Skip to main content

Full text of "The codes and statutes of California, as amended and in force at the close of the twenty-sixth session of the Legislature, 1885 : with notes containing references to all the decisions of the Supreme Court construing or illustrating the sections of the codes, and to adjudications of the courts of other states having like code provisions"

See other formats

Go ogle 

This is a digitaJ copy of a book that was preserved for generatioDS on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

ll has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enler Ihe public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vmy country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways lo the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other niaiginalia present in the original volume will appeal' in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from Ihe 
publisher to a library and finally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with librai'ies to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we Lue merely Iheir custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have takeD steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm aiftomated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system; If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a laige amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage Ihe 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and maybe able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermaik" you see on each file is essential for informing people about ihis project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do nol remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring thai what you are doing is legal. Do not assume Ihat just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States. Ihat the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whelher a book is still in copyright varies from counlry lo counlry. and we can'I offer guidance on whelher any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume Ihat a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize Ihe world's informalion and lo make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover Ihe world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search tlirough the full text of Ihis book on the web 

at http: //books . google .com/ 




fv ^4^ r THE 






With Notes CoyuAisisa Refereiice3 to All the Decisions of the 

Supreme Court Construikq or Iixustratino the Sections of 

THE Codes, and to Adjudications of the Courts op 

Otheb States Havisq Liee Code Provisions, 



Qf Ihe Ban Francaco Bar. 




Law PpBLiagmiB, Bookseller^ and STAXioiieBS. 



Entered accordiiiK to Act of Congrsas, in the year 18SG, 


In the Office of the LibrarUn oi CoDgreas, >t WaehiDgton. 

• . • . • ; . : I • : ;,• 





COURTS OF JUSTICE. [Secs. 33-304i] 



Chapter 1. laGeneral 33-34 

II. Court of Impeachmont 36-39 

III. Supreme Court 40-56 

IV. Superior Courta 65-79 

V. Juaticea' Couria 85-115 

VL PoIicaCourta 121 

VII. Gcaeral Proviaiotu rMpccting Courta of Justfca „ 124-153 



Ckatteb I. iDGenenkl 156-161 

II, PowerB, etc.,of Judges at Chamlw™ 165-166 

in. Disqualification of Jndgea 170-172 

IV. Incidental Powors, etc., of Judicial Officer* 176- 179 

V. MiBcellaoeouB ProTisioos, Courta, aud Judicial Officers., 1S3-1S7 


NATURE 190-259 

CuApTEK I. Jurors 190-254 

II. Court CoramissionerH 2.')6-2o9 



CbaPtbH I. Generally 262 

n. Secretary and BailifT, Sapremo Court. 265-266 

III. FboDographic Reporten 263-274 



Ch&pteb I. Attorneyn 275-209 

II. Other Person^ Receivers, and GaordlanB 304 




PART 11. 

CIVIL ACTIONS. [Secs. 307-1059.] 





CuATTCtt I. In Ocneral 31! 

II, Fur Itccovery of Real Proi-erty 31.1-K8 

III. For Recovery of i'ropirty Otiier than Real 333-343 

IV. Geacrol ProvbJoDS 330-3SI 


PARTIES 887-3» 






PLEADINGS 420-478 

Chaftek I. In Otreral 420-*^ 

II. CoHllJlaint 425-*27 

III. Dumurrcr to Complaint 43IM34 

IV. Answer «7-t« 

V. I>emurrcr to Answer 443-444 

VL Verificatiou 4*6-449 

VIL General Rules of Plcidini; 452-163 

VIII. Variance, Miatakos, irnil Amenilnicnt» 469-476 



Cbapteb I. Arrest and Bail 47S-504 

II. Claim Buil Delivery S09-5-2l> 

III. Injunction .' 523-533 

IV. Attachment 537-.Vi9 

V. Itecei vers 664-5® 

VL Deposit in Court G72-JI74 



CiLUTEB I. Jurigment in General fi77-5S2 

If. Juil^ent oa Failure to Ansner 5S5 

III. IsnucB, Miide of Trial, I'ostpouomenta 688-696 

IV. Trial by Jury 600-638 

V. Ti-ial by Court 631-636 

VI. liefcrencea 638-645 

VII. Exceptions an<l New Trials 646-602 

VIII. Manner of Oiviug Judgment, etc i. 664-673 


EXECUTION ^ 681-721 

Chapter I. Elocution 6S1-T09 

II. Supplemeuto! I'roccedingB 714-721 





Chapter I. Foreclosure of Mortgages 72(1-728 

II. Nuisaiico, Waste, and Willful Trospraa 731-735 

ni. Quietiug Title, and Aotiong coucerniDg Beal Estate 73S-743 

IV. Partition of Keal Property 7j2-S01 

V. UBurpation 802--810 

VI. Aetiona ajjainst Veaaeia, oto 813-827 


JtTSTICES' COUETS.i _ 832-023 

CllAPTKR I. Place of Trial M2-83S 

II. CoiiimoQcing AttionH 8H9-S.")0 

III. Pleadings SSI-WIO 

IV. Provieiiinal Itemcdiea S(U-S70 

V. Jmlunient by Default 871-872 

VI. Time of Trial and Post£>onement 873-S77 

VII Trials 878-S87 

VIII. Judgments Othur than by Default 880-900 

IX. Executions ani! Supplemental Proceedings 001-903 

X. Ciintcmpts 000-910 

XI. Justices' Dockets Oil -018 

XIL General Proi-iaiona 919-323 





CBAFTEa I. In Qeneral OSO-S'.'jO 

II. To Supreme Court 9C.?-0fiR 

III. To Superior Courts 874-080 



Ciiafteh I. Proceedings ajjaioflt Joint Debtors 980-004 

II. Offer of Defendant to ComproiniBe 997 

in. Inspection of Writings 1000 

IV. Motions an<l Orders 1003-1007 

V. Notices, and Filing and Sorvi™ 1010-1017 

VL Costs ^ 1021-1 039 

VU. General 1045-lOJB 


SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS. [Secs. 106S-1822.] 
PRELIMINAUY .' 1003-1064 



Chapter I. Certiorari or Itcvicw 1067-1077 

II. Manilamus or Mandate 1084-1097 

ILL Prohibition 1102-1103 

IV. Chamber Practice 1108 

V. Boles of ['raetice and Appeals 1109-1110 





TiTiiE m. 


CtCAPTGa I. Confeasion of Juilgment 1132-1133 

II. SpeoinlCasc 113.H-1140 

III. Diecliargp of Prisoner 1 U3-1 1^4 

IV. Forcible Entry &ad DetMner, etc 1159-1170 



Chafteb I. In Genersl 1 ISO 

II. MechanicB' 11S3-1109 

lU. Salaries and Wagas 1204-1_'06 

CONTEMPTS 1209-1222 




NAMES, CaANGEOF 1275-1279 



PROBATE COURT 1294-1809 

CtuFTEB I. Jurisdiction 1294-1295 

II. Probate. . . .- 1298-1346 

IIL AdministratioD, Revocation, Executors, AJuiiniatratora, Disqiialifica- 

tionof Judgea, etc 1349-1440 

IV. Inventory and Collection, EnibeajJement, etc 1443-1461 

V. Homestead and Family Supirart 1464-1486 

TI. ClainiB 1490-1313 

VII. Sales and CoDveyances 1QI6-I576 

VIII. Powers and Duties of Execut«ra and Administrators 1581- luOl 

IX. Couveynnces of Re»l Estate under Contract of Deoenaed I."i97-1607 

X. Accounts and Payment of Debts 1012-1653 

XI. Distribution and Final Settleiiieiit and Discharge 1G.">S-IG93 

XII. Orders. Dcurocs, Process, Minuteji, Records, Trials, and Appeals 1704-1722 

XIII. Public AdmLnistratiir 1726-1743 

XIV. Guardians of Minors, Lunatics, etc 17(7-1809 

SOLE TRADERS 1811-1821 





EVIDENCE. [Secs. 1823-2103.] 





CuAFTEB I. Kuowledtgre of th« Court 1875 

IL WitiiMBafl ; 1878-1884 

in. Writings, Public and Privata 1887-1951 

IV. Material Ohjecta 195* 

V. ladirect Eviilence, Inferences, and Preaumptiona 1957-1963 

VI. IniliipensablB Evidence 1DG7-1974 

VII. Concluflive Evidence ' 1978 

TITLE in. 


CuAPiiR I. By ^Vhom to be Prodnced 1081-1982 

II, Means of Production 1985-1007 

ni. Manner of Production, Testimony, Affidavits, Depodtiona. 2002-2054 




inSCELLANEOUS 2074-2104 

CHAftlB. I. Offers, Compromises, Receipts, Tenders, Construing Deeds, Divorce, 

Admissioiis 2074-2079 

n. Perpetuating Testimony 2083-2089 

III. Administration of Oaths 2093-2097 

IV. General Facta to be Decided by Jnry, Law by Court, Referees, De- 

posiU in Court 2101-2104 




Pnc CodB Pth. Coda Pna. Code PtM. Code 


car, Ptoe. 


Civ. I>n», 


CIy. Proc, 








































































10. . . . 
























,...».. 370 





































18. . . . 













128. ... 



.. .639 

20 ... 


, 480 





























































































. . . . 492 








































































... . 502 















... .. 690 

























150. . . . 










49. , . , 
































102. . . . 

















coRRESPONDrao sections-pRjVCTIce act. 








Civ. ITO«, 




ClT. Pnic. 






.... 11,'!2 











370. .. . 












378, , , , 






379. . , . 














229. . . . 




382 , . . . 


























234 ... . 












,... 707 


















,... 1879 

240 ... 

.. 716 


























399 ... 












401 .. . 


248 ... 





















252. .. . 






































































421 ... 










■ 53936-959. 



267 ... . 

,, 755 


437 . . , , 




































431 ... 





































281 . , . . 




441 . , , . 







283 ., 
































448 . , 






419 .., 


290, ,, 

..., 778 



























Pne, Cods 

Act, CiT. Pnic 

455 1067 

456 1068 

457 1069 

458 1070 

459 1071 

4G0 1072 

461 1073 

462 107* 

463 1075 

464 1076 

405 1077 

460 1034 

167 1085 

408 10S6 

460 10S7 

470 1088 

471 1089 

472 1090 

473 1091 

471 1092 

475 1003 

476 1091 

177 1095 

478 1096 

479 1097 

480 1209 

431 1211 

482 1212 

483 1213 

484 1211 

185,,,,. 1215 

*S6....* 1216 

4S7 1217 

483 J2I3 

489 1219 

491 1220 

492 1221 

403 1-222 

41M 1021 

495 1022 

490 1023 

497 1021 . 

498 102.'> 

499 1026 

500 1027 

504 1028 

n05 1029 

506 10.10 

C07 1031 

503 1032 

510 1033 

511 1033 

512 laie 

513 iai7 

511 1037 

513 1003 

r.l6 1001 

517 1005 

613, 1006 

519 1010-16 

520 1011 

521 1012 

522 1013 

.523 1014 

.^)J1 1015 

.'.25 11M7 

5--'0 1043 

5J7 1050 

,'-1-:,'; 10.i2 

529 ia"">3 

5;!0 WA 

,-,:tl 1046 

532 3G1 

534 842 


Pnhata Cmte 

Act, Civ. Proe, 

t")9 ir)39 

ISO 1.->JI 

101 1.M2 

)6-i 1543 

)IJ3 iW* 

IW. 1545 

165 VAQ 

196 lr.*7 

107 li+8-50 

IfiS l.>fl 

Iftl 1.V.-2 

170 l.V)3 

171 IXA 

17-2 l.V^'i 

173 IVjII 

174 irM7 

175 l.-i58 

170 \3.->'J 

177 lofiO ■ 

17» IWi 

179 1.X2 

ISO 1.W3 

131 1.)ft4 

lH-2 1.VJS 

1S3 15(16 

IW 1367 

135 156.') 

186 lr*!»-70 

187 1569 

183 1571 

189 1572 

190 1573 

191 1574 

192 157S 

193 I57« 

IM 15S1 

105 158-2 

196 ISM 

197 15»4 

1D8 15S.) 

IM l.->ft6 

200 !5n7 

201 I5&8 

202 I5S9 

203 130 

204 !5ftl 

2a> 1597 

aofl 159S 

207 1-W9 

808 1600 

209 1601 

210 1603 

211 1603 

212 16W 

213 1005 

2U 1606-7 


Ac I, 



ClT. PPB. 

215 161-2 

216 1613 

217 1614 

SI* 1615 

219 1616 

220 1617 

2-21 1618 

222 16-22 

2-23 1623 

2-24 1624 

•>i> 1625 

226 1626 

2-27 10-27 

2-23 16JS 

2-29 Ifi29 

230 )fi30 

2:J1 leil 

232 163-2 

233 1633 

2M ia%i 

23.1 1636 

23G 1636 

3;t7 1637 

238 163S 

230 1643 

240 1644 

241 1645 

242 1646 

243 1647 

244 1048 

245 1649 

24fi 1650 

247 1651 

249 1652 

249 1653 

250 1658 

251 1659 

252 1660 

25;i 1061 

254 1661 

255 1661 

256 1601 

2.-.7 1662 

2.18 1663 

259 1666-67 

200 1668-69 

261 1673 

26-2 1677 

263 1676 

261 1678 

265 1079 

206 1080 

207 1681 

268 16S2 

UTO 1083 

271 ICM 






See Civil Code, 
"i§ 1385-1399. 


2S7 -.17M-5 

2S8 1710 

2S9 1709 

290 .1711 

293 1713 

2W 1716-17 

206 1719 



299 3- See Si 963 


301 J 

302 1720 

302 1738 

302 1739 

304 17-28 

3&S 1729 

305 1741-42 

306 1730 

307 1731 

308 1732 

309 1733 

310 n.'M 

311 17.15 

312 1736 












3-26 J 








ClT. Proe. 

. . . ITJO 
. ..J7.53-54 
. . . 1757 

348 17ii4 


. 17t;9 

361 I7S3 

. 17Sa 

373 IS03 




Civil Cole, 



An Ad to etlobUfh a Code «/* Ctrit Pmxdarv. 


1. Titlr and division t>f thin volumi, 

8r.cTinN 1. This act t^nll ha known on TitK Cosb or CmL Pbocedckb or 

Cautoiuoa, and is diriJctd iiiU> fuur purta, na follows: 

Put I. Op Corim or JotmoK *.,..... 89 

n. Or Civn. \anox» i,.. 807 

m. Or BpcaAL I^ux«uinrai or a Civil XATunB •. ,.. ..1063 

IV. Or Enoracu 1823 

Rm Ibur 0Ode« Ate fotu ntatnWa; fftch U ne4nl«il m aawndincaU ol tlw irliola oili: C 

. ' t: £j>r/' t. Z/noiW ••/ KJutaUoH. M P- It. /I. v. SAathl/unl. C3 LL 301. 

Ihi- wliole t»lii h 14 b* oonrtrunl Tliia nut, lioiw Cited; Re:. IP, /-nt. 

u.„ : . A.1 ill Uiocucol A diiglv ttMnt*; »u<] CouMn)otlaDOitbacodeiaiuIt>( Ilitirvari- 

UMikJaieiiU to wtjr wctiuD UiimMf are to bo oua mmUixu: iiaa Pol. Oxln, ma. 4479 ot toti. 


2. When this cwlc Inlxs rffect. 

8i«. 2. Tttb cotle takes olTect nt twc<lTO o'clock noon, on Uio ^t day ol 
January, e%lit«ea hundrtHl luid eovoutjr^tiiroo. 

EBKt ol codM BonwftUy^ St« IV4. Cod*, ii)|t UuU witb r««p»ot to pTOrfiloiu <acuv*nina 

Mm. tITK d «•!. tlio ratvmia Ibo ooil« ia to Im conaiileml oi » 

Lawa p«aa«(l at tba MDM) •eaaton at pamni on tlio bat iLty ot lli« •unum. nil iwta 

wblcEltli«cod«aweT*adopt*d prvritil <ntrr [wtiiil iliiriitg tlutntaiioo an irpcntcil cxecjit 

tba enkii: Bahft^t v. OaidrirA, 47 (.'al. 4$$! atrta amniilalury ol or cwnri&u into oOcct tuc 

Ml) MO £j; /mrf.! .VnMon, 53 1<I. 9T2. Bat codMi JiUdMtr. CruAg, M Id. >7. 
nail(<r*Kiiou3vUl ol tbe Political Code, iImIot- 

8. Sot nlrviKtitv. 
Skc. 3. No pui of it Ifl mtnuctiTa qdIom ospnsslf so chdoxed. 

Retioaollira affect: See nifvcL noU to aM- rldwl: T^tlUgt. TriUMTiSSCaL 7Hi w Aster- 

tloit 2. >i\<tuuly U Uio rvita ii> bavo a futotv nitniu wlul nto »t intermt prvrailRl upon 

onratidii, cxi.-u|>t wliani wllicrwiMi nxjiniMl/ tlioaitopUunuf llie ooilc: IfitniK v. Maaiiii:, dO 

dMUrul, ImI SDMailiiiiala to tJi« tchIs require Id. 214. 

a liiidlai vooatniotko, Biiil a:« iK>t retroactiiu: CiirJ an'l rtppli'M la rvitiimaieata iu*octioiM 

('. P. II. It. V. Shnrli^ard. 03 Ud.asll Sharp 1103 Blid i:WUof till* regata to pTfUNm. 

r, /IAti»tvH>U/>. St) l-l. 308: Uifurtkia S. A L. tatloo ol claimi asaiiut ilcceJtaita. ia Itilrvnin 

Sac X. Jor-lai; C Pac. C. U J. 666. K •{■ i.. Sof. v. l/ayt*, :^ Co). 307l ao nl«o la 

VVIul I* ail exproM devlanlloD o( an intcn- reganl to iho amrii<lni«nt to ntL'tJon :i^l, («> 

Itun 111 Hire n uxAiiM or anwnduicilt a rctroaO' iiiiiiSni{ [oymtait i>f taKo* la niahc n KMnl mI- 

Urr iif^;allt<n miut f^tta rwtDD couatrnctioilt vrrw lioUliiisi HHarii-/. lllantxKMt-, CtHU.SS&i 

aa la a[>]-'viti^ anieasQrcoLdaniaiia* to coo- C. P. tt. ll.Z'o. r. IfJMfirlfyrd, Caiil. ^1. 

vonttui iviiitiuiuil Mors tb« ntMuuru waa pro- Impairing veated ri^hta: Sw ac«, 6, ^imI;, 



But^o/a/nslruclitn of code, 

Sbc. i. The niU> of tbo ootnAinn Iiiw, tlut HbUuto* Id derogittjoti Ibpr' ^ ' — 
1 1)0 (itriclly conHtruwl, luui no «p]>lR'ittioH U> ihi« cmXo. Tli" cwltt vmtr.) 
iha law of tliie eUlo rMspi-trting the «nbj«(!t" in wliii-U it tttlaUn, uiiJ iOt prnvuiou* 
BLod all proDevdingH under it ftro to bu lilxriUl^* cuiutruoi), with a view to ■<lT'>rt 
ita objoete uid to promoto justico. 


TUB MOUcm otuuiBM tbe oonraou-biw 
rulo wUkli wna lii (opm iu Uil« sbUi prior to 
tlia iwloMiaB oj ttto 09<tMi Ualitting v, CnMUe, 
2 Gil. Mi ^fon/c V. An^n-, 1 1 M, !{|.>; yVii-r 
T. 7'iWuMm n'mtf^ CV>.. Si> M. 3!^: Ana v. 
I: 31 III. XSO. 6m nW tli« oaiatniotluu of 

14 iN'C'tiou ill HsUte^Aypd, ft WM CmM 

TIm ftxpUnntlOn lor tlilii dtpoitilr* from 
tlic eominoii-Uu' nilc ii fuuiiJ in Uie fiUluwing 
•tOteiDMit bj- Uio code ixiiiiiniHicaiDn; appended 
M A note to (cction 1 o( t)ic dvil oode: " !law> 

ever •Diniil m&y be tlic •i-gumsat* Id (atot «I 
Uiiinilo [thonlilnilc] wliea>iipli«ii UionliBUpr 
~ ' of tlio IcguUtare. It !• BpiiM-cDt tliat it 
.it hg improper to app! v it la all iti wvnitjr 
iiy«tnn of uiw* iiitamkil, In ■ %nM nioU' 
III tiko tha place <i( llie coiiimnn law, And 
; ill vlgiv, M iu Itwling obJ<r«t, lh« tar- 
lOa uf juDt'o.- kii'l B ilisr^sanl ol tooliaiuki 
lOu; Tliv [irriviMiuiiii oTiucli > iiystein 
OQgfil tu be coBitniftl in the latiio mKuiierkiul 
witti iik«fon;oiuiilGiri.-ct nitlic^WDuld he were 
prinoipta cmmnatoil rsMin^ in tlio an- 
tU'ii law; ftn'J it wni lo tliia ond tlmt the 
[ion btd been madu B pitt of uoob of the 


So ain in Uicir nolo to tlii> ume Hclion, m 
fbun-l i« tlic Code i>E Civil I'roccdun, tha cod* 
eommiailoticn, rofcrrlog to tiM mlo of ■trtctlj' 
oonitraing ncnal MdtnlMi aiiJ ttsluta* In il>n>- 
giliou oTtlw cwnmiifl Uw, iwy; " Williout 
•top]>ini{ lo iaquln> Imw far tlii* priucijil* ii 
applicoula tOitatiit»ry gin-vixiiuii Tin<*>;nl4iiig, 
(or axitjn)i1oi tliu tiii><> nitliin v iiicfi n iwrtiou* 
' ir act matt he ilonv (whinh via* tbc cuao In the 
tniK'u irlerml luj. it M'ttaialy iboulil nut 
[>!<>' in alt its tevcrity lo a lyttsin of rcgiiLi- 
Hull liAVins in view on iU kIc olijcct llie flir- 
tlicruioe o3 jualieu nnil n ilimipuil of teohliicol 
tncM. Tiiii i> the sreot principle rcnning 

tliroasli kit ihn p>«vl«|oMi of IfiU ooitc. Tiit 
cbief ucaisiianit tbewcritol ll>o e^Ar. if It liw 
Mif, la it* AtUnnpt to ihbJi* iI>v ntLnliunuil u| 
iutJM tbe panuo'iiuit obJ««<, Boil tli^ iiw>il 
iortm Mim anttliju-ie*^ wUeli, wlicii tlKjr tnqu 
in MMlliut Willi the asda cA Jntti^ir. arc to W 
raUnid. Thia aeftaaa wim istuiuloil tn pliriAta 
niuuk of tlw dilGculiv umlvr irhieh «ourta ban 
loboriMl. and to midor tbe ooda, imtetJ of 4 
HkiJ and nubcnding atatuto, h eonatraeit kf 
•cone, a rule of prootdun MtMtptiblo tJL mif 
aiUptatJaii lo iho pdrpoM* of juatioo vhich il 
klons baa la vUw: Sm the- o|iinic«i of JuatiM 
OopiL JoM* T. tHranuAip Corlt*, 17 C«L UT| 
a*« obo /, »-ru. Tururr * Co. v. Poyi' A- Dfinf, 
7 Id. 02: H'ln/ v, AV.rranfw, I<1. lali t'UiKha^ 
laiHf.Hdl. Id. '2!>S." 

A Ubaral rMhartban atrict ooastructkni 
la alaodoouuded by tbe Pooal Code, (ocilMi 
4, BTidencinj; tlie gmonl Jeatm «( tbc commit- 
aioncTB to abrogate th* olil rula* of ttrlot odoi 
•tnotioa: Ex pirtr Oaiifrirt, t' '' ' ""'; 
/W. V. ifortJmn-. « Id. 117: /' \ 

fSlil. 07. Ilntatatuteaincuntrni'. .. .. Llie 
comroonlairarcaottobeoxteadad byoooatrv^ 
tioii, al It ti not lo be preanoted (hat tiM legia- 
latur* intaiulcil lo moke an ianovatioa ou the 
ooiiiinoii Uu' farthLT tbaii tbo eaaa obxUntaly 
TenuiiMi Uroun v. t\fi<ll, 4 Itllrli. R21; John- 
•on r. llaJkn. 4 N'eb. 144. 

A otAtxits In aBSmumoe of tbe commoa 
Inw is to be oou>ilrue>l, m wm tbo ru)«, by IhM 
law: fiuivrv. Iliktr. IS CVll, ST. 

With vl«vr to pioniate Joatlae.— Anplioa- 
tiou of till* cUtTiKi.-; /*ii<^F V. (,'tirnaU, <ll CaL 
21*1 S. C I.I. 211. 

Const tnctioii of oodM witb reUtiOO tO 
•aob ottior, aini rvroDclliuj; oonlliata between 
titles, cliaiitcn, and mIJoIm! Soo PoL Oodot 
aeo. 41>H ct acii. 

PrODukmn similar lo exuilin;/ late*, how eonKtruti, 
■ Bso. 6. Tbo proTiniotiM of UiiH code, no fnr m thoj- on BntetAntiall; tbo ums 
I bxixlliig: MtututitK, must bo couHtru«<l an ooatiaiuttioM tberoof, nod eot oh aew 

Revival b7 repe«L— "Tha political oode 
conlAiii) a jjeiientl prorlnloii that tlic rvneel 
of GxUting aUlutaa alull not revive any law 
herolofon) ropeaUd or *nitp«Di)«d. nur o&f cfBce 
liotvtofor* alioliebeil. and Uieretore muli a pn>. 
viaion Iiaa not been inoorponitoil horolnt .See 
PnpJt r. CniymjA,^ Cal.243i" Co<l« Com- 
miaiionfln' note. ThoiottioureCeTtOil tolti 

linure of office pivaenvd. 
Sac. C. AU persoBB who, at tbo time tliis codo tokos ofFoct, hold offlM VBtUi 
n^of tbe acta rei)ealc<I, contimio to bold tb« MamoitL-cording to Ui« t«DiiT« 
tIu4«of, except tboae offices irhicU are ui>t coutiuued bjrouvol tbocodOM adopt«>d 
at tbi« wHsiou of tbe lef^Blature 
8ae UUEteeclioo, and oolc 

■ euactmeato.— Tlie oodo* were framed 
I a view to a ooiniilete ayatoin of lav. (Ic- 
"", hou-evoT, to diiturlj 111* exittiiiie «tat« 
laallttlsnipoMiblo, aiul not to Impair 
ighta. Tlia forejtuiti^ Meti<in la one of 
cxfirMilvo of tliia daaign. It hna Iwoa 
I Willi raforonoo ti> llie trfTvctof tbeoMloaupon 
»af oflii.'Di PfoiUty. B>*<ttlA'JCai.*m. tlie 
: oJ SM inetera' caaa, 8m oUo aen. 13. 



Contlruelion <ffrtrptat a» to crrlain ujjiivr*. 
Seo. 7. 'Whon Kuy olSco in uUilwliod bv tlio ropoal of Koy nrt, Mid micU nxX 
is but iu HiitMtanco ro-DiiActoct or ctnitiuuod fu -oitberof Uto coctai, Hwh ofGcA 

Dm IseUAtnr* a«) abotlata or obflnga an 

eSc* crvatoil lij? it, adiI it snaj' cxttaJ or 

•litklgv tlie tvriB* of ita iamoiliiiuU nt [JcMni«^ 

uiilcM forliiddco by tbe»latc«f>aat)tuliMi: /it 

rp i;„/;.yr. /« n SlerrUI, 43 l"*]. BMl Cii-Wy 

V. .'iu-iiimr..(o, 30 Id, 3j Allorarf-'lfatrtii t. 
UBr'i"'- U Id. Vl: MflMuitl V. FoOa. Id. 
mil P.t W y, fioMivtrJ, '.T IJ. 4701 Ft<rl>k v. 

/. Id. 8.17: /V/t.«4 V. -Cuf*.-!. « AU. 

II rilv. l7(*»on. 1.". Id. Ml; ^>ivm(«v, 

' .Si..^ r,'y, 4-1 fin. -Ui:!: Pnrplr v, lipfiiKW, U7 

111, Xf3; 0/«-->ivn> i^AMtOCf, 117 Xlu«. iKOi 

A'rWoU V. C'ojufM, &3 MIo. G20; /WncA v. 


8. Actions, eta., not qfected by thiacotlf. 

B«a 6. No aotJoD or prooeedin^ oommenced before Ihia oo<1e taJtea efleot, 
and DO right accrued, is &lTeut«d by its proriaiouB, but the proceediuga tlMxeiu 
ranat conform to tlie requirements of this code as far as applicable. 

SBjeot of codes en peodli^ aotloii.— The nmcnJ alstaiiWDt i* brli«T«(l to tw ■apportvil 

CinmunuBinlih, 78 Pit. 91. 330; TrrrUnrvv, 
Pyte. I Or. 1*0: pr^t>lt r. Ow*. M S. Y. -jaSi 
tSanf V. iV'." r.irt. 2 S.»iidf. 3Mj Si'iir r. 
/Miglaj. 2)1 WU, 4-29; Ctwlc.v'i I 'oiiirt . I.tni. . toe*. 
220, '-*77. NotnithttABillii^' Ibo Irriu ■■( on nflluc 
nk^ tMv« (xpiri-d l>y vit'.iin bf Ui« (vrt]!0(up| 
•octioo*, yol llf-iiicriiiiWne holiltiinUI Itlatna- 
«a*Mr iHta iiuiiliiiuil n* illrwt«i) by Motion 870 
of tl>u PoUtKsl Cod«: Peoph v. SStmil, 49.CaL 

Ropaala by tmplloatioa; Stewo. 13, fm(, 
umI uutu. 

■uaicicDcy ol pTUOwdin^i IaImq bobro Ihr aod« 
WDDt liitu <i|>«raU'iQ niiut bo detainiiaed tnr tha 
law In (oix« tlicn. «ii'l liy no otbcr rvlei Caul- 
'^tt V. />or. 4 j C'al. ±!1, lOSi ltan»itt v. n^i, 
I Id, M3. Tlio proceiliirD unuu d nioljon (or 
' tiial, nulico u( wliUh liad bMin giren 
JnauAqr 1, lSi.1, um riqiiiretl tu lio 
i; tu tho |>r»ctic<i *ct then in fatoe: 
Dari'n, 41 Id. 047: but tho nnwodura 
1i woUoii alicre tlio doIIcoYmI beoi 
iltar tb« «adi>i want InUi nIMt wu d*- 
to l» tli*t nrmcribwl tiy lh« ood«: 
W/y V. Larkin. 47 Id. r>S. A tiimilir roii- 
.rodioii liojt Iwoii ^i^'on ti> tba inwli'iriicj Liw 
rCUifoniUu.' le;^ Stn,trnr. Cnttilitn.^i 
!J. 4i| d«ci<Joi tli«t oltbougli tho provooiliiig* 
111 iiiaolTVDOv may hvn bora oommcncoii nndM' 
Uio Mt oj IKU. yet all ploadjng* iikd after the 
|MM^« ii tho Mi« Mt ipuit confumi t« it« ro- 
(itrPniDDU. Tbe ovideot ubjoct ot tba (ectlui 
oot to Interfara «itli any vutod rlslita. and 
rcMler aalloraa lo far aa may bo t£o coiiiaa 

Socnloia In ncndlnu: nrocaMUici. MeJUiiut 
tU,. 31 lil. Vn, tlfutratw w&at tlila mo- 
lea wa« <l*alfr»«>d tu ubiiuU. TLo act repeals 
llkg til* (orcitd't (Oitryaii-liJvtainrr lamn-u by 
a lubatiinDat mactmrat altsrcd aa as not 1« 
allraC aattao* comowBotil Doder tli« rapealctl 
law. Aa a gan<ra] tale. tli« prooedtire la gov- 
mi«il by the new btv: Btihop'i Written Law, 
aoo. \n. 

VMtad rictita.-Uiiinii admitted jtrindrlo 
iiiit vmtnl tights cannot Iw divtruyed or (m- 
jair«<li Init to alabt a prtcloc nilu. d^finin^ 
•'but rJj;1iU ttn vistvd. !■ a laak u( Mmo <lil1i- 
tally. l>i(i karioui difikioiia iirotoit illm- 
tratiuiM iif wlim bavn blkn williin the mmin- 
iofl <>( ttui l<'r»i. I>ut (mt hsva altumpted a 
ipnJiciMilio d'-liuitioD. Aa (.'oolcy truly 
iy«i "lnit*ap]il»-alio«aaaa)iiclt) ofptotec- 
m. tliE term 'vuatcdrigbta'iaiiotuicd in any 
.rrov or t«cluiiaxl teat, or »i inipoitUift a 
imr al Ugtl oentrol mctvly, but tnllior aa 
' ins a vealeil Inlonat which it U tight nod 
lie tlint the govotnmciit ahould nwoH' 

t.ruloi;t, and oi whith tlw individual 

ill DOttiadvpftial ftrbltfiiily uilbuut Injua- 
i;" CuoUy'aCoiul.Liia.iSoii. TliefoUowiaft 

by adjudgciJ coaeai To rondur a law olmoxioua 
to tbo objection that it Impaira veat«*l ri^bla, 
it ia not ncMoatry that tho act of the 1c£I«Ib* 
tore (hoold import an actual deatmction M tbe 
riijht. The tcit i* Dot •□ mucli in tile extent 
of the chango aa ia the rharacter ttieicof. If 
thii act |<o*t|«nca or accoleratta the puliMl of 
pvrdvriiiuiicit of a oontraot. Impoalnn coudltlona 
DM pxprwavil ttxTrlii, nr dlnponalsg with wnr 
of thoM •tipul*te-l. it U willilii the nroltlu- 
tiuu: OrrtA r. UUtJlf, S ^^'h«>lt. 1; MtCnKtnt 
V. IlayatiT-l. S H«w. 009; PUUttfrt' Baall v. 
Sharf,. a Id. »1; It'nUn- v. WAiKhntJ. 19 
Wall. 314; Utaleg X. IlnttKtnrt. 4 UlL 47l 
Kdmimton x. /hgwoaii II Mo. Sit: H'inl-rr r, 
Joort, 10 Ga. ISO; TotPiitOMt r. 7inra«rnd, I 
I'tck. 1: ItobiiuM V. ifafee. OOtL Sl| Pto/Je 
r. /■(M,/. I0I<LS03| iltA<dtfv.Bn»ott.nU. 
1 1, A Ujjiiilatlvo pwiii cannot bo tntwrcd by 
a *uWiQii4ot aot of tho logialature: Jfiuutmi r. 
Ptant*r» Pant. S3 Abi. IcS; Tkna. * C. K. ft. 
Co. V. if(wn,30 Id. 371; JTontjFoiany v. ^im> 
aon, 10 Cal. 183; Urtgait v. San /Vnunixo, It 
Id. 600; TniMrf* V. /Imifftarji, 20 Am. Dm. 
SI5i and tliia ban whvthcr tlio jrast be toan 
indiriilua] or to a uorjioratlun. But the fa«( 
that lulHetincut )ef,-iBlatioii liaa diminiibed tbe 
value of a fiandiiae doe* not make tb« ad li*- 
ble to the objootiDn boinu iliKoaaoili Ckartt* 
Sitrr Briim v, Warrru Brvlj/r, 11 IVt 43&1 
Curl!* V. WkbMfv, 13 Wall 68. 

Tbo lesUlatur« caimot t«v1*« a olntm 
barred liytboatatuto of liinitalionai Wright r. 
tul.Vv. r> Met. 4O0; XIaf[i-< V. fof^t. I»i'kd:. 
fiSi; ki-itniin T. CtiniM-l'/f, I'Jl Miui. B."*| 
thelyorl i. 11'"^/-", .'.4 N. II. IC.7; A't.„iKM v, 
Jhiittap, :a i,\i\ 111: tfnrii v. .Vlui,f, I Uolt. 
(Mia.,) 183; //W- v. S.:iii''i<t.,«. 41) Mlw. 377[ 
Chandlft V. Chnnttlrr, -Jl Aid. ft>: Itniifi^ *■ 
Strinf. lit ria. 3I):i; CVxfiv V. /fn.". I Meat. T. 
4^1; na!Jfn V. T^nlif. 1 Or. 170; /lt9*rt t. 
Handy. » Vt. 020) ll'im V, t'arr. SB Id. 41. 
A atdtotc allou-ioH a cmliior to mleem at any 
time vithio two yoat* aft^ tlio mIo nmler a 
■nortfa^ maclo prior to tlia putinu of tfai 
•latuto M void: (Irauflg r. AMnn. 3 Ifow. T07t 
ttt^irrlv. Ba^', HhU 401) iralauy v. fV- 
(nnr, U Iowa. 417i SM/uon t. Vwt, 13 Wu, 



. ItrTMm V, Hkorlrr. Ala. 7 1.1; Frrtf^ra v. I'el- 
fiAoiv, S illnn. 377. Atnl in TVJuhii; Co. v. 

fSfJ^intt. IS (rim ui>l tliaC Itxi tighl 
i» rMltsn proTMfly ikiIiI uii<I«r etocnUon jwr- 
tain* •okly U> iIm r«tn«ly, uid U uiukr losuU- 

Bmadiftl rlehts, whan v«ft«d. -The lcgi»- 

rhtnr« U not bonwl to wtitiDue tiio mne Totiiu 

•ud Ibe noic >jr*toi* ol ooiirU uid prtKcodlui^ 

for tlMaoMaiiBOtUtioa uf de1itor*oarcAillt«ni 

^It hat tbe power U> njcubto Iricbl prncaodlngn 

fjIotUoM V. Jtrwlfiinl. I Aln. .irij SbMUnrt v. 

Viwifjt. r> Klcn. XVi: l'<(»ui.v( v. llW'f'J, 3 Y«rg. 

FSlW: Aiiv-o^oo ». .*C»>»y, 7 I'm. 400; Mityi-tn 

fi. ifverr, lOliiJ. M«i //mitiMv, y™.«. •>; M, 

810; ir-M «. J/«w*, 3S M. <; Smith v. itnryu. 

31 111. niH: 7V»ifW'f«u T. //orrtr, S2 1(1401) 

t>Vu»I V. /Wi'y. .M Mp. 315: .fl/iirtiit v. //f.iv'fl, 

f«IAIa.'l)Si Jfv,»i V, /l/;t«);'(. M U. S. llg, l»l. 

It inuv (bBUj^c lliu r«ini--Jy; Sniilfi v. Jitd-ir, 17 

Oil. .'1171 r™^««iiv, noTm,mX\.iO: CanuA 

V. /;<>/ /;uw TnriA, 21/ La. Auu. GOttj Harde- 

man r. DvvKtr. 39 fl*. 42S: ^VoHnjf v. /rwla, 
65 N. Y. «fli Ftioii-MM-i Cam. II R. I. lUi 
MilU v. CkTrlile*. ZtWli. 4(10; VV-«. v. *'«i-^, 
(MI IT. .S. eU. N«ri»tt Hint iUt lurtt 

rcKinlyUlMi DxiwUiioun < tlis 

ottl: wiMuan r. Kiaii*, II ' r. 

Itogitw, ft Uatb. G03l ./<}W> t . . . '. tn, 

Dec. ILIIi irow/ r. IIV^'. 14 I .Vf 

;«rt* Pi^hft. to AU. 77i A'' ' 

tf'un; 10 n'ii. 123. Tlw nglit lo «ll<« Die 
iQcuut ■therelij' a ricltt may be ciitorDoJ U l)i'±i 
qomUAod: A« Mt wGlcb wi kltem tbe praiion* 
moimUiI kgilbtloa m to wlially Je|vlru k |wt- 
MD o( («oaT«riB|{ oa hU ckin ■■■ ■^■■'•} -'Aff 
iiDMir* vMtoil rukUi Carmmr. - ' <■•', 

soil ll'«<M^«arin|nT. I'kU^tti- :•). 

17^;.C<(ifin<uir./iiMuf,ISWb,30i liwj^ 
fjii,5Arfc.S0ai orif ithAVMUynaentuI put 
pnetiMUr n&tVMliiifr it u ant oonatitatiualt 
Mwfr»^ V. I'JtUwnr /;. R. (-4.. SO &IiM. OTTi 
Marim t. FttUfiiliit. IS Ia. Ana. ISO. 

I«CtaUtlv« powwr over Matutn o( UxBl- 
tattoo: Sm the Dioite to ibe nuxi bmAIod. 

C«l. Oiej wid -to OuHloltl V. J/a;For o/ A'. 1'.. 
67 K. V. 441. ibKUMing the vfl«at uf tlio uodo 
of that aiaCa u(iod llie BUtut« of limitatioou, 
luiil rRvicwInii tt>a caitiur dodiiaiia of Eljt r. 
J- -I- 1 ■■ \. Y. Mrj; Jlmi'r t(f I'fkijMt. cfl'L 

: Irr T. .Irlrr, 801.1. NO. A itolulc 

J ■'. xMtti^ual Acta lui rcquihile li> au- 

;>iiiu II tr^ht tiy tho tu);>«c of timu icfvni (icily 

I tlio futiint, anil rii'[Uiiiai llm coint Jlauoe nltb 

« tiravUiiA* only during th* Rm«!iiiii){ pi-riot( 

Vei tlio ttinui a I'. It. n. V. Maojbr'^/i/, CI C'jI. 

re.-.l ,V_ (.. tK.. .■■T... t ..f n l«^{»latiT1'iillrintiou 

< .iii>jris *«a lliv ititcnntiug 

.1 >, Kr-itzfj. BiJ U. f<. U03. 

I.;5:alAUve ca.itiol ovor atatutea of Uml- 

btliOO.— Ill tliiF jirvviaiis iiuM it u*m tlalej 

I Uiat rauwilial tiglita wen witiiiu ih« Mutml of 

Sw. 10, Holidajti, williin Uin iiM^anin^ of tbin ootlc, am: Erciy RiiniUy, Uio 
flnttday of Jiiiiuitry, the twenty-sti-oinKaSiJjiUvof Febrimrj', tbethirti«tb(30tlit 
day of Mny, the foiirtli lUy of July, tlio twciily-lifili Hwy of Deoember, eirery 
(lay on wbioh ad electiou in b«ld tbrou),'boul tbe atnte, ninl every ilay ap]>omU>i,l 
[by tlio pi^siJcnt of the Uuited Stales, or l>y tlie ii"''*-^*>r at Ihia state, font 
public f:i8t, tbauIifigiTlDg, or boUday. If tiie lint day of Juuumti-, Uia Iwimly- 


9. lAOtHaliorui gfuiit conlinue to ntn. 

Sec. 9. Wb«u a lioiibition or period of time prewriboci in niiy i^xifttin;; HtAtnle 
for aoqtiii-iiig a rigbt or barring a ronicdy, or for wiy otlicr [(urjwse, lias be^n 
to ruit bvforo tbiH codo gocK iuto uOfuct, uid tbu Kaiii« or any limitalion i«t {ira- 
HcrilH-d ii) UiiH (Wdo, tbii tluu! wbicli hitH iilnxuly run ahull he deemod purl of tha 
tituo |>n!»<!rib«Hl ux Huch liinitAtion by tUi!) code. [Am^iulmfut, apprutvd JUim.'A 
80, 1874; AmmdmenUi 1873-1, 1; look fffeot Julg 6, 1674.] 

AaMndmwiU of codes, bow aSoAAd — tho Ugialotira Udrt that tlioy arv not vtuoii 

llMaettMnapfiliui tonul'tciiuviit nn>(]ii<liii«!li williiil Um M«M tlut tllr}' ouinol ho iJ tonsil 

J ttw coilca an well oa to thu ooJu on uriuiiidly f 'ur/p r. .SowAiv, 3A AU. 3S0; 'Viij v. //oa 

JuitoU 8cc<7. i'. Jf. /f. Ot. X. SUiUi/oid, df. »» Gi. 3.-iO: rr/ry v. JWtm... W C K 

F83&L3GI. <(2.-i, an.) ntbcr cmci lliora (iteU. It ia iiuw 

Vbs nutntek bavins coBunancod to run (^''Xh'uitril tti;.t tl>e tcifiibtnre ■»*)' altT or k- 

iimliT The t«w ai RXiit;ii^ [iriur (u IUq iiil<i|i(i<iii |)i<&l ii rt^lutc of limiiuliiiiw: Ih''r v. Gill. SI 

• I' <, omitiniicd to nui uolurilliattiit'iUi; Atk. 41'J; Slfmait t. Il.iy*r.f3 111. Sjfl; .S'lmi^ 

1 wliat* tlio lli&ilatlon pmcrllwi] in mu r. S-arnfon, €3 M*. 3".":; A'ran' v. A'rew, 

t;...- >.....ii.'> Id llio aams M tbat uf tlio iirloracat. S7Id. 308: /liydwrw f/«mu, SAllmi, 490; i>o- 

nt*. the time rttun aa tliuutjh iio iiinr It^latiun jJi- v. li'nyHr Co. Jiii/gt, 37 \lkii. 3S7i llortuwk 

had liMK ciuurtcd: deiij-Tniln r, EUlrMljfr, 50 \'. J/iffcj-, 4 Null. 31: ./i 


AA»oa V. Itaitroiut Co., 
MN. V.4HJJ Ptaimltv. AVwii.. 7'.> S. 0. 47i 
But thoro it IhU tpUilkatiuii uf th« nilo wilJt 
rogunl to rigfata nlroady McmoJ. tl..; t>pw slnt- 
utArypttmdon miut Bive •r(aK.I1n^l'^ linK^fir 
their enfomuiicut: lloHKKk v. iliU'f. A Seb. 
31: l.<xl\art V. Ytittr. 2 lliuh. 331; Brat v. 
.V'lwii, 1 4 Me. 344; //alttnuU v. Traty.'lHiua, 
341; ir. .4. ff. H. Co. t. »o(lxll. 31 MtHL 393; 
Miij in llio abaoiico of aoine rMaonatilc timra px- 
pruuly givm tlwrein, the Uw will wwDmv 
tlinl it wu intM(l«iI: I/tJf.i. /VuUr.SO InJ. 
fijO: UntOon V, (7u|r. 13 8. C. 43. Wlim tka 
atatute haa mwe ('unijilcU'ly riin. llMte vtiata 
no power in the IcgisUtiire l>y ■ tiuw act tu m* 
vivo the claim; Soe the ptvuteliug Wil*. 

LiinitatloD of aot£oi»i Sw jittt. e<ot. 312 
ot acg. 




■^ivjnfl (lay of Pdirunrj-, tlifi tl))rti<-th <luy of Miij-, tlip fonrlli ^ny of July, or 
till) rwouly-fitUi day nf DicutulK-t, full upon ii SuuJiiy, Llii> Mundiiy fulluwiog tit 
a hrjliility. lAnu-ndmertt, apprtnxd April 3, 1890; Amendmr»l» ISHO.^iUJlaH. eil, 
IH'J); li/itk rfni iiNinr./iuWi/. j 

CMeil on ti> finil of jAiitiuy fill- the llilnl of JaniMTV, Uia (Ixtletli dny lj«liif 

llw •rooiwl, but iliu ilnl coaling oa SuatlAy. 

Htc. 11. If tliD 6rst dity of Junuarr, tlio tivouly-Becond Any of FebniaiTF', tlie 
fiiurtb <l«y of July, or tbe twoiity-lifth tUy of Utvember, falls ii|)»n « SuikIav, 
the Uondny following is a holidny. {Amrndnnmt, aj>pnetn{ ilanh 1^1,1871; 
AwnJaimU IS7S-1. 2711; looL- rjjWi Jul^ 1, 1874.| 

It will t>e obMrved that tbe tiUiUntbdaj llii> tliinit-lli Avf tA Klay it onnmeTaUd iritli 

dI M*]ri»r«i>ill(-il(luni ihli ii<vti<iu. Tbo entire tliv <ith<r huli-l.ivn [ailing on .SuixUy. 

kt^tioii, huwuvrr, in iiii'Iii>k'<l <t> wwliciii 10. M BoUdii^a, wmq cotititad: .S« nuce u bl- 

duwbJcJ in IblMli in tha tul cUiue oj wliMi lowuig M«tiMi) AudaoeMo. 13, and uo1«l 

12. CtivipHtation of lime. 

Hix\ 12. Tbe tiiuo iu wbich any not provitlMl liy Inv ih to Im dono Ih com- 
puU*'! by i^scliidiDg tbe first day iitiil lucludiui; tbe buit, utduMi tliu lost di^' in 
■ lioUibiy, Bud Ibcu it in idw] esdudMl. 

Cotnputatloii of tlma— It it tiovr tlic r«- 
Mtirxi law in moat <iS tlia ■tntc* that time ti to 
fan enmiHiloil u piucrilml by tbo olioie (oe- 
tiun. CliM JunlKa (iray ivviah* ili« nmtm in 
ffraiU r. lAOKtrJ, lls NaM. tiK. and coa- 
slatit* that " in ommt{t))( tliii« (rum tlio <lMe, 
or (ruoi tlia lUy of Um dato, or from a nrUla 
Act ur emal, the <lay of ill* iLito fa to Iw *x- 
olii<)c<l, udIm* K ttiSmiiit iiitviiliun is mani- 
foitetl.'* Tha ■une mla it ii<l"f'tt>l in MiAi 
r. -T/ ■ ■' Crf. BH; SA«/. v. .y«/rf™, 2 

T. II -- . - - ■- -tflSi Jlan-lUy v. (.'uimiujiAanl, 

1:1 KmIi. -(VJ. 

Hootb la meant to bo ncaleudai ana Dot 
■ lanai month; Sftmryt iiul l.i-an A'^'irfp v. 
J'lkntmi^otit 3ll '^•l. 847j S/tof/ar r. ,V<.rw(iy, 
31 I'l. 173; liiilMcwullon 17> ■"/'"• ""l"''^'""" 
4. iti^iniiij- tbv wtvd "nniilli." Whiiri' » ttal' 
«[<• ilin>:la lh« (niblicatiiin of iioliit^ a ci'tl.-tin 
nvlelicr "i tioiM » on'k for a uwcifiml iiiiinhtr 
«l iMinllu, ttiKmiiDuto, notcniy ilutiliFuom- 
Wrof wccldy juljJiuIit.'iiB lir oliji'rTtil. but that 
1I|« prMorllinl Icngtlii-f tinn', calculntCilaccuiiU 
la* l'>llinral<-iiil>r iiKOith, bo (ollovtilt Satimgl 
ami l.otia ,'''u-i4lj/ v. Tionjwui, mipra. 

Sxcludlas boUda7m.~A)i to tbn norfonn* 
aniw •>( b-oiiTar acU f^illiaf oa a lii>1i-liiy, mo 
navi wue't i»<-it"(i, Ii)UTvciiiti^liuli<lnv*iif« 
oniinlnl *■ i .i wmiwlwl t4iiic. SlionM 

tJt" Uw i> I'llinli'mct naiitifoilaity 

* - ' -- ■' I . -, .- ',1 rtccpl«d, llm uti<vptt<in 

' iIh KiH>'ln)- r('tnt«> t-> th" ilail^ pab. 
I tbu nutter, mid not lo the pi'no<l ■>( 

tiTiiL- ■ (urine wliiub piiblkntiun iitubi-ouimtcd: 
riy'or 1-. I'almir, 31 CaL 'ill: .l/Jfc* r. Me- 

Drrmiai, Id. 27 1 . Ami If pnblldiod on SnoiUy, 
tbn fact tbat tho day la a tiiit nan ilom tuit 
rltiatv the Mrvkn, tliaC publleallun Iwiiig Imt 
000 ut a uriM ot acta riiiuifcd to tiuko tli* 
•urvico complfttn: Sariii(/» nn-t Liyit Sirif/u r, 
TAtmipimm, 33 Id. 517. In *irlu'Ung Itie Wt 
pmnribpl day iu foliniating th* Itnglh <•[ time 
lor till- pt-rfoTioaace of a duly rviluimi by law, 
ills fiMDMory to ioolado tb« l^iriug Mooday. 
A pablioatioa cl a rtaolotion of ietciitiaa wna 
pronoaoDed i&auttdcoit. it aopMU-ioh' tbat tliu 
■latalo roqiilreil tlio (niUleatioii !■■ be nij-k tot 
Gvo day*, "Snlidayaand liou.JudicliJ dnyirit- 
ci:(it<d," and that tbo piililicilioa u iki dir (onr 
day* only, ^xcIqiLvd i>( tbn tut •la>', whivli «M 
a ^)unday: Sun yrantiteo r. it<'.''i'a, uO Id. 
210. Aj;]iin,in nliniatiii,; the pcriwl for which 
a jud)^ may (,'rs'it nu (•xl«i»ian of lime, uiider 
avolioQ lOM uf ibu CVide of I'iril Prondnre, if 
the last o( thu thirty ilaya fait* on Snailay it ii 
to be exoludodi .l/nir v. tftuVoimy, 111 Id. 49S. 
ScooIm npJHicaUaii of Brctiou lo rcOoiii|itioii 
from Bherijf'a ulc under Kction 702, /Mt^; Ptr- 
ham V. Knprr, (ii Id. 331. 

TnotiMM at « day will b« conaldcred by 
tho oonrta. wlioni time b Important, and tl>o 
rlflbta of nultea are ooncorii^'d; Cmi-/ v. Ot/tt- 
firv. I Cat. *ir.; /'«.;>'' v. /t'.Tlly. U Id. SOO. 

TImo, hotv oomputod. aud jreor, ■waok. 
Mid day defloiod : I'M 0.>ln, untA. m'l.'i ct h«i). 

Tbe aiipiein a cotut la olwnya ^an fcr 
tbo traaMutiivK-f buMiio*<: 8iki. 131; although 
tho thirtieth day to whifli to nako an •xriler to 
bear a «dm in bank Ula oa Sunday, y«t tlio 
oourt oauDut nuk* thoordcron tbonast dayi 
Adamt V. Dohrimuut, 03 CaL 417. 

13. Certain ada not la be doni on hriiitiayo. 

Sri!, 13. ^V'bfiiovnr any n<rt of a hoouW iwttiTe, other Uutn a work of tioecR- 

aity or nx-rcy, in apiioiDbxl by law or contract to be |>erfon»c<l tipou a pnrticular 

ilay, vlnch day fuUn upon a holiday, micb aet may be performed upon tlio nvst 

- d»y niUi Uio same cfTect aa if it bad 1>eeD performed upon tli« day ap- 



T>Ky Of ptrfoanuiiice a hoUdaf.— ITiulrT 
thU mcotioo, a nolo (alUug duo on tjtinilay U 
l-ayaUctbD following Moetlay. In tin almiiioo 
of luiifB U> lliocoatnuy: llio tia(iiiu;e at the 
•cotioQ banjc pmnlMilTf. In //lAm-vi/jiutv. 
O'Omdt/, 47 Cil. fiiO, l)iu not") in iiUMlriiii «iu 
bdil (^Kblo Ml Jtilnidii)'. tbo Jav of iiuturlty 
btiog BoniUy; but ibis wu uadw a (umipr 
•tital* rmacribiiu tbaC suoli ilioulil be tlio 
MM villi iicg"4uiUi) iiiBlnniciil<. Thn rnic of 
tlM oad« in tliat wbicU moat ccneraUy a ob- 
tcmd; /la/rtMr. JUm, lOOiua, 4!at; A'luib 

14. SfoldffinM. 

St:c. 11. 'Vrh<ia Uut i«c«l of a court, public officer, or penon is required bf 
law to bemfflx«il to any paper, the won! "seal" iucludeaao impmsion of, such 
eeal upou the |xii>or alone as woll aa upon wax or a.wafer affixed Uteteto. 

rgaI iloM^ot titikto lh« nward of tli« TritiDg 

r. Trxaplr, « Mo. 7S; Thnyr v. Frit, 4 Pick. 
XA\ KiijhJj v.i.yM, IS C-nii. \~:Co%nno»a>faHh 
Bank r. Var«aa; -til N. Y. '219. Id Poiriek 
r. fhalir, 43 Ho. 314. tbe prtn-'frV wu not 
■p]ibcil to a moohnaio'* lieti - ■ ■■■a Btut' 

day, lli« oouft thiakiug tli.! ' . iliuul J 

be ■Uictly Moitrued ft^iukt ii>^ i^cs-haUer. 
L'wlar llic Xcv Jcnoy net, a note laitaring uo 
8uii<L*y, May 30lli, u due anil iwyaUa '>ii t)>it 
follomiMC TiNKUri i/iMertH v. itiitpli-, 43 N. J. 

An Impnaafon of a Hat »» p*pcr vitli- 

out WliX ii luffitkiit: CojiiuJIff V. l.'/irtitirin, G 
Cbl. 220: luiil ludi liiiprvuiim iruty \nt maHQ 
witltapcu: //lutiW* v.Vau^Aiiit, ItLStfl. Til* 
ftppclUti) court mil bmuid* (rum tli« l«ttoni 
" L. 8.," alter a imtiSiM* of a uolary printed 
In ■ Inrnturipl, lliat tlio original -km nroprrly 
cxaciitol: 7\>«rkar^l v. Crmr. 20 lA. 150. In 
copying a tralti) inttmnnmt, it is not nKuwuy 
to tnuMtribo tlic inil: Jonii x. Marlin. Ill t(i. 
103; Smi(A r. Ai'I, 13 lU. &10. An otoUdoa 
of a comity noordcr to make any mark for Ao 

15. /o»»if auUi'trilt/. 

Bee. 15. ^*on]it giving a joiiit autliorit; to tlirce or more publio officers or 
other persons aro coiiatruiid aii giving aurli autliority to a uujority of them, 
tinlew it ia olhervriao cxiir«T«!te<l in Ui« a<'t givioff the authority. 

Snitk r. ItaU, npra. A oorponrtioa ma* 
•dopt the »ial of B ortvate indtridna): OomS' 
leilrr v, WUtU, 33 Irt. tl; butwlien ndopteJ, 
muft b« WK-l a* ttii) aatl of iJio corporatiou ; 
ItkHanlton v.Hfill H. W.J: M. ''n..?J Id. 12(1, 

Se.tla'othsT than offlclol aie aboUahad 
by tl"< Civil Oods. mc. I(i3». 

Court WMla: 8u* Met. 147 'I i>i^|.. f>^l. 

Baal* tot prtvata wiitlugi: Scg mm. l!)2St 


IixeoutinK Jotol autliotitjr.— If from the 
delcgacioii of authoiity it appear that oil intut 
not Duly meet but nil muit agree, tlie outliorlty 
muat be nunucd: Ptoplfv.C<yhUI,*7Cal.S6l. 
Bofom the code then were maiiy withoritta* 
to tlio «IT«ct that, u • geaaral tuH irbeni the 
legialatnra liad erMt*d a bratnl of cotnmiMion- 
•n and oooforrfd disorattoniiry |x>w«n to de- 
elilp upon inattttn o( pnblio inl«rHt, but bod 
niiiln ro proiiiiioa thnt ■ innjortty sliull oumiti- 
liiCc a quorum, .ill man be pretpiil and coniult, 
tlifiiigho majority miiflit deciJc; I'fo/ile v. Coy- 
An'i, Mora, citiiig GriMil'ip t. Unrhr, 1 Boa. A 
Pu]. 3^ Cnettr r. Cmai, 21 Wend. 218; 

Safifoek V. lamb, I Conr. 239; & parte Rogers 
T Id. ysa: ID al»o TalaM v. BlnnJina, M CaL 
Sd9; whore all niet otid a tnaiority decMod: 
jSnifM T. Rmilh, 24 ni 00; T-ucarora Bri-lgt 
Ofl. V. JriHi-eu, 33 AIn. 476; Uff'rtuy r. /far- 
ri«B. 30 lU. S77; IHiylMTtt v. I'riacf, lOB KIkjm. 
4; titn'trntm v. Ai</.tr,^. 14 a Moo. SM. Not 
only dost ooctiOQ 15 ri<iHov<i iha dUtioctton Iw- 
tw»«n Ui« uxcri'iMof a joint aiitburityb«l<rvaa 
public and private bodice, but aUn vivii* lo (ha 
inaji>rity powrr not only to duoide. bnt Is n)c«b 
anil clecTtdc, whore a majority, a <|aonim of tho 
IniLnl. bnv« mot, n Dujority of tbe (iiiutuni aiay 
dooidei Fliat v. U(xmngU>ii, 8.1 CuL 2»7. 

16. TTi^rrlit nn<f fihrmtin, 

S£o. 16. WonlH and plirnsos ftn> onKtirtiod according to tbo oosiext and t1)« 

approved uaag« of tlio luutfuage; but toobniciil wunlit and phmaca, and nuvh 

others as have acquired a ptsouliur and iipiimpriato meaning in law, or are 

flneil in the succeediuf? section, are to be construed aooording to such peouli 

and appropriate tiienning or deflnition. 

Wonfii and phnAM, bow oonaCniad.^ 
Thoal">v(< in the gcDvra] nale with regard to 
tlictuDUruciiuu of wunb, whcthor in eonttneta, 
•tatutn, or couBlitntioua. The moonina to be 
givMi to wonl* iu coatracta ia uravldcd for In 
tlie Gva Cnle. aection* 1044, 1043, and noV, 
■Mtion IMil. Tbo foUnwlns dodriona follow 
tliv lulo of tliu codua: llutt-yttou't AppraJ, 43 
Cil. H.',i r'OjJf V. f:My. l:l M. Ml'; llVi/f v. 
K'i-fl'U, .'.* Ill, HI: »\iUrr V. //,.m\ 20 
Wfjil. .Vxl; //«!(«/ StiUf* V. JiMift, 3 ^Vasli. 
201)1 iloftU V. IJwiier't La^, 1 VVhoat. 3^1 

Mayor t. in«I«r, 29 AU. Wis PMadtli 
B. It. V. Calauitn R. II. Co.. S3 Pa. !*t. 20i 
0(T«n V. I>WW, 32 Mlu (i:U. But if aloeluil. 
cal word ia maalfuitly umxI In ao antMhnloat 
aanae, tli« coutt will ){ii'e It tlio meaaiag ia. bv tlio parly titiiig it: C. P. Ii. It. v. 
Bf^l. 47 IVil. 151; CUtrl- 1. dtyof Ciiea. 19 
Biu'b. 151: ll'M-ma v. VarntU, 10 Tos. 3»i. 
Ami «i^c ll,itt<Jj'i\i r. Frait. TiS Gal. 3S7, (or 
a uoustnutioD of tho word* "pn rota" In a 


H 17, IS 

17. Tl-rma ^rfineS. 

Sec. 17. ^Vo^ds used in this oodfl in Mm preenit tense include the future u 

t well OB the prcaent; words used in the ouisculiue goudvr include the feminine 
and ueiitoi': the eigulnr number includes the plumi, and tbo plum! tlie mnf^iUr; 
thevorj " person "iooludoHncoqwntUonM well OMiinatHralpcnKiu; "writing" 

[ jucliidea printing; " oatb " iucludcN Afiirmntion or dccljuntion, nnd every mode 
of oml t^Utonicnt, nndtr ontli or ktliniicLliou, \» ombnuicd by Uio t«rm " tralify," 
and evory written one iu Uie temi "di-pone;" " iiigiiatun) " or " sobwriplion" 
inc:lud«H murk, wliou the peraon ciuinot write, his name h<:ln^ written near It, 
ftnd witnc«iM)d hy a person who writea hia own name an a vituc«s. 

11)6 following words ntao have iu this code the Bi^^iQoatiou attached to them 
iu tLiH Ni!ctii)n, unless otherwise apparent from the context: 

L 1. The wonl "property" includes both real and personal proper^i 
Rffd jirfperli/. 

2. The words " real proper^" ate ooeitenaiTS with lands, tenements, and 
Permttal proptriy. 

I 8, The words "personal property" include money, goods, chattels, things In 
acrtion, and eridences of debt. 

A. The word " month " means a calendar month, unless otherwise expressed. 

b. Tbe word " will " includes codioila, * 


6. The word " writ" signifies an order or precept in writing, issued in the 
luuue of tbe people, or of a court or judicial officer, and the word "prooess" 
a writ or Bununous issued in the course of judicial proceedings. 


7. The word ' ' state," when applied to the difTerent parts of the tTnited States, 

includes the District of Culumbin end the territories, and the words " United 

States" may include the diHtrict nnd territories. (/tm'Wmrfi/, appnjwd Starch 

W, 1874; jimww/mciU'ji 1873-4, 280; tookefftxtJuhjl, 1874.) 

"Pai«M^"iiilWl«g*l»lfntfic*iioii,Ukg«s«rio "Meso n U n a " Inoladei "fcaninlno."— Ttwre 
tcnn, an>t iaoliMlMarUflcielMirtll MulunJ ItDDvnriuiM whnmthaiiidielmontclikrgca tbe 

penoMif. r. »'. ir.v.«(Aor/br,0!C<, U6i 
D«^ut T. Pae. it. S. 8. Co.. 4 Id. SOB. Th« 
voM "penoiii"iu Um fonrtuciith ajnFD<lnitiit 
ta ilie coMtitutiiM of tho UdiUhI StAtM. WM 
IhoiiKtit iHiltolnclailccaqiotstiDiia, iaC P. tl. 
II, T. U^t4 if J&Vm>"W<'o". 00 C«l. 39; bat 
I tbe oMMMlta vltw mt* ciitcrlAiiu>i] in Bailroad 
Tax Cow. H 8a«. 23$. 

"SIcastura." — Psc^tmna of nn >at(i|[ri]ih, 
nrintnl aiii) tu*il •* a »lj;Bntiirs, la a denature: 
7'naBia^liMi r, Hmkr, 4$ Cat GOG, And an 
■ttonioy'a aani« priuWd to a eomplAmt ia > 
tnlW^— ■■ -■ linjfi Hanwrbr, Boicman, 40 W. 
41. *. Ilrylnrt, 49 Barb. 02. But 

to I ' U'» lignature and affii la another 

imttminaut u not a Bigniiig o( tlial io>truic«iit: 
/'</iv.j!Joni'(/o/A'<ijmv<Mm. Id.M3. Thacleric 
ol a lM*nl of wMi-vUon ruv adovt a printed 
■Ignslara; >r»(<liiiMi v. MtDomald, 28 Cat. SOT. 

tarcony of a " tion«" )uid tli* proof diowa it 
(o bar< \tfva ■ " taun-." Pro)/U v. I'ko, Gi 
Cat. SIX MaMuliiiB wordi is atatutu extend 
tu th« f«RiinUio veodcr of that oIom: fclti 
V. Hoge. S4 Oil. ^. 

"Property" bcludci ovMcooci of dclit, a« a 
fCoicful niJe; Pfoph y. K:idf. 43 Ca\. X\\: Iml 
/\w;,V V. lUhrrma Itaiii; CI W. Sl.l, aiiit MUttr 
T. l/fUfMrn. a» U. \S3. lUiiatralo liuw tliii 
RiuaiiiuK '"Ay Iw iiuali[l«d by tlio eont«xti. Tha 
right tAMiappMtfUpMpsrty within tliamciui- 
injtof th« Pwnal Coda. Motion SI 0. It nil! ba 
aa injury to praf>erty iiDilcr Ihia loclioin to 
writ4 thraatening Isttun iimTeDlinD on« from 
nrroacvntiug liU ap]nal; I'rofJt r. Coi/noa, &7 

"Heotb:" Sea nota to MCtlon 13, aaU. 
Worda tiaed In boundarlse arc digncJ In 
wctioiu 3003 to 3907 of tho PoUtkal Cod*. 

16. Slatutes, fie. , in^onmrf^-nf with codi- rvpvalt'd. 

Skc. 18. No statute, law, or rule is continued in force becauM it is eoBBist. 
enl with tho provisions of this code on tho somo suhjoct; hut in ail cosee pro- 




Tided for hy this code, all Btatutca, Iawa, nnd rales lieretofore in force in (Bis ^ 
state, whetlier coD&ietcnt or not with tbc prorUions of tbis code, uiUom «x- 
tpressly continued in fonoe by it. are re]>ealc-d and abrogated. Tl»>» ropoal oc 
1 ftbrogation do<-s not nxvivo any former Ian* heretofore rojMalod, dot dooa it 
Iftflbct anyrigbt already existing or accrued, or any action or proocediDg alroady 
r taken, €xoopt lut in tliin code provided; nor docH it aSbct any piirato atatuto uot 
oxprmaly ropcalod. 

Code ofMrntliig a* a repeal ol prior 
I ■tatntoa.^So* a|ifiltaitliou of tlii> B<>ctii>u to 

Btwxt to f-ivu otlmr funulimeiit lor oouUmlit 
mil M prMvriWil in tli» noAu: Jchiaon v. ffii- 

' jMrior Conn, 03 Cnl. 578i and to aFction 1881. 
ixmt, ill raganil Ut « wife'* tertifj'ing aguiMt 
biT huslikad! PeapU v. Langlrrt, M Id. 336. 
TliA ooUe conunlMaoaer* qonte tti« e«oer«l ptin- 
dple of rcwa] \yf ininliutioii. u laid dowu m 
J'trrg T. Amit, ^ Iil. Xi2, uid ttstod hordn- 
■fkr, nod tlicn uf: "Iii viow of tbii dniiloii, 
tlui longuikga of llio text wu nnrriiaiTjr. ntpul- 
iii;{ all (onnor Uvn oo Ito mxao luhjBct, 
vliitliur cari»i»t>nt or not." 

Statute* contdntwd In foroe: g«* PoL 
Codv, «Dc. 19. 

Repeal* by ImpUcMtion.— It being the &»■ 
•igi> i>f Ha* ctMliliera In frame a now ajitcia of 
la*. ksii|i|Mwi« froui the ncrt« to soction 4, dnti?, 
tliu vOwt of llu- aodu upoc cxiiting Iuwb must 
bu ilcterniincil ucfurdinglf ; yt/t (irerioai tee- 
tioni ol Ihnw jircliminitry provUioai lUicloae 
»n tDt«aticai not t« diaturu cxucing rbliU, and 
MctioD IS miut lie ci>mtni«d vith icfercnco to 
thvec SMtiona: tha lut fXaam of icction 18 do- 
cUirM the Muae thing. The wlioln provliioii U 
Imt a rormul atatcment nf n woII.*rttl«J rul« 
Id tlic romtniction of (tntuie*. thoujth ihe 
T«Ii<ail of alatutM W implication is ntA, ta.voteA 
by tKc court*: (JorioH v. /Vflr, 1-1 Mtoli. 4S5i 
/•«j* r. ir<Mn-, 3 Neb. 323; I'toj-le v. Viiiw. 
60 N. V, 83, 88: Profit v. Poller. 52 liL 8i- 
Jfoffitn V. Onijwn, 20 (Eratt. tOOi SUte v. Srv. 
(mNfi-. M Mo. ara; 11'. If. Co. v. IturlLart. 41 
Ind. »ttt; Mirrill v. (?orAffin, fi Cal. 42; Sm- 
Jeld V. ll'Ai/^ 7 Id. 401 ! /V«irfe v. S. p. * S. /. 
11. n. Co., 2* Id. 2."*; B<Kliuglu»m r. Siriih'ii- 
vUl' It. It. Co., 1(1 Olilo KL 23j Gooitrirl, v. ,Uif. 
■ravirr. 24 Wl«. 422: IltTten r. .I/'jA>7/, 43 AU. 
eWi 0;« V. .SW^. 30 IVi, SU; Krrii^'j'r r. 
Jtnrmf, H Mian. riSlii An-l pii«ntlly, tuch a 
coiuiliwctiQa will Iw givun tiiti two iirovitiuna 
of lli« law M will t^itiUu thfriti liutti to linve 
•fbcl: Fi'rUr r. Prrlitu, 77 IIL 271; litrtoa 
Y. Slafr, 52 Ala. 170; tVwAy v. Paltli. IS CnL 

■ 4381 /'obJ t. J/uJ.foa, 38 Id. 0J4i llo/ton r. 

I iroOen, Deody, Olk^i yet where Ibore l» a 
plain and uiutruid&lilo rejiiignancc botwcm tlie 
ceir act aod tho former >.tatiite a rcpi^l by 
fpiirfi-^Btion will take placo: Fonjufnn v. 
■ ' 7 W. Vo. 114) OoUtiny t. tW.Vs' "/ 
' 'W. 8 Vnxim, 2j8j P#i^iiato«» v. CilW 

V . -r. /-<■»''. TS llL r.l8; Parlfic tt. D. Co. 

V. Cum CouMy, S3 ftlo. 17: If. ir. (.'«. r. iTer^. 

Anrr, 41 ImI. 384; <;^uul €«. v. A4f. S Or. 343; 
Jlnnl V, //«ioi. Id. 275; /Vwjfr v. ff«r(. 43 
CaJ. 061 : A'c >«/(< lymM. 40 Id. 4I»: faWM </ 

iriiMm, 35 Id. aaoi p^^pi' v. jj/^vrAi, 44 m 430, 

aud faan abcrvu oi(«>l, TIii't>i niuit Iw mjch a 
pwitive tvpngnanoy betuNMMi tiio new and llieold 
praviMioiH that thsy o»3Bet ataml together or 
eouiittently be rMooeiled: MfCool v. Snidi, I 
BW-k. 4^9; a'eod v. UBileil SlaM. IC Pet. S43| j 

1^0 Kcaoral dongn nndertaktn by tiM codcew 
t« rerGe tha U»a, clTca room for the apfdi* 
cation of anoihor pneolplo la rcapcct to eoa- 
•traiag b^tlativo onactmout*, which i», in 
effect, embodied in the above kcIIihi. ItUrte- 
ogpieed tbet a new alalote, revUIuii tlie whole 
Kubioct-matter of on eld on*, and «vidiTntIy in- 
tended aa a lubitituta fur it. will urimle aa a 
repeal nf tbo formpr law, alttiuiiL;li it >> not *» 
oxprmly 1111101: TVtaitKU v. Yolo C-muiff, GS ' 
Ow. n03; .^riml•u■ r, Slalt, 21 Tvi. 7^4; tXt. 
Un V. Slaif. 42 Coiia. Ml CamifH v. Cmm, 
t Dakota, )7: Siranu v. Bwh. 40 Miu. 2(J6i 
Wruii** V. Wriu. 4i4 Md. 292; JiVu-Jn r. Afeon^ 
Ifi On. 3iiti ConVy v. Cn'.b^Nii, 2 W. Va. 
4l8i Stair V. thgtrt. 10 Nlv. 31D; Xorrt» 
V. '.'rorliT, 13 How. 429; VaUiil Slain r. liarr, 
4 Saw, 230; fn./nl /italnr, TV""", U WalL 
Ml IrhhlfM V. HWiyr. !) X. H.; CornHKUt- 
iKtifrA V. KimMI. 21 Pick. HTit: AoinirU v. 
i?(itff, M Ind. 3.TI; //oyw v. .Slalt, &5 Id. TO) 
JiiOwifou V. LoTiijIoi*. 48 liL 60. Jtidt;* ('ielil. 
In ifantoeb v. AtmijtMt. 20 WalL fiOO, «in». 
moQting ujioD the efffut of the •ccond uetion 
of tho act of February A, 1867. tipom the 
twenty.Gflh acction of the judidarr net of 
1788, after ■tatinn that it waa mauilcat that 
coDKreaa intended " by the lattur it.ktnto to 
reviee tbo «nt!r» niallDr to wldob Ihey Iwtb liad 
letereoM," *uld: "Wuareut o[ijiii«ii that the 
new law, enilira«inu nil that wm inleaded to be 

^ndtd. Iiemnie coinjilets in ic««lf. and ivprolMl 
all oth«* Uw enitiiacod withio it." Aud M 
olio P/'yyU r. Iron Mr. Ja Cnl. 353. 

The i«pml of n lepeellns act dora not re> 
vivo the orifliuol not; PtopU v. Jlual, 41 CaL 
435; and Pur Code, uc. 328. And Mimlor pie- 
vialoo* arc found in the •tatiite law of other 
■Utu: Sullimn v. P-oph. n IIL 2XIi r<i//ii- 
fium T. CartltHiv, 14 1^. Ann. MK); ll'iftsvuU 
V. miHotttli. i« M. 233; JUIU- v. Ui-brr. S 
Mol.«io. 212: .s'miih V, JhyU 14 Wit. 2S2. 

ToMedtlBhta; !i»*oc. 8, and note. 

19, Thit act, how cUnt, cnumrratiid, ric. 
Sec. 10. This act, nlicncvcr cited, ei)unieTat«d, r«fom>cl to, oramrodcd, nu^ 

be dcKi;;natod simply aa " The Code of Ciril Froocdorc," adding, wbea nooes- 
eary, Ui« nnniber of the section. 

20. Judicial rrmntiff d'-Jinixl. 
Sec. 2U. Judicial rcuedios are 8uch na an administered by tho courts of 




jiifltictf, or by jn^lii-iiil olBcera lUupowcrDd (or ihnt purpose by tLe Gonatitutloa 
lUld MtututM til UiiA staU;. 

SL IhrvioH qfjutlioia! rtmedirt. 

Seo. 21. ThOHO rviiKKlicH an> dividod iiito bro claow: 

1. Acttonx; and, 

S. SpuciAl proccodiiigM. 

tjbr. 22. All Bctioji in an onlinnTy procneiliiig in a court of ju-ttico bj friticli 
ODA |>arly protwcubM anotlior fur tlio onforcomiMit or proU>c<iuii of ii right, tb* 
roUrvM or pnivontioii of n wrong, or th« puDialiiiiaQt of a public oOvauo. 

25. SiHKiat procwding d'^ned. 

Hue 23. Ev^i7 utlior rcniMtitj' im a special proewdiug. 

epeclol pioceedlnga of a dvU luture: Sve ped, ftA i, mc*. IIM? el wq. 

2^ Diviitiona of actions. 

Sec. 34. Actioua are of two kinds: 

1. Civil; aud. 

3. Criiniuul. 

Otvfl Mtiou, (onn of: See poH, ««. 307. Orlmliul actloQ: See iiffra, wc. 91, 

S&. C'iritaciionit ar<»- cut tjf obtiffatioM or injuries. 
Sxc 25. A cirit action aci«M out of: 

1, An obligation; 

2. Ail injury. 

Cavfl Rotlan.^rnilrr tlii* wolloo an •cUon 
wUiaf! fortli tho iD<l<tiif<lD««> ot tbo (l(>(iii<l- 
wit, tiin prupowil dt'lKirtiirc from the itnto with 
bia wife, who, lu & Iruailulmt tnutM, liotda 
|>n>|>eily of dctenJftiit. ia a eivU Mtioo, 

26. WigiUion d'-Jirutd. 

Sua. '26. An obliguUou i* a legal dutj, by wbicb one p«raoQ ia boood to do or 
not Ui do a c«rta)ii Ihiug, and ariiMia from: 

1. Contract; or, 

2. Oporation of law. [Ameiutmenl, approved Mxreh 24, 187'!; JmertdmetM 
1873-1, 281; twk-fwt Jul>jl.l&lL] 

AiMoiUd to cvrrMponJ with tecUoa 142!, Civil Cod«, 

27. Dwition of injuries. 

Ski. 27, All iiiiiiry is of two Idada: 
\, To the pctw>n; and, 
2. To property. 

28. h'jnriee to property. 

asxi. 'iS. \\i iujury to property <?on«]<(lfl in depriving its orrner of tbo bcnvfit 
of it, wbicb ia done by Uddng, witliliolding, dotariomtiug, or diwtroying it. 

S8. li'jurie* to ihti jKrson. 

Skc. 2». Erviy otlior injuiy ia an injoiy to Uto pcnon. 

80. Citil aeiion, by uhom proeeculed. 

Sec. 30. A civil action is prosecuted by one party againvt anoUin' for tbo 
aufoTMrmoDt or protection of n riglit, or the redreea ot prevontioii of a wrong. 

tSaujMui, MMa. 307 ulMq. 


wbAtlior il««m«i} at law of ia aqirity. and pWvU 
lefraduii antatoif 
. ibo provisio 
jxirU l/a>iKr, 49 CU. 165. 

iff Mebinu to Lav* liefMiduii amai 
comply wtth ibo 

>rovisioiu o( tlu ocolo: Jbi 


3L CrimiiitdactionM. 

Szc. 31. Tbe Penal Code defines and proridiGS for tbo piwuiiliiiii of ■ criia- 
inal action. 

Otetaul actkH defiBed: Sm Fta. Code, ace, «L 

32. Cirt/ ami crimunal remedies nof WLeryed. 

Sbc. 32. When the TioUtion of « right admitB of btrfli ft aril md fTiT"''*iiJ 
tsmedj', the ri^t to ^osecnte the one is not meiged in the other. 


: 1, Cur. I.] 





AU oj Put I., and every title, chapter, arti- 
de, or Mcllon thereof, wr» pweodoJ. ami a new 
Part I. mbilltute^ In fihr* the rmf. by Mt *p- 

[•tvrvi Apr« I, 1S»0; Amnidiiient. ISSO. il 
Baiu«d. s3)iIoukulEc<ctiinnicdiat(ly— ropwied 

all Mta and part* of aala In oenfliet itinvwitli. 
Tliuaictwaa Jaaland •nitumutiooal in />«ocJa 
V, Auuem, 6$ CoL 6M, aoil in tubaequent a«> 
cnMonai Bee •«•. 81, 110^ h^^m. 



CBAPTEn I. C(»BnT« or Jdsticx, ix Oeme&u. 83 

H. COCIIT OF Impkachuekt 36 

m. SornxxRCocaT 40 

IV, ScrtnioB CoUBTft. C5 

y. JcSTKZa' COVKTS. , 85 


YU, Oexbeal Pbovisioks KBsnctma Cockis or Jcsnoj: 124 



83. The aewral cmiris of fkif flair. 

Sec. 33. Tbfl folloninf; nrv tbo courtu of jiuticc of thi« state: 

1. The court of impenvlitnunU; 

2. The Rup^me court; 
8. The superior coiirtN; 
4. TbBJuftticMi' courts; 

G. Tho polica courtii, nnd such other inferior ooarto on the legiaUluni mof 
•ataljlifth in ntiy iri(.'oq>o rated city or town, or ciiy and county. 

Jndlolol doputoientol th* aute eovvnt- 
meat: 8oo Owtt. CnL ISTD, art. 0. For cun- 
alltnUoiial •sncft'oo lor tba troatun of iuferiur 
eoiartji otvlor aulMllrUan fi. mm art. Q, kcu. )3, 
o< ihu KaUlulkm. Th« l*][lilature oannot 
ooali-r legialatiirti nr any otlier than Jadltial 
fsaetiaua D|kiii a omit! BifrgotpM v. Sii/irr- 
t>j«er> </ Sin /V»i*^i-^. 6 tul. 9; Difi'j/ v. 
/iMrlbut. 1.1. 313: /'f/Jf V, A'-m^.i. M. 
IM| /'Ar/K» r. A'uu t'nineua>. Id. WO; wiuuli 

do R'lt npjwKr to In ovrmilod <ia Ikbi nn(nt lijr 

/'<r.;,f* ^. Pffiwt. M Id. MO, 

Jurladictiouof tbeabavBCouitalii coosi-l- 

Ocmrt of bBpeaalunent: See fM. mc*. 36 
•t n^i- 

SupreBM oooit; See poti, acca. ¥i vl aoq. 

Btiperlor oourtBi S«4 jxM, ana. 05 cC aM). 

Juatl^ea' oourta: St« pMi; aec*. 69 e( eeu. 

PoUoo ooiitts; yea ISl. 

34. Courb of riworj. 

Bm. 84. Tho euurtii cntimeTntcd in the ftret Uinw nuMmMOUS of the luttt 
precniing ihmUod mv courts of reoortl. 

Cowt Cal.. art. 6, Me. 12. 

Courta <4 reoortL — A awl i» unt ucccaiaty 
tttMakea c(iutt<iiienf rvoonh ExtttHr Thiilt- 
lait, &'J Cal, ftSO, wliert tbe eily criminal 
onurt ol .Sau FiucaMO, having a bailiir aiid 

dork bat DO mal, vai <)ofUreiI a oourl of 
roconl. i^a alwi mi lci«lii:{:tiTs iimaiilrratiun 
of wliat it a n<c«ril ui'l what i ritan n( ruu- 
on). Ill //oAa V. Xetfy. M U. 391, itr S»w> 
ytr. J. 





88. Memhen nflhf court. _ 

Sec. ob. The courtof iEapMchmeot is thcBenftto; wlirn xitUnfr W mu^i couT 

til e senators eluili be upon oath; snd nt least two tbinldof (iui iDetabon vltictod 

Bhall be necMsaiy to constitute a quorum. 
Coatl. Oil., krt. 4, AM. IT; art. 0, MO. 1. 

87. JuriaJieiion, 
Seo. 37, Tb« court has jurisiliotion to trj imp«icliinont«, vlinn prowal 

by tlie oBEienil)!}', of the gorernor, lieatGnttnt-goromor, iiMiretiiry of Mtnto, eow- 

troUer, troBStirer, attomcj-gencTal, Burrovfir-genoml, rbi^f jtiatic« ut tl)« Hll- 

pmn« puurt, asHOcinto justiccx of tlio siixircmo court, and jtiilgca of ibc mipcriot , 

coitrtK, for any misdemeanor in office. 

Coiuik Cal., ktL 4, tav. 18. Tlie miaJo- tuvb ottiiDPT >• tho looblatoro amy prorido; 
nuvof othnr <.l£ovn uo W l>«piiiiUI»4 ia ilnittrti/Jiitrit, 40CaL 30O. 

88. OJfuvn of the court. 
Sue. 38. The ofBocm of tho ncnnto nrc tlio ofHcera of tb« court. 

89. Trial/i/r impeachment jirtttidtdftir in the Penal Code. 
Seu. 39. Procecdiug)! ou tins trial of iuipcacbinentfl Me provided for in Uis] 

Poual Code. 

Fro<;«edlii£* lOr [aBOval o( oOctn bf bnpMcIuDBat ct oUicrwiMi See Pen. Coda, 
MM. 737 «i toq. 



40. JttMices, rlmtioru, and termt t^ nfficc. 

See. 40. The auprcue court hIihK conflict of a chief justice nn<1 six OMOcinta 
jiiatioea, vho nliall be elected liy the ([iinllfii'd electora of tlio state at large, at , 
the ffeneral stale elections next prut^oiliii); tho expiration of the terms of oflioo i 
of their predecessors reHpectiveh-, snd hold their offices for llie term of twelvo i 

.years from and after the Aral Aloiiday after the first dar of January next snc- 

^oeeding their election; provided, tbnt of the justioea elected at the ^'cneral 
tt*«lection of eighteen hundred and seTenty-nine. the chief justice shAlt go 

'out o( oflico nt the end of eleven years, and the six associate jnsticeA shall have 
K» oliMHified, or shall no classify themselves, by lot, that two of them shall go 
out of ulB<'« nt tlm end of tliroo years, two of them at tJio end of (leven yuan, 
and two of them nt Uio end of cloven years from the first Uoudny aft«r tlie first 
day oi Januar}', eighteen htii]<]rvd and eighty; and an entiy of such claMdlit*- 
tioD shall have been, or sluill be made in tho minutes of the court in bank, 

tttgoed by them, and a duphcitte tliemuf filod in the oflioo of Uto aceretary of 


An A*t la pnrUlt /cr lie appolalm<»l fcy thr rtipmnr ntirl o/ ttfvr nrnmhiloatn, to bf tnotrtt 
n> rManifMJOnm «/' Iht mf^rmf rourl, aiul ft. a|^yoi^t a wynrto/y thm/ar, t^rtiitrt »nri/ i-nnrl 
from (A* fnrtmrHmtil enxdilliM qf it* ntlm^hir. tifl l» proelHt /or Ht <o«p(a«U>M <i/ mW 
CMMuiHioHt/* uikI wrrviufv. 
„ tlivpnm Uucli 1). IWl.] 

Bufirrm' «mrt fommtMitloiirrti. 

Sk'TIux I. Tim tui<r*iuu«ourto(tli«atab9<>f CaJilbmia, immodiatcly npon tlicMking eflM 
of Itiii ucl, abntl amKiInt thnm nenidn* of Icgnl Itftniing ami pfrniiinJ wurtli, u commixMinwra 
uf *shI uaiirl. It Miall bu tlic ilaty ol mi'l cominiBUincT*. nti-lcr i^oh lulci ftiii) rc^iiUtion* at 
Mkl«Q<itt ta»y adopt, to Old uid omuc tlic eoitit in tlia porfonnuwo of ila dutiu*, ouJ iu tlla 


ciup. m.) 

smtcue couBT. 

ditpgsilloo ot Urn tinmoroM caiUM bow t»iiiUiig In *»iA nmitt n»il<t«rniln»il. Tbe Mid oMDBib* 
riiKMra altall liuli) vISoe tor llm Vina M fi>itr yann fruiii uml aft«r tlmit ujipoinliiMot. dariiig 
ulikli UiD« Ihvv ahill iiol <niu>w* >a ll>* pnclko uf tli« law. Thty ulioll citcli rKpivc a ulary 
eiiiiikj i» Uia nufy of k jud^ uf (aiil (Mart, oajrabl* nt Uie aunu tiioc &nd in tiic suno iiutniirr. 
Bsf-iro cntertntc upoii t)>v iluvhoi^ of Ihair autiiw, Ibey •hall «>«b tali« m utb t« fcnppcvt -'.- 
cixutituUonnrtM UnitcilSUbiiMiil tli« cuHtitutioa uf tbe Mtte of Cktifoniia, and Ui . 
I«Ily duulmrKC th« ilutlc* a( tbe «IB<« of coininiiiliio«r of tlie niprcine Miirt to tlie bc*t of ' 
Hbitltr. Tliu ittiit routt khnll t^vc |>oii>cr to remorc Miy ftud all memlcn of mmI oonimtuiou »t 
nay timu by uu <iiitnf iiitcrcti on tbu miuutca d( Mid court, knd all vHcoficica la lold oomalMloui 
ttikll bn ltir»l In liko iuaudct. 

Six-. '1. L'[>« tbo ii|ipdBtiiMst of lalJ oonunliiilniwn, u In thli act prorldoH, Hid ou<i . 
heitby kUthoriUHl to *f>|>iiliit a locnttary fortuah commiMlon, whoaliati hold oJIicu iliirii<_ 
(•laainre (if lltpciun, not to rxciMcl the twm of taiil cotniniCTlon, and wbuihall hare a a.:..,, 
vA tu'ci hiin-Ji-nl ilolkn |i«r mobth, piyaLlo at tJie uiqb linic uid In tba Hunn mouBM' oa wiJ 
com iiiMiim. 
Apftfprinl tan. 

M>'. % Tli« (Mm ol forty lh«nMwil eight bunilrtil doUon ii harehy kmnwrtnttd oat of any 

til- cir BUT \m in tbe ^eral fnnd not otliervEita aMiroprintid, tor tho purpoae ot 

nfl; .lary of Mid coimniuloa uid Mcretory, for Iho Ififrty-alitb, t)iiit)--MVcntb, anil 

Uiit:y-<''^iit« ii(C*l yearn; anil tlie oontrolicr b ■utluriiotl to draw monthly irarrBiit* uiwa 
tbo eialo lrra«nry in fnior of iMii<l oonurnLutoner* uid Mcnttary. lu th« miBi of lire liumftvil 
tlullon tor eidi cA Miid cofamlMioBW*, and la (lie Miiii of two limidMid doUon for lakl aru- 

8rp Court. Col., nrt. fl. ■*«. 2. 8. 
HUsIbUlty ol Ju^dM ot •uprcmo court: 

Soo ;«*(. «<- lifi. 

JtubdicUou ot atipiMB* court: Seo porf, 
■oci. Mi-.'i3, 

JndfM d9 factor— A judj^ vtho crttcn 
npuD lii« ofllco iioilcf the color of rlj^lit nii<.l 
till' 1.-. 1 >.("■« I'lde* lit /'tftt if [ii>l '/<• ^'"rv, an-l 
bii < oSiuo oicuiul 1>o 'luutionol lii 

■ii\ ■ nioil*, Tlw ikM lit a dr. /lu-io 

oOiiy) uiU L>« Will V4lid in iii*iMvt lo tliu pub' 
boimil the ri^Ub uf tliird [mbiiui I'to/Je v. 

41. CoHtpultttion of i/fian of office. 

Sw!. 41. Tin.' jeaia <luritijj wbiob a jtistico <>f thfl ctiprcme court ia to lioM 
uIBmi nre lo be cou.puled ivspec lively froui uud tiiclixliu^' tlie first Moutlay aflt-r 
Utfl first day of Jauuiii^' of any oue year to uidexoludia]; Uie liret Mouday after 
tbe ilnt day of Jaouory of tlj« next euoceeding year. 

Coait Ctl., art 0, luo. 3. 

Siaiilor proiiaou wttb tupect ta judgea of tbo «uperior conrth 

42, rncooctea. 

Skc. i'X lt» TACttacy oc«ur ia tlieofHeeof ajuaticeof tbe supreme cotirt, tbe 

govoroor bUoII appoint an eligible peraon to boll) the office until tlie cIoit tin ii 

mi qiullfiRation of a justice to till tie raoancy, wbkh election eball taL" plai-o 

at ttio ucxt BUoceeding gcueml election; and tbe jusUoe bo elected iiliaU bold 

tbo olSce for the remuoder of the unexpired term of bis predocamor. 

abaraoe nn ioai-e ot uoe of Hid Jai^oa from Uw 
•Uta ii Ducotutiluliuaoli p4^pU r. U'tllt, SI 
CJ. ton. GIO. 

Ab»eai>e ot clilet Juttki*: So* ii^nt, «or. 

Vacancy lo oflBco <4 Judsa doea not 
aflect iMUidlng p[OC«odinB*: Soe pvd, fM, 

SiuMBielh 29 Col. iSSt Pf^c ». IMJ-k. Si 
Wuml. 53»i Mdiulryt. Tnnu-r, OJuluii. 133; 
lIUdntk'M IMr* 1. itelMirr't Dtrift, ID Aia. 
Deo. Gl. CoDnalt Hildrrtk'i Jhln v. 3lrh- 
tift't Dtwitu, mi/irit, fhrtc it )■ df«idod tbat a 
Jf /•itto Ronrt b\ apptnli caunot oniat lu 111* 
pni^iiiv uf a iiiiproine coart Ata-*'1bbni by tlia 
v"iiR(ilnti<>ti. In llio note \» tli« tanw coo* 
II ill bo found n diMUMion of «tr ytMo ollkecv, 
tbuir iwnem and riglit*. * 
Vaoaaoy to ttui court: 8m voea. 43, 40. 

('■.lint Cil.. MM. a. 

V -^oe the iibjecl gmonlly, Pol. 

Tii'J oLiBuiico o( a Judge from tbe rtatc ii not 
■nub « t-uiuii'y a> ran Im mp^lied by tbo lixvc- 
nliv nndrr Ir^Ultrive atitbonty, abil nn out of 
tbv lf;jiiUturi> ni]itiiit\iiug tbo goTernor (o ■»■ 
(luUil a ji>>l{(v v( tita tuiirecio euort duiinj( tbo 

43. Ht^tarimimt*. 

Sw,\ 43. Tliitrt shall be two dotxtrtnionts of tbo gappeino ponrt, dunominat<rd 
rosp'rclivi'ly lloijartmont One and IXtpartmiMit Two. Tbo chief juBticc Hball hm- 
flign llircnof tbeaiMooiatc juKtioMto«Bcb<lcpnrbn«Dt,and BUchoMigntDiuitinfty 
1>e rbaiigH by liini frt>rti tiinv totiino; pToridMl, tbiit IboaaAOciAtojuKtioMaluiU 
bu coiiJiwtvut to ait in oitber duiurtuiuut, and may lutervbuige with oiw anoUier 



OP ootntxs OP jTsncs. 



bjr ■tprccmcftt among fbenaelfeB, or if no ancli agrwiaent \m m*^, u OTdaxttil 

l^ the ciikt JnMlctt. Th« cHt-f joaboe waj ati in eatlMr dcputcMiit, woil nball 

I)nai4e when k> aittiDg: but tbe jastieeB aarigiMd to Mcfa il«putiB«nt nball au- 

Unt oii« of their musbtrrMpiandiDgjaBtifle. Each of tbv dapvtmrat* *lmll ban 

tb» power lobeu-«iKld«t*TiiuiiecMMMuidsll qaa«tk)itsuitbi)itbn«ia,mbj*A 

to tbepnnaioiuiiiinilalioiitotlMeoiirtiiibuiL Tb» ritonfw of thw jtalieo 

eli*]l bo atctamiy to tnuuact uij- baniMw io «ttbcr of tbe itc|«rtmrats, eu^opt 

■tub 08 mar be dooo at cbuaben; bat ono ttr noi« of tbe juatioei may ftdjoam 

from time to time with tb« mow effect ■■ if bU w«i« pnmtni, and the eoncur- 

ranee of thr«fl justioca shall be aecasaai? to ptcoomca a jiulfraieat: prorid^^, 

tbal if three do not concur, the eauM mar be tdieanl in tbe same dt portnieut. 

Or tnuiaciitted to tbe other department, or to tbe court in bank. 

the eonna |MMietil in a f*w JnrtMcwi at dJT^ 
M* apoB Mtiliw iNntber ooorti, tbw eooela* 
rfuB U raadwJ: "Tba nb mcm to hr thaX 

«h«r* Um Botka l*BO^a(taflHkeaB«fina- 
Min dMlakm todbpoMbk to tba fuikw 

<: CJ.. art. 8, tec 2. 
Chanbars. tmln— >t: Km, m ta povn* 
of jaileM at chambcn^ ptx me. 165. 
i^jocmnant toe boUday: 8m tact. 134. 

Omcatnaoa i««nililte to JndgmeDt— "na 

faltowUs niU b bU ihva ui jlyr'i t. Bendrw, 
K CUL W3: "II MrniMiDic* hspfwas that tb* 

1w\ff» Mnpawaa a ootui are eqtulljr dirijcd 
a opinloa. n'Eon Bach ' ' 

DtograM of tb* aetloa, tli* mUob nnul atop 

IB a oM of «i|iuJ iliriiiaa; bat w^or* tb« ■nO' 

tkau iaamat of t^ |*ogTWi of thn arlim. 

_ , _ ^ an «q<ul iliiriaon u M)iiiral*at Ut a danal of 

In opinloa.' niton Bach h Um mm, if Um tbe nio4*on, aad tbe tan fnoMtli aa if the 

SuMioa be aM the rercnal or affimiaaoe of motiM haJ not beta Hailei mAiwJ t. Cvfbt, 
10 iaJgnoit on apptal or vrit of cner. tbo DaTeia, SSI." 
jadgnieot mait be affimed." After qaotlng 

44. Apportitnm'^ r/ hvaiium. 

Bta. M. Tbe cbir^f jiutke ahall apportion tbe bnainM^to the dapartmeofai, 

and uu>7, in bis diac-retion, order any caase ponding before tbecoort to ba heud 

aud decided bjr tbe court in bank. Tbe order maj bo made before or aftnr 

jiid;;uivut iiTODOonoed bj a deporttneut; but wbeii a caone faaa been alloUed to 

one of the departoM^nts, and u judgmcut prououiioM] therein, tbe order mosfc 

be ntnile witbiu thirlT daja after Hiurb jud),'aieut, and concurred in by two asso- 

oiato justioes; and if ho utade, it sbuU have tbe effect to vacate and set aside tbe 

jurtj;iueuU Any four juBtioea mar, tilber befor* or after judgment bt a dep&rt- 

nieut, order a cause to be beard iu buuk. If Lbe ordE'r be not made within tbe 

time above limited, the jadguent shall be final; provided, that no jud^nont hj 

A department sliall liecome final until tho expiration of the perio<l of tbirty days 

aforeoaid, unlcee approved b; tbe chief justice in writing, with tbo concurrtmoo 

of two associate juNticcH. 

C'nu*. Ckl,, art. d. aao. 2; ^^ 

Bearing in bank: 8m lala 90, In note Io we. U9, pcA ^H 

4&. C'ourf (ii bank. 

Sk. i5. Tbe chief juatim or any four justicos may convene the court in banlu 
At any time, and tbe cbirf juMic* abnl) be tlio pto^iding junlii-e of tbe couifl 
when MO convened. Tlie prexenou of four juHticoM iiball be neceasary to tranaS 
act any buainess, aud tlio concurrenoo of four juHtinsH prcaciit at the ar^umenlH 
aball Im! necessary to pronounce n jutlgmfnt in tbe court in bank; provided, that 
if four juHticM so present do not concur in n jud)^'meut, then id! tbe juaticea 
ijiuilillixl to sit in tbe cause sLuU bear tbo nrgunicnl, but to render n judgmentt 
Avououmnceof four juatioes shall bo neceaHUty; and evety judgment of tbe 
court in bank eball be final, except in cases in which do previous jodgment baa 
btwti irndenrd in one of the deparUuenld, and in such cases the judgtiuent of tbo 
court in Imnli Kbnll Iw linal, unless within thirty days after eucb judgment aa 
otdui be inado iu writing, sigood by five justices, granting a rehearing. - 

^11 I 


Cmr. m.] 


Coart l tattotaJ prorlaton on thi* ■ofaleot: 
Ari. (1, KM ± 

OoucURCaon.— Jatll|iiK(ii «m r«Dil«r«d tU 
llic .lAiiiuir; Urai, ISCS, rvvcrvbg a jodftimt 
d tho ooiirt ImIow snd dinaltnj- a )ii(l«n«Dt 
10 b« «i>Umd Sa Uror of tli« >l»(vii>laDt«. 
PbunlillB niovn] for a reliiiaring. TLU mutioii 
rnna not tlMiilcil. lj*MiiM oDf> niMnVwr t>( tlie 
court ou iliHualiOetl, uiil llie ollicn vtro 
OqDBllv iliridid in minHqi. TVo (MciuIbbU 
mov«<l for an order deuyi]|| tbo motloD for * 
r«l>wrliM| and <tin.TliBj[ ibat A rcniiUilur 
■tiiMiltl Ihi Uaocd. Tlio «i>urt uiJ ft tollM- 
tfniM liMipoiwl lliat tli« cixirlH «'<«« •■inally 
dlnidc<l in o]'(aiou; thai If tlia 4ii«Mioa Ini 
Vpiin Iho UKmAiKQ 4T r«<vcirulof a ju<Igin«iit 
on imiMl or writ of error, lti« inrlgiiwcLt iiiiiKt 
W smrmnl: CSUng fit Ai^rlonf. 10 Wfiwt. 
flfll JlUi^ T. JbuJ (/ fAc U«ilfd SUtttt. II 

Id. GO; If th? c1JvUk>n ocrmr on & motloo In 

fermtol juili;llirnl, iu'lcm<Mil nimt It ri>f#fw| 

(ID tliu Vurdiot: Citing fS ' 

2 Doll. 384~Si if on 1 n, 

tliomMion rnuitbr dcuio.^ ^.. . 

r. Dnnirli. a Vi'hrml. M3: C. 

Binii. 90; if OD the admlMion < ' 

tcstimonv tnuit bo rejected; >t»i Uxi. (Ii'? riil« 

M*inii lotw t)iBtnhn« tlio mntiuii U amili m to 

nukko on nfflnnaUvo d«altlon li '' - < 

tli« furtlii-T jirogrvM ^ tbo a i 

niunt Htiifi la <«»• o( an wjii.ii .. 

wl)«ri< tlir niulion ia In arnvl of Hie 

tliu srtioii. an Wjaat •liviciun in oiov. i 

drnia] of tlio motion, and tiia rub i>!u>K>i>M *> 

it llio motion IimI not been intulci CiUu« Caif- 

ifunfr, C^n, Davina,381. TbcpclilioaTtirre* 

iMonng wu tb«rtEcffrd0oied: Jynvv. Btt^tUa, 


46. 46«CTie« or dimbitUt/ of chirf juttice. 

Sco. 4G. In rase of Uie nlMeace of tbe chief justice from the place nt whicli 
llie ooiirl ill Ixuik is held, or hU inability to act, the oBsooiste jusU<;ca aliall 
select one of Uieii' own ntuuber tu iierform the iluliee and exeixiiae the poweis of 
Uie chief justice durin>; euch sbseaoe or iuabilitf to act. 

Cunnt. Cal., ut. 0, •«■ 2. 

41. Brawn*. 

Sko. 47. The snpreiae court shall slvajs 1>o open for tha tnnsoction o{ 
butuDMii. It sluiil bold regular eeseions for the htwring of cutiiwH, cither ia 
bunk, or in odd or both of ibf dopartmcntu, at the capital of the 8t*to, com- 
msacing ou tlicfintt Mondny m of ^fn.v and Mooad Ktonduja of November; nt tho 
eitj Mid county of San Fniucixco, nuttuncnciiig on the ttecond Moudaya of 
JanuATirADd tliLnl3itoti(lHysof Jul)-; aiidutlhccitjrof Lob Angeles, ootniDeDoiiiff 
on tho finit ^loiidayH of April and aeuotid Muudays of October; and special 
BaaRiouH nt eitlier uf the nbov^uamed places at such other times as may be pre- 
Mnb«:d bj the juHtioos thereof. Tbe justices and officers of the supreme court 
ahall be allowed their actual traveling expenses in going to and from tliair 
teapective plocee of rc-sideooe upon tbe business of tbe conrt, or to attend its hv 
Bions. If proper rooms in irhioh to hold the court, and for tho jtccouiniodntton 
of the ufBoers tiicreof, are not provided by the st»to, together with utU^iidAiits, 
furniture, fuel, lights, and stationery, suitablo nnd Kufficicnt for tlw tntuMtotJon 
*A businees, the court, or any three justicos tb<'reof, may direct tho clerk of tho 
aupreue court to provide such rooms, attendantu, furniture, fuel, lights, and 
Btatiouery; and the expenses thereof, certified by any throe jiuiticei> to Im> cor- 
rect, hIwU be paid out of the stato tntasuiy, for which cxpomtM, and to defmy 
the tiuveling expenses of the justices and officcn of tlie supreme court above 
mentioned, a sufficient sum shall bo annually npproprintcd out of any funds in 
tlie stale treasury not otherwise appn)priati-<l. Tlio luoueys bo appropriated 
sliall be subject to the order of the clerk of the supreme court, and bo by him 
disburHcd on proper vouchera, and' the tmxaa Khali be accounted for by him ia 
annuo) Mttlemonbi with tl>o coutroUer of stfite on the first Monday of Duovto* 
iMir of eaeh year. 

Bupreme comt alvrnTS opeo: So* Co«wt. Cat, art. A, nc 2; asd mc. \H, fWA 
48. Ailj'turnmatU. 

8bc, W. Adjournments from day to day, or from time to time, are. to bo con- 
fltniK) as recesses in Uie sosftions, and shall not prtvcat the court, or (titlior ot 
itt dcportmcots, from sitting at any tima. 



[TjMt I. TlTL« I, 

CofMt (\a, Krt. 0, MS. fi. 

Tamu of oomtr— TtU mqUm, wlUtMciioa 
74, /tod. 'loM itvMy Willi llio urn* of ensrt*, 
bmI rnutlvr* tl Bwiociwuty U oolku tiw lUcU- 

ioBt unoo queclion* oeaaecMil o-itli ibat «ul>- 
Ject. See rW wcUoai 7i, !*.*••, ua lu lupunuf 
onrU.ASil aocdoua SSmmTKM aa 1« jaitioea' 

4& iVfimnu in wnfinf^. 

Sbc. 4'J. Iu tbo determination of caus«B, alt cleneions of tho snpreaM < 
in bank, or iu il«iMrtineDt8, shall be givea in writing, tauX tb« gruiuidM of 
decision shall be stated. 

CsMt C>1„ Ut. a, BM. 3. 

60. Jurigdidion oflwfi trindg. 

Ssc SO. Tlie jumdlctiuu of the Bapreme oourt is of two kindB: 

1. Original; and, 

2. A]>p«llate. 
JntlBdlctioa ot mpmm* oonrt: Sw •ubacquait aootiaot of tlu« diapt<u 

fiL Ofiyinat jurisdiction. 

Sbo. si. In the exei^ise of ita original jnnadiction the sapmne court 
bave power to iasne viita of mandamus, certiomri, prohibition, nnd hnhcns cor- ' 
p:s; and it shall also have power to issue all other writs nocecHuy and proper 
to the complete exercise of its appellute jurisdictioa. 

CuimL Cai.. Mi. 0, M.;, 4. 

Otlgtaul iajiadloUaa of tb* •nprtBM 

oourt— In i/poU *. Ath-, 6* L'ul. 2J3, tliu 
Kiinvnii'L'uuttilrH'lol timtit bail urigiiial jiiria* 
diotinii t(j iiBuu a writ of naxdamwi. In tlid 
Uoiinwol tha c^ijuioa <liliT?nxl OD bclinlf of the 
ouiirl. JiiJki? 81iar]d[ciii givci nn iolarating 
aocciuut of tliogtwthot ibc oHginnl juiuJio- 
tinii iif tWt trtbatMl, and lUU* tlint the il>(;lit 
oluuute lu plmcioit KcUon 4, artulc li, of tlio 
cncacltmUiii <if )H79 from tlic InUftaiiKi' w'i in 
Uiu i»impiiiuljii^ leclion «( tlie nUI i.-(iii*lilii- 
liaii hut nt) i:lt«vt upon lliu o>iiJitrii>:ti^ii ^ivuii 
tu lh« fomK-r M«U'>ii. 

Exerclao td Jniladlotlon before mode o( 
exmolaoproTlded: Swm-o, ISJ.pml. Itliaa 
iitrn hrlil lliut tlio ooiitI ramiut uxercim tlie 
Jurislit'ticjii iNiiilvriTi] bjr the ci>nititutiou until 
till' lUfxiu iu wlikh it is to be oxcreimJ ii prv 
■crihoJ by itutQU): Warner v. Hall, 1 Coi. SO; 
WhUr V. LijAlltaJl, Id. 3*7. Hut the Mmtrary 
xciu hdtl ill MawtoR v. Mainoa, liL U2. ISo- 
foTft suf atatulo {iroi'idnl for on ajipc^ tram 
the eoauly ooiut. the luprcmQ <nurt, ntiJvr tlio 
origiiul uouititntlon, iMiud • writ ef vcror to 

tlio county iiii.trt, nn^nr IU powor of Ilw(ag 
"nil wriii DtiiuMijr or |irap«r,"«(c.! AJitm* 
t. Town, 3 M. 2»7. 

Power* of •Ingl* Justlc« t« JMu* writsi 
Sei' fifi. toe. 'A. 

'V7rita denned: St'<t*c«. IT; wal uoMMuryij 

Sec. l.\1. tmiC; lelngniptiic wrill 8«> liWf, I 
lldaudamu«: Sw, soucrotly, poaT, woa. tOM 


Hearins at cbamben: Svo wc. I lOS, , 

Oeniotari: i^l;e, ccuvrally, jM<t, ooe*. 10 
»t I""!., aii'l *!■<. 1 ItlS. 

PiolilbiQon: .Sn-, jcoaoratlj, /■»(, mcb. 1102 
cl wij., aiiJ nno. IIOS. 

Haben* coipoa: S«c, g«a«n>Ily, P«n. Coil*, 
Mica. 1473 ft vn|. 

"All other wrtti" rvitrt la ><ich wTita UJ 
Imve Hut Uicu ulr^wly ipMifiDtl, writs whtoIiJ 
cannot iuuo frum tliii court except tv vom* 
)iU-t« tile exeroiw of it> BpuelUto jurinJIcFtiont 
ihrn V. All'u. 51 Cx\. ai3. 

Injuncdou: See fHur, ica. AU ot wq, 

He exeat: Sco pom. kol 4TS ct lo). 

Scire facUa abaliibodi Soc M2, pMt. 

&2. Jpp'llalfjtiriaiuUum. 

Sec 52. Tho sapronio court shall have appellate jurisdiction : 
2. In all cosra in equity, except euch ft» arise in juMticos' courts; 
9. In all caKon at law which iuvolvo the title or potneiwion of real estate, or 
tlio legality of may lax, impost, asseHsment, toll, or municipal fine, or in which 
deioau't, '-xrluvivo of interrator the nlue of tho property is controrcny, 
luot^i to threo hundred dollars; 
8. In all Mscfl of forcible entry and detainer, proceeding in InjMlrcnoy, 
ootioiiit to pniTent or abate a nuiaanco, and is all such i)robatu luattcni as inaj' 
bo provided by hiw; 
4. In All HjMiciHl prooeodings; 

G. In all criiiiinitl caBCH pro9ocufed-byniidiotiafiQt,or itifoimattoa,'iiV4bCOurt 
ot record, on cjiuvDtions of law alone. 


Our. in.) 



AppsUaU Joriadlstton oadar coostihi- 
tloo. —On the iHit))aril7 •>( Va' t-iiy v.ifitdit>ii, 
1 CniMuli, 137, it ina, ia Pe^iAf v. T<\n,fr, 1 
CaL IIT, UcM tlut Uw t»t ol apt«1Lito jui'i- 
diult"" wdJ", wliellx* I* imi il raviwil ptoi-tictl- 
(c;: . Tho K'lii'iatri™ iaa- 

ft- ' tbo aii(.ciln!« [Xiw^l: 

IJu.;,.. .. ... '. 

J/iwai.-l .'itvi, !l3(J-!):«3. 

SnbA.2. 1 .'■: "^r.^aaatLtw'rebr 

to oivll iw tl- II*. oiininal oMW. 

Any utfaur ri . . i.'ir tlia liiiiiuUuu 

«Mitn K-''! ID (.ui' ii.o II t,t tlii» •petioai 
Pt.>tJf V. Jo4*«*i. 3l> Cd.1<M. M l« critaitwl 
•stionr, wL- helow. 

Bmu m'-hu, tl'Jo. etc—Tbo iJu iutcmUd 
to Im nnSodii-j iii lliu iibntas "c»tct uc Uw 
w!iii:li ioviilva tbo title ot poHCHioo of nat 
))n)i.«rly," aniXtt t&« r^nonr («tiitit^tif>n niiJ 
■iklut*. w^ " i^ci at Uw III < ^1 - >.'.'• 

or j<>iMMJiin of ml jironnit^' * 

la ilie OMpapon wblu!) Um tiL.i :..i ; n 

r«nva(v or Ui* iMondnut t^r h duroon." 
VVhr-i t)t>r title or cUita ot littu, ttio jHnMiBii>D 
OT I ' '>«aMiioii| of Ital ii^'pirrly, ur ajiy 

»i|j ; out ulonlep.oaiit upon tillwr. 

«ii> r.iii'^. I III [b^ )>l;afliii^"i M aniiBaabiotiict, 
llt« tn-c tiua U'lthia lliu lucanilig of tho COIl- 
■titali^al prr.i'i'.IiiE.: though defcndiot in 
Oil NUtiflU ol < KiigtiC iiot coatiiiviTt 

Mm jiloinulT ' .. . . i of title or rijfht <4 

jtMcaiian. l»-it ^1,,'.*. I' t I"- ti'S'iiDB ii[ioii 

OT tlio lUinU'^' 

rul pt^)l■';l^ 

In Kii !>' 
nrt tj 1 . 

IS30, IV 111, W-lull [iliiviilnl; 

•luill nty t:i« (iwoer nf ■ii<:h 

< .1 : ..n<l iluuiij;*)!, 

'.:tu <--.uw MwM tiill 
Ivv tliu poiuMaiun of 
, r.isfor, 31 CW. SIO. 
itdur tlM umcuilitory 
lawful foncca, Slito. 
Sncli iictMO 

uniitol oDii liulf tlio valufl of ti> luncli UiDrcof 
BN Mfc* on n lurlitlOB («iica Lccwtco tlietn," 
Otc, it mui licl'l l!iAt bllh»OL(li DcittiiT potty 
■lixoM coBtrorurl ti>o tlUo od tlia other lo bia 
tncl of liuxl, yot ibo fact tli*t vxdi irai <«■ 
titled mint Im altcdV'l, aixl it mntrovurlait, 
tDJil Iw )-<w«dj l£kt tliun'furv it aiipoanxL 

Uii" ■ !rj Ui fr»I piojitrly i>f «icfi party 

Ku I ia l>iu atrliiin: iii<t tint }utu- 
iIj-' i'-^ aution, lo for lu it ^-cpon^iod 
«|iuii (bit pciot. pcrtaionl to tho diitrict 
eo-ifl; /Wmiii V. iWor, Id. 311. To cooati- 
lii' nvofroillio pDincHkinof real 

p <*linugli that t!i« poociriou 

M -■ ..' > ...uoTi.rty, or iiioljpn tally in 

f;uiutluii, or that (bo foci of poaa wi ioo k In 
itart but thfi iijit of poc a w i iow iiiiiU Im 
biTohc'l: /><' inig^. 3Sld.0SI;«M 

atw (Vai^in V. ,' >.aiCal.ll. Ajintios 

of tlw iMocc l>at jiiTivii^tiu'i in an actum for 
tliunogsa to* tmrjiau uii real estate nl.vtc tlw 
riji.i ..' ;-■- — .... . ,t -h.. ,-.■ -TiiiM is not pat in 

E' iftrrtrtcd on tbe 

li. : I 3)0. 

.'' otiliug anilcr tbc acta 

*l ' .'Init grnildol atrouta 

lu .t (OH*. »ii<f no* ft 

0*' ility of aiiuaMi- 

»i - — . . Lit,** it wuulil not 

b. f'lr llir. li'giilttiiiu tu CiMifvr jnrii- 

<)i "|>on ttiu cuuuty court, bcvauM 

t^i ..n ill i:x]>r(<ti tcriDi coafeia tijioa 

U . "tn otigiiuLl j'liixliatjm tn tbnC 
ala«i ■.■>'-,•■ .j anil ■■u£juriB<liotioaiacxduaiTa, 
■nUai lluitv bo •onKtAimt la the iBitnuacnc 

Code Cvr. Pwc.— S IJ 

eriiuilig a <-oohTtty ioUnl: AprMt rf'O, S. 
ii^jhht, -13 CJ. 35^ 

roll.— Hk- bnl/-(ulj>ti!SO fcllowi^l liv tlw 
tmntf'tliirtl iccliun tA tlie .. il. "tn 

alAblnh iii^ti miJ jiilot rr,. i. i tint 

|»rl Kn^l harix-r el lunlvla ouil Ua:u ieUoJ, 
wna hclil not a toll: Ilnrriton v, Ortm, IS 
C^l. !M. 

MnnloiiMt 21101—1110 iroril "nmnirifial" 
laotivluualf'iiafJiultiiKlriclMt •i'rvi'^< iikIimC* 
in^ an iiif<^rii>r fr/vtr or y: 'Hto 

lo-j^lily u( n liiK iiii|>Owd im . it f'>r 

the conuninion ul a Drimiii;i! 
Telml ia n oiiniinal aoliou ir > 

«<iniititvtionBl proviivaii ueiIll ,. 
Reo note ''.Vniomit," Ubw; /'fo^A 
3)} Cal. 102 A fine iuipuKil Ul t y 

court [or vTongfiilly ilu^iuailiug Bn.! •.vll..>. unii 
toll fur tlio piivilu^ (if jjuai^ji uvcr u iukJ ia 
nofta DinDlcljial line; Iil. M. 

Amount ineit ba at loMt tlireo Itimiiro] 
.lolLiwi /.£a*nrt V. Baij; II C»l. 2^'- /^. ■■^ • 
.Srairail. M Id. 290; t/vpHtti v. CI. 
Id. 181. "Tbt rslo lutlM 11)- -. 
[rFfming la ilarjS'l'l r. JoAx*/.!, St I.l. .(IJi 
fofanon r. /■«•?, 31 Id. 33; /'(™.iij'>-(i<-r v. 
MeOvvyat.A^ Id. I<^)] i< tlut tho anioati^ 
far, ciciunhoul iatcrcit. ia tho t«at ol 
diction in t\ia [:lic cnpn):iw| oourt aa ;ti -.... 
fofiiwr dutriL^t cjurt (ui>t tJia aanio nuy bo 
aaid now of tje juriidirtinn ct th^.- lupfTi'JT 
(OuHIi In all CMC* lili<:i. >. 

to rt>;i>T<r iiiiK»ci'i" /iu... < 

111. IkvJ; in «:«> /?•':'/ - L 

K*(». Syj. Tlieu'/'f , , .1 i >,i 
[lUtst iH tint trot <.f j„i ivii.'i....;!; ! I 

V. lUtef. M Cat. 3:ii lAuhun v. .'- 
60Id.«J!l. H-p /VrVyf, ,Vf-rvn,, I ' 
ftotton n . i 

RIMltl. I. I 


Mfcrlix' . ' 

«( (h(M . :. ..... r ' 

humlro.l ilulLui; RDit it liii>i juiiKiii-IKai uiiuro 
tbo plaintifT it<]ninj><l«l tliat Mim, olthuu^lj It 
n»y luivtiT iodgraDut for U«*. 

Cndir lliu nr.glaki vaiwtUutloo, ttio Dmniinl 
in diapiito isuiit liavu U-ra tvo trnadml ilol- 
lara. If BU apiieal h.ih tokvb I>y tlio dofcail.tiit 
fromn jmlgmeatn^nit hiinfor ncnncxcvoil- 
lag two Imudm] dollan, etclu>(ii-u of (.«tta nnJ 
pcivcniaqo, tbo <iMtt liad jniUiliotk-n uf tttu 
OBo. IwiuiiHO tliu unnunC of tho jildgaiurit «'M 
tl>o "uiiiKint in •lijjmU" ou tlie Di>i>;iJ. , If 

tho aptiml ujri taki'n by ttic itcfviMlaDt f' 

ju'ljIiNOiit lo hi* fivnr, wliirn tie hwl *t'- 
oountM^tatsi, if tlmt joJirmont vu fii 
mora tbao lw>> linoilroil uallan 1. 
claimed in lii* aiistrpr, ttiu ounrt In 
tioo: Sl^lttmn v. l./K\ma», '2''i '' f- 

wu aJto b«ld lliM Iho coai't n^lir* 

tioainnoaao bnxiylil un nirni,. ^ < ' .. 

IcM than too bnndred di..'.Lri, o!. 
isvolvo tbo Icgntity of a tu, tu.11, < 
niunlclpil floci Bluough the cnfufivtu' ui •■! ii 
ihuuIijuIo'r lien, or the furecliMnru of a luurt- 
^affi l,y wltlch the dcman') wia kj. 
BOiulit in tliu (uuio oiae: Potand v. 
SOLI. ITt Ti..'..'i .l.-ilfion^tiWli-.L . 

Blru«d lu tne-i: •aytxtati atniuld 

pOiteanppvU. . . :.-lbn in nil cuoai ]in^- 

Yiiln), lliat niiiu l!i« unliJKt oi Uti^ntion v/t* 
capal>Ioof pvTOuiary oKtitmCatioii, r in 
dtiputemuU exoeod ia vktuo «r mnunnt two 
ItuailKil UoUbm, nulon k iiiiTalioa of tiio lo^- 


[Tart I. Tm* t 

{t>' of R tmx, toll, impmt, or mnninixk) Am wm 
dram to r^uuMian; and U w&i bcld that (Im 
couil [mhiuuimI at>p«llate jUTi«di«tliKi (roni n 
ilMn« rpodcreJ in n «uit for iliv&r;c a i-infuto: 
C:miut T. CoflQ'ir. 10 CaL •2VJ. 'Cbll aoclHOD 

•a-ia iioictcill}' uBlniicil uiicn ttio •mendmmta 
t(i tli« comUtutliiD of I!Ni:l, U» JTiiDinSei v. 
l'r.(,vj, 31 III. se. 

I'IntiiUlf <'<imm«nwd nn •ctlon hcfurv ■ jui- 
tire of Uic pt*o<i to Kcui-rr juilgmpat on an 
•uvuut fiir tu4 tiii[i<lr\-il luiil niopty-ciglit dol- 
lai*. I'll!) iMfTiilaiit aiuwvitHl. ccttiui- np u 
(V>uEiUTr-<Uiui in tlie luiii ut live liiiiiilml aa<l 
tiivcnl}- ilnllara. It ma livM tlut tbo court 
liOil MO jiiriHli.;ti')iiI tliutt^cci(/</nniiiniH<tiiUJW 
U> tiiv ixiciDlAiiit wu tlio t«t of jariutlctjiiii. 
>ih] that t^ queMion «-» uimRectcd liy tlie 
b<t tlut tile dcfMi<Xint Kt ap n conuter-eUliu 
in *xttm of thrt« hDodrcd iIoIIjit*, Ivi lliut li« 
coaU Kt up only mch a emiiiter>cljLiiiv u li* 
oonM liavc*n«il nnon Inn Jii*iloo'«oouiti A/ax- 
/'t.1 T. JoAnion, m f '■!. M.i, MO. 

Coaita MBU'it Iw iiKliiilwl t« nukk* ^b 
momiQt up to tlirt» Imniln-I •k<lliin: Jhiapiu 
V. r.'ut<i>f(rn, 13 Ciil, £S; ifnVid^r v. Torrry, 20 
M 171; l'o(«n v. 11,'/'. lU. »0i AoKoa v. 
l.'i.uUr; '.'7 M, 107. On an appeal from OH 
onN'i- ilirootinv tliu Mlurn of an CKcontioa 
iaaui-J un a judgmont for svmU, knil also (rom 
■n onler tetunbg to !■»» no cxccutiou on the 
■Dnt0 jurl^-mcnt for tlic coita. tlm cnurt h»ld 
tliiit il lia>l jitriuUctiuo, si. u-ldiiiucli tbo nuLt- 
tcr in diapnCc ictiiletl to tho coaU. tiloy U' 
ecnl«tltva banilrtid dolkn. Tlila cm«^ now- 
ercr. rsktod to tliacnuititution aa Itortgltully 
alooil; tho nordi Wiug "inn(t«r in (li»piiM 
llliil«ad of "ilcinoDil." a*at prdHinti Mrthtrv. 
lliri-ls. iyhl.-IMi. AUtivilcaoMiwIiiditlnxlu- 
tiiit cjjuit liu )»iiiKlii!tii>i] (u tij- tlie Buprcmo 
CNiri liatJAirUiliotioii to rxviow, no mutter nlut 
tlw Jij<!nuj»iit III llm iliitritt wart may have 
Ini'iii Jiudirnon y. Jlrrir, 31 Id. 33; DaihteU T. 
{iii'^;/tflniul, UOId. &^-3i aBil lec-tix. 7<!. iioti). 

Subd a rorclble onuy and dotainai: 
&«u /«ur. wKa. 1 1 SO ct icq. 

Pioc«aainBB In iaaoivaaoj: 8m avc. MS| 
and tbcaatof IBSOin appcndu. 

Hutoaucv: Si«r«4, sM. 711. 

pTobiite tuatwra: Seo hv. 008, mbd. 3, 

Bobd 4. Special proo—d ta gi. EtBtnani 
domain: S<e. 1*2^7: InaolrMicyi 8pe ti'itni, in 
nr«vL>ui mlxlii-uioa. Ilowcvnr, in Fui r tiu 
I'rftUon, 1-J OJ. 2&1, baJlvMjr |«ooM>liu(,l 
wor* tl^vlam) "apociaL" 

BCondomna, eta.— Tlio Miprmn* court liu 
appeilaM iarudiotian Id caic* o[ mi\<tilamm» 
Kud jiroluUtica: 8m pod, aoe. 1083, and 

atibd. a Crimliial o«MK— Prior to Iht 

adoption u( iliM iirtacal ccaultutlon tliU lukll- 
viiioa of tlic klioTa Mutioa road: "(i. To all 
criminal action aniounliug tvfaionyoii quMtloni 
of Uu- alcmo," Tliis conrt hwl Mt app«lUt« 
Juntiliction in «*■» of Biia(l*«>mio<r or crinM 
of a IcMdosreatJuia felony, and no jurudicUiw 
tuiild 1x1 confcrrvd br tba li^lattire in tbeM 
CM0<; Pfopti V. jfjijibvii^ 9 CbI. 2!t^; Prook 
V. /ou^. 9 Id. W: frafd* T. C'ornr/r. t« liL 
137i/V'»fJ'v, ir<Lf,30IiLll7i/''", V. 

aa Id. 430; Pi<,dU v. JoAiUM. Ml J. k 

V. i^/jpor, S3 Id. 300. Tlil» U •» i- .irt- n ••ut 
ia iiu|K)*ed for Dinbling: /'n>i^ v. .^tnir, 7 Id. 
inUi or petit Umuy: Proj/'v. I'itt, Id. ia& 
it makci no difftrviioi- tliat ibo oMO i» bron^l 
up l>y writ of mvt: Froyh v. Hhfir, Id. 139. 
Itntiiowan nppaalliraincoMaot inbdtniaaiior, 
and it lornia iliat llio conBtitattcoi ia aeU-wM* 
ciilinit >" till* partioolor; PteiJei. KaltoeJk, GO 
III. ll.t UiKUrtlioelwMOoftneliitaeutooiuti- 
tulion. artiulo U, icctica 4, pving Um tapenan 
court JDHMlicUoii "in allcnmlnM oa«» prcMO- 
onted liy indict m*nt or infotmatkin (n n co«it 
of record «n quntiua* o( law akao." tho Hi- 
preme court uiU rnlvrtatn Junadlctlon of *it 
appeal from a judgrnvnt iif coiivictloa rondrred 
tiy a court vihith liad iio Jurudiotion of iIm 
offCDH, And mav rovono the Judgmanl aad 
onlor the actinu bdaw tobadiamuMd: i'eopU 
V. /•(jujrw, liL Ul. 

J'owen in appealed cokh. 

Sso. &3, Tbe supremo oourt Eoay'nfSrm, rOTorae, or modify am judgmetit or 
'btrHi^T app^cil from, nml may dirvct Uio proper judgment or order to be 
cntci-cd, or direct it new trial or furtUor procecdiags to ba hod. Tbo decision 
of tlio court bIuiU be giveu in writing, and in giving its decision, if a new trial 
bu grunted, tho court eliaU pasa upon und deternuDO nil the questions of Uw 
involved ill t^o cn«e, presented upon sucli appeal, and ueoeseoiy to lliw final 
delenniiintion of tlin case. Its jud^^ent in appealed oases shall bo rcnuttod 
to tho court from wliich the appeal was taken. 

Conflict of evldeaceL— Wlicn wiLiHbiuti.iI. u the cotirl i* IiounJ to docldo accordtng to 

•nprcmc coart wtU not Ji«liii'l> ducitiiui of 
court Iwlovi Hoc UoT, iiot«. 

Court b«)o«r, reoKnu and AretiiaMiU In. 
A j"iIgineiitwLiiehlarl|tht will not tw ravened 
hrv.-iiLio it no] rruilercd niion a wrong rcaaoni 
/Ai'.u V. liaiuat, 3 Cal. 438; it!<if» \: Firtr. 10 
Id. \:>i: CAabot t. Tmlur, 3U Id, ■135. WUen 
B liG*r triul in ftiked for un Bevrral groanda, nad 
it U crajiiud, mid Ui« ivconl doni oat aliow for 
wliKui iiHu of tliq mutoni it wai gmntol, tho 
orili'f ifiaiitinB tbo ntw trial iiill nnt bo n- 
vi'ii^d, il it may have been projierly nuitod 
for any «»aof tli« Moaoua aatipicd: AlUthal 
V. }f<fjU. 4S Id. 033. It it Ininuterlal whothw 
a poist is token in the uggamcai b«loir or not. 

the kw of the wliolu uaso, and not aeoMiliugto 
tlio Tievra or nHUonimf of cDunKl^ llttttlnrtt 
r. SKlUm-. 18 Id. S25j Oart r. H,.hrr. i^ Id. 
SOS. Tlic appellate oourt sill not inTonM a 
doL-lxlou corrnot wlion it waa hhkIv, and i«r. 
tiiiily will not An to by muon of tu'y inulter 
of (lut iiijt Nlipwrior olTcrod in tU* Pi-iirt Wlixr: 
WalhKf V. HUfulj- (K... 2). 'Z} Id. :'.0. 

DMtti, sagB^stlou of: Soc S^ and not«i 
and wti uo>t not«^ 

Death—Judgment anao pro tnnc— Tlio 
■iMth of an api>rtknt after argKmcnt of bis 
OMO npon apiH-nl do«a not oonatitiile any 

Sound fur delaying a doclaion or departing 
i»D the ordiuuy ooucH e( ptooedun, u«cpt 


SUPREME coirar. 


I to tl><! rutty of th« }il<)j^eitl wliich my \« 
P.»t»iUT»J, Tw rnlfy tlit<uM hu of a J»y ants- 
Um ki<ti«llaat'* (IuhOi. Work r. SKaie. 
Hlfl KifV t. Duon. n ^Vl-ixI. -iSi: Oim/>. 
w. VvUr, ( Jolin*. Ch. aSSi ilUlrr r. 0»««. 
T How. Pr. ISO. Ttw ndo w (UfEcniai if tba 
ilntth occur preTioualy to iIm arguiiicDt. In 
t£ikt cvunt. tu rtbcr jwooaoiilBg* out onlrb* hail 
u|K)a Iiikvi! t;ii<a kilcT ■ufgcrtfan of In* doikUi 
b iita^a. In tlii) om tlia cMirt wera iiot awbid 
i( tb« ilMtli of (tis MiNlUal at tlia tiin* Uia 
iil^gniodt WM rvwUrviI. Tlia «Btry «a tliure- 
bra lyirrMtol w (t>lt»mt Jiiilj^nnit wm va- 
Mtol, anil a J<lil4*niuilt nf Alfimunoa <Qt«ro<l aa 
of Ilia <Uy riTiitT I'l Urn ilconue of the appnIUnl : 
iSlivk V. >iKoaf, 30 CaI ()■). A similar ctmrae 
WIW ndoiitnl iu .Van'iiiia tie. Horiftf t. QUA, 2i 

l<l- iMXt; uiJ in /Mhimy v. f7nr/Jfl^. 40 IJ. l-lti. 
•noTklur woBCnaila a* fUtou-a: "I'lio rtmdtiinr 
iMVvlOfani iMUaJ bjr tlio dcnk of thi* oaurt Id 
thU Ckuaa bavinn hten roturiml nml lileil 
bcrnn, punaaat to aii iirilor ■•! Ilir rniirt 'iiu'ln 
on llm IWDiity'tbiril •\ity lA SvyirrnVrr, \s;t, 
oil nodtiig Uio Alliiiavil ul Thotiia* l)>»llu)', tin 
Rl* iKrcJn, iiuiNMiBg tbu 'loath of the mjHiii-l- 

lliii court. >nO itap|Hariiig tfacrvfrum tliattuid 
UitlUao ilteJ nbodiiicni to tho timf m)<1 ornise 
ibmittcil, anil U-Foro Iho tloal dcciuoii 
ijjinicnt ot thii Murt tbcreiu: now. on 

ID nl Sp«aotr. of couaiwt lot thp apriHIant, 
.Atai llolldwny. it la onin^iil ihut \h<^ ilivulou 
Bit iailgiiKcit of Ihl* court. mtAo xuA riitiTHiil 
on tlia twoiity-Ari; ilnjr ol fVbtuu-y, INTt (m- 
vMitng (b« or>ler anil jii<lj^in«tit ut tlis court 
ba)<nT, aoil naiaudiiig aaiil cauw (ur new 
triftl], ba and tlie aanie u hf^rebr act asid*. 
Ajid it U (urtliar onlored and atljudsfd that 
Maid dcciaion uid judstncnt of lliii court, 
rMidorcd in atid mum nn ilio ivYntj-'Hnt ivf 
tA February. \rCi\. with tho npiiiion cj tlia 
mMtrtthorowith lilcd, l-c*ad tlicumoia tioreliy 
renilrrad a« ot th* da(« of tho (iiIiiuImIoii it 
Mid oMir* («ir dauialoB in tbla court, to wit, 
tha atvoiib d&r of Aiiril, IMO; and Die olorli 
of ihi* Murt i* boroliy uhlcraH to rntor aald 
dooialon and oninMa m cd aaij lul^iamod 

DmMom of lopreme court ponuiioniit 

Until rararaed or inodirml bj- ttKlf. tbe <l«cii- 

ioiu of Um wpcana coart uuafr be »ccoptcd bv 

p^l isferior tnbnnala: Ua* v. Clart, W <M. 

i PrmU 1. iffOmrr. « Id. 5/. Start d<- 

I Mid ui« of tin oM«, wc Doto bslow. 

I>lBcr«tJm «buM ot only wUl b« t»- 

|vl»w«d. -Gmntingwrcfnijngncwlnah Sroa. 

l^J^, iwlfl, ceo, Mitu. arauiln^omfuninfiMu- 

t tlmuuor: Six-. MIS, »0t«. 

Seotm«Dt— T<vinlnitliMi of plaintiff'* right 
iii£ autioni Svu. SU. notv. TtO. 
IfcroT In law— Xiipratno oourt will r«vl«w 
lliua«cainMiil«d agitiiint imrty ii'iin[>ti>iii- 
. Iki7. iioM. Knur in faw, f^iiui /tiWr 
an): 8or. 057. AOtv. Krrori iti law work- 
P fDJsrr not utduikI (ur (li4t<irbing d^da- 
«. AS7. nolv. 
Bxo«p loua aud ol)]aodoi» miMt Iw t^keri 
lUliiv: :W(U.IUij,iioU.«(4,ll«tr, 41NI,[iot«, ai<k7. 

Fnots, r«vl«w ol ou appoBl: flnca. 007. 
I boIp. (l-'tn. note. 

IiOnti'jtlaii. -tt WM h*ld ilui tlio oonrt 
iVfiiiiM iii,t nivMW an onUr gmaiiog mi Inicrloo- 
- -nry injiiii.itiuii, wiMfti tlia iiUntiflT MoreedMl 
b-btouuuK til* Bftiii nUcf, whidi gnperly 

oarris] a Mrnvtml iojiinclioa with Ut //I'ebi 
». It^ri: i Cil. 70. 

iTTWulAtldN: Ste. 87, note. 

latmltBtlolM^ UAtUt« ot— Kict«wiou wh«T9 
jiiiUincnl (or i>ijinUlT rc**r*oit: St«. 2U, uotv. 

MAirlsc«. ■nss*>it^i> oI- 'h^* ^^ 

FrtMOfldiuga wlwr« fut«udiiiODta ar« la 

favor of, -'Ctron aiut dvfcut* arc I'l bv ilitn^ 
g-inlcil^ iicc, i'i. uvi iiotCH. Ueu.riU, lli'iui^ 
aot •.-oiMlnalK, aro jimuuml voiTc-lJy M ilo- 
tcnnliic ^)D righto ut the jikrUMi Sm. 1003, 
■alid. 17. and nota^ 

In tiM tuurmw «aurl. In the aWiiou ot aiiy 
facia ■liiywitM th« oontmry. IIm nwiaaary iu- 
tMiduMBl I* Uiat th« auliiiii of tli« ooiirt Utiwur 
iTMoomatt Pf^i-lev.CoiKtt, ^9^'±\,^y:^■, (lov- 
cxtrj V. llfiMHeir. I ]<f, 32: iWiwi- T. 0»iFa, 
Id. tS; arnr*l( v. Utttdmoa. 7 Id. -ISi'l; Pio- 

{It r, Baiiour, » Id. 231; PiopU v. Unriia, 6 
d. «7B: P«>p<tr.RoUHti»., IT1J.37I. Wluiw 
a cBH WM tried upon ll^e (ii[i|KMiit]'c"i Ihit llig 
anawcr prflacntfid a atilBciniit ilriiiit lii Ilia aUr- 
gttiniia of ilio «oin pint lit. It wm )ikI'1 tlitt the 
|>liJulilT uoiild UL-l nlu) aiiy r|iiTiili.jit i» tu tlt« 
(uIGciniicy of Ihrdrniala tor th* lir«t tiinD In 
tha Hi|»«riio wiiitU ll'JiiVr v. i$. /f, Ji U. (/. H. 
It. Cv.. SO Id. 4IU, Thu .-uUuU of tiio •.■uurt 
vill lie priiiiiiinrd mnvcl. uiiIrb lher« beaoatn, 
lliioj* in III? rvoO«il to oTcrcoinc kicIi pr«iiin[i< 
tiuui BrU V. Daei'. I Id. 131*1 Hi-JuvUI r. 
//'i.r». Id. 11.1; Fo-d V. //<,«<.ii, 5 IJ. Mil 
UMIurti V, Barbirr. 7 Id. W: I/^rrnlr T. SnUi- 
iwn, Id. -J7I); A'o^l' V. .Uiiry. V Iii. 41^; />i«t- 
I'lUuu V, I'nn Horn. Id. !!ll); Oiivii v. Mtrrt^n, 
iM Id. 37H: Pimldv. VampMl. »1 Id. 3:iSi 
iiSnrp V. jt^Mpniy, 83 Id. l>l'2i .U«>ar< v. JAu- 
riiii, 43 Id. SeOj WOtoH V. l>(,.t;ituflt,, -IS Id. 
34; i^HrmAw Vi l('«ftti, 5a Id. 4aO. Errormiut 
be ■liowii ainniiativplyi iVKitt t. ./fti-nKfAir, 3 
Id. 4'JS I Bxbf V. IVelU, Id. 148 i Jforiptn v. 
//»yg. & Id. 400; AVf«n v. Z^^inon, 10 Id. 411. 
Whon:, ill an octioa on a MDlmct for tbc tola 
of Kooila. within th«atalut« of franili, tlic roconl 
illd not itiow ttiat all tlio arjdciico wta n>turn*d, 
and no cv]iI«do« appeared In tlMroconl toahnv 
that lliu iCataia faod been uoiiiplled wlUi. nur 
that any objORlloB wui n>».l« Ui tlio vi'ldunmi. 
tup voart pt««am«d tlutt *iilliQi«iil uviilaat* uf 
a propar oka(»ot«r a-M i^ivun to w-arraot tbe 
l)[iiJin|[ of th« pity; BunUHjj i, Bofdetaaa, I Id. 
IB3. Wh«re tlia noonl uantaia«d nothioK but 
thu plMuJinya and jadgmcait, tha mart pre- 
aunaod that thp cvidcDtn: woi ■nffictcDt to aua- 
tain ttiD jnd;,lnciiti and. jitr Iliutiuui, C. J., 
and LyoDi, J. (Dennott, J.. diiiuMitingl, tUi 
although It appoanMl in tha JailfmcBt itulf 
that it waa baatd on ((rauoda wlinlly aitt«nalilsi 
FoUom r. Raul, Id. S74. AltcrwanJ lli« cMrt. 
by llc«ip«tt, ]., affinnoil tbii dadtimi on the 
nrlnciplo of tUurt dcoina: Jfc/brMni r. Jtntt, 
Id. 453. 

VVh<'ro it Diiptarvd Hut d«(aiilt wiu ontt-rFd, 
nu<l Clii-tviipiiii tlio uoiirt roii>JvrL-d jiidynviitfor 
ODO huudmd anil (wHiiyfour dolure oeil wr- 
enty-ltre cent), hut whctlier or not the Murt 
T«««ived and btard anv tmtimoay iljil not ap- 
pear, it woa held to be tlir MCtlod rule that 
ovftry iire*utn|>tii>n woo !ii favor of tlio eoiialii. 
aloii tlial a pvihll.: <>lli.-ur, and particularly a 
Jiidlelol ollUur, had ncU-A rt/ulaily; Vraat t, 
/;rrtni*uii, 3 CA. 195; aoe. 1003, wbd. \&. putt. 
On apfital from an order of a oourt rctajiing 
CMti, the reeurit eoiitiiiniKl rarion* notioca aod 
a(li«lai'ila which irere not. lioWF^rr. onilKultoit 
in a bill of cxoe|itiMu m alatuuuiit, m tliat tlM 




tP*IITl, TiTUlI. 

■uprcne court «niB aot iDrornxil npnn vluUtha 
court belcw aolBl. Tha jiHlguu-ut waa noMnl- 
iuglj alEnnod, IIm pmumplioQ Wing tlut Ihv 
cuMt below dcciiloJ oan«clly uiwq all thi- cvi' 
ilciiCD before iti Onit* v. auetiagXam, 4 Id. 

A rcfuial to klloir an Mnondnicnt lipromind 
la hr rlifl't- uiil's* the dianvtcr of Ibo pro- 
|iU«ih1 fuiini'IintBt ix iliawii in Uie iioinl; 
ynvHjt V. fTini;, 4 Cal. HI. So |)miimptioif 
tliol ■mmilf 1 aiiHu'iir vu wr\'i>il kuJ filol by 
pcTiiiisduii ol tliti rniirl will tie iixliil^l in ia 
hror of the proccmliog* liil'iir: Lhfr'nort v. 
ITaU. M III. 489. A r«ourJ prolosKil to »ft 
(Ml tho ovi'lctue in ('xplaiwtia« uiil Bapport o( 
the gnxuKli takirn, lenvinx Um liifi;reo» clear 
that tlicre wan mora cvnlcnn in the tuatc, 
vhicli ha<l licfn oiiiitud from iho itateaent oa 
HluiccvWATy b> clmiiUtc tlic error* oomplained 
ol; It v** held that trmr woiilil not In pra- 
■umi.l )>ni iiiiiit lie aflitiimtlrcly nhom: adiI 
all ' .;i w«m in favor of llw mtiulitrity 

of! iitlwluwi PffnfT. //«I('/M, rOil-.tS^ 

I( t(.v itii.;i>i^liuiui ){iv<ii (« til* jiir)* al^MU in 
Iha nKoril. but Iho tt«tiiii»iiy ur foula ilo not 
Oplieu'i the court will not diMun tho oorruut- 
nOH or olhrru'iie of Iho iiutrautionii Peo/ite v. 
MnCmdtg. I W. SSCj Pr^t v. Baker, Id. 405; 
WhUe r. jlWnrfAy, .1 1<1. «UL 

[n tlic abaonoe of the laitmctionn eii-Mi to 
the jury, the nuprcnic lonrt l» homur to pre- 
ailtan tJiat tbn Uw npplti^Mn to thi- (ucU of tha 
UNH WM corruclly ifi>ai by tint «uurt: AUifi'h 
V. Pntntr. 2* Cal. 613. Th« *tAtut« CTtntioji 
tliD wi|wrior court of Sui Praiivlaco )!**• it th« 
miw JuriHlKttini inoivil la.w'* in that poajatwiil 
by Ihu ilidrift roartx, vxrppt tliat in actiofii 
impeullu^ the title or iMwNtHi'in •'! rval ntal« 
it «iW limilol tii lli« city of Sm Fraiit.'iK»; and 
liuule it A <uutt uf mur'l. uilh a sol and a 
tiiark, Ita iudgBiuutx, th-jivfurv. impi^rt the 
UUM ahBOlutO vorilv na thi"-; uf tlit; tliilrict 
«xirtB: Founu/f V. A'Min, al IiL li»!, Wht-m 
k Jail|(m(>nt ditided laud u hctvreon tliu jar- 
11< *>, tiy n line ai Inid ilovu ii|>on a oertain map 
aiillcii<.d Vo l\\« Jnd{i:m<ct. aod It wu obji«^«d 
that the hue wu* lou vaj^k an>l uncurliuii, ]iti<l 
tljttt the OkAp fiirjii^hi'il hE« tlti^t (r,p if o^irrvct 
It'ioation. it ww held tlmt nil mtmdinvnt* wi>r# 
iu favor of tliu iu<t);ini-nti nud m ttuj ahwiioe 
df an afGriiiittiT* vhowing to (ti<i conlmrj', it 
VKiuliI Iwaatunicd that thv lino Con Id be loi^atod 
with «»tir«pricii ion: 7'Aan>/uau v. Connetly, H 
)<I. 3IX Where a dccfi'e r^ciltj Ihaldcfrad- 
atitacuuacnleil to the entry thereof, it wat held 
tlut itwovldbcpreauiDBl.a^lutoulUtcrnlat- 
twk. that anuh >:Di|!te3it wa* *□ prvuutA>1 ai to 

Sivd lh« o^urt JoHn'licttoin uf llii'ir pi^ni<iiiii at 
19 ilat« of tlu tUoroa: AioCc v. RitAmon4, lil. 

VVhnrn thi'ra ft a antittantial onuDict tck lb« 
tMtlmony, all muCi'iiul fncU upon vthixh ov!- 
Anwe «■*• intrivln^d "ill b» prvnamcid in fsTor 
of the j<id;!H>(-nt^ V;fr<A«n V. A/^^. 41 CW. 117; 
■« wc. (f.'>T> nutv, j»<f. A ileunto uai li]?rl with 
the clerk of th« miirt, and ir.m ciitetvil. and 
waicDfiied nt length in one of tlm jml^iiicnt 
roounjdiooki of tho court; ncd at ita foot, as 
TWAnloil ID the judgnn-nt-book, vim Iho cntif : 
" l)cerof rcttilcred on the liftccntli Oot.>1i!r, 
IS-VI." The court UcU that it ditl not appear 
tiMt tiili dec(«e WM not the act irf the court. 
T^ntocl t^t the attoracyi nliputntei) that It 
intniit lie onteriNl bar] notoudoni-'y to ihov that 
tb>< (loiirt did not af tvrwordi orJur is tv bo «ii- 

tared ■« tha ilreroc of tlw mnrl. i 

to be ■ judgment id t>w court, ooil ( 

brty entered hi iW rococdi, tl» i' 

wa* it waa enteitd i« iiurt^a*''* nf .. i ■ 

tho omrt: J>nif« r, /»«■- ,'■ 

rraord of tba p lobats cu' < |ir.>- 

bateadeeoMDd'i vilU »u:. . 

taincutary to Laiue tn hii execnlm . 

SKlcnt CTi>leiKn of Ihu (oi.'t ii( Ih- i i 

D.-eaMd: RanM)>k t. JS^jrw. 44 M. olix 
OnJor* «( tbo prob*t« court iii<r>l not no) to the 
faetit.' S«c. ITOt; •nd nil InlendnKuta am Ui \m 
RiailoiutlMtr favor: 6k.II3. On IIm law at ex 
idling Mora thma niaclBiinits, it waa held tti^t 
theciiilriicoot a petition ffr probate of a will 
which waa not on Gle night, after tJie tiiiac uf 
•evcral ynri. bo infenxd, froiuoientii'iii tlicmif 
in the ininutca of lite prabate court, bjuI rifei' 
ance tliereto In book* kept li> ''< .'..aiid 

|«|ion on fik^ and oral Itall^i' li id 

inovc, but not poalUvaly aa-> ;....„. Carl. 

Whar* It via aluFn Ibal a paltlwa (■inee \«ft 
or de*troy*d], the object of wliMi wnit to pro- 
cur«< pivbato, wna filed in ibo proper c-nrt, tli jt 
Ifao tevtator waa diad when Iha p^itrim wu 
pnaented, and r«aid«il at the timu of hi* dasth 
la Ike county wfacr« the allegi-l probnt* mM 
huli tliat the jwlilioavaa dntirn l>]r lavyvfa 
wboto InuiaoM it vm to |>r<miv aueb paprn; 
t^at the court aaiumcd juiMdicticai, Ionic prwf 
id the <-xccnliou of tho will, iaiueil letlnra tft- 
titTnuntary, and onti^rixl an>t approroil of a i.ile 

bold that 
•" of niglit 

ii( re«1 cnlate hy tli< 
It u-4* c«ba p««u;ii' 
ytor*, that iba ^v-- 
of lh«nto.'a«rr juriwlii-ti' 

under thefomwr cniliote .--.l 1 ■ l'.o 

nraauy, SO M. Wi. M\ ii]tii...>,^..v:...n. In 
favor of the fof^ality cS tho time* of hoMii>{ 
oonrta: Sor. TT. note Ai to IntooiInMala in 
faTor of JuditnicDt* nr orileni eulhttcrally at- 
uubcd: t&c line, noto. A* t« nconMity f^ir 
oxcoptioiia to vmn tit law, (n^nlaritiogi, etc. i 
SoA, 6UI, Dot«. Iiitemlmouta in fnvr uf 
tuipilar aarriM of aummonvi Soe. 41.'>. noloi 
uf oSicUl duty haHn£ been regalorly \>ct- 
formed: 8«o. 1063, (nbd. IS: that covrt ot 
juit^e. donieatio or tan'tga. actt-d irilhin juria- 
dicliuD! Sea. IBIkt, auM. Id. and □□tea. 

ProcMdiDsi wlMr« imaDdcaents ar* not 
In (kVM oC— \Vbere the reoord ahowa thai ii 
demiirfnr u'aa iatcrpoaed to tho eampUial, ami 
WM ■oaLuoed hy the court, and aftorvvd, 
during tlte aaiiio term, a jndjjniont wna r--e- 
dural in favor ol tho plain ElflV the C'Kirl «ill 
lint pnsiinao that the iirdi:r auataint;i)[ th« 
domorror waa ant atidu by tk« oonrt liefona 
Jiiil^ineatwa«raiidm-I. In Kuch a c»m tbe (•»• 
Old aliowa that jiMli^iuiit vm inijiroperty tvn- 
doredi Smnr v. C.y, 9 Ciil. BIM. The olctlc 
but lio^viiiMnd juriidiction, or pc^wer to reiuLr, 
or of Ilia uwu ni.ition and aa kia net. to cnEvr. 
jud^cnU; and wbon. in a fen- cxcopltnnjj 
cnwi, tlie alatute oonfon a power of tku toil, 
OB he loolu lo the atatute tor the aour«a of )iL> 
autliarily, ao lie muat pnrwne, nt loait aabiLUi 
tUlly. tnc diroi'tiioi uf tho ■tut'itu In ordrr lo 
Impiirt Tiiltdlly (o Ida not*. T^itt li tlie rula 
wltll nil tpcdiil Irlbutinln, and all atpaU u-tl»j 
under Hpecl.ll niid liinitnl oiitkiiiiiy. In ntbcr 
wi>nl», iH tlii'v dfri*^ thnr p.. .t ' ■ . 
la III (a'*t ai4>l iiiwU fr>»n Iho 4t-i 
mutt tliou- tlut the iwliculiur twS _.'... . i 


Cn*r. nr.] 

StTRESIE C»i;itT. 


■ Hlll.lrl<r.! ' . ill* 

litoiilHT jii' ■'■■r, 

17 M. 5113. li "I- 

iiinnta iikii tw ill! k- 

Itoii luuat riQlri i !^- 

Jl r-lll- " lU be i.'' ■ ^. I ^ ■: ■.-]*! 

. Amlnt In Ini liiUf nKn^'l I'ul |>"Vii;r 
ilv llmll Ik intcii'W n« to i''»iiIf> •■! 
I ndUtiou, Ixito* t ' I 

oo uIk> oIiuiu lUi;. 

EropM-tlti'-- '■ -„■ L. .... 

iitiiKv irhiii. 

uwiVr. k'l Cat. .lUl; .S'nitiii. k, AnJitttt, l\ U. 
05li »»• ulin IW-. Al>r., til. L'lWitai Aiu v, 
A-n.i.':' :: 1 3IH. 
Tl< i« of linticM* «oarta Lciag 

•!•«:. il :i^l, thf Inir pnauiiiM nothinx 

iti U-nx i4 ill niHl n |h>rt]r >rlii> uwrU s ti^ht 
uiiiitT •juilgBiiJil rvi.ileriiJ in inch conit muiC 
•liow aSiraikUvciy e\KTy fiu:t Dtrouary to cou- 
(or oldi JiiritilitUun^ h'liuiu v. Cia/r!, I'i CuL 
SSI; ItTk./.tW/ V. Iiait,,rr, 7 111. CI; /.WM v, 
Alrjandif. 1.1 I.L Jaili l:„ii4'jr v. llvtftM, Zi 
III. WIS. lo tCTiui- pnionH t>y ptiUicitUuii. 
•Utiiluiiiil4tUUit«U]rf«lkiwod; ifmi. 41-J, and 

ModUying fwrtgpiciirt. —If tlisMurt btluvr 
wnogfuliy r«1nM I» ilinol(« ku ntlM-limcnt, 
lb* rapmiio cuvrl iril). crci) tliuiigli affiriiiiiig 
llw JuagniFiil oi^iMl •IcfrnilLuii, otAn it I<i \m 
OiwolroJi OruinJJ \. Sh-rpi. 2 L'ul. iJ. 'llio 
■'ijimiic OKxn miijr rviidcr *bcIi jiul);inciil m 
tbs i^oiitt brlow (buulJ linre rrurlrrol; (•<iA<u 
V. .VnriV', III. SU Omtmn v. (;f.>V 4 Id. ViH. 
Tlini, trites it WM objccUO tliat llio juil^cnt 
WM •itauMiM, btcauM it nu-u'lcJ r**litiit)on 
at Ibcwliabof n om> tiiiinlnMliju* lot, whiU 
jJaiotifl* oiilf clalinwl tlie *ui>(licrii halt of it, 
ttm ouurt reKRrdiyl tlia vmr as (it«rii«l and no 
KTuuml lur i«<'«n*l! Aiirlerton v. I'artrr, G Iil. 
Wl. In owi o>M> llw ouiitt bt-l<l tli.-il (Ijry (cm 14 
not eonpute (lamaKtv, Int muat ri.-Tcnio juilg- 
VttaiX: C^attm^iam v. i/orwp. Id. 21 ; but iu mo 
p(|U1UMd (MMoiling tli« court mcidilicd Uib 
li><li;nMB t lijr iMiMitiDg tlivnf mm • lilfforanoa a( 
liitimt, umI dlrectod ttm cUrk i>( tlio Duimtno 
("•irt t-i make 111* «BlniIatii:«i kiiil oiiin' iImi 
Lu:o«r>)iiit)ly: CroJry v. MffJ^rmi'l, J 
I .iliTra B porlioii n( lKi> entry i-I tlie 

1 T I .allying llie kiixl (■( iiiouny in whidU 

itia jailuiDmitwiulotNiialit, wtta t-oiil, tliv loirrt 
urilvrmf that Uiu mow b« r«muideJ, with di- 
TBitloiM lo Ilic I'lHitt bckiw to nmvnd tlia 
Jm')|,-i^vI W -triki"!! <"tt tlint portion nf it 

w<" .Mit. Mul 

h I.. i.HWrlJull 

i I !■« «»■ 

'.)ii> court 

- 1 ly [[." juil^riicnt in oo- 

iiKiii of tlio (iiiin<i>BM oourti 

. , - ;. V. M. fo..^ Id. 6I6| 

Ml' t'oiunul' V. r-"!. t^ M. ISC. 

If n iit.|,-m'-iil It mjortwl by a mftrtt pay- 

II. and tlwru ii notliiii^ id tun 

:iiif ill bciii|{ ^j'liMi.' in tliiit 

L.iL- court will diivct 

■ t, Iwt wi'.liiml ojst* 

-..,.- il tooik tlipoiurtW 

iIm laudidotliant .Vvoaoa r. 

TIiv court liM (rciiuciilly Aci'qitMl t)v« ^fltr 
of a |art}*. Ditile in urdpr tonnnd nretrrul, lA 
rviriit n iiortioii of liii cUim. Thuji }uiJ|:di(>iiI 
wan ikflJriiL'.^d ua tv*\Htn^baVi ^Hug u rvmitlttur 
of fifty ili>llar>, tin.- lunfiinl (/ dilNigiU'M' 
■ewul. iui<l \i.i iii^ IIic cuiu of <|>]i(mJ: Ooll v. 
I'lllrr, )i;r>l, 431. WJieiv, loBToid»r«i*r«»l 
ptatiilifr<-ircnd (»r«Biit tlmdnicuiiju*, tliu jailj- 
f'H.nt »nt« iikMiIiivI iii •"■■)»- In hi— vjtti llinl nlWr, 

■ ■ I . «( 

' '^1 
' III. 


!|l-. I ■■ ■ I . ill« 


illlliCi KM 

< Wa 1'. -^' 
1 1 l'> i,..--: •,-<• I?-'! '.■ 
Is". It »..- ■ 

vfirvdAUil :iii' '■<■' n'li lin-. I ■■ 
l(> tbv uoiirl iMl-iir tu jiixitui-l v 
BQtiw, uiiluii witl'iu twi'iily dntu :. 
of tbc muill'tar XD lll<< <.-uil['. 
•nta mIiodM lili! uitli tljo <.'l< 
writtcii conJKtoC tliBt tlm ji.'..i.. ■:. ...,.1. 
nualilicd by itriking ohe llio dtiiingM tbcriiit 
■u-nnlcd, uid bu-TliD^ in lion tliervuf * Iibb 
Hum; «nj up<>ii hugIi ixmaont liclns liled, it wa> 
ordoKil tlint tint J>i<l)|iiicnt alionld Iw mcNlillnl 
■ocunlliiuly, mil aim titnt it tboulil l>c tnkil« 
piyaliloTii duu ruMnie t>( ifliiiiiililmlinii; Ai>— 
tliiiu V. t'uulrr, -W Jd, 3'^, Sli It win Olilrfoil 

th^C rmpundint* ahuutd Iiavd iKu«ii day* in 
irliicli b» lilu their written <-vniKtit that tlw 
juileineiiC ihi^iilil \ya nioiiiDi-d in niMivrilanfi* 
wit£ UiH vtcua i<>pn)i«M.'>t by tti« Ctiuit; ami 
a\A/n filing; auuh milldn ouiiomt. it wb* nr- 
iIttoiI tliBl the juilf^nunt hIiouIiI h« itio>.Ulli!d In 
[nirniLiUicc tlirieofi in di'fault of filiQV nioh 
ntcllu-u wimutit, it WM orderni tliat juiWii-ut 
ba cntrT«>l ivvctvlng th« judgmcul ei Ibo 
court liclow: LamjiviQ 4 Co. v. Hyati, 27 
III. 104. Whom tlw i>lainlllT In lili litiL-r, in 
CM« ihv court WM ul ojiialou tbat ttwnt b-m 
WTor, olFmd l« remit (iMh iwrlioo ef ths ntin 
meutionud In Ilia findinu »• Ilia court mifht 
think [fuper, but tiio finiliu^dld not nttinJ tlio 
dnla for laiikiiig any np|Mrtiouaieiit, tho ixiiirt 
bcbl tbut tli« ciilirp >Luiin(;«a miixt bci rvctiittnl. 
or the judgment revcrud nnil a tiaw trial hail: 
aud it wa* onlciml Uut jilaiDtiir hav« li[tv«u 
days vithin wbleh to Gla m the anfireiiw <inurt 
a rclnaM of all damagcaekjmnl, and tJiat upon 
tHiuji iincli i«l«tia* bi due form tho jodcnicat Im 
•lUmifil; but In d«(aiilt of fllinfi aacli relcMe, 
tlint th« jiidgaioiil of the diitiictoonrt aud tlio 
orilFrduiiyiiig tioir trbJ *houlil h* r«v«rw>l aud 
a iirw trial iinDtOil: Canientirr v. Oardiutf, '£t 
IJ. IttS. 

Iu I'jcctmmt, on motion by nvpondont torn- 
oatu thv jiidgrnunt of tliu ini|irf<iiK< viiurt mvniv 
int; llir- jiidgnicbt of llio district Mart Miil 
ililwlJanlBancw trial, llio 0«irtWovr 
ii.i that tlie iK-fMiduit liail dinoiacd 
il.. ,.;,.i,iL.i[of tho while- o( 6vi) Iinndted acrw 
Ruod (or when Ihn |jlaiiililT waa himKlf ia the 
a«tiial poa w tlou uit'l riijoymvol of nlnut oiiu 
huDslrtd «iid cijjlily ivn^ii <d It at tko ooni- 
Dienocmnit of tin* artiun. thv mipondoat <4lor- 
ing to («>I«M tliv Mill liDiiJrT.I ;in.l i-i;{>ily aen* 
from tliB nierBtion of tho jmlji'iml. tttccmirt 
ni<l tliKt if tho particular IwaIkju i<( Uic ulio 
huDilrt-d nnd eighty a<Tim apjMaR'il. etlbrr iu 
the plnvlingi or liy tlic Biidiiiini. tlii'y iniollt 
order tbc uuditlcatian upon th« bMiii of tho 
rcMirdi hut Di llicTo ViU milhin;) In oitlii-r 
•lioviiu theloution, tboy »«ra n<->l at lilwrty 
\a ■■xiunUH) tho eriilciios for tlM jiiir|>uw u( du- 
U'riiiiiiliif; tlivloc.itionaaaqiieati'iix.f f>rl. Tn 
du ih> wi'ul.l lis b' oxerdko on^iual lulb.'f tliin 
Hjipclhilo jurwliulLoii-. iTffM *. Jmni, 'M IJaL 





[Pjuw I. TiTi* I, 

KTB. Whew Om *nly rorllwi of tlie ptvmim 
1 for, of which Uu> <luf<«iUiit tiail [lw pM' 
•ian t'>T th« outiitory i^riiHl cl r>v<- yw*. 
a « Ua«t ol about aii« liuixtrv.l anil tixty 
amt; tad the iliTfomluit'it couiisvl ■ug>;v«tvd 
itmt if the jiiil);niuiit wu for tin niucli lie 
nigllt 1-v ]ierRiitt«il ti> rtlaiBc tbv vm-os; liut 
tlii-tii WM u<>tlitii£ in till) plnulm^-i oc cviileiicc 
buwouU L-iu>t>le Uia Mart la iles«ri)ic nch 
tiom o( knd with the ni)nUitc degree of ntr- 
Dty^ the ooiirt lield that n jadgmcnl for the 
itntlact, on to tbu uholo lanii niwit (or. ixintil 

Iboiutainciliauil tUiit>)u<lj[lnc-ntf»rk iinrt, 

witliout ilcvcnhin)) it *i> that It inijidt Ih> iil«R' 
tilLriJ, ln*l«ftil of cnilinjt Ihe lltjjtiktiriii. u'»iilil 
ootat ut> oaw cuiitrnv^-nlMii, and ilxuliiml to 
e>w)pl the •oeK«Mioi): y/nyn v. .U<u>i», 45 CnL 

An onlcT o( Xfie ■upmna court modifying a 
juilicnwiit by nyluoiag'ito unoont doc not st 
K uidc Ki u to (irer-eot i t f rom dJntwing ictctvct 
from thu time it wna rtadetrd by th« court lio- 
low: CUirl V. OuMuam. 4S Cbl. SOS. 

A« to gnuitln^ m new trial with the (Jtoma- 
Itve of Tomltbnji exiHiw: See. l!!>7> note. 

Am to cotta on uiudilkatton: See. I0Z7> 

1( only |Mirt of dvfvcidkMa apptK) (torn lb« 
Jiiu1^iii«iit uiJi&iiiiit IhenuvlvM, Ihkt portion uf 
till) jiuluiiiviit u'liioh ttffvDtB ■ppi>llunl« may ba 
m'trwiT u to lliciri irtthoiit ntlMrting the jud);- 
niulit nil to the oilier dflfeiKloiiti "ot partin to 
theappml: J/io'irn v. llayliA.^aCal. IM. 

