article 3. Summary establishment of 
lost papers 756 

TITLE XV,— Of Proceedings to Obtain Partition. 

Chapter 1. — Partition of land — how ob- 
tained 758 

Article 1. When, where, and by whom 
the application must be made ' 758 

Article 2, Notice to parties — how giv- 
en, and upon whom served 759 

Article 3. Of the issuing, execution, 
and return of the writ 750 

Article 4. Defenses — when and where 

made 760 

Article 5. Of the judgment 760 

Article 6. Of the remedy of parties 
absent from the State, under disa- 
bility, or not served with notice. . . . 762 
Chapter 2. — Partition of personal prop- 
erty — how obtained 7G2 

TITLE XVI. — Of Proceedings on Amplication for Haheas Corpus, 
Chapter 1. — Proceedings on application for Habeas Corpus 763 

TITLE XVII. — Of Possessory Warrants^ and Proceedings Thereon. 

Chapter 1. — Possessory warrants, and 

proceedings thereon 767 

Article 1, By whom and on what 
grounds the warrant may issue. .. 768 

Article 2. How executed and returned 768 
Article 3. Of the trial, judgment, and 
subsequent proceedings 769 

TITLE XVIIL— 0/ Proceedings on Trial of Citizenship. 
Chapter 1. Proceedings on trial of Citizenship 771 

TITLE XIX.— 0/ Proceedings to Obtain Power. 
Chapter 1. — Proceedings to obtain Dower 772 

TITLE XX.— 0/ the Writ of Certiorari. 

Chapter 1. — Of the writ of certiorari. . 774 i Article 2. How obtained, and Pro- 
Article 1. In what cases the writ of ceedings thereon 775 

certiorari lies 774 Article 2. Of the answer, hearing, 

judgment and costs 777 

TITLE XXL — Proceedings against Trespassers on Lands, and Tenants 

Holding Over. 

Chapter 1. — Proceedings against tres- Article 2. Proceedings against ten- 
passers on lands, and tenants hold- ants holding over 781 

ing over 780 Chapter 2. — Forcible entry and detain- 

Article 1 . Proceedings against intru- i er 784 

ders 780 I 

TITLE XXII. — Proceedings for the Abatement of Nuisances. 
Chapter 1 . — Proceedings for the Abatement of Nuisances 786 



TITLE XXIII. — Of Inquests^ and Proceedings thereon. 
Chapter 1 .—Of Inquests, and Proceedings thereon 787 

TITLE XXIV. — Of Proceedings in Courts of Ordinary. 

Article 2. Practice in Courts of Ordi- 

Chapter 1. — Proceedings in Courts of 

Ordinary 791 

Article 1. Sessions and adjournments 791 



TITLE XXV. — Of Proceedings of the Inferior Court ^ Sitting for County 


Chapter 1. — Proceedings of the Inferior 
Court, sitting for County Purposes. 793 

Article 1. Sessions and adjournments 793 
Article 2 . Proceedings therein 794 

TITLE XXVI. — Of the Proceedings in Justices' Courts. 

Chapter 1. — Of the Proceedings in Jus- 
tices' Courts 795 

Article 1. When and where held 795 

Article 2 . Jurisdiction of Justices' 

Courts 796 

Article 3. Commencement of suits, 
service and return of summons. . . 797 

Article 4. Pleas and defenses 799 

Articles. Evidence, witnesses, intei- 
rogatories 799 

Article 6. Trial and judgment 800 

Article 7. Appeals 801 

Article 8. Claims and trial thereof , . . 802 
Article 9. Final Judgment and Execu- 
tion 803 

Article 10. Defaulting Constables, ju- 
rors, witnesses, and contempts — 

how punished 804 

Article 11. Levy and sale under jf. /a. 806 

TITLE XXYlL—JEquity Pleading and Practice. 

Chapter 1. — Of the bill and subpoena, 
and service thereof 807 

Chapter 2 . — Of demurrers, pleas, and an- 
swers 810 

Chapter 3. — Of interlocutory decrees,re- 
ceivers, masters, etc 812 

Chapter 4. — Of the trial andats incidents 813 
Chapter 5. — Of the final decree and its 

enforcement 814 

Chapter 6. — Of other proceedings in 

chancery 815 

TITLE XX VIII.— 0/ Arbitration and Award. 

Chapter 1 . — Special provisions 816 

Article 1 . Of the submission 816 

Article 2. Of the organization and 

- hearing 817 

Article 3 . Of continuances and ad- 
journments 818 

Article 4. Of the evidence and wit- 
nesses 818 

Article 5. Of the powers of arbitra- 
tors 819 

Article 6. Of the rendition and effect 
of the award 820 

Article 7. How attacked 820 

Article 8. Of costs and compensation 

of the arbitrators 820 

Chapter 2. — General Principles 820 

TITLE XXIX. — Practice in Connection with the Supreme Court, 

Chapter 1. — Of Bills of Exception and 1 Chapter 2. Of Proceedings in the Su- 
Writ of Error 822 ' preme Court. 827 





TITLE I.— Penal Code, 

Div. 1. — Persons capable of commit- 

tmg crimes 831 

Div. 2. — Principles and accessories. . . . 833 
Div. 3. — Crimes against the State and 

people 834 

Div. 4. — Crimes against tlie person. . . 836 
Div. 5. — Crimes against the habitation 844 
Div. 6. — Crimes relative to property. . 846 
Div. 7. — Forging and counterfeiting. . 858 
Div. 8. — Crimes against public justice 863 
Div. 9. — Against public peace and tran- 
quillity 872 

Div. 10. — Against public morality, 

health, police and decency 875 

Div. 11. — Cheats and swindlers 885 

Div. 12. — Fraudulent or malicious mis- 
chief 889 

Div. 13. — Indictment and proceedings 

to execution 893 

Div. 14. — Contempts of Court and at- 
tempts to commit crimes 909 

Div. 15. — Proceedings in preliminary 

Courts 910 

Article 1. Proceeding prior to arrest 910 
Article 2. Of arrest and its conse- 
quences 912 

Article 3 . Of Courts of Inquiry, com- 
mitment and bail . 914 

Article 4. Of warrants for good beha- 
vior, and to keep the peace 917 

Article 5. Of search warrants. 918 

Article 6. Of Proceedings in cases of 
bastardy 919 

TITLE II. — Penitentiary Laws. 
Chapter 1 . — Penitentiary laws 921 

TITLE lll,^Convicts. 
Chapter 1 .—Convicts 926 


Laws having Reference; to the City op Savannah 929 

Constitution of Georgia 967 

Constitution of the United States 984 


-♦— ♦ — ^ 




.1. Obligation of laws. 

2. Code — when and how to take effect. 

3. When " from and after passage." 

4. Rules for construction of statutes. 

5. Meaning of specific terms. 

6. ru.ture operation of laws. 

7. Ignorance of law. 


8. Lex Loci. 

9. Comity of States. 

10. Waiver of law. 

11. Local laws. 

12. Bonds of public officers. 

13. Bonds taken by public officers. 

14. Inspection of office books. 

§ 1. The laws of this State shall be thus graduated in reference obligation 

. *= of laws. 

to their obligation: 

FivBt. The Constitution of the United States. 

Second. Treaties entered into by the Federal Government within 
the scope of their power. 

Third. Laws of the United States made in pursuance of the 

Fourth. The Constitution of this State. 

Fifth. The Statutes of this State. 

Sixth. Such portions of the Common, Civil, Canon, and Statute 
Laws of England as were usually in force in the Province of Geor- 
gia prior to 14th May, A.D. 1776, which were applicable to the 
condition and habits of the people so far as the same are consonant 
with our form of government, and are not repealed, modified, 


or superseded by the provisions of [the Constitution and laws of 
this State.] (a) 

Seventh. The customs of mj business ^r trade sjiall be binding \ 
only when it is of such universal practice as to justify the conclu- 
sion that it became, by implication, a part of the contract. __-' 

§2. This Code shall take effect on the first day of January^ 

Sd^h^w^t? 1^^^- ^^^ offenses committed prior to that date shall be tried 

take effect. ^^^ punished Under existing laws ; and all rights, or obligations, 

or duties acquired or imposed by existing laws, shall remain valid 

and binding, notwithstanding the repeal or modification of such 

laws. -^ 

§3. Public la^ys which in themselves prescribe specifically that 
"from^and ^^^7 ^^® *^ ^^^^ efi"ect "from and after their passage," shall not 
sage." ^^^" ^^ obligatory on the inhabitants until published in some public 
^ gazette ; and three days shall be allowed, from the date of publi- 
cation, for every hundred miles distance from the Capital, before 
a knowledge of the law shall be presumed against the inhabitants. 

§4. The following rules shall govern the construction of all 
cons"raction Statutory enactments in this State: 

First, The ordinary signification shall be applied 'to all words, 
except words of art, or connected with a particular trade or sub- 
ject-matter, when they shall have the signification attached to them 
by experts in such trade, or with reference to such subject-matter. 

Second. The present or past tense shall include the future. 

Third. The masculine gender shall include the feminine and 

Fourth. The singular or plural number shall each include the 
other, unless expressly excluded. 

Fifth. A joint authority given to any number of persons, or 
ofiicers, may be executed by a majority of them, unless it is other- 
wise declared. 

Sixth. A substantial compliance with any requisition of the 
Code, or laws amendatory thereof, especially on the part of public 
officers, shall be deemed and held sufficient, and no proceeding 
shall be declared void for want of such . compliance, unless ex- 
pressly so provided by the enactment. 

Seventh. When a bond is required by law, an undertaking in 
writing, without seal, is sufficient; and in all bonds where the 
names of the obligors do not appear in the bond, but are sub- 
scribed thereto, they are bound thereby. 

(a) See further on this subject, Constitution of Georgia, Art. 5, Sec. 1, Par. 5. 


Eighth. When a number of days is prescribed for the exercise 
of any privilege, or the discharge of any duty, only the first or 
last day shall be counted; and if the last day shall fall on the 
Sabbath, another day shall be allowed in the computation. 

Ninth. In all interpretations, the Courts shall look diligently 
for the intention of the General Assembly, keeping in view, at all 
times, the old law, the evil and the remedy. Grammatical errors 
shall not vitiate, and a transposition of words and clauses may be 
resorted to when the sentence or clause is without meaning as it 

§5. The following meaning shall be given to each of the follow- Meaamg 
ing words in all statutes, unless a different meaning is apparent terms. ' 
from the context: 

'' Property''' includes real and personal property. 

^' Personal Property''' includes every thing except interests ex- 
ceeding a lease-hold in lands, tenements, and hereditam.ents. 
Stocks in incorporated companies, though the object of the com- 
pany is necessarily connected with the land, shall be held as per- 
sonal property. 

'^Person'' includes a corporation and persons of color. 

'^ Writing'' includes printing and all numerals. 

''"Oath" includes affirmation. 

'■' Signature ^" or .'Subscription^" includes the mark of an illit- 
erate or infirm person. 

'' Lunatic" ""Insane" or "• Non-Compos-Mentis" each includes 
all persons of unsound minds. 

'^ Negro" includes mulattoes. 

""Person of Color" means all such as have an admixture of 
negro blood. 

'' Justice" when applied to magistrates, means Justice of the 

'-^Preceding" and ''Aforesaid" mean generally next before, and 
"Folloiving" next after, unless the context requires a different 

"3fonth" means a calendar month. 

"Year" means a calendar year. 

"Seal" shall include impressions on the paper itself, as well as 
impressions on wax or wafers. With the exception of official seals, 
a Scrawl^ or any other mark intended as a seal, shall be held as 

"Highway" or "Road" includes bridges upon the same. 



§6. Laws prescribe only for the future; thej can not impair the 
^P" obligation of contracts, nor generally have a retrospective opera- 
laws. ^Jqj^^ Laws looking only to the remedy or mode of trial, may 

apply to contracts, rights, and offenses entered into, accrued, or 
committed prior to their passage; but in every case a reasonable 
time subsequent to the passage of the statute should be allowed 
for the citizen to enforce his contract, or protect his right. 

§7. Laws, after promulgation, are obligatory upon all inhabi- 
oni^™^*^^ tants of this State, and ignorance of the law excuses no one. 

§ 8. The validity, form, and effects of all writings or contracts are 

Lex Loci, determined by the laws of the place where executed. When such 

writing or contract is intended to have effect in this State, it must 

be executed in conformity to the laws of this State, excepting wills 

of personalty of persons domiciled in another State or country. 

§9. The laws of other States and foreign nations shall have 

€omity of no forco and effect of themselves within this State, further than is 

states. . . . 

provided by the Constitution of the United States, and is recog- 
nized by the comity of States. The Courts shall enforce this 
comity, until restrained by the General Assembly, so long as its 
enforcement is not contrary to the policy or prejudicial to the 
interests of this State. 

§10. Laws made for the preservation of public order or good 

Waiver of morals Can not be done away with or abrogated by any agreement; 

but a person may waive or renounce what the law has established 

in his favor, when he does not thereby injure others or affect the 

public interest. 

§11. If there is a law in force at the time of the adoption of 
Local laws, this Codo, having entirely a local application, such local law is 
not repealed by this Code, unless so expressly declared. 

§12. All bonds taken from public officers shall be kept in the 

Bonds of places specified by law, and copies thereof shall be furnished to 

cers. any person desiring them. Suits thereon may be brought by any 

person aggrieved by the official misconduct of the officer, in his 

own name, in any Court having jurisdiction thereof, without an 

order for that purpose. 

§13. All bonds taken by public officers, under the laws of this 
Konds taken State, shall bc returned to the offices specified by law; and any 

bypublicof- . i , • i • , . , . 

fleers. person interested therein may bring suit thereon, m his own name, 

in any Court having jurisdiction thereof. 

§ 14. All books kept by any public officer, under the laws of this 
inspectionof State, shall be subject to the inspection of all the citizens of this 

State, within office hours, every day except Sundays and holidays. 

ART I. • 








Article 1. — The Boundary of the State. 

Article 2. — The Sovereignty and Jurisdiction of the State, 

Article 3. — Coast Survey. 

ar;ticle l 



15. Boundary of the State. 

16. Line between Ga. and S. Carolina. 

17. Between Ga., N. C, and Tennessee. 


18. Between Georgia and Alabama. 

19. Between Georgia and Florida. 

^ 15. The boundaries of Georgia, as deduced from the Constitu- Boundaries 

^ of the State 

tion of Georgia, the Convention of Beaufort, the Articles of of Georgia. 
Cession and Agreement entered into on the 24th April, 1802, the 
Resolution of the General Assembly of December 8th, 1826, and 
the adjudications and compromises affecting Alabama and Florida, 
are as follows: 

From the sea, or the mouth of the river Savannah, along the 
stream thereof to the fork or confluence made by the rivers Keo- 
wee and Tugalo, and thence along said river Tugalo until the 
fork or confluence made by said Tugalo and the river Chattooga, 
and up and along the same to the point where it touches the 
northern boundary line of South Carolina and the southern 
boundary line of North Carolina, which is at a point on the thirty- 

6 PT. 1.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— Boundary, Sovereignty, etc. 

Article 1.— The Boundary of the State. 

fifth parallel of north latitude, reserving all the islands in said 
rivers Savannah, Tugalo, and Chattooga, to Georgia ; thence on 
said line of said Ihirty-fifth parallel, from said point of intersec- 
tion, and on and along said line west, to a point where it merges 
into and becomes the northern boundary line of Alabama — it being 
the point fixed by the survey of the State of Georgia, and known 
as Nickajack; thence in a direct line to the great bend of Chat- 
tahoochee river, called Miller's Bend — it being the line run and 
marked by said survey: and .thence along and down the western 
bank of said Chattahoochee, along the line or limit of high-water 
mark to its junction with Flint river; thence along a certain line 
of survey, made by Gustavus J. Orr, a surveyor on the part of 
Georgia, and W. Whitner, a surveyor on the part of Florida, be- 
ginning at a fore-and-aft tree, about four chains below the present 
junction; thence along this line east, to a point designated Thirty- 
Seven Links North of Ellicott's Mound on the St. Mary's river; 
thence along the middle of said river to the Atlantic Ocean, and 
from thence to the mouth or inlet of said Savannah river, to the 
place of beginning; including all the lands, waters, islands, and 
jurisdictional rights within said limits, and also all the islands 
within twenty marine leagues of the sea coast. 

§16. The boundary between Georgia and South Carolina shall 
Line be- \)q iY^q ij^ie described as runnins; from the mouth of the river 

tween Geor- o 

giaands. 0. Savannah, up said river and the rivers Tugalo and Chattooga, to 
the point where the last-named river intersects with the thirty-fifth 
parallel of north latitude, conforming, as much as possible, to the 
line agreed on by the Commissioners of said States at Beaufort 
on the 28th April, 1787. 

§ 17. The boundary between Georgia and !Morth Carolina, and 
twSn Geor- Crcorgia and Tennessee, shall be the line described as the thirty- 
a?/^eor°^ia ^^^^ parallel of north latitude, from the point of its intersection 
and Tenues- -^j ^^le river Chattooga, west to the place called Nickajack. 

§18. The boundary line between Georgia and Alabama shall 
Line be-]3e the line described from Nickaiack to '^Miller's Bend" on the 

tween Geor- ^ ^*' ^ ^ ■ 

giaandAia- Chattahoochec, and down said river to its junction with the Flint. 

§19. The boundary line between Georgia and Florida shall be 

Line be- ^he line described from the iunction of the Flint and Chattahoo- 

tween Geor- ^ 

giaandFia. chee rivors to the point Thirty-Seven Links North of Ellicott's 
Mound, on the St. Mary's river; thence down said river to the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 1. — CHAP. 1. — Boundary, Sovereignty, etc. 

Article 2. — The Sovereignty and Jurisdiction of the State. 




20. Jurisdiction as to places. 

21. Jurisdiction as to persons. 


22. Governor must defend suits— when. 

§20. The sovereignty and jurisdiction of this State extends to sovereignty 
all places within the limits of her boundaries, except so far as she uon — as \o 
has voluntarily ceded the same to the United States, or adjacent 
States, over particular localities. 

§21. The jurisdiction of this State and its laws extend to all jurisdiction 

... . . . asto persons. 

persons while within its limits, whether as citizens, denizens, or 
temporary sojourners. 

§ 22. When any suit is instituted against the State, or against The Gover- 

i ^ n t • 1 1 n i • ^ nor must de- 

anv person, m the result oi which the fetate has an interest, fend suits in 

, f. 1 . . . • 1 ' • • which the 

under pretense of any claim inconsistent with its sovereignty, state is in- 
jurisdiction, or rights, the Governor shall, in his discretion, pro- 
vide for the defense of such suit, unless otherwise specially pro- 
vided for. 




23. Persons employed in coast survey. 

24. Damages to land-owners — awarded. 

25. Award — objections thereto, issue, etc. 


26. How costs may be avoided. 

27. Amount of the costs. 

§ 23. Any person employed under the Act of the Congress of Privileges of 
the United States, providing for a survey of the coasts, may enter veyors. 
upon lands and clear or cut timber within this State upon the 
same, for any purpose legitimately connected with, and requisite 
to effect, the said object: provided no unnecessary injury be done 
thereby, and all damages to the owner of the land be promptly 

§ 24. If the parties representing the Government of the United Damages to 
States, and the owner or possessor of the land so entered upon, ers — how 

1 1 'If •11 ' 1 awai-ded. 

can not agree upon the amount to be paid for said damages, either 
party may complain in a summary manner to the nearest Justice 
of the Peace of the County within which the land lies, who shall 
associate with him two disinterested freeholders of the County — one 

8 PT. 1.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. l.—BouNDARY, Sovereignty, etc. 

Article 3. — Coast Survey. 

to be named by each party interested — who shall, upon hearing the 
parties, and with or without view of the premises, as they may 
determine, proceed to assess and award the damages, if any : pro- 
vided the party complaining shall give the opposite party ten days' 
notice, in writing, of the time and place, when and where, said 
complaint is to be heard, and the name of the freeholder by him 

§ 25. The said assessors, without unreasonable delay, shall file 
their award in the office of the- Clerk of the Inferior Court of the 
County, which shall be conclusive upon both parties, unless objec- 
tions are filed to the same within ten days after the filing of the 
award. If objections are filed, the other party shall have written 
notice; whereupon an issue shall be made and tried at the first 
term thereafter of said Court, under the same mles as other civil 

• §26. The person so entering upon lands may tender such 
Costs avoid- amouut as he chooses for the damage done, and if the damages 

ed by tender o ^ o 

of damages, finally asscsscd shall not exceed the sum tendered, the party com- 
plaining shall pay all costs. 

§27. The costs before the Justice and in the Inferior Court, 
Amount of siiall bo the same as are allowed by law in civil cases in said 

Award — 

and trial 
of issue. 



Article 1. — Counties, 

Article 2. — Congressional Districts. 

Article 3. — Judicial District and Circuits. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 2.— Political Divisions of the State. 9 

Article 1. — Counties. 




28. Names and limits of Counties. 

29. Cases belonging to new Counties. 

30. Unexecuted processes transferred. 

31. Officers cut off into new Counties. 

32. Officers of adjacent Covinty may act. 

33. Juries for new Counties. 

34. Extra tax in new Counties. 


35. Who may qualify ofBcors. 

36. Executors, etc., cutoff into new County. 

37. When Counties are divided by a stream. 

38. Offenses committed on water courses. 

39. Offenses committed on boundary line. 

40. Counties entitled to two Rep'sentatives 

41. Representation from new Co.— when. 

§28. The State is divided into the following Counties, whose 
boundaries and limits shall be ascertained by the several acts 
laying oif the same, and those amendatory thereof — viz : 

Names and 
limits of 





[Bartow,] (a) 


































Chattahoochee, Forsyth 
Chattooga, Franklin, 



























































































Making 132 Counties. 

§29. When a new County is organized, the jurisdiction of all cases to 
suits pending in the County, or Counties, from which the new County red tTiew 
has been laid off, of which, under the Constitution and Laws of "^ ^' 
this State, the new County should have cognizance, is transferred 
immediately to the corresponding Court in such new County, 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 101. 

10 PT. 1.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 2.— Political Divisions of the State. 

Article 1. — Counties. 

together with all the Court papers pertaining thereto, to which 
shall be attached the certificate of the Clerk of the Court from 
whence they came, that they are the proper papers of the suit, 
and the amount of costs accrued therein, the amount then due, 
and by what persons paid; for which certificate the Clerk must 
receive, from the person asking the transfer, the costs then due, 
unless he makes oath that, owing to his poverty, he is not able to 
pay the costs. 

§ 30. All process (mesne or final) or paper requiring some offi- 
cial act to" be done by any officer of the Counties from which the 
Unexecuted ncw Couutv is taken, and which can not be done by reason of the 

process to ^ "^ ^ ^ *' 

be transfer- crcation of Said new County, must, without delay, be transmitted 

red to new t/ 7 7 e/ 7 

County. \)j the same to the corresponding o&cer in the new County, and if 
proceedings have been had thereon, and not finally disposed of, 
the officer of the new County must proceed as though the paper 
had been originally in his hands ; but publication of the times and 
places of sale, and proceedings of like character, shall be in the 
manner prescribed by law. 

§ol. All ministerial officers in commission, included within the 

limits of the new County, hold their commissions and exercise the 

Officers cut dutics of their office until their commissions expire and their suc- 

county to ccssors are elected and qualified, unless there is more than one for 

retain their 

com mis- the Same office; and in new Counties organized entirely from one 

sions. ' . 

County, all the officers of the old County are authorized to exercise 

their respective duties in the new County until the proper officers 

Officers of are elected and qualified; and Justices of the Peace comprised in 

old County ^ t . • t i i 

to act until the ucw Couuty, whose districts are not materially disturbed by 
new County the liucs of the ucw County, retain their offices and their district 

are qualified. "^ ■' 

until their commissions expire. 

§ 32. When any new County, as organized, is without a person 

authorized to act as Clerk, or Sheriff, or both, a corresponding 

When there officer in any adioininff County may exercise the duties of such 

are no offi- ... . 

cers in new officcr, in issuiug, scrviug, and returning process, until said new 

«^ss -how County is supplied. 

County, pr( 
cess — 

served. ggg^ rpj^g Justiccs of the Inferior Court of the new County, 

aided by the Clerks of the Superior and Inferior Courts and Sher- 

juriesfora iff, shall, without delay after their qualification, make a Grand 

ty— how or- and Petit Jury box, and draw therefrom, pursuant to law, panels [of 

jurors] (a) in time for the succeeding term of the Superior Court; 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 71. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 1. — CHAP. 2. — Political Divisions of the State. 11 

Article 1. — Counties. 

and if, by the organization of the new County, the panels already 
drawn for the old Counties are disturbed, the Justices of the Infe- 
rior Courts of said Counties, or two of them, or one, if only one 
remaining, may, at any time before the next term of said Courts, 
draw, to supply said deficiency, the requisite number of Grand 
and Petit Jurors. 

§ 84. The Justices of the Inferior Court of the new County may Extra tax in 

. . r» * ^^^ County. 

levy, for the first year after their qualification, an extra tax, for 
County purposes, of such per cent, upon the State tax as may be 
necessary, according to their discretion and the terms of the act 
of organization. 

§35. The Governor may direct the dedimus potestatmn for the who may 

*^, -*■ , qualify new 

qualification of said Inferior Court, to the Judge of the Superior officers. 
Court of the Circuit, any Justice of the Inferior Court, or Judge 
of the County Court, or any Justice of the Peace embraced within 
its limits, and in default of either, to any Justice of the Inferior 
Court of an adjoining County, and the qualification under it is 

§ 36. Any executors, administrators, or guardians, making re- Executors, 

"^ . ' ' & .... etc., cut off. 

turns to the Ordinary of the old County, and residing within the 
limits of the new County when organized, may make their returns 
to, and perform all their ofiicial acts with, the Ordinary thereof; 
and when any such act is done, the jurisdiction is changed to the 
new County, and such trustee shall file with the Ordinary of the 
new County, to be. recorded by him, a certified copy of all his acts 
from the Ordinary of the old County. 

§ 3T. Whenever a stream of water is the boundary of a County, whenCoun- 

^ *' ties are divi- 

the iurisdiction of the County shall extend to the center of the ^^^^byawa- 

^ "^ *^ ter course. 

main channel of such stream ; and if an offense is committed on 
such stream, and the evidence on the trial does not definitely dis- 
close in which County it was committed, the Courts of either 
County may maintain jurisdiction for the trial and punishment of 
the offender. 

§38. Whenever an offense is committed on the waters of any when water 

''course di- 

river which forms a boundary between this and any other State, ^Y^^f ^^or- 

•^ t/ 7 gia from an- 

the whole of which river belongs to Georgia, the County which is other state. 
situate on the side of the river opposite the point where the offense 
is committed has jurisdiction of the same; and if the evidence on 
the trial does not definitely disclose on which side of the line, 
between two Counties, at the place where it touches the river, the 

12 PT. 1.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 2.— Political Divisions of the State. 

Article 1. — Counties. 

offense was committed, the Courts of either County may maintain 

§ 39. This State claims jurisdiction of an offense committed on 
Jurisdiction ^mj of her boundarv lines with other States for the County bor- 

oi otFenses »/ «/ J 

Hne'bet'ween ^^^^^g ^^ *^^^ P^^^ ^^ ^^^ 1^^® whero the offcnsc was committed, 
othe?Stetes! ^^^ ^^ doubtful as to which of two Counties (as set forth in the 
preceding Section), for either County, and will proceed to arrest, 
indict, try, and execute, until such other State shall make a 
demand for the accused as a fugitive from justice; in which event 
the progress of the case shall be suspended by order of the Gov- 
ernor until the question of jurisdiction is settled. 

§ 40. The Counties of Bibb, Burke, [Bartow,] (a) Carroll, Chat- 

The coun- }iam, Cherokee, Clarke, Coweta, Cobb, Columbia, Decatur, Floyd, 

to two Eep- Fulton, Gordon, Greene, Gwinnett, Hancock, Harris, Hall, Henry, 

resentatives ' ' ' ' ' " ^ ' *' ' 

jjj^^l^^sis- Houston, Jackson, Meriwether, Monroe, Muscogee,*]Srewton, Ogle- 
thorpe, Richmond, Stewart, Sumter, Talbot, Thomas, Troup, 
Walton, Walker, Washington, and Whitfield, being thirty-seven, 
are entitled to two Eepresentatives ; and all other Counties as the 
Constitution prescribes. 

§ 41. There shall be no representation in either branch of the 
6eiStio?fTf Creneral Assembly from any new County until after the next reg- 
un«i^nl"i"t ^^^1' election for members of the same, but the Senators and Rep- 
twn^aftlMt resentatives already elected from the Counties forming the new 
County shall serve out the term for which they were elected, without 
regard to their residence in or out of the old Counties ; and all 
vacancies by death, resignation, or removal, shall be filled tby the 
County where the member resided at the time of his election. 

is organized. 



Section. i Section. 

42. Congressional Districts. I 43. New Counties — where attaclied. 

§42. [Conforming to the last apportionment of members of the 
congres- Housc of Representatives of the United States Congress, there 
tiicts — of shall be in this State seven Congressional Districts, constituted as 
ties each is follows. Until changed by act of the General Assembly — viz : 

The First District shall include the Counties of Appling, Ber- 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 101. 

PT. 1.— TIT. l.—CHAP. 2.~PoLiTicAL Divisions of the State. 13 

Article 2. — Congressional Districts. 

rien, Brooks, Brjan, Bullock, Camden, Charlton, Chatham, Clinch, 
Coffee, Colquitt, Echols, Effingham, Emanuel, Glynn, Irwin, 
Johnson, Laurens, Liberty, Lowndes, Mcintosh, Montgomery, 
Pierce, Tattnall, Telfair, Thomas, Ware, and Wayne. 

The Second District shall include the Counties of Baker, Cal- 
houn, Chattahoochee, Clay, Decatur, Dooly, Dougherty, Early, 
Houston, Lee, Macon, Marion, Miller, Mitchell, Pulaski, Quitman, 
Bandolph, Schley, Stewart, Sumter, Terrell, Webster, Wilcox, 
and Worth. 

The Third District shall include the Counties of Campbell, 
Carroll, Clayton, Coweta, Fayette, Haralson, Harris, Heard, 
Meriwether, Muscogee, Paulding, Talbot, Taylor, and Troup. 

The Fourth District shall include the Counties of Baldwin, Bibb, 
Butts, Crawford, Henry, Jasper, Jones, Monroe, Newton, Pike, 
Putnam, Spalding, Twiggs, Upson, and Wilkinson. 

The Fifth District shall include the Counties of Burke, Colum- 
bia, Elbert, Glasscock, Greene, Hancock, Jefferson, Lincoln, Mor- 
gan, Oglethorpe, Richmond, Scriven, Taliaferro, Warren, Wash- 
ington, and Wilkes. ^ 

The Sixth District shall include the Counties of Banks, Clarke, 
Dawson, Fannin, Forsyth, Franklin, Gilmer, Gwinnett, Haber- 
sham, Hall, Hart, Jackson, Lumpkin, Madison, Milton, Pickens, 
Rabun, Towns, Union, Walton, and White. 

The Seventh District shall include the Counties of Bartow, 
Catoosa, Chattooga, Cherokee, Cobb, Dade, DeKalb, Floyd, Ful- 
ton, Gordon, Murray, Polk, Walker, and Whitfield.] (a) 

§43. If in the organization of a new County there is an omis- where new 
sion to specify to which Congressional District it belongs, it shall lougl^^vheu 
be attached to that from which most of its representative popula- 
tion has been tal^en, according to the Federal basis, which shall 
be determined by the Governor, if necessary, at any time before 
legislation, to remedy the omission. 

(a) Journal of Georgia Convention of 1865, p. 226 ; Acts of 1865-6, p. 36. 

act is silent. 

14 PT. 1.— TIT. 2.—C1TIZENSHIP. 

Chapter 1. — Who are Citizens. 



Section. j Section. 

44. Judicial Distinct and Circuits. 1 45. To what Circuit a new County belongs. 

§44. The entire State constitutes one Supreme Judicial District, 
Judicial and is divided into sixteen Judicial Circuits in reference to the 

District and ..... ^ . n i n • r^ 

Circuits, jurisdiction and sessions of the Superior Court; tables of which 
■will be found in P^rt III., Title I. 

§45. If any new County is organized with an omission to attach 
cxSr a^ nJw it to any Judicial Circuit, it belongs to the Circuit from which 
longs. '^ ^' most of its territory is taken. 



Chapter 1. — WJio are Citizens. 
Chapter 2. — As to Expatriation, 




46. Who are citizens of Georgia. 

47. Who are not white persons. 


48. Persons prohibited from citizenship. 

§46. All white persons born in this State, or in any other State 
Whoarecit-of this Uuion, who are, or may become, residents of this State, 

izens of this .,,. . „ . . , . ^^ ^ • i 

State. With the intention 01 remaining herein ; ail white persons natural- 

ized under the laws of the United States, and who are, or may 
become, residents of this State, with the intention of remaining 
herein; all persons who have obtained aright to citizenship under 
former laws, and all children wherever born, whose father was a 
citizen of this State at the time of the birth of such children, or 
in case of posthumous children at the time of his death, are held 
and deemed citizens of this State. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 2.— Citizenship. 15 

Chapter 2. — Expatriation. 

§47. Persons having one-eiglith or more of negro or African i^ho are per- 
blood in their veins, are not ^hite persons in the meaning of this 

§48. 'No person transported or banished from other countries who cannot 

r»TTTTr( r ••!• become citi- 

or States, withm or out of the United btates, for crime involving zens of tws 

. . . , . . . % state. 

moral turpitude, are permitted to reside in or become citizens of 
this State. 




49. How citizenship may be renounced. 

50. When citizenship ceases. 


51. How citizenship is acquired. 

§49. Except in time of war, every citizen shall have the right Howcitizen- 
of expatriation, with a view to become a citizen of another State renounced. 
or country not a part of the United States, with which this State 
is at peace. The declaration or avowal of such intention, accom- 
panied by actual removal, is held a renunciation of all his rights 
and duties as a citizen. 

§50. Until citizenship is acquired elsewhere, after compliance when 
with the terms of Section No. 49, the person continues a citizen llSti^ ^^ 
of Georgia and of the United States. 

§51. If a person, having been thus expatriated, acquires citi- nowcuizeu- 
zenship under some foreign power, he and his descendants who go again acqui- 
with him for the purpose of residence can be a citizen of this 
State again only after a residence of three years herein, and 
taking the oath of allegiance, as in case of other foreigners. 



Chapter 1. — T7ie G-overnor : his Powers and Duties, 
Chapter 2. — The Executive Office and Secretaries, 
Chapter 3. — State House Officers — Secretary of State, etc. 
Chapter 4. — Offices connected with the Executive Department. 
Chapter 5. — Regulations as to all Executive Offices and Officers. 

16 PT. 1. — TIT. 3. — Executive Department. 

Chapter 1. — The Goyernor : his Powers and Duties not specified in the Constitution. 





52. Governor's inauguration. 

53. His oatli to be taken. 

54. He ^lay Qall out the militia. 

55. May call out militia and volunteers. 

56. Shall cause fugitiA^es to be arrested. 

57. Deliver fugitives from other States. 

58. Delivery suspended in certain cases. 

59. Fugitives not demanded. 

60. Warrants for the arrest of fugitives. 

61. He may offer rewards. 

62. May appoint Commissioners of Deeds. 


63. He must commission officers. 

64. Shall issue grants to lands. 

65. Shall protect the public property. 

66. Shall appoint officers and fill vacancies. 

67. His Secretaries and other officers. 

68. Officers of public institutions. 

69. He may emploj' special agents. 

70. May suspend collection of taxes. 

71. Pas'ments from the Treasury. 

72. Certain records to be kept. 

73. Seal of the Executive Department. 

§ 52. The Governor elect shall begin the discharge of his duties 
Governor's from the time of his inauo-uration. *The ceremony of inauguration 

inauguration ^ ^ o 

shall take place during the first week of the session of the Gene- 
ral Assembly next after the election, and on such day of that 
week as the General Assembly, by joint resolution, appoints. On 
failure of appointment, it takes place at 12 o'clock, meridian, on 
Saturday of that week, unless prevented by providential causes. 
§ 53. The oath prescribed by the 5th Paragraph of the 1st 
Hisoathto Section of the 3d Article of the Constitution of this State, and 

be taken m ' 

SfiSSsia- ^^^ ^^*^ *^ support the Constitution of the United States, shall 
^^®' be taken by the Governor elect in the presence of the General 


§ 54. It is the duty of the Governor to see that the laws are 

^^y .call out executed. For this purpose he has power, as Commander-in-Chief, 

when. ^Q Q^Yl Q^^ ii^Q military whenever, in his discretion, the due 

enforcement of the process of the Courts is so resisted and set at 

defiance as to require such interposition. 

§55. In case of invasion or insurrection, the Governor has 
tte^miiita?* powcr to Call out all voluntccr military companies, or the militia, 
insuJrectio^n ^^ both, for the defonsc of the State, until such time as the Gene- 
or invasion. ^^-^ Assembly meet; and when so called into action, he has power 
to make all necessary provision for their transportation, accom- 
modation, equipment, and support. 
Shall cause § ^^- Whenever there is found within this State a fugitive 
fu\u7f e^s from justice from a foreign State, and by the treaty stipulations 
coimtries!'^ of the United States such person is to be surrendered up to 

PT. 1. — TIT. 3. — Executive Department. 17 

Chapter 1, — The Governor : his Powers and Duties not specified in the Constitution. 

the authorities of such foreign State upon requisition from the 
proper officers, the Governor, by his warrant, shall cause him to 
be arrested and delivered over to such officer. 

§57. It is the duty of the Governor, under his warrant, to cause He shaii 

'^ cause lugi- 

to be arrested and delivered up to the proper officers of any other ^^^^^^ g^^^^^ 
State of the United States, any fugitive from justice from said elJancfdeffy' 
State, upon demand made of him by the Executive of such other ^''^'^• 
State in the manner prescribed by the laws and Constitution of 
the United States. And if such fugitive shall have assumed 
another name in this State, and the Governor is satisfied, 'by evi- 
dence on oath filed in his office, of the identity of such person 
with the fugitive demanded, he shall state the fact in his warrant 
for the arrest. 

§ 58. If any person demanded as a fuoritive from iustice is, at ^haii sus- 

^ -^ IT o J ^ pend the de- 

the time of such demand, under prosecution for an offense aeainst li^ery of a 

^ ^ _ ^ fugitive m 

the laws of this State, the Governor shall suspend his delivery certain cases. 
until the issue is determined as to his guilt, and if condemned, 
until he shall have suffered the penalty of the law imposed. 

§59. When a person, charged with the commission of an offense Howfugi- 
in some other State, shall flee into this, and is pursued and caught, mandedshaii 

1 • CI n T T n 1 • ••IT ^® disposed 

or some person in this otate, linding, shall arrest mm, it is the duty of. 
of the Governor, on oath filed in his office of the commission of 
the offense, and the identity and locality of the party, to issue his 
warrant for his arrest, as in other cases, and command his lodg- 
ment in any jail in the State, for as long as twenty days, and if, 
at their expiration, there is no formal demand made by the Gov- 
ernor of the State where the offense is alleged to be committed, he 
shall be discharged from custody ; but upon affidavit, made before 
any proper officer, of the commission of the offense and of such 
intended application, the accused shall be held under it five days. 

§60. When the Governor or other officer issues such, or any officers 

must GXG" 

other warrant of arrest, it is the duty of the Sheriffs, their Depu- cute war- 
ties, Coroners, and Constables, to execute them when placed in 
their hands. 

§61. The Governor shall, in his discretion, offer, and cause to May offer 
be paid, rewards for the detection or apprehension of the perpe- the arrest of 
trator of any felony committed within this State; but no such 
reward shall be paid to any officer who shall arrest such person in 
the regular discharge of his duty, by virtue of process in his 

18 PT. 1. — TIT. 3.— Executive Department. 

Chapter 1. — The Governor: his Powers and Duties not specified in the Constitution. 

hands to be executed, nor to any person wlio has arrested the 
offender previous to the publication of the reward. 

§ 62. He shall have power to appoint, in other States and Ter- 
May appoint i.i|;Qj.ies of the United States, Commissioners to take and certify 

Commission- ' «/ 

fu '^^o^rer ^^® acknowledgment or proof of deeds or other conveyance of 
states. property in this State, of depositions under commissions or other- 
wise, of powers of attorney, (of wills executed by persons devising 
or bequeathing property within the State,) and of other instruments 
in writing required to be attested under the laws of this State. 
§63. He shall grant commissions to all such officers of this 
commissions State, including Senators and Kepresentatives in Congress, as are 
dect if tMs I'equired to Jiold them, and in all cases he may, in his discretion, 
state. issue a dedirrms potestatem to such officers as are authorized to 

administer oaths requiring the qualification of the officer elect, as 
provided by law, and to issue to him his commission. The forms 
of all commissions shall be in the discretion of the Governor. 
Commissions thus issued are final, except where the Constitution 
and laws otherwise provide. 

§64. He shall issue all grants to lands under the laws of this 

^r^a^ntsTo State, but such shall not be conclusive, but subject to the investi- 

'^^^' gation of the Courts; and whenever such are declared by the 

proper Court to have been wrongly issued, it is his duty to issue 

another grant in accordance with such decision, if it so requires. 

§ 65. He shall have general supervision over all property of the 

Shall super- State, with powcr to make all necessary regulations for the pro- 
vise public ' ■»• ./ o r 

propertyand tection thcrcof, whcu not otherwise provided for. He must assign 

assign to om- 7 r o 

tffcapitoi!^ rooms in the Capitol to all officers who must hold their offices 
there, and, in the absence of any legislative provision, designate 
the purpose for which other rooms are to be applied. 

§ ^Q. He shall appoint all officers and fill all vacancies, unless 
Shall ap- otherwise prescribed by the Constitution and laws. All appoint- 

pomt officers 1 ./ i 1 , 

canc^es^^^not ^^^^^ to dischargo a public duty, by the General Assembly, or 
provided for. ^j ^]^g Govcmor undcr its authority, are declared to be offices 
within the meaning of the Constitution. 

§67. He has the power of appointing the following officers, 
May appoint y^^Q shall hold their offices durinajthe time for which he is Gover- 

and remove o 

rie^sanToth- ^^^' subjcct to be romovcd at his pleasure — viz: 

er officers. 

[Two] (a) Secretaries of the Executive Department; 
(a) Constitution, Art. 3, Sec. 3, Clause 10. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 3. — Executive Department. 19 

Chapter 1. — The Governor : his Powers and Duties not specified in the Constitution. 

A Messenger for his office ; 

A State Librarian ; 

A guard for the Capitol buildings ; 

A person to keep the Capitol grounds and other State proper- 
ty at the seat of Government in proper order. 

§68. He shall also appoint all the officers of the following May appoint 
State Institutions named in this Code, and laws hereafter enacted the Asylums 

. Ill ^"^ officers 

amendatory thereof, unless menials, servants, day-laborers, or of the w. & 
otherwise required — viz: keeperofthe 

-•• arsenals. 

Officers of the Penitentiary; 

Trustees of the Lunatic Asylum ; 

Trustees of the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb ; 

Trustees of the Asylum for the Blind ; 

Officers of the Western and Atlantic Railroad ; 

Keepers of the Arsenal and Public Arms. 

§ 69. And he has power to engage the services of any com- May em- 
petent person for the discharge of any duty required by the laws, agents — 
and essential to the interests of the State, or necessary, in an 
emergency, to preserve the property or funds of the State. 

§70. The Governor may suspend the collection of the taxes, or May sus- 
any part thereof, due the State, until the meeting of the next lection of 
General Assembly, but not longer ; nor shall he otherwise interfere 
with the collection thereof. 

§ 71. All payments from the Treasury, unless otherwise pro- payments 
vided, shall be made upon the warrant of the Governor, and hcTreaTury — 
may withhold his approval on any account audited and certified by 
the Comptroller General. The warrant shall always specify on 
what appropriation or fund it is drawn. 

§ 72. The Governor shall cause to be kept and preserved in the shaii cause 

, -, ft , to be kept a 

Executive Office the followinai; books of record : joumaictMs 

^ . , , official acta. 

1. A journal or minute book, showing all of his official acts. 

2. A book of appropriations, in which shall be entered a full a book of 
account of all annual appropriations, setting forth the amounts tfons?^^'^^^ 
under their appropriate heads, together with the date of his war- 
rant for such appropriation, and in whose favor drawn. 

3. A book giving a statement of the public debt of the State, a boot of 
the dates and numbers of the bonds issued, in whose favor, and debt. 

for what amounts, the date of payment and the disposition thereof; 
also, a full and accurate account of all sums of money that are set 
apart as a sinking fund for the redemption of the public debt, par- 

20 PT. 1. — TIT, 3. — Executive DepxIrtment. 

Chapter 1. — The Governor : his Powers and Duties not specified in the Constitution. 

ticularly setting forth the amount for the several specific purposes^ 
when drawn, and in whose favor drawn. 

4. A book in which shall be kept copies of all bonds of agents, 

bonds^'^ami disbursing public funds ; also a schedule of all bonds and other 

the state!^ cvidences of debt due to the State, and the disposition made thereof. 

A book of 5. A book of commissions, showing the dates when issued, for 

onfficers.^ all officers, civil and military, in this State. 

A book of ^* -^^ook showing the exact condition of the Educational Fund 
tionafFund ^^ ^^^^ State, and the annual income thereof. 

7. A book or books containing a list of the respective numbers, 
Aland book, districts, scctions, and Counties of the several lots of land dis- 

posed of by the several land lotteries, and the names of the 
drawers of each, to whom and when granted, and a similar sched- 
ule of all lands sold by the State, by whom purchased, and to 
whom and when granted. 

8. He shall also keep, and cause to be carefully filed away, 
An imiex^to properly marked or numbered, 'all documents appertaining to his 

office, whether there as the place of deposit or received by mail 
or express, and keep a book as an index or key to the same. 

9. And any other books or files that, in his judgment, his De- 
^Ij'booTs'' partment needs. 

§73. There shall be a seal of the Executive Department. The 
se^f^^"^^^^^ device shall be the same as that now used therein, and shall not be 
altered except by authority of the General Assembly. 



Section. - i Section. 

74. Where Executive Office must be kept. I 75. Where the Goyernor must reside. 

§74. The Executive Office shall be in the State House at the 
Where the seat of Government. If, from any cause, there is no State House, 

Executive 5 »/ 5 -> 

Office shall or it has to be abandoned, then at such place at the seat of Gov- 

be. . 

ernment, as the Governor may direct, and not elsewhere, unless 

made necessary from invasion, insurrection, pestilence, or rebellion. 

§ 75. The Governor shall reside at the seat of Government dur- 

Governor's . i • , on* 

residence, mff his term 01 omce. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 21 

Article 1. — The Secretary of State. 




Article 1. — The Secretary of State, 
Article 2. — The State Treasurer. 
Article 3. — The Comptroller Gfeneral. 




76. Bond of Secretary of State. 

77. Must reside at the Capital. 

78. Must furnish applicants with records. 

79. He shall receive no perquisites. 


80. Sec. State and Surv. Gen. consolidated. 

81. The Great Seal of the State. 

82. Other duties. 

83. Shall not speculate in wild lands. 

§76. Before enterifig on the duties of his office he shall exe- Bondofthe 
cute a bond with sufficient securities, to be approved by the Gov- state.' 
ernor, in the sum of ten thousand dollars, conditioned for the 
faithful performance of all the duties of his said office and all 
such duties as shall be required of him by the General Assembly 
or the laws of this State, and for a faithful account of all the 
public money or effects that may come into his hands during his 
continuance in office. It shall be filed in the Executive Office, and 
a copy thereof, certified by one of the Governor's Secretaries, certified 

1 ./ ^ t/ -' copy evi- 

under the seal of the Executive Department, shall be received in <i°^ce. 
evidence in lieu of the original in any of the Courts of this State. 

§ 77. He shall be provided with suitable apartments in the State He shaii 
Capitol, furnished at the State's expense. He shall reside at thefice in the 
Capital, and keep his office open daily, Sundays and holidays ex- 

§ 78. He shall furnish to all applicants, upon the payment of He shaii 
the prescribed fees, copies of all records and public documents ofTecordT^ 
within his office, and shall attach the Great Seal of the State to 
such transcripts as the Governor or General Assembly may direct. 

§ 79. He shall receive no perquisites for any official act, but the He siiaii 
fees prescribed shall be collected by him, and paid into the State quHtes.^*^^ 

§80. [The offices of Secretary of State and Surveyor General sec.of state 

T1T170 f rn and Survev- 

are consolidated, and the oecretary of State is required to discharge ^^ General 

, ■*■ " consolidated 

the duties of both of said offices.^ (a) 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, page 249 ; Acts of 1861, page 72. 

22 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Depaktment. 

Article 1.— The Secretary of State. 

1. It is his duty to keep the Great Seal of the State, the origi- 

He shall nal Acts passed bv the General Assemble, and all the public re- 
keep the seal r »' ^ ^ ./ ? 1 

and certain cords of the State not appertainina; specially to other offices. He 

records and i a. o a j 

papers. shall look to and preserve the records and papers belonging to 
the Senate and House of Representatives. He shall see that the 
original Journals of both Houses are deposited in and kept in his- 

2. He shall attest all grants, and other public documents re- 
te8f%^rants Gfjiiring thc Great Seal of the State, issuing from the Executive of 

andotherpa- V q, 
pers. LUc OLdit;. 

Shan keep ^* -^^ shall keep a record, in proper books, of all grants issued 
|,Sr' "' by the State. 

4. He shall keep safely all bonds of agents appointed to dis- 
bondsl^ ^^^^ burse public money. 

5. He shall provide all fuel, lights, servants, or other contin- 
shaii fur- gcnts ncccssary for the General Assembly ; also, all stationery for 

nish fuel, . pi* •» t-i- 

lights, sta- their use, and shall report the amount oi the same to the lUnance 

tionery, etc., 

for the Gen- Committee of the House of Representatives before the adiourn- 

eral Assem- ^ ^ "^ ^ 

^ly- ment of the session. He shall perform all other duties required 

of him by law, or which necessarily attach to his office. 

§ 81. The Great Seal of the State, adopted February 8th, 
Great Seal 1799, and now ou dcposit in the office of Secretary of State, is as 

to be kept m ' ^ ./ 7 

his office. follows I 

1. It is of silver, and the size of two-and-a-quarter inches in 
Description diameter. 

©f Seal. 

2. The device on one side is a view of the sea shore, with a 
ship bearing the flag of the United States riding at anchor near 
a wharf, receiving on board hogsheads of tobacco and bales of 
cotton, emblematic of the exports of this State ; at a small dis- 
tance a boat, landing from the interior of the State, with hogs- 
heads, etc., on board, representing her internal traffic ; in the 
back part of the same side a man in the act of plowing, and at 
a small distance a flock of sheep in different pastures, shaded by 
a flourishing tree ; the motto thereon, Agriculture and Commerce, 

3. The device on the other side is three pillars supporting an 
arch, with the word Constitution engraven within the same, em- 
blematic of the Constitution, supported by the three Departments 
of Government — viz., the Legislative, Judicial, and Executive — 
the first pillar having engraven on it ''Wisdom," the second 
" Justice," the third " Moderation ; " on the right of the last 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 


Article 1. — The Secretary of State. 

pillar a man standing with a drawn sword, representing the aid 
of the military in the defense of the Constitution ; the motto, 
State of Georgia, 1799. 

§ 82. The Secretary of State shall also discharge the following 
duties heretofore devolving on the Surveyor General — to wit : 

1. To keep safely all the records of plats of land granted, and Eecordof 
to report the condition of such records to the Governor at least 
once a year. 


2. To record all plats of land legally authenticated and return- to record 


ed to him by the several County Surveyors, or other surveyors 
acting by authority, for which grants are sought, and to attach the 
originals thereof to the grants. 

3. To keep in his office correct maps of all the different surveys shaii keep 
(made by State authority) and of those comprising the land lotte- y^ys. 
ries, their divisions into numbers, districts, sections, and the like, 
having for every district a separate map. 

4. To keep a register of the. various sfrantees thereto, and the shaiikeep 

I o o 'a register of 

dates of the grants. grantees. 

5. To keep correct maps of all surveys of rivers, harbors, Must keep 
swamps, or land, made by the special direction of the General As- veys of aii 

, , rivers, etc. 


6. He shall, when necessary, contract for the execution of new May have 

• r» • r» T T 1 • "^'^^ maps 

maps, or the re-execution of, or repau'S of, old maps, subiect to the made, and 
ratification of the General Assembly. paired. 

7. He must certify under his official seal, as the Comptroller Must give 

n 1 ' T t • n • ^/^/^ COpleS Of pa- 

(jrenerai is directed in Section 100. pers. 

§ 83. He shall not, directly or indirectly, be interested or enga- shaii not 
ged in the purchase and sale of wild lands on speculation, on pain \wknands.^^ 
of removal by the Governor or the General Assembly. 




84. Treasurer's bond. 

85. His rights and duties. 

86. His duties specified. 

87. His office subject to inspection. 


88. Must settle with successor — when. 

89. How dealt with on failure to settle. 

90. He shall keep a book of State bonds. 

91. May have a clerk — salary. 

84. The State Treasurer must give a bond, conditioned the Trea 

same as that of the Secretary of State, for the sum of two hun- bond. 

must give 

24 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 

Article 2. — The State Treasurer. 

dred thousand dollars, and subject to the same rules and regula- 
tions. ♦ 

§ 85. His rights and duties are the same as those of the Secre- 
His rights tary of State, set forth in Sections 77 and 78, except the use of 

and duties ,^ ctiTTin • 

same as tiie the Great Seal. He shall receive no perquisites for anv official 

Secretary of « . -^ -"■ '^ 

State. act, but the lees prescribed shall be collected by him and paid into 

the State Treasury. 

§ 86. It is moreover the duty of the State Treasurer — 
O.. To receive and keep safely all the money which shall be paid 
— "how'^ke^t *^ ^^"^ ^^ behalf of the State, [giving certificates therefor, which 
and disburs- certificates shall specially set forth the amount, on what account, 
and by whom paid, and shall be lodged as vouchers in the Comp- 
troller's office,] (a) and to pay out the same, only upon the 
warrants of the Governor, when countersigned by the Comp- 
troller General, excepting the drafts of the President of the Sen- 
ate and Speaker of the House of Representatives, for the sums 
due to the members and officers of their respective bodies. 

2. To keep in his office a book, in which shall be entered all 
Shall keep a -warrants drawn on him bv the Executive, stating in whose favor 

book of war- •' ^ ^ 

rants drawn drawn, the date, the amount thereof, and to what fund charged, 

on him. 3-7 7 o 7 

and to retain and file away carefully all such warrants. 

3. To keep annually an account of all taxes that may be due 
His duty as and Unpaid by the several chartered banks, and to enforce the 

toanaccount tt. ^ r» it it ' r i i 

of taxes. collection thereoi, agreeable to the laws m lorce ; also to keep an 
account of all taxes paid into the Treasury annually by the Tax 
Collectors of the several Counties. An abstract of these accounts 
must be laid before the Governor. 

4. And preceding each annual session, he must submit to the 
Must sub- Governor detailed estimates of the probable receipts and expendi- 

m'.t estimate ••■ *■ '■ 

of probable turcs, for the next fiscal vear, stating the sources of income and 

receipts and ' ^ ^ o 

expenditure. ^]r^Q probable amouuts to be received therefrom ; also the objects 
of appropriation and the probable necessities of the Treasury. 

5. To pay all funds pledged to the payment of the public debt 
Must pay Or interest thereon, or to any object of education, and to these 

pledged or i i • • i n . 

appropriated objccts ouly, aud lu nowisc to any other purpose ; all payments 
per objects, from the Treasury shall be paid from the fund appropriated for 
such purpose, and not from any other. 

6. At the end of every quarter of the year to make a written 
Must make report, on oath, to the Governor, of the several amounts received 

quarterly re- •'• ^ 

ports to the \)j him during the three months preceding such report. 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 81 ; Cobb's U.D., pp. 1023-33. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 25 

Article 2. — The State Treasurer. 

7. To keep safely the scrip for bank stock, the State bonds, shaiikeep 
and other evidences of the Educational Fund, and manage and bank^gtoS', 
control the same for the purposes to which they are pledged. He ^*^* 
may, under the direction of the Governor, deposit all funds set 

apart for the purpose of Education, or any other purpose not re- under the 

•ir.- . 1 Tiii-c^ Governor's 

quired for immediate use, in any chartered bank of this State, direction, he 

- •' ^ . I2i3.y deposit 

biect to his draft as Treasurer, and with the Governor make{"nds in 

V ' bank. 

such contract with said bsenk for the use of such funds as may 
be beneficial to the State. 

8. He shall not, under any circumstances, use himself, or allow shaiinotuse 

' '^ . ' the funds of 

Others to use, the funds of the State in his hands; and for every the state, 
violation of this section, he is liable to the State for the sum of 
five hundred dollars as a penalty, or a forfeiture of salary, if said Penalty. 
forfeiture will pay the penalty incurred. 

9. He is authorized to pay all ofiicers of the State whose sala- He naay pay 
lies are fixed by law seventy-five per cent, of the amount for of salaries* 
which service has actually been rendered at the date of said pay- warrants. 
nient, taking receipts for the same, which shall be his vouchers 

and offsets to Executive warrants for said salary ; and may also 
pay members of the General Assembly in the same way, when 
their accounts are duly audited, unless prevented by the resolution 
of either or both branches of the General Assembly. 

10. He shall annually report to the Governor the amount of shaii report 

J -t amount and 

the State debt bearing interest for each year, distinguishing be- fSic"debt° 
tween the sterling bonds, if any, and federal ; the rate per cent, 
paid upon each kind of bonds ; the amount upon each rate paid ; 
also the exchange, if any, and the aggregate amount of interest 
paid in each year, and the amount due and unpaid at each semi- 
annual payment, and the reasons for such non-payment. 

11. When he pays the interest or principal of the State debt JlJ^lhe'^g^x^ec- 
upon a warrant issued in his favor, he shall deposit in the Execu- "^'^'^ ^^^® 

A • ' I. coupons or 

tive Ofiice coupons, or bonds, on which the payments are made, ^^^^^• 
there to be marked " Paid" and filed away, subject to the order of the 
General Assembly. 

12. He shall not pay any appropriation due and not called for shaii not 

. . ,.. p, . P^y appro- 

within six months after the expiration of the political year for pri^tionsnot 

_ -^ i ./ called forwi- 

which it is appropriated, but it reverts to the general fund in the J!"" ^ si'*'^^ 

13. All reports required to be made to the Governor by the 
Treasurer shall be made annually, on or before the 15th of Octo- 

26 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.-— Executive Department. 

Article 2.— The State Treasurer, 
ber, and shall be filed in his office, and by him laid before the 

All reports ^ . . 

made to the General Assembly in connection with his first annual message 

Governor to "^ " 

be filed. thereafter. 

§ 87. The Governor may exercise a general superintendence 

Treasurer's over the offic(^ of State Treasurer not inconsistent with the pro- 
office sub- .. •IIP'II T 

ject to Gov- Visions prescribed tor it by law, and may, at any time, appoint 

spection. somc Competent person to examine into the state of such office, for 

any period of time he may designate, 'and report its condition to 

Governor him, and sliall have power to require of such Treasurer to with- 

may order 

deposit to be draw the public funds from any place of deposit deemed unsafe by 

withdrawn. ^ ^ ./ i i ./ 


Treasurer § 88. If the Treasurer resign, or is removed, he must, within ten 

must^se\tie days thereafter, state his accounts and deliver the books, papers, 

cessor in ten and moucy of the Treasury to his successor, taking his receipt 

_ \ ,, therefor, and the Comptroller must record a statement of such 

Comptroller ' ^ 

Su*ie^ment Settlement and receipt in his office, and report the same forthwith 
"n w/oS2?.' to the Governor. 

§ 89. If the Treasurer fail to comply with the provisions of the 
HowTreas- preceding section, or if he dies, absconds, or absents himself with- 
withwhenhe out sufficicut causc for as long as thirty days, the Comptroller, 

is in default. .. ^, ... ,,... ,,. 

alter giving ten days notice, by publication m some public gazette 
at the seat of Government, must proceed, and in the presence of 
any person who may appear in behalf of the late State Treasurer, 
to state his account and deliver the books, papers, money, and all 
other appurtenances of the office, to his successor, taking his re- 
ceipt therefor, and record and file such statement and receipt in 
his office, and report forthwith to the Governor. 

§ 90. The Treasurer shall keep a book in which he shall record- 
shaii keep a a description of all the bonds heretofore or hereafter issued by 
bonds, and tliis State, and in said book shall note all bonds paid, and the date 

their pay- . pi* 

ment. of payment, and all coupons paid on each, and the date of their 


§91. [The Treasurer is authorized to employ a suitable person 
May appoint as clerk to assist him in the duties of his office, and to remove 
clerk. him at his pleasure ; and such clerk shall receive a salary of six- 

saiary. tccu hundred dollars per annum.] (a) 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, page 77 ; Acts of 1865-6, page 250. 

PT. l.~TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 


Article 3. — The Comptroller General. 




92. Comptroller's bond. 

93. His rights and duties. 

94. His duties specified. 

95. Anniial report to the Governor. 

96. His authority. 

97. Improvements in revenue laws. 

98. Book of appropriations and warrants. 


99. Bonds of Tax Collector and Receiver. 

100. Must give copies of office papers. 

101. Delivery of office to successor. 

102. Additional fees. 

103. Additional duties. 

104. Shall not speculate in wild lands. 

105. May have clerk — salary. 

His rig-lits 
and duties. 

Shall keep 
an account 

^ 92. The Comptroller General must siive a bond, conditioned Bond of 

\>TO( f^ c-t (^ 1 n Comptroller 

the same as that of the Secretary of State, for the sum of twenty General. 
thousand dollars, subject to the same rules and regulations. 

§ 93. His rights and duties are the same as those of the Secre- 
tary of State, set forth in Sections 77 and 78, except the use of 
the Great Seal. He shall receive no perquisites for any official 
act, but the fees prescribed shall be collected by him and paid into 
the State Treasury. 

§ 94. It is moreover the duty of the Comptroller General — 

1. To keep an account showing the several appropriations author- ofappropria 
ized by law, the time when the same are drawn from the Treasury, 

iii whose favor, and to what fund charged. 

2. To [examine, check, and] (a) countersign all warrants upon countersign 
the Treasury drawn by the Governor, [President, and Speaker, ^^^"^^ ^* 
and charge the amount thereof to the funds on which they may 

be respectively drawn, previous to their being presented to the 
Treasurer for payment.] (b) 

3. To audit all accounts against the State, and allow or reiect Must audit 

^ *^ accounts vs. 

the same before they are submitted to the Governor. the state. 

4. To examine all the digests of tax returns forwarded to his Mustexam- 

othce by the several Keceivers, and note and correct all mistakes tify tax di- 
therein, and notify the Collector of such corrections. 

5. [To settle with the several Tax Collectors and all other per- Mus»settie 
sons indebted to the State, and in all cases where payments may lectors, and 
be made at the Treasury to give receipts for the same, founded 

on the Treasurer's certificates.] (c) 

6. To collect all amounts due from defaulting Collectors of Taxes, P«"^«*^ 7^^* 

o 7 ]s due from 

and issue execution therefor, against them and their securities. 

(a) Acts of 18G1, pai^e 81, and Cobb's Digest, pages 1022-23. (b) Acts of 1861, 
page 81, and Cobb's Digest, pages 1022-23. (c) Acts of 18G1, page 81, and Cobb's 
Digest, pages 1022-23. 

Tax Collec- 

28 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 

Article 3.— The Comptroller General. 

7. To see that no draft or warrant be countersigned bj him, to 
Comptroller jbe paid out of any appropriated fund, after the same has been 

andTreasur- ■'• ,/ i. l x 7 

er liable for exhausted ; and in such case, or in any case of illesral payments 

all uioneys ' <. ' ^ or*/ 

paid impro- fj-Qj^rj the Trcasurj upon warrants countersigned by the Comp- 
troller, he, as well as the Treasurer, with all their securities, are 
jointly and severally liable upon their several bonds for the repay- 
ment->of such amounts, with all expenses of prosecution, to the 

8. To issue his draft, payable to the Treasurer, for the amounts 
draftfortax- of all dividcuds or taxes due by chartered banks in this State, or 

es due from • p p • i i i r» -i ^ 

banks; if not by the acrencics 01 loreio-n banks, and on lailure to pay the same, 

paid, issue "^ . ^ . . ^ ' ^ *^ ' 

execution, to issuc exccution thcrcfor. 

9. To receive and keep safely and collect all evidences of debt 
receive all ^^^q ^q ^Jjq State from any other source than taxes, and pay over 

moneys due «' 7 r */ 

Treas(frer^^ the Same to the Treasurer as soon as received. 

10. To notify the Attorney and Solicitors General, or any other 
q5re™r^'^)oS Attomcy, iu his discretion, of all executions against defaulting 
ney™ami"so- Tax CoUcctors, and require of them annually a report of the state 
^ici^ois en- ^^ condition of such executions prior to the session of each Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

Sfnds^^s^ncl 11- To kccp a book in which to enter all bonds taken since the 
odSnTis.^'*" third day of March, 1856, and to file the originals in his office. 
Shall cause 12. To havc made suitable indexes to the record books in his 

books to be ^y* 
indexed. OlllCe. 

13. To audit the accounts of all agents disbursing public 

accounts. monCV. 

Shall annu- ^ ^^* "^0 make a report annually to the Governor, showing — 
to W^Gov- ^' ^^ account current, from his books, between the Treasurer 
ernor. ^^^ ^]^g State of all reccipts and payments, including amounts 

paid on the drafts of the President and Speaker, as reported to 

him by the Treasurer. 

2. A statement of the taxes paid to the State by each of the 
b "^'^^fa^^^^h bounties, as appears by the digest thereof, and the Counties whose 
County. Collectors are in default, and the amount of such default. 

3. A statement of all evidences of debt due the State and un- 
to'the stfte^ collectcd, wliich may remain in his office, the condition of the 

same, the name of the Solicitor or Attorney having it in charge, 
and his report of it. 

4. A statement of the Educational Fund of the State, its an- 
al FaS^'^' nual income, the amounts paid out, when, and to whom. 

PT. 1.--TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 29 

Article 3. — The Comptroller General. 

5. A statement of the condition of the public debt of the 
State, the amount of interest paid, and the fund from which paid. 

6. A statement of the accounts of all officers and agents dis- 
bursing public money, and the names of such as have failed to ^f^^^'J^'^jJ^e® 
comply "with the laws relating to their offices and appointments, ^sents. 
and the several sums for which they are in default. salaries and 

7. The salaries and pay of all officers of the State. IZ'^ "®- 

8. The incidental expenses of the General Assembly, Executive incidental 

••■ "^ expenses. 

and Judicial Departments. 

9. All sums paid or due to individuals by special contract. onSrSts^ 
§ 96. He has authority — 

1. To settle up the business of the office for previous years. busines?!^ 

2. To allow Receivers and Collectors of Taxes their commis- aiso, toai- 

1 T-i 1 11 iiiinirr» low commis- 

sions, and to balance the tax books and other books oi the omce sionstoiax 

, Collectors. 

. upon satisfactory proof of payment or settlement. 

3. To collect all unpaid taxes of previous years. paid taxes. 
§ 97. In his annual report the Comptroller General shall sug- He may 

1 . • 1 T-> T 1 • • sug.ffost im- 

ffest such improvements m the Kevenue Laws as his experience provements 

^ . ^ in Eevenue 

and observation may approve. His report must be made at the i-aws. 
time the Treasurer's is, and likewise communicated to the General 

§98. He must keep in his office a well bound book in which Must keep 

. 111"! 1 ir»n n 11 books of ap- 

shall be entered, m alphabetical order, the full amount of all an- propriations 

u n d w a r - 

nual appropriations, setting forth the amounts under their several rants. 
heads ; all warrants that he may check and pass, together with the , 
fund on which it is drawn, the time, amount, and in whose favor 
drawn ; and make all entries necessary to a true exhibit of the 
finances of the State. 
t^a^/A-f/L^ 99. He must keep a book in which to enter all bonds taken of Must keep 
f 7*^' ^ Tax Collectors and Receivers, and keep the same on file in his coiiectorar/d 

'jy/y rt^ Receiver's 

T^f^ office. He shall collect all unpaid taxes of previous years at a ^on^is- 
compensation of five per centum on the amount collected. 

§ 100. He must certify under his official seal, at all times when Must give 
necessary for the public use, and on application and payment of pefs!^'^^^*' 
his legal fees therefor, for private use, copies of any papers kept 
in his office. 

§101. If the Comptroller resigns, or is removed, he must im- Mustsettie 

Ti T . 11T !• • "With succes- 

mediately state his account and deliver every thing pertamms; to sor, and de- 

. •/or o liver up ere- 

his office to his successor; or if he dies, absconds, or absents him- '■^t^'i"i?per- 


self for as long as thirty days without the Governor's permission, *>®'^- 

30 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 3.— Executive Department. 

Article 3. — Tlie Comptroller General. 

the Governor may without delay declare the office vacant, supply 

When office \ \ 5 rr J 

m^j be de- his place by appointment, examine the condition of his office and 

clared vac- ^ t. x x 

ant. deliver over to the appointee. 

§ 102. He shall, in addition to his salary, have ten per cent, on 
Additional all sums he may collect, except for taxes which necessarily was 
the duty of a predeces^r to coUect, and which was not done. 
§ 103. The Comptroller General must make out for the use of 

What his ii^Q General Assembly- 
report must t' 

contain. ^ j^ table Containing the taxable property and other items on 

the tax digest of each County for the year in which he makes his 
annual report. 

2. A table annually of the polls in each County for the year 
immediately preceding his report ; the number of voters in each 
County at the general election next preceding his report ; the 
number of children in each County returned for participation in 
the Educational Fund and the amount drawn by each County from 
said fund ; the amount drawn by each County for pay of members 
of the General Assembly ; the total amount drawn by each County 
from the Treasury, and the total amount of net tax paid into the 
^ Treasury for the year preceding by each County. Also, to furnish 

such other statistical information connected with his office as may 
be useful to the General Assembly. The annual reports of said 
officer and of the Treasurer must contain only the available funds 
or cash in the Treasury as the balance therein. They are also 
required to report separately and under the head of "Assets be- 
longing to the State," all bank or railroad stocks or bonds, or 
other assets ; the State Road to be reported without any stipu- 
lated value. Such officers are authorized to make such transfers 
or alterations on their books as are necessary to comply with the 
preceding section. The items " Darien Bank Bills," Western and 
Atlantic Railroad script, and uncurrent funds hitherto reported, 
must be sealed up, remain in the Treasury, and be left out of all 
future annual reports of said officers. 

§ 104. He shall not, directly or indirectly, be interested or en- 
shaii not gaged in the purchase and sale of wild lands on speculation, on 

wild lands, pain of removal by the Governor or the General Assembly. 

§ 105. [He is allowed a clerk, to be appointed and removable by 

May appoint bim ; and such clerk shall receive an annual salary of sixteen 

and remove *^ 

clerk. hundred dollars.] (a) 

(a) Acts of 1862-3, p. 56, and Acts of 1865-6, p. 250. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 4.— Executive Department. 


Article 1. — State Librarian. 




Article 1. — State Librarian. 

Article 2. — Qovernors Messenger and State House Guard. 




106. Librarian's bond. 

107. He must keep the State Library. 

108. He must preserve the books, etc. 

109. He shall distribute the laws, etc. 

110. He must keep a catalogue of books. 


111. He must take and file receipts, etc. 

112. He must exchange for reports, etc. 

113. His office is subject, etc. 

114. He must deliver contents of office. 

§ 106. The Librarian must give a bond in the sum of two thou- Must give 
sand dollars, with good security, payable to the Governor and his 
successors in office, conditioned for the faithful performance of his 
duty as State Librarian. 

§107. The Library belonging to this State, with such additions Must keep 
as may be hereafter made from any quarter, together with all Library. 
copies of the Laws, Journals, or other books published or purchased 
by the State, shall be kept in appropriate apartments at the Capi- 
tol building designated by the Governor, under such rules and 
regulations as he may from time to time prescribe. 

§ 108. It is his business to preserve, keep in order, and protect Must pre- 
said Library, to keep the same open for the inspection of all citi- ryfo^inspS' 
zens of the State, and to discharge such other duties in connection 
with the Library as may be required of him by law or the Gov- 
ernor of the State. 

§109. The distribution of the Laws and Journals, Reports of . .?^^^^^ <^^s- 

■' ^ tribute Laws 

the Supreme Court Decisions, Laws of the United States, and an*d^TtS 
all other books required to be distributed to the several Counties ^°^^^- 
(of the State) or to be sent to other States, shall be made by the 
Librarian, under the direction of the Governor, in pursuance of the 
provisions of the law in respect thereto. 

§110. He shall make out and keep on hand a catalogue of all Mustkeepa 

•*• ° catalogue oi 

the books in the Library — to be amended without unnecessary de- ^^^^^' 

32 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 4.-~Executive Department. 

Article 2. — Governor's Messenger and State House Guard. 

lay from time to time, as he may obtain new books or dispose of 
old ones — which shall be printed and kept in his office in two or 
more conspicuous places. 

§ 111. It is hisr duty to receive from the State Printer the Laws 
Must take and Joumals, and when distribution is made to the various Coun- 

and file re- 
ceipts forties, to take from Clerks of Courts or other distributees their re- 
books distn- y 

buted. ceipts therefor; likewise all other books required to be distributed. 
He must receive and take receipt on the distribution, and keep in 
his office a file of such receipts. 

§ 112. He must correspond with the proper authorities of other 

Mnst effect ^ . . 

exchange of Statcs who publish the reports of their hio-hesfc appellate tribunal, 

Keportswith . . . on 7 

other States, "vvith a vicw to exchange theirs for our Supreme Court Reports. 

Hi office ^ ^^^' His office is under the general supervision of the Gov- 
the^Govern° ^mor, who may at any time appoint a competent person to exam- 
sioL^*^^^^^^ ine into and report its condition to him. 

§ 114. If the Librarian resign, or be removed, he must, within 

Mustdeiiv- ten davs thereafter, deliver the books, papers, and other contents 

er books and , ♦^ , . . 

contents of of his officc to his succcssor, taking his receipt therefor, which 

ofiice to sue- ' o I 7 

cesser. rnust bc filed and recorded in the Executive Office ; and if there is 
any deficiency in the books received by him, or other damage done, 
the Governor shall have suit brought on his bond. 




115. Governor's Messenger. 

116. His duties. 

117k Appointment of special Messenger. 


118. Capitol guards— their duties. 

119. Number may be changed. 

§ 115. The Governor may in his discretion, as the exigency 

Governor may require, appoint a Messenger to the Executive Department, 

Messenger, or havc that duty performed by some other employee about the 

State House, engaged by him under the general authority granted 

to him, and when so performed it must be done without additional 


§ 116. When there is a Messenger, he shall perform such duties 
Duties of fQj. the Executive Office, the other officers in the State House, and 

Messenger. " ' 

such other service connected with the State business at the Capitol 
as the Governor shall prescribe, and be governed by such rules 
and regulations as he may adopt. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive Department. 


Article 1.— Eligibility, Qualification, and Commission of Officers and Vacation of Offices. 
§ 117. When there is no Messenger, the Governor may, if oc- Governor 

, , T . T ^ p -1 ™ay employ 

casion should require, employ some person to periorm any special persons for 
service, for a reasonable compensation, such as is the duty oi the vice. 
Messenger to perform, but which can not be performed by the 
person acting as such. 

§118. The Governor shall appoint a guard for the Capitol ^^^;\^j;^ ^Jj 
buildings, including the captain of the guard, whom he shall ^^^"" ^^^^^^• 
designate as such, whose business it shall be to remain in said 
buildings from sundown until sunrise of the next day, every night 
in the year, and on Sundays and holidays, to keep watch over the 
same and protect them from fire or intruders. 

§119. The Governor has power to keep the number of said Number of 

■•• ^ _ ■*■ guard may 

guard full, when lessened by providential or other cause, and be changed. 
adopt such rules and regulations in regard to them, as in his judg- 
ment the public service may demand. 



Article 1. — Of Eligihility^ Qualifications, and Commissions, 
Article 2. — Official Oaths, 

Article 3. — Official Bonds a7id Herein of BiscTiarging Sureties. 
Article 4. — Of Delivery of Boohs, etc, to Successor. 




130. Persons ineligible to civil office. 

121. When ineligible, the next highest. 

122. Persons elected, failing to qualify. 

123. Residence, seal, and term of office. 

124. Commissions under Great Seal. 


125. Commissions under Executive seal. 

126. When civil offices are vacated. 

127. Vacancy in Executive Office. 

128. Resignations seiit to the Governor. 

§120. The followins!; persons are held and deemed ineligible to Persons in- 

« elio-ible to 

hold any civil office in this State, and the existence of either of offices. 
the following state of facts is a sufficient reason for vacating any 
office held by such person ; but the acts of such person, while hold- 
ing a commission, are valid as the acts of an officer de facto — viz : 

34 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive Department. 

Article 1. — Eligibility, Qualification, and Commission of Ofl3cers and Vacation of Offices. 

1. Persons who are not citizens of this State, nor of the age of 
Minors, twentj-one years jbr upwards. 

2. All holders or receivers of public money of this State, or 
T^ose^refus- ^^ij County thereof, who have refused when called upon, or failed 
mo^ney^"^^^^ after reasonable opportunity, to account for and pay over the same 

to the proper officer. 

3. Any person convicted and sentenced finally for any felony, 
mmaMurpi- ^"^^^^ the laws of this or any other State, involving moral turpi- 
*"^^- tude, the offense being also a felony in this, unless restored by a 

pardon from the proper Executive, under the Great Seal of the 
State, to all the rights of citizenship. 

4. Persons holding any office of profit or trust under the Gov- 
Tj.s. officers ernment of the United States (other than that of Postmaster), or 

/\T» offir*pr^ 

under other of either of the several States, or of any foreign State. 

States. . 

5. Persons of unsound mind, and those who, from advanced age 
Persons in- or bodilv infirmity, are unfit to discharsje the duties of the office 

sane or in- "^ "^ , ° 

firm. to which they are chosen or appointed. 

6. Those who have not been inhabitants of the State, County, 
Those whose District, or Circuit for the period required by the Constitution and 

term of res- ' r i ./ 

idenceis in- ]awS of this State, 

7. All persons from any cause constitutionally disqualified. 
wSis^uS- ^^^ officers are eligible to re-election and re-appointment and to 
ified. -j^^^i^ other offices, unless expressly declared to the contrary by the 

All officers Constitution or laws. 

§ 121. If at any popular election to fill any office the person 
The person elected is incliofible under the foreeroing rules, the person having 

having next -, . •, i r i • t m -i i 

highest vote tjie ncxt hisfhest number of votes, who is eligible, whenever a 

to an ineli- ° t ^ 

gibie candi- plurality elects, shall be declared elected, and be qualified and 

ClubO 18 61GCt~ ■*■ *' 

u 'eKtr*^^ commissioned to such office. 

§ 122. Persons who after an election fail to comply with all the 
A person prerequisites of the law in order to obtain commissions or certifi- 
faiiingtoob- catcs to discharge the duties of the office, are ineligible to re- 
mission, is election at the election held, by reason of such failure, for the same 

ineligible on 
account of office, 
the failure. 

§ 123. All officers of this State must reside therein at such 
Officers places as are designated by law, and discharge the duties of their 

must reside ^ ••iiTf»i i 

in the State, office Until their successors are commissioned and qualified; and 

and hold of- ^ 

ficc until all officers whose certificate of records or other papers are ad- 
successor IS -^ ^ 

qualified; jjjjggjl^le j^ evideucc in any Court in this State must have and 

and must •/ 

—when. ^^*^ keep an official seal. 

PT. 1,— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive Department. 35 

Article 1. — Eligibility, Qualification, and Commission of Officers and Vacation of Offices. 

§ 124. The following officers must be commissioned, with the what om- 
Great Seal of the State annexed thereto, signed by the Governor, commission- 
and countersigned by the Secretary of State — viz: Senators and Great seai 

T» . • ^ T 1 P 1 o -I M . Of the State. 

Representatives m Congress, Judges of the Supreme and Superior 
Courts, Attorney and Solicitors General, Reporter of the Supreme 
Court, Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Comptroller General, 
and all military officers of the grade of general, either of divis- 
ion or brigade. Those of all Federal and Judicial officers above 
enumerated must be on parchment. 

§ 125. All other civil officers of the State or County shall be what offi- 

, cers to be 

commissioned under the seal of the Executive Department, signed commission- 

, -^ ' o g(j under the 

by the Governor, and countersigned by one of his Secretaries, ex- seai of ex- 

»i ^ o J 7 ecutive De- 

cept Constables, whose election shall be certified by the Clerk of p^^*^"^®^*- 
the Inferior Court of the County; and such certificate shall oper- 
ate as their commission. Ail officers of the militia and of volun- 
teer companies, battalions, or regiments, regularly incorporated (of 
the grade of lieutenant or higher), shall have commissions under 
the seal of the Executive Department. 

•■• Offices are 

§126. All offices in the State are vacated — vacated by 


1. By the death of the incumbent. Byaccept- 

•^ ed resigna- 

2. By resignation, when accepted. *^^°- 

3. By decision of a competent tribunal declaring the office va- By judg- 



4. By voluntary act or misfortune of the incumbent, whereby ^ ^y yoy^n- 

*^ J 7 J tary act, or 

he is placed in either of the conditions specified of ineligibility to ^nde^Tg 
office, which shall operate from the time the fact is ascertained and JneuSMea^c- 
declared by the proper tribunal. • g^f "^ *^ 

5. By the incumbent ceasing to be a resident of the State, or By a faii- 
of the County, Circuit, or District for which he was elected. In cimbent^"o 
the first case the office shall be vacated immediately ; in the latter the faw re- 
cases, from the time the fact is judicially ascertained. qmres. 

6. By failing to apply for and obtain commissions or certificates. By failure 
or by failing to qualify or give bond, or both, within the time pre- coiZlisston, 
scribed by the laws and Constitution. orquaiy. 

7. By abandoning the office and ceasing to perform its duties. By aban- 

. - donment of 

or either. the office. 

§ 127. The resignation of the Governor must be transmitted by How ya- 
him to the General Assembly, if in session ; if not in session, to oTfTc'e ^o? 
the Secretary of State, who must on the same day notify the mVs^'^^be 
President of the Senate. If the office becomes vacant by death, ted! 



PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive Depaetment. 

Article 2. — Official Oaths. 

or any other cause, when the General Assembly is not in session, 
the Secretary of State must inform the President of the Senate. 
In either case the President of the Senate, -vyhen informed, shall, 
within ten days, repair to the Capital and take the oath of oflSce 
before any Judge of the Supreme or Judge of the Superior Court, 
and the General Assembly, if in session ; which fact shall be en- 
President torcd ou the minutos of the Executive Department. If he does not 

of the Sen- ... 

ate [j}ii°^jj^ SO appear in said time, he shall be considered as having resigned, 
the^'^Housf ^^^ *^^ Secretary of State shall then, or in case there is no Presi- 
tified ^^ ^° ^®^* ^^ ^^® Senate, inform the Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and the proceedings shall be the same. 

§ 128. The resignation of Senators and Representatives in Con- 

what offi- 2;ress, and members of the General Assembly, and of all officers 

communi- whose commissions issue from the office of Secretary of State or 

cate resigna- "^ 

tTerSor^^ the Exccutivo Department, and whose places may be supplied by 
Executive appointment, shall be made to the Governor. 




129. Additional oath of public officers. 

130. Oath must accompany dedimus. 

131. Who may qualify officers. 

132. Official oaths must be filed. 

133. Where to be filed. 


134. Endorsement of filing. 

135. Oaths of deputies to be filed. 

136. Failing to take and file oath. 

137. When acts are valid without oath. 

§ 129. All public officers) besides the oath of office and the 
oath^of^'^ub- ^^^^ prescribed by the Constitution (if any), shall swear that he 
lie officers, jg j^q^ ^\^q holdcr of any public money due this State unaccounted 
for ; that he is not the holder of any office of trust under the 
Government of the United States (except Postmaster), nor either 
of the several States, nor of any foreign State, and is otherwise 
qualified to hold said office according to the Constitution and laws 
of Georgia, and will support the Constitution of the United 
States and of this State ; and, if elected by any Circuit or District, 
that he was- a resident thereof for the time required by the Con- 
stitution and laws (stating the time). 
Form of ^ ^gQ^ r|ijj £q^j^ ^f -^ ^^^^i. as wcll as the oath of office, to be 

oatli to be "J ' ' 

dedirZi!'^ taken and subscribed, must be forwarded with the dedimus potes- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive DepartxMent. 37 

Article 2.— Official Oaths. 

______________________^ . ■ - ■ - ^ 

tafem, and be taken and subscribed at the time of receiving the 
<;ommissions before the officer to whom the same is directed, and 
in conformity to the directions. 

§ 131. When not otherwise provided by law, and not directed who may 

'^ ^ r ./ 7 qualify offi- 

in the dedimus potestatem, the oaths of office may be taken before ^ers. 
any officer authorized by law to administer an oath. Such oaths 
must be written out and subscribed by the person taking them, and 
accompanied by the certificate of such officer specifying the day 
and year when taken. 

§ 132. Such oaths, when taken by an officer whose general du- ^ y,^ere of- 

^ 7 ^ p ficial oaths 

ties are not confined to any one County (unless otherwise specially mustbemed 
provided), must be filed with the certificate required by the pre- 
ceding Section in the Executive Office ; and when taken by an offi- 
<3er whose duties are confined to one County, as provided in the 
next Section. 

§133. When taken by the Justices of the Inferior Court, the where of- 
Ordinaries and the Clerks of the Superior Courts, they must be nmst beamed 
filed in the office of the Clerk of the Inferior Court, and also en- 
tered on the minutes of their respective Courts. When taken by 
Sheriis, they must be likewise filed in the office of the Inferior 
Courts, and must be entered on the minutes of the Superior 
Courts ; and when taken by Coroners, Tax Collectors, or Heceivers, 
County Treasurer, Justices of the Peace, or Constables, or any 
other County officer, they must be filed in the office of the Clerk 
of the Inferior Courts ; and the Clerks of the Inferior Courts, and. 
also of the Superior Courts, when one and the same officer, must 
file their oaths in the office of the Ordinary, and enter them on 
the minutes of their own Courts respectively. 

§ 134. The officer in whose office such oaths are filed must en- Endorse- 
ment of — 
dorse thereon the day and year of filing. when med. 

§ 135. All deputies, before proceeding to act, must take the ^^^^g ^^ 
same oaths as their principals take, which must be filed in and en- wKTo^'be 
tered on the minutes of the same office, and with the same en- ^'^^' 
dorsement thereon, but these provisions do not apply to any deputy 
who may be employed in particular cases only. 

§ 136. If any officer or deputy, required by law to take and file Penaityfor 

1 1 -I -1.^1. ^.i « -, ^ failure to 

such oaths, enters upon the duties of his office without first takma: take and me 

T ^T. , . , . . ° official oath. 

and filing the same m the proper office, he is guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and, on conviction, must be fined not less than two hun- 
dred dollars. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive Department. 

Article 3. — Official Bonds and Herein of Discharging Sureties, etc. 

Acts of of- § 13T. The official acts of an officer are not the less valid for 
without the his omission to take and file the oath, unless in cases where so 

oath, unless . ,, ^ .. 

otherwise Specially declared. 

declared. *^ 




138. The payee and condition, of bonds. 

139. Bonds must accompany dedimns. 

140. Approval of official bonds. 

141. Number and qualification of sureties. 

142. May be signed by Attorney in fact. 

143. When bonds must be filed. 

144. Certificate of failure to file bond. 

145. Acting before filing bond. 

146. Endorsement of filing. 

147. Notice of failure to file bond. 

148. Penalty for failure. 

149. Obligations of official bonds. 


150. Approval, filing and record of bonds. 

151. Giving bonds to be certified. 

152. Deputies' bonds. 

153. Principal or deputy may be sued. 

154. Bond when discharged, 

155. Officers liable above penalty of bond. 

156. Validity of bonds. 

157. Damages in suits on bonds. 

158. Future official oaths and bonds. 

159. How sureties may be discharged. 

160. Officer failing to give new bond. 

§ 138. The bonds of all public officers required by law to give 
Official bond, unless otherwise provided, must be made pavable to the 

bonds — to' ^ / . -^ "^ 

whom paya- Govcmor of the State of Geors^ia and his successor in office, with 

Die and upon '-' ^ 

what condi- guch suretics as the approving Court or officer is satisfied is suffi- 
cient, and conditioned in all cases in which a different condition 
is not prescribed, faithfully to discharge the duties of such office 
during the time he continues therein or discharges any of the 
duties thereof. 

§ 139. Official bonds of all officers who are entitled to commis- 

Officiai sions from the Governor, and who are required to give bonds, must 

be sent with bc prepared and furnished by the Executive Department at the 

dedimus po- . ^^ ,. , _,. ^^^ 

testatem. time 01 lorwarding the deaimus potestatem. 

§ 140. The approval of all official bonds shall be in writing, en- 

Approval dorscd ou the bond, and should show the day and year on which 

the same were approved, and shall not be filed until thus approved, 

§ 141. Such bonds shall not be approved by the approving offi- 

Number qqj>q uulcss thcv havc at least two good and solvent sureties, and 

and qualm- j o ' 

sureties" oi ^°* Hiore than [ten,] (a) all of whom must be permanent residents 

official bonds ^f ^^ State, and two also of the County, and freeholders thereof. 

When said approving officers do not of their own knowledge 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 124. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive Department. 39 

Article 3. — Official Bonds and Herein of Discharging Sureties, etc. 

know that a surety is worth enough to enable them to accept him, 
they shall not take him unless he swears to his means, and it is 
satisfactory, of which swearing they shall make a minute on the bond. 

§142. When an official bond is signed by an Attorney in fact, Po^ver of 
the power of attorney must be attested by a Justice of the Inferior tested and 
Court, and filed and recorded as the bond is. 

§143. The official bonds of public officers required by law to within 
be filed in the office of Comptroller, Secretary of State, or Execu- ^ffiSaiboSds 
tive Department, must be filed therein within forty days after the ™"^^^^fi^«<^ 
election or appointment of such officer ; when in the office of the 
Clerk of the Superior or Inferior Courts, or Ordinary, within 
thirty days therefrom ; in all other cases within twenty days 
therefrom. [Provided, that Sheriffs, Clerks of the Superior 
and Inferior Courts, Ordinaries, Tax Collectors, Coroners, and 
County Surveyors of this State shall be allowed until the first day 
of June in each year, and the Tax Receivers untiV the first day of 
April next (after their election), to take up their commissions from 
the Inferior Courts and to perfect their bonds.] (a) 

§144. When any officer of whom bond is required fails to make certificate 
and file the same as prescribed in the preceding section, it is the file officiai 
duty of the Court, or officer in whose office it is required to be 
filed, at once to certify such failure to the appointing power, and 
to the power whose duty it may be to order an election. 

§145. If any public officer required by law to give bond per- Acting be- 
forms any official act before his bond is approved and filed as re- b^nd^^m^s^ 
quired, he is guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction must be ^'°^^°'^'"- 
fined not less than five hundred dollars. 

§146. Every officer in whose office the official bond of any pub- Endorse- 
lic officer is filed must endorse on such bond the day and year dai"boncisr 
when the same was filed, and sign his name to such endorsement. 

§ 147. If any public officer required by law to give bond fails ^^^^^^^ ^^ 
to file the same, within the time hereinbefore prescribed, in the faifuVe^?ome 
proper office, notice of such failure must be given by the officer in 
w^hose office such bond is required to be filed by or during the two 
first days of the session of the Superior Court held in the County 
in which the officer so failing resides, next after such failure, to 
the Attorney or Solicitor General of the Circuit. 

§ 148. Any officer whose duty it is to mark-file the bond and to 
give the several notices required in this article, and failing to do 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, pp. 124-5 


40 PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.— Executive Department. 

Article 3. — Official Bonds and Herein of Discharging Sureties, etc. 

Penalty for SO, without good and sufficient excuse therefor, shall, on informa- 
maJk-me, o? tion rendered an^ citation to appear before the Superior Court of 
fauu^e to the County of his residence, be fined' as for a contempt (in the 

file the bond. n. ,. o ,i />, . \ 

discretion oi the Court.) 
Official §149. Every official bond executed under this Code is obliga- 

bonds are, ,i ..-, -. . •, 

obligatory, tory on the principal and sureties thereon — 
For breach ^' ^^^ ^^J ^I'^ach of the coudition during the time the officer 
cer.*^^ ^^' continues in office or discharges any of the duties thereof. 

2. For any breach of the condition by a deputy, although not 
a deputy, exprcssod, uiilcss Otherwise declared by law. 
of^duu?s ^- Fo^ *^® faithful discharge of any duties which may be re- 
i™v^^subs*e^ quired of such officer by any law passed subsequently to the exe- 
execution!' ^ cutiou of such bond, although no such condition is expressed therein. 
4. For the use and benefit of every person who is injured, as 
J^lny^onl well by any wrongful act committed under color of his office as 
injure ^^ |^-g fg^j]^^g -j-^ perform, or by the improper or neglectful per- 
formance of, those duties imposed by law. 

§ 150. The official bonds of the Ordinaries, the Clerks of the 
bracTs a?e^\o Superior Courts, of Sheriffs, Coroners, County Surveyors, County 
fi?eTaar?e- Trcasurcrs, Tax Collectors and Receivers, given for County taxes, 
corded. must be approved by at least three Justices of the Inferior Courts, 
filed in the office of the Clerks of the Inferior Courts, and by 
them recorded; that of the Clerks of the Inferior Court must be 
filed in the Ordinary's office, and by them recorded, and when the 
Clerks of the Inferior Courts are also Clerks of the Superior 
Courts, those of the Clerks of the Superior Courts must likewise 
be filed and recorded in the Ordinary's office. The bonds of Tax 
Collectors and Receivers for State taxes, after being likewise 
approved, must be recorded by the Clerks of the Inferior Courts, 
and the original bond must be by them transmitted to the Gov- 
ernor (for deposit in the Comptroller General's office). 

§ 151. Such Justices of the Inferior Court must sign a certificate 
Justices of to the Governor, statins: that the Clerks of the Superior and 

the Inferior ^ o x 

S[f tothe I^fe^ior Courts respectively, the Sheriffs, Coroners, and County 
ftat^ clrta^n Survoyors, have taken the oaths and given the bonds sent from 
gwen'^bo^nds! *^® Exccutivo Departments, together with a statement of the 
dates, amounts, and names of the sureties of each, and that they 
have delivered to them their commissions ; which shall be attested 
by the Clerks of said Courts, and by them immediately transmit- 
ted to the Governor. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 3. — CHAP. 5. — Executive Department. 41 

Article 3. — Official Bonds and Herein of Discharging Sureties, etc. 

§ 152. When deputies give a bond they must be payable to Depiities' 
their principals, with surety conditioned as theirs are, for their Ji^^^j.^^^ 
conduct as deputies, for the same amounts, and must be recorded '^go^^^^t,^and 
in the same office and in the same manner as the bonds of the ^J^^ record- 

§ 153. It shall be at the option of any person who claims ^^^^''Sry'l 
damages of any principal officer for the act of his deputy to sue ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 
said deputy's bond instead of his, in the same manner as the p^ty.^^ ^®' 
principal's bond may be sued. 

§154. Such bonds are not discharged by a single recovery, but ^ne re- 

proceedings may be had from time to time, until the whole penalty ^^^^ ^^^ 

covery does 
3 t d i s- 
arge the 

is exhausted against the officer and his sureties, or either, and to^the^°fuu 
said bonds are joint or several, whether so set forth or not. penalty. 

§155. When the penalty is exhausted, the officer himself shall officer iiabie 

still be liable, and upon the same measure of damages as upon j% is ex 

though pen 
alty is ex 

his bond, and he is likewise liable for any damage he may do in 
undertaking to discharge the duties of an office without having 
given the necessary bond, or, having given one, it is invalid, in 
whole or in part. 

§ 156. Whenever any officer required by law to give an official ^^^J^^^^^S 
bond acts under a bond which is not in the penalty payable and jj^ to°iaw°^" 
conditioned nor approved and filed as prescribed by law, such 
bond is not void, but stands in the place of the official bond, 
subject on its condition being broken to all the rem.edies, including 
the several recoveries which the persons aggrieved might have 
maintained on the official bond. 

§157. The measure of damages upon all official bonds for the Measure of 
misconduct of the officer, unless otherwise specially enacted, shall suites on 
be the amount of injury actually sustained, including the reasona- 
ble expenses of the suit to the plaintiff, besides the costs of Court ; 
but in all cases when little or no damage is actually sustained and 
the officer has not acted in good faith, the jury may find for the 
plaintiff an amount as smart money, which, taking all the circum- 
stances together, shall not be excessive nor oppressive. 

§ 158. All the provisions of this and the preceding Article apply /'ihT^^Sd 
to the oaths of office and official bonds of all public officers of this preceding 

i- article apply 

State whose office may be established hereafter, unless the con- *^^J^^'^^^^ 
trary is expressly provided. 

§ 159. When the surety to any bond, given by any officer for howsu^- 
the performance of any public duty, shall give notice, in writing, to ^^^^^g^J^f 
the Governor of his desire to be relieved from future liability, for charged. 

42 PT. 1— TIT. 3.-~CHAP. 5.— Executive Department. 

Article 4. — Delivery of Books to Successors. 

good cause therein stated and sworn to — of wliich the Grovernor 
shall be the judge — or any such surety shall in the opinion of the 
Governor, formed upon satisfactory evidence, become insufficient, 
it shall be his duty to require of such officer a new bond and surety. 
§ 160. If any officer shall fail to comply with such requisition 
n^ei^bo^JTd witliin ten days from the date he is served personally with a copy 
quiedl Jbe ^^ ^^^ Executivo ordcr containing such requisition, he is by such 
from offiil failure removed from office and a vacancy declared. 

Officer fail- 




161. Outgoing officer must deliver books. 

162. Persons having office property. 

163. Persons refusing to deliver, etc. 


164. May be imprisoned. 

165. Books, etc., delivered to successor. 

166. Penalty for failure. 

§ 161. When any office is vacated it is the duty of the incum- 
defiver Tn ^^^*> ou demand made, to deliver all books, papers, and other 
to BuccciSor.' property appertaining to the office to his qualified successor. 

§ 162. If a vacancy occurs by death, or the incumbent is not 
other per- to bc fouud at the time of demand made, it is the duty of any 

sons having ^ ^ ' ^ %i 

office pro- person havino^ possession or control of such office property, or 

party must ■•■ or i i »/ 7 

deliver it up. any part thereof, to deliver it up, and the rights and remedies are 
the same against such person as against the deceased officer, if 
living or to be found. 

§16S. If any person neglects or refuses so to do after demand 

How person made, the successor shall make coDiplaint to the Justices of the 

1 n posses- \ ■*■ 

si^«»' ^ Jl^^^s- Inferior Court of the County, or to the Judge of the Superior 
a^n d"^ c^n*^ Court of the Circuit in which the person refusing resides, or if 
pro?ee de^d J^^ither cau bc had, the Judge of the Superior Court of an adjoin- 
against. '^^^ Circuit, and if such officer is satisfied, from the oath of com- 
plainant or otherwise, that such are withheld, he must grant an 
order requiring the person so refusing to show cause before him, on 
a day and at a place named in such order, why he should not be 
compelled to deliver over the same. 

§ 164. At the time so appointed, or at any other time to which 
s^onT^how the matter may be adjourned, a copy of such order having been 
cause,^ and personally served on the person so refusing, such officer must 
pYy AvithTn procccd to inquire into the circumstances, and if it appears that 
liver, they such books and papers are withheld, he must order the same 
prisoned, delivered up instanter to s'aid successor, a'nd on failing to comply 

PT. 1.— TIT. 3.— CHAP. 5.~ExECUTivE Department. 


Article 4. — Delivery of Books to Successors. 

with such order he shall issue a warrant directed to any officer of 
said County, or of the adjoining County, authorized to make the 
arrest, to arrest said officer, and commit him to jail, there to 
remain until he complies with said order or is otherwise dis- 
charged by course of law. At the same time, in the same way, 
he shall command said officer to search such places for them as searciimay 
may be designated in such warrant, and to seize and bring them papersuuder 

. . .a warrant. 

before him or some other officer authorized to preside, and being 
so brought and appearing to belong to said office, he shall cause 
them to be delivered to the successor. The payment of costs are 
in the discretion of the Court. Said proceedings do not interfere 
with the provisions in the Penal Code on this subject, 

§165. All judicial or ministerial officers or State's Attorneys, officers 
who by law are entitled to receive from the State any books, bookstosuc- 


pamphlets, or other documents, upon retiring from office must de- 
liver them over to their successors, and from one successor to 

§ 166. On failure to deliver such books, after demand made by fafiure^^'ode- 
incoming officer, he is liable for three times the first cost thereof, [o^success^o^r! 
to be retained out of his salary, if a salaried officer, and if not a 
salaried officer, or, being one, it is omitted to be retained, the officer 
so detaining is subject to suit and recovery (in a Court having ju- 
risdiction) by the successor in the name of the State for his use. 






167. Meeting of Legislature. 

168. Length 'of sessions. 

169. How organized. 

170. Oath of members. 

171. President and Speaker. 

172. Elections by General Assembly. 

173. Door-keepers and Messengers. 

174. Special Messengers. 


175. Joint Finance Committee. 

176. Duty of Secretary and Clerk. 

177. Engrossed copies of laws. 

178. Pay of President, Speaker, etc. 

179. Pay of sick members. 

180. Amount due deceased members. 

181. Accounts of officers and members* 

§ 167. The regular sessions of the General Assembly begin oa 

44 PT. 1. — TIT. 3. — Legislative Department. 

Chapter 1. — The General Assembly. 

When the first [Thursday] (a) in November, annually, at [10 o'clock in 
melts^*'^^^ the forenoon] (b) in the Capitol. 

§ 168. Each session shall not continue longer than forty days, 
Length of unless othcrwise ordered by a vot^ of two-thirds of each branch 

sessions. n -i r^ i4 

of the General Assembly. 

§ 169. Each branch shall be organized by the Clerk and Sec- 
AsseSf— ^^^^^y thereof respectively, who are, ex-officio, presiding officers 
how organ- ^^^11 such arc clccted. No question shall be entertained by them 
but one relating to the organization, and in deciding such ques- 
tions they are to be governed, as far as practicable, by the stand- 
ing rules of the House over which they preside. In the absence 
of such officer their assistants may officiate. In the absence of 
both, the body may appoint a chairman whose powers and duties 
are the same. 

§ 170. The oaths of office may be administered to the members 
aSJimS ^^ *^® General Assembly by any Judge of the Supreme or Supe- 
members^ ^'^^^' Courts, to be procurcd by the person organizing each branch. 
§ 171. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House 
p^skient of ^^^ elected by their respective bodies viva voce, and a majority of 
Speaker '^ of ^otcs is ncccssary to a choice. In like manner the Senate must 
House. elect a President j)^o tern., and the House a Speaker ^jro tem., 

T*rG si dcii t 

and Speaker whosc powcrs and dutics, wliilc presiding, or in the absence of said 

pro tern. ^ ^ , 

omcers, are the same. 
Elections § 172. All clcctions by the General Assembly are to be con- 

— now con- ^ •/ ./ 

ducted. ducted as follows : 

Assemble !• ^^ the day and hour appointed for the election, the mem- 
resentatwe" bcrs of both Houses must assemble in the Eepresentative Hall. 

^"' 2. The names of the members of each House are to be called 

caii^^°^an'd ^^ their respective Clerks, each member voting viva voce as soon 
lot ^^ ^^^' ^ft^^ ^^is name is called as practicable. 

3. The result must be ascertained by the President of the Sen- 
howTJil7 3-te and the Speaker of the House, and announced by the first 
announced! named officer. 

4. The votes are to be given for but one election at the same 
tion^at^tfmX ^i^®? ^^^ ^ majority of the whole number of votes cast is neces- 
SSaiyf ^^ sary to a choice, and all blanks are to be counted as votes. 

5. When both branches of the General Assembly agree by 
resolution to bring on an election at a specified time in the Rep- 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 36. (b) Acts of ISeS-d-, p. 30. 


PT. 1. — TIT. 4. — ^Legislative Department. 45 

Chapter 1. — The General Assembly, 
resentative Chamber, said resolution can only be rescinded by a Resolution 

' *> •'to bring: on 

vote of two-thirds of either House, and without such vote the elec- eiectioiiTmay 

' be rescinaed 

tion held according to such resolution is valid. 

