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Full text of "Lege pentru organizarea comunelor urbane (Promulgată prin înaltul decret regal cu no. 2.898 din 23 iulie 1894 și publicată prin Monitorul oficial no. 96 din 31 iulie 1894) Cu toate modificările suferite până în prezent"

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Q 



«da 



5^' 






f/ef'/a^ /reU</e ■ l^tf/uf/i. 



r 



RERUM BRITANNICARUM MEDII ;EVI 

SCRIPTORES, 



OB 



CHRONICLES AND MEM0RIAL8 OF GREAT BRITAIN 

AND IRELAND 



DUBIKO 



THE MIDDLE AGES. 



ifCOO-' ^ 



THE CHBONICLES AND MEMOBIALS 

OP 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 

DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. 

PUBLISIIED lîY THi: ALTHOKlTy OF JIKR MA.JKvSTY's TKEAbUKY; UM>LK 
TIIE DIKECTION OK TllE MASTKU OF THK KOLLS. 



On the 26th of January 1857, the Maater of the Rolls 
sabmitted to the Treasury a proposal for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country fpom the 
Invasion of the Eomans to the Reîgn of Henry VIII. 

The Maşter of the Rolls suggested that these materials 
should be selected for publication under competent editors 
without reference to periodical or chronological arrange- 
ment, without mutilation or abridgment, preference being 
given, in the first instance, to such materials as were most 
scarce and yaluable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical document 
to be edited should be treated in the same way as if the 
editcnr were engaged on an Editio Princeps ; and for tliis 
purpose the most correct text should be formed from an 
accurate collation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Maşter 
of the RoUs suggested that the editor should give an 
account of the MSS. employed by him, of their age and 
their peculiaritîes ; that he should add to the work a brief 
account of the life and times of the author, and any 
remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; bi«t;iio other 
note or comment was to be allowed, except what .might 
be necessary to establish the correctness of the text. 

a 2 



The works to be published în octavo, separately, as 
they were finished ; the whole responsibility of the task 
resting upon the editors, who were to be chosen by the 
Maşter of the RoUs with the sanctîon of the Treasury. 

The Lords of Her Majesty's Treasury, after a carefid 
consideration of the subject, expressed theîr opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated February 9, 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Maşter of the RoUs "was well 
calculated for the accomplishment of this important 
naţional object, in an eflfectual and satisfactory manner, 
within a reasonable time, and provided proper attention be 
paid to economy, in making the detailed arrangements, 
without unnecessary expense." 

They expressed their approbation of the proposal that 
each chronicle and historical document should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent with all possible correct- 
ness the text of each writer, derived from a collation of the 
best MSS., and that no notes should be added, except 
such as were iUustrative of the various readings. They 
suggested, however, that the preface to each work should 
contain, ia addition to the particulars proposed by the 
Maşter of the Rolls, a biographical account of the author, 
so far as authentic materials existed for that purpose, 
and an estimate of his historical credibUity and value. 

£olls Ilouse, 

December 1857. 



co7;at)h •scce-ohel v.e T:c:llcci6h. 



THE 



WAE OF THE GÂEDHIL WITH THE GÂILL 



■r 



Specimiîn of Uif- MS.L.ffiook of Lemsler) 



Oiţl Sm-iisaiiei) Luli 









THE 



WAE OP THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAIIL, 



OR 



THE INVASIONS OF IRELAND BT THE DANES 

AND OTHER NORSEMEN. 

THE ORIGINAL IRISH TEXT, 



KDITKD, WITH 



TRANSLATION AND INTEODUCTION, 



BY 

JAMES HENTHORN TODD, D.D., M.R.I.A., F.S.A., 

SKXIOB rSLLOW OP TRINITV COLLBOB, RBOIUB PROPBSftOR Of HBBRKW IN THB DKITSRBITY, 
AXD PRMCKmOK Of ST. PATRICK'S CATHBDRAL, DUBUK. 



PUBLISIIEB BT THE ÂUTHOBITT OF THE LOBDS C0MMISSI0NEB8 07 HBB MAJESTT's 
TBBASXTBT, UNDEB THB PIBECTION OF THE UA8TEB OF THE BOLLS. 



LONDON: 
LONGMANS, GREEN, READER, AND DYER. 

1867. 



3 O JUL 1960 

OFOXFCRD 



DVBLm: PRINTED BT ALBXAKDEB THOM, 87 & 88, ABBBT-STREET, 
FO& HER MAJRSTT*8 8TÂTIONEBT OFFICE. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCnON— "^^ 

Descriptiok of THE Manuscripts used in formino 

THE Irish Text of the present Work, . ix 

The Author, and Aoe of the Work, . xix 

Stjmhart of the Contents of the Work, with Topo- 
oraphical and historical explanations of the 
Text, ........ xxviii 

THE WAR OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL, OR 
THE INVASIONS OF IRELAND BY THE DANES 
AND NORSEMEN, 1 

Appendix (A). The Fragment of this Work preserved in the 

BooK OF Leinbter, 221 

Appendix (B). Chronologt and Genealoot of the Kingb of 

MUNSTER AND OF IrELAND, DURINQ THE PERIOD OF THE 
SCANDINAVIAN InVASIONS, 235 

Table I. Kings of Ireland descended from the Northern 

Hj Neill (Cinei Eoghain Branch), ... 245 

Table II. Kings of Ireland descended from the Southern 
Hy Neill (the Clann Colmâin of Meath, and the 
Clann Aodha Slaine), 246 

Table III. Genealogj of the Dai C^, 247 

Table IY. Showing the Desoent of Maelmuadh (or 
M0II07), Lord of Desmond, and hia relationship 
to Brian and Mathgamhain, .... 248 

Table Y. Showing the Descent of the Family of 

0*Donnabhain (or O'Donovan), .... 249 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Appendix (C). Maelseachlainn's Description of THE Battle 

OF Clontarf, from THE Brussels MS., .... 250 

Appendix (D). Genealogy of the Scandinavian Chieftains 

NAMED AS LeADERS OF THE InVASIONS OF IrELAND, . . 263 

Table VI. Genealogy (A) of Olaf the White, King of 
Dublin, and (B) of Gonno Gamle, called by the 
IrishToniar, 264 

Table VII. Genealogy of the Hy Ivar, or Descendants 

ofivar, 268 

(A) Limerick Branch, . . . . .271 

(B) Dublin Bi-anch, 276 

(C) Waterford Branch, 292 

Table VIII. Descendants ofCearbhall(orCarroll), Lord 

of Ossoiy and DanLsh King of Dublin, . 297 

(A) Descendants of CcarbhaU by his Sons, . 298 

(B) Descendants of Cearbhall by his Daughters, 300 



INTRODUCTION. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Deacription of the Manuscripts, 

The following work has been edited from three Mânu- 
bcripts, two of them unfortimately imperfect. 

The first and most ancient of these consists of a single i. The 
folio, closely written on both sides, in double columna. It jJ^Book 
is a leaf of the Book of Leînster, now preserved in the of Leinster. 
Library of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. It contains the first 
twenty-nine secţiona only of the work : nevertheleas, 
imperfect as it is, this fragment, for many reasons, is so 
important, that the Editor has thought fit to preserve it, 
with a translation, in the Appendix. 

The Book of Leinster^ is a Bibliotheca, or Collection oftate and 
Historical Tracts, Poems, Tales, Genealogies, &c. It was the Book of 
written by Finn, Bishop of Kildare, or at least, during his L«iMter. 
lifetime, for Aedh Mac Crimhthainn, or Hugh Mac 
Griffin, tutor of Diarmait Mac Murchadha [Dermod Mac 
Murrogh], the King of Leinster who was so celebrated 
for his connexion with the Anglo-Norman invasion^ of 
Ireland, in the reign of Henry II. 

The following note oocurs in the lower margin of fol. 
206 b. of this MS. It is in a hand closely resembHng 
that in which the book itself is written, and certainly of 
the same centuiy : — 

** Life and health from Finn, biahop [Le., of Kildare^] to Aedh Hac Crimh- 



^ Book of Lemtttr. For a short snm- 
Toary of ito contenta, see 0*Cnrry*s 
Lectnrea, p. 187. 

^ Im m t Um. For thia reason he ia 
oommonly called by the Irish who 
were not of his clan or his adberenta, 



Diarmait na nGaU, or Dermod of the 
foreigners. 

* Kildaire, Thia explanatory paren- 
thesia ia written in the original, aa a 
glosa, over the word '* bishop," in the 
same handirriting as the note itself. 

b 



INTRODUCTION. 



.>■ 



thainn, tutor [pifileigin-o] of the chîef kîng of Leth Mogha [î.e., NuadhatiJ 
and sacoeasor* [comatibu] of Colum Mac Crimhthamii, and chief historian 
of LetnatAT in wisdom and knowledge, and cultiyation of books, and science 
and learning. And let the conclnnon of thia little histoiy be written for me 
aocnrately hy thee, O acute Aedh, thon poflsenor of the sparkling intellect 
Ăfajf it be long hrfore toe are toUhout thee. It is my deşire that thou ehouldest 
be always with tw. Let Mac Lonain^B book^ of poema be giyen to me, that we 
may find out the sense of the poema that are in it, et vale in Ohristo,* etc'* 

Finn, Bishop of Kildare died in 1 1 60, according to the 
Annftlfi of the Foiir Maştera.* He appeare to have oceu- 



^Nuadhat, ThÎB explanatîon is also 
în the original, as a gloss, over the word 
Mogha. DiannaltdaimedtobeKing 
of Munster, or Leth Mogha, •'.&, Mogh's 
half, the southem half of Treland, so- 
called from Eoghan Taîdhleach, sui^ 
named Mogh Kuadhat, or Knadhat's 
skye. See O'Curry's Battle of Magh 

Lena, p. 3. 

^Successor. ThissignifiesthatAedh 
was abbot or bishop of Tirdaglass, 
now Terryglaaa, county of Tîpperary ; 
wheie was a ceiebrated monastery, 
foonded by Colum Mac Crimhthainn, 
who died A.D. 548. 

• Mac Lonain^t booh. Flann Mac 
Lonain, a ceiebrated Irish poet, many 
of whose productions are still extant, 

died in 891. 

« Vale in Christo. The Editor has 
taken theliberty of altering a few words 
of Mr. O'Curry's transUtion of thîs 
curious entry (Lecturea, p. 186); but 
the passage in italics*he haa allowed to 
stand, because although he believes 
Mr. O'Cuny's reading of the original 
(App. Ixxxiv) to be wrong, he is un- 
able to correct it. It is very obscure 
in the MS., having been written npon 
an erasure, which has caused some of 
the letters to be blurred or blotted; 
the words which Mr. 0*Curry prints 
cian T^o ţiiâetn Txyo (?) hitisncnţ», 
appear to the Editor to be aan gafi ; 
ceip, ticb IC binsncnf , of which he 
can make no sense. It wiU be ob- 
senred that the foregoing note does 



not assert Bishop Finn to hare been 
the scribe by whom the Book of Lein- 
ster was written. That he was so, ia 
inferred by Mr. O'Curry from the great 
similarity of the handwriting of the 
note to that of the text; and Finn, 
if not the writer of the MS., was pro- 
bably the writer of the note, The 
"little histoiy," or historic Ule, al- 
luded to, if we suppose it to be that 
to which the note refers, ends imper. 
fecUy at the bottom of folio 206 6. 
The next leaf begins in the middle 
of a sentence having no connexion 
with what went before; and the de- 
fect ia of long standing, for the old 
paginations, made in the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century, take no notice of 
it, the next folio being marked 207. 
The page to which the foregoing note 
is appended contains the story of the 
Progress of Tadhg, son of Cian, son of 
Oilill Olum, into Meath, or the Battle 
of Crinna. See 0*Curry, LeeL App. 
Ixxxix, p. 593 ; Keating (in the reign 
of Fergus Dubhdedach) ; O'Flaherty, 
Offyg.j p. 331-2. The words of the 
note " Let the condasion of thia little 
histoiy be written for me," appear to 
intimate that the "little history" was 
nnfinished when the note was written ţ 
and the inference is, that it never was 
completed. 

'Four 3fatters, Finn, it will be 
observed, calls himself " bishop," ndt 
bishop of Kildare, which is a subse- 
quent insertîon. This ia an evi- 



INTBODUCnON. 



XI 



pied that see sînce 1148, in which year his predecessor, 
ODubhin, died ; but he wes a biahop when the foregoing 
note was oomposed, and therefore the {)ortion of the book 
to which it relates must have been wiitten between the 
yeare jnst mentioned, if not before. 

Of Aedh Mac Crimhthainn, the Irish Annals have iin- 
fortnnatelj preserved no record ; but if he waa tutor to 
Eing Diarmait Mac Murchadha (who was bom in 1110), 
he must have lived veiy early în the twelfth century. 

It will be observed that the foregoing note is written 
in a strong spirit of partisanship, the writer asserting 
boldly the claim^ of his chiefbain, Diarmait, to be the chief 
King of Leth Mogha, that is, of Leinster and Munster, the 
southem half of Ireland ; and the same spirit appears in 
another place, foL 200 a., where a hand much more recent 



dence of antiqnity, the esUbluhroent 
of territorial diocesea being then re- 
cent, and the titloB derired from them 
not hATÎng as yet come fnlly into ase. 
This prelate aniated at the Synod of 
Kells in 1162, accordlng to Keatmg, 
wbo calls him (aa in some copiee) " son 
of Cianain," but other copies read 
'^ son of TighemauL" The Fonr Mas- 
ters caii him Finn Mac Grormain, and 
the Dublin Ann. înisfaR (A.D.1160) 
Mac Gonnain, without anj Christian 
name. Ware has ** Finan (MacTiar- 
cain) O'Gorman." This is, no donbt, 
an enor for l^n Mac CianaSn 0*Gor- 
main, and is an attempt to recon- 
cile the anthorlty of Keating with 
that of the Fonr Masten. Bat the 
Foor Masten caii him Mac Oormain, 
not O^Gormain; there is no înconsis- 
tcDcy in his being Mae Cianain, or son 
of Cianan, and also Mac Gormain. At 
that time Mac Oormain had come to 
be asaimied as a patronjrmic or f amily 
name, instead of the more correct form 
O'Gormain. See 0*DonoYan, Topo^, 
Pioemg, p. tiii, note (488). We have 
another instanoe of this in King Der- 



mod, who is called Mac Murchadha or 
Mac Murrogh, from his grandfather, 
althongh he was the son of Donn- 
chadh, and onght therefore to have 
been O^Morrogh. Topogr, Poem», p. 
xlvi, n. (898), and p. 1, n. (405). See 
his genealogy in O'Donovan's note, 
Fonr M., A.D. 1052, p. 861. OTU- 
herty, Ogjfgia, p. 438. 

1 Claim. The same claim is made in 
another place in this MS. (fol. 20 a) in 
an addition to a list of the kings of 
Leinster, in which Diarmait is thns 
spoken of — ^Dtaţifnaic mac "Don- 
choroa mac ÎTlnfichaDa .xttii. Ocii|» 
ba ţii Lechi THoga tiile ep-oe, ocny» 
XI\yo\ ep'oe. CC 6c i Peţvfio, lari 
TfibuaiT) on^ta ociiţ^ ochţiip, in 
.loBi®. anno aecaci|» ţmae. "Di- 
armait, son of Dnnchadh, son of Mnr- 
chadh [reigned] 46 [yeara]. And he 
was king of all Leth Mogha and also of 
Meath. He dled at Fems after the 
Tictory of Unction and Penanoe, in the 
6lBt year of his age.** This note is m a 
hand more recent than that of the MS., 
and was written probably in 1171, 
the year of King Diannait*8 death. 

62 



XII 



INTRODUCnON. 



thaD that of the MS., has written in the upper margin, 
the foUowing strong expression^ of grief : — 

" [O Maiy !] It ia a great deed that ia done in Eriiin this day, the kalends 
of Aagust Dennod, son of Donnchadh Mac Murchadha, King of Leinster and 
of the Danea,* waa baniahed by the men of Ireland oyer the aea eaatward. 
Uch! Uch! O Lord! what ahaU I da" 

The event thus so pathetically lamented took place in 
the year 1 1 66.^ We know not who it was that so recorded 
his despair ; but the note is evidence that this book, to 
which the name of " Book of Leinster" has been given, 
was written in the lifetime of Dermod Mac Murrogh, and 
was, most probably, his property, or that of some eminent 
personage amongst his foUowers or clansmen, before the 
English invasion. 

These circumstances are important, as proving beyond 
all reasonable doubt, that the oopy of the present work 
which this MS. once oontained,^ and of which only a single 
folio leaf remains, must have been written in the twelfth 
century, and the original must therefore have been still 
earlier. The author mentions no event later than the 
battle of Clontarf, A.D. 1014, and was probably a con- 
temporary and follower, as he certainly was a strong 
partizan, of King Brian Borumha, who fell in that battle. 
The MS. of which we are now treating was, therefore, 
written certainly before 1 1 66, and probably within the 
century after the death of the author of the work. 
Thia MS. The editor in the notes upon the first twenty-eight chap- 
denoted by ^jg qj- sectious of the text has distinjTuished the various 

the letter ° 



^Expreation. See the original Iriah in 
0*Cuny'a hKtwn^Append, No. Ixxxv. 
The firet worda, '* O Mary," are now 
ao obacnre in the MS. that they can 
only be coneîdered aa a conjectural 
reatoration anggeated by Mr. O'Curry. 

^Dane». Meaning the Danea of 
Dublin. 

3 Tear 1166. See Fonr Maştera. 
The foregoing note givea ua the addi- 
tional fact that Dermod fled on the lat 
of August 



* Contained. The Book of Leinster 
ia now very imperfect The Editor 
found eleven of the original folia of it 
at St laidore^a College, Rome. Thef>' 
were probably lent to Colgan, m ac- 
cordance with a practice which has 
proved injurioua to many of our Irish 
MSS. They contain aome of the worka 
of Aengus the Culdee, and also the 
Martyrology of Tallaght, wanting No- 
vember and the firet aixteen daya of 
December, by the loaa of a leaf. 



^-^.^■*fc» 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIII 



readings of this MS.* by the letter L. It exhibits severa! 
peculiarities of spelling, interesting to the philological 
student of the Celtic languages; but it has not been 
thought necessary to notice all these, as the whole of this 
valuable fragment has been preserved in the Appendix^. 

The seoond Manuscript employed in forming the text ii. The 
of the present work, is also a fragment, although ^^^^^^' 
more considerable one, and is likewise preserved in the the letter 
library of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. We have called this ^' 
the Dublin MS., and its readings are marked D. in the 
Botes. 

This copy was found about the year 1840, by the late its age. 
eminent scholar, Mr. O'Curry, bound up' in one of the 
Seabright MSS., formerly in the possession of the cele- 
brated antiquary, Edward Uwyd. Tliere is nothing 
except the appearance of the MS. and its handwriting to 
fix its age ; but judging from these criteria we cannot 
be far wrong in supposing it to have been written about 
the middle of the fourteenth century.* It is imperfect 
both at the beginning and at the end : wanting from the 
first to the fifth chapters inclusive, at the beginning, and 
from the middle* of chapter cxiii to the end of the work. 
There are ako some intervening defects, arising from a 



1 Tkii M8. The iniţial letter, B., 
p. 2, is an exact fac-simile of the iniţial 
wHh wMch thiB MS. begins. 

s AppauUx, Some f ew examplee of 
the pecnliaritiea alluded to are given, 
p. 228, note 8. They may, probably, 
be regarded as charactetistic of the 
old Lemster dialect of the Iriah lan- 

> Btnmd up, It occnrs in the MS. 
H. 2, 17, and waa described by Dr. 
0*Oonovan in hia nnpublished Cata- 
logue of the Iriah MSS. in the Libraiy 
of Trinity Ck>llege, Dubim, under the 
date ol Jan. 1840. But this fragment 
was undoubtedly first identified, as con- 



taining the long lost Danish wars, by 
Mr. O'Curry, who says {Leeturet, p. 
232), "Of this traci I had the good 
fortune, some sixteen years ago, to dis- 
cover an andent but much aoiled and 
imperfect copy in the Library of Trinity 
College.** The Lecture in which this 
statement occurs was deliyered June 
19, 1856. 

^Fourteenih oentury, Mr. 0*Curry 
says, "The ancient fragment must 
be nearly as old as the chief events 
towards the conclusion of the war." 
Ibid, This is oertainly a mistake. 

'Middle. See p. 199, line 9 from 
bottom. 



XIV 



INTBODUCTION. 



III. The 
Bnusdfl 
copy, dfr- 
notod by 
the letter 
B. 



loss of leaves in the MS. A list^ of ihese defecta u 
given below. 

The orthography of this MS. is far from correct It 
omits ahnoBt uniformly the edipeed letters» and thoee 
which are quiescent or dropped in ordinary pronundation : 
a circumstance which frequently oauaes considerable dif- 
ficulty. To enable the reader more eaaily to understand 
what is meant, some examples, selected almost at random, 
are given below in the note.^ They are evidence of an 
impure orthography, and of a period when the language 
was in its decline. 

The third MS. ia a paper copy preserved in the Bur- 
gundian Library, Bruasels, which has the advantage of 
being perfect. It is in the handwriting of the eminent 
Irish scholar, Friar Michael O'Clery, by whom it waa 
transcribed in the year 1636. This appeara by the foU 
lowing note at the end : — 

CCţ leatkqfi Conconnaâc 1 'Odlaig 
•DO -yxîqfiîob om bţiotaiţi bocc TTli- 
chel6 CleTiig om coip aŢ <x\i foqiio- 
bcro |x>, tîi cconueiîic na bţvotaţv 
1 mboile Tyige Paţvarindiii, a ml 
IT) atica na bliaona ţo 1628, ocii|* 
ţio ixjqvîotkro an coip |*o Xaiţ an 
nbfidtaiti cĂDna i cconuemc "Odin 
na n^ail) a mîf lloiienibeii na 
blriax^na ţo 1635. 



Ont of the book of Cuconnacht 
O'Daly, the poor frmr Bfichad O'Gleiy 
wrote the copy from which thie was 
written, in the convent of the frian in 
BaQe Tfghe Farannahi, in the month 
of March of this year 1628 ; and thie 
copy was written by the iame friar in 
the convent of Dun-na-nGall [Done- 
gal], in the month of November of this 
year 1686. 



^Li$L Partofchap. xxx.andxzxi. 
(see p. 86) is wanting in D., also from 
tiie second line of cIl iLxxiiL to the 
seTenth line of eh. zxxyii. (pp. dd-43). 
Agatn, from the last two lines of eh. 
!▼! (p. 86) toline6of eh. IxL (p. 92); 
from the middle of eh. IxviL (p. 111) to 
the middle of eh. Izix. (last line of p. 
115) ; eh. Ixx. (p. 117) to line 7 of eh. 
IzziL (p. 1 19) ; and from eh. Ixxyi. (p. 
188) to the middle of eh. Ixxx. (UÎâe 

1. P. ui> 
*Noie. The omissbn of p is veiy 

common, as in xxxuicln for T>pacicin ; 



TMxâitl for 'opadit; 90 for pe^; «ţr 
boit for pagbail; ofiâo for ipo\vtu ; 
boit for bfKnl or boţMXil; x>o |ies}va 
for TK) pfiesfia ; inia^|« for imţa- 
gnf ; ecocaţv forţeixroafv; acfom 
for pacfom ; p«5cnf^ ^^ W^'oanu 
The omission of "Oţ as in 'otoboiT) for 
i>ţi(yDbait> ; nicm for 'onion. The 
omisiion of t» aa ţ'en'oacai* for i^en- 
«Diitciii^; ooib for ootoiS; of b, as 
nitinav>itp fornibiina:oii|^; OŢagtro 
for baţXjqgo'D; and of m, as coni^ for 
camnig. SomeotheriafltanceBaremen* 
tioned in the notes. 



INTRODTTCTTON. 



XV 



From thîs we should, perhaps, infer that Michael 
O'Cleiy made two copies of the tract on the Danish 
Wara, one în March, 1628, in the Conveni of Baile-Tighe 
Farannain (now Multyfamham, in the coiinty of West- 
meath), "out of the Book of Cuconnacht O'Daly;" and 
another, probably taken from his former copy, in Novem- 
ber, 1635, when he was in the Convent of Donegalv This 
latter transcript ie the book now in the Brussels library, 
which has been nsed in forming the text of the present 
work, whenever the Dublin MS. was defective. Its various 
readings are distinguished in the notes by the letter B. 

The Book of Cuconnacht O'Daly is now unknown ; but Bookof Cu- 
îts owner or compiler was probably the same who is de- ^^^* 
scribed by the Four Masters, as a chief bard^ or historian, 
and a native or resident of Lackan, in Westmeath. He 
died, aocording to the same authorities, at Clonard, in 
Meath, A.D. 1139. Lackan^ is close to Multyfamham, 
and it was natural that the book, compiled by its great 
bard, should be preserved in the neighbouring Franciscan 
Abbey. From these facts it seems probable that the Book 
of Cuconnacht O'Daly was a " Bibliotheca/* or a collection 
of historical documents, transcribed in the early part of 
the twelfth century, and therefore of about the same date 



1 CkitfbanL GCri'ooUaTh 16 'Dan. 
F<mr M. at the year 1 139. For the si- 
tuationof Lackan, see Dr. 0*Donoyaii*8 
note, /bHT M. at A.D. 746, p. 849. 
The genealogy of Cnooimaght O'Daly 
will be f oiind in the " Historical Sketch 
of the familj of OT>aly," prefixed to 
Aefl^ns O'Daly's 7W&e« of IreUmd, 
edited by Dr. ODonoTan. DuhUn, 
(John O'Daly) 1852. 

> Lackan, In the glosa on the Felire 
ol Aengns, at June 28 (BrosMls oopy), 
the sitoatioB of Lackan ia thns de- 
acribed: LeacQin cnnfn an cemptiitl 
Cnmnme ^ cao& btionlce [for 
mOatle TÂ^e] ţa|iannain. " Lea- 
can ia the name of the chnreh of S. 



Cmimmin, near Boailte Farannain.*' 
The abbey of Mnltyfamham continued 
in the possession of Franciscan friars, 
not-withstanding the suppression, and 
in 1641 was the head quartezB of the 
Confederate Roman Catholics. See 
Cox, ffib. Angl vL, App. p. 41. This 
occasioned the dispersion of the friars ; 
bat within the present centory a 
convent has been re-established there, 
and buildings orected in the mins of the 
andent house. See Sir H. Piers's ac- 
connt of Westmeath, in Vallancesr'a 
CoSUcUmea, i., p. 68. The abbey of 
Donegal also continued in the posses- 
sion of the friars until the times of 
Cromwell, bitt is now in ntter ruin. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

as the Book of Leinster, of which we have aiready spoken. 
It foUows that the original of the Wars of the Danes and 
Irish, which was copied into these ooUections, must have 
had some celebrity before the year 1139, when 0*Daly 
died, and was therefore, probably, composed before the 
end of the preoeding century. 
HichEei Michael O'Cleiy, the trauscriber of the Bmssels MS., 

O'Ciery'8 ^^ ^ ^y brother of the order of Si Francis, and is oele- 
brated as having been the chief of the compilers of the 
great Chronicle known as the Annals of the Fonr Masters. 
His original Christian name^ was Tadhg, Teague or Teige, 
and he was commonly called Tadkg am taleihhe, or 
"Teige of the Mountain," before he took the name of 
Michael in religion. 
Liberties In his transcript of the Danish Wars, he has modemized 
^^®°.^^the spelling, and has probably introduced other more 
MS. from serious deviations from the text of O'Daly's MS. He 
Jî^^d. intended his copy for the use of his contemporaries, aud 
therefore, perhaps, deemed hunself at liberty to adopt the 
modem orthography and other grammatical peculiarities 
which would be to them most intelligible. This drcum- 
stance no doubt has greatly diminished the value of his 
manuscript, especially as we cannot be certain whether 
his departure from the ancient original was confined to 
such minor alterationa^ It was unfortimately the cus- 
tom of Irish scribes, to take consîderable liberties with 
the works they transcribed. They did not hesitate to 
insert poems and other additional matter, with a view 
to gratify their patrons or chieftains, and to flatter the 
vanity of their clan. It is to be feared, that for the same 
reason, they frequently omitted what might be disagree- 
able to their patrons, or scandalous to the Chm'ch ; thus 



1 Chrittian name. For an account 
of this distingoiflhed antiqnary, see 
0*Donoyaii*s Introdaction to the Fonr 
Maaten, and O'Cnny^ Lectnies. 

^AkeraHons, See p. S8, whera 



the words "for the good of the soida 
of the*foieignen who were IdSed in 
the battle:** which wordis taken in 
connezion with the context in which 
they stand, are certainly vezy obscure. 



0*Clery has substituted an " etc** for | But they occur in the Dublin MS. 



INTEODUCTION. XVU 

they were unconscioualy guilty of anachronisms and 
various mistakes, which have the effect of throwing diB- 
credit upon the works so transmitted to us, as disproving 
i^parenUy their daim to aatiquity. 

Evidence of such interpolations is abundantly afforded Evîdence 
by a comparison of the three MSS. employed in this i^^^^jn^^ 
edition of the Danish Wars. The ancient MS. in the tk« MSS. 
Book of Leinster, although a mere fragment, is of great 
importance in this point of view. It proves, for example, 
that the lists of the Kings' of Ireland and Munster in the 
Brussels MS. are an interpolation. The original work 
gave only the names of the King of Ireland and of the 
contemporary King of Munster, in whose times the 
pirate fleets first made their appearance. In the Bms- interpoU- 
sels MS. there is inserted after this, a fuU list of both ^"J^g. q. 
series of kings during the whole period of the Scandi- 
navian invasions. We find also passages given as mar- 
ginal notes in the older MS., which are received into the 
text, and sometimes, perhaps, misunderstood,* or inoor- 
rectly transcribed, in the later copy. But the O'Clery 
MS., notwithstanding these defects, is of great value. It is 
certainly an independent authority. It oontains four 
poems which are not in the Dublin copy. Three of these 
are in the form of a dialogue between Mathgamhain' 
and Brian, and the fourth is said to have been the oom- 
position of " Mathgamhain's blind bard.'' They are evi- 
dently interpolations made by some transcriber who was 
attached to Brian's party. The first (p. 63) is an apology 
for Brian's difficulties, when, as we are told, his foUowers 
were reduced to fifteen; and it oontains a gentle censure 
of Mathgamhain for being '' too quiescenf towards the 
foreigners. The seoond (p. 77) celebrates the victory of 
the Dai Cais over the foreigners, at Sulcoit. The third 
(p. 81) attributed to " the poet," who is not named, cele- 



1 Kmg$. Sm chaps. iL, iii, and Ap- 
pend. A, p. 22 1. 

* Mitmdenlood. See the note \ p. 
222. Ck>mpare also p. 8, note ^. 



> Maihgamkam, This name ia pro- 
nounced Mahik^ ot MahwM^ the accent 
bdng on the but syUable. Dal-Cau\B 
prononnced Dal-Ca^ 



XVIU 



INTRODUCTION. 



InteipoU^ 
tions in 



braies the defeat of the Danes of Limerick : and the hst 
(p. 97), by Mathgamhain's ** blind bard," is an elegy, not 
without spirit, on the treacherons murder of that chief- 
tain. 

On the other hand, the Dublin firajgment contains some 
tiiem D. paasages of considerable length, both in prose and verae, 
which are not in the Brussels copy. For example, the 
poetical address^ from GiUa-Comhgaill O'Slebhin, niging 
Aedh, or Hugh, O'Neill to join King Maelsechlainn against 
Brian ; the description^ of the march of Brian's army to 
Clontarf, with the arrival of the auxiliaries Fergal 
O'Bourke, and his followers ; the bombastic accoimt of 
the enemy's forces and their arms, as contrasted with 
Brian's troops'; and the combat of Dunlaing of the Liffey» 
who is said to have been defeated and beheaded by Fer- 
gal O'Bourke^ in this battle, although the Annals of 
Ulster and the Four Masters give a diJSSerent accoimt of 
his death. 

In noting the varions readings detected by a coUation 
of the MSS., the editor has taken no notice of mere dif- 
ferences of spelling except in some rare instances. Irish 
orthography, in the twelfth century, was so unsettled, and, 
indeed, is still so unsettled, that the same word is fire- 
quently written by the same scribe in different spellings 
on the same page. To note all such variations would 
have swollen the work to a size out of all proportion to 
the value of the information so coUected. 



Varioits 
readings. 



^Adire8$» See eh. IxxtiL p. 121. 
Giolla Comhgaill 0*Slebhin, or Ua 
Slebhene, died in 10dl,accordingto the 
Fonr HastexVţWho caii him " chief poet 
(ptiiTh-oUoiti) of the North of Ire- 
land.** The date of his miarion to 
0*Neil], heie aUuded to, was 1002 or 
1008. 

*Deâcnpium. Chap. Ixxxix., p.l55. 



' TroopB. Chap. xcriii., p. 171. 

* Fergal (/Eourke, Chap. d., p. 
177. It is worthj of note that B. 
(0*Clery'8 copy) omits ererythJng con- 
nected with Fergal and Us presenoe 
in the battle: neither is he mentioned 
by the Four Masters, who naturally 
foUowed theanthorityof 0*Clery, who 
was one of them. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIX 



The Author cmd Age of the Work. 

The Gogadh Oaedhil re OaUaîhh, or " Wars of the The work 
Gael with the GaiU/' that îs to say, of the Irish with the ^^^^ 
NoTsemen, has been frequently quoted by Keating. It Coigan,and 
was known also to Colgan ; and the Four Masters have MwtoSf 
oocasionally transferred its very words to their pages. It 
is mentioned also by Mac Curtm^ and O'Halloran,' who 
cite it as in their time an accessible authority of which the 
original was well known. 'But for many years all copies 
of it were supposed to have perished, until the discovery of 
the Dublin MS. by Mr. O'Cuny, in 1840. Soon after- 
wards it was ascertained that another copy was preserved 
at Brussels, together with some other Iidsh MSS. of great 
interest. The Editor accordingly went there in August, GoUatioa 
1848, and made a fiill collation of the Brussels copy, with BrnsmlB 
the Dublin MS., transcribing all that was necessary to MS. by the 
sapplythedeficiendes ofthelatter. Afberwards, through 
the influence of the Earl of Clarendon, then Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, he obtained from the Belgian Govern- 
ment a loan of this and some other MSS., and in 1853 
caused a complete copy of it to be made by Mr. O'Cuny Tnuucript 
for the Library of Trinîty College, Dublin, These trans- ^*,^'^^- 
cripts have b^n carefuUy collated in f orming the text of 
the present edition. 

The work has externai as well as internai evidence of Eridenceof 
antiqnity. Its author, as we have seen, was a con-"**^^*^' 
temporary and strong partizan of Eang Brian Borumha. 
It exhibits many traces of the political feelings engen- 
dered by the intestine dissensions of the Dai Cais, and 



^MaeCmim. '' Dîeconne iif Vin- 
dicatioa of the Antiqnity of Ireland :" 
Dnblin, i9, 1717, p. 171, 176, 181, et 
peasim. In p. 204, he laye, *'*' Coga 
GmU le Gaoidkmlmbk ie the only beet 



ftnthority for any thing reUtîng to the 
Danish ware in IreUmâ.** 

^aSattoroH. ''Hist of IraUnd," 
▼oLii,p.l5a io, Lond.l77a 



XX 



INTRODUCTION. 



Its anthor, 
saidto be 
Mm 



their contest for sovereignty with the Clann Colmain,^ in 
the tenth and eleventh centuries. Copies of it were pre- 
served in the historical collections made by eminent anti- 
qnaries in the early part of the twelfth centuiy. The 
author makes no use of the era Aniio Domini, but dates 
from the reigns of the Kings of Ireland and Munster ; 
sometimes also £rom local events^ in the provincial history 
of Ireland. 

Dr. CConor* asserts without hesitation that the author 
of this work was Mac Liag, whose death is recorded by 
the Four Masters, at the year 1015 (the true date being 
] 01 6), in these words : — 

'* Mac>Liag, Le., Maircheartach, son of Cucheartach, chief poet (ard-^Uanth) 
of Ireland at that time, died." 

In the Dublin Annals of Innisfallen, at A.D. 1016, the 
same event is thus recorded : — 

^' Mac-Liag, ie., Maircheartach beg, son of Mael-ceartach, chief poet (ard- 
oUamli) of Ireland, died in [the idand called] Inis-an-Gaill-doibh, in the 
Shannon.** 

No andent But the editor has not discovered any ancient authority 
Iot thH for attributing this work to Mac liag*. The Four Mas- 



1 Clmm Colmam, See Goneai. Table 
II., Append. B., p. 242. The kings of 
Ireland, Maelseachlainn I. and Mael- 
aeachlainn II., were the hereditary 
chieftains of the Clann Colmain, or 
descendants of Colman m6r, son of 
Diarmait, King of Ireland, A.D. 544, 
of the Southern H7 NeilL See pp. 181 
and 181. 

* Local ev en U , See eh. iv., p. 5 ; 
eh. ziy., p. 15; eh. xxiiL, p. 28; eh. 
xxTii, p. 29. O'Flaherty, Ogygia, 
Pref. p. [40], is of opinion that the 
ynlgar Christîan era was not uaed in 
Iieland ontil af ter t&e year 1020. 

•Dr. (XConor. In bis list of the 
ancient anthoritiee quoted or emplojed 
by the Four Masters in the compila- 
tion of their Annals, Dr. 0*Conor thus 
speaksof the present work : — "xlviii. 



Coccod» G^atf 2a G^ooidAa, BeUa Alieni- 
genarum cum Hibemis. Auctore Mac 
Liago Scriptore sscnlo xL Vide iv. 
Mag. ann. 1015.'* i2er. Hib. ScripU,, 
voL i. EpitL Nuncup.j p. IvL 

^ Mao-IÂag, The Four Maştera, 
immediately after the words above 
quoted, give the first and the last 
quatrains of verses composed by Mac- 
Liag. In the former of these he calls 
himself " Muircheartach beg, son of 
Mael-certaich;"and O'Flaherty, Og^, 
p. 884, tells us that he was of the 
family of O'Conchearta of Lig-gna- 
thaile, in Corann, a territory which 
included the barony of Gsleng, or 
Gallen, in the county of Mayo, tQge- 
ther with the barony of Lui^ne, now 
Leyney, and the present barony of 
Corann, in the county of Sligo. Mael- 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXI 



ters make no mention of its author. Mac Curtin and 

O'Halloran, who have quoted it by the Irish title it still 

bears, are silent as to the author's name. Even 0*Reilly,* 

in his list of Mac liag's works, omîts the Cogadh Oaedhil 

re Chdlaibh. Colgan had a copy of it, the same mostColgan 

probably which is now in the Brussels CoUection. He "eation^f 

the author. 



certaigh and Cnoertaigh Mem to have 

beai lued as synoiiTnioiu for the 

famîly name of the poet; and Mac 

Liag was, probably, not his Christian 

name, bot an appdlation given to dia- 

tingnish hun from the many others 

of the famOy who were named Muir- 

dieartach, or Moriartj. For the same 

reason he appears to have been called 

Mvircheartach beg, or the littU, His 

teibe name, Mael-certaich, signifies 

the devoted servant of, tonsored in 

hononr of Certach ; and Cn-certaich, 

the hound, or dog of, that is, the 

faithfnl servant of, Certach, who was, 

no doubt, one of the many saints of 

that name. There was a saint Mac 

LSag, descended from Colla Uais, King 

of Ireland in the fourth centuiy, 

(MartyroL of Dcnega^ 8 Feb.) ; and 

the Christian name Gilla-Mic-Liag, 

or servant of Mac Liag, was nsed 

in the eleventh century. The Fonr 

Maaters mention the death of Mac 

Coomara Ua Mic Liag, or grandson 

of Mac Liag, A.D. 1048; and the 

Annals of Ubter record the death of 

Cnmara mac mic Liag, or son of Mac 

Liag, whom they caii Ard clhxmh 

Ertmi^ or chief poet of Ireland, and 

who seems to have sacceeded his fa- 

ther, the bard of Brian Bommha, in 

that Office. Hence it appears that 

llac Mic Liag and OXiag had come 

to be nsed as somames to denote this 

particolar branch of the family. Be- 

sidei the Book of the Danish Wars, 

now published. Mac Liag is said to 



have written a Life of Brian Boramha, 
and a book of the Battles of Munster. 
They are qnoted by Mac Cnrtin as 
three distinct works, and as extant in 
his time ; that is to say, at the begin- 
ning of the last century. Dr. O'Conor 
referB to Mac Curtin for the existence 
of these books, and therefore was pro- 
bably not himself acqnainted with 
them. Ber, Hib. ScriptU^voVi. Proleg, 
part ii. Elenchu», p. 7. Probably the 
Book of Munster Battles may be the 
same as the lAaJbhar Oiris agu* anuala 
ar cogthaibh Offua ar cathtdbh Ereim, 
"The Book of Antiquity and Annals 
of the Wars and Battles of Ireland," 
which O'Reilly says he had in his pos- 
session, and which he teUs us, although 
it professes to treat of the " wars and 
battles of Ireland," is m reality con- 
fined to the battles of Mnnster. TVaiw. 
Ibemo-CeUic Soâetjf yp.lxjL, Itisnow 
in the Library of the Royal Irish 
Academy. The late James Hardi- 
man, Irish Minttrelty, voL ÎL, p. 861, 
sq., has published some extracte from 
this book in the original Irish, which 
prove, beyond a doubt, that the work 
must have been of a much later age 
than that of Mac Liag, or that if it was 
by him, the phraseology and language 
must have been greatly modemized by 
its transcribers. The specimene of it 
printed by Mr. Hardiman are in a 
dialect of Irish which cannot be older 
than the seventeenth centuiy. 

^(yiUaiy, Trans. Ibemo-Celtic So- 
ciety, p. Ixx. DtMin,, 1820. 



XXII 



INTRODUCTION. 



Kta!&ag 
doesnot 
namethft 
aathor. 



has gîven the foUowîng account^ of it, în which, however, 
he says nothing of its author : — 

" I have a full history written of these wan of Ireland, which in the Talgar 
tongae ia called Coffodh Gamdhel re GaUaXbhy Le., Wan of the Irish with the 
foraignen ; in which from A.D. 812, when (as Eginhard, or some other author of 
the same ige, in his Life of Charlemagne, says) * The fleet of the Northmen in- 
yaded Ireland, the island of the Scoţi ; and after a battle with the Soots, an innu- 
merable moititade of the Northmen was destroyed, and in an ignominioos flight 
retumed home.* Almost erery jear'afterwardB we read df fresh battles and 
conflicte of the Irish with the Danes and Northmen, unUl the year 1012 or 
1018 {rtad 1014], when, in a great hattk fought on the plaln of Clontarf, near 
Dublin, with yery great slanghter on both sides, the strength of each was so 
irreparably weakened, that neither people tuu sinoe been able, even to the present 
day, to recorer its original strength andpower. For there fell in tliat battle the 
principal chieftains and nobles both of the Irish and Northmen, with the far- 
famed King of Ireland himself, Brian Bommha, or Boromoens; who, sajra 
Marianos Scotos, on Good Friday, 9 KaL Maii, was slain, his hands and mind 
intent on prayer to God.** 

Eeatîng also, at the commenoement of his histoiy of 
the invasions of the Northmen, in the reign of Aedh Oir- 
nidhe, quotes* the Cogadh Oall re Oaedhiolaihh under 
that name» as his principal source of information, and 
tells ns that his narrative is only an abridgment of that 
work. He says nothing, however, of its author. Can it 
be believed that these eminent authorities could all have 
been ignorant of the fact that the work had been composed 



^AcoomU, "Extatapudme integra 
historia de his bellis Hibemice con- 
scripta, qns vulgari sermone Cogadh 
ffooidkel rt gaUmbkt Le. bella Hibemo- 
rom cam idienigenis, nnncupatnr ; in 
qna ab anno Christi 812, qno (inqnit 
Eginaidns, vel alins aathor ejasdem 
sscoU, hi vita Caroli magnl,) ClauU 
Nwrimamwrum Stbermam, Seotonm 
tfunloai, o^i^v^stia; ooummcso pralio cum 
SooHm^ inmmerabiîit wnuUitudo Nort- 
mamtonm exUnda ett, ei imjfUer fur- 
gUndo reveni mmt : singalis pane 
nnnlş logantor nova prslia et con- 
flictas HIbemorum, cam Danis et 
Normannis, nsqae ad annam Christi 
1012, vel 1018, quo ingenti pralio, în 



campo de Cbunt^Tarhh, juxta Dub-- 
liniam commisso, cum summa utri- 
usque partis clade, mutuas viies ita 
irreparabiliter debilltarunt, ut neutra 
gens, in hune usque diem, pristinam 
recuperaverint potentiam vel vires. 
Occubuemnt enim in eo praslio pr»- 
cipni et Hibemorum et Nortmannorom 
Principes et Proceres, cum ipso longd 
celebri Hibemii» Bege, Briano Bo- 
raimhe, sen Boromieo ; qui, inquit Ma- 
rianos Scotos ; ipto Paratceve Patchtt 
ferioy 9 Cakndae Maii, mambu» et 
mente in Deum imttnUie^ neoutw."* 
Actt SS., jp. 106, ooL 2, n. 8. 

• QntoUa, O'Connor's Transl., p. 418. 
O'HahonyV Transl., p. 49& 



INTRO0UCTION. 



XXIII 



by Mac liag, the " chief poet of Ireland," the bard of 
Eiog Brian himself, or, knowing thiS) could have con- 
oealed a circumstance so important to its authenticity ? 
And if Keating, the Four Masters, and Colgan were 
ignorant of its authorship in the seventeenth oentniy, 
how did Dr. O'Conor, in the nineteenth, aequire the infor- 
mation on the subject^ which enabled him to attribute it 
80 dogmatically to Mac Liag ? 

Mac liag died, as we have seen, in 1016, two yeaors Not impo»- 
only after his maşter, Brian. He had, therefore, it may ^^® ^^ 
be said, but a short time to compile this work, which is may have 
brought down to the year of the battle of Clontarf, in J^oî* 
which Brian felL But it was surely not impossible, that 
in two yeara a diligent and well read author ahould have 
composed such a histoiy. He might have had the earlier 
part of it written and lying by him long before. Neither 
is it a condusive argument that a stanza of poetry of 
which Mac liag is himself said to have been the author, 
is quoted^ in the book. This may have been one of the 
interpolations which we know were introduced into later 
transcript& Or the author himself may have quoted one 
of his own poems, naming himself, which is not unusual, 
in the third person. It may be fairly urged, however, that 
if the transcribers had believed Mac Liag to have been the 
author of the prose narrative, whether they had found the 
poetical quotation in the original MS. or not, they would 
scaroely have paased over the opportunity of saying so. 

There are one or two other apparent indications of a Appwent 
more recent date, which may be properly noticed here. *^^<»*»on» 
One of these is that the Danes are made to speak Emgliah. recent date. 
This would have been a natural mistake enough for an 
Irish author of a period subsequent to the twelfth cen- 
tury,who was not well versed in Teutonic languages. The 
English were generally, and indeed are stiU veiy com- 



^ Om the iubfecL Dr. CConor gives 
Bo aathority for his statement. His 
worda are quoted abore, p. zz, note 2, 



^Quoted, This gtanxa (four lmes)i8 
introduced by the words, '**of which 
Kac Liag said." See p. 95. 



XXIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



TheO'La* 

teansof 

ManBtar. 



monly called in Irelond by the same name of Ghiillf or 
foreigners, which was given to the Norsemen. But the 
mistake, however natural, could not have been committed 
before the English invasion, and therefore, if the words 
are really English, and were so written by the original 
author, they would be evidence against the early date of 
the work. But this is by no means certain. We are told 
(p. 175), that "Plait, son of the King of Lochlainn," 
having been challenged by Domhnall Mac Emhin, a 
Scottish ehieflain, to single combat, cried out at the head 
of the troops on the following moming, " Faras Domhnall," 
which the Irish historian tmndates into his own tongue. 
Căit ita Dorahnall, Where is Domhnall ? Faras, how- 
ever, may be an attempt to represent the pronimciation 
of the Danish Hvar er, although it certainly looks more 
like the English Where ia. In another place (p. 203), 
we read that when the Earl Brodar, after the battle, 
rushed into Brian's tent, one of his foUowers cried out, 
*' King, King." Brodar, seeing that Brian had been at 
prayers, answered, " No, No ; but prist, prist." These 
words are apparently English ; nevertheless the original 
Danish may have been translated into English, by 
modem transcribers. The portion of the narrative in 
which the words occur, exists only' in the Brussels MS. ; 
and it is not improbable that O'Cleiy, transcribing in 
the seventeenth century, and fiimiliar with the English 
language, may have written king for kânge, priat for 
preatr, and no for n^; or else that all this may be an in- 
terpolation. These considerations render it impossible to 
regard this argument as absolutely conclusive against the 
early date of the work. 

There is another difficulty. Brian's servant, or per- 
sonal attendant, who was with him during the battle 



1 Exittt oniy, That is to aay, the 
Bnuseb MS. is the oniy one which 
containB the portion of the namtive 
in which these seemingly English words 
now occnr. The extract from Mac 



Liag's Life of Brian, printed by Mr. 
Hardiman, Mimtrehyy iL p. 364, al- 
thoagh it gives the same acconnt of the 
death of Brian, sa^ nothing of these 
supposed Danish or English words. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXV 



(see p. 197), ia said to have been named Latean^ and it îs 
added, ^'from whom are [descended] the O'Lateans stîll 
in Munster." It is clear that the original author, if he 
had written when Latean, the ancestor of this family, was 
alive, could not possibly have thus spoken of his descend- 
ants ; but a clause of this kind is just the sort of inter- 
polation' that a scribe, living at a later period, when the 
fianily of C^Latean had mnltiplîed, would have naturally 
introduced, forgetting the anachronism of which he thereby 
made his author guilty. 

On the whole we may conclude that, although the work The author 
in its present form is modemized and interpolated, the ^^^ of' 
original of it was nevertheless undoubtedly ancient.* UngBriaiu 
There is no evidence to prove that its author was Mac 
Liag, the bard of the Dai Cais, in the court of Eing Brian 
Borumha. But its author was either himself an eye- 
witness of the battle of Clontarf, or else compiled his narra- 
ti ve firom the testimony of eye-witnesses. He was certaînly, 
as we have already observed, a partizan of king Brian. 

That the work was compiled firom contemporary Thewoik 
materials may be proved by curious incidental evidence. J^^. 
It is stated in the account^ given of the Battle of Clon- tempormiy 
tarf, that the full tide in Dublin Bay on the day of the *'*«'^"<*^ 
battle (23rd April, 1014), coincided with sunrise; and that 
the retuming tide at evening, aided considerably in the 
defeat of the enemy. 

It occurred to the Editor, on considerîng this passage, 
that a criterion might be derived firom it to test the truth 



1 fnterpoîoHon. The paienthesis, 
**from whom are the O^Lateans still 
m Mnnster,** ia not in the extract from 
the "Life of Brian,** printed bj Mr. 
Hardiman, TMii., p. 864. Thia adda 
Bome pFobabîIitj to the conjectnre that 
the parenthesis in qnestion ia an inter- 
polation. 

' Andent. In chap. xliL, p. 55, a 
poem by Coan O'Lochan, "the poet 
and chief sage (ottam) of Erinn and 
Alba,** aa he ifl there styled, is qnoted. 
This poet, according to the Irish An- 



nals, died in 1024, ten years after the 
Battle of Clontarf. He was chief poet 
or bard in the court of King Mael- 
seachlainn, or Malachy II. See Dr. 
0'DonoTan*s Introd. to the Book of 
Rights, p. zlii. »ţ. The fact, therefore, 
that some of his verses are qnoted is 
no objection to the antiquity of the 
present work; the verses maj have 
been composed many years before his 
death. 

8 Account See chap. cviL, p. 191 
wi/ro. 

C 



XXVI 



INTRODUCTION. 



of the narrative, and of the date assîgned by the Irish 

Annals' to the Battle of Clontarf. He therefore proposed 

to the Rev. Samuel Haughton, M.D., Fellow of Trinity Col- 

lege, and Professor of Geology in the University of Dublin, 

to solve for him this problem : — " What was the hour of 

high water, at the shore of Clontarf, in Dublin Bay, on the 

23rd of April, 1 01 4 ?" The Editor did not make known to 

Dr. Haughton the object he had in view in this question, 

and the coincidence of the result obtained with the ancient 

narrative, is therefore the more valuable and curious. 

CalcalAtion Dj.^ Haughton communicated the particulars of his cal- 

of high culation to the Royal Irish Acâdemy in May, 1861, in the 

^*f ** following words^ 1-7 

bD6 DftbUO 

of Clontarf. ** From twelve o'dock, noon, of the 28rd April, 1014, to the noon of the 12th 
Deoember, 1860, ailowing for the change of styie and leap jearB, there were 
809,228 real days. 

" The synodical period of the moon is 29*580588715 days, and new moon 
occnrred on the 12th December, 1860, at 47*6 minatee after noon. Multiply- 
îng the length of the synodlcal month by 10472 montha, we find 

29-580588715 X 10472 = 309244*825 days. 
From which, gnbtracting the nnmber of days from 28ni April, 1014, to 12th 
December, 1860, or 309,228 days, we find 

21*825 days, or 21* 7»» 48». 



1 Annab, The Annala of Ulster gire 
the date A.D. 1014, and thusdescribe 
the chionological criteria of the year : 
*'Kal. Jan. 6th feria, Luna 26 f that 
ia to say, the Ist of Jan. fell on Friday 
(or the Sondayletter was C) ; and the 
epaot, or age of the moon on the Ist of 
Jannaiy, was 26. The chronicle then 
adds, ** Hic est annns octavus cu-culi 
decemnovalis** [Le.,theOoldennumber 
is 8] ** et hic est cccoc et bcxzii, ab ad- 
▼entn sancti Patricii ad baptizandos 
ScotoB. peifgTVisoTVT^iaTiinit^fOciif 
rnincoifc i famţuro ifin btia-o- 
cnnri, quodnon auditnm est ab antiqois 
temporibns.** The Irish wordshayebeen 
entirely misunderstood by Dr. 0*Conor. 
^e correct transUtion of them is 
this: ''Thefeast of St. Gregory [12th 
Maich] fell after Shiovetide, andlittle 
Easter [the Ist Sunday after Easter] 
fell in Summer [le., after the Ist of 



May] in that year.** AU these criteria 
point out the year 1014, in which 
Easter fell on the latest day possible. 
Tiz., 25th April; therefore ShroTe 
Taesday, called by the Irish, init, 
(Welsh, ţfitjfi)^ i.e., iniiium jejnnii, was 
the 9th March, and " little £aster," or 
Low Snnday, the 2nd May ; the same 
late Easter had not happened before 
since A.D. 482. The dates in the An- 
nals of the Four Masters, at this period, 
are a year short, so that their 1018 
answers to A.D. 1014. Dr. Dasent, 
"Story of Bumt Njal" (Introd. voL L 
p. cxcv.), speaking of the date of this 
battle, States that it took place on 
"Good Friday, the 18th April, 1014 ;" 
but the 18th of April in that year waa 
Palm Snnday. The true day of the bat- 
Ue was Oood Friday, 23rd April, 1014. 
> Wordi. Proceedings, Boyal Irish 
Academy, voi. yii., p. 496. 



INTBOmţCTrON. XXVII 

" It foflowa from Uiia calcnlation that new moon occurred at 
April, . . 28* O* 47-6"— lOU, A.D. 

Miniu . . 21 7 48 



Or, at . .1* ie"» 69-6««»— April, 1014, A.D. 

t.c, tt 5 oVlock on the moming of the 2iid ApriL 
^'Thoefore foii moon ooctured at 

April, ... 1* 16»» 69-6»» 
Plus . . . 14 18 21-6 



16* 11»» 21-2» 
Thenfore the astrononuca], or tme full moon, occunred at 21 minnteB paat 
deren tt ni^t of the 16th April, 1014. 

" Calcolating by the establUhed mles, the calendar or eccieaiaatical full moon 
oecorred on the 18th April, 1014 (Snnday), which ironld therefore make Easter 
Day fdl on the 25th April, and make the 28rd April, Good Fridaj, agreeable 
to the traditiona of the Battle of Clontarf. 

" I sball now 8how that the calcnlation of the tidee makes it qnite certain that 
the date 1014 falia in with all the phyaical circnmstances related of the battle. 

" It appea» from the calcnlation that I hare given alreadj that 
The age of the moon at noon on the 23rd April, 1014, waa 21-292 daya, or 

21* 7^ nearly. 

" The tide was therefore a neap tide, and the moon in her third qnarter. 

'* From the Academy's obeervationa [on the tidea ronnd the coaat of Ireland], 

ît appears that on such a day of the moon'a age, at the spring equino3C, the tide 

tt Kingstown is full at 

51» 22" in the moming, 

from which it followt that the tide along the Clontarf thore, when not ob- 

stmcted by embankmenta and walla, could not have differed many minutet on 

the23id April, 1014, from 

51» 80* A.M ; 

the erming tide being full in at 

The truth of the naxrative (see p. 191), is thus most 
strikingly established. In the month of April, the stin 
rises at firom 5^ 3(r to 4»> 30"». The full tide in the mom- 
ing therefore coincided nearly with sunrise : a fact which 
holds a most important place in the history of the battle, 
and proves that our author, if not himself an eye-witness, 
must have derived his Information from those who were. 
"None otherB," as Dr. Haughton observes, "could have 
invented the fact that the battle begân at sunrise, and 
that the tide was then full in. The importance of the 
time of tide became evident at the dose of the day, when 
the retumed tide prevented the escape of the Danes from 
the Clontarf shore to the North bank of the liffey." 

c2 



XXVIII 



INTRODyCTION. 



Summary of the Contenta of the Work, 

The work "We may now proceed to ffive a more particular account 
two parts. of ^^^ contenta of the present work, wliich divides iteelf 
înto two parts. The first part ends with the chapter 
numbered' XL., and contains an account in chronological 
order, or what is meant to be so, of the arrival of the 
"fleets" of the Norsemen in different parts of Ireland, 
espedally the southem or Munster district. The second 
part, from chap. XLI. to the end, is devoted to the history 
of the Dai Cais, or Munster Chiefbains, and particularly 
to the achievements of their great hero, Brian, his usurpa- 
tion of the throne of Ixeland, for such it was, and his 
death in the celebrated Battle of Clontarf 

The story is told veiy much after the manner of the 
Seandinavian Sagas,^ with poems and fragments of poems 
introduced into the prose narrative. The style is inflated 



Resemblet 
the Sean- 
dinavian 
Saga. 



1 Numbered. The editor has taken 
the liberty of prefixing these nnmben 
to the paragraphfl or chapters of the 
work for the convenience of reference; 
thej are not, of course, in the MSS. 

* Soffcu. It may be qnestioned 
whether the Saga Uteratore waa not 
an imitation, on the part of the North- 
men, of the historical tales and bardic 
poema which they had foond in Ire- 
land. Many sach productions, of nn- 
donbted antiqnity, are still extant in 
the Irish langoage. In the Book of 
Leinster, a MS. written, as we have 
seen, bef ore the middle of the twelfth 
oentnry, there ia a cnrions list of Ro- 
mantic talea, which, as we infer from 
thoee of them that are still extant, 
were exactly similar to the Sagas 
of the Northmen. Mr. O'Cnrry has 
printed this interesting list, with a 
translation (I.ectiiru, Append. No. 1, 
Ixxxix, p. 684). They amonnt in all 
to 187; and mnst, of conrse, be all of 
greater antiquity than thia catalogae 
of them written in the twelfth cen- 



tury. We cannot be wrong, theref ore, 
in assuming that such tales were po- 
pular with the Irish in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries at latest. But we 
leam from Snorro Sturleson (in the 
Preface to his Heknskrifigla) that 
*^The priest Are hinn Frode [or the 
Wise], son of Thorgila, son of GeUis, 
was the first man who wrote down 
in the Norse langnage nanatires of 
events both old and new." Are hinn 
Frode was bom in Iceland, in 1067, 
and lired to 1148, or as some thlnk 
1158. This was about the time when 
the above-mentioned list of Iiish 
historical tales was compîled, and 
Are hinn Frode only foUowed the 
practice which had before his time 
prevaOed In Ireland. The reader may 
see specimens of these tales in the 
'* Battle of Magh Rath," or Moira, 
published, with a translation and notes, 
by Dr. D*DonoTan, for the Irish Ar- 
clueoloţ^cal Society; the t* Battle of 
Ifagh Lena,** with the ^'Courtship of 
Momera,"edited by Mr.O^Curry ,for^e 



INTRODTTCTION. 



XXIX 



and bombastic, dealing largely in alliterative epithets and 
words of synonjonous meaning, for which it is abnost 
impossible to find equivalents in the English, or perhaps 
any other language.^ 

The Iove of alliteration appears in the very title of the The word 
TTork, Cogadh Oaedhil re OaMaibh, " The wars of the qJ^^' 
Gaedhel with the Gaill," or of the Irish with the Foreign- 
er& (roZZ was in all probability aname given to all stran- 
gers who spoke a foreign language, and were therefore at 
first confounded with the Galii,* or Gauls, the foreigners 
best known to the aboriginal Irish. Connac's Glossary* 
tells us that pillar stones were caUed Oally because they 
were first erected in Ireland by the Galii, or primitive 
inhabitants of France. After the twelfth century the 
name of Gali, as we have already observed, was given to 
the EngUsh; and the Highlanders of Scotland employ it 



Cehie Sociefy: and sereral othen în 
the pabllcations of the Ossianic So- 
ciety. It 18 evident that Ireland had 
the priority over the North in this 
spedes of popular literatare ; and it ia 
worthy of note that, both in the Norttf 
and in Ireland, the Saga or hiatoric 
Tale waa in the yemacnlar language 
of the people, not în the Latin of the 
monasteriea. They were read at public 
cntertainments, aa well as at the flre- 
side, and their popnlarity accoonta for 
the ranarkable Iove of historical lore, 
aa weQ aa the aîngolar knowledge of 
the l^gendary hiatory of their coontry, 
which was once characteristic of the 
Iriah peaaantrj. 

^Lamffmige, The Iriah bards and 
historiana, of the period to which thla 
woik* belongs, appear to have conai- 
dered it a great beanty in style to heap 
together synonymona worda beginning 
with the same letter. For examples 
of this alliteration, aee p. 56: darmnaid 
dem dMmg dirtctea ; gamanraidgertUa 
ffOMta jfoiaigh gtdmaiff gaitgbeoda ; 
eroda eonmerta comeabna ; lomut UUmT' 
ra€ka huMmura; hnxiha brigi bagi 
beodaekia; etc. 



> GoUi. See Colgan, 7V. TA., p. 
638, col. 2. 

* Glomny, See Stokes's ed., p. 28. 
C»sar, B. G., i. 1, seema to say that 
Galiua was the Roman pronunciation 
of CeUf which word, aa some think, is 
Gaedhel i bnt if so, it woold fqllow 
that the Irish nsed the Roman pro- 
nunciation of the name of their own 
nation, to denote foreigners. The de- 
rivation of Gali, from yizKcu, milk, 
given in Cormac's Gloseaiy, in conae- 
quence of the milk-white complexion 
of the Ganla, is of conrse absurd ; bnt 
it showB that the word waa understood 
to mean Gand^ and that it ia, in fact, 
Gafhu. The German ira2fcA,generally 
uaed to designate the Italiana, but ap- 
plied also to anything foreign, seems a 
cognate word. Giraldus Cambrenaia 
tells ns that the Anglo Saxona gave 
the name of Walea to the countiy of 
the Britona, firom a word in their own 
hmgnage, which signified /ore^ De- 
9cripL Cambrim, L c 7. GeU, or Gelgn, 
pi. GaUm^ in Welsh is "an enemy.** 
In Irish, GaiU is the nominative, and 
Gali the genitive, plnraL 



INTBODUCTION. 



in the same way to denote the Lowlanders. It was. 
evidently the generic name whicK included all strangeis; 
and the compound term Oall-gaedhelS waa given to the 
desoendants of mixed pai*ents, the Scandinavian Irish» 
who hadlapeedinto paganism, or, having been brought up 
.among the then heathen Norsemen, were never under 
Christian instraction. 
Ţwodia- In the commencement of the work the author dis- 
tîesof Sau- tinguishes between two distinct parties of Scandinavian 
^^^°*ti*^ invaders; the firet axe termed "azure Gentiles," but în 
the older MS. LochZanns; the second are caUed ** Danars,"' 
or Dane& No inference can be diawn firom the word 
goTTnglasaf translated "azure," applied to the former. It 
signifies UteraUy blue-green, a pale and greenish blue : 
glaucua. In the account afterwards given of the Battle 
of Clontar^ it is appUed to those of the Northmen who 
wore plate armour ;^ the term can scaroely be regarded 
as intended to be a characteristic of the azure GentUea 
as distinguished from the Banala, for it is omitted in 
the older MS., and is elsewhere applied^ to the Gaill or 



^ GaO-gaedheL O'Flaherty (C^., 
p. 360) thonght that these wore the 
inhabitmts of the smaUer BritÎBh u- 
Umdfl — OrkneyB, Hebrides, ICan, &c, 
which the Iriah called Inai-gaR, or 
" IfllanâB of the forelgners.** The Four 
Maştera abo(A.D. 1 154, p. 1118) speok 
of the GaU-Gaedhela of Aran, Cantire, 
MaOf and the coaste of Sootland. G<d- 
loway îs a corraption of CriM-gaedhela, 
And there is no donbt that this mixed 
race constituted a hirge proportion of 
the inhabitaats of these islands. Bat 
they were also in Ireland. The 
*^Fimgments of Annals,** pablished hj 
the Irish ArchsoL and Celtic Societj 
mention them as settled in Munster, 
and especially in the coontj of Tip- 
peruy, p. 138-41, and describe them 
as "a people who had renoonced their 
baptism, and they were nsually called 
Northmen (iVomaiMia^A), for they had 
the costoms of Northmen, and had 
been fostered by them; and although 



Ale original Northmen were bad to the 
chwches, these were far worae, in 
whatever part of Erinn they used to 
be.*' The fact of their apostacy, how- 
ever, is not notîoed by the Four Maş- 
tere, nor by the Annals of Ulster; al- 
thongh their existence is often recog- 
nised. See Four Mast and Ann. Uit, 
from 854 to 856. 

^DanoTM. Ch.i.,pk3. Obsenrehere 
the aUiteration, ** 6 genntibh, gorm- 
glasa, gosmara ;** ** 6 danaraibh doilge, 
dttrchroideacha;'* and see note ^ p. 2. 

> Armcw, See p. 208. 

^AppUtd» See p. 159, where we 
bave " Danar dana, durcraidecha ; 
anmargaich [for DomnarcaicA, the D 
omitted|3 anbli, allmarda; Gaill gozm- 
glasa, gentlidi" In both cases the 
epithet gvrmgUua^ "bine or acare," 
seems to have been selected, principally 
because its iniţial letter was^ ; and was 
thereforeequallyi^plicableto Ga»// and 
GetUiU, 



IKTRODUCTION. 



XXXI 



foreigners in general. But two distinct nations of the Gaill 
are here undoubtedly described They are elsewhere 
distinguished as white or fair-haired, and black or dark- 
haired foreigners, the Danes being the dark,^ and the Nor- 
wegians, induding, perhaps, Swedes, the white race. The 
term Lochlann seems used to denote the countiy of the 
white foreigners, although not perhaps with entire uni- 
formity.» The word is supposed to signify Lake-land,» a 
name which, if we understand the term Lake to include 
jwrds or arms of the sea/ would well describe the ooast of 
Norway. The two nations are represented as hostile to each 
otber, and battles^ between them not unfrequently took 
place. But it is to be regretted that our author does not 
always yery dearly distinguish between them in his 
descriptions of their devastations in Ireland. We cannot 
even be mire that the name DaTie is not sometimes given 
to the Norwegians. The word Dane in later times was 
certainly used to signify pirate, robber, a cruel and fero- 
cious barbarian, without distinction of nation. 

The date of the Scandinavian invasions is defined at the Date of 
beginning of the following work by the reigns of the^ţ^m" 
Kings of Ireland and Munster ; and an inteipolator adds invaiions. 
a complete list of all the kings® who were " in Cashel" and 
" in Tara," during the whole period from the first arrival 
of the strangers to the Battie of Clontarf The pirates, 
we are told, appeared when Airtri, son of Cathal, was 



1 Dark, Thos the Danes are caUed 
*^ Black Gentile Danan,** and the other 
raoe "White Gentiles," p. 19. Seealao 
p.27. 

^Umfcrmitp, The name Lochlannen 
ie naed as distinguished from Danes, in 
the MS. L. (App. A., p. 221), and see 
al0O Froffmentâ of Atmaii, p. 115, tq. 

^Lak^hmd, So Dr. O'firien sajrs 
in his dictionaiy : but he woold apply 
tfae word to the black as well as to the 
white foreîgnen. The Irish translator 
of Kennins seems to nse the word 
liochland to denote Germany. Iriâk 
^ermiusy p. 84. Mr. OKahony, in his 



translation of Keating, p. 4d8 m., en- 
deavours to prove Lochlannach to be 
eqoivalent to Laplander ; bnt his rea* 
sons, althongh ingenions, are not satia- 
factory. 

* Arm» of the mo. The word has 
freqnently this signification in li«buiid, 
e.^.. Loch Foyle, Loch Swilly, Belfaat 
Longh, Loch Caiman (Wezlord), Loch 
Lnrgan (Galway), &c — ^all anns of the 



^Battht, See p.27, and Fragmenta 
of Annals, p. 117. 

* Theiringg, See p. 8-5, and note >, 
p. 4. 



XXXII 



TNTRODUCnON. 



King of Munster, and Aedh Oîmidhe, was King of 

Ireland. This latter sov ereign began his reign, according to 

OTlaherty's* chronology, in the year 797, and Airtri, of 

Munster, died at the beginning of the ninth centuiy. 

Testîmony The Annals of Ulster, however, mention the firet in- 

and Wdflh road of the Northmen at their year 794, which coincidea* 

-^*^°*^ with A.D. 795, or two yeara before the reign of Aedh 

Oimidhe. Their words are : — 



794. The buming of Rechni by 
GentUea, and ita shrines were broken 
and plundered. 



794. Lojxxro tlei|vainne 6 ţetiti- 
OCUţ» TH) loTnţia'D. 

The Four Maatera repeat the same statement under 
their year 790, which Dr. O'Donovan' corrects to 795. 
And 80 also the Welsh Chronide,* known by the name of 
Brut y Tywyaogion, or " Chronicle of the Chieftains," 
has a corresponding record, under the year 790, equiva 
lent also to AD. 795 : — 



Deg mlyned a pednar ngein a seith 
cant oed oet Crist pandenth y pagan- 
yeit gyntaf y Iwerdon. 



Ten yean with fotmcore and leven 
hondred was the age of Christ when 
the pagans firat went to Ireland. 



Three MSS. add, "ac y distrywyd Rechrenn," "and 
destroyed Rechrenn*." 



1 CfFlahfri^t Chronology^ Ogyg., p. 
438. Some remarks on the reigns of 
theeekings willbefoand in Appendiz B. 

s Coindda. The UUter Annab date 
from the era of the Incaniation) not 
from the Nativity, m> that their yean 
are all one lees than A.D. or the era 
of the Birth of onr Lord. 

* Vr. C^DoHOvan. Fonr Mast, toL 
I., p. 897. 

^O^rumek. AttributedtoCaradocof 
LJancanran, MomanaUaffitior, Briita»- 
ma, p. 848. (Reprint for the Maşter 
of the Rolla, by the Rev. J. WiUiams 
ab Ithel, p. 9). 

sjiedb^iM. This name haa been 
giTen to more than one of the smaller 
ialands near the ooast of Ireland. There 
was a Bechm in Dalriada, now 
Raghery or Rathlinn ialand, off the 



ooast of Antrim, which Colgan(7V. TA., 
p. 509, 610) thought was the Rechni 
here intended. He is followed in this 
by Archdall, MonatU Sib., p. 12. 
Dr. O'Conor was of the same opinion. 
Bat Dr. Reeves, Adamman., p. 164 n., 
gives aome reasons for thinking that 
Rechni of Bregia, now Lambay (i.e., 
Lamb-ey, or Lamb island), is intended. 
This ialand is sitnated on the coast of 
the connty of Dublin, in the antfent 
district of Magh Bregh or Bregia. 
Rechni is the correct name, as we leam 
from Adamnan (Vt<. Cohmb, i. 6), 
RechrasMi being the genitive and also 
the accnsatÎTe case. For an aooount of 
the Rechni of Dalriada, see Reeves 
(Ecdes. Antiq. of Down and Connor, p. 
288 sq.), who notices other islanda 
called Rechni, tft., {i. 292. 



INTRODUCTION. 



#•• 



±Kxm 



• Another form of the Brut y Tyvyyaogion, called the 
Owentian Chronicle,' of Caradoc of Llancarvan, haa ihe 
following record of the same event, at the same year, 
795:— 



T daeth y poganiaid daon gyntaf 
î ynys Piydain o wUd Denmarc, ac a 
wnaethant ddiygau mawr yn LIoegr, 
wedi hynny daethant i Forganirgf ac 
jno Uadd a Uosgi Ilawer, ond o*r di- 
wedd gof a*r Cynuy arnynt au gynu 
iV mor gwedi lladd Uawer iawn o ho- 
nynt, ac yna myned iV Wexddon lle 
y diffeithiaaaiit Rechreyn a Ueoeddd 

CRUU. 



The black pagans flrst came to the 
ialand of Britain from Denmark, and 
made great ravages in England; after- 
wards they entered GlamorgaU) and 
there kiUed and bumt mnch; but, 
at laat, the Cjrmry conqnered them, 
driving them into the sea, and kiUing 
Tery many of them ; from thence they 
went to Ireland and devastated Bech- 
reyn and other plăcea. 



Here, under the same date, we have the same fact, 
with the additional Information (not found in the other 
Welfih chronicles) that the party of '' black pagans/' who 
were the first of their nation to land in Ireland, had 
previously been defeated in Glamorgaoshire, and aiter 
their defeat there by the Cjonry, had sought the coasta 
of Ireland and devastated Bechru. 

We may, therefore, safely^ adopt the year 795, on the 



1 GwaUian ChnmicU. Pablished in 
Welah in the Myvyrian Archaologyy 
and recently with a traulation by Mr. 
Aneorin Owen, by the Cambrian Ar- 
cbieological Aaaociation. 

• Sa/el». It ia sUted (p. 67 infra,) 
that CorCfSon of Gas, son of Ailioll Olum, 
waa **the man who first routed the 
foreignefB.** If this were so, the Scan- 
dinavians must have been in Ireland 
at the end of the third or beginning 
of the fourth oentuiy. But this is an 
cmmeoas reading, as is shown in the 
note on the passage; the person in- 
tended was Corc, son of Anluan, who 
moat have lived about A.D. 800 (see 
Append. B^ GeneaL Table III., Na 
18> Dr. 0*Gonor was of opinion that 
the first appearance of the Norsemen 
in Ireland was AD. 747, in which 
year, aocording to bis miatranslation 
of a passage in the Annals of Ulster, 
Armaimr'h^ abbot of Muc-inia, was 



*^ drowned by the foreigners." In bis 
version of the Annals of Ulster, Rer. 
ffib. ScriptU iv., p. 92, he translates 
^'Dimersio Arascachi abbatis insubs 
porcorum ab alienigenis," and in his 
Ann. quat. Magistror. (Jb, iii., p. 268), 
he renders the same words '^Arasgachus 
abbas Mucinensis ab alienigenis demer- 
soA." Mr. Moore, Hist. of Ireland, 
Yol. IV., p. 2, improves npon this, and 
by a most Indicrous blunder, assum- 
ing the island spoken of to be the 
Rechru mentioned aboTe, translates 
Dr. O'Conor's Latin thns, *'The Annals 
of Ulster refer to AD. 747, the date 
of this attack npon Bechrann by the 
Danes, and record, as the first achieve- 
ment of these marauders, the drown- 
ing of the Abbot of Bechrann's pigs." 
But the Annals of Ulster at 747 make 
no mention of Rechrann or of Danes ; 
and instead of the abbot*s pigs, record 
the drowning of the abbot himself. 



XXXIV 



INTRODUCnON. 



uniied authority of the Irish and Welsh Annals, as ihe 
real date of the first appearance of Scandinavian pirates 
in the Irish seas. It is tnie that they had landed some 
years before^ in England, as we leam fix)m the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle; and our author makes their arrival in 
Ireland somewhat later. There is not, however, any in- 
eonsistency. The year 795 is given in the Annals as the 
yeax in which the foreigners plundered the island of 
Bechru, an event of which the present work makes no 
special mention. Our author evidently speaks of their 
landing on the mainland of Ireland, when he dates the 
beginning of their invasions fix)m the reigns of Aedh 
Oimidhe, King of Ireland, and of Airtri, Eing of Mnnster. 
They seem to have attacked at first the islands in wl^ch 
were Monasteries, possessing some wealth ; and when they 
found that the spoils of these establishments were obtained 



See Dr. 0'Doaovân*8 note on thU poa- 
sage, Foor liUsten, A.D. 743, p. 845. 
The real name of thiB uland (which is in 
Loch Derg) was Jfucinis Riagail or 
Meffoil, ** Hog island of Riagal," or St 
Ri^l^iu. Dr. O'Conor divided Riagail 
or Re-gailţ into two words, and not re- 
collecting that the Irish name for the 
foreigners was Gaill, with a double ^ 
noiffml^ he translated " ab alienigenis," 
aesoming riOf or re, to be a preposition. 
The paasage in the Annals of Ulster 
recordfl only the fact, that the abbot 
of Mnc-iniS'Rioffail was drowned, 
without any mention of Danes or fo- 
reigners. 

^ Teors ftţ/bre. SeetheAnglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, A.D. 787, where the arrival 
of three shipe on the coast of Dorset- 
shire is reoorded as the flrst landing of 
the Northmen in England. They are 
sald to have come from **H»retha- 
lande,** which Mr. Thorpe, in the 
Translation acoompanying the reprint 
of this Chronicle for the Maşter of the 
Bolls, says was in Norway. Sirotha, or 
IrruaUh^ is the Irish name for Norway. 



They are immediately afterwards called 
Danish ships, ** Scipu Daaniscra man- 
na.'* In 798 we have a record of the 
destmction of " God's church at Lin- 
disfame," by heathen men; and in 
the following year the devastation of 
Northumberland by the heathen, and 
the plunder of Ecgferth's monastery 
at Donemuth, now Wearmooth. Ai 
the same year the Annals of Ulster 
(793=794) have the record *< vastatio 
omnium insolanun Britannis» a gen- 
tilibus.*" In 795 they plunderod Hy, 
(now corropUy lona), according to the 
Bodleian Annals of Inisfallen, where 
the date given is 781 ; but as tlus is 
said to have been two years bef ore the 
death of Donchadh, King of Irelan^ 
the trae date must have been 795. In 
the same year, according to the same 
authority, the foreigners bnmed the 
islands of Inia Muiredhaigh (Inish- 
Muny, co. of Sligo,) and Inis-bofinn, 
(oo. of Mayo). But these ontrages 
ought, perhaps, to be dated 807, at 
which year the buming of Inish-Murry 
is recorded in the Aonals of Ulster. 



INTRODUCTION. 



with little or no resistanoe, they retumed again in greater 
force, and attacked the mainland. In 798 there wsa an 
invasion of the Me of Man by the ''Gentiles/' who bumed 
Inispatrick, now Hohn Peel, or Peel kland^ and plun- 
dered the countiy. On their retum they took " spoils 
of the sea," (which probably means the spoils of the 
Hebrides and other islanda) '' between Erinn and Alba/' 
These events are descnbed in the Armalfl of Ulster/ in 
the following words : — 



Combtii'Tno mnfe Poqfiaicc 6 
ţennci^ ocu|» boţvime na qfii6 "oo 
bfveit, ocoŢ |xrp.iTi "paâonna tk) 
bţviY'ecpo TKxnb, ocay* in'0|vewx 
infiq[ucTKxaboeneieiat\6xunfi ocaţ* 
OCUMnn. 



The bnmbig of InÎB-patrick by the 
Gentflee, and catUe plander of the 
covntiy was borne off, and the shiine 
of Dachonna waa broken by them, and 
the spoila of the aea [taken] by them 
alflo, between Erinn and Alba. 

Oor Annals make no mention of inroads upon the main- 
land of Ireland until the year 807, which was the tenth 
year of ELing Aedh Oimidhe, and is probably the dftte 
intended by our author m the oommencement of the 
Scandinavian wars. 

On the whole O'Flaherty's^ arrangement of these events OTlaher- 
may be accepted as most consistent with the records pre- *^j' ®^"^ 
served in the Irish Annals, and in the present work. The of these 
piiates b^an their devastations on the islands off the ^^^ 
coaste of Scotland and Ireland, in the year 795, which was 
the 25th year of Donnchadh, son of Domhnall, King of 
Ireland. Three years afterwards, A.D. 798, in the first 
year of Aedh Omidhe, they plundered Inis-patrick of Mau, 
and the Hebrides; in 802 they bumed I-Columcille, and 
again in 806 plundered the same island ; but, perhaps» not 
then without resistance, for sixty-eight of the monastic 
society of the island were slain.* The next year, 807, they 



^Atmalt of UUtear, At A.D. 797 
(=798> Foi*rl/.,A.D.793(=798). 
Dr. O'DonoYan undentood the Inis- 
patrick here meqtioned, of the ialand 
80 called, on the coast of Dublin. But 
the mention of the shrine of Dach- 
onna, who waa bishop of Man, proves 
that Peel, on the west of the isle of 



Man, fonnerly called Insnla Patridî, 
iB intended. See Colgan, iicft. A9. (ad 
18 Jan.), p. 59. Chronicle of Man, by 
P.A.Munch,p.28,arif<iaiua. 1860. 

• O'/ToAerty'â. Ogyg., p. 488. 

' Slain. Annalfl of Ulster, 801, 805. 
" Familia I» occiaa est a gentilibus, id 
est IxTÎii.** See alao Fonr Masten. 



ixxvi 



INTRODTTCTÎON. 



entered for the first time the mainland of the west and 
Bouth of Ireland, and having bumed the island of Inis- 
muiredhaigh, or Inishmurry, off the coast of Sligo, they 
advanced inland as fietr as Roscommon.^ In 812 and 813 
we find them in Connaght and Munster, and they suffer 
more than one defeat from the native chiefbains ; iinally 
in 815, aocording to the chronology of 0*Flaherty (or more 
probably, as we shall see, about 830), Turgesius, a Norwe- 
gian, established himself as sovereign of the foreigners, and 
made Armagh the capital of his kingdom. 
The pre- Th© present work, however, takes cognizance chiefly 
sent work of the depredations of the Korsemen in the southem 
chiefly of half of Ireland. Camas 6 Fothaidh Tire, was the first 
the South, place at which they landed. Immediately after, Inis 
Labhrainn' and Dair-inis were bnmed by them, and they 
were defeated with great slaughter by the Eoghanacht of 
Loch Lein, now the Lake of Killamey. There is a Dair- 
inis in the bay of Wexford, caUed Dair-inis Caemhain, 
which was plimdered by the Danes,' A.D. 820. But Dair- 
inis, or '' Oak Island," was a name given to more than one^ 



1 Roscommon. Ann. Uit., 800. 

s/f»M Labhrainn, This was an is- 
land probably at the mouth of the river 
andently called Labraitmej which, as 
Dr. 0*DonoYan conjecturi» (Fonr 
Blast, at A.BI. 8751 note) was the 
same as that now called Casan Ciar- 
raighe, or Cashen river, counţy of 
Keny. The Eoghanacht of Loch 
Lein were a tribe seated on the east 
of the Lake of Killamey, barony 
of Magnnihy, connty of Keny. 
O'Flaherty, Offjfff^ p. 828. See 
Four Masters, 807; Ann. Uit, 811, 
tme date 812. They had their name 
ftrom their ancestor Eoghan m6r, son 
of Oilioll Olom, but were the imme- 
diate descendants of Conall Corc (4th 
in descent from Eoghan m6r). See 
Append. B., Table IV., No. 6. Camas 
6 FotKaidh Tire was probably m the 
territoiy of Corca-Lnighe, S.W. of the 
preeent connty of Cork. See Mitcd- 



lany of Celtic Society, p. 43, 50^9; 
and Faur Jf., 818, 849, with Dr. 
0'Donovan*s notes. Comat signifiee a 
bendinariver. KeatingcallsitCaoimh 
Inis 6 bFothaidh, or, according to other 
copies, Caoimh Inis Uibh Rathaigh ; 
i.e., ** Fair, or beantifnl island, of 
OTothaidh," oi *'of Ui Rathaigh." 
If we adopt the latter reading this 
island woold seem to have been off 
the coast of Iveragh, andently Ui or 
Uibh Rathaigh, connty of Kexry. 
These yarious readings prove that the 
exact situation of the place has been 
for many years oncertain or unknown. 

^DaneM. See Fonr Mast, A.D. 819, 
and 0*DonoYan*s note. 

* Mare than ane. See Archdall's 
Monasticon, p. 695; Four Mast., A.D. 
742 ; and O'Donoyan, note <*. See 
also the Index of Places to the Mar- 
tyrology of Donegal, pnblished by the 
IrishArchKological and Celtic Society. ' 



INTRODUCnON, 



XXXVII 



island in various parts of Ireland ; and it is evident that 
tbe Dairinis bere mentioned must have been in or near 
the territoiy of the Eoghanacht of Loch Lein. None of 
these plăcea are now known with any certainty. They 
were probably ecclesiastical establisbments of no great 
wealtb or importance ; and having been totally demolisbed 
by the Scandinavian pirates on this occasion, their very 
names may have soon after perished. 

This first group of invasions, terminated with the First gnmp 
victory by the Eoghanacht of Loch Lein, which îb dated Jf p^^JS" 
in the year after the death of Diman^ of Aradh, and ten to 8Î2. 
years after the death of Airtri, Eing of Munster. The 
year A.D. 812 seems thus determined. 

The next series of inroads is said to have begun in the Seoond 
second year of Fedhlimidh, son of Crimhthann, King of g^^P^'^' 
Munster, or about 822. The places plundered by this 
party of marauders are all, with two exceptions,* still well 



^ IHman. The text says that he 
kUUd, or murdered. The Ann. 
ITlt (followed hj the Fonr Maştera) 
apeak of his death onlj; an event 
which 18 dated hy them 811, (for 810 
of the Ann. Uit and 806 of the Fonr 
Maştera coincide with A.D. 811). In 
the former anthoritj we read " Dim- 
man Aradh-Mnminensis anchorita vi- 
tam fdiciter finivit** Diman was, 
therefore, an anchorite in Aradh of 
Honster, now the barony of Aradh or 
Dnharra, connty of Tipperary. The 
death of Airtri, son of Cathal, is not 
dated in the Annals, but is ascertained 
here, as the death of Diman is known. 
A difference of reading, howeVer, 
canaes some difficulty. The text (p. 5) 
makes the year after Diman*8 death 
or 812 to be the tenth afUr (aţXTi ec, 
for lOjiTi ec) the death of AirtrL 
Therefore Airtii died 802. The MS. 
L. (p. 222) reads the tenth year hefore 
(fven ec) the death of Airtri. There- 
fore Airtii died 822. The discrepancy 
was probably cansed by the insertion 



of the reign of Tnathal, son of Airtri 
(tecundum quotdam, as the Book of 
Leinster qaalifies it), between bis 
father Cathal and Fedhlimidh, son of 
Crimhthann. The legitimacy of this 
reign was dispnted; and the tran- 
scribers of onr author wrote afterj or 
be/ore, according to their opinion on 
this question, giving the earlier date 
to the death of Ejng Airtri, in order 
to make room for the reign of bis son. 
But the later date is more probable, 
for we find Feidhlimidh in occnpation 
of the throne in 823 (Ann. UlL 822). 
Perhaps 802 may be the date of 
Tuathal's usurpation, and 822 the date 
of Airtri's death. 8ee Append. B. 

s Tvo exceptiotu. Inis Temhni and 
Rosmaelain are the exoeptions. Inis 
Temhni, or Inis Doimhli, called also 
Inis Uladh, *' because the Ulstermen 
inhabited it*" (Mart Donegal, 1 Dec, 
p. 825), is probably the island in the 
expansion of the Suir, near Waterf ord, 
now called ''LitUe Island." See Dr 
0'DonoYan*8 Four Masters, A.D. 960, 



XXXVIII 



INTKODUCTION. 



known, namely, Cork, Inis Temhni, Begere, orBegery Island 
in Wexford harbour, Cloyne, and Ros-maelain. The barren 
rock called Scelig Michil, or St. Michaers Rock, the abode 
of a solitary named Etgall or Edgall, was invaded by them, 
and as they probably found nothing else to take, they 
carried off its only inhabitant, who appears to have died 
soon after in captivity. The death of Etgall of the Scel- 
lig is dated by the Annals of Ulster 823 or 824. Eeat- 
ing says that the invaders on this occasion were White 
Lochlann, or Norwegiana Their devastations seem to 
have been made along the coast from Cork to Wexford 
Bay. It was probably on their way back that they 
entered Skellig-Michael* (now the Great Skellîg, off the 
coast of Kerry), and carried away the hermit, EtgalL _ 
Inva^on of The next invasion mentioned was in the north of Ire- 
of be^ land. Bangor, the celebrated monastery of St. Comhgall,* 
A.D. 823 was bnmed, the shrine of the saint broken, the bishop of 
the monastery slain, with its leamed men and clergy, and 
the Magh or plain laid waste : but according to another 
reading,' Magh-lSle, or Movilla» in the county of Down, 
was laid wasle. This act of sacrilege is dated '' four years 
after the death of Aedh, son of Niall, at Ath-da^Fert" 
This must be Aedh Oimidhe, son of Niall Frassach, King 



p. 6SI11. The MaTt3rroIogy of Donegal 
[4 Jolj, p. 187] describes the situa- 
âon of Inia Doimhle as " hetween Ui 
CeinnBelAigh [cotmty of Wexford] and 
the Deisi [Waterfoid].** This agrees 
veiy well with the situation of Little 
Islanâ, at the mouth of the Snir. Ros- 
maelain is called in L. Roaniallain, 
and by Keating Roamaolaidhe ; it is 
called also Ro^allain, and Roskel- 
lan, and is now perhaps Rostellan, a 
parish in the barony of Imokilly, 
county of Cork. 

^ SkeUig^ichael, or St Michaers 
Rock. It was common, from the fif th 
centnry, to dedicate snch rocks to St 
Michael the ArchangeL The word 
Skellig or Skcrr>' is of Scandinavian 



origîn. iSler îs** Scopolusmaris.** The 
text says that Etgall escaped, bat 
af terwards died of starvation toith them 
(p. 7). A possible explanation of this 
contradiction is suggested, p. 228, n. K 

^ St. ComhgalL He was the patron 
saint of Dalaradia; bom A.D. 517. 
The Fonr Mast, at 822, and Uit 823, 
attribute to him a prophecy in which 
he foretells the destmction of his 
shrine on this occasion. Fleming, 
CoUect, Sacra, has pnblished his life, 
p. 303. See also Reeves*s EccL AHHq,y 
p. 269. 

^Reaâing, See p. 6, n. «. **The 
bnming of Maghbile with its oratories 
by the Gentiles" b recorded by the 
Aim, VlL at 824. 



INTRODUCnON. 



XXXIX 



of Ireland, who died, axsoording io the Annals of Ulster,' 
at a place called Ath-da-ferta ["Vadum duarum virtu- 
tum," — the Ford of the two miracles], in Magh Conaille,* 
or ConaiUe Muirtheimhne, a district nearly co-extetiaive 
with the county of Louth. The fourth year afber the 
death of Aedh Oimidhe coincidea with A.D. 823 or 824. 

Our author then returns to Munster, and records an invarions 
invasion of Ui Ceinnaelaigh, the territory inhabited by ^^J^' 
the desoendants of Enna Cennselach, who was King of 
Leinster in the middle of the fourth century. This district 
ooincides nearly with the present dioceses of Leighlin and 
Fems, în the counties of Wexford and Carlow.' By this 
fleet were plnndered Tech Munnu (St. Munna's house), 
now Taghmon, in the county of Wexford ; Tech Moling 
(St. Moling^s house), now St. MuUins/ on the river 
Barrow, county of Carlow ; Inis Teoc, now Inistioge,* a 
small town on the river Nore, county of Kilkenny; and 
the whole district of Ossory, where they were met by a 
spirited resistance, and lost 170 men. They demolished 
Dundermuighe [Fort of the oak plain], n8w Dunderrow, 
or Dundarro, near Einsale ; Inis Eoghanain, now Inis- 
shannon, on the river Bandon ; Disert Tipraite, a place not 
now known ; and lismore. Cili Molaisi, or the Church 
of St. Molaise, now Eilmolash, five miles S.E. of Lismore ; 



^UUter. A.D.818(=819). Keat- 
mg,for"at Ath daFert,'' readsiCaCh 
da Foia, **iii the battle of Da Ferta." 
No Bscb iMittle or place is known ; and 
it is cnrions that Keating makes both 
Aedh Uariodnach and Aedh Oimidhe 
to bave been killed in the battle of 
Da Ferta ; (yMakoMft tnmslation, pp. 
468^ 498. This looks suspicious, and 
prores that there has been some mis- 
take or confnsion. 

* Magh ConailU, The words of the 
Amm. Uit are *'Mors Aedha mic Neill 
jtixta Vadnm duamm virtutum, .1. og 
CCth na peţicQi, in Campo Conaille." 
For the sitnation of Campus ConaiUe, 
Magh ConaiUe, or Plain of Conal1« 



see O^Donovan, Book of Rightt, pp. 
10, 11, n. 21, 166. 

* Carlow. See Book of BigkU, p. 
208,91. 

< St. MuUifu, St. Moling Lnachia 
erected a monastery there A.D. 632. 
ArchdaU, Motuut. p. 39. The Four 
Mast, at 888, speak of " the foreign- 
ers of Teach MoUng," from which it 
appears that a permanent settlement 
of "foreigners" had been made there 
before the end of the ninth centmy. 

^Imstioge. See Archdall, Momut. 
p. 359. This place is in Ossoiy, and 
was perhapfl the firat ecclesiastical es- 
tablifihment which was attacked in the 
district. 



n 



xl 



INTRODUCTION. 



Plnnder 
of the 
Chuiches 
in the 
interior. 



Cluain-ard Mobeoc,* and Lann Leri,* were bumed An»- 
other party of the pirates plimdered Cenn Slebhi [read 
Cill-Shleibhe], now Killevy, or Killslevy, near Newiy ; 
and another, or the same party, plimdered Sord of Colum- 
cille, now Swords, near Dublin. Daimhliag Cianain ["the 
stone church of St. Cianan"], now Duleek,' county of 
Meath ; Slane, în the same county ; Cell-uasaille* [" Church 
of St. Auxilius"], now Killossy, or Eillashee, near Naas, 
county of Baldare ; Glen-da-loch, in the county of Wicklow ; 
Cluain Uamha, now Cloyne, county of Cork ; and Mun- 
gairit, now Mungret, county of Limerick, were all plunr 
dered. 

From the wide range of these devastations, it is pro- 
bable that they were conmiitted by more than one body 
of invaders, landing simultaneously in different parts of 
Ireland. The majority of the places named are in Munster, 
but some are near Dublin, or in the counties of Meath, 
Eildare, Louth, and Wicklow. Our author gives no date 
to these depredations, and they are for the most part 
unnoticed* by «the Annals ; but they probably took place 



* Chudn~ard Mcheog^ or Mdbecog, 
The high Uwn of St. Mobeoc, or Mo- 
beooc, i.e., in the simpler form of the 
name St. Becan. See note ^o, p. 7. 
This place îs now Ejlpeaoon, county 
of Limerick. 

^Loam Lerif now Dunleer, in the 
county of Louth; Laam [church], 
having been changed to Dun [for- 
tress], at an eariy period. Dr. Reeves 
haa identified this place wîth the mo- 
dem Dunleer by irresiBtible evidence, 
from the Primatial Registen of Ar- 
magh, and oiher authorities. Archdall 
(^Montut^ p. 722), and O'Donoyan 
(Four Haat., A.D. 740 », and A.D. 
826), as well as Colgan, supposed it to 
.be the place now called Lynn, in 
Westmeath ; and for this there is the 
authority of the Scholia on the Felire 
of Aengus, at 18 June. But the Re> 



gisters of Primates Fleming [1415] 
and Octayian [1497] speak of the 
church of SS. Brethan and Frethan at 
Dunleer, in the diocese of Armagh, 
and these were manifestlv SS. Bao- 
than and Furadhran, the patron saints 
of Lann Leri [MarL Doneg., 18 JuneJ. 
Ljnm, in Westmeath, couid nerer have 
been in the diocese of Armagh. 

B Duieek. See Atm Uit., A.D. 831 ; 
Four M., 880; Archdall,lfon<u<., p. 683 

« Cell-nasaiae. The reading Orlla- 
taUe in the text (p. 7) is an evident 
mistake of the MS. 

• UfuioUced, The Atm, UU, record 
" an inroad upon Ossory by the 6en- 
tUes,** A.D. 824; and the Four Mast, 
notice a plundering of Lismore, 831 ; 
of Duieek, S30(mL 831); Glendaloch, 
833 [really 834] ; and Mungret, 834 
[835]. 



INTRODUCnON. 



xU 



between the years 824 and 835. It îs evident that the 
pirates had now found their way to the eccleHiastical estab- 
lishments at considerable distances from the sea coast in 
the interior of the country. The monasteries and churches 
werethe reputed depositories of wealth, the centres of civili- 
zation, and of resistanoe. They were, therefore, the great 
aim of the plimderers. On this occasion, as our author 
tells us, " the greater part of the churches of Erinn^" were 
attacked. 

Lnimnech, by which name was then known the great Occnpa- 
branch of the Shannon fix)m the present city of Luimnech, Ltel^Lk. 
or lâmerick,' to the sea, was next occupied by the 
pirates, who plundered the neighbouring country, namely, 
Corcobhaiscinn,^ Tradraighe/ and the lands^ inhabited 
by the Ui Conaill Gabhra, or descendants of Conall 
Cîabhra. This tribe, iinder the command of their chiefbain, 
Donnchadh (or Donadhach),® who was also head of the 
ni-Fidhghente,assisted byNiall,^ son of Cennfaeladh,gave 
battie to the foreigners, and defeated tbem at a place 
called Senati, Seannad, or Shanid,^ in the barony of 
Lower Connello^ connty of limerick. 



See chap. tu., pp. 8, 9. 

> lĂmerich, The city seems to haye 
been fovnded by the Danes. See 
O'Don0Tan*8 drcuU of Muirckertach 
MaeNeiU, line 180, n. 

s CbrcoMoiicMOT. A district repre- 
sented bj the baronies of Moyarta, 
Clondenlaw, and Ibrickan, connty of 
Clare. See Book of Rights, p. 48, i». 

« Tradraigke, A teiritoiy east of the 
fÎTer Fergns, in the same oonnty, whoee 
name snrviyes in that of the pariah and 
rnraldeaneryofTndiy. 0'Donovan*8 
Fonr KastezB, A.D. 1054, p. 867, n. 

< Lamdt, Now the baronies of 
Upper and Lower ConneDo, connty of 
lomerick. 

< Ikmadkadt, So he ia called by 
the Fonr Maet. (883 and 884) and by 
the Ann. UlL, 884 (=885), which 



was the year of his death. See Gen. 
Table, Y., No. 20, and Pedigree of 
O'Donovan, Fow Matt,^ pp. 2485-6. 

fNialL ChiefUin of Ui Cairbre 
Aebhda. Thia NiaU sncceeded Don- 
adhach as chief of Ui Fidhghenti in 
885, and died 846, Atm. UU,^ 846. 
The descent of all the tribes here men- 
tioned will be found in Gen. Table, Y., 
p. 249. 

^ Shamd, A def eat of the f oreignera 
by the Ui Conaill Gabhra, nnder the 
oommandof Donnchadh or Dnnadhach, 
is recorded by the Annals of Ulster, 
the Fonr Maştera, and the Chronicon 
Scotonim, nnder the date 834; bnt 
Senati or Shanid is not mentioned by 
them. The exact place ao called was 
probably a little south of the preaent 
town of Shanagolden, where, în Uter 

d 



xlii 



INTBODUCTION. 



logy. 



invaaioii " After thîs," ouT author says, came "a great royal 
Tni^tuu fl^t into the North of Ireland/' oommanded by Tuigeis, 
or, Turgesius» ''who assumed the sovereignty of the 
foi*eigners of Ireland/' and occupîed the whole of Leth 
Chuinn, or the northem half of Ireland. In addition to 
the party under the immediate command of Turgesius, 
three " fleetB,** probably in connexion with him, appeared 
simultaneously. One of these took possession of Lough 
Neagh, another of Louth, anchoring in what ia now the 
bay of Dundalk, and the third having, as it woiild seem, 
approached Ireland from the west, occupied Lough Bee.^ 
J^*>«>no- The chronology of this invasion is fixed by means of 
the particulara recorded. Armagh was plundered three 
times in the same montL This, the annalists all say, was 
the first plundering' of Armagh by the gentUes, and is 
assigned to the year 832. 

Afterwards, but it is not said immediately afberwards, 
Turgeis " usurped the abbacy of Armagh,'' and Forannan, 
the real abbot, or bishop, and chief comharba' of Patrick, 
was driven out ; he fled to Munster, carrying with him 
the shrine of St. Patrick, and continued in ezile four 
years, *^ whilst Turgeis was in Armagh, and in the 
sovereignty of the North of Ireland." We afberwards 
find^ that, when in Munster, and probably in the territoiy 
of the Martini^ of Munster, Forannan was taken prisoner 



Torgeâiu 

OBiiips 

Annîigh. 



timet, a castle was built by a branch 
of the Fitcgeralds of Desmond, whoM 
famflyciy was Shanida 6oo(8eann<rD 
a biiai'6)ţ or ^*Shaiiid bi yictory," Le., 
▼anquished, to celebrate the sdsare of 
the andent district by its Aiiglo-Nor- 
man proţirietOTS. This castle, them- 
fora, most probably occupied the site 
of the ancient SenatL 

1 Louffh iBas. An expansion of the 
Shannoii between Athlone and Lanes- 
borongh. 

^Pbmdermg. Jim.I7tt.,831(=A.D. 
882). The Four Masters make the 
same stalement at their year 880, 



that Armagh had neyer been plun- 
dered by strangerB before. 

* Ckirf Comkarba. As there wers 
coarbs or sucoessors of Patrick in other 
churehes, his succeesor at Armagh was 
distinguished as «'Chief C!oarb." 

« Fmd. See c. ziii., p. 15. 

^MarimL Seep.16. Thispeople 
were a tribe of the Belg» or Fîrbolgs, 
of whose territoiy, Emly, in the ca of 
Tipperary, was the capitaL B, qfLU- 
mortj fol. 172, buu (quoted by O^Cuny, 
Battle of Magh Lata, p. 78, n.). 
Their name is written also Uairtine 
and Muirtine. The plaoe Clnain Co- 



INTRODUCrrON. xliii 

by ihe Norsemen of Limeiick, who carried bim off to their 
ships, having broken tbe Bhrine of Patrick. In ihe same 
yearTuTgesiua was made captive by Maelseachlaiim, tben 
king of Meath, and drowned in Loch Uair, now Lough 
Owel, near MuUingar, oonnty of Westmeath. 

This event^ our anthor takes care to date aocurately. i>Ate of 
It oocurred, be says^ "tbe year before tbe drowning of 
Niall Cailie»" king of LreUind, and ''tbe second year before 
tbe deatb of Feidblimidb, son of Crimbthaun," king of 
Munster. Tbese criteria indicate^ tbe year A.D. 845. 

Tbe two facts bere made known to us — for wbicb tbe Dn^tion 
present work is tbe only autbority, — ^tbat tbe duration of dynwtv. 
Forannan's exile was four years only, and tbat be 
retumed to Armagb immediately upon tbe deatb of 
Tuigesius — enable us to ascertain tbe duration of tbis 
dynasty witb tolerable oertainty. Turgesius was recc^- 
nised by all tbe foreigners tben in Ireland as tbeir 
sovereign. Having fixed bis bead-quarters in tbe Nortb, 
be attacked Armagb, wbere it is evident tbat be must bave 
met witb some resistanoe. Tbe sacking of tbe town tbrice 
in one montb seems to prove tbat be did not obtain pos- 
aession of it until aiter a second and a tbird assault. And, 
as be probably lost no time in seeking to become manter 
of a place so important, we may fidrly infer tbat tbe date 
of tbis event is tbe date also, or very nearly so, of bis 
ajrival in tbe Nortb of Ireland For nine years afber- 
wards, be seems to bave remained content witb bis secular 
possession of tbe country, or unable to overtbrow tbe 
power of tbe ecdesiastical autboritiea It was not until 
tbe year 84<1 tbat be sucoeeded in banisbing tbe bisbop 
and clergy, and " usurped tbe abbacy," tbat is to 
say, ihe AÎll autbority and jurisdiction in Ai-magb and 
in tbe Nortb of Ireland From tbese considerations we 



malrdi, from which Foruman was 
csnftad crS to limaick, althoogh now 
foigotlflD, was probably ia thii terri- 
toffy. 



1 Tnth'cate. Niall Caille was drowned 
In the river Caille or Callen, A.D. 
846 ; and Feidhlimidh dled 847. See 
Aim, UU., 844, 846. 

rf2 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION. 



infer that the entîre duration of the tyranny of Turgesîus- 

caniiot have been more than about thirfceen* years, from 

831 or 832 to his death^ in 845. 

Disaennoiu Th© timesimmediately precedingthearrivalof Turgesîus 

chieftainB a^d his foilowers were remarkable for internai dissension 

în the 9th amongst the Irish chiefbains. An old feud had existed for 

more than a centnry between the north and south of 

Ireland, owing to the pretensîons of the kings of Cashel or 

Munster to be kings of all Ireland ; and Feidhlimîdh, son of 

Crimhthann, the Munster chieftain, at the period of which 

we speak, had prosecuted this claim with great pertinacîty. 

About A.D. 840, he seems to have obtained a temporary 

submission from Niall Caille, the sovereign of the O'Neill 



1 Thirtem. Not thirtyj as Giraldus 
CambrenaÎB makes it (^Topogr, Bib. 
DÎBt. iii., c. 42), whose snthority has 
been f oilowed by Keating (CMohony's 
transUtion, p. 505) and by O'flaherty 
(Ogyff'i p. 483). These aathon snp- 
pose TnigesioB to have been in Ireland 
seventeen yeara before the plundering 
of Armagh; and, therefore, to haye 
arrived in 815. The aathentic Irish 
annals make scarcely any mention of 
Targesias, iintil they record liis death. 
The Ckromcon Scotarum^ which has 
probably preserved part of the lost por- 
tion of Tighemach, fiist noticeshim at 
the year S45, where mention is made of 
his having erected a fort (/>im) at 
Loch Ree, from whence he plundered 
Connaught and Meath, and his beug 
drowned the same year in Loch Uair. 
The present work contains more full 
notices of him than any other Irish 
aathority. The thirty years assigned 
to him have, therefore, no other f oonda- 
tion than the testimony of Cambrensis; 
and O'Flaherty's date is only a conjec- 
ture, in order to reconcile that testi- 
mony with the Irish annals. 

In p. 9, the arriyal of Tuigesiusis said 
to haye been after the def eat of the 
foreigners by the Ui Conaill Gabhra, 



at Shanid. If so, the batUe of Shanid 
must have been before A.D. 832, whicb 
all the annals agree in g^ving as the 
date of the first plnnder of Annagh. 
Perhaps the battle mentioned in the 
annals, at 834, may have been a 
second battle under Donnchadh, chîef- 
tain of the Ui Conaill ; and it is worth 
noting that the daose of the presezk 
work in which Donnchadh is mentioned 
seems to have been an interpolation, as 
it is added in the margin, and not in 
the text of the older MS. See note, 
p. 8, and App. A., p. 224. 

Ussher makes Forannan to haye 
been ezpelled from Annagh the same 
year in which Turgesius was drowned, 
and giyes 848 as the date in his Index 
Ckron. Lanigan has adopted this mis- 
take, iii, p. 276, s;. But neither of 
these authors had accesa to the present 
work. 

> Deaih, The romantic story of his 
death, told by Cambrensis, {Ţopogr. 
Hib.y Dist. liL, cap. 40), is not found 
in any old Irish authority, althou^ 
Keating repeats it. See note ^ p. 
li. It is evidently an imitation of 
the story of Hengist's treacherona 
banquet to Yortigem, as recorded by 
Nennius, c. 47. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlv 



race, and to have been recognised as King of all Ireland.* 
Although he was himself an eodetdastic, abbot and bishop, 
aa well a« king of Cashel, he did not hesitate, in the prose- 
cution of his political designs, to plunder the most sacred 
places of the northem half of Ireland, and to put to the 
swoid their monks and deigy. In 826, and again in 833, he 
had spoiled the Termon landa or sanetnary of Clonmacnois ; 
on which last occasion he slew many of the religious, and 
bumed the Termon up to* the veiy doors of the principal 
chiurch. He had treated in the same way the celebrated 
Columban monasteiy of Durrow. In 836 he took the Ora- 
toiy of Eildare by foroe of arms from Forannan of Armagh, 
who seems to have fonnd refuge there with his clergy, 
and exacted &om him a forced submission.^ In 840, 
Armagh was bumed ** with its oratories and its eathe- 
dial ;" the Four Maştera say " by the foreigners," which 
may have been so, for it was in 84<1, as we have seen, 
that Turgesius ^'usurped the abbacy;" but the Annals 
of Ulster make no mention of the Norsemen, and seem 
to leave it doubtful^ whether this outrage was not com- 



1 AU Treland. See Dublin Ann. of 
Inisfalleii, at 840. Hence Giraldus 
CambrenÂs is not wrong when he calls 
Feidhliniidh King of Ireland, Topogr, 
Jlib. DisL, iii, c. 36, 44. The submia- 
BÎon of Niall, is reoorded by the Bodleian 
^jM-Zimn/alfe». A.D. 824,826 [but we 
mustaddlSyearetothesedates]. See 
0'Donovan*8 Book of Rigkts, Introd., 
pp. XT., xvL Dr. 0*Donovan doea not 
seem to have observed that the AnnalB 
of TTlster and the Foor Mast support 
tbe ttatement of the Ann. of Inisfallen. 
At 839 (which is 840) both say that 
Feîdhlimidh, after plundering Meath 
and Bregia, resied at Tara, comT)- 
TWiţnt) (Uit.) or coTi'oei'p'o, aeUled, 
coiuedU, AsTaxahadlongbeforeceased 
to be a Foyal residence, this can only 
mean that Feidhlimidh had cansed 
himielf to be lecognîsed as King of 
Tara, Lft, King of IreUnd. 



' Submitnon, It is probable that 
after this submiasion of Forannan and 
his clergy, Feidhlimidh went to Ar- 
magh, where, as we are told by an au- 
thority qnoted by Dr. O'Donovan {Book 
o/Righitj Introd., p. xvL, ».) — "he r^ 
mained a whole year, daring which he 
preached to the people every Sonday.'* 
In other words, he usurped the au- 
thority of the rightful bishop, and set 
an example which the Norsemen wera 
not slow to foUow. 

' DoubtfuL The words of the An- 
nals of Ulster at 889, are " The bnm- 
ing of Ard-machs with its oratories 
and stone chnrch [xMXiTntiacc]. Feidh- 
limidh, king of Monster, plondered 
Meath and Bregia, so that he rested 
at Tara." For the meaning of the 
word DamUace, see Petrie, Round 
Towers, Transact R. Irish Acad., voL 
p. 141, sq. The Chron. Scoto- 



xlvi 



INTBODUCrriON. 



mitted by Feidblimidh, who (as tbey teii us in the same 

sentence) plondered Meatb and Bregia, and took posses- 

sion of the royal seat of Tara, in otber words, of the throne 

of Ireland. Be this, bowever, as it may, Feidhlimidh, in 

846, plondered once more the Termon of ClonmacnoiB, 

and the next year' died of a disease which was supposed 

to have been miraculously inflicted, in pnnishment of bis 

sacrilege, by Saint Eieran of Clonmacnois himself. 

Contesta About the same period, that is to say, during the first 

S^, * half of the ninth century, there were also disputee and 

contests amongst the dergy tbemselves, at Armagh 

especially. The sucoession of abbots or bishope there, 

was interrupted by these feuds; the Annals difier aa to 

the order and time of each prelate's incumben(y. Eoghan 

Mainistrech,' and Airtri, son of Conchobhair, the imme- 

diate predeoessors of Forannan, were in continua! war- 

fare. Airtri was in aUiance with Feidhlimidh,' of Casbel, 

and had the support of Cumasgacb, son of Cathal, lord of 

the OirghiaUa^ who was bis half brother ; Eoghan, on the 



mm, althongh it mentioiui «t 840 the 
plander of Meath ondBregia byFeidh- 
limidh, and hîB '«resting at Tara,*" tokes 
no notice of the buming of Armagh. 