N«w tilnl, vltect at -AppMd—Tho conrt 
hn> a clear ii^)it lo mene an ard«r d«nyias. 
nnJ to grant, a new trial, the eflool of which (■ 
to vacate tlic judciaent; tfaldeu r, ilurdork, 
23 C«L bW; BDcl tBorc b no rsoiOD why ciccd- 
Ucm hi not m •ffieetualljt ttayeil upon tho Jndg- 
nwBtpenduiffMicbRpipealaiitwoald iiav«b«u) 
ptndiiiR a dinsat appcnl from the JadgmoDt, 
wlthafikc bondDrvBdertalitng. Thafutihat 
ftilirectappo*! (roni th«lnil|[n]aot hM beoudi*- 
iniMcdourUlnlydoMnot DMao ihoappclliintii) 
■ay di8m>«at or mor* nnlnrorobl* pnitiun in 
ivqMXrt to Ilia BjipeBl from the order on motion 
lur new trial thui he would have oompicd hod 
BD itiivrt nT']H-al from the judfrment ever been 
taktn uHUiiri the time preaeriMd by thn itat- 
Wit: Failim r, Jianrm, Ml Id. 2^ Whcro 
tha nip««oie court rcveno* an nrdcr ot mi In- 
I«rior court denying n mntion for a nirw trial, 
anil rcmandi the maic for fUTtbcr iinicotdlnit* 
JB itciii>cilaDc« u-jth the opiliinu ^Ivrji in thu 
nutr, wliich ojjiinaii dou* not iuitli-Jitir tl<At 
the pn>i^i>uiliii){>i Hli'iuld III! ililTi-ti'iif [foni tliii 
prowwliuip timt u-uiitil )inv« followi^l the 
Untutinit of tho iiioli<Ki (or :» new trial, the 
vn)«>r oj the «ii|>n>iiic< <:i>iitt plaoM the (sao. iii 
point of the iiieru proovthitr to bo (oiliweil, in 
(h«niciiii«itUation.viIli<i<i^h the court below hod 
ilir«>.*toil aiivw trial: HuMtn T.Jonfan,28 Id. 
aoi: Iru-iH V. ToM-n'. 43 Id. .a UtboAppcUato 
<mirl grnnU a ncir trial on an apMnJ from n do- 
ciBdiii 1" ej'.-i'l'iirot ill fnmr of tJie pUiiiliff, nn 
apjiln-utinn to vaiule ■ writ of ttiAfTt /ac'iOA. I*- 
■wnl diiriag llie pciideacy »f III* a;>pi>iLl, khdiilil 
he inndc to the c'jurt below, anil uotlotlioaiir"''' 
Ulu uciiirt-. TKamptot v. nvriUoi. 41 M. Si'. 
ho- further, a* to new trial*, ein., um. 057. n'lto. 
OplnkNU.— Tim fc^UUtun) cuiiMt luouire 
tlio cupreoMi court to eivu lli« rnukma ol iti 
i1m1)U'>ii> 111 writing. Thn oonititational duty 
ft ' ' ' ' in diatfiargBl by Ihv nrii'lilioti of 

it The pvurtioD iif giviufi tlie rua- 

auiu In u'ni>u][ lilt ja^l];nlcllU u ol niudum 

oriyln, ODd It h iIU(rrtioear>- with the uunrt 
wbotlior it Kivoan Qfitnloit iiv nioii 

jiidf-moni: and if e'"**- *'><'' ">) ' 

III writing. A deiitlun u( 11k ' 
incut: tltr opinioD U llir rMt» 
judfpnuiil. Ttic (oinMT, b«liig ■ 
llcniciliutcly, ran oaly Ixt miv ,l in" 

tilioii (or ruheatin^ or a ni<- The 

latter ii tbe jltopeKy of the yi^^- ■ ' - 
to their revuMi, correcliom, or tiM- ii 
Dtitll it ia tianaciribcd on tha rpcoii: 
cDiiwut ot tlie writer, when it coax 
■uhJKCt of clikD^ cxocpt throni-ti i < . 
otedia^i Iwfon the <iMtt by pcti'.iuii. 
rvoonh o( cuiiria an niiKler ll>c «>iilroI of li 
Jinlgr* *o (or oa etMntial to the (inipcr ailmil 
iiilralluii ol }URli<e. and tlila control ii beynui 
tb« rraeh of IfgiftUtlon. Tha dork ot a <u>irt,^ 
thongh a ocoittitutiuna) oflUvr, U aubjoM to 
ita onten in the (Ontrol of th* rcoorila. Tbe 
court minot. withuul urwal al-nne of {I4 p»w- 
cre, take frun the ulvik, in any ray, tlie |hii^ 
(jaiaitca of hi*ol&ocfo( oanieBof op -• ■■ — 'I1 
papon on lile: //oiuMw r. Wiirminf 
Tliia *tat*inont of tba law, aa it Etir 
vailed, ia lierv jireicn'cd a> ao intfnvtin;; jiart 
of onr Judicial hittory. The now oonatitulioo 
rcfjuiro* that lh« d«u^i>ioiu of the anpreinc coun 
be ill irritiaa and the rvaMtit alaloh Art. fl 
■ec. .1: acd Jea'arM that the opinion aliall b«* 
free for publication liyanrone; Art, C, ane, IV. 
Itiaa maxim not to Iwuinr^nied, Ihat Kun- 
ctnl cKprcBioD*. ill every opinion, an lo ■« 
taken In conncetion with tbe cane in which tln*^ 
opliiiosa ar« Bted; VMftMtr i. l."r\i, C«l, 
\5Si: Pnplt T. Wi«tUr, Id. 2M; Chief Jiiatioa 
UarahaU. In G Wheat. !h»i and \i Uo. 433., 
TIm law upon a quealion doea not beeiMDO 
tied by the man) upJnioD of JadgM nniMce 
rily exprowetl, but only hy n ittuition of the 
puiot, when Wing the Kroiind. or at Irwt ono o( 
the gruundi, of a jiiilgioi'nt: liuitt: r. .V'Glyna, 
SOfSl. ZT6. 
Probat«, refusing— Appeal: 80c MS. nolo, 
Rocord. Bupiems cotut will not fo out- 
ildo ot— Thus. "II ui'pfiil Iroiii ail ordfr di*- 
Bolvinu Bii attachment, llie court lirVl thai, >iO 
OABie lor dinolving il l-eing >liKl'»<«l hy th« 
nsconl, the order mode by the court betow •li»- 
■olving it nimt I* covenul: RrUt v. Brrtilii, 2 
Ckl. 1»2. Whcni no entry e*pr«wly overrul- 
ing a dcDiunxr amM^urd in tho recorvl. butona 
of the point* awi^junl iii the ■tateni.iit uf tho 
croitudH of ap|MAl tirlow uvmeil to be Ai- 'nl 
Tug ot the ooiirl <m il"HiuriiT, n* th^' appi.'' I.i .; 
went to trial without innittn^ on a dispnumi 
of the demumr. t!m court Ijeld ll « m loo lawi 
to uhjeut tliat it will not formiitly ili.<|HiKd nt: 
Pr £ni V. n^iium, 15 III. 4M \Y)ier« ill* 
complaint, the criden-:e, the verdict, anil lliv 
judgment me In coliiv Imniiciiy, aii'I llw 
court (Duld noi modify the judL-nmiil uiili"»t 
aetlinK Mido the vcr^lict, and liailin>! anotlier 
)i|ioD the vrldcnoe, {nilinuait wna KvtTMil and 
anvwtihiilonUrol: /lifitv.Potrmaiii.^lA.Hii 
dart V. Unt^r, -JO Id. \m. Th« court wen 
iircoil tocou'ldiT tl>e (wiilt of the btualkm bad 
ill a i-iUH- nf Vaitm r. Ttinuxiil. 44 Id. -JSS, M 
(iiruixhiai; 1 rtoson why nn order dinulvbi^ an 
injiiiiotiun iliould be reverMil, Tbv curl Mill 
tbit the only riiir*ii(<ii uliich they coulil dettf> 
■nine woi wliL-thri, upco tbe recuni h«f>ir* It 
tbo Donrt bi-low cxumilsed an orror whio" 
oujjlit to be curroeUnl iindi-T the nilwa goveP 
inj; proiweJlng^ upon ap^KoI. Bad they were ■ 


<ittxr. tn.i 


■1 liWrty Ui inteqmtali' inlo ttio reiMnl «iiy 
Bnftt44r liliitTU 'U'\ Ufl f'-rtn &ii nliti&wit in tli« 
Mkeu It u-jM nrciKmU'il ti«<lo»i Roy'trv. T-n- 
mutt, ii Id. IM. Wliilu lb« vuicurlnxli' Tv<t 
MktcnMsU of (Jin couiikI vt one of Uiv pirtics 
' in l>U briuf fiunol Iw Uk«ii a> & |iart d tho 
' ro»rJ, ntUlUioy ou/l* rcfcmnl Wiu tcmlir^ 
loibuw llul tM infurcucc iIra<Ta from a f*«- 
orj Mlikbilo<« Dot pmfcM to •[Uclrnv iJl llio 
luiM w not natMiMiUd: //(W v. llamtllM. 33 
Id. OM. 

TIm MpmiM oourt Iim invBrlaMjr rntatvil lu 
iloolilv iwalkai* buI tlimtly iiirolvnl til Uiu 
OMv, uul iwoecMnr lo & juilgiwiit u( alllnn- 
■uioe or r«vtnat. Wlivii > nru' Iriul » ordurol 
by tlio ftpfadliUa tvart, it «uiii->l 
be cIpHlnl Ut oiiUdp&U tht- Tultiijp ut tlie 

niurt .Mom uo p04nl« tb>l nmjr not aiii* on 
tW lira ttui, or to famimh the mf«rior tri- 
buoal wltfa (UrccUoB* m ta Ibv iiMncrr at di*- 

vlio il«Ili-«r»il it. Is MRie ai*C€ the iMiKna^t 
U, "Till) jiidgmriit ii nswrHyl;" tD Otlion, 
" JixlKnical ravvrMd, nail bill <li*iDiaw><1;" ami 
in otbcn, " ICcvcrwi. nuii IIimI ju<l|[tnRnl hir 
thu pUiutifforiMaiKLini.' w ihc nan nay b*. 
Applkalioiu luit'o livrn ftvr|ii<.-iiily iuiuIh tu 
tiio court, niter tin; ivniiflltu'- liiu tcuiu iiuL, to 
oorr*«[ juil^ncol* in IIiuhi tatti-^tiltus. none uf 
(rlii<?li tiaro nvvr Ixira iU'i>ir<l. "hvn tbi' rourt 

COUl-l on frrjill lliv u]>UiMll Bllil I<J<< (VUUtll lliat 

•iihitnnllHl jimllco «isa)iri>iiintc-l tlicnib)*. If, 
la |»tiit ol fiK't, tlui unuTtwu «l»jluu;ly buuait 
liy lti« liis'lrvrta^tw of ita jiiiljpH, or tno nii*- 
(dk>.<* of iU tiitritr ill this jarticular, great Lo- 
jiiaticu w^)ut<l tmiU ftum it, ft-Mn tbc Uat that 
it* iImuioiu iIu n-it r«u.-li tlip pniiie* In iiuuijr 
inatauoM nntll the maiUUur umk oat( and 
tbou it would bo too UXo Ut cotncA t)>t mh- 
tnke. Boing mltei] on for tho Ant lino to da- 
tsnniiic u-licthiT • almptc lBil«inTtil of rwionnt 

|io*tii|( u( iiueaCioai whluh inny puuibly ooma tfns a tar to fuitlicr |ir<imullin in til* *UM 

lioroin> it; f\'"* V, 5iniM, S Cil. Mi. In a Maa ault, and oa tlio uotirt liail no nil* of oourt or 

where tl>« luarrtion o4 a rl^jlit pruientct) a of law wbloh woulil uniitrul llivir )iiil|;inanl in 

\ngal ijuMtKiii uf ifn*i iiiiporlaiioab and thn tba jirviniMa, tbe <oarC aaul it vKiiitd bo nwra 

ouurt wve urguntl}- |irsy*>t to nua upon it, in*t to fulluw tliu rule of the oontinon Inw. At 

tkatwitiH-luniliDg that th«y iniKnl ba of the cMiinion law tbu apMllata cDiirt either afllfmed 

opinion that tlicy Imd no jiiriidiL'tioti in that or rrvcrwd th« juJgincDt npan the rtcorO be- 

parUcuUr o*.w, Clicy aaiil tliat liowcvur much Foru it, and tbs opmion wliich ita» rnuilarad 

tlicy migbt loei tndinnl to amtify the wiilipt waa adtiioiy to tbe inferior oonrt; ami after 

ol cnuiuxl, !<• do M wouM be lo act a moat tbe reranal oJ an otronoona iudipncnt, thn par- 

ptraiolcni* uxam^lo and tatabllah a dangcroiu tica in tho omrt below had tbo aaitie righta 

pnoKlent: Ihnt iuiUo might b« nanloiio-l If, that they origioidlT had: Stramt v. Ar/uinr, 7 

?_ ,1.. .■_* . ^.. . .. T* -lJ_ t^ .^. f»_l Ja" ^flld " ' 

U) tho dlaliuntiuu »( their arpiinanta upon 
■i>in« lUfitMin imiperlv b<<tont tlitm, they inid- 
vert«uily ovirratrppdl tbn tiinila ot thi <«a«, 
and tvoMibnl ahnt anr known in the iinihMlon 
aa ditto; b«t thL-y arould |il^'i) tliam»el««i 
berond the rcAch of furgiTcni^i* wera they to 
duUbcratcty and with aforathought itidulxo in 
the dlMuaaMo ot abatntat qooiUoua in d «aM 
over which lli^y d<ci<Ic tFicy have no juriadie- 
ttotii I'topl' V. JaAuon. 3D I<L IKl; •«« note 
"l^lHiiioiia," nijira. Tha aupreoio court will 
not int'i<ilip>tu and daclda i^iiHllan* not rogn- 
laily ari<iia)( In dua «oum ol litigation to 
gntify Lho oitrioalty of eounael or partka who 

Crooiirn then to be raiwd agaiiHt thaiiiaolr«« 
y oLbon wbu furl no iiitcraat in thu eoutaatt 
rnyJ. T. rrati. Id. *i3. 

BslM duugM. Mo.: Stc. 436, nota. 

■emlttitur: Sc«. OM. and uot«. 

Revoreal. -On nppoal from n judgment for 

|itdint>rT. the oourt bri.l that tliv judgment 

nli<n1d be myranl: and an they ilediund tlio 

OMldaiiil Immi-lUbly dafactivo, there could 

bo no «>o In aoconjlng a now trial: .9*4iu v. 

Ifal-fv-l. I Cat. VO In SltfliM i. ilaiutm. 

Id. ITU. tlia noKifliuiit nw dcfecttvo M ■• not 

I So jud^mmC. and a new trial 

with Imvij to thn nartlra Ut 

«'(.' r. Ford, 2 Id. 8«, lh» oom- 

I u^nnf uf uotii'ii. anil 

I. tli'.^t;b no obkiilitiLi 

IIU. --oi:. i^. Tho Kviatni pra<- 

ihcuouit lioa bcEB lo '*t«vciae," which 

..— T I., .]> i..,..ii(iL- thewlioto merit* of 

. < rae and lonand" the 

■ '•tgi. Tbe onlnlon of 

. ^(iturMl, tbe ha>l* ot llic )uda- 

■ oiileml by tha uletk uinlcr tha 

dirnit-'i 'u iliecunrt. Thrr* ha* norw bam 

I auy jMrtkvUf nitlfonnily In tha moils purttted 

liy iit<< I'iniit in rNHliriii); it* deniaianii or en- 

tri l^lnentai (nr tho most |ial*t. thvy 

lull. ' "giAgA of Uio opiaiMi of thv jo-lge 




Wai i.M. 
iKB "I 

la ■!! *' 



Cal.MT. DeTenilantadcmarrail toaooiDiiUnt, 
which Jcmntror waa ovTrruli!<d, and the iMend- 
BSta rcfnaLiijf to aiiKwer, Jodgmant llnal wm 
uh*n a^iMt tliam. Upon apiwal lo thi« uuiif t 
the judgment ot th« oourt l)«li>w woa retTrioil. 
Tho oourt bald tliat tlie eHeut ut thla mvernal 
waa aimuly to lear* the pnrtlca where tb«y 
•tood betore tbe iadfim«i)t. U tho nhtiatiiT 
wiahed to ntnend hia fomplaiiit. he oonid tiare 
appcnlod to tlie court below for Uato to do ao^ 
ia tbe Bunc way that he could hare don* liod 
that ciiurt luitainad a dBnuirrei' to it. The >to- 
cialon uf the auiireme court wont only lo Iha 
marlla oi the ca«e oa It waa atal*!! upoo tit* 
laco <4 tha eainplaint> It a diffurant caa* <o«ld 
hare beon mada out liy tlio plalalilt, he i>hoald 
hnreapnUeil torltvvotoaatund. A*towh(ilh«r, 
undar tha uireuroataiKMv It waa then too bit« 
to make aiicb applkaliun in the oourt livhnr, 
tho court oould nuC> under that niotion, deter- 
mine: Pk/laa r. Svf-rfriittrf, 9 H. 10. Tlio 
(onrl coiuiilctvcl thi-y bad no nabt lo rerrrao n 
judsmcnt tor the pnr|>o*c ot nfl^rdin^ iiUialifT 
AD oMiortnuity to amend hia romptniiit. wltrrv 
be did not offer to Amend in tbc >'uurt Inil-m', 
and there waa iwihin^ in the miml lu lu>'iFy 
a rereiraal: OM„n' r S.'fi. I.> Id. 2.SU. wlinro 
it WM utKcd tlul t)>u linU'ijlH neOBMltntad 
jiid;(<ii«nt for jiUiiitiff Un ut Inaat noniiail 
ilunnuni, tliR ^tnri ui<l th* only V>?nelit that 
would havu aivniuil to pUiiitifT uu tl^il bn 
woaUl have hafui rBbeVM of tbe nyllwotof 
DMia, taxed in the jndgnMSt at (our doUara 
and a half, fh Miuiwii hok furat tfr. Jadtf. 
■iL'Ut affitmedi ii'illtOH r. MtSrey, 2Ti M. 174; 
J/cQwiiAf V. X. r. * t'. «., M N. y. IflJ: J™- 
Hii^/ V. Lirinj, 5 Ind, '2M, In a ooac where 
dofenibuit had jml^'nient lielow, the facta w«ra 
T«ry lolly foiiii-l, and the ■uprenW' oonrt. ni- 
inrtlia,; tlie t'miJ oanclnalon of Uw drtun from 
Uia bv'tx fu't'i'l u crmneoui. xtid they dUI not 
(«« how any iitbrt miilt OMiUI bo arrirad at oa 
tin twtuiwuy ll a new Ulal wt«v bad, tbe oaaa 





[P*m I, TlTLK t, 


baring bwn Iriej onco Vfotc by n Jinr, rtxl 
the vvnti(4 Iwitia in ttrar nf th« iilAlnuir, 
tbougli tiiiir prMootwon TcvurMil tfio JoJi;- 
iiKtit (us errot IB <niD of tlio iMlruvtlocia. wliioh 
wri' 1 '■'•-. crrcuiuoiix, au-.\ tlia JwlfiMont 
p'"; iMi] (t-r tliut nnaoni ]wt it woa 

iiw ., , .,.- ly lliat llip vl1^liut »■»» rvally nf- 
fwt«i by lh»; iiiTW, null tliv ouiirl wvjv lUiti-i- 
llnl t^ul ii|>iin IImi Dtiilviicv {itvMii lt>l by thu 
Rmnl, uiivl ip-na ttx' H]i->.*itiij facts fuaml, the 
|>lnliibiraI«4aM iuvv li:i'l juitijiiwiili kii'l itooa 
url-n-l lh»t tfii' ju'lj-in.-nl t-o nivcraeil.nnd tbo 
■linltu': (viiH bu iliipotttl to TDtcr jwlgmcdt in 
favM ••! till; pUiuiilI !\n a cvrUtii auiM, and in- 
(arcBt frjm a certkiii lUtc, at « urrtkiii ntia, 
■iwl I'oita of iiiit, aik! tlut aii[«llaBl nioavcr 
bU CoaU on Kppeal: Fun! v. C%iMirr; 'H Ol, 
e>l uiit *ee Af i'atlnMo. -a hi. 478, ciUtI Kt toa- 
liON tSOSi. nuto. 

Wiorc tli< lint cniiiit it tlii; u"m|>luint WM 
Upan B ixiiilnit.-l wt (Vrlh, t»it it rliil not conbuii 
any aiiTiuditc i>f iH'iEcinwiiicu oJ it, or (voiIukim 
1(1 |>i*i4iirni it, nil tlii tart "f tbo jilaintilT, th* 
ttnirl ImUI tlinC if mhuDlly itiiulBaii^iit uii tbla 
gi\-«ii'l t\i« jaJgmcnt niuic In monwl, tiot- 
willinUiidiug till) otli«r counla niiglit bo good, 
for lliv luuoa time tbc Tcnllct «-■■ gniienJ, 
•ii<l it W1U Qot certain nptii which nf the coiMita 
it vu Eaanilol: IhriiMi v. friat, 90 Cul. VHi; 
/luHi V. Ci'yi^ttnu FranfUm. 11 111. 338; 1 
Ch. PL 4tl; f;>M« V. Drmn. n C»W, r^.ii 
ISarar* V. //uni, II Mam. Hi).' Wlirrv it wu 
4Ml«n>Ie<l. araaujl oth«r tJiin^, Ibal oa tlw ap- 
' J wu fruin va onW donyiiig a imt trial, a 
onal of Ibe ]Qitj{iB»nt would Im iiil4«prrt«cl 
to inuui that Uin orArt wu rcirmnl, when- 
ujwn a oin trial iroiitil tolluw lut a mattor of 
oouniF. tlio uourt miA tlial wlitTiu tlic appul 
waH from Uie onlvr alone thvy aaw no i^ooit 
roafOD why tb« apjwllatu court might uol, if 
Uw oaM nN|uin<l it, go buck to the complaint 
•ad atrilcM out one or more of tlia cnuMx of ac- 
tioni and if thure vha a gooA cuunt rvmaluiait, 
lUkil tbu liinlin^-muthorlxcd It. modify tlia Jiiilii- 
inriit, or dinNTt tho court bnl'iir to do to. Ttis 
(ilnl of any iwao voiild be t«fiti|n>iit to tba 
i^tamciil of the a|)twllAt« ouiirt, where ita 
iidK'"i"iit flimtly iloC^riiiiiirH ll>n contTOi'ony 

IHJIWIHIII tllU IILirllpK. Thl' ClOIIIO<)ll(<IICU of a. 

alaiplit iTvnfMl Hiimlly ii tlinl "Ibe Tacttpi la 
tin- iHjiirt Ix-low JifcYc till' lutnc right which 
i\Wf orijtiiiiilly li*!; ' Fh-lnn v. Km Pfuncifx, 
9C>I, |i'; -sVir.1' r. A-jmrrr. f Id. IW. 

Hat tliu mTr»al nuiy |)ra..-licilly ccid tbo 
<sMtn>r(in)-| anil uhcu aovb ii the catii. it in 
il«iially aeoomiMiuicd by an onlc-r dUinlisliig 
Um ai-tion. Tbo court hcM it uniwiinl, it uot 
iinpro|Mr. to uy tliHt a jnit^monl wai nivurwil 
whirh was ilirtetiHl to bo rm-dlriad. When tho 
arqx'llato court rcudrn Ihn jiiit>,nii'-ut. !iiiil«vl 
nt dirMtiug tho (Hurt U-hiw [>> nullify ico jiuli;- 
Meat, of wmrac tbc Jmlffm-uit of tho v-iirt )iu' 
kiv U rwrfHd. othcru-iai- there noul<l bu tun 
j„ 1 .,. • -' -i- tbo aiiiin cai»e ol action. Tbn 
n;' :rt nuyadd (u lite joilxinvotof ra- 

vt I ;ii>n*, amxnij nthem. that the cauM 

lio trlnl il" worn; or llixl a [utticular inmo bo 
tr<<'1. Vovliiii ,i]| lite otbtr tiuiti found by Uio 
r 'i-ng an faot* ju tbe ciuc. m wu or- 

d' iV I. /ll■■lr,^ llCal. US; u<c bUo 

^ '. -.t) I.|. 52ii Jfortiou V. /^ft'.tr. 

I< ' thill tbo court cnt'T a jttdjtnicnt 

ni ' pcKttle.1 fa^ta ''i ■'— '■•■" \ri 

<>| xiiirt below t> 1 II r 

11- I" in any aiaoiiBl ; i' ■"■ 

(htsiil Willi a triat itt mm.' AriJtmH v. SaM 
Fra^fiti,, m Id. 402. 

l>imtij<-l jwJffMfK) (o ftr (!'■ 
fanr.'-Tbc MprCRHt court, <ir. ! 
Iiaa powiT to rcvci*e awl ■.■ c 

to be Mtnrod for tbo aiipcllaat • 

^mnrivo. 30 Cal. VKl, I'oOai . ( 

Id. «W); Kfir^-lrr v. S. L. T. V. t!.. W U, 
407; liut it i>ii power t^Waxcrcucd with uau- 
lion: Id.: Origin v. Maryvanll. 17 K. V. -J8. 
It IB «fcr til (hmkI Ilia ca*« luck for a novr trial. 

RulMod Nupreme ooort: Stc. l-> : 

SMtft daodn.— In cotMtraiiiK Jill 1 
Ions, ihat only ii belil to Im *uII> i 
ilccdd«<i which in ui-iwiarily inmli-oti io 
docoiKin of tlic cotuo: lltuit* v. Jforuw, St < 

ftiJr tff itarr drfuit ndSeml la, — la tbo 
oaa* of People v. OiUr^. 1 Ual. 3t!, the • 
ortnra aonrt bold that tba •■p«rior coart 
San IVandwo wa* ai> Inferior court, witfain tJ 
mwaniug of tbo oooMitntioii, an<I upon rsfcr- 
mca to that proviilon wtiich midt "Th« legja- 
lature may alto ovtaMiah tacli lIlualI^lIlal . 
otbv iaferior oourln aa may !■' diH^iimt ine 
•ary." Tho oourt held that that diKMuii 
mained a* an oxpoaitloa. l>y lliw tribunal of b 
rcmrt,of tbodiamcterof Uiooourt in (juntioii^ 
that tar nearly five f<tmn the mviaiuiiity t-> b* 
affected l>y it acted npoa it in a Taat numlicr of 
Juridical rnlattona; right* of propcrtr grew up 
iinitor It, ehanKMi hand*^ and naaaed fhtougn 
nuinorvu* ismihcatioui, until It WaiMi{inpet»> 
tire t» ivgiird it a* a nilo of prapcrty which no 
puwur coald disturb: Srah v. JlUiMl. A Iil. 
40& Hueakinguf Ihailwiaion In ATrirf V. '-" 
/>•'. 2 Id. 505, dcaided !l> 1833, which pi 
m1c« by the ihcrii; under deel«M In f iirwcloau 
■uitB Dpon tlic- Huno footauB aa aaUa of r«al i 
t*t« uodcr onlinarv ja jgnifala, a«e mo*. 700 < 
■oq,, Fich). J., in ISd3, dclirering tfao opiuiou 
of Iho oourt. Mid: *'lt Ja vorrgenemtly (tou- 
oedud by the f rofaHiMi that tfio decision woa 
bojMil Dpon an orronooDa ceiutmotica of tbo 
•tatut*; but adinluiiitc thki to bo truc^ it ia 1 
lata to tot«rf*i« arith it: ri)[hta of ptmorty (■ 
TMt raluo bare gruwn u^i nndor tbo ilodidonTI 
wblob no court i> at lilwrtv nt tbi* dnv to dia- 
turbi " Grow r. Knoter, 21 Id. ffll.'i. Vvllero IhO 
main point wa>i wbetliar tlie iLmiaiou of tlis 
■iiliivuie coiii-t in tho CMO of t^Mrop r. Mill'. 
Id Id. Al». inwhichitwaalicld thataralion II 
ci Uie (talute of Marcb 20. 1830^ wa« uncocwli- 
tniioiud nnd void, ilioald be orerrulwt ur not, 
the court uid tbo IcgiaUtnre tnuld onactn Ww 

IiiMviiling that nctioQi for the twaaeaelon of 
and firtitidi.ll u[iiin [Aleuta ahoQld be brought 
witliiii two year* frun the date of tbo patuot. 
which would l>) c<inHliiutlona]; that it wna 
tbifli niH.rly twY> yuan nlnne that deeiuL-n voa 
mndervil, ftnd wilbuul ttoubl iiuiDy •tiiii 
iweii dedTnvl. relying np-m iit Imn^ >.ni.l»iu=d. 
and if it »lii>uld Iip i)vi.>mil."l. ^ri^l iiijuiy Wuiil.I 
utiiloubl»lly he iiillit'lct. Noiiulmt thunln'iiL,'- 
Mt r«n*oD« ui-tild jiKtify the voort in t-iLin- 
■ueb action an wa* asked by tbeap;'-"" '. 'i I 
dioy bad leM bniilatioii in rtivm^ • 
tile doduuii io Lalirop v. Milla, «ij . ■; 

that v^ a COD«trnctic<i of antnlule. nud in *ui'h 
caua il IV4W wilhin llie power uf tlie l"7i'Iiit*r« 
to tirt^vont nny evrU by niiactiiii; a ■-■ 
A'oWW V. /1.»f. *• Id. Ii». Th. 
liiHihte<1, witli gitai rvnl ami «■ ■'- 

■buiiiLiiit i'l(.iti»ii of aulliurltin nii< 
cipke, timt tba ouurtan^ ia ox«iij< r- 


CnAP. Ut] 




tnlQ iircani!4D tio'l TMolntton, sii'I kn «rAer <:■( 
L'lo l>Mr<l oJ >iiprT\»iim imiitTtlng t<> rt^nv.l 
tliv Vim Nom iinlilNUiev, puiwl > Iru- ,\ny» to lliil ■■■■t o( III* IcsialktilM cuiJirenii;; 
tbi> oiiliiiaaoh I'lio punxtM "f tlic v(ii!c[ia« 
waa imiDlv Ifl iliow Uiat lliv OTilimcice wm to- 
]wn!f>l licfuni Uio paaujC* iil tli« c(>iiIimiaUry 
mi'l, ami llmt live ctty ili-l not «nif«ut lo. t>iiC 
I'folMtcilusaiiMt. it« (oxu^. ftii'l it viiui nrjiucil, 
tborctorv, Ibttt tlie act wai ooimlca an<I in- 
«frMta«I to poM (he litla <>( tli« dtjr in tli« 
juvniiw*. QuiBtMiiiMaiiiiauuiwo tboordnianoe 
anit the coDflRUBtorx act lind been prMcolol 
Vi |1m< ■ii|ireiiio ooart in aliiiiHt e^fy concdv- 
sMd furiii, iikI tbo Wklity A<! VBllillty of the 
(■rilliiaiv.r aiul tbo aclTuMl uniladtily 1>c>mi malii- 
taiiKtl )>7 tli» court. Tboo'Urt linl-l tl>>l tliiiM 
■!<^ii)'iT» l.iul li«<to«na « nil" uf |>rtit^riy. );Hag 
lit Oil' loun-Utlnn of • luxe [nrliiio uF 111* title 
ta ival crtAU* in San PniDrikco, aii-1 ii]>M>l tlm 
nils, iiot uiily opra [xiudpli-, >>iit npiii ooii(i*l- 
enticiui of iHilii'y, requiring cvttiiiiily did itn- 
liitltj ill tlie nilm cbnttitatiiig the lAndiiiArka 
of |ii»|wrt]r. TbeT nil) tlie Ouvtrinc o( •lart 
dr^tMU di<) not (tad ■ mora eloar, (oii-iUc. <;r 
UM-oiniv ir.TiliralioD In rcipoct to any of tlio 
rut' I : tW lniiuimMi<m(if Ihcpropvrty 

of ti if t)ii< f'jMM-r iiudUo> ttiaa to tlila 

rule: fn/frlun v. Tt.-<'-->Arwl, TA Ot, 2^2, ^23; 
//nrt V, Bantu, 13 M, 1)1-'; //uUivtag r. fVii- 
fr.V. M, IKWj San fr«R.-.Vo V, /*-W?-«ii«. 17 lil. 
4(:i; UuUiant v. NhI/iii-i. 18 M 00l>; Swir-J o/* 
i;W»/.«.« V. JbWrr. 10 111. [I: H'o^/'t. IlM- 
U-I.I. III. noili U«f<l>arJ V. /inrry. 21 U. 321. 
Wberv ■ <lenl iii (|iK«tLall WM tbe Wcno sliicb 
wu thf iiu>>>rct of dbcoaiiMi in /agtiidibj/ v. 
Jnan, 12 [iL SM, nail rffoTDDos to that caao 
wu biiuIk lor the fact* lu renrtl tu It, an<l llie 
i)il<»l»in rab»I wa* prodiuly tl>« aanie ■« Die 
otnr tict<>r(i pnitoiiti^ anil d^loniiiti^l, lli<iciiiiit 
•ftld tlwy were fully iatikSn,l tliat jf tliv |Hiiiit 
dulvnaliuod witli trfri*rui'« lo thin JonI niiglrt 
nuC ba raptfded m la Kiniu teatt- rtttutjiidirtua, 
Um iSMt «u itto vBiountU rnjuirin^f Ihenppti- 
oUIdH at tka priiKiplti of tl>ire rtr^uit, lO far, 
kt leMl, aa tkat jwrtiuulur drvJ. u u tronHnieil. 
Tlic lll^ed purportat t<i mnvej- eiglit luidiviilod 
niulh* of twn Diitirv McxiVno gnmu, emtinic- 
lug wltliiu lliclr limltn Mvotnl iii|uara inlica uf 
Ifliiil. Ui" mimbcr not ilmiiiBatod i it mi* uboiit 
Hiclil yoara nisM i% hMl lieui Judicially ilolrr- 
mlaf I, upon aa tlabonit<< atui tlionMKh winwid- 
rraUoii l>y tlH> uoilit of Wt murt, lliil lliv in- 
•tniiii'^rit in T|Tii»ti<in wat a valid cuii vvyitiicr <•( 
thr ittfi-Vcny, aii<l ^^v ■ItUriiiiuation 

ik J . ' I a coll slrucl I'm nf thi' iirai-iaioiui 

uf i-iir ixxi -uiutv: UiatdodHou lud beoonie a 
rnle ut |impt-rty| witbrrfemiiMi In (he hind, and 
■lauy |<LttiM mi^lit lure pnrcbaiwd portion* of 
it iliirirvj; tbe euht yean on tile faitli ol the 
ai!)iiHl',nti'>ii: hM llie rcmnrki of lliul dlitin- 
' r of the atnixInTd work oa non- 
iiitcn, Mc. Finnic, iif-on lh« cam 
■■I ( '-I I'M I. Illait, I DuTT. SOTiC vera vary 
tiWEilii) aail III pdbt. " If nili:4 aa<l enaxiiu* 
til Inn 'rtv t<i«(>h tiO-l Ilow witli Uie t«tte iif 

til ' 
*l > 


• aMaiBti tJiHl thanr nhich in hi4 

■fli*-* tlif tiiit"; if tliv •Icaiaiuiis 

l"d liy ur ilepunil 

Ji* ill otlior owe* 

I..I,,,, IP y-1.1 toluivwubat 

ir6 lo iMivliade an wtoto 

.; lllc jitdf^nenl of ■ court of 

iiK tlio iilciiliuil tttk wbit-li li* 

.'IMC. Ko ivliauuu oDuU be luul 

ncwn pi»- ■ -'svlitlloai ngHin tltb4 

ol t}iL- Hiji irl liiin no nuiiinuimi 

alidl, N,,; ■u'li n it.-iminn oj ii<->ni-l oJ Jiia- 
llti! tipMi tlio %Try lileaticAl title wiiiilJ bo 
i><>tliiiij( iiunv tlkui A procarioQi tpmpvniry 
•KoritTt tiM prlodplM BpMi whifh it ww 
fiiiaucl«il ntlj^-fal, in tbo oourw of n feu- yeam, 
IwMiiie ant liquated; the amo tillf tniAt tie 
o^in dnu'u into dixprjlu: tli< taate lad fMb- 
Boiu of tbo tinm mijjht be Imtinnal. and on 
that ground n futun )'*d^ mij[bl hold liiouvlf 
at lilwTty <U net eooaider it hii duty) tu fay aa 
little rognrd tolb« luutiuii ami iWMic.ii>,ii lu* 
preitecoHior aa tbul pn<doo«iHOr did to tba 
inaxliii* and duoiilona of IIiubh »)i<> went l^cfore 
hinii" Foarae (ITW), |^ 2UI. ».«c. IW. Tb« 
oourt furttirr Mid tfiuru wns * elaMot cuotb 
uudtnibtc-lU'. » h'-.h Ui» uiao or a Mbmqucot 
court woulil iw fully jtuAified in Dr(nulta& 
and which of ten H vru ovopiili^ 1 case* liaetiiy 
an<l clvoi'ly nrtoQenosIy doai'lf<1, under nliidi 
no valaabte rijjhta cuubl grvr up. and tbe over- 
rulitit; of wbieb would produeo no incoiivtni- 
ienoe; reMol owm under vhkJi valunUe righiB 
lud not j-ct been necioirod. wbieh Ktood akm* 
or uauly alone, and wbfeb were nunifaatly 
(in^iiivoua luid an> themwlvci dvparto'ree (rain 
ttio law. u Iwfant wnU lU'tllot; and otAiua ii^ 
nfcatiTy t'l iiistii.iou; but that iiuny, if not 
movt of tlii'iii, v'ii[u o*«Tut«d In u>"m mnM 
uprm tti« vrty •loclrine of itarf tlrriAi: llihm 
V. t'uu'rii. 31 IVil. 40a When a rnlv by whirb 
tbe title to kaI propnir i> to b? dc4*niiiiicl 
hfta bMome eataUiihnl by positire law c< by 
doUliorat« judioial decision, its iahcrcut oor- 
reelncw or ineorroolnoaa, it* Juitice or injiu* 
tioo, in llie aliolnwrl, aro of tar Uw iiDjiorlAnca 
tboii thai it iliould itwU be eonttant ali'l Ui- 
•■tblilc. Tbo court would not iliflliicli >u<'h a 
ml« of pfoporty, »v«i ilioujjii MtiBthrd ilmt 
tliey oould *nlN>1itatv auotli<ri'. ]iret':^u)>lL> in 
Iheury, or butter caluulnted by ilt niw.itiiKi to 
promuto the tairpuaea of jiutlott Si'ulS v. 
MtOowiUI, ii 111. las. In a caau in which it 
«-u claimed llut tbe <k«ialon in a wm of 
The CiUiJonkt SinU TtkgrafJt (V. \: W 
AHa Ttltgrnph Co., bad horoniu n rule ot 
prn|>crty. nod onglil not lo be ilntartjod, ena 
tbouijh conc«dul t>> be crronvou*. tbo oourt 
iui<l It oaa l)cltiir thai nuinu leiiijwiary innon- 
t-inieiico alionld be KUtiiiiTltcd to rathirr tlioa 
tbnt oiieof tliu moal laluillu j.i.i'i.v.m nf tho 
ftindiu>i»nUl Uw thonld b* pr^ liter- 

atol. Kd gml«T otlainlty <-' UiIa 

■tale than to open wide tliu 'lox it.i^liliK to 
cajelew or oorrupt logiJtlaUun, in th* funii of 
■poeJAl acta grantiuj; puouliar aud «iiarf>ut 
pri*iIeK<* to prii-Ltlo eorporationn: San Fran- 
HtMr.S. r. tr. »■., iS Id. S21. 

The eX|Kiuli(Mi ot tlia eoiutilutioB by tho 
bl([bcit L-ouTt in exittcDM nnd«r it will be ad- 
hrrol Ui with re|{nrd to tawa paued wbik it 
wiiH in furuci ftUtatU y. ElKiian Ounvtii'ivn, 61 
Oil. 314. 

Biitt Iff tftrt Jrttiit tint aJtifrrtl to. —In a 
■BW in whU-b wm iai'oU-nd llivniTrvlof givut« 
mulv nflor llwi inditaryooMMtloDof thliitatfl 
by tlie f"rw«« of tho Uttitvt Swlf". Ib« .1. fcii.l- 
aat uiged tlmt the ipiMtHin Waa tt' 
and cited IPoo-'worfA v, fidinn, 1 < 
deduve: tIncuiailwU tiut tlin otit> .,. ...... 

reiKainiiig to mXain tbe doei4on «f IFooif- 
u-oHK V. ytJIoM, ttipru. waa llial an nhaJda 
wlui tniidr a t;mnl u'm all AaHfliaan. and not * 
Musloan oitiieui tliat tlio mks«f the wjuuaun 




[Past I. Tmji t. 

bw WM Ibtl tin anl« of tli« offiorr itt Jaiia, 
irhrtlw joiJicial or nitaiiteriiil, wer« vnljd, so 
fu«« tbe ri);fat» of Ihe pulilio aiid thin) pcrMiia 
WW* concurBol. miiI ueitlicr tba titJo at mcli 
odoM. nor Uiv nlidity »( til net »• (ach, conM 
be IdilircuUy caltcd in queatiua iii » |irocccdinf; 
tow)i">i I' " >.< Dot • Mrty: thkt llio leal pro- 
DUE. I .1 >rnv* in («vnrof hb ftuuinnty. 

uiil ' i.liiE (r'OTi Pfvniealit v, /*aiit">', 

17 Lwi.. .'A.; H.H*lliml *. < Vwrt. 3) N. J. U 

»7i /'. « Jf A-i>^ >-. (.V.b-r. U llii<ni)li. 458i 
lamU V. ri.Mi. •i\ itr. 401 1 e«rt* v. iTf'ioH, 
« lra.1. I.. »3r>i Cy^Urnia V. Kt^lJUt. h\. SlWi 
SMtMtrr r. li'-tfy. S 8(«m. 43.11 Ctrti^ f- 
J'oiiik.y. I .4iJiin. 153: and tlin KMOning upon 
tvhiuli ttii-v virv IhumJ, clikt the doetrine uid 
down ia H'oerficor/4 v, /Vmb. mjmt, wm not 
law, nnd <:ould not be any fiirtli«r rcArdcd u 
MMiontf: '.Mm V. Auuih. 3 I'nl. 4.iT. 

Wliaro tin dvfanduit'ncaimuil dic>! thecoM 
of TWAnix- V. ConSuo/J, 4 CaL J8. lu wIiEali 
<»Mi tlio <u»irl uy tlittt wbwi k uoto ia |My*bl« 
In li«nk, noliu4i of niiO'[i»yinHnt dm* In ^vea 
to ■» ioiliinrr on tlie evsnins of trie day on 
vrliicli tli« nut* ia payable, uih-r tlio oIoih of 
kMiliinK liounj and when the not« U not pay. 
«We ia Bank ni>ti«e may In given on tlic cvtn- 
lag uf tli« <lay it ia payable, at the dote of the 
naual liomni uf cemnieroial bualntas; anil in 
places irlicre Ibci^ an no reftulnr lumni uf liuii- 
■MM, tbo aotitfe may he i^ioii ofur auiiiet — l\\<i 
oonri luld tlii>y u-nulil nut >li>rei;uil a deoUina 
fl( tbc luprcmo vourC dolibcniuly mule, uiilota 
atttlHlli-d i.lint It wa* clearly orronDoua, but th« 
Kiuhoi't u%'.t<\ for the dootrinn of tfun <tfei*li 
did u«t niqiiii* iu MiMmnM when » plain ruU 
of law Lud beon vlolaUid. The dvoiaion is 
nctAaitr V. C'craattU, *«pra, wai in dirvol 
OOnfliM with lli<< Ibw. aa to pnaentatioa and 
■ratieo, aa aattlwd by all the authontiM, both oC 
Eeglud and the United Statu*. And barida, 
tbe niJe aa laid dcwn in that com waa on* vi 
great iocsnroiiiBCci: to hoMen of commercial 
paper, nod of no pcaaiblo licnofil: MfFarlaiut 
V. /'iM, ti Cil. lt:K)'.1t. In .irernilliisa cbm <>f 
Organ r. Brrrs.iA. ISO, theooiiKuld thiiy Ivlt 
baa nduetuit twcaiiaa tlioy thouf;lit tbnt tbe 
princHp)" llinro lajfl down was of injuriotu iiii- 
pirt; Ibttl aliniMt any f^eral rule ({"VFtninc 
Mniturrciat ti»o4CtiDii«, if it had been long and 
owintlenlly ojibptd a* a jinrt of. the gmeml 
•vitem, wiiH Vr(iH*ir than a rule ■upencdiug it. 
(Iioti^b the latter «-eTe much belter oi ui oril- 
Uaiy |ir>i>wiilioiij tliat the iludtinc of i(u/» dr- 
«i*M ,:oul<I have no efToot, or. If any. nnly th« 
oIlFet to indiKE tli<^ ooiirt llie miitv rsailily to 
return to a principle rccoguiiixl lor inauy y<an 
eTeryirliere ntur in tbn coimiiffivlid wiirl'l, and 
tbat tJie cDii>»ri'ative dootriiir of Harr tlftitit 
waa never doljtnrd to iiroUot mi <t;n»i3tian of 
til* nli«r«c1«r pra|i>Mu<L .1»'i v. Mnynidtf, 10 
Id. 1!K.'. It it a tutcu^MD to My tliat outam 
aliunl'l I" ttivd upon irronit i>riiK-i|ile*— bo da- 
elded HfC^ln't tlM bw— wbclbor it tw fur tbe 
jnuriimi' of jiintiov Or nut N> to ducido tbein. 
TIm Inw in (Alt IK) (atw to iteetf aa toreqnirD ita 
own iwriDAncul ovvrtlirow, quleaa tlio tuhvtr- 
aiim de iiMousry to llie pnblio int^'ioti: sod 
wli*tlicr it ho so netvuir^- in a iflvoo mm." or 
not i* far the eoutt to du>ide, u a mutt«r of 
Icjpll diaorelioii. whcncier the rule i* iiirukol. 
War ■> tli« rnlc nt tlnrr ilrriitit i* avowolly [>iit 
upon tim gmnud of [xilicy. III* appliialion of 
Use ml'- I'.iiinnt bo rigbtty no niaiM aa to ovitr- 
Ifcmw tbe taruuouet pubtiu policy of dtdidiug 

eaotsi by ttia nilM of law. wben Hum* rnlaa 
wfiik jootioeaiMl (loojulty la tlia ina^ur |>an «< 
tba OMea to which th*y <ii>ply. "'"I |iiut«'t iha 
Tightaof tbe lUBoy naniiixl lb« claim u( tlivtmr: 

ifarl 1. Buritftt, lo Id. G07. 

The liigh(4t courts and ableal i<Ml;i[M bar* 
repeiUcliy ovurtulnl and vhaiigeO lliuir uira 
deciaioni, oad the aupnnie mutt ia no ex> 
o«]itiun. Human Jnd^pnent ii imperfetit, and 
error* Are a iioeimary ocaiurinuuiMj. Still, it 
ia <Jt*u bittlcr to aiibinit t) the cvili uwiiiij 
froan erruneeii* doekaion*, Id vww of ili« ad- 
vantagM ariain^ tium Mrtaisty and aCabilit^i 
nitller than encunntef til* oflvii graater evtla 
flowing ftun> the4fekl*Ba***nd Inoautteacy 
of ouurts. Under tb« ayitaoi of tbi* itaM, by 
which [ro^aent nliange* of judgva take ploo* in 
the luiircino <:our^ it i* oi a|iBcial importoiioa 
that acttloil dmiaiotia be adliet«d to ao far aa a 
due rqnud to rig}it and joatice will portnit. to 
avoid tlw danger nf eroattng a fei-coiah atate ti 
uoeertaiuty in the publio mind: ifriaU r. 
aariila. •a Cal. 604. Whore a aingle defonM 
wa* interpoaod to an actioii, and audi dofoBM 
woa aupportod by a daciatoii of tlie mprvM* 
coart. which, however, wo* •flcrwarda n- 
vornd. it woa held that tbe Jadpatnt alMuU 
not be lendwed on tbe reoonl, bat th« oauaa 
reninndtd for furthei proorte>ling(: nemattm 
T. H'ooJ, 42 Id. 41'. wliere on a (umar ovca- 
ai«i> tliree of the juatiooa of the BUproana court 
had aatlaflvii Ihcmacke* tliat certain ptoviiauM 
of tbo Politioal Code could be laatoinMl. iha 
other two Jaatioc* wne of iko opinion that tbo 
proviaiona war« dif«etly rvpugnaat to the con- 
ititulioii; tbe court aaid that with pnifonnd 
napecl for the ability and taariiiujt of Uio 
fonuor majority, it uaa curtain tliat a davialuu 
thua rendered cuutd not be citail a« ef tlia 
oaiiM oontrolling authority a* one oonmrrwl In 
naaiiiitMuaW. Ind while ihey damly re^rgft- 
tail that a like dinnity then enatad, M ooa 
of them oonhl oacrtlloe hla oooTiction lo Ui* 
opinion of another, which, aa bo ccooeiTwl, 
■lid not doolar* the true conntraction d Uitt 
ooualitntioB. But IhAt hnd the fonner ivAg' 
ment been cunuurrcd iu by nil the mesibora «( 
the i-aurt, Ih? tlootrtno of alArif derMa aould 
not be prvwicd iH^ond it* Juat and oMab- 
liahed limitatiana. If, after fully coiui<lerinit 
a fonner dociiion. a judge ia oouviuuiHl that it 
ii wr>>lij[, it l>e<omca atiiiplj^ a quealiun ot pub- 
lic policy whether pn^otary lighla bava 
grown up to *uch an extent that it wiU proTO 
inor« ot avll tlian of good In tttlan tbe taw lo 
It* Integrity. Chancellor Kent romarkedi " It 
la prwlialile that tho raoor^la <J the oourt* ia 
tint uouulry ara replete with hoaty and «tiida 
doolainiMi and aucn ca aaa oavlit to be oxafli* 
iued witliout tear, and («viiK>il without relao- 
tanoe, mther than have the chsnieta at onf 
luw impuitvd, ur the iHuuly anil liarnioiiy of 
tbe ayaltm deitruyvd by lh« perpetuity ot 
error. Kven a aetiee of ileciaioim arv ru:it o>a- 
duaire evidence of whnl ia law; And thu ro- 
vlaion of a dodaion Very oflem rwidvta ilaelf 
iuto a i|Liait>on of expedieuuy, depending upon 
the ci>iiu>lcr.)tion of ixrtaLuty in ill* nile, and 
tliaeitsiit uf pvper^ to be nScctnd by it;" 
I KaufaCVim. 177. TlieoouTtsid tliat do auth 
rule •t'er ciiitfl a* Ihnt a court ahoaUt be al>. 
aolntuly Ik)iiiii1 by a jircvluii* docjalnii; aiu) tbat 
it would li<> m]Hi:i.il1y dnngfrona to apply llilt 
tnexi>rul>b.'«tau<lard tiiQuinliociadetiaiva nf Uia 
(ttustitutiouul ri|;ht» Ol the citljen; Ibat a*a 

SarJttEME COfltT. 





provblon ot tlm onimtiiiiltnn can inipMa no 

Eirutcr obligation tlian nnull^i; tliat it night 
« IImC I&p iiMBilan <■( an vlvutiro jntlivinry 
ah»alil l>c l«tiipUii1 to yield to whit u*at snp- 
|Mu«l to bs tbe [Mp«bu (IcsirB, and m deprit-e b 
citiwn or A BumMr of ciUxoaa oj mno privi- 
lt» alt' ihi portent to him or then, and tbo dU- 
tcgiutl ol which iliinld ba cqui*a)cDt to tiiai 
<wDtiilup4 for ponrenal (rMiliuu which oxi*u iu 
Um iront <Ic*]iollania. If no Impnibahla ail 
cvnt ahoulil sTtr occur, llir coufM iroald 
<|iiichly liMoma «an<rtii«t>it «f thtir «mir; luxl 
when the pMIile thraiMlTM abould baic 
airal(«o«d t« tlw dancMana iHrrmr o( lucli in' 
buvalina upOD their liiwa and libertiea. were 
the jiul)^ to be furevir i»Co|'pc(i fn>m reonr- 
ring to jnrt and fn* nindplei by tbe men 
repeiitiuii of the word* ''ttar* ifMUb'7 f muA. 
r«a V. JtuMa. 47 Ckl. «?. flW. 

£«w q^ lAe eate. — The luprama ««art wiU 
Mot orcmila a fon utr dcciilan ot that court in 
tbo aaiiia cxo, thoiuh In ahroeatlon o( tha 
plnlue^ [iclncl|ilaa nl law; acil tJiouKb, it tlia 
oaio Wfrra now, tha uourt wiiuld •titdila other- 
wlw, Tlw tireTMua deaiaion ot the tupvcoia 
Murt 111 tha tame ca«e it otnuilntira o( tbe 
rt^ta of tb* portira, and 'a not the niibjcct oE 
r*visioai />nMfr v. Gray. 2 CaL 574. Ap- 
proved: Clary v. l/«aglitiu(. ft Id. 6St; Ovnier 
*. iMfltn. 7 Id- SD2: Tb« p^t wai very 
(nlly ai^ed and cunMdcml W tbo mprcmo 
court ot th« t)tiit<d Stntia, (u Iho aum «( 
■r^wMaoMa firid^ (X v. Scrvart, 3 How. 413: 
anJ itltkough in that <aa* Ihaanaatlaa rai««<f 
an tbo record waa tba liDporta^t one cf Juria- 
illclloa. It wu, nolw itliiilanillii^, hvid that tba 
proviutu d«cialoii of tliu oumt in the aame caw 
WM jpneluaire ot the rights ot the partita, and ' 
not 'iwviaalib." Thia deeidca waa foUowod 
b3P tbe cMta of CTnry v. Hfv/tan'i and OanMr 
V. LoMm, nprii. S« alio (Jiu (oUouing cMCi: 
ITMAngMn Briilffe Co. v. StnP<irt. 3 How. 413, 
43*: tirunrtty X. Ra--. 5 Cmiieli, 313; Stiltfr'* 
Sr*f^on V. Ma/t Kxr^MUrrw. <i U\. 11(7: Sania 
Uaria. 10 Wheat, Ui; KtjtrU SMfM. i-l Pnl, 
*88, ♦ttl! //.mu-i» /,Vr. V. ffivr". ar. WViid, 

SI3. WH: Siltr, y. Slitr. .1 Ohio, 18, 10: J?oo(A 
», Conmf«iir*nIH. J Mot, 28«i WiiMri/ y. /,* 
ntywc ^ //ii«-A. 13 Ala. 151. The aupreme 
court liaa no |iowcr tu n-vivw it* ittviiion in 
tbo aama rut^ wliclher at law or in rquity. A 
Anal dttrw iu chancirrv is oa ooncltiBiT? oi a 
}li>lua>i'iit .It law; />ai*t/«iH v. DiiHat, i■^ Otl. 
Kl: I WIivaL 35.1; n III. IP. lift. A pnvtoua 
raiiati liy thu apiwIUtc court upon n inint t\la- 
'hKXif numd in a ouc iit vhJKh th«Milin|{ I* 
Nit-lc ia more Uuui autlioHty: it ia llnni ad- 
jiidkatiflu. (I'oni ttie coiianjumDm of which tha 
ooitr- ■ ■ '-i-:ri, nor Oio partlea rolltn'a 
Ut< r. svi4 A'ntaeiMO. 90 CU. 

i:-; i/A. 3.^ M. floy. 

'I < • hiti'e tlieir ofiiorn to take 

eh-i. .-i^a, oail to conduct leital 

pr<i<.-<<.'<[iQ;;> \ni '.h'<it behalf heforv Ihr trihunala 
of tba eiMnlrT. Tb* higheat offiivr for that 
fiUfpoM ill tha Unioa, with ivperviBioD oier 
ptvccadiBin in na-b iltittict, ii th? attorney- 
gtonali tbehiyhevtofHcLT f'>ra farticnlardin- 
Irivl. ai|)i)<ict toMU-h mwrnleniwrvfaion, la the 
dialrict Bttom«y. Wfaoivhoithof tliit*aolB«sn 
eoiuiiiteil. na behalf of Itva L'iiit<<cl Stafn, tliat 
an epi«>I fniw a iuiI|tin<Hil u* llio land »obi- 

t"i— — ^''i '-">T" validity »faM«ik«WKrant 

ti'' 4i,li«n)iHte>),.inil npon siicb 

uu^i 1 elioUa diitrict court acted 

•nd dinniatnil tbo appeal, aint ordered that th« 
elaiinant hare lenre to proceed npou the dw-reo 
of the ommiBBion ha a liail ilwrec; and whc 
thme nutlcn apjmrrvl hy the rwitola of a | 
cot, the lUpreBioeourt held that tboralidilyi 
the ynuit Waa tbe law of that caac, awl cwiljl 
never be lucitiancil analn by the gor^nimNit,] 
or hy iodividaala <luniin(( neder tha rot«tiii>1 
nuriil, fiilhur cotUtcrally in an oolkiii <a cjoc^' 
Hunt, rrr (Uraittly In any otlioKforn of imitotil- 
Iiu: tltsl it waa actoaad quattloa for all timiti 
JfoU V. Smilk, 1« CbL m. 

T1m> aofirama eovrt baa no ajipallBM jiirudk 
tii>u oviif its own Joilgnieata] it cwkuot rtn ii-«rl 
or ni'utify thru aftfr the mm hoa iid« jtuaaU,] 
bj tliu iianauci- lA the rtnittilnr. ftfum it* ooii* 
trol. It oanatmni, for example, a writtmi aoii> 
tract, and dot«rniioea the ttglaU and oUiutiona 
of the partiea tbetcundw, ood apon eucb eoa>j 
ktiDatian it afflmn tba JndgmeU of tha oonr~ 
Iwlow. The decloion, nj^t or wraig, haa h« 
oomo the Inw of tb<i caai. If, npou tba ««i-| 
atruotioii ot thn contract aappoaait, tba ooortl 
r«T4«*«a tba Judnmit nr ordera a new trial, tlwl 
deoitioD la aqiiuly Mnoloaiva, The oMtrt haaf 
detrrmioed the tiriiiciplM ot law which ahallrl 
goTCTn, and ita juriaJiotion in that rwpp ut imi 
gODp, And if tbenowtrial B bad iiiacwfdnnaa-n 
with ita dedaicn, no error fan lie alt^f:«l lo tbo 
action of tlw court below. The inajiplimliiUty 
ot the doetrina to actiona of cjtctnwnt wna aa- 
acrtcd on the gmunil that inch actiona arfrj 
brought merely tor the poaicaaioii. anil deter- ' 
mliM no ri^t* hut thcM> of pceaoat poatMaion, 
But tha court bald that the ((ncaUon vm not. 
What blbaoSMt of the)adgia«Dtino}*ctiMMilJ 
wbtmnoovertdf but,^Vhat•(^»ctb tanagiv«a i 
to the deciaion ot the appellate court en tliaj 
aoooiid trial of tbe aame <aao, or upon a ■enoml 
appeal? and that it i* only when tbe eTidenc4 
ia the aame that the dMiiion ot Ibv appallato 
court ii coooluaiiT. But it the dcciiion rclato 
tu a matter which cannot be thua preacntvl 
nndfr n different a«]>*ot— aa tbo oonitmotioa of 
a contract or a atatato— tbo Qnt ilccidon ot tho 
appellate taurt i* cciiivlanve upio th« atoond 
trial and tccoud appeal, whether the avtwn W 
lor tba powmaioP of real property, ot fur any 
othor object: l^m v. Ckai, -St C'al. 4l.'>-4ltt. 
Theru woiilil be no and to lllrnti')ii if tlioMAia 
(|ne«tioiiH iu a caw onoa i(i?Hi!r>l I'y th* iipfieU 
Lite court vpn opon to exaiiii»ati»u on uvetrJ 
■uacecding appaal. In this oaau the court aaiil J 
that it buTlieia *a often decideil by theauprelOtt 
conri, that on a acvond appeni it would nut rv- 
oxainine tlio Ir^-al tiiDtnaitione dcciitol on tho 
flrat, M to TcniicT tlie citation ot nuthoritica un- 
nectaaary: Pagr v. Foieltr. 37 lit IW. There- i 
fora, a dociidon l>y the luprcnM court upon tha 
pcjotaof a caae bind* the an prone court anil all 
tnlerior court* In all aulwic|uent procmdings 
ujion tho aaiiio scat* of toiHa is tbo Munn caus 
/Wm«* V. Jfitf* * (l9,. 43 Id. Sil; /W-Ae ». 
I>-f. Id. 48.-.! Ao^' V. l(VW-v. 44 I'l- 4!Mi 
Mfjtrtf V. A'Ar. 47 Id. 637: J'ifi v. ^t-u, IS 
Id. M3; an<l »n Lift v. lAtz. 44 M. W. 
When the I'linmiu vmrt hat eultleil t)t<' law u( 
a cue. tliv court beluw bvi no ntibt I'j nntiiliic 
that the law is 'itltcro'ice than uoulttwd becnai»] 
of aUtomeoIa in al&iUvita Illwl iti tliv «Mrt bfl 
low, to tbo eflcct that the lArliii in v;'bueo fa> T 
vcr 111" law waa Mtltlrd rloini Ibat il ii otbec- | 
wiiei /'frte v. Cv^cm, 4H Id. ini). Wh^r, on a 
new trial, an itittriK'tx-n wai aakc'l >'> lie jflvca 
to tbe jury, wlit«b butmction woi tokvn litM> 




[?tlIT I, TiTU X, 

•ny from tlie opiclon ol (lio mpnmti eoart 
ronilnriid on snuilliis Uin n«ir trial, liiit iho 
coiin ikcIiaaJ IorIvd li, llic-rupirinumnrttaul 
ll WM Iruo, ]n3liH[M, tliAt on o|<iiik>ii upon llu) 
]ntii'. t>M iK>t Acwiilul (4 111? itecuioii o( tlui 
<aiw, IkiI it wu itiiMttJint for tti« pttrpona nf 
the ii-iir trixl, and it Kiu in tliat view Uikt tho 
court liiil ooiuiilpri'il the matter, utdhftd ]MUiwd 
Ujmn it. Tliat it wu ■ matter Doesannljr In- 
vulral inlliciiBKc to Iw tHe.l, bdiI tlio principle 
of rrtailjtvlimta u'm uDilnublnJty anplkaMnto 
ita ilcturminatioin: Tiiilt Moi'itloii Tauiift i'o. 
V. SimixaKnn, '21 lit. fiTil. But wlioro, on tbu 
Itrtt appo*], tlio wiiolo rtmu lA llin ■>]>iiit'>n of 
tt>« ooiirtnatod ujKin u> JDacaiirDt'-lniii-liiii'ii 
«r 1 •l'>pr«f , Ihn OAurt on thes<c'in<t .ip;>ril ui-i 
ttiut BiK-ti riilii^, if rvlaltii); tu a mntUr of fnot, 
pniil'l only be invokiil wbirrclhi! (aclrroppcnred 
unilVT this Kuna ciraumManoM in wkloli it woa 
onsinolly promtcil: and m tkc •}<icuniciit arv 
ther read nor inaMit tb« uuao thing w vi\\<St 
«XMBineil by Ihc court oa the llnl ftFfKol, tlie 

»«3rt WM ni^ Iwiun'l by llir rcnRtV drrlRlciai 
N-bt Y. f.^.r;«i/fr. M. tat. «Ut. Tlw tliKlritio 
odlia "Ini* oj tfav («><«" •laly ftppIiiM (o |irlii- 
<ipl*« (it Iait auiMniao'il In « i-ikm. n-iil not to 
mere i(imiinci> iit fx^l wl ' :. ' m t>M-o 
[NMsel njion .Vif'tr/Zr. /> :;^3: aail 

OMe>«ainpK-ll«r' 't" ' ■ ■■ ■ ■ i ■ n ''ir'iwrto 

whleh tJi« rT--iii< 1- < :i!i3<xl 

ar*0MM9* to tlilt ■ ■■ i.r!"'Ti'liI 1. irn lllr lino 

miiliir conaiikratiuu. tu uliicli tlic opiiiiao la 
tlutt caao cannot Iw coou-lerr-l bi onxuarily 
l^nvinjc any JHit iip(Jl<nti<-iii Trinily (V v. .I/i?- 
rnmiiutu, Z'> I'l. 111. Tlin iiipPTiiiR ranrt liu 
liifM llut 111* .loftiriim tliat ittir«vl(Tii' : -';-i-- 
hw Ix-coinq Ibo law nf tb* cam bM c> ' 
tion. «ii(<ri<l to iWiriniu of IliD afiiwIU'' ' 
L'lvrtnf V. Itullou, 37 I'l. flSI, Rc|>(wU*l ui- 
p1i<ati»iuft>r^dnuoril«T,Dtii.i Sm>om. I*-, IKS. 

St« a duca«ion of tlib (UlijBot iu llic I'oliti- 
wl rode. MCticiii TOT, anil note. 

RMAdindioata: See. IWH. 

Oapvlnkliwf. Sea. 2S3, notu. 

64. Concurreiux nmcmtri/ to tranmrl huiitrn*. 

Sbo. 54. Tho concaiTGnce of throo juntiraM of tliA Kupr«iii« ouuH w ewrvamry 
for Uifi iHunucft of niij' writ, or Uin tmiiMtctiuii of aiiv buKinttaii, oxoopt itucb U 
mil b« doii« at vliAiubt^n; pTovt<Ii:(I, Unit etv.h of tbo juHlicvn «liall Iuivr powee 
to iasae wriU of lialtnut cuqitiK to aiir pnrt of the atiito upon petition bv or ob 
belutU of ftnj pcrnon Itclil in nctiutl cutttoily, and luuv make eucb vrnt» rt^tuni- 
abte before bttuBGlf or tbe supremo court, or any doparltaeiil, or judge tboreof, 
or befoM ftiiy superior ooort in tbo slate, or any judge tbereof . 

05. Tntn«/}tr of booha, pap^n, and actioiiM. 

S&o. 65. All reuonlH, books, papers, onusea, aotionB, procee<lin(>i, and iipwala 
lodg^, depoeitcd, or pending in tbo Biipretoe court abolished by the couslitu- 
tion, are tifuntfemd to the auproine court h«rein provided for. which baa the 
Bame power and juriBdictaoa over them aa if the; bad bc«n in tbo first iDfiUnce 
lodged, deposited, filed, or coaunenced diereio, or, ui cases of itppcnl, appealed 
Cuiut. C4L, ut. 22. «eo. X 

&6. JtemiUUtir* in trana/ertvd caaea. 

Bee. K6. In all ctta«e of nppenl traDsfened to the supreme court, its jtul^ 

kocuIb shall be remitted to the superior courts of tbo oouuttes, or cities and 

COunticA from which the appeals woio taken rcKpectivety, with the muic form 

wid fffcct AS if said cases hod boon nppoaUd to the supreme court from mcb 

suptmnr courts. 

Tnuwtar of Teootda. — A* to Imufar of Ttooeit, booln, {npiM, auJ buda«M trQis ol4 court 
to uuw, wo alwfMf, tec T9> 



65. Jtt^get artd etfciion. 

Sec. (i5. There sball bo Id escb of the organize oountiea, or citiPK and 
cotitities of the utate, s superior court, for CAch of which one jud(^, and for 
some of which two or more jttdgos, as boreinoftdr in subt^equent Kcotioni* tpo* 
cially provided, shall be olootoil by tbo quiilifie<l electors of tlie county, or caty 
nud voun^, at tbo goiivml Htate clocUoiui, next precoding tbo vxpiration of tlie 
U-riiiM of "ffico of their prwIccotHont rwspi'ijUvcly; pmvidwl, tbnt in and for Ute 
ouuaUuwuf Xubiuad i>utt«i' combined only one niip;.-rior judj^uelmU l>e oliM>t6il( 


Ciur. IT.] 



wltu (^bnlDiold tliesQperioroourUof buth Koid RouDtic>(,nDtl in Kcconljknco witli 

miirli rules fur 0)6 ilJBjwtcli of busioeaB hi boUi wutl coudUm dm Im umy ixlopt. 

C«cwt. Cal., ut. 0. wo. a, 

Juiiadlutloa of kitpertof conrtsi 8m ^wit, mm. T^TS- 

66. Nupvriot cottria af (uw wr mortjuilifnt. 

Hko. Oii. In raeli of tba GOuntioM at AlainotU, Los Angelos, Sa«moirafo, Sui 
JooMjuio, Santa Clara, and Sonoma, tlioni shall Im tlocted two juJ^i&s of tlia 
superior couri; and in each of wu<l oountic*, anil in nxiy cutint}*, or city and 
connty, olher than the city and c^uuty of Saa Fntnciiwa, in whicti tboni sbiill 
be more than one judge of the Bup«nor court, Uto judgm of sucli court may 
hold as many Boesions of eaid court at tho aaoM time a» tltcra aro jwlf^w thereof , 
and bhall apportion the biisiDe«8 unonf; IhemBelrea as dpuitly ah may bo. 

A* to «u wt.Ittkuuil joJgo til Mmio ooiiBt;, tM pett, mc. TO: CuMt. C4L, arc 0, mc. 0. 

67. Superior court </ the dltj and cmndj 0/ San Franciaco. 

Sec. CT. In the city and county of San Ftnncinoo there oball bo cloot**! 
twelve judfjea of the superior court, any oiiu or more of wboui may hold oowt; 
and there may be oa many eeasiuua of Raid court at tlio name time an thcru ars 
judges thereof. The aaid judges ehall obooee from their own nuru1>«r a ]>r>- 
biding judge, who may at any time be' ramored and another choaen in his phico 
by a Tote of any aeveu of tbem. Tbe piimiding judge ehall distribute the busi- 
ness of the court among the jud^^e thereof, and {kresciibe tbe owler of busiaew. 
Thn judgments, orderti, and proce«diDgs of any session of the superior court, 
held by any onv or uioro of tho judges of Mid court, shall be equally effective 
as if all tlie judges of said couri pmdded at Buch seesioa. 

CwmI. C«1.. uy. 0, sue fl. 

68. 'Trnne of offiem. 

Sao. (ifl. The lenn of ofBco of judges of tile superior court shall 1>e six ywtr<t 
fiuin and after Iho fii»t Monday of January uest succeeding their, eljctiuii ; 
proTided, Uukt the twelTe judges of the superior court elected iu the city U'd 
county of San Francisco at tbe general state election of eighteen bundrod and 
scvenly-ntne, shall baTO so cUssilied, or shall no cIoHsify themsolrcH, by lot. tli:it 
four of them sboll go out of office nt tho end of one yi-ar, four of them nt thi; 
end of three yeots, and fotur of tbem at the cud of £vo yoarfl from tho fint Mon- 
day of Jannaty, eighteen hundred and eighty; and the entry of anch clascificji- 
tiun sbiill have been, or shnll bo, miulo in tho ininntM of the court, itigncd by 
tbem. and n duplicate lh<^rcofl5tid in tlieofflicoof tho ae<>retary of slate; and pro- 
Tidod furtbur.tliatall tbe other Kiipcriorjudgttad&cteil at the general lUato elec- 
tion of i-ighto'n humtriMl and Mc-venty-niuo nhall go out of oQlce at the end of 
Uve yeunt from tho fimt Monday of Jauuaty, eighteen hundred and eighty. 

CocmL Col., art. «, am 6. 

66. Oompv/alion af tjt^ra if «^c. 

S»c. 119. Tho years during which a judge of a superior court ia to hold office 
are to bo computed respectively from and including tho Grxl Monday of Janu- 
ary of any one year to and oxdudiug tho fint Monday of Juuuoiy of tbu u«xt 
Ruccoeding year. 

Coukt. CU., art 0. *m. <I. 

ttnlUr provWoa inth rapect to jiutkut «il tli« Mprane coort: 3m aar^f, mc. 4L 

TO. Vacanciai. 

Seo. 70. If a vai-ancy occur In the office of judgo of a superior court, the 
gorcruor shall appoint an eligible i>enton to bold tho ollloo uutd the election 


B71-74 OP COURTS OF JUSTICE. [PaiitI. Ttn*!. 

and qimlifip-aUoa of a Jailg» to fill tbo vucaucy, wliirji oImIIoii hIuJI tiik« jtlium 
at tlic nost xuocooding g«n«ral (.■)c«liou, ftud Uiu judfio so elected idiull liold 
ufli»- for th« renukind<:r of tliu um^xpirotl tvnn. 

Vacancy doM not aS«ct poudfng pnv 

CiBM. Oil.. •«. fi. **■-■. Cl 
Vacjinolsa la ofBc>e.iiud UMmodflof snp- 
plyltie them: .^o I'oL Coda, mm. Vti at wq. 

71. Siip--ri'>r court*, byjadgtv of olher MtintMW. 

Soc. 71. A jtiilgw of nii.v Kuporior court may bold ttio mipcrior foort in any 
countr, at tlio rwnH'sl of tlio judge or judgM of tbo supvriur court tht'n'of, and, 
apon Uio rc<(in<;Kt of the governor, it abnll be bin duty to do tw; and iu titltor 
cow thv judgu holding tlie court Rfaall have the aauie powcir m n judge tbereof. 

Canst. CkI., art. 0, ate 8: ms pttt, tec. 100. 

92. Judgr»prol^mp(iT*i. 

Ssc. 72. Any oaum in a trnpurior court mnj Im tried b;^ a judg« pro tempore, 
who must be n inomlier of the Utr witnitted to pntcticu before th^ BUprome 
court, ngnwd upon in writing bj Uie partiea litigmnt, or tlioir atlorue.vs 
of ircoonl, Approved \>y tli« court, and evrorn to \rj tbe eauso; and his action in 
tli« trtnl of such cause shall have the eaiae effect aa if he were a judge of such 
coiirL A judge pro tempore shall, before entering upon hia dutie§ in an; cause, 
take and ftul>4cn1>e the following oatli or offirmatioD: " I do Bolemnl; avraar (or 
afllrui, as the coae may be) that I will support the constitution of the Untt«d 
States and the constitution of the state of California, and that I will loithfully 
discliargo the dutioa of tho office of judge pro tempore in tlie cause wbtmili 
is plaintiff, and — — ia dcfcudont, aoconUng to tlte b«t of my ability." 

CoUBt Cal., arL 0, Mta 8. 

TO. SeisioitB. 

Sec. 73. The superior conrts shall be ahntys open (legal holidays and noD- 
judji-jul days excepted), and th«\v shall hold their sessions at the county seats of 
tiie eereral counties, or cities and counties, respectively. They shall hold 
tegular sessions, commencing on tho first Mondiirs of January, April, July, 
and October, and special Mcmions at Huch uHkt times as may bo pn-wrilicd by 
tlio judge or judges thereof; provided, thut in tho city and county of 8aa 
FranciMCO the presiding judge shall prescribe the limes of holding such apodal 

Contl. CaL, art. 6, »ec 73. 

Adjownmenta from time to time mere 
I»oesae« In the oeauoiua.— Soo «oo. 7i, i^'ra; 
•oc alaa rik. -Iti. nn!'. 

BoUdajra—Sxt /><>«, avca 13*. I3fi. 

Tetina ol oouit, to what axtent exist— 

Sac MO. 40. antf, anil iioW; alio aoc T4, infra. 
Tb« N^iUr anuioni of Ihv uoiirta )iri>vi<lril fur 
Xrf ihu «i>u*tiliiliaa of IBTO. soil liy tho vdU in 
gmnuuiioo llivKol, in for tamn pur[ioan to Imi 
rvj;ir>ltil i» "Mmit." Ttiua imdw the ootot 

congroM of 197^ declArliiii tlut an applidbtlon 
for ranovol of a cauw (rom ■ statu Ui a fvlcral 
coai-t niiMt lie iiiaila "Inifurvvrat llio term at 
whkb«alil«aaMixniUI bo line trifd," "tliorvi;. 
nlarMMlonaoJthoauriOTiuroaurta, oomiiK^it-iiijt 
atrvfCiilarlyapiioiuuJ tMriuili.araauliaUiiiiiiliy 
t<rm»:" ilaeSaa^oav. S. P. CoaA II. It. Co., 
2 \V«t Coul Re|i. GU2. Tberv tli« cbuib u-m 
reiiuuitl«d, fur one roMon, Rwong otiter*, that 
tlio appUcatioD to remove cam* too late 

"74. A^}otimniml8^ 

Sr.c. 74. Adjouruuflnts bom day to day, or from tinto to time, ore to Im con- 
•tniisd as reoe«eesiQ UieseB^ons, and shall not prevent the court from sitting at 
any lime. 

Sm qIm sootion 48 u to the •aprraw ocort, 
and 101 IU lo juiticct' court*. 

Tonas of conn: Staearl v. J/<Uottfy 
iSivin^ On., M Cat I4D, paHliif; nran Kctipn 
litii thboodc, priortotliecenMituuoaef \9t9. 

whlob SMtlen atattd that for oertam pni|jiiM« 
tlic ilkMob OOurl ia alu-uya opeu. I* aullioritT 
for th* atioUUaD of '* I«Riia" nniUr Mctioaa IS 
and 74, tupm. 


SOTERiOR covnr 



TO. JurinfUclion of two /"I'n'A*, 

8kc, ~o. The junsdicUou of tlie superior oourta is of two Iciuds; 
1. Original: and, 
ft. Appellate. 

TO. Original jurii^ietian. 

SxcL Tfi. Tlie superior courts sliall havo original juriiidtction: 

1. In all GBsea iu equi^; 

S. In all uiril actioD8 in which Uw subjoct of litigatioii is noi oijnlAo of po* 
cuiiiitry esUmatiou; 

3. Iu all cases at law whicli inrolvo tllo title or possession of real j)r»]>urty, 
or tlie Ic-j^ality of aii.v tax, impost, asMiwnuint, toll, or municipal due, and iu all 
otlier cases in wliicli tho dcmiantl, pxcIukivo of intermt or tbo value of llie ]>roi>- 
«rt^- iti coutrovors)-, uoountii to tliruc liundrvd dotlam; 

i. Ofartiouttof forwiblc Wiitry and di-ljiiiior, uf pruuccdings in insolvent^, of 
nctiouB bo pniront ur nliato a diumidck^, of all luattan of jirohatv, of divori-o and 
forannulinont of niArriitge, and of all such xpociftl onAUK and procvwliuga a» 
UK not otbcrwiw provided for; ■ 

5. In all criminal <-a.tca aiuouuting (o felony, and ouM of mitidciii<«tn<n- not 
oth«rwiito provided for. Said vourta aliall liATe tfaa pow«r of nutuniliaition, 
and to iKwc paiK-m therefor. Said courta and their judges, or any of Uiom, 
■liidl luivc j>(>nt-r to iiinuo writs of manilamus, oertiornri, prohibition, (|iio vrnr- 
miito, and of Ititbc-ait <-orpkiii on petition by or on behalf of any p<iniou iu ootitat 
ouxtodjr, in their rcspeetive oounlies. Injunotiona au<I writa of prolubition utof 
1)0 iamed niid Hervod on leigal holidays aud non-judicial days. 

Bap«tloiooiuta,B*'*arall]r.— TtMaeir eon- 
Mllalicni pttwiilot. urlielu 'i, Mvtioa 3. (or llw 
alinliliiinot tliv luiorU of thcirtaM oxfijit ]ioUoc 
fur Id tli« aupfvior vniirU of alt mciml* of Iha 
Bl>olwb«l oMirta, aiiil ilccUrnl llul iirocwwliuga 
lliwi tniMfomil ilioultl l>o <r! iU« moa •ffeol as 
it MaiiOMiotd in thu iiii|M<ricir cinirt: Sm wa. 
70, 'VVo. Thin lliv (iiptrior oouH iiiay ninkp 
Ml onlcr t« carry iatu eiccntiun ■ jndgiDcnit uf 
dvatb urovioiuly rcad«rtil by a tlUtriuC couiti 
/•m-lt V, CoKm, H CU. IM. 

fci pewedeacoBita.— I. DlatrJctooBrta.— 
/■ruifirtioa pntnW'ir. — By tho juriidictioo 
erf a cuart ImIob delinDd, It u limited: the 
whydBftna It I £r tiane Aaonny-OtntTal, I 
Cut SS. Tb* Jurtadtetloa of tb« diMrto court 
ii ooiiforrcd and doliticil by tit* ooiwtitatloa, 
uiil M alatato toa doj>rlv« It of it* powum 
//t.(fa *. ttfH, 3 Id. 23-1. Iliatriut ronru am 
court* cf gciMral )<iritJioti(iii i>i oil tnattan 

CitvnUiem liylaw, wlict«iertlioKmattrr«Diay 
t Inoltv u(U4itedvr whvmer the {artieBinay 
(vulili-; Int tor oonveoicDco. [tnrUa* hare a 
rluht ta a trial of parttcnUr cue* in putitmUir 
«()Uiitini: Ri-yttr. SaifJord.Mi. llSi Watti v. 
D'AJft, 13 1(1. 324. A> to the coiwiiniiDt jtirl*- 
dictlno of tbo (ourih ami twclflh dlatrict 
tanjU vithla th* Uiulu of thn eitf uqiI county 
«( Stui fVatioiMO. miliar Ilioatatulc of ISM, **o 
McUuu M, noto. 

['hiiulis waa a Britiuli toanian on board a 
Uriliali •hill. Dvtfiiilaiit, Uio tuatter, wa* a 
Britioh iiili^t. U|uii arrival of tho ihip at 
Kan Fiauoii^oo^ ainl wiveu days Iwfort' tliiT «l- 

SimUna of tko time forvrbich (tloiutiff uu html, 
(■Icn'taut iliwliargod hiniuitlioul (iiiying hia 
wag**. PlautiB ma not a dcaertcr. Tba 

■Di'nime oonrt bcUl that ■!&(* bonrti had Jurfa- 
dtotion to cDlortain a ault lor wa^n: Pnah r, 
Oiltam. I l^. 4tiT: JiA»nn v. Italtom. I Cow. 
S43;Oi(li*' lti);liu aii'l l>utl«iot McrcluuitSua- 
(n«i, :ir«; l;"!!..!!.^!'* Mm. I'r., *iw. 2»J; Tit 
Jmu'ilfo. ■; Cull, llK>i ll'U/«nir*Mi v. Tht Far- 
tehH, I I'ct. Ado. I)*c. 107; J/oran v. Itmvliii, 
2 Id. 41.5; iVritHTg t. The St. 0'<if. M. 428. 

A'tu'miior; 8«c. 731, anil note. L'liitcr tba 
oouiliE,utiau,tLedi<tlii:t oourta of tbuitalw bavo 
jurixliction in cnan of nuliaaoo. Tlio grant by 
the lcgi*lii.tar« of juriuUctioa in mch oatca to 
the count)' court* oannot take away th« jiirii- 
diction gWtn to the dUtHct eoarta liy tliv on- 
atitution: flt^^rraJil r. Ortm, 4 C*l. '^SSj 
CuurrurJuJU v. B. A. d: A. W. ^ Jf. Co., 30 
Id. GTS: YoUtv. .Vamuanrio. 3» M. \9&. 

Ltuid dfportiofM wwWwrriM. — Tbo mI* 
of Iha land* u( tha atala b oeniimittoil M 
tbs axoouti** ilMMftniant of tli« KOrmiamiti 
aud Ills jtidieiat Jcjiutmi^iit hoa uo jariiidiotioa 
of imntTOVDrriM arising iMtweeii applinutt* for 
tbo purchaie ol the tnndi, except ill nncli mnt- 
tcn ai no expr««ly provided lor l-y tl.o ntat- 
uto: /Jnry V. t'omnid, ** CaL Hi; AlUn *. 
DiUy. no Id. 8£ 

Unlltd Sial't cfflftrK — Ha (net that tho 
defouilant wan marahnl of ttto 0all«d Statoi, In 
a *ult litou^ht (or tru*iiua ooniBilllv.l by bla 
di'iuily uiulur cover of tiU ottot, dor* not da- 
privu til* itat» couit of Jnritdiatioii, »lintBT»r 
right it may giro th» dotuidant to tiava tho 
oauie t4ran>jerr«d tA the oourU o( tha Uaftod 
Stkta (or trial, when tlial taet ia niaiU ID ^- 
pFBi'. That riglil u in the iiat<irool a [iriviloKe. 
which Joca not go to the iUTiwIiutioB of Uio 
cqiirt wlica no motiua u nuKle t« traotfw ibo 
oanat; Hir,t\ v. Itand, 3Q Cal. 318. 



fPAa? T, Ttnx I, 

Til* >ntliariti«a urn not anitoroi on the giio^ «rty, tlie •ctiooaliixaU Dot W <li<QilHc<L) Imwiih* 

tJon wliethcr no udgace in liMtknipt«]r mn 
•■■kintain an action in a >tat« court tu ivcovvr 
' iliitkiwil of by Ibo baukrapt in (muil 

of tlia Ix 

of tlia MBktti|it law. Rut tliv wsijlit of au- 
thority. Mtiportc'l l>y iIk Iwtur rcuoeiag, 
nwinl^iu lliv jiiriMii'.-Uaii ••! cho tilAta court in 
tbfttoUmuf c&imiwburvtlwiiatiiroof tboRCtlon 
ii mull tlint till) iirojHT mliuf <im Im ailniiuJt' 
tcnul in tluttfurum. Tliu [iiiivtinm u-mJvcUoiIi 
KUd tticAalboriti«acotlnt*M,in<7(M(rf V. Print, 

thu alle^tiau for rvUvt la (X|aily xlviit iti'^t 
tlii'MurlliiunoiuiiMlloliMi togiaa'. 
Tlie foot t^l tile ciMirt baa no iar 

£U)l Ibe wjaiubfe nliot vonlj t>«u .^ 
Dying it Qu Uie trWt bal the plBtntilFi 
Mill rcocii-m' in cicotflKtit. crti ovidcnw IibtT _ 
no rdatioii to t&o facU urcno'l for relief in 
»|ui-.yi Jfr.Vrudy t. 7/»J/. ^T CaL *(ll, 

Tli« Miimmc conrt liate liulil lliia llui 'Ii>>- 
tiict omrla u( tlie iitale have tlic hub* coillril 

03 UaiU 330; S. C, Nnt Uank. Kft. 101; and ovw l)i« ])«noiii o( inluDra, m wuU «t tbcir 
tlio ni|in:iii« court held tliu rvaiottiag in tlixt MtetM, m IIi« uonrt o( oliaAcery in Rnj(UiHl 

IKWBUBM. Thin iiiriwliatMii l> coufumd l>y Um 
Conttiliitiun. aoil canool L« ilirtMml liy nay 
IvjjtdIatiT« tiiaoluimt. Any ulaiin of rxcliisi^a 
ongi&al juriuliction in tliu oonrla of ptvXM» 
over tl>is mtijMt iaunlounikd. CbnaoMyinay 
at any timo interfere, and uaaore the pnic«af- 
inn before it: Ifi/Mit t. Stiaei. 4 Cal. 308. 

It vu nUo belli tliAt tlie dutrict jni^. 
wliIlc kltliiig In an Iiiuity cane, la pcdifaaoilof 
all Ilic po-iiT* of a txrart oj choiiccry: Uiai Uia 
dkilrtct roiut, bda| a ogufliif i^onl juriiilie- 
tron, (an, iu acaaoof winity, whurv inuul anil 
'collu^iuu orv oliarged ai^uAl a )ailje iu ento^ 
iiig an i/fl'T <tr duotw. iwittw iIm name, aii-1 
aunul it if the facta justify su^h a condt:'. itt; 
and tlmt nnlota a omrt of iteMcnl :■ << 

posKwcd lOch u i«vrar, the hglita ' i 

OTpliananittflit beat any time cuilaiitji.-r(-i V.I U-- 
out a niaieily. and tliat a ccurt of eGaiiccry tuta 

iuri>Jietlan to »el aaldo ileurets al><aluecl liy 
rauil nil mi orij{iii:il bill llkd Im Hint I'utniiiii 
from tliv ouiiuty to tlm ilit.lri«t toort. In con- H'-u/i'rd v, lltail, S I'jI. 'jgOi IIVijAi v, MiiUr, 
■HiMiucv o( tliv illiiijiiAlitivatiain of lli« comity 1 iJMiilf. Cli. I'i^tt; fltig<d v. H'om^ 1 Jo^iu, 
juu^ The Govrt V<1<1 tlial if lli« dintrii-t Oil. 40t. 

omrl oMiUI Dot cotortiiin an np[H<al dirtol from Oat muri hat no poterr Id *i^vh» (At riteni- 
tbe ilccixiun of tbe jititioe. it would bu alHUnl li^n of a ilirrrt ■/ iixolArT court ■(/' c«-orv/iuii<« 
U> eflDtond that tlie wnM, liavini; bceo ai>[ii«l«d jumJitttOH, un1<m it plaiuty ap|M<u that lite 
to on^ cJior oonrt, miglit be tnuiifcnvil to tlia oonrt randcrins tlio jntlgiiivut oi dectvu iindor 
dbtncl oonii; Toiauendr. Broolt, 5 CaL 5:1. wbieb pn>oc«<un|p are kOiit^lit to lie «i.>)t<l 

, In lupport of the jnriidictioa of thr (1at« 
vouTla,eoncJuait^: Mmi&mnnn v. irAJM, tSCbl. 
iOS, In a eojw irhurc the dafetMlauta movnl 
tl>' ' 1 1, tn dlamiu an acrtiuQ. iHKanw the 
I'll r .1 I .' H courta luul ciclu-iive ]uiiuHclioM 
t>l »ll ■•' i.^'fy'/aMTiilae |iriifierty of a Ihiuknijit, 
tli« cxutt oit^rrulvd tlia inulioci MeXtady v. 
Ilyt'. *' Id. i81. 

Ap/rH'itr j'irintkliiyit, — Tha <tuitricl CowftM 
haU tioui'iip.'ll.itvpriulwtion: I'fOiAtv. PrraJlOt 
SCtl.XVlaKd itHiiiihvU in ISJSthatMuiucb 
of au Bi-'t uf the U^iilnlurv lis [-[uiided for a^ 
peals to Ibe di>tri<C uouita wiu unounctitatioiinl: 
tfantjtrtil r, llmlion. Id. SOI; xe alici Itrr/tnn- 
ttny.Siitwn, Id. 4W: Rrolv. MeCarmict. i Id. 
'M2. 8«e, howoTef, for the appellate junailio- 
tlon of the proKnt unimior court*, tecli'.'a 77. 

Ill an avlKinuf (oroliila entry, originally eoni- 
mencad Iwfoni a juatieo <i Iba p«co, an appeal 
WM lokeii from (ha Judgment of lh« Jnatico to 

JSynlroite Juritilitii««. ~~ ForecUsure: Sec. 
T2(i. ThocouTtmayromovetuiy truiteovholiM 
vialatcil, or i* unfit to onocute, tlie truati ot niay 
a(!i;-*]>[ the mtgnatlou at a trutlee: Ctv. Code, 
tvv. 'iiSS; and may apnilnt a iruntM whnuivor 
tb«n !• »■ vaciiujy, aiiil tlia docUration o( trust 
doM not provide a pnioticabl* motbod of ap- 
jMlntnieiil: lil.,*««. £2i$7. WliuaatruHlvTinU 
without any nfipointed ltu«teu, or wlicrr .-ill the 
tnlatesi reDOiiiioe^ din, ur are disciiuvnl. tllO 
dittrict court uf the coiiutv wliere the tniat 
propedy. or eomn portion tiiereof, in dtoatcd. 
mini •i>poiiit anollier tnutee^ and direct tlio 
DxeciiticD of the tnwL The oonrt may, in ita 

"ii BDilblc, by nMoa of ila ]iirieJicti>io. to 
•ffonl the leiief aoughti" Ani^-^g r. Dur.' 
lap, A Col 27: ItieMI V. JohxaM, Id. 'M; 
CtiipmoH V. IIMutni. M. -JTOi l'hi{an v. Smiilt, 
I.I, fiili GoirA'ini V. Votary. Jd. iJl lliyk- 
tltfUr V. l.tiTi, 11 Id. 7<ti (Jroaf <r. {iaiek, i 
Siuidl. 012i and toejiott, mn. h'M, iinio, 

Tbe taut that the lATtica t« tbe initiii«tiMi 
pnioeeiling are sot tbe ^nriica to the Jii-lj^iBeni 
or daoTM aon^t to be «iijuinei| doo* not re- 
lieve B cue from the opcr«ii«ai ot the mio, ncv 
can tbo oonuut of juttim change Uio rale or 
relax tl4 binUiuji foice in any particular caie. 
It ta not wtablMlioil and cnforMd ao owch to 
diaer«4loD, appoint tiie oriL-icuil imiidwr or any protect tbo rij;tita of tmrllna a* to piolcvl Xlta 
IcM nuinbpr of troalce*; Id., kc 'iiS9. It ■■ r(ghl« of couria of i'i>-or^11iiiite juntdictiou to 
thi! duly of tbe conrt, na n u'jiirt o( eqaity. avoiil oonSict of Juiiadlulluc, oonfuaion. ntid 
trhilo kcc|iing within the nilm nml jiiinciflu* dvInT in the atlminiMxMli'U of juatUr: l'r.~<tt 
on uhtch 111 rninedinl jiiHvlmlioij i* fiiun.lpd, r, Kratmer, 8 Cal. 71: Uh^il'Ur v. I^if, U M. 
to«<ia|rt iu cQun^of {irooriHliii]!-. «■ far u ihw iJIIi lienoe, tiudcr our kyat«m, it don* not Kvia 

BiUlft, t'> tl-.n mtitiiiK ittiitv lit tiling*, and to 
npjttf i'-t Jiir'nll.:t:.>n to iilt thf>«u new cmu 
which, (iV-ii thr div'T^ilird UaAtautioni oiDOIlg 
iDi'n, .ire cuiitiiiujUy nritlu^, nod aJtniniater 
JU4ti«a and enforM right for which thon' it no 
'rMnnly aaTv iBacourt of piinilyi Jfonyhrrifv. 
CrMirf. 30 t^al. W7i T,'iil<-r v. .Safmo*, i Jiyl. 
& Cr, 141- W'ttitwik V. tloU, Id. G3.t^ 

If a ciMiipliuat rtates a onnae oi actlM tn 
•jMtiiMat, anil oa gronod (or relict In n^uity 

that a atatc of (acts could uxLit ii)trf It ■•.».'.d 
be proper or allowable for one dbti: < 
attempt to raitinin tbe execution o[ 

or decree otaaotberdialrialoourti |,. -.^ 

lor ■nch pnr|io«c alionld olwaya be tnatitntoi in 
tlie court rendering the Jndgnicnt or decree, or 
liHviiij ciintrid of Itt execution. Tlio ca*e of 
Pi^a V. //u^fu. 15 IiL 13t {tee brtow), doo* 
not oppo«« or lend to mudify Iba rule; Ovic- 
bjr T. 7>niii«, 37 Id, 209; and the rule b 

conUini a aepamte atetCDMint of (act* niioii rooognlMil and follw<r«<l in FlaJtrHg t. KrUf. 
uIiJLh uti ininnctloa b Mkod nvtraiuhi;; the &I U. Id ^aifMin v. PorUr, l.L aSfl; In whKli 
dv'ftuluiEa liom wocUng or Mllit^ tL« jirup- lutter oaae Ike enjUnini; further prvnD>ltiis« 




In • omrt of eo-ordfaud* jurMlotioa wm not En thn muiU |w«<ri'1#<] li^ !■' ' ■< of 

■Uownlil*. nrucMdinj,-*. Tlut llm iti :ht. 

Wbrm miit la miniling ia (1114 ooiiHoii > note fully iixcivia«i jiiritilkiioti .^ i<ii> .1 ^luti 

at iMwMlant, tocmgli do wnunoni liu Imm-d ninjer thv olil imitiiti^tiMt wm iiuver (^tici- 

•arvnl anil no appoanvDce nikdo, lie oaiitMit tioo«<t. TbHr nnnsiii fi>r ii vni fi.utitl in ibo 

b*iu^ in a l>ill in oiiiit}' in Another court to protiMoii of the conati'.utiiui rcfomit 10, iiikI 

MijiHii thu <oll»:tton i>( ■ note or lo ouical it, tlut pniTitwiii U n(4 mom compn-'Iiciuivu ilian 

, the Kvcrmunt being nwpljr tliat lie hw a good 

,'d*{eiMe t> Ilia note: NmS'A v. Sparrme, 13 Oil. 

MM. Mting JC^M V. UaajiH*, S Id. 82] X^ii-^ v. 

Toft.*.. iSu-St;. 

But tlic rvb doM Mil *l)|>ly to ■ prootcdiiu! 
Lroiiglil. not ti> atii}' clnmtKiii tMiipd aip^'i''' 
tbo |in>p«tr !■( llio Jotlj;inmt •kl>Wr, but lo 
mvufit o MM of ibo iirojicrt}' iif plAlutiff uniltiT 
th* alaim tlial It i* tlio projH'ii}' of tho dobtor: 
/•ir/'... "..-fJ;.'. IGCal liH. IW. 


tbo gcDcrnl i>r>mu(ui iti Itio ■aino ncclioii of ttiu 
<nn>titii'.i(in at HimaiU-i. Il fnanot lio iiuiu- 
talnoil ttwt lit* <liitriot titurt* liuve iiv4 tb* 
■amo juriiHliotJon In thctu ^tun^ tinir u iidiIm 
tba old convUtuiiuu. Hot ^ati it fairly Iw imiU' 
t(ni<l«<l Itut tliv ilUtriut omrt *linulil )>« dn- 
|iri<Df>t ii( jqnvliutiuii ill iwMunf manii^aiu anil 
ttrtiomri. IxrcfliMu t'l inriutWliuD wu 

cnnforml in i-ijinwi 1 ■ «iu tJie ■upreow 

oiurl: I'trr^ v. /Im.*. J.l i_..l, ..i3. 385, Tlmt 
Th« jiiUiviajy xut. whiah Ha- dtttriot conrI« &»d tlip )nde«i of tUoio <-.(iutt4 
' .i-tioii of tlt« district oourta of may i«tUi(- iIm writ at errtiantri : II'iimoU v. 

the Ur.itcil ^Utui and oiifiTa np'^u thcin lul* 
minlty juriBi(li-^ioD, iccurcv tu luiiorn a com- 
moii'laH- rcmaly where the comtoou law u 

I eooiptltnt to give it. It Iim Uea ivpaatodly 
"MA that the rtate oonrti hnT« oMicurrent 
}iirii"li-i>'in of oaiuca of nctiom cosiiluble In 
bliiiifsilif wticre uiily a entmaan-lm' iciiicdy la 
•DUiiht: HoknintK v. //'inmnrnf, 42 Cal. 229; 
Crav/'-i't y. t:i.t>rrt; nO 1.1. ••*(). 

HfU ut'^f, l-'lr, lU.: St*. t*e. AS, in notI^ 

1,£mi alao, B> tu nnti" ul iif Ui'im. wv, ll?'.'. j^cwf. 
I\ue*— 111 /'(■/./- V, .l/'>r, -.4 Lnl. 01. llio 

C'omirv ''oati iff S-ia J^aqnln, 47 M. Ci>l. 

It (allovi tliat the flunieiiw eourt hnr. uailer 
the eotialUutiou. iurisilictloa oa uppiMl iruiit 
tho jud((nient« ii( ttiudiiitrktcouiCt >>i c^itiolaaa 
of CMC*: CariBffa v. Drffihn, SO <Ui. -lUi. 

Oil Aabto' nrptu \atatA out >A ll** minraiH* 
eout't, prMmaMu lidote n Jiidija <•( iIk- dli.lti>:t 
<uiirt. the biter lioa tho kudh nuihufiiy n« 
winil-l 111* tmbttma court harg Inil Imd Uw 
writ lH>eii inulo nitiiniAlitc Mom tliciii: Pt^ie 
v.ilrti>(«r, SI Cdl. 317. 

Z County aoiiTta.~TliainAttw«civeruhii]li 

■upr«mn onurt held lh.1t odien tlie amijaot uf these murli hail jiiriiKlktien have htttt l>Lut«l 
"' ■ - .-...-.- ■ -L . ., . ,..•.. ,,,i[|,jj, ihejuiiBdjulii>o of llie nuperiur ciMirtsi 

Ex parU T-JauJ. !,l Va\. SM. l'«r ooavun- 
iouoc i>f lufemioo, buwuver, tb« case* are ro- 
tAineil here. 

JurimUdiim gt»fraUy.—\a »ddilioB t« IIm 
povMV (•! the uCMuty cnurt. th'- ■'ouniy )iid!{4 
(wh-^ howevnr. WMDnt t^'■ ■■'.: .'■/"■Ji- 

«r <'rtrli ll'iihr ' o, v, t'a' I . "•!\ htm 

Ic>]i)iroJ lo: 1. 1 < ' I ^t«- 

tnilf: 2. UoM . . , X 

Take aod vorViT'. ((y 

cution uf inalnir' ' 1 . 1 1 i,r< 

Um lunn BUrd fur oaa Ioh than three hundral 
dolkr*. «Jid there wm no jirajer for % (orw-Ioa- 
tm of the tall lieD, orilcr of *ale, etc, tlie Oia- 
^^ ^ .... I ..^ „Q jurixllctiau; aiUnnod: Bill 
V. ' < 11.3^ Itnt the diatrict cDUrta 

li.k>r iii.n u-liare tbe tax Diuciunla to 

I luore llioii tiinv hiiiijlred dalUr*. nr thii i))!]!'^ 
' of tlia (klicn il to f.vMlcOT the lieu: MaiidaM 
V. lUiti"; 3t I'l. uM; ProfU v. O/tvnt, 43 Id. 

Tftl .^Mi anXitni tonoovar money demanded 
by 'luff'iiiUiit iti cxmaa of hffial ntto of toll doc* 

no* iuvutie Che Ie}i»ltty of lli« toll, and eoiuiot tifioalH t» Ihe 

Ic bcimi.'ht in the dittrict court nidcaa tbo 
kmOQot in ctuitrovony ia lhrt« hundrod dol- 
Un; Br-'-'t V. lii<t. Ofi Ca). Sin. 

Mvnliint litr. — Tba diatriot court bail no 
juri,,),... ,., ..■ no utluo to r«>cov»T a fiirfeitnr* 
or !■ 1 a ralbtiftd roiii]wi)y for vhar^- 

ii<f nil oxoM* iif fHr«, a* (irciKvilml 

■A Kiiili, c>'iK«niJni; Htr«i't-niilmatlBi 
:, B, 'SKy; H'ft V. Omi-Af II. K. Vt>., 
:i.i< jl.'.'i'-': Ai3>fA f.Om-Amt H.H. Co., Mid. 

■l,„^.,..f ■ iitn Mcv 53, in nota. Ttio diatriet 

ii'>4, Mrikitaihe ■upciJM'ce'art.havo 

II of nn action upon the •epamte and 

i'IuIki of aeveril dtfcii-UnU to my 

iroi, cai'h li'ui tliin lhr<e hmiifrii! 

IviHnr^ ' I inihfU T, .1' ■' "■-■ i'xl. fO. Ati«( 

Lin ncliou lo rct-iin < "ii iiimm cf 

iMocfc an ui'liim will t. 1 :.• th'^ H»)~-ri-'r 

rOOOft a(>iiif't Iho defnid^ritj* u'Ii-m? .ix«r4>n>oiit 

toM ihtin Xhtv: huixticil dotUi«i l/rrliu v, 

«fTr..., r.l Id. W7. 

Wnu. f-a-rtr It tMvr.— The old c<an«tita< 
tkoi iliil not Kiiprvaaly ^vs the di>tri«t caurls 
■riVrr t-t I4'«,t th« «Til4 of atnuit/iattii, »t^., 
at it i-i' ■■ lli-iiL iini-inal juriaiUcllan In 
la" ' I ihia general or&nt 

I'l jii oourl«exaniMKl tho 

|iow<ii Ul luiii- wiiuM MKin<f>'n lu ami trriio- 
fori, ami heard al>d dotomiuud cuottoronloi 

clerk; 4. Certify io liiQ uwm-niiip vi 



projierty, or tU prucco-U; and, S. I'ui f.icii sueh 
other dutica uaro preaeribcd in any uf thelnini 
of thli alatoi rd. Code, aw. 413-1, i«ior to 

Aiido from lb* airnraw power coiiltrtnj liy 
tlic vocttltatloa on tnu county courU In iiono 
nspen '•! niitiirallnciou. tivy Wl "ivjimnon. 
low ■■ jiirif li':ti<iN « lUiin lljo Ot-t of r->Qi;TVM. 
In fJi i-irlt KM-ri't. 5 Cal. 3U3, Uio mIHtiiw 
Coiiit intiinatvi llinl n«ii9 l"<l tbe diilrict 
oonitj hail tbe yovtt to iumu miuIi |i>|wi>i 
but thii il lucre oAiVcr tHrtun: Hi Cainur, SO 
Id. DO. 

XMitnnff: Srci fi7, nnto. 731. . 

PrfrWr 'nl-y: Se,i mwi. ll.lUotaoq Under 

th<i |];*iii*ral hi^l lA " forcible (ntiy »nu dctuln- 
er." iiivtly I'Xury on*. If not nil, t)iciitat'->ol tlin 
AlovrirBD VnuBi hnvetcxl'lMe'l in ihummca^'t, 
ii')t only u|>i<ii (ni'i-ibln entry fttid furciWe dm- 
tdiiiivr, Lul also tijmn unhwful dvlniiivr, thua 
trentiDf- nil Ihiie fttoi"' luhjivt, «iilfii-!'-iitly<l*- 
aoribcd liy the u-ur>Lt in i|iioiti>ra. TTin vholo 
«nbji><;l of furvi'ili! enti'in and fii. ' ' nn- 
Uwful detain ei-ji I ly teuniita huhln 1 rii- 

Tlded (.-r under tlie geuentl hv ■ ■ Hd 

cnlriM and dutninen, ftnd juritdietiun over 
tho tame wn* jiiica to the aounly oonrft; 
C«»tSil4 t. SUr.«.. ■£» Cal. 1 10. ISI i il"S»n 
V i/rjCny, S7 Id. IW; /wli-oa v. CA'/y. 43 

Cons Civ. Pitoc— 4 




(Tast I, TrrtJi I, 

U. $00. Compm) also tlih Motion vfth •««• 
tnn IIS. 

Till) auii^n of forrihie outrf aaJ ■loUlara' 
iiiTiiliei. aud ita primary «li}i<rt la, th« raouv- 
nnr ol uiHusana M rral pnijiorty, TUe party 
bjiirr.! Ij}* tli« fordble mtij ancT ileUiMV iiuiy 
Kck mlrvHi by an nctaon ui ojcatmaiit in tli« 
illatrM <mrt, vrboro he may bavo jail^tnt 
(ur tiM poaMiaion oJ the landi «i well m for 
iUnia«(rs for their (letention. If, however, ho 
•r«k* a rcmoly by wliat In niually coiialilomil 
A iiiui'r ■timniikry pmocaa, anil ismunoiwca an 
•clluli iif forcrlMe anlry aail •tnUlliur, hu may 
briiiK hU arliou In th« oounty court: (\firr1- 
%iriif)u V. B. R. * A . »'. .1- .W. Co.. 30 0*1. rilO. 

/Hjud'ni'-y .- Sooaoo. 1622, and thaaetof I8S0 
ill afi|M-iii3ix. 

Sl-irM roM*. — In Aii-i* t. ffywt, 10 Cal. 
Ml. till' rtin't hrli! tWnt tlip cmiiily omirt liail 
iuni'lii.*ti('ii of tirwtri-iiin^ 1i> ilvCvrmini: con. 
ni^iiig claiitit tu towu lut^ an iircivUcil in the 
a«t oC the let^oUiiirr of ISliO: .SUila. I8|M>. p 6; 
thnt mch prD«c<iiiii!» cointitntL" a "'ipceinl 
««P," fttfirmnl: %'»ji v. Vi'in' 31 lil. 
1.V17. The court a!»o held that tJie prot'jilnu 
t<> cirfaree a meiihaniu'a lion uiuler llin Uvr. aa 
nmi'11'li.-il in IHlU. wu a ([Kclal caw, nf wliii:h 
tilt' h*t;uLitiirc lui^lit |)ropc(ly ulvi, {utiiulicli'Xl 
til Ihf ujiiiil) oixirU iiii'It tnu fomtitutisili: 
il<Mri V. lli,:lrm.l. -n la. IM. 

It 1* )inKtiuLlly luft to th(> In^slatiira to A<t- 
t«riniii« wLiflihiM- chi' Juiiailielioii ovi-rany girra 
Ktic' >:il ca«*i or iiuinln'r of ««oh apecial caai<*, 
nii'll l« vi«t<nl ill the oouDty court or •ome 
ollk-rvoiirt^ /fcUnrt.,«Cal.iOO-S17. Whcnj 
a ItrinCprttiiiB wu iiistjtiitcd . iinilcr the of I of 
April '^2, 18oS(fur the incorpunt ion of irator 
cnuiptmiei), for the pnrpoie of aciiiiiiinK Iho 
rijlit to »|inro]jriate the wutm of i^pcnvcr 
cnvk, ntiil the right of vgiy for Uin coiivoyaooa 
of tin: u'Atvr*. ct«-, it wonnclil that uiidoraae- 
tlou A, article 6. of thocoDttiliitioii, tW proeood- 
\tiffi ptnviJtd (or In Ihu •ilaliit<' of ISoS wera 
tolM uIbhwiI a* iiiici.-i.ll cn»*ii; that the lo(pi- 
btiir« iiii;;Ul Kraiil jiirixljotioii to cunnty bb 
Wril lUi ti> ilii.tiii't cuurLii and in view of 
I'.t': d'dftik'ii, lit ll"«ij\ljj}y, il M. 3.1, in wliioh 
it on* lit-ld thnt lliC' miprciiic iKnirt ha^ 00 ap- 
[rllat« juriadlcliuQof the iirocuodiuga foUjiBt 
to 1h reviewed because the itaCnts had do- 
claTfl that the judgment of the ooaatv oonrt 
tbo'ilil be final, Junxliutlon of apuciat eiaaa 
Doiild be eiier<:iiK.l only by thoa> cuurta Ut 
whi,>h it waa grantoil hy iho atetot*, and by 
tlio county ooarta when not olbarwise pnividad 
for. Put Jarladiction of Kp»ctal oaaoa nnaot 
bv cnnfi-iT*-! iipun th« Pouiity jiulm: SftiKtr 
Vr^-t tr,ilr,(.\>. T. F.i«r>, *8 Id. Ti. 73. And 
pniCTOilia^ ill liiaolrciioy arv no loiiigcr to bo 
nprdoil aa apcelal cnwa in the aenae iu which 
that pbi«a« waa apiilii-d tu thrtn prior to IW>:i, 
foi by the amondnwuli uf the i:uiuIitulion, llm 
jiirii>llMini) bcuaina orjjaiiie: P'oiilt r. No'- 
XtrrtoiaK. 39 Id. 418. Tbe wont* ">i|>viital 
CMea" <lo not apply to ■ncli maltcn a> ilicor- 
norsliii^ town i;'"'enin>enUi /'(OjWe *. TWii of 
AVP-I./.I.8 1.1. U\. 

Il'd-'w rorfta*: Sec. llOft, not*^ 

Ari'T'nll-vi,.- SNSUta. I8T5-A.P. »12.found 
in Civil C'kU. ajipaailol to »«cttoii 270, 

iUtiiomrit county unurta uonld iiot ii»ae, 
exoeilt In aid <•( it* apjwllntu jni-iiiliction: 

/W «. .ViuoH, 47 Ul. 7( Wiko* i. Onllaml, 
49 I<L SO. 

(Vi'mfnuJ (MMA— County court eoalil «uu>r- 

tatn jarudlclkni of mMfmeanor proarcated 
by tiidktmeut: Errxtrtr .VrCariA)i,SiCaLt\i. 
Biit auch e-iurt dmI>I aal tax cnati a^^iut tiie 
pruntvuting w)tn«w: In rr Warius. 0" Id- SIX 

3^ Frobate ooturt>— Modowi law.— I'm- 
bate prixi-vdiii^ wer» unl[a<>wn nnUr Mviic.tu 
law[ Vti*m V. ''lurni, It Cal. llil. Tt>c \r^- 
Uture inlrmdol tliot all Mtalaa wlinw nwuar* 
lioit decHuttl prior to tbe p■m^■e of tb* D>rigi- 
uol pivbitc net, and tabooiufBt to tbo Bbnisa- 
thMi of tlie Uriicaii law, alioald Iw M-ttlc^l ar- 
conlinjE to the method of th* ai4. Tu thai 
tileot tlie atatuto waa bteoded to be rrln>- 
actifa. Tbc intention oo«U iiot have bom 
Ibat IhU cla« ol aatatca rfiould be clowd o«t 
acvoftiing to the Uoxican mctliod, for th» Me«- 
iicas systt'in boil btao encpended befo(« tha act 
was iiaueil; ami it ll wm not iateikdcd to uab- 
}r<!\ them to tlie aot uf 1800^ it tollowa Uiat It 
wna iu tbo minil of til* 1«^l«tarv to laave 
tbeir Mttlement to the mio of thi> uoninou 
Inw — a Nault wbii^h the court n>>:iir'li'il aa 
abaurd: Prrmlt v. StuUr, 28 Id SAk WliiUt 
under the ^Uiican i^rtem there waa im m«1i 
prfiorcilliit; u an ailimniatration in the aewa o( 
ths coinmou law. yet it would be a iMial 
•tnng^ »[ii>iiidty iu any nyvtcin of law if there 
wcrv n'it •'^mii .uiHtugoiu jirococdiD^ for prtacrr- 
iuf aod iliKtribuli»)(tlicvi4atcotBiiooeaaed pcr> 
■oufor Ibi- UiiuGtiuiilai'ciinty of the eroliton 
and hrini ut law iu nuy ca*u. a haiaror. Wttb- 
out attempting the dilGcalt and OMUaa toak at 
a&alytius with procuion what tluM re^ulo- 
tlona aero under tbo Mexican ayalem. the 
uourt waa wtlaliad there waa (ome Jimcacllag 

Eimvlilad by bw, or by ubmb aail cuatoni bar- 
iig tlie force <A law. whorcliy the wtatc of » 
dvcNMOil pmaun could be prvaerved, and, if nord 
warev dl»i«ieed of tor the payment of debtai 
aod when* it appuarod that the nUI court of 
fint inatancu ntteniptxl t<> uart^' nut tbeae rcg- 
nlationi or UMgea, and rxoidiL-il juriaJiction 
orer the cetatea ef docinanl cerauna with Ilia 
consent and OMjuieaoenco of tne |i*ople, iu d«- 
crooa liaTins bei-n ■iibmiltnl to and ila autlior- 
Ity unquestlionoil. although iU proci<rdiiigt weiw 
cniila oiul mimnmi^-. and aantiag in auntn of 
tiio «hief aleinonla wblob charactcriae jmlioial 
prvoiiailluK* in older oomniDuiliM, yet ita pn>- 
ovvdiui;* bail Iwon so Ions aoqnicMcd to. and 
■uoh iniportaut inlCTMto had grown out of 
them, tlie aupivma court hold that lli«y ha<l 
beoume a rule of property, withdut loiiiiirlng 
very minulely into thnr orisinnl validity: 
%ilcr V. CoAn. 37 Id. 00. 01. WhM« the !«•• 
tator died prAiiotu to the oitabliahmenl of tli* 
atate governmoul. it mu lield that hit will 
could not 1« prolnlwl, and that it muat raeK 
on ita TiilUity, under the law* exiatinu wkm 
tliH tfvtaCor U!.»l: .-uxl it wan furtlier bcid that 
uiidi-r the Mcxttan Uw euch a proorcdiug *• 
the probate oS an omd will waa uuknvB-n: 
IVi-ii V. Pitrh-r, 10 I<t. 477. 

Pnhale Juil-rt.—TUerv ii no unifortnity In 
the raauner in which thu itiffrfnut vouiily 
judgci ugn or attest unlm and procwdinn* m 
tlie Mcttlcment of the eitatrn -if dtCM*cil (wr- 
«na». Hnmcliina they iikl- their niinplc *<K"a- 
turei, without any .li-iiiiiiatiou of their official 
characiar. and Hoim'tinic* they add lite ilaaiu- 
nation ■' county ju'lga." and lomrtimci " pre- 
bMf jnA^." and it liaa ueviir bc«u held or 
■iiplHiieJ that tile viiliility of the orden or 
pruocedinua Was iu any nip«iit allboteJ by llie 
obaence of the ulfioial dvsignatiou fna IIbc aig- 



CtUT. IV.] 



nahtra. or t)i« |innBC* ef (ha ilMlpwticai 
" uoiuily iii<l|^ " iiuUml of "prot)«t« iiulffei" 
nwWtf V. ('nw, 30C*L 158. 

BliifikHiif<iffiiidae: — - Forraerlf probtle jiidgc* 
ware nut required Ui ba hwyw or Ugfiod at- 
lornaya: PaiiU v. iAsncy. 32Ca]. SSl 

JafimSieliim. — Probue (cnrU, in the mii- 
•trucUon of tb«lr ^nxt/oAingfi hul bcforo the 
^MMfo •<( thd act of IfOS. ara to tw minLol 
rW coarU n( liinitoil ui>l iiiforior Jurtiiliutlon: 
. Tomatad V. Ovnimi, ID Cal. '.IMi AmiVA r. 
ilnJ/Ttr*, d Id. ^C; BrcirU r. Sriemf, 1 Id. 
iXbi llapsn V. Urttt, 10 Id. 1)0; (»ar£« v, 
Pffrift S Id. !>^ But Baba(quratl]r th« pn>bot« 
ooortiWTTe otlicnrise r*|I*fJol; iuiil in Broii- 
nW V, TilAiU. 03 W. SO. It WM mid tUl " the 
' -t o( tlic Lit« |>n))Bl« ooiirl luu t<> be 
in Van trnton manner m die procccd- 
iii.:>i.^ uLiru of xmcntl Jnniili<;t[»n.' Apart 
f colli lliH (lailiiT 'livUicuit, it iiiijilil bo qiim- 
liutHvl wll-.<ttl<T tli< (iroliAlii COIItL UIldoT lb« 
cowttitution. <lid no) )<»«•(« An •xcliulvn juriit' 
difiion ui'cT lataoHiiitary sad Tiivlat« inatttm: 
UlatOcm V. Sing, 'Z How. (Mint.) 850: Cnrmifhtt 
s, llroti-\l'.r,3 IJ. 2iB; /orrr v. tVaw*, 1 SnieJ. 
It y. TUTi iMtt our luptrmc coart hu rco- 
ccntMiladiflbrcDtmlc: Clarhcr. /Vrry.SUal. 
liS: fon/vnt V. Htad. UL 2ft;. Ttio (frouud 
iiixin wlilv'l) oqfiity took Jurlalictioiii in Kiig- 
laoil ill *urti ck*n mta, that llie tpljitaAl court* 
wi'iT out alik, fnuii tlivir cauUliitioD, to allvnl 
»d*(iuata uid eoiniik'U ntiet: I Story'* K<i. 
Jur, MSB. ftSO ut Mt]. Though much of tiiu 
. iiiKnii of (Ilia rule ia rvnioitiH in miitt of tho 
■tatca ut tbe Union wbere }in>lal« oourta 
cliat. yet tlic jiovcr tj tho oliaDocif court to 
iaterpiMi for tli« wttlcDiont of itccoutiU and 
tb« cnforcanicst of tnwu of tliia wrt i* main- 
taiuuii. It 1> not ncGCMary to hold that ciun- 
I <ary ha« ^rlndtetinn to open an acooDst or 
aliifir niatl«T wt^wi hy ihn |irotial« court, ci- 
Mpt uuiImt |i««li*r <<c|uiuliia circuiniUiiun; 
nor ha* it bevo dcoiiltd tliat tha dUtricI cnurt 
nay niUidraw (nnu tho nobat* oourt, under 
ordinary circvinstaiKiM, uio Mittl«iii«ut of on 
. aocovat or the power of distriluliiii; uu ntntv: 
' bat limiting thouMelm to ttiu cnia Imfore it, 
Ifcn court held lliat the dittriat oourti n'i^lit 
Ulko hiriMtiction of the lettkinicnt of au estate, 
or of > lru*t of ilua aort, vhun there were 
pMwUar ciitsnUnac** of ontumiMincot to ita 
BdulaiatnUtUD, and when tb<i onumlnK of 
jftriMUotiMi woold prevout KrcBt dtlny, ox- 
iwaua, imWdTtsitiKD, and watte, anil tlina 
convludv hy one acti<'U and dc«rM< a [irotracliid 
aa-l rexalioan liti^tion. In thin <aB« ilsfvod- 
ant (iFtkc vu the ailniiiiiilrBtor of the citate, 
aed looli pi»cMkin of tlie penoul properly 
Mtil of Die realty. It ni olurpd that lie hod 
not acltlo) hla acoonnt«, add that he wo* 
Uii'-'U liiiblo on account of bb admlnUtratiou. 
■ •■■ iiuritoiK* ut tho hlil wa* toobl^tn a 
1-1 of thin accouiit itiid ■ deerao ol dia- 
lr.l>i:ii:/ii, Tbo Uil eliar^l tli«t Qorko waa 
IvHiotci from the idmiDiiilmtinn o( (hoMtate 
hf the MulMtc oonrt, ami thai flown- wu «p- 
MtallCfTiB hi* phot! UutUerbB appealed from 
tbla order to the inprems court, wlwre the 
ontcr <•*»• rvverMd ia p>rt, lint not in rcapect 
tn t^d iiilijoct of reiiu>VBl. oad llut Gorlte 
'« be in officii that Ilngen niKcOMlod 
I < oonornl adniliiLalmtor, awl nltboat 
■ r -' Icy littJ acistd u|Mu a iMTtion of 

tli>' ' "MMte. That n (XTtafii wuinui, , 

will/ lo have been llie wi(u of de- 

ocaaeil. hod aet up k eUin to the eatnt*. and 
tbat her eUim wna iiufo«ii<li>rL, Tbo Init 
[irared aKUlcuiieut of llic cats tu, dUlrjIia lion, 
and Uio a|i|i»lnta)ftnt til « rr««iver. T)>n 
(aprcmo court \kU tiltinurrrr shMJi aaaallcd 
tbc InrihlirtKin i>f the diatriol rovK uatenutilei 
/)wi V. a^l*. IS Id. 4M. 

Pn>lHto ociurC* havi> rx^tusii« jurimlivtioo lo 
ooiniHil an i>xi.>uutor to nc<uimt for pecvunat 
prof'iTty that mine into bis hui'la: AujpiiMota 
r. ArMia, il CaL 43J; but hai» no |>o«vr lo 
onforoe > Iruit bycoQipcUing ttioAdmuiiitnitor 
to ounvny to the liein ]iro]>crt7 bold In tnut: 
llatrfttitkr. T/udtt, Id. 431; oar order aui^n- 
mont of bond of inilemnitj Klviin to uio 
dcecdonl Id b!> tlfc-tima m> ilivrilT: iirl)r.r- 
molt V. Mitfhrll, S3 Id. Olli; nor orilor mIv nf 
rMtl ntain on liuMrfeet p«tiUon, or hy one not 
l(:fl''"y *I>pvlnl«d aa ndminiRltatoii Pr^/trr <!. 
lHanrg, GO Id. KOl nor hMl the bt« probat* 
court juriadiction to deUm>ino diipntea b«- 
IwvTii Ibe liuin or ruprraiMitJilivei at the 
deocaord and tiiird pmoiu : TMIrr y.SurStWt 
Id. ffSi nor to B(4 wido • docr*e of diitribii, 
tioa on tbo ground of fmud: Kniaie o/ /Itdmi, 
63 Cal. 4M. In Ihii ras|wet tho lurudlction of 
tho anpcriorconrt la nut oDkrged: Id. Home- 
aload; Sec. 14T4. Claim* auainat decodtnta' 
eiilAto*: 8oc )4!I3. Frandufvat oonvoynncM; 
Sec. IS891 Rxeuuton', uic.. ellnwaac**, otc.i 
.S<><:. 1010. Tb«ir(<«a,aU'..i »cu. ICI8. Uuar>l- 
iaii«^ Hcc. 1717. 

SCunloSpol cotut of nppcnbi of Son Ttma- 
daOO could Dol ao]uirr jutiixlicticai ol a CaM 
cjionit by tranafur from tlie county coiirl; 
rroCocJt V. Can. SO Cal. 301 : t>tir:ai»o v. Jf.- 
nieip^ Court of ApjiraU, tiO Id. 290. But no 
order of Inuulcr 1^ the county ranrt vaa m-o- 
casary to giro the mniij<:ipal court of Bjip»Ii 
juriidiction orer appnaU pMiiIlng in tbo lonncr 
court: CoMiPtM v. Mwi'ijirr! ''a«i1 "/ A/'J'mIi, 
I Wmt Coa«t RwDl &70; /Mri* v. Sa^wriar 
Couri, II Hac. C. L J. S70. Tbla court hud 
iiirindiutiiin to diainiu an aniiMl frotn tlio ju*- 
liccn' cnurt, wbero the appellant fniU to appear 
at the trial, thoutfb no notiw uf luiiliim to iliti- 
mini it gii-vU! ..f ieiouifrr r. iffiNicJpat C^arl, 4 
Weit C'.uat Ilrp. ilft 

SupeilM courta, jtttladlctiotioC— Snbd, S. 
Amount In ranlrorrrtjf Ihrer hundred dolUni 
Soo tfipra, nuto *' Dutnct Courlai " and alio 
notn lo aec. &!, aiitf. 

SuImI 4. Pr^tr faiatt. — Tlio jnrUdletion of 
tho enporior court aaa cAuct of |>robatc ii aopa- 
ratiiuid dint! net (nnu It* Junitiliclion In ordinary 
ui»il o(Ttion»: /n re All-jirr, •! Wmt Coont Rup, 
670. But it hua not b«cu vulorvod: Stiale ^ 
llu.lnn.Ki Cil. 134. 

Subd. &. Criniitdl jun'MfMifte.— Ttie lu- 
pcrior court has loii juiisJiotioa of tho criino 
of petit krocny. it having bcai conforred on 
the Justice'* court by aoctioD 1 13 cd tlib coilvi 
Ex i^arU Waltiitsfonl. 00 Cal. 103; aii'l of mi«- 
deinMnor* liniii.<)ia>>lo I>t tine iMt eiuccding f)<r.i 
hundrvil doIUm: (l'<tf""i r. Jtn-S. Id HO. 
It bUU baa junwlictton (•( pnui^ution for on 
amanlt by meatM tik«ly to |u'<'i)uoe ^ma Uidily 
injury; ProjtU v. fhh'<i. M Id. S12. 

Sxiradilina o/ /iijiVti".— Ulate oourta lure 
power to Urao naiian mrjim to liave priaonur 
bold UDiier rc^uiiilioQ frouignvtrnorof auoUicr 
atate bmu^ht before them and hi* •toieiitiiiii 
liujnirod into: /■ S' ff"!4.BI L'*l. 4Sl| rotum; 
Saw. ,'rf», Tho ■Ifviiion iu Sawyer ww over- 
luUdiulll U. H.62i. 




IPiw I. TiTW I, 

TJ, JpjM-ltale juritdMion. 

Hix. 77. The stiperior courtM ulioll have app«llnte joriwlietion in ludi 
aritjing in justices' and oLhct iiifotior oouits io. ttudr ntipootivu couttticH a« tMj 
be preschbed bj law. 

78. PivcfM. 

Sec. 79. The process of the superior courte »ti»ll intoud to aII pnrta of Um 
iitato; provided, tltat all actioue for Iha reooroi^- of tlio poeaeaaiou of, (luieiinK 
tbo tillo to, ur for tlie enforcement of lioitH upou rcnl mtote, aball be oouktueuce.! 
in tba vouiitj- in which the md eptato, or uiy pui thereof alTected h; euuL 
action or ttctions. in Bitonted. 

79. 'I'i'aiiMfer of hookt, papen, and adions. 

Sr.c. 70. All rccortU, books, iKipers,caase><,itctioR8,prooe«ding;s,&ndappe«lji 

lodjT^, depo«itcd, or pending in tbe duttrict court or oourU, eouulj- court, 

probate vourt, iniinfcipAl criuiiutl court, or inuuicipal ooart of appeaU. of, in, 

or for any cotinty, or cityand iiouuty of lb« tttntv, abolished by the oonatiluLiuu, 

lire Uiumforrttd to tbo superior court of auoh county, or city and county, whiuli 

lina tbe hiiuiu ikiwct and jurtKdictioD over Uioni im if tbcy hiul been in the firsl 

de}-rce ludi^i'd, doputtittid, filed, or voiumuuoed tltcruiu, or, in oases of appeal, 

appealed thereto. 

An An lu franker tie rword*, jinpfn, nail twrfiMW ^ thu ownrt* rxUtitg oa lie Ihirtg-J[nt 'laf q^ 
iMtvmUr, offblrt* huaind »Ad lewnljr-Nliir, in IhU Malr, to iSe roHtU nun 'litliity (htniik. 

Smpnmr n'*irl, iwerant offmtrl uj tnmt iittrnf. 

^KCTii^s I. Tiie nuiiigiuo iMurt iiliHll, fiji' .'Ui jiiiipowa. b* ooaiMand thvaaooMHT e( thocmirt 
of lliuuttiD iiaiiir viliiili uiu BliotUlin] Ml llivlinit ilnyut Jnoiiiuy, ■.■■{^litvvii liDiiJtwl aail eighty. 
aiul in Irnvn ■ti'".---i\tv<l lu >|] tU Uiifii>i*lir>l (•UHiuiai. It •liall have jiirii^wUaa of, Mill aluul 

I'' MI-. t>r MthiTwiau dupoiH uf. ■)! t'suiKd, p(vc€«>linj^ AMv&lii. iikiUmm, Mill inat' 

1' >i:| Aki ill tliB ooiiit KUtiemnli^ii l>y it: itail «1m^ <>f oil nppivln Uikau to Biiih 

iMv 1 iwr lucli iLiy. from jintj;nianU or nnleni <i( Knjr of tlie inferior mm rts nUiUsha.l 

l>y lliu ooiittitulicci. Fi-oiii and afUf tlie ilrtt ilny of J«niiaQr, rlslitcca biinilml aixl rit;lity, Uie 
>up[«nu i:ouit iiiiall liavu lliu cuatoil}! ol all racnnta, book*. Biiu pi|KTniof tbo {onnrr autircnin 
vuuit. au<t tlic annie juriailiotiou uvar iu jiul|iiiMtit>s untera, mhI pnwvciliii^ a* if tbcy hail in 
tlio tint iiiBUiicc bcnu midcrcit, maiU, or <<»i<niuiK'v<J In tbe jiroMiit «>nrU All lava ralattof 
bi tlic lomicr court ahall, u tar kt a(>pl>c*klr. b« ooutiilvrvit u a(Tly'"K V> lb* pnacnt cmrL. 
j\ll ritUa of tlic (ornier cuurt wlikli ii«r? in (urre on tliu lint day nl inwawy, vi^ntota ImadrMl 
Bixl rijilicy. atui not inoonalataat «itli thu acmtlitutioii, >b&ll oiuitliins in (ureu a* ruUa ol tha 
).f<>H-iii court until all«r«d, •Iwluhml, vraupvneJvd by the unler ol lliB ooiurt 
Suprrior Mnrti, niivnMr <if ii^bal amrtt. 

Htx: '.'. Tlio RUiwrior ronrt of i^ofh raanly in thu atata ahall. tor all pnrpMM. W Ma*l(l4r«tt 
till' Kiironwor ol the ilialrtct, oontily. ami (irobntc miiita llwTTof, and, tn tbe tilr no'l cu<inly uf 
Snii i''nin(>ibcn, of tbi- inimicipal criminal court and wimiciiwl iHiurt of aiiittialB. anil uliall be 
■)i'<rm»l t» hay* «n<-oefit«l to all tlla uiifiniah&l hiuinn* of aaid caiirta. ITw aiipcnur cmrta 
aliall hear, iletemiiiic. or othrrwiae diapou ol. all cAiiua au<l procovliiiipi whicb vcrv |»n>liB|{ 
CO tlia iirst ilajr el Jaavarf, ciglit«OD hiin<lnxl an-l vijthty. ia t>i« mid oourta anpariedcd 1^ tl»»iii. 
Mul overy motion or prncndisg than pvii.lin^.. .k I livriMittur riihIv nr t*k«n In anch . tnnjn sml 
Itroomliof,-*, au'l of which aaiilcgnrl* " i>.vl iiiri>alUti<M] liail tb*y not In''' 

ami alao, nil appuU tnkenor |<i)r(nc1(i1. ' 't.-r -^ul lUv, (rmn nil iirtlan Ot y ■ < 

ja*ti«a' and polico cnuria whivh Uy I.-iu , ' ' Knim .iri<l 'n ' 

rUy of JoBUary, rijifatvcn liiindtt-l .iml i i . -Iiall huvv tti>> (< i 

[ lUin roconli, hooka, aii'l [ <; r- r r:, •;,":. 

Hkiii tlicTvnf, anil of tin 

la.lanic aiiil Unto praom ili 

flnt loilaiioc bacii llli>il. comiiimcvil, reoilcrct], ma>lc, or iaiQKi ia nr liy thu an; 
Th* toiwrwiroiurl o( the i-ity and county of Sao ¥t*a<iMKi ahull havo jariulivUnii ■ 
try Bti'l 'lisj>u*n <if. all inilictiTiFnM for mlailcraranar peaiUns la tbc city criminal cumt u! 
uily aiiil ciiuiily dii tli'i tint -U/ ot Juiilnry, oi;;htecn bnuJrtuT aid dj{)ityi anil anth iiididtmt.-iili, 
anil all papifsanil rtoiirili rcUlitu Iharato, ahiiU ba ttanatorrtJ t« thn aald mptrior •man anil 
barwaa rooonl* thereof. Any apnlicntltm, motion, or ]>nio««iliiig, art l>v ttia <ti»tTlo^ ci^uty. '« 
ppolata Miirt of a.ny county, or l>j tbo Jit'Lca tbcNuf, to be liaan) by uioh nurl im Jh<I^ oftrr 
tha flral day of Jannirj', oitthtiwn Lundnil ilhiI •-ii;'''y. ""^y h« liMfl ia lli« ■iitoirior court <J 
anrli mnnty, upou the Kuno notio* tiMt waa rrtiDlrol to aulhoftni tl» hmrios tTtoroof la ancli 
•'' <i<t)', or proliatv conrt. or by llio iuilj^ tlxTMif. Any iiroumi iasui-d .-at of aoy i)L«' 

* ' < . T wubala esart of thla ttalv l»(»re tlio lint day of Jaiiuaiy. c>ght«pn huadnid 

uji , . I-,. I-,., iiiayMerrrfd,oc the tcrrloa than)urcocatJut«J,«fti)ruiit Jny, kn tlvv aioin maaiMr, 


Chap. rF.l 

8Up>:riok coukts. 


Aiul witk llk« vtteet, tt if nich OKirta tio/l luit 1<«d jtl^liklioi; pmvidoil, ttmt neb profOM sliall 
L* rrliimo'l W llie lupciic-r ix-nrt of t)i« rcnmly in ndi-'L It ww 'maei, oitA any Appo*mi>(.'ii or 
Auawar nyiuiroil hj mub [iroom nhull Im tiwil* nr lil«l lii Huch «onrt. 

Mil.'. S. All i>riiwciilio[» which wMvtruififvrrtiJ or Mrll&Bil lur trial to tliocily '-Hiulnil'viurt 
of lliQrity ui J t-iMiily uf San Pruieiioo, by th«|«]lo«oonnth«r<«f, anil <ktv ih-iiiIUij: <'r imJi- 
ti:fimiLc<l oil Ibu lirit day ut JBitiiiiry. nighlflxi litaii'lr*>l an't dgbty, ihivtl )>« trivil nnii <)i4jirn:>) i-f 
in (lie Mtid |K>licu pcnirt; atiil ull ttii' 10i)i"r>i. pl(»ilin^->, aii-1 iwuniii rvUliii;- Xn fiiili iin-x^'UliuDt 
•halt In (r«iaf«rrcO lo, mA ilrjimilat wilii. hiJ jiuIim court, uiil Lisuuuid tvvunl* uiil |i»}>«n> 

&K. 4. TbU Mt lUl take effort iaui>*dJAt«ly. 

At Act M mf/Vr Mj^n lit 4<i/«rior nmrf 4i/<ailt Mimly, nvf tlk j^tdye iktrfuf. rhr. jioiivri A'rrli>> 

(AtpriTnl 4pnl 4, liM); liii^ 'A (B*a. vd. 1U|.J 
^■ifAorif|r^i>M«iurl4 atidjud'jt' rttltil iu ntru <ourf4 on-I^Wj/ea. 

SciniuM I. Ill nil (OMB in which, on Ihe lint djiy of JanuBiy, ei(;1iteFn liunrlrMl anil 
*>s''t}'> '">' aal^oHtT or jurudiutiou wu by lair vmtnl in th« oounty 01* pmtnUi court u( any 
county, or In the judge tktmol, or in uiy ilutrict court of auoh count)-, or in the juilgo thcrml. 
[ aui,'!) JBiixllctJon and aalkority ■hall bsreaH^r, whilo luuh Uir continue* in tatct, be vcatoil in 
Will *X((«i*oil by i)m) miperior ooort of neb county, or by a judge thcruof. 
Trial* to 4« t^ntinarrt in nrbw* niwi, 

Ssc. 2. If acy jutlji* cf tlie Riiprriur cnort of any county wb« tho JuiIji>o tJ tkn county. ]iro- 
but*, or ilutriut mart in ami (ur taij cniiiity nn Ilia Ant day d Jaiiua^, «%l>U<vii litiiiilred unil 
cauhty, Bcd any oauac, [jrocixuliofc, nr inotiMi, wliiflly or iiarliaJly tried tvlurr bini ivinniii* luiili-- 
ciutidi th« wperior ouuit, wbcn jimbled vi it L>y liiin, may iMunis the oonaidnrstiun ur triiil ci 
■neb caoM^ frocNding, or mntion, at lliu Hbifp.> Hlitrm it wiw auapandcd in aiich probatt'. iminty, 
or diatrict coatL and nay conipleCe aucii trial ur hcarintt. or d«l*nniiie mich oauM, nii>tiun, or 
proeecdiag, a* il the uimo hail lint be«>i bron|tht ur mad* iu auch ■upcriot court. 

Sko, 3. Tfaia act •hall take effect iintii«diat«ly. 

An d^ lo pmMt an adJilianal Jadgt 0/ Ok mptrior eourl for Iht oounli; <t^ J/ooOi 
|Ajii>T««*d April U^lMOi iaMtW(Baa.M.Ul].J 
Arl-hllonal indgt (^ tkt mperior rourl ^Uon« f«anty, 

Sntium 1. Witbin ten days alter Uie |ioua^ of thia act tlic goTcriior ahall npiMiBtaii addi- 
tional Judge of the auporlor ooart c4 the county of Uono, who ahoU i^uatify forthwitb. oni) ihall 
Itold aald offloe until ihn Bnt Monday aftw the flnt day of Jaaoary, a. v. eighteen bundrctl ami 
I «I^ty><iu*i and at Ihe next general clccliion a judge of the aupcriorcMirt of Mtid county iibii]] l>a 
' •leotoil. to liolit ntSoti tcr the tcnn of four ycata from tbo tint Uonday after tlie Urat day »f Jou- 
uory, A. O. «iglit4«u buiidred anil •Ighly-ough 

am:, 2. The aaiory of said additiMial jud^ ahall be the wane In anonot. and nball be paid in 
the aamc mawier, m that of the judgn ot £« superior court ot aoid county now authorixud by 
&K1!. X Thia act ahall be in fon:c from and after it* approral by the governor. 

H«w courts 0i]coO0dlnB old.— The new that county, and tlicrofcra thn lapcrior eourt 

DOnatitutioni in alwliabiiig the then eiixllng 

coof ta of rrcorO, tirovidcd that there ahonld ba 

no t))tcm)|>tto>i tu Ibe ailiiiiniatratliMi of ju»- 

tic*, by «>ntvrrinK the ixiwtni anil jiirifdictiun 

of the abolUhMl Mnria upoa thi«e newly ere- 

atrd. Tli» •iiportor court* mioo*eil«d lo the 

diattlct <««r(ii. nbil have fnit jurisdiction over 

tile caant pmililu; in Ihe lallvr: I'rople v. 

CoHif, M \M. Im. In this caw a tupvnor 

court wn* held cnipuwered to esiviito a ^cn^ 

t«ii>" of death proaiouiicod by a ■uponedcil 

nrL .So alas tbe anpMior court auo- 

' ilic powura and hinidiollona of tb* 

■'•■■■ l^ /arte JilaaJ, Id. 344; oiul 

il criminal court nf San Prui- 

(ni >'ijj-'W«' (7od-rt, u7 Id. Ml. 

t'lK ' r III I < I. ':»n of the nnw eoatlilutlou. 
anl--'' ' I' >, In ktibelanco iuoorporaled 

bi tbe almre t^Kifui, the ■iijiCTici' oourt of a ,. 
rooUy toooMda t« tli* diitrici oouit iu Mul fo^ too. '0. 


of S«a Fraiidico inooeada lo the pov^r* and 
Juritdictloo ut the Hfteentli d<«lrict court for 
that city anil county, and rotab* JuriadlvtUiu 
ot prooocdinga inatitiited in unch oourt involt-. 
in;; laml lying without the rouiity, iiMwilli- 
■toDding (he langnogo of article 6, Mction .*<, of 
the ucw convtjtution. Such aec'tiun is pro- 
■pectjvn, lelfttin^ to the future coniKencnnient 
ot nilta oOLaoMiuiig landi Gurnt* v. Siiceriw 
Covrt. T-^Vm\. 9». 

Superior court as « Court of probata Uni 
no UKM cnlarurit jurinli'-lion In m)|arcl to iU>- 
cma of dikliiliiitli'Ti ilmn tli<> dbtrict court, 
aoit caikuot •<*i uidr aueb Umre* for trnoili 
£.liir« ttf- //viMt. ns C'al. 4M. Tlio pr •■ 
liale juKldiuIion of the lujicriur court is tup' 
ar»t« anil distinct froni the juriipitii'tiKla uf 
such oourt ID orilinaty civil octiuuii: /u n AH- 
ffirr. 2 WMt Cdmc Rep. STft; let abto a.«le, 



[Faki L Tm* I. 



Aimcui I. Or JcsncKR* Conm tK Citii» mtt Commx* tt 

II. Or Jl-CTICBfi' COUKTS ix Tow'KsaiPs „ 108 

in. Jcicnos or lus t'lucs amj Juancra' Cocnn uf Odib&*L 110 


jvsTtott' oooBTt IX cmM AM> ootnnui. I 

S&. JuMieas' courts and jugtkat. 

Ski. 86. Th«ni eha.!! bo in oreij ci^ am\ county of monj Uina odo handnd 

tkoUKuiicI population, a jtuiticcs' court, forwhkli firo JuhUcch of tlio penoo nIuJI 

bo elvct«i] hy Uio (|unlifioi] oloctont uf hucIi city and county *t tlic ^neml Rteta. 

election tioxt prvo«din^ tLii itxpinttou cif tbe t«nus of olBce of their prcdoc w -j 

sors. Any onti ot Hiiid jitKtti-i-H titiiy liulil <-inirt, uikI there may bo tta inany HraH 

fiioDs of Aaid court ut Uiu aaiut^ tim« mi Uk^fu ato juslioes tliereof. The audi 

joatices ehall choooe onn of thcdr number to boj)refiidiDK )ustice, who uuy ftt 

uiy lime be removed and uiother uppoint*^! in kin phice by u vote of a umjority j 

of them; provided, that in oaae of the t4>uiponir}- ubsciioe or disability of tha< 

presidiiiff justice, any one of the other justioca, to be designated by the preaid- 

iug jostioe, tuny act as preeidiog justice duiinK such absence or disability. 

JuMlcea' COUTti.— Electioaii of jwtioM^ SFCooiiMtirlatiaiikotof H*n ('ruicUooMidtlk* 

ooiupara wca. 1D3. 1 lU. act ^f Mwcb 'ii. ISQH, aarl aniciKluisiitJi organ- 

CouBt. CJ., art. 0, boo- II. bdngtbo)nati>.'«a'<.x>uruui tlmtcitjriuidooiui^j, 

86. JuMlUxit' clerk. 

Skc 86. The eupervisom of auoh dtr ontl eounty shall appoint a juatioes' 
clerk on the written nomination and reoommeodation of said justiocs, or n lufr- 
jority of them, who shall bold office for two years, and until his BUC<:«s6or ia 
iu like manner appoioted and qualified. Said juaticea' elerk shall take the 
coDstitution&l oath of office, and give bond in the sum of ten thousand dol- 
lars fur tbe faithful discharge of the duties of his office, and in the same 
inannor tat is or may be rtxiuired of other officers of such city and county. 
A new or additional bond may be required by tbe supen-ison of auch city 
nnd county, and in such amount as may be fixed by said supervisors, when- 
ever they may deem it necessary. Tho justices' clerk shall have authority 
to appoint two doputy clorka, for whoso acts he shall be responsible on hiu 
official bond, til said deputy clerks to hold office during the plMWuniof emid 
clerk. 8ui(] juntious' civrk and deputy iduilt have authori^ to odmiiiiHt^ir uathtt, 
and take and certify affidavit* in «uy action, suit, or procoeding iu aaid juaticea' 
Mbilaterial offloers o( cotots of iusUoe: Sm poU, moi. QOZ vt ttq. 

67. Shirrijf aiui d'-f,ulir«. 

Sbc. 87. 11)0 sheriff of such city and county shall be ex officio an officer of 
Raiil court, and it sluJl be his duty to serve or execute, or cause tu Ixi iK^rvod 
iin^l <!xccut4.-d. each and evtry procoss, writ, or order Uuit muy bo iwuod by auiil 
ju^ticiw' court; provided, tliat a siimnions issued from said court may 1w veived 
nod n^lun)r<t a.H provided iu sf«;tion Hght hundred and forty-nine of this code; 
and ttint KubjHBnos may b« iiwuvd by the justices' clerk and nvrvod an provider! 
in sections one thousand nine hundred and eighty-soven and one thoosand nine 
hundred and eighty-ciglit of thJa code. Tliv said shorifT may appoiut, iii ad- 
dition to tbe other d<,-i>uttM oUowisd by hiw, tliroo d«putic», whuae duty it 

k 3$ ; 

Ciur. V.J 



Bliall bo to M^st said HberifT in serving »aA oxccuting Uio pTOcOKs, wriU, and 
onlcn of tb« said justaoea' courL Said d«ivu(icH hliull r<:ocir« u Milan- of one 
Iiiiudi«d oDd twent.v-Sra dollars l>er tuouth eucb, pav»l>lA inoutbly, out of 
tbe eitjr and count; treasury, and out of tbe special feo fund, «ft"r being 
f!i«l allowed a&d audited as otbcr demands are by law reqitircd to Itc nuditod 
uad allowed. One of said deputies tiliall T^niain in att«udaooo during tbo 
sessions of snid court, and at such other times as the said court or tlin prv- 
tiding justice thereof may ortler and direct, for tlie putpose of atteudiog to 
such duties as may be iiopoHod od >Mtid sberilTor said deputies as beTCdn pro- 
vid's], or rviiuiriKl by Inw. Tbo raid KbcriffHliain>e linbloon bis official bond 
for the fititliful purfonoanco of all duties required of liim, or uoy of bis said 

88. Ojfiee» ond ttffvx htnin. 

Sko. 88. ' The Kupcirrisora of vuch eity nnd conn^ shall provide, in some coo- 
veoieot luoolity In tlie oity and eounly, a suitable office, or suito of ofBoes, for 
■aid presiding juHticc, jnsticM* clvrk, deputy oWtc, and deputy aberiff, nnd 
oflictM suitable fur holding MMions of tuwl court, and Kepamto fromoncatiotbor, 
for e«ch of said juHtioOa of tbe peaoc, togetl^r witli attendants, furniture, fuel, 
lights, and stationery Hufficient for tbo traitHaiitinu of tnuiiueKs; nnd if they are 
not provided, ihti court may dinx^t tlin nbcriff lu provide ttio Hume, anil Uio ex- 
peuwa iucurr^Hl, uertified by tbo justices to be correct, shall be a charge agniiwt 
the city and county troasury, and paid out of tbe general fund thereof. The 
said justices, justices* clerk, and deputy clerk, shall be iu attendance at their 
nspeotire offices fur tbe diapatt^b of official business, daily, from tbe hour of 
fligbt o'clock A. M.- uatU tlve o'clock f. h. 

88. Aeliom. 

Sec. S9. All actions, suits, and proceedings in sucb cityand coanty whereof 
justicM of Uio peace or justices' courts have jurisdiction, except those coses of 
concurrent jurisdiction that may be commenced in some other conrt, sball be 

entitled "Xd the Justices* Court of tlio City and County of " (inserting 

the name of tbe city and county), and commenced and proxecnted in said jus- 
ttees' ooort, which sball be always open. Tbo original proooss shall be return- 
able, and the parties sbnunoned required to appor before the presiding justice, 
or before one of tbe other justices of the peace, to be designated by the pi-e- 
tdding justice, at bis office; but all eomplaint^, ausweni, aiul other pleadings 
KoA p<iper«, required to bo lilol, sluill Imi lilml, and a reeoi-d of oil Hucb ootious, 
•uilM, and prooocdingH made and kept in tlie clerk's office aforMaiil; and iho 
pivhiding justice and each of tlu> ntlier junlicoH shall have power, jurifldivlion, 
and authority to bear, try, and di^t^rmine any action, suit, or pruceediug no 
counicoovd, and which sliall have \>t!r-u miulo returnable before biin, or may bo 
usigued or IruuHfcniNl to him, or any motiou, application, or issue therein (sub> 
ject to the (^nnlitulioial rijjiht uf trial by jury), and to make any neoeasaiy aod 
pn)]>er oi-derM tb^n-in. 

Jurladlstfoa of Justices' conit: Sk poit, mi«s. 1 12 ot wq. 
CoDCUneut JuilidJctiOD: Suo/xuf, tK. 11.1. 

80. Itrturigntitv^U and Ira'w/'-r of action*. 

Sue. 00. In ciuwof HickiiCKM.ordixability.orabseneoof a jnstioeof thepeaoA 
(on tlie return of a sunnnons or at the time appointed for trial) to whom a atuso 
hoH tm>u oadgned, Uie preaiding juxtico Hball rcossigu the cause to some other 
Justice, who ^laU proccod with the trial and dispoaition of said cause iu (Jio 



fPAiEf I. Tiru 1. 

Bnme maipiier fts if ori^innlly iwKigiiiv) to him; nnd if, nt anj* lime befoni Uis 
trial of u cause or inatl«r returttAl>1fl or ptiuUog b«foro any of Hutl juKlic««(, 
eilber part J sliatl obji^ct tolmvint^ tliecnuM or nuitter triecl before Kncb justioo, 
on the grooBd that such jualice ia n ttiatenikl wiUiees for eillior (lartT, or on Uio 
groond of the inlepoat, prejudice, or bias of such juatico, and M«;h (i1>j»-tioi) be 
inac1« to appear in the maouer prescribod bj' section eight hundred and tbirty- 
tluree of this code, tlie said justice shall suspend proce»diugii, and the preeidioff 
jnntice, on rooiion and production before him of tb« afiidarit and proofs, sltall 
onlcr the tnintifvT of the caoae or matter for trial before aorm other justice, to 
bo drsignat^td hy him. Tbe presiding justice may in like manner assign or 
tnuMfnr any conloiitt'd motion, application, or isituo in law, ariunt; in any cause 
n'tuniubht or pi'ndiiig brforo him or any other jiutioc, to some other jiiBtice; 
and tlie itaid jiiHtice to whom any cause, matter, motion, application, or issue 
tihall be BO, a» afun'riaid, amgsed or tmnttforred shall have power, juriedic- 
tion, end authority to heiu', try, nud detenuiue the same accordingly. 

91. PaymetU of fees. 

Br.0. 01. All legal proceRa of erety kind in notions, suits, or pn>ce«ding8 in 
Mtid juatipes' ooiirl, for lUe iHsnc or serviccof vhieh any fee is or may be allowod 
by Iaw,&hallb6 Issued by the uuid jueiUcea' clerk upon tbeorderoftlw presiding 
juatioe, or upon the orderof oneof the justices of the peace acting as previding 
justice, aa in this arliL-to provided; and the fees for issoanoe and •crvice of all 
Bueh process, and nil other fees which are allowed by law forsoy official mirviee* 
of justices, justices' clerk, or sheriff, ithall bo exacted and paid in advance into 
the handH of said ctcrk, and bo by him daily, or weekly, or monthly, aa the 
BuperviMont may n«]uire, and before his ealary shall bo allowod, accou&t«<l for 
in dt'lail, under oatli, and paid into the treasury of Kuch city and county aa 
port of the spei'iit) fee fund thereof; provided, tliat Much payment in advance 
HliaU not bo exacted from parLica who may prove to the Matinfautiou of tbe pr&- 
Killing justloe that they have a good cuna" uf ttotion, and that they are not of 
Huflii'i^nt pecuniary ability to pay the le(,-nl ttH»; and no judgment shall bo ren- 
dered in any action before said justJoea' court, or any uf said justices, until the 
fees allowed therefor, and all fees for prerioua services therein, which are duHtinod 
to be paid into the treasury, shall have been paid, except in cases of poor per- 
sons, OB hereinbefore provided. 

Conct. C*\., nrU G, mv. IS. • 

93. Cmificalf*, lraii»nrif)l», and other papfrt. 

8co. 92. Cnsee which by tbe pruviHiom* of law are required to be oortifled to 
the superior court, by reason of iuvotviug the qucMtion of title or poaaession of 
real properly, or the legality of any tax, impust, aiwcHHiuont, toll, or municipal 
fiui), ahull be so certitic-d by the preniding juHtico and juxticeH* clerk; and for 
Hint puriwse, if snob question shall ta'au.: on Hid trial, whUe the case is (leudiug 
liefore one of the other justices, such justice ahall certify the same to the pre- 
sidi»{t jnstioo. All abstiucis and traascnptx of judgmeuta and proe-eedingn in 
Rud court, or in any of the dpcketa or registers of or deposited in said court, 
shall Im given nnd certified from any of such dockets or registera, and signed 
by tlie prctiding justice and clerk, and shall have the same force and effect as 
nbstractj* and tmnioripts uf justices of the peace in other cases. AppenU from 
jadgni«u(j( rendered in Maid court shall be taken and perfected in tbe mitnuer 
prescribrd by law; but the notice of appeal, and all the papers reiiuired to be 
filed to i)erfect it, sluUl bi' lilod witJi tlie justicus' clerk. Stutcmcuts on apjieal 
I 40 

Ciup. v.] 


K 03-00 


bIi&U 1m MttJed tij the JuhU<^ vtha Iriutl the cauHC. SuKtivs on app««1, or oa 

siiv bund (ir nnilcrUking f^'inM in im.v maao or procmilin^ in luud cuurt, wlica 

h.'4uin?<l lo juirtif.v, may juHlify W-forw aiiy oao of ih* jusUcm. 

TroiMfer o( 0«»M to tli« nn^ilor cotut: Sec. B38, jMvf. 
AppMla to Miparior court. Sec UTI, foif. 

68. JiixlK-Pt^ dockfi. 

Sec. 93. In ■ euitnble l»ook, fitronjfly Ijoond, the jtutioeB' clerk elinll Icwp a 
p«mjao«nt record of all actions, proc^dings, and judgnMnts commeueed, twd, 
or rendered in said jiutioee' court, wliicb linok Nhall Ik> a, public recoi-t], nod be 
known D» tliP " Justice');' DockH," in wliicb dockrt tbo clerk bIuiU make tlio 
8Euu« entrieit tut nxv provide^] for in svotion ninv li»tidn?d and eleven of tUia 
code, and which said docket nnd vnlnoit therein Hlutll lutvo the Banie force aud 
effect nii in providccl by law in r(if<'rvnoo to dockotN of justicoa of the peace. To 
enable tlio cleric to make up titich duokot, cavh of tbo justices Hball kipcp ininut«s 
of Iiii^ prorwdingK in (itct^- chum: rctunmblo before or aiuigoed or tmnsferred to 
hint for trial ur btsring; nnd upon judgment or uthrtr dixpuitition of a cauHC, 
Buuli juHticonlinll iiuin«diAti-ly nirtify und return (IieWd minutim, together with 
allplaMliiigo A>i<l piipt'rs in fnid rnuM, to the clui'k'ci office, w)ii)i<)udl iniin'Kliatfily 
tb<inyui>oti file tlioiwuie, uudniAkv the proper eutritiflimdfif the title of Ihu lUtiuD 
iu the docket nfoieaaid. 

DoGketa o( Juatlcsa: Sac*. Oil DtMq.,f)M<. 

B4. Trrrriloritil fxient ofjurigdicfion. 

Sec. 94. The iiiriwliotion of the juetioes* court of eucli city and county ex- 
tends to (he limite of tbo city »nd counhr, and ita process may be aerred in any 
part thereof. 
TuikdlotlonolJaatlcM' court*: S**/ja«f, mc«. 112*t««ii. 

83. Practice and rule*. 

Sec, 95. The jusUceB' court, and the justices of the peace of evety such city 
Eud county, shall be goTcmed in their proceedinys by the proviaiona of hiw 
regulating proceedings before juBticea of the peace, BofarosHUch prorinonaars 
nut altered or modified iu this article, and the same nrv or can bo niado appli- 
cable in the Berenil cmes arising before them. The justicoii' court* of tiuch city 
and county sliall have power to make mlcs not inconiUKtont witli tbo constitu- 
tion aud InwB for the guveroinentuf such justiceti' court nnd the offioontthvruof; 
but Buch niloM Bhull nut be in force until tliirtj days after their publication; and 
no ruk-H ahull l>e undo imposing any tax or chiir^ on any le^l proceedings, or 
giTing itny ulluwiiuce to any juaticu or o&)i».'r for iwrYioea. 
ProceodiuGaiujnatioM'courtai 8m jmX, mm. S33-020. 

90. Allornry/9. 

Sxc. DU. It aball not be lawful for any justice of the peace, juHtioeii' clerk, or 
ahcrilT of any such city and county, or any of Uieir deputies, to appear or advo- 
cate, or in any mnnner act tm attorney, counsel, or agvut for any parly or pernon 
iu any i-uiwe, or in rotation to nuy demand, account, ur vliiim iwmling, or U> be 
kuad orproMvntedbt'fore Baid court or josticea, oreitlicrof Iheio; norshnllany 
pentcili ollu-r than an attorney at law, duly ndniitt<^1 to pntcticc in OouriA of 
rtwoul, 1h' {wnoittrvl to opixar as altomey or agent for any l>«rty in any oause 
or pixioi'i-<ling Ixifore said juKti<-c»' court, or any of »uid jusUoea, unle«3 he pro- 
duce a iiullicienli»ow»;rofaitonioy to that effect, duly executttdoud acknowledged 
before houio officer authorized by law to lako avkaowlvdguieuts of decdB, which 

41 I 

Of 000RT8 OF aCRTICF- 

n*A«T I, Ttnx I. 

pow«>r of attonioy, or a copy thereof, duly <;(<rtifi«il by one of tlia juKticoa (who, 

on inHpiN'lion of 1h«ongiiiiil, And Ixnng Mitisfisil of iU genuin«n«iK<, uluiU c&e- 

Ufy HMcli n>py), alull be fil^l mtiong tbfi papers in snclt cauao or i>roceeditig. 

I DlaqnaUBeatlon oIJudit«a (t«aentQy: Soca. l70eta(ia.,iM«(. ■ 

ZUclbaiCT and r«sid«iic« ot JuMlc* o( pOac«i Sew. 103, 100, pw*,- ■ 

87. Sahru^. 

Sec. 97, Tho juftlinw o( tlw p««o» aocl JuRti«ea' clerk, and lii* ilrpntr, xhnll 
neeiro for tlieir olTuniil acrrioM tho following salaries, and do otlirr or ftirtlii-r 
coinpooMtioa, payitbl«! inontbly, out of the city and oooD^ tnwury, and out 
of tho hpci-iul fee fund Uioreof, after l«iiig Brat allowed and audited iw otiicr 
similar demands are by law reijuire<l to be alluvred and audited: To tli« pn-sid- 
ing jutttico, twen^-aeren hundred doUan) i)er annuiQ; to tho otlier jtiHtiiMts of 
the peace and the jUBticeB" olerk, each, tweutj-four liuodrod dolUn i>er auuutu; 
to the deputy of the juaticea' clerk, twelve hundred dolUn per annum. 

6B. Whitljitatie^ saceetsora ofotturg. 

Sbc. !)S. The justices of the peaoe elected tn any xuch city and county nt tho 

^neral election of eighteen hundred and seveuty-uine, or pvnmns appointed to 

fill their places, are successors of the justices of the peace of auch cityn&d] 

county who held office at the time of such election; and all recorda, regiatera, 

dockets, books, papers, causes, actions, and proceedings lodged, deposited, or 

ponding hpforo the jnetices' court, or ony justice of any i>uoh city and eounty,i 

on- tranHfcrred lo Uio justicos' court of such city and county, herein prorided ' 

for, which nhall havM tlio «am« power and jurisdiction or«r them oa if they ha<2 

bw^n ill ihi- fu»t iiiiitanr'c lodjjcd, dfi)i>MiU.'d, filled, or commenced therein. 

SimllAT piovialoa wltti revpect to BnprvsM ooiut: 8oc. U, aiM; and tba superior oourta. 
sao. 7»,fuM. J 


ramOEs' OOUBTB Dt TOWysmPS. ^ 

108. Jiiaicnf courf* and jtiaticea. 

Sbc 103. Tliere sliall be at least one juBtJces' court in each of the tovtiahipii 
of tho titntA, for wliicli one justice of the peace shall be clectfld by tli« (jualificd 
eloctora of Ui« twwnisliip. at the general state election next pnjcoling tl«> oipi- 
ratiou of the toini of office of his predecessor; provided, Uiat in any county 
where, iu the opinion of the board of auporvisorK, the public convenience] 
requires it, Uie said board may, by order, provide that two juKlicws' oourta may 
be established iu any townahip, deaignating tho name in sticli order, and in such 
case one justice of the peace sliall be elected in llio manner hen>in provided for 
each of such courts. Tii every city hnving ton thooMUid and not wore than 
twenty thouHand inhabitants there shall bo ono juittice of the peace, and in every 
city having twen^ thousand and not mom than one hundred thousand inbabi- * 
tanla lifu juMtiooK of the peace, to be ek-cted in like manner by the electors of 
audi citiw rcftpectively. No person shall !« elicible to the office of justice of 
tlK! ]ii-ii(?e in any city having over ten thousand inhabitants who has not been 
admitted lo practice law in a court of reconi; and no justice of the peace ntiall 
be permitted to practice law before any other justice of the peace iu the city or 
county in which Lo rcHidox, or to have a partner engaged in the practice of law - 
in nny justicea' court in iiuch city or county. Every justice of the peace in nny' 
city liiiving over ten tlioumtnd inhabitants shall receive au annual talAiy of two 
thousand dollars jier annum, and Nhall be provided by the city aufhoritii.'* with 
a suitAblu office in which lo hold his coort. All fees which are by law charge* J 

4S i 


II 101-107 

nWo for fwn-iccii i«ii<Ipreil lir (tm^h juwtiMS of U»o pcoco in tlw dtiwi aforcsai<l 
akntt be by Uiem reapwtivitly collvetMl, Bud on iho fiwt Uluiidaty in each month 
every such city justice of the peace sIulII male tvpuii, uixlttr oatb, to tbe city 
trwunrer, of tlw anwont of feeit ao hj him nollitotMl uml pay the amoaDt w> 
r*port«d into the dty treaauo', to tlie i-rodit of the j^utsml fuud liwroor. 

An Aet /xiug juritJklion iiMtprimiili'f!)temp«'ualiifn/orJiuliMi'^lJkti>mt<in€illaaif4li>tm*. 

[Apprvnd llMob •, ISSl: Un. 03l| 
/"O'jvrn o/JHiliftt ^ ihf f<*art. 

JiKc^tas I. Junllcc* or tliopcacsor «iy towmhip ooiir[ia«*i) in whotoor (n part of on iMnr* 
|H)»t<>i| rity or town, ■■■•I jiiHllma nl ih« poua tii uiy citjr or t«*n. in adilition to tbn jiiriidio- 
t'on aii<l inxrnv noir uoiiliTrrril iiih-ii tlimi.are >utli<-Hai<l Mid ompo«>CT«d toi»*rciMAU |>o<r*n. 
ilntiix. narl juiiailiotiriii, vivil sii'l crjuiinal. of polio« jniljjaa. juiigm ot polioe ooarbi, rowrdcn' 
co*iHs, or niajron' ouurt* williio Btiuh oilico. 

Sko. 2. Th« eompaiiMtion of Iba jiulico of tho pMM ot Any «tr or toirn, B'ho li pkld Ijr 
Hklaty, ihalt be hf SAjninta (or cqunl inoothly [uymeut*, drawn iuk)i ruiintli tijion tlio aitujr 
fnad ot (och cin or town, if there be one: or lI iii> nlary faiul be prtivulaj, thea upoo the gn- 
•ral fund of ancb clly or town, luoh miruiu to b* aatut«d aiid (mJiI *• m« wlftiiM of «U*r 
dty ofGdAla. 

8aa a. lliia Mttlwll tako otb«t Immedlktely. 

Ttmu of olBoa— Conipara with Mcttoua tfae la«t d«dAiii tha iBrvn of alBoa o( JoBtioM 

RK. 1 10, This Beoticni In dcolwd conttitutinnal 
in I'tui-te T. /tarnen, >1S Vti. US; ood in BUhap 
•r. OnMiMf, Id. iT2; Jenit v. OatlinJ. Id. STut 
O^iu V. Sarmmniio, 59 Id. S09: fioiEry t. 
Suprrttton, 4 \Ve«t Coact Bep. ISA; and under 

of the p«aa« ia limited to two yuan, 

EUsnUU^ <a JoMIom ot tb* P«M*: Seo 

DlMbUlttM'. Sm /«< M». 170 «t «eq. 
F«M: See Court. CaL.wt. 6, «mi. 13. 

104. Courts, wfu-rr ftfW. 

Sko. 104. A jiifiticcs' court idi^ bo hold at any placo solectml by th« juatice 
holding the Ramo, in tlio township for wliich bo in cloctAl or appointed; and 
such udurt Khidl Iw alv,-uj-» opcti for tliu tranuotion of Inuioow. 

Cotuta AlwttyB open: Hc« m1*u anK, acci. 48, 73, 88. 

105. Whal Janice may hold court/or another. 

Sec. lOS, A justice of the pence of any towBehip may hold the coort of any 
other juBlice.of the prace of the same county, at hia request, and while ao act- 
ing shall be reeled with the power of th« juetice for whom he eo holds court, 
in which case the proper entrt- of the proceedings before the att«nding justice, 
sobscribed by him, shall be made iii tho docket of the justice for whom ho so 
holds the court. 
So* tUa, vlUi r««p«ot to *up«riar eourta, aM. 7 1 . filt, 

106. Territorial rxient of dfil jurifdictioji. 

Uti: 10ft, Tho ciril junsdiction of justices' courts extends to the limits of 
tlut townships in which they are held; but mesn« and final process of any 
justicog' oouii in a county may bo Issued to, and sorred in any port of the 
Ho* iiur*. Mc. M; Mid •« to Jiirladkllon gmomlly, m« jimI, aooi. 1 12 ot Mq. 

IXfl. ntial juslictv jn/ccnwora /i/" olhen. 

Sec. 107. The justices of the peooe elected in the towasfaips at the general 
Btate election of eighteen hundred and sovenly-nioe, ot pentons appointed to 
&ll their places, are succeHsorH of tlie justice? of the peace of the tovmshipn, 
respectively, who held oQlce at t^etime of such election; and, in cftso tho Iowd- 
Bhips of any county are hereafter changed or nlt«red, tlie board of tupervison 
of Hnch county shall make provision as to what justices shall be suoceasoiH of 
the juNticee of tonushipa bo cbaugcd or altered. 




[pAlrT I, TiTUC I, 


mSTKCS or TBB peace \XD JCsnctu' CODBTS DI OXXBUt. 

no. Terms of office, 

Sbo. no. Thfl term of office of justices of the pesos sbnll bo two ^oan from 
tlio firal (lay of Joouar}' He'll aucceediug Uieir election; proTid«d tJtat nU jiw 
tioes of the peace elected at the (roueml state- election of mglitoen liundrad and 
MTenty-niiio sball go oat of office at tbo ood of oao jroor froiD tlw fint tiay ot 
Jiinunrj-, «Lghteon hundrod and eighty. 

Terms of ottca of Justice: Ciim|Nir« with 
•eck. tU^ 103, oiiil tlio aonitninliiiii <<( tliuM m«- 
tiotM in Pr«/Jt V. Tlan*tnt, SS V*i. S-'iSi ainl ia 
AUIoi> V. UoltoW, 6S 1<I. Sii. Ttao Mt ot 
which tlio bIkivii i« m mwImo, StaU. 18S0, p. 

03, 7A, Ran. nl., waa d«cUr*4 oonklitntlouU 
In Atfilry V. SiifitrriiBtri, 4 Wwt Cutut Rvp. 
ISi!. as'l tlie tcriiM at jiuUoM bold lii&lt«d to 
two jr<an. 

111. nrnDtc'tm. 

Sec. 111. If a vaciinci; occurs in tlie ofTii'^^of ajtiati'oeof Ute peaoe.the board 
of Bupervieora of the county ahall appoint uu elijfible person to hold the offioe 
for the reDUunder of the unexpired term. 

112. Cirit jtirisilietioit. ■ 
Sec. 112. The juaticefi' oourU dlialt have ciril jnristHction: 
1. In actions arising ou eontraet for the recovery of money only, if the sum 

claimed, csclusjve of interest, does not amount to three baudred dollars; 

3. In actions for damages for injury to the person, or for takiDg. detaining, 
or injuring personat property, or for iujury to real property where no issue is 
niited by tJtu Tuifiod answer of Uie dciondant involving tbe title to or posses- 
kiou of the fuuoo, if the damage claimed do not amount to three hundred dollars; 

3. Tu actioiiH to rocover tho possession of personal property, if the value of 
such pnipn-ty docK nut amount to three hundred dollars; 

i. In avtiouM for a fine, penalty, or forfeiture not amounting to thrM> hun- 
dred dollat8, given by iitatuto, or tbe ordinance of an incorpomted <-ity and 
county, city, or town, whuro no issuo is raised by the anmror involving the 
legality of any tax, iiupunt, nMetwmont, loll, or municipal fine; 

fi. In actions upon btimla or undertakingH c-ouditioncd for tlia payment ot 
tnoDey, if tbe sum claimed docs not amount to tbrev hundred doUniM, tbougli 
the penalty may exceed tbut auni; 

G. To tike and ent<rr judgment for the recovory of money on the confession 
of a defendant, when the amount confcaaed, exclusive of iuteroit, does not 
amount to three hundred dullanc 

JuaUoea' court, Juiiadictloo oI^TtiK jti- 
irUdioUon of JiitUcM' voiiru in ({Hvinl mxl lim- 
it«il, »Dil the law pnnuiUM □othin^ in tlicir 
bi'or. Till) rucunl at tba iirooouiiiigs of a jiu- 
tivu'i coiit-t iniii^t allmuatirrly ahon' jariwlio- 
tloa; JaV'y v. KJH. 34 Cal. 331; Ki-><j r. Hand- 
I'fl, SX III. lilH; l:iMUf V, J/aimnl. '23 M. lull 
J^jMr V. AUi>intUr, IS IiL 29'l! .S'lmii v. ('Iiitv, 
I'J III. 2S;L Tti« jwrly nucrting & Hijlil uuiUr 
Ulc ju<jf^«<tlt fli a jridtioi:'^ CHUt IlllJht 4lfirT)1- 
atiirr!}' nliaui ju/ihlii^tiou; Ki'-j v. It'iii'tlrll, 
*<i;>ni. Juriwlidineal fnutJ not r«|iilrc'l hj 
aUluU to !« til wrinng nray In pruvwl by |ia- 
roli JMty r. Ki6e, infra. C'unu-iit will mrt 
Kiv« jatiailicll'Q, vlierr It In ih'nli<i| hy the 
MHiitilUtiaii: FrUUtt i. Knqlrr, S III, TU; Html- 
fcy V, Kfi. K M, ICO. 