6. When both branches meet for such purposes, and there is Adjoum- 

•'••'■ ment pend- 

a necessity for an adjournment without having concluded the i^g an eiec- 
elections for which they convened, they shall adjourn to some 
named hour on the same or next day (not counting Sunday or a 
public holiday), or to a day certain, and the elections made at 
such time are valid, unless the resolution for the election is in the 
meantime repealed by said two-thirds vote. 

§173. Each House is entitled to a Door-keeper and Messen- Election of 

■^ Door-keeper 

ger, to perform such duties as may be required of them, who shall ^°^^^^.^^^?' 
be [elected as provided for the election of Clerk and Secretary,] p^y- 
(a) and who shall receive the same pay as the members of the 
General Assembly. 

§174. When it shall be necessary to carry into eifect the 4th Persons may 

•^ J *f be appointed 

Section of the 2d Article of the Constitution, or for any like pur- ger^ice^^"^^ 

pose, either of said officers may appoint any person to execute 

the orders of each House and the warrant of the presiding officer, 

who may receive for the service such compensation as the General pensation. 

Assembly may appropriate. 

§ 175. It is part of the duty of the Joint Standing Committee Duty of 
of Finance to examine the accounts and vouchers of the Comp- nance Com- 

■^ mittee. 

troller and Treasurer as to all moneys received into and paid out 
of the Treasury during the last fiscal year, to compare the war- 
rants drawn during that period with the several laws by authority 
of which they purport to be drawn, to examine into the other 
accounts and books of such officers, and to count the money on 
hand at the time of the examination, and to examine the annual 
reports made by said officers, to see if they are sustained by the 
true condition of their offices, and report the result to each branch 
of the General Assembly. 

§176. At the close of each session the Secretary of the Sen- Duty of sec- 
ate. Clerk of the House of Representatives, and Secretary of State, senate and 
must select all the papers belonging to the General Assembly, House at the 
except such as relate to the unfinished and rejected business, and session. 
deposit them in the office of the Secretary of State. 

§177. The engrossed copies of all laws and joint resolutions co"'5)yeT^of 
passed by the General Assembly must be preserved by the Chair- ^vhe'-e dep^ 

(a) Acts of 1862-3, p. 139. 


PT. 1. — TIT. 4. — Legislative Department. 

Chapter 3. — Subordinate Officers of the General Assembly. 

man of the Enrolling Committee, and deposited in the office of 

the Secretary of State. 

§ 178. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House 
TK. ?,^y ^C^'eceive [twelve] (a) dollars, and the other members [nine] (a) dol- 
t he Senate |aj.g fg^ each dav's attendance, and all are allowed five dollars 

and Speaker 7 ,/ 7 

and^^ml^m- ^^^ Gvcrj twcntj milcs of travel going to and returning from the 
^^^^- seat of Government, the distance to be computed by [nearest] (a) 

route usually traveled. 

§ 179. If any member is detained by sickness, after leaving 
Pay of home, in comins; to, or is unable to attend the House after he 

siek mem- ■' o ^ 

bers. arrives at the seat of Government, he is entitled to the same daily 

pay as an attending member ; but no member shall receive pay 
for absent time unless on account of sickness of himself or family, 
or by express leave of the House of which he is a member. 

§ 180. If any member of the General Assembly shall die during 

of dTcelSId ^^® session, or afterwards, without having received the whole or 

^cSyfthek ^^y portion of his pay, the amount due for the whole session shall 
pay, e?c!^"^^6 paid to the widow of the deceased, and if no widow, in like 

manner to the children. 

§ 181. The compensation due to the officers and members of the 
be^ianToffi- General Assembly must be certified by the President and Speaker, 
audit^ ^and I'espectively, upon the report of the Auditing Committee to the 
certified. Treasurer, who afterwards shall pay each member who presents 

his account duly audited. 




182. Election of Secretary and Clerk. 

183. Oath of Secretary and Clerk. 

184. Administering the oath. 

185. Compensation of Secretary and Clerk 

186. Assistants of Secretary and Clerk. 


187. Qualification of subordinate Clerks. 

188. Secretary and Clerk must file papers. 

189. Receive no pay till files are made. 

190. When both Houses meet, Secretary 

to aid. 

?fficS??e?m § 1^^* There shall be a Secretary of the Senate and a Clerk of 
senate^nd *^^ House of Representatives, elected by the members of each 
House?^'^^ House respectively, viva voce, and a majority of votes cast is ne- 

(a) Acts of 1865-0, p. 250. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 4. — Legislative Department. 47 

Chapter 3.— Subordinate Officers of the General Assembly. 

cessary to elect. Their term of office shall be the time for which 
the members of the General Assembly are elected. 

§ 183. Said officers, their assistants, and Enffrossine: and Enroll- „ ^\^^ ^^ 

•^ ' ' o o Secretary 

ing Clerks, before entering on the discharge of their duties, shall JJJ^ ^^^^^^ J^^ 
take an oath before their respective presiding officers to discharge ^^^^^^ts- 
their duties faithfully and to the best of their skill and knowledge, 
of which a minute shall be made and entered on the Journals. 

§ 184. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House anJ^lfker 
are to administer the oaths required to the subordinate officers of jJ^^roSto 
their respective Houses. , subordinates 

§185. The pe?* diem pay of the Secretary of the Senate and Payofsec- 

rcLftry n n d 

the Clerk of the House, their assistants and all subordinates, shall cierk— how 

^ ^ ' nxed. 

be determined by each General Assembly in perfecting the Appro- 
priation Bill. 

S 186. Said Secretary and Clerk shall have power to appoint Secretary 

TIT (- ^^ ' -"^^ and Clerk 

their assistants and subordinate clerks as follows — viz : may appoint 

1. The Secretary of the Senate may appoint, at the commence- Readers, 

•f» I'li'i 1 -Tki 4> Journalizing 

ment of the session for which he is elected, one Header or Assist- and Enroii- 

, . ing, and En- 

ant Clerk at the desk, one Journalizing Clerk, and one for Enroll- grossing and 

y . Kecordmg 

ing and one Engrossing Clerk, and one Recording Clerk. cierks. 

2. The Clerk of the House may appoint, at the same time, one 
Reader or Assistant Clerk at the desk, one Journalizing Clerk, 
two Enrolling and two Engrossing Clerks, and one Recording 

3. If, at any time during the session, the business requires the Additional 

clcrlis liow 

appointment of additional clerks, either of said officers may ap- appointed. 
ply to their respective Houses for leave to appoint them; and if 
they are deemed necessary by the Enrolling Committee, such body 
may, by resolution^ authorize the appointment, specifying therein 
the number. 

4. No clerk shall be allowed compensation in either of said ^erks ^niy 
departments, appointed in any other way. pay|^ receive 

§ 187. No Journalizing, Recording, Enrolling, or Engrossing ouaiifi. 
Clerk shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Senate or Clerk removaf °of 
of the House, until such Clerk has been examined by the Enroll- fng^E^ciJd- 
ing Committee, and certified to their respective Houses to be i2|'amf En- 
competent and well qualified to the discharge of the duties re- cierls/^"^ 
quired of him ; and such Clerk shall be removed, at any time, 
upon the recommendation of the Enrolling Committee of the House 
in which he is employed. 


PT. 1. — TIT. 5. — Judicial Department. 

Chapter 1. — General Provisions in Regard to Judicial Power. 

§ 188. The Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House 
and^^cfS ^f Representatives must, within ten days after the adjournment 
^e^'Jl^^lK of each session, file, in proper order, all the papers and docu- 
dociunents. j^^gj^^g ^f their respective Houses. 

§ 189. The records, papers, and documents thus filed, must be 

Secretary delivered to the Secretary of State, who, upon receipt of the 

shall not be samo, must Certify that such Secretary and Clerk have respectively 

fifed^a^^^s^ complied with said requisitions, and the Treasurer shall not pay 

their several salaries until such certificate is produced. 

§ 190. When there is a meeting of both branches of the General 
Secretary Asscmblv in auv ouc chamber, said Secretary and Clerk shall be 

mu St aid . . 

when both present and ioin in the discharge of the duties required, and shall 

Houses meet ^ o o x ^ 

enter on the Journals of each the proceedings. 






191. Judicial power— where vested. 

192. Rules of Court shall be observed. 

193. Judge interested shall not preside. 

194. Power of the Court. 


195. Records shall not be removed. 

196. Minutes read and signed by Judge. 

197. The Court may act when no Clerk. 

§191. The Judicial power of the State is vested in such tribu- 

judiciainals as are created by the Constitution, and such other Inferior 

veSedT^'^'^ Courts as are or may be established by law, and such persons as 

are or may be specially invested with powers of a judicial nature. 

§ 192. The rules of the respective Courts, legally adopted and 

Euiea of ^^ot in conflict with the Constitution of the United States, of this 

^°^^^" State, or the laws thereof, are binding and must be observed. 

§ 193. No Judge or Justices of any Court, no Ordinary, Jus- 

when ju- tic© of the Pcaco, nor presiding officer of any inferior judicature 

fs'^incoSpe- or commissiou, can sit in any cause or proceeding in which he is 

cases.^^ ^^^ pecuniarily interested, or related to either party within the fourth 

degree of consanguinity or affinity, nor in which he has been of 

counsel, without the consent of all the parties in interest. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 5. — Judicial Department. 49 

Chapter 1. — General Provisions in regard to Judicial Power. 

§194. Every Court has power — courts have 

1. To preserve and enforce order in its immediate presence, and to enforce 
as near thereto as is necessary, to prevent interruption, disturb- presence. 
ance, or hindrance to its proceedings. 

2. To enforce order before a person or body empowered to con- Before bo- 

^ ,/ r dies acting 

duct a judicial investigation under its authority. authodV ^^^ 

3. To compel obedience to its judgments, orders, and process, compel obe- 
and to the orders of a Judge out of Court, in an action or pro- process and 

,. I . judgment. 

ceedmg therein. 

4. To control, in furtherance of iustice, the conduct of its to control 

1 • 1 • T • 1 T ^^^ officers. 

officers and all other persons connected with a judicial proceed- 
ing before it, in every matter appertaining thereto. 

5. To administer oaths in an action or proceeding pending Toadmin- 

. . „ , , . f ° ^ . , ister oaths. 

therein, and m all other cases, when it may be necessary, m the 
exercise of its powers and duties. 

6. To amend and control its process and orders, so as to make . ^o amend 

•"• ■' its process, 

them conformable to law and justice, and to amend its own record I'^^ords, etc. 
so as to make them conform to the truth. 

§ 195. No records or papers of any Court must be removed out '^^^^ ^^- 

^ r XT J cords may 

of the County, except in cases of invasion whereby the same ^^ removed. 
may be endangered, or unless by order of the Court. 

§196. The minutes of every Court of record must be read Minutes 

^ *^ must be read 

each morning by the Clerk in open Court, and on the adjourn- '^"^^^s"^^- 
ment of the Court must be signed by the Judge, Judges, or Jus- 
tices thereof; but if not signed are valid unless repudiated by 
the Court. 

§ 197. The acts of a Court shall not lack validity for the want court may 

•^ perform du- 

of a Clerk, and whenever there is no Clerk, or none to be had, or tics of cierk 

'' ' ^ when there 

he is incapable of discharging his duty, and any Court performs ^^ °°^^- 
that duty itself, its action as such is valid. 



Article 1. — TJie Supreme Court and its Judges, 
Article 2. — The Clerk. 
Article 3. — The Reporter. 
Article 4. — The Sheriffs or Marshal. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 2.--JUDICIAL Depaktment. 

Article 1. — The Supreme Court and its Judges. 




198. Judges of tbe Supreme Court. 

199. Their oath of office. 

200. Two may hold the Court. 

201. Who are eligible for Supreme Bench. 

202. Vacancies — how filled. 


203. When there is but one Judge, etc. 

204. Unanimous decisions how reversed, 

205. The powers of Supreme Court, etc. 

206. Two of the Judges must concur, etc. 

207. Officers of the Supreme Court. 

§ 198. The powers of the Supreme Court are vested in, and its 
Judges of duties performed by, three Judges, [one of whom shall be styled the 
Court. Chief Justice,] (a) who are elected for the term of six years by the 
General Assembly. 

§ 199. Before entering on the discharge of their duties they 
Their oath, shall take the oath prescribed for Judges of the Superior Courts, 
and all other oaths required for civil officers. 

§ 200. [They, or two of them, may hold said Court, and the 
Two may oldcst Judffo in commission, in the absence of the Chief Justice, 

hold Court— . ^ '. ' 

Chief Jus- is President thereof, but without any greater powers than his 
associate; and when the office of the present oldest Judge in com- 
mission shall become vacant by death, resignation, or otherwise, a 
Chief Justice shall be appointed or elected to fill such vacancy.] (a) 
§ 201. No person is eligible as such unless he has been duly 
Who are admitted and licensed to plead and practice in the Courts of Law 

eligible to 

the Supreme and Equity in this State for ten years prior to his election. Within 
twenty days after the election the Governor shall issue his com- 

§ 202. In case of a vacancy (from any cause) the Governor shall 
Vacancies— appoint and commission some qualified person to supply it until 
plied. the next meeting of the General Assembly, who shall elect some 

one for the unexpired term. If a vacancy occurs during the ses- 
sion of the General Assembly, there must be no appointment, 
but if it closes without an election the Governor shall appoint 
some person to hold the office until the action of the General 

§ 203. When two or all of the Judges are disqualified from 
^j^y^^J^J^* deciding any cause or proceeding pending in their said Court, 
how^the ca^ they must certify the same to the Governor, who must direct a 
pSed^o^f.^^^ commission to issue to any two or three Judges of the Superior 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 17. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.~0HAP. 2.— Judicial Department. 51 

Article. 1. — The Supreme Court and its Judges. 

Court whom he may select, and who have not performed any 
judicial duty in the cause, empowering them in the particular 
cause stated to exercise the powers of a Judge of the Supreme 
Court therein, as in cases of vacancy, at the time and place for 
hearing and determining the same. 

§ 204. A decision concurred in by three Judges can not be . How unan- 

•^ ./ o imous decis- 

reversed or materially chang-ed, except by a full bench, and then ions maybe 

>/ o y i- V ' reversed. 

after argument had, in which the decision, by permission of the 
Court, is expressly questioned and reviewed ; and after such argu- 
ment the Court in its decision shall state distinctly whether it 
affirms, reverses, or changes such decision. 

§ 205. The Supreme Court has authority — courr^hTs 

1. To exercise appellate jurisdiction, and that only, and in no^^lexeTd^e 
case to hear facts or examine witnesses. Hsd1cfi?n a- 

2. To hear and determine all causes, civil and criminal, that ^^^\ 

' 'To hear and 

may come before it, and to grant judgments of affirmance or ^^^^^^ ™ j^^® 
reversal, or any other order, direction, or decree required therein, iJ^a^J^^^t^o 
and if necessary to make a final disposition of the cause, but in jy^g^ent."^^ 
the manner prescribed elsewhere in this Code. 

3. To grant any writ necessary to carry out any purpose of its T^ g^^nt 

° *' ^ »' ./ 1 J. M'rits to en- 

organization, or to compel any inferior tribunal or officer thereof Jj^^^^^ Jt^ o^- 

to obey its order. 

4. To appoint its own officers, and to commission any person to . Toappomt 

^ ^ ^ ^ ' '^ ^ Its own ofli- 

execute any specific order it may make. ^^''s- 

5. To establish, amend, and alter its own rules of practice, and To make 

'■ ^ rules of prao- 

to regulate the admission of Attorneys. ^i<=®- 

6. To punish for contempt by the infliction of a fine as high as To punish 

^ . . . ° f o r c o n- 

five hundred dollars, and imprisonment not exceeding ten days, or tempts. 

7. To exercise such other powers, not contrary to the Consti- .^>^*|,*;'^«'': 

••^ ' »/ cise all legal 

tution, as are or may be given to it by law. powers. 

§206. The concurrence of two of said Judges is necessary to Two judges 

^ ^ must concur 

make a reversal, or to grant any order disturbing the judgment to reverse. 
of the Court below; and when only two preside in a cause, andoniy^prT- 
they disagree as to the reversal or as to said order, the judgment disagrte- 

T /Y» -1 ment affirms 

stands ainrmed. 

§207. The officers of the Supreme Court are a Clerk, a Re- The oncers 

1 • c^i -rr -1 1 "^ the Su- 

porter and assistants, a bherm and deputies. preme court 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 2.— Judicial Department. . 

Article 2.— The Clerk. 




208. His appointment and oath of office. 

209. May appoint a deputy. 

210. The duties of the Clerk enumerated. 


211. Must tax costs, etc. 

212. Who liable for costs, etc. 

oath of clerk 

§ 208. The Clerk of the Supreme Court holds his office for six 

meiu^^and J^^^'^, unless romoved for incapacifcy, improper conduct, or neglect 

of duty ; and before entering upon his duties he must take an oath 

faithfully to discharge them, and also all other oaths required of 

civil officers. 

§ 209. He may appoint one or more deputies in his discretion, 
May ap- under such rules as the Court may adopt, he being responsible for 

polntadepu- . . . o i 

ty- the faithful performance of their duties ; and when so appointed 

their powers and duties are the same as his. 
§ 210. It is his duty— 

1. To keep an office at the seat of Government in one of the 
Must keep apartmciits of the Capitol, where all books, records and archives, 

an office at ^ , 

Capitol. and the seal of the Court shall remain. 
Must at- 2. To attend all sessions of the Court and obey all of its lawful 

tendthe ^ 

Courts. orders. 

3. To keep in well bound books fair and regular minutes of the 
Must keep Court's procccdings, a record of its judicial acts, a docket of its 

cords, etc. causcs, and such other books as said Court may require him to 

4. To certify, when required, upon payment of his lawful fees, 
tify records q]\ minutes, rccords, or files of said Court. 

and papers. ' " 

5. To arrange the cases on the docket by Circuits, and to give 
Must pub- notice in one of the newspapers, printed at the place where the 

lish order of . . . p •■ 

Circuits. Court is to bc held, twenty days previous to its session, of the or- 
der of arrangement. 

6. To submit to the Governor a fair statement of each criminal 
Must re- paupcr casc, showino: the items of costs, the nature of the crime 

port all pau- \ ^ _,° 

per cases to charged, and the County from whence it came, under the seal of 

the Govern- o ? ^ 

or- the Court, as a condition to a warrant in his favor for their pay- 


7. To make out a remitter of every case within ten days from 
o^Ter^iur^^^ adjournment of the Court, and to transmit it to the attorney 

of the party prevailing, together with a certificate of the amount 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 2. — Judicial Department. 


Article 3.— The Reporter. 

of tlie costs, and by whom paid, which remitter shall consist of a 
copy of the judgment of the Court as entered on the minutes, 
and nothing more. 

8. To issue and sign all writs and processes of every description ^n ^rus^and 
issued under the authority of the Court. processes. 

9. To administer such oaths and take such affidavits as the busi 
ness of the Court or the law may require. 

Must ad- 

10. To discharge whatever other duty may be required by law, form^aiiJth- 

., 1 • 1 1 • rn er official du- 

or necessarily appertains to nis onice. ties. 

§ 211« lYhen judgment shall be pronounced in any cause, he Must tax 
shall tax the costs thereof, item by item, which shall be entered charge only 
on the minutes at the foot of the judgment without charge. He rendered. 
shall make no charge for attaching the seal to the remitter, nor 
to any precept issued by him, nor for any thing but services ac- 
tually rendered ; nor shall he record the bill of exceptions, or 
transcript of the records from the Court below. 

§ 212. Every attorney for the plaintiff in error, who argues or who are 
presents a cause to the Supreme Court, is liable to the Clerk for <^<^sts. 
costs, except in a pauper case. 




213. Appointment and oath of Reporter. 

214. May appoint an assistant. 

215. Must attend Courts, etc. 


216. Reports must not contain arguments. 

217. Penalty for failing to pviblish reports. 

218. Copyright reserved to the Reporter. 

§ 213, The Reporter of the Supreme Court holds his office for Appoint- 

^ ^, mentand 

the same term and on the same conditions as the Clerk, and before 2^^^ «f the 

' Eeporter. 

entering on his duties must take the same oaths. 

§ 214. He may, with consent of the Court, under such rule as May ap- 

l^ ^ • * • T-» 1 1 • point assist- 

tney may adopt, appoint an Assistant Reporter, whose duties are ant. 
the same as the Reporter's. 
§ 215. It is his duty — 

1. To attend all sessions of the Supreme Court by himself, or Mustattend 

Is' • , , the Courts. 

his assistant. 

2. To publish in good and substantial form the decisions of said .Must pub- 
Court as written out, within six months of the time of their de- ions. 
livery to him. 

3. To furnish one copy of each volume of his Reports to each 

54 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 2.— Judicial Depaetment. 

Article 4. — The Sheriff. 

Must fur- Judge of the Supreme Court; one copy to the Clerk thereof, to 

toVne'^state be kept in his office ; twentv-five copies to the State, to be deliv- 

officers. '" ered to the State Librarian ; and a copy to each Clerk of the 

Superior Courts, to be kept in their offices. For such. copies he 

shall be paid by the Governor at the price of three dollars per 


§ 216. The volumes of Keports must not contain any argument^ 

Eeportsnot or brief of counsel, beyond a statement of the points and au- 
to contain.. 

argument of thoritlCS. 

counsel. ^ 

§ 217. If he fails to publish his volumes of Reports vrithin the 

Penalty for time designated, he forfeits one-fourth of his salary for every ad- 

pubiish Ee- ditioual mouth's delay, unless a majority of the Court "will certify 

ports as the iii r» I'Pi "^ r- ^ -i ^ • 

law requires that the delay Tras not from his fault, or of those under his control ; 
and if he fails to publish and furnish them as required in preced- 
ing Section, he also forfeits one-fourth more of his salary, and 
must be removed by the Supreme Court. 
Copyright § ^1^' "^^ shall havo the copyright to his Reports in addition to 

forteri'^'-liis salary. 




219. Sheriff shall attend Supreme Court. 

220. If he fails the Court may appoint. 


221. Sheriff's fees in the Supreme Court. 

§ 219. The Sheriff of the County wherein a session of the Su- 
Dutyof preme Court is holden, or his deputy, must attend daily the ses- 
the County sious thcrcof, obey all lawful orders, execute all lawful commands 
Court is held and process, and preserve order. 

§ 220. On failure of said Sheriff, or a lawful deputy, to attend 
Court may and discharoje the duties required, or any part thereof, the Court 

annoint an ° . ^ n ^ • 

officer. may appoint some fit and proper person for such purpose. 

§ 221. He shall receive for his services the fees allowed in the 
Sheriff's Superior Court for like services, and when he performs a journey 

fcGS in Sq- 

preme Court in the discharge of his duties he is entitled to the same pay for 
mileage as a Marshal of the United States. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 


Article 1. — The Superior Court and its Judges. 



Article 1. — The Superior Court and Judges, 
Article 2. — The Clerics. 
Article 3. — The Receiver, 


the superior court and its judges. 


222. Election and official term of Judg 

223. Their oath of office. 

224. Vacancies — how filled. 

225. Time of election. 

226. Judges elected to fill vacancies. 

227. No special election — when. 

228. "Who are eligible to Judgeship. 

229. Shall not practice law. 

230. Shall not be deprived of his office, 

231. Must hold Court twice a year. 

232. His jurisdiction. 



233. Duties of the Judge. 

234. Shall deliver his cliarge in writing. 

235. Such charge shall be filed. 

236. Jurisdiction of the Superior Courts. 

237. Powers enumerated. 

238. When the Judge is absent. 

239. Can only exercise powers granted. 

240. When the Judge is disqualified. 

241. May be impeached. 

242. Perform no judicial act out of State. 

§ 222. Judges of the Superior Courts are elected by the people 
of and for each Judicial Circuit, in the manner and at the time 
hereinafter prescribed, and hold their offices for four years, unless 
sooner removed in the manner prescribed by the Constitution. 

§ 223. Before entering on the duties of their office, they must 
take the oath required of all civil officers, and in addition the fol- 
lowing — viz : 

''I swear that I will administer justice without respect to per- 
sons, and do equal rights to the poor and the rich, and that I will 
faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties 
incumbent on me as Judge of the Superior Court of this State, 
according to the best of my ability and understanding, and agree- 
able to the laws and Constitution of this State, and the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. So help me God." > 

§ 224. When a vacancy occurs (or from some cause there is a 
failure to elect), the Governor shall appoint some qualified person 
to fill such vacancy, and shall order a special election. [And 

and official 
term of the 

Their oath. 

— how fllicd 
— when de- 

56 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1.— The Superior Court and its Judges. 

when, on tlie day fixed by the Constitution for the election of 
Judges of the Superior Court and Solicitors General, there is no 
majority vote cast, and therefore no election, the office in such 
Circuit shall be, and is hereby, declared vacant; and such va- 
cancy shall be filled as is now provided by law.] (a) 

§ 225. Such election shall be held on the first Wednesday in 
eiectio^^ °^ January next thereafter, provided there is time for the Govern- 
or's proclamation of such election to be advertised for as much as 
thirty days preceding said day. 
Judges § 226. Judges thus elected hold their offices for a full term of 
a^vaauicy^^^ fo^i* ycars, and must be by the Governor so commissioned. 

§ 227. If, at the time a vacancy occurs, the unexpired time of 

The ap- the (former) incumbent does not exceed twelve months, the person 

holds with- appointed holds his office for the unexpired term, and there shall 

out an elec- -" •*■ ^ ' 

tioQ- be no special election. 

§ 228. No person is eligible to such Judgeship who shall not have 
Who are been a resident citizen of this State for ten years iust precedinp; 

elisrible to . . J J r ^ i=> 

the Circuit his elcction or appointment, and who shall not have been an inhab- 
itant of the Circuit over which he is to preside for at least one 
year next preceding the said time, and who shall not have been 
duly admitted and licensed to plead and practice in the Superior 
Courts of this State at least five years prior to the same. 

§ 229. Such Judges are prohibited from practicing law in any 
Judges of the Courts of this State between the times of their election 
practice law. and qualification, but they may practice until their qualification 
in any case in which they may have been actually employed be- 
fore their election; and they are also prohibited from practicing 
as attorneys, proctors, or solicitors, in the District or Circuit Courts 
of the United States after their election or while in commission. 
§ 230. A person having been appointed or elected a Judge of 
Attaching any Circuit can not be deprived of his office by attaching the 
of hi? resi- County in which he resides to a different Judicial Circuit, but he 

dcnce to an- . -,• ^ .,. •• ■, -, • ^ ^ ' ^ n' 

other Circuit contmucs to discharsTC its duties as though he resided m the Oir- 

does not oust ^ 
him from of- cuit. 

§ 231. Said Judges must hold the Superior Courts of each Cir- 
Must hold cuit at the County site and Court House (if any) of each County, 
each^county or othcr placc therein designated by law, twice each year, at such 
twice ayear. timcs as is now or may be prescribed by the General Assembly. 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 136. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.-~ Judicial Department. 57 

Article 1. — The Superior Court and its Judges. 

§ 232. The iurisdiction of the Jucloies of the Superior Courts ^. J^nsdic- 

'^ o o X tion co-ex- 

is co-extensive with the limits of this State, but they are not com- J^e^tatr*^ 
pelled to alternate unless required by law. 

§ 233. Each of said Judo;es shall dischars-e all the duties re- Duties of 

. ^. . Judge. 

quired of him by the Constitution and laws for the Circuit for 
which he was elected or appointed, although he may hold Courts 
in other Circuits, and may also exercise other judicial functions 
for them when permitted by law. 

§ 234. The Judges of the Superior Courts of this State shall, written 
in all cases of felony, and on the final or appeal trial of all civil certain cases 
cases tried before them, give their charges to the jury in writing ; 
that is to say, shall write out their charges and read the same to 
the jury, when the counsel for either party shall require them to 
do so ; and that it shall be error for such Judge to give any other 
or additional charge than that so written out and read. 

§ 235. The charge so written out and read as aforesaid shall be shaii be i 

. . filed. \ 

I filed with the Clerk of the Court in which the same was given, - i 

'• and shall be accessible to all persons interested in the same; and 
the Clerk shall give certified copies thereof to any person apply- 
'^ng for the same, upon the payment of the usual fee. " '' 

§ 236. The Superior Courts have authority — > jurisdiction 

1. To exercise original,^ exclusive, or concurrent jurisdiction (as cour^tsm"? 
the case may be) of all causes, both civil and criminal, granted inLuasS."^' 
to them_by_the Constitution and laws. 

2. To exercise the powers of a Court of Equity. Equitable 

i ' - • ... i- «^ powers. 

3. To exercise appellate iurisdiction in all civil cases tried by May try 

• 1 r^ /^ 1 •!• r ^ i appeals from 

a jury m the. County Court, or where judgment is confessed, and the couuty 
from judgments of the Ordinary. 

4. To exercise a general supervision over all inferior tribunals. May cor- 

. 1 -1 -^ 1 1 -, 1 rect errors of 

and to review and correct in the manner prescribed by law the inferior tri- 

^ ^ ^ bunals. 

judgments of the Justices of the Inferior Court, the Justices of 
the Peace, Corporation Courts or Councils, or any inferior judi- 
cature, or any person exercising judicial powers, and of the Ordi- 
nary, except in cases touching the probate of wills and the grant- 
ing of letters of administration, when there must be a special 
jury impanneled. 

5. To punish contempt by fines not exceedino; two hundred dol- May pun- 

, IT.. , . , ish for con- 

lars, and by imprisonment not exceeding twenty days. tempts. 

6. To exercise such other powers, not contrary to the Constitu- ^^ay exer- 

■■• ' •^ cise all other 

tion, as are or may be given to such Courts by law. legal powers 

§ 237. The Judges of the Superior Courts have authority — 

58 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1.— The Superior Court and its Judges. 

Judges may 1. To grant for their respective Circuits writs of certiorari^ 
ff^certiV- siipersededs, quo warranto, mandamus^ habeas cor'pus, and bails in 

rar% sioper- . it, 

sedeas, etc. actions ex-deticto. 
May grant 2. To grant bills quia-timet, writs of injunction, prohibition, 

bills quia- -, . 

timet, etc. and Tie-cxeat. 

3. To grant all other writs, original or remedial, either in law 
May grant or equitv, that may be necessary to the exercise of their iurisdic- 

other writs. ..... "^ i m . i 

tion, which is not expressly prohibited. 

4. To hear and determine questions arising upon writs of habeas 
.^nd^^diter- ^^^P^^ ^1' ^^^^5 whcn propcrlj brought before them ; all motions to 
to^jTaTJas gi'^ii^j revive, or dissolve injunction, to give new security or lessen 
tkuS'to dis- ^^® amount of bail, and to perform any and all other acts required 
?fons,'er" of them at Chambers. 

' 5. To administer oaths and to exercise all other powers neces- 
Mayadmin- sarily appertaining to their jurisdictions, or which maybe granted 
them by law. 

§ 238. The authority granted in the preceding Section to each 
When a Judge in his own Circuit may be exercised by any Judo-e of an- 

Judge IS ab- o ./ */ ./ o 

sentfrombis other Circuit whencvcr the resident Judge is absent from the Cir- 

C 1 r c u 1 1 or a 

I'S^o'tT^V ^^^*^5 ^0 that the business can not be done as speedily as necessary, 
ex^e?c?se ^^ ^^ iudisposod or interested, or is laboring under any disqualifi- 
authonty. q^lHou. oy inability to serve, or in case the Circuit should be, from 

any cause, without a Judge. The authority, when thus exercised, 

should show the grounds. 

§ 239. Said Judges can not exercise any power out of term 
ex^e'^^cTse ^i^®? cxccpt the authority is expressly granted ; but they may, by 
frr^oilf^of oi'cler granted in term, render a judgment in vacation. 
term time. §240. When from any cause the Judge of the Superior Court 
When Judge is disqualified from presiding, he shall procure the services of a 

is disquab- -fin ^ n' ' -t -pit 

fiedbemust J udgc 01 another (Jircuit to try said cause, ii he has to appoint 

obtain tbe ^ J y rr 

services of ail adiournod term for that purpose. If the parties litigant con- 

anotber *^ ri . . . 

Judge, or ggnt thcrcto and select any attorney practicing in the Court to 

an attorney ^ ./ ./ j. o 

maypreside preside in sucli a case, the Judge shall have such consent entered 

Dy consent. ■■■ ^ o 

on the minutes, and the attorney so selected shall exercise all the 
functions of Judge in that case. 

§ 241. If any Judge does not comply with the provisions of the 
Maybe preceding Section within a reasonable time, when it is in his 

Impeached. . 

power to do so, it is a ground of impeachment. 

§ 242. No Judge of the Superior Courts shall have authority to 
form no ju- perform any judicial act required of him by law when beyond the 

dicialactout . . ^. . '^ Z. , . ^ -"■ "^ "^ 

of the State, jurisdiction 01 this State. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 5. — CHAP. 3. — Judicial Department. 


Article 2.— The Clerks of the Superior Courts. 




243. Election Clerk Superior Court. 

244. Can not practice law. 

245. Vacancy — how filled, 

246. Elected to fill a vacancy. 

247. In case of a tie, etc. 

248. An appointment must be made. 

249. Who may act. 

250. Appointee may hold to end of term. 

251. Judge may appoint in certain cases. 

252. How long such appointee may hold. 

253. Oath of Clerk of Superior Court. 


254. Must give bond and security. 

255. May appoint deputies. 

256. The place of the office — duties. 

257. Powers of the Clerk, etc. 

258. Penalty for a failure of duty. 

259. Clerk svibject to rule. 

260. Subject after retiring from office. 

261. How removed from office. 

262. His office svibject to be examined. 

263. Pay when not otherwise provided. 

264. Proceedings if pay is refused. 

§ 243. The Clerks of the Superior Courts are elected for the Election 
term of two years, and are eligible during the same time to be the superior 
also Clerks of the Inferior Courts. 

§ 244. No person is elio^ible to the office of Clerk, or to perform cierk can 

r o 7 r not practice 

any official duty as such, who, while in such capacity, practices i-"^^^- 
law in his own name or another's, as a partner or otherwise, in 
any Court of Law or Equity in this State, except in his own case. 

§ 245. If a vacancy occurs (or will shortly), any two or more Vacancy 

J \ J n J — how sup- 

Justices of the Inferior Court of the County where it happens p^^^^- 

shall give notice in one or more of the public gazettes of said 

County (if any), and at the Court House, and at three or more of 

the most public places of said County, twenty days previous to 

the day of election, which shall be appointed by them. 

§ 246. The person elected on said day shall hold his office for to mf a va- 

the unexpired term of his predecessor. The returns of the elec- only" the un- 

. - 1/-1 1 ••I- expired 

tion must be made to the Governor, who must commission mm. term. 
§ 247. Should any two or more candidates, at an election to fill in case of 

^ '^ _ ' ^ a tie a Clerk 

said vacancy or at a rea;ular election, have the liio;hest and an ^^ appointed 

^ ci J c^ jiufl a new 

equal number of votes, said Justices shall appoint and advertise ^ll^f^^ °^" 
another election in the manner prescribed in the preceding Sec- 
tions, and so do until a choice is made. 

§ 248. As soon as a vacancy occurs, or in anticipation of it, , V-"^^^ ^^ 

*' ' v: J election i s 

said Justices, or a majority of them in commission, must meet and j^^^^g^^^^^'^^^ 
appoint some qualified person to discharge the duties of Clerk P^i"*^^- 
until the vacancy is filled. ^, , ^^ 

••' Clerk of In- 

§ 249. If from any sudden emergency there is a vacancy, and Jjay^cras 
it is not immediately supplied, the Clerk of the Inferior Court perlm- court 
must discharge the duties of said Clerk until one is appointed ; ^ejjJ;JetT^* 

60 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 

Article 2. — The Clerks of the Superior Courts. 

and in case the vacancy occurs at the same time in both offices, 

the' Ordinary or his clerk shall thus act. 

§ 250. When a vacancy occurs, and it is not more than six 

If oniysix nionths from the time the election can be appointed by said Jus- 
months of an I r J 

?erin^heT-v ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^-^^ Until the cxisting term will expire, the person or 
rv^aeancy psrsons appointed shall discharge the duties of the office for the 
Si!°^"^^ ^^^^^^® of the term, and there shall be no special election. 

§ 251. If there is a vacancy, or the Clerk and his deputy for 
Judge may anv rcasou do not act as Clerk at the time provided by law for 

a p point a ^'^ ^ ^ -^^ *' 

Clerk in cer- l^ioldins; any of said Superior Courts, the presidino; Judc^e thereof 

tain eases. . . . 

shall appoint a Clerk, who holds his office during the term and 
' for ten days thereafter, and any act that he does daring said time 
that the Clerk could have done is valid. 

§ 252. If by the expiration of said time there is no one else to 
Such ap- act as Clerk, said last mentioned appointee may continue as such 

pointee may ' x l ^ 

ekction^^^'^" ^-^^^^ tlicrc is an appointment or election; and any appointee or 
other person lawfully discharging said duties shall continue to do 
so until there is an election and qualification. 

§ 253. The Clerks, before entering upon the discharge of their 
cSK the ^^^^^^^' whether appointed, elected, or such by operation of law, 
^^'^^P^^'^^^ must, besides the oath required of all civil officers (unless already 
taken), take and subscribe to the following oath : 

"I do swear that I will truly and faithfully enter and record 
all the orders, decrees, judgments, and other proceedings of the 

Superior Court of the County of , and all other matters 

and things which by law ought by me to be recorded ; and that 
I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the 
duties required of me to the best of my understanding. So help 
me God." 

When said oath is taken by the Clerks of the Inferior Court, 
^Appointees i\^q Ordinaries, or their deputies acting in a certain contingency 
takeoSh^^^® Clcrks of the Superior Court, they may take it before any 
person authorized to administer an oath, and enter it on the min- 
utes of the Superior Court. 

§ 254. They shall also at the same time (except those appointed 
giveSmd. ^y ^^'^^ Judges of the Superior Courts and those so by operation 
of law) execute a bond in the sum of three thousand dollars, with 
good security. 

§ 255. They shall have the power to appoint a deputy or depu- 
ties, and may require from them bonds with good security, who 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 61 

Article 2. — The Clerks of the Superior Courts. 

shall take the same oath as the Clerks do before entering upon the sujefior 
the discharge of their duties, and whose powers and duties are app^nt^de- 
the same as long as the principal continues in office, and not J^Vsi ^[^ke 
longer, for the faithful performance of which they and their secu- give bond! 
rities are bound. 

§ 256. It is the duty of the Clerks of the Superior Court — 

1. To keep their offices and all things belonging thereto at the officl^must 
County site and at the Court House, unless impracticable from ^^ ^^^^' 
any cause, when, by special permission of the Justices of the In- 
ferior Court, it may be kept at some other designated place not 

more than one mile therefrom, of which public notice must be 

2. To attend all sessions of the Courts and keep fair and regu- cierk must 

■■■ ^ c5 attend Court 

lar minutes of their proceedin2;s from day to day, includini? a f^":^\^^PV^^ 

■■• o ./ ./ 7 o minutes, m- 

transcript of the Judge's entry on his dockets when not more f^^f^f ^"^ 
fully shown in a book kept for that purpose. ^ Docket^^^^ 

3. To issue and si2;n (and attach seals thereto when necessary) Must issue 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ■' processes of 

every summons, subpoena, writ, execution, process, or order, or ^^^ ^^^^^• 
other paper under the authority of the Court. 

4. To keep in Court, convenient of access, the followinsr dock- Must keep 

■•■ . . certain dock- 

ets — to wit: a Common Law Docket of civil cases, in which must ^^^ as foi- 

' _ lows : Com- 

be entered by appearance term the names of the parties and g^^^^^^^^^^^ 

attorneys, the nature of the action, and the Sheriff 's return ; an 

Appeal Docket and an Equity Docket, in which must be entered Dof^gf^ 

all the cases to the respective terms to which they are returned 

or stand for trial, together with other entries, as in the case of the 

Common Law. Docket. 

A Claim Docket, a Certiorari and an Illegality Docket in the ciaim 

' & J Docket. 

same manner. A Motion Docket for entering; all motions to be ,, . 

® Motion 

submitted to the Court, showing the nature of the motion, and the i^oc^^t. 
parties and attorneys thereto. 

A Subpoena Docket for civil cases, and one for criminal cases, Subpcena 
in which must be entered the case in which the subpoena issues, 
the date, the name of witness, for whom issued, and to whom de- 
livered, and any return of the Sheriff thereon. 

In the former must be likewise entered, and in the same man- criminal 
ner the issuing of commissions. A Trial Docket of Criminal Cases 
in which must be entered all the criminal cases in the order the 
indictments are found, the nature of the offense, and the attorneys 
for the defense. 

62 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 

Article 2. — The Clerks of the Superior Courts. 

A docket in which must be entered all criminal cases which 
of trfminai ^^^^ been on the Criminal Docket for as much as five years with- 
wMc^ there ^^^ ^^J ©xistiiig arrcst, and which must be inspected by the Court 
forfive^yea?3 ^* ^^^^t oncG a jcar, that if necessary any case may be re-transfer- 
red to the Criminal Docket. 

Execution Docket, and enter therein the names of plaintiffs, 

docke?^^^°^ their attorney, and the defendants, the amount of principal and 

interest and costs ; the date, the term to which returnable, to 

whom and when delivered, and by whom and when returned, and 

,v an entry of satisfaction or nulla bona, as the case may be, with 

the dates thereof. 

Duplicates of the Common Law, Appeal, and Criminal Dockets, 
Copy dock- one for the use of the Bench, the other for the use of the Bar, in 

€ts for the -' ' 

Bar. which last must be copied from term to term all the entries made in 

the former. All appeal cases must be entered on the same Appeal 
Docket in the order they are entered on the minutes, and from the 
Inferior Court in the same order and at the time received. Divorce 
cases are first to be entered on the Equity Docket, and after one 
trial are to be entered on the Appeal Docket in their proper order 
from the minutes. 

5. To record in well bound books within six months after the 
Must keep final determination of any civil suit, all the proceedinp-s relatino^ 

record of J ' 1 to o 

civil suits, thereto. 

Must keep ^' ^^ keep wcll bouud books for recording all deeds, mortgages, 
deeds.^^ ^^ ^^^ Other lieus and bills of sale separately. 

7. To have properly stamped and labeled, and numbered or 
Must label lettered, if required, all the books herein enumerated, and to keep 

andindex . iii ti t i ^ /~i \ •! 

the books of for cach (cxccpt the dockets called by the Court), a proper index, 
and to supply any of said books or indexes needed, and to tran- 
scribe the contents of any books of record which may be in a di- 
lapidated condition. 

8. To keep all the books, papers, dockets, and records belong- 
8 e^Tet hieing to their office with care and security, and the papers filed, 
to be^rrea- arranged, numbered, and labeled, so as to be of easy reference. 

yre erence g^ ^^ procurc and prcscrvo for public inspection a complete file 
Must pre- of all newspapcrs in which their advertisements appear, and have 

serve and i jr x x 7 

have bound them bouud in volumes of suitable size to be deposited and kept 

news papers x r 

idvlr^tises.^^ with their other records. 

Must keep ^^' ^o keep at their offices all publications of the Laws of the 
ces^au bo^^s United States furnished by the Grovernor, and the Laws and 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 63 

Article 2. — The Clerks of the Superior Courts. 
Journals of this State, all Statute Laws, Dig-ests, this Code, theanddocu- 

' > CD 1 ■> ^ ments a i s - 

Supreme Court Reports, and all other law books, or other public *'|{jjfj^*|:/^^ 
documents distributed to them for the public convenience. venience. 

11. To procure within thirty days after their qualification (if Must keep 
not already done), a substantial seal of office with the name of the teai.'^ 
Court and County inscribed thereon. 

12. To make out and deliver to any applicant, upon payment Mustcerti- 

.fy copies of 

of legal fees, a correct transcript, properly certified, of any mm- papers. 
ute, record, or file of their office. 

13. To make out transcripts of the record of all cases for the Mustmake 

, ^ ^ out records 

Supreme Court as the laws require. ^^^ supreme 

14. To make a minute on all conveyances or liens of the day Mustmake 
left for record, and the day recorded, to be signed officially, which record of 
shall be evidence thereof, and to attest deeds and other written attest deeds 

^ lor registra- 

instruments for registration. t*^"- 

15. To administer all oaths durina; term time required by the Must ad- 

. minister 

Court, and to record all oaths required by law. oaths. 

16. To perform such other duties as are, or may be required by Must do 

, ., ' . ,^ ' re* other duties 

law, or as necessarily appertain to their omces. . of office. 

§ 257. The Clerks of said Courts have authority — 

1. To administer oaths and take affidavits in all cases permit- May admin- 

ister oaths 
ted by law, or where the authority is not confined to some other ^y la^^. 


2. To receive the amounts of all costs due in the Court of which May re- 
they are Clerks, and other sums whenever required to do so by due. 
law, or order of the Judge, and not otherwise. 

3. To advertise under the same rules and restrictions as Sheriffs. May ad- 


4. To exercise such other powers as are or may be conferred May exer- 

, , , cise other le- 

upon them by law. gai powers. 

§258. Any such Clerk failing to perform any duty, or to exer- penaityfor 
cise any authority when required, set forth in the two preceding duty .^^^ 
Sections, is subject to be fined for each offense by the presiding 
Judge, during term time, as for a contempt, on information of any 
party aggrieved, of which he shall have notice in writing. 

§ 259. If any of such Clerks receive any money on any suit or cierk sub- 
judgment from their Courts, or otherwise, and do not faithfully "'^''^ '"^ '''^^* 
account for it, they are liable to rule as Sheriffs are, and they and 
their sureties are likewise liable on their official bond. 

§ 260. They are subject to the rule and order of their respective subject to 

riilp {Lftpi* out 

Courts after their retirement from office as Sheriffs are. of office. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.— Judicial Department. 

Article 3. — The Receiver. 

§ 261. They are subject to be removed from office by the Judge 

m^ed ft^om' ^^ ^^^ Said Court for any sufficient cause, including incapacity or 

°^"®' misbehavior in office, charges for which must be exhibited to the 

Court in writing, and the facts tried by a special jury, such Clerk 

being entitled to a copy of the charges three days before trial. 

§ 262. Their offices are subject to an examination by the Grand 

Clerk's of- Juries, their committees, or any person whom they may especial- 
Ace subject ' 7 ./ r j j i 

to examina- ly empowcr to rcport to the same, or a succeeding Grand Jury, 
Grand Jury qj. to the Jud<2;e of the Supcrior Court, who shall submit in writing 

or commit- o i ^ o 

*®®- the condition of said offices, and specify any neglect of duty, or 

any thing done wrongly or corruptly by such Clerks. 

§ 263. For any services rendered, or expenses incurred legally, 
compen- by Said Clerks for their offices where no pay is specially provided, 

sation when "^ n ^ r-i i n y 

none pre- they must be paid out of the County treasury by order of the 
Justices of the Inferior Court, after examining and passing upon 
their accounts and vouchers, and finding them correct and reason- 

§ 264. If said Justices refuse to allow and order such accounts 
ferSi^*colrt paid. Said Clerks may apply for and obtain a mandamus from the 
iow%ay^ Judge of the Superior Court, who shall hear and determine the 

mandamus ,• jv*i j' iif*-. •!• 

lies. questions, and submit any disputed tact to a special jury. 




265. Receiver may be appointed — when. 

266. Funds invested pending litigation. 

267. Duties and liabilities of Receiver. 


268. Receiver required to give bond, 

269. Receivers of banks, etc. 

§ 265. When any fund or property may be in litigation, and 

Eeeeiver i]^q rights of either or both parties can not otherwise be fully pro- 
may be ap- ^ . ■"■ *^ 

Fs°a"n^offic°er toctcd, or whcn thcro may be a fund or property having no one to 
rior^courr* manage it, a Receiver of the same may be appointed (on a proper 
case made), by the Judge of the Superior Court having jurisdic- 
tion thereof, either in term time or vacation, and such Receiver is 
an officer of said Court. 
Pending a § ^^^' The presiding Judge, in his discretion under the law, 
fSmaVbe may^ordcr any fund in the hands of a Receiver, or any other of- 
Stete bonds^ ficcr of Court awaiting the determination of a protracted litiga- 

PT; 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 3.~JuDiciAL Department. 


Article 3. — The Receiver. 

Duty and 
liability of 

tion, to be invested in State bonds, as executors and administra- 
tors are authorized to do. 

§ 267. The Receivers so appointed must discharge their trust 
according to the order or decree of the Courts appointing them, 
and are at all times subject to their orders, and may be brought to 
account and removed at their pleasure. 

§268. The Judges of the Superior Courts may, in their discre- Judge may 

^ _ , ^ ^ require Re- 

tion, require such Receivers to ffive bonds conditioned for theceiverto 

give bond. 

faithful discharge of the trust reposed, and if they require them, 
they must fix the amount and the sufficiency of the security, and 
also regulate their compensation. 

§ 269. Receivers of banks, or other corporations hereafter ap- Eeceivers 
pointed by any power, are amenable to, and must make their re- tions^'^\m[st 
turns to, the Superior Court of the County where they reside at the to" superior 

p , . Court. 

time 01 the appointment. 



Article 1. — Tlie County Court, 

Article 2. — The County Judge, 

Article 3. — The County Solicitor. 

Article 4. — The Clerk of the County Court, 

Article 5. — The Sheriff and Bailiffs, 


county court. 


270. Organization and name. 

271. Sessions and time of holding. 

272. Where to be held. 

273. Who presides when Judge is disabled 
271. Jurisdiction generally. 

275. At semi-annual sessions. 

276. Quarter sessions. 

277. Extra sessions, 

278. Criminal jurisdiction. 

2T9. A Court of Inquiry — when. 

280. Is a Court of Record. 

281. Its powei's. 

282. Proceeding at semi-annual sessions. 

283. Quarter sessions. 

284. Attachments — when returned. 

285. Jury box and Grand Jury. 

286. Petit Jury. 



287. Oath of Juries. 

288. Amendments. 

Time of trial — continuances. 
Mode of trial. 
Claims — how tried. 
Attachments— how tried. 
Attendance of witnesses. 
Moulding verdicts, etc. 

296. Appeals. 

297. Certiorari in civil cases. 

298. In criminal cases. 

299. Duty of Solicitor General. 
Sales — how made. 
Criminal practice. 
Indictment— when tried. 
Counsel and witnesses for accused. 



66 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1. — Count}^ Court. 

§ 270. A Court shall be organized in each County in this State, 
Name. to be Called the County Court. 

§ 271. The County Court shall hold semi-annual sessions in the 
Sessions. Several Counties on the same days as the Inferior Courts are now 
held ; and two additional terms, which shall be known as quarter 
sessions, which shall be held at times as near equi-distant between 
the semi-annual sessions as practicable — said time to be fixed by 
the County Judge. 

§ 272. Said Court shall be held at the Court House of the 

Where held. CoUUty. 

§ 273. In case of a vacancy, or when the Judge can not preside, 
Vacancy or from sickucss or from any other cause, either of the Justices of 

disability of . "^ . ^ 

Judge. the Inferior Court may preside until such vacancy la* filled or such 
disability is removed. 

§ 274. The County Court shall have the jurisdiction in all civil 
jurisdic- and criminal cases hereinafter specified, and such jurisdiction shall 
be exercised as hereinafter provided. 

§ 275. Said Court, at its semi-annual sessions, shall have con- 
At semi- currcut jurisdiction with other courts of law in all civil cases 
^ilnT^ ^^^' where the amount involved is over fifty dollars, of which exclu- 
sive jurisdiction is not vested in some other Court, including 
jurisdiction in legitimating persons and changing names. 

§ 276. The jurisdiction of said Court at the quarter sessions 
At quarter shall be coufined to criminal cases, and to civil cases without limit 
sessions. ^^ ^^ amount, arising out of the relation of master and servant, 
whether suits for wages, applications to enforce performance, or 
for other purposes ; also applications for the eviction of trespass- 
ers, intruders, and tenants holding over, for the partition of per- 
sonal property, for the trial of possessory warrants, or proceed- 
ings under distress warrants, and habeas corpus cases. 

§ 277. The Judge of said Court shall have power, whenever he 
Extra ses- shall deem it necessary for the delivery of the jail or for the trial 
sions. ^f ^jjQ cases specified in the preceding Section, to call extra ses- 

sions of said Court ; but at such extra sessions there shall be no 
jury trial in civil cases unless demanded by one of the parties 
thereto, in which case the Judge shall cause a jury of five to be 
immediately summoned to try the same. In all other cases the 
proceedings shall be the same, in both semi-annual and quarter 

§ 278. The criminal jurisdiction of the County Court, at its 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 67 

Article 1. — County Court, 
semi-annual and quarter sessions, extends to all offenses of which criminal 

. -,. . . . 1 /~i jurisdiction. 

exclusive jurisdiction is not vested in some other Court. 

§ 279. If any offense is charged which is within the jurisdiction ^^^^^0^ ^ ^ 
of the County Court, and upon the trial thereof it shall appear ^^^^y- 
that the crime committed is of a grade beyond its jurisdiction? 
the trial thus begun shall be regarded as if before a Court of In- 
quiry, and the Court shall dispose of the case accordingly. 

§ 280. The County Court is a Court of Record, and the pro- conrt of 
ceedings shall be recorded as in the Superior Court. ' 

§ 281. The powers of said Court to punish for contempt shall Powers. 
be the same as those of the Superior Court; and the general pro- 
visions of this Code, from Section 191 to Section 197, inclusive, 
concerning tKe powers of a Court, apply to the County Court. 

§ 282. In the semi-annual sessions the mode of commencing Euies of 
suit, service, and proceedings in general, shall be the same as in ^^ 
the Superior Court, and said County Court shall exercise its juris- 
diction under the rules of said Superior Court, unless specially 

§ 283. In all civil cases, not herein excepted, brought to the summons. 
quarter sessions, the plaintiff shall procure from the Court a sum- 
mons, in which shall be set forth the ground or grounds of com- 
plaint and the time of trial, which summons shall be served by 
the Bailiff or other officer at least five days before the time of 

§ 284. Attachments, claims, garnishments, and other like pro- Attach- 
ceedings returnable to the semi-annual sessions, shall be served at ^^^ ^' ^ ^' 
least fifteen days before the first day of the session to which the 
same are returnable ; and the same class of cases, returnable to 
the quarter sessions, shall be served not less than ten days before 
the first day of the session to which the same are returnable. 

§ 285. Immediately after his election and qualification, the jury box 
Judge and Sheriff shall make out a list of persons from the Re- jury. 
ceiver's digest who are liable to jury duty, which shall be depos- 
ited in a jury-box. At each semi-annual and quarter session the 
Judge shall draw therefrom not more than eighteen nor less than 
thirteen Grand Jurors, in the manner pointed out by law for the 
drawing of Grrand Jurors in the Superior Court. They shall be 
summoned to attend at, and shall serve for, the term next after 
being drawn, and at any called sessions which may be held previ- 
ous to the next term, and shall be organized and sworn in the* 


^ fi 

68 PT. 1.-— TIT. 5.~CHAP. 4.~-Jui)Icial Departmej^t. 

■■■■»■■■■ -f-' ^ - - ■.■■..■■.■ ■ ■■ m . — ■ — ' • 

Article 1. — County Court 

same manner as Grand Jurors in the Superior Court. The pro- 
ceedings in all respects, so far as applicable to said Court, shall 
conform to the laws and usages which govern the Superior Court, 
§ 286. From the same jury-box, and at the same time, and in 
other ju- the Same manner, the Juda^e shall draw a iury of twelve, who 

ries. y a k, ^ ' 

shall also serve for the term next after being drawn, and at any 
called sessions which may be held previous to the next term ; and 
if from any cause there should be a deficiency of the original 
panel at the session of said Court, the Judge shall cause to be 
summoned a sufficient number of taleB jurors to make up the origi- 
nal panel, for the trial of civil cases, and shall also summon twelve 
tales jurors so as to make up a panel of twenty-four jurors for the 
trial of criminal cases, from which by strikes, as in the Superior 
Court, a jury may be selected. 

§ 287. The jurors serving in the County Court shall take the 
Oath of same oath as is provided for like jurors in the Superior Court, 
and they shall be paid in the same manner. 

§ 288. The provisions of this Code concerning amendments ap- 
merits. ply to the (Jouuty (Jourt at either session. 

§ 289. The provisions of this Court concerning defenses also 
apply to the County Court at either session. 

§ 290. Trials shall be had at the second session after service of 
Time of proccss, at the term succeeding that to which such process is re- 
turnable, unless on cause shown for continuance; and continu- 
ances may be allowed under the same rules as in the Superior 

§ 291. All civil cases before the quarter sessions shall be tried 
Mode of ^y t^® Judge, without the intervention of a jury, unless a jury is 
*^^^^' demanded by one of the parties to the record. 

§ 292. Claims to personal property in the quarter sessions. 
Claims— whcrc the execution or order issues from said Court, shall be tried 
in the same manner as in Justice's Court; and in the semi-annual 
sessions, in the same manner as in the Superior Court. 

§ 293. In all cases of attachment returnable to the semi-annual 
or quarter sessions, the trial and proceedings shall be the sam.e as 
in the Superior Courts. 

§ 294. The Judge shall have the power to compel the attend- 
Witnesses, ance of witnesses by siibfcena or otherwise. 

§ 295. Verdicts or judgments may be so moulded as to subserve 
the ends of justice, and may be either for a sum certain, for the 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 69 

Article 1. — County Court 

delivery of specific property, for the eviction of an intruder, or 
the performance of a Court contract, or in such other form as 
may seem just and proper, and may be in the alterative. 

§ 296. Appeals as novf taken from the Inferior Court may be Appeals. 
taken to the Superior Court (in ail cases tried at the semi-annual 
sessions), and either party in a civil case may in like manner ap- 
peal from the judgment rendered at the quarter sessions. 

§-297. A certiorari may be had upon the application of the party Certiorari. 
complaining of error to the County Judge, within ten days after 
the trial, with notice to the opposite party or his attorney, stating 
the ground of complaint, and giving a brief of the material 
evidence, upon which it shall be the duty of the Judge to proceed 
as under a writ of certiorari^ to certify the proceedings of the 
County Court to the Judge of the Superior Court within ten days 
after such application, and the Judge of the Superior Court shall 
hear and finally determine the same at Chambers, or the session 
of the Superior Court as may seem proper. 

§ 298. In criminal cases a certiorari at the instance of the de- . Certiorari 

" in cnmmal 

fendant may be had as provided in the preceding Section, and ^'^^^^• 
upon notice to the Judge of the application, the sentence shall be 
suspended until the certiorari is decided. On hearing such writ 
of certiorari^ the Judge of the Superior Court may either grant a 
new trial or pass such judgment or sentence as in vievf of the 
whole case is consistent with justice. 

§ 299. When any case is carried up as provided in the preceding 
Section, the Solicitor or Attorney General of the Circuit shall take 
charge of and prosecute the same, for which he shall have the same 
fees allowed in bills found in the Superior Court. 

§ 300. The regulations for sale under execution or order from saies. 
the County Court for sums exceeding fifty dollars shall be as in 
the Superior Courts, and for fifty dollars or less as in Justice's 
Court ; and in case of perishable property, the Judge may so or- 
der the time of sale as to subserve the ends of justice. 

§^01. All the proceedings in preferring bills of indictment or Practicein 
presentment, and submitting the same for trial, shall conform to S™^"* ^' 
the laws and rules governing in the Superior Court in similar pro- 

§ 302. Every indictment in the County Court, either at its semi- criminal 
annual or quarter sessions, shall be in order for trial at the term ZltV^^^"^ 
at which it is found, but it shall be the duty of the Judge to al- 



PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial DepaetmenTo 

Article 2. — The County Judge. 

low reasonable time to both parties to summon witnesses, and to 
the defendant to procure counsel. 

§ 303. If the accused has no counsel, and is unable to employ 
Counsel couusel, it sliall be the duty of the Judge to assign counsel to the 

and witness- i i . • ? /» i • j i 

esfor accus- accuseci, and to issue subpoenas tor such witnesses as he may rep- 
resent to be material for his defense, and if necessary to compel 
their attendance : provided^ the Judge may exercise his discre- 
tion in compelling the attendance of witnesses whose testimony, 
in the opinion of the Judge^ would be immaterial to the case. 




304. Office—where held. 

305. Election and official term. 

306. Vacancy — how filled. 

307. Commission and oath. 

308. Qualifications. 


309. May practice law — ^when- 

310. His duties. 

311. His a>uthority. 

312. His compensation. 

313. His fees and costs. 

§ 304. The Judge of the County Court shall be entitled the 
tie'^^'Jffice— "County Judge," and shall have his office at the Court House of 

where kept ^he CoUUty. 

§ 305. He shall be elected on the first Wednesday in May, 1866, 
Election ou the first Wednesday in January, 1870, and every fourth year 
office. ^ thereafter, and shall in all cases hold his office until his successor 
is elected and qualified. 

§ 306. Any vacancy in the office of County Judge shall be 

'hff^'mS~ fi^^6^ ^s i^ ^^s® ^^ *^® Clerk of the Superior Court (as provided 

in Sections 245 and 246 of this Code), upon fifteen days' notice. 

§ 30T. The County Judge shall be commissioned by the Gov- 

_ commis- emor, and shalh take the oath of office prescribed for Judaies of 

sion and ' ^ ^ ° 

oath. i]^Q Superior Court, and no other oath. 

§ 308. No disqualification for holding the office of County 
May hold Judgc shall arise from being Clerk of the Inferior Court, or from 

other offices. , , ° , -^ . , . , . . -i i • i 

holding any other omce not involving duties incompatible with 
the duties of the County Judge. 

§ 309. The County Judge may, if an attorney at law, practice 

May prac- , . . 

tice law in in cascs nover connected with his own Court. 

certain cases po^AT^ ^ c ^ t ^ 

§ 310. It shall be the duty of the County Judge — 

1. By himself or hi^ clerk, to keep a strict accoun.t of all 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 71 

Article 2. — The County Judge. 

fines and forfeitures, out of which he shall pay himself and the ^j.^ ^^^.^^ 
officers of said Court, p^o rata, all costs which have accrued enumerated. 
in said Court known as insolvent cost ; the remainder, if any, 
after such payments, and all other moneys, except his costs, 
which come to his hands as County Judo;e, or into the hands of ^. 

'^ ° ^ Fines and 

his clerk in his official character, he shall pay over to the County forfeitures— 

, *^ '' now disx)OS- 

Treasurer, and report receipts and disbursements to the Grand ^^ o^- 
Jury of the Superior Court; and if such fines and forfeitures are 
not sufficient to pay said insolvent costs, the same shall be 
paid out of the County treasury, or such part as may be inspected 
and approved by the Grrand Jury of the County: provided^ that 
no insolvent costs shall be allowed for more than two witnesses to 
the same material point. 

2. He shall keep an index of Court contracts, and a list of all shaii keep 
certificates and discharges granted by him, which shall be subject iist. 

to the inspection of any one interested therein. 

3. He shall provide a seal for the County Court, and shall court seal 

. .. ... — inspection 

inspect, revise, and pass upon all jail fees arising under his juris- of jaiifees. 
diction before the same are paid by the Inferior Court. 

4. It shall be his duty to have a clerk in office, in case of his shaiihave 

. , , a clerk. 

own sickness or absence. 

§ 311. The County Judge shall have authority — 

1. To -issue bail process in civil cases, admit to bail in criminal nisanthor- 

■"• ' Ity defined. 

cases, issue attachments, foreclose mortgages on personal property, 
issue warrants of distress for rent, issue possessory warrants, writs 
of haheas corjjus, and other writs or warrants not within the 
exclusive jurisdiction of some other Court or officer. 

2. He may attest contracts or deeds for registry, administer May attest 


oaths, and exercise all the powers of a Justice of the Peace in administer 

. .,,..-,. . . ^ , oaths and is- 

matters civil and criminal, issue warrants requiring offenders to be sue warrants 
brought before him or some other Judge, or some Justice, and sit 
singly or in conjunction with others, as by law required, on a 
Court of Inquiry. 

3. He may, at any time, hear and determine the cases of all May try 

".*' criminals 

persons charged with crimes, upon accusations drawn up by the T^r^^^^l^* 
County Solicitor, without a jury; provided the person or persons 
so accused shall, in open Court, declare that he, or she, or they, 
waive an indictment or presentment by a Grand Jury, and arraign- 
ment and trial by a Petit Jury, which declaration shall be entered 
on the accusation, and also on the minutes of said County Court. 

72 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 

Article 2. — The County Judge. 

4. He sliall have power to use the County jail for the detention 
Count^^ "¥ ^^ accused parties, and for the punishment of those convicted of 

offenses, or guilty of contempt. Commitments by him shall be 
lawful warrants to the Jailor and shall be obeyed by him. 

5. The enumeration in this Section is not exhaustive, but the 
other County Judge may in general exercise all such powers as are 

essential to the functions granted. 

§ B12. The County Judge shall receive no salary from the State, 
Has no sal- but shall reccivc compensation for his services in the way of fees 
named in the Section next following, which fees shall be taxed in 
his bill of costs. 

§ 313. In cases not specially excepted, the Judge's costs in the 
His fees scmi-annual Courts shall be the same as those of the Clerks of 

and costs. 

the Superior and Inferior Courts for like services. In cases in 
the quarter and extra sessions if the sum in damages claimed 
exceed fifty dollars, then two-thirds of such costs, and if not 
over fifty dollars, then one third of such costs shall be taxed as 
the Judge's costs ; and in all other cases in which he is authorized 
to act, he shall have such fees as are now allowed by law to 
other officers for similar services. The Judge's costs in criminal 
cases shall be two dollars for every case begun, and two dollars 
additional for every case tried or transmitted to the Superior 
Court. His costs for a case in which discharge or specific per- 
formance is prayed, or other like case not claiming money, shall 
be two dollars. For the foreclosure of mortgages, the partition 
of personalty, the removal of intruders, trespassers, or tenants 
holding over, the trial of claims, for the certiorari of any case, 
forcible entry or detainer, abatement of nuisances, for proceed- 
ings usually tried at Chambers, such as possessory warrants, liaheas 
corjyus cases, and the like, three dollars. He shall receive one 
dollar for every Court contract which he may approve. In cases 
in which no fees are prescribed by law, the Ordinary or any three 
Justices of the Inferior Court may determine what shall be the 
Judge's costs. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 


Article 3. — The County Solicitor. 




314. His designation. 

315. Election and commission. 

316. His qualifications. 

317. How sworn and removed. 


318. Solicitor pro tern. 

319. Fees of Solicitor. 

320. Is collecting officer. 

314. There shall also be a prosecuting attorney, who shall be coimtySo 

called ''County Solicitor.'* 


315. The County Solicitor shall be elected at the same time How elect- 
ed and com- 


and commissioned in the same manner as the County Judge. 

§ 316. Such County Solicitor shall have been a practicing at- 
torney, and after his election shall reside in the County for which 
he is elected. 

§ 317. He shall be qualified and sworn as Solicitors and Attor- iiow sworn 
ney General are qualified and sworn, except that his oath of 
office shall be taken before the County Judge or the Justices of 
the Inferior Court, and shall be removable from office in the same 
manner as Solicitors General are removable. 

§ 318. In case of vacancy, absence, sickness, or other disability solicitor 
of the County Solicitor, the Judge may appoint any practicing 
attorney to perform his duties during such absence, sickness or 
other disability, or until such vacancy can be filled by a new 

§ 319. The County Solicitor shall receive the same fees as are 
now allowed to the Solicitor General of the Circuit in the Superior 
Court for such cases as come within the jurisdiction of the County 

§ 320. He shall be the collecting officer for the County Court, 
and shall collect all fines, forfeitures, and bonds, and pay the same i^^g officer. 
over to the County Judge, who shall disburse them according to 
the provisions of Section 310 of this Code. 

His fees. 

Is collect- 




321. His appointment and removal. 

322. How paid. 

323. Record of appointment. 


324. Oath and powers. 

325. Shall keep minutes, etc. 

326. Shall keep dockets. 

74 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 

Article 5.— Tlie Sheriff and the Bailiffs of County Court. 

§ 321. The Clerk of the County Court may be either the County 
Clerk. Judge himsolf or any person appointed by the Judge, removable 
at his pleasure. 

§ 322. The Clerk shall be paid by the Judge, who is responsi- 
Howpaid. ble for the good conduct of such Clerk. 

Eecord of ^ ^^^' ^^^^ appointment and removal of the Clerk shall be en- 
appointment tercd ou the minutes. 

§ 324. He shall be sworn to the faithful and impartial discharge 
Oath and of liis dutics, and shall be competent to discharge all of the duties 

powers. ' 1 • • ^ i 

of the Judge not judicial in their character. 

§ 325. The Clerk, or Judge acting as such, shall keep the min- 
Minutes utcs of the Court, rccord its proceedings, and issue its orders and 

and Records. ^ ^ ° ^ 


§ 326. Such Clerk, or Judge acting as such, shall also keep 
Dockets, proper dockets — to wit : One Subpoena and one Execution Docket, 
for all sessions of said Court ; for the quarter and extra sessions, 
one Docket of Civil Cases generally, and also one for Criminal 
Cases ; for the semi-annual sessions, one Common Law Docket, one 
Docket for Claims, Motions, Illegality, and other like proceedings, 
and any other docket for either session which the Judge may di- 
^ rect. 




327. Sheriff 's duty. 

328. His fees. 

329. Bailiffs — appointment of. 

330. Special Bailiff. 

331. Their bond and oath. 


332. Special Bailiff 's duty. 

333. Temporary Bailiffs. 

334. Bailiff's fees. 

335. Costs— garnishment for. 

§ 32T. The Sheriff and his deputies, when required by the 
Duty of County Judge or the Clerk, shall execute any writ, process, or or- 
deputy. (Jer of the County Court or Judge, as if from the Superior Court, 
and shall attend the sessions of the County Court. 

§ 328. For cases in the County Court, within the jurisdiction 
Sheriff's of the Justico's Court, the Sheriff's fees shall be the same as a 


Constable's, and in other cases they shall be the same as in the 
Superior Court. For summoning juries for the semi-annual ses- 
sions, five dollars ; for the quarter sessions, three dollars. 

§ 329. Bailiffs may be appointed by the County Judge, not to 

PT. 1.— -TIT. 5.— CHAP. 4.— Judicial Department. 75 

Article 5. — The Sheriff and the Bailiffs of County Court. 

exceed four in number, one of wliom shall be called Special BaiUffs. 

§ 330. The Special Bailiff shall siive bond, as now provided by Bond, duty, 

^ . . ... "^ and liability 

law, for the faithful discharge of his duties, in the same manner $f special 

, . Bailiff. 

as the Sheriff of the County. He shall have all the power in the 
execution of the duties of his office as the Sheriff, and be subject 
to the same pains and penalties. All orders and processes shall 
be directed to him as well asgfche Sheriff, and he shall have the 
same power to sell property under execution or orders issuing from 
said County Court as the Sheriff has. 

§ 331. The other Bailiffs shall each give bond in a sum to be Bond of 

Y' other Bailiffs 

fixed by the County Judge, and they and the Special Bailiff shall 

be sworn to the faithful and impartial discharge of their duties ; 

and the appointment and removal of all Bailiffs shall be entered 

on the minutes. 

§ 332. It shall be the duty of the Special Bailiff, unless the Duty of 

Judge shall assign the duty to the Sheriff or his deputy, to collect nff as col- 
li -r* I'll 1 -T Ifcting of- 

all executions tor costs ; and m ail cases where costs are not paid ficer. 
instanter, executions therefor shall be issued, and ten per cent, 
additional collected as commissions of the collecting officer. 

§ 333. One or more temporary Bailiffs for particular occasions Temporary 
may also be appointed, who need not give bond, but must be sworn 
and their appointment entered on the minutes. 

§ 334, A Bailiff's fee shall be the same as a Sheriff's, in like Bailiff's 



§ 335. In cases between master and servant, which shall go Garnish- 
against the servant, the judgment for costs, upon written notice costs in ce?- 
to the master, shall operate as a garnishment against him, and he 
shall retain a sufficient amount for the payment thereof out of any 
wages due to said servant, or to become due, during the period of 
service, and may be cited at any time by the collecting officer to 
make answer thereto.* 

* For tlie law as to the County Court and its officers, see Acts of 1865-6, pp." 
64-7i, and Acts of 1866, pp. 53-54 

tain cases. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 5.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1. — The Inferior Court and its Justices. 



Article 1. — The Inferior Court and its Justices. 
Article 2. — The Clerh. 4 




336. Election, oath, and official term. 

337. Vacancies — ho\7 filled. 

338. Vacancies need not be filled — wlicn. 

339. Persons elected to fill vacancies. 

340. Persons eligible. 

3-il. Number necessary to hold Court. 


342. When Justices are equally divided. 

343. Their disability, privilege, etc. 

344. When a majority are interested. 

345. May punish contempts. 

346. In relation to County property, etc. 

347. Other powers and duties of Court. 

election, of- 
ficial term, 
and oath of 

— how filled. 

No special 
election — 

elected to fill 

Who are eli- 

§ 336. The presiding officers of the Inferior Court consist of 
five persons, styled the ''Justices of the Inferior Court," who are 
elected by the people of their respective Counties at the times and 
in the manner hereinafter prescribed, and who hold their offices 
for four years, unless sooner removed in the manner prescribed 
by the Constitution. Before entering upon the duties of their 
office, they must take the oath required of all civil officers, and 
in addition the oath taken by the Judges of the Superior Courts. 

§- 337. When a vacancy occurs, any two or more of said Jus- 
tices, and one, if only one in the County qualifies, and if not one, 
then the Ordinary of the County shall order an election as pre- 
scribed in the case of a vacancy in the Clerkship of the Superior 

§ 338. If there are as many as three of said Justices in com- 
mission and in the discharge of their duties, and the vacancy 
takes place not exceeding eight months prior to the next regular 
electiyon for such Justices, there must not be any special election. 

§ 339. The persons elected to fill the vacancy are commissioned 
for the unexpired terms of the outgoing Justices, and hold their 
offices accordingly. 

§ 340. No person is eligible to such Justiceship unless he has 
been a resident citizen in the County in which he is to preside for 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 5.— Judicial Depaktm&jstt. T7 

Article 1. — The Inferior Court and its Justices, 
at least one year next precedinc^ his qualification. Persons elected can not 

•^ .1 1 .,. , practice law 

Justices of suck Court can not practice law therein, directly nor 


§ 341. Not less than three of such Justices can hold a Court, vbat num- 
ber may hold 
and when three preside it requires the concurrence of two to make court. 

a judgment. When more than three preside there must be a con- 
currence of three. 

S 342. When four of said Justices preside and are equally di- when 

. , . , . . equally di- 

vided in their opinions, the question or case on which it arises vided in 

■'■-'■ ^ • opinion the 

must be postponed until the fifth Justice can preside, or until the c^^e stands 
next term of the Court. 

§ 343. They are disqualified from holdinsr any other County Disability, 
office, but are eli^-ible as members of the General Assembly, to ^n^ exemp- 

' ° .... tions. 

military offices, and are exempt from jury, militia, and patrol 

§ 344. Suits can not be entertained by such Justices where a cases go 

^ ^ "^ to Superior 

majority of their number are interested, and in such, and in all comt-when 
cases where such majority are disqualified, suits must be brought 
in the Superior Court ; but if brought before said Justices they 
do not abate, and there may be an appeal to the Superior Court, 
as in other cases. 

§ 345. The Inferior Courts have authority — May pun- 

To punish for contempt by fines not exceeding fifty dollars, or tempts.*^ ^ ° ' 
imprisonment not exceeding five days. 

§ 346. To exercise original and exclusive jurisdiction, when sit- Exclusive 

on, 1 p n • 1 . • jurisdiction. 

ting lor County purposes, over the lollowmg subject-matters — viz : 

1. In directing and controlling all the property of the County AatoCoun- 
as they may deem expedient according to law\ 

2. In levying a general tax for general, and a special tax for AstoCoun- 
particular. County purposes, according to the provisions of this 


3. In establishing, altering, or abolishing all roads, bridges, and As to roads, 

P . . P . , ° bridges, and 

terries, m coniormity to law. ferries. 

4^ In establishing and changing election precincts and militia ^s to 

, o o i changing 

districts. election pre- 


5. In supplying by appointment all vacancies in County offices, as to va- 
and in ordering elections to fill them. county ofa- 


6. In examining, settling, and allowing all claims against the as to claims 

r\ J. against the 

County. County. 

7. In examining and auditing the accounts of all officers hav- as 

to ac- 

78 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.—CHAP. 5.— Judicial Departjment. 

Article 1. — The Inferior Court and its Justices, 
counts of ino' tlie care, manao-ement, keeping, collection, or disbursement of 

financial ^ 7 & 7 r &7 ? 

County offi- monej belonging to the County^ or appropriated for its use and 
benefit, and in bringing them to a settlement. 

8. In making such rules and regulations for the support of the 
Coimt \w^ P*^^^' ^^ ^^^ County, for County police and patrol, for the promo- 
tion of health and quarantine, as are granted by law, or not in- 
consistent thereyfith. 
As toped- 9. In regulating peddling and fixing the costs of license 

Authority— § 347. The Justiccs of the Inferior Court have authority — 
To appoint 1- [To appoint some fit and proper person to open and adjourn 
Sp^en^andad^ their Court, in the absence of an officer to do so.] (a) 
journ our . ^^ rj}^ ^-^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^ ^^ ^ Court for Couuty purposcs, and for 

any^w^or *^® cxcrcise of any power they possess as Justices, as a quasi 
posS!^ ^^^' corporation, contradistinguished from their power as a Court. 

3. To appoint any person to discharge any trust authorized by 
May ap- their powers, where no other person is designated by law, and to 

point agents. i , i • , • i, itii 

regulate his compensation, and to take bond and security. 
Attest 4. To attest deeds and other written instruments for register. 

deeds. ^ ^ "^^ 

5. To approve of all official bonds required of them by law and 
Approve scut them by the Governor with the dedimus, to qualify such offi- 

officialbonds t,it ii ,t • •• 

cers and to aeliver them tneir commissions. 

Mayactas 6. To act as members of the Board of Education of their re- 
Board of Ed- . 

ucation, SpCCtlVC CoUUtieS. 

7. To exercise such other powers as are granted by law, or are 

other pow- .... • 

^^^ indispensable to their jurisdiction. 




348. Election, qualification, etc. 

349. Vacancies — how filled. 

350. Oath, bond, etc. 


351. May appoint a deputy. 

352. Duties enumerated. 

353. His compensation in certain cases. 

§ 348. The Clerks of the Inferior Courts are elected, qualified, 
Election commissioued, hold their offices, and are removed as the Clerks of 

and term of , i c^ . /-^ , 

office. the feuperior Courts are. 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 56. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 5.— Judicial Department. 79 

Article 2. — The Clerks of the Inferior Courts. 

§ 349. Vacancies are supplied as they are in the offices of the vacancies 
Clerks of the Superior Courts, except that the Justices of the In- 
ferior Courts appoint in the particular cases where the Judges of 
the Superior Court appoint ; and where the contingency happens 
mentioned in Section 250, the duties devolve upon the Clerks of 
the Superior Courts, if any, and if none, then as provided for in 
said Section. 

§ 350. The Clerks of the Inferior Courts take the same oaths oath, bond, 


and give the same bond as the Clerks of the Superior Courts, and 
are removable in the same manner. 

§ 351. They may appoint deputies and require bonds of them, Mayappoint 
and are otherwise under the same disabilities ; are subject to the 
same rules and regulations, and must perform the same duties as 
the Clerks of the Superior Courts do for their Courts, whenever 
applicable to the Inferior Court and there is no provision to the 

§ 352. In addition, it is their duty — Duties of 

. . . Clerk— 

1. To attend all sessions of said Court, and all sessions of said 
Justices on County business, and keep fair and regular minutes of comt. 
their proceedings. 

2. Upon the request of any one of them, to notify the Justices ,. ^r^'^p- 

*■ ^ «^ ' t/ ticc of special 

of the Inferior Court of the time and cause of every special ses- sessions. 

3. To keep all the dockets, books, indexes, and files required Keepdock- 

, , f, •, o ' 1 ^ ets and other 

by law for the use of said Court. books. 

4. To keep a well-bound book in which must be entered a copy to keep 
01 the bonds of County officers. ficiai bonds. 

5. To keep other books, in which must be kept the records of Book of 

I'l - 111 T n Constables 

all Constables bonds, and m the other the oaths and bonds of all and retailers' 

. . Vi . . ,. bonds and 

persons who obtain permission to sell spirituous liquors. oaths. 

6. To keep a book for entering marks, brands, and estrays, and to keep 
a book for the registry of the names, descriptions, and oaths of marks^^a n"d 

■.. -, T T-i brands. 

licensed peddlers. 

7. To enter on the minutes the items of all accounts allowed to enter 
by the Justices of the Inferior Court, as well as the order for aiiowTd."" ^ 
their payment. 

8. To keep a book in which shall be entered all sums received to keep ac- 
hy them on account of the County and paid to the Treasurer, and ney^receive^d 

n 1 , • 1 r» 1 'p and paid out 

tor what special tuna, it any. 

9. To transmit to the Clerk of the Superior Courts all eertio- 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 6.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1. — The Ordinaries and their Courts. 

Other du- 

To trans- Tari, and other papers of wliicli the Superior Court obtains iuris- 

mit appeals. ,. . 


10. To perform such other duties as are or may be required of 
them by law, or as are indispensable to those required. 

§ 353. For the services they are required to perform for the 
Compensa- Justices of the Inferior Court on account of their Counties, for 

tion for cer- i.t^ -n •ttit-i 

tain services "vyliich uo foes are Specially provided, they shall receive an annual 
salary, to be fixed by such Justices at the close of each year, to 
be regulated by the services performed and the means of the 
County, which shall be not less than fifty nor more than two hun- 
dred dollars. 



Article 1. 
Article 2. 
Article 3. 

■The Ordinaries and their Oo7irts. 

■The Ordinaries as Clerks. 

■The Ordinaries as School Commissioners, etc. 




354. Name and style of the Ordinary. 

355. His election and term of office. 

356. His oath of office. 

357. His bond. 

358. Vacancies — how filled. 

359. Ordinaries elected to fill vacancies. 
3G0. Must complete unfinished business. 

361. When Ordinary is disqualified. 

362. Eligibility and disability. 

363. His trust as executor, adm'r, etc. 


364. Who takes administration. 

365. Where Ordinary's office must be kept. 

366. Jurisdiction and powers of his Covirt. 

367. May punish for contempt, etc. 

368. May grant administration — when. 

369. Administration in certain cases. 

370. Must report estates unrepresented. 

371. Failing to account as executors, etc. 

372. Can not practice law in his own Court 

373. May administer oaths. 

§ 354. The Court established pursuant to the amended Consti- 
jN-ame and tutiou, approved the second time December 5th, 1851, has the 

style of Or- ? i. i 77 

his oouii;^ *^ ^^^® and style of the Court of Ordinary, and the incumbent 
thereof has the name and style of the Ordinary. 

§ 355. The Ordinaries are elected by the people of their respect- 
Election iye Countics, at the time and in the manner hereinafter prescribed, 

ana term of -^ -«• -^ 

who hold their offices for four years, unless sooner removed in the 
manner prescribed by law. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 6.— Judicial Department. 81 

Article 1. — The Ordinaries and their Courts. 

§ 356. Before entering on the duties of tlieir offices, they must oath. 
take and file the oaths required of all civil officers, and in addi- 
tion the following oath : 

'' I do swear that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties 

of Ordinary for the County of , during my continuance 

in office, according to law, to the best of my knowledge and ability, 
wilhout favor or affection to any party, and that I will only receive 
my legal fees. So help me Grod." 

§ 357. They must also give bond and surety, in the sum of one Bond, 
thousand dollars, for the faithful discharge of their duties as 
Clerks of the Ordinary. 

^ 358. When a vacancy occurs in the Ordinary there shall be Yacancy— 

^ '' -^ how filled. 

an election to supply the same, ordered by the Justices of the In- 
ferior Court, in the same manner as for Clerk of the Superior 
Court, and until the same is filled, the Clerk of the Superior Court 
shall perform all the duties which the Ordinary could perform as 
Clerk, and no more. 

§ 359. The person elected to supply the vacancy must be com- q ^ (?^^nTr"/ 
missioned for the unexpired term, unless it does not exceed three vac^ancy.^^^^ 
months from the time the election can be ordered and held ; if so, 
th^re must not be any special election. 

§360. All citations and other unfinished proceedings of the citations, 
former Ordinary must be disposed of by the successor as though disposed of 

- by successor 

there had been no vacancy. 

§ 361. When the Ordinary is disqualified, the proceedings shall Proceed- 
be carried as though by consent of parties, by appeal, to the Su- ordinary is 

_, -, . T . /in- disqualified. 

perior Court ; and m the meantime temporary letters shall issue, 
or other legal means used, if necessary, to preserve the estate. 

§ 362. The elioribility and disabilities of the Ordinary, aside Eligibility 

•^ o J '^ ' and disabili- 

from the Constitution, are the same as the Clerks of the Superior tyofOidina- 
Courts for their offices, with the addition that they can not, during 
their terms of office, be executors, administrators, or guardians, 
or other agent of a fiduciary nature required to account to their 
Courts ; but they may be administrators, guardians, or executors, 
in cases where the jurisdiction belongs to another County, or 
where, in special cases, they may be allowed by law and required 
to account to the Ordinary of another County. 

§ 363. When any persons holdinsr such trusts are elected Ordi- ^is trust 

•^ ^ a as executor, 

naries, their letters and powers (immediately) abate on their qual- on^'j^ig^eiec- 
ification. *^<^°' 




82 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 6.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1. — The Ordinaries and tlieir Courts. 

§ 364. When the Ordinary is also the Clerk of the Superior 
Who takes Court, and there is no public administrator, or other person upon 

£idministra- ■, i ^ i i • • • r- 

tion when whom the law casts the administration of unrepresented estates, 

theOrdina- ... 

ry is Clerk guc^ administrations are cast upon the Clerks of Inferior Courts, 

of Superior _ .... 

Court. unless they too are Ordinaries ; in which last event the Sheriffs of 
the several Counties must become such administrators. 

§ 365. The Ordinaries must keep their offices at the place and 
Where his in the manner prescribed for Clerks of the Superior Courts, and 
be kept. ' must hold their Courts at the place prescribed for the Superior 
Courts, or in their offices. 

§ 366. Courts of Ordinary have authority to exercise original, 
jurisdic- cxclusi^ve, aiid general jurisdiction of the following subjects-matter : 

tion and - --.. ..,--.■—« 

power of 1. Probate of wills. 

Courts of 

Ordinary. 2. The granting of letters testamentary, of administration, and 
the repeal or revocation of the same. 

3. Of all controversies in relation to the right of executorship 
or administration. 

4. The sale and disposition of the real property belonging to, 
and the distribution of, deceased j)ei^sons' estates. 

5. The appointment and removal of guardians for minors and 
persons of unsound mind. 

6. All controversies as to the right of guardianship. 

7. The auditing and passing returns of all executors, adminis- 
trators, and guardians. 

8. The discharge of former, and the requiring of new surety, 
from administrators and guardians. 

9. The issuing commissions of lunacy in conformity to law. 

10. Of all such other matters and things as appertain or relate 
to estates of deceased persons, and to idiots, lunatics, and insane 

11. Of all such matters as may be conferred on them by the 
Constitution and laws. 

12. [And concurrent jurisdiction with the County Judge in the 
binding out of orphans and apprentices, and all controversies be- 
tween master and apprentice.] (a) 

§ 367. Such Courts may issue rules and attachments for con- 
May pTin- ^ *' 

tem^r \mi *®^P^^ offered the Court, or its process, by any executor, admin- 
d^Ince^o^ati istrator, guardian, or other person, and may punish the same by 


(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 6. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 6.— Judicial Department. 83 

Article 1. — The Ordinaries and tlieir Courts. 

a fine as high as fifty dollars, or imprisonment not exceeding five 
<iays (one or both). 

§ 368. The Ordinary can grant administration upon no person's in what 

„ cases Ordi- 

estate who was not a resident oi the Uounty wiiere the applica-nary may 

. . grant ad- 

tion is made at the time of his death, or, being a non-resident of ministration 
the State, has property in said County, or a bona fide cause of 
action against some person therein. 

§ 369. When such non-resident deceased persons, have such in what 

, (, . . , ^ County ad- 

pronerty or such cause oi action m more than one County, ministration 


such letters may be granted in either County, and the Ordinary granted. 
first granting them acquires exclusive jurisdiction. 

§ 370. Such Ordinaries shall at each term of the Superior Must re- 
Courts of their respective Counties report to the presiding unrepresent- 
Judge the estates in their hands unrepresented, together with 
their condition. 

§ 371. If any Ordinary fails faithfully to account as executor. Failing to 

"«'''•' ' account as 

administrator, or guardian, after becomins; such Ordinary, which f'^ecutor etc. 
trusts he held at the time of his election, he is ineligible to a re- reSfctlon^*' 

§ 372. No Ordinary shall engage, directly or indirectly, in the can not 
practice of law in his own or in the name of another, as a part- j.^ ^}^ own 
ner, open or silent, or otherwise, in any cause or proceeding in 
his own Court, or in another Court of which his own Court has, 
or has had, or may have, jurisdiction. 

§ 373. FThe several Ordinaries of this State are authorized to Mayadmin- 

, . . , . . . . ister oaths. 

administer oaths in all cases where the authority is not specially 
delegated to some other officer, and receive the same fees therefor 
as are allowed Justices of the Peace.] (a) 




374. Ordinaries may appoint clerks. 

375. Powers of such clerks. 


376. The Ordinary may require bond, etc. 

377. Special duties of the clerk. 

§ 374. The Ordinaries are, by virtue of their ofiices, Clerks of ^ ^ . 

" -" ./ 7 Ordinaries 

their own Courts, but they may, at their own expense, appoint ?Jei?^' own 
one or more clerks, for whose conduct they are responsible, who ^""^^'^^• 
hold their offices at the pleasure of such Ordinary. 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 41. 

84 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 6.-— Judicial Department. 

Article 2.— Tlie Ordinaries as Clerks. 

■ i nr . . '■ — ——————— _______^ 

Powers of § ^'^5. Such appointed clerks may da all acts the Ordinaries- 
Clerk. could do, not judicial in their nature. 

§ 376. When clerks are thus appointed, before entering on the- 
May give dutics of their offices, they may give to the Ordinary a bond and 
security in the sum of one thousand dollars. 

§ 377. It is the duty of such clerks, or the Ordinaries acting 

The dutics as such 

of the Clerk 

of ordSy! ^* ^^ issuc all citatious required by law. 

2. To grant temporary letters of administration. 

3. To grant marriage licenses. 

4. To issue all ji. fas. for costs on all judgments of the Ordi- 
nary or other process necessary to enforce them. 

5. To issue subpoenas for witnesses, and all similar process for 
ripening a trial. 

6. To issue any paper or process by order of the Ordinary, 
and bearing test in his name as other Clerks. 

7. To keep fair and regular minutes of each session of the 
Court, entered in a well- bound book, and such other services 
during term time as the Ordinaries may require. 

8. To keep in their offices other suitable books for the following 
Books to purposes — viz : 

he kept m -"^ ••• 

the office of ^ \io6k for the record of wills. 

the Orainary 

Another for the record of all letters of administration and 

Another for the record of all bonds given by administrators 
and guardians. 

Another for the record of all appraisements, inventories, and 

Another for the record of all accounts of sales. 

Another for the record of all accounts current authorized to 
be made to the Ordinary, together with the vouchers accompany- 
ing the same. 

Another for the record of all marriage licenses, and the returns 

Another as a docket in which to enter all applications and 
other proceedings, in the order they are made, and which shall be 
called in like order at each session. 

Another for the record of all official bonds required to be 
recorded in the Ordinary's office. 

9. To procure and preserve, for public inspection, a complete 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 6.— Judicial Department. 85 

Article 3. — The Ordinaries as Scliool Commissioners. 


file of all newspapers in wliicli their advertisements appear, as the 
Clerks of the Superior Court are required. 

10. To keep their books and papers arranged, filed, and labeled 
and indexed as said Clerks are required. 

11. To give transcripts likewise as thej are required, and when 
the Ordinary and the Clerk are the same person, so to state in the 

12. To perform any other duty required of them by law, or 
which is indispensable to those required. 




378. Ordinaries are School Commissioners 

379. Shall give additional feond. 


380. Special duties of the Ordinary. 

§ 378. The Ordinaries are, by virtue of their offices, School ordinaries 
Commissioners, members of the Board of Education, and treas- commis- 

sioners, etc. 

urers thereof for their respective Counties. 

§ 379. Before entering on the duties of their offices, in addition oatha^nd 
to the oath and bond already prescribed, they shall take an oath 
'' faithfully to discharge all the duties imposed upon them as such, 
and to faithfully apply and account for all money coming to their 
hands in said capacity," and shall also give bond and surety, 
payable to and approved by, the Justices of the Inferior Court, 
in double the sum of the whole School Fund arising from all 
sources, conditioned for the faithful discharge of their duties and 
application of, and accounting for, said fund for the purposes and 
in the manner prescribed by law, as treasurer of said Board of 
Education, which oath and bond shall be entered, filed, and 
recorded as his other oaths and bonds are. 

§ 380. It is their duty in said capacities — 

1. To enter yearly, as soon as received, in a book to be kept special du- 

«^ *' ' ^ •*■ ties of the 

for that purpose, the names of all children entitled to the benefit ^tc'^^^'^'^^' 
of the School Fund. 

2. To attend the sessions of the Board of Education, and once Must at- 
in each year to report to them the condition of the funds in their ings of^the 
hands, the amounts due teachers, the probable revenues and ucTtion. 
necessities for the current year. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 6.— Judicial Department. 

Article 3. — The Ordinaries as School Commissioners. 

3. To lay said reports before the first Grand Juries of their 
His report respectivo Counties at the first session thereafter, and to each 

t;o Grand •"■ . . 

J^i'y- successive Grand Jury until action is had thereon, together with 

the action of said Board of Education, and specially to inform 
said jury of the number of children entitled to the benefit of the 
School Fund, and the amount of funds on hand after paying 
teachers for the previous years, aside from what may be raised 
from County taxation. 

4. To keep full and fair accounts of all his receipts and dis- 
Mustkeep burscmcnts in a well-bound book kept for that purpose, showing 

of receipts the different amounts received, when received and from what 


bursements. sourcc, to whom and when paid and for what purpose ; which shall 
be laid before the Grand Jury for their inspection whenever they 
require it. 

5. To pay teachers of such children and any other charge on 
Must pay such fund, in the manner prescribed by law and said Board of 

' ' Education, taking and filing proper vouchers for the same. 

6. To keep, by themselves or their clerks (if any), the minutes 
Must keep of Said Board of Education in a book to be kept for that purpose, 

tlitj minutes ... x i y 

of the Board ^hich shall be deposited in their offices for public inspection. 

7. To issue, in such capacity, any order or process such Board 
<^^«iers of i]Qay require. 




381. Sheriffs— how elected. 

382. A surety for Tax Collector. 

383. Vacancies in the office of Sheriff. 

384. His oath of office. 
385.. Must give bond. 

386. Bond to be examined. 

387. His bond— where recorded. 

388. Judge of the Court may examine. 

389. "When a Sheriff. is succeeded. 

390. Sheriff's office — where to be kept. 

391. May appoint deputies. 


392. The Sheriff is Jailor. 

393. Jailors must take an oath. 

391. Bond and oath must be recorded. 

395. Jailors bound to receive prisoners. 

396. Sheriff liable for acts of deputy. 

397. Sheriff's duty in executing orders.. 

398. His book of entries when filled. 

399. Can not purchase at his own sale. 

400. When allowed fees.- 

401. Defaulting Sheriffs. 

§ 381. The Sheriffs are elected, qualified, commissioned, hold' 
Sheriffs— their offices for the same term, and are subject to the same disa- 
anrquaiified biUtics as the Clcrks of the Superior Courts. 
office!"^^"^ ^ § 382. A security for any Tax Collector or other holder of 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— Judicial Department. 87 

Chapter 7. — Sheriffs and their Deputies. 

public money is ineligible to tbe office of Sheriff, until all moneys r>isqx;aiifi- 
for whicli he is bound shall have been paid to the proper authority. 

§ 383. Vacancies are filled and the after proceedings are as in vacancies 
case of vacancies in Clerks of the Superior Courts, except that" ^^^ 
in case there is a failure to appoint, as set forth in Section 24-8, 
the Coroner of the County shall act as Sheriff, and if there is no 
Coroner the Ordinary shall make a temporary appointment, and 
on failure of both, the Sheriff of any adjoining County is author- 
ized to act as Sheriff until the Justices of the Inferior Court 
shall make their appointment or there is an election. 

§384. Before entering on the duties of their office they shall His oath of 
take and subscribe, besides the oath of all the civil officers, the 
following oath, before the Judge of the Superior Court or Justices 
of the Inferior Court — viz : ^'I do swear that I will faithfully exe- 
cute all writs, warrants, precepts, and process directed to me as 
Sheriff of this County, or which are directed to all Sheriffs of this 
State, or to any other Sheriff specially, I can lawfully execute, 
and true returns make, and in all things well and truly and 
without malice or partiality, perform the duties of the office of 

Sheriff of County, during my continuance therein, and take 

only my lawful fees. So help me God." 

§ 385. They shall also give a bond, with at least two sureties. Must give 
in the sum of [ten] (a) thousand dollars (unless changed to a less 
or greater amount by local acts now in force or hereafter to be 
enacted), conditioned for the faithful performance of their duties 
as Sheriffs, by themselves, their deputies, and their jailors, and 
upon the terms required by law. 

§ 386. Such bonds shall be approved by three Justices of the ms bond- 
Inferior Court of the County, and then deposited in the office of to bo exam- 
the Clerk of the Superior Court until the first session of that proved. 
Court thereafter, when the presiding Judge shall examine said 
bonds, and if taken in conformity to the law, and the sureties are 
sufficient, so declare by order, and have them spread upon the 
minutes of the Court; and if it has not been so taken they shall 
give another bond, which said Judge is authorized to take and 
have entered on said minutes. 

§ 387. "When said bonds are thus approved by the Justices of guch bond 
the Inferior Court, and before deposited in said office, they shall ld^!Jfrde- 
be recorded in the office of the Clerk of the Inferior Court, and ^''''^^^' 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 17. 

88 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— Judicial Department. 

Chapter 7. — Sheriffs and then* Deputies. 

after being passed upon by the Judge of the Superior Court, shall 
be returned to the office of said Clerk of the Inferior Court and 
by him filed; and if the Judge of the Superior Court compels 
said Sheriff to give a new bond, after having been approved and 
entered on the minutes, it shall be filed in the office of the Clerk 
of the Inferior Court and be recorded therein without further 

§ 388. If a term of the Superior Court is held in the County 
Judge of sa- before the Justices of the Inferior Court shall have approved the 

perior Court ■■• ••• 

may exam- Sheriflf's boud, the Judffe of the Superior Court may do so in the 

ine said 7 n r j 

firstinitaice "^^^^ instancc, being careful to take the opinion of such Justices, 
cases!'^^^^^ or a part of them, or the Ordinary, as to the solvency and 
sufficiency of the sureties, and, having so approved, the other pro- 
ceedings are as hereinafter set forth. 

§ 389. When a Sheriff's deputy is the succeeding Sheriff, the 
sheTi^ff^i? sureties must be essentially different from those on such Sheriff's 

succeeded by 'k^-,-,^ 
his deputy. L>OUU. 

§ 390. Sheriffs must keep their offices at the same place and on 
fice.^'^ ^^'the same terms as Clerks of the Superior Court are required. 

§ 391. They are authorized, in their discretion, to appoint one 
poinf a^dep- ^^ Hiorc dcputies, from whom they must take a bond with sureties. 
^*^^* § 392. They are, by virtue of their offices, Jailors of the Coun- 

May ap- tics, and have the appointment of Jailors, subject to the super- 
pom aiors yjg-Qj^ q£ ^jjg Inferior Court, as prescribed in this Code. 

§ 393. Before entering on the duties of their office, such Jailors 

Jailors must givc to the Sheriff bond and surety for the sum of one 

oath and thousand dollars, conditioned for the faithful performance of their 

give bond. . . ^ » 

duties as Jailors, and shall take and subscribe before some one of 
the Justices of the Inferior Court of the County the following 
oath — viz : "I do swear that I will well and truly do and perform, 

all and singular, the duties of Jailor for the County of , and 

his^oat?. ^^ that I will humanely treat prisoners who may be brought to the 
jail of which I am keeper, and not suffer them to escape by any 
negligence or inattention of mine. So help me God.'' 

§ 394. Such bond and oath must be filed and recorded as those 

Bond and 

oath record- of a Sheriff's deputy. 

ed and flkd, r j 

§ 395. It shall be the duty of the keepers of the several jails 

Shall keep withiu this State to receive into their respective jails, and safely 

mttodunXr keep therein, all prisoners committed under the authority of the 

u. stotel*^ United States, under the like penalties and subject to the same 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— Judicial Department. 89 

Chapter 7. — Sheriifs and their Deputies. 

action as in the case of prisoners committed under tlie authority 
of this State. 

§ 396. Sheriffs are liable for the misconduct of the Jailor as sheriffs 

• • 1 1 T •! li'it>le for the 

they are liable for their deputies, and persons injured by the Jailor misconduct 
have the same option in suing the Jailor's bond that they have in and jaiiors. 
suing the deputy's bond. 

§ 397. It is the duty of the Sheriff— 

1. To execute and return the process and orders of the Courts His duty in 

■•■ executing 

of Record of this State, and of officers of competent authority, if ^^^ entering 

' ^ »' ^ process, or- 

not void, with due diligence, when delivered to them for that pur- ^^^^' ^^• 
pose, according to the provisions of this Code. 

2. To attend upon all sessions, by themselves or deputies, of . i^ attend- 

■•■ ' «/ J- -< ing upon tlie 

the Superior and Inferior Courts of the County, [and of the courts. 
County Court, when required by the Judge thereof,] (a) and of 
the Court of Ordinary, whenever required by the Ordinary, and 
never to leave said Courts while in session, without the presence 
of one or both of said officers if required, and to attend in like in attend- 
manner at the place of holding an election at the County site, on ^°^ ^ ^*^ ^^"^ 
the day of an election, from the opening to the closing of the 
polls, and. to take under their charge all under officers present as 
a police to preserve order. 

3. To publish sales, citations, and other proceedings, as required i;g|\^J}J"^; 
by law, and to kee-p a file of all newspapers in which their official t^tions, etc. 
advertisements appear, in the manner required of Clerks of the 
Superior Courts. 

4. To keep an Execution Docket, wherein they must enter a full Keep an 
description of all executions delivered to them, the dates of their Docket. 
delivery, together with all their acts and doings thereon, and have 

the same ready for use in any Court of their County. 

5. To keep a book, in which shall be entered a record of all , a record 

^ ' of sales. 

sales made by process of Court, or by agreement of parties, 
under the sanction of Court, describing accurately the property 
and process under which sold, the date of the levy and sale, the 
purchaser, and price. 

6. To receive from the precedino; Sheriff all unexecuted writs shaii re- 

" celve and 

and process, and to proceed to execute the same ; to carry into complete un- 
effect any levy or arrest made by a predecessor ; to put pur- ^^^^^ of pro- 
chasers into possession, and to make titles to purchasers at his 
sales, when not done by him. 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 66. 

90 PT. 1. — TLT. 5. — Judicial Depaetment. 

Chapter 7.— Sheriffs and their Deputies. 

7. To take from preceding Sheriffs custody of the jail and the 
ceive^^\^aiit ^odics of such persons as are confined therein, with the precept, 
from^prede- Writ, or causc of detention. 

cesser. g^ rp^ furnish prisoners with medical aid, fire, and blankets, to 

nish prison- be reimbursed, if necessary, from the County treasury, and to 
S'^fiTetbian- suffcr a penalty for neglect as prescribed in this Code. 

9. To take all prisoners arrested, or in execution under any 
Takepris- Criminal or civil process, to the jail of an adjoining County, or to 

oridjo^uing the jail .of some other County when more accessible, if the jail 
certain cases of the County is in an unsafe condition, under such rules as are 
prescribed in this Code. 

10. To perform such other duties as are or may be imposed by 
law, or which necessarily appertain to their ofiices. 

§ 398. All books the Sheriffs are required to keep, after becom- 
ffis books insr full must be deposited in the ofiice of the Clerks of the 

when filled . 

must be de- SuDcrior Courts, to be kept as their other books of record. 

posited. ■'■ ■' ■•■ 

§ 399. No Sheriff or deputy, or other officer discharging a 

Can not similar duty, will be permitted to purchase any property whatever 

hisownsaie. at his own salc, upon his own bid, nor upon the bid of any other 

person for him, directly or indirectly ; and all such sales and deeds 

in pursuance thereof, intended to vest in such officer the title to 

property so purchased, shall be null and void. 