1 Next year. It will be borne in 
mind that the Annals of Ulster are 
always one ycar, and the Four M., 
in this place two years earlier than 
the true datee, as given above. The 
plander of Clonmacnois in 846, îs 
recorded by the Four M. at 844 ; bnt 
18 omitted by the Jfwi. UU, The 
sacrilegions life of this plnndering 
bishop-king did not hinder his being 
regaided as a saint after his death. 
His festival was obsenred on the 28th 
Aog. See M(xri, of Dtmegaly p. 129 ; 
Colgan, Triad, Thatm, p. 186, fi. 54. 
The Aftn. Uit, in reoording his death, 
caii him *' opUmos scriba et anchorita.** 
If the latter years of his life were spent 
in retirement and penitence, there must 



be some mistalce in the date assigned to 
his death : it is probable that he may 
haye retired from public life, stmdc 
by oonscientions scraples, and devoted 
his declining years to relîgion. If so, 
the date usually assigned to his death 
may have been really the date of his 
monastic prof ession. 

s Eoghan Mainulrtch, ^ Engenius 
de Monasterio,** i.e., of Monaster-boice. 
He had been ** Lector** or yerfa^JUiM 
of that monastery. For the story of 
the contests between him and his 
rival, see Fonr M., 826, Ann. Uit., 
826, 830. 

* /WdUMd». In 822 [828], we 
are told ** the law of Patrick was pro- 
molgated in Hnnster by Feidhlimidh, 
son of Crimhthann, and Airtri, son of 
Conoobha{r,bi8hop of Armagh.** Ann. 
Uit, tnd Fonr M., A.D. 822. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlvii 



oiher hand, appears to have been oountenanoed by Niall 
Caille, afterwards Eang of Ireland, whose confessor or 
" spiritual adviser^' he had been. In 826 or 827, Cumas* 
gach drove Eoghan fombly from Annagh, and put Airtri 
into his place. The same year Cumasgach was defeated 
and slain, at the battle of Leith-cam, by Niall Caille ; and 
Eoghan recovered his bishopric, in which he continued 
for nine years afterwards, upheld, as the Four Masters 
teii ns, ** by the power of Niall Caille," who, as they ob- 
serve, although he had not yet succeeded to the throne 
of Ireland, was " powerful in Ulster/' In 829 or 830 
the abbacy' of Armagh seems to have been usurped by 
Suibhne, son of Faimech,^ who died after being in posses- 
sion for two montha The following year Eoghan was 
plundered, and his cattle carried off or killed, by Concho- 
bhair, son of Donnehadh, king of Ireland, who appears 
at that time to have been in allianoe' with Feidhiimidh of 
CasheL Similar contentions existed between Foramum, 
the prelate whose place was usurped by Turgesius, and 
Biarmait, who is usually accounted his suocessor. Their 
contest must have lasted during their whole lives, for 
they both died in the same year/ 

It was not wonderful that these dissensions should Apparait 
havesuggestedto Turgesiusthe expulsionof thecontending ^{1^^^ 
parties, for the purpose of taking the power into his own Turgeniu. 
hands. He seems to have had in view a higher object 
than the mere plunder which influenced former depreda- 



^ Ahbaef. The abbot of Armmgh, in 
the phimaeology of the Anntb, fre- 
qoently gignifies the bisbop ; the two 
offices being, at thia time, aeualljrf al- 
though not alwaya, oombined, and the 
abbacy being regarded as the higher 
ia pointof jnriidiction. 

t/WnecA. '' Aliaa MacForumain," 
Ana. Uit., 839 ; Four M^ 829. 

* Attitmee. The same year Feidhii- 
midh W10 sided by Conchobhair in the 



plunder of Magh Biegh and Magh 
Liftf. Afm. UU,^ 8da Five years be- 
fore, they had held a conlerenoe at Birr, 
in which they appearto have madesome 
lort of alliance. Fonr Maat., 825. 

^ Same ytar, **Duo heredes Pa- 
tricii, Le., Forannan scriba et epiaoo- 
poe et anchorita ; et Diarmait, sapien- 
tiesimos omninm doctomm Enrope, 
quieveront.*' Ann. VU.^ 851, Four 
i/oefere, 851. 



xlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



tors of his nation. He aimed at the establishment of a 
regular govemment or monarchy over his oountiymon in 
Ireland, the foundation of a permanent oolony, and the 
subjugation or extermination of the native chieftains. 
For this pnrpose the foroes under his oommand, or in con- 
nexion with him, were skilfuUy posted on Loch Bee, 
at Limerick, Dundalk Bay, Carlingford, Lough Neagh, 
and Dublin. He appears also to have attempted the 
establishment of the naţional heathenism of his own 
oountry, in the place of the Christianity which he found 
in Ireland. This may be the significance of his usurpation 
of the *' abbacy" of Armagh. This may also be the mean- 
ing of the pretended prophecies/ quoted by our author, 
and attributed to the celebrated saints and prophets» 
Berchan, Columcille, Ciaran (or Eieran), and Bec-mac-De.^ 
These prophecies are, no doubt, palpable foigeries. But 
the fact that they were foi^ed indicates the popular 
belief in a special contest between the Christian institu- 
tions of the countiy and the heathenism of the new oomers. 
llie common topic of them all is a complaint of the out- 
rages committed by the invaders upon the churches and 
monasteries of Ireland. 
Tuigeau» TuTgesius was not satisfied with the fiill supremacy he 
the Bubja- ^^ acquired in the north of Ireland. He aimed at the 
gjtion of extension of his power by the cpnquest of Meath and Con- 
' naught, as a step to the subjugation of the whole country ; 
for this purpose he appears to have gone to Loch Bee,' to 
take the command in person of the "fleet/' which had been 
stationed there. From this central position he plundered, 
as our author tells us, the principal ecdesiastical establish- 
ments of Connaught and Meath, namely, Clonmacnois in 
Meath; Clonfert of St. Brendan, in Connaught; Lothra^ 
now Lorrha, a famous monasteiy founded by St. Ruadhan, 



1 PropkecUa. See chaps. ix., x., 
pp. S-18. 

* Bec-fnac-Dey or Mac Degadh. A 
edebrated prophet, whose name ocean 
in the Irish Calendan at Oct. 12. 



MartyroL of Donegal, p. 278. He 
is iaid to have flonriahed in the 6th 
centory. See O^Ctmy's LectnreBi p. 
899, sq. 
* Loch Ree, See chap. xi., p^ 18. 



^^ 



INTRODUCnON. 



xlix 



or Bodan, în the county of Tippemiy ; Tîr-da-glas,* now 
Terryglaâs, in the same county ; Inis-Celtra, an island on 
which were seven churches, and all the other churches of 
Loch Dearg in like manner. This seems to prove that 
his object was the suppression of the ecclesiastical as well 
as civil authorities of the countiy, and the destruction of 
the Chiistian church. With this view he placed his wife, 
Ota^ at Clomnacnois, at that time second only to Annagh 
in ecclesiastical inxportance, who gave her audiences, or, 
according to another reading,^ her oracular answers, £rom 
the high altar of the principal church of the monastery. 

In Connaught his arms appear to have had a full His «ua»». 
trimnph, for our Annals,^ at the year 835, which is pro- naught. 
bably A.D. 838, mention a most cruel oppression of all 
the districts of Connaught, and soon after this, speak of 
the battle recorded by our author,^ in which Maelduin, 
son of Muiighes, heir apparent of the throne of Connaught, 
was slain. This, however, seems to have been just before 
the usurpation of the abbacy of Armagh, and the war in 
Connaught was, therefore, most probably conducted by 
his officers, not by Turgesius in person. 

There had arrived almost annually during this period Reinforoe- 
great reinforcements to aid the troops of Turgesius, and ^^e at 
the number of the foreigners now in the island must have Dubiîiu 
been considerable. A fleet of three score and five ships 
landed at " Dubhlinn of Ath^liath,"« about 837 or 838, 



i Tir-da^hs. AâAmiiaii tranulateg 
tli0 nime '^Monasterium daonun ri- 
▼omm." Vit CobumbOf Lib. iL, c 86. 
£d. Beereai p. 163, i». The Identifi- 
cation of this place with the modem 
TenyglaM is dne to Dr. Beeres. 

* Readkig. SeenoteS, p. 13. The 
Scandinavian name of this ladj was 
probably Audr or Audt», She is not 
mentioned, so far as the editor knows, 
in any of the Sagas. 

s Amiah, " Vastatio cmdeUssimA 
« geatnîbiu omnium finiom Gonnach- 



torum."* Amu UU^ 335, Fam' M^ 
835. 

A Our aiahor» Chap. zi., p. 13. 
This battle is dated by the Fonr M., 
838, and by the Annals of Ulster, 837. 
The tme date was 840. 

iJhUMmno/Aih'aiath. «*Black- 
pool of the ford of hurdles,** th^ an* 
dent name of Dublin. This is proba- 
bly the same invasion which the Fonr 
M. and Ann. of Ulster mention at 833, 
althongh they speak of two fleets of 
Northmeo, oi 60 ships each, one 4m 



1 



INTRODUCTION. 



BatUein 
Seotland. 



and plundered Leinster and Magh Bregh, or Bregia, the 
plain to the norih of Dublin. The copy of this work in 
the book of Leinster^ adda, that after the plunder of 
Leinster and Bregia, the Dabriadans, headed apparently 
by their king, Eoghanan, son of Aengus» went north- 
wards from Dublin, and gave the Norsemen battle ; 
but, as it would seem, with doubtful sucoess, for 
Eoghanan himself was slain.' Whether this battle was 
fought in the Irish Dairiada (now the Route, county of 
Antrim), or in the Scottish Dairiada, now Argyle, is lefb 
uncertain by our author. But it is most probable that the 
Scotch district is intended. For, since the establishment 
of the independence' of the Scotch and Irish branches of 
the tribe, the Irish Annals employ the name Dairiada, 
almost uniformly, to signify the Scottish colony. Moreover, 
Eoghanan was Kîng of the Albanian Dairiada, and the 
Four Masters teii us that Ooffraddh,^ son of Fergus, chief 
of Oriei, " went over to Alba^ in 836 (A.D. 837 or 838), 
to strengthen the DaJriada^ at the request of Cinaedh (or 
Kenneth) MacAlpinn." This may have been on the occa- 
sion of the invasion here mentioned, when Eoghanan lost 
his life ; for the Annals of Ulster speak of the battle, at 



the Boyne ând the other on the rhrer 
Liffey; *'thete two fleets,** the>r add, 
** plundered and spoiled Magh Liphe 
and Magh Bregh." See Dr. 0*I>ono- 
▼an*B note, FowrMoMt,^ p. 454. The 
Four Masten, foUowing the Chronicon 
Scotonun, teii na that this was ** the 
Urat taking of Ath-diath bj the Gen- 
tile».** 

1 Bw}k of lAkuUr. See Append. 
A., p. 226. Magh Bngfa was the 
plabi extendlng from the sea into the 
co. of Meath, between the riven Liffey 
and the Boyne. Its aiident limita, 
Ml the aide of Meath, an not vecy 
acctuately knoini. 

•MSm, See p. 18, nule u. 

s /mi^Mmfaioe. Vis., at the Synod 



or oonyention of Dmmeheati, A.D. 
69a " From this time forward," says 
Dr. Reeves, *^ the Irish Annals make 
occasional mention of the lordsor chiefs 
of Dairiada, by whom they intend the 
Alhanian prinoes; while the Irish 
territoiy is oompantively mmoticed, 
inasmach as it was a men snb-terri« 
tory, of the kingdom of Ircland.** 
Eedt», Antiq. qflknm amd Comnor^ p. 
822. 

« Gojfraidk. This must be the 
Scandinavian name Gothofied, and ia 
a rery mrly instance of the adoption 
of Sttch names bj the Irish, faidicating 
the intennairiagee which afterwarda 
became rery usual between the two 
people, notwithstanding their hostility. 



INTRODCCTION. 



li 



the year 838 (=A.D. 830), as having been fought in 
Fortrenn,* or Pictland, a name sometimes used loosely to 
signify Scotland in general 

At this period onr auihor says the sea seemed to vomit Beînforce- 
forth floods of invaders, so that " there was not a point Munst^. 
of Ireland without a fleet." Nevertheless this statement 
probably refers, at least in the first instance, to Munster. 
For the plaoes said to have been plundered by the new- 
comers are Bri-Gobhann,^ in the county of Cork; CSll 
Ita and Cnil Emhni, by a fleet which landed in Ciarraighe 
Luachra» now Eerry' ; and the Martini^ of Munster, atribe 
seated near Emly, by the fleet of Limerick. On this occa- 
sion, as we have aheady^ seen, Forannan, the exiled bishop 
of Armagh, was made priekonerby the pirates of Limerick, 
and the shrine of Patrick was broken by them. 

This was in 845 ; and in the same year Tui^gesius was Tmgeriiu 
afrested in his victorious course, and drowned* in Loch ^~^^«*- 



^ Fartretm, *'Bellam re ^enntibh 
for fim Fortrann, in qno oecidenmt 
Eognnan mac Aengiua, et Aed mac 
Boanta; etaliipeDeinniunerabUeaoc- 
cidenint" Aim. UU, See Reeves' 
ilc&MNMM, p. 890. Kemieth mac 
Alpinn racceeded his father, A.D. 838, 
and vnited the Picta to his kingdom, 
A.D. 842, thna becoming king of Alba 
or Scotland. See Uasher, /fufeâs C&roi»., 
and O'Flaherty, Ogyg»y p. 481, where 
858 ia an error of the presa for 838. 

^Bn^GMmm. '*HU1 of theSmith,** 
now Brigown, an old Chorch, which 
bad fonnerly a ronnd tower, near 
Mitchelstown, co. of Cork. Cili Ite 
or Chmneh of St Ita, now KiUeedy, is 
in the 00. of Limerick. Cnil Knhni, 
Is imknown, boi was probably iu the 
same district. 

■JTenry. Called CSorra^Ae, from 
the descendantsof Ciar, son of Feigoa, 
king of Ulster, in the first oentory, and 
Lmuckra [of Lnchair], from the monn- 
tain Sliabh Lnachra, to distingnish it 



from other districts inhabited bj the 
Ciarraighe. 

A Martim, See abore note ff, p. 
zlU. 

'^Already. See p. 3dli.iii. 

Drovmed. The stoiy of his death, 
as told by Cambrensis, is refnted by 
Lynch, Cambremit Ettraui, toL iii., 
p. 287 (KeUy's edit) and was dis- 
beliered by Colgan, Act. SS., p. 609, 
n. 4. Bnt the legend was too tempt- 
ing to be omitted by Keating. It 
is briefly this: Tnrgesiaa being en- 
amonred of the danghter of King 
Uaelsechlainn, it was arranged that 
she shonld rsceive him at a banqnet, 
in an idand in Loch Usir, where she 
appeared, snrronnded by fifteen beard* 
less yonths in f emale attiie. They car- 
ried arms, howerer, conoealed nnder 
their garments; and whem Tnrgeshia, 
who had also fifteen attendanta, ad« 
vanoed to embrace them, they aod- 
denly drew their daggen and ilew 
him with his followars. 



Ui 



INTRODUCTION. 



IsTnrge. 
siiis to be 
f onnd in 
Scandina- 
vian hîs- 
toiy? 

Hiareal 



Uair, by MaeLsechlaiim, then king of Meath, who soon 
afterwaxds fiuoceeded to the throne of Ireland. 

Thifl may be the proper place for some observations on 
the attempts that have been made to identify the Tuige- 
sius of Ireland with some of the heroes of Scandinavian 
histoiy. 

The name Turgesius or Tuigeis, is evidently the Latin 
îtoiwîiaor ^^ Celtic form of Thorgils or Thorkilfl, which oocurs so 
Thorkiifl. frequently in the northem Sagas; and the celebrated 
historian Snorro Sturleson* certainly regarded them as 
the same, for he tells us that Thorgils, the son of Harold 
Harfagr, was sent by his father with his brother, Frode, 
on an expedition to Scotland, Ireland, and Bretland, or 
Britain. They were the first of the Northmen, he adds^ 
who took Dublin. Frode was poisoned there; and Thor- 
gils, afber a longer reign ** fell into a snare of the Irish, 
and waskilled" This proves that the historian intended, 
beyond all doubt, the Turgesius of Ireland. The allusion is 
evidently to the story of the youths, disguised as girls ; and 
it is remarkable that Qiraldus speaks of it, in the same 
language used by Snorro, as " a snare" laid for him, by 
which he lost his life.^ From this it seems almost oertain 
that Snorro had Cambrensis before him, and that he meant 
to identify his Thorgils with the Turgesius of Irish history. 
Not the Bon It is evident, however, that Turgesius could not have been 
the son of Harold Harfagr, and that Snorro has erred by 
placing him nearly a century too late.* The very men- 
tion of Dublin in Snorro's narrative is additional evidence 
of the anachronism ; for, according to the unanimous testi- 



Fair-hair. 



> Snom Sturleton, Heunakringla 
Saga, iii., eh. 87 (Laing'B tianaL, i, 
p.80i). 

^Life. Topogr. Hibernis, Diat., 
ilL, cap. 87. 

s Too laie, This conduaion has 
been draim from the same reasonixig, 
by P. A. Munch, Det Nortke FoOei 
Mitiorie (Ghriatiama, 1852), voi L, p. 
440; and by Mamer, Die Bekeknmg 



dei Norwegi9ekmstamme8 turn Ckriaim- 
thume (Mtinchen, 1855), Bând. i., p^ 
78. See alao Langebek L, p. 518, n. 
(a.) The reign of Harold Harfagr is 
osnally dated 861 to 981. If he had 
had a son old enongh to command an 
expedition to IreUnd in 831, he mnst 
have been oonsiderably more than 100 
years of age when he died, in 931. 



INTEODUCTTOK. 



Uu 



mony of the Irish Annals,* it was în 837 or 838 that 
Dublin was first taken by the foreîgners, who erected a for- 
tress there in 841 or 84?2. This was too soon for any son of 
Harold Harfagr; but it was within the period of the 
domination of Turgesius, who, aecording to every account, 
must have been slain, whilst Maelseachlain was still king 
of Meath, and, therefore, before the year 846, when that 
chiefbain became king of Ireland. 

It has been suggested* also that Turgesius may have been 
the king of Denmark and Norway, who is usually known 
by the name of Bagnar Lodbrok, or Hairybreeks. The 
bistory of this personage is fîill of fabulous and even con- 
iradictory adventures, insomuch that some have main- 
tained that there were two of the name, and others solve 
the difficulty by denying the existenoe of Bagnar Lod- 
brok altogether, except in the legends of romantic history. 
This latter hypothesis, however, is scarcely consistent 
with the place he holds in Scandinavian genealogy, and 
be ÎB not the only chiefbain of his age and nation whose 
story has been interwoven with fable. His date' agrees 
suffidently well with the chronology of the reign of Tur- 
gesius, and there are some other very curious coincidences. 
Saxo Grammaticus,^ for example, teUs us that Ragnar, 
with his sons, afker having spent a year in England, in- 



The 

oocnpation 
of Dublin. 



Snggestion 

that 

Tnigesîiis 

was the 

same as 

Ragnar 

Lodbrok. 



^AmaU. Chron. Scotorum, 837. 
Foor MastezB, 886. 

* StiggesUd. This snggestion is due 
to Charles Haliday, esq., of Dublin, 
who kindly commnnicated to the editor 
the materials of aleamed and valuable 
paperon the Irish Norsemen, which, it 
is hoped, may soon be pnblished. In 
this able paper Bir. Haliday supports 
the identity of Turgesius with Ragnar 
Lodbrok, by some Tery acute and in- 
genious aignments. Dr. 0*Donoyan 
(Fngments of Annals, p. 124, n.) has 
soggested the same identity, but the 
editor happens to know that he bor- 
Towed the opinion bom Mr. Haliday. 

*Dale. The limits of Ragnar*s 



reign are variously assigned. Torfsus 
dates the bţginning of his reign f rom 
809 to 815, and bis death from 841 to 
865. Ser, Râff. Dan,, p. 9S9. Hefais- 
feld makes him reign from 818 to 865. 
Lyschander, 812 to 841. Svaning, 
815 to 841. See Langebek, i2er. Z>an. 
ScriptoreBy I., p. 268. The Annales 
Islandid, have 812 to 845; pladng 
his death in this latter year. 

* Saxo Grammaiieu». Histor. Dan. 
lib. iz., p. 459, ed. MUller, Hc^fn., 
1889. ''Cumque ibidem [scil. at 
Norwich, after having yanquished 
Hella] annum victor explesset, oon- 
sequenter, exdtis in opem filiis, Hy1>er- 
niam petit, ocdsoque ejus rege Mei- 



Ragnar 

invaded 

Ireland 

aooording 

toSaxo. 



liv 



INTBODUCnON. 



DUBcaltieB 
in identi- 
fyjng him 
with 
Tnrgeâna. 



Northern 
tradition 
that 
Bagnar 
was slain 
in Ireland. 



vaded Ireland, "killed its king, Melbricus, and took 
Dublin, a cîty then full of barbarian wealth." Now, it 
is curious, that the Irish Annals at a date which answers 
to 831, mention an inroad of " Gentileâ*' upon the district 
of Louth, when Maelbrighte, king of the Conaille, and 
his brother, Cananann, were taken prisoners by them, 
and carried to their ship&^ It seems highly probable that 
the Melbricus of Saxo was the Maelbrighte of the Irish 
bistorians, and, if so, that Bagnar Lodbrok waA the 
leader of this party. The year 831 was, therefore, the date 
of his appearance in Ireland ; but 832, as we have seen, 
was the year in which Tuj^esius invaded the north of 
Ireland, and plundered Armagh three times in one month. 
Here then is a coincidence, which, as far as it goes, would 
seem to identify the tyrant, Turgesius, with Kagnar Lod- 
brok. It is true there are discrepancies in the narrative, 
which shake the certainty of this conclusion. There is no 
mention of Dublin in the Irish accounts, and the first oocu- 
pation of Dublin was some six or seven years later. Saxo 
says that Melbricus was killed, whereas the Annals speak 
only of his having been made prisoner. But he may 
have been made prisoner, and afberwards been put to death. 
There is, therefore, no real contradiction ; and so also Tur- 
gesius, although he did not take Dublin in 831, did oer- 
tainly oocupy it aa a gamson a few years aftemards. 

The serious difficulty, however, is, that Bagnar Lodbrok, 
according to Saxo's account, is said to have remained in 
Ireland for one year only ; nor waa he slain in Ireland, as 
Turgesius was, but retumed to his native land to prose- 
cute further conquests. These may indeed be aU fabulous 
variations of the history. A tradition that Lodbrok 
was slain in Ireland certainly prevailed in the north. It 



bricOf Dnflioam, barbaria opibns refer- 
tissimam obaedit, oppugnavit, accepit ; 
ibiqne annao ttativis habitia, mediter- 
ranemn f ratam pemavigana, ad Helles- 
ponticnm penetravit, &c.** 

i Skip§, See Ann. Uit, 880, Fonr 
M., 829. The Conaille ware the 



inhabitants of the district of Muir- 
theimhne, oompriaing that portion of 
the 00. of Louth between Oiudlgne 
(now the Cooley monntains) and the 
river Boyne. See the £ditor*8 Si. 
PtUriek, ApoMtU ofirelandj p. 406. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Iv 



is preserved in the chronicle of Eing Eric* ; and another 
Scandinavian authority asserts that he was put to death 
** by Hella, an Irish regolus,"^ in ihe year 854 or 864. 

Add to this that the text of the loelandic Annala gives 
the year 845 as the date of Ragnar's death, thas coinciding 
remarkably with the date assigned in Irish hiâtoiy to the 
death of Turgesiua It must be admitted, however, that 
the argument from thia coinddenoe is impaired by the 
various readings» in other MSS. of those Annals. 

It is not explained how Ragnar could have come to be 
known in Ireland under the name of Thorgils, unless we 
suppose him to have assumed that title as descriptive of 
his zeal for the god Thor, or possibly of his offîce, as high 
priest of Thor, when he usurped the '* abbacy" of Armagh, 
and endeavoured to convert the Christian capital of Ire- 
land into the head quarters of Scandinavian idolatry. 
But in the Sagas the name Thorgils seems to be in eveiy 
instance employed as a man's ordinary name ; we have no 
evidence of ijks having been used as a title of offîce, or to 
signify a high prîest. And Tuigesius may have equally 
represented the Scandinavian name Trygve, 



Date of 

Ragnarn 

death, ia 

the 

Icelandic 

Annals. 



Thechanf^e 
of name 
from 

Ragnar to 
ThorgUa 
not ex- 
plained. 



^ Kmff Erie. Apnd Langebek, 
JSer. DoH, Seriptt tom. I., p. 15S. 
'* Tandem in Hibernia occiaoa est, et 
illii ejns fere orones in diveisia locia 
sont oociai." The Lodbrokar Qnida 
(^Sircph. 16), repreeent» Ragnar aa 
hATing slain MamUin, '*a klng of 
Ireland," atVedraflord (Waterford). 
The hiatorical anthority of tfaJs poem 
ia not great; bat thia paaaage seeois 
evidenee of the ex&rtence of a tradition 
thMi Ragnar bad been in Ireland. 

^Beguku. See ComeL Bemtfori^ 
SerUâ rtgmm; ap. Langebek I., p. 8& 
'* Qni Regneros ab Hella Hybemomm 
ivgnlo captns, gravi sappUcio affidtnr, 
necatna in carcere anno 854, Foeeiiu 
l&abet 865." Thia feems a venion 
of the story, that Ragnar, being 
taken captÎTe by Ella, king of Deira, 



or Northomberland, was cast into a 
duigeon and stnng to death by vene- 
mous snakes. lakmâMkir Aimai,, p. 5. 
Tnmer'Biifi^iS!iutoM(2nd. edit.), i., 
228. Lappenberg (Thorpe*8 transl.), 
ii.,p.dO. Ella or Hella, may have been 
considered an Irish regnlna, becanse 
in the ninth and tenth oentnries the 
Scandinavian kings of Dablin were 
alao kingt of Northnmbria; and the 
$nakei may have been a bardic descrip- 
tion of the poi^narda of King Siael- 
sechlainn^s danghter and ber f oUo weia ; 
bnt there is anachronism as wtll as 
confusion in the story. 

• Variaui readmffâ, Other MSS. 
of the loelandic Annala, give the dates 
888, 860, and 885. JtImdMt Amahr, 
ed. WerlaQir(£r([|/i»., 1847), p. 7. 



Ivi 



INTRODUCnON. 



Th6 kîngs it îs certain, however, that the chieftains who carried 

umberUnd o^ the war in Noiihumberland from the middle of the 

and Dnbiin ninth centuiy, and who subsequently became maştere or 

defloeDd- '' kings" of Dublin, were sons^ and desoendants of Ragnar 

^ o' Lodbrok. The Anglo-Saxon Chronide menţiona Ingvar 

or Ivar, and Ubba, as the leadere of the heathen army 

which was quartered at Thetford, and there gained a 

victory over king Eadmund, A.D. 870, in which ''the 

king was slain, all that land subdued, and all the monas- 

teries which they came to destroyed." This seems to 

have been the same army^ which had settled in East 

Anglia in 866. The Ivar or Ingvar here mentioned, as we 

leam from the Icelandic Annals,' was Ivar,sumamed Bein- 

laus, or the Bone-less, son of Ragnar Lodbrok, by his third 

wife, Aslauga,* or Asloga, daughter of Sigurd Fofhisban. 

Ubba or Ubbo, was aJso a son of Lodbrok, but, as it would 

seem, illegitimate.^ His name does not oocur in the Irish 

Annals ; but Ivar is mentioned in the Annals of the Four 



1 Sons. See Lappenberg Hist of 
England (Thorpe^s transl.), ii., p. 80. 

* Army, See Anglo-Saxon Chron. 
at the date mentioned above. Ethei- 
weard, Chron. lib. iv., c. 2, A.D. 
866. 

* Icekmdîe Annais. Hafnis, 1847, 
p. 5. The story is thns told. When 
the news of Ragnar's havlng been pat 
to death reachedhis sons, who were then 
celebrating some pnblic gamee, War 
went to England. His brothers fol- 
lowed him soon after with gieat forcea, 
dew Ella, and Ivar became king of 
England, Leu, of Northombria. Saxo 
GrammaticaB has the same ttoiy, bnt 
he makea the sonfl of Ragnar to have 
been in Ireland when the news of their 
bther's death reached them; lib. iz., 
p. 461. 

* AiUtuga. Landnamabok, p. 385. 
Their sons were Signrd Ormi^i-auga 
(or Serpent-eye) ; Hnitaerk, K. of 
Reidgothia and Finland ; Biom lam- 
sida (Ironside); and Ivar Beinlaus (the 



boneleas). They had one daughter, 
RagnhiUda. 

' nUgitimaU, Saxo, tells the story 
of his birth, HisL Dan,, lib. ix., p. 451. 
There is a passage in Assers Gesta 
^Ifridi, or rather in some copies of it, 
at the year 878, wliich proves it to have 
been the popular belief that Hangar or 
Ivar, and Ubba were the sons of Bag- 
nar Lodbrok ; speaking of their banner 
called Beafan [the Baven] "illad 
vexillom qaod Beafan nominant," — he 
says, ^''dicunt enim qaod ties sorores 
Hungari et Habbn, fiii» videlioet 
Lodbroki, iUad vexillom texaeront, 
et totum paraveront illad ano meri> 
diano tempore ; dicunt etiam qaod in 
omnibello ubipnecederetidem signum^ 
si vîctoriam adepturi essent, appareret 
in medio signi quasi oorbus vivens 
volitans : sin vero vincendi in futuro 
fuissent, penderet directe nihil movens: 
et hoc saepe probatum est." Momh- 
menta Hiat, BrUann. (ed Fetrie), p. 
481, Cf. Angh-Sax. Chron,, A1D.S78. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ivii 



Masters as being in alliance with CearbhaU, or Carroll, 
king of Ossoiy, and the Gaillgaedhil, or apostate Irish, 
when they defeated the Cinei Fiachach,^ in 856 or 857, in 
the county of Tipperary. In the same year, according to 
the Annals of Ulster, Ivar and Amlaf, or Olaf, gained a 
victory over Caittil Find^ and the Gaillgaedhil in the 
tenitories of Munster. If these dates are correct, Ivar 
Beinlaus was in Ireland ten years before his first appear- 
ance in England; and it was from Ireland he conquered 
the kingdom of Northumbria. 

The Earl Onphile is mentioned' as a leader of the party Battle of 
of foreigners who were defeated, and Onphile killed, at Roscrea, 
Roscrea,^ the Irish having been assembled in great num- 
bers at the fair which was held there on the festival of 
Paul and Peter (29th June), the same year in which Tui'- 
gesius was drowned, A.D. 845. 

Our author then gives a list of a great number of inva- ^^w 

Invftsioiu. 



1 Cinei fîouAachy or Kinelea, the 
inhabitants of the present barony of 
Moyctthd, in Westmeath. 

*C€iUiilFmd, This seems to be the 
Sctndîiuiyîan name KetUl, with the 
Irish addîtion of Finn, white. He 
is prohably the same whose destnic» 
tion with that of his whole garrison 
18 mentioned, eh. xziii., p. 23, of the 
preaent work. See p. Ixxi, note *, 

^JfentionscL See chap. xv.y p. 15, 
and p. 227. The name of this chief> 
tain, which, in some MSS., ia written 
Oflfin, or Oilfinn (perhape the Scan- 
dinavian Halfdane), does not occur in 
the Iriah Annals, and the preeent work 
fleema the only ancient authority in 
which the battle of Roecrea is recorded. 

* Rotarea, Keating (O'Mahony's 
tnmsL, p. 646,) quotes a tiact by 
Fingm or Florence MacCarthy, as his 
aothority for the account he gives of 
this battle. This tract is a letter, the 
original of which is in the Library of 
Trin. ColL, Dttblin, £. 3, 1& It is in 



English, addressed to some noblemaa 
who is called "your Lordship,** but 
whose name does not appear. The 
passage referred to by Keating is as 
follows. — Speaking of the existence 
of markets and fairs as a proof of the 
ancient commerce of Ireland, MacCar- 
thy says, " Such as when in the times 
when the Danes invaded that coontry, 
Counte Olfyn ledd 3,000 or 4,000 
Danes from Limericke to ruffle or 
spoyle the fayre that was on St Peter 
and Paule*s day at Rosscrea in Elie** 
[i.e., Ely O'CarroU, King's co., and 
part of Tipperary.— see B, of Âiffhti, 
p. 73, fi.] : ^* the number of bnyers 
and sellers that were here came in 
armes against him, and overthrew and 
killed him and his forces." The letter 
is subscribed "your Lordship's most 
humble aud f aithfoll to be commanded 
FlortrUhu MtKortyeJ" It is not im- 
probable that the present work may 
have been MacCarthy's anthority for 
this notice of the battle of Roscrea. 

e 



1 ••• 

Ivui 



INTRODUCnON. 



sions to which he assigns no exact dateH. The first of 
these was by a fleet of sixty ships, which appeared at tfae 
mouth of the Boyne, and plimdered Bregia and Meath. 
The arrival of thia fleet îs dated by our Annals in the 
same year in which a fleet of sixty ships landed at 
Dublin/ and plundered the plains of Liffey and Bregia. 
But if oiir author intended the order of his narratiye to 
be chronological, the sixty ships on the Boyne must have 
arrived in or after the year 845. 

It seems scarcely necessary to do more than mention 

here the parts of the coast at which the several '' fleets" 

are said to have landed, with the places notioed by 

our author as having been plundered by each party of 

invaders. Tliey are as follow : — 

Fleets at A fleet settled on Loch Echach or Loch n-Echach [now 

N^S and ^"^e^ Neagh] and plundered all before them to Armagh. 

Dublin. Another on the Lifley, and plundered Magh Breagh, " both 

country and churches."' Then came " a very great fleet" 

(eh. xvii.) to the south of Athcliath, or Dublin, which 

plundered the greater part of Ireland. 

Monasteries Our author gives the names of the principal ecclesiaa- 

b/?hr^ tical establishments that suffered 6om this invasion, but 

fleet of he evidently does not eniunerate them in the order in 

which they were plundered. Hi Coluim-cille was probably 

attacked by the pirates on their way to Ireland. Inis- 

Muiredhaigh,' an island off the north coast of Sligo, waa 



^DubHn, See chap.. xii, and the 
note ^i p. xliz, tupra. 

fi Churcheâ, It ia possible tbat this 
may be a duplicate entiy of the ar> 
rival of the fleet mentioned, cha]^ xiL 
If not, we have three fleets spoken of 
as having landed at the same place, 
which plundered nearly the same dis- 
trict about the same time, viz.: 1. The 
fleet of sizty-five ships which landed 
at Dublin, and plundered Leinster and 
Bregia (chap xii.) 2. The fleet of sixty 
ships which landed at the Boyne and 
plundered Bregia and Meath (chap. 



xyL) : this fleet our author saya cama 
after the battle of Boscrea, Le., after 
845. 3. A third fleet, which settled on 
the Liffey (meaning, perhaps, the plain 
80 called, not the river), and plun- 
dered Bregia (chap. xvi.) 

* IwU-Mwredkaigh. ** Island of St. 
Muiredhach," first bishop of ^»^>*la, 
now called Inishmurray. — ArchdaUf 
McnoMt., p. 685. If the pirates had 
come from Hi Coluimkilleto Inishmur* 
ray, it is not likely that they wonld 
have gone ronnd all the way to DnUin 
without landing; poanbly, therefore, 



TNTRODUCTION. 



lix 



not in theîr course fi'om the Northern seas to Dublin, but 
it may have been plundered on theîr way home. It will 
be seen from the places' mentioned that this party of 
marauders had penetrated into the very heart of the 
country. 

We have next (cL xviîî.) a lîst of the several ecclesi- Monaateries 
astical cells and monasteries plundered by a fleet which b^^^^i^f 
came to the south of Ireland*. The pirates are saîd to from the 
have killed "Rudgaile, son of Trebtade, and Cormac, '^**^* 



the Ath aiath (Hvrâleford) wbere 
thej are eaid to have landed, was not 
JhMkmAthaCSaik, as it is called, chap. 
zii, p. 12, but Ath CHaih Medraighe, 
DOW Clariobridge, at the eastern end of 
the bty of Galway . The Eiskir, or ridge 
of gnvel hills which divided the north- 
ern from the southeni half of IreUmd, 
(" Leth Cnhm" from " Legh Mogha,") 
is terminated at its eastom extremîty 
by Ath Cliath Dublinne, and at ÎU 
western by Ath Cliath Medraighe 
The udent district, called Medraighe, 
waa identical in extent with the pre- 
KQt pariah of Ballynaconrty — (See 
Cmit of Muirchertachf p. 47, note, 
and OFlakerUfs West Cormaught hy 
Hardiman, p. 41). Howcvcr, wţen 
Ath Cliath is spoken of simply, with- 
oat tnjthing to distînguiah it from 
other places of the name, Dublin is 
gnenlly faitended. The present town 
of BallTmote, in the barony of Cor- 
nn, connty of Sligo, was anciently 
Ath CHaih an Chorann ; but as this is 
u inland town it could not have 
been the Ath Cliath here intended. 
Therewere many other places called 
Ath CHaih in Ireland.— (/Donoron't 
B]fFladmich,p. 171, ii., 262, n, 

' Theplaeet. These are Daimhmii, 
DOW Deyeniah island, in Loch Erne, 
coonty of Fennanagh; GUnialocK, in 
the eounty of Wicklow; aU Lântter^ 
u ftt as to JcAdd^Hir, (now Fresh- 



f ord, oounty of Kilkenny : see Petrie, 
Round Towers, p. 282, sq.); and to 
Achadh-bOf (now Aghaboe, Qaeen's 
eounty: Archdall, p. 588); and to 
Liath Moeaemhoc, (now Leigh, in the 
east of the parish of Two-mile Bor- 
ris, in the barony of Eli-Fogarty or 
Eliogarty, eounty of Tlpperary) ; and 
to Datre-fNor, which the Martyrol. of 
Donegal says was only a mile from 
Liath, (May 20, p. 186,) The Life 
of St. Mochaomhoc, (qaoted Four 
Mast. 1014, p. 781, fi.,) states that 
Daire-mor was **in regione Muminen- 
sium;*' and Dr. O^Donovan identifiesit 
with Kilculman in the present King*s 
eounty, which was indeed a part of 
the antient Munster, (J3. of Rights, p. 
79, ii). But Kilcolman must have been 
more than a mile from Liath. The 
othtf places mentioned are Clonfert- 
Molua, now Kyle, near Borris-in- 
Ossory , Queen*B eounty ; Rotcrt, now 
Boscrea, eounty of Tipperary; CUm- 
macnoig, King's eounty ; Saighir^ now 
Seirkierân, near Birr, King*s eounty ; 
and DwmhagK, now Durrow, the ce- 
lebrated abbey of St. Columkille, 
barony of Ballycowan, King's eounty. 
It will be observed that every one of 
these places was the site of a remark- 
able ecclesiastical establishment. 

s South ^f Treland, The copy of 
this work preserved in the Book of 
Leinster says, to Limerick. 

e2 



Ix 



INTRODUCTION. 



son of Selbach, an anchorite," of whom no mention bas 
been found elsewhere. ^ But they met with a very dedded 
opposition. They were " slaughtered" at Ard-Feradaigh 
by the Mumha Medhonach, or men of Middle Munster ; 
and they were opposed by " the south of Ireland," that 
is to say, by the Eoghanacht Ua nEochaidh,^ who were 
under the command of their chieftain, Donnchadh, son 
of Amhalgaidh, and of Clochna, (or as the Four Maş- 
tera caii him, Clothnia,) Lord of Corca-Laighe. The 
latter of these warriora, and probably both, were slain on 
thîs occasion, for the Fonr Masters record the deaths of 
both in the same year, 844 (really 845), without saying 
that they were killed in battle, although our author ex- 
pressly tells us that Gochna was slain by the foreigners, 
and the MS. L. adds, after the mention of Donnchadh, 
the parenthesis,* " it was at Cork he was killed." The 
battle of Ard Feradaigh, or Cam Feradaigh, as it is also 
called, a monntain in the south* of the county limerick, 
îs dated by the Four Masters 836 (=838). This, with 
the date they have given to the deaths of the chieftains 
who commanded the troops of South Munster, sufficiently 
fixes the chronology* of this invasion. It will be observed 



1 Eltewhere. The editor haa not 
sacceeded in didcovering elsewherc the 
legend that Cormac, son of Selbach, 
was thrice set free by an angel, and 
thrice bonnd ai:ain. See p. 19. 

8 Eoghanacht îm nEochaidh, The 
descendants of Eochaidh, son of Cas, 
son of Conall Corc — See Append. B, 
Table IV., No. 8, p. 248, and note », 
p. 18. Their territory was originally 
the barony of Cinel-mBece, now Kin- 
elmeaky, county of Cork, but they 
afterwards encroached on the neigh- 
bouring districts.— See Book of Rights, 
p. 256, «. Corca-Laighe, the country 
of the Ui Edirsceoil or O'Driscolls, 
was nearly coextensive with the pre- 
nent diocese of Ross. — See Miscell. of 
Celtic Soc., App, E^ p. 87. 



* PcarenthesU. See p. 19, n. ^. 

* South, In the territory of CUu 
Maif. /\wrJfa»r.Â.D. 822, p. 245,1». 
O'Donoyan suggests that it may have 
been the ancient name of Seefin, 
barony of Coshlea, county of Lime- 
rick, Four Mast, A.M. 3656. 

* Chronology, If, however, we give 
any weight, as marks of chronology, 
to the words of our author, **there 
came after thisy^ which he repeats at 
every record of a new mvasion, there 
is some discrepancy between his chron- 
ology and that of the Four Mast. : for 
this latter authority dates the slaughter 
of the pirates at Cam Feradaigh 836, 
=838. These must, therefore, have 
been in Ireland before the death of 
Turgesius, which took place in 845, 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixi 



that all the places attacked or plunJered are in the south,* 
and in Munster. 

Then follows (chap. xix.) a list of places plundered by Additional 
" tbe fleet of Atb-Cliath," or DiibHn. This was apparently Jjjj^^ 
the fleet mentioned in chapter xvii., wbicb our author says plundered 
landed at the south of Ath-cliath and plundered the greater ^^^ ^j 
part of Ireland. He had intennipted his list of their depre- Dublin, 
dations in the interior of Ireland to speak of the other 
fleet which had appeared în the south of Munster about 
the same time, and he now continues his account of the 
monasteries^ plundered by the former party. In the 
course of his narrative he particularly mentions the death 
of Aodh, son of Dubh-da-Crich, who was comarb or suc- 
cessor of Colum Mac Crimhthainn, that is, abbot of Tir- 
daglass,' and also successor of St. Fintan, in other words 
abbot also of Cluain Eidneach, or Clonenagh. This event 
is placed by the Annals of Ulster and by the Four 
Masters in the same year in which Turgesius was slain. 
The Ulster Annals agree with the statement of our author 
that the abbot Aodh was slain in the attack upon Dun- 
Mase ; but the Four Masters^ teii us that he was taken 



whereas our author makes them the 
third fleet of inyaden that anived 
afUr that event. Compare chaps. 
XT\^ xvii., xviii. 

^Soitth. Theae are SctUg Michil, 
the island of which we have already 
^ken (see p. xxxviii). Inis Flainn^ 
or more correctly Inis Faithlenn, now 
InirfaJlen, an ialaud in the Lower Lake 
of Kilamey; Ditert Domhaifij now 
nnknown; Cluain m^r, now Cloyne; 
Bot AiUtkri, now Boss, county of Cork ; 
and Cmn-mara (head of the sea), now 
Kenmare, county of Kerry. 

*Mona$ierie8. These are CiUdarn^ 
or Kildare.; Chtain Eidhnech, now 
Clonenagh, the celebrated monastery 
of St. Fintan, in the Queen*s county ; 
Cam-Eiigh^ now Rinnetty, King's 
county; OU Ached now KJlleigh, 
King's county ; Dan Matc^ [fortress of 



Mase, an ancient chieftain,] then 
most probably ecclesiastical, now the 
rock of Dunamase, ncar Maryborough, 
Queen*8 county — (see Dr. 0*Donovan'8 
note, Fow Maât.^ 848); CennanmiUi 
now Kells, county of Meath; MainUter 
Buite, the raonaster>' of St. Buite or 
Boetius, now Monaaterboice, county 
of Louth; Daimhliac Cianaifi, now 
Duleek (of St. Cianan) ; SordqfColvm 
Cîtte^ now Swords, near Dublin; and 
FinnghUua- Camnigh^ now Finglaa, near 
Dublin, where there was a famous 
monastery, founded by St. Cainnech, 
or Canice, of Achadhbo, and of Kil- 
kenny, in the 6th century. 

" TirâaglcM. See above, p. x, n *. 

^ Four Masters. The record of this 
event in the Annals of Ulster 18 this : 
^' Plunder of DunMasc by the Gentileo, 
where was slain Aedh, or Aodh, son of 



Ixiî 



INTRODUCTION. 



Arrival of 
the Dubh- 
gaill, or 
Danes. 



They take 
Dablin. 



Battle of 
Carling- 
ford. 



prîsoner and carried off to Munster, where " he suffered 
martyrdom for the sake of God." 

So far our author has chronicled the depredations of the 
White or azure Gentiles, that is to say the Norwegians, 
down to the end of the dynasty of Turgesius, for none of 
the invasions hitherto mentioned, so far as we can ascer- 
tain their actual dates, seem to have been much later than 
the death of that chieftain. He now proceeds (chap. xx.) 
to record the arrival of the Dubhgaill, Black Gentiles, 
Danars, or Danes, who contested possession of the country 
with the Finngall or White Gentiles. 

The Annals of Ulster and of the Four Masters teii us 
that thîs Danish fleet first came to Dublin in 852, where 
they plundered, after great slaughter, the fortress erected 
by the Finngall or Norwegians, and that there was soon 
aflerwards a great battle between the two parties at Lînn- 
Duachaill,* in which the Danes were victorious. The 
Norwegians or White foreigners then mustered a fleet of 
eight score ships and gave battle to the Danes at Snamh 



Dubb-da Crich, abbot of Tir-da-glass 
and of Cloain Eidhneach, and where 
were slainCeithemac, son of Cudinaisc, 
sub-abbot of Kildare, and many othen.** 
Arm. UU.y 444. The Four Masters 
(848) have the following entry: ** An 
army bj the foreigners of Ath Cliath 
at the Cloana an Dobhair," [the plains 
ronnd Killeigh, King's countj,] "and 
the buming of the fort of Cill-achaidh** 
[Dr. O^DonoTan has " the fold," an 
error of the press for forty of Cill- 
achaidh, or Killeigh,] " and Nuadhat, 
son of Seighen, was martyred by them. 
The pltmder of Diînmasc by the fo- 
reigners, where Aedh, son of Dubh- 
dacrich, abbot of Tir-da-glaa, and of 
Clnain-eidhnech, was taken prisoner ; 
and they carried him into Munster, 
where he su£Fered martyrdom for the 
sake of God; and Ceithemac, son of 
Cudinaisg, prior of CiUdara, with many 
others besides, was killed by them, 
during the same plunder." 



^Linn DuachaiU: not Magheralin, 
county of Down, as 0*Donovan once 
thought; Circuit of Irelandy note o» 
line 35. He af terwards conecta the 
error, Fra^ments of AnnaU, p. 120. 
Four M., 1045, p. 848, n. Linn-Doa- 
chaill was in the county of Louth, S.E. 
of Castle-BelUngham. It was on the 
banks of therirer called Casan Linn^, 
Mart. Doneg. (March 30, p. 91, comp* 
Colffan, Actt. SS., pp. 792, 793). This 
river is mentioned in the circuit of 
Ireland (loc, ciu) as a station south of 
Glen Righe, or the vale of Newry, and 
between it and Ath Gabhla on the 
Boyne. This does not describe the 
posltion of Magheralin, which ia con- 
siderably to the north, and inland. 
Part of the name Casan Linn^ is pre- 
served in the name Annagassan [Aon- 
ach g-Ccutdnf ** Fair of Casan,"] a vil- 
lage at the tidal opening of the june- 
tion of the rivers Glyde and Dee; a 
much more likely place for a Danish 



INTBODUCTION. 



Ixiii 



Aidhnech' or Carlingford. The contest lasted three days 
and three nighta The Danes gained the victory, and the 
Norwegians abandoned their shipa The Annals of ULster 
mention the names of the two Norwegian leaders in this 
conflict, Stăm, (or perhaps we should read Stain,) who 
escaped by flight, and Iercne who was beheaded.^ 

The "Fragmenta of Annals/** copied by Duald or Dudley Account of 
Usc Firbis, fiom a MS. belonging to GiUa-na-na^mh Max; *^^^'**" 
Egan, add the foUowing very curious particulars to this Mac Firbis 
narrative : — 

The Lochlanns or Norwegians (we are not told where 
they were at the time, perhaps at Dublin,) perceive the 
approach of a fleet. Being uncertain whether it was 
fiiendly or hostile, they send out a swift ship to ascertain 
the fact The strangers prove to be Danes; and the 
Norwegian ship is received with a shower of arrows firom 
the nearest vessel of the enemy. A battle at sea ensues 
between the two hostile ships, in which the Danes are 
victorious, and the crew of the Norwegian ship are all 



piratical flettlement than Magheralin. 
There is a townland called Limu, in 
the parish of Gemonstown, which nins 
down along the sea to Annagassan 
Bridge. The Casan Linn^ was pro- 
bttbly the river now called the Glyde, 
aad Linn-Diiachaill must have been- 
al the nnited mouth of the Glyde and 
Dee: For this inf ormation the editor 
îs indebted to Dr. Reeves. 

^Smamh Aidhneeh. This was the 
andent name of the present Carling- 
ford bay, which, however, Is taotology ; 
for the Scandinavian termination^^ionf 
aignifies '"baj." The Four M. have 
the simple name CairUnn frequently. 
Karimfcrdia occors in Giraldns Cam- 
brensis» Snamh in Irish topogniphical 
names is a swimming place, a ford, 
narrow enoogh to be crossed by swim- 
ming, but too deep to be passed on 
foot. Snamh Aighneac is the reading 
of the Brossels Fnigments of Annals 
pu 121 ; of the Four Mast; Ann. Uit; 
and L. ; but the apparent differences 



Eidhneach, Aidhneach, and Aignech 
are only yariations of spelling. See 
note ^, p. 19. The place is called 
Sttamh Ech in the Mart. of Donegal, 
(2nd April, p. 93), which signifies ** the 
horse swimming ford." Dr. Reeves 
has shown that the Danish settlement 
at Snamh-aighnech was near Caol- 
uisce or Narrow-water, at the head of 
Carlingford Lough. See his note on 
CiUanabha (Itinerary of Fatiier Cana.) 
UUter Journal <if ArchaoU, voL ii, 
p. 45. 

iBeheaded. '*Stam [recuf Stain] fu- 
gitiyus evasit et Iercne decollatus 
jacait" ^11». UlL A.D. 851=852. 
The Scandinarian names of these 
cbief taina were probably Stwij or 
SteinaTt and Eirekr, 

•Aimals. EditedbyDr.O^Donovan 
from a MS. (not, however, the auto- 
graph of MacFirbis,) in the Burgun- 
dian Library at Brusseb. (Printed 
for the Irish Archcological and Celtic 
Society— 1860.) 



Ixiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



slain. The Danes bring up their fleet to the shore, and 
in another battle kill thrice their own number, and deca- 
pitate every one of the slain. They take the ships of the 
Lochlanns with them to a port (probably Dublin, which 
the Annals represent as the scene of this first battle,) and 
cany off ** the women, the gold, and all the property of the 
Lochlanns with them." " And thus," says the historian, 
" the Lord took away from tliem [i.e. from the Norwegians] 
all the wealth which they had taken from the churches, 
and sonctuaries, and shrines of the saints of Erinn." 

The vanquished coUect great forces, and with seventy 
ships,* under their leaders Zain (Stain) and largna, make 
their appearance at Snamh Aîghnech or Carlingford, where 
the Danes had stationed their fleet. The Norwegians or 
White Qentiles* are victorious,^ ajid the Danes abandon 
their ships. The Danish general, Horm, harangues his 



1 Seomhf thips . The Fonr M., A. D. 
860 [862], and Ann. Uit. 851, say 
160. The chieftains here called Zain 
and lai^gna are evidently the same 
who are called Stain and'Iercne in the 
Annals of Ulster. 

' Victoriow. This seems at variance 
with the account given by the Ulster 
Annals and by the Fonr M. Bnt the 
discrepancy is perhaps only apparent 
For the Danes were nltimately victo- 
rions: and the only real difference is 
that the Annals have omitted the story 
of their having been at first defeated, 
and afterwards gaining the victory by 
the intercession of St. Patrick. This 
story was probably invented to blacken 
the Norwegians, whose depredattons 
were especially directed against the 
charches and religious houses of Ire- 
land, and who are, therefore, repre- 
sented as having been punished by an 
intervention of Heaven. The Danes 
may have been vanquished in the first 
engagement, or else were made to have 
been vanquished to gîve greater eclat 
to their sab^^equent victory against 
superior numbers, " by the tutelage of 
St. Patrick," although they had not at 



the time received Christianity. They 
are represented as still barbarons and 
brutal; supporting, on the bodies of 
the slain, the spits on which their meat 
was roasting. Nevertheless, the story 
of their vow to St Patrick is not, in 
itself, incredible. The doctrine of tute- 
lary saints, whose patronage was espe- 
cially granted to certain territfiries, 
was so closely allied to the pagan notion 
of tutelary gods, that it readily com- 
mended itself to the heathen, who knew 
the Christianity of that age only by 
this prominent featore of it ; and we 
can easily understand whyeccle<«iastic8, 
living at the time of the Reformation, 
would naturally suppress the story of 
theDaneshavingpurchased thepatron- 
age of St. Patrick, by sharing with 
lum the spoils gained by their victory. 
Their general, Horm, Gonn, or Gormo, 
may have been possibly the same who 
was sumamed Enshe or Angheus^ he- 
caiise he was bom in England. This 
Gormo was nltimately convcrted to 
Christianity, which renders it the more 
probable that he may have suggested 
on this occasion the invocation of St. 
Patrick. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixv 



men ; representing to them that they had everything to 
lose, and advising them to put themselves iinder the pro- 
tection of St. Patrick,by promisiDg to the saint "honourable 
ahns for gaîning vîctory and triumph" over enemies who 
had plundered his churches and outraged all the saints of 
Ireland. This advice was foUowed ; and in the next 
enga^ment, although with veiy inferior numbers, the 
Danes gain the victory "on account of the tutelage of 
St. Patrick." The " treasnres of gold and silver" in the 
câmp of the Norwegians became the prize of the victors, 
together with *' the other property, as well of their women' 
and ehips." Five thousand* "goodly bom men," with 
" many soldiers, and people of every grade in addition to 
this number," were slain* in the engagement. 

The arrival of another fleet în Ciarraighe' is then re- The county 
corded (eh. xx). They plundered " to Limerick and Cili ^J^7 
Ita."* If this be understood as including Limerick, this 
" fleet" was probably Danish, for we know that Limerick 
was aJready in the possession of the first comers, and was 
probably founded by them. 



1 Five tkouaand, This seems an in- 
credible number. The Roman nume- 
nls ii. and u, might easily have been 
confonnded. 

^Slain. " Fragmente of Annals,*" pp. 
1 U.123. The historian adds, p. 125, 
that the Danes falfilled their vow, and 
after the victory filled ** a good wide 
trench with gold and silver to give to 
Patrick ;" for he adds, the Danes were 
** a people who had a kind of piety, 
Le., they gave ap meat and women 
a while for piety.*' 

* Ciarraiffhs. The tribe name of the 
posterity of Ciar, son of Fergus, king of 
Ulster, by Meadhbh or Mand, queen of 
Connanght. There were several dis- 
tricte in Ireland, called Ciarraighe, 
where branches of this family had 
settled (see O'Flaherty, Offyg., p. 276 ,, 
but the principal of these tribes was 
the Ciarraighe Luachra, or Ciarraighe | 



of Moont Laachair, in the territory of 
O'Conor Kerry. This district is pro- 
bably here intended, not only becaiue 
the name occurs without any other 
designation, but also becanse the plăcea 
mentioned as having been plundered, 
were all easily reached from the 
county of Kerry. 

* Cili Ita: now KilUfedy, four Irish 
miles from Newcastle, co. of Limerick, 
the site of a once faraous monastery, 
dedicated to St. Ita, in the spot called 
Cloain Creadhail, Mart, Doncg,, 16 
Jau., p. 17. The other plăcea men- 
tioned are Imleach Ibhair, now £mly ; 
Caisil of the Kings, now Cashel; the 
eastem Cechtraighe ; and Liath Mo- 
coemhoc, of which we have already 
spoken; (see p. lix. note i). Ceth- 
traighe (Cechtraighe, L.) is the name 
of a tribe now un know n. Perhaps we 
should read Ciarraighe, 



Ixvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



inTaden. 



Chronoiogy OuT author adds, " It was in the time* of Feidhlimidh, 
even^ son 6f Crimthann, that all these ravages were perpeta^teA" 
This remark, although it occurs in the ancient fragment 
of the present work preserved in the Book of Leinster, 
is probably misplaced. The Annals date the death of 
Feidhlimidh 847 ; and the arrival of the Danes, or the 
battie of Carlingford, 852, five years afberwards. There- 
fore we must infer either that the above chronological 
note ought to have been placed before the coming of the 
Danish ships, or else that the date assigned by the Annals 
to Feidhlimidh's death is erroneons.^ 
Victones of Having hitherto spoken of the ravages committed by 
over the ^^^ invaders, our author (chapş. xxi. xxii.) next gives a 
list of the defeats they had sustşdned from the native 
Irish : and here it is evident that he makes no distinction 
between the Danes and other foreigners ; neither can we 
regard his narrative as containing a complete enumera^ 
tion of these defeats, for many, of which he takes no 
notice, are recorded in the Irish Annals. At Eas-Ruaidh,' 
now Assaroe, near Ballyshannon, county of Donegal, they 
were defeated by the Cinel-Conaill, the descendants of 
Conall Gulban (son of Niall, of the Nine Hostages), the 
original possessors of the district now called, from them, 
Tirconnell. This victory is dated* 838. In Munster they 
were defeated at Loch Derg Dheirc, now Lough Dei^, by 
the Dai Cais.* The Ui Neill, that is, the southem CNeOl, 
defeated them at Ard Brecain, now Ardbraccan, county of 
Meath. Earl Saxulf ® was slain by the O^Colgain ; but 
the Four Masters and Annals of Ulster caii him " Chief- 



1 Time, The word ţvetiii|* in the text, 
p. 20, has been trânalated ^^reign;*" 
but its more literal signification is 
time^ period. 

' Errcneoiu» See above, p. xlvi., 
note \ where it is suggested, on other 
gToands, that the date assigned to 
Feidhtimidh^s death by our Annals is 
really the date of his monastic pro* 
fession. 

^JSas Buiddk; properly Eas Aedha 



Ruaidh, the watetfall of Aedh the red. 
See Faur MatU, A.M. 4518. 

^Dated, Four Mast. 886, =A.D. 
838. 

« Dai Cais, pron. Dai Cask, the de- 
scendants of Cas Mac TaiL See Geit, 
Table IIL, No. 8, p, 247, and O'FUh. 
Ogyg-, p. 386. This victory is not 
recorded in the Annals. 

^Earl Saxuff, The ancient MS. 
Ureads^EarlRalph.** 



INTRODUCTIOX. 



Ixvii 



iiin of the Gaill," and teii us that he was slain by the 
Cianachta, meaning the Cianachta Bregh, a tribe' de- 
scended from Cian, son of OilioU Olum, king of Munster, 
and seated in Bregia, north of Dublin, where they occu- 
pied a district extending from the baronies of Upper and 
Lower Duleek to the Liffey. The death of Saxulf is dated 
by the Annalists'* in the iifth year of Niall Oailne, or 838. 

The next defeat nientioned is the battle of Sciath Battie of 
Nechtain, after an interval of ten years^ from the death Sciath 
of Saxulf The leaders of the Irish forces were Olchobhar, 
king of Munster, and Lorcan, son of Cellach, king of 
Leinster. In this battle 1,200 of the Lochlainn chieftains 
or nobles were slain, together^with the heir apparent or 
tanisty that is (secoiid, or next in succession to the throne,) 
of the king of Lochlainn. The Four Masters teii us that 
thLs ehieftain's name was Tomrair,* which in other 



1 A irîbe. Soe O'Flaherty, Ogtfff, p. 
332. TheUiColgan,orO'Colgan,aeem 
to have been a branch of the Cianachta 
Bcated on the banlu of the Liffey. 
There i^ therefore, no contradiction. 

*AHnaliMts. Ann. Uit. and Four 
M. 836, ==838. The Dublin AnnaU 
of Inisfallen record the erent thud: 
''837. Six score men of the Loch- 
lanns were killed by the men of Bregia, 
and their chief, Saxulf, was slain by 
Cinaodh, son of Conali, and by the 
Connaughtmen.'* This should be Cin- 
aodh,son of Conamgj who was chief tain 
of the Cianachta Breagh at the time. 
The mention of Connaughtmen seems a 
mistake of the compilers of thesc Annals. 
For Coaachta we should read Cianachta, 

s Ten y€ar§. In the second year of 
Haelscachlainn I. Fwr Af. 846; Uit. 
847, =848. Sciath Nechtain (^Scutvm 
NtAtani) was a place near Castle- 
dermot, connty of Kildare. 

* Tomrair, The name Tomrair is, 
perhaps, the Scandinavian Thormodr 
[Thor^s man,] which was a common 
oame in Iceland. The Tomrair or 
Tomar here mentioned is spoken of 
as a Norwegian. But a Danish chief- 



tain of the same name afterwards be- 
came celebrated at Dublin, and indeed 
Tomar or Thormodr seeins to have 
becorae a sort of common title given by 
the Irish to all the kings of Dublin, 
who are called " chieftains of Tomar," 
Book of Jiif/kts,, p. 40; the king of 
Dublin is called "Torc Tomar," Le. 
*'Princ^ Tomar," ib. p. 207. In Dr. 
O'Donovan's Jntrod. to J5. ofJHffhta^ p. 
XXX vi. teq.y and Four J/., A.D. 846, p. 
475, n., we read of the ring of Tomar 
aiul the sword of Carlus [son of Amlaff, 
Four M. 866,] which were carried off 
from Dublin by King Malachy II., in 
994 (Four M.) The ring was, no 
doubt, one of those deemed sacred by 
the Northmen, and upon which oaths 
were sworn — Anglo Sax. Chron.^ A.D. 
876. It is possible (as Mr. Haliday 
has suggested) that the splendid gold 
ring, with a smaller one running 
upon it, now in the Museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy, is the identical 
ring of Tomar — the '*holy ring" of the 
Scandinavian kings of Dublin. There 
was a wood, called Toraar's wood, bc- 
tween Clontarf and Dublin. Sec pp. 
I 197, 199, of the pn'sc<nt volume. 

•e3 



Ixviii 



TNTRODUCTION. 



Minor 
yictories. 



authorities is also written Tomlirar, Tomhar, or Ternar. 
King OlelioLhar soon aftenvards demolished Tulach-na- 
ricflina/ which seems to have beeii a fortress or settlement 
of tlie enemy, and tliey wero all ultimately cut off by the 
men of Letli Moo:ha, or of ^I mister. 

The otlier victorios recorded inay be more briefly noticed. 
Tliey are, the battle of Ciiislen-^^diimi or Caisglinne,* under 
Maelsechlaiiin, king of Irehuid, in whicli 700 were slain. 
The battle of Daire-Disiurt-Dacliunna,^ by Tigheniach, lord 
of Loch Gabhair,* when 500 of the enemy fell. The battle 
of Dun-Maeltuli, in which their loss was twelve score, 
under Olchobhar, king of Minister, and the Eoghanachts* 
of Cashel. Tliree hundred and sixty-eight of the Danes, 
it is not said where, were slain by the White Gentiles or 
Norwegians.^ Perlia})s this inay have been the resnlt of 
the conflict between the seven score sliips of the Danes 
that arrived about tliis time, *' to contend with the 



1 Tulach-na-Riglina. Tulacli-na- 
reena, "hill of the Queens;" a placo 
not now known, uiiless it be the hill 
now called Knocknarce, near Castle- 
dermot. 

« Caisgîinne, So read the MS. B., 
and Keating. Compare also Battle 
of Magli-rath^ p. 349. Caislen-glinne 
signifies Glen-Castle ; there are sevcral 
places of the nanie : this one was prob- 
ably somewhcrc in Meath, within the 
tcrritory of the Clann Colmain. Per- 
haps this is the same battle which the 
Four M., 846, and Ann. Uit., 847, 
mention as having been fought at 
Forach, (now Farragh, near Skrecn, 
county of Meath,) in which 700 «cere 
tilain. Sec O'Donovan's note, Fcnir 
M., L c» 

■ Daire-Disiurt-DacJionna. The 
oak wood of Disiurt-Dachonna, the 
wilderness of St Dachonna, or St. 
Conna. This place was in Ulstcr 
(Jdart Doneg,, 12 April, p. 101), but 
Dr. O'Donovan had not identified it. 
Four M., 846, note. 



^Loch Gabhaîr. Now Lough Gower 
or Logore, near Dunshaughlin, county 
of Meath. The Four M. say that 
twelve score fcU in this battle, which 
is also the rejidiiig of B. The Ann. 
Uit. read 1200. The numbers of 
slain in thiâ and the next battle have 
eviilently bceu transposed. See the 
various readings, p. 21, notes. 

* Eofjhanachts. Sec Table IV., p. 
248, Duu Maeltuli, "the fort of Mad- 
tiili" is ])robably in the county of 
Tii)perary, but ita exact site is now 
un known. 

^ Noricegians, B. reads " by the 
Ui Fidbghente," a tribe settled in the 
county of Liraerick; (see Gen. Table 
V., p. 248, Xo. 6, and Book of Rights, 
p. G7, «. ) But this readmg is not pro- 
bablc, although Keating foUows it. 
Ui-vi'^Senre and pn-o ^ence might 
easily be confounded. There are also 
couiiiderable variations in the MSS. as 
to the numbcr of the slain. See du 
xxii., p. 21, n. 14. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixix 



foreigners that were in Ireland before them," and as the 
Four Masters and Ulster Annals teii us " disturbed Ire- 
land between them."* At Inis-Finmic, now Inch, near 
Balrothery, county of Dublin, 200 were slain by the 
Cianachta, meaning evidently the Cianachta Breagh, in 
whose territory Inch was sîtuated. The same tribe, în 
a month afierwards, gained another victory, in which 
they slew 300 of the enemy at Rath-Alton, or Rath- 
Aldaîn, now Rathallan, near Duleek, in the same territory.^ 
This catalogue of victories is concluded by the battle of 
Rathcommair^ gained by King Maelseachlinn, and 
another gained by the Ciarriaghe Luachra, or people of 
Kerry, the exact site of which is not recorded. 

The coming of Amlaibh, (Amlaff or Olaf,) " son of the ArriTai of 
king of Lochlainn/* is the next event chronicled by our oui^^ ^' 
author. The arrival of this chieftain is dated ten years 
before* the death of Maelseachlainn or Malachy I., king 
of Ireland, and therefore in the year 853. 

This was, beyond all doubt, the Amlaff, or Olaf Huita 



1 Bettoeen them, Foar M., 847. 
Ann. Uit, 848, reaUy 849. 

« Tem'tory. The Four Maştera 
make no mention of Inis-finmic, bat 
record a sUoghter of the foreignera in 
the East of Breagh, and in the same 
month, the battle of Rath-Aldain, at 
850 [=852]. OftheCianachtaBreagh 
we have already spoken, see p. Ixvii. 

• Baikcommair. The word Corn- 
mar or Cumar signifies the meeting of 
two or more rivers ; and the Rathcom- 
mair here mentioned was probably a 
Fort at the conânence of the Boyne 
with aome four or five small rivers at 
Claain-Iraird, now Clonard, county of 
Meath. There is a Cumar-tri-nuitct 
(meeting of three waters) near Water- 
ford (Four M., at 856) ; but it is more 
likdy that the battle gained by Mael- 
sechlainn was in hls own territory. 

^ Befort, In the text (chap. xxiii.) 
we have translated *^ ten years after^^ 



the death of Malachy : but the annals» 
Keating, and other authorities all seem 
to have read, or at least to have un- 
dentood, as in the MS. L., |ie nec» 
htfcrt the death of Malachy, Instead of 
ain nec, the readiug of B. after hia 
death. It is probable that aţi, in our 
author's dialect of Irish really did 
signify 6e/ore. If so, the Editor In 
translating it afier (assuming afi to 
have be^n put for lati), was under a 
mistake. See note ^, p. 22. The 
Four Mast date King Malachy's death 
860, but as they teii us that he died 
on Tuesdajfy Nov. 80, the Sunday letter 
of the year must have been C, which 
shows that the true year was 868. 

If we adhere to the tranalation 
after, Olaf did not arrive until 873, 
and his exploits are dated in our 
annals twenty years too soon. This 
no doubt would dimin ju b sume chrono- 
logical difficultiea. 



Ixx 



INTRODUCTION. 



His 

exploita. 



(the white), of Scandinavian history, who was usually 
styled king of Dublin/ and was the leader of the North- 
men in Ireland for many years. His exploits on his first 
arrival in Ireland are thus described :* The drowning of 
Conchobhar,' son of Donnchadh. The overthrow of the 
Deisi at Cluain-Daimh,* where all the chiefbains of the 
Deisi were slain. The slaughter of the son of Cenn- 



1 Dublin. The Landnamabok (p. 
106), gives the following accouut of 
this chiefUîn: "Olaf the White 
[Oleîfr hmn Hvite] waa the Piratfe- 
King [Herkongr] who was the son of 
Khig Ingialld, son of Helga, son of 
Olaf, son of Gudraud, son of Halfdian 
Whitefoot [Hvitbein], King of L> 
land. Olaf the White went as a 
pirate westwards, and seized Dublin 
in Ireland, and the Dnblin-shire [oc 
vann Dyflina â Irlandi oc Dyflinnar- 
akiri] where he was made King/* The 
name is written Atnhlaibh^ Anlaffl 
Onia/f Olaf or Olave, Awky^ Aulif. 
Thora, grandmother of Olaf the 
White, was the daughter of Sigord 
Orm i augr [seqKînt eye], son of Reg- 
nar Lodbrok. The polygamy of the 
pagan Scandinavians, their very early 
Diarriages, and the early age at which 
they went forth to seek their fortunes 
in piratical advcntures, may have 
reduced the length of a gcncration. 
Bat the reduction should be consider- 
able to render it possible, assuming 
Lodbrok to have been slain in 845, 
for his 8on*s great-grandson to be the 
leader of a piratical invasion of Ire- 
land in 853. Supposing the average 
generation to be 20 years, Regnar Lod- 
brok wonld have been 80 years of age 
at the birth of Olaf the White. 

* Described. Chap. xxiii., p. 23. 

* Condiobhair. He is called in the 
text " heir apparent of Tara," mean- 
ing not heir apparent to the throne of 
Ireland, bnt only to the chieftainship 
of the Clann Colmain, or of East 



Meath. The Fonr Hast. (862=864) 
caii him ''the second lord that was 
over Meath;'* and the Annals of 
Ulster (863=864) "half King of 
Meath." This aUndes to the parti- 
tion of Meath into two kingdoms by 
Aedh Oimidhe in 802 (797 of the Four 
M.), to which Conchobhar, son of 
Donnchadh (afterwards King of Ire- 
land) and his brother Ailill were 
appointed. KingAedh's object evi- 
dently was to strengthen himself by 
weakening the power of the Clann 
Colmain in Meath. At the time bere 
spoken of. Lorcan, son of Cathal, was 
lord of one half of Meath, and Con- 
chobhar of the other. Lorcan was 
blinded by Aedh Finnliath, still jealoua 
of the Meath chieftains, and Con- 
chobhar was drowned, as the Four 
M. teii ns, at Cluain-Iraird (now 
Clonard) by Amlaff, lord of the GailL 
This Conchobhar was probably a 
grandson of King Conchobhar. He 
is caUed ** snn of Donnchadh *' in the 
text, and also by the Four M., the 
Ann. of Uit., and the Brusseirs Frag- 
ments (p. 157), as well as by Keating 
(reign of Aedh Finnliath). We must, 
therefure, reject the reading of 
O'Clery's MS. of the present work 
where he is called "Son of Cineadh.** 
See Gen. Table II., p. 246. 

^ Cluain-Dcumh. This place is now 
unknown. The word signîfies " Plain 
or Lawn of the Deer or Oxen." The 
Deisi Bregh, whose territory is Kpie- 
sented by the two baronies of Deece, 
county of Meath, are probably tntended . 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxi 



fae]adh,^ kîng of Muscraighe Breoghain, and the smother- 
ing of Muchdaigliren, son of Bechtabrat, in a cave. The 
destruction of Caitill Find,* (KetiU the Whîte) and his: 
whole garrison. Thîs- latter chieftaîn, judgîng by hîs 
name, was prpbably a Norseman ; but some authorities caii 
him Cathal ; and we leam from the Ânnals of Ulster that 
his followers were the Gaill-Gaedhil, or apostate Irish. We 
are told also that the battle was in the districts of Miinster ; 
but no other clue is given to the position of the fortress 
of Qaill-Gaedhil to which this garrison belonged, which is 
not noticed in the Four Masters. His " destruction" in 
the Ulster Annals is dated 856, equivalent to 857. 

The death of Maelgualai, son of Dungaile, king ofDeathof 
Hunster, his back being broken by a stone, is the next MaciguaUi, 
exploit of the Danes recorded by our author. Its date' Munater. 
is 859. The next clause is obscuje — " they were all killed 
by the men of Munster :" this seems to mean that the 
men of Munster, in other words the army of the king 
of Munster, notwithstanding the loss of its sovereign, 
gained a complete victory over the enemy ; but are Ona, 
Scolph, and Tomar (see p. 23), the chieftains whose troops 
were cut off ? Or are they Scandinavian leaders fighting on 



A CeMifadaSh, This paasage is io 
corrupt that it is difficult to gnes» at 
the original reading, especiaUy as the 
Annals make no mention of these 
events. The son of Cennfaeladh is 
not named. See the various readîngs, 
note ^, p. 22. For an account of the 
districts called Mosc-raighe or Mus- 
keny, see O'Donovan, Book ofRighis^ 
p. 42, fi. (TFlaherty, Ogyg., p. 322. 
Muscraighe Breoghain was a part of 
the present barony of Clanwilliam, 
coonty of Tipperary. 

> CaitiU FintL Ware calls him 
Cathaldas albuş; Antiq. p. 128, Ed, 
2da., and Catlial Finn is the reading 
of B. That name would be Irish; 
or an Irish spelling of the Norse name 
KeiilL The Dnblin Ann. of Inisfallen 



(857) caii. him Carton, or Carthan 
Finn^ a name which looks like the 
Scandinavian Kiartan. Dr. O'Conor 
(iăiifi. Uit), althongh his text reads 
CaitHlJmd, translates **de Cathaldo 
albo." In his edition of the Dublin 
Ann. Inisf. he omits the years 856, 
857, 859, and part of 860. Mr. 
Robertson has snggested that the 
Caitill Finn here mentioned may 
hare been the KetiU Flatnef (Flat- 
nose), of Scandinavian history. Scoţ- 
iană under her earlg King»^ p. 44. But 
Caitill Finn is said by our author to 
have been JciUed on this occasion, 857, 
a f act that cannot be reconciled with 
the history of Ketill Flatnose. 

» Date, Four M., 857. Uit, 858 
really, 859. 



Ixxii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Arriyal of 
Oisill or 
OiflU. 



His defeat 
and death. 



the side of the Munster army, and therefore sharers in 
the victory* ? The fragment of this work in the Book of 
Leinster adds the name of Turgesîus to the other three — 
which, if it be not a mistake, must intend a different 
Turgesius from the celebrated usurper of the See of Ar- 
magh. The whole of this passage, however, is evidently 
comipt.» 

We read next of the arrival of a chieftaîn* whose name 
in MSS. of the present work is written Ossill, and Oisli, 
the true Scandinavian name having perhaps been Osaur, 
or possibly Flo»i, as other spellings of the name such as 
Uailsi or Vailsi, lead us to conjeeture. He is styled by 
our author " son of the king of Lochlann/* but he can 
scarcely be the same as the chieftain whose exploits, 
under the name of Auisli or Uailsi, are narrated by the 
Annals of Ulster and the Four Masters. For the Ossill 
of our author is represented as having fallen in a battle 
with the Irish in Munster, ^hereas the Uailsi of the 
Annals was şlain by his own brethren.* 

Ossill, we are told, succeeded in plundering "the greater 
part of Ireland." How long a time this occupied is not 
recorded ; but his army was cut off with a loss of five hun- 
dred men,*^ and he himself slain " by the men of Erinn" in 
Munster. Some MSS. attribute this victoiy to the "men 



1 VicUny. The reading of L. (see 
note *, p. 28) favoun the former of 
theae interpretations. 

* Corrupt. B. omits the names of 
the Scandinavian leaders altogether: 
and the words of the text, ceotia yc, 
** one hundred and three," are obscure. 
The contraction, 7c., "et cetera," wa» 
probably mistaken for **et c.** i.e. 
*'and one hundred,*' and ceop,a, 
" three,** was made Tur^eis. 

* Chieftain. Chap. xxiv. See note 
w, p. 23. 

* Brtthrem. "Auisle tertins rex 
gentilium (the other two being Olaf 



and Ivar) dolo et parricidio a f ratribus 
suiş jugulatus est,'* UU. 866. From 
this hint the Brussels Annals make 
Amlaff, Imhar, and Oisle to be three 
brothers, and give a minute account 
of the murder of the last FragmmU 
of AnnaU, p. 171. In another place 
(see p. 33) our author recorda the 
mnrder by Amlaibh, of his own 
brother, who is there called Otill. 
There appear, therefore, to have been 
two of the name. 

• Fiv€ hundred men. The MS. L. 
omits the number of slain. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxiîi 



of Munster/' înstead of to the men of Erinn, the diatinc» 
tion being that the former phrase denotes the clansmen 
or troops under the command of the provincial king of 
Mimster, and the latter the troops of the ArdrRi, or chief 
king of Ireland. 

Althongh our author in this place has given us noDestmc- 
means of ascertaining the exact date of this event, which Ji^JL^Inn 
is not noticed in the Annals, he assumes it to be well at Kin- 
known. and goea on to teU UB that in the ^e year^'^^- 
another chieftain, whom he calls Colphinn,^ with the fleet 
of Dun-Medhoin, was destroyed at Cenn Curraig. The 
Irish p«reued them, with slaughter,» trom Cenn Cuiraig 
to Lismore, and many of them were killed by Rechtabrat»' 
son of Bran, chiefbain of the Deisi, whose territoiy is repre- 
sented by the districts now called Decies, in the county 
of Waterford. A reference to this victoiy in another place 
(see eh. xxix.) enables us to assign it to the year 869. 

The Earl Baethbarr or Badbarr (probably Bod/vaT)^ who Death of 
escaped from this slaughter with many foUowers, reached ^?*? 
Dublin in safety, but was there soon afterwards drowned, andTomar. 
''through the mirades of Ciaran and Aedh Scannail,"^ 
whose monasteries or religious houses he had besieged* 
No notice of this chieftain occurs in the Annals. In the 
same year^ Earl Tomar was killed, and his death is attri- 

nail is mentioned in the BCartyroIogy 
of Donegal, or elsewhere so far as the 
Editor knows. The MS. B. reads 
** Ciaran and Aedh and SgandalL** 
If we f oUow this reading the chorchea 
intended are probably those of St 
Kieran, of CIonmacnoiB ; of St Aedh, 
or Moedhog [Mogne] of Fems; and 
of St Scannall of Aghaboe, who died 
774 (=780) Four M. 

Same year. It is difficnlt to gire 
mnch weight to these chronological 
notes : for in this case Tomar or Tom- 
rair is said by the Fonr Masten to 
hare been slain in the batUe of Sdath 
Nechtain, A.D. 847. See p. 21, and 
p. IxviL aboye. 

/ 



^ CbljpAtim. Not mentioned in the 
A«Ti*i>- The tnie name was probably 
Kotbein. Dnnmedhon (Middle-fort) 
is now miknown. Cenn Curraigi now 
Kincuny, is a small village on the 
banlcB of the Snir, not far from Clon- 
mei, bat in the ooonty of Waterford. 

^Sla^Uer. The literal transla- 
tion b *^They were in their being 
slangfatered from Cenn Curraig to 
Lismore.** 

^RedOabrat, The death of this 
diieftain is reoorded by the Fonr H. 
ftt 874=876. 

* ScatmaiL Ciaran was, of conrse, 
the celebnited St Kiaran of Clonmac- 
noia: bnt no saint named Aedh Scan- 



hcxiv 



INTRODUCnON. 



Battle of 

Loch 

Foyle. 



Baraîd 

with the 

Dublin 

garrÎBon 

plunden 

{rom 

Leinster 

toKeny. 



Emlyand 

Dedes 

plnndered. 



buted to the vengeanoe of St. Brendan, whose chnrdi at 
Clonfert he had plimdered three days befora 

"In that year" also, our author says, the vîctoiy of 
Aedh Fitmliath, king of Ireland, was gained over the 
Danes at Lough Foyle : but this battle is dated by the 
Four Maştera 864, whîch is 8«7 of O'Flahert/s corrected 
Chronology, and therefore not the year to which the 
same Annalists have assigned the battle of Sciath Nech- 
tain. 

We next read of a Scandinavian chieftain named Baraid 
or Barith, (possibly Bdrd/r), who, "with Amlaibh's son, 
and the fleet of Ath-Cliath»" meaning the Scandinavian 
garrison of Dublin, plundered Leinster and Munster until 
they reached Ciarraighe, the present oounty of Eerry.' 
" And they left not," says our author, '' a cave under ground 
that they did not explore ; and they left nothing from 
Limerick to Cork that they did not ravage." The Annals* 
speak of a plundering of the caves.in the territory^ of 
Flann, son of Conang, king of Bregia in Meath, under 
" the three chieftains of the foreignera," Amlaibh, Imhar, 
and Uisli, with Lorcan, son of Cathal, king of Meath. 
But our author here speaks of the plunder of the sepul- 
chral caves by the army under the oommand of Baraid and 
Amlaibh's son,^ in their expedition from Leinster to Eerry 
and fix>m Limerick to Cork ; we may therefore infer that 
these caves contained treasures of gold and silver buried 
with the dead, of which the Northmen had discovered 
the intrinsic value, and therefore made it a practice to 
plunder such monuments wherever they found them. 

On this expedition the ecclesiastical establishment of 
Imleach Ibhair (now Emly) was bumed, and the southem 
Deisi, now Decies in the county of Waterford, ravaged. 



1 Kerrp, Ch. zxv.,ţk. 25. So the 
MS. B. interpreta, by readlng dar- 
raiffhe Luachra, See abOTe, p. Ixr., n, 

*Afmak. Uit, 862. Fovr Bf., 861. 

s TmrUary, See Dr. O'Donoran's 
note, Fonr Miat 861, p. 496b 



< AmktSth'i fon. He is not mmed. 
Perhaps he may have been Thotsteia 
the Bed, aon of Olaf the White. The 
death of Carhia, who ia caUed aon of 
Amlaibh. ia noorded by the Fonr M. 
at 866=668. 



INTBODUCTION. 



Ixxv 



Two years before,' the same party had plundered Meath 
and Coniiaught, as fiur as Corcumraadh, (now Corcomroe, 
oomity of Clare,) and Leim Concollain,' or Loophead : but 
they were nltimately killed by " the men of Erinn." 

The foreigners, nnder the command of Ragnall's son,^ 
were slaughtered by Aedh Finnliath, king of Ireland, at a 
bttnquet given to tbeir chieftaki at Dublin. This seems to 
imply that treachery was employed: but, on this occasion, 
Bagnall's son escaped, for he was slain, as our author tells 
us (p. 27), in a battle which took plaoe soon alterwards 
between the Fair Qentiles and the Black OentUes, the 
fonner being apparently under tl^ command of Barith, 
who was wounded in ti» engagement^ and is probably the 
same who was called Baraid just before. The MS. L. adds 
that Barith was lame ever after from this wound, and 
that the Black QentUes '' after this/' meaning apparently 
in oonsequence of Barith's victory, were driven out of 
Ireland, and went to Alba, or Scotland, where they gained 
a battle over the men of Alba, in which Constantine, son 
of Cinaedh, or Kenneth, was slain, and many others with 
him. This eyent must be dated^ A.D. 877. The editor 



The 

foreigners 
flUnghtered 
by Aedh 
Finnliath. 



The Black 
Geotiles 
take ref aga 
in Scot- 
land, A.D. 
877. 



1 Bifare, TUs citronological note 
is omitted in tlie Book of LeinAter. 

• X>eM ConaftvOoM. "TheLeapof 
Codnillaii.'' The modem nune Ldop- 
AMd; is ft eorraption of /;«4»-A«idL It 
is callsd JotâMnp, ** mare's Isap,*' in 
thtt I^aânamabok, pb 5. 

•BagMUFsaotk Signrd-Serpent-eye 
m csUed Bagnirald, or Begnsld, on the 
•nilMn^ of Begn. 2j)dbr, Soffo, Lan- 
gebek II., p. 272, n. >; and hy Sazo 
6i«Diaiatieiis (fib. ix., p. 460), who 
wmDl&ODă Segmald, Witatn [or Hyit- 
■erk] and Brio, se the ihzee sont of 
BegBsr Lodhrok by Snanloag [same 
M Asioga] dr. of Sigvrd Fofnisban. 
Langebok, hamfmt Qoc eU,)y seems 
to hK9€ been ol opinion that Regnald 
k to be distingvishod from Sigud, 
«iio, besayi, wns thsflfth andyonng- 



est of Ragnar Lodbrok's sons by As- 
ioga — ** Itaqne Sigordus Angaioculas 
qnintos foit fiUns, et ceteris fratribus 
junior." See p. IyI, âtgmu, n. <• 

^DaUd» Ann.Ult876;0'Flaherty, 
Ogs/g^t p. 485. Bobertson's ScoUand 
iMiîerAerear^jrin^t,!. p.48)4i. The 
Amn. UU. haTO the foUowing record 
of this battle nnder their year 874, 
** Congressio Plctonim fii Dvhgdtta 
et strsges magna Pictorom facta est 
Oistin mac Amlalph regis Norddman- 
nomm ab Albann per dolom ocdsus 
est*' *' A battle of the Picts with the 
Uadk foreigneri, anda great slanghter 
was made of the Pksts. Oistin [Eys- 
tân or Thorstein], son of Amlaf, king 
of the Northmen, was treacherondy 
kiUed by the men of Alba.** In the 
next year we lead ^^Constantinns mac 

/2 



Ixxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



drciter.) 



has not found elsewhere any notice of the miraculous 

bursting open of the earth iinder the men of Alba, which 

is said to have occurred on this occasion. 

The forty A period of " rest to the meu of Erinn,** we are told,* 

(A.D. a75 followed this expulsion of the invaders, and their vîctory 

to 916, îjx Scotland. For upwards of forty years, counted back 

from the year before the death of Flaim Sionna,^ I^g of 

Ireland, and the accession of his successor, Kiall Glundubh, 

the country is said to have remained « without ravage from 

the foreîgners ;" and the annals undoubtedly support this 

assertion. During this period of forty years we read of no 

new airi vals of the Scandinavian invaders. The settlements 

already made in Ireland at Dublin, Limerick, Lough Foyle, 

and elsewhere, continued ; churches were oocasionally^ 



Cinaedha, rex Pictoram [moritnr] i" 
which seenu as if the Annalist did 
not snppose him to hare f allen in the 
battle. The Chron. Pictoram (Pink- 
ertwCs Enquiry^ I. p. 495,) makes 
Constantine the victor, and says that 
Amlaibh (read son of Amlaibh?) was 
slain. The Landnamabok, p. 107, 
tells va distinctly that Olaf the White 
was slain in Ireland ; but the date of 
his death is not recorded in the Annals. 

» Told, See eh. xxvl, p. 27. 

*FUmn Sianna, The Annals have 
recorded that Flann Sionna died on 
Satnrdar, the 8th of the Kalends of 
Jnne,'A!D. 916. Calcnhituig, there- 
f ore, forty years from the year before, 
we have A.D. 875 as the commence- 
ment of the forty ycar's rest 

• Oceatianally. A f ew instances may 
be mentioned, from the Four Mast. 
In 883 [886] Kfldare was plundered by 
the f oreigners, who carried off to their 
ships foorteen score men with the prior 
Suibhne and valoable property. In 
885 [888] the abbot and prior of 
Clnain-Uamha (Cloyne) were sUun by 
the Northmen. In the same year 
King Flann was defeated by the Gaill 



of Dubim, and the bishop of Kfldare 
with others slain. In 886 [889] Ard- 
Breccan, Domnach-Patraic, Toilea, 
and Glendaloch were plundered by the 
GaiU. In 887 [890] Kfldai« and 
Clonard were plundered, and there waa 
a slanghter of the foreîgners by the 
Hi Amhalgaidh (the men of Tirawley), 
in which Elair [Hilary], son of Baraid, 
was slain. In 888 [891] a battle waa 
gained by Rlagan, son of Dongfaal, 
over the Gaill of Port Lairge (Water- 
ford). Loch Carman (Wexford), and 
Teach Bf oling, in which 200 f oreign< 
wereshun. In 890 [898] Armagh 
plundered by the Gaill of Dublin, nnder 
the command of Gluniarain (compw 
Ann. Uit. 893). In the foUowing 
year Flannagan, lord of Breagh, was 
slain by the Northmen, and a battle 
gahied by the Conailli, in which wen 
slain Amlaph, grandson of Ivar, and 
Gluntradhna, son of Gloniaiain, with 
800 of their men. These examplea 
win suffice to show that the forty 
years* rui recorded by onr anthor was 
a rest from fresh invasions only, and 
is not to be undentood as impljring 
an entire cessation of hostUitim. 



INTRODUCnON. 



Ixxvii 



plundered, and there were conflicts now and then between 
the foreigners and the native chieftains. But dnring the 
whole reign of Flann Sionna, son of Maelseachlainn, there 
appears to have been no new arrival of a foreign âeet, no 
invasion properly so called ; and the outragesrecorded are 
all of the natnre of those minor feuds which were con- 
tinnally going on between the native tribes and chiefbams 
themselvea. It was not until 91 3 (916), and again in 915 New fleets 
(918), the year before the accessdon of Niall Glnndubh, forf^AÎi)" 
that the arrival of new fleets în Loch-da-Caech, the har- 916. 
bour of Waterford, is mentioned,' after which numerous 
reinforcements oontinued to pour in. There had been a 
settlement at Waterford before, for which reason that 
harhour appears to have been chosen as the head-quarters 
of the new comers. Haconn, or Hakon, and Cossa-Narra 
are said to have been the leaders of the expedition that 
amved just before the death of Flann Sionna. The names 
of these chieftains are not mentioned in the Annals, nor 
in any other authority known to the editor. They appear 
to have conunenced at once the subjugation of Munster, 
but were defeated in three or four battles in Keny ' and 
in Tipperaiy. The Northmen of Limerick seem to have 
oome to their assistance, but were defeated by the men of 
Comiaught, and again by the men of Kerry and Corcobhais- 
ciim at the river Lemain, now the Laune near Eallamey. 
Next came a ''prodigious royal fleet" of the Clann The ciann 

Ivar. 



Keatîng speaks of s state of peace 
and prosperity, which he attrihntes to 
the wiae rnle of the celebrated Connac 
Mac Cnineiiam, Idng of Munster and 
biihop of Cashel (p. 519, ffMahonjft 
TrtmtL) But as Gormac reigned for 
leren yeacs only, his reign can only be 
takea u a very snudl part of the forty 
yean' rest, and other catuea must 
haye been at work to extend "the 
R8i** for 80 long a period to the whole 
of Ireland. 
^Mentumed, Ann. Uit. 912, 918. 



Four M. 910, 912, 913 (really 913, 
915, 916). See also FragmmU of 
AtmaU, p. 245. 

> Kerry. The battle in Kerry \b re- 
corded by the Four M. at their year 
915=A.D. 916, the firet year of Niall 
Glnndubh. The namea of Thomaa of 
Cinn Crede, Boit Budarill, or Roit and 
Pudrai], and Muraîll or Smnrall, men- 
tioned în the text, do not oceur eW- 
where, and are probably cormpt. See 
the notea pp. 27, 28. 



Ixxviii 



INTBODUCnON. 



Imhar, or children of Ivar, to Dublin (chap. xxvîL), and 
plundered the greater part of Ireland. But what followB 
ir the text gives birth to oonsiderable duronological diffi- 
culties, and in inconsistent with the limits already 
aasigned by our author to the forty yeiurs' resi It is 
evident that the remainder of this chapter is misplaoed and 
belongs to an earlier period. The defeat of Flaîm Sionna 
by the Danes of Dublin, in the battle wherein fell Aedb, 
son of Conchobhair, king of Connaught, Lergus, son of 
Cronecan, bishop of Eoldare, and Donnchadh, son of Mael- 
duin, abbot of Delga or Kildalky, is dated by the Four 
Masters, 885 (= 888) ; and the other events mentioned 
are all grouped round' that year. They are, in £ftct, the 
exploits of an earlier party of the dann Ivar, who had 
settled in Dublin and were in allianoe with Cearbball, 
son of Dunghal, chieftain of Ossory, and king ci Dublin. 
HiBtory of To make this doar it will be necessary to caii to mind 
of Du^. some particulars of the history of the Danes of Dublin. 
That fortress seems to have been originally founded' as a 
trading and military station by the '* White Oentiles," 
who had established themselves in Ireland b^ore the 
coming of the " Black Qentiles," or Danes. The amval 
of these latter invaders is dated 851. Their ohieftain 
Olaf [the White] came, we are told, to levy renta and 
tributes,' but fijading opposition from the Scandina- 



1 Grouped rowtd. It has already 
been soggested that there must be 
aome cormption in the words ^the 
year in which Ma<el«f>ch1ainn waa 
killed," and that the year in which 
MaeUebhid], danghter of Maelaech- 
Uinn, died (Fonr M. 884=887) may 
have been intended (see note, p. 288). 
The plnnderof Cloain Uamha [Clojme] 
and the death of ite biahop^bbot 
Fergal, son of Finachta, and its prior 
Uanan or Uamanan, is dated 886=: 
888 (Fonr Bl.) The death of Donn- 
chadh, son of Dnbhdaboirenn, king of 
Munster, is also placed by the Four 



M. in the same year (they do not say 
that hewas killed); bnt they make 
no mention of the death of Sitiici or 
the baming of Liamore by the son of 
Imhar. 

SFowMbdL SeepulsS. TlieFoar 
Hasters record the first taUng of Dub- 
lin or Athdiath at 836 (888); and the 
erectkm of the fortress (ton^pofic) 
there 840 (842> 

• TributM, Fragmente ol Annala^ 
p. 125, 127. The Fonr Maatos bmh- 
tion the fliwt coming of the Dnbhgall 
to Dublin, at 849 (851); and the flisi 
coming of Olaf, 861 (r^868> 



INTRODUCnON. 



Ixxix 



vians already in possession of the country, he lefb sud- 
denly, probably to seek reinforcements. In 856 he re- 
tumed to Ireland, and received the submission of all the 
foreign tribes.* At thîs time he probably obtained pos- 
session of Dublin, and is said to have been joined by "his 
younger brother, Ivar," who seems to have foUowed hini 
on this occasion, or to have accompanied' him at his first 
coming to Ireland. 

There was however another Ivar, the leader of a more Arrival of 
considerable party, who, about four years later, invaded ^T"» ^^^ 
East Anglia, where he was met by Amlaff, from Seotland. umbria. 
This was most probably Ivar Beinlaus,' son of Regnar 
Lodbrok, who is called by the Ulster Annals* "RexNord- 
mannorum totius Hibemise et Britannifle." He was the 
same Ivar who beeame king of Northumbria, and was 
the founder* of the Scandinavian dynasty in that country, 
which was afterwards so elosely connected with the 
Danish kings of Dublin. He appears to have arrived at 
the time when Amlaf, or Olaf the White, with Auisle [or 
Flosius] was in Pictland, with all the GaiU of Ireland and 
Seotland, where they " plimdered all Pictland, and took 
Hostages."* In thisyear (866), says Ethelwerd,^ the only 



1 Tribes, Fragmenta of Annals, 
A.D. 856, p. 135. 

* AccompameeL See Fragmenta of 
Annala, p. 127. The Sagas, however, 
do not seem to have recorded any 
Ivar, brother of Olaf the White. It is 
poasible that what is here aaid of hia 
younger brother Ivar is a miatake, and 
that Ivar Beinlaua ia intended. He is 
not called the brother of Olaf by the 
Ann. Uit. or by the Fonr M. There ia 
conf oston between the namea Inguar, 
Igwar, Imar, Ivar, Ifar, in the Engliah 
aa well aa in the Iriah Chroniclea. 

* Banltnu. Or the Boneleaa. 

* AfmaU. Uit. 872 (=873) which 
waa tha year of hia death. Annal. 
Island, p. 5. 

* Founder. In Olaf^i Tryggvatonar» 



Saga(c, 64, p. 117^ fKaupTncmna. 1825, 
(Fdmmanna Sogw, voL 1.), we are tpld 
that Ivar Beinlaus had no children, 
and was incapable of having any. 
But this, perhapa, signitiea only that 
he had gone to Kngland, and having 
never retumed, there was no record 
of his children in the Scandinavian 
Chroniclea. Thorkelin, Fragmenta of 
Kngl. and Irish Ilist (^Nordymra, p. 
26), menţiona Inguar and Huata, two 
aons of Ivar by a concubine. In the 
Engliah and Iriah recorda he ia evi- 
dcntly the ancestor of the Clanna Ivar 
or Hy Ivar, who were the kinga of 
Northumbria and Dublin. 

« Hoiiages. Ann. Uit. 865 (=866). 

7 Ethelwerd. MonumentaHi8t.Brit., 
p. 512, E. Angl. Sax. Chron. 867. 

•/3 



Ixxx 



INTRODUCnON. 



English hîstorian by whom the leader of the expedîtîon is 
named, the fleets of King Ivar arrived, "advectse sunt 
classes tyranni Igwares." The two chieftains Tinitmg 
their forces crossed the Huinber to York, and slew the 
kings Osbright and EUa*; they remained a year at York,* 
and the next year (870 or 871) retumed to Dublin from 
Scotland with booty' and captives. Ivar died* în 872 or 
873, four or five years before the commencement of the 
forty years' rest ehronicled by our author. In 875 Oistin 
or Eystein, (probably the same as Thorstein the Ked), son 
of Amlaff, was slain per dolum, as the Ulster Annals say, 
în Scotland*; and in the same year, or the year before, 
Cearbhall (pron, CarroU), son of Dimghall, chieftain of 
Ossory, succeeded Ivar Beinlaus as king of Dublin,^ and 



i Ella. Ann. Uit. 866; Anglo-Sax. 
Chron. 867; Lappenberg (Thorpe^s 
tniul.) ii., 33, 34. 

« Torh Anglo-Sax. Chroii. 868-9. 

«Boory. Ann. Uit 870 [871]. 
Âmlaf 8 fortreas (lonspofic) at Clon- 
dălkin had been bcumed by the Iriah 
(865=868, Four MasU), who gibbeted 
iOO heads of tbe slain ; the next year 
bis son Carlus fell in battle. These 
ontrages probably excited bis thirst 
for rengeance; and on bis retum in 
870, be plandered and bumed Annagb 
(^Four MatU 867 = 870). The Â. S. 
Chron. expressly menţiona Ingnar (or 
Ivar) and Ubba as the chieftains who 
slew King Eadmund in 870. See 
above, p. IvL 

^DUd, Ann.Ult872; AjuLlnisf. 
(Dubi.) 873. 

8 Scotland, Ann. Uit 874; Robert- 
son*8 Scotland nnder ber early King^s, 
I. p. 47. 

^ J)Mn, See the GeneaJogy of 
Cearbhall, O^DotwvmCi Trtbes and 
Territories ofAndent Omot^ [enlarged 
from Tran& Kilkenny ArchsBoL Soc. 
IhibUn, 1851], pp. 11-13. This 
chieftain had formed an alliance with 
tbe Danes ol Dublin aoon af ter their 



arriral; and indeed Thorstein, Olafs 
son, was married to Thurida, Cear- 
bbairs grand-danghter, by bis danr. 
Rafertach, who had married the cele- 
brated Eyvind Austmann, so called 
because be had come to the Hebrides 
from Sweden. In 856 (Four M.) really 
857 or 858, we find Cearbhall in 
alliance with Ivar (probably the 
same who is called Olafs brother), 
and they vanqnished the Cinei Fia- 
chach (who seem to have had the 
Gaill Gaedhil of Leth Cuinn, or the 
northem half of Ireland, on their 
side,) in a battle fought in Axadh- 
tire, now the barony of Arra or Du* 
barra, connty of Tipperary. Cearbhall 
tben attacked Leinster, probably with 
a view to the possession of Dublin, 
and took bostages, amongst whom 
was Cairbre, son of Dunlang, heir ap- 
parent to tbe soyereignty of Leinster. 
The next year be attacked Meath, in 
alliance with Amlaff and Imhar (Four 
M.); but the Synod of Rath-aedba- 
mac Bric, now Rath-hugh, in West- 
meath, under the bifihop of Armagh 
and the abbot of Clonard, made a tem- 
porazy peace between the contending 
partiea. It was in 865, according to 



MP 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxi 



continued to be recognised as such until his death in 888. 
It is evident ihat during his reign the Scandinavian leaders 
had abandoned to him and their other followers the care 
of their colony at Dublin. His death seems to have 
created in the native chieftains the hope of obtaining 
possession of the fortress by the expulsion of the Danes ; 
for in that very year Flann,* king of Ireland, joining his 
foTces to those of the king of Connaught, and aided by the 
eoclesiastical authorities of Leinstqr, attempted the over- 
throw of the Danish dynasty of Dublin, but was defeated, 
aa we have seen, with the loss of almost all his allies. 

"Four years after this," adds our author, (meaning Tbe Danes 
apparently four years after the death of Donnchadh, king j*' l^nbiin 
of Munster, or A.D. 888, and the other contemporary events und for 
recorded in this chapter,) " the foreigners left Ireland 8<»*^^ 
and went to Alba with Sitriuc, son of Ivar/'* This dause, 



the Aim. TJlt., that Amiaff and Amale 

went to Scotland, and plimdered aU 

Pictland. It is donbtfnl whether this 

erent or the death of Ivar in 873 

•hoold be regarded as the occasion 

which enabled Cearbhall to make 

himaelf king of Dablin. His reign is 

not recognised by the Irish AnnaJs, 

possîbly becanse of its connexion with 

the Daxush nsnrpation. It is a re- 

markable proof of the importance of 

Dublin as a Danish settlement that 

Cearbhall, king of Dublin, (Kiarvah* 

ar Djrfilini s Irlandi) is ennmerated 

amongst the principal sovereigns of 

Europe at the period of the occui»ation 
of lodand. Lamânama. p. 4. 

To the Knglish historians Dublin 

was wholly unknown ; it is mentioned 

but once in the A. S. Chron., and 

then only incidentally, as the place to 

irtiich the defeated Korthmen retired 

after the battle of Bmnanbnrg(937-8> 

€earbhall*s death is recorded bv the 

fmr MotL 885 (=888) ; by the^lfan. 

Cmbrutj 887; and by the Brut y 

^mtoffUm in the same year. 



^Flann. This prince was the son 
of Lann (or Flanna, as she is called, 
Frofftnmts qfAimaUj p. 179},dattghter 
of Dunghall or Dunlaing, lord of Os- 
soiy, (and therefore siater of Cear- 
bhall,) by Maelseachlainn, king of 
Ireland; after whose death, in 868, she 
married Aedh Flnnliath, king of Ire- 
land, the immediate predeceBsor of her 
son Flann — Fraffmenit of Atmalty pp. 
129, 189, 157. She appears also to 
have had a son Cennedigh (or Ken- 
nedy) by Gaithin, lord of Leix, whe- 
ther legitimately or not is not recorded. 
Ihid, pp. 157, ies, 173, 179. Aedh 
Finnliath had also married Maelmuri, 
(daughter of Cinaedh, or Kenneth mac 
Alpin), who was the mother of Niall 
Glundubh, and therefore probably 
Aedh*B first wife — (Keating). 

^SUrittc, ton of Ivar. Two chief- 
tains, named Sitric, are mentioned in 
this chapter. One (styled ** king of tbe 
foreigners,** or as the MS. B. reads, 
*' eon of the king of the foreigners,") 
is said to have been killed with Don- 
chadh mac Dubhdabhoirenn, khig of 



Ixxxii 



INTRODUCTTON. 



however, does not appear in the MS. L, nor is the informa- 
tion it oontains to be found in the Irish Annals. But it is 
remarkable that the Annals of XJlster, at theîr year 892 or 
893, which is the fourth year after 888, menţiona victoiy by 
the Saxons over the Black Qentiles with great slanghter, 
which was foUowed* by "a great internai dissension among 
the foreigners of Dublin, who divided themselves into 
£a<^ons, one part siding with the son of Imhar, and the 
other with Sichfrith the EarL" This dissension no doubt 
weakened the Dublin Danes, and the year noted by the 
Annals of Ulster^ although not the exact date of their 
leaving Ireland, was perhaps the beginning of their loss 
of power. The exact year of their expulsion is given by 
the Four Masters 897, really 900, and by the Annals of 
TJlster,^ 901 or 902. It appears that in that year a new 
attack was organized agahist the Danes of Dublin, headed 
by Maelfinnia, king of Bregia^ and by Cearbhall, son of 
Muiregan, king.of Leinster ; the confederates succeeded in 
displacing the foreign ganison, who '' esoaped half dead 
across the sea," leaving behind them a great many of their 



Ma]i8t«r, in 888 ; but thare seeniB aome 
Gonfoflioii about him. L. calls hiin 
"Siuffradt mm of Imar, king of tlie 
forelgnezB,** p. 288 ; and the Ann. Uit 
at 887 = 888, bare ''JSiefrith mac Imar 
rex Nordmannomm a fratre sno oc^ 
ciflUB «st" Siograd, if tiie k be pro- 
nonnced 9, does not differ eBsentially 
irom Sicfrith ; the name ia freqnent^ 
naed as identical with Sitric and Si- 
gura, e^en by Seandinavian writen. 
The other Sitriac ie spoken of as the 
leader of the forelgnere who left IrO' 
land, and went to Sootland, in 902. 
A third Sitrinc (if he be not the same 
as the fliat) ie mentioned by the Ann. 
Uit 896 (896): «'Sitrincc mac Imair 
ab aliis Nordmannis oodyras est** Of 
him, mort piobably, at 893 (894), the 
Bame Annals say *'Mac Ivar" (bot 
withont naming him) " came again to 



Ireland.** TDac 1fh<nft icefuiin vq 
cntn nOţienti* 

^ Folhîotd, It ie not, however, aaid 
ezpreaaly that the one wae the conse- 
qnenoe of the other, althongh the two 
erents are reoordedin immediate juzta- 
poâtion. 

> UUter. The erent is thos i^ 
corded by the Ulster Annals: **The 
banishment of the Gentîles f rom Ire- 
land, Le., from the fortress of Dublin, 
by Maeiflnnia, son of Flannagan, with 
the men of Bregh, and by Cerbhall, 
son of Mnrigan, with tiie mea of 
Leinster, so that they left gxeat nom- 
bers of their shipsbeliind them, and ee- 
caped half dead across the sea wonnded 
and broken.** Comp. Bobertson, 8eoi- 
iand yndtr ker «or^ -Cv^s, toL i., p^ 
66, âq. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxiii 



ahips. The Four Maştera add tibat they were afterwards 
beseiged, and reduced to great straite, at Inis mac Nesain, 
now Ireland*s Eye,* where they appear to have taken 
Tef^Mge on their way to Sootland. The AnnaJs make no 
mention of their leader on this occasion ; the present work 
is ihe only authority which tells us that he was Sitrinc, son 
of Imhair, apparently not the same as "Sichfirith the 
EarV who is distingoished in the Annals of Ulster from 
'*ihe son of Imhair" as having been the leader of the 
party opposed to him. 

It iţpears then that the forty years' " rest," înterpreted Tho forty 
as a rest from fresh invasions, although it is not expressly ^^en?^ 
mentioned in the Annals, is perfectly consistent with the «Uy «>n- 
events recorded by them; and that there was such a period 
of rest is incidentally confîrmad by the circumstance men- 
tioned in the Annals of Ulster, that in 877 (878), about 
three years after the commencement of the forty years' 
rest^ the Scrinium, or shrine of St. Columcille, with his 
minna or precions things,' were removed to Ireland " to » 

protect them fix>m the foreigners ;" and the year before 
"Le., 876 (877), as the same Annals^ inform us, Ruaidhri, 
Bon of Morminn [Mervyn], king of Britain or Wales, fled 
to Ireland to escape the Dnbhgaill or Danes. 

Ireland wastherefore then regarded as aplaoeof compara- its prob- 
tive safety ; and the absence of fresh inroads during the ***** "'"^ 
long period of forty years, may possibly be accounted for 
by the hope of more valuable booty held out to the North- 
men of Ireland, by the extensive depredations^ of their 



1 IrtkmtTâ Eye, antienUy Inis Faith- 
lena, Iforf. Jkmag, (16 Marth). A 
OMlIiiluidiiorthofHowth. i^here 
jg the ScMidhiaviân Eg^ insula, n<»tthe 
ll»Jf^^^ Ejf^ ocolofl. loÎB mac Nech- 
tain, in the printed text of the Fonr 
My is a nere error of tianacription. 

•5Se4/ril4 lAe EaH, Then was a 
fiigfcied. Sari of Ozkney.at this time. 

* PrtcAomâ ikingt. See ReereB's 
AH«tnan^ p. 815, SQ. ; Aun. uit 877 ; 
Fonr M. 875 (=878). 



« AtmaU Uit 876 ; Fonr M. 874. 
See also Keating (reign of Aedh Finn- 
lUth). 

< DqfredaUom. See Depping, BitL 
de$ expedilhiu de» Normandt ei hmr 
^idUitB&neni en i^rones— (Livre III.) 
Porif, 1848. Biom Irondde, son of 
Regnar Lodbrok, is said to hare been 
the leader in some of the earlier de- 
predations of the Northmen on the 
Continent of Europe. Ihid^ p. 186. 



Ixxxiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



coimtrymen at that period on the Rhine, in France, 
Britanny, Italy, and other parts of the Continent of 
Europe, as well as in Great Britain. 
Arrivai of The reinforcements which came to the Danes of Water- 
Waterford. ford^ are next mentioned, chap. xxviiî. They are de- 
scribed aâ "innumerable hordes," under the command of 
Ragnall, grandson of Ivar, and of the Earl Ottir. This 
latter chiefbain is not mentioned in the Annals, although 
they record at A.D. 916 (first yearof Niall Glundubh) the 
arrivai of Raghnall,^ grandson of Ivar, to reinforce the 
foreîgners ah-eady established at Waterford. In chap. 
* XXXV. we have mention of an earl called Ottir Dubh, or the 
black, who came with 100 ships to Waterford, and put all 
Munster under tribute. We read also in the Annals of 
Ulster, A.D. 91 3, of a Barid, son of Ottir, who was killed 
in battle at the Isle of Man, by Raghnall, on his way to 
Waterford.' Ottir, or Ottar> the father of this Barid, can 
scarcely have been the same Ottar the Earl, who accom- 
panied Ragnall three years afterwards as his ally and 
joint commander of reinforcements to the Danes of 
Waterford. 
After some exploits* of minor importance, this party of 



Mimster 
plnndered. 



1 Waterford. Called in the text 
Loch Dacaech : the estuary or bay of 
Dacaech, for so the word Loch here 
signifies. See above, p. xxxi., n. 
Dacaech (according to the Drimsean- 
chus) is the name of a woman. The 
Fonr M. first mention the settlement 
of Danes in Waterford at A.D. 912— 
Amu. DlL 918. 

*liaghnalL He is called king of 
the black foreigners, or Danes, by the 
Fonr Masten, 915 ; Uit 916. At 918 
(Uit), and 912 (Four M.), we have 
mention of ^*a great new fieet of gen- 
tiles at Loch Dacaoch." We ought, 
perhaps, to infer from this that the 
reinforcements recorded in the text 
arrived between the years 918 and 916. 

' Waterford. The words are " Bel- 



lum navale oc [i.e. apud] Manaînn 
eciţt [tnter] Barid Mac nOitir, et 
Kagnall na Imair, ubi Barid pene cum 
omni exercita suo deletus est" Ann. 
UlU 913. Dr. 0*Conor (^Rer. Hib, 
Scriptt iv. p. 247,) reads Bond mac 
Noctirj a mistake for Mac n-Oitir. 
Mr. Robertson (Scotland under her 
early Kings, i. p. 57,) has it *' Barid 
mac Kocti." The Dublin MS. of the 
Ulster Annals has Mac n-OUir, *^ son 
of Oitur,'* which is evidently the true 
reading. 

* Exphiis, These were, the mnzder 
of Domhnall or Donnell, son of Donn- 
chadh, heir apparent of Cashel, yrho 
was probably son of Donnchadh mac 
Dubhdabhoirenn, king of Munster (see 
App. B., p. 238); the plunder of Mosc- 



INTKODUCTION. 



Ixxxv 



invaders divided themselves into three companîes, one of 
which took up their station at Corcach,^ the other at 
Inîs-na-hEidhnighi, in Keny, and the third at Qlas-Limi, 
From these garrisons they plundered the whole of Munster, 
so that there was not a house lefi standing from the 
river,* meaning, perhaps, the Shannon, southward to the 
sea; and it ia partictdarly mentioned that Qebennach, son 
of Aedh, king of the Ui Conaifl Qabhra,^ was beheaded 
by them. A chronological note is added that this con- 
quest of Munster took place in the year hefort the death 
of Flann Sionna This ought perhaps to have been the 
year after,^ or A.D. 917. 