U'Cul Hii't KiHifUl Uf Islatioii with n.'i<i>*{l to 
vit III ibfcrinr jttriiiiTigliaa !■ iitvliiliitcil by 
li.:lE 4, tMt^i 2J, iMUstitatiKMi of ISjU. 

Bubd 1. Actions on oonb'act.— A Juitg- 
mont ia a oontract witUlii tU» iimuiliijj ot tSa 
won) tu Dieil huru: I'lluid v. Livlrr, 10 OU. 

Amotiat iiivott-l. — Tlial lliB aJ (f.irainni* 
olmMo ii llw tcrt of jtiii-Klioliou. •*<• K-ttf^r^ v, 
Cautra '"owa Ca.. iMJ Cal. 42o: !HJ'. n-y. al. in 
note: al" «»«- 7*. "' '"o'h nf which |il*om tJm 
<|ii«liiin i« uoaniiiiTi'il ijoncmlly. "Tit* ("*- 
cciliii(j iiM^llon la IkuliI iiiioii tlw act of Ise3i 
i^Ltii. \^'.:t. |i, :itii. Ill ilif odgNiol BCL'tioa 

th* jiiTiulk'ti'i'i «xtriiilri1 111 ki.-li"ni up>>iia Dun- 
InlL't, or t.} niUKVrr iliiiriU)(i->i to nil 'aiiionul not 
ricuuilinj thrvo hilirlrnl il'ill.-in.' The coitti- 
tiitioii. attipU> ft, ani'ti'iii (I. ilfi-lnrwi Ihiit tlin jn- 
TinilicUun of t)i(!<u iMvirta hUiI: .'< << n ii iipoa 
llic jiiriKlk'tiixi of tv>ui*U.>f •■ ■ ■ I "Viiaa 

ft tW lumc nni<.-U- ci.nfrrii I ) i ■ ..' linn in 
thti clui □( iHwca when thv imiii in lynitrovariy 
aniouQta to tliroe liiiuiljeii iU>lUn> Tu utiviate 


Citu-. r.] 

jnsncES* COURTS. 


Ikb MMMtitttUcoU objection, m bare rtrjckcn 
t>ul tbw vxinlii 'tlor* Dot FioMil Ihtco UuiMlrtxl 
tlcJUn,' wliii(w<'r tist-y u^ciirioil in tbn ori)(iua1 
M>ctl<4i, ai»I ii;« tti^il ii»I<u-l thi^riiof lliu vorit* 
'ilu«a iiM ■KKiiiut w tlirvu hiiixlnil dollat*:"* 
ComiBlMiiaMm' i>ot«. f'liriiiirty. uinJtrrtlxoun- 
H>tuU«i, til* jnrialiutjuii of t'-c jiuUcm' ouurl 
WMliiuilvJaatORiootyili'iiuiiitlitOui "anMunt 
Ua4 cKciiliii; twu buiijtwt (tulUn:" FtilltU r, 
JAiOf'i-. d <'>L 70: Zaadtrr. Cor. 5 ItL 230; A-nf 
V. HiuiiK Id. 331: ««* V. J/trrkl. IJ. -J7ft: 
Wort V. Mvru, G liL Wl; /mmoii t. Pomrt, ' 
M. l(M; Sbi.>II\-. r/u-inu. It Id. *iT: ISahout. 
Vatc-jhu. •£.% III. 61; Uit *inco lSli3 Uid furli- 
(llctioii bu ticcn inMbtiiliiMl at luij iiiiin nol 
Wnotliiliii^ to ikivo huii<In;il Jiiltura: (?iiri<i|7ci 
V .' '.^i III, 307i UarfirU V, ^eAiu««.3(l 

M t'.'.rt(v.Bf™«J.<ttl.r,(L'OL Tljaoon- 

■tiL .L. .1,1., J^TV.arlii:!!)!!,*^^!!)!"^^ II.Diakta 
|iruiiiK>ii fur jiatiadiulion u( lliu jtivlic»' and 
CU|wnur vxat:* in Ui^iagc aiuiiliLi to tlist re- 
fcrcvil lg by tb« cotaatudoiien. Tku loMon 
Jur tli« kbiji'o loBuktlre <l»fiiiftioii of tho diil 
JuriBliution d jattiooi' coarta, titcrctorc, •lUI 
cxl>t«. A jodgmuit MBiloRil by a jiutuo of 
tlir I'NMu f>:d' tl>e prlDctMl and iaturaiit iliio oi> 
t, |-r«iiuMur) Mitv, auir (or « (urtbcir aiim «! 
Iiftv fKf v«4it OQ tho nmuiiEit of mcIi |irlncij»l 
nd iiitrtT«t. uudur » iliiiiilntiuii to tlint ultvct 
nDlauwd in tliu iivtc. wLitli tatlf r Huui JiJdoil 
tn tU« principal fi-ivpds in atuouuc t')u nitu ot 
Uirc« liwndrcd dotlon, in roid (i>r u-aot of jii. 
riwliclioti in tho jiulioo to rciwlur il; Itetdr. 
Btntal, M. 091; nail aco ii^ra. It thrco iiiit* 
for rMwrvry of (iruKily valiiral )>y vordict 
at two liuiiilrwd aivl (orly.throo <lotUra and 
•ovcuiy-^vn ocaU Lo oon>'.>tldat«*I, tlin Jiwtlco 
b»t iitill jurUdlctlou: Varia^ t. DryJr*, 29 
U, 7j7. a ^axVf may d'aivif n rvcovcrv •>( and 
•tnk« out a alum li^r dania^^M, to rtHliicv lii« 
claini ft'iUiiii tlio iuHfiic '.Ioik <jra-»V. JI. (^. 
V. SI<i'lJ^<ut, C Id. 411; M'rallfa r. WiUm, 33 
Id. 4<M. Jurticia' cionrta tnmld b»>« n« jurui- 
dCchua nhcroAiUfcDnliuit acta up a countcr- 
cUlm (or D Htn ciorvdiog three fiundrrd dol- 
lara: MarfitU r. JiJiiucm, 30 Id. MS. riftist- 
iff cccniDMOrd thma aetlooa In a justice'* court 
fn tlw iwMTMjr of lll« tauii) litoi>Brtj, thn nc- 
tioRi being i^siBit e*i-»rul •ta(•llllantl^ Tlio 

Cjivrty aiicif (or wxt of valuo \-tt« tliaii tlirao 
idicd doUoju. Lender Mutiuii 1013 <■( tlul 
Gi>ilo (>va. IK9I), the WTnol actiutii wuni oonaol- 
iilalol. Tb« oourt licid, tho value- of the \iTOp- 
*rty b*iiij! U— tban I^mo hiuiilrvil dciUara, Uial 
the jiiali'.-c Imd jnciulictioa: Curia;/;! v. Dry- 
An, 'JU M- S>v;. Sip, :i!ii>. lo valone the pro- 
portiuii .' ' hoUcrfortheoar- 

Doratu " .. b [av tluii tbreo 

liniiiin'-l oiNi:!:-, » jii>iTi--: • oiurt ban jaritdie- 
Moai Mom<v V. Siitrior Conri, K Pac.C.I,,.J. 

Oiibd Z DaiBAsM lot Iqjtutaie ordMalii- 
las p«raoaal proporty.—NVliinu Uw iimiHirty 

113. CmH-urrvnt jurixdktion. 

8k<;. 113. Tli« jtHticc-s' courts ekall baro conciimmt jiirutJiotion ^tli tlw 
Buperior cuurta witbiu tlieir reHpective towneliipv: 

1. lit ncUons of forcible eott; %nd dctainur, whero Um) rental value of tlie 
pn)]>ert/ entcrcil upon or uulan-fully dclaineil docs not excood twentf-fivc dol- 
lars i>er tuontli, aud Ute nlioln amouitt of danwffoa clalta«d doea uot eoceed two 
liuDiJred dollure; 


U alleuf'l Itil-c wortli tiro baudrvi) aud fifty du|. 
tan, Blid that •Unw^-rt Mn'mnt to fifty dullm, 
« itli a |>r«yer (or iwo buodrcd and ninety'Uiuo 
dollar* HiiJ (Cbtt, llic jiuttoe'a oouit bM jarii- 
dicttuiiL 5i~k>m V. i'ontra Ct/tla Co., I}0 CUI. 
i2i. Injury (<« dirrrling oif ap|iroiiTiatiiii 
niumnjj vtttt it not vitliiu tho jurutliclian o7 
tliifl court: /all V. Xriman, S Id, Mi; KuM 
aim y. Ji'iOH, C U. 11>. 

Tnap»t» on real propertr, — A Jiit(lt<«'a 
court biu Jilri*i1iotlnn of an attiun o( tretij'Aui 
on ital prvperty, tlio daouM d«iiiiOil t-tiiig 
kM tbaii IbrM buodrvd dollar*: l'rJli,-l y. 
Camminil*, S8 iM. CSS; LitiafrMa v. Mifrjati, 
S3 Id. 'Si. But th« right <■( [HnscwioQ laimt 
not bo i>ut in iMiio; CiirHtll r, llithop, 39 Id, 

Involvliic tHM to or pouamion of reoilty ; 
Sc? vxpruwon diKiiniKl in iiot« to Ktliou &2, 
ctnfc. Ttie title u not put in inuv \a an aiiiuii 
to noovor rtat hy the defcnilADt'i dciirinj 
tho {ilaintiff'a title, and nllft'tD;; title in a tliinl 
periMi. aodec whoin d«[eiiJant oiiC<r<d. Tbo 
real (|U(«tion is Ilia cutty nodcr thu jdaiiililT, 
wlioito title da(«ndint eouLl nob deny: Ubint- 
4Hli V. G'y^if, M CsA. (i29. 

Bubd. 3. PoaasMJoD of petaonnlt;.— In 
acticiot (or tli« reoovtry <■( »j>-i'itiu ix-nunal 
property lb* atuidard of iunwiliution » lli« 
vain* o( tho proport]r. and tbe >Ii-ii>ai>il for 
damagM twuiet onvt tke oouit froni jiiiiBilii^ 
tion, II Ike penoDAJtjr la worth liu thda threo 
Imndrtd doIUni Audi v. PUlUfi-i. .'•5 C'aL 
26S. Thi* d<«i«on <n« under Oic old eonali- 
tntioD nnil a now repealed wotion ■>( the eoil«. 
but ono auIiatiuituiDy Ihc nxaii \% tlie nUivo n\'- 
tiou la tbl* particiilur. In Sftnlnn v. funtivt 
Cotiti Ca.. 00 Id. i-i:>, ihn >'nlii<> at ih" prop- 
erty iraa aI1o;,1.^ I li" Ui tW') hun.lrrd i.iid fi'iy 
dnnarit, tliK nmuunt >:( daniiigi' tilty il'ill.iii, 
and tliv |>rjyffr wa« for two ImndrMl ind iiiiiv 
ty'uiuti ititlar*. The f<nirl bwl jitit'>il>ut-nii. 

Bubd. 4. Anawcr raloltig lognlit7 of tax. 
If, in an nctioii fur unpaid taxes, au ^iiimtcr m 
Sl«d wbiuh nuta in imue tho le^lity i>f a t^x, 
tliQ jiKtioe la onalnl u( hia juiiulictiou. };y 
trj ing the co«b ho would treocb oiwn tho jj. 
rtidiutiun o( the district oonrt, nadt? tlie oon- 
nUlotlon: f'OjJ' t. F. J/W. 24 C«L 01. 

Subd. 6. O oi iteMl oii of Ji)ISgi&«nt— Tliia 
mbtliviiiiivu *ettle« Ibc qneitioni m'<al«d in 
early iliK'isioiiJii A }iidgr»eiit by eonfcuinii (nr 
a ^iiutur iiiioniit than ()>'>t«itlv>uui'liii^ tli« 
coini'taiut waa vlUiioj tbn juried ii:ti"ii<d 
HBtoiitit altott-od by Uie caustitutiun unit held 
t-oid: ytilMl V. Sn^tir, 8 Oal. ili. But ttiia 
oaso I* ooniBienteit on, and it wiu btld tbut tJiu 
"nmonnt iu •.vnlimtTty it ")int dflTiiiiuca 
tbo inriidlcAiou.'* That Uiia wan tlic anmunt 
■Do<r (or, axduaire of coda. The judgint'iit 
may exceed the oinoanl in oonkoveny: l!ra,l. 
Irv V. Kr.'J, 22 Id. llK>] but Me Jittd v. Ztcriiof, 
40 Id. C29. 



[Par I, Trru I, 

2. In Mtiotts to ouforcQ iin<l forccIoBO lutiui on penwnnl property witere 
■KiitUi'^r the amount of Uio Ueiut nor tliu raluo of Ibu iiruperiy amouuta to Uired 
Itutiiln^d dollars. 

114. Cinl jurutdiciion nvlricirij. 

Hw. 114. Kscrptiut in tltc loal pntoodiug itoetioD proritlei], tb« jurisdiction 
of jitftioea' catirt^ Mholl not, in &ny ea»», imnck upun the jurisdiction of tbe 
ifovrm] rourtH uf record of tbe Htnti), nor extend to uny action or prooeediti^ 
A^'miint H^ti]*!!, vr-Msc'lH, or tii>ut«>, fur the recoT«rj' of seamen's wages for a voyage 
)K<rfiinii«d iu uliolc or in purl wiUiuut tlie waters of tliis state. 

U5. Criminaijurwdictian. 

Rkc. 115. TliQ justiees' oourta shall have jimsdiotioD of th« following public 
uffi'Dses uomuiittcd wiUiiu the reepeotive couutieu in wludi euch coturtu art 

1. Petit J.ireeny; 

2. Assault or buttery not cliarged to bavo been committed upon a public 
officer io Uw dischargo of his duties, or to have been committed with such in- 
lestns to render the iutent a felony; 

3. Breaches of the peace, riota, routs, aSraye, committing a wrongful Injuij 
to propt^rty, and all miBdomcauors punishable by fine nut t-xocoding five hun- 
drx-d dollare. or irapiisoniuent not exceeding six looatliH, ur by both nuch £ue 
and iniprittonuieut. 

Cnmlunl JuriMtJctfon of joatlCM' cotuta: 

Subd. 1. Petit taicenjr.— 'llio jurlnJictlQa 
bcro coiiL-rrtd ix exclusive, nii<I tbe auiMirior 
cdUTt* I'OTe not luriit-llotiui) ol pcUt loroNir 
Btfortf WaJliua/i^.VOCtil. 103L 

BabdS. Hladenieanon.— KidiuivD ebnr- 
•clcTof UiR jiiii»iictioDooafc*rtd<aithbcoiiitiii 
UMjRiiioaiiun; :yr»Oafiftir. BwKWCii. 140. 

Bon Joao Jnattooa^onrtHi — Criminal jnria- 
divtioa ol, uixlur tho ehuUrol 19741 /a r» Gar- 
rOo. 4 Wm Cuwt Bef. IM. 

ISL Prorid'-d /or in PotUical Code. 

Hkc. 121. Puhoo courts are established in iacoTpomt«d citiwi and coURtio«« 
cities, and towns, and their organization, juriadiotioa, and powvra provided for 
in lh<t Politinal Code, Part IV. 

PraceecUnea In ctvtl actJona: 8i<« pati, bbc 09ft, 

Police court* EenanllT, Umlr organixation uJ jnHidiotion: Sm Pol. Onle. 




Axncta L Pubudttt er Ptux-RunNat >... ViA 

II. I!Icn>K^TAl. PovrsM wo Dirms or Cocars ..,,,, 12S 

in. Jciitct*t. D*V8 133 

IV. PnodW.oTKua ■» Cuui or Aauxca er JpiKia 19 

V. PaoviHioxi xurcntiKo Placu or Holdima CorKta._ US 

VL Skals or Counn 117 


pcaucrrr or i-aocKEDiyo*. 
124. Sitting, public. 

Hkc. 1!M. Tlio aitdngs of every ooiui of justice shall be public, exG«pt 

provided in the ni>xt section. 

S3M odchMl u( tli4 variiiuatoelioBtollliiaGliapCer will be found la Stftt«. 1663, pp. 340et*cq. 
Criminal tiiala w U pnblioi Owsc U. S.. uncod. fl. 



J25. Siltiny*, iWifH jiriixile. 

Kix-. 12.). In all uctiuu fur divorce, criminal fionremtion, MtlucUon, or breach 

of itmmino of ni&rnft|^, Uie court uny direct tbti trial of tuiv tsRue of fact joinccl 

tlif'rciii to Xie priviilo, uinl way exclnde oil )M-rHunH t-n-opt U?e officpi-a of tli« 

cciiirt, tLo parties, thait wituceaea, sud ci>uuii«I; provided, Ihai iu any cuuse tho 

eoiirt may, in tb« excroise of a Bound discretion, duriuff Uio euunioatioa of a 

witncas, exclude any or all oUier witnessem in tbo caiiso. 

SxcJuafonotwttueMiM: ScsjiuW, aw. 9ui3. 



128. PoHxn frttprciiJty ttmduci uf prvvr.fitinijt. 
Sic. 128. Every court aludl liave power: 

1. To preserve nud enforce oitler iu itn iininediato preticnoc; 

2. Tti eufoiM? order in tUe proceediuga before it, or before h persoa or per- 
DoiiH empowered to cuuduct a judicial iuveiili^tation under iU uutbority; 

S. To |iroTtde for tlie orderly conduct of proceedings before it, or Ita 

i. To compel obedience to its judfrrnentfl, orders, and procoBS, and to tlm 
ordtirs of a judge out of court, in an action or proceeding pending l)i<irrin; 

S. To control in furtlioranco of jufltico; ttie conduct of it« n>iniist«Tia! olIi(»-n>, 
I of all ulliet persons in any niiinner comiucled vrilli a judicial pi-ocuvdiuif 

lore it, iu vTcty matter appertaining tlieretoi 

C. To compel Uie attcn<l»iice of p«riioni( to testify in an action or prooood>ii]f 
jWHling Ibvrcin, iu tbt- cuMcut and maimer provided iu tbiit code; 

T. Toaduiiniiit«rCMttlii) iu hd action or proceeding i>eudiug tbcrotn.aiij in aU 
other caAcM where it tuay be necvtuuiry in ttiu cxerctite of itd puweni aud duttcit. 

8. To aiut^ud aud control itii procesH aud oidcra ao w to mako ttieiu cou- 
furuiablo Lu law and justice. 

"3«bdivUiont 1, 2, 4, uiA ilia first dxawt of 
nhdlvUloa S, ■nbaUmliallv i!iii1)nb:i) the provb- 
Vm» at MclUai taotthr utot im», 8Ut 1863, 
p. 'Mi." Coaiiaimloii«nt' now. 

Pown of Jndklal oflloetBi Sm pod, MO, 

Oantempt: 8m ywl. mh. IS09. Saina b 
]Mtk«'* a-att: S»v Kti-I. WtO vt ipr|. 

Snbd. &. RceuldUug conduct of mlula- 

tttlol ofBcen.— T^iidor the power gnnteil \<y 
tbi* anbJ^visiitn Ibc luiircmo c^aii mny miiko 
ralM r«g»tatiiig the octUdi of Infui-ioi cuurta ia 
mAkins ■>]■ auiT ImianilKliift trauMinpCi oa ap- 
pMl: PfOt-lt V. C'nl'f. M Citt. ■£}». 

Sabd. 8. Attaodanoe of wttneaaeai S«a 
po'l. imm. IU8G pt Mi). 

Subd. 7. Admlmatiatloa oi oatlia: 8ta 

ptltt, HKS. 20S3 ut Mil. 

129, CourU of record jnay make rule«. 

Sec. 1S9. Kveiy court of record inay oiake nilea not inoonaiatent witb tbo 
laws of tbe state for its own goveruiuenl aud tbe government of ita officers; but 
such rules shall neither impose any tax ur ckurge upon any legal prooeediug, 
nor give any allowance to soy officer tor aervicca. 

Rules ol oourt, eeaataUjr.— Kulv* at coart 333'334. Ste, bowcver, /ftiMoa v. MeCm, U 

MV IiUt ■ nxaiiH til kuuiniilish tlie i-ndi of jut' 
tka /'i'trlti. Wailaef, 51 C«L JIT. .Shuuld 
Ituy ilvprivi- B faity of a abtuUiiT liulit tlipy 
an voi»f. /'re/A v. NtChihvi. 31 Id. 101. Vu- 
Urn bats no uii()nali1)e<l right to utipiiUtii for 
Uio atiroKntion «il lolca of couit: /tiffiuitilit r. 
l,nimnft, IS Id. 350. Rut Uio cniut IImK bI- 
w»)fi luw tlia power to luitparul iW *w«i twJM or 
eiivpl a iKinleulnr cuu from tticir op*.ralk>ii 
nliL-uenr llio paqKiMuciIjiuilicerajuitiiit: /'«>■ 
fitr V, Ifillinm: *1 I'l. 280: PirirU v. Vall'ie^, 
M Id. 147: UititfJ StoKt r. JirtMug. 90 lion'. 

Oil. ITH, for gen«nJ atatcinciit tliitC thu (vurtii 
■lilt lultnn arc nlika bound li]r tlic tilled, wlikb 
*liu<ilil receive tlie inuiu coaitmatiuii u alat- 


nates of aiiperioT court not jndioinlly no- 
Ittod >iy th« iiipniin* coatt: Svc U'arttrn v. iltn- 
<l'/fiiio Co.. XH'iL\.«aui C<aUr\. Caruiheri, 48 
t<I. I7S. 

^mwn TulM take eOecti 8o« *ec. 130. 

Bulea of aupieme oonrt o( Caltfonda. — 
Rci.E 1. ,l.(nii"n>H i(f -aorn'y~—\i<f\i<r. tiU 
lot ti«n«v U> prnctiw at aUonw)-* mad uouu- 




(Paki I, TitUi I, 

■riim will Iw «xandn(d !■ optm court oo Iho 
linl •!»)- 'A ttMh rrpllkr turm, oimI on tll*t 'lay 
only. Until futthr renin-, the nxunuution ii~iU 
Ihi liwol tipixi llic futluwiiigbacJiB; BU«ikri<inB'* 
ComnienlaiicB, Kci)f'a ODmrucDtBiiM, Green- 
ittt'a Gviilcnei! (Snt rolnnic), Sion't Equity 
Jurix|iraiIcQoc,Go<tlil'«11cftillii(;, Luliv'i Eijuitv 
Pliiiiliug. I*Bnon* on Contitita, Paautny t 
Iiiirt-iucliou lo Maiiii:l|ttl Law, Ct»le of C:v!l 
I'liiLi-iIiiivL rcnnru ii{>|>tyliit{ U't tuiuiimiaa, 
wliatlinr u|Mia olaiii i^n tiiin irr iii<jtiiiii, Mutt 
|j;iu.Fiinll)- !ijnu-ariiiiv,>iii-liil tliiitiliMj tlii<a|>pli' 
lalliiii (ill- rnUu-tviixi ix n.u'lp. N'l B[j|>lii'jiiit 
will W it»miii<.-<l viiiltiu llivn> elioll h&Te br*ii 
lilwl nitl) tlio I'lfrk uf Uic court, bcfurc tlia 
lli*t day ill tli« tnmi at vhkli tliu iiiplicaliun 
ia iiiiuiv, a t-vctilicutiF nignvd 1^ al 1«ut tiro 
Blti^iv]:-* i>( tli« court, «i«h of "-hoini iIuUI 
luv« iivta reeuLuIv vDuftgnl in pmcticc u 
mhtIi att(ini«y nr kt leMt lout yean iicxl tlicni- 
t«liir«. vtatinit. in lulictaiMw, tliat ttiny bavu. 
BQil tbat toch of tlicni Iim. carudilly ami 
ilUijiTtilly cx.^uiiac>l tliu ainillialit, tuucliinft 
til* i|«iililj<.-ation> of me\i H[>]ili('anl iii ti»iDt i-l 
liuiiiiiii: in Ilia law; tliut it Mtiafiiclorily 
u|>]'iMinJ to tlirin, aiid to wh of llicm. ujma 
^•icli I x:>iiiiiiHli<,iii, tliftt tho ap[>licnut liuil Una 
uliKn^ii] til Il>v «tiitl]*o[ Iswhita pctioil of titoo 
tq bl^ imiuc-l in thafcrtifiMt<^ namiag tlic |>lBca 
lit nliii.-li, aoil llie pmon under wliom. if any. 
mvli stuilv iin-1 Iwca proaccutod; that tho 
applicaol liul, ilnrtDg tliat thno, road certain 
M»ka of lun-. which iHKik* aholl be ciinnmatcd 
in tlie corttticalc; and attting any ntlwr tmt 
tcndiuK to ahi^w the cliaraeter of tli* attitin- 
tnciiti of the Hpiilicant, and aluo al«t!ii|j that, 
iu tlicir o(.iu)aiv, Iho appUcuit powfinn th« 
mquikiic iiaolidcotiona, in point of ]«aniiiig in 
tlio law, to lie viitltlud la Ira admitted U> 

'i. JVr.'— Tlie (m for Ilomw muat in all 
CAM* Iw •IviMwItod with tbe ol«rk of Itia «ourt 
licfore till) af>iiliuatioii it made, to b« retomcd 
l« till) apiilimat it) mw «f reJKtion. 

3, /.vy'tiitrji.—No p«r»an rejcctol •hall boat 
libvct^ tu nmow tlic ap|>licatioii Mrlior than 
Ihu third rr^ulnr tenauoatatCoraDoh rejection. 

Krix i. TraitcriiA— The apinllaiit iii a 
civil action atiall, within forty ilny* H(t4>r iLe 
•puaal ii )>Frfe>:ted and thv biil ol sxo<i|ition« 
ana tho alatcmeiit [il tli«» Iw any) ara aettUd, 
MTVc nod flU 11m |iKiit«d tianvoript ol Ihs 
recorO, duly cortlfttd to l» eurrcot by the 
nttamoya <J llio ra«D««tivi) MniO; or hy the 
clnk (rf t^ (Wirl ironi wliioh tliu appeal >« 

2. Ei.i'lrnet VamiiM.— IVritton CTJiluioe of 
Uio iH>ivli-,T upoti theaJvtne parrot the tmn- 
Krijil iWII Iw flleil tiicremith. 

3. /.'/'i-iiitfti t^ fiiw. — Tho time ohovo 
liniitnl owiy be'tixtundvil by utipiltntjon, hut 
ahall not Ui rituiidvd by the tiouii ini>re tliaa 
tu-c^ily ilavti and huoU oxienaiou of tinMi xliatl 
lie KntatM only upon good cauae aliowu by 

4. Ten ilaya before the oalliiu; of a cau»« for 
lu^uinvut, l)ie ajipclliuit ttiuir tile with the 
Tlfrkiuitl actw upon the Other pMty hii printed 
jFoiutii aiul oMlMirtlici^ toxelher with a liriuf 
■tateiiKtit <if auch ol Iho facta At ur* n«L'iiHary 
tu csptaiB the puUita inwla. Fire dayi bofom 
the calling of ilia cauae for arjfauiiiut, the 
m|>Miiieut #faall 6\* and aerre liii prinlud 
poiiita And anlbciiilioi; and wlieu Ilie cnuie ii 
oalleJ for vtiuiuunt, tbe appcthuit uiay lilo aaJ 

wrvea reply tA rmponil . • 

before tbe oalliou uf a i i- 

■Dent, (ha a)-pelunl sliull :<'. '( 

ami Mrvu apoo th« tXtnttmy .. '-* 

and antbaritieai Sueh peinu £ii<i umii»ii^ii>* 
may be either writteM m tiriutel, 

i. Sf^tdule <^ M/r. — When an appeal in- 
volve* tbo title to land* or Umoiutnta, tlia 
attiiroeyi (A thn mproilTB partict — »|ipcUuit 
and reppondi^nt.— ahall. Lclon: the algamelit, 
place In th* h«ii<l* ul the iMurt written, or at 
the oMinu of the party printeil, achodatoa of 
the lltleardaralgninenlol title, eknmologiealljr 
arnin^eil, npcn wliick tbvy rMjMietlvdy rdr; 
and a tailuru (o ooniply with (hm mU may, Lu 
th? discT«<lion vf the court, opi'mte a waiver nj 
Iho right of tho party id defoalt lo orally argiM 
the canto. At Ihd argumetil tHv rourt inay 
oidrr briefs to be lllod bf founitrl for tbe ni- 
■peutivo partice. When auch onl'Tr i> made 
tlie biiefa iliall bu prinlnl, and fouitevu oupiea 
theroif ahaU be died within twenty dajv alter 
tho order. 

Q. Ill no cam will tho time for filing brieb 
be extendoil, 

7. Fi/tffn oofMN uf Imueri/il ai^ ptrMt t* 
bt /f/'~/. — BndilM the otlgiiial. Ibrrr ahall be 
fileil fnurtven oopiee of tlie traiMuHpl aail 
polntaand authontice and *t>l««nviilw facta, 
whiob vopica ihall bt iliBlrihuted liytheclork 
in the manner prrflfHtml by law. 

S. TrtmteriptAiHrriiuiaidtiue*, — Iii oriidiiaal 
cnuaoa, tl^e wdlteD tran>eri^ of tbe moonl 
alioll be prepared nnd filed within thirty (layn 
after tho npjieal 1* taluoi. 

9. Oor'>"> "' all prialfd papeiv, fointi^ and 
brteik, lilril in thn «upr<air tuart in any mnt- 
Itvanpo&Ud thorvtii, niual b* dr)io«tcd tcitb 
III* cdwk of the iMurt rmin whUb the appeal I* 
taken, nud the D(i)iiM ao doimillvKl wiall. by 
auid clerk, bu dvlivprvl Vt th« jttd^ wh« pr#- 
■iiitd at the trial uf the cauju in tho lower 

Rtu 3. JQlmiaMiJ uf apfwJ.—lt tbe Itna- 
aeript of therMord be not filed witliin tho time 
preteribed, the appcnl may be diuniaii-d, on 
motion, upon ootloe given. If the tnuincript, 
thnnjth not Hied within the time preacrilvl, t« 
on llio at the time ttie notice oJ motion )■ given, 

Hri-x 4. C'rii/iiiiif. of elrrk on wK'ioit (o (/•«■ 
niai,-<Oii n motion to •liiiniM an a|>p<a1, tcr a 
failure to litu tho ImiMuiipt wllhui th« pre- 
eci'ibed timf, lUvn iihull l>V )in;ri.'iil<>I llie 
oerlilicate uf thi clcrlt Iwlow. uniler Iho teal ct 
tlie oonrt, certifying the aTnuiiiit or ebaimiter 
of tho judgnieiit ur orvtor appealod tcum, llie 
date of lU iviiilitioD. the fact and ilalv of tJie 
Ultng of t)io notiin of aiipeal. together witli tbe 
tai^t and dale of nervlue thereof on the advene 
paity, lui'l tlid cbaraclcr of the eTid<«c« by 
whi<4i aaU a»rvlao appear*, the feet and date 
of Aling nod undrnaklng ou appeal, and that 
til* aanie U !u <lua tomi; tlio foci and tlic ttnio 
of tlio setlleiOMit of tin bill of exel^ptU>u•. aul 
the etatvment ou aptml. if there U: any: aad 
atiif that the afi[>t'll.i»l liii* rvtuiivixl a dnly 
cvrtillml trsuMrlpl, ui- Iwluui not rniuatui 
the clerk lo certify to a oornict IninH-rifl of 
the revunl, or if ho ha* made auch rt^iiM^ 
that he haa nut paid the («ua tliorefor, tf tbe 
■aine have btvu duiiiaiiitKl. 

2. Aftdariu.—Oa motion t/i <l»ini« tba 
anpcoi on any other grotin.l than the fuiliire to 
tile iho Inuioript tritUu the prwuibvd limo. 



UMBWTiMpapcmilMlIcooabtodlwceTlifiMta which a prinlad truicript h ftlwotiitdy 

of Uw sMK cd tha cCQTt l)*low, M tonny of tha rniiiiroil I* fitti), it o(i[i}- tlicrouf slut] be htvoiI 

DUthm abovt mratiouoil, or of alHilai'lu, w u[Hta tlie ailvvn^ F'^'ty, luiil if tlivre tie ismv 

ImUi (ikIi cctliGmts niul alblavili. Itiiii ot>« tulvqrM fuitj' a[>pcaTin;t '■y <lifforcnl 

3. CofJM of t-^c iiio\iiii; papon^ ric*])! th* •t1oni'>f«, on lliu nllototv of «acb put}' w 

btmaonpt, ■ball tw acrvcil witli iioUm uf Uio appcijiiig. If k mity •bati frvfcnt to the 


4. If an opiK«l bfrtokraanii pcTftctcd intho 
form r«uir»l by itatiitc. alttx tlic cxpintion 
o4 the limo limit«il hj luw for tlio Ukiag of 
•net) »]i[iiiil, llie lopoiulcnt majr. itiiitTT tiic 

MUomtjr ol tlie aifvcn* [«rtf n tnuiKrifyt on 
ofiiiml, m a civil oinire, aaJ rcqa»t liii rtrlill- 
nlo thnt the MiDo ii eonvct, nnil utid cttAiiiejr 
upoa tucb rvnnwt kholl, fcra peri'xl -4 I'k'v duyt. 
n«sicDt or (cluH) lo Jc4ii )ii luch CQni£mt«, or, 

pr«vlaia(M of Uila ndo, mora to dimiUt nich If 3«ikaod laaorrccl, kli:ill iicKlnst ut ttiato. for 

•jiMa) oo Ikat si^nad, wliethnr the time (or tb« nme time, to unvu iijKiii tlio parly nulin^ 

fSUag tb» tmuenpt baa txpiroil or not. tbe rrqunt a wdttuu •latoiiiunt (•[ the jur- 

*. Umtittitiir or HiMnufil of ojijuwii.— When llenliini in wliicli iitti tranacripl ia iaoumx'l. or, 

an Bfipral han boni ilinminti-^ iimlrr Ilio |>rO' u]inii Ihn I'rwfnUtioiiorihi'truio^i-il'Ii.-oiT^i-UHt 

viiiooi of tbU rule, a certilicatu uf tliut fact in tU« i»rUculan ttina >pc>:itiuil. idiati *till 

•hall ba Inwaaittnl t« th* nlerli of tbu ciiurt neglect or ivluiu, for ti [miutl of tu-o <la}->, to 

b«low, foTthwitli, unikr the aoal of lliia ooar^ join in viiali curtificate, the coita of iKorurinff 

bbIou alayoJ bjr aa onkr of the oonri. th« otriiCrate to ninli tranKtipt from the ckrli 

KrLB i. Pnaling iff tremterifif.—M\ tiao- of tlii propar oonrt aholl betatcd a{pia«t Iha 

Bcripti of r«oor\t in dtll «b«m tliall be prialwl parly vrhoae attorney ao ncgltcta or refnan. 
on oDiulad white wri tine [u per. ton inohea Kclb 10: CUttt may print lrtiKiifrlj4* anil 

Ioii(t by aovoi laclie* wiitc, nith a margin on ttrtiJii U miur. — Tho uritlm trat»-.*ri[il in 

tlwvutvroileaolDodMctliau tvoiudica wide, civil oaoaca, authontk-ntol iii the nioile pT«- 

Tt« pintodpaj^, exobuivo of any marginal acriboil by ralo!^ toeutliiTuitli aulliciioitfunda 

note or KfMTDOO, aliall In arrta (nchra long to pajr the aspanaot oJ t>r.n!iiig th« anmu, may 

aii<llhrDeai>d<«ielial[ incJio* wlil*. Tlio folios, be Inuutnlllwl to thoeltrl: n( thiicoarl. Tha 

ctnbn^ng t<o lines each, ihall ho iininlicnxl elirrk, upon the rcntipt thotcuf, shnll lila th« 

from the oomaiarncenicDl to ihu cikI, ukI lh<i Min« anil (niinu the transcript to bv printed, 

Duiiitx^riug of the (olio shall be priiiEv'l '-a th« ami ten j>rlii^l co^iy ihall anucx hisci-'riilJ^iiIo 

left uurmn o( tli« page. Small plea, aolid, ■< that the aaiil prloteil tratiBcript U a full ami 

tha tMklkit latttr nod moat oonpaot mode ol correct aop>' of tlio trMiacdpt fumiakod to him 

mmpatltion allowed. by the pttrlyi and uiil ocrtifinitv ahall b« 

2. 7Vvui*-rl/<(t It trinla^ tatet, prinCrrf or prima /ai^ie cviilcneo that tl>a»aiD« lacotrtvt 

wiAm.— TmBtc'ipta in criminal caiea may be The mJ priiitt'l cup)' ao eeitUI**! alitl) »t>'> 1m 

]>riulr<l III liku iniuiiinr UH preacdbcd tor civil Rlod. noil coiiallllif: the rvr^riJ »( il ' 

i-ofwi; or, if ii'il priiitril, abnll W wrllUii on tbla coart, lulijei:! to Vie <,y>rri:vl<<>1 l>;, 

ouo tide uiily rj irviHiiripl paiier. aliloen to the writtiju (r>uiMrlpt on lllv. <.m>v':1 

iiMihM loaj; ■^■t<aan>lon>< li:ilf inebtainwlilth, cotJm tli«i«af •hull lio (umiabnl a* provKwl in 

with a inat^n of iiol lu* tliAU von otid oua ruin i; and ibe cIcrL aball alao ituniudiilnly 

hiit inthcn vide, (aatvDv'l or IwiinO t«gi<lh,ir tnuMinit, by niail or czprea, «upi«« to the 

on Uk U:'c paged and (irdaottl with an nljiha 
bcUeat ladeK, and arnnpd in the tnfimiec 
prtaeribeJ in t«le tor civu oaac^ 

ftCLXil Ittdraandarrangi^acntoftmnteriipt. 
The |>ltfuitioi;i, prooMMlinp, and aCatenciil 
ahall lie clironnlocically arrangod In tho tran- 
•eriiit, atiil aach tnuiacrlpt ahall be prefaced 
with r.u olphaheUaal tod«x, apccif 1 1nfj the folio 
of «ach MparaU |>ap«r, wAet, or inuviMilinK, 
Bid of the lotimuiiy of toch witiitn; nuil tha 
tnuori lit (ball hareat loaaloinubliink fly-Hlicut 
VXtn. The chrnnologicia] arnuigvmciit of tlis 
aovml parta uf the trauienpc aud a atriot 
oonipliance iHili tlwi other requirementa of Ihii 
nUn, nill he exsf let! of the appellant or party 
lUiAg the rcconl here in all caaca, by the oonrt, 

attorucyi of the uJvono jiartira. mil note anvil 
anvice en tho originaL 

Kru 11. C«t* ^ frinliiig.—The expcoao 
of Drintios trmuaripta on appeal In civil cauao), 
Mia ^Itaotngn, affidavit*, or other papen oca' 
ftitutins the recovd in orljtinal prooctd'nji* 
upon ViTiich Iho ca*r i* hcanl In Ihit is-itrt, 
roqulreil by tliew.- mien to ba prlntoil. thnll l>« 
allowad ea eoata, and taxed in UU* of euata la 
lbs naiul modo. 

Rm.K 12. ^BjijWion '/ jfi'nii'iiufjDu n/ rri-. 
or-i. — For (ho purpose ut corr«tin;{ any emit 
or defect in the- Inmseripl, either pkity mny 
•uggwt the name in wnUug, and upon gpo'i 
oauM riiowQ obtain on order that the j^i-ujicr 
dork c«rtjfy to tliii court Um whole nc port of 

wbedlicr objocticn by tlic optwaita party tw the roMrd, oa nay b« rMjulrcd, or may pro- 
mkda or nol; and tor nn;r faiiuiv or neglect Id dace the aaine duly eerttfled. wlttinnt nii-h 

ordor. If tlic nttoinoy or oounael of the ml- 
vctaa party lie abaent, or Ihe fut of thvalte;[ei| 
orror or dofocl Im> diipntetl, tbo auggmdin, ex- 
«M|t wb«D a owUDad c<^ of Ilia oieitt«<l roc- _ 
ora it pTodaocd at tlic time, tniwt b« ocooni- ' 
panieit by an alQdai-it tbowiiig tho oxialMic* 
o( the error or defect allegnl. 

JtPLB IS. Crrtf/Jfi'oru rolnin«Tip(-— K«ep. 
tionaor objootionEt to tho trsnacripl. alatiruient, 
tbe bond, or uadertokiug on appral. ttx- notice 
of appeal, or to ita aerrioA, or aay tivlinicnl 
cxcqition or objection to Uio roconi in ci^il 
tniia RSeeting the right of Iho appclUnl (u Ira 
liaard on tho Dolnta o( error ouifiDi.'d. whldi 
mi^t be «Qccd on nggeatioa of diounoiluu ot 

laapocta, which ii fonod to obatmct tho 
MMniBatluci of tJia rooortl, the appeal may ho 

llri' 7. iftp*. — Whaiutccn map or aorray 
fonna ]>arl of a trainoript. it aball not b« imom* 
aarr '» luniiali more than one copy theraof, 
whi<:b ilull be anoexod to the tracNrript Clod 
with nijil certified by Iho elerV, aiid retemnoo 
ilMTFtii nlull he made in the other oopica. 

|{|-|K S, /VaiW/y.— Ko tranacript, or other 
fopcr >-r dcvunieat, which faila to conform to 
IIk ^'.|lIirealvnta of IhcM rules, ihol] bo Hlod 
hy Iho rierli. 

Kcm; Bl Tratufrift, ttrvitr. and crrtijifvlt. 
Ihiaro Ihe prialul lianacript in caaeo In 

Com CiT. Pbw.- 



OF COURTS or JtJsncR. 

[Pakti, 'nTui, 

tlMNooH, n>i»tl« taken maA notlfln] loUio 
■Mwllanl ill writing, U, toMt llv« ttupt bvfora 
(!i« liniriii^, <ir they will not tw r7;piiril«>l; uiil 
wliun u>nol«), it thall W tliu ttuty of tli«ai>- 
{.eltiuit lu Jireerul oii'l lili> at tbo Ii(«iin){ Of 
Vie loAtiUi niiali aililitioiint rtsord, outUioaUi. or 
OtIuT luELtU'r, if ■null tlmre be. lo removo or 
answer tli« uliipctiou or e*oeptioa ao taken; 
otlieTwijH mt'li objcvtion or vxcqitiooi, it wtli 
lakmi, ilialt pnrail. 

RitLK U. tfayyilion <J deatk c/ partn. — 
UiKKi tlie (leatli or other dimbUily of a ^rty, 
,Mnil'D£ an nppoal, lii* Nprcacntalivo »nall be 
lllalilulcil In tlio uiit liy rayitcatioo, in vrit- 
,. *K. ">i tbu part of «acli rtjirciiDutativo, or of 
any i^rty on Ilia roaciril. ijptm tlio oiitry of 
(kIj »iici;i^tiuii. iw cn^ar of lutHtitution (ball 
ba inaJc^ null tlip oauas iJiall procmd aa ia 
other caara, 

UuLE 13. Coinu^ar.— One week IwIoMtha 
MmineucameDt of a Urin, t1i« <lt?k iliall, 
unlea <it))«itwiM ordered by the court, nUco 
DM tbe OLlendar all caoaoa cblcb havo bcfn 
eontiaued (ram Uio prrvjoa* term; aUo all 
eauan In whleli the tmucrlpta havo barn on 
file Ion daya. Otbcr cnutni in nrliidi tb« tmn- 
acrijila lian boon' ALm) mny 1>o plnccd on tlia 
aattmLir on tliu aliTintntjoin of the partiea. 
Causn may lie placml on tlio cnlendar on mo- 
tion of the rMpsnilcnt-lli-f) Jays' nutico of 
the motion being ^von— wlicn tlic afipcllant 
liaa failed to Die the tranaiTrijit, u jirptoribcd 
by Rile 2. Wh«i th? trniiiciipt in a cTriminnl 
^flanaa i> Bled alter tlio Dalcndnr in inwlo Dp the 
ana* mof be placed thoreou by eonaant, or on 
'bo netioa of tlie defeDtlant, 

lU'Lit IS. C'n/niifctr.— {MminalcaDKaaball 
tiB pluouil at tliD head of llio calendar. Olbor 
■uan aliall lie ariadgod an the calpudar aa tlio 
^l«l4a>^ee of tlie court may direct. 

Rpia I". Printing af i-oiiUA, etr.~ta all 

■M wbcro a paucr or iliicnineilt ta r«|uired 
_' tli««o Tulol toliv prlntai], itdiall bo priutcd 
apon almtlnr papor. and in tbo aama a^t* and 

III (cxoipt tba uamboriDu of tha (blioa in Uie 
gin) as ia prvMribod lor tbo priating of 

Tivix 18. Oral argimenl, — Ko mors tlian 
one oaanaol on a aide will be bean! upon the 
MKainnit, except in peculiar and itniMrtant 
00*0*; but each dofondant who baa appoarod 
Bapnrataly in tba oouil Imlow maj' ba baanl 
, Ifaronsk nia «wn coanaol. TIio oounaal for 

oil party will Im ftltowvd only odo hour, nn- 

n an «xt«n«(on of timo ba oMainoil from ih« 
court ImJoto |)>o ar^iiniviit in eoininanocd. 

RrLK IV. U/'iniOHK — All opinioni doltvorad 
I bj (lie court. att«T Laving iWn finally oor. 
** ected, khall be rvcordril b* the elork. 

KlM-it Sft TV««*i>/*n'ii|wo/no(w<'j.— Inall 
I wbcro notiro of a motion ia necouarj, 

Bkn for good oaiuc ibowu tlio time In nhort- 
«nc<1 liy tlie court, tlie notice ahall be Ir n dayi. 

ItrLZ '2t. Ofiiahra frawin^W uilh rruiil- 
rjifiir'. — Wban a jnd^enl l> rcfcrMd or moil' 
*m1. n MTtiHad eopyni the opiDlon in lbs oato 

all tw tnnamittcd, wiili tho mniOitur, to 
the court )wlow. 

Rrts 21 WllkJntiml ^ tnmeriptt. He.— 

SaMperahaU bo tUien from tlio cuart- room 

^ «'aK'* olIiDt, csMfil by order of the court. 

'Vn ordiT will lio tnaiUi tor Iwiro to n-ltlidniw a 

tmii-i'iipl (or«tianiiuat(un,evccpt upon LoiTluff 

wilii ll)« cUrk a wnlton reotipt Ihwcfor, 

BOLB -a. CVrtJonirJ.— Wrila of t<TtiMvH 

my ba la«u«d by tha clerl, nptm tb« order u( 
till) r.oiirt, on tho HUnjt ol a jiotitloo llwovfor, 
aud »ball t« rvtumabk lo l-^lrly dar>- 

ttcLK ^. C'<M«. — Wlien cana«> are placed 
upon tba imlandar. partial ahnll ba pnuiarily 
liable for coata, an fcjlovrii 

1. If by tba ajipallast, ba ahall fint bo li- 

2. It by the reapondent, or by ooaaMt, tbaa 
both parties 

Id ciiil case* tho clerk riiall not he mauirod 
to rfmit tlie flnal pipcia until the ooab nn 
paid. In aU caata in which tho jodgment or 
ordar appaalad from la reverud or modified, 
and tli« order of rai-anal or nodiSeatiwi coa- 
laiii« no dirootion aa ta ooata of atipea), the 
clerk will fiilur opon tha raoord, and laaert in 
the rmiHalar, a jadciDest that the appdlaatN 
recover tho ooata of Ui« appeal. 

Itt'LK 95. Caliinij (/ (olrjuiar.— .^11 cauaca 
reguUrly on tho catendar may bo brougbt U m 
h«irin£ by either parly, vhen calUd la their 
order, on the day (or which tbey are aet, or aa 
•Don thertattcr aa Uwy mav 1w roacbod iii tho 
ra^ular call, without further noticn. Wb«ci 
tlio afipullnnt ban fniUil to lito the tiaiuuript, 
aa proviilt'd by ruU '1, and the oinie ■■ put oa 
tho calendar on tho moliao of tho roapoodcnt, 
tlio appeal will he diamiaatd or JiadgnwaC 
aflinneil, in tho ilixurvtion of tho court, <m 
motion of rapD&dnit. 

liru: SG, Wumiaat nf Oppral On tUpubt- 
iJon. — .\n appeal or «Tit of error may I* die- 
uiBcd at any time, upon and Id acoordaaoa 
with the written atlpalati«a of the altunx^a 
of rooord of the rapectlvD partieai abil upon 
anil in accordance witli 10611 atipuUtton, the 
clvrk aball entur anoh dJamtiMt, and the rv- 
miUilnrthall l«mie tbaroon In aiMotdance with 
tlio t«rniB of aald sUnulation. 

Ki'LS ST. /aipMJiaa of mi^iitat fniffrt.— 
vr\wa Uie inapeollon of an orlrinal pN]«r, 
whiuli wnn offered la eriiUnoo in Uio court li»' 
loir, )■ ibown to be ncoeaMry lo a eorroct ilo> 
ciiiou of the appca.1. tho court inay onler Uio 
olcrk of tlio court lielow to tninamit aooli orig- 
inal paper. If in hia poBOiiont to III* dork of 
till* court; and if auch paper be in tha [lowoa- 
*lon «f a party to the action, he may produtfa 
tha aama on tho hoaring of the caiiM, or lia 
may, nbon motion and notice of the adveraa 
partv, be roiguirvd to produce anch paper on 
the lioariiigof theoauw); andlndefaalttliorvof, 
tha oourt u'ill ititend Ihir |K<ii<>r t» Ixi in all rs- 
apcoti ai nllefjed by the Opposite party. 

BOU 28. IttatDlu /or or'vji-al nyp'ieaiion 
(0 Mt (OHft lo Ir Halal.—In any Hji]>lii:nt]oa 
made to the oonrt for a writ of Bi'imfnuiB*. cfr- 
liorari, prolilliilinn. procf'iHlo. or ti^r Jny nro- 
roaativ* writ to he luued in the excrcisu <•! iU 
onf(!nat liirlK'llctinn, and for whioh an nppllea- 
tion inWit bavo boon lawfully mailc to aoiua 
other court in tha tSrst loataDoe, the alGilavit 
or petition Rhall, in addition to the oeoiMary 
matter rcijuiaite by the nilm of la-v to auppott 
the application, auo aet forth tha circumalaneea 
which, in the opinion of tb(> apjiUomt. Teudor 
H propcv that tbo writ ibonid itMio origlu»ll7 
from lhi» ooiirl. and not from auch otlier oourl 
— the mliidency or in^n(Bui^^nc>■ o( *ii*h clr- 
cunutuicea « nt forth in tlml IwluK will ba 
dnlerminail by the court in awiuilitit! "f r^fiia- 
liiK tha apnUcaUoti, In caae any <;i>oit, ju'lna. 
or other otSoer, or any board or other iri liuital. 
In tho diuharno of dntica of a poUio dianieteri 





b« Djunnt in Uta ^pltMikin a* r««pondciit, tho 
■ttilavUor petition *ImU alto dbelow ihe luuna 
or OMiiM of tlis real (arty or partic*, II idv, 
in iat«r»t, or vbcuo inUmt woiiti) bo dlracujr 
■9<<:tei] by the {•rocBOillagit, aiiU in well COM 
it dikll be thnt i)uty ft tb« spplkant obteiaitig 
ui order fur tuj «iieh vrit to Mrra or awu 
to Iw Mmd n]>oa miuh {art^ or paiti«i in tn- 
t«(Mt * tnnt copy <rf (h« •CGilAvit or pcliiiuii, 
•Ml) o4 tbe writ iamed tbnriKiii, In like oAaaer 
M the Mme u rrauttcd to ba •orrcd upoD the 
ropcDiUnt nuned in tbo appUcUJan onil iin>- 
tweding*, and toproilac* anil £1* in tbo offlco 
«f tbo cmIc of tbj* court tho like oTidenco o( 
•aeh Krvicc. 

l!i-i,K *J. fltalrmnil ^ tiOi t^txtfplkm on 
dtUli <i/J<-l-jr.—V/hra tb« i"J)(« bolore wboni 
au nctMu waji Irlixl U dead, ur u rt-niurvd (n>ni 
ollli^any uoMttlol Ull of excvpliotui, or nUtv- 
maot nn inolion f<jr dow trial tberuin, may 1« 
avttli^l wvl uuTttlicd by lin ■qombot Jn ooiaoi 
«r, il hu be disqualiliDd, bya iudw of theiamo 
or an adjoioiof; county. Anil wiicn the iitttge 
brfore wi»ni an Kttao «u tricl become* dia- 
r|tiali6«), 1* alsoni from the ■tate, or mfanea 
til Hilll« ttto bill of «ioe]ilknii or (latomelit on 
■iiotloit for new trial, tiich bill ut «xcvptioiia or 
•latMMtnt BMj b* Mttlad and eurtifi«i] bttot* 
a Jnclf* of th« MMM or an aii joiniu); eoanly. 

KrLaSO. ApfJitiUieitlohaireiatMrialiaitt. — 
Apiiliaalid«ii mlide before or after judginnit 

Cmonneed br a ttppartmcnl tlint n cnuie shall 
heard and (locided bylhocvoirt iu )unk miut 
1)0 mado vpM printod petition addreawi to 
the dtMlualitio or tho coon, aottinff forth tho 
(]iMiilloa lavolvcd In the oauM, and the rcaanni 
why It abould bo hwud by tliu court la bank. 
If made Iwforo Judjinieot. tlio pclUion fnu«t Ij* 
SUil i*il)i tho oUrk of the cunrt at loa*t l«u 
day« before tbv oUrk niekn op tlio calendar. 

And If mado after Jndpnent ]tronnunci><l by 
any of the dC|iartmunl4. Hfjtlilii twi'iity da}'* 
nfior aiich iodKitieiit. Tim itOK* hmi'iB i>r«- 
•erilxHl kbill iiut Iu- <ixt«ii[t'»l by ihu ehiff jtn- 
tieuwnuv'.'I lli« .■utuviol* jWtlicM, or tli«cauiCi 
and llw ulvrk tliati nut lUe a petitiun atltir «ucb 
tintn bare expired, in coee »f juilj;nimc«, tho 
potilrim «h.-ill oiterate aa a alay of pcvooedinga 
niilil it ilidll bo dL'tormined. 

P.L-LE 31. When an applicatioo b mado to 
thia court far an altonuitiro writ, ao order 
•tayiiiK tbo jirocoodingi of nuy oaurt or oHkor 
until the rcturu of tbo writ will not Ix! mado, 
unlcaa duo notice of tbo appllcatiOB toi tlia 
writ itinll hu«e buen given to all pwtie* Inter- 
«Ht>'il ill il<* procoetllcifCi. 

Ordered, that ID <Ti luinal caats no brief aball 

Iw lilvil afCvr arguiuput, utiloes rrquevltd fcrv 
the court. Onlcinl, turtlicr, tlint poiiita and 
authorities in all oriuiinikl cttua bo tiled at tho 
time cf the oalliog of the cue for arguintoit, 
which point* and authoritiM need not be 

Older.— In all caHH. both in bank and de< 
partmenta, whore time in allowed to file briefly 
tho clerk will utter in thv mmnt«a of tbe court 
an order of aiibniiatian at tbe asplmtion of 
such time, unltM otbtrwiso dU«eUd by tbo 

In vl«w of tho erovded oonditioa of tbo 
calenilar, the cvart tblnka it nrofier to minoM 
tu tliu ineniberB of the bar that in its opjuion 
it will uiivlitu the diapoeitiun cf ciubid* if oral 
arguinonta be Bbolislicil for the priwcnt. cxorgit 
in aooli owea u tho eourt may think an oral 
argamont dGBirablu. If thi> (ugijcttion mccta 
tho anpTotation of tho RiMnben of tbo bar. a 
*lipuIation of cDumud may bo filed aubmittJng 
upon brinfii tho mueca upnn calcodar aa of iJio 
day auch uau»ca now tUad est lot huarlbj{. 

130. When ruUa take effed. 

HxB. 130. Rules adopted by the supremo court bIiaII tolco offoct tsixlj da>yt, 
Uid rales adopted by sup«hor oourt« thirty day^, ailux LLvir puMivittiou. 



I9S. Doyii on which t^urta, etc., majf b« hetd. 

Sw. 133. Courts of justuw aaj \m held nod judicial biuioeas ttaneaoted od 
•ujr dfty, except as provided in tbe itoxt HCction. 

134. Non-jvdinal dai/a. 

Ktt;. 134. So court ahaU bo open, nor shall any pidicial buadneas Iw tmna- 
itctitil Ull Sunilay.oa the Srst day of Juauair.on tlio tw^nty-Becond day of Feb- 
nian-. nil Ihe fourth day of July, on tlio twwnty-fifth of December, on a day in 
wliivb nil elecUuD ia bold thronghout tl)6 state, or on a day appointod by the 
president of the United States, or by tho goveriior of tbid slate, for a publio 
tut, Utaoksgiviug:, or holiday, except for tlic foltuwin^ parposca: 

1. Tu give, upon thoir rc{|umt, tDtlnictionu to a jury wheu deliberatiDg on 
their venlict; 

2. To receive a verdict, or diMchnrgn a jury; 

8. For the oxerdiw) of tho powCTH of n iiiii){btntte iu a oriminal actios, or in a 
procceiliD^ of a criminal iinturo; providod, that the supreme court uliiilt always 
he opeu for the iTansnction of bunneu; and provided further, Uiut iujuucttooa 
and writs of prohibition may bo iatued and acrved ou any duy. 




7p*«» Ii titu 1 

HoUObtk— Tlw Uxlrtlttb<1ajor 3d*y la not 
h(f« indiiiM. Bnt tee nnU, wte. ID, 

Bapreme court alwajra open: Scls gmrnr- 
ally. UK''-, sivx. 47. 73. int. TtiiK nmkn Sua- 
day to W liLkco into count ia compiitiiig tiiuo 

It wiu it«<[(1cil tliatn beHrinf[ <ti ') i>ntl 

altlxiiigh th« tliirtlutl) any wm ---'.ii'iriv. 

IhJimctloQa and wilts ol probfbAloa bim 
■Miue oo SunilAy*: 8m a«M> bm. 70^ ■abdTai 
and Conat. 0»L, vt 0, MC A. 

185. vl;);K>i'nfni«nb on nonjudicial dai/t: 

Sec. X3I>. If Any day moatioticd in the last section bapjMn to be the day >{>- 
pointed for the holding ur sitUngof acotirt.or to which it is adjourned, it abalt 
ho deemed appointed for or udjourued to the next d^y. 



188. jidjouriimentjor abaence of judge. 

Sfcc. 139. If no judge attend ou the day appointed for the holdinf^ or sitUnff 

of n ooiirt, or on the day to which it may hare been adjourned, befon? noou, 

the sbehlF or clerk shall adjourn the same until the neictday, at ten o'clock 

A. M.,sod it DO judge attend on that day, befom noon, the »borilTor cU-rk ohall 

udjoum thesaineuutilthflfoUovringdayat the namo hour, and fiOon, from day to 

day for one week, unlees the ju<)ge, by ivrittcn order, directs it to bo adjannu'd 

to some day certain, fixed in isaid order, in which cjim it Kh«)l be tu) ncljuuniod. 

Ad}ouniii>enl~Wli«t« Iliora hu Im<«ii no lurr ]ii<:ivt<liHl tor, iimtt bo tornwosk; t/)jul- 
ailjcuiiiuKiit tiy the tlicriir or clerk uuili-r tliii juurii Juilv, ovnimdudog witli Moailky %oA 
teuUcn, tliv 'utnffs ■ii.iy opea ourt nt uiv hour vn<ling willi SiitUTtl«y, it) nil fl*« '^7*^ Is inanf- 

Ck). IS. TIte dailjr aujourntucal (or a week, 

140. Ailjourjimenl till m'xt rvffular se>ai!an. 

Sue. 140. If no judge attend for oiiu vcek, and no written order be inad«, 

as provided in the last §C'otion, the aberilT or clurV fiJiiiU adjoom the seaatOQ 

until tile time appointed for the holding of the next rafflilor session. 

SMnolelOpreoedini; neoliona. 

a«Mfoaa <K SBperlor oourta: 3o« ante, nee. 79. 

psonsiOKS BESPECTisa i'LAO]c<> or E0u>md ooitbts. 
142. Change in certain caaea o/plact! of holding court. 

Ssc U2. The judge or judges authorized to hold or pneide at s court 
appointed to be held at a particular place in a city and county, county, city, or 
town, may, by an order filed with the city and county or county clerk, and pub* 
lishod a« ho or tliey niay prescribe, direct that tbe court bo held or contiuned 
at any otlier placo in the city and connty, county, city, or town, than that 
appointed, wlira war, insuncctiou, pestilence, or olhir public nlainity, or the 
danger thereof, or the doBtmction or dangerof the Imilding appointed for hold* 
iitg tlio court may rrnd^rr it nocoesary; and may in ttie same maqner reToke the 
OTcl^, and in liia or Uicir dlDcrction appoint another place in the Mime city and 
oouitiy, county, city, or town, for holding tbe court. 

148. Partif* to appear at place appointed, 

Seo. 143. When the court is held at a place appointed, an pnmded in the 
last section, overj ponou lidd to appear at the court must appear at the pbuM 
BO appointed. 

144. I17i«i ithfrij^ to pntvuir eourt-room/i, ric. 

Bec. 141. If suitable rooms for Lolding the superior courts and tfaecbambcrs 
of the judges of said courts to not provided in any dty and county, or ooust^i 



hy Ibe uipervison theroof, together vrilli theattenclante, ftiraiture, fuel, Itgbta, 
■D(l Etationcry Bufficient for llio traiiiutction of buBtneas, tbe ooacts, or the jtid^ 
or jiulges thereof, may direct the ehonff of tio oi^and county, or comity, to 
provido such rooms, attcodants, furniture, fuel, lights, and stationery, and th« 
oxpeHBes incurrod, certified by tfao judge or judges to bo correct, shall be a 
ehnrgo ngaiiut tho city and county trunsury, and piiti out of the ge&erul fund 

wtMJt or cocim. 
147. What coNrtf thatt Aari* nfoiii. 
Sxo. 147. Encli of tbo following oourtH abidl haro a seal: 

1. Tha impKina court; 

2. Th« superior courta; 

3. The police court of oreiy city and oounty. 

Judicial aotJoe of nals of oontta: 
pout, iiic. )9TA. >!>)■! -I. 

Oonit ooaunlaalauent' aeal ; 8«e ixM, sco, 


Se«la noeratly: Secant, mc. M.aoJ uot*. 

Beal of cooit— It b na« toM of • eoiin of 
nwrdi £xi>atl<T><iJ'<aa,S2C»\.tU. Pcttlc« 
eonrli wo not cuurl* of manic 8m (wI«, «*ci. 
83,U; aMlyotbkvaBMiili Sa;ira,tU«a«otLaa, 

148. Smi of guptvme cokH. 

Sec. 148. The seal used by the supreme court abolished by tbe oonsUtutiou 
fihall be the seal of the supreme court herein provided for; but the aaid court 
may direct the clerkof tbe supreme court to provide two duplicates of said seal, 
each of which shall be oonsideied tbe some a», and have the sumo force and effect 
a«, tho original, 

140. Stall nfmiparior courts, 

8bo. 14d. Thosealsof the superiorconrtsshall becircular, not Ices tbanone 
and throo fourths incbea in diameter, and baTing in tho center any word, words, 
or design adopted by tho judges thereof, tuid the following iuucription surroand- 

tog tbo same: " Superior Court , Califuruiu," iuwvrting tho name of tbo 

oounty or city and county; providod, that tho aeal of any such court whivh has 
bwD adopted pteriouM to tbo passage of this act shall bo tho sttl of such court 
nnlil anothor be adopted. 

At 4<t to ittdan ratiil urto", imw". ami arti/tcatfj iuunf 6y thr mptrlar etiuHt <tfAm MUe, Of 
dkt dtriM Aeretft t^ort tvtk ettviu ihatt Aii k btt» UjaBf prwtJ«d milA ttat*. 
tApiovTciibK^ai, uwt uao. » (6u.«|j 
VTHtt, prorai, tte, , rtreltirat valid, 

KKcni>N I. No u'lit, promai. or MKiScBls iuuFcl hy tnjr (Ujwrior eoiirt, or tbs «turk tlioreof, 
tufoni iiuli uoiirt iIiaII hart been legally proritlul wiUi a laal, ihall 1m Uitalid, if iii other 
rM|n:U v«liit, t^ nmton of tho abwiicc <.f a luoful ai^iil) but orery »ucli writ, proCM*. or oertifl- 
OiUi. W liRtbcc UDdcr the acal o( oiio ot tlio (onrta ulwIUIied OH tlic IJrat (lay of Jnauuv, df^tcca 
huiulml tnd eighty, or under ttio privnto (cut of the clerk, or luiilcr uiv olhcr ■ntl, or iMOctl 
witlioot n •oti, ihaJl linvn tho fame vali.lity n* <I it bail been aalliCTiUQatcJ ly a UgftUy adopUJ 
mbI dI tba ooiirt ont of irliioh or li; wlinas eloib it wu iuaod. 
iiU). i. Tlilji iu:C *hatl l«k* clKtct Inunotbatoly. 

150. SrnU of poli/x courlg o/ cUim and couitliim. 
Sec. ISO. The police court of every city and county may un any seal havbg 

upon it Ute insoriptiou, " Police Court " (inserting the name of the city 

aud ootutty). 

JM. ft'ci/ii, how proPuiH^I*rii<ate Kfat», whan Kwrf. 

Kko. 151. Courta wliicb have not the noooasary seal provided, or tbe judge 
cr iuilgaa theraof, shall rcquotit the auporviaora of their respective counties, or 
eitiw and conntles, to provide the sumo, aud m ooae of their failure to do so 


» 152-108 


[Part I, Tm-t: H, 

ma; order the sberiff to proriile the same, and Uiq expenm Uier«o( sliall be a 
charge againut the coaoly or ritj- and oounly treoeuty, and paid out of tho gon- 
era) fund thereof i and uutU such seal be provided the dork of each court ntay 
use his private seal whenever a seal is required. 

152. Ct^k of courilo iM-p gfoi, 
Beo. 1G2. The clerks of tho court shall keep the seal thereof. 

153. SeaUo/courtu, to wtial doc wnmis affixed. 

Swi. 153. The seal of a court need not be affixed to aay proceeding: therein 
or dwtunent, except: 

1. To a writ; 

2. To the oertificate of probate of a will or of the appointment of an ezeoator, 
adminiKtrator, or (fuardian; 

3. To tlie auUieiitication of a copy of a record or other prooeedinpf of a court, 
or of au oUtoer thereof, or of a copj* of a docuiueut on file in tho oi&M of U10 



CsAiTEB I. JrcicLu. OnnoERs dt Okxxbai. 169 

n. rowKM AXD Dcms or JcnoEH AT CuAxncns 16S 

m. DtsquiLinaiTioxs or Jdoobs , 170 



Omcww 188 



156. Qualifications ofjudicn o/»upmne court, 

Skc. l&C. No pvTBon ohall bo eligible to thn office of chief or asHOciate jus- 
tice of the Buprorao court iiulow ho ahull have bt^eii u ritu'.flu of tho United 
States and a resident of tlib »tat« for two years next preceding his election or 
appointment, nor unlnM ho shall have been adiuitted to practice before the 
supreme court of tho tttuto. 

The Tarloua t«ciion* nf thin title ktx; fmiidod kit, 0, ««. 23. Dthorwiao bcforu tbe bJoptioD 

npco tlieat<)tut« o( l!i(l3, ]•]>. 1133 cC (cq., unlcM of tlie now coDJiitutiua: Ptoplt v, Dortg, 32 

othcrwu? ttntnl. C^. 2S8. 

Judge nauat bean attoroey: CouiL C»l., 

IflTf. Qualijications 0/ intpcrior judges, 

Sxc. iS7, No person shall be eligible to the office of judge of a superior 

court uidc6S he shall have been a citizen of tho Uuited States and a resident of 

tbia state for two years next preceding his election or appointment, nor unless 

ho ahall bare been admitted to pt»cUce before the supreme court of the istate. 

Sm aMe to HW. 166. 

106. Iti!8idenoe i>f sup^ricT judffet. 

Sno. 158. Each judge of a auporior court fthidl rcflide at Uio connty Muni of 
the county in which such court is held, or within tllKC inilen thcr[X>f , and witbiu 
the oouuty, except that in the oountieaof Yuba and Sutter the judge may reside 
in either of said countiea. 



: 159-100 

158. Ftffidntce hn/I quatijicationii t>/ju»tier» uf the peace. 

Bixi. 1^9, Evt^r^' junticc of Ihc [k-acd uluill roeido in tho city and Aouutj, or 
towtubip, in wtuc-Ii Uiiii C4>uri in Ix'Iil, ar<1 no periton HiinU bo uli^blo to Uio 
oi&oo of jiiNticA of tho pmuio uii1(-mm 1i<! H>inll haro htxn n ciUxcu of tlio Uiistoil 
8t«tCM nnd iL rcsidvnt of tlic city oiiil uountj, or county, iu vhich ho ix to aitrve 
for 000 year next precedinff hia election or ajipuliitdivnt. 

J60. Juil'iff hol4wp superior tMurU at r^fju^^M o/gt/vemor, 

HtxT. 1(10. If, liy rensoi) of aJctknefiti, iib<wnco, diwtbility, or other oaitHA, A 
rr{n>^r AetMion of tlie Hui>6rior court cutinot he licld in any oounty )>y tbo 
judge or judites t1i«reof, or by a Bui>erior judge requmtfid by him or tbeni to 
bold auob court, a certificate of that fact shall be traDBmitted by the I'litrk 
tlM>reof to tbo Rorenior, who may thereupon request Bome other superior jtidgo 
lo liold aucb court; and a judge so holding a court at the request of the gav- 
ernor sltall be allowed his actual expenses in going to, returning from, tiiid 
attending upon th« bUBiD€«s of such court, which shall bo a charge againi^t tiie 
beosuiy of the county where atuh court is held, and paid out of the general 
fund thereof. 

Judge boldlng court at gavemot'a te- 
qocat. It ii tli» ilnty (:f tl^q jaAet! to cumpl}' 
with ttiE ri-'jiiCflt: Sen nn/t. tvc. 71. 

It la cauatitulloiuU (^.r k JuJg« to bold 
ODHrt iiiitlEr tliU Httiuu Lcybiiil the limila d 
tho di»lrirt for which ho una olectod^ /Vepla 
V. UtCanlef, 1 CuL 379. Tho jnilgo try'iag ii 
euR la anotbcr oonnt}' may rri(im to hi* dvlh 
oouDty alter tb« ouimi li&i been oiyiioJ muX 
Ntbralttail, uid thtn prepare and ilgn SadlDgi 

uul send lliem to the clerV <■! tba oeunly fn 
wbiuh tlio trial took jiIiul-: C'tmutoet Q, it. 
0>. r. SujKrior Coun, 57 Id. Oa, 

aatMtltut* Judfi* AltUng put ol trial— 
That it ii dcwmUo (or tlio judge who com- 
mcncvd tho trial la wtnatil it i> comntctcd, 
■ee Ptople r. llmdmoH, 'i& Cal. i'% but 
whether it wauhl bo orrar opt to do ik>, tnc Id,, 
tba point not b«Iiig latt, th« party hafiuy 
walvixl hla obJNllon. 


X6L Juflifvn anttjiutgtv inrligible to othT than judicial office, 

tine. 101. The justices of the supreme court and judges of the Bupenoroourts 
eliall l>e ineligible to any other oEBce or public employment tlian a judicial o&m 
or etiiploymcnt during tlte term for which they shall ha*'e bocn oIect«d. 
Sm OoMt. CkL. ut, 0, lea. 18. 


165. Pi'ictmt afjuMicrti of mifirrmit court at ehamlfv*. 

Hkc. Itw. Till) juntio^H of tbo Kiipi«iao court, or any of them, may, at cluut)- 
brrH, g^miit nil nnlcn* and writ:* which are usually gnuitod in thA lintt instaiioo 
l)|M)i) ail ex ]urt« nppliigttion, ('xcvpt writa of inaudiiiuuH, oorttorari, and pnihi* 
bitiou ; and inny, in tlii-ir dincrution, b«ar uppUoatious to tliflchargo ttucli orders 
ami writs. 

See next M«ttoii, and note, 

168. Penem nf iri'/xTioj" juitQ-^ at chamb*T». 

Sic. Iflfl. Th« judge or judgot of a HUporior court, or any of thorn, may, &t 
chiuiiben, grant all onlent and writA vrliieh aro UKiinlly granted in the first iu- 
Btuut^e upon an ex parto application, and may, at chniulMini, hear and dbipoeio of 
eucb orders ttud writ«; and may abN), nt chuinben, appoint nppnusera, receiro 
inventories and oi-counts to l>u filivl, HUHiK^nil tli^ powora of executors, adminia- 
tntors, orguardiouH iu IbeconCH allowLil by law, grant apeuial letters of ad- 
mitiistrotion or guanlianahip, approve cbiima and boudK, and direct the isstmnce 
truiti the court of all writ« and prooesa necetitiary iu the exercise of Lheir powerH 
io lutttteis of prolate. 




[F&nr I, Tnu H, 

Powers o( JadSM at cluimban^ — Tbe 

rcrsl mla U, llint all ju<1i«uj boMiMM ntwt 
truuBolod ill eouit. v'li<:tiifr tb«n bo an* 
raprcM <lirectli>n to tliit ■>irA:t or noc Sucn 
biiilcoi .11 iiiAy iie tnniuutdl out of miirt ta 
vxwjiliucKil. aiiil iiiait tiixl exproM authority 
fu HUlot«; Lfireo ». f'o«i..'Hnpri. 30 Oil. SW; 
A'orvtn-i/ V, AV">f<(. 3t 1.1. »*.'; /niWj.m r. 
Anilrftc, 411 III, '23% *i'h>i I>-)i;itlatuTD ia nut 
pn>hiliilvil by Iliv i>i7tiktitiili<i[i fiiini gnntiiig 
t<> jail^in at vliuirilifrR pnmr to hcsruiil de- 
tprniini' procwdiii^i nt oliatnbcni: Breintrr v. 
HnHl'<f. 37 Id, IJ; Sprnerr tV«i H'. 0>. v. 
ruUrjo, 43 Id. 70. Although tlio lcK>alAtun> 
maf onthorue jpilg™ at chambcn to perfonn 
certain dntjoa In r»poct to a cfliuc, yot aoma 
cmitt RiiHt liarc jnriadiction of ilia <*uaa: 

A JiidiC^ inay not nt cliambar* ^rant acou- 
llBiinitm iif a efliian act fur trift!; .V'onrawl v. 
Krt<p!il. 34 Oal. 329i dot mnka an onler <li- 
rrctiiii; tbtf cl*Tk to ent«r io Iho miautca of Ibo 
couct. niriK priftaH': an onlcr alleged lo liat) 
U>cn ino'lc' iu upcn court: Ittgrler r, Ilritcbcd, 
ST Id. 49Ii nor licnr « motion to atKke ont 
picaduisii Bond v. Paeiteco, 30 Id. 932; noc 

act tabic an ox«enttnn »mA jicrfNtnatly alay Ita 
talorowncot: I<1. But that » liu1|i« naf mh- 
Mnd the oparatloQ ol an oxacuwu prndini; Ifca 
Mariaj; oi a motion t« roealt it auMn it: 
/yogan v. t/illq}«*. IU Id. •.■01; aeo aU n^p- 
mnn t. BovitiH, 14 M. ISSt /'fU v. TAwp- 
*nn, IP Id. 70Si A'ancAn v, Cafrkaa, 31 Id. 

A duunber-onld' diraoting sraliton to abow 
CMiae vbj an inaolmit ■nonU not b« tlii' 
ctwri^ i* gotKti Flint r. Wiben, 36 Oal. 21. 
A racetvor m inaolnnoy nwy bo appointed at 
chamlKra: B. S. Atioeiatf v. San Fnntdtta, 
CO Id. 223. 

A lUcitlon of a Jnd^ at cbambor* In reapect 
to wrila of inaiidatn, rovI«w, wrila aiitbuvliml 
to iaaiia or ba daoiad out of court la a Juilfnovnl 
appoalablo vadar moUod M3. fM'.- Brriattr v, 
HanUy, 37 Cal. 15. Laan to ranoir a motSoa 
iiiajr bu craat«<d al cbainbani KtniKu <e. Stilt- 
her. 63 Id. 442. 

8e«, gMwrally, mc. IT& nod. 

ObARibcr bonn o( JudgM: Seo Pol. Code, 
aM. 4110. 

Powon of jndsv ol probata at obambsn: 
Scepoit, ioa. 1303. 



ITO. Z>L«9tuiii/foa'fo>M to tU or act. 

Sdc. ITO. Xo juatico, jud^o, or ju»tic« of Uio puco ttholl sit or act aa such 
in auy action or proceeding : 

1. To which he is a party, or in nrhich ko is iut«rc«tiicl; 

3. ^Thea he is related to either part; by conaaiiguioity or affinity wiUua tbe 
third degri>e, cotuputed aocordiug to the rules of law; 

9. When lie haa been attorney or counsel for either party in the actiun or 

Hut tlio provistona of this section shall not applv to the arrangpniont ot tho 
raloiidar or tlio rcguIntiaD of the order of business, nor to tLe povrer of tmuiH 
fwriiig the srtion or proceeding to some other court. 

DiBquAUaoatJoiis gDn«raIIy.— "TIio lliroo 
oaaina atatcd in ilio ivxt oiv tho oa\y on<« 
wbidi work a <tbi)aaliliuttiun of a judicml o&- 
tut:" OimtniMuonara' uute. Tbe oxbibicion by 
a jtxigo ut lar'iraD tocling, or tbo voDoacwary 
tKprtMion of an opinion upou the juitioe or 

aolicitalioQ of tliD party most int«nMtod ta «s> 
eluding him, and tricti tlic coutunt of ImIIi par- 
ties, it w-ui bcU tliat tho jadgmeut wM ritblcd; 
and uDo Ptaple v. De la Qatrra, 24 Cnl. 70- A 
juiIgD caunot lit In a cauoo to vhivb i< c^u-iio. 
nition I* a party, if he be related to atookhold- 

nwrfta o( a toiitrovsriy, tboURh cxootuiiunly «r* tn aaciicorparatioin; Piatt r. Butttntuti W, 
indauciTOiui, iinpropcr. aud rcprcbcDmljlc, oj cal- Mfy. Co., 21t llarK. USi. 

oubitnl to throw ■oapicion upon tho JndDmeota 
of lliu court, and bring tbe ailiiiiiiiiitratioi) of 
inatiae into caiitemjit, ilo nut Jiwiiiulify lliu 
Mdgn front Mtliii^: .ihOoMlryy. ItV'/^r, JaCal. 
SZS. The tact that the couDlyJuilgeiKnustiina 
bcfuro bctongn] to an 111(^1 aaniciatioQ, whoae 
(iDinimtlee called the dufandanl on grounda 
uiwoauacUHl with (bo rsihtiiiu; vliir},.!!. u-u hill 
not to ihow any legal iiiuag-^'city t^ ait on tba 
trial; P<«plt v. .IfnAowy. 18 Id. 18S. Under 
onr ayatom thate eui bo no moh thing u a 
riialli'iiw of the j'ld^. thu mnnly tn toao of 
eriiiiiii.ll partinlity Iwiiiu found in iiUpiMChillont: 
/•rer-'e V. )>'i7/;<inu, 24 Id. 31; offlnncd: PmpU 
V, tltivln: -2$ LI. ilK!. Eicn if na oblvcllon la 
Oiwlr, a dinqualllleil jndgo haa n» rt^Iit to a«t. 
and on^t. of lui own notioo, i» iltolino to ait 
•ajuilge. laaM<fY.Afpi*tnill,3ti.Y.rrf!. 
vUere a judge ut b the uato nt tJiu uuuMt 

7u. . . . . 

In erimiiiat coma. — Dlaauallfioation of tho 
iudgv vat liaUl no gronml far obuwng tbo 
vpnuo. in f'w/A v. .VcOarwy. M Cal. 3'.!7. 
Thp jiiriwIiFlioii to cliane* Ibo iilnuc of trial of 
a criiiiiiial ca*e is ivuulatnd aolely by acction 
1033 of Die l-mal Code) Id. 

Tbe abov* MOCloii ooofH* uo power 
npgn any court or jndgei ProfiU v. itcllarvijf, 

Subd. L lutaroated iiMlge:— A ji'^bnttt 
jud|-i: wha bu a power ol ntlixnoy from any of 
tho pcnKin* cloiuutig to be li«ra of the dxceaxeil, 
antlioriiing him to reoel«« for them any iiii>iivy 
or property tu nhlcli they might he tiititlod 
froui IQO «*talfl. Olid alao lottere olTeriug hiia a 
percentaita unoii tojd ]<roooed« coming t<i Mi<t 
alluiiwl heir, la lulormtol En the tmtAtn: Oal^f 
V. A'riaiMll. 3 N. V. .MTi /"• IV If-Wf*. 37 Cat 
ItMX UuCaBlwuing that tbo Judge famerty 



Iwld uMM ol tli« eonnty wamiiU Umb Io Hti- 
^kin i* net miflicirnt U fJioo tlul )>o ii •iit- 
qnnltlkd: ttrr-jg v. I'tm'irrltrK, S3 Id. i"»l. 
■'Tim {.""<■■'■■' >''■>"'■' lift rcnlvakUclmicat 
or (tilci .fiuitrDi^tiuii. lut nkUier Mm tbil^ U 
Ua.-.l «u-l llhmil:" A"or,'A BloonOMda. M. Co. 

It IX ii<inii4wcrIo1hodi*qua]ific»Uoii nriaing 
[tuai iuUnnt in tb* [uuccoUnfi* to mv ttuit tfao 
(Itwuioa in tlw aoto oiu corTDct. The ntatuUi 

thtt lite mh at llic ownmoo law an to comiiu- 
tutinu of ll'« 'UuriMa nn>i3lt<d: f'tof.lf\: Vtl% 
Vii'rnt, ii 1.1. 76. By Uic Ciril Code, in the 
ilir«ul liiio th<<rti iirv ID luuijr dofrrco* a* thcra 
ttr« gtfiMuljiou*: thuB, thi gmndion i*. vrltli 
rcgwil to bi* dmnilfaUipr, iu the Mcoiot 'U|trac: 
Cv.O>iIo,>«tt,la03. Id tbo mllntcral llao, ths 
(IcgTOM Drc cayxviuA by gtncrationa from ooo of 
tlw tvlittiuDa np to tbn comniou tnivntiir. Anil 
from tlie couunoa anceirlar to tbo ollt«r KUtioii. 

docB not >ay tlut tbn Ju<)i[« Is itwqnalifinJ to Tliiu, unckii and Dcphowa an rvlatoi in Ihe ' 

ilMidcerronoonKiy, but tliat lie dball not decide third ilr)(rM! ciiafiiM.gvriiiaa in lli^roiittb, ami 

at all, e3f«lit to anaii);? ihn cal«ndaf aod the an on: Civ. I'cnlv, Mc. 1303: ami 'kk Plan v. 

OnllT of hniiiKWi, <ir lo cFiu'in tlie veiioe: /a BaUfrnuU \¥. it/a. (.'A, 'i& Barli. J^OJ. v>hor« Uio 

, eseeiit to alraii);? 
OnllT of NiniKwi, or lo cFiu'i^ tlie veiioe: 

TV irtjj', raciii. loo, im, 

Bnbd 2 CmiMUtKiilalty <uid oCBntty.— 
Whcvc ddandant moi'tid lucbnoKv tlia |<Iaii:oo( 
t-(n). r« the graunil that thu plaintdf and 
J«t^ula Carillo, the dlrirut jailgn. ««nt Cnt 
oauaiBt. ilia ouirt hcU the eoiwuiguloilj to be 
withla iliu tlilrd dnrrc*; Dr la Ourrra v. 0\ir- 
Um. 23 Cal. TiiKl. Wh«re tlm vlfc of Uio jcdgo 
wna lint rocinin %ii bolli rrlator nml rcajMudcnt, 
it «M hdil tiiat the Judg* VM divjiialilicd, and 

liuUtrnuU W. UJa. (.-ft, SS Barb. JOJ. v.hor» tlio 
Jodeo va« diniaalifitd booioM nUtcd to * 
alocklioldcr in a corpuntion party to nu action 

OubiL 3; Judg* actios aa nttonier: Sm 
•CM. 171. 172. llaiing been an j>llorw]y (ii 
the {iroMcUJiig, the judge oniflit to ipanl a 
ollango of venae: Barnhatt v. rvlkxttk, S!)OiL 

Cbann of venue by reaaoii of Jndgo^ 
aiaquolUIcatlcMt: Sm poM, aeea. 3U7, 308. 

TO. Jud;i''s and counli/ cirrhf pt^^hibitrd/rom pracUdng late. 

Sbc. 171. No justice, or jndge of a court of record, or county cl«r)t, &ball 

practice Inw iu an; court of this Btat«, nor act &a attorney, agcal, or aolioitor 

in tho pruaecutioQ of on; ckim or application for Unds, ponuons, pat«at rifflits, 

or otli«r proceediugs, before any dopartmant of tho state or general goveru- 

meut, or courts of the United StatoK, during his conttnusnce in office; nor shall 

pay justice of the jjeaco proctico law boforo any justioe's court in tbo county in 

wliioh be reeidee. [Ammdrn'mt, approved l&trch 14, 1681; Stai». 1B81, 78.] 

SIwacMDdad Motion nod aa fottoita',,"No ooiilisuaiiM In oOicu, nor ahall any jititice nf 
jculiM or jiid|^ of a court of reoanl alull pnio- the [waco praotioo law bcfoi-e any juitice'a 
tiee law Jn wiy oonrt of thu eUle during bin oourt in the county whon> he rcaidu." 

172. Xo judicial officer Io Itave partner practicing lata, 

Sxc. 172. Xo jnuticc, judge, or other elective judicial ofllcar, or court com- 
iii!MH>n«r, shoU have a partner acting as attorney or couusol in luiy court of 

r76. Poteen o/Judfjvt out of court, 

8ec. 17C. A justice or judge may exerdae oat of coort all the powcra ex- 
pTMvly confonT>d upon a justice or judge, as coatradistiiiguitiLed from tho 
Juidgea' power at obamben: St« on^, aeoi. 165, 16S. 

177- 1' ofjudiciai offi/^^^n as to conduct <^ proceedings. 

Sec 177. E*ery judic-iul ofSccr ahnll have powor: 

1. To preserve and enforce order iu hid imuiediato jiresenoo, and in proceed- 
ings before him, when he is engaged iu the performance of ofBoial duty; 

S, To compel ob<Hliciie« to his lawful orden as provided in this cixk-; 

3. To compel Ihe attemlauce of persons U> testify iu a procecxliiig beforo hiiu, 
in tht! csMiK and manner provided in this code; 

4. To adminiBUT oaths to persona Iu u proceeding pending before liim, and 
in all other casc« where it may be neoeemy iu the exorcise of hia poirun and 

Powora of cooita: S«e axit. wo. 128. 




178- "ih punMi/or conii'mpi. 

Sec. I'S. For the QQeotiinl r<xorviw> nf tho pow«ra conferred b; the IabI fleo- 
tion.a jiidicbl of&cor maj punisti furcoiitpmpUtiUiocaMH provided ialbisoode. 

Contempt of oourt: Sw/t»ir, mo. 1209; umi' in jiirtiaoi' omrtM Svipoti,wm.VHi. 
179. 7b lakv acknoaslfihjmeni* an4 affidavits. 

Hxts. 179. Euvli vt tbe Jualjocn of tlin miprcmo oouti, itnd juJflOM of tbo bq- 
perior oourU, dhitll bnve power in any part of tho aiaba, lUid avtry juhUoh of Um 
pence wttliiu bis city nud couuly, or county, aud a jud|^ of a ]>oUofi or otli«r 
inferior court witltin bis L-ity aud couuty, city, or town, to take aud certify: 

1. Tbe proof and acknowledgaient of n convey&nce of real proper^, or of 
any other written inBtrumout; 

2. The acknowledgment of natief action of a judgment of any court; 

3. An affidavit or depuBition to be used in thia elate. 

Sobd. 1., Acknowl»d£xn«ou of caDT*/- Bul>d 3^ AtBdavita, uM of : ScejM«(|Meai 

■aseolrenlty: S<.-aCi>-,rxKlp, kci. n80otKi(. 200&ot*cq. 

Subd. 2. AoknowledemeiiU ofMtlabo- Seposlaou*. Soei>Ml,MM. SOlOctaoq. 
tfouof JudgmaatBL Sim pol, m». 6T3l 



183i. SftiMfquent applicalione for urrfi-r* rf/utiyl, wh«n prohibit'^. 

Sec. 182. If an application for an order, made ton judge of acourtin whicli 
tbe action or proceeding ix pciidiog. is rofuttt^ io whole or in part, or is gnuit^d 
conditionally, no nulnHxiuent npplinttion for tho Home order shall bo mado to 
any court comuiiuiioucr, or any other jodgn, oxcopt of a higher court; hat 
Dotliiuf; in thin section npplitiH to inotiouit rvfuKod for informality in tUo pitpeni 
or prod-edinj^ neceasory to obtain tho order, or to motions rofiued wiUt libtirty 
to r«new tbe same. 

JlotioHi fur nrvi (riof.— ATlar dtnial of a 
motion fur k new tritl tb* moving |Mtty can- 
not Borvc anit lile a now nolle* of fatoDtlon. It 
it U clone, tlic lupvra may bv ttruok from Ilia 
Blci: l''QjAt V. ftnrrr. 61 Cil 191. 

MoUona and oidcra. generally: Sm mos. 

1003 lit Bcci., ;».(. 

AppeataMO ordeis.— Sm poif, Mo. 989k 

Senswlnc appUoatlot). — It U quit* unwl 
whro • motion u <lDnI(ul, which tn« moidng 
|»rty lUiiiv* to nouw. to have tho ontry (how 
tliut it nui danlod witliuuC projutlioo. nntl lonvo 
to ivDtw tuny W igttva nt nny time ■ftBrwnH: 
/onf V. ife-yfr, M Cal. 635; howen r. Chtrohte 
BeA, 4$ 111- SS3. Liiivc t« nmcw motion may 
bo cnmlvj at cl^oinben: Krnnta t. Kttlditr, 

188. FtoltUions ofpraxttinrf rection. 

Sec. 183. Ariolntioii of the IniHiteRtion maybe puniHbodasacoutempt; and 

an order mode oontniry thereto may Ixt nivolciid by tbe judK» or commisBloiier 

vbo mode it, or vacuted by a judge of tho court in which the action or prooeed- 

iog Is pending;. 

Coutenipta: Sec fxMi, tec*. 1200 et »e<i. StriUag papera from the Sloa •imA in n> 

Vacatiiie Oideia: Sec pati, mo. MT. ii«wiDj[ a motion i Pea^ r. CeaUr, 61 CnX. ISl. 

184. Prowtdintfl n<4 afffded by vacancy in offioe. 

Sko. 18-1. No proc«H)ding in any court of justice, in an action or Rpociol pn>> 
M*diu|? pending Uterein. ithall be ofTocted by a vacancy in the office of all or nuy 
of tbe judguH thereof. 

Taoaaclaa: Sm a/at, tact, 42, 70, and notaa. 

I8& ProMfdin^ to ^^ m Eni/tUh tanyaage. 

Sec. ISo. Every written proooMling in a court of juntieo in this etatd shall 
be in the English language, and judicial proccodiogs iiball be conducted, pre- 
served, aud published la no other. 


TnLsni. Ciur. 1.] 


ss is»-»i 

186. Altf>rwiaiions ond Jigurttt. 

Si:c. ISO. Such nbbrovialiooii on tat in common uu nay be UMtl, And 
numUtni may be NCpraswid by figures or numenila id Uio cuttonuiry mauiMir. 

lOT. Xl'yina to carry jvrisilietion inlo fffetA, 

Si:o. 167. Wlieu juhMlioUon is, by tbo oonittittiUoD or tliiit codo, or by nny 
Otlivr slaUite, conferred on a court or judicial officer, all tbo lueaiiH n'H-'iwit'i/ 
to onrry it into effect arc also given; and iu tlie exeiciac of tliia jiiriiMliction, if 
Uie course of prooeedingf be not apeciflcally pointed out I>y Uitit code cr- lh« Mnt- 
u/e, any suitsUe |>roc(«a or mod« of proceeding may be adopted which may ap- 
pear moat coofonnable to the spirit of this code. 

ia«aiMtOC«R7]iu1>dloboaliito«aeot— cuurt lian powerto enforoithe ilipulation of 

"ThiaMCtJOQ in hIlijiU-I froii. thy N<'W York 
code, tha italiciml wnnli linvo bmu wl<1cil by 
thia cooDiqpMonr' ConimUaioiien* oottL Thii 
•Mtioii wna held to ai'plji to tlia HttinK apart 
offtlranwrtMtil by tbo probato mart: Mawon 
V. iTdWMi, 00 CaL ML That tbo probata 

{iafti«« witli rrapcct to a lubipct-nuiltcT o\-ir 
which it Ilia jarudiotion, r«o Oradif v, I'orli^r, 
S3 Id. 080. latcriocutoiiy d«otwa iu «iuity 
caaca finil wsrraiil is thla aootioD lor tlicir being 
mad*: TItomjMm t. WhiU, fi3 Id. SOS. 




ChaPTEB I. JttEOM 190 

n. COUBT CoaUOBSIOKEAa ...a*t*k.. 258 



icia I. JtTROM M GnaaAL «.. IMt 

II. QcAunoATioKs AMD ExKM PTMys or Junona I9S 

IIL Or SituOTiso Awo Erri-a-iixo Jcmous tob Coritra or RccoaD «H 

XV. Or Diuwino Jrauns run Cocnm ur Rkoukd -IM 

V. Or ScHMo.'ttKO JcRUKs TOa Cocan or Rsooun , Zii 

VI. Or SmuoMNa Jraotix roa Covnn kot or Raconn '2S0 

VII. Or SntMoNiNO Jintow nr iNQincn ..,, 235 

VIII. OBEDiavcs TO SrMMwis, noirr eMraBOKD Z^ 

IX. Or Gkaxp Jorueb. ..■.-. •■...... 241 

X. Or l>u-A!<itLimi TaiAi, Jdxiw tit Ooiran or BacoBO 348 

XI. Or IMI-4XKI.ISU Taiju. Juitm i.i CuDan tun or ttsooaix. SW 

Xli. Or lurANJtuMo Jnum ur I»()Dnr ~ 9M 


jDBOus ix aaiiEaju.. 
190. Juty defined. 

Sec. 100. A jury is n body of men temporarily select«cl from tho citizens of 
a particular district, and invested with power to present or indict a person for a 
public offenH*, or to try a qnestion of fact. 

QnaimcJittoiM ol Jorora: S«o ate*. IIKI at hni. 
ealaotlng and ntumlng: 8m bm». SM c( mi. 

19L DijT--r^tit kinds o/jurif*. 
Hm. 191. Juries are of three lunda; 
1. OmndjnrieB; 
3. Trial juries; 
8. Juries of inquest. 

a m-m 


[PajrI, TtTLaHI, 

192. OrandJiirydfJIiied. 

Sac. 192. A grand jury is a body of m<>n, ninotwn in number, relunie^ in 
pUTBuaucfi of law, fi-om the citiBens of a county, yr oily and county, befaro a 
court of competent jnriBdictioD, and sworu to inqutra of public offenm oom- 
mittfd or tmble witliin tho county, or city nnd county. 

OrADd Jury to b« dmwn ooos * year 
in vaidi oowuiyi CoomU Oa]., art. I, •««. 9. 

ImpniMtlDE craad iiaj: Sm aec*. 2U ct 

183. SViVi/ jur^t lUfined. 

Sec. 103. A Lriiil jury ia a bodj- of men returned from tJ»o citizonii of A p«p- 
ticular district before a court or officer of competent judsdlotiou, and Kivoni to 
try and det«nuiuo, by vp\ilii:t, a quealiou of fact. 

TOfdict, what nuiiib8r must ikgrea: Sec jioaf, voc 018j (uul CoutL CdL, art. 1| Mc^ ?. 
Trtal by Jury: Boo fUMt, ten*. OOO et leq. 

194. y umber of Iriot Jury. 

Stc. 104, A trial jury Khnll consist of twfilro men; prorided, that in civil 
octionii oud rase* of miiulcmcanar, it may oouHiHt of twelve, or of any nuuibur 
llH than tvrulvo, upon which tko portduii may of^roo in open court. 

Sm CmsL Cd.. nrl. t, mo. 7. 

18&. Jury ofiiiqtteal defined. 

Stc. 19S. A jury of inquest is a body of men siimmonml from the eitizens 
of n particular district before the sheriff, coroner, or other miaittterial officer, to 
inquire of particular facts. 

quumcATtotra axd exeuitioms or naoat. 
190. Who compfUmt to act aa juror. 
Sac. 198. A person is competent to act as juror if he bo: 

1, A citizen of the United States of the age of twenty-ono yc*iH, who shall 
haTo boon a rcwdont of the state one year, and of the county, or city and county, 
ninety days before being selected and returned; 

2. In possciouon of his natural faculties, and of ordinary intelligence, and 
not deercpit; 

8. FoBBoened of sufficient knowledge of the English langnagn; 
A. AnosBed on the Uxt aiMoiismcnt roll of tlie couu^, or city and coun^, on 
property belonging to him. 

Bnbd. 4. AweiMd— A prnoa nttilatit of 
Mviuloiino couniy at tho tima tha M»i»BUi*nt 
fi>r that ««unty, liolaiv tke trial, vw nuuU. 
)iut not on tli« amnMineut r»Il, wiu bcld col 
tobcacompttant Jiirori Pteplt i. Thompion, 
34 Cal. 67£ Tliv objoctinu uliouU >«i nucd 
at lt)o UiDB tliu jury ih impaneloil. It if Dbt 
atailnlile lor n tctrnul ol iuilK»aitt PttflA 
X. Uortkr, 53 Id, 203; Pnypte v. Sanfiird. 43 

QualUicatlonaof JUTOTB.— Snbd L Aliens 
at* not comiMtent: Ptoptr v. Cktiifj IM, 17 
Oil. 3X!: I'tofU V. Chin Mo„l: Sum-, :,\ IiL fillK. 
Titt objpctiau luust lio mliHil <in llici mir ilirr: 
Ptvple V. CkHHO lAl, iHpra ; ap]"^'*"' '" Pfoiil4 
K. Sferticr. 3S Id. 202. IVith rMnrot to rerf- 
d«DEe, ate Pol. Code, mx. 52; /•<o/i& v, t'-xAraii, 
e]CiLMS,U3. taSampiai,y.!i(luifrr.Sl'i.l(n. 
it oanTCTimrvd (hit a Jurtiritlioiilil bran Elector. 

Bubd. a Knowledge o( laDeuage reqol- 
■ite: i'tuiAi V. AntD. 32 Cal. M, 

199. ir/io »iof competent to aet ta juror. 

^Ko. UK). A person is not competent to tkct as a juror: 

1. ^Vlto does not possess the qualifications pre«cribcd by the preceding seo- 
tion; or, 

'2. Who has been convicted of nmlfeAaance in office, or any felouy or other 
liij;h crime, 


Cii4i-. I,] 




200. WTiO «>irmpt /fom jury dull/. 

Hta. 200, A person is cxompl from liability to a«l as n juror If he bo: 

I. A judicinl, civil, or milibuy officer of the Utiite<t SlaUw, or of Utix Mtato; 
!. A jwrMOR Iioliltng a oounl^/city and county, or towuaLip ofBM; 

8. An attornoy at law ; 

4. A mintstar of the gospel, or a priest of adj (lenomination, following his 
profession ; 

5. A Loichor in a university, colle^, academy, or bcIiooI; 

6. A praotidng phyncion, or druggiat actually engaged In the bu^eaa of 
dispranDg medicinos;, 

T. All ofSoor, kMpor, or nUendant of an almahoitse, hospital, asylum, or 
otlwr vluuitablu inittitution*;, 

8. Eiigagvd in tlio porfoimance of Auty as ofBoer or attendant of the state 
priaon , or of a Aouoty jail ; , 

9. Fjnptoyed on board of a vossol navigating the waters of this state; 

10. Al l txpniMii ftgont . mail ■carrier, superintendent, employee, or operator of 
a Utle|rnki)li line doing a genoml telegraph businesii in the stAfe, or keeper of a 
public f<.'rry^ ur toU-gato; 

II. An aotive member of the national guard of Califonib, or an aclivo 
member of a fire -department of any city and county, city, town, or viDago in 
tbia state, or an exempt mumber of a duly oiganixod fire company who bad bft- 
eoDM exempt from jury duty bdforc the poHsage of thin act; 

12. A Huperiutendeul, eoginom-. or conductor on a railroad; or, 

I!t. A jwrsou dnwB oa a juror in any court of record in thia state, upon u 

regular jiHuel, who has sonrcd aaaucb witbiu a year; but this exemption shall uot 

extend l^> a [wirsoti wlto ia suoimoucd as a jury for the trial of a porticfUar cose. 

Sxempdon, bow clAinod: Sc«. SD3. infra. 

8ubd 11. Exonpt fireman: Svo i-oj. Code, wea. 3339, 33«0. 

201. Wlio may be cjccuaetl. 

Sko. 201. A juror shall not be esnused by a court for slight or tririal cause, 
or for hardship or iucouveuienoe to bia buainess. but only when material injury 
or deetructton to his property, or of proi>erty intrusted to him, is thrratenod, 
or when bia owa health, or the sickuess or death of » member of bis family, 
te<|uires his abeeooe. 
302. j^ffiHavU of claim to exemption. 

SiBO. iOi. If a person, exempt from liability to act n« a juror as provided la 
seolioD two hundred, be summoned as a juror, he may make and Irauauiit hia 
•ffidavit to the clerk of the court for which ho is summoned, stating bia offioe, 
occupikticin.orvmploj-ment; and such affidavit shall be delivered by tboclert to 
the jiiilyi' of tho court where the namo of sueb person ia calloc], and if wiiB- 
ci<^nt iu niiUttance, shall be receivod an no excuse for non-atteudanco in pcraoti. 
Tlio ulTi.titvit slinll tliou \m Hied by tbo clerk. 

■■The object o( tltis •ecUouk'njr ttto eode many iiutancM voiilrl miiH (rmn hii persoiuU 
exBiulDcrMil whoM (imfotion ItwuMlojitctl, attcniliuiM ia ouiirt tn ummt hb oxuu>;r, pat' 
"U loprcTcatUiolbooamnluiiciilfttlio jxiliUc, ti^ulsrly wlicn ha mido* a1 a (rent dUtAUOU 
M well u t« tbe pcnoa (Onimoiicil, wliloh iii (ram the pkoo whur« Um oourt it faolil." 

or ciuxTnco axi> mmruMKo jenoas roa covkk or kecokd. 
204. LtV of <jmnd and trial juron, by tchom and when made. 

Seo. 204. In the mouth of January in each year, it shall bo the du^ of the 
miHirior court in each of the counties of this shite to moke an order detuguat- 



OP cointia OP justice. 

P'jiRr I, nnjt m 

ing tliv <iHtiinnt«(1 r-umborof g^nil juron, and itlRo the number of trial jurors, 
tlifttwill, ID the opinion of sud oouii, bo roquinnl for tite tntnaaotion of (be busi- 
DOK of iho rourt, ami tJic trial of causes ther«ia, duriug iJie enauing year; and iin- 
iiiv(liub-lj^ aft4!r ftatil onler ehall bo innde, the board of superviaors aliall select, as 
prundul iu the next Boolion, a list of perttona to Herre as gpmid jurors, and also a 
liatuf pontons to serveas trial jurors, in the superior court of said county, durini; 
tlie cu!<uin;,* veor, or until new lista of jurore shall be piYmded. In cities and 
coutitit-!! having over one hundred tliousand inbabitoots, saob selection shall 
Ixi made bj the judj;;es of the euperior court, or a majority of them if sll do not 
attend. [Antendmenl. approved ilandi 7, ISSl; Slats, 1861, Gd; hot cjfect Jan, I, 

Qrsnd and trial jnronL— Tlii* ouilv, u it 
r«ail Wfora thtuB oiiicDiiTnuiiM, nuulo no du- 
liociiun in tliv stlvction betwcm gnnd unci 
tfinl iurer»i but tlic nuinM of all jarori ic- 
iMtod, wlioUier u gnnii or thai juron^ vra« 

to bo plaovil in 111? tsiDO box. The law tn- 
putcal DO datjr upoii tba oourl to Jtuigaatu m^ 
niBtrly Ilia uiimUir ol ««cbi Ptofk v. (Jrvteeji, 

SOO. Srlirlion uf, how made. 

8bc. 20S, ITicy hIihU prucMd to eolcct and list the ^tand jurors rrqKircd by 
nid ordor of Uio superior court, and then select and liwt the trial jurors 
required b; mid ordor. Said Kolections and listings shall bo moilo of pnnous 
suitable and coiiip<:t<^nt to nvrro as jurors, who aro ossomed on tlio latt pn-ced- 
iug osKOKsniviit mil of Kui'h county, or city and county; and in making Kuch 
Mloctiuutt tlK^y shall take Ihi) niiiucH of iiuirli only as arc not vxciiipt from sorr- 
iag; who are in posaestiiun uf thftir iinturul fiicultios, and not infirm or deompit, 
of fair cfiomcter and approved intti^nty, and uf nound judgment. [AnendmeiU, 
approjxd March 7, 1881; StaU. 1881, 70; (ouk-fgocljaix. 1, 1882.) 

S06. Zurf to co'itoin how many tvimm. 

Bu. 206. The lists of jurors, to bo mndo as provide I la tho procA'liag seo- 
tion, shall contain the number of persons whieh shall haro boen dosignatod by 
the court in its onler. The names for such lists sh.'tll 1>« iKdcnt<)d from llio diX* 
foreiit wardu or townships of the respectivu counties in proportion to the num* 
ber of inhabitants therein, as nearly as Uio «una can bo eatitnat^id by tho 
persons making stiid lists; and said lists shall bo kept separata and distinct ouo 
from tho other. \Amin\dmcnl, approiKd March 7, 1881; St<Ut. 1881, 70; look 
idfiKtJan. 1. 1882.) 

SeotJoo 207.— Ill onaeciDg new iMtiuu tbi* aamber wu omiltMl. 

308. LiM to be placed wil3t alerk. 

Sec. 209. Certified lintfi of Dm persona so selected to aerve aa prand jurors 
aud OS trial jurors aboil nt ouco bo placed in posacesion of the county clerk. 
[Ammdmenl, approved March 1, 1881; SlaU. 1881; took rfeci Jan. 1. 1882.1 

SOO. I>itlif of clirrk. 

Sko. 209, On rnpciring such Uats the county cleric shall fllo ihe msae in his 
office, and write down tho names contained thereon on separate pl«eeB of paper, 
of the same size and appearance, and fold eouh piece so as to conoeul the uame 
thereon. He shall dopottit tho pieces of pnper having on them the names uf the 
I>ersons selected to servo aH gnuid juroro in a box to bo oallcd tJio " grand jury 
box," and those having on tlteia tlio names of the persons st-Iouted to serve as 
trial jnrors in a box to be calk-d the " trial jury box." [AmendmeiU, approved 
March T, 1881; SiaU. 1881, 70; look rfa:t Jan. 1, 1882.] 


ciup. r.i juBORS. ^^^^ fS aio-2t» 

210, Itfyular jaron to aeroe one ^ar. 

Sko. '210. Tlio pnrsuns wlioae luimea are eo returDed aknll be known m rcgo* 
Inr jtirnn, nnd eliall eerve (or oue jear and tmtit oUier peraous ore aelectwt notl . 

2X1. Grand and trial juron, how draten. 

Beo. 211. Tite naniee of pentoDedrawa (or ffrand joroni Bfaall be drawn from 
tho " ;;mtid jury box," and tbe names of persona for trial jurors sitall U' drawn 
from tbo " trial jury box;" and if, at tbe end of tbo year, there »bii]l be the 
nuiifia of peraous in either of the §aid jury boxes wlto ntay not bave been 
drawn during the year to serve, and bare not served as jurors, tbe uauies of 
sucb peroona may be placed on the list of jurors drawn for tbe sucoeedini; year. 
[Amendment, appnved Marek 7, 1861; Slabi. 1881, TO; look effed Jait. 1, 18S2. | 



214. OrdfT of judge orjudgrv/or drawing ''/jury. 

Sko. 214. WbeneT«r the biisin^igs of the superior court shall require the 

ntt^-nduuce of a trial jury for tho trial of orimiual coses, or where a trial jury 

hImII lirtve been demanded in any caii*to or causes at lasue in said <!ourt,,and uo 

jiiry is iu attendance, the court xmiy make an order directing a trial jur}- to be 

drawn, uid eummoDed to attend before said vourt. Such order shall specify 

tbe number of jurors to bo drawn, and tho time at which the jurors are required 

to attend. And the court may direct that such causes, either criminal or ciril, 

in which a jury may bo roquirod, or in which a jury mny have been domanded, 

be continued, and fixed for trial when a jury idiall Ixi in attondanco. 

Bummanlag Jnir.— Au onlor illr«>:tinj( Uio (ulnUDliul ooniplIuKK vltli Ibd lawi Ptopk v. 
dtrk " Iu ilrtw tb« ntiuM of tlilrty-ai-v n-M WUiI't. -J Wtnl OnMt Rtf. 10. 
•ml Uwlul uiuu" to bv mimiiiein«il, ate, it a Smm km. 'SH, fott. 

215. Wlurn cU'rk- ghalt drau. 

Sec. 215, luiuiediately upon the order mentioned in the preceding section 
Iwing made, tho clerk shall, in the presence of the court, proceed to draw tho 
jurors from tho " trial jnry box." [Amcndmait, approved Jtarch 7,11*81; Slata. 
1881, 71; looi rffecl Jan. 1. 1882-1 

Boationa 216, 217. 318.— Xona «f Uimo nQmbvr*. 

S18. Orawim/, hote conducted. 
Sbo. 210. The clerk must conduct said drawing as follows: 

1. Ho must shake tbe box containing the names of the trial jurora ao an to 
mix llie slips of pai^er upon which such names are written as well as po^^ible; 
be mnst Ui«n draw from said box as many eUps of jiaper as are ordered by the 

2. A minnta of the drawing shall be entered in the minutes of tbe court, 
which nmut show tbe name on each slip of paper so drawn from said jury box, 

3. If tho name of any person is drawn from said box who is deceasctl or io- 
•ane, or wbo may bare permanently removed from tbe county, or who tg 
•xonipl from jury service, and the fact shall be made to appear to Um mtisfoo- 
tion of the court, the name of such pci-son shall be omitted from the lint, and 
tho Nlip of paper having such name on it shall be destroyed and anutbtT juror 
drawn in his place, and the fact shall be entered upon the minutvi of tbd couri,. 
Tbe Muno prouoeding shall bo bad as often as may bo nocviuuir}' tiutil tlto whole 
nuniUir of jurors roquind be drawn. After the drawing sliall be coini>lut«d, 





IFutr I, Tni.t 1 

tlio oIi>rk kIiilII inskfi n oop; at tht^ lint of Dnmas of the persons no ilninn, anJ 

c«rttfy th(! HAtDn. lu tiiit ccirtificat« Im ahiU alate the <Iah> of lliv or>K'r, 

Kid of Iho (Imn-iug, nud thft number of tlie jurois drumit nnd Uic tinio wbun 

Mtd Ui4» pliiro whiirA Butih juron nro nMiuiroil to appeu*. Such i-«rtific«U- iui«I 

lint shall bo doliveri'i! to tbo nlxinfr fur aervice. \Amimdm':nt,ai/prov<d March 

7, 1881: .SiaU. 1881, 71; looh e^ect Jan. 1, 1882.] 

Cl«rk'* c«rtilUat9 of list—The aaiiwian atheru-iM tJaDtiSes th* onbr dlracUag tla* : 
<•[ the ilile u Bu iiunuiUciiil crrw if Uiu reiwrd dinaiug: PfOyU v. /ooh, £7 CaL US. 1 

SSO. Pivtervation of ^aliotg drawn, 

Sbc. 220. Ait«r a drawing of p«noiiB to Borro M jurors, the clerk sball pro- 
sorro iiiv ballots drawn, and at the cIom of tha ms^uu or sessions for wbiolt 
(b« drnwiug was had, bo sbalt replace in tlio proper box from which thv.v wero 
takoo all luiUots which have on Uiom tho tmmos of persons who did not servo 
as jumra for tho scusion or Msstoaa aforotaJd, and who were not oxoupt or IiH 
compotont. 1 


or Emmoxixo juitona roit oouhts of beookd. | 

22Q. Shfvi^ to summon jurors, how, 

Si:o.<'25. The sheriff, as soon as he reoeiTM the list or lists of jiirws drawn, 
shall summon tho porsoitn named tbordo toatt«nd the court at tbe opening of t.he 
nguUr session thereof, or at sncli Mssiou or timo aH the court may order, hy 
giiing personal notice to that effect to each of them, or by leaving a wi-ittcn 
noEioo to tJiat effect nt his place of msidouro, with some person of proper age, 
and kIiiiII return the list to tlio eourt at the opouiu^ of the regular HOfision 
tliereof, or at such scsaion or tttuo as the jurors may be ordered to atteuil, 
apecjf^g tbe names of those who were summoned, and the manner in which 
ooch puraon was notified. I 

226. 0/ ttrawiii'j and summoning juron lo aUemt /orthwUh. 

Skc. 22r>. Whenever jurors are not drawn or summoned to attend any court 
of record or session thereof, or a stifilcient number of jurors fail to appear, such 
eourt may order a sufBcient number to be forthwith drawn and Bunimonod to 
attend the court, or it ma;, by au onler entered in its minutes, direct the sheriff, 
or an elisor ehosen by the court, forthwith to summon so many good and lawful 
men of the coun^, or city and county, to serve as jurors, as may be required, 
and ID either case such jurors must bo summoned in the manner proii-ided in 
the preceding section. 

Time ol r eta inin g list Ig <)In>ctoiT. not 
niUKlntoiyi Mait<ry v. SUiriufk, 4 (,^l. ^5. * 

AddlUooal Juran. — Tliii iiiuaux drawn au. 
OOTiliiiKI'i l.iH-niiilmiramontdaccardiugtoUvr, 
It Bii axviUiiiivillailnt* occur in «itlu!ro( tbaw 
raapcDls. tliv authority et the oonrt to ordor 
Jonire to l« nciuiinaned from tho bo<l]r of thq 
ocmotj i» ilojir: Peapir v. Drinne, ilS Cxi. -17. 
Hw ftppUmtiun of suotioD wbero tlicro liail Iwcn 
no merlin^ of tliD naptrTUori to viUut a lint o( 
Jurnni l\oji'rr. /,0}<n. .WI.l, 3132. 

If un trial jary hna l>ceii ilravii bctora tho 
t«nii, anil a iiuouaily fuf «iii) ariM* tturinjt tbo 
t«nt>. tlio dlntriel court mu ordtra triaf Jury 
to be (nirnnoiMJ by tbo aHsriff. It a linma- 
tcrUI whrLliiir lIidauMfortJiiaiNOonitjarDae 
MoT« or b((ot tho cotntn«no«<neat of the tonni 
Praptr. r, ll'j»iaini, 43 CaI. 544. Thi* Motion 
B]ipli«* to a grand jur)-: PropU v. JfcZ>Ww/i, 

47 Id. 130. Tha n-f-uUHtrot ^nttrlnifi" orJor 
in tiiu iniuut«i ilinxrliug Ihc aliciiir to Humniua 
iiinm forthwith inu uuhuld iu L-iiiu v. S, P. 
H. It. Co.. a Wot Coail It«p. ffitS. 

That sa urdiT for ■ jutj aood not be mxl* 
before the oommonocDiviit r>t tbo •oaion, KM 
pMuU T. Ah Ck«»Q, H Ctkl. S98. 

BUeor— Th« aliiiriff being tho pntj inter- 
«itcil, tboro in au aliTioui prupncty, if Uio 
otli«r party iunata npon it, lii t^Iitg tlio com 
by a jury k» the acloclicfi of wbicb nc had no 
agoncr. The atatuCo tooins Ut 1mi'« tho onlcr- 
ingoi a trial Jtli7 te UiedisoretioDot tlioconrt, 
(AM fpivorned b^ ila sen** of tho n«on«(ty at 
•o dcaitg. In thin ouo the court Itvld laat, 
then) boiut; no corcnor. the ajip^ialmt'Dt of aa 
eliaor waa propMi Paeiictc t. //numcfer, ti 
CU. 133, liU. 


Coat. L] 



227. 0/»ummnniiuj juror* to complete a panel. 

Scfl. 227. Whom tlicn^' iiro not fioiiij>etent jorora eD0U(;1i to form a pond ttia 
court tiinii' <Itrvot tho HlicrilT, or an olisor choscD by Uie cotirt, to suumiou u suf- 
ficient iiuiiibi-r of pentoiiH Imviugf tlio qualiflcadoDS of jurors lo complete tli« 
p iRt>l front tLe body of tlic coun^, or city uxA county, *itd not from th« 
l)j--<t»ni]cifl; and tb« sheriff or elisor aball summon the number so ordcrod 
fti-rurJitigly and r«iuro the Dftinea to the court. , 

22& Compennation ofeHnor. 

Src. 228. An elisor who shaJI, by order of a eoort of record, summon per- 
(tonii to tUiVVK Its jurors, sluill be eutltled to a r«tiw>nable compensation for bis 
•orvicoR, wbich must be fixed b} the court, and paid out of tbe county or city 
oud county treasury, and out of the generd fund tJiereof. 

OF miaoRisa msoita fob coobts hot of becoro. 
230, Jurors for jaeticei^ or [loH'V rymrts. 

8ro. 230. Wben jumrs are required in any of the justioea' courta, or in any 
poUco or other inferior court, they shall, upon the order of the justiee, or any 
oniiif thejUsUceswhertt tbtre is more than one, or of tLe judge thereof, be sum- 
BioLed by the HhtnlT, constable, marshal, or policeman of the juiisdiutjon. 

231- Jhic to be tumnumed. 

Kkc. 231. Such jorors muRtbe summoned from the persons competent to 
morvv iM jiironi, rcaiJeutei of tho city and county, township, city, or town in which 
such oourt hoM jurittdiction, by notifying Ihom orally that they are suiunioned, 
and of tb« timo and place at which their attendance ia required. 

232. O.'ff'vr'* rtium. 

Sc<-. 'i^Vl. Tho olBcor summoning Kucb juror sluill, at tho time fixed in the 
order for their appvanuiec, return it to tho court with a Hut of the i>eruons sum- 
mouod iadoned tbcroon. 

or Hviraoxixo jctiiti:ii or c(qve8T. 
23!V Bote to he mmmonof. 

Bko. 236. JuriM of Enquoat tthall bo tiummoncd l>y tho officer bofore whom 
the proceodingB in which \l\fj aro to lUt are to be had, or by any ahcrilT, con- 
stable, or policeman, from tho peraonn competent to aem as jnrom, resident of 
the county, or city and county, by notifying thein orally that they ore oo aum* 
moned, luid of the time and place at which their alteudouce is requliod. 



288. AUoeUmenl and fine. 

Sre. 2.18. Any juror summonecl. who willfully and vithout mHOnaUa excuse 
fftiht to attend, may bo attached and compelled to attend; and the ooart may 
also impoM a fine not oxceediDg fifty dollars, upon which execntion may 
iwuo. If tho juror wok not personally served, tho fine must not bo imposed 
until upon an order to show cause on opportunity has lK«n ofTorDd the juror 
to bo bcwrd. 

Oont CiT. Pmc. — s M 



[Fabt I, TiTLt UZ, 

or nirtxEi.iNfl uiundwukibs. 
Sti. Ortmitjujy, whfn to be impaneled. 

Set. 211. Ereiy supeiiar court, wlieDerer in tbe opinion of U>e court the 
ptiblio intcrcfit must requira it, luav tastke and file with tho count; olork tut 
order directing a jury bo be draw-a^nad deei^ating tbo numWr. wbicli in ciwa 
of A •^ntiid jtirr slinll not be lesa ttmn twenty-fivo nur mora than thirty. In uti 
cutiutitK hitriiig l^ss than three enperior court jud^'<8 tbero Mball bo ou« gnuid 
jury diuwn niicl inip&nclod in each y^or; and in all coiintien fa&viiig throo or 
nioro fupcrior court judges Uicro shall bo two prund jurica dmwu and im- 
pitncliil in taw 1 1 year, Such order iuu»td««i]^aU) tlii; titiieatwhii^h Ihe drawinj; 
will Uko pUco. Tlio namM ot such jurum Hlinll bo dmwD, th« list nf uuneB 
cortifM'd and duminoncd, oh provided for dmwing and Hummoning trial jurors; 
■nd tho namcii of any pcritouH drawn, who uiay not be impaneled u[>on the 
grand jury, may Iw a(;nin ptacnd in the gmnd jury bos. [AmaidmciJ, approved 
Mart^li 7, isai; HtaU. 1S8I, 71;, took ^eal Jim. 1, 1^'L\ 

Conet. C«l., art. I, Me. 8. 

242. llim' cfiiixtiitifeiK 

Sr.o. 242. M*hen,of tlie pomonti summoned as grand jurors and not excnsod, 
ninolMtn aro proacnt, they ohall conatituto the grand jury. If moro than nine- 
tiM>ii of suoh jM-rsoua are present, the clerk shall write thoir names on iwparatQ 
ballotn, ^'bioh he muat fold bo that the names cannot be seen, plac« them in a 
box, and draw out nineteen of them, and the persons whose names ore on tho 
baltots so drawn sliatl constitute the grand juty. If losa than ninctovit of nuch 
pel-sons are present, the panel may l>P filled as provided in section two hundred 
and twenty-six of this code. And whenerer, of tho persons summoned to oom- 
pK'to a ^taiid jiuy, more shall attend than are required, the requisite number 
ihall bo obtained by writing tho names of thoHo Kummoned and not excused on 
batlotif, depositing them in n l>ox, and drawing M above provided. 

243. ilanner i>f impanfting pnvcribiid in Pauxl Code. 

Bco. 243. liifreaftiu- Much procoodiugs shall be had in impaneling the grand 
Jury $,» ore prescribed in Part II. of the Penal Code. 
Sm P«n. Oaie, «ec. 894-1101. 



S48, Clerk to call tut o/jurort sunimoruuf. 

. Skc 24(>. At Uio opening of court on the day trial jurors have been sum- 
moned to appear, the cleric shall call the names of those summoned, and the 
court may then hear the exeuaea of jurors summoned. The clerk shall tlicn 
write the names of the jurors present and not excused upon mparato slips or 
ballots of paper, and fold such slips so that tho names ore conconlod, and there, 
in tho presence of the eonrt, deposit tho slips or ballots in a box, wbicli miut 
1>o kept sealed or locked nnttl ordered by the court to bo t^enod. 

247. Manner of inipaneUnij prt^ribfA in Part If. 

Sco. 247. \Vhencver thitroofter a civil action i« called by the court for trial, 

BUd a jnry is required, wuch prowsedtnjpt Mhiill bo hod in impaneling the triiil 

juiy oa ore preseribod in Part II. of thiu aiilu. 1 f the action Iw a criiainol ono, 

tlu! jnn- nball bo impanoled as prescribed in the Penal Code. 

Jtuy in chril actioa: St* mn. COO «t m^q. 

Jtu; ta criminal c:4as««: Soe IVn. Oic, mci. IOU it *oq. 


Cur. ILJ 





230. I^roceediitgt in /arming jurif. 

8*0. 2S0. At Uic Umo appointed (or a j(tn>' tml in jutiltc(«', police, or otb«r 
ioforior courUi, tlic liaL nf jurora Hu^uuoiii-d niiut bo collDd, and Uie uainra of 
thiMd ntUtndiii]; auit tiut cxduftcd tuunt tni vrrill«n npon eepamte slips of paper, 
foldbd no liH tt> rouceol the uuimis, nud pUocd ill s 1>ox, from which Ui6 Uiil 
jtirj luiwl be drswu. 

251. ilaniuT cf imjtan^int}. 

Sm. 251. Thftrrafuir, if tho a«t!nn ia s criminal one, the jury must be 
impani'lcd u provided in tho Pcuit) Cotltt; if aciri) ooet as provided in ParlU. 
of lb(» code. . 


or EKPASKuxo iuiuxH or sKtovn. 
2S4. J/hnnw <jf impanrffH"/, 

Sbc. 254. The moniif r of impiwoliiig jurira of inqiieat is proBcribed in the 
prorisiooa of tha diffnreat codea rclatlog to such iuquebt^. 



cnAPTER n. 

238. AppoinHnml and qual\ficati<ina. 

Sec, 258. The superior court of erpry city and coonty in Uie slat© may 
appoint six coQiRiieHioiiorB, to be clragnatod each as "conrt cominiBsioner" of 
Burb city and coudIt; and tho superior court of every other county in the state 
may appoint one commimionor, to bo designated as '* court commiMJoner " of 
surh county. Such conintimdoDem nbnll bo citizens of tho United Stete«, and 
restdeuta of the city and county, or county, in which tlioy lira appointed, and 
hold ofBoea during tho pleasuro of tho courts appoiuting thvia. 

CoiUi. OX, Ml. 0, SN. 14. 

SA9. Po\efr» of cmirt commiiaivner*. 
Sko. 259. EvAiy oourl commtsftioner shall have power: 

1. To boar and dct4!riniiiA ex part« niotiona for orders and writs, except 
orders or writa of injunction in tb« superior court of the county, or city and 
county, for which he is appointed; provided, that lie sbiiil bare power to bear 

id detonniiie Huch motioua only in the aljsencv or inability to act of the judge 
judgm of the superior court of the eoonhr, or city and i-ounty; 

2. To taVo proof and report his conclusions thereon as to any matter of faet 
other than an ixnae of fact raised by the pleadiu;:^. upou which infumiation w 
roqoirod by the court; but any party to the prooeodiufjs may except to such 
rci>ort wittiin fire daya after writteu notice that the same has l)een fllcil. iitnl 
may arguo bis exceptions before the court ou giving notice of inotiou for tbiit 

3. To take and approvn boiulti and undertakings whenever the same may bo 
riMiuiri-d in neUoim or pror<>cditi}^s in such superior courts, and to examine Ihe 
mtrt'tioa thereon when nn exception has been taken to their sufficiency, and to 
mlminint^r oatliH and aHirmations, and take affidarita and depoailiona In niiy 
uctton or procc«diog in any of tlio court* of this state, or in any matter or pni- 
cecding whatever, and to take acknowledgments and proof of dooda, niorlgagOH, 



OP COURTS OP JCSnCE. [Paw I. Till* IT, Cuxe. IL 

nod otiinr inMlmmonfs recjiuriug proof or «cknowledginent (or any purpoee 
umW ibo lawx uf tliis 8tat«; 

4. To cbur;^ riuI rolle<ct Uio etaao fooH for the perfonnance of official a«tfl as 
are uovr or way btnitfU-r be Allonr<l Iiv Isw U> notaries public in lliitt titnto for 
like BemL-os; pro^-ilIc<], tluit Ibin Hubtlirbiiou sfaaU not npply to any ser\'i<x« of . 
such oDminiiHtiunor, tho compcnwitiou for which is expreatly fixtxl hy U,w; » 

fi. To proviilo nnofficinl HM),upoiiwIiii!h must booiigntvod UiAwonl* " court] 
conimiasiouer," and tJio luuau of the county, or city and cotua^, iu which Mid' 
oommiasiuuer roaidoi; 

6. To authcnticata wttli his officdol eetU bis official acts. 

ni« powars of court commiHlonsni ttro 
nwetlUd in th« pbove icction, matt upon tliat 
aluiM miiat lliev rolv foi tlidir aalboritv Ut mat: 
WwMv. n. II. M. |-.i.,2» Ctt). 49J: 0«tot« »■ 
TVuniAo, lA M. i!i<il. Thcv Iifto aa poircr t» 
■[■jn>int & rii'iiicr; Qui-fjU v. Tnmno, rtipm. 

Subd. 2. R«(ereiioe.— lniiiittMklnj{*n&a' 
piHiiiU'i>;. Iiiliiriu nil kununl U not Ilia futiic 
niHii l>y tlwi pEcMliiifni Itiu tigUt lo Ink* «uoli 
oMouDl I* Uio Iuup: llnrri* v. S. P. H. B. Co., 
41 CU. -tot. KufarMioMwul trikla brrtfcTMai 
8m ^>«iaf. anus. 038 b( *uq. 

Bubd-4- Foe«oinot«ri««ptibUo: So* Pol. 
OmI«iMO.708. J iMtxiivi of thu iM«<v auil cuiirl 
«<)Bimi«ioQen arc ttvpouly iu-liciul I'tticiTi wlia 
(ire ftulKvriwd to rconnv f«cai Comt. Col., art. 
S, (oc. IS. 

SubdS. OSotal Mttla a«BiMd: ScDaHW, 

MC 14. 

Power of oouK to »iiforc« order Id ptv 
couiliiign licEoio n pn-tnn nr pcraona <nnpaiToiaJ y 
to eontliict ju'lIvUI untHti^-jtioii imdor itaao- 
thorilfi 8u« Heu. 128, MiU. 2. 



CluiTKK I. Or SlDnsnsiAi. Omoeiie Uekeiluxt 1)03 

II. StccETAiiiEB hXD HiSLors or the Sutokuk Coitut 2CS 

IIL IMioKocKAPuto REPonvxa. : 



S62. Election, powen ami ditlie*, wfuw pivwcnViI. 

Sec. 262. The modra and timea of olccLiou, tonuR, powers, and duties of tho 
attoroej-gencral, clorli of the Hupreme court, roporter of the devitiiouH of tho 
supreme court, clerks, aherifTs, and coroncra, are prescribed in the PoUtJoal and 
Penal Codes. 

Attomor-eMUTAl: Soc PoL Cailo, wcs. 470 

dfttk ot *upr*me court: Pol. Cod«, wc*. 

RafWTMT of BuprenM court deoisloiu: 
PoL Ood«, tee*. 771 ct m^. 

CoaatT clerks: roI.Coit<w>oc«.4i;ot rtiKii]. 

BheilAi: PoL CoJc. t^ 4I7IT: Pen. Coda, 
•CO. 1'2IC ot Mq., 1001 Dt wq. 

Corooera: raLCoil(>,ieGi.42aietaen.;f«B. 
Code, wc. I^ia 


S8d. Ai^intmrnt. 

Sbo. 2G5. Tho justices of the supreme court rtuty appoint two eeorctories And 
two bailifl», who shall bo citizens of tho United States and of thia state. 

286. Tmure of office and Jultn. 

8sc. 3(ie. The sccrotarfm and bailiffs shall bald tlinr ofliciM at tho ptoftsam 
of the jnstiras, and shall perform such duties as uay bo n»|aLr«d of thoin by Uls 
oonrt or any justice theroof. 


cuAP. m.] 

rnoNocRAPmc repoiitcb8. 


26S. Phonivfraphi'' n^/orlrriijor ttuprenif vouri; vht-rf jtrorii}^ /vr, 

Vf>T. 2(W, Ph«iiogrnpliir roportAM tor tlio miprotiiP court iir« proridwl for in 
Phtt m. «r tlic Political Code. 

Sot Pi.L C«1p, ko- 7^9, u tfl ulirjr, no. 700 U to appolnbncnt, hJ mc. T70 m Ut duty. «( 
plK>iiuHTft[>hu: rcpntor of Baprvmc court. 

260. Phonographic rvporti-n/or tuprrior courts; Iheir oppoinlment and duti«t. 

Bet. 2C9, Tbo jndgo or jiitlgmof nay superior court in the state nm>' n]>poiQt 

a coDipotcnt phuiiograpliic rrportcr. or OH aitiay sticli reporters as tbere nre 

judges, to bo kuov.ii nx officiiil rrporter or reporters of sach court, and to liokl 

office dnriug tli4> pliHiHiira of tbo judge or judges appointiug tliem. Such 

reporter, or uuy otie of tliiun, v.-ltero there oro two or more, sliall at the i^qiicnt 

of eillier pari;, or of lliu <;iiurt, in n civil action or prococ^diog, and on tbo nrdir 

of tlu) court, Die district iittonioy, or the ntton»-y for defendant in a criniiuol 

aotiou or proceeding, take down in Khort-liiuid all Uiv tr«ttiinony, tbe objoetioua 

made, tlu! rulings of tliueourt, tlie exception h tjticon, and ond iiisinintioiiHgivim, 

Olid if dircct*:-<l by tlie court, or t«{UCHt<<d hy citlii-r purty, kIuiU wiLliiii kuc-U 

reiuionable time after tbe trial of Ru<lt caito tui the eourt niiijr ib-^;:nftte writn out 

tiw mno in plain, legilde long-baud, and Tchfy and file it wiLli tlie cliirk of tlie 

court in wtiirb the raae waH tned. 

Falltiia to file notes.— Tho court ncnl nnt Peoph v. WooJi.ti Id. ITO: and *en ii^fra, toe 

orilcr llie tltluu <J Uiu pole* wIidid tlic rcporlur 273. For a connitlcnilioli ol Ui* cffnot of tliU 

liy ti-iMiD bl tneonipctcncy coultl uot take dnwa coda uul It* wncnJmenta Upon ibo farniar acta 

til? t«ttin«aiy: Sau v. Salt, 40 Ca). '2G3. R*- T«lativa l« ahort-tiiad raporton: Sm fVajvfe *. 

I»rUT>* notM aM but jirima /ittit oviil«uo«i Loh M*, W M. 353. 

2T0. Quahjkatww and lest of competency. 

Sec. 270. No person shall be appointed to the position of official reporter of 
any court in this state, except upoa satiafoctor}* evidence of good mond char- 
acter, and vilbout being first examined as to his conjpetency by nt least three 
ueuibets of the bar practicing in said court, such members to bo designated by 
the jud^e or judges of said court. The committee of members of the hnr so 
doHigoatod ehall, upon Uio rctiiicst of Iho judge or judgeu of said coort, oxami&o 
any person as to his qualificatiouH whom wiid judge or judge* may wish to 
appoint 08 official reporter; and no pet«on sludl Iw appointed to Kuch |>ositioa 
upon whose qualifications such committee shall not havo reported favorably, 
Tlio le«t of competency Wfore MUch committee shall be as follown: The xfirty 
examined must write in the presence of said commiUeoot the m.t« of at least 
one hundred and fifty words per minute, for five conMcutin) niinulci*, upon 
tnaltar not previountr written by or known to him, imnwdiately n-ad tlie luinio 
bock to the committee, ami trnnibcritxT the mmn into long-hand writing, plriinly 
and witli oecuincy. If ho puss Kucb test mtiKfoctorily, the cominitt«e shall fitr- 
niKh him with a written nertiKcate of that fact, sigiMMl by at Icaat a majority of 
tha membrniof the oommittoc. which certificate almll bo filed among the records 
of the oourt. 

271. Atl'i'tUm to duti/'M; rfporl-yii pro tempore. 

tin-. 27 1 . The official rrportcr of any Ruporior court shall attend to the duties 
<if hio oflice in person, except when oxcuMod for good and ttufUcient reaaoo by 
order of the outt, wbiob order ahall be eutemd upini tlie miuulea of the conrt. 
£tuployuu)tit in his profcsiuuna] caiiacity clsewhcro uhoU not be deemed a (joud 


or 00U1IT3 OF JUSTICE. {Pun I. Jnu IV. Ctur. tn. 

and HuiBci^nt r«t8o» for aucli escunc. When the official reporter of wit court 
kaR been ei(rused in the maoner prorided in thia bmUod, the court nwy appoint 
wi officud rejwrter pro tempore, who shall perform the same dutira and iy;cpiv« 
tlie Eame oompeueation during tbo term of his employmeot as th« official 

272. OttOtof office. 

Beo. 273. Tbe official reporter of any court, or official reporter pro tcniporo, 
Bfasll, before entering upon the duties of bie office, take and Bobscribu thv coii- 
etiUitional oatb of office. , 

273. flfpof-h prima facie corrtd glolemenle. 

Sec. 273. The report of the official reporter, or ofBdal reporter pro tcmporo, 

of any court, duly appointed and sworn, w-hon writton out tn long-band writing 

and certiSed as bcin;,' n correct tiunitcript of tbo toxtimony and prooecdinfta 

in the cam, sball be prima fade a corroct statoinout of ench testimony and pro* 


BopCMTteni' note* ptlma fnide Bvldaic«: \n*,rytix%m\iMi<mtatl9k!oy: PmfU\. ImPat, 
F^£t V. }Vood<. 43 Cal. BTG. So wlion Ukon U liL 237. 
I>e{urc « •wmmitttug iiuigiitnto upou a prdim- 

274. Fee» of official reportert. 

Sio. 2T4. Tho official reportor fiboll TAcefm aa conpenrntion for his servicer 
a niontlily aaUiy, to be fixed by the judge by an onler duly eiiten>d on tho 
miuulefi of the court, which siUoiy shall be paid out of tbe tn«siiry of the 
county in the sauie luanner and at the aauie time as Uie salaries of county offi- 
Ckk; provided, tbat said niontlily salary for each superior court, or department 
thereof, shall not exceed the following maxiuium; In counties having a popu- 
lation of ou« hundred thousand and over, threa hundred dollars ; in counticn 
having a population. toss than one hundred thouaaud and exceeding lifty Uiou- 
sond, two hundred and seTenty-fire dollars; in counties having a population 
leea than fifty thousand and exceeding thirty thousand, two hundred and fifty 
dollars; in counties having a population less than thirty thousand and excuid- 
ing twcu^ thouHaud, two hundred and twenty-live dollars; in countioa having 
a jmpulation lc«s than twenty Uioiuand and exceeding fifteen thoUMUtd, two 
hundred dollars; in counties having a population )o<w than fiitam. thousand 
And exoeodiiig twolro thousand livu huiidrud, one hundred and aeventy-fii'd 
clollon; in counties having a population less than twolre thoumtid Gve bun- 
(Irsd and exceeding ten thouKuiul, one hundred and fifty dullnTH; in couutiea 
having a population Xum ttuui ton thouitanil and exceeding vmwa tliousand llvo 
buiulrad, one hundred and twenty-five dullora; in countica having a population 
1<-(M than seven thousand five hundn-d and exceeding five thousand, one hun- 
dnnl dollars; and in counties Imvint; a population leaa than five thousand, sov- 
(Hity-five dollars; and further provided, that where both parties to a civil 
'nation, or either, rot^tiire tho testimony therein to be written out in full uh tho 
trial progrrKMH, tbe official reporter shall be allowed the extra exponMi occa- 
Kioued, to be audited by tlie judge, and paid by tho party or partica ordering 
the aame; provided further, that in departments of superior oourt« devoted ex- 
clusively to the trial of criminal conci*, tbe judge of the court xliall, in addi- 
tion, lixand aIlowarwn«)uabli>coHipenB!»tinn for the transcription of (Mitiinony, 
to Im» paid out of tlie county or city and county treoKur}', upon the order of 
tlin judge. In riril caxca in which the tnKtitnony is taVen down by tli« uffietol 
reporter, each party alioU ptty » per dieiu of two dolUn and fifty ecnts liefote 




judgncnt or verdict th«r«in is entered; and where the t««tunoDy iH traDBcribc^, 
llie party or parlies onlcring it shall pay ten cents per folio for Mich tranMrip- 
tiou on tlclivory thcrfufi Ksid |>or dioiii nnd tran script ion tees to W paid lu the 
clerk of iho court, and by him paid into tlie trcMury of Uie county, and «ncb 
portion im nholl bo paid by tlie prontiling party may be taxed as co«t» in th« 
caMO. Wbcro tboro in no regular offi<riaI r<'port«r, and one is appoiiit«il tvmpo- 
rorily by tlw) conrt, ho nhall r«;civ<! for Iiiw wrrlccH and cicponsvB of iilU;iidiinci>, 
in liitii of th« Hahiry provided in thi« Hocltoii, ouch corojwnHation UH thi' court 
nmy doom rcoiiutiAble; to bo paid, if a civil cnen, by both portieii, or eitlierof 
tittna, ax Uie judge sLall direct; and if a criiniiiid catte, to be paid out of the 
ti'^MHiiTy of the eouuly on tbe order of tJie court. [Amendmant, approved March 
21, ISSS; tooki-ffeet on Hapa»»age.\ 

Raportsr'a fota aa part of coata— nttro 
A drtemluit ordcn tlio rfporUr'i note* writtca 
ap 1« uiiit in tbc prcjairntiua of a •tat«inont 
Ou m«t>i>D tor n n«* Urial, and l>ofo«« tbc atato- 
apfwal IrocD tlio jadniiDciit. tho rp|K>rt«r'i (cm 
MaaM b« lasutl m oo*U, tliey not bcbx *oy 

nut ol the M«ta on anpoil: B<oJt of Woodlarul 

». /linii. Mio^. am. 

In criminal oaaea.— .Soncrlor cooHof Sim 
Fmiiciaco lina power to Gx uiil onlcr pujd 
phonoKraphio Toport«r« ia crlmlaal oucc £a 








3^ Who may be admitkd ass attorneifs. 

B»C. 'jn5. Any citizen or person resident ol thia state, who baa bona fide 
dechted his or bor intention to become a citizen in the manner required by law, 
of the age of tweuty-ono years, of good moral character, aud who possesses 
the necessary qualifications of Iraniiiig and ability, is entitled to adiiiiesiou as 
ftltorneyand counselor in all tbe court* of this state. All persons are attom<'ys 
of tliu i^uprvuin court who were on Uie first day of January, e!gbto«n hundred 
and eighty, cutiUcd to pmctico ia tho court supvmeded thereby. 

OcMnpeiwatJoD— CDntfocmt feaa: Sew too. 

AttoniieTB.— That wi>in«n ar» eatillnl to At- 
t>oa) tbv llullBDCoDtM of tbc Lav, m* /M^ 
V. Ileyt. Ill C4A. 28. Aitorna)-* ila not hold 
"iilSoa"in ikDOuwUlutioiuU Minaoof tb« tvrm: 
St fnrlt }''ilr, -J4 I.I. S4I. Nor ia tlie right 
to (inwliL'a taw " |itu{i.:rly " or i " ccntracti" 
C«A<H «. HViyJlf. « lii •2Se. Tbo sHaracy 
ttuta uiit MA an " olBoo of puUiu truit;" W. 

t^mttUfia ol attonwya: Sea poM, wet. 

Ramoval ol attomsya; Smm«, 2TS,uote, 
BmI *>.-u. SiiT. 

282, In iv>U). " Th(< •CL-lii^'n lu ntnoD'tvil ofuita 
ttiavunl 'wUitf.' wliluli in foiinil inllieorijHjiiU 
«*oUon. Sini.'tv llio aiiicnilniant* tu lli>.' finlfriil 
oonaUtuliiiu. tlI•^ ili«criuiiiuitiou cuul« nguiuiit 
coTonrd uiliaeui U at <|U«tiaDablD vatjtlity, to 
Bay tlie 1oMt~ Ami bnuJas, the theory nnoa 
niiiihour iv|>ublicaii iuitilutioiu rMt it U^iat 
in Ibo purtiiic t>f liniipioeHn, all nTixaCioiiit mid 
calUngi am open Blikc t« every one: iMu (.'iini- 
mUjji V. 7'Ae Slalt »/ Mit»ouri, i WaU. ^21;" 
I Buuniner^ note 

Sne. Quaii^tionH. 

Sci:. 270. Evrry applicant for admissioD as an attorney and connttolor mnat 
priHiuDu aatiiifactory teHtimouials of good moral character, and undergo a Htriot 
axauiiDatlou in open court nx tu bis qualiScatioiui by tho juKticesi of tbo aupmnto 
0(jiirt, or by tho jumUcm witlinj,' and liuMing ono of tho driMrtnicnt:! thoreof ; 
proTiJod, tliat Uio Mvcral superior cuarta of this state laajf admit uiipliconta to 




[Pakt I. TiTOC V. 

practice as ftttorne}^ and counselors in tbeirreHpeoliTecourU, but nolclw^lifire, 
upon strict cminiDatiuD in opeu oourt. tuid not oUianrise, and upon mUttaeioftj 
tcvtiiuoiiialt; of good nioiul character. 
SMrnlMof tuprmieocnirt, No. 1, in note to lootion 129. 

2T7. Cerlificate t^aiimiagwn and lii^nite, 

Sec. 377. If, upon esaminaliou, be U found qiialifiod, tlio nuprcmo court, 
or deportment thereof before wbicli be is euunined, aball admit him ni) nn 
attonioy and counBolor in all the courts of this state, aud shall direct on 
order to bo outflred to that effect upon its records, and that a oertifioate of euoh 
record Iw given to him by the clerk of the court, wbioh oerLificate sbatl ba 
bio UccDMi. 

Sia Oaik. 

Sxo. 27S. Ererr person on his admiSHlon must lake an oalb to support tlia 

DOnstitiition of the United States, and the constitution of the state of Cnliforuia, 

and to faithfuU}* discbarge the duties of an attorney aud gounselor at law to the 

l)Mt of his knowledge and ability. A certificate of such oath must be indorsed 

upoti the license. 

Attomey'a datlM: Sec kc. 283. poU, 
TaJdng o«tfa.— A> to tliu iHnvcr of th« itato 
ll^lBlatore to cumpul tbc UUibg o( the klioro 

SST9. Atlomiy» nf iiUiifr tttUcM, 

Sko. 27fl. Ewrrj- citizen of thoTTnit^id Stat«»,or person resideDt of this ntate, 
who liuii boirn fide diicliin^d bis iutontiuii to iMicomc a citizen in tbe iiuuincr rA* 
<3utred by law, wlio bas boon Admitted to pmctico law in tbc highest oourt of • 
aifttcr alttte, or of a foreign cuunti^i-, whoro the coiouioq law of England couatl- 
tutes tbe basia of jurisprudence, may bo ndmittod to pmctico in the courts of 
this state upon tbe production of bin or bcr licviiifo, and Hatiia facto n,- evidence of 
^od moral character; but the court may euuniue the applivaut an to bis or her 

oath by Ml attoroejr, uo CdWn v. Wriiihl, 23 
Cnl. 293; Sx parle Ongory YaU, 24 Id. 2tl. 

Admlodon on moUOB.— Th« upIicADt to 
V« arliiiilteJ on n licciuH from tlie liigtintt conrt 
of k aistcr tttte luuit tie psiwitiaUy jxtwtDt In 
ooiirt: £e parit S-vlliinj, 41 I'al, 5ri4. Oa« 
vlio wu cDtillcil to Ixt nilniittoi <>ii molloo, 
mkI whi> timiielil IliRt the nintioD hail l>fni 
Bitilc, uiAy \ie (locinoil a il< jiuto offiotr cf th« 

court 10 M to provcDt the voli^itr of tiia Mta 
bciujicftllcil luloqaaitJoiienlktcrDllfi Oarritoit 
r. MeOowau. 4K hi. .'>fl!>. On tlmpniductiou of 
thvlluoni*, t)i"Ciiu(tiiiu»lli«HtL*fieJ that Clio 
•piiUoutt la olill a muiiibor iif lb« liar o( tlia 
Biato whOM IJoanM b« pradnoM: Com q< Z-dun 
otlW, 01 Id. 133. 

S180. lioll of attomeya. 

Sec. 280. Kvery clerk shall keep a roll of attomejfl and counselors adDiitted 
to practice by the court of wliiub be la clerk, which roll must be ogtMd by the 
person admitted before be receives bis Uvense. 

Sfll, PniaUtj/or pracliciiuj vjiOioul license. 

Sec. 301. If any person shall practice Uw in any court, except a jostioe'a 
oourt or police court, without bavin;; reaeived a license as attorney and couu- 
selor, be sbiill be gnilty of a contempt of court. 

■-Any p«nK)a may eDgjtg* In tbo profaa- 
alei) ol law.^^TlK' [imfruaiuii ii open to all. 
«i>J it in «iiil|ily tti« ti^tit lo practice in court 
wliivli id not pflnDitt«d«xooptto tJkOMiiaalifloJ: 

IFow/i^ Cojr. 1 (loplt. Ch. Os Cohen x. Wrigta, 
Zl K'al. 313:" CommiBionen' note. 

JuaUce oourt ^urainitioaers: 5m mm. 00. 

Contempta: Seopoil, acca. 1209 et aeq. 

sea. Outu*. 

Sec. 2fi3. It is tlio duty of an attorney and counselor: 

1. To support the oonsUtution and lavra of tho Unilod StetM, and of this 





2. To tnftlntaiD tlie raBi>ect iltio to Uio courtu of jtislioe and judicial rjlfiorm; 

8. to counael or luaiiitain euch actioux, proceodings, or (l«runiM;« ouly n» 

kppMT toliiu) Ivgal or juat, except tbo defense of AperKouvhurgod vriUt it public 

i. To emploj-, for the purpose of tDaiatainitig tbe cuukm ooafidod to hiin, 
Buch iii«Aiis onl; ua ore coDusleot with tiuth, nnd never mwli U> uiiitlrad tho 
judge or nnj judicial officer by an iirtifice or fftlse statement of fitct or Uw: 

5. To tiuiiatiiin ioviolate the coufideuce, and at every peril to bimtwlf, to pro* 
RCrrc the Becreta of bia clieiit; 

(i. Tu abatoln (romftll offeDnvepersoiuIity.Mid to ndmiiy! no fnol prnjudtoial 
to Ibc boBor or reputation of a purty or vritueM, oulom nxiuired hy the junlieo 
of the cause with wbicb ho m cbtirgod; 

7. Not to encoiiiag« either Uio cotnnioticouivnt or tbo oontiauaitcv of ua autiua 
or prooeediDg from any corrupt motiva of pandon or ititeroHt; 

8, Never to reject, for nay cooiudcratiou pentouul to biutself, ILo cauitc of tbe 
defeniielcfiN or tlMi opprewtod. 

AttoruayB nud thvli duty to aoototT and 
to tbdr clients.— The cbUu commiwloiMn 
faA<ra tlio lollMwlng note, nhloh, Ibouxli luug, U 
too vnluulile » rrrlvw of Ui« duU<a ot lira 
'j«r Xi> Iw vinllttKli 

IfiTtKH or Attok)<et> asd Cocxsxlowi, — 
|Mtiviii<H» of tliiK STCtioD Bra taiuv Hnb- 
VtAUlully fiwm Ibc oath prcacribed to adta- 
eata lijr tlio Uwa ol <i<iiM*B. The outh ia w 
(ullov*; "1 itttnr before Ood, la bo fnilh- 
fnl lu tba n-puUic aod U)o cauUm of GoDcra; 
noTcr to iI«|Hirt from tho reapoct due to tbe tri- 
ImualN ami auUiorltlcai nnvo' to coiuiinl or 
Huuulaln a laua* ubicb <Iom not apMar to be 
Jast «r aquitaU^^ u»t«m It b« lb« immom of an 
anuiMcl p«r*oni n*i-er to omplnv Itaowiiiglf, 
for III* fmrjiOM ot mtuntainfug tbo caUMa coii- 
fldod to Rie, auy nMam oontnuv to tniUii and 
l>I'^<^^ loKuk tti mislead llic jiiifgca hy anvartv 
Ik" <ir fal*6Btat«ouaiCof (aoCor luw; toalwtaia 
fiuiu oil ollotiiii'a pcraonnlity, and to aiKuk.-o 
ni> fast coDtrary to tlic lu-oor o* mrpatatian of 
the tKTtiin, if It bo Riit IqiI laprmnlila to tho 
tanH «ilfa Kbiub I niny ba cliar);oili not to on- 
eoortfte «ith*r the ounimooMioMit or tlio oon- 
tlcianiu.'* of a »ult from ftuy iiiotlr« ot poaaioii 
or iutorotti (Kit to rojoot. tor uiy couaitlora- 
tiiMi* piraonal to mfMlf, thocaOMof Uiowoik, 
Out itrangcr, or tho opprHMd." 

8jij' the commiHloiiora ot Now York: "Thii 
i^inrain to lu to cxprcM *o jnatlf tlio gouoral 
datici of lavycri that wo (unuot il» bolter 
lluui take nlliKut tho very lenn« i^ it la pn- 
Mtrlbiiijt ItHtr ilntfaM. 

"Tho Etofaatton of ■ lawytr la nM«ntiBl to 
»i>e.i<i)-, ita oluu«ct«r luui honor itro public lu- 
(••i-nilii. Not only h tJio advic* of lawyoni 
aououary In tllo tacrr* ilillii'all traluactioui of 
|ir>valc bfe, bnt Ibcir iiitvn'ciitiuii id iiccnaary 
to Kprawiit tho suitor, iiuil mlvncitv hia riKlila 
tvfani tlia oonrta. Iti tliii pusitioii cvprjtEing 
). n^ittJoil to tl»«r iiilt^rily, TIie nintpiiiude 
. • !'■ .. intonuta t>laooi1 iii their himiU— iiro|)- 
I I ' , Lbamcter, libcrtr. life — tli« retpoinl'ulitj: 
whkh tlicjr Miuincj tho Hnifl'lriico vhiih llioy 

of tbe bar. Att aiiacni|inloua bar coiiM not ox> 
tit In a blyh-mlndcd oonimiiaity: and i( any- 
whora a «urni[>l loiial nrofcaniiia In to Iw (uuud. 
it ia (oiud In iIk niitfu of a oorrupt awl cvr- 
niiiting jMonI*. 

''Tho judicial dBjiarttiiont ia rMruitwl from 
tbe le^ profooiioii. Judwa inuit l'i> lawyun. 
ThM«itcuiii«taiioealeao — tbomurv (net it^ui una 
ofthegPtat'departfTMutaofROVM'utiivat, co'onli> 
nate tu nowcr, ojual In dtguily, sail tbo one 
uion which capociolly tlie nfcty o4 tllD oitiMU 
d*tiai)(I«, i*, by tho law of ita ooudilioD, oligihlo 
only oat of Ibu ratik* of nu« pnifnnlQii — 1» 
Miougli to ([ivo It pr*-aaiiit«DU«. Tlia iuu-^hty 
ot Uie Jndiotflty, more thau that ol any olhvr 
olan of niasiftiatei. ia uviilcucoof tin- auud'l iioxa 
of tho puolio miiul. Tha chanictcr of tbe 
iudjjoa, hoircTor, ia tbo ohBnct<r uf tbu Uwycrs. 
Mndo at tlt« bar, thoir motal obaractcn t>i«rB 
take llidr ootnplexion. To degndo tbo b«r, 
therefore, lead* directly and inevitaUy t« tUo 
d<y;nlilAtiaii of tho liciich. 

"Tbero are certolu eravc omna aomcwliot 
current rapuctliix tho duticaof lavyen, whicb 
d(wr*« ofrinua vonalil*ratioD. Wo rrfor pu- 
tiuiilarly tu thoir allogod indlfforciicv to tho 
mural aupcola ol l\w uauuia lh«y ailvuo»l«: nob 
that tlioro ui aaytliing Uku tbo inilitfuroDCO 
whioli la auppoaod to exiati on tbo cvnlranr. , 
perwDi niore acnipnlaualy eia«t never lu tnliv 
part witti wrcn^ or neni t« da w>. ouiuot bo 
Wild in any profoMioa. IhitthcrcMuevcilb^ 
low ail iiuprcnIuD widely <lifl\i*c<l, not (inly In 
till? [>r<'[««)oii but iiat bi it, that a lawyer may 
projxfily ailvouite a liiul uauM. Tliia view of 
tho OMA iTB bt'ra vonturo hrtofly to cnuniilor. 

"Whvn a luwyur i« tukcil for I-ik oinniui 
u|ii)n a [luroly lo|nil (|ittation, hl« ibity ends 
with stating llio Inw lu it i^ lu n>aiiy i»< 
Klanota, huwevvr, more Ibuittiia iaaaked. Ilia 
oliriit »eek* hia advioe mmeting bia future 
coudu«t. In auct) twK*, lit* duty as a moral 
being Ter|uim bin) toadviaoJattiooL Ilia pot)* 
tiaii aa a legal ailTiacr du«a not exempt blu) 
from tho moral ilntloa which hind otlirr iiien. 


wuiua tiicv Miuinc, tna eann<irnco wiiiiii iiiey irom tiio 

>T«vl'rc, oil ilofnaod awl |>miu|i|Hiii« Ihs hijihMl Ho bjut nfl mom right tbui another fTirti'l in 

ijualltMr-iaiid cliarBrel4>r, No iliiJKin*«t fir dia- a>M>pwhat isuiijuiit nr (^prvMiv*. I'mlimbl- 

b'xioiul'h tnan laii rvtnin thi> ooafidftioa of 
bunot ui-1 hoMinibln nieii. 'I'lio nio«t iatiaialo 
ouuKPCtlun, in mlily, unbtisU Ih'Iwocu tho 
cliancttr vl Uie couununity uid tiM character 

o'lly thi- t.'li<dt iiiuot jud^ for binwlf rif tlio 
moral <|iulity of hia own aeticaif^ atiil if he do> 
aires no lunretlun to know what oxinc the law 
roijuirca ueder partionlar ettouaurUicui, tha 




[P*«r I, Tnu! T, 

ftdfftcr'* duty tiBidt wttk cxpUlnlog tb>t. Bat 
It) pniL-licG, till) client j{<iiicnilly r-ijiniM aiKl 
jtik* ijim'c- Hii rtMkH tbNica ftrnii n Iriijud ^ho 
kii"*" «!i»l tii* li'^al rij^Iidi ar*, »n<l wlio jimb- 
klily lin>) mure uf liis coaliitviuu than uiy otiier 

|>iin>.«i. Id 4<ich uircnimituiKvii. 1i* is boacid 
ly iiio-al, imrl ■b'luIJ bs Iwunil t^ Iiuiiiiul, Iilws 
tu lliitiw Iiii iiidu«D(« upOD tile altlo cf intcg- 
tily. Toocicut tti UiubadwiUciiioof nnuiijuitt 
client i> to beiMiiM eqvillj ^ilty wjtb him, anil 
tlic lira *ro a* Biuoh ooonapintor* In cfTi-ct ki if 
t!ii-y Im'l originally coniiitlci! a |iliin o( iiiiquliy, 
villi A vkw d( iharlri)! Iii tli<> pl<mil«r. And 
wll«D, ill luldillciii to iiilviot, ihe olinnt oaiila 
aa flilrovAtii ilii'I iuVh fur Kctiv^Mxjoiii-nkllMi, 
thauin* Uox I'lrn) liiin ji»t lut attxfiigly ta r*- 
(ilkia froni pLitmiiiiK xn unjust oliject. 

"It i* MfiiirliiriM said that a l^wyur i> iiut at 
libvity tn ntfiiiie bU un'ioei Ui nay pcriniii. and 
thiit irhuo ODM en^iigtJ, h« is at fibcrtr to vm- 
pioy every mckiut lu hi* fow«t (or hi* cliont. 
IbtUctl. K> cniiomt * pcraooM Lord Uroagbam 
is rrpoTicJ t-> have *aid, in k ipcodi in the 
Ibiciih boilae ot lonti, tlmt the advocnto i« 
Iwuiid to fnrent tlmt tliorn in any olhrr ponon 
Itt tlio worlilliMidM hiacltont, wid t<il'iM«i|[bt 
e[ «*«ry tAhnr enadderation tlian <■( cuucun. 
kit powlblslhatlhuAanbe juatt Shuuld th« 
odi-ocate forgrt thut there it a •oci^ty uhoao 
wuUara he is bound, by Iho highest uiietiDiiB, 
to iiroiiiote? Ihot there arc other jwrtits whom 
MifftU are at itokti that Uien arc dutica to 
•ocicty, to rnry nicmhcr of it, u well at to tlto 
cms who retaiood Mm? 

"Tbc doctriao appoui to be onaiHind In 
theory, aui] luatt »nucioiii> in pmctlao. It 
unmca that a manliu a right to whatever thu 
Inv call iclie him. that the law in ao jiliun that 
it cannot ho nilatalion or parverWil, and that 
<iD« may rigihttully avail blmtelt ut «veiyd«(«vt 
til nji Mv«raary'* procit which the rul«a ot uvi- 
(leuoc or aocidoDl or tirne may have oreatwl — 
thrM pronoailioua, every one of which i* with- 
oat fooDdBliun. Sappuie that a client rnako* 
claim to land ia the poaaoaaioo and apnarent 
owoenhip of Another, whcsc evidence ol title, 
houorcT, haa been dcatroyod by accident. The 
ailvoculc know* from conflilenttal communloa^ 
tiooi nu'lc to Jiim aa coiinaol that hja client 
bu not n Jtitl clnJin to thu land; bat, tram de- 
fect 'if |>i\riif un the part iif the ponetMr, it it 
r.iay lor him to n<MVur it. If tliv Mml ailu 
lit. in ho Ixiiinil to a«»i«it himT Feir pvrwjoa 
will iii»!ntnin that. But if the doctrine ia * 
wininl ont, liote it not tinhnuie Ihia taae! 
Tbrie ii, a4 it atrikea t», uo middle growid. 
It tlioaili-otatv ii Ui oTcrtuok the monl aapecta 
ot the uUim. he tnunt rcoovcr lliii pr^erty {at 
hia client. I'liltiog ■» extreme a cnae teata the 
|iriav)p]e,in<l ahowa it talwunaoaud, by ahnw- 
inj th»t it IdmI* to B conacquooDe ao ntvolt- 

""nio Innr, aoroaver. la not ao clear and pra- 
oivB Ixit ttiat II may 1« mlalaken or perv«<rt«d. 
A ■Irontt ii'iutl st thf Ittr and a wrak one on tJie 
lMTtI>^h loail vtUlk tOMToneout jti'l^jinfuta. The 
lUHiiinenl we ojipoM lakci f-ir grauti'il the in- 
laliihitily of jaJgea anil the curtainty of law. 
Who, cc«i tenant with the procirodiaga of 
ooutlii, doe* not know that neither can he 
cuiunt"! unT Before ortlino/y tribuuala, more 
defieiidt ou the odTtKnte itnn ii genotnlly 
iina|;ii>Dil. Ia it lawful to n>D the power of 
Tcanin uiiil eloqiMBce to anttain n Iki>1 criud. to 
Mpfort the jioilty, or. irhat i* uwn ivroltlBg. 

to pinwieulo InnoecoecT Mky the bcatllee bo 
sbiiaod, and Unrulug perverted, lo make falao 
m<ndn« aeeni true, to cover up weak pointer to 
givDiinduv (itominoiiue lo »efne facta, to ce«- 
ci<al utlic-cv, t^ inaKnity one'* own twue, to 
vilify an udverury'a? To buhl Ihit proondt 
upcm the fallaoy that truth and riKht cau- 
not be niitTtrpreaented or cuncenlrd. \Vho dc<c« 
not luiow theeontniryt If il he said that itii 
the duty of an odvoeate to go no farther thia 
to pTMcnt the eaujao of hi* eEent imly. leaving 
tho rmnlta to the couit* and JLtrin. it nuy bo 
aii«WL-n.-il that truth i* atitoluto, not rala- 
tSvo. To prmnit a am truly reiMilraa tlie 
whole Imth un both aide*, aa well thai whieh 
makn agaiDtt a* that which make* for a cIIobL 
If he prviunt tlie tavonUe circumaUnon ami 
•appreai Ihe iinlavorable, doM ha pnwnit the 
CMC truly! Iioei ho not mther iinjraie a tolae 
impraawoo on thoac nho have tu judge? \V« 
by no mean* auert that an advoMt* may not 
lake upon hhnidf tho lUJenee of a man whom 
he hollve* to be guilty. Re iat,y. Tbc asC' 
tiou we propoH permita )iim to dn ao. If he 
have derived hi* IxtlivJ from the eonfcitiinn at 
the accused, ho ehould pause Id aunminif hia 
defenie. The law gtvua lo every m.ii> .-liiii-;,-ud 
with vrane the benefit o( the mlo tt]nt bin in- 
noooioe ii to bejpnaumed hy bia jwlp*i until 
the niDtBaution have eatablitlu'd hia guilt by 
proof beyond reaiunabli- duuht. Of tiiis ruM 
the adrocato ia the int(<rmediate minister. 
or even tielief aato the guilt of bia client, be 
may nut hoconu hi* jnilgo, but ia juttifiul, if 
not bonuJ. lu enfoice its application tu tlie In- 
oonoluaivunees ot tlie evidence of piill. He 
niity do tliis the more readily, becaata even the 
jary thvmselvcs are bound to aMura to tli« *□• 
eiiicd the benefit of ite applioatiOD. Ht luay 
dIbo nndcrtake to ibowthe oirounutanoec uf lua 
caae. to prcaont the pidlialing oirounietaiioM of 
temptation, or of pttTooation, or anything olaa 
that may affect the moral quality of^tho action 
or dolennino the degree of puniahTncnt. Ho 
may aUo, in eivll oaaaa, preaeiit ilcfenacii reoog- 
nitod and provided by law, although ho amy 
himaelf diaapprovs of theprinclnleand nolicy 
cdlhe law, lint here th« ailvooaMalloul'l atop. 
Tho law and all its mauhincry am innane, aut 
enda; tho puipoec »f their crvation ia jlutM*! 
and he who, in hia nal for the means, tergeta 
the cnila, bctm)'a not only nn unsound hoart, 
but an uii;it><i:i<l ui»1er>luiding." 

ftubd. X To support tUa oouatlttitioa: 

8oe atil', "ije. "JTS- 

Subd, 3. Defoodlof pmsoo cbAtgod mtli 
crime: »■-•< I'ith. OmIc, mc. DS7- It ia part of 
the Mi-iminl duly c4 conoNil to reader thoii' pra- 
fuuiunul Kcrricn t-> person* aoceaoil ol crime 
who urv Ucalitutv of mean*, U|ion the appoint- 
ment uf the cuuit, when not iucouslKtent with 
llieir oVIigationa to otlietv: Beat r. Tula O^, 

17 Cui. or. 

For coinpeDsation in aoeh ««m* Ihe attomej 
muat look to tlie future ability of tho partyt 
Rourt V. Pu&n Co.. IT Cal. 61. The (vniaty it 
Qot reeponaihio, even wb«ro tho attorney ex- 
pendnl monoy in th« defense: LoTJuiut v.S«ta»Q 
C'o^4ald. I.V<, 

Babd. 5. Good t>ltb toward client.— The 
attorney on^lit \'/ diKlow the fad of any nd- 
verto n<liiitirr: l/f C'.IU v. Ilruimn^, r>,t Cal. 
3'2i or even of any prior [Qtainor: H'l/'ranu 
V. Jittd, 3 Masou, 401. Ue i« botind to the 


Ciur. M 



moil tornpnknii gonA fnitlit Vatmiim r. SUie- 

»rt, \& 01. 1.17. Kii|KciB.'lf BO vlicro tiio at- 
I'tcniajr hwipuii* witli tli« cliculi t)ic fnrmop 
rtBiut ihiiti by ulttit auti |m«1iIi'» jirwiJ Ibxt 110 

I : ' iiaUKU WM iaktui: IW'nlini i. .%•»■ 

, thai iko Irkiuodina w»« fnir ftihl 

t, .L., ., Ki4iit^ r. SA-iu-. 33 U. 425. Tho 

OHIO 'il [iroiiiig th" (nimeM n( the iltatiiiEa in 

OB tlic altufui'yi .VivttflH v. /.orl'MKin, 34 n. Y, 

107: Keaat v. £,7/u, 5 Ih'iiiu, OM: //a««(' v. 

/IVuwnn. II Paigo.lUS: Mi'l'\-. J/iU), SBCkHia. 

213. And Mc, gmnrmUj, Wnekt oa Attonte}'*, 

All aUorne]rhaTinErei>rCMiit(doaa«bJoe«n- 
uut )io i»«r iimI miiter nviiitaiioe to Ihc otbor 
till? kiiil enloroe ooaliact fot coiniwnMtinn: 
KurfiK.!)' T. .SfnMirf, la CU. 3S7. But k client 
n liu coiiwlt* no «Uorii«]r itUtivo to dntvluj; 11 ji 
a ilcoil to toftliy. vtUivli in iiov«r t«4<cnt«il. cui- 
not fauld til* lavycr na IniltM tliouKI lla tubat- 

JUently biij tbe laii'li Porter v. /VitAom, M 

Au Bttt>rti«y ooglit to inform hia client of all 
facta which lie learn* in TDlalion lo the lubictit- 
nuUerof tlie aettou: Bitm v. ifrrf Bluf flottt 
V«.. 31 i::*!. too. 