§ 400. Sheriffs are only entitled to such fees or compensation as 

When ai- the law prcscribcs, or, upon an omission of the law, to such reason- 

anT amount able compcusation as the Court shall award; and where they use 

property themselves, or hire it out after being levied upon, they 

are not allowed a loer diem allowance for diet, and are liable to 

the proper party for the hire received. 

§ 401. If any Sheriff or deputy fails to comply with the pro- 
Defauiting visions of Soctiou 397, he shall be fined for a contempt, as the 
ed for con- Clerk of thc Superior Court is in similar cases. Section 261 also 
applies to Sheriffs. 



Article 1. — Attorney G-eneral. 
Article 2. — Solicitors G-eneraL 
Article 3. — Attorneys at Law. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.--JUDICIAL DepartxMent. 


Article 1. — Attorney General. 




402. The Attorney General. 

403. Must give bond and surety. 

404. His duties enumerated. 


405. May render service out of Circuit. 

406. May render service anywhere. 

§ 402. The Solicitor General of the Circuit which embraces Attorney 
the seat of Government is, by virtue of his office, the Attorney 
General of the State. 

§ 403. Before entering on the duties of his office he must give Must give 
bond and surety, satisfactory to the Governor, in the sum of ten cmity. 
thousand dollars, and upon hi^ requisition must give additional 
bond -whenever the public interest demands. 

§ 404. It is the duty of the Attorney General — 

1. To give his opinion in writing, or otherwise, on any question Must give 
of law connected with the interests of the State, or with the opinion. 
duties of any of the Departments, when required by the Gov- 
ernor or either of the State House officers. 


2. To prepare all contracts and writings in relation to any contracts 

^ J- ' o »/ -vviien the 

matter in which the State is interested when requested.' ^eiSted ^^' 

3. To attend, on the part of the State, to all criminal causes Attend on 
in any of the Circuits, when the Solicitor General thereof is tht s^ta\e to 
prosecuted, and to all other criminal or civil causes to which the cnminai ca- 
State is a party, when ordered by the Governor. 

4. To perform such other duties as are or may be required of iiisgener- 
mm, or which necessarily appertain to his office. 

§405. When the services of such Attorney General shall be Maybere- 
needed in either of the Judicial Circuits the presiding Judcre tend out of 

his Circuit. 

thereof shall notify the Governor twenty days before of the time, 
place, and cause, and the Governor may (in his discretion) order 
the Attorney General to comply, unless the law in the case pre- 
sented makes it his imperative duty to do so. 

§406. It is in the discretion of the Comptroller General to Theservi- 
require the Attorney General, when the services of a Solicitor ney General 
Cieneral are necessary, m collecting or securing any claim oi the quired out 
State, in any part of the State, either to command the services of c^it by 

' "^ -^ ' Comptroller 

said Attorney General in any or all of such cases, or of the General. 
Solicitors General in their respective Circuits. 


PT. l.'-t-TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 

Article 2. — Solicitors General. 




407. Solicitor General. 

408. His oath. 

409. Vacancy — how filled. 

410. His qualifications. 

411. On the same footing as the Judge. 

412. His special duties enumerated. 

413. May be ruled as attorneys. 

414. Failing to attend Court. 


415. May nol. pros, indictments. 

416. Penalty for exacting illegal costs. 

417. Who must certify such proceedings. 

418. Tampering with Grand Jury. 

419. May be appointed by the Court. 

420. An attorney so appointed. 

421. Charges against Solicitor General. 

§ 407. Eacli Superior Court Judicial Circuit must have a 

His eiec- Solicitor General, elected by the people thereof respectively, who 

term of of- holds his officc four years, unless sooner removed in the manner 

fice. . . . 

prescribed by the Constitution. 

§ 408. Before entering on the duties of their offices, beside the 
Hie oath, oaths required of all civil officers, they must, in addition, take the 
following — viz : 

"I do swear that I will faithfully and impartially, and without 
fear, favor, or affection, discharge my duties as Solicitor General, 
and will take only my lawful fees of office. So help me God." 

And must also give such bond and surety as is required of the 
Solicitor who, by virtue of his office, is Attorney General. 

§ 409. Vacancies occur and are filled as prescribed in cases of 
Vacancy— the Judges of the Superior Courts, and the manner of proceeding 

how filled. . . 1 1 r» 11 

IS m every respect the same, except that the person elected to fill 
the vacancy holds his office only for the unexpired term, and must 
be so commissioned. 

§ 410. No person is eligible to the office of Solicitor General 
His quail- who has Hot been a resident citizen of this State five years just 
preceding his election or appointment, [and who does not perma- 
nently reside in the Circuit at the time of his election or appoint- 
ment,] (a) and who has not attained the age of twenty-one years, 
and who has not been duly admitted and licensed to practice law 
in the Superior Courts of this State for at least three years. 
On the § 4H' -^ person having been appointed or elected a Solicitor 
as^jud-e^'as ^^^ ^^J Circuit is on the same footing of a Judge of the Superior 
Ms circSit.^ Court, as- set forth in Section 230 (as to retaining his office). 
§ 412. Their duties within their respective Circuits are — ■ 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 93 

Article 2. — Solicitors General. 

1. To attend each session of the Superior Courts, regular or Must at- 
adjourned, unless excused by the Judge thereof, and remain until pTiiorOourts 
the business of the State is disposed of. 
. 2. To attend on the Grand Juries, advise them in relation to ^ Must at- 

^ ^ tend Grand 

matters of law, and swear and examine witnesses before them. J»ry. 

3. To administer the oaths the laws require to the Grand and jj^g^ ^d- 
Petit Jurors, to the Bailiffs, or other officers of Court, and other- ^thl^^^^^ 
wise to aid the presiding Judge in organizing the Courts as he 

may require. 

4. To draw up all indictments or presentments, when requested ind^cTmen"? 
by the Grand Jury, and to prosecute all indictable offenses. melua^.^^^^*^' 

5. To prosecute or defend any civil action in the prosecution or ecute^ordl- 
defense of which the State is interested, unless otherwise spe- the^^gtaTels 
cially provided for. • interested. 

6. To attend before the Supreme Court when any criminal ^ Must at- 

. .. tendSu- 

cause is tried emanating from their respective Circuits, argue the p^cme Court 
same, and perform any other duty therein the interest of the State 
may require. 

7. To collect all moneys arising from fines and forfeited recog- Must coi- 
nizances, all costs on criminal cases when paid into Court before and forfeit- 
judgment, and not otherwise ; and at the Fall Term of each Court, tie with the 

T ' 1 t /-A n^ ^ County 

every year, to settle with the County Treasurer, and pay over to Treasurer. 
him all moneys due him according to law, after a fair and full 

8. To settle at the same time with the preceding Solicitor, and Must set- 
pay over to him any moneys collected to which he maybe enti- preceding 
tied, and to render to him, whenever required by him, a just 
statement of the condition of his interests. 

9. To collect all moneys due the State in the hands of any Must coi- 
escheators, and pay over to the Educational Fund ; and, if neces- ey due^the 
sary, compel them to pay by rule or order of Court, or other hands ^fes- 

, , cheators. 

legal means. 

10. To collect all claims of the State they may be ordered to Must coi- 
do by the Comptroller General, and to remit the same within d!?ethest™l 
thirty days after collection ; and on the first day in October every ed by the 
year to report to him the condition of the claims in their hands General. 

in favor of the State, particularly specifying the amounts col- 
lected and paid, from what sources received and for what pur- 
poses; to whom paid, what claims are unpaid, and why; what 
judgments have been obtained, when, and in what Court ; what 

94 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 

Article 2. — Solicitors General. 

. suits are instituted, in what Courts, and their present progress 
and future prospects. 

11. To perform such other duties as are or may be required by 
erai duties, law, or which nocossarily appertain to their office. 

§ 413. If a Solicitor General fails to comply with the provisions 
May be ml- of the preceding Section, he is liable to rule as attorneys at 
neys at law. law are, with all the penalties and remedies ; and on failure to 
comply with the terms of a rule absolute, within twenty days 
from the time it becomes final, it shall be a ground of im- 

§ 414. If he fails to attend on the Courts of his Circuit as 
attend clurt required, he is liable to be fined for each failure fifty dollars, to 
—liable to be 1^^ retained out of his salary. 

§ 415. He has authority, on the terms prescribed by law, to 

May nolle enter a nolle prosequi on indictments ; and if, in any cases, a So- 

ments, etc. Hcitor General accepts, directly or indirectly, in money or other 

valuable thing, or exacts more than his lawful costs from the de- 

g^^JJf^g^^"^^ fondant or any body else, it is a subject-matter of investigation 

legal costs, by the Grand Jury. 

§ 416. If the Grand Jury presents the Solicitor for having so 
How pro- received more than his lawful costs, he shall be disqualified from 
gainst ^ f o'^r further discharging his ofiicial duties until a trial shall be had 
legal costs, upou an indictment, and if the trial results in a conviction, he 
shall be fined and imprisoned at the discretion of the Court, and 
conviction, it is also a grouud of impeachment. The disqualification con- 
tinues until the adjournment of the next session of the General 
Clerk shall § ^-^'^' ^^ shall bo the duty of the Clerk of said Court to certify 
notify the immediately such proceedings to the Governor. 

Governor. J r o 

§ 418. If they take, or agree to take, from any person, money 

Penalty for or any Other valuable thing, the consideration whereof is a prom- 

greSSg^"^ to ise or undertaking to procure, or to try to procure, a finding by 

or other the Grand Jury of "a bill" or "no bill" upon an indictment, 

thing of val- ^ 

ue to influ- or to make or not to make a presentment, or to prolong or pro- 
Grand Jury crastinate a State case or an arrest, or to advise it done, or how 

in their de- 

liberations, it may be douc, the penalty and proceedings are the same as in 
the two preceding Sections. 

§ 419. When a Solicitor is absent, or indisposed, or disqualified 

The soiic- from interest or relationship to engage in a prosecution, the pre- 

bdng ^'^dis- siding Judgc must appoint a competent attorney of the Circuit to 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 


Article 2. — Solicitors General. 

act in his place, or he may command the services of the Solicitor 
of any other Circuit accessible, or he may make a requisition on 
the Governor for the Attorney General, as the emergency in his 
discretion may require. 

§ 420. An attorney acting as such Solicitor is subject to all the 
laws governing Solicitors General ; he is entitled to the same fees 
for what he does, and incurs the same penalties in the discharge 
of his duties. 

§ 421. When any person makes affidavit before the Court or 
Grand Jury, that in his judgment; the Solicitor General is guilty 
of an indictable offense, and that he desires to prosecute him, or 
the Grand Jury may present him for such an offense, it is the 
duty of the Court instanter to appoint some competent attorney 
at law to draw a bill of indictment, and when there is a true 
bill found, or presentment made, to put the Solicitor under 
recognizance or in prison, according to the offense, until the ap- 
pearance of the proper prosecuting officer. 

qualified, fhe 
Court may 
supply h i s 

An attor- 
ney, acting 
as Solicitor, 
is entitled to 
the same 
fees, etc. 

ings when 
Solicitor is 




422. Attorneys at law. 

423. Rii^hts of persons admitted. 

424. Qualifications of applicant. 

425. Aliens. 

426. Application for admission. 

427. Evidence of preparation. 

428. Must be examined. 

429. The manner of examination. 

430. Examination not satisfactory. 

431. Order of admission. 

432. Form of the oath to be taken. 

433. Graduates of Lumpkin Law SchooL 

434. Attorneys of other States. 

435. Order of the Court necessary. 

436. Prohibited in certain cases. 

437. Attorneys removing to this State. 

438. How admitted in Supreme Court. 

439. Failing to render the service. 

440. Tra,nsferring fee note. 

441. The rule for settling fees. 

442. Attorneys may be ruled. 

443. May bind their clients — when. 

444. Can receive nothing but money. 

445. Parties acting by advice of attorneys. 


446. Appearing without authority. 

447. Penalty therefor. 

448. Required to produce authority. 

449. Wlien two are employed. 
460. Leading counsel defined. 

451. If more than one, preference given, 

452. Special duties of attorneys. 

453. Causes for striking an attorney, etc, 

454. May be reinstated, and how. 

455. Proceedings against attorneys. 

456. Accusation must be in writing. 

457. Proceedings must be under oath. 

458. Ptequiring the accuser to appeax". 

459. Appearance. 

460. Answer. 

461. If objections be overruled. 

462. Plea of guilty, or refusal to answer. 

463. The judgment and efi"ect thereof. 

464. Proceedings instituted by the Court. 

465. The attendance of witnesses. 

466. Costs — how taxed and collected. 

467. Death of the informa.nt. 

468. Jury may find proceedings malicious. 

469. Failing to pay tax — how dealt with. 

§422. The following persons, if not specially declared ineligi- persons en- 
ble, are entitled to practice law in the Courts of this State : pjacuce law! 

96 tT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.^Judicial Department. 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law 

1. Those who have been regularly licensed under the laws of 
the State before the adoption of this Code. 

2. Those who are hereafter licensed in the manner prescribed 
by law. 

§ 423. Those who are admitted to practice in the Superior 
Eights of Courts may practice in any other Court of this State, except the 

persons ad- •' ■■• "^ 7 i 

mittedinthe Supreme Court, for which another and special license must be 

Superior -t^ ^ ^ 

Court. obtained. 

§ 424. Any white male citizen of good moral character, who 
Quaiiflca- has read law and undersioes a satisfactory examination before a 

tlons of ap- . ® "^ 

piicant. Judge of the Superior Court, as hereinafter prescribed, is entitled 
to plead and practice law in this State. 

§ 425. Aliens who have been two years resident in the State, 
Aliens. ^^^ ^^^® declared their intention to become citizens, pursuant 
to the act of Congress, are eligible to admission as attorneys at 

§ 426. For the purpose of admission, one must apply, by peti- 
Appiica- tion in writing, to a Superior Court durins; one of its sessions, 

tion for ad- . . 

mission— in a Circuit of which he is resident, or has read law therein, and 

now made. ' ^ 

must show — 

1. His citizenship. 

2. That he is of good moral character. 

3. That he has read law. 

4. That he has been a resident of, or has read law in the Cir- 
cuit, as aforesaid. 

§ 427. The evidence of such facts must be by certificate of two 
Certificate attorneys of the Court, or of other evidence satisfactory to the 

of prepara- r^ l 
tion. Court. 

§ 428. The applicant must also be examined in open Court, 

Authorities touchiug his knowlcdgc 

be examined 1. Of the principles of the Common and Statute Law of Eng- 
land of force in this State. 

2. Of the Law of Pleading and Evidence. 

3. The Principles of Equity, and Equity Pleading and Prac- 

4. The revised Code of this State, the Constitution of the 
United States and of this State, and the rules of practice in the 
Superior Courts. 

§ 429. No portion of such examination must take place out of 
exSnTtion! op^^^ Court ; and to enable the Judges to have proper examina- 

PT. l._TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 9T 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law. 

tions, they are required, if there is not ample time during a term, 
to appoint a time, at least twice a year, at some County site in 
their respective Circuits, which has a bar of attorneys sufficient 
in numbers and qualifications to conduct the examinations, and, 
if necessary, to request and require the attendance of such attor- 
neys from other places Avithin the Circuit, of which appointment 
public notice shall be given thirty days prior to said time in some 
public gazette. Application for admission may be made to the 
Judge of each Circuit (as otherwise required) at any time. 

§430. Such Judges are required to be strict, and to reject any such ap- 

1 -. 1 r. n T • n . plicanttobe 

applicant who does not undergo a luii and satisiactory examma- rejected. 

§ 431. If, on examination, the applicant is found duly qualified How ad- 
in all the branches required, the Court must direct an order to practice. 
be entered on the minutes, that, being examined and found to 
possess the requisite learning and ability, and having otherwise 
complied with all the conditions of the law, that, upon taking the 
oath prescribed, that the Clerk issue to him, on the payment of ^^l^^ *^^® 
the fees and costs, a license to plead and practice law^ in the Su- 
perior Courts of this State. 

§ 432. The oath is as follows : 

" I, , sw^ear that I will justly and uprightly demean my- Form of 

self, according to the laws, as an attorney, counselor, and solic- 
itor, and that I will support and defend the Constitution of the 
United States and the Constitution of the State of Georgia. So 
help me God." 

Which oath must be taken in open Court, and entered on the 
minutes thereof. 

§ 433. None of the preceding requisitions are applicable to any 'Graduates 
graduate of the Lumpkin Law School, but upon presentation of Law school 
a diploma, and payment of fees, the Court shall cause his name mitted. 
to be enrolled among the attorneys. 

§ 434. Attorneys at law residing in other States of the Union, Attorneys 
having license to practice law in a Circuit Court therein, where, states- how 

111 n 1 • n •-. ' 1 admitted in 

by law, the attorneys oi this btate are permitted to practice law, this state. 
may practice in the Superior Courts of this State — 

1. By presenting a petition in writing for such purposes to the 
Judge of the Superior Court of any Circuit, either in term time 
or vacation. 

2. By producing before him a certificate from a Judge of the 


98 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Depaetment. 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law. 
Must pro- Circuit or District Court of the State of which they are citizens, 

duce a cer- r» • t /^ • 

tificate. under the seal of said Court, stating that the applicant is of good 
moral character, and has been legally admitted to practice law 
in such Circuit, and that, by the laws of such State, the attor- 
neys of this State are allowed to practice law therein. 

§435. On reading such petition and certificate, such Judge 
Order of shall grant an order that the applicant be admitted to practice 
law in this State, and shall order the Clerk of the Superior 
Court of the County to enter it on his minutes and file the pro- 
ceedings, on the payment of his legal fees ; which, when done, is 
a sufficient license. 
from Tuch § ^^^- ^^^^^ attomoys at law of any State adjoining this are 
not^^irfow ^^* ^^^^ permitted to practice law herein, unless those of this 
yeSfo'v^Z'- State are not likewise permitted to practice law in their Courts. 
courS/^^" §437. Those attorneys at law of other States, who become 
Lawyers rosidcnts of this State and do not come under the provisions of 

from other tcn i i* ^ r>t • n 

states may the prcccdms: Sections, by producing to the Court satisfactory ev- 

be admitted r & 5 J r & ^ J^ 

to this, etc. idence that they were attorneys at law, in good standing, in a 
' Court of similar jurisdiction in the State from which they came, 
may be immediately admitted to plead and practice law in this 
State, without undergoing the examinations as other resident ap- 

h^v^admit^ § ^^^' ^^y attorney authorized to practice law in the Superior 

tic^e *?n^^The Courts of this State is permitted to practice law in the Supreme 

mt"^' Court- 

1. By exhibiting to the Court proof of good private and pro- 
Proof of fessional character, and otherwise complying with the terms of 

character. . . ^ 

its rules. 

2. By taking the oath prescribed. 

§439. Attorneys are prohibited from collecting any note or 
Attorneys, other coutract in writins: given as a fee in any cause, which cause 

when em- . o ° ./ ? 

ployed, fail- they havo failed to attend to in person or by some competent at- 

ing to ren- "^ ••• .... 

der the ser- tomcy, from the time of employment until the rendition of judg- 
ment, and the same shall be null and void unless they were, by 
contract, released from such duty. 

§ 440. The transfer of such notes or obligations subjects them 
Transfer- to forfeit and pay to the person from whom the same was taken 

ring fee note ■,■•■,■, , « ti« n !••• 

or obligation doublc the amouut thereof, recoverable m any Court navinsi; luris- 

andfailingto . ^ '^ ,. 

render the dictiou of the Same, unlcss such person is saved harmless aeramst 


all fees, costs, and other necessary expenses on account thereof. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 99 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law. 

§ 441. Unless otherwise stipulated, one-half of the fee in any The rule 

^ , , "^ for settling 

cause is a retainer, and due at any time, unless the attorne}^, with- tees. 
out sufficient cause, abandons the case before rendering service to 
that value ; but in cases where he has rendered such service, and 
can not render the balance of service — from the act of his client, 
providential cause, election to office, or removal out of the State — 
he is entitled to retain the amount, or a due proportion, if col- 
lected, or sue for it and collect it, if not ; where no special con- 
tract is made, the attorney may recover for the services actually 

§ 442. Where attorneys retain in their hands the money of their May be 

rulccl for 

clients, after it has been demanded, they are liable to rule (and money coi- 

' , . . lected. 

otherwise) as Sheriffs are, and incur the same penalties and con- 

§ 443. They have authority to bind their clients in any action Attayneys 
or proceeding, by any agreement in relation to the cause, made their clients 
in writing, and in signing judgments, entering appeals, and by 
an entry of such matters, when permissable, on the dockets of the 
Court, but they can not take affidavits required of their clients 
unless specially permitted by law. 

§444. Without special authority, attorneys can not receive any can notre- 

•^ ^ '^ ^ "^ ♦'ceive any 

thins; in discharo^e of a client's claim but the full amount in cash, thing but 

<-* a money, etc. 

§445. Clients shall not be relieved from their liability to dam- Partiesnot 
ages and penalties imposed by law on the ground that they acted the^^gro-.nd 
under the advice of their counsel, but are entitled to redress from acted nr.aer 

,^ (^ ^ '^^ c* ^ 1 ' ' the advice of 

them tor unskiiliul advice. counsel. 

§446. If it be alleged by a party for whom an attorney appears a party 
that he does so without authority the Court may, at any stage of ate an auor- 

•^ "^ "^ ° ney atteu:pt- 

the proceedings, relieve the party for whom the attorney assumed jng to appear 
to appear from the consequences of his acts, if fully satisfied such 
allegation is true. 

§ 447. Any attorney appearing for a person without being em- Attorneys 
ployed, unless by leave of the Court, is guilty of a contempt of without'au? 
Court, and must be fined in a sum not less than five hundred dol- °" ^' 

§ 448. The presiding Judge, or Justice, may, on motion of either May be 
party, and, on showing reasonable grounds therefor, require any produco au- 
attorney who assumes the right to appear in the cause to produce, 
or prove the authority under which he appears, and to disclose. 
whenever pertinent to any issue, the name of the person who em- 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law, 

When two 
or more at- 
torneys are 
employed on 
the same 

eonnsel de- 

If more 
than one, 
preference is 
given to the 
one first em- 

Special du- 
ties enumer- 

causes foj. 
which an at. 
torne}^ vavs^ 
be removed 

For crimes. 

Failing to 
pay over 
money when 

ployed him, and to grant any order that justice may require on 
such investigation ; but, prima facie^ attorneys shall be held au- 
thorized to properly represent any cause they may appear in. 

§ 449. When two or more attorneys, being employed on the 
same side, dispute about the direction to be given to their cause^ 
and the client is not present, the Judge shall hear all the facts and 
give preference to the leading counsel. 

§ 450. The leading counsel is he who, at the time of the trial, 
or raising of any issue connected with the cause, is, in the judg- 
ment of the Court, the counsel upon whom the client relies more 
than any other. 

§ 451. If there is more than one upon whom the client thus re- 
lies, the Court shall, as between them, give him preference who 
was first employed. 

§ 452. It is the duty of attorneys at law — 

1. To maintain the respect due to Courts of Justice and judi- 
cial officers. 

2. To employ, for the purpose of maintaining' the causes con- 
fided to them, such means only as are consistent with truth, and 
never to seek to mislead the Judges or juries by any artifice or 
false statement of the law. 

3. To maintain inviolate the confidence and, at every peril ta 
themselves, to preserve the secrets of their clients. 

4. To abstain from all offensive personalities, and to advance no 
fact prejudicial to the honor or reputation of a party or a witness, 
unless required by the justice of the cause with which they are 

5. To encourage neither the commencement nor continuance of 
an action or proceeding from any motives of passion or interest. 

6. Never to reject, for a consideration personal to themselves^ 
the cause of the defenseless or oppressed, 

§ 453. An attorney must be removed for the following causes 
by the Superior Court of the County of his residence : 

1. Upon his being convicted of any crime, or misdemeanor in- 
volving moral turpitude. In either case the record of his convic- 
tion is conclusive evidence. 

2. When any judgment, or rule absolute has bee-n rendered 
against him for money collected by him, as an attorney, which he 
fails to pay within ten days after the time appointed in the order ; 
in which case the record of the judgment is conclusive evidence, 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 101 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law. 

unless obtained without any service under some law authorizing 
such a proceeding. 

3. Upon it being shov/n to the satisfaction of the Court that he Unprofes- 

•■\ (* T Ml f» 1 • 1 • 1 • o sioual con- 

has been guilty of any deceit or willful misconduct m his proles- duct. 


4. For want of a sound mind, or for indecent behavior in or indecen- 
out of the Court House, whereby he becomes a nuisance to the mind, etc. 
Court, his brother members of the Bar, or the public. 

§ 454. When an attorney at law is thus removed, after the lapse Maybere- 
of twelve months (unless removed under the first ground of the iiow. 
preceding Section), it is in order for him. to be restored upon the 
application of two-thirds of the members of the Bar of the County 
where lie was removed, and of those who usually practice in the 
Superior Court of said County, if approved by the Judge of the 

§ 455. The proceeding's to remove an attorney may be taken by Summary 

^ c> ^ ./ ./ *' proceedings 

the Court of its own motion, or upon the motion of an attorney at against at- 

■' *■ •' torneys. 

law or other citizen. 

§ 456. The accusation must be in vmtinff, signed by the movant, The accu- 
or his attorney at law, and when the proceeding is taken by the be^ in writ- 
Court, it may be drawn up by the Solicitor or the Clerk, under 
the direction of the Court. 

§ 457. If the proceedings are upon the information of another, Proceed- 

1 . ■, ' n -i T ^ if»i !• i"^^ must be 

the accusation must be verified by the oath oi the person making under oatii 

, ^ —when. 

it, or some other person, and presented to the Court. 

§ 458. The Court must then, if of opinion that the accusation order re- 
would, if true, be grounds of removal, make an order requiring accused to 
the accused to appear and answer the same at a specified day dur- 
ing the same, or at the next term, and must cause a copy of the 
order and accusation to be served on the accused within a pre- 
scribed time before a day appointed in the order. 

§ 459. The accused must appear at the time appointed in the Appear- 
order, and answer the accusation, unless, for sufiicient cause, the accused. 
Court assign another day for that purpose ; if he does not appear, Failing to 
the Court may proceed and determine the accusation in his ab- ^^^^^^' ^*^' 

§ 460. The accused may answer, either by objecting to the suf- Answer of 
ficiency of the accusation, or by denying its truth — -either of which 
must be entered on the minutes. 

§461. If the objection to the sufficiency of the accusation be objections 
not sustained, the accused must answer it forthwith. ciiser. ^ 


102 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department. 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law. 

§ 462. If he pleads guiltj, or refuses to answer the accusations^ 
Plea of the Court must proceed to iuds^ment of removal; if he denies the 

guilty, or re- ■■■ .^ o i 

swer°*^^^ accusation, the Court must immediately, or at such time as it may 
appoint, proceed to try the same — the accused Laving a right to 
demand a trial by jury. 

§463. A judgment of acquittal is final, but from a judgment 
Effect of of removal there may be a motion for a new trial, and a review by 

the judg- ^ CA ' 

ment. the Supreme Court, as in other cases. 

§ 464. The proceedings, when instituted by the Court of its own 

Proceed- motiou, are conducted in the name of the State — the Solicitor ap- 
ings, when . . , ••• 

instituted, peariug to sustain the accusation — and when on the information of 
another, in the name of the State on the information of such per- 

§ 465. Either party has a right to subpoenas and other process 

Either par- to compcl the attendance of witnesses, and testimony may be taken 

ty may com- ...... . i • i . 

pel the at- by dcposition m such cases and m the same manner as m actions 

tendance of "^ 

witnesses, at law, and the Court may, in its discretion, require the inform- 
^j^^ . ant to give security for costs ; and failing so to do within the time 
in™tT^5ve" prescribed, the proceedings must be dismissed at the cost of the 
security, etc. informant. 

§ 466. When the proceedings are in the name of the State, the 
Costs— costs are paid as in criminal cases ; when in the name of the State 

how taxed if» .r» ^ • c ^' •• • i 

and collect- on the information of another, if the accusation is not sustained, 

ed. . . . ' , . , ' 

judgment is rendered against the informant and his security for 
the costs, if the same has been given ; hut if the accusation is 
sustained against the accused, judgment for costs must be rendered 
against him. 

§ 467. Upon the death of the informant, if there be but one^ 
TTpon the the procecdiugs abate, unless some other person is substituted in 
informant, his placc, which may be done on application to the Court ; if there 
is more than one informant the proceedings continue on the infor- 
mation of the survivor. 

§ 468. It is in the province of the jury who try such proceed- 
The jury iugs, if thov find lu favor of the accused, also to find they were 

whotrysuch *= .' . .;; i r> t i • i 

case may malicious. if thev SO believe 1 and upon such findma; the ri2;hts oi> 

iiudthepro- ^ J > L » to 

ceedingsma- the accuscd agaiust the informant are the same as in cases of ma- 
licious. _ ^ 

licious prosecutien on the criminal side of the Court. - 

§ 469. [And whenever it shall be made to appear to any Judge 
Attorneys ^^ ^^^ Supcrior Courts that any attorney at law practicing in said 
faii^ingtopay Qq^^^ ]^j^g failed, or fails, to pay his professional tax levied ac- 
cording to the laws of this State, and execution has been issued 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 8.— Judicial Department./ 103 

Article 3. — Attorneys at Law. 

ings against. 

for the same by the Tax Collector and returned by the j^roper of- 
ficer, no property to be found, it shall be the dutv of the Judge 
presiding in the Superior Court of the County -in which the said 
attorney resides to cause the Clerk of said Court to issue a rule 
requiring said attorney to show cause, by the next term of said 
Court, why he should not be struck from the list of attorneys and 
his license to practice declared of no effect, for his failure to pay 
his said professional tax — which rule shall be served by the Sheriff 
upon said attorney twenty days before the next term of said Court ; 
and if, at said term of said Court, said attorney fails to show suf- 
ficient cause, said Judge shall pass an order striking said attorney 
from the list of attorneys, and declare his license to practice in the 
Courts of Law and Equity in this State null, and of no effect.] (a) 

Shall be 
from the roll 



Article 1,— Justices of the Peace and their Courts. 
Article 2. — Constables, 


justices of the peace and their courts. 


470. Two Justices in each district. 

471. How removed from otfico. 

472. Vacancies — how filled. 

473. Election — how and by whom held. 

474. Inferior Covirt may order an election. 

475. Qualifications of a Justice. 

476. Inferior Court may appoint — when. 

477. The oath of a Justice. 

478. Oath — before whom to be taken. 

479. Criminal jurisdiction of the Justice. 

480. Civil jurisdiction of the Justice. 

481. Debts may be divided. 

482. Territorial and criminal jurisdiction. 

483. Justice may be sued in his owndist. 


484. If the Justice be disqualified. 

485. When there is no Justice. 

486. Suits may be transferred. 

487. When transferred. 

488. Transferred suits. 

489. Co-obligors, joint contractors, etc. 

490. Residents in districts not organized. 

491. Special powers and duties of Justices. 

492. Justices' Courts. 

493. Changed once in four years. 

494. Justices newly elected. 

495. Times and places now established. 

496. Judgments rendered. 

§ 470. There shall be two Justices of the Peace in each militia 
district of the several Counties of this State, elected by the peo- p 

Two Jus- 
tices of the 
e a c e in 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 16. 

104 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.~CHAP. 9.— Judicial Department. 


V Article 1. — Justices of the Peace and their Courts. 

each district, pie c^f eacli district, in the manner hereinafter prescribed, who 
hold their -©ffices for four years, unless sooner removed. 

§ 471. They a.:- removed from office in the manner prescribed 
How re- bj the Constitution, and also on conviction for malpractice in of- 

moved from n i - ' n 

office. hce, or oi any lelonious or miamous crime. 

§ 472. Vacancies are filled in the following manner : If there is 
Vacancies a Justicc of the Peaco in the district where the vacancy occurs, 

—how filled. , , ,, . ri T • 1 ^ - 1 ' ■ n I 

he shall appoint some featurday m a month, which is a time fixed 
for holding the Justice's Court of the district, and advertise the 
same at three of the most public places therein at least fifteen 
days before the day appointed. 

§ 473. On said day said Justice, with two freeholders, must hold 
Election Said elcctioii in the same manner that a regular election for Jus- 
tice of the Peace is held, and duly- certify the same to the Gov- 
commfssioa^ omor, who must commissiou the person elected for the unexpired 

ed by the . 
Governor. term. 

§ 474. If there is no Justice of the Peace in the district where 
If no Jus- the vacancy occurs the Justices of the Inferior Court of the County 

tice of the *^ . . . '^ 

Peace in the must Order an election in the same manner, through their Clerk, 

district, etc. , . . 

which may be held by three freeholders of the district, who must 
hold and certify said election in the same manner. 

§ 475. All persons are eligible to the office of Justice of the 
Quahfica- Pcaco who are entitled, in the County in which the district is 

tions of a . "^ 

Justice of situated, to vote for members of the General Assembly, who 

the Peace. ' ... 

have been three months in the district next preceding the elec- 
tion, and who do not labor under any disqualification. [Being a 
clerk shall be no disqualification.] (a) 

§ 476. When any district is without a Justice of the Peace, and 

On failure an olectiou has been legally ordered to supply the vacancy, and 

Justice of none is bona fide held at the time and place appointed, it is the 

the Inferior ^ , . i rr ? 

Court may duty of the Justicos of the Inferior Court to appoint two persons, 
resident in the district, such Justices to have it certified to the 
Governor, who must commission the appointees for the required 

§ 477. Justices of the Peace, before entering on the duties of 

of 'a^jusSce ^^^^^ office, bosides the oath required for all civil officers, must 

of the Peace. ^^^ ^^^^ following Oath I 

*' I do swear that I will administer justice without respect to 

(a) Acts of 1862-3, p. 42. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.~CHAP. 9.— Judicial Department. 105 

Article 1, — Justices of the Peace and their Courts. 

persons, and do equal rights to the poor and to the rich, and that 
I will faithfully discharge all the duties incumbent on me as a 

Justice of the Peace for the County of , agreeably to the 

Constitution and laws of this State, and according to the best of 
my ability and understanding. So help me God." 

§ 478. Such oaths shall be taken and subscribed before the such oath 

r»-!/^ • • 1 — before 

Justices of the Inferior Court of the County m session, but may whom taken. 
be taken before any one of such Justices, and so the dedimus 
potestatem for such purpose should state. 

§479. They have criminal jurisdiction in the followins: in- Their crim- 

'i ^ c inal jurisdic- 

stances : tion. 

1. In acting as conservators of and preserving the public peace 
in their respective districts and Counties. 

2. In issuing warrants for the apprehension of any person 
charged on oath with a violation of any portion of the Penal 
Code, or who are so known to them officially. 

3. In examining such persons when brought before them, and 
to commit, bind over, or discharge, according to the directions 
of this Code. 

4. In such other cases as jurisdiction may be constitutionally 

§ 480. They have a general and original civil jurisdiction — civiijuris- 

1. Of all suits or attachments on any liquidated demand, or 
an account not exceeding S^/^d:^ars, exclusive of~interest,.tpr 
where the debt has been larger, and the balance due is not more 
than said amount, or on the trial is reduced to said amount by 
bona fide payments, or other lawful set-off. 

2. Of contests for the mere possession of personal property. 

3. Of forcible entries and detainers, or either, with the aid of a 

jury of twelve men, as prescribed by this Code. ^i \ .:^^^ ^ 

4. Of all other causes when jurisdiction is constitutionally ^ ^ 
given them in their capacity as Courts or Justices. v \ ^ ' * 

§481. Debts which in the aggregate amount to more than Debtsmay 
Justice's Court jurisdiction may be divided into liquidated de- etc. ^^^^^^^' 
mands, so as to bring them each within such jurisdiction. 

§482. Their criminal jurisdiction extends over persons of, or Their crim- 
crimes committed in, their respective Counties, and their civil ju- ti'oi*'extend3 
risdiction over persons residents of their respective districts and county, etc! 
itinerant persons, and to persons of other districts, in certain par- 
ticular cases provided for in this Code. 


106 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 9.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1. — Justices of the Peace and their Courts. 
May be § 483. Ohg JustlcG of the PeacG may sue or be sued before the 

sued in his ,. . 

own district, other In his own district. 

§ 484. When a Justice of the Peace is disqualified from presi- 

whenthe ding, aiid there is no other Justice of the Peace in his district 

disqualified, -^ho is Qualified, any Justice of the Peace of the County is quali- 

who may ■■• ^ »/ ^ ^ ^ i 

act. fied to issue all process and to preside in his district ; and if a 

Justice of the Peace is sued under such circumstances, the suit 
may be located in any adjoining district. 

§ 485. Where there is no Justice of the Peace in any district 
to^b^ebrmfght whcro a defendant resides, or there is one and he refuses to serve 
S^^no *jus^ generally, or in any particular case, the suit may be located in 

tice, or he re- -■ . . . t , • • 

fuses toserve any adjommg district. 

§ 486. If suits are already commenced and are suspended for 
Suits may the waiit of a Justice of the Peace to preside, such suits shall be 

^ be transfer- ... . ■ 

red in cer- removcd to the adioining districts, unless the evil is removed 

tarn cases. .^ o ? 

within sixty days. 

§ 487. If, from any cause, all such suits can not be located or 

Maybe prosecuted in some adjoining district, they may be commenced 

totheCoun- or rcmovcd to the Justice's district which embraces the County 

ty site. •/ 

The Jus- § 488. The Justices of the Peace and Constables of any dis- 
constabres trict whcro a suit is thus begun or removed have the same power 
v\ ftlJ ^'^^ as those officers have in the proper districts. 

"^ *^^ y^ 489. Suits vs. makers and ind'tjffeers, and against co-obligors 
co-obiig- /Or joint-makers, may be located in the district where the princi- 

ors, join^ iii n ^ it •• i i i 

contractors, pal debtor or one oi the co-obiigors or loint-makers can be sued, 

and m^ers ,,, .,. ,.-, •,. . f. 

anTendors- and the othcr parties, who may reside m a dmerent district from 

.er s — h w , ^ ... 

sued. such in the same County, may be joined in the suit on the same 

terms such persons residing in different Counties may be sued in 
/pl^T^/% --the Superior Courts, but by the process used in Justice's Courts ; 
/lAA^ ^ ^4/ ^^^ ^^ s^^^ cases the Constable of the district where the suit is 
S jJi^fi "^ jf ^ located may serve such process in any part of the County. 

§490. Persons resident in any portion of a County whose resi- 

Personsre- dcncc, from any cause, is not embraced in any organized Justice's 

portiSn of a district, are subjected to suit in the district whose court-ground is 

nearest their residence where there is an acting Justice of the 


Special §491. Justices of the Peace have authority, and it is their 

powers and /l,ifA7 

duties of the *^^V 

umerSedr" !• To sclect somc Central and convenient place in their respect- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 9.— Judicial Department. lOT 

Article 1. — Justices of the Peace and tlieir Courts. 

ive districts at which to hold their Courts, and some stated day in 
each month as the time, of which they shall give ample public 
notice, and also to keep their offices within said districts ; but in 
towns or cities which embrace more than one district, they may 
hold their Courts and keep their offices at some central and con- 
venient place within the limits of said towns or cities. 

2. To fine not more than five dollars, nor imprison more than 
five hours, any person guilty of a contempt of Court, and to pay 
the fine to the County Treasurer for County purposes. 

3. To issue attachments returnable to their own and, in certain 
cases, to the Superior and County Courts of the County. 

4. To issue all process necessary to maintain their jurisdic- 
tions and enforce their authority under the sanction of law. 

5. To administer oaths and take affidavits, except the power is 
expressly restricted to some other officer, and to take the ac- 
knowledgment or probate of any conveyances required to be 

6. To keep a docket of all causes brought before them, in 
which must be entered the names of the parties, the returns of 
the officer, and the entry of the judgment, specifying its amount 
and the day of its rendition. 

7. To carefully file away and label all papers appertaining to 
any cause, and all fi, fas. and other process returned, after being 
satisfied, entered ''nulla bona,'' or have otherwise discharged 
their functions. 

8. To attend the Superior and Inferior Courts of their Counties, 
whenever required, with such docket or papers of file. 

9. To establish, when lost, in the manner prescribed by law, 
any paper appertaining to any suit or otlier proceeding in their 
respective Courts. 

10. To answer interrogatories from Courts of other Counties, 
as to the contents or condition of any of the dockets, files, or 
papers of their office, and to attach thereto copies of such, when 
such interrogatories are propounded and such copies required. 

11. To perform such other duties as are or may be required 
by law, or which necessarily appertain to their office. 

§ 492. If any Justice's Court is held at an inaccessible or incon- justice's 
venient portion of any district, or such a place is hereafter piac"?^^ 
selected, the qualified voters of such district may petition such howchan^- 
Justice to change the place to some other place, naming it, and 


PT. l.—TIT. 5.— CHAP. 9.— Judicial Department. 

Article 1. — Justices of the Peace and their Courts. 

if he refuses to cliange, they may apply to the Justices of the 
Inferior Court ; and if such Justices are satisfied that the place 
where such Court is held works an inconvenience to a majority of 
the citizens of such district, they shall change the place, to take 
effect after the expiration of thirty days, have it entered on their 
minutes, and published in the district. 

§ 493. Vv^hen a place for holding such Court is once fixed it 
can not be changed except in the manner stated, and then but 
once during the four years' official term; nor can the time be 
changed by the Justices but once. 

§494. When new Justices of the Peace are qualified, and 
they desire to change the place or time of holding such Courts, 
they may do so by giving public notice of the fact, stating the 
place and the time to which changed, or either, and the first 
Court to be thus held, which change shall not go into effect short 
of sixty days from the time of advertising. 

§ 495. The times and places now established for holding Justices' 
Courts are not disturbed by the enactment of this Code, and the 
militia districts now established by law remain the same, but they 
may be altered and new districts formed by Justices of the 
Inferior Court of each County as hereinafter prescribed. 

§ 496. All judgments of such Justices rendered in any civil 
cause anywhere else than at the place and time for holding their 
Courts lawfully appointed, are void. 

The place 
and time of 
holding Jus- 
tices' Courts, 

New Jus- 
tices may 
change the 
time and 
i n g their 

Time and 
ing Justices' 
Courts not 
disturbed by 
the adoption 
of this Code. 

—when void. 




497. Two Constables in each district. 

498. How removed from office. 

499. Vacancy — how filled. 

500. Justices failing to agree. 

501. If there is but one Justice. 

502. Justice failing or refusing to appoint. 

503. Qualifications of Constable. 

504. Disqualifications. 

505. His oath of office. 


506. In cases of emergency. 

507. Must give bond and surety. 

508. Clerk must certify. 

509. Additional surety — when. 

510. May be ruled and attached. 

511. May be ruled in Superior Court. 

512. His special duties enumerated. 

513. Penalty for acting after retiring. 

Two Con 

stables for 

5497. There shall be two Constables in each militia district of 
lach ^strict th® several Counties of this State, elected by the people of each 
the^^^peop^ie district as hereinafter prescribed, who hold their offices for two 
years unless sooner removed. 

for two 


PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 9.— Judicial Department. 109 

Article 2. — Constables. 

§498. Thej are subject to be removed from office on the same How re- 
grounds and on the same proceedings as Clerks of the Superior office. 
Court are, and on conviction for malpractice in office as Justices 
of the Peace are. 

§ 499. Vacancies are filled by appointment of the Justices of vacancies 

^ ... — ^ow filled. 

the Peace of the district in the following contingencies : 

1. When, from any cause, there is a failure to elect, qualify. Failure to 
and give bond at the regular time. 

2. When there is a death, resignation, or removal of Constable. . i'eath,res- 

' o 7 ignation, or 

3. When from sickness, or other providential cause, the district ^'^^'^^i^^- 

is without a Constable, there may be an appointment, if an sent %lm 
emergency arises, to continue until the regular Constable enters cause. 
on the discharge of his duties. 

4. When the Constables of the district are absent temporarily Tempora- 

■•■ "^ ry absence 

from the district the like power may be exercised. fro«»>tne dis- 

§ 500. If there are two Justices of the Peace, and they can not Justices 

- failing to a- 

agree upon an appointment, the one who has served lonsrer as g'-ee on ap- 

1 • IT- \- ^ T 1 -.1 • pointmentof 

such continuously and immediately preceding, shall appoint; if constables. 

there are two Constables to appoint, each Justice shall appoint 


§ 501. If there is only one Justice of the Peace, he may make .when there 

•^ -^ »' IS but one 

the appointment, but it shall be in the discretion of the Justices, Justice he 

-'■•'■•' ' may appoint 

whether one or two, to appoint the second Constable or not, if 
there is one in office, or one or two if there is none in office. 

§ 502. If the Justice of the Peace of any district fail or refuse in case 

Justice of 

to have as much as one Constable in their district, for as Ions: as tii« Peace 

. ^ ff^il to ap- 

thirty days from the time such a vacancy occurs, the Justices of p^^^t' etc. 
the Inferior Court of the County shall fill the appointment. 

§ 503. The eligibility for Constables is the same as that for Quaiisca- 
Justices of the Peace, but any person may be appointed Consta- constable. 
ble to fill vacancies or to answer some emergency, who are at the 
time residents of the district. 

§ 504. Constables can not be Sheriffs or Sheriffs' deputies, nor DisquaM- 
can they be either Clerks of the Superior or Inferior Courts, nor 
can such officers be Constables. 

§ 505. Each Constable, before enterins; on the duties of his oath of a 

fY, 1 TTMT'iT Constable. 

onice, must take and subscribe, beside the oath for all civil officers, 
before the Clerk of the Inferior Court of his Countv, the follow- 
ing oath: ''I swear that I will duly and faithfully perform all the 
duties required of me as Constable of the County of , 

110 PT. 1.— TIT. 5.— CHAP. 9.— Judicial Department. 

Article 2. — Constables. 

according to the best of my ability and understanding. So help 
me God." 

§ 506. Constables appointed to answer some sudden emergency, 
Constables as in Scction 499, may take and subscribe said oath before the 
an emergen- Justiccs of the Pcacc appointing them, who shall file the same in 
qualified, thc officc of the Clcrk of the Inferior Court. 

§ 50T. All Constables, except those thus appointed, must, before 
Constables entering on the discharge of their duties, give a bond payable to 
bond W the Justices of the Inferior Court of the County and their suc- 
cessors, with two good sureties resident in the County, in the 
sum of five hundred dollars, to be approved by such Justices, 
„ , which shall be by the Clerk of said Court filed in his office and 

Bond— '^ 

when filed, recorded in a book kept for that purpose. 

§ 508. When such oath is taken and filed and such bond given. 
Clerk In- guch Clcrk shall issue to such Constable a certificate of such facts 

fenor Court 

must certify ^nd make an entry thereof on his minutes, which certificate shall 

to filing affi- t/ 7 

bond ^"^ answer as his commission. 

§ 509. Constables may be compelled to give additional bonds 

May be upou couiplaiut made on oath before any one of the Justices of 

give addi- the Inferior Court, if after the hearing such Justices so order it 

tional surety , , 

done, and upon failure to do so shall be removed by such Justices. 

§ 510. They are liable to rule, attachment, and penalties in 

May be their rcspectivc districts, but in default of any Justice of the 

how, ' in a Pcaco in sucli district, or if there are such who refuse to serve, 

Court. they may be ruled before any Justice's Court of an adjoining 

district or the Superior Court. 

§ 511. It is optional with parties to rule Constables before the 
May be SuDcrior Court of their respective Counties, in term time, on the 

ruled in Su- •»• l j / 

perior Court, same tcrms that Justices of the Peace are ruled. 
§ 512. It is their duty — 

1. To attend regularly all terms of the Justice's Court in their 
respective districts. 

2. To attend all terms of the Superior or Inferior Courts of their 
Special du- respcctivc Countics, when summoned by the Sherifi" for that purpose. 

ties enumer- ■•• . it-iiii 

ated. 3. To give receipts for notes or other liquidated demands 

placed in their hands for collection. 

4. To pay over money promptly as collected to the party enti- 
tled thereto, and in case of conflicting claims to any money, to 
report the same to the next Justice's Court of the district where 
they are amenable, for its order in the premises. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 5.— Judicial Depahtment. Ill 

Chapter 10. — Corporate Courts. 

5. To execute and return all warrants, summons, executions, 
and other process to them directed by lawful authority. 

6. To perform such other duties as are or may be required of 
them by law, or which necessarily appertain to their offices. 

§ 513. If any Constable exercises the duties of his office after Any per- 

•^ ^ ^ son acting 

removal from the district where he was elected or appointed, he is as constable 

i i ' after he is 

subject to a fine of fifty dollars for every such act, to be recovered g^^vgct^^to 
before any Justice of the County in which he resides by any one ^'^®- 
suing for the same — one-half to the use of such person, the other 
half to the use of the County. 



1^ JSection 514. Corporate and Police Courts— how affected by the Code. 

§ 514. The organization of the various Corporate and Police corporate 

" o r and Police 

Courts of this State, and the laws relative thereto, are undis- affectedT^T 
turbed by the adoption of this Code, unless additional, concur- *^^^ ^^^®- 
rent, or exclusive jurisdiction, or cumulative remedies, are con- 
ferred by it upon them, or other Courts, or other magistracy, 
and then they are altered only to that extent. 



Chapter 1. — Militia Districts. 

Chapter ^.—Incorporation of Counties, County Contracts, etc. 

Chapter 3. — County Revenue. 

Chapter ^.^County Officers not before specified. 

Chapter 5. — Roads, Bridges, Ferries, Turnpikes, etow^''^'^^'^^ 

Cravteu 6.— The County Poor. ,. :. ^^'^-^^Vl- 




PT. 1. — TIT. 6. — County Organization. 

Chapter 1. — Militia Districts. 




515. Counties divided into militia districts 

516. Districts to remain the same. 

517. Must contain a captain's company. 

518. How laid out or changed. 

519. Survey and compensation therefor. 


520. Proceedings to be recorded. 

521. To be transmitted to the Governor. 

522. Elections to be ordered by Clerk. 

523. Officers not removed by making. 

524. Not to affect pending suits. 

§ 515. Each County of this State is divided into militia dis- 
divided"hito *^'^^^^ accoi'ding to their respective territory and population liable 
Siits.^ ^^'- to bear arms. 

Districts § 516. Such districts as at present organized are to remain the 
etc. ' same until changed in the manner hereinafter prescribed. 

§ 517. Each district hereafter organized or chano;ed must con- 
Must con- taijj within its limits at least as many persons, resident at the time 

tarn a cap- v' tr ^ 

panv ^^^' ^^ ^^® organization, liable to militia duty as are necessary to 
form a captain's company according to the militia laws, and in 
its formation must not leave any older district with a less 

§ 518. Whenever it may be necessary and expedient to lay out 
How laid a ucw militia district, or to chanofe the lines of old ones, the 

u t, r ^ , ° . 

changed. Justiccs of the Inferior Court may, at any time, appoint three 
commissioners, citizens of the district or districts from which it is 
proposed to make the new district, or change the lines thereof, 
whose duty it shall be to lay out and define such lines, and report 
the same to the Clerk of such Inferior Court. 

§ 519. Such commissioners have authority to engage the ser- 

survey and vices of a Competent surveyor to assist them in their duties, who 

compensa- -■■ *' ' 

tion therefor shall be paid for his services, out of the County Treasury, the 
same compensation County Surveyors have for similar services 
rendered a citizen. 

§ 520. If the Inferior Court approves their report, they shall 
Proceed havc all proccedincrs in the matter entered on their minutes, after 

ings record- ... 

^^' which the district laid out, or line changed or defined, shall be 

known and regarded accordingly. 

§ 521, It is the duty of such Clerk, if a new district is laid 
inc-s^Tr^be ^^^' *^ transmit instanter to the Governor such proceedings from 
te'd^ "to^'the ^^-^^^^ minutes, duly certified, and to publish them for thirty days 
?nd^ Ydve'r- ^* *^® ^^°^ ^^ "^^^ Court Housc and in the public gazette where 
dfys. ^'^"^^ ^^^J ^^ \h^\Y official advertising. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— County ORaANizATiON. 113 

Chapter 2. — Incorporation of Counties, County Contracts, Property, and Claims. 
§522. As soon as such is done, such Clerk must immediately cierkmust 

order an e- 

order an election for the requisite number of Justices of the Section for 

^ Justices, etc. 

Peace and Constables (for such district), after advertising the 
same for thirty days in three of the most public places of the 
new district. 

§ 523. If, in layino; out a new district, or in changing the lines Making or 

^ ^' ./o y &0 changing 

of old districts, the residences of Justices of the Peace or Con- ^,i str^icts 

•' ^ snail not re- 

stables elected are included in the new district, or cut off from ^^^"^^ ^^- 

' cers. 

the district for which they were elected, they have authority to 
discharge their duties for the district for which they were elected 
until their terms of office expire and their successors in such 
district are qualified, unless elected to the same office in the new 
district to which they are eligible. 

§ 524. Suits pending in any Justice's Court must not be r»oes not 
changed because the residence of a defendant is included in the pending. 
new district or cut off into another district, but they must pro- 
ceed as though no such change had been made. 




525. Each County is a body corporate. 

526. Suits against a County. 

527. Contracts with the Inferior Courts. 

528. Grants, deeds, etc. 

529. Property of the County. 

530. County buildings — by whom erected. 
631. Preservation of buildings, etc. 

532. Occupancy of rooms in Court House. 

533. Court Houses, Jails, etc. 


534. Injuries to public buildings, etc. 

535. Dimensions and construction of Jails 

536. Tax — by whom levied. 

537. On failure to levy such tax. 

53S. Public buildings, etc., to be inspected 

539. Duty of the Judge. 

540. Claims against the County. 

541. Must be presented in twelve months. 

542. Judgments against the County. 

§ 525. Every County which has been or may be established in EachCoun- 
this State, is a body corporate, with power to sue or be sued in corpoiitS*^^ 
any Court. [And all inhabitants of Counties in this State, who are 
competent jurors in other cases, are declared and shall be holden 
to be competent jurors in any case, in any Court, where such 
Counties are parties to the suit or interested therein in their capa- 
city as corporations or qiian corporations.] (a) 

§ 526. Suits against a County must be against the Inferior suits m. 
Court, and personally served on the Clerk of such Court, who howYi-onght 

(a) Acts of 18G3-4, pp. 72-3. 

114 PT. 1. — TIT. 6. — County Organization. 

Chapter 2. — Incorporation of Counties, County Contracts, Property, and Claims. 

must make an entry thereof on his minutes, and suits by the County 
must be in the name of the Inferior Court. 

§ 527. All contracts entered into by the Justices of the Infe- 
Contracts yioy Court, with Other persons in behalf of the County, must be in 

with the In- _ ^ ' ^ ^ '' ^ 

ferior Court -^i-itinsj and cntcred on their minutes. 

must be m o 

writing. g 528. All dccds, conveyances, grants, or other instruments, 

Deeds which havo been or may be made to any officer or person for the 

made for the iir»pi/-N ♦ ^ n\ i-i 

benefitofthe usc and Deneiit 01 the County, vests m such County the title as 
fully as if made to such County by nanae. 

§ 529. The Justices of the Inferior Court have the control of 
The Jus- all property belonging to the County, and may by order, to be 

tices of the ,.. ,. it ir> i 

Inferior entered on their minutes, direct the disposal oi any real property, 

troitheprop- which Can lawfully be disposed of, and appoint a commission to 

County. make titles thereto, and the conveyance of such commission in 

accordance with such order, vests the grantee or vendee with the 

title of the County. 

§ 530. The County buildings are to be erected and kept in order 
County and repair at the expense of the County, under the direction of 

buildings -^ , ^ ^ '' 

—by whom guch Justiccs, who are authorized to make all necessary contracts 

erected, etc. ' '' 

for that purpose. 

§ 531. It is the duty of the Justices of the Inferior Court to 
Duty of erect or repair, when necessary, their respective Court Houses, 

the Justices . . 

of the infe- and Jails and all other necessary County buildin2;s, to furnish 

nor Court m ./ t/ o 7 

'^ubiicbuiid'- ^^^ ^\-^ all the furniturc necessary for the different rooms, offices, 
co?ds^^^ ^■®" or cells, and to procure a fire-proof safe or safes, sufficient to hold 
at least all the minute books and books containing records of 
judgments, books of officers' bonds, all recognizances, the bonds 
of administrators and guardians, the record of wills and of ap- 
praisements and sales, unless the Court House has a fire-proof 
vault ; such books and papers, and all others that can, must be placed 
in such safes or vaults at night, or when the officers are absent. 
§ 532. Such Justices shall designate the rooms in the Court 
Eooms in Housc to bc occupicd by each of the County officers, and enter the 

th e Court . . . . 

House. same on their minutes, which they may change from time to time 
as convenience may require. 

§ 533. The Court Houses, as well as Jails, the public grounds 

Court and other County property, are placed in the keeping of the Sher- 

Jails, etc., in iffs of the respectivc Counties, subject to the order of such Jus- 

the keeping . i»'i«i i r» •• 

of the Sher ticcs, and it IS their duty to preserve them from injury or waste 
and to prevent intrusions upon them. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— County Organization. 115 

Chapter 2. — Incorporation of Counties, Count}'- Contracts, Property, and Claims. 

§ 534. If any person designedly destroy, injure, or deface any injuries to 
of the public buildinsi-s, the appurtenances thereto, or the furni- i^?^^ etc.— 
ture inside, or shall use either for any indecent purpose, such ^d. 
person shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction be 
fined or imprisoned, or both, at the discretion of the Court, 
besides being liable for the damages. 

§ 535. The County Jails hereafter constructed must be of suffi- Dimen- 
cient size and strength to contain and keep securely the prisoners construction 

of i 11 1 s 

and debtors which may be confined therein, and must contain at 
least three apartments, properly ventilated, so as to secure the 
health of those confined therein — one for debtors, one for criminals, 
and one for females. 

§ 536. The Justices of the Inferior Courts of the several Coun- The jus- 

. tices of the 

ties have the power to levy an extra tax sunicient to carry into inferior 

■^ "^ , ^ "^ Courts may- 

effect Sections 530 and 531, without a recommendation by the^evyatax. 

Grand Jury, whenever the necessities arise. 

§ 537. If such Justices fail to comply with the requirement of on failure 
said Sections, or to levy the tax, or levy an exorbitant tax, or levy extra tax a 
one when unnecessary, their conduct may be reviewed by the «s may issue 
Judge of the Superior Court, by mandamus or injunction, as the 
nature of the case may require, at the instance of any tax payer 
of the County. 

§ 538. It is the duty of the Grand Juries to inspect all the pub- Grand Ju- 
lie buildings and other property of the County and the County sp?ct puwic 

1 1, , ' .T • ^ 1 ' T l)ullding?,re- 

records, ana to report m tneir general presentments their condi- cords, etc. 
tion, and if they report that such Justices have failed to comply 
with the law touching the same, it is the duty of the Solicitor 
General of the Circuit to commence proceedings against them, 
that they may be compelled so to do, if they do not in good faith 
comply by the next term of the Superior Court. 

§ 539. The Judges of the Superior Court shall, when necessary. Duty of the 
call the attention of the Grand Jury to the duties required of such s u^pVrVo? 
Justices in this chapter. 

§ 540. Such Justices must audit all claims against their respect- ah claims 
ive Counties and every claim, or such part thereof as may be county to be 
allowed, must be registered, and the Clerk of said Justices must 
give the claimant an order on the Treasurer for the amount. 

§ 541. All claims against Counties must be presented within Must be 
twelve months after they accrue or become payable, or the same with intone 
are barred, unless held by minors or other persons laboring under ^^^^' 


PT. l.~-TIT. 6.—CHAP. 3.— County Oeganization. 

Article 1. — ^From Taxation. 

disabilities, who are allowed twelve months after the removal of 
such disability. 

§ 542. The private property of the citizens of a County shall not 
Judgments be bound by any judgment obtained ag-ainst the County, but such 

against tlie , ^ ,/ ^ <s> g j 7 

c^y^u^tj- judgment, if binding, shall be satisfied from money raised by law- 



fui taxation. 



Article 1. — From Taxation. 
Article 2. — From Other Sources. 




543. Tax for County ptrrposes. 

544. Duty of Justices Inferior Court. 

545. Failure of Grand Jury to recommend 

546. When there are several Grand Juries. 

547. Creditors of the County. 

548. Objects of a County tax. 

549. When debts exceed amount raised. 

550. The order i^ust specify the object. 

551. Must be advertised for thirty days. 

552. Specific taxes. 


553. How entered, collected and paid out, 

554. Collector's fees and liabilities. 

555. Mode of allowing commissions. 
55G, Payment of County tax, etc. 

557. Persons holding County tax. 

558. Failing to pay, execution may issue, 

559. Illegality — when — how tried. 

560. Persons borrowing County funds. 

561. Fi.fa. or ca. sa. may issue. 

562. The Inferior Court may remit. 

§ 543. The Justices of the Inferior Court have power to raise 

Tax for a tax for County purposes, over and above the tax they are here- 

poses— how inbefore empowered to levy, and not to exceed fifty per cent. 

upon the amount of the State tax for the year it is levied, provided 

Two-thirds two -thirds of the Grand Jury at the first or Spring Term of their 

of Grand Ju- • /^ , • it, " 

ry must re- rcspective Uountics rccommend such tax. 

§ 544. It is the duty of such Justices to see that by the time of 
Duty of the organization of such Grand Jury they shall have prepared 

«l lis C ICC' S ill" 

ferior Court. \yj their County Treasurer, under their supervision, a statement 
^ of the financial condition of the County, and the amount of tax 

County . 

Treasurer, required to dischargc the County liabilities for that year, which 
condition^^of ^hall bc by the Treasurer presented to the Foreman of the Grand 
etc. ^^""^■■^' Jury on the first day of Court for inspection by that body. 

§ 545. If from any cause such Grand Jury is not impanneled, 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 3.— County Organization. 117 

Article 1. — From Taxation. 

or they adiourn without takino^ any action tliereon, or they refuse if tte 

-> ^ o ./ . Grand Jury 

to make such recommendation sufficient to discharge any iuda;ment fan to rec- 
that may have been obtained against the County, or any debt for ^^^'• 
the paymetit whereof there is a mandamus, or the necessary 
current expenses of the year, such Justices may levy the neces- 
sary tax without such recommendation. 

§ 546. When there are several Grand Juries impanneled durinsc ^^ ^^^^^ 

^ -^ ^ be several 

such term the recommendation of either panel shall be sufficient <^rand ja- 

■■• ^ ries, etc. 

authority, but if there are counter presentments on the subject it 
shall be as though there had been an entire failure to report 

§547. The right of a creditor of a County to compel such tax ^ c^^e^li^rs 

"^ o ./ i of the Coun- 

levied, or of a tax payer to resist it, is the same as set forth in *^ ^^^ ^^ 
Section 537, touching tax for building. 

§ 548. County taxes shall be assessed for the following pur- , objects of 

•' a i. levying a 

poses : County tax. 

1. To pay the legal indebtedness of the County due, or to 
become due during the year, or past due. 

2. To build or repair Court Houses or jails, bridges or ferries, 
or other public improvements, according to the contract. 

3. To pay Sheriiis, Jailors, or other officers' fees that they may 
be legally entitled to, out of the County. 

4. To pay Coroners ail fees that may be due them by the 
County for holding inquests. 

5. To pay the expenses of the County for Bailiffs at Courts, 
non-resident witnesses in criminal cases, fuel, servant hire, sta- 
tionery, and the like. 

6. To pay jurors, when by the local law they are allowed 2. per 
diem compensation. 

7. To pay expenses incurred in supporting the poor of the 
County, and as otherwise prescribed by this Code. 

8. To pay charges for educational purposes, to be levied only 
in strict compliance with the law^ 

9. To pay any other lawful charge against the County. 

§ 549. When debts have accumulated against the County so that whendebts 
one hundred per cent, on the State tax, or the amount specially amount raia^ 
allowed by local law, can not pay the current expenses of the tioD,^tc.*^* 
County and the debt in one year, they shall be paid off as rapidly 
as possible, at least tvfenty-five per cent, every year. 

§ 550. As soon as the County tax is assessed for the year, it 

118 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 3.— County Organization. 

Article 1. — From Taxation. 
The order shall be done by order of such Justices and entered on their 

must specify ^ *^ 

tiie object, minutes, which must specify the per cent, levied for each specific 

per cent, le- ' i. ./ j, r 

eite'red*^ on V^^^V^^^- ^hc asscssmont applies to every species of value or 
the minutes, specifics which is taxed by the State, [including the value of shares 
in any railroad that is in running condition, or banking com- 
pany owned by any person either in their own right or in the 
right of another; and such owner shall return the number and 
value of such shares with his other taxable property; but such 
shares shall not be so taxed if it interferes with the previous vested 
rights of the railroad or bank under its charter.] (a) 

§ 551. The Clerk of the Inferior Court must advertise imme- 

The order diatoly a copy of such order for thirty days at the door of the 

tised thirty Court Housc and in a public gazette, if one is published within 

days by the . . . . . 

Clerk. the limits of their respective Counties, and furnish the Tax Col- 
lector with another copy, and if he fails so to do, shall be fined by 
such Justices not less than fifty dollars. 

§ 552. Taxes raised for educational purposes, or the support of 
Taxes for the poor, OT any other specific purpose, must be used for such 
purpose. purpose respectively, and none other. 

§ 553. All taxes so levied for County purposes must be assessed 
How enter- upou the Tax Rccciver's books for each year, and collected by 

ed collected ./-'./ 

and paid out.' the Tax Collcctor, who shall pay the same to the County Treas- 
urer, except educational tax, which shall be paid to the Ordinary. 
§ 554. The Tax Collectors shall be allowed the same commis- 
Coiiector's sious and fees for such collections as they are allowed by law for 
Muty.^ la- ^j^^ collection of the State tax, and are liable to the same fines 
and forfeitures for any default or improper conduct. 

§ 555. [The Inferior Courts in allowing Collectors their com- 
Mode of niissions for collecting the taxes levied by their respective Coun- 
commis^sionl ^^^^ ^^^ authorized and required to aggregate the taxes for the 
various purposes levied, and to allow commissions on the whole 
amount, in accordance with the schedule from which the Comp- 
troller General is authorized to allow commissions to Collectors 
for collecting the State tax.] (b) 

§ 556. Any other remedy or right allowed by law for the 
Payment onforccment of the collection and payment of the State taxes, 
forced. ^^' either by the Comptroller General or Tax Collector, may be used 
for the County taxes by the Justices of the Inferior Courts. 

(a) A.cts of 1862-S, p. 60. (b) Acts of 1861, p. 8L 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 3.— County Organization. 


Article 1. — From Taxation. 

^557. Such Justices shall also have authority to compel all Persons 

. .. *^ . ^ holding 

persons, their heirs, executors, or administrators, who have or county tax 

r 7 ' ^ compelled to 

may have in their hands any County money, collected for any p^J^^^^^ *^® 
County purpose whatever, to pay over the same. 

§ 558. On failure to pay the same, such Justices shall cause on failure 
their Clerk to issue executions asrainst such persons and their potion may 

° ^ ^ issue. 

securities, if any, for the full amount appearing to be due, as the 
Comptroller General issues executions against defaulting Tax 

§ 559. If such execution shall issue for too much, or if defend- niegaiity 

^ ' — on -what 

ant denies on oath owing any part thereof, he may, by filing an grounds. 
affidavit of illegality, according to the rules governing other ille- 
galities, cause an issue to be formed thereon, which shall be ^, 

^ , , . When and 

tried by a special jury at the first term of the Superior Court ^o'^ tried. 

§ 560. The provisions of the foresroinp; four Sections are appli- ah per- 

■"■ . . sonsborrow- 

cable to all persons and their sureties who may borrow, or pre- ["? money 

••• t/ ^ 1 belonging to 

tendedly borrow, any County money from any person having cus- gy^-e^t^^^? 
tody thereof, and shall be, in all respects, held as holders of ^^|j^^^p^^; 
County funds. t^'*"^- 

§ 561. Where the Justices of the Inferior Court are authorized J^»- /«• or 

ca. 9a. may 

to issue ji. fas., they are also authorized to issue ca. sas. on the issue. 
same terms as other plaintiffs. 

§ 562. In all cases where persons have been overtaxed, or for The Jus- 

tlces of the 

any other cause taxes are claimed to be remitted, refunded, or in inferior 

•^ . . ' ' Court may 

any manner claimed against, the Inferior Court shall be author- remit the 

*' . . County tax. 

ized to hear and determine such application to the extent of the 
interest of the County therein. 




563. Sources of the County revenue. 

564. Retail licenses — shows, etc. 

565. Licenses issued for one year. 

566. Retailing spirits without license. 

567. Exhibiting shows, etc. 

568. Peddling without license. 

569. Disabled soldiers may peddle. 

570. Tax payer may demand a license. 


571. Violations of preceding Sections. 

572. Duty of Clerk in relation to shows. 

573. Special defense — how made. 

574. Damages against defendants. 

575. Not to interfere with Penal Code. 

576. Money raised — how appropriated. 

577. The Clerk failing to pay over money. 

120 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 3.— County Organization. 

Article 2. — From Other Sources than Taxation. 

§ 563. All sums which are paid into the County Treasury for 
Coun^Tev-*^® following accouuts make a part of the County revenue — viz: 
timabyta?- ^' ^^^ ^^^® authorized sale of any County property, unless 
ation. otherwise directed. 

2. For the rent or hire of any County property. 

3. For shows or exhibitions. 

4. For licenses to sell spirituous liquors in any quantity. 

5. From estrays. 

6. From licenses to peddle. 

7. From any other sources. 

§ 564. The County charges for such licenses are as follows : 

Eetaii li- To retail spiritiious liquors $25 00 

CGHSGS cxlii- 

bitions, aad To sell spirituous liquors, not by retail, in quantities less than 

^^'''^'- one gallon 5 00 

To peddle within the County, unless otherwise provided by the 

Inferior Court under the law 50 00 

To exhibit shows with horses 10 00 

To exhibit animals, beasts, and the like 10 00 

To exhibit pictures or figures 5 00 

To exhibit any other show, not less than $5.00, nor more than 

$25.00, as the Justices of the Inferior Court may order. 
To exhibit theatricals or musical entertainments, for profits to 

the proprietor, not more than $5.00 on each exhibition, 

and subject to contract Vv'ith the Court. 

§ 565. All such licenses, except exhibitions, are for the term of 
Licenses, One year, extending!; to the County limits ; but license to retail or 

excei)t for " . . . . 

exhibitions, sell spirituous liouors will only authorize, either by the person 

issue for ^ -•■ ^ ^ ^ ^ '^ ^ ./ r 

one year, in whoso name it issues or his clerk, to sell at some one fixed 
place in the County, which must be specified in the license. 
§ 566. If any person retails or sells spirituous liquors without 
Retailing first obtaininsT such license, or, having obtained it, sells at any 

without li- ° . 

cense. other Or more places than the one fixed in the license, or trans- 
'fers it and allows it used by any other person than himself or an 
authorized clerk, he forfeits to the County, for each violation, 
twenty-five dollars. 

§ 567. If any person exhibits any show without first obtaining 
Exhibiting such liccnse, or exhibits a show diiferent from that for which he 

shows, etc., 

without li- obtained license, he forfeits to the County three times the cost of 

eense. , _ "^ 

license for each exhibition. 

§ 568. If any person, except a disabled soldier of this State, 

Peddling poddlos without first obtaining such license in Counties where the 

cense. ' Justices of the Inferior Court take no action regulating peddling, 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 3.— County Organization. 121 

Article 2. — From Other Sources than Taxation. 

he forfeits to the County one hundred dollars for the first act of 
peddling, and for each month thereafter, twenty-five dollars more. 

§ 569. [It shall be lawful for any disabled soldier of this State Maimed 
to peddle in any County or Counties thereof without paying for pedd?e wTth^ 
license for the privilege of so doing ; and a certificate from the ^^ 
Justices of the Inferior Court of any County, stating the fact 
of his being such disabled soldier, shall be sufficient evidence 
thereof: j)7'ovided tha^t this Section shall not authorize peddling 
ardent spirits, and provided also that the privilege hereby granted 
shall not be transferred to or used by any other person.] (a) 

§ 570. Any tax payer of a County may call upon any person Any tax 

•^ '^ , ." . . payer may 

in pursuit of any occupation for which a license must be obtained demand a ii- 

-•• . . cense. 

to exhibit his license, and if he fails so to do, it shall be sufficient 
grounds, on making affidavit of the fact, to cause such forfeiture ; 
and if, on investigo,tion, it appears that he has such license, he 
forfeits the sum of ten dollars and costs. 

§ 571. If any Justice of the Inferior Court, or Clerk thereof, violation 
of their own knowledge, knows of the violation of the foregoing preceding 
three Sections, or if any person will make affidavit of such fact, bowpumsh- 
it is the duty of the several Clerks of the Inferior Courts of this 
State, unless they know to the contrary, to issue a process di- . 

vviciK. LOIS* 

rected to all and singular the Sheriffs and Constables of this sue process. 
State for the amount of such forfeit, commanding them to levy j^ ^^^^ 
on sufficient of the property, real or personal, of the defendant ®^^" 
to satisfy the same and costs, and to levy and sell the same as in 
case of attachments ; and in default of finding goods enough for 
such purpose, to arrest such defendant and him safely keep as in Defendant 
cases 01 perso-ns under ca. sa. ouch process must be returned to rested. 
the Court from whence it issues. 

§ 572. If any show is on exhibition in any County without the Duty of 

... J J the Clerk of 

license required, it is the duty of the Clerk of the Inferior Court th« inferior 

^ '' ^ Court in re- 

instanter to place such process in the hands of such officer ; and ^^^'^^ ^^ 
if, on presentation, the license fee required and all costs are in- 
stanter paid, it shall discharge the same, but not otherwise ; but 
if such course is not taken, it is no waiver of such forfeiture. 

§573. Persons against whom such process may issue may ar- Persons 
rest the same by swearino; that they have not violated the law on ^^li'^st may 

•^ , . defend. 

account of which process has issued, and by otherwise complying 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 46. 

122 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 3.— County Organization. 

Article 2. — ^From Other Sources than Taxation. 

with the provisions of the Section against persons holding County 

funds, and which shall be returned and tried in the same manner. 

§ 574. If, on the trial of such issue, the jury who tries shall 

a^^aSsr^de- ^^^^^^^ ^^^* ^^^^ affidavit was filed for delay only, or is without 

fendants. g^y cxcuso to sustaiu it, they shall so state in their verdict, and 

if they so find, the defendant shall pay twenty-five per cent. 


§ 575. The penalties and forfeitures hereinbefore set forth are 
terSrwUh ^^* *^ interfere with any provision of the Penal Code, that is or 
(?ode. ^^""^^ ^^y ^® enacted, making such acts penal. 

§ 576. The moneys arising from such licenses are to be paid to 
pr^^riatedr *^® County Treasurer to be used for County purposes, but one- 
half of moneys arising from forfeitures go to the informers. 
§ 577. When any Clerk of the Inferior Court shall neglect to 
Proceed- pay over to the County Treasurer, if he is not County Treasurer, 

mgs against -i- •/ ^ »/ ' «/ ' 

for failing to or shall retain in his hands any money collected on account of the 

pay over «/ «/ 

money. Couuty, or belonging thereto, the Justices of the Inferior Court 
may compel him to do so by rule at any time, and if he then fails 
so to do they may issue fi. fa. against him and his securities as 
against defaulting Tax Collectors, and the proceedings then and 
afterwards shall in every respect be the same. 



Article 1. — County Treasurer, 
Article 2. — County Surveyor, 
Article 3. — County Coroner, 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.— County Organization. 


Article 1. — County Treasurers. 




578. Election and term of office. 

579. Failure to elect at a regular time. 

580. When such election should be held. 

581. Must give bond and take an oath. 

582. Term of office. 

583. Vacancies— how filled. 
581. Qualifications. 

585. Clerk being appointed Treasurer. 

586. Oath of the County Treasurer. 

587. Amount of his bond. 

588. Appointment to fill vacancies. 

589. County funds, by whom received, etc. 

590. His office— where kept. 

591. Treasurer's duty, etc. t 

592. Books to be furnished. 


593. Books, etc., — where deposited. 

594. Debts of County — what order paid. 

595. County orders — when payable. 

596. Persons holding orders. 

597. Orders not paid for want of funds. 

598. County orders negotiable. 

599. Treasurer shall not purchase. 

600. Buying at a discount, etc. 

601. Clerk failing to render a statement. 

602. Duty of the Treasurer, etc. 

603. Both offices held by same person. 
601. Treasurer failing to pay over. 

605. Must turn over books, etc. 

606. Final settlement on retiring. 

Treasurer — 

§ 578. County Treasurers are biennially, on the second Monday 
in January, appointed by the Justices of the Inferior Court of |JJJJ[ ^^^^^^^^^ 
each County, except when there is a regular election for such ^®^®- 
Justices, when it must be done as soon after their qualification as 

§579. If there are not as many as three of such Justices in Justices of 

" "Z tuo Inferior 

commission, who meet at the time designated for such appoint- ^'^^[J/nd^"" 
ment, it may be adjourned from time to time until there are at 
least three present. 

§ 580. Such appointment should take place as Ions; as possible when the 

^ ^J- ^ or appointment 

before the first session of the Superior Courts in each County for ^^^^^^ ^® 
the year. 

§581. No appointment is effectual until bond and security is ^^^^J^ *jj^ 
given and the oath of ojffice taken. give bond. 

§ 582. When once appointed or elected, and qualified, they hold May bere- 

^ ^ 7 i 7 »/ moved from 

their offices [for two years and] (a) until their successors are quali- ^J^J^' ^^^ 
fied, unless sooner removed, and they may be removed in the same 
manner that Clerks of the Superior Courts may be, to be judged 
of by the Justices of the Inferior Court, unless elected by the 
people, and in that case by the Superior Court. 

§ 583. Vacancies are filled by the appointment of such Justices, vacancies 
whether the Treasurers are originally elected by the people, or 
appointed by them. 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 18. 

124 PT. l.—TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.— County Organization. 

Article 1. — County Treasurers. 

§584. ISTo other conditions of eligibility are required save those 
His quaii- that apply to all other officers, but no other officer can be County 
Treasurer except a Clerk of the Inferior Court. 

585. When a Clerk of the Inferior Court is thus elected or ap- 
The Clerk pointed, he shall take the oath and siive the bond required of a 

of the Infe- J^ ^ ^ c ^ 

nor Court Countv Trcasurcr, but the securities on his Treasurer's bond 

being ap ^ ' 

po i nted g^all be different from those on his Clerk's bond, unless they are 
SthindAve clearly able to satisfy both. His oath of office must be entered 
^°^^' on the minutes of the Inferior Court and filed in the office of the 

and bond Ordinary, and his official bond must- be filed and recorded in said 

must be re- 
corded, office. 

§ 586. County Treasurers before entering on the duties of their 

The form offico, bcsidcs the oath required of all civil officers, must take the 

of the oath, . . 

following oath — viz : " I, , do swear f will faithfully collect, 

disburse and account for all moneys or other effects of the County, 
and otherwise faithfully discharge all the duties required of me 
by law, as County Treasurer. So help me God." 

§ 587. They shall also, within ten days from their election or 

Amount of appointment, give a bond payable to the Justices of the Inferior 

IS bond, QQ^x:t of the County, with securities to be by them approved, in a 

^ sum which, in their judgments, will be double the amount of the 

County tax for the ensuing year, receipts from other sources, and 

cash on hand. 

§ 588. The bonds of appointees to fill vacancies shall be like- 
Appointees wise in their discretion, taking into consideration the amount that 

to fill vacan- i • i i i f> i t i t 

cies must may come to their hands and lor aouble such amount. 

give bond. 

§ 589. All County funds are to be paid to and disbursed by the 

^o-u^nty County Treasurer, except such as may be specially excepted by 

SivS and ^^^' ^^*^ i^Qii to be Collected and disbursed as specially directed. 

paid out. g 590^ jjq must keep his office at the County site, or at some 

oifice— place within one mile of the Court House. 

where kept, o r cx-t -r • ^ • i 

§ oyl. it IS their duty — 
-p^^ ^^ 1. To diligently collect from all officers and others all County dues. 
S-easureMa '^' ^^ cxamiue the minutes and execution dockets of the differ- 
coiiectmg. ^^^ Courts of the Counties, to demand and receive all moneys ap- 
pearing to be due thereon, and to institute proceedings against 

3. To pay without delay, when in funds, all orders, according 
the County to their dates (or other debts due), and when not in funds as here- 

Treasurer in ^ 

paying out. inaftcr prescribed. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.~-CHAP. 4.— County Organization. 125 

Article 1. — County Treasurers. 

4. To take a receipt on each order when paid and carefully file Must take 

■•■ i. ./ receipts 

it away. 

5. To keep a well-bound book in which shall be entered all re- 
ceipts, stating when received, who from, and on what account, and 
all amounts paid out, stating when paid, to whom, and on what 

6. To keep a well-bound book in which shall be entered a full shaii keep 
description of all County orders, or other forms of indebtedness, the indebt- 
as they are presented ; to record a copy of the orders of the Infe- the county. 
rior Court levying County taxes. 

7. To exhibit to the first Grand Jury at the first session of the shaii ex- 
Superior Court of each year, a full statement of the condition of same to the 
the County Treasury up to that time, and on the second Monday 

in January, annually, to file with the Clerk of the Inferior Court 

A S t 1 1 G- 

a full statement of his account, accompanied by his vouchers for ment of the 

... . County 

the preceding year, together with his estimate of the indebtedness f"n<is to be 

^ ° "^ ' ° , . , tiled with 

of the County for the ensuing year, and the means of providing cierk of the 
therefor, and to place his books before either of said bodies for c^^"'<^- 
examination when called upon. 

8. To appear before either of said bodies to render an account 
of his actings and doings as County Treasurer, and to exhibit his 
books and vouchers whenever notified. 

9. To publish at the door of the Court House, and in a public Annual 

gazette, if there is one published in the County, a copy of his be advertis- 

annual statement to the Justices of the Inferior Court. 

§ 592. All books and stationery the County Treasurer may re- Books, etc., 
, . -^ -^ "^ to be fur- 

quire must be furnished at the expense of the County. tl^^^r ^^ 

§593. When the books of such Treasurer are full, they, to- Books, 
gether with the vouchers or other files relating thereto, or con- Itc."-^ when 
nected with the office, must be deposited in the office of the Clerk ^^^^®'** • 
of the Inferior Court and afterwards be part of their records. 

§594. When there are funds enough to pay all outstanding The order 
orders and other forms of indebtedness due, which the Treasurer debts of the 

T'T ^ 1 . T ...... -, County shall 

may be authorized to pay, tliey may be paid indiscriminately be paid, 
without regard to their dates ; when there is enough to pay all 
dated anterior to some particular dates, all such may be likewise 
paid indiscriminately ; when there is not enough to pay all of 
equal degree, they shall be paid ratably ; under all other cir- 
cumstances, they shall be paid in tfie order of their dates. 

§ 595. No order shall be paid until after five days from its date 

126 PT. 1,— TIT. 6.— CHAP, 4.~County Okganization. 

Article 1. — County Treasurers. 

Cou&tyor- and delivery, unless otherwise specially ordered, that the Clerk of 
paid. the Inferior Court may furnish in the meantime the County Treas- 

urer with a full statement of all orders issued, which shall be by' 
him immediately registered, and when so registered shall be paid 
according to law without further notice to the Treasurer previous 
to the time of payment. 

§ 596. If any person holding County orders shall fail to pre- 
Persons sent them by the first day of December of each year to the County 

holding / "^ '^ •^ 

County or- Trcasurcr for payment, they shall be postponed to all orders 
to present ^hich wcrc SO presented and not paid for want of funds. 

§ 597. On the first day in December of each year such Treas- 
ordersurer shall make an entry of all orders entitled to payment which 

not paid for *' '■ '^ 

want of -^erenot so presented for payment, and what orders not of equal 
dignity have been paid instead, in whole or in part, and what 
others are entitled to payment before such non-presented orders. 
Persons holding such orders, who present them without receiving 
their pay before said day, may have the Treasurer annually to 
mark thereon ''Presented,''' the day of presentation, and not paid 
for want of funds. 

§ 598. All County orders are negotiable by delivery or endorse- 
Connty or- ment, and the endorser liable according to the terms of his en- 

dersnegotia- . i i r> 

bie. dorsement, as m commercial paper, but no such transfer can take 

place so as to prevent a Treasurer from setting ofi* any sum that 
the payee may be due the County at the date of the order. 

§ 599. Such Treasurer ig forbid to buy up any County orders 
Treasurer or claims for Icss than their full par value, either by himself or 
purchase or- agcuts, dircctly or indirectly, or by paying for them in property 
count. at an estimated value above its true value. 

§ 600. If any County Treasurer shall thus buy up any County 
Penalty order or claim, or refuse to pay an order when he has funds to 

for buring ^ '^ 

orders at a pay the samo, or illegally postpone one, he shall be removed from 

refusing to office on complaiut and proof being made to the Justices of the 

Inferior Court, and is moreover-' guilty of a misdemeanor, and, 

upon conviction, shall be fined not less than one hundred nor 

more than five hundred dollars. 

§ 601. If any Clerk of the Inferior Court shall fail to render 

The Clerk iH at the time required, to the County Treasurer, a full statement 

rend^er a of the County ordcrs as they are passed (except from providen- 

statement to., • i t i 'ini'm n i* 

the Treasur- tial causc or Unavoidable accident), he is guilty oi a contempt oi 
Court, and shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars for 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.— County Organization. 127 

Article 1. — County Treasurers. 
each failure ; and in case such Justices fail so to fine such Clerk, shaii be 

fined not less 

thej are also guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction, shall than $100. 
be likewise fined. 

§602. If the Clerk is unable to render such schedule, or fails Duty of 

^ the Treasur- 

so to do by the end of five days, it is the duty of the County ^'^j.^^^^j ^J^^' 
Treasurer to examine the proper books, minutes, or files of such *^^^ j.**^ 
Clerk, and take therefrom such schedule, and on failure so to do, ^^™®- 
except from providential cause, he incurs the same penalty that 
the Clerk does. 

§ 603. When the Treasurer and the Clerk of the Inferior Court when the 

offices of 

are the same person, separate books must be kept, the same sepa- Treasurer 

^ ' ^ .-•■'. -^ and Clerk is 

rate duties must be performed, so far as possible ; and if a Clerk held by the 

■•• ' ^ ^ same per- 

who is Treasurer is removed as Clerk, it works his removal as ^oa. 

§604. When the County Treasurer at anytime fails to pay county 
any order which is entitled to payment, or other legal demand faiiiDg to 
upon him, or to pay any balance that may be in his hands to his money, exe- 

^ ' X ./ ./ ^ J ^ cutiou uiay 

successor, or to the person entitled to receive it, the Justices of ^ssue. 
the several Inferior Courts may issue execution against him and 
his sureties for the amount due, as against a defaulting Tax Col- 

§'605. In case of the resignation, expiration of the term, or county 


removal from office, such Treasurer, or if he is dead, his personal must turn' 

^ ■^ ^ over to his 

representative, must state his accounts, and deliver all the money, successor 


books, papers, and property of the County to his successor, as 
other officers do, who must report the same immediately to the 
Justices of the Inferior Court. 

§ 606. When such County Treasurer or his representative has rinai set- 
made a fair and full statement of all his accounts and liabilities a retiring 
as such, an exoneration of himself and sureties, together with the 
details of such settlement, must be entered on the minutes of the 
Inferior Court, and be final, except for fraud. 


Note. — In many Counties the Treasurer is elected by the people. See local 
acts as to each County, none of which are included in this Code, or repealed by 
its adoption, unless expressly mentioned. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.— County Organization. 

Article 2. — County Surveyors, 




607. How elected and removed from office. 

608. Failing to elect at the regular term. 

609. Appointed by the Court. 

610. His oath and bond. 

611. May be removed from office. 

612. One for each County. 

613. Assistant must take an oath. 

614. May keep his office at his residence. 


615. General duty of County Survej'or. 

616. Fees for surveys — how paid. 

617. Survey made between Counties. 

618. Charges for survej's — how contested. 

619. Surveys and plats — when evidence. 

620. When there is no County Surveyor. 

621. Others acting as County Surveyors. 

622. Making false survey — how punished. 

§ 607. Count J Surveyors are elected, commissioned, qualified, 
County and removed as Clerks of the Superior Courts are, and hold their 

Surveyor — ™ n ^ 

how elected, omces lor two Ycars. 

etc. "^ 

§ 608. In case there is a failure to elect a person who is com- 

on failure missioucd and qualified at the regular time, or a vacancy occurs, 

reguiar^ime. the Justiccs of the Inferior Court must appoint such Surveyors, 

which appointment takes efi'ect as prescribed in the case of County 


§ 609. If a County Surveyor derives his authority from aj^point- 
if ap- ment, he needs no commission beyond the order of such Justices 
the Court, entered on their miautes, of which appointment the Governor of 
eommission. the State must be informed by their Clerk without delay. 

§ 610. Before entering on the duties of his office, besides the 
His oath, oath required of all civil officers, he must take the following : 

" I, , swear that I will, to the best of my skill and 

knowledge, discharge the duties of Surveyor of County, 

and that I will not admeasure, survey, or lay out any land in 
my capacity as such, or knowingly permit or cause it to be done, 
without a warrant first obtained for that purpose. So help me 

He shall also, at the same time, give bond and security in the 
sum of one thousand dollars. 

§ 611. Whether appointed or elected, besides the causes of re- 
May bo moval which apply to all officers, he may be removed by the Jus- 
th^Tustice'^ tices of the Inferior Court for want of capacity, on the same pro- 
rior Court, cccding before them, and hj them to be decided, that officers are 
removed in the Superior Courts. 
Must be § 612. There must be one for each County, and he is empow- 

one for eacn i. •, •,, ii*i*i 

County. ered to appoint one or more assistants or deputies, tor whose con- 
an^aSistont ^^^t he IS responsible. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.— County Organization. 129 

Article 2. — County Surveyors. 
§ 613. When such an assistant is appointed he must take the Must take 

'^ ^ ■•■ ^ an oath. 

same oath the Surveyor takes, and the fact of the appointment 
must, at the same time, be entered on the minutes of the Inferior 

§ 614. The County Surveyor may keep his office at his place of j^.^^^^^^^^^p^ 
abode, if within the limits of the County. ws residence 

§ 615. It is his duty — - 

1. To punctually observe and carry into effect all such orders ^^ Sll^comf 
as he may receive from the Surveyor General or other officer ^y surveyor. 
who may lawfully command him. 

2. To admeasure and lay off dower, to partition lands, to make 
re-surveys, to give plats of all surveys, and to administer all oaths 
required by law in such cases. 

3. To survey County lines and district lines, or other surveys, Mnstsur- 

•^ -^ ^ '' ■' vey County 

in which his County may be interested, whenever required by the j^^^g^^^^"^^ 
Justices of the Inferior Court. 

4. To execute all surveys required by the rule of any Court of 
competent jurisdiction. 

5. To keep a well-bound book in which shall be entered plats Must keep 
of all surveys made by him, with a minute of the names of the 
chain-bearers, when executed, by whose order and to whom plat 
delivered, if any ; which book shall belong to his office and be 
turned over to his successor, and when full shall be deposited in 

the office of the Clerk of the Inferior Court. 

§616. When surveys are made for private or corporate benefit. Fees for 

If* 1 • 1 T 1 • surveys — 

the lees are to be paici by the person, or persons, or corporation tow paid, 
who orders the survey; when by order of the Justices of the 
Inferior Court, out of the County funds ; and when by rule of 
Court, unless otherwise agreed upon, they are to be taxed in the 
bill of costs, and shall have the effect of a judgment lien upon the 
land surveyed, if not paid by the party bound for costs. 

§ 617. When a surve}^ is made by agreement, or in compliance survey be- 
with the law, between two or more Counties, the County Surveyor tie?^ 
who performs the survey is to be paid by his County, which must 
collect from the other Counties their proportion. 

§ 618. If after a County Surveyor has made a survey for any payment 
person, who neglects to pay him, such Surveyor upon making or's fe'eY— 
oath before the Clerk of the Inferior Court of his County of the ed. 
performance of such service and its value, such Clerk shall issue 
di>fi.fa. in the name of the Justices of the Inferior Court, for the 


PT, 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.--C0UNTY Organization. 

Article 2. — County Surveyors. 

use of such Surveyor, against such defaulter, who may defend 
himself therefor, in the same manner as persons against whom 
executions issue who detain County funds. 

§ 619. Surveys or plats of land made by the County Surveyor, 
Surveys or under ordcr of Court, and on notice to all the parties of lands 

plats of land i-/^ • tit- rY»-n i 

—when evi- withm his Couuty, Signed by him officially, and stating the con- 
tents, courses, distances, of any land surveyed by him, are pre- 
sumptive evidence of the facts, if all the requisites of the law 
touching such surveys and the reports thereof are complied with. 
§ 620. When there is no County Surveyor, any competent per- 
When there SOU, a citizen of the County, may perform his duties, when spe- 
ty Surveyor ciallv required, if first sworn to do the same skillfully, faithfully, 

who may act. . . . »' ' 

and impartially, to the best of his knowledge; or in default of 
such person the County Surveyor of an adjoining County may 

§ 621. Persons performing such service are on the same footing 
Persons as Couuty Survcyors as to the special service rendered, and are 

actlns: "=•'•' ^ 

County su- personally liable as such Surveyors are officially. 

veyor liable ^ '^ *^ »' 

as such. § (322. When any County Surveyor, or other person acting as 

False sur- such, lias kuowiugly surveyed land as vacant land which is not, or 

lilj.^ ' so made any other false survey, he is guilty of a misdemeanor, 

and on indictment and conviction shall be imprisoned not longer 

than six months. 




623. How elected and removed from office 

624. Justices Inferior Court may appoint 

625. Coroner's oath. 

626. Must give bond and surety. 

627. Additional surety may be required. 
62S. Jailor, when Sheriff is imprisoned. 

629. Shall serve process in certain cases. 

630. Shall hold inquests in certain cases. 


631. May disinter dead bodies. 

632. Subject to indictment. 

633. Inquest unnecessary in certain cases. 

634. Death by accident, etc. 

635. Costs paid out of County funds, etc. 

636. On conviction, costs a part thereof. 

637. Justice of the Peace may act, etc. 

§ 623. Coroners are elected, commissioned, qualified, and re- 
coroners- movcd, as Clcrks of the Superior Courts are, and hold their 

how elected - 

and remov- officcs lor two years. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.— County Organization 131 

Article 3. — Coronei'S. 

§ 624. The Justices of tlie Inferior Courts appoint Coroners Justices 
on the same terms and m the same manner that they do County nor com-t 
Surveyors, which appointments take effect as those of County 

§ 625. Before entering on the duties of his office, besides the coroner's 
oath required of all civil officers, he must take the following: "I 
swear that I will well and truly serve the State of Georgia in said 
office, and will faithfully and truly execute all writs and precepts 
to me directed, or which I may lawfully execute, when placed in 
-my charge, and return the same according to the best of my 
knowledge, skill, and judgment ; that I will, in no case, knowingly 
use or exercise my office illegally, corruptly, or unjustly, and that 
I will not, under any pretense, take, accept, or enjoy, any fee or 
reward pertaining to my office, other than such as are allowed by 
law, but that I will, in all things touching the duties of my office, 
demean myself honestly, fairly, and impartially, according to the 
best of n^y ability. So help me God." 

§ 626. He must likewise, at the same time, give bond and surety Must give 
in the sum of five hundred dollars, which may be for a greater or surety.' 
less amount, according to the local law now or hereafter in force. 
He is liable for retaining moneys collected, or otherwise failing to Liable as 
do his duty, as Sheriffs are, and is subject to the same proceed- 

§ 627. When a Coroner has to act in the place of a Sheriff, Addition- 

. -,, 1 x • n ^ T /-i al bond may 

generally or specially, the Justices of the Inferior Court may be required. 
require of him an additional bond, in such sum and with such 
sureties as in their discretion they may think sufficient to meet 
the contingency. 

§ 628. He is keeper of the jail, when the Sheriff is imprisoned Keeper of 

1 r* ^ r^ , t • i j^i's — when. 

or absent trom the County, leaving no deputy. 

§ 629. When a Sheriff is disqualified, and it does not appear shaii serve 
upon the face of the proceedings, or he, or his deputy, refuses to l^'ha ca^s!"^ 
perform a service, if any person makes affi_davit thereof, the Clerk 
of the Court from which it issues shall place the process in the 
hands of the Coroner for execution, and may compel its return to 
his office for such purpose. 

§ 630. It is the duty of the Coroner to take inquests — si^^n i,oid 

1. Of all violent, sudden, or casual deaths. Sm casTs."^ 

2. Of all deaths in prison, without an attending physician. 

182 PT. l.-— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 4.— County Oegakizatios^. 

Article 3. — Coroners. 

3. Of all dead bodies fonnd, whether of persons known ar un- 

4. Of all dead bodies of persons who have died or disappeared 
under suspicious circumstances. 

5. Of the dead bodies of persons of whom affidavit may be 
made, that they came to their death by violence or foul play. 

6. Whenever ordered by a Court having criminal jurisdiction. 
§ 631. They are authorized, in order to carry into effect the 

May disin- preceding Section, to disinter any body already buried, and, like 

XBV ClGJlCl DO* ^ 

dies. a Sheriff, to command the power of the County for that purpose, 

§ 632. If any person makes affidavit to facts to authorize such 

Person proceeding by the Coroner, or the Coroner does so of his own 

making affi- -^ . ° "^ 

davit subject motiou, and it is done without srood grounds, or from malice or 

to indict- ^ / ^ *= ^ ' 

ment. mischicf, the person so swearing, or the Coroner so officiating, is 

subject to indictment, and if convicted shall be fined not less than 

On convic- ^^^ hundred dollars and imprisoned not less than thirty days. In 

finedSidim^ such cases all the circumstances shall go to the jury, and if they 

pnsone . "j^giieve there were reasonable grounds for the disinterment at the 

time it took place, it is their duty to acquit. 

§ 633. When persons have come to their death by violence, and 
An inquest tlierc are witnesses to it, and the person accused is under arrest 

unnecessary. . . , / -tit 

and undergoes an examination beiore a competent tribunal, there 
need not be an inquest. 

§ 634. There also need be no inquest where persons come to 
Death by their death by accident or act of Grod, in presence of witnesses, 

accident or ^ *^ •"■ 

the act of and there is no reason to suspect foul play and no person makes 
affidavit of facts raising such suspicions. 
Cost to be §635. The costs of such inquests shall be paid out of the County 

paid by the n -i 
County. funds. 

If the par- § ^^^' ^^ ^^7 p^i^sou is coiivictcd of murdcr or manslaughter in 
is convict^i^ a case where an inquest has been held over the body of the person 
Saice a^part for slaying whom he is convicted, the costs of the inquest make 
viction. '^°^' a part of the costs of the conviction, and must be so charged. 

§ 637. When there is no Coroner in a County, or he is absent 

A Justice from the County when needed, or will not or can not take an in- 

of tliG Pghcg 

may act qucst, any Justice of the Peace of the County may act as Coro- 

PT. 1. — TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 


Article 1, — Public Roads. 




Article 1. — Public Roads. 

Article 2. — Road Commissioners and their Duties. 

Article 3. — Bridges, Ferries, Turnpikes, and Causeways. 

Article 4. — Railroad Crossings. 

Article 5. — Private Ways. 

Article 6. — Mininq. 




638. What roads are considered public. 

639. Shall be thirty feet wide. 

GiO. Bridges and Causeways, 16 feet widCo 

641. Districts laid out, et-c. 

642. Roads and Districts to be registered- 

643. How laid out or altered. 

644. Notice of application advertised, etc» 
^45. Holders of 'land — how notified. 

Roads established, etc. 
Application must be in writing. 
Laid out the nearest and best way. 
Persons subject to road duty. 
What roads to be worked. 

651. Number of days required to work. 

652. Lists of hands to be furnished. 
Must be summoned one day. 
What the notice must contain. 
Duty of the overseer. 
Sudden obstructions in roads. 
Special working to be deducted. 
Defaulters fined one to three dollars.. 
Extraordinary implements. 
Road may be apportioned. 
Persons to whom road apportioned. 
Applicant refusing to accept. 
Failing to work after acceptan-ee. 
Complaint against Commissioners. 




665. Defaulters may file excuse. 
QQQ. Executions against defaulters. 

667. Fine money — how appropriated. 

668. Constables collecting, etc. 

669. Lien of j^. fa. 

670. Timbers used for road purposes. 
67L Public roads measured, and posted. 

672. Sign-boards to be put up at forks. 

673. Failure to put up posts, etc. 

674. Overseer may be indicted. 

675. Railroad hands — how exempted. 

676. Land owners aggrieved, etc 

677. Persons claiming damages, etc. 

678. Trial — how conducted. 

679. Notice to Justices, etc. 

680. The time and place of meeting. 

681. Objections to jurors. 

682. Continuances, etc. 

683. Mistrial. 

684. Certiorari. 

685. Final judgment and payment. 

686. Value of the land — how estimated. 
^687. Consequential damages. 

688. Overseer may be fined. 

689. Altering or obstructing public roads. 

690. By a fence or tree. 

691. Main streets in towns or cities. 

§ 638. AH roads laid out for public use by an act of the Gen- Pubiicroads. 
eral Assembly, if not otherwise provided, or by an order of the 
Justices of the Inferior Court, are declared to be public roads. 

§ 639. They shall be cleared of all trees, stumps, grubs, and shaii be 
bushes, at least thirty feet wide, and of such limbs of trees as wide, 
may incommode horsemen or carriages ; stumps must be cut as 

134 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— CouirrY Organizatioj^. 

Ai'ticle 1. — Public Roads. 

^ k__,_ . 

nearly even with the surface as possible, and the carriage tracl: 
must be at least five feet six inehes wide. 

§ 640. All bridges or causeways over small wr.?ter com^ses, and 

Bridges causcways over swamps or low lands, shall be made and Itept in 

ways. repair by hands subject to work on roads ; th© pieces shall be- 

Shall be l^id across the road at least sixteen feet long, well secured, made 

sixteen ee ^^^^^ ^^^ covorcd with earth. 

§ 641. The Justices of the Inferior Court must lay off their re- 
Eoad dis- spoctivc Counties into road districts, and apportion the roads and 

tricts laid oft' ,. . r»i 

and hands hands SO as to dividc the labor and expense on account ot roads^ 


causeways, and bridges, equally througho'dt said Counties ; all of 
which proceedings must be entered on the minuter. 

§ 642. They must cause their Clerk to keep registered, in a 
public book in his office, a list of all public roads and road districts in 

roads and tit,! i 10- ♦ 

road districts the Countv, to bc added to and corrected from time to time, as 

to be regis- . . . 

tered. ^ new roads or new districts are laid out, or old ones altered or 


§ 643. On application to them for any new road, or alteration 

Public in an old road, they shall appoint three Road Commissioners, re- 
roads — how ' y X J. ^ ^ 

laid out or siding* as near where such road is intended to pass as possible, and 

altered. ^ _ ... r r :' 

if they find it of public utility they must proceed to mark it out, 
and make their report under oath to such Justices that it was laid 
out and marked conformably to law. 

§ 644. If such Justices, on the investigation had, are willing to 
Notice of frrant such road, or make alteration in an old road, they shall 

application , , . , . . -* (^ 

must be ad- causc the Clcrk to publish a citation for thirty days at the door of 

vertisedfor ^ ^ ^ . 

thirty days the Court Houso, and in a public gazette, if there is one in the 
County, giving a particular description of th^e new road, or the 
alteration, notifying all persons that on and after a certain day 
therein named, said new road or alteration will be finally granted, 
if no good cause is shown to the contrary. 

§ 645. All persons, their overseers er agents-, residing on land 

Persons in which such road goes through, except the applicants for the road 

posses&ion to . " 7»-». 

be notified, or alteration, must be at the same time notified m writing, per- 
sonally, or by leaving it at their most notorious place of abode, 
that they may put in their claim for damages, or forever after be 

§ 646. All public roads established without a substantial com- 

void roads, pliauco with the provisions of the last named Sections, are void. 

§ 64T. Applications for the discontinuance af an old road^ in 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 135 

Article 1. — Public Roads, 
whole or in part, raust likewise be made to such Justices in wri- Application 

. TIT • must be in 

ting, and likewise published, before it shall take effect. writing. 

§648. All public roads shall be laid out the nearest and best, .Must be 

, . Ifiid out the 

way to the place to which they are intended, and as little as can ll^l\^l^ ^^^ 
be to the prejudice of any private person's enclosed grounds. 