A paragraph which stands in the text at the end of Ragnaii 
the next chapter,* is obviously misplaced, and ought^^JÎ*' 
to come in here ; all that intervenes belongs to an l^^nd. 
earlier period, and is evidently an interpolation.® The 
paiagraph alluded to records the flight or banishment of 
Ragnall and Ottir into Scotland, where they were de- 
feated, and both chieftains slain by Constantine, son of 
Aedh. This battie, according to some English authorities, 
took place at Tynemore, or Tynemoor,^ in the year 918 ; 



nîghe [now MiiAkeny, co. of Cork,] 
and of Ui Cairpre, or Ui Cairpre 
Aebhdha, in the co. of Limerick. (JBook 
o/Riffhts, p. 77.) 

^ CorctuA^ now Cork ; Inis-na-h£idh- 
nighe, now Iny, in Keny ; Glas-Linn, 
(probably on the Shannon; see Tribes 
ttnd Customt ofBy Many, p. 130, n.) 

^Rivtr, The original word iB tni, 
a stream, flood, or river, written also 
Li, tia ; (Webh, lAif, the sea) ; prob- 
ably cognate with f-lu-men, and with 
the Iiish ti-noTD, to filL It is also 
the name of the river Lee, which is 
generally written taoi« OTlaherty^ 
Ogyg.^ p. 164. In this sense it has 
been taken in the translation, p. 81, 
and p. 234. But the district from the 
Lee to the sea sonthwards woold be a 
very email portion of the conntry. 

> Ui ConaiU GuJbhra. See note, p. 



31, and comp. Booh ofJiightt, p. 76, n. 
The descent of this tribe is given App. 
B., GeneeUog. Table V, For the other 
chieftains slain, see p. 31, and note '. 

* After. We have already had oc- 
casion to notice the arobiguity of the 
phrase ţie nec, which may signify be- 
/ore or c/ter the death, perhaps accord- 
ing to the pronunciation of ţve. See p. 
bdiL,». FlannSionnadiedSKaL Jun. 
916. C7^^.,p.484. This chroDological 
claose does not occur in the ancient 
MS. of the present work, and is there- 
fore probably an interpolation. 

^Next chapter, See p. 35. 

^ InierpolaHan. See p. 34, and n. *, 
p. 234-5. 

\Tynemoor. Innes, Criticai Eesa^^ 
App. 3. Simeon Dunelm. says, at Cor- 
bridge-on-Tyne, ii., c. 16. 



Ixxxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



Battie of 
Tjmerooor. 



and the Annals of ULster, at that date, give a more cir- 
cumstanţial account of it than is customaiy with them; 
but without saying where the battie was fought They 
teii us that Ragnall was accompanied by two earls, Ottir 
and Oragaban,^ with some others whom the annalist calls 
og-tigherTuiy "young chieftains." The North Saxons also 
were in allianoe with *' the men of Alba ;" which drcum- 
stance seems to prove that Ragnall's object was to secure 
his right to the sovereignty of Northumbria» and eonse- 
quently he was lesisted. He divided his forces into four 
battalions — one led by his brother OodMth, grandson of 
Ivar ; one by the two earls ; one by "the young chiefbains ;"* 
and the fourth kept in concealment or ambuscade by him- 
self. The united forces of Constantine and his Saxon 
allies soon routed the first three battalions, and "there 
was a great slaughter of the Qentiles round Ottir and 
Oragaban." Then Ragnall attacked the victors in the reor, 
and rendered the result of the battie doubtfîil ; " for 
neither king nor mormaer [great steward or earl]" was 
slain by the Danes, and " night alone put an end to the 
conflict/' In other words the battie was a drawn one.* 
It is not said in the XJlster Annals that Ragnall or Ottir» 
or any other of the leaders, was slain ; but we infer that 
at least Ragnall, grandson of Ivar, whom they caii " king 
of the Fingall and Dubhgall,'* survived ; for they record 
his death three years after the battie,^ A.D. 921. 



1 Gragaban, Ifn ^fiaggabonn, 
**with OnggabuL** It is evident 
that thifl is the name or snnuine of a 
man. He ia not mentioned in the 
other Annals ; but Simeon Dunelm. in 
hÎB shorter Chron. (Jiomm, Bist, Brit, 
p. 686, B.) at the year 812, menţiona 
this chieftain nnder the name of Otvui 
Cracaham^ in these wordB, **Rehigwold 
Rex, et Oter Comes, et Osvnl Craca- 
ham irmperont et rastaverent Dnn- 
bline** [Dunblain]. In Lappenberg^s 
Hiat of England (Thorpe*8 ed. îi. p. 
94) Cracabam ia miatiJcen for the 



name of a place. Bnt it ia a weD 
known name or anniame, and ia anp- 
poaed to aignify erouhfoot, indicsting 
akill in anguiy. See Langebek, fi. p. 
158,11. 

^ A drawn one. Ann. Uit 917 (918). 
Dr. Reerea haa given thia paaaage in 
the original, and with a trandation, 
Adamnanj p. 882, a. See a good ac- 
count of thia battie in Robertion*^ 
ScoUand under her earfy Kingif L p. 
67, $q. 

^SattU. Ann. Uit 930, ol. 981. 



nrrRODUcnoN. 



Ixxxvii 



\ 



The other events recorded în this chapter (xxix.), which, ffl*nghter 

as we have said, are not in iheir chionological oider, Q^iu at 

fiJl within the period which onr author calls " the rest," ^"^ ^ain 

ihat is to say , the forty years dnring which there were no 

frefih invasions of Ireland Theee weie " an ertraordinary 

and indescribable slaughter of the foreigners at Dun 

Main,^ in the west of Ireland/' or, aocording to another 

reading, in the weat of Munster. The Dun itself was de- 

molished, and was therefore probably a fortreas of the 

enemy ; for the iTictors were the principal tribes of the 

Bouth-weat of Ireland, namely, the Eoghanacht of Loch 

Lem, or Killamey, nnder the command of their chieftain, 

Gonligan,' son of Maelcron ; the Ui Conaill Qabhra, of 

Limerick, under Flannabrat, or Flanneiy, grandson of 

Dunadach,' their king ; and the Ciarraighe, or men of 

Eeny, under theîr chieftain, Congalach,^ son of Lachtna. 

Our author fixes the date of this great victory by telling Contem- 
Qs that in the same year the following events took place : ^^ 
— 1. Colphinn* was slain at Cenn Curraigh, and Baeth- 
borr was slain at Dublin. 2. Amlaff plundered Lismore. 
3. Foenteran, son of Drognean, chieftain of the Fir 
Muighi (now Fermoy), bumed AmlafiTs câmp on the same 
lught^ in revenge for the plunder of Lismore. 4. After 
which Amlaff murdered^ his own brother, Osill, or Oisld 
These calamities were brought upon the Danish chieftains 
V the miraculous vengeance of St. Mochuda,^ patron of 
lâsmore, for their sacrilegious plundering of that sBcred 



//>Miiir<iMi. 



This place b not men- 
in the Aanabi There is a Dan- 
in the wcet of Keny. Dun- 
is nentioiied, p. 86, which 
aaother spelling of the 



This chieftain is not 
in the Annals, aHhoagh the 
K record tlte death of his father, 
at their year 887. 

Hedied888(=885), 
M. See Afip. B^ Genealog. 



Tahle Y., No. 20. Flannabrat was 
Uned, A.D. 876 («878). F\mr M. 

* CtmgaUuk, He is not mentioned 
in tlM Annals. 

* Colpkkm. See chap. xziv., p. 28, 
and p. Izziii ahore. 

^Mwdered» 8ee Fragmenta of An. 
nals, p. 171, and p. IxziL, snpra. 

fMoekda. Called also Carthach, 
from the name of his maşter, St. 
Gatliach. See Mart Donegal, 14 May, 
p. 127. His original name was Cada. 



l 



IxxxviS 



INTRODUCTION. 



Theirdate Unfortunately, however, none of these events are 

mined. mentioned in the Irish Annals^ and therefore we are 

ignorant of their precise dates. But the next paragraph 

in our author's narrative enables us to supply this defect. 

He there tells us that this was the same year in which 

Aedh Finnliath, king of Ireland, with Conchobhair,' or 

Conor, king of Connaught, gaîned the battle of Cili Ua 

nDaighre' over "the Fair Gentiles," six years after 

the death of Eing Maelseachlainn, and therefore A.D. 

869. 

The batUe It appears &om the curious account of this battle given 

nDalghre* ^^ ^® Brussels " Fragments of Annals," that it originated 

or Kaii- in some insult offered to King Aedh Finnliath, by his 

nephew Flann,' king of the Cianachta Bregh, who called 

to his assistance the crews of a fleet of Norsemen, at that 

time anchored at the mouth of the Boyne. He had also 

as his allies the men of Leinster^ and thus was considerably 

superior in point of numbers to the king of Ireland. 

Nevertheless he was defeated with great tiaughter, and 

beheaded. The chronide* represents the victorjr as due 



neer. 



> ConchMair, See Dr. O'Dono- 
▼an*8 note ^ Fowr M. 866, p. 504. 

* CUI Ua n-Daighre : now Killmeer, 
near Drogheda. (See Fragments of 
Anttohy p. 183, n.) 

^Flann, The Annals of UUter (867) 
give the followmg account of thia 
battle — " Bellam [battle gained] hy 
Aedh Mac Kefll, at CUl-oa-nDaigri, 
over the By Niall of Bregia and the 
Leinstennen, and oyer the great Bimy 
of the Gaill, i.e. 800, or 900, or more. 
In which fell Flann, son of Gonang, 
king of all Bregia, and Diarmait, son 
of Edirsceir [Driscoll], '' king of Loch 
Gabhor^ [Loch Gower or Lagore, near 
DnnshaaghUn, co. of Meath] "et 
in isto bello plurimi Gentiliiun tmci- 
datl snnt. And Fachtna, son of Mael- 
duin, righdomhna [heir apparent] of 
the North, fell in the heat of the 



battle, et alii mulţi." Flann was the 
son of Conang, or Conall, king of the 
Cianachta (or posterity of Cian) of 
Bregia, by a daughter of NiaU Gaille, 
whose name is not preseryed, and sister 
of Aedh Finnliath. To her the poem 
quoted in the text is ascribed ; and see 
the other poems quoted by the Four 
H., A.D. 866 (=:869), on the battle of 
Cill-na>nDaighri, showlng that the 
victory was oonsideied at the Urne 
one of great triumph and importancei. 
' Chnmicle. Fragmenta of Annals, 
p. 181, $q. Before the battle, Aedh 
is represented as reminding his armj 
that "it is not by foroe of soldiers 
that a battle is gained, but by the aid 
of Qoă and the righteousness of the 
prince. Pride*^ (he adds) ** and snper- 
fluous forces are not pleasing to God, 
but humility of mind and firmness of 



INTBODUCTION. 



Ixxxix 



to the piety and Chriatianity of King Aedh, who spared 
the men of Leinster after the battle, as being Christiaiis, 
BSki tumed hia troops aliogeiher against the Pagaii 
Nors^nen. 

The events recorded in the next chapter (xxx.) are dated Battie of 
în the year " in which Niall^Qlun-dubh became monarch **" 
of Ireland," or A.D. 916. At this epoch Sitiîc, grandson 
of Ivar, and brother of Ragnall of Waterford, of whom we ' 
have just spoken, came with another fleet and settled at 
Cenn Fuait.^ From this plaoe they plundered Leinster, 
and soon afberwards gained a great battie over the king 
of Leinster. Our author does not say where ; but the 
Annals of Ulster and the Four Masters teii us expressly 
iiiat the battie was at Cenn Fuait, which was probably 
somewhere near the coast of the counties of Kilkenny or 
Wexford. After their victory* they went northwarda 



liesit.^ Flann, cm the other hand, 
«row» to hifl foUowen that his sole 
cbject is ambition, **to gain the throne 
of Irdand or be killed.** Again King 
Aedh ezhoits his Boldien ''Think not 
of flight, hnt troflt hi the Lord, who 
ghrea vietoiy to the ChristianB ;** and 
«fter the battie, ** Beloved people 
apare the Christiana, and flght against 
the idolaten, who are now roated be- 
fore jroo." It appears, therefore, that 
the rdigioa» element had begnn to 
make iteeif f elt m the contest between 
IhepartieB. 

iCbMi/'«atC:"Fttat*8Head.^ Thu 
plaoe, Dr. O'Donovan con jectoreB (Four 
M, 915, notei, p. 589, 560), is now 
Conf ey, in the county of Kildare, near 
Lrisdip, (the Danish Lax-ltp^ Salmon 
Leap^) in the barony of SaXt (Saltus 
Salmonis). But the Annals of Ulster, 
ai 916 (Fonr M. 915), teii na that 
Cenn Fnait was i iiai|iiti|% Loipn, 
«^in the East, or anterior pait of Ldn* 
sttf ;** and it mnst have been near the 
as SUric, '*with his fleet,*' settled 



there. ^ poem, qnoted by the Foar 
M., seeji to speak of the battie (if it 
be the same) as having taken place in 
** a vallciy orer Hgh Moling,** which 
may signify either Timolin, in the 
south of the county of Kildare, or St. 
Mttllins on the Barrow, in the south of 
the county of Carlow. 'Diis latter place 
may have been approached by water, 
from Waterford, and as it is situated 
at the foot of Brandon Hill, the battie 
may have been in some " valley over 
Tigh Molmg," and the Danish fortress 
called Cenn Fnait, on some kead in the 
mountain, accessible to light ships by 
the Barrow. 

* Vidory, In the battie we are told 
were slain 600, with fifty kings. The 
foUowing are named: — 1. Ugaire, son 
of Ailill, king of Leinster, whose father 
was also slain by the Norsemen in 
871 (Four 11 869); 2. Maolmordha, 
son of Muiregean, king of western (or 
more probably eastem) Liffey. See 
note S p. 84. That part of the 
county of Kildare which lies between 



XC 



INTBODUCnON. 



TheClanna 
lyar land 
forciUy at 
Dublio. 



Battle of 
Kilma- 
■hogne and 
death of 
KlaUGlnn- 
dubh, 919. 



and plundered Eildare, and "the greater part of the 
chuTches of Erinn." 

We next read of the amval of another party of the 
Clanna Imhar, or children of Ivar, as the Irish caii them. 
They came în " an iminense royal fleet/' under the com- 
mand of Sîtrîc, grandson of Ivar, to Dublin, where they 
" forcibly* landed," and encamped. Whether this was the 
same Sitric, grandson of Ivar, who was the leader of the 
Qentiles of Cenn Fuait three years before, is not certain. 
He is here called Sitric Caech, " the Blind," and by the 
Pour Masters (at 917) Sitric Oale, a word which, if it be 
Irish, may signify " the champion" or " hero." 

Be this however as it may, King Niall Glundubh lost 
no time in mustering his clansmen and kindred fix)m the 
north of Ireland. He attacked the invaders, and a great 
battle ensued in the mountains south of Dublin, where he 
himself was sladn ; twelve kings fell in«the battle, with a 
great part of the nobles of the northem half of Ireland, 



the riyer Uîh or Liffey and the sea, 
and ia indnded in ita hone-shoe 
winding, waa eastem or Airthei Lif ^ ; 
the rest of the connty was western 
or larthair Lifâ (See Four M. 628, 
note *, p. 250). 3. Mughron, son 
of Cenneidigh, king of Laighis (now 
Leîz) and the three Comanns, (septs 
aitoated fai the north of the counţy of 
Kilkenny. See Fonr M. 871, note ', 
p. 616). His father, Cenneidigh, or 
Kennedy, waa the son of Gaithin, by 
Lann, aister of Gearbhaill of Ossoiy. 
Seeabore, p. Izxzi, note K 4. Cînaodh, 
son of Tnathal, king of the Ut Enech- 
glaia, a tribe seated in the barony of 
Arklow, connty of Wicklow. They 
were descended from Bresail, snmamed 
Enechglais, or of the green face, son 
of Cathair M6r, king of Ireland in the 
second centary (Four M. 915, p. 590). 
5. liaelmoedhog, son of l!)iannaid, 
abbot of Glenn Uissen, now Killeshin, 
Queen*8 connty, in tlie territor)' of Ui 



Bairche. He waa probably abbat- 
bishop; and is called by onr anthor 
Archbishop of Leinster, i.e. Ard- 
(chief or eminent) bishop, becanse of 
his eminence in leaming, for the Fonr 
Hast teii ns that he was " a distin- 
gnished scribe, anchorite, and leamed 
sage, in Latinity and in the Scoţie 
speech." The Ann. Uit caii him '* a 
sage, and bishop of Leinster." He i» 
not mentioned by Ware or Harris, nor 
does his name occnr in connexioo with 
any of the known episcopal sees. 
There were no Archbishops, in the 
modem sense of the word, at that ttme 
in Ireknd; see Si. Pairieh, Apottk 
qfiniamdt p. 14, §q. 

^ ForcMy. We have seen that the 
f oreigners were expelled from Dablln 
m 902 by the Iriah chieftains, who 
probably sUU held possesiion of tbe 
place, and resisted the landing of the 
new invaderSi This ezplains ihe 
phrase oji etcatit *' by force." 



1 



nrTBODtJCTION. 



xci 



aad a " cotintless army besides." The Annals have re- 
eorded chronological crîteria which place it beyond a 
doubt that Wednesday, September 15th, 919, was tlie pre- 
cise date of thÎB engagement, and the Four Masters teU us 
that the battle was fought at Cili Mosamhog,* now 
Kilmashogae, in the mountains near Rathfamham, about 
six miles from Dublin. 

The Qăjnes of the twelve* kings or chieftains who were ivâre 
slam in the battle are then given in detail ; and it is evident ^°^* *^^^ 



^aU Moiomhog. The churcb ot 
Hofiamhog. The name of this saint 
voold be Samhţ or perhapa Sabh, 
^*^ing away the devotional prefix mo, 
^f ud the termination og, little or 
^onog. 3q^ qq g^f.]^ name has been 

'•ond ia the Iriah Calendar». Sabia 

«■ Sabina, wae the mother or grand- 

'^^ef of St Cuthbert. The remains 

*' a rery large cromlech are stîll to be 

*^ OQ Kilmashogae mountain, in the 

f^^'^da ol Glen SouthweU, near St 

^«^mba'a College. Thia, in all pro- 

iiity^ marks the grave of the chief- 

j^^^*nd klng« «laih in the battle. 

^^Jr^^^^^^iig^ or the church of St. 

1,^ . ***■% now KUrnacnd, ia in the 

jV^^^^tiona of the MSS. and other 
^jj^**t^B ut the liat of the kinga are 
»Id^*^' The Dnblin IliS., from 
^jjj^ *1^« text is taken, is the only 
|. /*^*^ which adheres to the num- 
jj ^^lv"e. Thenatoesareth^e given 
""^■1, Conchobhair, son of Mael- 



*^»i-hood. 
't^e. See note, p. 36, where 



^ ^*»^ chieftainiy of the Clann Col- 
2 ^ (SeeGeneaL Table II., p. 246). 
j!T^^*^lng, son of Flann Slofina, heir 
j^^^t.ofIreLind(t6.) 3. Flaîthbher- 
^^ ^» of Domhnall, another hdr 
^*^tit of Ireland. 4. Aedh, son of 
ţ^^^ah [Eochagan, Four M. 917,] 
^^^* Uladh. Reevea'sJE:cc/.iln%, 
^ ^»»S. 5.Maelmithigh,aonofFl«n. 



nagan, king of Bregia; a district m- 
cludihg the cotiflties of Meaih, West- 
raeath. Dublin (north of the Liffey), 
and part of Loath {Book ofRighUy p. 

11, n.) 6. Eremhon, son of Cennedigh, 
chief of Cenel Mani, a tribe in Teffia, 
Westmeath. (7«4 p. 180, n.) 7. Con- 
galach, son of Cele, king of Ua liac 
Uais, now the barony of Moygobh, in 
Westmeatb. 8. Congalach, soh of 
Dreman, k. of Crimhthainn, now th(S 
barony of Lower Slane, in Meath. 9. 
Maelmaire, son of Ainbith, k. of Mng- 
omn or Mugdhom, now Cremorne [the 
angUcked form of Crioch Mnghhoni], 
coonty of Monaghan. 10. Deochan, 
son of Domhnall, king of Cianachta, 
a district of Bregia, in Heath. 11. 
Donan, or Diman, son of Cerballan. 

12. Brenan, son of Fergns. Thâse two 
last named are not elsewhere men- 
tioned. The Ma B. adds the three 
foUowing names — (see p. 86, n. 4) : — 
1. Maeldubh, kmg of Oirghiall (Lonth 
and Monaghan), [who is called Mafel- 
croibhe Ua Dubfasionaigh, lord of 
Oirghiall, by the Leabhor Gahhaîa and 
Four Mast.j andMaelcraibi Mac Dnbh- 
sionaigh, king of the Airghiallu, by 
the Ann, Uh.'] 2. Maelcraibi, son ai 
Doilgen, whom the Four M. caii king 
of TorUn, or of the tTi Tortain [a tribe 
of the Oirghialla seated near Ardbrac- 
can in the co. of Meath] ; and 3. Cel- 
lach, son of Fogartach, king of South 
Bregia. 

*y2 



xcu 



INTRODUCTION. 



Godfrey, 
grandsonof 
Ivar, plun- 
den Ar- 
xnagh, jLD. 
921. 



Battle of 
Tigh Mic 
Deicthig. 



that those who obeyed the summons of King Niall were 
the families immediately interested in the succession to the 
monarchy, namely, the tribes of Meath and those of 
Tyrone and Down. The possession of Dublin was of 
peculiar importance to the Clann Cohnain, from the dis- 
position shown by the neîghbouring chieftains of Ossory 
and Leinster to make alliances with the învaders. 

In the next ehapter (xxxii.) we read that Gothrin, 
Gofraigh, or Godfrey,* " son of Imar," plnndered " the 
north of Eriîin," and spoiled Armagh. He must have been 
not son but grandaoii of Imar, as he is rightly styled in 
the Bnissels Annala, and by the Four Masters. The 
attack upon Armagh is dated in the Annals,^ Saturday, 
the day before the feast of St. Martin (Nov. 11), which 
indicates the year 921 ; and it is evident that the para- 
graph in which this event is recorded is out of its place, 
and ought to be at the end instead of the beginning of this 
ehapter. For our author's next words (p. 37), " notwith- 
standing that this battle was gained over them," that is, 
over the Irish, evidently refer to the Battle of Kil- 
mashogue, not to the battle (if there was one) in which 
Armagh was spoiled ; but the words above quoted ought 
to have been rendered "that battle, however, was avenged 
on them in fall measure' before the end of a year," mean- 
ing, no doubt, a year after the battle of Kilmashogue ; for 
Donnchadh, grandson^ of Maelseachlainn, gained a battle 
over the Danes at Tîgh Mic Deicthig in which an im- 



1 Godfrey, The Annalsof Ulster(92l) 
record the deathof Ragnall, "grandson 
of Ivar, king of theFinngall andDubh- 
gali ; and immediately af terwards 
"Goithbrith, grandson of Ivar, in Ath- 
cliath;" in othcrwordaGotfrith, imme- 
diately after the death of his brother 
Ragnall, came from Armagh to claim 
the Bovereign power in Dublin, and to 
take advantage of the victory gained 
at Kilmashogue by his brother Sitric. 
See Appendix D, Geneal. Table, VII. 

*AnnaU, Uit 920 or 921. Fonr 
M. 919. See p. 37, n. ». 



• Measure. The word comaip sîg- 
nifies measnre. In the text, p. 36 
(as Mr. Henneasy has pointed out), it 
was mistaken for a proper name. 

^Grandton, The text has «on, which 
is a veiy common mistake, and in this 
case a palpable error of the scribe. 
See p. 37, n. u, and Geneal. Table, 1 1., p. 
246. There is obscurity in our author*8 
phraseology, ** notwithstanding, how- 
ever," (he says) "that this battle was 
gained over them,*' meaning the Irish, 
" Donnchadh gained a battle over 
I them," meaning the Danes. 



INTBODUCTION. 



XClll 



mense uumber of the enemy was slain, and there 
escaped "not more than enough to teii what had hap- 
pened ;" and ''in this battle/' say the Four Masters/ 
" revenge was had of them for the battle of Ath-cliath'' 
(meaning the battle of Rilmashogue), '' for there fell of the 
nobles of the Norsemen here, as many as had fallen of 
the nobles and plebeians of the Qaedhil in the battle of 
Ath-cliath." 

The arrival of Tamar, or Tomar, " son of Elgi/' is next Anivai of 
recorded (chap. xxxiii.). He is said to have come " afler î?^" ^^^ 
that/' that is either after the battle of Kilmashogue, 
which is most probably the meaning, or after the battle 
of Tigh-mic-Deicthig. He landed at Inis-Sibhtonn, now 
King's Island, at Limerick, with "an inmiense fleet/' 
and plundered " the chief part of Munster, both churches 
and. chieftainriea" Our author adds that Lorcan,' son 
of Conligan, was king of Cashel at that time. Tomar was 
the name given by the Irish to the Scandinavian chief- 
iaţn Qormo Ckvnde (the aged), called Mac Elgi, that is son 
(but perhaps grandson) of Oormo Enaki (the Erigliah),^ 
the Outhrum of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, sumamed 
Enski^ because he was bom in England. 

The next chapter (xxxiv.) speaks of a fleet on Loch A fl«et on 



^FimrMatten. The battle of Tigh 
mic DeScthîg \b placed hy the Ann. 
Uit in 919 or SÂO, and by the Four 
JHl in the firsi year of King Donn- 
chad, which began September 919 ; a 
year or two therefore &^/bre thespoiling 
of Annagfa by Godfrey, and a year 
after the battle of Kilmaahogne. Tlgh- 
mic-Deicthig, is varionsly written. 
Ti^ mic nEathach (Four M,\ and 
Hgfa meîc Nechtai^ (B.): the worda 
mean, Houfle of the son of Deicthach, 
or Kochadh, or sons of Nechtach. The 
place is now onknown ; bat the Four 
Mastcrs (A.D. 918, p. 599) teii ns that 
itwasin the district of Cianachta Bregh, 
io the oounties of Meath and Dublin. 

*Lorcam, He began his rdgn 920 
( a 922), Four M, He was of the race 



of Failbhe Flann, (son of Aedh Dubh), ^^* 
ancestor of the Hi Failbhe. See 
Geneal. Table, IV., No^ 11, p. 24a 
His geuealogy up to Aedh Dabh ia 
gfyen in the Book of Leinster thus: 
Lorcan,8onof Conligan [sL 898 =901, 
Four if.], 8. of Corcrain, s. of Corc, 
8. of Artgall, s. of Domhnall, ^ of 
Conall, s. of Snedgna, s. of Natfraich, 
s. of Colga, a. of Failbhe Flann, king 
of Manster, whodied688 (Fonr M.688). 
3 EngUtik. The Dafiish word EiUH 
(English) was oormpted by the Irish 
faito Elgi^ Aiicks, or AUg^ It is not 
so easy to see how Gorroo became 
Tomar. Seep. lxyii«ii. Thegenealogy 
of this Gormo, and of his snccessor 
Gormo Gamle (jfnmdeams), is very 
obscure and conf used. 



XCIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



Appareni 
conclttsion 
of a section 
ofthework* 



xhB OppPQB ' 
liOIKXt 

Mimster; 
OttarDnbh 
at Water- 
loid. 



Derg-derc, the celebrated expansion of the Shannon now 
known as Lough Derg. This fleet seems io have been seni 
out from the Danes of Limerick ; for the historian adds, 
that after having plundered several of the ecclesiastical 
islands of the Lough, and committed other outrages,^ 
they " arrived agaîn in safety at Limerick without battl© 
or conflict." 

These, our authorsays, were the " mighty deeds" of the 
Clanna Elgi, or sons of Gormo Enski, and of the ships of 
Dublin, in the northem dîvîsion of Ireland (called Leth 
Cuinn or Conn's Half) and in Leinster. These words 
seem to mark the conclusion of a division or section of 
the wDrk, in which the northem half of Ireland was 
principally concemed ; but as the sons of Elgi are par- 
tîciilarly fnentioned, perhaps the " mighty deeds" spoken 
of are only ihos6 described in chapters xxxiii. and xxxiv. 
The remaindef of the work is devoted to the history of 
the conflicts betteeen the men of Munster and the sons of 
Ivar, ot Danes, propfefly so called, of Dublin, Limerick, 
and Waterford. 

The oppression of Munster b^gan by the arrival of a 
fleet of one hundred fehips, under the command of Oiter 
Dubh,* or Ottar the black, at Port Laitge, or WaterfonL 



1 OtUragtt* They plimdered Inis 
Celtra, and *' ârowned,** ie. caat into 
the Utke, ita shrines, reUcs, and books. 
They plundered also Mnc-inis-Biagail, 
(Hog-island of Si Riagal or Reguluă, 
see above, p^ xxxiii, n. 2), and other 
chnrcheB on the idand^ of the lâke. 
On the mainland they pliindered Tir- 
daglas rTenyglAĂs, id Tipperary), 
Lothrâ (aee abovft, p. xlix), Clonfert, 
. nd Clonmacnoifl. Sailing «p the 
Slannon to another expanrion of the 
river, called Loch Ribh or Ltoch Re^ 
they plnndered its islândi alao, on 
which there were celebrated religions 
honses; especlally Inia Clothrann (now 
Inchderann) and Inia-bo-finne (Inch- 
bofin, the white cow's island). They 



then attâckM the #e8t of Heath, and 
sonth of Connatight, (ihepresent King'a 
coiiniy ănd ebnth of Gălway,) Where 
they deir Chiâch, khig of Aidhnei Le. 
of Ui Flâchrach Aidhne, in th« aonth 
of Galwa;^, a territory repreeented by 
the preMnt diocese of Klhnaftdnâgfa. 
Se^ note *, p. 89. 

^Oiiet Dttbh. Chai>. txzr. The 
fiiglish Clinniicleft, at datea which 
vary from dl2 to 916, mention * fleet 
of ** Pagan f^teâ" irho, harlng left 
Britaih fof Ganl nineteen yMrt before, 
now retnmed from Llydwicca [./Lrmo- 
rica] nnder the command of Ohier 
and Rhoald ; they entered the mouth 
of the Sevenif but being driren off» 
took refuge in South Walca, and thea 



INTBODUCriON. 



xcv 



Tkis chieftain plundered the eastem coast of Munster, 
compelling the inhabitaiits to pay tribute, or personal 
service. In his wake foilowed innnmerable hosts, so that, 
in ihe language of our author (p. 41 ), " there was not a har- 
bour, nor a landing-port, nor a Dân, nor a fortress, nor a fast- 
neaSy in all Munster without fleets of Danea and pirates." 
The leaders of several of these fleets are named/ and a 
pathetic description is given of the ravages and outrages Outrage»' 
committed by them, which exceeded, we are told, all that «>«n™itt»i 
the countiy had hitherto endured. Particular mention iriah. 
is made of the captives of both sexes, who were carried 
off, '* over the broad green sea»" into oppression and bond- 
age ; and our author exclaims, ''Alajs! many and finequent 
were the bright and brilliant eyes that were suffused with 
tears, and dimmed through grief and despair, at the 
separation of son from fia,ther, and daughter from mother, 
and brother from brother, and relatives from their race 
and from their tiibe.'' 

In the next three or four chapters' we have a record of Victoriwof 
Bome battles in which the Danes of Dublin and other '^l^fS* 

of DaUiii. 



iftiled to Irdand. "H tamen cUde 
oppraiiri, guandam insnUiii, qo» Beoric 
[Flatholme] nominatar, petienmt, abi 
tamdia ooosidenmt, qaonsque pluns 
eomm eM«nt t§mB oonsiimpti; unde 
n eo ea rit ate compnUi, priiu ad Deomo- 
dom [Sathwalliain], deinde aatumnali 
lenoipon ad Hibeiniam navigarunt.** 
So «ajB fîor. Wiffom^ A.D. 915 (I/o- 
hm». Hi$L Brikm. p. 570). Comp. 
Ai^thSax. Cknm, A.D. 912 (Ihid, p. 
375) aiidX<9yMfi6ery (Thorpe*0 TraoaL) 
ii., p. 94 «gr. The Ohter and Bhoald 
of tlie FiBgliah Cbranidet are veiy 
pfobably the Oiter or Ottir and Rag- 
nald of the Iriah (aeedi. xztuL, p. 81» 
and note ', p^ 39). Thii ia rendeied 
the moie likely, becaaae Waterfoid 
Harbonr, where they landed, ia eaaily 
reached 1^ aaiiing due weat from 
South Walea. The date alao agreea 



auffidently. We have aeen alao that 
our anthor'fl atatement (eh. zxiz., p. 
85) that Otter and Baghnall were 
both killed in Scotiand, ia not con- 
firmed bj other recorda. See p. Ixxii. 

1 Named, These are Oibert, Odninn, 
[Attdunn?] Grifin, Snuatgar, Lag- 
mann, Erolf, Sitriuc, Boidnin, Bim- 
din, LiagriaUch, ToirlMrducli, Eoan 
Bamn, [John the Baron?] Milid Bun, 
[the Knight Bun?] Soimin, Snainin, 
and the Inffhm Ruaidhy which ia Ixiah, 
and aigniiiea the red or red-liaired 
viigin. Ezamplea of female adven- 
turera, taking the command of a fleet, 
are not nncommon in Scandinayian 
hiatoiy. The Editor haa not identiHed 
the abore named chieftaina with any 
of thoae mentioned in the Sagaa. 

^ChapUn. Seep.48,chapa.xxxvii« 
xl. 



XCVl 



INTKODUCTÎON^. 



Battle of 

Mnine 

Broccaiii. 



parties of the enemy were victorious over the native 
chieftains. 

The first of these was the victory gained by the fleet of 
Ath Cliath, or Dnblin, and the sons of Imar, în the battle 
of Muine Broccam, a place now unknown, bat probably 
in the coxrnty of Meath.* In this battle were killed 
Buaidhri {pron, Rory) O'Cannannain, king of Tir Connell 
(county of Donegal), who was by some deemed king 
of Ireland,' and aroxind him fell many of his kinsmen, 
" the Nobles of the North.** This event is carefttUy dated 



^Meaih, We nuij infer thÎB from 
the fact, recorded by the Four M. 
(A.D. 992), that the foreignen of 
AUi Cliath plnndered Arâbr&ocan, 
Domhnach Patrick, and Moine Broc- 
cain. Therefore, as the two fonner 
are known to be in Meath, Muine 
Broccain was probablj in the aame 
oeigfabonrhood. Comp. 4 M, 948 (p. 
668). 

* King ofIrdaindL Rory O'Cannan- 
nain was of the race of Conall Gnlban, 
son of Niall of the Nine Hoatages. 
His ancestor Cannannan, from whom 
the tribe name, was the son of Flaith- 
bertacb, king of Ireland (727-784.) 
See the Genealogica! Table in 0*Do- 
novan's Bott/s of Magh Bath, p. 888. 
Roaîdhri appears to have anerted his 
claim to the throne of Ireland in 947 
(946, 4 If.) when he ^ined a battle 
oYer the legitimate king, Coilgalach, 
son of Maelmithigh, who was sup- 
ported by Amlaf, or Olaf Cnaran, the 
Danish king of Dublin. This was 
near Slane, in Meath. Two yean 
afterwards the Danes bnmt the belfry 
or ronnd tower of Slane, in which pe- 
rished Caenechar, hoctor (Ftrhighinn) 
of Slane, who had taken refnge there, 
with the crosier of his patron St. Ere, 
a sacred beli, and many relics. 0*Can- 
nannain the same year (949) gained 
another victory 0T«r Ckmgalach, whom 



he redaced to great stndtsţ entering 
Br^a, which he plundered. JSe en- 
camped at Mnine Broccain [Brogan^s 
Brake or shmbbery], and there as- 
somed the name and authority of king 
of Ireland $ " the dues of the king ol 
Ireland,** as the Four Masters teii ns, 
"were sent him from eveiy qnarter:*' 
his own people gave him the name of 
king; but the Annals style him only 
Righ-domhna, or heir appaient, Le. 
eligible to the throiie. After remain- 
ing encamped at Muine Broccain for 
six months, he appeais to have been 
attacked by the Danes of Dublin, and 
was slain, after a bloody battle, in 
which the Danes lost Ivar, tanist or 
heir apparent of their chieftain, as the 
Four Masters eall him. Another of 
their chieftains, Godfrey, son of Sitrio, 
escaped by flight The Four Masters 
make the victory to hare been on the 
aide of Ruaidhri, notwithstanding his 
having fallen in the battle, and teii ns 
that 6,000 of the fbreigners were slain. 
The Ann. VU, nj «* 2,000 vel plus." 
0*Cannannain*s pretensions to the 
throne were probably founded on the 
fact that Congalach, the actual king, 
was of the Southern Hy Ndll, and 
had therefore suoceeded iriBgularly, 
his predeceesor, Donnchadh, son of 
Flann Sionna, having been also of th« 
same race. See Append. B., p. 248. 



INTRODUCnON. 



XCVll 



by our author : it was thirty years after Nial Glundubh 
was slain, two years afber Lachtin, son of Goffraith, was 
alain, and four years after the death of Muirchertach/ 
son of Niall Glundubh, the hero of the Leather cloaks. 
It was the year in which the foreigners plundered Cenn- 
annus* of Colum Gille, now Kells, eounty of Meath, and 
also the year in which Ceinnedigh,^ or Kennedy, son of 
Lorcan, king of North Munster, or Thomond, was slain. 
These eriteria seem to indicate the year 949 or 950 as the^ 
date of the battle of Muine Broccain. 

In the next chapter (xxxviii.) is recorded the death of Death of 
CongaJach/ son of Maebnithigh, king of Ireland. He Kingof 
was slain whilst engaged in an inroad upon Leinster, ird*»^, 
with the nobles of Meath, in an ambuscade laid for him, 
by the Dublin Danes,'^ under the command of Amlaff, or 
Olaf Cuaran, son of Sitric, king of Dublin. This was seven 



1 Muirchtrtach, Perha;» we should 
retd «ix înstead of four years, for he 
was alain by the Danes in 943. See 
Circmi of IrtUtndy p. 9, aq, The nn- 
merals iu and ni might be easily con- 
foonded. It is curioos that our author 
has made no other mention of this 
cdebrated chieftaîn, and has passed 
over without notice his manj combats 
with the foreigners. This silence was 
probably the result of partisanship. 
Mnircheartach was an G'Neill, and a 
hereditaiyenemy of the Munster tribes. 
Lachtin, son of Godfreyt is not else- 
where mentioned. 

s CmmoHmu. See the Four M. at 
their year 949, and Ann. Uit. 950 or 
d51. 

t Cminei^A. This chief tain, < * heir 
apparent of Cashel,** i.e. of the sove- 
reignty of Munster, was the father of 
the celebrated Biian Borumha, but the 
date of his death ia not giyen in the 
authentic Annals. The Dublin Annals 
of InisfaUen, as they are called, men- 
tion his death at 961, the same year 



as the plunder of Cennannus or Kells, 
and the other churches of Meath, re- 
corded by the Four M. under their 
year 949 (=951). 

< C<mg<Uach, He is described as 
** king of Temhair and of all Erinn ;** 
that is, king of Tara, or chieftain of 
the Clan Colmain, of Meath, and also 
king of all Ireland. See App. B., 
Geneal. Table II., p. 246. 

fi Dviblin Danes. The Ann. Uit. say 
that he was slain by the foreigners of 
Dublin and the Leinstermen, A.D. 965 
or 956, at Taig-giurann iUaignib [Le. 
in Leinster]. The Four M. (954) speli 
thename of this place Ttgh-GighrttutHf 
[House of Gighran,] and in the B. of 
Leinster (folio 16, 6. a) it is written 
Ailen Tighi Gwrand [island of Tech 
Giurand]: this explains the genitiTe 
form Tigh^ in the other spellings of 
the name, which is otherwise anomal- 
ous. Mr. Hennessy snggests that the 
place may be Inchicore (formerly writ- 
ten Inchi-gore, for InU'tigh-Gort), a 
few miles from Dublin, near the Liffey. 

V3 



xcviii 



INTEODUCTION. 



yeara afber the death of Buadhri CCaimaDnain, mentioned 
in the preceding chapter, and therefore in the year 956. 
Battie of The battle of Cill-Mona [church of St. Munna], now 
Cffl-Mona. gjlmoon, near Dunshaughlin, county of Meath, is next 
mentioned. It took place, our author says, " seventeen 
years" after the death of Congalach, which would give its 
date, 973. But the Annals* do not agrea in this Chron- 
ology. They give us, however, the additional informa- 
tion, that Domhnall, son of the late King Congalach, in 
alliance with Amlaff, or Olaf, and the Danea of Dublin, 
had in this battle defeated the actual sovereign, Domhnall 
O'Neill, his father*8 successor. It appears, therefore, that 
he had been tempted by an alliance with the Dublin 
Danes, notwithstanding their slaughter.of his father, to 
dispute the succession of the Northern Hy Neill, in the 
hope of obtaining the sovereignty for himself. But his 
victory on this occasion did not secure his object, for 
Domhnall, son of Muirchertach Leather-cloaks, continued 
to be recognised as king of Ireland imtil his death in 980. 
The chiefbains slain in the battle of Cill-Mona are 
enumerated^ by our author, as well as in the Annals ; 



Chieftains 
flUin. 



1 AmnaU The Four Mast. C976) say 
the tvent7.8econdyearof King Domh- 
lUiU [0*Neill] or 22 yeara after the 
death of GoDgalacli, i.e. 978 ; but the 
AnnaU of Ulster record it under the 
year 969 or 970, which would be only 
13 or li yean after the death of Con- 
galach. 

* EmtmdrateeU. Theseare — l.Ardnl, 
son d Madacan, (called Ardgal, or 
Ardgar,;8. of Kadadain, Amu UlL 969, 
fimr M, 976), king of Uladh; who is 
ţ)ie42ndkinginDr.Reeyes^8li8t. Ecd, 
AniHq,j p. 355. 2. Donncuan, 8. of Mael- 
mnire (called Donnagan, or Donnacan, 
iUtheAnnaU), The Four M. give him 
no title. The Ann. Uit. caii him simply 
'^ Airchiiinech;" and our author, who is 
foUowed by Keattng, styles him " King 
ol AirgluaU, or OirghiaU," in Louthand 



Monaghim, called Uriel or Oriei by the 
Engliah. Its boundaries are described 
by Dr. O'Donovan, B. ofjRiffhts, p. 21, 
n. ■. 3. Cinaedh, son of the son of 
Cronghaiile, called son of Cronghaille 
[Cronnelly] by the Four M. and Ann. 
Uit. This personage ia called ELing or 
Lord of Conaille by the Annals, and 
the death of a Cronghaiile, Lord of the 
Conaille Muirtheimhne, the inhabit- 
ants of the leyel plain of Oirghiall, co. 
of Louth, is mentioned by the Four M, 
at 935 (=937). See B, qf Bights, loc. 
dt, and p. 166, n. i. 4. Maelbrighde, 
son of Gairbith, King of Ui nEchdach, 
now lyeagh, co. of Down. See p. 
44, ». 12, and Ueeyea^a Eccles. Antiq,^ 
p. 348. This ohieftahi is not men- 
tioned in the Annals, and has alao been 
overlooked by Dr. Keeves, foc. cit. 



INTRODUCTION. 



XCIX 



and we are told tbat eight yeare after this battle, the two 
heirs of Ireland, namely , the heirs of the Northern and 
Sonihem daimants of the throne, were slain '' by thexn " 
ihat is to say, by the Danes of Dublin. The first of these 
waâ Mnircheartach, son of Domhnall O'Neill, heir presump- 
tive to the throne of Ireland, in the line of the Northern 
Hy NialL* The second was Congalach, son of Domhnall, 
Mid grandson of the King Congalach whose death in an 
ambnscade laid by the Danes haâ jnst been recorded.* 
Thus the two rivid claimants being removed, the throne, 
on the death of Domhnall O'Neill, reverted to the southem 
line in the person of Maelseaehlainn, or Malachy IL, son 
of Domhnall, the hst of his race who ever held the 
undispnted sovereignty of Ireland. 

A battle fought in Munster, at Cathair Cuan, by Brian, Battie of 
is assigned to the same year, that is to say, the same year q^^!^ 
in which the two heirs of Ireland were slain. This is 
the battle reoorded by the Fonr Masters, under the same 
year as the battle of Cill-Mona (976=978). They do 
not, indeed, mention Cathair Cuan,' but they describe 
a batile wherein Donnabhain, son of Cathal, lord of Hy 



5. FttguFiAl, kingof Godlaigfae, or of 
GifII|pB«| wtaldk is pvobftbly th« tnie 
rMdbkg^, â district in the co. of Louth, 
(bov Cooi^y Bee nota 18, p. 45, 
•Bdfiflerw tM, p. 809, ilote b. This 
hm life* bctti ilso puted over witb- 
ort aotiee la th« Annals. It wfll be 
obHTTvd thât «11 the chieftaina here 
anitfoiied were in the interest of the 
Nertheni Hf NielL 

iJVdrfAem B9 NeUL See Qeneal. 
Tahle I., t>. S46 ta/hk 

*BiBo>tML See GeneeL Table U., 
^M6a;^ The Foar Maetei* give 
Iheteliicrf tfac two heife In the year 
ftf/bre the battle of Cfll-H <»a, or in 
«hdr year 975 [«978], and teii os 
that thty were daSa by Amlaf, eon of 
8Hrie, that le to lay, by Olaf Cnaxan. 
the Amu UU, hare the mom entry 



at their year 976 or 977 [•>978], bnt 
place the battle of Cill-mona e^fyean 
before. Tighemach datee the death 
of the two heirs 977. 

* CoMotr Cnan. This piaee haa not 
been identifiedt the name signiilee 
**Fort of Cnan,** perhapa ffsm Cnan, 
son of Conall, chieftain of Hy Fidh- 
gente, who was slain in the battle of 
Cam GonaiU A.D. 649, (71^ 645, 
Fowr M.^ Cathair Cnan is mentloned 
eh. Izir., p. 106, wheaoe we iofer that 
it was in Hy FIdhgente, ea. of Li»e- 
rick, B. f>f JlHgktit p. 67, a. 9, and 
that it was a fttftrs» of DofBBabhan, 
or DonoTan, ^eftaln of the Hy 
Cairbhre Aebhda, as also Imd of the 
Hy Fidhgente (see Om^eaL TcMe, V., 
p. 949 ta/m). Comp. also Fonr M. and 
Tigheraach 97a 



iNTRODUcrrioîr. 



Fidhgente, in alliance with the Danes of Limerick, waa 
defeated by Brian ; and we leam, from a subsequent men- 
tion of it in this work (see p. 103), that Donnabhain was 
slain at Cathair Cuan. 
Vîctoriasof The next chapter (xxxix.) records several batilos in 
^« ■""• which the Danes of Dublin were victorious over the 
native chieftains. The first of these was a victory over 
Ugaire, son of Tuathal, king of Leinster, at Bithlann/ now 
Belan, in the south of the county of Kildare. Another 
battle, in the same year (where,* we are not told), was 
gained by them' over the Cinei Conaill, of Tirconnell, 
county of Donegall ; in which Niall, grandson of Cannan- 
nan, king of the Cinei Conaill, and other chieftains^ fell. 

Two years after this, a more important battle waa 
fought at Temhair, or Tara, against Maelsechlainn, or 
Malachy, son of Domhnall, who this same year (980) 
became king of Ireland. Our author admits that the 
victory gained by the Irish chieftain was dearly purchased. 
" It was woe," he says, " to both parties, but it was worse 
for the foreigners." They lost in the battle Ragnall, son 
of Amlaibh, or Olaf Cuaran, king of Dublin* and Conmael, 
son of Gille, whom our author calls " another^ high king 



Battle of 
Tara, 980. 



iBUhkmn. This battle Ib dated 977 
or 978» Amu UU,, and 976 [»978] 
/Vwr M, In it fell Ugaira, king of 
Leinitcr; Mniredach, son of Bian (or 
Brian, aa Tighemach calla him), king 
of the Ui Ceinnaelaigli (see Bock qf 
JUgkitj p. 206, fi.); and Googalach, 
son of Flann, king of Lege [now Lea, 
Qneen*8 oo.] and of Bechet, [or BCagh- 
Rechet, now Morett, near Maiybo- 
rongh, same oo.] 

^When, Tlie Four ÎL, 976 (978), 
say that this was a naTal battle on 
Loch Eine, gained by the AiigfaiaUa, 
or Oighialla, over the Cinei Conaill. 
So also Ann. Uit. 977 (978). Bnt 
they were probably aided by the 
Danes. 

•jy tkm: Le., by the Danes of 
Dublin. Bat see p. 46, note <. 



« Otker €3ttefUttm. Niall, grandson 
of Cannanann, is not mentioned in the 
Annsls; but the Foor M. record the 
dcath of his son, A.D. 996 (=998). 
See also Dr. O^Donovan's ffy Mim§, 
p. 885. ** The son of the son of Con- 
gakch," onght to be "son of Cooga- 
lach," aa in the Ha B., for the death 
of the grandson of Ccngalach, in the 
battleof Cill-Mona, was reoorded, chap. 
xzxriii. In like manner, **aoiLof the 
son of Mnrehad Glon-fri-lar" ought to 
be **son of Mnrehad Glon-frirlar," aa 
in B. and the Four M. He wms of 
the race of the Northern CNeiU, aad 
Heir of Ailech." 

* AmoAtr, The name Ccomael, or 
Conamael, son of Gilli, is decidedly 
Celtic, and the MS. B. calls him simply 
Conmael, omitting the worda " son of 



INTRODUCTION. 



CI 



of the fordgners," together with " all the nobles of the 
foreigners" of Dublin. 

One of ihe most important consequences of this battle Coiue- 
was that Amlaibh Cuaxan, king of Dublin, leaving bis ^J'S^ 
auihority to bis son Sitric, quitted Ireland and went on battle. 
a pilgrimage to Hi Coluim-Cille, the celebrated monastic 
ialand, now corruptly called lona, where he died.' 
Another result of the battle was that the Danes were 
compelled to liberate all the hostages in their custody, 
ftnd eepeciaUy Domhnall Claon, king of Leinster, whom 
they hâd taken prisoner more than a year before. The 
aimalist Tighemach, and after him the Four Masters, 
repreaent the liberation of this chieftain as the result of a 
second attack on the Danes of Dublin, in which Malachy, 
in conjunction with Eochaidh, son of Ardgall, king of 
Uladh,' besieged Dublin for three days and three nights. 



OiOi, another high king of the foreign- 
cnL** From the yarions speUings of 
this name in the Annals, thera ia reason 
to thmk that the trne raading is pre- 
mnă in the Ann. Uit *^ Conamhal 
mac Airrigan,** which may mean either 
"tonof Aingalf^or "aonof anOirri[or 
nib-king] of foraignen.** SeenotelS, 
pw 46^ mfra, He waa in aU probabi. 
Htf a cfaiaftain of the Gall-gaedhil of 
the ialct, paying tribute to the Daniah 
Ung of Doblxn; for the Ann. Uit and 
Foor M. tdl UB that thifl battle was 
gtfattd by King Malachj " against the 
foRîgnen of Dublin and of the ialee,** 
le. of the Sndreya, Ide of Man, &c. 
Hi may have been aon (^ a Gille, for 
that name occnra among the chieftains 
of the Sndreya. (See Bomt Kial, ii. 
p. 822, and Tndex). Hghemach calls 
him Conmael Mac Qille airre, **son of 
GOle the anl^-king.'* 

^DiedL The Fonr M. reooid his 
"gtring acroM the eea** here, and his 
death in HI, "after penance and a 
good Hfei** the year foUowîng. See 
rt^unw^ 9S0. This Olaf is called 



Cuaran, or Olaf of the iandalf by the 
Irish Annalists; Kiiaran, Knoran, or 
Quaran,bytheSagas. SeeLemtbumay 
p. 42; Fommaima Sogur. I., p. 149; 
NiaTs Sagoy p. 268 (cap. cir.) Lat. 
transL, p. 590; Laing's Km^i ofNor- 
toajf, I., p. 899. Dr. Daseat tranaiates 
the name "Olaf ratOe,'* Bumi NiaU, 
11, 828; bat Cwtram is an Irish word, 
signifying a aock, a sandal, a shoe 
fastened with thongs. Gyda, rister 
of Olaf Cnaran, was married to Olaf 
Tryggrasson, who met her in England, 
and afterwaids took her to Ireland, 
liTing "sometimes in England, some- 
times in Ireland.*'— Laing, M m^to, 
p. 400, 417. 

s Uladk. See Reeves, Eeel Aniiq,, 
p. 852-6. Dr. 0*Conor, in his tnms- 
lation of the Annals of Tigemach in 
this place^ rsndera "ifor shtaiffed^ 
as if it had been wrltten Mon 
Luaiged, and translates ^ Mors Lngadii 
ocdsi a ICadsechlanno.** The tnie 
version of the passage is this — "A great 
bost led by Ifaelsechlainn the Great, 
I son of Domhnall, king of Temhair, and 



cil 



INTEODUCTION. 



Arrivalof 
the sons of 
Irar in 
Limerick. 



Thisevent 
ont of ita 
place. 



Leaders of 
thisfleet 



and having reduced the garrîson to submisaion, recovered 
the hostages, indudiDg Domhiiall Claon.' They compelled 
the enemy aJso to pay a fine of 2,000 oxen, and to release 
the Ui Neill from a tiibute, which it aeems had been 
imposed upon all their territory between the Shannon 
and the Bea.' 

The next chapter (xl.) records the arrival of the sona of 
Ivar in Limerick. They are described aâ coming in corn- 
mand of *' an immensely great fleet^ more wonderful than 
all the other fleets, for ite equal or its likeneas never 
before came to Ireland." 

Ohronologically, however, this event is certainly out 
of its plaee in the narratiye. The phrase " there came 
after that/' with which this chapter begins, would natur- 
ally mean after the events recorded in the preceding 
chapter ; that is to say, after the battle of Tara, A.D. 980. 
But Ivar and his sons were settled at Limerick long 
before that year, and it is remarkable that no mention 
either of the exact date of their arrival, or of the immense 
and wonderfiil fleet which they are said to have brought 
with them, is found in the Irish Annals. 

The leaders of this fleet, we are told, were " Ivar,^ 
grandson of Ivar, chief king of the Qaill, and his three 
sons, Dubhcenn (or Black-head), Cu-allaidh (or WildDog), 



by EodMidb, aon of Jki^g^ king of 
UiadWagtinAt the Gaill of Ath Cliath, 
«nd Shty •hwirgad tbsm tbrae da^s 
•ad.ihne nights, and took the hos- 
tagee of Brinn from them, together 
vUhDonhnall G1m% Ung of Laighen, 
aad.iiith theOMitugos of the Ui NeUl 
Ukflfmte faind they exaoied anhmis- 
•tioit frapa the foveigaen^ie. an hondred 
.acun os0Br with jeweb and gooda, and 
tlia.fre«lam of the Ui NeiU from tri- 
bale ajeoţ fromjfcheSiaQainn [Shannon] 
. to 4he «ea.** Tighmnachj tA, D . 980. 
^DoadmaUCIam, Onranthorepeaka 
of the " tFeachenma conduct** of Am- 



laibh towarde thia chieftam; .what 
that was the editor ia onable to explaiD. 

* And the Stai ie., from the Shan- 
non, acroas the preeent ooimtieaof Westi 
meath and Meath, to ibe eaatera lea. 

s/fNir. TheO*Clei70rBiiipieU4lfS. 
(B), reada '*Amlaibh mor na Imhalr,'* 
Amlaff or Olaf the Great, gnmdion 
of lyar ; bat thia is evidentjy a deiicăl 
mifltake, and the lame MS., in another 
place, speaking of the death of this 
chieftain calls him Ivar, not AnUaff. 
Ch. Ixiv., p. 108. . See also p. 71. 
There are otber ânatenoei of these 
names being inierchanged. 



iNTRObucrnoN. 



cm 



and Aialt (or Haiold.)"^ They entrenched themaelves on 
Inia Sibhtond, now SLing^s Island, in ihe Shannon, upon 
which a part of the present dty of Limerick is biult. 
From this position they plundered all Mimster, " both Thdr 
churches and chieftainries, ezacting hostages, and levying ^^P''"*'^^* 
black mail, under a well-oiganized şystem of tax-gatherera, 
who were distributed oyer the country and billeted in the 
hcuseB of the inhabitants, " kings and ohiefi, stewards 
and baili£EB, in every territory and in every chieftainiy/'' 
Of the excess of this oppression our author gives a 
pathetic and somewhat bombastic accoimt, in ,which the 
most important particular notioed is the impositionof a 
nose tax,' in addition to the royal tribute, consisting of 
an ounce of silver or white bronze^ ** for every noee ;" and 
whoever was unable to pay was sold as a slave. 
It may be doubted whether this glowing description 



1 AraU {or BaroW) The Celtic 
names Dabhoean and Cu-allaidh, 
were donbtlefls giyen by the Irish in 
acoorânnce wîth their usual practice, 
âs deeciiptiTe of the soppoeed pecnli- 
aritiea of theae chleftains. The annala 
mention Dnbhcenn and Aralt, bat 
tnbatitute Amlaibh for Cu-aDaidh 
(Four ÎL 975, Tigem, 977); which 
seema to indicate that AmlaflT or Olaf 
was the Scandinavian nanie of thia 
latter warrior. Perhapa he was the 
aame aa Oiaf Cenncairech (acabby 
hcad), of Limerick, who galned the 
battk of Dnbhthir, near Athlone, in 
981 Cd88), over the Hj Many. He 
aflanrarda aeltled in Loch Ribh, from 
wbcaoe he was carried oif prisoner by 
Olaf aon of Godfrey, of Dnblm, in 985 
(987> FamrM. 
» OkUfîamry. See p. 49, $q, 
* JVofe fox. An oonce of rilver 
**for every nose** is probably only 
another way of saying **for every 
man.** 8o in the poetical acconnt ef 
the Gaffl of Dnblin, attribnted to St 
Bcnen or Benignns, of Armagh, we 



read that the GailI gave tribnte to St 
PatriciL "a screapall for each man, an 
ounce of gold — an onnoe for each nose 
there — and a screapall of gold for each 
man." R o/Bî^u, p. 229. So also 
TngHnffa Sa^a, c. 8 (iTeîmafo*., p. 18, 
Havn., 1777> "Um alU Svethiod 
gulldu menn odni skattpenning fyrir 
nef hvert,** which Mr. Laing translates 
**so mnch on each head,** althongh it 
is literaOy "every nose. The MS. B. 
adds that he who conid not pay had 
the alternative of bdng sold as a slave, 
or loeing his noee (see pw 60, n. 18). 
Keating improves upon this by tdling 
ns that the noee was immediately cat 
oflF, withont any alternative ; but there 
is no anthority for this. See Lexieon 
Poet, Lmg. Sqftmt Svemlfirm EgOt- 
«on. ffafn., 1860, voc. NrfgOUL 

* 8Uoer or HfkiU brotue. Tfab is 
the readlng of B. The teM -nada 
*' silver Fhidrani " (p. 51), In fvhieh 
phimse (which ocenra agafn, p.'95), 
the word Fmârum» seemi to be «»d 
BB an adjective for well polUied, ema- 
mented (dndne sîgniflei embroidered); 



CIV 



INTRODUCTION. 



WM originally intended to apply solely to the jKdicy 
pursued by tiie sons of Ivar of limerick. If ibeir arrîval, 
aa we have good reason to suspect, is an interpolation in 
ibis place, there will be notbing to limit tbe oppiession 
spoken of to tbe Danes of Limerick;^ and indeed, altbougb 
tbe plunder of Munster is particularly mentioned, yet it 
is distînctly stated tbat tbe organization of a steward or 
bailiff, billeted on the principal cbieftains and fiaimers of 
tbe country, extended to all Ireland,^ 

Tbe foreigners of limerick, by wbom tbe Primate 
Forannan was carried off to tbeir ships from Cluain Com- 
ardba,' were Norwegians, or Wbite Oentiles, not Danes. 



bnt utnilly fimlrwM is a sabctan- 
tive, and denotes a metal of some kind. 
In p. 115| it te mentioned among gold, 
silTer, precious stoneSţ taken aa spoil 
from the Danea. It is the metal of 
which "leg armonr'* was made (^Battk 
o/Magh Lena, p. 113), and the rim 
(conibit) of a shield, Sickbed of 
CWcAiilatim(AtIantis,Ko.8,p.lld). ''A 
bed of Findrnine,** xxA^ piiTiiviiine, 
Le. a bedstead, or box made of this 
metal npon which a bed might be 
laid, is mentioned in the L^gend of 
Goitmlaidhe, Muodl Cekic Soc, p. 77, 
79. The word is also written ţMnn- 
litiitti (Petrie <m Tara, p. 198), pînn- 
bfiQitne, and pnnt^ume, in which 
latter f onn it occnxs in the Irish V er- 
aion of the Bible to denote copper or 
bimsB, Ezra viiL, 27; Rey. ii., 18. The 
Crotier of St Aodh mac Bric was 
made of Finnbmine, which is glossed 
.1. pţiof "i*^ brasB." Martjfr, Doneg,, 
Introd., p. xlL 

^ lÂmirick, See above, eh. xxxvL 
Keating who qnotes this passage (with 
soma abridgement), nnderstands it to 
refer to all Iraland, and places it in 
the times of Tnrgesins, to whom he 
attrOmtes this organixation of a sol- 
diar In erery hoose, &c« (yMakoi^s 
TVtMfL, p. 507. In this he is fol- 
lowed by Lynch, liacGeoghegan, 



0*Halloran, Warner, Moore, and aH 
onr modem Mstorians. 

* Irtkmd, The words "moreoTer 
he ordained,** p. 49, line 18, are abmpt, 
and strongly indicate the loss of some- 
thing in the text ; for the sentences 
preceding are in the plural ^^tkey 
plnndered,*" ^^iheg took hoetagea,** 
"â^ bronght nnder iadescribable op- 
preasion ;^' theneomes a sudden cbangr 
to the singular, without its being said 
who he was who ordained kings and 
chiefs, stewards and bailiifs, in eveiy 
territoiy. The same thing is told of 
Turgesins. But it is remarkable that 
the prophecies applied by oor autfaor 
to that chiefUin (see p. 8-12), speak 
of "Black Gentiles of Dnblin,*' and 
partîes of "Danars of black ships.**' 
Therefore we may reasonably con- 
clude that the oppreasions intended by 
thoae supposed predictions belong t» 
a later period than the times of Tur- 
gesins, when the Dansn or Danea bad 
establlshed their power in Dublin and 
Limerick. 

* CUiain Comardha, "Lawn of the 
Sign or Token." Dr. Reeves haa le- 
oently identified this place with Gol- 
man's well, a Tillage in the barony oC 
Upper Connello, in the southem boitlcr 
of the connty of Limerick. 



j 



INTRODUCTION. 



CV 



They were in possession in the times of Turgesiufl, that is 

to say, prior to the year 845. But Ivar, grandson of Ivar, 

seems to have been of the Black Qentiles, or Danes ; and 

although the exact date of his arrival is not recorded in our 

annals, he is spoken of as being chiefiain of the QailI of 

limerick, in 930, so that he must have landed with his sons 

before that year. ^ Therefore the paragtaph at the beginning 

of chap. xl., which records his arrival at limerick, has been 

misplaced. It ought perhaps to have heen inserted in con- 

nexion with the arrival of the " imtnense fleet" which 

came with Tamar Mac Elgi, as we have seen,^ about the 

year 922. Indeed it is probable that Tamar's fleet acted 

in conjunction with the fleet of Ivar and his sons, for 

both occupied Inis Sibhtbnn, and We read of no conflict or 

jealousy between them on the arrival of the latter party. 

Tamar or Tomar mac Elgi, howevâr, seems to have been 

chiefiain of the limerick Danes for two or three years' 

only, and was succeeded apparently by the dynasty of Ivar 

and his sons» in or about the year 930. 



> nai Year, The Foar 11, at 928, 

929 (=A.D. 930, 981), teU iu that 

tbe gnndaon of Ivar was encamped in 

eommiBd of the f orelgnenof Limerick, 

at Magh Rolgfane, a plaîn in Ossory, 

wliitber Godfrej of Dublin went in 

the latt mentioned year to diaplace 

ium. In 963 (967) Mathgamhain, 

or Mahonn, brother of the celebrated 

Brian Bonimha, găina a rictory over 

the QaîD of Limerick, acnd pAimdets 

tbeir itronghold, Inie Sibhtonn; in 

969 (971) he ârires them from Inia 

SfUitonn, altogether. They then took 

nfoge nu the pther islanda of the 

Shannon, making their stronghold in 

Inis Cathaigh (now Scattery Ishind, 

at the moath of the Shannon), where, 

potwithstanding the sanctity of the 

pbee, Irar and his sons, Ohsf and 

Dnbhoenn, were attacked by Brian 

in 977 (4 Jfoft and Tigern,), or by 

his alKee the O'DonnelIs of Corca- 



bhaisdnn (pb 108). The death of Ivar 
and his sons is recorded by onr author 
(chap. Iziv.), at a date whidi corre> 
sponds to A.D. 977, 978. So that 
Ivar^s career waa qoite run ont before 
the battle of Tara. 

* We ha/oe eeen, See chap. xzxiii« 
pb 39f and p* xdii., tupra, 

* Two or throe yeare. In 922 the 
fleet of Limerick, commanded by Mac 
Ailgi, was on Loch Ri, and plnndered 
Clonmacnois and the islanda of the 
Lake. In 923 or 924 Godfiey, grand- 
son of Ivar, came from DnbHn to attack 
the Limerick foreignen, and a great 
number of his people wera slain by 
Mac Ailgi. In 927 or 928 Mac Ailgi 
had hia fleet on Loch Keagh when he 
plmidensdthe islandsand the sniionnd- 
ing countiy. These notices occor in 
the Ann. of Ulster. Dr. O'Donovan 
(Book of Righta, /nlr., p. zlL) quotes 
from the Annals of Clonmacnois, under 



CVI 



INTRODUCTIOK. 



The gnat It is remarkable that our author, notwithstanding. ihe 
^ţhe°"'^ bittemess of his lamentation over the succeas of the 
Dones. victors, aad the iron rigour of their rule, gives them, 
witbout reserve, the praise of valour ; he admită that Ihe 
Irish kings and chieflaiiis, with all their heroism, were 
unable to cope with the stnmgers, the superiority of 
whose arma, defensive and offensive, together with " the 
greatneas of their achievements and deeds, their bravery, 
their valour, their strength. their venom. aad their 
ferocity/'^ rendered them invincible to the feebler powers 
and inferior nnmbers of the Irish ; espedally, he adds, as 
they were animated by an " excess of thirst and hunger" 
for the bays, rivere, cataracts, the fruitful smooth plains, 
and sweet grassy land of Ireland 
J^f'^»^* But this distinct admission of the invincible prowess of 
or Dai the enemy, and the superiority of their annour and dis- 
cipline, seems only intended to enhance the author's 
panegyric upon his own tribe and its chieftains, by whose 
valour and perseverance the power of the enemy was 
ultimately undermined. These were the Clanna Luigh- 
dech^ or desoendants of Lughaidh Menn,' son of Aongus 
Tirech, of the race of OiliolI Olum, the eelebrated king of 
Munster in the third oentuiy. They weie otherwise 
called Dai Cais Boromha, or race of Cas mac Tail, 
grandson of Lughaidh, called Borumha^' some say from 
the name of a village near Eillaloe. They were one 
of the two pillars of nobility, one of two honses — (the 



Cili. 



the Tear 922, the f ollowing notice of 
his death : "Tonumir mec Ailchi, king 
of Denmark, ie reported to hsve gone 
to hell with hii paixu, as he desenred." 
The date, however, ia prohably wiong, 
being the date of hîi airival in Inland, 
not that of hîa death. He ia not men- 
Uoned in the annals after 928, and it 
ia remarkable that in 930, Ivar, grand- 
son of Ivar, is first named as leader of 
the GaiU of Limerick; so that Ivar 
appea» to have arrlTed immediately 
after, or just before the death of Mac 



▲ilgi, and to haTe aneoeeded to the 
command of the Limerick gaxriaon. 

^i^eroct^ Seep.fi3. 

* lAigkaidh Âfemn, See p. 51^ and 
note 14; also GeneaU Table III^ No. 
5, p. 247. 

^Borumka. BealBonmihn'*Pa«of 
Borumb,** or Ath na Bonmiha, **Foid 
of the Bonunh." See Dr. O^Bricn's 
IriahDictfinvoc. Othen dariTe the 
name Boromh from the oelebnted 
Bommean or eow tribnte of Leinatcr, 
re^ored b^r Brian. Faur M. A. D. 106, 



INTRODUCnON. 



CVll 



Eoghanachts of Cashel* being the other) — ^by whom wşre 
sustained " the mie and sovereignty of Ireland." But the Theîr pre- 
Clazma Lnîghdech, ve are told, excelled all other tribes ®""'^**- 
in Ireland ; " as a bright watch tower shining above all 
other lights of the earth ; as a clear fountain, or a spark- 
ling fire, excels the lustre of the most brilliant gems ; as 
the bright sun outshines the noblest stars of the sky and 
firmament.'** 

The privileges and prerograti ves of thîs iUustrious tribe '^^ P^»- 
arethen described. They were exempt from all taxes, 
hostages, rents, and fees to the kîng of Cashel, or any 
oiher chieftain^ "so long as Erinn' was not theirs." 
They were bound in honour to defend the king of Cashel 
«gabflt aggreaaion, ahd to support his rights against the 
daîms of I^eth Cuinn, the Northern half of Ireland, that 
is to say, against the chief kings of Ireland, or of Tara, 
who were of the O'NeiU race, and whose sovereignty 
over Munster was disputed by the descendants of OilioU 
Olum. The Dai Cais were privileged to take the place 
of honour in war, that is to say, to occupy the van in 
entering an enem/B countiy. and to guard tlie rere in a 
reiareat.^ They had " an alternate right to Cashel," that is, Their 
the kings of Cashel were to be chosen in alternate suc- ^^^^ 
ceanon from the descendants of Eoghan M6r and Connac Cashel. 
GaSy of which last race the Dai Cais of Thomond were the 



pi lOQi and A.D. 690, note p. 298-9, 
The name ol Dai Caia ia commonly 
deriTed from their more remote fm- 
oator Connac Caa, aon of Olioll Olum 
(see Geneai Table III., No. 2). But 
if ao the njune wonld have helonged 
to many tribea bendes the race of 
Logbaidh. Caa mac Tail (aee GeneaL 
Table UI., Ha 8, p. 247) iacaUedby 
CFlahar^ "Dalcaaaionun stirpe,** or 
aooestor of the Dai Caia of Thomond. 

^ Eos^kmatkUofCa$h£l SeeGeneal. 
Table IV., p. 248. Thia trîbe waa 
deaoendad and had ita name from 
Eoghan M 6r, aon of OOIoll Olum. 



s Fimameni. See p. 55. 

s Erwm, Ferh*pa we shonld read 
"so long aa CatM waa not theira," 
i.e. when the kmg of Cashel was of 
the Engenîan and not of the Dai Caa- 
sian race. But onr anthor probably 
intended to inainnata that the king of 
Cashel wu tkjvre king of Ireland, and 
that to be king of Cashel waa virtuali/ 
to be king of Ireland. 

^ BeiretU, See theae privilegea in 
the Book of Bights, tub. : ezemption 
from tribttte to Caahel, pp. 68-67 ; the 
place of honor at feasts and in war, 
pp. 69, 71, 81. 

h2 



• • • 

CVUI 



INTBODUCnON. 



most celebratecL Thifl was în aocordonce with the will of 
OilioU Olum,* the fitther of Eoghan and Cormac Gas, who 
is said to have imposed thîs rule uponhis poBterity, a role 
which proved a perpetuid sonrce of discord,* and was veiy 
irregularly obeerved. Two bardic poems in support of 
these privileges of the Dal-Cais are then quoted, one 
attributed to the femous Cormac, son of Cuilennan,^ king 
and bishop of Cashel, who was slain at the b^inning of 
the tenth century; and the other to Cuan O'Lochain,* 



iQUioaOhm, SeeBookqfRighU, 
p. 72, ifc O-jBtoWiy C%«^M P- 826. In 
y allAncey*» CkfUectanea de rtbtu Btbar- 
meii, voL I., Nob. 8 and 4, the reader 
will find an able dissertation on the 
Ulw of TaniBtiy, or alternate succes- 
sion, which in part 4 is iUnstreted bj 
the case of the alternate snocession to 
the throne of Munster, in the Eoghan- 
acht and Dai Cassian desoendants of 
OilioU Olum. 8eep.286,fi. 

^JHtcord, Thediacordisoontinned 
in the pens of the historians; the 
anthon of the Eoghanacht race ignore 
all the kings of the Dal-Cais } and the 
Dal-CasBÎan chieftains, from the su- 
perior power of theur rivals, seem to 
have, in fact, enjojed very little more 
than their own hereditary territory, 
with the empty dium to thesovereignty 
of Munster, under the will of OilioU 
Olum. See Dr. 0*Brien*s remarks on 
thissubject. Yallaneey's CoUect, î&u/., 
p. 441, sg. 469-476. Veryfewkmgsof 
Munster, of the Dal-Cassian race are on 
record, and even of these, it is probable 
that some were in fact only lords of 
Thomond, and are styled Ungs of 
Munster bywriten of their own dann 
only. 8eeO*Cun7*si:.«ceiiref,p.218. 
KăOmg {reign of Flmm Sumna), 
aUaJum^» TramL, p. 62a 

* Cormac son qfCmlmman. Hewas 
of the Eoghanacht or Eugenian race, 
desoended from Aongus, son of Kat- 



fraich (see Table IV., No. 7, p: 248.) 
His deacent, aa given by the books of 
Leinster and Lecan, is asfoUows: s. of 
CuUennan, s. of Selbach, s. of Algenan, 
s. of Eodiadh^ s. of Cohnan, s. of 
Donnchadh, s. of Dubhinrecht, s. of 
Furudhran, s. of Eochadh, s. of Bresailf 
s. of Aongus. He was slain in 908 
(Four M.), 920(Ann.Ult), at the battle 
of Belach Mughna, in Magh AUbbe 
(ttow Ballaghmoon^bridge, in the S. of 
the co. Kildaie,abont halfway between 
Castledermot and Carlow). Keating 
relates a curious anecdote to the eff ect 
that when his own tiibe, the Eoghan- 
acht of Cashel, refused him food and 
treasure for the celebration of Easter, 
Cormac was UberaUy suppUed by the 
Dal-Cais, both being equally fxte from 
any legal obUgation to pay him tribute. 
O'lfoAony's TVtHwZ., p. 520. Thismay 
account for his f avourable reoognition 
of the rightsof theDal-CaiSfiutheTerae» 
quoted by our author, if indeed they 
are really his, which may be doubted. 
* OLodunn. See above, p. zxt., 
n. 2. He was murdered, A.D. 1024, 
in Tebhtha, or Teffia, an ezteusiYe 
district in the K.W. of the ancirat 
province of Meath. See A of SSgkU^ 
p. 11, n., 180, «. The family of 
Oliochain were chieftains of Gailenga» 
a part of Teflia, now reprasented by 
the baronies of MorgaUion, co. of 
Meath, and Clankee, in the oo. off 



INTBODUCrnON. 



CIX 



*" chief poet of Eriim and Alba" (Ireland and Scotland), in 
the times of Brian Borumha. 

We have next (eh. xlv.) the genealogy * of Brian and his 
elder brother Mathgamhain, who are described in bom- 
bastic language as the two fieroe, magnificent heroes, the 
two stont, able, valiant pillars, who then govemed the 
Dalcassian tribe ; Mathgainhain, in virtue of his seniority, 
being the actual chieftain, and Brian his destined successor 
or heir apparent. These great heroes r^lved to submit no 
longer to the oppression and tyranny of the foreign in- 
yaders ; they transported their people and chattels across 
the Shannon, westwards, where they dispersed themselves 
in the forests and woods of the country.' 

A haraRsing war of skînnishing in the woods of Tho- 
mond' WBS then carried on for some time with the for- 
eignera, in which no quarter was gîven on either side, 
for " there was no termonn or protection fix)m the foreign- 
ers, and it waâ woe to either party to meet the other.**^ 



Geneilogy 
of Brian. 



Mathgamh- 
ain, after 

hHTfffflrfffg 

war&n, 
makeaa 
trace. 



CsTan* He was therefoie murdered 
bj bÎ8 own kinsmeii, which made the 
deed more heinons. See4if. The Ui 
Lochain were deBoended from Connac 
GaOeng, aon of Tadhg,80ii of Cian, son 
of OilioU Olum, and tlierefora were of 
the «une great Mnnater family as the 
Dal-Cais. QwCvaerfnJBataeo/Magh 
Lema, p. 175. 

^Gmeaiogg. See Table III., p. 247. 
Mathgamhafai, as has been alreadj 
lemarked, ie prononnced MaKoon, 

*QfAeeomUry. Onr anthor saye, p^ 
£9 **in the wooda of the three tribes 
(mociii), that were there,'* or perhape 
we thonld tranaUte ''the three Haic&es 
that were there.** These were the de- 
acoidanis of Gonmac, aon of Fergna 
Rogina and Mand, queen of Connacht. 
Tbiee tribes of the Conmaicne were 
settled west of the Shannon, ▼iz. : Con- 
maicne-Ciiile-tola, now the bftronj of 
Kihnalne, co. ef BCayo; Connaiene 



Dvnmor, N. of the oo. of Galway, and 
Coomafcne mara (the Conmaicne of 
the sea), now Conemara. A fourth 
tribe of the same race was settled in 
the COS. of Longford and Leitrim. 
CFUAeiiy, Ogyg^ p. 276. The Bnia- 
sds MS. B. reads '*the three UattUne,'^ 
instead of Maeni, But the districte 
called Uaithne, were S. of the Shan- 
non. They are now the baroniee of 
Uaithne or Owncy-beg, in Limerick, 
and Owney and Arra in Tipperaiy. 
B,qfJiiff^p.AB,n, There are only 
two districte called UaUhne^ and '*the 
three MmcnCâ^ ia oertainlj the trae 
reading. 

• Thomtmd. The district of Thomond 
(which is theanglidzed pronnndation 
of TuaOHmmkain "NorthMunster,") 
is represented nearly by the presant 
oonnty of Clare. See 0*DonoTan*s 
note, Book qfBighti, p. 260. 

« Tk€ atker, See p. 59. 



cx 



INTEODUCriON. 



Brian 

coDtinnes 

thewar. 



At length tired out with this kînd of warfistre, Mathgamh- 
ain made a temporaiy tmoe with the enemy. 

Brian, however, refîised to join in this trace. He 
retumed to the forests of Thomond, and continued to 
carry on the same sort ofguerilla warfaxe fo,m the deserts 
and caves of Ui-mBloit.* He laid waste the cjountry 
fiom Loch Derg Dheirc to the river Fergos, and from 
SHabh-mEchti* to Tratraighe or Tradry.' This latter 
place was fixed upon by the foreigners of Thomond, or 
North Mnnster, as Htie head quarters of their troops ; they 
fortified Tratraighe with earthworks, and filled it with a 
strong garrison, in order to conquer from thence Tho- 
mond, or the present coimty of Clare, and Ui Conaill,* or 
Connello, south of the Shannon, in the comity of limerick. 
Between this garrison and Brian's followers perpetuai 
skirmishes and mutual annoyances were kept up, until 
Brian was driven to the greatest extremities, and at 
length he found his army reduced to fifteen men.^ 



1 Vi-mBJofU. The regîon inluibited 
bj the Ui-mBloit, the decendants of 
Bloit, Blait, or Blod, son of Cas mac 
TaO, ancestor of the Dai -Cais of Tho- 
mond (see Tahle UI., Ko. 9, p. 247). 
This district is in the co. of Clare, 
N.E. of the diocese of Klllaloe, and 
the name is preserved in that of the 
mral deanery of Omelode or OmnUed. 
lÂber, Seg. Vintat, 1619. Four 3f., 
A.D. 1598, p. 2088, note b. 

miahhr^mEehil KowSliereBanghta, 
or the Bonghta momitains in the co. of 
Galway, on the borders of Clare. For- 
gns, now "Fergns, is a river whîch rises 
in the K. of the baronyof Inchiqtun, co. 
of Clare, flowing by the town of Ennis, 
and falls into the Shannon below the 
▼illage of Clare. 

« Tradiy, See p, xlî., n. <• Tra- 
traighe was originally the district 
ronnd the town and Castle of Bun- 
ratty. It is cnrions that the English 
adventnrer, Thomas de Clare, in 1277, 



selected this place as his military head 
quarters, and biiilt the Castle of Bnn- 
ratty, with the same object in view 
which the Danes had when they for- 
tified themselves in the same spot, 
namely, the conqnest of Thomond. 

< Ui ConaiîL The country inha- 
bited by the Ui Conaill Gabhra, or 
desoendants of Conall Gabhra. (Tab. 
V., No. 10, p. 249.) It îs now re- 
presented by the baronies of Upper 
and Lower Connello, together with 
the present baronies of Shanid and 
Glenqoin. See R qfRigkU^ p. 76, m. 
Comp. p. Ixxzy. and note, p. 81. 
See also p. xli gupra, 

< FyUm mm. Ova anthor qnalifies 
this statement by "historians aay," 
or, according to the reading ol B., 
** there are historians who say.** This 
does not imply that Autorums, in the 
more dignified sense of the word, had 
already b^gnn to preserve a formal 
record of these erents. The Iriah 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXI 



Hearing of his brother's disasters, Mat.hgaTnha.iTi sent to Poeticai 
hîm to request an înterview. When they met, Brian re- Jî^?^! 
proached Mathgamhain for having made a tnice with the am*f 
eooemy. An interpolation in the O'Clery or Brussels ^^^^^ 
MS. gives a poeticai dialogue between the two brothers, 
in which Mathgamhain^ asks the canse of Brian's coming 
almost alone, and where he liad left his foUowers. Brian 
answers that he had left them on the field of battle, cut 
down by the foreigners ; that they had followed hîm in 
hardship over every plain, — "not," he adds, "like thy 
people/' who had remained inactive at home. He then 
gives a short accoiint of his exploits, and concludes by 
the reproach that neither Cennedigh, their £Either, nor 
Lorcan, their grandfather, for the saJee of weoUthy would 
have been so quiescent towards the foreigners. This 
seems to intimate that Mathgamhain's " qniescenoe" had 
arisen trom some interested motive, an interpretation 
which is confirmed by Mathgamhain's answer — 

** This is pride, O brave Brian, 
Thy mind does not consider consequences ; 
Thj care and thonghts are not on wedUh^ 
And yet methinks thon ari alone." 

In other words, " pride has made thee despise all prudent 
oonsiderations, and what hast thou gained by it, since 
here thou art now without followers, and alone î"^ 



Sm&oatdk^ or Shanadiy , which, for wtnt 
of a hetter word, we tnmdato historian, 
waa an offic«r attached to great famî- 
liea. He itinerated among the clan, 
nlathig the deeds of his chieftain, and 
aometimeft, bot not alwayB, committing 
them to writing. We are not, there- 
fon, to inier that any great length of 
time was necenary between the events 
themaelTes and their befaig reoorded 
by aach "Mstoriana.** 

1 MaOigtmhidii. This poeticai ao- 
eoost of the oonTenatlon is attribnted 
to Ifathgaiahafai himaeH 

• JXmm. See eh. zlvl, pp. S2>S5. 



One or two remarks are neoeasaiy 
upon this poem. In ver. 1. Brian is 
caUed ** Brian o/ Banda," Le. of Ir»- 
land, Banba bdng one of the poeti- 
cai names of IieLmd; see Keating, 
O^Mahong's Tnmtl, Book L, eh. i., 
p. 79, «y^ Craig lAaA (Grey-stone), 
now Craig-lea, or Cairick-lee, is a r&- 
nuurkaUe rock near Killaloe, celebrated 
in Irish faiiy lore as the dwelling 
place of Ambkiim (incorrectly Aoibh- 
111), the Banshee or family sprite of the 
Dal-Oais, espedally of the O^Briens; 
see Feit TXgke Chmam, edited by Mr. 
Nicholas O'Keamey (Ostianic Soc.), 



1 



cxu 



INTBODUCTIOK. 



Prose 
aoooiint of 
the iame. 



Then follows (eh. xlvii.) a prose account of the same 
interview between the brothers, which, although in some 
places probably interpolated, is doubtless the uarrative of 
the original author,and the source fix)m which the poetical 
dialogue was taken. Brian reproaches Mathgamhain for 
having made peace with the foreigners. He asserts that 
theîr conunon grandfather, Lorcan, son of Lachtna, would 
never have made Buch a truce, seeing that he had denied 
it^ to his own countrymen, Maelseachlainn, son of Mael- 
manaidh, king of Ireland, and to the five provinces' of 



1855, p. 188, A, and oomp. the editor's 
Introd., p. 98, tq, Perhaps Brianta 
answer, '*I have left them on Craig 
Liath,** may signify "I have left 
them în the other world — the world 
of faiiies and spirite." The names of 
several Daniah chieftains slain hj 
Brian are mentioned: Bima (Biom); 
Edoium^ or Eodmm (Andnnn); EUut 
(poasibly Eylifr); and Elgvn (per- 
hape Helgi); we do not, however, 
meet these names elsewhere in the 
present work. Brâintir is a district în 
ţhe co. of Clare, near Slîeve Callan, or 
Cnllane, about flvemiles E. of Killtown 
Malbay. It is called Breintir mbwdn^ 
durable, oreverlasting, from its moun- 
tainoiis and ropkv character. 

> Denied it. The words txtdic;!!! 
and THXCttl) translated ** sabmisdon 
and tribnte,** p. 66, onghţ, perhaps^ 
to have been rendered "protecţion 
and delay," meaning a delay of hos^- 
lities, and protection doring the trace. 
'01'DiTi, or 'Di'Dean, signlfi^s protec- 
tion, shelter ; and 'oacilt, <^ written 
•Dditi ÎB delay, respite. The general 
meaning of the passage certainly is, 
that he who refnsed all tmce or com- 
promise with his own countryfnen, 
when they invaded liis territoiy, wopld 
never have made peao$ with a foreign 
enemy, who had taken f orcîble posse»- 
/don of the oomitry. 

* Fwe jfTovinoet* It will be recol- 



lected that the andent Meath 
originally one of the provinces of Irs 
land; 0*Flaherty, Ogygia, pp. 24, 25, 
804. Onr author^s chronology is here 
greatly at fault, if, indeed, as is most 
probable, the mistakes are not rather 
to be attribnted to his transcribers 
and interpolators. Lorcan, son of 
Lachtna, grandfather of Brian, could 
not possîbly have been a contempo- 
rary of Maelseachliunn, son of Mael- 
manaidh, or Maiachy I., who died in 
868. Brian was bom, acoording to 
the Four M., in 925, or, according to 
the more probable date of the Annals 
of Ulster, în 941. AUowing 80 yean 
to a generation, this would give 865 
as the year of Lorcan*s birth, or, if 
we adopt the later date of Brian*s 
birth, 881. In neither caae ooiild 
liorcan have had any warfare with 
Maiachy I.; and it is equally im- 
possible thaţ Maiachy II. can be in- 
tended, for he b^gan his rdgn în 980, 
at which tiipe, Lorcan* if living, 
would have been at least 100 jears 
old, Perhaps we should read (p. 67), 
** He who gave not snbmlssion or tri- 
bute to [the son of] Maelaeachlaion, 
son of Maelmanaidh," meaning Flann 
Sionna, who reigned from 879 to 9l6w 
Keating represents Lorcan as contem- 
porary with Cormac mac Cuîlennain, 
who was dain in 908, or, according 
po the Annals of Ulster, in 920. Ac- 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXIU 



Ireland, and would not grant them a truoe, not even for 
as mach time "as would have suffioed to play a game of 
chesB on the green of Magii Adhair;"* neither would he 
aUow the seven great batialions four days and four 
nightB to bum Ath TJ Doghair. He appeals also to bis 



eording to Keatingt Connac, fore- 
Mong his death, doiîgiiated Lorcan 
mac liafhtn» hU sucoenor, on the 
gioand that the Dal-Cais had never 
had their lawfvl toma of aorereigntyf 
aooordîiig to the will of OilioU Olum. 
OMohom^» TVcBif., p. 823. Lorcan, 
it la needleas to say, was ** king^ of 
Thomond onty, and nerer sacoeeded 
to the throne of Mnnster ; but another 
Lorcan, aon of Conligan, of an allied 
tribe (the Hi Faflbbe) of the Eogha- 
nacht branch, became king of Mmuter 
in 920 (=922), aocoiding to the 
Foor M. (See above, p. xciii., and 
note *.) He ia not indiided, however, 
In 0*l>ubhagain*a poetîcal liat of the 
kmgs of Muuter, aitbough that îs 
an Keghanarht aooonnt. The chion- 
olqgy and oider of fnocemon of the 
Mmstflr chieftaîns at thia period ia 
▼eiy cqnfnaed and imperfect See 
App. B^ p. 24L 

^MaghAdkait, Thia w»8 the oelo* 
biBtad pUin in wliich ia itill to be aeen 
the monnd where the chief taina of the 
Dai Caia iran inangorated nnder an 
ancient tvee (bile)- Thia tfee waa 
iqvooted by King Maelaeachlahm, or 
ICalndij IL, in 982 (Jigk), ia con- 
tampi of the Dai Cala. MaghAilhaÎT 
«an fiiat idntified by Dr. O'Donoran; 
it ia aitoated aboat four mika W. f 
Tnlla, Ui the co. of Claie. See arcuit 
rf MmrckamiaA, p. 47, iVwr M,, 981, 
n. S p. 714. Dr. CConor, in J^hâr- 
< (loc. dt.), apella thia name Jfo^A- 
and tţmnalatea it Camput 
In hia Foor M. (loc- cit ) 
ha apaUa it cociactly, Magk Adkair^ 
bnt retain» hia former iranalation. 



The Iriah traditiona derive the name 
from Adhar, aon of Umor, a chieftain 
of the Fir Bolga, who had settled in 
the present coontiea of Clare and Gal- 
way bef oie the arrival of the MUeaiana 
in Ireland. See 0*Donovan'a note ', 
Fovr M^ 1699, p. 2104. 

The singular mode of deecribing • 
shoit time aa ^* the time neoeaaary for 
playing one game of chess on the green 
of Magh Adhair,*' ia probably an allu- 
aion to an invasion of the Dai Caaaiaa 
territory by Flann Sionna, monarch 
of Ireland, dnring the reign of Lorcan, 
son of Lachtna, king of Thomond. 
Flann haring encamped on the plaia 
of Magh Adhair, osteatationaly oom- 
menoed a game of chesa with hia 
coarUers to show^hia securiţy, and aa 
a mark of contempt for the cbieftaina 
of the comitry. But he was aoen sar- 
prised and ignominionaly defeated io 
an action which lasted for three days. 
Thia atoiy ia told by Dr. O^Biien, from 
what he calls the Book of Mnnater, 
Fo/Amccy'* CoUect, toI. i., pw 450. Ii 
ia probahle that the allnaion to Ath U 
Doghair leUtea to the same tranaao- 
tion. FUnn Sionna waa kept too hotly 
engaged for the three or foor daya of 
the battle— (the Ma B. haa thiae daya 
and foor nighta)— to have time to 
bnm Ath U Doghair — ^tha name aig- 
nifies F«id of U, or Ui, Doghair; somo 
now obacnie and foigotten faodly oC 
the district The place haa not been 
identified. The aeven great familiea of 
Connaoght, herecalled ^^theaerengreai 
battaliona," are ennmerated by 0*Fla- 
herty, (^K^.» p. 175; and see Wui 
Cfmmmghi^ by Hardiman, p. 125, jţ. 



CXIV 



DîTRODUCnOK. 



more remote ancestors, Lugaidh Mezm and Corc. The 
former of these had never yielded " eren the leveret of a 
hare" to the tribe of TIaman Tuathbil,^ and treated wiih 
oontempt the three batialions' of Conoaaght, until he 
had gained seven batUes over them, killed seven of their 
kingSy'and driven them firom Cam Feiadaich to Ath Lucait, 
that is to say, from the present coimties of limerick and 
Clare.^ Corc is described as the first man,* that is the first 



1 Tlaman Tuaihbil O'Dabhagam, 
in liiB Topographical Poem, mentions 
the MuinUr Tlcmaif^, or Cinei Tlamain, 
as a tribe seated somewhere in West- 
meath; but the exact seat of their 
territoiy ia unknown. In one place 
Mag-Aedha (or Hagee) ia mentioned 
as their chieftain, and his brandi of 
the territoiy seems to have been a 
part of Teffia; (Topogr. Poemt, pp. 
3, 11.) In another place (tbid^ p. 18), 
O^Mmreadhaigfa, or Mniray, Is tpoken 
of as their chieftain, and lus territory 
as part of Corca-Adhamli, now in- 
clnded in the baronii liagherademon, 
00. of Westmeath. Thia tribe was 
descended from Tlaman, whose pedi- 
gree Is giyen in fifteen generations from 
Nlall of the Nine Hostages ; Book pf 
Leotm^ fol. 69, b. b. ; HPFirbU Om^ 
ofe^MS, p. 176. The Hnintir Tlamain 
were aUied to the tribes of Gomura^t ; 
bnt it is not easy to explain iirfay they 
are called ToathbiL llie word is pro- 
bably inaocarately wiitten, and may 
have been meant to signify nortkerfy 
or northwardt; if so, the Hnintir 
TIaman may hsv^ been divided into 
northandsQoth. Ur. W. ÎL Hennessy 
aoggests that the meaning of the pas- 
aage may be this: '^Lngaidh Menn 
gnarded Us tertitory so wdl that he 
nevw aUofped ao mndi as the levent 
of a han to go northwards (eacctbit) 
to the Sil Tlaman." But the text Is 
certainlyoorrapt Imgadh Menn'Uwi 
abont A.D. 800. 



* 7%ree hattaUons. Alluding to the' 
tripartite divisionof Connanght by ita 
flrst inhabitants, the Damnonii, a tribe 
of the Fir Bolg, or Belgiana. See 
O'Flaherty, Ogysf-j P- 175, 269; Keat- 
ing ((TMakot^s Tnuul), p. 89, 265. 

* Kings. This story of seven batties 
and seren kings looks rery milike 
anthentic Mstoiy ; bnt it is giren by 
Dr. O'Brien from his ^ Book of Mnn- 
ster." (Valbme^, CoUecL l, p. 481.) 
The HS. B. haa "ao that he kiUed 
their king,** whîch seems more pio- 
bable. See p. 66, n. *. 

< Clare, Cam Feradaich, aooording 
to Dr. 0*Donovan, is a Cam on the 
monntain of Seefin, S.W. of Kilmal- 
locic, on the conlines of the oomities of 
Limerick and Cork ; but Dr. 0*Bile& 
says that Cam Feradaich ia Knock- 
Abie, in Limeriok; FUIaiMMy, CoUtei, 
i., p. 482. Ath Lncait (now Loehid 
Bridge) îs în the north of the berony 
of Inchiqnin, parish of Kilkeedy, eo. 
of daie. Thomond itms origîittBy 
part of Connanu^t, althongh aottih of 
the line from Galway to Dnblin whidi 
separated Leth Hogha from luth 
Cainn. As befaig hi Leth Hogha, H Vas 
daîmed by the Dal<<!!ai8, andfordbly 
taken from the Coonanght tribes by 
LngiddhMeim. SeeO^Flaherty.C^. 
(iîL, 82), p. 886. 

« Tke fim 'mm lliis shows that 
Corc, «m of Anluan, gieât grand&rther 
of Cenncideiţ^ or Kennedy, the fsther 
of Brian, must have been ifjttended, for 



INTEODUCTION. 



CXV 



of ihe Dal-Caifi, who routed the foreigners; ''the mau 
alfio who fought eight battles in defence of Munster, and 
of L%h Mogha (ihe souihem half of Ireland) in general." 
Thifi wafi not the man io bnx^ an insult, or make an 
inglorionâ tnioe with the enemy, as Mathgamhain had 
dona 

MathgaTnha.in's answer was remarkable for its moder- Mftthgun- 
ation. He admitted the truth of what Brian had said ; ^^^^'* 
but added, not without some spice of satire, that seeing 
ihe superiority of the enemy, in nnmbers and in anns, he 
saw no advantage in leading his followers to certain des- 
truction, as Brian had done. 

Brian replied that he had followed the example of his BrUm'» 
anoestors in sacrificing eveiything; risking his life and the ^^' 
extermination of his dan, rather than submit to insult or 
contempt from an enemy. But his ancestors had never 
set him the example, which Mathgamhain's Qonduct had 
sanctioned, of abandoning their inheritance, without a 
contest^ to " dark foreigners and black grim Qentiles." 

The immediate result of this conferenoe was that Math- The trflw 
gamhain assembled the tribe, and having stated the case, "^^^^ ^' 
pat it to ihem whether they would have peace or war. The 
unanimous voice was for war ; and they marched at once 
(eh. xlix.) into the country of the Eoghanacht, the present 
oounty of Keny, then occupied by the enemy. The 
Eoghaiiachi, or native tribes of the countiy, as well as the 
Mnscraighe,^ joined the Dalcassian standard, from Dim- 



war. 



he Ihred at tha tima when the Scandi- 
naTJan fleeta flnt made their appear- 
anee on the coaaU of Ireland. See 
note» p. 66f and p. zxxiiL, n. *. 
The wozde "Coic, son of Cas, eon of 
AjUoQ Oluiiii,*' in the text aie there- 
ion cormpt. They do not occur in 
the MS. B., and are probably the 
maiginal note of some ill-informed 
reader or tranacriber, afterwaxda copied 
into the text The Annala pn a er v e 
no reeord of the mgM hattlee here 



epokin ol. The nomber niay or may 
not becorrect. 

1 Mnâoraigke, Thk tribeirere the 
deaoendants of Cairbre Hnec, king of 
Ireland in the third ccBitiny. Their 
territoiy ia r epre t en ted by tiie piMont 
baronies of Bait and Weet Modccny, 
00. of Cork; and by thoee of Clan- 
william and Upper and LowarOmond, 
00. of 'npfierary. See p. Uzi., n. K 
And there ireie abo otber dktlfcta 
caUed HuMsaighe. 



CXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Danes 



na-Sciath' to Belach Accailli. Mathgamhain [pron, 
Mahoun] succeeded in obtaîning possession of Cafihel, 
and encamped at Dun Cuirc' the year afber the death of 
Donnchadh, son of Cellachan, king of CasheL 

In this expedition the settlements of the enemy in every 
part of Munster were plundered with great slaughter. 

This aroused the limerick Dane& Ivar resolved to 

DmîSJ** ^^^^-^^T ^® ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Dalcassian country, and to exter- 
minate that tribe, as the only means of recovering his 
power. There were still native chieflains and clans who 
adhered to the Danish dynasty, and were ready to foUow 
the standard of Ivar rather than submit to the mie of 
the Dal-Cais. "The great mnster and hosting of the 
men of Munster, both Qaill and Gaedhil/' followed the 
summons given them by the Limerick Viking, and they 
came together to the appointed place anxions to depopulate 
Dal-Cais " so that there should not be of them a mau to 
guide a horse's head over a channel, or an abbat or vene- 
rable ecclesiasticin all Munster, who was not made subject 
to the foi^igners within the four points of Munster." 



i Jhm-^ta-Seiaih. **Fort of the 
Sbielda,** a fort which gare its name to 
the preşent townland of Donaakeagh, 
in the parish of Bathlynin, barony of 
Clanwilliam, co. of Tipperary. Bdach 
A^ocaUli (load of Aocaill) ia prohably 
a cormpt apeUing. Dr. CDonovan 
coigectnredthat it ong^tto be Belach 
Eochaille, the andent name of the 
road f rom lismore to Eochaill, now 
TooghaL Fmir Jf., 2S7. 

*J)m Cmre. **The fortresa of 
Gorc," a fort at Caahel (and indeed 
a name of Caahel itaelf), from Gonafll 
Gorc, king of Mmuter, ion of Olioll 
Flanbeg, who fint adected Caahel aa 
the njâl f ortreea of Monater. 0'F]»> 
h«rty, 0^., p> 382. Thia Mwna to 
imply that Mathgamhain on this oo- 



caaion became kmg of Cfluhel; the 
anthor of the Lîat of Kinga (eh. ii.) 
having aiready aet down Donncfaadhf 
son of GeUachan, aa hia «"*"*^»ntT 
predeceaaor. Thia wonld gxre 964 aa 
the dato of Mathgamhain*a acoaaaioB ; 
for Donnchadh died in 968 (961, Fcmr 
If.) If it be a mistake that Donn- 
chadh was king of Munster, aa we 
have endeaTonred to show (Api». B., 
pp. 289, 240), there mnst have been a 
short interregnnm aftor tlie mnrder of 
Fergraidh (wiio waa slain bj hin own 
people), 961 to 968. Probably dur- 
ing that time Donnchad and Hsth- 
gamhainhad both dalmed the tfarona, 
each being conrfdered king by hia 
own foDowers. 



INTRODUCnON. 



CXVll 



Some of the chieftains who resisted this inovement, and chiiftAins 
dedared tbemselTes în &vour of the Dal-CaiS) were put to ^^JJJ^Sj 
death^ by Ivar and his followers (chap. L) ; but Maolmuadb Dai-Cais 
[pron. MoUoy], son of Bran, king of Desmond, and Donn- §^^ 
abhan [pron. Donovan], son of Cathal, king of Ui 
Cairbhri»' were amongst the moet zealous enemies of Math- 
gamhain, and united their foroes to those of Ivar. They 
were actuated, our author adds, not so much by any 
fikvour to the cause of the foreigneiB as by hatred and 
jealousy towards the Dal-Cais. 

Matbgamhadn and Brian» hearing of this confedenicy, The Dai- 
Bummoned their followers to a council of war at CaaheL S^wwf " 
It was resolved to march to Cnamhchoill,* a place near the 
piesent town of Tippeiary, where it seems the enemy 
were encamped. At this criticai moment an important 
aoziliaiy arrived, Cathal^ son of Feradach, chieftain of 
the Delbhnar-m6r/ '* the king-soldier and champion of 
Erinn," with an hundred well armed men. The Delbhnas, 



^I\aioJkatk, The chieftainamuned 
Fadan, ktog of the Deici- 
Hamluui, or Deciee of Mtmtter. The 
Foor ÎL give 964 (=966) as the 
yaar ol hia deatb, whieh ăgreea with 
our antbor'B chnmology. 2. Flathri, 
aon off ADmoraii, king of Heaaad. 
& Sideehad, or Sididum, aon of Segni, 
king of TitiD [TiocO], B.] The two 
laStar *'fc<<'<^*î«« aie not mentioned in 
the Annala; nor hare the diatricts 
calledRcaadand Tltfll been identifled. 

• Ui Omrbkri. For the dewoit of 
Maftiiri'*'"' and Donnabhan, aee App. 
B., GeneaL Tables IV. and V. The 
tmtiUary of the Ui Cairbri, deioend- 
aota of Calibre Aebhda (Tab. V., Ko. 
8), oompriaed the barony of Coahma, 
and aloog the weat lide of the rirer 
Maigu^ from Bmree to the Shannon, 
co. of Limerick. 

B Cmmikckoa, i.e. •«Haale, orKnt- 
wood,** now Cleehoin, or CMghfle, fai 



the barony of Qaniriniam, pariah of 
Kilah a ne , ea of Tipperary, aboat a 
mile and a-half east of the town of 
Tipperary; (fDtmowmf Sttppkm, to 
OrHmO^ in TOC Ord. Surv^ Map, 
Simt 67. Cnamhchoill ii mentioned 
by Keating, CtMakm^'» TrmiL, p. 92. 
Haliday,in his TVoiMt, p. 189, angU- 
cises the word JtfMNoAOl. Bat he 
intflnded this merdy to give the pro- 
nonciation, not as the modera name 
of the plaoe. 

^ DMma-mSr, The name of 
Delbhna, or D0M11 is given to MTiral 
districU inhaUted by tribes dssosnded 
from Lngaidh Delbh-n-Aodh (pron. 
Dely-nae), son of Gas mac TaiL The 
DelTÎns wore, therefoie, doeely allied 
totheDalCals. SeeGenealogiealTable 
III., p. 247. Some enumerate flve(see 
p. 76), and othen aeven Delvins, or 
Delbhnas. (/FUAmn9,0g^,;^Zi^\H$ 
iToRf, p. 88; B.^RigkU^ p^ 107, n. P. 



CXVm DîTBODUCnON. 

« 

or Del vins, were near relativeB of the Dai Oais, and came to 
support iheir kinsmen. The occasion waa of such import- 
anoe that the absent individualfi of the clan, even thongh 
they may have been in the service of Ifaelseachlainn of the 
Southern O'Neill, and Aedh of the Northern O'Neill, aU 
flocked in to answer the summons of their chieftain, and 
to support their dan in this emergency (p. 75). When they 
hadall airivedasecond coiincilof warwas held, and it was 
detennined unanimously to risk a general engagement at 
Sulcoit,' near the town of Tipperary. This place, as its 
name appiies, waa at that time probably a hrge wood of 
sallow tree& It was about five miles westward o( 
Cnamhohoill where the enemy had encamped, and its trees 
afforded the shelter so necessary for the aggressive war- 
fare of the period. 
GoDftitn- It appears incidentally finom this narrative that the 
h^^UmL ^^^^® body of the clan were summoned to decide upon 
the question of war or peace. Every petty chieftain of 
eveiy minor tribe, if not eveiy individual clansman, had 
a voice, not only in this primary question, but also when 
war was declared, in the questions arising upon subse- 
quent military operations. This conatitution of the dans 
was one of the evils of ancient Ireland. It weakened 
the power of the kings or supreme chieftains. The kings 
or chieftains were themselves chosen by the dan, although 
the choiceof the danwaslijnited tothosewho poasessed a 
sort of hereditary right, often va^e and open to dispute, 
and complicated by a comparison of the personal merita 
of rival daimants. It is not wondeiful that such elec- 
tions ahould have led frequently to abiding animosities 
and faction flghts, ending in savage bloodshed.' To this 



^Meait, or Salooit, p. 7& This 
wordiignifiesa Sallow-wood, SaUcetwn. 
Coit (WdBh, Coed) ifl a wood. The 
fite M this wood is stOl marked hy 
the two pariahefl d SoUoghod-beg 
and SoUoghod-more, în the harony of 
OUnwflliam, oo. of Tipperary, aboat 
2| mfles N. and N.W. of the town 



of Tipperaiy. See CDonoran, Aqh 
plem, to O'ReiUff^ «n ooe.; and Ccrmac 
Glossarn (ed. Stokes), p. 41, in Tooe 
8al<Auait 

* Bhodthei, See O'FIaherty*! ao- 
count of the poUtical eonititntioii of 
the ancient Iriah dans ; Cj^^y., p. 57, 
•9' 



imtboductiqn: 



essenfial weakness of the govemment, even in iimes 
of peaoe» must be added the relation of the supreme 
chidtaiii to his army in tke case of war. The anuy 
waâ, in fkct, a rope of sand. It oonsisted of a nnm- 
ber of minor clans, each commanded by its own petty 
chieftain, reoeiving no pay, and bonnd by no oath, or any 
other oUigation of ailegianoe to the '' king/' or chief com- 
mander. Each dan, no doubt^ adhered ¥dth undiaken 
loyalty to its immediate chiefttdn ; bnt the chieftain, on 
the smallest offence> conld dismiss his followers to their 
homes» even at the veiy eve of a decisive battle. He was 
ready at every personal insult, or supposed insult, to aban* 
don the naţional cause, and for the sake of a selfish revenge, 
diflguised under the name of honor, to expose the whole 
naţional army to inevitable defeat. Nor did his defection, 
however capridoua or unreasonable, expose him to any loss 
of caste or of reputation, for all were conscious that under 
similar circumustanoes they would have done the sama^ 
These ÎBixAa must be borne in mind if we would rightly 



1 The MMe. This state of tiiings is 
ir«D dscribed by Dr. Charles 0*Co;ior, 
famMmtoino/Ckm'k$iyComfr,EMq., 
of Beteuţ^M.-— ''The Baborâiaato 
dikft were io nnmeioiu, thftt their 
opentioiis lesembled neerly the tumul- 
taooi opecmtione of the people: roiued 
ionristaoee anlybjwhatimmediately 
alhetod their respective districte, 
whftt thqr leit only wes what they 

for; remote conse- 



^piehoisioiia, and poasibOi* 
toofeebly . • . they 
■ahmittad to many oppreeshre acts, 
net esdy aa iadhridiiala, bat aa a 
aatîeB, bslofa eren a parţial oonled»- 
nqr eoald ba procured. Evecydaa 
pri— iad^ with peenUar atteiitio&, the 
gcnealqgy ol ita kader, which was the 
K<^A.4^ş kMnrled(|e of thoie times; 
and that, v«y miieh to the piejudioe 
of tha natioii at large, io many famtty 
codes were formed as made the dis- 



tinction and seporation of each clan a 
barrier against naţional nnion, which 
waa insarmoontable to alL The smaU 
prindpalitieB hito wUch the nalhni 
waa thns nnf ortnnately divlded, exer- 
cised perpetuai rapine and yiolenca 
against each other. Being divlded by 
fietoa family cantentions, they were 
more intent on tha means of umtual 
injniy than on the expediente for 
oommon, or even for private def ence ; 
and, while they fon^t against the 
English invader, they fonght with 
eqnal animosity against themaelves. 
x^am jtMj^wi pufftttHUy tMiMW st aM" 
OMnfar." Memoin^ Aa, by tha Ber. 
CharieeO*Gonor, D.D., DeiieaL, p.udL 
The above worda were written in ra* 
ferenoe to the English invasion vnder 
Heniy II. ; bat they aie eqoally appiio* 
abia to the wara of the Daaes^ and, 
indaed, to all the internai wan of Ir»- 
land. 



cxx 



INTBODUCnOK. 



inbmiit understaad the inheient weakness of war&re in andent 

^^^jjgh Irel«^di *>id ^® ©a^ ^^ which the Iriah were ahrajrs 
in warfare. subjugated by a handful of disciplined men. In the case 
before us, Ivar, of limerick, well knowing the souroe of 
this weakness, resolved to concentrate his whole force 
npon the destruction of the Dal-Cais. He knew that the 
petty jealonsies of the suirounding tribes would secure to 
bim their public or secret aid in an enteiprise, which, if 
succeasful, would rid them of powerfîil and dangerous 
neighbours, and probably give them possession of the 
conquered territory. It would never occur to them to 
consider that the feuds, certain to arise on the attempt to 
divide that territory among themselves, would expose them 
to a similar extermination ; whereas by an union of their 
forces they might have reoovered limerick, and delivered 
themselves and the whole province firom an intolerable 
oppression. 

The battle that followed at Sulchoit appears to have 
commenced by the ad vance of the Danes. It continued from 
sunrise to mid-day (see chap. Iii, p. 77), and ended in a com- 
plete ronţ of the foreigners, who fled ''to the ditches and to 
the vallies, and to the solitudes of the great sweet flowery- 
plain ;" but they were followed by the conquerors^ and 
massacred without mercy or quarter. A poem, attributed 
to Mathgamhain, is here interpolated in O'Clery's MS. 
It is in the form of a dialogue, in which Mathgamhain 
requires firom Brian an aooount of the battle. It contains, 
however, no information of any great consequenca The 
victory at Sulchoit put the important station of Limerick 
into the hands of the Dal-Cassian leaders. ^ The survivors 



Battlaof 
Solchoit. 



^Lmdm^» ItiiaomethinginfaTOiir 
ol tlw antiqnity of this poem tiuit it 
Mtt down the nnmber of elain in the 
battle of Snlchoit, as '*Iittle less than 
oue himdred lieada," instead of the 
7,000 of Keat2ng(a'JfaiUMiy*a TransU., 
p. 648), and the 8,000 of the ''Book 
of Mnnster" lFal&Meiy,CoUeeti,479> 
The poem giTos tlie whole hononr of 
the Tictory to Biian, and rqtresente 



Mathgamhain asking from Biian an 
accoont of the battle as if he had not 
himself been piesent Bot the praes 
nanatire gives no giound for this, 
and makes no mention of the leate 
of the Dal-Cais on this occasion. In 
the poem the Danish fone isdeseribed 
as *'a battalion of h( 
ooialets,** p. 77. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Vi 



^ the fort they had erected there, but were pursued 



•^' 



slaughtered in the streets and in the houses. The 

.^ ^ of several Danish chieftains slain on this occasion 

jjg^^^'^en/ and we have also a particular account of the 

Tjpi ^Poils of the city which fell into the hands of the 

j^jt^^^ In a woid, the fort and the good town were 

^^ «nd bumt. The prisoners were collected on the 

of Saingel,' where " every one that was fit for 

^^ "^ras put to death, and every one that was fit for 

a slave was enslaved" Tbis decisive bottle is dated^ 

LD. 968. 

Another poetical account of the battie, also in a dia- Poeticid 
logue between Brian and hîs brother, is here interpolated^ uJabSuT' 
in the O'Cleiy MS. (B). In this poem, the author of 
which is not named, but simply called " the poet/' the 
praiaes of Brian are celebrated in the dialogue by Mahoun, 
and those of Mahoun by Brian. The bard condudes by 
putting into Brian's moutb a caii uppn Mahoun to give 
gold to those who had so well merited reward, by estab- 



1 Gipm, Theie names are also re- 
pctted ia the poem (eh. liv.), with 
•ome TuiatioDS, which are pobted out 
— p. 78, n. •. 