CUenrBMcrotK— U(* the duty etanattor- 
nay ta |ir«a»rvo lil* cUeiit*a aecrota: I'lJtnflnt v. 
Slfityrl. ir. Gil. 3S7i GttUti-jhrr v. tViUhimKHi, 
S» Id. 331 ; Ki*lli.g v. SUnif, S3 M. I'iui /'rcvlr ▼. 
JlJUnnxi.tOld. 2S1. TlioKiilijvctof privlVu«d 
OomKi'in^oktiOD* it conBiJ(<tvil /b>4. aw!, 1881. 

IMMloa «rttb clikiit— Attorooy^ liabil- 
ity.— Ad Altamcy t> liaLlo (ur the rxaC uf 
•»ni afciU; pndeocc. iui<l diligmce u lawyon 
d( onlinat)- ikiU nnd uuacity fonunonly «•• 
MM and •xcrciw; Gamliert v. V/arf, 44 OaL 
H3. Tho rule hu ticcii thni (arcDuUted tn 
Wtimn V. Aiui. 20 Mo. 4^1: " The attomcjr ia 
bevftil 10 «xaoQt« kitibcw iu hi* profowuu with 

S88. Authority. 

Beo. 283. An attorney and couueetor ahall hare authority: 

1. To bind bis cli«nt iu any of tho etpps of an itctioQ or prooeediBg hj his 
Bgreeiiient filed with the dork, or entered upon tho minutim of the ooort, and 
not otherwiae; 

2. To receive money claiIDl^d by hitt client in iin action or proceeding during 
the i>oudeDoj thert-of, or ixUrr jiidymwit, uiiloas a revocation of hin nuthonty is 
filed, and upon Um pityiiK'nt UKn>of, and nut uUiervriKe, to diticbnrgt: tlio olium 
or acVuiiwIodgo MkiiHfitction of tho judj^ent. 

ai«auM»1ilcda{^of tare, ikill. and dlaMtdi. 
t( tlw dimt he iii|iii«d lir llie grow fuill, oog- 
lij[CEnoc, or IgDonnce of uie alturiioy, 1)10 AtUir- 
nuy U tiablo; bat If bo acta villi cikhI fultli, to 
th« hmt of hi* tkill, *n<1 with au oi'dmurydv- 

fraoof attcntiuTi, hi> nil] si.l Int nMimiuiibiu." 
f kQ attorney hiui ii..>t the tkiU uiiinl with 
pnetitionvra iq liU pnrticulsr dofiaitmutt, bo is 
oliar^i^lile witli <ho cniitMjUDiicn of tli'.' want 
Uiorcof. The want of tho ikifl. Jilijiviioc, anil 
prudence uiuaUv |ioaBa»od hv lunyvra Sxcs 
the lialiitily of the attomoy: U'«V« on Attor- 
ney*, iDCB. '283 et loq. ; CIiom v. Ihitxry, ",\i 1)1. 
2GS( IffUly V. CamKausK ^ lud. «:i:ii ilorrJt 
V. llraham. 27 Tax. (M<l; E^nkm t. Board- 
null, 37 Mich. 14; aoa aUo tiOta to Filrk v, 
SftiU, 34 Am. TJoc. V9. 

All altoTiiay Is guilty of gronnagtijcsnea who 
allom tlio tiiiin tor an ap{itn] to eit|ilT« without 
taking an sppMl. when ileiiiml by Ibu dirnii 
DraUv. //<N/a".MCaL ISli ur nlierii mi mo- 
tion itn a ncv trial he fotli to liaiv (liu otato- 
uieDtoertiSid. thereby prevMitiU(5 the npprllal* 
court from looking into and rcvietiing tlio ac- 
tion of tho court below on UioinDtioii: Oambrii 
V. Uarl, 44 U. US; or where be dom not pre- 
•cntP daiin a^initailtcoiteDt'aaiLito In time: 
Sttvin*v. Dtxur, (W IVI- 131. A Liiryor may 
acoojit a* a tortct oxjioaitlnu of the ktir tlio do- 
diMi of bU atata'a auprvma court; Uantinm v. 
Ht^lecl, 13 Cal. 303. But th« atUo d«ciaiun 
moat bo iu adranoo of any lUoUion of tho 
BUprano court 011 that tabJM't; Uanh r. VfhU- 
moTt, 21 Wall. 1:3. 

Na(lI|Mic« la a quoadoo 0< law, whura tho 
futi are aMortaiacJ: GanbrrI v. Uarl, 44 CoL 
MS. But MO oonira, in note to /VfcA r. StoiU 
34 Am. Dec. WX 

M«aaui« ol danacw: ReoalaoootetoJUtA 
y. Seoa, 9* Am. Doc. 9S, 00. 

AuUioifty of attoniay and cftuuMtor. 
TIhi ostUiriiy n{ au altgmcy at law to apitur 
lor ]>attjs will be (jmiimoil whera notlilnj{ to 

ill.- ..ijitr.i V A|:p<iara: fJarritoikv. il<Oa\atn, 48 
( ... siifViutt, 'JI Id. .'>1: ll'U/MM 

> 1 Id. Uti; llvlm't V. It-jrr; 13 

1.1. IJli Ji.jn/i- V. Citnithm. ("111. 431 i fticA- 
<IMA V. (^•JtuJ^^m, 'i'A Id. <l3Ui Uamilina v. 
irr^I.S; N. Y. Btf.'; fiMttiaion of fnlrkk. 30 
la. Ann. Wl; l^t.^ v. F-Mhtr, 02 IIL 118. 
Attunioya amMHr aud indiulpatc in to^l pro- 
cvodlli^ by tbii licviiBf uf the court. nboM oIH- 
o-tT. thrj- aro: Chirk v. WillfH, 3» Id. 034. 
1 '■■ ia jiri'vn /■i.i.- criilcnco ii( hla au- 

1 -I'poki l'>r jiirim whom Ibry i.'ofaaa 

1 ill: Oaant ••tpra; Vltrk t, WHMt, 

I , .U I . JVoW/iow t'omfy, 30 Gal. 063. 

1 irnuy maybommptlUilby thucouTt 

\ ■■ < aniliiinlir. uitliur at tli« iBitatitio uf 

-■•it wbuut im ap(Nara <x uf tbe oppo- 

■ito party: Id. Whilo tho attorney of ra«gfd 
mniuna anch, U* right to luaDa^uii] eoatrol 
tho action cannot Iw qacation«il by tha oppo- 
aito party: fhL Crtmr'* Futidtd Drll o/.Vn» /ms 
V. lr</unfiir, 211 lit. 147. An "attDniuy in 
fact" hwi no right to ai^ a ooiiijilaiat aa 
ubilntllT'a atlomay; aud lunulion vi iiL<tiliitci] 
11 void a* thi^iigli ooojiuciicml by an eotira 
alFaa^on l>ixfs v. PoUofk. 8 M. sfo. 

It u not a material point of uniniry i>hclb«r 
anattomojTcxorcdtd hi* auUiority. or ttejiarMTl 
from bia loatruclioac IJdmr* v. lio:tr". U 
CaL 200l Therofci^ wliero rinatioti o( appeal 
w^ alpiod by an attoriii-'y ol tJxa toart, it wna 
prauimcd lioliad nutbnrily: l:trhit*/nt V. Cam/t- 
lou, 231J-N0. Wli«r«a«rT!cO(4 a n.itKM of mo- 
tion for a iiaw trial ia aooeptoil by an attnrnoy 
for auolhor, who wm hla aaaoolots 011 tbr trinl, 
each buwc*#r apptorlau for diltmnt tlcfcnd- 
anto, il will b« pnj*uiiMd that b« had auUiority 




(Pakt I. TmJi V, 

to nccrpt Utc tervi«e, it Ihe paint [■ tint mistd 
tu t1i« Btiprcme oourti MtOrttn r. Kttnling, 
■W IJ. IJM. 

Tlu.* |iru|»T atoAt t>l i^cnAan, it tho mit ii 

iMt nulliorimi, is ftn* (iic itcfrndont to rnove 

Liic collet, cpon proficT ntlidui Ua. U> dUinin it, 

tbo smuDd lliat it la not natlioriiixl by 

I in wTiOM luuen it la brouglit. It the oi- 

'jr. on auoli a niotliMi Ainl ait«r DMl«a of It, 

laila tu ktiiiw l;la aiitliorlty, tba court nuw <!!*■ 

(niu the laiM). But It would ImkI to ptai oon- 

lutton lo lioM tliul tliu iiurtiw nuiv tw hurJ In 

til* liracraM ■>{ ■ cmo <ai trial utbumiio tliiui 

tKrougli thd Attonw}'* appmring for thtnn <ai 

tli« rtoonli Tii'nrr r. CaniUirri. IT 0(1. 132| 

. J/rAVriKiJi V. t'alrUt, i Ucm'. (Miu.) S36, uvl 

|ttksn Hiprv dtiHli CJnnt v. H'lVMr. 33 Oil. S4Qt 

Vto/Je V. JfaripoKi Co., 30 W. eil. Iturcrjr 

■btlul nlictbcr, in an action or prociMil!nj[ in 

■JMluc o( the pooplr, a atliiulallon uot niMle 

,' the attorney -ipinctat liy mliom tha tuit wm 

iuttltatcd, but only l>y tlio prlvAto couuad of 

.tbo relator, will bluj tlia poop)«i Ptoiitt r. 

Vo/ffrB, 2S Id. 1S8L 

Wbcni oouutul a]i|]Mn vxprmly for eerbia 

IfffnfiLlaBta In an octiua, hi* aij^atuiv to jiaiJcrB 

' I tlio cam iift«r Ibat tiiii(<. aj the ntlotncy for 

»d«fMiluit*, will be coDBtrncd w limited to 

I defendanti foir whom he oxnrculy aii- 

dIi SpoMftl y. DtUimgir. 42C>L USi Ihll, 

V. t>»ff. 43 IJ. 4Sa. 

Where tboro aro acifnl dofemlantii, aiu3 oaj^h 

Ity bla <nri> atlomey, tlio procMdlog* 

oliatlot tha iWe^ulnQta inutl bo eooilactod 

.r ttwir rapactivo tlUiroev*, Miil tjiu ultonicy 

iJoronodcteQclaatCHiDOt^reiioliticot inuUon, 

koraoi.'optMrrlod, oratipubl* tOTODutlM-r; J/«bli* 

\y. i'nf, U Cat. 485. 

II a JMHy wIk> baa an nQdividcil iatomt in 
tract tit lAnd Dmiilcya on nltomcy to aeX, for 
bill) is relation to hii iuw-mt in o jiartitioa 
Bnit> ao(l at the wmo time, lu tlio n^ciit ul an- 
other (Arty who nlw hiaouuniiiviilciliniormt, 
employ* the attomcv to a<:l for aucli alhtr 
puiy in relation to hb ialanet, the [ubitinn of 
■Itomcy and olieut tloM not udrl Urtwcvn the 
etnpluyci ninl attorney a« to the iutorgat of tlio 

oaau u|<0D two pniiit* only, with an exproM 
atipnUUcoi " that jiiilj-o'i'i't W renilcicil udor 
tLui fact luiJ Inw su fmitiil,' It van livM liiat 
they wcfu jirecloiUil fivin fjolui; Iwbibil ilto 
Miiiulation and tnaikliii^ uiwnnnyimljiniMeit 
of error prcvienaly mnue: Vaheon v. i^rg, 10 
I<1. 210. GodumJ in tlic lri\l nI a canw rnn- 
Dol object that tbo couit <liJ not miit?i- Jailf- 
niojit oa tha tpedal vccUicl of tlie jury. wImv* 
thoy bale Rilpnlated that luc^li uldiiicnul fiwte 
n>ny Wfouoil by Ilio ja>l|;o oa wilt, in lii* jixlx- 
meiit. be aulfidenl to (iTceont all tlm iincitKina 
raiw j liy thu pUnilijigMi Mariut v. /fiVti"/'. Id. 

If coiiomI stiiiulale in opfa oonrt tliat Out 
jury nuky bbkui lianingn in ciinxiii-'y, if they 
find (or tbe jilaintiff, they am 4t>tirt>pc>l fmia 
raidoe an ohjectiaii lo Uiu verdict un that 
jtround: Hrrxfoui 1. Artam, 48 Cal. 131. 

WbcTo fact* have lieon pnt 'm ctiilnneii with- 
out objeoUan, the plaintiff mmol un a|i^l 
ralM iM point that they were biadniiuillo 
under the jilpailiiiK*, although the tljtijlali'jii 
«talM that rtx- fHuti are admtltcii, " ■iilijfi.'t tu 
ail lepil uUjovliouki" but if oouiuwl coouilertd 
any of tlio admiited fjcta iucotnijctcut or inaid- 
miuiMe under the plMdinge, bo ■li"u1J bar* 
i!al<J hia olijoclioa at tlio tiinr, and bare n»- 
•cried an exception (wo mk. WO) if the ob. 
jcctiou waa ovenuled: Hat v, Soliiiiftr. 4S CaU 

Whore tlie rocMd contain* a atiiiulatioii that 
ibora U no arrorr lliercin to the irrejudtw ul Ibe 
aniMllaot*. providml the title to a whole tnul 

■ tl'.OOl 


uoiiy for whom the einployiT acted a* aKent: 
T-offar V, 1' U Ca\. 2W. 

Doath of cUont ti.>riiui)»tpi nttomcy't aU' 
tl'.oiiityi JvJAon v, Lon. i3 i^'nl. M3. Unau- 
'h«rlM appMruice fur client doei not kind 
lilni OarTHcat v. MfQoicart, ttt Id. :^i^2. 
So* also MibaUtiitloti ot attorney, i'm/^. 
•oo. 8M, in note. 

Bt^puUiUoiia and couifnts. -It wat held 
that an attorney bad [>ower, by virtoo uf lilt 
retainer and Kcncral cuiitrol orer a cautu, to 
^biod hia client by ulectmit In tbe prMonco of 
Hbe ooun, which vloctluii wat eolorad of rcc- 
Mil, to take Kootli, for the vulno (4 ubicli tho 
•dtion waa l^onaliC a^.unxt •I'.'fciidaii t. a uu- 
^ier, for nontlcliv«'ryi tlarl v. Sf/ttilini/, I 
'si. ?Hi but bi< cannot ciimproniiMi an OAtion 
.•rid ciiiiM'Tii lo ail «Qtry uf juitt^nient in aoeord- 
fauri: with n iitigiulktion if liii client, with the 
kiiowlcdfiu <if t)i^ odi-erBe at^Driicy, object, and 
'audi i.bjci-tion ia bmught to tbe attciilioa of 
lliu cou rt brJore the judjpnemt: PnUon v. lliU, 
BO Id, 1.1. A itipulatinn Tiled lu tbo luprtmo 
uiirt unucntio^ tn a jiilgment muat lie tiftned 
1>y tVio attorney:! who were attonicyn c4 nioord 
in file <^ourt 1* !<jw, ur by thu I»rty in iierson, 
if Im did not ai.peai- by attomoyi Rt ArauiUo. 
31X1 Whora tbu pattiee bod placed the 

Ul Land did uot ]tM> by a uenain dtcd iu vuii- 
trovorsy, and thu taiaa la anpied by ai'pelUiila' 
oouiual on that Uiuoryiu 111* opening liiicf.und 

tho cuurt bc-ldn that tlio title to the wbole tract 
did Dot pais, it will cot notiue oilier alleged 
crrora on petition for rphcaiiujci HOii v. '.'.mr- 
fji, 31 Col. Sil%. And whciv it a|>jHiaii!<l fnin 
thu record that after aorficu of (ii« ncll-ru i>f 
Kp|ieal tlie partita fllol a Bti|iulatiuii in n l>i<li 
it I'M a|;reod tbat defciidant aliould h<> or»d> 
it4Hl on an cxocaiion with a auni of one liuii- 
drvil mill fifty dullori, and ihaC all rriMn in 
tbo "riHiord, roteroe^ report, .lecruc, au'l judg- 
Dirut" were waived, the court vonUI not dx> 
amine any nllcjcvd error* of lawi O.lMiilnifi v. 
F<^''r, 1 1 Id. S7. Where the parties, hy «lip- 
ulation. CDOHiitcd that a motion lor a ucir trial 
should be denioil, tbcy wore nut allowed to 

) notion the order dernyinu it; BralKtrUm w. 
lart. Id. 40A: ace MttrMt r. Iir»mant, 9 Id. 

Ou the eighteenth of Octolwr. IBSft, the l«r- 
liva cnter^td into a ilipulatiuii ns folloua; " IC 
Ik aorvml Ibnt the aboTc-enlitled mtua may l>a 
contlDnod for tbe nrcMQl term, and tb&lany 
motion may Ijo nindu tbcrcla at tbecext J.ui> 
u.iry turin n( tliia oiinrt, by <.ithcr |<«rly, whicb 
iiiiiiht Ijtuii »i tlm firnt term. »ft<r 
the lil'D^ ••! tbv iriuituMjit," Tile court bcid 
that tbv true ocnet ruction uf the atipulation 
wa* that the mpondent thuuld retain at the 
■itocpciting tfTin the ri^-bld ho had at tbe lima 
of ibe atlpiilatiou— not thnt he aliould be onll- 
thtd to new and otlditioDal ('Hvili'^-ta. If tlila 
wcro Intendoil. it ahould bavo been dittinctly 
alateil. Thn court iixidentitty utd tli*V did 
not acliiiowleil);* tlie ii(i4iijjilled ri(:bt oi par- 
liu« to Ktipiilutu for tbe alircKali"!) of the inLe* 
prv«cr'ilir>l for tJie cri^ivrtjii'iit ili«iiatch of bnvi- 
u(<Hi ai well intiibt tbry •liijiilatd that tbe 
tnibavripta aboiild nut be IllvJ iiuli^ after tiio 

Cur. L] 


■ sss 

MCRiiKwt, er for an naliinlud tUiia for tiling 
linola, or r<ir nuhic;^ out ttnmordBcviiU'uy 
to tliit ruUs! Hrjf'V'Idt t. Laiermer, 13 (M. 
SK). Haviuj; in n ciiw afiiniivil liiial juilgmcat, 
111* «aprcin« «iuit u-ill nul pmu upon tbe nicT- 
tta itt kn inUrrloctitoTy orxlBT in llie wiuo com, 
el wbicli tlic appcllaDt (omplnin*. aiul from 
wliicli ho oiipcaU liy ilipulBUiiD: Paal \. Va- 
f/ff, IS lU. UKt. On mlmlttuiK a C3u«iiravvr«y 
wtUi«)t actiioii. unilcr icctloD IISS, an *cm<nI 
■totooiMt cannot b» taktii m a •inl>«titui« for 
Um klBdavH: iVrlTof. v. f'Auiur. -JO M. 08IX 

An apponl irAi •li)(iiix«iiil on Iho timnfa'eth o( 
Uutth, uwl th" i-rmiiiiiitr ivM inucd on tbe Dnt 
of April. Uu lliH tiiUiuf April, counacl Tor t ho 
Bliiwlliint lilixl a tlijiulalioa.^i^icil l>y tliccnnD' 
•rl iif llie rcB[>uiHlcDt, living tlic lomiDrtvD ilsfi 
lo flic Ilia bnci, and coulitiaing in exiMeuce a 

tnvMiu icilcr ■ubraittisg tiic ciue on brlrf*. 
<fOa ttiu itlpuUtion tho orOar of iJljniiMBl 
NraaVKatol,iuiil ui nnlcr ouUinxl evtondinf tli« 
fUm* to file brick. TlinHi|)rpinii«ntirt thought, 
fVaJirr- lli" circniMtauoat. jKirtk'iiWly w tlie 
rvniM^lar hM bc4n iwnuil. that tlic uriler va- 
oatinj; Uiu dilmin^l u( tliu appeal nhouM 1i» act 
uiilv. and the original urdcr ol Moxch 30tb bo 
kllomi lo (ta»d: Norirga v. An^r, 20 Cal. 
172; IT3. Wb«re a iI«pcialtioii mw tekea In 
■•olbrr owr, and lli«r« wu a ntlpnlatlon that 
it ahonU be uaod on lli« trial " with tlie mma 
foTM and nflaet, and i-ibjiict In tho aamo nx- 

atjona anil olijcctloiu lo nit r«(n«et«, m U 
•n in Ihla <iixe," lliv uinrt livLI th« olfaat of 
UiD itipulation wa« lo |i1ac« lh<f ilopMntion npoti 
tilt MOM footiDK a* if it hail hetia taken in tho 
Mlioa, aad ■aiiltkat a partj' wli-> nppi»n at 
tlie tiip« of A dvpiwtion, an-l ciamriwa tho 
witnoM witlioat otijoctiiig to Lin compctcooy, 
CMU»t aftorwnrcli intcrpoic eu« obicction: 
ihMia V. Crot'fy. 'il Id. SO. Whcro tlio ouly 
•laUnrail on njipcal vua ntlpulatian. algncd 
hy th* •tlorno:r" ol both parilM, agrwhig tlut 
tM^iidoBimilnill, onlcnsiui(linttrii4t!oii*Ki¥«ii 
Bud PKMOil by lh« court, t'^v«tiirut ua 
metlaa fotancw trial, anil tho Mipnlation thiia 
■tgiioil, waa "a lru« aud cormt ctatoincnt on 
•[ijital to the tiiprvniu oinrt, an<] auty tio UMxt 
Mincli without fnrtliercortiliaitoor idantifi. 
cstioit,* bat none ol tbtwe ajwni oontkinad tlia 
groeiida otappml rtiiuired 1^ tlieimteticakot, 
and thcrH|>oiiiIciitobJfii.'tcil that tnoatatcniBnt 
formed no Mrt <if ilic roooni, tho anpiviiia 
Nwtt held I&at tlio n^irMRiaat of tho pkrtiea 
unouaKnl to ft waiver of this objection: tVtU 
V. Pani. hi 403. 

A •tijiuIatMin waa u(piei) by Uiu altorauyN of 
Ixilli partiM a* fultovi: "It i> hcr^^y nlipii- 
latod hr and bctTcvn the attornvya fur the 
pkiplinit aad defundiLiita lo the tilled 
■elioa thnt the fureaoing (tuttmcnt hereto im- 
ncxoil in a tnie nMl correct itatcmcnt on mo- 
Uoil for n IMW liial. That upon mUI *tatomonC 
(ha niil court dil. on tlin lint day of Septom- 
txr, 1803, ovvrriiln tlio )>)ilatill)' motlou for % 
anw tiul, uiel n'fuu) ti>)^iit tliu uiil pUlnt* 
ilTii n ni'ir tiial iti «ai'l acliou, tu iihiub ruliiuf 
Uie Mi.) |>laintiiri thvn and thum exv*t>tocl. 
And it in herctiy furtlinr alipulntod that tiia 
jiulgnioDt roll, anion, and ioatraotiona gitcn 
•Airreifuial <>y the conrt. tbe aforeaaid atat«> 
neut on motion for a now trial, and Ibi* Btipn- 
latlon. it a trae and oomot alatement on 
n|i|io*l to tlio Kuiinmo oourt, anil may be moil 
•a Mull wltliont fnrlher ccrtifiail« nr tdcDtiR- 
Atkci." Tho cuuit bold that aotU-o of niotion 

(or a new trial mnrt be be1<I to lum bam rtjpi- 
loily given, nitd thot nil iKhnieal oUwtlMW 
to the tnnMarijit were wurod, ami tlie oata 
anbmiltiHl vnoa iistaeriti: OoJehiuix v. JiuJ. 

font, as oa. 31(1. aax 

WbiM« there la In the tranaeripl a *l>pal«> 
tion In- tho partie* that " tjio plain tilf duly ck- 
o«ot«>l to ttwdtorgeaand <w:)iinrtth<rtcd," it 
will b« oonatnuKl aa a etipulatioii that tho «(• 
oeptioD* were eulEoicnlly (jfcdlied to render 
thvni avaitnble: Hert/maii v. OiifinirtA, 31 CnL 
14S. Kut an acctftauce of acrvice of n notice 
of app«al a* fi»llow«: " Duo lenjce of a cany tj 
within iiotioe ta hereby accentcil to linvo Iwaiii 
oiado. thia twentieth day ol February. I^SCT," 
wtu li«1d only la admit that tho nutii'f wa* 
daly aervod on that day: Tointg v. Elti*. £! 
Id. OAT. An admbalen Muerally of "iIiib 
anrvioe «( a notice " la a watver n( an ubjpctiwi 
that It waa not Mrivd ta time: Tulntin v. 
Ilnmn, JO Wmd. SSTj Slnivtr v. Oir<ii« Jut, 
fi... 11 AW.. 23. 

If a nlipulatioD that notioe of apnoal wiA 
filed, «tc,, ii eiiifTed into imdarn mistdcc pf 
fact, it ii oampotont tor tho court tidow, iipon 
propor applicoiion. to rdioT« U)o party frutn 
tt! BrrJxr V. i^iDionf. 3 How. Pr, 2S; m tlm 
enprcino court might il» If a atipuliitiiiii wi« 
entered Into Iboro under a nd*1ak4 (i( fact; liut 
tho eupraina eoon le pow«r1o*a to amead dooa- 
monla eoaultuting tho tranecrjpt, <a indkrvotly 
acGompliih the Mma reault by aeo*|itJiig a trus 
BtatumeDt nut fooad in tlio tnuscript, hut 
vhioh Dooonnrily diaplaiwa a fact «ta!«al 
therein. While the etipnlation reinoini, it id ■ 
furda Baflioiect «vidoiioo totheaupmne caart 
that tho notice of appeal waa llted in (ho eonrt 
below: BeniU t. /JiettMUi, 3D Cal. 4IU. Au 
attorney cannot iiau n right or tilU uf Ma 
client Iiy atlpulation: A'yru v. 3'onifi>ui>it, 'Ji 
Id. 17. 

A atJpolnCloii that "tho (onwolng Iwocity- 
ona papa Muttituto tlie unn««r)r>t on njipual 
frtiin tho ord«r, and contain true, hill, and ,im- 
reot ropiea of the aiOdaiita miermi to In Iha 
bill of oMuptions GIikI In tlia oaw." uu-., doca 
not prootada a party [rum donyiiig thu curre«l- 
nen or cnfliaieDoy of the hill of uxeujitionpi. eto. 
Tbe atipnlation ia but a lubaticuto fur the 
oleth'a oertifioato to tile oorrtvtflosa cif the 
tnia»cri]>t. and Cfjt dwigneil to do mare thm 
aiithcntioito lh« truiacript oa a tmo copy of 
llii> n>curd Iwlow. .Viid lliat la the cxtoiit to 
whiuh auch tlliralationa utnally go: Wrlhfriet 
V. CamM, 33 Cal. Ma 507. 

U'huro Uie parUaa recited In their ati]>Dla- 
lion 0.11 Ihn fivta In tlie cate, and ap^rmd that 
tho ■tipulalioii ahonlil bo a imrt ol the Jmlg' 
■Dent roll, nud that do other otatcnicDt or ap- 
peal ahould bu minirod, tho <onrt held tbtt 
the (acta therein recited took Iha pln,w and 
■ervod all the purpoaea of a linditic of fucla by 
the court. Ko «tal47nicBt en appeal vet avwf 
■ary. All tho qneatjona pmcntoil nroao npoa 
what tho partica hod nfrrool ii]ion ahoiilJ oon- 
otiliitt tiie Judfcmenl n>ll. nnd no af'™'^''''^'''''! 
of tfao erron or Kronud iidir-1 tppwi una re- 

? Hired Ui Im maila in Ilic ivujril: Itrratltr v. 
/n/flry, 37Cal.33. 
But where thu appeal waa from Iho i"'Is' 
rncnt, and ruftiid iiion the plaailiiKi;), flaifiri)^ 
and judgnmnl— no hill ol euefitioua or ttala. 
meat appcarint; on tho re<«r<l, hut a «tti>uk- 
tion WM ombodiod in tho Inuaaipt, imin 
whUh it appeared that, lor tiie inupooo of % 



fPABT I, Tnu T, 

MrinI in llip court Wow mJ an appwil, if ooo th«t it wm the iliily of tit* court t« iclllc lb* 
r>?>uii!>l 111) tlii-nwlt«r Uikm. <y<itaiii uolAtfil amtt aaA nll< 

I'IlI^s »ct« ugrcHl ti|K>ii (■■"k liOKtvcr, iiiakiug 
I lii< tlio (OM to ha dotermiiicil); an-l olio arrco- 
I ii>^ tliil <crtaiii cndcoca might be olTvnw on 
kl'iciiial luljjiTt to obJMtiao, «tc.— tho court 
'Jivtil tliii stipuUtioii WDi not ptrtof tlic judg- 

jiwut rviU. uor on cxueption. nor a •tat«m<3it 

till •p|>ci!, anil ttie mart t-MuM not, therefore, 
fccultlilci' it: Loa V. Il^rkitiilt. 4t Cnl. G3S. 
I Wlmrc ruunitfl for pbiiilirl unit ilrtoadAnll 
[riitvrvi] Into tbe followiuu >U|HiUtioii: "Jo 

tlila o*>-i it 1» iitlpaUloil llial tlie atatumvnl 
Lnci oiull'iit (iir now trial iltall rnoaUt of tli« 

liMttvni )>rO|<oti.''l to bo iuBcrtcul tbcrrio by 
iI<-f<,'iidnot'( auicDJincuti to pluiiliS'ii prO' 
I f tatniiviil <ai inotioD fur new trial borein. 

.ow Ibu Atliur iMurly to Hii^'j^i'^t 
■niuiidirimts to ir^kt it oMiftirm lo (bv IrutUl 
iaoM V. €:;</ 'if Mirf/n^'k, +t Cal. eil>. 

AftcrapropoMHl ttUtmami on Biulk'ii fora 
cow iHol JMd tiMa mailo, ami •iiwnitii»Bi« l>iJ 
Iwcn propoaeil and nllowtd ti]r tbv I'^'itl, a 
Mipulattnu ofcovuMil that tb« vngrua^l ttal«- 
mcut misht bu iniutoby u'riciii{;iiiibopni)HJ«nl 
atntomcDt Uio mnondBumta. and wiicn >a cd- 
(TTOMcil tliQ Mtat ■liouli] bc tlio RtAtcincut, Ull] 
tciat tlio cxbiUta and docnmcnla tvfirmt Ut in 
ibn ttit«incDt might bo used <m tlie Mgumcnb 
witliout l«lng couloil inlo Iba atatciDcnt. bit 
thuul'I Iw ituvrlcil in tbo Innkiript on a]>pM]. 
ami a otijiutatiiiu wu odiol to tlic cnsrwMit 
daUiiiiut tliat St wu tlie cnsrounl aiatciiKal 

;b.v wliat it lu(t of tlio mattcra propoHil to ainfltlcil bytliajntlgo, anil «KrD«*«<l ncoordlsg 


fiiHTlcii tlicrda b^ pUiuCilTi *iu<l propOMd 
*tkt«noat, after atiiliuig out the matlcra pro- 
peond to Ik itrieken Uumf nxn by dofonduit'l 
•nid kmtiailmcuta, ntid tliat on engraHlatc 
*a>d atalcmmta uid mnltDrs ihall ha copiM 
Uiorcin witli the mun (ores and olTrrt as if 
Mt o'll in Mtid (lalcment am] anipndincntit 
that Kiid itatuiut-nt noril n>>t ha engrouod 
Hnlll AfUr argiiuiuut on muliiju for nett tiinl; 
that DO tliv Mtd arpimf^t on motion for 
IM1W tttiit all tlio lUBttera lierein «tipulatod oa 
cniuliliitinj; tl>B Htllcit ■tatemmt maj^berv- 
feiT^l t'> Di if nach Btatcment irfre cngroMeJ; 
■ad lliat in priuling the troiiicript on appeal 
tiypitlicr jnrty alluidiiiatt«niBhail !« iniutuil 
iu Hid traoKripl, nnd that aud Iranacript ahall 
l>e Btijiiilsiail to eouuiu tlio atatr.inuiit on mo- 
tionfor new trial on which tba coio wm argneil 
OM tnotton (or new trial" — tha *ii|inini0 oovrt 

to the foniiei atipulAliou, lli«*« Htt|iuiutiau> 
were held minivalo^t tu tlio oortiRcali' u( the 
clork: Sec DM, pott; MeOnery v. Svtrd'utfjt ** 

Cal. na. 

A atlpuUlinn made on th« day that a atate< 
mnnt on iiiotinn (or a n«B' trial vhontd bav» 
bopii RIoJ, "that llicforcL,'olngoon>tit«tn«tni« 
and oorrtvt oniiro«Hid and actilcil ■tnlvment, 
• * • htfreby waivina all iuformnlilica in 
nnpeot tu llliiiji and »*rvIo* «f lUo nunc." wai 
held not to ]LMt if)' tho moving jarty In m-'t^Wt- 
ilig to fil« tlis ttatvniVDt for hvu ninnlha after 
the date of tlio atiiinlatioii. Ill anch can*. th« 
right to move (or a iii>* trial wa« u»Ired by Iha 
nrgloct to nlc tlie ■tatemeiiti O'XtU r. Dm^- 
*rtu. 47 Cal. 104. 

The fupruine oonrt will not n-fiowon appaal 
jn<l|;m«iita and order* cntercil by cuiueiit: 
UnahiTton v. H'lrl, II Cal. 405; Om-ji-H r. 

bold that tlio action ci tlic coart in urrrtuling Cola, 10 Id, SOT: !ilr'f,rr v. Krllry, tTJ Id. 420. 

defnoiknt'ii mnlion fir a n«w trial, before the Hut it it njiiwirH (rum tbii rcuonl that it vol 

iBtatomeDt woa f-n^fwiwil and ngrrrd to or Cer- intouded by th* jiartii-i t" b" on !y a ;>ro /.ii-iilO 

tUIed a«0Dn<«c% wuuld bn^u l«>i;n error in the judgmeiit or order, putvn"! by iionii:!)! for tlio 

•eueo of any atipulutiun butwuvn the partjn: mere purpotc of huteuittg an ag^Miol, oiiil with 

I lliul th« alipulation wm not ooly a dirnvt uo intention to waive an uxouiiti'Hi thrtrlo. It 

Waiver of llieeagrunment before the hearind of would lie* lomt what rigid ruling toiiivo tolho 

tbo aiolion, bnt nndcrtd licrtaiD the malura atipulalion nconLdtiNVoollectnotiiinU-inpliitcd 

wliJcJi the ongroaaed atateoMnt alionlil vunlaia: by Iha jiartin. and the court will uil'>iit tlio 


9%n«jnou r. <.'omotfy. 43 CW], 037. 038. 

Where the notice o( anpual In not iuwrtvil in 
thu trtuuciliit, but ia plaou tlioiwf tburo ia a 
Mipuhtion uiat a nutloo of ajipeal waa filed and 
•sTVeil. and there la alao a atalvmantoii motion 
for a tww triul and an order denying the 

ta-m lllirral procticn of uoualniinit tliu iili|'uln- 
timi aatiin nartiua underatood it at the tliiiei 
J/<cA(iw T. Jfr/r«y. ST Id. 3ML 

By ntipulation of parlio*, acnuao wm referreil 
to A nrfcrM " to laliu tliu vvidcnoe and rrjioi-t 
a jndgnieot." The refuroo tubaeiiiieiitly rn- 

mmo, the court r.insot dctenoine whether portecrajudgmoDt ia (arorbf tho plaintiiT for 

Uio anpcnl was token from tbe jmlsment or the foil amount cd fail olaiin. Tliedvfonduiit 

«»1vr draying a now triolt JliJt r. ll^Ulrr, 49 then &lad hla atatement and movoil for a now 

CaJ. 1411. trial, and a n«w trial wu granted. Upnu mo- 

A ini'tioji wat tubmiltvd on as agreed atnte. tion of plaiuticr. and n j->intt the objection of 

tnent o( fucU, txaitainin;; aulBdcnt ai>cuitica- dufeiiilaiit, ttm cauw was ngtia reterrad to tlie 

Uunii ',1 tlio iiointa rclivd upon lor a iirir trial, urn* mfMra tu lako Ibu tcatimuny and rvpirt 

*1\> iIhi v^'recd alatemcnt waaanneo'd ni-iipuU- ajudsment. TEioiUfrndantappcaledfruni the 

tibu of iuuiucl. *' that a inntion fi^r a ii"W trial Coal judgment rvnilered npun tbe nccond rcjiurt 

may )mi hnu'd thmMiin." 'I'lio motion (or a new of the refer**, and tUo oonrt hel.l that prior to 

trial H-*i acvorditigly heard and determined, the lost order tli4 rufrKio bail tak<Hi Ilic tcati- 

acil (lie k'oort L<M It wui too labi fur tbu losing monyandreiiorlvdn j<><l->neQi, nud thnpuwnra 

fMrty t<i kumoit (in appMl for tlie lint time conferred by the Blii^nlulion mr« llieii ex- 

:<lJMt tin «!'' r "III l>o r«T«raDil for want of a 
blU ol exi ■ 1 iu aunportoC the inMiou: 

£afvrv, '■ nil 219. 

Wbraoa etalonuut on motion far a now trial 
wita pnipand, whioh omitted a ijieciltiakUun ot 
tlin »iiotsupon nhicii the moving p»rty reliud, 
bUil Villi pEUiieiitipulatt'l tliat it uoi correct. 
It w>4 held tlut the mnvtnji {urty inijlit nftor. 
wani, within the titim allowed to file the atate* 
Weut, antnd by adding audi •pwiSoatiuD, and 

hnuatol: Et parte IMnaij. -I.t Cal. 478. 

Where aUomeyB of rcix.fil have |!«oii out of 
tbo en»o and otheni have been aiilMtitutnl iba 
iiliiuilutlun of tlic ti/iaivt dtainiwiug tlio aetion 
i* frnudnlenl. and the or.|cr of dittniaaat mad* 
then<i>u will Iw art aaide: Waii^ v. F'tl. fit 
Qui. .ISO. Onti-[iiia«b- uiun consent, oven nliui; 
a ituiniirtvr. win not lie mvtrm-od on appeal: 

Cimniijrv. Cijin. Id. ssa 

Appeal or writ of Mrror may be dlamiaicd at 


Cur. LI 



Atiy linn uB ■tipnlattcai Soc. 139, tuAoi lapMino 

timri rillu S.'i. 

OJpuIotioa tnuit bo In writing. — A stip- 

nUtK-ii DMt in '-' 
nor niitvml in ' 
lioie il WM ri,.i 
; bortic*, nii'I tw i 
Pall'rfOu V. A'r , 
Tounvfr, 2I> M 

liloil u'illi (borlrrk, 
< •>( tliD cm^rt at tlie 

<l iKixliiig UpiIUI Ills 
fuTrtit l<y Itii' rourt: 

'.at', f'<jmi*ii**io»j*rf V. 

.Wi.o T. X /;. * JtT. 

Il)ii Inkt ciu<i the 

■ ' . 'JDt Hhk'li woa 
' iiil itiimUtion 

■ I ■! ■■• 

wliftlivr I. . i . I I 

to hn VaU ■ I I !.■ Ill I.', r ,, J : . 

ei A VKiUU iiU(iuUliun H'-u at liliirlj' lu id- 

pii.tial" tkc »thi-r |>iirl. Die cuiirt hell llint if lie 

' ' iin by luvcptinji and kcl' 

' niviaioDS wEich WM ttltllo 

J .1 ' •''■vloliy theotlicrpro- 

vi»": : ir tb« benefit (if the 

(.t),' I'.ed tliolwDcfltodlic 

inuxt inM the bunlcii whkh II 

. IliMmdmanv, Sullivan, 40h\. 
I.'i. . I I'v i'"T [iroiH'rly rcfuiw t» 

lilt' I. ::r a iWto) 4ti|>iiktion 

liM 1. ' I iitly Mi'«i yuLFH befon^ 

Au-lltilt r Ilcgl'-ioting (■jTBtvpii jtQTi 

toactiipi> i<.:4i to uk that it tbca bo 

cofuivtJ: /;»« >. J/nAency, 21 M. 30S. 

Rut lh«iig[«in<ato(dDf«n(Unt'a ounwl Tnr 
Um coDtianMKe otnautie not rcdutwl to wiit- 
laa WM iKit rcgiirtlal by tbo court; niiil iijioii 
fttlarv (i( lb* pTnuit!lfl4>aiipB«r,tlic court aau- 
■uitnl Mm, ax)ill)i<! nontiiitwiMAlBnnad on »p- 
paali I'rmlln v, .l/nri™, 3 Oil. 187. 

Ait>|>ulu1inD(i;;iiPtl tiy t)iv iiUinlilTiii person 
Ijoaa (or nolliinj lihilrv Iip tufl nt tliu tini« an 
kltorrwy o( rccurd. Tliv Ivmiwrury absence of 
theattonipy from tbi!ciiunt}-iiocB not olIiKt the 
nio lo thuTdiwvt oro^antctliciliiplaccmoiit 
fif tlm altorney of rvocird: MM v. PoHtr, 4fi 
Cnl. 7*-; u>d Kc K^**. !2^i no'l Bote, lOlo, |>of(. 

Sobd. 2. Ttw Bttoruer may r«celv« 
pBTniattt: tumj-ian v. A.V'r, I.'I Maa*. 3'20; 
D»nU Y. CVutoiBuAaiD, 39 M*. 3M; ^Trufn v. 
Bbthi, S Pat. 18; CenHnMoafn v. Boir, I 
UgMU. -MCk Aail upoa aetoal paymaot of thv 
full aiBOUDtof iW >l«l)t mar vxauut« n duoharva 
of tlio lUbtori J<ift»an v. llurl'ili.8Jaltna.30I: 
K'tlo^ V. OiOrrl, 10 Id. 330: Siiaonlon r. 
itrrrFT.'f. 31 WuDd.Seaj Woffcrr.S^MK, I.^Ark. 
6M: tkrwcrt v. Loomrr. 21 Conn. 2U( tfuUrU 
T. Ltirit. i Stow. 93l 

Au tManviy haa do power to latlif f a Judc- 
niciitvltbout imyRimt; .Ifnti'Jfi-IHtv. ttryoofaA. 
ii>i N. Y. :^JH; iior tn rvtcuo Ihc aaiuc; Kirh'» 
jfpfnl. H7 IV St. US; nor tu «vttl« hi'-urltilig 
olr ail Bucuuiit o^liiHl hlmwlf: Chafmmn v. 
JiM, 77 IIU 337i iKir to rccciro uiytliiiig in 

Eiuont but niunov: lltrrinfaa v. Sioiatm, 34 
U S)(7i anil MO W<<«k« un At tomej-s, ler. 31 II. 
Ib tlk« atiMOice of es|trMa auiliority, au nt- 
Vam*y oaanot eonpniwiwe k claim put in liia 

384. Change of attorney. 

S&c. 284. The ullunii^y in ftn nclion or Njxtr-bl proceeiUtif]; msy be cluingetl at 
way time before or after juil^'iiii^nt or tiniil ili'U-nuiuitttun, as follows: 

1. Upon oonseut of both clibut utid Kttorncjr, filed with the clerk, or entered 
upon (lie minulos; 

2. Upon the order of the court, upon tlic npplloalioa of eiUier dieut oc 
kttoniey, after notice from ouo to the other. 

buid* tor««ll«olloDi Amirotn v. 3teDeiiald,B9 
Oal. 2»i Prrtien t. IIW. M Id. 4S. 

CompMuatloa of attomejrs and coun««l- 
or* i> lull to tliv a^^ivmiunt, a\|>mi or impliod. 
of tko portiM: ik<c ;«>r. -x. Il^il. And cnti- 
UBtily, pa^'noiit by tin- climt tu one inrnittcf ij 
&Gnn laa ^aymi-ul to th« Gim: ii'iHiitat v. 
Jtor*. 83 OiL fO. UiilcBi it U alinulatol to 
ttiD Ktmtrary, the attorae)* la cDliuod to hi* 
retaining Ice in advance: Cortland v. Yai*. 3 
Cal. I0\ lu this atato au atloriicj may ktlpu- 
late fur bii fva oat of tb« nrotwcty ill uoiilro- 
vitrky 111 cue u( uiccmi JfiilfArvaoii v. Filfh, 
•n Id. Nt>; //o/uuB V. I'afA^o. A^, Id. !Mt 
llixWiM V. I.'arr, 4S Id. 74: tlowonl v. J'hrncl- 
tuori6n, III. 482. Sm Um oonfliotiiig cmca U|mni 
lliit ijUMlion BTnnf;ed in a DOto to TkaitUiirr 
y, Uttnci'rhO'f.Mhta.tlvi.SSO, t^uip(«iMtloii 
n'hcrr atb-ni<;j- ii appointed li)- tlio couit torca- 
tMeal pftuporpiiKinen SooHjvn.undoraiilMl.S, 

Id an action to rtcovor the valuo of faia 
Mrviom, it ii iiiconipstoiit to jirovo the raliU) 
of bla Mfvleoaln asoIb«r ftcUoii ^ l/ariv, Kiifof, 
6 Cal. SO. But til* ii«fciidaiit may hli<iw \iani 
of akill or ii«)^tiot unJvr lbs inue of vahci 
Brittgrt r. Pai-jt, 13 Id, Wk Au attmn*/ (4n> 
nut TOciiivu couipmulioii frvm buCli partiot 
IteCVit r.Bniu*%.f,.y31-\. 373; aiiil mo Ailnnt* 
V. irpodf, 8 Id. 30Q. Countel fwi •tipulatod 
art- iuuidont to the nioris»Se: Carri'-rr v, Uln- 
lurir, 3 Id. 435. In dcteriniuiiis theiuluo of 
profnaional aervicci, the opUiion of atlomcyt 
called ai witruuma !■ not limdin^ on the court: 
flMatt of DvrUuiil, (13 Id. ■>»l. 

Sto n'tlU T. A<tMM, I W'Mt Cooat Kep. 400 
(Gd.), for tbo ucniatruullon of a cutiiiiwt by 
wltit'li oni." nltoriiv;r nilAin* anotlicr ti> nwiiit 
liiiii. and prvitiitra to pay that (.tlirr a ffcnxl fm, 

CODtlsgent fOM arc not wiUiiii tliL- ruloa 
BgiiiutcIiMnpertyaa! maintcnanuc: ."ii'i^iun v. 
Emhy. m V. S. MS; SiatiMfl v. LUdnv, GO 
G*. SUO; Xrarkirk x. Coat. IS 111. 440; .v/n»(«H 
V. Iliuti«. 1 WcVr. 6r.»; Ihtiry r. IMnl. 
9 Mlcli. 32j Poiitrr r. Pannlri/, 3!) N. V. 3I1»! 
Jianurp v. Tirn(, 10 U. Mon. HM'l; " .fAi;^ v. 
tluUriA, 4 I^ADo, 17?, and m* Califumln oair*. 
*u;im. A« to wlieii a litigant i« ■n^'vtsfnl ao 
a* to rriidor liinitrif lialil* for oontiiigiMit (ev«, 
aee Vote v. AiVAnontt if. O^,. 1 Watt Cooal 
R™. 378 (Nov.). 

Attonwr hM oo Uen on tho judcmmt fur 
Iii» ■orrioeB: £r /Kirtr A'ytr, I CaL 331 ; Mnm- 
/tlj r. Dortand. 2 IcL 331. 

FrlvOesedcoaunuQlcfttloaniSooaM. 1681. 

Mlac«UAnaoua CaMa.— An attoniey lia* nn 
antlinrity. u lucb, to direct ttie thciiiT lo cou- 
dad a Ijuiueid. biro a rettamniit, upvii whioli 
attacluncnt hoi b(<eii levinl, ami hind hU 
client fur tho eipunaot: ,4frxiii>[f'r v. /jrnn- 
t*aitx, 53 CaU «63i S, C. ^ Id. t;c. 'I'lio 
Matvmonta in paii of Uiu .itlum<'}' iii n->iw4C ti> 
the kabjeot. matter of th« litipiCiuii nrii not 
bindiiii; uiion tlio oUauti ffUtw v. if. f. H, tt, 
C\>., 53 iJ. 735. 



R«cr I, TiTut V, 

ObstiBing Attorney.— The nthoritj- oi an 
ftUomcy, like that of g>n>- nUiirr anient, ii 
nvixaMc. anil tho client liu a tigiti U> vliuig* 
bis attiirooy: S«« Weelcj on AttAFtin-i. tix. 
itM. Rut thU «bMig« ciLiiaot b« nudo >rbi- 
trerilj' uritlioitt ^yini; tu thv MUimey liw jiut 
dpiiianl f'lr ««rvi«i>* n^iltnr-J, and for anvh arr- 
Lrluiia Ui*- attnniTy may rtwirt to lii* li<ti on 
Tknooi?' <in't p!t|>cr> liin alicotuiliutiatulB: Id. 
Tlifl Mnl« rtuugnim no nucb practice oa an 

onler awociating a nrw ftttnraey In tlin matt 
It goeii lo tho tTXI«iit only of |>n>v]<tiii)t fur a 
•alwtitutivii "f one nlUirn<'v tut uiollivri 
Pranii x. .sWfifiiw. TiSfil, '/jl. WlietLor i» 
!* ooiiipvlviit ioT jtn atti>rii?y ii'it nf racurtl to 
take and pn w tcut* an ajipoal wot not diuidud 
in M(DoMld V. JTrCoot'tr, M Cal. HSi Ixit 
Ite eanrt iooltne to lln? I'cficf tlial it wuul-1 Im 
»□, u ao appwl in an ciitiivly new pioweiluii;, 
IToticft 61 BatMtltutlou: See next lecti^M. 

285. Xolice of changr'. 

8xa. 285, 'Whou nu attornoy in cliangoil, m proridod in tlie l«at section, 

writlpn notice of thn cbntigo nud of llio xulMlitutioD of « new iiltoniej, or of 

tJio appearance of tlio {■arty iti p(^rHo:i, iuuhI bo giT«n to the advet-ae partf. 

VutU U)(fn he must re«og;nixc tlic fonai>r attomfiy. 

noUce of snbatltutiou of altornoy niiint Iw The authority of aa attoniejr to appear for 

anvcil upon tfaeadvenc party: Oraat v. imtf, tlio oiipoalta pari* canngt bo QaMtioood by 

tVnL lU: lt'tUr» I. LilUr, Mill. 37Ui (Viirur. oouiiotlwho atlpulatA with him aa Hicli; Mr- 

I>rtagf,SCai.XtO: llUdnihv. //oiwy,3J<.Lna. DoMitJ r. MrConlx-y. M CaL 143. Nor can 

C»a.sOOiDorlont. Levi*,': llov/.^r. 132. Aod tba anthorlty of Uia *ul>*tittitod altomcy 1-3 

upon Midi nolloo r«Miivf4 It ii iiiiiinipM' to re- iii'in[red into W tli« lulvona attornay wJio ao- 

oaguiwuiyotliM'tlianllivvuljBtituti-'I.itlanicy: cKT]>ta lerviuo of nutio* of euUtitnlloa: Wilh- 

Pptitou r. R. A. A*oB» Ou.. 54 Oil. Ui8. Until' rrt v. LillU, SO I.L 370. 

•ucl)autio»haabMngin<D,iiiLpi]riiaia_vl)oicri-Dd Ciimiaal oasM, ■ectiout 2M luvt 2ti^du not 

upon th« attoruey of ncomi <Jraia v. fV/iUe, 6 apply to: KtparU Viarie, 03 Col. VKK 
Id. »( ZAftrmert v. TToM. AS liL 4S0. 

286. i)eiiAorromotuiI^(Ufi.imn/. 

Bbo. 286. Wlieii an atUimcy dio8, oris rcmorod orsuftpondcd, or c«ases to 
at-t OS sueh, a party to an action for whom bo mu acting aa attorney muat, 
before any further proceodinga are had against him, bo miulivHl by the adverse 
party, by written notice, to appoint auothftr nttomay, or to appear in persou. 

287. liemovai and tuxpention. 

Sbo. 2S7. An attomoy and coonsolor may bo ramovod or miBpcnded by Iho 
Bupretne court, or any di-partnuiut thertKif, or by uuy Kupciior court of the i)tat«, 
for cither of the foUowiug causes, arising after bia admisaiou to praotioo: 

1. His conviction of a felony or uiiftdcmeaiior involving moral turpitude, la 
which case the record of conviction nhall be conclusive evidence; 

2. Willful disobedience or riolation of an order of the court r^uiring him to 
do or forbear an act connected with or in the course of hie profcMnion, which 
he onght in good faith to do or forbear, and any rioIaUoD of the oath tJtl:en by 
htm, or of Ilia duties as such attorney and counselor; 

S. Comiptly or willfully and without authority appearing as attorney for a 
party to an action or proceeding; 

4. landing hiH name to bo used as attorney an<] counselor by another person 
who is not an attorney and counselor. 

In alt caaea where an attonioy is removed or 8uM])C&dcd by a Huperior court, 
the judginent or order of removal or HtupoiiKioa may be reviewed on appeal by 
the supi-eme court. 

Dtalunlag or •otpmeinc attorneys.— 
AlUmirvB art liable to frirftit their lloeniu t» 
prautiuv fix any one of the ahore caiuea. Tho 
maaaer ol ducJarinff the forfulturc, oiiil the 
procKiliii){ upon vrbl^h uich actlnn M baiad, 
are pratcrilieil in the ancoccdiag •aotioua of 
thii chapter. Thno auotlana ragulate the os> 
CKiie of tlic iii>iFeirIoalrikaaunltfiruoy'a aaiae 
from llie mil. Init ■!« not «r*«t« aiiah pi^utr; 
it la iuhvrviit In tint court: X'eck* on Attor- 
iioj«, »cc. 80; Piopl* V. yW'K-, 1 Cal. 1*3. la 

the ezOTcIio of thi> power, the oourt ouoht to 
givocoiuiwjiaiiopportiinitr to explain: FhleluT 
V. Daingrrfirld, 20 Id. Vn. It " i"iprui>fr to 
(leolare an attvrney j(Uilly of conivniiit nnil 
■trika Ilia aaine from the riilU willi-niE n(!>ril. 
iag an opportunity f<ir iixplanationi M. Aud 
the oourt certainly caanoC dcolaro aa attorufy 
iafamooi: Id. 

That the nttowty haa a right to make a da- 
(enie, ntc nootioD 203. 

Attorucyi liavo been dialMrreiJ la Califoiaia 


Cur. LI 



for MlvitiiiK K elbDt to vwlfy • romtiloint 
hIiiii)i the •ttornvy knew to l« lalM. and 
wLich lia WJ bin vl^l to *iii>piue liAil bmiii 
con«l«(l titfor* vrtilicall»ii: i'r<ni' v. I'rar- 
mm, &S On]. 472. Tliu ('viitsii<.u hulj iuiufli- 
riont in /■> r« ^ouvn'Ati/. 2 Wtat Cewtt B«p. 
733. Ca juitify tbc removkt vr (Mptiuion froon 
til* Imr. 

Wliclhcr ui attornc)' can bo t«inov«il or au*- 

rliiloil for cttuK* other tlwu llioao mcalloDoil 
tliU Mx'tKili van iwl iltcidcil, although iiiiwil, 
iulHTt TrttuUtrll, 4 Wot CnaM Rt^. lilM. 

8ea Ilia varioty of loitanuM la iVmIu du 

Attorncya. (act. 80 ct »cq. 

yor an intereatinu mkI valuftbk dccuion 

Itea tlM pnwfT of uiu Miirl to iliabar atcoc- 

«v*, ne Ij' paUr Wall, 107 L'. 8. 305. 

H«ttisUtaiUNiL— Uiier« an atCorncj i* im- 

nrcjMvl; 'li><Wrrc>l. MoiKfimnu ha* biwn iniwd 
to iiMtoiv htm: I'toii/ T. Tvri^rr. I lil. IBO. 
Somo dcciMuim Iiavu hulJ tbis to t* tho nppin- 
priatc rrmciiy. irhiliiollicrii duclaro chat 
or erfff^frfirl nliould hu fcvortcd to^ Soc t^t? 
cnne fro miJ OM. XVcel» on Attemev*, anu. 
14-2. Ii;i>. ItSI. 
Thf follow log rather ■jgoificanl rcoaoa it 

S'lvcn bf tlic oiiTe cutiiiitirn lor rcuommcuillisx 
i« a'Mitlijii <j( the ti>urth iiuhJivUiDn to Uio 
orlL[liii>l aection; " Thi> luurlh •uliIIviHiou ma 
aidaii,! tti tho urif{iiial r(<c1|iiii i1[iiiii tFiO niff- 
((rjlijii of thi" jiiil^ia of Still Kruiitiin"', wlm 
kIoEc (liAt L'K-at 'hiioiti hurK luicn |iiM'tut<il tiy 
altiircHiyit U'liilin;; their iiuiiii* t*! Iw iimiI l>y 
inrtira uliQ w«r« ue\'i-railiiiiltiil to priKti"" ' 
Tbo tapmat ocnuts )iavu j««ir Xo tvinuve 
ot »u«p«ndi Cote nf LfnetniMal, 81 tiJ. ItL 

288. Coneietion iff/t-lony. 

Hi-o. 288. In ctuu! of llui oonvietiou of an uttomej or oounRoIor of n felony 
or miiuloiiKianur, invcrlving inontl turpitwle, the vlerk of llio court in whicli sucb 
vonviuttou w hml xbiOl, wilhiti tbirty iIkvfi lliereafter, tmtwuiit tu Uio supreme 
court ft «ertifio<I copy of the record of <^onvictiou. 

280. Prntyxtiinift /or removal or au«penaion . 

SnT. 28V. Tlw proceetlingB to remove or niispend an attorney nail eoiinselur, 
undi-r lUo first Bubdiviaion of bocUoq two liuudred and eit,'bty-seven, must be 
lAkvn l*y tbo ootirl on tbe rec^pt of a c«rtili&d copy of the record of oonvictioii. 
Tilt' proi^edin^'a under the second, third, or fotirth Hiibdivision of section tno 
Itundn.>d and eighty-seven may be taken by tlie court for the oistten within im 
knowledge, or may be taken upon tbo infonnutioD of another. 

290, Atxtiaation. 

Sju^ 2!)0. If tbe prooeedJngs are upon the information of aaotUcr, the accu- 
Mtliuu Bimt be in writing. 

281. Vtm/icalion. 

Svo. 291. Tbe aceuMtion must state tbe matters charg^ed, and be verified by 
tlte o«tli of Kuiiie pervuii to the effect that the charges therein contaiiied are true. 

VerifloatloiL— The accuMtioa ouf^lit t« be veriCtd by ttka bifoimuit«i or by ono of tbum: In 

2S2- CUtUion. 

Heic. 292. Upon receiving tho acciiaatton, tbe oonrt nhiill make nn ortler rr^ 
tpiimig tbe accused to appear niid nnitwi^r it at n apevified time, aud tihall cuuho 
a oopy of the order and of tlie iiucuHiitiuii ti> be served upon Ibe aoouaed at 
least five days before tlie day a])poiut«d in the order, 

WMk* oa Altomvy*, aoo, 83. 

293. Apptaranee, 

Skc. 393. The accused must apprar at the time appointed in tho order, and 
answer Ute aecuaution, unless, for sufficient cauw, tlie court aHHigu anotiirr day 
for that porpoae. If he do not apjicar, the court may proceed and dotenniufi 
(he aocusatioD in hts absence. * 

284, OlQtvUimM to aocti*a(joii. 

8kc. 294. Tbo oociuiod m«y answer to the aoousatiou either by objoctiog to 
itD HuJBoienoy or dcoyiug it 

GOMi Civ. Pxoc.— 4 81 



285. IMmurrvr. 

8xc. SOS. If h« objeot to tlifl sufficieDo; of the oocusation, the ohjoctioo 
must ho ID writing, but need not be in any specific form, it being Huffiuiout if it 
prmcnts intelligiblj- the grounds of the objection, If he deny tho aucuHutiOli. 
Ui« doitial majr be oral and without oath, and must be «at«n)d upon tho 

Sko, idQ. If «n objecSoB to the Bufficiency of the acoisation bo not kus- 
lAinedr the accused must answer within tiuch time oa may be dosiguaioJ by th* 

297. TYiat. 

8ko. 297. If the acnoaed plead ifuilty, or refuse to answer the acco^atioii, 
tllu court Btiftll proceed to judgment of remoTol or suspension. If ho drnj' Uiu 
uutt^iTK cluirged, the court Ehull, at such time aa it ma}- appoint, pioccvd to try 
tho uccusiiliou. 

288. JbfirtTice to lahe drpomiiant. 

Sbc. '2S8. The court may, in ita diacretian, order a reference to b oommittoo 
to lake depositions in the matter. 

298, Judgment. 

Sbc. 209. Upon conviction, in oaaes arising under the fimt nuhdirixion of 
•DOtion two liundred and eighty-seYen, the Judgment of the court must bo tliut 
the name of tho party Hliall be stricken from the roll of attorneys and counMil* 
on of the court, and that ho be precluded from practicing as such attorney or 
counwelor in nil the coiirl« of this iitate; and upon conviction iu caooa under 
til" otbcir Hubdiviniunii ut that Moution tlic judgment of the court may be accord- 
ing to the gravity of the oSVinM charged; deprivation of tlio right to prautice 
OS attorney or counstilur iu the oourtH of tliU state permanenUy, or for a limited 


804, Jieveiven:, mtvulon, adminiatratora, and tfuariliaTia. 

Skc. 304. The appointment, powers, and duties of receivers, execulont, ad- 
Tninistmtots. and guardians, ore provided for and prescribed in Parts II. and 
III. of this code. 

Tlic>fiitV|juiii||:i>pct1uiioti'li< t'nrt I,, which wu 
cnttmly auk'HiUnI; tiul the fucv^uinff Part I., 
ailoptol M 0. «tiWtit>ite lh«rc(ur, by net up- 
" 21 

[ircivod April I, 1980— AmimilniciiU }S»0, 

(Ban, o(L esy, took «(r«il inimodUtvljr — ropoilod 

all ucU nnil parts o( net* iu oonHict thorciritb. 

It«0«IVM«: 8m>i«M, ■oM.aOtctsci). 'Cba 

efluct of thU •CTition » to litoit the power to 
appuint a recdter to the court or jiuJgv: Qui-j- 
gir. V. TnmU>. MC»1. Hill, 

Bxecutoraond admluiotiatoirf. See port, 
■ecu. l34'J»t*t>ii. 

Qua Minns 1 Soo j-om, mxs. 17*7 ot wq. 


tAXTU. TmjiL) 

Sb form or CIVIL actioxs. 


PART n. 




807. One /orm of cirii action only. 

Sw. 307. Then.' i* in tiii» sbit« bat one form of dvil actions for tJie enforce- 
uftut or protcctioa of prirato rigLte and the redreaa-or prevention of private 

Ponn of olvU actloo.— Sea alxi patl. fn 
BOtfl to McUon 4'iS, tor > conildnntion of ttio 
•ffMt o( llilt p««vUjon of til* codo. " l*roliata 
pranwiliutMatiotdviluctioiu: Ktlalto/SroU, 
13 C>L nO( aail tliajr uv, tlmrefurB, plaoad 
vaiitr Um Jiviaioo (CullIJ.] of thi* code »■ 
iMind hmpMialiiixiMeiliiip:'* Comiiunioiion^ 

la this MMe tbcrv is bat duo form of oivll 
mUou: Sm fee 4-JO, untc. Tbc old rulci of 
eomsioa-biw knd chancery jiloaiJIiiK >r* nnr- 
Mdwl: <.'wW.>rv. ."iMoH. I'J Cul. IIT; ATimittU 
V, I^Anutt, 31 M. 150. And Uiw (arm* of 
I^Mduiji am moloatvely thoM proriilixl by titia 
eoiiel llmUeX v. Porttr, 10 III. US; yoiMf v. 
IVm<. i; Id. 497. 

Tbo pravuicm tkat thacv ihidl lie but one 
fotni oi Mtion wu not intondod ta aboliih tlw 
dlatinclkm tKtmcD taw and equityi De Witt r. 
Hay. 'i CaL 403: Bowlett v. BcmrUal. 23 
Wli. £4.'): trimiiu r. McDonald, 18 CaL 126; 
ITiM V. £r*oii^ 4U IJ. -rv. -Rnch k oon- 
MniMlou would Uod to likflnlt« panila>ltlM 
and MiillMa illfltc>n1ti«a. Tli* innovslloa ox- 
tends oulr to Um (onu of avUoii ajid lli* plrad- 
JBgi, whiw M>a t(nrliiiiatlliti«s of pluailini; havu 
bMO diapcnaed wtlhi and tli^ pUimiff dmU 
only Btaie liw mum oJ nvtion in oi>liu«ry Mid 
coauiiie language, wbothvr it he in lunm^fuM, 
tres|ia»i. or cjoctment, witlurat re^'^rd to tlio 
■jidsnl forma; atill Iho diatliictioii botrcaii 
tlioavuutioiiahaaiiotbfcn Al>oli*)iiid, Lutreiiialna 
tliv tuna. SooMa* Iok'! ai»t viiiiiublo bavc 
uot Umi «o*«olldat«d, aii-l UimiKii tli«i<« ia uo 
dilFcruio* Mirvva ttio form of a bill in ohoii- 
oery and a camman.liiw <tevlanliciii under our 
■jati-m, wbera aJl relief ia loiiglit in the aame 
way from ths ume tritmnal, tbe iliitinctioii 
butwiwii law and ojojly la M bn«il u cvct^" 
l>t iVM t. Haft*, impra. "The conrac of pro- 
•.-vtilinjf in bolli cUato* of cauKt ii now Uut 

908. Pafiin <o adiona, how dfaignaleii, 
^K Skc. 30H. In aucli action, tlie< party vom plaining is knovn u tlio plaintiff, 

^V ami tlie adverse party as the defendant. 

Ii 308. Speaial ieeun mat made htf pkadin^, hwc Med. 

^h Sec. .tod. A t)ue3tion of fort uot put in issue by tbe pleadings may !»> triod t^ 

^^^ a jury, upon an order for the trial, sUitiuf:; dislincUy and plainly tlio qiicHtion 

L uf fact to be Iried; and sucL order is tbe only autbority neceissary for a trial. 

aune. Whether the octiuo dojwnd opoa lasal 
prinoipUa or upon «quita)ilu, it ia atill a oivil 
autioD, to bo comniwiccd and prriwouttii tiith- 
out Mfercoce to thli diitinction:" CoU v. Hnj)- 
neUt, IB N. V. 74. TO. And to the- nunc 
olbclaro: Beicrnv. A«ifa. 22 Col. .MIOi Km 
York 1m. Co. v, .Vo(. Pro. In: Co., 14 N. Y. 
8fi; irni;;U v. IVrigl^. M Id. 4:n: H'Wiaw* v. 
Skir, 70 Id. 601; .Mtiy» v. Ur Mayor, S* H. 
SM; Ckinn v. fttnlU>. 33 Oliio St. 2Wi Orm 
V. Knut, 1 Dakuta, 387; TVooK v. Daoi; 31 
lud. 34. 

lUvulting fnitn tliis chuga In tlia form* of 
BOtion ia tliia rtry iinporlunt principle: "A 
pnrty cannot b« acnt out uf court merely tw- 
cniuo bia facta do not entitle Lini to relief at 
law, or merely becauM be ia not entitled lo re- 
lief In equity, •■ the oum may bo. Me can ba 
•ant out of court only when npou hU fncta he 
It antitUil to no relict cither at law at in 
•qnlty:" Orain v. AlJrUh, 3li CaL 014, S2a 
"A oomplalat whlcli atntta a aulSdcnt caufo 
of action either at law or in njuItT <« not d*. 
tnurroble aa ni>t alating forts tnffiuitfiit lo oat- 
atitulo a oauwe uf aotioii:*' Wkkr v. jtyoiu, 43 
Id, 270. 1»3; Carpeitlirr v. Jlrmham, 50 M. 
Ml; MfPUrton v. H'o'on, G4 Id. 27^ So 
alio arc: Burtow v. .Scail. 34 X. Y, 40; Craru 
r. OoodmoM, 12 Id, aofli TVoo* v. Jttei; 31 
Iiid, :M; /-">Bonf V. llot/aK, SO Wii. MDi 
/JriHvl », THom/inon, 3 (il. SIS; .^KilHy^ v. 
Rami^'irr, t Id, 100; Ilfrri^a v. lltly, i^ Iowa, 
157; Whiii'.-j V. R«nt, .Vi |.i. 2«. 

t'ur a tvry 'lalunbU i-ouaideratlnn of thia 
abolition of tli* dialiiictiun WtHern le^nl and 
equitable fonni uf action, ttm I'limcrny'x Rr-ma- 
diua, tr«%, OA «t trU; where n'll otily tlir ;;<in- 
eral principUa invulvwl are rtTiowiil, l,ut tKu 
docialoni bcoriug thereupon arc vuUalcil luid 




(Fakt n. TfTLi n. 



Coipixs I. Toe Tiub op CoXMssiciixa Atrnoxs a Oeksru. 312 

n. Thx Tuik voa CoKUEXoaia AcnoKs roK tbx Kxcovebt op 

Real Pbopektv ■ 816 

III. Tb£ Tdie of Couue<icD!a AonoKS Oihbb ikui n» nm Rk- 

OOVCBV DP U&AL I'noPfiltTT 335 

rV'. GcxeiuL Pbovisioks u to tuk Tiuk op Comzxcocu Acnox«. . 950 


812. Commencemail tif civil actiont. 

Sec. 312. Civil actiunft con oulj Iw ooitim«iiced witliin tbe peiioda prescribed 
in tbis title, after tkfi cauM of action kIiilII bare accrued, except where, id epecial 
easeB, a ditTeroat limituLion is prcAcn))e(l bv titAtut«. 

BOOct ol ■Utnt9.~Thc ttotiiteof limits- pUialiff'i titlo wh«n theywcre gi^-m, for at 


tionii uf lliia aUCO tliffon <iuciitiaU)' from Iho 
ttatoti! of .lanm I., aiul [loiii tliu nUilutoi nf 
liliiitattou til friro: Id many of tlic other aUta*. 
TlioM atatiito apply In tlidr trrnia only to 
partlcilnr U(tal rtmctlm, unil liviicu cciurU of 
•^ulty n(« mill to act uii.lcr iiit<:h l*vr« in«i«ly 
bv ouology, ant] nut in uUiilivnov bi tbvni. 
Btn tho »tatul« kiijiliu* cquallj' to notiona at 
la«r Mill ia oqultf. It it iTinctvil V> Ibe sub- 
i(Ut- ID alter, Aiiil HOC tli<> fumi uf tbe octdun -vr 
tlie (uruin iii whiub tbu outiun U proaMUtctl: 
LerJ V. jiforrw, 16 L'al. 4SG: Bag-l v. Blanh- 
mo". IS W. U. Wlidc tbo itatiit* ilocB not 
ailjilj', it KcaK that courta nill cot enu-rtun 
KEiio (IiTiucuiiti in cioily niit*: IMiniiyiirs v. 
jM/imli-jvt;:, T I<l. 4'2T. It in wvll wtttlml with 
rc[picii<:o tottcUoas(oriDon«ya'lii»(iiiuontrttvt« 
tLalllinft>tut«iU>MltotiliiL'harBV the debt, or 
In uiy vvy oxtiiiguith Mid rigbt or ilettmy tliu 
r aUi^^tion, but Ulily takes Anay tho rcmvily: 
' itt'onnki- V. Broim, 30 1.t. 180; anil bcv GfanC 
V. yjvrr, ;A Id. S!>3. TUc •lube rrninini uncot- 
Uli«<I uurl unuxtiu^ui«1i«L It U a imttlcicntcoii- 
^li'Rition toMipportancw pnnniBc: Sec. SOO. 
jiorf; .?icArI V, Carritta. 42 frl. 408; Totenint'l 
v.Jrmixm, Allow. 4I3i fiaJyrr •.-. Roeht, II 
Pick. 37; Liixafa v. B^ttrtU. 6 Wenil, 4«5: 
AuEcl! on l.iniiUtloiw, 2GA, hcc. SIS. 

Tbo aUtnte miut b« atrictlT oonctraed; 
ftii4 u furai Ibiiicdlna byiUoll U vonixiniml, 
Ititoo ii no oxGcntion u tu Iho titno of bringiug 
lfa<i kutloa 111 tiii> m«» of no innun in Iwioj; 
binlly MinipvU'nt to cofaroo luit: Tman v. 
irn«,-r. .tlOI.O.fl. 
AacraiDg of tho caum o[ action.— See 

tlut tiiiio bo bod nu titlcv and tbikt it wm do 
Biiawcr to wy tbat tlio plaintiff, tvldk yet a 
judjtinont croililor, might bavs luoj in tliat 
capacity fcr tbe piirpaw of rcaubiiitc Iho lauil 
aa Miuilablo fUMta. 8u<;b acliua wotiU! bnvo 
dlffaiwl from the on* undor contliUmtl.rii Uiih 
in irrciMBMii ouil niliet: Iloarr v. Bhintlkr, '^ 
U. CO. 

Tbu claiue " alter tha gauM of autlon aboil 
bavoaocruBtl" doM uot imply in addilioit t)i« 
exi«t«i)w «[ a penua lenlly oompeUnt to i-u- 
force it hj mat. If it Sii, tber« would be no 
vocoMon for tlic apccinl proi-iaioni tviicvia^ 
pcnona uot compotciil from tba iipcratiun i.f 
tho iMtulc. llicra I* no doubt u to tbe 
meaning uf tha alatiite. It rilna in all oanea 
not exprtnly oiutipccil from iu u|iomtioii: Tg. 
MM r. WtUltr, S5 <^:aL (tlX 

Tbe ttaint? uf liniitaliiiiui. upon an imiilioil 
warranty u( titl« to vhattnia ircilil bv riiie in 
ptUBOHidii, ilovi not coininence mnninfc until 
tlie tcudcc ii (iJBturbcl in hia pomcmiou by 
the tmo owuer; Qrtii r, KierM, 41 CaL 

A oovonaat of wiain. or tbat tho emntorbu 
lawful riabt to oonvey, or tbat tbu Unil la free 
Iruin liicurolinuion, la a jwiiuiiaI covenant, 
eiiil whitii bniknn bi broken naaoon oi ma-le. \ 
COTDunut tliat tho tm-( canm-oili or (hat tb« 

SniDt undur wfiirli It i» bcltl, ludu.IcA a hjirci. 
«d (luontit}', alMxl* oti tbe Mine (•MLiui;, and 
ia brolMS ob auun oa uiodei 8«taim v. Vallijo, 
41 CeL 4M. 

Wbcro a Tondor coTMiantwl in bia <tei.d of 

— _ . . -- — oouvwonvo to )iro«uni a rcvunvi-yince to bim- 

lbs i-aTU>u« proviaiuna of tlu* title and not«a wK d anub portiona of Ibo buid ilescTilMirl in 


\Vb«r« a rawan) woa oficnid by pnbllcation 
la a newvnpcr for Kircat ami coanallun of a 
ariminal, it vm beld tbat tbe ilatnta b«^;sn (o 
run on coiivictiun: Rf/ir \. (HofhietH, 14 Cal. 
lU. Wbcro urrUin Iraniluleiit duuJa wars 
glvDn ntoro tbeii lbi«e yoara pidir in tbe uoin- 
liKiKamKit o\ on action by a purcbanrat a 

p1,_.,iV. ...1. 

ttiiiitin^d at bo iiiiubt have cuavr}'c<l ti> otbriv. 
or to ticinvfy other InttJ* of e<|vial valae. etc., 
it iraa ]>i<ti.l (liiil Ibv vvoilnr iiiiiat prucare aach 
toiivrj'aiK-u v'itbin u njuiiniiblii tinic, ami tlint 
ci^btjTiin wa^ not a nioaoualilv t!ii>o fi>r tliaC 
purpDw; that luuh ooTcnnnt Wlia hrtikeii i>|Kin 
a (ailur« to urocara aiicb «onT*ynii<^i* ulthin a 
rMMnahle tinu, or to ooui-py to Ui« viin>li>« 

■* ■•o. b<nrevDr, tinnifiht liia action other bwda of enniJ value, and tho kUtiit« of 
It to aat ttMn oaiite (>oe. 333], limitationa coiumciuiBtl lunniuj; fn>m mcU 
^buy fottlMdcd uo ujury to tli« linwub: raitocr. /Vmo, 4ICb1. C8D. 


Cmap. I.J 



In Ml Mib'on hf HiU, to noover on* hall 0/ 
hi* Ml<nuttm nwcfc aailcr. n coolnct brlwMti 
hUa Mill IliukiD. vhorcbj ilicy ngnci to t>iiy 
ukI kII on joint mccemal nrUln iiiiaiof; ulaek. 
Hill ki »ti-Aiico &U lli« Bionvy Ml'] HMkin tu 
rmr ttn* Ifit witli uiteral, nml UiU to holi) 
aO thaitoek imrcluMd Muonrity Tor hu ad- 
vwiGM, bvt without qMcifyinc any timawillua 
which tlm ptymoct waa to Tic mailt, it waa 
hrU tliat aa off» to aecouot uwl a ikonawl 
for re^iavtBCDt by UiU were Moditioiia prsoo- 
(I««t to bia rij^t to nuuctaio tha kctiou, ami 
that tba Halnlc «( timitatioa* wimU not com- 
menec ranuM agauiM him unul anvli offer and 
denund: tiUCr. ITattin, ¥2 CaL ISO. 

TCliDm ibo plalntilTsava liit not«fonrBiOQtha 
ftfter data, In uonaldrration of vlilcli the Ja- 
fondaot* cMcutol a oaniract for a ittail nl lasil 
BMa payiiMul o4 thu notei, it wh bgld lliat 
Utar a t«ii<I*T of Ifaa iltwl, aod ilrmaml and m- 
ftml to pay llw ar-ir nEtvr ila maturity, tbu 
)ilAintiiriuH[ futfvited hin rigbt to inoiit on ft 
MrfonKonoe of tbc iwiutnict. It •etttnt Itinf tbo 
ia|«e of ovDT (oar yean (rum tlio nuvtnrity of 
iJia Kite, bifore acdom ccanmeneod for a >po> 
dfle [crfag-aianoe, banrtd tlie oclMn by liniW 
tion, aed went far to nuke ont an aLandotimcfit 
I of lli« Hrvbau by Die ptaiDtllT: Pmri* v. Co- 
'nBtawf, 6 CiL 017. ho prvTlaua ilvnutstt I« 
nvowmy to auiuK on a promiHWry now, |»ya- 
bhi on Juniiuidr Zf^ v. />«Xr,i, V2 Id, 4i(3i 
StMy on PniminarT Xoln. ko. !9. Tlio 
Mtkiii itwU U a aalBcuot licinaatl, aad b«- 
fen djgra of gtam were aboIidioJ, it waa b«ld 
that IM day on whkb tfa« note bocano d<M 
waa to bo cxdiidLd (ram tlio «9>nipii(ation. 
Tlvi) wu h^t'l to be well Mttled, both in Row- 
land anil Atiivfifa: Story on Promiunry Nbtm. 
•eo.2l7iCli. [tilU,403*tM>).i RayloyonBilla, 

'niL.fv'..m. wh4q| Iba la*t day of grMir »a» 
% ;, ISM. tliu maker bad thewhutti 

I 'v in wbiob to niiko jiaymunt: DnrU 

V. i^Hi^V, 18 Cai. 378: aad the action being 
oonuMcaotd m KoTtmhcT 7, 1S09, tbo (our 
ran after Uie cnuao of tbe action accrued 
did not cxjiiro until tbo Ia«t hour of thnt ilay. 
Tlia actluu wa« tknrcforo In time: Itrlt r. 
HarttO, :iS M. tOD, 410; Corutfl r. .Vo«Uon, 
3 Uinio. l-ii ftmnnKt'jni v, raUaiU, 'iH CaL 
003. A nut*! »iiv«nuu Clii> twmity-nliith day of 
Fabfuaiy, ItK'i, du« tirilvu ininiUia att«r dat<v 
(dldneunthv twpntv-iDveolli<laynf Pvbniary, 
1900, ai)<l il wni toolntr to ouininuim- an notico 
on it DO tbo llrat day of March. 1873, though 
the laal ilay o( Febnuuy, 1800, wa* Sunday: 
JtiUrvIa Bant v. ffOfodf. <7 I.l. 570. It 
ftjiMar* that a cauac of i^ioa don not nconie, 
wlutn tbe oacaniog of tbn ■ tatato of Ilmitatica*, 
wbolMnr an aetimi may be bran^t In oqtiity. 
At kw, a ittSM of nctlun loiruoi wbonaivr 
thera it an injiirj for wbicb tbo law liaa jiro- 
I Tblod a rauietly. Thii la Irv* aW> •>( a larxo 
I glaaa of oiaiw oriong in equity, |>riucipally i-oa- 
' Alntj uf tSMO CMM whora tbtro i> a cuncctr- 
_ . at joriadklioM In law and eijuity. Bat ia 
' tnanycawa In oqnity thia ia not tra^ oa, fur 
butoncc, brtVMo tcnanti in common^ ^ey 
May at any linia bciau an action for partition, 
"^ '. the (act that lira yean bare clnptod witli- 
Ihtlr luviiig d.we *o ironld lie no liar to 
lir riglit of Oiction. Tlie uunn U ti-ae In ro' 
M tua right of Action U'l^nivi title t'>real 
>«Ut4i u in Arnniff'm *. L^-^om. Zi Id. SAj, 
wbtn Um actwn noa tuttala«d bosouae tbo 

•latut* had run acalMl defendants title, and 
uf ooana n^u«t tbe plaiiittff'a rif^t to uial«> 
oln tli« aislioD if Ibo atatuU were applicalilA 
to it t'poti tlie ciMutioo of a ooutract to 
oonrey, tlw fecilcc tiKcoim*, in oqvily, the 
owner of the laod. llii citate, howcitr, is 
■abiect to be dcfnttoi, iF be fnili to cou^ily 
witn \m agtcvmect. After be haa fnlly [Wf- 
fom>nl it, lia il. in Kjulty, rcuiu\to<l a* tliu 
abnolnte oBncT <•( an unUfoaalbl* («lata, and 
tbe Tender 1> a naked tru*t«o, having no inter- 
eel, bnt ehargol irlth ItM rirapto duty ta 0011- 
vcy to tbo TTnd<« upon donmnil, Tliia vatat* 
cannot be lual by tbo bar of the atalnto vhila 
Ibnovueri* In tli» actiatl poanarioci anil enjoy. 
Bail of lii* tnUto iwoording to bis right. In 
the CMO of Knite c lUtoiiijovi, 7 JuIuib. Ck 01, 
Cbaanillor Kent iliscunca with ,:Iinmi.i3 and 

fitnpiuuily, rouiarlublu cvrii for thnt grout 
ii.Hvl, tb« npplioatiou of tliv Biatiita of limits- 
lior» to tnul (state), and deiDonittmtci liotli 
from Tvason nod antborily that tbe traits is- 
lou'liil by ooarte of equity not to be rfat-lied 
bj- the itatuto of liinittlioDi are thoae tt>:!inkAl 
Kid CDitlinaiDg Iniiibi which are not at all cog- 
nicaUo by law, but tall within Ilia ptopor, 
peculiar, anil uxclnuve jnriadletiou of a court of 
ciiRity, AVbc^rc a i<arly haa a Ic^l rtjtlit of 
avtion.buliftiit«a>lof ]irouM<linK at Uwivtorta 
to o^nity, InmaaJ of brioging hi* nation of on- 
ooiint or il^nuo or caae for money hail nail 
rc«oiv«d, filra bia bill for an aocoonl, the wme 
period of time tbat would bar him at lav will 
torbim in mjnity. Tlw court jci".'*-!.!'- ^.-Id 
that a i-endc* in pocBceBlosi nu % . i>. 

force a apceiSo portornumo* untii : ' 'ry 

eriod bad clapacd after lib pcsaeuiiMi t:iiuxd 
1>;witli tlie aoquiewrace of tlicreniton /.of» 

». ii'ii/Ziu. 40 ca. .-Avr-TS! ih!Haiii>'} V. jr«. 

mrn^Siiit. 4 Tex. I.W; .Wi'r-A-/^T.,S4/npon(, 13 
Id. -fW; HJ.aa» v. t'rirff'.l, IT. M. 3!W: Vair'r- 
mnn v. £«ur*M, 17 M. 10: .Veuion v. llari; 'id 
Id. 401, Atlinnoil: f.VnJf. v, M/xxty. 41 Id. 
3',). Un a mtm ul nccoiint. the rniiao aouruta 
from time uf tlK- Lwt il«D>: Sei', Ml. 

BoapODnlon of rtgbt of natton.— If n parlT 
cntcrg iiilu a ralid aj^nM-meat in writing inta 
the (Icfrnilant not tu >ue ujwii a [uittmbu' tle- 
mand wliicb be IioIJb until lli« lutpfietiini; uf « 
porticiikr event, tbe «tatul« iamiipcndul until 
the cTent occurs. To make aaon agroeiocnt 
valiil, it ianot neccaniy thftt Um debtor ■boaU 
algn It: .SnfcA T.JIrfuereNiv.aHCsLSI. 

WbiTD then WM a prarlaioTi in n note la tlie 
•ffoct tliat In cau of a lUfaalt in tbf jAiymtut 
o( intercut tlio whole amount of iirincl'sl ani 
in[«mt Rhoiild " bcowme duo anif pnyublo itu- 
mndialoly opou *uoh dvlanlt," It waa lirtd to 
bo in tbe nature of a pmally, Inevrted for the 
Kria adrantO'^ of th« creilitorj it waa cctni- 
pelmt fi>r hitii tu waive tbe benefila nhiili it 
■ccured (o bim liy accojiting naymcnt cf tha 
Itttcmt after tiefnult niadB. If tiie oTEument 
to tbe ooiitraTy wore lound, the creditor ito^lJ 
be ohiigoil to inMitnte an aotion wttbiii four 

Cin tram tbo time of the drfault, ou |aio ,4 
log hi* entire debt by tbe bar of tbe ilntntc 
uf limitationik. Tlil* ia alto^licr too narrow 
and tecliaicjd a cuoalmolbni of tlie atatnta. 
riii.>n! it no ititTi-renM whatavor between Uio 
Diiaciflea inn-livd and tboeo gmwlng out of 
IcMca oontaiuinx a clan** tbat the toRn ahall 
oenae nod be absolatcly dotorwlnvd bya tU- 
fault in the payment of rent, la micb (ia*M it 
U wcU icttlcd tbui if tlio laadlocd, tSu* tb« 



g 315-517 

>P ClVtL Acnoss. 

Pakt n, TmjB zt. 

<1«hult, Moqitt tlio rent, b« Utcrcliy wilw* 
the [Do-f-titan', •ti>t c&cinnt itftcrwAnb IiihIkI 
uiH'ii iti ami nauch Ini* will thr Ututnl Iw ■!■ 
lontij to *>)* tb«t hu ia tliwKituitil (rum bit 
c-.'Ti'iiitDt by hi* own dcfiuU: Uni'/t r. Airii. 
aHCsLSIO, aSIl Jfee dria. Itrgaiiv. itaueJu, i 
IW\i. 4 Aid. MB; .W.iyiv«i-./ v. Ifati*. 9 fuga, 
*:r,: CiitfuM v.Wcitroti. 5 Cow. -Z^O, Alii uousi 
n'flliai<ur. TalM, Ifi Tcl. I. 

If a Biunfaiiui, allcf obluning jndgmcait of 
(utwJutorc, ngrm not to mII, tho *UtaM iIom 
Jlol nin a^iiat tlio ridibi of mortsaffod or 

'LtftottOffor •« loiiK M loUi ftcquk*c«: /Vint t. 

'if lloy. 49 Oi. SIS. 

WuaMM and depoaltutoa: Soo i^o. MS. 
Whpn) luoiivjr i< ikfxMiUid u'itli n iNirani to 
tw Iconul uut (toin timu to time, Uiu iiiterat 
olii)>?Ud oad tli« ]irinci|i«] tad intorett hold 
Bil kept by him for tlis jiLuatifl until th« 

Inlotatia tfalla for it. thf- iletiaiituy ji not in 

^'Hi^fanlt. u a gcnnral mk. untJI Jcnuuid, (tod 
Uin aUtntc ouly Iicetiii to run uftor hnovh: 
DaUry. JoifjiA, ICCiiL IT'l. 177; Schrwdfr r. 
Jnhnjt, 37 I<). '.17!^ A* holwccn a tnuUw anil 

Lei-ir*! '/nr trvnl. In thceajw (if ui olpniH tru«t, 
Utu BtutiiU' cl liinitatiun* itao* not Lt>^n to ran 
niilil tli-i Iruitee rt^mJiattM tli? tni*t hy cIimt 
aixl uiHi|aiT(Nla) nola or wonU. no'l I'laim* 
Uicii«i'(oru) M holtl tliB Mtotd u hia oiru, nut 
mbjcvl to Mijr tnwt, Mid auob pepiuUatioo muI 

clftlni uw limnfiKt to tb« kno«loi1c« of th« 
mioi •7ur tnM- Mitt* t. rAono. SS Id. »:iSi 
I'vrry on TnutB, tuai. SOS, SM- //rarit v. 
/'•(M, 4* CU. 335. It wu h*M tut upon 
the MSMtton o( the nutttimoninl union by tho 
ilrath of llie wife, the hutMid euy Mill con- 
tinuB tlio poMmion el cotMnnnity prouirty •• 
•un-ii-iAf; partner of tbo inntrimoitiai nnion, 
Mid may mII uiiI diapoac of It in liijuiiUtlom of 
tlio cMnmunitT debt*. HIi pcaauMion, laalal 
whou luuiintd, oonlinua* (or tho y ni yoaw of 
Iho narliiarshlp mid th« rlutara oi hu trD»t« 
»nd iia «iuiiint t>y hut own kct, withiMt tli« 
aMiiciit or lacli« of thu bair or iw^iriMunlativa 
of tl>o wifu. ctuug« for Ilia own limivlit tba 
t«[iur« by whioh he holdai Onl r. Jf^ In (litirra, 
IS IJ. 74; ■«■ t^v. Codp, fta. \',-l et mh|. If 
OHO who holdi tbo note of unothcr rvcoivt* 
from him tho iiot« ot k third porwa m ootUt- 
enl N«urity, muI kftOTWu<ls.»hFn tcoilercd 
to him, refuMi to rceoUv jiayincat ol Iho nolo 
for wliiah the collKtcral wu K><rcii> "nil rvfuaca 
to n)ndi7 on aocoont anil delivor up the oob 
Intsral, tlila rafunl dnsa not niako bin tba 
ownvrof the eoUMonl, nor doM it Mt the utat- 
ut« ti liutiulioD* in itiotiun m that )>• mtkj 

EIkuI it in tiir (o an action brunght to mftk* 
im acoount for luuaiiy or propvrly raovived 
by him oa tho colbitiMM more tluu four years 
after tho radiHl: />om8 r. Jfe£f ry, 4 J C«L 15&. 

815. Whi-n the jt^ojAe mil yiot tue. 

Skc. 313. Thu people of tliia state will not fiuo Aoy )iCT«on for or in r«Hpoot 
to niiy iTul property, or the latiuea or profiU Uwrcof, by reaKou of ttw right or 
title of tlic p«oplc to tlie euuio, uuluss: 

1, Savli right or Utl« sliuU liaTc aeonicd witliiii t«u yoan before nny nctiou 
or otbcr proceeding for the same is oomineoced; or, * 

2. Hht! people, or tboM for whom they claim, tihiill have received tlio rents and 

profil.t uf Hiii^li reul properly, or of some port thereof, within the it]Mue «f teti years. 

HnUumtempuaoccanleragL—Tbit maxim adrena powwion, or tatoMiol in pait: Z>arun 
la ill fnrcc In thia country, and nMilMr will the v. O. P. ff. IL O9., 24 Id. qii. 

gaunt Dov<mR»«nt nor the atotM bo bouttd by 
etatntM ft tlniitalian nnloas it Ii oxprauly id 
MmTidi.l; Ui'titd Siatav. Hoar, 2Muon,311: 
Vhi'iJ SUiif V. Iiaii\ ^ McUiui. i>iS; ValUd 

'■SUitf 1. Wi'.tiwnt, h Id. VXS; Srd|pr. Canxt. 

I Lim. SI; WiHid on I.iinltalloiu, Mi«. .13. Tho 

No one aw Bcqnlra by ailvcrso occtipany. na 
Bgainat the ]iiiIifto, tlio rljtlit to obatruct a 
itnct ilodi>»t<Hl to ;inhllo nag, and thua prevent 
tho lua of it a« a hijthinty: HoitiUrs v. Saa 
Fr.utti*f«, SO Cal. 2(»i fto^ v. A^, r>3 Id. 
437. Privnto Indiriduala cunat aoqitiro title 

liim. IH; Vtwti on i.imitaiioiu, »o«- ifi. IBo i»l. mvnto indiriduala cunal aoqiuro ttua 

r VUIulfn of the atntas ar* not bltxling on tlio to the titU-laiida of tho atkle by kd«waa poa- 

rightauf th<.-L'nit«d8t»laii JfiUCVuwv. Firmt, aoiaion: t'ariAv, CWi,4l>U. tt. 

4^ CJ. 51 : irifJtiuT *. JVrCV. 40 M. IVll : iTonfi- It i* a goneral prlecaple that btneral wnrdt 

(vr r. Jlft'/cr, 47 Id. 37!). No title will acuruB ia a atatut* do notlnnd the *ai*croitp: St« tba 

a^uattheKtiiM«]gOT«niiDeut l>y prMoriptiOft, note lo Ptopk v. iUrkimrr, 19 Am. Dm. 3W. 

816. Ir/tini action cannot b« hrouf/hi Ay ffranlee /rom Otn tlate, 

Sko. 31G. No ootiou oui he brought for or in respect to real property by any 
[K-noii chuiuiiig under letters patent or gnnta from thin HtAto, unlewi the uuuo 
tufght hiive been comineneed by the people M hen:Ju iix>OOiJS«(li lo case BUch 
[Mti'iit had not been iamied or grant uutde. 

317. fAtnilaiian 0/ aciion on ivwW [latent. 

Srx). 317. When lett^ra patent or g:rauta of nuJ proper^ imu^ or made by 
Uie people of this state are declared void by tbo dot«nniuatiou of a competent 


CRAr. n.] 

tojt THE hbcovbbv or real property. 


court, an ncUon for tho rpcowjy of tlte prop<^rt,v so conveyed may Iw broufflit, 
flitber I>y tho proplt; of llio ntutc or by nuy «ub§i?<ineiit jmlcntee or graiil*o of 
tiie proporty, biiilM-intor uaiftna, witbiu five years after surli detonn inn Lion, 
but not aftt-r that pcHotl. [Ami^ttlmml, ai^ruixd Mirdi 21, 12374; Aaiciulmetja 
187iM.291; took ^xi Jaly I, 1H7*.| 

818, S^'unrt teilhinJSt^ ymra, tchfn nrceentri/ in iKtkm/or r^at property. 

Sec. 318, No iu-(io>i for tho reooveiy of real property, or for tbe n?corery of 
the posiwxHion thidH.-of, ouu be ntainlainwl, unless it appear Litat the jilamtifT, 
his anooHtor. prcdece<wK>r, or grantor, ivoa seised or poemased of th« property in 
qiwetioT), n-itbin five years before tbe comin«acem«n( of the action. 

UmlbttlouB aa to acUoM ooiic«nilas th« ai«a wnt-K l>y it, •nd wba had been 

nolty.— TIk .i»Il- cii..aimU>U-.nm, in tticit not* 
to iHVtMKi MJ ••( ItiW i.r»iu, toy; "Tllii tUflpiler 
MiitMHiiua 111* jimviiiiuni fA *Mtut«> cxuting 
|rTior to Ilia ailo|>llun «( the code relative to 
ttw time oJ comnMnciiu act!<nu (nr the iccor- 
cry lit rtnl jiroperty. l^py hntw Ijmi'i tarrfully 
rcvim] aai) placed tit tc-jlcal •inlvr, but tu>«iil>- 
■Uutial cbongci love bMn moilc." Tli«y tliao 

Sui»Ih fnun iMtiiMi 8 o( the act of ISG3 rvUlirv 
I coiBnieudiu action* by Snanith or Mf xicnn 
(nialcaa, a«M a^: "Aa tM tinM lixol in 
uia »l*lnt« hu axpirod, utA all ri(iliti iliat 
bar* ac<TU«il mider it ara jJYufrvccI bv tbo 
•aving daUM in t)iu pnllniiuan' |«rt <A thla 
Mule ((M BK. B, onJf. AnO WO liiUingA v. Har- 
tV'y, 8 Ckl. SSI). >l waa tlioufht Qitnaccnary to 
iawrt aay provuDone cxurptiiig liiAila wltlilii 

«iu1«(l by iulrnikn, and wbo hail bo oIIm* 
right or title than aui^b aa ptvoeeilcil rroiii prior 
jioHoaJon. n<iut have cooiiiuaetd llicir aatioiia 
tritliin the time prtacrlbnl \yf tbn atalutA of 
limiUtiuiKi anil the utatuto ornnmeiUMid rno- 
iilii|{ M tfl uJd punciiiii OS llu) (luv'riith dny of 
Arril, \VM: /'ulKlfv. llaUit^; 47 Gil. T,<i. 

Tbo act ol March &. IBM (»UL I80X- 
ISM. j>. UD), pruhibitml a pbuntiff la «JuM- 
iiicut Iron) rtlyiug oa Ibe Vaa Htm otdtiuutc* 
if h« oranmcaotd bia aotloa MMiro iluta uiw yaar 
alter ila |>a«Mge and bail not horn la ^imtf- 
■ion vithiD the next prcocdiag fir* yvan. It 
di<l not |irohlLit him fram reoMariu toi prior 
]Kaacailoa or Miwr titk: Aaimoml •i.Sldn'hje, 

Th* Ugat title to public aquaraia Sau Fraa- 

thoaa srahla from the oiwiutiuu uf Uie gviitral cUra, mentiunvd ia the net of oancroM of Jely 
nk relatiutt to roal motiuiia." I , ISlH, voated id tht city for puHic um, aoU 

PredoCMaor — In tb« matter of an adverap 
pcaitaiton taken by a gnaator luboniuent to hia 
uml, anil cnnllanoaily held tberoafl«r, the 

(bo city had Dopoirrc loallcaato iter iliajxiM 
of it. but Mily to hutd it for Ibe pnrpowa ex- 
pmaod In the italiitvi «i4 private pcncmt era 

■waMMian la not lh« pcaacwionof tho gnwtcc'a prccluilnl (roni Knniriiii: tlic titU Iri' viilue I'f 
''prrincataor." Th« offset of tliU*ectiou i« to lb<i Maluta: tlaadltii x.San /mutiRV, ^i^L 

allow Um Ktaiit«o (o tack to hiaown the pea 
Maaion at bit urastur pntM^iog tha pant. f'»r 
llin porpotc of workiiij; out a fiar HKOiinit biia 
*bo Kua legal litlv: ymnllix v. DorLimi. 128 
VtA. ISO: A tmrcbaacT ol land at a niorljjiKO 
«]n ia advene fomtmuta of one other thno tba 
nortp^^of or mongasce cnnoot maintain an 
aottw antaaa It b comineDtcd within flToyear* 
from lb* Uhw a oom cJ actian irM acomed to 
tha mortgainr or thuit* nmW wboni kc cl^ma: 
Lt Bof iNm^fn, 30 Id. ZUy. And ant p<ul, ia 
Data to aeolion 321, buadijig "SucmmIvo Ocou- 

WIttiln flva ywtra.— AotioD* to art Mido 
■bIm by prabite oonrta muat bo brought irithia 
thncj-mn: Scca.lA73, ISOO. Ti>«j««tmraitaon 
a intent fuMn tb« Uiiit«] StalM dcFcndanta 
[Jrailcrl iwaHaainii for fire yearm Mure torn- 
laniMWEBt i-t action on the fourth of Mnrdi. 
IHtUh hut admitted tha Umanoc nf thoMteiit 
«t tba iiluitiwntli of Polimary, ISOO. It vaa 
brill Ilutf Um |daa wm nt no avail, bocauio tho 
. Mtmuaion iliiiwinl ]iblattiEl ««r« Mbtd of tha 
, | B »m M t i« wltbia fir« yoari: />nnoi<< v. Stat*, 

There mnjt b« an arcrmaBt bi a ploa of tbe 
•tatiile tliat tbe plaintilT, hb au««alor. prede- 
owor, orgntatar. waaaot iioMtiwd within 5ve 
j^an-.Siaffn-.Itau-ftsi.XtCal.iM. Ofcoiine 
thia doe* not apiiy slicre ibe pka u in tho 
(iirm ini£K<'*!<^l at wcll'ia 4^. 

Tau nes* oidlDoncs. etc — Pot«onn who 
Mora the paaaa^ «t tbn Vaa Knu ordlnanca 
bd faaan ia dw pew«ailoB o( bad ontlmocd ia 


Maxtean gtmH^ atc-Tha auuta of ISU 
contained tho foUomng prmUu: "PruTJJp,!, 
hoH-«vct, that an actjoo tnay bg Biaiatainsd by 
a party <Uuoing tuck roa) Mlata. or tfae powu*- 
rion themif imdEr lltk dotrwl (rum the Span- 
iih or Ucxkan govanoDMita, or Ibe autliorilioa 
tbervof, If anch action b« aonwicnead wltliin 
flv« year* from tba line nt (be flaal rotillnna- 
tlon </l inch title by th« d-ovcmuian t of the 
Unltril 8tate* or iu legally oonalitutiHl author- 
itio." It iin« held that tk« lAt^ua|;e clearly 
OM*n'J e»«y cue of a litla ilariTMl tram the 
8jiania)i or Moxicaa |(oi'iiriitiiuiita then exiulng 
in onUnnplatkni •-! Uw, »nd that iho eienn' 
titm (pcdccj in tk< prxvinr, viicivh d to nil 
oaaca In which tl>a plainlill waa lialilo to ba 
oalUd apoa to «unnoct hiiuH-U witb Ihn .'tiian- 
lih or Mexican cuvvrtiincrit u llic xniiii*! (>l liia 
tlllv. and ifid nut rltpiixl n|»n th<* u'-iitiujleiivy 
HI to whet)il-r or iiut the de(u»liint >uil"l njiou 
him toattaUiih by pnxif a Sjiauinhiir Mmlcoit 
tillei Ukhorflton r. \ViUieimt„,, H (1|, aOO- 
307: roMtnUr.Sfili, :il Id. £10; AniuatOHI. 
LiMwm, a Id. 3(u; AmttrMi) v. ful; M Id. 

The declMDli in Jr/lnitou v. l''Ui ffylr, 2A Cal. 
22.'. to the oSt^ut that th? ttatiitvof llBiilalUoia 
dill not .hrtiiii to inn a^init a Jl-'Xiuan RTaiil 
until tlin [oaliiju; of a piUnt, liml rclcliinco to 
Hraatt tho (onnmiatiim and iiiTVey of wliloh 
woro aatcri'ir to Ihoiwtol coD(^n i>( Apill U, 
1801), vintiiif lli« in pen i lion and control n( 
turray* in tbo United Sutoa diilricl iMiUt. 





fpAiiT IT. n, 

Prior to the pi—f^ of Ibat act the uIlJEtiate 
DDntrol of (urT«):i wu wUli the commisiioneT 
n(thcknd-olS<ci C'atlntv. UavincJii,W Utm. 
439; noil hu apprM-Al of n mrtty could be 
proved only hy a protlnclion «f a putctiL But 
by Itivaclof ISlM the ponrvr iii <)iic«tion wm 
mttiiirown fruiii the executive ilcMrtmcul of 
itlin (tut'itrniiKUl, aiiil Iharefiiro in all otttii elnce 
tsriEin^ tN "linal <<uii(>niintinh '* iiiaot b« hoM 
lo b« tlie linal j'xljj iii-.-n t (•! the oourt* on the 
IfiuMionuf tiHSiilion. ikiiil tliniUMuf •uoh Juilg- 
mtnt or t)iu time irhcii it IwooniM fiiuJ miwl 
Iw thn (rrmin'r' n giiooS the itatute jwriodt 
J/eAwKy V. I'<»< H'iiiUr, 33 Cul. 456, 457. 

Uiiilpr the BUt of 1863, onivii-lint; ibe atntute 
ct llmitntioni of ISSS (L«»i ISOa, \>. ,"(■,■:). Om 
linal coiiOnnattDU wlikli Hi tlioitalut«o( limi- 
(allnnii iii mcrtioii wna the fiiul onDJlncation of 
a mrriiy hy tlie vcmrU of the Unltol iilatn. 
pn>vi>lcil for In the act of congrvx of June 14, 
1900. or the U*uinc« <•! n (lateiit: .Vnln^Ai v. 
tgvi'.ar,43Cii.l.'i!^J; aii<I Ki"'it<Hi» wh>Mugru)U 
oil nut Ikvii coiilirnivil iii>'r« llia.n ilv» VMra 
cfote lh« |>ii>si^n <>t the iivt of ISG3 had lies 
_ Dam thcrMift«r id uliidi to coiiiiaruue aetiona; 
I'JJor/U f. I>t (.'till. 51 liL .S5. It has linco been 
hulil tlut llivitoiute !□ relation to luiiil olaimed 
n»dar n M"-xt:na Rnuit ■liicli reijuiml con. 
fir:tintii>ii >)i'l not rcuiiaicneo ranDiii|{ until a 
ivileut Kbi ikiiicil hy the tluited Stales: ftaynr 
• ■ •■ • isll ;iK, '.■-^.fr. Pnmi,.10ia.46r.j 
. .,.,.'1 M. I'l.'. Ad action 

!■ - ■ ■■■!„ r n ["irtioii cf the rancIiQ 

1.1k JuiitA*. or U'dcli nnclici, in Coutni Coita 
luiiiicy. TliK mirvey ii( tho ntucho wm flunlly 
omlirtimt SiipicniWr ITi, iHil4. iiiMor the oetof 
congruu of June ITi. ISi!n: unil thvjial«vt wb« 
imoJ Jiily:^ 1S;0. T)iu laAJuiiffiUikigiMKl 
litlotnulurtbeiMtont. TboiIvfonJaal haillidil 

ndveree poMMaion of tlio prctniaM linoe Deo«n> 
tier. ISSl. Tlia aclioit wm ooinnKiiac4 Jnly 3, 
IS7X The court hcU that a puty drrniguuig 
title nndirr a lutrnt iKniciI ia imnoancD of tbe 
condrintttion of a gnuit ilcrived (torn Uio Meii- 
ciu ot Spnni»h Bovcniincnt wni eDtltloJ to roly 
on lh« |int«nt 01 the Unite-! State* onopcrating 
la perfect tile Icul tillo vf tbo KraaCeo, thcrg- 
lofoir iiichoale in ita c>iarai:lur, anil that the 
time which hail nm U«foTti the pateot i«*aai] 
TOuhl nut Iw goiujiuIikI Hj^i*! liliiiMftjiortioo 
ut tli* time uivntioncd ia llic Ustote of limi- 
tatioua: </nnJi*<rr.JVi'frr, 471(1. 570; <7ori/iV)- 
V. Sfikm'i^^i, IJ. SSSi Oaliiido v. WhtUtirmcyr, 
■10 ill. 12. It the grantee ol a Mexican grant 
cotn-cyi an untliri'lal iatcrvst in tho Kimc, awl 
after tho confcyaiico ii mule hoitila [naieuion 
of tlio wholeef tbo onuit ailvcraely toall the 
wnrkl for the pcrioa roqnireil by mio itatnte, 
the title wliich lie liaa eoni-cyod ia extinguinhed; 
but thin don) not apjjy to .a cimu when a Ucitcil 
SlutM tiAt«nt hua bannl within tlio |H-i-i«(1 ot 
tlie Ktatut«^ If th« cnntev u-u eiitilU>l to the 
benefit of tlioltAtntei tlartman i. Ittfi, M Id, 

And gcnonillr the rule in. that iu a aiut for 
the trcovcty ot land ooinmcnceil after the U«n- 
anoe of the paUot tho ■tutnte of liniitAlioni 
doc* not begin to ma prior to tlic dnlo of tb« 
patent: Jfon/y v. Jtoirlnl. 05 Id. !>4i O'Connor 
V. faj'. C3 I.I. 0. 

Advmas poaaMBlon; See. 321, iu/fo. 

TrMpoH npau tmI prajMrty, action for, 
niunt be brought within thnN year*: 8m. 339, 


PoMBi ri o n , pmtunititii'R erlclcnooot owmr- 
ihlu: Sew MIC. 1^^l.t. *illid. II. 

AotiOD {Delude* a •iMuiaJ [iraoMiIing uf a 
ttvil natural Stxx 363, pOtC 

319. Sufit misiii, lohwi neceeaaryin action ordefeitK ari^ng ohI oftUle to or rettla 

uf rml prvpitii/. 

titc. 319. Nu cause of action or defeose to an aotion, arising out of the title 

io ntd property, or to rents or proCtii out of tlie same, am be effectual, ualees 

it api>oar ttiat tbe pereon prosecutiug the notion or making tike defense, or under 

wlioee title tlie action is ]>rosc(.-utecl or Ui« defense is made, or the ancestor, 

])redecessar, or gmutor of such ]>ei«on, was selsoJ or posseesed of tho promiMiq 

in question witliin Gve years Itefore tbe <:ommon<iement of the act iu rmpDct to 

wliich such action is prosecuted or defense made. 

AiUng outol the title to Toal piop«rty. coznloiDoe" miufat be drotipwlaiiil other words 

Tli* aiijimnie ciiiiit bavB hvhl that this sectiuo ■ubslitatnl, and tlio provision* uf tbia aeclloit 

WM iierer iutvmlcl to ho opplieable to an av- be ttiiu iii|aple<l to inch caoen. and tnade np- 

tioo fnr the rrcuvrryuf rtol estate. Thaniwai plicable to the proaccution inado nsnacary by 

Dti iiM««(iity furitiua apphcalilc to_an ootion to the naa-adaptioii of the law relating todiBtroM, 

tKoier the jKmewion of land. The pnivioua 
•eelion prm-ided fuU^' for aneh etna. Our 
HtatDte of liniilationa la tiasod upon tbe xtatute 
of X«w Vorkj and tho lint lepil.ilnm nf lliU 
Btnte, liniling a irclluli^iterl Htatiito of llniil.v 
tliKii in Kcv York, with ila tiKauliig ulrtaily 
A'^Itlnl liy conitniction, mloplvd it aliaoat IkmI- 

M well an to the dofeni.e. and Iicdco tho retnn- 
tion nf tlie acctiiin tbn* iiichHIIcL The lupivnia 
court, tlicrcforu. ci)D(litun.*ii that Ihia isctioa 
ruf«-rrcil to [x'nii'Tinl .v^titiiio foiinilul upoa thO 
litl" ti>real pruijerly; 1-iit lliry Mii-I tho lubati- 
til tion ol "■fiinitual'' ftir ".vuJiil"<1M iiot np- 
pnar to bo rery lieppy. aa "cffeutlinl" illJ not 

llv. Jtnl the legulalure ilifl not aee fit to appoar lo b« t^e praoM wMil to uxe in conueo 

ailofrt the practiaaordljttrainiuKfDr rent, dam- tion with the nhraso "canae <4 avtiuii;" ItifJk- 

a^ done l>y cattle, ute.; and nben th-^y came anliav v. iri/zinnuon, S4 Oa). 30I-3IH. Tbl« 

til cim»ld«i- lliia totlioii, Hicy found the tcrma aootion ia oon&nod t* aetiona "in'-oliiiig t1j« 

HBf-1 in llw Niiw York Rtaliite iaipplicable to ti^jht to tlio nctiul poMia^on of or the title W 

tlie (^I'lilion ol tliinjfo in CalifoRjio. Bnt tho rea" 

rtiuii fur rent, ilainace done l>yc.ittlo, and [k« 
Dm ntbi-r pcnnoal aotioai depcndcot npon 
title to mtl mtate. remainod: (uiil It Joublleu 
ooontfttl to thoiB that tlic tcnu« " Bvwwry aad 

real properly, anil not a niere tsMenjent in tlm 
land ot anollier:" Woodrtiff v. Xvrth tllovm- 
Jkt.t .V. '■«., I WrttOxULl B*!^ IS3. 23.'.. 
Action in<l»dM a ainobl prowwJing of a 

civil &alur«i HiK, 3G3. 

Cn*r. Il.l 



8!^. Knfry on rral entale. 

Sbo. 3'20. No entry upon ml «etato is dmmed onfSoient or valid aa a dotm, 
dd]v8S wi action bo comm«ncc<d th«rrupo& v,-itliia ouo year after makiug sui:li 
»Dtr]r, uid within lire joarB from tin tiuio n-hfu the right to make it deece&dcd 
or accrued. 

801. Poneasion, veltnx prfgnmed; occupation d&ined under leyaltiUe unlesaaJiyrte. 

8bo. 821. In ex-ery action for tho rororery of real property, or the {toasea- 

rioo thereof, tJio {leison ofltablishing a legal title to the property is preaumed 

to have been poeeeased thereof within tke tune required by law; and the occu- 

patiuu of the proper^ br any other porson is deemed to liave been under and 

In aubordinatiou to ih& legal title, unless it appear that the property has been 

held and posacesed admrsoly to such legal title for Gvo yean before the cotn- 

Uieiii-eiiieiit of the action, 

MO Kttt V. TM*. S3 CU. 431; ltW«t v. /liU, 
3 III. 4^i CiiiiKOn T. IfniM LtmUr Co., 10. 
IIT4: an<l in I'mtant r. JoAncin, 3 West C'<M>t 
l;«), 703, folltiKOil in Piutard v, S<^t, LI. 

.. . ,. ItSB, atlcr x nviowof tlio <lt«ui«ai>. the court 

h« 'locn n>it K> Toaat Lis cUiin. S^uti-viii 3S2 hulj tlint u aVicrill't donl, altboogh ouUcr a 
. aad323rofrTt«oaactiBhic)i fnll vtilhtalho lint voiil jutlgiiiout, nuty gim culor of titlo. 
lelau. aii'l*«Gtt<iin>i324an'l32.'i tollnMuociiiiuig Cmot Of tftl« giTw coaotiuctlve powsa- 
WltklB tlie wooiiii cUu; Id other woril*, tbe aloo. — While nuuijr of thcdaeDtlaUoIailvcrui 
omle moiCDlia tlio iliiitinctiun Kimctinm pan««ioii Kre the Mmo iu oithor ol 11m iiijuvi> 
fcncvti bMir***) ndvme jmiuvmIoo fi>tiii<leil iii^licnt«il t]iuiwii,afiil tlit> roiilU tlmroffumiira 
o|iaa n 
a "iilul 

ttej^iklipit ill variAUK ilauiiiitin* c-l iiur tujirtsia 
|ieni<rti A'lwba/' V. tvimni, 31 Cal. 5t; t*<Mt v. 
T/W/rr, CS M. OlMi Mf(^raeitn v. .Van Frau- 
Ititn, 10 III. RDI : Kl'-J V. B'^mV-U. 33 M. 318; 
li)rri>al V. O/fJin. W. (CO! Zto-^'. v. /''rf/y, 30 
M, li.1t>; C-<Kttou t. f'xlfn /.umArrCb.. 3a M. 

AdtreiM poll B— Io n . — Tbu codv )>IaIslT 
rvnTQniiii two clauM nf cmm Iq wtitcfa an M- 
TtTM iMHMMiion nay Kriw: I. Wli«ro tho oocu- 
|NU)t liNuiili l<i> ulaiiii nt<iii a wrilt«ii Inttrii' 
nctit, or n iadioiii-al <>( ct^rt; uuil 2. Where 

* ciiIot or title " {toil that loncnlcit upon vi-uenlly the iwiiio. in uiio iinuortaut (Kirti'.-uliir 
<i u( lilk." Tlii-u.' two clu*E« tn alt- tberaUadilGirsucni C<>loral till« uiii vKLuntl 

the wlveno finMouioii to IbihU uut acliuUiy uo- 
oupioil: Bb« b*o. Z2!i. infra. VoMtmoa uf uuil 
oDiIiracluin uf ti;lu dqI}- inolatlM buul "iiq 
BL'tuaJty (iccDiiicd, oaJ do oiLer:" Sco. 334, 
Jn/iM. Tliii ia tlic r<a*Dn o( ibo iniportonoc cii 
dctitdfu wkkl ia an advene pOMpaioii axuXet 
Ci'.\-. flr-'_ifty V. Ilavnf, i:i lil. TiOl. color oT titlo. One «lio ilota not outer imiK'f 

WlMt "color Of title" ia hu siren rise ta color ^ llUo iaJoeoiod to bo po*«c»»c<l uf ilio 
nuM li coofuKKMi 111 ilw nilJuillL'atciT auicn. In Iaii<J oiily ux ]ir*iKriW iii MCtioD 32>t! OVon- 
tn Iuw« doclrioii. llnml'r/uiv. It'r^A', ItO lom, iwr v. tojh. lA iM. 9. For Califbruia uawa 

iSO, ittiKiiil tint tixuiiititubi volur o( lillo 
UMdelnKlaAt "nautt Imvoajunor tltla;" whlla 
actum of titla " majr uxitt whoUjr by jinml." 
Anil tlio mno jiitiuatien hu b«nii obMvvml iu 
■iMiy ortbct aUhsi 8i>e tlie Caliloruia ilMdiiona 
I ahuve: K'risU v. itatti>vn, IS Ucv. fiBi JUT- 

Srf««r. fli'nf, Wis.KT; rAomfwi r. CrnjTi;. 
lVi.B00i *r«jl.>v, JJr-y". 3.1 IlUaiM; foot 
V. A'vrt^n, 4:i III. 3ii|. "A [Hipcr title," «■ 
nliovo niiotOil, inuKt alio ciubrnco in tliU «late, 
uwler tM aiwi'o dodilou*. tliu Jinlicmoiit or ilo- 
ena «f a <«a)Mt«st court. Otticr Ktatv* holil 
thai "oiiIm tsay Lp k'voh to n title vitlinut 
any imtmamt in writliiR. *' proviilo<l iilwsjs 
thai Ihon: it a tuaafiJ'. duim (■! the titlo, uiit 
MnM rtooitl, or umu i>4>tiIio auil untoriouii act. 
•neh A BDrvey in which tlic pnirixr extent of tho 
claim it lUnncil, au<l with teii-naea to ivhUh 
itr iilaiiu 1< Duulc- " Note to T-'tf v. .^•>v<hnnt, 
II Am. Dot r.SO: toe »Uo .ScOcirick * Wait 
Ml T>t«) .>f Ttll^ (-■ Un.l, iKn. 701 el mi\. That 
■i 1' foliir cif titl*. M'a* heW 
■ Tnl. OTOi but thia docla- 

I t> ■: (.. ii.. ,wi\y niUi llnoi' v. llrujfn, 

»'» III. Syi; /■.■'f.>i" V, /.'.■^-.N. 13 How. 473; 
£Wiiin T. llT-rfii. 11 r-t. .',1; LiiuiMijf v. /Vy, 
S'l W in. IIIOi aii.l -HK ii-:^ to r.jfi? V. .ViKAiui/, 
14 Am, IVu. &S3. A •:ivil from 00)0 hftviiig DA 
I i '.-I'D IioM ti, ^.ir iii'Ioruf title' AT^nnC' 

.— T l.nUni. \ I Am. I'rv.nififoalt 
^ ... .V". la III- &'IU: /V'HaiEKin V. inUtry, 10 
Id. 341: MfilaUin v. £riti«, SS Ua. 127i but 

oa coiutrai;tivu poMonioa, mo aoto to soolitia 
SSSi and aa U actual poaBeaaioa. aea aviii. 3^, 

Foaaeaalom to be opao, notarloiu. and 
axclualvo. — Ill rAooijMon v. /'iVA', 44 Cil. 
SOO. &IT, ia Uiu folluuiQgauci'ijiotBtateiDCQt of 
the niL-nti^ of an uirotve poaaciwiifp, n atato' 
ment uttpioTttl in the Mino «aae, o^D ou u|>- 
iwal iu 7"4oiH/wftn t. fillon, M Id. W7i "To 
oiuittilutc wlvcrao poMcailan tbo occiipalioEi 
limit be njien, i liiblc, DOtorioua, atwl ox-jfuKivo, 
and iiintrt Iw ratalnoil uailer a claim iif rijjht 
to hoM Ihu Luitl a^iLiditt hiin itho waa taiiwli 
and th« ]<vnio«i ■);niii«l whom it ia liekl luuiil 
haTu knuwUdp!. ortlio ni«uua ol kiiowled^o. of 
auuh uecupatiuii aad claim of ritjht." AilJ aos 
•tso the aummary of rtqiii«il«a to aa iilvcrao 
pcauanOB in L'n^tr r. Jhoiifg, 63 U. OSS. 

That tha poMMsion ehioiod lo bo cdvcna 
mait be "open, notoriniu, ojid cxcIuiMc," la 
aim ki<] down in U'oorl r. UrouiKfll, 41 tfn, 
370: Ttirfia v-Sins'L-rt, ZifirMl.'^: Soutf. v. 
DarU'i; IU Vi. 321); /"■jiifi- v. I'itftr. 10 Mo. 
447! Ctoi-t -'■..-, 3'iC.«.ii. 87. TliouhiMt 
cf tbla ifji tliiiii (Utod b Thai»pn<n 

V. Ptocht, :■!■ < 1. KllU«l0ll]N "t tllfOl]' 

vurtv claim, "ui llw meant of eui'li tm^wlnlge, 
iciiat lid hroogbt huino tu Ihv |ieiT>uii uhu ivna 
aobod or poaaawitd «S thu land, U-oaima tiio 
atatnto prooMiIaon tbe groiiud that he, kootr- 
log tlut n eaaao of action mi^ta in hit faror f'jr 
tho btnaioB, yet ac^uioMs* iu it, and doua uut 




OP cn-iL Acnoxs. 

[Paxt n, TntB n, 

atl««)[it lo rpgaia (br poMowon ot li)> luii) in 
tlie iiM"lf pruriiicd ly luw: AdkoII oh IJnu, 
M<.-i.30l.3llS: -> WultkoaRoa iVoji-ISa A 
vluiileatinc patrf or pownwloii will tiut *ot tlie 
•Utalu ill Mialioa, liccaoM llio owuvr <4 tha 
Iftixl cannot Im lold t« har* wuniMicvd !n thu 
wriiucdil mtryor powt w icai. The ixraer witl 
D'lt l« njiiiUmtiwI M luM bit loud bnuuso ha 
Itiia (sili'.it to lU* (or iU nvoyvry, itbcn ho hiwi 
t>Li cioti.'v Ui:it it wu hslitorcbuincJ uIvvrvFly, 
liut I'll) utatiitr outa off lii< r«cao(ly onlj- h liL-n 
Iw hM ixi^lcctwl to oammonoe Ilia wtioa bc- 
yoBil il>u iwri'jj utij-ii«l Icii It." 

In Mvl. bcfuro tlic itatilte ranii, tbc pftrtr 

ntuKt kuoH Ihal K>nic one cbkiin* liU laiiU; uid 

oixii. ii'>tuiioui, cxcIuiili«pcMWUiliiii wtllvLiurgo 

Ldthtn «rilb n»iicc of tb« ocouiuiiI'h cluim: 

|/>iiCron V. W'u'cAdiKr. 31 QtL 009: Lnnit^rrv, 

'■■' ■-"! la 30a; l^tinute v. fl.irtA. I!l hL 

1. ■' V. WiUtOH. IS Id. M3i /'lir ». 

-> M.48«; Ihtlwtn V. Z^y, M IJ. 
liVi ;■..-.>> /-. /m. i'o. V. Siroiip.OS M. ISO. 
OiuRar ol ona co-tooaat t^ Otbei; Seo 
('Aiiri- I'. .1/o«n>-y, 03 C^l, SSe, in whkih tba 
hIooI ill* [ntiniM* bv« oo-toiuitin ptrnteitma 
wu bcM an ouKcr oC tU« cotcnant, bnil Tf- 
mvtA V. GUbert, M. 4M. for lli« nccuMnry uliar- 
•Otcr of the poTHJon nf a piirahoMir from oiio 
•■tfoiiiut in or(]«( to aciinim tittit t>j nilviint 

riiion M agnliut tlio alli^r •.■<i't<>nanla. 

Poaa«>wion to be bostUe.— Tb* }K««M«i(iii 

ttbii'b will rlpuD ititii .1 litlc by iRfwe of Iin)« 

muit ftI»o 1m "li(.»tili-:" Thniitpmn v. ffUon, 

I CUl. r.!-! ,l/i?,M'ui(.t» V, 0'.<i((/ivnri, 4S Id. il 

f'TiirM V. Coon, 40 III. 33. Tbit vlumeat ii tho 

vuiT "MMDCa"cit auailr*T*i>iKHM«oo: ^<ir- 

M ». '.'o«ii, nifim. But it i( auffident to bar 

• i-c<«very ibat iba ixxsnaioe bs boatllo marcly 

I to Ibo [>arliuul»rcLumo[ tboatli«r MTtT iii Uiu 

rrBrtiuU louiiicliitiiappoccd in proof: MtMamu 

V. O'SiiHimn, iS td. 7. 

AnAlTer bitlioocEupanttojpurvhnMitlm prop* 

crty from llic troe owner, flttbin lb* iitotut">r)r 

Krriuil. il ic<xigiiition of tliv clbcr'R tittc, uii-l 

(iMtrojr* thoiktTi.TM«1ianwuruf ih* ]io«««ii«m 

^■lul nUijm tb* rnniiiair of tlio atatutv: LowU v. 

r^nut, 44Cal. 4741 Abhry IImnoI'oiI v. WUlarJ, 

« Id. 013; C. F. K. tf. Co. r. M<niU 83 I.I. 1 12; 

P<tfiHt L. lot. Co. V. Slntup, III. 1 30. If iiindi) 

ikftvr tbii Ntatuto bag ran. thcoSbr "(lo» nut 

rslT(i:t the title nnr caloptlio Iwnoii nmkiiiij tbo 

toOtifroni mointoiniiig hi* title >ii unj' litii^tiou 

nomiing it in whi«b ho may bo mvolrKih" 

tfift<: L. fnt. Co. T. Slrvup, tupnt. JJor will 

tllw tnking of ft loup nfior the iitAliita liu run, 

Ittpcciolly wbcro it ii tUirn uiidnr a, nitiappro- 

iMuion of tbo louoo'i rljflil*, o«t«ii biiu to 

plcftd tho ■Ifttutoi Id. 

An nl^ to bny nn ouut«n<)in|c titlo will not 
L»(«|> IImi Tiinniait "^ *'"> ftUtDtoi Cannou v. 
[jSnrJliuM. SilCnl. 5Mi S'ln Franewro v. fnMt, 
U7 liL SX; t.MtH V. /Vtul. 44 Id. -174. Tho 
■dfatiKitioa U bstHTMs buying en ontitaading 
Ull« to DTotaet bi< cUim, nn'T rcoognixiug tko 
oanorrfiiporaiKilber by tito ilcfondant. 

If til-! {HMMosioo In n-itli tlie ftcquliMconaa ot 
tbe p'-iiiatiiT. ho cMinot itcovcr (iir r«it« and 
|in>i;ii.: /f«i V, I'niu. 3 \\'eH Cenat R«p. 428. 

Po W —tonmtm be coatlni;ou».^A<Ivacw 
pq«Mu«ii to bar a rccovnry hy tKo tnio owii*r 
u'.iiiil liivo coEtinucd irithuiit liiliTrrvptiun (ur 
Ibr ilatnlory pniod: .*i« Jo-v r. TfiinVr. 41 
(jI. .V»>; .Sou Franriift, v. /'uW^, .T7 lil. 3l9i 
Bai-rr^.U r->.r« //nH ^«'.i i-. fAf*?r. S5 M. 
Kl ^dgwiuk & Wait OB Titl«a to IadJ, »ei:. 

'•IT. If iDtoTrupfed even by forco or fniu<l. ami 
Iho iKiwwwIon be rocorcnxl by n pcnciuble or 
li^ruibtn rutry, or by prouou of Uw, tho o>m- 
tiuuity In tifokcn. luiti Uio (talulc W^iu* tu i mi 
only ittixn il>" timn of tho rc-cnlij': San Jai^ r. 
Tnx%d.W. 41 Id. Mil. 

SucceMtve oootip»ncie»— Whuif wf^ral 
fwrw-m i;nt*r oii Imid in *ii™ia»liiii, thp m-vpral 
pt>Miiu>ii.>o» I'ltuiKjt lin tu'^ki'l mi i\» t'> i^.-ika a 
ooiitimiily of pn»«iii«i(-n,iiiik>M tWrwina iirivily 
of calatu or tliu Acinal titltt .-irt vmiripclDd, 
Whamvur uoo luit* tbu poucBion, Uio wiun 
of tbo tme ovner U nrtorad) and an entry 
aflonmrda by onotbicr, wronefully. oooititutea 
n iicw iliHcitor: .Vuu /'ranf i«At v. Ftldr, 37 Cal. 
3.hX Tu tbs uimo effect nie llraitilt v. OSiteil, 
I Jobii*. inH; ll'inf V. Airtiob-mrv, « Pick. 
410j W'l-h ». L.mti'iy, « Mot, 407; /W v. 
Vamptirll, 10 .lobii*. 47''; •/•fJU'ii v. /.roiMnf, 9 
Cow, U.*>:i! Oc^f'l'l V. (MrMrw. 7 Soru. A It. 
17Sj J/«w^ V. .VimH. 9 P». .St. IW: .I/fmr v. 
H'iUmo. I \Va(U. 330; J/ftV-y v. Vnu*"* i/ 
i>iVi->ndc<» ^C'-., 5 Sur^ & K, 254; Augull on 
Lim., BcL'. 414. 

And io on ejeirtinMil (uit by llie atate for 

load in San Fiiuici»o oucsidc of tli« red line, 
wlicro a ilofciidnnt olnimnl titlo under tlio 
■tatuto of limitatinna, wul relied u|>on the ad- 
vono poatcuinn of liti grantor*, but it Bppea.nid 
that 111* Jooda rilhor callod for lau-1 lUffcrcnt 
f mni tliat mod for, or van toU for nuuenaiaty 
of .li«viipt(oii, It ma Itold tliat ha did not cna- 
u«at himaoif, by mtou* of auob doodi, wltli tbo 

Jonmaiou ul hla iirautun: PtopU v. KIttmtJM, 
I Oal. -264. 

Tltla croaMd byndvontopoaaeMloii.— Aa 
advenre porwiti'iii nf ior (liu flUlutory 
period, .-iiid in ocouriUtioe witb the praviaiuna 
of the oode, veita thi: oociipiuit u'lthaiiabdolutu 
titlo to the bind; .Virwon v. EriMtin, Si CaL 
GSD; ArriHglou r. Littinn, 34 IiL 3(Ui Va»inm v. 
J<>toab)ioii. 31} liL A3o: M-Maiiuj v. O'S-Mmn, 
fl 111. 7; Morris T. lH Criw. 51 Id. 58; Piv^i/lt 
Li/' I'iA. Co. V. SUoiy. C3 111. IM; JokifOH v, 
/fruin. Id. 391. 

A |iarty wb(iliaabe«nloenaUiitMJ, oxcluairts 
flitrcrao poaMMioD for five year* iaoititleJ tu 
till) liFui-lit ut lb« iiatuto nt limitationa, al- 

tbDU;;h Ibe Bvu yetkraaru not " noxt {irvonling" 
Uio cDinmotiueinuot of the aotioii: Cannon r. 
StofhnoH, 3ii Cal. 530; and if after be i« voatod 
•ith the ri;;!it he ia ouatcJ, cvoa by the party 
liril.liiiK tlio mper title, he enn reocrt'cr ou bii 
tlllu nccinire.! by hia adifne pouiation Dt niiy 
time witbiii livcycu'iafliir autb ouatcr: Arrlifj- 
ton V. I.i)>-t«a, :i4 Iil. 3SI, .ind tbc nuineroilR 
autli'intir* l^iTcIti i:lt«tl. Ill LrJKmijtrrit V. 
Warrtn,- Black f, 6US. Oi« iiiipnmii> oniri ut 
tbo trnitvd !>lal44 uyi "Tho lapiNi of tiino 
liinitvil by mi«U ttlalut« not only liar* llio 
n>ni«-ly. but it «itJn^ialioa lh« right, and VMta 
a [)oK<Kt tilto ill tliunilitrao bold«r.' foraUi^ 
to aanio fOvul, Tovhrv. Uurdt, I Kurr. tlO; 
Staba V, Berrv, -i Salk, 421i Vrnyioii v. Mnr- 
*biff, 1 Rioo Eq.3S5: Jait'on t. Oln. & U'eml. 
440; Ja-Lioii v. i>Uffiuior/, S JIlhll^ ^SSO: Jiel- 
Kin v. HvjMatyrf, lit Id. 327; HrndMrrH r. 
Il'ialix-jhm. A ^.^t. 4.1S; niomp^on v. Grrm, \ 
ObluSt. £!:■: AVirvom'w T. L'aviU. 'H Aln. D3I| 
CAifM t. Janft. 4 Dana, 4H3; Abxtuidfr r. 

pfxvll'Uin. 8 IVnncli, 403. 

A-lwow pi74«o««ion for (!>■• r»*r« of tlm aena. 
mtv pr<ipi-rty of a niarTii<d woman craatr'd a bar 
undertb-.-liniita^miact of April 18, 16(13^. Stnl*. 
1S(I3, p, 325; anil ia a good defeiue to au oollua 



Ck*p. It.] 



*( «p«ni»iil ^■y h** nr hrt cnntM: Kapp v. 
Ortfti: ti ('«1. 4US. 
£aMBtcDt» croAtftd b]r pfMorlpUoa— 

T)>i^ OMir i>f a Hglit ul way. whicb liail iU ori- 
ain in IkeMc m pcMniuioo. mMf, hy (ircacTip- 
titMi, ripcD ioto a M*(cvt tiU«', and. in lUcJi 
coif, the uer mnit nai'c lioeii viurvuetl for lli« 
[if>r-Tn<l pretcrtbvil by thv i.tutalc ut hiiiitoCiDiui, 
iiriil>'r * cUiin of ngfit. TliU iinBllllollon U 
III .'"irM ii|>pIluKl>Iii kIm wIioiv tlin rli(t>C Iwii 
iU vri^iii in H ]»iP>l gitl vt utl«: Haibovr r, 
I'i-rn. VI Val IW'i. 'h> ]Wi|uiii> H rljiht U- llio 
m.i uf » rtnoiri l-y lulvdn* cii!<ij'iiifijt iw [iru. 
B<:r.]'t>"n, it ja npoomr}' tliHt triii nnjoymiiiit vr 
pr ..'lir.f :..„ iitiiiuld li.ivv f i>iiti>iu('il fiir a jHTioil 
[ig tn llia limu lixr<l liy til» •Ulut* 
i<i I <i)B w It bar I» Ul vMry on laiiill Ik, fiTC y«tii^ CraiKJaM *. K'loifi, R 111. 
H-l, And the Hnio rule ai)|i!ica to a ri;ilit tA 
cii'iQow tlw lalid* D(a4io(licr: Oriaibyy. CItiir 
l.'lr (V, 40 Id. 2M: MS CamiAril v. ir<*(, U 
III, i>lti. I( ona iHrrion hu a lot iocliMiMl mith 
B fi'iii-*, iuhI mu'tiwr, doui uljcli^iDj; lul. crocU 
a tiiiu<« irliirii i* Mr«t») f««t tAynv [ho mnind 
Bi"t iJTujMts uv*r tliu i'tint I'll ^• t1ii> lot in- 
vliiwil, willi->at ktiy jKirCiiid" <>( itx nulla n»t- 
iiiij uii tlic Unil witliiii the inolocurv, tltr houn 
\y iiiit n -liiturlMiiM o( tha pMBMsioa ol th* 
vnc wlu Iniilt the f«iit:^ ao m to pravual the 
>tiittite<>niiiuta^ousft«inrDnniiii;iii hisfnvor. 
Tl>« uiaiofiiiuioo ol tho hoiiie far ■ luHicioiit 

tllllr ill Itie [lOaitioD ill wllioll it VM CUII- 

•uiivt«il iiiic'it )iiii!">4>» vviilcDne of ah iuwo- 
iineot, will lli« Hjflil to cnnliim* it In tlio uin* 
BMritiun nkht bv tWnliv *cijiiliv<I; OiUtrfHt 

ry. y*»M. «7 III. anft-viM, 

Mla&ottatieou* UluatraUoiw of foregnti% 
ptInolptOk.— A gnnV'i. olio t Lima liy k i|iiit- 
daloi ili'p-l, rriky Ti<iiiiun tn pusMutinii of tlie 
frofHuty oi>iii-vyuil (imI nnnrt and maintain aii 
adTcno punKuiuii fur th« lonn of live j'Dara, 
and thu «a|uii« ■ title, on ng.iiml the grnnti*, 
hy lli> at/^tiiU of limitAtionii: F/nallin i. Par- 
loml. atCui. i;.")! Dor>a,,dv. J/a^lcn, 47 Id. 
4N:>-ltC. A iiunwsuioii tkkrji luid held bv a 

^dcfnnilaDt for tbn nic|iiii>ili> in-riiHl, In hcatility 
' I iIm tItU or claim mI hij by ■ |ilitiiililT in an 

'iwlloai of vjvvtmnit, oniiuiulit to an i>,ti-cr*a 
pOMonIwi i^iiiBt tliQ jiUlntiff (ulSdniC V> hw 
a raoovtny. ei'eu Uioujyh Ilia dcfrailnnt, wliiU 
•u in [MMomon. ulmilto<l Ibe ralidity at n 
tillu •jiitBtlil|i)tnj{ noil in n third pvnon: I'ligt 
r. rv<rirr, SS liT fill i Uxyt r. J/nrlfu, 4.'> IiL 
iMt; VfJ/<i<nuv. 0'5ii/Jii<in. 4»ld. IS. When 
a liukliuid uid wile owuiiy th« prcr^jxa, un-Tcr 
Ubn Iltl* of a pcmm dnrinji tho coTerturc, tho 
Uia wUo caunut (or hvti^t, liointf a /tmt eo- 

rrrr. Occam' ia hootillty U> tliat pctvai'* litlei 
yrinJi r. AUip, 19 Id. lOS. Uelwucn U-unnta 
ill comnioA, if the [wic— iou of one a* teiwut 
in conini'jn with hu co-tcouut* hu nuvur Ijren 
djituibcd, acil ihurd bai iwitr Im^ aii uasXnr, 
ho canuat, wIiDe lt<jJ>liiu; the ixiuuHiou, ho 
diVMLtd of ttint i'i)[)tt in lar-.< u( aiiotticr: 
Loiv r. K'<ttt■Al^ 40 td. M7t J/i-l'nn/eji v. //nr- 
rry. I!l M. 4117. BotwMlt kilfoiiiiiiji owii*)-* 
ai:i|iileH.'iTiio« Ih ivrliapi nijniaiti< in okUt U> 
kIvd laliilicy to a liiii> not l(ii:Btuil aotonllii^ Ut 
tliv coll* (if • ilvtvli Init when tliv )iiTtl<ii. hv 
ni'iiiiu); mill ninrking tho liiiA iljKai tho lani^ 
i'li'iiiily u (111 II. nhiob. fivm the laiitjuBKH of tha 
deed, la kit in iinotrtaialf , nnjuimcTiioe wSU 
add noUuDB to tho <uaduairriir<u iif the lixia- 
liom of the Unc: llaUiit^* v. Siark, 3(1 Id. Via. 
CotenuiiMOi owncn, and the cITMt ujiuu oji 
advetvo pOHOuiion of no OKrooiiicnl to regnnl 
a iwrtaln linn a* a liotindary : Siv Irrit^ v. .-Irf- 
Irr, 44 III, 6S9. Occu|iiiii'-y nji to h (rii<« aa 
tJiD Imondary llnv, (lutoitiiitAiiiliot; ibu ]irn- 
t«it* o( the crjtTiiiiiiKiuii owiiiT, iiiay Im MilB- 
cloiit to ■Ufpurt the aUlulvi t*** iHUBfin T. 
Sifiyr. 4IS Id, £>8. An ailvunw |"ia*utwlon 
w hi<li wilt Mt the ntatutv i>f liniitatious in mo- 
liou niay bo aiK|uirtrl to a l<Brt u( a trucl of 
land, while the owner uf thu true title ia iii thu 
actual imweaalon of tbo other pan. An u-tual 
pcwwion of a [lorl of a tnict uf hmd, with 
eoMtructivo [iDtBnaion of llie mt, whether 
lield by tho owner til the tmo title, or by ono 
wlio oiit«iMl iinilei color of title by ilnd, will 

not provent tho atttuta o( IbiiiatluiM litnn 
ruiiMag in faTDr of ojio wh» entar* ulvera«l]r 
uraii flio C0D(tnictii-e poaaauian: ItavU v, 
t'rrtrf, 30 Id. tUI. \Vh«D innluxl B|;rreinoota 
to coni*i-y hunla arc to be IM-Tftinnrd oonuur- 
rcntly, llic atatut* of Uiniialniit d<Hii ivit com- 
mence rnniuni; nnlil one party hu fwrft<liuHl, 
by ilelivotiiiG a deed, or haa offered bu iHafotln, 
by making a teadar: flrcHiKin v. rbrd, 40 


Adi^erao poatfaaion doeo t)ot petfeot a titU a# 
agonal an infjNit at the time of tho ontiy into 
pOMOBMan; Ihn Infant mBy aiie wllhiii tiivyeara 
aflar eominit "' a)jD: llurian v. UMamn, SI 
ObI. ISO. AikI o* jL>;alii«1 uQr dnmii^niutk tillu 
nndura Mvxii*nii nr Spaiiiah ur^iiit, tho otalute 
dooB not canitnirm'D lo run notil Ibo iwiunve of 
the patent: Dr Mimiul'i v. Toomfy, Id, 1115; 
J/orru V. /^ CWm. Id. &Si Ootm'tt. v. WUIta- 
mrwr, 49 Jd. 13i and ace. ^Deralty, boo, 3lli> 
aud uut«. 

PaymCBt oi teucM-. Soo htc. XU, ii\fra, hxtX 

822. Ocfupatitm untl/r wrUlfn iHBfrww'nf orjuJipnml, wfin* d'v^miyi orftvTtw. 

BxiO. 322. Wlittn jt iippcitra that tlin ocuiipout, or tboM iukIvt wboni h« 
elniiiiv, entonsl iulo flio pinwoHMion of llic pnipurty iiniior ctniin of Ullo, oxulu' 
■ivn of uUii^r ri;,*)it, fuumling kucI> olitiui upon tt vrritUtii iiDttriimcnt, im being a 
eonwj'ttiicR of tlio property iu iiiiiittioii, or ii]>oii tlio (locre« or juilfiiueut o( a 
coiDpolenl fiuitrt, itnd tliat lli<im biui Imh^ii k coiiUnueil ocvupatiou uud poeseBatoa 
of (lie propcitv iticlu<Ic(I in niiuh iiiHlrTiuit.-ut, ilvoreo, or jud^oeDt, or of Homa 
purl uf the property, tiuder such vltiiiii, for five years, the property bo includcil 
in ilc^uied to bave btn^u betd lulventely, except tbat wben it coniUHt* of ft bmvt 
dividf^ iota Iota, the iwsaeBsiou of one lot is not deemed a possoemon of nay 
otber lot of the same tiuct. 


M333, 3-J4 

OF cmL AcnoN& 

[Put n, Tlru: IT. 

Bateriiit nader wiUlau butRtnwot: 8m 
ut^bMUuu i.f cbio KoluKii A'/'frt T. Uager, 8 
Wa» (uul Ita^K. 4(13. Tbg |<riiiciph tbat ocw 
who vntrr* n^ Und oiidrr k il«e>l with >p«- 

cilie bcidMlviM pc««eww to ttio oxtMit oif tlM 
1ioiitiiUr7 gii-Mi exteoila to nnrwonM dvtdtt 
will) r»|icci to Urate, at Utat, who tuve aotiuJ 
kauvkali^ of tlie Umia of IJic deed Mxl Uie 

8rBat*c'i cJtini luiJer id A;&rc< r. Cigv, 30 

When •■licri(r*BdMd,MgDUrapOD ItifiM, 

dtworltitd tlic Und coDVcv«d bj nM4«a uiil 

J ImmuiiI* with KafHclcBl pntfltioo, aail Ilia pUlnt- 

*'W for •mm ytaa lived ujion kuil ooeupM 

part t4 Uie UiiJ, eUImioic lb* wbols wliiJii lL«r« 

«M no citlwr [wrty ia oJVmm pO M iwion o( th* 

I part in tv(itn>feny, U waa huld tbat thu es- 

vlcuilail Ikit [wa w ioii to tlia bvuxlxif kUtlced: 

^Jhi-r/( r. //m»«. M OiL 427. 

If 1 rnriy relica on ooMtraotiva cnwearion 

by ilMd, U« muit ihuw luaiaeU in As actual 

. jiwaMwai of a part ol tlio Uud dcatrlbad in It, 

k>aJ the ileacriMMn tnuat be ikAaito and cer^ 

I ■■ to tha MundarHa of tb« land. II tlio 

. eMtalmi do dcAnlto and oortoia beuiMla' 

wklch can ba locatoJ. narkail oul, aud 

mada kaown. It <»Biiot bava tbo flTfCt to ax- 

told tlia pmiMakiii bajvihl tlia fKwwino jtdit, 

whli'li !x 'Vliiiil*, paa<itivi:,noilii<>torioiiai Hirbl 

V. 'tJfAvt., SjCoL 13*1 //OM T. ttVWfr. 90 Id. 

iSS. Tliu auctriiie cali»bIUb«J by I'liOM v. 

Stmr^. i TJ. ei; 6'fljr/« v. OiO. 5 M. «3i tfuau 

V. fl^fe,.. 8 1.1. ?7-2; /Tww t. Ain^ 1 1 Id. 133; 

Bttldirii, T. Stapmin. 12 Id. 300) i?<4ili>A v. JiAh- 

mn, i; Id. lOTi AUtwd V. /Woae, LI. 37: A'eaoe 

V. T'lNu >i>3n, 21 Id. 200; Kilt v. nil., aid. 

431; '/.VtJ V. CWoBos. 2ft Id. 12-.'; //oi.y v. 

yirnr, 28 M. ISTi Datu v. p4r!tv, 3I> 1.1. U30; 

VrATrt T. iVwiv, 31 M. 418; Afra v. Btjuify, 

E Id. IMP, wna tliM a parly who coloroil into 

rMlual iioMMilMof ajioctlmiuf atractufland, 

I'oUlminijt lb« wbole uaAvt • dvad In wbieh tba 

' ntlr* travE waa ilncribcd hy laMn and 

tamd*. vrwt not limitod in hia poaa w tow to 

h)« actual Inelcaaio and pnatailon. but ac- 
qnirvd cnutncttvc poaavadon to llio tntirii 
traot. If It wa* not In tbo aJvarM pcaaeaaiuii at 
any otb«r pcnon at tba tlnia of hla antry; anil 
twt aaacb Mr«on, In aa actl«m to ttaavar ]«'«- 
•eanoD at tlw laud, would pnrail ^^>t fua 
wbo totcrMl mbMqDcntlj apoa the unincluwii 
[MTt aa a mure intrudrr, or ahowing color a( 
titk oolf. I( a perBUu, in lack of good bitli, 
iatcntMunlly takca a detd bomaatfaanr ha\* 
Mn»ii lilliiai>iliM<iilint nil iiltlni^ tin lTn abaai 
puipoac of adding tbo conatrvctivo poi u ^loa 
of a larger tinct to an acloal linaamrion of • 
•nialUr Inact, bo la not eotitlod to tbo Imif lit 
of tbo mlo luiito conaldcratna. In no just 
•CUM eo«ld b« bo cowUamt lu tatitriiij^ unilM 
daln ot titk fooodad npco hia dead. Tbaro 
niuat be tuoa abnw of BDod faitb in taking tliO 
dotdi Kitf r. n>U*. a\.l 431 1 IKnbA r. Hill. 
3S lit 487. So alaa Vaituim v. l/itiOH Lum/irr 
C^, Id. CT4, wl>cn- till- Jwd u-M uxvFutcd by 
Otto wboae boIv right vtoa bv Tirtnu uf bating 
blaMd tho lr««B uaiklng tlie bouoilArj. But 
in otbor atalca. too tontra, in note to aectiou 
3:^1, uMlar "CoWof Title." 

Cooatrwctlra poaacatioo will follow tho trao 
tldo: Sfw^Jf «. Vo«t. SO CaL 21). vUtw boU. 
•m of two Ixwtilu titiu* wuro lu llic ovcu[>«iKy 
of isuill iKMlicM. Itui (or a pvnos lo aiiiuiTO 
Iba oowtraoUvo advana [wBatnocui of UiiJ. Im 
Biuat actoally oiurt tbe trod ouTuir of •ouniiMU't 
o( bis land: Kimball v. Starmtr. 2 Wcat Coaat 
ICcp. 371. For example; a dtfciitlant who 
obuuM, andcr color of ' t(tl«, a lu^r tnwt i.f 
land, whicb iocludea tlw land towbuh plitinilff 
Lu ahonu title in foe, cannot ratablbn aa ai]> 
reno po ww IiD a* to pldbtilT^ land (wbiub 
lua rruiaiiiad vacant and tiiiauL-ii|.ic.l| by iiruv- 
Ing an actual ootapaftey of a jK>rti«u .if lb» 
laqMTtnuil— ftufth poaioailoii not iiwludlng any 
of ibu lan^l I'tuiitt.v) liy fUiiitiiri Id. 

Aotnal ptMUCMton: Sra noU to aoo. 324. 

UnUy DOC onder written InaCrumoat: Soo 

S23. What conKlitutes adverae posaegaton undrr torHten iiwIrumeiU or ju4gment. 

See. 323. For tbe purpoee of oonsUtnting »n odTerse poavesBion l>y ftuy por- 

Bon otauuitig a liU« founded upon a writteu inairument, or & jud^^inent or 

decree, land ia deemed lu Lave beeu poiaesaed aud occupied iu the following 

1. Wbere it has been usually cultivated or improved; 

3. Where it has be^n protected by a subatAutial incloanre; 

3. Wbero, altkougli not iuclosed, it lioa been used for tite sapply of fuel or 

of fsDcing tinilMT for the purposes of liusbandry, or for paetura, or for the ordi- 

BAry iim; of tlio occupnut; 

■4. ^V'horo a known farm or single lot 1)u been partly impraved, tbe portion 

of Buclt fnnn or lot tfaat may liavo been left not cle^ircd, or not inclosed accord- 

iuK to tUc- UHuiil couree and cnsUnn of tlie ailjoining country, shftll be deemed 

to have been occupied for tlto Mime longtb of timo a* the part improved and 


Sf! nutei to •CO. 321, leS, 3£1. West Goaat Rep. 703, trborc dalniant'a grantoc 

UsMlly cnltlva^od or lmprov«d: !!oc >[>. bod fenced tba laud, 
ptioation of aocliau to I'arLaitl v. JfAnwii, 3 

S&4. i*r-Tni>rt actually omipifd undfr claim of title denntd tobehetd adeers'^hj, 

Skg. 312f. Wboro it appntre that thore lias been an aottial continued occupa- 
tion of buid.undcraelaimof titJo, nclum-e of any other rijjht, but not founded 


p. a.] 



upon n wriHeti iontmnteiit, judgmeiit, nr (lonrco, Uio land %o aotually ocmpioil, 
ftud u» otfaor, w dociDGtt to bavo keen hblJ tulvcrtwly. 

Actual oconpatiati aoM* u adaal pa*- 
of Itia laail Klltjtoil t« bav* been bnlJ 

oocDiuiic/ iif noraodi lioIiKon aclrtrMlj'; IToM 
r. Ifill, 41 Cal. r>7l. CalUnitiott or liiiuruTa- 
inniil, in iwliiiUun ta tlio «t>ctl(in o( > ■ulittao- 
lUt inclwuto. L) not iwooHaryi (I'my v. <'</- 
/mu, 42 Id. IS3. Tho nrsoUoB ol ■ cntflUntint 
foocH And pUating of oniiun«at«l ircvi amunil 
■ city lot lunonut to MtuftI acaaMtian, a> sj>< 
nnpiiato to b Glaim to tnd doinUiW imcr giicit 
lot: IJ. llio Dicra catting of gru* ufon kml 
ill t^o jircTiDUa potKMiaa of doiiiIkt t( not 
eviilcnco ot an actual occU[iBlleai by IIji [arty 
ciittin;{: Poi/e v. f'oKltr, 37 lil. 1(0. Nor iIm* 
it follow thill an (iictc«ur«, partly l>y natnml' 
ui') nitly by wtUicial mitat, taUlAiahiii au 
actiul ptMOMJiui u k ooiKlnijoit d Uw i Bnua- 
OQim V. jCmtMow, 3d Id. M. 

>dr«nely, nn* kii a»a«rtioa of nowtMloa Inr 

wonburaclloa; San /VnnciHVV. FM*, SJCti. 

319. But naUuncu iii>^i) |>r«uiiMfl it not tnilia. 

penaable to tlwir actnal pouonion; Orajfr. 

CMm, 4'2 Id. 153. Th«a«t* of oMTiorshipMid 

dotsiiiiaa over land whkh may b« sufliwMit to 
. MMtltDlo an aotual poMeaaaon \»tj ocoordiog 
I'to Uio omlitlon, ilic, and locality of the tract: 
f^n'tKayim v. BraJtSate. 39 Id. '2^. It nwy 

t ' " i^lioul (cuoca or innlotumi It'f'nriy 

s . ;, ■H IJ. 246. Altlioiigli a mibttan- 

iiai artiiiciBl iiKlo*ttra arouail Ili<> oiitin tncl 

MastitutA actual pomMJon i Uriimt»sim v. 

JBrorfalaw, taunt axnbt aliar* aomo of tba 

tmet i* iMt dained, and niacli U in tlio actual 

82&. Whal cenititutts adivne pottetfton under claim f^f lilh not mr&tm, 

8io. 326. For tbo |>uq>OBo of oonititaUDg au ftdvonto {yMiioHaioD b^ n per- 
■on claiming tiUu, uol foniidtHl upuo a writtea iantnintent, judj^ueot, or dDcrw, 
loDtl » dtwiDMl to luTV 1m»d poiacB8ed and occupied iu thcfoUowingCMeacnlj: 

1. WWro it bns boeu protected bj » Bubatanliid iocloaure; 

3. Wli«rB it baa been tmanlly cultirated or Improved. 

PirOTi<)Ad. hoircver, that in no case ahall advene posaeinrion bo eoriKidetvd 
wtabliidted under tlio prorisiou of nujr aeotion or eoRtiona of tbia eodc, unlnaa 
It nholl bo hIiuwu Ibat Ibo land lioa been ocoupiei! and clniucil for (hit pirrtod uf 
fivA jean coiitinuouttlj, and tbci patiy or pcraous, iLeir pri'dcoaRaom and ^rrunb- 
om, havo paid all tbo taxes, etato, oouutjr, or inuoicipol, wbioh havo been Ivrivd 
and aMMMMed upon aueb laud. [Atnmdmmt, oj/proved April 1, 1878; Anuntd- 
nenft 18T7-8, 9D; loiA efftxA tixtidh day after pauage.] 

Att««M pOM— iOMi Sm teo. 931. For • 
verj dear Mimnar]; of tlia elenMota rwninto 
to an advma poooBioa, aM I^upcr v. J/ooory, 

Actual poae f I on: ,Sco die aot«* (Aacea. 

ColoToltltle: Sm aae. 331, not*. 
lMf[>Bttti»^ M/ri* apOd laad doaanotaaiMBt 
to co«9f<liaan with aay of tlio proriakina c{ 
iliixvctioat Wotnlnif v. Xoril motm^/UdJl. 
'Co.. I W.atCoaat Rtp. 1.S3. 

Pajrmanc of taxes.— Tbe prorwo in tb» 
afcovo MCtion waa added by the anwadmcnt of 
tsys, but u'u not deutKO to bo rctnMCtive: 
t£Ai.1>v. Ar.F,,l,«UiNaiCaL28S: C. P.B. B. 
Co. t. .^A'vl<'/■■nJ, 03 Id. 281. In tho femur 
SM tlx) Tutire liiao baj run before lb* aaiend- 
■I *aa tttofAri. aad ia Ibo Uu«r It bail 
~ r ran. To tb« fomiar tl>e Aacndiaxit did 
tan apply: to tbo lattor it apjitioil oaly to 
' ladi portloo >>( tbo fire ytan aa waa to ran 
after IIh amaadniBnt took vlhot. Adrena 
fOMMaioB WM Dot maHo out in i/Ctmmor x. 
T^, U> t, aa Ibo dctcnlaat failed to pajr 

lassa. Soi Wtbb v. Ctark. I Weat Oooat Rop. 
SSI. All toxn aaatBed innrt b« paid, irlictlior 
aaaaiwd to tbo a<lTcr*i> (Jaimant or not; it it 
notcnooijb ita bio to [dy onlr tiic toica na- 
aticJ In bia Bame: S^m 1, Seaiu, 3 Wtwt 
Coaat Bop. 428. 

ThonaTmaDt oj tazoa brono ootof pa w 
aloa adda uotbing to bia nobta as ajtalnit tba 
nniamian of anolbori Ztacu v. Uayjli, £0 CoL 


"I^ctDal I'o«Miaian.'' Soe alio Zt'iiiit t. Bog. 
rri. 3 Wat Cout l;cp. 400 (C. C. Or.). «bero 
It b wd: "None of Um oatboriliea deny llio 
canal effioaov, witb aa artideial in«kHUro, of 
othM-deSncd bouudnncaot wcana of iiuileat- 
lag tba lloiita of a tract to wbicb tlw nuw«o- 
•iou of tba orcDpoat ax(«Bda.* And lliura it 
ia bttBatvd tbat natural objocta, •• rai inca, 
w«t«(osar«r«, ami tho lilcv, au'I fitnowa, 
moaada at abort diataaoM apart, lincauf win, 
and nwajr otber (levicea not atriolly osDBiitaU 
fag an indooara, najr eqaaUf anawur tha 

S26, Jiriation nf Uatdlurd and tmant n« ti^fvUng advene po u n ti on. 

Sm. sua. 'WIhtd tb« rttUtion of landlord nnd t«DUtt baa cxiatod botwocn any 
poncDt. l]t» po aafai on of tbo tenant in dMiaed tha poaaeaaion of tbo laiullord 
until ttio I'xpiratti'n of fivo jrtors from tha torminnttMn of tbfi ti>nan<-T, or, «rh<^ 
tb<-n> luui htfa no whttvn ]tuso, tmtil tbo (-xpiraliui) of Cvo ymn from tlit.- liiiio 
of tba lut paTiatDt at runt, iiotwithatanding that aucb teuatit way have octtuirod 


user. 3ffi 


[Paut n, Tttle Hi 

another title, or may have claimed lo bold adversely to hi« landlunL 

preauiuptions cannot l>e made after the periods herein limited. 

UmlUUoiM bMwnoa IniMUwd wid t»a- 
■Dt.— Til* aU>i(« icctioa, tfic muav m tbv foir- 
ifTt:iIi Hoiioa of tli« (tatwta of linutatioM 
<ivi' Stat l8S0,p. Ml).uttiiucofnnctiI«i]upMi 
in Lairfwe r. Wtl^tr, 44 GJ. SSfl: '"nio 
rffcrl (4 tlia latter cUiiae of t&o KClJoii, lu 
Itmiliug uu) cuttina off, at Ifao ]icrioil> lucii- 
tiooKl, titc ^«niiiB)ptloii tliKt tlic fitmBuiou ot 
tlvc tuuuii u tbo potatMion at lil« Uiwllonl, U 

But Buoh 

t9 nquira tW lunllord, la eM« tbe t«Mtil ha* 
ae<|nircd au>cdh«r title, or bu held tdvcncly Ui 
kica, U> rtly apoo tillo axclunlrs of tlic Icnao." 
See irulf, ".Advene Pontiittian." 

Teuant la Mtoppcd to deny tandlOTd'a 
titia: Soe p»<f, BTc. VMi. miUI. -t. A uuuuit 
caiioot Kt up title ^aiiiM l>ii laaitlonl vitk- 
out lint lumndoriM poMHSioni 7«ciU«ryv, 
J/^ra/, 33 Cal. ^ 

3S7. Ili'fhttt/' poeaeMiOn not affected try detcent caet. 

, Sec. 327. "the right ot a perwD to tJie poesession ot real proper^ ia not im- 
ptiirod or nffpctcd by a descant cast in coasequence of tbfl death of a pcraon in 
posHcssion of mich property. 

328. Certain ilUobilit'nv cxctuded/rom time to commence adioM. 

Sbo. 328. IS a p«n»oii entitled to commcnco an action tor the recorety of 
real property, or for tbo recovcrj- of tb« potwoiwion tliereof, or to iiiabe any 
entry or dcfittiiw founded on tha titlo to nml properly, or lo rente or services 
out uf tlio Name, bo at the timo Much title fintt ilMoendft or aocrues, either: 

1. Witliiii theogeof mnjurity; or, 

'S. Inaaue; or, 

S. IniprisioDMl on a criminal charge, or in cxoentlon, tipoQ oosTietioa of ft 
criniiDal ofTenac, for a terra lc«a than for life; or, 

4. A married wotaan, and her husibaiid be a neeeaaair par^ with her in 
oomnieucing such action or malciuj; auch entry or defense; 
— Th<* time during which autb disability conlinuea ia not deemed any portion 
ot the time in this chapter limited (or the oonuuencement of such action or the 
making ot such entry or defense; but Buch action ma; be commencod, or onlry 
or defense ntade, within the period of fire years after such disability ahall cauto, 
or after the death of the pereon entitled who ahall die under isuch diKability; 
bat such action shall not be conuneuced, or entt; or defense made, aitvv Uiot 

Sbv iiIm Mif , IOC. SMi. 

XHaabUmaa.— Tu atop tbo niiining of the 
MalDtr, tt)« ilLubilitT relied upoD muat bavn 
niHU-t at Ihe time tlie riglil to lao Occructl. 
Vviieii tliu nUtuto bw once tominenoed to nin, 
■uUviHviit (liaabilitiM «-ill not atoji It, iinl*u 
expT<9(Iy 00 provided hy atatatc: Seo Mm, 
UDtkr "Infutta;" t/oyoa v. Kuri:, )M IT, S. 
7T3: lt'X/-iuan v. Broicnhnj, 31 Atk. Si'A: WaH* 
V. «vpr», ;.M Mlw. Ml; Un'-tm i', Ihtiiilfu. 51 
Irl. ISO: llt>:l-) \. .liAman, Fi.X I'n. K(. 90; K'*- 
lltf V, lliftih. "j Inil, l"7j \ViJo.i'i Liiiirtalion 
of Artti'iia, «e«. CdIim. 

SutMl 1. Intanta.— Tlio statute Aatm not 
run agniii'I »» infnnt ii|>on whoae Und the d«< 
feuilani )>>■ ■-iitcrwl, until tlia «xpimtJ<iD ot 
tlifl noiia)^ lluri'/M v. y^'^'icoMn, SI Oal. 138; 
C'/»*<-y V. Dotvi, Ul III. M". Tlicre U a dlffop- 
eiivc uf opiuiuii in aaics where land liaa da- 
Laeoxlnt to the infant, ngninvt whnu anr-tnlor 
lfjM>tututi> lia* oomiDiuiced to niii. In *cniio 
■tat(« it will c«Btioii« to ran BSBiii«l tliu livir 
iiotvithntindiim hi* tntoncv; iiamWi t. Dng, 
III .Mil 431: Breemau x, bratruiug, 31 Ark. 
Sm-. Royrn t. fliwru, ai Mo. ISTi Iltviy v. 
CtiW'O, SO IV St. 907. In otiiers. it will not: 
Liul-lv J'irit'«». -I.liia. 2S8j Sonlhr. TAimo*. 
7 K Mon. uU. lo Koutauky, howci-cr, if tlia 

tnfant takn W pnrohau, tfao atatui* irlll con> 
tinoo to run: I'atltrton v. llaiiMl. 4 Budti liAi. 
L'[wa another imfiortant liraauli uf tliis aubJMt 
tbo courts art iliriJed: i. r.. upon the 'luoatioa 
wliolhor Ihv italatc will run wheie the infant 
■• Toprtauital by n tnutm or guuilian. Soma 
(laci«Ui[i> tay tlut it uilli I/aruiH v. A'laim, 
ID B. Mon.V7.t: 'uj"' v. /T'Mii*. )!i Lo. Ann. 
523; Croat v.O'Unii, 30 Md. .Vi; II •Uvffitiitg V. 
Il-K. 33 Conn. 07. Utije™ hold tliat the nog. 
loot of tlie r«iirewntativa to tiM will^ot pr«ia- 
di»i tlio infant, who cnny briay lii* ocUOB 
witbio tile (tatntory tinie oltOT n-nchliiic iiiajur- 
ity: il^OT r. iValiu. IS Ala. 4.>S; Uiirwu t. 
<fna/.-2S Miu, NO; PMman v. MtVMhi.SS 
IiL 220: Srt/orJ v. AWm, M Id. 13: /'«u-* v. 
SMrby. 31 Id. 3»l ) Liug v. irOfinsu' titirt, 8 
Tti, IS-J, 

Subd. 2. loHntty—That the xtatoto dOM 
iivi mo mitil 111* diKiUlity i* irmorwi, »c« 
Ifirlxn' V. Ji:lt:iAi-«. 7 U». 4*4;'t' V. DtitCn' 
iivj. 37 N. H. 3i5: Snt^r t. U-vir, 3" Tc».CJ6, 
an nction for injury reiiiltiu); in toinporary 
mental denmgein«Dt. rcnona deaf anil dniab 
»te j-ri-nn /arit not fomp<H lunrfM, and lb* 
Btatuto iloci not ran unlew they are dIikwii to 
have DUtlicitaic intellect to nndrntuid tli«ir 
rigliCa and UabUiCica: (Mi'ivr v. iki^T/, S3 He 



SOD. KabM>qii(iit iiiunilr will not KVin th« 
nimuiK u( lltr *lalulc. I'fnrt T. Tmil, I JilcM. 
(Ky.) K: .itli* V. .Vovn-. i Allan. UMI: l^»/^n 
T. A'ordiit. M \'l, 670, ' VMiitu iiiiuiiltjr kiiil 
fnn>l cunrnr, tliv tlirtv yt«n' liinication (ran 
ttr .liH'KKcy uf tlir [rniiil. ntter tb« imutlty 
it mv'-i'i'rl. n[-|)lif*: Crutrdtrr 1. XoutUnttlMm, 
21 1 il :*»! 

BiiUd. 3. Impri»oiim«nt:S«e\VoodanIiin- 
itatioiii. ii-ti. '241. 

Subd. 4. CQvanu».-The du«biltt]raf oo- 
vtrtBre nt> longer eiiiti in tluni (bl«a »nd 
in lliow ftotiotu tlwroiii where it u pcrmittei) 
tu a nunrlcil ■'omvi lo no akiiic. In the 
•toha r)cin>Miit«J 1>y tbo (ottowinn adjadJoa- 
tiirua B >Vinp itxr't U taken c>u( u( tlin Ckovp- 
tlDU t« (lir ninnlncof tli« lUCnt* <n tUl oum 
wlivru li«r huvKluiir it not a D(ioa«Miry P^rty to 
Uxt aotiuQ : Arnm> v. OrigliS, ti Cal. 403; Wil- 
ton y. H'ilMiii, 30 111. till VamtT'iH v. Smith, 
SO 111. 30.1: Oiufncr v. n'tJrod, 63 III. 171 1 
Omira v. C^iumA, 5) KIc. 301 ; Hall v. BsHonl, 
mUkrh. 141 1 i>tiitA<uHT. ,^e. 6Lani.4S;0M 
V. fntmrr. I Cin. Supor. Ct. 424. AlUiou^ib 
MmoaNirtBdotiotTOiicnrtatliUopliikiiii, tmlher 
MUiiiig tfaat the rlglic to auu alou* la a [irit 1- 
hfa givim tnilin wil* whloh (loM not onralo 
to bar prDjiwlloc iliuulil «lw not oiarclM it: 
Mtljomjtiliik r. Ainigtrr, G7 Mb*. 618; SlaU 
V. Tmttmitn, n ». C. 5fi1. Mani«d woiaaik 
M • [«rty: 8e» po*(, iwa. 370, 371. 

Abaat>c« bom bUW: 8co.)i»^, (mi. 381, 
and Boio. 
Siicc«adv« aiubUitiM: Hm jkm, tw. 338, 

MXl MOlO. 