§ 649. fAll male inhabitants, white and black, in this State, Persons 

■- ^ ^ subject to do 

between the ages of sixteen and fifty years, are subject to work road duty. 
on the public roads, except ordained or licensed ministers or 
preachers of the gospel, professors of any college, or teacher of z.^^/ /^4.- 
any County or public school in this State, so long as they are 
engaged in teaching, and such other persons as are specially ex- 
empted.] (a) 

§ 650. The same road hands shall not be compelled to work on on what 

1 T • 1 • 1 • 1 "1 ^^^^^ hands 

more than one public road, which must come withm three miles compelled to 

. . - work. 

of their residence, except in opening a new road, when all the 
road hands of the road district are subject to work upon it. 

§651. Road hands are not required to work exceeding five Notrequir- 

•1 1 ^ n 1 T ^^ ^^ work 

days at one time consecutively, nor more than fifteen days alto- more than 

•^ . "^ ' . -^ . five days. 

gether, in twelve months, unless sudden emergencies require the 
immediate repairing of the roads, causeways, and bridges within 
their respective districts. 

§ 652. The several managers or employers of male fpersons of Aiistof 

hands to be 

color] (b) shall, whenever required, furnish the overseers of the furnished. 

road district, with a list, in writing, of those who are liable to 

work on the public roads, signed by them, under a penalty of Penalty for 


paying three dollars for each male [person of color] (b) so liable 
to road duty and whose names are not furnished, to be collected 
as fines for not working the road. 

§ 653. Overseers of roads in their respective districts shall sum- uamisto 

•n ^ - .,.,,.. , be summon- 

mon all persons liable to road duty witnm the district, at least ed one day. 
one day before the time of working. 

§ 654. Such summons must state the road to be worked, the what the 

notice must 

time and place for meeting, and the implements required. contain. 

§ 655. Such overseers shall superintend the working on the overseer 
roads assigned them by the Commissioners, cause the same to be 
worked and repaired in the best possible manner, and make a re- 
turn thereof to the Commissioners in writing, within five days Defaulters 
after each time of working, of all defaults and deficiencies which ed. ^^^"'^'^ 
may have taken place. 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, pp. 23 and 78, and Acts of 1851-3, p. 283. (b) Acts of 
1865-6, p. 33. 

136 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 

Article 1. — Public Roads. 

§ 656. When any road, or bridge, or causeway, may become 
Eoads-etc, Suddenly impassable, it is the duty of such overseer to call out as 

suddenly be- i i • i 

comin^c im- many hands as necessary to repair the same, after giving one 
day's notice. 

§ 657. They shall take notice of the time such hands are em- 
Time of ployed ou such SDCcial workings, and shall excuse them from road 

special work- J- «/ ■•■ <-> ' 

dmjtei ^ '^^' ^^*^ ^^ equal number of days out of the whole number all hands 
are required to work during the year. 

§ 658. Every individual liable to road duty who, being duly 
Defaulters summoucd to work, shall neglect to obey such summons, and to 

to be lined 7 n J ^ 

SVoTm^e c^^^y ^^^® implements as ordered, or, appearing with or without the 

than $3. implements, neglects or refuses faithfully to work, [shall be fined] 

(a) not less than one nor more than three dollars for every day he 

or they fail to work, [or be imprisoned at the discretion of the 

Commissioners.] (a) 

§ 659. If any other instrument than ordinary farming tools 

ExtraoHi- arc ncccssary to keep the road in repair, the overseer may receive 

ments— how them iu exchange for the labor of hands, or may apply to the 

obtained , n ^ V c • r^ ^ ^ • ^ - 

Justices 01 the interior Court, who may authorize him to contract 
for such as may be necessary, and pay for the same out of the 
County Treasury. 

§ 660. When a person liable to road duty makes an application 
Pubiicroads to the Road Commissioners for a proportion of road for himself 

mav be ap- 
pointed to and hands to work on and keep in repair, they shall parcel oif 

to each applicant some equal and just portion of said road, to be 

increased or diminished according to the number of hands, and to 

be judged of by the Commissioners. 

§ 661. Persons to whom portions of roads are thus apportioned 

Dutyofper- must make annual returns to their respective Commissioners, 

sons taking . n ^ ' 

a portion of whenever they require them, ot the number and names ot their 

the road to »/ . i . 

^^^^' hands liable to road work, and after they have received and put 

in good repair their respective portions, such hands shall not be 

transferred to any other part of the road, or compelled to do any 

other road work, so long as they perform their work satisfactorily 

to the Commissioners. 

Persons re- § ^62. If the applicants do not accept the portion of road as- 

cep°^a^''por'- slgucd thcm by the Commissioners, they must still work in com- 

roads? ^^^ mou with the other hands of their road districts. 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 23. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 137 

Article 1. — Public Roads. 

§ 663. If, after having accepted such portions, they neglect to Penaityfor 
keep them in good repair, they are liable to all the penalties and keep/' such 
forfeitures to which Commissioners are liable for neglect of duty, 
besides'the usual road fines on the hands. 

§ 664. If such Commissioners assign any person a portion of complaint 

, ag-ainst com- 

road thus to work, which, taking into consideration his number of missioners. 
hands as compared to the number liable to do road duty on such 
road, is not an equal shar'e of the labor, any white male road 
worker of the same road and district may complain to the Jus- 
tices of the Inferior Court at any time, and on giving such per- 
son three days' notice thereof in writing, such Justices may sum- Three 
marily hear all the evidence, and if they believe the complaint is 
just, they shall revoke such grant by the Commissioners, and so 
have them instantly informed by their Clerk. 

§ 665. All defaulters must file their excuses, if any, on oath be- Defaulters 

' •' ' may file ex- 

fore the Commissioners, who must meet at some place within the ^^^^ 
district for fininsr defaulters, of which place of meeting they shall 

, . . . . 1 Commis- 

sive ten days' notice, in writino^, at one or more of the most pub- sionersmust 

i=> J ^ 7 ^ &' ^ ■'^giveteii 

lie places in the district, and no other notice shall be necessary, days' notice, 
§ 666. Such Commissioners must issue executions under their Executions 
hands and seals [or their warrants of arrest, as the case may be,] fauiters. 
(a) against each defaulter who fails to render a good excuse, di- 
rected to any lawful Constable, who shall levy and collect the 
same as executions issued from the Justices' Courts [or, as the 
case may be, arrest the defaulter and bring him before the Com- 
missioners to abide the judgment of the same.] (b) 

§ 667. When such fi. fas. or warrants are collected within ten Fines— 

1 1 /. 1 1 • 1 PI ^^^^ dispos- 

days thereafter, the amounts must be paid to any one oi tneedof. 
Commissioners, one-half of which shall be paid to the overseer 
having had charge of the hands fined ; the other half to the County 
Treasurer, to be used in the building or repairing of bridges. 

§ 668. If Constables nesrlect their duty in collectina: such fl. constables 

^ ^ ., , r o 11 mayberuled 

fas., or fail to pay over the money, [or fail to make such arrests 
and bring the parties arrested before the Commissioners, they 
shall be subject to rule and suit at the instance of such Commis- 
sioners, as though the^. fas. or warrants had issued from a Jus- 
tice's Court. In all cases where executions may be issued against 
road hands in the employment of others, notice to the employer 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 33. (b) Acts of 1865-6, p. 2d. . 

138 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 

Article 1. — Public Roads. 

of the existence of such execution shall have the force and effect 
of a garnishment, and shall operate as a lien on what is due or 
to become due from such employer to such employee, and may be 
collected as in cases of garnishment.] (a) 

§ 669. The liens of such judgments are the same as any other 
Lien of judgment, and claim according to their priority in the distribu- 

commission- . p , . i n i 

ers' judg- tiou 01 moucy, oxcopt that no property is exempt thereirom, and 
if illegalities or claims are interposed, they must be returned as 
orciaim!^^^^ though issued from a Justice's Court in which the road district is 
situated in whole or in part. 

§ 670. Overseers are authorized to make use of any timbers for 
Timbers tho usc of the roads, and may make contracts with owners of 

may be used ^ \ *^ 

land for other timber, if indispensable, and if they disagree as to 

the value, the overseer shall appoint one arbitrator and the owner 

another, who, without further formality, shall assess the value, 

Timber for and if they disagree, to call in an umpire, whose decision is final. 

sestobepSid The Valuation so awarded must then be reduced to writing and 

tain cases, signed by the arbitrators, and upon the production of the same, 

with a certificate of the overseer that he used the timber assessed, 

must be allowed by the Justices of the Inferior Court and paid 

out of the County Treasury. 

§ 671. They shall measure all that part of the road to which 
Roads to they may be appointed, besrinnino: at the Court House, and at the 

be measured *^ "^ ^ /^ ^ o r> 7 ^ 

end of each mile set up a post or mark on some conspicuous 
place, which shall designate the number of miles from thence to 
said Court House ; and the overseer in the next adjoining dis- 
trict shall likewise begin to measure and mark at the last mile 
Mile posts post in the district thus measured ; but when such district shall 
end at some County line, he shall, by some post or mark, desig- 
nate the distance from such County line to their respective Court 

§ 672. They shall, at the fork of each public road, place, in 
Sign-boards some Substantial and conspicuous manner, a board or other mark, 
designating thereon the most public place to which each road di- 
rects ; and if any road is altered so as to make the fork at some 
other place, or as not to make necessary such sign-boards, they 
shall be removed and replaced, or either, if necessary. 

§ 673. If any overseer fails to comply with the provisions of 

^ (a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 23. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Oeganization. 1S9 

Article 1. — Public Roads. 

the two immediately preceding Sections, he forfeits not exceeding fam?gtop5 
fifty dollars, to be imposed and collected as other fines against him. bJaf^s!^^^*^ 
§ 674. If any overseer omits to do' his duty with respect to the fam^rto d^o 
roads, bridges, and causeways under his charge for as much as^^^'^^^y- 
thirty days from the time the necessity for any immediate work 
occurs, unless hindered by extreme bad weather or other provi- Maybein- 

, ^ "^ ^ , ■■• dieted. 

dential cause, he shall be indicted for a misdemeanor, and, on con- 
viction, shall be fined or imprisoned, at the discretion of the Court, 

i-iTTir» Til 1 • n •• t Li'ible for 

and is also liable for all damages at the suit oi any person injured damages. 
by such omission. 

S 675. Hands liable to road work employed as laborers on the ^ Railroad 

^ i ./ hands ex- 

line of any railroad of this State belonging to an incorporated f^Plg?? ^£ ■ / 
company, or by any contractors constructing railroads, are 6x- ^^•;v***;*''«^ 
empted from work on the public roads, provided the public road t.*.^^^^ ' 
overseer having charge of them respectively is paid [two dollars /^-^^^f^ 
and fifty cents] (a) per day for each hand so liable, which money 
shall be expended in hiring hands to work on the roads. 

§676. When any person shall feel aggrieved by any road pro- Landiioid- 

, '^ ^ , ./ ./ ^ ^ ers aggriev- 

posed to be laid out through any of his land, unless otherwise ed— Ww re- 

^ o »/ 7 dressed. 

provided in the charter thereof, or some special law, he may 
petition in writing the Justices of the Inferior Court, either of 
whom shall direct their Clerk to issue a warrant under his hand, 
directed to the Sheriff of the County, to summon from the vicin- 
age a jury of freeholders to try such question of damage, who shall , Trial by 
be sworn by some Justice of the Peace to truly and impartially 
assess any damage the owner will sustain by means of such new 
or altered road, and said Justice shall preside over their delibera- 

§ 677. No person is competent as a iuror who claims any damage incompe- 

^ ^ '' . . tency of ju- 

of the County or person for the same or any similar road, or who ^^^^ 
would be disqualified if the trial was before the Superior Court. 

§ 678. The iury shall inspect the road and land in person, Triai-bow 

*^ , . , r 7 conducted. 

unless already familiar with them, and swear any witnesses that 
the owner or any person on the part of the County may ofi'er, as 
to their opinion of the damages sustained. 

§ 679. The Sherifi* shall notify the Justice of the Peace and Jnstices 

•^ andKoad 

the Road Commissioners of the district where the road lies, and^'^™™^^- 

" sioners to be- 

the owner of the land, the day and place of trial, and shall notify ^"^i^^^^^ 

(a) [Acts of 1863-4, p. 47.] 

140 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.--County Organization. 

Article 1. — Public Roads. 

er^'TndTS'- ^^ attend then and there, as witnesses, any persons he may be 
notified!^ ^^ requested to by such Commissioners, or the owner. 

§ 680. He shall fix the time and place, the time not less than 
sheriflffive nor more than twenty days, and the place as near the land as 

shall fix time , ■ i i . -, 

and place of the propor house-room can be obtained. 

meeting. o na-i \ i • i • • 

§ Dol. At the trial any person m interest may object to the 
Objections impanncling of any juror for cause, and if from this or any other 

to jurors. . . i i i -i 

cause there are not twelve jurors impanneled and sworn, the 
Sheriff must proceed to procure tales jurors. 

§ 682. The trial may be postponed or continued from day to 

be postpon- day Until completed, and if the Justice of the Peace summoned to 

Justice attend should fail to preside, the Sheriff must supply the vacancy, 

failing to at- . p p .^ t , • , 

tend. II necessary, irom some other district. 

§ 683. If a mistrial occurs the Sheriff shall proceed de novo 
Mistrial, to summou Other jurors, and all the proceedings shall be as at 
first, and so on until there is a verdict. 

§ 684. The judgment in such cases may be certioraried by the 
Certiorari. County or the owucr of the land, as in certiorari from forcible 
entry and detainer trials, and if a new trial is ordered, they shall 
proceed to procure a trial as previously. 

§ 685. When such judgment becomes final, all the papers apper- 
Finaijudg- tainiiis: thereto must be filed in the Clerk's ofiice of the Inferior 

ment. '-> 

Court; the Justices thereof must grant an order for the damages as- 
howpafcL sessed in favor of the land owner, but if such Justices are satisfied 
that such damages transcend the utility of such road, or that part of 
it, they may revoke the road altogether, or order the same altered 
so as to avoid the land so damaged, or make the owner an offer 
of such compensation as they may think just. 

§ 686. In estimating the value of land when taken for public 
Value of uses it is not restricted to its agricultural or productive qualities, 

land — how, . . , , n t i • • 

estimated, but inquiry may be made as to ail other legitimate purposes to 
which the property could be appropriated. 

§ 687. Prospective and consequential damages resulting there- 
coEsequen- from may be also taken into consideration, if the same are plain 
and appreciable, and on the other hand the increase of the value 
of the land from^ the proposed public improvement may be con- 
sidered, but in no case shall the owner be deprived of the actual 
damages by such estimated increase. 
Overseer § ^88. If any ovorsccr, within twelve months after his appoint- 
dJtyt'2'ta^ ment neglects faithfully to discharge the duties required of him, 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County OuaANizATiON. 


Article 1. — Public Roads. 

Finos not 
less than 
$25 nor 
more than 

he is subject to a fine not exceeding fifty dollars by the Commis- Fine im- 
sioners under whom he serves, who shall notify him of his neglect, cSlectcd. 
and unless a good excuse is rendered to them within twenty days 
from the time of such notice they shall issue execution for the 
fine assessed. 

§689. If any person shall alter any public road or cut any Aitemsror 

,.-, • 1 . n t ' ^ obstructing 

ditch across, or alter the location of any bridge, or make any puWicroad. 
new bridge necessary by his act, without first obtaining an order 
therefor, he is guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof 
shall be fined not less than twenty-five nor more than one thousand 
dollars, and shall be liable besides, by suit, for all damages any 
person may sustain thereby. 

§ 690. When any person shall make any fence or cut any tree, obstmc- 
or make other like obstructions m or across any public road, fence or tree, 

•^ ^ , ' if not re- 

w^hich is not removed in two days and a safe and convenient way, moved. 
at the time of the obstruction, made for travelers, he shall pay a 
fine of twenty dollars for each obstruction, to be recovered by 
execution issued by the Commissioners, as in cases of road fines, ^^^^^ 
and shall be liable for any damages caused by the obstruction, 
from the first to the last, if the person injured used ordinary 

§ 691. And when the main streets of an incoroporated town or , streets in 

^ ^ towns or ci- 

city continue in a state of neglect for three months, the Justices ^(f^fo^jffJfiJe 
of the Peace therein are, by virtue of their office. Road Commis- ^^^^^^^ ^tc. 

. •1111 Justices to 

sioners, and shall appoint overseers, apportion the hands that act as Eoad 
would be liable to road duty throughout the town, have the streets sioners. 
worked on, as though they were public roads, and must, in every 
other respect, perform the duties of Road Commissioners, and for Maybe 
neglect of any other duty, or violation of any of the road laws, neglect 
are liable to fine as such Commissioners. 

Fine $20 
for each of- 




692. Three for each district. 

693. How appointed. 

694. Compelled to serve unless excused. 

695. Must be notified within ten days. 

696. Clerk failing to give sucli notice. 

697. Exempt from patrol and militia duty 

698. Duty of Commissioners generally. 

699. Persons exempt from road duty. 


700. Pay of overseers. 

701. Proceedings against for neglect. 

702. Failing to appear when cited. 

703. Executions against Commissioners. 

704. A public road being a district line. 

705. Necessary books shall be furnished. 

706. Certificate of discharge. 

142 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 

Article 2. — Commissioners of Public Roads. 

§ 692, There shall be three Commissioners for each road district, 
Three Com- any two of whom may act, and in case there is only one in a dis- 
for each dis- tpict, that onc is invested with all the powers of the three until 

■tnct — two" r ' 

may act. ^q vacancics are filled. 

§ 693. Such Commissioners are appointed or re-appointed by 

Commis- the Justiccs of the Inferior Court, biennially at their first meet- 
's loners— ^ "^ • 
how appoin- jng of the ycars of the appointments, and, whenever necessary, 

to fill vacancies at any time. 

§ 694. Those thus appointed are compelled to serve, unless 

Compelled cxcuscd by such Justiccs, who shall receive for such ^xcuse provi- 

to serve. j , • i i 

dential cause onlj^. 

§ 695. As soon as appointed, they shall be notified thereof in 
Must be writins; within ten days thereafter by the Clerk of the Inferior 

notified in i • p i • i • ^ - i 

writing Court, and it such appointees do not, withm ten days alter receiv- 

within ten ' . ■'•-'•. ... 

^ays. ing such notice, file their excuse in writing, under oath, in such 
Clerk's office, they shall be considered as having accepted. 

§ 696. If a Clerk fails to give such notice, he is guilty of a con- 
faiiki^ tono^ tcmpt, aiid shall be by such Justices fined twenty dollars for each 

tify Com- f^f^aXt^o'c 
missioners. iitJgiUOl. 

Road Com- § ^^"^ ' ^uch Ccmmissioncrs, while in office, are exempt from all 
Sempt,^e[c! J^^T? P^^rol, militia, and other road duty. 

§ 698. It is their duty — 
ione??Sl!st "'■• "^^ appoint, within fifteen days, one or more persons in their 
^^PJiVi* ^^" respective districts as overseers of the road. 

2. To apportion the roads and hands under their charge a-t the 
Apportion Same time as equally and fairly as possible, and to furnish the 
several overseers with a list of the roads and hands under their 
respective charge. 

E. To hear and determine upon all cases of default or other 

Trydefani- violatiou of the road laws within their jurisdiction (if not indicta* 

ble only) at a Court to be held by them twenty days after every 

road working, or as often as emergencies may require, and to 

issue executions or other process against the convicted. 

4. To keep a book in which to enter — 

'Fir%t. The several hands in their respective districts subject to 
Names of road duty ; to what roads and what parts thereof assigned, and 

road hands to , ^ . , • • r» <• x 

be register- uudcr What oversccr ; changing and correcting it irom time to 
time, as may be necessary. 

Second. A list of all defaulters and persons fined, the amounts 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.==^CHAP. 5.~CouNTY Organization. 143 

Article 3.— Commissioners of Public Roads. 
fined, amounts paid, what disposition made of the money, what a list of 

' 1 1 . 1 defaulters, 

executions issued and unpaid. etc* 

5. To pay to the County Treasurer, as soon as collected, that Disposi- 
portion 01 the nne money belonging to the County, to be used m ney raised 
the repairing or building of public bridges and causeways, and 
annually, on the first of December, to report to the Justices of 

the Inferior Court the condition of the public roads and bridges tion ir^ni'" 
in their respective districts, the state of the finances, what execu- bridges, etc' 
tions are outstanding unpaid, and their condition. 

6. To inspect, from time to time, the public roads, bridges, and Roads, 

, . . . o 7 biidges, and 

ferries within their districts, notice the character of the repairs, ferries to be 

^ ^ ■•■ ■' inspected. 

and observe if such road is regularly posted and direction boards 
put up as required by law, and if said bridges and ferries are in 
proper repair. 

7. To exercise a general supervision over their respective over- commis' 

1 f* -, (, 1 r» 1 1 1 sioners' gen* 

seers, and to nne them tor neglect ot duty, and to see that persons erai duty. 
are indicted for the offenses set forth in the road laws. 

8. To administer all oaths, relative to the road laws, connected 
with their duties. 

§ 699. In makina; up the list of road workers, they must not Ministers, 

. 1 T 1 r. n • 1 • • P T teachers and 

include the following description of persons, w^ho are exempt from others ex^ 

^ ■••,_■*■ ■'■ empt from 

such duty — viz : Licensed ministers, teachers and students of col- ^^ad duty. 
leges and schools, keepers of public grist mills, public ferrymen, 
keepers of toll bridges, turnpikes, causeways, and plank roads, 
engineers and white persons in charge of cars or trains running 
on railroads, officers of the United States, this State, or any 
County thereof, and all others exempted by any special law. 

§ 700. They are authorized to pay overseers one-half of the overseer of 

•^ ^ . . roads paid 

fine money as compensation to him as informer. as informer. 

§ 701. [Whenever the G-rand Jury in any County in this State Proceed- 

in -r»i/-i •• o 1 r> 1 ^°?s against 

shall present any Koad (jommissioners tor neglect of duty generally, commission- 
or in any particular, it shall thereupon be the duty of the Clerk lectofduty. 
of the Court to issue a summons in writing, directed to such Com- 
missioners, commanding them to be and appear at the next term 
of the Superior Court in which the presentment is made, to answer 
the accusation of the Grand Jury, which said summons shall be 
served by the Sheriff upon the Commissioners at least twenty days 
before the Court to which the same is returnable ; and if, upon the 
investigation of the case, it shall appear that the accusation is 
made out by the proof, the Judge shall thereupon impose upon 



PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 

Article 2. — Commissioners of Public Roads. 

such Commissioners a fine of not less than fifty dollars nor more 
than t^'O hundred dollars.] (a) 

§ 702. If they have been duly cited and served, and fail to 
appear, the Court may proceed ex parte. 

§ 703. The Clerk of the Court is directed to issue executions 
against them for the fine and costs, which shall be executed by 
the Sheriif. The lien of such executions, and the property subject 
thereto, are the same as those against defaulting road workers. 

§ 704. When any public road may be on a road district line, 
and the Justices of the Inferior Court have not specially assigned 
it to any particular district or set of Commissioners, the Commis- 
sioners of each district shall co-operate in arranging the hands 
and appointing the overseers for such road. 

§ 705. The books such Commissioners are required to keep 
must be furnished by the Justices of the Inferior Court at the 
expense of the County, and out of the road money, if any, and 
when full must be deposited in the office of the Clerk of the In- 
ferior Court. 

§ 706. After the Commissioner has faithfully served through 
the term of his appointment, he may obtain from the Clerk of the 
Inferior Court a certificate of such fact. 

FailiDg to 

to issue by 
the Clerk of 
the Inferior 

A public 
road being a 
district line. 

Books sball 
be furnished 
by Inferior 

Shall be 
deposited in 
Clerk's of- 

of discharge 
— by whom 




707. Public ferries, bridges, etc. 

708. Regulations concerning the same. 

709. Erected for benefit of the County. 

710. Power and duty of Inferior Court. 

711. Condition of contractors' bond. 

712. Bond must be approved. 

713. Additional bond may be required. 

714. Roads, bridges, etc. 

715. Contractor failing. 

716. Defendant resisting payment. 

717. Contractors incompetent as jurors. 

718. Bridges, etc., crossing County lines. 

719. County refusing to contribute. 

720. Toll bridges crossing County lines. 

721. Private bridges, etc. 

722. Distance in such cases. 

723. Rates of toll to be posted up. 


721. Land owner may erect a bridge, etc. 

725. Excessive rates shall not be charged. 

726. Rates to be examined annually. 

727. Persons making excessive charges. 

728. Fords, bridges, etc. 

729. Public bridges, etc. 

730. Proprietors liable for neglect. 

731. County — when liable for damages. 

732. Persons detained at public crossings. 

733. No toll after expiration of charter. 
731. Owner of private ferry, etc., liable. 

735. Breaking toll gate, etc. 

736. Right of way. 

737. Grant to land — what passes. 

738. Grant for a ferry. 

739. Value of land taken— how. 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 18. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 145 

Article 3. — Bridges, Ferries, Turnpikes, and Causeways. 

§ 707. All bridges or ferries, turnpikes or causeways, erected . puWic 
or permitted by any act of the General Assembly, if not other- r'^s," ckuse- 

r ■J >/ ^ ^ y ^ ways, etc. 

wise provided, or by order of the Justices of the Inferior Court, 
for public purposes, are declared to be public. 
§ 708. They are divided — 

1. Those established by the County which are free to every Bridges, 

•^ "^ "^ ferries, etc. 


2. Those established by the County where toll is charged gen- 
erally or specially. 

3. Those established by individuals under the authority of law 
or by virtue of a prescriptive right. 

4. Those established by individuals without such rights, who 
accommodate the public or any portion of them for compensation. 

§709. The Justices of the Inferior Court may put a ferry or Justicesin- 

11 1T1 ni'ip 11 n f^''i<''' Court 

causeway, or both, or may establish a toll bridge tor the benent may estab- 

1/^ 1 • 1 n lishforbene- 

of the County; but when on any such County bridge, ferry, or fit of county. 
causeway, toll is charged, the County is liable as individuals own- 
ing them, and the owners of lands must be compensated as in 
other cases. 

§710> The Justices of the Inferior Court of the several Coun- Powerofin- 

^ . . ferior Court 

ties have authority — over public 

l)ri(l*^^GS fcr- 

1. To appoint the places for the erection of public bridges, nes,'' cause- 

: , . ways, etc. 

County ferries, turnpikes, and causeways, and to make suitable 
provision for their erection and repairs by letting them out to the 
lowest bidder, hiring hands, or in any other way that may be for 
the public good and agreeable to law. 

2. To require sufficient bond and good security for the faithful Undertaker 

^ . to give bond. 

performance of all such works and contracts, and to indemnify 
for all damages occasioned by a failure so to do. 

3. To license any person to establish such bridge, ferry, turn- License to 

• 1 , T , 1 • 1 1 establish. 

pike, or causeway, not exceeding ten years, which may be re- 
newed at the expiration thereof. 

4. To fix the rates of toll for crossing any such where the toll Eatesoftoii 
can lawfully be charged, and regulate those previously estab- 
lished or that may afterwards be established, so as to conform to 

what is both reasonable and usage on such water courses, pro- 
vided such charges are not specially regulated by the General 
Assembly in some act of incorporation to the exclusion of such 

5. To exercise a general supervision over such, and see that 


146 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.~County Organizatioit. 

Article 3. — Bridges, Ferries, Turnpikes, and Causeways. 

General thev are kept in proper order and properly attended to, and to 

supervision '' „.. ., 

over public require from tnne to time, as the occasion may demand, sufficient 

bridges, fer- -"■ -y • c ^ • 

ries, etc. bond and good security from the proprietors thereof, conditioned 
for their keeping in repair a sufficient and safe bridge, flat rope, 
turnpike, or causeway, and all other appointments necessary for 
a good ferry and competent and faithful attendance by day and 
night, and to indemnify the public against all damages by reason 
of a failure so to do. 

§ 711. When a public bridge, ferry, turnpike, or causeway, is 
Condition let out, the coutractor must, in his bond, make a condition also to 

of the bond , . . t . /. t t 

of contrac- keep it m good repair tor at least seven years, and as many more 
years as the contract may be for. 

§ 712. All bonds taken from contractors or proprietors must 
Bond must be approvcd by the Justices of the Inferior Court, filed in the 
" office of the Clerk of the Inferior Court, and by him recorded in 
books kept for that purpose. 

§ 713. If when an additional bond is required, it is not given 
b ^1 ma^^be "^^^^^^ ^^^ days from the time the proprietor, or his agent, is noti- 
required. gg(j by the Clerk of the Inferior Court, the license must be re- 

§ 714. When any such work shall require repairing, it is' the 
Eoads, duty of any one or more Road Commissioners in whose road dis- 

bridges, etc , ^^ "^ _ 

to be kept in trict the Same is, to ^ive notice in writing to the contractor, or 

repair. ^ o o 7 

one of his sureties, stating the repairs necessary to be made, and 
requiring them to be done within a reasonable time, stating the 

§ 715. If such repairs are not made within the time required. 


by whom to they shall employ some other person forthwith to make them, and 

be made. J if J r i 

upon report to the Clerk of the Inferior Court of their cost, he 

Contractor ;" ,, . . . i -i • 

failing, exe- shall issuo an exccution aai-amst such contractor and his sureties 

cution may ^ _ 

issue against for tlio exponso of such repairs and the costs. 

§ 716. If the defendant resists the payment of said execution 
If defend- at law, it must be returned for trial by iury, if demanded, either 

ant resists ' -> r\ o .., 

payment of to the Justicos Court of the district where the defendant resides 

such execu- 
tion how upon whose property the levy is made, or to the Superior Court 

of the County, according to the principal amount thereof. 

§ 717. Persons who have undertaken the building or keeping 

Contrac- in repair any bridge, ferry, turnpike, or causeway, or are surety 

"tors cs-ii not _^ 

be Eoad for such pcrsous, Can not be Road Commissioners of the road dis- 

Commis- ^ ' 

sioners. ^rict which embracos such, and if, after having been appointed, 

PT. l.-~TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 147 

Article 3. — Bridges, Ferries, Turnpikes, and Causeways. 

they become such contractor or surety, the Justices of the Infe- 
rior Court must declare a vacancy and appoint some other persons 
in their stead. 

§ 718. When a bridge or ferry is necessary over any water Bridges, 

c) »/ xi 'J etc., crossing 

course which divides one County or more Counties from each other, county lines 

•^ '' to be kept 

each County must contribute equally toward the building and ^n^^ ^^y^ ^^uch 
keeping the same in repair, or in such proportion as would be just, J^^°^^^- 
taking into consideration the taxable property of each, and the 
amount expended by each in the construction of bridges and other 

S 719. If any County refuses to undergo its fair proportion of , Thereme- 

'^ »/ ./ CD \. L ^y when one 

such expenses, the other County or Counties may construct the ^^^^l^y ^'^^ii- 

y. ' t/ v' ses to con- 

work, compel the other to contribute by suit, and until such con- *"^^^®- 

tribution takes place, may have exclusive control thereof, and 

charge toll thereon against all the citizens of the refusing County. 

§ 720. The toll bridges or ferries over water courses makinsi: Toiibridges, 

^° ^ ^ etc., crossing 

County lines, may be licensed by either County, and in such cases County lines 

'J ' *i «/ «^ ^ may be li- 

the bonds must be approved, filed, and recorded in the County ^?°^^^^ ^^ 

where the license is granted. 

§ 721. No private ferry charging toll shall be established on no private 
any water course within three miles of where public bridges are be estnbu&h- 
previously erected and kept up, but bridges may be erected at the three miies 
public expense at places on the same stream, other than those fcndge. 
where bridges are previously erected, if not violative of any spe- 
cial provision of the law. 

§ 722. When exclusive right is granted to any person to pre- Distance— 
vent others irom erecting bridges or terries, or the like, within a ted. 
given distance from the same, it shall be computed by the course 
of the stream. 

§ 723. Every proprietor of bridges, ferries, turnpikes, and Eatesoftoii 
causeways, where toll is allowed to be charged, must fix a board up. ^'^^ ^ 
in a conspicuous place, as near the same as practicable, with black 
ground, on which shall be the various rates of toll ; and if such is 
neglected, he shall be subject to indictment, and, on conviction, 
shall be fined not less than fifty dollars for every week he so neg- neliect.^ "^^ 

§ 724. Any person who may be the owner of any land through Landown- 
"Which a stream may pass, on both sides thereoi, may establish any struct bridg- 
bridge or terry thereon, at his expense, and may charge lawful ws own land 
toll for crossing, according to the rates of other bridges and fer- 

148 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.-~County Oeganization.^ 

Article 3.— Bridges, Ferries, Turiipil<:es, and Causeways. 

ries on the same stream^ or if none other, the customary rates over 
such streams elsewhere. 

§ 725. If such person shall demand excessive rates, any person- 
Excessive may complain to the Justices of the Inferior Court of the County, 

rates shall i • ^ i • 

not be de- and if the rates are excessive, they must reduce and fix them. 

§ 726. The Justices of the Inferior Court of each County must 
Hates to once each year examine the rates charged in their Counties, and 
annually, kcop fixcd the ratcs of toll for the several bridges, ferries, turn- 
pikes, and causeways within the limits of their County, which have 
the right to charge them, and must enter the same on their minutes, 
§ 727. If any person shall charge more than the lawful rates. 
Persons or morc than indicated by the board, he is guilty of a misde- 

taaklni? ex- . . -^ . ,. , 

ces sive mcanor, and on conviction must be fined in the discretion of the 

charges — 

how punish- Court, and for the second offense, in addition to the fine, he for- 
feits his franchise. 

§ 728. No person authorized to have a bridge or feny on his 
Fords, own land will be permitted to stop up or obstruct any ford, bridge,. 

bridges, etc., ^ , ^ ' \ - ^^i. c - ^ ^ 

nottobeob- or terry, and upon so doing he is guilty ot a misdemeanor, and on 
conviction must be fined or imprisoned, or both, in the discretion 
of the Court. 

§ 729. After a person has once established such bridge or ferry, 

Bridge?, etc., he shall iiot discontinue the same without first giving public notice 

nottbbedis- ... . i /", tt i 

continued, thorcof by advertisement posted on the Court House door and m 
a public gazette, if there is one published in the County, for at 
least sixty days. 

§ 730. Any proprietor of any bridge, ferry, turnpike, or cause- 
Proprie- Way, whether by charter or prescription, or without, or whether 

tors liable , . , p . i i i i ^ i 

for neglect, by right 01 owumg the lands on the stream, are bound to prompt 
and faithful attention to all their duties as such ; and if any 
damage shall occur by reason of non-attendance, neglect, careless- 
ness, or bad conduct, he is bound for all damages, even if over 
and beyond the amount of any bond that may be given. 

§ 731. The provisions of the preceding Section apply to all 
On failure coutractors for the establishment of such, when damages accrue 

to take bond ,p.,. ,,.,. 

the County from a Want of good faith in performinp; their several contracts. 

13 liable for . ° , r & i i i t 

damages, and if uo bond or sufficient guarantee has been taken by the Jus- 
tices of the Inferior Court, the County is also liable for the damages. 
Persons § 732. Any person unreasonably detained at a public ferry, toll 
detained at bridge, tumpikc, or causeway, may for each detention recover of 
i'^gs.^'^ "^^^^^ the owner ten dollars before any Justice of the County^^. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 


Article 3. — Bridges, Ferries, Turnpikes, and Causeways. 

§733. If any person demands or receives toll for crossing any Persons 

. '1 n 1 ' n ^ • charging t-o'll 

ferry, briage, or causeway, or turnpike, after the revocation oi his after expir^i- 

license or forfeiture of his charter, or, having a rio-ht for a ferry, ter, or failing 
allows the banks on either side to be out of repair for more than ^r^a boatsin 

••• order. 

five days at any one time, or to provide good and safe boats of a 
size sufficient for the accommodation of the public, furnished with 
competent and sufficient ferrymen for the safe and speedy passage 
of all persons, vehicles, horses, and stock, or, in case of a toll 
bridge or causeway, fails to keep the same in good repair, without 
a reasonable excuse for such failures, to be determined by the 
Court, he is guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction must be fined $20. ^ 
fined not less than tw^entj dollars. 

§ 734. If any person who keeps a private bridge, ferry, turn- owners of 
pike, or causev/ay, passes any person for toll, the owners incur the nesaiabie. 
same liability and peni?.ities as those permitted by law. 

§ 735. If any person break or iniure any gate to a toll bridfje, Breaking 

^ ^ . . ° ' or injuring 

turnpike, or causeway, or obstruct, iniure, or destroy such brids;e pteoravoid- 

i- ^ ./' ... . ing payment 

or causeway, pass round or under the same with intent to avoid 
the payment of toll, such person forfeits to the owner ten dollars 
for each of such acts, and is also liable for the damages. 

§ 736. Damages for the right of way are to be assessed in the Eight ofway 
manner prescribed for public roads and private ways. 

§ 737. Grants to land on water courses, with the appurtenances, Grants to 
convey no right of public bridge or ferry. 

§ 738. The grant of a ferry franchise conveys no right to build Grant for a 
a bridge, or the contrary. 

§ 739. In determining the value of land taken for a bridge, its vaiueof 

, ., . , . , % land taken 

prospective value as a bridge site and its present value as a terry, for a bridge 
r. ^ . . -, ? . •, 1 1 . -^«^^ ^«i- 

II. one is m use, may be taken into the calculation. mated. 




740. Roads at railroad crossings. 

741. Extent of sucli crossings. 

742. Erecting posts and blowing ^vhistle. 

743. Neglecting to erect such posts. 
■744. Failing to blow the whistle. 

,745^ Pjoof ef damage'— on.Ms on Company, 
'74fi. Suite— when to be brought. 


747. Failing to keep crossings in order. 

748. Must be done by overseer of Roads. 

749. Executions against defaulting Co. 

750. Money raised — to whom paid. 

751. Railroad company maj' defend. 

752. Planli, macadamized and other rQadSp 

753. Public highways, bridges, etc. 

150 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County OEGANizATioi^. 

Article 4. — Kailroad and other Crossings. 

§ 740. All railroad companies shall keep in good order, at 
Public and their expense, the public roads or private ways established pursu- 

private Avays j. / j. i. ^ i 

tobekeptiip ant to law, where crossed by their several roads, and build suita- 

at crossings ^ ^ *' ' 

of Railroads. |)ig bridges and make proper excavations or embankments, accord- 
ing to the spirit of the road laws. 

§ 741. Such crossings include the width of land on both sides 
Extent of of the road allowed by charter or appropriated by the Company 

such cross- <^ rr x ,; r j 

in^s- therefor, and for as many feet beyond, each way, as is necessary 

for a traveler to get on and off the crossing safely and conveniently. 

§ 742. There must be fixed on the line of said roads, and at the 

A post to (distance of four hundred yards from the center of each of such 

D8 erected. •^ 

road crossings, and on each side thereof, a post, and the engineer 
shall be required, whenever he shall arrive at either ©f said posts. 
Blowing to blow thc whistlc of the locomotive until it arrives at the public 
* road, and to simultaneously check, and keep checking, the speed 
thereof, so as to stop in time should any person or thing be cross- 
ing said track on said road. 

§ 743. Should any company fail or neglect to put up said posts 
to^rfcfsucf ^^^ superintendent thereof shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
P°^*' upon indictment and conviction thereof in the County where such 

failure occurs, shall be subject to a fine of not less than five hun- 
dred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars. 

§ 744. If any engineer neglects to blow said whistle, as required, 
Failing to and to clicck the speed as required in Section 742, he is guilty of 

blow tlie .- ,.,. , ...,^ 

whistle. a misdemeanor, and on indictment and conviction m the bounty 
where such failure occurs, he shall be punished by fine not ex- 
ceeding five hundred dollars, and imprisoned not exceeding ninety 
Fine and days, or either, which the company by whom he is employed is 
Sent''^^" bound to pay. 

When an § 745. When such injury occurs, the onuB is upon the company 
curs." to prove such fault on the part of the injured persons. 

Suits in § 746. Such suits may be located in the County where the in- 

the County ^ t/ ^ 

where inju- j^^y occurs, and scrvicc perfected as in case for killino- stock. 

ry occurs, «; ./ ? 1 o 

§ 747, When any road over which a crossing is required shall 

Railroads bc obstructcd, or not in good order at such crossing, a Road Com- 

crossings missioner, or an overseer of the road district where the crossing 

are required. . -pi i f» i 

IS, must notiiy the nearest agent or employee oi the company, m 
writing, to remove such obstructions, or ta put such crossing in 
proper order within thirty days from the date of such notice. 
§ 748. If such requisition is not complied with, it must be done 



Article 4. — Railroad and other Crossings. 

bj the overseer of the road, and within five days after he shall 
have discharged such duty, he must report, under oath, in writing, 
to the Commissioners of the district, the amount and value of the 
services performed. 

§ 749. The Commissioners shall then issue execution, under their 
hands and seal, directed to any lawful officer, for the amount of 
such value and^ the costs of the proceeding against such default- 
ing railroad company, as in case of other road defaulters. 

§ 750. The amount, when collected, must be paid to the persons 
who performed the labor, pro rata, and according to the labor per- 
formed by each, and for other expenses of said work, if any. 

§ 751. The defendants may defend themselves from such^. fas. 
as other defaulting road-workers may. 

§ 752. The provisions of this article are, so far as applicable, 
extended to any plank, macadamized, turnpike, or other road, be- 
longing to private individuals or a joint stock company. 

§ 753. Public highways, bridges, or ferries, can not be appro- 
priated to railroads, plank roads, or any other species of road, un- 
less express authority is granted by some constitutional provision 
in their charters. 

must be 
c o m p 1 i e d 
with in five 

shall issue. 

raised — how 
disposed of. 

Defenses — 
how made. 

Plank and 
other roads 
subject to 
the same 

brid g-es, 





754. Private ways — by whom granted. 

755. Must be kept open. 

756. How obtained. 

757. How laid out — notice of application. 

758. Damages — how assessed. 

759. Applicant may decline to open. 

760. May be established by agreement. 

761. Protected as public roads. 

762. Persons may join in opening, etc. 


763. May apportion work, etc. 

764. Private way over wild lands. 

765. Seven years' uninterrupted use. 

766. Can not be closed after one year. 

767. Special damages in certain cases. 

768. When there is but one bluff, etc. 

769. Application for use of landing. 

770. Damages omitted in the grant. 

771. May be converted into a public road. 

§ 754. The Justices of the Inferior Court have authority to Private 

T .1 T /. 1 -I . ways — by 

grant private ways to individuals to go irom and return to their whom grant- 
farms or places of residence. 

§ 755. They must not exceed fifteen feet in width, and must Not more 
be kept open and in repair by the persons on whose application wide. 
they are established, and may be as much less as the applicant 
may choose. 

152 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County OEOANizATioisr. 

Article 5. — Private Ways. 

§ 756. Any person desiring such passway over the land of an- 
How ob- other, must petition the Justices of the Inferior Court, settinsj forth 

tained. / ^ . ^ _ ^ ' ° 

particularly the distance and direction of such road, over whose 
land it is to go, through what improvements, if any, and their na- 
ture, and the special purpose for which it is desired. 

§ 757. After all persons over whose land said passway is to be 
Land own- made sliall have had twenty days' notice, in writinsr, of such ap- 

ersmust . , . 

have twenty plicatiou, and such Justices shall be satisfied such applicant is en- 

daj's' notice. -"-^ _ \^ ^ 

titled to the same, they shall appoint five commissioners, who 

shall be disinterested persons, any three or five of whom may act, 

Private to vicw and lay out such road, so as to do the least possible dam- 
ways — tiow 
laid out. age and inconvenience to the land-owners, who shall make their 

rej)ort within thirty days from their appointment. They shall 
make out their report in writing, and furnish all the parties in 
interest with copies thereof; and if either party is dissatisfied with 
such report, by giving the other five days' notice in writing, he 
Either par- may take an appeal to the Justices of the Inferior Court, who, 
p^a™^"^ ^^' after having all the evidence, fro and co^^, may confirm said re- 
port or alter the same, which, when done, shall be final. 

§ 758. If the person then, over whose land the passway is, con- 
Dama<^es— ceivcs that he will be damaged thereby, he may proceed to have 
how assessed ^^ damages assessed in the same manner that damages are as- 
sessed in case of public roads, and the applicant therefor stands 
in the place of the County and Road Commissioners. 

§ 759. After the damages are thus assessed, the person who 
Applicant has them to pay may decline to open the same, but he is bound 

may decline r, ■, f>ni t ^ ^ ^ ^ 

to open the tor the costs 01 all the proceedings, whether he uses the passway 

or not, for which the Clerk of the Inferior Court may issue an 

Costs. ; . • . -^ 

execution ; and in all cases the damasjes must be paid before the 

Damages ^-^ ■■• 

mil St be ^r^y |g opeucd. 
paid. "^ ^ 

§ 760. Private ways may be established by an agreement in 
Maybe es- writins; of all parties concerned, in which may be stipulated any 

lablished by ° ^ / ^ i / i p i r^ 

a-reement. damages, wliich must be spread on the road book of the County, 
and when so done, has the same efi"ect as though established by 
the forms of law. 

§ 761. When a private way becomes established, it must be en- 
Eeoorded tcrod ou and fully described in the road book, and the owner 
ed as public thereof is entitled to be protected in the use of the same as a 
public road. 

§ 762. Several land owners may join together in opening a pri- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 153 

Article 5. — Private Ways. 

vate way, or in keepiD^ it up afterwards, or both; and when so several 

•^ ^ A o 1 7 / ^ ^ YaDd holders 

done and entered on the road book, the duties and privileges ex- may j<nn in 

' ^ "-' openinga 

tend to vendees of the same real estate. '^^'-'y- 

§763. When several so join, they may apportion the road for Mayappor- 

./ii ^tiont he 

work among themselves, or work it under the road laws, selecting work. 
one of their number as Road Commissioner, whose powers are 
the same touching such road and the hands thereof as the three 
Road Commissioners of the district. 

§ 764. If a private way is established over the wild lands of a On wild 

■•■ , '^ . lands. 

person who has no notice of the proceeding, as soon as he does 
have such notice, and within six months thereafter, he may pro- 
ceed to have his damages assessed against all persons who are 
land owners and are in the habitual use of such private way, 
and not after. 

§ 765. When a person has laid out a private way, and has been seven years' 

, , "^ . . . tin interrupt- 

in the use and enjoyment of it as much as seven years, of which ed use. 

the owners have had six months' knowledge, without moving for 

damages, his right to use becomes complete, and such owners are 

barred of damages. 

§766. When a road has been used as a private way for as can not be 

closGcl &ft6r 

much as one year, an owner of land over which it passes can not one year 

, . PI without no- 

close it up without first giving the common users of the way tice. 

thirty days' notice in writing, that they may take steps to have it 

made permanent. 

§ 767. When a private-way is established over the land of an- spedaUvays 
other for the purpose of hauling wood or timber, or other com- 
modity, to any place of landing whereat the business of rafting 
or shipping is carried on, or to any railroad depot, it shall not Extent of. 
extend to the use of any landing erected by a person for his 
own benefit. 

§768. If, however, there should be but one bluff or place of if there is 
landing, the owner can not appropriate such to himself exclu- 
sively, if he will not be damaged by the admission of others to its 
use,, or, if damaged, he is properly compensated therefor; but no 
person shall be entitled to use the wood-slide or other improve- 
ment erected for one's own use, nor timber landing, while he is 
using it. 

§ 769. When the applicant for a private way desires also to use The use 
another's landing, he must so state in his petition, that proper finmng^^^^V 
damages may be assessed therefor. 

154 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— CHAP. 5.— County Organization. 

Article 6. — Mining. 

§ 770. If a private way is established and there is an omission 
Omission to to have considered the damages for using such, it maybe done 

assess dama- ■ ^ o y j 

s^^- afterwards if within a reasonable time. 

§ 771. When a private way is once established, it is in the 

vSd inTo^'a P^^^®^ ^^ *^® Justices of the Inferior Court to declare it a public 

public road, road, provided it is of sufficient length and importance, and the 

number of persons who habitually use it can and will do as much 

work thereon as is their proper share, in w^orking the same alone 

or in connection with adjacent public roads. 



Section. [ Section. 

772. Eight of way for miners. 774. Diversion of water courses. 

773. Return, of award. | 775. Rendition of award. 

§ 772. [In all cases where any partnership, corporation, or indi- 
Eisht of vidual, may be hereafter actually engaged in the business of 

way to mln- ... i n i n i i • 

iiig compa- mining iron, copper, gold, coal, or any other useiul metal or min- 
eral, or in making copperas, sulphur, saltpeter, alum, or other 
similar articles of utility, and such partnership, corporation, or 
^ individual, shall be of the opinion that it is necessary to the suc- 

cessful operation of their works that they shall have the right of 
way for either a railroad, turnpike, or common road of travel 
across the land of others, upon failure to agree with the owner of 
the lands across which such right of way is desirable, to have 
iTecessity botli the nccossity and value of the same settled, as follows : The 
how settled. Said Corporation, partnership, or individual, shall select one per- 
son, the owner of the land another person, and any one of the 
Justices of the Inferior Court of the County where the land lies 
shall be the third man, who, together with the two chosen as 
above provided, shall summon the parties and such witnesses as 
they may deem necessary to appoint, after reasonable notice, and 
after fully hearing evidence and reasons on both sides, they shall 
decide both as to the necessity of the right of way and the value 
of the same.] (a) 

§773. [They shall return their award to the next Superior 
Court of the County where the land is situated ; whereupon, the 

(a) Acts of 1863^, pp. 171-3. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 6.-— CHAP. 5.— County Okganization. 


Article 6. 


of damaees. 

same shall be made the iudgment of said Court, binding and con- Award to 

, . be returned 

elusive upon both partie^, unless then and there set aside for rea- to superior 
son now applicable in other cases of arbitration.] (a) 

§ 774. In all cases where it may be deemed desirable and ne- May divert 

■ v_^ ^ . f. . ^ n water cour- 

cessarj to divert any water course from its usual channel, for any ses. 
of the purposes specified in Section 772, it shall be lawful to 
organize the board of arbitrators, as provided in said Section 772, 
whose duty in relation to the same shall be to decide both as to 
the necessity of diverting the water course, and who are damaged, 
and how much. It shall be the duty of the arbitrators to sum- 
mon before them all the parties interested in the question, and 
to return their award to the Superior Court as provided in Sec- 
tion 773, subject to be there set aside for reasons now applicable 
in other cases of arbitration ; otherwise to stand as the judgment 
of the Court.] (a) 

§ 775. [It shall be the duty of the arbitrators in all cases aris- 
ing under the provisions of this Article to make return of their right of ap- 


award on the first day of the Superior Court held thereafter, in 
the County where the same is awarded; and at such time all and 
any of the parties affected thereby shall have the right of appeal 
to said Superior Court, provided such appeal is entered within 
four days from the time said award is filed; the said appeal to be Appeal- 
entered and disposed of under the same rules and regulations ed of. 
which now govern other cases of appeal.] (b) 

Eeports of 




776. Paupers. , 

Poor House. 
Pauper farms. 
Tax to buy farms. 
Regulation of farms. 
Workshops, etc. 
Commissioners of the Poor, 
Receipts, disbursements, amounts. 

784. Applications by the poor, etc. 

785. Who are considered paupers. 



786. Parents and children bound, etc, 

787. Certificate of the Clerk. 

788. Burial of paupers. 

789. Persons removing paupers. 

790. Such persons being insolvent, 

791. Paupers left by companies, etc. 

792. Security required, etc. 

793. Bond filed with Clerk Inferior Court. 

794. Party failing to give security. 

795. Pauper found to be a lunatic. 

§ 776. The general supervision of all paupers is vested in the paupers. 
Justices of the Inferior Court of each County. 

(a) Acts of 1863-3, pp. 171-2. (b) Acts of 1862-3, pp. 171-2. 

156 PT. 1. — TIT. 6. — County Organization. 

Chapter 6. — The County Poor. 

§ 777. They have authority to purchase lands for a Poor House, 
Poor Houses the title thereto vesting in the County, or to rent improvements 
for such purpose^ or to board out the poor and to make ail neces- 
sary contracts in relation to them. 

§ 778. [Upon the recommendation of the Grand Juries of their 
Pauper rcspectivo Counties, said Justices shall have power and authority 

fcirm s • 

to purchase a house and farm in their respective Counties, upon 
which farm they may require all paupers in said Counties to labor 
who are not, from old age and disease, unable to work.] (a) 

§ 779. [The said Justices have authority to lay and collect a tax 
Tax. fo^ ttie purpose of purchasing said house and farm.] (a) 

§ 780. [They are also authorized to establish all necessary rules 
Eeguiation and regulations in the management of said farms.] (a) 

§781. [They are farther authorized to establish any workshops, 
Workshops, any school-houses, or churches on said farms, as they may deem 
proper, and may do any and every thing necessary to be done, in 
carrying out the provisions of this and the three Sections imme- 
diately preceding it.] (a) 

§ 782. They shall, if necessary, appoint a Commissioner of the 
Oommis- Poor, and the money arising from the poor tax shall be paid into 

sionersofthe t > i t ■, -, r^ n^ ^ ^ • i • n 

Poor. nis hands by the County Treasurer on orders granted m his lavor 

by such Justices, or in favor of any other person. 

§ 783. Whoever receives and disburses such fund must once in 
Eeceiver cvcry year, at the time such Justices may order, or oftener if 

and disbars- , . ii- iii i n ^ 

er. they require, make up his accounts and lay the same beiore them, 

who shall allow or disallow, and whenever there is a deficiency or 
Ma berui li^^^^^^J ^^'^ the part of such person he may be ruled for the 
^^- amount as an ofiicer of Court. 

§ 784. Application to be provided for as a pauper may be made 
Application at any time to the Commissioner of the Poor, a Justice of the 
t o ^wTom Inferior Court or a Clerk of such Court, upon which a hearing 
must be had, with the least possible delay, by the Justices, and 
the person to whom such application is made is authorized to pro- 
vide for such applicant as other County poor until the hearing is 

§ 785. No person shall be entitled to the benefits of the provi- 

who are sion for the poor who is able to maintain himself or herself by 

paupeis. ;[g^]3Qj.^ qj. ^f tqqj^^ j^r^g snfficient means, and in cases where females 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 230. 

PT. 1 TIT. 6.— County Orgahizatio^s. 157 

Chapter G. — The County Poor. 

are unable to maintain themselves and the helpless children they 
may have also, they may be aided to the extent required in the 
furnishing of food, clothing, oj: shelter. 

§ 786. If any such person has father, mother, or child of suffi- Parents 

and children 

cient ability, he or she must be supported by them, and failinfj; so i'""»d to 

" ^ -^ ^ _ '^ _ ^ ° support each 

to do, any County in the State, having made provision for such other. 
persons, may sue persons of full age standing in such relation to 
them, and recover for the time such County has made provision 
for such person ; always provided, the person sued was possessed of 
such ability. 

§ 787. On the trial the certificate of the Clerk of the Inferior certificate 
Court that the person was poor and unable to sustain himself, evidence.^'^ 
and that he was maintained for such a time at the expense of the 
County, is presumptive^evidence of such maintenance and the costs 

§ 788. [Whenever any free w^hite person shnll die in this State, Paupers— 
whose family and immediate kindred are indigent and unable to 
provide for the decent interment of such deceased person, and 
where the deceased is a pauper, and destititute of the means of 
paying for a decent interment, the Justices of the Inferior Court 
of the County where said death shall occur are authorized, and it is 
hereby made their duty, in case there be any pauper funds belong- 
ing to the County unexpended, to appropriate a sufficient amount 
thereof to provide a decent interment for such deceased pauper ; 
or to reimburse such person as may have expended the same vol- 
untarily; said appropriation not to exceed what is necessary to Amount of 
defray the ordinary funeral expenses of persons dying in humble tSu."^^^^ 
circumstances in this State.] (a) 

§ 789. When any inhabitant of any County, city, town, or vil- Persons re- 

-, . n 1 a 1 /-H • ^ ' moving pau- 

lage, m or out oi the otate, sends a pauper to some County in this persperson- 

ci 1 • 1 c • t 1 ^^^y respon- 

btate, by paying the expense oi transportation, or otherwise has siwe. 
him removed for the purpose of burdening some other community, 
the person so engaged shall be personally liable for the support of 
the pauper in the County where he locates. 

§790. If the person so engaged in transporting a pauper is in- suchperson 
solvent or does not respond to such demand from any cause, the y^Jrft ^Th^e 
County from which the transportation took place shall be liable. SaWe!^ ^^ 

§ 791. If any person commanding any vessel, or the manager 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 60. 

158 PT. 1.— TIT. 6.— County Organization. 

Chapter 6. — The County Poor. 

Paupersieft or proprietor of any theatrical circus, or any other migratory 

by migrato- ij ' . 

ty compa- compaiiy, or tneir agents, or any person passing or moving 
through this State, shall bring and leave or abandon herein, any 
infant, lunatic, maimed, deaf and dumb, blind, aged or infirm 
person, who is or is likely to become chargeable to the County, he 
may be brought by warrant before any judicial officer. 

§ 792. If such officer is satisfied that such person is or will pro- 
May be re- |)a]3lj become such charge, he must require such person to enter 
give bond, i^to bond, payable to the Governor of the State and his succes- 
sors in office, with sufficient securities, resident in the State, for 
the sum of five hundred dollars, for each of such persons so 
brought, conditioned to pay all such expenses, as any County in 
the State may lawfully incur in their support. 

§ 793. Said bond must be filed in the Clerk's office of the 
Sucii bond Inferior Court of the County where the paupers are at the time 

must be filed ^ , "^ _ ^ r r 

^^ Clerk's of its cxecution. and upon condition broken may be sued on and 

office of the ' '^ ^ "^ 

the infeiior pecoveries had, until exhausted in different actions in behalf of 

Court. ^ 

any County or person who may have properly contributed to the 
maintenance of such pauper. 

§ 794. On failure to give such bond, such person must be com- 
Failure to mitted to iail until it is done, or until the next term of the Supe- 

iErive bond. %) ' 

rior Court of the County, when, if not done, or he does not take 
May be fin- carc of Said paupcr and pay all costs, he is guilty of a misde- 
dred dollars, mcauor, and, on conviction, shall be fined five hundred dollars? 
and, in default thereof, shall be imprisoned ninety days. 

§ 795. When a pauper is found to be a lunatic, idiot, deaf and 
Lunatics, dumb, or blind, they must be dealt with according to the laws re- 
lating to them. . 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.-^CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 159 

Article 1. — Persons and Property Exempt 





Article 1. — Persons and Property JSxe7npt. 

Article 2. — Si/stem of Taxation — Persons and Property Taxed* 

Article 3. — Taxes on BanJcs, Railroads, etc. 

Article 4. — Taxes — liow Returned and Collected, 

Article 5. — Proceedings against Delinquent Tax Payers, 

Article 6. — Pelinquent Collectors and Receivers, etc. 

Article T. — Tax Receivers, ^ 

Article 8. — Tax Collectors, 

Article 9. — Compensation of Collectors and Receivers. 

Article 10. — Miscellaneous Provisions, 


Section 796. Persons and property exempt from taxation enumerated. 

§ 796. The following persons and property are exempt from Property 

exempt from 
taxation : taxation. 

1. All property specially exempted by the Constitution of the 
United States or of this State. 

2. All lands, mines, and minerals belonging to this State or 
the United States. 

3. All buildings erected for and used as a college, incorpo- 
ated academy, or other seminary of learning. 

4. All buildings erected for and used for public worship, or for 
school houses, or both. 

5. All Court Houses, Jails, or other County buildings. 

6. [All public buildings owned by any incorporated city or 
town in this State.] (a) 

(a) Acts of 1862-3, p. 180. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenuk 

Article 1. — Persons and Property Exempt. 

7. All poor houses, alms houses, houses of industry, and any 
house belonging to any charitable institution. 

8. The real and personal estate of any public library, and that 
of any other literary association. 

9. The several lots and buildings attached to the five last men- 
tioned exemptions, including all necessary furniture belonging to 

10. All books and philosophical apparatus, and all paintings and 
statuary of a company or association kept in a public hall, not 
held as merchandise or for the purpose of sale. 

11. All stocks owned by the State, or by literary or charitable 
institutions, for the legitimate purpose of such. 

12. All plantation and mechanical tools, and all household 
and kitchen furniture, not above the value of three hundred dol- 
lars, not held for sale or as merchandise. 

13. All poultry, and two hundred dollars in value of other 
property, besides the special exemptions, but which latter do not 
obtain in favor of non-residents. 

14. All annual crops and provisions, all fire-arms and all mu- 
nitions, and all wearing apparel not held as merchandise. 

15. All owners of stocks in any incorporated company liable 
stockhoid- to taxation on its capital for such stock shall not be taxed as in- 

e r s — \v hen •■• 

exempt. dividuals. As to County tax, see Section 488. 

16. All places and monuments of the dead and implements of 

17. The property of revolutionary soldiers and their widows, 
to the value of one thousand dollars. 




797. Taxable property — what. 

798. Bonds, notes, and other obligations. 

799. Lands held by warrant or ungranted. 

800. Lands, etc., held by non-residents. 

801. Taxable property — assessments. 

802. Assessments — when and by whom. 

803. Amount of taxes to be assessed, 

804. Tax— in what funds to be paid. 


805. Default and insolvent list. 

806. Specific taxes— items enumerated. 

807. Property specifically taxed, etc. 

808. License to exercise a privilege. 

809. Taxes to be paid before other debts^ 

810. Conveyances and judgments, etc. 

811. Person to whom conveyance is made. 

§797. All real and personal estate, whether owned by indi- 
Taxabie viduals or corporatious, resident or non-resident, are liable to 
taxation, unless specially exempted. 

PT. 1.— TIT. T.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 161 

Article 2. — System of Taxation, and Persons and Property Taxed. 

§ 798. Bonds, notes, or other obligations for money, on persons Bonds,notes, 

etc., of uon- 

in other States, or bonds of the United States, or of other residents, 

bonds of oth- 

States, or bonds of corporations of other States, and shipping, erstates,etc. 
are the subjects of return and taxation in this State. ^^' 

§ 799. All lands held under warrants and certificates, but not ungranted 
granted, are liable to taxation, and all monied or stock corpora- stock corp°o. 
tions, unless exempted or differently provided for in their charters, 
are liable to taxation upon such capital stock as other property. 

§ 800. Lands or other property belonging to citizens of the Non-resi- 

. ., f 1 • c\ 1 11-1 ^®°* owners 

United States, not resiaent oi this otate, can not be taxed higher subject to 

. ° same tax as 

than the property of residents, but all the property of such non- citizens, 
residents, whether their property be real or personal, in this State, 
tQust pay taxes on the same herein. 

§ 801. All property, or other thing of value subject to taxation. Taxable 
must be given in by the tax payers as hereinafter set forth, at its br^SsJssed 

ft . -, ', 1 , T -,. . , ad valorem^ 

lair market value, and must be taxed according to its value on an and by 
assessment to be made by the Governor, which must not exceed 
one-eighth of one per cent, per annum, without the assent of the 
General Assembly. , 

§ 802. Such assessment must be made each year as soon as the Assessment, 

. -Ill -If wben and by 

.value 01 the taxable property is substantially known by the whom made. 
Comptroller General, who shall assist the Governor in making 
the assessment, and immediately send written or printed notices 
to each Tax Collector, of the Governor's order, and publish also 
a copy thereof for the space of thirty days, in some public gazette 
at the seat of Government. 

§ 803. The amount of taxes assessed shall not exceed the actual Amountof 
annual wants of the State Government, exclusive of the commis- assessed! 
sions of Collectors and Receivers, and any other expense that may 
be lawfully incurred in assessing and collecting them. 

§ 804. Taxes must be paid in gold or silver, or in the bills of How paid. 
such banks as pay specie promptly, unless specially excluded by 
law or otherwise directed by the Governor. 

§ 805. In netting the digest the default list shall be deducted Default and 
for the Receivers, and the insolvent list for the Collectors. usts. 

§ 806. Besid es the ad valorem tax, the following specific taxes shall specific 
be assessed per annum, and estimated in fixing the rate per cent : 

1. Practitioners of law, physic, and dentistry, five dollars each. 

2. Daguerreian, ambrotype, photographic, and similar artists, 
five dollars. 



PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 

Article 2. — System of Taxation, and Persons and Property Taxed. 

3. Every free white person between the ages of twentj-one and 
sixty, twenty-five cents. 

4. To carry on the business of an auctioni^er, ten dollars. 

5. To keep a pool or billiard table for public play, twenty-five 

Bagatelle g. Tq keep a bagatelle table for public play, ten dollars. 

7. To keep a ten pin alley, or alley of like kind for public play. 

Ten pin ,-,.-, -^ ^ "^ ' "^ ^ r J7 

alley. ten aoilars. 

8. To keep any other table, stand, or place, for any other game 
table with or or play, with or without a name, unless for exercise or amusement 
name. Only, and not prohibited by law, ten dollars. 



9. To keep a public race-track, fifty dollars. 
Property § ^07. Where persons are taxed specifically for keeping a bil- 
tSed^^no"t Hard or pool table, bagatelle table, or ten pin alley, they need not 
give in the value thereof. 

to be re- 

License— § 808. No asscssmeut or payment of tax to the State is to exoner- 
sary after atc the pcrson from taking out license from the County, or city, or 

payment of . . . • i i i t 

tax. incorporated town, m cases where they are required by law so to do. 

V* r ■/ Taxes to 

/ and property whatsocver, and the property returned or held at the time of giving 

( always sub- . . i • , 

\^ct. in, or alter, is always subject. 

es and judg- 

^^^.^^ * p^y*'. property of any kind, made to avoid paying taxes, or judgments 
es^ void.*^^ procured to be rendered for the same purpose, are null and void. 

§ 811. The person holding such property, or to whom such 
Donee, etc., conveyancc may be made, is liable for such taxes, and the property 
bie. also, whenever found, no matter in vfhose possession it may be. 

809. Taxes shall be paid before any other debt, lien, or claim 

810. All deeds of gift, mortgages, sales, and assignments of 




812. Banks, etc. — how taxed. 

813. Railroads and other corporations. 

814. Private banks and bankers. 

815. Special provisions for railroads. 

816. Foreign banks— agents. 


817. Foreign insurance companies. 

818. Express companies. 

819. Lotteries. 

820. Illegal sale of lottery tickets. 

821. How contested by defendant. 

§ 812. The several banks, or other corporations in this State 
Banks— having banking privileges, shall pay a tax annually of forty cents 
on every hundred dollars of the highest amount of their capital 
stock paid in within the limits of their respective charters. 

§ 813. The several railroads and other incorporated or unincor- 
porated companies of every kind, except banks which are not 

YT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 16B 

Article 3. — Taxes on Banks, Railroads, and other Corporations. 

exempt by their charter or otherwise, or for which there is not a Taxom-aii- 

-in • n '1 ^ ^ roads and 

different method of taxation speciallj prescribed, pay the same other com- 
rate per cent, upon the whole amount of their capital stock paid in 
as is levied on other capital, together with the same rate per cent, 
upon their net annual profits. 

§ 814. The provisions of the preceding Sections apply to private banke^sret? 
bankers, brokers, or exchange merchants. 

§ 815. The several railroads, by whose charters a higher tax is when^to^^p^ 
forbidden, and such as are now or may hereafter be in operation one per cent 
that do not pay a dividend exceeding six per cent., shall pay only 
one-half of one per cent, upon the net annual income of each, 
until they pay a dividend of eisrht per cent, per annum, in which when oth- 

*^ ^ "^ o 1 ^ i. ^ y erwise taxed 

shall be included the reserved fund, at which time they are to be 
taxed as other capital. 

§816. Every agent of any forei2;n bank or individual not a ,, ^g^nt 

'^ ... ^^ foreigji 

citizen of this State, doina; business herein, with or without an^^^^^ .^^^ 

' o y non-resident 

office, or through a citizen of this State or other person, shall pay ho\v t^xed~~ 
the same rate of tax as is imposed upon the chartered banks upon 
one-third of the highest amount of loans or paper discounted, or 
exchange purchased by him and running to maturity at any one 
time during twelve months immediately preceding such returns, 
together with the same rate per cent, upon the net annual profits 
of the agency. 

§ 817. All insurance companies out of this State, doins; business Tax on for- 
herein, shall pay one per cent, upon premiums received. anc? com- 

^ ^ '^ i- A A ^ panics. 

§ 818. Every express company doing business in this State shall 
pay a tax of one per cent, upon the gross amount of their profits compan?eT^ 
for each year on business done at offices in this State. 

§ 819. Each manager of any lottery, if authorized by the laws on lotteries. 
of this State, shall pay to the State Treasurer one thousand dollars 
annually, free of all costs of collection. 

§ 820. If any person makes affidavit that any one is selling lot- illegal sale 
tery tickets without the authority of the laws of this State, the tickets — 

*! . bow punish- 

Tax Collector of any County shall issue s^ fi. fa, or ca. sa., or both, ed. 
for the sum of one hundred dollars for each act, sworn to against 
the offending person as tax executions are issued. 

§ 821. The defendant may contest the collection of such process M.fa.xnay 
as defendants in ordinary ^. /as. may.*^ 

*Laws to levy and collect taxes, being generally for one year only, and being 
in their nature temporary and changing, are not inserted here. The reader is 
referred to the Acts of the Legislature on that subject. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 

Article 4< — Taxes-^how Returned and Collected. 





822. Return of banks, etc.— how made. 
Other returns— to whom made. 
Mines and farms — where taxed. 
Mine or farm on County line. 
Lands, etc., of non-residents. 
Returns to Comptroller— how made. 
829. In what funds taxes payable* 
§30. Returns may be by agent. 

831. Oath of agent. 

832. By one of a firm suflBcient. 

833. Who may administer oath. 
Evidence of oath. 
When Receiver must assess. 
Proceedings thereon. 
Who may complain of returns. 
Oath of Assessors. 
Defaulting tax payers. 
Relief against double tax. 

841, Defaulter's oath, 

842. Blanks — by whom furnished. 
Lands — how returned. 
How entered in digest. 
Digests — when and where filed. 
Mistakes — how rectified. 
Tax overpaid refunded. 
Before reaching Treasury, 

849. Doubtful cases. 

850. Defaulters double taxed. 





851. Double tax on property* 

852. Double tax — how avoided, 

853. Agent of non-resident liable. 

854. When Collector must pay, etc, 

855. insolvent list — how allowed,: 

856. When allowed. 

857. On what tax allowed, 

858. Copy of list to be retained* 

859. List must be recorded. 

860. Comptroller may wait for list, 

861. When not allowed. 

862. New officers exciised. 

863. When their liability attaches, 

864. Collector's duty as to digests, 

865. Further time may be allowed. 

866. Taxes for former years. 

867. Estates not liable — when. 

868. Land maps to be made, 

869. Digests of lands, 

870. Lands returned by' number, 

871. Improved lands — where returned. 

872. Wild lands — where returned, 

873. List of wild lands to be made, 

874. List to be advertised. 

875. Wild lands sold— when, 

876. Owner maj' redeem. 

877. Sale shall not affect minors, etc. 

878. Additional clerk. 

Eeturns and 
taxes of 
banks, etc. 

Eeturns — to 
whom made. 

of mining 

§ 822. The returns of all banks, railroad, and insurance and 
express companies, and agents of foreign companies, authorized in 
this State, shall be made to the Comptroller General hj the first 
day of May in each year, and the taxes thereof shall be paid to 
the State Treasurer by the first day of October in each year. 

§ 823. All other companies or persons taxed shall make their 
returns to the Receiver of the respective Counties where the per- 
sons reside or the office of the company is located, except in case 
of mining companies and of persons who cultivate lands in Coun- 
ties not their residence. 

§ 824. Mining companies must make their returns in the County 
where the mine is worked, and those who have such plantations 
must make the returns for them, together with the stock and other 
property employed thereon, in the Counties where they are re- 
spectively situated. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 165 

Article 4. — Taxes — how Returned and Collected. 
§ 825. If there is a mine or plantation on the line between two Mine or 

_^ ■ 111 plantation 

Counties, and in two or more Counties, the returns shall be made on county 

' ' _ line. 

in the County where the improvements or most of the improve- 
ments are. 

§ 826. The provisions of the two preceding: Sections apply to Non-resi- 

^ ^ . dents includ- 

non-residents who hold such property in this State. ed. 

§ 827. Lands and other property of non-residents must be re- EetumBof 
turned and paid for in the County where the lands or other prop- den^s, etc!^" 
erty are respectively situated. 

The returns of all banks, or companies, or persons, re- Eeturns 

, ^ r^ n/->i i !••• made to 

quired to be made to the Comptroller (jrenerai, must be m writing comptroller 
and sworn to by the presiding officer or agent of a foreign com- 
pany to be a just, true, and full return of the capital stock, net 
annual profits, or other property or effects, for which said bank or 
company is subject to taxation by the laws of this State. 

§ 829. Such payments must be made in the funds in which taxes Paymenir- 
may be paid at the State Treasury, free of any expense to the 

§ 830. Returns of other companies and individuals may be made other re- 

. turns — how 

by themselves or accents to the proper Tax Receiver, by the first made ; tax— 

•^ ^ r r 7 .; how paid. 

day of July in each year, for property held and subject to taxa- 
tion on the first day of April previously ; and payments to the 
Tax Collector by the first day of October in each year. 

§ 831. When anv of the oaths of a tax payer are taken by an oath of 

" ^ '^ *' agent. 

agent, there shall also, at the proper place, be inserted that he 
does so as agent for a certain person or persons, or company, 
naming them. 

§832. Such oaths taken by any one member of a firm or unin- oathofone 

'^ , , . partner snf- 

corporated company without a presiding officer, shall be sufficient ficie^t- 
as to said firm or company property. 

§ 833. They are taken before the Tax Receiver, who is author- Oaths— how 
ized to administer them ; but the oath of non-residents, females, 
absentees, and sick persons, may be written out in full and taken 
before any person authorized to administer an oath, and delivered 
to the Receiver, who shall file such oaths in the office of the 
Clerk of the Inferior Court. 

§ 834. The entry in the digests of the tax payers' returns shall , Digest— 

t/ o JT *' when evi- 

hQ prima facie evidence of his having taken such oath, and if aftTforfeise 
false, he is guilty of false swearing and is liable to be indicted ^^*^' 
and to be punished therefor, as prescribed for other cases of false 
swearing in the Penal Code. 

166 PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revextte. 

Article 4. — Taxes — hovr Returned and Collected. 

§ 835. Each return shall be scrutinized carefully by the Tax 
In case of Receiver, and if in his iud^ment he shall find the property em- 

false return o ^^ r r j 

Tax Eeceiv- "braced iu the return, or any portion of it, returned below its 

er to 'assess 7 »/ jr 7 

yiane. yaluc, he shall assess the value at once or within thirty davs 

§ 836. If such assessment is not made bj the Receiver in- 
snbseqnent stautcr, he shall ^ivo the tax payer notice of his assessment, 

proceedings. , j. .^ 

and in either case it shall be the tax payer's privilege to have it 
left to three disinterested persons, one of whom he shall select, 
the other shall be selected by the Receiver, and these two shall 
select a third if they disagree, a majority of whom shall fix the 

§ 837. It is the privilege of any tax payer of the County 
Property whcrc a rctum is made to complain to the Receiver at any time 

returned be- , ^ , . t. . iii 'ii i 

low its value before his digest is completed that any return is below the true 
value of the property; in which case he shall notify the person 
who made the return complained of, if practicable, verbally or by 
writing, giving him the name of complainant and the ground af 
complaint, and shall proceed to have a new assessment in the 
terms of the preceding Secti^i. 

§ 838. "Whenever such assessors are called in, they shall take 
Oath of as- an oath before the Receiver to do justice between the parties at 


variance touching the true assessment of the tax return. 

§ 839. "When a tax payer has been returned as a defaulter and 

Defatating doublc taxcd, either by the Receiver or Collector, the Justices of 

iiow 're- the Inferior Court are authorized to relieve the defaulter of the 

lieved when 

double tax- penaltv for default at the time said Justices allow the Collector 

ed. -^ -^ 

his insolvent lists, provided that said tax payer shows to such 
Justices, by satisfactory evidence, that either from providential or 
other good cause he had not an opportunity to make his return 
to the Receiver of Tax Returns, and at the time of such release 
promptly pays his pro|>er tax and one dollar to the Collector as 
his fee, the Collector shall promptly inform the Comptroller Gen- 
eral of such release and the amount of taxes paid. 

§ 840. All defaulters may at any time and for the same causes. 

Defaulters bcforo the digost is made up and ready to be sent to the Comp- 

edfromdou- trollcr, savo the double tax by likewise giving in to the Clerk of 

the Inferior Court and paying him one dollar, who shall give a 

copy of such returns instanter to the Receiver, and he shall enter 

it in the several digests. 

§ 841. The Clerk, in the cases set forth in Sections 839 and 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 167 

Article 4. — Taxes — how Returned and Collected. 

840, shall require the tax payer to swear to the cause of his de- Defaulter's 
lay, and shall state the same in the copies furnished the Comp- 
troller or Receiver. 

§ 842. The Comptroller General shall furnish all the Receivers oomptroi- 

■•■_ ler General 

of Tax Returns with a sufficient number of blank forms to con- 1() furaish 

K e c e i V e rs 

form to the tax laws, by which they shall make out their three ^lank forms, 
digests, and each digest shall be of uniform size, and when re- Digests- 
turned shall be bound and labeled. 

§ 843. In making a return of taxable property, the person re- Return of 

^ ° . . land — how 

turning, when making a general return, shall give in each tract Q^ade. 
or lot of land he may own, specifying its location by number, 
district, and section, if known, the number of acres, if known, 
and its aggregate value, in which must be included the value of 
the buildings, machinery, toll bridges, ferries, or other improve- 
ments thereon or appurtenant thereto. 

§ 844. Such, too-ether with the returns of personal estate and Eetums— 

, . tow entered 

other interests the subject of taxation, must be returned and set in digests. 
down in the digest in separate columns according to the classifica- 
tion furnished the Receivers by the Comptroller General in each 
year, and their aggregate value carried out, less the exemptions, 
such being specified. 

§ 845. The Receiver must make out three of such digests in a Number of 

«... digests — to 

fair and legible handwriting, and furnish, by the first day of Au- whom fur- 
gust in each year, one to the Comptroller General, one to the 
Clerk of the Inferior Court, and one to the Tax Collector. 

§ 846. If a Receiver makes a mistake in his digest, it is the Mistakes 

J r 1 n r^ . In— howcor- 

duty of the Comptroller General, with the sanction of the Gov- rected. 
ernor, to correct such mistake by making the necessary entries in 
the digest furnished the Comptroller, and must in writing notify 
the Clerk of the Inferior Court and the Tax Collector of the 
County from which such digest comes of such mistake and correc- 

§ 847. If, by reason of such mistake, or from any other cause, ^ax over- 

\ '^ . . ' "^ ' paid to be 

a tax payer's money is in the Treasury for a ejreater amount ^?^^P^^,<i 

, , *^ . "^ ° when m the 

than he is liable for, of which such officer is clearly satisfied, he Treasury. 
may certify the same to the Governor, who shall, if he approves, 
draw his warrant on the Treasurer in favor of such tax payer for 
the proper amount, out of any moneys not otherwise appropriated. 

§848. If such mistake is ascertained before the Tax Collector And before 

. . T I . 1 m reaching the 

has paid the amount into the Treasury, the Comptroller General, Treasury. 

168 PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 

Article 4. — Taxes — how Returned and Collected. 

with the sanction of the Governor, shall authorize such Collector 
to refund the amount, or if he has not collected it, to order him 
to desist. 

§ 849. When any similar cases arise which are doubtful in the 
Doubtful opinion of the Governor, he shall refer the matter to the General 



§ 850. If a person fails to make a return in whole or in part, 
Defaulters Or fails to affix a value to his property, it is the duty of the Ke- 

to be doubly , , , , . 1 , . -, 

taxed. ceiver to make the valuation and assess the taxation thereon, and 
in all other respects to make the return for the defaulting person 
from the best information he can obtain, and having done so, he 

\ ^^ shall double the tax in the last column of the dis^est ao;ainst such 
defaulters, after having placed the proper market value or specific 
return in the proper column ; [ and for the second year's default 
the defaulter shall be taxed fourfold, and increasing in the same 
ratio until a return is made.] (a) 

§ 851. If there is taxable property, real or personal, in a 

A Property Couuty, cxccpt vacant or wild lands, that to the satisfaction of 

not returned -i-r*. ■, ^ iit-t • i 

to bo doubly the lieceivcr, when he comes to conciude his dia^est, is not returned 

taxed by Ke- i i i i 

ceiver or by any person, and he does not know the owner or possessor, it 

Collector. _^Ji ' ^ .... 

is his duty to assess and double tax it, describing it particularly; 

and the same power is conferred to the Tax Collector as to such 

property, when not assessed or overlooked by the Receiver. 

§ 852. If persons who are required to give in land in the 

When de- Countics whcro situatcd fail so to do, they shall be liable only for 

iSbfr^ for the real tax assessed by the Receiver, unless they fail to pay the 

amount by the time required; in which event the Collector shall 

collect the double tax and issue process therefor. 

§ 853. All persons who give in property for persons not resi- 
non-resi- dent in the State shall be personally liable for the taxes, as well 

dents per- . , ^ ■*• "^ 

sonaiiy lia- as the principal and his property. 

§ 854. The several Collectors must pay into the State Treasury 
When Col- the taxcs of their respective Counties by the twentieth day of 

lectors to ■ ^ . 

pay taxes in- December of each year, and shall at the same time present their 

to Treasury . . *^ 

and present insolvcut list, duly Certified to have been allowed them by the 

insolvent hst ^ */ %> 

Grand Jury, or the Justices of the Inferior Court if the Grand 
Jury has not acted in the premises. * 

§ 855. [Such insolvent lists shall be presented and allowed as 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, pp. 49, 50. 

PT. 1.— TIT. T.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 169 

Article 4. — Taxes — how Returned and Collected, 
follows: The Tax Collectors in every County shall, on oath, be insolvent 

*^ . lists— how 

obliged to lay before the Grand Jury or Inferior Court of each allowed. 
County a list of such insolvents as may be in such County, who 
shall allow or disallow the same.] (a) 

§ 856. [The said Inferior Court or Grand Jury may at any insolvent 
time before the fifteenth day of December in each year, allow said allowed. 
insolvent lists, and such lists can be allowed or disallowed either 
upon the list of names furnished by the Collector on oath as re- 
quired in the preceding Section, or on fi fas with the proper 
entries thereon.] (a) 

§ 857. [The Inferior Courts or Grand Juries in making out On what 
such lists shall be required to state how much is allowed the Col- 
lector on account of the State tax, and how much is allowed on 
the County tax.] (a) 

§ 858. [When the.Collector shall have his insolvent list credited inferior 
it shall be the duty of the Inferior Court or Grand Jury to retain tain a copy. 

•^ . . *' . of list. 

a copy of such list and direct the Collector to issue executions 

for the same, and place them in the hands of some Constable of 

the County for collection, who shall be entitled to the same fees 

as he is entitled to for other executions, and two and one-half per 

centum, and the balance shall be paid by the Constable to the 

Clerk of the Inferior Court, whose duty it shall be to transmit the 

same to the Treasury.] (a) 

§ 859. When such lists are allowed they must be entered on the Disposition 

minutes of the Court, and the Clerk thereof must furnish the iist when al- 
Collector certified copies thereof, stating in the certificate when 

and by what tribunal allowed. 

§ 860. [Whenever the Comptroller General shall be satisfied that comptroller 

a Tax Collector has exercised due diligence in his efi'orts to have wait for in- 

. ^ T n ' r^ solvent lists 

nis insolvent list allowed by a Grand Jury or the Inferior Court, — i^ow long. 
within the time prescribed by law, the said Comptroller General 
shall be authorized, if in his judgment the public interests will not 
suffer thereby, to wait with the Collectors fifteen and not exceeding 
thirty days for said insolvent list before issuing fi. fa, for the 
same.] (b) 

§ 861. They shall not, under any circumstances, be allowed or when not. 
credited with such lists after executions are issued ao-ainst them 
for taxes, until they go to the Comptroller General and settle 
fairly and fully with him. 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 80 ; Acts of 1857, p. 132. (b) Acts of 1861, pp. 80-1. 





170 PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 

Article 4. — Taxes — how Returned and Collected. 

§ 862. The time by which digests shall be completed and the 
When taxes paid does not apply to Receivers and Collectors who have 

time shall be ^ . r i ./ 

granted to not been in office Ions; enough to make such compliance, but in 

Eeceivers o o 17 

tSj ^°^^^*^" ^'^ such cases such officer must respond to the requirements of the 
Comptroller General. 

§ 863. Such officers are not liable for the penalties fixed for 

Newly el- thosc rcgularlj elected, until the time allowed by the Comptroller 

ceivers and General has expired, unless they have been so loner in office as 

Collector to •'^ ' . "^ ° 

have time, would havc been sufficient for the regular officers. 

§ 864. It is the duty of the Collector to examine the digest of 

Collector the Receivcr, and if he knows of any default not entered, to make 

schedule of a schcdulc of such in the same manner as done by the Receiver, 


and to dou- and of any other that he may then or afterwards learn, and of 

ble tax the . "^ *^ ' 

same. their property, and assess a double tax in the same manner the 

Receiver is allowed to do, one copy of which shall be furnished 

to the Comptroller General to add to the digest in his office, and 

another to the Receiver, who shall likewise correct his digest. 

§ 865. And in other cases where any unexpected obstacles occur 

Comptroller to Completing the digest or paying over the taxes within the time 

General may ..... ^ 

allow fur- prescribed, it is in the discretion of the Comptroller General to 

ther time. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

allow further and sufficient time. 

§ 866. Receivers and Collectors are required to receive the 
Taxes for rcturns and to collect the taxes thereon for former years, when 

former years "^ 

—how re- any person or County are in default, which taxes shall be assessed 

turned and "^ ■*■ *' ' 

collected, according to the law in force at the time the default occurred, and 

shall be so specified in the digest. 
tt -V ^ §867. The estate of any person shall not be liable for default 
Estate not whcn Said person may have died before the time expired for giv- 

liable for de- . . -^ *^ . , . 

fault-when; ing in taxcs for the year, and the representatives or any heir may 

and in no ^° ^ J ^ r J J 

event to be giye in the same, and in any event, for that year, such estate shall 
ed the first not be liable to double tax. 


§ 868. [The Surveyor General is authorized and required to have 
Secretary published a sufficicut numbcr of maps of those lands which have been 

of state to ^ . . ^ , . . , 

furnish maps survcycd as will enable him to furnish each Receiver with two, em- 
bracing all the lands in his County, and one to file in the Clerk's 
office of the Superior Court.] (a) 

§ 869. [Each Receiver shall make a separate digest of all the 

Digest of lots or parts of lots in his County which have not been returned 

V. ' (except the same be in a town or city), and shall designate by ap- 

(a) Acts of 18G6, pp. 166-7-8. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 171 

Article 4. — Taxes — how Returned and Collected. 

propriate letters, whether they be improved or unimproved lands. ^ 

He shall forward a copy of said digest to the Comptroller Gen- (j^/^ , '> i 
eral's office. The improved lands not returned shall be assessed A ^ ^ \ 
and the tax collected as is now required by law.] (a) ' T ) 

§ 870. [It shall be the duty of the Receiver to require all per- Landstobe 

^ L ./ i X returned by 

sons making returns of land in his County to return the same by number, etc. 
district, number, and section, if the lands have such designation ; 
and where lands have no such designation, then by such descrip- 
tion as will enable the Receiver to identify them. Receivers are 
prohibited from receiving any return of lands which does not so > ^ 

designate them, and the Comptroller General is prohibited from 
allowing any Receiver compensation or per centage for his ser- 
vices who receives returns in any other manner.] (a) 

§ 871. [All persons o\fning improved lands which have a tenant jandT^wtTete 
or tenants thereon, shall return the same in the County where the ^^^^^^'^^^i- 
land lies.] (a) 

§ 872. [All persons owning unimproved or wild lands, in Coun- wild lands 
ties without the County of their residence, shall be required to turned. 
make returns of the same to the Comptroller General, or to the 
Receiver of the County, where the land lies. Said returns may be (/Ll- 
made by forwarding by mail or other safe conveyance to either of 
said officers a statement, under oath, of the lands owned and the 1 

value thereof; and when the rate of the ad valorem tax has been 
fixed, and the collection of taxes ordered, the taxes due upon said 
wild lands shall be paid to that officer to whom the return was 
made.] (a) 

§ 873. [When the several digests of the Receiver of Tax Returns comptroi- 
of the several Counties of the State have been received, it shall list of unre- 

. turned wild 

be the duty of the Comptroller General to compare said returns ^^nds. 
with each other, and to make out a comxplete list of all the unim- ^,^ c ' 
proved or wild lands not given in.] (a) 

§ 874. [When such list is completed, the Comptroller General ^^^t to be 

■-, ^' *■ advertised. 

shall, for sixty days, make advertisement of the same in one news- 
paper in each Congressional District, and require, in said publica- " . ^ 
tion, the owner of said lands to come forward and give in and pay ' / 

taxes upon said lands, and in default thereof that said lands will 
be sold. A copy of said list shall be furnished the Clerk of the 
Superior Court of each County in the State, who shall post the 
same in his office.] (a) 

(a) Acts of 1866, pp. 166-7-8. 


PT. 1.— TIT. T.— CHAP. 1,— Public Revenue. 

Article 4. — Taxes — how Returned and Collected. 


§ 875. [On the expiration of the time of advertisement, the 
■cnreturned Comptroller General shall issue execution acrainst all unimproved 

wild lands to ^ . 

be sold- lands not returned, assessing the value at the average value of 
such land in the County where it lies, which execution shall be 
directed to the Sheriff of the County where the land lies, and the 
Sheriff shall forthwith proceed to advertise and sell the same un- 
der the same rules and regulations as govern other Sheriff sales, 
% and make his returns to the Comptroller General.] (a) 

§ 876. [The owners of any lands thus sold for taxes shall have 
Owner may the privilege of redeeming the same at any time within two years, 
by paying to the purchaser the amount of his purchase money and 
costs, together with interest at the rate of ten per cent, per an- 
num thereon ; or on making satisfactory evidence of his title to 
the Comptroller General, he may receive the purchase money, less 
the amount of taxes due thereon and the cost expended in collect- 
ing said tax.] (a) 

§ 877. [No sale made under the 875th Section of this Code 
Sale shall shall, in any way, operate to affect or defeat the title of any mi- 
minors, etc. uor, idiot, or lunatic of this State to the land.] (a) 

§ 878. If the duties which this act imposes upon the Comptroller 
Additional General, in the opinion of the Governor, requires additional assist- 
ComptroUer. aucc, the Govemor, is authorized to employ an additional clerk 
in the Comptroller's office for that purpose.] (a) 





879. Defaulting corporations. 

880. Forfeiture of charter, etc. 

881. Penalty where none is fixed. 

882. Default tax on foreign corporations. 

883. Penalty on lottery dealers. 

884. Assessments in absence of returns. 

885. Fi. fa. vs. corporation. 

886. Fi. fa. vs. agent — how executed. 

887. Duty of collecting ofl&cer. 

888. Relief of one unjustly put in default. 

889. Collector's fi. fa. — how issued, etc. 

890. Fees of officers. 

891. By whom and how executed. 


892. Authority of Constable. 

893. Sales under tax fi. fas. 
891. Excess— how disposed of. 

895. Conveyance to purchaser. 

896. Purchaser to have possession. 

897. Property exempt from sale. 

898. Claims — condition of claim bond. 

899. Unreturned property— proceeding. 

900. Owner may redeem land sold. 

901. Tax fi. fa. runs to any County. 

902. Penalty against defaulting brokers. 

903. Defaulting corporations, etc. 

§ 879. If any corporation, company, person, agency, or insti- 

(a) Acts of 1866, pp. 166-7-8. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Eevenue. 173 

Article 5. — Delinquent Tax Payers, and Proceedings against tliem. 

tution, who are required to make their returns to the Comptroller jgj.^^^"gP*J^^^{ 

General, shall fail to return the taxable property or specifics, or to issue./- 

pay annually the taxes for which they are liable to the State qu^ntg,'^^"'' 

Treasurer, the Comptroller General shall issue against them an 

execution for the amount of taxes due, according to law, together 

with the costs and penalties. 

§ 880. The penalty against all such corporations shall be the Penalty 

forfeiture of their charters, and it not chartered by this btate, linquent in- 
then the immediate suspension of their business therein. 

^ 881- The penalty or default tax on banks, railroads, and . Penalty 

"^ ■•■ «^ ' ■' against cor-- 

other corporations, where there is no special provision, shall be p^^^^^^^^^s 
three times the amount of their lawful tax. 

§ 882. The penalty or default tax on foreign insurance compa- g^„^^^^^f^l 
nies shall be five hundred dollars ; on foreisrn bank agencies, two 31 .1"?,T 
thousand dollars; on express companies, ten thousand dollars. nie8,etc. 

§ 883. The penalty on lottery dealers, if there should be any Penalty 

, -^ *^ v' 5 ^ J a^rainst lot- 

authorized by the laws of this State, shall be three times the tery dealers. 
amount of the taxes assessed. 

§ 884. When there is no return by which to assess the tax, the where 
Comptroller General shall, from the best information he can pro- comptroller 

■"• General to 

cure, assess in his discretion. assess tax. 

§ 885. The executions issued by the Comptroller General -Fl fas. 

^ ^ issued by 

against any bank or other company shall be directed to all and comptroller 
sinoiular the Sheriffs and other lawful officers of this State, with against a 

a ' Company — ■ 

directions to levy the same on the property of the corporation or er^etc^*^^*^*' 
company, with power to issue and serve garnishments upon the 
debtors of the corporation. 

§886. The executions against agents of foreign institutions as Fi./as.m. 
aforesaid shall be against the principal agent or his successor, ei}?n compa- 
and shall authorize the officer to levy on all the property of the 
agency, to seize its money, notes, or other eifects. 

§ 887. When an officer collects money on such process, or on Money 
any other issued by the Comptroller General, he shall, without above/./ae! 

11 ' ^ 1*1 ft 1 to be imme- 

delay, remit the same to nim by some safe and speedy method, diateiy sent 

1P-1 -i-iii r./ ' toComptrol- 

and on lailure to do so, is liable as he would be to other plaintiffs, ^^r General. 
§888. When a person shall have lawfully returned and paid one wrong 
his taxes in one County, and is treated as a defaulter in another d^efiuitlr — 
for the same tax, or any portion thereof, the Grand Jury or the ed. 
Justices of the Inferior Court of the County claiming the tax 
may discharge said defaulter, which will exempt him from liability 

1Y4 PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. I.^Public Revenue. 

Article 5. — Delinquent Tax Payers, and Proceedings against them. 

for it, and shall authorize the Comptroller to credit the Collector 
for the same, and the Governor to draw his warrant therefor. 
§889. Executions for non-payment of taxes against persons 
Tax Col- who are not required to pay to the Treasurer are issued by the 

lector's >• pn, ^ n p t • • ^ 

/as. — when lax Collcctors of their respective Counties as soon as the last 

and how is- _ ^ 

sued. day for payment has arrived, and must be directed to all and 

singular the Sheriffs and Constables of this State. 

§890. [Tax Collectors shall be allowed a fee of fifty cents for 
Feeforis- issuino- tax fi. fas, .' but no Tax Collector, Sheriff, or Constable, 

suing Tax Q J t/ y t ■> 7 

ji.fas. shall receive costs on said fi. fas. unless the same be collected 
from the defendant.] (a) 

§ 891. Executions may be levied by either of the officers to 
By whom whom directed, or other officer who by law may be authorized in 

levied and . ' . 

sales under, their placc : wlicn the principal amount does not exceed fifty 
dollars, the levy and sale must be made by a Constable, and not 
otherwise. If the Constable levies on land, it must be returned 
to and sold by the Sheriff of the County. 

§ 892. The Tax Collector may place his fi. fas. in the hands of 
may^kvy in any onc Constablc of the County, who shall be authorized to col- 
the County. Icct or Icvy the same in any part of the County. 

§ 893. Sales under tax fi. fas. shall be made under the same 
tax5-!?««^^ ^^•'^^^ governing other judicial sales. 

§ 894. If there is any excess after paying taxes and all ex- 
Excess— penses, it shall be immediately paid to the person authorized to 

how paid. . . 

receive it. 
Deed made §895. The deed or bill of sale made by such officer shall be 

at sale under ^ ^ _ • 

tax 7?, /a. just as Valid to the purchaser as if made under the ordinary pro- 
cess of law issuing from the Superior Court. 
put^p?r°chas*^ § ^^^' ^^® officcr Selling has the authority to put purchasers 
6ion ofTand' ^^ posscssion of land sold, as in other cases. 

Property § ^^7. Property exempted from levy and sale ordinarily, is ex- 
exempt rom gj3j^p^g(j from Icvy and sale for taxes. 

§ 898. When property is levied on under a tax fi. fa. issued 
bf^^^terTs^ either by the Comptroller General or Tax Collector, it may be 
^^tfiev- claimed by a third person and tried in the same manner as other 
L??t' to'^^gi^e claims are, except that the claimant shall give a bond and secu- 
br?iaWe as ^^^J f^^' ^^^ cvcntual Condemnation money, and if found subject, 
Eond.^^^^ such claimant and his sureties shall be in all respects liable as 
on appeal bond. 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 80. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. l.~PuBLic Revenue. 


Article 5. — Delinquent Tax Payers, and Proceedings against them. 

not returned 

§ 899. When property is assessed for taxes which has not been 
returned by any one, as soon as assessed the Tax Collector shall ^ut assessed 

J »i ^ to be sold or 

at once issue an execution aejainst it for the amount due and costs, ^1^"^' «i'^r- 

o ' plus paid 

and the Sheriff shall advertise it for sale in some public gazette and^Sly^be 
ninety days before the day of sale, and if by said day the taxes txvSl^nS 
are not paid, it shall be sold, provided renting or hiring will not 
bring the requisite amount. Whatever overplus there may be 
shall be paid over to the Ordinary as a part of the Educational 
Fund, with a statement of the property and account of sales, sub- 
ject to the claim of the true owner within four years. 

§ 900. Whenever any land is sold by virtue of a tax execution Land sold 

•^ "^ _ ^ under tasj?. 

issued under this Code, the owner thereof shall have the privilege /«• may be 

' X o redeemed by 

of redeeming said land thus sold within one year by paying the owner. 
purchaser the amount paid by said purchaser for said land, with 
ten per cent, premium thereon, from the date of the purchase to 
the time of payment. 

§901. If there is not sufficient property in the County where Tax^^./a. 
the tax payer resides to satisfy the taxes, property situated in cminty. ^^^ 
any other County is the subject of levy and sale. 

§ 902. If any broker, private banker, or exchange merchant, or Brokers, 
their aojents, m this State, fail to return the amount of capital to return 

, . •'• amount of 

they intend to employ during the year, they shall pay a tax of ^^J'jf'^i ^^'^^^ 
five hundred dollars, to be levied and collected as. other taxes. 

§ 903. Any incorporated or other company making default, Defuuiting 

•^ -^ i e/ o -' companies. 

shall be taxed by the Collector as such defaulters are by the 
Comptroller General, 





904. Penalty for not completing digest. 

905. Penalty for improper digest. 

906. Penalty for useless digest. 

907. Receivers' liability— how enforced. 

908. Penalty for false digest. 

909. Penalty for deceiving tax payer. 

910. Altering digest by Collector. 

911. Fi.fa. vs. Collector and sureties. 


912. Amount of penalty. 

913. Fi.fas. vs. Tax Officers. 

914. How fi.fa- may be suspended. 

915. Property bound from date of bond. 

916. Sales under Jl. fas. vs. Tax Officers. 

917. Collector must await digest. 

918. Mustgive bond, etc., before he collect 

§ 904. If a Tax Receiver fails to have his digest completed and 
deposited by the first day of August .in each year, unless excused 


176 PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— PtJBLic Kevenue. 

Article 6.-— Delinquent Tax Receivers and Collectors, and Proceedings against tliem. 

Eeceiver bv the terms of the law or by the Comptroller General, he forfeits- 
failing tO*^ 1,11 IPl. l-P 

complete di- for everv week s delay, one-tenth of his commissions ; and if the 

gest to for- -^ "^ ' ' 

feitcommis- delay extends beyond thirty days he forfeits one-half his commis- 

Biona. . tJ J 

sions ; and if beyond the time when the Governor and Comptroller 
fix the rate per cent., he forfeits all his commissions, 

§ 905. If he fails to make out his digest in the manner pre- 

Faiiingto scribed by law, or to comply with the directions given him by the 

perdigest,to Comptroller General, in so doing; he forfeits one-half his commis- 

forfeit half . ^ ' ° 

comiuissions sionS. 

§ 906. If such digest is made out so badly as not to answer the 
Making a purposc of the tax laws, he forfeits all his commissions, and must 

useless di- -^ . 

gest, to for- be removed from office by the Justices of the Inferior Court, on 

feit all com- •' ' 

missions and the rcQuest of the Comptroller General. 

06 removed. -■■ '■ 

§ 907. If he receives commissions, which he is not entitled to 
Becoming roceivc or retain, or in any other manner becomes possessed of 

Indebted to . . 

the State— any money belonginjgc to the State, or incurs any liability thereto, 

process to*' *' . . . . 

iss^e against the Comptroller General is authorized to issue execution or other 
legal process against him. 

§ 908. If a Receiver makes a false return in either of his di- 
Making gests, cxpressivc of more than is returned, he shall forfeit to the 

false return 'I'li iiiin i«r»i 

to answer to party aofgrieved, m all cases, one hundred dollars, and ]i the 

party ag' -^ "^ ^° ' . ' . ' 

grieved. amount out of which such party is defrauded by such return is 
more than one hundred dollars, then ten dollars for every one dol- 
lar over that amount, to be recovered by a qui-tam action. 

§ 909. If, by any device, intentionally, he causes the tax payer 
Liable for to pay morc than his lawful tax, the provisions of the preceding 


tax payer. bection apply. 

§ 910. If any Collector, with fraudulent intent, alters the digest 
Collector rendered to him, or any other of the digests of his County, he is 

fraudulently ' '^ . . , „ , • i i i • 

altering di- guilty of forgery, and, on conviction, shall be punished by impris- 
of forgery, oumcnt in the penitentiary for not less than two nor longer than 
ten years, 

§ 911. If any Collector shall fail to settle his accounts with the 
Execution Comptroller General in the terms of the law, he shall issue execu- 

toissue-'- ■' 

orfafiure^to ^^*^^ against him and his sureties for the principal amount, with 
counts'!'''^''" the penalty and costs. 

§ 912. The penalty is twenty per cent, per annum, upon the 
Amount of amount retained, from the time of default until paid, which in- 
cludes interest. 
§ 913. All executions and other process against Collectors and 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.--CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 17T 

Article 6. — Delinquent Tax Eeceivers and Collectors, and Proceedings against them. 
Receivers must be directed to all and sino-ular the Sheriffs of this Fi.fas. 

'-' against Col- 

State, and must be executed by them, their lawful deputy, or other ^^^f^^'J'^^^^^ 
officer lawfully in their stead. executed. 

§ 914. Executions so issued shall not be suspended or delayed Not to be 

, 7-v, suspended, 

by any judicial interference with them, but the Governor may sus- etc. 
pend the collection not longer than the next meeting of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

§ 915. The property of Collectors, Receivers, and of their sure- Property of 

. r i J 1 ^ ? Collectors, 

ties, is bound, from the execution of their bonds, for the pay- Eeceivers, 
ment of taxes collected and the discharge of their duties. 

§ 916. The proceeding's in sellinsj property under such execu- Levy and 
tions must be the same as under fi. fas. issued from the Superior^- /««., etc. 

§ 917. If any Collector shall collect, or attempt to collect, any collector 
taxes before the Receiver has completed and transmitted his di- taxes, etc. 
gest to the Comptroller General, unless specially so ordered by 
such officer, or allowed by special enactment, he forfeits to the 
State double the amount so collected, or attempted to be collected, 
to be recovered by execution issued by the Comptroller General. 

§ 918. If any Collector collects, or attempts to collect, any tax collector 

T p 1 1 • 11 111 notto collect 

before he has 2;iven and had approved the necessary bonds and tax before 

° ^ ^ , "^ giving bond, 

security, and taken the oaths of office, he is guilty of a misde- etc. 
meaner, and, upon indictment and conviction, shall be fined not 
less than one hundred dollars, and, in addition, double the amount 
so collected, and in default of payment three months' imprison- 
ment in the common jail. The Governor may vacate the commis- 
sions of defaulting Tax Collectors, or of Tax Receivers failing Governor 
or refusing to do their duty, and in such event the vacancy shall SmilsSon? 
be filled in the manner prescribed for other vacancies. 