*Viaon. Amongstthespoils**bean- 
tifal ind foreign saddles" arepartica- 
larţr mentioned; besides jewele, g^ld, 
aadsQrer ; **beaatifal1y woven doth of 
iIlGoloan;" latinB and silka, Bcarlet 
and graen; **aoft, youthful, biight, 
ţiiris;*' '^blooming nlk-dad women ;" 
" actire, well-formed boys"— p. 79. 

•SaingâL Kow Singland, or St. 
Patrick's, a pariah on theeonth bank of 
the Shaonon, forming part of the city 
of Lhnerick. The Tripartite Life of 
8t Patrick (Ui., c. 44) telli na that 
here Carthenn Finn, son of Blodb, 
•00 of Caa Mac TaO, the fint Chriatian 
chieftahi of the Daicaia, waa baptized 
by St. Patrick, and that the name 



Saîngel waa cormpted from Sam 
Amgeal [** a dilTerent angd^'J, becanae 
an angel had appeared to St. Patrick 
there, who was not Vidor^ the angel 
who generally attended him, bat a 
diiferent angd. Trias Thtmm^ p. 158. 
See GeneaL Table III., Kos. 9, 10, 
p. 247. 

^IkUtd. SoDnbLAnnalaoflnisfaL 
The Four M. at 965 (=967) have the 
foUowing record of thisbattle, with- 
ont mentioning Solchoit: — **Math- 
gamhain, son of Cenneidigh, king of 
Caahel, plnndered Limerick, and 
bnmed it." If thia d|ite be oorreet, 
we have another proof that the men- 
tion of the arrîral of Irar of Limerick 
and hifl sons after the battle of Tara 
(980) is misplaced. See aboTe, p. 
di. 

• IfiUrpolaied. See eh. liv., p. 81. 



GXXU 



INTBODUCTION. 



lishing in tkis victory his undoubied right io ihe throne 
of Munster : — 

'* King of Munster thoa art, I deem, 
High king of bf ty Caahel ;^ 
Give gold to those who merit, 
Thej are manj, O Mathgamhain." 

The prose acooimt (cL Iv.) tells us that Malioun did 

not neglect Uns great duty of a chieftain ailer such a 

victoiy. He ordered to eveiy one hifi proper an4 befitting 

ahare, as he deserved, "acoording to his braveiy and 

valour." 

BaeM, or After this (p. 83) follows a singular record, which the 

^^B^^f ^^^^ confesses himself unable to explain satisfiBustorily.' 

Fendtch. " Then/' says our author, " they celebrated the raoes [or 



^Lqfly CatheL Ccafil na ocet- 
meiiT), Ut.j "Cashel of the stepB,^* 
which has beea taken flgnratîvely in 
the tranalation (p. 81) to ngnify cele- 
brated, lenowned. See alflo p. 89, n. '. 
But perhaps the meaning may be 
more Uteral, "high," "lofty," in allu- 
aion to the great Bock of Cashel. 

> Satisfactoriljf, It ia not clear that 
the curious ceremony here described 
had anjrthing to do with racing or 
horse racing, althongh the tranala- 
tion, p. 83, givea that idea. The 
women knelt aronnd in the postare 
described, but it ia not ezpressly said 
that they were in motion, much lesa 
ranning a race, nnleas motion be im- 
plied in the word tranalated marehal- 
ied, The foreign women alone were 
engaged in the ceremony, and the 
fiUie$ (not necesaaiily korte boys) of 
the army, whether of the Irish or 
Daniah army ia not said, martkalled 
them (whaterer that may mean) from 
behind. The mention of the son of 
Feradach ia probably an interpolation, 
for it does not occor in the MS. B. 



The whole waa, no doubt, a heathen 
performance, intended, in aome w»y, 
to beneftt the eonla of thoae who hâd 
fallenin the baUle. Mr. W. ÎL Hen- 
neaşy has pointed ont a curiona paa- 
aage in the Book of Fenagli, in which 
the Dniida of Fergna, eon of Feigoa, 
king of Brefn^, performed a aimilar 
ceremony in resistance to St. CaiBin 
and hia clergy. The position of the 
Druida, with their handa on the 
ground, ia deacribed in somewhat 
coarse langoage (Book qf Ftnagk^ 
Brit. Kua. Cott. Veap. E. 2), bat ia 
exactly the aame aa the position of the 
women apoken of in the text. See alao 
Dr. 0*Donovan'a copy of the Book of 
Fenagh {K Iriak Acad,), fol. 13, b. b., 
where the poetica! acooimt of this 
tranaaction deacribes the act of the 
Druida thoa, 6|i^ic na 'Dfvaoche oo 
tuap Iţ" ciJiY\i'o a cona pi<xp. 
Theae Dniida were afterwarda tnmed 
into atone by the prayera of the 
aaint, aa a puniahment for their pro- 
fanity. See Mart, ^ Lonegal, (Nor. 
13), p. 307. 



INTBODUCnON. 



CXXUl 



games] of ihe son of Feradach, viz., a great line of the 
women of the foreigners, on the hills [or hillocks^] of 
Saingel, in a circle, and they were stooped, and their 
hands on the ground, and the gillies of the army mar- 
shalled them [or drove them on] from behind, for the good 
of the Bouls of the foreigners who were slain in the battle."' 

The next chapter (Ivi.) gives a short summary of the Expioits of 
exploits of Mahoim. He spoiled the Ui Enna* of Aine, now Mâhoun. 
Knock-any, in the connty of limerick. Here Cathal, son 
of Feradach, chieftain of Delbhna-m6r, ** the king soldier 



iJTiObdki. The original is the 
fimfamtive Citocâ». 

• T%e teMfa. The son of Fendach 
hat mentUmed (if indeed the reading 
be cocrect, for the words " of the son 
of Fendftch" ere omitted in B.) wae, 
doabtleat, Cathal, son of Feradach, 
diieftain of the DelTin, or Delbhna- 
mâr, inentionad,ch. ÎL (see p. czvii. n.), 
irhose death ia record^ eh. Ivi But 
whj the ceremony described ahould 
%e ealled ^ the raoea (gT^crpoiDg) of 
the son of Feradach" does not appear. 
The word gţicqpoing is tranalated 
iu0ef <Hi Dr. 0*DonoTan'a anthority, 
vho has inserted it in hia SuppUwt. 
(9 (/RaUg^ but qnotes aa his only 
siUhoritp^ the paasage before os. Two 
appuently cognate words, gpaipne 
ttd sjvoDţneagorâi occnr in the dic- 
tionaries of 0*Brien and O'ReOly, in- 
terpceted, ^ a riduig, alsoborsemanahip, 
also an alaim." O'ReiUy haa also 
the woid Sfiorpun^ whîch he ez- 
pUas "gmnting (as awioe)." Mr. 
O^mytruislates gţva^ns'^gamea," 
ss it oecnrs in a poem by Cinaed 0*Har- 
tigan on Aicill, or Aoaill (daughter of 
Gaiiivs Nîafer, son of Boe Bnadh, 
Ung of Lehiflter in the second centoxy), 
who died of griel on hearîng that her 
laother Bre had been slain by Conall 
Ceanach. The worda of the poem 
'"They performed bright, pure 



games (sp^i^anig 51I stccifi) for 
Acaill hard by Teamalr (or Tara).** 
(TCwrr^g Leeiureiy p. 514. Here It 
wiU be observed that these gamei 
were performed for AcaiU after her 
deathf as the ''races** mentioned in 
the text were performed fir the slain 
Koraemen. In the poem dted by Mr. 
O'Cmry, however, thereis nomention 
of horses. But the same word, in a 
plnral form, givoippie, occnrs In 
another poem, preserved in the Book 
of Leinster, (fol. 160, b. b.), pointed 
out to the editor by Mr. Hennessy, 
where it evidently signifiea horte 
games or horse răcea. The words are 

'* The steeds of the Fiana ('tis known), 
And the steeds of Mnnster, in the 

great conflict, 
Performed three bright graijfht 
[games or racee] 

On the Green of the son of Maired.** 

^UiEmta, The name is now Heney 
orO'Heney. Thcywereof theBoglian- 
acht Aine, or Eoghanacht of Any, 
settled in the territoiy round Knock* 
any, barony of Smali Coonty, in the 
county of Limerick. See (^'iTtadftrm, 
Topogr, Poem^ p. 119. Delbhna-m6r 
ii now Delvin, a barony in the north of 
the oonnţy of Westmeath See note *, 
p. cxviU 

i2 



CXXIV 



INTRODUCrriON. 



of Erînn/' was slain. This was immedîately afler the 
taking of Limerick ; but the other vîctories recOrded in 
this chapter seem to have occurred at some time sub- 
sequent To secure hîmself on his throne Mahoun took 
hostages from all the chiefbains of Munster, espedally 
firom Maelmuadh^ (or MoUoy), lord of Desmond, son of 
Bran, whom he had moreover taken prisoner; he took 
hostages also from Donnabhann' (or Donovan), chief of the 
Hy Fidhgente. He killed or enslaved the billeted soldiers 
of the enemy in every territory. He gained seven victories 
over the foreigners. Only four are mentioned by name/ 
but the author may have intended to include the battie 
of Sulchoit, which he probably counted as two, and this, 
with a second buming of Limerick, incidentally mentioned, 
will make up the seven. It would seem that afber the first 
buming of Limerick, Ivar, of Limerick, and Amlaff, son of 
AmlaS,^ escaped to "the East," meaning Britain, i.e. Wales, 
where, inafiruitless attempt to get footing in the country, 
Amlaff was slain,* and Ivar, afber an absence of a year, 
retumed with a great fleet and entered the western har- 
bour of Limerick, where he slew Beolan littill^ with his 



^ Maelmuaidh, The MS. D. saya 

that this chieftain was himself cap- 
tured flnt, which, if true, must have 
increased his enmity to Mathgamhain. 
See his Genealogy, App. B., Tab. IV., 
p.24d. 

^Dormabkann. See GeneaL Table 
V., No. 28, p. 249. 

> By nome. These are — 1 . The bat- 
tie of Sengualainn ['^ the old shoulder," 
from the shape of the hill], now Sha- 
nagolden, in the barony of Lower Con- 
nello, co. of Limerick. 2. The battie 
of Laegh ; this place is unknown to the 
editor. It is said by our author to be 
in Tratraighe, now Tradry. 8. The 
battie of Machaire m6r, or the Great 
Plain, fought wben the united forces 
of the Gaill of Limerick and Water- 
ford attacked the king of Munster, 



and encamped at Imlech (now Emiy) 
for two days. See note i<, p. 83. The 
Machaire m6r here mentioned is pro- 
bably the Machaire-na-Mumhan, or 
plain of Munster, which seems to have 
extended to Emly, See Four 3f., 1088, 
p. 984. 

* Amlajfl ton of Amlaff. See p. 86. 
There is perhaps an error here, for 
amongst the Scaodinavian nations the 
son eeldom had the father*s name; 
instances however occur. Perhaps we 
should read grandson, or more probably 
" Amlaff, son of Ivar.** 

^ Slain. There seems no notioe of 
this event elsewhere. 

* Tkolan LiUilL The Scandinavian 
name may be Biolan. He was per- 
haps the ancestor of the 0*Beolain, 
erenachs of Dmmdiffe^ coanty of 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXV 



son, who seems from the epithet Littill to have been a 
Scandinavian. Aiter this Ivar intrenched* himself in the 
western harbour, taking possession of the larger islanda 
of the Shannon, and fixing his head-quarters on Inis- 
Cathaigh, now Scattery Island. 

Mahoun had now firmly established himself on his His esub- 
throne. He had broken the power of the Danes of S??h?onr 
limerick, and relieved his territory from their vexatious o' Munster. 
oppiession. He had taken hostages from the rival chief- 
tains of his own race, and his sovereignty in Munster had 
been acknowledged without dispute for about six years. 
Then, however, at the înstigation of Ivar, of Limeriek, and 
Ivar's son, Dubhcenn,' a conspiracy was' formed against A oonspii^ 
him. The two great Eoghanacht clans of Munster, who î^ulut^** 
had 80 recently submitted, now withdrew their allegiance. ^^ 
They not only allied themselves with the Danish usurp- 
ers, but they consented to become principals in the base 
assassination of their own acknowledged sovereign and 
kinsman.^ The motives which led these high chieftains Motivw of 
thus to sully their fair fame and hand down their names ^^^ 
with infamy to posterity, are clearly enough explained by 
cur author (eh. Ivii). Donovan and Molloy were both de- 
scended from Eoghan-m6r, son of Oilioll Olum. Mahoun 
was descended from Cormac Cas, another son of Oilioll 
Olum. The Eoghanacht, or descendants of Eoghan-m6r, 



Sligo, setUed aho at Appiectosa in 
Scotland. The second buxmiig of 
Limeriek hy Mathgmmhain is pro- 
bably the same which the Fowr 
M. apeak of aa the expulsion of the 
foreignera from Inia Sibhtonn, A.D. 
969 (=971). Thej had recorded the 
fiitt boming wider 965 («968). 

^DMcmn. See eh. IviiL p. 87. 

^Kiiuman. The relationahip be- 
tween the rival tribea will be nnder- 
■tood from Tables III., IV., and V., 
Append. B. To modem ideas thia 
rdationship appears aomewhat diatant, 



being no more than» a desoent from 
a commoA ancestor (Oilioll Olam) 
in some twentjtwo or twenty-thxve 
generatiotts, aftcr a period of np- 
warda of 700 yeara; and in the caae 
of Molloy and Denovan, from a corn- 
mon ancestor, Oilioll Flanbeg (great 
grandson of Oilioll Olum) in nineteen 
or twenty generations ; yet to Celtic 
ideas, and in a country where dan- 
ship waa everything, this relationship 
waa close enough to influence effect- 
ively, for good or for evil, the oon- 
tending parties. 



CXXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 



having in course of time dîvided into two powerful septa^ 
appear to have succeeded in excluding the tribe of ihe 
DeJ Cais from their tair share of the alternate suooeaaion 
to the throne of Munster, which both tribes daimed nnder 
the will of their common ancestor, Oilioll Olum. The 
two Eoghanacht fiunilies (which were confessedly the 
senior branch) were at this time represented by Donna- 
bhann, or Donovan, and Molloy. Donovan^ was the chief- 
tain of the Hy Figheinte and Hy Cairbre, in the sonth of 
the county of Limerick. Maelmuaidh, or Molloy, was 
chieftain of the Clann Cuirc,^ or descendants of ConaU 
Ciorc, and lord of the Ui Eachach, or of Desmond. Alarmed 
at the progress of the Clann Lughdach,' or Dai Cais, and 
jealous of their supremacy/ theee tribes and chieftains re- 



i/XmoMii. See Table Y., p. 249, { 
No. 23. This chieftain was the j 
ancestor of the great family of 
O^Donovan. Hisdaoghterhadmarried 
Ivar, Ung of the Danes of Waterford, 
whose aon, Donnabhann, was the an- 
cestor of another branch of the same 
tribe. See O'Donovan, Four Jf., vi., 
p.2436. 

*Ckam Ctdre. See Geneal. Table 
lY^ Nos. 6 and 24. Clann Cnirc 
•ignifies the Children of Corc, CtUrc 
being the genitive case of Corc. The 
Ui Eathach, or Ui nEachach, were 
the deeoendanti of Kachaidh, grandson 
ol ConaU Corc, Table lY., No. a 
The family of O'Mahonj (Ua MaHh- 
gamkm) is desoended from Hath- 
gamh'ain, grandson of the traitonma 
Maelmnaidh. TaUe lY., No. 26. 

* Clatm Lugkdaek, Descendants of 
Logaidh Henn; see Table III., No. 
a This ■ometimes nsed as another 
name for the Dai Cais. 

'iS^p^efllacy■ In this place isinserted 
a prophecy attribnted to St. Colman, 
son of Lenin, first bishop of Cloyne 
(ob. 604). in which is foietold the 



snpramacy of the Dalcaasian raoe to 
the end of the world. This pretcnded 
prophecy, it is needless to say, is a 
wretched forgery, of which St. Col- 
man was as gniltless as the avthor of 
the preeent work ; for the passage is a 
manifest interpolation, interrupting 
the narrative, and of a date evidently 
nrach later than the reign of Brian. 
''To the Clann of Coimac Cais," ii 
saya, that is, to the Dal-Cais, ''shall 
belong the sovereignty, except tkree, 
nntil Flann comes." Flann is ez- 
plained to be Flann Cithach, from 
Dnrlos (Le. Thnrles), the fabled per- 
sonage who is to be the king of Ira- 
land in the tlmes of Antichrist, and 
conseqoently, the last king of Ireland 
before the Day of Judgment. See a 
foii account of this clase of sporiona 
prophecies, and espeeially thoae re- 
lating to Flann Cithacfa, in O^Cuny'a 
Lectores, pp. 898-426, and App., p. 
682. The word Citach is of nncertain 
meaning. CUh is a shower, and 
CUhaeh, showeiy; bnt this ghrea no 
meaning. Chtaeh is left-handad, 
awkward, unlncky. Soma anthor- 



INTKODUCnON. 



cxxvu 



solved npon the traitorous murder of the Dalcassian chief- 
tain, wbom they were unable to meet fairly in open war- 
fare. The Hy Cairbre especially, we are told, were further 
instigated to this unworthy deed by the consciousness 
that the territory they then inhabited really belonged to 
the Dai Cais, of whom Mahoun was the representative. 
They imagined that by putting him out of the way, their 
title to the land^ would be secured ; forgetting that they 
only thereby provided themselves with a still more for- 
midable claimant in the person of his brother Brian. 

A poem attributed to Maehnnaidh or MoUoy on this Mollo7!s 
occasion, is inserted in chap. Iviii. It is an exhortationto Satira " 
the Danes to take the lead, and to assemble the men of to the 

Danei. 



iUes caii Flaim ^nach or ^onach, 
Toracioiu, wbich Mr. O'Curry thinks 
mon Ukdy to be the trne reading. 
The woids *'exoept three" in the pre- 
teaded prophecy seem to indicate that 
H was written at a time when there 
had already been thne exceptione to 
the predicted Dalcassian sovereignty 
oTcr Hnnster. The Book of Mnnster 
giTce the f oOowing Hst of the kings of 
Mnnster who sncoeeded Mahonn: — 
1. Jfogfamaufll, or MoUoy, mnrderer of 
•pffahnmi- 2. Brian Bommfaa. 8. 
Donnchadh, or Donogh, son of Brian 
Beramha. 4. Torrdelbhach, or Tor- 
logh, son of Tadhg, son of Brian. 
6. Mnirchertach, or Mnrtagh ni6r, 
son of Tnrlogh. 6. Diannaid, son ol 
Tttilogh- 7. Tadg, son of Muiredh 
UacCarthy. 8. Conchobhar, or Con- 
Bor, son of Diarmaid (No. 6.) 9. 
Cormae, son of Huiredh MacCarthy. 
10. Toriogh, son of Diarmaid. (Ko. 
6.) 11. Mnrtagh, son of Connor 
(No. 8.) 12. Domhnall m6r (son 
of Diaimaid, son of Tnrlogh, son 
ol Tkdhg, son of Brian), last lung of 
Mnnster, 1168. Here it triD be seen 
that aU these prinoes are the direct 



descendants of Brian, and therefore 
Dai Cassian, except three, whose names 
are printed in italios, and who were ol 
the £ugeman race. So that this 
prophecy was forged moet probably 
abont 1150, or, at least, noi later than 
the timoB oi Tnrlogh, son of Diarmaidt 
who began his reign 1142. The 
editor is indebted to the research of 
his friend, ICr. W. M. Hennessy, for 
this referenoe to the Book of Mnnster. 
1 Land, This territorjr is described 
as Caille Cormaic, or Cormac's Wood, 
extending from Oclan, or Hoclan (in 
the S. of the co. of Limerick, now 
nnknown), to the Lnimneadi or Lower 
Shannon, and from Cnam-cdll, near 
the town of Tippenuy, to the monn- 
tainous districtof Luachair Deaghaidh, 
in the coonty of Kerrj. CaUU Cormaie 
is nnknown to the editor, nnless it be the 
Alh-CaiUe (Wood-ford) mentioned fai 
the'HIIircaîtofMnirchertachmacNeiU,'' 
line 181. ForCnanihcoi]l,seep.cxTii., 
n. s ; Lnachair is Lnachair Deaghaidh, 
a monntainons district near Castle- 
island,conntyofKeny. /VwrJf., A.M. 
8727, A.D. 1679 (p. 1721). A o/* 
RighU^ p. 77, n. 



cxxvm 



INTEODUCnON. 



Partica* 
lan of 
Mahoiiii*8 
mnrder. 



Munster, together with their own people, both GaiU and 
Gaedhil, on the " very high hill" of Eoghabhail,^ which 
wafi tx) be the place of muster. This poem is of no in- 
terest, and is doubtless an interpolation^ in the MS. It 
haâ not the smallest pretence to authentieity. 

The particularo of Mahoun's murder are then given in 
detaiL But it is quite evident that the narrative is not 
in the state in which its author left it. It bearo internai 
evidence both of interpolation and mutilation. Sundry 
" poems" have been inserted which are clearly of a more 
recent date. To make way for these the context both 
before and afber has been tampered witL Hence the 
story is somewhat confusedly, and irregulaxly told. Two 
different accounts, not altogether consistent with each 
other, are given. According to the firot of these, Mahoun 
was in the house of Donovan. How he came ihere 
we are not informed;' but that he did not thus place 
himself in the hands of his enemy without some pre- 
caution, is evident from the faot that he had secnred 



^EoghabhaîL ThU place was pro- 
babl7 in the neigbboarhood ot Knock* 
anj, in the coontj of Limerick. It 
may have been the " high hiir* now 
called Knockadoon, '* HUI of the Fort- 
reM," near Longh Gor. It ia corioua 
that the Dai Caia are called in the 
poem Dai Căit of the Ckwrchet, show- 
ing that it was composed after Brian 
waa rogarded aa champion of the 
Chnrch, in oppoaition to the Paganiam 
of the invadară. 

* Inierpohtion. Chapa. Ivii. and 
Iviii., owing to the lo« of a leaf, are 
•beent from the liS. D. 

• Noi it^ormed. Dr. 0*)>onovan, in 
bia abstract of this story from the 
presant work, says that Donovan **in- 
vited Mahonn to a banquet in his own 
boose ;*' tbis» however, is without au- 
thority from the text; but Brian*s 
poetical lament (p. 89) says that 



Mahonn ** had tmsted, inftitndddp^ to 
the treacherons word of Donovan.** 
The Dublin Ann. of Innîsfallen aay, 
at 976, that the object of the biahop 
in the part. he took in these trmna- 
actions, was to make peace betweea 
the contending parties, and thia ia, 
no doubt, a natural conjectore (ace 
how Bishop 0*Brien ezpanda thia 
hint, VaUarnce^'t CoUtcL I., p. 483- 
484); but it is not so sUted in the 
original authority, and does not explaia 
Mahoun*s motives in tmsting thoaa 
who he must have koown were his 
deadiy enemies. The ** Houae of Do- 
novan** was at Brugh-righ [Air^iMa 
regia; see 0*Donovani Svpplem* to 
O'RdUy^ in voc], now Bruree, on the 
banks of the river MaignOi where are 
stiU to be seen several forta, eerth- 
works, and other traoes of the ancient 
^h:egal** residence. 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXIX 



the safe conduct or protection of the bishop and clergy/ 
to the effect '' that he was not to be killed or blinded." 
However, in violation of all the rights of hospitality, and 
in contempt of the clergy, Donovan delivered up his 
victim to MoUoy and his Danish aasociates.^ 

Molloy, we are told, had sent forward his men to meet Treaeherj 
Mahoun at Cnoc-an-Rebhraidh, on Sliabh Caein,* and to ^ ° ^' 
lull Buspicion induced the bishop to send also some of his 
own people in company with them, whilşt Molloy himself, 
with the bishop, remained at Raithin-mdr. in Fermoy. 
MoUoy had given his followers private instructions to 
put Mahoun to death as soon as they had got him into 
iheir power. The ecclesiastics who accompanied them 
as representatives of the bishop, of course knew nothing 
of these instructions, and were powerless to prevent the 
murder. 

This account of the transaction is at least intelligible. A second 
It contains nothing of the marvellous, nothing that may **^'^'- 
not have really occurred in those ferocious timea But 
the second account. of the same murder, given in a subse- 
quent chxpter (Ix., p. 91), bears evident marks of having 
been tampered with. From the abruptness with which it 



1 Tke derfff. See p. 89. Colvmb, 
•on of CiAngaiif ia mentioned as th« 
Coraharb, ue., snccesscr, of St Bani 
(Baim), or Finnbar, foitnder of the 
Me of Cork. The Ann. Uit. and Four 
If . eall him Airchiftnechj or erenach of 
Coik, and date his death 987 (==990). 

* Aiâoeiatei. This fact ia twice 
•tated in the beginning of cbap. lix., 
m» if two difFerent narratives of the 
erent had been mixed together ; per- 
hapa the fint sentence of this chapter 
and the whole of chap. Iviii. should be 
omittad ; the story woold then ron on 
after eh. Ivii. : — ^ Thia was the counsel 
that was acted npon, &c," p. 89, line 2. 

*SSabh Cadn, This is a mountain, 
now caUed Sliabh Riach, on the bor- 



ders of the connties of Limerick and 
Cork. The editor bas not been abia 
to discover the exact position or 
modem name of Cnoo-an-Rebhraidh. 
According to tbis stoiy Mahoon was 
sent from Bruree (the residence of 
DonoTan) to Sliabh Caein, a con- 
siderable distance, whiist MoUoy and 
the bishop remained at Raithin mor, 
which is expressly said to have been 
in Fermoy. Tbere is a parish, now 
Rahan, 2| miles east of Mallow, on the 
road to Fermoy. Molloy and Dono« 
van seem to have been both at con- 
siderable distances fiom the scene of 
the murder, which, according to thia 
account, was committed at Cnoo-aiH 
Bebhraidh, on Sliabh Caein. 



cxxx 



INTRODUCTION. 



Discre- 
pancy of 
the two 
aoooimti. 



begins, it Beems to want some introductoiy sentences. 
" The naked sword," and "the Gogpel of Bani," the cleric, 
who was with Molloy, the hills too on which the crime 
was committed, are spoken of in a'maoner which lead« a 
reader to think that they had been, or ought to have been, 
mentioned before. The executioners of Mahoun, and the 
ecclesiafitics sent by the bii^op of Cork, are assumed to 
have been sitting on oppocdte hills,' " the fiill flight of an 
arrow asunder/' a fietct which is given on tiie authority of 
those " who were aoquainted with the place" (which, how- 
ever, îb not named), implying that the writer did not 
profess to be acquainted with the place himself. 

In the former narrative it was only aaid that Mahonn 
had the protection of Columb, son of Ciaragân, comharb 
of Barri, or Bairre, that is bi^op of Cork. In the second 
account we are told that he wore on his breast the Grospel 
of Barri^ ** to protect him." When he perceived, however, 
that yeneration for this sacred eopy of the Oospels was 
not likely to have weight with his murderers, he threw 
it from him, lest it shonld be stained with his blood, and 



1 OppotUe hills. TUb seems to de- 
■eribe the paas of Beamft Dhcaig [**nd 
or bloody gap"]* ^ ^® moiantam 
of SlUbh Gaein, which ia tiAâitionally 
beliered to be the pUee where Mahoua 
was murdered. It ia a gap^ throii^ 
which the road from EJlmallock to 
Cork paaMa, one mile aonth of the 
pariah chnreh of Kilflui. Dr. O'Don- 
OYmn atâtea that thia gap liea betwees 
the hilla of Kilcrnaig and Redchair, 
the fonner on ita eaat, the Utter on 
ita weat. (Stuppi, to CtRtSOy, in toc. 
Bwma dh»arg). The DablJn Annala 
of IniafaUen «(at 976) mention alao 
another traditlon, via^ that Ifahoun 
waa murdered at Mniiire-na-nionadh- 
mâire, aupposed to hare been the 
Moahera Moimtain, near HaUow, co. 
of Cork, where it ia stated that there 
ia a heap of stones called Lmchi Matk* 



^nmAfiOr^tomb of Mahonn." See/bvr 
M. (A.D. 974), p. 701, note, and 
Vaikmeey, ColUcL I., p. 485. 

* Gotpd of Barru Almost eveiy 
andent Iriah aee pieaerved the Gospel 
or Paalter of ita fonnder or aome eailj 
ecdeaiaaUc, generally kept in a rilrer 
or higlilj- omamented box or ahrine. 
Some of theae MSS. are atill extant» 
aa the Book of Aimagh ; the Book of 
Dnrrow (formerly bdonging to the aee 
of MeAth) ; the Book of St. Moling, 
of Fema; the Book of Dimma, the 
goapela of Roacrea or Killaloe; the 
Domhnach Airgid, of Clogher; the 
Cathach (a Paalter), of Tliconnell. 
AU theae are in the LIfaraiy of Trin. 
CoUege, Dublin, ezcept the last two, 
which are in the Royal Iriah Academj. 
The Goapel of Bairi mentioned in the 
text ia not now Imown to exiat 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXXl 



it fell into the breast of a priest of the bishop's people, who 
vas distant, we are told, " the full flight of an arrow."^ 

MoUoy was at a still greater distance from the scene of 
the murder; he was distant *' as far as the eye could 
see ;" nevertheless he saw the flashing of the sword,^ and 
knew that the &tal blow had been given. He imme- 
diately moimted the horse that had been kept ready 
for hhn, and fled. "The cleric'' asked what he was to 
do; and MoUoy answered in irony, ** Cure yonder man" 
(meaning, of oourse, Mahonn) ''if he should come to 
thee." Here it is evident that there has been some 
omission; for there is nothing to teii us who this cleric 
was, The only cleric mentioned before was the cleric 
into whose breast the Gospel of St. Barri had been thrown. 
Bnt he was distant with Mahoun '' as fiu* as the eye conld 
Bee," and could not therefore have been the same clerk who 
was within speech of Molloy, and witnessed bis flight. 

The scribes have interpolated' between these twoElegyby 
aceoimts of the bloody deed, an elegy on the death of J^^^ 

death. 



^ Am arrma. Uaking «U dne allow- 
looe for addttiontl strength, generated 
bj the excitement of rach a moment, 
it iras whoUy impoasible that a book, 
fi i iJi tfag oonaiderable reslata&ce to 
the air, althoagfa probaUy in a silver 
or omamented casoi conld have been 
cast, withoift a mirade, **the fnll 
iîgfat of an arrow.** 

^Swrd, The Irish sworda of this 
period wera short, and of bronze. The 
Dtnîah sworda were long, and of 
steeL We may therefore infer (if, in- 
deed, ve can infer anything from such 
a nanmtîre) that the actnal ezecn- 
tMBcn of the nnfortonate chieftain 
were MoUoy'a foreign acoomplices, 
who were boimd by no obligations, 
sad had no reverence for the sacred 
Gospelsof St FinnboT) or for the pledge 
given to their victim by the deorgy. 

^Mtrpolaitd, Immediately foUow- 



ing the poem ia a paragraph (eh. Iz., 
p. 91) in which tbe date of the murder 
is flxed by sereral chronological criteria. 
It was nine years after the battle of 
Solchoit ; the thirteenth year after the 
death of Dnnchadh, king of Cashel; 
sixty-eight years after the death of 
Cormac, son of Caillenan; twenty 
after the death of Congalacfa, king of 
Ireland; and fornr before the battle of 
Tara. AII these dates coincide snffl- 
ciently with the year A.D. 976. The 
battle of Sulchbit is dated 968 ; the 
death of Dnnchadh, 962; Cormac'a 
death, 908 ; the death of Congalach, 
966; and the battle of Tara, 980. 
If the poem be an interpoUtion, as 
seems pretty clear, this chronological 
paragraph mnst hare f oUowed imme- 
diately the former narratire of Ma- 
honn*i mnrder. 



cxxxu 



INTBODUCTION. 



Mahoun, attributed to his brother Brion. It is not 
without some spirit, although to the English reader it 
has, doubtless, lost much of its poetical merit by the 
baldness of a literal translation. It begins with a lament 
that Mahoun had been alain by the hand of an ignoble 
assassin, and not by the sword of some high king. It 
would have been some alleviation of the misfortune, if he 
had fallen on the battle-field imder cover of his shield, 
and not by a base act of treachery. His exploits' are 
then briefly enumerated, and the poem concludes by 
Brian's strong expression of his deteimination to take 
ample vengeance upon his brother's murderer :^- 

** Mj heart will barat, I feel, 
If I avenge not the high king.** 

Ineonsist- It is obvious to remark upon the second narrative, that 
Mornid^nw! ^^ description of the position of the parties concemed ia 
imtiTe. quite different from that of the former account There 
Donovan, having received Mahoun in his own house, sent 
him on to meet MoUoy's people at Slieve Riach, several 
miles distant ;^ whilst Molloy and the bishop were still 
further distant at Rathin-m6r, in Fermoy. If this vrere 
80, and the murder was committed on Slieve Riach, 
Molloy could not possibly have seen the flashing of the 
sword, or distinguished the precise moment when his 
victim felL Neither does this second narrative say any- 
thing of the presence of the bishop. It mentions tipvo 
derics only as witnesses of the transaction ; one, the priest 
to whom Mahoun threw St. Barri's Oospels at the 
moment of his being murdered ; the other, the cleric -who 
was with Molloy when he fled, and of whom we have just 
spoken. This clerk, we are told (p. 93), "recognized 



^ EaploiiM* These are the seven 
battloB mentioned before, chap. lyi.; 
aee p. cxxir. and note >. Machaire 
Buidhe (jellow plain) is the name of 
maDj plaoes in Ireland. Here it pro- 



bably denotes Salchoit. "The 
of the two brave men ** seems to aig^- 
nify the ann j of Irar of Limerick aad 
hia son, Dabhcenn. 
*JH$i€mL Seep.czxiac,n. >, 



INTRODUCmON. 



CXXXIU 



M0II07 at the moment of his departure." The word must 

mean' that the derk perceived from Molloy's ironiftd 

speech and sudden âight the real nature of the bloody 

deed, and MoUoy's participation in the crime. Fired with 

iadignation, in the spirit of prophecy, he cursed the treach- 

erous chieftain. The anathema was uttered in verse, 

in which form it was believed to be more efficadous. It 

predicted by name the man who was to avenge the 

murder. Molloy was to be slain by Aedh, or Aedhan, 

'* a man from the border of Aifi."' He was to be slain 

"on the north of the sun, with the harshness of the 

wmd." That is, as our author explains it, his grave was 

to lie on the north side of the hill, where the sun could 

never shine on his tomb. He should derive no advantage 

from his crime, for his posterity* should pass away, his 

hisiory be forgotten, his tribe be in bondage. 

After the departure of Molloy the two priests, having The priests 
joined each other, went at onee to the bishop, told him "Jî^er to 
the sad story, and placed the Gospel, which was sprinkled theîr 
with the blood of the murdered man, in the holy prelate's *^^' 
breast Then the priest who had brought the Gospel 
bade, wept bitterly, and " uttered a poem,*** the object of 



^ i(ut metm. Tbe words are literalty, 
"the derk took knowledge on him." 
Thetlerk can scarcdy be mipposed 
>ot to htTe known Molloy 's pencîn. 

Mţ/t Tbe ''border of Aifl'* was 
Pi^btbly lome pUce near Knockany, 
oa of Umerick. Aedh, called also 
^«dhan, or Littie Aedh, a temi of 
ttdeanaent (introdaced, most pro> 
My for the eake of the metre) ia 
•iid (eh. Ixi.) to have been aon of 
Gebenntcfa, of the Deai Beg ; he ia not 
neatioDed in the Annala. The Deai 
^ occnpied a territory comprised in 
^ proMot barony of Small Connty, 
^theeo. of Limcrick. 

*Po§leril^ Thia part of the pre- 
^ictioD waa not f nlfllled ; for tbe poa- 



terity of MaelmnAldh ia nnmerova to 
thia day in the familiea of 0*Mahony, 
0*Molloy, -Ac. May we not infer that 
the poetical anathema waa compoaed 
before theae familiea had been f onnded, 
and therefore probably witbin two or 
thfee generationa after the murder of 
Mahoun? *'Thy hiatory ahall be for- 
gotten," ia alao a prediction that haa 
not been accomplished. 

^ UUertd a poem, " He compoaed 
there a prophetic prediction, and 
uttered thia poem,** p. 93. Aa the 
poem, the text of which aeema very 
corrupt, doea not profesa to be a 
propbecy, we rauat conclude that the 
''prophetic prediction** haa not been 
preaerved. 



CXXXIV 



mTRODUCTTON. 



which was to lay claun io the legal finea or pecuniary 
p«ialties for ihe murder. Then foUows a stanza^ attributed 
to Mac Liag, on the four batUes gained by Mahoun over 
the foreigners of Gleiin Datha,^ in the hills on the north 
of Thomond. Then a long el^y ''by Mathgamham's 
blind bard." These poems are, no doubt, interpolations 
of the scribes. The elegy (eh. IxiL p. 97) occurs only in 
the O'Clery or Bnissek MS. ; but it is doubtless ancient ; 
it notices some cireumstancea^ of which no other record 
remains to us ; and an allusion to Briim's taking " tihe 
aovereignty of the five provinces" (p. 99) proves that it 
was composed after Brian had been reoognized as supreme 
king of Ireland. 



1 Gkim Datha. This nune u now 
obsolete. For Mac Liag, see abere, 
p. XX., $q. 

• Circumitances, It may be well to 
explain aome names of penona and 
plac«s in this elegy. ** The land of 
the Ui Torrdhelbhaigh'' or descend- 
ants of Turlogh, was nearly co-ex- 
tensive with the preaent diocese of 
Killaloe. The Ui Torrdhelbhaigh were 
named from Torrdealbhach, or Tur- 
logh, an ancestor of Mahoun, who, al- 
thongh chieftain of his race, renounced 
the world, and became a monk in the 
monaatery of Liamore. (See OeneaL 
Table III., No. 15, p. 247> MagA 
Foii (plain of destiny), p. 97, is a 
poetical name of Ireland. We know 
nothing of **the black steed,*' or of its 
owner, Tadhg, son of MaelcheUaigh, 
except that the Four M., at 955, re- 
cord the death of MaelcheUaigh, son 
of Aedh« abbot or bishop of Emly, who 
wasprobablyfather of this Tadhg. St 
Ailbe, of Imleach (now Emly), is said 
to have been in Ireland before St. 
Patrick, and was patron of Emly ; 8t 
PtUrieit, ApoitU ^Irekmd, p. 203, «g. 
Neasan or Nessan, the deacon, was 
natron saint of Mungret, county of 
lâmerick, and a disciple of SL Pat- 
rick. Mari. of D<m$gai (25 Jnly), p. 



203. Dnn-6aifi was probably the 
name of one of the forts at Donoran^ 
honse at Bniree. It appeaza from 
these lines that some litde jealousy 
had sprong np between Mahonn and 
Brian. Mahoan had gooe to Dono- 
▼an*8 honse without consnitîng Brian, 
if not contrary to his advice, and 
some "injustice" had been done ** by 
the senior brother to the junior,** pi. 
99. Tbere is a cnrions allnaion to tiie 
bard's friendship (the original uaes a 
stronger word, dUe, **love*') for Dabh- 
cenn, son of Irar of Limerick, in ocm- 
sideration of which he says, "I wiU 
not revile the foreigners** (p. 99). 
Jiagk Morffom is now unknown, bnt 
was certainly near Seangnalaiim, or 
Shanagolden (p. 99). Possibly It ia 
the parish called Morgans, on the 
Shannon, N. E. of Shanagolden. The 
other places mentioned are either un- 
known to the editor, or have already 
been explained. See note, p. 9a TIm 
cohclndingstanza(p. 101) oontaina an 
allusion to a curions custmn which the 
editor does not remember to have aecn 
elsewhere noticed, vm^ that calvea, 
and probably other cattle, were made 
to fatt when the tribe waa in grief 
for the loss of thehr chieftain. 
Jonah, iiL, 7. 



INTBODUCTION. 



CXXXV 



The next chapter (bdiL) is a short introduction to the Bruui, 
histoiy which foUows of Brian's reign. The miirderers MoLter. 
gained nothing by their assasemation of Mahoun; for 
Briaa, who suoceeded him» wba noi '' a stone in place of 
an eggy nor a wisp of hay in place of a club," but a hero, 
whose valour surpaased that of his brother. He amply 
ftvenged that brother's cruel murder. The early part of 
his reign was spent in wars and oonflicts of every sort ; 
but before its close he had time to cultivate the arts of 
civilization and peace. 

There is reason to think that the be&mniiu; of the next The 
ehapter has been cormpted by errors of transcription.* ^J cor»- 
But the means of probable correction are at hand. The bhaîsdxm 
true reading, a reading, at least» which gives a good tsense, ^^d^^ 
aeems to be that of the Brussels MS. " Ivar, and Dubh- of the 
cenn, and Cuallaid were killed by Ua Domhnaill,^ of 
Corcabhaiscinn, in Inis Cathaigh [Scattery Island], a year 
afler the slajdng of Mathgamhain. Find-inis,' and Inis- 
mor, and Inis-da-Dromand, were plundered by them, and 
the ialands of the whole harbour likewise, namely, all 
thoae in which were the wives, and children, and seraglios 
of the foreigners."^ From this it appears that the Danes 



1 TVofwerqvfKMk The erron ocovr 
in the Dublin MS. D., which has been 
foUowed in the text, p. 103. Bat 
the 0*Clery MS. B. rapplies readings 
whidi give a consistent senae. See 
note, p. 102. 

* Ua Vomhnaitt. This was the tribe 
of ODonnell, of the co. of Clare, 
ieateă in the west of Corcabhaisdnn, 
OB the banka of the Shannoni now the 
barony of Clonderalaw. 

* Fmd-mu. This name seems to 
hare become obsolete. It is not men-' 
tioned in D. Perfaaps it may be 
what is now called Feenish TslancL 
Inis-m6r is now Canon Ishind, the 
largest of the groap of small islands in 
tibat ezpansion of the Shannon whieh 
receives the riyer Fergns, where is also 



Inis-da-Dromand (island of two backsi 
or ronnd hiUs), now Inishdadrouni. 

* Foreignen. The Fonr M. (976) 
and Tigemach (957) attribute to 
Brianthe '* riolation ** of Inis Cath- 
aigh on this occasion, and the slaying 
of Ivar and his sons, Amlaff and 
Dnbhcenn, withoot any mention of 
the O^DonneU. Here it seems that 
Cu-alaidh or Cnallaid (as already re- 
marked, see p. ciii., ».) is called 
Amlaff. Inis Cathaigh, or Scatteiy 
Island, was the seat of a celebrated 
religioos honse founded by St Senan ; 
and hence the annalist speaks of the 
holy place being **yiolated" by the 
slanghter of the Danes there, howerer 
jostifiableand necessary that slaught& 
may hare been. 






CXXXVl 



INTRODUCTION. 



Donovan 
attacked 
and elaln. 



Hission to 

MoUoy, 

Poetical 

initructions 

by Brian 

Co hifl 

measenger. 



of Lîinerick, afber their great defeat by Mahoun, had in- 
trenched themselves in Scattery Island as their head- 
quarters, concealing their women and children in the 
smaller and more remote islanda/ until they could get 
reinforcements from their countrymen. There the O'Don- 
nells, who were probably acting under Brian, attacked 
them and slew their leaders. A great spoil of gold, silver, 
and wealth of various kinds, was found in these islanda. 

Harold, the only surviving eon of Ivar, was now recog- 
nized as king of ihe foreigners of Munster (p. 103) ; and 
Donovan, knowing what he had to fear from the vengeanoe 
of Brian, sought the alliance of the Danes, and invited 
Harold to his house. But Brian invaded Donovan'a 
territory of Hy Fidhgente, drove off his cattle, took the 
fortress of Cathair Cuan, and slew Donovan and his 
Danish ally, Harold, after prodigious slaughter of the 
foreigners. This was the second year' after the assassin- 
ation of Mahoun. 

The punishment of Molloy was Brian's next object ; 
and here we have a long interpolation (which does not 
occur in the older MS.), in the shape of a bardic poem, 
attributed to Brian himself This poem, a state paper in 
verse, contains the instructions given to Cogarăn, " the 
confidenţial officer of Brian," to claim reparation for the 
murder of Mahoun, and to declare war in form, against 
Molloy. Cogarăn is directed to demand of the sons of 
Bran (Molloy's father) and of the whole tribe of the Ui 
Eachach, of which Molloy was chieftain, why they killed 
Mahoun. He was instructed to denounce woe upon them 
for killing an imarmed man, and for preferring to bd on 
Ivar*s side, rather than on the side of their own countiy- 
men and kinsmen. Brian added that even though he 
himself were willing to forgive this murder of his brother, 
the brave Dai Cais would not forgive — ^the heads of femi- 



^ 1 lilandi, See p. ev., ». 

• Steond pear. See Four M., 976 = 
978. Cathair Cnan may have been 



one of the forts at Bruree. Thli 
battle was mentioned before, p. 45. 
See above, p. xdx., n. 



INTRODUCriON. 



cxxxvu 



lies amongst them (whom he names)^ would not forgive 
— therefore the Dai Cais, or Clan Cormaic, would submit 
to be difipersed abroad in all quarters, even to the country 
of the O'Neill,* the most remote part of Ireland, rather 
than yield up to MoUoy, that which he was contending 
for, and which was the object of his crime, namely, 
the sovereignty of Munster, or of the south of Ireland. 
Accordingly Cogar&n was commanded to announce to the 
tribe of the Ui Eachach, that no cv/mhal or fine would 
be received, in the shape of hostages, or horses, gold or 
silver, cattle or land, and that MoUoy must himself be 
given up. 

A fiill fortnight was aUowed afler the delîvery of this Chaileng* 
message, at which time Molloy was challenged to battle ^ °^' 
at Belach-Lechta^ or else, it was threatened, the Dai Cais, 
led by their chiefbain Brian, would attack him in his 
own house (p. 107). Together with this general decla- 
ration of war, the messenger was charged to deliver to 
MoUoy a particular challenge to single combat from 
Murchadh' (or Murrogh) the great, the son of Brian, who 
was afberwards alain with his &ther at Clontarf 

Then, we are briefly told, Kîan fought the battle of Battle of 
Belach-Lechta,^ or Belach-Leghtha, in which MoUoy, ^^J^ 



^ WJiomhenames. Seep.105. Tbese 

wcre all of Mahonn's immediate family . 

Conamg, alain at Clontarf, 1014 ; Cein- 

seide, anoeator of O'Kennedy; and 

Longergan (wbQM grandson ia men- 

tioned, Fonr M., ^045), were nephews 

of Hahoan, the sona of bis brother, 

Bonscnan, loid of Ormond (sL 948). 

At the time of AUhpun^s mnrder, 

therefore, theee hia nephews were all 

of age, and able to take .rengeance on 

his murderer. Ogan (ancestor ol 

O'Hogan) was the son of £cl\tighem, 

vho was the son of Cosgrach, son of 

Lorcan, and brother of Ceinneide, the 

lather of Mahonn and Brian. There 

was another Echtighem, lord of Tho- 



) mond, Mahonn's elder brother. But 
he was slaia in 948 (=949) Fonr M. 

^O'NeUl This seems to be the 
meaning of the ol^cqre stanza, ** The 
Clann Cormaic from af ar," &c., p. 105. 
The text ia evidently corrupt. 

^Murchadh. See p. 105. In this 
stanza Marchadh is called ** heir of 
the chirfHng of Erinn," which leads to 
the snspicion that this poem mnst not 
have been written nntil after the year 
1002, when Brian became ** chief king 
of Ireland.** 

* Belach-Lechta, This is a chasm in 
the moontain called Cenn-Abrath or 
Cenn-Febrath. A.ccording to a legend 
told in the Tripartite Life of St. Pat» 

k 



CXXXVUl 



INTRODUCÎTION. 



Manner of 

Mo11o7*8 

death. 



" king of Munster,"* fell, with 1,200 of his troops, both 
foreigners and Irish, and the victor took hoetages of 
South Munster, or Desmond. 

In this short account of the battie no mention is made 
of the person by whom MoUoy was slain.* The nairative 



rickţ this motintain lies between Loch 
Longa (N.W. of Glenworth, în Fer- 
moy, 00. of Cork), and Ardpatrick, in 
the barony of Coshlea, co. of Limerick. 
St Patrick wiahing to erect a church 
in thk latter place, the chieftain of 
the conntry opposed him, but said that 
if Patrick could remove the great 
monntain, Cenn-Febrath, so as to give 
him from the place where he stood a 
view of Loch Longa, he would be- 
come a Christlan. Patrick having 
prayed in faith of the Lord^s promise, 
(Matt. XYÎL 20), the monntain began 
to bend from its top nntil a great 
piece of it lay level with the plain, 
fonning the chasm or pass called 
Selaeh-LeghthCj *' Road of Melting,** 
or disBolying. ** Est antem in pr»- 
dicto monte, in loco nbi montis dimi- 
nutio Tisa est incipere, via patens, 
qiuB nomine înde recepto perpetuam 
facit miraculi memoriam. Vocatur 
enim vulgo Bdach-Leghthoj .i. via 
liquefactionis vel resolntionis, quia 
ibi mons videbatnr prius resolutionem 
etâiminutionem patL** Vit, TWp., iii., 
c. 48. (Colgan, Trias Thmm., p. 158). 
See 0*Donovan, Suppl. to O'JieiUy, in 
vocCeoim-o^ArafA. Belach-Lechta, as 
the name is written in the preaent woric, 
and by the Fonr M., signifies "the 
road of the Tomb or Monument,** 
and is so translated by Dr. O'Conor, 
Cenn-Febrath is now Belach-Febrath, 
vulgo BtUlahovora, 

^King of Muntter, Here MoUoy 
is ezprasly called " King of Munster,** 
and his right to succeed Mathgamhain 
admitted, although in the list of 
Jfunster kings (chap. ii.) his name is 



omitted. But we have shown that 
this list is the interpolation of a tru- 
scriber, and did not proceed from the 
original author. See p. xvii. 

s Wat slam. The Dublin Âniials 
of Inisfallen say that Molloy was sUin 
in the battie by Murchadh,son of Brian. 
For this the only authority seems to 
be the poetical challenge to a dngle 
combat, sent on the part of Murchadh 
to Molloy by the messenger Cogirin. 
See p. 105. The account of the battie 
given in these Annals nnder A.D. 978 
(which is the true year) is as followi: 
— **The battie of Belach-LeachU [wu 
gained] by Brian, son of Ceinneide, 
and by Murchadh, Brian^s son, and bf 
the Dai Cais, over Maolmuaidh, son of 
Brun, wiUi the race of Eoghan mâr 
and the Lochlanns of Munster, in 
which Maolmuaidh was slain by the 
hand of Murchadh, son of Brian, and 
twelve hundred of the Gaill, with a 
great multitude of the GaedhiL Some 
hiaturians, and our author" [Le. the 
author of the original Annals of Inis- 
fallen] " in particular, say that it was 
at Berna Derg, on Sliabh Caoin, this 
battie was fought, or at Sliabh Fera- 
muighe-Feine [Fermoy monntain]. I 
find in other old writers that it wason 
Cnoc Ramhia, on thesouth aideof MaOa 
[Mallow], on the road to Corcach 
[Cork], that this victory was gained 
[/iV., this defeat was ffiven] by Brian; 
and I find in other writers that tbe 
battie of Belach-Leachta was fonght 
beside Macromtha [Macroom], dose to 
Muisire«na-mona-m6r." Ann. Innisf. 
(Dubi), A.D. 978. It seems evident 
that there is some confosion in thii 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXXXIX 



evidentiy implies tbat he was slain in the battie in fair 
%ht, and not under any peculiar circumstances ; but the 
former account of bis death (chap. Ixi.) tells us tbat Aedh 
Gebennach, of the Deisi-beg, " found bim in an alder but/* 
at the ford of Belach-Lechta, and slew bim tbere after he 
had been " deprived of bis eyes tbrough the curse of the 
clerk." Tbis represents bim as baving been slain, not in 
the battie itself, but inunediately after the battie. It 
may have been tbat he lost bis eyes in the battie, wbich 
misfortune was believed to be the consequence of the 
derk's cuise (see p. 93) ; and tbat baving concealed bim- 
seif in the alder but near the ford, Aedh Qebennach dis- 
coYered bis retreat, and slew bim witbout mercy. This 
sapposition seems the only mode of reconcilijig the two 
acoounts, if indeed it does reconcile them. 

Brian baving tbus subdued bis enemies and taken bost- Brian k!ng 
ages, became, by the death of Molloy, undisputed king of °'^'*°***'- 
Hunster ; and the remainder of the present work is de- 
voted to his bistory and achievements. He commenced 
by the reduction of the Deisi, or Decies of Waterford, 
who were in dose alliance^ with the Danes of Waterford 
and Limerick. After a victory at Fan-Conracb,* or, as it 
is also called, D^ Fain-Conracb, he " ravaged and plun- 
dered" the whole country to Port Lairge, the harbour of 



•ccoimt between the place wh«re Ma- 
hoan was mnidered and the place 
where Molloy was slain. 

^^fltoiiee. Donovan, the marderar 
€f Mahona, is said to have married a 
dsnghter of the Danish king of Water- 
ford, and his danghter was married 
to Imhar or iTar of Waterford. See 
GeoeaL TaUe V., p. 249. 

* FwnrOmrack, The Dublin Ann. 
ef Inisfallen, and Mnlconry^s MS. 
copy of Keating, caii this place Fan 
Bic Coniach. Fmi may mean ehnnrek 
{ P om ipw) ; and there is a Cmimther 
[or Presbyter] CommuA in the Irlsh 
Cakndar, at Feb. 28. See MwrL of 
Domgai Bnt Ftm is also a decHoit^, 



a âloping grcumd^ which is, donbtless, 
the meaning here ; and we may infer 
from the name DSm Fain-Conrach (fort 
of Fan-Gonrach) that there was an 
antient fortreas at the place. It was 
probably in the neighboorhood of the 
town of Waterford. A friend has sug- 
geated that Ccnraeh may have been 
oormpted into Comeragh, and haye 
giren name to the Comeragh monn- 
tains, co. of Waterford. He states 
also that there are considerable re- 
msins of earthworks on the sideof the 
monntain facing the dty of Waterford, 
and that traditions exist among the 
people of a battie fbnght there by 
Brian. 

£2 



cxl 



nn'RODucrrioN. 



Waterford. He banîshed Domhnall,^ son of Faelan, kîng 
of the Deisi of Waterford, who, we are told, had " forced 
the war upon him," altliough no mentîon is made of this 
chiefbain in the former part of our author's narrative. 

£bying gained these advantages, Brian took hostages 

from Mumhain or Munster, the only mode at that time of 

eecuring the loyalty of any tribe ; in other words, he was 

recognized as king of Munster ; and it is mentioned that 

he also took hostages of the churckes, " lest they should 

receive rebek or thieves to sanctuary."* 

Hî8 con- Ossory was next subdiied. Gillapatrick,' son of Donn- 

o^ţ^^^chadh, its "king" or chieftain, was taken prisoner, and 

Leinster. forced to give hostages. Brian then marched to Leinster, 

to the great plain of Magh Ailbhe,^ where he reeeived the 



1 DomhnalL The Ann. Inisf . say tbut 
Domhnall was slain on this occasion ; 
but thU is contrary to our aathor's 
testimony, and to the Four M., who 
teii ns that he died in 995 = A.D. 
997. He was the son of that Faelan, 
flon of Cormac, king of the Deisi, 
who was murdered by Ivar of Lime- 
rick, in consequence of bis adherence 
to the cause of the Dal-Cais. (See 
eh. L, p. 73, and p. oxvii. «tţpra, 
n. ^). And yet we now find the son 
on the opponte side, in alliance with 
the Danisb enemy. A similar instance 
of the facility with which the clans 
changed sides in tbose turbulent times, 
is found in the fact that Cian, son of 
Molloy, immediately after the death of 
his father, made peace with Brian, 
married Sadhbb, or Sabia, Brian*8 
danghter, fought with him on the 
occasion mentioned in the text against 
the Deisi, and afterwards at Clon- 
tarf. 

'Sanduary. See eh. IxvL, p. 107. 

• Gillapatrick, Tliis chieftain was 
ion of Donnchadh, son of Cellach, 
son of the celebrated CearbhaU, 
.tf vCarroU, king of Dublin, whose 



alliance -with the Norsemen of Ice> 
land and Dublin is so remarkable 
a fact in Irish histocy. -Gillapatrick 
in 997 (Four M., 995) was slain by 
Donovan, son of Ivar of Waterford 
(see GeneaL Table IV., No. 25), and 
by Domhnall, son of FaeUuo, of whom 
we have just spoken. Gillapatrick 
was the ancestorof the iamily of Mae 
Gillaphadruig, of Ossoiy, who hsYtt 
now taken the name of f itzpatrick. 

* Magh AUbhe, There is a townland 
and Tillage now ealled Jfcyno/ry, in 
-the parish of Kilmore, barony of Upper 
Deece, county of Meath^ but this was 
not in Leinster. Dinn-^ogh (now 
Ballyknockan Moat), one of the resî- 
dences or palaces of »the kings of 
Leioster, was in a plain, also called 
Magh Ailbhe, on the bank»of the Bar- 
row, a little to the south of Leighlin 
bridge, ia the townlmd ol Bally- 
knockan, county of Carlow; {Booik 
ofUigktt, pp. 14, «. o, 16, n, *.) In tha 
Magh Ailbhe of Meath ma» a stone, 
called Lia Ailbhe [Stone of Ailbhe], 
which fell A.D. 1000, and was mads 
into four millstones by King Ifalachy 
U.; Foitr M. (998=1000). Tfe» 



INTBODUCTION. 



cxli 



homage^ of the two kings of Leinster, Domhnall Claen, 
king of the eastem, and Tuathal, king of the western 
plain of Liph^, or Liffey. This was eight years after the 
murder of Mahonn, or A.D. 984 ; and thus Brian in that 
year became the acknowledged king, not of Munster only, 
but of all Leth-Mogha, the southem half of Ireland. 

And now he began to aim at becoming supreme king His naval 
of aJl Ireland. He assembled " a great marine fleet" on ^^'*' 
Loch Deiig-Dheirc. He went himself in command of 
300 boats' up the Shannon to Loch Ree. From this posi- 
tion he plundered Meath as far as Uisnech,^ and Brefnâ 
(a district comprising the counties of Leitrim and Cavan), 
"beyond Ath-liag and upwards."^ He sent also 620, 
whether boats or men is not said, into Connaught, where 
"great evik" were perpetrated, and Muirghius (or Morris), 
son of Conchobhair, the chieftain next in succession as 
eligible to the throne of Connaught, was slain.* It appears 



iliM. UU, (99S-9) caii thb stone prim 
dmdgnai maighi Bregh, *' the prin- 
cipal monument of Mag% Bregk,** 

^ Homage. **They came into his 
honae** (p. 107) ; i.e., they submitted 
to Mm, and paid him homage. See 
alao p. 118, and p. Ixxxix., supra^ n. >. 

* Boata, The word used is iMtar or 
ItOMtary which signifies a bowl, a drink- 
ing cup, any kind of vessel, a small 
bcnL See O'Donovan, Suppt to 
aS/nOţ, The MS. B nses the word 
eotor, which ia probably a small river 
boat. Cormac's glossary derives it 
from €thur (inter) betweea : .1. ethaid 
wr eo or; **becaiMe it goes from 
ahiore to ahore." Siohu^ ed.j p. 18, 
TOC Etkur, 

* Uimech, Kow Usghnah hill, or 
Knbck-Ushnagh, midway between 
Ifnllingar and Ballymore, co. of 
Westileath. 

* Upwardg. i.e., northof Ath-liag, 
a ford of the Shannon, on the borders 
of fioacommon and Longford, where 



the town of Lanesborongh now stands. 
This town is called in Irish Bel-Atha- 
Liag, mouth of Ath-liag, or of the 
stone-ford. In 934 (4 M.) Olaf 
Coaran and his * Gaill came from 
Loch £me acrou Brefne to Loch 
Ree, passing through the connty of 
Longford, which was the ancient 
Tebhtha, or Teffia. 

fi Slain. Two others are mentioned 
as having been slain by Brian, but 
they are not said to have been slain on 
this occasion. Theseare — 1. Ruaidhri 
(or Rory), son of Cosgrach, " King of 
the Ui Briuin,"orde8cendantsof Brian, 
brother of Niall of the Nine Hostages. 
(^ee O'Flaherty, West Connaugkt, p. 
126, âq.) The Four M. teii us that 
this chieftain was slain in 992 (=994), 
not by Brian or his troops, but by 
Conchobhair, son of Maelseachlainn, 
and by GioUa-Cheallaigh (or KU- 
kelly), son of Comhaltan 0*Clery, lord 
of HyFiachrachAidhne. (CDonovan, 
By Eiadirach^ p. 892). 2. Muirghiusi 



cxlii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Malacby 
alarmed. 



from the Four Masters (A.D. 987=989), that the foreigners 
of Waterford were amongst Brîan's forces on this oocasion. 
These exploits seem to have alarmed Maelseachlainn, 
or Malachy II., king of Ireland, who had been eighteen 
years on his throne, and had strengthened himself by 
many victories over the Danes and native chieftains.' 
He now took steps to come to an understanding with 
Brian." The two chieftains met at Pleîn-Pattoigi* (p. 109), 
where Brian had bronght his fleet, and " a mutual peace" 
condnded. y^BQ concluded. It was agreed that all hostages in the 
custody of Malachy were to be surrendered to Brian ; 
whether they were of the Munster foreigners, or of the 
Leinster tribes, of the Hy Fiachrach- Aidhne (in the county 
of Galway), or of the Hy Many (West Connaught). On 



A peace 



son of Rnaidhri or Roiy, who, our 
anthoriays, **wa8 slain afterwardfi." 
The Four M. record his death at 995 
(=997), thus; "a battle was gained 
over the Munster-men by Cathal and 
HuirghiuB, the two sons of Roaidhrî, 
Bon of Cosgrach, apd by Ui Cellaigb 
[O'KelIy], wherein many fell, and 
Moirghius, son of Ruaidhri, fell in the 
heat of the conflict." 

1 Chieftains. In 983, Malachy, then 
in alliance with his half brother, Glon- 
iarain, son of his mother Donnflaith 
by Olaf Coaran, defeated, in a bloody 
battle, Domhnall Claen, k. of Leinster, 
and Ivar, of Waterford, after which 
he pltindered Leinster. In 985 he 
plondered Connaught, and sleW its 
chieftains. In 989 he defeated the 
Danes, and besieged them in the Ddn 
of Dublin for tweuty nights, until they 
capitulated for want of water, and 
promised a tribute to be paid every 
Christmas for ever. In 990 Malachy 
gained a victory in Thomond, Brian's 
own conntiy. In 992 he invaded 
Connaught and repulsed Brian, who 
had advanced into Meath as far as 



Loch Annîn, now Lough EnnelL In 
996, two years before the peaoe of 
Blean-Phuttoge, Malachy had plun- 
dercd Kenagh, in Tipperaxy, and de- 
feated Brian ; he then again attacked 
Dublin, and carried off the Ring of 
Tomar and the sword of Carlus, relics 
which were held in honpur by the 
Dublin Danes. /burlT., d94(=99a) 
But our author does not mention these 
triumphs of Malachy. They explain, 
however, how he came to have in hia 
custody the koaiaget alluded to in the 
treaty; and also why Brian so readily 
came to terms. 

' Brian, This treaty is passed over 
without notice by all our annalists^ 
except the Dubi. Inisfall., where it ia 
mentioned at 997. 

* Plein Pattoigi. This place is now 
BUan-PlaUtogtj a townland in the 
barony of Kilkenny West, county of 
Westmeath, on the shore of Lough 
Ree. Ord. Ăfap, Sheet 15. Th^ word 
Bkin or Blean, signifies a harbour. 
For this Identification the editor is 
indebted to the reaearch of Mr. W. M. 
Hennessy. 



INTRODUCTION. 



cxliii 



these 



condiţiona Malachy was to be reoognized as sole 



^^ ^ereign of Leth Cuinn (the northem haîf of Ireload), 
^îthout war or trespass of Brian." This was A.D. 998, 
^ years before the battle of Glen-mama. 
^ ^ After the death of Domhnall Claen," the provinee of Revolt of 
*^mster revolted,* and made an alliance with the Danes ^-«»^*«^- 
^ ^^blin (eh. Ixvii), menacing Brian with war. He 
^J'efore mustered his forces, and marched towards 
^hUn, intending to blodcade the city. He appears to 
^6 ialted on his way in a place called Glen-mama, or 
^ ^^ of the Gap, near Dunlavin, the antient fortress of the 
^^^^ of I^einster, in the county of Wicklow. Here Malachy 
f'^ to have joined him, and here he was opposed by the 
^^^Daiiiah and Leinster armies, who had previously 
aent away their families and cattle for safety into an 
angk^ lieaj- Glen-mama. 

-^^^^'^^ed at finding that Brian was moving there, they BatUe of 
went foirward " beyond their families" to meet him. 2|^- 
Thete exigued a bloody battle, in which, afler great 



mama. 



\ ^^Us0oL There îs some difficulty 

-^efe '^ ^W chronology. Domhnall 

0l^s^eathuiâated985. Thetreaty 

^1^ lialachy is dated 99S. There- 

{of^ ^ "^^ imdeTstand onr anthor to 

^y that Wntter re volted immediately 

^ter ilie death of Domhnall Claen, 

^)sat revolt mnst have taken place 12 

^ 13 years before the treaty of peace. 

^t k nora probable, however, that the 

^fioâ» "after the death of Domhnall 

0t0O^^ were not intended to imply 

^gtmediateljf after his death; or else 

ţfift the revolt had continned for some 

^jme before Brian felt himself strong 

^mnigh to march npon Dnblin. 

* An angk. Called by our anthor 
j^oaUl CfuU, the " angle of the f oraign- 
ţi^** AxUla GaUorum, See note p. 110. 
ijliere is still near Dnnlavin a cnrious 
^njnilar plece of land, which, althongh 
^gjfoanded by the counties of Wicklow 



and Kildare, was formerly a part of the 
county of Dublin. It is now in the 
barony of South Kaas, oo. of Kildare. 
This was possibly the angle. to which 
the Leinstennen sent their cattle and 
families. But they are saidtohaveused 
for the same purjjose the districts of Ui 
Briuin Chualann, Ui Gabhra [reoJUi 
Gabhla], and Ui Donnchadha (page 
111.) The Ui Briuin Chualainn were 
the descendants of Brian, brother of 
Niall of the Nine Hostages, who settled 
in the district ronnd Sliabh Cualann, 
now Suffor-loqf mountain, in the ter- 
ritory of Cualann, south of the co. of 
Dublin, and north of Wicklow. The Ui 
Gabhla were eeated in the S. of the co. 
of KUdare. See Four M., A.D. 497 
(p. 160, n. ».) The territory of the Ui 
Donnchadha (or O'Donoghue) is de- 
scribed as that throngh which the river 
Dodder flows, in the oo. of Dublin. 



cxliv 



INTRODUCTION. 



slaughter on both sides, Brian^ was victorious. Aralt/ or 
Harold, son of Olaf Cuaran, tlie heir apparent of the 
foreigners of Ireland, Cuilean, son of Echtighem,' and 
4,000 of the Danes of Dublin, were slain.* The victorious 



1 Brian, Cur author makes no 
mentionol MaelseachlaiimorMalachy 
in this engagement, although f rom the 
ac6onnt given of the battle by Tighern- 
adi and the Foor M. there ia good 
reaaon to think that Malachy was 
preaent. The Annals of Ulster, how- 
ever^ make xio mention of him. 

• Sort ofEchtighem, The Fonr M., 
Hghernach, and the Ano. Uit. caii 
this chieftain " Cuilen, son of Eitigen,** 
and epeak of him as one of the " chiefs 
of Athcliath" (Dublin); his name 
■eema Celtic, bat from this we can 
draw no inference. Cuilen was the 
name of a son of Cearbhall, son of 
Dungal, lord of Ossory, and king of 
Dublin. Fowr M,, 884. 

* Slain, The f ollowing interesting 
account of the site of this famous 
batUe has been communicated to the 
editor by the Rev. John Francis 
Sheannan, formerly R.C. Curate in 
that neighbonrhood, now of Howth. 
^Glenmama is said by all our his- 
torians to have been in the neighbour- 
hood of Dunlavin (Dun-Liamhna); 
the name is ancient, and is mentioned 
in the CWcuit of Irekmd hy Muirckear- 
taeh MacNâU, edited by Dr. 0*Dond- 
▼an, line 61. The name, however, is 
now unknown in the neighbourhood, 
and «tterty f orgotten, nnless it be sup- 
poaed to exist still in a cormpted 
foim in the name of the townland of 
itfathwar, popnlarly Man ofwar^ in the 
parish of Tubber. A wide-spread tra- 
dition of a great battle against the 
Danes exista among the people, and 
men of the last generation could point 
out the place where the bodiet of the 



alain lay heaped together in promis^ 
cuous sepultnre. The road by which 
Brian pursued the retreating Danes is 
still well known. An elevated table- 
land rises aboiit 2 miles below Bally- 
more Eustace, and runs north and 
south for nearly 8 miles to Rathsal- 
lagh, forming a sub-range to the 
Wicklow mountains. Aboiit midway 
a ralley divides this ridge east and 
west, on the southem slope of which, 
facîng the west, ihe modem town of 
Dunlavin stands. The anclent for- 
tress of Dunlarin lay more to the 
south, and higher up on the hill âde. 
The moat of Toumant marks the 
place, where is also an old cemetery, 
with remains of a still earlier time, 
pagan tumuli, and fragments of stone 
circles, known in this part of the conn- 
try as the *Piper*s stones.* This 
yalley, I beliere, is the ancient Glen- 
mama ; and although there is now no 
i^oad or pathway through it, a road ia 
said to have mn through this glen 
froitt the earliest period, leading to 
liiamhain, Maistin, and the other 
primiâve fortresses of mid-Ldnster, 
aAd thence eastwards to the port ol 
Wicklow by Glendalough and Holy- 
wood, whence an old road ran acroşa 
the mountains, which still retains in 
some places its ancient parement, not 
nnlike the old Roman roads. It ia 
locally called SL Kevin's road, thia 
saint having made his fiist retreat at 
HoljTwood, where his care is still to 
be seen, with many other remînJscenoea 
of his retirement The precise spot in 
this valley where tradition says the 
«fight begas,' is sitoated between the 



INTRODUCnON. 



cxlv 



anny seems to have met with no opposition on their way 
to Dublin, where they immediately made themselves 



towiUands of Friar-hill, in the parish of 
Tabber, ud BUck-hill and Brewer's- 
luHf in the pariah of Dnnlavin (Ord. 
M^P) S^eet 15), at a point somewhat 
to the weet of the place in which the 
^•JiAes of Dnnlavin, Tnbber, and 
CfT^elpe, or Crehelpt meet in the slate 
qnarries. At this spot the yalley nar- 
robiri, mth steep banks on the sonth or 
BlAck-hiU side. Towarda the east it 
«gain ivideDS, and on the S. aide is an 
cngle caHed Gauleenlana (i.e., 'gabat- 
an-glenna, the fork of the glen), 
oppoaite to which a glen nins north- 
ward ap to the townland of Maintear, 
This is now called Tnbber glen, but its 
older name waa *■ Glenvigeha^ C5^"~ 
yf^ein, Glen of fighting). From Gan^ 
leenlana the glen opens to the south, 
onder BrewerVhill, and ia here called 
PhzticA (perhaps Bleiace, the stony 
pla<%} ; a pool bere is called Tuhber- 
villaTf a well on the hill side Tkienveg^ 
and a amall moraas in the debris of 
the slate qnarries is called Poulmona, 
while the mearing between this and 
MergatutotPtt is known as the Lorg- 
ditch. The modem road from Dun- 
lavin to Cryhelpe crosses the valley 
at the alate qnarries. Abont 60 years 
ago it was a mere bridle path, while 
the land on either side was nnbroken 
by drain or fence, and covered with 
goTse and heather. Glen-mama may 
be aaid to terminate at the slate quar- 
riea, between which place and Glenvi- 
geha, or Tubber glen, a gentle slope 
liaes to Ciyhelpe, from the summit of 
which the land again slopes to the 
east. The old pass crossed about here, 
and this may be the place called Claen 
Conghair (A, Four M., A.D. 999 and 
740, n. *)t Le., the slope of the path. 
A portion of this road may be traced 
acroM the lower part of Cryhelpe. It 



passes near a llttle disused cemetery 
called the Rtligwn^ which is now nearly 
obliterated by the annual encroach- 
ments of the plough. Nothing re- 
mains bnt a few graniţe boulders, with 
ronnd cavities în them, used perhaps 
for bruising corn. Many such are to 
be seen in the old cemeteries of this 
neighbonrhood. Near this are also 
the remains of an old town, said to be 
the ancient village of Cryhelpe. This 
road crosses the bog of Cryhelpe, and 
passes by a very curious and well- 
preserved stone ci rele, which is, as here 
usnal, caHed the *Piper's stones,* 
adjoining the Bealach Dunbolg at the 
ford of Athgreany, under Dunboyke. 
"It would appear that the Danes 
expected to reach Dunlavin, and per- 
haps to encamp there to meet the 
forces of Meath and Munster; but 
Brian seems to have anticipated their 
movements, and to have met them 
in the narrow deâle of Glen-mama, 
thus cntting off their retreat Here 
there was no room for a regular en. 
counter, and the flight must have 
been iramediate. The main body of 
the Danish army flew across the slop- 
ing land through Kinsellastown, to the 
ford of Lemmonstown, where a rally 
seems to have been made by them, 
and where it is said thousands fell in 
the conflict To this day their bones 
are tumed np m the fields about the 
fofd, and some mounds on the banks 
of the stream are so filled np with 
bones that the people leave them un- 
tilled as being sacred repositories of 
the dead. The remnant of the def eated 
army fled to Holywood, about a mile 
to the east of the ford, and thence to 
the ford of the Horsepass, on the Lif- 
fey, above Ponl-a-phouca, where they 
were utterly routed. Towards the 



cxlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



Dublin 
taken. 



maştera of the fortress.' Here spoils of great value were 
found ; great quantities of gold, silveif, bronze, and precious 
stones ; carbiincle gems, bufialo homs, and beauti^ gob- 



close of the last centniy the wild landa 
of Upper Cryhelpe were reclaimed, and 
raany relics of this retreat were brought 
to light, chiefly in a line from Tubber 
glen to Lemmonstown ford, the work- 
men, coming npon the pits where the 
bodies of the slain were boried, left 
them intact, cloelng them up agaÎD. 
In the defile of Glen-mama, doring 
the first week of Maj, 1864, one of 
theee pits waa accideutally opened; 
bones were tnmed np, and also the 
fragmenta of a Daniah sword (now in 
the posseaaion of Dean Graves, Prea. 
R.I.A.); the ciay was found black 
and nnctnoua, aa if thoroughly satn- 
rated with human remaina. Tradition 
stătea that in this retreat * the son of 
the King of the Danee' fell among the 
elain, and that hia body waa interred in 
the old cemetery of Crj'helpe, which ia 
now obliterated, and almoat unknown. 
Within ita circuit nothing remaina but 
a rude graniţe shaft, 5 feet 3 inchea 
above the aoil, with an oblong aper- 
ture cut through it to admit the inaer- 
tion of a wooden or atone arm to form 
acroas. Itiacalled^CVuu^'andnow 
aervea aa a acratching poat for cattle. 
Under thia rude memorial, aa the aams 
tradition avera, aleepa in hia gory grave 
Harold, the aon of Amlaff, Hhe crown 
prince of the foreignera of Erinn.* 

^* Another but amaller body of caTalry 
fled through Glanvigeha to reach (per- 
hapa) the ford of the Liffey at Bally- 
more Eustace; and, while croaaing 
a quagmire called * Moinavantriy* at 
* Jfainaoodh^* in Tubber, aome of them 
were engulphed in the moraaa, and 
there periahed. In the year 1849 thia 
moraaa waa drained, and while being 
filled np with atones and rubbiah, a 
quantity of bonea, apparantly thoae of 



the horse and the cow, together writli 
the antlers of an elk, *boiled up' to 
the surface. 

** A third party fled from the vaBej- 
eastward by the * BdigeeaC to the Beai- 
ach Dunbolg to gain the ahelter of the 
wild recesaea of Hollywood and Sitele 
Gadoe (Slievegad or Church Moun- 
tain), paaaing near where Aedh Mac 
Ainmire was slain in 598. Tradition 
aaya that Brian Borumha pursued them 
alongthe Bealach to HoUywood, where 
are to this day ancient and majestic 
yew treea around the church of St. 
Kevin, in whose apreading branches 
the king of Leinster may have Inrked 
nntil hia place of concealment was dia- 
coTored by Murchadh, aon of Brian. 
The flight continued to the Horsepasa 
on the Liffey, where the Danes made 
another fruitleaa rally. Their defeat 
left the road to Dublin free and unim- 
peded for the victorious l^;iona of 
Brian and Maelsechlainu." 

^ The Fortreu. Two bardic poema» 
one of them imperfect, are here in- 
aerted in the MS. B, in celebration of 
thia victory. They contain no mfor- 
mation of any consequence; bat in 
the second of them (p. 115), the num- 
ber of the Danes slain at Glen-mama, 
is said to have been 1,200, inatead fA 
4,000, as in the proae narratlTe (p. 
111). It is also said that netther the 
famonsbattleof MaghEath(8eep. 111.) 
nor the gn^eat battle of Magh Ealta [or 
Clontarf], was to be compared **in 
proaperous results" to the battle of 
Glenmama (p. 115). This poem was 
evidently written after, but probably 
not long after the battle of Clontarf ; 
before that battle had come to be 
repnsented as decisive. It is doabt- 
less, an interpolation. 



INTRODUCnON. 



cxlvii 



^^^ a« also "vestures of all colours."* Brian and his 
^y> ^v^e are told, made slaves and captives of " many 
^^en, boys, and girls," and this ia defended as being a 
i^^^^^tvaliation upon the foreigners, who were the first 
Jr^^aors, havîng come from their home to contest with 
^ ^^'i^ih. the possession of their own countiy and lawful 
j^t^^ce» (p. 117). 
D^j^Tţ^o:! is said in one place (p. 113) to have remained in Brian's 
Chjj^^^ from great Christmas to little Christmas, i.e., from ^^ubiln" 
Il7>^?^^^^cia8 to the Circumcision f but in another place (p. 
^^^^ is said to have remained from Christmas to the 

^f St. Brigit (Feb. Ist). Be this as it may, he 
^^^^Siî^ to have made Dublin his head-quarters until he 
^^^Teduced the greater part of Leinster to subjection, 
axid taken hostages ; he also bumed and destroyed the 
wood called Coill Comair/ making clearances, and. dis- 
mantling fortresses, doubtless with a view to his intended 
military operations. 



1 Mmn, Here follows a paragrsph, 

which is moBt probably an interpola- 

tkm, în irhich ia explained how the 

Danes came by their great wealth: 

namel^i by the plimder of fortreeses, 

chnrches, and snbterraneaui caves. 

Their magica! poweiB enabled them 

to disoover ererything that had been 

ooDcealed under gronnd, or hidden in 

the aoBtndes of the Fians and fairies. 

This ifl an inatance of the lingering be- 

lief (among Chriatians) in the magical 

poireTB of the pagan îdolatrous ritee. 

The Fiana were the ancient Irish Mili- 

th^ whose leader waa the celebrated 

Finn Mac Comhaill, dain A.D. 284. 

Legenda of the prowees and exploits 

of the Fiana were fayonrite subjects 

with the Iriah bards. This claas of 

ţoetry ttill exists în the Highlands of 

Sootland, but elsewhere is prindpally 

hnown by Macpherson's imitation of 

the Osaianic tales- In Ireland this 

fiteratnre is abnndant. See the ** Boy- 

iah Exploits of Finn Mac CumhaiU,** 



edited by Dr. O'Donovan, 1859, and 
other publications of the Dublin Ossi- 
anic Society. Comp. Keating^s curious 
acconnt of the qnalifications necea- 
saiy for admission to the Order of 
the Fianna, or Fenians; (TMahow^^% 
TVofMt,/). 343, 8q, 

^ Inherit€mce. Aparagraphisherein* 
serted landatory of Brian, setting forth 
his senrioes against the Danes, and the 
25 battles gained by hîm over them ; 
this lias also the air of an interpola- 
tion, althongh it occnrs in both MSS. 

> Circmncision. The Fonr M. 
rightly understood by " Lîttle Christ- 
mas " the OctaTe of Christmas. Tigem-^ 
ach (A.D. 999), says that Brian re- 
mained ^' a foii month" at Dnblin ; co 
raibhe an nU nbm: which Dr. O^Conor 
erroneoQsly reads an mm lan^ and trans- 
lates **remanet ad libitom ibi*' 

< CoiU Comair, "Wood of the 
conflnence" [of two or more ri^ers], 
a place now nnknown to the editor. 
It WBS, howeyer, in Leinster. 



cxlviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



SubmUaion Meantime " the kinor of the foreimers" (called Amlaibh 
son of oiaf ^ ^^^ ^^^ (P- H^) i ^ut we should evidently read " son 
Cuaran. of Amlaibh,") namely, Sitric, son of Amlaibh, or Olaf 
Cuaran, fled after the battle of Glen-mama to seek pro- 
tection from the northem chieftains, Aedh,* king of 
Ailech, or North Uladh, aud Eochaidh,* king of East 
XJladh. But they both refused to protect him, and appear 
to have deKvered him up to the officers sent by Brian to 
pursue him. Accordingly three months after his defeat 
at Glen-mama, "he came into Brian's house," in other 
words, "submitted to Brian's own terms," and was restored 
to his former command in the Dtin, or Castle of Dublin. 

The truth is that Sitric was now necessary for the 
accomplishment of Brian's ambitious plâns. An alliance 
was accordingly made with him. It was probably on 
this occasion that Brian gave his daughter to Sitric in 
marriage, and possibly formed his own connexion with 
Sitric's mother, Gormflaith,^ of whom we shall hear mere 
in the sequel. 



^ Aedh, He was son of Domhnall 
O'Neill, king of Ireland (A.D. 956), 
grandaon of the celebrated Mutrcher- 
tach of the leather cloaks. He was 
dain in the battle of Craebh Tukha, 
1003. (^FourAf.) See Table I. p. 245. 

' Eacftaidh. He was son of the Ardul, 
Ardgal, or Ardgair, who was slain at 
the battle of Cili- mona. (See p. 45, and 
p. xcviil., supra.) Madugan (father 
of Ardgal) si. 948, was son of the 
Aedh, son of Eocbagan, who was slain 
in the battle of Kilmashogue in 919. 
(See p. xci., n.) The royal palace of 
eastera Uladh at this time was at 
Dundalethglas, now Downpatrick ; as 
the palace of Northem Uladh was at 
Ailech. Uladh, with the Danish ad- 
dition of ştir (province), has now be- 
come Uladk-8tir=\J\8ter. 

• OarmJIaUfu She was the sister of 
Haelmordha, king of Leinster, daugh- 
ter of Murchadh, and giund-daughter 



of Finn, Lord of OfFalj, who was alain 
928. She was married firat to Olaf 
Cuaran, by whom she had the Sitric 
mentioned above ; then to Malachy II., 
by whom she was divorced or repn- 
diated (after she had borne to him a 
son, Conchobhalr or Connor); and 
thirdly to Brian, by whom she waa 
also put away. The Njal Saga calls 
her Kormlada, and describes her as 
"the fairest of all women, and best 
gif ted in every thing that was not in 
her own power/* i.e., in all physicai 
and natural endowments ; but "she did 
all things ill over which she had anj* 
power," i.e., in her moral conduct. 
(jBumt Njalf ii., 323.) It is lemark» 
able, as showing the dose alliances 
by marriage between the Irish chief— 
taina and the Danes at this period, 
that Donnflaith, daughter, or grand<^ 
daughter (see p. dii., n. 3) of Moir- 
chertacb oi the Leather doakBj 



INTBODtJCTIOK. 



cxlîx 



Maelmordhay King of Leinster, brother of this Gorm- And of 
flaith, was also now taken into Brian's favour. TbiSj^*^ 
prince had allied himself with the Danes of Dublin in kîng of 
the hope of secnring' for himself the crown of Leinster, 
and had fought with them against Brian at Glen-mama. 
Afler the ^ictory he concealed himself in the foliage of a 
yew tree, where he was discovered and taken prisoner by 
Murchadh, or Murrough, Brian's son. But when Brian 
made alliance with Sitric of Dublin, the same policy in- 
duoed him to take Maelmordha also into his friendship ; 
and Donnchadh, son of Domhnall Claen, the actual king 
of Leinster, was deposed, that Maelmordha might be put 
into his place.* 

Having formed this confederacy with those who were Brian 
80 lately his bitterest enemies, Brian now retumed home, jj^JJ" 
that is to say, to Cenn-coradh,^ or Kinncora, his tisual 
residence, near Killaloe, after having enriched his fol- 
lowers with the spoils of Dublin and of Leinster. Here, 
in defiance of his recent treaty,* and in violation of good 



con. 



(after the death of her first hasband, 
Domhnall, son of Donnchadh, King of 
Ireland), " mamed " Olaf Coaran, and 
had by him Glnniarain, King of Dub- 
lin. Malachy TI. aftervrarda married 
Gormflaith, Olaf Cuaran^swidow, and 
finally married Haelmaire, a sister of 
Sitric, who was the same Gormflaith's 
flon by Olaf Caaran. From her name 
Haelmaire ("servant of Mary ") thia 
daughter of King Olaf Cuaran seems 
to have been a Christian. 

1 Secminff. In 999, about a year 
before the battle of Glen-mama, in 
alliance with Sitric, he had captared 
Donnchadh, son of Domhnall Claen, 
Ung of Leinster, and declared himself 
king in his place. See Atm. Uit 998 
or 9. FourJf., 998 (=1000). 

• Ptaccn Sec chap. Ixxi., p. 119. 

■ CemKoradh, "Head of the weir." 
This word hasgreatly pnzzled theScan» 
dinavian editorsof the Njals Saga, who 



have written it Kantaraborg, conf onnd- 
ing it with Canterbury, or snpposîng 
a place in Ireland with that name; 
others write KtmniaUahorff, and ren- 
der it quasi KumutkHr-borff^ ** the capi- 
tal of Connaught.** (See the Latin 
version of Njal Saga, p. 591, and 
Bumt Njal, li., p. 323). Bnt the 
change of t into c or i& gives Kankara~ 
borg a snfficiently close representation 
of Kinncora. Bwmt Njal, Introd,, p. 
cxciii., note. 

< Treai^. Dr. O'Brien, in his Laio 
of Tanisiry (Vallancy, CoUeet, i., p. 
520), endeavours to throw the blame 
of violating the treaty npon Malachy, 
who had made "a great plnndering** 
in Leinster, which Dr. 0*B. says, was 
"Brian's kingdom." The Ann Uit. 
record this plunder in their year 998~ 
9, the year of the battle of Glen-mama, 
but before they mention that battte. 
It is true the ănnalist Tighemach re- 

•*3 



ci 



INTRODUCTION. 



His inva- 
sion of 
Meath. 



faith and honour, he organized a formidable conspiracy 
for the purpose of deposing Malachy, and placîng himself 
on the throne. Our author*s account of this transaction 
(chap. IxxiL) is, that Brian having mustered allthe forces 
of Legh Mogha, the southem half of Ireland, both for- 
eigners and Irish, invaded Meath, and marched as far as 
Tai*a, from whence he sent ambassadors to Malachy de- 
manding hostages or battle. Malachy requested a truce 
for a month to enable him to consult his tribe ; and this 
was conceded. Brian pledged^ himself that no plunder, 
ravage, trespass, or burning (p. 119) should be attempted 



cords it afler the battle (at 999), but 
does not say that this was any viola- 
tion of the treaty; and at the very next 
year speaks of Brian*8 invasion of 
Meath as hufirat treacherous rebellUm 
agamst Malachy, cet impod tre mebail; 
which plainly iinplies that Brian was 
the ârst to break faith. The fact 
aeems to be, that, whilst Brian was at 
Dablin, Malachy plundered Leinster 
80 as to complete the snbjectiou of that 
district, whilât Brian was dealing 
with the Dablin Danes. The state- 
ment of Dr. O'Brien, that *' In the 
year 1000 Brian was eamestly soli- 
dted by the princes and states of Con- 
naught to dethrone Malachy," &c., 
îs whoUy without authority from any 
ancient source, although it is found in 
Keating. Even our author, with all 
his Dalcassian zeal, makes no mention 
of it 

1 Pltdged hinuelf. This story of a 
truce for a month secms in itself 
highly improbable, and was probably 
invented by the Dalcassian authors 
to give some colour of generosity to 
Brian*s conduct. No mention of it 
occura in the Aimals. The story, as 
told in the Annals, is this: — Brian, 
with an army consisting of his own 
troops, and his recently conqnered vas- 
sals of South Connaught, Oasoiy, and 



the Munster foreigners, marched to 
Tara. His Danish cavairy of Dublin, 
however, had set out before kini, and 
were completely def eated by Malachy in 
person. Brian then advanced to F'erta- 
nimhe (now unknown) in Maţ^h Bregh 
but retumed ** without battle, wîthont 
plunder, without burning." (^otir M. 
and Tighemach, 999 = 1001). The 
Ann, UU. say nothing of Brian *8 march 
to Tara, and represent Malachy^a vic- 
tory over the Danish and Leinater 
cavairy as having taken place af ter 
Brian^s expedition to Ferta-nimAe ; 
adding that his cavairy having been 
completely routed (jHFtte omnea occui), 
Brian retired, "cogente Domino," with- 
out battle or plunder. Antu UU, 999 
(=1000). Tara, it should beremem- 
bered, had been deserted by the kings 
of Ireland since the middle of the sixth 
century, although Mr. Moore speaks 
of "a palace," "a stately stnicture** 
there, burnt by Brian on thia occasion. 
Bist lrel,y ii., p. 95. Malachy at this 
time resided at Dun-na-sgiath [fort of 
the shields], on the banks of Lough 
Knnell, co. of Westmeath, probably in 
the parish of Moylisker, where there 
are still many ancient raths. There 
was another Dun>na-8giath in Hppe- 
rary, which has been aiready noticed. 
See p. cxvL, n. ^. 



INTEODUCTION. 



cli 



during that time, but he himself in person remained at 
Tara, pending Malachy's answer. 

Malachy employed this interval of truce in endeavoming Maiachy 
to obtain assistance from his relatives* in the north of f®*^**^^ 

irom the 

Ireland, and from Cathal, son of Conchobhair, king of Con- northem 
naught ; resolved, if these chieftains should fail him, to ^^ ^^' 
submit to Brian's demands, and give him hostages. Our 
author adds that this resolution to give up " the freedom 
of Tara" (i.e., his rights as supreme king of Ireland) was 
not mere disgraceful to Malachy than it was to his nor- 
them kinsmen of the Clanna Neill, and the other clans 
of Leth-Cuinn, the northem half of Ireland (p. ] 21). 

The messenger sent to Aedh O'Neîll by Malachy on Poetîcal 
this occasion was Giolla-Comgaill O'Slebhin, the chief^J^^J^' 
bard of XJlster, whose poetical account of his mission is mîarion to 
înserted^ into our author's narrative. Thîs poem is anQÎ^^jL 
eamest exhortation to the three chieftains, Aedh O'Neill, 
Eochaidh, of East Ulster, and Cathal, of Connaught, to 
rescue Tara (meaning the monarchy of Ireland) from the 
grasp of Brian. Aedh is exhorted by the glories of his 
race, by the dishonour that would attach to him if he 
allowed the throne of Ireland to pas3 from the Hy NeiU, 
and by the hint that Maeleeechlainn was ready to abdi- 
cate' in his favour, if by his aid the present danger should 



^RelaHvei, These were Aedh 0*Nei]I, 
King of Ailech, and Eochaidh, aon of 
AnSgal, king of Uladh, p. 121. Of 
these we haye already spoken. See 
p. cxlviiLi n. 1, 2. Cathal, son of Con- 
chobhair, king of Connaughtf was .the 
father of Tadhg, Icader of the forces of 
Connaught at the battîe of Clontaif, 
where he waa slain in 1014. See 
(TFltOartfi We§t Connaught, p. 133, 
Ko. 48. This Cathal was ancestor of 
all the 0*Conon of 'Connaaght. 

^Ituerted, Chap. Ixxiii., p. 121. 
This poem ocean in the older MS. D, 
andnotînO'Clery'sMS. AsO'Slebhin 
lived to 1081, he may have acted as 
Halachy's meMeoger in 1002 Qr 3, 



and there is noreason, except its hav- 
ing been exclnded by O'Clery, for 
suppoeing the poem to be an inteipo- 
lation. It was quite consistent with 
the manners of the times that the 
message should be deliyered in poetry, 
especially when the ambassador was 
:$i professional bard. The family of 
O'Slebhin, now Slevin, was of the 
elann Fergnsa, deseendedfrom Fefgos, 
king of Ireland in the sixth oentnry, 
and, therefora, of the Cinei Eoghain, 
the same tribe of which Aodh was the 
head. See GeneaL Table I., p. 245. 

• Abdicate. See the first stanca of 
the poem at the begianfaig of p. 125. 



clii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Befusal of 
Aedh. 



be averted. Eochaidh is exhorted to bring the Ulaidh^ 
or men of eastem Ulster, of whom he was chiefbam, and 
Cathal to bring " the illustrious men of Obiegmacht,"* or 
Connaught ; thus the whole of the race of Herimon wonld 
be assembled (Aedh leading the northem Hy Neill, and 
Malachy the southem Hy Neill)^ against the usurpation 
of the house of Heber, of which Brian was the represent- 
ative. The reader, it is hoped, with the explanations 
ah*eady given, will have no difficulty in understanding 
the historical allusions of this poem.^ 

Aedh O'Neill however (eh. Ixxiv.) refused to comply 
with the poet*s requeşt, on the groimd that when the 



1 Olnegmacht This was the name 
of a tribe of the Daumonii, the abori- 
ginal settlers in Connaught, f rom whom 
the name of Obiegmacht was poetically 
given to the whole province. It is 
probably from this tribe that Ptolemy 
gave the name of Nagnăta to a district 
in Connaught. 

*Hy Neill. See the last three 
stanzas of the poem on p. 123. 

' This poem. It may be well, how- 
ever, to remînd the reader that Lis 
Luigheachj in stama 1, is Fort of Lugh- 
aidh Menn, ancestor of the Dai Cais. 
See Geneal. Table III., p- 247. ** The 
House of Tal," or of Cas Mac Tail, is 
also another name for the Dai Cais; 
and Temhair of Fal, or FaU, is Tara of 
Fal, 80 called from the ancient stone 
called Lia Fail; comp. stanzas 15 and 
19. See Petrii <m Tara (Transact. 
R.I.A., xviiî., p. 159, «y.) Magh- 
Bregh or Bregia (st 3) has already 
been explained; and Tara is called 
Tara of Bregh (st. 5), because it is 
aîtuated in the plain of Bregia. In 
sL 5 (p, 123) the poet supposes Donn- 
flaith (mother of King Malachy II.) to 
have been Aedh*8 sister, and, theref ore, 
daugkUr to King Domhnall O'Neill, 
aon of Muirchertach of the leather 



cloaks ; but the received opioion (fol- 
lowîng Keating, Reign ofAfaeUechlttmk 
11.^ makes her not sister, bat aont to 
Aedh, daughter of Muirchertach Lea- 
ther cloaks an4 sister to Aedh^s father. 
If this be so, Aedh and Malachy were 
first cousins ; on the f ormer snpposition 
Aedh was Malachy*8 uncie. For CorcV 
Brugk(8t. 14, p. 125) see note «, p. 124. 
The Corc intended was Conall Corc, 
king of Munster ; (see Gen. Table IV., 
No. 6, p. 248). In the same stanza 
*'Lugaidh*s land'* îs the territory of 
the Dai Cais, so called from. Lugaidh 
Menn. Table III., No. 6. In st. 16, 
Lurc or Lorc signifies Leinster, from 
Laeghaire Lorc, alluded to again st 24, 
who was the common ancestor of the 
Hy Neill, and of the kings of Leinster; 
hence the poet*s argument, that hia de- 
scendants ought to make common cause 
against CasheL In si. 17 " Muirehei^ 
tach of the red proweas** is Muircher- 
tach of the leather cloaks. In st. 20, 
*' Cormac, grandson of just Conn," is 
Cormac, grandson of Conn of the 
Hundred Battles, and son of Art 
Aenfir, ancestor of the Hy Neill, north 
and south, and therefore ** to his race 
belongs this western hill;" Le., Tara, 
or the thcone of Ireland. Henoe» Tarn 



TNTRODUCTION. 



diii 



cbieftains of the Cinei Eoghain* were kings of Tara, they 
were able to defend their own rights without applying 
for any externai aid, and that he would not risk his life, 
or the blood of his clan, for the sake of securing the 
Rovereîgnty of Ireland for any other man. Malachy, 
on receiving thia cold refusal, resolved to go in person 
to Aedh, to ofl^r him hostages, and to abdicate the 
throne in his favour. Aedh was himself anxious to give 
to this proposal a favourable answer (p. 129) ; but it was 
necessary to obtain the consent of the elan to the aid in 
war, which was the condition of ii He therefore assem- 
bled the Cinei Eoghain, and laid the question before 
them. They all voted against engaging in warfare with 
the powerfiil sept of the Dai Cais. Aedh then advised a 
more solemn consideration of the subject ; and the tribe, 
having " retired to secret councU," decided that as neither 
side could expect to vanquish the other, they would refuse 
Malachy's request, unless he would consent to cede to 
them "one-half of the men of Meath and of the territory of 
Tara," — (in other words, half of the hereditary jurisdiction 
and possessions of his tribe, the Clan Colmain)— to become 
from thenceforth the property of the Cinei Eoghain. 

On receiving this unfavourable, and indeed insulting The cUm 
answer, Malachy retired in great wrath, and having sum- ^1^ ^ 
moned his tribe, the Clan Colmain, reported to them the «bmit to 
state of the case. They agreed, as a matter of necessity, to "*"* 
submit to Brian. Accordingly Malachy set out, with a 
guard of honour of twelve score horsemen only, and, "with- 
out guarantee or protection, beyond the honour of Brian 
himself and that of the Dai Cais," made submission, and 
ofiered to give hostages. Brian answered that as Malachy 



îs called Connac*8 Hai, «1. 16. In at 
22 (p. 127) Câthal,.Kingof Comuinght, 
is called ^Mescendant of the three 
Cathals," Inacath "of the battle'' a 
play npon hîs naine], becanse he had 
three predeoesaorB Kings of Connanght 
called Cathal, Tis., Noe. 43, 86, and 22, 



in Mr. Hardiman*8 liet of the Kings of 
Connanght. Hardiman^s ed. of (XFla^ 
hertj^s West Comutught, p. 132, sq, 

' Cinei Eoghain^ or Northern H7 
Keill. The Tribe of which Aedh was 
himself the Chief tain. SeeGenealogical 
Table L, p. 245. 

l 



cliv 



IKTRODtJCTION. 



had trufited to his honour, he would take no hostages, 
but would grant him a truce for a year,^ without pledge 
or hostage, adding, tbat he was ready to declare war 
against Aedh aud Eochaidh, provided Malachy would 
promise not to join them against him. Malachy readily 
made this promise, but strongly advised Brian to retum 
home satisfied with the result of his expedition, ''as 
having received submission fi:x>m himself '* (p. 133), and 80, 
having attained the great object of his ambition. Brian's 
followers, being now "at the last of their provisions," 
readily consented to adopt this advioe ; and Brian, befofe 
he set out for his home, gave twelve seore steeds to be 
divided among Malachy's twelve score mounted foUowâ:^. 
But not one of Malachy's men '* would deign to carry a 
led horse with him," showing their reluctance to aocept 
any gifl which implied vassalage to Brian. Acoordingly, 
Malachy bestowed the twelve score steeds upon Murchadh, 
Brian's son, who had that vety day given '' his hand into 
Malachy's hand," in token of alliance and Mendship (p. 
1 33), and who, by taking back his father'a horses, did not 
in any way compromise himself 

Nevertheless, this transaction, notwithstanding its 
palpable hollowness> seems to have been deemed sufi- 
cient to transfer the throne to Brian, and to reduce Mal- 
»c?o?oS^^ aohy to the condition of a vassal,* under the title of Eang 
of Meath. He appears to have submitted, however re- 
luctantly, without a struggle ; nor is the exact date of the 
change expressly marked by our annalists, with the ex- 
ception of Tighemach, who adds, in Latin, at the end of his 
year 1001 (=1000 of the Four Maaters), ''Brian BaruTna 



Theerown 
paasesto 
Brian 
without 



fion. 



1 A ywr. Ko mention of tliis trnce 
for a year occun in the Annala. 

• VauaiL Ii is remarkable that 
henceforth in the Annala, whenerer 
Ma«achy and Brian are mentioned as 
acting together, Brian's name is pat 
first, althongh bef ore this thne it was 
therereiBe. TheFoiirlL,atA.D.997, 



have ** an army was led by Haebeeii- 
lainn and Brian," &c <<Haebech- 
lainn with the men of Meath, and 
Brian with the men of Munster," &c ; 
see also A.D. 998, p. 739, 741. But at 
A.D. 1001, p. 747, and A.D. 10O3, p. 
749, we have "Brian and Maelsech- 
laihn." 




INTRODUCTION. clv 

^ii^?^<W." The Four Masters, on the other hand, describe 

A^;^^ i^'ear 1001 as the twenty-third year of Malachy, and 

i^^ ' 1 O02 as the first year of Brian. But Malachy began 

^îgn în 980, so that the year 1001 of the Four 

1^^ which they say is the twenty-third of Malachy, is 

^V^^ A.D. 1003-4. If so it follows that Malachy con- 

w M. king during the year 1002-3, although the com- 

^^^^ment of Brian's reign* was counted fix>m 1002. 

The newBOTereign begaa his rule by «agreat naval BrUn«d« 
expedition" to Athluain, now Athlone, and by an invasion ^^JIJ^coii- 
of Connaught by land. Hostages were brought him with- naaghtand 
out demnr to his head-quarters at Athlone, by the Con- ^' 
nanght chieftains, as well as by Malachy.^ In the same 
year^ an expedition was made '* by Brian^ to Dun Dealgan 
(now Dundalk), to demand hostages fix>m Aedh and Eoch- 
aidh, the two chieftains of Ulster," who have been already 
so often mentioned. But Brian's policy seems to have been 
at this time peaoe. Aedh and Eochaidh met him at 
Dundalk, and a truce for a year was agreed to, on the 
oondition that the jiorthem chieftains " were not to attack 
Malachy or Brian's Connaught allies, during that year, but 
to contume as fiiends."^ 

When the year was out, Brian mustered his forces (eh. Imraâoii of 
Ixxvii), and invaded the Ultonian chieftains. He appears ^'■*"* 
at tins time to have received the submission of all Ireland 
afi far northwards as the county of Armagh. Our author 
says that he was followed by '' all the men of Erinn, both 



r« reiffih Seo Dr. 0*Conor*8 
note on Tighmiaek, A.D. 1001 (Rer, 
Hib. Seriftt, u., p. 270), tnd O'FIn- 
l^^rty, Og^^ p. 435. 

• Maiachy. Chnp. Ixxri, p. 138. 
Foor M. 1001. 

' Same year. Car nnthor says (p. 
133) tfaat the expedition to Athlone 
was " at the end of a year after this,** 
and also that the expedition to Dun- 
dalk was ** at the end of a year." The 
meaning apparently is, at the end ol 



the year of trace granted to Malachy, 
so that the same year is intended. 
This may acoonnt for the first year of 
Brian being also considered ^e last 
year of Malachy; and thus the story 
of the trace for a year is incidentally 
confimied. 

* J9y Brian, Car author menţiona 
Brian only. The Four Masten, Ann. 
of Ulster, and Tighemach, say, by 
Brian and Malachy. 

^FHâiUU. Seep. 135. 

12 



clvi 



INTRODUCnON. 



Weaknen 
of the 
northem 
chleftains. 



Brianiiu 
vadeB the 
North. 



Leaveiui 
offering of 
gold at 
Armagh, 
and takeB 
hostages. 



Gaill and Gaedhil, of all who were from Sliabh Fuaid* 
southwards/' tbat is to say, soutb of the district which 
owned Eochaidh as its lord. This was by far the greater 
part of Ireland ; and resistance to such an army by the 
provincial troops of the North was hopeless. 

Aedh O'NeiU having failed to give him battle, Brian 
Beized hostages îrora all Ulster. This seems to show some 
weakness in the condition of the northem chieftains, 
which two years' afberwards manifested itself in open 
warfare between the Cinei Eoghain, under their youthftd 
chieftain, Aedh O'Neill, and the eastem XJlstermen, under 
Eochaidh ; it ended in the battle of Craebh-Tulcha, in 
which Aedh and Eochaidh were both slain, Aedh being 
at the time only twenty-nine years of age. 

Brian lost no time in taking advantage of this disoord. 
He proceeded immediately to invade the Cinei Eogham 
and Uladh. Marching his troops through Meath, and 
remaining a nîght at Tailltin,' he advanced to Armagh, 
where he laid an offering of twenty ounces of gold upon 
the altar^ of the cathedraL He carried off hostages from 
Uladh, Dalaradia, and all the North, except the countiy of 
the Cinei Conaill,the present county of Donegal (eh. Ixxvii). 

Brian now (cL Ixxyiii) felt himself strong enough to 



^SUabhFvaid. «'MoanUinsofFiiad*' 
(a man's name); in the sooth of the 
coonty of Armagh , now called the Fews 
rnountains, from the barony of Fiadha, 
or FiodK, in which they are sitoated. 

> Tvfo Teari, The Ann. Uit. say 
that the battle of Craebh Tolcha took 
place on Thnrsday, the 18 kaL Oct., 
which would indicate the year 1004. 
The Foar M. date this battle 1008, 
but in that year the 18 kal. Oct., 
(which is always H0I7 Cross day) fell 
on Tneflday. Dr. O'Donovan Bnpposee 
Craebh Ti^cha [^'spreading tree of the 
hill **] to be the place now called Crew, 
near Qlenavy, barony of Upper Mane- 
reene, connty of Antrim. Bat see 
Bcfivei'B Eecla. AnUq^ p. 842, n. . 



s Tailltm^ now Teltown, a parish in 
the barony of Upper Kella, co. ol Meath. 

< Altar, It was probably on this 
occasion that the cnrious entry was 
made in the Book of Armagh, in prs- 
sence of Brian, by his conf essor or chap- 
lain, in which Brian, as chief King of 
the Irish *^Imperator Scotonim," n- 
cognised the supremacy of the see ol 
Armagh, and pat on record an antho- 
ritative declaration on the snbject-^ 
''finituit'* (read>MOt<} "proomnibu 
regibtts Maoeric ;** Le. of Caahel — viE, 
for himself and his saocessors. See 
0*Carry*s Lectores, p. 658. By this 
politic measore, Brian evide&tly hoped 
to secare the favonr and fupport of 
I the northem dei^gy. 



i 



INTRODUCTION. 



clvii 



execute a project whîch, ajs we leam from the Four Masters, Hu circuit 
he had twice before* attempted, but which the power of '*'^'*^^ 
ihe Northern Hy Neill had prevented him from carrying 
oui This was to make a circuit* of all Ireland, for the 
purpose of carrying otf hostages, to secure the submis- 
âon of the tribes who had not as yet tendered their 
allegiance.' 



1 Twice hefore. The first attempt 
WI8 imxnedÎAtely al ter he had receîved 
the sahminion of Malachy, A.D. 1001 ; 
whea "Brian and Maelaechlaiiin, ac- 
companied by the men of Ireland, 
Heathmen, Connaughtmen, Mnnster- 
men, Leinatermen, and foreigners,** 
went to Dondalk, where the northem 
ehieftuns met them, but "did not 
permit them to advance further/' 
Again, in 1003, the Four M. teii na 
**Brian and Maelaechlainn " led an 
army into North Connanght as far as 
Traiji^ Eochaile (near Ballysadare, co. 
of Sligo), to proceed around Ireland, 
**bnt they were prarented by the Ui 
KeiU of the North." 

*CirciiU, In imitation, probably, 
af the circuit of Muirchertach of the 
leather cloaks. See '' The Circuit of 
Ireland, by Muirchertach Hac NeiU," 
edited by Dr. O'Donovan for the Irish 
Irch. Society, 1841. 

* AUegiamee, His route is minutely 
described by our author (eh. Ixxviii.) 
HaTÎng started apparently from KiUa^ 
loe, he travelled northwards through 
the midst of Connanght, into Magh- 
n-Ai, othenrise called Machairt Con- 
mda [the plain of Connanght], a 
great plain in the co. of Roacommon, 
Ttfnd^g from the town of Boscom- 
moB to Elphin, and from Castlerea to 
Strokestown ; over Coirr-Sliabh (now 
the Curlew mountains, near Boyle), 
mto Tir-Ailella (now the barony of 
Tir-errill, co. of Sligo), into the dis- 
trict of Cairpre (now the barony of 
Carbury, same co.), orer the Sligech, 
or rirer Sligo» ** ke<^ing his left hand 



to the sea, and his right hand to the 
land,'* by Benn-Gulban (now Binbul- 
bin, a remarlcablemountain near Sligo), 
over the Dubh or Black river (now the 
Duff, on the borders of Sligo and Lei- 
trim), and over the Drobhais, (now the 
Drowis, which rises in Loch Melvin, 
and falls into the sea at Bun^drowes, 
near the town of Donegal) ; into Magh 
nEine (now Moy, a plain in Donegal); 
then over Ath Senaigh (or Bel-atha- 
Seanaigh [mouth of the ford of Sean- 
ach], now Ballyshannon ; at Easruadh 
or Eas Aedha ruadh (Assaroe) [cata- 
ract of Aedh Ruadh], now the salmon- 
leap, on the rirer Eme, Ballyshan'- 
non); into Tir-aedha (now the barony 
of Tirhugh, co. of Donegal), and acroşa 
Beamas M6r (now Bamesmore Gap, on 
the road from Donegal to Stranorlar); 
over Fearsad into TirEoghain (Ţyrone), 
thence to Dal-riada and Dal-araidhe, to 
Uladh, and thence to Belach-Diiin, 
where he arrived abont Lammas. Dal- 
riada is now ihe RouU in the northem 
half of the co. of Antrim. It is not 
to be confounded with Dal-araidhe or 
Dal-aradia, in the sonthem part of the 
co. of Antrim, and north of co. of 
Down. ZTZod&wasoriginallythename 
of the whole province of Ulster, but 
after the conquest of the ancient Ultn 
by tlie Oriels under the Collas, the 
name became res^cted to the district 
which induded the sonthem half of 
Antrim and all the co. of Down, but 
afterwards was conflned to the sonthem 
portion of Down. In this last sense 
it is here used. See OTlaherty, Ogyg.^ 
p. 372. Dr. 0*Donovan suggests that 



clviii 



INTRODTJCnON 



Having effected this purpose^ as far as was possible, 
Brian dismissed his troops,* being probably short of pro- 
visions. The men of Leinster crossed Bregia, marching 
southwards to their homes ; the foreigners went off by sea 
to Dublin, Waterford, and Limerîck ; and the Connaught- 
men passed through Meath westwards to their province 
(p. 137). No mention is made of the Munstermen, iivho 
remained, we niay fairly conclude, with their chiefbain. 
Having stopped at Craebh Tulcha,* or retumed thither, 
the Ulaid or Ulstermen suppiied him with provisions, for 
which Brian paid liberally in horses, clothing, gold, and 
silver (p. 137). 
KatiI Then foUows a paragraph, which is most probably 

to pi^tf an interpolation.* It pretends that Brian, afler his cir- 
cuit of Ireland, organized a naval expedition, consist- 
ing of the foreigners of Dublin and Waterford, the Ui 
Ceinnselaigh, from the county of Wexford, and the Ui 
Eathach of Munster.^ These were all maritime tribes, 
and were sent to " levy royal tribute ;" in other words, 
to plunder, firom the Sa^ons and Britons, from the Lenoth- 
naigh® in Scotland, and from the Airer Gaedhel, or inhabi- 



Great 
Britain. 



Belach-Dâin may have been Belach- 
Duna-Dealgan, **ihe pasa of Dnndalk." 
Fwtr M,y p 756, n. \ Bat Dr. Reeves 
(ildomnao, p. xlv.), identifies Belach- 
Dâin with Caatlekeeran, l>aron7 of 
Upper KeUfl» co. of Meath, on the 
BUu^water, three miles N. W. of Kella. 
Fertad is mentioned as if it was a place 
between Bearnas M6r and the entrance 
into Tyrone. The Fowr M, caii it 
FtartoB Camta. The Ann. Uit caii it 
FtariaiiM Canua m UUn m amach 
Conaitt [" Feartaîs Camsa in Uladh, in 
Conall*B fairgreen^], if so, it onght to 
have heen mentioned af ter Tir Eoghain; 
but it is perhaps more prohable, that 
the words ocM »^ 7^ JS^Aatfi are an in- 
terpolation. Feartas Camsa, ^'passage, 
or ford, of CamoB,** was on the river 
Bann, which separţktes the counties 
of Deny and Antrim, near the old 
chorch of lliacosqnin or Camns-juxt^ 



Bann. FourM.j p. 745; Reevea, JSceL 
AnL, p. 842 ; and Adamnam^ p. 96-7. 

■ Purpote, The Fonr M. aay '* that 
he did not get hostages of the Cinei 
ConaiU or Cinei Eoghain,** p. 7^7. 