How tar dianbOltx of am MODoti righla 
of oth«ta.— \\'Im«)' Ilia ri|;lita at ibii pariiwa 
nir iM ji'iiil, t)ii> iliiululit'i' of oiw <A lliu nnm- 
W «itl ■('>(> til* nlimin;; ol tlis ttntnta an to 
liiin, l<ut nut u til tl>r utiient: Dauirl r. Ihig. 
ftl Ala. 431 1 Wilder v. Jkfayo, 23 Ark. 3Ut 
Stoval V. CaniurAoW, 52 T«. 383: J'rttrt r. 
Jva/t> Si Iowa, 513: Pnidtryatt v. Oollait. 
10 Qa. 218. n'bcr« tb« rybta are joint, iwnio 
atatai hold II on* ia Wrrvil all arc t»ni-il. not- 
wltbtUoding; the dliobiJily <A toio lA tb«ir 
noiabitr: HnnttiaitK v. Sin*. 3 Ala. 747; Jor- 
Ja» 1. AfiK-iKir. 30 Mia*. 33; Moarr v. Cal- 
nri, 8 Bi»l>, 2JSi ifwmu v. Anrf, 2 Kiwi. 
270; /fi-fc" V, /Wot, 3 Mnrpli, 577; we Pme- 
man on <.'otouaaay nml I'urtilinii, 37.'i: wlnlo 
other (tnloi lay that tlie cliinbilily uf uiio 
piotecta all jiibtly intcMttd willi him; lliddle 
r. Bolt. 24 Oliio Si. 572; frktt t. llamiUou. 2 
Tyler, i«i nud »« B-yerl v. r»niii/#n, 10 N. 
■i. 117. 

When all tbo poitlM tat laWraat labor 
ondcrdlaaUUllai^ tbe itatatodoea bot ruu nn- 
til all tho dinUUtJaa have bean romarod : .^Aont 
t . ttW<, 6 Voro. 1; UaMtrt v. fJunii, 30 Mia*. 
204; Stag t. Baeon, 4 &io«J, t)0; J/oar« v. 
C'MtcvTf. fl Buab, 3G& 




885. Periodt of timilation prvscribat. 

Sko. 335. The pohods prescribed for tbe comrQenoement of actions otlior 
than for tiw rtM^tTur}' of nsl property are as folloiTB: 

AoUom wtU not be barred iinl«« tha H'hiltomi r. MrCOatntl, I WMit OoHt R<p, 
widcncoahowawlivu tlioatotutabvpoa tonini 870] JforUmt.ZMtiinKhfW FM.C.L. J. SCO, 

Wiihin/ivr years. 
Sec. 336. WiUun five ycftrn: 

1 , An actioti upon a jiid^meut or deonw of any court of the Unitecl States, or 
of alt}- atato witUin the United Statca; 

2. An aotioii for meaoe proSta of real proportj. {AmenHmerU, opproved 
il'inh 24, 1«74; vdMffndmwtte 1873-1, 2ai; took effect Juh, 1 , 1874.1 

Actiona oo jud gm a n f .— In TVihouIA *. 
Farri-if/ion, M (Sil, S73. tlii- Bcnrrt <|ualod the 
|it«vith>n> of tliK MM^iun. ■Dbdiviuon I, anil 
aaxl: "'I'Im jiMl|cni«nt hare t|»keii of U a cnni. 
|>lalo jD<lf>nM«t, emo that bu liora nduurU tn 
a tatuiibln toTni—a rrcord. Id tho caaa at bar 
ll will tn obwrvcd that the court did iiot llaaU 
tnler jadgiSFnt. It only imUivd tliat Jndg- 
mcnt l« iDicmL Thia waa not in (act ituns 
niitil tivc days aftomxU, whoii (nr lli« linit 
Uoao jnlgmcnt hrcain* a matter uf riirord and 
a oogaplote and Itual Jqd^iAMit. I n onr opiaiDb, 
It wai front Uil* datn ibat tbo aututo bmui to 
ma. And wa Fartt r. n'UHam,. T CaCSl?: 
and Af-timt v, Cnmitr, 20 M. 21 1 1 .WoiXr. ilaey, 
92 111, tH~, U'l>„ii a )iiitgnieol ii Klxlcrcd 
payable in liut-Ulniciita, Uie tun* be[,-iiu to run 

from tho jxrind fixal lor the paytnMit of each 
initallniRit ■* U (alli ilue: /V Cfrry v. Da 
Vfrrff, 2,1 111. 3S2. Inthcuato at nu iiiiutiaQed 

l>al^uiu« Ml llie tortcloMnra ot a mortcauo, tUo 
»tatnt* runt Iron) ibo jiulgmant ot foraElonUA 
and not from the dntvof docltoting the buIoDCo: 
Bovftrt V. CVnry, 30 Cal. 021; but an CAap4M 
r. Bndrr. 18 Id. 493. 

Hauta and proSla.— Formerly iii au aotloa 
of cieotmoiit Witt, damaftia aekoil, tneauired 
by the value oi the rrnta nud prulila, tli" I'Uint- 
iff ooujcl rPtovrr onl^ »iieh ai liiul BwruiKl 
within three ynara pi-tor to tile commrtHiraiFnt 
of the aclloolf the (latate wm iilendaili CVtf- 
■irMir*- V. .WbfAcfJ, 29 CaL 330; ,Law V. SterMT. 
31 Id. 4$T. 




[Pa« n, Tm« n, 

337. Willnn/our ijfan. 

SkU. 3:)7. Witliin toar jaani 

An notion upon ftny contract, obligntiun, or liability, foundod upon on iufltru- 
Eurnt iu writing i.'X(«<iit«d in this utatv. \.imtfn<{ou'nl, nypn/txil March 2-1, ISli; 
AaumtmmU IKTS-t, 21)1 ; look rf'^ July 1, 187*. | 

Pout jream' UnltaUon ; liwtnun«ntlii writ- 
ing. —I'h la •notina nif«n M c<>iiti'D>;l', oIjIIki- 
tKiiin, anil IiabilittMi mling iu ur j[n>win{; out 
of uilliiii iiikiiiiitiiiiila imiunliatoly. Tliuatlia 
oU]i|fiti.iu rif till' i<rii><'ilul,uii a nnt« ti> )ny tlia 
tunitj. wIlo li.ui Kitittiiitl lli« jiiilvniviit lu- 
oii'i'ii-rl .i^kitiMt tlioiK. It Dol t<iuii<]e(l uiiiin a.n 
iitilfiiiii»nt ID wntin|!i CJiipmitu r. Mvrrill. 
30 CI. 131. And IU la tliu niOHms ot the 
■Utiiti.- Bj^listmirctira. ICO />iuiof T. Aru^iiK/v. 
U) I<i. i'AK But ilia alili{;atiDii of a itiirctty uii 
■ Iniii.l givi-ii tanccurv tho faitli/ul pcrforniiuioc 
of llin i<iLiivi]wI'ii liMy Wiu lidil Dot to bn 
IvriiHl lot Iijiir yoirn (rum the aniruiU ot th« 
rul-it "f octiciii. Ill I'i.'tor A'. M. Co, v. Crottwrll, 
1 W«*t CuMi Kap. 42S. Til* follo«inc nlill^ 
tloiiH «*raiii>d(le^ (o liare nHiiuii outol writMii 
ui»lruii)Mit*i AuMnnta withthBwonLi "mijitoil 
Bad kiipruTcrl, uid cirtilipil to 1» outiiH't:'* 
Aunuotcim v. ilftiim, 9 L'at. .%7. f'ul>liBliviI uffnr 
olwwanlj/tpfrv.SwcKv.;/. l«Id. IM. Wh«™ 
the reward «-u "(oriuchinformatioaM would 
l»dtotlii->matiuid convklidnoftlicolFuiutur," 
the ■tnliite did oot run until coiit lotion. 
TliR board of trnnlcM ot a company made tho 

fMlUiwIujf onI(3: "Onl*r*d, tlial thaooniiieiuft- 3TSi Halliaieitu v. I'atKj-ton, 4^ lii.XX)'. liUff- 
Ijon of tlic prvaUciit of tli« liuan) ol IrUHlaM nin Bant v. ffOrady, 47 fd. ATO: PriidMon r, 
h* MtablutKil at llfty itollan per muiith." Koic^, 34 Id. 14(1, vih>>rn tlw nolo matnnO «ix 
Pnvloiu to that timi> thi'iu wiu iio ord«r, inDDtlu &tt«' dat". Whniv a niiM wm payahls 
rMolutiou, at tiy-lnw liiiiij; liig oimpunaalioii. kUmonthjaft^rdnte, iDtV[vttpiyal>ic mnnilil)*, 
Tlio court tiald that th« ontvr wan n cioutract and in default tliereuf tbo whuU Tniiiulnal aod 
in vriting within thv ttatutnr Ho'Umiii'jK t. iiitctiMttobecoiiieduciuidpByableiininaolataly, 
Sia*ii II. C. Co.. a Id. 5M. A receipt or the couh of action arisea at tlia exjilnitloii of 
iMikii"wl«li;iiicnl in writing for moDuy. whioh tha crodit 6ied by the ni>to, and not at tb« 

vorbnt itabt wm a contract "founded upun an 
ilMtruinnit iu wrltiiijj." See iJio S'kM v. 
C'lrriUu, 42 Id. 4{I3. whrrn tbu ni»rtt;affe 
«xwutvd by A thJTil pctHuii u'ait Ik^J not liaircd, 
DllLouj-h the payw o( tlii> iiiitH lind lunt bi* 
tights u^uinit tlic juyor liy •■i:iilti't|i: to iimirnt 
llie note to the ailmioistiator »( tliii [syur. wlia 
liad died. Aod an iroWi v. VoodMloa; 43 
Id. I8>\ whoi«adl*till«tiolli>al)oniaJelivtH'r«n 
the nnirt((«(ie i">d the mortK»(^ Jclit. Kvuvwal 

uivKu IU •eciiilly; I^mI v. .Varnll. -iH Id. 4^ 
The right of lioMora of other uola of the mort- 
gagor Ui r«la«<ni must be oofurucd witliin four 
jtam OntUan v. ICiyutu', i3 Id. Illi uid tea 
StptnoM r. Orrgnrv, 40 id. BSj SUfr t. JcifU, 
33 IiL O'J: 6'u<i<.i'ri^A<ini v. HniplAn», 34 I.L 403; 
4rrih<ilun v. l.won, 31 Id. SlUi. Kudomptioa 
of mcirttjige by niort^gur may b« witliin Bvo 
jronn: Sew /»•'. MCi. 3iC, 347. 

Abaeni^ o( martftar from «Ats: Sea. 
3U1. t«M. 

Proinlaaory aot«C — Action munt he bruught 
In four from innturity: flu it* t. Mnr'I^U, 
23 Ual. ±23; //rt-mii B.ii.* v. l/irbrrt. S3 Id. 


frU<i <»ntDiiii a gI&usc iiatins tliat the moDoy 
■NMelrrd ii to be applied to uio aecount of the 

Si^rwHi from whom received, uarlake* o( th* 
loilble nature ol a roodpt and eontr-Aot, aod 
ahoirii upon ic« laoe a liability to aocDunt, autl 
an actiiiii ii|Kii) It i* not liarrvd by the titalut« 
of UniitatiuiiK until fun r yenm luivo •xpliDdi 
AiUni r. VurHtr. 24 Id, 322. 

MotM MOtirod hf mOTtgAsa— If four yvnn 
vtipM from the maturity of the uute. the fore- 
olosurv proceedinc* are Uarred. "Wliire an 
action uixinapruminury note apcnrcd b^nmort- 
M^ot tliuaanw daUtupon ml property u barred 
fay our atatuto of limitationn. the reraeily upon 
the iiiDItgn«oia barred:" .Wfl'artAy v. ll'Aif.i, 21 
Cal. 4W: £or*i v. Morrit. in I.l. 4Wi /lt{<Ji» 

time of ilefnull in payment of int«re*ti Btfltit 
V. /Juiv, 34 Id. 242. On a baiiltor'ao«r1i6rala 
of dupcalt, pnyalile on demand, the atatuto 
run* from th« ilBto <il the mido: BruatMOitim "■ 
TaUmI, W IiL MS; but •>• /xHT. too. 3IS. U 
a eomplBint i* UDaoded by aDltinc out a new 
cauw of aatiuu on a pivmtMory note, the 
■tJitute runt up to tlie day ot flllnit the amend, 
meul: Ai'<ltrwi r. UiytrttM Id. fi'.iS; ami aoa 
il',1' V. S. /*. Ii. 11. Co.. 14 8. a S8. 

pTOmbaory noto* •xvoatad oat ot tha 
»tat«: Sve IPC. XiO, i'l/m. Whtn a note woa 
Klfen jiayabU upon tilt- yieldia){oE prulil to the 
maker from certain nitiiee, if the tnakei pula It 
out "( llin power to leceiie inch prol'it \iy con- 
veyiiiK the luiiina. the note becoinxn due. aail 


V. tVHTre, 22 id. lOOi Wormimlli i. lUUfh, 33* tliv *lnliitu rtiiin tiwn inch tsonveyuiue; VCiAf 
Id. 121: Cti»Bi\\gham r. //auuNiM. S4 Id. 4ti3, v. .Vrir.A, M lU. 'iiK. 

Tlu pica of the aUtuU la availablii to the 

•Mlcneo of the morteifior; MtCaiiijf r. IV'Aif', 

SI l<l. tK, Itiit if the action aKaintt the 

ID"li(p>ipfr I* Bdt liarred fur any reatuu, it ii 

'.not I inrmi against Ihegmnttool the mortgwoTt 

l£in;rtl V. A'MlrAiMMn. I Wait Coaat Hep, KM. 

'-In V. ir. Co, T, JV.r51.ft. FIttF. a,.. 2i Id. ft», 

it «aa heM that n mortgi^ gjien to accure a 

Coupoua on municipal bonda partake of 
the uutiiiu •>f tliv Ik)ik1ii to wludi thi'-y bcloag, 
and ore nut Imrrwl until the bomU are bariwd: 
Jfevrr r, I'orlrr, I NVeat t'luuil Kin>. I>74. . 

UodaxtBldiUB on appool : iivr pan, mu. (14 1 . 

Wlwro no UinltAtlon la otbetwlae pro- 
Vid*& Uie relief mti>t be aought in fuur yoora: 
Sec 313. 

838. It'irAtH Ihrt-e yean. 

Sec. 338. Witbin throe ymn: 

1. Au nction upoii a liability- oronUiil by statute, otber Hum a penalty or 

2. Au action for treflp«tas upon rcul properly; 




3. An scfJon for taking, detaiuin^r, or iiijuriug any giioda or vliuttela, includ- 
ing netions for Uie Biiecific recovery of pereoniJ properly; 

i. Au iiction for mlicf on the ground of fraud or miHtuke. The cause of ac- 
tion in HHcli CTWO not to bo d«oined to have accrued until Uie discovery, by 
the aggrii'vtd pnrty, «f Uio facta constitutiug the fraud or iniatake. 

Sabd. L UabllUj oiMted by atJAuta 
(nuiuilni tlia eUliii c>f a dbtriet ntlnmcy (or his 
oaiitniiMioii uu Jobu rsooverwl fur tlia ouuntri 
■iich ulaim fs *xttluiili'iily tbo urxitiini uf Ifac 
■lalnM: Higby y. Catarfnafe., ISCaI. ITSl 

it ali» l>) *talut« oi-FracB ORUOet tlio lUickhotJ- 
Fi» Civ. Code, tec. 322; nnd they remain •iwli 

■ 1r>>Ioin> tntil tho ililjt ii fojil or wliiQnd. 
\\ faiiivcr utiillu Di' MlincDuhn the tlobt oa 
tu the corpantiiiu ■.-itiiii;u>iJiu, alto, tlie Iia1>il- 
Ity <•! llie ktuoklinldoiii. Iftcauna tho crtilltor 
vail claim oiilv one aitlafoctioii of th« dnlit. 
But ■ niwpatialon of the ntinvily agitlDU lli« 
coqwiaUon ila«* imt extinKiiuli lliu dobt. aw\ 
tlMrcfor* thu linbitity i>( tliu ttwiLbuliUra ii 
«»*fl«v(«l> young V. Il-m-^avm, 30 Cal, O&L 
Jiiilgnxnt Mf^iniit tlia corporatjun 'loon Dot 
o|trra'r to uroloiig tlic time ill wliich ■» nution 
iiii^i.t 1m: bnugbt aciUlut tlia atockfaolilcn; 
S'i'i Am V. IFare. M IJ. 1 1 1 . Sua poti. ico. 300. 
(or Mclioo applicable to corporBIc liability. 

All netloa wai conunoncvn PeLniary 9, 18"!!, 
kf^lnit a (orinar tnnaiircr of Placer county aa 

Iiiinclpal. aiid other tl»friiilanta aa •tirwllM, on 
I a (xinil, vrhlcli o-o* givoti to th« iital« 
o4 Cal (uniia, ami Ibvru(uri), indapfnilaiit ut 
•'alu.v, thu «tnto aloue ooulil niniiitain an ou- 
tiuD upin it. It nan argiicd tliat tho action 
waa ''npcdi a lialiibt^- vntalcil by ■tattitc." 
But Iho court bcl'J thia iiontion conW not be 
maioloiiKd. Tlic bond boinu ■Igncd by the 
t1cfcn<l<iit> and munins to the iico[iIc m the 
ataiR o( California aa tho ob!lj[ce tborein. the 
CMlllty ft Piaugr had a rtuht to maintain aa 
action for any br«uili of It* condition*: Pol, 
CMlfiMcSei; tif H'hlvli an injury had boon miM- 
taftied by tho oountyi Hanr Co. v. Dkbtrtou, 
■U Cal. 14. 
etatntorjr panalty: Sm im. 310, aubd. 1, 

Subd. Z Tr«apaaa on roal property.— 
Staliile runs t<> tbt- libng uC tb(< nuiFiitlpd oom- 
(•Uinl u to land Ihenrin contained vrbich waa 
oiniiCe't from the ot^Rinat comitlatDt: .-KHuon 
1. A A- X, Canal 'c , M t'ai, 102. 

Subd. 3. AcUona relAtiag to personalty. 
In caaa of a wroiiKfnl tranakr by a iilodjoi-, the 
action anin*! tbo tranalaree aoomea at tho 
tacunont lia obtalna poMi rtalon, and not from 
tbo time of a kubwiiitciil utlo by hint td tlie 

pt^ilxirty: Hnrprailhii) V. Mrt/rr, BS Cat, BM. 

Wh«f«a (on, thoa(piil«f hii molhur, took 
dtwU la Ilia awn name of Innda lioticbl with 
bis motbor'a monny. ths vlaliitv wga held not 
to luii iiiilil khu iliKOvcrrd llii( fact: Itrilz 
T. HiU:. 80 N. V. fiUg. Itut compare tliU cue 
with fafr V, TSonpmn, 87 IJ. 150, where, in 
aa action tu m»vcr from an n^nt money inio- 
approprtated by him. fraud wu declared nut 
loW tlic boaia of the action. 

Wbvro the maker of n iiotti fraudulently pro- 
CUrca ]io» M i»lon ol the aainu uxl ri'taiiiii it 
until action on it would Iw biu-ri'il, the owner 
thi>r»0( will iieTfrllieltm luvvu hi* action fur 
Uio doorit: CixkrUI t. ffnU, 3 Wa»tCMut R<i>. 

Sutjd. 4. Fraud or niataka.— n^icre reli<f 

U aouglit uii the gnnin<l of fraud, tbu •CBtnta 
doc* nut begin to rati until the diicoreiy of 
the Imud: Vurrty r. Allm, 3i Cal. K*: Alitor* 
V. iloort.iO Id.M: Ceia t.JoMt, H Pac. C. L. J. 
lOU. That ia, diarovcry of *ucli facta aa would 

imt a pcraon of onlinary iiitelll|!aiKC and pni> 
lunco on iiiijuiry: Ito^d i. iifiiiilwidii, SilCal. 
ID. Wbcro one i* inducol to liau writiuz* of 
wboMContonlaabo in ijiiioianti wbomliy a ^a<ii) 
1* ptrntlrattd, on action wlihtn tbroc yttm 
trota tbo dlsoovery o( tb« nutor* of tlio ma- 
trnta iit in time: JfoerF t, J/oorr, txpnt. It hi 
not tuch a fraud a* tlila tivotion aoiit«niplati>, 
tbat by a moret agrMiiicnt bntvHn Ihc incnL- 
bpra at a l^rtn u'itli nbum (be plaintiff trutvt 
one of their number wai not to be disuliiBi<J: 
Soalt V. AtHiinoH. 18 IiL 235. Juilgiiieiit ctfU- 
itoii of a deocdi-Dt who hod (rauilialc^Dtly con- 
veyed realty mny liring action within tliire 
yran (rom the rvcotrrr of tlicir iudjtnicuta: 
forvW V. Kxnopt T. Co., BO Id. 239. 

Nor haa tJil* proviiloa relation to an cqiilta- 
blo prDCwding to wt aaido a fiaiiilnlcnt lUod 
of real cat«C«, « lien tbo effuct of it bt to reatom 
Uio poMtmioD of Iliv iininiitra to tliv dofraiidot 
party. lu audi a cow tho action ia really an 
action for tin.- teoovvry ot rMt Mlatei (^^Ua»•^ 
V. Caritntirr, 1.1 Cal. S52. So wlipiti the 
plaiDtiS' creki to eet aiida anil (aLiuut cifrlaia 
Convoyiuices, apva the ^tuund t-f tlierv btine a 
cloud on hii litJc, ftnd Iraoduleiit. this lectioa 
doc* not apply. "Fraud ia not a uniitTwl 
chamctcriMIc of tho action:'' SUifu> v, Thomp- 
ton, 32 lU. SUO; oomnare with /'tyjj!' v. lUnnt- 
niiAt/i. T\'l Id. till), where an action by lliontate 
to caiii:>'l a )inliiut wn* •luiiinri(xl nut of court. 
It not liuviuK Iwfii btoujtht within tiiree yeata 
from thu dincoi'VTy uf the fraud. 

Vamtnitlin /rnuilt ■» tiiotudvd in this lOc- 
tioa: Boyd v. Illnnkman, 20 Cal. 19. 

/wunKiu anrf /ran if. — Whilo tho platiitifTwai 
temporanly intanv. tbo fmuil oonijilniiii'il (■( 
wn* pnicciocd. After rccorn-ing bit rcaMin, 
and wilhin three year* from dincuvirrinif the 
fmu'l. tlicncliou wan broughl, and ua* -leclnred 
In •ftiuoh: Crotdlttr x. Rtitelaiulw". 27 Cnl. SHi. 

Pleadliif. — A complaint ■lionldntatetbedia- 
oovory of tho act* fonacituling the fraud com- 

?1ained of within the three year*: .'inlilrUr v. 
'iiinry. Cal. i'2!ii bat in a ciiae where the 
dincovery witliin tlire* >*an waa avi-rn-d In 
g«n«al term* in tlin replication, and the Imuu 
thereupon wus trin) withcnit objvclioii m tha 
court below, the liodiugi vera tak^u nn it 
mnrle upon an isauo properly raitoil by the 
pUadioc*: BogJ v. lllaiilfrHin, 211 Id. 44. 
Proud :n connn-tion with mortgagei Sev. ITO, 
noto. "Limitation." 

Sen alao ''0(0 v. Joatt, » Pac C, L. J. 1014, 
and .Viibrr v. .Voort, SC CaL 89, for caii*iilein. 
tioniuf tbo auiDclencyof pleading in acttiiijt out 
the diiii'ovury iif the fraud; there libei'alily in 
th« ooiitlnK^tiim of the pleadiajf wh favoml. 
For wuit of proper allentlona in thli partiou- 
Inr tho Domplaiiit wan neld Impcvfect. la tit 
Boy V. Mumen, » Id. SU. 

CbDK Ov. raoa— 7 




[Part II, Titlb It. 

ExMUtor or admlolatiator.— Litniutioa 
of actiunn lo act Midn *oIq, tbfM ftuti 8a«a. 
li'ti. 1^90. /xur, and doIm. 

Oorporatlaiiu and stookliolden, Umlte- 
Uoii tut rtgiKtla tbnai St* jxvf, mk. 3ri9. 

333. Wilhin tico yatn, 

Hrx. Sftd. WHIiin t.wo yean: 

1. An nctjon iipun n contract, obligntioR, or lutbilitj, not founded apon an 
iiiHtrtiaicnt of writing, or found<!(l upon nu iufttnuii«ut of writing escXiteil out 
of th« Mute; 

3. An action agttiiixt it HhcrifT, coroner, or constable, upon a liability incurred 
by Uie doinif of An act in Itia offit^ial capacity, and in virtue of bis offioe, or by 
the omisHion of an offieiiil duty, including the non-payment of money collected 
upon an execution; but this subJiviwon does not apply to an action for ou 

3. An action to recover damages for the death of one caused by tfaa wTX>ng(ul 
act or neglect of another. \Jmmdmtnt, approved Man-h 34, 1874; Amiinitm<ml« 
1873-4, 291; look rfcd Juii/ 1. 1874.1 

tioni Bt law a^rittilly, (idm Motion 349 flxM 
Iho time witbin which certain bills in wquily 
amy bo HIikI." Tbit i^iiiioD givca ■ very in- 
tcrating >kct<h ol tbe hintory of our ItciHU- 
tion njion tbia •uhjoot. The won! '■ lialnlity " 
horeUMKli>>l*o«oiuidcfviliii Woody.CMrrrf.SJ 
Id. 208, whmt) an action for wmagfuUy kvy- 

Subd. X. OontTnota not la wrtUag.— Aa 
uaiiiiiIm oH verbal oontrnota, recovery oa 
wliivli fata b«en dtclarcd birred in two yean, 
•n- />■ Ml! Ualter </ Oalciu't H'tale, 51 Col. 
213, a <nH ot iDonGy louicd, where the itatuto 
Vi'ai bold to nm from tho time ot tho loan; 
AMiy t. ViKhrr, !!4 Id. 322, a ban where a 
IDFri< rvcoljil fi>r tlin Mnin wui not dccmod 
nti liixlniiDvnt in writii'U uil.biii tha meaning 
o( Ilia «tatiil«i ShrnnxM v. t>uahar, 6 Id, M, 
kikI ('Ai/'iHRu V. iloi-nll, '20 Id. ISO, mUod* 
of a-nmi/fil U' iDforuu oonlributioa from a oo- 
dublin: TWuWv, Sonora M. Co.. IT U. CM, 
Ai/'uns V, PalUruni. 33 Id, 12% a giinple aa- 
count; Krll'Tv, //i«t<.?2Id.4ST, monvyhadiuid 
nviivadj J'imfnidlr. Son /nuinxD.Sl Id, 5AI, r. Pio Pico, i', Id. 102. odntmot of 

\Vlicr« the malMr ot ■ note vorUally asmia 
to fiimiih i;ood]i to thu ImUer to the value 
Ihiri'iif. aad ilooa *n, ho uauuot, after the ex- 
[ilroUi-n iif two )'oir>i M*k to linvu Ibu iioto 
uiric-'li'd <ici lh« KTOund of luch verbal a((n>»- 
iiiuiit; ISatft 1. I.aitr, 400*1. 200. 

S|»H~il>u I'lifciruvinvtit n( verbal eoutract to 
cciimy land: lM"-'lt v. Kier, SO Cat. MC, and 
Ikitt^iti. Clirt, IT Id. 58A, wlieraaaab a caw 
la ili'vliinvl to fall v-iihin ■ection 343. 

Uutiuil aooOuntL Sec /kmT, aee. M4. 

UAblUty scnondly not EaoDded oa writ 
teulnatramcnt.— The plninliffin i'Ulrrx. S. 
i\ U. H. Co., 62 Cal. i£ bruaBbt an action to 
recivvr iLoinoKMi for injuriea nocainonnl by a 
oollition mure Ihan two yean before the flllna 
of til* cumpkint. TIm atalnte tra* plondOiL 
Bay the court; " Woaroof opinion that the two 
ynan' Uniitation found iu tho flrtt claoM ot 
tlie firat lulxliviaion ai Mctioii !t3U la apiiHcablu 
to all actiun* at law not •|i«cifi{ially nirnliou«d 
la otbnr portion* of the alatato. We aay a«- 


Ins an execution on a jad^nieait alnwdy tatia- 
Km wa* hiM b«n«d within two ycar> Iram thtt 
l«ry, notwithalMtding; tb« pandcncy of Injunc- 
lioA proovwliagi to rMtrala tit* I«vy of the ei»* 

Actiono for malicioua proMmtion tall within 
tliia mtKlivuiioii: Sharpy. dfiUrr, M Cnl. 32!); 
Ajtdirton v. Colenttut, M Id. 1?4. And sri ac- 
tion for malidoadv tainK ont a writ of in- 
i unction muaC be brouijlit within tu-i> yenni 
rr>m it« diuolution: if brought alter thnt tinit', 
althuuKh within two ycara wnm tho jud ({incut 
for diileiiilaiit, tl will lie borred: Aifl'rtoit v. 

luatrument executed out ot the atate. — 
A toreigo Judjiiiiucil ilmu iti.t (all witliin tlila 
oatvipiry: Palira v, Kay, 4 (Jil. 'i17. 

Subd. 3l Injury oaualng doatb: tlmjamin 
v. A7i/ri(/irr. 50 Cal. 012, 'I'liii timw (■( aclion 
accrual at lhi> death (^ lh<- i>ijiir*d gurly: Id. 
WliePc the death ocpiirn-il i-ti'ir li> l)n' a<l<ii.tiun 
of the cirni(.i. imdpr a atatutv liiKiliQ^ tlie right 
ol action tl;vrufurtotwi>ycDn. tlkit euQitj c.taridi^ 
cidrd tiiat Ihc oiidr did net k'lij^'lht-n tlir time. 

8ubd. 3. Actions iva™t siMttila, etc. 

In cfratiinriily with the apirit of thin apetion, 
the aujin-iue toutt, in Pitfjr v. CarrtJi, 111 CaL 
'ill, Imld thut uRlioiia ati:«init the aherilf and 
hia aurvti** uu hia (•Iliiual bond must be biroaglit 
witliin two y«an (r»Di tho time tlie action ac- 

AcUona for Aaoopo: Sao ii(/ni, •<«. S40, 
■ul^i. i. 

840. Wilkin one year. 

Sko. 340, Within one year: 

1. An action upon a Htatuto for m penalty or forfeiture, wbcn the action is 
given to an individual, or to an individuiU and tbo utatc, except wbcn the atat- 
ute imposing it preecribes a different liinilution ; 

i. An action ujiou n atatut*.', or upon an uiidcrtokiag la a ert&uual action, 
for n forfeiture or penalty to the people of thia stuto; 


3. A.D action for libel, Hlatnlvr, assault, b&tbir}', false impriBonmeDt, or se- 

4. An action ogntRHt a shfiriff, or other offiocr, for tlie e»cap« of a prboner, 
Rmsted or impri»on4td on dvjl process; 

5. An action ngunHt a municipal norporolion for dMDOgea or injuries to prop- 
trty gaomhI bj a mtil) or rioU [ Am'tutm''ni, approved January^, 1S7G; Ammd' 
mtttU 1876-6, 89; iwk rff'id /rum />ajtiia^.J 

Babd. L Btatutory pooulty.— An nctinn tlie *ell*r of a Ttitlnry'tkhot Ui ifcovvr ilwtbla 

Suiiat lb* tniaUei of a coqxintumi U) oliar^ 
Pill Willi the ilt-l't* cd tho coiii|Miiy, b*c(UIM 
of iU failura to Al« an aniiuAl n-iwrt, ooinM 
wilhia lliii*«rtii>ii: /."av v. Uuttanl.'nti. V. 
40li Kiox V. tbM«"H, 80 IJ. DlOi bnfiimriM 
r, Kdo^, si U. 40. lio ui octiun p*nm of^uatH 

llie ham |iiii-l^ t/rvrrr r, Af<>r/i*. 7a N, Y, 47M. 
flubd. 3. False Inprisonmetit— Th« »ut- 
ilt« ixiiiii'iulMM U> mil u uma a* Ilia impr{«oii- 
iiimt<xitM«: i>u*rntwry V. A'ttbjp. (U X. ¥, 3>i3) 
.'>. I'., 01 How. fr, 406) Van Inarm v. &'»u(^fr, 
24 Hud, SI. 

341. H'iJAir) 8ur moitJAa. 

Sfw. 3-tl. 'Witlitu eix moutbit: 

An nrtion of^aiiifit an uffloer, or o&c6r de facto: 

1. To recover an)' ffoodB, wana, mercliandise, or other propcirtj sHxed by 
Any Huch officer iu bis olHoial oapocity as tax collector; or to recover tho prU-o 
or Taluo of any goods, ware«, mercliandiBe, or other personal property so seized; 
or for damages for the aeizure, detention, ssle of, or injuiy to, auy goods, irares, 
nierchaodise, or other personal properly Hcized, or for damages done to any per- 
son or property in niakiDg any such seizure; 

2. To recover stock sold for a delinquent assessment, as provided in section 

347 of the Ciril Code. lAnfndmrnt, approved March 24, 1874; Amendmmta 

1K73-1, -iai: looh --ftvl JaUj 1. 1874.1 

SuML 1. AoHotia ogaiiut tax ooUector Subd. Z AotJona to reoo*er atoolt soldi 
tA ivoostr liack tniiii»j' jni<l iinilur pmUm iiiiikC St<o nm. IM7, L'lV, CwJc. u la RrlliAg iluroa of 
be Ixvuglit willttii UK muathai Oamcroit r. iilm V fur iinn jiiiiimiit iif nmiMiniiiiti 

amtH, fiS CaL 303. 

Actioua agaljiat coaiAj: Sm next (001100. 

34S. Albion on etaini againtt coitnfiiv. 

Boo. 343. Actioua on cloiina agoinnt a oountj, vrhich havo been mJ4!cl''d hy 
tbft boqud of HuifcnrtHors, niojit be coiiimonood wiUiin six laoutlis after tlio fiiitt 
rej«uUon tbemof hy such iioonl. 

Aotksfis lew rtot: Sm wu. 340, aabJ. A, mtpra. 

34S. A(Mwn»/or r-'lu'/ n^ hereinbefore provided for, 

Sbo. 343. An aotion for relief not hereinbefore provided for lonst bo com- 
nonecd within four yoora after the cauae of action shall have accrued. 

Omstnifitianolttilssectloa.— la Pillerr. InpM o( limv than that *necin«(l in thinanotiun. 

S. P. R. H.. yi Oil. n. Ill <)>iicunlt>8 tlx limi 
tatioo for th4 IrriniiliiK <■( Mlinnii far injury 
ocDBWOuml by tin ouIImmii of tlio defraiUnu' 
can, Ikn oourl took oomdun to rwbd sabiUviHoa 
1 at Hutinn 33D and Mction S13 logclbcr. gi<r- 
iai; at t^B Bam* liine a ■ucvinct renew of our 
loguhtiiHi in tliU particular. Aa a oonclniitoD, 
It WM dctarniinvil tImC lultlli'lulaD I of wcUod 
tSt r«fcr« III ull a«iii:iiit ai Uw uot aptulflcslly 
BienliuiKtl In otlior jiiortioni ot th« >l*tut«, aiicl 
UiM "tKo fonr v«an' llmitaUoa of BMtioa 343 
optitio* to all *iiiu ill oquity not ilrially of ruq- 
cnmst K^Ku'''"'" '» ^w ■">'' oqaity. 

Wbcther arijou to apKilicnlly eofqcoe ircrUal 
oant*«<it (or tlic m\v of kad (alia witliia Ihii 
BMtioii. MM Uo-life V. CUrt, 1; CaL iSe, hoU' 
iag tW slHrmMtTO. Awl ixnn|ian] vlth Ia7viiU 
V. Xier, 00 IiL GMI. 1^1 mit* to uufuroe (ho 
■pMlHo Mrfonnanov o4 vaiitnwU to aril 
bad will be bUToJ 11 brauglil afWr ft ffoMt 

>i;h HriitJetKn <r. l/if^U. ^S U. 3M. 

F«tltioua to roalty Id aettUus an MtAtO. 
wbollicr iTiUiin tliit litnitalion: tiev L'tlait bf 

Bolojid. M lol. .115. K^ait <if fnJfu, M U. 
083; B><alt of MonUjomtty. GO Id. Sifi. 

UmJtatJOOaaa to truata £i|.iviu ctuiCiim- 
Inx troitJi uri: iiul wiiliin llt« cijiciutloii of Uie 
itatat« of liiniutloiu: Stkr^Att \. Jaliiu, 'l^ 
CaL 374; .\tiU> V. Thoriu. m Id. SUAi Loi-r 
V. WatHiu, 40 111. yiZ: ll-anl r. Pu'jiJ. U 
Id. 230: Po-ui V. MrKUy. «7 I'L l.W: ^Vo^.rl 
on LimiUiioo4, mc. 413 ; and a nvtn In Wi 
Toil, Rep. 7S$, Fur •uiii|il*: wliora money 
ia difpoaitcil with a pcnun to b« kanwl oiit 
from liino to tima. the iiit<>rv«t eolliMt^l, and 
the pdndiml and intvtvtt tiidd aiid ^^pt I'V 
hini for the plaintiff antil tlio pUintiir rslla 
for It, the dc|ioaitArv h uot in dtfuidt, at a 
jt«ii«ral rule, until damaud. and the itAtiita 
(inl)' btgliM t» rnii after broaob: Buirr r. 




[PiitTlI. TitlkZI. 

Jifph, Ifl Ciil. 176. 177; ^hrr^rtfr r. Ja!iw, 27 
111. 273. Tlic drjMMtt ot muiMV with one nwm- 
iier of a firm la kw|i until •inmaiKltd TOiuti' 
tutm an rxpMwi Wnal which ptovcuta Ibo run- 
ning of llle aUtute of llmiUtUiIl! Zuct V. CiJp, 
fifl III. H2. Ai 1]c(K-t«D A tmiitce anJ et-ttal 
qitf Irutt, in the caai^ of an clprcn tmit, tl>« 
iMIiitc of linilutioii* iloM not beglu to run 
Utilil Ibn truiltfl iv-j>u>liat«i llio trukt by cbar 
aiiii unufjulvoonl auU <a- word), aud oklnw 
llicnorlorth to hold iNa mUU m Ula cnm, not 
■ubject to Hay triml, nail ■ui-h rfjiutliation and 
claim Hr# brou(tht tQttir kiiovlwlzvof thscntHt 
9Hf tn-*i: Mit't v. Thnmt. 39 ih. 335: IVrry 
on 'l>ii>tit, torn. S(I3. 8l34: //rnrrf v. P«jot, 44 
i'al. tS5. It H-aA liclrl tlint. upon tUo ccn«- 
lion of the malrimonUI union liv tlio death of 
Iho y'tta, the hMhunJ ta.y/ slill CLjicmuo th« 
[ifunirinion of commaiiity ptv>]ifTtj' on nartiN'inif 
ptutunr of tbo mnirinioniiil union, and may nvU 
and diipoM of it io li(|uiiliitic<a of tlic cnmniu- 
tt\\j dcl'U. Hi! puwcMion, lawful wli«a an- 
*'liii«>l. mnlinucn for tlin imrpuan of tlio part- 
lirndilp nnil thn diitioiiof TiiHtni>t; und h«can- 
Dol. l>y hill oivn act, irit)i'>nl tW oonaeDt or 
lKh<» u( llir heir i>s rqin-^i'iilali IF o( llio wifo. 
rhjni;« (ijr Vi» tiun binu'lit \\\v Icniitv by which 
he IioIiIm; Orif <r. l*f In (rxt/r-i, IH Id. ~ii K« 
Civ. Code, iH-ca. 172 <it neq. 

It OQS oho mnvca fmm aiiotb«r a note and 
Riortease ot » lliinl porann. In plrdge aa aecu- 
rity for A debt due £im by the pledgor, kfttir- 
Warda rrfuK* to return the pledi^o tu tbo 
picdfnr on tender of payment of the debt for 
wbkli tbe plcd|[D waa mailo, thia rcfunal doea 
not aeC Ibu aiAtuto of lliniutioiia In motion aa 
to a truitvhich inny H^umatilaariMiliy roaunn 
of Ibu i-Ii-'dgiir reociviii)[ monty <tt buiil in pay- 
tTionliif i!)o note luiil inoitfue; Poucir. il<- 
iVry. 47 Cttl. IfiS. 

But whor* tb« triutoe renouuoM the tniat. 

u the cow of a tni«tof~<n pniwrlon of roLlty 
who holils adversely lo tlivhwocliciary: />a« v. 
H'aslint. -W Cal. S??! or tlie <.<a«e nf a tni*t«« in 
pcawuion, who r*funa to roconvfiy. iiiirwnavt 

10 tlic term* of th« trutt, aad Koeb mfoM] b 
bronglit boniD to Iho nuticre ot the tettvi ft* 
(niirf; lltanl r. Pujol, M Id. 230. th« Htntnt* 
will luii fnim tbo time t)ic rcpudjutioii of the 
Irunt U brought to Ihu attcntl-m of the crofui 
•pu triuf ; Id. The! dvniul oi the: trnst. and tlio 
Maerttoa of an Lnlcmit adtciM to that at the 
tmiHiclary i* an abainionmont of the fiduciary 
oharaotor in wbirh tlie trnatoe elood to the 
property, and from the lima iiotico thoreoF, 
Motiial or conatmctive, ii ^vwi to the bvacJI- 
eiary, the itatuto edminmcM lonini Itoitoii r. 
Joan. 27 (ia- 266) Keattm v. MrOirirr, 34 Id. 
317: U«rdo.'l; v. Ilujfliet. IS Miia. 219: Smilh 
V. liirordo. ^2 Mo. S8li H'Airr t. L-nwiU, 90 
TcK. 7i)3: Ai'dirict v. Smilhiriei, Id. Ill: 
Lhoii v. Dotiili, 31 Ala. 1S8: f^x r. Ciali, 

1 1 Pa. St. SOT: Aeifrti v. BtnlcU, «) Bwb. 

2m})I(ed truata. — " By tlic whole <™rT«it of 
nuxloni uiilhiiritiiu, iiii|i]ivd truali arc within 
Uit< ttnlnti'. Unil tin- ■tutiitn lH>;,-Lai to run fniiii 
Iho liniO llH' wioijj; wan I'oniinitl—l l>y whloh 
Ihi- ]ieni(in Iwtoiiic* ['Uariti-ulili' ih IruMcc liy 
implnatioii:" Ifi/nirrrfiHj v, ftihn, S3 Conn. 77i 
•o also Kin3 v. fvnfrr, 96 U. .S. 90; Pfvlriilg' 
V. »'««. 30 N. J. Krj. ITd; flrr/wj, v. OtuMrir. 
27 Tex. 010; /lay«ar,l V. Ouan, 82 III. 3S5i 
JVnnlnui v. Shacii'tl. 30 GrntU 7Eh'': Miller v. 
Illo^. I<1. 744: Ortralit, v. Omnlm, Oi Ala. 
336i K'/fK-n V. OrfK. 19 lon-a. Ml; Prtmtl v, 
ZturliHi/Anni. 2!t Miu 91; Siiiii \: l^ttm, IX 
\V. Va. .Vtl; luiJ •Ml thn nolo to SprirMI v. 
Hturf'l. !-'• KimI. R«|). "UI; un<i Wood on Lim- 
ICationK. 4lli. A InU duciiion by tbi- impreme 
court (if 'I'l'imi, /Ini»i- v. ATriinn/y, 11} Cunt. L. 
J. 3S3, followa the lamu doutnnv. 

S44. IVliCTT caust ti/artion ae<vur» on mutual accoiiiit. 

Seo. at*. In an action brought to recover abalance tlueupoDamulimt, open, 
nad current nccotint, «rh«ie there have been reciprocal denmndH betwcvii tbo 
jMirticH, the cnuso of action is deemed to have accrued from the timo of the Luit 
itfitii proved ill the itcrount on either side. 

V. f.'iweninr' %'. Jf. Co.. 17 I'l. M<! noi" where 

Opeii, mutuzd, mid ciurent Oioooimt. — 

A miitviul a.:i.'LfLiiit jA uno in u'hioh thfriv are ro- 
dprocnMuiiiBnilt. " MulnaJ auvounlanrv mads 
lip of iiiallvra of xit.uir. Tliere must Iw n mu- 
tniil onr.lit fouud*!] on a iiubauiting debt on Iho 
otbur »itr, ov aoi Mprun or an inipliod agno' 
uiitnl (vr a airtKifriYmutiml debts: A'erfon v. 
Mreo. 30 Cal, I2«. 130. It i* not a " inntnul 
acuounl" where una kIIi yondi am) tbe buyer 
luyn aiimi 'if money Ihcrron from time to time: 
A<l'i«u V. PnUtrmi. 3i 111. I2i; nor whoro 
tliu defendant gave to the [jlainlllTa liimji vt 
g>ild tohF uut to Iho Kiiiit tor ciiinui.'e. th<i {.r». 
cociUto bcappliol on tlio aorouut: Wtitlktriinix 

Ibi'itvmd arenlliin on* »id<»i fhii/lori. Sunont 
it. Co., III. 594. In Or^wi v, Ui-Z-reme, 70 N. 
Y. I, whotB the defendant d«liierT<i to tlio 
ptuinlilT butter and *-fg* »t dillVrtvit tlniM, 
to be ereditvd Upon hit avc.iiint. the nuiwunt 
thereby bicaine luntnaL Tlie dintiiietioTi is 
betircen paynicnt* ia money and pityniunt* by 
■nerchaniliao. So alto Seliail v. A'xnri', 5S (.io. 
ISHJ: P't'/w V. ifalUf. 20 Micii. CO. 

" Opeu oitd citnent'' i* diatiufluiihod from 
"iitat«<l." VVlinm a lialAncc haa not been 
»ttucl(,an owoniitUoiieaMid curivut: A'urlun 
V. Lttivo, 80 Cal. ISO. 

845. Aetwnt in name o/slat'^ or for benrfil oxalate. 

Skc, 345. Tho limilationB prescribed in this chapt«r apply to actions brought 
in the nnnio of tho stat«, or for the beuefit of tbe state, in tho nme manner tui 
to actions by privubo pstrtiea, 

94&. AdioH to rfdtma moriga^/n without accouitl o^nmta and pnfy». 

Sko. S'IU. An action to r.?dc«m a mortgage of real property, wiih or without 
an acootint uf roots and profits, may by brought bjr the iuortgogor or thoso 



daiinitiff under bira, n^iiiat the mortgagee in pofi8««siou, or those claiming 
ntxler biro, unleea he or lbe>- have cotiti&iiousl; maintaiiied an adrorae pos- 
Bession of U>e mort^geil proiniees for five yean after breach o( somo condition 
of the DMirtgsge. 

further t^pw* not to (mdo an oriw at uU, 
tho lUitulv <rt llinhaliim* ituni not run agaJiiat 
t)ii> rijiliU <-f iiiurl^gnn^i nt iiiorlKiiKi'*, ■» lotry 
HI tliir ilvl>t mnniii« iin)i«l<l aiiil til* uartM 
BrciiiiuKv ill ilw arrangamauti /Woiv. Lr /toy. 

'*Aotlon"in9liiilMa>jiaciiJ prooeo(Uo{{ of ■ 
oitil natunii S«e. 303. 

Foreoloaim ol mottgago, Umitatlon for: 

8*-' mv\ 'CE7. nu'^. ill^l^^ 

Buapetwlon ol remedy — tf th'^ iii>ir<k,'ncM> 

tiU't uLiUillil^ a jUilglllOut furrvKaill)! Ill* 

uortga^ Iif ft& a^tmnrfit with iln' iimrt* 
gagor, siitpra into tbu pountina e>I tli<< iiiorU 
gMKpJ (iroprrt)', niiJ nveJVM tho rvnl linil 
prorfiu, uiil a|ipltuB tlipm totvonlii the aUa- 
liictiuii of Lbc mnoDDl due. uid tbi: moit^iagea 

847. Sttm^, xvhrn llfrtr are two or more such morigni^fii. 

Sue. 847. If tltere in inoro than odo aucb iuortf[ii^or, or inoro than one peraon 
claiming uixb-r a luort^iiKor, aotne of whoni are not «iilitli)d to muinlain such 
Ati action uiiil«r tb« proviaiuua of this chapter, anv oue of tlieni wl.o ia entitled 
to maintain oui-h an action niii^ redeem therein a divide<I or undivided part of 
the mortf,'a;:r^d premiss, according as bia iut^reat may appear and have an 
ai^eounting, for a part of the renla and profits proportionate to Itie interest in 
the mortgaged premieca, on pavmentof a part of the mortgage money, 1>canng 
Uie same proportion to the whole of mich money aa the value of bis divided ur 
tindivided interest in the premises bears to the whole of sucli premises. 

848. Ho limitation. 

Sec. 349, To a<:tion8 brought to recover money or other property deposited 
with any bank, banker, trust company, or eatings and loan society, there in nu 
limitation. {S<fw tfclion, approved March '.U, 1874; Amaxdmenta lti73-4, 293; 

Ah Afi rftp'<tiiiiilhr limttiUioniKtf tvtiiMt, 
l^Pftona Mwcli II. IHRi UTl-l. IIV.J 
Bantert' r^iiijlrala q/* ifepuw t . 

Stx7io!> I. Whom bankcn' eertiftml** of ilcpont haw htrHofora btvn given to anjr party 
■iaoc deecawd. and not (oimil until after ad mi mtt ration al hii or her ntatc, on Ktion may M 
iiwinia<fttid tbcrccn Ly the hein or U'Bal re[irvBcuUtiv<a at any tiioo witltin *ix montlia nlUc 
■oeli flBflina. 

Sf\ '1. Thti act iltall tako effect from and after it* poawge. 
Alt Ad Mipplfnittilary lo nn a^t rnlillrti an aft rlrjiiiing iKr. limf /or remmmcinff cMt aclioiut, 
jKuvd Ayrii l«.tuly-iri-(/mi. li^hlr-tn hniutrrd aitd ^fiflg. 
{«PI>tu»d Marvh 14. irti; vt:\-i, tul,] 
Jfo UmUatiom to o«Jo» /or menry drfWiUtt vilA tanltrt. 

ftMm09c 1. There alioll bo no limitation apon tlio right to maintain an action («r the rvcnvery 
ol money nr other |>roi>«rty dajiaaitod vrith any baoli, banker, triul aimfuay, or UTln||* ami 
liiaii aociety. 

Kk. £. All acta aod [ttrta of acta la aouQIet licreirlth, ao tor aa tlic aamo an> la coiiDict, ara 
btnliy r^calod. 
Htp. .t. Thii act ahall tak« elTool from and after Ita jiMaa^ 

Action a^lnat banka: 8ee mo. SM, potl, til llie Imak faili: MilrMl v. Htrhnan. M Cul. 

atiil iiutv. Where the autiuD b brought ai^oiit 117 No limitation acainst •Icfioaita in Uuikai 

tba (tockholihn tor noa-payoiflnt of a de- U.;Orrrnr.Oif'l filioftvSaeiasidtC«nh Bank, 

padt. the iCatuta dooa not oomnwDoa U> run 1 West Coai t Rop. S77. 
uatti paynkcmt m rtifuiedt thia may aot b« un- 



300. When an nrfton in comm'tiiyrtl, 

Su;. 3IH). An action ia cotuiuoueod, within the meaning of tliis title, when 

the complaint in filed. 

.SInU. IH-'-O. p. MX U BM, ■ehra* the itatute of limitation* ia 

Actios la conuaeoced when the conipUInt oouMmedt SAarf v. J/a^uire, IS Cat £77] 

{|»1, 352 


tPABI D. TtTUI n. 

Pim^Miat r. Smt Fntrntim. 31 U. 3Sli Aim 
r. Afan^^l, 34 lit. ICG: Adnaui r. PaiunoH, 
3.') Ill, 12!, Tbe iwatu>o* o( th« ■■uDtnoiiB it 
Dili (i^ccHikry tu itop tbe niDDtug o[ tlic aUt- 

(ijTo, j|/!(ig V. ilarthnlt, rvpra. la thi* t^r- 
lk-«lat llifl ««rlMr tulo in Mm lUCe liu ticca 
•U)i>rt«(l froin: See Om-n r. Jaeiimi, 10 ChL 
371; nv-iiwr T. Conyrr, I'l- KW- 

111 r/miK^rvaa v. IfA.'b l» (.'^al. fiSO, tfa* in«- 
clmalu'k linti law w>* lisl-l iiol lei txi nftnttoil tiT 

tb«|s«vi«kai of llisUftiuUuf l&jO, (lotD wbich 

AfUr Um «Acninnio«niant o( tba sMinn no 
lapte ol tiina will bar it nnilar the MaUxit of 
linitalionai Bvant >. Cievdai'd, ;3 N. Y. tSfl. 

AmtOdad OOnpUlnt wliloh intrudnm ■ 
Mnr oaiue of action, or bxIsiuIb the arigiuaJ 

eanM o( aotieo to proprrtf iic4 aotmotd 
Ilirrrin.flDFtBot rulnl* tail lOtiM BUutfo' th* 
orijfiiiiil c< nipjaiiit Cor lit* |>ur)KBW of Ui« sUt- 
Dto of UmitalioDB, But in aUCh CMM til* tUt- 
ulc nin* to tllB fitinj- o( th« umnulad aoiBplainti 
LawrrHit v. Uatlov. SO CaL 2&S; A'liltntHi v. 
ifnyr. III. ^^J.': AlUn^n v. A. AS. Co., I>3 Id. 
102; j/^i. V. a, P. ff. i?. Co,. 61 I.I. UO: Sea 
f«ii(,uc.tT!>.an<ln<Jtc, "Amcujlii jQtmpfaiaL " 
Bapplamental oompUlnt bnngiiig m mvw 
p«itlM dul<ii<laiit wliilii a oonliiinaoi.-* of the 
iirijiiiul iu.-ti[iii*«a;)iliut tbe urii^nal ilcfundaBl 
ht tliii ('•iiiinviiwuMint of a dcw action aaouiuat 
tbe now iMouiianu. Until they arc inaJ« [lar- 
tim, thu action isnnt cuiniii«nc«>) at to tlioiiii 
Jffi-n r. Cook, 69 CaL UT. Anil uulil tlivn 
the ataliitc runit I(L ; AlliiuOK *. A.ib S. Co., 
S3 Id. 1021 Jaa» V. C^ 78 H. V. IM. 

3!>1. frc^ton, wher*! d^/enilanl U: oul of the utale. 

Sbo. Z5l. II, when Iho OMwe of nctiuii ocoruw rkgniiist a pcTson, lie is out of 
th« Btal«, the action may be commenced wltliin tliv t^inn liereia limited, uft«r 
liis return to tbe atale; nntl if, nfter tlia cbuho of Kction aocniee, lie departs from 
the etate, the time of his abeeooo is not part of the time limited for tbe com- 
uencement of the aotioo. 

"Out ot the MMe" and ■■t>«Tond 

•MH" liavB iKceivod tin- oune t:o&*Cmctiun in 
thia oountry: I^nrie v, Bri'ty; ^ tJ. i^ IK!Si 
Hank <ifAtrzanilriar. /)jirr, 14 Pet. ttl: AdscI) 
on I.imitaticina, sec 30U: ■llliDat;>i Ihorv bai 
been aome diSocnce of opinion iu Uiii ici[vi;t. 
komo tfovrta tDaintainlng tliac "bcjoml tea*," 
tliu oriainol cipreuion. inf«n» itllhont tl>« 
limit* of tlio UniItU .ttaK*: Soe the iioUi to 
iW*/j V. Fool. 13 Am. Doe. 733. To avoid all 
•niaanileratandm^ tbe ooiU u«m th« mcprMtlon 
'■out oJ tlie aUte." Tfal* axevptJaii U> tha 
niDulne of tbo •tatnl* appliaa agunvC ilctcDd. 
•Iita wliu liave navtr lioau iu th« atats, aa well 
>■ ti> tdODv wbo Hiw citiuoa tborvol, bat mn 
t<'iii|Mintrily aliunt: I'Aontown v. Odum, 23 
Ala. tah Hal'h v. K,^for.l. 24 (imn. 432; Part 
V. JfllAoTV. 32 Id. 25a-. /.'rfuMnfi v.ll0M.aV M. 
Hi; SrtUue v. .V'tMcar, 27 Mich. M; tt"ierf 
V. Ilttuhaip. M Miaa. 6\9: Paiur v. tfrtu; U 
N. II. awt; Croflrr v. Arry, 3 I!, I t;», Aud 
uiiiuiult. in tliia cnnneotlun, aootioi ill, potl. 

The nbaouoeofa nKntcacor (rvm iheRtate 
liat U-cn lifld. in Wall r. Wrighl. A Vfott Coast 
Kcp. Sil, wot to iuiiHtiiii thv KUti ~ Ipon tlio 
tiini1cai;''0'!>II"'n'i<'''^')'to'vof llie Wortgagor 
wli» liufK tibia inn I alUcliinent liena on tbe 
tireniita* auljM-jiiunl ti> tlie muiigage. 

802, Kra-ption, aa to pervontundifr dUatniitiat. 

^tc. Si>'2. If a p«rsun eiitiU<«l to briii^ an acUon, m(>ntioncd In Cbitpter m. 
of tbiit (itb), bo, at tbe Liiuo tbe i-uutie of octiuu aocruud, vitbur: 

1. WitbiD tboagcof majorilf; or, 

9. Idhuw; or, 

3. ImpriHoned on a criminal cbargn, or in execution under tbe ftcutence of a 
criminal eourt, form term Iras than ifor life; or, 

4. A married wonuin, and ber husband be a ueoossorj' portj with ber in com- 
meuciuM Hueb action ; 

— ^I'be time of such diiubility U not a part of tbe time limited for tbe oommeace- 
niont of tbe action. 
SUta. 18U.1. i>. 32^. 

RbOttiM atopplnc nmnlne ot atatute; Sea uah, aoc 32$, and note. 


SnooOTilT* abaoncM must W a^m- 
ptXci, and the whulv liiii« tbe dcfrailaiitnat 
been afaacnt dolnctcd froin the liine wtiink 
liaa clapMHl lince the oaaae of action hu au- 
cnii!<l will Mivv la a liaUnw thu time the alat- 
iiUi ii( U 111 liati 1.1111 hnii mU: Hoifrt v. IJalfk, 
U Cal, 28(>i HU alM^ SmifA* Itt-n v. iloW, 
S Ala. S90; OnrJ:Tr v. CUm^^U. 23 Id. 200: 
fMtr V. PMj*. 21 T«x. Ml; //orrf«n v. 
Pulutrr. 2 H », Smith. ITS; Cuttrr r. Wrifhi, 
92 N, Y. 472. 

Tbe rvtam. to set tha atatnta roaning, 
muat not Ik oluiileatinF. nor (ur aaoli a abort 
■pwic of time oi would tie iuautficivBt to fnablii 
tbe creditor to tnatitut« prooMdwBi Pulmer 
T. Shnu,: 16 >'a1. W. Sm also tho note to 
Miior' I', Arrnnlrfinii. ;WJ Am. Dec. 76. 

A torelgn coiparatlou having a managing 
a^Kiit ill L'alKui'iiia i.-icrviiiiiK hia authority 
oiHOily ia not aliouiil (nun ttx: atate within Ibu 
innoning of Ilia at.'htut^: Lixfcr^nf v. liiWau, .^lO 
C*l. 2ftJ, 81M) further tb« iiotA In 3(i Aiiiorican 
Decinoni. niovo ti'frrn"l to, 

AI»cnoe of defendant mtiat be alleged ia 
t1iuco"i|iUict. il lii-i 111; el';'' Jill. iiinl i'l il* iili.ifttu- 
ten uthcrwiav his ptv)vu.j« in th* ttat« Will Iw 
pinaumcal: iliua *. Urrry, &\ Cal. StM. 

Cbaf. IV .] 



8E^ Proviaion wtwreperMn milillf^ cfic» before limilation fxpirm, 

S&u. 353. If a poreuu entitled to briiig an iu:tiou lUo beloro Hit oxpimtioo 
of tlw liiuo limited fur the ootnaionoeiuetit tlieieof, uid tlio «atiw of actiou 8ur- 
Tiro, Ml action u>«y be oommeiieed 1>y liia rvpreHcuta lives, after tlui cxpinitjvn 
of titai titne, and vitliio six mouths from liU death. If m peraoa o^tul wlioia 
■a action ma; be brought die before Ibe expiration of the time ltmit«d for tlia 
OommencetDont thereof, and tlie cause of actiou sunire, wi action tiinv b« com- 
Bienoed against his rc<pre»eutHliTcit, after th« expiration of tLat time, and witliin 
one year after tlio itMrning of lottcnt t«i>tanioiitaiy or of admioiatTatioD. 

8tHU. IIUO.D. :m». 

Survival oi aatiouai 8e« put, mo*. 1SS2- 
IU4. mdjI mc. 3t». 

Actloua t^ repreacntadvei.— Tb(-r« io a 
great (littiiictiua lint V II iu thUwctioii bi<lwt«ii 
■ctfoDD Ijy the rc|ir«aeutativiM of & dcciKletit 
ami aetioiu aguwt Ihem. VVliDre tlidn h-u 
no admtnutrkUir oa an cMato from H»f '2&, 
1SS3, U Dscambtf 4, ISSO, dnttng which time 

III* il«ith and tlia winiiuiatntion tkken^o tha 
Milalu nuiln no diflantucw: Oanglada v. iJt la 
Owmt, 10 Cal. SSO. 

la k ca» where tbo iinution k«j^ It a bota 
not duo at tha tinio of tba dtulh at the iiiten- 
1at« faamd for failure to pnaaat it to tha ad* 
mlniitnlor within throo yoari or Um aliet 
grant of tliB luliniiuiitratlon, do [niLlfMllon 
liftTiiiu Ifcmi maile liy tho kilniiobtntort tha 

Ave DOtoi >u*d en fdl duo, ami it wm argu«il court Tield ih« j(«n(<ntl mt« t« b« llut I1k> >tal- 
thkt, a< tliora wai no ponon ■iithoriuJ (o nM of tiiiiit*tIon* iloM not bt^n to nii> whun 
briug Bclloa* <ia Uiom nolM wIkb tlisj' full no wlininiHUntion f»i»U on tho diwaili<Dt'a 
doe, tlittnfor* lfa« Katnto of Umltatiiin* iliil 
mfceoDiiiHUio* ttianingUDUl Dvcoinbcr 4, 1330, 
thooonrt, roferrug to 8mil^ v. l/nti, 19 Ci). 
si, and Quitieg v. JlaU. Id.DT. uiy that in 
tliOM CMca the adiniiiiatratiir vna dt'fiQilaut, 
hhI not tbo pUintid^ aoi] Uio rule of law va» 

aa1al« nt Oio t4in« tha eauM ol action neoriiud, 
and ll)al t'lia apotiun only appliM to OMn 
wliotu tbv utatuto hu oommFncdd to ran be- 
fore the dccnuo. The object wu Dot to i7Ur> 
tail but to prolans tho porioci for luinB in th» 
gJTMi category; Smillt v. UiU(, lOCal. Wl. 


•Blircly diflemit in the tso cluuca of caMu: acaaa irbcre tho atatnto oomnicacod ninuJntf 

Ontttau V. WiyS'"*,^^ !'■■ ^- Where plaint- 
iff, aa admbiatralor o( Pott, la 1(W7, anod to 
reeovar pMiawloa of land, aud the comjibint 
avenad tliat the dectdent diad In ISUOtciieil, 
■te., of the pivmiaea, and that ia Febriiaiy, 
IHV, pitiiiiliff waa ujipoinled adminialratorj 
oae of tha allogationa of the oomplaLnt bring 
liiat Ihe dcfendMtU. on the leoand day of 
March. IS67, mtmsf ally entered andtortloualjr 
etiiiUid plaiatiff. the court held, on demarrcr, 
thai it Iwiag ailmiltcd that defendant'* powoa- 
■loo waa without tillv, uid ul ao reooit a data, 
ilaeutdnol liochuiiiud tliat thonlalntlS'ado- 
Huu>d won *tilu M A^iuii't the dcleudant'a If 

It had af ptared tbat tlio defendant lia>l been 

tfi pteauaaion (oraeTenloen yean, ulaiiaiug titla JtaH, 19 Oil. Iw. 
bi gowl fait)], it mijfht have bem utherwiio. The acoond ulaoM tt tlii* aectiMi dtK« ni>t 
Bui il naa dinar thut an intruder witliont ahotlcn Uiu jivriod allowed by the atatuir; nml 
title, whuao poiHaaioa viHamenMd a few dnya an ndiou ii not larrcd became it wa« not 
after the grant ol lettcre on the citntc, ihoiild broaght wilhia one yenr after the isunnn ol 
not be allowed to allcfio tlial tho claim of tlie Ivltcn, if brnught within the time linitted fur 
plalntilT waa atalo aa to him; lltaiv v, Ba- Iti commcncmnnnt if the dcetoavd ooutrnctoc 
oUiwix. :i4Cld.CaS. hadUvoil: Zowff v. A'Jcr.SOCal. Md. Oa the 

The jirorUon her* aa to lb* nocruing of a other baud, it may opciato to Imgthcu the 

balar* the death of the intoitato, tha cniirt 
taid thatat eoniinoa law the rule wa« uiiquet- 
tSonatil* that whan the atatula began tu run, a 
■ubaeauout dUability, aa daalh of llio lartv 
bouad, «Ic., dote not *U>p il: ClttDg 13 Wend. 
2071 that the ■laliite euhatttutoir fur a auil 
the proacQlatioa of the ohum. allcwiiia the ad- 
uiniMrator to acknowledge it. and pucto it un 
tha liat cl reoogniwd dobta of the esute. But 
that the right to one cane from the refuul of 
til* cxtsutors to (tcknowlcdgo it (kc. NOS, 
jMUC), and therefore did not aocnie until IIjo 
preaenlatlou of the claim, oud the parly wna 
not bound to preaenl It until after puhbuatlou 
of tbenotleeniquLrtd by tbeataInU; Qmvjt. 


eauae of adloD before tlie inieatato'a death can- 
Mt be eonitjnoit to give on indefinite tlnie iu 
which to bring artiun. whrre tho cauw of ao- 
L Uon Buortied of I«r hia doith : &k& Tmtiut r, 
ITa/W. UOal. 015. 

AvtJooa Against r«p(«aentAtlvM.~\V1icro 
t>. ha>l a ruiiu>ii)( aooTitat wilh L. from 183S 
to |i^lt>, at wt>i.:h lime L. dii'd intealato, and 
M luirainiatrntion w.La hud on hi* citato nntll 
1837. awl O.. within nn« ymi after tha grant- 
ing id lotion of, oommencod 
bin mil on uid account a^uel the eelate. It 
«aiihi:l'l iluil lliveuitnaonDiBMOoed In tinae. 
The fact tlwla lung iwriod Intorveaad betweea 

atatnte. In llibrmla a. it L. Soritt^ v. //itr- 
hfrt. Hi Id. Dii'i, aotion wna brought on aei-cnil 
notaaaeooMd by a mortgago. Four year* hod 
clapeed from the matnrUy of o niimbor nf Uin 
notea Wore the mahcr"* doitli, but an to tn o 
of them, the atatnte h«tl Iheoneoneinuiitli. tlm 
other two montha, atill to run. The wtion nn 
theee two bronghe within a ynr after llie itao- 
oaoo el Ictten cf ailniinialratiDii, and atx yean 
froin the maker'* death, wn* dociniDil Ui bo In 
time, "ullhlnthe vpry tcrnia" <4 *natton itSS, 
"Aotion" includcaaipeoial proceeding ot • 
civil imttiTV: Sec. 3G3. 

Subatjtntkm of {MUtJaai See jmi, see. 3aS. 

8&4i /n suite by atkrtB, time of war to be deducied, 

Sui. 3M. ^^heIl a person ia an alien subject, or citiwQ of a country at WW 




[Pjuit II. Tin-K n, 

with thfs TTnittxl SIaU-r, the time of the ooDtinuance of tbevar is not part of th« 
poriotl limited for Uui comiBODcemont of the &cUoa. 

S30. J'ropUion tehcm jadffmenl hasbeen reversed. 

titc. 355. If ail action is commeaced within Uie time prescribed therefor.and 
a jud^ucDt th«reiu for tbe plaintiff be rerersed on appeal, tbo plaiotilF. or if lio 
dio atid the caUBe of action survive, hia representatives, m^ oommenco u new 
Nctiun within ono year after the reversal. 

I'liia alMl tbe ail lullowtng MeltoM aro drawn 
from rCotntct of IS.)0. fUK" 34.'L 

War BDspenda atatuto ol llniitatiimi bo- 
twt<«n tUiin'Us i.-r lulijvcU of tviu ooii&tricB &t 
wai: Wallr. Holnoi, 10 Am. Dec. 6i3; Sildm 
r. t'rtiton, 11 Ituili, lei; JoUft r. NrUou.M 

Ala. ill: Ahturi v. Zaun. « \Vi.. c-22. But 
th« lUtaU Bu bcid not luipciKlcU wlicro tlic 

{unaiiBaTc muilnita of the aamo alatc iu Smith 

*. (,'Aar(rrOai/'n.,0'lMo. 330. 

Thi? rtTivt uS tha iroi of the reb«Uton u[>i>ii 
tho atatuto of UmiliitioQi ai b«tW«Mt oititrn<i 
midiuK in the loyal aoi thomo nndiag in Ilia 
robcllioiu ■talci. ■» Hanger v. dbboll, G WalL 
032: Aou V. Joittt, ^ Id. bTO. 

856. I'rfii-iKion whav action w ftivjfd fry injioic/ton. 

iiix. 350. ^Vll«n the coniiuoncement of an action is stayed by injonction 
or utalulorr prohilntioti, tho timo of the continuaQce of the injunrtion or prolu- 
bittoi) i» not part of th« time limitod for the commencoment of tho action. 

Staytng oQtloii. — PrtK^vwlincn in liankmiit- 
cy wliivli "tJiy ni^lion agaiiiHl tlm iliibt-jr it'tp 
tno lunuiDg of tlie stalutv wliilr »ui'li ptuc«v>l- 
inica am pnndiDg: III^ t. Fn'^tnitfrin, M Cnl. 
233. But Btv ViK V. Unrin, 15 Chicauo Lra. 
Now^ S»; and JW v. Er«>i». 3V Alb. L, JT, 
wbore B (lifTeiTiit ci>iwtru(ilioa of tho Umk- 
mpt'^y Act n-fu rcntioTrJ. 

Btatutoiy problMUotL— Application of tbu 

Motion to tho inaliilitj' of an boir to inalntaln 
au action fur the recovery uf rMil |>m|wrtv: 
C'rwfty V. /tormf. 61 557. 000. An ailjudl- 
(otiun in iiiSDlvcni.-y ii not auch a clalutary 
proliibitioii as will atop tho ninriy dayefn whiali 
tQ oouLUicnoc an a*?Licin to fonH.'loao a itiix^hanio 8 
lien. A debt ao aorurod ia not pfuvabla in ui* 
■oWcocy: Cnuf/bnt r. DoTKy, 63 Cal. 122. 

857. JUMibitily mmt pjcM whtm right o/action accrued. 

Sko. 357. No p^tnton cau avail himwlf of a-disabililymaleas-itr^zifited'whon 
his right of action accnicd. 

DiaabUity muat nziat when th« rigbt o( 
aotloi] ncunifld. *iid only >if iiicb diiablUtiut 
•■ ili.l llicii ciUt i-aii t)gii |>3i ty avull liimanlt aji 
•lopinnK Ih.i luiiuiiii; c(| iIht i.tiiliit«: Drnuiml 
V. WaiihMp. 8 Am. th'c 4GT; Jfa»irl w Day, 
fil Ala. 431] J>Wti V. ./omtr, H lit. 101; Aoi;^t 

r. llroHii, 11 Mo, 187; iVwnriiiirfli Y. JEatrrfMH. 
39 \Vn. 4<I'.'; Ho.jtm v. Kirlt. M U. 8. 7T3. 
Set' ii(i(<, «>i'. 3'2S. 

SucoeoBlve dloablllUM; Sw ii/Va. we, 
^B, and antf, ten. 323. 

358. Wlieit two or more dieabUiliet exist, etc. 

Hix. 358. 'When two or more difiabilitiea coexist nt the timti the right of ao> 
Uuu iiot^Tuea, Ute limitation does not attach uolil thi:y am roniovcd. 

Sec tupra, ■««. 337, 00(1 anle, wo. 326, in iwt«. 

309. Action atjainM itirvcton or Mock^vMcrt of aorparalifm. 

Sbc. 950. TbtK title doM not affoct action* againxt dirootors or ttookholdr-ra 
of a corpomtion to recover a penalty or forfoituro impoted, or to enforce a liti- 
hilitycroalAd by law; but nnch actiona iniut be brouj^ht within Uireo ynantafter 
the dincnvury by tlio a^(rri«Tud piirty of tlio fuutd upon which the penalty oe 
forfeiture attAchcd, or tbe liability was created. 

tliD running of the itatutc ai to the itockholtl- 
cr*, acD Yonn-i v. Roignbaiiai, 311 Id. lilt). 

An action lironglit &gEinaC itockboMot* to re- 
cover money hail ami (vodivcd V>ylhocart»ratioa 
more tliau two ycuubcforuaetinniaa'iintnDnocd, 
but laai than thrw yMn, i* In tiiiio: Offa v. 
nKknutn, 39 Oti. 6U. I'ultowod lu MiuMtv. 
BMbnait, IH Id. 117. 

IilmltadoM asalnat stocklio1d«ra In oor- 

pOiatlona.-~Tbat the ILiWiiliea uf tlie curpora. 
tionaiid itiichliolden are original, and that tllO 
Tight uf ictiun ajcainat tlio latter ncomca wbon 
the debt i* errateil. and not fniin tho re>»)v«ry 
«f Jail|t"'">' nK^init tho rorpomtiou. vm Stil. 
pirn V. trnrr. 4'>(Ai1. llOi /JorUwnv. Saittin, 

M M..^<:i. .\nd that ill* «uit|ioniilou uf tho 
^•d}- nj(ikiii4i Ui« oorpoaraliga dM* not atop 


Cn«. IV.J 



800. AeknAwU-Jf/ment or ne\c promise muni be I'li vrriling, 

Skc. 360. No ackuowledguient or promise in suffid«at eridoDM of n now or 
eontinutBg^ contraot b; which to take the caae out of Uie opemtios of tliiK titlo, 
unless the same » contained in some writing ugued !>; the party to be dbargvd 

month* of Mar "^^ Judc, IS.^9. irtm held a 
BufGv-JcDt acliDawloilBniaut. llut in tkn coae 
■ame rclianm K«nia ta hivo Iracn ]ilacoil by Iho 
coart on tho fuel of tlm payincnt of Ihe iolor- 
eit: Barran T. Ktnnnlu, IT Cnl. ATT, OiS. A 
menioranduni lailurnBil on ui oi-onluu lioiiil, 
■Ukttng n n)C(]pt uf a portion of tlio delit, autl 
dtooxioniiltiK tlio t!iii**iKl chkOKing in nomo 
nnmcU tlia Uniia of [Htyinant, ai)(iioiI by tlm 
oIiUfNO aJotKi, but mneiitccl to bjr tlic oliligor, 
wu liriil " not B writina. uKDcd l>)' tliir party 
to b« oLargnl therKbj:. knifiliil not tSkd tbo 
ontffAtJcin uf the limitsCion Katutc^ Pma v. 
VauPf. 2t Id. H9, An iJUgilioD that tlio 
■'<]ii(cn<lant hu in writing a>;Uiiou'lL-JgG<.t nml 
promUed p*f,"ct>:.. (vvoltta kii ollwaciou of 
the mgnkten: Pctur v. Ktam, 23 IiL 292. 

Whom an oiocatrli uvo a nolo tor ft haUni^ 
dii» on * nolo of hor lata hualiaiid. both *]>• 
mnJ the bol-ior ol Iho noto being under tha 
CTTonKnu iinpr«MloD tlwt lh« noto of th« hut- 
biud «M not bMTDd, It w«« h«lil lliat th« 
holdar contd rfoovor; MoKlutrr, J,, <)iMvut- 
iui^i an ths (round that than) wa* iioooioidcra- 
tion, al the law impuMd on tha circutrii tba 
ohiintion uf pltading tb«*tatut«i Unit v, fan 
7Vm<. MOtl. M7. 

A written jirooiiM or *oknowl«dnaent by 
ooB of two joint debtor* mvivM UMClebt u to 
bim alono: Cag Kal. Bank v. Phrlp*, M N. Y. 
484. The tltno when tlie proniiao waa mailo 
need not B{^iear from tho wrltiiiji: that may bo 
■liowD by parol: Kitieaid r. Areiibaitl, '3 Id. 
IAD. afQnning wine «M« raportad in lOflun, fl. 

RevlviJ of debt— The purpoae of thia 
■vction, tny tbc uoiiit in Uitfifrl v. llr^tiolarti , 
M Cal, 374. SSO, "is t> MtaUiih a nilc, nut 
with mppirl to tha character oF the (iroiniie <H 
ackoowtciVoieDt from whi^ a promue may b« 
infcnvd, but with rtapeot to the kind cf ctI. 
d«nc« by which tbe Bmmio or achnowlodg- 
moDt aball be prorvd. • • • Our atatnlo 
don not purport to adopt eitber of tho ailvorae 
piluiTinlc* referred to tiy Mr. Angvll, that la. 
tlut tVin acknowlodgment rwnoTM a prMump- 
ttoii of paymaiil, or tiiat It ia OTid^siou u( a 
D»« prointM for which tha oontideration la 
moral «iin|>Iy,thongh«j>ringiDgoutof thaorigi* 
tin] oonaiilcnlion. it in a aiuiple tmaotmcnt. 
that whatever the intvnt of tho itatutc — 
whrther it proTiito for n »« w or a con tin un I ion 
of the old {tfontUe— the proiui«e or proof of tlia 
piamiic miiirt be in writiug, ngned. eta. The 
writing, tbcnrforo. muit contain an exprcw 
promlae. or ua ncknowiodBRient of tlio debt aa 
an exlatinit dobt, from wliloh apraaent pmmla* 
may ba InforrxL" SoaI» aamo r«««, tf4 CM. 
3M. Tliat It, tfa* "aohiiowlvd^ont" retara 
to ■ debt not y«lbaTi«d,lhs"T)rouii*e"t«ona 
which 1> hariMl. 

Tlio Bcknowlodgnwat muat bo a dtreot. dia- 
tinut, nnqiialified. and unuoniHliunal admiuion 
of the debt which the party ii liable ami willing 
t« pay: MeComirt v. Bromi. 3U Ol. I8*j 
fiirrfil r. Pu/mrr, Id. 102: XkliariUoa v. 
BHtttr, 1 We*tt;oaiit Itoji. -270. 

Tlio promlto or admintton iuD*t bn madfi to 
the creuitOT, an adiiiiiuii'ri to a iltanuvr in not 
•ulBolonti liiddtl \. ISritrJara, M Cal. 334. 

Tha aew proTiii<Ni. whili' it may b« either tx- 
mn Of iinplifsl, Ud.'ormiik v. itrotni, SS Cab 
\mi ftimll V. I'aJmtr. liL 193. mutt ba un- 
oauJitionul: Sre ■u//r>i; or if oondltiooa). a can- 
pliaiioa llicro«ith piait tie ahoirn: XfCormUk 
V. Broieti, /nfra. A prODUie to " |)ay all in^ 
di-btslntxi " I* unnclantly (peciSo to embnti^e 
llji- ■<ily 'trlil ilioian to be owing: Btlloe V. 
;' tr... :iH Ciil. -.M.t, iiauiiit; npon tha m|niiitta 
of a ina.rriod woman ■ proiniM to revive a morV 

A onr prombe ma>t« to lh» payea of a prom- 
tMory not«>nan.>at«theb«De{itof theindunM): 
A'hkA r. fiUHtaond, IDCh). 470. Ho onu mails 
t> nn wlmitilrtrMDr innrai to lh« braujiiof tlie 

*a1a(c: t'nrtrll v. Pntatrr. mfira. 

AakiiowladeiMiit or {KotnlM moat ba 
In wTltlDC. ■>gi>»l bv llio parly to bo rharged: 
l/ttulla V. C<urni, *2C-*l. lOD; iti'ld'l t. Snco- 
Jiuo, M Id. 3T4: Eii>tl* ^ (.Vn'n. r.\ TiL 2I.V 

The iiae o( ttia wonU "andlt<U and ap- 
I>ir.v'il,"iuiit "w« certify the abovn tobacor- 
IK I, ' written on an account by tnintrm of an 
weiMialinn, wan lieUI to rrcalc n linUltty of a 
bljltlier citaraolcr than tliat ariaini; fnim a mora 
aCMHIbI, asd ot'nalitnted tho innltorgturd U|wn 
iliMrunnata of wiitiiig. within llic meaning of 
ll>« elatqlc: SanniriKiii r. Bmm, H Cal. GS. 

l^tf-niof tbo defendant Inclo'lng cliccki for 
Hfintlilv intcnsl oa a loan, and Mytng they 
Wore Uio Inttnat iliio on tlio Uaa for the 

Pait parawoL — After' aoiiie diHenmco ot 
opinion on funiier ataltit**, tho taprono court 
haa aiDpliatiQiily deddsil tbat netlliur cart 
payment nor any otliar facta friim whicli k 
promise may be implied la lutliciont; and that 
tho ilntuto muit bo Ktriotly compbed with in 
all Tsum: Lurii v. .Uarrir. 18 CtiL 482; Ptna 
V. I'niKv. 21 Id. 142: lleCarfhy v. While. Id. 
40lli lltinUn V. Caiiro. 22 Id. iffi. A propOMd 
inittiwtion that whcrr a parly owing a debt or 
dobta Rlrea aoroal notca in pp.yment of a gruna 
■um 1^ mont^r owlnff by liim tlie ori^not 
amonnl will only reirlVe npon a failorc to pay 
all tbo noto*. and that tho payment of noo ■» 
the notm by the maker will prevent the nrij^- 
tinl debt from r*<r4viiig waa held not to bo ant- 
tainod by rsatOD or autliority: Omip/anl V. 
Bobrrli. So Id. ^M, 

An action on tho nevr pramlae miut be 
brouiAt within foar yean from tho niaklnjf 
the prombe: MfOormkk *. Sroma. 30 OaL ISa 
Tho cauaf of action i* foDndiMl nn tho new 
'promiao, inpported by tbo inoml obti^tioa 
arliins out of the orifpQal contnot; Id. 

Bafflclenoy ol the promfao i» n qooatlan 
tor tbeoonrt, wink thoiiucntiun wlirtbtr ■ij^ti 
prumlui trier* to the debt aoHKlit !■> bo nJixit- 
ftnl iptuniicrally fertile juiTi JifowBv, Ferrier, 
1 Weal Ciiatt lCc[>. 77~. Tho hnnlea of proof 
in on the dufradant to *hi»r tbat an acknotrl- 
edgmeiit of indiibl«dDa*a lUil not cefo' to tlie 
deouuid in nuit: Id. • 



opcmL Acnoxa 


SSL LiMihUon Inn o^ other itetet, ^■eri of. 

Sui. 3G1. WbMKcuiaeof M3tioQl»Bari«nui«DodMrRtate,orii>aroreign 

aotttiu;, Mill faj the Uva tlMreof an actim tbenon cmntrat there bo nuvinUlned 

affwiMt A perMn bjr ruMoo of tbe la{»e of tiise, an actioo tbereoa sl»U Dot U 

■uainteiDed agaiiuit tiitw {q tliu stjUe, except in Cftn>r of ono wlio baa been ft citt- 

gn of tlu> «tet«, and who baa bdd tlw oiase of actian fniis the tinM it accrued. 

0tat«. 1U2, B. 101. owaMB a( thi* VMMk*. mm tha mU to Ai^ 

DvBMidM ten«a by Uw Uwa of tba v. ite-kr. 33 As. Dw. SfiZ. SwaboOsrA*. 
ootuttjy «b«ra UMr ariclMtad.-Fte > <U. L. 8. A M. 8. M. B. Oo.,9iS.Y, S17. 

86S. Existing caiifm^ action rtoi ^feted. 

Qtc Sti2. TbM tiUo aoca not ntoad to actioiui already oomneBoed. nor to 

i-aM-M whore thf titui^ [>niHcribod in an; trxiitting statute for aotjuiriii;; a riglit or 

bnmiti; a rt-mwly Lait fully run, bat tliti laws now in force are applitable to soch 

Mtioaa and eaaea, and are repealed subject to the proviaious of thin sectioii. 

StantM of BnltatSooa do not act ivtraapecttvety: Jf^Mm v. StitM^ SCd. 43a 9«« 
mti', tDCL 0, Id. 

863. Word "action" rmminu-d, hate. 

Snc. 363. Tbo word " action," as ased m tbis titJ«> io to be constrsKl, when- 
e¥cr it ia neoeaaaty ao to do, as including a special proceeding of a ciTil nators. 



8ff7. Action la be in name of parly in inttrrei/. 

Sbo, 367, Everj- action must be proaecut^ in th« name of the t«al par^ in 

intereet, except aa prorided in section three huttdred and sisty-iiine of this 

code. lAnrndment, apjrrovi^d AprU 15. 1880; Amenttmenla 1880. 63 {Ban. ed. 

235); I'Mit 'ffrct immrdiatrhj.\ 

Real poity In tnt ara at .— ^or a ^rrj oont- fate* hi Mn«meat forth* neluiiatioa of Uo^ 

plglc UMtjiii ol lb( mMoiiig «( lliM Motion u the district li th* fed ^kHj Is Utemt, and 

ailiMit«l by the cod* ttataa, eoiunlt thu MCtioa jndfiBtat will not bo t«v«nMl on tbo gioiui'l of 

Id i'omorojr'ii lUmeiliei. (ao*. 124 et n^ Da- tit* actlcn not being la th« nuM of Uw [woplci 

ebwin* <A tli« court* la tb* •ereral rtate* npaa - - - - 
tliit ••■»* proviaioa will be foaad Mdodactly 
clMlBHlio I BkUaenOodcPlcadiag, I. BIIj*, 
In Co>le Pbading, Vt, also give* atUatton to tlui 

Agents M puttee: Soe i^fra, we^ 389, ia 
•Aarfgrnea; See (oc 3G8. Jx/m, •nJ not*. 


R'f. Hi: No. 10$ V. lletfor. 4 W«a Cowt Kcp. 
a»i «M ((Aio iiriadple. Id. ?88, 549. 

Ooontlea— An mUob oo a torfcitad rBOOg- 
alMSce t» |>TO|)"rlj liro(ij)bt in tliu name of tM 
Muatry. notiriUi»taiid<as it nuy' '■• ""'• '" 
Uitx of tha alal*. When a dvfend.'uit. oya- 
firted ia a orinunal firooaeiliag. i» ui'al'i'? W 

, -- , -. ~ paytAeco*te,oirwlieraIi*l*a«luittad.tho™«ta 

AiwIiiDne of iKit« nad account *u«d ud it tha t>t«etii« n ooantj dMigai and all Bas* oi)<l 'oi'' 
"TKil puly ia intorckt," aithoiifth tlia ooiwiil- fcdtviws when oolhctcd i" an)r ooart tii ihia 
MKtioo tor Ibe njaicnmeat ■> iiaynunt to tia atate, an to fa* applied t« tha (ayaMnt of tiM 
mailo after raoovory In tha Kuitti^rthuaaieiimi ' " ' 

AumU r. fvm.ia.-J WMtt^oMt K*ii. 534rCoL). 

One Cot wbiiae beneBt a contniot It 
made: W'ifrm D-i^pmrnt Co. y. Eaunj, fli 
Cat. Bill nifl MO. 3C9. oulo. 

OoaporatkNia.— By aaotlim 3M ol the (Svil 
Coda, «v«ry oorDoratioa, m lucb, h» pnver. inter 
aliu. to aua and va aoad in any cucirt. A oirpora- 
tioQ •niuc*u«and ba*u*il ItyitooMpHraiflnwaa: 
(.'arfin r. Murrf, SB Cat. C34. Tlic A-aeiat 
rule it, Uk*t aa action againat Inuteca of a cap* 
pamtioa for a miiappropriktion ol ita feada 
maitb«l>rnu<litiutW iifunouf tlie ootccetttioii. 
Tha fuDiU vliicli arc miiapplieil are tha prop- 
erty ol tha coqxinttiiin a* inch: and exception 

otnu of the ciup in vrliich tl>* flaa wm InitKiard. 
Of in which the fotfcitani waa incorrwli and 
after ntch ooati bB*« been paid, tha iwaidno la 
illrcetad to be paid to tlw coanty treaMNT ol 
the conatT ia irhliik tha eoart la held: Tan. 
Ga<le,aoc.iaTO. Tl.oconnly b»»a.UrccttnWP»«» 
ill tJ>o cnllcclloD of the amonnl iluo on "'•/•■ 

Sniiaooe: MmdottM Co. r. Latoar, 30 0*1. 
(Jnder a nroviou* law, niOHny* for whldi 
Uwtrauuraroflhacnunty waihi .U-laultwora 
diued ta bvloQg to tb* coanty of Iilondooina, 
aadtha aution ia hald i<roi«rly l>rau)(ht la Ih* 
namv of tita oountyi MenmtiHO Co, v. JfMTM, 
32 LI. I1& 

Tlia act of April 4, 1*70. reqnirina aotiona 
to rocovcr »tn«t aieeianicnta in isui fVancmoo 

to tbo rule in vbcn a oorporatian on a pmpor „ .. . 

dpinaal from n sto^-kliolilo' rtfuaca to iiiatltata to tr* bronglit in the oamo of tlm uity and 

Uui t^iosit <?->i"ri 11 I, JlaU.XHii. til. county ut S.1T1 Ki^iclauo, iaataul ol IjBing 

fia^ilaraaUdodlatilcta.— Iaa»««tioiitooD- brougbi ia Uia nam* of the eualraclor, a* 


Tmj: UI.] 



va> Nqairnl by law Mor* thU titiMt tlid nol 
■pplr to oonencta fur imivoring itreet* on- 
UKd into Ufotu April t, 18,0; X>.Vfr«. Pirttf, 
44 Cnl. IKl! /)t*r r. ,Vw(A, Id. IJJ, 

Au Mlimi to iccovcr nwney bctimging to th« 
geik»nl f at) J ot » county may be brou^bt in tho 
uxnc •>[ tbo county: Solano v. A'rn', 27 Col. 
40S; tiharp v. dnilra (:\nfa, M Id. '^84. 

People, when luuoa o( to be axed.— !□ & 

piuotf.iiiijt fgt iiuvulamw. »!iire th« rcUtOT 
WBt tiio cuily jiinKiti nlio woalil aufTi-T M) In- 
jury in viiDii-i|>]i-iiuv uf tlie anl aipliiH which 
tho uTit wiu i. Iw illivcUil, tlia court Ckllwil 
aiuiiliuit lu (Ii« tvcliv't. uiul t<> tlia toctioa ru- 
latiiii: to mAvlimui (lOHIIt. "the writ *linll hit 
UiiKii dlioti ftlllil.ivit ii( Ui'i [uiity li('iiv&i.'ialty 
iu(e<'Ml«il.~ ami aaiil that llii? nltuciicy geuvtiU 
WM the only pervon to wlium aiilhority waa 
^J*m kjr hw ta aroear f«T tlir people, and he, 
or nich |ienoD a* be might delegate aathority 
to Ut Appear tn hia muno. moit repRMDt tbcm 
lit each et*M: tliat a private penon b^ nol tho 
tilht or power to ueo at hb clpctlnii the name 
ef the people for the purpoee ••( ohtaiiiiug »• 
drte* I'vpriTatewTODgpi: PtopUv. PiitJirfO,79 
Vti. '213; Ne alio, «it an eiiplioatleu (ur e<r- 
ti^niru I'tap'f v. CVMiifyJurf//f, 40 til. ISO. Bat 
wliuri' llie »i!,-/roiy graeml hae aaeentvJ to the 
UfS <{ thiB nsme ol the people, and it i> ap- 
Danet irom the rery nature of the caac that a 
Urge number of pcrauna are intereatud in the 
r-'Hilt of the appIicaUan, the court will not be 
inclined t« exxead the principle: Ptofit* r. 
PnrJiim, tnjtnt; PtopltV. Aim fraHeiteo,MtA. 
OOS. Where it Bppwr« that tho relator la the 
leal l>arty in Interest aneking relief, anil that 
tbe Miitd niu ui> dln^l iattreat In the event n( 
tbo iiuit, the alt'irniiy-mneml, aa ■nvli. Ina no 
powOT, nllor liavinj; glrMi Itii oouaeut t« the 
OM ol (he nuniu of the jieoptei to control the 
OMduot of the euit or vitbilraw hi* oouMiit to 
tbetiMef tbeaiMneof ,tliu gwoplu u pUiniilT, 
to tlie prejodioo of the rclntor: Pi-jpU v. .V, 3. 
F. II. * R. S. A.. 38 111. 006. An act ol 
)9(LV4, Mi:. '2, pruvuloil llut the harbor com- 
BtlMlOuen o(^n Pran(^l■c» were anthorllej and 
•mpoweretl ia tlw naiui! ot the people of the 
elalii of California to iualilule aetioo* at law 
an*l in eiiuity (or the iiowtwlon of any wharf, 
or for the rvaxtrery of the tolls, dookaRe, rente, 
and wl^arfftge tliureof; and the nipreme eonrt 
jiWdthe <rord«<anprehennveonougblo iuctude 
a I tin rcniCilln t&at a private penon CDuhl 
li ve nixler tlie drvunutanoea, and that the 
h' rbor eomniiirioiicTe might qm ^>o douw of 
V e etjtc lu BD action to recover wharfage: 
t fV* V, Siramrr Amtriea, 34 Id. O'O. 

WlKre the nvtition for a rrWemri ahowetl 
Itat a propoefif road wnuld iiiu over the philut- 
(A'e land, hn wait b«M lutorvatwd in the matter 
ol Um oompeneiliuu lor jiia land which might 
l<e lahm (or the iim of the road. It not appear- 
l-K thai III- ha>l ^nulol tliu ri^ht of any, cither 
Wttli nr iritlioul <:oinj)uusatit>n. Ho Woe alaO 
i -tol in hiiviii^ thn ruiil located in 

• I r that it would W legal anil valid 

uLKu IE '•aidKUieil n publio hishwo*: Vim- 
l^lr T. .ioM yoofu.N ('.'a.,400il. lOS. A prirato 

Creon. whotc only intereet In the nalter ia tho 
■X lliBt be b an elector in the county, oannol 

apply In hia own name aa plaiulifT (nr a wrjt of 
tmuulato to couipel a boo/d i>( mperviaora of a 
county to urdur an clectiou, (or the people to 
vote on the queetiou of the rumoval cl the 
cenoly wnt: £iuif«n r. jiamofa Va., 43 I<L Tl 
Pt/rplt r. Btgtitit, A Mich. 08t li^mr v. Com- 
moiiiira(/A. 2H Vu. St. 109: Sn^rr v. Kmnthtf, 
21) Mo. 'JDl. The attorney-general may. in tho 
name of the puople o[ the etato, witbout tlio 
Intervention ef a rdator, compel, by nnt uf 
manilale, a lioarl of ■npcrrlMm to Luun iMikde 
to laiae money Xa !inprt»-a reaJa, where llivre 
ia an act reqniriog thum to do *o: Proptt v. 
JtMvnwon, 56 CaL CSI, 

Under Uiia act of Maroh 14, I6S3, any private 
citieen night make a compluiut lu Ihe iliRlrict 
oonrt a^inet an olGcsr fur extortion in uuulect 
of ofhcial dutis. Tlio court held llial tuere 
wu nothinu which reiiiiinvl that Crane, who 
pre ferrod the complaint, ilionld aier or pror* 
timt he wae a party in Intcreat in tho etilct 
unao, or had hlniaelf auataloed any (podal 
damage by roaaon of the oHiclal ncgloot com- 
plained of. That U wa* not tlie nenmial intor- 
Mt of the eomplaiaant which lae Katute re- 
earded, but the higlier and inoi« tmportaut 
iDtereat of the people and the liody-politiG in 
the honeet and uithful dieehsi^ of oaicial da> 
tiea by pubUo ■crrantoi that tho ri^ht of a pri- 
vate penion to ioititute on inqairy iut« the 
ooadool III olBefrbolden under tho act in qaee- 
tico might bo add to be akin to tho right of 
erery elector to contcel tlie chum of any iier- 
•on Baeertina hiineelf to have liotn elected to 
offic*: Rt Atartt, 4S OaL IMj eee J/inor v. 
KMJtr. 43 Id. SSa 

The oonetitutioiiality of aetatute rreatlnjia 
court oannut be dolorminEd in procMiilintf* r>( 
nrternrj pneecoted by a private iivliviiluali 
the people are intereated: rnutr r. Pnrhi^ 53 
CaL 644. Wbeo the oomplaiut if thai a jKreon 
ninrpa an oSoe, the action miut be brought in 
the Dante of tho peoples Id. An action to re- 
coi-cr an aaeeimont levied la a tvamp-land 
dietrlct (or rDclainatlon puipoact may be pro** 
ecoted In ihu name of tbe jioople: PtopU v. 
/TiMcir. r.20al. ITl; btil eee Aoptr v. y/tvirf^ 
57 Id. E70. 

Paitneiahlp^ iuyf nuy ane: See ii^fia, 
avr. .ISH, 

pAitiaa plAlntUl s«iioraUy.— All penona 
inlercatcd mny lie juiucit: Hvc^ 3iS. ;>»•(. U 
BUT refueo, they inay bo toiule dvfundou ta : Sec. 

IT the dOtfon la not brcmstit lu tbe ium« 
of tho real party tu InUreat it is fatal to the 
actinii! Dulbert v. <ioiu, 51 Cnl. IM; Dfa^ 
V. Mayor. 14 N. Y. WO; Smith 1, C. * N. W. 
R. II.. -23 Wii. 207: Oa!pin v. LaiiA, 'Si Oldo 
itt.aiS0i CInrJiv.i'tun(,->OId. Ilia Itlaavloe 
that cannot be enrol by a»ieii<luiont: Duthrnt 
V. Ooin, SI Cal. 153; '7nr* v. (Ta/*. mprct; 
and Otli-in t. Lrvnh, (Hjini; and a ilefaat of 
which advantaf^ mar be token whenever It 
appear*, when not waived by a tailura to point 
it oat by demurrer or onaweri I Ibteaun t'oila 
PI. 3. That tho objection may bo miu-d by 
tho gCDcml demurrer, that complaint doea not 
etate facta aufflcient to oonetitato a cause ol 
action, eee Prujit v. Uautm. 67 CaL ffi D, 

868. .■\MuinmiTnt (i/liting in aciiort nol lojirtjudux di-fpnv^. 

Sui. :UrH. In tlio cnM) uf an ftmigiiiiiont of a thing in nction, t^io actioit by 
tb» niuigDM i« wittiout prujti<lioo to *ny »ut-off or oUicr dcfcuw existing ut the 



OP CIVIL Acnosa. 

[Part II, 

tim« of, or before, iiotino of tbft aui^nent; but Uus eeption does not apply to 
a iM'goUablc proniistiory uota or bill of <!Xohac^ triioe/erred in good foitb, mid 
npoii ^ood iM)nsi(lenti6D, before uLutiirity. 

KMlgDdo ticcd not tic tliu lugal owu«r v( Uio 
tiling in Botii^n: if the IhudI owner, lia inu*E of 
courM brins Ibc aclbni l>ut iX the uaij^iiM'a 
tight or owncnhiji i> for nujr reucni or m t-ay 
■MUinw «qult>b1i:, bo in >tiU Ibo |iropcr pUint- 
iff, in moct at Uin Matca tlio only pluintidl 
■ItlioBgh iu • f(rw ilif >Mti)[ii-)r ahouUl be jDia«d 
na B (ilaiutiir or iw u <l<'f<'ii.tiitil. The pUin tn- 
lent (if ttii; iiUtutu i> tu imUiut tliu iM^uLt^ doc- 
biuD nnil rule Co nil laniM." 

AatisDment «ud aurvhral of o*twea of 
acUon: inn /mit, soon. 151*2 1't mx). 

SpUttine d«mAads.~T)iat ku s>'t><»i can- 
not W iDuintkincil hy tlie ika>ign«i! ul > tiurtinn 
of B claim without tho couaciit uf tliv ilcl'tor, 
MO TAomtu V. Aoc<t Miuirf To., 51 Cal. &7S. 
Than) inuit bo an cx])nwa ngrccmont ordiitinot 
ntillcatiuii liy Ilia ilcbtor ta oDtlioriM ■iiuli an 
»c[|on: (imiii v. A(dri(h, 3$ Id. All: i/nrisou 
V. Fioch', 8 111. fillO. If tho debtor doc* aL-rce, 
ttio octiriii will li*i McEiern v. yoAnraN, j Id. 
360. And that an aMiignni^itt u[ pirt in tho 
Abwucoul the •li'litor'aaaMut id-slid Inwiuily, 
■BO firoiii V. At'lrieK tupra. 

a*t'Olb And oount*r-ol«ltaa.— So tho iul>- 

eit, goncntlly. in tht iiatc to Buatio4i 438, po^. 
donee utter maturity of a nvj,-utialilc inHtru- 
iiicnt talcei the inina nulijoot to defeniii cxUt- 
lu)t between the maker oml payco; FoUom v, 
llailMl, ■! Cftl. let: Vmloa t. Ci-oiw. t Id. 
309; FuUrr v. IIulrhiiiQ*. 10 Id. SJU; Ua^tmnt 
* Vo. V. Stfum, yi Id. M- Hut a traniferea 
Injoud faitb, Uifomiiatuiily, takfj the inttru- 
meol fneil fium nuoli di-l<:ii*»i: Pnyne v. Bra». 
fcv- 8 111. 260; -Vuy/n- t./-tfT«uhU Id. «30j 
Jiobimon V, .VniiM, M. 94. 

A rcoent dpcbiijii of llll^ RUiiremK onurt erf 
tltii italc U of i;mit iii[(<rest. It i* tl>:it ui 
indonco aflor maturity, fnun oil'- "ho nu- 

AaaliBMsanliiciiiUiefr owu iMmeL— Tho 
code* luro adojitcil the ci|iiity rule that u- 
aifii'et may «iio in their own nnmci: tPAtaU^ 
V. Sirvbr. V2 t::*l- IIS; Wijitin* r. MrDonald, 18 
h\. I^'li Onulo'liol T. /latrv, -29 Id. IM; Onia 
V. AUrkh. -JA Id, :iI4, and Uia caa** dlad li«r»- 
insttur. DvcUkoia llloatntting tlio Abuva at-it*- 
nifst uv: AmLsucm o( clainu for «o)loction, 
whoFF lb«y liar« tliolagftl titl«,ftD<laDinternt 
to tbu uxti*nt of tboir comppiiutiou from tlia 
pnKvnlii. juay una in their own uunui Cnrtu 
V, S/infjar, 51 Id. SSO; //aw v. Uatlun\, 74 
K. V. 4sil. So nuigncoi of iwgotiable notes 
not iudomcd: ihaood t. AritI, 1* Cent. L. J. 
100: Aitdrta* v. ilcl>ai<irl, G8 N. C. aSA; Ate 
V. Il'd/Mn, 2 Mon. 10:ii II^J^ v. itaUer, 20 
Ran. nT. Aaisnoca of poticicB of lu*uraneo: 
Itrfmi V. Bui£Ur»' fu>. CV, 38 Cal. 041; ifi- 
*(»J V, Uerrpaol <U. fir* ,t Lifr Int. Co., 30 
Id. T3. A**lKnoa« of iudKmwnta: An v. Mom- 
Jmv. is Id,430i Low v, Unrmei. 12 Id. 161; 
itriHsn V. Stall. 25 M. 196; but nut of judg- 
Ineat* for non-OBiignablo tart*: LoHTrvnn v. 
J/nrliH. '2*2 Id. 173. TraoBlcrecu <4 uegotiablo 
iBilrummbi: .Afi-CfUiii v. Ltitit. 9 Id- 24flE 
yViff V. i>uiiIiiD, 5 Id. 4S3; Ouilut v. LtacitI, 
Id. 100: or oi DOD'OcgotublD inatrnmtDCi: 
LiKOM ». /'iiw, 59 Id, lai. Auigneo of proin- 
Uo to jwy in couaid«ntian of promiicv'a cea*. 
iug to deh-nd a vnit: Ony v. Oarritou, Id. 
3'.1>: of li-uie of aUUion for certain Uinoi Datt 
T. Aiui'rMoa, ^T Id. 'J4H; of a claim agalnH A 
city uDiU-r a <i>ntrftct: Wrfmon v. San /Vim- 
rir^A 44 Id. 'JUS; of a rlKhl «( aclioti fur Iha 
cusvaniiua of |)i)rK(>niil properly: hatard t. 
Wkmirr. Ti Id. 14:!; or for daimum to real 
eBtAtc: Jfor; v. Ma*ti>%i, 33 Id, SSli. Actiona 
lor brDachiM ii eotcnanla whiob do not rim 
Mritli tba tiHid cumut be brought in tho name 
of tho gr«nt(ic uf the roulty: Laicrtncf. y, 
Mmtigoui'rs. 37 Id. 180; nor oui wi action b* 
maiiitaiuvd by tbo Mngnoc of ono not (ho roal 
nariy iu intnoit; SbeutM t, Dvna, 1 WMt 
CoMtltepu GSSlUuh). 

Tfac poiion to whom an ordor la rIvmi by k 
cTtdilor upon bi* ilobtor muat «ue In liia owu 
luuna, alllitHish tika dobtor liaa not Movpted 
the onlir; McKmn v, yoAiuon. 7 C»L 200; 
Wh^altts V. Sitn^, 12 Id. 92; Walktr v. 
MaMn. IS Mo. UH; P<^ v. lluih, 14 Id. 403. 

In lb« oaaa of su MHi^unient of |>*rt of a de. 
inand, when ma<1o with tho kaontedgD nnd 
oonarnt ii( lli« iteliti'r. the uaaieDeo mnv luo 
•tfliio r>r hit i-jfti'io; iiraitt r. Aidritli, 38 Col. 
fil4i nor iu Miy «i-eut ia|th« uaigoce a nceea- 
anry |iarty to tho action branght by the M' 
aii;uc>r for liii iiortioni Lrrnt. v. Slifriroipl, 21 
IT. 1j2. Wbcrc tho MilgnninnC i> obtolnt*), 
thu aMgnte may sue for nnd ruiwvvr tlio *n- 
Un kmaunt, even thnu,;h by tho aasignniBnt 
he Miqaired onlv a portion of tlia dniuindi 
Onul«y>hl y. llarriA. 2D Id. IM). 

Of th» ImporUnt cbonM iu ttiB cvmmai- 
law nyfiterin n( pleadiii)!. r.imcroy, in Iteme- 
diu*, n't-, 127. laya, kflur citing; and eriticu- 
in|( many dociiiona: "Thu rule dttluood from 

Sulrod the note iiefore maturity, ii not nlToclod 
y Mjoitioi i-iiitiiig between the ori(;inul pu- 
tioi; Bank nfSiuitMn t. Govt, 03 Oil. 355. 

See tho mbjMt of negotiable inntrumenta 
and Ihe lighta of pnrlH-n thuriito diiouued in 
tht' Ci^'il (.'olc. f«"'."i, .IJ-- *'t *'-i(. 

Bot-otb betota ooUco ol oBilenment: M'- 

Cabf X. Orfj. 20 Cal. BOO. whnr* tli" dol.loT 
purohaced a judi^vnb aj^iniit liiH cmditor 
aft«r aaiignnicnt but bcfum notion, i'"'" mm- 
mcQla U|»n tbi» dcciiiou in I'oiiictuy Oli Jtoiiiit- 
dies, *oc. 1 00. 

Tho defeniUnt mar Kt off olainiB nuaitml 
the jdnlnliff ncimlred bv OHi^inimt, but lli« 
dcfpnduit iniiKt \M Iho (iWUito owner thomift 
Ji/iirt V. tVi'iVis'i/, SS Cnl. ■"•03. where the do- 
tendaiit Bought to «vt off a judj^neut obtained 
by hii oMiimoniiainiit th<> plaintiK 

A^algnmeot oy ngeot— .\n luiautboriiod 
aatipiineut by bii .-ttfviit cannot glv« tbo ai- 
MgilM a right iif avtion ogainat doiODdont. nor 
cm vnob MBignnicnt be Bulxwiiiiviilly ratllk'tl 
•o aa to create tlie riKbt of adiou not viiiting 
wbon auit waa brougut: WkUah^-ofky. ft'Umrr, 
Bl Col. 12; nor will n lupplemontal nompUiDl 
remcily the defect: Id. 

869. Krrculor, Iruatee, eta. , mny *uf without joiniji;} pifgona brniyMalltf interi'titj. 

See. 309. An 4>secutor or ndniitiiHtrntor, or tritHt«e of an oxprftiut truat, or it 

penoii expressly aulliorliwd by Htatulo, may euo wilbout joialng villi liitn tbe 





pcnoDS for irhou bctiefit th« action U prosei'uUsl. A pi^rsoo witli whom, or in 
wkoM DaiDD, tt oontnic't in miulo for the bouellt of auoUier in a trustee of au 
•zprwNH tnut, witbiu tlio meaning of tbia eeotion. 

OonatnoboD of the aocUoo gmanttj. 
Il It in'iKirlHDt lo D'ltv tliat tin- Uiij^iiue eni- 
pluytid lu lliia (vutiou i>j;wniiiwii-e, wllile tlub 
i;iii|>luy<!>l in KCtiuii SSfit iinpuratirt. Ucrn 
(tic uoijliary " niay " is luitli thorn the iioril 
j* '■ must," WritttB upon «jJc plonUiig com- 
nuct upon tliii circuiiiiUaoc: I'onioroy on 
RciDcdiM, *oc l3Si lUto* on Cole Tl. &; ' 
moil iiuincTOna dociilaiu nirunUln lliat tlis nul 
UMty in InUreat nuy auc ftlone •vvn uiiiUr Ihla 
utUoa: S«B«Iuniu V. GmillC/fVt-'o-OTN. 
V. mS; ll«a V. Ptainr^ W Ohio St. 417. 42>: 
St. LoM t'f. Ii'9 V. Tlutrltrr. 13 Knu. H&t; Rin 
V, S-wrtv, 'J2 Iowa. 470; H'ri</<! v. J'orttr, iX 
Uinn. 4'J9. and bc« in/ru. 

He •ocljon diiliu« four cluaoa of ptnoni 
who may ana: I. liituutor* or idmiuUtnitorc; 
S. Truataca of «i|irau tnuta; 3. A wrtoii ox- 
prtaily aaltiorUDd by atotuUi anu 4. Odo 
Willi wbum nr lit wuoaa nuoa & ooiilncl U 
Diar)i> liir koMliar** braofit. 

Exsoutora and adu)lal»trator% antloii liy, 
jpjiiiiJv wilh lipiri of .|fi, h'l ]imaeitiim 
of ^sal catiito o> •luiolini; littvi l)ci'. M.j'2. Ac^ 
ttDM liT, alonit: Sec. 1^1' 3. TosuCMiJvfraiu)- 
oloiit (Uoda madoby d^vcoaoJ: S»o. lAali. 

rUaliii-j appnlnlmtat at CHCUfor.— AU«^- 
lioit lliul i>]amliff ia tho duly ^ipMutad, 
ijuaUIIviI. and uctLllic axccutnr or, etc.. la not 
BUllici«i\l^ J«-M w. FrriUritIt*, 57 Cal. 3MK. 

Tniateek ol exprMa bvsta.— Many at- 
teiii|it« liAv« baoii made «fiinprehenair«iy to 
itvliiio tliit uxprrawon m utol iii ihs abnvo sec- 
ti'in, ponria cnliiilnj; tbrnr attanltaii to tba 
allcgtd Imit before ihini. Tlie cmii oI Ctau 
tHhifuii V. lirit/ia-iir, 'ii X. Y. 380. gWtt a cou- 
t-ciw kialoryof (lie HKtioi), sliuuiiig lliot l)ie 
Brorialuii ibclariiifl what on oxiirou (nut alull 
iniilaJo WM Injtraltw) upon tlic ariginat Mctioa 
U prvi'mt a iiftrtow ooiiatmcllon, and atatca: 
"Ultlwt»oiioii1iiitil4ndail niuiirMUy to «n)- 
liraco, vol oa\y lortnal Inula itfcUiod Ay d«od 
iiUrr iiarlt\ but all casea in wbioli > peraon 
acting in Iwhatf of a lliird party entvre into a 
wriltcu cxjirtia contract with another, ciUior 
In bia iniltTidual name, witbout deaoription. or 
In kin own iiame ciprctaly in truat for, or on 
iwhaUoJ.orloTthulicDcIli of another, by what- 
OTOT form lit expr«a*ioii tudi iniat may be do- 
Oluvl." So in irnMrr v. Wal^ih d: £. Canat. 
38 IniL 1 13. it ia aaiil llial " an aiprca Irual 
b aimply a tmst crcaleil liy the dlrwt and tiwi- 
tive aeti of the pnrtiea by aOTne wriliii);. <tn>l, 
or Kilt." And iii Rabliint r. Dftrrilt. ia Wia. 
1 ' ' Jditioe Diion (-tprcpon M his un> 
.1 ^ o[ Ibo lUIute, that to miislitatc • 

truii'v i>[ an cxpioM Iriut "there miut be 
•>Bo MpraMBiCrocincDt to that effect, or anme- 
tblng wliicli In law li oqaivaWt to »noh an 

Pnr a clear «lAt«ni«nl of the old rnU of 
tviuity ploailiM ni|iUriiig tbo Joindrr ol tfao 
l«:r.ciieiaiy with lbs uniatoe in actlona by or 
ai;iiiii<t till) Utter. BM fUfbox r., ECIIM, 4 
\V'o>t I'HL.t Rep. 307 (C Cl,, Or,|, 

/'il JvlriMt fff iJUt tfttioH ia luid down in 
Tlflrr V. Ilouiiiuon. 2j Cal, CT. In Siuttill'M 
V. Afiiart. 1 M. M. It appcorol. that cortoia 
loiiiU liad Iccn ictcn tO by tlw UenoMi gar- 
■nMiKMt (or tbciue of the prioata and tlu pw 

poMa of Mllgfon, Mid it waa held that the 
prioat of the IdiaiioD IIoUith miAlil. in liU 
cbaraotcr of prieat. tii anii1aj;y to tlie ptaition 
of a tolo eoqwrntioii iti Kitkjuuid, maintain aa 
action (iir tlio paaauaaiiiii of u pcrtioii ol tho 
mlmloa laad. 

It «3« hold that a plaintifT, who apiwarwt 
br hi* own cnnulainl to be a iD«r« agent for 
(X. a««iiuli oonlitnotauoan cauaa of aellonot 
C.'ai liinrJxr r. Aurthford, I C*l. 70. A guar- 
dian appointed by tlie probate court in not a 
tm*te« of an exptrai tnut witliin the nieauing 
of tbii ■cotion. lie ia an oiBcerof Ibit aourt, 
and cxcrcUta only ■ delegated trust- Tlie 
capaoity of a {[uardian tu auo in bii own name, 
if at alL la limlldl to ofticna for tlie injury nt 
death of yawarvl(wc.37U>, whilutxciuiitomuid 
admlnlatratara art axprwtly iiilbortMil to aao 
ia tlwir ulBcial cbaiaoter, witlinut j'^iiiiiji the 

Craon benolloially inCervMvil. At ocimmon 
rand in eijuily an infant wu n>(|ulr<.id to 
■ae in liia own name, but by lila i^nardiiui or 
next trioi.a: I Cli. n. 2.S4: Bnidl'!/ V. A mi- 
don, 10 Paige, 23ii Haidtff v. Laiif. S Uhlo, 
2t!3. Tho prootioe of (uin/i liy euuntkiii In dk- 
prcwly ooatinaed by tlie coilo: Soci. 373, 373. 
See Fox v. J/Ioor, 3-.'Cal. 1 ID. W. M. Wiu1«n 
brooyht aullon a ilocunimtaatollawi: "Sui«iii 
Gty. Dvct-niber S3, ISG.'i. Twelvo month* after 
date I proniiM to pay \V. M. \Viiiioi«. <ir nuv 
anthoriwd aj-enl 'i( the f acillu Uetliodlut (^ul- 
lege, the aum ol." etf. The court lioM the nc- 
tion proporly brought in hia naiDS; Wiatrrt v. 
JhaA,Uld. 1311. An attorney iu tact does tint 
bold the cbotiKter of traatee, and U not a neeca. 
wry parly tn a lult to rcnreaont tite Intereat at 
Vac iiriiitljKjl: I'utr-U v. rtw», 4 Id. IW. 

Tli4 tninlco ol an uiiincDr[xinited OBOciation 
may euo In hia own uanio for its benefit oa tho 
tmntMuf anuxnrwatnint; iMnnkliHV.arcaf, 
14 Iowa, (Ul So aUo uliero the penalty of a 
bail bond ia payable to the oonnty tor the ben- 
efit of tho nIiooI fund the oonnty ia a tmaten 
within the ineaulnir this eeeUou: SKMy Co. v. 
Sinmad; 33 Id. Su. A ^ntoo nho li;j| 
Bgi«cd to reconvcy after titiualiaii vnilcil la 
tnwl«o of an rxpreu trust witliin tliv niMuLvi 
ol thia acction: SmUh v. ^nri, 1 Weat CuMt 
Ren. 301 {Nov.). 

The aaaifniae of a eUlm In tmst tor another 
i« lru*tM of aadxpiuu truat: Wf Inon v. ilrgt- 
vuMo. 98 N, Y. W. 

Ooo bw wboao boMfit a pToata* Ia ttiad* 
may auo oluiic "ii Ihu promUc, inch i one be- 
ing tbo person Iieiiellcially intcreitcd— t^u renl 
mrtyiaintemt: If-jTotu'v. J/eiAwi^MSCiiL 
128: II €«*er» litrttejaiHBt Co. r. K«i*iy. 01 LI. 
01 1 1 Jahmrta v. Knapp, .10 Ion, GIG: />o(it v. 
Ihud'rAoa. 32 Id. IKi Rcfjfrt r. Qaixrll. HH- 
Uol 500; Rogtn v. Ptnk, SI Id, 406; Jonlnn r. 
irA;«, 30 Mian. 91; .%iarf<r* r. (7-«>.i, I* U. 
STlh A'laMI ». Xo-Kt. 17 WU. IHM: ('''i/i'i. •.: 
OUnm, 54 S. Y. Ml : GUm t. Ho/" Hal. /-. f. 
Co., SO Id. 37U: I'ant v. Ctll^-^v. 30 Ind. 
112; mUff V. JtJIiMffJy. 41 1.1. -iW; t>«rl>am 
V. ISi»-!uiff. 47 Id. '211; .Wryn- v. l,-u-^!l.*V 
Ho. 333. Tlio fulUiwingaffiir^ a «m>I illuatra- 
t4on of tho .-kUivo tut««Deot: nnilei an twroe- 
mcnt tfaa iMendaat rtccivc<l, throDgb a ^nAtf 
ment rwoncwd by coaunt, a LLCgo amount of 




tfAKt II. 

proiwrty. upon r^ntiOi-niti'in tluit !t hIiobUI p»]r 
ami iliKhorgQ all tli« iMil* bikI Itsbilili** m 
Vie Ciicl(> Siai DMniany. Tlie oourt Le IJ tlmt 
lht> (kirty fur wlioce WuHit tlic jiromuo vraa 
node migbt maintain an artiou n^niuct tbu 
pmmiiuri thftt tlio <omi:«D]r iii;rcL-<I anil lb« 
ijUlutilfiauiifalcd liuai«nt)i]rb[lDgiuHtlii:ao> 
tl<«- .l/orgouT.Oivniuiii^. J/.('o.,3i(^I.S37. 
Agenti. — Whon tli« hat ul ilia a8i">cT >* 
ktii>«ii, oAil Uio contract laiiu>U in the aj^cnt'i 
■MBiD. Ii« ni.iy mo tli«rtoii wilhcmt l«iuiag 
11 i-ili VinifTt T. WuiA. 31 Cil laHj 

iV". S III. Sl.'i; '"o mini' nil/ v. Sri*-- 
ly . :i ■• V. SS»: Vhrliraham fxrr Brkk <'*, 
V. 6'wi^. 41 U(i. SO: (trM^ V. TiiuUv. W Id. 
XSDl /fiM V, S-urry, S3 Iowa. 4T0i H'fnvrr r. 
7Vu*f«e> ■/ rCotaal Vaaot Co.. SS lad. 113: 
X«t V. C*ri*fe. ftl N. y. 270. 2Tt : //f.SW/ v. 
Uadiarr,, A3 Id. OS; Salmon v, ifefmaH. 3 CoL 
)9& llie lulv in the ifuno, MM STMi vitb 
ptator muoii, wImto tlio fact o( tbo agBBcy i> 

not kiioTii at thn llmo of tli« contraot: Finn- 
«rcnr on Itmnftll**, *i>c. ITT. 

Tli« priueiptl on wbo*o b«lMl( * eontrnol i( 
mulu by an nttent ii tito rMl party in iiiUrvat, 
and nay luv on tbo contnit, altliouiih tbc fact 
of Um oAf-ncy nuy not bave btwn diu:l<uBd: 
ihi« *. .vortoa. 4 Oi3. 3»i nam y. ,J'(a r.t 
Co., 13 Id. 472l JffooB V. Burtt. 7S N. V. .WO; 
f/onuu> V. 0nMf R'. iTy Co., C; I.L ■20.4; //nJt 
V. Plaiu*. II Ohio St. 417: Fi"! 'Vif- ifnnA 
b/ OrttMiifid T. Jf. (l C. n. ft. Co.. 20 1.L -ISO; 
WfiJt V. />.»■(«<'. 22 Mo. 41>fli £t. LouM /Ty r. 
Tlxuhfr, 13 K»n. HM. 

Am a graonJ ral(^ In ordinary contract* otMl* 
by ^[ant* (or tlioir prfnclpaU tliu Utter ara 
tho real partio* la loturMt, (uiJ must an*: 
Sitift y. S«ift. 40 Cnl. 2lUL 

where tbo ogoDoy ia not diKlmod, in nrdor 
to ontitle tbo prindpal ta mo tlio fiut of tho 
■oeney nnut m ahoim; /fiii; <-. yon<m, 4 Col. 
US; TAwn v. Jtttt TtiL Co.. U Id. 472. 

870. Slarried woman as party . 

Sbc 870. Wbeu a married voman is a par^, lier hosbaod mast bo joined 
with lier, except: 

I. WLen the action concenis her sepamto property, or her right or claim to 
the homeatea<l property, ehe may sue nlone; 

'1. When the actioa i§ between herself and her husband, she may Koa or 1>o 
lued alone; 

3. When she is living s^pamte and apart from her hn<iband, by reason of hi« 
dmoriion of bor, or by agi'oemont in writing entered into between thoui, vha 
may huo or bo Kne<l alone. [ Amfndmcnl, approved March 21, 1874; Amatdmrnla 
1873-4, 203; to^i: ^f^{ July 1, 1R74.I 

ManSod iromiui am a p«rt]r.— Ax n gun- 
eral rulv, whiui > imuriod woi[iaii it a jiorty to 
an oetitin li<<r liuKband miut be joined n-Jtb 
hri'. at>d ILo above Bwtion, while rocogcixiDg 
thin, mnkta ci-rtain csoeption*. pormuaivo in 
tlitir ii.iture. nhiali do not prevent tlie wifn 
from joining; litr liuildixl nitli Lcr. That tho 
toclifin U jicrmiuivf , luo Coreoran v. llnll. ^i 
Col. 82j Caklfrmod v. Fumr, SI Id. 3S3; Vai 
itarni v. /<iAuon, 15 IiL SOS: R^ttknmtr r. 
\CmHrr. 31 Olilo 8t. ATO-. OUim v. KimlntU, 31 
111. 362; Am t. LnH». 30 bid. 140: AVnrwfy v. 
WiOiam*. 1 1 Uina. 314; Boliin r. Harl. 6 Wi*. 

If a wifi* flxocntm n mortgnm with her ba*> 
hand, nhp ia a F*VP*'' P*''!'' udcndonl to ttin 
fiireulvBiiro pMooodinp; AuOmuji v. .Vyc, 30 
('■L '101. And liDiliUkd and wife an proparly 
c»-d>.'fciidlinta i<i octi>>ai on 111* wifv'* ocuitraoCo 
, bcfura taania^: K'llfr \. Hiftt, 2i Id. 437: 
iVhiutl't V. ftvMiHit. S.'i I<l. 314. But tb« wifs 
1«lni|>n>pc(ly jalumi Inniinlt biDuglitto nioovtrr 
UMiiiiy which aho tmrruwcij, but wliioll went 
Into Ilia ooninuiiitt' iiroportyi AllMo/ r. Con- 
Keim, XS 14. 230. wlicni jtuI^FiiPiit ha* been 
rt'cix'OnMl agkiail tlie « if", |<:>yinvnl by the bui- 
liami i> payment liy hrr; DraU r. J/oyau, .10 
Id. 1 31 

Tiiu wif« may int<Tvene in forecl'iiaiv pro- 
oecding* o^inKt her liuilaDd if ah* claima tbo 
load lu bcr lenanilc eitate; Kotatr v. .IjiArn- 
o**. I7C.I. iTS. 

Cantidcts of Dutnied women ganeraUy: 

StcC..-. 1', no;. IM. 

Subd. 1. AatloiM concanilnK wUe'a aep- 
arato piopeity.— Under tlil* ■ubdiviMun die 

vrite, if plunliff, nrad niit join hnr bu«liaiid 
with lieri if defendant, he mual bo made n co- 
defendant. Aa pUintifT, and cononminit her 
«fpamtept«pcrti-, tbewiiemoyancaluue: Snff- 
iler\. BrW, aCnlSas Van Xarruy.'JrAn-oit, 
IftM.Saii A'ay.v./'A-fau.l9IiLl28! Cof-fer- 
icaod V. /V*'''> 31 I>L 33.1; Conoma v. t>ollt 
33 Id. 8£ Tbu ptculln;^ ahauM dUcUmi tbo 
fact tliat tlio pn>pprly l« tba wifc'a •epnmto 
prepCTty; T'Aonuu v. /<r'ui(-»'f , OTId. 4'Jlf. Sho 
IB out obligeil to sue by protlifiti ami: Katiaw 
r. KaAaiP. 3 M. SVi: aa it tba cos* in uiiivr nf 
tho eodo auto*. Heo roourruy on Rniiii'illoa, 
•oca. '2]l& 237. Orahoinaymali'i hvrbiialAiida 
CD-plaintiff: Sec aa«M Sntt abuve dted in thia 
not*. The «laWiiient in J/oi-Ioir v, Barifie. A3 
Id. -Ufl, 4(iO, that In octiuna coucerniug her 
•«paratt> uatale tbo wife may bo aued, tnuat bo 
on iuailvcrtono*. aiiid wu not ncocxury in thnt 
oua, oa tbu huabauil woa • co-ilsftudout. Tlio 
Iowa cotlo allowa tho wife to too ttt b* aaod 
alnne. t<i thonmc cxt«iitaiiif nnmarrlml: JVno- 
liirUr V, llniiin, tZ Iowa. 2^ 

The fact that the wi;oh.iijainocl harhuahajid 
04 n party pkiatilTln an action cancam'tii: her 
aopainta »tAto will not work an nhtteW'-'nl of 
the action whcra. pcoiling It, they oriiUvonjnli 
(W>f"'"'uiJ'f V. I'l/'T, 31 ("ill. .133. Tbeiehitiou 
bvlwerii (hepart"v<<>'iiaa>'Vervil,bntttiourigioaI 
rlt;ht<d nutionatill cunlinudl In Uia wife: Id. 

Tort* l9 li^ ie\f', or K'.r invj^'rlj/.—in on M- 
ti<iit (or an aasault and bating unon hnr. the 
« ife woo ollowod to aiio alono for bcr pcra^nal 
iujiirioa: CofnJf v. /.rur^/iJiTn, ti Minn, ulio; 
^inu V. Ma/'S. 33 Barb. IH. Bui not in on 
aotiou for oUndci: GibtoH r. Qilnort, 40 Wit. 





t3. Or alia may mo dona tor conitnlan of Iwr 
mt*cinalt]ri Aflirg *. T«ri«jf. SI N. V. CM; or 
for tnxpMa iipoii licr it«tty: ftn v. i>>ur, I 
Daly. 190. 

In ll'ibnn r. WUton. 36 CaX. W. it wm taid 
«Ufrr Uiftt thcM wuM no itatulury Umitatian t>> 
tli« kind of MTtion* tb»t may ha lOAiiiMiiied by 
tlie wUa whm lliey CDaaom her lepimla prop- 
rrly. In Siflittu v. SlfiBiMp Ifatli San. 18 
Cnl. nat, kDiI H'ofwr v. Stfjtuuhio Vi'tlfSnm, 
(I U. OS?! (or prnoonl !ii]tiri<!* tno irif« mtiiit 
makotbnbutban'l -x |iurty {iliimtill. 8oo Panic- 
riiy on K«in*>liv*, ii«<3>- l!!'^ '^4-1, whorv thaili*- 
tint-'lioqi ii ilmwn bHwMA Injuria* to parMiu 
anit iiijiirim to iiroperly. 

I'ur the Bpeoial ilannigm to thv huibond by 
naaoH of iujurin tu liisu-iru, hutnuittnaalinio: 
tfoo KaruHitunK v, Jiitrtri'lf, 31 Wia. 018; 
lU ivlrtt, V. f</«d lU fAit, 40 I<I. 44; Mrrv v. 
F«<vt-U /,<i^,4fll<l. 323; JU'rirAHIrrr. Itall'H. 
4'J Iowa, ■St'*: fMUg v. Itoiuina. nH Mo. 301; 
ItOiirrt r. StaiiS, 17 luJ. 3i3; Bar/nil v. troii. 
Bi^. MM. IVZ 

I'oiifmiij'tf (V Atfnifrfrtirf.— "Tha orifcinal 
atatule, lUl-'i: iliti nnt renitalci Die <kiiM 'or 
licr tiglit or t^Uioi to tlin liMiiiutaad,' anil Um 
. |ilirm*c WMfulilnl by Ihu umaudiiianl of IS07-8, 
|Pi UOl Uiilil after the uiwf^ •>( tlla anirnil- 
FoMBt the court hiul hclil a wi/c could not iud 
•laM to reooi'er tlio homntcail : See /'oo'r v. 
Ormin(,GI.U.TI: ff'tnUr. A'numfr.SIiL Ofli 
(Voir. AViiJ. Sl.l. S17: ami iwOrtv. ifoort, 
1-1 III. 47'J, oxrnihii/ IIkm csao* In aoino par- 
tii.'ulkrs, but not a« to thla poicl, it ■aviiin; ■«> 
rfvforf V. Guied, U IiL 507; ■*« alao JVom v. 
rnmrr. 10 Id. 200. And it wm mIiI tlint a 
vifc hul iiu right ia lliv liomwIuiMl in<)ii[>cn<l- 
cnt ol lliv liusliuid whioii bIk* cuulil enfoTM 
•ipluit lii* miucnt. and that alia ooulil not 
mbitalii a *uit (or it in bor own name alooei 
ffaiMv. Oaiwf.UM.MiT. * * * Andauahi* 
xiataraol th> llito to the homMtcad tliattho 
tigbta o( tli« litiitliaoO vaiitiot In aiTcctcil with- 
'MtaScatiiiKtlioacnf tlienifauUo. If no bind- 
ing ilnefakai oan W nimlo whrn ou^of tliomonly 
b a ftfty, U)«n it u iillo for tli» court to inako 

any ilMiaioa at all in nioh a caai>- Mxri* v. 
Mnria, ft III. 97:" Coda rammiHrionrrii' nW*. 
Subd. & In«oUooaboCwMnbnrMlfat)d 
Imt IinttMtiA abn may tw «itfa«r tola plaintllT 
or defimdanti H'ilwnv. ll'tlwiH, 30 tUL 44T, an 
acttoa on a Doto )|>v<^ I>y t^*" Itnk^nil IxfoN 
mamoj^. llnTiog Mttlotl that tlm arlioo la 
Iwtvrocn th« biuliaod and wiFc. tlm in'otwiily <4 
in tnxl Being otiior imrtiAt cannot affi-rt licr nf^l 
to «uc alfln*; A'"<A'iir v. K'u/uiir, 3 M. 312. 

Bubd. 3. Uving aepAnta from ber titis- 
baod.— Etefoiv t)io adt^OD of th« owlvt— tlio 
■talut** of 1869-70. p. tS— tor the Kparata 
maiuloiiano* and <l«(«nM of actions hy a mtr- 
Had woman "livingaepanleandniartfrniahcr 
huabuid." altliouj;n uothins •r»s Ihrrriii uiil 
in r(pu\l to the aliaracter ol tlio acijamtioa. It 
mw diKideil in Toblit r. Oatpia, 4!l C«l. M. 
that a tomponir^v alamoe of tbv wife fmiu th« 
huabood mth hu oiniwnt <tld nut utmw within 
tlio muanioc of the Bi--I. In a »nWr(uciit do- 
clilon, liliiimnitrn v. AUamt, Id. M^, iniflK at 
thn unio tcmi. Ilm court hoU a iDarricil trnnuui 
linhl* on Iwr uciutrart nf )oa*a. aaa/iw in/r, 
whara for mora than tu-o y«an aha bad lw«ii 
ftlMadotwcl by her hiialiond. 

"Tba agreomant for a sppantion. to Im 
voti'l. miut tn in ariliog: Sne net. IflO, Civ. 
Uodfi. aaaraendeJ:" Note of code examiner, at 
wboM r«eDmni«i<lation tbo clanu in lli« ab>>vo 
acotioo. rrlotivs to hcuhaivl and wife lirin;} 
apart bp agreement, waa adopted. 

The daaartlon bora meant la tba dcarrtloD a« 
doltnad hf Uia Ctrll Cmla aa tha haaii of an 
action for dlr<uva for dmertloii. TbirDloru it 
1* daaarlion by tlia liuttttnd. vliorv ho retnaaa 
to moif a datartiof; wife who oSeri to return 
Wforo Iho cxpiratiun ct a y«Br: Arttrnet v. 
Bmyon. 4 Writ Coant Rep, 81. 

BMitlta foUowlng from Uila MOtSou. —The 
wife, lieiog atlawEd to defend oloiu. may bbd 
hcnwif by ailmiiiiona id writins the luiiia na 
other pMtien: A'.Jmoa v. BtU, ft Cal. 911, 
Ilor uparatA catata la liable for outa: Lcununl 
T. Ttiii"i'f/iJ. 28 td. 443. 

Sole tradenh Soa /xxtf, aac. IHIO. 

871. Wi/f maif dffi-rtxd, v^lten. 

8ec. 371, If ft liusband and wife be stied together, the wife may defend for btir 
own ri^-hl . itnd if Ihv bunltaud neglect to defend, she may defend for his right also. 

■tat*d that the lint etnuio. at leant, appliaaouly 
to p<|tiital]lF (uitii iti whioh ■oparatc righia of 
the wife are involved. 

Tbowlfe EoaydAfond^ See Ihipra v. Dh- 

C, ft CU. 38Si Al-trrn« v. BiH.S Id. 319. 
A mnatnietioD of the abovo loction in 
Ponwroy on R«maiU«, aoc. 328, whcni it U 

373, Jit/aul, inmnr, or ijicomprliiit pirgon to appmr fty ffuanlian. 

Sbc- 372. ^VheD on infunt or an innano or iiiconipuUml pomon in n pnrty. he 

inu§t appear either iiyhJH grncral guanlJan, or U; a guardian od tiUtninppoinUtd 

hy the court in which tlio tictioit in ponding, ill each cnno. A giuirdiitn n<] litem 

may he appointed in any cow, wlien it ht doenied hy tbo ootirt in whirh tba 

action or proccedinjf im proHec'ittfKl , or hy a jiidf,'o lh<-n'»f, (txp'dtent to n!pre> 

sent the infant, insane, or in<wnipot4!»t pnrtioit iii tho action or pn>(!C«din((, not- 

witlistAndiiij; hti may hare u gfintiml guordiiin and iiiav have appeared l>y him. 

[Am-uihai-iil, ap/n-^nrd April 16, 1880; AmendiHenU 1880, G3 (Itan. ed. 235); took 

t^fci imiiftliatv{</.\ 

OnaitUau «d UUm. — Where thoro t* agen- tbo rormcr to appaar for the varit: (}rot\fitT v. 
•ral niarOlan. and ttM ooiirt doaa not apecliilly PmmiroU Iff C^. 609; and %o iijfra. 
afpowt a ifttanUaa ad tUtia, It It tba duty of Tliacoort baa DO right to appoint a guanlka 



OP crm. ACTiosa 

[Pakt n, 

Iff fiWn (at Ktt infiiDtde(«)ikiit eiilit th« in- 
(jiiit 1* propflrly Inuutclit intu court by Mfvioe 
<i( MiiiHiiutia (m Ui vtuioh, am piul, mo. ill. 
•abd. 3); Gny r. Palmer, 9 C*X. 038) Jahaton 
V. iS'iM JVinantra >S(io. t^iion, 03 Id. SM{ J/e- 
Cw&jir V. ^uvmry, 4 W«rt Cowit Bop. 280: 
but Kc. a* to •ubcUtutian of in&nt nicccsiore 
t« i!l«o«Mc<l dcfonilont, Emerk v. .H/niroi'ii, I 
WortOoMt Itcp. 7i)S. Udc wliont oil appoliit- 
nitllt o( a ^oriliiui ail litem wa« iniul* on tho 
uttne du' on whidi an order of mln wu «n> 
tonnl. the court Jocliaml to liold that tliia 
vlt!nlA.1 ttin iirocoodion: SUiart v. Atltn, 16 
Cn!.S<M. ^ 

Wh«r«, in a niit against intonla, there waa 
no ranounl avTvhis ujiod them, but tlicir g«n- 
orall^rUiaD npptarerl an<l ilvtiiiiiited fortlicni, 
it V-iUi liL'id luat (uvli flfpuanuici^ give tlio 
court juiisdlct ioD o[ (Iicir pci>on», nnil tlint tlicre 
wan na ocouion fur liii (pNiai appomtmciit oa 
(pianliuQ ad IUim in the uclimi. A* K»ncriil 
KuaniUii lie ITU nntluviiod — Indeed, It wm hla 
ilnty— to appear for hi* wsnl: 8ea lltt, j»tt; 
Smillt V. Mthimalil, 43 Gal. 4*7. 

U the Mneml (fnardUn hoi iiiterMta adverw 
tOtboMMllie wai\l, for the pi«l«etiuiii>f tlioaa 
intemita during the pmgrsM of l«ga] {iraowd> 
inn & t'oarrlina <td litem wUl be apptated. 

If an infant ii cntiU«1 oniler tlie taw to 
have "a day' si\ta in tile jnilgment, uid tlia 
Jadgmeut ■■ abtolute, giving no day, it la 

QTTOneoua, and will be rovNteil or niodifi»>l cin 
appeal) or if prupnly attoclted 1>)r a dlrodi 
proce«ling. will k« vacated fcrr the vrror and 
imgularity. liiit it ii oot a nullity <ai il* face: 
it U only voidable, not roid; Joya r. MtStory, 
31 CoL MT4; Porteri Ihirt r. JIMhmii. 3 A. K. 
Slareb. 2M, a coac in irhioli no gaaritioa ml 
liifiit vaa appoinCeil, and in whleli tbo dccreo 
f[ave llie loant no day t<> kliow canie. 

Pownra of (uaidlJulBd Utfli&.~Tlila guar- 
dian ia an ufUeiTr of tlie court; be dooa not cnn- 
tn}l tli« wftnt'a Mtat*, nor »ui he make any 
binding a^roeincuit Un t)io iiiiyniMit of attor- 
ney'e fee: I'^olr v, Sujirri'jr C«vii, 03 Cal, 88. 

AppoiutmMit M guAFdiaa ad Ut«i>i; Sue 

next Bcptiun. 

Ouaidlan and ivaid generally; Sue poti, 

tCQ*. 1747 otsc). : noi! I.'it '.Vie. seiM.23G«tMq. 

Ploading appoiiitnient of guardian.— Tbo 
annoiutmc'ntof n^-uardiau'iif litem iia travcn. 
able fact, and niurt lie pleaded: Cntir/ont v. 
A'nif, 50 Cal. 321. Whcrp a geneial gnanliau 
of the pbtiiitiff wu imptviperly docrtboil In 
Iha title H itnaixlian ail litem licforo the cnm- 
inHio«m«nt (4 tlie action, bnt ttm l-wly cf l)io 
complaint tliowed •nfBcieotly hi* rvUlioiia to 
Iiii ward, tliu i^iTiirt upliekl tho«uin]>laiut: Sfiear 
V. tt'ar-'. -20 l'\. e:0. 

Minora and poisotw of vuuonnd mlaA 

tlieir rigbta and liabilities; Ctv, Code, bcl'S. S3 
at anq. 

VIS. Guardian, /lotc appointed. 

Sbo, 373. Whon a guardian nd lit«m is appomWd hy Ute court, bo inuttt l>e 
appoinLi») AS follow)! ; 

1. Wlieu tiio infant itt plaJntifT, upon tbo applicution of Uin iofftut, if ho ho 
of tlib age of fourteen y<An, or if usdor tliat a.^, upon Uio application of w 
relative or friend of the infant; 

2. When the infant is defendant, upon tlio application of tli6 infant, if lie be 
of the a(^ of fourteen vean, aiitt upply witliin ten daj^n uft«r the service of the 
flumnions, or if under that a^, or if lio neglect so to uppljr, then upon the np- 
pliuntiou of a relalire or frieiid of the infant, or of any other part^ to the 

3. When an insane or incompetent person ia a party to an action or prooeed- 
iuf;, upon th&applii-'atiou of n. relative or friend of such insane or incompetent 
persou, or of any other parly to the action or proeeediuff. \Am(rt\dmeiil, ap- 
prwed AprU 16, 1880; AjiKndmtntla 1880, 03 (Ban. ed. 235); look cffrct imme- 
dial'-lij. I 

Ooatdlnn nd Utomi Stv note to prorioua writingi Emerk v. JtvanJ^, 1 Wwt Coaat 
Bvolion. Application (or appointmi-nt mny be Brp. 70& 
made ore teiitu m open coutI. oe well aa in 

874. Vnmarried /tfmatc may mw. for her own Hudiiclion. 

Su. 374. An unninrricd femalo may proMVCutc, an piniotiff, U action for her 
own eeductioH, and nmv rccowr thwcio auoh dauing«», paousEoryorexeuiplai}-, 
as are aaae«Hcd in her favor. 

9«ductlon o( annunfed (enala.— "Tlib, 
and tile ■uccctding netiuD. are now. Hereto- 
fon tli« action ocnitd only )>e in the name of 
tho parent, or oine who itaniU in tint relation, 
and ia •oppcuted by that lu-ti'iii chat ho haa 
■QtEnfal pecunlarr iajnry liy luM of aarvioe, 
etc. Th« oMoei of tb«M eaetion* ie ti> provide 
a rcinmly in lavor nf tb« party injur<;il, and la 
anko iLo law ia'tliic napoot bannmuioui with 

tbo d*sl»rat{on o( tlia eodo, 'that all action* 
iTiuat bo proMcntod ia the name of the real 
party In lotorttti'" Commiwlononi' not*. 

For a conoiae atatamont of lh« tlioon' of th« 
OORunoudaw action for aeducUoo, tinder what 
cironmatanocaoodliy whomitcuuUI bebrauitht, 
aeo the not« to Coon v, Mqftlt, 4 Am. Deo. 
403. Ill a later volume of tliii oama serieti, la 
the note to Weattr t, Bacherl, 41 Id. lui, a 





nor* vstondcd ooacid«ntioii of tiio gaiMftl 
Mbt*c(, tacetltar with kii cxamlnadoo of qUM- 
tlom vf a'i>l«nc«anil<j( <liUuii|[<t>, wUt iM toiimt. 
Olhur iiUtr* whldi luvo iIaIiiIri jHirmllliDg 
tliv Dixlaocil fMnaU, it uniiiArriol. W tuv aioat 
fur iMrr •wloauuii, &m tuprmmitod by th« tul- 
lowiug SMMi £<v V. U^ji. SI Ibd. 08] rAom)i- 

•w T. ypun-7. ni H, 590; Oaleta t, CVpui-A. 00 
W. fiOi /JoiiVmb ». <.'rn;jo, M, Mfl; ^mi'* v. 
}'iMyaii. UO Ii). US; HhfUti v. A'.'^o. 7i Id. 
230; finulA r. M-'tnira, IT Iowa, 30i Mif r, 
ItoardinaA, SO 1<I. -UOi Ooivr v. ZWT, 3 Iil. 
33Ti Orojf V. //^ojv. 'JT Id. 23li £ow v, J/iuDner, 
Q Ibiit. 24; M'ilaK r. iKgu^bnT. Id. III. 

375. Fiitiifr, ric. , may sitc/or sniuclion of ilauffhlffr, fia, 

Uec. 375. A fatbor, or in case of liia dnitli or deMrtioD of his fnmilv, the 
mother, may proHecal« aa plaintilT fur th« aeduotion of the Ouugkt«r, nuil tJiu 
[,'uanluka for llio Bcduclion of Uio ward, Uiough the duUghter or ward be aot 
living with or in the Korric^of tlio plaiiitifTut ttis time of the seducUoo or of t«r- 
«*rdii, imd tlivrv bo no loss of eerrtce. 

Sm Mitit l« proocdiag Mction, 

arie. ICAo mny me/or injury and tlfafh o/chihi. 

Sec. 376, A father, or in oaae of hiB di-utli or dotortion of bin family, tho 

motbei-, may maintain an Action fur tho iujufy or death of a luinur child, und a 

gitardiait tor Uie injun- or death of his ward, wb«n •nch injury ord^uthiit 

oMlwd by the wrooffful act or n«glcot of anotlur. Such action nuiy he main* 

Uiui^il against tbe person cauHiug tlio injury or death, or if sui;h person be 

employed by another person who is responsible for his coudutt, also afi^inst 

such othor person. [Amendment, approved JIfartih 21, 1674; Amendmatla 

IBTa-t. iiH; l<y>k ,;!f,rlJuly 1, 1874.] 

Right of aotloa not ciMited.— llio &bov« niiaj^Iy (1««i^aatcs wlio may «tiforM oerlAin 

•ectiuo, ■uli(t4Uitially llw wit^u an tlio clcv-cntl) ipocifibt oxiitin^ riglil* of ikclioni Krttnirr v. 

•MtiiNi of tbe iiBictUiv ovt, ilum not cit»[c n Jf'irl.r( Si. It. It. Ca.,21Cal. 43di tuoaUo uot« 

n^tit u( action whuiH iKma uiated hdon. Lot to next Mulion. 

377. Wbeji r^trfuentalir^ may »iie. 

Sec. S77. Wlien the death of a penon, not being a minor, is cnuBed by the 

wn>bt;ful act or neglect of another, lux h«ir« or pononal rvprewuta lives may 

maintain an action for daiD&g«s agsimit the ponoa caujting the death; or if such 

l>erson be employed by auothvr pemon who im rcmpunxible for bis conduct, Mien 

also against such oth«r person. In every action under this and the preci-ditig 

Mction, such damages may be given as under all tbe circumstanccB of Uic cnM 

nay be just. lAmfndmenl, approved ilarcli 24. 1874; Amcndmcnti 1873—1, 294; 

took rfai Julif I, 1874.] 

htli tliAt the fatbor ot a minor coiild not mo 
ti«a (nther luiil sole h«ir: Kmuur v, ilixrktt Si. 
K. It. Co.. 01, CaL 135. Thia dooUlon wM pal 
oa the tirouod tbat tlie aut ol IMS wai tn 
daroRktian oE the coRnoan Uir; u to wlileb, 
icc iwflifni 4. <tn(*. 

Meoaure of dam«BM lOr oamdng death or 
tnjm?' — l^'"' '"-''' i^lnui" uIld^^ this Mctiii» liM 
giirii lUii to <3Mi»[ililp perpli'xity, nnil Iim 
nicoiviiid miich alMntton iu reonnt ilccitiotia of 
tiiir tuprvinu court. 

I. With rri;ir<l to dnmago £n naci of 
injiiriot tu a iitinbr in action brought under 
■colion 370. Iq lUfli inMaacn two muun o( 
action aaav, oiie in (aror of tbe infant For hU 
ponoiial iiijurin, onilono in friTorcJ the [tarent 
or guanlino far Iouub auirtnJ by bun on 
ocuonnt o( tlie injUT to ll>« child or wm'h 
fluffae r. C. /*. if. «., M CoL 3S8. Tbi» ai» 
|a»M« ii[>on Iho qucatioiu niidor oontldcraCian, 
«tid ill tli« coBtse of tlw opinion tbercin 
dulWoml Ihocoart, per Chief Joitloe Morriion, 

, _ KiyH: --VVbara the aotion U brooulil by tba 

Mt ifaa Wr or neil of kia. And tbo couit nvent, )o« et aorrioe, moJi^ attMduic*, ci- 

OoDi CiT. Pnoc;— 8 lU 


A olvll Aotlon fox tbe d«itb of a peraoo, 
pfr t*, onnlil not )« niaintaitiiKl by any one nt 
ooimnoa U«r. Tbu anrnvnie eoart hold tbnt 
tlm eleventh (DOtion ol the old pnotioo txt, 
which pnxidcd that the tatlior, or In com of 
hUdcMbordnKnionol bitraiiillytli« mother. 
Biljiht mnlstoin an action for tli« injatr or 
deitli o( hii or bcr wnrd, did not oruato a right 
offtctlun wlxro na<ia«(i«t«d before, but nicr«ly 
duliinateil tha pcraoiia by wfaom au ibction, 
which tbi-n *>l«t«d ecr ml^t thn«a[l«i' bo 
oreatcd 1>y «to(ut4>, •bonld b« brought. At the 
tlma th« aU praotks act ww pmm<1 the duth 
of a |ieraon csnrtitutod nocauwof KCliaii: uA 
the elevtflitfa MCtion ot thitt «ct, lo lor u it 
d«*i|tBil«l tha [nrtiea \ff whom an action for 
tbe <lcalh of a |ienan roiKht lie l>rouglit, wu 
Mp<«l«l by tbe Ml of lnfl'2, mliich jiruriiicd 
that "every euch action aliall bo l>rou(^it by 
BD'l lothenani*«c>! itiominoiialreprmnUlii'ai 
of aavliilviiraatdfiertuo. Tha word* "[•*iw> 
MfirKMiiilalivoa. Dsuwil in that act. nii^ant the 
■nculCFr oradminiBtrator ot tha duoMi«i!, hod 



CMM <^ niintng. >ii>l the ti1t« tutlen vn to 
cuniulcrcd b<r thu juiy. aii-1 in >(i<)i «urB 
ooai|NnMaiaii Ulhc raU. • ' • Wbrii the 
Mtlw la brought on btliaK of tho cliild, Uiem 
■ra oUicr K[«Mtt> kbd dutinct cIcidcdU of 
dAiiM^. Tlw cliild rccov«n Dot lo* lotm o( 
hill* or MTVice or nicillukl atlcuiluicv or ex- 
txMW <-f ciirinK. Iiut for tlio injury pcncuitl to 
tiimwU, ■net) an li<>!'> 'lul •ufFcriog. both [iliy»- 
iod ami iiiPUUl, dUAjluromunt, rtc" ThU 
w«a ilcdlnml to bo tli« nilii in olliar aUtM, 
un-ler MUtuUn mom or 1«m Uk« Ibtt abovw •*«■ 
trim*, wi wait na >t III* comtniHi Uw, which 
nitc, it wu raoMnsIile to pnanmo, our Isgia- 
Inlure liod in mjiiil »t tli« time of tnming Uwas 
■cftioiu. It «-■■ therefor* ilodthd that "the 
bthor alionld rcoovir (tidi (!«&%■«• w lie has 
•nuaiucil hy «*» of oomptnaatka, leftving to 
Ifan Infant > (urtber right of nooverjr of anch 
iltinafCa u nre poraonal to hiniclt." Tlic 
nnml tniy reeorcr expcnaca incurred in haul- 
Uiif tliv wiinnd: Karr v. Patlt, 44 Id. 44i; -^jfiliM 
V. L'\>r/i,r, 4!) I>t. IfSHi liul not in rviiiov!ii|; dia- 
(iyuratinn ur doforiiilly! A'nrr v. ParSjt, tvora. 
i. Ill oaava of tlin dodih of a party irlicro 
daoiag** iir««cii)tht tUvn-for, ll is the Uw of 
till* atjit* that the aotuHl [Wrotiiiiary iiiiury *u«- 
tarntil by the ])laintiir hy rvuMu of the ilmtli 
u not the aoU meaiuro of <l>mngea. In no ac- 
tltin for canaLoB the death of the plaintilT'* 
luulanil it wu urabxeili *' Wu think thnttbo 
•ocial nnd dameatio rrlatiunn of tka partir*, 
tlxir kiiulty demeanor towunl t-acli otUi-r, tlie 
■oi-lcty, were [mrt o( ' all thu eiivumitnacta of 
thecaM' for the jury to luko iuto aoiwdenk- 

tioD la aaUOMUng-what denncta wnold Im ]ti>e 
from ■ poMtiiar; polat of licvi-," Hrrtcin y. 
Grrtnt iH. O. M. Co., GT Oal. 30. Kiit frum 
the nme caae it amma that " lUmoga* by way nf 
•oUce** aaonat bealloweiL FoUowiDe ihl* <1e- 
daien ia CVmi V. Clag Sr. llUI R. It. Co., UO M. 
OM, 608, Ml aotioo for kilttug the |ilainlifl'a 
huiband, thcpUinliiTaiiiiigtiihcirntUw andaa 
lulniiulttratrii. ahc -hum pcrmittol to tvitily 
that they lived ■ liappy married lift, that for 
<rl|[bt y*an prior to hia death alic bad Wrn aa 
Invalid and uuBbIc to leave the liouae. nnd (hat 
he. (liirinK that liiTii', hul been my kind and 
nllvutir*. Mid tliat alio di<(>eiidail upon Iilm. 
The danKhler alao k«« nllowin) tn tlvtify t)>at 
dec(«K(r waa a kinil (ather, that tUn nuLwal 
and doiiieotio reliticoiB, m to the family tin liU 
mrtv were bappjr. and th»t he waa kind and 
lovjna to the plaintiff. 

BoUi <rf thoe ea»M wcro nfflrmed in AVArAn* 
T. C. P. R. R. Co.. C2 Col. 3iOi and in IKoI- 
/onf V. l.yani O. ,t S. il. Co., Gi Id. 48^1 and 
MO .VfKffotr T. ifart/l Si. R.R.SO Id. i&l. 

Erl-lence of dootdont'a educatino and babita 
o( aobriitly and eooiionty are eompctent and 
pcrtlnmt, *a l«indiDK to prove tho valiieof hIa 
vaniinia Ii8<l he livoili rayfor t. »'. P. R. S. 
C'o..4oCal. S'^L 

FiiQcral eipcnaea can be reoovered only as 
■])coiiil ilAmagce; Gay v, H'lnler, M Id. \S3. 

A rrry valuable note upon thi* gpaeral 
qnoaCioa of damogea for injul'JH to nod for 
CAuitng tlic d«aCl> of relativca will be found in 
4S Am. Due. filO, to thu com «I Co/ry v. Berk- 
ihirt B. R. Co. 

3TO. \Vfit> may be joined a* ptainl^$. 

Seu. 378. All persona luiriug no iatOFeHt id tho rabject of the action, an<1 la 
obtutuiug Iho relief denuuided, luii^ W joiaod m plointiSK, except wbon olbui- 
wise provided in this title. 

FttitiM tataiMt«d ma7 nnlta as plidnt- 

ISL— Tile ■ectioQ in pcrmiaiivc \Vlicic oim 
nniteil in iiitercal with the pinintiff rvfiiw* In 
■uo, lie nuiy be mute a defendant — at hautt, in 
cipiitoUc proceed iiii!«: Sen wo. 3>i2, iiij'ni. 

I'or a valuable iliaouwlon nt tho (niient to 
which tlili aectlon i[oc« In ponnlttiiig the joUider 

of plaintiff and nf aiithoririnfi the joining of m 
ri'Iiii.'Laiit paity ill Inlvn-itnAa iJ(<!>.'nilunl, OB- 
dw Bin'liiHi :i!v2. •••V l!li« on dxlu riwwllng, 
tfct. 111. ff2; aii'l -p;. 7.1 ct icij. 
Co-tenant*: .ScoinrVtt. ■<<:. XS1. 

Hon joindnr and mialoiitder ol plaintlSai 
Sco Bvi.'. 430, and note 

879. \Vho may br joined o» de/endanta. 

Sm. 379. Any person niaj- be made a d<^fon<bint wlio lias or claims an in+pr- 

vat in the fOutro»cr»y odvorao to Uie pbiiutifT, or who in n necoKwiiy party to a 

cointilctu dctcnnitiation or eottlemeut of tbe (luestlon involvvd tliorain. And 

in uD action to dctfimiiiio the titlo or right of poasesnion to real prop<^rlT which, 

nt the time of tlie oommencoiurnt of tho action, in in tlio poMO«iuoii oC it Uuaut, 

the landlord luuy be joiueil ntt a jutriy defendant. 

FaitlM dofondMlt^ .See alao aoca. 332, P-Mtnon v. TiAa, 12 Cab 100; tho pntonlee. 
9iX The dUttnotioD between pocoMary and where an action UbmaBhtagainat tlie gniiitcc. 

proper pnriiua defendant {■ cxphiinoil In Poino' 
roy on Iteniediee, aeea. 320 etaci]. And eiam 

IdiM of what partiv* ate nootaaaty are the fol- 
gwinc: tho wife, where tho land kI which the 
idalouff aeeka ^rtiUon asalnat h«r hiiabuid 
]■ a koinoateiul: Dr Upny v. Ih Uprry. 'il Cal. 
33; all ownini intorcnta in a partnerahip of 
which a diaanlnCion and an acuouuting la 
aaui;hl: S'ttfiiJrre v. rutifim, .lO M. 290; 
YouHji T. Jfoiilaii, C3 IiL 400; tho jiartica to 
whom baud* of a ooriMntion atv to ho iMuod 
Id a anlt to natniu tke iMouoe of tb« bootU; 

to Oct tJia])atantaaldn for fraud: Bagg'V. Mtr- 
er^M. Co.. l4Cal. i*?!), 

Partlea to foveoloaura of mortfage: Soo 

potl, IKK. Til). lUld ImtK. 

Hjoutmcnt poitlea defendant -~" The lout 

ckiiM In nddi'<l to aroiil tlie ruh- laM down in 
l}%Mi%--k V. Iirii„;,r%: ^i ■IS.'i. vlmt ' wb«n 
the prttitiisM ftrc lu |>uwKinion of a tenant, th* 
ti^nant ia, and the landlord ia not, a proper 
|iarty d«iendant.' All who have ipveo th« 
anhject aisy touiidemtion will ooocode tlmt the 
pUintilT ought U> have tho r^ht to nialia tho 


Tmu m.] 



bnillord • i*Tly lo tit* •ctlon, uid to Untl bin 
by lb« juiluaimti otlianflM li« woulil. la «rvty 
Moh taar, be dman to l«oa«U<iiMto>t*t«nniD« 
wtut tuulil u well ba wltkil ia ooo. thr ail- 
ilitMiikl cImw cIubku*, to a t;nal cxteiil. Ilie 
«on«tnictJaa li«cvtoiar« |pv«D to iliii ixKtioii 
Ipmetkdaet, mo. 13| by oNr oonrto. Tlie rra> 
MM («r liiD chknj^ M« atirarMit, uiil nttcnticoi 
liBil \oufi linee bom eallcil tg iu nccaailjr by 
our auprcmo enuit. In Vnlritilae r. Itaiiu'i/, 
37 M. 303^ lii« ciuit siji: * It wan ilccl'loi) kt 
•ti tor!; 'lay iii tliU cuurt thiit lite provitioii of 
till* KOIion, liiat "aof |Hirv>n nuy lin niailok 
defntlaut who lia* or claiiiia an iiit«iv»t in lint 
aODlrOTvriiy ailvem to t)ia plaiiiUlT," won not 
ipptliMbtc lo Hlioni o( vjtetiounti Onrwr v. 
Jrantid/. ft 1<I. 270: lee alwi tiairtinf r. KeirA- 
tit, 28 lit. r>34. And tbat constntatioa liiu 
prcvailcl totlicprMcnttimc. lint it jiroutily 
BMB Ibat la all «mcb iu ■liicli tlic dcfpiiiluit 
b llollUlu Sadw • tdue, anil the imor'n tttto ■■ 
tu i(«B<>, it i* loopm, il u£>t nccuMarj-, tUat Ihc 
Lilt'T sIi-mU havean opportiuiity lo participate 
in till) il«(fDw, for DO <ui« ia m CMnpotctic to 
frfnant luiil ilefMnl hi* Litl« Wi lia. • • • 
The tliangie oiAile nulrrioJIy modiliratbO'ltoiR- 
iniM of llic lupminc oinrt aa to pnmr |nrtin to 
an cjeotiiMttt auit. Among the djmaiona thua 
(>i*.1iil.-il, t.iMnie(aiientBtneaKt.nretJie follow* 
i . ». ChrUrn. i !.i. 70; fli'ihif v, 

; 1 ■.!. 33; Oarnrr «. J/ar*W, 9 IJ. 268; 

h'»i-iuj V. t'roir, II Iil.360;Sani/uou V. (iKUyrr, 
&> I'l. 3O0i //<i<rj<u V. /ra'cAntSS U.xa; him- 
ith V. I^rrij-jtr, 32 M. 489; I'ofriK.*/ v. Mtho- 
Ifg, 31 [d. 3GQ. And thia iiiodlliciliuii rxU'iidH 
abu taoth«r OMiH. Tha rule cd law Ui-I down 
b^ tbe Mipreine oonrt haretofora lia« br>n tliat 
cjKtaent inM n Bninaaory aotion. ami mtul bg 
bniu^ht apiiiat the ooenpaati it d«tMiniii<ai no 
tijihta bat tboao of mucwIaD at tho time, uid 
It niattera not whohUkotdaiaii to hare, tho 
titto ot lh« ptvmiMai tfnmrr r. ATanAo/. Id. 
9l»i /h>r&r V. VoUr JTouafoia WaUr <\>., 12 
Id. 403; /)«/(».i r. irnr*-AaiwT, 21 Id. 609; 
/Vnii'y V, Sfttrli, i3 I'l. HSi 0*"i v. ftiii'-r, 
34 Id. IK; /.mT^ t. //o'^iiif. 3u Id. 440; //.ivl'Viu 
t. AVwArrr, 28 Id. £34; Clinl-v. CoAru, 13 Id. 
023^" CooiBiMioaoni' nals. 

Dnilor tba Clril Code, crcry tenant wiiu n>- 
oaivM notice of any prooecdicg to tmdvct tlic 
real preparty oiKaplc<l by hint or the pootoaluin 
ItNtTot nual tfflBiodlatcly Infonii hii liudlord 
o( Ilia mnw^ and aIbo dtlivpr to the landlord 
tb« notic*. it in writin);, ami in rapondUo to 
IIm UiiiUonI to all danuti^wlilvh lie may *ua' 
taia liy rtMon o( imyoniiBsioD loinfoim tma at 
ll*a iK(tioci,<'T todeU*«Tillohiuwif in writing: 

Clv.C"' i^lfl. AD<l<!rcBprinrtoth«nd.1i. 

lion 'i! ;i:.rngrai>h of this aKtion, tlte 

oonrt, 1 - nnni^T. ManAat.ltCai.-IJO, wM rcadilyKcB tluuinallcnaeiiii 
which Uiu (Icfrodout una bolding under tho Ua>« 
Olid the leuor'a title waa In iaauc It wm prapor. 
if not nccfinry. that lb« talttir *lioiikl mtc im 
opportunity to lurtlctpkto la tlMdclaoM, fnrt>n 
onn wa» at cixnuoWut to iitvasnt unl dufMnl liia 
titla M lir. Tns Undlonl. Iiarinx boon in poi- 
•eanioti, kn<l bating tnntfvrrti) it totliu tunant, 
oanlil not to ba deprived of the pnnnnainii at 
tbe cxtrinlioo of tiie term hy pn>oc«linjn in 
which he ouuJd U3u no part. .And it «-ulie1d 
tbat when ■ Unnnt haa notified t^ landlord <4 
ttie pcmdciney of the action, aod bu ptraiitlcd 
kiv to appearand defend in tlio tenant'* nainv, 
tbc lononl cannot lut«r(«r* with auy Mibae- 
qtii^nt nrooceillnn to the prujudiuo i>l uio lesil- 
lunl : IWrnrJm- v. MmAoMf. 37 Oa), 39X htton 
tli« BiUliliou to the alioiraaeeUoa of tbat part 
of it whivb illnw* of a londlonl being joined, 
U the laudlonl Wfiv joined, and it waa not 
thown Uiol hu wsa ill poHiniBioii. ho waamtJUed 
tn n iioiuuiti //iiiiiiKiw v, H'lMv, 50 Id. 390. 
LaiiiUoril and tMiant in pooxwon properly 
joiiivd: Eatbm v. O'JMf/y. 63 Id. 303. 
FlMdlBB In «Ject9Daeot: t^ im. 43S. note. 
EXAcuton^ MIKlWllfl^d: .Sec 1087. 
Fnab partidav bttneiaa; ta: Sb.-. 399. 
JodadAT, iBlajolndar. Doii'Joliidor:SacL 4a0t 

BOCTJcv on one defendant out of aeeenl, 
olToct of; Urc 414, and not^i. 

8tat« BOlta «gain«t— -Suite may be broui;ht 
agxintt the atato in *u«b nioiiDer anil in aueli 
uoorta ae iliall be directed by lawi Court. Col., 
art. II, eeo. 11. 

Tlio legialatura not haring pamtd any lew on 
the i>il>ji<ct, the court held that tbo (talecoitid 
not be lued: Peopk v. Tatmagr, Cnl. ■2:-ii 
that under our theoiy << govenunonl the *tula 
bae no intcrcet in adting what la Uiil ri^bt, iv>r 
can the alloir her agcnti to do ao. An officer 
ailed 1* not the atnte: he la only h»r eorvtont. 
mid rinly lo in to (itr a* he obey* bvr iawi. 
Theetatnorunjrcitiwn ba* th<i ri;^b t lo iaiiuire, 
in the funn ol a |>hiintiir. acaioM the nlliccr, 
wh<>tliur lie obeys or dlMcji bcr Eaw>: 
yoH-jiHtv. Dauglatt.l Id.O&[ but kok^. 187, 
QulMlOK tltlo. atiltai SeeKC.73S.andnat«. 
£ul(»clng tnuta. — [o an action lo oompel 
tbeuonvoynoi^ruf n trust a»tate,l«iiantB at will 
of tbo eurnring trnatee are not neoMUiry or 
DFDpcr pattioa: Arynodfj v. /,]ntal, 1 Wert 
CoMt Rep. 344. 

380. Di/nuianta in adiona to delennine cdtyrne olaimt. 

Swi. 380. In itn actioii brought hj a p^reon out of poBMerion of real prop- 
crlv, u> Jutonuiiio au utlverse cl&iiu of an iiit«re8t or cstAte tbcreiu, tlie pomou 
nuking sucli advcrae clitiiu and pereonB in pomoMsion may bo joiotfd as il«feii<1- 
nnts; and if Uie judgiueDt be for the plaiittifT, hn may Iiavr a writ for tlie po»- 
BMsion of Uie preiniseB, as against tbo clvft'iidant in tlio action, against vrhom 
tbo jutl^inent boa passed. [AmnidauMl, approved JUarvh 'M, 1874; AmetfdmentM, 
1873-4. 293; loot- cjoct July 1, 1874. 


As orlgbtally adopted, tlila wctioii voa 
Mviuiliuf V, usiug tbc wurlH " iniiM he Jolneil " 
In |>1k« of tbo wunli "miiy Im joiucd," tint In- 
ttwlHiwil \\j ihu amco'lmcut uf IS74. 

Actioau to (luiet tltto: Sm pc-a. bk. T33. 

Wilt ot poaeeaalon; See foO, toe. W2, and 

Preob paitlH, brlxtglog In: See kc. 389. 

ITonJo^iider, mlflJnJMBT ot partJea: Sea 
tec. 43a 




IP*nT II. 

38QL CMmanU tmrler common tnunv af title may unite. 