919. How Receivers are elected, etc. 

920. Vacancies — how filled. 

921. Receiver's oath. 

922. Liability on bond. 

923. Receiver's duties specified. 

924. His failure to advertise no excuse. 


925. Penalty for refusing return. 

926. Party refused, etc. 

927. Clerk must forward returns. 

928. Claim of right to assess — no refusal. 

929. Receiver's pay from County. 

§ 919. Tax Receivers shall be elected on the first Wednesday in 

178 PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 

Article 7. — Tax Keceivers. 

Tax Ee" Januarj of each year, for tlie term of. one year, and are comnjis- 
eiected,etc. sionod and qualified as Clerks of the Superior Court are. 

§ 920. Yacancies are filled as vacancies for such Clerks, but if 

^'^acancies there is not time to fill the same by the first day of May in each 

year by election, the Justices of the Inferior Court shall appoint 

one, who shall discharge the duties of the office for the balance of 

the year. 

§ 921. Such Receiver, whether elected or appointed, before 
Eeceiver's entering on the duties of his office, besides the oath required of 
all civil officers, must take and subscribe the following oath: 

"I swear that I will truly and faithfully perform the duties of 
Receiver of returns of taxable property, or of persons or things 
specially taxed in the County to which I am appointed, as required 
of me by the laws, and will not receive any return but on oath or 
affirmation, and will, before receiving returns, carefully examine 
each, and will, to the best of my ability, carry out all the 
requirements made upon me by the tax law. So help me God." 
[He shall also at the same time give bond and security in a 
Shall give gum cQual to oue-lialf of the amount of the State tax, supposed 

bond and se- ^ 7 r r 

curity. -^o })q due from the County, for the year in which he shall give 
bond; the amount of said bond to be filled up by the Comptroller 
General before being sent out to the several Counties from the 
Executive Office.] (a) 

§ 922. Receivers and their sureties are liable on their bonds for 
Liability all penalties or forfeitures they may incur under the law, and for 

of Receivers, ^ ./ t/ 7 

etc. all losses, or damage, or expense the State may sustain by reason 

of their conduct. 

§ 923. It is his duty— 
Duties of 1* To receive all returns of taxes within the time and in the 
umSated.^^ manner prescribed by law. 

2. To make out and perfect the three digests in writing and 
figures plainly, legibly, and neatly, and to properly deposit them. 

3. To give ten days' notice in writing of the several times 
and places at which he will attend in the several Militia Districts 
of the County, for the purpose of receiving tax returns. 

4. To attend at such place at least three times during the time 
allowed in which to make returns. 

5. To keep a standing advertisement as to the day or days 
when he will be at the County site for such purpose. 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 134. 



PT. l.~TIT. 7.-- CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 179 

Article 7. — Tax Receivers. 

6. To receive tax retLirns at any time wlien a tax payer applies 
to give in. 

7. To embrace in his digest to the Comptroller General, the 
Clerk of the Inferior Court and the Tax Collector, respectively, 
a list of all defaulters, and the amount of their true and double 
tax, and of all property assessed by them and returned by no 
one, or other special action had in conformity to the laws. 

8. To publish at the door of the Court House for thirty days 
lists of all the defaulters and the amount of their double taxes. 

9. To take from each tax payer resident of the County at the 
time of receiving his tax returns the number of his own children 
between the ages of six and eighteen years, and those for whom 
he is guardian, and enter the same in the proper place and column 
in the digests. 

10. To assess upon the digests deposited with the Clerk of the 
Inferior Court the County taxes according to law, and the rate 
per cent, levied by the Justices of the Inferior Court. 

11. To conform to such rules as he may be furnished with, and 
to obey such orders as may be given by the Comptroller General. 

12. To perform all other duties that the law requires, and 
which necessarily under the law appertain to his office. 

§ 924. It shall not be an excuse to any person for not making Negiigenee 

^ , . , , . , 1 T-> • 1 T 1 ^^ Keceiver, 

a return oi his taxes as the law requires, that the KeceiTer should etc. 
fail to advertise or fill his appointments. 

§ 925. If any Receiver refuses to receive any return of taxes Eefusai of 

IiBCGiv6r to 

when properly tendered, and in presence of a witness, and in the receive re- 
time the law requires, he is guilty of a misdemeanor, and on in- 
dictment and conviction, shall be fined not less than fifty dollars. 

§ 926. The person whose return is thus refused may save a ^^^ whose 

^ i- tJ return has 

double tax by making his return to the Clerk of the Inferior Court, ^"^^ been re- 

J o ' ceived, etc. 

together with an affidavit in writing that he tendered said return 
to the Receiver, stating the time when, place where, and persons 
present, and that it was refused. 

§ 927. Such Clerk shall forward a copy of said return and affi- tum'ifmade 
davit to the Comptroller General instanter, and retain the orio-inals, ^^JfT\ f, 
for which he shall be entitled to one dollar from the tax payer. ^^'^^^" 

§ 928. The claim of the Receiver to assess a tax payer's prop- f^^ ,'^^["^2' 
erty is not a refusal to receive a return. ^''^• 

§ 929. The County shall pay the Receiver one-half of what the ^^^^^l^^'^ 
Collector gets for collecting the County tax. 

180 PT. 1.— TIT. T.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 

Xtm ^ ■ — ■ ■ 

Article 8. — Tax Collectors. 




930. Election and qualification. 

931. Vacancies — how filled. 

932. Collector's oath. 

933. Collector's bond. 

934. Bond for County tax — ^how approved. 


935. Mvist give bond before he collects. 

936. County Collector appointed — when. 

937. Collector's duties specified. 

938. His failures no excuse for others. 

§ 930. Tax Collectors are elected at the same time, in the same 
Election, manner, for the same term of office, and are commissioned and 


of Tax Col- qualified as Tax Receivers. 

lectors, etc. -*• 

§ 931. Yacancies are filled as they are in the office of Receiver, 
Vacancies and Section No. 920, respectins; Receivers, applies to Collectors, 

—h«>w filled. ? r & ? rr > 

except so much thereof as fixes the first day of May, and in lieu 

thereof for Collectors the first day of August shall be the time. 

§ 932. Before entering on the duties of his office, besides the 

Collector's oath required of all civil officers, he shall take and subscribe the 

following oath : 

-, Tax Collector of the County of 

do swear 

that I will faithfully discharge the duties required of me by law 
as Tax Collector, and that I will search out and make a true return 
of all defaulters, polls, professions, and all taxable property not 
found on the Tax Receiver's digest, or not returned to the Clerk 
of the Superior Court by the fifteenth of August, and that I will 
pay over all taxes collected by me as required by law. So help 
me God." 

§ 933. [He shall also give bond and security for thirty-three 
Amount of and one-third per cent, more than the State tax supposed to be due 

bonds and ■*■ . . . -, 

their condi- from the Couutv for the vear for which said officer is required to 

tions. t/ •/ A 

give bond, the amount of the bond to be filled up by the Comp- 
troller General before being sent out to the County from the 
Executive Office,] (a) and shall give another bond with sufficient 
security, payable to the Justices of the Inferior Court, conditioned 
for the faithful performance of his duties as Collector of the County 
tax, in a sum to be fixed by such Justices. 

§ 934. Such bond for County taxes when given must be approved 
Approyed bv three Justices of the Inferior Court, filed in the office of their 

by Inferior 

Court. Clerk, recorded in the book with other official bonds, and in ail 
respects is an official bond. 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 124. 

PT. 1.— TIT, 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 181 

Article 8. — Tax Collectors. 
§ 935. Tax Collectors shall not collect any portion of the County Bond tobe 

"^ , . , given, etc. 

tax until such bond is given, and if they fail to give such a bond, 
or one satisfactory to such Justices, they may appoint some com- 
petent person to collect the County tax. 

§ 936. When such an appointment is made, the person appointed ©uty of 

. iiT . ' 1 n rr\ r^ ^^ ii person 60 ap- 

shall give such a bond as is required oi a lax Collector, and ne pointed. 
shall take an oath faithfully to collect and pay over the County 
tax, and in all respects shall have the same privileges, discharge 
the same duties and incur the same penalties as the Tax Collector 
would in collecting the County tax. 

§ 937. It is the duty of the Tax Collector— 

1. To diligently collect and promptly pay over in the funds ^^^jJJ®^**^'''! 
allowed by law the State and County taxes to the Comptroller »i«™ted. 
General and the County Treasurer respectively. 

2. To search out and ascertain as far as possible all polls and 
professions, and all taxable property not returned to the Receiver 
or not found in his digests. 

3. To enter all of such defaults in a book kept for that purpose, 
to assess and collect thereon a double tax and pay the same over 
to the Comptroller General and County Treasurer respectively, 
after deducting [single] (a) commissions, and to deposit said book 
with the Comptroller General, and a copy with the Clerk of the 
Inferior Court, before the day of final settlement. 

4. To have his insolvent lists allowed in the manner required 
by law before final settlement with the Comptroller General. 

5. To issue executions against all defaulters and insolvents, and 
place them with the proper officer for collection. 

6. To give notice of the time and places of his attending to 
collect the taxes, and of the days he will be at the Court House, 
and there to attend during the time for collection as required of 
the Receiver. 

7. To publish at the door of the Court House, for thirty days, 
his insolvent lists, including the taxes of each person thereon. 
To furnish to election managers of the County lists of all persons 
who have not paid their taxes. 

8. To pay the Receiver his commissions, upon the production 
of the Comptroller General's receipt for his digest, with a speci- 
fication therein of the amount of commissions to which he is enti- 

(a) Acts of 1862-3, p. 57. 


JL _L. JL. J-O-JL. *. V/XJ-XiX . JL, Ju UAJUXO XtJCi V J2ji\ U J3i. 

Article 9. — CompensaLion of CoilectOi's and Eectivers. 

tied, and not otherwise ; and to produce said Receiver's receipts^ 
with his receipts thereon, to the Comptroller General, before he 
shall be allowed credits for such commissions. 

9. To conform to such rules as may be furnished, and to obey 
such orders' as may be given by the Comptroller General. 

10. To perform all other duties that the law requires, and 
which necessarily, under the law, appertain to his office. 

Silence § ^^^' ^^ ^^ HO cxcuse to any person for not paying his taxes- 
to dSit- as the law requires, that the Collector should fail to advertise or 
payer. *^^ fiH liis appointments. 


Section 939. Pay of Receivers and Collectors. 

§ 939. The following rates of commissions shall be allowed in 
Commis- the net amount of each dio^est to each Receiver and Collector of 

sions of Ee- ^ " 

ceiver and the State taxcs, \_^rovided, that no Receiver of Tax Returns or 
Tax Collector shall receive more than fifteen hundred dollars, 
commissions on the general State Tax] (a) — to wit : 

On all digests over $20,000. 3 per cent. 

10,000 and under $20,000 4 

" under 


10,000... 5 

6,000 6 

4,000... 7 

3,000 8 

2,000 9 





940. Comptroller may make rules. 

941. Rules to be furnished tax officers. 


942. Rules to be published. 

943. Bonds of tax officers sued on. 

§ 940. The Comptroller General has authority to make all need- 

r^TJnlrii ^^ rulcs and regulations for the government of Tax Collectors 

rules Sr\S>f- ^^id Rcccivers, and any other rules that may be necessary to in- 



(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 16. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— CHAP. 1.— Public Revenue. 183 

Article 10. — Miscellaneous Provisions. 

sure the prompt and faithful execution of the tax laws, if not in lectors and 

■*• ^ ^ ^ Eeceivers. 

violation of or inconsistent therewith. 

§ 941. These rules, when made, shall be entered in a book in Enter the 

- -, 1 I I . T. T, same in a 

his oflace, kept tor that purpose, and be binding on all successors book and 

11 11- n ^ ' 1 1 11 1 • furnishthem 

until amended or repealed, copies of which shall be printed and to Receivers 
furnished to Receivers and Collectors at the time of sending them tors. 
the forms required. 

§ 942. They shall also be printed during the month of March pu^'J^sJjthem 
every year in a public gazette published at the seat of Govern- j^°jf ^^^^p^' 
ment, if in the discretion of the Comptroller he shall deem it ben- 

§943. Nothing shall be so construed as to make the Collector's c,?iie"cto?3 
and Receiver's bonds not subject to be sued according to due co^j^fr^s 
process of law, but which is not to be done unless some emer- te^uSon 
gency should make it necessary. 




944. Sources of revenue, etc. 

945. What moneys go into Treasury. 


946. What fees go into Treasury. 

§ 944. The sources from which the State does or may derive Revenueof 

•^ the S t a t e 

revenue, other than by taxation, are as follows : from sources 

^ "^ ' other than 

1. The net earnings of the Western and Atlantic Railroad. taxation en- 

o umerated. 

2. Dividends on the bank stock owned by the State. 

3. Dividends or interests on the stock owned in the Main 
Trunk Railroad. 

4. Sale of State bonds at a premium. 

5. The use by individuals of any other property of the State. 

6. Receipts for military or other claims against the United 

7. Receipts from assets of the Central Bank and other old 

8. Receipts on claims from Tax Collectors or other officers 
for previous years, which were in litigation or regarded as in- 

9. Dues for the sale of reverted or other land to which the- 
State may have the title. 

neous reve- 
nue to be 
paid into the 

Tees to be 
paid to 
Treasurer ; 
those of 

184 PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— Public Revenue. 

Chapter 2. — Revenue from Other Sources. 

10. Fees which the Secretaries of the Governor, the Secretary 
of State, the Treasurer, the Comptroller General, and Librarian, 
may receive for official duties. 

§ 945. All the receipts from the resources mentioned in the 
preceding Section, all fees not specially awarded to any particu- 
lar officer, all fines and forfeitures not otherwise disposed of, all 
moneys collected from any source or on any account, to which 
the State is entitled, not otherwise directed, must be paid into the 
State Treasury. 

§ 946. The fees which officers are allowed to charge, and which^ 
when collected, must be paid to the Treasurer, are as follows: 

1. Those by the Secretaries of the Governor : 

A grant for 100 acres or under $1 00 

A grant for over 100 acres or under oOO acres 2 00 

A grant for over 300 acres or under 500 acres 3 00 

A grant for over 500 acres or under 1000 acres , 4 00 

A grant for 1000 acres and over, one per cent, per acre for every 

additional acre. 
Affixing the Great Seal of the State, by order of the Governor, to 

any thing of a private nature 2 00 

For every examination of records per request 50 

Administering oath of office to a salaried officer and giving certifi- 
cate thereof 1 00 

Entering a testimonial 50 

Attaching the Seal of the Executive Department 1 00 

Certified copy of any record not more than 300 words 1 00 

If more than 300 words, per 100 words 10 

2. Those by the Secretary of State : 

For a grant of land and affixing the Seal thereto, the same as is 
allowed the Secretaries of the Governor, according to the 
number of acres. 

For registering each grant 50 

For registering bond or other similar writing 1 OO 

For a testimonial without the Great Seal 1 00 

For a testimonial with the Great Seal 2 00 

Affixing the Great Seal to any other paper 1 00 

For a certified copy of a grant to land 1 00 

For a certified copy of any other paper not of more words 1 00 

For more words, per hundred 10 

For every search per request 25 

Treasurer. 3. Thoso by the Treasurer : 

For every extract or copy from any book, minutes, or file of office, 

not more than 300 words 1 00 

For every additional 100 words 10 

For every search by request 25 

of State. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 7.— Public Revenue. 




Chapter 2. — Revenue from Other Sources. 

4. Those by the Comptroller General : 

Every extract or copy from any book, minutes, or file of office, not 

more than 300 words 1 00 

For every additional 100 words. 10 

For every search by request 25 

5. Those by the Secretary of State as Surveyor General : 

For examining a plat 50 

For recording a plat 1 25 

For recording a plat of a town, township, or village 10 00 

Transmitting a caveat to Governor and attending thereon 1 00 

Certified copy of any original record not more than 300 w^ords. ... 1 00 

For every additional 100 words 10 

Certified copy of an original warrant 50 

Issuing a certificate of a record 50 

For every search per request 25 

6. Those by the Librarian : 

Certifying to the existence or contents of any manuscript, map, or 

other document intrusted to his keeping 1 00 

Furnishing copies of his catalogue of books 50 







947. State bonds — how authenticated. 

948. Amount of bonds — time of payment. 

949. Coupons— how signed and paid. 

950. Bond must accompany coupon, etc. 

951. State bonds — where payable. 

952. Bonds may be exchanged— when. 

953. Bonds taken up not to be re-issued. 

954. New bonds may issue for lost ones. 

955. On what showing new bonds issue. 1 


956. State must be indemnified. 

957. Stolen bonds — how renewed. 

958. Bonds, etc., paid off- how kept. 

959. Payment of bonds provided for. 

960. Surplus set apart. 

931. Overplus paid to bonds not due. 

962. Bonds paid before due to be reported. 

963. Provisions for education, etc. 

§947. All bonds or certificates of the State for the State debt state bonds 
must be authenticated by the signature of the Governor, the Sec- cates— how 
retary of State, and stamped with one side of the seal of the ^''^^ 
State — to wit, that side which has on it the motto, ''Wisdom, 
Justice, and Moderation." 

186 PT. 1.— TIT. 8.— The Public Debt. 


Chapter 1.— the Public Debt. 

§ 948. They shall be, unless otherwise specially ordered by the 
Amoimts General Assembly, in sums of five hundred and one thousand 

of, and how *' 

payable. dollars each, payable in twenty years after their date, bearing in- 
terest at six per cent, per annum, which interest is payable semi- 
annually by coupons thereto annexed. 

§ 9 19. They may, before or after issued, be presented to the 
how^'^K^ State Treasurer, who shall sign, in his official capacity, all the 
and paid, coupous thereto attached, which then may be paid at maturity by 
the Treasurer without the presentation of the bond, or further 
■warrant or authority. 
si<Snotto § ^^^' ^^ coupons are not thus signed, they shall not be paid, 
{Ss^^accom- uulcss accompanicd by the bond to which they belong, and before 
the bond. ^^ payment shall be by the Treasurer detached. 

§ 951. The principal and interest shall be made payable at 
"When pub- such placc in this State or other of the United States as the 

iic debt to 

be paid. Govemor may in his discretion direct, and he may direct the 

principal payable at one place and the interest at another. 

§ 952. Where citizens of this State become possessed of State 

Bonds pay- bonds payable out of this State, the Governor may give in ex- 

Sid b ^Sti' c^^^g® foi' them bonds payable herein, provided there is no loss 

excha??d^^ to the State by the exchange, and the expense thereof, if any, is 

borne by the holders of the bonds. 

§ 953. When such exchange occurs, the original bonds so taken 
Suchorigi- up shall not be re-issued on any account whatever, unless specially 
notto here- provided for bv the General Assembly. 

issued. r t/ j 

§ 954. When any bond or coupons shall be lost, mutilated, or 
Lost bonds dcstroycd, the Governor may issue to the holder a new bond, with 

or coupons. "^ '' 

proper coupons attached. 

§ 955. When mutilated, the mutilated bonds must be surren- 
liiew bonds, dcrcd ; when lost or destroyed, the holder must make affidavit of 
ed.' such fact, that they were his, in his own or some other right, at 

the time of the loss or destruction ; if lost, that he has made dili- 
gent search without avail, and despairs of ever finding them. 
§ 956. Having made such affidavit, he shall then, before receiv- 
Bond and incp the ncw boud, e^ive bond and surety to the Governor in a sum 

surety to be '^ ' ^ •^ 

given, double the amount of the principal thereof and the unpaid in- 
terest thereon, conditioned to save the State harmless on account 
of issuing such new bond. 

§ 957. [The Governor is authorized to issue a new bond or bonds 
in lieu of a bond or bonds of the State which may have been 

PT. 1.— TIT. 8.— The Public Debt. 187 

Chapter 1.— The Public Debt. 

stolen, upon the holders makins; affidavit as provided for in Sec- New bonds 
tion 955, provided said holders may have given or shall give those stolen. 
twelve months' notice of the loss or theft of said bonds, fully de- 
scribing the same, at the Treasury of the State, at least twelve 
months prior to the time when said new bonds may be or shall be 
issued ; provided that no new bond shall be issued for or in lieu of 
any lost or stolen bond until the owner of such bond shall first 
give to the State a bond with security, to be approved by the Gov- 
ernor for the time being, fully indemnifying the State against the 
payment of the bond so lost or stolen.] (a) 

§ 958. When bonds or coupons are paid, they must be stamped Disposition 

1 . 1 m , m ■ 1 ^ ^ of bonds 

as paid, and preserved m the Treasurer s office with the same care and coupons 

■^ when paid. 

as the funds of the State. 

§ 959. An amount of money stands annually appropriated suffi- Appropria- 

1 1 1 1 1 r» 1 tionannually 

cient to pay the principal and interest of any bonded debt of the for bonded 
State becoming due during the year. 

§ 960. Any surplus in the Treasury after allowing for all the surplus 

in Treasury 

annual charges against it, includinsi; such claims, is likewise ap- appropriated 

^ ° ' ^ ' -^ to bonded 

propriated to the same object. debt. 

§ 961. Whatever amount may remain from the appropriations surplus ap- 
contained in the two preceding Sections more than enough to pay may be ap- 

Tiii -ir»i/-. plied by the 

such debts may be applied, by the order of the Grovernor, to re- Governor. 
deeming any particular class of bonds not due as he may order, 
and which, in his judgment, it is to the interest of the State to 
prefer and anticipate. 

§ 962. All bonds redeemed before maturity must be by the Bonds re- 

. deemed be- 

Governor annually reported to the General Assembly, particu- fore due. 
larly described, and the terms upon which they were so re- 

§ 963. For the purpose of carrying into effect the changing of Provision 
the public debt paid with the net earnings of the Western and P^'^^^f ^ i^ 

^ , , ^ ° . W. and A. R. 

Atlantic Railroad into a permanent Educational Fund, the Gov- ^onaS^J'. 
ernor is authorized to substitute other State bonds bearing the 
same rate of interest for those in the hands of holders, and to 
issue new bonds and arrange them upon such schedule and paya- 
ble at such periods as that by providing annually a sinking fund, 
the whole principal of the public debt shall be extinguished by 
the time the last bonds shall become due. This sinking fund, 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 18. '"-v^ 

188 PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Property. 

Chapter 1. — Public Buildings. 

Annual when ascertained, shall be paid out of the net earnincrs of the 

sinkinsfund iAi'-r»-ii ^ 

— how~"paid : "Western and Atlantic Railroad, and until ascertained the Gov- 

pnbiic debt 

— whenpaid. emor shall use so much of the earnings of said road as shall be 
necessary to meet said bonds annually falling due. 





Section. i Sectiox. 

964. Buildings owned by the State. | 965. Buildings the State is interested in. 

§ 964. The buildings and those appurtenant thereto belonging 
BuiidiDgs to the State are — 

owned by 

the State. The State Capitol. 

The Governor's Mansion. 

The State Arsenals at Milledgeville and Savannah, and the 
Military Institute at Marietta ; the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at 
Cave Spring ; the Lunatic Asylum near Milledgeville ; the Peni- 
tentiary at Milledgeville; the buildings of the Western and At- 
lantic Railroad. 

§ 965. The State has an interest in — 
Partly The Univcrsitv of Georgia at Athens. 

owned by the »' " 

State. The Asylum for the Blind at Macon. 



Sectiox 966. Lands reserved to the State. 

§ 966. The lands specially reserved to the State are — 
The lands known as the "Macon Reserve" on the Ocmulgee 
Lands own- river ; the lands known as the "Mcintosh Reserve," on which is 

ed by the 

state. situated the Indian Spring ; the lands known as the " Old Agency 

Reserve" on the Flint river; a quantity of land on Flint river, 

PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Property. 


Chapter 2. — The Lands of the State. 

opposite the Old Agency ; one mile square on tlie Chattahoochee 
river at Mcintosh Ferry ; one mile square at Marshall's Ferry on 
Flint river, including the ferry ; five miles square on Chattahoo- 
chee river at Cusseta Falls, including the falls ; all islands con- 
tained in any of the navigable waters not disposed of, and the 
western bank of the Chattahoochee river to high-water mark, 
where it forms the boundary between Georgia and Alabama ; so 
much of the Okefenokee Swamp as is in this State and ungranted ; 
the lots whereon all the public buildings of the State are erected ; 
the fractional parts of surveys created by the different land divis- 
ions which are not granted or otherwise disposed of ; all lands 
omitted to be surveyed, granted or sold ; parcels of land in cer- 
tain cities, to wit : 

In the city of Atlanta ; 

In the city of Columbus ; 

In the city of Chattanooga.* 




967. W. & A. R. R. belongs to State, etc. 

968. Obligations relative to W. & A. R. R. 

969. What laws apply to W. & A. R. R. 

970. Former laws still of force. 

971. Laws applicable to W. & A. R. R. 

972. Appointment of Superintendent. 

973. Superintendent's bond. . 

974. His oath and commission. 

975. Superintendent's authority. 

976. Rules of road to be recorded, etc. 

977. Such rules are law. 

978. Where the road may be sued. 

979. Demand must be made before suit. 

980. Books of road prima facie evidcLce. 

981. Debtors to road — pu.blic debtors. 

982. Appointment, etc., of Treasurer. 

983. Treasurer's oath. 

984. His bond; oath and bond, where filed 

985. Treasurer's duties specified. 

986. Auditor's appointment, etc. 

987. Auditor's oath. 

988. His bond. 

989. His bond and oath — where filed. 

990. Auditor's duties specified. 

991. Remedy against officers W. & A. R.R. 


992. Compellable to give other security. 

993. Agents must report monthly. 

994. Officer failing to" pay, etc., dismissed. 

995. Accounts of dismissed officers. 

996. Indebtedness of defaulters, etc. 

997. Oath of all agents of the road. 

998. Their bonds. 

999. Bonds renewed annually. 

1000. Settlements with agents. 

1001. Governor to examine bonds, etc. 

1002. Conductor's oath. 

1003. No credit to be given for freights. 

1004. Conductor's settlements. 

1005. Disbursements— how made. 

1006. How Auditor's decisions reviewed. 

1007. Proceeds of road — how disposed of. 

1008. Useless iron and tackle may be sold. 

1009. Sale may be for cash or on credit. 

1010. No officer of road can buy at sale. 

1011. Sale bill to be kept and reported. 

1012. Useless land of road may be sold. 

1013. Who may go over road free of charge. 

1014. Laws of road enforced by Sup't. 

1015. Transportation of lime. 

1016. Stock gaps may be built. 

* Considerable portions of tlie above mentioned reservations have been con- 
veyed by the State to private companies or individuals, which will appear by 
reference to the proper records. 

190 PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Propekty. 

Chapter 3. — The Western and Atlantic Railroad and its Government. 

§ 967. The, railroad communication from Atlanta, in Fulton 
w.&A.E. County, to Chattanooga, on the Tennessee river, is the property 
erty of the of tliis State exclusivelj, and shall be known as the Western and 
Atlantic Railroad. 

§ 968. The State occupies the same relation to said road, as 
Eeiationof owncr, that any company or incorporation does to its railroad, and 

state to the ' . . -^ ^ »^ ^ ' 

w. & A. K. the obli|>;ations of the State to the public concerninai: said road, 

E.; recipro- ° ^ O ? 

cai obiiga- ^nd of the public to said road, are the same as govern the other 

tions of the ^ ' o 

pubiic^^ ^^^ railroads of this State, so far as is consistent with the sovereign 
attributes of this State, and the laws of force for its conduct. 
§ 969. All the public road laws and penal laws touching the 
Eoad laws railroads of this State, whether to oblio-ate or protect, apply to 

and penal ' ° ^ . . 

laws apply the State Road, unless specially excepted, or some other provision 
E.E. proviso jg prescribed in lieu of some one or more thereof. 

§ 970. [All laws of force regulating the liability of railroad 
Lawsappii- companics in this State for damages done by the running of loco- 
&A. E.E. 'motives, cars, and other machinery, are hereby declared to apply 
equally to the Western and Atlantic Railroad ; and in the bring- 
ing of all suits against the Western and Atlantic Railroad, the 
same shall be regulated by the laws iu existence on that subject 
at the time of the adoption of this Code.] (a) 

§ 971. All laws heretofore enacted, having a special or local 
Preceding application to Said road, and in force at the time of the adoption 

laws of force 

of this Code, are kept in force, unless herein repealed expressly, 

or by implication. 

§ 972. The principal officer of said road shall be styled the Su- 
superinten- perintcndont, who is appointed by the Governor, and holds his 
pointed by offico durius; his term, unless sooner removed at his pleasure. TThe 

Governor. . 

salary of the Superintendent shall be jive thousand dollars 'per 

His salary. -i /-is 

annum. \ (b) 

§ 973. Before entering on the duties of his office, he shall give 
To give bond and security, to be approved by the Governor, in the sum of 

bondandse- "^ ' ^^, '^ . 

curity. twenty thousand dollars, which shall be j&led in the office of the 
Comptroller General and recorded therein. 

§ 974. He shall also, at the same time, besides the oath re- 
Totakeoath. quirod of all civil officers, take and subscribe before the Governor 
the following oath, which shall be filed in the Executive Office : 
" I, , swear that I will faithfully and impartially per- 

(a) Acts 1862-3, p. 183. (b) Acts of 1865-6, p. 249. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Property. 191 

Chapter 3. — The Western and Atlantic RaHroad and its Government, 

— tf —— — ' 


form all i»he duties of my office ; that I will make no appointment, 
nor do any act from fear, favor, reward, or the hope thereof, but 
in all things I will be governed solely with regard to the interest 
of the State of Georgia, and in the discharge of my duties I will 
neither make, nor permit to be made, any discrimination, unless 
so directed by legislative authority, in favor or against any rail- 
road company, or other persons or parties having business connec- 
tions with or relations to said road. So help me God." 
§ 975. The Superintendent has authority — 

1. To conduct all the operations of said road connected with its ^Powers of 

•"■ STipennten- 

repairs, equipment and management, including its financial affairs, gj^tl^^"^' 

2. To appoint or remove all the subordinate officers subject to 
the approval of the Governor, except the Auditor and Treasurer. 

3. To fix the rate of passage and freight, and to make all neces- 
sary arrangements touching such rates and other business with 
other railroads. 

4. To contract for and purchase machinery, cars, materials, 
workshops, and all other contracts necessary for the general 
working and business of said road not exceeding three thousand 
dollars, and over that amount subject to the approval of the 
Governor in writing. 

5. To make contracts with the Government of the United 
States, with the consent of the Governor, for the transportation 
of the mails over said road. 

6. To arrange the schedules for running trains at such times, 
either by day or night, as he may deem expedient. 

7. To settle all claims against said road, with the approval of 
the Governor. 

8. To sue officially for any claim due the State on account of 
said road, and defend all brought against the road. 

9. To make all necessary rules for the proper conduct of the 
business of the road and the enforcement of discipline. 

10. To impose penalties for a violation of said rules and for 
breaches of duty by all persons in the employment of the road. 

11. To see that the books and accounts of the road are so kept 
as at all times to show accurately its fiscal aifairs. 

12. To have settlements weekly with all fiscal agents of said 
road for all money received by them, by himself or through some 
authorized person, and to discharge them for neglecting or refus- 
ing to do so. 

192 PT. 1.— -TIT. 9.— Public Pkoperty. 

Chapter 3. — The Western and Atlantic Railroad and its GoYernment. 

13. To fix the compensation of all employees of said road, 
with the approval of the Governor, whose compensation is not 
fixed by law. 

14. To draw his warrant on the Treasurer in favor of claimants 
according to the law. 

15. To sue and cause all moneys belonging to or collected on 
account of the road to be paid promptly to the Treasurer. 

16. To exercise a general supervision over all ofiicers, agents, 
and employees under his charge, and see that they strictly comply 
with all the requisitions of the law. 

17. To make out and transmit to the Governor a quarterly 
statement exhibiting the receipts and expenditures of the road, 
and once every year a full statement of all the transactions of 
the road in detail, which report shall be published in one or more 
of the public gazettes at the seat of Government and at the city 
of Atlanta. 

§ 976. The rules adopted by the Superintendent for the gov- 

be recorded* ^^^^^^^^ of Said road shall be recorded in a book kept for that 

fuJnished^"o P^iT^^®? shall bc printed and posted in a conspicuous part of his 

officers. ofiice and copies placed in the hands of each officer of the road, 

who shall also be promptly supplied with copies of any alterations 


§ 977. Such rules shall have the force and effect of law when ne- 
Force of ccssarv to carrv into full effect any law in regard to said road and 

said rules, . . . . ^ . . • i i i 

to improve its organization when not inconsistent with the law. 
§ 978. All suits against the road must be brought against the 
Suits against Superintendent in his official capacity in the County of Fulton, 
Atlantic '^Jiere the office of said road is located, except in those cases of 
claims where by the law other railroads are allowed to be sued 
elsewhere, but under no circumstances are suits against such road 
to be allowed against such road, its officers or agents in the State 
of Tennessee, beyond the right, if any, that may exist under the 
authority granted to this State to extend said road into Ten- 

§.979. No suits shall be brought against the Superintendent 
Demand until a demand has been made upon him for payment, accompanied 

necessary ■•• x ./ / x 

brou4t ^^^* ^^ * Statement of the nature of the claim, and ten days shall be 
allowed the Superintendent to pass upon- such claim before suit 
shall be brought. , 

* See Venue. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Pkoperty. 193 

Chapter 3. — The Western and Atlantic RaHroad and its Government. 

S 980. In suits pending or to be brouorlit by or aa-ainst said road, Books of 

n 1 I V n 1 . ? . 1 r» 1 i ^^^^ prima 

the books of said road shall be j:»n???a/«(?zg evidence of what thej/^c^* evi- 
contain pertinent to the points in issue. 

§981. All debtors to said road are as debtors to the State or 1*5^^^*?^^ 

'^ ^ public debt- 

public, and when any question arises warranting it, the right or '^^^^ 

obligations of both parties are to be determined upon by the laws 

governing such relation. 

§ 982. The Governor shall appoint an officer for said road, who , Governor 

^ ■'••'■ '^ to appoint a 

shall be styled the Treasurer, who holds his office for the same Treasurer. 
time and term that the Superintendent does. 

§ 983.*' Before entering on the duties of his office, besides the nisoath. 
oaths required of all civil officers, he shall take and subscribe 
before the Governor the following oath: 

^'I, -, do swear that I will faithfully and diligently re- 
ceive, keep, and disburse the funds of the State Road according 
to law, in my capacity as Treasurer, and do all other acts that are 
or may be required of me by law as Treasurer of said road, to the 
bestof my skill and knowledge. So help me God." 

§ 98i. He shall at the same time give bond and security, to be Bond and 
approved by the Governor, in the sum of one hundred thousand 
dollars. Said bond and oath of office shall be filed and recorded oath filed 

. and recorded 

as the Superintendent s. 

§ 985. It is the duty of the Treasurer — 

1. To take custody of all funds appertaining to the road, to Duties of 
receive all moneys from officers or agents holding the same and numerated. 
receipt them. 

2. To receive all such sums as may be appropriated by law for 
the use of the road. 

3. To pay all warrants drawn by the Superintendent in the 
terms of the law. 

4. To pay the State Treasurer monthly all balance in his trea- 
sury after paying all the current expenses of the road and other 
lawful claims upon it, and to take his receipt for the same, retain- 
ing such amount as the Superintendent may direct. 

5. To keep a book or books to enter all his receipts and pay- 
ments and other official transactions. 

6. To make a quarterly statement to the Superintendent of the* 
receipts and disbursements of his office, which shall be published 
with the Superintendent's report to the Governor. 

7. To discharge such other duties as the laws do or may require. 


194 PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Property. 

Chapter 3. — The Western and Atlantic Railroad and its Government. 
Auditor ap- § 986. The GovGrnor shall appoint an officer for said road who 

pointed by i i i a t 

Governor, shall be stjled the Auditor. 

§ 987. Before entering on the duties of his office, besides the 
His oath. Q^th required of all civil officers, he shall take and subscribe before 
the Governor the following oath : 

'^I, , swear that I will promptly, justly, fairly and im- 
partially approve or reject all claims against the State Road pre- 
sented to me for such purpose, and that I will faithfully and dili- 
gently discharge all other duties that are or may be required of 
me by law as Auditor, to the best of my skill and knowledge. 
So help me God." * 

§ 988. He shall, at the same time, give bond and surety, to be 

Give bond ^ ' . n 

and surety, approved by the Governor, in the sum of twenty thousand dollars. 
Bond and § 989. Such boud and oath of office shall be filed and recorded 
and recorded as the Superintendent's. 

§ 990. It is the duty of the Auditor — 

1. To examine and approve or reject, without unnecessary delay^ 
Auditor's all bills and accounts against said road before the Superintendent 

duties enu- ° ^ 

merated. shall draw a warrant for the same on the Treasurer. , 

2. To keep a book to enter all accounts passed, stating the 
person, amount, account, and time. 

3. To examine, supervise, and control all books kept by the 
subordinate accounting officers or clerks of the road. 

4. To discharge such other duties as the laws do or may 

Eemedyof § ^^^' '^^^ remedy of the State against the Superintendent, the 
a-ainst^offi- Trcasurcr, Auditor, and other officers and agents, is the same as 
&A. k!e^* against Tax Collectors or Receivers. 

§ 992. The Governor may require each of such officers to give 
Additional additional bond and surety on the same terms and conditions that 
requiJedf ^ he may require it of the Comptroller General or the State 

§ 993. Each agent of such road having the funds thereof in 
Monthly his hauds shall make out monthly, and from month to month, on 

reports of . 

agents. such day as the Superintendent may require, a full statement of 

his account, and particularly specify what amount of cash on 

'hand, what amount due from freight delivered or to be delivered, 

showing the full amount due from all sources whatever, and shall 

sign such account. 

§ 994. Any officer or agent failing to pay over the funds col- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Property. 195 

Chapter 3. — The Western and Atlantic Railroad and its Government. 

lected by him weekly, or failinsi; to furnish the Superintendent Defanitiug 

'' '' ° ^ officer or 

with a monthly statement of the financial condition of his office, agent di«- 

•^ misseo, 

except for providential cause, shall be immediately dismissed by 
the Superintendent. 

S 995. When such dismissal shall take place, an account shall Proceedings 

'■ ' on a dismis- 

at once be had of all the freight on hand, giving the person dis- ^ai. 
missed a credit or receipt therefor, so as to show the amount of 
his indebtedness. 

S 996. As soon as an agent, or any other person having funds Amount 

^ ... <iue by de- 

of the road unaccounted for, is in default, and fails to pay over faniter treat- 

' ' ^ ■"• *' ed as eam- 

said funds on demand made by the Superintendent, or bj his j°|| ^^ *^® 
authority, or shall abscond or conceal himself, or in any other 
way evade or prevent a settlement, said officer shall promptly 
cause the true amount due by such person to be ascertained, and 
transmit the same to the Comptroller General as earnings of the 
road, stating also the date of the default. 

§ 997. Every aarent of said road, before entering on the discharge oaths of 
of his duties must, besides the oath required of all civil officers, 
take and subscribe before the Superintendent, who is hereby made 

an officer for such purpose, the following oath : "I, , swear 

that I will faithfully perform all the duties of my appointment 
that are or may be required of me by law, to the best of my skill 
and knowledge, and that I will render a true account of my official 
•conduct, and of all moneys received by me as such, and pay the 
same over to the person authorized to receive them, as often as the 
law may require. So help me God." 

§ 998. They shall at the same time give bond and surety, paya- Bonds of 
ble to the Governor and his successors in office, to be approved by 
the Superintendent, in such sum as he may require. 

§ 999. The oaths shall be filed in the office of the Superinten- Disposition 
dent, the original bonds transmitted to the Comptroller General, and bond. 
and copies retained by the Superintendent in a book kept for that 
purpose in his office. 

§ 1000. Such bonds shall be renewed annually, by the tenth day Bonds re- 
of January, after a full and satisfactory settlement has been had aiiy. 
with the agents, and not before. 

§ 1001. Said settlement must be^'in writing and signed by the Settlements 

"^ & to .; ^ith agents 

agent and Superintendent, and shall contain a full statem.ent of 
the agent's account with the road, whether for cash received, 
freight on hand, or from any other source whatever. 

196 PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Propeety. 

Chapter 3.— The Western and Atlantic Eaih'oad and its Government. 

§ 1002. The Governor shall examine every bond transmitted to 
Bond to he the Comptroller General by the Superintendent, and in case of 

examined by ^ , ./ x ? 

Governor defect therein, as to matter or surety, may order another bond 

and adcii- _ ^ ^ ^ ^ t j 

tionai bond nriven in licu thereof to the Superintendent, and he or the Super- 
may be re- G> i ' i 

quirecL intendont may at any time, when in the judgment of either the 
interest of the State requires it, require such officer to give addi- 
tional bond and sureties, as he requires of other officers. 

§ 1003, Every conductor must, in the same manner, take and 

Conductors' subscrJbe this oath : " I, , swear that I "will faithfully dis- 

■ charge the duties of my office to the best of my skill and knowl- 

edge, and that I will pay over ?J1 the money that may comiC to 
my hands belonging to the State Road, as required by law, or the 
order of the Superintendent. So help me God." 

§ 1004. No agent at any station of said road is permitted to give 

No credit Credit for any freight or any produce, goods, or other commodity 

conveyed, but shall collect the freights before the articles are taken 

away, except in cases where the freights, by arrangement, are 

chargeable to some other railroad company. 

§ 1005. Every conductor of passenger or freight trains shall 

Conductor's make a settlement of the tickets atid money received by them with 

the Treasurer at the end of each trip. All disbursements made 

Disburse- ^^ accouut of Said road shall be, by warrant of the Superintendent, 

ments— how (jj-g^^j^ upou the Treasurer, and be first passed by the Auditor. 

§ 1006. The Superintendent may refuse to ratify the approval 
Cases vaere of the Audltor, and when so refusing the claim shall be presented 

Superintend- » 

ent and Au- to the Govemor to decide ; if he allows the claim, or any part 

ditorditfer. ' "> J I 

thereof, the Superintendent shall draw his warrant and express 

therein, "By approval of the Governor." If he concurs with the 

Superintendent, the party may accept the decision or bring suit. 

§ lOOT. The proceeds of said road, after deducting expenses and 

Proceeds all dcbts, which are liens upon its income,, shall be paid into the 

to b& paid f ■% c^ \ t -iiTir' 1 TT 1 

monthly in- treasury of the State monthly, and shall first be applied to the 

to Treasury, -^ "^ ^ i r» i a 

^ „ ^ payment of the principal and interest of the bonds of the State 

How applied ^ •' ■*■ ^ 

issued on account of said road. 

§ 1008. Whenever any iron, or any tackle or apparel may 
Useiessiron, becomo uselcss to ssid roadj and the Superintendent can not have 
sold on 30 the same converted into new iron on reasonable terms, or for any 

days notice* . 

other good reason, he shall sell the same at public outcry, at 
whatever point it may be most to the interest and convenience of 
the road, to tlie highest bidder, after giving at least thirty days' 

PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Property. 197 

Cliaptei" 3. — The Western and Atlantic Railroad and its Government 

notice of the time and place of said sale, with a description of the 
property, in a public gazette at Atlanta. 

§ 1009. He ma}^ sell said property for cash or credit, as in his s.-je may 
discretion it may be best for the State; provided^ that, if on j'" ''-" ^''^<^j*- 
credit, it shall not be longer than twelve months, with note or bond 
and personal security thereto, payable to the Governor and his rroceedsof 
successor in office, or bearer, which shall be deposited in the State 
Treasury, and when collected be as part of the net earnings of 
the road. 

8 1010. Neither the Superintendent, nor any officer of the State omcernot 

" . . . . to be a pur- 

Road, shall he a purchaser, directly or indirectly, at said sales, ciiaser. 

on pain of forfeiting to the State the property purchased and 

price paid, and of being removed by the Governor. 

§ 1011. The Superintendent shall keep a record of ail such Record or 

. sales to be 

property sold, to whom sold, at what price, and on what terms, kept. 
and shall embrace the same in his report to the Governor. 

§ 1012. The Governor or Superintendent shall not sell any part Eestriction 
of the right of way, nor any property or land of the road, that road proper- 
may be necessary for the erection of depots, wood yards, water 
stations, or for any other improvement to the convenience or in- 
terest of said road ; but they may sell any land of the road if of 
no use to it, in the manner iron is sold — advertising it in a public 
gazette at Atlanta, and in the County where it lies, and in a public i^^^ may 
gazette thereof, if one, and the Superintendent shall execute deeds 
thereto in his official capacity. 

§ 1013. All lunatics and idiots, and the persons having them in Persons 

1 1 /» 1 1 f- traveling 

eharge, not more than one to each of such, when sent irom any freeofctaTge 

° ' . ' . "^ on the road. 

County to the Lunatic Asylum, and the latter returning, and all 
deaf and dumb and blind pupils partaking of the State's bounty, 
with their necessary attendants, when going and returning from 
their schools, shall go from and return to their homes, free of 
charge on said road. 

§ 1014. The Superintendent of said road is specially charged snperintend- 
with the due execution and faithful fulfillment of all the laws for the laws, 
the government and regulation of the same. 

§ 1015. Said road shall transport lime for agricultural pur- Lime— 

■*• ox transporta- 

poses, ,'by the car load, from any depot thereof to Atlanta, from tion of. 
the first day of May to the first day of August of each year, or at 
any oth'er time not conflicting with the interest of said road, at a 
rate not exceeding three cents per bushel ; provided^ connecting 

198 PT. 1.— TIT. 9.— PuBLie Property. 

Chapter 4.— Stocks. 

roads at Atlanta will transport lime for agricultural purposes at 
corresponding low rates, and give the Superintendent of the road 
notice thereof, with consent to be bound permanently bj such rate. 
Any connecting road at Atlanta failing to give such notice and 
consent shall not be entitled to the benefits intended to be secured 
to the agricultural interest contiguous to such road. Before any 
person shall transport lime on said road, or any road in connec- 
tion therewith,, at said rate, he shall make oath in writing before 
receiving said lime and paying said freight, that it has been or is 
to be transported for and will be used in good faith in improve- 
ment of the soil in the State ; which affidavit shall be filed in the- 
office of the company to whom the freight is paid. 

§ 1016. [All persons in this State owning land through which 
Land own- the Western and Atlantic Railroad passes shall have permission 

©rs may ■>■ ^ 

build stock ^q build stock gaps on said road when the line of their fences may 
cross the same, and shall have the privilege of joining their fences, 
to such stock gaps : provided, said land owners shall not improp- 
erly interfere with the bed of said road, or render it less safe, of 
interfere with the running of the trains thereon.] (a) 




1017. Bank stock owned by State. 

1018. Railroad stock o-^vned by State, 


1019. Stock in Main Trunk Railroad. 

Bank stock § 1017. The State owns the following bank stock — 

owned by " *-• 

In the Bank of the State of Georgia 1833i shares. 

In the Bank of Augusta 890 " 

In the Bank of Georgia Eaikoacl and Banking Company 18& " 

Eaiiroad § 1018. The State owns the following railroad stock — 

In the Main Trunk Road 5000 shares. 

§ 1019. The stock in the Main Trunk may be extended to ten 
Extension thousaud sharcs, on the condition that the State shall own as she- 

of stock m ■' 

E^h-J™'^^ does now, five-elevenths to be taken when individuals take and pay 
for the balance according to the act of incorporation and acts 
amendatory thereof- 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, pp. 261-2. 

PT, 1.— TIT. 9.— Public Property. 


Chapter 5. — Other Public Property. 



Section 1020, Library, furniture, arms, etc. 

§1020. The State owns the Library at the Capitol, the furni- Library, ar- 

..,. . senal con- 

ture and contents of her various public buildins's, and the public tents and 

■"■ . ™^^' proper- 

arms, munitions, and accouterments of war in her arsenals and in ^7 of state. 

the charge of her several volunteer companies, and of the Super- 
intendent of the Military Institute. 






1021. Election of Public Printer. 

1022. He must give bond. 

1023. On failure to give other bond, etc. 

1024. Vacancy — how supplied- 
1025- Damages for breach of bond. 

1026. Place of printing, etc. 

1027. Printing during Legislature. 

1028. Failure vacates office. 

1029. "When Printer's duties begin. 

1030. What he must print. 

1031. Ordered matter — how printed. 


1032. Laws and Journals — how printed. 

1033. Style of the printing. 

1034. Manuscripts to be furnished. 

1035. Number copies Laws and Journals. 

1036. If insufficient others may be printed. 

1037. Printed matter — delivered to whom. 

1038. Compensation of Printer. 

1039. Penalty for delay. 

1040. Contract and bond of new Printer. 

1041. Pay of removed Printer. 

1042. Work of deceased Printer. 

§ 1021. r The General Assembly shall biennially elect a Public Election of 

. ■- . •^ . •^ . Public Prin- 

State Printer, at the same session and in like manner with the ter. 
State House officers of the State, and said State Printer shall 
hold his office for and during the term of two years.] (a) 

§ 1022. Within ten days from the day of his election he shall his bond. 
give a bond, with good surety, in the sum of ten thousand dol- 
lars, to be approved by the Governor, filed in the Executive Office, 
and recorded in the office of the Secretary of State. 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 19. 

200 PT. 1.— TIT. 10.— Public Phintinq. 

Chapter 1. — Public Printer : his Duty and Compensation. 

§ 1023. The Governor is authorized to require from the Public 
Legislature Printer additional bond and surety as he may from a State House 

to supply va- i i • p n it 

cancy. oiEcer, and on his failure to comply, declare a vacancy. 

§ 1024. If the General Assembly is in session when such fail- 
Additionai urc occurs, the Govcrnor shall communicate the fact to them, 

bond may be i i i n i i i i • 

required, etc. whcn thcy shali supply the vacancy by election. 

§ 1025. If a Public Printer, after having been elected and 
Damages mveu boud, commits a breach of it," on the trial the iury shall 

on breach of ^ ^ ' '^ '^ 

bond. assess not less than one thousand nor more than three thousand 

dollars as liquidated damages, besides the actual damages sustained. 

§ 1026. Such Printer and his sureties must be citizens of this 

Printer and State, and the public printing must be bona fide performed within 

citizens. her Kmits, unless special permission otherwise is obtained from 

the General Assembly. 

§ 1027. All printing specially ordered by the proper authority 
Printing durino; a session of the General Assembly shall be executed with 

during ses- o *' 

^^°"' all possible dispatch and correctness, at the seat of Government. 

§ 1028. If the provisions of the two preceding Sections are 

Yioiation of violated, the Governor may, in his discretion, declare a vacancy 

]ast two sec- . . 

tions. and the compensation forfeited: 

§ 1029. The duties of the Public Printer do not begin until the 
. Beginning first day of tlic ncxt session of the General Assembly after his 

of Printer's . '^ '' 

duty. election. 

§ 1030. He shall print the Laws and Journals, and such bills, 
What he reports, and other documents as may be ordered to be printed du- 
ring his term of office, which includes the printing of all extra 
sessions held during that time. 

§ 1031. All papers ordered to be printed by either House shall, 
How print- uulcss otlicrwise directed, be printed upon paper 'that can be easily 

ing must be. -iti ^ ii- 

done. written upon; the sections and lines must be numbered, having 

sufficient margin and intervening space to admit of interlinea- 
tions, for which service the Governor shall allow extra compensa- 
tion, not exceeding twenty per cent, on the established rates. 
Laws and §1032. The Laws and Journals must be printed upon small 
how'^^prtnt^ pica type, on good paper, and delivered to the Executive within 
an e iver- j^j^^gj-y jg.jg after the manuscripts are received from the compiler. 
§ 1033. The former must be printed of a uniform size, and of a 
Directions style cQual in mechaaical execution to the Laws of 1853-4, and 

as to Laws ^j y ' ^ 

and Journ- the latter must be on pages the size of the Laws of the United 
States, and have like intervals between the paragraphs. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 10.— Public Peinting. 201 

Chapter 1, — Public Printer : his Duty and Compensation, 

S1034. The Secretary of the Senate and Clerk of the House sec. ofsen- 

" '^ ^ _ ate and Cl'k. 

shall furnish the manuscripts of their Journals and indexes House to 

-■- furnish MSS. 

thereto, properly prepared for the press, within twenty days from 
the adjournment of each session of the General Assembly, under 
a penalty of five hundred dollars each, to be retained out of their 

§1035. There shall be printed ftwol (a) thousand copies of the ^^nmberof 

" ■ 1 u -I \ / J. Journals and 

Journal of each branch of the General Assembly, and [four] (a) ^"^s. 
thousand copies of the Laws, to be bound by said Printer in 
durable style and equally as well as the Laws of 1853-4. 

S 1036. If such number should prove to be insufficient for the Additional 

■"• , . . . copies may 

use of the State, the Governor may order such additional copies ^^ o^'^ered. 
as in his opinion the public interest may require, and allow there- 
for reasonable compensation. 

§1037. As the 'public printios; progresses the Printer must Pointed mat- 

^ ^ ^ ^ . . . . 'tertobede- 

from time to time, with all possible dispatch, deliver the printed '^},^l'^^l ^^ 

matter to the State Librarian, at his office, free from any expense 

to the State for transportation. 

§ 1038. If said Printer shall legally and faithfully perform his ^iSiTfS' 
duties, he shall be compensated as follows: [He shall be paid ^*'^^"'^*^''- 
thirty per cent, on the actual cost of the material and labor 
employed in the public printing, frovided^ that before being paid, 
he shall make out an account, on oath, of the actual cost of the 
material and labor employed, and present the same to His Excel- 
lency the Governor, who may allow or reject said account or any 
part thereof, as in his judgment may seem right and just.] (b) 

§ 1039. Should any .delay occur in the prompt delivery of the , Forfeiture 

" ^ xi i r ./ ior delay in 

Laws and Journals as required, the Governor shall deduct at the ^'i^^^^,'^®''^ ^^^^^ 
rate of ten per cent, per month for the particular work delayed, J^^^^^^s, 
until the date of delivery. If the delay shall be protracted more 
than six months, the Governor may remove the Printer from office. 
If any portion of the work is not executed so as to be a substan- 
tial compliance with the requisitions of the law, the Governor 
shall reject it, and order it executed over, or appoint a new Printer, 
as his judgment shall dictate or the emergency may require. 

§ 1040. When a new Printer is appointed under the two prece- ^^«^ P'i"ter 

^^ ^ to give bond. 

ding Sections, he shall give such bond and surety and on such 
conditions as the Governor may require, who is also authorized to 
make a special contract for the public printing in such an event. 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 74. (b) Acts 1863-4, p. 78. 

202 PT. 1.— TIT. 10.— Public Printing. 

Chapter 2.— Other Printing. 

§ 1041. When the Printer is removed, the Governor is authorized 
A quantum to take such Dortion of his work as he has executed according to 

inermt may * ^ «-' 

be paid to law, and allow him lawful compensation therefor, but he must 

a removed ' ^ ^ 

Printer. dcduct thcrefrom the least penalty, and the damages sustained by 
his failure. 

§ 1042. When the Printer dies before completing his work, his 
Representa- legal representatives are allowed to do so, it being understood that 
ceased Prin- all bouds of PubHc Printers cover such contingency, and the 

termay ^ _ ^ .. 

complete Govcmor is authorized in such an event to wait thirty days for 

work, •^ *' 

an assurance of such performance. 



Section. i Section. 

1043. How other printing is done. 1 1044. Public Printer entitled thereto. 

§ 1043. All printing other than that performed by the Public 
Directions Printer, which necessity may demand, shall be printed at the seat 

as to print- ^ ./ »/ 7 r 

ips '^Wii^ of Government, or such other place as may be necessary, in the 

printing. discrction of the Governor, under his direction and supervision, 

upon reasonable rates, to be paid for out of the contingent fund. 

§ 1044. If the Public Printer executes his work at the seat of 

Public Government, or at the place where the printing referred to in the 

Printer pre- . . , . . , 

ferred. preceding Section is required to be done, he is entitled to perform 
such printing if he will do so at reasonable rates. 




1045. Compiler— how appointed, etc. 

1046. His duties specified. 

1047. Penalty for failure. 


1048. Another appointed — when. 

1049. Compiler's compensation. 

§ 1045. The Governor shall appoint some competent person to 
Compiler of prepare and compile the several acts of each session of the General 

Laws to be i • i . , i • • i • 

appointed. Asscmbly, which appointment must be made at any time in ma 
discretion, provided it is done before such session adjourns. 
§ 1046. It is the duty of the Compiler — 

PT. 1.— TIT. 10.— Public Printing. 


Chapter 3. — The Compiler. 

1. To distinguisli, in his classification, the public laws from 
those that are local or private, and to arrange the former under 
appropriate heads. 

2. To prepare for publication side and head notes for reference. 

3. To add notes referring back to such previous legislation as 
may be modified or repealed, and notes giving the decisions of the 
Supreme Court since the last publication of the Acts upon the subject 
matter of each act of a public nature. 

4. To prepare and append a copious index. 

5. To furnish the Public Printer with a fair copy of all work 
required of him in the preceding portion of this Section within 
forty days from the adjournment of the session. 

6. To read the proofs of the same, and carefully compare then\ 
with the certified copies. 

§ 1047. If a Compiler fails to perform his work in the time 
allowed he forfeits his compensation, unless in the opinion of the 
Governor he has a satisfactory excuse. 

§ 1048. If he dies or becomes disabled before completing his 
work, and so as he can not finish it within the time prescribed, the 
Governor shall appoint another Compiler to finish it, and appor- 
tion the compensation ratably between them, 

§ 1049. He is under the supervision of the Governor, and must 
enter upon and continue in the discharge of his duties as the 
Governor may order, and shall receive for his services compensa- 
tion to be fixed by the Governor, not exceeding [seven hundred 
and fifty dollars ; provided the Compiler shall employ such assist- 
ance as may be requisite to have the Laws ready for distribution 
in the shortest possible time, to be judged of by the Governor.] (a) 

Duty of 

Failing to 
perform his 

If he dies or 
becomes dis- 

His com- 




1050. Laws and Journals to be distributed 

1051. Number of copies for each County. 

1052. Five copies Journals for eachCounty 

1053. Clerk to keep two bound Journals. 

1054. Reserved copies of Laws. 

1055. Acts of Congress for each County. 

1056. Distribution — how let out. 


1057. Distributors must give bond. 

1058. Damages for breach of bond. 

1059. Bonds — where filed. 

1060. When Gov. may appoint distributors 

1061. Residence of distributors. 

1062. Distribution in advance. 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 251. 

204 PT. 1.— TIT. 10.— Public PRiNTma. 

Chapter 4. — Distribution of the Laws and Journals and other Documents. 

§ 1050. After the Laws and Journals are compiled, printed, 
Laws and bound, and delivered to tlie State Librarian, he shall, under the 

Joui-nals to • • n t r^ ^ i t '^ i i 

be distribut- supervision ot the (jrovernor, cause them to be distributed to the 
several Counties of this State. 

§ 1051. Each County is entitled to one copy of the Acts of the 
Copies of General Assembly for each civil officer, both judicial and minis- 
each County terial, to be distributed by the Clerks of the Inferior Courts 
under the order of the Justices.* 

§ 1052. Each County is entitled to [ten] (a) copies of the Jour- 
copies of nals of each branch of the General Assembly, which are to remain 

Journals for .., ^ ntr^iifTTn-r^ 

each County, on dcposit m the office of the Clerk of the inierior Court, and to 
which the citizens of the County shall have free access; also a 
copy of the Laws and Journals for each member of the General 

§ 1053. Two of the copies of the Journals of each branch of 

Journals to the General Assembly shall be as well bound as the "Acts" — one 

be bound. r-i 

by such Clerk at the expense of the County, securely kept, and 
not permitted to go out of his office. 

§ 1054. The Librarian shall reserve five hundred copies of the Acts 
copfes!^^^^^^ for such further distribution as the General Assembly may order. 

§ 1055. Each County is entitled to two copies of the Acts of 
Congress. ^^ Cougrcss, to be kept in the office as the Journals are. 

§ 1056. Immediately upon the adjournment of each session he 
Advertise- shall advcrtisc in one paper in the cities of Augusta, Atlanta, 
tribute Laws Athens, Columbus, Macon, Milledgeville, Rome, and Savannah, 
for proposals to distribute the Laws and Journals and other books 
and documents required by law to be distributed, for one distribu- 
tor of such for each Congressional District within sixty days 
from the time received. 

§ 1057. Before beginning the work each distributor shall give a 
Distributor boud, with 2;ood security, in the sum of five hundred dollars, to be 

to give bond. ' o . . . 

approved by the Governor, conditioned for the prompt and faith- 
ful delivery of the books (specifying them) to the Clerks of the 
Inferior Courts of the several Counties therein named within thirty 
days from their receipt. 

§ 1058. If not done within the time and in the manner, the 
Damages wholc boiid is recoverable as liquidated damages, providential 

for breach of ■■■ o -' x 

bond. causes only excepted. 

* See Acts of 1861, p. 75. (a) Acts of 1861, p. 75. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense:. 


Chapter 1. — Persons Subject to Military Duty, Exemptions, etc. 

8 1059. Sucli bonds must be filed and recorded in the Executiye Bond filed 

" and recorded 


§ 1060. If no person applies for the distribution of any district, Distriimtor 

o 111 t/ / — when ap- 

tlie Governor is authorized to appoint such distributor. pointed. 

81061. The Librarian is required to select an applicant for a Preferred 

" -"- distributors. 

Congressional District, if physically and mentally capable of the 
service and gives the requisite bond and security. 

S 1062. rSo soon as the Laws are ready, notice of the fact pistnimtion 

" L . ,/ ' m advance, 

being given in the papers at Milledgeville, the number of copies - 
assigned to any Count}'- shall be delivered to the order of the 
Clerk of the Inferior Court of said County, or sent as may be 
directed by him, in advance of the distribution hereinbefore pro- 
vided for.] (a) 






1063. Persons subject to military duty. 

1064. Persons exempt. 

1065. Officers of militia — when exempt. 

1066. Non-commissioned officers, etc. 

1067. Persons employed on vessels, etc. 

1068. Persons subject must be x'egistered. 

1069. Oath of persons, etc. 

1070. May perform service or pay tax. 


1071. Commutation tax — how avoided. 

1072. Compaxiy drills — four in each year. 

1073. Volunteers exempt from road duty, 

1074. Amount of commutation tax. 

1075. Receipt therefor. 

1076. Transient persons — when subject. 

1077. Free men of color — how subject. 

§1063. All able-bodied free white male citizens betvreen the who are 
ages of twenty-one and forty-five years, residents in this State, mmtTry dS 
and not exempted by this Code, are subject to military duty. ^^' 

§1064. The following exemptions shall be recognized — viz: who are e - 

1. The chief officers of the several Executive Departments of ^™''*' 

2. Judges of the Supreme, Superior, and City Courts, Justices 


(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 351. 

206 PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 

Chapter 1.— Persons Subject to Military Duty, Exemptions, etc. 

of the Inferior Courts and of the Peace, SheriiFs and deputies, 
Clerks of Courts, and Ordinaries. 

8. Members of the Legislature during the term for which they 
shall be elected, officers of the Legislature during its session and 
for seven days before and after the same. 

4. Persons employed on railroad trains, and repairers of rail- 
roads, operators and messengers of telegraph companies, post- 
masters and persons employed in post-offices and the transporta- 
tion of the mails. 

5. Ferrymen, bridge and toll gate keepers, and public millers. 

6. Ministers and preachers of the gospel, professors and stu- 
dents, and tutors in all colleges. 

7. Aliens and persons not qualified to vote for members of the 

8. All persons exempted by the acts of Congress. 

9. All persons on the payment of the commutation tax pre- 
scribed by this Code. 

10. All officers and non-commissioned officers of the militia 
who may entitle themselves to the privileges as hereinafter pre- 

11. Active members of volunteer corps after a prescribed term 
of service. 

12. Regular members of any fire department or organization 
connected therewith. 

§ 1065. Company officers of the militia who shall uniform and 
Militia of- equip themselves according to the regulations prescribed for the 
exempt. drcss and uniform of the army of the United States, and shall 
serve in their respective stations continuously for the term of eight 
years, shall not be liable to be called on for military duty there- 
Exception, after, except in case of war, insurrection, rebellion, or invasion. 
§ 1066. Every non-commissioned officer, musician, or private, 
Non-com- of cverv uuiform volunteer corps, who shall uniform and equip 

missioned , . ,^ , , r> i n 

officers, himself and whose term of service shall amount to seven years, 

musicians ^ '^ 

^^iea ^^^^' ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^® exempt from military duty, except in case of war, 

Exception, rebellion, insurrection, or invasion. 

§ 1067. Every person employed by the year or season on board 
o^'^vlsS ^^y vessel, or in the merchant service, or coasting trade, all pi- 
Sores,' facto- iots and stcvcdores, persous employed in any blooming furnace, 
Sempt?^^"^^' OY glass or porcelain factory, cotton or wool mill, shall be exempt 

Exception, from militia duty, except in cases above enumerated. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 207 

Chapter 1. — Persons Subject to Military Duty, Exemptions, etc. 

§ 1068. Receivers of Tax Returns shall, at the time of receiv- 
ino" returns of taxable property from the citizens of this State, 
insert in appropriate columns in their digest the following par- 
ticulars — viz : 

1. Whether the tax payer is himself subject to militia duty. tS^piyS.^^ 

2. How many in his employ, or members of his family, are his family 

•^ \. %i ' ^ ' an(j employ 

subject. ees. 

3. The cause of exemption, if any exists. exem tion"^ 

4. The company district or beat to which the tax payer belongs, ms district. 

5. The amount of commutation tax charo^eable to him instead Also amount 

'-' of his com- 

of personal service ; and the amount so charged shall be collected mutationtax 
by the Tax Collector and paid over to the Treasurer of the State tio^^S™^!!!- 
with the general tax, and shall constitute the military fund of the Tax coiiec^ 

§ 1069. No Receiver of Tax Returns shall enter an exemption cause of 

" ■'• exemption to 

from military duty against the name of any person without due ^^ ^Jth"^^^*^ 
proof of the existence of the cause on which the exeinption is 
claimed, and to that end the following clause shall be added to 
the oath administered by the Receiver of Tax Returns: "And 
that I believe myself exempted from militia duty in this State for 
and on account of the cause set forth in this return." 

§ 1070. Every citizen subiect to military duty may perform the Personal 

•^, ^ .. service in 

same in lieu of paying the taxes herein prescribed, but the certifi- lieuoftax. 

cate of the captain or commanding officer of the company to 

which he belongs and in which he is actually enrolled shall be 

the only evidence which the Tax Collector is authorized to receive 

in place of the amount charged on the Receiver's digest, and the certificate 

production of which shall be noted by the Tax Collector on his collector. 

return, and he shall be allowed the same in settlement. 

§ 1071. The captain or commandins; officer in each company command- 

. ' ^^ • .. i"o ofScers 

district shall enroll, from time to time, all persons in the limits to enroll 

■•• those in hi8 

of the district subject to military duty, and shall, without delay, district. 
notify such persons of their enrollment, and shall give a certifi- Notice to 
cate to each person performing military duty that he has faithfully 
performed the same, according to the requirements of the Code, 
for twelve months preceding the 31st day of December in each 
and every year, and such certificate shall be produced at the 
time of returning his taxable property, and on failure so to do. Failure to 
the commutation tax for militia duty shall be charged against him ^mtlS, ^^^' 
on the book of the Receiver of Tax Returns. 

208 PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 

Chapter 1. — Persons Subject to Militar}^ Duty, Exemptions, etc. 

§ 1072. Captains of companies shall cause to be mustered for 
captfiins parade and drill all persons within their company districts who 

muster com- ■■■ ^ ^ i. */ 

Smef each ^^ ^^* P^^ ^^® Commutation tax, the only proof of which paj- 

year. meut shall be the receipt of the officer authorized to collect the 

Evidence samc, and who are not otherwise exempt, at least four times in 

of pavmenj; ^ • ^ 

of commuta- eacli joar, at such times as they may direct ; but there shall be 
an interval of at least one month between each muster, and they 
Company shall file a copy of their company roll with the Clerk of the Infe- 
rior Court immediately after the muster which succeeds the closing 
of the books of the Receiver of Tax Returns, for which service 
they shall respectively receive the sum of one dollar. 

§ 1073. Members of volunteer corps actually in uniform and 
compensa- doiuff dutv, and the field and staff officers of volunteer reg-iments 

tlon therefor o ./ ' . ^ ^ i 

and battalions, so long as they remain such, shall be exempted 
Those who from road and patrol duty, and taxation upon property by any 

are exempt .., . , iii-i-i«-i-i 

from road municipai corporation, except such as shall be liable to taxation 

and patrol , , . r ^ a 

diity. by law to raise a revenue lor the fetate. 

§ 1074. The commutation tax for non-performance of militia 

Commiita- duty shall be ten per cent, upon the State tax, provided it shall 

per cent, on alwavs amouut to twcntv-five cents, and shall be collected and 

state tax. .-^ *1 im 

paid as other taxes are collected and paid into the Treasury ; the 
amount thus raised shall be set apart as a separate fund charge- 
able with the entire military expenses of the State. 

§ 1075. The Tax Collector's receipt to the tax payer shall dis- 

Payment to tinctly specify the payment of the commutation tax for militia 

in coiiec- duty, whenevcr paid, in order that the same be made available in 

' case of enrollment by the captains of militia districts or beat 


§ 1076. Transient persons having a place of business, and doing 
Non-resi- busiucss in tlic State, but having no residence or home therein, 

dents doina; tit •^• • ^ i n •^ 

business in are liable to militia duty, and on lailure to pay the commutation 

the State li- . . . 

able to miii- tax, or perform military service, shall be liable to an additional 

tary duty. 7 r ./ 7 

penalty not exceeding twenty dollars, to be adjudged by any court 
martial, within whose jurisdiction they may happen to be for a 
period of ten days. 

§ 1077. Free men of color above the age of sixteen years, un- 
Free men less belonsclnsi; to the fire department, shall be subject to the call 

of color sub- T . . . . .„ , 1-1 

jectasmusi- of any voluntecr military organization, if there be one m the town 

cians. / . . . 

or city of their residence, in the capacity of musician, pioneer, 
mechanic, or servant, and if there be be such volunteer organiza- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2.— Public Defense. 209 

Article 1. — Militaiy Force — how Composed. 

tion, then to the militia in one of the aforesaid capacities, and 

they shall be entitled to the usual waores for the practice of such Entitled to 

«/ . . wages. 

occupations ; but on failure so to attach themselves, when required 

so to do, they shall pay to the Clerk of the Inferior Court, for the serve.^°^ 

use of the County in which they reside, the sum of five dollars.* 



Article 1. — -Blilitary Force — liow composed. 
Article 2. — The Volunteers. 
Article 3. — Cavalry Corps. 
Article 4. — The Militia. 
Article 5. — Elections. 


military force— how composed. 

Section. i Sectiox. 

1078. The military force of the State. I 1079. The engineer corps of the Stat€. 

§ 1078. The military force of the State embraces the Georgia Military 
Military Institute, the volunteers, and the militia, to which may 
be added such military schools, when the institution is of a mili- 
tary character, as may avail themselves of the provisions herein 

§ 1079. The Georgia Military Institute constitutes the engineer The engi- 
corps of the State, and the officers in the Institute having jjiili- °^^^ '^°^^^' 
tary rank in the academic staff (cadet officers excepted), shall be 
commissioned as such according to their respective grades. (See 
Military Institute.) 

"^ This section retained because specially enacted by Acts of 1865-6, page 227, 
although it would seem to be conti'ary to the Constitution, and laws changing 
the status of free persons of color, 



PT. 1.— TIT. ll.-CHAP. 2.-^PuBLic Defense. 

Article 2.— The Yolunteers. 




1080. Volunteer forces of the State. 

1081. Battalions in respective Counties. 

1082. Their rights, privileges and duties. 

1083. Number of officers, etc., necessary. 

1084. Companies— how organized. 

1085. Arms, etc., supplied— when. 

1086. Discipline and exercise prescribed, 

1087. Must make annual returns. 

1088. Independent companies disbanded, 

1089. Resignation of captain. 

1090. Regiments and battalions, etc. 

1091. May adopt by-laws. 


1092. Fines— how imposed and collected. 

1093. Elections— by whom ordered. 

1094. When by Commander-in-Chief. 

1095. Commissions vacated— when. 

1096. Suits on bonds of officers. 

1097. Disbanded companies, etc. 

1098. Artillery companies received, etc. 

1099. Volunteer companies corporate. 

1100. Courts Inquiry and Courts Martial, 

1101. Volunteers exempt, etc. 

1102. Cumulative provisions. 


§ 1080. The volunteers consist of sucli corps, uniformed and 
Thovoiun- equipped, as now exist, or may hereafter be formed in this State. 

teer force, ± ± i. ^ 7 ^ 

They may organize themselves into companies, battalions, regi- 
ments and brigades, at their option ; but the whole volunteer force 
shall constitute one or more divisions conforming to the organiza- 
tion of the United States Army, except when otherwise prescribed 
in this Code. As soon as such shall be organized, they shall be 
reported to the commander-in-chief, and shall remain permanent 
until changed by his approval or by special enactment. 

§ 1081. Battalions and regiments shall be organized always 
within the limits of their respective Counties, if there are compa- 
nies enough in a County ; if not, then to be added to from adjoining 
Counties, unless companies in other Counties are more accessible, 
to be judged of by the commander-in-chief. 

§ 1082. When thus organized, they have the same rights, privi- 
Eights and leges, and are subject to the same duties as such organizations in 
cities. If there are not cornpanies enough in a city to form a 
battalion or regiment, it may be formed by the addition of other 
companies in the same County, if such exist, and if not, then from 
adjoining Counties. 

§ 1083. Volunteer corps may be formed any where within the 

corIsfo?med State, and may consist of citizens of the same or adjoining Coun- 

of the^st^aS ^^^^' Such as may hereafter be formed shall number at least forty 

privates, nine non-commissioned officers, four commissioned officers, 

with such musicians as they may deem sufficient. 

§ 1084. When the requisite number of members are enrolled, 
their first duty shall be to uniform themselves according to the 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2.— Public Defense. 211 

Article 2. — The Volunteers. 

©revisions of tkis Code ; they shall then notify the commander-in- wheu en- 

r ^ ./ 1/ rolled to re- 

chief of the number enrolled and uniformed, who shall order an T>ort to com- 

viixwx w , marider - in- 

•^lection for captain and subaltern officers under such superinten- ^^^®f- 

dence as he may prescribe, and the superintendents shall transmit 

the return of the same to the Executive Department, and the ^ J^^^^gl^'^ ^^ 

'Governor shall commission the officers elected, unless the election 

is contested ; in which case, if in the opinion of the Governor there 

be sufficient grounds to set the same aside, he shall order a new 


§ 1085. Arms and accouterments shall be supplied to the vol- Arms, etc., 

. , . p ., , ... , to be sup- 

unteer corps, whether umiormed or not, oy requisition on the pHed to aii 

, , , T volunteer 

Governor, in such manner and upon such terms as he may direct, corps. 
from the quota of arms distributed to the several States under the 
laws of Congress, or from other arms belonging to this State. 

§ 1086. The system of discipline and exercise shall, as near as Digcipuue 
may be, conform to that prescribed for the army of the United ^fg^^ ^^^^' 
States, from time to time, by Congress, but the commander-in- 
chief may direct such text books for use as a guide in such arms 
as he may think proper, and no other weapons of war than such 
as are used by the soldiers of the army of the United States, i^™^'^ to 

•^ "^ ' confoim to 

except by order of the commander-in-chief, shall be used by the f^H'^^ "^ ^* 

§ 1087. All volunteer corps, except such as may be organized independ- 
into regiments, shall make a full return to the Governor of the make"p!iniiai 
number of men in each corps actually in uniform, the number and Governor. ^° 
rank of the officers, the arms and accouterments in their possession 
supplied by the State, and the number of suck as may be unfit for 
use or expended in service, which return shall be made up to the 
first day of May in each year, and signed by the captain of such 

§ 1088. Whenever it shall appear to the commander-in-chief indepen- 
that any independent volunteer corps is deficient in the number dfsbanded— 
of men required by this Code to constitute a company, he shall 
issue an order requiring the return of such equipments as may 
have been furnished by the State, and disband such corps, but the Exception. 
provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any volunteer corps 
formed previous to the adoption of this Code, or to any corps 
attached to and constituting a portion of a regiment of volunteers. 

§ 1089. The resignation of a captain of an independent volun- 
teer corps shall not take effect until accepted by the commander- of l^iptuin?" 

212 PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2,— Public Defense. 

Article 2.— The Yoliinteers. 

in-chief, nor until a full return is made to the Governor of all the 
arms and accouterments received from- the State and in possession 
of the corps under his command, inventoried and ready to be 
turned over to his successor, and as often as a captain is elected 
he shall receipt to his p edecessor for the arms and accouterments 
so turned over to him. 

§ 1090. When volunteer corps are organized into a regiment or 
Eetm-usof a battalion, the coroiDany returns shall be made to the adiutant. 

regimental . . o ^ 

companies, and bj him forwarded to the Executive Department. 

§ 1091. Volunteer corps may adopt their own by-law^s and reg- 

Gompanies ulatioHS, not inconsistent with the laws of the State or military 

bj4aws, etc. laws or usagc, and may adapt them in such mode as they see 

proper to their organization into a regiment or a battalio-n. The 

commander-in-chief shall prescribe the uniform of volunteer corps, 

and in all matters not provided for in this Code such corps shall 

be governed by military law and usage and the custom of the army 

S^SpSi! of the United States, so far as they can be made applicable. 

§ 1092. All fines for delinquencies in military duty shall be 

Fiuestobe assessed by regimental, battalion, or company courts martial, as 

courtmartiai the case may be, and be collected by execution under the hand and 

seal of the President of the Court, and directed to the Sheriff of 

the County in which the delinquent resides, and the Sheriff shall 

be entitled to such costs and subject to be ruled in the Superior 

Court, and the execution shall have like form and effect as in civil 

cases. The Sheriff may procure the service of such executions by a 

Bailiff, he being responsible therefor as though it were his own act. 

§ 1093. All elections for officers of the volunteers and to fill 

Election for vacancies shall be ordered by the officer within whose immediate 

haw ardered commaud the vacancy to be filled occurs. For subalterns, by 

captains of the companies in which the vacancy exists, unless the 

company be attached to a battalion or regiment ; for regimental 

officers, by colonels ; for colonels, by the brigadier-general of the 

regiment, he being attached to a brigade ; for brigadier-general, 

by the general of division. 

§ 1094. In case of a regiment not attached to a brigade, or of a 
Eiection&in-com.pany not attached to a regiment or a battalion, elections for 

an mdepen-. ju e/ o ^ ^ 

dent regi- eolouel and captain shall be ordered by the commander-in-chief, 
company, ^j^^ whcn an independent battalion exists, not belonging to a 

regiment or brigade, the election for its commander shall be ordered 

by the comniander-iR-chief. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2.— Public Defense. 218 

Article 2. — The Volunteers. 

§ 1095. Whenever a volunteer corps is disbanded, tlie commis- _ commis- 

Sxons to ^x~ 

sions of its officers shall be vacated, but they shall, nevertheless, piie— wiien. 
be liable to suit on the bond executed for the safe keeping and 
delivery of the arms entrusted to then^, /by the State, if there 
should be a breach thereof. 

§1096. Suits on the bonds of officers of volunteer companies suife on of- 
fer arms and accouterments shall be brought under the direction 
of the judge-advocate-general, in whose office such bonds shall be 
filed for safe keeping. 

§ 1097. When any volunteer corps disbands of its own accord, corps voi- 

Tintarily <iis- 

the members thereof shall cause the fact to be reported to the banding. 
eommander-in-chief, and they shall forthwith deliver to some officer 
of the quartermaster-general's department all the public property 
in their possession, and upon filing his receipt therefor with the 
judge-advocate-general, a discharge shall be entered on their bond. 

§1098. Whenever the commanding officer of any volunteer $200 to be 
artillery company in this State shall certify to the Governor that Snery'eo^ 
there are sixty active members, officers and privates, upon the 
muster roll of such company, (a copy of which muster roll shall 
accompany the certificate,) and that said company has been exer- 
cised in the field with its guns for not less than two hours at each 
drill, and not less than tvfelve drills in each year, the Governor 
shall draw his warrant upon the Treasurer of the State for the 
sum of two hundred dollars, to be paid into the fund of said com- 
pany; lorovided^ nevertheless^ that the provisions of this Section 
shall not extend to more than seven companies, not including such 
companies as may be already organized, and who may comply 
with the provisions of this Section. 

§ 1099. Volunteer companies of infantry, cavalry or artillery, volunteer 

. ^ ^ . . companies 

which have been or may hereafter be organized, with not less mcoi-parat- 
than forty members, and have their officers duly comrjaissioned, 
are made a body corporate and politic, under their respective 
names and styles, and made capable in law to sue and be sued, to 
plead and be impleaded, to have a common seal, to hold property, 
real, personal or mixed, and to pass such by-laws, rules and regu- 
lations as may be necessary for their government, not inconsistent 
with the laws and Constitution of this State or the United States. 

§ liOO. Courts of inquiry and courts martial, for companies courts of 

inquiry and. 

incorporated by the provisions of this Code, shall be constituted cp"-^rts mar- 
aad regulated by the laws in force relating to volunteer companies. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2,— Public Defehss. 

Article 3. — Cavalry Corps. 

§ 1101. Each member of any company incorporated by the 

Members provisions of this Code sball be exempt from road or militia duty, 

corps ex- except siich as may be required of tbem as members of their 

empt from , .^ , • , • c - ,• • 

road ormiii- rospcctive companies, aK^/ji except m tmaes oi msurreetion, invasion^, 
rebellion, or ^yar ; j)rovided, the commanding officer of any com- 
pany so incorporated shall have recorded in the offices of the 
Clerks of the Superior and Inferior Courts of their respective 
Counties, a full and complete list of the members of their com- 
pany, and that the above exemption shall continue no longer than 
actual membership. 

§ 1102. The five preceding Sections shall be held to- be cumula 
Certain sec- tive to any act already passed, conferring privileges upon any 
lative. company now existing under the laws of this State, or which 
may hereafter be organized. 




1103. A squadron of cayalry defined. 

1104. How organized. 

1105. AVhat constitutes a troop, etc, - 


1106. Parade- and drill. 

1107. Eines for non-attendance. 

§ 1103. A squadron of cavalry shall consist of not less thaifc 
Squadron, two or more than five troops, and shall be commanded by a major, 
elected by the commissioned officers of the troops composing the 
squadron. He shall appoint his own staff, and determine his own 
uniform and that of his staff, with the approbation of the com- 

§1104. Any two or more troops of cavalry, having regard to 
Two or their neighborhood and facility of communieation with each other, 
may form a may Unite to form a squadron, and whenever such formation is- 
determined on they shall report the same to the commander-in- 
chief, who shall thereupon order an election for major, at such 
time as he may think proper, and shall issue a commission to the 
officer elected. 

§ 1105. Each troop of cavalry shall consist of forty men 

Arms, besides the captain, uniformed and mounted; they shall be armed 

with cavalry sabers or broad swords, and dragoon holsters, or 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2.— Public Defense. 


Article 4.— The Militia. 

such other pistols as the commander-in-chief may direct, and may 


carry a carbine at their option. 

§1106. The major commanding a stj'uadron of cavalry shall Majortopa- 
parade and exercise the same, either in squadron or detachment, ron or de- 

, . , f, . , TIT tachmcntan- 

at least once m each year, tor a period not exceeding three days nuaiiy. 
at any one parade, after the arrival at the place of rendezvous. 
Orders for such parade may be given verbally at any parade, or 
by writing. Commissioned officers shall have twenty, non-com- 
missioned officers and men ten days' notice. 

§ 1107. Fines for non-attendance or delinquency at any squad Fines for 
drill, or parade, or muster, shall be imposed by a court martial, to ance at 
be ordered by the officer commanding the squadron, but they shall dniis. 
not exceed double the amount imposed by the regulations of the 
troops of. which the delinquent is a member, for offenses of 
like character, and shall be collected as provided in Section 1092. 




1108. The militia of the State. 

1109. How organized. 

1110. Companies — how organized. 

1111. Grade of militia officers. 

1112. New divisions, etc. — how created. 


1113. Regiments — how organized. 

1114. Non-commissioned officers. 

1115. Captains make return to adjutant. 

1116. Notice of drills — how given. 

1117. Register of commissioned officers. 

§1108. The militia of the State consists of aAl persons not Themiutia. 
heretofore classified within its limits subject to military duty, and 
not exempted therefrom by the acts of Congress or the laws of 
this State, or belonging to some volunteer organization. 

§ 1109. The militia shall be organized into companies, battal- Organizaiion 

o ••■ ' — now num- 

ions, regiments, brigade's, and divisions, which shall be numbered ^^pf^atedin 


throughout the State, by order of the commander-in-chief, in 
such manner that every corps of the same denomination shall 
bear a different number, by which number every company, dis- 
trict, regiment, brigade, or division, as the case may be, shall be 
designated in the commissions of the officers commanding the 

§1110. If, from exemptions, there are not persons enough lia- Deficiency in 

,. ,.. ^ numbers in 

ble to do militia duty m any district or beat, a company may be any district 

. . . r J ^ company. 

organized of those so liable from adjoining districts or beats, of 

216 PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2.— Public Defense. 

Article 4.— The Militia. 

not less than forty nor more than one hundred, under the direc- 
tion of the colonel of the regiment ; and when so done, must be 
accurately reported. 

§ 1111. The following grades of militia officers shall be recog- 
Grades of nizcd I Commandinfii; each division, a maior-s^eneral ; each bri- 
gade, a brigadier-general ; each regiment, a colonel, lieutenant- 
colonel, and major; a separate battalion, a major; each company, 
a captain, first and second lieutenants, and ensign. Wherever 
other grades exist, they shall continue until the same becomes 
vacant, when they shall respectively cease and determine. 

§ 1112. New divisions and brigades shall be created by the 

New divis- Legislature ; regimental and company districts by order of the 

brigades, commandcr-in-chief, on the report of the officers commanding the 

—regimental ..... 

and compa- companics in the resrimental district, but in all cases, when prac- 

ny districts. _ •*• ... . 

ticable, the regimental district shall be coterminous with the 
County in which it is situated. 

§ 1113. There may be two or more regiments in the same 
Twoormore Couuty, and two or more Counties may be united to form a regi- 

regiments , ii« i i i • i n i ^ 

may be in mcut, Quc regard being had to the proportion thereoi ; but the 

same County .. •i-i-ii^Tn it t i 

existing arrangement m this behali shall not be disturbed except 
by the Legislature, unless upon application of those interested 

§1114. The captain of each company shall divide his company 

Captain to into four squads, as nearly equal as may be, and appoint one fit 

pany into and propcr person in each as sergeant, and one as corporal, and 

he shall also Sjpplsint a first'ft,sergeant : they shall be responsible 

for the proper distribution of all orders, and may be removed by 

a compare court n^artial for proper.cause. ,. 

§1115. Each'' captain of a militia Company shall make out and 

Eeturnsto dclivcr to the adjutant of the regiment to which he belongs a\full 

captain to rctum of the number and names of th^ men belonging to his 

company, on the. first day of May in each year, for which he shall 

receive such compensation as is paid to the takers of the State's 

census, to be paid out of the military fund. 

§ 1116. A non-commissioned officer, or any other person ap- 

Summons poiutcd for the duty, may warn persons subject to militia duty to 

—by whom appear at parades, musters, or drills, and he shall be furnished 

"^ ' with a list of persons to be warned. Such warning may be given 

verbally to the party in person, or by leaving a written summons 

at his most notorious place of abode ; but the party may claim 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2.— Public Defense. 217 

Article 5.- "^s^lie bns. 


his exemption at the time of such warnillg and produce to the 
warning officer the evidence thereof, which may be his own oath 
or such other evidence as may establish the fact, and it shall be 
the duty of the warning officer to enter the exemption claimed 
against the name of the party on his list. 

§ 1117. Each colonel of a militia regiment shall, by himself Roster of 

,.-,. T T c IT 1 • ' 1 m o&cers to be 

or his adiutant, keep a roster or list ot all the commissioned offi-kept by 

'J ^ ir ^ colonel. 

cers of his regiment below the rank of captain, and shall revise 
and correct the same as often as may be necessary, and annually, 
on or before the first day of June, shall forward to the Secretary 
of State copies of the returns so delivered to the adjutant of his 
regiment, as well as a copy of the roster above mentioned, and 
for habitual failure in the premises, shall be liable to be tried by 
a general court martial and cashiered, or otherwise punished, as 
said court may direct. 




1118. Election of militia officers. 

1119. Notice of— how given. 

1120. Voters failing to attend. 


1121. A plurality of votes will elect. 

1122. Elections— by whom ordered. 

§1118. All elections of militia officers shall be by the people; Mmtiaoffl- 

CGI'S to t)S 

of captains and subaltern officers, by the people of the several elected by 
company districts subject to do militia duty ; of field officers, by 
the citizens of the Counties subject to military duty under the 
command of such officers ; brigadier and major-generals, by the 
citizens of the respective brigades and divisions subject to mili- 
tary duty under such commander of the brigade or division, and 
may be superintended by a Justice of the Peace and a freeholder, 
or by two freeholders or two military officers, as the authority howTewr" 
ordering the election may see fit to prescribe. 

§1119. Notices of such elections may be given as follows: By Notices of 

iT;'« 1 • 1 11 electio n — 

publication m one or more gazettes, by notice at the usual place how given. 
of posting legal notices, or by orders published at parade or drilL 
Twenty days' notice shall be given of the time and place of the 
election of any officer below the grade of brigadier-general. 

§ 1120. In case of voters failing to attend at any election for 
militia officers, and no vote shall be polled, it shall be the duty 


PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— CHAP. 2.— Public Defense. 

A}e 4.--i 5. — Elections. 

New eiec- of the Superintendents to return the fact to the Executive Depart^ 

tion ordered ■*■ 

or officer ap- xnent, with a statement of the interval allowed for the reception 

pom ted — _ •'■ 

when. of yotcs ; whcrcupon the commander-in-chief may, in his discre- 

tion, order a new election or appoint an officer to fill the vacancy, 
and commission him accordingly. 

§ 1121. At all elections of militia officers, the person having 
Plurality the hiffhcst numbor of votes shall be declared elected, and every 

of votes to ° ^ ^ ^ -' ♦^ 

elect. officer to whom a commission shall issue shall declare to the Ex- 

ecutive Department, within a reasonable time after its reception, 
his acceptance or declension of the same. After two months have 
elapsed, he shall be deemed to decline unless he shall have uni- 
formed and equipped himself. 

§ 1122. All elections for militia officers of and above the rank 
Elections of Captain shall be ordered by the commander-in-chief, and below 

for officers ^ -^ . ' . 

above rank that rank by the captain, or those actincj as such, and on failure 

of captain. »^ . . 

to elect, such captain or the commanding officer of the company 
may complete the same by appointment, and such appointees shall 
be commissioned as in case of elections. All officers of the military 
force of this State shall be commissioned by the Governor, whether 
of the line, field, or staff. The commission of staff officers, except 
the chiefs of the staff department, will expire with the commissions 
of the officers on whose staff they may be appointed. 




1123. Staff department of the militia. 

1124. Of the Commander-in-Chief. 

1125. Military duties of Secretary of State. 

1126. Staff of division. 

1127. Battalion entitled to a staff—when. 

1128. Secretary of State. 


1129. Paymaster-Greneral — his duties. 

1130. Expenses of Staff department. 

1131. Accounts for military service. 

1132. Chief of each staff— his duties. 

1133. Secretary of State chief of staff. 

1134. Governor shall appoint three aids. 

§ 1123. The staff departments of the militia shall be as follows — 

staff depart- yiz 
ments of the 

1. The Secretary of State's department. 

2. The Quartermaster-General's department. 

3. The Commissary-General's department. 

4. The Paymaster-General's department. 

5. The Judge-Advocate-General's department. 

6. The Surgeon-General's department. 

PT. 1.— TIT. ll.~PuBLic Defense. 219 

Cliapter 3. — Organization of the Staff of the Militia. 

§ 1124. The chiefs of the several staff departments shall he chiefs of 

■*■ staft depart- 

attached to the staff of the commander-in-chief. ments at- 

tached — how 

§ 1125. [The office of the Adjutant and Inspector General is 
abolished, and the duties heretofore required of that officer shall 
hereafter be performed by the Secretary of State — to-wit : Hel (a) Military du- 
shall reside and keep his office at the seat of Government. He tary of state. 
shall obe}^ all orders given him by the commander-in-chief in rela- 
tion to the duties of bis office, and keep a fair record of all orders 
and communications vfhich he shall receive from time to time. He 
shall require annual returns from the major and brigadier-generals, 
from which he shall make out a general return of the whole strength 
of the militia and forces of the State. He shall provide accurate 
abstracts of annual returns for divisions, brigades, regiments, and 
companies, both of the militia and volunteers, which forms, when 
made out, shall exhibit the strength of arms and accouterments, 
equipments, and munitions of such divisions, brigades, regiments, 
and companies, and a description of the corps composing the same; 
and shall transmit these abstracts for annual returns to all officers, 
who are required to fill them at such times as may be designated 
in general orders. All military orders and commissions shall pass 
through his office. He shall lay before the Governor every com- 
munication he may receive on military affairs requiring Executive 
action. He shall attend all public reviews when the commander- 
in-chief shall review any portion of the forces or the whole of 
them. He shall, whenever required by the commander-in-chief, 
inspect the arsenals and armories of the State, which shall be 
under his charge ; and all applications for the distribution of arms 
shall be made to him. He shall also act as inspector-general of 
the State, and shall, whenever ordered by the commander-in-chief, 
inspect any portion of the military forces of the State. 

§ 1126. The division staff shall be constituted as follow^s : A Division 
division inspector, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, two aids-de- 
camp, one quartermaster, one judge-advocate, and one surgeon, 
each with the rank of major, to be appointed by the major-general. 
The brigade staff shall consist of a brigade inspector, with the rank Brigade 
of major, one aid-de-camp or quartermaster, each with the rank of 
captain, to be appointed by the brigadier-general. The regimental 
staff shall consist of an adjutant, a quartermaster, a paymaster, stefff^^^*'^^ 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 227. 

220 PT. 1.— TIT. H.—PuBLic Defense. 

Chapter 3. — Organization of the Staff of the Militia. 

commissary, judge-advocate, and surgeon, each with the rank of 
lieutenant, to be appointed by the colonel of each regiment. 
staff of § 1127. In case of a separate battalion, the commandino; officer 

independent p,, t ^ m i t ^ 

battalion. 01 the battalion shall be entitled to, and shall appoint a like staff 
with the colonel of a regiment. 
Arsenals, § 1128. The Secretary of State shall keep in order and control 

magazines, •' ■■■ 

etc°u°nder *^^ arscnals and magazines of the State, attend to the due preser- 
secretiy of ^^^'^^^ of the ordnanco, arms, accouterments, munitions of war, 
state. ^j^(j implements of every description, the property of the State and 
in its possession, and he shall at all times have the control and 
disposition of the same for that purpose. He shall report annually 
to the commander-in-chief the actual situation, condition, and dis- 
position of all the ordnance, arms, and military property which in 
any wise appertain to, or respect the department confided to his 
Paymaster § 1129. The paymastcr-geueral shall annually report to the 
make'annuai commander-in-cliief all such matters connected with his department 


as come to his knowledge, and all monej^s received by him shall 
be deposited in the Treasury to the credit of the military fund, 
and shall constitute a part of the same. 
Chiefs 01 § 1130. Each chief of a staff department shall keep a true 

staff depart- . . r> i • n i • i i n i i 

ments to account 01 the expenses oi his department, which shall be reported 

make quar- • 

teriyreturns quarterly to the commander-in-chief, who shall draw his warrant 
on the military fund for the same. An abstract of such warrants 
shall be laid before the Legislature. 
Accounts § 1131. All fees for military service shall be embraced in an 

for military '^ 

services. account made out and certified by the ofiicer to whom the same 
may be due, and delivered to the officer of the pay department 
within the military organization where the same accrues, who shall 
immediately forward the same to the paymaster-general. 
jiirisdic- § 1132, The chief of each staff department shall, under the 
of staff. direction of the commander-in-chief, have command over all subor- 
dinate officers in his department, and shall, from time to time, issue 
Blanks and orders and instructions for their government and practice, together 
provided, with sucli printed blanks and forms as may be necessary to carry 
all orders into execution. 
Chiefs of § 1133. The Secretary of State shall be .the chief of the staff 
organization. The quartermaster-general, commissary-general, 
and paymaster-general, shall each rank as lieutenant-colonels, and 
shall also be appointed by the Governoro The judge-advocate- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 


Chapter 4. — Courts Martial. 

general and surgeon-general shall each rank as lieutenant-colonels, 
but shall not be entitled to any commands (except in their own 
departments) as such ; they shall be appointed by the Governor. 
§ 1131. The Governor shall appoint three aids-de-camp, by 
warrant, with the rank of colonel, but their warrant shall expire ^^^ etc, 
with the G-overnor's term of office. 

Aids to 
the Govern- 




1135. Courts martial — fines and penalties. 

1136. Constitution and rules of. 

1137. HoTV convened. 

1138. Failing to attend court or parade. 

1139. Refusing to attend court. 

1140. Officers detailed, etc. 


1141. Pecuniary penalties, how collected. 

1142. jSTon-commissioned officers, etc. 

1143. Cadets of the Georgia M. Institute. 

1144. Fi.fas. for fines — proceedings. 

1145. Duty of collecting officers. 

1146. Disposition of fines, etc., collected. 

§ 1135. Military forfeitures, fines, and penalties, shall be ad- courts mar- 

. . , . T . 1 .,. tial to ad- 

judged by courts martial, m accordance with military law and the J^f^ge fines, 

usage of the army of the United States. Notices to officers 
charged with offenses, to appear at a general court martial, shall 
be personally served at least twenty days before the time pre- 
scribed for holding court, and may be contained in the order apr 
pointing the court. 

§ 1136. The constitution of all courts martial shall be in accord- Constitution 
ance with the regulations of the army of the United States, ex- courts mar- 
cept where differently prescribed in this Code, and their mode of 
proceeding regulated, as far as practicable, by the same rules, but 
no court martial shall impose sentence of death on any offender in 
time of peace, or imprison an offender (except for contempt) in 
time of peace. 

§ 1137. General courts martial shall be convened on the order General 
of the commiander-in-chief ; they shall have cognizance of all mill- conveueci. 
tary offenses, and shall not sit with less than five nor more than 
thirteen members, except where supernumeraries are summioned, 
but the acting members of the court shall never exceed thirteen. 
Regimental courts martial may be ordered by a commander of a Eegimentai 
regiment or battalion, to consist of three or more commissioned SdereJ and 
officers of the regiment or battalion, at least, for trial of offenses "^^^ 
committed within the battalion or regiment, and company courts 

222 PT. 1.— TIT. ll.—PijBLic Defense. 

Chapter 4. — Courts Martial. 

martial may assemble by the order of any captain of a company 

for the trial and assessment of all fines for delinquencies at any 

parade or muster, to consist of the commissioned officers of the 


§ 1138. Besides the penalties usually adjudged against military 

Officers be- offonscs, officers of the militia shall be subiect to fine for non- 
sides milita- ^ 

^■y jjj.i'^^°g^J; attendance at parade, drill, or muster, and for other non-perform- 
ject tonne. ^xiQQ of duty, but no fine for absence at company parade, drill, or 
muster, shall exceed ten dollars, exclusive of the cost of collecting 
the same, except as herein provided. 

§ 1139. If any officer charged with a military offense shall refuse 
officersre-|Q attend a court martial convened for the trial thereof, the case 

fusing to at- ' 

martial ^^^^""^ shall proccod as if he were present. Company courts martial may 
proceed and assess fines without the presence of the delinquents, 
provided they w^ere duly warned to perform the duty concerning 
which they are delinquent. 

§ 1140. Officers detailed on a general court martial shall be 

Pay and paid the sum of four dollars per day during the time of their ac- 

officers on tual session, and four dollars for every twenty miles in goina; and 

seneral, reg- J ./ o o 

fmeutai and returning therefrom, to be paid by the Governor by warrant, on 

c m p any o ^ ^ i ./ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

courts. the necessary production of the certificate of the president of the 
court. For regimental and comjjany courts martial the pay of 
each member shall be one dollar per day, to be paid out of the 
fines collected by the commander of the regiment, battalion, or 
Court may § 1141. Courts martial shall have power to punish contempts in 

t)unish for .-i ' '^ l 

contempt, the samo manner as civil courts. 

§ 1142. Pecuniary penalties assessed by any court martial shall 
Fines col- i^e collected by execution issued under the hand of the president 

iected by "^ ■■■ 

execution, ^f ^fie court, and directed to the Sherifi" of the County in which 
the delinquent resides, and shall have the same force and effect as 
civil process of the same character, according to the laws of this 

§ 1143. Non-commissioned officers shall be degraded to ranks 
Degraded. Only by Sentence of a company court martial. 

§ 1144. Cadets of the Q-eorgia Military Institute must be tried 
uS^''^^'^ according to the rules and regulations of said Institute. 

§ 1145. All executions for the collection of any penalty ad- 
EsecutioQto iudged by a court martial shall be returned to the officer issuinsi: 

be returned o id ^ ?3 

in 60 days. i\^q game, with the money collected thereon, or a return of no 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 223 

Chapter 5. — Preservation of Order at Parades. 

property to be found on which to levy the same, within sixty days 
from the date of its issue ; and the Sheriff, on failure to make a 
return, shall be liable to be ruled for the amount due on such exe- 
cution, in the next Superior Court after such failure, in the same 
manner as in civil cases. 

S 1146. All officers of the militia receivinsr fines or pecuniary offlcersre- 

•J a r */ ceivmg mo- 

penalties, collected by execution, shall make a return thereof to J^J'^ collect- 
the paymaster-general, or to such officer of his department as he 
may designate, at least once a year, or oftener if necessary. The 
paymaster-general shall lay an abstract of the same before the 
commander-in-chief annually. 




1147. Disturbing officer or soldier on duty 

1148. By persons connected with military. 

1149. Officer has power to arrest. 


1150. Sutlers— duties and privileges. 

1151. Intoxication on parade ground. 

§ 1147. No bystander, or person not connected with the military, interfering 

,,, , . ., ^Y, ,-,. -,., with officer 

snail molest, interrupt or msult any omcer or soldier, while on or soldier on 


duty, at any muster or parade, and the commanding officer, where 
such offense may haj^pen, shall have power to confine such person 
under guard until the close of such parade or muster, who is lia- 
ble to indictment and conviction for a misdemeanor, to be punished 
in the discretion of the court. 

§ 1148. Any person connected with the military service of the insubordi- 

o 1 1 n 1 •! r« T fv • 1 • 1 nation in the 

btate who shall be guilty oi the onenses mentioned in the prece- military. 
ding Section, or shall otherwise violate military order or decorum, 
shall be arrested and punished at the discretion of a court martial. 

§1149. The commander of companies, battalions or regiments, Command- 
brigades or divisions, when on duty with their respective com- fi^e persona 

^ ' . . disturbing a 

mands or parts thereof, shall have power, in their discretion, to parade. 
arrest and confine, not exceeding the period for which they were on 
duty, any person who shall upon or near any parade ground, field, 
public highway, or any other place occupied by any portion of the 
military force of Georgia, under arms, by means of ludicrous dis- 
guise, dress, arms, and instruments, noise, or other means, disturb 
the peaceable and orderly proceedings of those under arms, and 

22 1 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 

Chapter 6. — Provisions of Local Application. 

Offenders such disturbancG may be viewed as a misdemeanor, and the oifen- 

may be in- i • t i i • • • i t i r> i • 

dieted for a der may be indicted, and on conviction punished by hne and im- 

miademean- , '^ it • c ^ r»i'ii 

or. prisonment, at the discretion of the civil court before which he is 


§ 1150. When any sutlers shall attend any military muster or 
Sutlers un- parade they shall be under the direction of the commanding officer 

der the con- . . . 

troi of coni- -yyith regard to the time and place of sellinsi; refreshments, and such 

Jiiandmg of- "=" i o 7 

ficer. commanding officer shall have power to grant exclusive privileges 

to such persons as may engage to furnish suitable, spacious, and 
convenient places of parade, and the sutler aforesaid, when per- 
mitted, shall not be liable for retailing spirituous liquors at any of 
the musters aforesaid under the law for retailing spirituous liquors 
without license. 

§ 1151. Visitors found on the parade ground during the times 
Treatment thcrcof iutoxicated, mav bv the commander be marched bevond 

of mtoxica- t .) ^ *i 

ted visitors, ^hc lincs, and on returning in the same state may be put under 



• 1152. Cities — organization of companies. 