^Hia troopt, Thej are called in 
the text **the men of Eriimj" becanse 
thej had foUowed Brian in his capa- 
c\iy of Ard-righ, or High King, of 
Erinn, and not as chieftain of anj 
particular dan or proTÎnoe. 

* CraM Ttikha, See p. clvi., n. •. 
^ Tnierpokakm, See notes, pp. 1S6-7. 

• £7» Eatiuuh of Mtauter. Seated 
on the S.W. shore of the co. of Cork, 
round Bandon and Kinsale. See p. 
cxzvL, ». >; and B. of Bighta, p^ 256, a» 

^LemkHoigh, The LeamktiacktM^ or 
men of Lennox, are so called from the 
Leamhain, a river flowing from Lioch 
Lomond. Lennox is perhapa Lean^ 
AoMi-itMce, Leamhain, or Lerinwater. 



INTRODUCTION. 



clix 



tantB of Argyle. Thia expedition ia not mentioned in 
ihe Irish Ânnals, nor, so far as the editor knows, in any 
oiher authority.^ The plunder thus obtained was divided 
into three parts: one-third was given to the Dublin 
DaneB ; one to the warriors of Leinster and of the Ui 
Eathach ; aiid one " to the professors of sciences and arts, 
and to those who were most în need/' this latter portion 
having been probably devoted to useful and charitable 
pnrposes, as a set off against the questionable morality of 
the means by which it was acquired. 

Then foUows (chap. Ixxix.) an accoimt of the peace and Peac* and 
prosperity» which flourished in Ireland during Brian's ^^^ 
administration. He banished and enalaved the foreigners, leigiu 
aud rescued the countiy from their oppression. "A lone 
woman might have walked in safety from Torach," now 
Toiy Island, off the north coast of the county of Donegal, 
to Cliodhna, or Carraic Cliodhna, a rock in the harbonr 
of Glandore' (i.e,, through the whole length of Ireland), 
"carrying a ring of gold on a horse-rod" (chap. Ixxx.) 
He erected or restored churches, among which are par- 
ticularly mentioned the church of Cell-Dalua, or Eillaloe; 
the church of Inis-Cealtra, an island in Loch Derg; and the 
CHoichtech (belfiy), or Bound Tower, of Tuaim-Qreine.* 
He encouraged literature and leaming. He made bridges,* 
causeways, and roadă He strengthened the principal 



* Authoritjf. The ttory, however, 
•hhongh probabty ezaggerated, maj 
ha,Yt had some fonndation in fact. 
Potic3r m&Ţ have led Brian to tnm into 
a foreign channel that restless spirit 
of hifl pirate subjects which might 
othenriae have f onndvent neaier home. 

* Frotperity. The Annala do not 
confirm thÎB glowing picture of a 
/>eacţ/tf{ reîgn. 

I Gîandore^ andently Cwmdor [Gol- 
den harbonr^t abeantifol bay between 
thebaroniea ol £. and W. Carbnry, 
8. of the co. of Cork. In this bay 
ÎB the rock called Cliodhna*s rock, 
npon whSch bcats a wave called Tonn- 
Chtiodhna, Tun-cUtna, (Ciiodhna's 



wave), said to otter a plaintive sotind 
when a monarch of the south of Ireland 
dies. Cliodhna was the name of a fairy 
princess in an ancient Irish legend. See 
the Feit Tighe Chonain (Ossianic Soc.), 
pp. 97, 162. 

• * Tuaim'Greine. Now Tomgraney, 
a parish in the N. E. of the co. of Clare. 
<^ Bridget, Maelsechlainn is said 
by the Fonr M. to have made canse- 
ways or bridges at Athlone and at 
Athliag (now Lanesborongh), with 
the assistance of Cathal Ua Con- 
chobhair, King of Connanght, "each 
carrying bis portion of the work to the 
middle of the Shannon." A.D. 1000, 
and CBonovan'B note ^ p. 744. 



clx 



INTRODUCTION. 



Mael- 

aniTes at 
Kincofti. 



royal forts^ and fortified islands of Munster. -He dis- 
pensed a royal hospitality ; administered a rigid and 
imparţial jxistice ; and bo continued, in unbroken pros- 
perity, for the remainder of his reign, having been at his 
death thirty-eight years king of Munster, and fifteen 
years sovereign of all Ireland.^ 

Our author proceeds (eh. Ixxxi) to mention some 
curious circumBtanoes which disturbed this prosperity, 
and led, indirectly at least, to tlie celebrated battle of 
Clontarf We bave aiready spoken of Maelmordba» King 



^ RoyaifoHt, It will be remarked 
that islcmidM are included in the enu- 
meration of the different kinda of f or- 
tieflses: **duns,fa9tnea8es,M&irMis,&c.ţ** 
p.l41. Thesewere the artificial idands 
or cnmnoffi (so called became they 
wera made of cfonn, ttees); — ihsPfbhl- 
btmten of the Swîss antiquaries. A list 
of the fortifications built or strength- 
sned by Brian ia giVen: — They are — 
1. Cairily or Cashel, a word which sig- 
nifies a waUy and ia translated maceria 
in the Book of Armagh ţ see p^ clvi, 
fi. ^ 2. Cenn-abrtU, or Cenn Febrath, 
near Kilflnan (as Dr» O^DonoVan con- 
jectnred), S.R of the co. of Limerick 
(aee p. cxxxyiii., 1».)^ where there are 
still some fine earthen mounda. 8. 
The ialand of Loch Cend, a lake near 
Knock-any, co. of Limericki now dry. 
4. The ialand of Zog& Gair^ now Longh 
Gur, near Bruff, oo. of Limerick. 
Conaiderable remaina of thia crannog 
exist) which are now the more viaible, 
as modem drainage haa very mnch 
rednced the depth of the lake. Th^ 
ialand ia oi unosnal size, and con- 
taina the itdna of a stone fortification. 
The neighbonrhood ia fnll of mega^ 
lithic cirdea amă cromlechs. In the 
lake bave been foa&d the finest extant 
epecimena of the Cennia Hîbemiciia, 
<er gigantic deer of Ireland. 5. Dun^ 
Eochair Maige (or **fort of the bank 
Df the [river] Maigne," co. of Lime- 
rick), probably now Bniree. 6. 



Dân-Cliathj or Dun CUaek, a fort on 
the hill of Knock-any, territory of 
Cliachi co. of Limerick. 7. Dit^ 
Crot, or JDHn-ffCrot, a ford at the foot 
of Sliahh gCrotj now Siiabh Grad, one 
of the Galtees, in the glen of Aherlagh, 
ca of Tipperary. 8. The iaUnd of 
Loch Saiffkndj nnknown. 9. The 
island called Init an GoiU-dubh (ialand 
of the black foreigner), nnknown; 
aee p. zz., tupr, Fonr M., lOlS, p. 
770) n. 10. Motachj called RoBOch-na- 
fiogh in the MS. B, now perhapa 
Rostagh^ near Donoaile, co. of Cork, 
B. ofLismore, foL 148, a. 11. Cam- 
ooradhf or Kincora, Brian'a own reai- 
denoe near Killaloe. 12. Bonmka, or 
Bel-Bommha, a remarkable fort, abont 
a inile noHh of Killaloe. It ia said 
that Brian there protected the cattle 
apoil which he levied from Leinater, 
nnder the name of Bonimh| or fioro- 
mean tribnte. 

* Ireland, See p. 141. The more 
correct date aaaigna but 12 years to 
Brianta reign aa King of Ireland, 
aasnming A.D. 1002 to have been his 
first yeaxv Onr author quotea the 
bard Giolla-Modnda O'Caaaidy aa hia 
authority for the ffii&ea years, bot 
Keating, qnoting the veiy aame atanaa, 
althoogh without naming the poet, 
reada twelve yeara. GioUa-Moduda 
died about 114a OTlaherty, 6^., 
p. [2]. The metre ia not alteied by 
either reading. 



INTRODUCTION. 



clxi 



of Leinster, and of his sister Qormflaith, who was at this 
time Trith Brian at Eincora. She is called by our author 
" firian's wife," and " the mother^ of Donnchadh, son of 
Brian." 

Maelmordha arrived at Brian's residence, bringing with He bnngs 
him three large pine trees to make masts for shippîng. Jh^e pSe 
These were probably the oflFering or tribute paid bymastafor 
Maelmordha as Brian's vassal. The trees had been cut " ^' 
in the great forest of Leinster, called Fidh-Gaibhli, now 



^ Mbtker. The three '^ mairiages^* 

trf GormUuth are described ih some 

▼enes qootod by the Foar M. (1030), 

•I three ** leape" or " jumps, which a 

woman ahDuld never jtimp.** This 

•eems to hint that the three* leaps were 

BOt legitimate tnarfiages. They were 

"a leap at Ath Cliath, or Dublin,'* 

when she married Olaf Cuaran ; '* a 

leap al Tafa" whda Shi6 married Mala- 

chy II. ;" and ''a leap at Cashel" when 

■be married Brian. The Four M., at 

1009, record the death of Dubhcobh- 

laîgh, a wile of Brian [danghter of 

Cathal 0*Conchobhair or O'Connor, 

King of Connanght]. This creates 

eome difficulty ; for if Brian's marriage 

with Gormflaith took place in or af ter 

tfaatyear, her son Donnchadh conld not 

have been old enongh to have taken a 

command at the battie of Clontarf. 

Ut «1 the other hand, that marriage 

took place as a part of Brian's policj 

to coaciUate the Dublin Danes, after 

Gleamama^ A»D. 1000 (see p. cadviil), 

Donnchadh could not have beai more 

than 13 years of age at Clontarf. 

This, it may be said, was probably 

not too yaung, aocording to the cus. 

toms of the period; the dan woold 

fellow the son of their chieftain as a 

Righdomhna orposn&2e heir ; butwhy 

did they f ollow a boy when they might 

haye chosen one of their late chief~ 

tun's elder sons? That there was 

somethiiig wrong is evident from the 

faet, that a prophecy, as we shall see, 



was put in Brian's mouth, designating 
Donnchadh as his heir. See p. 201. 
A greater difficulty is that we find 
Gormflaith at Kincora, and she is 
called by our author " Brian's wife,'* 
at the time of her brother's unfortun*- 
ate visit there with his pine masts. 
This must have been after 1008, and) 
therefore, after Gormflaith had been 
repudiated, and after the death of the 
wife Brian had married in her place» 
Possibly after this lady's death 6orm<> 
fiaith may have visited Kincora in 
the hope of recovering her position; 
but finding herself coldly received, she 
beoame "grim** against Brian, as the 
Saga sayS) and resolved upon a deadly 
revenge. 

The only other ezplanation of the 
difficulty is probably the true one, that 
Donnchadh was illegitimate, and so 
may have been as old, or nearly as 
old, as Murchadh. We know that 
very lax notions prevaîled in that age 
amongst the Irish about concabinage 
and bigamy. The Njal-Saga says 
that Gormflaith was not the mother of 
Brian's sons (meaning, perhaps, that 
she was not the mother of the sons 
whom it names), and also, according to 
Dr. Dasent's version (BunU Njal, ii., p. 
823), that ''Brian was the name of 
the king that ftrH had her to wife." 
But for the word firtt there does not 
seem to be any authority dther in the 
original Icelandic, or in the Latin trans- 
lation, of the Saga. 



dxii 



INTRUDUCTION. 



Figili.' This forest extended into the temtories of three 
tribes^ (the Ui Failghe, the Ui Faelain, and the Ui 
Muiredhaigh), at the point where the present coiinty of 
Kildare unites with the King's and Queen's countiea 
Each tiibe' fumished one of the three masi», and each 
tribe sent a party of its men to cany their respective 
trees. When ascending a boggy mountain a dispute 
oocurred among the men, probably upon the precedency 
of their tribes, which Maehnordha decided by assisting 
in person to carry the tree of the Ui Faelain. He had 
on a tunic of silk, which Brian* had given him, with "a 
border of gold around it, and silver buttons." By the 
exertion he made in lifting the tree, one of the buttons 
came off; and on his arrival at Eoncora^ he applied 
to his sister Qormâaith to replaoe it. She took the tunic 
and cast it into the fire, reproaching him, in bitter and 
insulting language, for his meanness in submitting to be 
a servant or vassalto any man, and adding that neither 



l/V*/*'. OrFeegile. Tbenamere- 
maiiiB in the parish of Clonsast, King> 
00., a few mfles K. of Portarlingtoo. 

'Tkrteirihes. The district inhabit- 
ed by the Ui Faelain occupîes aboat 
the northem half of the coonty of Kil- 
darO} indnding the baronies of Clane 
and Salt, Ikeathy and Ooghterany. 
B. of RighU, p. 206, n, The Ui 
Mniredhaigh (called by the English, 
Omurethiy OToole*8 original country) 
were aeated in the sonthem portion of 
the co. of Kildare, viz., in the baronies 
of Kilkea and Moone, £. and W. Nar- 
ragh, with Bebaa, and parts of ConnelL 
Jbid,, p. 210. The territory of Ui 
Failghe consisted of the baronies of 
£. and W. Offaly, connty of Kildare, 
those of Portnahinch and Tinnahinch, 
in the Qneen's county, and that por- 
tion oi King's eounty which is in the 
dioceses of Kildare and Leighlin. Jbid,, 
p. 216, M. 

s Ecu^ tnbe. The MS. D, adds to 



the three tribes the Laighis or Leix, 
and the three Commains. O'Cleiy 
seems to have rejected this raading, 
and it is probably an interpoUiian. 
If it were tme there onght to hare 
been more than three masta. The 
district of Leix, in the Qneen^s co., ad- 
joins the site of the ancient wood of 
Fidh GaibhlL The three Gonunaina 
were septs in the N. of the present co. 
of Kilkenny, and 3. of the Qneen^s co., 
on the borders of the ancient Oanighe 
or Osaory. They were, therefore^ at 
a considerable distance from the wood 
of Fidh-GaibhIL For an aceoant of 
Leix see B, qflUffht», p. 214, d. p. 

* Brian. It is worthy of note tiiat 
one of the righU to which the Kmg of 
Naa8(Le.| of Leinster), was entitled 
from the King of Ireland waa <' fine 
textnred clothes at Tara," and, there- 
fore, after Tara was abaadoned, 
whereyer the King held his ooart. R, 
of RighU, p. 251. 



INTRODUCTION. 



clxiii 



his father or grandfather^ would ever have yielded io 
Buch indignity. 

Her ^ords naturally irritated Maelmordha, and pre- He takes 
pared him to resent every insult. An occadon soon pre- ^^^^ 
sented itself. Brian's eldest son,^ MxLrcbadh, or Mur- 
rogh, was playing a game of chess with his cousin 
Conaing,' when Maelmordha, looking on, suggested a 
move, by which Murchadh lost the game. Angered at 
this he said to Maelmordha, ** That was like the advice 
you gave to the Danes, which lost them Glenmama." 
The other answered, " I will give them advice now, and 
they shall not be again defeated." Murchadh replied, 
"Ihen you had better remind them to prepare a yew 
tree* for your reception." 

This insult set fire to the fîiel, and early the nextQnifs 
moming Maelmordha quitted the house in wrath, "with- j^"*o'f 
out permission, and without takîng leave" (p. 145). anger. 

Brian hearing this sent a messenger to entreat of him 
to retum and listen to an explanation. Cogar&n, the 
messenger (see p. cxxxvi), overtook him at the bridge 
of Eillaloe as he was mounting his horse. But the King 



^Gnmdfaiker. Her gimndfather 
VI8 Fina, cfaieftain of the Ui Failghe 
(cir Offaly), al. 928, who waa the son 
ol MfthnflTfMia, mii of Conchobhar, 
eh. ol Offftly (obu 921> Finn had a 
•00, M ufchadh (si. 970), who waa the 
lather of Maefanorâha, King of Lein- 
■icr (iL at ClonUrf, 1014), and of 
Oonttflaith. Finn had aleo a son, Con- 
cfaobhair (ob. 977), who was the father 
of Coogalacfa (ob. 1017), father of Con- 
chobhar (anceetor of 0*Concobhair 
Failghe, or 0*Connor Faly), father of 
Bngarbhan (sL at Clootarf, 1014> 
GormfUith died 1020. Maetmordha, 
King of Leimter, Oormioith*» brother, 
had a son, Bnus, who was the anceetor 
of the Ui Brain, or O'Byme, of Lein- 
ster. He was biinded bj his cousin, 
Sitric, Khig of Dublin (his father*s 
gieat ally), m 1018 (1017 Fonr M.). 



He died at Cologne,. 1052. See Atm. 
UU. 

'Eldesiion. Brian's flrst wife was 
Mur, daughter of Eidliin, anoestor of 
the OhEidhin (now O'Heyne), of the 
race of Gnaire Aidhne, King of Con- 
naoght. See O'Donovan's ffy Fiach- 
rac&(p.398). By her Brian had three 
Bona — 1. Murchadh; 2. Conchobhar; 8. 
FlannţallslainatClontarf. TheNjaU 
Saga erroneously states that Brian's 
son, Donnchadb, was the eldest, misled 
probably becanse, owing toMuit'hadh*s 
death, he suooeeded his father as King 
of Mnnster. BumU Njal^ ii., p. 828. 

• CoMmg, Son of Brian's brother, 
Donncuan. Conaing was afterwards 
slain at Clontarf. Others snppose that 
Conaing O'CarroU, erenach of Glenda- 
lough, was intended. See note \ p. 144» 
* Fev lr«s. See above, p. czliz. 



clxiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ezcites the of Leinster's irritation had not yet subsided ; he struck 
trilwfto ^^® ill-fated Cogarân a violent blow on the skull with a 
m^oiu stick, and " broke all the bones of his head." Maelmordha 
then retumed* in haste to his own territory, and lost no 
time in making known to his tribe the great insult he 
had reoeived, nsing all his influence to excite them to 
avenge his wrongs. They resolved upon a revolt, and 
messengers were sent to Flaithbhertach (or Flaherty), son 
of Muirchertach^ O'Neill, to FergaP O'Rourke, King of 
Brefii^, and to Ualgarg O'Ciardha,* King of Cairbre 
O'Ciardha (now the barony of Carbury, in the N.W. of 



^ Itetwned, A minute account of the 
route Maelmordha took on his way to 
Leinster ia gtven. Learing RiUaloe 
he spent the firat night at Sen Leaa 
Abăinn [old fort of St Abban], in the 
district of the Ui mBuidhi^ which was 
in the Qneen^s coonty (baronies of 
Balljradams and Slievemargy), on the 
river now called Douglaa, a tributaiy 
of the Barrow. Here he remained for 
the night at the honse of Mac Berdai 
(now Berry)j chieftain of the Ui 
mBnidhL The distance from Killaloe 
to this place cannot have been less 
than sixty statute milee, a good day's 
joumey. The next moming he stopped 
at Qarbh'-thamhnach [rough fleld]ţ 
otherwise Garbh - thonnach [rough 
mound or rampart], an ancient seat of 
the kings of Leinster, in the territory 
of the Ui Muiredhaigh (see p. clxii., 
n*), between Naas and Maynooth. The 
exact site has not been ascertamed. 
The house seems to have been then 
oocu|»ed by Dnnlaing, son of Tuathal, 
King of Western Lif^, ancestor of the 
Ui Tnaihail, or OToole s of Lein- 
iter. See Four M., 1013, and O'Do- 
novan*B note '. At this place Mael- 
mordha summoned the tribes to meet 
him, and organized the revolt These 
parttcnlars of Maelmordha's jonmey 
are so accnrately consistent with the 



geography of the country that they 
should be regarded as undesigned eri- 
dences of the authenticity of the nai^ 
rative. 

B Ăfuircheriach. This Muirchcr- 
tach was son of Domhnall, King of 
Ireland, and brother of Aedh O'Neill, 
late chieftain of Ailech, of whom we 
have already spoken. See Gen. Table 
I., p. 245. His son Flaithbhertadi, 
who succeeded Aedh, was caUed am 
trottainf ** Flaherty of the pilgrim*s 
staffţ" because he went on a pUgrimage 
to Rome in 1030. See Circmt qflrt- 
land, p. 68. 

> FergaL, This ought to be Aedb, 
son of Feiţal Ua Ruairc, or O^RourlEe, 
if indeed it be not entirely wlthont 
foundation. Fergal himaelf waa alain 
in 964 (Four M.) ^965 (^im. I7ft.) 
Aedh, son of Fergal, is hen called 
King of Brefn^ a district compriamg 
the present counties of Leitrim and 
Cavan, but formeriy a part of Con- 
naught His f ather, Fergal, was King 
ofConnanght. /burif.,964. Tcpogr, 
Poemă^ xxxvi (262). 

« aCiardha. This famUy is now 
reduced to poverty, and the name, 
angliciaed Keaiy and Carey, is to be 
found principally among the peaaantry 
of Kildare and Meath. See O^Dono- 
van, By Fiachrach, p. 266, «ote. 



INTRODUCnON. 



clxv 



ilie county of Eildare), and these all promised their aid 
against Brian (p. 147). 

They kept their word. Flaherty 0*Neill ravaged The înva- 
Meath, and slew Osii [or Flosi] son of Dubhcenn,* son^"^^ 
of Ivar of Limerick, one of Brian's confidenţial stewards, 
whom he seems to have appointed to uphold his interests 
in MeailL Ualgarg 0*Ciardha and Ferghal [or Aedh] 
O'Sourke attacked Malachy ; they plundered the Oail- 
enga,* in Meath, and slew Malach^s grandson, DomhnaU, 
eon of Donnchadb, who would have been heir of Tara 
if the ordinary rule of the succession had been observed 
Hany other chiefbaîns' also were slain on this occasion. Defeated 
But Malachy overtook the assailants, and defeated them ^^***" 
in a bloody battle, in which Ualgarg O'Ciardha, King of 
Cau>brd, and Tadhg 0*Ceamachan, sub-Eing of Brefn^, 
with many others, felL This event the Fonr Masters 
have assigned to the year 1013. 

Encouraged by this success, Malachy pursued his vie- Who plnn- 
toiy, and dividing his forces into "three plundering ^^J^^^" 
parties" (p. 149), ravaged the country as far as BenaaHowth. 
Edair, now Howth, attacking prindpaUy the foreigners. 



^ Dubkceim. See above, pp. ciL, 
& 

* CdUngOj now the barony of Mor- 
gilBon, co. of Meath, tvhich ia the 
lagBdzed pronimciation of M6r-Gai- 
Inga, the great Gailenga. Of this dis- 
trict O'Leocham was the chieftain. 
Anotherdistrict called Gailenga-beaga, 
or tittle Gaile&ga, nearer Dublin, in^ 
eladed the monastery of Glas-Noeidh- 
b, now GlasneTin. The chieftain of 
this district was O hAenghusa (now 
Hcnaeii^). There was another set- 
tiement of the Gailenga, in the co. of 
HsŢo^ in Connanght. The tribe were 
desoended from Cormac Gailenga, son 
of Tadhg, son of Cian, son of Oilioll 
Olum, King of Munster. This Cormac 
vas samamed Gailenga, becanse he 
had di^laced an ancient tribe of the 



Firbolg called CUmnaGaileom^ or Gai- 
lenga. Jrith Nemniui^ p. 49. 

' Other cki^taini. Cemach, son of 
Flann, King of Lini (Loighne, Ftmr 
M.)y and Senan Ua Lenchan (Ua Leo* 
chain, Fowr if.), King of Gailenga, ara 
mentioned. The Lini or Luighne de* 
rived their name from Lnigh, son of 
Cormac Gailenga (see laat note), and 
were,- in fact, a branch of the Gailenga. 
Their territory in Connanght waa 
identical witb the diocese of Achadh 
Conaire (now Achonry), but they were 
also settled in East Meath, and there 
their name is prsserrod in that of the 
barony of Xwia, which, however, re* 
presents only a small part of their 
original poasessions. Cemach, son of 
Flum, was King of the Meath Lnighoe. 
A o/BiffhtMt p. 186, 9. 



clxvi 



INTBODUCriON. 



The DaneB 
and Lein- 
stermen 
plunder 
Meaih. 



BrUn 
enten 
Leinster. 



But Maelmordha, with hîs nephew Sitric, Bon of Olaf 
Cuaran, gathered the Danish and Leinster forces» encoun- 
tered Malachy, and cut off the whole of one of hîa three 
plundering parties. In this action were slain Flann, 
sumamed Albanacli,' Qoa of Malachy, Lorcan, eon of 
Echtighem, King of the Cinei Mechair,^ and " two him- 
dred others along with them." 

The foreigners, with their Leinster allies, then oiganized 
an expedition to Meath (ck Ixxxv.), into the very heart 
of MaJachy's kingdom,* which they plundered as &r aa 
Fobhar of Fechin/ and caixied ofi captives and cattle 
innumerable, not respecting even the very Teimon or 
sanctuary of St. Fechin. 

Afber having endured these outrages, Malachy sent 
mesaengerB to Brian to demand the protection^ to which 
as a vassal he waa entitled. 

The war had now commenced. Brian, with hia own 
Munster troops and his allies &om Connaught, entered 
Leinster, and ravaged Ossory (eh. Ixxxvi.) His son 
Murchadh, in command of another army, devastated 
Leinster as fitr as the monastery of St Caemhgen, or 
St. Kevin, at Glendaloch, in the county of Wicklow. He 



1 Aîbanaeh, Le., the Scotch. See 
Hote ", p. 1*9. According to the 
Fonr M. thk battle was fonght in 
1012, at Draighnen, now Drinan, near 
Kinaaley, countj of Dublin. Flann 
Albanach, son of Malachy, was the 
ancestor of Diarmaid, commonly called 
MacMairongh, at whoee inviUtion the 
Nonnan knights of Henry II. invaded 
Leinster. 

s CkUl MttJuur. This f amily îs 
now MeofflUr, or Maher, Their tribe 
Bame was Ui Caiito, whence the barony 
of Ikerrin, county of Tipperary. 

» Kmgdom. This chapter (Ixxxv.) 
does not occur in the O'Clery or Bros^ 
nVs MS. The Fonr M. take no notioe 
of this plundering of Meath as far as 
Fobhar; bnt it is mtentigned in the 



Dublin il»Mi. ImrfaU. at 1018, doubtlMS 
on the authority of the present work. 

* Fobhar of Feckm. Now Far9, 
a famous monastery in the K.E. of 
Westmeath, foonded by St. Fechin in 
the 7th centniy. 

<^ ProUction, The words are» ** pray- 
ing him not to permit the Brefn^ [co. 
of Cavan], or the Cairbre [oo. of Kil- 
dare], or the Cind Eoghain [the 
0*NeiIls of Tyrone], to come aii toge- 
ther against him," p. 149. îs ii 
likely that Malachy, smarting nnder 
the great losses here described, woold 
80 soon af terwards treacheronsly join 
the party of his bitterest enemies 
against his own tme interests, as the 
Dalcassian authon wonld pecanade na 
hedid? 



/ 



INTRODTJCTION. 



cbcviî 



▼ian allies. 



bnrnt and ravaged the whole country, canyii^ off cap- 
tives and cattle, iintil he anived at Cili Maîgbnenn,^ 
and tlie Qreen of DubUn, which was probably the plain 
between ELilmainham and the city. 

Here Biian joined him; and^they blockaded Dublin, DubUn 
remaining encamped before it from the festival of Si ^^**^**^*^* 
Ciaran' in Harvest to Christmas Day. But the Danish 
garrison of Dublin kept closely within their walls, and at 
Christmaâ, for want of provisions, Brian was forced to 
nise the siege and retum home. 

Things remained quiet during the following winter. Sitric and 
But in spring, about the festival of St. Patrick (17th of ^^f*^**" 
Maxch), Brian began to organize another expedition Scandina- 
against Dublin and the King of Leinster (eh. Ixxxvii, p. ^ "' 
151), and he had now no time to lose. Sitric, of Dublin, 
and his mother, Gformflaith, with King Maelmordha, 
were actively engaged in coUecting forces for the final 
sfcruggle. Our author says, ''They sent ambassadors 
everywhere around them to gather troops unto them, to 
meet Brian in battle." Brodar, the earl, and Amlaibh, 
son of the King of Lochlann, ** the 'two earls of Cair' 
and of aU the north of Saxon land," are particularly men- 
tioned They are described as pia«. «"Lving no vene- 
ration, respect, or mercy for God or man, for church or 
sauctuary (p. 153). They came at the head of 2,000 
men, who are represented as hard-hearted, ferocious 
mercenaries ; '* and there was not one villain of that 
2,000 who had not polished, strong, triple-plated armour 
of refined iron or of cool uncorroding brass, encasiog 
their sides and bodies from head to fooi" 



^ cm ifm^nenny now Ealmainham, 
Dubim. 

* 8i. Ciaran, The festival of St. 
Cîamn, in harvest, {.e., of St. Ciaran 
of Clonmacnoifl, was Sept. 9th. The 
festiyal of the older Ciaran of Saighir, 
or Seb-kiaran, tras March 5th. 
' * Cair. Thls is eridently cormpted. 
See p. 151, note ^. Cair ia probably 



meant for Ccdr-EbroCf or York (see p. 
165) ; but in B. Brodar ia called Earl 
of Cair Ascadal, and instead of Am- 
laibh, we find *^ Aacadal of Cair Asca- 
dai"" assodated irlth Brodar. Tha 
Danes of Dublin were alvays in dose 
connexion with their countrymen in 
Tork and Northumberland; but the 
NJal-Saga makes no mentlon of Tork. 



clxviii 



INTRODUCnON. 



Additionai Then ouT author gives a list' of the Scandinavian and 

Soppiiedby other auxiliaries, who, he expresdy says, were " invited" 

the Njai- by the Dublin Danes to join them în resisting Brian. 

**^* The Njal-Saga supplies some particulars of this invi- 

taiion, which throw consîderable light on the secret 

springs of the conspiracy. Oormflaith had sent her son 

Sitric to Sigurd, earl of the Orkneys, who oonsented to 

join the oonfederacy on the conditions that, in the event 

of its success, he was to be King of Ireland, and to have 

the hand of Gormflaith. Sitric did not hesitate to 

promise him this. On his retum he informed his mother 

of the arrangement he had made, and she expressed her- 

self well pleased, but sent him forth again to collect 

greater forcea She directed him to the Isle of Man, 

where there lay on the west coast two Yikings, with 

thirty ships, and she oommanded him to engage their 

services " whatever price they might ask." 

Ospak and Sitric soon found them- They were brothers ; one waa 

®"^^' named Ospak ; the other was Brodir, who refused to give 

his aid except on the conditions, which Earl Sigurd had 

also required, namely, the kingdom and Gormflaith'a 



iJUit Sm p. 15a TheMare:— 
1. Singrad, loii of Lotar (Hloâver, or 
Ludoviciu), oaUed Sigurd în the Njal- 
Saga, Earl of Jnsi Orc, or the Orkne^ 
lalandi. See his genealogy, Burnt 
NJal ii., p. 11, eh. 84. 2. Ha waa 
followed hy the foreigners from the 
Orkneys, and from Inşi Cat, possibly 
the Shetland idands. 8. There came 
also the foreigners of Manann (Isle of 
Man) ; of Sci, now Skye; of Leodhns, 
now Lewis ; of Cind-Tiri (Cantire) ; 
and of AireroGaeidhil, now Argyle. 4. 
There were also two Barona of Corn 
Bretan or Cornwall; and Com-da- 
bliteoc, of the Britons of Cili Mnni 
(now St- David's, in Pembrokeshire). 
In another reading of this last danse, 
which showB that it was obscure to 
the andent timacnben» Combliteoc 



is spoken of as the name of a conntiy. 
See note ^\ p. 168. Com-da-bliteoc, 
or Comablltheoc, ia mentioned hcra 
and in a subseqnent part of the narra- 
tive as the name of a chieftain. See 
pp. 178, 188. 5. Carlns and Ebric, 
or Elbrîc, ** two sons of the King of 
France," The King of France was at 
that time Robert IL, son of Hogh 
Capet ; but these maj have been the 
sons of some inferior dynast of France. 
In another place (see p. 165), Elbric 
is described as "son of the King of 
Loohlann.** 6. Plat or Plait, ^a 
strong knight of Lochlann,** called 
" son of the King of Lochlann, brava 
Champion of the foreigners,** 7. The 
hero Conmael, or as B. reads, **Maol.** 
He is called Brodar'a mother*» lOQ, p. 
16^ 



iNTRODUcrrioN. cbdx 

hand Sitric made no scruple to comply, stipulating only 
that the agreement was to be kept secret, and tliat EarI 
Sîgurd especially was to know nothing about it. Accord- 
ingly, Brodir gave his word to be at Dublin on Palm 
Sunday, the day that had been previously fixed with 
Sigurd* and the other conspirators. 

" Brodir," according to the Saga, " had been a Christian Description 
man, and a mass-deacon by conseeration, but he^had®^^"**^* 
thrown off his faith and become God's dastard, and now 
worsbipped heathen fiends, and he was of all men most 
skilled in sorcery. He had that coat of mail on which 
no steel would bite. He was both tall and strong, and 
had such long locks that he tucked them under his belt. 
His hair was black." Such is the Scandinavian descrip- 
tion* of the man who was destined, after the battle that 
followed, to slaughter in cold blood the great King Brian, 
and to be himself slain at the same moment. 

Ospak, however, refused to fight against "the goodospak 
King Brian ;" and certain prodigies, which the Saga de- }^^?^^ 
scribes, detennined him to separate himself from his 
brother. He " vowed to take the true faith, and to go 
to King Brian, and follow him till his death day." So he 
escaped with ten ships, leaving Brodir twenty, and sailing 
westwards to Ireland, " he came to Connaught," to Brian^s 
house, that is to say, to Ceim-coradh, or Kincora, on the 
Shannon. ** Then Ospak told King Brian all that he had 
leamt, and took baptism, and gave himself over into the 
king's hand"^ 

In comiiequence of Sitric's es^ertions "a very great The 



1 Sijfurd. BuTDt Njal, u., pp. 327, 
328. 

•Jkacriptian. Ibid, p. 829. It 
has been suggested that Brodir's real 
name ia loat. He was Ospak's brother, 
and Brodir was mistaken for a proper 
name. If ao, the mistake waa made 
by the Scandinavian authorities aa 
well aa by the Iriah. Bfaurer (quoted 
by Daaent, Bumi Sjal, u, p. clxxxix., 



fiole), conjectares that he may have 
been the Daniah aea-king, Gutring, 
who was an apostate deacon. 

» ne king'» hand, Bumt Njal, ii., 
p. 332. The Irtsh accounta of the 
battle make no mention of Ospak, 
or of his conversion to Chriatlanity ; 
in other respecta they are not incon- 
sistent with the story aa told in the 
Saga. 



MuHtpr at 
Dublin. 



clxx 



IKTRODUC?nOK. 



fleef assembled from various quarters at Dublin. 
Within the city itself Maelmordha had mustered a con- 
siderable force, which he divided into three great bat- 
talions, consisting of the " muster of Laighin," or men of 
Leinster, who were under his own immediate command, 
with the Ui Cennselaigh, or Hy-Kinshela, whose country 
was the eounty of Wexford. 

Brian Biîan meanwhile had advanced towards Dublin (eh. 

J^^tj^^ Ixxxviii) with " all that obeyed him of the men of Ire- 
land," namely, the provincial troops of Munster and Con- 
naught, with the men of Meath. But these laei, although 
they came to his standard, were suspected of disaffection. 



1 Fleet See p. 153. The unpub- 
lished Annals of Loch C6 give the fol- 
lowing acconnt of Sitric's auxiliaries: 
— " There had arrived there [viz-, ** 
Dublin] the chosen braves and chief- 
taina of the island of Britain from 
Caer Eabhrog, and from Caer Eighist, 
and from Caer Goniath. There had 
arrived there also most of the kings 
and chieftains, knights and warriors, 
and heroes of valour, and brave men 
of the north of the world : both Black 
Lochlanns, and White Lochlanna, in 
companionship and in alliance with 
the Gaill ; bo that they were in Ath- 
cliath with the son of Amlafif, to ofiFer 
warfare and battle to the Gaedhil. 
There arrived there Siograd Finn 
[the white] and Siograd Donn [the 
hroum], two sons of Lothair, earl of 
the Orkney irlanda, with the armies of 
the Orkney islanda along with them. 
There arrived there moreover an im- 
mense army from the Inşi GaU [the 
Hebrides], and from Man, and from 
the Renna or Srenna [a district of Gal- 
loway?], and from the British [i.e., 
Welsh], and from thePlemenna [Flem- 
ings?]. There arrived there also 
Brodar, earl of Caer Eabhrog, with 
numeroushosts ; and Uithir, the black, 
».6., the soldier of Eighist; and Griaine, 
the Flemiab pngilist ; and Greiaiam, of 



the Normans. There arrived there a 
thoosand heroes of the black Danars, 
bold, brave, valiant, with ahields, and 
with targets, and with many coraLetii 
from Thafinn [?], who were with them. 
There were there also immenae armies, 
and the warlike victorions banda of 
Fine GaU [FingaR]^ and the merchanta 
who came from the lands of France, and 
from the Saxona, and from the Britons 
and Romana. There had arrived there, 
too, Maolmordba, aon of Hnrdiadh, 
Bon of Finn, chief kingof the provinoe 
of Leinster, with the kinga, and chief- 
tains, and stont heroes of Leinster, 
and with the youths and championa 
along with him, in the same Following. 
Great indeed was the Following and 
the Muster that came there. Warlike 
and haughty waa the upriaing that 
they made there, namely, the war- 
riors and championa of the Gaill and 
the Gaedhil of Leinster, againat the 
battalions of the Munster-men, and to 
ward off from them the oppression ol 
Brian Borumha ; and six great bat- 
talions was the full foroe of the Danes, 
Ce., a battalion to guard the fortress 
[of Dublin] within, and five batta- 
lions to contend against the GaedfaiL" 
AtmaU of Loch Cf (MS. Trin. ColL, 
Dublin), A.D. 1014. 



INTEODUCTION. 



clxxi 



for Brian knew, adds our author, " that they would desert 
hîm' at the approach of the battle," — a piece of treacheiy 
of which they were not guilty. On his way to Dublin 
Brian plundered the districte of Ui Oabhla, or Ui Gabhra, 
and Ui Dunchadha.* He advanced into Fine-gall or 
Fîngall,' and bumed Cill-Maighnenn, now Kilmainham/ 
Brian then sent his son Donnchadh, or Donogh, with '' the 
new levies"* of the Dai Cais, and the third battaUon of 
Munster, to plunder Leinster, whose people and soldiery, 
its natural protectors, were now engaged in the garrison 
of Dublin. He himself remained to watch Dublin, and 
to plunder the Danish country around it. 

The blaze of the buruing in Fingall, which included the The enemy 
neighbouring district of Edar, now Howth, soon attracted ^^'from 
the attention of the enemy's troops within the cîty, and Dublin. 
they at once saUied forth in battle array to attack Brian 
in the plain of Magh-nEalta,^ "raising on high their 
standarde of battle." 



^ Detert kim. This accusation was, 
no doubt, the resnlt of the party spirit, 
wfaich songht to blacken as much as 
poasible the character of Malach^ and 
hia Meath-men, in order to justify 
Brianta nanipation of the kingdom. 
See a paper by the editor of the 
present work, in which reasons are 
ghren to dear Malachy of this char^ ; 
ProceedktffM, Royal Irtsk Acad., voi 
TiL, p. 498, sq. It may be added 
that the accusation was evidently dis- 
belîeved by the Four M., who malie no 
mentlon of it. See also Moore*s Hitt, 
ofireltmd, ii., 108. 

s Ui Oabkra, and Ui Dtmekadha, 
See above, p. czliii, note ^. 

* Fingail, 80 called from Ftne-ffoUj 
"district or territory of fhe foreign- 
era," who had settled^there. See Four 
Jf., 1052; Beeves' Adamnan, p. 108, n. 
Comp. 3t. Patrids, Apoşi, of Jreland, 
295, n. *. This waa a district in the 
county of DubUn, extending along the 
eoast from the eity to the river Ailbhine 



(now the Delyin}, the northem limit 
of the county. Ui Dnnchadha waa 
probably that part of the county of 
Dublin which lies south of the LiÎFey. 

^Kilmainham. The MS. B adda 
"and Clondalkin." These famoua 
monasteries were now in the hands of 
the pagan enemy, and therefore their 
sanctity was no longer respected even 
by Brian. 

« Neuf letfies. Lit " Gray Levies,'* 
See note 10, p. 154. 

« Magh-nEaUa, "Plain of the 
Flocks.*" This was the ancient name of 
thegrcat plain lying betwecn the Hill 
of Howth and the HUI of Tamhlacht 
(now Tallaght), co. of Dublin. That 
part of it which afterwards got the 
name of Clontarf, was anciently called 
Sen Magh-nEalta Edair, "Old plain 
of the flocks of Edair." Four Jf., 
A.M. 2550. Edar waa a chieftain, 
who is said to have flourished a few 
years bef ore the Christian era. O'Fkt- 
herty, Ogyg,, p. 271. 

m2 



clxxii 



nnUODUCTTON. 



Brian bolds 
a council 
of war. 



Prop08al of 
the pirates 
to Brian. 



Pmbable 
origin of 
tbe stoiy. 



Brian was then encamped on the Plain, or Green, of 
Dublin (p. 155). There he held a council of war with 
the principal chieftains* of his anny. We are not told 
the subject of their deliberations ; but the result seems to 
have been a determination to risk a general engagement 
on the following moming. 

The pirates, according to some accounts, had on that 
night spent their pay (chap. xc, p. 157), and had resolved 
to retum to their homes. They had gone as far as Benn- 
Edair, or Howth, where they had left their ships. Dreading 
the valour of the Dai Cais, and of Murchadh especially, they 
had promised Brian that if he would delay " the buming," 
that is to say, the buming and plunder of Fingall, until 
the morrow's sunrise, they would set sail and never come 
to Ireland again ; but now, when they saw that the devas- 
tation of the country had begun, they resolved to have 
their share of the plunder, and prepared to conunence the 
fight in the moming.' 

This story seems in itself very improbable ; but it may 



^ Chi^/tamt. The members present 
at this council are enumerated thus : 1 . 
The nobles of Dal-Caia. 2. Maelseach- 
lainn, late King of Ireland, now King 
of Meath. 3. Murchadh, Brian*s eldest 
son. 4. Cotiaing, son of Bnan*s 
brother Donncuan, lord of Ormond. 
6. Tadhg an eicb-gill [Teige of tbe 
wbite horse], son of Catbal, son of 
Conchobhair, king of Connaught; with 
the nobles of Connaught. 6. The 
men of Munster, meaning, of course, 
thechieftains. 7. The men of Meath. 
'*But it happened," adda our author, 
** that Maelsepblainn and the men of 
Meath were nut of one mind with the 
rest."* What the dlfference of opinion 
was is not said; but this clause is 
doubtless oonnected with the Munster 
calumny against Malachy and his 
clansmen. 

* Moming, The next chap. (Ixxxix. 
p. 155-7) is a manifest interpolation, 
and does not occur in the 0*Clery or 



BrussePs MS. B. It tells how Brian, 
looking behind him, beheld the "bat- 
tle phalanx** of Feigal Ua Ruairc 
(0*Rourke), with three acore and ten 
banners of various colours, and espe- 
cially the victorious " gold-spangled *' 
banner of O'Rourke himself, King of 
the territory of West Breifn^ [Leitrim] 
and of Conmaicne, t.6., of Conmaicne 
Muighe-Rein, a district nearly co- 
extensive with the dîocese of Ardagh. 
Besides Fergal himself, tbese troops 
had for their leader Dombnall, son 
of Ragallach [Reilly], ancestor of 
thefamUy of O^ReUly of East Breiini 
(county of Cavan), and Gilla-na- 
naemh, son of Domhnall, and grandaon 
of Fergal, ancestor of the family of 
OTerghail, now O'FarreU. Neither 
of tbese chieftains is mentioned in 
tbe annals, and indeed the whole stoiy 
bears internai evidenoe of fabrication, 
for Fergal O^Ruairc was slain XJ), 
I 966 [964, Four M.]^ and our anthor 



INTRODUCTION. 



clxxiii 



have been founded on the fact, vaguely reported, and not 
veiy clearly understood, that the pagan leaders were 
azudous to delay the commeneement of the battle until 
Qood Friday ; for the Viking Brodir, as we read in the 
Njal-Saga^ had found by his sorcery " that if the fight 
were on Qood Friday, Klng Brian would fall, but win the 
day ; bnt if they fought before, they would all fall who 
were against him." * The pretended flight of a body of the 
Norsemen, and their promise to Brian to quit Ireland for 
ever if he delayed the combat, was a not unlikely strata- 
gem to induce him to postpone the battle to the fated 
Friday moming. 

Our author next proceeds (eh. xciv., p. 163) to give an Dîflpodtion 
account of the manner in which the " battalions" of the i)^j^ 
enemy were disposed. The foreign Danes, and auxiliaries, totem. 
were placed in the fix)nt of the army, under the command 
of Brodir' or (Brodar, as the Irish authorities speli the 



hâd aiready set him down amongst 
Brian*B enemies. See p. 147, and p. 
dxiv, n. •. The story, however (p. 
257), goes on to say that Fergal (who 
waa alflo King of Connaiight), with hia 
atteadant nobles, was received with 
g;reat respect and state by Brian as well 
as by hia son, Mnrchadh, ** who rose np 
to him, and seated him in his own place" 
in the tent Fergal then, in reply to 
Brian*s question, *'What news?" m. 
fonned him that Aedh, son of Ualgarg 
Ua Ciardha, King of Cairbr^ (now the 
barony of Carbury, connty of Kil- 
dare), had ref osed to come to the bat- 
tle. His father, it will be remembered, 
had been slain by Halachy the year 
before. See p. 149. Brian thereupon 
corsed the Ui Ciardha and the Ui Cair- 
br^ and blessed Fergal and the men 
of Brefn^. All this is evidently the 
dnmsy attempt of a dansman to ob- 
tain for his chieftain the glory of 
having been on the victorions side in 
**the battle of Brian." 
The bombastic narrative that fol- 



lows (eh. xcL and xcii.) is also a pal- 
pable forgery, and does not occur in 
the MS. B. It contains an account of 
the «rms and armonr, first of the 
Danes, and then of the Dal-Cais ; bnt 
the description is evidently unauthen- 
tic It makes no mention of the na- 
ţional battle-axe in speaking of the 
offensive armonr of the Danes, bat 
attribntes to the Dal-Cais the posses- 
sion of ** glaring, bright, broad, well- 
set Lo(Akmn axeâJ* 

1 Agaimt him, Bnmt NJall, yoI. ii., 
p. 833. 

* Broâir, He b here x^lfed Earl 
of Gair Ebroc, or Tork, and ** chief - 
tain of the Danars."^ His mother*s 
son, Ck>nmael, cannot have been the 
same as Ospak, mentioned in the 
Saga as Brodir*s brother, because 
Ospak had gone over to Brian^s side 
from the beginning. Conmael, when 
mentioned before (see p. 163), was 
simply called " the faero." The name 
is Celtic ; but no notice of him occors 
in the Iriah Annali. 



dxxiT 



nffTBODUCnON. 



name), with Conmael, "his mother's son," Sigurd, earl 
of the Orkneys, and other chieftains of inferior note.* A 
second battalion was fonned as a kind of rear-guard in 
support of the foreign Danes. This was composed of 
the Danes of Dublin, under the command of Dubhgall, 
son of Amlaf ;^ Gilla-Ciarain, son of Glun-iarainn, son of 
Amlaf, or Olaf Cuaran ; Donchadh, grandson of Erulbh ;' 
and Amlaf or Olaf Lagmnnd, son of GoffiuitL There 
were also in conunand of subdivisions of this second 
battalion Ottir Dubh (or the black), Grisin (or Grifin), 
Lummin, and Snadgair, four petty kings of the foreigners, 
and chieftains of ships; with " the nobles of the foreigners 
of Ireland" The third battalion, formed of the Leinster 
men and Ui Cennselaîgh, was stationed behind the Dublin 
Danes. They were commanded by Maelmordha, Eing of 
Leinster, and other chieftains of that province.* 



^ Infaiornote, P.165. Theseare— 
1. Plaît, *Hbe bravestknight of allthe 
foreigners.'^ See p. 153. 2. Anrath, 
or Anrad, son of Elbric. Elbric is 
bere called " son of tbe King of Loch- 
lann;" altbougb wben be was men- 
tioned before, p. 153, be is said to 
have been one of tbe sons of tbe King 
of France. 3. Carlos was also (p. 
153} said to bave been a son of tbe 
King of France. Here bis name only 
occurs. Tbese discrepancies sbow 
tbat we can put no great confidence in 
tbese lists of cbieftains. 4. Torbenn, 
tbe black, 5. Sanin. 6. Suanin. 
7. **Tbe nobles of tbe foreigners of 
western Europe, from Locblann west- 
wards," 

* Amlaf, Tbis Amlaf or Olaf was 
tbe son of Sitric, King of Dublin. 
He was slain in an incursion of the 
foreigners into Muniter, in wbicb Cork 
was bumed (^Four Jf., A.D. 1012). 
Dubbgall was, tberefore, Sitric's grand- 
son. 

9Donokadhf ^randâon of Erulbh, 



Tbese cbieftains are called în the text 
(p. 166) tbe four "gtoior primeet of 
the foreigners.** Tbewordr^^kfomibia, 
translated '*crown prince," aignifiea 
not neoessarily the next heu: to a throne 
or chiefuincy, but one who wmBeUgtbte^ 
and might legally be elected. Th« 
famUy of Ob-Eruabb (Heriolfr) waa 
of Danish origin, and was seated in 
the neigbbourhood of Kildare. Amlaf, 
or OUif, Lagmund was the son of 
Goffraith (King of the Hebrides and 
Isle of Man, son of Harold, son of 
Sitric of Limerick). TMs Goffraith 
was slain in Dalaradia, A.D. 989. 
Tighemach; An», VU,; Bruty Tyw^, 
970, 981; iififi. Cambr,, 982, 987. 

* Pronince, Tbe cbieftains named 
are — 1. Boetan, son of Dunlang, King 
of Western Leinster. 2. Dunlang, son 
of Tuatbal, King of UBey. His f ather, 
Tuatbal, was the son of the Ugaire 
who was slain by the Danes at tbe 
battle of Cenn Fnait, in 916, (see p. 
35, and p. Ixzxiz., note '), and who 
wAfl thtsoa of AiliU (aUiB M9), ton of 



INTBODUCrnON. 



clxxv 



Then follows (chap. xcv.) a description of the disposition DwpoMtion 
of Brian's army.* In the van, and immediately opposed l^my^* 
to the foreign auxiliaries of the enemy, were the brave 
Dal-Caîs and the Clann Luighdech,^ iinder the command 
of Murchadh, Brian's eldest son, on whom a bombastic 



Diioboig(8Um867}. Tnathalwasthe 
aooestor of the familia of O'Tuathail 
or OToole; of Ui MniieadhAigh ; Ui 
ICaîI ; and Feara CaalainxL 8. Bro- 
garbhan, King of Ui Failghe or Offaley. 
Soop. clziii, n. 1. 4. Domhxiall, son of 
Fergal. He waa dueftain of the For- 
tnatha Laighen, and descended from 
Finnchadh, son of Garchn, chieftain 
of the Hi GaiTchon, who resisted St. 
Patridc For the situation of the 
Fortnatha Laighen (" foreign tribes of 
Leinsteî^) in the county of WickloWi 
see B. ofJtigktt, p. 207, noU. 

1 Arm^, There ia oongiderable dis- 
crei>anc}r between this acconnt and 
that of the Njal Saga, which makes 
no mention of Murchadh. We are 
there told that Brodir, and Sitrygg of 
Dnblm, oommanded the wings, and 
Earl Signrd the centre of the Danish 
ariny. In the Irish anny Ulf Hroda, 
tianalated in Bnmt Njal, *' Wolf the 
qnarrelflome,** oommanded the wing 
oppoeed to Brodir, Ospak the other 
wing opposed to Sitrygg, and Ker- 
thialfad the centre. Brodir felled all 
befoie him, bnt althongh *' no steel 
woold bite on his mail,*' Ulf Hroda 
thrast at him so hard that Brodir fell 
befoie him, and having reco^ered his 
feet with great dSfficulty, fled into the 
neighboniingirood, where he watched 
bis opportnnity, and issued forth to 
slay Brian. Kerthialfad fonght his 
way to EaxI Signrd in the enemy*s 
centre, and dew the man who bore 
the EarVs charmed banner; another 
standaid-bearer took his place, and he 
too waa slain ; Signrd caUed to others 
ţt take the basner, bat all ref osed, 



feariog the prophecy, that irhoever 
bore it shonld fall. Then Earl Signrd 
tore the magic banner from the staff, 
and put it nnder his cloak. This broke 
the speli, and '^ the Earl was pierced 
throughwith a spear.** Ospak, on the 
other wing of Brian*s army, met with 
a stern resistance, and lest his two 
Bons ; but at length Sitrygg fled be- 
fore him. BwrrU Njalf ii, p. 334, sq. 

According to the Irish account, 
Sitrygg took no part in the battle, but 
remained to keep the f ortress of Dublin. 
No mention is made of Ospak, and it 
is not easy to indentify either Ulf 
Hroda, or Kerthialfad, with any of 
the chieftains on Brian*s side, known 
in Irish history. The Njal Saga says 
that Ulf Hroda was Brian's brother, 
and that Kerthialfad was Brian's f oster 
child: — ** He was the son of King Kylfi, 
who had many wars with King Brian, 
and fled away out of the laud before 
him, and became a hermit; but when 
ELing Brian went south on a pil- 
grimage, then he met King Kylfl, 
and then they were atoned, and King 
Brian took his son Kerthialfad to him, 
and loyed him more tban his own son. 
He was then fuU grown when these 
things happened, and was the boldest 
of all men." Bumt Njal^ ii., p. 323. 
It has been suggested that King Kylfi 
may have been the O'Kelly who led 
the forces of Hy Many in Brian's 
army; but the Irish records contain 
nothing to support this conjecture. 

B Clann Luiffhdech. Race of Lugh- 
aidh Menn, King of Thomond; a 
branch of the Dai Caia. 3u Otntal, 
Tabk III., No. 6, p. 247. 



clxxvi 



INTRODtJCTiON. 



panegyric is pronounced (p. J 67). In the inferior com- 
mands of this battalion, were Torrdelbhach, son of Mur- 
chadh (who was at this time but fifteen years of age), and 
several other chieftains;* with "the men of bravery and 
valour of the Dal-Cais." 

A second battalion, formed of the troops of Munster, 
was stationed in the rear of the Dal-Cais, under the com- 
mand of Mothla, son of Domhnall, son of Faelan,' King 
of the Deise, or Decies, of the county of Waterford, with 
Magnus, son of Anmchadh, King of Ui Liathain.' 

A third battalion was composed of the men of Con- 
naught (eh. xcvi, p. 169), under the command of Mael- 
ruanaidh* Ua-h-Eidhin, and other inferior chieftains,^ 
"with the nobles of all Connaught" 



1 Ckieftaint. Those named are — 
1. Conaing, son of Brian*s brotber, 
Donncnan, lord of Ormond (slain 948, 
Four M.) Conaing is styled " one of 
the three xnen most valued by Brian 
thatwerethen in Ireland/' tbe other 
two being apparently Murchadh and 
Torrdelbadi. 2. Niall Ui Ciiinn or 
O'Quin. Aongus Cennatinn (son of 
Cas Mac Tail), was ancestor of the 
Ui Cuinn or O'Quin of the Mninntir 
I£Femain, originally seated at Inchi- 
quin and Corofin (Coradh-Fine), in 
Thomond, the present county of Clare. 
— See Topogr, Poema, p. Ixxix. (711); 
F<mr M.y p. 774, n. \ 3. Eochaidh, 
son of Dunadach, chief of the Clann- 
Scannlain (Fotir Jf.) in Ui Fidhgente 
(county of Liraerick). 4. Cuduiligh, 
son of Cennetigh, (probably Gennetigb 
son of Brian's brotber Donncuan). 
These three are said to have been 
"the three life guards" or '^rear 
guards,'' of Brian. 5. Domhnall, son 
of Diannaid, King of Corcabbaiscinn, 
in the county of Clare, ancestor of the 
Muinntir Domhnaill or O'DonnelIs of 
Clare/ (07/«wttrifi, Topogr, PoenHy 
p. 111.) 



* Fadaau This Faelan was son of 
Cormac, and died 964. The family 
of CFaelaiUf descended from him, are 
now Phelan, and some of them Whelan. 

' Ui Liathain, Now the barony of 
Banymore, county of Cork. 

* Maelruanaidk, pronounced Mul- 
rooney. This chief tain was the fint who 
could have borne the patronymic of Ua 
h-£idhin (now O'Heyne), as he was tbe 
son of Flann, and grandson of Eidhin, 
from whom came the tribe name. His 
father 8 siitter, Mor, was Brian^s fint 
wife. Ue is called by the Four M., 
Maeiruanaidh na Paidrt, " Hulroonej 
of the Pater noster/* from which we 
may infer that he had a character for 
piety. See his genealogy in Dr. 
O'Donovan's Tribes and CntUmu of 
Ily Fiadirachy p. 398. He was at 
this tbne chieftain of the Hy-Fiach- 
rach Aidhne, in the S. of the county 
of Galway. 

^Chiefiamt, These were— 1. Tadhg 
Ua CclUigh or O'Kelly, " King" of Hy 
Many. (See O^Donovan, Tribe$,4C'tOf 
Hy Many, p. 99, Four Âf., 1013, n., 
p. 774.) 2. Maeiruanaidh, son of 
Muirghins, ** King '* of the Muinnter 



iNTKoDucrrioîf. 



clxxvil 



The two paragraphs which follow in chap. xcvi. are not interpoia- 
found in the O'Clery MS. The first contains a statement pXtaMS* 
that Brian's ten stewards (Mor-maer) were drawn up with 
the foreign auxiliaries (probably the Danes of Munster) on 
one side of the army, and that Fergal O'Buaire, with the Ui 
Briuin,^ and the Conmaiene^ were ordered to the left wing 
of the army. The other informa us that Malachy, King 
of Tara, with the men of Meath, refused to taie the 
station assigned him in consequence of his traitorous 
understanding with. the enemy. We have ab-eady seen 
that there is good reason to suspect the truth of these 
statements about the treachery of Malachy and the pre- 
sence of Fergal O'Bnairc in the battle. 

The Dal-Cais, it wiU be remembered, were placed in Posîtion of 

Hurchadh. 



Madrnânaidli. The title of king is not 
given to him in the MS. B, and he is not 
mentioned at all by the Fonr M. 8. 
Domhnall O'Concennainn (now 0*Con- 
cannon)f chief of the Ui Diarmada or 
Coica-Mogha, whose territoiy is now 
the panah of Kilkerrin, barony of Tia- 
quin, co. of Galway. He is omitted in 
B, and hy the Four M. 4. Ualgarg 
Mac Cerin (which namewould be now 
Ulrick Mac Kerrin), chieftain of the 
Cianmidhe Locha-na-nairnf^dh, barony 
of Costello, coonty of Ma^ro. In the 
Annals of Loch C^ we read : *^ Brian, 
however, had not assembled anyarmy 
or mnltitude against this immense 
host of the western world and GaiU, 
except the men of Munster only, and 
Malachy with the men of Meath, for 
there came not to him the province of 
Uladh, nor the Airgialla, nor the 
Cinel-Eogliain, nor the Cinei Conaill, 
nor the Conachta (ezcept the Hy 
Mâine, and the Hy Fiachrach, and the 
Cinei Aedha). For there waa not a 
good understanding then between 
Brian and Tadhg-an>eich-giil, son of 
Cathal, son of Conchobhar, King of 
Connanght ; ao that on thia acconnt 



Tadhg refused to go with Brian to 
thisbattleof Cluain-Tarbh.** Neyer- 
theless, according to our author (see 
chap. Ixxxviii., p. 155} Tadhg-an- 
eich-gillf King of Connaught, is men- 
tioned as one of those who sat in 
council with Brian on the night before 
the battle. (See p. 155.) Wedonot, 
however, find any place assigned to 
King Tadhg among the chieftains in 
command of the batulion of Con- 
naught enumera ted, chap xcvi., p. 169. 
Possibly the misunderstanding may 
have arisen at this very council, and 
Tadhg of the Whîte Steed, with his fol- 
lowers, may have retumed to his home 
in disgust, the night before the battle. 

1 Iljf Brium. These were the de- 
scendants of Brian, son of Nial of the 
Nine Hostages ; they were called Hy 
Briuin Breif ni, or Hy Briuin of Breif nă, 
to distinguish them from other tribes 
of the same name and descent. They 
were settled at this time in the coun- 
ties of Leitrim and Ca van. 

* Coimaicne. These were the Con- 
maicne of Moy Rein, seated in the 
present county of Longford, and south 
of Leitrim. 



dzxviii 



IKTBODUCnON. 



the van of the army, under the command of Murchadh, 
Brian'seldestson. AnotheraccountofMurchadh'spositioii 
is given (eh. xcviL) on the authority^ of "some of the histo- 
rians of Munster," who said that his troops were ''mixed 
with the battalion of Desmuinha," or Desmond, together 
with his company or body-guard, composed of «eeven 
score sons of kings,' that were in attendance on him." 
The obscure story that follows is hardly worth notice ; it 
speaks of a rash attempt on the part of Murchadh, to 
attack the foreigners opposed to him, with the help of 
the troops of Desmond only. The story runs, that Brian, 
observing thiş movement, sent Domhnall, son of Emhin,' 
to remonstrate against it, and a somewhat angry con- 
versation took place, which possibly may indicate the 
existence of jealousy^ or disunion among the leaders of 
Brian's army. The result, however, was that ''the nobles 
of all Desmond* were killed there, because they endea- 



1 AuUhority, The MS. B has merdy 

"Othen say that Muchadh was 

placed before the battalion of Des- 
mond," withont mentioning historians, 
OT Stnchaidhe. 

> Bona ofKinga, These are called 
aînraâţ a urord which has been trans- 
lated "volunteera" (p. 169). They 
aie represented as having placed them- 
Belyes under Morchadh, as heir ap- 
paient of the throne, after [«.«., after 
thedeathof]AedhO*Neill. Theword 
signifies totditry, from omaţ"} a sol- 
dierj which, as Dr. O'Brien in his Irish 
Dict. suggests, was probably cognate 
withamiac/iM; (See Du Cange, in voc) 

s DomhnaU, son of Emkin. He was 
Jlor-fiMor, Thane, Steward, or Chief- 
tain of the Eoghanachts of Magh-Grerr- 
ginn, or Marr, in Scotland. He was 
descended from Mâine Leamhna, son of 
Conall Corc, of the race of OilioU 
Olum (see OeiieaL Table$, IY.,p. 248), 
who was also Brian's ancestor. See a 
cnriovs accoimt of thia family fiom 



which the English royal family of 
Stewart or Stuart was descended, in 
OTUherty, 0^^., p. 882, sq. Mâine 
Leamhna had that name from the 
river Leamhain, and his family were 
thence called Leamhnacha or Lennox. 
See note 0, p. dviii, tupra, 

< Jeahuay. See p. 171, note u. 

< Of all Desmond, This most be 
taken with some qualification, for wo 
shall see (chap. cxx., p. 213) that after 
the battle the snryiving chi^tains of 
Desmond were strong enoogh to revolt 
against the DaUCais, and threaten a 
battle, from which their own dissen- 
sions alone withheld them. Herv they 
are represented as zealons followers of 
Mnrchadh. Chap. xcviii. has been 
omitted by O'Clery, and is an evident 
interi>olation. It describes the arrival 
of Donlang O'Hartigan, who aooonnts 
for his late coming by telling Mnr- 
chadh of his having been entioed hy 
fairies, with promises of lîfe witho«it 
dMlh, &c («e p. 173> and tiuit al- 



IKTBODUCnON. 



ctxxix 



vonied io follow Murchadh io Bnrround the foreigners 
and Danes." 

On the eve of the battle a challenge to single combat 
had passed between Plait, '' son of the King of Lochlainn, 
brave champion of the foreigners/* and Domhnall, son of 
Emhin, Mor-maer Mair (high steward of Mar.) On the 
following moming, when the combat began (chap. c, p. 
175), Plait, who was one of the chosen men in armonr, 
came foith between the hosts, calling aloud for DomhnaU. 
Domhnall soon appeared; a terrible fight ensued; both 
fell dead at the same moment; ^'the sword of each throogh 
the heart of the other, and the hair of each in the clenched 
hand of the other." "And the combat of these two" (âajrs 
oTir author) "was the first combat of the battle" (p. 177). 

The next chapter (ci) is a palpable interpolation/ and 
has been omitted in O'Clery's MS. It was intended to 
celebrate the prowess of Fergal O'Buairc, and the chief- 
tains of Breifii^, in defence of Brian ; but we have seen 
that Fergal could not have been in this battle, and that 



Sln^e 
combat 
between 
Plait and 
Domhnall. 



The praise 
of Fergal 
0*Ruairc 
an interpo- 
latlon. 



thoagh he had leamed from the f airies 
that it was fated for hîm to die on 
the same day with Mnrchadh, and 
that both he and his father Brian, 
and his son Turlogh, were destined that 
day to fall, nevertheless he (O'Har- 
tigan) was resolved to keep his word, 
and came to the battle and to certain 
death; it was then arranged that 
0*Hartigan should undertake to com- 
bat Brodar the Viking, and Coma- 
bliteoc, and Maelmordha, and the 
Leînstermen. For further informa- 
tion on the Legend of Dunlang 0*Har- 
ţigan, see Mr. O'Kearney's Introd. to 
the Feit Tight Chonain (Ossianic Soc), 
p. 98, 9q> The cnrious account of the 
battle of Clontarf, there quoted by 
Mr. O'Keamey, speaks of Dnnlang 
O'Hartigan as being himself a fairy 
(dogmdke). Ibid., p.lOl. SeeO'FU- 
her^, Ogjfg*j p. 200. 



1 IrUerpohiion, This chapter givea 
an account of the supposed combat 
between Dunnall or Dnnlang, son of 
Toathal, King of Liph^ or Lif^, with 
1,000 foUowers, and Fergal O'Ruairc, 
or O'Rourke, Domhnall Mac Raghal- 
lach (or Reilly), and Gilla-na-naomh, 
son of Domhnall OTerghaa, with the 
nobles of the Ui Brinin and Conmaicnei 
The King of Liphe and his troops were 
on the side of the Danes, the other three 
heroes were on the side of Brian. Both 
parties suffered severely, only one hun. 
dred of the Ui Briuin and Conmaicne, 
with theîr chieftain, survived the bat- 
tle, and Dunlang Mac Tuathail was 
beheaded by Mac an Trin, captain of 
Fergal 0*Ruairc's household, who is 
not elsewhere mentioned. But this ia 
all liction, and evidently a compara- 
tiyely modem addition to the original 
narratiTe. 



clxxx 



iKTftODUCTION. 



Conflict of 
the Dal- 
Cais. 



Kîng 



if he was, he would have been, most probably, on the cthei* 
side.* 

Then we have an extravagant and bombastic description 
of the conflict between the Dal-Ca|s and the Danes (chap. 
cil., p. 179), which contains no fact of interest, except that 
the battie was visible firom the fortifîcations of Dublin, 
and was watched with interest from the battlements by 
the garrison and their women (p. 181). 

There follows a description of the same battie attributed 

description ^ King Malachy (eh. dii.), as it was seen by him from a 

of the distance. He is represented as having been requested by 

his tribe, the Clan Colmain, to give them an account of 

what he had seen. The narrative is of course highly 

favourable to the valonr and prowess of the Dal-Cais, 

bnt is full of intolerable bombast, and was evidently in- 

tended to insinuate that both Malachy and his followers 

had kept themselves aloof from the battie,^ in consequence 

of their supposed treacherous understanding with the 

enemy. 

Combat of The combat of Dunlang O'Hartigan with Comabliteoc 

^^^°8 is the next remarkable event recorded (chap. civ.) The 

biiteoc foreign chiefbain is represented as having led one hundred 

and fifty of his followers to attack Dunlang, who by his 

single arm vanquished them all, at least, all of them, to 

use the language of the text (p. 185), "who waited to be 

wounded and beaten;" in other words, all who did not 

run away. Comabliteoc is said to have been transfixed 

by Dunlang's spear, the rough point of which " passed 

throiigh him, both body and body armour," but it is not 

said that he was slain. Âll this, however, has been 

omitted in 0*Clery*s manuscript; and bears internai 

evidence of fiction, especially if it should turn out that 



1 Oihtr tide. See chap. Izxziy., 
p. 147, and p. dxiy., tupra, 

> BatUe, Thb pretended narratiTe 
of the ex-king of Ireland, taken avow- 
edly from the preaent work, has been 



adopted by Keating in his history. 
The copy of it given in Ma D, ex- 
hibits 8ome varioas readmga, and will 
be foand in Appendix C, with a tnuia- 
lation. 



INTRODUCTION. 



clxxxi 



Comabliteoc is not the name of a chieftain, but of a 
district of ComwalL 

But both MSS. record the single combat of Conaing, ComUt of 
Brian's nephew, who is here called King of Desmumha, and aSwl- 
or Desmond, with Maelmordha, King of Leinster (chap. mordluL 
ev., p. 185). Afber a great number of chieftaîns of in- 
ferior rank had fallen before they themselves met, they 
both (as our text says) " fell by each other."* 

Then the foreigners of Ath-cliath, or Dublin, and the Conflict of 
men of Connaught attacked each other, with considerable ^gnes and 
loss on both sides. Of the Connaughtmen, one hundred ™®^ o' 
only escaped ; of the Danes of Dublin, but twenty. The naught. 
Danes were pursued to Dubhgall's bridge,^ in Dublin, 
and wei*e there cut to pieces. The last on the side of the 
Danes who was there slain was " Arnaill Scot;"^ he was 



1 Fell hy each other. The annala of 
Loch C^ teii U8 that Conaing was in 
the tent with Brian when the furions 
Brodar, flTÎng from the battle, entered, 
and beheaded fint Brian and then 
Conaing. 

^DubhgaWs bridge. Itis called "the 
bridge of Ath-cliath, ».e., Dubhgall's 
bridge," in the HS. 6 (see p. 251). 
It was, therefore, at that time the only 
bridge acroes the river at Dublin, and 
wasprobably called Drocheat DuhhgoâU^ 
or Dnbhgall's bridge, either (as some 
think) because it connected the Danish 
qnarter, now Oxmantown, with their 
fortress and posaessions sontli of the 
riyer, or more probably becanse it 
was built by some Dubhgall or Dane, 
whose name has not been preserved. 
The exact site of this bridge is nn- 
certain. It may have crossed the 
river at the old ford, called Ath Cro, 
or bloody ford, or perhaps it occu- 
pied the site of what was long called 
the Old Bridge, at the end of the 
present Bridgefoot-street This much, 
however, is certain, that the Irish name 
here giyen it favoius the opinion that 



it was the bridge of some individual 

Dane, or person called Dubhgall, not 

** Bridge of the Danes,** which would 

be Droicheat na nDuhhgoUy as Hr. 

Gilbert has well observed. — Bistory 

of Dubliny i., p. 820. In later times, 

however, this bridge was certainlj 

called pons Ostmatmorum, which waa, 

no doubt, intended as a translation of 

Dubhgall*s bridge. See the valuable 

paper by Chas. Haliday, eeq., '* On the 

ancient name of Dublin,*' p. 446. 

Transaci.JiogalIrithAcad., voi. xxii., 

part ii Dubhgall is the source of the 

family names still common — ^Dowell, 

MacDowell, MacDougall, Doyle, Du- 

gald, &c. There was a Dubhgall, 

grandson of Sitric, King of Dublin; 

see pp. 166, 207, and p. clxxxv., 

note*. 

• Arnaill ScoL This cnrions par- 
ticular is here mentioned in the Dublin 
MS. only, but his death is recorded 
in B, under the name of Emal Scot, 
eh. cxvii., p. 207. Nothing is known 
of him, unless he was the same as 
Amljot, EarlSigurd'sScottish steward. 
Bumt Nj'alj ii , p. 13. 



dxyriî 



INTRODTTCfrtON. 



Panctcvric 
<»n Mur- 



kîlled by *' the honsehold troopB" of Tadhg Ua Oellaigh, 
or O'Kelly, King of fly Many. 

There follows (chap. cvL, p. 187) a very inflated 
panegyric upon Murchadh, Brian's eldest son, who îs de- 
scribed as .wielding at the same time two swords, one în 
his right, and the other in his left hand. He îs com- 
pared to Hector, son of Priam, to Samson in Jewîsh 
history, and to Hercules, as well as to Lugh or Lughaidh 
Lamhfada,^ [i.6., Lugh of the Long hand], King of the 
Tuatha de Danann, a famous hero in Irish legends. 
Nevertheless the great degeneracy of the human race since 
Hector's time îs fully admitted,' and accoimted for by 
the consideration that the worid was in its infancy, unfit 
for action, before Hector, and was " a palsied drivelling 
dotard" after Murchadh ; therefore there could be no 
illustrious championship before Hector, nor ever shall be 
after Murchadh. 



i Lugk or Luffhaidh Latnhfada. He 
flonrished, according to O'Flaherty's 
chronology, A.M. 2764, Ogyg.j iii., c. 
18, p. 177. His valour and exploit» 
are a favouritc subject with the Iriah 

barda. 

« Admitted. A curious acale or mea- 
sure of thîa degeneracy is given on the 
authorityof the "Senchaidhi,"orHM«)- 
rians, of the GaedhU, p. 1 87. Hector was 
a match for seven like Lugh Lamfhada, 
who was equal to seven like Conall Cer- 
nach, who was equal to seven like Lugh 
Lagha, who was equal to seven like 
Mac Samhain, who was equal to seven 
like Murchadh ; so that Hector was a 
match for 16,807 such heroes as Mur- 
chadh with all his valour. Conall 
Cemach was chiefteîn of the heroes of 
the Red Branch, and is f abled to have 
been present in Jerusalem at our 
Lord*8 crucifixion. See his pedigree, 
Batae of Magh Raih, note «, p. 328; 
OTlaherty, Offyg., iii., c 48, p. 283. 
Lugh or Lughaidh Lagha, brother of 
Oilioll Olum, King of Munster in the 



third century, is much celebrated in 
Irish romantic history for his valour. 
Mac Samhain was a famous Fenian 
Champion, in the service of Finn Mac 
Cnmhaill, the Fingal of Macpherson. 
It may be here mentioned that the 
ancierU order of Fenians were a body 
of miliţia, whose object was the snp* 
port of the monarchy and the main- 
tenance of law and order. See a 
fuU account of them in Keating 
(Reign of Cormac Ulf ada), CMcJum^'s 
Trânti, p. 343. Their history ia 
largely interpolated with fiction and 
the marvellous. There is a oopioua 
literature in tlie Irish language, con« 
sisting principally of romantic tales, 
recordiog the deeds of Fenian heroee, 
some of which have beeu publiahed by 
the Ossianic Society of Dublin. See 
Trana. of that Society for 1855, con- 
taining *^the Pursuit of Diannaid 
and Graine," with Mr. Standiah H. 
0*Grady*8 introduction, where a valu- 
able account of the extant Fenian lite- 
rature ia givea. 



IM'KUDUCTION. 



dyTTUl 



The narrabive now describes the exploite of this great ms 
chieftam (chap. cvii.) Murchadh perceived that the mail- ^^^batu^ 
dad phalanx of the foreigners was gaining upon the Dal- 
Cais. He waa seized with a terrible fury; ''a bird of 
valour* and championship arose within him, and fluttered 
over his head, and on his breath." He rushed npon the 
Danish battalion, and foroed his way through them (p. 
189). It wafi admitted by his enemies? that he cut down 
fifty men with each hand, and never repeated a blow ; a 
single cut from one of his swords snfdced to slay his ad- 
versary, — neither shield nor coat of mail was able to resist 
ihese blows, or protect the body, skuU, or bones of the 
foe who received them. Thrice he passed thus through 
the thick of the Danes, followed by the Clann Luighdech, 
or sons of Lughaidh' (i.e., the troops of Desmond), and the 
seven score sons of kings^ that were in his household. 

The battle, as seen from the walls of Dublin, was corn- The battle 
pared^ to a party of reapers eutting a field of oata It was STwaSS'of 
observed by Sitric, son of Olaf Cuaran, from the battle- l>nbiiiu 
ments, but he attributed the slaughter to the prowess of his 
allies. " Well do the foreigners reap the field," said he to 
his wife, who, it wiU be remembered, was Brian's daugh- 



> A Hrd qfvalour, This seema like 
a descriptîon of the Scandinavian 
Beneckr, A parallel pasaage ocean 
in the BattU of Magh Raih, edited for 
the Iiish Archsol. Society hy Dr. 
O'Donofvan, Dablin, 1842, p. 33. 
Congal Claen, the hero of the tale, 
** stood up, aasumea his bravery, his 
heroic fury rose, and Am bird ofvaUmr 
flattered orer him, and he distingnished 
DOt friend from foe at that time, &c." 
See the account of the raven banner 
of Ingnar and Ubba, qnoted above, 
jv !▼!., n. *. Earl Sigurd had also 
a rayen banner in the battle of Clon^ 
tarf, woven for him by his mother 
with magical skiU. Bumt Njal, yoL 
L, IfUirod.j p. cxc, note. 

^Snemies, Namely, ** the historiaos 



of the foreigners and of the Laighin," 
or men of Leinster, as our author says 
(p. 189). He hâda little before(p. 
187) spoken of "the historians of the 
GaedhiL*' There were therefore al- 
ready historians of the battle on both 
sides. But we have seen that we 
cannot infer from this the lapse of any 
very great length of time since the 
battle. See above, p. cx., note *. 

^Luffhaidh, See Geneal. Table IV., 
No. 6. 

^ 8ona qf kingt. See chap. xcviL, 
p. 169. 

< Compared. This compariton is 
attributed to '*the old men of Ath- 
cliath,''inO'Cleiy*sMS. SeeAppend. 
C, p. 255. 



clxxxîv 



INTRODUCTION. 



Total rottt 
of the 
Danes. 



Death of 



ter; "many a sheaf do they cast from them." "The 
result will be seen," said she, " at the end of the day." 

And so it proved. At the end of the day the Danes 
and their allies of Leinster were routed with a terrible 
slaughter (chap. cviiL) They were unable to take shelter 
in Dublin, for their retreat was cut off * between the field 
of battle and Dubhgairs bridge, and they were forced 
into the sea. There they found that the reeeding tide' 
had carried their ships out of theu* reach, aod many 
perished by drowning. 

But the loss was great on both sides. Torrdelbhach (or 
Turiough. Turlough), Murchadh's young son, followed the enemy 
into the sea (chap. cix.) ; there a " rushing tide wave" 
struck him, and he fell with great force against the weir* 
of Clontarf, where he perished along with two, or accord- 
ing to another reading, three, of the foreigners, whom he 
held in his grasp until they were drowned. 

The flight of the Danes to their ships was seen by 
Sitric and his wife from the battlements of Dublin, and 
another conversation between them is recorded. " It 
seems to me," said Brian's daughter, in bitter irony, " that 
the foreigners have gained their patrimony." "What 
meanest thou, woman ?" said her husband. " Are they 
not rushing into the sea," she replied, " which is their 
natural inheritance ? I wonder are they in heat like 
cattle ; if so, they tarry not to be milked V Sitric, losing 
temper at this coarse insult, gave her a blow, which, says 
the O'Clery MS., knocked out one of her teeth (p. 193). 
Such (according to our author) was the refinement of 
Danish court manners at that time in Dublin. 



Dialogae 
between 
Sitric and 
his wife. 



1 Cut off, Oiir author does not say 
how their retreat was cut ofiF; it is 
probable that Malachy and his Meath 
men were posted here, for it was here 
he met the remnant of the army of 
Leinster after the battle, and opposed 
their retreat, with great slaughter, 
from the river Tolka to Dublin. See 
Four M. 



' Tide, See above, pp. xxvi., 
xxvii 

s The foeir, Hence this battle is 
commonlycalled Caih Coradh Cbuma- 
tarbh, "The battle of the Welr of 
Clontarf.** This ancient salmon weir 
is supposed to have been at the present 
Ballybough bridge, on the road from 
Dublin to Clontarf, 



INTRODUCnON. 



clxxxv 



Meanwhile Murchadh having passed through and Murchadh 
broken the raaks of the enemy, perceived Sigurd,* son of gj^^'"* 
Hlodver, Earl of Orkney, in the midst of the Dal-Cais, 
dealing out wounds and slaughter on all sides ; " no edged 
weapon harmed him ;' there was no strength that yielded 
not, no thickness that became not thin" before him (p. 
195). Murchadh rushed upon him, and with a blow of 
his right hand sword, cut the £siâtenings of the earl's 
hebnet, which fell back, and thus exposing his neck, 
Murchadh with his lefb hand sword dealt him a second 
well-aimed blow, and Sigurd fell dead upon the field. 

Next follows the aocount of a single combat (chap. Singie 
cxiL) between Murchadh and the son of Ebric, or Elbric,* between 
here called "son of the King of Lochlann," who had Murchadh^ 
rushed into the centre of the Dal-Cais, making a breach, son. 
which was " opened for him wherever he went." Mur- 
chadh seeing this, turned upon the mail-clad battalion, 
and killing fifbeen on his right and fifbeen on his leit, cut 
his way to the son of Elbric. A bombastic description of 
the fight then follows, in which we are told that Mur- 
chadh's sword having become red hot, the hilt or handle* 
inlaid with silver melted, and so wounded his hand that he 



^SigmnL Hia mother waa JSdna^ 
danghter of GearbhaU, or Canoll, aon 
of Dnngal, lord of Oaaory, and king 
of Dublin. SoripU. HkU Island, iîL 
Tab. 1. He had been a Christian, for 
Olaf Tryggreson ** allowed him to 
ranaom hia life by letting htmself be 
baptized, adopting the tme faith, be- 
ooming hia man, and introdudng 
Chriatianity into the Orkney ialanda." 
After Olaf s death, however, Sigord 
abandoned his fealty, and, probably, 
alao hia Chriatianity. Laing, Kmg» of 
NorwMjft ii., p. 131. 

* Barmed him. The text attributeB 
tlua inTulnerability to Murchadh ; bat 
it ooght rather be Vinderatood as be- 
loQging to Sigurd, as in O'Clery^a 
MS. See App. C, p. 258. It ia a 
manifot alluaion to the effect of 



Sigurd's channed banner, aa described 
in the Njal-Saga. 

* ERnic See note *, p. 195, whero 
it ia suggested that thia hero'a name 
may have been AnroUL It ia so under- 
stood by the compilers of the Dublin 
Annab of Iniafallen. Ebric or El- 
bric is probably intended for the Scan- 
dinavian name Eric In B, it ia 
written Elbric and Ebrie. 

* HancUe. This improbable story 
is thus amplified by one of the latest 
historians of Ireland : ** Sometimes aa 
their right banda swelled with the 
aword-hilts, well known warriors might 
be seen falling back to bathe them in a 
neighbouringspring, and then rushing 
again into the melee.'* Popular Ilist. 
of Ireland, by Thos. DA. M*Gee (New 
York, 1864), voi. L, p. 99. 

n 



olxxxvi 



INTBODXJCmON. 



Brian*8 
devotions 
inhis tent. 



wafi forced to cast the sword away ; ihen seizing the fbr- 
eigner by the helmet, he drew his coat of chain armour 
off him, and dragged him to the groiind« MuTchadh being 
uppermost possessed himself of the foreign chieftain's 
Bword, and stabbed him through the breast three times ; but 
notwithstanding this, the son of Elbric had time to draw 
his knife, with which he gave Murchadh a deadly wound, 
80 that " the whole of his entrails were cut out, and fell 
to the ground before him." The Irish hero, however, had 
strength enough left to ctit off his enem^s head ; nor did 
he die until sunrise the following moming, when he re- 
ceived '* absolution, and communion, and penanoe/' and 
lived " nntil he had received the Body of Christ, and had 
made his wiU'* (p. 197). 

Meanwhile Brian, who had not himself entered the 
battle as a combatant,^ was engaged in prayer^ and de- 
Yotional exercises, at some distance from the contending 
armies. He had recited fifty psalms, fifby prayers, or 
collects, and fîfty pater-nosters, when he desired his 
attendant, Latean, or Laidin,' to look out and teii him the 



1 CombaUmt, The Dnblin Annala 
of Inisfallen represent Brian as having 
commenced the battle in peraoiiţ af ter 
having gone through the army, 
crncifiz in hand, exhorting his men, 
and setting before them the great in- 
terests that vrere at stake. This 
chronide, however, is of no authority. 
It was compiled (from ancient sources, 
no doubt)f by John Conry and Dr. 
0*Brien, titular bishop of Cloyne, and its 
compilers were eminent Irish scholars. 
Its value is dlminished by the fact 
that they both belonged to a school 
which f requently permitted themselyes 
to be carried away from their author- 
ities by zeal for some favourite hypo- 
thesis. Nevertheless these Annals are 
valuable as showing the interpretation 
put upon difficnlt passages of the 
authentic chronides by such eminent 
Irish Bcholart as Conry and 0*Brien. 



' Prajfer. This agreea with wfaai 
is said in the Njal-Saga, that '* Brian 
wouid not fight on a fast day, and so 
a shield-bnrg [«.0., a ring of men hold* 
ing their shields locked together] waa 
thrown round*him, and his host waa 
drawn away in front of It.** BmiU 
Njal, u., p. 334. When the roiita 
began, some of these men were tcmpted 
to join in the pnrsuit ; the shield>bni]g 
was weakened ; Brodir perceivhig thiti 
easily broke through and alew tha 
king. /^p.d87. 

• Latean^ cr Laidm, The O'Clery 
MS. B, calls him Brian*s horw'itoff^ 
(SiUaaâicpeifi). Thefamilyisnow 
dispersed, and have generally taken 
the name of Ladden. But the aUn- 
sion to the family in the text ia an 
evident interpolation. See above, pp. 
zziv., xxT. The Njal-Sags makea 
no mention of Lateao, bat taUs va 



IKTRODUCriON. 



cizxzvii 



general n^pearanoe of ihe battle, and especially the 
position of Murchadh's standard Latean reported that Reporta 
the strife was close and vigorous, with a cociused noise, bjm oUha 
as if seven battalions were cutting down Tomar's wood/ b*ttle. 
but tliat Si urchadh's standard was floating aloft, and many 
of the banners of the Dal-Cais around it, and many heads 
fidling wherever it went. 

Then Brian said fifby more psahns, and made the same 
inquiries. This time the answer was that all was con- 
fusion ; multitudes on both sides had fidlen ; no man 
coold teii on which side the advantage lay ; all were so 
besmeared with blood and dust that no father could know 
his own son. But Murchadh's standard still stood and 
moved through the battalions westward, that is to say, 
towards Dublin. ** As long as that standard remains 
erect," said Brian, "it shall go weU with the men of 
Erinn." 

When he had repeated the last fifty psalms of the MnrchAdh's 
psalter, and said his fifty collects and his fifty pater- 
nosters, he asked the attendant to look oat once more. 
Latean replied, '' They appear as if Tomar's wood was on 



falL 



that «*Uie Iad Takt*' [U,, Tadhg, 
Brian's Mm] was with him when 
Biodir nishfid npon the aged king. 
Takt tbiew np his aim to defend 
hii father, and the stroke of Brodir'B 
Bwoid or hattle-axe cut off Takt*8 
arm and the king'e head; **but ihe 
king^aUood** (adda the 8a«a) "came 
on the lad's stiunp, and the stump was 
healed hj it on the spot'* Ama 
Njaiy iL, p. 887. The Annals of Loch 
C^ teii os that Ck>naing, Brian's 
nephew, was with him in the tent, and 
was beheaded along with him. This 
is eridenoe that the name of Latean 
was not in the original narratiye. 
Ksither the Fonr M. nor the Ann. 
of Ulster mention the tont or the 



particolan here given of Brian*s 
mnrder. 

i romor's Wood, This was a wood 
which seems to liave extended from 
the pUun of Clontaif along the north 
side of the river Li£fey to near Dublin. 
Whether it extended to the south side 
of the rirer at this time is nncertain. 
But ancientlj the ronnd hill, or Drom, 
on which the Castle of Dublin and 
Christ Church Gathedrsl are built, 
was called Drom-ckoU-ooiU, " Hill of 
the hazel wood ;" and recent excava* 
tions in the streets of the neighbour- 
hood haye shown nndoubted eridence 
of the existence of an ancient hazel 
wood on the hilL See Haliday, Om 
(As ÂneimU Name qfDuUmt p. 441. 

n2 



clzxxviii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Brian 
raf oaes to 



fire, its underwood^ and brushwood destroyed, and its 
stately trees only remaining. So in the contending armies 
the private soldiers are cut down ; a few of the chieftains 
and gallant heroes only are left; Murchadh's standard 
has fallen." " Alas !" said Brian, " Erinn has now fallen 
with it ; why shonld I wish to survive such losses, even 
though I shonld obtain the sovereignty of the world î" The 
attendant now reeommended an immediate fiight to the 
security of the câmp; but Brian refiised to move. "Re- 
treat," he said, "becomes us not. And wherever I go, I 
know that I shaU not escape death, for Aibhill, of Craig 
liath,^ appeared to me last night, and revealed to me that 
I shonld be killed this day, and that the first of my sons' 
I shonld see this day (and that was Donnchadh) shonld 
Hiigifts to succeed me in the sovereignty." Then Brian gave direc- 
the dergj. tions about his will and his Aineral ; he left 240 cows to 
the successor of Patriek, or abbot of Armagh; to his own 
cathedral of Eillaloe, and the other chnrches of Munster, 
their "proper dues," adding, Donnchaxih knows that I 
have not wealth of gold or silver, therefore let him pay 
them as an adequate retum ''for my blessing"^ (meaning 



1 Iti underwood, From this place 
(p. 199} to the end of the work the 
MS. D ie defectlTe, and the oon- 
doaioii of the namtive u snpplied 
from 0*CleT7*8 oopy B. 

* AibhiU of Crcig LUOk, more cor- 
lectly Aibiim. This was the banshee 
\hen-tidhe] or boding female spirit of 
the Dal-Cais, who appeared before the 
chieftaiii*8 death to wam him of his 
approaching fate. See aboye, p. cxL, 
note '. If Brian was not a believer in 
this sapeistition, the historian who 
has recoxded the stoiy oertainlj was. 

* FirH ofmff ton». The annals of 
Loch C^ teii ns that when Brian re- 
odred the prediction he sent for Mor- 
chadh, his eldest son. Morchadh 
waited to pat on his dreas ; meantime 



Donnchadh, without widting to dresa, 
went at once to his father's odl, and 
thus the prophecy was fnlfiUed in him 
to Brian*8 great discontent, who re- 
ceived both his sons in wnth, and 
dismissed them his presence. The 
narratÎTe in the text is eridentlj 
written or tampered with hj a parti- 
zan of Donnchadh. This is at least 
evidence of its antiqnity, for it was 
probablj so interpolated when Donn- 
chadh's daim was donbtfnl, and cer- 
tahilj before 1064, when Donnchadh 
died. 

* My bloumg, The original is mo 
bhonnaekttan ocut mo ckomarbuâ — liC 
" for my blessing and mj saccession,'* 
Le., their blessing of me, and for 
Donnchadh's snocessioii to me. 



INTBODUCTION. 



dxxxix 



fo7 their blessmg upon me) "and for his own coming to the 
ihrone in succes&don to me." He even prescribed the route Directions 
to be observed hy the procesaon in his fimeral ; first to J^^** 
Sord or Swords, near Dublin; then to Daimhliag of Ciaran, 
now Duleek, in thâ county of Meath; then to Lughmagh 
or Louth, where he requested the " successor of Patrick/'^ 
with the Socîety or Clergy of Armagh, to meet his remains.' 

Latean, during this conversation, perceived a party of Brodar 
foreigners approaching. It proved to be Brodar, with two b^JJJ^ 
other waniors. Latean described them to his maşter as 
"blue stark-naked people." By this description the aged 
chieftain' recognized them at once as the foreigners who 
were in coats of maiL He immediately stood up £rom 
the cushion on which he had been praying, and un- 
sheathed his sword. Brodar would have passed him 
without notice had not one of his companions, who had 
once been in Brian's service, cried out that this was the 
king. "No," said Brodar, perceiving that Brian had 
been at prayer, "that is a priest." "Not so/' said the 
other; ''this is the great King Brian." Brodar then 
tumed roiind, having " a bright gleaming battle-axe in 
his hand." Brian made a blow with his sword which 
"cut off Brodar's left leg at the knee, and his right leg 
at the foot." The savage Viking, however, had time, 
before he fell, to deave Brian's head with his axe, 



^ Pairiek. The eomharba or ** sac- 
eenor of Patrick" at this time was 
Maehmiire, sonof Eochaidh, of the Race 
of Colla da Crioch, and of the tribe of 
Ua Sionaigh, from which were taken 
the bishop-abbots of Armagh for many 
generations in hereditarj sncoession. 
He dîed on the Friday before Whitaun- 
Thj, 8 Jone, 1020, and was sncceeded 
b3r his son Amhalgaidh, 1020-1050, 
and then hy another son Dubhdaleithe, 
1050.1065. This Amhalgaidh was 
the fiist prelate of Armagh who exer- 
ciaed Jnrisdiction oyer Mnnster, acting 



most probably on the anthority of the 
entry made hy Brian's chaplain in the 
Book of Aimagh dnring his father's 
incumbency. 

• JZ«naifM. See pp. 202, 203. 

' Aged ehi^ftain, Aocording to 
the Four M., Brian was bom in 925, 
and was, therefore, at this time 89 
years of age. The Ulster annals fix 
the more probable date of 941 as the 
year of his birth, which wonld make 
himonljTSinlOU. See Dr. 0*Dono- 
van'i note ^ Four M., p. 772. 



ctc 



JKTBODUCnON. 



Pftnegyric 

npon 

Brian* 



«ad Brian to cat down oue of the companions^ of 

Then follows (chap. cxv.) a panegyric upon Brian, iu the 

style to which the reader of this work hsa, hy thifi time, 

become accustomed. No such deed 'had been done in 

Irelaud since the beheading of Cormac Mac Cuilennain.' 

Brian was one of the three bom in Ireland who had moat 

successfully promoted the prosperity* of the country, for 

he had delivered Ireland fix>ni the bondage and iniquity 

of the foreigners, and had defeated them in twenty- 

seven battlea. He is compared to Angustus, to Alexander 

the Great, to Solomon, to David, and to Moses (p. 205). 

ProphedM Having cited some prophedes attributed to St. Berchan 

PM^tiM*^ and to Bec Mac De, predicting evils that should foUow 

firom on Brian's death, which (it need scarcely be said) are 

dw£' childiâh forgeries, our author proceeds to enumerate the 

principal chiefbains Blşin on both sides, whose names^ are 

given in detail 

Afier the battle the Munster clans, having ooUected 



Betamof 
Hnrchadh 



1 Companioni, AU this looks very 
like românce, and îb far lesa piobable 
than the aooonnt of Brian's deatii 
given in the NJal-Saga. There firodir 
or Brodai is represented as knowing 
who Brian was, and where he was. 
Be broke through the guards, and 
"hewed at the King.** He then cried 
ont aloud : — ** Kow let man teii man 
that Bxodir felled Brian." Brodirwas 
•nrrounded and taken alive ; bat, what 
followB seems somewhat apociyphal, 
" Wolf the quarrelsome cnt open his 
belly and led him round and round the 
tronk ol a tree, and so wonnd all his 
entiails ont of him, and he did not die 
bef ore they were all drawn ont of him. 
Bn>dir*8 men were all slain to a man.** 
BunU Njal, ii., 837. 
' > Cormac mac CuUamain, He was 
King of Mnnster and Bishopof CasheL 
Slain 903. See the history of hb reign 
în Keating (J/Mahonj/'t TVchwA, p. 



519), Moore*8 Hist. qflrdand^ roL ii, 
p. 45, sq, 

8 Proqterity, The other two were 
Lngh or Lngaidh Tiamhfada, and Fin& 
Mac Comhaill. The former of these 
heroes (see p. dxxzii.) lived before the 
Cliristian era, and was the repnted 
fonnder of the Tailten (or Telltown) 
games. The other was the original 
leader of the Fenian miliţia, the Fingal 
of Macpherson's Ossian, whoee fol- 
lowen are there called Fingaliana. 

« Whoienamet. Seep. 207. Onthe 
sideoftheDaneBtherefell — 1. Brodar, 
son of OsU [Flosi ?] eail of Oaer Ebroc 
or Tork, "with a thoosand plnndering 
Danars, both Saxona and Lochlanns." 
Tlus is a cmions ezampU of the nse 
of the term i>aiMiri, to signiljr rob- 
bers, roffians, or desperados. The 
thoosand Norsonen of the ooats of 
mail are evidently intended. 2. Si- 
trino Imd Sigwd}, omI of tlw IbmI 



INTRODUCnON. 



CZCl 



iogeiher iheir surviving cbieftaiBs and men, encamped on 
iho Qreen of Dublin (p. 211), where they remained for 



Orc or Orkney Islanda. 3. Of the 
f ordgnerB ol Dublin were slain 2,000, 
amongst whom are mentioned Dnbh- 
gali, wm of Amlaff, son of Sitric, King 
of Dablin ; Gfllaciarain, son of Glun- 
iaraan, son of Olaf Cnaran (see p. 165); 
Dnnchadh Ua h-Emlf (grandson of 
Heriolfr, lee note, p. dxziy.) ; Amlaff 
the Lagman, son of Godf rej (see p. 
165, and p. dzziv., n. *,), King of the 
Inşi Gali, or Hebrides ; and Emal Scot 
(see p, dxzzL, n. *). 4. Of the other 
foieigners are mentibned Oitir the 
black, Grisin [? Grifin], Luiminin, 
aud Siogradh, four leaders of the 
lonigners and chief tains of ships. 5. 
Cailns and Ciarlns, two sons of the 
King of Lochlann. 6. Goistilin Gali, 
and Amn"^, son of Dnbhginn [or 
Dnthoenn], two Kings of Port Lairge 
or Waterf ord. 7. Simond, son of Tnr- 
gtts. 8. Sefraid or GeofFrej, son of 
Sninin. 9. Bemard, son of Snamin. 
10. Eoln Banm (John the Baron?), 
and Bicard, the two sons of the Inghen 
Buaidh [red maiden, see p. 41]. 11. 
OiaQl and Baghnall, the two sons of 
iTar Olvar. These were eridently 
the Danes of Waterf ord; therefore 
onr anthor adds, p. 207, that it waa 
xight they shoold fall with Brian, be- 
canse it was hy Brian and his brother 
Mahonn the &ther8 of aii these had 

Then foUows a list of the Irish 
chieftains who fell on the Danish side. 
lliese were— 1. Maelmordha, King of 
Unster. 2. Brogarbhan, son of Con- 
cfaobhair, King of Ui Failge or Offaly 
(see pu dxiii, n. l). 8. Domhnalî, son 
of Fergal, King of Fortuatlia Laighen. 
(See p. clxzT., n.). 4. Dnnlang (son 
of Toathal), King of Lif^ or UBey. 
Ilee p. 35, and note ', p. Ixxxi». 
WithiheMiell 2,000 of the Leinstar 
meOf aad 1|100 of the IH Coinnselaighţ 



the total loss of the enemy being 
66,000, which is no doubt exagger- 
ated. Brian lost his bou Mnrdiadh 
and his grandson Torrdelbach, with 
Conaing, his' nephew, son of his 
brother Donncnan. Next to these are 
ennmerated Eochaidh, son of Dimadh- 
ach, chtef of the O'Scanlainn; Ca- 
duiligh, son of Cenneidigh or Kennedj; 
aud Niail O^Quin, the three "rear 
guards** or bodj guards of Brian (see 
p. clzxTL, n. 1). Domhnalî, son of 
Diarmaid, Eong of Corcabhaisdnn 
(Ibid. and Four M., p, 776, n. »); 
Mothla, son of Faelan or Phelan, 
King of theDeisi (Ibid. and FourM., 
p. 773, n. *), with Magnus, son of Anm- 
chadh, King of the Ui Liathain (see 
p. cIxxYi, n. *) ; Gebennach, son of 
Dubhagan, King of Fera-Muighe 
[Fermoy], {F<mr If., p. 774, fi, o); 
Dubhdabhoirenn, son of Domhnalî, 
(Le., of the Domhnalî mentioned, p. 
213) ; and Loingsech, son of Dunlang 
(i.e., of Dunlang, k, of Leinster, No. 
4, supra.) ; Scannlan, son of Cathal, 
King of the Eoghanacht Locha Lein 
(or Killamey), Four Jf., p. 775, n, »; 
Baedan, son of Muirchertach, King ol 
Ciarriaghe Luachra (the co. of Kerry). 
The Four M. and Ann. Uit. caii this 
chieftain MacBeatha, son of Muireadh'' 
ach ClaeHj whom Dr. CDonoran iden- 
tifies with the ancestor of the O'Connor 
Kerry. Fowr if., p. 774, n. p. The 
Ann. of Loch C^ have copied yerbatim 
the list of the Ann* Uit. Maeiruanaidh 
Ua hEidhin (or O'Heyne), King of 
Aidne (see p. dxxvi., n. ^). Four if., 
p. 775, n. ^ Tadhg Ua Cellaigh 
[O'Kelly], K. of Hy Many (p. cbcxvL, 
n. •, Four if., p. 774, t». »), and 
Domhnalî, son of Kimhin (son of 
Cainneach, Mormaor or Steward of 
BCar in Scotland, Four M,) See p« 
clxxTiii., n. ', and Fowr M^ p. 775, m «, 



CXCll 



INTRODUCrriON. 



the next two days* awaiting the retum of Donnchadh, 
son of Brian, who, it will be remembered, had been seni 
to plunder Leinster (see p. 135). He retumed "at the 
hour of vespers on Easter Sunday," with eight and 
twenty oxen, which were immediately slaughtered on the 
Qreen of Dublin. Hearing this, Sitric, Kong of Dublin, 
sent a message to Donnchadh, demanding a share in the 
oxen, and threatening, unless his demand was complied 
with, to attack the shattered troops of the Dal-Cais with 
his fresh soldiers from the gamson of Dublin. Donnchadh, 
however, sent back a haughty refusal, and Sitric, we are 
told, "declined the battle, for fear of Donnchadh and of 
the Dal-Cais" (p. 211). 
Care of the The next day (Easter Monday) was spent in visiting 
woui^ the field of battle, for the purpose of burying the dead 
(p. 211) and succouring the wounded. The bodies of 
thirty chieftains were sent off to their territorial churches 
to be interred in their family biuial grounds ; and those 
who were still living, among the wounded, were carried 
on biers and litters to the câmp. 
pţgMuioii Oii ^^^ v®^ iiîgtt, however, dissension broke out 
anumg the among the surviving leaders of Brian's army. Observing 
Brian's the broken condition of the Dal-Cais, the chieftains of 
Desmond resolved to put forward their claim to the sove- 
reignty of Munster, on the ground of the alternate right 
founded on the wiU of Oilioll Olum. Cian, son of the 
Maelmuaidh or Molloy, who had taken so active a part in 
the murder of Brian's brother Mahoun (see p. 85, sq.), 
resolved to contest the matter before the Dal-Cais had 
reached their home, or had had time to repair their losses. 
They had marched with the Dal-Cais, although in 
separate camps, as far as Bath Maisten f there the two 
tribes separated, and Cian sent messengers, to Donn- 



army. 



^ 7V0O dayt, Oar anthor notes (p. 
211) that Brian*8 foneral, with thatof 
bu eon Marchadh, was celebrated in 
the manner he had dixected, and that 
Donnchadh paid in fnll all tieqneets, 



as his f ather had willed. 

*Jiath Maisten, Masten's f ort Kow 
Mullagh-Mast, or Mnllamast, an 
earthen fort, abont dz mOes east of 
Athy, co. of Kildare, 



INTRODUCTION. 



CXCIU 



chadh, to demand hostages, in other words, to claim 
ihe sovereignty of Munster. The men of Desmond he 
said, having submitted to Brian, and to Brian's brother, 
Mathgamhain, it was now the turn of their chieftain to 
be received as sovereign. Donnchadh replied that they 
had submitted to his unde and to his faâier from neces- 
sity, not in recognition of any alternate right to the 
throne. Brian had wrested Munster from the foreigners 
at a time when the chiefbains of Desmond had tamely sub- 
mitted to their tyranny. Donnchadh therefore refused 
to give hostages in recognition of Cian's daim, and an- 
noimced his intention of holding the sovereignty by the 
same force of arms which had given it to his father. 

When this answer was received, Cian and his foUowers ciAn 
at once advanced under arms to give battle to the Dai- prepar» for 
Cais. Donnchadh ordered the sick and wounded to be 
put into the fort of Bath Maisten for protection ; but the 
sick and wounded refused. They " stuffed their wounds 
with moss/* took up thei^ arms, and insisted upon being 
led into battle. This example of determination alarmed 
ihe troops of Desmond, and " they hesitated to give 
batUe" (p. 215). But this was not aii. Domhnall, son of 
Dubhdabhoirenn, was now chieftain of the Ui nEochach 
of Munster/ and joint leader with Cian, of the army of 
Desmond A dispute arose between them. DomhnalFs hîs fend 
father, Dubhdabhou-enn (or Duvdavoren) had been King ^^^ 
of Mimster. He therefore claimed his share of the terri- Mm 
tory which Cian proposed to wrest from the son of Brian. ^^^^ 
This was stemly refused, and Domhnall separated his 
troops from those of Cian, refused^ to fight against the 



^ Mumgter, See abore, p. Ix., ». '. 
The Ui Eochach or Ui nEochdach were 
the desoenâanU oft Eochadh, son of 
Caa. See the descent of DomhnaU, s. 
of Dnbhdabhoiieim ; Oeneal Table IV., 
p. 248. Donnchadh, s. of this Domh- 
nall, waa ancestor of the Ui Donn- 
chadha, or O'Dono^ne of Muuter. 



* JUftued» Domhnall demanded 
that Monster should be eqnally diyided 
between himself and Cian. This hetng 
declined, he refused to snpport Gian's 
claim. His words, as ţ^ven by onr 
author, were : — " I shall not go with 
thee against the Dal-Cais, becaose I 
am not better pleaied to be nnder thm 



CXCiV 



DITBOBXTCnON. 



Dal-Caifl in Cian's quarrel, and firom thiB time " tihey met 
noi*' (says our author) " in one câmp till they reached 
their homes.'' Before the end of the year, as we leam 
from the Annals of Ulster,^ the feud had reached its 
climax. The two chieftains fought a battle, with great 
slaughter, in which Cian, with his brothera Cathal lUid 
Ragallach, was slain. The following year' Domhnall, son 
of Dubhdabhoii*enn, was himself slain in a battle at 
limerick, by Donnchadh and Tadhg, the sons of Brian. 

The wounded Dalcassians were greatly exhausted after 
their recent excitement in the prospect of a bloody fight ; 
themfsnof but at Ath-I,^ on the Bearbha (now the Barrow) they 
^^' washed their wounds in the river, and were refreshed 
(p. 215). They had still, however, to cross the hostîle 
territory of Ossory in order to reach their homes. There 
Donnchadh, son of Gillapatrick, Eing of Ossoiy, with his 
allies the Laighsi/ were up in arms, and encamped in 
battle array on the plain called Magh Chloinne Ceallaigh* 
to oppose the progress of the Dal-Cais. Besides the here- 
ditary enmity of the two clans, Donnchadh had a private 



Oppositîon 
inadeby 



than under the son of BrUn, unleas 
for the profit of land and territory for 
myself " (p. 21 5). Neverthelesa, Mr. 
MooT« represents him as **calmly ex- 
postulating with his brother chieftain, 
and sacceeding in withdrawing both 
him and the whole of their force 
qnietly from the câmp ;" ii., 118. The 
Dublin Ann. of InisfaUeo, which Mr. 
Moore continnally quotea as if they 
were an ancient authority, would have 
corrected this error. Donnell Mac 
DuTdavoren had no nobler motive 
than the aggrandizement of his dan 
and the increase of hb own territory. 
1 Vhter. Ann- Uit, 1014. The 
Fonr Mast have misplaced the entry 
of this event at the beginning instead 
of at the end of the year, so that a 
reader might inadvertently snppose 
that Cian had been dain before the 
batâe of CloBtuf . 



s Following year. Foor M., lOU 
(=1016), pu 783. Ann. Uit., 1016. 

*Aih-L Properly BaHe-atha-ai, 
**Town of the ford of the dirtrict," 
now Athy, a considerable town on the 
river Barrow, S. of the co. of Kildara. 
Ai is a region, district, patrimony. 

^Laiffhti, TheinhabitanIsofLeix, 
a district in the Queen*s ooonty. Thia 
tribe was descended from LaeigBedi 
Ceann m6r, son of Conall Cemach, a 
celebrated hero, who flonrished in the 
first centniy. Ifee Book of Rigittj p. 
214, n. (TFlaherhfy Og^^ iii., cap. 61, 
pu 293. 

* Magh ChhiimB CtaBmffh. •* Plain 
of the children of Otellach,** or Kelly i 
called also Magh Dmetain, a district 
•inhabited by a bnmeh of the 0*KeUy'S| 
in the temitory of Leix. See Fom 

if.,A.D. 1394, note ^. Ttmogr^Pomm. 
p.BI.(4S«). ^ 



INTRODUCnON. 



ezcT 



feud wiih the sona of Brian, because his &th6r, Oilla- 
patrick, who had sided wiih the murderers of their unde, 
Mathgamhain, had been taken prisoner' by Bnan, and 
kept in fetters for a year (p. 217). Knowing this, the 
son of Brian had his shattered forces drawn up "in 
marţial array" at Athy, expecting opposition ; and when 
the King of Ossory sent ambassadors to demand hos- 
tages, in other words, to lay claim to the sovereignty 
of Munster, the answer given was that whatever pre- 
tence the chieflains of Desmond may have had, seeing 
they were of the Eoghanachts, descendants of OiliolI 
Olum, and directly conoemed in the rule of alternate 
sovereignty, the 8on»of QiUapatrick, of Ossory, had none ; 
for he was of a different race,^ and had no natural right 
to the throne of Munster. 

The woimded men hearing this, again insisted on being Heroie 
led to the battle with the rest of the army ; they caused^J^^j^ 
themselyes to be supported by stakes driven into the nan 
ground, against which they cotdd lean their backs, and 
in this condition they prepared for action.^ The men of 



woiindAd. 



1 Prisoner, Seechap. Ixvi., p. 107. 
QQUpatrick, iaOier of this Donn-* 
chadh, was son of another Donnchadh, 
son of Ceallach, son of Cearbhall, or 
CaiToU, the great allj of the Danes, 
and hîmself Danish King of Dublin. 
See Tribci cmd Territaries of Ostory, 
by Br. G'Donovan (reprinted from 
Vrantaei. Kiikmnp ArduBol 80c, for 
1860) ; DMm, 1851, p. 12. 

' A different race. He was of the 
race of Heremon of ^inster, whereas 
the Dal-Cais were of the race of Heber. 
See CtFIakeriy, Ogyg., p. 118; (Tlhno- 
mm, THbe$ ofOnory^ p. 11. 

'J'orociion. This enthiisiastic con- 
duct of the wonnded is made the sub- 
ject of Moore*8 well-known words :— 

^* Forget not our wonnded companions 
whostood 
In thio dajr of distrefla by ow aido. 



While the moss of the yalley grew 
red with their blood, / 
They stirred not, but conquei'd 
and died. 
The sun, that now blesses our arma 
with his Ught, 
Saw them f all npon Osaory'a 
plain: — 
Oh! let him not blush, when he 
leayes us to-night, 
To find that they f ell there in 
vain." 

Hers the poet assumes that the heroea 
whose yalour he celebrates leii in 
battle in a naţional cause; but the 
original story, as recorded in the pre- 
sent work, is that their oithusiasm 
was called forth, not in the cause of 
their conntry, but in the cause of their 
clan. **Country" was at that time 
in IreUndan untarown aantiimwt \ a>4 



CXCVl INTRODUCTION. 

Ossory, however, întimidated by thîs wonderful energy 
of the Dal-Cais, declined the contest, and the wounded 
men, when the danger was past, relapsed into intenAe 
weakness. One hundred and fifby of them fainted away, 
and expîred. They were buried on the spot, with the 
exception of the more noble among them, who were 
carried to their native places, to be interred with their 
ancestors in their family bnrial-grounds. 

" And thus far* the war of the Gaill with the Gaedhil, 
and the battle of Clontarf" 
Complete- Upon the death of Brian, as we have seen,the troops under 
yietory ^^ command dispersed, each clan to its own proper ter- 
^^^^ ritory, leaving Makchy to his own resources. His energy 
in the emergency refiites triumphantly the base calumny' 
that he was secretly in the interest or pay of the enemy. 
To him, in fact, if we may credit the Four Maştera, was 
due the completeness of the victoiy . The remains of the 
enemy's army, and particularly of the men of Leinster, 
who had lost their sovereign, were met by him, on the 
evening of the battle, in their flight to Dublin. " He 
routed them," say the annalists, "by dint of battling, 
bravery, and striking, from the Tidcain' to Dublin." The 
nextyear, 1015, Malachy, with his allies of the Northern 
O'Neill, led an army to Dublin itself against the Danish 
garrison. They " bumed the fortress, and all the houses 
outside the fortress." They afterwards invaded the ter- 
ritory of Ui Cennselagh (county of Wexford), plundered 
the whole oountry, " carrying off many thousand capti ves 



eren the anthor of theee romantic fie- 
tioiu aboat the heroic womided of the 
DaLCflds conld conceire nothing more 
gloriouB than that they should duplay 
their heroiam in the caiue of their 
clan* 

^ Thu»/ar, Thia is the wdl known 
f onn in which an Iriah hiatorical tale 
generally ends. 