8m. 3S1. Any ttro or more p(MW>tui ot»initti({ att; eotnto or interest in liuids 
umlor A common sutirce of title, wltetlier liuliliug ss tenuita in oommuii, joiul 
teiinnU, coparoenera, or in aeverally, tiia}' unite in ftu uction imaitiiit niiy pentou 
cluintiiig an m<1rerae eatate or interest llicreiu, fur tli« puri}OBe of debermiuing 
nuoli a<lv«rfto vlaini. or of establialuDg euch coiaiiion source of title, or of de- 
claring tlio Bam« to be held in truftt, or of reniovinjf a cloud upon the same. 
\Amfniiinetti, approtvd JUarch Ai, 1M74; Amcndmenis 1873^, 235; ftwi cfftvl July 

Jfolnt taoauta ihould fonuNljr Imt* joined 
In an action of cjucbnctit, and the fditar* to do 
M wa* fatal to a raoorcry iK-foni thia aoaet- 
natnt: iMBt/i T. Lamtkr, i C'aL 317; aec tool. 

TenaDta In coaunocL— Prior to tliin ouBct- 
mi'al, Iwii ur lui-n* >i( Mreinl cotcnauti ooul'l 
iK't ioin 1)1 ail acliOQ ei ulMlmciit, t1i« lntAr*«t 
dC vftcji b«iiigiiimBi*taiuiil <lii>tiiiut] />r JoAn^on 
T. AVrHiOftn.&Oal. H9l Thrashu'jrUnt v. Bxtr, 
M. lOli W'tdt T. HMinn, 8 U. 13T. Kor 
iMuliI a tenant m cominuu luamUin an aatiwi 
■t law to r*v'OTtr lii* iliBiv of chu ranla and 

rrudta (roiu Ilia co-tciuat: ''■Vd v. ColambH. 13 
rl. t'JO. Bnt tlmt ]iriiici|i!ohn'l no application 
to tLii> cBJii: "i DKiiiry rvcrlvvil by one tenant in 
ooiuinQn Irani onlc* of valcr or proflta da- 
i*!**!) fi'oni lliu I'UnlucM of A (litvli or mine: 
Cvi<Jtai)tP V, /fuTT, 10 [•!. 4(11 : AU! v. /.ow, 17 
M. 'iX7. L'n-ltr llila Miction, tlin right ol oua 
tenant in iioiiiiiiuii Ui r«o>iviir tn un ictioa of 
cjcclMiiMit tli(" [>ii«Ma«iiiiH lA tfin onlin' tr*;l, a* 

uininit nil iiumoiii liilt hi* 0"-t«iianl(, 1ia« biwn 

" >■ lielil by U " " 

ar,{ v. Cma; 20 I<1. 150; ■'^'-'•rk v. ISorrttl. 15 

repuitccll}' lieli] lir tliu anprciiKi court: T'ciif/w 

cannot mwntaio roplvviii a^isit nich Dtlirr. 
nor aun oa« ogunn the vendee of the olher: 
UoBlrlt V. OiKcni, M Id. 474. 

Exccotcnn aud odminiitiaton can maintain 
micti jointly with the otbcr tcnaota In cummou 
Id all catua wbaro Uiolr tcttalor* or lnlc*Iat«a 
conlil hai'o dona so, vnttl tbo ailiniuUtratlati 
o( Uiv <«tal<ia they rapnitiint U cloaed, or 
tlio prufiorty iliMlributou under dvoroa o( tlio 
rirol^to uonrt: Sdcb. IfSl ct ocii.: .VcrX'* v. 
7/aA«. 20 Gd. eSO: JTowAnri v. X'.^,,", 21 Id. 
SOSi ItrgaUdt v. Ilamer. ti Id. ^1. If an 
ettato abould b» Mid in lota to dilCtrent paroooa, 
t^e pnrehaaar* cenld not join in cxhiUtuig one 
liill a^ntinut tlic veDiloi (or tpwilk pcrfomianee; 
bnt vliorc tliera woa a contract to coni-cy with 
but on* poriHiu. itmlrr ullli■^ll thn paivliaoM' cm- 
i«jrd hia O'l 111 ta I'll' iiiti^rriitola inoidty to «aah 
on« nt two iMirKiDij, il wut liclil that tliMo tWA 
pntona nii^lil tuo tlio original rcndor for upa- 
eillo iwrfoniiacitri^ 'I'lic guu«nil nilu uacd to lie 
tlint uncomicctcil parti-^B may joui in bringiuz 
a bill in eijtiiiy, wlicra there i» one contiestod 
iuterNt amoiii- them otl. aeDtcrtnt{ In the point 
in iniuo in tlie ciinb'^ Onvii V. Friak, 31 td. 1TT| 
■ce oUo tve. \Uti. i-iul. 

A tenant la common need not join witli him 
lili co-tenant* In iiti action turtliu rcouieiy bf a 
willing vLiini: J/toTiiiiiitt v, ICUioi^ OS CaL 
2fi3; nod »ev iw/r.i, ■*.;, 3*4. 

Co-tennnta ma7 aavnr: Soo «m. 384, iiffm. 

^aotBteat: iWr »tv. 4'2II, j'orf.auduotv.aud 
Mr. 370. mjjrn. 

Qoletlns title: 8m jkuI. aeci. 738. 

Id. 371; ,VaAo»'yv. fan ninHe.'il Id. 5SS; 
OvUrr V. Fill. 30 Id. 184. Tenunta in ooinmaD 
bt irotil. »li'> IxKv'nmo anch by ou<< of tlicm let- 
ting thiw|) for a )'uir to luo otlier. witli on 
•CreeiiMDt that tlie Utl«r wu Ui lake care of 
tlie ebt'-p, olioar tliuin, anek llie wool, and du- 
iiver it to tlia owner of lh« thvo)), to b« told at 
K-, a port, to be BliI|HXid to a oommiwion insr> 
c!-anl at i^ I''., uuO tbat «hcn llio wool woa 
><ilj Uio proweda wtivo to be oquolly divided, 

383. Parlixt in intorevf, when to join — Wlten one or more mat/ mu or defend 

/or alt. 

St». 383. Of the pnrtioH to tho Mtion, tlioao wlio an! unit«d in inUvost muttt 
1m joined ns plniutiAt or dcfciidnntti; but if the oonxcnt of any oatt wlio should 
liaTo been jmiK^d hk pliiiiititTnt^nnniit be ubtitiued, bo tunj Xtn made a dofondunt, 
th« mtMOU Uiert^of bt^in^ Htated iu tbe couplaiut; and nlien thu qucation la oua 
of a coiuDton or gciioml iut«reat, of many persona, or irhen the parties ore nu- 
iiuiioitH, and it in iuiptuclicDLble to briii^r them all before the couri, one or more 
xoMj aue or d«feud for tbo benefit of aU. 

UnRy of Intareat. plMdlas.— A party who 
•erka to avnil bimtelf u( thia proviiion miut al. 
leue facta willed brin^ hiatnocwitbin it: dtrrj/ 
V. Bmn-u, OSt'al, ISI. 

Joludnr, miaJoladeT, non-Jolad«r: Sec. 430. 
ikot«. Kxeoulom, olc.> not c|Ualilied ncoj not 
Joini Soc. I5ST. 

Rofaaol to Join am plaintifC — Wliont ona 
tiartnrr ana* for an Injury to iJi» paKn(>r*til() 
|ini{iniy, anilnialte* KUooparUier ndt-fvnd&nt 
IK Waal of Li( ouaaenl to joui at plaintiff, tbo 

reeorery muat be entire for llie whole injury. 
The lanr will not totemto the iliTision of a joiot 
rii;ht of aetion int>i levtral actlonji: the whole 
cauoo n( action imutt lie detrininnl in one. and 
time avoid a multiplicity of hiiiI*. In «ieh cue 
tSi! jiartnor rvoovvriog ia tmblc fc. acoount to 
hi* copartner defendant: yi-jklinjaU v. SeitA' 
wW/, Oliil. uOOj S. C, IS M, sai 

!^oe othCT cu-^ iimtiin;; a nria.«onMntJn|| 
mi'tu»r a mrty (iFfcinUnt: Hill i . Mofh, 43 
Ind. 2t»; JUka v. JfiUcf, 11 UbioSt. 374, 873. 





Ro «lto • iwa'imiBnttDg ajsigneo «r part of 
ftu iiuunuico jwlicj-! (Sma W'tltm L'irmf.«v.nii 
C'». V. JEfBrt /lit, to.. »0 \Vi>. 3T3. 

All puUm interested khoiiid b« JoliMd. 
It I* Uio coMtnuc •!» (•( n court i>f equity l« 
(I4 ro<a|iiota JnMJcn. by ilccidioj- n^n •oil act- 
tting tlia riaht* «( >il ixulin iiitinatisil in tho 
lahjfct of tnu nult. Fvt thii parpou , all prr- 
•on »«tvrully luli;rr»t>.->l. cittirr tr^&lt/ or 
IwBeliciftlly, In tll« *aliJi>cI-inaltT:i n( tfi" aillt. 
ouehl |;i'ii<r»1ly tu lie maiU |>artio« llivreto, 
citncr >* [iliintins or itofdmUnU, m that Iliora 
iiMy Im k cuini>lcttt lUonra nitiivli slisll bkiiil 
tbcm lit: Mitt Fl.. 0(li Am. p>I.. ISO; I Dui- 
l<U'. (.Ti. I'l. i IV. *0; Slor)-, Kij, I'L, »eft 
7^'; /Vr-i^t V. i^orW'i. aOCnl. StM), 301. Tfii) 
nile M nUUd BUd illmtralwl in A'in-/ v. Brrrft't 
Ei^attir; 2 Oioto's Ch. fli in that «ll peraom 
U9UI/ or b f cflclally iatoreatcd id tbo *ul>jcct' 
nnturand rvmllfnf aault lunat be parlicai and 
to tho MWM olVct kTO tbo (i:JlrjU'inj[ ciwcii: 
7"A( .VnAnnio' fiuiit t, ifruin, I ful. 3l)ll; 
CaU<n/l T. Ta.jg«r1, 4 I<1. HKP: MarthaU r. 
Btrtttf, S Wbrat. 313; Voimtdicut r, I'taa'Sil- 
rn..ia.a M. 4:;i: IIiV/I.ium v. /fuwrf, ID Kick. 
IC3. Tbi* taU WW nol rigidly mitoracil 
wlicr* itaotMemiiM would hnr« bwo sCl«ailtd 
vllb grast inoonvcMCiwe. utd ntwirer no mb- 
«tai)tl*lly bcDoliciBl pnqmK. It wm modi. 
fi«it ur pirtially dlipeuKil with. In tho dia- 
«rMlMi ol t)l« eonrt, u inMicn >nd the cilgcn- 
eh« ci tho <au* mjulreai H'i^n t. C'tuiro, 31 
C^l. 427, 42a. 

When th« nKprtgt^on of malty, t^gvtbvr 
witll t^ mortgigGC^ lAk« K bond Ircuii a lliinl 
penwa for ha eDOttmction ot a building on Ibo 
uongagnl pr<(Dii«a. tlio murtgagon and tnott- 

egee OMjr unit* «• plauiCiBa in bd nction on tb« 
ml: Ztatcy r. ClOnln^Aani, GO Csl. l>30. 

FntlM ntaBeTooB, oo« MiiDg lot all.— In 
Marcli term. ISM, It wm bold that ft «n)t 
Oi^hl not to ba diiiniaui] tar tl«foot of purtiea, 
vlioro, Bltlumjrh tlio oconploint did not ol- 
pmalr bIIv|{» tliai It waa flleil on lichall ot tlia 
ploiDtlC* anil all otiiere (iit«rMt«d, etc., tU 
tatiue vu tu protect tb« r\gi)i» Dot only of tlio 
vkiuUir^ bnl abo rrt a numtTOua cum, and 
m>ni Um natwv uE tho cntorpriH, tbu ooiidi- 
Umi of tbe ooantry, and th« cm-clnknging 
liKstibiii of tbe poopio cngngetl in miniiig. it 
«a>, if not nttcrty irapnetjcabte, pruductivo 
of tnanifcat inconrvnicnco and appmsiTc At- 
laya to roinint ttat all portloa aboolJ bo 
b««aulit into court: Con StAmtiU v. UitiiUiig- 
(r«i>7l CaL 08. 

But lh« •opranif court tmvn brlil tluit this 
wclion IB tlia fomi«r pntftiuv aut trai Istoiided 

In apply to Biiita in enaitv, and u«t to action* 
at laui Aiitrrm v. Mottlunut IliU Co., T Ctl. 

In oqnily the atriot rnlo that nil porauna 
matcri^ly inlcmtol riiuat \ie putix* wa* nt- 
vaj'i iliipfuMd with wlii'iu it woa itnmiKtiu*- 
blc i>i I'vi}' iu<ni]v<:iiii*iit, u in ua>c ui a ci-ry 
DimiKitiii* aawuintlixi in a Juiiit connni — 111 
vlfoi't a kiirlii'.-t^hlr': {.Vt'xirii v, 7'Atuvf^»Mi, 111 
V«. 3:^1 i Siiii)'** tin, rl., tvv, ISJ; Gorman v, 
/{lumll. N C>l, 5(0; and «j H'ui-lA v. ff-iM/t, 
18 Abu Pr. 3!W; AV/frr v. JVat!/, 1 1 low*. 
530; .'-■/ruiirtv. A>iV.t H'. 7". fo.. 17 Minu. 3TJ. 

Wtiviu Ihn pUictiiF <acd on Iwhnlf ol biin- 
■elf DQd oUicn, rcud«Dta oud property boblorv 
of the dty of tinkkud, to act awde oeilain con- 
Tcyancoa apvraiibg oa a cload upon tho title to 
a tract of bind onmpiod by tlm i-iiy, iiud to 
obtain an injanction. Ma., and t)ie uourt bo- 
Iqw entered a Jud||m«nl doolonng tho oonv*^. 
aiirfai fmiidulrnt and void, acd SDJoining tho 
diifciidaiitH (mill (utiini sticiiatioiM in rrcipoot 
tu iho l.iiid of tha plaiutilT, thn nliaf in thia 
{lartiuiilar baing cuntincd to the plaintiff alone, 
the mipniRie oonrt hold that tlier« woa co auou 
cununnnity of intcroat butvevo tbu pluiotl^ 
and tbuio whom bo r^prucnted in the Action 
aa entitled "him to an injuDclion in tlicji iaeon 
OH.bont V. I'mUa. 21 Cx\. OK. 633. 

It i> uotlcoable that thi-rv are tvn daiaoa u( 
aatt in wlitoh one may *ud on behalf of othen. 
viz.: 1. Whent thvi«li a conmiun or fjMiural 
liitami; ami 'i. Wharo tlio partiaa ara uuniHr- 
011a. and It would bo LmpiMtioabla to niUta 
thfrtn. \Vhde thaa claoaoa aro inarkad, it atj- 
dum liappvua tliat the ootei bclinie nholly to 
either one; tliey usually partake o( (he fcnturea 

of Iwth. Bnt it ia not necoMtry in onler to 
maintain a auit under tbo Unit that tho partiea 
ahould be nnmoroua: nor to molntaia a auit 
under tho acoond, that the partiea ahould hava 
a pmcral or common luloraat: 800 Pomcroy oil 
Itamediea, *»ca. 390, 301. 

Tha aliorc aactbn applio* to an a«tloii by a 
cnol itor ou IwImIi ot alT to coniMl an aasignee 
fur thvir bouulSt to carry out tae aaaignaout: 
Vrrfi'f V, //fret, 10 Abb. Pr. 42| ArMfa t. 
Prct. 3S Barb. &ID1 Pflrie v. Laming, 00 M. 
3J7i GonalUr v. Font, 4 Minn. 13. So alao 
may a legatee or diitribulec »ue for nlli M<- 
Krn-je v. L'Amourriu, II Borb. 51S| IWaer 
T. 7'oDf'y, 39 Id. aaH: DaiHoa v. Doieim, XS 
Ohio HL 443; and aoa Pumcroy on Rtonodioi, 
•BC 23$, note 1. 

Aa to tha offaet of thia. nrovMnn upon the 
right* of (lartlM not actually b»f ore tbe court, 
*M Poiiieroy on Satnadic*^ aao. 300> 

883. Ptainliff may sue in onr action Ihe ilij^'crrnt pnrtiix to commitviai paper. 

Src. 3S3. Pi-raoua aevemlly Hulile ii])ou the game obligation or instrumeilt, 
iii^liiiliiig the ]Mirtie6 to bills of exchaage Bud promiasory Qotes, and suietieBon 
Uie wine or »«parat« inslniiu«nU, nui; all or any of thou be includfid in tliu 
Attie action, at tbo option of the plaioliff. 

Pc *»oii>» acvarallT Uabl« on tbo aaina In- 

BtnU&eitt. ■ — This Hi:tiun cluug<.« the comu^on- 
■ bw ruin Uiatoiieorall, and notonyintermedi- 
' ate Bttmtrr. may t* anctli Soo PropU V. Loir, 
'.' • Cut it mnat bodutlnKiiUhcJ 

I I tnim mifonf n Jriliil liiiMlilj 

I I -It llaUlillra. Ixit t<> tt>o*ii 

1 «n» T. f>ltw, 2.1 X. Y. 

. . "It ivlato* in tcnm to 

enica whwe a plurality of perioaa oontraot 
aeroral obUcatiolia on tho aamc inctruincnt. " 
ICalaobaa been held applicable to joint aud 
aei-epil liahilitloi: /"eoc/- v. i«e, 2S Id, OM, 
&-.T; PaifJf V. EJuvtnU, Id. '.He; Peooie t. 
/.■.nui, 21 Id. i-y.H f.'minni r. Wow, 38 N. V. 
Sii|«!r, Ct. 3(«-. Cfidt-rv. <?i.iT)r.« Barb.33ll| 
/hvi.r V. TriUinv. -^t Wit. (ilO: I IhUM PI. 

yi ut «ei[.i PuuK^iuy Ml It«nic«liea, too. tOS, 



»3S1, 335 

OP CIVIL Acnosa 


Diit *ne AMbtr t. Adamt, 2.1 Ohio St. mS; 
P<in>«rry on Itunodio*, mc iM. It «tll not 
•tttluuuo tlie oamtiicncciiiuut lu tliv ■ujmrior 
court of >D actinu agaiiial tuTrvral proniwin 
vhoM iuillridiial jiromlMii txn fur Mticiunta Ion 
tbaii ihrco huQilnul iklUni 7%unuu v. Arultr- 
io», lis (Jkl. 99. Iiimirsnoo eumpiiai«« unitiug 
lit ti la^lufforiM'nmta amouota nuy be JDiuciT: 
£rrwn> t. /m. Po* . 3 W«t tiDOal Bcp. SSri. 

JSTunvt^r and rT7»¥j(n((Wi« (/Jnyifciif, — Th» 
jnliilDK lU i^-JvCeailanta tli« iuivin>r niul por- 
•oiukl n|miraUtivc u( a ilcccucil alillsuT, aev- 
cralljr tiaUc oii ihc unn-t imlniTiicrit. bu boon 
upbdd b llaiiti V. Cra^AduI, Gi N. Y, 432; 
kud toe I Bato I'l. .14. 

iViitfl/ioJ aivt yuara»lw, — Tho weight cf 
&iit)i»ritj' niintaJii* thu vjow that tlia pnnciiial 
ail-] ftti'>r'»il'»' (aiiiiol h» ■luttl na ou-dv(mclaiita 
luiiltlr lliia tvatiun. Tlioir ul>li^lioD> um itiR' 
liodl — nut ObrisiDi; upon tlio ttmv inicnimcDt — 
lud tliia rvun thougli thv suanwly b« writtca 
upon tlio iNipFi wiui the airreemeat it aticunia: 
Sea tN>'TrHi« V. PioM. 2.1 IT V. aSU, 28?! //or- 
na V. SUriif.Tf, 5 Al.b. N. C. 2T»: tV« v. 
i/mAanl*' Aofii. dO Ind. 330; ffoii'lurttnt v. 
Bhutrn. 10 Id. 160; ilrtiJuin v. HiH'ja. Q7 \U. 
tH\ PhaltH V. yjlnrftv. 4 K. D. SmilU. 379j 
nWlU T. Prrry. -li IJacU .fO; Atlrn r. fw- 
^■ar, II How. I'r. '.'IS. UiidiT i>ociitiar wonl- 
tu^ «( llioirrvnpc^rtii'e ooileti. lown and Kauoa 
penult IliU joiuiler: Hots I VMtb P). tJ,. That 
a uaM may aciM in wliich a )*Danintor'a lialiil- 
Itj ariM* out of tha aaini iuatraiiiont u lliat <tt 

bin iirlncipa! «-itfaui the nMoniiiic of tlii* •«- 
1.011. H« C'lrniRR V. Ptoju, 23 N. V. SM, A* 
tu ihu diatiiicdon in thi* mpc«t bctwtcu anrcn 
tii'4 mid iivaiiinloni, wo Civ. Catc, kc. 3831. 
ill iKita, Uiidor tJio ciproa aatJiority of tbo 
ColMTLdu Dodu, M'otioii 139, ptiuclpal aiut aui-c. 
lit* may t,* wind tn^'illwr; flvlrll v. Prier, 1 
WmI foait Itcp, -(O.*. 

BuretiM oa tho uune or tepoiata Inobu* 
awat*.--/'liitv'' T. Piuyll. 4i»OiL 331. tilllillhca 
tlluitraliou of this ■i;u;it' ol tli« Mooad provla- 
ioii of thU Kctioin. An ndininittrator gafa 
boDila ou qiulifj'JDf;. and furllicr bjiiiN an [ini- 
cuhng an order to rU rvftlty of thu caUtci tbs 
oonrt pornittol tho larctic* on tbc two Ixiiula 
t« 1m> lolniil aa delaudanta, Mf ing: "Thoutc- 
lie* ttlio are tnuil , aa nlMwrvcd alirkdy, •eaunw*] 
ftvoiniiion bunlan; andaalicinj[iiaroaiMOia*epa- 
niU- iiittniiuvDU. iiiay be iiropinlv jolaoil a* ao- 
dcfyndauls iu llio afltloti — Piliiiu tliin aoetioii. 

Qncatloiia of iwaatloa. — Altliougli Mvnral 
dcfcuduDU liavo MUD joiuvd In tui aclloQ on a 
joint and tKircral bund, tba plalnUff ni«y ga Ut 
trial before all the defendants tiarcliecuwrvixl, 
andnuydiiiniuiutoaoauvaDd revoveragainat 
othcra; Pfjjilr. v.EmH-. 20 Cal. 431. The judg- 
innnC agiiiiatdcfmdiLutaaDitcJ in themnoao- 
tloii iiinit follow tlie DBturDof tlicit liability. 
Till* Hi^ci-iiiii, wliilo aulhorifing partiia wver- 
ntly UMo oa tli» tamii ob'lfatlou to bo mied 
jointly, dwn not nwko tlielr llaliillly joint: Sea 
tlii> iHiiiit ourvfully canald«r«d In Dtcixr v. 
TriU'mj. -U Wi* OtO. 

384. Tenants in common, rb-., maij uriw in bringing or defending aclion». 

Sec. 384. All iieiHonti holdiuji; iim tvniuits in ooitunoQ, joint t«nsQta, or 
coparceners, or any nuuibor lesM tbau all, may jointly or BeTerallj commence 
or defend any civil action or |>roct)ediiig for the euforcement or proteclioQ uf 
tbe rights of euch party. 

Co-tenant*. nctJona by and Asalnat— At 

one time in thi" vlul'i juint owiien, Dtven v. 
lamliitr. 7 CbL 547. and. it aeinna, t«nitut& in 
common. D* Johnion r. Srpvlbrdn, Id. 3IT. Were 
obliged lo join. Butnowthcymayima joint or 
•cvprelly.BiidiuiT nunilur liii tlinDnll may sum 
Morr-'hnul v. W',l.,in. Wl Id. '2113; Kr^mhlt v. 

//MKi^r, 4:^ 1.L UiUi HoUrf V. Phi, 30 Id. 4Dli 

ToibrAanf V. JTrytf. SI Id. 203. Onet«naiitWU 

Stniiittcrl to luo fur diveriiou of water (mm a 
itch and land owned in common: /fi™?* t. 
John-ton, Ul 111. ^0. If oua of tiic co-tvnants 
dirai. liii jMinoiuil ivprupntati're may uoiUi with 
tlio otiior tcuiuita: B'jmMt V. Jlomcr, tupra: 
TaiKAanl V. £>^, tiijira. 

885. Action, wh'-n not to abate — Subdilation. 

Sbo. 385. All action or proceeding does not abate by the death or any di»- 

abllilj of a purtr, or by the transfer of any iutercHt therein, if tlio caiixo of 

aulion »iirvivi- or coiititiuo. In cjise of the death or any di^iliility of a pftrty, 

tb<! court, on motion, may allow Uio aotion or proceeding to Iw continued by or 

ngaiuat bia rcproHcnlAtiTc or Hucccssor in iot«it<«t. In case of any otW-r transfer 

of intereet, tbo ut^tiun or proceeding may bo continuwl in Uio namo of tho 

original party, or the cotirt may nllow tbo pcnwn to irhou tbo trauKftir in itiudo 

to be Bubotituted in tbewition or proccodiug. \Amimdment, approved March 24, 

1874; Ammdmrnfi 1873-4, 295; took efftd Jalif 1, 1874.) 

A lUersfi rwitlnji tliat "Uda actioa luvinii 
bvtn o'lii llnuvd, In contnquvaoa of tltc dimtli >it 
lli« I'UiiillJT, Uy hi* exocntor Haiauel Weblj, 
and till' JLii-)' li.iviDjf ("unit a venliiit tor tiia 
pliidtiiT, It is nou■<.ldl^p^■.l,■' eui.. olmrly «lion-a 
till) MiK^-iitiiiu <if tli« ili'atli of tliu ori;^iitil1 
pluntill', aiiil a cunlinuanuo of llw r.iutu iir a 
nv'irti at it in tlio niiii>e uf the Pioi-ntor, .^t 
all ovciita. liny irregnUiity In thin rwpocl can- 
not bcaltiMiliedi.oUBteciilty: Oitjitrgv. llagim, 


Snbatlntlon of parti**.— £>ra/A of party. 
[taalliotdi-al'ilitV'-r sporty ponding anapptcit: 
S»*, T"! .i..r.. -igjitvnieoourtnilo 14, I>unt)iuf 
AvU .. :''i»dtlJu.'Ii:iient: .l/yiv w MoH, 

2!K i >■/'•, r. Mor',Kia,4lU.Ri'i; Unm 

r, C'ai>i>i..'^1><>iu..»M ya.affi. lfa|)arlydi<>. 
jiKtr;u>enC agnintl liii m;-R*cntatir« tnUHt In 
lliat lie pay In dnc a)Mrm ol ailininlslratinn: 
Sec ISM. oDil n->t«. NcciMfity fat claiming 
a0uiisttal>t«i>f dccManI: gcv. 1193. 




to all BOiiiM <lia nf icr nmliotor otlicrdccMaD 
tboriu, jiu3){MHiDt in [ninaiuiDeof (Uch vnrdlct 
er ilrciiiiiu day Bevottliolom tw ivDileml u 
prnvi-kd la Mctioit MO. foU; bat In no othtr 
mixk t«M can JwlgnMct b« nixliirtil aou lo 
■iTvet tiie IctorMta of lh« mprmunUlivTs or 
•uccvMwr* of lb« |wi^y (tnctSHiil vitliuiit the 
prapcr MtbatftnUon ol «iii)h rapn»mtalit« or 
KiKvpaaun. It i* rtgnliT and proper to luj^gcrt 
tiM (Itath of a parly to ati acUoD in any court 
and at aay •tago of Ihc pracaeding*. Tlic 
dMth of » party oMorring licforB anpwl taJccn 
May ■<« ibown m tbo VDrcino court by afflilavjt 
of tW (act: JuJKni v. Loiw. 33 Id. W3i 5Aiir(- 
err T. J^n, 40 Id. Wt. 

If, prii'lliiji lut airtltni. ono of tlw daTractauta 
data, aAil oa I)!!!)!!)!!'* ninUom kla oxaculor ia 
•nlnlinlod aa dufondant in hi* plaoa, and no 
■oUco of tliU (act it aonvd on the oxcoutor, 
and )■• doM not appaar or annwor, or adopt Iha 
uiiH'Ur ut liii tmtnloT a> liii own. atid tlio Ua. 
tator u uaBital ill tho jaclgmciit. llie ll^tita of 
Uw DXCCntoir am not nncctal by thu tnnl and 
jaiWn*(it.aBtl n jodinnmt rcndrrt'.lUn nullity 
•n uraaheiaooncoriMil: JltCrtrTyr.Krtnliny, 
W t'-al. 'JM. 

It lia* ■•on (te onllonD practloa In thlit *t«tn 
tn permit tlio auliatituticn to Im mado. on « 
■odEwtioD cf tbo d««tb of the fonnar party 
udaatiafactory pm>i(, I'm an <z jnr'e moticm of 
tba aii|miiitnoiil nuil '[ualilicatioii cif tliu ad- 
miaiBtrator. A> «aa aaid \>y Chirf Juntice 
lilar*hall, in WtUem v. CWntOU • Hi-'r. 3 Ctuncb, 
IDS: "1/ the court baa UDUiioiJodly permitted 
ft pcraon to prowcoto vho bai Dot giTcD latia* 
hetofy evidxAM of hii riglit ti do an, it poa- , 
iha niwtnt of prcrDiitiiis any niluhicf 

from tlia Inadxrtcnco. aiiil will unilauUtcilly 
H. /;. (V.UCU. 337. 

Infant anooatMn of a deoaaMcl 'kfoiidant 
bi an action ot partition may lie 4uli«titut«<1 fur 
Moll dafendania on uiolion vitliuul igHUBuioof 
m auBBcaa to bni^ thcon in, and thpy may 
afpCBT hy tbcir gon«raI guard ian or t^ a cuat- 
diaBiWfilntt; Smtrtey. Alvarado, mtatCoaat 
Ucii. T06; S. a. U CaJ. Asa 

Yraa^tr. — Wlicre, ponditi^ an action of 
oJtalBoil Bgainat a tenant, liia kndlonl nlla 
aad oODVoya Uio land to a pcnton, tliat |>craoii 
la, andar Utia awtion, cntitlfd to continue tho 
dafeUM of tlio aditou iu th« noinn of tlio lonuit. 

or to caiiaa lilmat'lf to bo tubatitiitait la tlia 
taiiant'* i\aeo aa duUndauti itiutitk v. TKorp, 

It tl)u plaiutiir in rjcottaml parts with tlM 
lillo to tliv ilctnanded prcmian. pcndjag tli« 
aulioD, tbo action may l<e oontiiiuvd in liii 
name, uiil«> tlio gnnlco applica to b« aabali. 
tutn) ua plaintiff: VamanOo x. Faiim, 40 OkL 

It waa Boid by the iilpmnc court that tlit* 
icction, ao far oa rclkloa to tho autiatitutioo t4 
BDolhcr in {ilacc of tbi: plainttfT* la <aBo ol a 
tranafcr o( iba cauao of action, 1« to be ant in 
motion by th.i ploititlff or hi> vnndaa: tliat na 
aKsliiMl till) dHlvndatit tlta pl^tilf boa a rijilit 
to «tay in uourt until liii caae haa bfm trit^l: 
that if defendant demrea to takv advautagv of 
tbo trannltr for nny par|>o«, lio inuit do to !■« 
aupplvmontaJ anawer: Maxt t. Shfar, 30 Cnl. 
4371 Bar^tu v. Kruman. 34 Id. DO; Ituira v. 
Brtman, 37 Id. 3S8. 

Tho bankruptcy of an appollMil, thouch oil. 
judioatcd before tho taking ot the appeal, will 
not prcTcnt ita pnxccutioD in hi* name, nor 
will thn raqMioJcut bo hnanl to object on that 
IP'oonil, Tliv at-pi-al niay b« pixiaccniitcl in the 
haiTiu of tii« kftiikrui>t, or in tlialof hiaaaaiipiMt; 
WXril T. Dautjhrrty. 40 Cal. C7S. 

SiitntitulioDoI adiirunnt plalutiCT ulll not 
ba allowed whcrs it will roiiiU in injury lu any 
right of tkodcfmdont: Sktm» v. i^irnn, 1 Wiiat 
Cooat R«p. 028 (Utah). 

£u<YFa*or la <t^et may bo aubatituteil for tho 
parly to tho acticD on an^geatioo to thv court 
llmt Iho party'i term ofoffioo Iiaa expired: 
JorJan v. lluUrl, TA Cal. SfiO; id parit 
TUhun, Id. 'JDl. And the chanuc in tho In. 
cnmbtncy inuat bo an^^goated, if juilgtnont 
Mtaluat the miooMaor la darired: /.I'lKtvy t. 
JuffiVor.S Buth.SSI: Ki paiit Tiiikuta, nufna. 

MlaacUaaeoua— Till, .ippoaronco of an In- 
fant l>y n gu-iHian i'{ Ui'n, who Ii alraaily 
before tbo court by li>« gvueral f^ardiaii, la a 
■ub>litutioD, nn'l not an intcrvCDtioD: Ttmpit 
r. Ahr'in'ltf, ,')3 Cnl. S. 

8ub«tlttito<I pnitloa tak« op th« nmtro- 
Terny in tlio conitition in which they find iti 
Trmple r. Alrraarltr. 53 Col. X 

Danitli aftM T«rdict or doclslon And ba- 
lers Jtidsmmit: Am ^riv. bbo. fl6!>. 

SviTlvalof AcUoDS; 8co pOKf, lioca, ISSlot 

Bringlns fai nvw p«utles: So* aocL tS9. 

36S. AiwQtfT penon may be subftUulett /or thf lUfrndant — ConJHcting claimn. 

Sec. 38C. A Jefendsnt sgainftt whom ad nction U poii<]iug upou n oontmct, 
or Tor specific pcnumal propcrlr, luaj-, itt any tiino Wft^ro RnKwtr, iipOD ofliiluTit 
thai n iwrnon not it parlv to Uio itfltiou iflnl«!M agitiusit him, itiid without nny c»l> 
ItiMou with him, n i1<>ninn<1 upon mivh conLruft, or for aueh propvrty, u\>oix 
ootiu* lo •iii'b ptimoii ADtl ttifl nclwmo piirty, n|)pty \a the court for an onltT \o 
auhdtilnto Htirh jicnion in hia |)liic4!, «u<l iliavhaifrc biiu from liability to cither 
ptirtiTi t>u biH clcpuHiltiig in court tlie amount obtinied on the eonlmct, or deliv- 
oring lltu property or iU vnlue lo suob person as the court muj tlireot; and the 
ixturt uiny. iti its ilihcretion, make tbe onler. And whenever conflicting chiiniit 
ten or muy be uuulo upon a person for or relating to pcr«oti«l property, or tlio 
porfonruioe of an obligation, or any portion Ihorrof, such iktwu may bring 
Ml action agsiaat the conflicting claimaut» to ooiupv] them to intorplmd and 
litigate their SBTeral clounH among thcmeclTCH, Tbo order of subetituLiou may 


OP CIVIL Acnoxs. 


be modfl nnd the aoUon of ioterplmder may he utamtainett, and tb» applicant 
or plaintiff bo discbai^ged from liabilitj- to all or anj* of tbe conflicting oUini- 
ante, although their titlee or olaims have not a common origin , or arc not idoD- 
tical, but are atlTcree to and independent of ono anollier. [Amcndmfnl, 
appn-vd Uarch 3, 1881; Slats. 1881. 19; lofk rffW4immediatelif.\ 

Amandment Ot 1861. whethfr nn^'^'''" 
t« [lOnillnu unit* not 'letcnuincd in I'^'I'r v. 
Va'lf, SOCU. 273. The nmcudmnit m ijttc^- 
tifln iutil«d all kftCT tho lint ■ontiii':i.' in tlin 
nboi'u.wliicli alone •taiHl»thoilinicD(lcdKHTtion. 

Int«n>lMd«r.— Ill pjiittr ». HWr, 66 OJ. 
iX tt>o Biil-jcct of iatorptcwUr wbj oonuilcrcil 
quite fully. KTcral (KiinU bcinaiaiMd by coun- 
•r) npon tbo comploliit before Uio court. TItcra 
tlia ptkbitifT, vcuitM of wboati imitthL In malio 
iDt<>T|iI<a<l tb« vouilor** )mljni(io nuil a third 
IMTRom, lu wIhm* pomuMioii Oia w)i«at waji %.l 
tlio timft ol th» ralo, unci who oIntiiMil a l!«u 
tlirrtion. Thin iMnl p«rMn had deliTamt the 
whml t« pIoLutiS on tha ounditiou of the p*;- 
IiMUt of his cUiiu. Th« court, in dcclanng 
thi* not lo Ih.' a pcoppr ouo fnr an interplcaiitT, 
d«fliie miiny [■( tlio muitito, Thcjf bij-; " It 
if an inflexible nilo tnat tbo thing to which 
the jirutien make oiiverMi claim ho on» anil tlio 
utate thing: or. In other «<ri1i. tho cluiiii* mint 
ba McntlctL" Acaln: " It it an tinderiating 
ml*, that «li«n tlio pUiiittIT niMa uiy quM- 
tJniiH M tn the kinMiat of Ibo claim waioh i» 
tiiO tnlijoot of titi^tioii, thia olono will b« 

f*tal to tho right to the remedy." Ajiiun: 
" The r'aintiir, m on iulorploMUr. am*t apix«r 
b> haro no iuterMt in the Bnb]«ct-a»ttcr," 
And: "It is enpiitial to tlio ri^t of {ntrr- 
pload«r that thu punou ttooiliiiL in tliu pwiitiiiti 
of a (takvlioldrr ii i);noniQt ul the ni^hU of 
tho different t>Iiiiniant> to the fund hctd by liiiii, 
or. Bt leoit, that there ii oome doubt oa to 
which of them b entitled to tlw fond, to that 
ho eannot aatcly pay It to cither." 

AU of tbooo pinpfiailiona, in mpport of 
which the oaurt cltca varion* antliorltim. oro 
diteunul. togAthar with olhor queatlnti* nriiinK 
ont of thia aubjoct, in a note t» Shau r. (.Wrr, 
S5 Am. Dm. 005. 

Wh«D a lenottt find* that adi-erao [inrtina 
claim th« land he owupiM; he ahonbl HIo uu 
iutcTp'M^*** makiag them partiea and oll'rring 
to pay the r«nt into ourt to abide ita dcti*- 
ion: SlrDtvlU r. Sullivan, 8 C«l. W2. Bo a 
tenant, ogaiunt whom e^mflictins olaima for 
rvnt are made, may Inatitute a bill of inter- 
plwuler ogainal auch claimanta to determine 
tbeir riahtt: SMvirr r. Han-ry. 2 Wcat Cooat 

887. Inlerveiilimi, when atuthoto. 

&£c. 387. Any person may, before the trial, intervene in an action or pro- 
ceeding, who bas au interest in the matter in liUf^lion , in tbe BQcoees of either 
of the parti(«, or an interwt againiit both. An intervention takes place whi'ii a 
tlilrd person ie permitted to become a party to an action or prooeoding bolw^'t-n 
other persons, cither by joining ihe plaiutiff in claiming wbat is sought by tlia 
complaint, or by nnitiog with the defendant in reiusting the claims of tlie plniut- 
ilT, or by demanding anything adTcrscIy U> boDi Ibe plaintiff and tho dcfendnul., 
nttd w mnde by complaint, ectting forth the grounds upon which tho intcrvcu* 
titiu ivste, filed by learo of tho court, and Hcrvod upon tho jmrlies to Uio notion 
or procc4-ding who havonot apprared. and upon tho attorneys of tliu partiea 
who have Hpptarrd, who may anitwor or demur to it lut if it were an original com- 
pkiiit. [Atn-rixlmnti, approved March 21. 18T4; AmettdfWsnU 1S73-4, 296; took 

matt be that cmated by a claim to tho dciiuiiit 
ot tome [urt th«r«of In ault, or a claim to. or 
lien Dpou tbe nro|Hirty or aome part thereof, 
which I* the mbjeot of litiKalioo:*' Id. So alw 
O'lijuti r. JohivoH, 1 I.A. 4ill. Thoomonntof 
the inlertat i« iiiuiialeiiali l'oJ?rji v. Qr^i'Jklil, 
6S CnL 3SS. It mixVrv iiu diBervnco tbnt the 
int«r«'cuur may or may not protect bla laleN 
cat in *omc cither way; Id. 3«2. Tha int^rfat 
ninat Iw made to appear from tbe intorvcaor'* 
pIc^oillnK* by proper nlJoipticio: S. C., OS Cal. 

Intvrvflntfon haa been allowod in Ib^ fol- 
luwiojt coMHi A I'rtor iwii'l^go uf jiroinitM 
■ou)[ht to be clinri;ii,l vliJi a lucv^luinici'i licnt 
Wrilitr V. llttuv-mja. I CaU ItO: tlic wife of 
the nioTt(;iigor may inlerreiie In au action to 
faniflij*Mani(ittg«eoji tho boni ertc a d ! Sanjtal 
r. HU.on. 5 I.L 5lMi Mo^ v. 10 |,l. 
SaU) DilioH V, Bgnu, ft IX. 'tiOi Jfurtury v. 

Intervftntlon, oa It ia known In tbla atato. 

1* a "iu.lidal ptijc-n.liiiiJ urit.i>»iMi luftui- In 
our oi>li;iary <:<:.iti'U. •'iitiiTl) iiulik'i uiiyt)iiiij{ 
whj<:h Imd ltt<u c^i>iti'nmr\' in Ih-^ cijiTinion-LkV 
OT oqiiity irilMiiiaU (■! Kn^liui.l nr the U'nitoil 
Stilt* IhiIvinI, it na^ ts"ili-«M'illy bnrrowwl 
[r""i the i"'vrdiirf iwliiUj.lio.l l>y tl)« oode uf 
l>iitwiaua; " f<jmi:ri:<y<<» Krn.tilkfi.aection 416. 
1 Kjt ()ii* •jitvni of "intervening" Cnmo to u* 
ll.riiii,i,-h liii.- 'ivil law, bcc olw //ymon v. 
f'liitii.i.t., 40Mia«. T28; Worn v. \oUauo fValtr 
Co.. I» L'bUC;. 

Wbo ouiy luterraoa.— The btervat mon- 
li(-nol ill llie o«te which cntitlea a pcnon to 
hilci'ifno in a unit lictwoon other psrtin "mual 
tf in i)i» matter in litigation, and of anch a 
(I>r<:>.'t oii'I iKinta:i|!nt« character thai tlia Inter' 
Mr. '..t' u ill either i;ain nr loaeby th«dlr«ct le^l 
oiirrilioa and HTcet of tho ]iid|pnuiiti'* Won v. 

VfUaiKt WaUr Co., 13 CaJ. 02. "TlM tutiftcBt 





Mpanto appeal! from tba judgment in hror tlia tijjIiU ami tiaUUtk* al Interrmnn. "i>- 

ot the plain tiiT, the ftppellab) eoort nuty *IEm ti^rvpnor* inuit nut iUIajt lh« tiuit," oail "mutt 

Ibp joi^ncot oa the ilcfcnilnat'a amiMi, ani Mxwpl tha iiuit ■> it (iiulB it.'' in tbe nuto 

runrnu it uid Hnmt allow triul on ibanfipwl to Drown v. A'nuf, 111 Am. 1>b«. 17T. In 

of Ibe int«rvcnor; Donaer v. Falauv, IS CuL Pomoroyoti Retnclim, •wa.lll otacq.. will be 

ISO. faand k luluablo conthbution to the Iconiing 

Fnr otIxT Intoreillug (|UMtloiis Arising out upon tlii* lubjoot. 
ol tbia futiuo «l tba naw proctdim, iooluding 

888. At»ocialn viaif li« fue.d by name of ojaociation. 

Sec 38$. Wiiea two or more peraous, uasociated in ftny batunoKS. traDsoct 
such buBineas under « coididou uame, whether it comprwee tlie natsrn of nuch 
persons or uot, Ihe aasociat«8 may be 8a«(l b^ sucb cominoti iiniii'\ tUv miininMiiit 
in Mich casee being Berr«d on one or mor« of tho luwociatcfl; nml thv judj^itonb 
ill the iiclioD shall bind the jotal property of nil tho iut»oc-iatc«, in th(i wtuio 
Rinntier im if all had been niim«d dofoudAnbi and lutd been mied upon their 
jiiint liability. 


WaUii, for tlie anioBot «u<d lor, to bo enfurccit 
nu&innt t)iR Joint prnp«Tt)r of thu mrinbfri of 
tae ouinpaDir— lliv «ourt lielit, In a collBteral 
pnicoQiliDi;! tliat thi> wa> lubiitBitlially witliiii 
the •cction, ttnd tbit tbcre wu certolulv not 
Ml entire abMagg of averment on the lulijt'ct, 
mill niitliins thort of that would juitify tiie 
court 111 liuliling llie judgment aliaalulctir roH 
in » enlliitunil pmceciliug. Moroover, it niigbt 
b« dou1>t<4 w>i<.-Uicr k nncatiou whotlier tito 
det^DiliiutK hiwl )<e»n aacd by tlio proper nnino 
wuanylliiuu inoro thiti matlcv in abntdniont, 
ftud. t>> kny tbv l«a«t, WB«»n»lo{Nue to \h« cilms 
of a mimoiDcr, wliiuh nuvar reu<l*T«il lli« Judg- 
ment voiiL If tbe duffQilant doM liotunDOM 
to BppeiLr and plmd matter in abatomvnt, auah 
matter ia waived and caJinuC 1>u aHi;;iiud for 
cFTUi, if he hu been wtualty arrvcd. nud much 
leu it a judgment by default agniiut him, 
thnutth by the wrong name, void: ITMiA v. 
KirljuUri'-t, 30 Cal. SM; Ke pari- K'Uuyn, 8 
\'t 500-. r.'uiuar-t v. Ilryxmii-r. IS 111. 2S8j 
Hum.nim-l v, Thr. Pfoplc, 32 Id. MO. On tho 
gnxiuJ (lint the «tatutawaaiBi)«(«f;iiIlon at tho 
vomniuii law {an Ui wliicli, tM ies. 4, iinf'), Ibo 
court hvlditinuiitli«itriDtiyoou«tni(Hl.and that 
ti]0 record ii) an aetiun uommciiccd, nut n(iiiLnRt 
the "IndcpMidnit Tunnel Co..*' but auiliiKt 
the "]nd«piuidmt Co.," which wiui evrbninly 
a different name, and in which the auinmona 
wni addroiacd to the Independent Tunnel Co., 
fiilcd to allow, in a oollatcral prooeodine. a 
valid JiiJifment aKoJnit the Independent Tnn- 
uuM'o.; A'liij I'. Ri-mll'l. :aCaL ^til. 

Martins. hiUii'ifuurt, 13 Hcv. 80, tumiiboi 
anothur i11u«tmiiuii ni nctiuna upheld ajfainat 
partiivni by ihnlr lirm niim*. 

Fnitnem under flodttona name mnat til9 
C«rtU)aate: Sov Civ. CoiIk, ik'vk "Jlll'l rt iwij. 

Ci»trl, tchen lo dividi cwiifroiwruy, or to ordT olhnr parlies io be brought in, 
Sr.c. 3811. The «ourl may d<!temiiue any controrersy betwoon parties before 
it, when it can bo done without prejudice to the rights of others, or by eaviug 
their rights; but when a eomplet« deterinlnalion of the controversy onnnot bo 
had vrithoul the presence of other partiea, the couri must then order thetn tn bo 
brought in. v^nd nhen, in an action for the recovery of real or peraona) prop> 
crty, apenoD, not a party to tho action, but having on interest in Ui« Mibjoot 
tb«r(-nf , niakea application to tho court to bo made a partj, it may order hitu la 
l>u brought in, by the proper amondinfint. 


Aaaoclntlon naias.— This xHtion it merely 
pcciiLiiuivi': it i* nut a aulifltitulc far, but on 
aii>ltiiua to, the former eiiatins metbuda of 
limiting netanna; Whilauui r. heii/t, 18 Ohio 
St- \'.H. It anthnruca on acticu againit de- 
fenilooti by tlio brm luunc, but not on action 
by pltuntiS* in the tlrm name: OUmau t. Cot- 

Aaaoclation nameL— Where nlalutlfr al- 
leei-d tliut *- Hull & Co." were indflbt«il to hlin, 
liul failed to prove that lliere were other* Ui 
Ui« cerapaiiy, the wotila "ft Co." uoni tr*at«d 
aa aurpInMso, and the action prooeeded aoaiual 
Ilnll olouK^ MMtnUn v. //■./;. 5 CaL 240, 

Wliuiv (he till* of the aetiun. ai ^iven at the 
tiBod of the <:um|>laiDt, wu Mnrl'n IVtlnh v, 
M. K'atth rl ui,, comjKBing the lied Star Mio, 
ingCompaiiy, and in the body of tho compUinC 
it vai ilatod that "aaid Eed Star Coui|iany," 
omitting the word "minbg," woa a nilutan 
OHOcuition, compoBRl of a great number of per- 
ami, who were no aiimoroua and ao muoli acDt' 
tar«id over the country that plaintiff could nut 
MTvn them uith prricoM without innvh ilvlay 
ami KTVHt<<i)><nM;, and ha tliomfom aiii^d tliciu 
by tbe ronipnuy name, and then tlie complaint 
pruofcded and rut out B cause of action fur the 
rMOvetyci monuy.andeoneludod wiibaorafer 
for iudfpnont fur the amount alleged to im duo 
audowtne o^aiaat the "Red Star^IIning Com- 
(any." nnd (ii hia ivtum to tlie aummooi tho 
■hi-ritr CL-nifted that ho aorved tbu tianio by 
dcUTcrint; a copy tbemot to il. Wolnh. pumiu- 
ally. ou« c[ tile memlior* nf tliu " K<>1 SUr 
Jlj, h - ," ijefcnilant, etc., and tho time for 
!■ < 1,1 ving expired without any appear- 

>,< ' ' rk cuter«d tlio dofaulL and imine- 
diatciy thntoft^r uiitMvd a jiiil^incnt a^in«t 
th« "Util Star Miniuu Co,,' without nainiuu 





Biiu$tUB In DOcgMMT pajtiMt Set appli- 
cktion at ihH aMtiaii to *a auiion to natnin 
tlic ilit'onkin ol wbIct; Lstte Crrri WaUr Co. 
r. Prr,l.,f. I W'ef. r^oJt Ucy. SOS. 

Savliif tlM dgbto o( oUiats. ^Tho Mini- 

table power at imtMUns tliu ri^-ht* of vllier* 
intcrtatrd in tbe prooeMipi;, but t»t jxrliutf [ 
tbmto, it jirtBorvcil bv ttiu wvtioo: S^ /favit 
V. WrfA. 2 WutOxutRcp. 39T t^^l.). uiuiora 
■Lnitur provi^ou of tbe Colaimdo code. 

890. Jc/K>n« againgt firr d^paHtnenbt. 

Sxo. 300. CauKM of Rctiou npon contract, or for dAiDAgeo ariidng out of or { 
portaiDing or iucideot to Uin official admiitiHtnttioti of Uio liro ilfjutrttutTtiln <t» ' 
nt*d bjr net* of th*; legiKliituro of Uiiii nUtc, hIuiII be bnrafjlit ilirecU}' by nO'l 
o^ust Uio muQiriimtitj- liy itit cori<onit4) naitio wbercin tUo diuuu{^ inui huh- 
iMiitsl. Ami tb« Mtiil bounlM of fiixi voiuiu inui o Dent xliall not botued ah fuc-li, 
axwpt (o o(>iup<'I or natniiu lliu {Ktrfortniiiico of iicU pn>p(tr to bo coiu[>clIi>cl or 
iMtntiuott un<]«r and nut wiUiin Uic dlHcrotion iatuodvd to bv coutorred by Llila 
Mt. [New aedion, approved Mardi 12, 1886.J 



S92. C^axH at-liont to br /riinf whrn subject or tome jjarl Ihereo/sUutUi^. 

Ssc. 392. ActionH for tbo following cauKOtt niu8t bo tried in ttio county ia 
wbicl) tb(! ttubject of tbct tuition, or sonii> [nirt tbentof, iii Kituat^^d, mibj»ct to tho 
power of tbu i^ourt tu ciioiigv thti pliico of triiU, att jiroviilnl in Uii^ code: 

1. For thn recoTciy of renl pro|>criy, or «f an «Htalo or int«rottl tbcrwin, or 
(or tlio d«t«nuin&tion, in any form, of mob ritfbt or interwt, imd for injurtM to 
mJ property; 

2. For tbe partition of rt-nl jiroporty; 
8. For tiiv forK'tomin- of all lieiiH and mortgngoa on real projKtrty. 

Wlicro tlie rt«l propi^y in KituaUtd partly in ono county nnd partly in anotluir, 
tb» plninlifT uiny select eitb«r of tbe countiea, and tbe county ko fteli^rted in Uio 
propvr county for tbe triiil of Huch action. \Amendme7il,ai)prt>t:ti^ llart'h '2, 
1876; Amendmentt 1876-B, 90; took effect /rum pataage.] 

Fla04 Of trial of raal aotloraa. —Tho ran- tiooain oertdin eouDtlo; alulwitltrofenac* to ' 

atitaUco, arlk'le 8, atvtioa S, contain* thU 
eluiu: "AD actJDDa for the raoovmy of ibu 
|WH«aadon of, qulclJnn tlio title Uk or for iho 
anfi>K«ia<«t t>t lisnn upou nal ntat* thall bo 
ommnaacott la tlia county in whicli tho tmI *•■ 
lKt« or aay part tltvnior aReoUd by mich actiun 
or aotU^K U aituntoil,' Tlitv ]<ruvi<iuii ii em- 
I>(filiol in uvtion 76, nnlt. Sot*, huwcvrr, 
that tbia iloM not pro>ido for tho triiJ of tbn 
aetioD, Hiaplv tho coaautiDanncut: J/aiuotl v. 
iTvrlon. 61 OtL TO: uid in H'off v. If'ri^lkA 4 
Wort Coiut Itcp. ISSI, it wu ciprnulf <lcl«r- 
tuluni that tliii prutimun of the uoniditattoD 
la nut rotrou'tK e, ami that actioniaircaitj' com. 
ncaiotal ituv Iw jTruxviit^d in tlic <3>unty vht-n 
broiifiht, *l(ho«tgh tho Uail liw* In aiiotliar 

Wkero a «ult forrval *MM* U hioui-lit in (ho 
*Toii)( cauaty, a inotiou tu uliaiif^u tliu vvniii*. 
Bail aot il«BuriTr, ii tli« I'tojin ii'incily. Ami 
ia iiach taao tliurr ii iiu ilmcixtiuii in the roiirt. 
Uie sbanac being matter of right; H'alu V. 
irw*. ISCaUail: <y.V,;;v. 0'.V(i/.S4l<l. Is7. 
But tlie dcfmiliTil iwy wjiiiro tlii» riftht e»- 
nrouJy cr by ini|Uiaatlrdi: Sec. 31M; I'tartrt 
r. fft*. S Gil. W-'s iyXrJ r. o-.VrW. mi^n. 

It ia niinpcrwury to mention the rraidmoa of 
tiM pMtira, nr uiUwr of tlieiii. In the i:nin]>Ialot- 
Tlig BtaMtd duly proridiu lor thu triul wl ae- 

action! In locuTrr rtal prolieity, the fitilatloB 
uf tli« promiMa, anil not tiic miiJcnco of tho 
partlw. (ktermlnaa tho oMinty: f>ol! v. Friirr, 
lO Oal. 433. Awuniinfi tlint ininluB oUliii* aro 
na] ratato vlttiin (lie ii^fsniiiK of llio (xnle de- 
(iuiofi Ilia vonue of citil aotiimk, a ileiniivi'ur is 
nut the prnpar iiiimI« to take adtautagr uf the 
error inljijagins the ooae in tli* oourl of the 
wrong wmn^: IraKa v. Il'Ufi, 13 Id. 3?t. 

Od an iqipticatkai for mwulantu tu uumpel 
the cxocntion of a ibcriff'a i1m)1, tbo cxiiirt bcl<t 
Uiat the awarding of tho ntanittunw could not 
determine richhi. or In any roajwet atfuKi Ihn 
latvreita of tliinl partio*. ouil tho jii-u.i.-i'i.Uiijt 
did not Involve tlio deUniiEiiBtioo ol a i i>;Iit or 
Intnrctt In real «Uto: JfrJ/iUai* v. HUIuuxlt, 
e Cal. 431. 

Karh of atrrral ilffiwlaiut Aot tit HnM of 
trial ia fKf preamr ewmfy.^ThuJt, In WS'il v. 
O'.Veil, M Col. 1S7. an adinn involviii); thn 
riffht to really aitnnted partly in K;i«raitii^iito 
oonuly aaii parlly in Sntt<n- county u a,t (oin- 
meocvd in nan Frandaoo county wnitirl mv. 
oral defeiidaala. Oue of their nHiiilwr iimved 
to ciMnice ttlo place of trial to Saoniinr>nlo 
oonnlyi tlic maliou w-u deuicit helow, on tlie 
Crrmi'l that all tho dcfirDiliuita ihoiild have 
uaileil iti llla)li<>f ili liut the order vaa rcvvntd 
on appwl. Tbo attpranB «oBrt aald tliat "a 






Ai> aflio* tn ft aniitf a c?<'rf bi /raiulalfKl 
iwcil iii>l lio r^niiiiftlivAil in III* enmity <• licrn 
tliHlntxl if Hitnuti^tl: /tcDcl V. iVurJjn^n, 4 Went 
Ciuixt IIpjk CIO. 

Aftmit inmlniv) inula. — An •oUoo bruii^lit 
by IwiivliciuriM. to proonra the n>ini.>viil <>( 
(rnttcrk. tbc iip[jnintmeiit <>f oth«n, nml tliu 
ftppcuiitDioiit Dl ft Nccirw pendiog tl>a jiro- 
ceeduitiiw U B"t ui outlon ''for (h» raxiwry 
of Uia ponouion of TtAl csUlo" Wltliiii the 
monnlUff of tbn cniulitiitinii: .l/orr V. Snprrior 
Cmrl, St CaI. IMS. So Kn KcUnu tocuforcc a 
tiuvt nil iKitli n-nl unil |icr«c-nal entato may bs 
)iro(iglil ill th<i uijuiily nlivra tlio lni*t<>a re- 
•lilen, Blliiniial' llie li"i<l I" iu niiMlicr comity: 
Lf Itrrton v. S'lijurior ('olirt, \ Wiul Coaxl Kep. 

Sabd. 2. FnTtldoii.-~Aotion« to «•! ivtld* 
decrre for p<irtitii>ii aliould 1m) broiigbl in tli* 
county wlivrc tlic lund lici: Btnt v. MaxwrU 
Co.. 3 Wcit Ctuul R«p. S IN. M.). 

Ameudlns tbo complaint >ud aetliaa out 
nrw avcriiii,-ut« cumol lakn avty tbo rigbt to 
A «liaiijM oF laau* wlilcli bad kci^ucd to him 
by hi* mutton leaile ul tlic time tA ■luiiiiirrlntf 
to th« oriciiul ooinnUiut! RatU \. liaJiit, GT 
CkI. OU. 

dor^tid.'uit to (n«)i fta airtioii u the oiio uriil»r 
COnaidvinlkiii ia aiititlml, li * tuattnr if ri;;>il, 
to liBVu tile ncttoii l>i<>>l in iho ciuiity wlixnt 
tll« Inwl U Bitiiated. Tli«i« Ih iiotliiii^ in tin* 
nroiinicHi* which n«uire all tliv di-fcmlaiitc to 
Wn ill clUDiinx "n'n HghU It t>u right wbivh 
1>olonj,i to each drfcndant. * • • t^h do- 
fuidont may vaiire it for himiclf, but tha 
waiver of Olio cuinol Iw dw) to prejudice or 
tlcttniy tlin ilithtof aiiolhcr" 

But tliJH it not tho cue when tho motion !<■ 
nuuJi' im tli# KTOund o( rraldnics, not in tlie 
oianiy. Tlivn nil tho dofviiilanta iiiuit join: 
/".Vprt- V. Cftam'I'i L. Co.. 60 C«l. 173; llrtn- 
iw;iau Stiri-f/ M. Co. v. C'nlr, d2 C»l. 31 Ij Mid 
•m tco. nm, aii'l note. 

Riot, actlana tor dninagw oaa«ed by, 

luait be tricil in the uoiinty in »)iicli ll:c prop> 
eny iujurcil ii aitaaccd: I'oL Code, «!!. M53. 

OtbM laauncM.— Taz lUn nhould bo cn> 
toratd In tliBt county in whjoh tho realty 
■IFkIciI 1> tiluatei), mthcT than in tho county 
of thn dufi^ilant'i nalileucc: Pnplt v. Ptuntas 

if. c.'(i.,£i Cai. rm. 

A<ti<mi /or Jirrrtiaa imWr (nim a illlch 
vibi<ili mivi throuijli iiwiv Ibon nnc ooiintytiisy 

b» broiigtit in I'illHT: t.->urr Kin'j't R. D. Co. 
V, &%!>■/» Hivrrand /*. ("aiia^ Co.. 60 CU. «WL 

888. Olhiir acliom wltere cauM or aotnf part thereof armt!. 

Ssc. 303. Actioiut furtbc fotluviiig vuu.ton inuHt tie tri»l in tlid county wliero 
tho cauM, or hodh) jiort Uiereof, oroee, eubjftct to tbn tike |)Ower of Uie cuurt 
to diango tbe pUco of trial: 

1. Tiit the recovery of a penaltv or forfeiture itnpoaBd liy statute; esoept, 
that when it is imix>Hed for an oBense comiuitteil on n lake, river, or other streaia 
of water, situated iu two or more counties, the action miij- he l>rought in any 
cuuuty liorderiQg on such lake, river, or stream, aud oppodte to tbe place 
where tbe ofFenm vtnH committed; 

9. Against a public officer, or person especially appointed to execute bis 

duties, for an act done by him in virtue of his office; or a<,'aingt a person who. 

by his conitnand or in his aid, does anything toucliiug the duties of xuch 


Officer, act dona t>7.—T1iii npplieioely to »om». and not to more omiuriom orne^lwt o( 

slDriiiatlia •ct* of ifit olBccc bj which, in tho olSvlal duty: Mrihtlnii \. Hithnrdt, St'ul. -1201 

vxtcutlua of procfu. or otlicrwi*c. hv inter- KUt/M v. Crantt. 1.1 Wend. U; /Upiiiu v. 

foina witb tlie prupcrty or rigbt* of third par- Ilryieood, Id. 2AS, 

894. Place of triat af action* againut counttca, or dUen and countia. 

Six. 394, An actioii against a county, or city and county, may ht com- 

niencMl and tried in such county, or city and county, unless tnicb action iu 

bron]{lit by a county, or city and county, in which owe it may be commcnrcd 

and tried in any county, or oity and county, not a party tlicrcto. [Amnndmaii, 

appr-ivfd .Varxh 3, 1881; Slain. 1881. 23; took fff^t imntr4ial'^ly.] 

The OTlgiaal MOtfoo, taken from thn itat- county la iiltufctf<l, unloH nnch actlou are 1w- 

ulu 'A Wti. p>ig* IM. rood: "Actiona (ii^ainut Iwwn iiiuiitli>>. In vliicb cuo tbcy may be 

onuntiM may h« oomnuoatd and triod in nay coiiisiuncud aiij triod in any oonaty not a 

oDimty in the jodioUl diatrlot la wliieh Buah party tlivnto." 

395. Other action*, of.'ordiri^ lo r«HJence of partir-n. 

8x£. SOU. In all other cases tbe action uiiLril Im tried in tbe onuntjr tn which 
the di^fcndants, or 60uie of tUem, reside at tho commcnrymeiit of the action; 
or, if none uf the defenilant« reside in the slate, or. If rct^dia;; in tliis state, llio 
county iu which Uiey reside is unkuowu to Uie plaintiff, the same mo}' be triod 

TiTi.« nr.i 


in any <^»uDty wbicli Ibe [>Isinttir tuay tlcftignftlo In tiLt omjiUint; niitl il 
tbe Jefendaut is about to deparL from the atate, RUirli iicliou may Iw Iri*-)! ii) 
Bit}' county nbere either of tb« parties reside or Min'ioe i* liad; tiubjoct, boir- 
erer, to tfa« power of tbe court to change tbe |>ta<Te of trinl na prondod id thi* 

•RwUeno* of dcfendiuita— Action is prap- 
ttlj brongbt if coniaiciiii! J ia lh« caunty u'licrv 
wmo of tli« ilffcndnnU r«iiJ«: nod to pnwun 
k cliftDgo of vcnUB, oil the dcffnikoti iiiuit 
Miite in the motian: Jtnaiiigian S. il. Co. r. 
Ctle, 42 Cat. 31 1 1 *Dtl «w next loutinn. If, 
■ubi«uueDtl]r. Ibc action it illimlnml an to tho 
(tofmdiuita retiJiii^ in ttio uoiitity whom tho 
action wnt cfliiiiiiaDooil, (liu utlivr niiii'rt«i<]ant 
ifaf«Ddiuiu ftr« bounil by tlis atatv of facta sx- 
biiiignliuii tticjr anpoareil: Id. 

Tbat miilvuiv ul dcfoudaoC in othiir couuty 
llian Ilia* of fcuus U koikI caiuo for nniovikl, 
to irtMiin^ r. iMftr, 6.1 Oil. AOOi Fovf r. 
Siman, 12 Tac C. L J. 218. A cliaogc <4 tho 
place o( trial Xa the county In uliich moat of 
tJic rk'fon-tautJ r«Ki>le may l>o hod wlicre all 
tlioiMcR'luiitau'hoan) aiTml •frliBir«appoarc<l 
Uiitlo iu tho dvinuiili RaiKyA v. TiMoriiia, 4 

Wait Cowt R«p. STA. Nor U the dUfianllQca- 
tion of the jadge of Ibo cooDty to viricli tbn 
change o( veouu ia atkeil a groaiid of <ilijocUoa 
thcTcIo: III. 

A Ibrolga corpontlcK) haa uo rmicleiioo la 
uiy jiarlicularcoiDDtyiiithiaalAlo inuliicliklona 
It van In mod: Thamat v. Ptacrtiitt G. <j. it. 
Co., 3 Wotl ('<>.n.t Riiii, 777. 

OoiporftttcMi'N realdenoa whera iCa nriiKf- 
mI c>(dc0 or iHaic* ut buaiaiaa ia ftrtablialietli 
ymHiu r. Cat. SfofK Co., 22 Cal. SSS. 

Clianelng vonua in ortmUul kotloiM; Sm 
Mies. 1033, lOSI. Pen. CmIc. 

Tort* by co«pot«tfoa— Sootion IS of oiti- 
olo 12 uf tlie oDD«titutiua of tbc alatr, inlattTo 
ta tile venae of actbliB ai^nit eort«ir&Uiin*, 
aptilits to ooiea of toru lu mil tt i>f cniiliw^tai 
Lcwit r. 8. P. II. B.. 4 VVcat Cout Kop. CIS. 

336. AdioH may be tried in dny coun/y, un/ch dffendanl demand trial ittpnper 


Baa. Z9G. If the county in which the action is comro'incccl is not the proper 
county for tbc trial tbcrouf, tbc action may, uotwitbKtandiitg, h« triml thereiu, 
untc«s tbe defendant, at tho time bo appoant and niiHwcni ut dvniurs, filce an 
affidavit of merits, and doniandi), in writing, that tbv trial bo bad in tbe proper 

Tlmff ol mortng to cbao^ tbft place at 

trial.— UinUir til" jiniclii-" utt, il wiw tllO *ilhl 
llikt an iip|ili>-iilii>n t» > hmiicr tU- [i\iuv u( trinl 
o( All ai'tKni mutl \'f iii»<« hy 'Irfiii.laul in tiM 
aJwvriT. <ir i:i.inlt'iii|iuiuiooutly wilh tlie liliiiii 
nd an aniiu**T or dcmarror: TWbu *. lltimlnH, 3 
Cal. iSS: /fruM V. Haif/orJ, S Id, 117: Prarh-i 
V. /Ww, 9 Id. «42! J«i>a v. /Vm(, 28 Id. <23[ 
itahe V. ffeynolif. 38 Id. 000; Cooit v. Priuler- 
giui, 61 IiL 70. 

In ilic C4M> from 61 Cal. >S, lut cllod, icc- 
tlon son r«i*iTe>l n Tory cartiliil cooildoratlon. 
tb«t tli«Tv an> two ^wiirnil rlAueg^ wltli rMpact 
to whiuh tlw tiiDB of apUying for a uliangu of 
[J*M ut trial diffent 1. Wh*re Ihr aotioii it 
not brought io tbe projirr fountyi and 2. Tho 
tkTw other oaaca raeclional in seotion 307, and 
usmhcrvd 2, 3, nwl 4. Sav tho court, in 61 

(too* not apjily to the iwvond cUm abovn men. 
tlriiii-il, (^.imprialiig the iic>.''iiiil, IhiVt, ,itiil fourth 
RiilHlivtiiiciiis i>( nvclioQ 3DT. Aa tu tliene, llie 
<O(lDiiHikitit.aii<llliein0liuiitoi:h&nBC the yilru^ 
rf Irinl. in tho alaeuoo of etatutory rt^iili.lio", 
miut bo mtule "viUiin a reaionalila time," 
Under tho code ut affidavit of nierita aud » 
demuid lileil before nniner or domum^r Ih in- 
coniix|ncnIial ; with tlie riocjition IxJuvniottil, 
tlicM acta nhould acoompanv tli* ai>l»<uraiK-e 
«ul antwar or drmurror «l tho itefrndiuiti 
A'koll V. A'i'oon,4 WMt CoMl R«n. 3)0. 

HtariHff of luMton tfl (ilinuffB Uie vanuo to 
tho ounnty of ilc(*ndaiit'« midmoo cannot be 
onlorud |'>uslnou«J iinlil ilefendont tils hia au- 
■wer; Iftald T. tltntlif, 3 Wert Gnat Reji. 

impartial Irinl ran/iol It AodL— 'Motion not 
to be uMite nntil after adiwct: Cini v. t'4ntltf. 

Ckt'O: ">'<o-'ti(in 3!t(t boa changed tfaernlcif oiu(. 61 Cat. 75, awl aec next paminap)!. 

it ever waa a rul*, which roqulrad tho raotian 
W nolico of tbn motion In oil tmitA to pivcnilo 
or ■a(x>i>i|>aoy tlie owtwer or domnrrcr. The 
fiDihibiliuu Ola motion on the arouail that *llio 
cuuiity <U«ignili"l in the eiimi>uiint ia not tho 
■inxirT i«iin(y.' a)(>:e|>t where Uie afliilarit is 
lilvil Mid the written 'leiuuml niiul-9 when tlie 
luuwer or deiiiarrcr i* lilcO, ii ildclf a pennii- 

CwiornlfHrt <ff iriiiifjuu*.~'Y\it motion to 
cbaag« tho place qI trinl tat thi* ground ia pro- 
niatore if modo Iwfom laina of fact ia joinciL 
Fur, until audi an luuo. tbn twin eamioc Jii- 
t*'lli^nlly doUrrnilno wlietliur it wll) nr uiU 
not bo lor their uonvcnienco tooIininictJia iilocia 
of trial: fooiv, rfW-ry/^f, 01 Cil.'^-V "N'ei- 
tber plaintiff iiur dcfvndant can movo for a 

■ion thnt u motioD on any oilier atatutory change of the jilaoo of trial beuanss of tliii ouu 

grouud ma}' )w maiU by defenJant withuut the 
ofUdaTit and ileicand, within a reawoable time 
alturhla^ppMcsnon. KUciwhjriatho prcroqtli- 
■lU made appllccblv to iiioliona made upon 
Iho grunlul narticulady iseiiEionoilT BxyrtMio 
tcai», oM. It has alo-ayii bf«n held tliat sncli 
BMtioa*. b«iug dilatory, muat be |ii«aacut«<) 
with itliiipiM*." Iu othw TonUt MOtioa StN( 

veniencE of witncHeo, or boeniuo a fair trial 
cannot lie hod. until the event has ociMirnuI 
which In tho ano caw can atone enukile the 
ooiut to doelda what beta are malerial tn lio 
prorad by tho raiiectivo partiee, or which la 
tho othor cMo will awiat the court in otuur- 
tainlitg whother auth locul uvinillco oxiita u 
may iallueaM tli« oonducb i^ too Jury." 



OF aviL ACT10S8. 


'^ rtirUwr, next Mictlitt, k* to tlie rijtht t4 
bas'c n diBD^o bl |>1aiic <•( trial. 

All affidavit of merits luiikl ■Iiow tliM th« 
altiiiir. he-t " fully mil fnicly itHtcil lliti bctM of 
tb« •-Jin" Ui lii« couumI Mort Uic aiivict of Iha 
livlliiT uf-iilil Binoiiiit to ^ i-rimn Jafif ahowing 
ut itiviil* nii"lhsitfGnDt'ilrrIia!(: ISnriv. t>od-lf, 
VIII'aI. 5JS; A'icXrrwn v. (,'o/._/brHni /intMA O)., 
01 III. 'JOS. T^D fultowing foi-muliu liavv been 
listil (;ikh1; ■'Thecaivhacllicni fullv uiiU fairly 
ropmtrnted to counicl:'* l\'oi~J'r-'rrf v, Bruku; 
Vt If). 1ST. " Tliat ho liBilfulIr uxl folrtT *Ut«(l 
llw bcU of Uic case to lit* ooniucl:" A ietrrnm 
V. Oiy'/ni-nio RaUinC^, wpro. " Tlmt he hail 
full} luiil fiiirly Miitrjl iho Bane to lil* coanwl:" 
Hm v. IJoJyr, flivm. "^TliJitho ho* fully asil 
fairly >.Utii<l ibo lai-t* ocoitUtulbg hia il<<feii« 
bi llt>< :>i:tiuii to," uti;:., " lui >ttonii.-y at Inw n>- 
■lilliiti III," vit,, "•oilitftorauoli atattnnent wat 
*i1vi*«<t hj Ilia taiil ntlonwT, anil lie vctily bo- 
llor«t that till- •JvttucloDta liava a oomplcto Oc- 
tauM b'> t)iuui-1 aulioa upon th«inctit>^" Jt/Aa- 
aou V. llfmnH. -Ian. Tctin. 1873, No. 4208; tec 
ladra of dO I'nl,. title "l/nrcpoHcil CMca." 
AnJ tlip Mlo"iiijjwa»licM I*!: ''That bo had 
fnll^niiil (iJrIy iitatoil lila Ucfinav in tlita motion 
to hit cotiiiarl:" .Virirr-nn i. I'ali/arHiH A'nim'ii 
Oi., mitrvi; /WjJr v. l.timr, 4 WiutCcxMit Bcii. 
£(■7: hlllioiitih aiio //iii/ry v. Taijf'. 'J9 Tnl 4'2Q. 

" Tliiit )io i* ailim'jl tliiit Jip linh n pxBl ilo- 
fonw) " ia juod! /iVu'y v. AVnU. SH Cal. T3i but 

887. flaex o/trial inay be chanrjerl in rtrtain ea»ea. 

Sbo. 307. The court luav, ou motion, vlmnge the place of trial in the foUovr- 
ing coma: 

1. When the count; de«ffDated in the complaint ia not tlie proper county; 

2, Wlien there is reason to believe that sn iiupartial trial cannot be had 
thcrrin ; 

."i. When the cODvoDience of witnesMfl and the ends of justice would bo pro- 

tnotatl by thfi change; 

•1 . ^Vhnn fruiu tiiiy cause the judge is disquftlified from acting. 

Ctuuigiiie tlie pl«o« of tilal.~lD Coot v. anil tliat whan laalty la ooiicnnied. In ibo 

Pr-i^'hi'ioft, iSl Cal. To, llio fnipreiDv Qourt (ormnr «■««<• til* DonrttioUl Il>*t all tha >M<-i"l' 

poliil«t nut tliu •!i>iiucli«ii hatwven tli« tu'o auLt intikt juiniu Ibuinoticni. but lu tli»«i->:i'ii<) 

gvn«i>l );n>iii»|ii (or nioTiag hi clianun a plaoti gvn^ntl cla*«, wliioli fmbrwiM all anHlng iiihIit 

.1 ._ .1 ^-^jj ,.^|^,5[ ig the clTnit of tbti itii "' '" * " " ' '' " ' '"" """ " 

it UWltor to:<ld "oo the nwrit* of lb« ao- 
tloBi" 111, "That tlioy [hi« counull infonnwl 
lii» tlist I liul n gtniA anO valid cUfcnsn ui>ou 
tli« liitrit* to 4ai>l acllon, aoil to ill of it, all of 
wbioli I vwily bcliax* to h« (mo," wn» npbdd 
in Heviavit r. Covtu, S& Id. 1, 

Tile aOiilarit of merit* may bo nuulo by ooo 
of tlio oo'dcfunilacta for tliu bviii»t!il of all: Itoa- 
lan-lv. Co?/«f. MCftl. I. 

AU tJSe d«iBDdalitR muaC join in Ibv iiii>tion 
II modo on tbc groiiml of coiit'cuiriKv »( wit- 
noMOi and reaiilonoe oi (iFfcDituut*: V'ir/>rr v. 
Cf*linrla Lmid Co.. U Cal. 173; tlmi«;il»« S. 
Jtf. *■/,. V. Coif, 62 H. »ll: and »« .«. 3fl3. 
Otbvrwipiu if on tha groumt ut lontl iDtolvcit 
not \fimv, within tlie cuunty: it'Jtril v. O'Xfil, 

Dlaqiu^lfl cation ol jtidga. — Wbcra tbe 

motiou 14 Inait'i iiLk thc>7<iiiMh>f 1b« (iiMiD^jliG*^- 
tioD of tlio JiiJ^i*. tbv nlliilaiit hIkjilI^I ttaEi^ tho 
facts 4howini* tiiib itri'jixiit'K*, .1 nKMrUvi-riiiiiiit 
of prvju'licc la notciiciU):ti: V* H'allv. UarKtIl, 
4 A'rtt Cttut lUp. s:2 (Col.). 

Demand tn wVltlnB most br made; notivo 
of Ibo niotiMi doca not aatiafy tho vlatutt: /.'•- 
Inula r. Orvno, U Cal. 4QT; Byrne v. llyrne, 
b; M. WS. 

The (lufDiiilnnt'a attorney boa antliorily to 
aign tb« iLrinand: Ptoiik v. Lantf, 4 VVcat 
Cvaat ICep. fiOi. 

t>i trial 

tineti'in upon tlio time wbm tlic ungilinttion 
•boiild tut uuul«. Thi( (liali nation, oltlioiigli not 
«(pr«n<ty uotioed.y»talioB[i|)iwrai» thcrarioua 
caan wliich bare c-iOMdcml wbulhtr or not a 
olian-^ot rcDQc vraaainitttcrot liigbl. niicre 
tile million la uirida on tbo gronuil Ilrnt Ibo 
notion la not biotixbt In Ihn jiroprr eoiiiity— 
tlie ijroiiuit wbii-b vliann^tciiiin tlio lirnl ){aiicnil 
cU« to whlvli tlila aoution anil tioclioii 306 
«i|iiidally rt'fiTr. and n hiiOi (onnit tin) lint «ul>- 
(UvbiiiMi of till* KVCtiim—it it not ulilreaso'l to 
the iliacrDtloii of tliv court, it it a tn.tttcr of 
I'liOs V. Walli. n U. 331; O'SrU v. 
\>\. \H',: nltliou^-S in Itanthea v. 
/I'lfA, 17 i'l. IW. a caoiG waa rctaiocd in a 
(wunty not Ibat of the ilclcndoDt'a riMidnnce on 
tbo alviiwing of the iiktnlilT tiial it would pn>- 
muta ihe convcnicn'^c of wltnomn. But tbia 
eotilil not lHu>ilDci4ril nili> mil aotiotii, unilar 
tbe new ciuiitltiiiiou: .Sit •ii/m in tbia noto, 
"Cnjiu- motion by I'laintilT;" ilnamrh*. /lurWn, 
CI Id, '0, and tb* not'* to prrvmliu]^ «"utioot. 
In f'i'iKrv.C*Hi;>Mi% Co., MhL ITS; I be court 
mnkc* a diatinoticm brtu-no tbe "projier 
ecmnty " i&Tolviiij the Nuilouue of dvfcndant 

vluhl: B'lia 

the but tbivo iiihilii'iBinna uf aeolion 3!>7. it 
■L-cmi that the gnuiling or denial of Ibe mi-lioD 
ii diKntionaxy. It baa been ao held nfacra 
tbc notion waa miule on the ground ci vow 
»-«nien« of witncuri: /'lr;-wn V. MeCakill, 22 
Cxi. 11*7; llfaa v. Ih-rp. 4 W«t C.«jI iJcp. 
^1; anil olio when niaiiaoD IhoicconO iliviiitm 
of the avctlnn, tliatan iinpaitial trial conbt not 
Iw bail In Ihfl i^cnmty wliero tbe autiAii van 
bronchi: Sl-ta t. .s'inWi, 3 C»L 410; I'fOjif. v. 
/••At, fl l.t. l.-)4. 

If tb« ourt gTiot Ibe motion, altliou;'!! no 
auirii'iunl urouiul thnrefor nppcan from the 
ailtda\-il. the ptaiv nf trial lher«)iy Ixi.'Ciinca 
vbanaeil: PeosJr \: H.itoa. 'i* Cnl. T». 

Bum. 1. Not the piopoi' county.— .\i to 
the time when the a|i]iliiation for thi* rcaion 
ahould Ik: mndt. *cc Ibc note to Ibe picceiling 
acclion. ■' 'The propiir county ' b the county 
in whiiib aclloiia nrv tviiuiroil to bo tritd. 'nab- 
jcct to the [Vt^n of tbe oout( to chimun tli* 

Slaoe of trial.' by •>.ctiuu« 3D2. 30», 301. and 
».".«( tbuCodf of Civil lYoocduie: " C«it v. 
Prmlmjiut, 61 Cal. 7'J. H'hother or not n tiio- 
lion to chant-o tbc place of trial bcttMiM of tho 
uounty not being tlio {nupcr county «mi Uo ra< 


TlTL« IV.] 


•Mtdl by (lie plaintiff on the gnuml thu It 
« il I Im r^T thu cue vcnjonae «r wibiMic* Mill pro- 
mute jutlW b> retain tlia cftmo when It It. 
WW nuLcd. but uol dcdiied. in Cowt t. Prnrtrr- 
gxul, vlicniii tlic cnurt criticiuHl iiukiijr oi tha 
Gu-Llcr ilr^iiioni of tbin iit«C«. An< alto ia/tn, 
TIm I'lnlniiff ckiinnt iimvii ixn Uiii inuiiiitli 
Cwi V. t'fi>J(iyafi,6\ Cal. 72, Til. Where ihi- 
•vliUno* u til dchndikiit'ii rvadunce ia conflict- 
ing, tfio limliaj «f t)io oMirl below will iiot be 
IvreTMHli Vrtili^or* v. Wdfh, S3 Id. 4C9. Id 
Pnigr r. Carrt/U, fli Id. 31S, tlie matKiii wnjt 
hflif proprrly gnntod, bocMiiM tbo aetinn 
was not biDi^ht la the county of deleiuLint^ 

TliR coun ia not boaiKl, <A ila own motion, to 
luok* th« oTilcr •!liuuuiii)( the tilavc trf trial: 

Hoc. V. BVri//, iscii ;i-;4. 
Bttbd. 2 Imp^itUI trial tinpa)Hdt>l& 

Wh(ir» tlio iWfvinliiiit'ii iilfiil.ivit >tat« tlml 
Owiii;{ to orrtain 1iEi;.'aLii'i'ii ill wliii'li tlic dc- 
(miUut liad been vngngcil. n pn^juiliou ctistoil 
aj.^nBt liim in tli« city of Hnn Vraociico, which 
«ouI'i |>m-«it him from littvinn ti (nir and im- 
putial trial. et«., th« court Hud tlic power of 
cliiutgiii^ the Tcnne waa diacrctloiumr vitii tlin 
court IhiIov, tubjoot ta rcvialou only iii caws 
of jrrvn* abuto. The dcfoudaat abowod in bla 
ailidinit lliat nil iho «{»«««« for the pklntllT 
wrn' rvMildiit* o{ ^i Friiic1m>ci, luiil opuiily 
auuglil to i-tcapa the eSiwta lA tUuir teatimoiiy 
\>y rvmoviug (ho cauao. Hit alBdatit oa ita 
(\<tt wiui iuiulfi'HoDt to wiLTiuDt the ooiirt in 
cbaneing lli« venue. The facta aliould have 
lotn itnted in mch b muiner ai to enable the 
o»«rt to ilnw ita ovn inferesco whether an 
imputlal trial ooiilil be ha>l in the mrtlcular 
<:m«, ailmittinjc that a prt^Jailioc Jid esiat in 
the coKiiiuuicy i^itlo«l tbo drtundant. That 
pr«Jndioc *st not m> eooDWtml in tli« atlidarit 
aa to ibow aiiy opemtion bvlwom the partioa 
in tbo ailit. Ko^^ardiuj; thia aa a <iiacrnti«miiry 
power, caupleil with the fnut that the enu*c 
«M tliou ou tba cnlentbr for trial, ami that 
tbi« woa tlie accond applicatii^n for n chuntgc of 
veDoe. tfae court btJd that the application vaa 
properly oremilod: .ihan v. SmUh, 3 VtX. tVl; 
/Irop/f V. Fithtr, Id. lU. Tbo tact that ito 
(UUicnlty oocnrrad in aolMtlna a iiiry, wldch 
wna acv»pt«(l by ilefoudant to try tlie vitun, «*a 
bslil by the court to ahuw tliat tliutii wan uo 
jliat foondatiun (or tli* apiilirntirui, and that 
Unw wu do abiiM of tliia diacrolion vintsil in 
D^ oMrti H'iKMn V. irAifney, 23 Id. 378- 
Wh«iV«ue)i«n<lr«deiliaen* united in omptay- 
iug oounMl toproaiwuto the dcfvn>Unl. it uoa 
desiDed a aumMrat raiaon f'>r grinliau tbo 
nMtloti; /Vop/r r. Ltr, Ti Id. 3u3i and mio Pdti. 
C»do. afca. 1033 ct *wi. ChaTifiiiig ]i1(k> lA 
Mai ia probat« maltvra on llii* ((tuund: Seu. 
13 1 R, note. 
Miition to c)inii(ce ili« T<lnc(< of trial on Ihia 

CDUd ia iinniatuiv if iiuulu licforv iaiue of fact 
liMu joinnl: Vookx. /Vnrfrr>;iur, (tl Cal. T>1- 
" The loot that an impkrttal trial cannot be 
hoi) tniut be clearly eatabliibtnj. 80 plainly 
dcee it appear that a motinn on tbia urouml 
nhoutd be Mode after anaiiar that the praetloe 
of atteuiptfaijc to *ecure a jury before paiisuig 
on tbo niuttoii Iim boon appn>Tt-l. It bai even 
betii li«4d Uiat iiotbinK Iioi than an actual ex- 
purinwut liy way of trial or atlrmpt to impanel 
n JBt}', and A ounaniucn tUl failure, willlietutli- 
aicnt to ahow tliat a fair and imnartia) trial can- 
nut bo hftdi ittttaycr V. JJoitnrt, 12 Vitad. 

208; l*ntfkl» \. Simt*. 10 Id. CTO: 2 Wall'* Pr. 
C20; " t'«o* V. l'tx.>Ur,,a>i. HI V^\. 7J1. 

Subd. 3. Ooavenlanoo ol wtbunaan^ — 
The «j>i>lication oiu^t to Mole the n-inite <•( 
till- wilneoHw: l^tSr v. Litlian, 13 Cal. 418. 
Nor will tbo mere prepomluraiiof in nambur at 
witneMTB on one or oo the olhrr uenwartly be 
deciiive of the apiiUcBtiun: Uarnhtl' 1, fineh, 
47 Id. 192. The facta and cirvuiiintJiD«ti coo- 
Dceted irith the ioristi^atian have a idoiv cqc- 
trcJUng influenoe than the uietv unmbcr ot 
wilncweai Cook t. I'mdrrniU, 01 Id. TJ, TG- 
Atid tlio iibklutifl niay oik a chaDga of place of 
trial on tliie Eroimd: Id. T!l; but neither pnr^ 
will Iw heani to nduuii-e tbht cauar for granl- 
inf- the tnu^cni until niter *n Imim ol fiU't Una 
Iwi-n joini'd; Id.; TKoniat r. Plw*rri(ff V. ij. 
M. Co., 3 West Cisuit Hep. 777, 

Butxl 4. Dlaqtuaificttlon of judge: See 

■PC. Sits. Whetv all applitiation to cliAUue the 
place of trial vi'db tnad« on tlijt groLMid. but 
the judge did cot formally I'ou upon tbi) 
motion, but diiniiupil the action, the Biipremn 
court hold thi« necouarily involvnl tUc ivfniol 
to troniifcr, alllioutth no fvornial onler denying 
the niulion waa cnti:ii»l: fr^i-l' v. A* In 
(Itiffra, H ('al. 7'i- Plniiililf tun) ho\'c< Iho 
I'lica <-r trial c'liaufced, npon u prt.-iHT •ht-wiiiK, 
ctiually wilb the dcjontbul: Cmrttt \. W'lliirr, 
23 Id. I0«. Sei! BtrHli«rl v. /"uHrrtA, r,9 Id- 
130, where an order denying the iitc<ti"n to 
change the place ot trial WM mer«o.l. it ap- 
peorinji that the judoe had bAcn an ntt'iniry 
tn the caac. TJio dftli Motion of artiolo of 
tlio new oonstllntioD doe* not preient the 
reinoral <4 the trial of an actieii involving 
realty to anollier county, where tbe iiiilse ol 
the anjwrior court in the oonoly in wlildi the 
nctiuii wua eominenucd U dianualiliurl: J/au- 
foft T. finrfoii. 01 Id. 70. See Btllni'b v. Ti- 
n/mia, 4 Woat Cout Rep. 375, citi.-il 'u/.ni In 
note to nection nu, u to effect of ilioqii^ililica- 
tloii ot jadgo of county to which removal ia 
votitfTit. Soc liirtlier. ne-iLt vcolion and note. 

Jadgo. when diaqtiaUCod: Soo anlr, too, 

Cioaa-motioa by pUtntlfl:— The often re- 
furred to deoition of Cook t. Pindirj^t olio 
laye down aomc Important rule* of pracitice in 
tej^i'd to thoplointilr* cro*a- motion to retain tlto 
cnuw in llio county where tbe action ■> bmu|(ht, 
Sojliiey.61 Cal. 78: '■Thotuily iianc-in whicLit 
can over be neooMary or propr for idaintilT on 
eroH-motiou touk tbat tbe action \m retainiil 
tor tr^at in the county where be baa bronght 
lt(beeauae of convonienoeof witneae™,otc.P, ie 
the ooj* in which llie motion of defeuJoDt it 
upon the jirnund that 'tbe county dnignated 
in the o^iiijilolnt ia not tbe projicr oonuty-"' 
Where the ddfeiidaul'a motion in IiahiI iipan 
eitlwr ol the oilier f;ni<indii of the cudr. tbe 
court aar tliol " iho plaiutiff, wlthnul rriaa- 
molion, but lii reaponeo to ddcudanl'a niotlou, 
may til* coanter-allidavit* tending (o prore 
tbat on (rini can tie bad in theKnintjp 
vhcre the action ir jiending. or that theeontcB- 
ionco of witneuci will not be promoted tiy llw 
ehaiiMi W that tlie judge la not ili»qMli> 

In that cane tho court refuied to decide 
whetlier defvcJont'i motion to ciiangu the 
place of trial, for tho reaton that the county 
WM not tlie iiroiicr countv, could b» inet l^ 
plaiuliS that It w'uuM bo (or tbe cttun-iileace 
of witDoBiea not lo cluug* the venue. TlUt, 



OT cn'ii. rtcnoNS. 

fpABT n. 

notirltbilaniliBg Uit* very ]iroe«JIn|{ na 
oJoiiIrd ill llnitfKttl v. Fi-rh, *', Ckl. I7Z 

CoHKl'r-aJ^tlaril* in trimintil niiutJ may !>• 
nwil [<• pn-Ttal « i-lionff" at rvaut: Pft^ v, 

iftyor,. -i vvmi c<Mi ilepi, sao. 

AppeoL^Ai to Cbu muthCKl ot briaging tU« 

ftctton of court on mol ion to diuif* th« plflca 
of triiJ by retort to tliMa vrJU, «v* the noU to 

tho ilDXt MCtlflU, UkI wcliiillH IftVi, I Vvi, fvti. 

QraDdDg oa p-iyment of coat>. — Tiiv 

Mtirt DiKy ^nat tjiv iiintiuii lu v!>ai>i{r lliA 

_ _ vuiiuu oil liajniiaiit o( oxila Trilliin > cvrtaui 

nsfiFlv uHii on tbe motion uiiilcr coiiKidnntimi timi', nnd if tli< cost* Iw nut [xluI , •Tifiorci' ■ 

wfutu tlic ■ppcUate court, ■oe Pifper v. C<nli- will not iuuv lu revicir tlir m'tion of thr vtait 

H 39: 

titln Laitd {'«., SO Ckl. 173. An onlcr A'zuy 
iiig the motion lo chuigr the (■luce ot trial wiH 
not be nvcntil where comriUint fniU lo tit^to 
• «au*c of notion: Pfli t. ./uiU, 3 Wu>t Cout 
Rci>. :nS(i:tAh). 
Maudnmu* and probiMtloa — CoDtrolllnK 

■uttini,: utiilc tlic {"v^ioo" ocvicr uouJitioualty 
ciinnging tho plMc of trikl: JmtCfOi'jl c. iiu;;^- 

no'-roHrr. OSCkUIIlX 
Setting ABld« order chatighn plac« of 

trial u'liftlicc tho court liu tliii power, iputrt : 
A nntlro'i'j v. Sujirrior C'mrl, mpra. 

398. Whim yiSiji^ di»q*iaUJied, cause lo he tranfftrrrvd. 
8ko. 308. If nn action or proceeding is comnionce^ or pending in a raurt, 
(I tlio jiiclgo or juHtico thorvof i» disqu&lifiocl from actiDg nK tcucb, or if, from 
iv cniiM, tliv court urtU-rs the plitco of trial to be changed, it muKt t)c trans- 
ferred for trinl U> u <!i'urt Uk* jiiirtiot m&j iikti**! tijiuo, \>y Htipulation in wriLiiij^, 
or nittdo in opim court and ontend in tho niinnti'n; or, if Ibcj do not ito ngn-o, 
tlMU to tli« nearest court wbeio tbti like objection or cnuM) for making tlio order 
do«M not nxint, om follows: 1. If in » tniperior court, to luiotbcr HU)H'nr>r court; 
2. If inn juittied'ii court, loiuiotlierjuittii.'e'H court in the muud county. [Amend- 
ment, itppn/vitd JUarch 3, 1881; SUtl), 1881, 23; look e^iKl immediaMy.] 

ing the motion. The jud^ holding oonrt U 
tho "judge tbcrtof'* wlthm tho nieaoinc ot 

The amendnieDt niniply mads tho «cctIon 
C'Mifoiiu I" Ulc etioDgc in tlie dcaignutioii <it the 
C'luita iiiiilrr tlx now cuiiiitltiitliiii. 

DiaqnoUGoatioii of judge: Seo iiotatoioo. 
SC>7- If Ibv Jud^ ii)ii> is IioMiiig lh« court at 
th« ttiiio thi.' inolion i« niiuU iit iiotditciualiK^d, 
ftlthiiHi^h tho judn uxuatty Billing niaj bo. the 
Buiireuiv court will not rovon« u orUur dun}'- 

thi* aoelioii: Paifif Y, CamCl, CI Cal. 3t5i 
comrarv ibo. !I9T, antr, anil nee l!(X 

Mutdamtw wtll llo (o compol Iho rcmoviil 
of n («»•« frolic tho OMirl of a Judfo who 1* a 
[OTty to tliu oauBti Lirermon v, flrunctem, 0< 

cu. soa. 

880. Tratigfiir, how made — Papers fo be lrari»n\iUed. 

Sen. 3ilil. When an ord«r ia mode trantiftirring an action or procooding for 
triitl, the clerk of the court, or justice of the peace, must tnuisinit the pleudiiiga 
an<l jHipers therein to the clerk or juetice of the court to which it is transferred. 
The costs and fees thereof, and of filing the papers anew, tuuat be paid by tho 
party at whoae instance the order wos made. The court to which on action or 
proceeding ia transferred has and exercdses over the same tho like jurisdicUoa 
ns if it had been originally oonunenoed thereic. 

400. Prtir^edinga afier judgvmU in certain cases trnmferred, 

Hix'. iW. When an action or proceeding ufTecling the title to or posseesion 

of tcul «stjit« has been brought in or transferred to any court of a county other 

tbiiii the county in which the real estate, or some portion of it, is situated, the 

clerk of such court must, after final judgment therein, certify, under his moI of 

offlcc, and transmit to the conesponding court of the county in which the real 

oatate affected by the action is situated, a copy of the judj^ent. The clerk 

receiving such copy must file, docket, and record the judgment in tho rt^cord* 

of tile ooiut, briefly dedgnatiDg it as a judgment transferred from court 

(uauiiu^ the proper court). 







40&. A'^ion, how Mmmeneiid. 

Hi». 40S. Civil nclioiia iti Uia ootirtu of tlitH KiAt« nro comin^ncod by filing: a 
romjilaint. [Am'-udmntt, appivttd Mtnh 24, 1674; AmendmcTUa lS7&-t, 290; 
I.U ffn-t July 1, 1874.1 

406. Fn'iorfrmntt on eamphini — Summonn, 

Sco. 4(Mt. T1i« cttik muat iudorao ou Lhs «oiU])Uint tbo (Uir. nmntb, nQd 
jMtr tbnt it ia filttd , mid at oqj time wttbin one jntr tfacrcKftAr Uia plniittiff ni&jr 
liavo s Htitiimuiiii itmued; aud if tli« aotiuii be brought kj^iint two or luore d(s 
fvndfttils, who mtiidp iu different oountien, muy ham it iminiuouH iiuuni fur each 
of sucb routittc-H itt tho lutme time. But at any time mtbiu tlio }'CAr »ltor tb« 
ooRiplaJDt is filed the defembtnt ra&y, in vritinf;, or by n)>iw!uririf; aud amiirer. 
itijf or detuunrinjt. waive ihe insiiiiig of euminoDB;/ or, if the iwrtiou be brought 
u]<uu a joint contract of two or laore defendatits, and one of theiu has ap- 
jieured withiu tlio yeor, Uie ollirr or othei« moy be eerved or appear after tbo 
yi»r, at auy Unie bcforo trial. [AntrmtiTifnit, apprtn^vd Harclt 24, 1874; Anu-nd- 
vienle 187*^. 29C; loot: rff,i-t July 1, 1874.] 

Ttraa tof iMuitig and aervlce ol aum- 

BUHH, daisy, etc : !^w .M>l. n<-t". Th" fmrl, 
Mftcr lh« TOiiiTKcnccniimt of a niiil, mtty iVii]-«*a 
(if it l.y aUikin^ tfeo coinjilairil (roiii ilii filca 
wlxiri ttiD pUintiir }ia« (s,i1b1 for many y«nr* 
I'l tiikn mny allrctire mtoinirM to p«oooK ■> 
tari'ioo, dwi i^va Uio uoiirt iiuiwliction of the 
pmon o( Ihfl ili'ffti'Uiit. It wM iicTcr coii- 
WwiphUxl llial B (urty tnlGhl file k ■.■omplobt 
anl bMW a Mmnion*. and tlivn v&le ui in- 
ikliniM pciioil of limn till Ikv MlennM^-* of lli* 
oMior party vm ctnul. or hi* ariilenM lU- 
vtnjrBiI, Yteian lio tonk any rffcctual «top« lo 
pmcnni a atTvice of prooEoi. Such a caae n 
nrt providn] f&r ia MCtiona SSI, S83, fntl; biit 
till' fwnrt. K*viiig itM pooctriun of the raat by 
111" nimtnciicrincot nfa auit. mmt hnvo iKiini: 
poiii'r lo ili'iHKc of It wlivn Ibo pUmtiff do. 
dbn or nogtMW to rrowwd. Where more 
than abo y*fan «lai<*«'1 without any nfffctiial 
•WfN bkvlngi hfrn taken to prociira mrvlnf ol 
tlM< (oniiiOD* iwiicil, ncU Urn |i*rtit* >1af<<iiiliiiit 
all (be time rniiM in tb« city wlit-n> the iiiit 
wu jicnilill^ uii) wntu veil knoirii. an iirrlvr 
Kttiii); nwda tbe tumi'iuiu anil alnkioi; cut Ibo 
cDmniaiiit mu afiniKd: Z>ii/W]r '. ttkear, 39 

Wli«ra the coRiplaint in* 6t*d and the nim- 
mum lisaaJ in October, 1S70, ixiii) the lani- 
nu>«* wna acnreil in Jaimiiy. IH73, it wu* hold 
that a prima /'u-ir cmo of Wk of iliUi{rac« In 
prn«ri:<aUii|{ tlii' action RXUtoil. mid thut lii tll« 
ahacnciaot proof on the rurtof tiM pluintilfto 
Ocnaa Ibo Megtig4BM. tliu <otirC ^)l<ll1^1 diu- 
mtM tbe actioai J^mUt v. f'hmiaiiig, 47 Utl. 

Tbo quMtion of diligenca mart bo proMntixl 
to the court bel'ju- on notice fii*«i, or it will 
Dot be eonaidnrsl Ky tlio ninpcUato eocrt. 

If a rulo ol noiirt proildc* that wfacoi a 
MM ha* btoB al hnuo l<it tu« ywri upoa a 


ijuMtiun of either Uir or hwt. ikiid the pluiitlS' 
lias not brouglit it on for biarbi;, the ilcfonj- 
silt iihBll 111! I'niitlcil toon onlcr of ilinniual 
wittiont nolKR, itio L'onlluiuincD of ti>nc for tlin 
arj;unii.-iit 'i! u itciitiinvi hy c>>i:>L*nl loXu iiKuy 
tor twoyimr* lhcriiu(t<-r thniiij^iti.f the litftud- 
njit to iii»i'« tor a diuniuali i'ual' v. Cnu^'i^, 
«Cal. 107, 

Th«> iMiiiniooi caniiot bo talil (o lie Luucd, 
witliiu thu imaniug of tho ai^l, tilt It i* ia a 
cuDilition to wri'i]. Bofom tlit .uinindnHiit of 
of ISGO tile aumiaODB micbt be imuoiI at any 
time after the tiling of the ooniplainti but liy 
tile amondment of that y«or tl could only So 
iwacd witliio a year. It wna duubtlm fmind 
that pcrmitlicis tho (uiemMi* to Ik- ii»ncd at 
any tfma, without tiniitation. ensblcil iilaintiRIi 
to ludatinltjdy extend tho itntulc of liiiiitn- 
tlona At that time tbo iwiaiu^ of the lum- 
miniii waa nooNnary Loforo tbo action waa 
"<ninniHio(n'l." It waa hold tlml tho auniTnou* 
wa> not Htui'd till all thp paper* ementlal to 
mabic tbu pluinlifl to inaUo a valid pcniunal 
•vnioc on llif dcfvndantt, diily ntlratvil, wotu 
pliuvl nt hii iliipoml. WhvrB tbnv waa do 
■ununoDi iuaed within the inuaning of tUo 
act, ^ no attempt at icrHco till nearly four 
yean aftw the filing of the c«m|daiiit, and no 
■ummona tuiuod within the year, the nnrl held 
tho Bclion pro|iorly lUimlaiod. Tlii-rr woi no 
arror in •nlvrtaiuln);- the molka to diiinin. 
Tho tlafondnnta inoved lirfor* waiving ftheir 
righta by amtteriiiG, and it di.oi not appear 
that thoy were in dufaiilti ttrynoliU v. I'a;it, 
35 <.VlL SOO. 

WahrcT, nttornry'i power to bind clionli 
Seo. SSa, note. 

fldiillMliiii ot Mnrloo by OekedaiiC: $«C, 

AtlM MBtuaona: S«e. 406. 

Appearaoso-. Sera. 110, lOli, auxl ootA. 

Cora Civ, Pitoa— 9 



or cmh actions. 


407, Sitmmom, hf<r ir*wi}, dirrvlat, ami iriifit lo rrtntain. 

Hkc. 407. Tbo suionioaK iui»t 1w tlirvctml to the dofeodant, signcd by tli« 
clerk, nn<1 ixHunil iinilcr tli« Ami uf Uic c^iiurt, uud iniiBt oonUin: 

1. Tito ttumOH of lb(! iitirtina to Uiu iictioa, the coorl in wbich it Is brougbt, 
auil tbu cuuiitf in whii>b Uitt ooinplniiit is filml; 

2. A iitjtUiuieut of tbo iiiiUire of Uie action in (teDer&l termtt; 

8. A direolion tbiit llin iicfcndunL npix-or wnd anewer Uio compliiint witbia 
ten, if Uio duuniious is Htrt-td witbiii tbe county in wbivli tbo nrtioa ia 
brought; within thirty daj-s if aer%-LHl ftleewbore; 

i. Ia an itc-tion iiniiiuK on conliuol for Lbe recovery of money or dunat^ea 
only, a notice thut utdcss the defendant so i^ipears and miRwaint, tbe plaintiff 
will take judgment for tbe aunj demanded in Uie complaint {iitttliiiK it); 

5. In other nctJone, a notice that unleea dvfencbint ho nppf^nrs iiud auswors, 
till- plaintitlTwill apply to tbe conrt for tbe relief doioiuulod in Uie complainL 
The nHniv of tlio plnintifT'H attorney tniiHt be indormd on Uiu aumnioos. [Amftiii- 
fu^nt, a/.pn»-r4 Manh 2G, 1880; Aoum<tinoi,U 188U, 13 [llan. eJ. 151); foot 'f'^t 

Sununon* mnat ^pntaln ^1 that U Ti<quir*<I 
W >LiIiiu. uI>4-Uior Ueeniwl ikv-KhI ur nuti 
tt'ii'-l \. Want, OOCai. ISQi Ljimnn v. Molten, 
44 I'l, li'Ml tT>IU|i4tv, ll'inwif. will] .S'Ainii V. 
Ciixniiii'. " Wat Cmut Itcp. 'iUi, vthtrr a lib- 
•ml uuiKtriivtion uf this KcCaoll wu uloplnl. 

Abbiovlntlooa «ud nuiii«rals: Si-c. )i)0. 

ABMndBUIOt! Sec. -173. 

Clarlc'l auUttK gouMtOly: Sec. *2(I-J. note 


Stylo of ptooeM.~-Thc ilylc of »U nro«oM 
■lull !«■! ■■TliM pm>|)1d .if thu «t«U of Oili(«r- 
nu." Nii'.I ail ixuaLi-uliom iliull lie eniuluckij in 
tllcir iiiimi- ■ml byllicir authority: <.'aii»t (.'«!., 
art. n, tuc IS. The lovtrelHiitv ul tli« atatv 
nu<l«i in tbo [Jtoplc thvmc-f, &ci<I all wriu nml 
praceMM mUft iuu« in llii.-Si' ii.nuiu- t'ul, Cuile, 
■MS. 30. InnsultonaiiKH.'I'iiiiiii^'* livn, jiiJginciit 
.puwil for ptalDtlir. At lliu )m>l of tli^ inm- 
I mail* wan uriitoii: " Dirtriirt court of tbo 
foiirili Juiliuinl ilivlrkt." but the iDmnioni wiu 
iuufil frcRii till] ouuiit}' aaurt. t«*t<id 1>t llio 
ciuiity JU'I|(«. Tlio oourt hcUl on opiMiJ thnt 
Ihi Mwinuniiiiium, "tlittrict court, rtfi., at 
tlic top '•! tlio ■uintnom, vo* no t-ort of thu 
writ: I'mnf V. BrrtHnaii, ACal. IM, 

Subd. 1. FAiUsa— A Htiiiiiiiont mutt tlAto 

tbu iMUniM of ntl tliQ p&rtiu* [o tli« >oUoii. 
Wh«c« then an •croral portio* <l»feii(liuil,,ie 
!■ nvl ■utfieirnt to ejvu tho luunv of one in the 
MniiiiolM, folio wnl liy Ilia wiirild "vt nl." Tlii< 
ioclloa ii not morBly ilii'«cl<ir)'. but muiKtntorjr; 
tfitan T. ililtw, 44 Cul. 630; ace »i.>c. I&M, 
jKvrf. A KummaiiD M iiu( ilircutcd to tbo offioor 
iir iionon liy wtioiii it i'l to be mervoil. nor li it 
rci|.i!ri>l to )ji> mill niuil at or before ouy unci- 
Iii\l limi'i but it is ilireot«d to tha ilclinil- 
BiiU, luid it n»|uir«.I to be nliuncil with iirwf 
of iH^ioc Asifrn-rvke of (iluimiinii ujkiii At- 
teniuxU wlio "fori" lonuil in one ■-■iiiiHty, pluiiiC- 
ilTuujr>lelit-eril totbeiliodlfuf utii>(.li(tr«r>uiity 

tbiw dafdulaota wore ktvcJ with pn>o«M In 
tbo mns ooanty, ainl a copy oj thn wiiii- 
platQt wna *err«cl npim Brodu olono (wa. 
410), umI ia Ui« ■unuuMia Iho oMin oiulsm- 
ernl uatiire of the aaCkni ««ra dcaoribiKl in 
thue wotiIb; "And aaicl actiiin In lironubl to 
recover tlio pooimiion uf ct'rtnlii Inna ttitd 
promiwn, more paitiaulailv dtaeribcil in tlic 
complkiiit herein," it wm hald that tbo oom- 
pUlut wu«, l« referencp. mail* * jart of tJio 
■iiiiiniOIM. ntiil iiffurvlei] o proper i1««tIiiIIoii of 
tlio prrtiiiim, mill tliut tbo aummdn* nml nlG- 
<l«vic wvTu *iitlii:lcia lo aulhoriM tbo vuOy u( 
(kfauiti Calder.c(io<I v. Araoti. 3tl (M. 1S3. 
Tli« aumiiiuiia olalinl, In an nctton oil a ju<l^- 
tnent. that "tbo ui-1 action wn» brought to 
reoovvr jndjmoot ni^in't tbo ilcfi-nitaiitB for 
tlio iiini of flT« thiiiuikn<l tliivo liutiitreil uul 
■evrDl}-oiiB (loUora auil twvlvv utiiitH,iind iu> 
tcirit at tlirce per cent ]itt month TroRi/' etc.; 
"and th* fnrtlKT aum of ctvvvii (Inllnra and 
twenty cant*, niul tho eoiMof thin.-wtiiiii" oiid 
further noUli«>t the JcfBrKlanta that i( tlii-y 
tiiilvd to appaar and an^wor Uio coTiiplnint 
within tlio tiun qtcoilicd in the nuiiinioiii 
pUiutilTwonld tak«]nilj[Riotit again it thorn by 
il«Inult tur thu Baid aum uf Hvo thouMwd tliriMi 
bunUrsil nud suvanty-i'iie dallara and twelvo 
Ofnta. BDil ioterert at tlir«u por cent per inontb 
from tlio fourteonth of Nuvniii^Kir. ISo3i and (or 
the further iiiim of oloreu dollara ami twenty 
cent!, ami tlio coata of the action. Tlio oourt 
thau;(lit lbl> >laloiniinC in the ■uoliiii'iii* a aub- 
atMitial ooniplittncn with the Li"-. A cu-rlifiml 
cnpj" of lliu i-nciipliiiiit «■« .^c^ve^l n-ith tli" »iim' 
tnoiiMMirtouBtlyiij'-iioiieoitlioiUIcDibiiilN; ami 
a* botli of Ihu ■U'lBiulaota wore aorve.! with tbo 
Buiiimona in tliat ooniity, thay were )>reBuinMl 
t« havu Iwmi Tcaidauta of axld county, and 
Mrniuu of uud copy w»a dnimol to liniro 
boon mada upon bothi .Soc. 4iO; (ViWr/uwoii v. 
Jirool-i. 1(L l&3i and the court livid titat by 

for ■eivico. Tho statute dot:* not lociuiro that tlio auinnuMit aiul copy uf llic cninplAlat tbu* 

a Kparal* Riinnuoi* aball iwuo to «aali county 
in wliicb any of the defcndanla inay reoido. It 
in coiiipctojit for tlie conrt to Olili^r it, u ben ro. 
tiim^d. to bo deliverul lo UiM plaintiff fof 
Iii/'.'i"r lorrice: //a.imri i-. t'ruf", 40 Id. AT7. 

Subd 3. Nature of the octlou.— Whorv 

•orrol tho dofoiiitkiili were (idly and [mrtic- 
ukrly nntlilod of lh« cauio, ^onnml niiture, and 
object of ilio nctioii, tlic rehef sought, thu tiino 
within which tliuy ti«tv nx|uircd to apjicar and 
anxwer, and tiku Mnwqattoce of a lailuro to 
apjiear. A'uijt *• fonfi ^1 X>L 910. 





Sobd. 3. Tlm« to BppMr.—n judgaiant 
byilffdiilt Is i^nli'roil brf^ IhCK mpcclivo 
pn'i'xli cij'ir^, it uUl Xiv rcvoncd ooappco!; 
B«rt V. .•irrtfktom. 1 C«l. 4]6. TUo court li<J>l 
Uutt KtatatM li.xiiig the time for Qliiig patent la 
• cwuo «ra tDcrvl^ ditvcUiry, ontl Iliat III* eaiirt 
bu it ftlw^a in lU pownr, in tlin cxmvIm al * 

Cpcr dUovtioD, to oxlcixl t!i« tiiao llxvit liy 
wiionav*r the muU ct JaaliM woalJ atwm 
to (IwiiiMiU *u«li Ml axt«ti»i«ni H'imhJ v. thrta, 
6 Id. 6^; but »m toe. \K4, pott. A aouraii- 
d«nt of tho itaW tarvfd nut of tha state it «n- 
tilKsl In forty ilays sft^r tti« Mrrioe of tho 
•uiiiBiunt iu whri'ii to iipp«M: Ortiettl v. //n- 
denon, 6 III. 4)16. A nimmoiii in tho ■aperior 
Mart of SaD Fnaciaeo miuircil tho ilcfcinlnnt 
to ■[>p(ar " within ten ilay-M {ejAaid\n ut Itie 
day ol ■PTvlor) after tbocrvicD of tlilnminintniii, 
l( urvnil vilhiu llii* comity; or if Nri'vtl tint 
of tblsiwiuity, tliun wiUiiii fi^rly .Injii." Tliis 
wn hoUl « tubatAiitiul cumiikmco itilli ihu 
n<l«irMii«ntao( thv law. Tbv tvirituml jiuU- 
iliotioii ol tho tajfrti'ii <v>urt cxtmdod no for- 
Ibrrlhiiallieliiiiitdof IhcciCyuf IteaFnucuoo, 
whiuh woiv kbo tba limit* of tho ooiut}' «f 

!W Fnwdico, when the uramon* «'n* ttuHili 
nnil tho 4I1II1UILIU* i^iilil ii'rt tikvn b^Q ttiivl 
" oiil of ttin i;'iiiii*y l.iil 111 tlic <liiilHi>t lu »Mch 
th« ftotiou wn« lii«ii;;hl." Tui«i uonli li*<l, 
thcrefora. 00 anT>lirat~inn: .UfC'tintru v. F"li»a, 
4* M. 9fl0. 

Sabd. 4. Notlco that unlcM dsfcndont 
•ppeaia. ota^Iml-iiicut ly ilrUiiH i< tuuily 
(lofoctivu if thv fiiinniotu iIoM nut a]>|vlM (he 
UrtanilnDl that upi>ii lii« (itilura to «[>ptar uti 
nuiiwvr th« plaint iiT will lak« ju'lgmuiit Bgainsl 
him ftn, etc.: SMt v. \f<ydli^ 2 Cnl. 2*i. 
Whonj the notice in tho niimiiK-ni mm; "If 
yon (ul to appear aul onuirer the sniil uum- 
pUInt, M above nvjiirml. tlir |ilaiiiliff will tnko 
jn[|;;uieirt njtniint ynu for tlio mill •iiiit of," etc., 
"int^ml, ciwtii," vti:., tivf iiluintilf ixiiilil ouly 
take nn utvlinary imlgmCTit ihmiii ilcfauU lor 
tlio iiinnfiy duRuiiiilrih Portrr r. Hfrmann, H 
hi, «i''.. 

Bubd. 5. Indontng uttomay'a name.— 
Wriliiii; iinmu on fnoe of >miiiiiioil* wrtt ths 
uiiiinii^iti to itiilono it on the iHiak] tihrnn v. 
Cumntim, 2 Wat Cowt Itcp. 210. 

406. Aliwmimmon*. 

8eo. 4U8. If Uio nummons tfl returned wiUiotit bein^ served on any^ or all of 
UiD (kifondunU, or if it lian been lost, tba clerk, upon tlie denuuid of the 
plnintiGT, vauy iMoo at) alins sutumonR in the same form ns the originivl. 
[.lmr)\ilme»t, approved /V&retory 15, UiTtl; AmviulmenU 1875-6, 00; lovk trffeet 
/ram pamt<fe.\ 

DeUy In Mrrtng.— It plaioUlF i* |^i1ty of Puntn-T.^Bb.-tSCU.'lOe; andwonoUtolost 
WbfF. I'jr t>iliuj; to tcrrcntbi-r the onj^nal or teotKin. 
the ojiiu, iliif«Ddaiit nuy movo to qoisfa: • 

400. Noli<x '>/ />ifjid«?i«gf o^ action. 

Sk.'. 4u0. Ill iin nctioD iiirt«tiag tlio title or the right of poHsoRrion of real 
proiwrtjr, Uio plniiitiff, at tliv time of filing the complnint, and tho dofcnclitDt, 
at ll>o limo of filing liiit uikwci-, wlicn aflirmntivo relief in cloiinod in kucIi 
atuwcr, or at any timo nftnrwiu\lM, luii}' rn<;urd iu tli6 ofSco of the rccorilor of 
tbn county in whi(-h thfi'pruperty in nitiiati^d a tioUco of tho pendency u( Uin 
action, ountAininK the nomcA of tlio [MirticH, and tho object of the action or 
dcfeiiHC, aud a deitcription of tko property iD that county aiTeeted thereby. 
From Uio time of filiui; hik-U notice for ivconl only ahull n purcha8«r or ineuiii- 
bntnoer of the property afTccted thereby be deemed to "have coiiBtructive noUce 
uf tiui peudeucy of the action, aud only of ibi pendency against partira dedgf- 
uated by their real names. IJmettdmetil, approved Matvh 24, 1874; AmtndmcnU 
1873-4,297; look rjftvl July 1, 1874.1 

Aliact^i|WOTcd Miroh3, IS7%*btta.lSf I- enforcing the mortgage, ft party who hiiyi Uia 
It, p. ISO, MncMlin^ iKiioo 27 of the practice mort^i^cd jiroLiorly, jriidruU tilr, at BhrrilT'* 
act, WM lubatAiitulljr llio Mtae a* tJio above nl<ii,niadeonajiidgincnitwhichdounDt eiifmvB 
•MtMI. -"- -"-•■^- -' ■■ "J-- - ■ 

Urn p«Ddeaa.— Hie inrre pendency d a eult 
ilora not, UK at «>intnun Inw. clmrgB the pur- 
cImmt <4 tbo ■abjcul-mntlto-. A nuticv oi !U 
ftailint aott af>n«ar of rvoord: llfiilt. Far- 
ifvrr, 17 Oal. No. If il in nfcutd»l, pur- 
ouaafm, iliiriiig the jimdioj of the Buil, are 
Mlopjml ljy I he indgmBat; CaMerinovd v. 
Ttf". £1 Id. itza. Thua, if an action j( liniughl 
aijBiiiBt a corponLtiou to forccIuBo a mortjiage 

a Hen oUlor Ihaii the li* prndew. u eatop|«<l 
from aaying that tile murtipiK" «a* not tliu act 
of tha oorpontlan: Wotti v, Joiif», 28 Ia._I*l. 
When iiotii^u uf (it ptmloii Is tiot tiled, plaintiff 
canuot BucoTufully Mt up tlinl ii<itir« vaviA 
liai'e done nugood tothi> |>nrcliii>ci'. iKcanne he 
oonld make no dcfeow. or no l-^tlur .Icfcnao 
tb)>a the venilor. Theoh)'.-ctot llje notice I* to 
|[ivo till! opi»rlUDity ut ilvfniM. and u1*o to 
„_. notify llilnf pcr«n> of llio litiiJiilioQ, The 
•uipotting tobsTe been executed by t% and n |;i'n('ral mla In Uintono not a party to a niit it 
t« /onfcn* ia lUeJ, aud ■ decne U rendered nut aOntod by the Judgmonti tho oxciii>tiun at 


SI 410,411 

OF crrjL Acnoxs. 

ri'AKT n, 

(omiDon hw »•« that tpfmtrnlt titt pUKliascr, 
tboticfa not B pnrty, «■»« vi &(r«:toil. TLc atat- 
nt« <roi» Qot give nn^ iitv ligbt* to pluntiff, 
liut timiti li^ila whicli lie tind before. Ita 
object na to ailil tn (tw caii>inoii-1liir nilc * 
aiaolc turm, to wit, to roqnlin for ocoiitructlvo 
untie*, not niily a tnlt, biil filinj; a notien of It; 
■n ilmt UiiM iul» i» kt if it n^; "Tlioooin- 
RKinwtUditof nautt mill tW filing of nntio«>o( 
!tara<;i)natni<itivi<iiutiL-i< t')uil Uia world of tli* 
Bctii'ii, aii<l |iu[clia»rr« or (Luigiiom. aftcrvards 
liMuoiiiig Miobi an morv voiimtocra. taA bound 
W (liu jod^'BMnt: " JticharJtoH r. While, 19 (d. 
102; AhIIv. Oaataiai!f. Id. 20A. 

But a purcliaMir who liaa actual notice ii oa 
iniuJi hunnJ liy tho jnclfiiiont an U thnt Uw 
liwl l-ci'ii •Uiiiipliixl wlUi! .•'•iriiiiiou V. l)hlf^.T, 
2i Cil. t'lSj ,*/lnT V. /.wKi/ry. 34 M, «!». 
UritLiiarily, «tiituti-» i'( lli« "i> i<l.-it)« rr([ii. 
Ulitii; rnnvtlivB )>y iiK-nlin i:[ j>i<)iu'i»I i>vi>i''.'i-(l> 
fun are (a bv uii-IvirtrKHl nt iuti^mk't ti)n[>|i1y 

livn irill to that ti(!!Nt. It Is not to he iufemd, 
wkiviiijt t)iu iDMlion d poircr, that • atete 
itatute wa* Int«iiil«d to laraisli rvnK^tts to 
•nitora in ftdcrai conrt«, whom poweri aro 
■JoriVBil wliotly rrom tbo ooiHlitntioD am) lam 
of tlio Unitccl Htato*. Oar itntn^, >u mpccC 
to tlio filing of ft nntioo of fit jifailrn*, iir nny 
equivalent prooecding, Iiaa not, it writi*, Ikvd 
tiicoqiomtoil Into theruUaof t>iutn]irriiii: co>irt 
of Iho Ucit«>] SUUsM anphcwlil? toHuita in 
•■[olljr; and tha nilM oi t1i« uirciiit cuort fiv 
tho ninth circuil are likmitir nilrnt oo tbat 
uibiuot: Mojon r. Co«v«, .Inly 17, 1ST8. 

Tbxm, •cut tor. — Id an acliou to enforce Uio 
lien of B Ins bj the nlo tA the iwopcrty, it i* 
not •a.Mtmwy to Gle a fl* pradtnt. The lien of 
a buc extend* baolc to tbo aucHmcot, and tbo 
aHcwnent tnotea a lieti vliicb i> not cxtbi- 
|[ti!thiKl until the tax lipaid; Rirvr.v. Ktiinr'tv, 
43r;i1, lii4. 

FeTwm in pOMMMdOB of imI property, 

■>Bly to (irocct'tiiigs in tlin iiourt« of tlin pnr- action agaiaat. cannot bo {inijudicud by any 

tiuular state, nulcfa it olrarty opiiuaia tliatlhuy a1i«n>tioa mitiie \if bUn: Sov. 747. 
wtiro int«nilcil t« have a wfilor >oa|ii>; and In PattUlon. — Notice of milt, ivoordia^: Seo, 

the abMDOo of a olDir eipmuon of the Icgida- 7AS. 

410. SummottB, hoio wrrrirtf miJ retiimrd. 

Sec. 410. The nutumoDe may bo botviiI hj Uie shenBr of tlio county wliora 
Uic dffemlnut i» fi>uiKl, or by any otiior in-n«>n ov«r the age of cigbtiviu, not a 
party to tlie action. A copy of th« coiiiiilnint tititst be served with tho »uri- 
moo8, unlcKK two or nior» (lofpnthmtxaru lYwitlttntM of the same couuty, in which 
cose a copy of th« roitiphiiiit nviMl only bt* K(>rviHl upon one of suvh i]<!f«uilii:its. 
"When tlif ttnmiiioim is Horvftd by the sheriff, it must bo rrliiniMl, wStU his cer- 
iilii-Blfl of ibt Minicv, and of <h« norrice uf uuy I'opy of tlii! complaint whvrs 
socli copy i» Hcnwd, to the office of Uio elork from wliidt it itistiotl. X^lien it ia 
served )>y any other |>oniou, it munt be rt-tui-ued to the uatuo place, walti nu aiE- 
davit of Kiicb peraon of its Bcrviit-, nud of thn Korvioo of A copy of the oom- 
pUiut, whi're auuh copy in servLid. {AiM'.iulinnil, ajipi-QVtd itaivh H, 1874; 
^mrmimwi/* 1873-4, 2fl7; look rffrcl Jut>j \ , 1871] 


Berrloe aud proof thereof. -Where tho 
Mal'lto vriH not (trielly uoni[rli<.-il with, nnd tho 
HkIiI* ('( ii/rnnf i-on"' «e«i iiimlveil. tlifrij wn« 
beld to h» no iirucif ol mtiiou: Mc,\titl.<n V. 
Bryjiold'. 1 1 CbI. 3TS. Where, at a ttine wlien 

ertita iuloiMt^l war* Enixinipotoiit uilunoo*, 
D affidavit of terrloo »tii;cil ta^-lt which 
woolil have niado tho alliani n uuni'ctoiit wit- 
aoKon the lital of th* nctiiih, it vu hul<l >uf- 
ficlcnti lieouiH! au arcriiii'nt lliiit h« was a 
ooin|wti:nt viilncn would only liavu liuen tho 
exprciwioii of alliant'o o|)iiiiiiii uiniii tlie inil>. 
jocli Mnifk V, Cnmt>b>lt. 31 lu. WO. Tho 
HrvUo of a copy of tlic luiopliunt vnu held to 
tw OMMUtiftl to a vilij icrrioo: MrMHIan v. 
Jfryaofrfi. II Id. .173; ilryuuU, v. Pa.,r. n:. I,L 
9wi ami nlM> auc. 407, notv. Aa t<> tlio foniior 
law i«quirinK n citrllilixt cony to Ihi lori-Rd, •«• 
Br9\m r. /,iiinrOrt, 'il Id. 1115. 

Bharifl duUcaof: i^ik. '202, noto. TnoxouM 
oniiMuii h)' itir-iifT. lis niiial huvo wntlcn ia- 
•triii.*Ii(iNi>; !jvc. 'i42. riolv. 

Affidavit of aemje bj ponoo othar 

tbau the alteriS mnrt abnar that mob party 
Wiu. at ttin limu <,( lh« ■uriicc, or«r the a^^ ot 
tii;lil«»n )'iiirt: Mn^ii'ir-I v, iltCrrliUli, M 
ml. :{.'„->; Uo«nr-l v. HaUotmff, fit) Id. II; 
Imrrgrr \. Sr'imiiti. 64 M, 'ilH: hyttuv. Cua- 
ntnjf Jui», '1 W'lqtCuui Kop. 2M. If *u<h yrt/A 
i* not, tliu oouttat'<)iiin>a no jitriailictUiii 
o( thu prraKi) of llio iluli'udant, niiil jnclgtnout 
a^kiii'l liiui nouU lie voiil: Siuiiu ciU-itionit. 

Copy oi complaint mti&t \>-^ v.rvm\ with 
the mutiiioiii: S, /'. R. l(. v. .S'u^rnur C'tiarf, 
Ml'jl.i71; and tho re tnni mmt abow it: Card- 
teiU V. Sabiihi, 111. 4!W. Itotam ol ■ummuua 
with wLiuh copy nf complaint woi not Hrved 
need nut Matv Hint tho co.ilofoiiiLtnt ou whom 
a copy ot tho complaint wm arrvcil la a rcuj. 
dont id tbe rame ooiinly; I'rllirrv. mtlrtyir, 4 
Wwt Coast lU^i. MO, ua tho nuthi>rity ol 

Batty o( docket oE Jnatlot of tbe peaoa, 
"rrtam arrvcd nummona." with Jatt^ ix I'i no 
wrii;ht OH pn>|iiT proof of ■crviuo of auuiniont; 
Ka-K V. Denutnd, G3 CaL 4M. 

411. iVKinmoM, vport uthom *mn°tf. 

Sec. -HI. The aauuuous uiitst be ttcrvod by dcliTeriuEf a copy tboreof, as 

1. If the BOit ia AgaiosL a corporation formed uiuIeT tho kws of tliis state: 


1 412 



tiiat no ptnoail jnid^nioiit iIuJl be rMidcrod 
unlm ih« Mnoa oifUMt wboiu it U Rn^ervd 
•liall havobocn porMinaUjr Mrvod, % Mucoid 
jiiil|^«at roiittoml od a •ervico nMbd« l^- fail- 
Ing ft f>yy nt tlic court-haUH dnor la crroa- 
*ou>, anil will Im rvvcrwil if ttUcktd lif dlrcci 
appMt. If ill rucIi aa*ct the «l(iluta ruiulm 
til* MTvi^ al mimmon* uii thn real attit'' to 
ba nuulo by delii*eriii)( > copy to the |i«nna Id 
poM«nion Uietvof. ind by portiag • oopf la 
■0100 pnblio pbuw Ihcrean, a rvtunt by Iho 
KliorilT that ho [HMt«d (L oopy on tliv firumixa 
witliout Btktiii^ tbat it ran posted in a pulilio 
plocD Ml Uio {iremUcB will not auiiport a jii'l^- 
niMit It ftttackcd by dirtct apiMl. In 1ik« 
manner, the indgmout will be revpneil if Iho 
raluni f»lU to »liow tlint n copy wm ilcUvcred 
to a pcnoii ill pnawuion of Ibc prcmiius, or 
tliat tbera «■• no pcraon in ii«MeMOii of the 
pr«m[»ai: PmpU v. Brrmal, «3 Cal. SSa. 

Satnni of anmmoiw: S<:i.-il 41 1, 418. 

Spauilab lanenage, ptooeedlngi iD: Sou. 

TelSBiapb, sorvlcB by; 8ij«. 1017. 

tbtt MTvlcc of oil Iajaiie>Jon, )i»t Eo coDfomiity 
wtlb Ui« provbliHi in Tvd>nl lo tbe »ai|inioiu, 
Uie ilelivary of a copy u tuocntiBl where tlin 
terricu it re(|air«d to bo made |ior*oaaIly, an<I 
it ii not, iftrliup*, iiocMiary to «xliibll iJia 
oaii^aal. uiilca •[itcially rvi|UMtvil by the 
pMiy. thoufib upon thii >»tt«r point tli« onurt 
ejprcwed do opinion: Sliunutmn r. Jtaton, 
10 lU. 398. A ■umnion* oinnot be nn'ed on 
debnilaiit's attomoy in facti Jfntie t. Vhw 
mifi. 4.1 Id. iU. 

Bborfft HTi-ioa iinoo: Sec. CQ'J, note. 

Sonrlc« BOOKBllr.— Id inokiog servioo nE 
a Rinninonn, and in tlio return of inch service, 
thu praviaioDi of tbc itatntc mait Iw ihoirn 
tu baia been ■ubflontjally folloivod by tlic 
ofiioar, otbcnriM tlic procecilln;;' rnniiat tie 
«up|iortai upon a MtoA ajipnl takni. If a 
aUlul* tor tbe ooUacttoo ot^a tax and tk« at- 
(oroemiiiil o( It* tioo on r*al Mlalo nravlilc* 
t)>»t a Mimmoiw may bo •rrvoil by dollvoriiia 
a ixipy to caoli dufeniUut, bot If ttio ptrrcnal 
dvftiiilaiit cannot be touDil, by po«tine a copy 
for twenty daya at tbe oourt-liouM ditor, and 

412. PuUifxifion of gammoiia, wh'pn. 

Src. J12, Where tU« persou ou whom the servjoe is to be made reeiiilcs out 

of Uie etat«, or has departed froui the HlAt«, or cannot, after due dilignDoe, l» 

fouad withiu the state, or conceals biinaeU to avoid tbe service of summontf, or 

is a foreign corporation, having no nuwaffing or businesB a^nt, CAsliicr, orwc- 

retAiy n-ithtn the state, and the fact appears by affidavit to thn Eatisfactioii of 

tlie court or a jtidgo thereof, and it also appears by such affidavit, or by tJiO 

TohfiRd ccmiptiiitit on lilu, that n naiiHi- of action exists against the defoadniit in 

Tfapcct to whom the servioe in to Ixj inado, or that ho in a nwcdwiy or proper 

party to th« action, such oourt or jud^'o may make an ordur that tho wrvioo bo 

made by the publication of the nuiumons. {Amtnidment, i^)pr»otd ifarch 26, 

1880; Amenilmei.U 1880, 1.3 (Han. ett. 51); huk rfivt immejiat/^bj.] 

•enco of tho dcfradont, which itatod that tho 
di-fenilant could not, after dno diligence, bo 
fiiuiid 111 tlio county wfa«ni tho action yr»% 
poiidbiEi tliat albuit bail innuirvd uf Fo/g. 
who wa* an iuliuat* friend of defoniLanC, »• to 
hia whrreabciiita; Ibnt Fogg wiw tmahl* to iu- 
(orui him, luid that itUiDlilT di>l not know 
wbnrv defemUat ooulil 1io found williiii th* 
Btatc. w,i» )ield inwIBiTiait. aa it di<l not tliow 
tbnt tlrfcDclout bad left the itntc. or that uiiy 
diUgmeohad been oswl tooiccttain hii whem. 
alioutii bej-ood inquiry «f a (ingle ill<Ijvi<lu^l, 
nnd there wu no pivtcn»c that bo *■■ couueal- 
intthlmaclf toaToldiorvtcc:A1«iiav. Ckatt, 13 
Cal. iSix 

Tlio ilittntory pTOYi»Eoii« for »<v|atrlDg jurii- 
dtvtlaii of thn potnoii lA a d«f«4idniil \i\ publi- 

Senrice by publication. —The proviaiona 
of tliia oodc rclaliro lo publloation of Mi'Vico 
ajiply to the ptncodnrc iircecribed by tlio Po- 
Ltlcal Code relating to IJic oimulliag a cortiH' 
tato of pnivhiUM lor non-paytiinit of iotecMt! 
/Wf* V. Apiifnaril^. 04 Col. 329, 

CoiWtltutioaAl]ty.-.Tlii« pnK^uduru ia oon- 
•tilutiouah /;.Mv. Fool'. 33 Oil. 411; MtC'aa- 
Itg V. /V'Vou, 44 Id. 329. Si-fi, 'lowpvirr, the 
ciuw* uf P->«u>;ier v. N'f. flo U. 8. 7J4, and 
Harl V. ,s'.iiMonir, 110 M. lol, for the uxtcntlo 
which jiirinliutioD i« acc)aii«i1 by aorvico by 

Serrico by pu'iUoatloa, trhvo attacked 
dlxectly. ^ Till] cuoatiluliua of the United 
ffitcH aii'I the coiutilution of this itnte both 
],I.i liiivl no pvnonahaHbedcprirtdof lifo, 

Iit"Tt>. or].frt]ii;rtywithiutduc|wo«ieiof I*w. lalien of the »uinmoiii unut l-c rtrlrtly pnr- 
I( 0,1! juilvmeiil WM iaieii.kd bytliuoxlu lo anvA-.Jontaikv. UiA/ix, 12 Cat. 100; £ivri(Min v. 
bo fiiuil umler alt circuiiHtunoeJi, thr oonittilU' 7'Aaiun.i. 5 How. Pr. 4J| Krnilnll v. Watkbtirn, 
tiouality of llic M«tion miaht mlnilt of very 1* I.}. 3S0; Cofm v. Ktmlier. 47 Id. MS. 
ginve doabt. But au«b wu iii>t the intfiition Therv ia uo proririon thuca judge may unlor 
of tho legtalatntn. The ofllilavit in only j'n'mn aauinmonatoiiisao. tlikonly power iitoonler 
/arir orideneo of tho (actii. If untriio in point tho Biimmoiw, wUi<:h liua aln-ady issuoil, to Iw 
of fact, tho dcfcDdant unn at aiiy tiui-? take iorrod in a •pecisl niaQucr. Ad order "that 
' itcia to act uidc the Jiidumr'nt; but n l>cn do- aamniona in anid caniw do Imuc. and that tlio 
rfoudant In fact ewiisrab hiiiiwlf to ovoid tbo aami) bo publiahed." etc, which wm Clod in 
•errlo* el pnemm, be cannot coinuluiu of tho tlto clerk'a tiAWr un thi: thirteenth o( May, hut 

want o( •nel) Mrvk*: ll'tire v. H'Jiinton, ff Csl. 

All NSdivit for an OTilec for the pal>1l«At>nii 
«t the Mnuaoiu, upon tho ground of Uw ab- 

tho aitiuuion* ilMlf wa* lint Iniicd until tho 
•ovcDtiteiith of May, woa hflil bad, nu tho 
giTiuDil thai if an unler might bo pKKnircd ia 
advance, and held, before talujij{ out tfao smu.- 


Tntt V.J 


moo*, it might )m *i> liclit till, B'licn lli<i 
•omoioai ■liouli) aclually luiif. tti« < tuftsin l-uit 
DiL(;lit havn rrlnrni'-il ta llic ulitu: I'rv/ilf r. 
JIntirr. 'JUCnl. HI; «rt«>(on v. (V,r'.i", 3 How. 
I'r. 4l(i. Tli» anJ thv (uU'iwini; ■Ktiuii 
tmtt ul lti<^ Minn )^lirral lulijucl, nuij thfy 
Bluxl Ix) rtuil toi;clli*r (or Ih? i)iir[Kiw of m- 
carUtiiiiig wliAt Um tffiilavil ami unlet nlioiiUI 
OOUUiu m otit«r to (ttlinCy tlm Inir antl 
mnko tlio wnioo coniplet«. It mutt uppiMr 
froin tliu aOidiTit "IhtA the penioii ulou wtiom 
•ertiw ii to be oficc^tcd either mJiJoi out of. 
M hu departed from, or caanot, after due 
diligctiM. be found within the alate; ot (Imt 
ho coocotli himtcll to aToiil •crrioe, und tlmt 
tho j)lAiiitiir has t. taata of iuttlo& a^nut h iia ; 
or that he bu a can** of actloo Ui tli* nonipUt* 
duUrmltiatjoD of wliiuli he it « ntOMwry or 

Eropar [aity; 4i)d wlwtlMr bio i-muUom ii 
nrjtt'u. anil if kaown it Khoolrl b« *talt<d. An 
affiJai'il wliicli luenly rvpsata Uia Uii^ii^o or 
MiUbkiiQe of the (Ututv ii cot niifGcient. The 
nltinwM fact* of the statute mait be proved. 
•0 to «pe*k, by the alGiUvJt, by ahowing the 
nrobuiee tftoti upon oliicb each ultimate fact 
acf^ndi. Thcfo ultimat* facU are cduclaMaiia 
diBvli from other fact*, to lUwIiMe which ia 
Uh Kpeclal object of the affiilail t. To lltnatrato : 
It la ii'^t mlGcidtt to rUU yoniM-tlly that af ur 
dii» <Iilii{DucB the tUtradaut ewaiiot b« fouad 
wlUiiii ttin M>t*, or thai the plaintiff hu a 
good ciuwi of acttuii apiiiitt him, or Ihut he ia 
mvoctmatj partyi but tba acta couttitutiug 
dns dilisFDCo, or the facta ihowiDg Ihat he ia 
• DBccwty party, ohDuld be itntcd. Tbo 
affidavit niD*t abow whether the ruiJcnt-'C ot 
th« perteoi npcm whom lonioe in lougbt ia 
known to the affiant, and If known, the 
)rciideiuo muat be etated. It ia tme that thia 
la not r(U|uirad in t«nii* by aectii^ 4)0, 
whicti is mora wpocially d«vot«d to lb« 
■flidavil; hut the wdoIc I« to b« raoil togethci' ; 
and the next leelioQ rttinlrea that whor* the 
Miidonat! ia Imuwo tbo onler ahall dirMit a 
oojnr ot thetummoDiauil ootnptauit talw forth' 
wita depoaitnl in tbo post-otlicc, drrootaJ to 
thoporvon lobeicrTcit athii t>taoDof reaidenoa. 
lu jcraalins tlie order the canrt or jud^ ocla 
jodlcially, and am know nothiotl about lli« 
facta n|wn wblub the orilor la to bo gmnUd 
•xoent from tKa aCGilavil: ttklirUon v. Bieh- 
tuilu>H,'M Cai. IM. 

lu a coau uhcrr it did Dot anptar In the ofll- 
darlt whplher the rrvideDoe ul d«f«ui)int woa 
known to tliu i>laiulifr or nut: uor dlil it ihuw 
thai ho did not kiiou- wh?tv tlio ilflciulnnt 
tuiffht be found 1 butitatatcd that pUiotiirbail 
nM« niony inqairic* for dofciiiliuit! that bo 
tioil ininircil of all perwoa ulioin he had 
llioufht likclf ti> know him in tlio city of 8.ia 
Fr«D«i«c(i, or «lMiwli«r«, to oiccitain where he 
might be found, hut liod lieen uiulile to Hnd 
aoy nuv who had *oui h-im or hod lieord poail- 
tivaly fnwii him for the |)ii*t eight yuar>; tbo 
oontt ui'l (bv faoU olatvil did ti"l negative all 
iofDraialigii un plaiulitTii pari an to nhuru Ihe 
dnfeudoiit tni^ht Iihtc been foouJ and Twrauu- 
•II* MiTTed witb the xiininoiii. nor did the 
oAdavit ahow that be did not obtain from any 
ooe nf wlium he made nii)DiTica information 
where defcu^Unt woa. atul that the alR'taTit 
woa cUaily iaauflkif-iit! that tli>f oliji-i^t of duo 
diliiimte In •corchtiiK far a dcfeniUat woa 
•ttpJMiiiHl to l>A lo lliiil hlni; aiul It WM Iiec»- 
■tfjr luabow bj IbcalBtlavlt tlial hecualdnot. 

ikftM' t)in rx<<T«!M of das dilEgenM, be 
u ithlii till' ntiiti-: Uroly v. 5rama», M Cil. CIT. 
Tba cunalnblo'a return that defeailaiiK ji not 
found in Ibucuouly it aufliciRiC in a jiutice'a 
co urt: .SVtiivr ». t'tifieralii, 23 Id. SI. 

WlMD ottAclced boUatartdlj.— If the orig- 
inal coinphiim before service <S annimona ha 
■uiwmeded bv a m^plomental oomplaiol. tho 
pulil iiAtion of the onjpnoi aummona ii runtTcist- 
mil to give the court juriHiction of the i)p'rw-ii« 
of abiL-nt defendant*: .l/'J/inn r. H'M'i.i, 'JJ 
CbI. ai-.'j Laa-miit. w. Bollnit, Tl Vn^'-. -Jft:.; 
Si-nJ-lfr T. I'liorliLt, 1 Rorb. Rli. It WM lutiaUj 
tliat It joilfpnuut could not lio nuoatinniftl ud- 
latcntlly, fur the i«ajion that' tbo juri«ilictioi> of 
a court of |{*n«ral or ■uporlor JuriMlicliun vill 
lie pnuumml curreet In the abMnoo ot eoiiUtiot 
un the face ot the riword to tb* routrsry. Bnt 
the court doubled if a oato could ho found 
wliicb HinQtioned any iutondmniC of juriKlio- 
tion over tbo person of tbo defendant, whea 
thcBome waato boocqninid byaapooial alaln- 
tory mode, witbout pmoBftl lorricc of procisa. 
If jurudictlon of the peraon of tbo daendaut 
woa to 1m acquired by publication of tlic anni- 
moM En lion of pcnooul aenice, tlio mmUi pre- 
tcrilioil muat In atrictly punned; and if It aji- 
pear that the court never hafl jurimjiction oivf 
the p«r*on ot the difcudant, tho Juilgnwnt will 
bu pnmounued a nullity, tihuihcr 11 cnmn di- 
reotly or oolhttomlly iu uunttion: AlrXlim v. 
II'Aefon. 27 Cal. 312. 

The facte inugt uppvar by afSdavit beforo ju> 
riadiolion to make the urder attaches; that is 
to lay. there muit be an al&davit contoiuini; a 
atatcment of oome foot wbi«h would lie lognl 
erldonco, having ooma appTocdable tcndoucy to 
make the jariKLictiooal fact appear for tlio 
Judgo to act upon beforn hohaaony juriadiction 
to niako thn order. Unleaa the amdavit criii- 
tain* eomo auch nvidonco trading (o catnUiah 
every material JuHt>li«tionaI fact, tbn judt-u 
has no legal authority tv be Mtiafioil, and 
if ha luakea the onlor. ho acta without la- 
riaJiotioD, and the procerdlnga at* void. Bnt 
be ia only to be autianwl npou aoinu pvi- 
deuf^c preaented in tbo form prmcribcl; und 
if the affidavit pneaenta kgol vvidcocu which 
haa an app(«cial>lo t«itdenoy to pniw n-ery 
material juriadictionol foct. and thr iniud of 
th* }iidge ij too ooailjr oatisfied. tliia ii but 
•nor, for bn woa authorueyl to weigh the timti- 
■nony, and It tatiiflcd make tliv ordur. It Ja 
then, tborvforo, not voiil. but emmcoaa, and 
Hut open to oollnti^ral attack. The aliilnvila 
should Im ptvpand mth nifi.-roDi!F to tbn odu- 
ditiou ot thing* im lliey uxiat at Ihii tiniD when 
the order o( iiubUcklloii i» apptlxl for^tlie 
rcu'leiice of tHe dcfMidant, ur tlii' fimbihtjr to 
lind htm at that timp. The pivcefdiii^ uro lo 
fallow each Dthpr in n»t»nnlily iixikk diiccoi* 
aion. If on alUdavit uan bu iih^I n* the \iwtit 
at on order wliich wu> inoitc four luonthi lie- 
fore the Divlor, it con be uoed when rnado four 
ycara before, and the court would revenw a 
Judgment wbcio tlio affldivila Were made four 
monthi l»f»nt the order for poblioitioii Ixued 
on Ihem. Tlie eiUtonco uf a oinae of action, 
ete.. in a iuriadioliooal foot wbiuh DiaatDjipear 
"in likf inmnw." that ia to nay. by nffldaviL 
That tho " affiaat beliovu* ho ho* a good oanao 
ot action in this «ilt Hjiamat defendant, mail 
Iwlicvoa that dufenil.uit la a ii«eo**ary and 
ptvper party," ia neither tho alatoiuont nt an 
nltimate taut, aadi a* ia nxiuind lo b« atatcd 



OF crviL AcnoKa 

rpAiiT n. 

in ft pl«sdins, DAT of ft pro1iatiT« lo,-A from 
which Diiob mtUnal? fact amy lie ilBiluaiKl, nor 
a foct oJ KDy lort vihkh in any way legally 
t«n<l* to provo mch ultimate or proliativt I»ct 
or (nini whkh It mny bo inlciTtd. It U merely 
111'! itat<:nent u! the c^lnuui of tlic wttiitu ia 
irlitioii to a, piiiiit on irhlfb the judgo i* r«- 
qiiitvid to tonn Ivi* own opEiiioo upon fftcti 
«'bl<'li mu^l appnu bjr fttTiiliivtt. Ttio Juit|iD 
may b*vi- vcitirc nonAileoo* ia tli« Ability of too 
nfliaot 9« » lau-yar, ftnd in lii» opinion u|iou a 
■liii'tlion ol Ijlw, an'l tliu iritnm* iiiAy bu equally 
ii<II i|aali1i<^it {•> ■luE-'riiiiiui llie point: bat tha 
luw 'Cipt uot jwrmit Iiiiii b) net Mpon audi oon- 
G'lcun? ur qiULlilknliniis. Facta an the proper 
BCrl only pni[icr siibjecl t-} be set out in ikffidv 

T^t* under tUo proviuona of tlio •tatuto to servo 

an the )>**{« of iu<lidftl Mbon: bdcI • joilgmeot 
ty default founded u]iou on order of puliliiia- 
tinn DbtainiNl on «ueh on nffiilAvit wu Iic4>l vuiil 
when eollalcrally (lurationoil: fhriita v. Ilydt, 
31 Cftl. 3i7-SU. Bnt upon coll*t«nl KtUuk. 
McitftU in the jadsmeiit o( Mvvioe upon the 
dcfeailont are oonelaiivo of the (jueation of j'li- 
rltidwtiaii of the pcnon, when the indgmeiit Is 
MUlkreil liy a court of miprdor jnruiilktian: 
JUeCatittg V. Fvltoa, 44 Id. HO. In ft luit U> 
•nforott a lien (or Iftxen, if the tniiuiioni U not 
Mrred by DubllcilioD or olherwl**, the cotirl 
ho* no Junsdiellon to onlrr » mIo, miiI luch 
mIb. If oril«r«it, mfty bo ftlt««liail ooUaterallyi 

Marlin r. Panoiu, oO I<L Mi. 

Flotltioo* tumeai DofeniUol mod by: ter- 
Tioe of, by puUIiotiont Seo. 474, noUu 

413l SiTi-ice b;/ pufilu'ctfuin, how made. 

Skc. 413. Ttio oixlor niusl iltnictt Uio publlcallon to ha made in K DewRpaper, 
ta bo <1oiugniit«d. lut inaxt likelv to i^ve notice to tlio persoa to be served, and 
for Ku<-h length of timu oa may be deemed reoaou&ble, at least once a week ; but 
])ubIii:(itioti u^aiuat n defeudiiut reaidiuf; out of tbe state, or absent therefrom, 
murit uot be leas tliau two uoutbs. lu eaue of publication, where the reeideaoe 
of It uon-rendeDt or absent defendant ia known, the court or jwJgo luUHt direct 
a copy of tbe summons and complaint to be forthwith deirasited in the post- 
office, directed to the |>erson to be served at hia pUce of residence. When pub- 
Itratiuu int ordered, penjonal service of a copy of the euiumons and comptaiut 
out of the state is equivalent to publication nnd depo8it in tlie po»t-officp; and 
in either case the service of the Kiinituonit is complete at tho expiration of the 
time prescribed by the order for publiuatioii. {Ami^drnmil, approrat ilaivh 24, 
1M74; Jinn.(fm/ 1«73-1, 299; foot ^^(Ju/y 1, 1874.] 

done," wEthlu tho moulnii of that locUoii. 


Bervlce bjr pnbUcdtioi). — "An act con. 
coining Mtrvieo of aumntanii upon abacnt de- 
fvo'lAnla hy publication," approTcd March IG, 
lS7i; 1871 2, r>. .WJIri'iiiiiniigeonyof orrlMct 
jiutilkatiun tolii.* liU'l in iillics of Mcr*tary of 
■tile). VBi ippoalnl by act upnrovnl Uircli 20. 
1S7^; Iii73-1, p. 4D5i took cfliHit tram pa«ij^. 
Strict complmnce with tho ■Cotnco ii iv<|uUit« 
lo made a valid eerrice ol ■ununonii by piiblita. 
lion^ Itrwi V. Arliiiir, 1 Weit Coaat Iteu. 28l( 
(Oul-l: Brrwn v. Tuetrr, Id. ilSi (Col.): Virfor 
MMit M. Co. *. JmiIu''- ^\■r„,1.U.•:Sl'^ (Scv.). 
See thiH Ia4t decin^oii (i>i (lau-nicntof necoMlty 
e> til Mlliii^ turlli In tho afHilavll (or orilar of 

Bitjicfttion whvtiier or not thu ilefvailanfa rM- 
Pnoo IB liuuvrn. 
PnbUcatloo.— iMnuat Iwfor the full pario<l 

moiititniviL Jordan v, OihVin, 13 Cal. )(». It 
wall objectcrl tbntftn unJvr of publication wo* 
<kl^tii«, iKriiiiie. in il«atgualiu){ tlie iiowe- 
potKT. it 'liil not (Ultc lli.-it (iioh paper wai 
" Tiinal likely to givr nulie« to t)iu pvnuii b> bu 
•PTT«il." Toe onler ilirrctvil th« aiimiiiUDi to 
be pnbltthed in « ccrtiiin awnfOMit, with the 
time It noa to ho thiii puliliiihurl: and the 
(ii>url ln'1'1 the pmnlmplroii wia that the jua- 
tiiM dptJiiuiitnl llw pirtuiiler paper bocanae 
it nan mi"t llkcty ti gjwt nnljce to the penon 
t" )■> trrviTd, but it «'iii not nece— try for him 
to qtatv ill the c^iltr tlint *uch wai hla rtiuoQ: 
H'-"r V. Fi»^nd<i, £1 Id. !>1. Tho month «oii- 
t'liipUtnl >-y the MalntA t* a i^^en-lar nionch, 
mill nut B Iniiar nionlbr Si-i:, 17. nnlf, Sfntija* 
V .WKoy.aiCal 173, Svetiun ICVil, pjV, liaa 
niiii'iilicatiou t')ptvi:n<liiigiiiiiiilcrt)iiBiwvtion. 
Th>'ie iino tiiuo "within wluvhau net h Ivlie 

The defviidiuit brinKft DO0.rMlU«ut«f tlio utAla, 
IIm enniiiicii". under a (ora)or atatal«, had to 
\k- piiblidlivd ut lout once a wvok tor "nut Ii»ih 
than three montlie." The uourt held that n 
■unini'mi hod li»o pnbliibofl fur three caIuii'W 
mc>iithi, U'lieii publieheil from lliuttotb of Jan- 
uary to Ihe ninth of April; niid that tho lint 
day od thoeo within wlucli the defcodanC wu 
requited to antwur wna the tcntJi ol ApriL 
B(it citn If llio thrvv iiiontha of tiitblh'ation did 
not oxpira t>lt thu tt'oth (>( A|Jr>I, thctro wai no 
naoMSiCy fur HUotbvr puhltuaticin, Thu iTiith 
«u in Ihu Mme wovk with th" ninth, ni]<l tho 
wimtnoiut liad been nuhlitli"'! in tli.-it wwh. IB 
hail Inkd publiBlieil oncu In «vvry uuc nl the 
trvtkt tlint could by auy |Kiuibi1it)'. in vihol* 
or in piurt. bo hiviiigbt into tho three oalriirUr 
■nuDllu. ftnd thiimuBUlliaicnt: •V. A L. Soeittj/ 
V. 3%^uipA0ii, 32 Id. 310; Uoabnuiorff v. Tay- 
lor'i l,fmmi, 4 Tot. 301. In tho Mune mm 
Mine of tlio pulillcatlona, IncludlUR tbo hut, 
w«r« on Sanilay. the pa|icr in whivh publiiia- 
tioQ wu mndu lii»ln;( rr^iilavly I-uund on i^an- 
dayi M well a^t an w>trk iliiy*. Tho roiirl did 
not think thU (not vitinl""! the twrvitw. on tho 
Kmuii'.I that StiOiUy ivn» 'liri noit. The aorvico 
va* ii'it nctiial, and wim uot made bj' a aingle 
act. It coI1lli^l(■1 of n a-nm of a«ta running 
thivu^li a loDU |>cnotl of tiniv, and tho ijH-cilio 
ftoU rvpiired by the>tatut«had b«a performed 
Aconrdiiij; to both the letter and epirit of ita 

firoviaiom: S. d! £. SonMii r. Thompnoa, 32 
J»l, 3.«l..ivr 
Ll«»a. mootuldoa', «tO., publicatioii audor: 
8e«. IIOI. 




PubUeaUoa proof of; S<x». 2010, 2011. 
Wkilirv wrvicn wu I'/ |iiililiiulivii In tliu Doily 
OiUFoniu Cliroiiick, iiii<l liy (tiv •iL-puall <4 a 
co{r>y o( Uic niniinoiw mid ooiniiUiul iu iIh< pott- 
office ■! 8(ui Fi-aiivUcv, <ilroolnl to •liiltiiil.'Uil 

nMJt in Ihu |iMt«ffioo mu proved Wf th« >IR- 
divit of ouu Wililir, lh« perMO \tf wlioia tbu 
ilciKMit whb innilr, kiid Ute iiulliration in the 
Uiro«k.~lowu provetl Iif tbe ntliilivilot "ono 
dI Itia |iablbhera and proprirton '' of timtpit' 
|i«r. On earamriiif tlia ptiUication vitb tbo 
oriul"^ coiituiiai in the roll, ccrUin (IJKrrji- 
•IK1M ai^>tiini[). Tbo court klIiI lliat the (lit- 
fertiiM* uoWd war* jiurHv litornl, anJ ijuita 
niorac^ic. In *vnM tad mcanli^ tl» orlgl- 
nil BOBimoiia mii) th<' iiubllkliwl v«rtlan of ll 
«-erc iucDlical, lO'J tliat wm «aouj[b. It wsa 
olij«*.(?d Uiat iIm alEiluvit WM* miula by a 
"publiilicr aiii] proprietor, *' and not by tb« 
"jirintcr, (orcmaa, or princical oletlt." Tho 
eourt, on tite autboritvot Bunct v. Ilinl, 10 
Barli, M7, bald that mr tbo put{>oaai of the 
QUMtion [irlntcT* anil pobluhon miubt Ui con- 
ndortd Rjrnoujtnnui, the Inttcc being wltliln 
tbo acnrit ot l)>n Rlatiit*. An afBiIavtl which 
■hould fail to obow tliat Uin atbant ha/} any r»- 
lations (o tbo i«ptr migbt Jfinnitil. if uiialikd 
hj other portiona td tba jiiilgmeiit rull, n dit- 
fcMbt coniiderationi Sharp v. Dawr/ntu, 33 
CrX. M2. Tbcf olw aaid Sttinbaeh v. Xmwt, 
97 U. S9B, waa a cue«I tbat obanMtar. A* to 

tbe ikficMlt 111 ttio pod^lBo^ Mellon IIO, niit, 
rtlnto* to csM* wliciro (lie Mirrioo U ulb^iwiM 
thau by publication, nnl dooi not guvvi-u llio 

Xot<',, of tliu pFtiMi wliu any niail llii' i'n\y 
iiiiiiiuti*. So ttiat tbc ilepoiit be in.vJc, ii la 
of DM muiiieDt by wboiit. It woa in tliU omo 
fiirtiier ulijcct«l that the affidavit did nut »tnt« 
tb»t Uie depuit vm inado in n United StalM 
it-oBico, uor tbat tbero wu conrniaiikatiou 
nwil between the place «( dop»!i Ami ibo 
lOe to which the jtacbacc wu kvl'lman). 
itli objcotiuna vero aubtnittciJ ultiiuiit ai^> 
tatatl, anil wrro iivtmiMi SItarp v. J/au'tdta, 
aa I'i. U\i,5l4: SmirrY.filttjffalJ.i:it\.m. 
Ill an allUbiTie ot publioation •luponviit ilu' 
•■.-ribul hitnMiII n« "prinuiuai cleck, ' ilu. and 
tbeii the nQJdarit prooMiin]. "dvposts.'' rtc. 
It H u belli tbat nfEiint depoKil to nothing bk- 
[»pt the matter net forth after tho word "lUt- 
pom-" bis nuiik^ biniHlf oi prjni:i[i>l clerk 
waa not nWcarinK (bat that wna^ia pomti'~'n In 
fjct: SitMiuh V. l^tf. -'J Cal. -JDbi A'x parU 
Bant o/ Monrof, 7 BiU. 179: tVnnfnjAoBt v. 
Ocl'l. 4 Drmio. Tij JtoijJrt ». FainhUtt, S K. 
Y. 4<i t^iyurr. r»"n„, S M, 158. 

nine ta Miawer, after pubUoatloii.— I*!)!*- 
ticatioii only ulfBvta thu wrvU'c of tbo tuni- 
mun*i and tloErniiant boa tliu muuo (icou to 
anvwer after piibUoation it lumplete «« bo hu 
after the ocrvicO' of the auiniuon*: GrtwrU v. 
lltnrlrrtoa, S C«l. 48a. 

Jud£meat by delAult: 8oc 335, aubd. 3. 

414. Pmcn.'din'j* wfun^ HWffral deftntdanin and famn aniy gvrvcd. 

Sec. 414, AVbcn Uio nctton ia sgaiiiHt two or luorv ilirfcndKnte jointly or nor- 

ermlly linblo oa « coutmvt, waH the RuminunH w tucmitl on od« or mom, but nut 

on nil of tt]«u, tlic {ilaiiitilT may proceed againat the dofciuluuto i>cim,-cl in tbo 

tniiio manner m if Uity nx-ro the only defeniUnlii. 

Fweclosoifl.— Tbh aection don not apply tbe *t*te. ami that na !muo bail boca Johied U 

to him. Bnta^iuod wiUi t)io il«(aiidant*('n'c<l, 
wlthitut rMorratlon, tliul tlm ikmkt 1iui«i<«n 
btiu unil thoin ahould Ih< mt fur trial nt a \>M- 
ticiilnr ilay, then aakeil anil obtairiC'l u 'inuttii- 
n.iiicu fvr tbu rvoMio aulely tliat liiii witnntai 
U'lro not prcaent, and in XTXiiiilemtioii uF unAx 
ci>iitinuancu by conicut Agreed of rtuord tbat 
tlio cBH* ■honld be Kt for trin! ami be tried ou 
■ porticubu* day, it wu held that thi* ilnle of 
f»ct« olourly con>tltulc>l a wsii-cr by pUialilT 
of Ilia iiKbt to delay tbe trial until wid other 
drfvnduiit had limn anved or (hur Juincd in 
ropcct to liiiD. In *iich cmo tho ai[rooineDlB 
wvro not only •p«eiii«iita botveon tbenitlM^ , 
liiit IwtwMit thniii and tba court, wlildi tiM 
latter waa Uiiind to enforce, nut «itW Inr jUie 
bvuellt of Ibo lOiTty inteti-itoil in tboir for- 
tonnoaiv, but lor the proteotioa oF it* un-n 
honor nnd diijiiitr; Mt^Ktr v. Uaylianio, 3J 
Cal, IMW. 
JolDinc penuns ao*onilly UaUe npon in- 

itiilinciiti: Sep. 3KS. 
Judgment atiniiiit aoiuo defcndoutii, nm- 

vcol lojincoij linn iiij^ogailiit the Otlivfa. Sec 370. 

Joint debton, |>rocovdinci ag^oet, after 
liidgniPiit iij[aiiutaaiiioi iioo.9U 

lo prooMititiga fur forocloanre of a mortga^u on 
rtal utatiF: Butm v. M^y, 12 Cat. »fil; bat 
•«• lor. 730, iialo, " RiriiM." 

ftmvloe on one defendant out ol aeveral, 
•fflKt Ol~0i\ an a['iH.iil [ruin judgin(<lit in 
fat^r of plaiotill, tbo obj'rctioii rufinl on to ii<- 
vetao the jndgmantwu tbat thrive p art iva were 
Mcil •« partner*, tad the verdict and jiidgmiint 
wore ogalMt tso only. It nppcaivd Inim Ibc 
KMml that thn party not fouoil agaiiint nia not 
Mrml with proeou. But it iroa iniiited by 
tbe appellauta tliat tbo party wu in court 
ISMtUM be WM eliargcil In thn ili'cUmtion ai a 
portatr nilfa tlie olhm; and thai Herviv'e npi>n 
eD«[«Jti>er<*«<TCrviao u|>on alL Sucb i> ni>l 
tlw mto in this atnte; tiifraham v. GiMrtH"*- 
Itr, 3 Cal. 89. Jnii^cient cannot bo gU-pn 
ai^inat a pfuiy not aerv*d in lomo way with 
pnioea, in an action on a joint obligation of 
Mteral dofcBdoat*: Trttit v. Mrfall. 10 Id. 
All. AxtothecaMiofanaaaodatinn: StcSff^. 

Wbiro tho plalntilf Iu an octti'n, with full 
kaewleilga of IiU rn:bt t<i pruvrrl to trial at 
UtOVD nftiim BKaliial the dcfenilAiilK MTiod 
Ottly. ami ct tbo Uut tlinC no aprviiir hvl t'ron 
Miaue Djion oae of the Jtlvudaal*. who hml lelt 

■415. Pnnfttfiavrifv, hnw madiK 

SEtr. 415. Pmnf of ilio ocnieeof Mitntnons Andcompluintmustbettutollowii: 

1. If M'rv™l by Uio itlicriff, bin nirtificAle thereof; 

2. If by uuy otbor iwrsoo, bia affiJttvil thcKof ; or, 


1 410 

OP CIVIL Acnoss. 


8. In case of ptiUWtioii, Ui« aiBdarit o( thn printer, or liis foreman or pria- 
cipiil derk, ebowiii^ tho maatr, itml uii ufiidnvtt uf n deposit of a cop}* of Uia 
euiniuoua in the po:it-ufBc-<!, if tho name Itun hiKua tlepuaited; or, 

i. Th« writt«ii oduiiiMiutk of the (lr.f<!tii]iiiit. 

In case of eenrico otherwise than hj- puUii-ation, the oertiGcato or ufiida^-it 
must slato the time and pluoa of service. 

Bberiff'a Tfttsni: Sci-. 0S<1. uote. The re» woa held that whi!n tho prooJufMrrlo* of pro- 

UiTii inuat bo in the naioe o( the ■bcriC 
Where llid return of tbo UKvico nf iho ■ilin- 
iDonii iatatd in ki) action far Uxc* ku ■ijfnod 
"Ivlijili T. Cole. D. S.," It waa lialJ tbat thin 
tv-.ura vai insiifflcicnt to fflva tbn Murt Juri«' 
ili>;ti<iii, nr to aaTiioriae It to antor a hidKuiKiit 
by iltfauU; Juy-r v. Joytt. H Cal. 440; S'lielfy 
V, //ai-'u>l, £1 IJ. 'tQ3;tuw)*ois£«>mv. Thomf 
(M.S I.I. -JiX. 

U'lii>i>> Ui* r«tum on a nuiucnuiiii atatca that 
acupyot tlie ■uniinuDa was pcnuiially actveJ 
oa Uut Jutcadsnt ia tho aotloii. givinz the time 

ccM auniiica ol tlio irritt«u adui«loo* of its- , 
fdulanta, aa«U ndmiHiuoa, to ba avallolile In 
tlie Bclioin, iliould be acooiupanloil with aoin* 
cvldciieo of tho gcnuinoneaa of the tigiialiira 
of tlie |iartic>; uid that in the aW'Ui:u <i( euch 
evidniwo the court could nut iii>ti>!i.- tliuin; 
Atdtrw,, V. Ilrll. II M. 321: Liuhjirld x. a«r- 
wrll. G Ho«. fr. 340. Whore S. & E «!• 
mittid *'diw aorvice," Iii aii action against 
thpin and «tli«n. it wo* holl tlmt the omrt 
theiuliy ac<ln!nld jiiriidiction wf tlioiu, uiid na 
ta them tho judgnicut wa> vnltd. It doM not 

■ud place, thU rttiirn, sUUout(h iolnrmal, U appear that tbo signatutea won voriQodi £Aarji 
Mt VuSoieat to givo the court juiinliotlon of v. nniHiiiiiir\ 3>^ Cal. &2&. 

na poraoo, ao that the judi;inDtit U not void 
for want «f jurudictioo when collatoralljr at- 

Such return doca not allow tbat » uu|iy of 
tho cuiii|>kliit waa iiot dpilverod to thu ds- 
tonilaut iwnDnaltjr, and it baa at Icaat noma 
tofal lODdoney to provs tbat it wai ao delir- 

If, lu auch ciae, thero it more tbaa odd de- 
(oudaiit. the fa<it thut the ivtum du» not ttate 
tliat a a>l>j uf thu coinpLuDt wna icnvd with 
tba auaiTsona dwi not rcudor the judgmcat 
TOid in a oolktnal attielc^ Drake v. DuKaicl, 
i5Gal.4AJ. Uetura^ma/icwovideDca: 9oa. 
902, DOte. 

ABAkvit. — All tlio material allcgallona of 
tho aOidaTit of acrrice tna«l lui Hil)aci]iiciit to 
the won! "•leiKMc*:" Sot +13, nolo, lutoud- 
moiita la favor at aorvtoa uf auramoiiai Soo. ST. 