1153. Each beat elect a captain, etc. 

1154. Removal of commissioned officer. 

1155. Captain of beat, etc. 

1156. Beat company — bow designated. 

1157. Puegiments, battalions, etc. 

1158. Volunteer companies of Augusta. 

1159. Commanding officer — bow elected. 


1160. Members exempt from jury duty. 

1161. Same privileges to other cities. 

1162. Volunteer corps of Savannah. 

1163. How organized. 

1164. Rights of the regiment secured. 

1165. By whom commanded. 

1156. Honorary members^how admitted. 

§ 1152. Cities where the population may authorize it may be 
Cities di- divided into beat companies by law ; each district in which two 

vided into ^ 

beats. Justices of the Peace are elected shall constitute two beat com- 

Eigiitbeat pauics. If there be eight beat companies or more they shall con- 

foJSfTr^eg^ stitute a regiment; four or more shall constitute a battalion to be 

battalion. Commanded by a lieutenant-colonel and major; two or more shall 

constitute a battalion to be commanded by a major. 

§ 1153. The citizens of the several cities or towns arranged into 

Election of beat companics, resident within their respective beats, shall elect 

beat compa- one Captain and two subaltern officers for each beat company; 

ions' andreg- whcrc a battalion exists the citizens resident within the battalion 


PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 225 

Chapter 6. — Provisions of Local Application. 

limits shall elect the lieutenant-colonel and major, or major, as the 
case may be, and where a regiment is formed the citizens within 
its limits shall elect a colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and major. 

§1154. In cities or towns the removal of a commissioned officer Wherecom- 


shall not vacate his commission, unless it be beyond the corporate ^^cer may 
limits of the city or town. 

^1155. The captains of all beat companies in the State shall Captamsto 

ir»T' • appomt non- 

appoint four sergeants and four corporals for their respective commission- 
companies ; they shall hold company courts martial in like manner 
with captains of company districts. 

^ 1156. The beat companies in each regiment or battalion shall Beat com- 

■"■ ° .paniesof 

be designated by the first ten letters of the alphabet, commencins!; regiments — 

o vi i- ' o howdesigna- 

with "A" and continuing regularly to *^K," omitting ^'J." ^'^'^^ 

§ 1157. Battalions under separate command by the name of the Battalions 

city or town in which they are located, and regiments by a num- ments. ^^ 

ber fixed by the commander-in-chief. 

§ 1158. The volunteer companies of the city of Augusta are Volunteer 

ora;anized into a separate battalion called the ^' Independent Vol- city of au- 

j)i ir» 1 -I • gi'statoform 

unteer Battalion of Augusta, and separated from the tenth regi- independent 

^ . . . ^ ^ . ° battalion. 

ment. Any other companies which may be organized hereafter 
in the city of Augusta may, if they desire it, be attached to the 
battalion, and when the number of companies amount to eight, 
they shall constitute a regiment to be called the '^ Independent 
Volunteer Regiment of Augusta." 

§ 1159. The battalion shall be commanded by a lieutenant- commander 

^ *^ of the bat- 

colonel, elected by the members of the companies composing the taiion— how 

battalion, who shall have a full and complete regimental staff. 
No person shall be eligible as lieutenant-colonel or to an appoint- 
ment on the staff who has not been connected as a regular mem- 
ber with one of the companies of the battalion for at least six 
months previous to the election or appointment. 

§ 1160. The active members of the battalion are exempted from Battalion 
jury duty in the Courts of the city of Augusta and in the County jury and mi- 
of Richmond, and from the performance of militia duty, except 
in case of war, riot, insurrection, or invasion. The battalion 
shall be subject to the orders of the commanding oflicer when- 
ever he may deem it expedient. 

§ 1161. The same privilege is granted to the volunteer com- city voiun- 
panies in the city of Macon, and any other city in the State panies may 

T . , , ■■ . . , ft form a bat- 

which has the requisite number oi volunteer companies, and if taiion with 

226 PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 

Chapter 6. — Provisions of Local Application. 

like priviie- deficient, thov are allowed to make up such number from the 
County in which such city is situated, and if not in the County, 

§ 1162. The volunteer corps of the city of Savannah are 
Volunteer formed iuto a regiment entitled the " First Volunteer Regiment 

corps of Sa- '-' ^ ^ o 

^^^^^m^nt^ of the State of Georgia," embracing as many corps as may choose 
to conform to the regimental organization ; but when the regi- 
ment numbers sixteen companies, they may organize themselves 
into a brigade and elect the necessary officers to command the 
same in such manner as the members of said companies may see 
fit to adopt. 

§ 1163. The first volunteer regiment shall be commanded by a 

Offlcersand coloncl, licutenant-colonel, and maior, and shall be entitled to a 

staff. ' ? J ' 

regimental staff. Orders for the election of a colonel, as often 
as a vacancy occurs, shall be issued by the commander-in-chief, 
and the members of the several corps constituting the regiment 
alone shall be entitled to vote ; all other elections for ofiicers be- 
longing to said regiment shall be ordered by the colonel or com- 
manding officer. 

§ 1164. The rights and privileges accruing to said regiment 
Eights of the shall not fail by the consolidation of two or more companies, or 

regiment se- ,.,, iti r» -i 

cured. the Withdrawal or dissolution of one or more companies, but the 
same shall vest in and be enjoyed by the corps composing the 
"First Volunteer Regiment." 

§1165. The "First Volunteer Regiment" shall be subject ex- 

Commanded clusivelv to the commaud of its own officers and the commander- 

by its own ip ■, tit • • i n ^ • n 

officers and in-cliief, excopt whou on detached service either of this State or 

commander- -*■ 

in-chief. of the United States, when it shall be governed by the military 

law and the usage and custom of the army. 

§ 1166. All the volunteer corps shall each have the privilege of 

Honorary enrollins;, as honorary members of their respective corps, not ex- 
members of o' *^ r i 7 

cor^s^*^^^ ceeding twenty persons, who shall be exempt from ordinary mili- 
tia duty only so long as they continue their membership in said 
companies, on paying into their respective treasuries the sum 
of twenty dollars each annually. 

PT. L— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 


Chapter 7. — Miscellaneous Provisions. 




1167. Insurrection, etc. 

-duty of Gov'nor. 

1168. Discipline of military. 

1169. Entitled to pay and rations — when. 

1170. Duty of resident commander. 

1171. Requisition of militia by U. States. 

1172. Commanding officer, etc. 

1173. Wlien called out of the State, etc. 

1174. Pass over'ferries, etc., free — when. 

1175. Under arms to preserve order, etc. 


1176. Arms, etc., exempt from sale. 

1177. Number of votes required to elect. 

1178. Elections and returns thereof. 

1179. Commissions and effect thereof. 

1180. The ratification by the State. 

1181. Officers must report themselves. 

1182. Substitutes may be received. 

1183. General provisions adopting, etc. 

1184. Incorporated companies not affected 

In case 
of insurrec- 

§ 1 167. Upon any insurrection, rebellion, invasion, or probable 
prospect thereof, it shall be the duty of the Governor to call from tipn, inva- 
that portion of the State then threatened, or other portion if ne- ^^j^jj^^Jit^f^^ 
cessary, such part of the military force of the State as he may ^^'^^®- 
think proper, and detail such number of staff officers of the neces- 
sary grades from the several staff departments for their accommo- 
dation, equipment, and support, as may be necessary. 

^ 1168. Whenever any portion of the military force of this Discipline 
State shall be called into actual service, either of the State or of into actual 


the United States, they shall be governed by the regulations of 

the army of the United States and the rules and articles of war, 

so far as the same are applicable ; but to the cashiering of any 

officer, or the infliction of capital punishment within the limits of 

this State, the approbation of the commander-in-chief shall be 

§ 1169. When any portion of the military force of the State is or- 
dered by the commander-in-chief for actual service, or for drill and 
instruction, they shall be allowed such pay and rations and other 
compensation as are allowed to the army of the United States. 

§1170. If a sudden invasion should be made, or insurrection Dutyofres- 
happen, in any County or city of this State, the commanding offi- mandeis in 
cer in said County or city is empowered to take the necessary den invasion 
steps to repel the same, and, upon the requisition of the civil au- 
thority, to proceed to quell the insurrection, reporting the condi- 
tion of things at once to the commander-in-chief. 

§ 1171. Whenever any detachment of the militia may be re- Detachment 

ifi*n 11 1' 1 n 1 of militia 

quired oi this fetate, by trie proper authority, on the part of the caiiedforby 
United States, the commander-in-chief shall cause the same to be 
apportioned by such staff officers as he may think proper to detail 
for that purpose, and a list of the persons so detached shall be 

Pay and 


228 PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 

Chapter 7. — Miscellaneous Provisions. 

made out and forwarded to the Executive Department forthwith, 
and the Governor shall assign the necessary officers to said detach- 
ment from the officers of the militia then in commission. 

§ 1172. When a division, or brigade, or companies sufficient to- 

Brigade constituto either, shall be called for on the part of the United 

of militia Statcs and detached from the militia of this State, the Governor 

called into , ,, . • i i rY» i i -i 

service of shall appoint a suitable omcer to command the same, and commis- 
sion him accordingly, unless otherwise provided for by the Consti- 
tution and laws of the United States. 

§ 1173. Whenever a sufficient number of the militia to consti- 
Eegimentor tutc a regiment or battalion shall be detailed for service to operate 
militia call- bevond the limits of the State, such regiment shall be furnished 

ed out of the ^ ., ^ -i • 

State. \)j the Governor with two nags — one the regimental color, bear- 
ing the arms of the State, the other the national color, bearing 
the arms of the United States — both inscribed with the name of 
the regiment, and if a battalion, the regimental color only, con- 
forming to flags of like description in the army of the United 
States, and at the close of the service it shall be the duty of 
the officer commanding such regiment or battalion to return the 
same to the Governor, or report the reasons for his default there- 
in, which shall be communicated to the next General Assembly. 
§ 1174. All officers, whilst on duty, and any militia called to 
Officers and musters, paradcs, or drills, or to courts martial, or courts of in- 
pass free ov- quiry, having; to pass over toll bridges, ferries, or through turn- 
er toil bridg- ^.- *^' ? IT 11 ^ . ^ . n ^ -,- 

63— when, pike gates, shall pass toll tree going to or returning irom the dis- 
charge of such duty. 

§ 1175. For the purpose of preserving order on any day of parade, 
da?s th^^ml- drill, or muster, the militia shall be considered as under arms from 
derTims the risiug of the sun to its setting in the same day, and shall be 

from sunrise • t n j i • 1 1 j . • 

to sunset, exempted irom arrest during that time. 

§ 1176. All arms, ammunition, and equipments, the trooper's 

Arms, ac- horsc and furniture, the uniform and accouterments of the soldier, 

etc., exempt and cvcry horse necessary to the discharge of military duty in 

from sale. , "^ "^ ° J J 

every department of the State's service, with his apparel, shall be 
exempt from seizure and sale under civil process ; nor shall any 
service of civil process be effectual upon any militia man while 
going to, continuing at, or returning from parade, drill, or muster, 
or while in actual service of the State or of the United States. 
§ 1177. At all elections for officers of the militia, the person 
votes to elect having the highest number of votes shall be declared elected. 

PT. 1.— TIT. ll.—PuBLic Defense. 229 

Chapter 7. — Miscellaneous Provisions. 
§ 1178. All elections for militia officers shall be held at the Elections— 

where held. 

usual place of holding elections, and the superintendents shall re- 
turn the result thereof to the commander-in-chief, who shall cause 
commissions to issue accordingly ; but upon due proof of fraud or 
illegality in holding such election, the commander-in-chief may 
supersede the same and order a new one in his discretion. 

§ 1179. All commissions shall bear the impression of the Great commis- 

n n ^ c^ • ' 11 slons sealed 

Seal of the State in print, and shall run during good behavior ; but with Great 

they may be vacated by removal from the command in which the 

officer belongs by death, resignation, sentence of a court martial, 

and acceptance of another inconsistent commission. Staflf officers, staff officers 

except the chiefs of the staff departments, may be removed by the moved. 

officer in whose staff they serve, and their commissions shall expire 

with his commission. 

§ 1180. The resolution of the Senate concurring in the nomi- Nomiriation 
nation of any military officer shall be certified by the President officer to be 

•^ "^ '^ , certified. 

and Clerk of the Senate, and be transmitted to the Executive 
Department, and the Governor shall cause commissions to issue in 
accordance therewith. 

§ 1181. All officers, on reception of their commission and their officers to 

report them- 

subscription, and the attestation of the oath thereto annexed, selves. 
shall immediately report themselves to the proper officer in com- 

§1182. Any person detached to serve with any portion of the May provide 

. . , "^ a substitute 

militia called into the service of the United States may offer a ?^ien caiied 

^ into service 

substitute at or before the time of rendezvous, and such substi- ^^ u. s. 
tute, if he shall be an able-bodied man of the age of twenty-one 
years and upwards, and shall consent in writing to subject himself 
to all the duties, fines, forfeitures, and punishments to which his 
principal would be subject were he personally to serve, he shall 
be accepted by the commanding officer of the detachment, and 
ordered to be enrolled in place of his principal. 

§1183. All matters of detail in the various branches of the General pro- 
military service of the State, not specially provided for in this ting military 
Code, which may occur in. the execution and distribution of orders, . 
reports and returns, proceedings of courts martial and courts of 
inquiry, discipline and etiquette, rank and precedence of officers, 
military badges and distinctions, shall be determined, as far as 
practicable, by military law and usage and the custom of the 
army of the United States. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 

Chapter 8. — The Public Arms and Arsenals. 

§ 1184. The provisions of this Code shall not repeal or super- 

Oodenotto sodo any rights, privileges, or liabilities, attaching to any military 

leges of organization by any act of the Leaiislature creating: such organ- 

mcorporateds ^ t/ ./ ^ o o o 

companies, ization a corporato body ; but in all cases where volunteer com- 
panies have been incorporated, they shall be called on by gen- 
eral order, published by the commander-in-chief, to report by the 
first day of May next ensuing the date when this Code shall go 
into effect ; and on failure to report, they shall be deemed to have 
surrendered their franchise as corporations, and shall be dropped 
from the roll and disbanded ; nor shall they supersede any militia 
laws now of force that may not be inconsistent with them. 




1185. The public arms — wliere kept. 

1186. Persons receiving must give bond. 

1187. Delivery of arms. 

1188. Bond not required — when. 

1189. Brigade inspector — his duty. 

1190. Commissary-general — his duty. 


1191. City volunteers may use arsenal. 

1192. Deposit of gunpowder. 

1193. Military storekeeper, etc. 

1194. Must give bond and surety., 

1195. His duties. 

1196. Penalty for violation of duty.. 

§ 1185. The public arms of the State are to be deposited in the 
Public arms, arscuals at Savannah and Milledgeville, as the public exigency 

where kept. , * ' , . , . „ 

may require, and at such other place as the commander-m-chief 
may order, or the G-eneral Assembly prescribe. 

§ 1186. Before arms and accouterments are delivered to any 
Bond and voluntecr corps, bonds and sureties must be executed for their 
^yII. ^ ^ careful preservation and faithful return according to law, paya- 
ble to the commander-in-chief, in such sum and under such other 
regulations as he may prescribe. 

§ 1187. When such is done, the Secretary of State shall draw 
Delivery of ]iis order on the keeper, who shall, without delay, deliver them. 

arms. ^ ' ^ "^ 

§ 1188. In case the public necessity requires it, the commander- 
Bonds in-chief may permit the delivery or distribution of arms without 

not required . 

—when. taking such bond, and may impose suph terms as he may see 


§ 1189. The brigade inspectors must examine into and report 

Brigade the couditiou of the public arms and accouterments in their re- 
inspector to . . •\/r 1 

report. spectivc brigades to the Secretary of State by the first Monday 
in October annually. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 11.— Public Defense. 231 

Chapter 8. — The Public Arms and Arsenals. 

§ 1190. When the Secretary of State is satisfied that any por- Neglect of 
tion of such ai^e being injured for want of proper care, he may 
prescribe such terms for their preservation as he may see fit, and 
may, in his discretion, have them returned to the arsenals. 

^ 1191. The volunteer corps of any city of this State where city voi- 

'^ X ./ ./ unteers may 

there is an arsenal are permitted to deposit their arms there, pro- ^^^ arsenals 
vided such does not interfere with the proper keeping of the arms 
therein and that all expense of so doing is defrayed by such corps. 

§1192. Grunpowder shall not be deposited in any arsenal con- Deposits of 

•'■ -^ _ ... gunpowder. 

trary to any ordinance or by-law of the city where it is situated. 

S 1193. The Governor has power to appoint military storekeep- Military 


ers for such arsenals or other places where the public arms may 
be kept, who hold their offices for one year. 

§1194. Before entering; on the discharge of their duties, all , s^^" =^v® 

'^ o o 'bond and 

military storekeepers shall give bond and surety in such sum as ^^^^^y- 
the Governor may order, and shall also swear faithfully to dis- 
charge the duties of their offices to the best of their skill and 

§ 1195. It is their duty — 

1. To take into possession and safely and nicely keep all the The duties 

^ , •^ "^ ■*■ of military 

State arms, accouterments, munitions, or other State property storekeepers 
committed to their care ; to deposit them in the State Arsenal if 
in good repair, or in such other building as they may be directed, 
and to keep such arsenal or building in proper order. 

2. To make annually, or oftener if required by the Governor 
or Secretary of State, a report to the said latter named officer 
of the number, kind, and order of the arms and accouterments ; 
of the condition of the munitions and other property in their 
keeping, including the condition of their buildings. 

3. To deliver to any officer or person having the order of the 
Secretary of State the arms or other property required, if in 
their possession. 

4. To obey all lawful orders, and to perform such other duty as 
the law may require. 

§1196. If such keeper shall violate any portion of his duty, Penalty for 

,.,.,^p. ni violation of 

tor each violation he lorieits twenty-five dollars of his salary, and duty. 
for unfaithful conduct or inefficiency may be removed by the 


PT. 1.— TIT. 12— Education. 

Chapter 1. — The University of Georgia, 






I Section. 

1197. The University of Georgia. 

1198. Name and style— may sue, etc. 

1199. Number of Trustees. 

1200. Board reduced below a quorum. 

1201. Powers specified. 

1202. Meeting — by whom called. 

1203. Trustee failing to attend, etc. 

1204. Disposition of stock subscribed for. 

1205. Trustees must report annually. 

1206. Visitors — number and duty, etc. 

1207. Report laid before the Legislature. 

1208. Officers — religion of. 

1209. Not required to take certain oaths. 

1210. Chancellor may attend Legislature. 

1211. University may confer degrees. 

1212. Graduates of Lumpkin Law School. 

1213. Preparatory school connected. 

1214. Campus grounds reserved. 

1215. Permanent income, etc. 

1216. Former acts not repealed by Code. 

§ 1197. The government of the University of Georgia, at Athens, 
oF^GlwSis vested in a Board of Trustees, who are subject to the General- 

ertmenr" AsSOmblj. 

§ 1198. For such purpose they are a body corporate and politic, 
Name and hy the name of the ''Trustees of the University of Georgia," by 
su^^^™be which they shall have a perpetual succession, have and use a com- 
mon seal, and be a person in law, able to plead and be impleaded, 
to hold and acquire real and personal estate, with power to lease 
and otherwise manage the same for the good of the University. 
All money or property granted by the State, or individuals, for 
the advancement of learning in general, is vested in such Trus- 

§1199. Such Trustees shall consist of citizens of this 

Number of State, auv of whom shall make a quorum, with power to 

Trustees, t J ^ .... .. 

transact all business within their authority. 

§ 1200. If the Board shall be reduced to less than a quorum, 
bS^^s re^ ^^® Governor shall fill the vacancies until the quorum is complete, 
a^quorum?^^ and then the quorum shall fill the remaining vacancies. 
§ 1201. They have power— 

1. To elect their own officers, such as President, Vice-President, 
Powers Secretary, Treasurer, or such of them as they may require, and 
also all other officers they may deem necessary for their organi- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 23 


Chapter 1. — The University of Georgia. 

2. To elect a presidino; officer of said University, who shall be Presiding 

. *^ officer. 

styled "the Chancellor of the University of Georgia," and in case 
of a vacancy in his office, unsupplied, to create such office and 
make such arrangement for the conduct of the institution as to 
them shall seem meet. 

3. To elect or appoint professors, tutors, stewards, or any other '^J^y ^^^^t 

, '' professors. 

officer necessary, to discontinue or remove them as the good of 
the University may require, and fix their salaries. 

4. To prescribe the course of studies to be pursued by the stu- course of 

. -, studies. 

dents, the terms and manner of graduating, and of conferring all 
the degrees. 

5. To establish all such schools of learning or art as may be Establish 

, ° . schools. 

useful to the State, and organize the same in the way most likely 
to attain the ends desired. 

6. To call on all persons who may have, or have had, any funds. Books, 
property, papers, or books belonging to the University, to deliver 

them up and make settlements. 

7. To adjust and determine the expenses of the institution. Expenses. 

8. To exercise any power usually granted to such incorpora- Powers usu- 
tions necessary to its usefulness, and not in conflict with the Con- 
stitution and laws. 

§1202. The President of the Board and two of its members J^eetings of 

^ Board — how 

may appoint a meeting at any time, by giving to the others at '^^^^^^• 
least ten days' notice, by letter or otherwise. When the Presi- 
dent does not act the senior Trustee present shall preside, and in 
all other respects discharge his duties ; when the Board is divided 
the presiding officer shall give the casting vote, or may vote to 
make a tie. A majority of the body present shall govern if a 
quorum. Nothing done at a special meeting shall be binding 
after the rising of the next annual meeting, unless then confirmed. 

§1203. If any member of the Board, beins; within the State, ,., Trustees 

- . failing to at- 

shall fail to attend any two successive annual meetings his seat *end. 
becomes thereby vacant, unless he is specially excused by the 
Board for good cause shown. 

§ 1204. Such Trustees shall never dispose of the stock by them shaiinotdis- 

•^ pose of stock 

subscribed for, except with the consent of the General Assembly, subscribed 
but the dividends therefrom shall be drawn and used as the 
various demands of the University may require. 

§ 1205. It is the duty of such Trustees to make an annual report Trustees 

•z i- must report 

of their business to the Governor, which must embrace a state- annually. 

234 PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 

Chapter 1. — The University of Georgia. 

merit of their expenditures and receipts on account of the Uni- 
versity, the number and names of the students, their different 
studies, the tuition money, and all information and suggestions 
which the Board may think conducive to the good of the Uni- 
versity, and the cause of general education in the State. 

§ 1206. The Governor shall appoint annually ten citizens of this 
Special State as a special Board of Visitors to attend the University 

Board of Vis- . . ,. , i -t 

itors— how exammations preceding; the annual commencements, and said 

appointed. . . 

committee, by three of their number chosen by them, shall report 
to the Governor with the least possible delay, the character of 
said examination. Such Visitors shall receive for their services 
five dollars per diem, estimating from the date of their leaving 
their respective homes. 

§ 1207. The Governor shall lay the reports respectively, of the 
Eeport of Board of Trustees and the Board of Visitors, annually, before 

B a r d 3 of ^ / " ' 

Trustees and the General Assembly, in connection with his annual messaoie, 

Visitors. •^ ' o ^ 

with such comments as he may see proper, and when so done the 
General Assembly has power to revise and approve or reject the 
action of the Board of Trustees. 

§ 1208. All officers elected or appointed for the University shall 
Officers shall be of the Christian religion, but no person of any religious denom- 

be of the . , & ' r J & ^ 

Christian re- ination shall be excluded from equal advantages of education and 

ligion. •'■ '-' ^ 

the immunities of the University on account of their speculative 
sentiments in religion, or being of a different religious profession 
from the trustees or faculty.* 

§ 1209. The Chancellor of the University, its professors and 
Oaths re- tutors, shall not be required to take certain oaths prescribed in 

quired in the , 

charter. its charter. 

§ 1210. The Chancellor has the authority to appear before the 
Chancellor General Assembly once at each session and address them in person 

may appear , ,.. . , r^TTT-' 

before the ou the couQition, lutercsts, and wants oi the University. 
§ 1211. The University may confer degrees as follows : 

1. To each graduate of the University the degree of Bachelor 

degrees. 01 xirtS, 

2. To each graduate of the University, or of another college of 
three years' standing, or to such graduates as have passed a year 
in the University schools, all being of good moral character, the 
degree of Master of Arts. 

* See 5th Clause, 1st Article Constitution of Georgia. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 235 

Chapter 1. — The University of Georgia. 

3. To all law students who have attended the lectures of the 
professors, and are recommended by them for the same, the degree 
of Bachelor of Laws. 

4. To the graduates of such medical school as may be established 
by the trustees of the University, the degree of Doctor of Medicine. 

5. To students in the University schools of two years' standing, 
and proficient in two or more of them, the degree of Doctor of 

6. To persons distinguished for learning, ability, and character, 
according to their respective vocations, the degree of Doctor of 
Laws, or of Divinity, and, where appropriate, both. It may also 
confer such other degrees and honors as may tend to the promo- 
tions of the arts and sciences. 

§ 1212. Any law student having a diploma of graduation, signed Law stu- 

,. -.._-.. .. •11 11 ^^^^^ may 

by the proper authority of the University, is entitled to plead practice. 
and practice law in all the Courts of Law and Equity of this State 
on the same terms of the graduates of the Lumpkin Law School; 
and all .graduates of the Medical School of the University are 
entitled to practice their profession in all its branches. 

§ 1213. By the authority of the Board of Trustees there shall Preparato- 
be established, in connection with the University, an institute in connec- 

1 . . , . . n • • 1 . 1 tion with. 

combining the instruction usually given m academies and to the college. 
lower classes in colleges, and by the same authority there may be 
a reduction of the number of years usually spent in colleges prior 
to graduation. University schools for professional education, 
including the application of science to the industrial arts as well 
as to the more abstruse and recondite sciences, and especially for 
the promotion of medical and legal education, not omitting the 
application of chemistry to agriculture, and mathematics to civil 

§ 1214. There is reserved and set apart for the University oampus 

T . -,..,. „ , ^ grounds not 

campus, not subject to alienation, thirty-seven acres oi the tract oi subject to 

111 11 XT • 1/-^ Till alienation. " 

land donated to the University by the late Goyernor John Milledge. 

§ 1215. The permanent income of said University from its bank The perma- 
stock shall not be less than eight thousand dollars annually, and not less than 

$8 000 

when the dividends from the bank shall not be equal to said sum, 
the Governor is required to make up the deficiency semi-annually 
by his warrant on the State Treasurer for its payment out of any 
money not otherwise appropriated. 

§ 1216. The various acts of the General Assembly relative to 


PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 

Chapter 2. — Georgia Military Institute. 

Actsinreia- Said Universitv, in force at the time of tlie adoption of this Code, 

tion to Uni- i t i • i • . . , , . 

versity, not if not embraced herein, and not inconsistent with what is so 

repealed by 

*M^. ?^*^^' embraced, are still of force. 

still in force. ^ 




1217. Superintendent — appointment, etc. 

1218. His rank in the volunteer force. 

1219. Absence — how supplied. 

1220. Military storekeeper at Institute. 

1221. May be allowed extra pay — when. 

1222. In the distribution of arms, etc. 

1223. Inspectors — appointment and duty. 

1224. Visitors — appointment, etc. 

1225. Persons disqualified to act. 

1226. State cadets — how appointed. 

1227. How selected — vacancies, etc. 

1228. Transferred to pay list — when. 


1229. Shall teach two years— when. 

1230. Quorum of Inspectors may act. 

1231. Reasonable expenses allowed. 

1232. Shall appoint See'y and Treasurer. 

1233. Treasurer must report. 

1234. Inspectors report to the Governor. 

1235. Officers, etc.— ineligibility of. 

1236. Rules, etc. 

1237. Suits for or against the Institute. 

1238. Expenses of State cadets. 

1239. Salary of the Superintendent. 

1240. Officers resigning without notice. 

§ 1217. The commanding officer of said Institute is styled the 

^g/j^^P®"^ Superintendent ; he is chosen by the Board of Inspectors, and 

and^term^of holds Ms offico at their will and pleasure. He may appoint all 

office. j^.g g|i]3 ordinate military officers, subject to the approval of said 


§ 1218. By virtue of his office, he is entitled to rank in the 
His rank, yoluntecr forco of the State as maior, and to command the volun- 

eommission, ^ ' 

®*^- teer battalion of which his cadets form a part, and shall be com- 

missioned by the Governor accordingly. 

§ 1219. In the absence of the Superintendent from parade, or 
Absence of other timcs, his iunior officers of the Institute take his place 

Superinten- jo x 

dent. according to rank. 

§ 1220. The Superintendent is, by virtue of his office, also 
Military military storekeeper of the public arms and accouterments at the 

storekeeper t/ x x 

attheinsti- Institute, with power to appoint a subordinate, for whose conduct 
he shall be responsible. His powers and duties are the same as 
other military storekeepers, but he receives no salary except for the 
safe keeping of a quantity of arms largely more than necessary 
for the institution. 

§ 1221. Should the Governor place a large quantity of the public 
May be ai- amis in his keeping, he may allow him just compensation, not to 
pay— when, excccd the Salary of other military storekeepers. 

PT. l.-~-TIT. 12.— Education. 237 

Chapter 2. — Georgia Military Institute. 

^ 1222. In the distribution of the public arms, or any portion of ^jQ(^i'st!ibu- 

'^ ^ '■ . tionofarms, 

them, the Military Institute must be first supplied according to its iDsutu^te 
necessities. p^^^^^- 

§ 1223. The affairs of the Institute shall be under the control of Board of 


a Board of ten Inspectors, to be appointed by the Governor, of — their ap- 

••■ ^ . • pomtment 

which the Governor shall be ex officio President ; the Board may ^^^ ^^^y- 
elect a President pro tern, to officiate in the Governor's absence. 
Three of tlie Inspectors shall be a quorum. It is the duty of said 
Board to organize such departments for staff duty as may be neces- 
sary to establish the rank and grade of all officers of the Institute ; 
to appoint the State cadets ; to fill vacancies in the academic staff, 
and to make and ordain all regulations for the government of the 
Institute ; to cause to be kept a strict account of all moneys received 
and paid out on account of said Institute, and report the same to 
his Excellency the Governor at the end of each session, together 
with the proper vouchers for the same ; all of which, together with 
the report of the Superintendent, shall be by him laid before the 
General Assembly at the regular session thereof in each and every 

§1224. A Board of Visitors to the Institute shall be annually Board of 
appointed by the Governor, as many as he may deem conducive to pJTnTmeS', 
the interest of the Institute, not exceeding seven, who shall meet 
annually at the institution on such day and for such purpose as 
may be designated in the regulations. They shall report to the 
Governor such matters as they may deem advisable touching said 
institution. * 

§1225. No cadet who has been dismissed or expelled, or has Persons dis- 
deserted from the Institute, shall be a member of any Board con- members of 

., p,. eitherBoard. 

nected therew^ith, nor any other cadet, until after the expiration of 
three years from the date of his leaving the institution, except as 
an instructor. 

§ 1226. The Board of Inspectors shall appoint, by warrant, one state cadets 
cadet from each of the Congressional Districts of the State, and pointed. 
two from the State at large. They shall not be under fourteen or 
over twenty-five years of age, and must be of insufficient pecuniary 
means to maintain and educate themselves at the institution. 

§ 1227. They shall be taken in turn, from each County in the How select- 
District, until every County has furnished one, before any County cies— how 
shall send another ; vacancies shall be supplied from a different 
County than that from which the regular appointment came. If 

238 PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 

Chapter 2. — Georgia Military Institute. 

any of the Districts shall fail to offer one applicant, or from rea- 
sonable objections there shall Be no appointment from a District, 
the board, after giving due notice of such deficiency, shall fill the 
vacancy from applicants already before them. The Board of Ed- 
ucation in each County may select and recommend one applicant 
from their several Counties. 

§ 1228. If it should be ascertained, or should happen, that a 
dets maybe State cadct, after his appointment, has sufficient pecuniary ability 
to the list of to defray his expenses, he shall be transferred to the list of pay 
when! cadets, and the vacancy shall be filled by another appointment. 

§ 1229. Every State cadet shall sign a written pledge of honor 
Must teach to act in the capacity of teacher in one of the schools of this 

two years af-^ pi-tt-p n i 

ter gradua- fetato, alter leaving the Institute, tor a term oi two years, unless 

tin?, if not rv. 1 1 -r» 1 P T 

excused. excuscd for Sufficient cause by the Board of Inspectors, receiving 
such compensation therefor as may be agreed on between himself 
and the authority of the school. 

§ 1230. A quorum of said Board of Inspectors are competent 
A quorum to the transaction of all business, except making or changing the 

of said board . . . mi • 

may act; rulcs aiiQ regulations, when a majority must be present. Iheir 
when ht'id; meeting's shall be held at the Institute as often as may h^ neces- 

vacancies — ^ , "^ 

how filled, sary. Vacancies in the Board of Inspectors must be reported to 
the Governor, who shall fill the same. 

§ 1231. All reasonable expenses incurred by the members of 
Expenses— both of Said Boards, in the discharge of their duties, shall be al- 

how paid. . . 

lowed them by the Governor, and paid by his warrant on the 
Treasury, out of any money not otherwise appropriotted, but there 
shall be no salary, or per diem compensation. 

§ 1232. The Board of Inspectors shall appoint a Secretary and 
Secretary Trcasurcr of Said Institute' and fix his compensation. He must 

and Treasur- ^ 

€r— appoint- o;ive a boud and security in the sum of five thousand dollars, to 

ment, etc. o J ' 

be approved by said board, a copy of which shall be sent to the 
Governor and filed in the Executive Ofiice. 

§ 1233. Such ofiicer shall quarterly render to the Superinten- 
Treasurer dcnt, and ofteucr if he requires it, a full statement of his receipts 
quarterly, and disbursements, which shall be reported to the Board of In- 
spectors annually, or oftener if required by them. 

§ 1234. Said Board shall annually, and up to the first day in 
Inspectors Octobcr, make to the Governor a written report of all the affairs 

must report ,,,... ,. , • ^ i i nio 

to Governor. 01 tlic institutiou. Sending therewith the annual report ot tne ou- 
perintendent, and shall propose such alterations or improvements 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 


Chapter 2. — Georgia Military Institute. 

as they may desire, which, together with the report of the Board 
of Visitors, shall be by the Governor laid before the General As- 
sembly, in connection with his annual message. 

§ 1235. An officer or professor of the Institute is ineligible as ineligibility 

^ _ ^ ^ '-' of ofBcei's. 

one of the Board of Inspectors or Visitors ; neither can either one 
of said Board be chosen to either one of said positions. 

§1236. The rules and regulations of the Board are subiect to Rules, etc., 

° ^ of the Board. 

the call of the General Assembly. 

§ 1237. Suits for or against the Institute must be in the name suitsforor 

. 1 ci • 1 against the 

of the Board of Inspectors ; service on the Superintendent shall institute. 
be sufficient. 

§ 1238. The sum of two thousand dollars is annually appropri- Expenses of 

^, ,T^Tf,r- ^^^^'^ cadets 

ated to said Institute, to be used by the Board of Inspectors, in —iiow paid. 
consideration of which ten State cadets must be furnished board, 
tuition, washing, fuel, light, and medical treatment, free of charge, 
they providing their own room, furniture, clothing, etc., which sum 
is payable quarterly on the warrant of the Governor for that pur- 

§ 1239. The salary of 'the Superintendent shall be paid by the 
State out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropri- 
ated, at the close of each session, by the warrant of the Governor 
drawn on the Treasurer for that purpose. 

§1240. No professor, assistant professor, or the Superintendent 
of said Institute shall resign his office therein without giving the 
Board of Inspectors thirty days' notice of his intention so to do; 
and for a violation of the provisions of this Section, such officer so 
violating shall forfeit to said Institute one-fourth of his annual 
salary, to be retained on settlement. 

Salary of 
dent — liow 




1241. Location and organization. 

1242. A body corporate. 

1243. Power and duty of Trustees. 

1244. Pupils — who entitled, etc. 

1245. How appointed. 

1246. Number — how regulated. 

1247. Pay pupils — how received. 

1248. Treasurer must give bond. 


1249. Trustees must report to Governor. 

1250. Visitors— appointment and duty. 

1251. Powers of— must report. 

1252. Vacancies— how filled. 

1253. Statistics— how obtained. 

1254. List of indigent — by whom kept. 

1255. Former acts continued in force. 

240 PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 

Chapter 3. — Academy for the Blind. 
Location, § 1241. An institutioTi for the education of the blind is located 

etc., of Acad- ^ ^ in m 

em J for at Macon under the control oi seven Trustees already appointed. 

§ 1242. They are a body corporate, and have all the powers and 

Trustees a dutics appertaining: to similar institutions of this State in their 

body corpo- ^ ■•■ o 

rate, corporatc capacity as Trustees of the Academy for the Blind. 

§ 1243. The Trustees have the power — 

1. To appoint such officers, teachers, and matrons as may be 
^^^^J^^js of necessary — to prescribe their duties, fix their salaries, and to 

remove or discontinue them at pleasure. 

2. To prescribe the course of studies, establish the rates of 
tuition, and adjust the expenditures of the institution. 

3. To adopt such rules and regulations, not in conflict with law, 
as the interest of the Academy may require. 

§ 1244. All indigent blind persons, residents of this State, 
What pupils ]3etween the ages of seven and twenty-five years, shall be selected 

educated, o J J 7 

fected^^ ^^ ^J *^® Trustees from the different Counties of this State, received 
into the Academy, and supported and educated gratuitously to the 
extent the funds will permit. 

§ 1245. When there are more applicants than can be accommo- 
^Appiicants dated they shall be apportioned among the several Counties, 
portioned, according to representive population. 

§ 1246. Unless the funds will otherwise permit, there shall 
Number of hereafter be but one indigent pupil from the Counties applyina:, 

pupils regu- ^ o x x ^ x i ./ o/ 

lated by and in case there are not means enough to receive one from every 

funds on o e/ 

hand. Couuty applying, those shall be received first who first make 
application. A beneficiary shall not remain at the charge of the 
institution longer than four years. 
Pay pupils §1247. All othors than the indigent are to be received upon 
ceiredJ ^^" such tcrms as the Trustees may impose. 
Treasurer § 1248. The Treasurer of the Board shall give bond and security 
bond'. ^^^^ i^ the sum of three thousand dollars. 

§ 1249. The Trustees must make annual reports to the Gover- 
Trustees nor, as is required of the Board of Inspectors of the Military 
S^GoverSor. lustitutc, SO far as applicable to the affairs of the Academy for the 
Blind, and the Governor must make a like disposition of them. 
§ 1250. The Governor shall appoint a Board of ten Visitors for 
Board of Said Acadomy, who shall meet the Board of Trustees at the 
Academy annually, at such time as the latter may designate. 
§ 1251. The powers and duties of said Visitors are the same as 
Powers and those appointed for the Military Institute, and the same disposi- 
itors. tion is to be made of their report. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Educatioi^. 



Chapter 3. — Academy for the Blind. 

§ 1252. The Trustees fill vacancies in their own body as do the vacancy m 

... *^ Boardof 

Trustees of the Georgia University. When a vacancy occurs and Trustees— 

° ^ ."^ . how sup- 

is filled, it must be reported to the Governor. Their ineligibility pii^d. 

is likewise the same as of those last mentioned. 

8 1253. The Tax Receiver of each County must keep a column statistics of 

" « . blind— how 

for, and receive the numbers of the blind between the ages of obtained. 
seven and twenty-five, a statement of wdiich shall be obtained 
annually hj said Board of Trustees, from the Comptroller Gen- 
eral's office. Before the digest is sent by the Tax Receiver to the 
Comptroller, the Ordinary of each County shall examine with 
such Receiver his list of the blind, and correct, by memoranda 
thereto attached, any mistake. 

8 1254. The Ordinary shall also take down the names of such i^^^t of indi- 

" ... S^^^ bund. 

as are indigent, and procure their admission into the Asylum, if 
possible, and if from any cause they are not received,- he shall 
report to the Board of Trustees the names, ages, and sex of such, 
who shall keep a record of all such reports. 

§1255. Section 1216 (as to laws kept in force,) applies to the 
Asylum for the Blind. 




1256. Located at Cave Spring. 

1257. Trustees — how appointed, etc. 

1258. The Principal — how appointed. 

1259. Other officers — how appointed, etc. 

1260. Exclusive power, etc., of Principal. 


12G1. Visitors may be appointed, 

1262. Contracts — how made. 

1263. Vacancy — how filled. 

1204. Chap. 3 of this Title applies — when. 

S 1256, The Academy for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb „ Academy 

•^ for Deaf and 

is located at Cave Spring, and is under the management of three ^^™^- 

§ 1257. The Trustees need not reside in the County where the ^^^^^^^^^ °^ 
institution is located, but the Principal shall be required to resid® 
in the institution. 

§ 1258. The Principal of said institution is elected by said Board , Pi-incipai-. 

■•• •/ how elected, 

of Trustees. He is responsible to them, and his acts subject to their res'^onlibiT 


242 PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— Education. 

Chapter 4. — Academy for the Blind. 

§ 1259. Said Principal has authority to nominate all his subor- 
Subordinate dinate officers and employees, subject to the approval of the Board. 

officers, reg- r ./ ? j ^ rr 

uiations, etc. He shall make all regulations of internal police ; shall authorize 

all purchases of ordinary supplies, and examine and certify to the 

correctness of bills of such supplies before paid by the Treasurer. 

§ 1260. He shall be the sole medium of communication between 

Exclusive |-}^@ Board and the subordinate officers and employees of the in- 

powers aucl -i- *^ 

^^\*^^^ j^^stitution, and shall have the exclusive direction and control of the 
system of religious and intellectual instruction. 

§ 1261. The Governor may, in his discretion, appoint a Board 
Board of of Yisitors, to consist of such a number as he thinks best, and 

Yisitors, .,,.., . 

when appointed, their rights and duties are the same as those of 
the Visitors of the Academy of the Blind. 

§ 1262. No contract of said Board of Trustees shall be valid un- 
Contracts— less it is first recorded by the Secretary in a book kept for that 

how made ^ '' ^ *' ^ 

valid. purpose, signed by the President and countersigned by said Sec- 

§ 1263. When a vacancy occurs in said Board, the Secretary or 
in Boardo^ any member shall notify the Governor within twenty days, and 
how mied! the vacancy must be filled within thirty days from said notice. 

§ 1264. All the provisions of the preceding Chapter not in con- 
Provisions ^{q^ -^^i^]^ \)^q precediup; Sections of this Chapter apply to the Acad- 

of previous Jr o i i i t/ 

^ncaWe^^ emy for the Deaf and Dumb, to its Board of Trustees and Visit- 
ors, its officers, and other officers of the State or County upon 
whom any duty is enjoined — the words deaf and dumb being sub- 
stituted whenever the words "the blind" occur. 




1265. Trustees of County Academy. 

1266. Vacancies— how filled. 


1267. Authority of Trustees. 

1268. Liability of holder of funds. 

§ 1265. When it is not otherwise provided for, the Justices of 
Trustees the Inferior Court of the several Counties have the power to ap- 
Academies polut Trustccs for any County Academy, whether incorporated or 
pointed, not, and to any number they may deem expedient. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— -Education. 


Chapter 5. — County Academies. 

§126(3. When vacancies occur, and provision is not made as to Vacanciee— 

\ ^ ^ how filled. 

the manner in which said vacancies are to be filled, such Justices 
have power to fill the same in their respective Counties. 

§1267. The authority of said Trustees, unless specially re- Authority of 

.•^ . Trustees. 

stricted, is to elect their teachers, fix their salaries and terms of 
ofiice, prescribe the course of studies, manage the finances, adopt 
all such rules a'ld regulations for the government of their respect- 
ive institutions, as they may think prudent, if not in conflict with 
the laws. 

§ 1268. Any person holdins: Academy funds and failino; to pay Liability 

1 ,-,.,. i , . p ^ . of holders 

over when bound, is liable to twenty per cent, interest- trom time of Academy 

, T • T funds. 

of demand, and to be proceeded against by the Justices of the In- 
ferior Court as against holders of County funds. 



Article 1. — Educational Fmicl of tlie State — Jioiu made up. 

Article 2. — Educational Fund — lioiv paid out hy the State. 

Article 3. — Educational Fund of the Counties — how made up. 

Article 4. — Educational Fund of Counties — hy ivhom managed. 

Article 5. — The Beneficiaries of the Educational Fund. 


the educational fund of the state -how made up. 


1269. From dividends on bank stock. 

1270. Proceeds of W. & A. R. R. 

1271. Balances in the Treasury. 


1272. From donations. 

1273. Such donations — how managed. 

1274. Earnings of W. & A. R. R., etc. 


§ 1269. The Educational Fund of the State is made up — Educational 

1. Of the dividends upon the capital stock of the State in the dwidendr'^ 

Bank of the State of Georgia, the Bank of Augusta, and the 

Georgia Railroad and Banking Company. 

§ 1270. From the net earnings of the Western and Atlantic 

Railroad, to be managed and disposed of as follows : 

From the 
net earnings 
of W. & A. 

244 PT. 1.--TIT. 12.— CHAP. 6.— Education. 

Article 1. — The Educational Fund of the State — how made up. 

1. One hundred thousand dollars of said net earnings stand an- 
nuallj appropriated for such purpose, and all to remain with the 
State Treasurer until the Governor draws his warrant for the 
same, or any part thereof. 

2. In addition to said sum of money the whole of the net earn- 
ings of said road is set apart as an Educational Fund, to take effect 
in the following manner : 

As any portion of the present public debt is paid under the ex- 
isting law from said earnings, the Treasurer shall issue scrip or 
education bonds certifying the amount, and that it is entitled to 
draw interest thereon from the Treasury at the rate of six per 
cent, per annum. 

3. For any balance of said one hundred thousand dollars, that 
may not be drawn from the Treasury at the close of each educa- 
tional year, the Treasurer shall issue a like certificate for said 

4. Said script shall be in favor of the Secretary of State, as 
Trustee of the Educational Fund, which, together with the script 
for bank stock, shall remain on deposit in the Treasury to the cre- 
dit of the Educational Fund. The Treasurer shall issue to said 
Secretary, from time to time, certificates of said deposits. 

5. Any amount of money that may at the time this Code goes 
into effect be loaned out, or on deposit under the Act of December 
11th, 1858, shall be returned to the Treasury, and appropriated to 
taking up that amount of the public debt under the provisions of 
this Section. 

6. The Educational Fund thus raised shall be subject to appro- 
priation by the General Assembly to any educational purpose in 
this State. 

§ 1271. From any balance that may be in the State Treasury 
Balances in at the time of distributing the Educational Fund, over and above 
the expenses, ordinary and extraordinary, of the State Govern- 
ment for the then political year. If said balance is not drawn 
out, scrip for it is to be issued and used as set forth in preceding 

§ 1272. From any money donated by will, deed, or otherwise, for 

Donations. SUCh purpOSC. 

§ 1273. In the case named in the preceding Section, it is the 
fpi^'ES- duty of the Governor— 
mauage(?^'^ !• UpoH a tender of the sum so given or bequeathed in cash, to 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— CHAP. 6.— Education. 245 

Article 3. — The Educational Fund — how paid out by the State. 

have the same deposited in the State Treasury, and the State shall 
thereby become pledged for the payment of said sum according to 
the terms of the donation, and if thereby the interest alone is to 
be used, said interest shall be paid at the rate of six per cent, per 

2. To issue scrip or educational bonds therefor, to the person 
named as Trustee, and if none is named, then to the State's Trus- 
tee of the Educational Fund. 

3. The interest to be payable in the same manner, and the fund 
to be managed as said Educational Fund, unless a different mode 
is prescribed hj the donor ; then according to said mode, if possi- 
ble to be done. In no case, under the above provision, shall the 
-State be liable to refund the principal thus paid into the Treasury. 

§1274. The appropriations of the net earnings of the State EarDinssof 
Koad and of the balances in the Treasury, may be discontinued may Ve'cu- 


by the State, in vrhole or in part, by act of the General Assembly. 




1275. A list of cbiidren, etc. 

1276. Funds — how rLi;propriated. 

1277. Warrant for School Fund. 


1278. County failing to make returns. 

1279. Penalty for false return. 

§1275. The Ordinary of each County shall annually, by the Listofchii- 
third Monday in JNovemxber, report to the Grovernor, under his organized. 
hand and, seal the whole number of children in his County, as as- 
certained from the Tax Receiver's digest, his own knowledge, and 
the knowledge of the Grand Jury, as hereinafter set forth. 

§ 1276. As soon as that is done, the Governor shall, on that Funds-how- 
day, make an estimate of the amount of the Educational Fund in ^^^'^^^°"® 
the Treasury, and of the number of children in each County, and 
make a pro rata division of the same among the different Coun- 
ties, according to the number reported from each. 

§ 1277. For the amount each County is entitled to he shall draw wanantfor 

- . 1 rn ^ n r> f i School Fund, 

his warrant on the Treasury m tavor of the several Ordinaries for 
their respective amounts. The Treasurer shall pay the same to 
each Ordinary, or his order, taking a receipt for the same. If the 
Ordinary is not Treasurer of tho Board of Education, the war- 

246 PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— CHAP. 6.— Educatiois^ 

Article 3. — The Educational Fund of the Counties — how made up. 

rant must be in favor of said Treasurer, and tlie Ordinary, in lii& 

report, must certify wlio is such Treasurer. 

Fund lost § 1278. If any County neglects to present a proper return to 

ie' return the Govcmor hj the time prescribed it loses its share in the fund. 

§ 1279. If any Ordinary certifies to the Governor a greater 

Penalty for number of children than he is authorized to, he is ffuilty of mal- 

excessivere- . . ^^ , . . o ./ 

tui-n. practice in office, and may be indicted ; and, if found guilty, may 

be fined and imprisoned in the discretion of the Co-urt. 




1280. School Fund of the County. 
♦ 1281. Tax for education — how levied. 
1282. When Grand Jury fail, etc. 


1283. Wants of County to be regarded. 
128-4. School Fund— to whom paid. 

§ 1280, The Educational Fund of the respective Counties of 
School Fund this State is made up of — 
—how made 1. The sharc of the State Fund which may be distributed to 

up. "^ 


2. The amount raised by taxation for such purpose. 

3. The money arising from the sale of any escheated property. 

4. The money arising from fines and forfeitures over and above 
the charges upon it, and from the result of qui-tam actions, where 
the whole or one-half goes to the State or County, and is, by spe- 
cial enactment, directed to be paid to the Educational Fund. 

§1281. The Justices of the Inferior Court of the several Coun- 
Tnx for edu- ties havc authority, upon the recommendation of the Grand Jury, 

cation— how n m r t • ^ o 

levied. to Icvy a tax upon the fetate tax, tor educational purposes, oi 
such per cent, as said Jury may recommend. 

§ 1282. If the Grand Jury, at the time they must recommend 
Tax— how the general County tax, fail to take any action in reference to 

levied when ^ • n f re /-s tt- n ^ ■\' cr 

Grand Jury such tax, or if different Grand Juries oi the same term diner- 

fails to re- .,.,.., 

commend, eutly recommcud, said Justices may, in their discretion, \qyj a 

tax for such purpose, not to exceed twenty-five per cent, upon 

the State tax. If such Grand Juries recommend a different per 

cent, said Justices may levy the medium between the two extremes. 

§ 1283. When the levy of said tax is entirely in the discretion 

Country %e- of Said Justices, they shall consult the other members of the 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— CHAP. 6.— Education. 


Article 4. — The Educational Fund of Counties — by whom managed. 
Board of Education, to ascertain the wants of the County before gardedmie- 

*' vying tax. 

doinfT so. 

§ 1284. All moneys from all said sources are to be paid, when school Fund 
collected by the proper officers,"to the Ordinary, if Treasurer of paid. 
the School Fund of the County — if not, to said Treasurer. 




1285. For each County, etc. 

1286. Board of Education— their duty. 

1287. Price of tuition. 

1288. Course of study prescribed. 

1289. Teachers must be examined. 
1290; How paid. 

1291. Previous accounts may be paid. 

1292. Teachers' accounts — how made out. 


1293. Com. schools maybe established. 

1294. Board failing to devise a plan. 

1295. Ordinary must give bond as Treas. 

1296. Additional bond may be required. 

1297. Treasurer failing to pay, etc. 

1298. Secretary of Board— who shall be. 

1299. Ordinary must report to Governor. 

8 1285. The Educational Fund of each County is under the Board of 

, . . . Education — 

manasjement of a Board of Education, which Board is to consist how organ- 

■=* ^ ^ ^ ized. 

of the Justices of the Inferior Court, the Ordinary, and some other 
qualified citizen, to be selected by the Judge of the Superior 
Court presiding in said County. The person so selected holds 
the position for the term of four years, unless a vacancy occurs 
from any cause. The appointment and the filling of any vacancy 
by the said Judge shall be entered on the minutes of the Superior 
Court. The person appointed to fill a vacancy shall hold for a 
full term. 

§ 1286. It is the duty of said, Board — 

1. To disburse the school fund for their respective Counties ^^^^^."^y^J 
in the manner that in their judgment will best promote the cause Education, 
of general education under the law. 

2. To act by themselves, or a committee, as a Board of Exam- 
iners, and examine all teachers who participate in the school 
funds upon the elementary branches, and also upon English 
grammar and geography, if the teacher applying shall desire, and 
to give said teachers the proper certificates of their qualification. 

3. To publish annually the school system they may adopt, 
including the rates of tuition, in the public gazette where their 
respective Sheriffs publish their sales, together with their receipts 
from difi'erent sources and the items of expenditure. 

248 PT. l.~TIT. 12.— CHAP. 6.-Educatio^^ 

Article 4. — The Educational Fund of Counties — by whom managed. 

4. To meet once a month at the Court House, on the day 
the Court of Ordinary is held, and as often as may be necessary 
when called by either member of the Board. 

§ 1287. [The Board of Education are authorized to allow the 
Price of toachers of children entitled to the benefit of the poor school 
fund, the same 'per diem pay for teaching said children as is 
charged by the same teachers for other children pursuing similar 
branches of study; provided, said charge shall not exceed sixteen 
cents per day.] (a) 

§1288. By the term elementary branches is meant spelling, 
What reading, writing, and arithmetic; but children entitled to the 

branches be- 

neficiary benefit of the school fund may study English grammar and 

may study. > i t, ^ • • -y 

geography, or any other study, provided the tuition does not then, 
nor in any other contingency, exceed the rates of sixteen cents 
per day. Under said permission, such children who may be well 
educated in said branches mentioned, may, by special permission 
of the Board, study exclusively, at the same rates of tuition, higher 
branches of utility with any teacher competent to instruct them. 
§ 1289. A teacher claiming pay out of the school fund shall 
Certificate to not be >enti tied thereto for any teaching; done prior to his exami- 

teachers. . . . . , 

nation before the Board of Education. When a majority of the 
Board know of the competency of a teacher, they may give him 
the certificate without examination. Teachera shall be examined 
or receive the certificate whenever they apply. 

§1290. Teachers must be paid quarterly by the Treasurer, 
Teachers— Avhon their accouiits are passed by the Board, provided there are 
funds; if insufficient funds, then all of equal dignity are to be paid 
pro rata. If at the close of the year the school fund is not suffi- 
cient to pay all the teachers' accounts, duly passed, said accounts 
must be first paid out of the funds raised for the next year. The 
rates of tuition should be so 6xed by the Board of Education as 
to give all the children the benefit of the fund annually who 
have the right of participation. Teachers who do not have their 
accounts passed on by the first of January, annually, are post- 
poned in their payment until the next year unless there is a sur- 
plus fund. All teachers' accounts for the year, and passed in the 
year, are of equal dignity without regard to the time when the 
teaching was done. 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 24. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— CHAP. 6.— Education. 249 

Article 4. — The Educational Fund of Counties— by whom managed. 

8 1291. Whenever tlie state of the funds will warrant it, persons ^ Accounts 

" ^ for previous 

who have in good faith taught poor children, prior to twenty- ^^i^^^'^jfg^® 
first December, 1859, and have not been paid, shall have their 
accounts passed by the Board of Education, and shall rank as of 
the year when so passed, but in no other case shall a teacher be 
paid who has not the proper certificate. Two-thirds of the Board 
of Education may, however, order an account paid when the neg- 
lect to return is satisfactorily explained. The Legislature shall 
not interfere in such cases. Children who reside in one County Tuition to 
and go to school in another are to be paid for out of the fund of county m 
the County of their residence ; provided, the teacher claiming the resides. 
pay has a certificate from the Board of Educatioi;! of the County 
where he teaches. 

8 1292. All teachers' accounts shall state the number of days Teaciiers'ac- 

" ^ *^ couuts — how 

each child was taught, the studies pursued, and the rate of ™^*i'-- ^^^t. 
tuition claimed, which shall be sworn to. 

§ 1293. When the Educational Eund of a County and the state common 

soil Ool ^ T*T T/V 

of the population will warrant it, the Board of Education of each be estabiish- 
County have authority to establish a common school, or schools, 
to name and limit the number of scholars, and fix the salary of 
teachers ; provided, all the children of the County entitled to 
share the Educational Fund are provided for, or there are means 
reserved for that purpose. 

§1294. If the Board of Education fail to devise any plan of what laws 

govern in 

education, the laws of force prior to December 13th, 1859, are absence of 
continued in force. 

§ 1295. If the Ordinary of any County shall fail to 2;ive the Ordinary 

" «/ «/ t/ o must give 

bond required of him as Treasurer of the Board of Education, scSiJJjfTj.g^s! 
said Board has power to select some other responsible person to "^*'^- 
act as such, who shall give the requisite bond and security. 

§ 1296. The Board may require of the Treasurer of the School Additional 
Fund an additional bond, on the terms required by the Justices of required. 
the Inferior Courts of other officers. 

8 1297. If Such Treasurer shall fail to pay out any School Proceeding 

■'■ •^ "^ against the 

Fund, as required by law, on knowledge of such failure coming to J''f''^^"i'^^f^'^ 

' ••• . .... failure to pay 

the Board, they shall issue a rule nisi against him, requiring him 
to appear before them within ten days, to show cause for such 
failure, and upon failing to show good cause, the Board shall order 
the Clerk of the Inferior Court to issue execution against him and 
his sureties : said execution shall be directed to all and singular 


PT. 1.— TIT. 12.— CHAP. 6.— Education. 

Article 5. — The Beneficiaries of the Educational Fund. 

the Sheriffs of the State, and shall have the form and effect of a 
tax fi. fa. issued by the Justices of the Inferior Court, and said fi. 
fa. shall claim twenty per cent, per annum interest from time of 

§ 1298. The Clerk of the Inferior Court shall be Secretary of 
Secretary the Board of Education in the absence of the Ordinary or his 

of Board of ^. , , . , . . , 

Education. Clcrk, or whcn either is interested. 

§ 1299. The Ordinary shall furnish the Governor any informa- 
ordinary tiou he may desire touching the plan of education in the County, 
to GoverDor. and the number of children pursuing different studies, and shall 
annually, at the close of the educational year, report to the Gov- 
ernor what balance, if any, there is of the Educational Fund, and 
what amount was raised by the County from other sources than 
the State. 




1300. Persons entitled to School Fund. 

1301. How ascertained, and by whom. 


1302. List may he corrected. 

§ 1300. All children between the ages of six and eighteen years. 

Who enti- withiu their respective Counties, are entitled to the benefits of 

fund. said fund, under the system that may be adopted by the respective 

Boards of Education ; but children of parents who are unable to 

educate them, children discarded by their parents, and indigent 

orphan children, must first be provided for. 

§ ^ 301. Such last mentioned children shall be ascertained as 

Poor chil- follows : 

ascertained. 1. The Rccciver of Tax Returns of each County shall require of 
each tax payer, when giving his tax returns, to state, under oath, 
the number of his children and children under his care between 
the ages of six and eighteen years. 

2. As soon as the digest is compiled, the Ordinary shall select 
from the whole number the names of those who, from the poverty 
of their parents or otherwise, have not the means of being edu- 
cated, and shall add thereto such as are in the same condition 
within his knowledge who have not been returned. 

3. The list returned by the Tax Receiver, together with the 

PT. 1.— TIT. 12.~CHAP. 6.— Education. 


Article 5. — The Beneficiaries of the Educational Fund. 

Ordinary's selection therefrom, shall be reported to any panel of 
Grand Jurors at the first Court held thereafter, and said Grand 
Jury shall examine said list, and ratify the Ordinary's selection in 
Tvhole, or correct it, according to their best judgment, and may 
also add to the lists such as they know have not been returned to 

4. If the Grand Jury, at said term, fail to take definite action, 
the list of the Ordinary shall stand. 

5. When the list is finally made up it shall be returned to the 
Board of Education, and be entered on the proper book by the 

6. Any person may, from time to time, report -to said Board 
the names of any poor children not already reported, which, by 
order thereof, shall be added to the list. 

§ 1302. If the Board is satisfied by proof that any children are List may be 


on the list who are not entitled to be there, they have power to 
have them erased at any time, and to inform any teacher or other 
person interested in their action ; iirovided^ the system of educa- 
tion they may have adopted renders it necessary. 






1303. Who may vote for legislators. 

1304. Voters for other officers. 

1305. When one may vote out of County. 


1306. Oath of voter out of his County. 

1307. Additional oath may be required. 

1308. Transferred voters. 

§ 1303. The qualification of voters for members of the General Quaiifica- 
Assembly is contained in the followino; oath, which must be taken tersformem- 

, ... bers of Leg- 

when the managers of an election require it : isiature. 

["I swear that I have attained to the age of twenty-one years ; Voter'soath. 

that I am a citizen of the United States, and have resided for the 

last two years in this State, and for the last six months in this 

252 PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— Elections by the People. 

Chapter 1. — Qualification of Voters. 

County, and have considered and claimed it as my home, and have 
paid all legal taxes which have been required of me and "which I 
have had an opportunity of paying, agreeable to law, for the year 
preceding this election. So help me God."] (a) 

§ 1301. Persons qualified to vote for members of the General 
Sucii oiec- Assembly, and none others, are qualified to vote for any other offi- 

torsmay .. .. .. 

^ote for ail cers, civil or military, unless said privilege be enlarged or re- 
^^^- stricted by the Constitution or some special enactment. 

§ 1305. Any qualified voter for members of the General Assem- 

when eiec- bly may vote for any candidate, or upon any question which is 

vote in any submitted to all the voters of the State, in any County of the 

part of the ^ t ^ J J 

state,circuit State, and for any candidate or question which is submitted to all 

or District. ? »/ i 

the voters of any District or Circuit, in any County of the Circuit, 

or District, in which is embraced the County of the voter's residence. 

1306. [A voter coming under the preceding Section shall take 

Oath of vo- the followins; oath, when required by the manasrers of an election : 

ters under o ' ^ J ^ & 

last section. "J swcar that I have attained to the age of twenty-one years; 
that I am a citizen of the United States, and have resided for the 
last two years in this State, and for the last six months in this 
District or Circuit (as the case may be), and have considered and 
claimed it as my home, and have paid all legal taxes which have 
been required of me, and which I have had an opportunity of pay- 
ing agreeable to law, for the year preceding this election. So help 
me God."] (a) 

§ 1307. The superintendents may, in their discretion, or if de- 
snperin- maudcd by a qualified voter, compel a person offering to vote to 

may require alsO take this Oath : 

an addition- ^ t-t t i-iii 

aioathdeny- "i swcar that i havc not this day voted at any election held at 
vo'tedbefore! any placc in this State for any of the candidates, nor for any 
other person for any of the offices to be filled. So help me God." 
§ 1308. When any County, or portion of a County, is changed 
Voterstrans- from ouc Couuty, or ouc District, or one Circuit to another, the 
one District, pcrsous who would havc been qualified to vote for members of the 
Circuit to General Assembly in the County, District, or Circuit from which 

another to '' . -^. 

vote in lat- taken, at the time of any election, shall vote in the County, Dis- 

ter District, ... . . 

etc. trict, or Circuit, to which they are removed, and if required to 

swear, the oath may be so qualified as to contain this fact. This 
provision, when applicable, appertains also tp military elections. 

(a) Acts 1865-6, pp. 80-1. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 13.— Elections by the People. 


Chapter 2. — Election for Members of the General Assembly. 




1309. Holders of elections for legislators. 

1310. Oath, of superintendents. 

1311. Before whom taken. 

1312. Election precincts. 

1313. Time of liokling elections. 

1314. "When freeholders may superintend. 

1315. Elections — how conducted. 


1316. Penalty against superintendents. 

1317. Grand Jury to examine lists. 

1318. Election blanks — how furnished. 

1319. Misconduct of managers. 

1320. Voters exempt from civil process. 

1321. Vacancies for Legislature. 

1322. Special elections — how conducted. 

tendents to 
take oath. 

§ 1309. The persons qualified to hold such elections are Justices superin- 
of the Inferior Court, Justices of the Peace and freeholders, elections for 
There must be three superintendents, and one must either be a the Leg'isia- 


Justice of the Inferior Court, or a Justice of the Peace, except in 
a certain contingency hereinafter to be set forth. 

1310. Before proceeding with the election, each superintendent 
must take and subscribe the following oath: 

''All and each of us do swear, that we will faithfully superin- 
tend this day's election ; that we are Justices of the Inferior 
Court, Justices of the Peace, or freeholders (as the case may be), 
of this County; that we will make a just and true return thereof, 
and not knowingly permit any one to vote unless we believe he is 
entitled to do so according to the laws of this State, nor know- 
ingly prohibit any one from voting who is so entitled by law, and 
will not divulge for whom any vote was cast, unless called on un- 
der the law to do so. So help me God." Said affidavit shall be 
signed by the superintendents in the capacity each acts in full, * 

both as to name and station, and not by abbreviation. 

§ 1311. Said oath shall be taken before some officer qualified to oathofsu- 

T.. i.r» , ^ 'n 1 ,1 , Perintendent 

administer an oath, it present, and it none such are on the spot, —before 
and acting at the time required, then said Superintendents may 
swear each other, and the oath shall be of the same eifect as if 
taken before a qualified officer. 

§ 1312. Such election shall be held at the Court Houses of the Places of 
respective Counties, and if no Court House, at some place within tion. ° 
the limits of the County site, and at the several election precincts 
thereof (if any) established or to be established. Said precincts But one pre- 
must not exceed one in each militia district. Such precincts are mmtia" dS 
established, changed, or abolished by the Justices of the Inferior 
Court at a regular term of the Court — descriptions of which must changed,"tc! 
be entered on their minutes at the time. 

254 PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— Elections by the People. 

Chapter 2. — Election for Members of the G-eneral Assembly. 

§ 1313. The day of holding the same is the first Wednesday in 
Elections October, 1861, and biennally thereafter, and the time of day for 

biennial — on . . 

yhat days— keopinsc ODcn the elections is from seven o'clock A. M. to six o'clock 

during what r o r 

heiT ^^ ^^ ^' ^' ^^ *^® Court House, and from eight o'clock A. M. to [three] 
(a) o'clock P. M. at the precincts. 

§1314. If by ten o'clock A. M. on the day of the election, there 
Three free- ig no proDor officor proscnt to hold the election, or there is one, 

holders may i i i. 7 7 

eKou'^^"^ and he refuses, three freeholders may superintend the election, and 
shall administer the oath required to each other, which shall be of 
the same effect as if taken by a qualified officer. 
Manner of § 1315. All Superintendents shall have such elections conducted 

conducting . ,, ^ ,, 

elections, lu the loilowmg manner : 

bZio? ^^" ^' -^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ given by ballot. 

2. There shall be kept by the superintendents, or by three 
Listofvot- clerks under their appointment, three lists of the names of voters, 

€rs and tally , . , , n , i /» i • 

sheets to be wliicli shall bo numbered in the order of their votinsr, and also 

kept. o' 

three tally sheets. 

3. As each ballot is received the number of the voter on the 
Number of list shall be marked on his ballot before beina; deposited in the 

voter. ^ ^ 


4. When any voter is challenged and sworn it shall be so writ- 

Voterchal- . ■, . i t i i i • i n . 

lenged. ten oppositc his name on the list, and also on nis ballot. 

5. The superintendents may begin to count the votes at any 
to be^^coun^ ^^^^ ^^ their discretion, but they shall not do so until the polls 
date^oiJTcts" ^^r© closed, if a candidate in person, or by written authority, objects. 

6. When the votes are all counted out, there must be a certifi- 
Certificate catc, signed by all of the superintendents, stating the number of 

tendents."^ votcs cach pcrsou votod for received ; and each list of voters and 
tally sheet must have placed thereon the signature of the super- 

7. The superintendents of the precincts must send their cer- 
certificates, tificates, and all other papers of the election, includino; the bal- 

etc.tobecar- ' ^ ^ . 

ried to the lots, uudcr the Seal, to the County site for consolidation, in chars^e 

County site. ^ ^ ' *' ^ 70 

of one of their number, which must be delivered there by twelve 
o'clock M. of the next day. Such person is allowed two dollars, 
to be paid out of the County Treasury, for such service. 

8. The superintendents to consolidate the vote of the County, 
consoMate niust cousist of all thoso who officiated at the County site, or a 
their'd'ut^ majority of them — at least one from each precinct. They shall 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 24. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 18.— Elections by the People. 255 

Chapter 2. — Election for Members of the General Assembly. 

make and subscribe two certificates, stating the whole number of 
votes each person received in the County : one of them, together 
with one list of voters and one tally sheet from each place of hold- 
ing the election, shall be sealed up and without delay mailed to the 
Governor ; the other, with like accompaniments, shall be directed 
to the Clerk of the Superior Court of the County, and by him de- 
posited in his office. Each of said returns must contain copies of 
the original oaths taken by the superintendents at the Court 
House and precincts. 

9. The ballots shall not be examined by the superintendents or saiiots not 
the bystanders, but shall be carefully sealed in a strong envelope ^^^^^^^ ' 
(the superintendents writing their names across the seal), and de- Tobedeiiv- 
livered to the Clerk of the Superior Court, by whom they shall ^^^ 
be kept unopened and unaltered for sixty days, if the next Supe- , ^J^^ ^^p* 
rior Court sits in that time, if not, until after said term ; after 
which time, if there is not a contest begun about said election, the 
said ballots shall be destroyed without opening or examining the wiien de- 
same, or permitting others to do so. And if the Clerk shall vio- ^ ^^^^ ' 
late, or permit others to violate this Section, he and the person Penalty of 
violating shall be subject to be indicted and fined not less than one 
hundred, nor more than five hundred dollars. Such Clerks shall cierktode- 

, liver lists to 

deliver said list of voters to their respective Grand Juries on the G'^nd Jury 

■*■ ^ — penalty for 

first day of the next term of the Superior Court, and on failure foiling. 
to do so, are liable to a fine of not less than one hundred dollars 
on being indicted and convicted thereof. 

§ 1316. If said superintendents do not deliver said lists and Penalty 
accompaniments to said clerks within three days from the day of enntendents' 
the election they are liable to indictment, and on conviction, 
shall be fined not less than fifty, nor more than five hundred dollars. 
Any superintendent of an election failing to discharge any duty peri^tSdent 
required of him by law is liable to a like proceeding and penalty, cfuty.^^ ^'^^ 

§1317. The Grand Juries shall examine said lists, and if any Grand Jury 
voter is found thereon who was not entitled to vote they shall ii'^ts.^^^'^^"^ 
present said illegal voter. If any person is suspected of voting Foreman 
for members of the General Assembly who was not entitled, but iSaiiS"^" 
was entitled to vote for some other candidate at the same election, 
the foreman of the Grand Jury may examine the ballot, and 
that one alone, and lay it before the Grand Jury and return it. menuSinst 
If the superintendents fail to return, as required, the lists and IX."''*^^^' 
the ballots, they must be presented. 

256 PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— Elections by the People. 

Chapter 2. — Election for Members of the General Assembly. 

§ 1818. The Governor sliall furnish the several Clerks of the 
Blanks to Inferior Court all blank forms necessary for said elections, which 

be furnished inr»'iiT- n i -r-\ n t /-< 

by Governor they shall lumish the Justices 01 the Peace of their Counties at 

to Clerk. *^ ^ t n i • i 

least ten days before election day, and on failure to do so, shall 
Penalty for l^e liable to a fine by their Courts not exceeding one hundred 
SlS'f' '^dollars. 

§ 1319. If the superintendents or officers of such election shall 

Penaityand make a fraudulent return thereof, or they or either of them, 

casesuperin- wMlc SO officiating, shall influence, or attempt to influence or per- 

tendents ,,. , 

make fraud- suade any voter not to vote as he designed, or shall take any 

ulentre- "^ . • . "^ 

turns or in- uiiduc mcans to obtaiu a vote, they shall forfeit for the offense one 

terfere with . 

voter. hundred dollars, to be recovered by information, and if the per- 

son be a Justice, he forfeits his office on proceedings for removal. 
§ 1320. No civil officer shall execute any writ, or civil process 
froS**^a/re?t upon the body of any person qualified to vote at such elections 
to, reuifninf while going to, or returning from, or during his stay there, on the 
ring'LiTstay day, uudcr the penalty of five hundred dollars, to be recovered by 
tion. Penal- action. A reasonable and full time shall be allowed for the jour- 

ty on oflicer 

for arrest, ncy to and irom the polls. 

§ 1321. Elections to fill vacancies for members of the General 
Twenty Assembly take place under the authority of a writ of election, 

days notice . 

ofeiection to issued by the Governor to the Justices of the Inferior Court of 

fill vacancy "^ 

fe^Sl- ^^^^ County where the vacancy occurs, who must order and publish 
a day for holding the same, by giving at least twenty days' notice. 
Elections § 1322. All tlic provisions of this Chapter apply equally to 
cies, etc. elcctions to fill such vacancies and any other special election. 

for m 





Article 1. — Provisions applicable to all. 

Article 2. — For Cfovernor. 

Article 3. — For Members of Congress, 

Article 4. — Electors for President and Vice-President. 

Article 5. — Judges of Superior Courts and Solicitors G-eneral 

PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— CHAP. 3.— Elections by the People. 257 

Article 1. — Provisions applicable to all. 



Sectiox 1323. Such elections — how conducted. 

§ 1323. The election for the officers headinor this Chapter are Particulars 

^ , ° '^^ in which el- 

governed by the same rule as elections for members of the General ections for 

^ *> Governor, 

Assembly in the followinsi; particulars : members of 

•^ c>r Congress, 

1. In the oaths to be taken by the voters. ?oiifo"r^Pre- 

2. In the class of persons to hold the elections and the oath vic^^presf. 
to be taken by them. ' ^^erned' % 

3. In the places and the time of the day to hold them. STiections^ 

4. In the manner of conducting and returning them, including J? iSeTegTs- 
all special elections, and in the duty of the Clerks of the Superior ^ ^^^■- 
Courts and the Grand Juries. 

5. In the several penalties attached to the Superintendent or 
other persons. 

6. In the furnishing of blanks by the Governor. 

7. In all other respects where applicable, and there is not a con- 
trary provision by law. 



Sectiom. j Section. 

1324. Governor's election, etc. 1 1325. Retujga of vote for Governor. 

§ 1324. The Governor is elected biennially, at the same time Governor 

to 1)G clcctccl 

when members of the General Assembly are regularly elected, Menniaiiy. 
and a vacancy in the office is to be filled as required by the Con- 
stitution and the regulations of this Code elsewhere in conformity how^mS" 

§ 1325. At the election for Governor a third packasie must be separate 

1 • . 'c r» 1 /^ 1 o package 

made up containing a certificate of the Governor's vote alone, to- ^^'th certih- 

r^ ' cate of vote 

gether with the other papers of the election, as in the case of ^^^ Govcfn- 

" ^ ^ ' or to be sent 

members of the General Assembly, which shall be directed by ^^ ™'^"' ^*<'- 
mail to "the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House 
of Representatives." 

258 PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— CHAP. 3.— Electiox^s by the People. 

Article 3. — For Members of Confess. 




1326. Congressmen — when elected. 

1327. Elections for extra sessions. 

1328. Qualification of voters. 


1329. Proclamation of result. 

1330. Election in case of a tie. 

1331. Commissions — when applied for. 

§ 1326. Members of the House of Representatives of the United 
Elections Statos ConsTross are elected at the same time and places that the 

for members /-^ a 

of Congress. Govomor and members of the General Assembly are regularly 

elected, by the voters of their respective Congressional Districts. 

§ 1327. If an extra session of Congress should be called after 

Governor the expiratiou of the Cons^ressional term, and before the next resc- 

must order i. o ^ o 

an election ^j^r time for holdinsT such elections, the Governor must issue his 

— when. o y 

proclamation ordering an election of such Representatives for such 
extra session. 

§ 1328. Besides the qualifications required by the Constitution, 
Candidate a residence of one year next preceding the day of election in the 

must reside . ,,.,„,. 

one year in district whoro the Candidate oiiers is necessary to make him eligi- 

districttobe "^ ° 

eligible. ])\q to clcction. 

§ 1329. Within twenty days after the election the Governor 
Governor shall couut UD the votos, and immediately thereafter issue his proc- 

to count up -"^ ' ^ ^ 

votes, etc. lamation, declaring the person having the highest number of votes, 
and otherwise qualified, to be duly elected to represent this State 
in the House of Representatives of the United States, and for 
what period. 

§ 1330. If two or more persons, equally qualified, should have 
In case of the Same number of votes, the Governor shall issue his proclama- 

a tie new ' ^ 

deTed^^ ^^' ^^0^) Ordering a new election, in not less than thirty days. 

§ 1331. If any person duly elected as aforesaid shall not, with- 

Members jn thirty days after the Governor's proclamation, apply for his 

ply for corn- commissiou, the Governor shall order a new election, as prescribed 

mission in ' ' r 

thirty days, jj^ ^^q preceding Section, and vacancies for any cause are filled in 
like manner. 

PT. i._TIT. 13.-~-CHAP. 3.-~-Elections by the People. 259 

Article 4, — Electors for President and Yice-President. 




1332, Presidential Electors — when chosen 

1333. When and where to cast vote, 
1334:. Vacancies — how filled. 

1335. Majority failing to meet. 


1336. Electoral college — hoAV organized. 

1337. Messenger to be chosen. 

1338. Pay of Electors and Secretary. 

§1332, On tke first Monday in November, 1868, and every Dayofei- 

ection for El- 

fourth year thereafter, until altered by act of Congress, there shall ^^tors of 
be an election for Electors of President and Vice-President of the pJ.eaidSJr" 
United States. 

§ 1333. On the twentieth day after said election shall have taken Governor 
-place, it is the duty of the Governor to consolidate the several re- date returns 

^ ^ •^ _ ^ and notify 

turns and immediately notify those persons of their election who tiie persons. 
have received a vote amounting to a majority, and to require their 
attendance at the Capitol on the first Monday in December there- 
after to cast the vote of the State on the Wednesday following at 
twelve o'clock m. 

§1334, In the event all, or a majority of said Electors may not Aiiorama- 
have received a majority, the Governor shall communicate the fact ectors fail- 

ID*'* to TQ" 

to the General Assembly, if in session, and if not, he shall issue cefve a ma- 

. , . . j o r 1 1 y of 

his proclamation convening them in time to secure the vote of the ^otes cast, 
State in the Electoral Colkge. The General Assembly shall, by 
joint ballot, elect as many Electors as have not received said ma- 
jority. If a majority of Electors have been chosen by the peo- 
ple, they may fill the remaining vacancies themselves by ballot, 
which election shall be communicated to the Governor. If, when 
the Electors elected by the people, or by the General Assembly, Electoral 
or some by each, convene at the Capitol, any of their number may fiu^'^^S 
not be present at the time specified for counting the vote, a ma-"^^'^^* 
jority of the elected may fill all vacancies, which shall be duly 
•communicated to the Governor. 

§ 1335. If a majority fail to attend by said Wednesday at noon, on failure 
from providential cause, those who do attend may adjourn from ofeiSi-sto 
day to day for ten days, and if a majority is not present at the 
expiration of that time, the Governor shall convene the General 
Assembly on ten days' notice, who shall fill the vacancies by elec- 

§ 1336. The electors, when assembled to cast the vote, shall 

260 PT. 1,— TIT. 13.— CHAP. 3.— Electtions' by the Peoplk 

Article 5. — Judges of the Superior Courts and Solicitors General. 

Eieetorai choosG a President of their body from their number, and a Secre- 

CoUege to , , 

chooseaPre- tarv not of their number ; said Secretary shall make a record of 

sident, etc. . . 

their proceedings in a book from the Executive Department kept 
for that purpose. 

§ 1337. Such Electors shall elect, by a majority vote, a mes- 

Electoral senger to convey the vote of Georgia, and shall, in regard to that 

choose a Q^Y^^ g^n other matters, proceed, accordinp; to the acts of Congress 

Messenger. ? r 7 o o 

in such cases made and provided. 

§ 1338. The pay of Electors shall be eight dollars per day for 
Pay and evory day required in remainino; at the Capitol on their mission,. 

mileage of »^ «^ ^ o i -' 

Electors, g^j^^ eight dollars for every twenty miles in going to and returning 

therefrom, said mileage to be computed as that of members of the 

and of their General Assembly. The pay of the Secretary shall be one hun- 

Secretary. . . 

dred dollars, all of which is to be paid either out of the contingent 
fund, or out of any money in the Treasury, not otherwise appro- 
priated, in the discretion of the Governor. 




1339. Judges — when elected. 

1340. Proclamation of result. 

1341. Oath of Judges — how taken, etc. 


1342. New election — when ordered. 

1343. Solicitors General — when elected, 

1344. Must give bond. 

§ 1339. The election for Judges of the Superior Court takes 
election for placc ou tho first Wednesday in January next preceding the expi- 

Judges eu- r. xi • • • 

perior Court ration 01 their commissious. 

§ 1340. The Governor, together with the Secretary of State, 

Governor shall, within twcnty days after the election, count the votes, and 

S count *^S!e ^^^-^^j immediately thereafter, issue his proclamation declaring the 

votes, etc. persou rcceiviug [a majority of the votes cast] (a) for Judge in 

each Circuit to be elected, and also requiring said person elect to 

appear before him, or two or more Justices of the Inferior Court 

of the County of his residence to take and subscribe the oaths of 

office, unless otherwise specially permitted. 

§ 1341. When said oaths are taken before the Justices afore- 
cie?k^orti?f said, they shall be entered by the Clerk of the Inferior Court of 
Court, etc? "^ su«h Couuty ou their minutes, and they shall transmit, under 

(a) Constitution— Art. 4, Sec. 3, Par, 1. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— Electioi^^s by the People. 261 

Chapter 4. — For Justices of the Inferior Court, Ordinary, and County Officers. 

their hands and seals, to the Governor copies of the same "without 
delay, when the commissions shall be issued. 

S 1342. If the person elect shall fail to appear and take the o^^e de- 

" A ^ ^ clared va- 

oath within thirty days from the dat^ of said proclamation, unless ^^^*' ^^®- 
providentially prevented, the Governor shall declare said office 
■vacant, proceed to fill the vacancy, and, by proclamation, order 
another ele<5tion to take place within thirty days from the date of 
his proclamation for said purpose. 

§ 1343. Solicitors General are elected on the first Wednesday ^ ^Ek<;^^«^ 

•^ for Solicitors 

in January next pre^seding the expiration of their commissions. General. 
§ 1344. The Governor shall proclaim the election of Solicitors , Governor 

" ■»■ to declare 

General in the same manner that he does that of Judges, with the J^^Jj^ is eiec- 
■difference that he shall require them to execute, before such Jus- 
tices, to be approved by them, their official bonds, which shall be , Solicitors 

^ r L ^ y y to gjye bond 

hj said Clerk transmitted to the Governor, together with a certi- 
fied copy of the oaths from his minutes- 





1345. Election of Cotinty ofFiccre, etc.. 
1346- Ordinaries and J. I. C.'s, etc. 
1347. Oilier officers — when elected. 


1348. County Treasurer — when elected. 

1349. Election of other County officers. 
Io50. Notice of election — how given. 

§ 1345. Article I. of Chapter IIL, Section 1323, applies to the Elections 

•^ . r -> y r-ir f^^. Justices 

officers whose elections are provided for in this Chapter. of inferior 

^ ^ ^ Court, etc. 

§ 1346, Justices of the Inferior Court and Ordinaries are rj^^^ ^^ 
elected on the first Wednesday in January next preceding the ex- ^^^^^^^"^ ®*<'- 
piration of their commissions. 

§ 1347. Clerks of the Superior and Iriferior Courts, and Sher- Time of 

Tpm/^n m -rt ' r^ r-t t/-m electing oth- 

aiis, lax Ooliectors, Tax lieeeiv-ers, County Surveyors, and C or o - er county of- 

'^ fleers. 

ners, are elected on the same day and month mentioned next pr-e- 
ceding the expiration of their commissions. 

§ 1348. Cousity Treasurers, where ele-cted by the Yoters, are county trea- 

, , , . ,, surers, etc. 

elected at the same time, sunnually. 

§ 1349. The election of any officer not mentioned, whose duties General pro- 

262 PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— Elections by the People. 

Chapter 5. — For Justices of the Peace and Constables. 

vision as to are entirely of a County nature, sball be elected at the same timev 

time of elee- -^ • i i r» 

tion, etc. unless Otherwise provided for. 

§ 1350. When either of the officers mentioned are to he elected^ 
Clerk of In- ^hc Justicos of the Inferior Court shall cause their Clerk to give- 

lerior C-ourt ^ 

to give no- thirty days' notice of the officers to be elected, and the time of the 

tice ol elec- J J ? 

tions. election, which shall be advertised at the door of the Court House^ 

and also in some gazette printed in the County, if any. 




1:351. Election of Justices of the Peace. 1 1354. Election — how negulated. 

1552. How superintended. j 1355. Election of Constables. 

1553. RetxtTBS — how made.. I 1356. Constable's ele«tion, etc. 

§1351. Justices of the Peace are elected on the first Saturday 

Time of el- in January next preceding the expiration of their commissions 

Justices of by the voters of their respective districts, provided they have resi- 

the Peace. '^ . . . ^ . ^ , . "^ 

etc. ded in the district as much as thirty days, immediately preceding 

the election, and are otherwise qualified. The election must be 

Place of held at the place of holding Justice's Court for the district : if 

election.. -i o 

none, then at the election precinct; if tio election precinct, then 

at some place in the district named hj the Justices of the Inferior 

Court, of which ten days' written notice must be sjiven in the 


§ 1352. Such elections shall be superintended \yj three free- 

who shall holders of the district, who shall take the oath required in Chap- 
superintend . . o-ir 
elections, ter II., of this Title, Section IblO. 

§ 1353. Said superintendents shall transmit one return of said 

E-turns— to elcctions to the Governor and another ta the Clerk o-f the Supe- 

' rior Court of the County, who shall keep the same on file. The 

Ballots to be ballots shall be likewise sealed up, and the number of the district 

sealed, etc. i j i 

marked thereon and delivered to such Clerk. 

§1354. The laws ^overnins: the elections f3r members of the 
Elections— General Assembly govern in the elections of Justices of the 

how govern- ttt • • • \_ 

ed. reace whenever they may be applied and are not inconsistent with 

those of this Chapter. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 13. — Elections by the People. 


Chapter 6. — Contested Elections. 

§ 1355. Constables are elected on the same day, month, and Time of 

place that Justices of the Peace are, and by the same class of election; vo- 
ters ; term 
voters, once in two years. of office, 

§ 1356. Their elections are to be conducted in the same manner justice of 

as those of Justices of the Peace, with the exceptions that — preside at 


1. A Justice of the Peace must be one of the persons presiding election if 

^^ ^ ^ ° not a candi- 

at a Constable's election, if there is one in commission to be had, <iate. 

and he is not a candidate at the same election. 

2. The returns must be made to Clerk of the Inferior Court of ^^^^^^^°® J^ 
the County. Scou^t"'" 




1357. Elections — how contested. 

1358. In case of Legislators. 

1359. Ballots may be examined. 


1360. Set off of illegal votes. 

1361. Contents of Bailiffs' elections. 

1362. What defeats election. 

§ 1357. When the election of a person by the people to any Proceedings 

m •• ' ' n ^ r^ r ^ 11^^ cases of 

office requiring a commission from the Governor is contested the contested ei- 

_ ^ ° ections. 

proceedings are — 

1. The adverse party shall have five days' notice in writing of 
the intention to contest, and the grounds of the contest. 

2. The notice shall state the time and place where the contes- 
tant intends to take testimony, and the names of the witnesses, if 

3. The elect shall give like notice of the time and place where 
he intends to take testimony, and the names of witnesses, if any. 

4. Either party may appear by himself, or attorney, or both, 
and cross-examine the witnesses. 

5. At the time of taking testimony any judicial officer of the 
County w^here the testimony is taken may preside to preserve 
order, to swear witnesses, and to see that the testimony is fairly 
and impartially taken down, but all the testimony offered must be 
written down. Said officer has the power to subpoena witnesses 
and compel their attendance, if in the State, and to issue commis- 
sions to take testimony of persons out of the State, and to adjourn 
from day to day. 

264 PT. 1.— TIT. 13.— Elections by the People. 

Chapter 6. — Contested Elections. 

6. All the papers and proceedings, or copies of tliem, must be 
transmitted to the Governor, certified to by the presiding officer, 
or agreed to bj the parties. 

7. When the Governor has notice of an intention to contest, he 
shall not issue the commission until the contest is decided, or the 
time has elapsed for it to begin. 

8. Both parties may appear bj themselves and counsel, and 
be heard before the Governor, who shall have both notified of the 
day when he will hear the contest. 

9. Testimony going to prove the illegality of a vote, and the 
want of qualification in a voter, must be taken within thirty days 
from the day of the election. 

10. No proceedings can be begun to contest an election after 
the Governor has issued the commission. 

§ 1358. The proceedings to contest the seat of a member of the 
Proceedings General Assembly are the same, and may be transmitted to the 

Tvnen seat of •' ^ j 

L^Tature^ Govcmor, who shall send the same, immediately after the organ- 
is contested, izatiou, to the presiding officer of the House where the contest 
lies, or may be sent direct to such presiding officer. 

§ 1359. When an election is contested, on the ground of illegal 

When sus- votcs, any of whom it is claimed on affidavit can probably be 

lots may be provon bv resort to the ballots, specifyinor what ballots, it is the 

examined. r J ? r J o J 

duty of the Clerk of the Superior Court to deliver the same, to- 
gether with the list of voters, to the person who presides at the 
taking of testimony, who shall examine said suspected ballots, and 
none other, and have put down as part of the testimony their 
contents, and all other testimony attacking and defending their 

§ 1360. Illeocal votes bv the method aforesaid, and otherwise, 
Illegal votes mav bc provcu by both parties, and if such are proven on both 

set off each . " J . r ^ r 

other and sidcs ouc shall Stand aojainst another, and he is elected who has 

highest ^ 

number oi \}^q greatest numbcr of legal votes. All are considered legal not 

legal votes o c c 

elects, etc. pj-Qven to be illegal. 

§ 1361. In all elections for Constables, corporation officers, or 
Who decides Other officers not provided for above, contests as to elections shall 

contest in ^ 

Constables' be heard before and decided by the Court or persons who bv law 

election. _ ^ l %, 

issue the certificates of election. For each day an officer pre- 

Compensa- sidcs in hearing such contest he shall receive two dollars, to be 

siding ?ffi- paid by the losing party, and for which such Justice may issue a 

cer. f, y, 

fi, fa. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 14. — Elections by the General Assembly. 265 

Chapter 1. — For United States Senators. 
§1362. No election shall be defeated for non-compliance with Election not 

■^ void bj' rea- 

the requirements of the law, if held at the proper time and place son of form- 
bj persons qualified to hold them, if it is not shown that by that 
non-compliance the result is different from what it would have been 
had there been a proper compliance. 





Section 1363. Election of Senators to Congress. 

§1363. The elections for Senators in the United States Con- senatorsin 
gress from this State, shall be held by the General Assembly when eiect- 
during the sitting or session which immediately precedes the be- 
ginning of the term which they are to fill. 



Section. I Section. 

1364. Judges of the Supreme Court, etc. ' 1365. All elections by Legislature — when. 

§1364. The Judges of the Supreme Court, the Secretary of Time of ei- 
State, the Comptroller General, the State Treasurer, Printer, and es supreme 
Bank Directors, are elected by the same rule as to time. 

§ 1365. All ofiicers created for the service of the State, the Legislature 
election of which is not given to the people, or some other tribunal, officers, etc. 
are elected by the General Assembly, in the same manner and 
time as the officers elected by them. 

266 PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— CHAP. 1.— Police Regulations, etc. 

Article 1. — The Trustees. 





Article 1. — The Trustees. 

Article 2. — The Superintendent. 

Article 3. — Admission and Disposition of Patients. 


the trustees. 


1366. Management of Asylum. 
13o7. Trustees— how appointed. 
. 1368. Authority of Trustees. 


1369. Officers— how appointed. 

1370. Bond of Treasurer. 

1371. Annual Report of Trustees. 

m e 


§ 1366. The State Lunatic Asylum at Midway, near Milledge- 
Lunatic yille, is solely the property of the State, and is under the man- 
agement of three Trustees. 

§ 1367. Said Trustees are biennially appointed by the Gover- 
Appoiflt- nor, on the first Monday in December, and in such manner that 

) n t of ' "^ \ 

one of the Trustees shall be continued in office for a second term, 
that there may be always one member of the Board who has ex- 
perience in the affairs of the Asylum. 
§ 1368. They have authority — 

1. To prescribe all the rules and regulations for the manage- 
Authority mcut of the institution, not conflicting: with the law. 

of Trustees. ^ ^n i i • 

2. To appoint all the officers, point out their duties, and fix their 

3. To create such other offices, and select the incumbents, if in 
their judgment such is necessary to an efficient administration. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— CHAP. 1.— Police Regulations, etc. 26T 

Article 1. — The Trustees. 

4. To remove from office, when the incumbents fail to discharge 
well their duties, or are guilty of any immoral or unfaithful eon- 
duct, and cause to be prosecuted any officer, or other person, who 
shall assault any inmate of said institution, or use toward such 
any other or greater violence than the occasion may require. 

5. To hold in trust for said Asylum any grant or devise of land, 
or bequest or donation of money, or other property for the gen- 
eral use of the institution, or the particular use defined. 

6. To visit the institution monthly by at least one of the Board, 
semi-annually by a majority, and annually by all of them, at such 
time as they may agree upon. 

7. To bring suit in their names for any claim the institution 
might have, whether arising upon contract or tort. 

§ 1369. The officers of the Asylum, appointed by the Trustees, other om- 

. '^ . . '^ cers appoin- 

are a Superintendent, an Assistant Physician, a Treasurer, a Stew- •ed by the 

f ' . . Trustees. . 

ard. Assistant Steward, and Matron, whose salaries are paid quar- 
terly out of the annual appropriations. 

§ 1370. The Treasurer must give bond and security in the sum Bond of 

*^ Treasurer. 

of five thousand dollars. 

§1371. At the close of each fiscal year, which terminates on Annual re- 
the first day of October, the Trustees shall make to the Gover- tees. 
nor, to be by him laid before the General Assembly, in connec- 
tion with his annual message, a full report of the condition of the 
Asylum, in all its departments, [embracing the amount of each 
kind of provisions, drugs, clothing, and bedding purchased ; of 
whom purchased, price paid, and aggregate cost ; number of per- 
sons received, died, and discharged ; dates of reception, discharge, 
and death ; male and female, pauper and pay patients, and par- 
tial pay, if any ; and also whether payment was made in cloth- 
ing, provisions, or currency.] (a) 



Section. | Section. 

1372. Must be a physician. 1 1373. Duty of Superintendent. 

§1372. The principal officer of said Asylum is the Superin- superinten- 
tendent, who shall be a skillful physician. ^'^"^^ 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 24 

268 PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— CHAP. 1.— Police Regulations, etc. 

Article 2. — Tlie Superintendent. 

§1373. It is his duty— 

1. To reside constantly on the premises, and devote his profes- 
dS^dJSes sional services exclusively to the use of the Asylum, for which 

purpose he must be furnished with a suitable residence. 

2. To take charge of and exercise control, subject to the Trus- 
tees, over every department of the institution, and have control 
over all resident officers, attendants, and servants employed therein. 

3. To discharge all duties any way connected with the restora- 
tion to health or sanity of the inmates. 

4. To make an annual report to the Trustees, on the first day 
of October, of all the affairs of the institution under his super- 
vision, [and shall account for all liis expenditures on vouchers, in 
the same form as those which are made in accounting for disburse- 
ments in the Commissary Department of the United States.] (a) 




1374. "Who may be inmates. 

1375. Inmates — how classified. 

1376. Apartments of Asylum. 

1377. Georgians preferred. 

1378. Georgia pay patients. 

1379. Non-resident pay patients. 

1380. Pay patients classified. 

1381. Certification of pauper patients. 

1382. Support of pauper patients. 

1383. Paupers to pay — when. 

1384. Clothing, etc., of discharged paupers 


1385. Inmates may be tried. 

1386. Trial — how demanded. 

1387. Admission of inebriates. 

1388. Inebriates — how kept. 

1389. Insane negroes, etc. 

1390. Insane convicts. 

1391. Convicts — how supported. 

1392. Cured convicts — how disposed of, 

1393. Uncertified patients. 

1394. Re-commitment of inmates. 

1395. Insane criminals. 

Who maybe §1374. Porsous who may bccomc inmates of said Asylum are 
Asylum. either lunatics, idiots, epileptics, or demented inebriates. 

tion of in- 

1375. The inmates are divided into the following classes: 

1. Pay or pauper patients residents of this State. 

2. Pay patients being non-residents. 

3. Insane Penitentiary <;onvicts, 

4. Insane negroes, in certain cases. 

§ 1376. The Trustees of the Asylum shall see that proper and 
Asylum to distinct apartments are arranged for said patients, so that in no 

be divided i . ^ i 

into apart- casc shall the negro and the white person be together, nor the 
Penitentiary convicts with either, and males and females shall be 
kept separately. 

(a) Acts of 1865^6, p. 34. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— CHAP. 1.— Po-LiCE Regulations, etc. 269 

Article S.^The Admission, Management, and Discharge of Patients. 
§ 1877. Citizens of our own State shall have preference to non- Georgia in- 

•*• n>ates pie- 

residents when, at the time of the application, all can not be ac- ^^rred. 
commoclated, and if such a contingency should happen, it must be 
reported to the Governor without delay, who shall communicate 
the fact to the General Assembly. 

§ 1378. A pay patient resident of this State shall not be ad- Eesident 
mitted unless accompanied by authentic evidence of lunacy, ac — how ad- 
cording to law, or there is produced the certificate of three rC'- 
speetable practicing physicians, well acquainted with the condition 
of the patient, or one from such physicians, and two respectable 
citizens, stating the cause of the application. 

^ 1379. A pay patient, not a resident of this State, shall not be ^ ^"on-resi- 

^ r ,/ r 7 :> dent pay pa- 

admitted unless accompanied by an authentic record of a convic- ^'^iJJj^^t^^J^^^ 
tion of a malady, which by the law of this State, is a ground of 
admission, from a Court having jurisdiction, or shall produce a 
certificate like that required in this State, together with the cer- 
tificate of the Judge having jurisdiction, who shall state ofiicially, 
that the certificate of said physicians and other persons, are genu- 
ine and entitled to full credit. And shall then not be received 
until the payment of expenses is secured. 

S 1380. Pay patients may be divided into different classes, ac- Pay patients 

-,.,.,, . ni'iy be clas- 

cording to the accommodation desired and their means of paying, sifieci. 
§ 1381. When a person has been convicted of a malady requir- ranperpa- 

^ -f^ ./I tients, and 

ins him to be committed to said Asylum, it is the duty of the hovrthejarQ 

o J ' J cei tinea. 

Court presiding at the trial to certify if said person be a pauper. 
He shall not be certified a pauper unless in whole or in part sup- 
ported by the County, or the County is bound for his support un- 
der the law. If there are persons who by law are bound and 
able to support him, the names of such persons must be given. If 
the person has means enough to support himself in part, the 
amount of such means must be stated and must be paid toward his 

§1382. A certificate of pauperism entitles the person to be Pauper pa- 
supported at the expense of the State. Those for whose support ported by 
others are bound must be furnished with suitable support by the 
State, and the expense collected out of such other persons by the 

§ 1383. If a patient committed as a pauper, or as of limited Pauperism 

•11 -I'l T f 1 ceasing, pa- 

means, becomes entitled to an estate, said estate is bound for his tient must 

defray ex- 

support according to its value, and whoever holds it may be com- penses. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— CHAP. 1.— Police Regulatiox^s, etc. 

Article 3. — The Admission, Management, and Discharge of Patients. 

pelled to secure to the Asylum its proper charges, or to turn over 
to the Trustees the property to be held for such purpose. 

§ 1384. A pauper patient shall not be discharged from the Asy- 
Discharged lum without proDcr clothlnff and a sum of money necessary to 

pauper pa- ... 

ftient must carry him to his residence or the County from whence he was sent. 

be clad, etc. -^ 'J 

§ 1385. If, before or after admission of a pay patient, resident 
Trial of lu- or nou-rcsident, by certificate, the person alleged to be a lunatic, 

nacy may be , , "^ , ^ ^ ^ ' 

demanded, or his friend or relative, may make a demand of the Superin- 
tendent for a trial of the question of lunacy by jury, which shall 
be had without delay, according to law, in the County of Baldwin. 
§ 1386. The like demand and trial may be had by all patients 
iTow trial who havo bccn convicted of lunacy, if the person demandinsj it, 

of 1 n n a c y . . . . •^ ' ^ , . 

maj be de- being relative or friend, will make an affidavit that he believes 

manded. ^ 

the alleged cause of commitment did not and does not exist, and 
that the conviction was obtained by fraud, collusion, or mistake. 
The same right exists when there is an affidavit that the cause of 
commitment has ceased to exist, and there is a refusal by the Su- 
perintendent to discharge after demand made. 

§ 1387. When, by a provision of this Code, elsewhere made, a 
Inebriates person is declared to be an inebriate and incapable of manao-ing 

may be ad- ^ . . 

mitted. j^ig property, such person, by his own consent, if capable, and if 
incapable, by the consent of his nearest relative, or when a per- 
son is not so declared, but has the certificate of three physicians, 
and is himself willing, such person may be received into said 
Asylum, allowed the use of apartments devoted to him, or such 
as are suitable, and be treated as a patient thereof. 

§ 1388. Such patients shall never be placed in company with 
Inebriates any othor class of patients without their consent, nor placed in 

—hew kept. J i- 7 r 

confinement unless they are dangerous to themselves or others. 
[They must pay for their support as pay patients, and be subject 
to the control of the Superintendent as other pay patients until 
discharged.] (a) 

§ 1389. Apartments must be provided for insane negroes, resi- 
insane ne- dents of this State, who are able or unable to support and take 

groes, etc. ^ ^ ■•• 

care of themselves. Those negroes who are able must pay for 
their support ; those unable must be supported as other pauper 
patients. The certificate of the Justices of the Inferior Court 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, pp. 24-5. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 15.-^CHAP. 1.— Police Regulations, etc. 271 

Article 3. — The Admissiou, Management, and Discharge of Patients. 

of the County where the negro resides of his condition, mentally 
and pecuniarily, shall be sufficient to grant him admittance. 

§ 1390. If a Penitentiary convict becomes afflicted so as the insane 

" ^ '' victs — 

affliction would entitle another person to a place in said Asylum, admitted 
he shall be received therein if accompanied by the certificate of 
the Physician to the Penitentiary and the Principal Keeper thereof 
of said fact. The certificate shall also show the name of the con- 
vict, the offense for which sentenced, the County from whence 
sentenced, and his term of service, which shall be filed away. 

§ 1391. If said convict has the necessary means, he shall pay h^^^ s"P' 
for his support as long as he remains at the Asylurd. 

§ 1392. If such convict shall recover before his term of service cured con- 
victs — how 
has expired, the fact shall at once be certified by the Superin- disposed of. 

tendent to the Principal Keeper of the Penitentiary, who shall 

forthwith have said convict taken back into the Penitentiary. 

§ 1393. Whenever there shall be an application for admission Temporary 

'■ ■*■ disposition 

unattended by the requisite evidences, the Superintendent has S^^^"^'^^'^'*' 
authority to receive and provide for the person for a reasonable *^^^^^- 
time, provided a sufficient sum shall be advanced for his mainten- 
ance in the meantime. 

§ 1391. When a person has been properly received as a patient, inmate ab- 
but is absent for as lonff as three months, either from discharge, montiis 

° . ' ^ ' must be re- 

elopement, or removal by friends, he can not be received at the committed 

, . . . in form. 

Asylum without going through the process required in this Chap- 
ter, according to the class of patients of which he may be. 