• Cabmm^. See Hr. Moore's EUt. \ 



of Trtland, chaj^ 22, voL ii, p. 137, 
«g., where thia calomny is conclosively 
refuted. See ako p. dxxL, n \ 

» TuUmn, Four M., 1018, p. 777. 
Kow the Tolka. A small riyer mn- 
ning through the vOlage of Finglae, 
near Dublin. These facts are sup- 
pressed by all the Munater hiâ- 
toriana, aa well aa by our anthor. 



INTRODUCmON. 



CXCVU 



and cattle/'^ and thus effectually weakened the power of 
the Dublin Danes and their allies of Leinster. 

The immediate result* of the battle of Clontarf and the MaUchy 
death of Brian wbs to replace Malachy upon his former u^^hnm^ 
throne. His right was tadtly recognised ; he seems to 
have resumed the govenunent as a matter of course,^ as if 
his administration had never been intemipted ; and it is 
remarkable that the annalist, Tighemaxsh, who wrote 
within the same century, in recording his death and the 
length of his reign, ignoi*es altogether the twelve years of 
Brian's usurpation, including them in the total which he 
assigns to the reign of Malachy. Nothing, as Mr. Moore 
has remarked, can more clearly show " the feeling enter- 
tained on the subject in times bordering on those of 
Brian."* 
But although the name of king was thus tamely Cmutita- 
• yielded to its rightful owner, the consequences of Brian's chang» 
revolution were severely felt. The old constituţional rule remiting 
under which the Ard-righ, or chief King of Ireland, had Brian's 
been elected exclusively from the descendants of Niall of "▼«*"*"». 
the nine hostages, was no longer acqidesced in, although it 



1 CaUU Fonr M^ lOU, p. 783 ; 
and Ajin. of Clomnacnoisef quoted by 
Dr. 0*D<moTaii, ibid» 

* JBemft. It woald be out of place 
bere to attempt any lengthened ac- 
coant of the coneequencesţ immediate 
orremote, of the battle of Clontarf. 
A good anmmary of them, and of the 
whole of thÎB mdancholy period of 
Irish hiatory, will be iound in a work 
already referred to. M*Gee*8 Popular 
Eiaiory of Ireland— {New Tor*), 
1864. (VoL it, p. 101, jg.) 

1 Of coune. Warner talka of his 
having been "restored with the general 
oonsent of the rtaiea qf the Kmgdomy** 
whatever that may mean; and hia 
follower, Kr. M^Dermot, gives na an 
acoount of a formal ** agşembfy of the 
itatei of the KingdoMj aasembled to 



elect a sncceeaor,** in which **they all 
ooncnrred in reatoring" Malachy. 
Warner, EUt. of Jrtil,, ii, p. 228. 
M*Dermot, New and Imparţial HitL 
qf IreL^ ii, 274. For snch a state- 
ment there is not the smallest antho- 
rity. 

* Brian. Moore, ii, p. 138. Th« 
Annals of Ulster and the Foor M. 
have foUowed the older chronicle; the 
latter annalists expressly qnote ** the 
Book of Clonmacnoiae," by which they 
mean what we now caii the Annals of 
Tighemach. See 0*Flaherty, Ogffg,^ 
p. 438. Mr. Moore says that Tigher- 
nach "wrote in the following cen- 
tury.** By this error he impairs hla 
own argument, for Tighemach died in 
1088, before the end of the same cen- 
tury. 



cxcvin 



INTRODUCnON. 



had a prescriptive right of five hundred years. The Eings 
of Connaught and Leinster now asserted their claims to the 
Buccession, mauitaimng that they Iiad as good a titJe as 
Brian had to become chief-king in their tnms ; and thus, 
from the death of Malachy to the days of Strongbow, the 
history of Ireland is little more than a history of the 
struggles for ascendancy between the great clans or 
families of O'Neill,* O'Connor, O'Brien, and the chieftaîns 
of Leinster. 

The Norsemen of Ireland were not serîonsly affected 
in their position by the victory of Clontarf They re- 
of Ireland, tained their hold of the great seaports, and the Irîsh 
ousiy^ annals, for some years, continue to record the usnal 
mfifected. amount of conflict between them and the native tribes. 
We read, however, of but few new invasions, and the 
design of forming in Ireland a Scandinavian kingdom, 
whiâi seems to have influenced such tnen as Sigurd, of 
Orkney, and the viking Brodar, was certainly abandoned. 
The naţional distinction between the Irish and the Danes, 



Thepoâ- 
tion of the 
Norsemen 



1 (yNeill In tluB clan are included 
the deacendants of Malachy II., who 
waa of the Southern Hj NeilL The 
celebrated Dearbhforgaill, or Dervor- 
gall, " the Helen of Ireland,** was the 
daughter of Murchadh Cob. 1153), son 
of Domhnall (ob. 1094), son of Fknn 
(si. 1018), son of Malachy. She waa 
the wife of Tîgheman 0*RonTke, of 
Brefn^ She eloped withV or waa car- 
ried ofif by Diarmaid, called Mac Mnr- 
chadha, în 1152, and was the cause of 
his calling to bis aid the Nonnan 
Knîghts of Henry II. In 1153 she 
retumed to her hosband ; was a great 
benefactor to the Church, and died in 
the abbey of Mellifont, 1193, aged 85. 
Diarmaid (see pp. iz., xL), was de- 
scended from Enna Cvnnsalech (K. of 
Leinster in the foorth centniy), and 
was the ancestor of theMacMnrchadha 
or Mac Mmroughs of Leinster, whilst 



his sons, Domhnall, snmamed Caemh- 
anach [Kayanagh], and Enna, sor- 
named from his great ancestor Cenn- 
salach [Kinnsela], were the anoestors 
respectively of the families of Kava- 
nagh and Kinnsela. The 0*B3rme8 
were desoended from Bran, son of 
Maelmordha, the King of Leinster, 
who fell in the battle of Clontarf. 
These are the principal families of 
Leinster allnded to above. The Hac 
Lochlainn, or 0*Lochlainn, were of 
the Northern 0*Neill, descended from 
Domhnall, brother of Niall Glondnbh. 
Two of this family, Domhnall Mac 
Lochlainn (ob. 1121), and Mnircher- 
tach, or Morrogh (1156.1 166), daimed 
to be Kings of Ireland in the oonfnsed 
times of the 12th centniy, which 
preceded the coming of the Anglo- 
Normans. 0*Flaherty, Cj^., pp. 439, 
440. 



INTRODXrCfnOK* 



cxcbt 



however, continued iintil after the Anglo-Norman inva- 
don; the Danes tben in several places sided with the 
native chieftains ; but in many înstances they appear to 
have recognised in the new comers a kindred origin. In 
the seaport towns especiially a common interest produced 
alliances by which the peculiarities of the two races were 
gradually softened down, and both were at length con- 
fonnded by the Irish under the same generic name of 
Qaill, or foreigners. 

The battle of Clontarf seems to^ have shaken the Paganiam 
fonndation of paganism among the Scandinavians of Ire- J^JJ^mt the 
land. About the same time, indeed, Christianity, soinsh 
called, or, at least, a profession of Christianity, was making '<*"*^*^ 
considerable progresa in the north; and paganism in 
Ireland was no longer strengthened by any new arrivals. 
It may have been, as a leamed writer' holds, that on the 
field of Clontarf the^spells of heathendom were deemed 
to have been vanquished for ever by the superior power 
of the faith, so that it was considered hopeless to continue 
the contest ; and it is certain that the next generation saw 
Christianity the recognised religion of the country ; and 
Bishoprics were founded in the Danish cities of Dublin, 
Waterford, and Limerick, at the instance of the Danish 
inhabitants themselves.^ Most true, nevertheless, it ia 
** that the pure doctrines of Christianity were then the 
possession of a few, while the creed of the common herd 
was little more than a garbled blending of the most 
jarring tenets and wildest superstitions of both fÎBdths.''' 



1 Wriim', Dasent, BitnU NJal, 
l]|trod.f p. clxzxix., aq. 

■ î%imMhe$. See Ware's BUkopi, 
bk loc. Ussher, Befigicn of the Ant. 
Jriâh; (^Wori$ by Elrington, iv., p. 
326). S^Uoge EpUU, Bib. (i&., p. 
564). 

• FaUki, SeeAinUJVjaIpp. cxcviil. 
One or two inatancea will auiBce to 
ahow bow King Olaf the Saint pro- 



pagated Chriatianity. In the Uplanda 
he " inqnired particulari^ how it stood 
with their Chriatianity ; iftherewera 
any there who would not renounce hea- 
then wajra ;" he ** drove aome ont of 
the oonntiyi mutilated othen of handa 
or f eet, or stnng their eyes ont ; hung 
up Bome, eut down some with the 
aword; but let none go unpuniahed 
who woold not serve God.*' See 



A 



CC 



INTRODUCnON. 



CONCLUSION. 

TheEditor*8 The Editor must now apologise for the great length io 
thu in^ which these remarks have extendeA His object was, 88 
dnction. fer as possible, to identify every place mentioned in the 
present work by pointing out its modem name and geo- 
graphical position, that the reader might be enabled to 
trace on the map of Ireland the ancient staţiona andfort- 
resses of the Norsemen, and the sites of their principal 
battles. 

He has also endeavoured to give, as accurately as he 
could, the genealogies of the Irish chiefbains as well as of 
the Danish or other Scandinavian leaders who are men- 
tioned in the work. The corruption of the names of the 
latter, as they are represented by Irish transcribers, waâ a 
serious obstacle to accuracy in this attempt, and to it was 
added the further difficulty caused by the Editor s im- 
perfect acquaintance with the language of the Sagas. It 
is hoped that his mistakes will be viewed with indulgence, 
when it is remembered that this is the first attempt ever 
made to harmonize the genealogies of the north with Irish 
historical records. 

It appears to the Editor to be an object well worth 
the time and labour he has expended upon it, if he has 
succeeded in proving that the minute history of the two 
countries can be made to dovetail satisfactorily into each 
other. This will be an unanswerable evidence of the 



Laing, Sea Kingt of Norvoay^ ii., p. 
79. Again, at Heligoland, *' he threat- 
ened eveiy man with loaa of life, and 
limbS) and property, who would not 
Bubject himself to Christian law." 
IHd., p. 147. In the Drontheim 
conntry he sarprised the people at a 
heathen sacrifice ; OWer, in whose 
farm called Egge the feast was heid, 
he commanded to be pat to death, 
with "many other men besides.** 
»«'The King also let all the bonders 



he thoaght had the greatest part in 
the business be plundered by his men 
at arms;" and of the men he judged 
most guilty, some he ordered to be 
execnted, some he maimed, some he 
drove oat of the coontiy, and took 
fines from others."* lUd.^ p. 152. 
After this fashion Christianity was 
established in Norway by King Clare 
the Saint, and sach were the miasîon- 
ary serrices to the Chnrch that won 
him that title. 



INTRODUCTION. 



CCI 



authenticîty of both ; for it would be dearly impossible 
that the author of a mere fiction, or of a dishonest forgery, 
ahould be able to make the genealogy of his heroes, aa 
well afi the geography of his nairative, tally with the 
facts of the history at the precise period to which his 
story belongs. In the present instance it will be found 
thaty except in the case of some . mere errors of trans- 
cription, or of some palpable interpolations, this work will 
fully stand the test. 

Nevertheless, the Editor cannot but regret that this l>efectt of 
tract, so full of the feelings of clanship, and of the conse- work?**"* 
quent partisanship of the time, disfigured also by consi- 
derable interpolations, and by a bombastic style in the 
worst taste, shoidd have been selected as the first specimen 
of an Irish Chronicle presented to the public under the 
sanction of the Maşter of the Rolls. His own wiah. and imporunce 
recommendation to His Honor was, that the purely °' P^^^" 
historical chronicles, such as the Annals of Tighemach, the irish An- 
Annals of Ulster, or the Annals of Loch C^, should have 5?b^^jj 
been first undertaken. The t wo former compilations, it is and uiiter. 
true, had been already printed,' by Dr. O'Conor, although 
with bad translations and wretchedly erroneous topogra- 
phy; and a rule which at that time existed prohibited the 
Maşter of the Rolls from publishing any work which had, 
even in part, been printed before. This rule has since been 
judiciously rescinded ;* and it is hoped that His Lord- 
ship will soon be induced to sanction a series of the 
Chronicles of Ireland, especially the two just alluded 
to, which, it is not too much to say, are to the history of 
Ireland and of Scotland what the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
is to that of England. The Annals of Loch C^' belong to 



1 PrmietL The Ado. of Ulster are 
sKreD ooly to the jear 1181. The 
Dablin MS. extendf to 1503. The 
Ckrmieon Sootonm ia not here men- 
tiooed, becanae it ia alreadj on the list 
of the MMter of the Bolia, edited by 
Mr. W. H. Henneasy. 

* JUaemdetL New editiona of the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Annales 
Cambria, ud the Brut y Ţy w^sogion, 
have already appeared in the leriea. 



•Loch Ce, Or *'AnnalaofInisMao 
nErinn in Loch Cd," (jnrm, Lough 
Kd.) Theie Annala (of which oniy 
a Btngle MS. existe) were formerly 
called TVemocAt eoiUinMaiio, and for 
a short time the Annaii qf KUroman. 
Bot Mr. O'Curry (Lâeturei, p. 93, gq.^ 
has satisfactorily shown tliat they are 
the Annals of Loch C^ mentioned b^ 
Abp. Nicholson in Appendix, No. lY^ 
to his Irish Historical Libnuy. 

O 



CCU INTRODUCrnON. 

a later period. They begîn with the battle of Clontarf, 
1014, and continue the history, with some few gaps, to 
1590. 

Until these and other original sources of history are 
made accessible, it ia vain to expect any sober or trusi- 
worthy history of Ireland ; the old romantic notions of a 
golden age, so attractive to some minds, must continue 
io prevail ; and there will still be firm believers in "the 
glories of Brian the brave/' the lady who walked through 
Ireland unmolested in her gold and jewels, and the chival- 
rous feats of Finn Mac Cumhaill and his Fenians. 
Authora of The authors of our existing popular histories were 
Sistorieso? »'Vowedly ignorant, with scarcely an exception, of the 
iieUnd ancient language of Ireland, the language in whidi the 
I^OTmnt'of ^^^ sources of Irish history are written. It was as if the 
tbe iriah authoTs of our histories of Rome had been all ignorant of 
**«r»^g6, j^yjj^ ^^^ ^Yie wiiters of our histories of Greece unaUe 
to read Greek. Even this, however, would not fully re- 
present the real state of the case as regards Ireland. Livy 
and Tacitus, Herodotus, and Thucy dides, are printed books, 
and good translations of them exist. But the authorities 
of Irish history are stiU, for the most pait, in manuscript, 
tmpublished, untranslated, and scattered în the public 
libraries of Dublin, Oxford, and London, as well as on the 
Continent of Europe. Hence our popular histories leave 
us completely in the dark, and often contain erroneous In- 
formation. Wherever the Irish names of persons or places 
are concemed, they are at fault ; they are entirely sUent 
on the genealogies, relationships, and laws of the dans 
and their chieftains, a subject so essenlial to the right 
understanding of Irish history ; and we are not corredJy 
informed either who the actors are, or where the soenea 
of the narrative are laid. All interest in the story is 
therefore lost. 
Anti- Along with this total neglect of the original Irish 

qnarian recoids, the autiquariau scholars of the last centuiy had 
the Ust perplexed themselves with untenable theories as to the 
^^***^» ancient history of the country. The old Celtic language 
iraiaud. was a dialect of the Punic or Carthaginian. The aboriginal 
inhabitants of Ireland were a colony from Ţjrre or from 



INTBODUCTION. 



CCIU 



hiBtories. 



Carthage. Their religion was the worship of Baal or 
Astarte. The Bound Towers were temples for the adora- 
tion of fire. The cromlechâ, stone circles, and other 
megalithic monuments, were altars or theatres for the 
public uxunolatioB of human victima. To these theories, 
'for whidi not the sUghtest evidence exists, but which 
have not yet lost their hold on the public mind, the whole 
histoiy of Ireland waa maae to benA Antiqmty was 
ranâacked for argumenta to support them; and argu- 
menta were piled together from the remains of pagan 
Greece and Borne, from Persia, from Scandinavia, from 
India — ^from every quarter of the globe except Ireland. 

But a decided change for the better has now begun; Improve- 
and our more recent histories, even though they continue m^î^t 
to exhibit a strong party bios, contrast most favourably pppaUr 
wiih the similar publications of the last century. The 
beginning of this change ia mainly due to the noble 
design of publishing historical Memoirs of the countiea 
and towns of Ireland, planned, and in a measure carried 
out, by the enlightened officers^ then at the head of 
the Ordnance Survey of Ireland. The new feature in 
this work waa, that it was resolved from the beginning 
to make use of all the accessible records extant in the 
Irish language. The original orthography of the names 
of towns and townlands, with their true etymologies, 
was carefrilly studied, and the anglicized spelling cor- 
rected, according to the laws which appeared to regulate 
the passage of the old Irish names,^ |^nto their present 
modem representatives. A body of Irish scholars was en- 
gaged for this work, and for the coUection of materials for 
the " Memoirs ;" and at their head was placed the late ever to 



1 OJpcen, Althongh we speak here 
in the plural number, it is well known 
thAt the real deaigner and organiser of 
the Memoirs was one, whose appoint- 
ment to his preaent office bas been of 
sach great and permanent benefit to 
Ireland. It is lamentable to think 
that snch a work, after the publica- 



tion of a single Tolnme of the highest 
merit, shonld have been abandoned. 

* N<tme$, See a paper ** On the 
changes and cormptions of Irish topo- 
graphical names,'* by Patrick W. 
Joyce, eaq., in the Proceedings of the 
Royal IHsh Academy (read May 22, 
1865). 



CCIV 



INTRODUCnOK. 



be lamented Geobge Petrie. A more judicious selection 
could not have been made. He was a man singalarly 
devoid of all party prejudîoe; an accomplished anti- 
quary, of rare judgment and of ripe scholaiiship; charao- 
terized in a remarkable manner by the Iove of historical 
truth. Among the staff iinder bis direction were John 
O'Donovan* and Eugene O'Curry, men of veiy different 
genius and cbaracter, but who both became, under the 
advantages thufi aSbrded them, scholars of the highest 
eminence. 

To Petrie, and to the two distingui»hed men just named 
araistance — ^jj three now alas lost to us — ^the Editor is deeply in- 
Editor of debted for invaluable assistance in tranalating and editing 
the present work. By Mr. O'Curry the original MSS. 
were transcribed for collation, and a rough translation of 
the text prepared. From these transcripts the Editor care- 
fully coUected the various readings, which will be found in 



The 



this work 
by bis 

V 

friends. 



1 (yDonowau One good result of 
tbe preparations made for tbe Ord- 
nance Surrey Memoirs was the publi- 
cation of tbe Annals of tbe Foar 
Hasters, a magnificent work, wbicb 
we owe to the spirit and patriotism of 
our great Dublin publisher, Mr. Greorge 
Smith. In tbe copious notes witb 
which Dr. CDonovan bas enricbed 
Us translation of these Annals, a large 
portion of tbe matter coUected bj.bim 
wben engaged on the Surve^r bas been 
presenred. He bas also ^blished a 
great mass of valnable information, of 
tbe same kind, in tbe works so ably 
edited by bim for the Irish ArchsBO- 
logical and Celtic Societies. To these 
publications the improved tone of our 
modem Irish historians, abore no- 
ticed, is mainly due. Tbe new trans* 
lation of Keating*s History of Ireland, 
lately published at New Tork (Ha- 
▼erty, 1857) by Mr. John 0*Mahony, 
is largely indebted to 0*Donovan*s 
notes upon the Four Masteis. Not- 
withstanding the extravagant andvery 



miscbieYOus political opinions avowod 
by Mr. 0*Mahouy, bis translation of 
Keating is a great improvement upon 
tbe ignorant and dishonest one pub> 
iisbed by Mr. Dermod O^Connor more 
than a century ago ( FTatMiMfar, 
1726, Fo/.}, which bas so nnjustly 
lowered, in public estimation, the 
character of Keating as an bistorian ; 
but 0*Mahony*s translation bas beea 
taken from a yery imperfect text, 
and has evidently been ezecuted, 
as be bimself conf esses, in great haste ; 
ithas,therefore,byno meanssnpeneded 
a new and scholarlike translation of 
Keating, which is greaUy wanted. 
Keating*s autborittes are still almost 
all acoessible to us, and should be cd- 
lated for the correction of bis text; 
and two excellent MS. copies of the 
original Irish, by John Toma 0*Mul- 
conry, a contemporary of Keating, are 
now in the Libraxy of Trinity College, 
Dubim. The work, bowever, is not 
suited for Lord Romilly^s teries of 
chronicles. 



urrBODucnoK. 



ccv 



the notes under the text ; and oorrected the translation to 
the best of his judgment, having in every instance the 
opinion and advice of Dr. O'Donovan and Mr. O'Cnrry 
upon all difficulties. The whole text of the work, to p. 
217, with the translation, was in this way gone over and 
printed before those great masters of the andent lan- 
guage and history of Ireland were called to their ever- 
lastingrest. 

From Dr. O'Donovan especially the Editor receîved a 
large amount of information, communicated in the shape 
of notes upon the nairative. From these notes invalu- 
able aid was derived in the Identification of the topo- 
graphical names, and in the Irish genealogical researches. 

To Dr. Beeves the Editor owes his most grateful thanks, 
for his kindness in reading, with his characteristic ac- 
curacy and care, the proof-sheets of the Introduction, and 
Grenealogical tables in the Appendix ; and particularly for 
the free communication of that extensive topographical 
and oiher information, of which he is an inexhaustible 
fountain. 

He is deeply indebted also to his exoellent friend, 
Charles Haliday, esq., who kindly plami in his hands 
the materials of a work on the connexion between the 
Norsemen of Ireland and Northunxberland, oontaining 
much valuable genealogical and historical Information. 
By these papers the Editor's reseaxches were directed 
to the best sources of Scandinavian history, and he was 
enabled to test the accuracy of the results at which he 
had himself independently and previousiy arrived. 

His thanks are due to Mr. W. M. Hennessy, for very 
able asaistance in reading the sheets, and for several cor- 
rections and suggestions, which he hopes he has duly 
acknowledged in every instance.' To Mr. Hennessy also 
the reader is indebted for that most necessaiy appendage 
to every book of this kind — ^the Index. 



1 EverymtUmee» — ^The oorrection of 
tlM text (p. 87) where comonp 
^'nwasare,** wts mÎBtaken for « proper 



name (see p. xdi, ». *), ia dne to Mr. 
Bmatmy. 



CC VI 



INTRODUCnON. 



Facaimiles 
of the 
Blana- 
Mriptfl. 



lithographed faesimilea of the two principal mann- 
Scripts used ia forming the Irish text of the work will be 
seen prefixed to the title page. These MSS. have already 
been described ;' but it should be stated that the facsi- 
miles of them have been executed under considerable 
disadvantages. The rules of the libraiy of Trinity 
College, Dublin, did not permit the removal of the ori- 
ginala to London. Accordingly photographs were taken 
of the selected specimens by Mr. Mercer, of Dublin, and 
sent to London to be lithographed by Messrs. Day and Co. 
In the case of the older MS. designated by the letter L, 
the difficulty was veiy great, owing to the darkness of 
the porchment, and the almost entire obUteration of the 
Avriting on the page selected. It was desirable, however^ 
to give that page on account of its containing the corn- 
mencement of the work, deficient in the othcr MS.; and 
for the sake of the oroamented iniţial letter, which is 
characteristic of this class of Irish manuscripis. To meet 
the diflicultied it became necesaary to render the letters 
more distinct, by carefully retracing them, before sending 
the photograph to the lithographer, and also to omit alto- 
gether the second column' of the page, which was found 
too dark and obliterated to be restored by this process. 
It is, however, to be feared that notwithstanding the 
great care and accuracy with which the lettei-s were re- 
traced, a blurred appearance has been given to the writing, 
which does not do full justice to the sharp definitlon and 
elegance of the original character. The other MS. (marked 
D), is mnch more accurately represented 

The Editor in conclusion has to retum his thanks to 
Lord Bomilly for so kindly aUowing him, without any 
pressure, his foii time to complete the work. He ia 



1 Ikteribed. See pp. iz., xtii. 

i Cohmm, It haa been sUted (p. 
ix.), that this MS. i8writt«n io donble 
oolamna. The paaMge given, Plate I, 
oocDpies abont a third of the fint 
colnmn. It will be found in ordinaiy 



type, with a tranalation, in Appendix 
A, p. 221. The paasage selected from 
the MS. D, Plate II., will be found 
at the beginning of p, 62, line 2, 
tq. It represents a fnll page of the 
original. 



• • 



INTRODUCnON. CCVU 

ashamed to put ou record the date at which it was first 
annouiiced for publication. In his own defence he haâ to 
plead the occupation of his time by professional avoca- 
tions, as well as the peculiar difficulties of the work itself, 
'which nothing but time eould overcome. The translatîon 
required the greatest consideration, owing to the immenae 
number of Irish words, to whose true signification our 
dictionaries give no clue. The labour of forming a 
correct text by a careful coUation of the existing manu- 
scripts of the work was necessarily irksonie and tedious. 
The topographical and historical matter collected in the In- 
troduetion and Appendices, required much time and patient 
research, as every one who has ever been engaged in such 
studies, will readily admit Each statement had to be 
well weighed, the authorities checked, and many para- 
graphs written and rewritten before the matter was given 
to the printer. 



Tbikitt College, Dublin, 
October, 1866. 



ccy5a*oh ^aeDhet Re ^ccllcabh. 



THE WAR OF THE GAEDHIL WITH 

THE GAILL, 



OR 



THE INVASIONS OF IHELAND BY THE DANES 

AND NORSEMEN. 



^«w. .* 



•b 



A./ 



co^ccoti ^ae'otiel ne ^allccibh. 



The period 
of tbc 
Danish 
invasions, 
1 70, or, 88 
Bome say, 
200 yeara. 




The kîngs 
of Munster 
during that 
time. 



CCI 'Docpaicre lonsncrB a'obal moţi aţi Gfiinn 
mie 50 poiţileran, 6 ^enririC ^oţim^lafa 
jufmapa, ocuf 6 'oanaţiaiB Doilge 'oufi- 
cţxoi'oeacha, p|iî ]\e cian, ocuf ţie hainifiţi 
pcroa, .1. pjiî jieiTiief 7)610 mblicroaTi ocuf 
oct: picir, no va cev laţi -ppoifiinn .1. 6 
fieinîef CCiprpi mic Ccrcail mic pin^^aine, 
co ţieiinef b^iiain mic CînneiTxi^ ; ocuf 
o fiennef CCo-oa mic Meill PTiapT^^S ^^^ 
Peţi^aile, co TTlaotfecLainn mac T)oA- 
nailL. 

II. Oct: ţiig Dec hi cCaifiul pfiiffin jie fin. Ir: iar 
annfo an anmanna, .1. CCiţirfii mac Ca€ail mic ţin- 
^aine ; ocuf pei-olimiT) mac Cţiiomrainn ; OlcoBaţi mac 
Cinaeic; CCil^endn mac 'Oun^aile; TTlaol^tiala mac 
T)un5alai§; Cennpaela-D mac Tnuyichai-D ; T)onncha^ 
mac T)tiil5T)a15oi|ienn ; T)uBlachT:na mac ÎTIael^uala ; 
Pinpnne mac Lae^aiţie Cenn^e^ain ; Coţibmac mac 
Cuilennain ; 'piairB!eyiT:ac mac lonrîiainen ; Loyican mac 
Connli^din ; Ceallacan mac bua^acain ; maelparaprais 



1 Gaedhil That îs, "the War of 
the Irishţ" who in their own langaage 
caii themselves Gaedhil or Gael (in 
Wclah Gwyddif), "with the GaiU," 
strangers or f oreigners, a generic name 
given to all invaders of Ireland. See 
O'DonoTan^s TransL of Book ofRights^ 
p. 51, n. 9. The original terms are 
here retained withoat translation, be- 
cause of the alliteration which was 
evidently intended. 



^ Atcfullt/ ffreat L. oroits the ex- 
pletive adjectives and reads, btii "DO- 
cjiaici TTiofi pop. pep,ait) hG|ienn, 
" there was a great oppression on the 
men of Ireland." See Appendix A- 

3 Gentiles. L. reads, tochlannccnb, 
omittîng the adjectives goiwisLayHi, 

* Fierce. L. reads, T)i3t5it) «otiŢi- 
cp.i'oeâaibi the ancient and more 
grammatically correct forms. The 



THE WAR OF THE GAEDHIL* WITH THE GAILL 



THERE was an astonishing and awfully great^ op- The period 
presaion over all Erinn, throughout its breadth, by oanish 
powerful azure Gentiles,^ and by fierce,^ hard-hearted in^asiona, 
Danars, during a lengthened period, and for a long time, gome say, 
namely, for the space of eight score and ten years, or two ^00 yeara. 
hundred, according to some authorities, that is to say, 
from the time of Airtri, son of Cathal, son of Finguine, to 
the time of Brian, son of Cenneidigh,'^ and from the reign 
of Aedh, son of Niall Frassach,^ son of Ferghal, to Mael- 
sechlainn,^ son of Domhnall. 

II. There were eighteen® kings in Caisei during that The kmgg 
time. These are their names — viz., Airtri, son of Cathal, durinTtîwt 
son of Finguine ; and Feidhlimidli, son of Criomhthann ; time. 
Olchobhar, son of Cinaeth ; Ailgenan, son of Dungal ; 
Maelguala, son of Dungal ; Cennfaeladh, son of Murchadh ; 
Donnchadh, son of Dubhdabhoirenn ; Dubhlachtna, son of 
Maelguala ; Finguine, son of Laeghaire, awi'named Cenn- 
gegain ; Cormac, son of Cuilennan ; Flaithbhertach, son 
of lonmhainen ; Lorcan, son of Connligan ; CeUachan, son 
of Buadhachan ; Maelfathartaigh, son of Bran ; Dubh- 



reader irill observe the alliteration 
in the adjcctives 6 genticiti g. 5. 6 
TMinaţicnb t). T). 

* Cenneidigh, L. adds, i Caj^itil, 
•* in Ca«hel." 

^ NiaU Frauach. L. adds, 1 T^etn- 
ţiaigi " în Teamhar or Tara." L, also 
omits the genealogîcal particnlars, 
giviog only the names of the kings^ 
withontthenames of their grandfathers. 



7 To Maelsechlainn, L. omits the 
words * ' to Maelaechlainn, son of Domh- 
nall." 

8 Eighieen. L. reads, Ţe TI15 "Deg, 
'' sixteen kings," and omits the llst of 
names, which is therefore probably an 
interpolation. The text gives nine- 
teen namea — one name bas, therefore, 
pTobably been interpolated. See Ap> 
pendix B. 

♦b2 



coscroti scxe'otiel ne salicei bîi. 



The kings 
of Ireland 
during 
the same 
period. 



Tbefirst 
invasion 
of the 
foreigners. 



A.D. 812, 

Another 
invadon, 
A.D. 821- 
828. 



mac bfiaiti ; T)tiB'Da15oiţienn mac T)OTţînaill; pGţi5|iaiT)h 
mac CLefiig; 'Doîincha'o mac Cellai^; TTlac^aTfiain mac 
CeiîineiTxi§ ; ocuf byiian mac Ceinneim^. 

III. T)a fti§ "Dec imoft|io, poţi 'CeApai^, pţiif an ţie fin, 
.1. OCo'D Oiimi-ohe mac Meill Pfiapfai^, Concobhaţi mac 
T^onncha-fia, Miall mac CCe'oa, TTlaelfechlainn mac 
Tnael|iuanai'5, OCo'D pnnliar, piann mac TTlaelvec- 
lamn, Hiall ^un-otiB, T)onnchaT) mac pioinn, Con^alac 
mac Tnaelmiri§, T)omnall 6 "Meill, ITlaelfeclainn mac 
^OoînnailL, ocuf byiian mac Cemneixxi^. Ppi fieimef 
na pio§ fin, ocuf na ftuifiec rpa, moţx vo vuav ocuf 
•DO 'bocaji, "DO rdfi ocuf "do raficaifţ^e, -Dimne-o ocuf 
•DeccomnaiiT: ţio po-Daimfior ffuire faep.a foibe^aca 
nan^aei-Del, 6 T)anmaficacaiB allmaţiftaib, ocuf 6 "oi- 
beţi^aiB bayiBayi'oaiB. 

IV. 18 ţie ţieimef ryia CCipcpi mic Carail, ocuf 
CCo'Ba mic Mei 11, ţio cînn^cainfeu Ţio\\X in-OfiOD Bf enn 
aţi râf, Txiil if nanaimfiţi fin ranjaDaţi 5<^ilL i 
^Camaf 6 poraiT) 'Ciţie .i. p6e aţi cev lon^ ; ocuf 
ţio hin'Dţie'5 le6 an ciţi, ocuf ţio haiţije'fi ocuf ţio 
ioifce-fi le6 Inif LabţiainT), ocuf T)aiţiinif ; ocuf ru^fOT) 
Bo^anaci; LoCa Lein cac "oâib, ocuf ţio maţiBo'o fe ţ?iţi 
'oes aţi .cccc. "do gallaiB anî), .i. an blia^ain aţi 
maţiba'5 T)îmain CCţioD ţ^n, .i. .oc mblia-Bna aţinecc 
CCiţirţii mic CaraiL 

V. 'Cdinij lon^ef ele laţi fin n. an -Daţia blia^ain 
laţinjalSail ţii^e -do pei^lim mac Cţiimrainn, co ţio 
in'Dţiai^fer; Coţicaig, ocuf Inif 'Ceiîini, ocuf ţio hinT)- 



^Cellach. Bead Ce/ZocAo». SeeAp- 
pendix B. 

9 Temhair: i.e., in Tara. As the 
kings of Manster are designated as 
kings in Caiaei, or Cashel, their 
royal seat or fortress — so the kings 
of Ireland are called kings m Tara^ 
although the royal palace there had 
ceased to be the actual residence of 
the supreme king, for some time before 



the Danish invasions. Here again L. 
omits the list of names. 

3 During the Hme. L. omits the 
expletives in this paragraph. jSee 
Appendix A. 

* Airlri, In this passage B. pută 
the king of Munster first, and the 
king of Ireland second. The order is 
inverted in L. This latter MS. was 
not written in Munster. 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



5 



dabhoirenn, son of Domhnall; Fergraidh, son of Clerech ; 
Donnchadh, son of Cellăch^ ; Mathghamhain, son of Cenn- 
eîdigli ; and Brian, son of Cenneidigh. 

III. But in Temhair^ therewere twelve kings during the The kîng» 
same period — ^namely, Aedh Oii'dnidhe, son of Niall Fras- during*" 
sach ; Cf)nchobhar, son of Donnchadh; NiaU, son of Aedh ; the same 
Maelsechlainn, son of Maelruanaidh ; Aedh Finnliath ; 
Flann, son of Maelsechlainn; Niall Glundubh ; Donnchadh, 

son of Flann ; Conghalach, son of Maelmithigh ; Domh- 
nall, grandson of Niall; Maelsechlainn, son of Domhnall ; 
and Brian, son of Cenneidigh. During the time"* of those 
kings and chieftains, much hardship and oppression, con- 
tempt and indignity,fatigue and weakness, were submitted 
to by the leamed and accomplished nobles of the Gaedhil, 
trom pirate Danmarcachs, and barb^rmia robbers. 

IV. It was in the time of AirSi^son of Cathal, and of The flrat 
Aedh, son of Niall, that the foreigners first began the JJ^®'' 
devastation of Erinn ; for it was in their time the fordgnen. 
foreigners came into Camas 6 Fothaidh Tire* — viz., an 
hundred and twenty® ships, and the country was plun- 
dered and devastated by them, and Inis Labrainn and 
Dairinis were bumed by them. And the Eoganachts of 

Loch Lein gave them battle, when four hundred and six- 
teen men of the foreigners were killed. This was the 
year after" that in which Diman of Aradh was killed, A.D. 812. 
and ten years after the death of Airtri, son of CathaL 

V. There came another fleet after that — ^viz., in theAnother 
second year after the accession to the throne of Feidhlim, aS! 821- 
son of Crimhthann, and they plundered Corcach, and Inis 823. 



i.îiti^^ 



» Cama» 6 Fothaidh Tire, CaTnTnti|* 
îl UI potm-o T3ixie L. CaoiTnini|^ 
o bpotaiT) (Fair Island of Ui Foth- 
aidh), Keating. Introd., p. xzxvi. , n. *. 

< An hundred and tvjtnty, L. has 
the same number, but Keating reads, 
Xxkt'C ctii ţMCic Z/ong a lion, *'the 
crewsi of three sc'ore shipâ was their 
nuraber." 



f After, L. omits the notice of Dî- 
man*8 death, and reads, .1 . m "DechnicrD 
bt/ioroam yienecc CC|ic|ii : ** î.e., the 
tenth year hefore the death of Artri." 
See App. A. and B. Another instance 
of the same difference will be found, 
chap. xxiii. (p. 22, note 8), where the 
Foor M. understood after^ although 
here they nnderstood be/bre. 



co-gcroti sa:eT)tiel ne ţocllcctbti. 



Bangor in 
Ulater 
plunderedţ 
A.D.824, o. 



Invasion of 
Hy Cenn- 
selaijo^h, and 
plundering 
of the 
principal 
churchos 
of M mister. 



fiea'B leo beiTocaifi, ocuf Cluain Uarria, ocup Rof TTlae- 
tdin. Ro hiiTOfiea-S leo 8cellecc TTIichil, ocuf iiuccforc 
OD^all leo iTnbpoi'D, coni'5 t)o mio|ibuilibh ocfiulla, 
ocuf mafil5 t)0 ^ofira ocuf "Dicai^ aca he. 

VI. 'Came lon^eţ^ ele i maifcefiTj e^ieiro laţifin ; 
cerfii bba^na lapnec CCe'oa mic Meill ic CCr vă ţleţir, 
ocuţ^ |io aifi^fer Oencti|i Ulcro, ociiţ^ fio bţiifiraji |Xî|iin 
Com^aill, ocuf fio mapbaDafi a epyxîop, ocuf a fuiT)î, 
ocuf a ffiun ; "oa aifi^f ei: 'oim mo^ poţ^. 

VII. 'Came lon^ef ele înnuib CeiToţ^elai^, ocuf 
Xio aifi^fec 'Ceac ITlunmj, ocuf Ceac ÎTlolinT), ocuf 
Imif 'Ceoc. 'CancaT>afi ia|ifin înnOfixai^ib, ocuf ţio 
hiniicT) 111 rip. leo. 'Cucpar On'taip car -Doib, ocuf 
iDîiocap .clxa:. "oib anu Ro co^lax) leo T)un "Dep- 
miip, ocup Imp Co^aiian, ocup TDii^upr 'Cippain, ocup 
po huipe'D leo Leap TTlop, ocup po loipceD Cell 
TTlolappi, ocup Cluam-ap'D ITlubeoc, ocup po huipe'D 
•ona Lanx^ Lepî, ocup Ceiro 8lebi la paipiiro eli -oib. 
Ro haip^OT) leo, T)na, ^op-o Coluimcilli, ocup TDamliccs 
Cianan, Slam, ocup OpUapaili, ocup ^eiro "od Iaca, 



1 Inis Temkni. Inia Ternii, L. Inis 
Doimhle, Four M. 

• Bennckair. becii ep.e, L,, whîch 
18 no doubt the tnie readlng. See 
Appendix A. 

3 RoS'Maelain. Ros-niallain, L. 

4 Edgall The Dublin MS. begins 
here with the last three letters of this 
name, .... aXX pceiltgi teo imbp,aic 
conic|veb mip-buLI crcp.ulla, ocup 
Tna|xb DO gop-ca ocup Dicai-o acu : 

" [Edg]all of Scellig with them 

into captivity, so that it was by mir- 
acleshe escaped, and he died of hunger 
and thirst with them." Soe the read- 
ing of L., Appendix A, and note, p. 233. 
Hitherto the Irish text hus becn taken 
from B. In the remainder of the work, 
D., as being the inore ancient MS., 
will be adopted as the basis of the 



text. The Irish reader will observe 
the change of orthography. 

* Its bishop. ^pţxîob in batt, L., 
"thebishop of thetown,"i.e.,of Bangor. 

« Tfte plain, TTlas fiibili, L., 
"they plondered Magh-Bile,"* i.e-, 
Movilla, in the county Down. This ia 
probably the trae readiog. 

' Devasiaied, Ho hoijiceD, B., 
" was spoiled ** or "robbed." 

* Oiie hundred and serenty, The 
reading of L. and B. Is here adopted, 
as being the more probable number. 
D. has .x.cenT)bci|i ocup cfii pcic, 
ocup ctacx. T)ib aiTo: "Three score 
and ten holmeta, aud an hundced ai>4 
seventy of them there," which seema 
evidcntly the combination of two dif- 
ferent readings : Keating reads, înoiii- 
peipoţx ap, peacc gcex), "wveii 
hundred and seven." 



WAI13 OP THE GAEPHIL WITH ŢHE GfAILL. 7 

Temhm'; and Bennchair,^ and Cluain Uamha, and Ros- 
Maelain,' were plundered by them. Scelleg Michil was 
also plundered by them; and they took Edgall'* with 
tbem into captivity, and it was by miracles he escaped, 
and he died of hunger and thirst with them. 

VI. There came, after that, another fleet into the north of Bangor in 
Erinn, four years after the death of Aedh, son of Niall, at ^îfnd^ 
Ath-dâ-Fert; and they plundered Bennehur of Uladh, and a.d.824,5. 
brake the shrine of Comhghall, and killed its bishop,' and 
its doctors, and its elergy : they devastated, also, the plain.^ 

VIL Another fleet came to Ui Cennselaigh, and they invasîon of 
plundered Teach Munnu, and Teach Moling, and Inis Ţeoc. ^y Cenn- 
They afterwards went into Osraighe, and the country piundering 
was devastated^ by them. The Osraighe gave them ^^n^ţ i 
battle; and there were killed of them there one hundrej cimrches 
and seventy.« By them were demolished Dun Der-^^^"^*"" 
muighe,® and Inis Eoganain, and Disert Tipraiti; and 
they devastated Leas Mor, and bumed Cili Molaiai, and 
Cluain-ard Mubeoc*°; Lann Leri,^^ also, and Cenn Slebhi 
were plundered by another party of them. There were 
plundered^ ^ also by them Sord Coluim-cilli, and Damliag 
Chianain, Slaini,^' and Orlla-saile,^* and Qlenn-dâ-Locha, 



9 Dun Dermuighe, "Otin "Oexi?;- 
fîi^ine, B. "Dun Dergmuine." 

wjftiieoc TTlobeccoc L. Tflobe^g, 
B. TîlobGOT>os, Keating. Theread- 
Ing of L. is mere correct, being the 
devotional form of the name of St. 
Bec (diminutive Becoc, or Becan), 
•ţrith the pronoun mo, my, Mobecoc^ 
"My Becog." Cf. Lanigan^ EccL 
Şist , ni, p- 20. L. puts the pliinder- 
ing of Dun Dermuighe, &c., after that 
of Lismore, Cili Molaisi, and Cluain- 
Ard-Mobecog. 

11 Lann Leri, These words, to the 
next full stop, are omitted m B. In 
L. the dause is given thus: Ra gab 
ţvempo pachuaTDiaixcamco^ndm 
CCignec co fio tîiiII|^i: tati-o Leţii 



ocu|» CeHj^leibi : "They after- 
wards went northwards to Snamh 
Aignech" [Carlingford bay], *'so that 
they spolled Lann Leri, and Cell 
Shleibhi" [Killeavy]. CeUfleibi îs 
a more correct reading than the Cetro 
6tebi of the text. 

la There were phmâered, L. reads CC 
caaiT) aţxip Tjoib co yio ai^isţ^c: 
"They returned again^' [i.e., frora the 
north of Ireland] "and plundered." 
"Damhliag Chianan," was at first 
written în the MS. T)tincianan> I^n 
Chianan, but corrected by a later 
hand. 

^^Slaini, Omitted in B. 

1* Orlla-saiU, L., B., and Keat- 
ing read, Cell uapaile. 



8 



coţcroti ^ae-otiel ne saUccibti. 



Afleet 
enters 
Limerick 
harbour, 
A.D. 834. 



Tnrgeis in 
the north 
of Ireland, 
assumesthe 
soy-ereigntj 
of the 
foreignen, 
A.D. 839. 



St Ber- 

can'spro- 

phecy. 



ocuf Cluain Uoma, ocuf munsaifix;, ocuf utitnoţi ceti 
6|ienT). 

VIII. 'Came longef ele poţi cuan Lumnî^, octif |vo 
hin|iiT; Coţico bonfciriT), ocuf Cixcrofiaip, ocuf u Conîll 
^ccbţia leo. Cucfaî; o Conaill cerc 'ooib ic 8encrcib .i. 
T)oncaT) mac Scannlan fii ua Cîonaill, ocuf Wtall mac 
CnTDpaelffD; ocuf ni pef ca lin i'oţiocaiţi an'opin T)ib. 

IX. Came laţifin fii^lon^ef a-obulmoji la Ciiţi^e-p, 
1 ctiafceţix; e^ienn, ocup fio ^ab fiip ^all Oiien-o, 
ocuf |io hinţieT) ruafceţiî; Oyienn leo, ocuf ţio pccnl- 
peTj po Leic CuinT). Ro gab cţia lon^ep "oib poţi Loc 
GaraC ; ocup ţio gab lon^ep ele ic Lu^buT) ; octip fio 
gab lon^ep ele pop Loc Raî. Ocup pa hinpeT) rpa 
CCpT) TTlaca po cpi ipînmn mîp leo pin, ocup po gat) 
Ctipseip pein abb-oam CCp-oa TTlaca, ocup po hînnapb 
Papanan abb CCp-oa TTlaca ocup api) comapba pa- 
'opaic, eo TX)pa£r TTlumain, ocup pcpin paT)paie leip; 
ocup buî ceqni blia^na im TTlumain, ocup Cupgeip înn 
CCpT) TTlaca, ocup ippîji iniaipcipc Opent) ; amail po 
caipnjip bepcan, ppimpai€ mmi ocup ralman, — 



^Erinn. Ut^mofi ceti n&fienT) 
tiite, L>, "the greater part of the 
churches of all Ireland.'* So also 
Keating. 

8 Tradraighe» The reading of L., 
B., and Keating, la here adopted. D. 
readB'oaţxutuxigi. Instead of |vo hin- 

•DfieD. teOjasinB. andD., L. haa 

|ux hinT>îiiT; tiafctipaiT)e. 

*SeiuUL Sean-DOD, B. Seon- 
fiaiT), Keating. The place of thia 
hattie ia not mentioned in L. 

^ Dotmchadh, ton ofScannlan. Don< 
adhach, 4 M. The clause mention- 
ing the names of these chieftains 
omitted in the text of L., ia added in 
the margin in a later hand : but inatead 
of Niall, 8on of Cennfaeladh, as he ia 
called here, and also by the Four 
Maştera (A.D. 845), this marginal 
addition in L. rearb *' Doinhnall, son 



of Cennfaeladh, king of the Hi Cair- 
bri."' See Appendix A., p. 224. 

• Tkere slain. Tx>pjccnîi ann T)iob, 
B., "was slam there.*' "Ooţiochonfi 
onT), Ii., "fell there." 

• Was plundered. Ro iTiT>îvaipioc, 

B., ^Hhej plondered.** B. omită 

leo. 
fLeth Chuum, The northem half 

of Ireland, called Leth Ckukm or 

Conn*s half. 

• 0/ them. For «oib, the reading 
of L. and D., B. has ele, "another 
fleet.** 

9 Lughbudh, lltagniUT), L. Lup- 
TTKXgh, B. and Keating. Now 
Lowth, 

w Loch Sau Loch Rt, L. loc 
Rit>, 6. and Keating. 

11 In tke same monih. po tţvi pinn 
oefi mîp leo, L. po tfii tn eti inî 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



and Cluain Uamha, and Mungairt, and the greater part of 
the chnrches of Erinn.* 

VIII. Another fleet came into the harbour of Luim- a fleet 
nech ; and Corco-Baiscinn, and Tradraighe,* and Ui «;t«™. 
Conaill Qabhra were plimdered by them. The Ui ConaiU harbour, 
defeated them at Senati,' under Donnchadh, son of Scann- ^'^' ^*- 
lan,^ king of Ui Conaill, and Niall, son of Cennfaeladh, 

and it is not known how many of them were there slain.* 

IX. There came after that a great royal fleet into the Turgeîs în 
north of Erinn, with Turgeis, who assumed the sovereignty ^e «^orth 
of the foreigners of Erinn ; and the north of Erinn was Lsum^the 
plundered^ by them, and they spread themselves over Leth aovereîgnty 
Chuinn.^ A fleet of them® also entered Loch Eathach, foreîgner», 
and another fleet entered Lughbudh,^ and another fleet ^'^' ^^• 
entered Loch Kai.^° Moreover, Ard Macha was plundered 

three times in the same month*^ by them ; and Turgeis 
himself *^ usurped the abbacy of Ard Macha, and Faran- 
nan,^^ abbot of Ard Ma<;ha, and chief comharba of Patrick, 
was driven out,** and went to** Mumhain, and Patrick's 
shrine with him; and he was four years in Mumhain, 
while Turgeis was in Ard Macha,*® and in the sovereignty*^ 
of the north of Erinn, as Bercan*® prophesied, chief pro- st Ber- 

can's pro- 
phecy. 



phet of heaven and earth,*'-^- 



teO) B. These are merdy differences 
of oithography, except that B. omits 
Y^n, reading ** in one month," uistead 
of ** in the same month." 

^ Sinud/. B. omits ţem, and 
merely aays "Turgeis," instead of 
" Torgeîs himself.** The name of tbis 
chîeftainis'CtJiîisei'pinB. throughout. 
D. has Tufvsei'p, wm., 'Cutigep^e». 

13 Fararman. Forannan, L. and B. 
throughout. Comharba^ is the name 
giyen to a successor in an episcopal 
or abbatial see. 

1* Driven oiU, Ro hin-otiecro octi|» 
Yvo hin-oai^bcro, B., "was driven out 
and banished." Ro iniia|ibcr6 aŢŢ, 
L., " driven away." 



^^Wentto, Litreached. Co|i|iodCt 
L. "goTi •oeachcTD, B., "came to." 

*• /» Ard Macha, \x\ abx^aine 
CCyi-oa niaca, B., " in the abbacy of 
Ard Macha.** 

^T Andin the sovereiffnty, L. reads 
octi|» netic cuayx^tic h^ţienT) aice, 
" and the power of the north of Erinn 
was with him." 

1^ Bercan, L. introduces this pro- 
phecythus: 1|* anT)pn |ia coniat- 
tcTD pafcini beyichain in pivim 
poroa : " It was on this that the pro- 
phecy of Berchan, the eminent prophet, 
was fulfilled." 

^^Andearth, B.addsocuf'acbeiiT;, 
" and he said." 



10 



cosoroîi scceT)îiel ne saUccibîi. 



The pro- 
phecyofSt 
Colam 
CiUe. 



The 

prophecies 
of Ciaran 
the older, 



and of Bec- 
mac-De. 



'Ciqpccc '^er\z) Daţi mu^]\ mall 

TTlefcapair T;ofi ţreayiatb OţxeTiT) 

Oib ucctib abb ap, cac cili 

01*0 iictuib 1115 -pofi CfieîiT). 
Seacj: blm-ona "ooib, nî penom -pairo, 

In nq-i'Dţiisi 11a hOţieiTo, 

In nabbcroani caca ciUi 

"Ou Dub^enrib T)uiblinni. 
OiatT) abb ap, mu cillpea De, 

tlî ctcpa Don eţimeifi^e, 

Can poceţi, if can qxe-oa, 

gan ^oe-Dilg, acu ^aill bep,la. 

Ho raiprigip z\ia Colum Cilii in nî cerna ţx)f, conebapic, 

In longep pin Laca Rai 
Rta "DO tnopoD ^all genn 
biT) tiatib abb ap, CCp-o TTlaca 
biT> poplamuf anplaca. 

X. Ro nncell, T)na, pen Ciapan Saigpi m pcel cevua 
.1. TDanaifi po rpî vo ^abail Open-o, .1. 'oaim -oib ap 
Colum Cilii "Dînnapba, ocup 'oaim -oib in inaî) a pa- 
fiai^ci piun 1 'Caillnn, ocup "oaini in inoD cpapci nan 
appcal 1 T:empai5. ConiT) aippin po can in pilix) ocup 
in pai€ .1. bec mac T)e, coniT) apbepc, 



1 So/t Keatîug reads, meann, 
**over the glorious sea." — Curnfs Copy^ 
p, 690. Keating quotes only the lirst 
qaatrain of this prophecy. 

■ The men, L. reads, pepam), " the 
land/' 

« Over every ckurch, OCbaiT) pop 
cac cili, L. For this and the next 
line, B. substitut^s the last two lines 
of the qaatrain, attributed to St. 
Colum Cille: this was probably an 
error of transcription, arising from the 
iniţial wordsof thelines bcingthe same. 

* A king. Wepc, L., •' power over 
Erinn." 

» Seven years, This quatrain li 
omitted in B. 



^ Black Gentiles. L. reads tx) 
Sencib -Duin T)ublîîii, " the Gen- 
tiles of the fort of Dublin." 

'i/y church. mo cillp «oe, B. 
Popnicillpe «De, L. In the next 
line B. reads, nî tmteoca in lap- 
meipge, a more modem but less cor- 
rect orthography, 

8 Witkout Pater: i e., ignorant of the 
Pater noster and Credo — mere pagans. 

» Withota IrUh, Can lacin, L., 
"wîthout Latin/' But the alliteration 
of Gaedhilg, and Gaill, in D. and B., 
seems intenţional. 

^^ Colum CiUe, "Item Colum CiUe," 
L. ebapic is, perhaps, fin error of the 
scribe for dbaipc. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WTTH THE GAILL. 



11 



^' Gkntîles shall come over the sofl^ sea; 
Thej shall confound the men' of Erînn ; 
Of them there shall be an abbot over every church"; 
Of them there shall be a king^ over Ermn. 
Seven years* shall they be ; nor weak theu: power, 
In the high sovereignty of Erînn. 
In the abbacy of every chiirch 
The black Gentiles^ of Dubhlînn. 
There shall be of them an abbot over this my churcb,^ 
TVlio will not attend to matins ; 
Without Pater® and without Credo ; 
Withont Irîsh,^ but only foreign language.'' 

CtoluinCille^^alsoforetoldthe same thing, when he said- 
« This fleet of Loch Rai,!^ 

By whom^^ are magnified the Gaill-Gentiles ; 

Of them there shall be an abbot over^" Ard Macha ; 

It shall be the government^* of a usurper." 



The pro- 
phecyof St. 
Colum 
Cille. 



X. The old Ciaran, of Saigher, foretold aJso the same — The 
viz., that Danars would three times conquer Erinn ; that oJ^claraT 
is, a party of them [in punishmeut] for the banishment of the oider, 
Cîolum Cille**; a party of them, for the insult*® to [Ciaran] 
himself at Tailltin ; and a party for the fasting of the 
Apostles*^ in Temhair. And it was of this the poet and 
prophet Bec-mac-De sang, as he said*® — andofBec- 

mac-De. 



^Loch Rai. Lo^a Hi, L. Loca 
Hit>,B. 

i« By whom. For ifvia» "by whom," 
L. and B. read, maic, "has well 
exalted,*^ or "magnified-" Keating 
reads, bccD maich tyo Tnâp-aT) 
^eînnce, " the Gentiles shall be Tvell 
ezalted.** — Curnfi Copy, p. 581. 

u Over. L. and B. omit aţ\, and 
read, " an abbot of Ard Macha." 

" Government. Oltamnacc, I<., 
**the rule" or "sovercjgnty." 

^ Of Colum Cille. CCfi fon Colum 
Ciite, B., " because of Colum Cille's 
banishment." The meaning is, that 
the Danes were eent by Providence to 



pnnish the conntry for the three na- 
ţional sins mentioned. 

^* Insult. The word implies a sacrUe- 
ffious insult. CC -pxiiaijti Ţyam peiti, 
B., "the sacrilege offered even to him- 
self," or " to his very seif." 

17 The Apostles: Le., of the apostles 
or twelve eminent saints of Ireland — 
nctem hO^yvenn, L., *'of the saints 
of Erinn." 

18^5 he said. The words, Cotim 
arbefic, are omîtted in B. L. gives 
the prophecy of Bec-mac-D^ imme- 
diately af ter that attributed to Colum- 
cille, and then explains the allusion to 
the three invasions said to have beeii 



1 



Turgeis 
enters 
Loch Ree, 
and plun- 
ders the 
monagteries 
of Meath 
and Con- 
naoght, 
A.D. 838- 
845. 



Inyasion of 
Dublin and 
Leinster. 



12 coţctroti sae'otiel Tie sccllccibti. 

"Oiaţi ben clog i TkwUriTi ce, 
Cia|ian fen fai-obiţi ^ai^fie, 
"Oo gell [T)OfiiTin] comina qfii 
"Oama X)aTiaţi 'Dublon^f^. 

Ci-n T]).a ace rancorap na rţii cancana fin, ocuf |io 
conioLlir; na pa^^ini ; [aniail ţio raifin^ţi ^ach naeni 
pipen poificclije]. 

XI. 'Came [rţia Cufi^eif CCţi'oa TTlaca, ocuf ţio rocc- 
aib] lon^ef aţi lx)c Rai, ocuf |io hinfier) TT1it)i uqd 
af, ocuf Connacra; ocuf ţio InnţieT) Cluain mic lloif 
leif, ocuf Cinam ţleţica Otienainx), ocuf Lorp,a, ocup 
Cip Txi 5^af, ocuf Inif Celrţia, ocuf cella T)e|ip)eţic 
aţicena ; ocuf if an*© 'oobeţie'o Oca ben Cup^ep a 
huţiicli ap alTX)ip Cluana mic Woif. Cuq^ac, imop- 
po, Connacca coc T)Oib 'ou in 'opocaip TTlaelT)Uin mac 
TTluippppa pi^Domna Connacr. 

XII. Cancacap lapfin u. longa ocup cpi picic, cop 
^abpac in^OublinT) CCza Clicrc, ocup po hinpet) La^in 
co papsi leo, ocup îTla^ mbpe^. CucpaT), -ona, T)ail- 
p6ca cac ele T)oib, 'ou in-opocaip Go^an mac Oenguppa 
pî T)alpicai. 



foretold bj Ciaran: see App. A., p. 
225-6; it U evident, bowever, that 
Ciaran of Clonmacnois must bave been 
intended: for it was he, not Ciaran, 
sumamed the Old, who vras inimlted hj 
King Diarroaid at Tailltm or Teltown. 
Old Ciaran (of Saigher) is said to 
have lived before the coming of St 
Patricic. 

^Stâgher. The original readingmay 
have been paig, "the sage," which was 
mistaken bj copyists for paigfxe, "of 
Saigher." 

• To Erinn, These words, neoessary 
to the metre, are supplied from L. 
and B. 

s ShoM 6e. Co pa cţii, L. Co 
ba Zfih B* These are differences of 
spelltng onlj. 

* And now. This paragraph to the 



end of the chap. is omitted in L. For 
cţxi caticana pin, B. reads, otican- 
ca, " prophccies," The dause within 
brackets is supplied from B., but is 
unnecessarv. 

* Turffds, Thewords within brack* 
ets in the Irish are subatituted from 
B. for thewords in D. — ^i aţipi n 'Ctiţi- 
geip co hCCyvT) TTlaia, ocup |io co- 
cai6: "Afterwards Turgeis came to 
Ard Macha, and therecame a fleet, ** &c 
L. reads, "Cantc ia|ipain "Cufijjeiţ^ 
po|i Loch Rt, "afterwards Turgeis 
came upon Loch Ri," whicb was, most 
probably, the original reading. 

' By htm, B. omits leip. 

^ Dtrg-dheirc : i.e., the churches 
on the islands in Loch Derg-dheirc, 
now Loch Derg. D. bas cell "oeii- 
ceţir, for which rellu "DeiijDepc, 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



13 



" When the beli was rung în warm Tailltin, 
Ciaran the Old, the wealthj, of Saigher,* 
Promised [to Erinn^] that tbree times there shonld be' 
Parties of Danars of the black shîps." 

And now* these three predictions came to pass, and 
the prophecies were fulfiUed, [as every righteous and true 
saint had foretold]. 

XL There came [now Turgeis,* of Ard Macha, and 
brought] a fleet upon Loch Rai, and from thence plun- 
dered Midhe and Connacht ; and Cluain Mic Nois was 
plundered by him,* and Cluain Ferta of Brenann, and 
Lothra, and Tir-dâ-glas, and Inis Celtra, and all the 
churches of Derg-dheirc/ in like manner ; and the place 
where Ota,* the wife of Turgeis, used to give her audience 
was upon the altar of Cluain Mic Nois. The Connacht- 
men, however, gave them battle, in which Maelduin, son 
of Muirghes, royal heir apparent of Connacht, was slain. 

XII. Afber this* came three score and five ships, and 
larided^^ at Dubhlinn of Athcliath, and Laghin was plun- 
dered to the sea by them, and Magh Bregh. But the 
Dai Riada" met them in another battle, in which was 
slain Eoghan,** son of Oengus, king of Dai Riada. 



Targeis 
enters 
Loch Ree, 
and plun. 
ders the 
monasteries 
of Meath 
and Con- 
naught, 
A.U. 838- 
845. 



loTasion of 
Dublin and 
Leiaster. 



the reading of L. and B., haa heen 
sabstitated. B. omits aţicena. 

»Ot€L B. has Otur, and L. Otta, 
Fot a h-utwcti, *' her audience," L. 
and B. read, a pţiecaiicha, "the 
place where she used to give her an< 
Bwers." 

9 Aftâr ihit. loţii^iTi, omitted in 
B., but the word occurs in L. 

^^Andlanded. L. omits coTigab^cn:, 
and reads, co "Dublitro, "to Dub- 
linn," &c. D. reads, TTlas mtiej, for 
which the more correct spelUng of B. 
has been substituted. 

11 ThelDal Biada. L. reads, Tuc- 
Ţoc "Oatiiia'Dai cazh "ooti lofigiţ* 
Ţe}r\, " the Dairiadans gave battle to 
this fleet." B. agrees with D., omit- 



ting only the word ele, "another." 
L. adds here the foUowingnote, which 
does not occur in the other MSS. : — 
Uaiti Tva cucrcafi lam cleTii 
h&p'^Ti'D pa chnatT) ap, mitliu'D 
Laj;en ocuy» t)|xe5 : " Afterwards 
many of the clergy of Erinn went to 
the north after the plunderingof Laigin 
and Bregh.'* — See App. A., p. 226. 

^* Eoghan. In L. and B. he ia more 
correctly called Eoghanany son of 
Oenghns. He was the 31at king of 
the Dairiadans of Scotland, according 
to OTlaherty. Ogygia, p. 481. L. 
gives the tribe name in the nom, 
"Oaliiiarai, gen, 'Oaitiiiacat. B. 
gives the nom, "Oatţxicroa, and gen, 
"OaitfiiaDa; making the inflexion 



14 



cosoroti sae'otiel ne socUxcibtl. 



Simnlta- 
neouB inva* 
sions in 
various 
places of 
Monster. 



Farannan, 
of Armagh, 
carried ofif, 
A.D. 845. 

Turgeis 
taken and 
drowned, 
A.D. 845. 



The battle 
of Rose rea, 
A.D. 845. 



XIII. Tiranic lapfin rola muţibfiucra Tno|i T)ti gai- 
Icnb înn C^piiro, co nac fiabi aifiT) înnm can lon^ef- 
If leofiT)e "00 hapseoD Ofiigoban'D, ocuf ţio maţibcro 
'Cţieffac mac TTlealL Ho ^ab, am, lon^ef igCiaţi- 
fiai^i Luacţia, ocuf fio hinţie'o leo co Cili Ici, ocuţ* 
co Cuil 6mni, ocuf ţio hinfioT), cpa, |ie lon^ef Laimni^ 
TTlaprini na îTluman, ocuf fiticfor ţlafiannan comaţiba 
CCpT)a TTlaca o Cluain Comaifi'oi co Lumnea6, ocuf ţio 
bpiffiT)ap fcpin paT)ţiaic. 

XIV. Iifî fin blioDain fio ^aBcrfe 'Cupjeif ţie TTlael- 
feclainn, ocuf ţio baireaT) lapfin i Loc Uaiţi .i. in 
blia-oain fiembarux) "Meill Cai Ui fin, ocuf m-oafia 
bliaT)ain pe nec 'pcDleme'oa mic CiTimchainT), ocuf if 
pe ţiemif na T)fîiffi fin 'ooţionair na ^nîma fin uit. 
Ociif a\i mafba-D 'Cuf.T;eif, imoţifo, 'doIuit) papannan 
abb CCfoamaca afin mumain [co OCfomaca], ocUf ţio 
T)ain^niceT> fcfin pa-opaic leif. 

XV. In blucDain, T)na, po gabai'B paţianan ocuf 
fo biiife-D fcpin pa-opaic, ocuf po hinfe-o cella 
triurVian, if ani) fin uancorap [^aill] co Uof Cpe'oa, 
la feil poil ociif peT)aip, ocuf inc aenac înnillcl 
auv ; ocuf zucav cac "DOib, ocuf po muiT) pop ^oHcn^ 
rpia pcrc poil ocup pe^aip, ocup po mapbaic co t)i- 
aipmra anî) ; ocup po bualoT) Onpile lapla am) do 



in "Oat. The readings of the text, 
which are from D., bcem migram - 
niatical, *Dail|ieca, in the nam,, and 
T)ai|Vicai, in the geru 

^Sea-cast floods. Tn«Ttb|i«CT:a, 
lit. " sea-belched," or "vomited;" a 
participle. 'Cola, floocls. 

* Into Erinn, L. has i TTlmiiain, 
** into Munster," which is probably the 
true reading. 

* Thereof: i.e., of Monster, if the 
reading of L . be adopted. B. reads, ai fiT) 
in Oyiinn, "not a point in Erinn." 

* MechilU B. reads, 'CîiepţKich 
mac TyieiTMnll, " Tressach, aon of 
Meircill.'** L. omits thia notice of the 



plundering of Brigobhann,orBrigown, 
and the death of Trcssach, a personage 
who is not mentioned in the Iriah 
Annals. 

^Martini TTlaTichitl, L. TTlaitl- 
rine, B. 

^Ard Macha. L. reads, Comatvba 
portxaic 6 Ctuam Comaivoa leo : 
" The comharba," [or snccessor] " of 
Patrick, from Cluain Comharda, with 
them." B. hasComajibaphcTCfvaicc 
o Cluain ComafLca. 

7 This year: i.e., the same year in 
which Forannan waa captnred, and 
Patrick's shrine broken. D. reads |u> 
gab 'Cuţiseif , which does not make 



WARS OF THE GAEDBIL WITH THE OAILL. 



15 



XIII. After this there came great sea-cast floods* of Simuiţa- 
foreigners into Eriim,^ so that there was not a point J^^^î^^*" 
thereoP without a fleet. It was by these that Bri- vanous 
Gobhann was plundered, and Tressach, son of Mechill* M^ter. 
killed. A fleet came to Ciarraighe Luachra, and all was 
plundered by them to Cili Ita and Cuil Emhni ; and the 
Martini' of Mumhain were plundered by the fleet of 
Luimnech, who camed off Farannan, Comharba of Ard Farannan, 
Macha,® from Cluain Comairdi to Luimneach, and they elliiS^' 
broke Patrick*s shrine. A.D. 845. 

XIV. It was in this year^ TurgeivS was takcn prisoner Turgeîs 
by Maelsechlainn : and he was afterwards drowned in ^^^^ **?^ 
Loch Uair,'^ viz., the year before the drowniiig of Niall A,D. 845. 
Cailli, and the second year before the death of Fedh- 
limidh, son of Crimhthann ; and it was in^ the time of 

tliese two that all these events*^ took place. Now, when 
Turgeis was killed, Fai-amian, abbot of Ard Macha, went 
out of Mumhain" [to Ard Macha], and the shrine of 
Patrick was repaired'^ by liim. 

XV. Now the same year in which Farannan was taken The battle 
prisoner,*' the shrine of Patrick broken, and the churches ^n^gl^ 
of Mumhain plundered, [the foreigners] came to Ros 
Creda** on the festival of Paul and Peter, when the fair 

had bcgun ; and they were given battle, and the foreign- 
ers were defeated through the grace of Paul and Peter, 
and countless numbers^^ of them were killed there ; and 
Earl Onphile*® was struck there with a stone by which 



sense. The reading of B. U sub- 
BtitutedL 

» Loch Uatr, lUoc Vuai-p,, B. 

' And it mas in. This clauâe îb 
omitted in L. 

10 Evenis. 11a gniOThtia'oa, B. 

11 Oui of Mumhain. \lo tuaiT», B., 
" to the north." The words " to Ard 
Macha" are inserted from L. 

^^Hepaired. heŢŢay^en^ L. "Dcnri- 
gnigeaf», B, 

1* Taken prisoner. Mo gabccD, B. 
Thlfl repetition of the events of the 



year does not occur in L., where we 
read only "CansaDati rma gaiU co 
Ho^-pcixe pil blia-oam -peo, "the 
forei^ers came to Roscrea thU year." 

1* Mos Creda. Tlo|yqrie, L. Hof- 
cţie, B., and in Si. xvii,, p. 16. The 
word gaitU ia added from L, 

1* Countless nutnbers. Co "OiaiTfi- 
micî, lit. *' innumerabiliter," Co 
hanbail la-o, B., "they were slain 
prodigiously." 

i« Ottphik, Oilpn, B. Oiî^piTin, 
Keating (p. 636). 



16 



coscroti scce'oîiel Tie socllcnbti. 



Northmen 
ou the 
Boyne, 
in Bregia, 
Meath, &c. 



A great 
ileet lands 
south of 
Dublin ; 
their ra- 
vages in 
Leinster. 



Invasion of 
the south 
of Ireland. 
Munster 
plundered. 



cloic, co|i mapb -oe e. TTlop, «ona, 'oulc ocuf "Dim- 
niUT) puaţicroaii ocuf . pţiir uccuib, ifna blicrfenaiB fin, 
nac iîimfce|i erip. 

XVI. 1301110 laţifin lonjef cfii picic lon^ vo Hofi- 
maiToaib pop. booiiro, ocuf po inpiTJ bpe^a leo, ocup 
ÎTliT)!. T^anic longep [aile] cop gab pop toc Gcach, ocup 
po hiiipe-D leopToe co hCCp-o îhaca. 'Came lon^ep ele 
cop ^abpi'oe pop abain-o ti^i, ocup po hinpex) ÎTlccs 
mOpe^ leo, eur^ip ruaic ocup cilL 

XVII. Came lappin lon^ep ODbul mop in "DeixîiupT; 
CCca Cliar, ocup po hinpeî) leo upmop BpenT) ; ocup 
po hinpeT) leo am 1 Coluim Cilii, ocupimp TTluipeoc, 
ocup T)aminip, ocup ^enî) -oa iaca, ocup Login uli 
co hOCcu-Dup, ocup co hOCcu'obo, ocup co Lia€ ITlo- 
caerîioc, ocup co T)aipe mop, ocup co Cluain ţepra 
triolua, ocup co Hop Cpe, ocup co Lorpa, co po bpiperap 
pcpin RuaDan, ocup co po millpec Cluain TTlic Moip, 
[ocup co 8ai§ip], ocup co T)upmai5. 

XVIII. Came lappin lon^ep in T)epciupc Bpent) co 
hinpiper; Scelle^ TTlicil, ocup Imp ţllainT), ocup T)ipepT: 
T)omain, ocup Cluain TTlop, cop mapbpa-oap TlUTOgaile 
mac CpebcaDi ocup Copmac mac Selbaig ancaip. 



1 KiUed. L. infierts here the foUow- 
ing passage, which Is not found in 
the other MSS., ba sixema T)'pGp,aîb 
TTluThain in civopcuT) "oaiionpac ixa 
Polip ixapecaiunn aiT>chetieiTne. 
See Appendix A. This seems like a 
marginal note inserted by the trans- 
criber in the text 

« Not recorded, The text of B. is 
here adopted. D. reads, ip na btiax)- 
nait>, T)oneoc nac mnipceyi ecifu 
L. differs from both. See Appendix 
A. 

" AJUet. D. reada, tong cţii picic 
ton^ an evident mistakeof transcrip* 
tion. The reading of B. ia preferred. 
L. reads, tongep a'obul moţi, "a 
very great fleet," without mentîonîng 
the number of ships. 



< Anotker, OCite ia added from L. 
ele, B. 

^Loch'Echmfi. Loch Eachdhach, B. 
Loch Netliach, L. B. omits coti gab, 
" settled." L. reada, co|i jiogaib. 

o To Ard Macha. L. adds, " and 
Ard Macha itself waa bumed and 
plundered by them." 

7 And iettled, L. and B. omit cop, 
gabpi-oe. B. reads, ocup |vo hin- 
•oyieT) leo mag mb^vegh uile ecip 
ceHa ocup cuaca: "AII Magh Bregh 
was plundered by them, both churchea 
and countr>'.'* L. reads, ** Magh Lai- 
ghen and Magh Bregh were plundered 
by them, both country and churches." 

WerygrtaL L. omits laţipn, "after 
that," and a-obul mofi, " very great," 
and reada "the fieet that was with 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



17 



he was killed.* Much, îndeed, of evil and distress did 
tliey receive, and much was received from them in those 
years, which is not recorded* at all. 

XVI. There came after that a fleet' of three score 
shîps of the Northmen upon the Boinn ; and Bregia and 
Midhe were plundered by them. [Another'*] fleet came 
and settled on Loch Echach,* and these plundered all 
before them to Ard-Macha.^ Another fleet came and 
settled^ on the river of Lifle, and Magh Bregh was plun- 
dered by them, both country and churches. 

XVII. There came after that a very gi*eat® fleet into 
the south^ of Ath-Cliath, and the greater part of Erinn was 
plundered by them ; they plundered, aLso, Hi of Colum 
Cille,*° and Inis Muireoc,** and Damhinis, and Glenn d& 
Locha^ and the whole of Laighin, as far as to Achadh Ur, 
and to Achadh Bo, and to Liath Mocaemhoc,'^ and to 
Daire-m6r,** and to Cluain Ferta Molua, and to Ros Cre, 
and to Lothra, where they broke the shrine of Ruadhan, 
and they spoiled Cluain Mic Nois, [and as far as Saighir,**] 
and on to Durmhagh. 

XVIII. There came after that a fleet** into the south of 
Erinn, and they plundered*® Scellig Michil, and Inia 
Flainn,*^ and Disert Domhain," and Cluain Mor, and 
they killed Rudgaile,** son of Trebtade, and Cormac, 



Northmca 
on the 
BoTne, 
in Bregis, 
Meath, &c. 



A great 
fleet lands 
Bouth of 
Dublin ; 
their ra- 
ragea in 
Leinater. 



Invaaion of 
the eonth 
of Ireland. 
Manster 
plundered. 



them went at once.'* Txxnic nna 
lonseţ" ba tia on'oa'pai'De. 

* The touth. L. and B. omit ifi'oeţ^ 
auTic. 

10 m of Colum cuie, ţii Colotim 
CiUi, L., B. 

11 Inis Mwreoc, A corrupt spelling: 
more correctly 1ni|* tyiui^i'oais, L,, 
and in modem spelling, 1niţ« TTliiiTi- 
ea'oai^i B. 

^ lAaik Moeamuhoe* D. readSjîTlo- 
tiemoc, which ia evidentiy a miatake. 
The reading of L. and B. haa been 
adopted in the text. 

u Dairo-m6r. D. reads, co hOCfiT)- 
moţi: but the reading of L. and B. has 



been substituted, as being evidently 
coirect. 

^^ Saighir, The words ocuţ* co 
8ai5if\ are added from L. and B. 

« Fleet, L. reads Loi^gei» o Luim- 
niuc, **a fleet from Limerick.** 

i«P/wmfereA 5^ţi Tnitl|*ecuti 
ocu-pguii, iTTDtxacatv, B.,"they spoiled 
and they plundered." 

^f Inis Fiamn. InisFaithlend,L.,B.: 
now Inisfallen, in the Lower Lake of 
Killamey. 

1^ Disert Domhain, Disert Don- 
nain, L. Disert Damhain, B. 

^9 Rudffaile, L. reads, "Rndgaile, 
son of Trebhtaidhe, and Cormac, son 
of Selbach, the anchorite.** 

•c 



18 



co^croti Bcce'oliel ne ţccUxnbtî. 



Battle of 

Corca 
Laighe. 

The fleet of 

Dublin 

plunders 

Kildare, 

Clonenagh, 



The Black 
Gcntiles 
contend 
with the 
Fair Gen- 
tiles, A.D. 
851. 



ocuf if 'DOfi'oe ţio ofloic anţeat po z^ţii octif jiof 
cen^laf cac uaiţi. Ocuf ţio tiinfier), "Dna, teo Coţicac, 
ocuţ^ ţio lofceT) Rof CCilirţii, ocuf Ceiro TTlafia, ocup 
UfiTnojx muman, ocuf [ruccfcn: Ulurîia ÎTle-Bonac coi 
'DoiB] |io cuţieT) a nap ic CC\vo peaţicroai^. 'Cucfor, 
•ona, 7)61^06111; Ofieiro cerc 'ooibfi'OG, ocuf T)onc(rD mac 
CCTYial^oDa \i^'s Oo^aiDabc ua Meiu, ocuf 'Ofiocaip Clocna 
ţiî^ Coficalaigi leo airo. 

XIX. Ho hinjie-D leo, 'ona, Cell Daţia, ocuf CLuain 
GDTieach, ocuf CeriT) On^, ocuf Cell OCceT) la lon^ef 
OCra Cil ac pof ; ocuf fio ro^laT) "Dun ÎTlafc .i. vn in 
T)fiocaip, CCe-D mac T)uib'Dac|iic, comaţiba Coltum mic 
CfiimcainT) ocuf pn-ouam Cluana ODnig. Ocuf fio 
hinfieT) leo, "ona, Cenannuf, ocuf TTlanifnfi Oun, ocuf 
T)amliac Cianan, ocuf Soţi-o Coluim Cilii, ocuf pinD- 
glaf Cainni^; ocuf po lofce-o fin «li leo ocuf po 
hinpiT:. 

XX. 'CancoDap lapf in Duib^einci ^Oanap-oa, ocup po 
laepec -po ©pin*©, ocup "oa ba^ap ic 'oiuctip na pnT)- 
genci a hGpinî), ocup cucpac cac, ocup "oo mapbpac .u. 
mili -Dono pn^ennb ic 8nam Op^Da. 'Came lappin 
lon^ep ele po ^ab iCiappagi, ocup po hinpe'o leo co 
Lumnec, ocup Cell Ici, ocup Imleac Ibaip, ocup Cappel 



^The anchorile. OCtictiotia, L., 
CCtigcaiTve naem, B., "the holy an- 
chorite." 

8 Every time, ţac lae, B., "every 

day." L. reads, Ţia ho-ptcnc afiget 
ţx) T)i, ocup |vop cert^laicip na sailt 
ca6 TIU ai ţii: "The angel set him 
loose twice, and the foreigners used to 
bind him every time." 

» Thesf humed, Loi-pseT) teo, B., 
" waB bumed by them." 

^ Cenn Afara. L. adda, ocupOCcoCD. 

^ Mumha Medhonach .* i.e., the men 
of Middle Mnnster. The words within 
brackets in the text are inserted f rom 
B. 

* Ard Ftradaigh, B. reads. Cam 
Fearadaigh^ which ia also the reading 



of the Foiir M. L. haâ CCţiT) Peţvcai 
Ardfert 

Tfnder, D. read8,octip'OoiincaT>, 
" and Donnchad." The reading of B. 
is preferred. 

8 Ua Neit, An error for ti a M eic, or 
Ua TiOochacb (see p. 137). b-necac, 
L. Ocup "U a îl Ccbacb, B., "and of Ua 
nEchach.^ The word and is a mistake. 
The meaning îs, that Donnchadh, son of 
Amhalghaidh [j^ron. Awley] was king 
of the Eoghanacht Ua nEochach, that 
is of those Eoghanachts, or descendants 
of Eoghan Mor (son of Oilioll Olum, 
king of Munster,) who were alao de- 
scendants of Eochaidh, son of Cas, 
8on of Corc, king of Mnnater. See 
Gen. Table, IV., p. 248, and Table of 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



19 



son of Selbach, the anchorite,* and he it waa whom the 
angel set loose three times, tiiough he waa bound again 
every time.' Moreover, Corcach waa plimdered by them, 
and they bumed» Ros Ailitbri and Cenn Mw»,* and tiie 
greater part of Mumhan ; but [the Mumha Medhonach^ 
gave them battie and] their slaughter waa completed at 
Aid FeradaigL^ The south of Erinn also gave them battie Battie of 
under^ Donnchadh, son of Amhalgaidh, king of the Eogan- ^^^ 
acht Ua Neit,^ and Clochna,' king of Corca Laighe, waa 
killed by them there. 

XIX. Cell Dara, also, and Cluain Eidhneach, and Cenn The fleet of 
Etigh, and Cell Ached were plundered by them, that is, 2^^ * 
by the fleet of Ath Cliath ; and Dun Mase waa demolished, Kiiâm, 
where feU Aedh, son of Dubh-dar-Crich, Comharba of ^T*™*^ 
Colnm Mac Crimhthainn, and of Finntan of Cluain £d- 
neacL They also^^ plundered Cennannas, and Mamis- 
ter-Buite, and Damhliac-Cianan, and Sord-Coluim-Cille 
and Finnghlas-Cainnigh ; and all these were bumed by 
them and plundered. 

XX There came afber this Black-gentile Danars, and The Bkck 
they spread^ * themselves over Erinn, and they endeavoured ^^^J 
to diive the Fair-gentiles out of Erinn ; and they enga^d^' with the 
in battie, and they killed fiye thousand of the Fair-gentiles ^ ^' 
at Snamh Ergda*'. Afber that another fleet came and 851. 
landed in Ciarraighe,^^ and all was plundered by them to 
Luimnech, and Cill-Ita; and Imleach-Ibhair, and Caisei 



the DeMendânts of OflioIlOliim, BatOe 
o/Ma^ JUuk, p. 841. L. adda, .i. 
acCoTUxng tvo fnai^bcro: **Tis., it 
mm At Corcach he wbs kUled.** 

*Chd^ma. L. omite aU notioe of 
the deeth of Clochna. 

^Abo. For the expletive î>na, B. 
nade, deno, "in like maimer." L. 
omite the mention of Fimitan of Cluain 
Edneach, and aU that foUows, asfar as 
the wofd C«ncmnii|^, andinateadreada, 
HacfccD leo imTnnincafi ocup fia- 
piCL ocioi)fi|ucit> ftiaf*lxnâci 



penri octif iff®^ ""* puoiTi. Ra 

ia tongeţ* ofta ctio* ocaj* 

niaini|nYV bttT:i, etc. Some worda 
are illegible. See Appendix A. 

" Spread. Ro leoDtacoTi, B. 

^^Enffoged, 'Cnocfoc pein ca6 î>a 
ceite, B., *'the7 engaged in hattle 
with each other.** 

1* Snamh Ergda, Snamh Oengnia, 
B. Snamh Eidhneach, Fonr H. (A.D. 
850). Snamh Aidhneach, Ann. Uit 
(A.D. 851). .Snom OCisned, L. 

^«(Sarra^Ae. B. readi Txnnic larv- 

c2 



20 



coscToti scce-otiel ne saUccibti. 



VarioQfl 
defeats 
flustaiiied 
bj the 
foreignen. 



Battleof 
Sdath 
NechUin, 
A.D. 847. 



Sev«nl 
otherde- 
featf tiu- 
tainedbj 

UlttDa 



Tia fiig, octif aifiepro CeCqunsi, octif Lia6 TTlocaetnoc. 
1 fiemif peDlemeDa mic Ctiitn€aiiTO "oo ţionoiu ub na 
haţigni fin. 

XXI. TTla|i, 'DTia, vo 'Bucro [octif "oo 'oo^afi] ptiafurDoii 
Pfifin fiemif fin. Ho bţiifeDaţi am Cenel Conaill ccri5 
fOffCo ic CCef Rtioiu *0a bfifetxiţi T)ail Caiff cofi 
ele ţofijm poţi Lo€ TJeifcoeifc. T)a bţiifetnif Ua I4eill 
ca€ ele ic CCfO byiecan. Ro mafbfcrcaţi, «ona, U Chol- 
gan Saxtilb laţila. T)o ţwxin Olcubuţi mac CineDa ţiîg 
Coffil, octif Lofcan mac Cellaij fî La^en ca€ 8cei6 
Mefoain poţifti, vu i T)îiocai|i ranaiffi fi LpclanT), ocuf 
•Da cex; "oec vo mai€ib LoclanT) umi. Ho C05U115, vna, 
Olcubtif c6ma 1 73111015 na Hijna foprhu, 'oti 1 vjuy- 
caif fofiai'Di ; ocuf fo mafb te€ Tnoga tili iac 

XXII. Ho bfif rfa Tnaelfeclainn fî 'CemfaS ca6 
Caflen ^înni fOffCti, 'oti 1 T)focfaDaf .un. cer. Ho 
bfif, "Dna, X^igefnag ca€ [fopfa] ic T)ai|ii Thfiofc 
*Oaconna, "ou 1 'Ofocfacaf .u. cec Ho bf if, -ona, Otcti- 
btif cema, ocuf Gojanacr; Caffil ca€ fofcu ic *Otin 
Tnaelruli' T)ti 1 "OfocfaDaţi -oa pcex: '06c. "Ofocţuroaf, 
•Dna, z\t\ cez .tx.tiiii. ta pn'D5ent:i. ^OfocfODOf -oa 



fin tongef ele suji gaS bi cCiccţv- 
ficnţe: "After that came another 
fleet, and landed in Giamughe.** 

1 Moeoemkoc IDonaemoc, D. The 
Teading of L. and B. la prefened. See 
p. 17, note 12. 

* In the rtign. B. nadi, ocuf if 
tie tveimif f ei'otimi'o mic Ci^iorh- 
tayxvo TK) ţumca uite na ţogla fin : 
** And it was in the reign of Fddhli- 
midh, 8on of Criomhthann, that all 
these inioadB irere made." L. has, in 
cnnifi|\f eiT)timiT) micCtiimchoinn 
THX fiononT; na huile fin : '* In the 
time of Feidhlimidh, son of Crimh- 
thann, these evlls weie committed." 

• Aitd damags. The woids ociif tk) 
•Dodop. are inserted from B., wMch MS. 
leadB also jmocţvocaţi pţi Cyionn 



ţttif an fie fin, '*did the men of 
Irdand suffer dnring that time." The 
text, on the oontruy, statee that the 
foreignen soffered toii and damage; 
and proceeds to describe the defeats 
sostalned by them. 

< Earl SaxtUb, Raalb lOfila, L., 
'«EarlBalph.** 

^Seir. In the original conoiţ^ 
or ToMtL The Fonr M. name him 
Tomrar^ or Tomkrair (A.D. 846). 
Domrair, Ann. Uit (A.D. 847). 
B. omits TKX C0C «oec w) maitib 
Loilonn, *'twelve hnndred of the 
nobles of Lochlann ;" bnt these irorda 
occnr in the Fonr M. In the next lina 
B. reads incOlcoborv cecna, irhich 
seems more oorrect, altiiongh the mean- 
ing is the same. 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



21 



of ihe Eings, and the eaateni Cethtraighi; and Idath 
Moooemhoa^ It was in the reign^ of Feidlimidh, son of 
Crunhthann, that all these ravages were perpetrated 

XXI. Much of toii [and damage^] did they suffer Yariona 
during that period. The Cenel Conaill defeated them in ^|^|^^ 
a batUe at Eas Bnaidh. The Dai Cais defeated them by the 
in another battle on Loch Deircdeirc. The Ui Neill '®"'*^°"^ 
defeated them in another battle at Ard Brecain. The Ui 
Colgan killed Earl Saxulb.^ Oldiobhar, son of Cinaedh, 

king of Caisei, and Lorcan, son of CeUach, king of Laighen, 
defeated them in the battle of Sciath Nechtain, where the Battle of 
heir^ of the king of Lochlainn fell, and twelve hundred Kechtafai, 
of the nobles of Lochlainn along with him. The same A.D. 847. 
Olchobhar demolished Tulach-na-£igna^ against them, 
where numbers of them were killed ; and Leth Mogha^ 
killed all of them. 

XXII. Maelseehlainn, also, king of Temhar, defeated Seveni 
them in the battle of Caislen-GHinni,® where seven hundred J^îu ^ 
were killed. Tighemagh, too, defeated [them] in a battle tained by 
at Daire-Disiiut-Dachonna,^ where five hundred*® felL *"*" 
The aforesaid Olchobhar/* and the Eoghanachts of Caisei, 
defeated them in a battle at Dun-Maeltuli,** where twelve 
soore*' felL There fell, also, three hundred and sixty- 
eight** by the Fair-gentiles. Two hundred of them fell 



Tulach-na-Bigiui:** but B. omite i, 
**iii,** and nada, 'OaXjo.t na Ri^Oi 
mon oofnctly. 

f Leik Mogha : Le., the people of 
LeCh Moţba. B. reada ţio map^bcrD 
lUetch TTIogha uite iotd, ** they were 
Idlled in Leth Mogha an of them." 

* Caidm-gUimL Ccaţ^sLinne, B. 
ţlaiftiTine, Keating, p. 691; but, 
p. 002, he menţiona alao a battle of 
CaitgKme. B. aaya that 710 were 
aiain in thia battle, •ou i ccop^oiţv 
f*ecc oo6ro .X. Keating giyea the 
•ame nomber; the text ia aapported 
bjL. 

• J)ain'I)uimir-J)adioma, Diaiiirt 
Daooima, B. The woid within paien- 



thesea in the text ia inaerted from B. 
andL. 

u Fk/e hmdrtd. "Oa poec .x. B. 
Keating, and Fonr M. (A.D. 846), 
^^twelye acoieb" "Da txt me^ Ann. 
Uit (A.D. 847)i '' twelve hnndred.** 

uo/cAoMor. an c-Ol6o6aTi oec- 
no, B. 

^DmMaMIL Thia name ia omit- 
tedinB. DunHael, L. 

u Twtht tooftt, Cmcc C90, B. L. 
i< five hondred ;" and the aame number 
ia giVen, Fonr M., A.D. 846, Ann. 
Uit, A.D. 847. 

M TWree hmdred tmd tiz^f^ht: 
oodxxttiii, L. CeatTUXTi otp. c^ii 
ptob ofv cpit oeTMnl) la hu p^ 



22 



cosccDî) ţcce'Dtiet ne socttocibti. 



cer) "oib fie Cianacc ic Inif pumic; octif iDţioquroafi, 

t)Tia, x?[i^ cez 'oib pof ţie Ciatiacca i cin'o mîf lopfiti ic 

RdiC CClran. Ro bţiif, "ona, ÎTlaelfeclainn cofi ele 

poţiiii IC RaiC Comniaiţi. Ro bţiifi'oafi, -ona, Cioţipoigi 

ttiacfia ca€ ele pofiCti. 

Arrivţiof XXIII. T!ximc laţi fin OCmloib [mac] fii LofilanT> 

wS^'pro- ^^r toîJSGf crobul moji leif .1. -oec tn-blicrona ofinec 

digions fnoilfeclainn, goţi gab ţiigi 5<i^^ Gţienx), octif if lei|* 

858/ ' fio bcrEeD Concubaţi tnac ^Oon^croa ţiigT>ofniia 'CemîMXc- 

1f leofi'oe fio fioncro cccfi Claana 'ooim poţif na 'Oefi, 

•DO 1 T)ţu)caiîiT)aîi mafei na *Oefi ali. 1f leo funnapr 

baD mac Cin'DpaetaD ÎI15 THufcţiaigi bfieogain, ocuf 

fio maCoD THucDaisfien mac Reaficabjiaţ; in nuoim. 

1f leo fio mafiboD Caecil pnT) lin a longpuifu;. 1|* 

leo fio maţiboD ÎTlaelsuala mac ^Oungoile îiîsCofpU 

.1. a •Dţitiim "Da bţiifeD im cloi6. Cit) cpa afc i'oţioJEpa- 

•oaţi fin uiU pof ic ţefiaib TUtiman .1. Ona ocaf 8colph, 

ocuf T!x)maîi, reofia ocaf ce^. 

Aiiivai of XXIV, xianic laţifin Ofpll mac fiig Loclan'o, longep 

uTdWeat ®^®' ^^r î^ hinţiet) uţimoji GţienT) leo. *Oiiocfun>afi 



SeiTinci, B., Le., '' 864 by the Ui Fidh- 
geinnti." 

1 Init FUmic iniţ» PinT>niocic, L. 
Inif V^'otnec, B. 

^jRaih AUtM, Hont OC^doiti, L. 
Tloe GCllon, B. 

* Ten yeara after. Sin "oecmcro 
bticroatn ţvenec TTIaetjpeâUnnn, L., 
** in the tenth yeu hefore the death 
of Madaechlaimi," [Le., before 863.] 
(TFkJL Ogyg, p. 484. This seemB the 
cornet reading, and îs f ollowed by the 
Foiir ÎL, 851, and by the Ann. Uit 
862 (=858). Theae Annals agree 
alao with L. in caUing this chieftain 
mac t^ig Lochlcmn, "aon of the Idng 
of Lochlainn ;**not **ldng of Lodiiainn," 
aainB.andD. SeeAppendizA.,and 
chap. XXX., ii^ra, whore the MSS. B. 
and D. thenuelTes, caU thia Amiaibh, 
"aonof thekingof LochlaimL" llie 



word tnoc bas, therefore, beea ineerted 
within brackete in the text. Keatin^ 
says that Amhlaibh arriyed **abont the 
time fdien Oloobhar, king of Mimster, 
died ;** an event which the Fonr U. date 
849 (=862). 

^SmofDcmHckad, TnacCina&DOC» 
B. nriac "00111160(60 te^fu ITli-oe, 
Ann. Uit 868 ; Fonr M. 862. 

* Cbutm-DaSmk, ^f letfin loA^ef 
fonn tio fnemoi'D oach olaana 
•Doam, L., *Mt was bj thia fleet wae 
gained the battle of Clnain-daimh, &c.** 
Ocaf if leif TU) frunner) oercb, 7c., 
B. : ** And it was by them was woa the 
battle, &c" D. reads cat dtimMmi, 
but for thÎB, cat cUioma Txnfn hae 
been snbstitnted in the text, ou the 
authoriţy of L. and B. 

* Was mffocaUd. For ţio miiiocD» 
"was snffocated,** (the reading of L. 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



23 



hy the Cianachta at Inis-Fininic' ; and there fell, too, 
three himdred more of them by the Cianachta in a month 
after that^ at Bath-Altaa^ Maelsechlainn gained another 
victory over them at Bath-Commair. The Cianaighi Lu- 
achia also gained another victoiy over them. 

XXIII. After that came Amlaibh, [son of] the king of 
Lochlainn, with a prodigions fleet, ie., ten years after^ the 
death of Maelflechlainn, and he asaumed tiie sovereignty 
of the Qaill of Erinn ; and it was by him that Conchobhar, 
son of Donnchad,^ heir apparent of Temhair, waâ drowned. 
It was by them the Deşi were overthrown in the battle 
of duain-Daimh,^ where all the nobles of the Deşi felL 
It was by them the son of Cennfaeladh, king of Muscraighe- 
Breoghain, was killed, and Muchdaighren, son of Beachta- 
brat> was suffocated® in a cave. It was by them Caetil 
Find^ was killed, with his whole garrison. It was by 
^em Maelguala^ son of Dungalle» king of Caisei, was killed: 
ie, his back was broken by a stone. However, they were 
all killed by the men of Mumhain,^ ie., Ona, and Scolph, 
and Tomar, an hundred and three.^ 

XXIV. There came after that Ossill,^® son of the 
king of Lochlainn, with another fleet, and the greater 
part of Erinn was plundered by them. These, too, feU by 



ArrivBl of 
AmUibh 
with apro- 
digions 
fleet, A.D. 
S58. 



Aitiral of 
OaiilfSnd 
hisdefeat 



and D.) B. nada, oatŢ fie ÎTluti- 
dicroh mac TTlii6tns9T^n mic Hea- 
€xa!6f\ia. i Tnathom: meanixig that 
Onnfaeladh was kflled by the Loch* 
laimu, **aiid bj Murchadh, eon of 
Mnchtîi^ienil^ son of Beachtabra, in 
Mnniter.'* Over the woida i mu- 
fhCDfi, ^in Mmuter," a later hand haa 
written «el m «cofh, ** or in a cave.** 
The text ia nndoubtedlf the tnieiead* 
ing. L. has tM( mticcro TT) ud^igeTin 
[mac] RedcabfutD in «aim. See 
AxfptooSoL Am 

^CaM Fmd, Coftat PitiT), B. 
Conti Pmi), L. 

^Mm of Mumkam. Ra PT^ii 



hCtienn, ocnţ» na coefiig |w>, L. : 
** Bjr the men of Erinn, and also their 
leaden," [i.e., their leaders also were 
dflstroyed hy the men of Erinn]. 

* An hundred and three. Thenames 
of the leaden are omitted by B. L. 
readfl .gcotph, octi|» Ono, ocuf txwn- 
Tioiţv, OCHI" XJuxiexfj 7c. It aeems 
probable that 7c., "et oetera," and7.c., 
^^ and one hnndred," were in aome way 
confonnded, and the name of one of the 
chieftains miataken for ceofux, ** three.** 

^OstiU. Oifti, L. GCniflcAmL 
Uit A.D. 862, 866. Uailp, FonrM. 
A.D.861. Perhapa the name ia FoiU; 
Faidui, OI Flomu, 



24 



cosoroîi scce^otiel ne sccUxnbti. 



Ck>lpliin 
and the 
fleetof Don 
Medhoin 
deBtroyed. 

Earl 

Baethbarr 

drowned. 



BatUe of 
LochFoyle, 
A.D. 86e. 

Ldnster 
and Mim- 
Bter plan- 
deredby 
Baraidand 
AjDhdTs 
son, with 
the Dublin 
fleet 



fin pof la peţuxib ejienu T>ţu)€aifi, om, inx^Ofil 
ocuf .a. cer) leif ic pe|iaib Gţien'o i THumoin in oen 
Io. 1f ifin blicroain i "Ofiocaiţi Col^n ocuf lonjef 
*Oani THeDOin i Cini) CtniTung. Ro baf ica inafibcn) o 
Cin-D Cufiţiois co Lif THoţi, ocuf do T)fiocfi(n)aîi focaiDi 
•oib .1. la Recrabţicrc mac bţioin. *0a cuaiD, Dna, 
baetbafiţi laţila ocaf fofiaiDi Don lufo moDnia leif co 
CC€ Cliac. laţifin fio boteD ic CC€ Clia€ qfie mîfibâiliD 
Ciaţian ocuf CCe^a 8cannail ipofi a ţiabaoaţi ic pofi- 
baifp. Iif îfin blioDain i Dfiocaiîi Txwntiţi laţila la 
bţienainD, i cinD rjii la afinafisain Cluana ţeţuca Da 
1f ifin bliaoain yio bţiif (DCeD pnDliafi mac Neill 
ca6 pofiCu IC Loc pebail, du i DfoSaiîiDaţi Da cei; Deg 
cenD in oen mat) Dibj ocuf ţitic a nuili înmaif ocuf 
a feoDU. 

XXV. Ro hinfiit;, Dna, lâ bafUotiD octif la mac OCm- 
laib tapn ocuf pifi TU uman la longef CCta Cliac 
coţuiua&aDaji Ciafiaisi, gunaţi paqpau uaim ţx) €almain 
anD gan Tjacailt;, ocuf niji pacfoc nî o LumneiS co 
Coţicaig can înţieD, ocuf fio loîxjfet; Imlec Ibaifi, ocuf 
ţio hintMfec na T)efi Deifciu|it;. Ro înţiiDaţi, Dna, in 
Iuct; ce'cna va bliaDain fiemifin ÎTIidi ocuf Conna€ixi, 
co fiancaDaţi CoţicumfiuaD ocuf Leim ConfiulainD. "Diu)- 



1 Tkit OstiU. B. leadB, ocuf cotv- 
doiţv in zO\Ţ\\Z le ţ:et\Gcib TTlii- 
ihonn, octij* cmcc (»d teij» i tiaen 
Io: *'And thiBOamUfell bythemen 
of Mnnater, and 600 with him in one 
day.** L. leads alao, te ţeţunb TTIti- 
tfioiTit ^^by the men of Mnnster/* bat 
omită *^ and 600 hondied with him in 
one day." 

*Colpkm. Perhaps CMJln, This 
name does not occor in the Annala. 

• WoB caUimed. LiteraUy, *'they 
were in their being killed, from Cenn 
Comigh to Lia-mor.** 

^Earl Baelhbarr. B. calls him 
bcrobaTiţi, '^Badbair," omitting the 
titie of loTila, or Ead. 



' Was droumăd. B. reada, ocof fu> 
boi'DeorD locc ooc 0C6 Clia6t qr^ 
miofibailibh Ciaiiciin oca|« CCeM 
octtf dooamxnt: "And thay were 
drowned at Ath Cliath, by the miiadei 
of Ciann and Aedh and SgandalL** 

Twehe kmdred heada. Da cer» 
■Deg ifi aen lonoro, B., "twelv« 
hondied in one epot" "Oa pcic, L., 
" two Booie,** bat the 'worda foilowing 
are illegible m this MS. Keating 
haa, 50 ucn^ oeatţmÂcro ceann 
i^aoifiţ T>iob letţN loqri moqfUxro tkx 
£eT> aţi mite to6tonna6 oite tm: 
" Forty heada of their chieftains were 
borne off by him, after he had'killed 
1,200 otherLochlahins.** TheFoarM. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



25 



ihe men of Eriim ; aud this Ossill/ with five himdred 
meu along -with him, fell by ihe men of Erînn in Mmnhain 
in one day. It was in that yeax that Colphin,* and the 
fleet of Ihm Medhoin, were destroyed at Cenn Curraig. 
And the slaiighter of ihem was oontinued' from Cenn 
Cunaig to lis-Mor, and nimibers of them were killed by 
Rechtabiat, son of Bran. The Earl Baethbarr/ however, 
escaped with many of the defeated party to Ath CIiath« 
Aflerwards he was drowned^ at Ath Cliath, through the 
miiades of Ciaran, aud Aedh Scamuul, whom they were 
besieging. Itwas in that year that Earl Tomar was killed 
by St Brendan, three days afîber he had plmidered Cluain 
Ferta. It was in that year that Aedh Finnliath, son of 
Niall, gained a battle over them at Lodi Febhail, where 
ihere fell twelve hundred heads^ of them in one spot; and 
aJl their wealth and all their jewels were taken. 

XXV. ThenLaighen and the men of Mmnhain were plim- 
dered by Bamid/ and Amlaibh's son, with the fleet of Ath 
Cliath,^ mitil they reached Ciamaighe^ ; and they lefb not 
a cave there imder groimd that they did not explore^^ ; and 
they left nothing fix>m Ltumnech to Corcach that they did 
not ravage. And they bmned^^ Imleach Ibhair, and they 
ravaged the southem Deşi. The same party, two years 
before/^ had ravaged Midhe and Connacht, imtil they came 



Colphln 
and the 
fleet of Don 
Medhoîn 
destroyed. 

Eari 

BaethbaiT 

drowned. 



BatUe of 
LochFoyle, 
A.D. 866. 

Leinster 
andMon- 
Bter plan- 
dered by 
Baraid and 
AmlafTs 
Bon, with 
the Dublin 
fleet 



aay '*twelye soore heada," A.D. 864. 
Ann. Uit 865. 

^ BaraUL boTiich, L. t)aitiTiic, 
B. batiit, Ann. Uit (A.D. 880). 
baţunt;, Fonr ÎL (A.D. 878). 

• WWi tkeJieeL Uo lonsefi D., 
a mutake of timnacription, for which 
ta tonseţ*, the reading of B. and L., 
has been eabetitated. L. haa rimply, 
'*Laigbin and the men of Mnmhain 
were plondeied by the fleet of Mac 
Amhlaibh:" inatead of ''the fleet of 
Ath Cliath," and withont any mention 
of Bănit in this plaoe. 

^darraigke, Cictp.ficn5etiia6TiaB. 

^£a^phn. Lit ''withoutezphning 



it** Corn celac, L./* withont ezplor- 
"^g'" ţctn lOYiţuTD ocd-p gem co- 
chonlc, B., "without «^iitwţiîng «nd 
withont exploiing." 

u Th^ bmited, B. nads, gon m- 
îJT^eo ocnf Bcm toyxxxro; ocaf jio 
hotŢocpcfc Imleaâ lubcnfi, ocnf 
TM) onţvocpoc na 'Oeip i>6i'p»fvc : 
'' They left nothing from Limerick to 
Goik that they did not lETage and 
bum : and they bnmed Imleach Ibhair, 
and spoiled the sonthem DeisL** Ha 
•oep T)ept|u; -oe nnnji, L., "the 
southem Deisi from the sea.** 

^ Two ywr$ hrfort. Omitted in L. 
D. zeads, Xxit for ta6c 




26 



coscrot) ţcce'otiel ne saUccibti. 



A oeoatioii 
ofinTuioiis 
for forty 
yean, 
ending 
A.D. 91& 



Haoonand 

G068UlAni 

takeWcr 
terfordi 

Defeated 

bythe 

CiamJgfae. 



cat|VDq[i fin pof la ţefiaib ©fieriT). Ro ctifieD lOfitini dfi 
cqfi tnac Rasnaill ociif aţi ^attcnb, la h-OCet) tnac Hei 11 
IC in pleiT) vo jvoncco t)0 mac Hognaill CC€a Cliafe Ro 
ctiinfeT; pein cab eTxxţifio .1. pn-ogeinm ocaf *0tib5eint;i, 
.1. OoţiiC ocaf mac Ra^aill •ou 1 •opocaifi mac Rag- 
noill ocaf fi[)6aiT)i ami, ocaf ţio ţonax» hajtit on-o. 
Ocaf fo fOfifac cafi ţoţi pepaib OClban, 'oa i'opoconţi 
Confcannn mac CinoDa aifiT)iii OClban ocaf focaiT)i 
ami. 1f ariT) fin "oa muig in rxxlam po ţeţuiib GClbon. 
XXVI. bai, imoţifo, aţiali camfana T)efiaib Oţienri 
fţii ţie .xU bliaî>an can infeD gali .1. o ţiemif tnael- 
fe6lainn mic fnailţiaanai'D cafin mblioiKnn ţie nec 
piainT) mic ÎTlailfeclainT), ocaf co ţabail figi do Hiall 
Jltin'oab. 1f onT) fin ţio hacUnax) Gţiia vo longpb 
galU 1f anD T)na Txmic longef la h acont) ocaf la 
CoţTpa Maţia coţigabfac aţi I06 *Oacaech ocaf coţi 
hinţieT) THumain leo. Ro bţiifeDaţi, Dna, Ciaiţip ca€ 
pof^, DO iDţiocaiţi 'Comaf CinD Cţiei». Ro bţiifeDoţi, 
Dna, Ha pafiaig ocaf O Oenjafa ca€ ele poţifia. Ro 
bţiifiDaţi Connatea Dna, poţi longep tamniţ ca6 ele- 



^ Tl^ese wte ako, "Da ţiodiurDaţi 
pom mie beop , I*, " all these were 
kffled together." 

s Wtrt Mhuffhiered. Ut **s daiigfater 
WBs put npon RagmJl's son, &c.** 
CCfi moTi, B., "a great dangbter." 
L. adds oc CCchclicccti, " at Ath 
Cliath," L&, Dublin. 

•AedhyionofNialL L.naâB,'*Aed 
Finnliath Mao Neill:** but B. haa la 
htte* ua MeiU, " by Aedh CNeill," 
which ÎB dearly wrong. 

« Qf Ath CSaA. in GCchclioch, 
L., 'UtAthCliath." 

* BarUh, The same persan who is 
eaUed Baraid^ at the beginning of this 
chapter, and idio appean to have been 
the Cknnmander of the Fair Gentiles, 
as Bagnall^a son was of the Black 
Geatfles. 

• Wamded. L. adds, ocof ba 



bocad p.iaifi lappain he, **and ha 
was lame ever after that." gn|\ ba 
bacad lofiarfi "oa eife, B., " so that 
he was lame ever after." 

^A btttOe, L. reads ''The black 
Gentiles after this were driven ont of 
Erinn, and went to Alba (Scodand) 
where they gained a battie over the 
Vien of Alba, in which wece slain Con- 
stantine, son of Cinaedh, cfaief king of 
Alba, and a great many with him.** 
See the original, App. A* B. omits 
the clause, "in idiîch fell Constantine, 
&c, and many with him.** 

« Under tke meu. po toroib i»|i 
fiOClboin, B., "under the leetof the 
men of Alba." 

' Fartjf ffear». Then is probably m 
mistake în this nnmber. See IntnH 
dnctlon. 

^Uocom. ThisisthexwdingofL. 



>.>^ 



WAB8 OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



27 



to Corcaiiimadii and Leim-ConchulamiL These were aJso^ 
kiUed by the men of EriTiTi. Afber this Bagnall's son 
and the foreigneiB were slaughtered^ by Aedh, son of Niall,^ 
at the banquet that was made for Bagnall's son of Ath 
Cliath.^ A batUe vas fought between themselves, viz., 
between the Fair Qentiles and the Bladc Gentiles, that is 
to say, between Barith^ and Bagnall's son, in which fell 
Bagnall's son and many with him; but Barith was 
wounded^ there. And they gained a battle^ over the 
men of Alba, wherein fell Constantine, son of Cinaeth, 
chief king of Alba» and many with him. It was on that 
oocasion that the earth burst open imder the men® of Alba. 
XXVL Now, however, there was some rest to the men 
of Erinn for a period of forty years,^ without ravage of 
the foreigners: viz., from the reign of Maelseachlainn, son 
of Maelruanaidh, to the year before the death of Flann, 
son of Maelseachlainn^ and the acoession to the throne of 
loiali GlundubL It was then that Erinn became again 
filled with the fleets of the foreigners. It was then came 
a fleet under Haoonn^^ and under Cossa-Nara,^' and seized 
on Loch da Caech, and Mnmhain was plimdered by them. 
The Cianraighe then defeated them in a battle, where fell 
Thomas Cinn Crete." The Ui Fathaigh," also, and the 
Ui Oenghnsa defeated them in another battle. The men 
of Connacht also gained another battle over the fleet of 



A ccMitfon 
ofinTaaiom 
for forty 
yeuB, 
ending 
A.D. 91& 



Haoonand 
CoaBaiuura 
takeWa- 
terford. 

Defetted 
bj the 
Cianaighe. 



aud B. which bas been adopted, inatead 
of Omd, the reading of D. 

u GMfo-JVoro. CofomoriT^} B. 
Tha Annab, althoogh they notioe this 
inyaaloii of Loch da Chaech, «r Water- 
lo(d haibotur, do not give the names 
of the leadnn. 

^ThomMdimCnU. Dr. 0*Dono- 
Tan soggesta, that Gemi Crede may be 
the place caDed OndKm headt barony 
of Gidtier, east of oounty Watecf ord, 
where the Danes had a settlement; 
and that Thomas of Cenn Crete was 
a Dana d that plaoe, who aeenis firam 



his name to haye been a Ohristian. B. 
omits the whole passage^ Ro bfii|*e- 
T)ap. tma Cictiţigi [bo in D.» bat nad 
Ciccp.funse] ca6 \xffttu^ 71^, to O 
Oenpifa cat ele ţofitu, îndnsiTe; 
snbetitatiDg only "Oa ^ifeccofi 
tia6(r6 cat ţoţvîux, which is evidently 
wrong. 

u Ui FaOtmgh. The hihabitants of 
I£Ea and Oflfa, connty Tippenuy. The 
Ui Oenghnsa were the descendente of 
Oenghns Mac Nadinddh, Ung of Mnn- 
ster, who was kîlled A.D. 469 (Fonr 
H, where see Dr. 0*Donoyan*s note). 



28 



coţoroti scce'otiel ne saUxnbti. 



The fleet of 
Dublin 
under the 
childnn of 
Ivor. 



SyachrDn- 
ionaof the 



war. 



Thefo- 
reîgnen 
inTade 
Sootknd. 