Whare It waa neMwary to aeivo a. ccrtllUd 
copy «( tho ecmiphuiit. aa aHidai'it fhicii 
avtiY«'l that affiant, on the duv named, 
•■aerrai) the Buminoiia upon the dcfondant, 
Marjr IL UcMiltau, at her realiknco In tho 
«itj cJ Sau Knuidico. by deliTorinx and leav- 
ing with her a copy thcKitf, alLK^liud to a 

71m« aiid plaoa.— In a anit ta aoforoa a 
HMclianlv'* Ik-11, tlio lunimciia na aurttd by 
thaalioriir opiu Clarke. Taj- ior.onJ Biokl*. lab* 
UDilerUok, a* attomuya tot Itronuan. to aaerpt, 
aerrioa. Tbo attornoya aigncd tho acceptance 
of auninr, but attarchod no ilatc; tlie aheriS'a 
Totum, bnwpviir, aliowtd aart-ico tn lia(c hecu 
mndellio thirtmnthot D«o«mlior, ISAl.und thif 
u-aa hold aufli«i«nt. Wbore tho plaea vhcro tbo 
writwaaaerred waanoUCatad, th« uourtaaau mod, 
aa it 'waa dirootcd ta tbo ahariff of Sau FranoIiicD, 
and at it wu returned by biiii avn-vd, that It 
waa aorred hy him within bi« jurimlicUoii: 
Oranr v. firannan. 3 Cdl. 195. Wli^re tho 
affidavit of Rorrieo of aammonB aenmnl Inatilli- 
cioDt booaoto it did net atatc that itefeiidaiita 
rmidod iu Sao Franoitcov hut it aUted tluvt 
they wora aarvad In that oounty, it wn« pro- 
aum?d. notliing to the contrary appoariug, tbat 
tbi^y ruaidiHl in thu uoiinty in wbich Ibey wcro 
Bcrrcd^ CaUfruMoJ v. Broott. '23 Id. 1-13. 
Juiiidietiun U acquired by tbo aarvico, not hy 
tlic return; thorolore the data of the return la 
Immaterial in calculating the time witliiu wliloh 
defendant rnuitanawo; PUor.SaAol.Ghl. '295; 
1*0 a«c. 41(1. p.-/. 

MotJOiU to a«t asldo aorvlco-^^Dofondaut, 

•opy uf the anicnilcd coiiipliiiiit liltd in this upon tutertnu an appcnranoe and before pliuid- 
aotioa." nua held iniulHuifjit. \Vliere ju>t)(- iiig. moved to act a*iil« the norvica of the 
B)OUt of faroclaiuro waa <>liuiiie<l uii nuch acr- " ' • ' • • ^ • - - 


vioo, and the ^rumiiua Mild i]iidi^r iha judu- 
Blont t«B party who •mjt at tho titnv of 
imrchaiu (vKnimut o( tlie fact of such dcfoutivo 
•en-ico, BU'I alao that dcfvnd.uit wu a tuarried 
woman, and whoN defendant bod a v^lid do- 
Llaua'. t'u- JudgnMit «na act aaide: .VvJtiiian 
T. tUvnoIJM. JlCfll STS. 

PuDlkMtlon, proof of^ Sec. 113, note. 

Wrttten od^nlaaloa -Aa aoknoirludj^inwt 
ot eurriue in only auiflcicnt wlii*n ri'diiucd to 
vnitlUK aud anbacrilml liy tbii |)art.v. A vur- 
bal oulinoii'lod^mit to tlio aliorljlf will not 
anScci UoHi^uatrry v. Tull, II Col. 314. It 

Bummona, In au action inr unlawful detoiiior, 
beaaiuv euob aorvico hml not boea made Is 
aouordance with tho onler u( tha connty ooart, 
under aeotiun llOOof thiacoil«,a«!tBti>o<l iiriop 
to the amondmenta oi 1874; and it wai Ix'ld 
that tlio motion wai tvgular. Ih-fi'iuLiiit i-e- 
acrrcd ao ei':cpti»Q and auaweivrl. mid it waa 
held that ho boil not u*ai«Q>l hii cxcuptiiiu by 
auswcnniC: Kriti v. IPif, 30 Cal. 138. 

Tliat ft ilrfeiidant may appear apeclally to aet 
a«M« ft aonlce o( an'iimoui. ace Lnntj Chant 
1. X. P. R-g Co.. -J Wo»t Cboat Rep. SS |U. H. 
U. Ct. Dr.]; two aLw atmllar pruriabn iu jui- 
tion' vuurbi, pod. 

416. iTurittfirlirfH, H-'h'"'! oc'j'tirvd — Aj^ecwance. , 

S»;. 11(1. Frotii tho time of the service of the suininona and of a copy of the 
comphuDt iu a dvil aolioii, where aerrice of a copy of tlie t.'oinplaint ia toquired, 
or of tbo roinplcition of tlie publication when Boifice lir publication ia ordered, 
tlio court ill doviued to have acquired jurisdiction of the parUes, and to have 




IVxKT n, TrTLK M, 



425. CimjylaiHl. 

Sbo. 125. T)i« fiist pleading on the part of Uie plaintiff is tlw oomploint, 

426. Complaint, whal to coniain. 

Six:. 126. ^le complaint must contain; 

1. Th« title of the action, the name of tli« court and oounfy in wbicfa tlio 
action ia brought, and the names of tho parties to the actiou^ 

2. A atat«iiieDt of tho facts constituting the cause of action, iu ordinary uud 
ooncise langiiagp; 

3. A demand of th« relief which the plaintiff churns. If tho rocavevy of 

Dtoiw; or daraagea be demanded , the amount thereof mtut be stated. 

Tltla, panar* JafouMvoly iwiitlod: Sco. 1019. 
TrauB; Scd. 30S-4W). 
PartlM; !*ui«. 3i}7 3SB, 


AaaooUUdD !ii«y Iw mied nniJer omiiinoa 
lunic: t<ov. SSS. 

rtcdUoiM nunM for dcfeiulwiU; Sec*. *'i. 
f NaiBM of partlM; S«c. 407. in note. It \» 
nott-roaiiiluf dcimirrvr tbatthochrlitluiiuuno 
of onu uf tbo pUiiitiO* •Idoi not ftiineor In 
tlic tFMril. The coiirt cannot JuiliDlaJly know 
tJi4l one of tbo [ilnintilTi \\tA otUior a cliH*liui 
or a htatlien namr. or that it 1« iicc«uarily iiu- 
trun that be bu torsottvn It If li« h«<Ji Srlmm 
^ /M&I< V. UXghiaid, 13 C>). Tfi. 

FImkUiib. f envtally— Old ayatem* abol- 
Wied.~Notnltli«kui'llii^ tliu vuiKiralion wiUi 
wbii.'li all lav^von w« cxIwgUkI to lOL-attl tlio 
ooiiininn law, lU fnalo of prooxliiro, in iiiDiijr 
nupoctx, liiul 1)U| little to reoumiuirDd it lu a 
tlirvctanil crnivvuivnt mt-iliuni for the ittminis' 
tntiOQ of julliod. Miuiy <A its lulo vero 
technical and arbitrary, au'l to tbo an JanitMid. 
[us of tlio prficnl aue, follnilsJ upon noiub- 
Btutial rcMon, and in many vum lh« roaiwni 
■p>D wbicb Any aro fonnilcil ha(a iHManio 
niUty or forflottiiii Ion: A'ruiAri/J v. LoKma*. 31 
Cal. X^i: Tlifire I* in tliit stato butonu tomi 
of civil AiitEiin fur [|i« I'nfurccinuit or protection 
ol prlval* righta and tb« nxlma or pravontion 
ot pHrat«vTonp: Roe. 307, and nolo. The old 
rulM of oommon.lairan'l ahanoory ploadingnro 
MUMranledi Cvniirr v. ScMom, I'J Cnl 14Ti 
Km/Ma V. Lifkiaa*. 31 Id- 153. And tbo forma 
of t'lnxlltuf ant fixuluaivoly those nrtficriUcd liy 
till* milai 8w. 4SI : Ji-nUeh v. Perifr. 10 Od. 
K8i Jaitn r. Cort'^. 17 Id. 497. Wliora tho 
olil fonna contain the ■llcgatinnn nocMaary to 
■ujiport any paiticubr oinae of aviiou, Uiay 
may b« used. urovUsd Uioy cumnly witli tlia 
[imTirion* of Uie «odo, and atatc the faoU oou- 
■titutiuit the muw of action in ordinary and 
coodio liuiffuaifc: hut th»y frwiumtly rto not 
C0fn]ijy with lhc*rr pmriMoiif, anij arn thcmfum 
luiiultable. Uwially, too, thoy contain lurTihii- 
0^: awl allhoUi(h tliii will W nEJeoto) a* lacb 
In voutmiaff tli« pUuuling. if no objootioo b« 
]>rorlo<Mty talcao. DarH v. Riui, U Id. 82, yet 
alkptkoitnf irralvnnt and [ednmtniit matter 
'•»• ratirvly at variance with the ipiiit o( tliu 
CmIo, ami limy be atricken ojt on motion; 8i>0. 
^■'■S. 'I he MUX of action or niat[«r of (lafunu 
ia not airtotdl in the l«ut liy tli« fnrtn in «liich 
il may b« bllMedi JVtAr v. Van TtuM-l, H Cal. 
M& TIm bm coBitlnUag It miut b« aUtgcd 

in any >i«m: I>' Wia r. Ilant. 2 Id. 408: Lap- 
Urn r. tiiplon.S hi \-i\ ; Saoif>iOii T. Schfger, 
Jd. SQ5: Tliaytr y, )PhiM, IiL L''Jl)i and >« leati 
(u th« pleading fontniu lacl* (ttatcd in ordi- 
nary and conciac laugoBKe) sullicUnl to coaati* 
tuto a oauM ot Mtion or UeteDM, lo^ ea •onl- 
lahl*, tli»y AM good: Oram r. AUrleK SS Id, 
n20. Tlic luodo of trial of difTurgnt ola«»t« ot 
iitMjt ia iirovitlttd for: Seu. 992. See Punuiruy oa 
R«rnedio*, acta. 900 ctaeq., where arc Bxjiluneil 
til* type* of ploadlng in *ogue when tlic r«' 
foniiail proutdurii wa« atloptoil, aad tbo prJntri. 
|ile« of tlip n4« nyxtem an atatod. 

Oounta.— Cndtr the oodo. and Miwcially 
iindvr «uMii'i>ioa 'i of tho atioTC wcllon, tlM 
plaintiflmay art outhiafnol* iu didercnt fonua 
when thvrQ ii a fur and reaaouatila ilouht of hi* 
sbility to aafi-ly ploail thein iu uue DiMlaonlT: 
\niionv. ^oiifA. fllCal. 300, 

Pacta, all must b« allOsaa-All the maM- 
rial fivcta mnaticnting tbo oauae of notion or 
dvTouic munt be alloctd: Orrtm r. Palmtr, 15 
CU. 414; UMfMtt v. L*w. ft Id. Olfi: JfroiM 
V, Slrldnia, 14 Id. tOfh, Strin-i'-r v. XXvo'i, 30 
Id, 3'X. And tbia l* nuaC impurtkut: for if a 
pleO'Iin^t doca not show n gnal oau>o i>f action 
or dufeiMiiv not only i* It IndondoiuDrrcF: Sec. 
430. Bobd. 8; loo. 4*4, «nUI, 'i; Orrrn ». I'riliafr, 
15 Cat 414: bnt a jatl^^Io»tfoun<UllonacoRI• 
p!lu□t dcftcttTo in thia reapout will be r«i-<>n«t 
on appeal: Urucdict v. Orag. 2 Id. 2of!! iboujjh 
uoob^octionwaa taken below: ItaHrll v. ISyiWi, 
Id. Mil 'or tho objoctian that a eoinploint dm* 
notatalii fact* aulh don t to conititnlc a i^niuoof 
action in not iiiUifd by ni>t auawonug or do- 
marHo^ Soc- 434. Maltorsof iuli»tancocKiiiu>t 
loan exhibit: /km An-jtI't v. fiiyne*'!, 50 Cal. 
3!)S: wt auui. 447. **S, /'u>I. A dvfortiro nllo- 
IjaUon ai a lort may bo curr-l liy ilvfautc nr vnr- 
diot: Kh*mII t. JV<»r, 4'2 Cat i'o\ hut nut M 
thenntircahteneoof any alleuntiou «-bat(«>(n'«r: 
Ifrnlfh V. Portrr, 10 Id. QU; and it niimt be 
borne in tuiud in thii oMinection that «i-i>l(>nce 
oannot be (^t'cn an to fact* not allcgeil in tbe 
plM4<i>pi >"'' ■'■'■->i i' It I* aitmittnl in urror, 
neilhor It nur ttipulktlionit aa to the (acta of a 
ciuo vau make tlie oaM broader tluui it i> by 
at)v).i>tiou: nor can a p>rtr by more force o( 
(•Ota aiimitloii or prnrol brconie rntitlDd to 
relief to wliioh lio WMikl not lini'r Uoo mlitlcd 
hail bia oiae been rmiolvd i>nly hy K'^o^ral de- 
murrer interuoawl ta Iht' ului.diiiio' iit"-'" ^''leh 
bervlit>)i//l(Air.J/iirr<v,43ia.i>£:. I'laLiitiff 



Our. ILl 



ouuioB nly on iltcffitloni lii • «ra«»«nniiktnt 
aa HlaUiiK a CM*« of 111:6011 in hU baliau, fnr 
Uiu noMui thai ■ puty "liu wvk* raliif niuiit 
kimMtl lUle til* licU ujiuu itlikh h« raliu (or 
it: Jltreier v. Uirit, 30 Id. SSS. It would «Mn 
Uiai it i» not ncMMwy to aakt ■ dnvot aver' 
K«nt of tbe «iMt«iMe of a fMt whkh appoan 
b]F aoMMktj iiif*raiua dnwa from tfcc (acta 
•(•t«a: At^iioMk r. //oimtr. 45 Id. D1& Bui 
tba pUintid'a nlUffoia anil probtUa miirt cor- 
rMpooil: Soc*. 4C£^T>. u!<l ocitu. 

ntat«riAl teds only must be «U«ted.— 
JfotkiBB of as afflrmatirc character, t(i?yi>i>i| 
wbat tEo party ninat tuvvo, la Mcouary ru a 
nlMillnu: brtn y. faimtr, Ifi CaL 4)4; A'inftA 
V. AifiimW, 10 U. -ISl. 

AUrf^tiona iiMtrlwl for tfa« porpoa* of {iit«r- 
MpCtiie ami cullini; uEF a ilrfcnw nr« luiHtrQii- 
otiA ai>^ iminAt«rial. Ttie matter aIlcK*u may 
be material in tha eoae, bot uiuDaterial lu tM 
MfiujiUiat, uid a plAintill caonot. by pkailing 
•noli a inMt4.*r at tAc oataet, col) npon tlic d«- 
(cuituii to aotwer it. Tb« object of ukL a 
p'TUiling i* to put Ui« advcrae party upon bii 
Mill wtitluiat mabin)) him a witncu, and the 
cfft<ct o( alluwlnj ii noukl Ih: to cttabUiili a 
iy«Irai of illsravrry iu conflict with th« 4tatBt«^ 
for Uic Uatiuiony of thaadvaru party can W 
taken Ity d^pMitlon: K«u. 2CCl,/«irf; Ca«J<«lH 
X. Tobiat, -tl Oal. 3fi0, 351. Kuuo but tHMbl* 
iMia ilMalil ba atatci). If thb part of thu nils 
b* riolatml, tho aitTetae pity may move to 
■Uikv out tho nacMcntial partai Sm. 453, and 
MOl«^ Tlio foUovriiix qacadon will dotornine in 
STCry MM wliethor an ^lafpatlon be naterial: 
Cui the all«tntion ha itriclun fron the nlMdlog 
l>itb"utlMvti)giliiuuffl<:i«atT See. 403. It r*. 
MitU [runt what ba* boa aUtedi 1. Tbal tho 
ulMd«r in«»t iutrit in LU jilnuliug wbaloixr 
M b to proT«i '2. That lio RiiMt iuiN^t uo 
aSitDotiv* allujatioii vhkli li« i* uot to 

Erave; and 3. Tluit wbat )iv <Ioo« jaMrl muat 
I dtuiaiT« uf aumo poit of ttie duo. uuc way 
or Ibo other: Grrt»v.Palmtr,i5Ca.].ili. 

VttSmUM, not piob*tiTa> facta ab&old b« 
•UogadL All ■talementB mn*t h« «on«i«oly 
Mtidev and wbon oneo maJa *faoaM not bo re- 
peated. If an tminaterial ■tatooMOit bo in- 
wrtol, or cvca ao unnect»»ry won], tho oonrta 
liaTc lb« puw«r to itriko ft out, Ti> BTold 
rcpotltloa, w wsU a* to Dbtaln ooii<:im*iic*s, 
fcioknl W«r it MoeaMry: Orrtn v. fWiwr, 19 
Cm. 414. Whore the uomplaiiit allp^l Ibat 
pUiutJJfi were tntiiUd, by virtoa of priev ap- 
lirupfiatioa, U> all ^io valur lluwiiig Id the 
uaOoo at tbe liMil of a ditcH, anO tliu defend. 
aatadirwted tbo water to thvirfhimage, it waa 
held Ibat tfan allegution uu laSicicnt, aoil it 
woa not nminMij to ftate whether tho iratcr 
WM sappUod at that polut by oiu or mora 
mailer •Iroauw: PrirM v. Vuiam CVaof Co., 
Id. 171. Aflerwarda, In a ca>o wbtre plaintiff 
only aIl*teMl that he wna the "owner" of proji- 
arty, the court aalil tfatt that wa« a lejpl un«t. 
cUiiun, and that Ivn ahould have atateil «onia 
Iwoalile (out by wliivh it woulil a|m«r that ho 
WSA tl>(> OB iier: Dyf \; Out, II M. iCS; Thvm/u 
X. Ifttmoml, \2 Ilnw. S3l[ that tho itcfcDilnot 
ball a rij;tit to li« infonBCil by the complaint 
bow ttrt) plointilT I>(c(Liiio the owDor of Ihe tlo- 
nia»<l. wbether by purdiaM, tuBifftiiuMt, oner- 
■tiou of Uw, or lutw otbcruUr: that khoo (act 
ur facia aliodd havd iioon »tal«d by which it 
woakl have apmarod how hi- Ikk^dio •iivli 
ownori i)y«'v. JD^, 11 Col. IWi BmMll v. 

Ciapy. 7 SarbL 48S: Btittiry «. ^oun, 4 How. 
Pr. dOSi titilvnvf r. rAoma>, 9 M, 14; 
Parkrr v. TvOra. 10 I<l. 233. II 11 aubmitl«>l, 
bowcrtur, titat an alle^tioa tlut jiUiDliGTia tbe 
'*ownor,~etc., i* aD allegation o( an Uuinble 
fact, ntiJ that the deciiioM Hkenthinol below 
havvuvermlnl tbceawo(Z')wv.2)y<,*ui>r'ii. It 
wa<. (er ciample, beld thai tbe facta nio»t ha 
carefaUydidingniihtd from tbe evidence ol tbo 
facia. Tbe latter tiortalai to tbn trial, anil bu 
no place In tho ploadiug*. Jlat InoMnucb aa 
tbe wiUcQoe ia but a aoriei uf (afU, It baa 
■omoiiaica bean tlioniibt difficolt to diatiajptlali 
balweon tha grMtar (acta which ou^ht Ut ba 
act (orth Jn a pkaduig ainl lliove otliur tJiA 
lawer facta which gn to nruve tlia fornief'. Thn 
court mid tb«r« ought, however, tu bo no cnt- 
barraaament to any one who uoideratanils •(«- 
cioi vonlicta. Tbe rule wu •■ oU aa Ihuir 
eurtcncv, that tboy moat conbiin tbo (a>j|a 
found, and not the evidence to proiu tlttnn: 
Ontm V. Pnfmer, IS CaL 414. Oi llarrii v. 
HUlryat, (V* Id. 4C3, it wm declared tbat of eii 
where a atalemeut of evldontlar)r facia wkuIiI 
oatablUh f/rima fat^ ao ultimate or pleadabla 
fact, Ibey cannot ba tobatitutcd in a vileaillii( 
(or an alluntioii of the (act to bo put In iwiiia, 
A ituoauon arcaa n|N>a a complatni whivb 
aUegod that the iMtatof was aMMil aad pM- 
meatd of certaiu prtDiiMa at iKo time of^bU 
il«ath,oii tliu uiiinlixutliuf July, ISli5, au>l tluiC 
tile pUiiililfi were appointed the exeoiilon uf 
hia liut will luitl toatameut, witbout aveiriug, 
iu direct terina, cither prerioualy or anlnD- 
qocDlly, the fact of Ibetettator'adMlh, in tliut 
he I«[t a laat will a:>l tuaioincnl. Tw. • ■•-<'. 
botil that tbo ouDipluint aliutilO liavc 
■taith oi the tcaialor. hi* iMtiup: ri 
and tc>taiiiaiil, ll>oapi>uii.'.i 
plnintifra at cvvciiloia, tli' 
tile iwiiabce of letlera lc<?iuiii< 
and their ijualitiaitioo anil cntij. 
cbaiUD of theil dutiti aa exc. . . '. 
r. Mtztr, IQ Cal. £77. This caae W d'jiibiina 
cotrtctly doddod: for cxcoator* and adnuiui- 
tmtora liold apocnliar poaltion with repid 
to the catata of tbo dooedeat; and otpi.>t;iull,f 
bia real ealato: Sec I4S2. In a caae 
In which rtapondent claimed that it wtia 
an «>itutty loit. and tliat unilrr thv riilo* of 
oiiiity hi' hod a ilcht to act uii luultvr* mi-My 
u/ vi'idunon in ordn tu obtain tho uiawcr of 
tbu oppoeing parliea to aiicli facie, to hu wwA, 
agltinat tbcm at (h« trial, llie eonrl siid llinl 
under the coila we have but one ayatvnt of 
mtea rcapeoting pleading*, which (fjovcrna all 
«u«, lioth at law and in eijuity: tluii lb« 
former dUlinctioiui which cxiitcd between 
uoiuiiioii'law and equity pleodin^ no tonj^cr 
oxlat: Uiit in iwtliiii; fi.4th tho faetao( a oaac, 
wLkh, niiilci the I'M iiractlcc, would hni-a 
bacD properly bruuyht iu ■ oourt of «|iiIIt, 
llivy wore goiionlly »WxA in 11 luoilo aCinilnr 
to the ktatonicDla in a l>ill in cliiuiotry: nu>l ti> 
thin thete could be no objwlion no hin;; lui lite 
principle of tho ooitc which i«|uiT«i« ihu Iiiuta 
to be itated io or>1iiiary and ooncia* biiK<>a;[« 
fa not violatcil. When Ibo plevlcr gtH« tm- 
yond tbii, oud nttcmpta In intnxluoe Ilia 
peculiar lornial allcjjntiona, xavay of wliiJi 
vera moro lictiniia, fuund in tbe old foTDiaof 
■I IU.*!! ration* in c<-iiinioii.Uw aciiou. or bilU in 
o'lniiy. hia pluiutiiijt ia liable to tlic objoctlun 
of invlvvaii^y. aiiiltho objectionable moitt-r 
alionld be vliKkwn out, on motion. Iu tlia 


• 4M 


pIotII. Trnz VI. 


cue ou'Ier <}!»mRriDn. Ili« plFadrr Iixl at- 
tMUfti-J I.O oLtain a <iiae(i\ptj, uinlcr oalli, lijr 

lif itnKiaD 4(7 of tbc oU proctico Act, urbicb 

nroviddUtaWiilchctiioovciyCDDld UcobUtillcd. 
liy irxaoiLntiix tbo party ai n-jtncu; m to 
w'liiuli, (DC Et^/rly v. £[M>>^HaHo. 'JO Cal. 4H9! 
/JvuTit V. JiiAny. fj liL IMHl. Tlin nvctioii e( 
liiv jjwti'ic HuL uImio ciJetnd to luia bmii re- 
itntlwil mill bvvur rW^UMUil; liut km •octioii 

In tlif Dcit c^Me it wu hvlrl that wbi^ro tbo 
pliiiQlid iiicrsly oUiigHd that b« wk< tliu uwn^r 
of (XHtiiii «o«<I bf wna >t libntx on the trii^ 
tu iiroio buw he Inkhoo tbn mmort anil bu 
iiioiId of aliegatioo *ta« dutinctljr approved by 
Ibe uuurl Ortmn v. H'iMen, 23 Ou. \W: and 
in A ouL- f.iunJcil u|inn « **r«Milatio]i of intcD- 
tioii." where the ollcgntiaB «a« u follow*: 
" Hat on tlic twenty Kcoond dfijrof Jnnuiirjr. 
1800, the board o! onixTiviion of ukl<l city and 
ouuBtT, dt>«inliig U cxi-futiriit, dnly iiuuto and 
[OMM a m()luiLau,"«tc.. tbo vuiirt uld tli* 
irftiiiut* or iwunbio (itut wwt thnt Uw roaolu- 
twn WM paaod; tbo faot* or act* whivb lay 
btbjiul. aoil traiia]<iniil brion or wbild tb« 
rmotiitiun woa being imutcl. wm prolialii-e, 
and nut only n«>cl nut he allcj^. but oaght 
UUt tobcallc-^il, Siv. 150: thftl probativ-c facU 
bkil no pWc in a p1cit(lui;j', ami would be 
(trickcn out oD motion: Mitfj v. ilcDrmolt, 
31 IiL 313. Again: tbo •upromo court, In 
auolbcr owe. Mid Cbat nlaoillnfi inerw ciidcnco 
vru n iiKnk of liihlug tor tcittntuiiy nut uoun- 
tEuniictil by out iiyaUni u( pRtL-tii^t; tbnt if Ibo 
pluuti9rvi]airtd lh« Icatinicm^ nf tbo du(«nd- 
lutl, tbo proper rumI* uf obuiaing It iru to 
pnt til? d^vntknt upon IhwtUird aoairiUioM: 
tbiiC •b<t<iiiilAnI WM not bound to amivror dl 
■ii.itlci^ ol vvidrnuo wbicb tho pbiiatiff cboae 
to allrg«i that tbo oflico of a oomplaint U to 
avi't tha iimlCTijl iioiiabli- laula tibxib cooati- 
Iut« the r.iiuc uf aclion. nud not tho «vjdcoco 
to prove tluiM! fnctn; lirv.oitilfol v. HtHt, 3'1 Id. 
4U>: iKi: VAri-w v. Ifffw. fli Id. M3. 

\Vii<re, in grruitlng a lioniuit, tho court 
l-clnu' iiclcil npon tbo iilca thitt iMcauMi tho 
I^nu-tii'C lurt rt>'|iilr(!il tbo pbklntlfT to *tKt* tho 
bi>.-t>i »b]oh ounititiilrjl bin caow ofaotion, it 
«»• nvconaty fcr hitn, i( b» rrlioil upnn prov- 
ing a Irvapoaa ooinmiltvd by an olBocr, a» 
■iMrilToT maralial, tliroiigb hii du^iiity. to itAto 
thr ulTiciol uhanicln' of the ilcb^ndant in hii 
compbiint, and uliarjjo the treajuas oa bavius 
U^'o Lomoiitlr-I thxiugU bu dvpoty, thooearc 
aaiO tbo uliininlc fjui nadoablcdly wu tho 

(umlciuion of the trenpaaa by Iho di^i'n^bint; 
tlial ii, ibat bo urnntod and iinprlnonol tbo 
plaialilf witbout prubablo uauM or hiwfid 
authority to do ao. Tlis probalivo tnel* by 
uhi-ih thin wna pniTcd wkm llw ofllcini clittiwj- 
lor iif UiK ilcfirndaul: that thv (orty inoliiDg 
Ihoarmt uu bin dc^xilyj and tbnt btf niadu 
tlt<- nrnot >>> »i'c-)i ultlinut pruUibl« cuuao at 
bii> fill antborityi Ihal tbo met oonatitutuia tiio 
cn.iM.' iif iivtiun w.-i* that of tbo dofendAUt; 
kiitl tliMii^-b ilu(ii> tbr<ici{;b c. deputy, would Ihi 
t>>i»I>lTrcd ill Iaw oh done diivclly uid pDmon- 
ally bv biui. ni\d wiia prupcrlr ta nMrivA; 
ll„:\' V. l:au<l. sa Cnl, 31*. 31S! and in an 
aulixii brought by an MnifnM la baiikrnptoy, 
iLv i iiiirt licM that n danmrrtir to Uio ooin- 
pliiiiit 'niu iicopcrljr ovcrmUi), The oomplaint 
BtAio.1 that the pUiuliffwaa oaxl^noa in bank- 
raptcy, bnt th« <mn *aid Itat mixht U: 

trtatoil iM BnriduMgo, nr at mmt >.• a >fn--rifitU 
pfrvxtr, nail niiglit bu dixrvgantud wilhuue 
impuiTinu tbc snQioioacy <4 tbo cvcnplainti 
that iinocr a Ken«nil •Tcnni.'ut in lb« eoiu,- 

flaint that " tbo plaintiff waa pManwd. m of 
la own property, of tbo (^whIb and chaltd* 
cnnmoraMd, pUintiff waa cDlitlcil to ahow by 
prniit that tie bud iwiuired tbo titl« by mwinl 
of Ui(i ii[Tioi<uiiliiitii in bankruptcy. TbcMVM« 
probHtxo iiict* nut nccfury to be avcnvd in 
tbo ciimpbiiiit, ThoBltijnalcfaottolaiiirovoiI, 
nad nhi<-b wm nwrrvil, wua tliat tho titlo waa 
in tbo pUiatiIT,nnd it wns unuoi-jtuary tO»t»t« 
in tbo complaint how bo aiHinlrod it. In Mtit* 
by or a^unt riocutora oTsdniiniatralon, lh<'ir 
Tt^ht to auB or be moil rnaulta by opvration of 
kw from tho nation which thoy oooupy 
toward tbo Mtate; «ttd thla iwktion muat fa* 
aTwrod, and proved if dtfiuodt bat in pro«eud- 
InK* tn tunkniptcy, Iho logil titto vcBti in th« 
AMignuo nndor thu uAip^nment. Wbatovcr 
rig;lit tbo banfarapl Iml it auaoncd to an<l vnta 
in ttio wdgue*, vhi,> tbcrrbylWonica. for tbe 
purpoaa of iiiamtaininti nr >lc(ciidm|j aiiita, 
"jHMMiMFd, HI of bi« own |iniporty,' uf tho 
catato osiigncd tu him. Il i" tnii^. bo hub)* 
tbo title and tho property wlicn r<-'W<iri>l In 
tiuit for ccrtAin puiposcs apvciNH in tlii> utiyt- 
uln: but u IwtWDcn him and a tilinii^-'ir be 
hobia the title, and may aawnt it in tbv unmo 
furin nf action a< Iboujib ho owned thu lout 
I)amf»naun r. WtiiU. 4^ Id. 130. 

Iti ^ii> canii Ihr court went (o far oa to aay tho tnrtit were n:>t to In, Of at l«ut need 
not bo, ■■•parnttHl onlirtJy from tho law by the 
pleaJor. and that Ihoy uonUl not bo withont 
greet and most danio^iuy prolixity: tliat In 
this aa welt u in most thing* Ihonry ami prac- 
tioe were compelled to inout earb nthur half 
way for the ■oko of aClAinablo gooil, nud that 
tbo laat nnitlyai* brtwitn law and fact waa 
uauolly mrulc by tlio judge nt the triJilt .Wild 
V. rAom/MOit, .14 Cul. Ill: but this wonid avoin 
ilim.-tly nppiBiiHl l-i the •tatute. tor ita uunla 
■re ilitCinct: "A ■Intiiinaiil of the faaU coOEtJ- 
tutiug llio tun"* iif Klitin; " and thU irill ap- 
pear inor*i foTciblo when il l» eonfidcred tllat 
one of tho oflicua of pltadbK '* to nilae sqi- 
amW (itwa. 5SS 592) iMOM of ia«t and law, tfio 
former to bo decided by the jury, tho latter by 
tho Gonrt. In jnnr ou«a it ii mutl ini|>>>nant 
that tlio iaiuoa of fact ahould be piontadly 
raiaol tn tlio nlcadloaa ao u tn avuLd tbc Kroat 
prubnbility which oxiata of miitakr in wrinrat- 
Uig the tai!t4 from tbo liiw in the hurry nf 
tiiri print. It WM uxi'f>i»ly hold in Omn v, 
/'almrr. IS Id. 414, tliAl a l*t(nl Infcronoe or 
Gooeluaiou from the (ncU »houbl nnt bo aUUclt 
that that waa not Iho province uf tho plead- 
ingB under our ayateni, which wat to develop 
tho laeta, and it U wuU xrliliJ Ihit oaclti- 
Kiaue at law abontd cot bo alleged: thil'* Ftnl 
Ifoirr Co. V. .Uotnx-v. 12 id. BSts Doyff r. 
PhaniX tat. Co., 4* Id. a»; Stabn r. 0:Mr». 
411 Id. t7. An rxcrntion baa beta luivde where 
thooonutie framed In indtbUtUiuawinjiiU (ne 
«»o. 438. not^ below), but tn no other caw. 
It WM Mil that the wont "duly," in an nnr. 
went aUting an act to bavo Iwirn "duly" 
done, win »iir[ilut.-igei (WiV/AJon v. Pra^/j. 21 
Id. 119; and that ptnciwlin^ whi'^h hnd no 
validity in conic<|aelico<^f an ialMtvbt iiifirm- 
ity in tlio ulatule nnder which lh*y ercru lutd 
arc not cared by the a-Mtj^tioa Ijltt th'y wore 
duly and legally hul: t'tofU v' tl<uli'ig', 2D 



cuAP. n.i 



III. -ir>.1i ICO ifilft V. MeDfrmofl. 31 Til. ST:!; 
■ii4 ll WM •llcrirnnlii hcUI. In a •oi>ri«>'l»t 
fi c<i1lar avtioii i'lt n viit i:-f iiiniulHto, lliat 
ftv*nii<Tiil> 1b ■ coaiplHiKt, tlitt miliTn allowing 
an :w4x>iint b»-I UirixUii^ lliv auititor U ilmw 
U« vamuit f«« ttia Mitiio " wok iluly L-ivcn 
•ihI hmI«," wan «ulliclcDt to iliow th< juria- 
itiutien of • iNMrr] of >u|-vri-iMn to ilirTCt > 
wnBlf warruil to Im iHiU«il, that tlii-rv wns 
■MOOFV in tliD Ircniniry, thul b tax bail li«ti 
kvieO. uwl tiMt no d«tit had been crMteil wbco 
Iko Mcount wtu tdlo«^, wliich, addeJ to the 
MliriM ti the oaeon. oi{iib1i:iI tbo •nponto 

wo Mv. 4na: MO aba l\]niiinjy on BanedlM^ 
MO. f/M -vi'*. 

AJEument *hnii1il nne In lii«erlA<(1, iior 
■fanuM iiiatirr uf luw. It ww lii'M iiunvom- 
Kiy to &11<|(* iu a comiilaiut lli*L ijlaintilT 
wu tb« «u«o<MM>r in iDlvrrat of tJii> citj of 
Sacmnrata, tbM haviui; bocn JocUrBd by i.Ut' 
Mtri ^nnyr■m(» r. Bird, 31 L^l. T3. 

IVfciiiluii w entitled to k liiilintt stntcmcat 
ot tlic fiLtt* cluimoil to DXiit by plaintiff, nml If 
tl>e complniiit tnftkea •icnncnt* altvroutiidj', 
niul ■■ ifnriufrcrl to u aiiibiguoui. it in do no- 
niiw to My llinl if dthcr >TRrTiiciit i» tiud 
{•Iniiiiitf hu olli'i^pil acannoof kcllon: Jami-on 
T, A'»y. .'-O Cat. I3(i) Mabo I BctMoii fl«ail- 

iiiiC. PI'. U1 et Ml). 

toito»-(- ■ 

'Ctxlqr the old commnii'law tyKtHii 
till) riilv ir«» tl<»t IIk> p1'-a<tin;0 miift l>avu cer- 
ttinly of timci Stelib. PI. ll U <ibvtuu| Ihftt 
■mlvr uiy ayitcm. capKiolly whvrv a itatnt« 
of lii»it«t>aiw caiat*. tlicre must be soinc luch 
luU. lu Ml ncticiD for alMider. wbctc tho coin- 

flatiit chartf«ii that cm tho twcntyninlh ot 
■ity. IMiM. tlic ilcr«n>Unt cal!«<{ the jiliuiiUIT 
" B lltlnf," nn the trial jimot uo* mnila of Ul« 
ultoruicr* ilarinct a i-vrltnl it tlma ruyiofi 
from tlirn niuuth* to throw ]Owr« Uitont tiilt 
Wk* broiijiht. The court taiil thnl tli* tlnmlur- 
OUH irurilii oil wbicli tlie aution woa fuumlc'I 
weiD Bufliciciilly proved mbatnnllally osallcgvil 
in Iho uDinpLuul, and thnt Ibtro boj proof 
loDiliog to iliuw tint they were >iioken nillijn 
one year liofoio the c-tfln men cement of the 
Action; tlint ll <va« nnl ncccaiarv tliat the; 
ibouU hare been *hovn to havo ^wrn tpoVna 
m tb* proclio <Uy *ll(ig«Ll in the complaint; ll 
UM lutBctMit that thajr mr* apokcn within ao 
T*c««l » {iMriod M to aivlil tbvlftr of tb* itnt- 
uto ot'tn thouiili the Ktatiilo bad 
biWU rtlied uixin iu the aoxncr oh a i^frvcno, 
lioil luoh ilcfenw bren xrl u]i, ooA lli«iit wu 
no error in a<lniittinj proo4 of tha tpcakiag 
(4 thfiworiU at miy time before the ooramenco- 
munlf^r ilMaetion: Xorrii\:EtIlot,30Cj.l~i. 
In Bii a^on on ncooant for aorvicoa rendered, 
where Ibn i-oiiipluliit nllt^jad the Kitioni Vero 
rMtdfTiiil brturrii lw>> ipteillol ilaya. it Wtta 
livlil ihiit ili'i'iH iii'i^itrtiiig on either of the two 
<Ib}'« inwnlioiivl witn> not liiltiin tho nllijKHtioii 
ot tlM< eoini'lainl; Tfld v. J/ym. 40 Id. 3.35. 
Whero in eneb iKnint of thu oomjiluint thfre 
ma an M-onnent tliaton the twenty seventh of 
A|>HI, 1S.VI. thf ill FenJnut u'ai iDilebt«d to tb« 
)>UitnlilTiii*ai<rfilkdinm.aiidpro«niainl to pay 
it but inoiU <U-.'Hutt. wlucUnlk-gntioQi tbe do- 
fondanl •liiilol Kriiui^ly. tho court lield the 
nreciw day hu i)i>t itialeiini and nocil not linve 
beta jirovrd: llVmnii v, S-tH /'nuifiirn, 44 T<l. 
fiOCh *M alft> I ItitiH on I'ltailiiiji. p. 1 4.1; and n 
dlMoaaton of the wvllknonii rnlo <4 the old 
^^|■t«m tliat beta «hould be itaMdwItb o«r- 

taiiiiy of tlma Mid pLwo, In tUiM on Cade FL, 
tuo. 236. 

Abbrwtottom and tiumands: See. tSS. 

Cooatntotioiii of plMdlosi to ba llb«ale 
Sec. 433. 

&TOra and a*f*Ots to be diireganledi S««. 

u trua: See, 462, 

Frocaadlnss In Spankfa lanctuee: Srm, 
Itu. lOX. 

Gtanrtcvof compUdot; Set. 4liX 

8«v«nl c«n»8B otaotlou, uniting: Situ 47T. 

PlOttdlu^lO pUtlGlUar cases -Account 
ItMn* of. Deed not be wl »ul in v-UHplaiuli 
8«u.4.'>4. Hull tor: Sea "AMOcialiunit," "i'Mt- 
narahli>.'' in/m. 

Aocounta fetatol— -An account in writiAg, 
■igncd by the jjirtm. m.iy be pleaded ui ou oo- 
count «lati>d, iiotwitbutuiiline tbe noriU "•>(• 
run excepted," aihloil at tholiottoiii : /iranffcc 
V. Chevalier. 9 Cal. 860. 

To auitoin an nclion on an Mwount nMtiil. It 
moit be tiiciWD there wai a donuuKJ in fuvr>i- ijt 

SilalntiiTaccctUd to by defendant. And if lU- 
?liilaut iloca not object to tlio aceoilTit a* pr«-' 
acntcd wilbin a Ttaaonalile time, bin fiilfiico will 
Im) an ulmlailen nf ita oam«liit«): 7Vi7y r. 
SirUt'. 13 (M. 427. 

It the eomi>Iaiiit oouata upon a balani:!* doe 
on an optii, mutual, luid cunwnl accoiinl, Iho 
pUinliff cannot recover tnoneyi due aoaBpecial 
contract in ralatiou to maltera not inctuded In 
the mutaal ai:«)unt: lIojAint v. Orrult, Al Oal. 

Admlnlatrator may bring troT«T for prop- 
erty taken licfoiv dcotb: Sec I6A£. A com- 
plaint ill an action by an ulminlttntor ap- 
pnintcd ftft'r the rvaignallon of a fimoM 
aJmiuiiilriitiir, wliich avorml lli« liauc of lot< 
ttn to the fiicinri- ailmiiiittTntor. that b? i|<ial- 
ilied and I'ntwni] upclli Iba discharg* uf Iho 
trust, thnt lix ivti^iicd. and liio rolgnation 
nni occt'plcd by Ibc probate court. an<l that 
the |ilaintiff uaa afterwania appoinleil ailniin- 
istmtoT, and <]ualilicd. and that Irtlm w^ro 
Uitied to biin, wiw hild aulHcient: iar'iH r. 
Told, 28 Cat. 183. Aa to action by adniinla- 
trator, etc.. tor canaing death: Sec :iTT. A* it 
rule, no action w ill lin ai;Bin*t an exrcutor or 
ad ininialrator to which hu tcatator or tnUutato 
WM not liable: 3 W'iLliani* on. KxcuuttTn^ mk. 
1479. &» to tortiv unlen a tort w»> •-.oiwnitted 
by dootnacd, no obltgalioii \» incnrrvl by the 
calato which oan aFrvs aa a huts tor a valid 
olaim aiiaiii*t it. 

No action can bo Ruslainud Dgaioat an exM> 
titor or adminiatnitor ai lucli oa a i«iul otal' 
ute; norwlicu the cauoc ot action is fontided 
npon any malfeaanncc or inlafcaMineo, U a tort, 
or af Udi rx il'lirlit, ancli aa tmpaaa, falao iu- 
priaoBinont. OMunlt ami battorv, tJander, de- 
ceit, dii'itrtlnjc a watori'ourao, etc., when tlic 
complaint iiniintttt a tort dono to pcnkM) or 
gaifh uf anotlivr t>y tlie lmtati>r or iotratate: 
KtMntt V. J^ihtit, 39 fal. 21; 'l \Vdliam» on 
Eiecntora. a«i-». 1470, 1171; R'A^fZ/ji v. A'ln-', 
1 Sandf. 216, note I; P-Ofif v. OM; Wend. 
20. Morvover, do aclioii oan Ih> ninint.une<l 
npon acliiini agairiit kn e<late nntil t^le Kiinn 
haa been duty preiK^nted to Ihc adniiiiittraUir 
U:t ullowanoe, and by biin diuUowed or rs- 
lainTd (or man than ten ilaya withcnit iiidotac. 
■npiit of hia dodkton thereon. Tliat tbe doinauil 
or olaisi i» for luiUquiJatoil ilasiagca 1* no rwt- 



OP civn. Acnoxa. 

[PaiiT n, TiTLH VI, 

BOD Fm nukfnc Et an •xwptiont Stuiaet v. 
Johni, 3S CbI. XI. If one or ureraJ (miwIIm 
dtp, liii nocaton maj' b« Jolnnl « Itti » part of 
Uie ■iirctJiM in an aoliou njpiuBt them for aoii- 
tritiution: OuiMt t. Bngnirr^, BO Id. 4B«, 
Th« ^Mtal rlgbt to lue ua adcniiiiitratdr i* 
takta avay by th« itatute, rx«cpt in cue of 
pTOMuUtion and rcicctioD <4 the uccotuiE, and 
a comnlalnt which (Iocs not net oni th»e fitctM 
I« •liMiKirrAMo: fttll*vH r. tiallrrk, « Id. 301; 
llnitr>,\. I'ortT, lOIiL.'iTiQ: Itarrtngfrv. War. 
tir^. ri Id. 3U; uid »«« »cc». 1 4a3-8, !>»«(. 
KiPclin«ntbyadiniDi«tmtori SoH{it/>a,"^oi;t- 

ABMOdnvont of plMdlos*: S«o. 473, 473; 
ct comlilaiat: .Soc. 43". 

Aaa^Qm«Dt of ahoBO tn aaHoa-, Sra. 30^ 

AModation*. ~A complaint avtrred that 
ptkiutilT ncil a tiunilvr of uthcr pcnon* formed 
a joint'iilcwk ooimiajiy, known un the "Miner*' 
Ditch Compasr, to conitrnct a ditch for water 
In oerlalB mining lotnlltiai: tliat tlio alock <4 
tfas company wa* to ba i«nrcaDnt«d by »harM 
laiucd St oDa liundml diularn (laeh, of which 
.ilatntiirouiiiHl icvcnty, making him the iirin- 
cijwl ttocttlioI'W: thiit the ditch voa linisliod, 
ac'l hu'l bprn •Irlivvrinj; n'atrr to ininrn Inr n 
Log lime I that defcndanto, by paicbaaii from 
tomu oi tho onginal atockholaara, were then 
the holder* d twcnty-thr«o ihana of atock, 
and [cfuiwd to rcaognLui plalntiiT ataatock- 
bntder Id the company, or ai in any way tiit«r- 
nrteii in tlio pro3>erty or tmalneii uiarMit, or to 
[idmic him to cicrcUo niiy of the rtylita or 
itiii'lrgo of a ttcckhohlcr. The oomplHtnt 
lu>rli<r avomtd that dcfeDdanla had frsudU' 
|i'ti!l) L'ouplml toAOthor luinjunl plaint! IT aad 
to itrpiivu liini of hia richt*, hy peniiiltins the 
AlMi and pr«nerty of the oaiii)Niuy to \n lold 
for taii-n. nhilo Said dufmdautii had in hand 
tiionry iiiil inaanii of the company more timn 
■iiflii'ivnt tn pny^ mich taxea; that the dil«h, 
etc..wnalKiughtin at tiietiut nlobyonoot tho 
dcfcndanta in hi* own namo, but with th« com- 
pany'! monayi and that tha dafondant tiMn 
cUimi'l to he the wlo owner by rtrtae of tJie 
■hrrill'i rifed in pursuance of mchtale. Itvaa 
Ik'1.1 lliitt the complaint iihow<Nl a title to relief 
on lli« ^ronud nf ptaluiiff'a interett a* a itook- 
huldvr or inrtiiNr tn Uie joint-ilot^lc company 
moiiiioned tlifrviD, cnlitlini; him, tf the aicr- 
rii'i^U wen) proved. lo a deem afllrmini:; lita 
iiil-'fiMt and difvrting an oceonnl: Smilk v. 
/'nr.v, 17 C'al. 178. 

Attorney e«liOT«il, InCMaMtloa by.— Tlie 
eottitionsulctedUKattomoy-ftetttiral had power 
to til« ail iiifoTOUitioQ in llie iianio of lU« peo- 
ple, and in the nature of a bill In chanMiy, to 
annul a patimt of l.iniU Kiantatl by the tlat«, 
but lh« null wiu diiiniuud on other ground*, 
nn-l the oonri mid thK |»rly in iutoreat in mtoh 
criM^ nil][hl maititalri nn ni;iii>n in Ilia own name, 
and tliS^>>y onnld altiiiii to the name end in 
otlri't that cudid hoaeaoinpliilind hy a |TracHnl- 
iiij; ill llin naiTiP i>t lh« peopio of the itato npau 
hi* ii'luli'in; and that ronrae be1t<Tr accorded 
nitli the -lyotCTn of procedure protiitcil In tllO 
rtalf: /'n/Jr V. WnUlou, SI Cnl. 24e-a3a. A* 
Vi llvr uiH) of the name of the poopla gtaenilf: 
S«. SC7. n>rto, 

Bacikrapt, aaiigueo of, action by: Se« "Cl- 
limalc F*Pla,"«te, 

Bood-'nie oomplalut ahouM be upon the 
bond, aettiim out tbo ccBditioo oaugaiog 

brcaohca, and nnylng for the doM aad dam- 
a«M: AiJwr v. r.Wniraff, 4 CaL IS. 

Clklm And deltverr; iW •or. SOU, ;>o«t. 

CSoud oo tlll«, acticti to n>nioi«; Sccm, 73$, 
lOSOv and noce*- 

CoDtraot. — CotuuiT^Uion atvrrinj.ieArii ron- 
tnKl in uwHing — Aa it ii only nac«a«ary l^r 
n pnrly t^ miiku unch affirma^vo aTtruinnta 
M W is rerjiiin-J to ptor*, and •* a wrilt«ii iu- 
*trumeoti> prcvimptive evidence of a ouniiJ- 
enition. Civ. Code, icc. I9H, if tbo coDtmct la 
al1o(|D>l to Imi in writing, it U uiincocwoiy to 
alloin a ctintridtrallon: McC'irfii v. Bntz-h, 10 
Oxi. 461; WilU T. Km)/, 17 ll 101. UnUu 
where tha performance of the eouMlJomtldu ii 
a eondition ureoedeot: .Ifooncv, Wa'l.lU.'ilhl. 
U-; I ^tind. PI. & Bv. 403: Ch. V\. 303. It 
is cMentml iu a conijdainl on a ooulfoct uot ia 
wiitiDjj that it ihmilil appear that the cuii>iidur- 
atloti WDi legally tuffioiont to tnppurt tha 

Iironilu lor the brtnch of which the aetioii ii 
ir^ouht, citing I Ch. Pt. 20.1; I Saun'l. PI. & 
Ev. 41X1; Liviamy v. McKiUip. 3 Coi. ^SOi 
Ovrnrt v, ftitto, 4 Jnhnt. 211: Baiirjf v. /Vw. 
mau. Id. 3)Wi M"Orr v. iriv^fir, 31 CaL 147. 

Modt af nvrrriKij ronfnwt. — A contract may 
bo deolarvil on accordiuu Ut it* laeal o!r«ct> 
or Ifl hat vrrha: Sloddardy. Trr-ulv^l, 9i Oat. 
mi: Murdoci t, Bir>vl; 3S Id. COS, Wliwra 
tUn o»ntniot ii in nriling, the iniiartion of a 
copy of it in the comoUint ia the nlmplett ai»il 
most tialiafacloiv mode of ■howins to tlie oonrt 
its purport oiiil lesal clffvt 3y *uch b conrta 
oyer Of the iiintminont need not bo roinircd, 
(Ul'l alt poKiihility ii( vnriiivico may 1« ohviatodl 
Jovph V. Uoll, 37 M. S.'>3. If the contract bo 
not Bet out iH liir' ivrlo, defendant may, liy tbo 
rule of the common Ins, in a pniparraiir, cratii 
oyer of thu imttrumeut. and if it appuiir* tlial 
It* )ircni>ion* hnrf Iwua inimtAtol, hv n-.iy ii't 
out the CDntmcC in A»- ivr6a,an<l ili-iuurun lli* 
([Tunud of the Torionpc, Dot when' a jiluirtillf 
Mt* forth the contract in the tcnmi in wliiili it 
ie written, anil then praccod* by averment to 
put a faUn conitrnctlon npon the tonns. the 
aUegatiana, a* repnanaiit to tlic term*, ■hould 
be rei^rded aa eiirpIiiiuijR, to be ■liiiuk out on 
motion: SlotlrInr<{ V. rrf(i>(iiW^20 Id.WK. If 
it nppojin alEiinativvly from the oonipluliit 
upon a written conlraot— here a policy t-t in- 
■arano»~-4lutt all it* term* arc nut tii'tout <u 
Awe vrrba^ not aecorxling u> their legal etn^t, 
thoconipkintiainiuffii'icnt: Oitmonx.tucain- 
tnd/u. (V,MId. 123. 

The form* of coubI* Iri initriiiatiu.ntttmtiuit, 
aa fur good* aohJ »n-\ dcUvciW. etc., are *ufli- 
cient nnilftr onp ptn«t!^v: /V'-Aurm v. Gta^i^r, 
lOCal. 337; ^rl•■Jk V. AV(. 4!) Id. 151. Tha 
prumiae lopayalli'Kii'l oniU^-thc (^ciniuion tonnta 
need not he alli'g^'J under vufHyiti-m mguirliia 
fact* only to be atatoil: H'Wui v, Sli-ljri, CS 
Id. 331. It will not do to unite thu o-nitnim 
connta in one count a* onu cunae of iii.-UDit 
witboat any apeeilioation t>f the luni* iIliv on 
each leTCTDl cnuie; Bwt'-ifjIiarH r. It'n/irt. 14 
Id. 140; Oafli'r r. SeJUa*; 19 Id. i7a[ »e* 
infra, " Inilolutatua A*>iiinj*it." Aa tu effect 
of e«tt)t)u out written iiutlcumvnt, U it* kok* 
uineima I* not denied on natli: Scci. 417-^40. 

/Vrturf*, MaliiU bf. — At voiiimiii kw it wna 
vnniual and uunooeamn* to alli'KO t}iat tlie 
aontraot for the briocb of irhii.'h the action wo* 
brooitfat wiLa«nter«d into in writing. After the 

paitace of the atntulo of fraiula the nil'- «*« a* 
alatoJ in Chttty* Pleading*, 270: " Wtiviu Uie 


Coat, n.] 



Miilm^ mint liAve 1>erai [ii writing ittiiUr tliu 
MUutc of fmuiJt, it i« not ntueuary in lli« iIm- 
hntiuu to ifauit that tact, lliough it iit uiil to 
h* DtliiTWiu in a pica." Tho autboKliei in 
Mpport of this tloGtrine ore very uiimrraus, 
kowtis which may hs citmi: MilUr v. Ihak. I 
C3a. *&; Xilum v. Ihihoi*. la Jolim. IT.S; &•«- 
jntrv, IniufcrV". 4 Id. saT: O'^A. v. .Vu<A. 4 
S»rb. 449: MartM v. ilefadia. 4 Lttt. 210; 
JUtDMrrlt V. Dtlap, S A. K. Monli. 33. The 
ruin in n]iilty w>a the wnc u at law: Sc« 
Sintrrvr v, fllt^rral/t, II Vol OtN; CVkijh- v. 
OmAnin. SPaifEfvITT: Coalrtv. 0«c>i^ lOLI. 
nei (.%»>/Ji>i V. /'nk«A, II [d, 405. I( th« 
n«tra<t Btat«<l in tbn d*clar»Iion or liill iu 
«qiiity wu ttmivd, it «M iDCUiiilwiit uii tlio 
putDtiS or ocan]>liunaiit to prove by lugal 
eriJoDcv it* eiiilcQoe, aiitl tlits >.i>ul-I tw iloiie 
only l>y the prc^liirtioa or proof of tho mem- 
tlon Wfl uoDtcnta of tk« wnttco kgnoowDt, or 
■OHIO notaormcmtmuidiipa tli«rMf oxoout«d oe- 
eorJInK to the provlalon of tbr Matul«of fnndiL 
Thv (upmnc court hvld thiit It wiu nnt dmc*- 
aary in s coin plaint tor Ihoeontrocttohuitjitcd 
in any maiiii«T illdsilnK fri.iii time wIiIl'Ii uaa 
lunieiMit at COlntnun law: H'ot^AV/i/ t . (r'n-rn- 
An'^A. -29 Cal. 500: faf^a-U r. liSicanlf, AS IJ. 
^CSi Mrlitmaldv. Miftim Vitu llomt^'iid A*- 
(M-iwiioii, 51 Id. 210, n.'cogiiiiiiijf tbo oomot- 
iiMci4 the nilotliatin Bup|,ariof llio oonplnint 
it will Iw |ir«sntnnl that tbe contnMil doclartd 
eotnpllcil with the Katate of fnuida. For Iftbor 
•III! MrrlcTd pcrfonncd luider a Mtitr»et vhidi 
In Toid nndcr tbe itfttDte «f tmait ft rceorery 
niay W hul liy daelan'nitn fuanfuin lu'mif, but 
not l>r dvclnrfng on th« contraut lUulI: I'ntlm 
V. lUftf. 43 Id. r>oa. .Mtliooufa a coiitnurt Iw- 
twMfialwrrouttrniiil Icndnr M taoDoy u to th« 
time of ill payment may b« roid under th« 
■tiit«t« of fmudf. yetu the iKH'TOWBr hu th« 
Iimdor'ii money, the law iinpUn a iminiw that 
li« will miBT It an dcnuuid: An/l r. Sn/V, 40 
Id. -21-,;. 

CdxKfiWM jirtrrdfnt. modt nf averring per- 
Jbrmanrt ^: Sec. 447. 

Brratk. attrmrn' t^.—T^o bttnoh mnit b« 
Kvorrrd in t«rni« wtfllclantly wldo to ahov that 
the cunttU't waa uiipcrfonncd to the extent 
clAinieiL 'Tbu*. whitn tliuonly aviTnnmtwIiii^li 
Wa* cl3lln*(l to Itatd a hniMh lA n tiuiCrnct lo 
dclirer pmdi wn* thp (ollon iiit;, tliat " uu the 
fourth day of DctmotHtr, ISO-l. at Pncadero 
afomaiil, the dcfi^ndnst trtnnd to dfllivor tud 
oac UuMUMid tti'^tt* ci{ potalooi. or any part 
tkcTOof. to |ilainti IT,'' Iho court mid tliat B-M not 
an BTimicotot a breach. The mott tint toiitd 
l« (alrlycMtnedforit vai thutitmnmuinlleoB- 
tlan that dr(<odant iFfiiiw-1 (a deliver ou that 
<Ut: Mocrr V. tf«^, SftOttl. 571. 

Ill all Avtbn ao n<oolract to pay money, oon- 
|«ymrnt moat be alkgadi a *lat«inciit iliat tha 
wliiilv amount It now dii« i* not Miouih; 
H'Jm^'U «. TrewfuW/, BOCal. OflX 

Tlic coiii|ilaint in cnw of hrvnoh of orilitcact 
lor the Kale of liiid nintt ti1l<"ja (vii'lrrot con- 
nyann: Itohnll r. DilUr. A\ Clal. 532. Fora 
lum of vomptaiiit for lnr«ii.-h of a Imce'a a^-rop- 
OKiit %n my tiuwa on the taoJ, tea Saliibiiru v. 
SAirlry. .-.» Id. 461. 

Il'i.p-rn upiai the ro«iilt of fniblio eloctioo* 
ara il:<i;al and votil upon ground* of public 
pih.-y; INin. t'odp, tec. 110, Xn wtion to obUIn 
aHlniintirf ivlirl tijion a i~:>'itTact of w*);er 
M*>1* uixio the ruiult of puUi-,- ulvntion vao- 
BOt U nainultw^: tlUI t. Kidd, 13 CaL tflC 

n'tiiifrrnftorl. and nn^^noti implM «oiiirarl. 
PlaiutilT may waivo a tori, aii-I <ii« uu thu iic. 
|>]icd foutract cruitoil Ijy the (acts. PcKiapa 
tlie iHittor nay uf italiug the propoaitinu la, 
thai plaiQtiEf ahiJuld aliens the eiaet (iwU, 
Mid il they Me (Uob that ui implied euniract 
•riMa npon llicnt, tie b entitletl to introilute 
evidence AMOtdingly: Fmit v. Clart, 12 CaL 
M; SMtttm V. Ub^h Sam, 1» Id. ysa-. ilMt 
V. Baneif, 22 M. 24«. 

Thiia, In Buriqt v, Taylor, a Hill. 5S3. Mr. 
Jualico Cow«u wid: "It trover W'Udi^ hnfo 
kin, it foUowvd iJut anactlnn for tni>iK> h--'. 
Mid neaivvil will lie for tlia price vt i<<r i 
value n();i>od**old uid ilvlivervd, at l'i< 
liuQofthv plaintiin" mid iignrntlDonyaii' ' 
tiua, ATiiorioiii biiil Kngliih, aivciLud in ti.iii 
of thiidootrioe: and ice Hoberl'V, fToiFir, 'IJ'..'uJ. 
360. WliercplaiottfTcltntc-l topiowcd njj.iimt 
dcf cndaoU aa fadon in»t«ad of fff /fiMorj, it 
WM held thnt he thereby ratillcd the uut of 
hia n«iiti, IlD|tona Broa.. tn trauafei-rluii tlic 
Du^rcnaailUe and liItU of loiliiijt, in m|«ct of 
which thd action wo* lirou^iljl. latA the lianda 
of defcndiuibi: and Ilint di<t«i»!uiiti', wlin ufm 
ahovn 1a th*^ ic'miiilRiat to Ixi i>>TiiTiit*>si(Mi JU(T' 
obkuti^ uiutl \jv txniaidervd m» uvtiitg iih Uio hu- 
thoriied comiignete and <oiniiii»«ii'ii mi'Tuhnuta 
(if plaiutiir. and untitlnl to the H^^hu and Ix'iiu- 
Gti ariiiugfrom this relation. It fulluwcrl lliat 
plaintiSi could only recover Irum the defcud> 
ftnta the not proRocdi antiaa from the ulc nnd 
iliipoaition al the incrchondUM, nfUcr deducting 
the neooaary chareei and dUint^tcaiecli, nnd 
nnt the value uf the goiid* at IIia time (il a dc 
mnod and lofnail l<idall<^: LvUri v. ''hai-vi- 
Uaii. i Ed. 463. A>u\ there in n dixlinut'-^u n* 
t08na<-tion ftiru*uaud<icvn|:utiuii. An udimi 
of that character will irnt li^ t'Xutnit wbrci l-liv 
relation of landlord nnd tunarit «KUtai or ut nil 
events, whea th« ocuupatJun is ponnitsive, nid 
aut tortioui; Hiflhriu-ng v. /.'jion, 3^ Id. I'J(; 

1 Ch. PL 107; hhyl v. il««'jh. I Uo*. I.TSi 

Qarii, v. Tnal, '2\ lie. i2J: flyait v. Mnrth, 

2 Nott & M. ISfl; Smilk V. Slavart. John*. 
40t Ihmvood v. rAc^rnnui, 3 Sera, ft R. ^iOO; 
llanen^fly., 13 Johns. 450; Fialher- 
tlonhnirgh v. ItraJ-htue, 1 Wend. 134. 

\^'Ilvnl prupurty i* toiiveynl to aiiotlwc liy 
diH'd aliti'lul* in fiirin, hut tiudcr af^rotancnt 
that it tliall ht only a n-unrlty l>y w^y of 
mort^ptgv, oad the grantrc (ulnnjum^lly •xHti 
the ptoimty as hia own, the {-mutur may, it 
he ao elect*, affirm the aale and lue lor tha 
overplu* after uymcnt of the inortf^agu delili 
WHb-r V. Sa«J'iian. 43 Cal. 400. 
Converijon: .''co "Trover," I'ri/Wi, 
CorpotnttoOK— .\ nicmWr «( an iacvrpa- 
r«Ui.l cuiii]xtiij ean *iia tha coriioraiion »ii n 
legal eniue oJ acli'ui. Thia light cnniitiiLil'ui 
caeof theeucniiul dilfrNsiOM Mt«<vii Im^ur. 
pomldd and uriinooriKimtod aMooUlinii,>. Iu 
the lBtt«T. UU9 partuvr <«n lue in (u^uii)' ouly, 
for au ovcnuiit. etc., iit mvpect of (•jMijmny 
mntten: llnrn^lra'l v. Umpire Jf. Co., 
300. l^i'lnult cnii lie taken ajjaintt n niir.. 
o»rporatioD on llic ooinmun couota. Tli' 
of ntoadina are gmcml. They are do^'i 
eiiibniM all ptnona, uatur«I or artidcal. ( .1 . 
of milnic or of being ancd. Xo c\i:v{>li>iii iv 
mode of corparatlon* hy tlie itatutv: 0-» Cam' 
JrtBW V. .ftli. fr»t«f«vi. IiL 43C; llltnl V. ''tig 
cif Snii frtiKc'iAr^, 11 Id 2i8, The ini-imm.r 
of BCAr|>urat><m iiianywrilliin imtruiuiDt doea 
not iui^idata the uitnniMat, it it mii bo 

Cone Cir. Paw.— 10 




[Pakt n, Tm.« VI, 

rat«oiwblyuc«rtiiW'Ifroin it«-tuitoOTponlion 
iiinUiuloih CSf, Co.k.jiT. 357, If acorporaMoo 
doaanatnrgftniMviiI uoTnincncotheUuuMCtioii 
«( llH liarinfua or tlic conitructian of iU work* 
witlitn nae yolr from tlie ilato ot iU tDcor^- 
imUoii, it* cuti'nniu poncnidiMB. The iluc in- 
cnrpnnliua lA nny (K>in|Aiiy cbitiiiiix InsMKl 
fnitri t<j 1>T > <!i<ir|)oratioii UD(l*r III* tlvil &>le, 
kiiil 'lii^n^ licKiiocM M audi, or iU riiflit to 
cXerv'iav cuqwmie [lOft'nr, nuinot Ixi iii(|tiin<iJ 
into Oalbtvrellf in Aiiy piivnto iiiit lo irliicb 
■nrii de /arlo curi-oratiun may Iw n partyi but 
■ndl inquiry miiy boliailat tliciuitof tlie *tat«. 
on io/onnniioii of the nttonicy-^mpral: Civ, 
'Cwle. KC. 35$, Th-ii statute fiirniahri o mloci 
[ CxIilcncE. IC is ilc>:lucil that tlio due iiioor- 
[ jHKalioii nl nity coinpnny »h>ll not be iniinircd 
PJnUi [i^Ilat«nil1y in niiy privKtc nuit, ntc^. In A 
(eiialo UMO; tlinC >*, u'Ii«n tlie company cUinii 
t&IEtiuil hilli lolfrauorfurMioiiuiMlerlhoUw* 
«( ttib itUto, mill i* (loiiiu biiciiivm aa luah oor- 
jicinition. rU'.. ibpn fta dup i nooqiontioii can- 
ii<it liu inriiiirfi) into uulUtonmy. Aiubituum 
<oiii{'iiiiDi'L' will] tlicmjuimnriitnof thoatatutc 
will I c aut&irioiit to allow k corpDration ile jurr 
in jin octitiii IkIwcch tUc coriwintion and a 
privnte iiersriii. Hut luppoao a body of men 
niocl anJ ilc>:ltiTo tlint tlif y cniintituCe tlin cor- 
)>orntinn, but neither iul»i:ribo ti> tlio <apit*] 
•lack, iinr a^opt ailielta ol oMoviation, nor tip- 
poinl any offiMn, nor jictrfunn ftuy act in tli* 
orgaalnlion i4 th« Borporatlon, iior tmuact 
bay linrinMBatftoariKiretion oxc<>pt in itcmand- 
jtig a (uUii'ly. Iliciy cannot claim t1ii> beii«l3t 

!if tfa< ppyito. fur tliay liu nut cl&im in Kood 
aith ti> I« a uotpOTatioii, and arc iit>t Juing 
blUuiMaaa a Dorpunlioni O. rf- I'. It. ft, Co. v, 
JViimiuro.. 37 Oil. 300. Where there wnan* 
^rctfnw but thut till- pUiiitiff wiLi cUiiming in 
good faith tc bs a coqmnkliou under iho laM'i 
of tblaitatfl. and dning bntinoM otnuHi cur- 
pornlion under thu name of " facilic Bank," 
tbn oouft held that neither "itaduu ijicDrpo- 
[t»tlnn" nor "\U right to oxeraiao cornanto 
povcn" cviiM Iw iur]ulr«d into collaterally, in 
•iiy |>rivat« «iiit tu whioli it waa a party: Pa. 
siit Onnt V. JXi Jfc. Id. 511. Variance bo- 
ttrooii naine of oorpaiBtiou audi nud corpora- 
tion m&king contraoli S««. 471. 

DacrMt ustion to aot aei&o. etc: Son 
"Judgment, Aelion to Set .\iiide." etc., In/rt, 

Dmumd, wh«B nsoeasar; to aUego— A 
jwoiiiiH) by an JnJoncr or Kiiarantor, a[t«r 
motnrity. t» nay lli« note, wjili notios of tli* 
laches of the holder In not dvniaailing jiajinaDt 
of the payor, dliprnaei with the nMwnity of 
provliiji drnuuid ami itotico: Ciirlif v. Sbtoi/ui, 
Gl Cat. S39. It <* a geaioral rtila that wli«n tbe 

etoa of property i« original I <^ aoijuin-d 
rt, DO danuuiii prcvioua to thu imCitution 
lor tta roooifry la necoaaory- It ia only 
«b<n Um original uouelrion ia lawfu], and the 
ootiin n-tiM npon l^ie unhtvfal dDlcntinii. thai 
n dcirimid a n-ipiired! Initio/ t. f/'ii/t . I Cal, 
ICO: /•'•'!/- V, O-y-i-l. \1 1.1. 4!V.; Ham v. 
J/'*;rrm,,30Id. ;»C7; Sn/rjrta r. Slttmi, 23U. 
31)1). Tl<ua. if aahcriU tikaa twraonal jiroprrty 
of a pcnon, luidar a nn>o«M a^^iniC another, 
thonjili in powwilon oi llial u^or, he take* it 
tortii'ualy, and no deinanil ii n«c«Baaryi ^oir^ 
(dorr V. (VacMMt, 30 Id. 100; llVUnxm v- 
Sjte'itA. 38 Id. 583. Where the dofcDdant 
ooiiti-actnl with a fulor who woa iu hia ilebt 
(ur evr^oin ([oods, hut before bo look thtoi 

away had noticfr. tuR^cieiit to nut b!tn oil In- 
quiry, (hat a i>urtion ol thvm Mlonj^l to an- 
other, hia taking Buch portion waa bd uulnwful 
aaauniption of ownenilii|>. and a eonvenion of 
tlie propertv, and no demand waa neonury 
previoB* to Lrili(jitig atiit; Scribtr r. MnAlm, 11 
l.J. 30,1 Certain ]*nonal property owned fey 
plainlilf, hut which wna uaed by A. A (i. nailer 
• ciiiitiiu^t of hire, was attoicbeil W tho alierifl^ 
I>ljiiuliir liaviii^ inado a demand tor the pr»n- 
vrty upon thu alivriff, biit nut npOB A. Att,, U 
naa held that the demand. ■( itecvaHnr at all, 
wjia mailo on the prcper pOTBOn: HW/u«rtA r. 
Knairtion. 'H Id. liH. And whvre pemoiw 
fntnduleatlr intend to procarv gooihi wiih<.'nt 
paymont. the fmud b conauminMed when tho 
powouion of the gooila it obtained without 
niakinjc payment on datlTory, or ou call, accord- 
it>^ to too tarina of eala. A payment mado 
after that ttio*, tl^sh It ini^ht aalUfy Iha 
debt for tba prioe M tTio i;oo<U, would not rc- 
more the taint uf fraud (ru'ii tho tninaiu^tloii 
by which thu gwid* weiB ol.laiin-d, aud a At- 
tnand fur tho goods bei'ire brtiiKing unit ia un- 
DccHUii}': Sli'parl r, Ltry. 30 Id, iil5. 

A rcfutol after a (iropcr demnnd by a tenant 
in coniinnn in pcweaaion to admit lii* co- tenant 
into tliL' poMcatlon Li Jtaelf on ouacer, and 
diajienaM witli tho neiicaaily ol further [iroof 
on tliat [lOluL In an acllou by a tenant in com- 
mon Bgainct hia cw-tuiant IoImi admitted into 
tho poaaeoiion, a denial In tbe anawcrot tho 
plBintilfa titlo and right of ootry i* rcgulialent 
to an ouator. But nn ouatcmtAldiahcil in thU 
method relate* oiily to tlio commnncvnirMt of 
the action, and pl^ntiff can recoviir in eject- 
ment the value e,l tho nae and occupation Oltlj 
from tlic ciiinnicnccmcaC of tlio aclioni wImh 
the onater la deemed to haie occurred. Ad- 
vene lioldinjf and claim of title do not, of 
theimolvea, coualltuto on ouatcr aa between 
teuanta in oomniuii. The tenant, out of poa- 
■easion, lias a riicht to amume tliat tJie powK«- 
non of hia ao*tuuant ia hia potiaeaainn, until 
informed to tiie contrary, either by cxpreai 
notice of by acta and dcclaratiuna. whiuh may 
poaiibly bo equivalent lo notice uniler r<Ttiin 
circumatanoea. Unid lie liua uotici-, eilliur «c- 
tnal or oonitmctivc, in aanic forio, tlint the pot- 
loaaloo of hia co-tenant baa booomo huetili'. it 
will liedeoinoJ Inlaw tohavo baon amicable, not- 
withataudiiiK tlia tenant In jpaaacaaion may, in 
foot, hat's been holding adranaly: MWtr r. 
»t;im, 40 Cal. fi38, m£ In Ilia abacnoe oi 
auiih a denial, plDintiff oioit prove not Only liil 
title, but a dumoud to be let into poMCMOn, 
and a refusal ef demand. thnC is, an ouater: 
HAmrd v. a. A: ,V. M. Co., 33 Id. 
WO. In ejoclment bv iainUonl ogaioat t«DaAt, 
where tlio latter •lonUa tli« plainttlfa title in 
bli aiiawiir, no dvniuid la nootasaiy; Stnilk v. 
OgifHluiu; 111 Id, W. 

A denial in the nn»w«r that the rolatioit of 
trutteo and <■'•'•<■* quf inM vxlata bolwoon the 
parlice dis|>euscs with the neccMlty of aver- 
ring in the complaint, or pn>viu)[. a prior de- 
mand and rcfuaoJt ParroU t. Bjm«, 40 Col. 
bit. If a vendor aclU and convera laud witli 
a verbal agreomoni tlint the vendee aball pay 
tile pnrvhaao money when dcmun-led. no de- 
mand I* ncvduary before brui/fing suit to ea- 
fopco tho vendor'* liunr Oolhghrr v. Uar^, fiO 
]iL 'i3. A* to money claim*, apnrty receiving 
money to the ua« of onotlier i* rightfully tn 
poaauaaion, aud lantiot b« aucd until after tlM 






turn I* (Umuulctl: Rftin v. Cnm, 4 Id. 31. 
In ui aclioii aKaitut an ni^rat for uol Moouiit- 
tac. etc., a roitimt t<i ari-iiiinc aiitl [my oiur the 
liUBCM iniiHt Iv RlHloil: 1 Cl>, rL,M>c. Ktl, niid 
t ho cuts tiu-n i-Hvh /twAtiill v. Mft^'nvJty.l 
Ol. 422. Tb«i« is nu ncvi-uity r»r n •IrtiiBiiil 
(iir ilkmogta in > niit agkiott tli« xiirftii-j \i\<i%\ 
u iBiuootion bood: Itrowarr <.: I^-irit, 1.1 Iil, 
M. In an a<-tioii on a promUiKn}- not*, p*^LIa 
on domonil, it ii not DC«HBii]r to ater or jin>ve 
■a actital ilunmnd bu(oro Dorin^ng luit, the 
ln«tl(iit>oti of tlionlt being « dttnand: Zritr. 
Itvhi*. IS Id. 479i Stoiy «n Prom. Note*, ace. 
SOi Tliw Mmo nils ii ap^iUcd Li bllicr Ibitiu- 
Mtnl* fbr Ihn payoiant ot luoou}: llali'ft v. 
JAitt, S CbI. STSi OiU< V. Smiknm, S ]Siu-r<. 
ft AdoLOII; Bamjluut v. Graham. 1 How.-JS}; 
J/iuIumIit. niKT'ir, SIIatT. (I)ul.)2CS: irirnimi 
*■. Airf^r. 3UcLo;n.40"; Vytr \: ItiS, I Mut, 
IlM). Wliciv ilcfvrulaDt unwd to [loy > *uMt of 
tnonry Id (jmln attheniftncct prioxmn oerUia 
■lay i>kni>i^, it «a* hdil tbftt after tbo day 
luiiieil lli« i>liu)tiiir K«a under no obligatiem to 
nvnivii iHiyiiMiit In ttn^n, and iia ilMnand of 
tliv gniii iiy him wm iK-ctuary. Tlia amiDiit 
btuaincadctit in luiiucy from the tlnia of de- 
t*iilt: ilnr'Autl v. /"<";»*>•.. TJ Col, OOi Gobtl- 
vfn ». Halbnat^ 4 Wpud. .-n;; /'"t v. //.rfr- 
&anf, I) Vt. 012i v. Wrltt.S Day. 
3JT! 2 pBiTwui oo C'oQt 1G3. lu ploiwliiigt in 
c«nin)uD Uw iKtioni, wliiDoi-i-r a ■pKul de- 
mand WM ntceiiBi)', the ^''■■*'*^ ntrniont of 
"ofwn mnuealcd," etc., wiianoIniffloJeDL In 
ft 0U« wliar* thoro nan a apcclflo airmioDt id 
tin MMplaliit that dvtrndjuita were n<|ucaled 
Uid rafuaml ta piy the amonnt, wliloh fact ma 
not dmtcd t^ tbe antvvr. and tlic oocnplaint 
ma duly Bworn to, tha au{in>ra(s court ilvclined 
tu allow on objpclion to In rainil to the aver- 
ment for the lint time, after vcrdiot and jnct];- 
KKiit, In llio appclkto court: SliUi r. Barney, 
2£ C*l. 2SI. Ai to thn farm b wblch a de- 
nanil and roluaal ahould bn allcKe<I, wboro 
plnlntllT avenvd tlint defundaitl bad failed, 
rtfined, and nej^lvcted i-o to return crtaln 
Mnonal projH'tty to plainlifT, but bad, mnce a 
iay namoil, wrungfolly krptand dvtaiuvd Mud 
{■roMTty Kcd tbe whole tbctmf fmm [ilaiiitilT, 
■ndctill k«ptMid detained th« hhio. tlm wu 
lieM not intended to bo th« arcrmcnt of a 
■pc<i«l and formal demand and refuatl Ui do- 
Urer. williin the moaning of tbe law apjilicnblo 
\o plMdinoR in tbia claai of acttoni: CamjMl 
v./w*. 38 M. ROO-OII. A drift wbicb dotw 
not •pwUy the kind of money in wlncli it ia 
payahlo U payable in currency, wbetlier drawn 
ftbtond or not; and a dcinund of payment 
tlienvf in S"!^ *>''" byanutuy. witliaprotat, 
etc, i* not luaicient t>> chnrge the dnwor: 
Lai>f}^^T$a- r. Kragtr, *S Id. 150. Where a 
demand ia ncccuory, the moie tnct that a 

Sreater iiun U demanded tlian tlic parly In mi- 
Utsl to, will noit dcl««t tlio action. niileHi tlic 
defendant nhowa tbat. u|iun ancb demand, liu 
offered to pay the anm itie plnSnti? waa rrally 
tutlUu<l to, and that it waa refuKih bndUy v. 
Thotaat, 'i3 III. S70: and tlion it Mienii only to 
alTeet tlie queition of oottai Seu. 103(1. Ai to 
•alia b>- atockbotden in coriicralion*, >□ long 
•a lfaecoe|»ralioiiM»iIUng to)>crfoTniitiduty 
towaida ita itockholder* by initituting and 
eMiduttitig iu good faith the neceaian lean] 
pnoedin^ to recorer money* minapiilicd by 
UM trvatsM, etc., th« Muckliiildem liave tio 
I toeouipUio; bat if tbe eorimratinu, after 

a proper d«inand , nvTnvM to inatlttat* the artioii, 
tlie »t«ekholdi*ra may aiie In tlmr own nainm. 
tt la tlierefare neocmary, in NB n^iliun by a ntock ■ 
bolder In inr-li <«aM, to n<rer a demnnd end re- 
fuukli Cogmrdt v. OhU, 3» Id. 321. Wher* a 
duniiui,] iv made by ntIor»«y, the party hu a 
liglit to require rawonJ.bte evideDce of the *u- 
IbiTity of Ibe indlvidun) to make It: bnt if no 
«iw|>iioii la taken at the time, tlien a anbiw- 
(jiicnt mmmenccment of a enit by the parly In 
ulinw behalf it «-iu mudo, claiminti: undi-r *nrh 
demand, i* a ratillcallon of It, ali<l ii pnlfi 
/ai'tr e.vlilenor. at IcMt, tbut it uan nmilij by 
hi* iLiilborky: iS'ixier v. MrKhilay, l<J Id. 77l 
Payai V. SmUh. Vi S. 11. 3ti ConnnA v. UaJf, 
S^ \Vvn<t. A&i. Ai to th« nccmity «l dcnuuiil- 
ini: a •WcA, tee kbc. 4A*. anil not(^ 

Dotalncr.unlAWftU: Sec. M.)»-tin. Com- 
]>1nint in: See. 1106. 

DMiuuO: Sec "UepleTin." l»/fa. 

DlaabUltjr, ■UKi;D>t"Mi ol: Hw-. 'MKi. 

Divorce: SceT"iv. O")*, utt. 00 nt «n<|, 

X^^tmMlt — l^jpciniont U maletainaM* 
only for eorporral bfrrdilainvnU: Tillingliatl'a 
Adnm*. p. 10, A Riui>id|<ul i.-i>rponit>on enli- 
tieil to the noaMesioii and oonlnd of atrveU 
Hiid piibllu plociu may, in its corpur.ite nanke, 
rcc'iv«rtlieaameincjc(.'tmenC: Snt fmneiten v. 
Snlliifan, 00 Cnl. 003. An excluiion of plaint 
tIT Irani entering on land, oxecpt on llio |i*y- 
mcut of a toll, nad then only for the jhojmmsoI 
paulng over tlic atnic, la a dlatnlidn: trootf v. 
Truttt T. Co., 3* Id. 4S8; itaJkon v. .V. Jt. T. 
fl. C^.. 40 Id. ST^. PUintlff muat (bow lejJ 
tillci Bu <i<|tii(able title, ai under an agraemmt 
to tra')afcr without notual conveyanoo, le dot 
■nffieient: /W^r t. Cotearil, 3S Id. lUOi Anie- 
renof v. TI'.A»«r, 44 M. 3861 San /Wipe V. Co. 
V. HthAair, 40 IJ. CM. lie can only T0ooi-er 
«n ancli title a* he held at tlie eommencenieat 
of the action: Sae. Snv. Bant v. IIuuk, K 1.1. 
20O. A mare oqallablx tilln !'• land, if it 1> iif 
■ucb a ofaamcter na entitle* the holder tu tlio 
ponmaion in equity, U a aulBclent drfcium to 
an action for the nn<ue««ian bronjtbt even by 
tbe balder of tbc ivgnl title; for wbcnnrer a 
Hjg'ht cUinii-d uiidvT the mlu* of tliu mmmoii 
la»' ia denied or governed Or oontrvl'tid by 
the |>riiKi]'1c> ndmiaittered brooiirtaof eijuity. 
tbo lalturwill prevnil over the formeri and iC 
ia tlio duty of the eourta In adminietcriug jue- 
tloq to docl'le and render jodgmont nccord- 
Intily. It may tborcforo )» tho duty of tlio 
|>1aiiiti(r to abow both a Icfiat and oi|allabln 
ritiht to the poaae aa Ltm before bo can r«uov*r: 
WillU v. rroarnmi/t. V3 Id. CIS. 

Where a penon. with intention to take up a 
tmctof publia land undi-r the pomnuory act, 
Slata. lS53, n. ISSy tiled bis afhilmrit of lonv 
tion. and witViD ninety dnya thereafter liaidul 
liitiil)i.-r upon tho gmum) fi^r a honae, and lucli 
liimlier woa removed during tbe ni^bl, and on 
hie attempting t« replace it uvxt day bo wd> 
driven off with thr«nt« ol ilolonne Viv a baud of 
anned men, St wu held thut bo liad obtained 
no right* wbirb would vunblo hbn to Rialntaln 
ejeolment againit tbou who dmre blm olT: 
Croirrll r. Lan/nneo. 42 C^l. UM. 

Tbe paeaeaK-iT aUtute, State. ISTi?, p. lr>S. 
cmforred do right, anch n* would rniiintAiu 
ejectment npon a aettler. until all tlie acta re- 
quired I>y it had licen peifofmeil. Anil il did 
not nfloct tbo qneation Ibnt he lud hem |ic«' 
vunt«-l by fnrue, or otherwite. from niakinjj liia 
intpuded iaipruvemcnt: Crom^f v. Lai\ffanM, 


I -12a 

OP CIVIL Acnoss. 

(Pabt ri, Trru: VI, 

42Cal. R^. I(plainlifrwi(t'!ff(TnA«itl>"lh ra- 
ter uiiilvr coiivv}-itiici>H from a cuiniiion f;r%uitor, 
it i* nQuootHkrv for tlia l<lai»liSr to ilcmiffn 
lii<i titl« (roni tliv (lankniouiit tourcv of titlei 
WAiiman y. S''i:>rr. IG Id. 3j8. But it vaa 
b(-M t lint where nn aDiDn^«lcolliplAUitillcje«t> 
tnciit wt nil Ittlo iwiiiiiiinl i;ft«r tM comni«DOE- 
mcnt of tlic tuit. And u juilDineot by dofaalC 
siu reguUily riit«rtd, the judttmcnt vm tbIiiI: 
SwlfA V. m'ttii, 15 I.i. a. Ill KHf V. rtiSi*, 
S'J 111. XI'.', It uju liolil tlmt tu iTuniw In ojMt- 
nipiit i>1aiciiiir iiiiixt net only liava » rigbl u( 
miry nl tliu IrUil, but niiut fanvv hkd it when 
till) aiiit «'Bt iTT-iiyht. 

(trw t«[iiut in commoD BiaT mniataiii ujcct* 
niVDt o^niiKt tlia utLor*. ^^'llt're n ilepit is of 
a ei»*n (juantity of land, wuvcl of a. lurftor 
tract, lUKitha deed fubtolooatotlie'juiuitity 
Bi> cDOvcytil by > •nlRoient description, the 
gmnter. oci Jolivcry of tlie dcnd, become* iiiter- 
c^tnl in nil itut lutida nnibrnoflil iritliia tho Urjfrr 
Kn:x III tciiiuit iu rj.Timioii nith IiU gniBwr. 
*»•] an lui;!! Iciiniit thv j^nuif'n I'lkii olaiin a 
(xir1i!inii tiiidcr |>r«iNMKliii^ initilutvil for tLat 
ptiniiiui. r.rn partitioii may )i« ■niula by nmi' 
Mlilti n^^rMiufiit between tlie porlifji; luut it 
Iba grantor or lii> gttmlomxilude liim from 
Ifcs powflfion, ho may matiiioio «jcctm«iit 

I ft^iiiirt tlicmi LaiPfenrf r, BnlloK, 37 CU. HSii 
^J,^^- V. '.••Domit'.', 3 M. :.»: Oi'-i* v. Slr^f^. 12 
t.'u»h. SBO; MlnyV v. Wait'. 31) Vt, 73.1! Joei- 
#■"1 V. f.iiia'fraa, 7 Wemi. ISlj; fniWn T. /cvi- 
ton. 1 1 M. I! I'Ji Itni-i l-l»«il n. n. Co. v. C««h 
I\h, •a.i V. Y. 57i Rut in mtAi «•«• nUialilT 
tniut alli'jic nn ouRtrr by dvfi-nilajit: Rratd v. 
CorA-W, ;v>, 4!». 

If |i1niiTli(T tK II tfiUHut iu wHninoii witli pn- 
Kuutulliir IliiU dvfvniluiit. nu^ dcfvudMit tor- 
tluu'ly (Titar* atid ousta tiim. hv nuir rwoTM' 
'thv Wholu pmciisn ajt againtl dcfeoduit, and 
lioitnot jitnoliidcd from doing to bytliefact 
tlinl the dclvwlnut hat Mtifllivd by adt-cno 
IMiatMlea the title «f the other l«nuiU In 
coaainon: Chipmaa v. Hu'iiiigt, fiO Cat. 310. 
Ijuidtor>la«*in>t ti^nniit; Sea "LoMoruid I.M' 
mi. " l-'/ro, IViiitiil* iti iximnion, ate, , may units 
iwiTkliiiiirn;,-,3S1: nlM*i«"Do[iund." A 
r<«ii|>liiiiit by ui exuDiitor In ejcctmuit ia Dot 
iiuvoiinrily drfiNitivvi becauao it fiuUtonllege 
anv litlo in the tmtalor, M neither the le^aJ 
lillu nor iha right of tioatcMon may have bMn 
in iiini at hL< death, sod r«t botn may Iuito 
1ie(*n atlcTwanti acquired hy tlie ex«cntor aa 
•drfi. WUcro a compUint (a ejecinn-nt by an 
oxccntrii. aftn- setting forth Die will, it* jirO' 
kite, mid iuuanoe of lntlnn, avcrrcil that 1:^ 
vlitao tlicrwif alio, na oxecatrit, jioiMmiwd hrr- 
P>rlf of tliv Trn\ eMnto of the tmtiitM, and (iiat 
IrtMt vvnr KJiKii bail liMtn. and waa.tha ovaer, 
Ijeiird la f'liuf an anlato of inherilaaoo therein, 
biitfi it> «'icli eiccn'.riK and heir at bw, uid 
TTiu I'lili'.U':! to Uia puatotioo thereof, It vu 
liclil n ui:Gciuiic uvermmt of adnn and risbt 
of iKMBMBiuu in iier uatneityof cxeuutiii: Aol- 
WM V. tVilton. 41 Cat. }a\ Where thfl hii>.)iui4 
(Aid the haioetilaid to pUblin*. who brvugbl 
ciectmcn!, rind litiiiji tfc/eitcj on tbf cnxuid 
taat il viu "hoii)«iI<«il " plalutiHt conMndod 
thai thev wtre cnlitlnl Id thu eicw* of lli» 
TQhi# of the pr«tnit«* 0T*r five lli^iicuid dol- 
Ura. Ui* ainMinl etnnnttHl by hi>::)<nt>9ad law, 
[t!io«o«tt MliMt tlie nl-iiiititfa hvd any ruhta 
< iliey miiKt oaSahlitli Ihem in a di(r>ir«9t action; 
tiiej I'onM Like nothing bv a nit in ci«tnicni: 
0»i X. JJA'krutiaa. i Id. 27- The piopci^ 

■Duat 1m doacribeil ao aa to enable thi: ollietir, 
»noD cxaculloQ, to Meulifj' It: 8i><. A^i. In 
afeeUuant It uood only b« allogud tlut ttia 
(iwatilTIt a«j*ad of th« uvnittu*, or aunni ra- 
tate tlioreia, as in fM or for life or fur yoara, 
and tliat the dvfmduit wiut in poaiuinai at 
the commeaoemi'Dt cf th« actiuo, The aeiain 
ia the fact to bo al)e{,-ed. It in a plcMdabla and 
iMonlilo End, to Uo citabliibod by cenvcyancca 
froTD » panunouiit aouroc of liUo, or ^ evi- 
dimoo M prior paaanialoti. It la the nllimate 
fact ujiun wUcU tUo claim to recover dopcnda: 
und it U fiicta of tbia uhuvct^r which lauat b« 
nllc)t«d, and not tb« prior or ^batira facta 
wlikh go to calAbliah thunt. It i» tlio ultimnts 
facta, wliich conid not be atruclt out of a plead- 
ing withoat laariag it iuiuSclent. and not th« 
eVldaioe of thoM facta, which raust be ntntnl. 
Tlui right of th« posaieasicin follow* «i a cod* 
cliialon of law from the auib, nod natd not be 
alleged. Tb« poaio«ilwi of tJto ilofcedatit ia 
of courao a plnuUbk aiul UaoaUo fact, and 
tlw only qnaaticKt of difficulty arima from tlia 
aiini>oaed neccstity of negatiriiie ila iioaaibto 
riglitfnl chanotvr. It tlut dcffoiuuit'aliiil'Iiiig 
TMt* upot) anv cxia^us right, bo khould ba 
oompelfn] to aliow it amrmatirriir in defntM. 
The right of poaeaii>» aiccoiupanim the owu- 
(irahip; and from tbo allegation of thofactof 
ownmhip, whivh ia tlio nllecation ct •ciain in 
"onlUiAiy lauipuge," the rifbtof pment pu«- 
«Maio» >• prmniwl: Paipie ■£ l>eiera v. 7Vv<i>^- 
ire'i. Id Qd. US, Ilai',hl v. «r«n. J9 Id. IISe 
lialtnM T. .Vymowb, !M Id. SCO; MeCafikf ». 
Yalr. 39 Id, BStt; AVfrr v. Ilu^ .le inrnM. 43 
Id. 038. A* toatlegation tliat plaintiff \» t!i« 
*' dwdct" being Buflicient, aw Oar^tood v. Hiut- 
lag*. 33 Id. SIS. 

If plaintiff attoiapt li> art lorlh in liia ootu- 
plalnt a ({icdilo deniicnmcut ol hit titl?,' Iio 
niuit aver every fact tliBt be cuuU be rvquirod 
to pTDT*. Where one of the linka of )iIb cliaia 
of title aet oat In the complaint u a vill, the 
oonplalnt inuat aver that the will bai boen ■ 
admitttd to prubata: Ctutro v. ilkhanlten, IS 
Cal. 478. If h* all«M Itia tltU ami Calla la 
citabUth it, he mual rail: 7W(rr( v. Uapprr, 
4? Id. 402. If lie all«|^ caialn gmcraUy, aa 
above Bugi^nteiU he luay ottrt to prura » aocn- 
montary (.lies and if he fail, may «ly no prior 
peaatsaioDi ilorloa v. fol-jtr, Ij Id. iSS. 

n'liore plaiutlfT relied upon the ailvcnw pa»- 
Haaion of the dcRiondod preiniiea by hiinncK 
nod tlia grantor for tlie period of hve ypiia 
prior to the eommonoenioiit of tlio suit, but 
only averrad hlaownenhiEi in fee and rijthtta 
the poHMMian of tliu land at the ilntv of the 
comrneoeamunt of thu *utt, it wan held he 
mijbt prove any Facta which w»iiM entitle him 
to powcMion at that time. T)i(> ui vmieiit that 
tha plaintiff '■ cmiitur hail Iwcii in ]H>i]ir><»ioa 
for mora thna five yean would hnte l>«viisu- 
pcrilnou*: QiRrtpit v. Jonff, 47 CaL 203. H 
nlaiutlffallifioa that defendant u in pooswiou, 
n« cannot aay that detoadant wu not in put- 
atmlon. If dnttndatit rdiaa on advetae posaM- 
aiou aa a d«f«iM«: Laiarratf i. JJalhn, 90 Id. 


All allagatton in a complabt tbal the pliint- 
iff " oMiimed to nwl did cx«rvti«i act* of con- 
trol OTtir aad poateasion uf portiona " "t a tnct 
d lanil, [a not equivalent to an nTnim'tit tliot 
thepIaintilFbadaetQal poueujon uf tlio t^u^t 
of luid or huy put of iti Ortnaaa v. ^'o'^, Vi 
Cal. 8. 


Ctur. ILl 



If ImIL |arlle> nly on a t^ptr titir, pUtntilT 
CiUKivl rno'cr uiili--v> Iictlion* tlid better tillo: 
/rsf.* V. roinw. 4^ Cal. 331. 

II tit* )>lBiiitlB In rjpctiarst rolla on > l^prr 
ti;tu, Uio <l«feiiil«iit iiuy altow tli« iniv titlu to 
to OQUtauiilinK ill a tfainl iirnon, willmut coa- 
Dectins liilnMlt with it: Cnwrn-r r. I'oritr, 41 
Ckl, 4KS[ aivJ Ku IMC. 417, note, "Ejocliarat.'' 

Tbcdoti! at v'liieli Uib nUinliff'i ri^lit ■«• 
crusi], or llie iLtfciidanl'i ooeapation ooin> 
mcncod. ti ouly materia vlth releraiM t« tin 
cUiiii lor mcaiw protiU; Toiul v. llmetB, 14 
GU. 4&S; ■Vfoj-t T. ffarr.'U, IQ I.L SAG: CoM;>r 
T.fVb'fMil. ItUi. EjccUDenlnuitbcbrguglit 
■S&lMt th* |M»*oa who, at tho ramirrtncrjiiuot 
Mtb* Mtiuil. wilhlioliU tlio jioMitMion: JJn- 
kftan V. J/><r<t/<fM, 41 ]<l. ZS; Oarmtt v. JTar- 
«M^ 9 U. -.TO; /;»rU v. TaiU iHnuHain 
W-tlerCo.. Vi I>l. 44i3i /'wI/vb v. iraPK*oH<-r, 
31 R eOOi Fioj-ttis '. A'/^nb, S2 I.I. US; 
OiR-M V. /'uit/^r, 24 Id. 19.;i ^ylr t. BoliiiiM. 2i 
Id. 410. At to maluog kadlord a pu^. wc. 
379, ojbI'. a iii«ii.«enmat or oinplojres idb)-, 
in Doo MMC, Imvo th* ooeapMion of the prcm- 
Imb of whieh be hM no oootrol, and u wLiuh 
bo cklnu no rljjjit; but liU occupitian U Um 
accupkUoa of ha employer, vitliiii ilia ■■■•an- 
iDf of tlikt tonn, »* einplovai] vIidd trMtiau 
o( tbaa«ttoaof •JccliiMiili //lUfKw. flrleMrrt, 
Sa CkL £38: P«lodi v. Jf«M«|UJ, 44 Id. 30. 

Tli« poMMkloo to ba thoin) in tbs delaiidiuit 
in on Mtion of «j«otiiiaiit naod not bo MtiuJ na 
(ontiaJutinvuiuinl fram aoii>tnictiv« in ita 
chuBoten Aoe v. Car-I, 14 Col, COO; Cnuir v. 
Ghimdriti, 45 Id. 230. An wtiua of cir«^ 
nMkt map ba broD^t •guut ui offloer of tha 
wwy of Uie CoitM SUtM who 1* In poMntlon 
of tiM dunanilad pivmliM for th« pninao* nl a 
luUiurr c&cnp or fortilicalion uiubr Ui« direc- 
tion o^lha wcraUryoI war or Uie |>r«*id«it 
of tbe Uiiilcd HUCm: Pa'aek v. Man^'lil, 44 
U. M. Ouit who without tha portaiHiaii of 
Um fftatMf taltoa Mmution uf biid within tha 
l)onndari<a of a Noxicsn vraiit, wh«tbor per- 
fwt or ioi'hcatr. before the fioal BorveT ta 
untie by tlie Uuileil Sla(« ii gniltjr of on 
OiulcT, Bltlioogh when he cateml iato pouc*. 
•loM he wu lafcnocid Ly the ^nuitco tlutt tlin 
poiailon ao tahoi wu unt within tho lliiilta 
<rS the linuit: Imi» r. SMartirr, 31 111. 487. 
If III i:]ivtniiTiit tba dafendant ailniiu in ]ii« 
aiiiiH cr that bu i* Id poaMMloii ut a poitioii of 
the 'Utnaudeil tawnlaM^ It !• not mcmw; for 
Uio i-laiotiff to tirova hi* poBiawioni Saintmi v. 
))'<f*M.41 Id. 5M: AM'iY-ry v. Knrdinil. 4^ 
Id. 2H. But it ia in'tiapeiiBablo that It ahould 
ja aome wagr appcAr that dcfcniiant wu at the 
cuanuonoMneut of the aait in pouctaion i>f 
•iin>« jiari of th« U-Mt to which the ^Jalniiff 
eataUlahoa hia title- 0ivieii v. UrailxU. *:• Id. 
I7:f. Mujoiodcr, nnD-joindor, etc: S<io. 430, 
aud Duto. Ejectment, onler (or party to inako 
■uiiey of pTO|Hirty In diaputa: 8«c«. 74'.^ 743. 

Brtoppel: .Sr<. IV», liul«. 

Bxeoatori dm "Adminiatntor," "Ejeet- 
Bianl," mfira. 

F«iDClona anjmala.— It is not neoMaar; to 

atkfW that dettiiiliiiit cui!..!!. bnt mprely tliat 
kn kapt, iLu doK ot otlier ammal: Wiikimim v. 
famll. m CaL lOS. 

PorctblB«i«rT. ot&iSwa. naO-llTft. 

Fiaai.lila«.— In an aetioa fur dlalurbiiig 
filaititiir'H Fninohiio in alicoo«D>t teTrj-,1>y nm- 
Diau iiurthtr fernr within the limit (orUiKkn 
by Uw, U wu bcld tlut the eetiiplalal tliuulil 

have alkgeA tliat t1ic defenitaiit niu fal* fTrry 
for tor or TVHwnl. or the pronuw ui riitctuliiiti 
of it, or Uiat ho ran it (or oIIiit iIiuh liix nwii 
iwnoiial ua« or tliat of lila (amil)': ntnl n Ji^'lg- 
inant fon&ilvd on aouianlaiBt lUfri'i'- i" ilm 
inpMt wna niwiwili //nutoa t. ''• ■\ 

33). TIm vigh tern til aectiosol a:, \ —S 

iipovidwl tliat Hiiy |irra«n who alx.ul.l ii.U * 
eny_ for compMiEatiua wilhoac liii>ing Ant 
obtaised « Uociiae ahoitld b« guilty of a niia- 
jBmoanor. and •honld be pnnialud bv a tat 
not exeeodiBg five tnuwlnd doUara. Tlic alilb 
■tctiott prnvidud that i^'> frriy or tolMirlilni 
ahould ho ealahliihoil within ono nillu IiiikiihU- 
ately al)OT« or Ixdow a rwularly catablithed 
Ivny or l^iU-hiiilj^v u"!*"* it vaa r».|iilM)tl for 
the )iub]li) coiivauiBiica, etc It wa« usoteiiilwl 
tlittt tliia taotion ooufcmd on the party iiu ex- 
elailvi- privile^, and thai be niiglil nuiiatjuu 
a aivil a^tiua ngaiiut any one who intruded 
upun or injured tbo fraachiae; but tbe toait 
held thia vna not the true cporKlioii of tlie 
■tatnte; it confeired only a UuiiccJ H^jht nputi 
the pu-ty, for theprotoctiouof nlikhproviikiii 
Wat Made by Lndwtmcutt that wh<Tc n nnw 
rifht U Introdnoed by itntnte, tlm |iaity cuiii. 
plainlajf of Ita violation la coiifinail to tliv atjit. 
ulory rDuiody, la Ur a« tho cuitrta of ooninuja 
law an eoncarned. If. bnwover, tha ri;;lit ex- 
lalad at ootnmon taw, thornnedy provuli'il by 
■tatnte ia monly oumulntivi-: iritraf r. Srirr. 
oa«, 7 Cal. I28l tonsf r. H:t4t. 1 Blackf. 40fl; 
Almy V. itarri*, S Johui. I75i lUlu/rtff rl nl. v. 
Smilk rl al.. a Gb. AI7; PeopU 1. fyajfrrfz/l, 2 
CaL 213. The coiut aJw) uid that ferry priori. 
If^gca were eratlcd by itutute of thia *tato, aiut 
no remedy by an acUun on tlia <aao wa* girMi 
that thev dill not wiah to b« uaiUntooil a* de- 
clilliiK that tho parly a)urio**d R^ght not re 
dort to «i)ulty fur rrlMfiior nnder tJie dociuuu 
in til* auw of A'orrM v. 7'V F'lrmen' cuxl 
Tfomt/eri' Conipanif, deddtij Outober tvnn, 
ISSOi tlint rialit win clirvcUy af&rm«l; WarJ 
V. SnfniHft.i Cal. 128- 

R'nad, — To miuuUia an aotjoa on the 
BTonnd of frond, it )■ not ■nffidoit amply to 
aTcr fmud, but tbe facta iMd clr«iimitanoaa 
conatitntlns the fraud moiit bo lot furlh: 
KimlfT V. ifaty, 7 dl. 207; DaeU *. IliMn- 
ton, 10 Id- 412; OaUtadx. Carpettitr, 21 Id. 
600i Ca-dt t. It'uUr, SS Id. 77: Srv,Ut v. 
Hi-jiiT, T, M. lC«i Kt«t 1. Snyhr. 30 III. C74i 
IWtiiu V. cVufrr. 35 Id. 720: O. * f. R. Ii. 
Co. V. Plumai Counlu. 37 Id. 3C3i Har. S. If. t. 
I!ynt*. 50 Irt. 302. The faoU upou wliitli tl»! 
chorj-o of fraud ia baaed miiat be «pec'i!j<;Blly 
ulle^jed in tho coiuphuut: Pofiie v. Uliol, 1)4 
Id. 3.tO: Davit V. JkUawN. to Id. 41-J. 
rialntiir U not roqqired by thia rule to aUi>)ie 
with minutencMaU thoparticiilanaad clreiim' 
atanfiea which fonititule the evidence of tho 
allacsd fraud, but ho muat make tho chiiT|{D 
with aulBclont dittlnclnea* lu ennUo hia advi-r. 
Huy to oonie preroKKl with hi* evidcoor ii^kiu 
the geoonil rjuoalioni of fntod which will l>o 
nuwid: Capan r. BuiUtm' Int. (7«, 311 M. 
115. Where tho facta nre not ulrurly kni)ii-ii, 
they may be atle^I in the alternative: Itcu- 
riaiMKn v. itefC'iuM. 2 Wut Cbtut K«|i. 20-1 
(Ctoh). Au actof the IcKulalnre it tint tuli- 
icct to attack on tW gtnund uf (randi .sAri- 
HUM V. Story, 90 CaL mi O. A V. K. R. Co. 
V. Ptumat Ctmult, S7 Id. 303. 

Krniid wlUMiiit ilauioKe ulm no avnte uf 
action; Utrron v. JlaglK*, £> CU. UOj JforrJ- 



OF cniL Acnoss. 

fPART tl, Tni-I VI, 

A «impt« oooipintejr. 
it rowalt* in actiml 

•M V. LaU, 39 I<l. Va. 
limrertT atrodiKU. duU 
I dUMaKu la (lio partjr, uortr WM tbc mbject of 
I Krliil tdlua; and tliongL uicli conspLnicy bo 
cluiw<, Uro •v«nn«iit la ImiiMWrlal itBtl nofd 
tiut Iw pru^^: Htrron v. HaijItiM, £> Id. CJO; 
llia'^hiii* V. Uidrhini. 7 Hill. IM. Wicr* two 
or more are lucil fur a wr«u^ dour, it may bo 
livixtKMj to [iravc pniviuiui comliiiiation in 
cini«r to SMun n joint tmoiery, but it is novirr 
uoocaMiT to slIcKC it: and, if Sieged, it ii not 
to bo cooddcroT M of tJio ^ab ot tiioavUoii; 
tliat lien in tbo wroogful u)d dum^lag Mt 
done: ll'tn« 7. ttig'^^ ^ Oi^ ^^^ 

Oold coin. allcfaUcdii to obtain JiidKmont 
la: Iwc. 661. 

Ooodi sold. Bto.— UqnoiB.— By dianter 
314, u>|)rov(Hl JiUtvh •M, 187-1. StaUL 1ST4, p^ 
COO, tM purcbuv ot or tiila «di1 tUUno^ ol 
Any t|rititouua or malt li'iuoni. win*, or oiiler, 
by mlAil or by tbe drink, is doeUrwd to bo an 
iavalid oonMdcfatioti for any promiio to par, 
or tutmaprit o( kcoooat tlicrefor. wbcn tuo 
Mnonnt of meh account or dcniiuid cxcccda 
five dollanj and no court in any oolion at binr 

Onrtt- T. Bulmer. 11 Me«, ft W. aM; flrtrcfy 
r. £^»o*i- Ob. Co.. 5 A.L ft Kl. «.17; /.*=**« 
V. tf.^. 10 Uoo. & W. 3M). Anil Ihoreforo, 
wbiKvcr tbo tetm* and wndiciniM o( any 
•IHicUl a«rDoniei3t, lioircrcr ouniiiUcatMl, h^ 
Imoii nerioimKd and ntiifled. to on to i<«itM a 
debt due to (ikiutifr, he might sae in an lai^b- 
■totiu count, TOMniEic tho coatract and tint 
complclion uf it to bo prorn) in iiiilrnco. 
Tile teatilt ot tlio daclalnu* aboro occiw to Ira 
that MdoUtalM oount*, oUs^nc indcbUnlnma 
on a oonclautdi of Uw. will Iw nphoM ta umkr 
Iho contmon-lawB^atoiu: ni)<l tliat tbo ■upromo 
OlUIt will liold ibat ill an indihi/atat count 10- 
dobtcdnean ia a tact, whiUt ia atber counts it is 
not, but a coiiuluiiou of law. 

It liM iMien hold tliat vliere tbo ontir* par- 
{ormanuo of a •pocial contttwt has I>Mn pro- 
vanteil byunooi tbo nattloa.or wbsivit^ tonna 
haT« been vsticd by tha AgcBement of butb i«r- 
Um. tho aolion ahoald ba for vork. cto., in in- 
ifcbilalUM iu»irn/m(, uud not ULion XliK mntract. 
Tbo contract nuiy bo oilductd in evidence bjr 
vllher party oa an odmiMloD of tho itondiml 
value, or a> inxmf of any othor fact n«rou«ry 

la to rondor tuthpnoat for a grtater nmoBnt to tii« racoveiy, and ahoulJ bo allowoil to oo to 

than 0*0 dollar* for tlio aale at retail, or by tho th« jurr whatuvor It c&u aid tboiii in attaiiilutf 

drink, of any aplritaoua or malt lii|aor«. wino, a ooaDd coiicluiion: v. JatirJaim, 

ur ctiirr, togothor vitb cocta; but nothing in CaI. Ill, Plaintiff moat not insert a nuBiber 

tbat aot 11 to be coiiHtruixl to affect iu any uf ooubm of ootlon In one inifi-Mafu* coant 

■uanDordebtacoutncted jirior to iw paiaige. unCboutauyspodfioatlonof thcaumi duouiwii 

OoatidlAft action by, for injury or dmui of 
warth S«a 3I«, 377. Waata byi S«o. 738. 

Et«in or raprooeotiitlv*^ a«tion by, for 
dratb of a iicr»Q. Sec. 3T7. 

HuabuDd and wilo: Soca. 370, 3*1. 

XadaMtMoaaaMiaipalt— Thofi^lowinipraB 
n oomplaint upna oliich jndjjineiit waa ron- 
dorcil W default id faror of plaintliT: "Th« 
plalntiila abavo named oomplotn of tho dofond- 
ant, and for oanae aver tliat on tfao olavonth 
dav of Ani^at, ISG3, tlio defondout irui iu' 
dcEitcd to tlio pliiintiffa in the sum of ona 
thouMndood tonr dollnraand tu-onty «)iiU,aa 
an oocoimt for i^ckkIb lold and dcliceml by the 
pJaiutiTit to tho defendant, at hli requeat. in tbo 
dtyuf SoBl* Barbara; and thatnopnrt llierocif 
hM boto raid, and that there la now due tlicm 

oacb, or tlio oouut will bo dcnmrrabli-i Brrt- 
ingham v. iroT-r*. 14 lit. 147. -^d wbi-ro a 
complaint fran.od iu indtlntulut tuMitmiail tor 
WDTK done, moDay paitl . utu.. did not show liow 
iiiucli wa» owing for work, liow innch money 
uaa iiald In the atato, how inuidi out of tho 
abate (the claim lieing tor both), tlie (UiicanB 
court hclil tlint tltu court boh>w waa not iii^nrror 
in opening a default "ii auch complaint; Wat*»n 
V. a. F. rtr. Co., 41 Id, 19. In caiei whoro in- 
dMlatv tuaimptH i» (ulniiaaiblo. it tho ooiint 
U dnined too goueraL tho defendant can obtain 
an oiiIcT nnoin plaintiff to tumUb particobini 
Soc. 4Mi Fmltoni v. Gliarr, 10 Id. 2.1S. 

Tbu olIcgatioD ot a promiM to fty wbcre tho 
plainliif dcclnrca on tho oomoion ocnola i* n 
mera conchiaino of law, which tnay l>e duro- 

tbmoa from the dcfmdnnt tho aura o4 oiio j^-nnloil.and need not beati(TDurtii>l by evidonw 
tlioiuand and fuur Jolhkra and twenty cento, of an etjirrvt praniiac: H'lJii'U t. .Sli'lsrr. ~t 

witli lulrrol tliinv-ii from the clot-entli ility <-f 
Auip»t, IWKI. Whrr><(i>re tlixy dwiioud judg- 
nienC ai nttoiiuit tlin ihifnidant in the aum of 
ooe tlioiiKuiil and fuur dolbn nnd ttrcnty 
oentN. with iotenMt from llio eleventh iLiv of 
Angiii^ IW3, with coata." XutwithitaotlLUg 
that till' gtalnto nya the oompUlDt ia to oon. 
tain n t)1.-itTUiont of fact*, and tliat Uio aupremo 
'court Iku (ro|UcDtly dccidml o^nat tho aafll 

Cil. 23Ci AboJii' V. Ctrrilla. 32 Id- 174i i^ to 
Gv'iTfi V. A'<n*iK, 33 Id. 21. 
Indeauaiqr, whan aoooMaty— -In <»• «t 

the toH or destruction uf iioKotiahlo paper, lh« 

[ilaintilT uJinnut iimiotjiiji liia nclina wilhi.ut 
liiit indcninifyinu ihr dotcndant. The prop»r 
courao ii for tfu- ptaiutiff to [>niptii« soil lender, 
before mit, r«*«inal>lo indomoity. H it bo tv- 
fuaed, bo can then cue, alleging tbe trTidrr oiid 

cietii'y uf allrgalions of oomcluiilona ot law, aa refiiial, and keep tho tender g>ol by tiling tlm 

not licLiii* all^^ti'jna of facta wltliiu tha atat- 
utc; and uotwithal&ndlnir, alao, tbo llinita tho 
nupreine court lioi [.hiciul upon Iho dodiiiio 
of ttarr drriAt, arc. fiS, iioln p. S4. tliey hold 
tlH> alioivi count ■uttlclent; A^ffl' v, (.'or. 
rillo. 32 Col. 172; frrrfMrn »-. ttfcijrr, 10 1(L 
S:W; /A-II'W r, Portft, TS Id. 171; Hhaiw y. 
W.^rif, ' ---■■■ 


rntv uaa, tliat vlicranr a coiuidoraljou waa 
ei.iiiiteil lor wliioh a debt, payable at tbe tiiiia 
of tt.lion, liail accrucf], dno cither under ait 
cstitoM nromiio or ouc iniplit'il l^y law. Iho 
liiiiii uu^.it bo aned lor iu an tndfiilaMj uouut: 

bond ii> court. If, at the IriaL tlw ovnrt hIibU 
be of tlm Kpiuion that tbo indnniiiity i> i-i'aaon- 
al-lo arid MiflicSiut. In: will bo eulillcd f. jiiJi;- 
ment, wilti cost*. But he luoy >ue and uUTcr in 
hia ODiDploJut to givi) mob indemnity aa tbo 
cntirt may adjiidf^ n'oauiud'lo; aud ii]nn i:oin- 
plj-ina w'tb tlio or-ltir of the eourt in lliat lo- 

<rf<iVf. l(i Id, 3SS: H'illiiu V. fHitfyrr, a Id. apcpl, take hia jiiilgdstnit. bnt williijul I'Oatar 
.'>. TliiaihxUionwaaiiuitoroconttyalUmied: liaudotoUv. //arr^, 2S Ool. MS, iiijd. aud CMca 
■ig« V. K't', 4i* Id. HI. Tho eomtnoii-law there <i ted. 

Iiu»\iiiui«o, policy oJ— Plre- — It aii iii«ur. 

aiir^ |»>li'.->' |inividi4 Hint It iball lie void if Iho 
liilrrot ui I'lc (i»"uiv>! i> i.tSer than the ciiUro 
«oloi>wnrrsl)i|>,acoa]i>lnliiti>Li tbe|iolicy wUcli 
doBi:tibe( ttio piopwty itunrut aa tlio idAiutlQ'a 


OF CIVIL Acntws. 

JPAta IT, Tinx VI, 

nn-iamry to eiiiiU* the plointilT to munUin 
thu t'lit^ Drmi r. iJomr^, IS Id. SS. Ai ta 
BlcuuitT Tor aoquitUl, wa l/MiiMg v. //inf'. 
SOW. aba. ^ ' "f »- 

U«MM «Bd Mrvimt— It wu hdd th»t 
wlii-ro ft hirsd pcraoo fontinuod in ui oinpI<ij> 
luctit nf tcr tho exptratioti uf tho coDtiaat, And 
witliout my now contract, tha pr(«nmj>tlon 
wui tliat bblh portiw uDdcnlood tnat thn mno 
Mlary m b«tor« wai to b« p«id, ftnj the ter- 
Tint cuUMt Ttconr upoo n wumImsi mtruU: 
JVIrA«I<M V. />wMj», SUl. 4T5. 

Wining Ktoolui i[i«(iili(j iwiformiLim- ot ooii- 
tnvUr«lBtiiig W: Smi " S[jt>:ilio rvrfunouicff," 
f j/Wi, nCtf alto " Ti'orer," infra. 

MlMakft— A ooinplaiiil elAimiDg relief on 
till' ^ruiiii'l iif iiiiiulip limit not only diztiaiTtly 
uviir Uia fivt of tlie miitalic, )iut alio wt (oitb 
tlio oiKunutaDaM uudcr wlikli It owurrctl. in 
•<> far u thoM ein;Diii>tiuiceii timy bi? iivcciiary 
to iircMOt ■ «Mu within the rule of equity 
upon nliidir«lU(i>gr«itV(t: ll'ri'ifAc v. 5i<vtrav 
48 Cal, 2T(t: dm hcc. ISSC. f/onf. 

Mouay bad BUd rooonred. — In mi aotloa 
fur iiK>TiFy liiiil Euid rouilvwl to tha uw of tti* 
pUinUff. tli£ facta v«ra tliat dofmituita won 
tlia holdcn of n mortgage given to ■eonra the 
pajiuent lA ailviLnota mule ami to Iw mado by 
thf^itiMilvM anil othen to tlie mortgican. The 
[ililiitiir liad tuade occt.-iiii uItiuii.'cs, uid vna 
on# «f tli« peraoiK ioteikdod to bo tiMiin-d, 
tbmigh not a party to tho mortgage. Tha An- 
feuilanta aau(^MiI ^o mortfago, aud i*ceiT«d 
the ouiiiridtvatiaa tbenfor, biit rf fuacd Ui pay 
auy of the inaiiey to the plaintllt Tli<i court 
held tSnt upun proof of t)i«*(> taota tha plaiittiff 
•K7k» riiiitlca to recover. Til* principal urouitd 
of objoclioa SM that lh«r« -nsiii no (invity ba- 
Imvii the partic*; but it was held tliat no 
privit)- waa rocinirod In tutiti a cam. exoqit tliat 
which rcmltoil from one penoo haviii)i; the 
ninue^ of anotli«ir which ho had no right con- 
acieutic.iidy to Ktain. When the ^t wni 
pinii'il tlint Iv' liiul tho moaey, il he cwuld not 
*!i<in thut lie liad Icffil and enuitablo groHud* 
for retaining it, the kw oriAtod ttio prii-icy and 
the promiiu: A'rmfl v. Livi»\iito<t, 1& Cal. MS; 
Slamnoit v. Sage. 22 Id. US; Eagtf Bant r. 
Smilh, 9 Covin. II: Diel-miu r. CSiniuntfAaM, 
Mart * Y. 3Jli J/xmn v. Waitr. 17 KlnM. 
SM: Arnold v. Lg-tat,. 17 M 40a It ia of 
no oonacquonco that tho trunt in creat«I by a 
contniul to u hiuh the phtliitilT wa< not n |nrty 
if hf aatitL-iiuc'iitly Mwnli Krra'z v. Litifgiiloii, 
li Col. HC; SlauiBnod V. Sagt, 22 Id. 31S. An 
actiuii by jiUitilifT ti<r inoiney bud and reecivcd 
to rtcnvor tho pruoteda of a wron^jfnl ulc by 
ilofcndantuf taTaiiitiirii gooda ufTirnu Uic mIo: 
Ton ^rAinWf v. Baum, So Id. Gilt: «» "Coo- 
trafl," "WaiTw of Tort," mpra. The com- 
ptiUiun iir cooroioa which la aaHielent In Inw to 
render a payment b*»Iuntary mntrt coins from 
the pirty tu whom or by whoM dirvdiun the 
pajruwiit ia made, and ariao from the oxvrciao of 
•umo power poaa w aoJ oranpijoaod to bo poa- 
mml by hUn »v«r tha perveu or ppoptrty of 
til- l»irly nuihiM tha payinofit. Pnnciplr np' 
plici Ift llin acliou to r»o<iviir inuncy paid (or 
ubimrx to pbc* on paaaage tioketai Oarriton 
V. TUiin-jhaM. IS M. 4IHi Bnmmagim v. Til- 
lii^hajii. Id, 'iTOL The mere fact that a party 
niAilo na nnjntt oloini. aad suppoirtod It 1^ tin- 

!a»t pniolicvi, JB nut enoagh to autboriB the 
ittnriKnitiuu of ojiiitT! Ttrrill v. Gtoirt. Id. 

USl. ItwiMbol<lii>//a|W4v. //ii{/ait.Cia.343i 

MfinUan V. ^hnrdf, Id. 417: Fkttf*r v, 
Itual, 16 Id. 170; niul Guy v. RifJUiuru, 3 Id. 
113, that it inonoy which la not legally duo la 
exBoted by mean* of dum« or coardon. it may, 
if paid nodor protcat, ba rovovernd back. The 
eanrt aaid tUo purpoM and olt^t ot tliv proteet 
bad not been laliabctorily dolined in tay of 
tliOM canoe. Ill moat of the oaaoa the payment 
waa made to a publio officcri and the ordy pur- 
poM of tho protcat waa to give the oSieer no- 
tioo that the monay wu not IcRilIy duo. and 
thui to ODibl* tho olSoer to protect hinioelf. 
Tlie offioor waa tberaby nut on Inqoin-: and if 
ho found tliat tho demand waa iUo^pl, ho miKbt 
proteot blniielf by n<fii*in^ ti> rei«ivo tlie 
money: or, if hu found that it wiu of doabtful 
legality, be might tale the propcraleii* to firo- 
tcct himwll ag-jinat noponubibty. If the otS- 
ccc baa notice of the mattor which rrndeTR tho 
demand iUegal. another notiue iu thn form of a 
protat i* naoleaa: bvl if he hu uu knowled^o 
of (ucli inatlcr, he ought not to bo aubjcoliKl to 
the eoete and conuqucnca of an action to ro- 
oovor (ho money from him — and that, too, per- 
bapa. aftn be baa pud over the money in tha 
naual courM of ollicial baalntai — without no- 
tioe from tho iiwty paying tho mon«y of tho 
sraunds upon wliivh bo cUiina thai the dcinaud 
u not loBoUy due. Whenever a protMt ii «*- 
wntiol. It ii thorofuro neeeenry to aUto tho 
groondi upon which tlie party paying; tlio 
money cUtlmi that tho demand U illegal. Tlio 
atalniiicnt of the prtiaiw amount which ia 
chumod to be illegal, ulicti a piu-t of the de- 
mand la legal, ia oi bat liltle momenl, for that 
oan bo Nadiiy a*cortaiaod by tho oSicial to 
whom the money la puld, upon hoing iiiforniod 
«f tho groand upon wlntJi paymoat wi^uld ba 
rtitllaed, MOopt for tho coercion or durwu: 
ilf<et V. MrCfurr. 40 Id. fi27. 

Where tbo coinpklnt chargoa that A., l»>ug 
indebted to pluintilTiu aaiiin «t money, it waa 
aenwd betwi?a A., plaiiitur. and dvfeiidanl, 
tliat A. abould pay tho mmo to detmiUnt, who 
ahould pay the aaniD to pbuntiEr«n tho reriueat 
of plaintiff: thatthet<eaftorA.nudtodefend>jit 
aald eum, in gold coin of the United Statci, to 
and tor Uie um and benefit of plaintiff; that 
defendant refuted to pay tho oimc to plaintiff 
upon aaid rtiineet duly ma,>le — an action to re- 
cover aaid lum in aaid ouin i* an action for 
miiney liad and reori<rvd,Bnd tbei«lud«/oiidaiit 
i> Dot charged, nor. upon aaid facta, chargvahlo, 
aa a hiulec; IfTw/t v. Avu, 33 Ca). 630. 

Mousy paid. — ^A luruty who puy* iimy muiu- 
tain nn action for contribution against the other 
Riretieaand tho cxeirutor of a dccmsud Burety i 
fhiunl V. firiiyuJfrr., 60 Col, i58. Money piud 
by busliond for wife: .Sec. :17ft note. 

HulUpUclty ot aotloua. ~ Ii a claim U 
toiuidod upon one cntiru contract, where tha 
brsaobiM aro not reoniTiiiu. or upon oun tiniila 
or cDUliiiuuua toKlou* a«l. it cmiiot l"> •livlded 
up into diatlnot dvnuuKlfL a::d mode Ihti aiib- 
ject of eop-irata a«tiona; osd if titii i•^ at* 
tomntod. a indgment ia one action will he a 
oonolusivo bar to auy other aotien, tipon tho 
pHndpIe that If a ploinlilT bring an aotioii for 
a pnrt only of_^an cntiro and indiviiible do- 
mami tlie verdict anil judgmont in that action 
will be a nqtcluiivc bar to onT niluRiucnt lUlt 
Ua another port of the mmc demand : llirritfr 
V. Porttr. 23 (^1. ,187; Phillif* v. flcWl, 14 
Joliiia. I31i; A"arri«(7(o.i v. Paj/nt, IS Id. 432; 
CiuiMH^Aam V, Ihnit, S CaL 81, 


Caxt. n.] 


MortgMei: See. 728, notft, 

K«cl^aac*L— An kitoracf b bonnd to dm 
OtiliAtr]; (kilt uul <ar« in tlic Miino oJ lila 
proFcuBioiul cmptoTincot^ Sec «.-c 37>'i. noU: 

In SJiiurmiui niwl Rtdliclil lui Xt-gLlgt^oe, 
»«■. 213, it U mIJ: ■■Tb(i tnnj nile o( liabil- 
ity iiiiiloiibtnlly U, tlial an nttonMy I* IlabI* 
lor a wiitt o( uivli iklll, |irurl«na*, and dill- 
geaot M bwjvta ot onliiinry Hkill uiil caiiaeitjr 
oomnionly |H>a*ew anil nicKuit." TLi> ii tlia 
lirini:ii>l« ncugniml iu n'ition r, /l\i*t. SO ilt. 
4:31: O'ocv/mux v. H'nltTr. 30 Ala.. X. S.. 4S2i 
CW r. Sairimii, T Git. i\t: (iambtrt v. Ilari, 
U ChL &S2, and numcrou* Amcricoii aura, la 
dMlarlng ngutnt an atMmcf for ntaligcnco, it 
b onlj n«cc«aa)T to arer generally uint bo waa 
NtaJned, wttboat nUtins qtociaQ* tliat • iv- 
talnlB; tco «-ai paUl, Itiit if tbe aT«niieiit 
goea laKlitT, nud iiliim* tliat lli* omployinciit 
or aofifinncnC of IIik d«i(«udaDt waa lu aon«id- 
•ntioii of o»rtain rtamnablo t«iM and reirania 
to b* |Mld him, and no futur* tim« ia atati^d as 
liavlng bMn agreed opon for the mymrnt of 
tliB ftu, Ihs'lnftTcnco mujt be tlinl it wn» to be 
jaid U'fon tho aorvicM trcro rcndoKd, booaoso 
an altorDcy U alv-ayn entitled to hia retaining 
fee in advance, nokai he Rtipulalea ta the ron- 
tranr. Themore a declaration averring tliat 
the leo waa to be paid nan holil EiMufllcioot for 
bot Mating llie pajinciit as diMluctly aa tb« 
I«r(onnasD« of Kiiy ntLnr oonditiun iinweiienl 
ma n«c«a«»ty %•} bit «lktod: Cor^laud v. Yalt, 
3 IiL lift l'« nil it ling dry gnus (o miiain un 
a mllmad tiaok u not jirr tr DPEligrm^c on tlio 
nait ol the cotnpuiy, but a Uat from « hich the 
yaj may isf«r ntglit;cnc«: and the qneitlaD 
wbetbcr the dettnictioD of a crop ia the prvn- 
Emate icmlt of an Ijcnltlon of luch dry graat 
h alao for the Jurr: Ptrry v. S. P. R. P. Cv., 
BO 1>L n'H. A (>miitIIT canniit recover for Iho 
Btfllgcnci) of tbo ilrlrnibuit, if hi* ouru wa&t of 
earc auil tKigliguncu ha* in any d^greo oontrib- 
Bt«(lta tlioiuaullcomplaiiiwluf: Or'i/ir. WMtr, 
fcS4Id. 153. The reaaan uf Ihu ruU in, that both 
Itartita bftng at fault there rnn be no appor- 
Uonsiant of the lUmaeci. nud not thnt the 
MgUgmoe of the plaintilf juttillra cr cicntci 
the niiBtigeiMa of the dcfendonk which woaUl 
•coin to bavo been iakea to bo the Inie nsunn 
in (ha New Vork onnrt*: Xttdham T. .*. F. * 
S. J. It. R. ("«.. .17 Id. 410. If an Iniuffieiant 
lor-vsy in ])tac«>l l>y a railrowl uurn|iatiy In a 
(«noo OB lluu of it* road, at Ibe n'qiwsl ol 
and for tb« ua* of the ownvr of ndjoiiiinc lnud, 
anil ho nan th« aamv. and dor* not i-iimpluin of 
ilit InculHcicocy, or notify tlie cutnpuiy to niter 
it, the comiatny )• not liable for damage* for 
injiirio to hin cattle, hii{>i>tmuig In eoiUN^u«nee 
vf^ttic har-var Wutg *•"> low to tarn ealtlo: 

A'i.f .(fUj v. s. k d- s. J. n. It. To., an id. iio. 

('onlributory ixniilicunco on tlio jiart of the 
|)laiatiir U matter oi defcn*e, to ba praveil 
ftlBmullvrly by tha del«iidau% iintta* it <»n 
lie (nferrtvl from clrcamttaiicit* nrovad by the 
p'aEiiilfT; tlii* aiutsiiieil by tbo Mttar naaon: 
/,'tA,n.w V. ir. /•. k. R. Cfo., 49 Chi. 43Si Jtfc 
(.Im'toi X. C. P. It. ft. Co., 04 Id, 4(B: Shear. 
iiiiin A Itedf. on Xp(;ligDncCi bcoi. 4^ 4-1: I'mn- 
tylrai^i fa^at ('* r. Itntlry. GO IV St, 30: 
SvtOfA V. tlV/i.wpJt". 2< Al«.. X. S.. 1 1-J: Joh..»aH 
V.//ii'/x'" It-Vfrll. It.>n«r,-JI. The com- 
p!ni»t lieu) not alU'f;G thut the iii)ui-v waiilonn 
■«ithiiilt fAiiltor the jiliilBllff: /.'oUnmH v. W. P. 
It. II. Co., 4$ Cal. 4:.'<l. Rut lliln dor* ix.l jitv- 

«UiIfi tha court Irmii JiKctiiig Ji;wl^iiaut hy 

vayof nnoiait, when the pIoiiHilT'* eridfnco 
VQDctuaivelv ntabliflhea vnuirilmliirv UL-^tl- 

fenco: ileii<iillxn r. C. P. II It. V^. .'^ Id, 3. 
icavtiig a team Qnhitcheil Is cicao {iroslniity to 
a railrou) tnuk, at a llina irhea th« train oau- 
ally coinaa, ia vnntribulury iiegltgence, if tlia 
ttani LWt lujnrrd by tho Imii: and if, on tltn 
arrival of the tnUo, tho tuani bciiiK un the 
tnkuk, t)io i>lainliFI att<u>pla th^r rwciic, and 
»ta iu Uio vay of th« train in (Uaiig >o, thnt 
1* abo uontritiutui)- ucf;lii^ool Vrriltt i, S. 
P. H. R. Co.. Id. 3M3. A person crMainu tbo 
tmok of a railroad •.■ompony ii goUty □r«on- 
tribntory negli]^uce if bo could, by tho oxor- 
cbo of proper oarc, avoid a colluion, but did 
not excrcine mcli care : lltnrw v. S. P. It. it, 
Co.. Id. 4Mj iM alae Roihr v. S-itrr S-rrH It. 
B.,4 W««t Coaat Rap. 091. CoutriUitiofy nt«- 
UininM laaimMtfonof fa«t for tho jury: J/r* 
yatimra V. S. P. II. II.C«,.SOCil y<l: llm<t4 
r. 8. F. * N. F. II. R.Ca..3 Weat Cout Itep. 
(W.101: Blaiidv.S. P.<.\.:s. 

NuladUlCO: Svc.TSI.porf. 

PnroQt, action for the injury or death of 
minor I'liild: Sees. 3Tli, ItTT. 

Partltlou: .Sooa. 7S2, 7^3, 

Putnoimblp.— l\-iaaUB doing baHneaa na 
Ettitnera cootrary to the praviauoa of the Civil 
t^c, diviaioa 8, part 4, title 10, etiapCrr 'i, 
artiole 7—^ *., CIvU C«d«, aeetionH •HOd- 
3471 — cannot malntalA any aetlou upon or on 
account of any contraeta mado or tnii-JKiliuDa 
had In tbeir partuenhipiiaiB#,iaaTiy onurtauf 
thi**tat«i,iuitil thvy bar* tint Glod tbocnrtifi. 
oate,and inailo the publication tlwrctu minired ! 
Civil Code, Bco. 240S. 

One partner cannot aue another for n port- 
nenhip tranuction v.-ith«nt praying for on 
aoMHUit and a aettlemont of all jurCacraliip 
tranaaoiloiMt 7h>Mr/'v.//yn>i>, -CaL 87: ^'Hgtiil 
V. Loth, 4 I.L 3-X: Slow v, finu: S I-l. UW. 
A bill tor an account t* therefore the iiroptr 
remedy (or the atttlunMnt of the proooeJn of a 
joint ailTODtnTa, wher*. la ooMtdaration of 
oatiit and advauoea inaje by plalnliiT, tlio du- 
tcodant agreod toaconiint for and |iay uvor a 
prepurtion of the prooecda of hi* lanor aorl 
(pccuktion* of eroy kinil, lor a ooitain period 
of time, although tbo putieu may not hnra 
been t««hiiiea]ty partner*: Garr r. Itrdman, S 
Id. 074. When one jiartaor ha> tii*' nuuiogo- 
mentof thapartncnhip affair*, and mukeafiilao 
*ntrtn) la Um book*, and defreudi hi* cc>part- 
nor of a portion of the nartnnrahip rooalpt*, atiil 
mtsbi* tlio tamo to hU owii um, tho piirliur 
lliu* d«frtu<l«d fa aiilltled to a diMotulion of 
the partnership and an aocoiinting, i'v-:a if tha 
partnirnhip «aa by agnHinicnl to continuL- fora 
fixed term, and tlie tortn haa not exjiired: Col- 
Ik r. LfUrh. 3A Id. 131. 

If in lu^b n cue there hoa been an account- 
ing linlwocn tho partner*, and tlie partner de- 
fraudext doc* not diaoovcr tlic fraud until after 
tilt accounting, hn tnay duo t<>r on ncoonnling 
and di*solut[oti, and may «iir<:liai>:e and fiiUlfy 
tho account without dunuuiiliii('n ■•»''. ountiiu; 
prior to tb(>>.-urnnieiiu-im-nt of tin- nctuin; 'o/fni 
V. itiri, as Cttl. *M. Whpin-v"r ■ partner (a 
entitled to a diaolution, (ho taking of art aa- 
eoimt 1* D€iceamy, and fellov* aa a natter of 
connw: Id. Iftwamen ara iiTparUierahiii I<ir n 
term of yo*r> in tlko oue ami one half Uio in- 
cnjaaoof a il»k ol ilieep, under noCTtractu-iUi 
thp owner o( Ihn Itock, whoroeeivei tlio oth<T 
half at tlio lucrcoHC, and tlie ovnvr buv* tiM 



OF cmL AtrriONs. 

jrAST n, TtnM VI, 

loUrtalol oiM', thmush (nnululunt roprFwnts- 
tloii« tluti l>v bail puroluMid Urn Jiiictcit u( the 
Otliar, unl llini takCM novtwion of the flock 
n»>l iiK-r«iu», llic rrniMy <i( the partner nlio 
h»il Dnt ■oUl u in equity bran »ecoiuitiD|[, and 
in iimtU aution Ibo i«rte«r who toid u a. nocea- 
«uy port)-. In aaub caic an action at lav (or 
danii^ea doo oat lie: A/otx^ v. FaMmtiU, 43 
Id. If). lu an nutlon for an ncci>iiittlii)£ biuI 
for a iliixr^lutlon, llm (iliiiiililT liuvin^ iHr-niv 
4iiit4tvly HviiiB of HiK |»ir(iivn<lii]) I'»stni nii'l 
liaviiiu nialiOfil in othiT ItniiMiclion*. bon'iouKI 
lig ilol'ihd aiitl <i«ililcil vitli liis jiut liruiiur- 
Ik-n: Ctiuir.Giidl'y. 11 IJ. 119. A ^iuolu- 
ti(fa vf a purtaorsliip takj lio dwreccl under tbc 
prayer for gcuctiit rcbcf. w Ixcic tii« kl]cgAti<>nt 
of Ilia oompkint warrant Jii Halt v. /.onIr;i, TiT 
Id. SO. A tmiuiin- In common r««alt« Itxiin a 
mle of law, l>]- wfilcli ll it alno controtlcil and 
£ikircTnc<L A ixirtncralilp. on tlin contntry, It 
Uic mnilt of B^r«Dniriit botuvun partiw, whioli 
cUo ■■ii;']i])i-4 lliu nilca tor iU SD^nnncnt. 
Till- )un-i>i'th»^ Inr a disiulutirui oi tlieta raU' 
tiona aro dilnreiit, and are jp^undcd vpon 
«ntinily diSi'n-ut faot*. Ai to the Unt. the 
mere ifmirvof oDc of thotenaataiiauncionttd 
•ut the couxta in motion; but aa to the lattor, 
(nnfc niQtC bo ihawn: BrtuHry v. Ilartnr**, 36 
Id. 77. But whcro twn iicnonB iiiaite an agriM- 
intnt to foiin a partn»r*lup. but »iicli partner- 
ahlp waa ntnvr laaaeli«d, and mutci lh« rartlea 
proonodcd to oonJuet tho ratorpriM In lui own 
■uun<% at bl* own coat, and for hb own cxolu- 
all's b«Dofit, rirluiliiig Ihu olli«r.aud n-pudint- 
iog tlio parliivrBhipagptemeut, it waa hold that 
Ml action by llis latter to utbLbllih hia right oa 
ft parttrar, and for an accounting, wonid not 
lia; bia outy remedy in luoh <a«e beiu^ an 
««tiuu at Inn fur brtnoh of contnwt: Peirrll v. 
Magnin, i3 Id. II. Bnt a Dartner cannot au« 
Ilia copartner f«r Meorrrv of poraooal proptrt v 
of Uio partaoribip: Bwotg t. Cartitte, S IiL 
420. Where A. and B. vera tn partncnhjn, 
B. took forulhlv poaMuEon of the iiartnunhip 
property and auld it to C. and D., it waa lield 
that A. could not maintain on action for tho 
p«rta«rihjp pruperlyand profita nninct B., C., 
nud 1>.: J/awn v. flaf/Uld, * Id. STU. It may 
not at tliii day be ueetvary. in ardiT to ma>n- 
tain an action at l.-iw aoiinat a t*rtner. or «n» 
who liai bwD inch, to allow An expraia promiM 
ti> fay a aiiin of money olrendy uc«rtaitn*il at 
tiio bolanen duo, but it la nooMnry tliat tha 
talani:e Itaelf mnat bo one which Laa Mirn aac«r- 
l^od by the act of botli )nrtii4i in other 
word*, afireod Id aa eoimituliiig n bnhuce due: 
Ihi* 1. Vvrntit, 4i Id. 138. An a«tian lin 
ftfpJnat a uirriving partner for work aod labor 
■fornuxl for tha firm iluring the lUa of tlie 
«Mtd iHirUior, and after bi* dtttth while Uio 
liflng mrtaiT it windinejip tho bnalncManf 
til* lirm: See. 15SX poU; 7Hrnuu/A v. Ffirr- 
niuCA. 40 Cal. 43. {"artiiM^hip between land- 
lord and t^oanli S« "LcMor and 1 nintii," 

AV'here it wo* nsrved that a Arm thoald bo 
diuiitvcd and the buiinaaa doaod, and that na 
between the partncn tha acoouDta *1ioiilil W 
ooniidcreil an if tho partiiiTvIiiii liorl iierer 
c<xMto<l, anil tll«»moiitit n'mvi-il by plnintilT 
from tlioi<artQ4'r*hip(uuiblBl)cnddlK<:oiuidercil 
aa Liken by him aa oompouiation paid by dc- 
(eodoBt to liiiii ai an oinptoyee, and that tbe 
detenilaiil (the otbor partner) ahoidd collect I)>a 
otillta, ud jiiv tte delitB of Use Gr». and tfa* 

aCTMinant vm act«d on, it waa li«Ul that 
pUntilT hod no inlt^ral in tlii< [Mrtnenltip 
Bj^cooota: ItVfinfrr. ll'nijniT. BO Oil. 77. Soa 
■■ rortncmhip," in Civil Code, ai-oi. 'JTtf.'iotBnj., 
lor the gonerel iirorlsion* on the Bubjcirt, 

Id an action agniiut n Sim on a puiaiitaaj 
nnta algned by the partnen individually. th« 
alttgalion Iliat tho defendants are ]iartnoi«, 
and that tlii^y executed the note, ia not luffi. 
Client nllc^pitiriii of ilie exccatian of the note by 
dcfi-iidaiita (m gAiliu'r*. or for a oonalderallcm 
tnoviiu; to the |artn«nihip: Prttman v. Camff 
belt. AS Cnl, 107. 

Promiasory not«.— An allegation in a ootn- 
plaint that "said deFeiidaiit ^looulvil to plidnC- 
iS' a [iroiiiiuory Dote"ia t^uuiralciit to anal* 
loiiation that defendant made hi* note inyabla 
to plalntilT: aud an aUc^ktion tiiat "delcndjmt 
oxcuulod to plaintiff hi* note in writiug,'*of 
"made hU nolo in writing paynblo to plaiat> 
iff," inuludo* and tmporta a delivery of tho 
anme to plaintiff: Wooft v. Whilt, 3S Cal. 302t 
Vhunlun V. O-irtliirr. 7 T. IL fiUT; HamU V. 
WMpfit. 2 Cow. S3fi. Tha making aud de- 
lirny ot a proniiuiiry iiotu by deitDilant lo 
plaintllf imporla a liability to pay in acvon). 
anco with in tonni, without .any averment ol 
a oontitiiioua holding or ownerahip: and after 
tlie allcKatioii of the execution of the pn^'xia- 
«ory note to plalntiT lijr defendant, a further 
atlouation that plaintiff' la atill tho owner and 
bolucT thereof would li' *ur]>1naaKn: Poorman 
r. am. 33 Cal. IIS: Wt,ldtri-poon v. man-; 
33 Id. 671i il"Bh 1. M'hUt. 3U Id. 302. 

A complaint on a proiniMory nolo *hould 
allcne that tUo note reuaina duo and uapuiil. 
Witbout lueh allegation, it dooB not state (acta 
aufSdent to oonititute a oauao of actioni Dav- 
a'Ml/ V. Eggenltnf, 43 CnL 3H> An allogBtlm 
that nn part of aaid noitc, prin<npal or interaat, 
lioa Wen paid. In niifliciont: ^oiirj v. iVoif, 38 
Id. 'Ha A« to dviu.ind for payment of prom- 
iiaoty note, ley " IK-itianJ," mpm. 

QuJ«t title Co rool catatCL action to: See. 
73S. and note. Tu nium-y "' obligation: Soo. 

RecogiiisaiicA.— Id au action upon a revoj;- 
niiance. Clio complaint mual aviir lliat the 
rocogiiiKance «ai filed in court, or that it be- 
came a matter of record. A recoRnitanea ia aa 
oblijiution of nconl. Without moonl there ia 
no recojiniiaiict'; and in an action ou «uah ob- 
ligation it iboiild Im alluded that tho ume wot 
a rvrainli Slriviofino Co, ». Lamar, 30 CaL 
639: Pm>lf v. Ilntti^ai. 10 Wend. iOA: Bidgt 
r. ibi^f. 4Maas. eil; TW^wf' v. tfmtr, 4 Gny, 

Redeens, aiUt tO: Seo- 730, noUk 

Raplovll); See fmt>, tee, TiM. 

Roal «8Cat9, qtiiot tltla: Sm nipra. 

Daaaription of land bv a curtain nun« la 
aa ^>o<t aa by mete* and boundi if it can b« 
rendervd auffidcntly ecrtoin by evidence: (*«* 
fr-O V. (till. S Cul, HP; .frn.-lru V. Orten. 12 Id. 
14S: l''.»r.fl V. Ilo'PfIt, It l.I. 407. 

Rl^t, atntutory, l£ilrlug«m«at of: Sco 
" Prauchiats" 'u^irw. In the cnaes of the ci«n- 
tlon of a puwfir or duty by ulatule. tlic ttatuta 

fliviue the powvr or cantinjc the dvity la nlon« 
ookod to t'liletermiiio tho i)ower((iveBordnty 
tnst, and has provideil ila own rtclniive rom- 
ntj- for the execution of lh» power or tUii eu> 
foroctiivot of tho duty. Tho iitaliiCv ■« onm- 

Stclo in ilcclf, giving a power or iiiijiitliiit a 
aty on ila own term*; the remedy to u« kakca 


CSAr. Il.l 



in (nnD(>ct{nn nith kixI u * jnrt of Iha right. 
BiiL tlin is n inaltvr u[ li'g^l iiifctviK'u fri>iii ilia 
•bliite, uiid ILU iiifFrTiii:c iiuy Iw tvpollcil by 
il< oproH languozc or tbo i^ont •rop«: Slate 
T PoMUnr. WCil, Ml. 

Wlicr« tlio lofiUlatiiK crakUa a right of 
action *iiit makei no i[iociAl urotlmoii for It* 
oiifurociiiciit, otUer Ihui by dlrtccinf; that • 
CI1 il action may bo liraiiyhl fur that imr|<o*c, 
mrIi acilon iiiity ha commcncril biiJ proto«uls<l 
imnuiiut to the provlstotiit <■( tlio kvu^mI I*w 
tvtralalinj; pnwonllugs in oiril oa««*, and par- 

wild il inclucnil to le^ol him m Iho owner of 
ttic entire prMiiiw*. tli<! vi-uUor a i1«iiidoiJ to 
bare MA notoulyhiiowu intffnatin Ihvluii), 
biittbcwbo1a<dthalBiid. It tbo vondor iu raoli 
Ream if uDal>la to perform tiMontiraagreeDWDt, 
aiul c*a confcy only au unilliiJed boU vt tbo 
liLiiii, he inay bo compsUoil to convey that id' 
tirreiit. TurntitU thu voncloa la thccafcsUtod 
to a dofrre cuiiiixilliiig tho v«Dc1or to coiiva]> 
his nnitivicleit half of th« Uii<l, It In tmruMVy 
for liim to t«tiJer ■■ the pnr<:haau vtuiwy tnily 
OQe lialf of Clio oontnut [irit!i): JJarrAnil v. 

titHt> Biich aoti«niinay takaany and all alo^ CatdmU, 41 Id. Oil. luauiit Iiy ttiu vnuJc* 

tDoompd aipteUli) perfoniiaao» u( a ojutmct 
for tb« alio of bud, tondtx of tbu iiurk-luisB 
money miut bo aliogoil; alUg^g Radiiivsa ua<.l 
wtUiaiTMM to receive tbo oonvoynnoo iui<l pay 
ths arnuiiiit iluu it not uilQuont: tUijlaadfT y, 
ffositr*. Id. S20. TliouKh tho com|ilaint ii ain- 
bicuoiu, jet, in the aMouoe of doiuntTfr, It 
wiU bo Mi*tuii«d. it troni Ma ^Donl fnmc 
work It appeata to be a conplaiat for * nivclOo 
pertonnaDoc: HtinUn v. JtfwtM, 53 Id. yHU 

Tlii^ Bgraeraoat aUegsd niBrt be ouo witleh 
In all it* toatum appcali la the jndiclnl tll«- 
■<f«tioo aa boing lit to be cnfonwd id tpcaic. aa 
having been obuiuod without t-ny iolennixtura 
of unbirufiM. Hence, If it appear that the b«r- 
gaiii, thongh obligatory iu point of in«re law, 
and one nut to b> tet ftude in equity. ■■• novnr- 
th«1ow, a, hunt batpuu, the court will uot re- 
liovr; Bnifjt V, Tuckfr, 42 Cal. KS; I Ark. 
134: Stjfmovr r. Dtl/tacj/. A Johli*. t;b. 2±i. 
Wltere ctmipeDMtioii in damagM will not 
affard th« putn • fnIL «ompIit«, and wl-iinalu 
r«inaJy, anpodficpeTKomanaowill bcdi-crtcd: 
rrtatiirrr v. (•oBiiorroW J^. Co., 23 CaX. 302i 
Clnrk V. Flial, il Plok. 231: The UtOutnif^ 
Bank V. Srto.1. 1 Prt. -iJiil; Ladu AmniMl v. 
Phippt, 10 Vw, US; fiuzi.i.i V. LUItr, 3 Atk. 
383] Coxik* V, It'Aifman. 10 Coun. 1^1. Tim 
■iipnnne court hcU that in tbo peculiar tcinili- 
tiou of Inunonu and iiiiniug u])eniUan« in Ui>a 
■lato, where niinicraiaa ininiog aqd otber cur- 
pflmlioiu arc in oxUtcDoe, whoM stock ia o(t«a 
of QuctQBtlna; and uncertain \-al\n\ and wbeo 
certain kiniU ft ■lueki liaie a peculiar vnlua 
to tho«« Bcijualiitoil with tbeir afTBira. when 
tha tnarkot v»lii« of atooki^ if any lli«y hare, 
iaoften dilliuulc li> uilMitantiAlc by coinpetc-ot 
eriilence. and where tlin riik of tlu> puniauBt 
(tapontilrility of iudiTiJualB uid cor[ianitiaDi 
il lo ffreat. marts ehouhl b« liberal in titviul- 
ins tb« full, ailequat*, anil coinplctu itlict 
afkinlcd by a tloarra of inedHc peTfciriiiiuir^: 
r-wujiivc V. Cbmnurciui iliitlna f.'o., !;3 CaL 

atatntft — If the plaintilT U wilhlu t1i« ex- 

B»thoi'ii»l thorcbyi ftanon v. CowUa, tU Ciil. 
Kii'ii sec t'ol. Code, dkb. 4432 «t ««]. 

It waa belli not nccwury unilcr the atatalu 
liefo'.c tlio coilo that u claim oiiainat a couuty 
for damafces for property <lcs(ro)cil by a laob 
alioutil bo preac-nlcd tu llio l«'4nl <>f nuporvlaora 
for BtlowBuoe liclor* bKni{>n|t on action to ra- 
co^'■1^ iiiil;,inent iiu It The act <4 tlie kgiik- 
tara ognipeUin^; a county to pay tor nmperty 
dcatrnyed by a mob cmat^d a new nglit aud 
pKitiilM a new remcily therafor, oomulet* in 
HwUi Cteor Lait W. W. Co. r. Lait Co.. 45 

Bamotloa, mimaiilAd Moulit may proa- 
•OVM Motion lor h«T own: Soa 374. Father, 
or in oirtain (««• mother, may pnwecutc: lScc 
3T0. Onafdian may proaccute: Soc 37Jj. 

BhstlA — In a complaint in an action brought 
by • ■berlff tor olBcul aervUea Id levying ut 
exocnli'-n, it ia not neoeeHry lo aver the value 
of tlie Mniova TMid>red, a* tha law 6xi» tbeir 
talue, nor U> allege a rUmaiid. Ad allegation 
of a apccial nuuest hy the ilefendant, tbnt the 
pbiiitiff ihoulcl perform the acrviwa, i* auUi- 
oicnt. It il Dot nccoHary to aver that the 
•nnu due the pkiuIifF wc-re not coIIooleJ by 
tbo iheiilT by a lali^ of tiro pruptirly Invicl oil. 
In BO action l>y a alicriJl to r«oov<rr for Ills 
MTvleet In keeping property levied on by 
virtue of an viocutiOD, Iho oomplaint is iusut- 
flcieot which iicitbtT wm what the lerricM 
were reoaonably worth, nur that the court. 
from which the rxt'cutioin iiauet], hod certified 
tliat the anioaut uu juit and rcMoDablo, and 
ancli orrtilieatv ii tlie proper cvtdcnoe of tha 
valao of the acrrioea: LtHe v. MtKilmntg. 49 
Oil. 421. Action may be maintained n^Enat 
■hcrlJT far any money come lo bit h&ndif, with 
twciity-IIvu jH-r vtiit dainagoj^ ajid t«ci per onit 
jMr inontb Intumat, it heilweuot iiayoverBaiiio 
on demand to pctaon entitled tliemtu: t'ul. 
Cotl*. tec, 4161; alio fur two hundxcil JoIIaii 
anii all damages sualauied by parly aglijriovcd 
if aberilT do not return notiae or pmocai with 
tbeueooiaary mdorvmests without delay: Id. 

•M.4ITD; alio tomcglectinxorrcfniiog toaell cvptlon of a atatulc, it ia incumbent nfmn 

npoa execution: Id., aoc. 4IH0. Actlonagalnat 
ibcrilf fco- esouto or roacne: Id., a«<a. 4162, 

Btandor. — Extritisiu facte need not be eUle^ i 
8cc. 4W. 

apedflo peitomanoai.— A complaint for 
ena^lle nerfonnaticv is bod it it abvw tbat 
plaintilT hu tb« 1et,-Bl ti lie already : DrUloa v. 
>/<)»*iVfon, 00 Cal. *il. Tho oourU will not 
enfora- a Mutract foun-1cd en the mutual 
t«r[iitadii <A tbr pirtica lo it: Agfr v, ftiiur-ui, 
lit :tr7. Wbeiw n parly who own* but an "n^ 
divt.lcd ooe half of a tnict of laud ont«ni Into 
a enntmct liy which lie o^croM tliut njxm tliu 
payniftni lA tbo imreliara money ho will noii> 
Tty the wbolo of tlie Uud to anoUior |>aity. 

hini to *tat« it in Ilia oamplainl: ^tnry 
Er|. M.. »-.^t. 4ftl. 7''I: y/onnf r. Pert, It 
Sim. 61 ; A'«.M v. Illoodg:>oil, 1 Jobna. Cli. 00. 
For iiinljiiicn. if tbi utatutory pciiod of limita- 
tion baa ctpin'd, li<< muat allow the taota whioli 
cxtcud il: ^•lU'fi V, Tomry. OCal 423, 

8eatHta of truudi, — I'ho ttatuta of frandi 
chauocB the rule of evulenco. not the ruta of 
pliuulluK. It i* not nrceataiy In alien a con- 
tract to lie in "TiltnB: '/''■4»r v, Etiaunlt, 2 

Wo»i C'««t lUp. ■•00 rciii ), 

Btatutft pirivAto, bow pteaded: See see. 

Stosk.— Action to rvoover slodt Kid Jor 
delinoiieul naauxBenli See. 341. aoJ not*. 

Sopplomaatal COnpUliUi !ja>:. 4d4. 



OF CIVIL Acnoxs. 

[P*i»T n, Tmx VI, 

Suratr, action tiy, to compel priucipnl lo 
uttify (iclnl- 8cc. lO.V). Sw "AJniinutratot," 
"Money Pni.j," iiupra. 

TaXM pnU UDcter protaM: See "Moner 
HoH uid Romircil." #iipm. 

TonantK wMt« bjr: So& ;3-J. 

TODonta In conunoa wuU hy: Sm. 337- 
la ui ni'tion Iijr a tcuBiit In oomiDon BHituit 
hi* oU'toiiMii, wh'i I* In tlio lolo |K>WD»«oii of 
tbc [iroiniw*, U> Trc«i'i>r t. hIiufv i-if Iho jiroKt* 
t4 tlio Mtat«, k complaint which »t«ii a Ion 
U)i;y in ciiminqii Wlwwn tlie pnrlioa, the lols 
Biiil ptclu'ivt^ piKXHtion uf tlio jimnisni liy the 
clffmJuit. tliu rtsceiiJt hy him <i( Iho r«iit«^ 
itmo*. aocl prolita uiereof, ■ ikmuid hy the 
]ibuntiff of an occontit of the Mine aai tlie 
)iiiTiu«ito( bii ihnrc, tb* dcfeBdaot's Mfiiul, 
lut'l timt ihc rcota, iuno*. and pn>tlt« nmount 
til eii;lily-fouc IhcmMnil dollar*, it iiinifflciont 
Uiiniiport tbo action. 

In micli ooioplAliit th* eoort hold Ih«re mre 
no apiviiil GircDmstanoM «lle){«d wlilcU willi' 
ilrew tlio rue from the ordinal^ ivm«i1i<n nt 
Inir. and rrH)nirnl the iiitcrpotition ut arjuity. 
Tboy Mud tlio DCtiao vriu u cmumnn'lAW Dotion 
of ncGOUiitt vi, vieareit la thii light, the cum- 
plftint vni t&tAlly ilcfoctiTe ia out averring 
ttist tho dtfcuihtDt occupied tlio prrmiim upon 
nay hiptnamat wilh Ih« pUlniifT lu nccinaot 
kaililf of liil tliani <J the icnU Aiid pmlit*; llikt 
II VM wtrntlal to • raciiver; that thia circum- 
BtAncv MhouUl nlat. »ad oqaully cMentlal to 
the fonijilaiDt that It b« allcigo^l: that at unui- 
tnnn lu«r one tunanl ia common hwl no r«niodjr 
agumt the other who eic1uaii'«I^ ovciipieil the 

ErcuiiiaM. aud receireJ the ontirv prulil*. unlmt 
c iras oiuted of iKMscasion, whva ejectment 
iiiit,-lit be branEhi. or nnlew tbo other wa* 
Di^my u batlin of hia intereal br agreement. 
wlicn the aotion of noconnt would lie. The 
<Kv:u]>aticin by him, aolnnvaa hedld not exclude 
hi> cci'Ujiant, waa but Ino cncorciie of a 1(^1 
rigliL Hit oultiralion and Improvaiggouta wvre 
nuide at hi* avn rink; if thoy reaulCed In loM, 
lie ouiitd not vail npon hit eo*l«nsal for rontri- 
bntion: ami if they produwd a profit, hia on* 
tenant vtai not entitled to a aliare of them. 
The c^tenant could at any moment enter inta 
ctjDol enjoyment of hii pOBeeBJon: hii neglect 
to do K> might be rcf^rdtd u an ouent to the 
ante occopatlooi of the other. There woi no 
Ginlty in the claim ouorlcd by thn tenant to 
ahnre in the profit* mnUtntt Irom the labor anil 
moti'y <^ hit ca>ttiuiit, when he hail expended 
nrithuran-l hail novor claimeit poeamaion, and 
avvcr hiiin liahln tor tviitritiutiiin in eawaof 
lot*. Ti»rr* wniitti Iw no crjTiity in civiuE to a 
Iraant who would neither n/irk hiinaell nor 
aniiject himM'K l» anv eipendlluree or riilu a 
dharr in Uii< (niita of aaiithor'a labor, invcet- 
tnentd, and riik*. Theatatnteof 4 A 9 Anne, c. 
ICl ga<-rn riibt ol aotion loone joiiit tenant in 
ootniBijn agwnet the oliicr oi luilifT. who re- 
cctTfl more than hia prvpoitionnl nhnre of Iho 
proflln; at common law tlie IjaitilT wai amnvBT- 
alile. III)! onlv for hi* ai:taal locoiiiu. but for 
wliat he mislit liaro maile from lli<i pninerty 
wilhoiit willful negloot: Co. Lit. ITi a: Wille*, 
210; hut li waa nti'er aJnpUnl in tlii* >tat«, nor 
hare weany aimilaratslntc; Pkvf, Cotmnbri, 
IS Cal. 4U. ^Vtisro plain li IT waa emploj-ed bj 
■peoiol n~rMnrent aa (lin agviit of defendant 
>wnl <>lhera. tomnlrraervioei in rMpt«t to tin<1. 
" c (act tiint he woa himietf on owner in the 
■oi did not prvvent liia «iiCordii5 bia claim 

(or compeufntionundfThiaagreemeoti Thwip 
«oii V. SalKw. 18 Id. 03t. 

If acrcrnli [lerions ore the ounen, m teuanU 
in oommnn, ><1 a niiuiug claim, and one of tbciii 
la olao n tenant in common with kcieral otiior 
poraona In the ovnenhip n( aiiniljuininaulaim, 
and tho drat-namoil owner* loa>o their clnlni l^ 
the •cc'Mid.iiaiiiftd owner*, to be uiue'I fur a 
aiivii tmn, luiil llie oiid o! tlie )«•**«• who i> a 
tcDunt in onnimiin lu lioth rtainia, and «ii|Wi'iu- 
tendent of the IcsMrea' claim, aftur tliu lenii of 
the IcMa liaa expii'cd, au auiierintoudent of tliu 
Inaeeaand a mcu'icr of llieir compoay, sella 
tlie tailinsi of the cliuni Icoacd, oni) oecDunta 
to tlie loiicea for the procoeda, the other Ueaorm 
cannot nuaiutnin an action ogaiiuthin oaft ten- 
ant In comuion in their oompnny far their pm- 
portlon ut the proeeciU; Clnrt v. Jawi. 4!) fill. 
ttl^. " Dninutid, when Naoaaaary," tujirt; 
" VnTtti*r»" tijirtt: '■ IteploTiu." lupra. 

Tlmbei, cuUinj; down or injsriDgi 8w «oc, 

Trespaaa to Laua.— A party canaot rrcover 
fur injilrii-'i rione lij'tvittle of defendant brenLii'^ 
into plain lilT's cliuc. uuleHthe Lind ontereil IM 
inclcooj Ij- n lawful fence, or at lesat by an in- 
closure equivalent to B bwful ftnc« in il* ca- 

ritdtT tociclude mtllc; Coarr/ont r. Diip'ip, 
' Vl\. 310. If it does not appear that plaintiff 
wjia in poneulon when tho tnwpan wa> com* 
mittod.and wu llinn riititlol to the powaaidnn, 
if ihu licfRnilniit iih-uil* lilitnim Irurmmlum tha 
actiuu will fjuli iMman v. TagU/r, 31 Id. 34IX 
The plalntlflf cannot, whore tho UvapaM la ooii- 
Unuona, aa cattle trtapaninj- Irom day I0 day, 
divitle it up into aet-eral couaea of action: be 
la Querra v. Scirhaa, S3 Id. H). The law 
doea not imply a. proniao topavforthedanioge 
done by one'* trtaiioaains cuttle: Tau Vallxt^- 
bargv. ,Vc(?a«/ry, Id. 708. 

,\a allegation acttiug out the time of one 
treapais, nnd that uthei** v^rc aftorwarda com- 
nlttiid, win lot in eriilcnoo n( tev«nJ dlitioot 
trcapoMMi Bmdy v. Bronioi, K Cal- <M. tl 
the flat of tbo action bo not proved, matter in 
aggravation will not be nsoovored for: Pi<-u v. 

Ill an oution for treeposi in removing a feuu« 
it appeaml that the land fium which the (rnoe 
woB removed waa the prooerty of the defend- 
nnt. anhject to a right lo tlie public lo oa oaao- 
mont over Itna ahlg;hiiay, and it woabeld that 
tho plaintiff had no right of action (or danuigea 
for removing therrlmni a (enai which wn* not 
bla nrowrty, and which he i-lncml there at the 
peii] of ludiig Ihcrvby all ri^ht to il^ /ToArrly 
V. T»(Fyr. Sf Col. IM. 

It one of two dotendaata, with Iho knowl- 
edge and oonn-nt ot the othiT, einplmra men Ii> 
remove buililings and (cneei Frum uuid, turn 
out tho occupant*, and take po«e*uou, the 
acta performed and poaaearion ao aoiiuired are 
M much the acta and paMunau of the one who 
aiaonlcd to thciu In ailvonce, and for whose 
bewflt in part anch poaaeaaion wo* t^kco nod 
lirM. a* of the jiarty who actually employed 
liioineDand diracMd thoaclatobodoae: Tnat 
T. Htills. 3S Cal. I -iO, TriMpaa* on butldiiw or 
cultivated real proix-rtj': Soc 73j. U"icn 
pUlntiS ii actually itlitwitixt. aixl drfn-iitaut It 
tn odrerae poueamou, tr«i|iaw yunrr rliuriim 
/irpU wi!l not lie; /^jr,Ho v. ri<rri. 50 Cd. r.<l3. 
Pl^ntiff mnat ihow bo wa* in nctiul pmaeuion 
at the tiino of the tnamia, and defen<Liiit nmy 
pivve nndcr a jjoucnu denial tlut plointiO't 


Cur. II.] 



traasl WMta pOMOMJOBi ClUiidorfir v. Atty- 
trt. Ill- iOti. 

Trov«r.— !l ia well Mttlod tlut jl pcnon 
having ncillifr tlic [lowCMJan nvr lit* rljilit to 
iMMMMloa of penoiul cJiuttcU ruiik-I loalti' 
Mb tntpua or trov*r tor %» lojiuj ..luii* to 
th* ptoiwrlyi MtdttlfmiDTtK v. Stdsiriri, 10 
CJ. »e. 8n *1m d Hitlianl mi Turu. S02; 
KdwanU on Bail., mc. SISi 2 CnwuL Ev., 
■M. 6101 Starr <-u Bali., m'o. 3!)»-3»lt /^>^ 
nam v. tfV^, 6 Jobna. 432} J/aofrri'd^ v. 
fir/rfA. S rkk. 233. Aaj noloKm intcrfer- 
ciicc with the pc«]icrCy of another, or cicrciic 
of lUuiunloD over it wbcreh; ho )■ dajniiiljcd, 
will mpport tra[MMOr Irovci': Buirr t. HI'J-u; 
MCal. luT, ul'cri'BilicrifrliadlovUilanftllMli- 
iiivtit oil lliv i4aiiiiiir'i iMawDiilty, ami pkoad 

A^uivikleht to the ai-rrrmcnt "convortwl lo lii« 
own U»if,"eW.: II ••li'Amjt •/ , <.W«<,4M C»l. 105. 
II a «|jeci«l lulmtuulnktvr. wiiliuiil aiitliurity, 
mU* itoclu iiUJ^l to lliu iliKcuwd, tills io not 
a souvcreluu by Ibe calAhi: l'«a Sthmidt v. 
hvan. SO Id. 016. * 

Tlut d«f(!Diluit La fittiiiag b not bound to 
anticipate tlin pkinliff'* com uuI oMiinui uu- 
il«r vlioin l;c will lilaiia title: Grum \. Itiiriirj/, 
58 Cal. ZH; //un<j>hrry x. Uarlny, IJ. V»3. 

Tnut.walaiCMiuntcl-'A oouuiUint avtr- 
ling tkat dcfciiJont at,Tooil to buy IB, aa sMuiit 
of nloiuliiT, plaintiffVi ptv^rly, about M Im 
lolil ati<l«r proocMk and uiy fur it, aod ailun 
(ilainlJlT toKJwMii it, and uiBt defuiuliuil |iui. 
clia«oJ tlia jiropvrty. aud iu violauuu of lila 
... agr««tnuiit and of Uio truM bad mid tiio prwp- 

a Icmjcr ill ubiir|;r, altlioii|;li tin- yTvprriy wan erly, luid Uiat pUUitiS'liad nutaioti) danw^u. 

etu., »aa bold • cood complaint in cqmiy: 
WingMt V. FeirU. SO C»l. 107i -x Civ. Cmto, 
" Trviiti," ««, Siia et »eq. 

Cwca of trade: Sc« fOft, mm. 18T0, aubd. 
12; anil L'iv. Codu, *eD. 1044. When a cult. 