§ 1395. When a person has been acquitted of a capital crime criminals 

*■ ^ ■*• ^ ^^ acquitted on 

on the ground of insanity, and such person is committed to the p'^a of in- 

° •^ -^ ■■• sanity, or 

Asylum, he shall not be discharged thence except by special act J^^^fjg JJgl 
of the Legislature. If the crime is not capital, he shall be dis- £!;JoAv^'deii't 
charged by warrant or order from the Governor. If sentence is ^^*'^^' 
suspended on the ground of insanity, upon restoration to sanity 
the Superintendent shall certify the fact to the presiding Judge 
of the Court where he was convicted. 


PT. 1. — TIT. 15. — Police Regulatioxs, etc. 

Chapter 2. — Health, Hospitals, Infection, and Quarantine. 




1396. Who may establish hospitals. 

1397. Regulation of quarantine. 

1398. Quarantine grounds. 

1399. Removal of vessels thither. 

1400. Escaping quarantine. 

1401. Bills of health, etc. 

1402. Inland travelers. 

1403. Duty of pilots. 

1404. Persons on board of vessels. 

1405. Proclamation as to contagions. 


1406. Violation of quarantine. 

1407. Concealment of small-pox, etc. 

1408. Fines, etc. — how disposed of. 

1409. Quarantine — how certified. 

1410. Fees of health officers-how paid. 

1411. Small-pox hospitals— how provided 

1412. Quarantine regulations. 

1413. Expenses — account of. 

1414. Expenses — how paid. 

1415. Vaccine— how distributed. 

§ 1396. The corporate authorities of any city or toTvn may estab- 
City corpo- lish in them, respectively, or in the vicinity thereof, hospitals or 

ration, etc., i i i • i i • i 

may estab- pest liouses, to DC suDiect to sucli reoi;ulations, not contrary to law, 

lish hospi- ^ ' J o 5 J ? 

tais. as such corporate authorities may make to prevent the spread of 

infectious or contagious diseases, but in all cases where such 
authorities of a town may establish hospitals or pest houses out 
of their own jurisdictional limits such establishments shall be 
only on land acquired by such corporation for protection against 
the spread of disease within its own limits ; in all other cases the 
Justices of the Inferior Court of each County, respectively, are 
vested with the power to establish such hospitals and make such 

§ 1397. The corporate authorities of such town may, from time 
Quarantine to time, prcscribo the quarantine to be observed by all vessels 

scribed and arrivincr withiu the harbor or vicinity of such town, and resrula- 
tions therefor, not contrary to law; and such regulations may 
extend to all persons, goods, and effects, arriving in such vessels, 
and to all persons going on board of the same. Any person 
violating such regulations, or any of them, after personal notice, 
or after other notice thereof, given for five days, in such manner 
as may be prescribed by such corporate authorities, or in the 
absence of any mode so prescribed, by notice of such regulation 
for five days in some newspaper in such town, or where there is 
no newspaper by notice posted up at some public place in such 
town for the same length of time, shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and on conviction thereof shall be liable to fine of not 
more than five hundred dollars; provided, nothing herein con- 
tained shall prevent the infliction by the corporate authorities 


PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— Police Regulations, etc. 273 

Chapter 2. — Health, Hospitals, Infection, and Quarantine. 

having power to pass ordinances or by-laws of such other penalty 
not exceeding one hundred dollars fine, in lieu of the penalty first 
above named, as may be prescribed in any such ordinance or 

§ 1398. Any town may establish a quarantine ground therefor Quarantine 

• 1 • 1 1 1 • r» 1 • 1 ground — 

at any place withm the harbor, it a seaport town, but m such how estab- 

. o • 1 1 • 1 n ' lished. 

manner as not to mteriere with the rights ot private property; 
and the jurisdiction of the corporation of Savannah shall, in cases 
of quarantine, extend to all ships and vessels which shall enter at 
any port or inlet from Ossabaw^ sound to Tybee, including all 
inlets, rivers, and creeks within those limits. 

^ 1399. The health officer or visitina; physician of such town Vessels may 

*-> ^ '^ be removed 

may, under the direction of the corporate authorities, cause any ^? quaran- 

•^ ' *• / t/ tme ground. 

vessel arriving therein, or in the vicinity, if the vessel or cargo is 
in his opinion so foul or infected as to endanger the public health, 
to be removed to the quarantine ground or other proper place to be 
inspected, and any master, seaman, or passenger belonging to any 
vessel supposed to have any infection on board, or from a port 
where any dangerous infectious disease prevails, refusing to answer 
on oath such inquiries as may be made by any health officer, 
relating to any infection or disease, shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and, on conviction, shall be liable to pay a fine of one 
hundred dollars. 

§ 1400. If any person ordered to perform quarantine shall Persons es- 

^ . . capin? or at- 

escape, any Justice, on complaint thereof on oath, may issue his tempting to 

•*■ *^ ' '■ T */ escape quar- 

warrant to the Sheriff, Constable, or Town Marshal, to arrest and ^f '^',^^~:]i^^^ 

' ' ' dealt with. 

deliver such person to the custody of the officers of the quaran- 
tine, and any person attempting to escape may be forcibly detained 
at the place of quarantine by such officers. 

§ 1401. The master of any vessel ordered to perform quarantine Master of 
shall deliver to the officer appointed to see it performed his bill of deliver bui 
health and manifest, log-book and journal; if he fails to do so, etc. 
or to repair, in proper time, after notice, to the quarantine ground, 
or shall depart thence without authority, he shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and, on conviction, shall be fined in a sum not less default."^ 
than tw^o hundred dollars. 

§ 1402. Any person coming into town by land from a place imand trar- 
infected with a contagious disease maybe compelled to perform peiied to. 

° ./ i i perform qua- 

quarantine by the health officer, under the direction of the corpo- ra^tine. 
rate authorities, and restrained from traveling until discharged ; 

274 PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— Police Regulations, etc. 

Chapter 2. — Health, Hospitals, Infection, and Quarantine. 

and any person thus restrained, traveling before he is discharged, 
Penalty for shall be guiltj of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction, may be fined 

violation of . , ,. i i i i tt 

quarantine, in a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars. 

§ 1403. It shall be the duty of any pilot before entering on 
Duty of board of any vessel, to make strict inquiry of every master or 

pilots before ^ ^ i. j j 

entering on commaiider of the same as to the state of health in such vessel, 

board of ves- ' 

^®^3- and in case it be found that any malignant, contagious, or in- 

fec ious disease is on board such vessel, such pilot shall not enter 
therein, under the penalty of one hundred dollars and removal 
from office; and any such master or commander refusing to answer 
any such reason^able inquiry, or giving false information in answer, 
may be fined in a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars. 

§ 1404. No person on board such ship or vessel in which such 
Persons on disease shall exist, or whilst such ship or vessel is performino; 

board of ves- ^ ^ a o 

seis shall ob- quarantine, shall come, or be permitted to come on shore or land 

serve quar- ■•■ ... 

antine. from sucli vcsscl, witliout permission from the proper authority, 
under the penalty of fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of 
the Court, and any person going on board such vessel (except the 
health officer or visiting physician) and returning without such 
permission shall be liable to the same penalty. 

§ 1405. The Governor of this State may, by proclamation, when- 
Prodama- evcr he shall deem it necessary, p'ive such orders to prevent the 

tion of Gov- . . J?to^ .,.ici 

ernor as to spread of coutao-ious or infectious diseases within the State, and 

contagious ^ ^ 

diseases. make such appointments and regulations concerning the same as 

shall by him be deemed proper, and be stated in such proclamation, 

and any person violating such orders or regulations may be fined 

or imprisoned at the discretion of any Court having jurisdiction. 

§ 1406. Any person coming into this State by land or water 

Yioiator-B from any place infected with contagious disease, and in violation 

of quaran- '' ^ o ^ 

indttey^^^^ quarantine regulations, may be indicted in any County in 
which he may be found, and, on conviction, be fined in a sum not 
exceeding five hundred dollars, and be imprisoned in the common 
jail at the discretion of the Court. 

§ 1407. Any physician or other person who shall conceal a case 
co^ceau?^ of small-pox, or varioloid, or any modification of the same, within 
Sctabi? ^^y incorporated city, town, or in any County in this State, by 
not giving immediate notice thereof to the Mayor, Intendant, or 
health officer, or Justices of the Inferior Court, may be indicted 
and fined in a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars, or imprisoned 
at the discretion of the Court. 


PT. L— TIT. 15.— Police Regulations, etc. 275 

Chapter 2. — Health, Hospitals, Infection, and Quarantine. 

§ 1408. All fines and forfeitures arising out of tlie violation of Fines for 

. violating 

any quarantine or other sanitary regulation shall be paid, after quarantine- 

'' *■ . . ^^^ dispos- 

deducting the proper expense of collection, into the treasury of ^dof. 
the city or County, and may be expended in aid of the quaran- 
tine and other sanitary laws, and toward the support of the poor 

§ 1409. It shall be the duty of the health officer of any port, Perform- 
or the authorized visiting physician thereof, after a vessel shall rantine— 

b.ow ccrti" 

have duly performed quarantine, to give a certificate thereof to the fled. 
master or commander, under a penalty, for every refusal, of one 
hundred dollars ; and in case of such refusal, or of there being no 
3uch health officer or attending physician of the port or place, 
such certificate shall be granted by constituted authorities of such 
port or place : the fee for such certificate shall be two dollars for 
every vessel of more than two hundred tons, and one dollar for certificate. 
every vessel of not more than two hundred tons. 

§ 1410. For visiting any vessel when required, and granting a Fees of 
certificate of the health of the crew and passengers on board, the cer — by 

\ , , whom paid. 

fee of the health officer or visiting physician, to be paid by the 
master of such vessel before she shall be permitted to enter, shall 
be two dollars — coasting vessels coming from one inlet in the State 
to another inlet in the same, excepted. 

§ 1411. [The Justices of the Inferior Court of each County, or smaii-pox 

•. . hospitals. 

the corporate authorities of any town or city in this State, 
within the limits of which the small-pox has appeared, or may 
appear, are authorized and empowered to provide a suitable hos- 
pital for those so afflicted, and to furnish them with medical or any 
other attention that in their judgment those so afflicted may 
require.] (a) 

§1412. [Such Justices or corporate authorities may also pro- Quarantine 
vide proper quarantine regulations to prevent the spread of said ^^^" ^<^io"s. 
disease; provided, that no person shall be forced to leave his or 
her home to go to the hospital aforesaid, when they are properly 
provided for and guarded at their own expense; said Court shall 
not pay any expense of any case so situated.] (a) 

§ 1413. [Said Court or corporate authorities shall make, or cause Expenses- 
to be made, a proper and just account of all expenses accruing ''''^''''''* "^' 
from such quarantine and other attention, either medical or 

(a) Acts of 18G5-6, page 88. 

276 PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— Police Kegulatioxs, etc. 

Chapter 3. — Physicians and Druggists. 

nursing, of all thej may have under control and who submit to 
the regulations of said Court or corporate authorities.] (a) 

§1414. [Said Courts or corporate authorities shall have all 
How paid, accounts properly audited, and forward them to his Excellency 
the Governor, who shall draw his warrant on the Treasury for the 
amount set forth in said account or accounts.] (a) 

§ 1415. [The Governor is authorized and required to procure 
"Vaccine— the nccessary quantity of genuine vaccine matter, either by pur- 
chase or manufacture, at such reasonable compensation as he may 
contract for, and have the same transmitted to the Justices of the 
Inferior Courts of each County in this State for immediate 
use.] (a) 





1416. Wlio may practice medicine. 

1417. Allopathic Medical Board. 

1418. Duty of the Board. 

1419. Temporary license. 

1420. Kecord of Board evidence. 

1421. Quorum of the Board. 

1422. Boformed Medical Board. 

1423. Present Boards continued. 


1424. Penalty for illegal practice. 

1425. Defendant must show authority. 

1426. Board confined to its school. 

1427. License fee. 

1428. What physicians exempt. 

1429. Druggist must obtain license. 

1430. Must show his authority. 

1431. Who are exempt. 

§ 1416. Any white person who has received a diploma from any 
Who may ]\Xedical College of the State of Geororia, without regard to the 

practice ° o^ o 

medicine, school, is authorized to practice to the extent of the powers 
given in said diploma, subject to the provisions hereinafter set 
. forth. , 

."^v A §1417. There is established in this State a Board of JPhvsi- 

Authority ciaus of the Allopathic School, who have the authority — 

of Board of ^ ' -^ 

Physicians. \^ To meet annually, or oftener, at the call of any three of 
their number, at [the seat of Government.] (b) Thirty days' 
notice must be given of annual meetings. 

2. To elect all officers and to fill all vacancies. 

3. To be a body corporate, with the right to exercise all the 
powers usual in such associations that are necessary to their 
organization, if in conformity to the Constitution and laws. 

4. To grant licenses to all applicants who under the law are 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 88. (b) Acts of 1865-6, p. 25. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 277 

Chapter 3. — Physicians and Druggists. 

entitled thereto, and to fix the fee therefor when not fixed by 

5. To prescribe a course of reading to those who study medi- 
cine under private instruction which shall be obligatory upon all 
who may apply to the Board for examination. 

§ 1418. It is their duty— 

1. To o;rant licenses to practice to all physicians fof their Duty of 

^ . . ^ . the Eoard 

school who present their diplomas from incorporated Medical Col- »? Piiysi- 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ cians. 

leges of Georgia without examination.] (a) 

2. To grant such licenses to all other persons who undergo a 
satisfactory examination. 

3. To grant license to practice in any particular branch of med- 
icine, or to treat any particular form of disease, if satisfied upon 
the examination that the applicant is thus competent. 

4. To grant licenses to apothecaries upon their standing a sat- 
isfactory examination as to their knowledge of drugs and phar- 

5. To keep a book in which shall be entered the names of every Vend drugs. 
person licensed to practice or vend drugs, and the extent of the 

§ 1419. One member of said Board may grant a license to an Temporary 
applicant to practice until the next regular meeting of the Board, be granted 
when he shall report the fact, at which time the temporary license 
is at an end ; but such a license shall not be granted by a mem- 
ber after the Board has refused one. 
" § 1420. The book so ordered to be kept is a book of record. Transcript 

^ ^ _ of record — 

and a transcript from it, certified to by the officer who has it in ^^^^ evi- 

'■ ' "^ ^ dence. 

keeping, under the common seal, shall be evidence in any Court 
of this State. 

§ 1421. FFourl (a) members of said Board constitute a quorum for Quorum of 

. . the Board. 

the transaction of business, and should a quorum not be present 
on a day appointed for its meeting, those present may adjourn 
from day to day until a quorum is present. 

§ 1422. There is also established a Board of Physicians of the Authority 

•^ and duty of 

Reformed Practice of Medicine, who have the same authority ?,J^^^:<^. ^^ 

/ •/ Physicians, 

and must perform the same duties hereinbefore set forth. ^*^' 

§ 1423. The persons and number of persons constituting both Present 
of said Boards at the adoption of this Code continue, and all the tinned! ^'^^' 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 25. 

278 PT. 1.— TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 

Chapter 3. — Physicians and Druggists. 

provisions of their respective charters are likewise preserved, if 
not lawfully altered herein. 

§ 1424. Any person who shall practice surgery, or in any man- 
Penaity ncr prescribe for the cure of diseases for fee or reward, in viola- 

for violating . ^ . .. c t • ny ihtttt -t 

the provis- tion 01 the provisions 01 this Chapter, shall be liable to mdict- 

ions of this .. iniP-» i r> i 

Chapter. mcnt, and, on conviction, shall be fined not exceeding five hun 
dred dollars for the first ofiense, and for the second, imprisoned 
not more than two months ; one-half of the fine to inure to the 
informer, the other to the Educational Fund of , the County. 

§1425. On the trial of such indictment, it is incumbent on the 
pro"/onVe defendant to show that he has authority under the law to practice 
party indict- p^^g.^ and suFgcry, to exempt himself from such penalty. 

§ 1426. Neither Board can license persons to practice in a 

Power of school of medicinc difi*erent from their own. Physicians belong- 

confined to ing to a school of medicinc not represented by a board of physi- 

their respec- . . ti-ti i ^ • n a ^ 

tiTe schools, ciaus may practice under their diplomas alone, and ii they have 
none, are liable as though they had no license and were required 
to have them. 

§ 1427. The fee for licenses obtained on diplomas shall not ex- 
License fee. ceed five dollars, and on examination shall not exceed twenty-five 

§ 1428. Physicians who were in practice prior to the 24th of 
e:^S^1^'^°^ December, 1847, [or were in practice under legal diploma or li- 
cense on the first day of January, 1863,] (a) are exempt from all 
the provisions of this Chapter. 

§ 1429. No person in this State [shall open or keep a drug or 
Draggists apothecarv store without first obtaininoj a license therefor from 

must obtain ■«• »/ ^ o 

license. the Mmcdical Board of his own school. Such license shall be re- 
corded in the oflSce of the Clerk of the Inferior Court, and the 
Clerk is required to keep a list of the names of the persons li- 
censed in a conspicuous place in his office, for which he shall re- 
ceive one dollar fee for each license so recorded.] (b) 

§ 1430. Any person violating the preceding Section is liable to 
Druggist indictment, and, on conviction, to be fined not less than one thou- 

In dieted ' ' ' 

must show sand nor more than five thousand dollars, and for a continuation 

his authori- ^ ^ 

tj- after said conviction, to the like fine and imprisonment not ex- 

ceeding six months. The onus of proof is upon the defendant to 
show his authority. 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 26. (b) Acts of 1865-6, p. 25. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 


Chapter 4. — Tavern and Retail Licenses. 

§ 1431. Druo-orists are exempt from obtaining said license who whatdrug- 

o GO r o g^sts are ex- 

Tfere engaged in said business prior to 24th of December, 1847, ^'^p*- 
and who continue so at the adoption of this Code ; and merchants 
or shopkeepers may deal in medicines already prepared, if pa- 
tented, or, if not patented, are legally warranted by a licensed 





1432. Retail license— how obtained. 

1433. Oath of other venders. 

1434. Retailing— confined to one place. 


1435. License by corporate towns. 

1436. Furnishing liquor to one drunk. 

1437. "Retailor" defined. 

§ 1432. Persons, before obtaining license to retail spirituous License to 

-. ^ . ^ , ft ^ T n ' r^ n 1 retail liquors 

liquors, must apply to the Justices or the Interior (Jourt ot the —how ob- 
County in which they desire to retail, who have power to grant or 
refuse such application. When such application is granted and 
entered on the minutes the applicant shall execute a bond, with 
sufficient security, in the sum of five hundred dollars, payable to 
such Justices, conditioned to keep an orderly house, and to abide 
faithfully by the oath to be taken by him ; which bond shall bo 
taken and approved by the Clerk of the Inferior Court, filed in 
his office, and recorded in the book kept for that purpose. Any 
person aggrieved may bring suit on such bond. Licenses granted 
in any other way are void. They shall also, at the same time, be- 
fore said Clerk, take and subscribe the following oath : 

[" I swear that I will not, during the next twelve months, sell, 
barter, give, or furnish spirituous or intoxicating liquors in any 
quantity to any minor, either white or colored, without the con- 
sent of his or her parents or guardian, and that I will not allow 
others to do so for me with my knowledge or consent. So help 
me God."] (a) 

§1433. By the first day in June in each year, and annually oathofven- 
thereafter, venders of any quantity of spirituous liquors less than quors'' less" 
one gallon shall take and subscribe the foregoing oath, and upon ion. 
neglecting to do so they are subject to all the penalties of retailers 
without license. 

(a) Acts 1866, pp. 19, 20. 


280 PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— Police Regulations, etc. 

Chapter 5. — Yendue Masters and Auctioneers. 

§ 1434. Such licenses do not authorize the persons to whom is- 

Saie of li- sued to retail at more than one place in the County, which place 

fined to one must bo Stated in the license. Different licenses are necessary for 

place. •' 

different places. 

§ 1435. Said provisions do not apply to any corporation, town, 
Corporate or city which by charter has power to grant licenses ; wovided^ 

towns may ,/ %/ r o ^ r ^ 

— ^hen^"^^ the fees for licenses are at least as much in said city as are re- 
quired by law in the County. 

§ 1436. A retailer of spirituous liquors shall not sell or furnish 

-P^e^tai^^i: liquors, in any quantity, to any person who is at the time intoxi- 

to one who catcd or drunk ; and for violatino^ this provision he shall not only 

\ IS drunk. ' o i j 

<^ be liable to all the penalties for retailing without a license, but 

Ki. t^ he shall not recover by law for any spirituous liquors furnished to 

vi such person during the current year. 

1^. § 1437. The sale of such liquors in quantities less than one 

retailer. quart make the seller a retailer. 



Section-. i Section. 

143S. "Who may be vendue master. I 1439. Sale of stolen property. 

§ 1438. [Any citizen of Georgia shall have the right to exer- 
whomay cise all the privileo;es, powers, and functions of a vendue master, 

be vendue . . 

master. or auctioneor, in any city or town in this State, by paying such 
license and giving such bond as may be demanded or required by 
the by-laws, rules, or ordinances of the town or city in which said 
person may wish to exercise the calling of a vendue master or 
auctioneer.] (a) 

§ 1439. [Any vendue master who may sell or dispose of any 

Sale of prop- iiQi-se or mulc shall be held responsible to the purchaser for dam- 
ages, in the event that it be shown and proven that the horse or 
mule so sold by him w^as stolen.] (a) 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 260. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 

Chapter 6. — Estra3^s. 




144^0. 'Who may take up estrays. 

1441. Estrays — how disposed of. 

1442. Advertisement of estrays. 

1443. Sale of estrays. 

1444. May be sold on freehold — when. 

1445. Proceeds of sale — how disposed of. 


1446. Estrays — how reclaimed. 

1447. Trial of conflicting claims. 

1448. Expense of estrays. 

1449. Default of ta^er-up— how punished. 

1450. Stone horses may be gelded. 

§ 1440. Any person may, upon his own freehold, or the highway who mny 
thereto, or being in charge of one, and not elsewhere, take up all ^^^s^- 
estrays of animals of a domestic or useful nature, either for their 
labor or flesh. 

§ 1441. The taker-up shall, within five days, exhibit said ani- Estrays— 

,. how dispos- 

mal to two freeholders of the militia district where taken up, who edof. 
shall take down in writing a particular description of its marks, 
natural and artificial, brands, stature, age, and color, and annex 
thereto their appraisement of its value, which description and ap- 
praisement shall be, by the taker-up, within five days more, handed 
to the Clerk of the Inferior Court of the County. He shall, at 
the time of handing the same to said Clerk, make an affidavit be- 
fore him that the marks and brands of said estray are correct, and 
have not been altered or disfigured, to his knowledge, since he 
took it up. 

§ 1442. Such Clerk shall then copy said appraisement, descrip- cierk shaii 

•■• "^ ^ ^ ^ , copy and ad- 

tion, and affidavit in the estray book, and advertise substantial vertise ap- 

^ '^ ' praisenients 

copies of the two first named at the door of the Court House for "^ estrays. 
sixty days, at the place of holding Justice's Court of the district 
where taken up, and in the public gazette where the Sheriff of the 
County advertises his sales. 

§ 1443. If by the end of that time property is not proven and Estrays— 

•^ ^ ± 1 ./ 1 when to be 

taken away, the Sheriff of the County shall advertise and sell said ^ow. 
estray as he does property under execution, stating it to be an 
estray and its appraised value. 

§ 1444. If the property is not of sufficient value to p;w the ex- when an 

T • 1 ^\^ ^ A •/ estray may 

penses of said proceedings, said Clerk may order it sold by the be soM on 
Sheriff, after ten days' notice, on the freehold where taken up ; 
but he shall make the advertisement in writing, and have one in- 
sertion made in such public gazette. 

§ 1445. The purchase money, after deducting all lawful ex- 

the freehold. 

282 PT. 1.— TIT. 15.— Police Regulations, etc. 

Chapter C. — Estrays. 

Proceeds of pensGS, shall be paid to the Treasurer of the Educational Fund of 

sale — how i • i t 

disposed of. the Countj, to be paid to the owner of the estraj, if property is 
proven therein within twelve months. 

§ 1446. Property may be proven by an affidavit of ownership 
Howanes- beforo the Clerk of said Court, and the filing with him bond and 

tray may be _ _ ^ *-* 

reckimedby securitv in doublo the appraised value, payable to the Justices of 

the owner. •' ^ ^ ^ i t/ 

the Inferior Court, conditioned to answer any demand thereon 
♦ that may be proven against the obligor within two years. 

§ 1447. If more than one person claims said estray before de- 
conflicting liver v is made, or a counter affidavit to a claim is filed by any 

claims — how j 7 ,/ j 

tried. persou, an issue shall be made thereon and tried by a jury in the 

Inferior Court, with privilege of appeal. 

§ 1448. [The taker-up of any estray shall be entitled to and 
Expenses rcccive such Compensation as shall be awarded and determined by 

—how deter- *■ ^ _ *' 

mined. the freeholders before whom said estray may be exhibited as pro- 
vided in Section 1441 of this Code, and said freeholders are em- 
powered and required to award and determine such compensation 
as to them may seem reasonable and just from all the circum- 
stances in each case.] (a) 

§ 1449. The taker-up is liable to the County or the owner, as 
Penalty the casc maybe, in five times the value of the estray; if after 

against tak- ./ •' »/ 7 

fluu'S^a^'- ^^^i^g it up ^6 f^ils to have it appraised and returned, or forth- 
praising,etc. coming, according to law, providential causes only excepted, and 
if he appropriates it to his own use, and fails to pay said forfei- 
ture after demand in writing by the Clerk of the Inferior Court, 
he is guilty of a misdemeanor. Suit may also be brought cither 
by the owner or County for the same. He is liable, in like man- 
ner for any damage caused by w^illful abuse or neglect of the ani- 

§ 1450. If any stone horse above eighteen months old shall be 

stone found running at large, it is lawful for any person to take him up 

ning at large and takc him before the nearest Justice of the Peace, and by per- 

maybegeld- , , , . , . . 

ed- mission of said Justice, may geld the same, taking care that it is 

done by a person competent to do so, and that the horse is prop- 
erly cared for afterwards; the expenses of which shall be paid by 
the owner. 

(a) Acts 1866, p. 20. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 


Chapter 7. — Marks and Brands. 




1451. Record of marks and brands. 

1452. Recorded mark preferred. 

1453. Oldest record preferred. 


1454. Marking to bo done — by whom. 

1455. Change of recorded mark. 

§ 1451. All persons having marks and brands on cattle, or other Marksand 
property, in this State, shall have them recorded by the Clerk of be recorded. 
the Inferior Court of the County where the owner resides, or, if a 
non-resident, where the property uses, in a book kept by him for 
that purpose. 

§ 1452. If property shall be in dispute between one whose |/'ffy[,r"^f 
marks and brands are recorded, and one whose are not, both hav- marks^'^^iSI 
ing the same mark and brand, and such property is found in the coXd. *^' 
possession of him whose marks and brands are recorded, the party 
claiming can not get possession of the same, but must sue, and 
prove property and damage. 

§ 1453. When two or more persons have the same marks and oi'^cst re- 

, , , . cord has pre- 

brands,and both are recorded, the prima facie right is with the ^ereace. 
older record. 

§ 1454. Marking and branding shall not take place, except by ^b''^'"5;Jm 
or under the supervision of some competent person, on pain ^^°®- 
of forfeiting fifty dollars for each violation, to be recovered at the 
suit of the informer, who shall have one-half the recovery; the violation, 
other half goes to the Educational Fund. 

§ 1455. Marks and brands once recorded shall not be changed, Marks, etc., 

. '^^ ^ not to be 

SO as to be of any avail to the owner, without leave is first granted changed 

•^ ' ° without 

by the Justices of the Inferior Court, and a minute made thereof, ^^ave. 




1456. Requisites of a fence. 

1457. Of other enclosures. 

1458. Owners of stock — when liable. 


1459. Stock may be killed — when. 

1460. Poisoning crops. 

1461. Water courses deemed fences. 


8 1456. All fences or enclosures, commonly called worm fences, what is a 

'\ n ^ ■ ^ ■ ^ lawful fence. 

shall be five feet high, with or without being staked and ridered, 


PT. 1. — TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 

Chapter 8. — Enclosures and Fences. 

and from the ground to the height of three feet, the rails shall 
not be. more than four inches apart. Ail paling fences shall be 
^ five feet from the ground and the pales not more than two inches 


§ 1457. Any enclosure, made bv means of a ditch or trench. 
Enclosures shall be three feet wide and two feet deep, and if made of both 
etc. ^' fence and ditch, the latter shall be four feet wide, and the fence 
five feet high from the bottom of the ditch. 

§ 1458. If any trespass or damage shall be committed in any 
whenowner enclosurc, not beins protected as aforesaid bv the breakino^ in of 

is liable for ' ^ ^ _ " . 

trespass, etc. any animal, the owner of such animal shall not be liable to an- 
swer for the trespass, and if the owner of the enclosure shall kill 
or injure such, in any manner, he is liable ia three times the dam- 

§ 1459. When fences are made pursuant to law and any animal 

"^H^^'V^- breaks in, the owner of the enclosure shall not kill or injure him 

ers of eiielo- ' ^ 

sures may f^^ ^\^q £j,g^ breakiuor and not until after notice is given to the 

kill stock o^ o 

for breaking Q-^j^cr or agent, if possiblc, but said last mentioned owner shall 
be liable for double the damage done by his stock. 

§ 1460. If stock is killed or injured from poisoning crops, or 
Poisoning other poisouing upon the premise, the presumption is, that it was 
done by the person in possession and charge of the same. 

§ 1461. All water courses that are or have been navigable, as 


When Tva- far as navio^ation has ever extended up said streams, 

ter courses ° 

shall be 
are deemed deemed and considered fences, whenever, by reason of freshets or 

fences. ^ . 

otherwise, fences can not be kept on said streams, and shall be sub- 
ject to the rules applicable to other fences. 




1462. Woods may be fired — when, etc. 

1463. Xotice must be given. 


1464. Penalty for firing •withoat notice. 

1465. Woods catching fire by negligence. 

§ 1462. Iso person but a resident of the County where the firing 
WTien and is douc. Owning lands therein, or domiciled thereon, outside of any 

by whom . • i i t i i 

woods may towu incorporation, shall set on fire any woods, lands, or marshes ; 
nor shall such persons, except between the twentieth of February 
and the first of April, annually. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 


Chapter 10.— Mills and Millers. 

§ 1463. When sacli person shall desire to set fire Avithin said one firing 

^ ^ .... woods must 

i time, he shall notify all persons who occupy lands adjoining him give notice. 
by residence thereon, or cultivation, or enclosure of any portion 
of the tract or settlement, of the day and hour of the firing, at 
least one day prior thereto. Such notice need not be given if, on 
a sudden emergency, due caution should require firing to render 
one's premises safe. 

§ 146-1. Any person setting fire in violation of the two prece- Penalty for 

T. o(. nr-r'tiTiti i • n Setting fire 

ding bections lorieits nve hundred dollars, upon the suit or any \yitbout no- 
informer — the one-half to him, the other to the Educational Fund 
of the County — and is also liable for the actual damages any per- 
son may have sustained. 

§ 1465. Persons, either by themselves or agents, who permit ^ ^^^'^^l 
fire to get into the woods, lands, or marshes, through neglect, are woodscatch, 
within the meaning of said Sections. 




l-iG6. Grain — in what order ground. 
1467. Penalty for failure. 


14G8. "Public mills" defined. 

§1466. All owners or occupants of mills shall well 2:rind all Grain to bo 

, 1 1 • 1 . T ground in 

clean and dry grain, and m due turn, as far as ten bushels in the turn. 
turn, as the same may be brought, and may take for toll one- 
eighth part thereof. 

§1467. Every such person who shall not so grind, except in Penalty for 

_ J not grinding 

time 01 drought, or for other sufficient cause, or not in due turn, according to 
or take or exact more toll, shall forfeit and pay for each off"ense, 
to the party injured, twenty dollars; provided such miller may do 
his own grinding first. 

§ 1468. All grist mills which grind for toll for any person are what are 
public mills within the ii^eaning of this Chapter. 


public mills. 


PT. 1.— TIT. 15. — Police Regulations, etc. 

Chapter 11. — Gunpowder. 




1469. Transported gunpowder, etc. 

1470. Penalty for not marking. 


1471. Keeping gunpowder, etc. 

§ 1469. All owners, agents, or others who have any gunpow- 
Gunpow- der, more than five pounds, transported upon water, railroad, or 

der must be ' r ? 1 r ? ? 


otherwise, shall have the word gunpowder marked upon each pack- 
age so transported, in large letters. 

§ 1470. Gunpowder transported in violation of said provision 
Penalty shall be liable to seizure and forfeiture by any ofiicer who may 

for transpor- . . , , r» i • i 

ting gun- execute a crnnmal warrant under warrant for that purpose, issued 

powder con- ^^ , . 

trarytoiaw. by any officer who may issue such first named warrants — one-half 
of the same to go to the informer, the other half to go to the 
Military Fund of the State, after public sale, by order of the offi- 
cer issuing the warrant, or one of like power. 

§ 1471. The several incorporated towns or cities of this State, 
Roguia- within their corporate limits, and the Justices of the Inferior 

tionsiorkee- ^ ^ ^ ■^ 

^owler^'^" Court within their respective Counties, out of said corporate lim- 
its have authority to make and enforce all needful rules and reg- 
ulations touching the keeping of gunpowder so as not to endan- 
ger the lives and property of the citizens. 





Article 1. — Banh Returns. 

Article 2. — Obligations and Penalties. 

Article 3. — Forfeiture of Charters and Liability of Stockholders. 

PT. 1.-— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 1.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 28T 

Article 1. — Bank Returns. 




1472. Bank returns — how made. 

1473. Contents of returns. 

1474. Oath of officers shall be annexed. 


1475. Expense of advertising. 

I47C. Bank refusing to make returns. 

1477. False affidavit perjury. 

of the re- 

§ 1472. It is the duty of the Governor, twice in each year, to caii for 

_. 1 ' ' IT 1 bank returns 

advertise lor at least two weeks m a pubnc gazette at the seat of tote adver- 

.'"... . tisedby 

Government a call upon every banking institution of this State, (Governor, 
and branch thereof, to make returns to him, under the oaths of 
their several presidents and cashiers, of their respective condi- 
tions at a time to be specified in such advertisement, and to trans- 
mit the same to him within thirty days from said dates. 
§ 1173. Such returns shall embrace — 

1. The names of the Presidents and Directors, and a list of the 
stockholders on the day of the regular weekly meeting of the Presi- turns' 
dent and Directors next preceding the date of his requisition. 
The list of stockholders may be given but once a year. 

2. The amount of stock owned by each individual or company, 
and the amount of money actually paid in on each share. 

3. The amount of bills on other banks of this State, of gold, 
silver, and bullion in their vaults. 

4. The amount of debts due them, within and without the 
State, so designating them, which may be denominated specie 

5. The active or running paper, the amounts in suit under pro- 
test, and not in suit, clearly stating what amount of all such 
debts is good, what doubtful, what bad, and what lost. 

6. The amount of bills in circulation, the amount on deposit, 
and the highest amount due a.nd owing by each bank. 

§1474. The original oaths aforesaid shall be annexed to said oathofof- 
returns, stating them to be just and true, and moreover, that fnnexJd to 
since the last return, their respective banks, to the best of affiants' 
knowledge and belief, have not violated nor evaded any obligation 
imposed by law, either by itself, its officer, or agents. 

§ 1475. The banks are required to publish their several reports Expense 
in some public gazette of this State, at their expense, and on sing-by 
failing to do so, within thirty days, it is the duty of the Governor 
to make public advertisement of the fact, and to order all collec- 

288 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 1.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 2. — Oblio-ations and Penalties. 

tors of the public money to refuse to receive their bills. The 
Governor shall also publish the reports, the cost of which the 
defaulting banks shall be bound for, as a tax levied, which shall 
be collected by execution issued by the Comptroller General. 
§ 1476. Any bank refusing to make out and return said reports, 
Penalty for as required by law, forfeits and pays to the State a tax of two per 

not making i. ^ > i ./ i 

cent, per month upon their capital stock, from the time of such 
refusal, to be levied and collected by execution at the end of each 
month, by the Comptroller General; the bills of said banks shall 
likewise not be received, as prescribed in preceding Section. 

§ 1477. Perjury may be assigned on such affidavits, and the 
^^- name of a person signed thereto, authorized to administer an oath, 
shall be evidence of the swearing. 


davit pe 





1478. Prohibitions imposed on banks. 

1479. Qualification of Section. 

1480. Certain contracts void. 

1481. Violation of No. 3 Section 1478. 

1482. Violation of Nos. 4 and 5, Sec. 1478. 

1483. Proof prescribed. 

1484. Violating No. 6, Section 1478. 


1485. Violating No. 7 of Section 1478. 
1488. Obligations imposed on banks. 

1487. Violating No. 1 of Section 1486. 

1488. Proceedings for such violations. 

1489. Violating Nos. 2 and 3 of Sec. 1486. 

1490. The term Bank — vrhat it includes. 

§ 1478. The banks of this State shall not— 

1. Loan money, directly nor indirectly, on any note, bill, draft, 
Prohibi- 01' contract of any sort, at a greater rate of interest than seven 

tions impos- J I o 

ed on banks, pej. cent, per annum. 

2. Discount or purchase any paper or debt at a greater discount 
than said rate. 

3. Sell any kind of exchange, except sight checks, or demand 
or receive for exchange, in or out of this State, of any citizen 
thereof, a greater premium than one per cent, upon the amount of 
exchange sold, when the bills of the bank from which the exchange 
is sought are presented at its counter in payment thereof. 

4. Issue paper or promises to pay, intended to be used as money, 
redeemable otherwise than with gold or silver coin, at the standard 
value thereof. 

5. Issue such paper, or pay, or tender in payment, any paper, 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 1.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 289 

Article 2. — Obligations and Penalties. 

payable at a greater length of time than three days from the date 

6. Issue, pay away, or circulate any bank bill, note, ticket, or 
paper, of the nature or appearance of a bank note meant for 
circulation, or of a denomination less than five dollars, with the 
exception that all solvent and specie paying banks may issue small 
bills of the denominations one, two, three, and four dollars, to an 
amount not exceeding twenty per cent, of their capital stock, to 
be computed as part of their circulation. 

7. Issue bills beyond the amount specified in their charter. 

§ 1479. Nothing in the foregoing shall be so construed as to Quaimca- 
restrict the bank to said rate, in the sale or purchase of foreioin bills, ceding sec- 

... . . tion. 

provided that the said foreign bill is a bona fide commercial bill, 
and not a loan or accommodation by the bank ; and that the ex- 
change is legitimate commercial exchange, and the transaction not 
in fact a loan or accommodation in which the law is attempted to 
be evaded by resorting to the form of a bill of exchange, foreign 
bill, or draft. 

§ 1480. Every contract, note, bill, draft, or paper made in vio- certain con- 

"; '^ _ ^- ' ' — - ' r__t^- __ ^,..-^ tracts, etc., 

lation_ of the provisions of numbers 1 and 2 of Section 1478, and >'oi<i- 
of the next succeeding Section, are declared null and void. 

§1481. For a violation of number 3 of the same Section the Penalty for 

,1 . .1 ^' 1 , violating the 

person paying the premium may recover three times the amount sa item ^of 
of the excess by a summary proceeding before any Court having 
jurisdiction, on which judgment may be rendered at the first term. 
The suit may be either against the bank, its officer, or agent : in 
either case the property and effects of the bank are subject to the 

§ 1482. For a violation of numbers 4 and 5 of Section 1478 Penalty for 

. violating the 

the bank forfeits one thousand dollars for each bill or paper so is- 4tii and 5th 

■*• ■■• items of Sec- 

sued, to be recovered by action at the suit of the informer — one- ^^<^^ i*"s. 
half to go to him, the other half to the Educational Fund of the 
County where the recovery is had. 

§ 1483. The officer or agent who received the premium shall ap- Mode of 
pear without any process than the service of the writ, and bring Sribed.'^'^^" 
his book having the original entry of the transaction, and give 
evidence in the case. If he fails to appear, the affidavit or testi- 
mony of the plaintiff shall be received. 

§ 1484. For the violation of number 6 of Section 1478 the bank 
forfeits five hundred dollars for each small bill so issued beyond 

290 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 1.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 2. — Obligations and Penalties. 

Penalty for the twentv per cent., or amount allowed by charter, to be recov- 

TiolaiingGth - n a a ^ 

item of Sec- erecl as m cases oi numbers 4 and 5, unless a different penalty is 

tion 1478. ^ . . c j 

prescribed by charter. 

Penalty for § 1485. For the vioktiou of number 7 of Section 1478 the bank 

"Violating Ttn 

I^.^^S!j^^^' so violatins; forfeits its charter. 

tion 1478. o 

§ 1486. The banks of this State shall — 

1. Pay specie for any of their bills, notes, drafts, or other obli- 
obiigations ffations whcu duc and demanded by the holder. 

imposed o^^^-rs • i. t ^^^ -n 

banks. 2. Reccive their OAvn bills, notes, certificates of deposit, or other 

evidence of debt, in payment of debts due them. 

3. Receive their own bills at par, whether issued or made pay- 
able at the parent bank or any of its branches, in settlement of 
debts or balances due either, and when notes or other obligations 
are discounted by any bank, and become transferred to another 
bank, they continue payable in the bills of the bank where dis- 

§ 1487. For the violation of number 1 of Section 1486 the bank 
Penalty for shall pay, bcsidcs the le^al interest, twenty-five per cent, dam- 

^iolating 1st i r> i • i i -n ^ • i i -i 

item of Sec- ages, cach of which must be specified in the verdict and iudgment, 

tion 1486. o ' ^ ^ ^ J b 7 

and the execution issued thereon shall be collected in specie. 
§ 1488. The Governor shall also cause judicial proceedings to 
Proceeding be instituted against such bank for the forfeiture of its charter, 
lation. but the defaulting bank may, within five days after such demand 
and refusal, produce satisfactory evidence that there was an in- 
debtedness then due to said bank by the person demanding specie 
equal to the amount demanded, and the Governor may, in his dis- 
cretion, forbear or postpone the proceeding. 

§ 1489. For the violation of numbers 2 and 3 of Section 1486 

Penalty for the bank shall forfeit to the debtor twenty per cent, upon the 

and 3d items amount to bc rccovcrcd by special suit in his favor, or in any other 

of Section „,..., , mi -ii • f> ^ 

14S6. form of litigation between them. Ine special deposit oi the proper 

amount in another bank, or in the hands of a solvent stakeholder, 
with notice to the bank, is a payment. 

§ 1490. The term bank includes the parent bank, its branches, 
The term if any, and agencies, its oflScers of every description, and agents, 
ciudes%Mt' in construing the violation of an obligation or the imposing a pen- 
alty for the acts of whom the bank or branches, as the case may 
Jbe, is bound. 

PT. l.-^TIT. 16.— CHAP. 1.— AaRicuLTURE, Trade, etc. 291 

Article 3.— Fcafeiture of Bank Charters and Liability of Stockholders. 




1491. Bank eliarter forfeited— for what, 

1492. Proceedings — how instituted. 

1493. Dut^ of receiver. 

1494. Compensation of receiver, etc. 

1495. Order of paying debts, etc. 

1496. Debts due insolvent banks. 


1497. Stockholders may be sued — when. 

1498. Abatement of suit. 

1499. Assignment by bank. 

1500. How set a^ide. 

1501. Want of assignee — how supplied. 

1502. Stockholder may transfer stock. 

§ 1491. Bank charters are subject to forfeiture for the same For what 
general grounds as those of other corporations, and also^ — may be for- 


1. For the violation of any of the provisions of their charters. 

2. For the violation of any obligation imposed by law, unless 
contrary to the contracts of their charters. 

3. Whenever it is demanded by special enactment. 

§ 1492. When the Governor is informed that a bank incurs the Proceed- 
ings — when 

penalty of a forfeiture, he shall cause the Attorney General to ^^l^^T ^^' 
institute proceedings therefor in the County where the bank or 
parent bank is located, and in his discretion may employ assist- 
ant counsel to aid therein, and pay him out of any money not 
otherwise appropriated. If there is a verdict of forfeiture ren- 
dered on the trial, the Judge shall pronounce the judgment for Judgment. 
all purposes whatever, saving the use of its corporate name in 
collecting and paying its debts, and in conveying its real and 
personal estate, which power shall be exercised by a receiver ap- 
pointed by the Court for that purpose at that time, or any time, 
upon the application of the prosecuting officer showing good 

§ 1493. It is the duty of such receiver— 

1. To promptly collect the debts due said bank, and to con- Duty of re 
vert the property into cash or available assets as soon as prac 

2. To pay the creditors pro rata semi-annually, according to 
the dignity of their claims, unless there is sufficient to pay all. 

3. To pay the holders of the bills before other creditors, if 
they give notice of their claims within six months. 

4. To give notice to said bill holders and other creditors, by a 
three months' publication in some public gazette of the State. 

5. To make annual returns of his receipts and disbursements 
to the Judge of the Superior Court of the County, at the first 


292 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 1.— Ageiculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 3. — Forfeiture of Banli Cliarters and Liability of Stockholders. 

term held every year ; to produce vouchers and swear to the re- 
turn, which shall be passed upon by said Judge, and entered on 
the minutes by the Clerk. 

6. To distribute the assets, after paying all the debts of the 

corporation, among the stockholders in proportion to their stock. 

§ 1494. On failure to comply substantially with any of the 

tionofrS- ^hovo requirements, he forfeits his compensation. His compen- 

ver, etc. gation shall be the same as that allowed administrators ; but upon 

special application, the Court may allow^, for good cause shown, 

additional compensation. 

§ 1495. If the bank is insolvent, the order of paying off the 
Order of (Jebts shall be the same as is prescribed in cases of administra- 

paymg debts ■•■ 

of insolvent tion^ to the cxtcnt applicable, except where special preference or 
postponement is given by law. 

§ 1496. Debtors are not, in such a case, allowed to pay their 
In what debts to the receiver in bills of the bank at their par value, un- 

fnnds debts \ ■•• ' 

d^e^^i'e to be iggg accompanicd by an affidavit that they are the identical bills 
received from the bank by which the debt was created. 

g 1497. If the assets of the bank are insufficient to pay all its 
When stock- liabilities, the receiver shall brinff suit against the stockholders 

holders are ' o o 

sueabie. j^ \^^^ q^^ name for their unpaid stock to an amount which will 
be their proportion fo-r the liquidation of all the debts ; and on 
his failure to do so, any creditor may use his name for that pur- 

§ 1498. Suits do not abate by reason of a vacancy in the re- 
of^Ss™^^^ ceivership, but proceed o-n motion, and without any Bcire facias 
in the name of the new receiver. 

§1499. When a bank surrenders its charter, or the use thereof, 
Assignment it mav make, in good faith, an assignment of all its effects for 

by banks. ./ ' & / & 

the payment of its debts, as natural persons may, but it can not 
thereby prevent such preference among its creditors as the law 

§ 1500. A creditor or stockholder may move, in six months, to 
How it may set aside such assignment, by petition addressed to the Superior 

be set! aside. o ? ^ i ^ l 

Court of the County where the bank is located, setting forth the 
grounds of complaint, which shall stand for trial before a special 
jury at the first term of the Court. If the assignee resides in the 
County, he must be served as in other cases ; if not, the leaving 
a copy at the banking-house shall be sufficient service. The ser- 
vice shall operate as an injunction until the judgment of the 

PT. 1. — TIT. 16. — Agriculture, Trade, etc. 


Chapter 2. — Notaries Public. 

Oourt. If the assignment is set aside, a receiver must be ap- 

§ 1501. A 2;ood assiojnment shall not fail for the want of an as- How want 

^ G r> of assignee 

signee, but the Court, in vacation or term time, may appoint a ^^^ved!*^ ^^' 
receiver who shall execute the assignment. 

§ 1502. When a stockholder in any bank or other corporation j,"^oide?^fn 
is individually liable under the charter, and shall transfer his ^^a^transfer 
stock, he shall be exempt from such liability, unless he receives ^^^ ^^^^^ 
a written notice from a creditor within six months after such 
transfer, of his intention to hold him liable ; provided, he shall 
give notice once a month, for six months, of such transfer, imme- 
diately thereafter, in two newspapers in or nearest the place 
where such institution shall keep its principal office. 




1503. By wliom appointed. 

1504. Their oath of office. 

1505. Their term of office. 

1506. Their qualification. 


1507. Their jurisdiction. 

1508. Their authority. 

1509. Must have a seal, etc. 

§ 1503. The power to appoint Notaries Public is vested in the pu^ffc^^f^^ 
Justices of the Inferior Court exclusively. piinSd '^^' 

§ 1504. Before entering on the duties of their office, they shall oath of 
take and subscribe before the Clerk of the Inferior Court the fol- Public, 
lowing oath, which shall be entered on his minutes : 

[ I, , do solemnly swear, or affirm, that I will well and 

truly perform the duties of a Notary Public for the County of 

, to the best of my ability ; and I further swear, or affirm, 

that I am not the holder of any public money belonging to the 
State, and unaccounted for. So help me God.J (a) 

§1505. They hold their offices for four years, revocable at any Their term 
time by said Justices, at the end of which time, if continued, ^^ ^^^^' 
they must be renewed on the minutes. The Clerk must issue to 
them certificates of their appointment and qualification, and keep * 

a register of their names. 

(a) Acts of 186S-4, p. 58. 

294 PT. 1.— TIT. la— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Chapter 2. — ^Notaries Public. 

Acre and § 1506. A Notaiy must be twenty-one jears old, or an attornej 
NoTaryf ^^ ^^ ^^"^? ^^^ ^^ good moral character. 

§ 1507. Their notarial acts can onlj be exercised in the County 
ScT S?^ ^^ their residence and appointment. Kem'Oval from the County 

be exercised ^gg^|.gg ^|^g ^^gj^g^ 

§ 1508. They have authority — 

1. To take the acknowledgments of all writings relating to- 
Authority commcrce or navigation, and to witness such deeds and mpers as- 

of Notaries. . 

they are permitted to by law. 

2. To dem^and acceptance and payment of all commercial pa- 
per, or paper entitled to days of grace, and to note and protest 
the same for non-acceptance or non-payment. 

3. To certify to all official acts when req;uired. 

4. To administer oaths in all matters incident to them as com?- 
mercial officers, and [all other oaths which are not by law re- 
quired to be administered by a particular officer.] (a) 

5. To exercise all other powers incumbent upon them by com- 
mercial usage or the laws of this State. 

§ 1509. For the authentication of their notarial acts, each No- 
Notarial tary must provide a seal of office, which shall have for its impres- 
ister. sion his name, officially, and the name of the State and County 

for which he was appointed. After the first of January, 1863, a 
scrawl shall not be a sufficient notarial seal., [No seal is required 
to his attestation of deeds.] (a) He must keep a fair register of 
all his notarial acts sign,ed by him, together with the date of the, 



Article 1 . — Pilotage. 
ARTierLE 2'. — Seamen,. 

{ii\ Aets of 186a-4„ p.. 5.9i 

PT. l._TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 295 

Article 1. — Pilotao-e. 




1510. Commissioners — how appointed. 

1511. Their powers. 

1512. Pilot's oath and license. 

1513. His bond. 

1514. Forfeiture of license. 

1515. Commissioners' powers and duties. 

1516. License — non-user of. 

1517. Pilot's duty. 

1518. Master rejecting pilot. 

1519. Pilot bringing in vessel. 

1520. Pilot may have a substitute. 

1521. Notice to pilots. 

1522. Pilot must moor vessel. 

1523. His fees — payment of. 

1524. Carrying off or detaining pilots. 

1525. Fees of pilot boat in certain cases. 

1526. Letters — delivery of. 

1527. Pilot's fees in special cases. 

1528. Pilots in default — penalty. 

1529. Damages to — by whom settled. 


1530. Record of rules must be kept. 
Subject to inspection. 
Commissioners' office — where kept. 
Compel attendance of witnesses. 
May punish defaulting witnesses. 
Witnesses may be cited. 

1536. Subpoenas and interrogatories. 

1537. Fees for serving and executing. 
Appeal — when allowed. 
Testimony after appeal. 
Fees, etc. — how disposed of. 
Pilots receive certificates — when. 
Branch pilots — how appointed. 
Penalty for discharging ballast, etc. 
Proceedings against master. 

1545. Pilot failing to give notice. 

1546. Incorporated towns — powers of. 

1547. Suits — by whom brought. 

1548. Present Commissioners continue. 



§ 1510. The corporate authorities of Savannah, Darien, Bruns- commis- 

• 1 1 n • A r • sioners of 

Wick, and Saint Marjs, shall have power respectively to appoint Pilotage- 
Commissioners of Pilotage, not exceeding seven in number, for pointed. 
each place, of whom a majority shall be a quorum, as follows — 
that is to say : The authorities of Savannah for the Bar of Tybee, 
and River Savannah, and the several bars and inlets north of 
Sapelo Bar; the authorities of Darien for Sapelo Bar, and Biver 
Altamaha, and for the several bars and inlets south of Sapelo 
Bar as far as St. Simon's Bar ; the authorities of Brunswick for 
the Bar of St. Simons, and Turtle Biver, and the several bars 
and inlets north of the Great Satilla River ; and the authorities 
of St. Marys for the Bar of the Great Satilla River, the Bar of 
St. Marys, and all bars and inlets between the two. All vacan- 
cies shall be filled by such corporate authorities respectively in 
the Board of Commissioners in which a vacancy shall occur, but 
no owner or part owner of a pilot boat shall be allowed to act as 
Commissioner of Pilotage. 

§ 1511. The said Commissioners are empowered to license such powers of 
persons, being citizens of the United States, of good character, sio^neJs™^ of 
as they shall think most fit to act as pilots for the conducting of ^ ^ ^^^' 
vessels inward to, and outward from, the several ports for which 
they shall be licensed, during their good behavior. Pilots already 

296 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 1. — Pilotage. 

licensed for any of said ports shall continue to act until removed 
for cause. No person other than a duly licensed pilot shall he 
entitled to receive any fee, gratuity, or reward, for conducting or 
piloting any vessel inward to, or outward from, any of the ports 
or harhors for which a pilot shall be licensed. Any person so 
acting without authority, or interfering with or disturbing a li- 
censed pilot in the way of his duty, may, on conviction, be fined 
and imprisoned at the discretion of any Court having jurisdic- 
tion ; but any person may assist a vessel in distress without a pi« 
lot on board, if such person shall deliver up the vessel to the first 
pilot who comes on board and offers to conduct it. 

§1512. The license to a pilot must be in the form of a certifi- 

Piiot'sii- cate of his appointment, which must be signed by a majority of 

oath. , the Commissioners, or by their chairman, by their direction, and 

each pilot, on receiving his license, shall take and subscribe an 

oath in the following form : 

" I, A. B., appointed pilot for the port and harbor of • — , 

^ do swear that I will faithfully and according to the best of my 

ability, perform the duties of a pilot in and for the said port and 

harbor of , and will, at all times — wind, weather, and 

health, permitting — use my best endeavors to repair on board every 
vessel I shall see, and conceive to be bound. for, coming into, or 
going out of the said port and harbor, unless I am well assured 
there is some other licensed pilot on board the same ; that I will, 
from time to time, make the best dispatch in my power to con- 
vey any vessel committed to my charge coming into or going out 
of said .port and harbor, and will at all times well and truly 
observe, fulfill and follow, to the best of my skill and judgment, 
all such orders and directions as I may receive from the Commis- 
sioners of Pilotage in all matters and things relating to the duty 
of a pilot. 

§ 1513. Before receiving his license, the pilot must make and 

Pilot's bond, deliver to the Commissioners a bond payable to the Chairman of 
the Board, and his successor in office, in the penal sum of two 
thousand dollars, with security, to be approved by the Commis- 
sioners, and with condition faithfully to perform his duties as 
pilot, which bond shall be renewable at the discretion of the 
Commissioners, with such security or additional security as they 
may require. 

§ 1514. The Commissioners may deprive any pilot of his li- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 297 

Article 1. — Pilotage, 
cense for want of skillfiilness, for a willful violation of his duties, License of 

pilot — how 

or the orders or regulations of the Commissioners ; for negli- forfeited. 
gently or carelessly losing or injuring any vessel in his charge; 
or when laboring under mental derangement, or when so addicted 
to habits of intoxication as to unfit him, in their judgment, to be 
entrusted with the charge of a vessel; but in every such case an 
appeal may be had, as is hereinafter provided. 

§ 1515. The Commissioners shall have power, and it is their Power 
duty, to prescribe rules and regulations for the government of of commis- 

•^ -^ , . . sioners as to 

pilots, and to prescribe the fees for their services, and they may pilotage. 
also impose such penalties for neglect of duty, not inconsistent 
with this law, as they may think proper ; but until altered by 
competent authority, the fees of pilots shall remain as now fixed 
by law. 

§ 1516. Anv pilot who fails to act as pilot for three months, or License 

. . . , f, forfeited by 

absents himself for ten days at anyone time without les^ye oi ^on-user 

, , , , and absence, 

the Commissioners, may be deprived of his license ; and any pilot 
who shall, with knowledge of the arrest of any vessel under civil 
process from any Court of Record of this State, conduct or pilot 
such vessel out of the port or harbor where such arrest is made. And for pi. 
and whilst such vessel is in charge of a civil officer, shall forfeit seis * under 
his license and be forever disqualified from acting as pilot, be- 
sides forfeiting such sum as a jury may assess for damages. 

§ 1517. Every pilot boat cruising, or standing out to sea, must Duty of 
offer the services of a pilot to the vessel nearest the bar, unless a 
vessel more distant be in distress, under penalty of fifty dollars 
for each and every neglect or refusal, either to approach the near- 
est vessel, or to aid her if required, or to aid any vessel in sight 
showing. signals of distress; and the Commissioners, or a majority 
of them, may, for such neglect or refusal, deprive the pilot of his 

§1518. Any person, master or commander of a ship or vessel Master re- 

*^ •■■ jecting pilot 

bearing toward any of the ports or harbors of this State, except to pay ms 

, , expenses. 

coasters in this State, and between the ports of this State and 
those of South Carolina, and between the ports .of this State and 
those of Florida, and who refuses to receive a pilot on board, shall 
be liable, on his arrival in such port of this State, to pay the first 
pilot who may have offered his services outside the bar, and ex- 
hibited his license as a pilot, if demanded by the master, the full 
rates of pilotage established by law for such vessel. 


298 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— AGEicrLTrnE, Trade, etc. 

Article 1. — Pilotage. 

§ 1519. The pilot who brings a vessel into port shall have the 
Pilot bring- exclusive rio;ht to take her out, unless the master of such vessel 

ing in a ves- *-■ 

sei has a shall provc, to the satisfaction of the Commissioners that such 

right to lead r ? 

it^out pilot misbehaved himself whilst in charge of the vesssel, or was, 
in the meantime, deprived of his license, or that such pilot had 
obtained the inward pilotage against the right of some other pi- 
lot first offering his services, and in any of these cases another 
pilot may be employed. 

§ 1520. Any pilot having the right to take a vessel out of port 
Pilot may mav attend in person, or procure another person out of the pilot 

offer SQbsti- ^ ^ -, . , 1 . •, 1 ^ n ^■ ^ • n 

tute. boat to which he is attached to attend tor him : and it any master 

or owner of any vessel in port employ any other pilot to carry his 
vessel down the river, or to sea, but the pilot who brought her in, 
or one belonging to the same boat, unless good and sufficient cause 
shall appear therefor, on due proof thereof before the Commis- 
Penaity sioucrs. he shall be liable to a fine not exceedinor one hundred dol- 

against mas- ■ o 

ter for em- j^TS — onc-half to the pilot lawfully claimincr the pilotage of the 

ploying an- ^ •/ c 1 c 

other pilot, yesscl ; but should such pilot neglect or refuse to attend, and 
carry down such vessel when ready for sea (wind, weather, and 
tide permitting) when thereunto required by the master, owner, or 
PenaTty consiguec, such pilot shall, on conviction thereof before the Board 
for not going of Commissioncrs, forfeit the upper pilotage of such vessel, and 
seL be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, and any pi- 

lot actingr on board such vessel when he has no ri^ht shall be lia- 
Penalty blc to the samc penalty, and shall, moreover, be liable to the pilot 

for piloting . i • i n • i • i t i 

withou t having the right for carrying the same vessel out; provided^ the 
Commissioners have not sufficient evidence of the necessity of his 

§1521. The master of a vessel in readiness to leave. must, if 
Pilot to be practicable, give notice to the pilot entitled to conduct the vessel 

notified of ^ , . 

vessei-s de- out, of his intention to leave, or to some other pilot beloncfina: to 

parture. ' ' r c o 

the same boat ; provided^ such pilot be at the place of departure 
of such vessel, or near thereto. 

§ 1522. Every pilot in any of the harbors aforesaid bringing 
Pilot any vessel to anchor in any of said harbors, shall moor such ves- 

moor vessel. . . t./.i .-,, ii 

sel, or give proper directions tor the mooring oi the same, and the 
safe riding thereof, subject only to the legal harbor regulations of 
each port. 

§ 1523. A pilot bringing a vessel into port shall be entitled to 
his fees before her departure from port — to be paid in advance, or 

PT. 1,— TIT. 16.--CHAP. 3.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 299 

Article 1. — Pilotage. 

security given for the payment; and on failure thereof he may piiofsfees 
refuse to carry the vessel out, and all fees for pilotage may be de- before vessel 
manded and recovered, in any Court having jurisdiction, from the 
owner, master, or consignee of the vessel ; and if any licensed pi- 
lot shall ask or demand more fees for his services than are specified 
in the rates of pilotage, on due proof thereof before the Commis- 
sioners, he shall forfeit double the amount of such vessel's pilot- 

§ 1524. The owner, master, or consignee of any vessel carryino; Pen.iityfor 

•^ . ' . . Jo carrying off 

off any pilot of such vessel, and against his consent, to any port, or detaining 
either foreign or on the coast, shall be liable to such pilot, in an 
action on the case, for the payment of all reasonable expenses, 
and for the further sum of not exceeding three dollars a day, dur- 
ing the necessary absence of the pilot; provided^ the carrying 
away of such pilot be not owing to any default, misconduct, or 
negligence on his part ; and the master of a vessel detaining a pi- 
lot on board his vessel, the wind and weather permitting him to 
go to sea, shall be liable to pay such pilot three dollars a day for 
every day he is so detained. 

§ 1525, When any pilot boat belonginoj to a different pilot than Fees of pi- 

1 1 11 1 ? 1 1 . ^ot boat for 

the one who may have conducted a vessel out to sea takes such pi- taking pilot 

•^ , , from vessel. 

lot off from such vessel, such pilot boat shall be entitled to one- 
third of the pilotage. 

§1526. Whenever a vessel shall touch off the Bar of Tybee for Pilot's fees 

• • for deliver" 

instructions, any pilot delivering on board such vessel any letters ing letters, 

or orders shall be allowed full Bar or Cockspur pilotage in and 


§1527. Any pilot belonging to any port in this State, meeting pnot'sfees 
at sea with any vessel bound to another port within the same, vTsseuTa'S 
shall, if capable and thereunto required, take charge of and pi-** ^'^ p^^*- 
lot such vessel into such port, and shall be paid two dollars per 
day for every day such pilot may be on board such vessel at 
sea, Avithout the bars, over and above the usual rate of pilotage, 
and no other pilot shall interfere while the former is willing to 
continue his services. 

§ 1528. If any vessel whatsoever, or the cargo or freight Defanit of 
thereof, shall receive any damage or miscarriage, or be lost, punLlTcci.^^ 
through the negligence or default of any pilot, after such pilot 
takes charge of the same, and the claim exceeds one hundred dol- 
lars, the said pilot shall, in such case, on conviction thereof before 


800 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— AaRicuLTURE, Trade, etc. 

Article 1. — Pilotage. 

any Court of Record in this State, be obliged to answer and make 
good to the sufferers, or the master of said vessel, all and every 
the damages which he shall sustain thereby. 

§ 1529. All other cases of damage or difference that may arise 
other cases or be made against any master or pilot, for or concerning the pi- 

of damages " *' ■'- ' ^ or 

to be settled lotage of anv vessel, or any other matter relative to the business 

by Commis- o »/ / ./ 

sioners. qj. q^^^q q^ ^ pilot, in any of said harbors, shall be heard and de- 
termined by the Commissioners, or a majority of them, appointed 
for the care of the pilotage where such damage or dispute shall 
arise, who, by their decree or order, shall lawfully decide and reg- 
ulate every such damage or difference, and who shall have power 
to enforce such decree or order by execution or warrant of dis- 
tress under their hands and seals, or the hands and seals of any 
three of them, directed to any Sheriff or Constable of the County 
where such execution issues, commanding the sale of the offender's 
goods, or so much thereof as shall be sufficient to satisfy such 
execution or warrant, and all sales thereunder shall be conforma- 
ble to the laws of the State in other cases of sale ; and such 
Sheriff or Constable shall be liable to be ruled before the Judge 
of the Superior Court as in other cases, in term time or vacation, 
for any default in duly executing such process ; but in case of a 
sentence or judgment for more than twenty dollars, an appeal 
may be had, as is hereinafter provided. 

§ 1530. The Commissioners shall preserve, in a neatly bound 
Commis- book, a rccord of all their acts, and of the rules and regulations 

sioners must p-p i t • i p i • 

keep a re- adoptcd by them for the direction and government of the pilots; 

cord of rules, . . . 

«tc. but in the city of Savannah such rules and regulations shall not 

be operative until approved by the City Council. They must de- 
signate one of their number as Chairman, and cause a record 
thereof to be made, and prescribe such fees for the service of the 
pilots, and impose such fines and penalties not inconsistent with 
the provisions of this Chapter, as they may deem expedient. They 
must also preserve upon record a list of all persons appointed pi- 
lots by them, as well as those by them suspended. 

§ 1531. All persons interested shall have access to, and be per- 

Feesof Sec- mitted to havc, copies of the records ; and copies thereof certified 

retary. ^ -*■ ■*■ 

by the Chairman or Secretary shall be presumptive evidence of 
the facts therein stated. The Secretary of the Commissioners 
shall have such salary or fees as the Commissioners may deter- 
mine, and such salary or fees shall be paid out of fines and for- 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— AGRictJLTURE, Trade, etc. 301 

Article 1. — Pilotage. 


feitures, or sncli other fund as shall be under the control of the 

§ 1532. The office of the Commissioners must be kept in some office 

f.,.,, ,,. ini . 11- ^"'^ records 

suitable place, ot "wnich the public shall have notice, and their of commis- 

,,,. irr* • ^ sioners, etc 

books, papers, and records, may be kept m such office, or m the 
office of any Court of Record in the County. 

§ 1533. When the attendance of any person shall be required commis- 

1 /^ . . f. T^., . sioners may 

as a witness before the Commissioners of Pilotage m any matter compel at- 

^ , "^ tendance of 

or claim of which they shall have jurisdiction, it shall bo the ^vunesses. 
duty of their Secretary, on application, to issue summonses in the 
nature of writs of subpoena, to be signed by him and directed to 
the persons whose attendance shall be required, when such per- 
sons reside in the County where such matter or claim may be de- 
pending. The summons shall express the cause and the party 
at whose suit it shall be issued, and shall be served on such wit- 
nesses at least twenty-four hours before the meeting of the Com- 
missioners to which it shall be returnable, and it shall be served 
by the messenger of such Commissioners, or a Constable, and the 
return of such officer shall be evidence of the service of the subpoena. 

§ 1534. Any witness thus summoned, whose testimony shall May pun- 
- . ^ iiinr»'i 1 ^^^ default- 

appear to be material, and who shall tail to appear, may be at- ing witness- 

tached by the Commissioners, and the attachment shall be di- 
rected to a Sheriff or Constable, and made returnable to the next 
Superior or Inferior Court of the County ; and such Court may 
fine such witness in a sum not exceeding one hundred dollars, un- 
less a good excuse be made to the Judge of said Court, but such 
witness shall nevertheless be liable to action at the suit of the 
party injured by such non-attendance. 

§ 1535. When any witness may be a seaman or transient per- May cite 

,T r^ • ' . -I 1 ', 1 witnesses to 

son, the Commissioners may issue subpoena to such witness by answer in- 

■1 • ci ' ' !• • terroga- 

tneir secretary, requiring such witness to appear at a time and tories. 
place therein stated before any Justice of the Peace, or of the 
Inferior Court of the County, to answer written interrogatories to 
be propounded to him. 

§1536. The subpoena must be served twenty -four hours before service of 
it is returnable, and notice for the same length of time must be et". ^^" 
given to the adverse party, or attorney, agent, or consignee, of the 
time and place of putting such interrogatories. The officer tak- 
ing the depositions shall seal up and properly endorse and return 
such depositions, wdiich may be offered by consent or by order of the 

802 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.~CHAP. 3.— Agricultuee, Trade, etc. 

Article 1.— Pilotao-e. 

Commissioners, and sliall stand in the place of the oral examination 
of such witness, when his personal attendance can not be procured. 
§ 1537. The Secretary's fees for each subpoena shall be twenty- 
Fees for five cents ; for each attachment fifty cents ; for examining a wit- 
serving sub- 1 T ' o ^ Tt Tn- 

pcenas, etc. noss the J ustice of the Peace shall receive one dollar ; the Sheriff 
or Constable, for serving any subpoena, shall receive twenty-five 
cents, and for executing and returning an attachment to Court, 
fifty cents. 

§ 1538. In any case, where a pilot shall be suspended, or where 

Appeal from a fine cxceedins; the sum of twenty dollars shall be imposed by 

judgment of ^ ^ ^ "^ i •/ 

c ommis- any judgment or decision of the Board of Commissioners, or where 

SToners, etc, t/ ^ o ' 

the license or warrant of a pilot shall be revoked, then the person 
so fined, or the pilot so suspended, or whose license or warrant 
shall be revoked, may petition the Judge of the Superior Court 
of the County where such judgment or sentence may be made, 
setting forth, on oath, the circumstances of the case, a copy of 
which petition shall be served on the acting Chairman or Secre- 
tary of such Board at least three days before the return of any 
rule thereon ; and if, on reading such petition, the Judge shall 
think there is sufficient ground for the allowance of an appeal, he 
shall therein direct an issue to be made up between such Commis- 
sioners and the appellant, which ^issue shall be tried by a special 
jury, as in other appeal cases, at the next term of the Superior 
Court, unless good cause be shown for a continuance ; and if, upon 
such trial, a verdict shall be rendered in favor of the appellant, 
the said Judge shall make a rule remitting such fine, or restoring the 
suspended pilot, or the pilot whose warrant or license may have 
been revoked as aforesaid. 

§ 1539. In the case of an appeal, as aforesaid, commissions 
commis- mav issuc to take the depositions of any person not a resident of 

sioners to "^ •■■ *^ -^ 

take testi- the Couuty, or whose oral testimony can not be conveniently had, 

mony, etc. *' ■' *^ <j > 

as in other cases, before such Superior Court, but no such com- 
missions shall issue but upon three days' notice to the opposite 
party, by service of a copy of the interrogatories to be exhibited 
as in other cases. 

§ 1540. All fines and forfeitures collected by the Commissioners 
Fines and shall be applied toward payment of the ordinary expenses of the 

forfeitures— ^ ^ ^ «^ . . 

"ow dispos- Board, and the residue shall be expended by the Commissioners 
toward improving the navigation of the port or harbor where such 
fines and forfeitures are inflicted. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.- CHAP. 3.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 808 

Article 1. — Pilotage. 

§ 1541. No person shall receive a certificate to act as pilot until Pilots— 

. T ■when to re- 

ne shall have served two full years m a decked boat, and have ceive certm- 

•^ ' cate. 

given satisfactory evidence of character and skill ; and every cer- 
tified pilot shall serve eighteen months before he shall be entitled 
to an increased authority ; but, in case of emergency, such addi- 
tional pilots may be appointed as the Mayor or other chief officer 
of the port may determine — -the foregoing restrictions to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

§1542. All branch pilots must be appointed by the Commis- Branch pi- 
sioners, and whenever a vacancy occurs in a branch, the person appointed. 
who has served the longest time as an apprentice must, if deemed 
competent by the Commissioners, be appointed to the vacancy ; 
but no person can hold a branch who is not engaged in pilotage, 

§ 1543. If any master of a vessel, or water-craft of any descrip- Penalty for 
tion, shall throw, or permit to be thrown from on board such ves- i"? baiiast 

' ^ i- in bar Dor. 

sel or water-craft, into any of the waters of any bay or harbor of 
this State, or within three miles of the outside bar of any such 
bay or harbor, any stone, gravel, or other ballast, he shall forfeit 
a sum not less than five hundred nor more than two thousand dol- 
lars for any such oifense, and may be imprisoned not exceeding 
three months, at the discretion of the Court — -one half the for- 
feiture to be paid to any one first giving information of the of- 
fense to the Commissioners, and the other half to the use of the 
Commissioners of said harbors respectively, for improvement of 

§ 1544. Upon the Commissioners receivins; satisfactory evidence Proceeding 

. . . .for violat- 

of the offense specified in the precedino; Section, it shall be their ing preced- 

, - . ^ , ing Section. 

duty to proceed to recover such forfeiture by process of attach- 
ment, in the name of the State, which may be issued, as other at- 
tachments, on the oath of the informer, or of one of the Commis- 
sioners, and be levied on the vessel from which the offense was 
committed. The vessel may be replevied by the master, owner, 
or consignee, by giving bond, payable to the State, in double the 
amount of the penalty, with the condition to have the vessel forth- 
coming to satisfy such judgment as may be rendered in the 

§ 1545. It shall be the duty of every pilot, having knowledge penalty 
of the commission of the offense specified in the two preceding fo^^conLa^ 
feections, to give, as soon as practicable thereaiter, information fense< 
thereof to the Commissioners ; and, failing to do so, such pilot 

304 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 1. — Pilotasre. 

shall be deprived of his license, and be thereafter forever disqual- 
ified for the office of pilot. 

§ 1546. The City Council of Savannah shall have authority to 

incorpora- prohibit, Under proper penalties, the throwing or depositing in 

may pruhib- the Savaunah River, and within the iurisdictional limits of said 

it the (lis- . in i i 

charge of citv, of anv substancc of any nature or kind which might, in any 

ballast in na- J^ ^ J ^ & ? J 

vigabie wa- degree, lessen the depth of water in said river, or any part 
thereof, within said limits ; and the same authority is hereby 
vested in the corporate authorities of the other towns respectively, 
as to navigable waters within their respective jurisdictions. 

§ 1547. The same Boards of Commissioners are hereby author- 
Suits in ized, in their own names, or in that of their Chairman, respect- 

the name. ^ 

of commis- ivcly, as such, to sue tor and recover, to their own use and the 
improvement of navigation, any forfeiture which may accrue un- 
der this Chapter which is not otherwise specifically appropriated. 
§ 1548. All existing appointments of Commissioners of Pilot- 
Present age, and of officers under the same, as well as their rules and 

Com mis- ° ' 




3rs etc., regulations not contrary to law at the time of the adoption of 

stand*^ . .. . 

this Code, shall continue good and valid in law, according to 
their nature and terms, until superseded by authority of this 




1549. Defaulting seamen— how punished. 

1550. Proceedings against deserters. 

1551. Seamen not to be credited. 

1552. Sale of liquors to seamen. 

1553. Certificate of discharge. 

1554. Shipping an articled seamen. 


1555. Penalty for such shipping, etc. 

1556. Boarding vessel to abduct seamen. 

1557. Abducting seamen. 

1558. Harboring deserted seamen. 

1559. Illegal arrest o£ seamen. 

§ 1549. Any seaman having entered or shipped himself on 
Penalty board aiiy vessel within this State, or which shall come to the 

against sea- *' 

men absent- game, and haviug signed a contract with the master or commander 

mg them- ' o o 

selves. thereof to proceed upon any voyage therein mentioned, who shall 
absent himself from any such ship or vessel for twenty-four hours 
without leave of said master or commander, or other chief officer 
having command of such vessel, or who shall neglect or refuse to 
perform his duty on board the same, or refuse to proceed on the 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 305 

Article 2. — Seamen. 

voyage mentioned in such contract, may be apprehended on war- 
rant from any Justice of the Peace within his jurisdiction, upon 
application being made to him by such master or commander un- 
der oath, and upon proof of such absence without leave, or of 
such neglect or refusal as aforesaid, he may be committed to jail, 
or other secure place, for any time not exceeding thirty days, or 
until the sailing of such vessel, and the charge of apprehending, 
committing, and maintaining such seaman during his confinement 
as aforesaid, shall be paid by the complainant, and by him be 
deducted out of the wages due, or to be due, such SQaman ; but 
no seaman shall be received by the jailer until security shall 
have been given for the maintenance and jail fees of such sea- 

§ 1550. The Judge of the Superior Court, or Judge of any Trocecd- 

. 1 x • /^ ^"^^ against 

City Court, or a Justice of the Inferior Court, or Justice of the seamen and 

•^ . . apprentices. 

Peace of the County, or any similar officer of any seaport or 
County, on oath made before him that an articled seaman or ap- 
prentice has deserted or absconded from a vessel, describing said 
seaman and vessel, and that he is harbored or secreted by some 
person (describing him) in a certain place (describing it), may 
issue his warrant, directed to any lawful officer of the County, 
authorizing a search for and seizure of such person in the place 
designated, and to fully execute such warrant. Any person re- 
sisting such search or seizure may be fined and imprisoned at the 
discretion of any Court having jurisdiction. 
A § 1551. It shall not be lawful for any person to give credit to credit not 

W ^ ' . to be given 

any seaman belonging to any vessel within this State, having *» seamen, 
signed any contract to proceed therein, for any sum exceeding 
one dollar, except by leave of the master or commander of such 
vessel, on pain of forfeiture of the moneys or goods so credited. 

§ 1552. It shall not be lawful for any keeper of a tavern or Entertain- 

,., , ,,.... .. ing or furn- 

tipplmg house, or any other person selling intoxicating or spiritu- isiung sea- 
ous liquors, to sell any such liquors to any seaman belonging to spirituous ii- 
any vessel, and who may have signed any contract, to the amount iiibited. 
of more than thirty cents in any one day, or to entertain or suf- 
fer any such seamen to drink in such tavern or tippling house, 
or furnish such seamen with liquor after the hour of nine o'clock 
at night, unless with the consent of the master or commander of 
such vessel ; and any person ofi*ending against any of these pro- 
visions may, on conviction, be fined in a sum not exceeding fifty 

306 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 8.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 2, — Seamen. 

dollars, or be imprisoned in the common jail for not more than 
thirty days. 

§ 1553. Any seaman whose contract with any master or com- 
seamen mandcr of any vessel within the State, for the performance of 

m a V de- 

mand certif- any voyagc therein specified shall be determined, may demand 
charge. from him a certificate thereof, and of his discharge, and on refu- 
sing to give such certificate, without just cause, any two Justices 
of the Peace, upon due application and proof thereof, may give 
the same, which shall be of equal force as if given by such mas- 
ter or commander, who shall be liable, civilly, to pay one dollar 
for such certificate so given by such Justices, and shall, moreover, 
on conviction before any Court of competent jurisdiction, be lia- 
ble to a fine of fifty dollars for such refusal. 

§ 1554. No master or commander of any vessel, or other per- 
mring, re-son withiu this State, shall hire, receive, entertain, or ship, any 

ceiving, en- _ ' ' ' ? r? »/ 

Pertaining scamau bclonajinor to and pretending to be discharged from any 

or shipping . . . . . 

vbTd '^^^' ^^^^^h without a certificate of discharge being in possession of 
such seaman, under the penalty of fifty dollars for every such 
offense ; and the same penalty may be inflicted on any person 
keeping or attending any ferry within this State, who shall will- 
ingly transport, or suffer to be transported over such ferry, any 
fugitive seaman not having a certificate of discharge as afore- 

§ 1555. If any sailor boarding-house keeper, a runner, or ship- 
Penaity for piup; master, or other person, shall hire, receive, or entertain, or 

lairing, re- -^ . *= ' . . . . 

cQiying, . or ghip, any Seaman belonging to or pretending to be discharge 
s^^Dcen con- f any vessel, without a certificate of discharge being in pos- 
session of said seaman, or shall aid or be concerned in any man- 
ner in the shipping, or offering to ship, such seaman, the person 
tbus offending shall be fined and imprisoned a*t the discretion of 
the Court. Any order given by such seaman for advance wages 
shall be void. 

§ 1556. If any person shall board any vessel in any port or 
Boarding harbor, or on any of the waters of this State, with intent to in- 

vessel for ' . -^ . ' 

t^e purpose vcigle, entico, convey away, abduct, with or without violence, or 
ing — ho w secretly carry ofi*, any articled seaman or apprentice from such 

punished. »/ v' ? j rr 

vessel, or shall afford any conveyance or facility to such seaman 
or apprentice to leave such vessel, such person so offending shall 
be liable to indictment, and, on conviction, shall be fined or im- 
pr^isoned, p.r l)oth, at the discretion of the Court. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 3.— -Agriculture, Trade, etc. 


Article 2. — Seamen. 

§ 1557. If any person shall aid any articled seaman or appren- 
tice to desert from his vessel while within the waters of this State, 
or shall inveigle, entice, convey away, abduct, or carry, with or 
without violence, or secretly carry off, any articled seaman or ap- 
prentice from any such vessel, such person so offending shall be 
liable to indictment, and, on conviction, shall be liable to fine or 
imprisonment, or both, at the discretion of the Court. 

§ 1558. If any person shall harbor, secrete, entertain, lodge, 
or keep, or shall, directly or indirectly, suffer to be harbored, se- 
creted, entertained, lodged, or kept, in or about hi.s house or 
premises, any articled seaman or apprentice, knowing such sea- 
man or apprentice to have deserted from his vessel, such person 
shall be liable to indictment, and, on conviction, be fined in a 
sum of not more than five hundred dollars, or imprisoned, or both 
fined and imprisoned, at the discretion of the Court. 

§ 1559. The law in respect to the vexatious arrest and deten- 
tion of seamen, and to summary trial of causes, civil and crimi- 
nal, in which seamen and the captains and consignees of vessels 
may be concerned, shall be as is provided in this Code ; but if 
any provision in this Code contained shall conflict with the Code 
of the City of Savannah, appended hereunto, the said Code of 
Savannah shall prevail within the corporate limits of said city. 

seamen or 
to escape — 
how piin- 

seamen or 

arrest and' 
detention of 





Article 1. — Flour, Corn Meal, and Grain. 
Article 2. — -Wood, Turpentine, Timber, etc* 




1560. Inspectors — by whom appointed. 
156L Bolted flour shall be merchantable. 

1562. Flour barrels — dimensions, etc. 

1563. Flour shall be inspected — when. 

1564. Fraudulently packing flour. 


1565. Inspector can not purchase. 

1566. Selling without inspection. 

1567. Inspector's oath. 

1568. Corn meal, corn, and other grain. 

308 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 4.— Ageiculttjre, Trade, etc. 

Article 1. — Flour, Corn Meal, and Grain. 

§1560. The Inferior Courts in the several Counties of this- 
Inspectors State shall have power to appoint, annually, one person of good 
appointed, reputo to be inspector of flour in their respective Counties, but 
the same power may be exercised exclusively in any corporate 
towns within their corpoi'ate limits ; vacancies in such office of in- 
spector may be filled by the appointing powxr as soon as may be 
after the happening of any vacancy. 

§ 1561. All bolted wheat flour, and every cask thereof, brought 
Bolted flonr to the placcs aforcsaid for sale, shall be made, by the miller or man- 

s h a 1 1 be ^ ' ' '' 

merchan- ufacturer thcrcof, merchantable and of due fineness, and without 


mixture of coarse flour, or the flour of any other grain than 

§1562. All flour barrels packed for sale shall be well made, and 

ourbar- of Q^ood material, twenty-seven inches in length, tiojhtened with 

what the^ ^^ least tcu hoops, and sufficiently nailed, with the tare plainly 

must con- marked on the head thereof, and every miller or bolter sliall put 

into a barrel the full quantity of 196 pounds of flour, and shall 

put into every half barrel the quantity of 98 pounds of flour, and 

on failure thereof shall forfeit and pay the sum of four dollars 

for each barrel or bag, to be recovered by any informer before 

any Justice having jurisdiction thereof — one-half thereof to go 

to the informer and the other half to the County or corporation 

having the appointment of inspector. 

§ 1563. All barrels, half barrels, and bags of flour brought to 
Flour shall any place of inspection for sale shall be submitted to the view 

be submit- ^ .. f^ •, . iin t*i- 

ted for in- and examination ot the inspector, who shall* expeditiously inspect 
—when. the same by boring into the barrel, half barrel, or bag, from head 
to head, or end to end, with an instrument of not more than three- 
fourths of an inch in diameter, to be by him provided for that pur- 
pose, and if he shall judge the same well packed and merchanta- 
ble, he shall plug the hole and brand the barrel, half barrel, or 
bag with the name of the place at which he shall be inspector, 
with a public brand, or mark, to be by him provided for that 
purpose, and approved by the Inferior Court, City Council, or 
corporation, as the case may be, and shall also mark the degree of 
fineness which he shall determine the flour to be on inspection, 
which degrees shall be distinguished as follows: "Extra Family," 
"Superfine," "Fine," "Middling," "First," or "Second," for 
Fees for wMch troublc the inspector shall receive from the owner or con- 

inspeotion. . , f» r» i i 

signee at the rate ot live cents per barrel. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 4.— Agri€ulture, Trade, etc. 309 

Article 1. — Flour, Corn Meal, and Grain. 
§ 1564. If any person shall pack flour in an old barrel which Frandn- 

lently pack- 

"inay have been marked and branded as aforesaid, and which shall ingfiour. 
still have the brand of the inspector thereon, or shall otherwise 
fraudulently pack flour for sale, such person or persons shall for- 
feit and pay the sum of twenty dollars for every barrel so packed, 
to be recovered by any informer before any Justice of the Peace, 
or other Court having jurisdiction thereof — one-half of such pen- 
alty to go to the informer, and the other half to the miller or man- 
ufacturer injured by such false packing. 

§ 1565. No inspector shall be permitted, directly or indirectly, inspector 
to purchase anv nour by him condemned as unmerchantable, or chase except 

" , 1 1 r» 1 • /• •! for his own 

any other flour whatever, other than for his own or family use and use. 
consumption, under the penalty of thirty dollars for every barrel 
by him purchased, to be recovered by any informer before any 
Justice of the Peace, or other Court having jurisdiction — one-half 
of which shall belong to the informer, and the other half to the 
County or corporation having the appointment of the inspector. 

§ 1566. Any person who shall sell flour in or from any of the Penalty for 

^ . . . '' selling with- 

places where there is an inspector without an inspection as afore- o^it inspcc- 
said, shall forfeit and pay the sum of ten dollars for each barrel, 
half barrel, or bag so sold, to be recovered by any informer before 
any Justice of the Peace, or other Court having jurisdiction — one- 
half to go to the informer and the other half to the inspector. 

§ 1567. Every inspector, before entering on the duties of his of- inspector's 
flee, shall take and subscribe an oath or afiirmation before the Clerk 
of the Council, or Clerk of the Inferior Court, of which a minute 
shall be made, that he will faithfully perform the duties of his 
office, inspect all flour offered to him for inspection, and faithfully 
brand and mark the barrels or bags, as by law directed. Inspec- 
tors shall be liable to indictment for any neglect of duty, and 
upon conviction thereof shall forfeit and pay a sum of not less 
than thirty dollars. 

§ 1568. It shall be the duty of every inspector of flour to inspect corn meai, 
Indian corn and corn meal, wheat, and other grain in bags or in otLl- grain, 
barrels, when requested by the owner or consignee to do so, and spected. 
he shall brand only such as he may deem to be sound and mer- 
chantable, for which his compensation shall be three cents per bag 
or barrel, to be paid by the owner or consignee, as aforesaid. 

310 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAR 4.— Agrictulture, Trade, etc. 

Article 2. — Wood, Timber, Turpentine, Tobacco, Guano, etc. 





1569. Inspectors and rules of inspection. 

1570. Drifted timber — selling of. 

1571. Penalty for buying the same. 

1572. Pitch, tar, etc., to be inspected. 


1573. Turpentine barrels — dimensions of^ 

1574. How marked. 

1575. Corporate autho-rities — powers of. 

§ 1569. Inspectors may be appointed, their duties prescribed, 
V Inspectors their fees fixed, and inspection and markin»i; reguhations adopted, 

may be ap- ^ - • p • p i • • /» 

pointed for Dj the corporatc authorities oi any city, tor the inspection oi 
guano and other fertilizers, tobacco, salt, pitch, tar, turpentine, 
rosin, fish, oil, staves, shingles, timber, wood, lumber, and liquor, 
and such other articles and things as are usually the subjects of 
inspection and measurements, and for measuring and gauging 
the said articles, or any of them, within the limits of said cities ; 
and the same power may be exercised by the Inferior Court of 
every County, outside the limits of such town, and within the 
limits of such County ; prGvided, such regulations be not inconsis- 
tent with the following provisions : 

1. No person shall be permitted to inspect, measure, or gauge, 
Appointees cxccpt such as may be regularly appointed, under a penalty of 

spect. five hundred dollars for every ofi*ense, one-half to go to the infor- 

mer, and the other half to the incorporation or Court having the 
appointment of inspectors. Every person so appointed shall be 
Oath and required to take an oath or affirmation faithfully to perform the 

specters. dutics of the office to the best of his skill and ability, and shall, 
moreover, give bond and security for the faithful discharge of the 
duties thereof. All vacancies may be filled by the appointing 

2. In all seaport towns^ where timber or lumber is brought for 
Inspection exportation, or otherwise, the same shall be inspected and meas- 

urement of urcd, and bills for such measurement shall be made out in superfi- 


cial measurement. 

3. No lumber or timber inspector, or measurer, shall, during 
Inspector }iig term of office, be or become the clerk or agent of any lumber 

shall not be ^ ' . . 

of^'^humber ^^ timber buyer, or the clerk or agent of lumber mill, on pain of 
mill or buy- forfeiture of his office on conviction, and fine or imprisonment, at 
the discretion of any Court having jurisdiction. 

4. All square timber shall be measured as follows : The length 
shall be counted from pin-holes, and the size from the middle of 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 4.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 311 

Article 3. — Wood, Timber, Turpentine, Tobacco, Guano, etc. 

the stick, takino^ the smallest side and the face, throwiDg off frac- square 

^ ^ '-' lumber — 

tions, and allowino; one-half of the wainedge on the size and face, ^«^^ ^eas- 

' <^ . ured. 

and other flatted timber, usually known as saw or mill logs, shall 
be measured one-third from the smallest end. 

5. All sticks which are rotten, hollow, split, or broken, shall be Kefuse lum- 

' ber. 

declared refuse by the inspector, and the seller shall only be 
allowed one-half the measurement ; but if the defect be at or near 
the end, only so much as is defective shall be declared refuse. 

6. The book to the dip-rod shall not be less than one inch and Length of 

■"■ liook to dip 

three-quarters long. ^«^- 

7. Ranging timber, scantlings, and boards, shall be deemed . hanging 

<= o ' o 7 1 timber, etc., 

merchantable only when they shall have square edges, and be "^antabie" 
sound, and without decay ; nevertheless, if any scantling or board 
to be measured and inspected shall be split, decayed, or fractured, 
more than two feet and less than six feet from the end thereof, 
such split, decayed, or fractured part shall be left out and not 
counted in the measurement. 

8. Heading shall be two and a half feet long, six inches broad, Length 

Till p ^^^ quality 

one inch thick on one edge, and not less than three-quarters oi an of heading 

1 iTpp 1 ^^^ shingles 

inch on the other edge, sound and free from decay, worm or 
knot holes ; shingles to be twenty-two inches long, not less than 
three and a half inches wide, a half inch thick at the thick end, 
not decayed, and free from worm or knot holes. 