Ro bfiifeDaii vna Cmţicngt ocuf Coţvctitiaiţxîin ca6 ele 
pop-titi IC Lemain, 'du i^oţioficnţi HoIt; puTHiţiilU octir 
rţii cec ami, ocof TUtiţiailL 

XXVII. 'Came laţifin ţiig lonjef crobul tnoji clainni 
Imaifi înnCCi CLia€ ; ocuf yio hinfie^ Ujitnoji ©iieiro uLi 
leo, ocuf fio locet) leo am CCp.'OTnaSa ; ocuf yio bţiifiTKiţi 
ca€ po|i IplanT) mac tnailfeclainn 'oti i 'Dţiofiaiîi CCe^ 
mac Concubaifi, octif tetigur mac Cfiofiecan epţxx)p 
Cilii *Oafia, ocuf ^OoticoD mac TTlail'Dtiin abb ^Oelga; 
1. in blioDain ţio maţiboo TYlailfeclainn if i blicroaiti ; 
ocof fio hanigeT) ocuf ţio lofceD taef TTloii la mac 
Imaiţi, ocHf fio haifi^ex) Cluain Uama; ocuf ţio maţi- 
boD peţigal mac ţSnacra epţxîop ocof abb Cluana, 
ocuf Uanan mac Ceţiin in fecnop. 1f fî fin pof 
blioDain ap mapbax) "DonnEaD mac TDuibDaBopenT) pî 
Capfil, ocup 8icpiuc pî gali, ocup -oa ponpac ipjala 
imT)a ele pe laignib ipin blia^ain. Ceipi blioona 
lappin po pacpax; gaill Opinai ocup loccap in OClbain 
im Sirpiuc mac Imap 



^ Corcdbhaucmnj now CarJsovoBein. 
A people în Thomond, aouth-west of 
theoounty ClAie. Lembain [pron. 
Xeoon] or Lanne, is a river falling into 
theLowerLakeof Killainey. B.reaâB, 
Ho bpij^txati Contiacca ca6 ţoţi 
toitîgeţy LuiniTiig, ocuj* -00 bpi- 
feccopr Cia^xţunţe ocup Cotvca- 
UiapatîT) cocfc ele ţx)TV|vae 05 Le- 
tnoin : ^*The Connanght men gained 
a battle over the fleet of Limeridc, and 
the Kerrj men and Coroobhaîadnn 
another battle over them at the 
Lemain." L. makee the victors in this 
battle to be the Eoţ^ianadits [of Kil- 
lamey], and the Coicoduibhne [now 
Coi^agoinny, in Kerry], instead of the 
Ciairaighe and Coroobhaifldnn 

*BoU PudarUL Theee namea, aa 
giren in D., aeem intended to denote 
a flingle chieftain. B. and L. apeak 
evidently of more than one. B. gives 
their namee Bot, Padiall, and SmuiaU : 



■DU 1 ctofvcoiti Tloc pi]T>ţiatl octip 
^mtipoll, ocoŢ cţvi c&D omcnlle 
|?Tiiii : '*In wbich fell Bot PadsaU and 
Şmundl, and 800 along with them.** 
L. haa Aacalt, Pntiall, and SmnrolL 
See Appendix A. Theae namee do noi 
occur in the Annals. 

• PiihffecL B. reada po lotp^oecro» 
^^waabuxned.** 

^ SonofCnmectm. LoignsMacCro- 
negain, B. Leigna Mac Cnmdmaelf 
L. Leigna Hac Crainden, Foor M. 
(A.D. 885). Leigoa Mac Cninneiny 
Ann. Uit (A.D. 887). 

^ifoe J/be&JHM. Donnchadh Mael, 
L. Donnchadh Mac Madedain, B. 
and Four li., with the inflection or ge- 
nitive, in both parts of the oompoand 
name. He ia caUed Abbot of Dmi 
Dt^ (abb "011111 "Delooa), in B., aad 
of CiU Delffa^ in Fonr M. and Uit 
The place intended ia now KîlMalkey, 
GoimtyMeath. Alterthewoid'Oalooa, 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



29 



Luimneach. Moreover;» the Ciarraighe and the Corcobh- 
aiscîim^ gained another battle over them at Lemain; in 
which fell Boit Pudarill,^ and three hundred with him, 
and MurailL 

XXVII. Afler this came the prodigious royal fleet of Thefleetof 
ihe children of Imhar to Ath Cliath ; and the greater part ^^'Jjje 
of all Erinn was plundered bythem; Ard Macha, alao, waa chîidren o£ 
piUaged' by them ; and they gained a battle over Fknn, ^^'' 
son of Maelaechlainn^ in which fell Aedh, son of Con- 
chobhar, and Lergus, son of Cronecan,^ biahop of Cili Dara, 
and Donchadh, son of Maelduin,^ abbot of Delga ; viz., the Syndiron- 
year in which Maelsechlainn^ was kiUed was the year ; *""" **' 
and lis-mor was plundered and bumed by the son of 
Imhar, and Quain Uamha plundered, and Feigal, son of 
Finachta, bishop and abbot of Cluain^ killed, as well as 
XJanan, son of Cerin, the prior.^ This was also the year in 
which were killed Donnchadh, son of Duibhdabhorenn, 
king of Cassel, and Sitriuc, king of the foreigners^ ; and 
they fought many other battles against the Laighen this 
year.^^ Four years afber this^^ the foreigners lefb Erinn, The fo- 
and went to j&Iba under Sitriuc, son of Imhar. Cl^T 

Scotknd. 



war. 



B. b^giiu a new psngraph. In 
bltocDoin t\o motp.ba'D TT)aeljpe6- 
Uan i-pn pn iii btiorâonn, Ac: "The 
year ICaelBechlainn wu kUIed was the 
■ame jrear in which lisinore," &c 

^ MaeUechlainn. Hreads, "the year 
in which <Aw HaeLMcUain waa kiUed.** 
Thera is eridentfy some exTor which 
has caiued a ocmfoslon in the Chrano- 
logy—for M»i»lMrhlM^imi died [and waa 
not killed] <m Tnesday, the 80th No- 
▼emher, A.D. 863 (860 of the Fonr M. 
COTip. O'Flaherţy, Ogffff^ p. 484), up- 
waids of twenty yean bef ore the events 
hera recorded. See App. A^ and note. 

7 Of CImam, B. omite Ctnono. 
The Fonr M. (A.D. 885), caii him 
abbot [not abbot and biahop] of Clmin 
Uamha. L. reads also Cinema uosna, 
CloyDe, not CloDSiacnoiB. 



8 Prior, .gecnop [^ecnotp» B. 
Secnabb, L.], Ut "sub-abbot*' The 
Fonr ÎL caii him p|ii6i|i," prior," (A.D. 
886.) His name ie vaiionaly given 
Uanan Mac Cemin, B. Uanan Cerin, 
L. Uaman&n Hac Ceren, Four ÎL 

•SUrmCy King <jf the fonignen. 
Stqfiinoc mac t^iS B^^ ^m "son of 
the king of the foreignerB." Siiigp.crD 
mac Imaifi t^i gaU» L. "Siugrad, 
eon of Imar, king of the foirignen.** 
The Annak of Ulster (A.D. 887), 
have " Sichf rith Mac Imair, lex Konl- 
mannomm a fratre sno per doltim 
ocdsaeeet" 

^Thiijfear. I'pn btiorDOin ceono, 
B., "in the same year." 

^^^ftertkii. B.omitsicni\|^T), "after 
this." L. omits iltogether this danse, 
recording the invasioo of Scotland. 



30 



cosccDt) scce'otiel Tie sccUxnbti. 



Bâgnall 

andOttir 

lăudat 

W«tecf<nd 

Bay^th 

blehordes. 



XXVIII. Taxtwc, imoţifu), lapfiti toUc moji •Diofimi*! 
fie Hagnall haa nltnaiTi, ocof fie hOuciţi latiUi coji 
Sabfcrc ccji lofi TDafiaeich, ocuf fio tnafibcro leo 'Oom- 
nall mac ^Otmchcroa fii^DOinna Cafpl, ocuf îio hinfiiT; 
mufctunsi octir tli Caţipîii, ocuf ţio fioînreT; ecoft^o 
\vi6 laţifin .1. a rţiian i Copcaig, ocuf a tTfiion i nlnir 
na he^nisi, ocuf a T;iwan ic Jloif biro, ocuf fio hitifieo 
mtiTnain uli leo fiti, gu na fiabi TOog na reni o Im 
ţODef. In blioDain fienec piainT) mic tnailfeclainn 
fin. If leif in longifin, «ona, ţio maţiboD ^ebennafi 
mac CCgtki fiis ti a Conaill, ocuf tiucfoc a cent) leo aţi 
na mqfiboD, coniT) "oe afbeţw; in piliT) — 

TYÎoţi in fcel a *0â -oo mm, 
CC beiu 10 tntiinrtfi tx)maifi, 
pegaiT) tiaib cenT> ţiij ţabpxx 
TYÎinT) amp« iţvcai|i T)omain. 

A.D.916. 18 leo fin ţio maţiboD OCnle mac CaCoil fii tia£ni 
p-obaig, ocuf lonsfeaS mac Secna t^i Uofini TCifii. 



For ţocroc hen, and in many other 
plaoes, (see p. 24, lines 18, 19,) D. 
readfl acfoc, omitting the qniescent 
iniţial ţ. SoalBO'oetvocibfor'oţetunb 
(p. 26, line 7.) 

1 JlagnaO. The arrival of a graat 
fieet of foreignera at Loch da Caech 
[Waterfoid], is recorded by the Fonr 
M., A.D. 912 (Ann. Uit 918) ; and 
they are eaUed '^the foraignen of 
Loch da Caech,** Ann. Uit 914, 916. 
The Four 11 (A.D. 915), and Ann. 
Uit (A.D. 916), speak of the fleet 
nnder Bagnall, as having come to 
reinfoice a previondy establiahed eet- 
tlementat Loch di Caech. Butneither 
of theae anthorities mention the Eail 
Ottir, who iB called Oyir in B: le 
TlagnaU 6 nlothoiTi ocuf lebOipt^ 
lOfvloc. D. spells the name hrci|i, 
omittîng o, probably by an error of 
the Kiibe. The Saxon Chron. men- 



ţiona an Earl ** Oftler,** dain A.D. 910. 
For cola Tn6fi 'oictp.mice (pAxx m6fi 
x>icntiihe, B.) "innnmerable hordea," 
L. reada fn6fi oobla6, ''a great fleet** 

* JD(mihMttf ton iif IktmdUidk. B. 
omită thîa name. 

^AfUfnoarâM. GC cpi 10R>, B., ''they 
aeparated înto three." Tla fconlfec 
lOTifonn, I^, "thcy aeparated after- 
warda.** 

^InMWkhEMghi IfiifnabCi^ 
titţi,B. Inif nabCroens!, L* Thla 
place ia in the county Keny, now called 
Iny. 

^FromLiâ, Olaoi,B. Oliit,L. 
and D., meaning, no doabt, the liver 



< 7%e jfeor. B. reads in bluTDCCiTi 
fie ndocflotnn mic Tn<xoile(lamn : 
"There waa not a honae or a hearth 
from the Lee aoathwaida, in the year 
befoTD the daath of Flann, aon of 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAJLL. 



SI 



XXVIII. Aflerwards came innumerable hordes under Ragnall 
Bagnall,' giandson of Imar, and the £arl Ottir, and they J^^lf^ 
landed at Loch dâ Caech ; and DoTnhnall, son of Donn- WaterfoM 
chadh,^ heir apparent of Caisei, was kiUed by ihem : and laZ^II!^. 
they plimdered Muscraighe and Ui Cairpre ; and they We hoitks. 
aflerwards' separated into three parties ; one-third settled 
in Corcach, and one-third in Inis na hEdnighi/ and one- 
third in Qlafi-Linn; and the whole of Munster was ravaged 
by them, so that there was not a house or a hearth firom 
Lni' southward. This was the year^ before the death of 
Flann, son of Maelsechlainn. It was also by that fleet 
that Oebennach, son of Aedh, king of Ui Conaill,^ was 
killed, and they carried away his head afier killing him. 
Wherefore the poet' said — 

Great is the pity» O 6od of heaven, 
That the people of Tomar should hav e it ! 
Behold the head of Gabhra's king is taken from you ! 
mastrious gem of the west of the world I 

It was by them were killed Anie,® son of Cathal, king of A.D. 9ie. 
Uaithne-Fidhbhaigh, and Loingsech, son of Setna» king of 
Uaithne-ThirL 



Haeliecfalaiim." TbiBclaiueiBomitted 
inL. 

''Kmff of Ui ConmU: i.e., of the 
Ui Conain Gabhn, or bflrony of 
Condloei, weit of oounty Limerick. 
The Fonr M. caii him king of the Ui 
Fidhgeinte (A.D. 914), which is not 
m leal dUlerance. For the relation 
between the Ui Conaill Gabhia and 
the Ui Fidhgeinte, see Dr. G'Donovan^s 
notei, Leabhat na gCwi% pp. 67, 76. 

* TkepotL B. omitB, in ţMtn». In 
lise 2 of the qnatrain, B. reada OC bich 
a5;aiidL.0Cbei6ocTniomcnti* line 
8 in L. ia iHegiUe, hat in B. ia thna 

ţUnti, ''behdd the head of bright 
Gabhia'a king ia taken from jou." 
ţaprbo^ D^ for which ţabţia ia sab- 



atitated firom B. ** Hninter Tomair f 
the people or family of Tomar, a name 
given to the Danes of Dublin. See 
the Poem quoted by the Fonr M., A.D. 
942 ; and Dr. 0*DonoTan*B Pref . to the 
Book ofJHs^ p. xzxTi, tq. line 4, 
i<xţv6ai|i, B., which ia more conect. 

*Ank. B. readfl, GCm'ole morc 
Cotait ţvl vontne ciţie» omitting 
the notioe of Loingaech, by an eiror 
of transcription. Uaithne-Fidhbaigh, 
called alao Uaithne-Cliach (now Owney 
b^), ia a barony north-eaat of the 
oonnty Limerick. Uaithne-Onn (now 
Owney), ia an adjoining banmy, coonty 
llpperaiy. Anle, ia called aon of 
"CdKAoii, not Cathaif in L.; Fonr BL 
(A.D. 914), and Ann. Uit (A.D. 915- 
16). 



32 



cosaroti scce-otiel ne sccUccibt». 



An oxtni- 
oidixuuy 
davghter 
of thefo- 
ragnen, at 
Dnnnudii, 
A.D. 869. 



Battle of 
CellUa 
nDaigbre, 
A.D. 869. 



XXIX. Ro Tx>5l<n) 'ona, *Ouii niccin iTnafiStiti Cţien'o, 
ocuf yio cufiOT) aţi 'oeţimaiii T)iafnefi ţoji 5«^^<wt ^^'^ 
la Coinligan mac TDailcţioiTi, ocuf la bdoganacc La£a 
Lein, ocof ţie plairoabţioc ti a n*0tmaT)ai5, ţii Ha Coii- 
naill, ocuf ţie Congalac mac Laficna ţii Ciaţiaip, octif 
la laţixniţi ©ţieriT) aţi cena. If fi ţ^n bliaî>ain i'oţiocoiţi 
Col^in 1 CiTiT) Ctiţiţiaig, ocuf ţio bafieT) baeiboţiţi. If 
fi fifi blicroain ţio aiţig CCmlaib mac ţiig Loclcmn Laef 
TTloţi; ocuf ţio loiţxî poenreţuin mac T^ţiognean, Ojctif 
Pţi TTltip leif, lon^ţîoţiT; CCmlaib ţie naiT)ci mw, octif 
ţio maiţib a bţiafiaiţi pein laţiţ^n .i. Ofili, octif ba 
miţibuli 7)0 TTlticu'oa fin. If ţ^ fin blia^ain, imoţiţu), 
fo bţiif ConCubaţi mac 'Cai'oj fi Conace, ocuf OCeD 
PnT)lia:6 mac "NeillCailli ca6 ele foţicti .i. cac Cilii 
ua n*0ai5fi, •ou i'Ofocaiţi .a. cec "oo na pn-ogenrib, "ou 
inT)ţiocaiţi mac Connainj ţii bfemage aţioen fiu, ocuf 
*Oiafmaic mac Creffceoil fi tacă ^abaif .i. fe blioB- 
na lafnec TTlailfeclain'D mic THailftianaii). If aţi 
fin vo figni ingen Weill .i. ţ^uf OCeDa ocuf maSaiţi 
piainT), 

8tif ţxxn, "DUf fon, 7)65^061, T)ţiocfcel 
TTlai'Dm cafea ftiait) ţiemoiţ, 
8tif fon f 1^ TK) f ipii ţXtlllT) 
•Onţifon ţii ţx>ffaţi maig. 



1 J)emoHahied. B.Teada, Ro roţtorâ 
teo "Dun TDoiTie, " Dumnaine was 
demolished by them ;^ and for " vrest of 
Iieland," a marginal note Boggats om 
iai\C€tţ\ Tnaihoan, **west of Mnns- 
ter." 

* Ind€9cribabk, B. omits T>iafneţn, 
and reada, dţ!. ni6ţv 'Dejvmoati, *^a 
great, enoimonB daoţ^ter.*^ 

•Dmadhaeh. D.readB,^*UaDiinar- 
daigh:** an eiror which has been cor- 
rected from B. Comp. Fonr M., A.D. 
888^884; Ann. Uit 884. 

« WUh hkn, B. reada, ftţi mitici 
fnctitli |iif. Thia defeat of Amlaff 
and Oiaill, at Lismore, seems to be the 



same that was mentioned aboTe, chap. 
zxiy. ; wheie mention ia also made of 
the death of Colphin, and the drown- 
ing of Baethbarr. 

'^ Own brotker: Le., Amhlaîbh's own 
brother. 

^Moekuda, St Mochnda; the patron 
Mdnt of Liamore. The -victoxy is a»- 
cribed to bis miraciiloiia aid. 

7 ConnackL B. reada, Cionnachco, 
^^ch ia evidently wrong. See the 
Fonr M. (A.D. 866), and Dr. ODono- 
van^snotee. 

^ Five hmdred, B. reada^ .ix-c, " nine 
hnndrad.^ Itappeara from the aooount 
given by the Fonr H, that thia waa 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



33 



XXIX, Dun Maîn, in the west of Eriim, was demolished, * An ext»- 
and an extraordinary and indescribable^ slaughter of the dgQ^tor 
foreigners was effected there by Conligan, son of Maelcron, of the fo- 
and the Eoganachts of Loch Lein, and by Flannabrat, grand- ih^^^ 
son of Dimadadi,' king of Ui Conaill ; and by Cîongalach, ^i>- ^69. 
son of Lachtna, king of Ciarraighe ; ai^d by the whole 
west of Erinn. This was the year in which Colphinn fell 
at Cenn Cuiraîgh, and Baethbarr was drowned. This was 
the year ijx which Amlaibh, son of the king of Lochlainn 
plundered Leas Mor ; and Foenteran, son of Drognean, 
and the Fir Muighi with him/ bumed Amlaibh's câmp 
before night in revenge, and he killed his own brother'^ 
after that, viz., Osill; and these were the miracles of 
Mochuda.® This was the year, also, in which Conchobhar, Battie of 
son of Tadhg, king of Connacht,^ and Aedh Finnliath, son ^ii^^e, 
of Niall Caille, gained another battie over them, viz., the A.D. 869. 
battie of Cell ua nDaighre, in which fell five hnndred^ of 
the hir Gentiles ; where fell the son of Conang, king of 
Bregh-Magh, along with them, and Diarmait, son of 
Eidirscel, king of Lpch Gabhair, six years after the death 
of Maelsechlabin, son of Maelruanaidh. It was upon it^ 
that Niall's daughter,^® le., the sister of Aedh, and 
mother of Flann, composed these linea : — / 

Joy! woel goodnews! badnews! 
The defeat of a bloody battie by him, 
Joy to the king who won, let him rejoice ! 
SoRow to the king who was defeated I 



raaUy a battie between Aedh Fiim- 
lUth, Ung of Ireland, and Flann, son 
of Conang, kiog or lord of Bregia ; the 
Finngaill, or FaSr Gentiles, acting as 
audliaiiee to the latter. 

* Upon U: Le., npon the battie. 

^ NiaXt$ damghUr. The mother of 
Flann, king of Bregh-magfa, or Bregia, 
who fell în the battie, was the sister of 
Aedh Finnliath, king of Ireland, and 
danc^ter of Niall Caille; so that Flann 
ma figfating agamst his unde on the 



sîde of the Konemen. The verses here 
quoted, as the composition of Flann's 
mother, are giyen in the Leabhar Gabh- 
ala of the O'Clerys (p. 204), and also 
in the Fonr M. From these copies we 
gather the f oUowing yarious readings : 
lĂne 2, Tletnaiţ) RoimfD, B. Rae- 
non^ Fonr M. and L. Gabh. Lmt 8, 
■00 T^igni ţaitiT)) 'oia n-Deaţv^a ţa- 
oiLii), Fonr M. and L. Gabh. Une 4, 
poîvţHip, tnong) T^OTVţ* ftoemi'D, B., 
Fonr ÎL and L. Gabh. 

D 



Si 



cosccDîi sae'oîiel ne satlccibîi 



Raghiull 
andOttir 
slainm 
ScoUand, 
A.D. 916. 

Arrival of 
Sitriuc, 
gpnnâflon 
of IxDAr. 

Battleof 
CennFiiait, 
A.D. 916. 



KaâAie 
plnndeied. 

Sitrinc, the 
blmdftakeB 
Dublin. 



Thebatde 
of I>abliii, 
A.D. 919. 



Ro înnafiboir laţifin ryia Ofiti THumain, octif 'oacua- 
rofi in nOClbatn, ocuf rucroc ca€ [v6] ConfcaTran mac 
CCexHi .1. "00 fiig OClbatî, ocuf fio maţibaiT; apoen ccn'o, -i. 
Rosnall ocof On|i, ocuf dţi a mturajii leo. 

XXX. In blicrBoin ţio gaB 'NiaU^ltiî^tiB ţiige nGiienT) 
fin, rame, 'oncţ, longef ele la ^icţiiac ua nlmaţi cop 
jabfac 1 Cin-o paaiT;,«ocUf ţio hinţiic iagin leo, ocuf po 
ţxainfeT; ca€ po^i tlgaifii mac OCillella .i. pofi ţii Logen, 
•oti inT)ţio6aifi bai-oein ocuf TTlaelmofi'Da mac TTluţiei- 
gean t^i laţiCifi Li^e, ocUf TTlurfiiâin mac Cemneiixi^ 
fii taigfe, ocof na cpi Comann, ocuf Cionae€ mac 
T^aotail îii§ O nOneclaif, ocaf TTlaelmae^oc mac "Oiaţi- 
maca ab Jl-înne tlifen, ocuf aiţi'oefpug taigen, ocuf 
Ţcn eccna na n^aoi-feel, ocuf fe ^ec aţiaen ţiiu, im 
caeccac |ii§. Tio hcnţicceD Cell *Oaţia leo aţi fin, actif 
U|iiîiO|i cell nCjionn. 

XXXI. 'Cainic laţifin fiitloinsef a^bal moji la 8ic- 
fiaicc, ocuf la cloinn liîiaifi, .i. la ^ix^p-iucc cae6 «a 
nloiîiaifi, guţi gabfac aţi eiccin i nTDtiiBlinn CCCa Clia€, 
ocuf T)0 ţionfac poţibaifi ann. *Oo ţiona* "ona moiţi- 
€ion6l tei^e Ctiinn la "Niall JLtin'oulS mac OCofta], co 
cuc ca€ "ooib ic CCC Cliafi t)« inT)ţiocaiţi "Niall baifiT)e 



1 Bamthed. For |U> ifinocfiboc; ictp.- 
Ţm c|va afin ÎTItuncon, B. letiâa, 
X)0 mcqfvbcco cţva fin title ipn TTlii- 
ifiain, '*they were all kUled then in 
Mamhain," which is inconaistent witli 
what f olloira, that the^ went into Soot- 
land. 

> TrUo Albam. L. msAis the wbole 
of tbis cbapter ezcept tbe condnding 
paragrapb beginning with these words. 
See Appendix A. And it is evident 
tbat thia paragiapb ia ont of its place 
in the text, and ongbt to be read in 
continnation of the pieoeding cbapter, 
for it was the fleet of Loch da Caech 
(Wateiford bay), there mentioned, 
tiiat went into Scotland nnder the 
command of Baghnall and Ottirf and 
were defeated by Constantine III., in 



or abont A.D. 916. See Four ÎL, m 
amnoy and Keatxng, p. 628. B. trana- 
poees the worda, 1f) blicroain tu> ^b 
KiaU/ 'glnnut} [read, ^nnxMiG] 
tvi^ fi&fienT) fin, giving them after 
•Sicfutic na nlmaţv. The meaning 
ÎB the same. 

^AhatUe. The Ann. Uit, Four M., 
and Keating, state distinetly that thia 
battle was f ongbt at Cenn Fnait : bnt 
Keating makes Imar (not the grand- 
son of Imar), the leader of the foreign- 
en on the oocasion. 

^WestemlAfi. D. and Keating read, 
lOtitoitiLiţî©, "western Uifey." But 
the Ann. Uit, Leah. Gabh., Four M^ 
and B., read oiţv^ti, "eastem," which 
is piobably correct 

< MMffhvn, The remainder of thia 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



35 



They were aiterwards banîshed* from Mumhain, and went Raghnaii 
înto Albain*; and they gave battle to Constantine, son of gj^^^j *^^ 
Aedh, king of Albain, inwhich both were killed, viz., Eagh- Scotland, 
nall and Otir, and their people slaughtered with them. 

XXX The same year in which Niall Glundubh beeame Amval of 
monarch of Erinn there came another fleet with Sitriuc, ^J^nJ^n 
grandson of Imar, and they settled at Cenn Fuait ; and of Imar. 
Laighin was plundered by them, and they gained a battle^ Battie of 
over Ugaire, son of Ailill, king of Laighin, in which he ^^d" 916 ^ 
himself was killed, and Maelmordha, son of Mnireigean, 
king of western Lif^,* and Mugh[roin,* son of Cenneidigh, 
king of Laighis and of the three Comanns, and Cionaeth, 
son of Tuathal, king of O nEnechlais, and Maelmaedhog, 
son of Diarmaid, abbot of Glenn Uisen and archbishop of 
Laighin, a leamed sage of the Gaedhil, and six hundred 
with them, together with fifty kings. Cell Dara was then Kiidaro 
plimdered by them, and the greater part of the churches pio^^iered. 
of Erinn. 

XXXI. There came after that an îmmense royal fleet sitrînc, the 
with Sitriuc and the children of Lnar, i.e., Sitriuc, the ţlj^^^î ^^ 
blind,® grandson of Imar ; and they forcibly landed^ at 
Dubhlinn of Ath Cliath, and made an encampment there. 
The great muster of Leth Cuinn* was made by Niall Glun- 
dubh, son of Aedh,] and he gave them battle at Ath Cliath,^ The battle 
where Niall fell, who was*° the monarch of Erinn, andf ^"^*^"» 

chapter, (after the fint syUable of thia 
word,) and the fint five lines of the 
next, aa marked by brackets in the 
text, are wanting in D., owing to the 
losa of a portion of a leaf in the MS. 
The defidency is supplied from B. 

« Sitriuc, the blincL CaUed Sitriuc 
Giîle (sdle) in the L. Gabh. (p. 210), 
and by the Four M. (A.D. 817). He 
is expressly called grandson oi Imar, 
and therefore was probably the aame 
aa the Sitriuc, grandBon of Imar, who 
settled at Cenn Faait, as mentioned 
in the foregoing chapter. 

7 Forcibly landed, The Four M.give 
88^ as the date of the âr^ occnpation 



of Dublin by the foreigners. In the 
interval the Iriah may have recovered 
possession. 

8 Leth Ctdnn. See p. 8, note 7. 

^At Ath Cliath. The Ann. Uit. 
(A.D. 918-19), and Four M. (917), 
teii us that this battle was fought on 
Wednesday, 17 KaL Oct. [not 17 Oct., 
as Dr. O'Donovan has printed it], 
and that Easter fell that year on the 
7 Kal. of May> These criteria, as 
0*Flaherty remarks (^Ogyg. p. 434), 
determine the year to be 919. 

^^ Wlto w<u. bu-oeipn aiţvoTii 
C^ţienn, B. a differcnce of spelling 
otfly, 

•d2 



36 



coscroîi sae'oîiel ue ţaUccibti. 



NiallGlim- 
dabh, aad 
twelve 
other kings 
alain. 



Gothrin 
plundera 
Armaghţ 
A.D. 921. 

Defeat of 
the f oreign- 
era at Tigh' 
Mic-Deic- 
thig. 



ap.'opi GţienT), ocuf 'oa |ii voc vo tii^oib ©pent) utni .1. 
Wiall baT)en, ocuf Concubayi mac TTlailfeclainT), 1115- 
'Domna 'Cemţiac, ocuf Conain^ mac ţ?lainT) |iiT)omna 
©jienT), ocuf piairbefirac mac T)oninaill |ii['Domna] 
eile GfienT), ocuf (Xev mac BocoDa ţii UIot), ocuf 
TTlailmiris mac ţ?lannu5an |ii bţieg, ocuf ©jiimon mac 
CeiToneing plaii Ceneil fnani, ocuf Conjalac mac 
Celi |ii Ua TTlaciiaif, ocu]^ Con^alac mac T)pemain pi 
Cpimfame, Tnaelmu|ii mac ttnbira pi TTlti^opnT), ocup 
T)eocan mac *Oomnaill pi Cianacra, ocup T)unan mac 
Cepballan, ocup bpenan mac ţep^upa, ocup upmop 
maui Le€i CuinT) apoen piu pin, ocup pluaj; T)iaipmiri 
ele. 

XXXII. Ro hinpeT), 'ona, cuapcepc Gpenx) pe ^^t^^" 
pin mac Imap lappin, ocup po haip^e^) Kp-omaca. Cit) 
rpa ace capip poppro pon in ca€ pin, pomam Tomaip 
pe cenT) mblia'ona ; va^•^ po bpip T)onca:D mac ITlail- 
peclainT) cat popio pom lappin ic 'Ci5TTlicT)eic€i5, ocup 



^Hinuelf, PoDein, B. Theking» 
who fell with NUU in this battle are 
difFerently enumerated in the authori- 
ties ; and, except in D., the nnmber 
twelve ia not retained. Conchobhar, 
son of MaelBechnailI (as in B., D., and 
Keat.) is termed grandaon of Mael- 
sechnaiU, by the Ann. Uit., L. Gabh., 
and Four M. Aedh, son of Eochadh, 
is called son of Eochagan, by L. Gabh., 
Four M., and Keat Eremhon, son of 
Cennedigh, is called Cromman, son of 
Cennedigh, in L. Gabh. and Four M. ; 
but his name, with all that follow, is 
omitted in Ann. Uit. L. Gabh. and 
Four M. mention him, but omit all that 
follow him. B., although retaining 
the statement that tuidvt kings were 
8lain,names^feai, (see noteS)agree- 
ing in other respects with the text, 
except that Dunan, son of Cerbhallan, 
is called Diman; Conain^iSonof Flann, 
îs called Conchobhair; Congalach, son 
of Dreman^ is called son of Vrenman, 



' Hâr appareat B. adds ele, 
" another.** 

' Erum, Om., B. D. reads, ^i eite, 
" another king,"instead of ţii^rxmina 
eile, B., ** another heir apparent." 

^ King of Brtgh, After this name 
B. înserta, ocup TTlael'Dtib tii CCt|i- 
giaU», TTlaelcTiaibi mac "Doilgeifi, 
ocup CeaHach mac Pagaixcaig ţii 
T)eifceiţ\c bţxej: "And Maeldubb, 
king of Airgiall" [Maelcroibhe Ua 
Dubhsionaigh, lord of Oirghiall,^Leab. 
Gabh.f Four M., and Keat. Mael- 
craibi Mac Dubhsionaigh king of 
Airghiallf Ann. Uit] " Maelcrabi, son 
of Doilgen" [L. Gabh. and Four M. 
add, ţ\i 'Cojicon, king of Tortan], 
"andCeallach, son of Faghartach, king 
of south Bregia."" [Tigeatina -oeip- 
ceiţxc bfveg, "lord of south B regia,** 
L. Gabh., and Four M.]. Tliis inter- 
polation increases the list of slain kin^ 
to fifteen instead of twelve. It was 
probably taken by the tronscriber from 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



37 



twelve kings of the kings of Eriim along wîth him, viz., 
Niall himaelf ^ ; and Conchobhar, son of Maelsechiainn, 
heir apparent of Temhaîr ; and Conaing, son of Flann, 
heir apparent^ of Erinn ; and Flaithbhertach, son of Domh- 
nall, another heir apparent of Erinn^ ; and Aedh, son of 
Eochaidh, king of Uladh ; and Ma^lmithigh, son of Ran- 
nagan, king of Bregh^ ; and Eremhon, son of Cennedigh, 
chief ^ of Cenel Mani ; and Congalach, son of Cele, king 
of Ua Macuais*^ ; and Congalach, son of Dreman, king 
of Crimhthainn ; Maelmuire, son of Ainbith, king of 
Mngomn;^ and Deochan, son of Domhnall, king of Cian- 
achta ; and Dunan, son of Cerbhallan ; and Brenan, son 
of Fergus ; and the grealer part of the nobles® of Leth 
Cuinn with them, and a conntless army besides. 

XXXII. The north of Erinn, also, was plundered by 
Qothrin,' son of Imar afber that, and Ard Macha was 
spoiled Notwithstanding, however, that this battle was 
gained over them, Tomais*® submitted before the end of 
a year ; for Donnchadh, son of Maelsechlainn,^' gained a 
battle over them at Tigh-Mic-Deicthig,** and it was im- 



NiallGlim- 
dubh, and 
twelve 
other kings 

ftli|î-n. 



the Leabhar Gabhala, and uuerted 
withont regard to the nnmber. 

'Otief. D. readA, 7 ţloit, "and 
the chici,'* but the 7, "and," is probably 
a mintake of the scribe for .1. "Le." 

< Kmg of Ua Macuait. \Xoat o 
mb mac Cueny», B., "prince of [or 
from] the tribe of Kac CiiaÎB." 

7 Mftgomn. îTIti^DOiiii, B., which 
îs more correct. 

B Nobkt, B. omită mati, and râads, 
ii|iTfioţi Leite CtJiTiTi tiil>e ayi aen 
|\iy*, octiy» i^uaij •oiTiirtie ajicena: 
" The greater part of all Leth Cninn 
along with him, and an innnmerable 
army Ukewise." 

» Gotkrin. B. reads, ţopTicnJ «a 
ni mcqfv, " Grofraigh, grandson of Imar," 
which îs confirmed by tiie Four M., 
who caii him Goffndth, grandson of 
Imar, and date the spoîling of Armagh 
919, "on Saturday, the day before St 



Martin*8 festival" [not "the Saturday 
before," as Colgan and Dr. CDonovan 
translate it]. It follows that 921 must 
have been the true year. 

10 Tomais, So in both MSS. ; but it 
seons evident that Tamar or Tomar, 
the chieftain mentioned in the nezt 
chapter, was intended. 

u Son of Maelsechhmiu Bo in both 
MSS.; but it Oiighl to be grandaoi^ 
for Donnchadh, king of Irdand, who 
Bucceeded Niall Glundubli, was son of 
Flann Sionna, ahd grandson of Mael- 
sechlaitan. The L. Gabh. and Four M. 
say, that the battle here described took 
place in the fiist year of Donnchadh's 
reign. If so, it must have been in 919, 
two yâM before the sacking of Armagh 
by Gothrin or Goffrey. Thereis,there- 
fore, some confusion. 

u Tigh'Mic-Dw:ihig, " In Cianachta 
Brogh, Le., Tigh-Mic-nEathach," Four 



Gothrin 
plunders 
Annagh, 
A.D. 921. 



Defeat of 

theforeign- 

ersatTigh- 

Mic-Deic- 

thig. 



38 



ooscroli scce-DlieL ne ţaUccibli. 



Tamar, son 
of Elge, 
atlnis 
Sibhtonn, 
A.D. 922. 



The 

charches of 
Loch Deig, 
the Shan- 
noii,and 
LonghRee 
plundered, 
alflo wert 
Meathand 
soathCon- 
nacht, 
A.D. 922. 



Hutoiyof 
the Danes 
in Mimster. 



po ţem&D a aiţiium ont) ccfi fna|ib(n> tk) sallonb. *Ocns 
ni mo na lin înninfi ţxîel vo cuoit) leo ccy* vo gallcnb. 

XXXIII. T^nic lOfifin T^omoţi mac ©Igi |wş lonţef 
ODbalmoţi; goţi gab a{i Inip Sibr^mt) [ofi cuan Luimni^ 
octif ţw) hin'oţio* tiţiifioţi niuitfian leo onr exuf^ €ealLa 
ocuf rmafxL topcan mac Conlisoin ba fii Caifil an 
can fin. 

XXXIV. 'Cainic laţifin coClaS ofi \jo6 'OefisoGţic, 
goţi oiţigeucaţi Inif Celufia, ocuf ţu) boi-Sfioc a jx^ine, 
ocuf a mionna, ocuf a liuCpa, ocuf ţu) oipcq^ioc "ona 
niuicinif RiagailU ocuf cella 'Oeţiccoefic ; ocuf fio 
aiţiccfioc T^iţi TKL glof, ocuf lo£[ia, ocup Cluain peptxxe, 
ocuf Cltiain mic Woif, ocuf Inif CloCponn, ocHf Inif 
bo fînne» ocuf cella tx>£a Rit ofiEena; ocuf lofvfiaiţi 
ÎTIi-Be, ocuf Deifceipc Conna£r> ocuf po mopbfoc 'Onach 
pi CCi-fene, ocuf foSai-Be ele, ocuf po fiafcaccap fldn 
apif co Luimne£, gan ca6 octif gan cliacha5. 

1f IOD fin aipDgnioitfiaprha cloinne OI51 ocup loinsfi 
ceia Clia6 hi Lei€ CuinT), ociif hi LaigniT!. CC ccpeaca 
imoppo, ocup a niopgala, ocup a cclia6£a, ni puilii; hi 
ccuiifine» ocup ni haipimuep hi leabpaiC. 

XXXV. Imcupa imoppo na Hluitfian ocup cloinne 
Ifhaip inipcep punn co leicc, 'oâig po pooaimpioc a 
naenop le€ 'oocaip ocup Docpaice pe hepinn uile. 

Tkinic "Dna Oir^p 'outî lopla, lu& .c. long co pope 



K. TheL.Qabh.8aya, ^'inCiaoachta 
Br^h," withont mentionlng Tigh-Mic- 
nEathach. See Reeves, Adamnan, p. 
110, note \ B. nada, Dâig ţio bp^if 
Donnchcco mac TYIaeiledtocinn cot 
ţofifioe 1 uccnţ tneic Heâcong ocup 
ni ţu> cufnonngpioc on|veih ccfi mccfi- 
bor6 no gaUcnl^ omn : **For Donn- 
chad, aonof Madaechlaimi, gaineda bat- 
tle over them at Tigh mdc nEchtaigh ** 
[honaeaf theionof Eochadh], "andit 
mg not poMible to ooiint the nnmber 
of the fonîgnexB that waa kflled then." 
^ Landed ot For goţx gab aţi 
1fii|*, B. nada, in Inip. Inis Sibh- 
tonn (now King'a Uaad) , ia caUed bj 



the Fonr M., îmi UlMam, which ia 
only another foim of the name (AJ>. 
965 and 969), bat they make no 
mention of Tamar^a iettlemoit tbera. 
The Ann. Uit (921-2) mention the 
fleet of Limerick under the aon of 
Ailche [AilgL Foor K. 920], aa hav- 
ing plnndeied Clonniacnoia and the 
ialanda of Loch Bee. See O'Dqdo- 
▼an*B So6k of Bij^ Introd. p. zlL 
After the moda Inif ^bcxmT», thera 
oocon a cooaiderable defect in D., 
which haa beeo mpplîed f^on B. It 
extendafrom thia plaoe to the aerenth 
line of chapter zxzvil, aa indicated 
bj the bmdrats in the test 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



39 



poesible to count the number that wbb there killed of tlie 
foreigners. For of the foreigners not more than enough 
to teii what had happened escapecL 

XXXIII Afber that came Tamar, son of Elge, kîng of 'i'«mw,8oii 
an immense fleet, and landed at^ Inis Sibhtoim, [in the ^t j^ 
haj*bour of Luimnech : and the chief part of Miunhain Ş^*?™» 

A«D 922« 

waci ravaged by them, both churches and chieffcainries. 
Lorcan, son of Conligan, was king of Caisei at that time. 

XXXIV. There came afber that a fleet on Loch Derg- The 
derc, and they plundered Inis Celtra^ and they drowned ^^ ^^^ 
its shrines, and its relicks, and its books ; and they plun- the Shan- 
dered Muc- Inis of BiagaU^ and the churches of Derg- L^hRee 
derc ; and they plundered Tir-da-glas, and Lothra, and pj«ndered, 
Ouain-Ferta, and Cluain-mic-nois, and Inis Clothrann, Meathand 
and Inift-bo-fuine, and the churches of Loch Bibh, in like wn^Con- 
manner ; and the west of Midhe and the south of Con- A.D. 922. 
nacht ; and they killed Duach, king of Aidhne,' and num- 

bers of others; and they airived safely again at Luimnech, 
without battle or conflict. 

These were the mighty deeds^ of the şons of Elge, and 
of the ships of Ath Cliath, in Leth Cuinn and in Laighin. 
But their plimders, and their battles, and their oonflicts, 
are not fully in recoUection, and are not enumerated in 
books. 

XXXV. We proceed now to reiate here the history of HUtoryof 
the [men of] Mumhain and of the sons of Imar, for they^ alone in Mister, 
sustained half the troubles and oppressions of all Erinn. 

The Early Oiter Dubh,® came with an hundred ships to 



•Mue-Imto/Rioffkaa: Le.,theHog 
laload of St BiaghmU or Begnlns. 
For A cntioua series of cnon abont 
thia island, ne Dr. O'DonoYan^B valiia- 
hle note, Foar M., A.D. 743, p. 845. 

• Duadk, Kuiff of Ăidhm, Thia \b 
pfobably the same penomwho is called 
by the Fovr U. **lCaol mic Duaich, 
lord of Aidhne," and who they say waa 
■Uin by the fordgnen A.D. 920 [922]. 

^ ţie wight^ deedi. This snmmazy 
iBAiks ihe termîiiatioa of a fini part 



or divieion of the woik, in which the 
anthor haa ooUected whatever he ooold 
flnd recorded of the deeds of the pirates 
in all parts of Ireland. The remainder 
treate almoet exdoÂTely of their ra^ 
▼Bgee in MonBter. 

< Far thejf : Le., the men of Mamluun 
or Mmmter. 

• OUer Dubk, Oiter or Otter, the 
Black. We have had mention in 
chapter xzviiL, of the axiiral of an 
Ead Otter, at Loch da Caech [Water- 






40 



coţccDli scce^otiel ne saltcciMi. 



Names of 
the princi- 
pal chief- 
taina who 
inyaded 
Mnnster. 



Eaiiotter Laiţige, ocuf fio hnTOţio* leif ai|i€eti THumcm, octif a 

arrivosat' '^©IfCeT^^» OCUf jW) TOIţlBlţl ţO COIH, OCtJf ţX) ^eiUflfie 

Waterford. gali uile icTO, OCUf ţio €occai15 tt ciof fiio^Da poţiiux. "Oo 
lioncrfi TTlutîia ml© -do €ola «luroBatl, ocuf vo mtifi- 
byitt^c 'Dicnfneifi lon^, ocuf Icn'beti^, ocuf coTinxxS, cona£ 
ţiaiBe cuan, na caUrb^opc, no "oân» no XHnngen, no Dinsna 
1 TTltjrfiain uile jan loingeap "Oanmapccach ocuf all- 
muţiach* 

XXXVI. 'Cainicc ann atîi loin^ef Oibeţvo, ocuf loinţep 
ODUin-D, OCUf loinjef Sî^ifpn, ocuf loingef ^nucccgaiţie, 
OCUf loin^ef LogniuinT), ocuf loingef Ojiuilb, ocuf 
loingef Siqfiiufa, ocuf loin^ef buiT)nin, ocuf loinjef 
bi|inT)in, OCUf loin^ef LiogfiflaS, ocuf loingef Tx>i|i- 
begţvDoi^, OCUf loin^ef ©oan baţiun, ocuf loingef ÎTIilit) 
buu, OCUf loin^ef «uimin, ocuf loingef 8uainin, ocuf 
loingef na Mnfeine Ruai-be fa •5eoi§. Cit) vţia afic fu)pa% 
neîhni olc 'oa fp uaif 6ife i na^fe^a* uile na pe^na fin. 
Ro hinTma* an TTIutîiu uile to coircionn leo fin an 
mittedby 5CCC let, OCUf fo haifcceu Ocuf fo fccaoilfioc pon 
M^ta 1T^yrfi«^"> OCUf *D0 fonairc 'oCiin, ocuf Txnnsne, ocuf 
caUropuifT; vo Ojiinn uile, co na ţiaiBe lonoD in ©jiinn 
gan loingef lionmati vo "BaninaţiccacaiB, ocuf T)allmuţi- 
choiB ann ; co n-oeţinfac pefwnn cjiei^e, ocuf cloit)ini,ocuf 
pofsaBala 50 poifleian, ocuf 50 coir6enn [t)i] ; ocuf ţio 
aifccfioT; a x^uacai ocuf a ccella cootinf , ocuf a neiitfie5ai 
OCUf fo ţxîcaoilfeT; a fcfine, ocuf a mionna, ocuf a 
liubfia. Ro T)ilaiqiiccfioc a Txemplu caeiîiu cuA-oaC- 
za, -0015 ni ţiaiBe caouf, no onoif, no comaipce, 05 
cefmonn, no anacal vo cili no vo neirfie^, tk) *Oia, no 



Therav- 



ford haibonr], who afterwatâa went to 
Sootland and waa killed in battle theie 
hy Constantine III., A.D. 916 (chap. 
xzix., and note •, p. 84). The Otter 
Dubh here mentioned eettled at Poft 
Laiige, another name for Waterford, 
and this natnially leada na to soapect 
that he ia the same aa the Earl Otter 
of chap. xxYÎiL 

^A Dm, The words her6 nsed, 
Dm^ Domgmt Dmgnot all signify afort 



orfortreas. It is not ea87 to define the 
precise diff etenoe between them. Dm, 
ia in Scotland Doom ; in Wales, Dm; in 
Ganliah, ^tum; Latinized, dmmm ^ aa in 
Lag>^dnniun, Augusto-donnm, Ac.; in 
England, «on^ towm. It aeema to aig- 
nify a fortlfied hill or monnd. Dak^fm 
(dnngeon) ia a walled fort or atzoog 
tower; hence dmii^ii^un, I fortifjr. — 
JDingfM, ia apparenUy only another f onn 
of the same word. Qf, Zmn^ p. 80 n. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WLTK THE GAILL. 



41 



Port Lairge, and the east of Mumhain was plundered by Eariottcr 
hîm, and its sonth ; and he put all under tribute and ser-i^^^^ 
vioe to the foreigners ; and he levied his royal rent upoiaWaterfonL 
them. The whole of Mumhain became fiUed with im- 
mense floods, and oountless 8ea-v<xnitings of ships, and 
boats, and fleets, so that there was not a harbour, nor a 
landing-port, nor a Diin,' nor a fortress, nor a faatness, in 
all Mmnhain, without fleets of Danes and pirates.^ 

XXXVI. There eame there, also, the fleet of Oiberd, Kamei of 
and the fleet of Oduinn, and the fleet of Griflin, and the ^^^' 
fleet of Snuatgar, and the fleet of Lagmann, and theţainswho 
fleet of Erolf, and the fleet of Sitriuc, and the^fleet of S^^J^, 
Buidnin, and the fleet of Bimdin, and the fleet of lia- 
grislach, and the fleet of Toirberdaeh, and the fleet of 
Eoan Banin, and the fleet of Milid Bun, and the fleet of 
Snimin, and the fleet of Suainin, and hifitly the fleet of the 
Inghen Rnaidh.' And assuredly the evil which Erinn had 
hitherto sufiered waa bs nothing compored to the evU 
inflicted by these parties. The entire of Miunhain, with- The nv- 
out distinction, was plundered by them, on all sides, and '«^ «'™- 
devastated. And they spread themselves over Mumhain ; them in ^ 
and they built Dans, and fortreeses, and landing-ports, Munrter. 
over all Erinn, so that there was no plaoe in Erinn with- 
out numerous fleets of Danes and pirates ; so that they 
made spoil-land, and sword-land, and conquered-land of 
her, throughout her breadth, and generally ; and they rav- 
aged her chieftainries, and her privileged churches, and 
her sanctuaries^ ; and they rent her shrines, and her reli- 
quaries, and her books. They demolished her beautiful or- 
namented temples ; for neither veneration, nor honour, nor 
merc^ for Termonn/ nor protection for church, or for sanc- 



* Ikmet and piraUt. ThewordBhere 
nsed are "Domniaticcach (Demnar* 
kiane), and aU/Tni]|UicTi, foreignen 
who come from beyond the eea, har- 
hariana, pintea. 

■ Inffkm Ruaidh : Le., the led-haired 
maiden. 

^atmehtmia. tleimeD, a tem^ 



a sanctoaiy (nemer», gl 
ZeiuB, p. 11, old Bret nemec, tUva. 
ih. p. 102, ise), giebe land. Ganliah, 
nemeUm, See Petrie*B JEbcfec ArdtUmsL 
ofJrekmd, p. 58-64. • 

* Tu momn . The Tennonn landa tren 
districta in connexion with the chnichea 
poflaening the rig^t of sanctoaiy and 



42 



cosocDli scce'oliet Re saLlocibtî. 



Victory of 
the Danes 
of Dablin, 
at the 
battle of 
Moine 
Broocain, 
A.D. 949. 



T)o •DUine, 05 an 1)1101115 gloinnrfiiti Slip'Oig geînnrli'&e 
cnmaţifnoţitxxig ainicq[v6a fin. Ci-B qfia afc 50 ncnţiim- 
fioji gainetîi mofia, no peţi poţi ţxnuce, no ţiecctonToa 
niTÎie, ni hufa a t:ui|iiotîi, no a oifieifi, no a înnifin, in ţio 
ţxyfeaimfiot; 5001*611 uile co coicfiionn ; ici^i p^ti, ocuf 
mno, yz\ji maca ocuf ingena, ocup lao^a ocuf cieifi&iu, 
en|i faeţui octif T)ae|ux, exciţi fena ocuf 6cca, xx> 6d[i ocup 
vo feififiaifpi, "00 Docaji, ocuf 'oeccoifinatit: uai^iC. Ci-ft 
rţia a&c ţio maţibfoc p.io§a, ocuf raoififc fiogDarfina, 
ocuf p.io§pla6a ©ponn. Ro maţibfoc qfieoin, ocup cpei- 
Tj\tt, ocup cpen mile^a, anpoi'fe, ocup ampoig, ocup oicc- 
n^eipn, ocup popccla loCgaile ocup ţoipcci'b na nţaoi'bel 
uile; ocup pop caipbippioT; po 6din, ocup po ^eiltpine 
iar), po T >aepai c. ocup po mo^panoigicc lacc TTloţi T?pa 
7)0 BannqfiaccaiB blaiie bî€e, ocup 'oingenaiB maop.'âa 
mîne mac^acrxi, ocup 7)occninaiB puapca paepa penga 
puljlopa, ocup vo macaomaibh maep'oa mop^lona; ocup 
T)0 goiRanpai'ft §apca gnfoifiaca, puccpac a nT)Ocap, ocup 
1 nT)aipe rap paippge lefexinglaip leo. U6dn ! ba hioin'&a 
ocup ba minic spua^a slxtna glegapca 50 pliu6 'oep- 
poBafi DuCac 'ooiĂenninafi annpin, oc pcap£ain metc pe 
ha6aip, ocup in§en le moCoip, ocup bpafiap pe ceile, 
ocup coiBnepca pe a ccenel, ocup pe a naicmi. 

XXXVII. 18 pe loingep CC€a Cliafe pop, ocup cloinne 
lofhaip po ppaoinea* ca6 ÎTluini bpoccain, "ou iTxopCuiţi 
Ruai'opi o Canon^odin pî 'Cîpe ConuilU ocup pi eyienn 
lap ppoipinn ele, ocup maiCe in uiaipceipt; leip .1. rp,ioca 
blia^ain lap mapba* "Neill ^unT)UiB le6. "Oi blior5ain 
lap mapba* tacdn mic 5oppcr5«> ocup] a cetxxip imoppo 
ap mapbao tnuipcepTXwg mic KeilL 1p pi pin blioDoin 



other priyileges. The bonndaries of 
tfaflie lânds wen maiked hy crosses or 
other ootupicnoiis objecte, and hence, 
no doaH ^^ o*™® Tennonn, Ter- 
ifiînmr See Ussher **0n the original 
#of Coibee, Herenachei, and Teimon 
Landa." Wcrk$ by Ehington, toL zL, 
pw 419, teq» 
1 FiM ţontoe, Ut a fiur-gnen, 



a oommon, or fidd for viOage aporta. 
See /riii N&miu», p. 98, note «. 
. • Waa gamed. The Ann. Ult^ L. 
Gubh., Fonr M., and Keat, lepresent 
the Danea aa haying been dcfeaied in 
this battle; and Keating makee Congm- 
lach, king of Iidand, the leader of the 
victoriooa party. Aa Congalach, mă 
certainly oppoaed to Boaidhri O^Canan- 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 43 

tnary, for God, or for man, was felt by this furious, fero- 
cious, pagan, ruthless, wrathful peoplf . In short, until 
the sand of the sea, or the grasa of the field,' or the stars 
of heaven^re counted, it will not be easy to recount, or 
to enumerate, or to reiate what the Gaedhil all, withouţ 
distinction, suffered from them: whether men or women, 
boys or girls, laies or clerics, freemen or serfs, old or young; 
— indignity, outrage, injury, and oppression. In a word, 
they killed the kings and the chiefbains, the heirs to the 
crown, and the royal princes of Erînn. They killed the 
brave and the vaHant ; and the stout knights, champions, 
and soldiers, and young lords, and the greater part of 
the heroes and warriors of the entire Gaedhil ; and they 
bronght them under tribute and servitude ; they reduced 
them to bondage and slavery. Many were the blooming, 
lively women; and the modest, mild, comely maidens; 
and the pleasant, noble, stately, blue-eyed young women; 
and the gentle, well brought up youths, and the intellî- 
gent, valiant champions, whom they carried off into op- 
pression and bondage over the broad green sea. Alas 1 
many and frequent were the bright and brilliant eyea 
that were suffused with tears, and dimmed with grief and 
despair, at the aeparation of son from father, and daughter 
from mother, and brother from brother, and relatives from 
their race and from their tribe. 

XXXVII. It was by the fleet of Ath Cliath, and of Vîctoryof 
the sons of Imar, that the battle of Muine Broceain was ^*i^^^ 
gained^; in which were killed Buaidri O'Canannan, king at the 
of Tir Conaill, and king of Erinn, aecording to other peo- muL**^ 
ple, and the nobles of the North along with him ; thirty Broceain, 
years after Niall Glundubh was killed by them. Two 
years after Lachtîn, son of Gtoffraidh, was killed]; and four 
after Muirchertach, son of Niall,^ was killed. This was 



nan, and there were probably Danes 
or Norsemen on both sides — ^these 
statements may not be inconsistent 

' Muirchertaeh, son of Niall. Sar* 
named ** of the leather doaks,** slain 



A.D.945. See the " Ctrcttt^ o//r«2afuf 
ofMuirchertachMac JVea2,"edited with 
a Translation and notes, by Dr. 
O'Donovan, for the Irish Archjeulogi- 
cal Society, 

•d3 



44 



cosoroti sae'oîiel ifie saLLccibti. 



Death of 
Gongalach, 
king of 
Ireland, 
A.D. 956. 

Battle of 
Kflmoon, 
co. Meath, 
A.D. 973. 



Battle of 
Cathair 

CUAIL 



ţio hcnţisefeT; ^aiU Cenannuf Coluim Cilii, ocuf fiucfccn 
^ cez 7)0 byiair; oţ. 18 fi fin blicroain ayi maţibcro 
Cen-neuig mac Lopcan fii 'CuaT) THuman ocuf ţii-oomna 
CaifiL 

XXXVIII. 18 leo, T)na, aT)|iocai|i Con^alac mac 
TTlailmiTnS |ii 'Cemyiac ocuf Ojietro uit, ocuf ma€i peaţi 
îTli-Di urni ; T)i pabi ic poyibai]^ poţi Lai^nib, f ecx blia-ona 
a\i mafibaD RuaD^ii ; .xun. lafi Congalac if leo vo 
fiainex) coc Cilii TTlona foyiT)omTiall macTUuipceţiixiis 
pofi |ii5 'Cemyiac, 'ou i'oţaocaiix CCiiduI mac THaT)Ucan |ii 
UloD, ocuf ^Ooii-Dcuan ni ac inaelmui|ii ţii CCi fideli, octif 
Cinaic mac meic Cţion^ailli, ocuf îTlaelbyii^i mac 
^ctî^bica fi Ua nOiac, ocuf Pef^Uf pal fi CoT)laip, 
ocuf focaiT)! mof ofoen fiu fin. 18 leo, "ona, fo 
mafbaD ITluifcefcac mac *Oomnaill fiDomna 'Cempac 
ocuf Of enT), ocuf mac T)omnaill mic Con^alai^ f iT)om- 
na ele C^ienT) .i. oci: mblicrona laffin cac f emunu 18 
ifin bliaT)ain rucar) cac Carfac Cuan im TTlumain fi 
Of ian. 



^Plundered, CCp, aiiiseccaţi, B. 

^TenhundreeUcez^B.^ "onehundred." 
This plundering of Cenannus, or Kells 
of Meath, ia mentioned by the Four M. , 
at 949, bat the number of priâoncrs is 
perhaps exaggerated ; the Ann. Uit. 
(A.D. 950, (U. 951), ssy "ubi capta 
sunt tria milia hominum vel plus ;" and 
the Four M. give the same number. 

» Cennedigh. CemneiCTnj mac Lofi- 
cccin, B. 

* AU JErimu Uite aţvcena, B., 
" all Ireland together." 

« Of Midhe. ţe'fi nerveun, B., 
^'men of Ireland.** The immediate 
foUowers of the supreme king of Ire- 
land, wben he was of the Southern Hy 
Neill, were called iodifferently '* men 
of Meath," and '* men of Ireland." 

« A/ier. lafi, B. See eh. xxxvîL 

7 Seventeen, B. reads, Ocuf -xuii., 

laf cConsaUcch vo ffaoine^ 



[jiaineT), D.] which makes "seven- 
teen years after Congalach*' to be the 
date of the battle of Cili Mona. 

8 cm Mona. ÎTItiine ÎTlona, B. 
Cili ÎTIonaiD, Keat. Citt ITlona, 
Four M. who give 970 ( = 978) as the 
date of thiâ battle: this wouldbe twentv- 
two years after the death of Congalach. 

^ Arduly son ofMaducan. Ardglial, 
son of Matudan, B. Son of Madudan, 
Four M. Son of Madagân, Keat. 

10 Son ofMaelmuire, Om., B. Don- 
accun Mac Maoilmoire, Four M. and 
Keat. 

'^ Son of CronghaUU, Cinecro tnac 
meic Rojilti, B., "son of the son of 
Roghm." " Cinaedh, son of Croin- 
ghille, lord of ConaiUe," Four M. 

^^UanEthack, Uanech-oacColki, 
B. Now Iveagb, county Down. See 
Book ofRighU, p. 165, and Dr. O'Dono- 
y«]i*s not« ^ 



WABS OF TSE OAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



45 



the year in which the foreigners plundered' Cenannus of 
Colum Cille, and carried off from thence ten himdred' 
capiives. This was the year in which was killed Cenne- 
digh,' son of Lorcan, king of north Mumhain, and heir 
apparent of CaiaeL 

XXXVIII. It was by them, too, fell Congalach, sonDeathof 
of Ma^bnithigh. king of Temhair. and of aU Erinn,* and ^«^ 
the nobles of the men of Midhe^ with him, while heinUmd, 
was making war on the men of Laighin ; seven years 
after^ Ruaidri was killed. Seventeen^ years after Con- 
galach the battie of Cili Mona^ was gained by them Sattie of 
over Domhnall, son of Muirchertach, king of Temhair, ^*^"*2t 
in which fell Ardid, son of Maducan,^ king of Uladh, A.D. 973. 
and Donncuan, son of Maelmmre,'^ king of Aiighiall, 
and Cinaeth, son of the son of Cronghaille/' and Mael- 
biighde, son of Qairbith, king of Ua nEthach,^^ and Fergus 
Fial, king of Codlaighe,^^ and great numbers^^ along with 
thenL It was by them, too^ were killed Muirchertach, 
son of Domhnall, heir of Temhair and of Erinn ; and the 
son of Domhnall,'* son of Congalach, another heir of 
Erinn, eight years after the aforesaid battie. It waâ^^ in BatUe of 
this year the battie of Cathair Cuan, in Mumhain, was qJ|^' 
fought by Brian.*^ 



1* Codimgke. Cuoilsne, B., which 
is prohably the trae reading. Cod- 
kdgke is nnknown. 

^ Great mmben. <8ocai'6e ete 
mTTie, B., **Dum7 othenwith them." 

^'Son qf DomknalL The Fonr M. 
record these deatha thua: — «t the year 
976 (which onght tobe 977 or 978, as in 
Aim.Ult.) " Hiiirchertach,80ii of Domh- 
nall Ua Neill, and C!ongalach, son of 
DomhnaH, son of Congalach, two heirs 
of Irdand (rta ţiio^Dorhna &Tienn), 
were dain by Amlaoibh, son of Sitrioc** 
B. reads instead of *^and the son of 
Domhnall, son of Congalach, &&,** 
octi|* tnac TTliiiticeţxcaiJ mic "Doiti- 
ficnlU Ociiţ'o6cTnbli(rDnaioc)[ifiT) 



cticccFD couh Peifiotnn : **and the 
son of Muirchertach, son of DomhnalL 
And eight yean after this, the battie of 
Femhann was fonght** The Fonr M. 
place the death of the two presnmptiye 
heirs of the crown in the year brfore 
the battie of Kilmoon ; there is there- 
fore Bome error. It seems probable 
that for ca6 jvemiin'O, ^ the aforesidd 
battie,** in the text, we should read 
cat Perfian, ** the battie of Femhan." 
The plain of Femhann is in the oonnty 
Tipperuy. SeeBooko/JUghtt^p.lS,''. 
Cathair Cuan is mentioned again, chap. 
hdT. 

w It was. ^Ţ in blioroain pt», B. 

17 By Bnaa. Ria mbriiocn, B. 



46 



coscroli scce'otiel ne sallccibtî. 



Battle of 
Bithhum, 
A.D. 97& 



Victoiy 
overtheCe- 
nel Comullf 
A.D. 978. 



Battle of 
Tara, 
A.D. 98a 



Liberation 
of Domh- 
nallClaeiif 
king.of 
Leinster. 



XXXIX. 18 teo, 'ona, fo hinţiGD cctC ic btClcnu'O i 
THuig txxgen, poţi U^oiiie mac Tucrcail pop ţii txxgen 
•DU iTi'oţiocaiii Uţcnţie peiii aproţii Logen, ocuf îniii|teT)a6 
mac Riain fw Ua Cen^ofelotg, ocup Congalac mac pioin-D 
|ii Lege octif TleSer. 1f leo, 'ona, 'oa ţwneî) cc[6 ele poft 
Cetiel Conaill ipin bliODatî) ceuna» vn fopocaiji Wiall 
Ua Canannatn ţit Ceneil Conaill, ocup mac metc Conga- 
loig mic tnailmi^s |iiT)omna 'Cemţiafi, octip mac mic 
THuţicaDa ^un-pfu-laţi ţifocmna &I15. 1p leo, rpa, 
va cufiet) ca6 'Cempac fie tnaelpeclain'o mac Tk)miiaill 
fie îttg OfienT) 1 c\r\v va blioDai) laţipin. ba pae vo 
ce£uaţi ve comţiiaSixnn anv, abc ba meppa vo na 
gallaib; Dtt 1 'oţiocaiii Rognall mac OCmlaib ţii gali 
am), octtp Conmael mac S^lli, aţvoţii ele gali, ocup 
ma€i gali CC^a Clia6 ar\v uli, ocup co nT)ecaiT) CCmlaib 
mac Siqfiiuja apiiţii gali 1 naili^i co tlî Coluim Cilii, 
laţipin ţiob ecen do gallaib oplucuT) tk) *Oomnall Claen 
•oa ţiig Ixigen, -oa bi blia^ain illaim accu aţi pelloD 
•o'OCmlaib paiţu 



1 Wa$ gwm, "Do pTioniiecr6 cat 
os bio£lann 1 Hlvigi Lcognit)» &, 
a better leadiBg. 

s King qfLaighm, Om., B. 

^Hinueff, t)iit>ein .1. ţii Loiţen, B. 

< And jBteftefc Om., B. The Aim. 
ITlt date this battle 977 or 978. The 
Foar M. place it in 97^ the same year 
in which they leoord the battle of Kil- 
moon. 

^Gamed, %U> ŢXwmnecebtB. The 
Fonr M. teii na (976), and Ana. Uit 
(977, 978), that this battle waa gained, 
not by the Konemen of Dublin, but 
by the Aixghialla (Oriei) over the 
Cinei Conaill; but it ia probable that 
the Orieb had aecuzed the ald of the 
Nonenen. 

^Jk the tame ftat, D. leada, ip 
ipin bticcDcnn cecno. The reading 
of B. haa been aabetituted. 

^Omgaladu B. haa mac Con- 
'galcDţ, ** the flon of Coogalach." 



^SmoflkeKn. TTIac ITIiifiâoRMi, 
B., "son of Muichadh." The Four H. 
haye the same leading. 

^ Murchad Ghm^fH4air, '«Muichad 
of the Knee on the ground ;** gluTiiV- 
tcqfi, Four M., which Dr. 0*Conor 
translates as if it were ^Ain ţioUcnţi, 
Gmn agmksy **Muicliad of the Eagle 
Knee,** Jier. Hib. ScripL iii, p. 607; 
but tiiia does not seem yeiy intelll- 
gible. 

M jEVmm. ^CertiiMic, B., " king of 
Ta»." 

"îFoe. Ocup baţi, B. piseril, 
oppoeed to po, good. poe, Lat vae^ 
ia woe. 

1* Tk&n fiJL 1)615 '00 «aic, B. 

^Kimg. aiTii>tM,B.,"chl«fking." 

^ CommteL B. omite tDac ţilU 
afVDţii ele ^U. 

i»CfiUe. GilUAire, Ttffemadk. Om- 
aini, Fimr M, Conamlial Hao Air- 
rigall, Axm Uit '«Conambal, son of 



WARS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



47 



XXXTX. It was by them, aJso, that a defeat în battle Battie of 
waa given* at Bithlann, in Magh-Laighen, to TJgaire, JJ^J^y^. 
Bon of Tuathal, kîng of Laighin,^ where fell Ugaire 
liimself,' chief kîng of Laighîn, and Muiredach, son of 
Rian, kîng of the TTa-Cennselaigh, and Congalach, son 
of Flann, kîng of Lege and Rechet.^ It was by them, Vîctory 
too, another battle was gained^ over the Cenel Conaill în ^"co^diL 
the same year,^ în which fell Nîall, grandson of Canannan, A.D. 97a 
kîng of the Cenel Conaîll, and the son of the son of Con- 
galach,^ son of Maelmîthîgh, heîr of Temhaîr, and the son 
of the son^ of Mnrchad Glim-firi-lar,^ heîr of AîlecL It BatUe of 
was by them, too, was fonght the battle of Temhaîr^J'ggQ^ 
agaînst Maelsechlainn, son of DomhnaU, kîng of Erinn,^^ 
two years affcer the above. It was woe^' to each party to 
meet there ; but ît was worse for the foreîgners; for there 
fell'* Ragnall, son of Amlaibh, kîng** of the foreîgners, 
and Conmael,'^ son of Gîlle,'^ another hîgh kîng of the 
foreîgners, and all'^ the nobles of the foreîgners of Ath 
Clîath ; and Amlaîbh, son of Sîtrîuc, hîgh king*^ of the 
foreîgners, went on a pîlgrîmage to Hi of Coliun CîUe.^® 
After thîs the foreîgners were compelled to liberate lâbentioa 
DomhnaU daen, kîng of Laighîn, who had been a year ^cuSm, 
în theîr cnstody, after Amlaîbh's treacherous conduct*^ kîng of 



towardshîm. 



Leiiuter. 



Axngal,** or rather '* son of the Air-ri 

[aab-kmg] of the foroignexe.** Thie 

Utter leading ia probably oorrect, and 

was easfly conxtpted into Arâri ffoOy 

" high kîng of fordgnera." The names 

Ccmmad [the old GanHsh Cimomaglo§] 

and GUle are deddedly Celtic 

M AU. B. omitB cent) «ii octtyv 

^''BtgkhiHff, B. omitB ofi'DYii S<x^ 

^ToHi Cot¥m CfiOe, B. reads, co 

tli Cotmm Cilie lot^fin ; ocii|* x>ob 

*oc!ii no Sfi^UontS Tc-s "To HI Co- 

hdm Cille after that; and the foreignen 

wero compelled," &c In the maigin 

of B. s hand coeral with the MS. haa 

irritten "AmUna peregrinatar ad in- 



solam Hiensem." Keating (Rei^m 
of Madnckhmn) repfesents AmlafTs 
letirement to Hy as the lesnlt of corn- 
pnlsion, not of religions penitence, 
which the word pilgrimage (aititfii) 
impUes. The Four BL ssy, that he 
died at Hy *^ after penanoe and a good 
lîfe ;" and, so alao saja Tigemach, «oo 
■Dut 00 hi om oitfiiţe, "he went to 
Hy in penance,** A.D. 980. 

^ TftadyarouM eombtei, OCfi poH, 
B. The liberatiott of DomhnaU Cken, 
kîng of Leinster, is dated by the Fonr 
M. the year after the battle ci Temhair, 
or Taxa; but Tigemach plaoesit hi th# 
same year, 98(X 



48 



coscroli soce'oliel ae sallcnbîi. 



The im- 
moiMfleet 
of Imar, 
grandionof 
Imar, and 
hiBBoni. 



They 
encamp 
at Inia- 
Sibtonn. 



Theextent 
of their 
oppraaiian. 



XL. txxnic laţifin 1115 longef crobul moji, bomufitiici 
na gac longei^ ; uctifi ni 6anic a hînnamail coţnnaiUiuţ* 
in ©yiinT) |iiani, la hlmaţi tia nlmaifi op-ofii gali, ocuf la 
rfii maccaib .1. la T)uBcenT) ocuf CCiallaiT) ocuf CCpalc 
meic Imaiţu Ro gab poffOD ocuf porlonspoţiT; leofin 
in Inif SibconT) aţi c«an tuuimţ. Ro qpteacaD, ocuf 
fU) hinfieT) TYlumu ţjoţi gafi lei turoa fin, eceţi cella 
ocuf raiaua, ocuf gabaif biicngci, octif er^jii, 'oe peţuiib 
ni uman uli erjeţi gali octif goe^el, ocuf jio uaiţibiţi po 
fmacr; ocuf po geitfint 'oîccrnexn vo gallaib ocup tk) 
anmapcaib laţifin. T>o oyiXHiiC, imoţipo, ţiiga ocup 
raife£u, maeţiu ocuf ţieafcaiţieDii, >n cafi nyi ocup in cac 
€uai6 layifin, ocup 'oa iogaib tn cif ţii^Da. ba he po, 
•ona, rfiuma canac ocup cipa nogall poji ejiinT) uli co 
pojile^n ocup co corcenT) .1. ţii poţi co£ xnp ua6ib, ocup 
coepea£ poţi ca£ uuaiu, ocup abb poţi cac cili, ocup 
maeip poţi cac mbali, ocup puapcleafi ca6 T;\p, conafi 
ţiabi confimuip ic 'ouni 'oeţiaib OţienT) ceu bleţon a bo, 
na comeip lini. oen 6iţici -ou^aib "oo "oin, no vo 'oigţiaip'oa 
pinpep no "Donamcaiţic, acu a map^ain tx) maeiţi, no "oo 



^ WomderfiiL ha muţinise». B., 



** more nameronfl.'* 



* Ju KhenesM, Oifi ni tonic a 
lonnţxnhcDt no a copmcnleţ*, B. 

* Imar, gratuUon of Imar, La hOCifi- 
laib moţi «a nlomoitv, B., "with 
ÂfflUaibh the 6reat,gnnd8on of Imar." 

< With tkree mmt, ta a qfti mac- 
caibţ^nt B., "with his thne sona." 

* DMcaid. ta Dm^n'O, ocay 
Ca-aUxns, ocnţ» CCtuitc B. : "With 
Dabhginn [Black head], and Ca-al- 
laigfa [Wild dog], and Aialt [Haroid]." 

« 8om of Imar Om., B. 

1 Landti. Ho ^txro pof<i6, B., 
"they took rast," or "stopped.** It 
ia remarkable that thia gnat fleet ia 
not mentionod in the Aimala. 

B SiUond, SipconT), B. 

9 Mumkam, In ciţi leo» ocup 
TTltifha tnle ori goi let, B. : "The 
ooontiy waa laraged and plnndered 



by t^enii and aU Momhaln on everjr 
aide." Uotmx ţ*in. Om., B. 

^ LevietU Ho gabţiic eiî>if\e6a 
peţi TUnifiain iceţv gaUa ocaj* 501- 
'DeatOf B. : " They took hoetagea from 
the men of Monater, whether Gaill or 
Gaedhfl." Meaning by GaOi the fb- 
nignera who had pvevionalj aettled in 
Mmister, and had come to be regaided 
aa "men of Monater," ao that the new 
inTadera did not diHtingniah between 
them and the natire Iriah. The next 
danaeocaf fu> ceciţibi|v .... 1071 pin, 
ia omitted in B. CCnma|icai1>, ia for 
"Danmcqficcnb (the aapiiated hutial 
D omitted), Denmarkiana or Danea. 

^Heordamed, B. adda amlaoibh, 
"Amiaff ordained.** D. had made 
no mention of Amkff, but of " Imar, 
gnmdaon of Imar;" and, therefom, in 
the text, "he" mnat mean Imar, the 
leader of the ezpedition. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



49 



XL. There came after that an immensely great fleet, 
more wonderful^ than all the other fieets, (for its equal or 
its likeness' never before came to Eriim,) with Imar, 
grandson of Imar,^ chief king of the foreigners, and with 
three sons,^ viz., Dubhcenn,^ and Cu-allaidli, and Aralt, 
sons of Imar.^ Tbese landed^ and encamped in Inis- 
Sibtond,^ in the harbour of LuimnecL Mmnhain® waa 
plundered and ravaged on all sides by them, both churches 
and chieftainries, and they levied^^ pledges and hostages 
fix>m all tiie men of Mumhain, both Gaill and Gaedhil ; 
and they afterwards brought them under indescribable 
oppreasion and servitude to the foreigners and the Danea 
Moreover, he ordained'^ kings and chiefs, stewards and 
bailiffs, in every temtoiy, and in every chiefbainiy after 
that^ and he levied the royal rent.'' And such was^' the 
oppressiyeness of the tribute and rent of the foreigners over 
all Erinn at large, and generally, that there was a king 
from them** over eveiy territory^ and a chief over eveiy 
chieftainiy, and an abbot over eveiy chiuxîh, and a stew- 
ard over eveiy village,'^ and a soldier in eveiy house, so 
that none of the men of Erinn had power*^ to give even 
the milk of his cow, nor as much as the clutch of eggs of 
one hen in suocour or in kindness tp an aged man, or to a 
friendy but wne forced to preserve them for the foreign 



Theim- 
mensefleet 
of ImaTi 
granâwmof 
Imar, and 
hisBona. 



They 
encamp 
atlnis- 
Sibtond. 



Theextent 
of thdr 
opproHÎon. 



tt Bojfal rmL In cat cuait, oct]|* 
no toooonb in dop ţvlog^ vno^oa, 
B., "the royal lent of davery." 

V Stuk wat. Ocup txx he fo uţva 
na aofa pn, B. : "And thia tax of 
the foveigiien waa orer all Inland," 
Ac 

u From ikem, B. omits noCit). But 
the woM ia necessaiy to the aense, for 
tliia was the grayarnen, that a king, a 
efaieftain, an abbot, &c, were appolnted 
/îrcm the raoe qftheforeîfftten, to raper- 
■ede the Uwfiil natÎTe king, rhieftain, 
Abbot, ftc 

u Over ecerjf vOlaffe. TYIadţi ca&a 
boobe, octtf ţntcncfied, B. : "A 



steward of ereiy Tîllage, and a aoldier," 
ftc 

u Power, B. leada Co na6 ivonbe 
a comat* as aen Trame Tipeiunt) 
dt^enn c6t> bleogan a b6, no coibet|« 
tine aen afice xx) tii^t> vo cab- 
baific TKX 'oio5fiai|* no tnx anmda- 
TUX1C, ace a moţicain tiile non 
maeţi, no von cpiatqfied CCtlmajfi- 
va, B. : " So that not one of the men 
of Iieland had power to giye eren the 
milk of his cow, nor aa much aa the 
dntch of eggs of one hen from kind- 
ness orfriendship, but [was compelled] 
to pr e s erve all for the steward or for 
the soldier ol the pirates.** 

£ 



50 



cosccDti scceT)1iel ne satLonbli. 



Iieafccnţie, no tK) t\ia\iziea^ goilL Octif cit) oen somnafi 
no bei6 ifon roij, noSo lemca a ble^on "oo năimiţi oen 
01*061, no TK) T)Uni salaifi, ace a maţi^oin "oo maeiţi no 
•DO fiecTXiiîi no tk) fuafiT^leac gcnlL Cit) pccca no bei€ in 
ingnaif in coigi, ni lemţa aifibejincro aji a cti'Dif no aji 
a iiiTOlmu, cen co bei€ ifccng a& oen bo, cen a mafibcro 
pţii cuie na hen oi'oci, mini posfia acmoins a |ii€olnia 
cena. Ocup in 'ouni ba hinicrcu T)on muinnţi voi a zma- 
fitifctil, in la no fiagaD 1 coblaS maţioen tie fiigeiina, 
[ocuf ] a ţiefcul lom vd amail no bei€ ipcaig. Ocuf ungi 
•Daţiguc pinDtiuni ca6a ffiona, ţxxn cif tii^oa lofifin caca 
blioDctin, octjf mu ica na6 biT) acrnainţ a ica e pein 1 
n'Daiţii anT). 
Theoppiw- Cit) rţia a£c, cit) cec cenx) codut; comqiuai'D lap.nai'oi no 
fmdhyihib ^^^ ^V' ^^ bfiagic, ocuf ceTî r^enscTO aig a£Unn înntiaji 
iriahinda- uniaiT)i nemejisDi in -gah cinT), ocup cec yii glopctinilada 
glani'Di nenupcţuroac o cac oen cengaiT), ni caiţiepoD a 
Cuţiuim, no a apneip, no a apium, no a înnipi [an] fio 
ODimpec jaoDil uli co coccem), OTueţi pipu ocup ntna, eceji 
laecu ocup cleip^iu, ecep penu ocup ogu, eueţi paipu ocup 
•oaipu, T)u DuaD ocup "ou 'oocaiti ocup "oo cmpoţipon in 
ca6 coig, on "opoing anjbaiT) anniap£a aUfnaftoa glain- 
gencligi pin. Ci[i ba mop, rţia, in T>o£pa& ocup in can- 



1 And. Om. S. 

^Inthe houae, Ipci^ fii t6fti^ B. 

* Matt he k^ CCdc a 6oifn6cc 
x>on maeţi no T>on cpicncţveaâ 
ottTnafi.'Da, ^"6 ţcroa no beit in 
eccmcn-p a cije, B.: "But must be 
kept for the itewaid, or the Boldier of 
the piratea, howerer long he may have 
been in ab«ence trom the houM.** 

< LetMened. B. omită the wotds no 
aţv a ţiitotmn, and for the wordB fol- 
lowing has ^on go ntbeit a|«ci^ (a 
meie difference of speOing). 

s It fiMtft Lit iritfaoat its being 
kiUed. The meaning ia, that rather 
than <^^Twî«î■ll the foreigner's share, 
the 011I7 cow (even if there were bat 
one) muBt be kOIed. B. omits cen. 



• The meal OC ccuro, B. ** his 
meaL" 

7 Olhervite procMted. IDnna ţ^pa- 
SaiU6e oqpcang a pfutaitme ofi- 
cena, B. 

8 The mottJtL bii'6 ini6a, B. 
*7^dttjf. InlanotioccrDicoob- 

ta6 ofi aen fie a dgeimoi ocmţ a 
Plieţ^at, B. 

u> At home. bett ţein iŢciţ, B. 

^FmdrmL tio 'opionn'op.vine, 
B. "of nhrer or white bnmie.** See 
Batth ofMagk Lma^ p. 118, n, 

^Evtry «OM. See nezt note. 

^ Inio ilttverf. OCcuŢ on "omne og 
noi bio^ a aqpoin^ a beit ţem i 
nîxntie, no boţiţv a ffiSma vo bacnn 
VBf B. : "And the man who bad not 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 61 

steward, or bailiff, or soldier. And^ though there were 
but one milk-givîiig oow in the house,* she durst not be 
milked for an infant of one night, nor for a sick pereon, 
but must be kept* for the steward, or bailîff, or soldier of 
the foreigners. And, howeverlonghemightbe absent £rom 
the house, his share or his supply durst not be lessened/ 
although there was in the house but one cow, it must* be 
killed for the meal® of one night, if the means of a supply 
could not be otherwise procured,^ And the most fit* 
person of the family was obliged to take wages, the day* 
on which he embarked on board ship with his lord, [and] 
he must be suppiied with provision, as if he was at home.^° 
And an ounce of silver Findruni^^ for every nose,'^ besides 
the tojbI tribute afberwards eveiy year; and he who had 
not the means of paying it had himself to go into slaveiy^^ 
for it. 

In a word, although there were an hundred hard^^ steeled The oppm- 
îron heads on one neck," and an hundred sharp, ready, fc^*^"the 
cool,*^ never-msting, brazen^^ tongues in each head, and an i^ inde- 
hundred garrulous,** loud, unceasing voices from each"°^ *' 
tongue, they could not reoount, or narrate, or enumerate, 
or teii, what aU the Oaedhil suffered in eommon, both 
men and women, laity and deigy, old and young, noble and 
ignoble, of hardship, and of injury, and of oppression,^* in 
eveiy house, from these valiant, wrathful, foreign, purely- 
pagan people.^® Even*^ though great were this cruelty, 



tlie means of pftying it, he waa hinuelf 
conqieUed to go into daTeiy, or elBe 
hÎB noM wu cot off.** 

^^Hard, CorDCCccoTnTxtifigenoom- 
dtwon^ B. : " Hard, strong, stedy.** 

^On<me nedL CC\i gad aen bţiâ- 
pDZ, B., ^^on erery neck." 

u Cool Ifiimofi, for fînnţtiaţi, 
"reiy cold." 1fit>ţraafi, B. 

^ Braem. B. omite fiefneţvgDi. 

u Qamloiu. B. leade ^leoţi'oa 
sUnifroe neimiţidţvcroad in gad aen 
censaro, ni ccntvfKXD a ctuTiem no 



a fjoifnĂiţ» [copieiţ», D.], no a 
aiTverh, no a m-oipn in ţio py- 
xxniiiŢioz [onyivnŢexi^ D.] 

" Oppreaikm. T>(VfifOfi\i6a\ ingon- 
ca6,B. 

^ Purefy-pagan people. For alXr- 
morvoa s^onn genctii^i pn, B. reade, 
attmofi.'Da fin- " From theee foreign 
people.** 

^Effen, ţeţi fhdfv xsfw cm t>o6- 
ficare pn, ocnţ» an canppotifvdn, 
ocnŢ on canplaitmp; getifoc ile 
loni'oa ilclanDO, B. 

£2 



52 



coscToti saeT)tieL ue sccUccibti. 



ţx)|ian octif in ncmploCi fin ; cioţifoc ailim'oa a clanna 
ilbucroaCa na heţienT) ilcenelai^ ; ciaţifoc tînmoţi a 
tiig ocuf îii5plati octif a jiisDcmna; ciaţifoc im-oa a 
ufieic ocuf qfieml octif a 'Ojienmili'o, a laic gaiti, octif 
gaifciT), ocuf gnimaţiia ; ni raţvo ne£ •ooibfin imanoiţi 
ţVi\iTxicc no «ofloisfii no hoţiţiana, no in necomneţir pn 
ţie focai-oect; ocuf |ie tînmoiţiecc ocuf ţie han5baiT>e£c 
[ocof ] ţie hanniaţifiacT; in rfluoig buiţib ba7>bai'Di 'oicet- 
tiT) "Docoifc •DoSomniain'D o ţu) hin^ţier) in xxinbofitian fin, 
fie f ebof a lti|ie£ lainT)efiT)a Itaccmaţia rţie-oualac cpom 
Snperiority cpeb^ioiT) raiimemac ; ocuf clai'oium qiuai'o comnefu 
Danisii comCalma ; octif a f leag femnec firlebuţi ; ocuf na naţim 
amourand naig nafilom evţuycpc ecf amait apcena, octif aţi mec a 
nanjlonT) ocuf an^nimţiaiT) angaili ocof angoifaT), a 
neiţir, ocuf a nemi, ocuf a mboTxnnlacr, ţie ţio meu a 
niTXTD ocuf a noncobaiţi mon nţi railc coţieiB Txyn'orpeb- 
gloin, eiffoic, abnic, inbeţiaic, nrioţiglain maDţieiT) min- 
fco€aic e^eriT). 

XLI. bai, imoţiţu), aţiali ciniUT) fuaijic faiţiclann€a 
fofeneoit fegainT) in nOţiinT) napo ODcnm ecomneţic 
na anţx)ţiţian no 'oo^ţicrci ingancaig o cinitiT) ele if in 
7)oniun ţiiam .1. clanna tai'oech mic Oengufa T^iţiic, 
fjiiaţiaceţi "Dail Caif boţiuma, in "oaţia huacni aiţie- 
£aif, octif in 'pccţur regllac congbala ţx)ll<nnnaif octif 



anns. 



Pnuflesof 
the de- 
Boendants 
of Lngh- 
aid. 



^Theirkmgs, Ciaitfccc ţiţi a ţM§- 
ţîicrta, ocaf a tiiso, ocof ţii-ooiii- 
fiopociţ B. 

« Heroes. CC cqfieâiTi, B. 

« Not cne of thtm, "Mi z(V(vo nead 
•oî^fein ţnficacr no puay^ticccro 
na tionţofiiiâTia pn, tio cm eocorh- 
naitc Ţm le himcn), octif ţie tîn- 
ftionyiecc, 7c., B. 

* Wrcoh. Tle hoiti'oiaitţi'DaâT; iti 
cţ44i5 twii|tb borotyoa batiborvoa 
fin oţi tiitnTveoco an ranţx>Ttţvân, 
|ve ţ^ebcfp, yc, B. 

• CcrtliBts. CC l^mţieac loin-oe- 
op.ti'oa, ccîieat)tvan>, vcfi&bualAit, 
Txaicneamac, B. : "Theîr polÎAhed, 
tnuty, treble-plaited, beautiful con- 



leta.** The Irish zeader will remaik 
the aUiteration in the adjectivesi which 
cannotof couise be praserved in tnuu- 
lation. 

^ ReaffyjhrUUanL t4ecciio6c,n6C* 
farfiait, B. 

» Vahur. Wdit, B. 

^Feroeity. CC naim-oetliladc, B. 

* Their thirst tmd tkeir hmiger. Ocaf 
fie fn6T> a nioca^ ocaf a nacoo- 
Ikiim B. 

^NMy-inhdbUed. txmnqfvet^tain, 
omitted in B. B. has mon cci|^ 
Txoiloc, txoitidn^ eafoi^ aibni]g, 
înlîeaţiai^ thâţigloin, mai^^, 
moin^ifvâi'Dti, mmţxîortiais pn infe 
lae^lome 6tienn : "For thiit hraye, 



• liW'l] 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



53 



oppression, and tyranny; though numerous were the oft- 
victorious dans of the many-familied Erinn ; though nume- 
lous their kings,^ and their royal chiefe, and their princes ; 
though numerouB their heroes^ and champions, and their 
brave soldiers, their chiefs of valour and renown, and 
deeds of arms ; yet not one of them' was able to give 
relief, alleviation, or deliverance £rom that oppression 
and tyranny, &om the numbers and multitudes, and the 
cruelty, and the wrath* of the brutal, ferodous, furious, 
untamed, implacable hordes, by whom that oppression was 
inflid^ed, because of the excellence of their polished, ample, Superiority 
treble, heavy, trusty, glittering corslets* ; and their hard, ^^^^ 
strong, valiant swords ; and their well-rivetted long spears ; armour and 
and their ready, brilliant* arms of valour^ besides ; and *™*' 
because of the greatness of their achievements and of their 
deeds, their braveiy and their valour, their strength, and 
^eir venom, and their ferocity^ ; and because of the excess 
of their thirst and their hunger^ for the brave, fruitful, 
iiobly-inhabited,^^ fiiU of cataracts, rivers, bays, pure, 
smooth-plained, sweet-grassy land of ErimL 

XLI. There was, however,^^ a certain gradous, noble, Pniâeso! 
high-bom, beautifol tribe în Erinn, who never sub-^^j^^i^^ 
mitted^^ to tyranny or oppression, or unwonted*' injuiy, of Logh- 
fix)m any other tribe in the world, namdy, the de-" 
scendants of Lughaid,^^ son of Oengus Tirech, who are 
called Dai Cais Borumha, one of the two pillars^^ of the 
nobiliţy, and one of the two houses^^ that always sustained 



iniitfiil, foii of caacades, riven, bayi, 
thepuref aalmon-ftboimdmg, smooth- 
plainirf, Bweet-giaaşy ooontiy of the 
bnght imfaoed kland of EHnn.** 

^Howwer. B. omite iTno|i|U>. The 
rader wiU obserre that all the fol- 
lowing pleonastic epithete begin with 
the letter j in the original B. adda 
aiter ţ^cnn'D, " beautiful," |X)cu- 
fncnnn, jHiefibeţHXC, "bonntifal, ac- 
compliahed.** 

UMMÎted: tio toDOifh, eccoTh- 



TidTVC no ioTnoiţicYVGnT>} fict (inţo|i- 

pATI} B. 

^Umo&nied, Inscmcotg. Om. B. 

^Lughaid. Lwţ;oet, B. LaiT>ea6, 
D., Bee p. 54, Une 16. JMighdăch ia the 
gen.ofLii^AaMi^ac8tem. Ithaaalready 
been obsenred that D. frequently 
omite the aapirated letten ţ, ^ t, ţ", 
&c., as here Luitkaeh for Imghdeek. 

^ThettDOpiUars, The Eoghanachte 
of Gashel being the other. 

^ Hoîmt. regllad, D. 'Cealloâ, B. 



54 



cosoroTî saeT)heL ae satLonbh. 



pUrBemnaif eţieiro îiiain ; in zoi[i xKxi'oleach TxronemnaS 

Of coinbb T^gaiT)! in qfiomţalman, ocuf in ix>buţi 

aeb'oa in ueni lonsSeccC of legaib lain'oep.'oa logmdp, 

ocuf in st^ian slanţiuiinefi of oiţi'oţienna^aib aeoip, 

ocuf pţimaminxn in ciniUT) fin of cac ciniUT) in Gf-inT). 

Thrfrpre- CiniUT) fin 'Donac 'olegoţi cif no cam no TX)ba£, no 

M^piSî- S®^^'^ ^^ e'Difi, no ifţuroaf, "oeneoc ifin 'oomun ţiiccifi, 

i«g«- in q[ia€ na6 bioD Of iu accupein, afo occinu noma, ocuf 

cofc ţosla, ocuf focfaiT)i f lucng fl^i cofnum foif-oafica 

Caif îl ff 1 Lei6 CuinT). tîofeafi accu "out i nţi namoc 

ocuf "DefeD 10 zocc "oaf aif, octif com-oufitif cifc Cofil 

ca£ afpecu 'ooibfin loffin, .i. cafi fe fi i CofiuU 

In can naC vemxxi cofDUf twib timi fin, ni T)ti5 fig 

Ceiebnted Coifil nac ni T>ib. ComoTo aiffin fo £an in fig ţthv» 

by (^nnac, ^^^ ^^ ^ fonfioif .1. Cofmac tnac Cutenndn : 

"Oleşaf T)o fl65 8îl LtiiT)e,a6 
Retninif caca fluog TTItinineaâ, 
Ocuf beit illuf 5 ţoDeâiT) 
Ic naccoin a nf ane6il. 

Wi hecef tif "ole^af -oe, 
CC6c Cafel -do foif i-oe 
"Ml df, ni cdin, mof ac dof, 
Hi haVcfinm^ ni hioffottiif. 

Andby XLII. 1f ma TKila foifoaficain ciniT) fin pof focon 
oilochaiL ^^ P^^*^ ^"r lîi^ccfo ollam Gf enT) octif OClban .1. Cuan 
O toCan : 



1 The MmHff^ B. otnits the pasMige 
beginning in rcoffi cai'oleach, line 1, 
and ending atiinx) pn, line 5. AIbo 
the worda no geitli no ediţii, no 
itiT^roaf , Unea 6, 7. 

*So hng ag. CCcoţ cm CTia6, B. 
The mftfining ia, that they were botmd 
aa eqiiala, not aa «abjecta, io noogniae 
the right of the exintlng flovereign, and 
todefendhimfromaggreealon. CCciuiti 
ia noognitUm ; the modem Iriah eqniya- 
lent woold be ororhont. 

' Not tkmr$: Le., when the supreme I 



Ung of Iidand waa not of their fiamily. 
B. teada CCcuf an cţidt nad XAn 
Ciţve oca ţ6in, scm nota a£c oofoc 
ţo^la, ocuf fo^Tunce fl6is, 7c> 

oif , B. 

^AUenaUfis^ ComTMtcQf oeitic 
Conpt ga£ tve ţeadu T)0ib loqfipn 6 
tvig Coifil^; ocaf cm ccm na6 t>^- 
taifi» 7c, B. 

^ ItwMqfihU. Gonit) coţie fin, B. 
'^ Sagtkktanaiik CCnvfOOtiSfecm- 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



55 



the rule and Bovereignty of Eriim ; the shining^ splendid 
tower above the choioe lights of the ponderous earth ; and 
the dear foimtain, the sparkling fire, above the most 
brilliant precious gems; and the bright radiating sun, 
above the noble stars of the sky and the firmament, waâ 
ihis tribe above all other tribes in Erinn. 

This is a tribe from whom it was never lawfiil to levy Theîr p«. 
rent or tribute, or pledge, or hostage, or fostership fee, |[^*^^, 
hy any one in the world ever, so long as' Erinn was not leges. 
theirs* ; but they were bound to gîve recognition only, and 
to check aggression, and supply numerous foroes to main- 
tain the freedom of Caisei against Leth Cuinn. To them 
belonged the lead in entering an enemy's countiy, and the 
rere on retuming^ ; and besides this they had an equal 
alternate right^ to Caisei, viz., an alternate king in CaiseL 
Whenever these conditions were not jiistly observed to 
them the king of Caisei had no legal daim to anything 
horn them. And it was of this^ the royal poet and sage Cdebimted 
historian^ Cormac, son of Culennan, said : ^ Cotimc, 

It ÎS the privilege of the host of Lughaid's race, enMn. 

To lead^ the battalions of the hosts of Mumhain, 

And afierwards to be' in the rere 

In coming^^ from a hostile lancL 
It is not fealty^^ that is required of them, 

But to preserve the freedom^' of Caisei ; 

It is not^' rent, it is not tribute, as hath been heard ; 

It is not fosterage nor fostership fees. 

XLII. It was on^^ the noble career of that tribe also And hy 
that the poet and chief sage of Erinn and Alba, Cuan oî^shan. 
O'Lochan, said : 



duTKi, B. The fixat quAtntn of the 
f oUowÎDg yecBes is qtioted by Keating, 
(p. 60S, OwTy*« JfA), but they axe 
Bot by Um attributed to Cormac 

*Tolmd, Keating reads ţ^ot- 
nuţoTD cat, ^* to anay the battle." 

* Jad to ie. OcttŢ a 6eit, B. 

^ Jm eommg. €Cc cofcedc a cat^ 



Gafiedil,B. OCcTtlodonbomaoofiediU 

UFea%. Lit Hostageship. 

" Freedom, "Oo fx)6Tiaicue, B. 

"/«Miioe. M6 dp îid cdin, B. ; 
and in the next yene also B. has r\6 
forni, "of'for^^nor.»' 

1^ On, Tot ma B. nada im« 



56 



cosaroti scceDtiel ne sallccibti. 



CC "Ooil Caif if calfna fin 
UobTiaif Ocmba comblan) 
"OtiiifccnT) tiab T>ip. Iaca lî|i 
Ic becca ţ?iţi ifoiţi ţxnl. 

Poca caiu iccedcoo cai6, 
In lec feccaiţi ni boc ţiei'o, 
Gctif nî ^enaifi ţo ^fvâin, 
Wac seboaff geill ace bon^eiH. 

CiT) in qftot naţv tonic ţ:laic 
Uaib aţv 6|iinT) aiib^iiteich 
CCcc na an-o ceim T)aîi ceiţvc 
M060 coemnacbaiţi neţu; neich. 

CiT) T)na ace, nî ba mioD menman, octif niţi boDOf 
aicniT) lof in'oajinfinai'D 'oein "oitilains T)iţieq[ia fin, ocuf 
loTin 5aman|iaiT) seţioca jafca galai^ sninfioig joifig- 
beoDa fin, memnoig mofi cnjenr^nS fin, noţi oDoim 
anpoţijian no ecomnep-r; 6 ţiij tk) ţiigaib Ofen^D, ocuf 
ni noma on a& nî foccoaim pallUf no eDiţieafo poD- 
macTxiin 'ooefi ^Docaip 6 'oanafioib, Ocuf 6 'oibetijaib 
•Dolgi 'DUţicţii'oecraib afi anneâin ni poDaimfec 

XLIII. Oa7>a|i, "ona, ic fciuţuro ocuf ic ţotlomnaf 

in ciniT) fin, "oa ruiţi cfODa comnefiini comcalma, -oa 

TOM 0?*°* ^®^ lonna lerafţiaCa hi^vuiajui, va comloiT) ca£a, -oa 

Cennedigb. clei6 u^f a, va T)0f T)iT>in-, "Da ţiinx) aga octif tifilaimi, 

enig ocuf egnuma bfo^a ocuf bfigi bagi, ocuf beo- 



Genealogy 
of Math- 
gamhain 



^nbukioui, Lît "irith fame.*" 
Cona bloi*», B. '* Banba*^ waa oue of 
the poetical names of IieUnd. 

•i%. thiîifin nabDOfi leoca 
tin,B. 

* Tour pmmee. In bcqfi ppoilţ B. 
First written pţcatj bat altered hj a 
ncsnt hand to ţxnU 

^LoHghaoeÂejfhem. foTDacâro, 
B. 

ţ>a ji;|ieiTi, B. 

Women hottageâ. t1a6 ge^Dcnf 
g^U/ a6c bati xi'^XX, B. *^ Kxoepi 
70iir hofetages.** This reading gives a 



better seiiM. ThÎB second qnatrain, 
in the third penon, appean to ider to 
the H7 NiaU: the "distant district" 
(leUC) is Leth Cmnn, the northemhalf 
of Iieland. The remaining f onr Unes 
are omitted in B. 

7 Therrfon, For TMia B. reads 
cţuz. The rest (tf the sentenoe in B. 
is given thns, in a different spelIiDg, 
whicfa is instructive : tilţi bo tnicro 
menmann noaignecro leif ccn wxm- 
ţioi'D 11*06111 n'Difnitonfis fiT>iţ|vooqfUi 
fin. Whereitwillbeobsenredthattba 
ItS., D, from which the text is taken, 
omită the aspirated p, in the wordsT>iii- 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



67 



O Dai CaÎ8 1 This îs biave ! 

Tou have boond Banba the illustrious^ ! 

Pitj* that yonr lakes are noi seas! 

Other men are small in your presence.' 
Long have thej been^ subjugating all others, . 

The distant district, which is not smooth, 

For there are none bom under the sun,' 

Whose hostages they would not take, except women hostages.^ 
And even when there is not a king 

Ont of 70U oyer Erinn of hosts, 

Onlj that 70U would not infi:inge on right 

No human power could prevail over you. 

It was not, therefore/ honouiable to the mind or to 
the couiage, or to the natura of these vehement, insup- 
portable, irresistible nobles, and of those sharp,^ crafby, 
brave, active, fieroe champions (those animated, high- 
minded ones, who never brooked^ injustice or tyranny from 
any king of the kings of Erinn, and not only that, but 
who never gave them pledges or hostages in token of 
obedience), — ^to submit of their own accord to cruel slavery 
from Danars and from fieroe, hard-hearted Pirates. 

XLIII. There were then goveming and ruling this Geneaiogy 
tribe two stout, able, valiant pillars,^^ two fierce, lacerat- ^i^Jj^^ 
ing, magnifioent heroes, two gates of battle, two poles of and Brun, 
combat, two spreading trees of shelter, two spears of vie- omiedigh. 
tory and readiness, of hospitality and munificence, of heart 
and strength, of friendship and liveliness, the most emi- 



tooTigi T>itieqia, mora oorrectly written 
in B. mnţaicongi fi'Diţp«cqia, with 
the tniwported fi. ThereaderwiUalso 
notiioe the alUteratiQo, which is cha- 
ncteriatic of the Iriih hardic st7le,T>6iTi, 
«omUnn^ «ifiequXt all beginningirlth 
d^andagieeuigirithT>a|imii(m>; and 
again the adjectiTes oonnected with 
Scnnan|iai'6, all bcigin wlth g, (the 
tranaported n ocean in B.) 
^âkarp, B.Teadafi5l(Dnt**hright** 
^Brooted, Theie are here conaider- 
ahle diiferenoeB between the two MSS. 
Immediately after the woida 9^1^- 



be<yoa Ţm, to the end of thia chapter, 
B. leadfl, na |io ţtiloing cmţoţitvân 
no eccomna|ic 6 neod p,i(xiti, ocuţ 
xiS mo i\o ţaeniYKic Txxeiţie na •oo- 
6ap. 6 TMxnop^t) 'Duţia 'ooil^ge 'oaţv- 
6Tun^ea6a tmx noin'oeâin : ^ Who 
never wonld endnre oppresuon or ty- 
lanny from any one ; and who no more 
submitted to dareiy or oppreanon from 
hard, fieroe, hard-heaited Danars, 
against their wilL" It is eiâdent that 
this is corrapt, and that the reading of 
the text is more ooirect 
^Fillan. "Oa 6ufi 6fi6Da 6ofn- 






68 cosccDti saeT)1iel ne sccltccibti. 

•oaSca lajvccnţi eofipa .1. Tncrchgamain ocuf btiian, tki 
meic CeTiT)eTn§, mic loţican, mic Laficna, mic Cuiţic, mic 
CCnluain, mic Tîlochsomna, mic 'CaiţiDelbcng, mic Că- 
lăii, mic OCeT)a, mic Cotiaill, mic 66a6 bailteifig, mic 
Ccnţitinx) Pttd, mic blaiC, mic Caif, mic Conoill 6a6- 
luai6, mic tuiDeac TUitid, mic Oeîigtifa 'Ciţiig, mic Pp- 
coţib, mic tnoga Coţib, mic Caif, mic CCilella Oloim, 
mic TYlosa WucrDor, |io ţioiTiT) B\i\x\v jie Ck)Ti'D cgt; ccrchaS. 
In "oaiiTia rellac cotigbala pollamnoif ocuf plai€iufa 
efienT) fin, o ţie Bfemon mic VTiyi&o ocuf ebiyi a bţuicafi, 
ocuf o rtif T)omain. 
Theircon- XLIV. Oc concocaf, 'Dna, in 'DOif-fini octif in can- 
a^^the poffan, ocuf in nanplociuf "do himfCD poţi Tîlumoin, 

fonâgnen. oCUf fOţl fefaib OfCnT) CO COICCCnT), 1f1 COmaţlll TKI 

fonfOD a hingabail, ocuf can a hoDmacrain înţi. Ruc- 

fac laf fin a muinr;eţia, ocuf a fofcala uli -oaf 8inainT) 

fiaţi, OCUf fo fcailfex; po porţiib, ocuf ţo feT)aib na 

cpi macni icac Ho gabfoc ic fojail, ocuf te popsuin 

fof salUnb foceTX)if laffin. Wi fo €eţimunT) na hana- 

cul "DOibfitim, 'ona, o gallaib, ace ba pae "Docefica ve 

a comţiiafeain, ocuf a comoDcef, 'oo cf eScnb, ocuf con- 

galoib, OCUf T)o ca€aib, ocuf vo clia6caib tk) poglaib, 

OCUf vo ifgalaib ţia cloemclofer; eruţiu pţii ţiemif cian, 

Mâth- OCţi roiffegUT), Dna, cecraţinai Diaţiaile, "oafonfac fi€ 

m^^eiT ^^^r comfOfUD e7X)ţio fjii heT) .1. machţamoin mac 

tnice wîth CenDCT^s ţxig 7}ailcaiff, ocuf maci gali TYl uman aţiceno. 

the f oreign- 

datma, doimnearica, octif -oa lae6 
loTi'oa, TC, B. This MS. also readB 
OCUf va iorhla cota, ocuf "ba thmt 
ustifiae, OCUf "od -DOf •oîccin, ocof 
«a ţMtm dga, 7c. 

^Anhtan, JUl the remainder of this 
genealogy after AnlnBn \b omitted in B. 

s Qf ejie fvo. See note 15, p. 58. 
Ifin 'DaTta, B. 

* Sowrâ^tttjf. B.ieadBoctff 1:1(117- 
©itmoif CTfventi 6 fvâ ©tvemoin mic 
TTIileiTD, octif 6iTliit>' a bţwrtop,; 
omitting ocuf o oif ^xmiain. 

* When tkat saw. Cm ctux aic 



ot; ootinoacoTV om inocf pn ocn 
T>a6i|\i, B., ** idien these two uw/' &c. 

^MmqfErbm. 0Ctif!ea|unbT1flii- 
fhon OCUf dţieriTi, B. ^<0n themen 
of Monster and of Erinn.** 

^And not mbmit Ocof socn a 
ţ^orhoTD, B. 

f Thâr ehaUdt. Om. B. 

> Wegtaardt, -Soiţi, B. 

* TW&et. 14a cqfii nucntrie icr>, 
OCUf |\o gabfoc, B. " Of the thzee 
Uaitlme that iran th«re, and tliqr 
began,*'ftc. 

^Afi&rUuiL OdlB. 



WAItS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE QĂILL. 



69 



e 



nent of the west of Europe, viz., Mathgamham and Brian, 
the two BonB of Ceimedigh, son of Lorcan, son of Lachtna, 
son of CorCy son of Anluan/ son of Matbgamhain, son of 
Toidhelbhach, son of Cathal, son of Aedh, son of Conall, 
son of Eochaidii Ball-derg, son of Cairtliinn Finn, son of 
Blaih, son of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, son of Lughaidh 
Menn, son of Oengus Tirech, son of Fercorb, son of Mogh 
Corb, son of Cas, son of Ailell Oloim, son of Mogh Nuadhat 
who divided Erinn with Conn of the hundred battles. 
This was one of the two^ houses that sustained the rule 
and soYeTeignty* of Erinn, &om the time of Eremon, son 
of Miledh, and Ebher, his brother, and from the beginning 
of the world. 

XLTY. Now, when these saw^ the bondage, and the op- TbOr eon- 
pression, and the misrule, that waa inflicted on Mumhain, J^^^ 
and on the men of Erinn^ in general, the «dvice they foieignen. 
acted on was to avoid it, and not snbmit^ to it at aU. 
They therefore carried off their people, and all their chat- 
tels/ over the Sinann westwards^ ; and they dispersed 
themselyes among the forests and woods of the three 
tribes^ that were there. They began to plunder and kill 
the foreignersimmediatelyafber that ^° Neitherhadthey^' 
anj tennonn or protection'^ from the foreigners ; but it 
was woe to either party^' to meet the other, or come to- 
gether, owing to the plunders, and conâicts, and battles, 
and skirmiahes, and trespasses, and combats, that were in- 
terchanged between them during a long period. When Math- 
at length,^* each party of them became tired of the other, SSSîa 
they made peaoe and truce between them for some time, ^"«e with 
viz., Mathgamhain, son of Cennedigh, king of the Dai ^ <'''*^* 
Cfus,^' and the chieftains of the foreigners of Mumhain in 
general 



^NmAtr kad thejf. Hitw) for nifi 
bo. 

tt Proitaum. Ocflf ntti bo teţi- 
monfi, ocoŢ niti bo homacat «odib- 
ţtuni 6 piUjaa15 mafi on cetona, B., 
omittiiig th» next thne lines ol the 
text to pp^t tiemif ciomi indvfliye. 



" Either parlff, "Docetox D., for 
'ooceicccfv. 

" Wlim at Imgtk. CCti cooiTiTifiu- 
occr6 cedcop. r» TMiţioile, B. 

^DaLCait. Alter this woid B. in- 
Mrt0 ocaf tnoite 'Dalocotp ^ and 
the chieftaiai of tho Dai Căit.** 



/ 



60 



cosaroli scce-otiel «.e sccll>ccib1i. 



Brian xe- 

fusesall 

truoe or 

peacewith 

theforeign- 

en. 



Hb slaugh- 
terof the 
foraignen* 



XLV. Imrtifa, imoţiTio, bţiicnri mtc Ceti'oe'Dis niţi boit 
lein^'oe Ţ)i ţie gallaib, oţi 51 bec pogla vo n^pcrp ve 
|ia jallaib, ba peţifi leif tia fi€ ; cit) cac no bei€ na rofc 
T]i he no biOD. "Da Iuid, imoţipo, laţifin bfiian ocuf slof- 
lai€ "Dailcaif leif 1 pocnii B, ocuf 1 peDaib ocuf 1 ţxifaipb 
'CaaT)niunian "Daiiahaif. Ro gab ic pogail, ocuf ic ţoţi- 
ţtiin, ocuf IC ppitifiecr poţi jalloib po cecoiţi. In la nac 
•oenoD olc ţie gallaib "do niOD panaiT)chi boD nepu, ocup 
in naT)aich nac 'oi^od -oo niT) in la aţinamCaţiac. *Do 
gnimp imopţio panbo€a polacixi ţx)plon^tiiţiT; acei 
in-oaiţiib, ocup in niamţiaib, ocup 1 n'oirţiumaib, ocup 1 
n'Dicelraib Ua blair. Ro papaiger) leip o "Deiţic co 
Poţigup, ocup o Bem co T^ţioqiaigi. Ho Cimaiţispec, -ona, 
jaill T3uaT)Tnunian uli im T^ţiacţiaigi, ocup vo jionaD 
'DuncloD nmcill T^ţiacţiaip acu, ocup ţio 6fiiall|xrc [en 
•ofinaţiup "DO Denam] "do 'Cpaqfiaip uli, ocup TJuaDmu- 
main ocup Ui Ck)naill "oo gabail aŢ\ve, ocup t)o bei€ 
pţiia poDnum. Cit) rpa ace cit) no ţexxx, ni bao mo 
vo aiţiium, ni hoţipa a Cupium ina înnipin, aţi maţib 
bpian T)0 jallaib "oonopbapin .1. ina 'oâppib, ocup ina 
T^ţiiaţiaib, ocup ina cuiceţiaib, ocup ina pCznb, ocup ma 
coDaib, ocup an ţiocuip vo conjalaib, ocup vo galaib 
mina menici pţiiu. TYloţ^ am, "oo "ouaD ocup vo T)ocaiţi 
ocup "DO Dţiocuir; oclip "DO 'oţio^lebaiT), xmc popum •Doţx)m, 



^But. B. oxnita imofiiio. 

^Not mOmg. t^iţi Mii lep, B. 
Lit **Peace with the foreigners was 
not pleasing to bim." 

^Hotower tmâXL OCcc pbe "oţog- 
tcnt) DO tiqpccD t>e do 'o^omocrh a^i 
gatlonb DO bfrecqfiti l©ip 'î'» piD. 
ţiD i€ro cd6 i\o bicro ina copc no6 
cm 6 bţiiaii no bicro, K 

^ Howeoer, B. omîts irnoitfU>< 



(( 



oon- 



^BetaMaU. P|iitt3eţic, ^: 
tmdict" 

^ And whm. B. omits from ocup 
tn nccDoich to la ativicmribafia6. 
'f Mor0O€er tkeff, B. omits imoţifU), 



and for acei, reads în. modem «tho- 
graphy, aca. 

^ SoUiudet and dueris. IfiDiam- 
ţiait) octip iiiDic|vebhaib, B. 

•UiBlaiL O mbloiD, B. 

^Fram Dere, O "Oeiţis "Oefic, B., 
\}. e., horn Loch Deig]. 

u Echtu e(xjs^ B. ; now Sliabh 
Echlghe, or Baoghty, a moimtainoiis 
district ou the borden of the oomitiies 
of Galwaj and Clare. 

" One fforriâon. dn afiiip DO 
'Cyiocfiaisi, D. On D^dţmp do 
Denam T^iaqfiai]^, B. From thia 
latter MS. the words in biBcheta bat« 
beoQ huerted. 



WARS OF THE OAEDHIL WTTH THE OAILL. 