„ ._ _ , .. „ -_ Imcl t> entered Into witli tvUiFena* l«i rulim, 

. ^1. 0911, iVtK-n a tiifuaal bj' tlic prtaiilont ol ouch aa tho rnlM of lliu San KnnulMu iiU>i,'Ji 
a iiiliiiiijj ouii>iiiuiy til ildlvm'atocb unotaoon- board, tliuy Wom<v ui uffiNt, •peciaJ tvniio ul 

Dot muvDil.aiiil wia rolcuMd beftiruunydauurail 
by tliej'lainti?. 
The uiuanue nud >«rvic« of an injunction to 

Srevect pJoiutiff from removing Lii own &a 
xtnrca !■ not of itwif a onnvaraion by Uie 
.rty •ulnuniit tlia writ: Larry r. Btaudff.iZ 


v«nkai. Ma UneltU V. Ottr/it, SI U, fiTOi 
M'bcn an aelion »a« brought fur a inapaw 
Jr loiiU lu/Kiilniis, oonunlltAl if bila tli* lotaca 
of the jilninliU' wiu iu tli« actual goaMuiun, 
and untitled to ttiu ciclmivc pamutioii ut th« 
proptTty, it «iM tieUl tbat m there wa* ni> 
BVertBciit in tbo comi'laint, aor any proof that 
the claim ol the lc««eaftirdaukitfaa wai oaMilncd 
to tlio j'blaliir, the action would not Uo: 7V>*- 
raB;f V. t/rr^ 49 Id. 617. OISL 

Id uia<liiiii tortviivvr iIm poMMcIoiiot por- 
Mnalty, if llMii>l.iiuliII>tlej;t« that hei« iu jwa- 
aaniuii, liu Btatca no o&ubc i>[ itotiuoi Carman r, 
JEbm. M (.'bI. ^tl>. 

TberD can be no doubt aa to tlw genenl 
propmiti-jQ tlut If the bailee of )i«noiaiil prop- 
erty Bctli it iu vioblkin of hli authuiily. th* 
DWnw may rali/y tho traniactioD, Bod demand 
the pmoutiJi of tlioMite. Bat tlio conn thoujjlit 
Ibo nuBon of tlv* ruin crsitod wli«n ^plLBil to 
(tO«k»; tluit it wu imiHWublu thai any Ban* 
pomiii aliould ban* antwruil hiBB6<]i.-tJona ujwu 
a partLcolar itvuk Mrtifirato, or tliatany viu- 
Itnou cunl4 be dunu to tiia feolUi^ by T«{uirinf; 
him (o accqit MMtber oertiScalA of |>r«ciBeJy 
eiioiUr character in lieu of ilj tliat hia own ccr- 
ti&cat« nut only the cviilenc« that ho owneJ 
u andivtdeil )nt«mt In thu capital and biui. 
iioBB oJ the uorjinnition: nud ttint a dilTcreiit 
rutn ibiaUl ^vcm tlw oonvoniuu of certifluatoB 
of Mock; anil if tbuvrong-douru'oiialuJl timn* 
TMiiy bchI KilUui; to tnusfer lo tltv ownar on 
ti|lli«Hl(<iit number of siiaitar shatvi in tliv 
aauw cumpaov. by a proper and valid certili- 
«at«, it voalJ prcKUt a caw for nominai dam- 
only: noMjiwn T. ro?anJ, 4S C'bL 09; 

tha cnnliact, and it luual bu avcrivd by tli« 
|iarty nbu t:bunii that ho bu« purfunitud the 
ouUlract on hii pan in acconhun'o willi ftucll 
rules; OMtmith v. Savjier, \6 CbL 21*2. 

Um nod osctipatloa. -No action for nan 
and Mcupatiou will lie when poaemon bna 
been odverBc nni torUuua, for luch excludes 
the idea of a coutiact, wliicli iu nil catui (A lUi* 
Bi;uuu miiil bo cipnaa or ImplMd. Ttio t/a- 
praiiiocunit uud tUia waa iinik>uU«dly tbocui- 
iixl BB ncll t,» th* geiMnI nik, aiiJ wan luU^ 
Biipjioitcil lay the oaio of Birdt r. IKri;fA', 1 '1 . 
It. jIS; .ViiilA 1. ^'f^inirr, Julint. -id; Whartun 
V. fiivjrtnht, 3 Itnll.. uod iiinunicrablc caiua 
cituil Ijy ttitwi BUtbvritin. ^ee .Saniatuii r, 
lihirfrr, 3 Cal. ■JOl. iflXli followed In OCoui»r 

V. Cwri-ii, M. 373. 

If a leoBO or aeroeincnt i» invalid under aoo- 
Uon 1073,BubilirTklQn A. to*', •latiils of fianJja 
it wonUl MHtin that It the t«uant lioa Iwon in 
poaacMica pJabtUT tnay tooovcr for ubb and oc- 
cupation: roUtan V. Pnriit, ii Cal. 003. 

Variance: :St<('/«»r, mc«. 4*39-471. 

Voodor'a Uea: Sco Civ. Cudo, »m. SOU. 
Wburv a vendor of land Lub Inluai the notua of 
thu purchoBcr in paymvul. and biiug* ULt actiuii 
tbervan at Ian, lie dioutd in Uiat kcliun. if at 
alU unite hi* uquitable chum for a fortclujura 
ol hi* lieni the «une IributuJ MbniniitiTiu^ 
both law and equity: Walter V. Srilgifiii, 3 
Cal- 30!!. 

ToiUloBtloii of pleadiiia: Boc HC. 

Trai-nli. ataoman, and boota, action* 
a gaJB tt: Sik. 813. 

wTanaitty.—An action unon tli* covviiBnl 
of warranty of litis trill uurt lio until uviclioti. 

jgllini V. OamMr. 42 Id. 0<<-. mk i'<m SfAnidt The reaiou of tliis p4inci]>Ia IB founded ufiiHi 

V. Doura, no Id. UlU. And in /'ity>ir T. Slliol, the poajtion that tlieto COO bono approximitioa 

M I't. 339. th« action t"r C'uiT*rtiiij( Kliarea of to n correct ineaniro of damoKea. 11 wduUI be 

~ ' .... . . ^ B(<riou> hatdahip to allow Uio grantee to de- 

Iwe an action for tho puKlioao luonoy and iii- 
toraal, on tho grown) of a breaeh of wuruity. 
whilo b« remain* in the tnjoyinent of thu pua- 
BBuiun, liM dcrivoil ita niuts and prollla priiba- 
bly for many yearn, and may hold until hia 
po»Bt«ion ripaua intoaperfact title: Xtaion v. 
Jarttoa. & ai. 2i>4: St^hiA T. J/oCoy, 3 Ohio, 
211. The prinoipla* daduDnl from tlio vnmin* 
nuthoritiot Buf b* ohnad tbua; 1. WLcra 

alock n-OB ai>h«ld. An octiun vriU btxiuitlit 
«l[Bln*t III* Biiariff to rtoovtfr dauntgua for tho 
liiBbuful bi^Liig from tbe paaHa*iou of Um 
iJaiiitiira, and carrving away of cortuin per- 
aokal proiicny, and (or tile detention of thu 
Runo. Tte court said that trover lay wLeni 
Inspaaa ik kanin lay: and an unlawful taking. 
tf Io)lon<d by the <nrr7-in^ away, wai'of itaelf 
a oouiYnloTi: Ch. H. I.'>li uud held tbata*tato- 
ncnl that dciuudout touk and car ri«l awi^ 1* 





[Part II, Tttlb VI. 

Ilicrr it K cOT'enant of wtmuity, tlie pojrmrnt 
<•! liie purctiiuc manv}' oanoot be rcantnl u 
IcAj; 111 tllc gisnCce rcnlnlat iu [lonMiruMn; 2. 
Kor nailer tlie tama drcumiitaaciM cui the far- 
c'lMc moncf Iw radacdl; 3. Eviction li/ pro- 
mts of lav r*>)iiiiul« to enabia kii iki:tliin to 
lic niuintaliiinl nii ttio cotubanti 4. fruity 
<an riJIetv by t;iiiiitii)g a jvuciatirm (■( lliD 
cuiilriut uj<iu ttin allirjpitiiiii of lh(< iu*ul- 
ruiioy ur llic greolur, auil bii itiuUlity Vo n- 
•posiil ill iLuniagn to ua oclion nrun uu ciyve- 
iiaiit. a ixiniiiDuat oiitsUudint; tiuc JD aiiotber, 
anil uD otTtr to rcilclivcr powcuinu nod nccoiiut 
(L-r tb<^ TtnlM uul prollti: Cuft'iim v. Bait of 
A 'abona. i Ala. Si; A'orton v. ^tfoUoH, A OttL 

VtTuta, TotcTMH to: 8eo. 732. 

Water. — \V1i«n dataDilant, in workin(t » 
cnal tninc, "coinp«11»<l " a llowiuj; luu* «J 
Uklcr. MinJ, etc., to dotccml upon plaiutiff'* 
I noil, it HI* hcM I bat lbr^wor1l "oompetlcj," in 
tlie (uiiiplniiil, cx^rvucil tlut the wa(«T. etc.. 
dill iKit ilouvDil in ill naCutnl cnuno ot rlMcmiti 
ii'ir.-u Ibo mcro tmitt of tlioUwoEfiniviUtioQ, 
ui'! tbat iilointiff LaiI n cbum a! action: /!ob- 
iiiMx \ . lilaci Diauioitii Coal Co.. MCiU. 401. 

tt<.v|»ixitei nntl miCRcleiioy ol oumpUint in ac- 
tiQni lur the liiienlun of Katvr: 8ii4> J^ijtA t. 
/,.rf. />JrA Po.. SCnl. S'-'Si Mrllmmld v. tf. W. 
i W. I 0.. 13 1.1. '.-JO; 15 IJ. U6i Ooii r. T<i- 
ofiiMii', It 111. 25, 

Rallef. domagoit— AvnnncDta ncoCMuy 
to atutaln DlAun — If cbuiugca nro cUinicd, 
llic fkri (lioi t1>«<y huvu liccD BUBtaincil miint 
l)u allc^uil, or pUisiiS' will not be ciititlod 
t<- any juiljjinunC for (bunA|[ca: BchaU r. 
IHIl-r, 41 OiL hXi; iuiil it niiuit be borno in 
mill'! tl»t tflberc in uo auwt-r. tlie relief 
^aiitCfl lu plainlilT •^ntiot cici^dil Ibat cloitnod 
m llii' vumiibiiil: Spc. o8U, /w*. WIiopo 

SluiuiiITi lii.l tbL-lr dniniiKM at ono thauMtiiJ 
ulitrB, aiiil jntli;iii<'iit wa* midorcJ ia Ibair 
fjivor for ou« tliiJii«ini) (jvp biindrod dollar*, it 
lrni> ri:vciiii:il <iii agipi'.il: and llitiuuli by MDlion 
0!^ i'Ott, If nil an; Iter is piit in. the oourt may 

frjnt iiiiy relict cuiisittcuE wiib the eaae m^clo 
}■ thp tumploint, ibo rvlkf iiiiut Iw embiiMed 
Mitbiii tliv iHupaiiipccilir<linlliatacaUoti.and 
tlia court cannot rcDilur a Jniljcmont io tMo 
»1iit)i IXk av«riniintii in tbo ciimt^biint hn not 
eiilHcii'nt; SIfrling v. llaniHMi, I ».",il, -IT!*. Jm- 
li«i iviiilifM lliat [lartii-* »bmilil Iw irMitlnod to 
that to "liii-'h tliBy iirfl vntilled witbiii their 
ploadiiigi: ilfHrdin v. Bray. 2 Id. SfiS. When 
tlic JQd-iii«nt van Ivr a targrr smn than woa 
clniniej at tbn oonunrnconiMit of the action, 
but If'B conii-t.iiiit Hui amended by leave of the 
lU^titct i'-nirt Ijcfon? the CL.inineiiccme^C of tlifi 
trial, aiul tlic .Mnoant claimed by tbc ameiulvd 
'eoiiipl.unl i*ai in cxcvM of thu *um lor which 
)ud);'iieal »ia gii't-n. It waa huld Ihojiid^. 
niCTil «a* good: Tully v. HarliK, 3j M. SJM. 

Tliere ji uo nilo ol pleading whidi rwmine 
n party to aver tbu |>rtciae amuunt he cuinu: 
but he may roDorvr an antotiol h»i Ihmi that 
whicli iaatuUid in th<> cotnpbtint: ifrtk v. JLTc- 
Ctur*. 40 Hal. 627. If (he complaint contab» 
twi) iuiUi<4>ii>li^rt counta. c*eh oomplctc witbia 
Itatlf, and <'oiicludiD|{ with iln own upproprute 
pi»ycr for relief, and icpanilely siunod by oann- 
mI. the pranr t» tlio wcond count ulll n»t b* 
tUenwil 10 havp any reforauce to tlio fiitt) and 
on a ronlict on the flnrt count only tbo rtlirf 

Snuitol will follnw tlia proyer of that count; 
r. C. <t 5. C. Con V. S\lS, 37 CoL 283. Tlw 

Bmoiint of th«<UlRUMBBU)iIll«iI«hould alsn be 
nllegcd. for if tliu alU|jatlon ia not il'ineil by 
thcaiintruo iaaiwianiiaiil npiin it: U'Langh- 
lis 1. K'llg, 23 C*L Sai. From tldn deeinion 
it would aeon that in aiich a cue lh« jury do 
not auM* tlie fUniogcs. for there ia no laiuo on 
that point! bat it vu ui'.l in t'altiriott v. Bty, 
19Cal.'2S, that the allegition, bciny dMrnedud- 
uitttoil, waaciiacluaiTeo*i<lco>.>et>f the cxtvntof 
tlw dalnacaa, and aallioriied tbc jury to aatoaa 
th«i» to IM MCtMit eUlraed. Sea vito aao. 437, 
note. jhmT. 

Elnda of roUel — Aa a ^ntiml rule, oom- 
peuaation i» lb« nlict or rrnii-ily provided by 
the luw u( Ibi* «Latv tor the violutiou of pii> 
vale rljcbta and tbn ineani of BMiiriug tiwir 
obaervance: and apecilic and pmvcnlive relief 
may be ^ven in no other OMta tlion thoao 
ariecificil in the Civil Oode, ace*. 32T1 et msii, 
TUouwienU prindnUaoIcoinpeniataryaDil pnnl- 
ti ro daniajpf* are JfflDcil by Judjp Dculy in Ilia 
oliarKo to tb« Jury In Bo]^ v. Cam, t Wett 
Conrt Ktp. SJ7 (U. 8. Dl.t. Cl„ Or,|, 

ForMcarft—Whunervr by the tfiinaot an 
obligation a parly thenilo incurs a foifntnrv. 
or a l«as in the nature of a forfeituir, by i««- 
aou of his failure to aomply witli ita prurioiiMii; 
be inny be telievcil thorcfroin u|nki making 
full <'oin[«n<iitiDa to the other party, ernpt In 
oane of n grciuly uefjllgent, sillfnl, or fraud- 
nleiil bmch of duly; Cl«'. Calc, tuc. 327ri. 
KvUi-f of a tnoant from forfoltiire n( a luaa«i 
8ec. 1170. 

Uquldated danufaa^Bvery rjinlRut by 
ccbii^li Ihritmi'iintof dailM^ tolw paid lar other 
compeiuation to be inailn for a breaob at .-in oUj. 
gallon is determined in anticipation Ihemif i.i ta 
tliat extent void, etoept na exptcnlv ptrn-idcil 
Io thonoxtaMtion: Civ., arc. Iti.O. The 
partioi to a contmet tnay nj^Toe thcmn upon 
un amount which afaall he prcaumcd to bu Ilia 
smoniitof dumoip: ana lain cd by a luxMch thereof, 
vtbi'n fi-oni thnnatnruof thociae It wr<iilJ l>a 
iinpracticnhk or rxLrtmely difficult to (it the 
autuiil daina^: Civ. Codp. vo. 1U71. Hriiir to 
the adoption of the l.'ivil Code, f-ho auprvine 
oourt appro veil the follouiDie rulea: 

1. Whrn the party >tipulat« to pay a aam 
for a kIi'cd perioil of time during tbc contbu. 
anoe ol the lalluro. then the daniagca ok xrt l-e 
considered aaliiiuidated: AyltHr. hothl. 3Alk. 
238: e^it'hrr v. Pyrhr, 2 T. R. 32; Smah v. 
Smith. 4 Wend, 468. 

i. Wlieu the a^Ereeni^nt la nnt to carry no 
trade ut a pnrticiilur pine*; not to run a •in^. 
Doich DU n partiijnlar roail; not to publiili a 
rival nen-ijiaiH^r: iir.t to run a rival atoanuT on 
a pai ticuUr route in all tbno oaaa* tho aum 
*tate<l innat be taken ua liquidotod dama^*! 
G,MirU r. Priff. 13 Wee. A W. 093: /.njA- 
coii r. Wati't. 3 Id. :M: miiamt v. J>ali», 22 
W..nd, 201: C'«/. Slfttm A'av. Co. v. Wfii/il. 
til. 238. 

3. When the jiarty stIpiiUtca to marry no 
other paraon: to cunvvy land or pay a tiamtd 
aum. the price "f the land haviuK Iwm r«cel>*(icl 
by him. tlie damivgca are llquidattui: hotef v, 
I'tf. « Barr. £U: SUmo» t. BoutU, 7 Joluik 

4. niiea a nam«1 aum ia to be paid for every 
i«ra n( btnd |ilowad up contrary to HgrMint^ti 
wbcaaatatad sum ia toba paid (oroich arlicte 
not delivered, tlie daina|[M muat ha coDtidared 
aa liquiilntetl. 

&. \Vlientti«partystipuUt«eto«netabiilld- 


cbac n.1 



tag in B paTticnitar nutuicr. vilttin n girm time. 
■ml ttp'iu 'Biliint bi p*f a iuiiD»l sum, it rnunt 
Iw cunniluicil in tJ>o Dntnre ii( • pcnultj^ T<tff' 
ht V, Hiiail^Qid, T Whoat. 13i Stoorr ^ lluiil 
V. ll-iltt f'oMH'y, M Mo. 4<J7. In tho cue un- 
der iIiMuoIon tlie diifcnitliit iiipiiltttcil tliat 
•lie W'luliI t-ittt a lirick l>tilMiii>( It- cii'nr inch 
jMrtiun of n lot lU uxmUl W laliiifiuti'cy to the 
liUJulifT, niiil wntilJ cli o liliti |ioMn*i>ia within 
tlina wi'^kx; tbu |>luiiilifT l<> liivo (H^ttcaiioii 
for *ix nioiitli*, iritli tliu i>rivtto^n uf tircilir« 
cmiitlia ar more} and U|iuti faiturv to perform 
the fti;reeinait bIiu wo* to jiay tbe plaiotilT III* 
MiDA <^ five buailrxl dullara (lanusra. Tliviu 
waro tbernfme Mtverol tilings for tlie iliifeiiil. 
uit Ut io, failure to (icrfanii *uy one of wliich 
would Imtc been a nubtionof tli« (tfrccmeut. 
If thn Inllitliij] liaJ l>pi*n crcctcl rni •portion 
til tliol-'l not wlUfnctnrj' totlic: ploiulilT. orUic 
Imum not fini«bc(l fur a iliiglo Ony hcyond the 
MJnala(«d tiinu, tli* ilvfundftDt woulj liavebceii 
Wiletorlbe wboloKuni, ui'^'niilaitililf'tithoor}'. 
80, too. if tlio pUiiitiir liiul Eviiu ilttUiibeil 111 
hU pamtMitfii [or "HI? <1uy iliirii>^ IW tvriii (■( 
■ix llMMtb*. ur ilmic-l Ihc privit<^);» kit tlio ailili- 
tiootl tenn. Tlicri' u*u no ttatcuicnt in (ho 
^r«oineat thftt the turn tiietr'ia incutioaciil niu 
to be lAkcD u lioutiUlc!.! lUniBgfa- If tlio <lo- 
Jtoibint liaJ foned to croct ■ suitaUc brick 
buiJJtBB. aJAouali finubed wilbia the lime 
xpoeifietl. It woulii bavo bom » TJolatian of tho 
cmliiiet. Thvvniirt bal<l. tbrrclore, lh}l tlio 
dairiii^ai nieutionnl were iinl llqiiijat^, Lot n 
Biera peiialtyi A'tuit v. lUratoti'la, !) Cal. UT. 

FluBtiflaparoliuedof ilt^eiutaiit K. Ibe Imrk 
CliOM, p^ & portion uf tbe puTcbaao moiiur. 
u»l entered into pcMOHion ; at the time of ma 
tbo vcuel WM MiUng under & cooatiii); liecnae 
Imbd'I t« F.. but HM rc-Mtcrrd in the- name of 
ft tklnl pmon. F. aj^iotd to iIcllTcr to pluint- 
VS* willkin twenty day* n (toad and ■utB^ioot 
title awl remitter of the lurk; uid oa aecaTity 
far tbe mrformAnce of tbi* ■([reanimt oxecntra 
• 1)0iid III tbo i<eiial (Uin uf two tliouMsd 1I0I- 
lua. F. biltd t<i iluliver tlio titlu and T(igist«r 
at tbe tiine ai;r«ei1 on, ur at any titnr. by rtoaon 
of nliicli failafi! tbu ptointiir vb» mtrioted in 
tbo Uwfvl and mnal cic nnd eui^yiiient of 
Um vtaMU Tbe court said that Uib yn* one 
ait tbea* etmt \a whicb it wu diffloult, if not 
liupntclUablo, to aitiiiiat£ tho cxnot amouot of 
■bunaipo auflbred by tliu fiiturc of tbc dc[oii<1aiit 
to comply with liU contrMt, and hold tliat tho 
amount of tbo bond sbould be oonaideroil oa 
I><iuiilate-I iloiiiagcat t'utv. FntH'-r, lOCU. Q13; 
£b>iiH .Vti^rnfnin Co. v. W'ijhi. U Id. 338. 

Id k oontnot for the utv of n bntdher-ahop. 
tbe Kller entered iuto thi> covcnoAtt "I also 
hind myMlf tn tbe mm of live huiidi'cd dotkc* 
to Mill Rmb not tn go into t)io butchcrina 
badniM lo laid 8nUun, viihout tbc coiment of 
•aid Biwb. In any nuimnr whatever." RUoiUii. 
J., ddlroring the opliil>>n <A tbe court, uiJ 
ilial If til* partiM aur«Kd upon Ibn payinuiit uf 
ftOMlAiiiKiiiii, wliothvr in tennit un ptnal ttiim 
or not, it it could be plainly uudontood that 
tllBgtoaa BUin waainlcodcd osaBeuurity (or tbo 
|«iyinont of a lew lum, it ironid bo held a« a 
peoally! and if tbepaitiMagroed thuttliaium 
iboul-f be paid m licinidated diunaffea. tbc oonrt 
would oo regard it, nnlcu it clcoi'ly appeared 
tlut It wui Intcnilful moraly lu a Mcunty for 
tbe mytneiit o( d«niaf^ tlial iiiiKlit l>o con- 
atdtr»ii lii|uidali>il arul i.-«rt«]R in amouiiti and 
viMn tbs ooulnwt ooutaiaad both the t«rm« 

"penalty" and "Hnuidnt*.! dima^-ra." of 
njairaknt leamw, or whrre it (•■-■iiiiuiicd npithtrf 
of tbote tenni, tbo court wtiuld nKcrUin Ilio 
intcutioQ of the |iarliu (ram tbo wliolo lri«trn- 
nicnt: Sedgr. on fUniogn. 41T-44J. If the 
damage*, for the perforroaiice m noiii-|wrfom)- 
once of the art ttiiiiilitci) to lie ■lone or 
not to 1h> dono by Ilia piuiy a^fmrlng lo 
pay tho KTOM Ruiii, eould be aaciirlMtK 4 with 
<ertafuiy, or hiul bvoii agreeil upon liritH-tcn 
tlio partio*, tbvn, nt in 11 ranc wb«<ra tbe juirtiea 
luul denotniuat«iI it a penaltr, the uoiirt ^roilld 
consider it ai a neurity; out if Um^ were 
"wbollf nooerlftin aad inoapable of eitimation 
olhcrwue than by met* conjfctnre," in wna 
Hud in UVUmbu V. i*iU.i. 22 Wend. 201, tho 
ffros* lum woulil lie iv^nlcd at lii|n>>1at«d 
ilAmageai. Ho fartlicr uid tlinC coiirU wore 
not varrantcil In atldluK a (urLbcr t«rni, or la 
■trilciii;( Iborcfrom a torm tho partUe btid un- 
|)1oy<id: nor wmi: tht-y juntified In attenptjilg 
tu iiiodKi- or reform a vaiitract under thani^ia 
iiotiud of relioving s [uKy from an ii{;r*oin(iit 
into wliioli be ho* willingly nud knowingly 
enterwl, I^rtio* weranwreuompctonttontiko 
tbeir own haipune than oonrld wen: t<) iiiuko 
bnrgaini for Ihi-m, and Uie court held llu' fivu 
hundred dollui to be liquidated daiuii);ci. 
Sairycr. 3.. dinunliag, uud that the piini:ipla> 
of conatTucCion aimouaeod In tho provvklIlaj{ 
opinion Kcucrally met bia approlmtioii. Rut on 
one point liu tboii)tljt a i|iialIi!vatJOn WM n- 
(liiircd, ami that o'u the |ioiiit on nhicli tfau 
(.-iinttriiution ul ill* ovennut in (|ao*tiun turned. 
He ijuolfd the opiiituii iii W'Matnt v. DaJ^t, 
nijirn, on foUowBr "But it they [the dam- 
agoi] are wholly uncertain, and intnpalJe of 
eatimation otheriiiao than by incio tonjcc- 
tare," the Erou anm would ''be reKarUiul ^■ 
liquidated daniottrn." lie wid Ibat tliti nuuld 
doubtlcw lie >tTii:l!y trun na appllnl to the 
covenant under ormnl'krjlion in ^£|At caao, and 
uncerlaluty in llie anuiiirit vl duiiiago* wu» on* 
oUinent to bo oonitiik're-l in tlio rontilTuctioa of ■ 
•ucb oovononta when til* laDguagcmvi doubtful, 
But it was not of itatjf a controlling tnt. In 
tbo ooie refcrreil ia, the oontraet uoa tliat tho 
Bum of three Ibaneuid dolloia iliould bu and 
w.te thereby fixed and Rttled ai liquidated 
dnma^ca. and not oa a penal aain for any 
TioUtloa of tho oovcuoot, etc. In tlio uuo 
unilct contiilcration. the eovcujuit conlAliiotl no 
Ruch upraai and deoiiled duolanttlon <>f the 
Intention of Uio jiartioa to make tbo auiii liqui- 
<littatl lUniaoaa. and not a |>mal anni. a« waa 
foutul In H'iiiiaTiu v. DaJ^n. ruprit. The learned 

^'ndJ^o (aid further that he had examined a 
ni-go number of oaiea, and hod not found one 
u'iiote tho aum (Utcd luul been hebl a« ii^jni- 
datcil dainagoa, nnloia it waa eaprtnly atatol 
to bo liijuidatod, or there wu on eapieu onvo- 
naut to pay a ■pccISc nun of money on tho 
dolnff or not dolni[ of tho tiling ptuvldod for. 
On th« contmry, lie fiiimd inaiiy ouca tvhoro 
a enin axprtMtly atipubita>l to be lii)iild»tnl 
dainn^ had buoa liVlrl to lie pmal ceily, >iot- 
vith*(andioK8a exprsw atipnUtion tu tlio con- 
trnr}'; and that it waa alaoa rule, that wlirro 
it t'nt doubtful on tile foico of Ibo iua:riimuut 
wbi-tber the anm mentioned was intended to 
b« atipilatod dnniagea or a penalty lo cover 
actual daniago*, tbo court held it to be the 
latton Scdjfw. on Danoge*, 440, note I, MI, 
nol«i I : Jluytev v. PrtUit, i Sondf. 192; Sfrtltr 
V. Riuk, -a Cal. 70-73> 




(Pakt n. TiTtt VI, 

Dnnaew, pvmoiu anflMng dotrtdMitt 
m«r naovot n^aanabln — Etco' pcnou vlio 
MiMn ilvtrimciit frum tb« ualnwlul »ct ur 
OOBUBioo i>f ucolbcr ai»y neoree from the per- 
nn in fiuilt a miupsiuutioa tlierclor in moiicjr, 
wtiid) is DkUed dainniin: Civ. Code, Me. 3231. 
DaiQkgM muat id nil cues be rcMoiiablc; and 
wbora an obltKatinu of aay kinti ai'fieani to 
GTDkto a riglit to uix^iutGioniilila ojiil jtreatly 
t^ipPMah-a daman*. coDtrary to tullMAlltilLl 
luatle«, no moM Uian Kaaonabla ilanagM cni 
Iw romvorwd: I<I., wc 3.159. 

Duiiaguon raroldugtabmiMion: Soa. ISM. 
Dftmaira* an DXc1o«ire of vxamiilwy lUmagM 
uul intwml, excvpt wliun thorc an cspnvaly 
moutionvil: Cir. CoJe. toe. S35T. No ponoD 
MD recover ■ greater aoiouiit in ilomaMa for 
Die lironoh of on obliij(alion tlmn lio <^ouli] have 
(jiincd by tlte full ponormuicc tbcnof on bMh 
ml**, oxorpt ta tba m«m ■podfloJ in tbs arti- 
cle Mt exemplary ilwnagn vnl pciOU (lamauo*, 
wd tn Iho CiTll Coilft. atUL 3.119, XKIO, W)<1 
3M0: ITiv. Co.1*, ar^ 3358. 

Dafon^laut iluj( a diteh on [lUttitJir'a lanil, 
nnd in an action K)E<iin«t dirfouJaiit Ut n1«tv 
tJio d1t«b a* ft iiuiauic«^ aiiJ to have it liUi;>.l 
up- <^<i<l f'T Jainagei, it was held tliat iibintifl' 
cnuM not rocover u damages ■ suid auIDeieiit 
to fill up tlio ditcli, liccauBD tlioooatoffilliugit 
ii[i mi^bt cxfcod any Jainiy multing from tC 
ill iU tbcD <nnilitioD. and htmoe plaintiff micht 
never till ii up. l>iuna|[«a ooold be bad for 
the injury i.iitUian.1, and Dolbinjf aior«: D< 
CWu V. iraxarAiuift< Miotng Co., IT CaL 1)13. 

Tile mijiToni* COB rt ap]in>iF«i] tb« rnle atftltil 
liT Air. Jiitltk-v Wildo, In Woattrr r. I'f^prirlurt 
Q? Cannl ISrhtj,, IG Pioh, W7; " In M casta 
w baro tl<«iv is nu rulir «f biir Tv£ulatui){ the 
MatstiuifiTit of dainag<ii, »nJ the ainouut Aotst 
not d«^ud un uuiiiiiutalion, tbu jud|;ineat uf 
llio Jai]', and out ttie opiaiou of the court, ia lu 
fvt«tn, uiilou tbv damage* are «> eiccsiit'o lu 
ta irariant tlie Lcliof tbal tlia jmy miut liavo 
haa inSnciicod by partiality or firvjudioc, or 
bavu bora mialcd by aome inUtoken > low of tba 
nuirilii of tb» i:aic: Il'jyi-t v. i.'ali/ontia SMg* 
Co., 2j Cal. i'3. A* to now trial fur uKMMlve 
dauiuim, utc, MO Mction GST, and aotm. Tlis 
UuttlnitlliopiainlilEicbunKlamagM beyond tbe 
juat Muuani of tbvir ri^bt is nut a pxmod for 
i«T*raiag the jadsnuint, If pluinliiri at the 
trial "oflor iMtimony ti> provo damogDa whicli 
ttiiiy kwl no right to alum. (lcfeiid«nt can ob- 
'c<-t to iU iulroiiuction; Ailken v. MfittOakail, 
n i'^L -in. A> by the Political Code, asotlon 
3271, in jii JgiucDta and oxceutloni tho amiiuut 
tbon»f iiitiat be statal, aa near tta mar b», in 
dalLui niid muU, rejecting fncttena, tt it no 
iloubt i>r»fKTr to app'y *'■" "''"■o i^ulo t« tbo elniin 
for dnnts ;i^' in lliu ooraplnlnt. 

Nomiuil dusageo.— When n bnof b of doty 
IvH mumJ so spprociablo detrimeut to the 

Sity affwttil, ho may j-et reuorer nominal 
mrtgM! Civ. CciJe, mc. 3Sna. 

In aotioni for s brroch of n ooutroct Dominol 
d.imH^aaro]ireiuined to (oltoir, oa a coocliulon 
of Inir, fraia proof of the brMcli: Bmnrurr v. 
/Jiii^, 13 Cat II: nlaofroiDatrapaMi Attioooi 
V. FrifMi, 17 Id. iX 

8po;if :•] domiKM.— loaimucb aa the ubjort 
of the nilct iif pleading li to hai^ the pltw.!- 
iag •ulrauiiMlM tunpprJM tlio ptrtieauf the 
facta to b« nn>r«il by, them, Pkreu v. .<-tUii, 
13 Cal 2S. tlio rule Ul't ilown \aC-Jf v.Sy^ti- 
U<,x. I Id. :H; SUct,ui>» v.SsiilA, !U Id. tOJ; 


Gay X. Wl»iiT, 34 H. 1 53; /.rxibMn fie. Co. r. 
Hhrula lie. Co., 41 Id. 5iJ.">. nu.l Polltr v. 
FrvButtt. i", til. 1C5. that wlinv tbn damnct* 
are ipccial (ibat is. wh-h u« di> not iKoi'uarily 
arias ur are not imjilied by Lku) the facia out 
it wlilch fucb ainMia] damagui ariw urU b« 
avcrreil.niiikt bo adhered to. Softl«>7'<iri»T v. 
Airli, I Wat CoMt Rep. SU (Col.). In nn 
action a|:aiii*t • carrier of puaei>£i-ri for dan- 
af{aa for detention of a ftaMV^m, os Initmc- 
t^D to the Jurr that " it hang Avm in evi* 
d*a«« tliftt the plalatlir wu a gooi book-koepor, 
and bU tornuit on alilo-bodlcd man. tUa mcM- 
urecf ilamasM would Iw the wb^oi at tl:i« then 
rateinSauFrauouMQotftBOcid bo<^lE-k(*IK'raIlll 
ablo'bodinl wurkineman fining the period »f 
dMention of tbe MaintilT nml bin nm-^int at 
NowOrleonaaiKi Fuiaiiia." ii'»hi.'t<l iiMtrptuil 
Diktooinaa^eantiit8oncin(prabiibi!i:;'<>f ]ilalnt- 
IITa procuring cniploynieiil^ly on tiia 
arrival, anil of lacb ciuploymviit bciiij; cuiilin- 
uvd, etc) taaiimltof iM being oe aa 
abtolnte (tud I'lxnd crltorloa by whicli tbo iLun> 
ng<» coiiM I'l^ HitswiirBl: I'*™ v. i'a'i,if Mail 
Sl'iiM-hi/' Ct},, 1 3."4. WliMo an award 
showed thut tba ubitml'-r luj luiicil Ilia t«l> 
calation of damagee fur l-nuicli »f vortuanLi of 
D IcoM on tliu fact Ulat tlH> |/r.>1i.ict "f tW«ty 
acret of land ima worth nine t)iu>i>a[i<t ilnllarii 
from wbicli be interred the |;r«liii't 'if tuo 
biuidrod BcMS would bovo bei-n »-urth ninety- 
aix thpoaand dolkrv. it wai be) J tlut t)io doin- 
agea tuna aiitlmBtcd were toorrmoieiind diwcn. 
latlvc, and Ini'olrcil too niobj' oontiD^eiiclesi 
MnUiruit V. .Voirw. 3 Id. "S. ■-•liliiii Keilgw. Da 
DomwM, OS; and Ytrayt t. Ifui/i Mail dUaw 

In an auliuu agtiinat aurgooi.a f>>r ni^llgenea, 
}>rr quoit anlpntatiuo beooine ii«o»«ivj, wbtio 
tlivru waa no allc{;alioD u to boildy fubi, nf- 
foiing. ete., tt wu* held that llw uunrt tmiil In 
dinrutiug the jui)' that if tlioy b«Iioi-»«I that 
tbc tlcFucJaiits wvio (itiilty uf ne);lig<uf«, ete., 
by irbich jiLuiittU KiU vuuiivd grait bodily 
pain Biid kiilti'iliiK, tb« |4i>ii>litl' waa unlitlvd to 
B vurdlct. Thuuourtuid lbi<<luf«adnola WW* 
nut iiu«il fur caiuiug liodily ]ia'n and anffcring 
by tbt-ir iK'gli^FUOD or careMeuieM-. tliey were 
•u«it for nllo^vil inul|>raataot^ by wliigli anipn. 
talion bvooiDu oeccmuy; Jfuurv v. Trtdi, 3 
Cnl. 100. 

In ou action for alamlcr of a pvmoit aa % 
cloik or Inuiaimoii, it la nnneoe ee aii' to »11*M* 
apceiol damarai: llalltr v. Ila<rf», i Cal. tUL 
I'lointifl' aueiTfur tlin Waiiae of the agreed 
price of a al«iain-uui^>bv. )J> tlia contH'ct tbo 
«D]uao wa* to tie duuvervd by ihulifth of April, 
nailer a penalty of twvnty dolloi-* lit' every 
day'a ilrloy. The engine wiu not dvliwreit 
ODtll the aixtli of Maf. Dcfendaala cloiiiMd 
dami^ for luu of timi-, aervicea. and wagea of 
employcM ut dcfvnUauta' mill, luid the iirolita 
n-h>oh ilefcndanU wouhl \\i\'a ruolir^ ilHriiig 
the delay. The rclii:co oiidttuil to liiid doni- 
ajto for any of Uiiuu, (.■uiiHi.Ii'iin;^ tbuiii tu4 rv- 
mote. But the tourt btld limt the low ol 
tiine^ volnoof aervieut, and wngva^feiiiiiluyvea, 
CBiHud by the fadure <ii tliu r«<|»iudeuta tu 
perform their cuutraet, wvre lUnwijei bf no 
muoua remote, but, uu tlie uuntrary, atllully 
t-ruximato and Immedutce, and they ou^b: to 
have bc«a vuiuidervd and allowed: A'enju-a v. 
OM^UtH. a 14 -iW. 

Where a [.laiDtiif soed iu rtnpoet to tho de- 
■tructioiu by tlu dcfcudabU of ft book of 


[ilatnliff'it and otFmd lo ynvt tW ths hook 
ciiiiUmol lliv Djiiiitx i>f aalvi'tilii'n tohia tn-ir*- 
I«|jer, met tliatitoiMt liiin tun ilollan to ob- 
tein f«cli ■ukNrib«r, anil tbo nvidcDce wm 
ixctudod, the ■nprcDii oi<urt hold IbAt Ui« 
(•laLociff wa« cittitleil to rcoovcr tbo value of 
Lu ■tibacription-boolc, Iwt not Uie uoount 
that Cliu *iiluiicn(>ti'''iu coat him, fi>r that li« 
lioil uot alluHi'il la liii coii>|iliUDt thut bo aiiit- 
taiinil. \i<f Iba iloilriicttiiii «f thu lioolt, kuy 
•norial ■UnMC'ii A'udrtnv. Cify owf CotiWjre/'i. 

it could Iw (Ion* after thty wvr* tuned C'tTtba 
pT«lni«ai: Story v. tt'^imcn, 32 Cal, liOO; niiil 
•iKkMtor«ipoCvnoH, C'T.CVIp. ace. 3,1i>I, >o/m. 

DMrtmtot, dofinition of — Drtrliupiii U a 
IcM or liftrm RinTand iu i)crtou ur iirofH^yi 
Cir. Code, ux. M.-Si 

Proq}«Ctiv« damacn.— Iiaiiiii|;pt may lio 
awnnlnl iu n jutli>.-iii,l prcKuriiiii^. fm lieU-i- 
iiiont iv4Utliiiii adtir tliu coiiiliiciiMniciiE 
tli(iT«of, or •.■oKaiii tv n*ult lii tho fiitutvi Civ. 
Coilo:. foc. mSi. In BU Mtioti lor wuiU iiuuiliag 

^i38 Cal. 600. Diit il tlisi>l,iiitiirmial«k« lit* an autlooof forulbju Mitrv bihI dttaiiicr. iLg *u 

miaium of iluungit*, hi* allvratlcn* sr* aur 

SlsMfpi aiiJ i( n cBiueof aoUMi and gsiwnl 
tmagid Btv altegnil. tliii it Millii^iuiit Oil de- 
nnuTcr: Harhtr v. ('avi/i'. 50 M. D7. 

Getinal daiimge* atg llie imiartlinto and 
noMiMry Iom i»uk<1 by itvft'uikut'i act. 
fipnlo] dooutjic* coini>nio tbu lou uhicli fol- 
luva ai ita nataml and piaxiinat« coDNquoiico 
lieynud It* acccwnry and ii)imi»]ial« e0cot; 
niiil upovliil dni»a|[ca must como wltliln tliii 
Istli'r itelinitiou, c^r tlic)' will bo too remote:. 

Wlicrv a mMl«r suffura a bua of prulltii in 
Ilia liu^uma, uwintf to hi* MTvaal'i liruovb uf 
liii contcnot to (aitbfully iirvu, tlia tuaDli-r 

premo court b«l<l tlie rule tu bo tliat tlio fnMof 
«l ilaiuacoa inij^it txttlld loall tllattmligi to 
vvrdivt w!iicb *rur« tlie natural inult at the 

B'wiiiue injury! Ilicl* v. Urrrliig, IT Col. SOO. 
ut proipcuvivo doioNgea cau Iw allowc'l only 
wliCQ it appoon tbnt ibo [lOrty will Iw i<iil>> 

t*Mtvd to (Le puticular Iom nr lujnry (di' wbicb 
10 demand* (toiiipciuatiou: Vr Vottt r. M'ia>. 
M. Cdl. Id. 01.1 TWy will not l>« alU.w.d 
in on actinii for tlia lirxWtli of n m mtmut i-iT tlio 
nio of iiiilluig iiiacbiiiery: Jonn v. .Vu/Aro/i, 1 
Went Conal U«», !n9<Col ), 

PeonllBr vataOi proporty ot — U'buro Mr- 
lain propertv IiM a pvvuliar valaa tu a nenon 

Diky rrcuTvr froiii tbn tvrmiil lor the lou of nxKn'cvliig uoniagca tor ilmriiBiioii Ihcrccif, 
pnHita iovulvct] ;n tbo dinrnoition of buBiosM or Uyury tberoto. tiiat may Vs ilL-ciiiDd tu Im 

cftuscO by \ho Bervaiil'a uvgluct Luh o! prof- 
it* a* mi cIciQCJiC nf domnti'e in Dinulty tuo ic- 
tnotc. but not in inch a due w tliii It Ii Ibo 
natural ochI (lratcjr«;t of Ibo ooitlcot alleged: 
SrWrfint T. rnaJKHl', 2ff Cal. 307: Stiigw. on 
T)Lunoip'«, 73; J/iwf'rtoiiT. Mayor (/f llrooltyTi, 
7 lliil. d'ii La'-nnrt v. WarJarIt, Barb. 4a:i: 
UTwhtf. .IfcVoir, U JoLn*. I7I>! Sulgw. on 
raniojjM, 3X7, 3S9. 

Wbiii ttte nmkurwof a c<^tili«it<<of depotilt 
joy llir ■cnuunt to ou imtcrwr. whoKUvaotvo* 
tbe gcnuiuciiPH of tba [layiio'* ioiTuncineul, 
au<l ■uU«|nciitiy Iho jmyfc, upon proof tbit 
bU iii.loittjneiit wa« forufii, n>,-ovc« frOiin 
lbs Biabtn llie aniDunt (jI the oertilicat* with 
cotita, tlio nrnkcru, in au nction by ttemiigklMt 
th« «nlae<)ti«(it Indorace and goamotor, tnoy 
TMOTC* th* oott* (■ai'l by tbom in the fonnur 
adiiin; iliXU v. Barnnj, £! CaL 230: too SeoH 
V. il'LrHna. 2 Ofpwil. 199; tftilMy v. 
/IrMr>, 10 Joiiiia. 70i JmifA v. Br^ok, i'l'txiut. 
46(: tlfrt V. Xtnham, 'i i£.-i«t, 4Z»: L'liinuniU 
V. L<r\tt, 8 Bam, ft Creaa. 407. ^VIl|l|v u cum' 
plaint charnd tlie drfendanl* wilb tokiii); auJ 

ill taluo agiiiul one olio iuA itoUoo tlicroof 
b«(oTu incomug a liability tu d-onogca in re- 
■DiMt lli«ivf, or agninat u willful nniug-ilocr: 

«». Co.ii-, I.C.--. Xi:>j. 

Writing, value ot— For tbo puipoao of 
otiinatiDij liaiiiujp'*, tlie value of an Jnatrit- 
mcnt ill n f iliriii la pntiuilied to be Minol to tliut 
al tbe pn>|n.-(ty to wJlitli il enlitlia it* um iiui'. 
Civ. (clo. MX. 'AXiy W\wiv A tlittU I>n>l 
Imn lovli and (iniil liy a Ixuikci upon a futgi-d 
InJonniiiunl, il ua* bold tluit lipuii a anil lot 
til* Mill*, after a rcfuMil by the banker to de- 
liver the cbcvk to tliu uu'iicr, in tbo nliwuicc of 
lubuttins ciiilciici-, tlie niouunt of dallu^[t« 
wua Ihe lull value of tbe amount for wlildi it 
wo* druvm: Stavm v. WtlU, Utrjo ■£ Co., 5 
Cat. IU. 

Wlicre a moti^ase debt baa lio*n but by 
negligenoe of the notary in taking and certify- 
ing on afknou'leil^oDt o( t)i(> iiiorl^nj]e. tlie 
lueaoDro of danioffu* I* the sinuunt nf tlie d«bt 
and laterwat to m teewtvd by the inortuauei 
Fagortf v. ftnttf. 10 O^. 339. Tbe defeudJut 
i« at liberty to rodaoa the dania^a by piiMf 

OctBUiinij fiDin the pcwoaion of tbe pkintiir ol layuicnl. or aiiv tact tcndiiiif tii ioviiliilate 
one liumfrtd li«ul of neat cattle, tbo property tbe tec-iirity: 2<i[|iVr r. H'l 

of the ptaintifT, ot tbe valno of. ttc., oad it 
apficaivil that pbiiiitiJT dioTc tbo catUu upon 
tbe ]>rtiBiaea claiuiiul l>)' tlie ■Icfeuclanto, 
thRiu(;li ■ bar-way In tlie fence which tba do- 
fctiilanl* bod ervcbul n« onu of tlio bonndaiy 
line* of tlM lanil, and thruugh tbe Muno Imc- 
way the (utile wvie tnrurd olf tbe t<miiii*a« 
by dcti-nilanti »!t«T«var>l thry ninnii"! nnimd 
on n neiyl.lMjring trii-'luf Und cluiiiiol by one 
f:r'-K"'y> wli«rc tbcy rcinuiuiil nbuul n niuulb. 

'•Jli, Faryo d'Vo.. 23 

Id. i;n. " 

ZntoreM. -By the Civil Coilo, Bootlon* ISOS, 
13GII, logocici arc mode lo bear iiitercat. 
Where te«latur died and legacU* v*k duo 
prior to tlie Civil Co'I« coininic Into foreo (Jan- 
uary I, lt<;:i), it «M held tbnt the lrj;Uln- 
tiirc boil power to IiiinuM on all ilfbcon intcv- 
<«t from Uio date of tint adoption ol Uio coilu. 
by way of oonpeniatian for Uie delay in |>ay. 
nient of nioiicy atnmdy duel aii<1 that >ucb a 

Wl.iir' they irerc tliurr. tlrr-^ry fvijuaitcd the atatutv inu not rctmpeetivc. and tbat iiit«T< 

tlriiiiiiSto toko them awny, vbicii lie promised 
ewoiali) do: but he ncBlerUd todo oo. Af- 
ter that, the oattle vmndtiTsd mray among the 
bill*, and f B llie oonrae of aumlner and aubinin 
one half of Ibo liefd died of aurratlon. The 
emrt utd tbvy did ncA am bow, U|kiii llio fnct* 
fotiftil. lb* (lomnlont could bo niado liable fur 
the cutlln whiuh w«ro loit by tlan«tioii. The 
ploliiull vaa in duly Ixiuod lo take core ol bii 
Mttte antt ute tbrm truni •(•rvijlg t« dealh, U 

est ran on the lef^e* from Juituiy I, ]S73t 
l>onnr V. itiutift. 00 Cal. 24". Krcry |wr«aii 
wlio ia entitled to rKo^er dnmttfM certain, or 
capoblo of being moile voruin by aJenlatlon, 
and tho right to rucovcr vlilch U vetted In 
hlni upon a [articnl&r ilay, !■ onlltldl alio to 
nivovor latertel tliereoa from tliat day, except 
during tacli time •• the ilebior la prcTonted by 

lair, or by tbo ad of the cmditiir, frani paying 
*■" " " 3i87. y» appeal 

tli« di^iU Civ. C«d«, 

Cotiii CiT. Paoa— Jl 



OP cira. AcnoKs. 

\y*«T n. Tm* VI. 

from jiid^m^t on award of rtferev, Uio toort 
hrfltl thnl iaWtfMl ii generally nrguUccd by 
•latutc, but ID the BbscDcc of any aUtato. bu) 
Lcrn aUawcl by viy of d*mi)f,'«>' From thl* 
it aaa not tu be uifcrrcd that on eztnontiiuuy 
ntto of JQUiut ihoiilil in >sy cms bo [irr' 
mictctl, tilt tliat. in tlie abimoa o( •MlulM, M 
ft I'ule lor (v|ulUiblv niijiiillng tlio oinonat of 
diiiinit<«. tbn iKiu,! luiniwl rnM of intamt 
tnlul.t U uliitited: Paoit v. 6'r«/w, I Cnl. 423. 
By ihn KnnU "Ugal inUrmt. fouud in > 
tUtuUi. U to In' vmlvnUiixl tlia rata ol Jntcrtit 
]iirKnl>vil t>y law, in tba abtcnco of ■pccin) 
%:iwni'.'iit, u. tlu> tlat« of the pUHtnof the 
aiit: ll«tltv.Ami!ilorloniicv,3!il<L^O. ThU 
Qjiiiiioii i> prubablv applicable to tbo vord 
"intCTal," u used in uboro toction of tli* 
Civil Cud«. A« to trbnt. i« tho lata] r»t«, ••• 
Civ. Co<lc. Me. 1017. 

la a conlnKB Iwtwccn tvo paKto*, la wlitoh 
it i* condiciancd tliM oas wiall ftilvano* tb» 
licocswry [niiil* ill Ibn •x«culioii of tho oon- 
truit, anil the other lii« *or>ioM, (kill, nod ox- 
|icrieiict, uiil tlial vsch •ball refnivn ao equal 
iwrtiotk o( the jirotit*, Ibu purty adnutciog 
tlw money it not mtitlRt to interent on the 
aame iu tbe absMice of nny aftr^cnieDt tlinC ha 
should r«4)tdT«iiitM««l: Tirrtii T.Jonf *,ZO(M. 

In an aoMoo ta recover ituga tor work and 
labor, intermt could, before tlio wide, only li« 
iwovennl from tb« tinte of lilinu lh*ooni plaint: 
Aff/Wdmr. OMtu/ofrf, 31)ClaJ:002,0IW. Tho 
Civil Coilc, aoction 3297. tupra, would scein to 
Biro UiD niotntilT intarcat on «uelt a claim fran 

aa bcforv. until the eontraot to imiNniciltd by a 
verdict or othir new obligfttion: Civ. CtiJte, 

Intare*b wAtvor ol— AcMpting uyment 
of llic whole nrincipol aa auch WklvM alT clatm 
to Intoftat: C\v. Code. leo. 3200, 

lioui tanpoita latenat.— Whentiver a loao 
of moiioy la roaile, it i* pin'inicJ to lis iiinde 
upuo InwcDfli uiilou it U otlicrwiie iilijjulaCail 
at tlie time, In writing: Civ. Code, inc. IflHt 
•on (lino Id. 1917, iu/n, m to cipnua nmtetcU, 

Intareat, deHnlUoD oL— Intcrtat in thecom- 
pMiMitioii ajlowtd IiT law, or Iliad by the pur- 
lin, for tho nw, or forbcaraneo, or detnnuoii of 
money: Cir, Coilo, mc. IB1&. 

BM« •p«clSoa to bo doemed annuoL— 
When k rate of iut«rMt is mr««crilMMl by n kw 
or coiitnkct. without speoifyiDB tliv jwiiud of 
time by which snob i»ta is to n calau luted, It 
U to be deemed an uroool tmtoi Civ. Cods, aoo. 

Iioeal inteiBat.— Unl«> tliere ia on eipreis 
conlruct iii irritiUK filing a ililTervnc rate, in* 
1»T«et to payabia on all mcmcys nt iho rat« o( 
«(tim p«r cent per annum, after they bocomo 
due, on any Instnuiicnt of wrltins. ciot^it a 
judsmect; and on jnon^v* lont or daa oo anv 
aottlenient of uerounts, from Ihs lUy ou wblcfa 
tho balance ia ucertoined, anil cm Inoncya ra- 
oetvcil to the use of anotiirr and detained from 
bim. in tha oompntation of iuti-mt for a 
nriod Isss than a year. tbrt« hnndmland rixly 
days are deemed to oouatita to ayoar: Civ. CodSb 
1*0. 1917. Tbo set of tSSO gki* interest at 
tlie rate of ton pfiroentayaarf^r all moneys 

Uw dee data llicreol. Whctu plaintitfi ckim nfter thsy becoino iluu « horo tliore hm do 

was on nncerlAlu and iinltrjuidated d«inaiid, eiprcss oontnut in writing tiling u ditfci'ODt 

and llio aiiKjutit iluu could not be oiccrtiuiiod rate of iati>rnt. Tho ouurt held Uiat this ton- 

tioin the Idoo of the ooutfaot, but wu to bo ouage n-iu rery explicit, and thowud that tho 

SBttUd by prove** of biw, the mart held that uitcntlon of the act wa« twoiolil: 1. That 

tut4>rt«t. ro nominr, could Hot bo allon-fd: money demaocla after niatuHty alioiilil itniw 

ItraJll V. IC-Jronon, 44 Col. 2*A. liitcircet; and 2. That tliey nhuuld lUiiw in- 

Interoxt In actfoiis not ex coatrasto. — t»r««it nt vliatoror rote vaa pxjitvHxd in the 

In an auliou for the breach of nn obli([nbion not writtvn citntrocl, notu itlikUndiiig ttiat null ting 

atiiing froin centnut, and In every cbm «I op- was tslil ex|irei*ily about IntcrHt after nintu- 

Ereawun, fn»id,orniaIl«e, intarsstmay bsjiiven, rity; and that It waa only ubcro no tato waa 

1 llic diacrolioQ of tlia joryi Civ. Code, *sc. Bgrrcul on tliat tlio st&tuto rate took cScvt: 

8288. AoAfrrv. .SV-iM, •iCil.OOa. Under a prexioiia 

Where the Jut^ rsodersil s rerdict for the atntuto similar to the ochIo, wbtr« it did nppear 

value of tho properly, with "legal intorvt" that there was an agreement (n writing far tho 

thereon from tho time of tbo acuura by the payment of intereat, tlio oonrt *aid a party 

•beiiffto tho dote of the vunlict. and damuca could not recover interest at a cunvsatloou 

111 the auiu uf fifty doUora, the court nid tiis-t 
section 200 uf tbo practice act, which was ill 
force when tho notion wn> brought. nuthoriMil 
the reoovery of damagce for the dcl«nt!aii of 
p(<r*oual property, lliit a party waa not en 

rate uulcu there was an agreement in writlae 
lining thslmto: GaUIimiA v. Saicytr, 40 M. 213. 
And wlieie one represented hlmsslf as the at- 
lomoy tn fact of nnoihor, and borrowed uouvy 
and gave tlic letidcr tho note of such other as 

titled to a gmai earn for sncli lUmagve. and to his altumry in fnct, the court hsid that u tho 

inlerMtnpontheruluoof thaiiroporty from tho 
time it WHS taken. Intornt in micli cose was 
giirsn (or damage*; anil If atlowvd in addition 
teagiUM sum for danuigca. it would amount 
to double danURSSi Frtrborn v. .Vorrroju, 4Q 
CU. 314. If the plsintiir in replevin takes 
possMslou oj tho|ierty vihcn tlio suit U 
ooiBRisoced, and tho jury, on the trial, Giid 
for the defendant, and oaieaa tho vnlue of tho 
]iro^ierty at a time siibaei^iient to tlin taking, 
they oaunot oiM to liiii valuo interest from the 
time of the tokuig up to about the Umo the 
valno was ossossod: A&erton v. Ftmirr, 4$ CsJ. 

lDt«reat, any rata may be ooDtraot«d tor. 
hay legal rate of Interest stipulattd by a con. 
tiMt remain* chBrgsshle after a brooch thereof. 

toi-ititatit altunivy had uol contraotcd iu writ- 
ing to pay a higher rate of interest, be was 
liable only for tbu legal mtei and that if tl>e 
complaint woi ^J be counJored ns stating a 
case for relief on tlio ground of fmnd, thu fraud 
coniiiting of fulae raiircaentAtions. by mt«ns 
<A which the money was obtained, the rwult 
would be tho umc. for tho nicaauro uf daningss 
would be til.) aum obtnliioil, with legal jnterMt 
tlifrson: Lanilrr v. CiUEro, 43 Id. 4US. 

Where A. evcctllod a promlasory note to B., 
boBring intereet at Diive iioroenl per mntit&, 
and C, D, , anil E. tigniid tlii> note im surolica 
for A., and B. afterward* recovereil Judgmmt 
ou the note ai,-aiD*t A., the maker, and the 
anrctics, and tho ■nretiea paid the iudgoisut. Id 
6.0, action by tho *utoti«* aptinst tub makvr for 


CriAr. IL] 



ttio mou«y that pciM, It w%t M6 tbat thoy 
c.)util iKOKf juil^iicDt <aily fur tli* ikinouct (4 
■Ktwy paiil, witb 1p}^I ialcTOit (rom tbe tiuM 
«l payntMii. a> t)>cru w«* bo agrotanont or eon- 
(met in wriluig liiing a diScnnt nte of Inter- 
wt TIm nUe of iutcrtat fixed in « pnTmiMot; 
noU WMBOtttcoiitractor a^iccinciit in wtilInK 
ktitrocn the molier of uid aurnlka c^ tlm iiulo; 
SmifA V. /(lAnioii, '2II<'a]. IK). Aii ui^oiiiitviar- 

ratt rwiJcrvil by ttw on« t« tba oUmr |<urty to 
ttn a-MOuat, In wlilcb tb* tUbiM* of tlti- jiarlwa 
Appawvil. «*a )i*U to ba ao •ffrvniiivot in writ- 

SOB bia part to pay tlii' ratv oJ intcrett irittt 
iak ho lia<l vh>ri;«i bimwil, ou tbe tmiiai:- 
lk>n« ainbnunl in tlie Mcounti /Vntatoiwo v. 
Larw, 47 l<i- 3», 

Coomutiiv lotMML— Upon » nioDay tt«- 
niMiil MMing Jntorort, on whidi bare \n»a 
nndc tMyntMita A(t«r nMturitj', thu profxir 
iiwtlion 01 toniputing tho Intarot b nUtcil l>y 
QiaiKcllor Kant In COimretlftfl v. Jofkun, 1 
Jobo*. Ub. 13. "Tlia nilu far cMliuji iatur- 
wt," bo My«. "whsn luirllul jmyiiK'tiU havv 
bom nifttl*, 1* to a|>ply tht> pa^nivnt in tbo liral 
^k(» to tfa« di*cli*rge of the inWrMt thuu diici 
u liio payment oxoicdi tliu iotmnt. Ibo lur- 
fjiu Roea taword dUcliMBiiig tbe pnucipol. 
*nd the oalMcqUdDt iatemt t* to b« oompntod 
oa (be tabnce of tbe prinuipol renuuniuK. If 
tbe ptymont be In* t&an tbo iiitcnat, the ■ut' 

Siliw 04 toterml nnut not ha tikkon to an jmoat 
l» |itiuel|«l, but int«ra*t nwittnua* ini tbe 
formcf ptinci|i*t iiotti tlio jHTiwI wlivii tbe 

Ji}iiianl« Ukm to^ottur emu'l tlia inlitrert 
Ml." It wemfiJ, hoirei-tir. (rotn tlii' CTidtmoe 
th*t a difleniit mwlo uf eotnputinit intcreit 
WM ONniiion ninon^' tnvicbaiit^ in tliia lUlc; 
tbi^ «*imihl«d Uie intcrabut tbe nte ogreoil 
npoa, both on the debt uiil the paytnoiitn. iui<l 
la tl^i wny a illgbt dllTmnce waa nuile in fa- 
vot of the ilclitor. In tlie caiw next nientloDeil 
that w*A the plan of cklciilniton r«Korl«il to, 
and tbe anpoUanta randoml to Iba tMpoudoul 
an aoeovnt itatod. to whicb ft doei not ajiptar 
ttet •nj objoclUin waa iniuli^ by the mponil' 
«nl. The anpKnie cuutt hclil tlmt ihat'tr«:t 
ot tlu aMOunt aUlcd Uiim uiihuut oUjcaion 
wttUii a reaionable time w»« tbo wmo oa an 
AgrMlnent tbat tbe intcreaC ■hunld be eom- 

Ctod aooonUt^ly; and, oonntcted with the 
* Ibat lUa WW tbe oommon method of com- 
pntaihm, WM ruilictont to prevent any dlatarb- 
anoe of the Jndtcmnit. Judi^nieDt allirmed. 
Aftermnla the <■•• waa nh«^ and judsmont 
^ain aO^nned: Jlaehu r. itinor, 3 CaJ. SU. 

In another cue (he court (nid tbe rule for 
coniputlBg JBtenel when t"lial pnymeDta 
bul \t<ti iBule waa well e>tAl>Ii>heJ. If the 
pwtlal pymmt exeooda tbe ainoiinl tbou due 
lor Itttmat, the priaoip*) nim luiil Intercet 
riraiilil be adilnl togoiher and tl)0 jwiyniont do- 
diii'ttvU and tbe renneia'kr would lK«r (uUrreat 
unlil the Beit ^ymmt; hut if the intoraatdtra 
at Ibx time of n [urtial paymi^iit exiM«<l* the 
■nKiimt paid, tbe payoiont should bo credited 
on tlie occrited iatoieat, a,a>\ the balance of nn- 
pdil fiiteieat ahuuld be added to tb* intereat 
aflrrwanU acernio^ aotil the next jiaytncnt: 
and MOD •DowMlTcly witb e«b payment. By 
Ibia aMxb of m«(nit>tlon bo Intotiat u com- 
pBleil on the accmed Inlernt, It being a rule 
of law that intcrait aliall not be eomfonndeil, 
Kntcaa by atipaUlian of tbo ooiilrart, or In 
MrtaU ^oeptioual uup* wiierriii a viiiirt a( 
^|aily inajr Mik« Ui« ititerMi to be oouipiiUil 

with rMta: Rr Dn. M V^^. SMt 2 rapaooi on 
Oiul. W.lSlVK^/hlw \. l.yniS. i .liilitiiL t'li, 20(>i 
H'illinni V. UowjKlat-fi, 'A ( Ox . M^ iitiil lii>W; 
UtiiittbT, Btjftr; II t'eiHe. 4lH. In n (iiroliH- 
nro eult efTar waa atlt^od, m tiiut liitcral 
dne oil tbe aotea aeoureil by the trnxttta^-n nae 
"aibleil to the princiiwl luvi-iintiiiita (l;n jutiff- 
■iiviit: luid tlien lutemtt at Uin uipvud rale giren 
tu run on tbo wbolu jiidgiueDt until [aid, Ijioa, 
aa it waa complaiiicJ, coin iwun ding tliu ister> 
Dit." Tliecoai^ lii'lj (list Bucbvaa niic|Uoa- 
Uonably the OMrui't nilo of [mxieediiiji: that 
(be theory of the law waa iMt that the party 
ahoulil rocovur the particular note, or diDK in 
action, but that be liuauld rvi^arcr dnnui|iei lor 
tbo iiuii-i^ilornianco ol tliovoulriu-t; niiil tlukt 
in oaaiit d Uiluiv to pay money duu ti )iad ah 
way* been held tliat tbo true lunuiiiT ii( dwn- 
Hjiva wan the amount of irioiiey on inu aud tlio 
intareiit w))ii;h waa agni'd iijwn. The juils- 
mpiit Wing iiaacrlAiDcd, tlie alatiite >t»|iii Ta 
and rvgujatea whetbor it nboU Ixkr intervel, 
■D<i at wliit rate: tfoy v. I'ninUi*, A Cal. 4IT) 
i'fHfi i." T. Tmn-, G Id. liS; J/cC'-i«n t. £«kiI», 
M. v'l7; AV-A/.- v. Smiik. •> I.!. MT. 

lutvreat. asi«ain«nt tea. - i'artica may 
MRKo in writing for the payment «f any rate 
of tntoreat, aiiJ It ■hall lie aitawcd, aocOTding 
to the lamia of the aiiRoineut, uiilll Iba entry 
of jud^meati Ci*. Code, toe lilltl. Tbo law 
do«« not tolerate the nayiiiunt of moM than le- 
gal iotoriBat, exoriit wbere there ia an axxwaaa 
written ngmiueut, and a higher rale of inter- 
eat aumot Iw nrcrtfd a* a muaiure of lUiiiaiiaei 
Oeeti^ T. aicltermiu, 7 Col. I4M: and aee Civ. 
Codo, eec. 1017. 

Compound hitaiMt— Tbe partice may, in 
any contract In wriUngwherobronyilebt It u>- 
cured to be paid, agree that If the int«rc*t on 
*ucb debt la not punctually uid, itahall liucnme 
a part of the prind|»d, mid iJieraaftor boar tbe 
•ameratoot intertvtiutliu principal debt: L'ir. 
Code, «o«^ 1919, Undi-ra prerioua atalute, hi 
on K'liou on a note tor littetBi tboiiwnd ilollari 
and tnttrmt at onu and a lulf per oeut pur 
nibotb, "Kkid intennt to h« 't"v ami |iayaitlo 
at tl>o end of every aii inoniht," pininliir 
claimed that he *na oiititldl tu intcront oil 
t(uh initallincnt uf intcreat at the lime it fell 
due till paid, at the rate of lea per cent per 
auiiiiin; but the court held that the atatiit* 
aullioriting partlea to contract in writing fur 
Inioml npon intorvat In ilefaull <if punctual 
[•ymeat excluded intvroit after it fall* due, 
nnl«« exnreaaly ao aorvod In wnliuu^ J>«v v. 

Id. ata. 

JaOeiBtiatt, IntUMt Ot>— lutorciit ii pay- 
able ua judgmenta reooveml in Ibe eourta of 
thin itato at the rate «l tcTen per ornt per 
annuin, and no greater rate, but aueh iiiterraC 
iiiuit not be eocaponnded in any nuoiicr or 
foiiii: Cir. C:odc:,«ee. IKO. Tlie act n( 1870 
<«neeniing Intereet, Ijiwi ISTO, p. Cllft, ulloweil 
inlerMl on all iii'iii.ry liidpnout*: llrll v, 
A'iioiefrt. 46 t'al. IWI; ini'loUiiiK Jiid^'uictitj for 
money in octlona of t»rl! AtUMoit v. I'lisrUr, 
4A Id. 3901 and no donbt tlia eaocUiMBtnt the 
(ode h mnally oomproheneirtL Undi-r the 
Aret MOtkn of the act uf Uarch SO. Itm. all 
final money ju'lfftnouta, wlietliur (or inoeiey lent 
or otlicrs IK, liure iolemt at the ntu ol Mven 
norotnl pcrannum. A judgoMnlwaeremlered 
In an aclien brc-eght by one partner ajjaind 
hi* coparlDoi, duetdrlBg tbe jiartnerahip, and 




p-iRT 11. TiTut vr. 

dinotiag a ula to b* nioAr of tha [artnnnliip 
{iroporty ouil & dirision of tlio pruCcpdi! 1. To 
llic faymcnt ut CT>iila: 3. Tolhc jnynjont of an 
amcuiil found due- (o the pbintiS from the 
|>nrtiicnhi|i, uid tke tiiilAaca to be ilUtribuIcO 
anionq the pftrtscn; tba rIicfIi]', in iimkiiig tlio 
ititiiihcitioD, mu onlrrcd to ii*)' Iwitl iuMnvC 
oil Iho .tiaomit finituldiioto llio pUuitilTi Clarh 
V, Duininm, Iil. 'X^ A» to InlorMt on & 
tan'iyii Ju'lgnirat, tliv court hcltl tlint tlwy 
uiiiit b* duuni«il M kuow ju-jicinlljr lliut tliv 
OOinnion law wai tlia role o( ilocitiion in tho 
Otbrr Btatot, uolon the ooalrnry wu oxpmaly 
rfiown, ui<l tlmt a« no judgmont al oonunon 
law carried inl«rat, nana abould b« hen 
allowed on a judgmMit nadorod in tijfi ctata of 
Vtv York, wheni thciv wu w> cridraoe »how- 
ing tbnc tho coninion law liaJ boon alttred by 
tho otatutji Ltv of tbat hUIo: T'AdmjMan v. 
.Vcumc. S III. lOOi full^cd 111 t'iii«niil«r 7. 
f^;W. 4 I.t. iJS. ' 

Bxempliuy dunii(:ei.--In any actloni for 
the bii*jA-li «l tin bill isutiiiii nut arlaiog from 
cAUlrni-t, nUi:tv ikfvixlnnt hu bt«u gnllly 
of ii|>Ti(vt'iu(i. ftaiiil. or inalid^, actual or pro- 
■umixl, tlio jut}*, ill ailditiou to tbo actual 
t1naia^<^ may give doTna^i for llic nnkc of 
*uii)|)lr. aiiU by uay of punisbitig tb« dofoud- 
ant: I'i"-. Code, »!?. 3'JtM. For wrongful injii- 
rt« to oninuU liciug *uli)ccti o( [nwitfty, com- 
mitted wlUfulty or by gnm DogUgcnco, Jn 
itlxenni oi liuumntly, laicinplary itamagca 
may lie (flvcu: Civ. Coda, »»c 33-iO. It wo* 
bdil tbat nxvmiilary damogD* ntsht be ((ivcit 
iora wantoo, inaliclou*,andniipn>vuk<>duiiiBiilt 
Upon tbe iwrwii. in H'o'fc v. rAnyrr, 4CI Oal. 
B8& Uut iu an nvtion for taking plainCiir'* 
f^-nU ill a (uniiur aoliuo, tbu juduniL'nt niidvr 
V'bicb they wttv srixed bnng invalid, thu tioiirt 
liuld lltat tbtf tLct<-f tho invaliditj' of tbv judg- 
Iiii-Dt wna nut RuQcicnt to wnrrant Ibe coiiulu- 
aion that Uic udmirc waa mnlicioa^ tlic defend- 
aata acted in tha matter nndar tjie advice «( 
coQiuc), oncl tboro wo* no raoaim for lappoiiiig 
tliikt they «itber know or fuapacUd tJiat the 
Jiiduinriit vt* in^'nlid■ Tha anUura wad nn- 
doitbtolly a liantahiu upon the )ilaiutiff. but 
tfae eooTt bolow aoteu properly in n'dieing to 
allow ourtnnlary daniagiut Srlam v. CWjiith, 
90 III. GT. W liere, in ui action on a eoiitiaut 
f-jr conTvyonce uf a pianu^r, the ciu-rier woa 
juiltjr uf nets of iHuful opprsMion, tho court 
■ai<l It vaiild be a n-prooca to ihe law if noth- 
ini; could bo rocavcrcd bat tho mcro pecuniar]? 
1«M rcoolHag from the bnuch n[ contRut: 
JoMtt V. CorUt, 17 Id. 495. If thn proprietor 
of a ■tas?-CDai:h *hnii1d voiiloiily hiiiI niuti- 
cioiuly ovortnni It, »iUi Ibw inliiut to kill or 
inflict liOilily injury ii|>iiii a nauen^rr. in nil 
ariiiMi by IIju ihumu^it tlie jui-y iniglit givu 
pliiiilivo Uawufiuii. In like manni'r. if n ftinnty 

CEiUW, having no appnieiablo tnurket value. 
delivered to a oommon carrier to be tran*- 
|iortod for bire, and if ho wantonly deattoy it, 
Ibedamanairoald not be confined to the mere 
mouegr ralno <4 the pictnre. Bat thoujfb lh« 
nrincijal in liable for tlie actual daiiiofio cauaoA 
tor the net of liii af^ent done In lhen*ual eoarto 
01 bU *aij>ta} Tneiit, bo in not rMponilblv fur 
irautoii atiil niuhoioua damnge ikun: by Ibo 
•gaiit ui'Jioul tlio coDMiit. appmvul, or «iibM- 

Siient niUIi-.-tition of tJio prfiicijwh Trrnfr r. 
>'. U. 4 .V. A. ff. Co.. 34 Id. &M1 Jfriufc^oAn 
r. jiaalnm Liykitr Co., 40 Jd. GSI. 

In an Mlicn for brwkiug and catering tho 

Elaiutiff*! nviin*, and tnjaringand dntioyiiig 
LB projiinty. llio jury wtw iuitmctod tliat in 
atrinling excnk|.ltfy damage* llicy might tako 
into coniidcmtion the expcnna which tbo 
plaintiff hod iDcnrrod about tho biulnoji in and 
abont the liUntion: tbnt tbo amount hod Dut 
bocn proi'ed. bat that tlicir knowloil^ of ■ncli 
uiatlcn »ouUI nnablu them lo arrive at aame* 
thinifllkc a juit calcuUli>>n ax lo whatalin«l<l 
lio allawMl M vounMl f««*. U^l oxi<an*ei, and 
otbor MpiniMi*. Itva* htJd that tbeinatnte- 
Uon was orrooaouHi Folk t. K'lUfminn, 40 CbL 

An oIGcer acting in tlie diicliaw of hb alS- 
cial dutioa i* no wm reapainiblit &r tho cunw)> 
qacnceaof anuliciouaaotlJiaDaiiriratciMiion. 
uaA the elToct of a different mle iroula ba to 
turn loQto upon M«ry commimity a Mt of 
liccnaCil wronK-dncn: SoaJoaqvin v. Jam*. 16 
Col. 327; MKiaMO "CarrionL,Uaiiu>5CiforOmit- 
tliijj to OiiTy," in/ra. 

Branch (U conbsct — For the 1ir«*ali of an 
obUipitlun artiiii^f from euntrict, ttio mewure 
of luutagtu. except whera otlienriie upremly 
providetlby tbia ootlv, hi thu uiiuiimt wbic'i 
U'ill conipcimuto the party o^riiivi'd fur all 
Ibe dctriniont proximati'ly ciiiiwd lb»rr.iliy, !>r 
whicli ill tbo ordinary courve of thin^ would 
be likely to roHilt tlMnefrom; Civ. Co-l«, *oc. 
3300. Thiia, in an action fw work douir unJor 
a contract, and for danuces for not allowing 
plainUtf to oi>iupIct« it. tlic mle of dsmap^ii 
wa* UcM t» I'c tlic vuluc of the Ubor performed. 
au<] the amriiiiit of prolit which could fairly 
have been Jn-it id Itiun tbc Inlior bft unpcr- 
tunned bylli^aclnf tho d>.-f"nilaiil: CuMiiinyAain 
T. liarKy. C»l. SI. A» todaiiiin-M fi>r revok- 
ing ■I'l'iniui'^'n l-vaibtlratioii, tvo I'^ction \'SKi, 
HTipfu plainlilT waactnploycil by ■tefeiitbint* to 
make ocnaiii allcrntionB oil a itcam-engiuu, tUo 
doicndaoii ogreviug that iu the crunt uf a cer- 
tain reaiilt liciiiij attAinol by tuoh altvratiuu* 
they woald iiny tho phiiutiff one thoiwand dol- 
lara, plaintiff to fgnoil all compcuutiun for 
labor or i&atoriola If tho alteratiooi did not 
prtMliio* the il««!roil rcanlt, tho nature and eic- 
tvnt of the altsratioiM Miiu Ivfl entirely to the 
uutioii i>f the pl.iiutiff, una in tho progren of 
the work plaintiS altemptid to remoTc a cer- 
taiii ooppcr pipe beloncing to tlie f nuiiie for tha 
purpoio of making nftorationB in it, hut woa 
prcixntod by defendant, and pbiuliS then 
abandoned the work; and plaiDiiff bad jiulg- 
mcnt below for tlic full amount named iu the 
coDtrscI, otkI di^ftiiitaiitaupeided. tbc luprctnl! 
court held, a Hi ruling AiIuiPiii v. Bt until, 1 Id. 
3U& thiit wherv. from the iiutace of tho con- 
tract. It it not pnkcticabb la ucortoin tho 
amo'iiit of daniofjei miitaiued \>y a breach of 
contract, tbo nicMure ii tbe \iri<!» asrecd to ba 
paid, and that as il ttiu impowiblo to nrrivn nt 
the prnjite amount of damage Buataiiii"! by 
pLtintiif, the rule uilopled by the oourt l«low 
woi tlio only one aimliwblc lo tbo oouti-nct. 
and judgment woa oJBnnodi U<Jlillan v. UieJi- 
««f-.»Td. 3«5. 

An action waa brouKht upon an cxprMa con- 
tract to pay tha pUiolilf n ccruun f» for legal 
aerriuM, withacondiliou that oertain propi^rty 
in qucBtiuii. tho Tuolunme Hydmullc Auncia- 
tioa Ditch. Khould be >&:nniil tn tin' ■lefendojit. 
Scnico were rniderrd by the [il.imtiiT. under 
the contract. And ponding thu lili;;iLii.iii the 
dcfondout Mttleil the claim niul i.-uiimi><n1 by 
deed hi* Intcmt ia the property without the 


Cmxr. n.y 



kdvtos or knowloilfca <A th« pbiatiff, vbo 
eUltooil lo >« (TDtitwl to Ibe aiun agntd unun 

Stho |[«rtiiM. Tlia -tcfeiidaat coutendnl tlint 
) liLualiff ma only vntillnl to tvoovcr wtiat 
fcia MTvigra utre ncrtb, witliont rcfi>nl to tlic 
cuiitiacTL Tbc juiy foantl for tbo pbliitlff Bvo 
ttiuuHii.! (lollikrs. null jnitommit Mng rutarvA 
•cCDrUiiiglyitlcfaidantaiifcalx). ThnconrtKiliI 
tlic ycucnU riilL- ai to lli« tniia-.tirii nl iLaiiiUf^r* 
io all ■cliiM (or lircacli of uti|itnii-t iijii iiol tlw 
whole |ir1co BKretJ to bo iioy, Imt iliv actual 
lOM aaaUIaoJ, whicli wonltl ixmaitt of llio ralue 
«( Ihe MwioM TSiidmid aiid tliu ilainiif;D hub- 
taiiio>l liy tlio ndHal to allow purforiiianoo of 
tna r«*l uf tk« o-<ntrjcL Tu tliii rala there 
wmv. howuvcr, wine vxt'opticiiui. Wher« fmin 
tba aatuiv of iliu contriwt (u in tbi* caK) iio 
ptMuble mode ma left o( wcortaininK the itam- 
ag<^ tbore would bo pccMtttcd tlic aDomdou* 
caw of a wrong witboat a rtniedy, uiilcu tlio 
oaljr Rtakaarc of ilaniagta wlilcli nunaliieil wm 
adopted, anil tliat wni tliu prltto acttwd (o bo 
palil. \^'llht<iit ililii. juntlvu would 1>» defeated, 
BDil |*rlUa (-iiuoiii3j;oJ to I'ioldto thoir ton- 
tract* of Hin ill r thamotur. Tli''<lvfeii-liuit not 
only broke liis cunlmct. but &]■<■ i)vpriv«d the 
|iartjr of ghou'itit; tlio amnuct of injury utnlcr 
iliu vi^oenU rule He could uut coinpiajn that 
a rliSWcut rale «»■ invoked, when it wu the 
oalv fine left to make bini reiponillilo for bla 
waitl of t;oo>l taithi /7oMikJ» v. Dcunttl, 4 Oil. 
30.1; lltir,t J. Tfl,SMa.7l3. Parties whoao 
■ervlcwt liaivlMMtn mfuiEil when offered accord- 
Inu lo llirir voiitrx^t may not retuaa employ- 
niriit from otlK'n lujrl iii*ii>l upon th* wymoot 
ot ibo Isll ounlract {irice, but ahootir prol«ot 
tbamaelna fioiD loo, au tiir aa it uaj bo doiM 
by huwnable oxerlJoDi; L'lUr v. Ciapman, 38 
Ul. et*,Ca6i aeo notn to CuOtr t. foiDtll, t 
Simth'a LmL LW I. 

Wb<«« a contract for buitdiofi a dnm and 
(oamatMliif it to ntuxl for tiic jcari after 
•aBi|il«tion, and tlio payment of iiulalltnctita 
Ibatffor aa the u orlt prognMaed, prorlded that 
II within tha five yfara it woahnl aiiay it «-u to 
be rebnilt, or tho inalallmoata, or • i>i<0{rarlian- 
•blo |MTt lliercof, Moonling to tlio tune tlio 
doni etooil, »l>uuld be rrfuiidiil, it wm bold 
that the nilu i>l diunauu* laid down by tho con- 
trad liul rcfer«D» »lely to tbu giianiiity, and 
that daniagei fur (ailniw to build nt uU must b« 
wccrtaintil by the ordinary nilon; /fcrify v. 
Smiili, ii CaL '^5: and lee note a« to ■' Ltqui- 
dated Damai;**." anlr. 

IXimagM oa depoait, meaanre of ~A da- 
poaltur miMt iiiiitmiiify tli» ilqMinitary: I. For 
■11 danaaae eauaod to LIih by the <Iefei;ta or 
vbnaof the tbliMdapoaltodi andilL FaralliT> 
pt'naea uuMBariJy Inoorrwl by liin about tliu 
Ihiiif;. otIicT tiiaii tui'li u ara laTolred in tlie 
nature of tlie undertakLnu: Civ. Code, >e«. 

ZUMuanc*: See Civ. Code. (eca. 25, 3T. 

D«Mlx dMnacM foe oocaalonlag: .Soe *ce. 

tSaa»j, damacaa for Dot poyJnc.— The 
dL-liSiiicnt coiienl liy the brcai'li of oblijpttJuii 
1(> pay money only i* ilcoinud to Ih> the amount 
due l>y Ibn tcrmi of the ubHicalloM iilih iiilorott 
Uioteoiii Cir. Code, Mc. 33CS. Thaiirlnnl In** 
op<»«leueil 111 'IV '•- It'll "li fjrniler tlinn tbuinter- 

Mt, Init till' • '1 tiryiiiirl that tlio law 

dm* iiOtlmitKi i.iL I ^I'lgn.ou Dnipaova.S- It 
Wiiiild. iivl-:»l, ultuii bi- impDMibletiiUctenniiio 
Uw BCliud dauiogia raulting froni tlio deten- 

tion o( money; the party mtltlcd lo It niay In 
coijuKliiniM- have lioi'ii (uiniifllrtl t'> liom)* ou 
riiinoQi ratn oj interMi bo may havu boeoiiiu 
cinl>uriai*cd in bla bualiiOM oiwnlioua, rulu«J 
in uiwllt, uid pethiii* driven into iiiaolrfneyi 
but of tliBUi iwMiible eniui«iiuonoc« Ibe eoiii'ta 
eaiinut take iiiitK'v I //rymiinv. Lainhrt, l^Cil, 
III; Ltill<,v. IJVrt. ■»* l.t. &t3. 

Cunent uonoy, t)oriow«r to pay bL^A 
bomincr ol moouy. niilcw there ii an eiprvM 
ooutract to tlio watlnrj, inuit pay the aaioant 
doe in >uch money oa ia onrrait at tbo llnio 
when the loan bMORua due, whether aiieh 
money i* worth mora or lea* than the actual 
money IcnC^ Civ. Cede, *ec. 1913. Har. Me. tifiT, 

Vonita biUa vA aaobiuigBj dam^f or 
dishonor o£— For lb* ilitbunor of fonlcn falUa 
of exchange, tho dainatfva am prMoribed by 
aoctinin .li-t5. 3-j:i7,#Jiil a23».i/ lUC.vll Ccd*. 

Real eatatck ooveuADta, dom^ei for 
bioacb ot — The dotriiiieiit caiiaeil by Iha 
bruacJi of a covenant ol "*e)kin,"ol "right to 
conMy,"<i( "warranty," m of '■<|nii.t *iijoy- 
inreit, * In a grant of ui tatate in rroJ |jru|Hii Cy, 
i* dvoniod to be: 1. Tliu pri(« paid to lliu 
l^nuitur; or, if the hnscb ii partial only, Bucb 
pruportioo of the iirioeulhiMaliioor tboprai<- 
orty aOeetoil by Ibe bnaeh bore ut tbe time of 
the f^nut to tile value of tlio whole property; 
3. Interest thereon for the time ilurinu wbicli 
tho grantee tlerived no bciieCt from the prop- 
erty, not cxceoillnKflv* year*; X AnjexT 

properly incurrml by tho covrnaiitvo in defmd- 
Ins bU fKWWttlun: Civ. Code, ««<;. 3301. 

It waa bold that It a landlord ciiten and 
ojecta the tenant, the tenant uiay rceorvr itaiit- 
a^oaforthe veipitabic* and gnipe-vinca ^rawing 
on tho land, anil planted by the tmant foriali', 
he not beinc permitted to enter oud unther 
IhMn; Fox V. hriwe. IS IW. 223. 

If the IcMOir break* a corcnaot in the loaM 
for (^iiiot enjoyment of the deniiaed pTt(ni*ea by 
bringing acliona at law oalnat tho tcaaro to ra- 
covcr pnMcwloo Of the dnmiwd promiaai, the 
Inaeo'a eoata and cuuuael foa in uafemliog tlin 
autlon ar* properly allowed a« damage* \a a 
■nit bv the Imho for brcaeh of the noicnuot: 
heribty v. C^iaoiH^, 33 Cal. WO. 

BiMl MUtCb damasM ta- not coareylnG. 
The detriromt eauicd liy thu bmach ui mi 
•grMmeot to convey an eitale iu ml prupi.-rty 
i* deemed tobe thepK<o paid and theexuviicca 
properly incurred in ounniiung tlie titln and 
preparing (he iiecc*«ary paper*, with intei'otD 
tlK-rcnn; hut aditins thereto, in case of bad 
fnith, tli« dilTi'ceiieo Iiotwcm tho price asrecil 
t" he puid nod tU» valaoof tLo««l«to aflcivl to 
be QoiiTfyed, at Ihe tliil* lif Ihe broach, and tliu 
expenam nruperly inonrrtd In prHUring toontau 
tipoii tho land: Civ. Code, •(«. 3300. 

In an action forJainagea remiltliig to plain ti? 
from a breach on the part ut ilefondaiit nf n 

valid omtrBct Ijctweon tho |)nrtie> f— *' n- 

vej^noe of land by dolendaul. in >< 
of money paid or fcnioM reodBml i , ; ■ i, 

the rnnuiircof dnuiiisca ii thovatncuf tiie huij 
auioed to l>e ciinvcycd. But in fummfvil fur 
tbe rcsxery ii( money |ioJd «r cerviee* ren- 
dvreil Dptiii a vnl<l contrnct for tho coavemnoa 
of the lar.'l->, tho miiaiinre nt i>IalotUI** relief fa 
Ibe money lie ha* adranccd, vlcli iiiterv*!, or 
the n^aiunuhlc value of Ihe atrvicm ntndnn'd, 
withoul rvfuraiiou to and diwwniKvl^id Mith 
the cxprcM oMJtrMli the detentUnfa liability 



[P**t II, TitiK TT, 

in MOieh <M« rstta upon an ttnnlied prartniM nr auiim under the (ontrxt, Mid tlw- art iiroflta 

iMnim^inf, and •fiiiiinuv ol tli« vvlae of tlia utiicli woni, or mli^Iil witli nuMiiAlila <lilii:moii 

bail tliiiiJktwl ki Ih) cuuvey«il Ity ihc oxpnw fcavo bnu, injuto duritig (ucb time, lii nri 

TMil nccvMncut Lt lUailiiLiMdUa »• a incuuTO of Kcttoa (or brancli o( rontract to tuniidi [igijilit 

tiuv vHao of ■orcicca roudored W tlio iiUiutilT, 
ur tko relief to whkli lie is (ntitUd in oontlikr- 
Ktloii of numay »Jviuiceil upon miub oxjirMs 
c^iiitrart: yxltfr T. IfitA. 3a Cul. 110. 

Itoal Mtatei dMn.tsm lot not occAptlDE. 
T)i« ilotfimont ckiuod liy thv bnurli i4 an 
dKriwiiivot to iiunshnac an a>tat« in rt«) pnip- 
Di ty u iloiiinoil to bo the ex<xta, il any, ul tlie 
■nliuul wliidl w«ulJ luvo lK«a >tua to Ihc 
filler, unilcr tli* <:onlnict, over the value of the 
I'tvrwrly lohiin' Ov, C^ak, hoc. 31107. 

Oooaa, d^magoa lot noD-delivviy ot 
Wlutro prtOO ilot pal± — Tlie dcli inient 
OBUwd bf til* bmwli of n (oUorS BKroetnuie to 
ilvllvcr penonul properly, llie prtco uf wiiicli 
lu not been f uUy jnud iu /ulvau'ie, !» ilcdnoil 
t« be the eiaoH, tf any. of the viilau c>I Ili# 
propcrtv to the buyer oi'«r the nmoiuit ubii^b 
uvohl novo been due Ut the Kller uodor the 
Dobtiactif It had been fuMted: 
8308. The aaiiramo oourl formerly belt! tlio 
true rule of dajiiapca was the differentia between 
tJio price flSTcail on between th* partjeaand the 
nartet value of the gai«XK •( the time of the 
liraacb of MntrMti 7'oi.n v. /•(-(. 3 Cil. 37fl. 
In this CMS (ipocUl daoi*^ w-at lint aiifcially 
allvgtfd. Tbe cvutt oUu uiid: "Tli«rMtthat 
tUurv wpn no Chinrav goodt in the markut at 
Uiat limu oDiTopomiliiiK to the <leBcript>un of 
tiiuie loUl by the ilefeiitloat ilid not uatntit 
Ihu lulDLitfliaU of evidoucc ihowiug what tJ'cy 
iitfre worth in brdcen {taakaes^ mnch loM tlie 
tcitiuiuuy oi Uic pUintiff"* clerk to provo tboir 
Bm<junt of Mtlr* and profit*. The value of a 
c\i)[o of (iniilar gooda mi^bt bare been aaeer- 
tained by the tcxtlmony nf Dompotcnt nier- 
chdnt*. ani Iho diiTcronea between the value 

to A *l«ilnbOBt ,llla plaintiff ia tmtitled to r«' 
ODvor ouly t)iu avlual loai ■uffcTvd from Iha 
broach: but to ahow that nich Ion ma leu 
than tiic pmlitii that vould have been maiio 
under Itic cunlract, the butdca of proof is oo 
the defendant. A pcnoD who oontnwte to de- 
liver fnHgbt to a atcamboat and Caila to do bo 
ia liable in damng^ea for the notn*! Iom thereby 
■iiilalneJ by the alaamboat; but he ddea not 
bci.'ome a ffoaraiicor acaliut any further loM, 
aueb aa the boat may anUaln by naeoa ol 
fruiiltsw (dbrta to pnjcuni proRlable employ- 
iHciitr t'ff'j- T, CIkii'I'uiii, 43 Cal. 570. 

Oooda, danue^a tar iiQD.dclIvery o( 
wliOTC price paid,— TU« .IclriHwril caond by 
the Irtaiti of a ■cllvr** ngrvoriifiit Iu deliver 
pertotml properly, liie p^icl^ uf wliich hoa liocn 
fully jjaiJ to him in ndvnnoc, ii UemieJ to be 
the inmo u in am o( trrooeful eonrenitm: 
Civ. CoJv, HOC. nSOe. riaintia autd on n cnn- 
tioet of uIb vf cattle, to bo doltretod within 
"throo weoli* at tlio turthoft," the oouaideni- 
tion money liaviag bean paid, adding abo tba 
eomoion oounta, and lb« eompUltil averred a 
broaob by failure to deliter thu cattle: il wsa 
bold that it was not error in the court below to 
iuBlruct the jury that if defenduuta diil not 
have the caittu ci-iuly for delirery at tbe time 
mmtioocil in the oautnot Uiey inould flud for 

S!iuutitT, and in aweeilnx danuges they night 
nil Iho pun'ihaM) money, with ten per cent 
Intorcat, or tlio hiKhent niarliot prloo of tlio 
cattle to Ibo time of trial: ilnhrr r. C. J.- J. 
ttitry, 17 CftU <l&: »oo notee on "Intoreat," 

Oooda, dnmoee* tor non-aoceptAiice. — 
The dotriuitmt eauaed by the bmauh <4 a biiy- 

KxelimatU'l and ttiof^ontraot prieo would have er*B agreement toaeoept and pay for pvrtunal 

boon the true inuaaure «l damacuai " 7\ibin v. property, the title of u-hicb ia vwleil ui him, 

Pod, Id. 375, i. .^— ._-i .. .,- .i. ._ -...^. <•:- v_i- 

Wbara a party contraot«d for ft qoaatity of 

wheat, to h« delivered t.a denuid and paid 
fi>T on delivery, iu on action for non-doltvery 
tlw niHuiire <rl d^unoec* won held to bo tlio 
iliir<r«ic« bttnccii the o^ncract price and the 
voluc of Ibo nrtiolo lold: lliiii v. A'ortOH, 4 
CoL 3.Mt ''lurAyr. WtiMiu, fj M. ItS. Ia a 

U deemed to be Iho coiitraot prit'e; Civ.'Codo, 
■ec. 31)10. Tlie plaiutiiT lucd directly upon a 
conlnct to (vcover the oonlraet prioe (or lum- 
ber dolivertd and received, and tor a brnaoli 
for deolaritift tliu eontmct at an <ind and tcfiii- 
iuK to take any mora luiiilior under it: il vaa 
held that tlio nUinliff might *o an*, and r«- 
cover the whole danuue audained in conee- 

cuDiraut fur the ante u( a vcrUln number of quoDoe uf the braacli, wtthinii waiting for tlie 

ahoroi uf fruit itrowlug on the Ireea of an 
mvliard owned in Hliarea, the vendor (cuaren. 
Ucd to tbo vcuilee tliat the sham ol fruit 
•hould he at hit iliijKnel mi the trtea, trw from 
tniuble or nnuoj'anuv troui other pottica. On 
bruach of Bueb cantniot, where Doepucial dam- 
age i» alleged, the inoaiure of the damage i* 
the higheal marLot price of tlie ftuil on tlio 

tune of perfonnanoe to olapais or ro|wat{iig aa 
oScr to perform from month Vt month, as the 
liac fur delivery arrived, and thul the nile of 
dainugo upon tlie breach wan Ihi clear prolit 
wliich the plaintilT would h.-ivo miule; that ia, 
the difbraioo between tbe contract prieu aud 
what it would have co«t the plaiiitifl' to muiu- 
fuclure noil dubver tlie lumber according to 

live* at the o^Dhal^], if tliorc ie nny marltiit thu tvnii) of thu cuiilrBOi; IlaU v. JVonr, 33 

valno for it there; if tiut, then it the voadte C>1- 'iitf. 

U ptvparod to callicr it and earry It to the before tbo uode, the lonrt hvl>l that the rulo 

Diarbet. the nutrhct vaino tliore, Inet tlie coul of damogea againtt a purehiuer (»r not re 

of [,'ni)ieiii>|i and euriaga: Dabivieh Je Co. v. oelving gooua acconling to i-'iiilinct -"■ ■'<' 

Hm/rir, 14. 17 

Where a ooulr*<ct was tnaile to famish a 
Blaunlioat with Ov* hundred tana uf freight, at 
too dullurv n tun, and the frvight waa not fur^ 
uished, it waiheld that the mcuauivrof dantafcM 
fur auch hreaoh waa not the diilereooe botv'ocn 
thu fiietght money aiido hut tlie boat actually 
cara«) daring the time it would have taken to 
pvrfi.'Tm tlic ciiuti-ui^t. but the iliirvreuL-u l<u. 

^ lua tlio 

diffenince between tbe uontrucl price and tbe 
market value at the liiue of the brench of tbe 
coutmct: Ifattrll v. McUt-ry, 4 Oil. 41 1. 

Oooda. damagM on bTMOb ol wwronty 
of tiUa to.— Tlio dttiiiiient ot'iuil by tli« 
bi-otieh of a wormnty of the title uf i-emnnAl 
pKipuily Hold 11 dceiiieil to be thu value 
Ihi'liiul li> iho hnyer ulieii ho )■ deprived uf ita 
ixmuwioii, toKOtfiei- ullli any uottat whteh be 

tuccB the net pronto that would liavo Wen lioa beouow tiablu (o [lay Ln on action broo^t 


Chat. U.) 



fur ilie pmpcrtj by thi tnivowneri Civ. Coije, 
Hd. 33 1 -J. 

Oooda, diQiRgoa oci broitali ol wairiuit)r 
of qUAllQT Ol—Thv JtUinivnt tautrnl Iit llni 
liroi' I> ol » wanntitjr of tlie (|nii,lit}' ol ptt- 
(unil |>n>iHirty is ikiaicd to ti« the cxccw, if 
any. iif tin vahid wliicli tlic tiramrty ««uld 
Jiui'v liail at tha time to vhitli t]ic wamtnty 
nknixl, if it luu] been cnmi'licil witL, over it* 
•etunl value at tlut tinioi Cii-. Cfxlo, >ec. :ai3. 

The datntnent ouiod liy tlio breach of a 
watnuiCy of tlio fItiwM of an utide ot penuiiiBl 
liroiwrty (or a nrtlcnUr (latixi** la dcenicJ la 
lis tbat winch i» ilvltocd by tAO iMt M«tiMi, to- 
gnth«f with a fair ounpiuMiliciii for the loM in- 
sumd l>y on dTort ia uoo<l (aith tu um it tor 
■uch [inqiOM: Civ. Code, mx. 3314. 

C.uiiei, ^itmBgm for omitting to oany. 
TW <l('lriiu»Dt oBUKil by tli* bruoeb of ■ atr- 
rlot* ubligalMO to Moept freight, meMBgM, or 
(Ukwagen^ i* deemed to bo tn« diffiueoo« be- 
tvrta tin uooiut which be hod a right to 
obargo fair the ciini»ee and the amount whirh 
it woold be ncocitry to |iay tor the aamc acr- 
tIoo when it onaht to ba [larlonnod: Civ. C<hI«, 
aec. 3.110, A diapalch waa ditvotod to Die 
A({«it iif ft crmlitor In thowwonl*: "Due IBOOj, 
attach if you c«t find pronetty; will triul uotv 
by lO'liKirTow'a tiagr. Tlia d«btur waa aft«iT- 
wanla tniKilvciit, atid the creditor, plaintilT, 
claisMxl that be faul lout bia debt by the failure 
ot (tctndiuit to tnuumit tfaia mtmige. The 
ODUrt Mid the breach nf tho contract ontitlod 
tbe plaintiff to uominal damagoa If uo rtinl 
ilnnuwta wore tbowit. For oxamplB. the plaluC' 
liT bad a right to bara hia niiwii^o aaiit Accord- 
ing to contract. Ta aacvrtolu the Uaiiiat;iia 
rataioed by th« broach of tliia contract, iIioh 
iAi|iilrlaa wotk portineDt. If the moBMg* had 
beau aent, waa tbo plaintLlT'a agmt in Stockton 
ftt III* limn, and ironld be have reodred it! 
HrKt, wiiuld Li- tlico have taken outui attMli. 
IDiTiit uD tlio debt! At wrhat time ould ho 
bftVH diHio thi* ! Could ho liaTo fiivcn Hou- 
rity t CnulU ho have ]irociir<id attomcya to 
Urme tlie writ! At what hoar could and would 
U have bMui [nit tn tho bsjida ot the ahariffl 
VVaa properly Ihtiro uf the debtor'* anbiMt to 
Uia wrltT If a toIoKnjihic rliiymtoli hotl 
reoebeil the agent hu wouhl hnvu Urn Imund 
to nut at oncoi it wa« to bo pmnrnvd that ha 
Woiild hare done lOI at lust, hu coiitd Iritity 
whutbfr liv would. II he bod, the ahniir WA* 
to Ic irNsumnl willing to do hia duty: if he 
did not, be ironlJ bo liable la the plaintiff, anil 
tlienby the phiintiS'i debt ironlil lie acvurcd. 
Tlic coon coiuddeml that the Iom uI the debt 
woul'l be tho iiatand and iimaltiintii ilaiiinh'^^ 
rc«ul(iD(t fn»u thi* breadi of i:oatr.u.'l: I'nrli 
T, AO-i t'atifijrnia VWrjim/iA ComjxiHy, ISCaL 
4^1, naintllT waa a p*non ot color, and bi- 
Ui|( iletiruUH t4 talla faamiiit <m dctentUnt'a 
atrnt-railnml cw, in han Franuiito, hailed the 
<>onitU'.-t»r. iKiuntijii; hlin t>> taki; tier on liund. 
wbi«li ba (ailed tti £>. Tlie conUuctur nUited 
faiiModialely 'aftor, in reply t« a miucet of a 
I— MigBr t« tftke pkintitT up m reiineated, 
" We lUin't take colored people In tho eonL" 
There wo* at tbc time nniple room In tha car 
to aecnniiiuiilate the i.IainctJT, who wai ready 
an-l williSK to pay Viv fare. There wo* no 
piuot of Buy fpoml ikiiia«;o. PloliilifT lud a 
inr>li<l ami J^Hlrni^ut [i>r tivu handioit iluUar*. 
It waa held; I. That tb«iv w'u iiir*vi<lrnco of 
oalm, ill-wUl, ur wuituu cuuduut ou the pail 

of thtfdetraiJant tovarxt the plaioUfl'. and that 
it was not a caat tor exemplary dasuigoai 2. 
Tbat the vcniiol waa exteaaive; and 3. That 
iip^u tho tact* aUted, pUiatllFwDa cDtlllo) lo 
U'lininal damaga, ereo in ibo abvcnco of pruot 
of any actual damage: I'tttuanU v. N. It. i 
M. /t. S. Ch., 34 IiL rm. In a aiiniUr cam\ 
where platntilf waa njectrd trnni a atro<tt-nill- 
rooiil var Ijcloiigiujt to dctfvndant, by tlio ooa- 
ductor, at the bniir iJ tra at ai^ht, with nKniO 
riolMioe, bnt rMoUIiig In no apprwiaMo dam- 
age to plaintiff in peTvun or uatatr, ^ud tlicre 
una no Mt|im avemMoit that the a«l waawaii. 
tooly at lualicionaly done, nor ol apocwl dan- 
age, and pbuntilF had a verdict and judgmtut 
for aevon liuadred and lifty dolbw* danwgea. It 
waa hold that aoid verdict and jndgmont or 
damage* were eicouire, and appear to liava 
betu oiven udiIoi tho iiifluenoe nt paialon or 
i>niJnJlca: J'unitr t. .V. It- <t M. It. S. Co., 
111. OM. WharoaoBpecialdamagooaaalbgeil 
or provod by platnllu for tha braach of a nil- 
road paa*enK«r cooltwit. and the evidence waa 
only that ho waa put out ot tlio deftuilant'M var 
at a point about twolva miles from hia destina- 
tion and file miles from the pUco u( de- 
nutUTO, it waa held that a vcrdiet f«T firo 
nnndrod dollar* damago wo* artatly dtspropor- 
tionaGo to the injury proved, and that ooo 
Imndrrd doUare was ample eommoiMtian for 
tito injuiy austained. and orderod that a new 
trial \ie [^ntod union plaintiff olopt to acoent 
Jadginout for tlu Mid aomi TarMI \. C. P. t{. 
li. r'o.. Id. 010; Aldrieh v, Pnimrr, 'H Id, SIS. 
Carrlor. dinugoa for not dolivering 
b«dghti Uir. Ouli', *<.->.-. 3.tHl, 

CSairler, duoagaa fbt dolay: Civ, Code, 
MO. 3317. 

Agent, damacoa for boeaob of ^ranonty 
of ntithorily of: Sio Ci<. Code, «m. SSIn. 

Montaga, domogoa for fatwiob of prom- 
lao cl — Tho dainagvs tor the W<aah of a prom- 
i*« of marriage rest in the aouud diacretioii of 
the jury: Civ. Code, ■«. 3310. Tho action for 
brwuh of ptomiie of iiiorriage ■■ peculiar in its 
nature, and the di-meiits going to oonatttate 
the damage diOer nuteriallv from those Exist- 
ing In tlie casecdiL breach oinnyotliereonlnict. 
Itla the duty of the Jury to look beyoail the 
contract itself for tlio mtasnie of damagia, nnil 
sin to the Injured party a full oompciii.'.Cinii 
fur all lorn ia not having tha c<m tract (u1l]ll«i1. 
Thli haa always bten hold to ciubraue tliv in- 
jury to the loelinoR, affections, suid wudihIoiI 
Sridc. aa well oa the loss of nuu-riagAi The 
llUoolty aiigiog (rum the ir«ry nature of the 
oaao of fixing any accurate rulo by wbich lo 
eitiinate tho damnuo* arioiii^ from these 
•ouivcB has rcnilcicd it occcuary to jnve ■ 
lireat ktilndo to the iotroJuction of cvliicnce. 
and to admit the \ilTf to a full knonIcd|{D nt 
all the circutnatoiicDa attendinj tli» cruinac- 
tion. not only In It* ince[itIoi>. I'lit during 
the oontlnuaiiiNi of Uin relAlioiiKlilj. between 
the parties. Tlin auiiuunvoinciit iif tlio on- 
go^uieot to a few inliuiutu (riuud* may be 
neither improper nor uiibKumin^. oikI citntnly 
riK|uircii cu cxprcas authorixalujn. In /.'><i/ v. 
Clart, 47 Old. 1D9, tho eourt thou^hl III? jury 
alioald be petmitlod tuconiidor tbia. with th<> 
Other clrcvnutanee* ot the ease, in vsliiniliDg 
(he Injury oocuioncd la the pkuiititr by a 
broach nfthu COD tnot: Six.'StwiltanSv.nri/or-l, 
li t>w, 'in. In no anion for bituch of promise 
of niarrio^o the iutcrpoeition ot a delcnao tlut 



OF crvn, Acrioxs. 

[P«i n, TitlmVI, 


Out eharMter of the plaintiff I* nnctiMta, orw 
If «iiiiucocwfD), cniftht not prr »r to oum-ato 
tbo liaiiui^ra, uiilnuitiiiiiU'tpuHKUii toil tailli, 
(rvm iihiUl-o, wautonooia. orrwIUiMKoeai Pow- 
er* V. Khr'ti'fjt, 4i CaI. 113. 

ehaaiO, Indeanalty on IvTjr, daiiuigM on: 
See. CSa, iioto. 

Torti, damafM (or.— Pot tho Lmcli of 
>i> uliligalion not uriaing fnun coatmcl. tho 
iiifONnn) of lUmiBU, cxucpt vboiv otlicrwito 
i>X[>iTi<it)' iirowldoir liy thi* cmle, la the amoant 
v,-i,ii:1i will cointKHUto tor alt tli« ibitrinicnt 
I'-ruxiiiiitfrtx t'l'iKciJ IhiM'cby, whether it coalil 
ItavL- ticcii niilki|iat«il or cut: Cix*. Coda. ate. 
3:ta.1i ux -'Uxaniplu'yUami^-m,"airfr. Wlinro 
B (Kirl owner mm *x ddtclo, and tlio obivclion 
nl >t<;fo<^ of pirtiea i> not tet up in the anawrr, 
i:>iT<lalnB|^«houlil be apportluatdat tbetriall 
Wkdnty T. Stttri. 8 Cal. ail. In no nation br 

luvcnlMicr (nr injilry iltmc to tlic freehold, 

ic duration of the term of tite tcnniit in poa- 
MMioa i( lunlcrlol in CTyuico aa aSoctiog tb« 
mauiiira of ilnmogui: Ouendorffrr v. Satarr; 
50 J'l. 490. In an iictlon for nulnnoe, by oli- 
(tfuirCing n atrovt «)<(>oiiiu pUlulifT'a reaUcnoa, 
ilEfcnJuit i( liubl* only fnr ilauiagta actnally 
amcnincd pHur to llic uoniinonMrnant of iho 
Bi,-ti"iil //ojiWn- V. H', P. R. n. Co.. Id. 101. 

II * fionon hating a good cauaa of action 
agalnat anothtir TtDfuUr ium for a ninuh 
jinat«r amoont tluji iadiM, ajid attaohea tho 
nr(i|wrty <•( tho other and pat* him t« cduirgca, 
he ID bablc Tha jory di« not tonRuctV to 
th« a(;liiul pcctininrv loia auatnined by tho 
liUlutifr. but may take into conndcTktlMt tho 
ctianutur luiil iKHlllon of tho partica, and nl) 
tbo cir<inn>ttaiicos attending the tinQaaction. 
Ill Mch n CMO tbo court nonld not diatiirb a 
vi-nlict uiilMa It cl*ar1y apncond that injiiatioe 
Ilib lw«n dune: Iffucrrv. /'ofr'. SCal. OSS: 11} 
Vitk. iS3. In an action (or pcnonal tortt, the 
law iloci not fix any prMJM rulo of dainaftaa, 
Imt Icum thuir Maenment to tlio unlnased 
jii>l>jiinnt of '.'ic jury! Wiraton v. A'. B. * M. 
R. II. I.'o., ao Id. 500. 

. Ill «a*u> of airojilo nc«Ugeiioc. the rule gorsm- 
iny tho lueoanra at damiigo* \» ti> allow tho 
at-tiiul dwnaj{t«. The albni*nco of " anuui- 
iii'M.icy " til aueh «m«s U Iniproper: SfooJf v. 
UtOvmtlJ, 4 Chi. ^117. . l*roxtinat« or Immo- 
dkilv luiil ilirMt doinugos a-rv tlio onlitwrr and 
nnVitnl n-«iilla of the iicg1i|{e[i(i^ Thvrofara a 
cprcodin)' of a fira from unr llclil to nnotlier ia, 
inni-.r dry seaaan, thonatmjI,diiicC,un<l proi' 
iniotc roiiBHiui^uco of a Gring by qarka from a 
loownoUifc: //tiof v. 8. I'. II. R.. 50 Id. 183. 

In an action for treapaai, wbure plaintiiT 
■.■ui»|>tuinoI of tbe ilatrauiion of liii fmaes. and 
traiiipliiiit of Biain. etc., it woa bcid tliat 
t>laiiitill uoiiltl not recover for injury to tlia 

rill |jy oitlle of oibcr»i Brrry v. S. F. * .V. 
tl. k t-e.. M.«7. 
lit iui aclloii (or iujurloa auitalncil l1ir«U){li 
till' iiv'jli^iit iiiBiiii^i.*iiii)t]l of B ttACo. tlie court 
iK'Ioir iiiilruTt«<I the jury tlmt '■ If tbsy Iwlicf oil 
tlir> tia-B oaii tup-litavy niiJ uvurloodcl with 
uuA.-B^iK. aud tluit wiili -lu-:!] Iua<1 it waa 
dnnn uith gtrat rcvlclennpsB .it tho tituo of 
iIk iliiiutcr. tbon tlicyaliould Tuid uot oolv tfce 
u.'tiial ilimogca luatauiod by the pkuntill, hut 
llu',v Kiioald give ■ddtUonal dan»fc«it, nuch aa 
vronUI be im cxamplo thereafter, wMob irould 
tuud to piovonl auch ncklnmicu in tlie ooH' 
durtol flafK* to tho gtvit peril (J (iMaounira." 
I'll* lupniso oowt hold tut in actlona of ttda 

cliai«ct«r all thv drcunwtonoci cf th* 
mi^ht bo takou tiiln vouiiidonilloli Ib tnafcind 
up the uatiinate of daniug«H, and tho Jnry wen 
not cooGned to the ftvliiul daaop* nHeaiaad; 
but damagia (rliiuli wont beyond thU and won 
profMBcdly lidd for tbo benefit of llie pnblio 
oonid Dot be recirrrcil; and that thr ptintipal 
wni liable only far nnplv aeglit^oac, and ex- 
Wanlrobt v. Califinia Slitge Co., 7 CaL 130. 
A jiorwiu lujnrcd W tlic fall of an avfoing in the 
proocM of CTCotinn In front of a itoio. pod who 
moa Uio poraon who waa cmotlDB the «uiio for 
daioao**, la not enUtlod ^l Incluii* In b^ dam- 
age* th*' aunt paid torhiaboa/diliiriMthc tioio 
bewiudLwblBd: Gnu^r. DrTWiii.&li. iiO. 
In an aoUon for damagaa oauBad*lijr injury to 
tho p«noil, the jury, in oitiTnating d.iiiin^o', 
cannot take into coiiaide ration the (a<t Uiat 
tbo plaintiff la a man who luw tu der^nd on hia 
Runoal labor for a living. Tho damagsa in 
■uch actiona aro not deixindent on the wealth 
or poverty of the plahllff. It i* held by aomo 
of tha authoritloa that tbo plaintiff h entitled 
to diow tlio chnraoUir and tho extent of tbo 
buidneas in whifh lie waa ongand prcviooa ta 
hia being injured, togatfaor wlln Iho Incapacity 
nuKd by the injury eoinplalo**! «{, totranaaot 
auah huainma aa to ennblo the Jury to orrlTo at 
tho propv eaUmate of tlm damogM auataitMd 
by meana oJ the injur}': but the (lamagM are 
not in any manDor dependent on the wenltb or 
poverty oilliepkintiffiSAeov. P.^lt. i\ II. 11. 
Co.. ** Cui. 41.1; ace alao JfiiZoac v. J/av^ry, 
44 td. 413. Where action woa to recover daiii> 

Xfnr an injury auatalnod by tlie plaintifT 
o working on a boiatliig apiwralua called a 
atar, lu the ator« of tho d^onilaiiti, the court 
IioTd the jury ihould hare b««o tnlil that 
in teliinatint' the damagn they miuht oon- 
aidCT wbnt, livforo tho injury cuinphiineil oE, 
WDB tho hcnltb and pliynitnl aUility of tliO 
pluntiff to nuuntaiu bimiclf and isiuily, if 
ho hul one, aa oompamt with hu condition 
in tboeo partiealani aftorwardi; bis luu of 
time, and how far the injurv wu pi-rmn- 
nent in it* chiunL-ter and rcaulta, ni «-cIl na 
tha mental and phyaical lufrering ho had aai- 
taiuoil by roaaoo of the inJoTT, nod that they 
aliould allow tmeli «iim (or dnnogca aa la tbclr 
opinion wotitd fairly nnd jiiatly euiiipBuwto hint 
for oil tho 1o» aud injury Kiisluined. l)ajnagi:ti 
in favor of falhoror iDolh«rfi»r injury or dtiath 
of minor child, and guardian for injury or death 
of iraril: Sue. 370, Divtcageaiofarorof boiniur 

!^e^«lnal^ep^c•L'nl«tiv«for deatli of twr«n : Son, 
ITT. In an action (or an aaauilt and lutlery, tlie 
jury, in oitinutllii^ tho dniimDca, cannot take 
mill u'lntldumtion tliu plainliir^expcnaeii in the 
pnj»ei.-iill»ii •>[ tlio anJt: Haurll r. .'>Vai/i;iiu, 49 
I'al. S.'i.'i. InsuitaforpvrMnal Inlurlci. UaKineM 
for pain of mind are rcooverobioi FairtMmy. 
Ci'i/arnUi .•ilftjtVaapaH^, 13 Id. SSO-Wl. In 
aetion to roomer ilanmgMi for a rluUition of 
i)liuutilT*ii t rot le- mark, tbo prolit ^tually rval' 
uxtl by dcfcnddulA from tho ardea of the 
■purloni articio under the ■imnlatcd tiude- 
mark la anmiKT mcomre of damagof. I'ut the 
Tooovcry of the plaintiff ia not liiiiitcd to tbe 
amouiituf Hiicli iir<int: (ImHaiitx. IHal; 411 Id, 
S93, The iiiil>aity of a dcpoallary (or ncgli- 

Jionoe cannot oxcerd tbo anioont which ho la 
uforaid by tlin dpiiowtor. iir liaa rouoti to 
■iiIipiiMs the tiling doiiUriit«<l to Ihi a'orib: Cir. 
Coile, BCD. 18401 MO " IXfKHit," c«;>ra. 


CiMP. II.) 



libel or alADdn, datuacM on— In artiniM 
tor litwl or ■Ixmlcr ili-icn-luut tiiu) Jiuiify uhI 
•llpgu niiligal<i>S •■-irvumiliuioni, niiil HimllKT 
he provo Jiitiificstiunu'iiDi, hoinAyutva la«v- 
fili'nuu tlio nitiii»tingi.-iivuiii*tiu)oni 8cc. 4<tl. 

tOMoa proDta.— Tlir Jetriinimt cmmA \>r 
tlw irrangfiil (■o:ui>nti<iii of r«nl "pnprty in 
CMM not cmtiiooM in Mctioiia SS35, n44> anil 
SMS of thit co'lu (CiTJI OhIti), or Btotiuii Uli 
el the Code ut Civil l^nwciluri', U ilccmnl to bo 
tlic talna of Iho njc of Ihc prepp«t}- for tho 
tline of nucli ocuu|Atian. not ciccuiliiig Rw 
yvar* next prcccduig th« commencctnBiit of tlie 
metian or proocnllng te enforce tke rigbl to 
deiiugM, «nil lh« cmte, if any, of leeoverifig 
UiCpiimwioii: Civ. Cw\e, M"'. 33M. 

B t a o bpent. domagoe od: Sea 427, and 
Bnl«<«. Wlintu pluiiititl'* ri;;)it tpmiinatr* <lur- 
■11^ lisndiaaj of nclian, plniutilT mnjr mcovirr 
ibuiiagai for wiUiliolilicg tLc jiropFrt}-; Sec. 
7M IkfeoiUnt iniiy But off vnlua of iin- 
prarcRimtB where towlc nnilcr color of title: 
See. "HI. Dniriotji-'i can never lie rccevtnil 
lu the ectiun of ejectment for UMt and bean- 
nitlmi, ant<-tior (a Ibo cxiatence of tlio j>Ulut- 
UT'" right of |MM«emioii! Cart ». /Ki^miH, 
14 Qtl. 637. . \Vliar« Ih* jiUiiitiir, *t tlis lime 
the action wa« brouglil, irn* liiniwlf in potate- 
■ion of one hsuilmd end ei^'lity ui-m. pnrvel of 
tlie fire huDilnui aorca demanded, uid the pa*- 
•ciuuu vonliaued in him therenflrr ('> tlie d^y 
at the trial, and defexidsnte In their oniweni 
denied the plainlKT'* title to the whole or nny 
-|iwt of the IItk hundred acre*, It wa« helil that 
lyUlnUff <onM not rMurcr dwiugM for llie uee 
of the tend of whieli tho defenclanta had never 
dlnmntMMl hlmr HUi* v. Jratu, 3S liL 278. 

In on Botion to recover luidi, Ibo ptaintifF 
eau reoover th« ieiit< and proliu only for (he 
)Meiod peior to tlie cfiiiinieni;eineiit of the ocliou 
allowed by Uie stetuto of timltatioDi if tho 
(Mendanl plcoiU the itntote. A pnrly onated 
by faia eo-tcnant cad recover llie dainign ra- 
ealllog from •oeli oii>t«r ai well ai when atuteil 
by a atnuigor. Hi* iuJMi-y U no Im* Itocaaeo it 
weedoDetiykri>*I«n&uti Cttrprudfrr, MiirhfU, 
2l>Ulf.3S0i Adam* on Hjectmont, Watmnau'e 
«il,.449i Oc^UUitv. ronr't, It WiIb. 118; £,nuy. 
ewtyk V. Ilwrkan*. II John*. 401: Camp v. 
)lo:<.t4r-i, 11 Ired. L. SIS; liar' r. Fury. 3 
y^tei. 13. 

Holdfog 0T«r rwtl ptoporty, danukgM 
tot. —For trilUuUy holding over rtui property, 
by a pereon trbo entertil npun tliu hkoie an 
platdiBB or tnutee (or an iDfout. or by tis'it 
W an citaie ttniiirinUu «|ih any life or litni, 
altar llifl tf nidiintion of the tniit or parli<ijlnr 
WtMtr, wltli'ttit the ronanit of th" partr inline- 
diklely cnlilli'd after aiich tcnninatiun. the 
IMWinre at llie dama^ea ia the value of the 
pnillta rverived dorieg rnieh boldinf,' over: Civ. 
Ceile. ere. 333&1 aee •■ Penal Dimflgeii'" If/nt. 

Ooovcraton of good\ dumngea for The 

detriment canted hy the Timnufnl eoavon-iou 
o/ INirvoiinl prnjerly I* pretnniril In liu: J, Tlio 
>'alite t<l the projierly i.t th<- tiru" •■( the cun- 
Ttnioo. with Itic iiiteml fniin that timoi anil 
t, A fair ciimpmiHitloii (or liir tljiio aiid money 
proprrly expon>le.l m puniiit of tlio jiroporty: 
Civ. Co.|e. Mv. :i3M, 

If plaintiff diM* not exerciae hie optioii, dnm- 
ji«em may Iw aa*ar.I<il nn<W cither rulei JBar- 
\faiUe V. O'lTOK. 30 Cil. 1 1&. 

Tliu pTcniaiplioD Jortarei) bv the lait aeetioR 
OMUMt be repelled in favor of one wlioae p«e- 

aeamon vu wrona;fnl from the be^nittng, by 
hia inliiofiuent appllcBllon nf the itroperly to 
tlio twoelit of the nwner. nilhuut lii* conivnt: 
Civ. Owlff, eeo. 3.W. W'hem, In an aetioii lore- 
eort-r (KiHKieiion ol nefi"iiiiil piuiwrly, tlio pef- 
•on making any alUilnrit did not linly >tole 
the value, and the offioar or hia aitretioa are 
eiieil for taking the MUno, they may tet up the 
true value of theaainein their uiwwen Svu, 473, 
P'Ki. Where the nnptrty n dtliveml and 
accepted pending the ■□)!. that In, before vor- 
diet, tlie damage* ahould be men-ly nouitaal; 
but where the gon<U are nnly ilrLvfi^il after 
verdict, it muft be praanuieil Ihiil Ihitilelivenr 
wee in pnrauance of the vertict ilikb UmI al- 
nodf dotomiinod the right* of tho jiartw*. A 
rafeivo foiinit aa jiart of damages the difTurence 
in viitiie of curtain iron at the limeof datentinn 
and delivery, and judgment waa entered on the 
report. The inptemc court held that there «■• 
no principle ol law which racognlxOi) «ueh • 
meunre of damage*. The moat liberal mle 
wonld allow the hlgheet value of the oooda at 
any time betwooi toe oonnirelou anil the Judg- 
ment, anil tnlemit thereapoD. But tlut where 
the pUlutlir oevept* the good* he iibikn hie 
elnclion to tale the good* inlienof their value, 
and the only damage he con rteorer ia the 
liilvreit upon their higheet value, exoent in 
oaara where aonio apiHiial damage ia aprci Ixrally 
averred in llie eoupUint^ Cewiftjr r, f'lini, 5 
Cat. 3'JO. The eourt alao held tliat when prop- 
erty converted had a Bxoil raluo the nieiunre 
of damage* waa that value, with the 1c:;;al iu- 
tereat from the tlmeof lu oonveraion: IhivnUvK 
V. Kmfi, 9 Id. S62. \Vhor« the valun win 
ItucUucIn^. the court said the oorrKt meuaure 
w>« the hjgheat market valae within a rmtia- 
able tim« after the property wni (nken. with 
iiitereat from that time; I'age v. JCaieUr, 39 M. 

!<oue qnal ideation nf the rule may be fonnd 
neeeeaary when tjieie hna been on narooionable 
delay In bringing eiilt, or under «|>odal clrcan- 
■tonoca. It wa* held that the market vallw 
U to h« aacortalneil at tho place of tho ixinver- 
*ion, anil that Interetl wae to ba allouvl, m a 
niAtler of legal right, from the time at wliieh 
tlie vntii'.i is tetiiuated: Hamrri. Slmhaieay, 
33 Col. 110, ISO. 

Tlie aupreme curt held it errT>r to allow 
pmof of injnry to ptuinlilT'a businna. a« a 
criterion of damage, in an action ogaitiit tho 
■heriT frir aeiang plaintiff^ gooda nciter at- 
Inehmeet. without anvitnwoper motive; .V-i/M- 
liigali V. fkoAiwU, IH tkl. 31S: ttrxltr v. Paitgh, 

In an action agalnrt a ahorlff for wrongfully 
telling and eoUiugproperly under an execution, 
and vvbere there wna no wnatonnc** or opprro- 
uon on the part of aneh officer in the ieiiuro, 
tbe oourt held the meaaure of danngae woa tho 
vnlueotthopropnty at the tiinoitwaewiRi!, 
and lem) iuerort on (u«h amonni frooi the 
time of •eiaro tip to the time ol tbe rendition 
of the voniict: PAr'/» v. Onvna, II (Jnl, 22j 
Pftifry V. Oorham. 21 Id. 3t9. Pkiuliff can. 
not recover the value of the gooda anil aUn Ilia 
profit* which might have l>een teaile on their 
taVi Kurrcrr. (V'l'i', r.'Id. 400. .\ninatruc- 
tiouaiif'>llovi'«; "Inmllmatlngtbo vnloeof tlio 
prnpcrty.yon will Inke o* the Wlaof your »er- 
d/ot the Oflh t-aliie <j( the artielee in tlio niurket 
at the time they ntire tdhm out of llie pomra- 
ikci of the plaintiff by drCcudaat. Wbot 




Binniint of moiuy will It tK)i« b tho nuirk^t to tttc artlclot talwd t>y tiin HliuritTr Thitt 
ituBi will 1« lh« mtuiir* o( ilainagM " — wu luU. 
Uhra altoGOtboT, to five tlio Ims-otonilanl of 
<)Mnn«o»: Uiwnv. fftrthaJI, IS Iil. 689. In 
&I1 aciiuii (ur wroDgfutijr liikiiig gold from k 
midiiig claiin. if (lii[i*aJantiiti<ctuiv tupravoUie 
•zoti ninoutit (Ley Lava Ukeu, oa tbo crickom 
of tlio aiiioQut U ucotsiBrily cieluM'rclj' coD' 
fieotl to or imilcr the control of tUoilofcmloata, 
tlie pUmciSa mtiat raly to a grtat «xt«nt npon 
tlie jtiiljjmcnt null atiinatca of mun wlioure not 
fully bnqiiAintril wUIi tli« fiicU: Mid U mora 
tban tb« rril Kiiiounl 1* jrivau ■* (UiMgM, tb« 
(lrf<--ii<liLiiU caiiDOt ooiDplaiai Antoiae Co. v. 
iii'l-jt 'Vv.ilS I'l. SSI. In >uuh nemo llie ri|;ht 
ol filiiiutilTatu recover dainiiCD> whicli th«ylisv« 
actiuUIy aiutauiecl ■■ not nUcctfil by tbo (kot 
th&t tlio (reipau wan not willful In lb cbonw- 
ter. Tlio truF [aciuuro of damiigvs ti tlie Taluo 
o( the coliJ-bDariiig cartli at the time it i> icpa- 
ntei) Irom iho •urmiindlnE toil and beooinoii ft 
cliultcl. In dtlmftUng tbo (Ludam*, the vx- 
tuoM or *etiai*tliig tlM oarlh from tlio gold &f t«r 
It 1* iQoron totbo plaoa<if wasliinKu to bo <la* 
tlucteil (ram tbo value ol tha guEl. Unlcw u 
donMiid {■ niada for tbo pouEul<7ii of tlio gold 
after it U Mwralod frum tlio «u-t)i, nnd on oc- 
lioa U tbcD brought for tlio oaaTorsion of tbe 
obtttol, tlio mcuura of damwoa would be tiia 
mine dI the gold detained: JCTay v. Tapfuui, 
Id. son. The mouuio of iliiinaicM dcpcmli, 
Is aomo butanoia, na the way Ui which plaintiff 

SiiU hia cow. Tliux, wlioro lUfoodjuil hrolco 
owa and reinovol iikintiiTa fenoo. tbo court 
li«U that if iibiuUff had niied for tb* danugo U> 
the tr(<eholil, ba loigbl hav« i«oovonKl tha talu* 
of Iho fonea a« It alood, if it waa a part of tbo 
realty. But buviug vlecwd to cue in raplevlii 
for thomitori^UupoTaonal properlr, hscoald 
only n«o»er their vnluo aa •nch: Pinnybrctrr 
r. MeDougat. *S Id. IM. One bavjog a more 
Umon pcnoDol property cannot reoovurgriatar 
danugea for itt oonvanion from emo haring a 

Sjtit thorato aapaHor to hU, after hi* Ilea la 
Kbor^. thftntha>nioui]tMoaradbythali«n, 
and tbocompoDaatioaatlowad by tooi^on 3330 
(orloatoftimoaDdaipomiva: Civ. Coda, iw. 3338. 
Itwaaeaiil that in an action by the pldlgco 

Sinataitnagerfor tlio oonvoraion ol goocU 
pUiStifTia Ml titled to rooovor tbe full raluo 
of thesooda beeauao lio w aoMrerable ovar to 
the pkdgor for the mrplu*. But If tha good* 
baooniwtod twlhoovncror Lyanyonoaeling 
III privli;- with bim, the pUdgan caa moorer 
only tbo nlun a! Ida apcclal tatoraat In tho 
pleJiic: yr«WifvUv. j[>nri».S*Col. OOOi Story 
MlBnil.,**«. 3.5^: £ylf*. B-trUr. i Kian. H-,'. 
Iltyilom * Stniih't (voir, 3 Qo. 7i li"jenoU v. 
Van Hi>tktle», T Cow. GTO; Pammyv. SmUh, 
17 Pick. 8.'^ 

Sedii::tloa — Tho damagoaforMdnctionTot 
in till' fldiiod .liacrrtion of tbo jnry: Gv. CoiU^ 
•po. 3i<31'. All iiniiinrricd voman may pmte- 
cuto aa pbunliiT an action fkir bcr own aodoo- 
tion, nod inny rrcuvor pMUAiDry or oxaiaplary 
damaKDi: Sec. Vti. 

ADloaala, taJuilM to; Sm CSv. Codn, •«l^ 
JtMlh "EtempUry Uamagot."«ijnnc 

P«tMl dwMSM— Waato by guar>Uaiia, ten- 
anta for life or yaart, joint taa&nta. or tenanta 
la ooinnoni Sob T3I, jian. Wattinjc or taa- 
beading oatato of dcocuol: See. 14SS-I100, 
ExMntor fnindulontly mlling real prupcrty: 
Soc. \iT2. Id OB a^tioa far watte, nnoa the 

autliorlty of tbo nil« laid dovn ia Baoonii 
Atir>dic>ii«nt, tliut "whem treldo daaumaro 
givan iiy n ttatute, tlie douiond for vax& dam* 
Bg«> mukt bo exprMoly inMrtvd <u tbo dtetua- 
tmu, which niuat either rouito the atatntc, oc 
conclude to the d>iiuij;o of tho plainlilf kflatiiat 
the form of u italiitci" Utttr. Smiri--, II Scjg. 
ft R. 2.S3: yelcfomb V. BvHerjUIJ. 8 Joluia. 3iSi 
Liriiigtlon T. PbUnrr. 1 Cow. 175; B<a(9H v. 
Datr, JJ. IGOi the iupr«mc court iichl thtt 
where troblo ilamana were not elaimed jnJg- 
(iioiit •hould b«vu boon entered in favor oi tho 
]ilaiuti(r fur Miiglo daawoM only, and r«vi.-raeil 
a iiiJ;;iiieiit for trebl* damagea: CMpataa v. 
£int/ie. 5 Cal. 239. Thia daebioa nevor kchm 
to lure been overruloil. But a* toforciblo en* 
try and dstviier oaaoa tlio riito In othcririac: 
Seeaoo. ll74,andiiotiu. Foivitilv or unlawful 
entry upon or detention of any building or 
cuUiiatcd rool property; Sec. T3G| awalioai 
to forcible oiitr?', or forcible or unbwful do- 
tolnor. *ev. 1174. If any teoaot gire nottoa 
of III! intention to quit tiio pirnuice, and iloet 
ndt dt^Iivur up tho noatoialan at the trmo 
rpecilivJ in tliu uotica, lie muat pay to the Uud- 
loril troblo rent during tbo titna ho ocintinua in 
poucuion after inch notice 1'c. 3J44. 
Jf any tcaout. or any pereuu in collukion with 
tlio t«iiuit. hotil* oi'ur any lamia or tunsmDnU 
after diimaad mado alid one inonth'a notlcv. in 
writing niion, rcjiiiring the poaataaion thurw)f. 
■ui^li iK'iniiii hoMing [jvcrmuatpay to tho land- 
lor>l tre'ilo rrnt •liiiiiig tho tlmohecootiauealn 
{KMiMaion after auuUiiotice: Civ. tTDdo.aeo. 3343, 
For wrongful uijuni<* to timber, tree*, or uil- 
darwood npon the load of anothor, or removal 
thereof, tbe meaaure of daaia^M ta tbroo timM 
■noh a nm n« wo<nld oompenMU for the nctoal 
detriment, except where tha Irwpaai woa ooa- 
nol and lavotuntary, or committed under tha 
Iiollcf tliic ilio land bclons'^ to tbe traepua«r, 
or where tlio wood wo* tilien by the autburity 
of highway olUoora for tho purpoace of a higb- 
wayi in which caaa tbe iliunagca are a num 

Suol to thu actual ilolritnent: Civ. Code. bco. 
M. 3"or culling down or carrjina off wood, 
underwood, tnm. or timber, or girdling oroth- 
erwiao injuring treu or tiniber, on the land of 
anotbcr pcriou, or on tho >In-ut or liLghway in 
ffoul I'f any ponon'a houae. village or city lot, 
or cultivated Kroundi, or on the oonimuiit or 
public giouuda of any city or town, or on tbe 
■Ireet or highway In front thereof: See. 733; 
aee "Waate," «nT>/n. Tlio wording of wction 
'33 more rMimbltn the wonling of aectiona T3S 
and 1174, the tectiou* aa to forcible entry, oto., 
thui that 09 to woato, Mctiuii 73:!- 

Tb« mcoMire of domaget for cutting troc«, 
etc., 1* not the actual value of tho traca for 
flre-wood. but the damage done to tho loiid by 
Naaonofdeatroyinstbcm. Thitdamagotlioidtl 
be catlmated by nirthe cirouinataaoaa and the 
pnFpoaoa fur which (be ireea are natd or do- 
aig&td. and not according to the apecubitire or 
taucied idMa that tho Taty or plaintifT may 
draw of thdr wonhi C^lpmna r. Ilibhrrd. 6 
Cal- 1C2. 

diiablcs another |wraiKi iu ii duel in thla ilate. 
thd KU\'er mu^l provide (or t)iu nialnfnance of 
tho willow or vile of the person abiiii or per- 
moucutly diaablod,anJ for the minor ebildrvn. 
In iucb manner ncil at tufh coat, nther by og- 
grt^atc com|;cii«llon Id lUmagea to ranV. or by 
a moullil)-, >|Uanorly, OT aaanal alluwodOe, lo M 


Cur. IL] 



8p«olflO Mtd prsvonttn isEoC— jtf)crifio 
or moTtolivo nh't may bs a^iwa ia oun ftrwci- 
SkI in III* Ovll Cwtv. iNaUoiiic 33ea-M23, aod 
Id iio olhvn. 

dntemiaod by the Murt: Civ. CmIc, mo. XUT. 
If BMj' pcnon tbji or prrnianentlf •limblM 
aBulli(r|wi«)c> lnAi)uc] In tliia>U(I«, thckUjtr 
bli'ilile Waiiilinoit Wyall iltbta of thciitif'- 
wu •lAinorp«ri»«ii«iilJyaIaftUad; It].,Kv.3S4S. 

427. What cauert of action may bejoxned. 

8bo. 427. Th« plaitiUff may unite several oausea of ootioa in tint aune cou- 
pkint, where thej- all m-iae out of : 

1. Contracts, express or implied; 

S. Claims to recover epeciltc real proiier^, wiUi or irithoiiit duma^M for tho 
iritliboltliDg thereof, or for vnute committed tbereou, oud Ibo reoU nad profits 
of the same; 

3. CUimH to recover specific personal property', trith or without Ataaagta (or 
the withholding tliereof ; 

4. Ckima agsinst a truBtee by virtue of & contract, or by operfttiou of law; 

5. Injiiri|8 to character; 

6. Injuries to pcnion; 

7. lujuriee to property. 

The cauHCB of action ho united maet all belong to one only of these chuiBee, 
and muitt affect all tito partioH to the action, and not tequire different ]>lacos of 
trial, and moMt be Kopoiutely ittatod ; but an action for malicious arrest and 
proNcctition, or either of thein,niiiybu unitedwith an action for either on injuiy 
to obiinu.'t«r or to tlio i>enton. 

Kaoh count muit be oMopkte in ttwifi eooli 
miut cootoin all the (Mb OMMMry to cosiU- 
tute a MUM 0^ aotion. lu itefoeU ouinot be 
■upplied ima ■UUmonts in other oannU un1«« 
cipnaaly rofcrrGd to In it: Ilotttlt v. Ilmltll, 
f.l Cal. 5«0. 

Muat aSiact all tbe partlea defendant: 
Johintiii V. K•r^y, 3 Wctt Cuaat Ucp. iftX; al- 
tliongb ifaejr n««d not aOoot all •noolly or In 
th« aun* luBiuiei-. VtrTiualt v. Bfth, 15 How. 
Pr. 333i Blatt r. Van TtOorg. 21 Wia. 072. 
Tbo dotoiiLuiU miut b« cbwK^'I in tlia rniie 
oaj»city ic all tlie oouota. Cuum of kotioa 
fonh tlie primary rixnt of thojiluDtiffaad tho i^^unit defendant u ad offlesr and mod bdi- 
wrong done by tiio defDiiilant: Id., toe. MT. ridnol cuinac bv joined; /taneodi v. Joliiuon, 

Joinder of uinaea of aodon.— Is Pomere^r 
oo RMaadie*,aH*.4G2«t wq., will befoatul an 
aDk1>'*Uof tha oxfirvMian ''cftiua of aotion." 
U is rlcrinccl at aeotian «53 to be " tlio facta 
ttvm vrlii«h tbe pUntiS'a primary right and 
tho itefendaiit'a comapoiDdug pnnar; dutj* 
bava«laM,to2otlicriTtthtlie facta vlikh con- 
•tltuta the defoidant'a dsUct or act of nrnrig." 
Hie )l*inaii<J (or rtlief mutt b« (Dtln-Iy •llorc- 
gardod in tlie {iii|uiiv wltctlior one or more 
caewa of action liave bwvu united Lu the ouok- 
plainlt and atteDtjon "ibauM be directo'l ei- 
dawvely to tbe allomtioiia of foot nbUb let 

Kvcii In tbiMo CMM wliera tbo jolodcr of 
ovcial t-auiMa of action i* permitted, tbo code* 
•xtuvmIv atatm t)int tlii>v innat l» Mjiaratclv 
Mated: tSoUtr. C..lir». ir.L'al. tyZ; Sata«ia If. 
AH. Co. T.CIartin, U M.M7. It (bo]<lea<liiiff 
iIoMnotconlorni totbiaroquinmi-ut tJii.-Ovfeud- 
antniay J<tniiT^ AVr. Canal Co. v. JCkSJ, 43 Id, 
1801 S. C. 37 Id. 2Si: BMcifnpAao. v. \ratert. 
14 Id. I-W; n'ai^n v. S. P. ,t II. B. R. U. Co., 
«l Id. \-,i WhUt V. (V. 4ii Id. leo. Although 
tenia atato* bold tliat tbn r^moily In aucb coaoe 
linolliydaianrrvr.lmt liynniot!c>ii toRiokotha 
plaaillDf iiMre duiiiiiiv: .Scv I'tiiiieruy on Itom- 
edlta, MO. 447. A tiulali-io of tbo itotnto^ 
rwiiiirviiient in tbit pirtianUr aUbrda no ban* 
(or a mulion to dUmua. nur for a motion for 
^iKBipiit on tlio rlcaliDg*: If'iUaon V. S, F. 

ti.: ti. ft. Co., ao Col, r,-ii. 

So wlitm a ooiiiplalnt Included two if not 
(broc i:! ilio •ovoral «1>HM tnvntloiwd lit this 
Mvilon. Ill one coant. It ira« prvnonooed bod 
oiiilriniiiTtv: .VtCnrljf v. Piwmo«l,'23Ciii. 11)7, 
ami llw '.MM lufim. 

Aptln: if ibc miku uf oclion oro not bO|»- 
Mtely xtalwl, it It ia dnUi;no( bcinjj oonatnied 
to o^tnid oiilv lliu ona conte of nctioii prinoi- 
pilly inluiiJoil! S^'i' V. JUMrr, M Gal. 310. 

1 Mete. (Ky.|242: nor ucxecutoraiid Mnon. 
allT: FrrriH v. Myritl; 41 M. Y. 31^ 

Por a valuable deoUiou upou tli* mbject of 
niultifortoiunen, aea IfilMii v. Cauro, 31 Cut. 

Subd. 1. Contmcta nxpieaa or tmpUed. 
A ouuiiiloiiat wlikli cuutniiiB a count riittiiift 
fortb the fikda utteDdiiig the purvbiLw of a 
county wamint by pbuntitT, au<l charpiigthat 
dflfendanu ore liable upon au impliod contract 
to rcfuv the pu rchMo money, and a iccoiiil 
count charging tbo dcdsuJaut* aa indonccaof 
iiasotial>te pajxr, nml a tbini connt in tlio nana] 
form for inonny lia.1 and tt«iIt«iI, I* not d» 
nurrahla c«i tbo crcmo^l of miHJi^udor of cauuM 
of oetloD! griter v /firlg. ?2 Cti). 4.'>7. Tlio 
fact that bolh Ivgnl ainl ciiiiJtablu otusni of 
action ars joined in tbe vuinplaiiiliaDoinijiedi- 
nieat in tlio wa^ of the court'* ),-mntln;i full 
relief npon both if v-arrantGil by tbe facts, lu 
a eaae wbero both anue oat of the ■aiii<' trans. 
•dlon, and nen: founded upon tJioaame written 
inntTUinciit, tbe conrt bold there »*>■ no roiuoa 
why tlio wIidIo matter ahttutd not be finally dc- 
tarminedlnlbaaainoactiiin: tfruy v. floniri-rfu, 
Z% Id. 2T7i MO alao l:oUw- v. fofts'A. 10 U. 
200; AfUKniaii v, Turmau, 24 Id. 3ilJ. 




tP*aTU. TniaVT. 

ir s morl^a^ it oadgiwd 1^ llw niortcag«o 
taauother putjr u« pled^ rar Uiu pn^niMit 
of a ilcbc lino the other party Iiirtlio inorlgagt*, 
il U not DD improi>rr joinder of iuvf«l odium 
of jwlion for the oMt^ncc to unite in tbe Mina 
DclioQ hU daim ngaiiut the mcftgngoir aad 
iQOrljfKSM, and pcnoiia having llcna or incum- 
bnuLcct iipoii tlic nioTtuBool nroporty.and malio 
Ihonlallparlii't: F.-nmirv.J<trttni,-l»(M. tOO. 
Cliijiii>t i>» (ii<> «tro«t aMMmiMinU lu 8aii Fran- 
ciJto iwitiot lio uoiUct in one aatioii. Tlmy do 
nut "anw uut u( oontnMlst" !>!/"■ v. Biinl^e, 
SO IiL IU4. Tliis ca» ia itiiy ilitTvtvnt from 
tliot uf an uctlom to naam dc1ini|uriit luaen- 
nieola flu scleral tractaof Und bcloagiu^Jtu Uie 
aaino owner, whether (or talc* or for reolama- 
tioD f urpiiwa. There tlic luHsimcnt ia a uniti 
there ji but onu eaum of uclion iurolrod: 
P'oi^t V. J/agar, Tii Id. 171. The common 
couuta may ba unltcil In otin coiii|>lai[it if 
aoparalcly atatcd: Frrrlioro v. (Ilnirr, 10 Id. 
3.17; /»« WiUv.Porttr, 13 Id. 171; /Ju.iii'/Aoiri 
V, n'oirrt, H Id. 149, For «th(>r I'vuiniilMof 
Jolaiu}; CJUIM uf oclioa ariainf; uii cuutrauto, 
«lprcu ur implied, ace Orwllrji v. G/i-Uty, 31 
JC. Y. 130; aumg th« plaintiir'a own right to aa 
Mngace: QaflUn v. Arn(M, 1'3 Nov. 2!tl; 
SalRfaa v. T&f Sullimn Co.. 11 S. C. «9'l; 
&urA Sidf ^nt'ii V, CiKfcr rtc. Co.. 04 IniL OGO. 
Hcvcnil brooilhM oJ One contiacl, althoogh they 
relate to dllTcrcal Twctionn thcn^of, may ho 
Joiniid: ilaJa* v. Ptti). \i Han, lii. Sn cmimi 
to r^>uvcr niuiiry iwid on auveral an|iankta 
piircliue* of l>l lory. tk hat*.' Orourtr v. MorrU, 
7.1 X. Y. 4711. AolEoua for monry tortioualy 
rtu.-oivtid may Lo joined with other caiiMa of 

prfinlMn. vfliiUt Ih* pUL-jtilfi w«r» rxcludail 
innu thrir iiii}<>ym«ut, wm thit amount xlatml, 
Vrliivh wiu a vuiy progwr avariiiunt mi the baaia 
of the daina|;vi otaiiiivd foi' Ulc Krongful deti!B- 
tion of tha property: PatttrKm v. ATji, 10 Id. 40. 
Can«M of Mtlon to mt aaide m fraudulent con* 
i-evaoM and to rtvovcr poiawajoo of tli« land 
aflcclcd thereby may Iw iodocd, when all tho 
matlen relate to the aame property, ore paria 
ol on* IranMutioD, anil aAect all Vaa i>arU*a 
defi'udaiit: PJUttr i. JMuc^, 3 U'«»t Coast 
ViKu. SOS. 

Bubd. 3. Claim to recover peiMuult7 
may Im unltt<il with a vlaim tor (Iaaia{^ for ila 
tnLiiig or detention; Plmrii t, Cantr, 13 U. 
Mon. 230. 

B«pl*Tt)i: See petl, ic«. tSOO. 

Bubd 4. nnet«Ui cUIms ogaliuil— A 
claim to «iifoT«e an expnva or imiiliud Lriwt 
majr be joined tn a complaint with n claim to 
enjoroe a vcndor^i Ucoi, cxhitins without any 
vrittcn contract. Berth anew claimi are 
foundml on tni«t»— ao« lylufl iu oontraot, and 
tliuollivr aritiiiif 1)v aol andoneratkni ol lair; 
Bnrt V. Wilxx: & Cal. 633-0-18. 

Sabd 5. Injnrlos to chamotar.— Slauiler 
or liWI and nudiciont protwoutioo may bo 
nnit-^rl; Short v. Sm'>lh. 15 Ohio St. 173; Jfar- 
tin V. Mallitoti. fl Abb. ft. 3i HiOt r. Vrrttaiid, 
IS Id. Mi. 

Bubd. 6. InJtalM to panoo.— Mayo filed 
liU complaint. praylnK (or tbe rceorvry of poa- 
•cHion of land in the dtT of S., and damaeca 
for the delonlicin of the laiid, and for forcible 
eviction and cxpulafoD from It, and for tho 
value o4 Impti>veinenta erectsil n[>oa It by him. 
anlion on oontntcta pxpreaa or implied: SUtmrl Tho mpremo coorl suataineJ a dvniurrer to the 

V. BiUtUrd'm, 10 K»n. 131. 

Snbd. 2. Real propoty, clalma to r«. 
oorer, with duiuiee% Ma— The plaiatilT in 
Au avtian for ibo reoovury of real property may 
bIm olain dama^ for tbe uitbUaldins it end 
tlie lulue of the rrata and profita: SuUirau x. 
I/ani'. 4 Va\. 291; J/rATiniiry v. M'Kinurs, S 
Ohio SI, 423i Toinplin, v. H'Air*. » How. IV. 
AJO; //o(»i» V. fJaei,. 21 Barb. 2IU; 10 K. V. 
4.<i8: t'anJrrwrt r. GoitM, 30 Id. 6.19; Arm- 
auvuf V. Hinilt, 8 Ubn. HH. Uowoviir, to 
rruovcr for Iho value o( the ttwta anil proflta. a 
rlmm tfaeretor tqimI lie wt up, the claim for 
d^iiiajt«a will not carer them: A^riinfv. //uoF- 
«on, AJ K. Y. IQl. A aloim for tbe nouoBion 
«l real pro^rty, with domagea for !ta detention, 
eauaot lie joiunl in the aamo complaint with a 
eUtm for conieiiui.iiCiiLl d.unogci ati>in2 from 
& change of a ruMi by which n tavrm^cewr 
may have been injorad in bia bnainew. The 
dana^ia in tho one oaae nrite ont of the nto 
oS land elaimtd by tbe plointlffi; the doma^tii 
in the etiiw caae oiiie froxi an unnuthoriBcd 
divemoa of a public mnd, by moaiiH of nhich 
the plain tilT iuffcrt-1a Iomo! hi> ti^iul Imiineia 
mill proUt*: Unirlrt v. HiirrrtinriM Tunifih 
It»aif. .*> (.'ill. 221 One Action may be hrvnght 
U> rvcoerr tno Mparata or diatioot piece* or 

CKph 'jf land: /!■>•'• v, Cohen. 13 Id. Aa 
*lk;rin;; Ibo dani-itfta, an ullegition of tho 
value tif t)in "unc and ocrupalion, rente anil 
Llitv1lt»."«f the p rem iaee for the period dntiiis 
wKicli the drfcutlaiita were in tho wroiiyfiil 
JmaaetuioQ and exotnded tht plainlifl*, wm held 
•ofScimt toebNToettiedcfoadautt u-iiliout any 
kvomtent Ibat tney received *uAti roiita enil 
rolitii. Tbe whole aToriorut wm UM to 1>« 
I eflcut only tlut tbe valae ol tbo uao of the 

oomplnmt bvcauw a came of oetiuu for an In- 
jury to property wo* improperly joined witli 
one for an Lnjury to peraont JUaua v. .Vatltltti, 
i Cal. 27. 

8ubd.7. Injtirlea to proparty.— Plaintiff 
filod her eompluint in tbe oourt bclcnr for trm- 
paM agniiiat defendiuit, and pnyed a verdict 
lor fl>e hundred dollara, tlic alh;|ntl rnloo ^f 

E)pcrty di'ntroyed, olid llvo hundred doUan 
inatfca. On domtiircr the court bold tlio 
ooinpuiinl ntiolijimtlonablo: TtnUurii v. Mitr- 
ttnlt. 3 Cal. 440. 

In an action for InJuriM to a mlulng clulm, 
a claim for dikinagea to tlie plaintiff by riauuii 
of the breakic^; awny of tho dufeuilant'* duin. 
and tho cull iic|ii cut waaliing anay of tlie )>oy- 
dirt of ttio plnintiff, fliny properly be joined 
with n claim for damnifra in the preventing 
plointi^ from worklaa hi* claim: FnUer v. 
Sfti'-t Union W. Co.. l2Cal. 030. 

If tho complaint in an action ajtalnat n >her- 
iff and hi« olBcial Ijonilarnvn aSeyu only a 
cauae of action acainat hiin a« n tretpa*M-i', and 
agaiiMt hi* aiireliea a* aigneni of tbe bijii<l. and 
not otheiwiao, there is ft mi»;oiii-I''r«l [luitoi 
o( action: Ohimrdriti v. /fonrv.iiirf. .tJ Cal. ."iS3. 
The injurie* tliat mar bo juinoil nn< inik'|ioil' 
dent and lUaliuot. liie properly injnrtil may 
bo the (time or different: it mn^be citiicr n-a\ 
or personal; the title of the pUintilf t<> rvdresa 
may be original in nujicet to one injnrj'. while 
In naptct to the other or others tlie rt^ic may 
hav* come to him by awi^imcnt. Some of tho 
iniurlM coniplaiuvi) of ninr be loml. while 
otIiMt may lieof ann'iuitabfoelianu.-U'r. Trot- 
|«im to laud ia a le^il Injnry; to thmtiui to 
r:it(ir upon and WMte it ia iiti tiiiiltahlc lu- 
jiiryi but both nioy bcjoiuud lu tbeauno coiti- 


Ctt.tT. jn.i 



p?>liit (or the itatnto r«w«ai tliat bath »n 
Injiiriiiiu' Id prti|icrt]r. That general likcuuM 
i» tlut cuily tot to which tlic ijuation v( join- 
dsr la oum Ilko tkc ptcMmt am bo mbjectoit 
aMlM* our tytAnti: Mart v. Majnini, Id, £00. 
A cotnplftLiit ws* Itulil liuJ whluli uiittvJ in lb« 
•aino oount • caimo t>t ■cliuii ariliiijc frOTn 
■lk>j;od fipntaiou ami araotinii <i( pluiiitiff b^ 
dcfululiiiiU (roui, atid irruugdd <1vlvuliuii lijr 
drlcndoBta «(, k apcullia iiurcvl uf ml prop- 
oty, with a muot of aotioii Aritinj froin 
aUogcd oxpuluon ntui »inotioii of plaintidT Inm 
auJ wrtingful dctcutiun hy dofcDiliaiU ot a 
ytatmr rijlit, «n the f^tonad lha,t tha hvciuI 

eaata of aulica hod Ucd Impropniv nnltcil, 
■niiiglcl ti^i^Clic-i^ia tbo i.-i>iiipliiuit. Tlio ootiy 
upiiii the "hIiu fur ft Ji>m." lli« "lUin coii- 
Mriii;toil," 111* "Inivl i<ii wbwh thi- khhu i* 
bultl," cti:., M vu wkI lu .Virai/'i CVuiuf f.'o. 
V. A'iiU. 37 III. SKI. luiglit pvrbiipi bu n^gknleH 
ma a "uiigl« tau*e of action," but an wiii tiim 
suil, also, "the water right • • • ixadif- 
fciTiit tiling." Tl» ounplaiat, ooutaiuio^ a* It 
did but » ntigl« oon&l wid coimtiug unoo an 
inraHon of oirtliMit in that oonot, vm liad on 
dnmantt tar intnn>pcrly imitliu MVCtal oknMw 
of action: Xa^a CaiuU Co. v. KiJit, 43 U. 

430. Wheji d^fetidanl vuty dcmHr. 

Sec. 430. The defendant may demur to the oomploint witliiD tlio Lime tc- 
qoired in the eummons to answer, when it appean upon tlie fa«o tli«i«6t 

1. TliAt tbe court ham uo juriiMlictioa of tbe person of tiie defeodatit or tlie 
subject of llio nctiun; or, 

2. That till) x'^'"^"^''*" ii^IoS^^!<?>o'^^ to sue; or, 

3. That tlicni i» anotlier action ponding between tbe aame perttes for tlie 
name cauitc; or, 

4. TliAt there ia a d«foot or mbjoindor of parties plaintiff or defewlant; or, 
&, That MiTcntl ciium^h of ncUoD have bo*D impruporlf united; or, 

6. That the complaint docs not atatc faobi BufiSciont bo constitute a oaaae of 
action; or, ■ 

7. That tb« complaint ia ambiguotw, nnintcUigiUo, or unomrtoin. 

IMeudaat'B damuner.— llio nUiva wctlon 
IM^idc* lbs only grouiiJi of itcmurTer to tlie 
bJaimilT'ii ouin]<^nt: ll-Un i. Bal'r, & X. Y. 
StfT. ll i« DM (ho prosier rcniocly to obtnia a 
chaacw «l ttiu pteoo of trial: Wntlj v. Whilt. 31 
CaI. X!l. Tii» offioc of t)iR dumunor ia ool to 
Male fauta, bet to ruito an iuuo of law xtffm 
thu lixia Btntcd in tbu i-uinplalnti C//ok v. l>t 
ki Omrra, 'H Id. 231). Nor ia the prayer of 
the «a«n|daitit a pit^r lubjcct of ocitiurnir: 
BallUu V. /\if4H. 10 Id. 21«ij Pioplt y. Hor- 
rill, 2a 1.1. XS6: Potit T. Stfxnt. 2S Id. 3-JS: 
MMf.V<mMm,7i&U.-::i\: WaOtri. Son- 
<*T, « N. Y. Super. Ct. 71: r/anw i. liar- 
Monv JIftCf., « A1>b, N. C. C12. 

Tht donumr tuloiiU M truir, for tha inr- 
poMt «l th« lUnumr, (acts in thu oompuiiiit 
W an iauablo and w«ll T>l«ail«l: Tiuiivmut 
W'Utf Co. r. Chapmax, 9 Cal. 397; Brtuituun 
V. J/iyor «• San Jaa', it Id. 608; and only 
•utb tjet»: l<L It don nut admit (ODCluaioai 
uf Uw, olUioiicli ■tato'l in Ihc ooDiplaint; Id.g 
w»t ImVitnl IiKU: Halt v. ilnrtML Baib. 

Oaoaral and upecbU domuirer: 8cc icc 
*Si. .*./.«, 

Dcmurrtac mid omwctltig at ttama tlmo: 

Oar ii tue damdTTVT: St« wc. 40S. 

JudsnuBt OD domwiar: Sof. ^6. 

Damunailaasappauaxicai Swmo.IOU, 

WkItIi^ obiectloma by not damniiing: 
Sw. 431. 

Answetlne ov«r aftot damtin-M' orai. 
ruled: S>-o. m. ui uuu. 

PliMB in nlMtcmcnt: Soo mc. 437. in nol«. 

Oiouuda ol demurer Botid. 1. Want 

o( juriadkitloa.— A lUaumr fur want u( jiirii- 
■lU'ti'jii by k court of fcouornl juriAdiL-iioa livii 
ooly wli<r« tlia want thcrvot affimuitivuly ap. 
won from thu Imv of tbe plcailiugi /Jolt v. 
fVlltr, lOCal. 433. "That tfao court luu no 

{'iiri«diolioD ol the penoD," OMani that the dc- 
endaat i* not mbjwt to the jurladiction ol tlio 
oowt, not that ho tuw not been [ircmrly txrvvd 
with original prvom: yonr» r. llopf Mutmit 
I«: Co.. i llxw, W); ». C. $ Hark Ml. 

A ilcRiurmr " that Ilia Miiirl bo* no juriwlla- 
Uun, cither ot the poraiet ot iho dHftOiIaiila or 
of Uio •ubjcct of tnv action." i* nnSoienlly r%- 

Jlldt: AVal V. Soffdtr, SOOkL ODOi HIUmh v. 
MUft. a I't. asa. 

Snt>d.X Wantof laKolcapooItT toBua. 
A dviiinrrcr on Ibiii erouud loait raloto ex- 
vIiinTvly to •omu Irgaldiaihility of tbo plaiot- 
ilT. tiKh 0* infuiay, hltocy. cot-flrtore. or ^m 
lik«, and not to tha altcncu of (ruti ■(iltlulcnb 
to oonrtitiita a eauMt of action: I't ll<iU v. 
Carter. 31 In.t. .Vj;^i l^ofJt *. Cmati; M N, Y. 
HSt roiiicr^iy nil ItsnintiM, m«. 'HJH; uiil In 
pUodU); It tbo damurnint on{[fat not to *ay, 
for osanijilc, lliat plaintiff liaa no lagallv sii- 
pobitwl ^uardina. but lh« doRinrror ongtit to 
1^ to tho raffioicncy of tliu plainltlT's nllaijiition 
of appoiatmenti J/orre'l v. Jtorymt, 3 \V'«»t 

Coatt Htp. mx 

The inXauvj' of tbe plaiaUlT ia a waul of 




{Fakt n, Tmx IV, 


npadtj- to ia«i Jont* t. fUtilr, 30 Mo- ?34; 
triiKt T. Ireinr, & Miun, 61. Ou dvinnnvr, 
(iir Itiia nrnton. the ouiMtlitutiunalily of tba 
atatulp uiiilcr wiiit'li t.boplaiiitilTi wi-rc cmtcd 
Dili; IhiutmiI: Xrilr. 7Viwii«m,31 Ohio St. 15. 
St. So (lumurtur U> itdlian brootjlit la a lifni 
aame.unleaait Dpp««r that titatiicmben thereof 
arc aacociateil in biulacw unOur wotiou 3S8: 
8<.-a llaitiv* T. ./IfrMI, Id. 210: /'Amita ilun^b 
V. A.KJw''. ION. T. 410. 

It ii not a ijaoil jpaund bt <l*niurrtr that it 
(loca lint Bpi«ar in th« <(>mi>ti>iiit that tho 
pUtntllf hn« th« hgAl cQiHuity t« mia. Tha 
<aiu«»fi»ii matt tin Ukpn by niuwitr: Fhanix 
ilaiit V. honittU. 40 N. Y. 4IOi DiHrictXo. IIO 
V. »ri^ 03 CaL 403. whore tlia objuolion waa 
raiaMl OD tlamuTTcr that tlin ooin|dunt did a<A 
ahow ploiotiff to Iiavo been dnljr created a 
laud tliniricit; tho objcetion Id thu form waa 

S»bd. 3; AnatbAT action pondliv. — The 
comt HuJ it ii not £111; to nee why bocauw k 
tniQ Mill f'T reat lor uio montha of January 
■mil Fil'tuary lio aball bo doniod B rlslit uf 
revovcvy !'<r cUlinr inonlli biK&nto h* had (uw) 
Xml-itn lot th« not due in January, and Hint 
atiit H'»« «lill iwniiiiig: Thntn^on t, Lyon, 11 
Cul. 4'.': aou iifrrita v. Jamtton, 5 T. K. M7| 
I Uli, Fl. ISfl. DilatoiT plena arc cot favored- 
TIm< iwrty pleiuling tuem relica on techaiaJ 
law to detTSt th« ptuimitrii action, and la bold 
(otichnicoJ cinciacaiiiii Itin ploadmg: SSnnnd. 
210, Unilcr a pUa of "unit i^ondins." dnloud- 
ast iinilcrtook to innliitiiia \>y tbo lint rrcord 
the fuel* atated in tbs jiloa which Ii4 nut ii|), 
rot to <1ef(Bt a i«cov(iry on to niucU of the 
cBUan of action •• w«rw omhntood by both 
■iiili. but to d*feal Iha entire action lott 
broii>;liI. Tbo court lielil that oa the aoMJud 
Hoti-'ii <:nit>ntoed mattem oot within the lint, 
■Irfvndsut failed to prove hii pica; Thomp-^n 
V. /...„n, 14 Cal. 43. It ja awd that tbia plcn 
■ 'iiiTiDt doffat the acliou where the teliof 
MniuliC ii diffinvnt; Sotlen v. Landtn, 27 Id. 

& lUfendant in on oottoD to reoorrr the jwa- 
aouion of laud i* not entitlvl to a jiidf;;itiDat of 
iliamUial on tho ground that a fomm- auit 
bctvean ihn wmo Dortiea bruught for the re- 
covny of the «mim lonJ i* atiU pending, unlcst 
It it ATfrrvd in tbo ouiitcr that the aeoaDd 
Aolioci It for tha aame iojirry ni tho lint, and 
that the iiaino matter* are u ixuo that were 
In Ucue. nud might hove tucu tiled in the fint 
AC4I0I1. A party may have two luita omunrt 
tilt saiuo dofeoilant li/t tho lecovcry of tho 
Bame land pcndiag at the mno tlmo. If the 
•ooonJ ii bronsht on a tltlo ociiuircJ ^lar llio 
cvminoDoeinant of tbo lir«ti Vanet v. Olinatr, 
ST Chi. 358. 

Id an action to TMOVtr land, u aoswor of 
Boollii-r Acti.ui ptinJing for tlie iuno canto muit 
abow lliftt tlio Mtuo titl«, th« aamo injury, and 
llw «iuti aubjODt-inattrr kra in sontiovcny in 
botli oi^tioDi: Larfo v. tTmcAf 4^ 30 Cat 132. 

Tho dir[«uae of b prior Hi ptmftui U avalt- 
Able DdlT wh«r« tho (Jaiatifr. at lout, in 
MMiOM If Ulo liMiio pcrion: O'Counnr v. Ulal-e. 
SQ Ob!. SUj Vrrtaht l.cj- of J/aftofl.i.iy, 2 
Samn. MS: VadUiglt v. I'tacif. 3 M. llITi; and 
MO WaitwertX v. Jeiiuaa, 41 CaL 03. And It 
H«ma that lbs relief •ouKht In tho two actions 
nmit i'p the nnia: Ittal v. JfiwurM L.G.AH. 
Co.. a Wat Cu«»t llep. II IN. M.) 

Tho dcrnurrvn to tbo dofeudont'* onawera, 

ao for aa they nUegod the peudctK^ of another 
■Ctioa betVMD the Mine partin tor tho »nie 
oanoe, wen) h«ld properly eiutnined, aa it did 
not appoor that the contM of JLotlon and the 
e*rtie«, tho plaintiff at leaat, were the aame In 
both action*: AvrtM v. Snufry. 32 Cal. C2S. 

The pendency of a prior (uit in ■ atato coarl 
la not a liar toaauit Intlw court* of the United 
State* butwc4.-D tho name partis* for tlie Mino 
uanM of actioni St^titim v. EmbTtfit 9i U. S. 
G4S, and nuniaiou* il«i'ljiioD> there kIioiI upon; 
Lynch V. Ihirt/'.Txt t\ I. Cc. IT I'.d, Itci., 1127. 

Sabd. 4. Detect or mtajoltider ot p«rtian. 
lliat tbo dcinurivr *buuhl afitcify lit what the 
niujoindcr or defects o0Q«uta, *(« Irwin v. 
IFow/. 4 West Coort Itep. 212. It » dcniurr«t 
for miajuiiiilrf in nuiUiucil. the dcfvudant can- 
not dcTOur to tho arr>en«1cd complaint for dc* 
foct of puiio* In not joining Iho party whoie 
Joinder was prci-ionaly olijcclcd to: Jamtt v. it- 

{•orf. Id. r>M (XcT.). Defect i* the auno aa uon> 
oln'ler; It iiimuit tuofvir. not t^io tnoay particei 
ilraiirtl V. l'rfiitim,Vt Ind. 2U1. A dofocl of iior- 
t lot pkiutiff or Jclcailant anpetrins oo the nc« 
of tue pUadinu murt bo laltea by demumr or 
will lie deeiueu waived : Andrrut v. XoMnmiia 
Hill (.V, 7 C*L 330j W'trvfr v. WiUoo. 4 1.1. 
313: iloirct V. Knoi, S Id. 257i Sampiait v, 
Sth<ufrr. 3 Id. 20-!: Tixof r. TMrothnerteii, 
Id. 4"8j MfKimr r. MrGanry. Id. 40«! iJwBia 
V. rovr, 10 Id. 107: Moil v. Smiih. 10 Id. »Ti 
Bttrntiiilu T, LrM, 10 Id. I2j; Ita/brf v. lirv- 
fMn, 33 M, 40.1 rrNnoiit v. P/ui'r, l.'i Id. 
2T0l II tho dettfCC <lac» not npnntT on Iho fncn 
of the complaint, to be acailiM of It niiut lie 
token by aii«w«ri Paiitrtk t. Btau, 4N 1>). JUll; 
JVrmVt V. Watiti. S2 N. Y. 680; Um-Jfl v. Bm- 
hVl*. ITUhioSt. 113. The objootioii cannot b« 
raised on B drmurrcr that the complaint doei 
not itale mfficicnt (octi TVnnonf v. /'^elrr, !>l 
Cot. Ollit'ni'rofv.ifujfirt, 17 Oblo SL 113. 

Where port of n dcljl ia aHlgned, tho oa- 
■ignco is not a nccoMary ftrty to a suit for the 
balance. Tlie iuil,[ninciit doc* not moke him 
* JoiJit owner ot the wbole dobt: £«mf v. Shrr- 
•nxxf, 21 Cx\. 104. Whoro b eoatroct between 
nortios other tliaa the hlnintilT and dcfenilont 
u *et oat in the complaint, iHicaute It i* rc- 
tenvd U) in the contract Ixtnton pUlntilT and 
doftadut, (or tlii puriioaa of deeignatiog what 

iibuntiff waa to do and what be wo* to r>ueiv« 
or bi* Kreiec*, but tlie contract eucd on i» tbo 
contract of tiio paitica to tho suit alunc, Iho 
urlics to tho fint.nicntlonod canlraot nue<l not 
bo Joinol: Barirr v. (Atxo/u, 30 Id. 06. 

In tlie folloD lu^ eaaea tlie queitioa of defect 
of noTliiH defendant ma ralaad: In nn action 
agaliitrt the hiialioad alone, the honwatcail right 
cannot be detiirminol. Both pMitoa muat bo 
bcforo tli« court. The buibaod hia not oven 
the right uf njipEol iu >uch a ca»v, aa the Jnilg- 
meat could not uSect the qneition of honiO' 
■tMul: Ilftali V. Kraratr. S CaL 74. In &n 
action of ejectment to recover Bn nndlrldvd in- 
tereat in a mi