9. Pipe, hogshead, and barrel staves shall be considered mer- pipe, hogs- 
chantable only when conditioned as follows : Pipe staves to be at banei staves 

~~~wIiGn luGr*" 

least fifty-four inches in length, three inches in breadth, and one chantaWe. 
inch thick on the thin edge, sound and free from worm or knot 
holes ; hogshead staves to be forty-two inches long,' three inches 
broad, and not less than three-quarters of an inch thick on the 
edges, sound and free from worm or knot holes ; barrel staves to 
be two and a half feet long, three inches wide, and not less than 
three quarters of an inch on their edges, sound and free from 
worm or knot holes. 

10. [If any inspector or measurer of timber shall fail, neglect, iiiegaiin- 

. . MiiTi'i spectiun or 

or retuse to measure timber as is now prescribed by law, the said measure- 
ment or re- 
inspector or measurer shall be guilty of misdemeanor, and, on fusai. 

conviction, be subject to a fine of five hundred dollars and impris- 
onment in the common jail of the County for the term of three 
months.] (a) 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 26. 


312 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 4.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 2. — Wood, Timber, Turpentine, Tobacco, Guano, etc. 

11. Every cord of fire wood shall measure eight feet in length, 
What is a four in breadth, and four in height. Any person to whom such 

cord of fire- _ o ./ r 

wood, etc. ^ood is offered for sale, who may suspect any deficiency, shall 
have the right to have the same measured and corded by any 
sworn inspector or measurer of the place, and in case of any de- 
ficiency appearing, the seller shall, besides paying the fees of the 
inspector, make good the deficiency without delay, or forfeit, be- 
fore any Court having jurisdiction, the sum of two dollars for 

inspector — cvcry cord so deficient : in case of no deficiency appearing, the 

paid. fees of the inspector or measurer shall be paid by the buyer. 

The corporate authorities of any town or city may make such 

of corporis further regulations on this subject as to them shall appear proper 

etc. ^" ^^^' to insure the objects of this Section. 

§ 1570. No raftman or other person shall dispose, or attempt 

Penalty for to disposc, of any drifted timber or lumber taken up by him 

disposing: *'f . , . , . /-v, . ,. 

drifted tim- Within this State, ou pain of paying not exceeding five hundred 
dollars for every such offense, to be recovered in any Court hav- 
ing jurisdiction of the ^ame — one-half of the penalty to go to the 
informer, and the other to the use of the County wherein such 
off'ense may be committed — -or the offender may be imprisoned not 
more than six months ; but nothing herein contained shall pre- 
vent the finder of drifted timber or lumber from requiring and 
receiving from the owner reasonable compensation for delivering 
to the owner such drifted timber or lumber. 

§ 1571. Any person detected in purchasing drifted timber or 
Illegal pur- lumber as aforesaid, except from factors or timber cutters, shall 

chase of drif- , ■"• 

ted timber, bc liable, on couvictiou, to pay a fine of fifty dollars for every 

offense, or to "be imprisoned for a term not exceeding six months. 

§ 1572. No person shall ship, or put on board any vessel for 

Pitch, tar, exportation, from this State, any pitch, tar, rosin, or turpentine, 

etc., to be , , 

inspected before the same is inspected and marked, provided there beat 

hefore it is '■ '■ 

shipped. the port of exportation a sworn inspector of such articles, on 
pain of forfeiting one dollar for every barrel so shipped— one-half 
to go to the informer, and the other half to the use of the town 
or place of exportation. The true contents and quality of every 
barrel of such articles must be branded on the barrel. 

§ 1573. Every barrel of soft turpentine shall be formed of good 
Quality and suflicient staves, three-quarters of an inch thick, not exceed- 

etc, of tur- . _ . , . ^ II- 

pentine bar- mg fivc luches Wide, not Icss than thirty, nor more than thirty- 
two inches long ; the head not less than one, nor more than one 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 4.— Agkiculture, Trade, etc. 313 

Article 3. — Inspection of Liquors. 

and a half inch thick, and the barrel secured with twelve good 
hoops. If the turpentine be fraudulently mixed, it shall be con- 
demned bj the inspector and delivered to the owner. 

§ 1574. Each barrel of soft turpentine, after inspection, if found Barrels of 

'■ / * turpentine-- 

in conformity to the foregoing provisions, shall be branded or tow marked 
marked by the inspector as follows : The pure or virgin turpentine 
with the letter ''V," the yellow dip " S," the hard "H." 

§ 1575. The corporate authorities of any seaport town may Powers 

1 ir»i ^ • n ' ' n • ' 1 °^ Corporate 

make such lurther regulations tor inspection oi rosm, pitch, tar, authorities. 
and turpentine, and for the discovery of fraud in making and 
vending said articles, as to said authorities, respectively, shall 
seem proper. 




1576. Inspectors of, etc, — how appointed. 

1577. Duties of such inspectors. 

1578. Damaged liquors. 

1579. Evading inspection of liquors. 


1580. Fees of inspector. 

1581. Manufacturing drugged liquors. 

1582. Monthly inspections required. 

1583. Selling liquors without inspection. 

§ 1576. It shall be lawful for the several city and incorporated inspectors 

1 • • • 1 • ot 1 p "^ liquors, 

town authorities in this State to elect or appoint an inspector of etc. — how 

. . appointed. 

liquors, spirits and wines, and vinegar, within their respective 
jurisdictions, and the Inferior Court of the several Counties shall 
have the same authority of appointment within the several Coun- 
ties out of the jurisdiction of the city authorities. 

§ 1577. Such inspector, after being duly appointed as aforesaid, oathand 
and sworn by the Clerk of the Council, or Clerk of the Inferior inspector. 
Court, faithfully to discharge the duties of inspector, shall exam- 
ine and inspect all liquors, spirits and wines, or vinegar, kept by 
any person within the jurisdiction of such inspector, for sale in 
any quantities, and if, upon such inspection, any such shall be 
found to contain any strychnine or other poisonous drug or drugs, 
or offensive matter injurious to health by drinking or other use, 
such inspector shall immediately give notice thereof to the owner, 
who shall immediately destroy the same in the presence of the in- 
spector, or give bond and security to return the same to the per- 
son from whom he purchased without the limits of this State. 

§ 1578. Any person who shall sell, or offer to sell, any liquor, 

314 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 4.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 3. — Inspection of Liquors. 

Penalty for wine, OP spii'its, or vinesrar, knowinor the same to be so drucrored, 

selling drug- ' • ^ • i i n i co ) 

ged liquors, or after notice as aforesaid shall be given, shall be indicted in the 
Superior Court of the County where such offense may be commit- 
ted, and on conviction thereof, shall be fined, for the first offense, 
one hundred dollars ; for the second offense, two hundred dollars ; 
for the third offense, four hundred dollars ; and for the fourth of- 
fense, one thousand dollars, and in each case be imprisoned until 
such fine be paid. 

§ 1579. If any person shall refuse, or in any way prevent such 

Penalty for inspoctor from makinor such examination and inspection, after a 

evading in- *T .. 

spection of sccond demand made by such inspector, such person shall, upon 
indictment and conviction thereof, be fined and punished as in the 
immediate preceding Section ; jjrovided^ the inspector shall make 
the second demand in the presence of a competent witness and 
prove the same by said witness on the trial. 

§ 1580. Such inspector shall receive, unless other rates are pre- 
Fees of li- scribcd by the authorities appointing him, from the owner of said 

qnor Inspec- . . • -, 

tor. liquor, wine, or spirits, or vinegar, for every ten gallons so in- 

spected, five cents ; for twenty gallons, ten cents ; for forty gal- 
lons, fifteen cents ; for eighty gallons, twenty cents ; for one hun- 
dred and sixty gallons, twenty-five cents ; and at the same rates 
and proportions upward for any number of gallons so inspected, 
and he shall, if required, give a receipt and certificate therefor, 
and sh"all brand the barrels, kegs, or pipes when the means are 
provided by the owners therefor, and he shall also receive one- 
half of all fine moneys arising under conviction, which shall by 
no means disqualify him from being a witness for the State in 
cases of prosecution under any of the foregoing Sections. 

§ 1581. If any person shall manufacture any drugged, poison- 
Penaityforous or Other delctcrious and offensive liquors, wine, or spirits, or 


ing drugged vinegar, or adulterate any liquor, wine, or spirits, or vinegar, with 
poisonous material, such person so offending shall be indicted in 
the Superior Court of the County where the offense may be com- 
mitted for a misdemeanor, and on conviction therefor, shall be 
fined and imprisoned in the common jail at the discretion of the 

§ 1582. Such inspection shall be performed once a month, or 
Inspection whcncver called on so to do by seller or buyer. When by the lat- 

to be month- i i f» 

ly. ter, he pays the tees. 

§ 1583. When an inspector is appointed in any city or town, 

PT. 1. — TIT. 16. — Agriculture, Trade, etc. 


Chapter 5. — Weights and Measures. 

and due notice given of such appointment, any vender of liquors, Penalty for 

° ^ ^ 'J . selling li- 

in any quantity, who shall offer the same for sale before or with- q^^ors with- 

^ , *^ out mspfcc- 

out inspection, or a bo7ia fide effort to have the same inspected, ^^on. 
shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction, shall be 
fined or imprisoned, or both, at the discretion of the Court. 




1584. Seal or stamp for weights, etc. 

1585. Weights, etc., must be marked. 

1586. Selling by deficient weights, etc. 


1587. St:findard of weights, etc. 

1588. Clerk of I. C. to give notice. 

§1584. The Justices of the Inferior Court must procure for seaior 
their respective Counties a marking instrument, seal, or stamp, mTHci n^g 
for the purpose of marking all weights and measures which the mea^sm-es. 
Clerk of the Inferior Court may find not to weigh or measure less 
than the standard established by the Congress of the United States, 
which is the standard of this State. 

§ 1585. All persons engaged in selling by weights and meas- vendors 
ures shall apply to the Clerk of the Inferior Court of their re- weights anci 
spective Counties, and have their weights and measures so marked, marked. 
and in default thereof shall not collect any account, note, or other 
writings, the consideration of which is any commodity sold by ^ 
their weights or measures. 

§ 1586. Any citizen may complain to the Clerk of the Inferior seiiing by 

PIT . n ' ^ deficient 

Court of the deficiency of any weights and measures, whether weights or 

•^ . . measures — 

marked or not, and when done, it is the duty of said Clerk to no- howpunish- 

. . ed. . 

tify the person complained of, and give him the name of the com- 
plainant, and specify a day, not more than ten days distant, when 
he shall submit his weights and measures to the test of the Jus- 
tices of the Inferior Court, and if the complaint is found to be 
true, within the seller's knowledge, he shall be deemed a person 
selling by false weights and measures, and shall be presented by 
the Grand Jury as such, if no person appears and indicts. 

§ 1587. The Governor shall procure standards of weights and standards of 

(, 1/^ I'll 1 -I 11 weights and 

measures tor each County vmich does not have them, and they, measures to 

"^ ' be procured. 

together with the marks provided by the Inferior Court, shall be 
kept in the office of their Clerk for the inspection of the citizens. 

316 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 6.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 1. — Cotton, Rice, etc. 

§ 1588. When such standards are obtained, it is the duty of 
Clerk io such Clerk to erive sixty days' written notice thereof at the door 

give notice. Jr. i • i 

of the Court House, and in the public gazette where the Sheriff 

of the County advertises his sales. 




Article 1. — Cotton., Rice., etc. 
Article 2. — Cultivation of Rice. 
Article 3. — Oysters, Turtles. 
Article 4. — Fishing. 
Article 5. — Boats and Crews. 
Article 6. — Peddlers. 




1589. Sale of cotton and other produce. 

1590. Purchaser failing to pay. 

1591. Acceptor of draft failing to pay. 

1592. Shall not be convicted — vrhen. 

1593. Evidence of receipt of cotton, etc. 

1594. Copartners — when liable. 


1595. Oath, etc. 

1596. Weighing without oath, etc- 

1597. Tare on rice, 

1598. Tare on other articles, 

1599. Xo deduction to be made. 

1600. Weighing — how regulated. 

§ 1589. Cotton, corn, rice, or other products sold by planters 
Ownership and coDimission merchants on cash sale, shall not be considered 

of cotton, 

etc., not as the property of the buyer, or the ownership given up, until the 

cnanged un- ij.*/ .) 7 lo r^ 

til paid for. same sliall be fully paid for, although it may have been delivered 
into the possession of the buyer. 

§ 1590. Any person engaged in the business of buying such 
Penalty for commodities, either on his own account or for others, who shall 

failing to 

pay for cot- buy such OH Sale from a planter or commission merchant for cash, 

ton, etc "^ ^ ^ ' 

and shall fail or refuse to pay for the same, and shall make way 
with or dispose of the same before he shall have paid therefor, 
shall be deemed guilty of fraud and embezzlement, and shall be 
liable, on conviction, to be imprisoned in the Penitentiary for a 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 6.— AcxEicuLTUiiE, Trade, K£c. 317 

Article 1. — Cotton, Kice, etc. 

term not less than one year, nor more than five years^ at the dis- 
cretion of the Court. 

§1591. [If any person shall accept in writing any bill of ex- Penalty for 
change or draft, drawn upon him, in the body of which bill or pay accepted 

° ' ^ ' ... draft or bill 

draft shall be specified the amount for which it is drawn, and the of exchange 
time when it is payable, and that it is drawn against certain bales 
of cotton, enumerating them and referring to their marks on the 
margin, and that the same were sent to the drawee of said bill or 
draft, subject to the payment of said bill or draft to the payee or 
his order, to whom the title to said cotton was conveyed, and after 
such acceptance, shall fail or refuse to pay to such payee or his 
order, when the bill or draft shall fall due, the full amount of the 
proceeds of the sale of said cotton, if sold by such acceptor, or 
shall fail or refuse to deliver to the payee, or his order, the bales 
of cotton specified in said bill or draft, when demanded, after 
non-payment of said bill or draft, then such acceptor shall be 
guilty of a high misdemeanor, and, on conviction, shall be pun- 
ished by confinement in the Penitentiary for not less than one, 
nor more than five years, at the discretion of the Court.] (a) 

§1592. fNo person shall be convicted under the provisions of Not to be 

1 • CI • • r» 1 11 • convicted — 

the preceding Section, if he can show that the cotton received ^ben. 
by him was destroyed by accident, or that he was fraudulently or 
forcibly deprived of the possession thereof, or of the value of the 
same after it was sold.] (a) 

§ 1593. FThe acceptance in writing of the bills of exchange or Accept- 

. ° . J, , . ance prima 

drafts, specified in Section 1591, shall be held as jt?rma facie evi-/«c^■6 evi- 
dence of the value of the receipt by the acceptor of the cotton 
specified therein, and prima facie evidence of the value being 
the amount specified in the bill or draft.] (a) 

§ 1594. [If such bill or draft shall be drawn on, and accepted copartners 
by a mercantile copartnership in the name of the firm, each of the bie. 
copartners shall be held frima facie liable to all the provisions 
of the three preceding Sections.] (a) 

§ 1595. It shall not be lawful for any salesman, or other per- oath of 

« .1 .^. . .■■•■ p 1 • o( one weigh- 

son, m any oi the cities, towns, or villages oi this Stale, or at any ing cotton 

•11' 1 • 1 iiT 1 n **^d rice. 

railroad station or depot, to weigh any bale, bag, or package of 
cotton, tierce or half tierce of rice, or any other article of pro- 
duce disposed of by weight, without first taking and subscribing 

(a) Acts of 1859, pp. 61-3. 

S18 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 6.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 1.— Cotton, Rice, etc. 

an oath before some person authorized by law to administer it, 
that he will justly, impartially, and without deduction, weigh all 
such produce, and all other articles of produce disposed of by 
weight that may be shown to him for that purpose, and tender a 
true account thereof to the party or parties concerned, if so re- 
quired. The weigher may, nevertheless, make such deductions 
for wet or other cause which may be reasonable, when the seller 
or his agent shall thereto consent, and for such tare as may by 
law be allowed ; but no tare shall ever be allowed on bales of un- 
manufactured cotton, except the usual deduction of two pounds 
from the weight of every bag of cotton having knobs or tugs 

§ 1596. Such oath, when taken, must be filed in the Clerk's 
Oath to be office of the Inferior Court of the County, and a minute made 

recorded, ^ ^ '' 

and penalty thcroof I and if auv person weis^hs such produce without having 

for weighing ' ./ r o i o 

Without oath taken and filed such oath, he and the factor, or person who may 
employ him, are liable each twenty dollars for every bag of cot- 
ton, five dollars for every tierce of rice, twenty-five cents for 
every bushel of corn, and one-third the value of any other pro- 
duct so weighed — one-half to go to the informer, the other half 
to the Educational Fund of the County. 

§ 1597. The tare to be allowed on rice shall be the actual tare, 

Tare on rice, as nearly as can be determined, except in cases of the sale of a 
single tierce, half tierce, or barrel, where a tare of ten per centum 
shall be allowed, unless otherwise agreed on, between the buyer 
and seller. 

§ 1598. In other cases where tare is usually allowed, the actual 

Tare on oth- tare, as nearly as the same can be ascertained, shall be allowed, 

erarticlesv , , -,i i i i 

except where the seller and purchaser may expressly agree upon 
a different rule. 

§ 1599. It shall not be lawful for any purchaser or wergher to 
No deduc- ijiake any deduction from the weight of any article for or on 

tion to be "^ o ./ 

made for account of the draft or turn of the scales or steelyard, under a 

t u r n or ./ ^ 

scales, etc penalty, for every such offense, of five hundred dollars, to be re- 
covered in any court having jurisdiction, one-half to go to the in- 
former, by whom the suit may be brought, and the other half to 
the use of the County where the offense may be committed. 

§ 1600. The corporate authorities of all cities and towns may 
make such further regulations for the weighing of produce of all 
descriptions, including fees for weighing, as in their judgment 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 6.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 819 

Article 2. — Cultivation of Rice. 


maj tend to eiFect the objects of the foregoing provisions, and the 
Inferior Courts of the respective Counties shall have the same etc., may 

i regulate 

power, to be exercised outside the jurisdictions of said incorporated weighing. 
cities or towns ; but, until altered bj such authorities or Courts^ 
fees for weighing shall be such as are now fixed by law. 




IGOlv Water shall not be diverted. 

1602. Rice dams — when to be opened. 

1603. Penalty for obstructing. 

1604. Persons injured — how redressed. 
IGOoi. Proceedings for redress. 

1606. Award of freeholders. 


1607. Person may drain his own land. 

1608. Proceedings in case of obstruction. 

1609. Dam not to be stopped — when. 

1610. Inadequate dams. 

1611. Compensation of freeholders. 

§ 1601. No person shall be permitted to make or keep up any water not 
dam to stop the natural course of any water, so as to overflow the ^d. 
lands of any other person, without his consent, nor shall any person 
stop or prevent any water from running off of any person's field, 
whereby such person may be prevented from planting in season, 
or receive any other injury thereby, nor so as to turn the natural 
course of any Avater from one channel or swamp to another, to the 
prejudice of any person. [And whenever the owner of any land Drain may 
in this State shall refuse to extend any drain or ditch through the ed. 
same, that may be dug to the line of his lot by the owner or occu- 
pant of adjoining land, then the said adjoining owner or occupant 
shall be privileged to extend his drain at his own expense through 
any such lands to a proper outlet ; and if his land shall be injured 
or decreased in value by reason of said draining, then the party 
injured shall receive full compensation from the person so draining, 
for the injury done. The question of such injury in value may be 
submitted, on request of either party and notice given, to three, 
disinterested freeholders, to be chosen by the Inferior Court of 
said County, and they shall make an award upon the same rules 
and regulations as are now provided by law touching arbitration 
and awards ; provided^ said award shall be made and just compen- 
sation paid before the drain or ditch is commenced.] (a) 

§ 1602. Every person who shall keep water during the winter 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 27. 

320 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. G.-^Agriculture, Trai>e, etc. 

Article 2. — Cultivation of Rice. 

^Eice dams upoii grounds where rice will be planted the ensuing spring, shall 
be opened, annually, bj the fifth day of March, open the dams which keep 
up the water, and let off the same. 

§ 1603. Upon the violation of the provisions of either of the 
Penalty for preccdinp; Sections, the person offending forfeits five hundred dol- 

violatingthe ^ o ^ i o 

in'VcSons" ^^^'^ wpou the complaint of any person interested ; one-half of the 
recovery goes to the informer, the other to the Educational Fund 
of the County. 

§ 1604. When any person has thus offended in the manner 
Person in- aforcsaid, a person affected thereby may apply to a mao;istrate 

jured may ..,.. . -, ,. •/. >' ^ ^ >' o 

apply for who has jurisdiction m the district for a warrant of survey, and 

warrant of *^ . *' 

survey. shall also, thereupon, notify the defendant of the complaint, and 
of the time and place of meeting. 

§ 1605. The magistrate shall have summoned three disinterested 
Proceed- froehoWers of the neighborhood or district where the cause of 

Ings under . . r» i ^ ^ 

the warrant, complamt exists, ouc 01 whom must be chosen by each oi the 
parties and the other by the magistrate ; but if the defendant 
neglects before the day of meeting to make a choice, the magis- 
trate may choose for him ; they must be sworn before such magis- 
trate, to determine the matter in dispute justly and impartially ; 
shall proceed to view the obstruction, and are empowered to do so 
without the attendance of either party, unless such are providen- 
tially prevented, and must report their proceedings to the magis- 
trate without delay. 

§ 1606. If, on view thereof, a majority of said freeholders decide 
Award of that Said obstructions do or may prevent the party complaining 

freeholders. ^ .. . ... 

from planting his crop of rice in due time, or otherwise injure 
him, they shall furnish an immediate remedy in any w^ay they 
think necessary to give the most effectual relief, the losing party 
paying the costs of the proceeding. 

§ 1607. Such proceeding does not apply to any person who shall 
Drainage havo made throuo^h his own land sufficient drainage, of which said 

not herein ^ , • i i 

prohibited, freeholder shall be the judge, to carry off the waters passing through 
the same, in as expeditious a manner as they could have passed 
through the natural course or channels if no such banks had been 

§ 1608. Any person between said fifth of March and the first 
Proceed- day of September of each year may apply in like manner for a 

ings in case '' ^ *^ ^ x r ,/ 

of any ob- •v\'arrant of survey on any obstructions which may impede the 

structions. ^ ,/ ,; ^ l ^ 

conveying of any surplus water on his rice grounds, and which by 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.- CHAP. 6.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 321 

Article 3. — Cultivation of Rice. 

remaining thereon may prove injurious, or shall keep up any dam 
which shall stop the water so as to overflow his lands to his injury. 
In such cases the proceedings are the same as heretofore set forth. 

§1609. If any person shall, by himself, or throuo;h his orders, Penaiityfor 

, , . T "^ ' , * . , . 1 stopping np 

or by his agent, stop up any dam or replace any obstruction which dam when 
has been opened or removed, or which has been thus done by him- authority. 
self on the said fifth of March until the first day of July next 
thereafter, or shall obstruct or hinder the opening of any dam or 
removing of obstructions decided to be opened or removed, he for- 
feits, as aforesaid in this Chapter, one thousand dollars for each 
ofi*ense to the person aggrieved, besides his liability for the actual 

§ 1610. When any dam has been made to form reservoirs of inadequate 

. , ry • 1 • • 1 • (lams to be 

water without sumcient waste-way, and is inadequate to sustain enlarged. 
the weight of water, the owner of such dam shall immediately 
cause the same to be enlarged, strengthened, or erected in a sub- 
stantial manner, with a sufficient waste-way. If, on a survey by 
freeholders, he neglects to make the improvements they require, 
within the time they may designate, he shall forfeit to any person in- 
jured, or liable to be injured, as last aforesaid. 

§ 1611. The freeholders are entitled each to three dollars per compensa- 
day, and if duly summoned and they fail to attend, without provi- holders, etc. 
dential cause or necessary absence from the district, they forfeit 
to either party one hundred dollars. The magistrate and witness- 
es, if any, receive the costs allowed in the trial of forcible entries 
and detainers. 




1612. Oysters — manner of taking. 

1613. Violating preceding Section. 

1614. Planted oyster-beds protected. 


1615. Exclusive right of land-owner. 

1616. Turtles — when to be taken. 

1617. Violating three preceding Sections. 

§ 1612. It shall not be lawful to take or catch any oysters in oysters- 
any of the waters of this State with or by a scoop, rake, drag, or manner u- 
dredge, or by the use of any other instrument than the oyster 
tongs heretofore in general use for taking oysters, and every per- 
son taking oysters, in violation of law, shall forfeit such sum for 
every offense as the Court having jurisdiction may determine, and 

322 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 6.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 

Article 3. — Oysters, Turtles, etc. 

shall forfeit to the State the boat or vessel employed in such un- 
lawful business, her tackle, apparel, and furniture. 

§ 1613. On complaint made upon oath before any Judo^e or Jus- 

Proceed- ticc of this State, in any County where the offense may be com- 

viSiator of mittcd, of the violation of the provisions of the foregoinor Section, 

preceding ^ -^ o o 7 

Section. such officer shall issue his warrant for the arrest of the offender, 
and shall commit or let to bail, according to law, and in such war- 
rant, authority shall be given for the arrest of every such boat ; 
and such boat, her tackle, apparel, and furniture shall not be re- 
leased, except upon bond, with good security, for the forthcoming 
of such vessel and appurtenances to answer any judgment of for- 
feiture. In case such boat and appurtenances be not replevied 
within one month after arrest, the same may be sold by order of 
such Judge or Justice, and the proceeds shall be paid into the of- 
fice of the Superior Court of the County, there to await the or- 
der of said Court. 

§ 1614. Where any person having taxable lands upon the banks 
Planted or shores of any of the rivers or creeks of this State shall plant 

oyster beds to ^ • ^ ^^ 

protected, bcds of oystcrs upou them, it shall not be lawful for any other 
person to take from such beds of oysters ; pj^ovided, the same shall 
be distinctly staked or othjerwise marked. 

§ 1615. When oyster banks, or beds of oysters, or natural for- 
Exciusive matiou, be within rivers or creeks of this State, not exceeding one 

right of cer- ,,,, r»«'iii to c 

tain land- hundred and twenty feet in width, and not used tor purposes 01 

owners to _ '^ , 

oyster beds, navigation, the persons having the ownership of the lands upon 

both sides of such creeks or rivers shall have the exclusive right 

to the usufruct of such banks or beds of oysters as aforesaid. 

§ 1616. It shall not be lawful to take terrapins and turtles with- 

Turties-^ in tidc-watcr at any time other than from the first day of May to 

Avhen to be i p o( i ./ ./ 

taken. the first day of September. . ^ 

Violation S 1617. For any violation of the three precedins; Sections the 

of tbe three "^ "^ . r o 

preceding ofi*ender shall be subiect to a penalty of not less than fifty nor 

Sections— o r j */ 

how punish- more than five hundred dollars. 





1618. Fishing regulated. 

1619. Violating preceding Section. 


1620. Vessels engaged in fishing. 

1618. It shall not be lawful for any person to inhabit, occupy 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAR 6.-~Agriculture, Trade, etc. 323 

Article 4. — Fishing. 

or reside in any vessel, ark, or flat on any river of this State risWng 

•^ ' ' *^ regulated. 

which shall not be engaged in the lawful commerce of the same, 
in the carriage or transportation of goods or produce to or* from 
market, unless owned by the proprietors of the shores, or their 
lessees ; "provided^ nothing contained in this and the previous 
Section shall be construed to prevent the owners of the land on 
said rivers, or their lessees, from taking fish in the river opposite 
their banks ; but no seine shall be permitted to be used in said 
rivers, either by such owners or their lessees, from sunset on Sat- 
urday to sunrise on Monday ; and provided, also, that every 
lease or license to fish shall be recorded within ten days after the 
granting thereof in the Clerk's office of the Superior Court of the 
County where the land lies. 

§ 1619. Every offense against any of the foregoing provisions Penalty 

ini '111 r» T 1 Tiin for violating 

shall be punished by a nne not exceedinp; two hundred dollars, to the preced- 

/ -f. ^ ing Section. 

be applied to educational purposes. 

§ 1620. It shall be lawful for all civil officers, at all times, to officers may 

*^ •' 'visit and 

visit and search all vessels, covered flats, or arks, and boats search ves- 

' ' ' sels, etc. 

engaged in fishing, or trading illegally on any river of this State, 
and to cause offenders, therein found, against any of the laws of 
this State to be committed or bound o'ver to answer for offenses 
against such laws. 




1621. Bills of lading must be granted. 
1G22. Penalty for^-cfusing such bills. 


1023. Traffic witli bands, etc>, prohibited, 
1624:. Shipping of articles prohibited. 

§ 1621. It shall be the duty of all owners or agents of boats owners of 
employed in the navigation of the navigable waters of this State, graitwi^l^ 
to grant to each and every boat, respectively, previously to its de- '^ ^''^' ^ ^' 
parture from the wharf or landing, a certificate or bill of lading, 
showing its destination, contents, and the name of its captain or 
patroon, and consignee, vfhich certificate or bill of lading shall at 
all times be subject to the examination of any free w^hite person 
requiring the same. 

§ 1622. Any such owner or agent neglecting or refusing to fur- 
nish certificate or bill of lading, and any such captain or patroon 

324 PT. 1.— TIT. 16.— CHAP. 6.— Ageicultuhe, Trade, etc. 

Article 5. — Boats and Crews. 
Penalty for refusinaj to exhibit the same on demand as aforesaid, may be sev- 

not granting ^ ^ > ^ 

and exhibit- erallv indicted, and for every offense, be fined in a sum not ex- 

mg bill ot "^ ' ./J 

lading. ceeding fifty dollars — one-half the penalty in such case to go to 
the informer, and the other half to the use of the County where 
such conviction takes place. 

§ 1623. It shall not be lawful for any owner, captain, or patroon 
Owner of of a boat, navigating any of the navigable rivers of this State, to 

boat not to . Ill 1 1 IT 

allow illegal suiier or permit any boat hand taput on board such boat, any corn, 

traffic with 5 . , ■ J ^ 

bands. cotton, rice, stock, poultry, or other articles that may by law be 
prohibited, as an article of traffic to such boat hand, as the prop- 
erty of such boat hand, nor shall such owner or patroon suffer the 
boat hands on board such boat to barter or trade the one with the 
other, in any such article or articles of produce under any pretext 
whatever, under penalty of fine and imprisonment at the discre- 
tion of the Court, on conviction of the party for violating any of 
the foregoing provisions. 

§ 1624. No owner, captain, or patroon of such boat, shall per- 
ownernot ^it any sucli boat hand to take with him any such articles, unless 

to allow ar- •' %i < 

tides ship- i^Ijq same shall be stated in such certificate or bill of lading, and 

ped, unless o' 

Sng.'^ "^ ^^ ^^^ articles shall be immediately under the direction of such 
owner, captain, or patroon, or the agent of the owner, under pen- 
alty of fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the Court for 
every ofi'ense against any of said provisions-. 




1625. License to peddle — lioW obtained. 

1626. License — when unnecessary. 

1627. Groods not to be sold by sample. 

1628. Qualification, etc., of peddler. 


1629. Each vehicle mtfst be licensed. 

1630. License-^powerof J. I. C. to grant. 
1831. Citizens only can obtain a license. 
1632. Indictment and trial. 

§ 1625. Every peddler or itinerant trader, by sample or other- 
License to wise, in any article not manufactured in this State, must apply to 
the Clerk of the Inferior Court of each County where he may de- 
sire to trade, for a license, which shall be granted to him on the 
terms the Justices of the Inferior Court have or may impose. If 
they have made no rule, such Clerk shall immediately inform such 
Justices. They are authorized to impose such tax as they may 
deem advisable ; 'provided^ it is not less . than fifty dollars, to be 

PT. 1.— TIT. 16.~CHAP. 6.— Agriculture, Trade, etc. 325 

Article 6. — Peddlers. 

tised for County purposes. The license extends only to the limits 
of the County. 

§ 1626. None of the provisions of this Article shall extend to Exceptions, 
persons selling the agricultural products of any State, nor toper- 
sons selling agricultural implements. 

§ 1627. A person not n citizen of this State shall not sell any Goods not 

- to be sold by 

article not manufactured in this State by sample. sample. 

§ 1628. The peddler shall furnish said Clerk with evidence of Qualifica- 
tions and 
his good character, and shall take and subscribe before him this oath of ped- 

, . ... ^^^r- 

oath: ^'I swear that I will use this license in no other County 

than the one for which it is granted, nor suffer any person to use 

it in my name^ and that I am a citizen of this State. So help me 

God." Said oath and license must be entered in the book kept 

for that purpose, and the license must contain a description of tho 

person of the peddler. 

§1629. There shall be separate licenses for every wagon, cart, Must be a 
or other vehiclo (or each horse, if the peddling is done on horse- each vehicle 
back), employed or used in vending such goods, wares, or mer- 
chandise, which shall be shown to any officer, civil or military, de- 
manding it, and on failure or refusal so to exhibit, the peddler for- 
feits five hundred dollars, to >be recovered on suit of the informer — 
one-half to go to the informer, the other to the Educational Fund 
of the County. 

§ 1630. The Justices are authorized to grant licenses to peddle Authority 

. ° ^ of J. 1.0. 

to indigent and infirm persons upon such terms as they in their 
discretion may impose^ 

§1631. A foreigner not a citizen shall not be granted license Foreigaers 

Till ... ™ay not be 

to peddle, unless he shall have declared his intention to become licensed. 
a citizen, and he shall swear to such fact, instead of that he is a 

§ 1632. On the trial of a foreigner for illegal peddling, whether inindict- 
with or without license, the State is only required to prove the onus is on 

1 IT 1 1 r ' • T r> T defendant 

pedaling, and the torei^ner mus,t show, m defense, his eligibility, etc 



PT. 1, — TIT. 17. — Salaries and Fees &f Officers. 

Chapter 1. — Officers connected with the Executive Departments 






1633. Salaries appropriated. 

1634. Salaries of Executive officers. 


1635. Pay of those without fixed salaries. 

§ 1633. [The various sums of the annual salaries of all the of- 
ficers of this State, whose salaries are fixed by law, are hereby 
appropriated annually to pay said officers, until they are altered 
by law.] (a) 

§ 1634. The salaries per annum x)f such officers, respectively^ 
Salaries of are as follows : 


officers. j-^j^^ Governor $4000 00 

The Governor's Secretaries, each 1800 00' 

The Governor's Messenger 950 00' 

The Comptroller General 3000 00 

The Clerk of the Comptroller General 1600 00 

The State Treasurer 2000 00 

The Secretary of State 2000 00 

The Clerk of the State Treasurer 1600 00 

The State Librarian 1200 00](b> 

§ 1635. All persons employed by the Governor for whom no» 
Pay of of- compensation is prescribed are paid, according to his discretion, 
salaries are out of the moncy appropriated therefor. If no money is thus ap- 
propriated, and the employment is indispensable, he has the priv- 
ilege to pay them out of the contingent fund. 

(a) Acts of 1865-^, pp. 11, 12. (b) Acts of 1865-«, p. 16. 

PT. 1. — TIT. 17. — Salaries and Fees of Officers. 

Chapter 2. — Other Officers appointed by the Governor. 



Section. I Section. 

1636. Pay of officers appointed, etc. ' 1637. Governor may fix pay, etc. 


§1636. The salaries per annum of such officers, respectively, g^^^^y^^^^^; 
are as follows : Ste^L.'^ 

The Trustees of the Lunatic Asylum, each $ 100 00 

[The Principal Keeper of the Penitentiary 2000 00 

The Assistant Keeper of the Penitentiary 1200 00 

The Book-keeper and Salesman of the Penitentiary 1200 00](a) 

The Tanner of the Penitentiary 1200 00 

The Overseer of the Penitentiary 800 00 

The Physician of the Penitentiary 500 00 

The Chaplain of the Penitentiary 150 00 

The Military Store-keeper at Savannah 300 00 

The Military Store-keeper at Milledgeville 150 00 

§ 1637. If the Governor establishes other places of keeping ^^a^^g^'^the 
the military stores of the State, he may regulate the salaries of g^ J^p^^j.g' 
all the keepers thereof, so that the compensation -will be in pro- 
portion to their respective duties and responsibilities, which, when 
done, shall be reported to the General Assembly. 



Section 1638. Salary of officers of Asylum, etc. 

§ 1638. The salaries, per annum, of such officers, respectively, salary of 

- i» n officers of 

are as tollOWS: the Asylum, 


The Superintendent and Principal Physician of the Lunatic 

Asylum $2500 00 

The Assistant Physician 1250 00 * 

The Superintendent of the Georgia Military Institute 2500 00 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 16. * See second paragraph of Section 1368. 


PT. 1. — TIT. 17. — Salaries and Fees of Officers. 

Chapter 4. — Officers connected with the Legislative Department. 



Section 1639. Salary and fees of Legislative officers. 

§ 1639. The salaries, per session, of the officers connected with 
Salaries Said department, who receive such, and which are embraced in 

and fees of . . p , 

Legislative the appropriation for the pay of officers and members of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, are — 

The Secretary of the Senate ." $500 00 

The Clerk of the House of Representatives 500 00 

The fees of said officers are— 

For every extract of a private nature, per copy sheet 15 

For certifying an extract of a private nature 50 

For certifying an act for the benefit of an individual, or corpo- 
ration, or society • 3 00 




1640. Salaries of Judges and Sols. General. 

1641. Certificate of service. 

1642. Fees of Attorney General. 


1643. Fees of Sol. Gen'l Supreme Court. 

1644. Fees in certain cases. 

1640. The salaries, per annum, of such officers, are as foi- 

Salaries of loWS : 
Judges and 

Fees of So- 
licitor Gen- 

The Judges of the Supreme Court, each |3500 00 

The Reporter of the Supreme Court 1000 00 

The Judges of the Superior Court, each 2500 00 

[The Solicitors General of the several Circuits, each 300 00] (a) 

The fees of such officers are as follows : 
1. Solicitor General — 

For each person prosecuted to conviction for a capital offense, 

For each person prosecuted [to trial or plea of guilty] (b) for any 

other felony, and for any violation of the laws against gam- 


50 00 

25 00 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 250. (b) Acts of 1866, p. 21. 

PT. 1.— TIT. 17.— Salaries and Fees of Officers. . 329 

Chapter 5. — Officers connected with the Judicial Department. 

For each person indicted or presented : $ 5 00 

For each proceeding to enforce a recognizance 5 00 

For every amount collected on such proceedings, five per cent. 

For every proceeding instituted to forfeit a charter 100 00 

For services in the Supreme Court — 

First — In capital cases 50 00 

Second — Other felonies 30 00 

Third — All other cases 15 00 

Fourth — For litigated recognizance, double fees and commis- 

For drawing a capias against a person indicted or presented and 

not bound over 50 

For drawing a capias against each defaulting juror 50 

For entering a nolle prosequi 35 

For attending at Judge's Chamber to take the affidavit of any 

person in criminal cases 1 00 

For drawing an affidavit,- or any instrument of writing, per copy 

sheet 10 

[For a peace warrant tried or disposed of by the Court 5 00] (a) 

For plain collections for the State, five per cent. 

For litigated collections for the State, 10 per cent. 

For services in cases not mentioned, where the State is an inter- 
ested party, at the discretion of the Governor, not exceeding 50 00 

[For every bill of indictment ignored by the Grand Jury, to be 
paid by the prosecutor and received as in cases of malicious 
prosecution 5 00] (b) 

§ 1641. They shall not be paid fees for litigation without the certificate 

, . .of services. 

certificate of the presiding Judge that they are properly and faith- cases in 
fully claimed as such, nor on any bill for any species of gaming, JaUoweV'^ 
where the same is entered nol. 'pros. 

§1642. The Solicitor General, who, by virtue of his office, is Fees of At- 

^ ^ '^ ' torney Gen- 

Attorney General, has the following fees : erai. 

For every written opinion he is legally required to make 25 00 

For prosecuting a Solicitor General, the payment of his neces- 
sary expenses, and. i = 50 00 

For services in any case where the State has an interest, and his 
services are required, the payment of his necessary expenses, 
and 50 00 

For suits for and collection of money, on account of the State, out of 
his circuit, when litigated, ten per cent, upon amount collected, and 
five per cent, if not collected ; if not litigated, fees of Solicitor General. 

For any service performed, for which a fee is not prescribed, the Gover- 
nor may pay him what he deems reasonable and just, and report 
the same to the General Assembly. 

(a) Acts of 1859, p. 17. (b) Acts of 1866, page 21. 

330 PT. 1.— TIT. 17.— Salaries and Fees of Ofeicers. 

Chapter 5.— Officers ccmnected with the Judicial Department. 


§ 1643. The fees of the Solicitors, for services rendered in the 
Fees of So- Supreme Court, shall be paid by the State, on the warrant of the 

licitorinSu- ^ ' . . 

preme Court Govcmor, in all cases when the Solicitor shall present the certifi- 
cate of the Clerk of the Supreme Court, as to services,, and of the 
Clerk of the Superior Court to the fact that the defendant was 
acquitted, or was unable to pay the costs. 

§ 1644. [The fees allowed to Solicitors for the prosecution in 
the Superior Court of the crimes which were reduced below felo- 
nies bj the act of the 20th March, 1866, shall remain the same 
as they were before said crimes were so reduced ; and the fees in the 
County Court shall be the same as those herein provided for.]| (a) 

a) Acts 1866, p. 153. 





Chapter 1. — Different Jcinds of Persons — their Mights and Status, 
Chapter 2. — Of Domicil, and the Planner of Changing the same. 



Article 1. — Of Citizens, 
Article 2. — Of Residents and Aliens, 
Article 3. — Of Persons of Color, 
Article 4. — Of Corporations. 




1645. Natural and artificial persons. 

1646. Division of natural persons. 

1647. Citizens. 

1648. Rights of citizens. 

1649. Exercise thereof. 


1650. Females. 

1651. Minors, 

1652. Disqualification from crinaie. 

1653. Insane persons. 

§ 1645. Pexsaas are either natural or artificial. The latter are Natural 
the creatures of the law, and except so far as the law/a2:^zc?s it, %onl] *"'*' 
subject to be changed, modified, or destroyed, at the will of their 
creator : they are called corporations. 



832 PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— Persons. 

Article 1. — Citizens. 

§ 1646. Natural persons are distinguished according to their 
Division rip;hts and status into — 1st, citizens; 2d, residents not citizens; 3d, 

of natural = 7 ? j ? > 

persons. aliens ; 4th, persons of color,^''- 

§1647. The persons to whom belong the rights of citizenship 

//Citizens. ^^(J the modc of acquiring and losing the, have been speci- 
fied in a former Article. 
§ 1648. Among the rights of citizens are the enjoyment of 
Eights of. perspnal security, of personal liberty, private property and the 
disposition thereof, the elective franchise, the right to hold office, 
to appeal to the Courts, to testify as a witness, to perform any 
'S^ civil function, and to keep and bear arms. 

r^ ■ § 1649. All citizens are entitled to exercise all their rights as 

1 thereof. such, unloss Specially prohibited by lawA 

,^'. § 1650. Fe males are not entitled to the privilege of the elective 

Females, franchise, nor can they hold any civil office or perform any civil 

functions unless specially authorized by law, nor are they required 

/^ to discharge any military, jury, police, patrol, or road duty. 

•f- § 1651. The law pr£ scrib.e s certain ages at which persons shall 

"^ ^Minors, be Considered of sufficient maturity to discharge certain civil func- 

^ J tions, to make contracts, and to dispose of property. Prior to 

^W ^. those ages they are minors, and are for that disability unable to 

x-^^ exercise these rights of citizens. 

§ 1652. Citizens under conviction by a Court of this State for a 
Disquaiifi- felouv are incapable of exercisino- the elective franchise pendinoj 

- x^tion from ,.;.,. i ii • • i 

J \i erime. the cxecutiou of their sentence ; and all persons, citizens or other- 
wise, convicted of perjury, false swearing, or forgery, shall be 
incapable of testifying as a witness pending the execution of their 

§ 1653. All persons non compos mentis, either from birth or from 

* J^f "® P®^' subsequent causes, constantly or periodically, or from age, infirmity, 
drunkenness, or otherwise incapable of managing their affairs, 
have their persons and estates, or either of them, placed in the 
control of guardians. Such persons retain all the rights of citizens 
which they have the capacity to enjoy, and which are compatible 
with their situation. 


PT. 2."^TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— Persons. 


Article 2. — Residents and Aliens. 




1654. Rights of citizens of U. S. 

1655. Aliens. 

1656. Rights of aliens as to realty. 

1657. Rights to sue and testify. 


1658. Liens. 

1659. Priyileges of certain Frenchmen. 

1660. Militia duty. 

§ 1654. Such citizen s of the other States of this Ui^isii ^^ are citizens of 
recognized as citizens of the United States by the Constitution 
thereof, shall be entitled, while residents of this State, to all the 
rights of citizens thereof, except the elective franchise and the 
right to hold office, and to perform such civil functions as are 
confined by law to citizens of this State. 

§ 1655. Aliens are the subjects of foreign governments not nat 
uralized under the laws of the United States. 

§ 1656. Aliens, the subjects of governments at peace with the ^'^"s as 
United States and this State, so long as their governments remain 
at peace, shall be entitled to all the rights of citizens of other 
States resident in this State, and shall have the privilege of pur- 
chasinsr, hpldin^, and conveying real estate in this State. 


Eights of 


Eights to 

§ 1657. The citizens of other State s of the United States, or of sij? and tes- 
foreign States at peace with this State, and friendly Indians, shall 
by comity be allowed the privilege of suing in our Courts or 
giving evidence therein, so long as the same comity is extended in 
their Courts to the citizens of this State. 

§ 1658. Aliens may receive and enforce liens by mortgage or 
otherwise on real estate in this State. 

§ 1659. In accordance with the recommendation of the Congress of certain 
of the United States expressed in the resolution passed on 14th 
January, A.D. 1780, the citizens of the French Government shall 
continue to have the privilege of disposing of and settling their 
estates within this State, as provided in the Act of this State, 
approved February 22d, A.D. 1785. 

p -t nr*r\ Tt ' 1 •• i • t i' ^ ii t Militia duty. 

§ lobO. Kesidents not citizens and resident aliens shall not be 
liable to militia duty, except in so far as repelling local invasions 
or suppressing insurrections. 

PT. 2.=^TIT. l.-^CHAP. 1,— Persons. 

Article 3. — Persons of Color. 



1661. Who are. 

1662. Rights of persons of color. 

1663. May testify. 

1GG4. May file affidavits. 
1665. Husband and Vfife. 


1686. Marriage ceremony. 

1667. Obligation of parent. 

1668. Obligation of children. 
1069. Children — when legitimate. 

§ 1661. [All negroes, muiattoes, mestizoes, and their descend- 
Who are ants, liavinff one-ei«;litli neo;ro or African blood in their veins, shall 

persons of -' " ^ o ' 

color. be known in this State as persons of color.] (a) 

§ 1662. [Persons of color shall have the right to make and en- 
Their rights, force contracts, to sue and be sued, to be parties and give evi- 
dence, to inherit, to purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real 
and personal property, and to have full and equal benefit of all 
laws and proceedings for the security of person and estate, and 
shall not be subjected to any other or different punishment, pain 
or penalty for the commission of any act or offense than such as 
are prescribed for white persons committing like acts or of- 
fenses.] (a) 

§1663. [Persons of color shall be competent witnesses in all 

*► tj^ent ^wu- ^^^ Courts of this State in civil cases whereto a person of color is 

aesses. ^ party, and in all criminal cases wherein a person of color is de- 

V fendant, or wherein the offense charged is a crime or misdemeanor 

against the person or property of a person of color.] (X)\ 

§ 1664. [In all cases now pending, or that may be hereafter in- 
May file stitutcd in any of the Courts of this State, wherein a person of 

affidavit— ^ "^ . 

when. color is a party, plaintiff or defendant, it shall be competent for 
such person of color to make and file any affidavit now by law allowed 
a citizen, to advance the 'remedy or aid the defense, and when so 
made and filed, in conformity with law, such action shall be had 
thereon as though the said affidavit had been made and filed by 
any other litigant.] (a) 

§ 1665. [Persons of color living together on the 9th day of 
, Husband March, 1866, as husband and wife, are hereby declared to sustain 

and wife— , , , ' . •, n i 

When. that legal relation to each other, unless a man shall have two or 
more reputed wives, or a woman two or more reputed husbands. 
In such event, the man shall immediately select one of his re- 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 239. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— Persons. 885 

Article 8> — Persons of Color. 

I puted wives, with her consent, or the woman one of her reputed 
' husbands, with his consent, and the ceremony of marriage between 

these two shall be performed. If such man, thus livinsr with ^ Adultery, 

^ 7 o etc. — how 

more than one woman, or such woman livino: with more than one committed. 

Iman, shall fail or refuse to comply with the provisions of this Sec- 
tion, he or she shall be prosecuted for the offense of fornication, 
or fornication or adultery, or fornication and adultery, and pun- 
ished accordingly.] (a) 

§ 1666. fit shall be lawful for ordained colored ministers of the who may 

^ ^ ^ , perform 

Gospel, or ministers of the Gospel of African descent, to celebrate marriage ce* 
marriage between freedraen and freedwomen, or persons of Afri- 
j, can descent, only, under the same terms and regulations as are 
{ now required by the laws of the State for marriages between free 
Awhite citizens of this State.] (b) 
^ §1667. fAmonff persons of color the parent shall be required Parents 

. . - , . ^ , , ., , 111.- .->,.• sl^'-^ll main- 

to maintain his or her children, whether legitimate or ille£!;iti- tain ehii- 

*-* ° dren. 

mate.] (a) 

§ 1668. [Children shall be subiected to the same obliarations in pbUgationg 

"^ L '^ <-> of children. 

relation to their parents as those which exist in relation to white 
persons, and in all cases when the parents have separated and 
the children remain with the mother, she shall have control of 
such children during their minority.] (c) 

§ 1669. TEvery colored child born before the 9th day of March, chiid legiti- 

, . . ^ mate— when 

1866, is hereby declared to be the legitimate child of his mother; 
but such child is the legitimate child of his colored father only 
when born within what was regarded as a state of wedlock, or 
when the parents were living together as husband and wife.] (d) 



Section 1. — Their Nature and Kinds. 
Section 2. — Their Creation. 
Section S.— Their Powers and Liabilities. 
Section 4:.— Their Dissolution. 

(a) Acts 1865-6, p. 239. (b) Acts of 1866, p. 156. (c) Acts of 1865-6, p. 240, 
and Acts of 1866, p. 157. (cl) Acts of 1865-6, pp. 239-'40, and Acts of 1866, 
pp. 156-7. 

836 PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 4.— Persons. 

Section 1. — Their Nature and Kinds. 




1670. Definition. 

IGTl. Public and private. 


1G72. Public. 
1G73. Private. 

§ 1670. A corporation is an artificial person created bj law for 
Definition, specific purposes, the limit of whos,^_e:^istence, powers and liabili- 
ties is fixed bj the act of incorporation, iisuallj called its cha rter. 
prhS?^ ^^ § 1671. Corporations are either public or private. 

§ 1672. A public corporation is one having for its object the 
Public, administration of a portion of the powers of government, dele- 
gated to it for that purpose : such are municipal corporations. 
§ 1673. All others are private, whether the object of incorpora- 
Private, tiou be for public convenience or individual profit, and whether the 
purpose be, in its nature, civil, religious, or educational. 






1674. By whom created. 

1675. Foreign corporations. 


1G76. Organization under order of Court. 

§ 1674. The power to create corporations in this State vests in 
By whom i]iq Grencral As semb ly, and the Courts, by whom all charters must 

created. . — -^ ' * — ' " ' ' - •/ ' ... m .-...^,,^ ' ^ 

be granted. 

§ 1675. Corporations created by other States or foreign gov- 
Foreign cor- ernmeuts, are recognized in our Courts only by comity, and so lona; 

porations. ? o ./ «/ c/ ? o 

as the same comity is extended in their Courts to corporations 
created by this State. 

§ 1676. A pHvate cor poration , for any puxpase whatever, ex- 
^ Organiza- ccpt banking or insurance, may be created in this State by com- 

^»i tion under . ~- ■ !pr "' - 

'^ order of plymg With the loilowing provisions :J"n, 

1. [The persons desiring the charter shall file in the office 
Petition, of the Clerk of the Superior Court of the County in which 
they desire to transact business, a petition or declaration, speci- 
fying the objects of their association, and the particular business 
they propose to carry on, together with their corporate name, and 


PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 4.— Persons. 337 

Section 2. — Their creation, 
the amount of capital to be employed by them actually paid in, Corporate 

^ . . . . name and 

and their place of doing business, and the time not exceeding capital stock 
twenty years, for which they desire to be incorporated ; which pe- 
tition or declaration shall be recorded by said Clerk, and shall also 
be published once a week, for one month, in the nearest public ga- Petition to 

^ ' ' ■"• ^ be recorded 

zette to the point where such business is located, before said Court andpubush- 
shall pass an order declaring said application granted.] (a) 

2. If, upon hearing such petition, the Court shall be satisfied Order, 
that the application is legitimately within the purview and inten- 
tion of this Code, it shall pass an order declaring the said appli- 
cation granted, and the petitioners and their successors incorpo- 
rated for and during a term not exceeding twenty years, with the 
privilege of renewal at the expiration of that time, according to 

the provisions above set forth. A certified copy of this petition 
and order under the seal of the Court, shall be evidence of such 
incorporation in any Court in this State. 

3. [No corp oratio n created under this Artic le shall commence Ten per 

. ™". * ' T ., ' - ' ■ - - , ■"■■ "'■■ "" '. cent, must 

to exercise the privileges conferred by the charter, until ten per be paid in. 
cent, of the capital stock is paid in, and no charter shall have any 
force or efi'ect for a longer period than two years, unless the cor- 
porators, within that time, shall in good faith commence to exer- 
cise the powers granted by the act of incorporation; and in case 
of the failure of said corporation, the stockholders shall be bound individual 
in their private capacity, to any creditor of said corporation, for '^ ^ ^ ^' 
the amount of stock subscribed for by him, until the said subscrip- 
tion is fully paid up, or until the stockholder shall have paid, out 
of his private property, debts of the said corporation to an amount 
equal to his unpaid subscription.] (a) 

4. The Clerk of the Court, for his services, shall receive the Fees. 
usual fees allowed for similar services in other cases. 

5. Corporations thus created may exercise all corporate powers Powers, 
necessary to the purpose of their organization, but shall make no 
contract or purchase, or hold any property of any kind, except 

such as is necessary in legitimately carrying into efi'ect such pur- 
poscj^r f or securin g debts due to the comp any. 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, pp. 27-8. 


PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 4.— -Persons. 

Section 3. — The Powers and Liabilities of Corporations. 




1677. Continuance. 

1678. Common powers. 


1679. Responsibility for acts of officers. 

§ 1677. Corporations have continuous succession during the 
Continuance time limited by their charter, notwithstanding the death of their 
members. Should any charter granted in future by the General 
Assembly to a private corporation be silent as to its continuance, 
such charter shall expire at the end of thirty years from the date 
of its grant. 

§ 1678. All corporations have the right to sue and be sued, to 
Common havo and use a common seal, to make by-laws, bindins; on their 

powers. ;- — -^ -, / o 

own members, not inconsistent with the laws of this State and of 
the United States, to receive donations by gift or will, to purchase 
and hold such property, real or personal, as is necessary to the 
purpose of their organization, and to do all such acts as are neces- 
sary for the legitimate execution of this purpose. 

§ 1679. Every corporation acts through its officers, and is re- 
Eesponsi- sponsible for the acts of such officers in the sphere of their appro- 

bility for ^. . .~ „ r'"",. '^^WT 

acts of offi- priate duties ; and no corporation shall be relieved of its liability 
to third persons for the acts of its officers, by reason of any by- 
law or other limitation upon the power of the officer, not known 
to such third person. 




1680. Of public corporations. 

1681. Private charters. 

1682. Heretofore granted. 

1683. How dissolved. 

1684. How forfeited. 


1685. Surrender. 

1686. Death of members. 

1687. Disposition of assets. 

1688. Collateral liabilities. 

§1680. EaJillc corporatioJis being established for public pur- 
Pubiiccor- poses, are always subject to dissolution by the act of the General 

porations. r ? *' «/ «' 


PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 4.— Persons. 339 

Section 4. — The Dissolution of Corporations. 

S 1681. In all cases of private charters hereafter granted, the Private 

^ ^^„.. ^ .r,_.,..„ . , , . ° ' charters. 

State reserve s the^ri^ht to withdraw the franchise, unless such 
right is expressly negatived in the charter. 

"~5T-682. Private corporations heretofore created, without the Heretofore 
(reservation of the right of dissolution,' and where individual 
rights have become vested, are not subject to dissolution at the 
will of the State. 

§ 1683. Every corporation is dissolved — 1st, by expiration of now dis- 
its charter ; 2d, by fgrfejijiire of its oJoaxter ; 3d, by a surrender 
of its franchises ; 4th, by the death of all its members without pro- 
vision for a succession. 

§ 1684. A corporation may forfeit its charter — 1st, by a willful How for- 

^ ^ •^^ . . ... '"' feited. 

v iolatio n of any of the essential conditions on which it is granted ; 
2d, by a misuser or non-user of its franchises. This dissolution 
dates from the judgment of a Court of competent jurisdiction 
declaring the forfeiture. 

§ 1685. A corporation may be dissolved by a voluntary sur- surrender. 
render of its franchises to the State. In such case, such surren- 
der does not relieve its officers or members from any liability for 
the debts of the corporation. 

§ 1686. The death of all the members of a corporation, or of Death of 
so many of them as to render it impossible under the charter to 
provide a succession, is a dissolution thereof. 

§ 1687. Upon the dissolution of a corporation, for any cause, Disposi- 

«, /» 1 T p , . . . ~% -I • ^^OQ of as- 

all 01 the property and assets oi every description belonging to sets. 

the corporation shall constitute a fund — first, for the payment of 
its debts, and then for equal distribution among its members. To 
this end the Superior Court of the County where such corpora- 
tion was located shall have power to appoint a receiver , under 
proper restrictions, properly to administer such assets under its 

§ 1688. The dissolution of a corporation, from any cause, shall collateral 
not, in any manner, affect any c ollater al or ultima te or other lia- 
bility, legally incurred by any of its officers or members- 


PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— PERSoifs. 

Chapter 2. — Domicil and the Manner of Cbainging the same. 




1689. General rule. 

1690. Persons residing at two or more, etc. 

1691. Feme covert. 

1692. Of minor. 


1693. Lunatics, etc. 

1694. Change of domicil. 

1695. Of persons not '' sui Juris." 

§ 1689. The (ijamicil of every person of full age, and laboring 
Domicil. Under no disability, is the place where the family of such person 
shall permanently reside, if in this State. If he has no fang^ly, 
or they do not reside in this State, then the place where such per- 
son shall generally lodge shall be considered his domicil. 

§ 1690. If a person shall reside indifferently at two or more 

Election of places in this State such person shall have the privilege of elect- 
ing which shall be his domicil, and if such election be made no- 
torious the place of his choice shall be his domicil. If no such 
election be made, or if made is not generally known among those 
with whom; he transacts business in this State, third persons may 
treat either one of such places as his domicil, and it shall be so 
held : and in all cases a person who habitually resides a portion 
of the year in one County and another portion in another, shall 
. be deemed a resident of both, so far as to subject him to suits in 
either for contracts made, or torts committed in such County. 
Transient Transient persons whose business or pleasure causes a frequent 
change of residence, and having no family permanently residing 
at one place in this State, shall be held and deemed as to third 
persons to be domiciled at such place as they at the time tempora- 
rily occupy. 

§1691. The domicil of a married woman shall be that of her 
j?jme CO- husband, except in two cases : 1st, of voluntary separation and liv- 
ing apart ; 2d, of a pending application for divorce. In which case 
her domicil shall be determined as if she were 2, feme sole. 

§ 1692. The domicil of every minor shall be that of his father^ 
if alive, unless such, father has voluntarily relinquished his pa- 
rental authority to some other person. In such event, the domicil 
of the minor shall be that of his master, if an apprentice, or his 
employer ; if neither master or employer, then the place of his 
own choice ; if the father be dead, then the domicil of the minor 
shall be that of his guardian, if he has one in this State ; if no 

©f minor. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 1.— Persons. 341 

Chapter 2. — Domicil and the Manner of Changing the same. 

guardian, then of his mother, if alive ; if no mother, then of his 
employer ; if no employer, then of his own choice. The domicil 
of a bastard shall be that of his mother. 

§ 1693. Persons of full age, who for any cause are placed under Lunatics. 
-the power of a guardian, have the same domicil with the guardian. 

§ 1694. The domicil of a person '•'• sui juris.'" may be changed change of 


'hj an actual change of residence with the avowed intention of 
remaining. A declaration of an intention to change the domicil 
is ineffectual for that purpose until some act done in execution of 
the intention. 

§1695. A person whose domicil for any reason is dependent of persona 
upon that of another can, by no act or volition of his, effect a juris:' 
•change of his own domi^jil ; nor can a guardian change the domicil 
of his ward by a change of his own or otherwise, so as to interfere 
with the rules of inheritance or succession, or otherw^ise affect the 
rights or interests of third persons. 

TITLE 11. 


Chapter 1. — Of Husband and Wife, 
Chapter 2. — Of Parent and Child, 
Chapter 3. — Of Guardian and Ward. 
Chapter 4. — Of Master and Servant. 



Article 1. — Of Marriage and Divorce. 

Article 2. — Of the Rights and Liabilities of Husband and Wife^ etc. 

Article 3. — Of Marriage Contracts and jSettlements. 

342 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— ART. I.—Domestic Rblaotons. 

Section 1. — Marriage — how and by wliom coutracled. 



Section 1. — 3Iarriage — Jiow and hy tvJiom contracted. 
Section 2. — Divorces, and lioio obtained. 
Section 3. — Of Alimony. 




1696. Restraint of marriage. 

1697. Essentials of marriage. 

1698. Who is able to contract. 

1699. Prohibited degrees. 

1700. Consent. 

1701. Void marriages. 

1702. Licenses — how granted. 


1703. Return of marriage by bans.. 

1704. Consent of parents. 

1705. Penalty on persons officiating. 

1706. Jewish marriages. 

1707. Amalgation prohibited. 

1708. Want of authority in minister, etc, 

1709. Marriage in another State. 

§ 1696. Marriage is encouraged by the law, and every effort to 
Eestraints restrain or discouraore marriage by contract, condition, limitation, 

of marriage. " . / . ^ i .-, -r^ V-. — — , ' - ' 

or otherwise, is invalid and void. Prohibiting marriage to a par- 
ticular person or persons, or before a certain reasonable age, or 
other prudential provision looking only to the interest of the per- 
son to be benefited, and not in general restraint of marriage, will 
be allowed and held vaMd. 

§ 1697. To constitute a valid marriage in this State there must 

Essentials bc 

of marriage. -t -rt. 

1. Parties able to contract. 

2. An actual contract. 

3. Consummation according to law. 

§ 1698. To be able to contract marriage, a person must be of 
wiio is sound mind ; if a male, at least seventeen years of age, and if a 
tract. female at least fourteen years of age, and laboring under neither 

of the following disabilities — viz : 

1. Previous marriage undissolved. 

2. Nearness of relationship by blood or marriage, as. hereinaf- 
ter explained. 

3. Impotency* 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 343 

Section 1. — Marriage — how and by whom contracted. 

§ 1699. Marriages between persons related by affinity in the Prohibited 
following manner are prohibited — viz : A man shall not marry his 
step-mother, or mother-in-law, or widow of his uncle, or daughter- 
in-law, or step-daughter, or grand-daughter of his wife. A wo- 
man shall not marry her corresponding relatives. Marriages with- 
in the degrees prohibited by this Section are incestuous. 

§ 1700. To constitute an actual contract of marriage, the par- consent. 
ties must be consenting thereto voliintarily, and without any fraud 
practiced upon either. Drunkenness at the time of marriage, 
brought about by art or contrivance to induce consent, shall be 
held a fraud. 

§1701. Marriages of persons unable to contract, or unwilling voidmar- 

. . riages. 

to contract, or fraudulently induced to contract, are void. The 
issue of such marriages, before they are annulled and declared issue. 
void by a competent Court, are legitimate. In the latter two cases, 
however, a subsequent consent and ratification of the marriage, 
freely and voluntarily made, accompanied by cohab itation as hus- ratification, 
band and wife, shall re44or valid the marriager""" 

S 1702. Marriage licenses shall be granted by the Ordinaries, Licenses— 

° r how granted 

or their deputies, of the several Counties where the female to be , .. / ^ . / 

married resides, it resident m this fetate, directed to any Judge, ' ^ 

Justice of the Inferior Court, Justice of the Peace, or Minister of 

the Gospel, authorizing the marriage of the persons therein named, 

and requiring such Judge, Justice, or Minister to return the said Return and 

license to the Ordinary, with his certificate thereon as to the fact 

and date of the marriage, which license, with the return thereon, 

shall be recorded by the Ordinary, in a book kept by him for that 


§ 1703. If any Judge, Justice, or Minister shall connect in mar- Return of 
riage persons whose bans have been published, such Judge, Justice, bans. 
or Minister shall certify the fact to the Ordinary of the County 
where such bans were published, who shall record the same in the 
same book with marriage licenses. 

§ 1704. It shall be the duty of the Ordinary and his deputy to consent of 
inquire as to the ages of all persons for whom marriage licenses 
are asked, and if there be any ground of suspicion that the female 
is a minor under the age of eighteen years, such Ordinary and 
his deputy shall refuse to grant the license until the written con- 
sent of the parent or guardian, if any, controlling such minor 
shall be produced and filed in his office ; and any Ordinary who, 

344 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 

Section 1. — Marriage — how and by whom contracted. 


by himself or deputy, shall knowingly grant such license without 
such consent, or without proper precaution, in inquiring as to the 
Penalty on fact of minority, or for the marriage of a female to his knowledge 
^ ^° ^^" domiciled in another County, shall forfeit the sum of five hundred 
dollars for every such act, to be recovered at the suit of the Clerk 
of the Superior Court, and added to the Educational Fund of the 

§ 1705. Any Judge, Justice, or Minister who shall join in mar- 
Penaity on riaore any couple without such license, or the publication of bans, 

person offi- to ./ r 5 r > 

dating. shall forfeit the sum of five hundred dollars, to be recovered and 
appropriated as set forth in the foregoing Paragraph. 

§ 1706. Upon request, the Ordinary may direct the marriage 
Jewish" license to any Jewish Minister, or other person of any religious 
society or sect, authorized by the rules of such society, to per- 
form the marriage ceremony, who shall make return thereon as be- 
fore required. 

§ 1707. [The marriage relation between white persons and per- 
Amaiga- sons of African descent is forever prohibited, and such marriages 

mation pro- , „ , ,, , • i t / \ i.''' 

hibited. shall DC nuU and void. J (a) 

§ 1708. A marriage valid in other respects, and supposed by the 

Want of parties to be valid, shall not be aifected by a want of authority in 

Minister or the Minister or Justice to solemnize the same ; nor shall such ob- 
j p 

jection be heard from one party who has fraudulently induced the 

other to believe that the marriage was legal. 

§ 1709. All marriages solemnized in another State by parties in- 

Marriage tending at the time to reside in this State shall have the san:.e le- 

in another ^ , n i • n t» 

State. gal consequences and effect as if solemnized in this State. Par- 

ties residing in this State can not evade any of the provisions of 
its laws as to marriage by going into another State for the sol- 
emnization of the marriage ceremony. * 

(a) Constitution of 1865, Art. 5, Sec. 1, Par. 9. 

* As to marriage of persons of color see Sections 1665 and 1666. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. l.~ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 345 

Section 2. — Divorces — how obtained. 




1710. Total and partial. 

1711. Grouncls for total divorce. 

1712. Discretionary grounds. 

1713. Grounds for partial di%^orce. 

1714. Condonation, collusion, etc. 

1715. Confessions of party. 

1716. Proceedings. 

1717. Respondent may ask divorce. 

1718. Libellant shall not dismiss. 

1719. Schedule. 

1720. Transfer pending suit. 


1721. Verdict of jury. 

1722. New trials. 

1723. Judgment or decree. 

1724. Conscientious scruples. 

1725. Effect of total divorce. 

1726. Rights and disabilities. 

1727. Effect of partial divorce. 

1728. Custody of children. 

1729. Renewal — cohabitation. 

1730. Ex parte cases. 

/6 vc' . y 

§1710. Divorces may be granted by the Superior Court, and Total and 
shall be of two kinds — total, or from bed and board. The con- 
current verdict of two special juries, at the same term or other- Twover- 
wise, shall be necessary to a total divorce ; [and in case there be 
but one panel of Grand Jurors impanneled at the same term, it 
shall be lawful for the presiding Judge to have a second jury im- 
panneled from said Grand Jury, composed of Grand Jurors sum- 
moned to the same term, and in the event of a deficiency, the 
same may be completed by tales jurors, under the direction of 
said Judge.] (a) A divorce from bed and board may be granted 
on the verdict of one special jury. 

§ 1711. The followino; f^rounds shall be sufficient to authorize Grounds 

, . - °. ° for total 

the granting or a total divorce : divorce. 

1. Inter ra^rt*iage by persons within the prohibited degrees of 
consanguinity and affinity. 

2. Mental incapacity at the time of the marriage. 

3. Impotency at the time of the marriage. 

4. Forces, menaces, duress, or fraud, in obtaining the marriage. 

5. Pregnancy of the wife, at the time of marriage, unknown to 
the husband. 

6. Adultery in either of the parties after marriage. 

7. Willful and continued desertion by either of the parties for 
the term of three years. ^ 

8. The conviction of either party for an offense involving moral 
turpitude, and under which he or she is sentenced to imprisonment 
in the penitentiary for the term of two years or longer. 

(a) Acts of 1866, p. 21. 

346 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 

Section 3. — Divorces — how obtained. 

iVA- Ljrt> g 1712. In cases of cruel treatment or habitual intoxication by 

Discretion- either party, the iury in their discretion may grant either a total 

ary grounds. ljtjj j to 

or partial divorce. 

§ 1713. Divorces from bed and board may be grarfted on any 
Grounds prrouud which was held sufficient in the English Courts prior to 4th 

for partial ,, ^^ , ° ^ 

divorce. May, 1784. 

§ 1714. If the adultery, desertion, cruel treatment, or intoxica- 
condona- tiou complaiucd of shall have been occasioned by the collusion of 

tion, collu- •I'll- 

sion, etc. the parties, and with the intention of causing a divorce, or if the 
party complaining was consenting thereto, or if both parties have 
been guilty of like conduct, or if there has been a voluntary con- 
donation and cohabitation subsequent to the acts complained of, 
and with notice thereof, then no divorce shall be granted ; and in 
Discretion all cascs, the party sued may plead in defense the conduct of the 

of jury. ' 1 .y %> r 

party suing, and the jury may, on an examination of the whole 
case, refuse a divorce. 

§ 1715. The confessions of a party to acts of adultery or cruel 
Confessions treatment, should be received with great caution, and if unsup- 
ported by corroborating circumstances, and made with a view to 
be evidence in the cause, should not be deemed sufficient to grant 
a divorce. 
^iQ ^CLU-4 § 1716. The action for divorce shall be by petition and process. 

Proceedings, as in Ordinary suits, filed and served as in other cases, unless the 
defendant be non-resident of this State, when service shall be per- 
fected as prescribed in this Code in causes in equity. The same 
rules of pleading shall obtain as in other causes atjaw. 

§ 1717. [ When a libel for divorce is instituted, the respondent 

Respondent may in his or her plea and answer recriminate, and ask a divorce in 

vorce,\vheD. his or her favor ; and if on the trial, the jury believe such party is 

entitled to divorce, instead of the libellant, they may so find upon 

legal proof, so as to avoid the necessity of a cross-action. ] (a) 

§1718. [If one verdict is found in favor of the respondent, 

Libellant the libellant cannot dismiss his or her suit, without the consent of 

can not dis- 
miss-when, the opposite party. ] (a) 

§ 1719. In all suits for divorce, the party applying shall render 
Schedule, a schcdule, on oath, of the property owned or possessed by the 
parties at the time of the application — or at the time of separa- 
tion, if the parties have separated — distinguishing the separate 

(a) Acts of 1863-4, p. 45. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 1.— Domestic Belations. S4T 

Section 2. — Divorces — how obtained. 

estate of the wife, if there be any, which shall be filed with the Disposition 

" 1 /^ ^^ property. 

petition, or pending the suit, under the order of the Court. The 
jury rendering the final verdict in the cause may provide perma- 
nent alimony for the wife, either from tlie corpus of the estate or 
otherwise, according to the condition of the husband and the source 
from which the property came into the coverture. 

§ 1720. After a aepa,l'atiQii, no transfer by the husband of any Transfer 

"1 ""-^ . ,.->Y . »/ ^ ,j pentiing suit 

of the property, exce£t bona fide^ in payment of pre-existing 
debts; shall pass the title so as to avoid the vesting thereof, ac- 
cording to the final verdict of the jury in the cause. 

§1721. The verdict of the jury shall specify the kind of di- verdietof 
vorce granted, and the disposition to be made of the scheduled ^ 

§ 1722. New trials may be granted from verdicts on applications N-ewMais. 
for divorce, as in other cases. 

§ 1723. The verdicts of juries disposing of the property in di- Jud^iment 
vorce cases shall be carried into effect hj the Courts, by entering 
up such judgment or decree, or taking such other steps usual 
in Chancery Courts as will effectually and fully execute the same. 

§ 1724. A iuror having conscientious scruples as to granting conscien- 

, — f- ■ ■ ^ ^ , , ° ° tious scru- 

diyorces, is incompetent to serve on such applications. At the p^^s. 
request of the complainant the Court may inquire of the panel 
touching such scruples. 

§1725. A total divorce annuls the marriage from the time of Effect of to- 

T . • 1 r» 1 • T • . , tal divorce. 

its rendition, except it be tor a cause rendering the marriage void 
originally, but in no case of divorce shall the issue be rendered 
bastards, except in cases of pregnancy of the wife at the time of 
the marriage. 

§1726. r In each divorce case, the Court shall regulate the EigMsand 

"- . . *-" disabilities- 

rights and disabilities of the parties.] (a) regulation of 

§ 1727. A divorce from bed and board authorizes neither party^^'l'^^^tofp'^r- 

't^ •/ tial divorce. 

to marry ; and if a sufficient provision for the maintenance of 
the wife has been made by the verdict of the jury, the husband 
shall not be liable for her future support. The wife shall be a- 
feme sole as to her earnings and proj)erty, as well as liberty, / / ; 
after a divorce from bed and board. /\ b/t l. \, * {\ '^ C 1^- ■ ^ ^ c'-jX^ ^ 
§ 1728. In all cases of divorce granted, the party not in default custody of 

° ^ "^ cWldrea. 

shall be entitled to the custody of the minor children of the mar- 
(a) Constitution of 1865, Article 4, Section 2^ Clause ^ 


348 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.--CHAP. 1.— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 

Section 2. — Divorces — Low obtained. 

riage. The Court, liowever, in the exercise of a sound discretion, 
may look into all the circumstances, and, after hearing both par- 
ties, make a different disposition of the children, withdrawing 
them from the custody of either or both parties, and placing them, 
if necessary, in the possession of guardians appointed by the Ordi- 
nary. The Court may exercise a similar discretion pending the 
libel for divorce. 

§ 1729. Parties divorced from bed and board, on subsequent 
Renewed reconciliation, may live toojether a^ain as husband and wife, by 

cohabitation . . . 

first filing in the ofiice of the Ordinary of the County where the 
divorce was granted, their written agreement to that effect, at- 
tested by the Ordinary. 

§ 1730. In divorce cases proceeding ex ]ja7'te^ it is the duty of 
Ex parte the Judcre to see that the grounds are legal, and sustained by 

cases. o o o ' j 

proof, or to appoint the Solicitor General, or some other attorney 
of the Court, to discharge that duty for him. "\ 




1731. Permanent and temporary. 

1732. Proceedings to obtain. 

1733. Discretion of Judge. 

1734. Revision and enforcement. 

1735. Merits not in issue. 

1736. Permanent alimony— when granted. 


1737. Husband's voluntary deed. 

1738. Decree in equity. 

1739. Liability to third persons, etc. 

1740. After alimony granted. 

1741. Subsequent cohabitation. 

1742. Interest of wife in husband's estate. 

§ 1731. Alimony is an allowance out of the husband's estate, 
Permanent made for the support of the wife, when livina: separate from him. 

and tempo- . . ^^ ' to 1 

rary. It is either temporary or permanent. 

§ 1732. Whenever an action for divorce, at the instance of 

Proceedings either party, is pending, or a suit by the wife for permanent ali- 
mony, the wife may, at any regular term of the court in which the 
same is pending, apply to the presiding Judge, by petition, for an 
order granting to her temporary alimony pending the cause ; and, 
after hearing both parties, and evidence as to all the circumstan- 
ces of the parties and as to the fact of the marriage, the Court 
shall grant an order allowing such temporary alimony, including 
expenses of litigation, as the condition of the husband and the 
facts of the case may justify. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— ART. 1.— Domestic Kelatioxs. 349 

Section 3. — Alimony. 


S 1733. In arrivino; at the proper provision, the Judo;e shall Discretion 

. . ... . of Jmige. 

consider the peculiar necessities of the wife, growing out of the 
pending litigation ; he may also consider any evidence of a sepa- 
rate estate owned by the wife, and if such estate is ample, as 
compared with the husband's, temporary alimony may be refused. 

§ 1734. The order allowing alimony shall be subject to revis- Eevision 

'^ . p . .and enforce- 

ion by the Court at any time, and may be enforced either by writ ment. 
of fieri facias or by attachment for contempt against the person of 
the husband. A failure to comply with the order shall not de- 
prive the husband of his right either to prosecute or defend his 

§1735. On applications for temporary alimony, the merits of ^e"tsnot 
the cause are not in issue, though the Judge, in fixing the amount 
of alimony, may inquire into the cause and circumstances of the 
separation rendering the alimony necessary, and in his discretion 
may refuse it altogether. 

§ 1736. Permanent alimony is granted in the following cases : afimTn"^— 
1st, of divorce as considered, in the former Section; 2d, in cases ^J^" ^'■'^"*' 
of voluntary separation ; 3d, where the wife, against her_w ilL is 
either abandoned or driven off by her husband. 

§ 1737. In either of the two latter cases the husband may vol- nusbancrs 

*' voluntary 

untarily, by deed, make an adequate provision for the support and '^^'^^• 
maintenance of his wife, consistent with his means and her former 
circumstances, which shall be a bar to her right to permanent ali- 

§1738. In the absence of such provision, on the application of Df^eein 
the wife, a Court of Equity may, by decree, compel the husband 
to such provision for the support of the wife and such minor chil- 
dren as may be in her custody, as indicated in the foregoing Par- 

§ 1739. Until such provision is made, voluntarily, or by decree Liability to 

^ ^ . . third person 

or order of the Court, the husband shall be liable to third persons before, etc. 
for the board and support of the wife, and for all necessaries fur- 
nished to her, or for the benefit of his children in her custody. 

§1740. When permanent alimony is ^ranted, the husband ceases ^f^^i" ^'^o- 

■•■ t/ o ^ ^ jjy granted. 

to be liable for any debt or contract of the wife ; on the other 
hand, he ceases to have any power to control her acquisitions by 
purchase, or descent, or gift, or otherwise ; and the property of 
the husband set apart for the support of the wife is not subject to 
his debts or contracts so long as she lives. 


PT. 2.~TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— DoxAiESTic Relatios^s, 

Article 3.— The Rights and Liabilities of Husband and Wife, etc. 

§ 1741. The subsequent voluntary cohabitation of the husband 
subse- and wife shall annul and set aside all provision made, either by 

■quent co- ^ ■»■ ^ ./ 

habitations, de&d OY decree, for permanent alimony. The rights of children 
under any deed of separation or voluntary provision for alimony 
shall not be affected thereby. 

§ 1742. After permanent alimony granted, upon the death of 
the husband the wife is not entitled to any further interest in his 
estate in her right as wife, but such permanent provision shall be 
continued to her, or a portion of the estate equivalent thereto 
shall be set apaTt to her. "J 

Interest of 
Avife in hus- 
band's es- 





1743. Husband is head of family. 

1744. Separate property of wife. 

1745. Torts to wife. 

1746. Acquisitions of wife. 

1747. Agency of wife. 

1748. Liability of husband for necessaries. 

1749. Q-eneral agency of wife. 

1750. Free trader. 

1751. Husband sole heir. 

1752. Wife— when sole heir. 

1753. Dower. 


1754, How barred. 

1755. Election in case of bequests, etc. 
175G. Election in ignorance. 

1757. Dower in several tracts. 

1758. Dwelling house. 

1759. Lien no bar. 

1760. Life estate in proceeds of sale. 

1761. Or absolute estate in specified sum. 

1762. Earnings of wife. 

1763. Paraphernalia. 

1764^ Wife may appear against husband. 


§ 1743. In this State the husband is the head of the family, and 
Husband the wlfc is subicct to him ; her leeral civil existence is mer2;ed in 

is head of .^.— *Z^-- ' fo ^ fe 

family. the husband, except so far as the law recognizes her separately, 
either for her own protection, or for her benefit, or for the preser- 
vation of public order. 
S Ui> §1744. [All tKe property of the wife at the time of her mar- 

Wife's prop- riage, whether real, personal, or choses in action, shall be and re- 

6i-ty — when ° ' ' r«^~.-..— - 7 7 ^ 

separate. main the separate property of the wife ; and all property given to, 
inherited, or acquired by the wife during coverture shall vest in 
and belong to the wife, and shall not be liable for the payment of 
any debt, default, or contract of the husband.] (a) 

§ 1745. If a tort be committed upon the person or reputation 

Torts to wife of the wifc, the husband may recover tJieieCor; if, however, the 
wife is living separate from the husband she may sue for such torts, 

(a) Acts of 1866, pp. 146-7. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.^CHAP. I.-^Bomestic Eelations. 35 


Article 2. — The Rights and Liabilities of Husband and Wife, etc. 

and also torts to her children, and recover the same to her use. In of living se- 
parate from 

like manner, when separated from the husband, she may enforce husband. 
contracts made in reference to her own acquisitions. 

§ 1746. When living separate from her husband the acquisi- Acquisitioiis 

of wife liv 

tions of a wife and of her children living with her, shall be vested ing separate 

^ from her 

in the wife for her separate use, free from the debts, contracts, tnsband. 
or control of her husband, and at her death, intestate, the same 
shall descend to her children, and if none, to her next of kin. 

§ 1747. The husband is bound to support and maintain his wife, , Asoncy 

^ ^^ _ ' of \vife in 

and his consent shall be presumed to her agency in all purchases ffsp^ct to 

^ o ./ 1,- ^- necessaries. 

of neaessaries suitable to her condition and habits of life, made 
for the use of herself and the family. This presumption may be 
rebutted by proof. 

§ 1748. The husband is bound for necessaries furnished to the Liability of 

husband for 


wife, when separated from him, subject to the limitations herein- 
before provided. If the wife be living in adultery with another 
man, the husband is not liable ; but notice by the husband shall 
not relieve him from liability if his wife is separated from him by 
reason of his own misconduct ; if she voluntarily abandons him 
without sufficient provocation, notice by the husband shall relieve 

him of all liability for necessaries furnished to her. 

§1749. The wife may act as attorney and agent for the hus- General 

*' ,/ (D agency of 

band, but, except in cases before mentioned, proof of such author- ^J^e. 
ity must be made as in other cases. 

§1750. The wife, by consent of her husband, evidenced by n<t- Freetrader. 
tice in a public gazette for one month, may become a public or free 
trader ; in which event she is liable as a feme sole for all her con- 
tracts, and may enforce the same in her own name. In such cases 
the acquisitions of the wife become her separate estate. 

§ 1751. Upon the death of the wife the husband is her sole Husband 

*■ ... ^^•'^ heir. 

heir, and upon payment of her individual debts, if any, may take 
possession thereof without administration. 

§ 1752. Upon the death of the husband, without lineal descen- wife— when 

■^ , , . sole heir. 

dants, the wife is his sole heir. 

§ 1753. Dower is the right of a wife to an estate for life in one- Bower, v,; 
third of the lands, according to valuation, including the dwelling- 
house (which is not to be valued unless in a town or city) of which 
the husband was seized and possessed at the time of his death, or 
to which the husband obtained title in right of his wife. 

§ 1754. Dower may be barred — 

i ^uJu. 

352 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— Domestic Relations. 

Article 2.— The Rights and Liabilities of Husband and Wife, etc. 

1. Bj provision made prior to the marriage and accepted bj the 
How barred, wife in licu of dower. , 

2. Bj a provision made bj deed or will, and accepted by the 
; wife after the husband's death, expressly in lieu of dower, or 

where the intention of the husband is plain and manifest that it 
shall be in lieu of dower. 

3. By the election of the widow within twelve months from the 
** grant of letters testamentary, or of administration on the hus- 
V band's estate, to take a child's part of the real estate in lieu of 


4. By a failure to apply for the dower for seven years from the 
-' death of the husband. 

5. By the wife's deed with her husband to lands to which the 
title came throuf^h her. 

^ 6. By the adultery of the wife unpardoned by the husband. 

§ 1755. If the husband by will gives to his wife an interest in 
Election in his lauds, her election of dower bars her of that devise, but does 

r*ncpc f\f 1)0" 

quest in lieu not deprive her of any interest in the personalty bequeathed to 
her in the will, unless it is expressed to be in lieu of dower. 
§ 1756. An election by the widow to take a child's part of the 
Election in realty in ignorance of the condition of the estate, or of any fact 

ignorance. . , , . in in "^T" ": * " " , 

material to her interest, shall not bar ,ner right to dower ; pro- 
vided, the rights of third persons acting bona fide upon her elec- 
tion shall not be disturbed or prejudiced. 
-Ȥ 1757. Where the husband dies seized of several distinct tracts 
Dower of land lyins^ in the same County, the widow may elect to take her 

in several . , , 

tracts. entire dower in one body, and may select the tLSLCt or trac ts out 
of which her dower shall be laid. If a tract or body of land is 
divided by County lines, the entire dower may be laid off in either 

ifdividedby County ; if scvcral tracts lie in different Counties, the dower must 

County lines Tir. ii'i • i/>t 

be applied lor and laid out m each County. 

§ 1758. The widow is entitled to the possession of the dwelling- 

Dweiiing- housc from the death of her husband, and before dower is assigned, 

and also of the furniture therein, until her portion thereof is set 

^ apart by the appraisers as provided by this Code. 

d /(\.. (> § 1759. No lien created by the husband in his lifetime, though 

Lien no bar. asscntcd to by the wife, shall in any manner interfere with her 

right to dower. 

§ 1760. With the assent of the executor or administrator of the 
estate, the widow may elect a life estate in one-third part of the 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2,— CHAP. 1.— Domestic Relations. 353 

Article 2. — The Rights and Liabilities of Husband and Wife, etc. 
proceeds of the sales of the land, or any distinct tract or tracts Life estate 

. f 1 1 • 1 1 1 1 ^" proceeds 

of land in lieu of the dower m such land. In which event, such of sale. 
third part of the proceeds of the sale shall be invested by the ex- 
ecutor or administrator under the direction of the Ordinary where 
his returns are made, and the annual income thereof paid to the 
widow during her life. 

§ 1761. With the assent of the executor or administrator of the Absolute es- 
tate in spec- 
estate, and the approval of the O rdinar y, the widow may elect in Jfied sum. 

lieu of her dower an amount in money to belong absolutely to her, 
to be estimated and determined by the commissioners appointed to 
assign dower, and whose report shall be subject to the same objec- 
tions as are adm.easurements of dower in land. Both before the 
Ordinary and on the return of the report of the commissioners, How con- 


any person interested in the question shall be allowed to become a 
party and be heard. The amount so awarded shall be paid in 
preference to all other claims out of the proceeds of the sale of 
the land. 

§ 1762. r Any married woman may deposit in any of the sa- wife may 

u ,/ • — .^„ ,/ I ,/ deposit car- 

vings banks, or institutions for savings, now chartered in the State ^^^s^- 

of Georgia, or which may hereafter be chartered in this State, any 

sum or sums of money, the proceeds of her own labor, or that of 

her children, less than two thousand dollars in the aggregate, and 

may control, draw for, dispose of, devise, or transfer, in any way May control, 

etc £iS 1*61116 

whatever, the sum or sums thus deposited, in every respect as if sole. 
she were not a married woman.] (a) 

§ 1763. The wife's paraphernalia shall not be subject to the Parapher- 
debts or contracts of the husband,* and shall consist of the ap- 
parel of herself and her children, her watch and o_rnaments suita- 
ble to her condition in life, and all such articles of pjersonajty as 
have been given to her for her own use and comfort. , 

§ 1764. In all cases where the rights of the wife come in con- when the 
flict with 'the interest of the husband, she may appear in Court by pear against 

, p . T -r -.1 T r^ .; rr j husband. 

her next iriend. In all other civil cases, except as to her sepa- 
rate estate, she must appear by and with her husband, if living 

(a) Act of 1861, p. 23, and Acts of 1866, p. 226. 


PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— Domestic Relations, 

Article 3, — Marriage Contracts and Settlements. 




1765. Marriage article or parol, etc. 

1766. Voluntary execution, etc. 

1767. Construction of contract. 

1768. Record of marriage contracts. 

1769. Wife may force a record. 

1770. Appointing and removing trustees. 


1771. Executed in favor of volunteers'. 

1772. Valuable consideration. 

1773. Wife feme sole, etc. 

1774. When sue and be sued. 

1775. Minority of party to contract. 

1776. Sale to husband or trustee. 

§ 1765. Any agreement between the parties to a marriage con- 
Marriage ar- templatina; a future settlement upon the wife, whether by parol 

tide or parol . . . 

agreement, or in Writing, may be executed and enforced by a Court of Equity 
at the instance of the wife at any time during the life of the hus- 
band ; 2^'^ovided always^ that the rights of third persons, pur- 
chasers or creditors in good faith, and without notice, are not 
affected thereby. An agreement, perfect in itself, and which needs 
no future conveyance to effect its purposes, is an executed contract, 
and does not come under the definition of marriage articles.' 
§ 1766. The husband may voluntarily execute such agreement, 
Voluntary or^c may at any time during the coverture, either through txus- 

6X6CUtlOn """ \ • ■% t • r* l^ITT 

and trust tccs or dircctly to his wife, convey any property to_ which he has^ 
title subject to the rights of prior purchasers or creditors without 
\ notice. 

§ 1767. Every marriage contract in writing, made in contem- 
construc- plation of marriage, shall be liberally construed to carry into effect 

tion of con- ^ ^ o 7 . ./ j ^ 

tract. the intention of the parties, and no want of form or technical 

expression shall invalidate the same. Such contract must be at- 
tested by at least two witnesses. 

§ 1768. Every marriage contract and every voluntary settlement 
Eecord made by the husband on the wife, whether in execution of mar- 
contracts." riage articles or not, must be recorded in the office of the Clerk 
of the Superior Court of the County of the residence of the hus- 
band within three months after the execution thereof. On failure 
to comply with this provision, such contract or settlement shall not 
be of any force or effect against a purchaser, or creditor, or surety 
who, bona fide and without notice, may become such before the 
actual recording of the same. If such contract or settlement is 
made in another State, and the parties subsequently move into 
this State, the record must be made within three months from 
such removal. If the settled property be in this State, and the 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 1.— Domestic Relations. 355 

Article 3.— Marriage Contracts and Settlements. 

parties reside in another, then the record must be made in the 
County where the property is, and within the time specified above. 

§1769. If the trustee or husband having possession of such wife may 
contract or settlement fails or refuses to have the same recorded, cord. 
the wife, or any friend of hers, may apply to the Judge of the 
Superior Court at any time for an order compelling such record ; 
and the trustee thus refusing, ^fter demand, shall be personally 
responsible to his cestui que trust for all damage sustained by 
reason of the failure to record ; and such application of the wife, 
or her friend, when entered on the minutes of the Superior Court, 
shall be a notice equivalent to the record of the marriage con- 
tract or trust deed. 

§ 1770. The Judge of the Superior Court of the County of the Appointing 

J . *^ . . . . ^ and remov- 

wife s domicil may, at any time, upon petition, exercise the pow- ing trustees. 
ers of a chancellor in appointing, or removing, or substituting 
trustees, or granting any order for the protection of the trust es- 
tate, exercising a wise discretion as to the terms on which such 
appointment shall be made, or such order granted. The pro- 
<jeeding in each case shall be transmitted to the Clerk of the Su- 
perior Court, to be recorded in the book of the minutes of such 
Court, next to the minutes of the last term thereof. 

§1771. Marriaoje contracts and post nuptial settlements will be Whenexe- 

° - — »»>.*«., '■ '■ cuted in fa- 

enforced at the instance of all persons in whose favor there are "^^l ^^ ^■^*" 

^ unteers. 

limitations of the estate. Marriage articles will be executed only 
at the instance of persons coming within the scope of the mar- 
riage consideration ; but when executed at their instance, the Court 
may execute also in favor of volunteers. All persons are volun- 
teers except the parties to the contract and the offspring of the wife. 

§ 1772. Marriage is a valuable consideration, and the wife vaiuubie 

1 n ^ ^ 1 1 1 1 ^ i ' considera- 

stands, as to property of the husband settled upon her by marriage tion. • 
contract, as other purchasers for value ; provided, that by such 
contract the husband does not incapacitate himself from paying 
his existing just debts. 

§ 1773. The wife is Sifeme sole as to her separate estate, unless wife feme 

roIg tl s to 

controlled by the settlement**-- Every restriction upon her power ter separate 
in it must be complied with ; but while the wife may contract, she 
can not bind her separate estate by any contract of suretyship, 
nor by any assumption of the debts of her husband, and any sale 
of her separate estate, made to a creditor of her husband in ex- 
tinguishment of his debts, shall be absolutely void. 


PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 2.— Domestic Relatiosts. 

Article 1. — Legitimate Children. 

§ 1774. If there is no trustee, the wife may sue and be sued , a& 
When sue to her Separate estate, as a feme mle ; and in all such cases the 

and be sued. ^ . 

separate estate shall he responsible for all costs incurred. 

§ 1775. The minority of either party to marriage articles, or a 
Minority marriage contract, shall not invalidate it ; provided, such party is 
contract. of lawful age to contract marriage. 

§ 1776. No contract of sale of a wife as to her separate estate 
Sale to with her husband or her trustee shall be valid, unless the same is 

husband or 

trustee. allowed by order of the Superior Court of the County ©f her 



Article 1. — Legitimate Children. 

Article 2. — Illegitimate Children, or Bastards, 


legitimate children. 


1777. Legitimate children — who are. 

1778. Legitimating by order of Court. 

1779. Adopting a child. 

1780. Objections by relative. 

1781. Adoption of adult persons. 

1782. Age of majority. 


1783. Parents' obligation. 

1784. Parents' power-^how lost. 

1785. Mother's rights. 

1786. Cruel treatment by parents 

1787. Mutual protection. 

f-^ § 1777. All children born in wedlock, or within the usual pe- 

Legitimate nod of gcstation thereafter, are legitimate. The legitimacy of a 
child thus born may be disputed. Where possibility of access ex- 
■ ists, except in cases of divorce from bed and board, the strong 
presumption is in favor of legitimacyj andL.tke proof should be 
clear to establish the contrary. If pregnancy existed at the time 
of the marriage, and a divorce is sought and obtained on that 
ground, the child, though born in wedlock, is not, legitimate. 
The marriage of the mother and reputed father of an illegiti- 
subsequent mate child, and the recognition of such child as his, shall render 
Mamage. ^^^ (Midi legitimate ; and in such case, the child shall imme- 
diately take the surname of his father. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 2.— Domestic Relations. 357 

Article 1. — Legitimate Children. 
§ 1778. A father of an illeffitimj^te child may render the same Legitimacy 

'*^"" , by order of 

legitimate by petitioning the Superior or County Court of the Comt, 
County of his residence, setting forth the name, age -and sex, of 
such child, and also the name of the mother; and if he desires , 
the name changed, stating the new name and praying the legiti- 
mating of such child. Of this application the mother, if alive, 
shall have notice. Upon such application, presented and filed, the 
Court may pass an order declaring said child to be legitimate, and 
capable of inheriting of the father in the same manner as if born in 
lawful wedlock, and the name by which he or she shall be :known. 

§ 1779. Any person desirous of adopting a child, so as to ren- Adopting a 
der it capable of inheriting his estate, may present a like petition 
to the Superior Court, setting forth, as an additional fact, the 
name of the father, or if he be dead, or has abandoned his family, 
the mother, and the consent of such father or mother to this act 
of adoption ; and if the child has neither father nor mother, then 
the consent of no person shall be necessary to said adoption. It 
shall be the duty of the Court, upon being satisfied of the truth 
of the facts stated in the petition, and of the fact that such father 
or mother has notice of such application, and being further satis- 
fied that such adoption will be to the interest of the child, to pass 
an order declaring said child to be the adopted child of such per- 
son, and capable of inheriting his estate, and also what shall be 
the name of such child ; and thenceforward the relation between 
such person and the adopted child ^hall be, as to their legal rights Effect 
-and liabilities, the same as if the relation of parent and child ex- 
isted between them, except that the adopted father shall never in- 
herit from the child ; but to all other persons the adopted child 
shall stand related as if no such act of adoption had been taken. 

§ 1780. It shall be the privilege of any person related by blood objections 

^ 1 •^ 1 • n 1 i r>i i r«ii'' by rehitions. 

to such child, it there be no lather or mother, to tile objections to 
such application, and the Court, after hearing the same, shall de- 
termine, in its discretion, whether or not the same constitute a 
^ood reason for refusing the application. 

§ l781. Adult persons maybe adopted in like manner, and have Adopting 
their names changed, on giving consent to such adoption. peiins! 

§ 1782. The age of legal majority in this State is twenty-one Age of 

., , ... "" " ""' ' . majority. 

years ; until that age all persons are minors. 

§ 1783. Until majority, it is the duty of the father to provide Parent's 
for the maintenance, protection, and education of his cliild- ° ^^^ ^^^" 

858 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 2.— Domestic Relatione. 

Article 1. — Legitimate Children. 

§ 1784. Until majority, the child remains under control of the 

Parental father, who is entitled to his services and the proceeds of his la- 
power — how rr»l • 1 » ^ 

lost bor. This paternal power is lost — 

1. By voluntary QQntract, releasing the right to a third person. 

2. By cons_enting to the adoption of the child by a third person. 

3. By the failure of the father to provide necessaries for his 
child, or his abandonment of his family. 

4. By his consent to the child's receiving the proceeds of his 
own labor, which consent shall be revocable at any time. 

5. By his consent to the marriage of the child, who thus as- 
sumes inconsistent responsibilities. 

6. By cruel treatment of the child. 

§ 1785. Upon the death of the father, the mother is entitled to 
Mother's the posscssiou of the child until his arrival at such an age tha-t 
'' * his education requires the guardian to take possession of him. In 
eases of separation of the parents, or the subsequent marriage of 
the survivor, the Court, upon writ of habeas corpuSy may exercise 
a discretion as to the possession of the child, looking salely to his 
interest and welfare. 

§ 1786. Any person may apply to the Ordinary of the County, 
Cruel treat- alleging the cruel treatment of a child by his father, who shall 
rent. ^ cito the father to answer the allegation ; and such Ordinary may, 
at any time, hear evidence, and, in his discretion, appoint a guar- 
dian of the person of such child, wha shall be entitled to the pos- 
session of him. 

§ 1787. Parents and children may mutually protect each other^ 
preceetipn. and justify the defense of the person or reputation of each others 





1788. Bastards. 

1789. Father's obligations^ 

1790. Mother's right. 


1791. InheritaBce by bastard. 

1792. By legitimates from bastard. 

§ 1788. A bastard is a ehild born out of wedlock, and whos@^ 
Bastard, parents do not subsequently intermarry, or a child the issue c£ 
adulterous intei^course of the wife during wedlock. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 2.— Domestic Relations. 359 

Article 2. — Illegitimate Children, or Bastards. 
§ 1789. The father of a bastard is bound to maintain him. Father's 


This obligation shall be good consideration to support a contract 
bj him. He may voluntarily discharge this duty ; if he fails or 
refuses to do it the law will compel him. jT* 

§ 1790. The mother of a bastard is entitled to the possession of Mother^s ^^ 

rights. ^. 

the child, unless the father shall legitimate him as before pro- ^. 

vided. Being the only recognized parent, she may exercise all the O 

paternal power. 

§ 1791. Bastards have no inheritable blood, except that 2;iven inheritance 

• 1 • ' p 1 • 11 t>y bastard. 

to them by express law. They may inherit from their mother and 
from each other, children of the same mother, in the same man- 
ner as if legitimate. If a mother have both legitimate and ille- 
gitimate children, they shall inherit alike the estate of the mother. 
If a bastard dies leaving no issue or widow, his mother, brothers, 
and sisters shall inherit his estate equally. In distributions un- 
der this law the children of a deceased bastard shall represent the 
deceased parent. 

§1792. If a bastard dies intestate, leaving no widow or lineal Byiogiti- 

.,, . . ' ' , , . , , f, mates from 

descendant, or illegitimate brother or sister, or descendant of a illegitimates 
brother, or sister, or mother, but shall leave a brother or sister of 
legitimate blood, such brother or sister, or descendant of such 
brother or sister, may inherit the estate of such intestate. 



Article 1. — Guardians of Minors. 

Article 2. — Guardians of Lunatics and Idiots, 

Article 3. — Foreign Guardians. 


Section 1. — How and hy whom Appointed. 

Section 2. — Their Powers^ Duties, and Liabilities. 

Section 3. — Settlements^ Resignation^ and Letters of Dismission. 

360 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 3.— ART. I.^Domestic Relations. 

Section 1. — Guardians — how and by whom appointed. 




1793. Kinds of guardians. 

1794. Natural guardian. 

1795. Testamentary guardian. 

1796. Appointed by widows. 

1797. General guardian. 

1798. Of property of non-resident ward. 

1799. Mother-guardian. 

1800. Appointment of clerk or stranger. 

1801. Guardian of bastard. 

1802. Notice of application. 


1803. Bond and oath. 

1804. Taken in vacation. 

1805. Additional bond. 

1806. New sureties. 

1807. Proceedings in case of misconduct. 

1808. Motion by surety. 

1809. Revocation does not abate suit. 

1810. Suit on bond. 

1811. Removing proceedings, etc. 

1812. Guardian ad litem. 


§ 1793. Guardians of minors may be either — Ist, natural guar- 
Sfan? 4^^^s ; 2d, testame-ntary guardians ; 3d, guardians of person and 
property, or either. 

§ 1794. The father, if alive, is the natural guardian ; if dead, 
the mother is the natural guardian. The natural guardian can 
not demand or receive the property of the child until a guardian's 
bond is filed and accepted by the Ordinary of the County. If 
such natural guardian fail or refuse to give bond and surety the 
Ordinary may appoint another guardian to receive such property. 
§ 1795. Every father may, by will, appoint guardians for the 
ter^^*^™S- persons, or property, or both, of his children, and such guardians 
^^^°- shall not be required to give bond and security, except in case of 
waste committed or apprehended, or property coming to the 
ward from sources other than the father's will, when the Ordinary 
shall require the same. If a testamentary guardian fails to give 
bond as required, the Ordinary may dismiss him as guardian and 
appoint another, or may appoint another guardian for the prop- 
erty thus accruing. In all other respects a testamentary guardian 
shall stand on the same footing with other guardians appointed by 
the Ordinary. 

§ 1796. The mother, if a widow, shall have the power by will 
AppoiDted to appoint testamentary guardians for such children as have none, 

by widows. -•■■*• •/ o ' 

as to their persons, and as to such property as they may inherit 
from her. 

§ 1797. The Ordinary of the County of the domicil of a minor 
having no guardian shall have the power of appointing a guardian 
of the person and property, or either, of such child. If the ward 
be above the age of fourteen years before a guardian is appointed, 


PT. 2.--TIT. 2.— CHAP. 3.— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 361 

Section 1. — Guardians — how and by wliom appointed. 

he shall have the privilege of selecting a guardian, and if such 
selection be judicious the Ordinary shall appoint him. The ward 
having once exercised this privilege can not do so again, except 
upon cause shown for the removal of the first selection. 

§ 1798. If a minor is non-resident, but has property in this of property 

, of non-resi- 

State, the Ordinary of the County where the property is may ap- <ient ward, 
point a guardian, who shall have control only over such- property. 

§ 1799. In the appointment of eruardians, the widowed mother Mother- 

■^ *-" , . guardian. 

shall have the preference upon complying with the law. Upon 
her marrying again the letters are revoked, though her husband 
shall be responsible to the ward as guardian, if no other guardian 
be appointed. Among collaterals applying for the guardianship, 
the nearest of kin by blood, if otherwise unobjectionable, shall be 
preferred — males being preferred to females. The Ordinary, how- 
ever, in every case may exercise his discretion according to the cir- 
cumstances, and if necessary grant the letters to a stranger in 

§ 1800. If there be no application for letters of guardianship, Appoint- 

-,. . r\ -,. o . -^^ ment of 

and a necessity for a guardian exists, the Ordinary, after giving ci^^k or 

. -^ ^ ... & & stranger. 

notice for thirty days, may vest such guardianship in the Clerk of 
the Superior or Inferior Court of the County, or in any other per- 
son or persons residing in said County, whom he ^all deem fit 
and proper, in his discretion, requiring bond and((jrecurity as in 
other cases. 

§ 1801. The Ordinary may appoint a guardian for the person Guardian 

^ .„ . , , 11 of bastards. 

and property of an illegitimate child in all cases where he may 
deem it necessary. 

§ 1802. Every application to be appointed guardian of a minor Notice of 

,, „p ,, ii'iipi application. 

under the age oi lourteen years, other than the child oi the ap- 
plicant, shall be made to the Ordinary, and notice thereof given 
by him in some public gazette of this State, at least thirty days 
before such letters shall be granted. At the regular term next 
after the expiration of the notice, the letters may be granted / 

either to the applicant or some other person, in the discretion of / 

the Court. In the meantime a temporary guardian may be ap- 
pointed under the same rules as apply to the appointment of tem- 
porary administrators. 

§ 1803. Every guardian, appointed by the Ordinary, before en- Bond and 
tering on the duties of his appointment, shall take before the Or- 
dinary an oath, or affirmation, well and truly to perform the duties 

362 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 3.— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 

Section 1. — Guardians — how and by whom appointed. 

required of him as guardian, and laijhfully to account with his 
ward for his estate ; and shall also give bond with good and suffi- 
cient security, to be approved by the Ordmary, in double the 
amount of the supposed value of the property of the ward, for the 
faithful discharge of his duty as guardian : such bond shall be pay- 
able to the Ordinary and his successors. A substantial compliance 
as to all matter of form shall be sufficient. 

§ 1804. The taking of the oath and giving the bond may be 
Taken in done at anv time in vacation, the appointment beins: made at a 

vacation. '^ 7 rr to 

regular term. The bond when taken shall be recorded by the 
Bond re- Ordinary in a book to be kept by him for that purpose, and the 
corded. original kept of file in his office. 

§ 1805. If at any time after appointment other property shall 
Additional doscend, or come, or be 2;iven, or otherwise accrue to the ward, the 

bond. ' ° . . . 

Ordinary may require the guardian to give an additional bond 
with security in double the amount of such property, and on his 
failure to comply, the Ordinary may appoint a special guardian 
for such property ; [and whenever it shall come to the knowledge 
of the Ordinary, either by annual returns or otherwise, that the 
bond and security of any guardian is not of sufficient amount to 
be of double the amount of the property or funds in the hands of 
such guardian, or that such bond and securities are otherwise in- 
sufficient in the judgment of such Ordinary, it shall be his duty 
to give notice to said guardian to come forward at the next term 
of the Court of said Ordinary and give additional security to said 
Ordinary, or give a new bond with good securities ; and on failure 
to do so, the authority of said guardian shall cease ; and said Or- 
dinary shall appoint, in terms of the law, a guardian to take the 
place of said defaulting guardian.] (a) "• 

§ 1806. If one or more of the sureties on the guardian's bond 
New sure- shall die, or become insolvent, or remove from this State, or from 

ties. ' . ' , . ' 

other cause the security become insufficient, the Ordinary may 
of his own motion, or at the instance of any relative of the ward, 
require the guardian to give other and sufficient security, and on 
his failure so to do in compliance with such order, the Court 
shall revoke his letters of guardianship, and appoint some other 
person in his place. 

§ 1807. If the Ordinary knows, or is informed, that any guar- 

(a) Acts of 1861, p. 33. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 3.— ART. 1.— Domestic Kelatioks. 368 

Section 1. — Guardians — how and by whom appointed. 

dian wastes, or in any manner mismanages the property, or does Proceedings 
not take due care oi the maintenance and education of his ward misconduct 
according to his circumstances, or refuses to make returns as 
required by law, or for any cause is unfit for the trust, the Ordina- 
ry shall cite such guardian to answer to such charge at some regu- 
lar term of the Court, when, upon investigation of his actions, the 
Ordinary may, in his discretion, revoke his letters, or pass such 
other order as in his judgment is expedient under the circum- 
stances of each case. 

§ 1808. The surety of any guardian on his bond, or if dead, his Motion by 
representative, may at any time make complaint to the Ordinary 
of any misconduct of his principal in the discharge of his trust, Z ^.^ 

or for any other reason show his desire to be relieved as surety ; ' C 

thereupon the Ordinary shall cite the guardian to appear at a 
regular term of the Court, and show cause why such surety shall 
not be discharged ; and upon hearing the parties and their evidence, Proceedings 
the Ordinary may, at his discretion, pass an order discharging 
such surety from all future liability, and requiring such guardian 
to give new and sufficient security, or be discharged from his trust ; 
such new sureties shall be liable for past as well as future waste 
or misconduct of the guardian. And such discharged surety shall 
be relieved only from the time the new security shall be given. 
If new security is not given, and the guardian's trust is revoked, i^iawiity of 

»/ o 7 G 7 ne-vy sureties. 

the discharged surety shall be bound for a true accounting of such 
guardian with the new guardian, or his ward, if no other guardian 
is appointed. The death of a surety shall be a sufficient ground 
for his discharge from future liability on application of his repre- 
sentative and the granting the order. In all cases where letters ofoidsure- 
of guardianship are revoked, the sureties on the bond are liable 
for all the acts of the guardian in relation to his trust up to the 
time of his settlement with the new guardian or his ward. 

§ 1809. The revocation of letters of guardianship shall not abate Revocation 

" ■*■ does not 

any suit pending for or against the guardian, but the new guardian abate suit. 
shall be made a party by sci. fa. as in case of the death of a party. 

§1810. Suit may be instituted against the guardian and his suit on bond 
sureties on his bond in the same action at the instance of his 
ward, or a new guardian, or any other person interested, without 
first suing the guardian. And if the guardian is beyond the juris- 
diction of the Court, or places himself in the position of a debtor, 
liable to attachment, or is dead, and his estate unrepresented, suit 

S64: PT. 2.— TIT. 2.— CHAP. 3.— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 

Section 1. — G-uardians — ^how and by whom appointed. 

ProYiso, may be commenced against the sureties alone ; provided, that the 
fi. fa. issued upon a judgment obtained against the guardian and his 
sureties shall not be levied upon the property of the sureties until 
a return of 7iulla bona as to the guardian, unless the property of 
the sureties is being removed from the County. If the failure to 
Effect of sue the guardian arose from his voluntary act, the iudDi:ment 

judgment. , ° , . . 

against the sureties shall be conclusive in any suit against him, 
§ 1811. A guardian whose residence is, or by removal or other- 
EemoYiDg wisc bccomcs, in a different County from that of his appointment, 

proceedings , . . 

to another may have the privilege of removing the trust to the jurisdiction 
of the Ordinary of his own County, by first giving bond and good 
security to such Ordinary, as if first appointed by him, and filing 
a certificate of such fact with the Ordinary by whom he was ap- 
pointed. He shall also obtain from such Ordinary an exemplifi- 
cation of all the records concerning his guardianship, and of the 
order passed transferring the same to the County of his residence, 
which exemplification shall be filed with and recorded by the 
Ordinary of said County, who shall then have the same jurisdic- 
tion over such guardian as if first appointed by him. The sure- 
ties upon such guardian's first bond shall be liable only for past 
Liability of misconduct. The surcties upou tho now boud shall be liable for 
both past and future misconduct. 

§ 1812. Whenever a minor is interested in any litigation pend- 

Gnardianacz ing in any Court in this State, and has no guardian, or his inter- 
est is adverse to that of his guardian, such Court shall have power 
to appoint a guardian ad litem for such minor, which guardian 
shall be responsible to such minor for his conduct in connection 
with such litigation in the same manner as if he were a regularly 
qualified guardian. 




1813. Power of guardian. 

1814. Returns. 

1815. Amount of expenditure. 

1816. Binding out indigent persons. 

1817. Ill treatment. 

1818. Failing to make returns. 

1819. Sales. 

1820. Renting of lands. 

1821. Contracts for labor. 


1822. "Working tliem together. 

1823. Cultivating plantations, etc. 
1821. Investment in stocks. 

1825. Commissions. 

1826. If there be two guardians. 

1827. Sureties bound, etc. 

1828. Contracts bj' guardian, 

1829. May appoint attorney in fact. 

PT. 2.— TIT. 2.-~CHAP. 3.— ART. 1.— Domestic Relations. 865 

Section 2.— Powers, Duties, and Liabilities of Guardians. 

§ 1813. The power of the guardian over the person of his ward 
is the same w4th the father over his child, the guardian standing 
in his place ; and in like manner it is the duty of the guardian to 
protect and maintain, and, according to the circumstances of the 
ward, to educate him. 

§ 1814. Every guardian, within twelve months after his ap- 
pointment, and by the first Monday in July in every year there- 
after, shall make a return to the Ordinary under oath, making an 
accurate exhibit of all the property of his ward received by him 
up to that time and since his last return, together wdth an account 
current of his receipts and expenditures, accompanied with the 
vouchers for the same, and any other matter connected with the 
said property, which said return shall be examined by the Ordi- 
nary, and if found correct shall be allowed by him and entered of 
record with the vouchers ; and the judgment thus rendered by the 
Ordinary shall be prima facie evidence of the correctness of said 
return in favor of said guardian. If the guardian shall have 
removed beyond the limits of this State, the oath of his surety 
shall be sufficient to verify the return. 

§ 1815. Every guardian shall be allowed all reasonable dis- 
bursements and expenses suitable to the circumstances of the 
orphan committed to his care. But the expenses of maintenance 
and education must not exceed the annual profits of the estate, 
except by the approval of the Ordinary previously granted. The 
Ordinary may, in his discretion, allow the corpus of the estate, in 
whole or in part, to be used for the education and maintenance of 
the ward. 

§ 1816. If the annual profits of the estate of any orphan, with 
or without a guardian, are not sufficient for his education and 
maintenance, [and the Ordinary shall not allow the corpus of the 
estate to be used for such education and maintenance,] (a) it shall 
be the duty of the Ordinary forthwith to bind out such orphan for 
the w^hole or such part of the time of his minority as to him shall 
seem best, and on such conditions as will most promote the interest 
of such orphan, in all cases requiring that such orphan shall be 
allowed to attend the nearest school, where education is free to 
him, at least three months in the year. 

§ 1817. It shall be the duty of the Ordinary and of the guardian 

Power of 

His duty. 


Amount of 

Binding ou 
indigent or- 

(a) Acts of 1865-6, p. 28. 

BQ6 PT. 2.— TIT. 2.-^CHAP. 3.— ART. 1.-— Domestic Relations^ 

Section 2. — Powers, Duties, and Liabilities of Guardians. 

Ill treat- of such Orphan to be informed as to his treatment, and on com- 
ment. ^ 

plaint of ill usage, or any condition broken, the Ordinary shall 
bind such orphan to some other person.* 

§ 1818. The Ordinary shall keep a docket of all the guardians 
Failing to liable to make returns to him, and upon the failure of any one to 

make re- ^ ^ ■*■ "^ 

turns. (Jo SO by the time required by law, he shall cite the said guardian 
to appear and show the reason for his delay ; and every guardian 
who shall fail or refuse to make his return before the end of the 
year, shall receive no commission or compensation for any service 
done during that year, unless by special order of the Court of 
Ordinary, exonerating him from all blame. 

§1819. All sales of any portion of the property of the ward 
Sales, shall be made under the direction of the Ordinary, and under the 
same rules and restrictions as are prescribed for sales by adminis- 
trators of estates. 

§ 1820. Every renting of lands of an orphan, unless by special 
Renting of order of the Ordinary, shall be in public to the highest bidder, 
and under the same rules as Sheriff sales, except that credit may 
be given on good security. 

§ 1821. [Guardians may make contracts for labor or service 

May con- wlth porsons of color, or with white persons, for the benefit of the 

labor. estates of their wards, upon such terms as they may deem best, 

and all such contracts made in good faith shall be a charge upon 

and bind said estates whenever the same are approved by the 

Ordinary of the County.] (a) 

§ 1822. Guardians, under a like order, may keep such persons 
Working together, and have them employed in such agricultural or other 
gether. operations as such guardians may deem manifestly expedient. 

§ 1823. When it is manifestly expedient, guardians may cause 
cuiti- plantations of their wards to be managed and cultivated for their 
pSa.Sig benefit, and when not possessed of lands, under a like order of the 
pantation. Q^^^,^^ guardians may invest a portion of the funds of their wards 
in lands for the purpose of cultivation as hereinbefore provided. 
§ 1824. Any guardian, in his discretion, may invest any funds 
investnaent of hi