61 



XLV. But' as regards Brian, son of Cennedigh, he was noi Brian re- 
wiUing' to make peaoe with the foreigners, because however ^JJ^ *y 
small' the injuiy he might be able to do to the foreigners, peace with 
he preferred it to peace ; and though all others were silent ^ ^^^'^^s^' 
on that head he woidd notbeso. Brian, however,^ afterthat, 
and with him the young champions of the Dai Cais, went 
back again into the forests and woods and deserts of north 
Miimhaîn. He began then immediately to plunder and kill, 
and ]:etaliate^ on the foreigners. When he infiicted not evil 
on the foreigners in the day time, he was sure to do so in 
the next night ; and when^ he did it not in the night he was 
sure to do it on the foUowing day. Moreover they,^ with 
him, used to set up rude huts instead of encampments, in 
the woods and soUtudes and deserts^ and caves of Ui 
Blait.* The country was wasted by him from Derc*® to 
the Forgus, and from Echti" to Tratraighe. Then the 
foreigners of all north Mumhain assembled around Tra- 
traighe, and they raised a fortifying bank all round Tra- 
traighe ; and they proposed to render all Tratraighe one gar- 
rison,** and from it to oonquer the whole of north Mum- 
hain and Ui Conaill, and make them subject to them.^' 
But although it is possible to count'* a greater number, HiBaUngh- 
it is not easy to enumerate, or teii, all that Brian killed of ^ ?* ^^ 
the foreigners of that garrison** in twos,'® and in threes, ^*^*^*^ 
and in fives, and in scores, and in hundreds ; or the number 
of conflicts and combats'^ that he frequently and constantly 
gave them. Oreat, on the other hand, were the hardship 



u Sitbfeei to them. *Do gabonl 
ojp, ocnţ* ombeit'occţognaiTfi voi^ 
B. 

i< To eomt B. has Ci'D cţia aâc 
SB ţu> teta a matibcro, ni htttiiifa 
a fiioih nac a Gnfieotrti nac a înni- 
pn, 7C> : '^ although it was poflsible to 
UU, it 18 not euy to reckon or oonnt, 
or teii,** &C. 

" Gorriion. Otvbaj» for poţibaj». 
"Don ţoţiboif Ţîx\, B,, more oorrecUy. 



Poţibap ia» properly, a aeige ; a gar- 
liaon for the pnipoee of a seige. 

w/n twoi. Itia mbtii'oiiib, ocuţ 
ina ccorfiib, octi|» ma fi£cit>, ocnp 
ina ccârDoitî) ocii|« ma oceitervnaiti, 
ocup afi cep. cniŢL, 7c», B. " In com- 
paniea, and in troops, and in scorea, 
and in hundreda, and in quatemiona." 

17 Combat». For galonb mina 
memci pT^itiv B. reads <^iacuai6 
miona mionca tviti. 



62 



cosoroti scce-otiel ne scclLccibti. 



1 pianbo€aib pdfaig poficfiucnT) pfieniaTiaib coţiţiaca 
pliucca, a Tnţii T)ti€ai5i ţxyoeiîi, aţi maţiboD a muinTîiţii, 
ocuf aeffa sticroa, ocuf a comolra, co "otib, •DomerimTiaC, 
Hia f oiiow- ^ticcg, nemelafi, cofife^. "Dcng orbeiuiiŢ; na fen^oiTM 
^mm! 5^ ^ T)i*ai5reT; gailt a muirrati ctingC jiabi ţxyoeoiT) na 
lenmain afc .u. "otini 'oec. 

XLVI, Or; cuala cpa Tîlochsamain abei6 omloi'D 
fin, pafDif cecua a|i a cenx), «oiţi ba heccait lef a €o&m 
Pfii galloib in uaci fltraig ocuf foqfiai'oi. O fuincauaţi, 
withBrUa. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ hji\ar\ ocuf ÎTlachţaiţiain, [acbeţvc Tîla€- 

TOifiain og acaine ţie 0|iian an v^z pia\\i muinnciti 
Otiiain, ocuf ODubaifir an laiT)h : 



Hath- 
gamhain 
aends to 
condole 



Hlspoedctl 
lamflot on 
theocca- 
don. 



tlach(i6 fin a bţwain bonba, 
"Oo âtunnfcdăo ni hăccalma, 
"Mî Uonihaţt rdngaif "oaţi cij, 
Cdic af, faccbaif t)o mutnnciţi. 

"Oo faccbuf iQD og gaUaib 
1a|i na flai^e a TTlGCCgaihain, 
Cfitiai* iiomlenfoc cap. 506 leafi, 
Wî hiononn if vo thtiinncif,. 

CaiT)ec na coihfiariia a ^p», 
(I5 aţi fdccbaif t)0 rhuinnaţi, 
baţi ngled mafa calma amuig, 
W h6iccen coib^im oţiaib. 

Ro fdccbuf laD icCţriaic Lăit, 
1 mbeţinai* naţi fcoilac fceit, 
biţin-o, geţi TXMlig ctxyt an fiţi, 
"Oo tuit aţiaen ţie a ihmnnrtţi. 

CCţi ccţief ifin mbţiăinciţi mbuain 
Tlobcr6 cţieaf calma corhdţmaiT), 



^Bad food. Mon conectiy in B. 
'DY106 ^niT). 

^Ii^KeUd o» km. For cnc foţmfn 
T>Ofom 1 ponbotoib, B. readfl, unoc- 
foccccjfvfofh T)o btiion) hi j^piombo- 
taitt: **Didtfae700casionto Bifam in 
t]Mwadhnta»"&c* 

^Comiiy. OC cifie "D^itie ţem, B. 

^ Dupiriud, ^ vul^at 'oefkat 



T)oiTfienTnma£ coiţitifeaâ qfuiag 
nefheilea6, B. 

^Hiitoriami, t)oig acdo ţwi- 
chai'oe 5a Tut6a s^Ti 'Ditaigecc(in> 
SotU/ a rhmnxnti oonoâ ţMxibe tfia 
lenfnoin ţ?(yDe6is ob6c câioc p|\ 
•oecc, B. : **Bnt there are hktorians 
that say," && 

^Ofhk Umg, btiian t>o beicli 



WABS OP THE GAEDHIL WTTH THE QAILL. 



63 



and the ruin, the bad food^ and bad bedding which they 
inflicted on him' in the wild huts of the desert, on the 
hard knotty wet roots of his own native country' ; whilst 
they killed his people and his trusty officers and his com- 
rades; sorrowful, dispirited/ wretched, unpitied, weary. 
For historians* say that the foreigners cut off his people, ^J|^f ^J" 
so that he had at last no more than fifteen followers. to fifteen. 

XLVI. But when Mathgamhain heard of his being^ in Math- 
ihis condition, he sent a messenger to him, for he dreaded^ l^dsto" 
his fall by the foreigners for want of troops and forces. condoie 
When Brian and Mathgamhain met in one place,^ [Math- 
gamhain condoled with Brian on the destruction which 
had befallen Brian's followers, and he spake this poem: — 



[M.] Alene ari thou, O Brian of Banba! 

Thy warfare was net without valour. 

Net numerous hast thou come to our house, 

Where hast thou left thy followers ? 
[B.] I have left them witb the foreigners 

After having been cut down, O Mathgamhaîn ! 

In hardship they foUowed me over every plain, 

Not the same as thy people. 
[M.] In what battles, O man, 

Hast thou left thy people ? 

If your fightîng was brave on the plain, 

No reproach shall be cast upon you I 
[B.] I have left them on Craîg Liath, 

In that breach where shields were clefi;^ 

Binm, (it was difficult to cut off the man), — 

Fell there with his people. 
Our combat in the everlastîng Br^intîr 

Was a brave and exceedingly bard combat. 



Hispoetical 
Ument on 
the ooca- 
sion. 



Ţ\n, B^ ^*of Brian being in thÎB want 
of troopa and of foioes.*' 

7 ff€ drtaded, Rov eocont laiţ*, B. 

*Incne place. D. reads O txonca- 
cofi fţtocng0cca|if B.] 'ona oon inccO) 
fo) lioen iti(n>, B.] bTticm ocuj» 
Tnat^Gofioan, ţu) bi Oixlon ica cati- 



|xn>) T&f "when Brian and Math- 
gamhain met together, Brian reproach'- 
ed Mathgamhain," &c. (as in c. zlviL), 
omitting the whole paaaage whichiaput 
within biackets in the text, indnding 
thepoem. ItwiUbeseen that the poem 
ia a dialogne between Mathgamhain 
(pron. Mahonn) and Brian; aadtoa»- 



64 



coţoroti ţcce-otiel tie sccUccibli. 



Brianie- 

proaches 

Mathgun- 

hain for 

hispeaoe 

with the 

foreignen. 



Tnap.bfam Ooootit), — gaţib a gal. 

Con a ceqfiaccTD rfieti-peţi, 
CC|i ngleâ ^tin ţ:poţi5Uf ntfi maet, 

Tx)i|i|ifeac fin jye let aţi lec, 

CC|i n^leâ fa qfief niţi qfief log. 

'Cfiioca im Olitif T)o ctjicfioc, 
Cet) im Ol^im — ^nî fiârl 56 î 

Jafib in qfief — ^ifin aen 16, 

CC fncccgatham, af p|i Txxm, 

"Moca mîn aţi niomfcaficp6. 
Puafiamocfi m6fi ^ulc aţi fin, 

"Oo 5|iefaib vo gfiectaichib, 

CC|i f6D nocap. f^D fa*ail. 

1f m6fi ccâD fie a ccotfidifiiîh. 
Ro lonnap-baf, nî byiăcc fo, 

501II 6 *Oei|icc-'Oei|ic 50 poţigo, 

*Oo cuijifiom cm lucc de, 

O Occge 50 'Cf^ocqp.aige. 
CCf laDfin ap. fccela, a fip, 

CC meic Ceinneim§ cnifgil, 

TTÎeinic ctjccfom finn co bece 
• Oail af nayi -Doig Imn imtecr. 

"Moca bîcrb Ceinneicci§ afi c\\j6cb, 

Woca bîoD Loţicdn l(onma|i, 

CCfi ^aUaib na ixocr maţifoin, 

ni aţi aua6ifi a HlGC^^amain. 
CCf o^la fin a Opiain bpegh, 

Woca nioţimajirac caipiea*, 

"Ml ftiil tai-oh nd chinne hi cqvrt, 

"Oaplinne ge raol 50 htiotoD. 

ucrcticroli.] 

XLVII. Ho bl bfiian ica caţifOD înaTcgamna co ni6fi, 
ocuf afbeţir ppif coba înrlaf menman, ocuf copba 
laicei efraţi ciniu'oa "do fi€ na comfOffOT) vo 'oam^oin 
•DO gallaib, ocuf ficrc poţi a peţiunT), ocuf poţi a teifc 



şist the reader, the Editor, in the tnm*- 
lation, hB0 prefixed the letters M. and 
B. to the worda intended to he spoken 
by Mahonn and Brian, reipectiTely. 
^ Alom, It ia a cnatom of Iriah 



scrihes to zepeat the first mtd of a 
poem at the end, as a mode of maridng 
ita oondnaion; and it waa a mie to 
make the poem b^gin and cnd with 
the same word or ş^llable^ 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 65 

We killed Edonn, — fîerce hîs valour, 

With his forty heroes. 
Our fight at the Forgus was not soft ; 

Weary of it were we on both sides ; 

Our fight in the combat was no weak combat ; 

Thirty, with Elius fell. 
An hnndred with Elgim, — ^no falsehood ! 

Fierce was the combat, — ^in one daj. 

O I Mathgamhain, I speak but tnith, 

Not mild was our partîng with them. 
We suffered much of evil after that, 

From the attacks of fierce champions, 

Our path was not a path of ease. 

Manj were their hundreds when counted. 
I banished — ^this is no falsehood — 

The foreîgners firom Deirg-Deirc to the Forgus ; 

We drove the other party 

From Echtge to Tradraighe. 
These are our adventures, O man, 

O son of Cennedigh, the fair-skinned ; 

Often did we deliver onrselves with success, 

From positîons in which we despaired of escape. 
Cennedigh for wealth would not have been, 

Nor would Lorcan, the fruitful, have been, 

So quiescent towards the foreigners, 

As thou art, O Mathgamhaîn ! 
[M.] This is pride, O brave Brian ; 

Thj mind is not considerate, 

Thj care and thy thoughts are not on wealth, 

Methinks, even though thou art alone ! 

Alone.*] 

XLVII. Brian reproached^ Mathgamhain greatly, and Briân re- 
he said that it was from cowardice' of mind, and fit)m JJ^^^. 
the weaknesB of a stranger tribe,^ that he conceded^ peace luun for 
or truce to the foreigners while they occupied his terri- ţ^t^*^ 

fordgners. 



* Bqnvaehed. GCg cuţvţxichorD, B. 
Ut waa repToadung. 

> That U wae cowar^ce. ţofl bo 
ctdţ» ocuj» guţi bo loncce -od, Ţyb 
fio coîtioţycroh, 7c, B. 



* Stranger iribe: i.e., that had no 
fatherland to defend. 

* Conoeded. "Odma^cain, B. 



66 



coscroti ţcce-otiel ne saHonbti. 



lama "ouiais a acafi, ocuf a fenacaţi; ocuf acbeţic pţiif 
Contrasta ni boT) 6 a fenarjaifi, .1. toţican mac Lafcna t>o genao 

the conduct ^ , ^ , ^ i. ti ^^ 

ofhîs comfOfOD am UT); înn nac njc 'dodiuiii na 'oaciLl do 
ancestore. îTlaelfeclainT) mac T11ail|iuaTiai'D .1. tk) ţii^ OţienT), 
ocuf 7)0 .u. cuigeDaib ejien'o, &o ţiifanimţier) oen cLuci 
"00 piDcill poţi pagchi TTlaigi CC^afi; ocuf înn naţi 
leic TK) na feci; cacaib com6|vaib CCii U Dogaiţi do 
lofcuD, ppi ceuni la ocuţ^ pjii ceqii aiDCib. CCcbeţic, 
Dna, ni baD 6 tu^aiD TTlinD, mac Oenguffa 'Cifiis, a 
f enacai|i ele, do genoD înnifin pof ; înn 6n naţi leic 
efpin mii maigi do 81I TXaman 'Ctiorbil, cţie raţi- 
cafin DO qp.1 cafiaib comţia Conafea nocofi b|iifGf?:xiiţi 
f eci; cerca poyicu, ocuf coyi mayib .un. |ii^ Dib, ocuf cop 
ffiaen maDma o CayinD peţiaDaiS co hCC€ Lucaic, ocuf 
ni bai popanD no fo£|iaiDi acx: sillanDfiaD, ocuf mac- 
fiaiD, ocuf aef Dimain ayicena. CCfbefiu ni mo boD 6 
Co|ic înn fio capainD gullu aţiDup .1. Cofic mac Caip 
mic CCilella Oluim, na ODomaD cafi na leiexnpin, înn 
on ţiocuifi oct; ca€a ic cornum paiţii TTluman, ocup a 
crcayiDa aţicena, ocup left moţa co coT;cenD. 
M»th- CCrbeţii: TTlachţamain ba pip "fto pin uli, ocup cîap 

^J^*' ba pip mp bai aicipeom acmaing ppepcail gali, map 
po gab meu a .po£paiT:i, ocup imaD a ploig, ocup pa 
mĂu a miloD, ocup pebap allupeaS, ocup a claiDium, 



1 Would never. Wd|\ W, B. 

s Have mode a truee, "Do "DenoTD 
coîhoppa'o amlai'D .1. cm ci nod 
cticc '0^01511x111 na T>fîaicill, B. 

> Moffh Adhair. peDb |iip a ni- 
TneiieccD 6ti dtuitce pi6atli pop, 
-paitde TTI1J15G hCC-oap, B. 

^Four datfB, P|ii jvĂ t;|Ii Io» 7 
ceiteoţia oi'oh^e, B., "for three days 
and four nighta.** 

< He said, aho. 7 acbejic naţi bo 
he LujaTO mac CCengupa Dii^is, B. 

« Have ever, "Oo 'oena^ in |*in .1. 
an ci na|\ leicc âip anginit^onncns 
•00 3I0I (xfelamdin T^uaitbit, B. 

7 GreoL Cofhmâfia, B. 

* Seven battlet, Uo gujv bfiip cot 



poţifia, B., "until he gained a battle 
over them.'* 

^ Seven qf their kmgt, 7 gnţi 
mayit) a ţvig, ocii|» cti|i dtiiţv a fiaen 
ma'oma iat>t B., "and killed thdr 
king/'&c 

^^Hehad. 7 nac ţvcnbe ni txi ni6 
•oe pocfiaicce na giollonTiaro, B. 

^^Heecdd: Le., Brianaaid-'OCcbeTic 
ni hai) 6 Coţic mac an(n|i \w coţxMiT» 
501II ap. cup, .1. Copc Caipl, po 
'oâmoTD cap, na teiteicce pin, 6i|i 
TM) cuip, occ ccoto 05 copnam na 
m UThan, 7C., B. : " He said that Goic, 
the son of the man who first roated the 
foreigners, Le., Coic of Caisei, woold 
mot have endured sacb an insult, for he 



WAKS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



67 



toiy and his rightfîil inheritance, the patrimony of his 
&ther and of his grandfather ; and he said to him that his Contrasta 
grandfather Lorcan, son of Lachtna, would never* have ^f *i^^"^* 
made a truoe' such as that ; he who gave not submis- anceston. 
sion or tribute to Maelsechlainn, son of Maehnanaidh, 
king of Erinn, or to the fiye provinces of Erinn, for as 
much time as that in which he oonid have played one 
game of chess, on the green of Magh Adhair'; and he 
who would not permit the seven great battaUons to bum 
Ath U JDoghair for fotu: days^ and four night& He said, 
also,^ that neither would Lughaidh Menn, son of Aenghus 
Tirech, another of his ancestors, have ever^ done such a 
thing. The man who never yielded even the leveret of a 
haxe to the tribe of Tlaman Tuathbil through contempt 
of the three great^ battalions of Connaeht, until he had 
gained seyen battles^ over them, and killed seven of their 
kingş,* and untîl he had pursued them in their retreat from 
Camn Feradaich to Ath Lucait; and he had^^ no troops 
or followers, but oniy suttlers, and boys, and idlers. He 
said,'* no more would Corc, the man who first routed the 
fopeigners, viz., Corc, son of Cas> son of Ailioll Oluim, have 
been the man to brook such an insult; the man, also, who 
fought eight battles in defence of the freedom of Mumhain 
and of his patrimony, and of Leth Mogha in general 

Mathgamhain said,'^ that all this*' was true, and that Math- 
although** it was true, he had not the power to n^eet f^^^**'* 
the foreigners, because of the greatness of their foUowers, 
and the niunber of their army, and the greatness of their 
champioBs, and the exoeUence of their corslets, and of their 



bad fooght eight battles in defence of 
Mumhain, &c.** Corc, Mm of Anluan, 
grandfiither of Lorcan, ia evidentljr in- 
tended. See chap. xlilL, p. 59; and 
^aon" in the text may, periiapa, be 
nsed in the senae of "deacendant" 

" SokL Octi|* acbefic, B., "and 
Mathgamhain aaid." 

^ÂntkU, "Oo jwm fin, B. 



aqxnns gali -do f?|ieţ*cal cncce |ve- 
meD o mibecro octij» ţv© ţeabap 70^ 
B. : " Although it waa trae that he had 
no power to meet the f onignexa, be- 
cause of tiie nnmber of their champions 
and the ezceUence of their corslets, 
and of their awordi,'* &o. ; omitting all 
that intervenea in the text 

F 2 



68 



cosoroti ţae'otiel tie ţccllcabti. 



Brianta 
repl7. 



Math- 

gamhain 

anembles 

theDal 

CaiB. 

They 
decide on 
war; 



andto 
expdthe 



octif anajim aţicena, ocuf afbefiu TiTia niţibail teif 
Dailcaif T)acbail ina lufig, amail fio aqfxrni uţimoţi a 
muiTraţii. 

CCrbeţiu, imoţifio, bţiian niţi bo coiţi 'DOfom in nî fin 
[t)0 yia'fea], uaiyi ba 'ouiaig 'ooec, ocuf ba 'DUTO15 "do 
T)ailcair uli, uaiţi maţxb anacîii, ocuf a fena^rvi, ocuf 
baf aţiacenT) "DOib pein 'odgbaiţ ; ocuf niţibo T>tiaU 
inioyi]io, ocuf nifibo 'ouiaig "ooib cdţi narxiţicaifin tk) 
gabail, uai|i niţi ţabfcrc anocţit no fenai€pi fin o neoc 
aţi ralmain. CCfbeyic, "ona, ntyi ba miar) menmqn "ooib 
in peyian'a jio cofatnfer anarţii, ocuf fenocfi qfie caib 
ocuf uţie cliacatb fie n\arib ^OG'oel, a lectin can ca€ 
can cliofiaig "00 ^allatb ţlafa, ocuf tk) ţen^nb goţima 
ţufniafia. 

XJUVIU. Ho înmaifigi^ laţifin an T)ailcaif uli, 
inoiu oenucroach oenbali co TDachţamain, ocuf po 
himcomaiic cia comaţili bcro aii "ooib vo "oenaib .1. in 
fi€ no coccoD ffit ^allaib ocuf pţii "oanaiiaib. CCfbeţi- 
coDayi uli inio|ifo, ereţi fen ocuf oc, ba p eaţxfi leo baf, 
ocuf ec ocuf ae'DGT) if imcim vo ogbail, iccofnum faijit 
cmacaîi'oa, ocuf aceneoil, na fODmaciîain foţifiana, ocuf 
foţimaic allmaţiac no c|ii£ no a peţian'O tk) 'Dilfegu'o 
•Doib, ocuf ba "guz cez ayi bel oenpiji fin. 

CCfbeyiT; tnachganîain, infio|i|io, ba hi comaţili ba coiţi 



1 He aaid. Ocuf crcbeyic, omitting 
■oua, B. 

8 To leave. "Do taccboit, B. 

^Hadkft Ro taccfOffi, B. The 
f requent omission of the aspinted ţ in- 
D.ţ has often been noticed. 

4 Brian taicL Thu speech ia giyen 
somewhat differently in B., thns: — 
ocuf ocbeţic btiian nifi bo o6i|i 
TkSfotti an ni fin -oo tvcroa, uaiţ\ -oo 
âcepac an mtfue ocuf a fenait|ie, 
octif ba •Duchoig •061b pein ecc 
T)o ţxisbail, oijt ni|i gabfacaii a 
noitfie, ocuf a fencnt|ve 6 neac 
twam afi catitioin «oorhan 6cco : 
^' And Brian said, that it waa not right 
in him to say that thing, for their 



fathers and their gianâfathers had died, 
and it was hereditaiy alao to themadvet 
to Buffer deatli, for their fathen and 
their giandf athers never submitted to it 
[insult] from anj person in the wide 
world." 

' Se said, B. reada, ocmp CR;beţic 
na|i. It may be obaerved bere, to 
avoid lepetition, that for apbeţir> *^be 
aaid," aa it ia written in D., the MS. B. 
alwaya leada ocbefic. 

« To (Utandon. CC lego^ B. 

"^ I>efmde(L Copioccaţif B. 

B Battles. For doib, which ia wroag, 
B. reada, âotoiU. 

^Aflertkis, «Tifin "Oal cCaif , B 

^^ Befort Mathpamkam. Indic na- 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



69 



swords, and their other arms in general And he said^ 
also that he would not like to leave^ the Dai Cais dead 
in following hîm, as he [Brian] had left* the most of his 
people. 

Brian said^ that that was not a right thing for him Brian's 
[Mathgamhain] to aay, because it was hereditary for him ^^ ^' 
to die, and hereditary for all the Dai Cais, for their fathers 
and grandfathers had died, aud deatli wafi oertain to come 
upon themselves ; but it was not natural or hereditary to 
them to submit to insult or contempt, because their fathers 
or their grandfathers submitted not to it from any one 
on earth. He said^ also that it was no honour to their 
courage to abandon,^ without battle or conflicts, to dark 
foreigners, and black grim Gentiles, the inheritance which 
their fathers and grandfathers had defended^ in battles^ 
and conflicts against the chiefs of the GaedhiL 

XLVIII. Afber this* all the Dai Cais were assembled to M»th- 
one appointed place before Mathgamhain,^® and he asked S^^i^g 
them what decision they wished to come to, namely, the Dai 
whether they would have peace or war with the foreigners, "** 
and with the Danars. Then*^ they all answered, both old They 
and young, that they preferred** meeting death and de-^^.***" 
struction and annihilation and violence in defending the 
freedom*' of their patrimony, and of their race, rather 
than submit to the tyranny and oppression^* of the pirates, 
or abandon*® their country and their lands to them. And 
this was the voice of hundreds,*^ as the voice of one man.'^ 

Mathgamhain then said, that this was*^ the decision ^<ito 

expdthe 



enccroaiS ndenlktile co Tricrt^a- 1 
Thonn, octi|* oo bţiiati, ocuy* |U) lom- 
doTnai|ic TTlcrtgaThaiTi-, oaiŢ byiiaTi 
T>it> aa coTnaifile tm) 'oen'oaot'p, cm 
l^t, no an cocccro ţv© gatlait), [omîl- 
tmg octi|» p|ii •Danayvaib,] B. : " To 
one appointed place, before Mathgam- 
hain and before Brian, and Mathgam- 
hain and Brian asked them, what d^ 
ciaion they wonld make, peace or war 
with the foreigners.** 
^ Thm. B. omits imojxţio. 



^Preferred. Tloba-o ipe|i|i le^ âcc 
octi-p oi'oecTD t)pa5b<iil, B. 

" Freedom, 8aot|iYȔ, B* 

w TyranMf and oppreisian, Poţl- 
|idin ocu-p poi|ineiTvc, B. 

1* To abandon, * Ina cqfild, octSŢ 
ina pperionn pĂin, ocu|» a cqvloch 

•DO 'OltptJCCCPO "Odlt), B. 

^^Htmdredt: .c za\ij B. 

" One tnan, CCoinfîitt aca, B. 

" This iboj. For imoţiTVO ba hi, B, 
reads, ip. 



70 



coscxroti ^ae-otiel ne satLcnbti. 



Dones f rom 
the Eogh- 
anacht 
conntiy, 
And f rom 
CacheL 



Invtsion 
of the 
Eogban- ' 
acht coui- 
tiyand 
Caahel, 
tfaeninthe 
power of 
the DaneSf 



Imar, of 
Limerick, 
maştera his 



■Doib tK) T)en(nb .1. ceacc 1 Cafiut na (115 ocuf înneosanaCT; 
aţicena, uaiţi ba he fin piumpoţix; TTltinian, ocuf pţiim- 
ieglac clainni OCelelLa ; -oe^bni on aţi ba he CCeleac 
muman, ocuf 'Cemaiyi Left TTlosa. ba he "ona a miin- 
a7)Uf octif a fenT)ticuf bcroem. OCfbeţiT: ba peopfi a 
pîfi ca:6a ocuf comlainT) fin înnan'ouCaife ocuf imma 
leifclama btinaiT) înnaf im an pefian'O pofigabala ociif 
claiDim, ocuf cit) vncco no 'Docaiţi fogabDaif ic cof- 
num faijii pfiînnceţllais TU uman, ocuf im tki uaoii 
congbala foLtamnaif ocuf plccfiamnaif epent) ; ife ba 
cofiti faififi TK) cofntim ocuf laţiţiam anx). 

XLIX Ro veUjr^ "ona, foţifin comaţiti fin acea 
ocuf ai-^beţicaDayi uli ba comaţili coif, ba hafiiufc pag- 
bala, [octif ] ba btiaiT) aif tabfa. Do loxxxji laffin înn- 
eosanacu, octif fo linfac eoganafir, ocflf THufcpaisi 
acco o *Oân na 8ciach co belu£ OCccailli. "Oa liiii), 
imoffo, TDatîhsamain laffin 1 Cafelnafig, ocuf fo 
gaboD fOffOD, ocuf lonţpofc acei 1 n*Oân Cuiţic tn 
bticroain laf n6c "Doncaoa mic Cella£an fi CcnfiL "Oo 
fonaT), imoffo, cfe^a mofa ocuf aifgni, octif if^la 
tia6ib af ca€ leî fo TTlumain "ou 1 faboDOf ţoill 
octif a mtiînrefa. 

O fo ctiala, imoffo, Imaf ua himaif aprofi gali 
mtiman ocuf goe^oel in ixtn fin, in meifneac mofi 



^Forthatwoi. C>iţvbaYie,B. The 
meaning is the aame. " For that [viz., 
Caahel] wasthechief [rq^al] reâdence 
of Mnmhain, [or Mniuter], and the 
Eoghanacht, [vie, the couitry around 
KiUamey] was the principal seat of 
the deecendanta of AilioU, [or Oilioll 
Ginim.]** Forpţvimtestoi, B.reada, 
pp,iThceaUxi6aiTieachonf) ** the prin- 
cipal seat of the snpremacy of the de- 
loendants of OilioU." 

^Foriivfos, 'OâiţtKxhe^B. The 
meaning ia» that Cashel was to Mnn- 
ster, vhat Ailech [the old royal seat 
of the O'Neills] was to the north of 
Ireland; and to Legh Mogfaa or the 



Bonthem half of Ireland, what Tara 
[the royal seat of the chîef king] was 
to the wfaole kingdom. 

> Tkeir origm. B. omits a fnvnct- 
fynŢ [which in oorrect orthognphy 
onght to be a mbnnoroni'], and năds, 
ocuf ba he a feti niratcaf biiiD6in. 

^ And oomhaL B. omits ocQf ocrni* 
taiiTD fin. 

< For tkeir mherilimee^ B. nads, 
imo TMichaiţ 7 tna qfiich tmnarâi 
indf ma ţ:eţumn : ** For thcir inh»- 
litance and for their native ooontiy, 
tlian for land acqnired,** &c 

* Freedom, B. omits |xiiTif. 

7 nUars. OCn tKi|\a httcnrne, B. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 71 

that it was right for tliem to come to, to go to Caisei of the Danc^ from 
kings, and to the Eoghanacht alao, for that was* the chief ^^*^^' 
residence of Miimhain, and the principal seat of the de- country, 
soendants of Ailioll ; very properly too, for it was* the SlîiS™ 
Ailech of Mumhain and the Temhair of Leth Mogha. It 
was also the place of their origin' and their ancient birth- 
right. He said that it was better and more righteous to 
do battle and combat^ for their inheritance,^ and for their 
native right, than for land acquired by conquest and the 
sword; and that though they must necessarily sustain 
labour or loss in defence of the freedom® of the chief seat 
of Mumhain, and the two sustaining pillars^ of the 
govemment* and sovereignty of Erinn, it was for that^ 
they ought to contend and seek. 

XLIX. Accordingly this advice*^ was adopted; and they invasion 
all said that it was prudent advice, and that it was gifted* * R)Sian- 
counsel, and a victory of eloquence. They marched then achtcoan- 
into the country of the Eoghanacht, and the Eoghan- ^Jshd, 
acht and the people of Muscraighe gathered unto them*^ then în the 
from Dân na Sciath*^ to Belach Aocailli. Mathgamhain ^rDaneis 
went** after this to Caisei of the kings ; and he halted •^^- ^^• 
and encamped*^ at Dân Cuirc, the year after the death 
of Donnchadh, son of Cellachan, king of Caisei. Oreat 
plunders*^ and ravages and conâicts were effected by them 
on all sides throughout Mumhain, wherever the foreigners 
and their people were settled. 

But when Imar, grandson of Imar, chief king of the imar, of 
foreigners of Mumhain, and of the Gaedhil at that time, muBterahis 

— vassalfl. 



8 Govmrtmait B. omits poUam- 
noif. 

• It woi/or ihoL CC|* fe ba c^a 
TK) 6o|Tiaiii Tve ■oanarvcnb, B., "this 
was what they ought to delend from 
the Danars." 

^ TkU advice, B. gives this passage 
thna: Ho aencoigfioc tiile an co- 
ibaitvli fiti, octrp acbeTvcacaiv ba 
c6itv î, ocu-p ba haiteyxîc po^balo, 
oco'p ba btiai'6 nuTilabTuc fio can. 



"Do lorap. mie in ^ogcma^c ia|i- 
Ţ\r\. 

^^Gified. CCieefCC, B. CCtyvŢ^ 
YXXgbalo, " a message commnnicated 
or inspired by God or the Saints." 

" Unto them, acco^om. B. 

^J)un na Sciath, so B. Diin nas- 
lath, D. 

1^ Mathffamhain venL T)o tniT) 
TTlaiî^aihaiTi co Caipol na ^vlofe B. 

i> Encamped, B. omits acc\, • 

^^ Great plunders, B. omits imoţifio» 



72 



cosoroti sae'otiel ne ţccUccibli. 



Amiuterof 
Danes and 
Irish to 
ravageDal 
Cais. 



Three 
Munster 
chieftaÎDB 
refuae to 
join Imar, 
and are 
muidered. 



Othera join 
theforeign- 
ers troTH 
enmity to 
theDal 
Cais. 



crobul, octif in meirnianţioD fniţibtil'Da "Dafionfacaţi 
meic Cen'oeT^is ocuf "Doilcaif ajicena, ba |iecc actiiD 
leo fin, ba peyig p|i peocaiţi, ocuf ba gal cjiiT)!, aţi 
uabaifiT; layium na TU uman 'oofom tili po cam, ocuf ţo 
geillfim -gaXX ; if amayi baf bic a mm. T)o tionneţraţi 
cocoD, ocuf cenT)abac "oo "oenam a cuil bic Don ÎTlumain 
ţiif layifin. T)o5ni€e|i, "ona, mofifeinol ocuf mofif lâageD 
peyi TU uman uli cucei, eciţi gali ocuf goe'OGl, co haic 
oenra^ac oenbali, 'oinyie'o ocuf vo 'oelaţipiT) T)ailcaif, 
cuna£ beii ţe\i con^bala cinî) capaill "oaii ţeh, TKib 
na "oapoţiatmec, ţo cefeaţi aiţiT) na TDuman can maţi- 
boD ocuf can afa^UT), no 'oaiabaifiT; ţo cam, ocuf ţo 
geilfini TK) gallaib amail cac. 

L. bacaţi imoţiţio fin TDumam flari fifienaCa, octif 
ţ\iuh fofenelaca T)ayi naţibail m fluagex) fin. Lucr; 
lacfi'oe na^fiabi "oaneon po mamuf ^all, ocuf •oonqfi- 
far bai'obaib bunaiT) "Dailcaif .1. paelan mac Cofimaic 
ţii nanT)efi, ocuf piaqii mac CCllamafan ţii TleffOT), 
ocuf 81'DecaD mac Se^m fi 'CicilL Ocuf fomafbair; 
qfia in rfiaf ţ*in la h-1maf Lumnig ocuf fe gallaib 
apcena, uaif "Dabacaf ic uaifmefc m fluagaiT) ; ocuf 
fio pef ofcu co baT) peaff leo beir ac THarh^amam 
ol'oaf bei€ ic ^allaib ocuf ic mac bf am. baDaf "ona 
T)fon5 ele ifin THumam, ocuf cen cob af tkii^ gali, ba 



1 Tremendout. CC'obat fin, B. 

■ To him. ba |vecc enccnecro teo- 
fortî fin» octif ba pefux; pî|ipe<3- 
iaiţi, B. 

> Biâ havmg mode, OCţi xxaboific 
TTliiThan uite -po cdin, ocuf -po 
geiltfine gatl, cocca'o ocuf com- 
ţMjaâa'o t)0 "D^uTh hi ccuit t>icc tkmi 
TTlhiiThainpţxiff, B. Thetranscriber 
most probably omitted a line. 

* Spiie. CC mm, "his venom,** or 
" poison.** The words i|* amaţi baf 
bic a num axe omitted in B. 

» Muster, "Oo gnlteii m6\i ptn- 
oiţeo^ ocuf ni6|i tionâ^, B. 

^ Toone qppokUed place. Co hâic 
nâenboite, B. 



7 Dqtopuiate. "Oiitoitiiiuccaiâ, B. 

* Shouid not be. Cona bei* ţ»|v 
oongriiala cin*© capaill coji peich 
po ceitfie hai|iT)ib na TOnThon mUs 
gon niap.ba75 ocuf gan bâfuccors 
no a ixabaiţxc p6 c<Sin, oc«f po 
ţeiUfine gaU, B. : " That there 
shouid not be a man to goide a hone*s 
head over a channel, within the fonr 
points of Monster, who shouid not 
be killed and put to death, or made 
to gîve tribute and hoetages to the 
foreigners." The words *^a man to 
goide a hone*8 head over a channel,** 
were probably proverbiaL 

• Righteouâ. Pi|\beaf;6aca, B. 
^Dîdtiotaj^nrove. IJt, *^to whom 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 73 

heard of the great, tremendous* courage, and the marvel- 

lous determination which the sons of Cennedigh displayed, 

and the Dai Cais aJso, it was to hîm^ frenzy of mind, and 

raging fury, and aching of heart, after his having made' 

all Mumhain to be tributary and bonnd to give hostages to 

the foreigners. His spiţe* was little short of death to him. 

He then determined on making a small angle of Mumhain 

the seat of war and conflict ; and the great muster^ and Amtuterof 

great. hosting of all the men of Mumhain was accordingly i^^f^ 

made unto him, both of GaiU, and Gaedhil, to one appointed mvage Dai 

plaoe,^ to ravage and depopulate^ Dai Cais, so that there 

should not be^ left of them a man to guide a horse's head 

over a channel, an abbot, or venerable person, within the 

four points of Mumhain, who should not be murdered or 

put to death, or brought under tribute and subjection to 

the foreigners like all others. 

L. But there were in Mumhain righteous^ princes, Thpee 
and noble chiefs, who did not approve^*^ of this hosting. JJ^"^iî„ 
These were people who were not in voluntary subjection «fuae to 
to the foreigners, and who were not the natural foes of the ^^ J ^^' 
Dai Cais, viz., Faelan, son of Cormac, king of the Deşi, murdered. 
and Flathri, son of Allamaran,^' l^i^g of Ressad, and 
Sidechad,'^ son of Segni, king of Titill. And these three 
were killed^* by Imar of Luimnech and the foreigners who 
were with him, because'* they were endeavouring to hinder 
the expedition; and it was known of them^^ that they pre- 
ferred being allied to Mathgamhain rather than to the 
foreigners and the son of Bran. There were others also in othen join 
Mumhain, and, although it was not for the sake*® of the ^J^*^' 
foreigners, they were ready to go and plunder Dai Cais, enmiţy to * 

this expedition was not pleasing/* 
'Ocmoţi bdjt cm f luatsecco fin -do 
■oenaifi .1. tti6c icropt» nac ţvcobe 
■oa n-oedin po pnaâc galt, octi|* 
Qanatibta6b(r6a i-Diţv -odl cCcnf , B. 

u AUamaroH. Son of Allmoran, 
king of Resad, B. 

1* Sidechad. Sidichan, son of Segin, 
king of TlcciU, or Tigill, B. 

u Were kUkd. B. omits qfva. 



the Dai 



" Beomue. Le gallaib aţv6ena 6 Cais. 
ţiotknxaii ace coiixTneyxx: an zţCm- 
ai^'61 B. 

" Of them. Ocii-p OTîlo |io pej* 
-potiTiu Ewp. bo ţreiiti lefi beich 
ag tnatgaTtiaiTi ina bei-o ag mac 
bjvam, ocuy» 05 gaUaib, B. 

M Not for the sake. OaiŢ 510TI guti 
aţi -oaig gaU, B., a di£Ference of 
speUing ovUţ, 



74 



coBoroti sad-otiel ne scclXaibli. 



A council 
of warof 
thechiefis 



hefcaiT) leo refe 'Din|iiti'o T3atxîaif .1. tnoelmticro mac 
bjiain ţii T)efmuTnan, ocuf Donnaban mac Caroil ţiiţ 
Ha Ca|ibfii. CCţi maţibaT) na ma€i,fin T)Tia, amail ţio 
ţiai'Dfiumap, 'oaltiiT) 1ma|i Lumnig co T^tuag TU uman umt 
eT;e|i gali ocuf goe'oel "oa înţxngi T)ailcaif . 

LI. Ro fiacx in fcel fin co byiian ocuf co inach- 
gamain, ocuf co ma€ib T)ailcatf apcena, aii; ifipaboDaţi 
of the Dai 1 Cafol na fiig. Ro 'DOcuiţiiT; imoţifio T)ailcaif uli cucu 
mcMtt^L™" ^^ r^^CE^^- 1^ imcomajic TTlachsamain cit) tk) genixiif 
na cufiaiT). CCfbeyixxip, imo|ifio, na T;|ieTnl ocuf rpen- 
miliT) ba comaţili leo uocu co Cnam^aill in na^aiT) na 
fluaj, ocuf na focţiaiT)!, co paigcif ruf in bao in£a€a 
T)oib iac, ocuf meinboT) ct) cocucoaif amuf caillea, 
ocuf poţiaisecua pofi^o in CnamcailL Ocuf if anT>fin 
TK) iiocu Ca6al mac peţuroai^ "oo "Delbna ÎTloiyi, cec 
peţi naţimac imcomlainT), "oo neo€ poţifa jiabi fcioi moţi 
mileca aţi cli cac oen pip, i ţuiicacc ocuf i foţii€iu 
T)ailcaif cţiia connailbi, ocuf cţii pal capDiUf a^i ba 
T)o fil Lui'oeac mic Oenpifa na .u. T)Glbna. ba he tn 
Ca6al fin, uţia, yii amfac ocuf gaifceDafi eţienT) ina 
jiemif in amfiyi poDein. Ca£ "ou i jiabi gaifce^ac no 
amfac tk) T)ailcaif fo eţiinT) enţi ÎTlaelfedainx) ocuf 
CCoD Ua WeilU Da ţioccaji uli tk) fiesfia na bagi fin, 
ocuf in nanfO|ijian, ocuf vo rabaifu a peTwna coca 
ocuf comluinT) lea Uaiţi fiacuaDaţi fin uli oen 
inoD ifi comaf.li "oafonca leo refic in aT)aig na gali 



1 Kmgo/Detmumhain, Tli ÎTInifianţ 
B., ^* king of Munstor/* a mutake. 
Maolmuad, or M0II07, son of Btbii, was 
king or lord of Denhambain, (south 
Munster, now Deamond). 

s KilUd, After matibcro, B. inaerts 
Cfux, and omite "Dna after moti fin. 

^Related. CCT>tibtvocniocp.fiofhaiiinţ 
B., " as we have said above.** 

^Armjf. ţofUia$ai1>|B./*annie8.*' 

• To meet 'Oionnfoi'oe, B. 

* A$ vtU as. B. omite Ţin and 

7 Swnmoned. Ho zotm\i\zz, B. 



• Brfore tkem. "Dat cCaif tute 
in aen lonoro, B., '*all the Dai Cais 
into one place." 

» Asked, Here B. ezhibite a difie- 
rent text Ocuf fio a6coifiGnfic TTl oC- 
goitiain T)1b aTih t>o 'oentMDf OOc- 
beţvccRxaţv ţiob 1 a coorhaiţite cocc 
50 Cnccrhdoilt na naţorâ i>iif co 
poicolf icro, ociif inbu'D ion6ate 
'D6ib loro icqfiţvcccnn, ocaf nmnbirD 
OT>h co ccuocDalf ccmcqpf coiItvDh 
ţofipxi hi cCnârfidoiU : ^' And Math- 
gamhain aaked them wfaat thej would 
do. They answered, tliat their advice 



WABS OF THE OAEBHIL WTTH THE aAILL. 



75 



viz., Maelmuadli, son of Bran, king of Desmninhain,^ and 
Donnabhan, son of Cathal, It^îng of Ui CairbrL Afber 
havîng killed* those nobles, as we have related,* Imar of 
Luimnech marched, attended by the army* of Mumhain, 
both Gaill and Gaedhil, to meet* the Dai Cais. 

LI. This news reached Brian and Mathgamham, asAcouncîl 
well as* the chiefs of the Dai Cais, when they were at îhe'<Sef8 
Caisei of the kings ; they summoned^ immediately all the ^ ^^ ^** 
Dai Cais before them.® Mathgamhain aaked* what the moned. 
heroes wished to do. The chieftains and brave soldiers 
now said that their advice was to march to Cnamchoill 
against the army and its foUowers, that they might ascer- 
tain if they were able to give them battle; and if not, to 
make a wood and câmp assault on them at CnamchoilL 
And it was at that time came^® Cathal, son of Feradach" 
of Delbna-m6r, with an hundred armed men fit for 
battle,^ ^ (each man of them having a large warrior's shield 
at his sîde,^^) to the assistance and relief* of the Dai Cais, 
through afiection and generous friendship, because the five 
Delbhnas'* are of the race of Lugaidh, son of Oengus. 
Now this Cathal^* was the king-soldier and champion of 
Erinn during his career, in his own time.*^ Wherever there 
was a soldier, or champion of the Dai Cais throughout 
Erinn, whether in the service o/Maelsechlainn'® or of Aedh 
O'Neill, they all came to answer^^ the suminona to that 
conflict and unequal warfare,and to give them their help in 
battle and combat When these all had arrived at one place, 



waa to go to Cnamhchoîll, to recon- 
noitre them, and, if they were able, to 
gire them battle there, and if not to 
make an assault upon them from the 
wood in CnamhchoilL" 

w Came. Uo fiacc, B. 

^ Son qf Feratbch, TTIacPasap.- 
cai5, B., '* son of Fagartach." 

^ FU far battle. Wion6oTfitaiTili,B. 

^Athisnde. Po|\ cli, B. 

^^SeUrf. tli pptip.caccj octiŢ hi 
ţîpoiTXichiti, B. 

^Thejivelklbhnai, See Introd., p. 



cxvii., n. S Table UI., No. 9, p. 247. 

16 This Cath(^ Ocuţ' ba Cotai 
pn, B. 

17 7» Am own time. ^n a fie» octiţ* 
iTia aiTnfi|u Ci-o cp« adc ga^ "oti hi 
|vaibe, yc, B. 

M Maehechlamn. TTl aetjpecUnnn 
ifn6|\, B. 

^Tocmtwer. "Oo fiiadcoccap. mie 

•00 ^j|vecq[ia na bd^a ţm\, ochi* no 

poţifiana, ocuţ^TK) taboiţvc aţ?pe^ 

ma coca, ocuf comlainn led. Oţvo 

I fia^cvoaTifinaileoohaointonafDi 

•f3 



76 



cosaroli sad-otiel ne ţaUccibti. 



BatUe of 
Sulcoit. 
A.D. 968. 



The fo- 

reigners 

defeated. 



Poetical 

dialogue 

between 

Mathgam- 

hain and 

Brian. 



co SuIcoit;, ocuf caz pica poţineifir; peiiomail t)© 
cabaifiT; vo gallaib ţo iieiT) in muigi. OTxrbccccati 
•oayiaile. 

LII. O "oa fiaccaca|i T)na, T)ailcaif co 8uIcoit: 'oa 
fiocucrcafi ^aill na conni, ocuf na coniT)ait, ocuf |io 
peţiaT) ca€ pi&oa, puileac, poţiT)e|i5, anmin, a^aţib, ant- 
aţimaiicac, efcap-oemail, ecopiia Oacaţi o r|iac eifi^ 
co nrieT)an lai ic immualao, ocuf ic iniefa|icain ecoţiţio. 
RomaiT), imoţiţio, ţx)|i ^allaib ia|ifin, ocuf ţ\orcaliT; 
ţo cla-oaib, ocuf ţo ^lenT^ai^ib, ocuf ţo 'oiamfiaib in 
macaipi moiţi mînrcoTOi^ fin laţifin. Ho lenaic, imoţx- 
fvo, leovom co hair adlum immeT)ţiuni piaţilaiu in mai^i 
moiţi ; fio majibiT: ocup po T)icennaiT: o pin co hiapnom. 

[Ocup T)o bai mar^amam oc piappai-fie pcel vo bpian, 
ocup "00 bl bpian ace înnipin pcel vo, ocup a "Dubaipc 
in 101*5 : 

Cionnap pin a bpiain 50 Tnblofd, 

CC itieic Cemneiccig, copccpai5? 

CCn puccfabaip puacap renn 

CCp ţallaib înnpi Openn? 
*0o cuamap 6 Caipiol cam, 

go CnaîhcoiU a TTlatţaTîiain, 

Co txapla nap ccenn onn pin 

Cat mapcpluaig co lâipeacuib. 
Cionnap ap pin bap pccapai*©, 

CC bpiain -gaţ in Idini atlanh ? 

Căite bap pccaptain na •âiai'o, 

Inpi 'DiJinn a 'oeig bpiain. 



B. The words in italica in the trans- 
lation are added to complete the sense. 

^ Agaifut, In acchaiT), B. 

*Fierce, Cat plocDa, ţ:uileac, 
peaţiamail, von''"^®«r'Cc, anim in 
ea|x«ai|\T)eaThait "00 tabaific ecoţv- 
|\a, B., omitting all between. This is 
evidently the conclosion of the next 
sentence (line 3 of eh. Iii.), caoght up 
from the similarity of the words. 

* Mid-day. TTli'6moT)6n tdi occ 
lommbuala'o, 6. 

' £aGh otker. B. omits ecoritu). 



'^ Were routed. Oca|»yumiut'Oţ»p.p 
na gaUxiib laţipn, B. 

6 Valleys. ţo 5leanncai6f B. 

7 Aftenoards. For Ţ\n laţvpn, B. 
Teadflfiaro. 

« Great plai». CCn riiaige tfidifi 
lat), B. 

» From that time. Tio moixtxnc 
ocuy* |vo ■Dldennmc icro co ba'obiit 
oc<î pin j;o bmyinona, B., "thcy 
killed and beheaded them prodigiooaljr 
from that time untll erening*^ 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



77 



the counsel they foUowed was to go against^ the foreigners 
to Sulcoit, and to give the foreigners a fierce,* crushing, 
xnanly batUe on the open part of the plain. And i/a thia 
they agreed unanimonsly. 

LII. When the Dai Cais, however, arrived at Sulcoit, Battie of 
the foreigners came against, and to meet them ; and there A.Dr96S. 
-was a fierce, bloody, crimsoned, violent, rough, unspar- 
ing, implacable battie fought between them. They were 
firom sun-rise till mid-day^ striking and slaughtering each 
other.* However, the foreigners were at length routed,* The fo- 
and they fled to the ditches, and to the valleys,^ and to 3^^^ 
the solitndes of that great sweet-flowery plain afterwards.^ 
They were foUowed, however, by the others quickly and 
xapidly throughout the great plain,® who killed and be- 
L^tded from that time^ imtil evening. 

[And Mathgamhain^^ asked Brian for an account o/poetical 
the baUle, and Brian related the story to him ; and he ^^^|^f 
spoke this poem : 

pL] How is this,*' O Brian, the renowned, 

Thou son of Cennedigh, the victorious ? 

Dîd you give a mighty rout 

Unto the Gaill of the Isle of Erinn ? 
[B.] We went forth fix>m Caisei the fair 

To Cnam-choill, O Mathgamhain ! 

Until there came against us tbere 

A battalion of horsemen in corslets. 
pd.] How upon that did you part, 

O Brian of the ready hand? 

How did you separate afterwards ? 

Teii us, O noble Brian I 



Mftthgsm- 
hain and 
Brian. 



10 Thm Mathgamhain. The passage 
withîn brackets from these words to the 
end of the f olloiring poem, is f ound onlj 
in B., and not in the older MS. It is 
eridently an interpolation ; but its in- 
sertion is a curions evidence of the anti- 
quity of the original work. For the 
poem was apparently written while the 
feelings necessarily generated bj the 
lame of Mathgamhain and his brother, 



Brian, were still recent; althongh 
O'Cleiy, the transcriber of B., has 
modemized the speUlng, and perhaps 
also the language. 

^ ffow iâ thiâ, This poem is in the 
form of a dialogue between Math- 
gamhain and Brian. The Editor has 
taken the liberty of marking the words 
attributed to each speaker hy prefixing 
the initUls [M.] and [B]. 



78 



coscroti scce^otiel ne saLlcnbti. 



Victoiy 
over the 
foreignen 
st iJme- 
rick, A.D. 

96a 



Namefl of 
the foreign 
chief taina 
fllaiii. 

Plnnder of 
Limerick. 



Inneofor fcăl buf tnait lib 

CC îheic CeiîiTieicci^ cofcqfiai^h, 

bece Tiaţi beTifcrniafi câD cetiT) 

*Oo JaUaib itit)!*! hOrveîi'O. 
If tnait cofnai'6 a Oţitain t)0 bâii», 

CC îtieic CeinneiT^ciJ cneafbdin, 

t1i ţ»af cm meat ciqpct af, 

"Moca Ti-peDatnafi cionT)af. 

CIOMWCCa] 

LIIL O 'DţvoqKTDaîi oen incro leo a hcrcb cofcoip, 
ocuf comai'omi jio imi^eT; iiiTicnT)chi co mocan. Ocuf 
fiof ma|xbfcrc eaţi aiT)ci ocuf la, co n-oe^cocaţi ifin 
T)âTi. Ro lenaiT; beof ifin 'duti, ocuf fio maţibaic cc[i na 
fjxotaib, ocuf ifna raipb. T)o 'oţiocfurcaţi anD fin, rţui, 
Cayiţian Laigneac, ocuf Suabball mac Sigmaitl, ocuf 
erlla Tmerel, ocuf RuamanT), ocuf Somaţilix), ocuf 
TDanuf tumni^, ocuf 'Colbaţib, ocuf Inpuic, ocuf pci 
cgt; leo. Ro hinpeD ocuf fio haţiger) in T)ân leo ia|\pn. 
'Cucfaic a feoiu, ocuf a 'Degmaini if a -pcroloici alli 
allmaţi-Da, a o|i if a aiigeu, a her^aigi perca pifialli 
caca Txifea, ocuf ca£a ceneoil, afpiciţi niol fiT:a ţxnne- 
mail fuacniT), iceţx ţx^afiloii; if uani, ocuf cac he^aic 
ajicena. 'CuccaiT: anin^ena mini macca^roa ei;po€T;a 
ecfamla, a hâcmna blaci bîiecfpola, ocup a maccaimi 



^ The fort: i.e.ţ until tjie foreignen 
had entered tlie fort of Luimnech, 
[Limericlc], which tlien belonged to 
the Scandinavians. B. gives thia paa- 
aage thus : Txtnsarcaiv latipin co 
mbtiai'DccopcaiTi, ocup ccompai'oţre. 
Ho iTntigpeox; ati oi-oce co Tncn-DiTi 
Ţiompa, ocup |io teanpac na goilt 
co Tnamm, fvo mafibpoc euiţi 01*666 
octip XA icro, co iroeacacaiv ipin 
•oiiti Yumipo, ocup tvo leanonr; pop 
ipin r)^n icpo, ocup -do |io ma|ib<r6 
ap. na pîidi'otb ocup ip na cigib 
laT): " They came afterwaids with the 
victory of alaughter and exnltation. 
They marched onwarda that night 
until moming, and thej pnnuGd the 



foreignen nntll moming; they kîDed 
them both night and day nntil they 
entered the fort before them ; and thcj 
purmied them alao into the fort, and 
killed them in the streets, and in the 
houaee." 

> Tkae. B. reada, cofu:|iaixaii 
onnpin maite na nsatt.w "there 
were slaughtered there these diiefii of 
the foreignerB, vix.** 

' Carran Laighnech : i.e., Cairan of 
Leinster. Thenamesof theaechieftaina 
do not occur in the Annala. B. givea 
them thus: "Carran Lai^mech, and 
Stabaill, Bon of Sigmall, and Eda Tre- 
teall [i.e., the hero], and Rnadhmond 
[Le., Redmond], and Somarligh, and 



WARS OP THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



79 



[B.] I shall reiate news that will please you, 

O son of Ceniieâigh, the victorîouB ! 

little lesa took we than an hundred heads 

From the Gaill of the Island of Erinn. 
[M.] Well haat thou, O Brian, maintained thj battle, 

O son of Cennedigh, of the &ir skin ; 

It is not known if good will come of it, 

Nor do we know how. 

How.] 

LIIL When they came together after vîctory and ex- victoij 
ultation, they maxched that night until moming ; and ^^^^^ 
they killed them both night and day, until they hadatiime- 
entered the fort» They followed them also into the fort, ţ^ ^^' 
and slaughtered them on the streets and in the housea 
These^ were killed by them there, viz., Carran Laighnech,' ^ames of 
Stabball son of SigmaU, and EtUa Tretel, and Ruamand, ^^liSaST 
and Somarlid, and Manus of Luimnech, and Tolbarb, and aUin. 
Infiiit, and twenty hundred ; and the fort was sacked by 
them after that.^ They carried ofF their jewels and their Piimder of 
best property, and their saddles beautiftd and foreign ; ^'^*"®^* 
their gold* and their silver; their beautifully woven doth 
of all colours and of all kinds ; their satina and silken 
cloth, pleaaing and variegated, both scarlet and green, and 
all sorts of cloth in like manner. They carried away their 
soft, youthful, bright, matchless, girls ; their blooming silk- 
dad young women ; and their active, large, and well- 



Hagniis of Luimnech, and Tobairin- 
foit** InthepoemwhicfafollowB (chap. 
liv.) the names of the slain chieftaJna 
are giren thna: Carrao, Stabball, Eda, 
Tretm Tuaidh [? of the North] , Magnna 
Berna, Toralbh, Rnadhmand of Lime- 
Tîck. ThiareadfaiginakeeEdaaiidTrD- 
tin two distinct persona — ^whereas both 
D. and B. in thia place read £taIla,(or 
Etla), Tretill, D., and Eda Tretill, B. 

< 4/ier that B. omits ia|ipii, and 
reada, ocuţ mcfHnc, without any stop. 

^Tkârgold. B. omit8thewordsi|^a 



fKTDtonci atti attfnaYiTKX, and reads, 
a ntffv ocii|* a nontvocec, oca|* a ti6- 
TKciţe aiU>e allmocp.'oa gada TMxfta 
eciji |Tfi6L ocii|* i^cmct, ociJ|» pţvic, 
ocnţ^ finpiât. ZDugonct: a înngecma 
mine macDacca, ixnŢ a ndgmna 
btonte banTxXi octrp a macaiTh 
Tneapa mnitineaca. The xeader will 
observe that B. has modemixed the 
spelling throughout. But to notice 
eveiy variation of orthography wouid 
swell these notes to an inconvenient 
bnlk. 



80 coBoroti ^ae-otiel ne sccLlcnbti. 

meyi TnoţiElana. 'Cucccro in -oâTi, ocuf in •oeţbali ţo 
•oluim 'Dicro ocuf if 'oeţi^ceneT) laţifin. Ho€inoit uti 
in bţiaiT; fin co cnocanaib San^ail, ţu) majibaic cac oen 
fiob inecua "oib, ocuf fio "oaiţiaiT: ca£ oen ţiob in'OcnţiCa. 
Poem in LIV. [Octif T)0 fioine an ple an lai'B aga ipoingell : 
ofthe ^ Tîiacganiain if maic fin, 

▼ictoiy. CC meic CmneirciJ Caifil, 

"Cugaif na piHa fa fvtiaig, 
*Oon rufiaffa 50 Sulctiai'o. 
*0o ctii|itf afi gali 50 nţoil, 
8an ecou wâfifa a TTlatgaThain, 
"Mt fcâl bfiăige, adu if fcâl be6c, 
"Oa c6t) •oâg, ann vo ttucfoc. 
*Oo rtiir CajXfvan voz laiih Itiinn, 
CC bfiiain î a tmv a comluinn ! 
^ 1f ScabaU vo rtuc a|ifin, 

Le Catal mac pagaţicaig. 
X)o cuie 67)a if T^ieinll ciiai'6, 
If îTlagnaf Oeiina bo|ibqitiai'6, 
1f ba ni6|\ anâf, aţipn, 
"Cojiolb if RuffbmanT) LuimniJ. 
Ro hînnfioo Luimnead 50 lăif, lear; 
Ruccaif a n6fi fa naiyicceac, 
Ro aijxgif a n'oân |ve hea'6, 
"Ctigaif â pa mtif, cinecrt. 
*Oo cofnaif TTluTîiain co mait, 
CC îTlat^amain ! a mdfiplait! 
"Cuccaif a ţif, |\tiaca|i reanT), 
ţoiU 'Dionnaţiba a hCyiinT). 
Rl ÎTluman if cu 'oaf, leom, 
CCifiT)fii Caifil na cceimen^), 
"CioDlaic âf, T>o lucc lagai'6, 
Robfoc m6^ a TTlacgaTnain. 

CC maxsccmcciM.] 



1 The fort. CCn •oânai'o, B. 

> Afterwardi. B. omită ia|\fiii, 
and reads, po t)ttiii1i "OicrD, ocuf 
'oeocYiai'D, ocnf •oei|i5?::eiTii'6. 

> FU far var. ţa6 aon |iob lon- 
f1ia|\bta ann, B., "every one that 

fit for being kUled." 
* The poet This poem occurs onl7 



in B. It seems to be a dialogne be- 
tween Brian and Matfagamhain ; and 
the Editor has added the lettect [B.] 
and [M.]f in the tranalation, to maik 
thia. 

* Fogartack. See above, cfaap. ÎL, 
wbere D. calk him son of Fendach; 
but B. haa tfaere aUo Fogaitach. 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 81 

fonned'boys. The fort* and the good town they reduoed 
io a doud of smoke and to red fire afterwards.^ The 
whole of the captives were coUected on the hilU of SaingeL 
Eveiy one of them that was fit for war' was killed, and 
eyery one that was fit for a slave was enslaved. 

LIY. [And the poet^ made this poem to celebrate the Poem in 

event : odebratlon 

of the 
[B.] o Matbgamhain I that is well I yictoiy. 

O son of Gennedigh of Caiâel, 

Thou hast put the foreîgners to rout, 

By thiâ march to Sulcoit. 
Thou hast brought elaughtcr on the foreigners, with valour, 

In this great battie, O Mathgamhaîn I 

Not false the tale ! 'tis a tale of truth ! 

Twelve hundred ! there they fell. 
p^jCarran fell by thy impetuous hand, 

O Brîan I thou chief în the combat ! 

And Staball fell after that 

By Cathal, son of Fogartach.^ 
£da and Tretill fell in the north,^ 

And Magnus Berna, fierce and hardy, 

And great was the slaughter of them after that, 

Torolbh and Buadhmand of Luînmech. 
Luimnech was totally ravaged by thee ; 

Thou didst carry away their gold and their silver ; 

Thou didst plunder their fort at the time ; 

Thou didst surround it by a wall of fire. 
[B.] For Mumhain hast thou wdl contended 

O Mathgamhaîn ! thou great chief! 

Thou hast gîven, O king, a stern defeat, 

To banish the foreigners from Erînn. 
King of Mumhain, methinks thou art, 

High king of Caisei, renowned, 

Bestow gold on those who merit, ' 

They are many, O Mathgamhaîn I 

O Mathgamhaîn !] 



^Intke nortk : Le., in north Monster, 
or Thomond, see last line ol p. 95. In B. 
i« the fpUowing marginal note *' JEda 
TreatecUl, n^a," which caUs attention 



to the fact that in the foregoing chapter 
Eda or Etla T^till ia spoken ol as one 
man, whereaa here we have two, Eda 
and TretelL TrtkU or TreHtt ngni- 

O 



82 



coţcroti ţcce'otiel ne sallcnbti. 



Dividonof 
thespoiL 



Raoesof 
the son of 
Feimâach. 



Math- 
gamludii 
plundera 
MnnBter» 

Cathal, 
son of 
Fendach, 
kiUed, 
A.D.968. 



Mftth- 
gamha!n*« 
MYen vio- 
torieB oTer 
theforaigii- 



LV. Ro oţiT)ai§, 'ona, Tncrchsarfiain acmz coiţi com- 
(Toaif, afi T)ainib if aţi T)li5eDaib, a|i befaib, oqfi caen- 
efcib, afi gail, if afi gaifcer), -oo gac •ouni maţi 'ou- 
•0I15. 1f anT), rţia, th) ţionra sţiapains mic peţurooif, 
accu .1. lini m6fi vo ^ailfecaib nan^all 1 ctiocanaib 
San^ail imactiaţii:, octif ficrc cfioma, ocuf a lama 
afilaţi, ocuf 51II1 na fluog 5a maiţief cti-o man'oeţai'D, 
T)o ţiaiu anma nangall fio maţibaiT; ifin coC 

LVI. "Oa fionaiTJ, qria, cţieca octif aiţipii octif înţieDa 
moţia po Tlfluifiam o TTlaTjh^arftain. "Oa jioneT) qieic 
moifi leif poyi u Gnna OCni, ocuf if T)ifiT)e ţio maţiboD 
Cercai mac peţia^aiC ţiig amfac e|ienT). Ro gab, 
imoţifio, pallu ocuf bfiagci t)0 peţiaib TTluifian coleiţi, 
fio gab bfiagci TTloelmua^ mic Ofiain ayi na gabail 
pein aţiT)tif. Ro gab bţiagci 'Oonnubdn mic Cocail 
|ii Ua pT)§enn. Ro maţib f uaţicleru ^all af cac nţi, 
ocuf fio fiain .uii. ma^manx) aţi gallaib 'Doneoc iţi 
cufiOD 'oefi^ dţi gali .1. mai'oim SengualanT), ocuf maiT)im 
in Laig 1 'Cfiaciungi, octif mai'oim a|i tnacaiţii mdp, 
•oinafDeţiiHxc gaill puiţir Laţip, ocuf gaill Lumniţ 
aix; comT)ail 'oinţiUT) Tlltirftan, 'oayi aiţigfet; Imli^ octif 
T)d Id \ ţoflonspuifix; înn ; fio mafib, imofifio, ÎTlach- 



fieB a*hen>. See pp. 52, line 4, and 
84, line 12. Keating calls this chief- 
tain T410C1II Cfiein tnile^ **Tretill 
the stoat champion.** 

1 Ordered. B. reads, a tiontle na 
101*66 pn, tw) ojiTMng, 7c, " in ao- 
ooTdanoe with tbis poem Mathgamhain 
ordend, &c** 

* PenoM. B. omits oţi txnnib if . 

> Fair performtmeeâ. Ocuţ aţi 
caerfiaefoib octif^ cqfv ooifioifxi^ B. 

^ Son qf Feradack, Le., Cathal, eon 
of Feradach, (or of Fogartach, as he ia 
called in B.,) chief of Delbhna m6r, 
(now the barony of Delrin, co. West- 
meath,) who distingoished himself in 
the batUe asananziliary to Mathgam- 
hain. See chap. ÎL, p. 75. B. leads, 
Bivofxnng mCifi aca, "a great lace," 



making no mention of the son of Feia- 
dach. 

* Women. The woid goitfeâ hera 
nsed signifies a f onign weman, so that 
"DO sail/pe6ait> na n^atU **the fo- 
reign women of the foreignen,'* is tan- 
tology. 

^ Om the gnmnd. B. adds, ocuf* a 
n'oejvnanna pata, " and the palms 
of their hands nnder them.** 

^Horâe-bojfs. Ut^giOuâ. B-ieads, 
octif* sitteamx an cplaoi^ yc, 
leaving the sentence nnfiniahed and 
omitting what f oUows in the text 

* Ui Emui of Ane. B. reada, poţi 
ti nCn'Da OCi'one: ^^Ui Enna of 
Aidhne," but Aine, now Knorkany, 
in the oonnty Limerick, ia the place 
intended. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



83 



LV. Maihgamhain then ordered^ to every one as heDiyiiionof 
deserved, hia proper and befitting shaxe, according to per- ^^'^ "P*^ 
sons^ and rights, according to aocomplishments and fair 
performances,' according to bravery and valonr. It was lUces of 
then they cdebrated also the races of the son of Fera- FoiSacL 
dach/ viz., a great line of the women^ of the foreigners 
waâ placed on the hills of Saingel in a circle, and they were 
stooped with their hands on the groand,^ and marshalled 
by the horseboys^ of the army behind them, for the good 
ci the souls of the foreigners who were killed in the battle. 

LVI. Great spoils and plunders and ravages were now Math- 
committed by Mathgamhain in Mnmhain. By him great SJ^S 
spoils were taken from the Ui Enna of Ane,^ and there Mmuter. 
it was that Cathal, son of Feradach,^ the king-soldier of Catiui, 
Erinn, was killed. He took the pledges and liostages ^ ***. 
of all the men^^ of Mumhain ; he took the hostages of kîUed, 
Maehnnadh, son of Rram, having captured** himself first; ^^' ^^ 
he took the hostages of Donnabhăn, son of Cathal, king 
of Ui Fidhgenti^'» ; he killed the billetted soldiers^» of the 
foreigners on every territory ; and he gave seven defeats to Hath- 
the foreigners, in which** he made a red slaughter of «*°*^^" 
the foreigners, viz., the defeat of Sen-gualainn, and the de- toriea over 
feat of the Laegh in Tratraighe, and a defeat on Machaire- ^'<*"^" 
m6r, when the foreigners of Port Lairge^* and the foreign- 
ers of Luinmech nnited in ravaging Mumhain, when they 
plundered Imlech and encamped two days there ; but Math- 



> Feradach, B. caJUs thia chieftain 
ererjrwliere ** the son of Fogaxtach ;** 
and he ia tîlao so called in the Bodleian 
Ânnals of Inisfallen, where hia death is 
recorded, A.D. 952, aa Dr. O^Conor 
givea the date, but really 968. 

^^O/aUthemen. B.readBbTiaig^>e 
peaţiUlnnionii tiite, ocu'p'DO ga^&c. 

11 ffavmg captured, B. omită ocţi 
na gabcnt pein aii-otiy». 

13 Ui ndhgmuL Ua Pmgenci, D. 
Ua Vt^eiTice, B. ti a pi'ogeitice, 
Fonr M., more coirectly. 



i> BOkited toldkrt, See chap. xL, 
p. 49, and chap. Irii., p. 85. 

i^/nw&tcA. 'Oofieodincmfve^B. 

i« Cf Port Lairge. B. giyes thia 
paaaage thua: «oia n'oeoţinţ'ac goilt 

Knxic Loitvge com'oât iKUŢ jffnVi 
ifnni^ ocuţ« "DO oiţux^ţ'ec Imled, 

octi|* "Dâ Id a 'pof^Y^SfM^^ înnce 
•ooib: "when the foreignen of Port 
Lairge [Wateif ord] and of Lnimnech 
[Limerick] made an nnion, and plan- 
dered Imleach [Emly], and had thehr 
câmp there two days." 

a2 



84 



coţcToti sae'otiel ne ţaUcnbti. 



TheDanes jaiftoin, octif |io muT)ai5 octif ţio loi^xî LumiiGc po T)6, 
Limerick™ ^^^f î^ itinaţib Imafi Lumnig T)aţi tnuifi co ţwibi biicro- 
attemptthe (x^ţi ^a^« o^tif OCmloib mac CCmlaib; ocur no ^l^1- 

conquest of - , v ' ., - 

wJes, but allfOT; jiip OjieT^an 'oo cofnum, ocuf ţio TnaiiboD rţia 
retum, CCmlaib la (115 bţiecan, ocuf "oa poet; Imafi ocuf lonţef 
moţi leif T)Ofiifi, cop rab ap cuan iap€apac Lumniţ, 
[ocuf ] po mapbcTD leo Oeolan Lirill ocup a mac. [Ho 
aiucpeaB ap pin ap cuan laprapac Luimni§, octip T)o 
ponra cpeaca ocup ipjala tia-fea ap. 
Math- ^ LVII. Ro saB imoppo nflafigarfiain pi^e îTltiiţian co 
wverei^ty pop-^n^ii pepp^a pepomail, octip po mapba* piî;h ocup 
of Munster. x;aoipi§, rpeiT^ill ociip rpenmili'S na n^all uile ieip- 
Ro T)aepaic imoppo a maeip ocup a pecraipe^a, a puaix;- 
pi§, ocup a naiţipai§; ocuppo bai p6 blia^na hi Iditifii^ 
Conspiracy îTluiftan. CiT) rpa aer; ot; conaipc *OoTiT)aBdn mac Că- 
lăii p{ Ua Pp'fe^Gînnce, ocup TTlaetmua'5 mac bpxnn 
pi 'Oepiţiuiftan an popbaipr ocup an pipBipeac mop 
bai pop plairep TTlcci^arftna, ocup T)ailcCaip apcena, 
po gatS pîof, ocup popmar: mop iot), ocup ba heccal la 
Cloinn Cuipc, ocup la hOo^anacr: apcena in plai^ep, 
ocup in popldrftup, ocup an pi§i vo rocc co *OailcCaip, 
ocup co Clannaib Lu|T)cich atftail boi hi ppîogaip ocup 
hi ppaipcine '56iB. Ro iaipnpppioc lapaih naeiift ocup 
pipeoin goma^ la cloinn Copbmaic Caip an plaiiep, 
ocup in pollatfinap co bpdrh, arfiail apbepr an cpetal, 
ocup in pai'5 ocup in pili .1. Colman mac ieinin : 



formed 
against 
hlm. 



Prophecy 
of St Col- 
man, son 
of Lenin. 



Clann Copbmaic Caip, co niolap nglonn 
51-6 leo an ţ:laicep ptal, 
CCcc qfviap, co zi piann. 



1 Howtoer, For intoţiţio, B. reada» 

s TheoL The text of D. reqoireB 
thia word, bat B. snppliea the want 
by reading, xiopmtiisi'O goitt luim- 
ni^ţ **alew the men of Limerick.'* 

^ Iniht eatt: i.e., in Wales. 

« They aitea^Ud. Thia passage is 
thns giyen in B. : ocup cpiaUpacaii. 



TM^e btiecrcoin tx) satxnt, ocup ■«> 
\itiatz ^mha:fi ocup loitigep m6|i 
teip TK) inTO-p ooip juy gab a|\ 
cuon iaţ\caţva6 LtumtiiSt ocup tio 
Tnaţ\b(r6 teip beoHcm LiciM, oci]|« 
a mac : ** and they attempted to coo- 
quer the kingdom of Britain [Le., 
Walea] ; and Imar, aocompanied bj m 
great fleet, arrired agais, and entered 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



85 



gamhaiii,^ killed and slew them* ; and he bumed Luim- The Danes 
nech twice, and he banished Imar of Lnimnech over the ^"ven^m 
sea, 80 that he was a year in the east,' and Amlaibh, son attemptthe 
of Amlaibh ; and they attempted* the conquest of the ^T^'but 
kingdom of Britain; and Amlaibh, in the meantime, was retom, 
killed by the king of Britain ; and Imar, accompanied by a ^^' ^^' 
great fleet, arrived again in the western harbom* of Luim- 
nech, and Beolan Littill and his son were killed by them. 
[He then* fixed his residence on the western harbour of 
Luimnech, firom whenoe he made many spoils and battles. 

LVII. Mathgamhain now assnmed the sovereignty of ^*ţ^-. , 
Mumhain bravely, valiantly, and manfully ; and the king, w>yereignty 
and chiefs, and champions, and brave soldiers of all the o^Munster. 
foreîgners were slain by him. Their stewards and bailiffs, 
toc, and their billetted soldiers and mercenaries were en- 
slaved by him ; and he continued six years in the full 
sovereignty of Mumhain. When Donnabhân, however, Coii«pi«cy 
son of Cathal, king of Ui Fidhgenti, and Maelmuadh, J^^^. 
son of Bran, king of Desmomhain, saw the prosperity and ^^^ 
the great increase that followed the reign of Mathgamh- 
ain, and of the Dai Cais in like manner, great fiiry and 
envy seized them ; and the Clann Cuirc, and the Eoghan- 
acht also became alarmed at the snpremacy and the go- 
vemment and the sovereignty having passed to the Dai 
Cais, and to the Clann Lughdach, as was foretold and 
prophesied for them. Yerily saints and righteous men 
had prophesied, that to the race of Cormac Cas should 
belong the supremacy and the govemment for ever, as 
was said by the religious, the prophet, and poet, viz., Prophecy 
Colman, son of Lenin : 



of St Col- 
man, son 
of Lenln. 



The Clann of Cormac Cas, of many deeds, 
To them shall belong the noble sovereignty, 
Except three, imtil Elann oomes. 



the western harbour of Lnimnedi, and 
BeoUan litill and his son vere killed 
b7 him." 



'^ffethen, From these words to line 
5, eh. IzL p^ 92, Mţ/ro, a defect, ocea- 
sioned hy the loss of some leaves in 



86 



coţcroti ţae'otiel ne sallccibti. 



Madmii- 
adh*8caU 
tobattle. 



.1. ptann Cirach a "Otiyilxif, T:icpa ţie byitiinTie bţicrcha. 
ba heccal rţia la hua Caiţipţie plai€ef "OalcCaif ixxţi 
poţibaifiTJ, aţi peţiann cloinne Coţibmaic puii puiriB .1. 
Caille Coţibtnaic 6 hOclan 50 Luimneac, octif 6 Ctiaih- 
foill 50 Ltia^aiţi. If aţi na pacaiBţ^ti qia ţio ţitii'5|ntiiîi 
fin. 

LVIIL 1)0 ţionţxrc aon coBlac ÎTlaelnitiafi mac bjiain, 
ocup 'Oon'oaBdn mac CaCail, ocup liftaţi Luimnig, ocup 
"DuiBsenn, ocup ţio lomţKxi'BpiOTJ aţi TTlaisaiţiain; ocup 
ip aiţie pin 'oo ţiînne ÎTIaelmua* an laoi'bţ^ ace nom- 
pucca6 an £oblai§ : 

T^onoilceţi piţi TTltiThan lib, 

CC laocţiai'6 Uamiiaţi Ltiimriig, 

Tx)iţia'6 ptmn, aţi baţi no^hai*, 

Co T)ţitiim ntiţiaţiT) nOogabail. 
Tx)ccbaig cuccainn late baţi zxţieb 

lixiţi gallaib ip 5aoi'6ealaib, 

Co ccuiţiem *OalcCaip na ccell 

CC hiacaib dna Cţienn. 
ConiaţiT)cr& pobţiaiT) na pip, 

Rmmpa ip ţie laocţiai'o Ltiimnig, 

TI1 ţabaiTX iiaim o^ţuro, 

biT) aicţiec le6 accoThaţiT)aDh. 
CCp ni6ţi an monaţi pobţiaiT), 

01*6 aicfiec le6 an cţiiaH ix)ccbairc 

51*6 m6ţi a nţţieDon ip a nţldţi, 

te6 bi-D aiqfiec a cctondl. 



^^^«T LIX Ocup ţio peall 'Don'oaBdn mac Ca€ail (m tnoC- 
bhâi^^f gaifiain ina m^h pein, map t)0 puţidil Imap tuimnig 
CathaL p^^ ^^^^ ^^ Cionnlaic -00 Tnaolmua* mac bţiain 6, 



D., haa been sapplied from B. The 
more modem orthognphj wîll be ap- 
parent to the Iriih reader. 

iBeamaethe^: 8c, the Ui Cairpie, 
of frhom Donnabhin or Doaovan was 
the ehieftain. 



* Tke mm : i.e^ the men of the Dai 
Cais; Mathgamhain and his foQow- 
en. 

> Auemblmg, The reader will ob- 
serve that this poem begins with the 
▼erb uionoitceţi, and ends with the 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



87 



Le., Flann Cithach firom Durlus, who will appear imme- 
diately before the day of judgment. The Ui Cairpre, 
however, became alanned at the increase of the sovereignty 
of the Dai Cais, because they^ were in occupation of the 
territory of the race of Cormac, to wit, Caille Cormaic^ 
from Odan to Ltiimnech, and from Cnam-coill to Luachair. 
It was for these causes therefore they felt so. 

LYIII. Then Maelmnadh, son of Bran, and Donnabhăn, 
son of Cathal, and Imar of Luinmech, and Dnibhgenn, 
tinited into one host, and revolted against Mathgamhain ; 
and it was on that occasion Maehnuadh made this poem Maelmu- 
when collecting the host : t^tS? 

Let the men of Mamhaîn be asaembled by jou, 

O heroes of populous Loimnech ! 

Come forward now right a head 

To the very high hill of Eoghabhaîl. 
Raise around us the people of jour households, 

Both GaiU and Gaedhil, 

IJntîl we drive the Dai Cais of the churches 

From the noble lands of Erinn. 
The men^ attempt coropetition 

With me and with the heroes of Luimnech, 

They will yield me no reverence, 

They shall repent their competitîon. 
Great is the work they attempt ; 

They shall repent the effort they make, 

Though great their uproar and their noise, 

They shidl repent their assembling'. 

LIX. And Donnabh&n, son of Cathal, in his ownT'^chcrjr 
honse, betrayed Mathgamhain, having been instigated bhan^icmo 
to it by Imar of Luinmech ; and he delivered him to c»th*L 
Maelmnadh, son of Bran, and to Imar, in violation of ^ 



nonn cionoit ; Uras fulfiUing the law 
of Iriah poetiy, which reqnires a bardic 
Gompoâtioii of this sort to begin and 
end with the same word It is proba- 
ble that the poems here inserted were 
not to be f oiind in the older MS. D. 



*In violation of: te., in sacrilegions 
opposition to the wishee and influence 
of the saints and dergy. The word 
ţxifiagoro is ahrays nsed in the sense 
of a mcrileffioui TÎolation of some sa- 
cred place, thîng, compact, &c 



88 



coscToti scce'otiel ne sallccibt). 



Marder of 
Math- 
gamhain, 
at the in- 
stigation 
of Biad- 
muadh, 
A.D. 976. 



Brianta 
lament 



ocuf 7)0 Ithafi, rayi faţiucco^ naetfi ocuf n^uite Tnurficni 
uile. 1f î cottiaifile vo ţioncrfe ann, 7)0 nonnlaice'b 6 
"OonnaBdn TTlarsatftain •ootnhaolTnticrb mac bfiain ocup 
vo gallaiB, ocuf f6 aţi cotnaiţice Coluim mic Ciaţiosdin 
corhafiba bai|iţii afi nd mafiBca, ocuf aţi ud 'oallixi 6. 
*Oo jiuaccocaii i^wa mtiiTinui|i coihaţiba baiţiţii, octif 
muinnn|i Tlflaolmtia'5 in a|ai'5 Tlfla^arfina co Cnoc 
an îieBţiai'5 aţi rleiB [Caein], octif ţio bai Tllaolmticr5 
ocuf coTîiaţiba Oaiţiţii oc Rairin moiţi hi ppeaţiaibh 
1Tlui§i. Ho a£ain imoţiţio Tlflaolmua'5 'oa ititiinuifi an 
can no ţiogcrb T1fla£^aiff)ain na laiîîi, a maţibcrb po 6ecr 
T;oiţi. Cxi) qia aer; ţio maţiboB Tllacsaîîiain 05 ÎTlael- 
muat, ocuf ba peţiţi t)6 nd "oeţina*, oiţi ba gniorh T)0ccnţi 
mdiţi 7)6 6. 

Octif ţiainicc pifţ^ «n ţxîceoil fin co bţiîan ocuf co 
"DalcCkxif, ocuf t)0 Bcrcaţi aga a came co mdţi. Ocuf 
a 'Dtibaiţic t)ţiian an maţiBna Beccţx) ann : 

Odf tnot^amna af "ooiliţ lem, 

CCiţiT)ţii Caifil na cceimenn, 

CC ctJinm — Of mâţi cm gnlcTh, 

ÎTliina ccuire* le haiţiT)ţii$. 
T^itiog lem na6 hi ccau no hi cdeit 

X)o ţ:4ccba* 6, aţi fccdc aţx;ceic, 

^tiil DO beţia6 caob •oabai'6 

Le t)ţio6bţieirfţi nX)onnabdin. 
*Oo tia6laic *Oonnabdn -conn 

îTlacgaihain ba cţitiat'6 cothlann, 

X)o TTlaolmtiaia ba bece abla6, 

CCiţiDţii Caifil T)0 maţtboDh. 
*Oo înhaolmticrt nfţi piîoîh c6iţi 

CC thaţibcrt an ţiij ţio m6iţi, 

CC mille6 leif ţio ba lainT), 

Hî ţiaâo* leif va pţreDamn. 



1 Comikmia of Bani: ie., bishop 
of Coric CaaiĂairba ngnifles a buc- 
ceaior ia anj epiacopal or abbatial 



See. AU bishops of Cork are termed 
Comharbij or Bucceason of Bairi, the 
foander of the See of Cork (7th 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



89 



the saints and clergy of all Mumhain. This was the 
counael that was acted on tkere : Mathgamhain was Mnrder of 
deUvered up by Donnabhân to Ma^lmuadh, son of Bran, ^^^^^ 
and to the foreigners, although he was under the protec- aţ the in- 
tion of Columb, son of Cîaragân, Comharba of Bani/ 'f Mad- 
that he shonld not be kiUed or blinded The people of m«*dh, 
the Comharba of Barri, and the people of Maeknuadh 
came to meet Mathgamhain to Cnoc-an-Rebhraidh on 
Sliabh [Caein] ; and Maelmuadh and the Comharba of 
Barri were at Raithin m6r, in Fir Muighi. But Mael- 
muadh instructed his people, when Mathgamhain should 
come into their hands, to kill him forthwith. Math- 
gamhain, therefore, was killed by Maelmuadh ; and it 
would have been better for him that he had not done so, 
for it proved to be a deed of great ruin to him. 

And the knowledge of this fact reached Brian and the 
Dai Cais, and they greatly lamented him ; and Brian Brian*8 
uttered this short elegy on the oceasion : lamcnt 

The death of Mathgamhain to me is grievous, 

The high king of Caisei the renowned^ ; 

His fall — great the deed, — 

Unless he had fallen bj a high king. 
Woe is me I that it was not in battle or combat 

He was left dead^ under cover of his shield, 

Before he had trusted în friendship 

To the treacherous word of Donnabhân. 
Donnabhân, the brown-haired, delivered up 

Mathgamhain of brave combat 

To Maehnuadh ; small was the renown, 

The high king of Caisei to murder. 
For Maelmuadh it was no rîghteous deed 

To murder the verj great king ; 

To destroy him was his delight ; 

He shall not escape yengeance, if I can. 



cent) YFare, Biahopt (ed. Hairis) p. 
£56. 
• BeiwumecL Ut "Caisei (le., 



Cashel,) of the degrees;" ceim (phtr. 
ceimenn,) is a step, a degree of rank 
or nobility. 



90 



coţcToti scce'otiel ne sccllccibti. 



Sece Tncrtma Tn6ţva oţi 5«^>^i^ 

T)o bţvif 50 mait TTlacgaThaifi, 

tn 01*610 OCine, cfitiai'd a 1010*06, 

TTlai'DTn in laij 1 T:T4iacqiaige. 
îTlai^m 1TI îna6ai|ie bui-be 

CC|i fltiog an "od "oeag '6iJine, 

Ro tiomaiţvcc ocuf no meorb, 

Co |U) loifcc ofi|ia Oaimneacb. 
îTlebai-b mo c|ioit)ep ac d'6 

îTltina "dloglaiifa an cai|iT)|iiJ; 

*Oo S^ljfa mofoij ţan cldf , 

Ho T)o gebafon T)ian bdf. 

baa 

Date and LX. Do mafibcT^ Tîlacsaîţiain mac Ceinneiixi§ le 

Bta^of *Oonna15dn n>ac Ccrcail, ocuf le TTlaolniuaft mac b|vain 

J[^\ , aAlai'B ftn. fJaoi mblia^na va\i 6if cota 8ulcoiî>e 

nmrder, fin, ocuf an cfief blia^ain .x. aţi n6cc *Oonnchai'5 mic 

A.D. 976. cellacam ţiî Caifil, octif in rx>^x^a^ blia*ain fefccai; 

afi mafiba^ Coţibmaic mic Cuilenndin, ocuf an pchex:- 

rfioB blia^ain afi maţiba'5 Congalaig mic TTlaoilmiii^ 

|iî 'Ceift|iac, ocuf an ce€|iaTha* blia^ain fi6 cca€ 'Cerfi- 

|iac fin. 

CCn zan cţia ac connaiţic T11a€gaiftain an cloi7>eatti 
no&c £tiicce 'oa Bualo*, if amlai'5 ţi o bai, ocuf foifcceLa 
Goipcito baiffi aigi cqfia ticc oca comaifce, t)0 '5iu15faic uţi^ofi 
thedeigy. ^^ ^^ ^^^ muinciţie Coltiim mic Ciafiagain, aţi -odig na 

ţiîfe'5 an f uil 6, co iTcaţila an foifccel in ucz T^faccoiţw; 
vo muinnciţi Coluim mic Ciaţiogdin. poiţicclic an Lucc 
af eola£ ann co puii uţicoţi foi^^oe ann 6n cnoc co 
ţioile. 

CCc connaiţic imoţiţio ÎTlaolmua^ cai'Ble an cloi'oeam 
nocc ag buaUrB tnargaifina, ocuf e* ţur5aiţic eTX>ţiţia» 
t:icc ai€ne paiţi, ocuf ţio eiţiig aţifin, octif ţio gabcr5 a 

Madmii- eic v6 vo imtecc. pajipai'bif an cl6iţie£ c% vo '5âna6 ; 

adhsunnt ^j^^^^^ Tllaolmua*, iefaig an peţi urc -oa zjA Sticccn^ 



Math- 

gamhain 

throwsthe 



1 7^ 1.0^ .-seep. 88, line 23. But 
the MS. gives alio the reading, mcn^m 



Rilcn^ "adefeat at Rilach,' 
plaoe ifl not known to the editor. 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAJLL. 



91 



Seren great defeats to the Gaîll 

MathgamhaiD gave well ; 

The defeat at Aine — hj tbe hardness of his lance — 

The defeat at the Laigh^ in Tratraighe ; 
The defeat of Machaire Baidhe 

Over the armj of the two brave men : 

Thej assembled [their troops] but failed, 

For he bnmed Luîmnech over them. 
Mj heart will burat, I f eel, 

If I avenge not the high king; 

I shall receîve my death without flinching, 

Or he' shall receive a sudden deatlh 

The Death 

LX. Mathgamhain, son of Cennedigh, was killed by ^**« *»* 
Donnobh&Q, son of Cathal, and by Maelmuadh, son ofstancesof 
Bran, în this manner. This was nine years after the ^J*^V, 
battle of Sulcoit, and the thirteenth year ailer the death muder, 
of Donnchadh, son of Ceallachan, king of Caisei, and the ^^' ^^^ 
sixty-eighth year afler the killing of Cormac, son of Cuil- 
lennân, and the twentieth year after the killing of Conga- 
lach, son of Maelmithigh, king of Temhair, and that was 
the fonrth year before the battle of Temhair. 

And now, when Mathgamhain saw the naked sword^ath- 
about to strike him, having the Qospel of Barri on his ^ws the 
breast to protect him, he threw it towards the people of ^^* ^ 
Columb, son of Ciarag&n, with the intent that tîe blood 
should not touch it, and the Gospel fell into the breast of 
a priest of the people of Columb, son of Ciarag&n. It îs 
declared by those who are acqnaînted with the place that 
the hiUs are the full flight of an arrow asunder. 

Maelmuadh, however, saw the flashing of the naked 
sword striking Mathgamhain, although they were as far 
asunder as the eye could see ; and he knew it, and arose 
then, and his horses were yoked for him to depart The Haelnra- 
derk asked him what he was to do ; Maelmuadh answered, •^'" *•""*• 
" Cure yonder man' if he should come to thee." 



*Orke: i.e., Mielmnadh, cit MoUoy. 
> Ttmder num. Meaning Mathgam' 



haixL This was, 
irony and iiuult 



of coune, uid in 



92 



coscxroti scce-otiel ne ţallccibti. 



^^ b liTfi^ST tnccolmua'o «airiB, ociif uicc an cleţiec aiCne 

theciergy, paip. "Peţiccai^ceţi e, ocuf eafccaîni'5 ^50 T)io£îia TTlaol- 

*rohec ^"^['S- If c[î^ilc[i'& ţ^o btti o^ T)enani na paifcme, 

utteredof ocuf 6 acc Gttyxîcaîne îTlaolmua^, conebefir: 

hLs death. 

1f CCeT)h fiore Tnui|iţ?i, Ţexi itniU CCipt, 
Ra cnaiT) na Sfiâine, la qitiai'b na ^airhe. 
In gnîoTh "00 fionaif bi'6 vwc a m6la, 
In nî mo nT)e|inaif nî ru |iof mela, 
biTâ btidn a 'oocaţi raerbfoc vo maicne, 

gai'dpic -00 fc^la, bi-o "caeiux caicme, 
ii) laeg bo baiDi raerhaif T)0 aenT>ail. 
Ml ru fiof mai-oţre, ţioD niaifiţ^ CCeToan. 

18 ae-oti. 



Fuifiiment LXI. Ocuf |io cotftaille'5 qia an paifi^me fin amail 

dktion.'^'^î^ €ai|in5iîi in cleţiec, "0015 if 6 CCoh mac 56^6"^<^i5 
•oon tDeifi Bice fio iftaţitS Tflaolmua'D aj CCrh bealai^ 
Lecra, ap. na pagbail 1 mbordn peţina, do aţi mbţieii 
a fiii ua^ rfe efccaîne an cleţiig, do §«1*5, umofiţio] 
in comDi comdD ima^uf allecra iman cnoc. *0a 
comailleD in nifin pof, Daig ifanD ica lecr Tllach- 
^aiftna allanef do cnuc, ocuf leSr; T1flailniu(r& alla- 
itiaiD, ocuf ni €aicnenD ^ţiian paifi co bţiafi, athail fio 
TheGospci^î^o^ 1^ cleţieac, ocuf in cţieDal. T)o loxjaţi in Da 
reatoŢedto fccgafii: laffin co Colum, ocuf înnifiT; do, octif do 

the biahop. . * *> ^ ^ ±. « 

befiait; in fOfcela ina ucr. 1f amlaiD Dabi in fOfcela, 
ocuf bfiaensal pola Tificrchsaiftna paif, ocuf caiif in 

ThecicrVs cleţiec cfieDal co Dicfia, ocuf DO fi^ni in caipcecal 

thei^ foBacra anD, ocuf afbeţic in laiD f ea : 

finea for the 

marder. . 



^ One metting: Le., one encounter or 
hostile rneeting. 

s Alder hut: i &, a hut boUt of the 
alder tree. 

s The Lord. Here we retum to the 
text of D., and, as the reader will ob- 
serve, to themore ancientorthographj. 



B. omits 111 coTnT>i, **the Lord," and 
readfl, gomcro imfoccuf [imoj^if, 
D., omitting the aapirated p,] a httz 
mon ccnoc; adifferenceof spdlîngonly. 

^ South tide. GCltcmef [foraUaii- 
•oef ], D. Oatcxtof, B. 

' The iwo priuU» B. nada, tm> 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



93 



Maelmuadh went from them, aud the clerk recoffnîsed ^^ ^ 

him. and became angered, and fervently cumd Ma^lmuaxlh ; îr^eS 
and uttered a prophecy thns, while he was cursiiii; Mael- *°^ f 

muadh, and said : uttered of 

hisdeath. 

It is Aedh that shall kill thee, a man from the bordcr of Aifi, 
On the north of the sun, with the harshness of the wînd; 
The deed thou hast done shall be to thee a regret, 
That for which thou hast done it, thou shalt not enjoj. 
Perpetuai shall be îts misfortune, thj posteritj shall pass away, 
Thj history shall be forgotten, thj tribe shall be in bondage, 
The calf of a pet cow shall overthrow thee at one meeting* ; 
Thou shalt not conquer it — Aedhan shall slay thee. 

Ît is Aedh. 



LXI. And this prediction, bjs it was foretold by the Fuifiiment 
clerk, was fulfilled ; for ît was Aedh, the son of Gebennach ^cSm.^"" 
of the Deisi-Beg, that slew Maelmuadh at the ford of Belach 
Lechta, having found him in an alder hut," afber being 
deprived of his eyes through the curse of the derk, who 
had also prayed] the Lord^ that his grave shculd be 
near that hill. That was likewise verified ; for Mathgam- 
hain's grave is on the south side^ of the hill, and Mael- 
muadh s grave on the north side, and the sun never shines 
on it, as the clerk, the religious, had foretold The two The Gospei 
priests* then went to Columb, and they told him, and they SfbiAo^ 
placed the Gospei in his breast. And so the Gospei waâ, 
and the blood of Mathgamhain was sprinkled on it; and 
the religious® clerk wept bitterly, and he composed there The clerk'* 
a prophetic prediction, and uttered this poem : the^kgai 

fineeforthe 
murder. 



cuoccam in)op,fvo na ixxocoiţvc ocţi 
pn co Coltim mac Ciatiagdhn, oc!i|* 
mni-pc jyd tno^atticnn T)0 maţi- 
W6 : ** The priests went al ter this to 
Colnmb, ton of Cuuigan, and told him 
that Mathgamhain was killed.** 



•ReKgioua, Or "faithful," "b«- 
lieriog."* B. leada, ocaţ* dif an 
cl6fiec ac coiţvccecat na ţaiţ*cine, 
coniT) ann acbeftc : '* and the cleric 
wept whilflt compodng the prophecy, 
and then he eaid.'* 



94 



coscxroti sae'otieL ne ţallccibti. 



beţi'oaii mv q[iî ctimala 

Icip. bec [if] Tn6fi 

Ungi Daţigui; pinT>ţiiint 

Oo ocTif ungi T)6ţi. 
Ctiic 1T1 c6c -piyi caţimaimi, 

Ungi 'Daţigtic 51I, 

Wticu ctinig Tiî afîTio, 

"Ml heccail Da a 6n. 
Ctiii: in "oe^ţ^ip, canaift, 

"Mticti bei|i adc bo, 

biaiT) TK) mec a ţ^figi 

T)ti cuTiig 006. 
Uîip "Don 6p, ofilafiiac 

Cuie in qfvef pi|i, 

OefiiT) anT) anaba|i, 

•OI151T) am> arbeti. 

ben. 

^^rieiL" gallu anlafimumain. Ro b|iif, am, in lae£ fin ce€|xi 
ca£a poţiiu, coni-o aţi fin fo £an TTlac Liac : 

Ocuf na ceqfxi caca 
poţi gaUcnb ţlînni *Oaca 
Ro bfiif Tllacti^aThain mec ngal 
'CtiaiT) 1 calaig T^tiaT)mtiman. 



1 aii}iJUi& " Cunlua^ is a Breh6n 
Uw tenn, aignitying a fine orforfeit 
of three cowb ; but the word is lued 
generally for kdj fine, without refer- 
ence to the value. B. reads, beţi'oaii 
na cţii cuThaUC} "let the three cmn- 
hab be paid." 

• GreaL The readingof B. if ni6ţi, 
" and g^reat,** which seemB necessaiy to 
the senae, haa been adopted, within 
brackets in the text 

^Fmirmi: eee abore, p^ 50. Thli 
word i« very difficnlt, and îs left nn- 
tranelated. It aeems to mean here 
hriffkt^ $humff: pU in the nextttanza, 
being eridently given as its eqnivaleQt 



< J^(B demandt. Ctini]ţ here and in 
the last line of the next qoatrain is for 
ci]iiT>ig} ("asks,*" '^demandsi") omit- 
ting, as usiial in this MS., the edipaed 
or assimilated medial letter. B. reada 
here, "gin 50 cctunni^ and in the 
next place (line 12 of the poem), 00 
ccninnig a "Dâ, a mere diiference of 
spelling. 

fi GUUer. lit, " of the golden 
flame ;'* oiţiloiţ>:i, B. 

« Share. Cuin-oig, B., " lUbQity :" 
which is wrong. The last two Unea 
are given thns in B : 

beţirâ muţi ţiof beţi 
'Ol^gi'o niiiţi ţiOf T>ligh. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WTTH THE OAILL. 



95 



Let three cumhals' be paid for it, 

Both small and great^ ; 

An oonce of silver Findnmi,' 

A oow, and an oance of gpld. 
The sliare of the first man whom we Iove, 

An oance of white sOver, 

He demands^ no more, 

He need not fear for its guilt. 
The flhare of the seoond good man, 

He shall take bat a oow, 

Great will be his anger, 

He demands two. 
An oance of gold, of golden glitter', 

îs the share^ of the third man ; 

He takes what I saj, 

He ifl entiUed to what he takes. 

Lbt bb faid. 

This was, îndeed, a great event^ ; for it was he who Math- 
first swept the foreigners out of lar-Muinhain ; and more- fJ^J^* 
over, this hero had gained four battles ovar them, of whîch 
Mac Idacsang: 

And the foor battles 

Over the foreigners of Glenn Datha 

Mathgamhain gaîned — agreat valoar,— 

On the north, in the hills of Taadh-Momhain. 



Bot this leading wonld violate the law 
of Irâh poetiy alladed to above, p. 
8^ note 3. Perfaape beţi and 'otigh 
ahonld be tranapoeed, and then thes^ 
two linee may be rendered — 
«Pay for him vhAt is lavfU. 
WhAt is Ukwitel is what I sUte:" 
Bot the reading in the text ia more 
cornet. 

7 EvtHt B. giveB this danse, with 
aome variationa, thos : ba Tn6fi Cfia 
in ţa|*cine Ţxti ocoţ ba m6\i in 
fH»i) "ooiţ iţ*6 an Tna6sonb<i*^ P^ 
po jx^ioţ* soitl a TDuifionn oţv 
v6ţ, orbaii ţu> coin ITlac Liog» 



OtnŢ na cettţie oota 
CCtv galloib ^înne "Data: 

" Great was this prophecjTţ and great 
the event ; for it was this Ifiathgamhaln 
who ifirst swepl the foreigners ont of 
Munster, as Mac Liag sang : 

▲ad the JRrar battlas 

Orer th« foraignen of Oleiin Datha," 

omitting the other two lines given in 
the text; wliich, howeyer, are neces- 
saiy to complete the sense. llie poem 
which f oIlowB, within brackets, chap. 
IxiL, ending on page 101, is fonnd 
ooljin B. 



96 



coscroti ţae'otiel tie scclLccibti. 



The bllnd 

bard*s 

clegy. 



LXII. [Coni'5 ann t>o Tiînne 'oall Tndrgatîina in 

CCffo cmiu an Titia|i ^difipiil T5fieT)nai§ 

gail a ccî|i O cX!x)i|i^ealbai§, 
mii), if nî sâifi ^on 7)0111110 

(X|i îi-oit cm mâil ÎDacscmina. 
Tîlac^aTham î ininT) mtiige fdil, 

TTlac CitineiTXij triic Loţicdtn, 

ba Idti lafitaft •ootnain t)6, 

T)o |iî bfiucmaii Oo|ioin*ie. 
TîlatgaThain ! fniaoac ar\ ^eiti, 

îTlac cuftara CttineiTrrig, 

■Suaiţic •DOTi |tî§ 'DOTi ftoipie an bet>5, 

501II "DO tiocap, na n'Doibe*^. 
11 oca caiimenT) aţi T)halccaif 

Laec ma|i laec Cuimnig lînnglaif, 

Tîltina petica yxyfi an jiig, 

CC|i 'oaefcaifiecTJ no ap, •Dinibp.15. 
•Oa Txt35 ^alJaifi npii|iin -Don ^îiaij 

•Oo Bl a^ r^oD^ mac înail6ellai§, 

*Oafi lint) ni 110506 o cU 

gombeit Oft CpinT) 'ooân |ii§. 
Cit) ţx) ceţVDinoif nî 7)4, 

Lârn 7)0 cuţi fie ţxnfnne, 

fio eipij letfiUTh |vâ lâ 

tlgria 5060 horiecco. 
CC CCilbe Imlis din, 

Ocuf a 7)eocain Heofâin, 

bi'D nioit 7)îl TîlocsaThno 7)6, 

"Do ctiţi oţi bop, ccomoificce. 
O 7)0 7)echai'6, |t6ini co |vac, 

50 *Oijn 5«ip ^onţxr&ac, 

Wocoţi fecmoi-b bfiion pe bdi-d 

T)a tx)ifc 1 ixec n*Oonnabdin. 



1 i^NiJ Uhdoff. The metre of this 
flnt line Ib wrong. Perhape we ahonld 
fead, aţvT) oniti an gdiţi g^eronon J, 
or CCtvT) ocnia ^ditv^uil stieoncag, 



*^Load to-dAj a damoroiis dumi of 
woe;*' the other words being mere ex- 
pletivee, which were perfaaps origin- 
ally intended as a gloas. CCnnuafi 






WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WTTH THE QAILL. 97 

LXII. [And it was on that occasion that Mathgam-Theblînd 
faain's blind bard made this elegy : elegy. 

Lond to-day^ the piercing wail of woe 

Throughoat the land of Ui To^dhelbhaigh ; 

It shall be — and it is a wail not without cause, 

For the loes of the hero Mathgamhain. 
Mathgamhain ! the gem of Magh Făil, 

Son of Cennedigh, son of Lorcan, 

The western world was foii of his fame — 

The fiery king of Boromha. 
Mathgamhain I noble the ofispring ! 

Heroic son of Cennedigh! 

Delightful to the king was the shock he cansed. 

In banishing the foreigners for theîr misdeeds. 
Never appeared amongst the Dai Cais, 

A hero like the hero of Luimnech, of the greea pool, 

Had not the king met treacherj, 

From baseness or from weakness. 
When he carried oft a black steed of the stud, 

Whieh belonged to Tadhg, son of Maeloellaighy 

We thought that he would not have left his body 

TJntil he had become sole king of £rinn. 
Whj shonld we cast awaj anj of it, 

To raise oor hand against prophecj ; 

Bj him were gained in his ă&j 

The battles of erery engagement. 
O Ailbhe I of noble Imleach, 

And, O thou deacon Neasan— 

Good was Mathgamhain's f ate in this 

That he was put under your protection. 
When he went in his prosperons career 

To Ddn Gaifi the wound-giving, 

It was not in friendship he shunned Brian, 

Bj going to the house of Donnabhân, 



ifl probably for ccn p](n|Vt " the shoat,'' 
or ^* the Boand \" which is expletive and 
nxmeoeBsaiy ; but if the word onnuaTi 



(for an pucnţi) be retafaied, the line 
may be literaDy rendered, ** Lond to- 
day, thesoundof clamorouswoe-shout.** 

H 



98 



coscroli sae'otiel ne sccUxnbti. 



ÎTIuTia ccîfcea a bhţiiaiti iile 
ChuccaiTiT) afi cent) comaifile, 
ţeibfi iiige ţ:eib cpocuaf, 
Wa cciiig cctiicax) co ccomqitiaf. 

CeiTi |io bâbaifi maiUe 
Ho bo mait baţi mbfiataitife, 
CCcr ţvo ţ65b€r6 rolaib ^al» 
OCtifxyo 6ici 'oon qfitiiîfeafi. 

hui) laeg bo T>eaccaige 'D6ib, 

Wi bia "Oal cCaif tia cqian'o c6ifi, 
Co cae6 cm |tî mi|i 'Cuai'de, 
1f |ii Ulcro iTiT>ftiai|ie. 

tncrbtn ÎTItiige Tîloiiţain -Don tnuij 
*Oo 6tiţi Ofiiccn if Tnoc^amain, 
lliţi beicceom cennaâ aţi ^all 
8îf ap, ftige Seom^tialanî). 

Oca oct na nec an oitim, 
If anî) fvo mulg an Tndp, mai^m, 
Hi tvan^acaţi ţaill a njnă 
Co hat raifipted roţiaiocle. 

CCn nf ma ccanţaDap iile, 
Ha ţaiU ocof l4wn)|iai§e. 
Ho t^Ăsfoc m6fi fciac if ngae 
OCc GCc Cliot na cooififurrh. 

Hlţi c6ifi vo ^aUaib ^ofiba 
Tkw'bedc i n'odil TTlatgaThna, 
W ^on n&i|ve vo âua^aţi uo^, 
8tinî) qfief an faile f^bţitia*. 

W •Dinjnem râinfinîh na n^aU^ 
CC|i mo vile le 'Otiibgenn, 
"Oo ţuro in6ix •oulc X)6ib |ie ţiă 
peţi jtif mqxrc coihaitile. 

Ung naitib m6|v •oo cdna*, 
Mî htiţiof a ccorhdifieîh, 
Hac mebal t>6ib ţ^n an ctiaifiu, 
CCnnfo âaţiic aţi ^ulctiaiî)? 



1 Counlenanoea : i.e., the marks of 
fear continued on their countenonces. 
This is a difficolt passage; no such 
place as Ath Toradcle U known. Dr. 
O'Donoyan suggeats that we ahoold 



read, oo hCCch corvpced cofuro Cte, 
"to the fruitfiil Ath-CIe of troope,** 
Ath*CIe being another way of spellinif 
Ath CHath^ or DubUn, which îb men- 
tioned in the next fftania as the pUoe 



WABB OF TH£ GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 99 

Since he would not come, O Brian, hither 

Unto us to take coonsel, 

Takc thoa the sovereigntj, as was foretold. 

Of the five provinces with high valour. 
As long as you were together 

Good was jour brotherhood, 

But there was lefi — mighty deed— 

Injustice to the junior bj the senior. 
A poem should be made for them, 

The Dai Cais will not be in their true fate 

TTntil the king the tower of Tuaidhe falls, 

And the king of cold Uladh. 
The defeat of Magh Morgain, in the plain, 

Was given bj Brian and Mathgamhain ; 

It was not necessary to purchase a foreigner 

Down on the road of Seangualainn. 
From Ath-na-nech, of the armour, 

'Twas there the great defeat was given ; 

The foreigners did not recover their countenances,^ 

Until they had reached the stout Ath Toradcle. 
When thej had come hither, 

The foreigners and the Tradraighe, 

They had lefi many shields and spears 

At Ath Gliath of the victories. 
It was not right in the rough foreigners 

To come against Mathgamhain ; 

Not without shame did thej escape from him, 

From hence through the bitter salt water. 
I shaU not revile the foreigners, 

Because of mj friendship with Dubhgenn ; 

Much of evil did he inflict on them in his time, 

The man to whom thej gave counsel. 
He took from them manj tribates— 

It is not easy to reckon them. 

Did not the march prove disgracefuP to themselve»^ 

Which they make here upon Sulcoit ? 



whera th«7 took refnge. But it U 
poflsible that there may have been 
aome ford called Ath Toradcle, in the 
Oal Cais coantiy. 



^DUgracefuL For metSal, "dia- 
gracef ui,'* perhaps we should read me- 
baţi, ^*Do they not remember the 
march?" 

h2 



100 



coscrot) soce*otiel Re ţcclLccibîi. 



Wi[i c6i|i T)o Lee CtiiTiTi cam, 

5© "DO Tiicro a ccoititnai'DitTi, 

'Cu^fam a Tnbansyiaij 'oon Oatiî), 

OCnuaf 'DO qfion'osail Cloqfianx). 
CuThaiTi le *Odl cCaif câD cell 

T[\a\i vo cuaTnafi a|i g^eu Sleonn, 

1f aţi fc6ii; peaţi^ail orhfux 

T)o ptuTier» I6n TDac^anifia, 
Ho tidit niacsaThain x)on muig 

0|velci|i if coffiailli'6, 

50 ţnjiqpea* le6c pfi ţiof tnofib 

8an cî|i aitti|vei'6 aiT^anti^aţib. 
tloâaţi 'otichoij •oo mac bfiain 

Tîli'olacaf afi Tnau^aihaiTi, 

ba Daca vd uacofv ^lall 

T)o |iî *Oall cCaif na ccfitia75fciafc. 
510TI 50 lA^'scea laoig 50 buaib 

CC5 caoiTiea6 TDat^aihTia fntiai'6, 

"Do pejiOD Tn6fi dhIc fi6 16l 

"OoTi Iticc puii hi bf)ti|ii; a|iT>a. 

CCR'O.] 

S^BrianUi ^^m- Hogab, imo|i|U), b|iian mac Chene^is ic 
Munster. "Oailcaif acexx)i|i aţi majiboro THochsamna; octif x\\ji 
bo cioc ininaD «51 feti, ocuf tiiţi bo fop ininoD lajigi, 
qct; ba rţien ininaT) q[iein, ocuf ba zenv laji reiro- 
•OaţionoD, imoţiiio, coccro faegcech fecţiec fiBlaf fuab- 
peafi nemlac neme|ir;nec lefiT)e, ocuf ţio v&go^sicco a 
bţioiaiţi leif. Robi in ţiip ccrcac coccach congalaf 
injiiDafi aiţigneac efo^al, cofeac na 11151 fin. Robi, 
imo|i|U), in 11151 fbeyiafi f oDal fomemnafi fi€email fona 
|X)maineac faiDbiţi ple^ac puiîii5ech po€amail ţoD6oiT> 
a T)efieD. Wî ^a fcelaib feic coleic ifin nifui. 



1 Then Brian, Here we retam to 
the text of D. 
^UndertooL Ro ţvlogorD, B. Imop.- 

'Sedresi. OCcc, 6. 
« And, Ocuf) otn. B. 

* ^fi egg. Uige fin, B. 

* Bui he toas. (Xtn mcro qfvân aţi 
tţi6oiTii octif cţven in lonoco cţiâoi|i, 



B. The meaning ia, that the enemy 
found themBelves to have gained no- 
thing hy the murder of Mathgamhain. 
Brian wasaa great a wairior axid as va- 
liant a champion as his brother had been. 

f War. Cocccro fiublac feic- 
ţiech neirfinec neitiimeiiicneâ tei- 
ptim, B. 

B Hia rtign, Thia paasage is giyeiL 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 101 

The comelj people of Leth Guinn ought not 
(Altlio' thej do so,) to boast, 
We brought their fair studs from the Bann, 
Down to tbe ships of Clotbrann. 
The Dai Cais, of the htmdred churches, remember 
llow we over ran Gaeth-Glenn, 
'When iipon the illustrious FergaVa shiold, 
Mathgamhain's xneal was cooked. 
Mathgamhaîn uttered on the plaîn 
A threat which was fulfilled, 

That he woold leave there the tomb of a man he killed, 
In the uneven rough-farzed country. 
It was not natural for the son of Bran 
To act cowardly towards Mathgamhain ; 
It would have been more natural for him to send hostagea 
To the king of Dai Cais, of the bard shields. 
Although calves are not suffered to go to the cows, 
In lamentation for the noble Mathgamhain : 
There was inflîcted much evil in bis daj 
By those who are in Port- Ardă. 

LouD.] 
LXIII. Then Brian,* son of Cennedigh, undertook* the Th« reîgn 
redress^ of the Dai Cais forthwith, after the murder of?[®""*"*° 
Mathgamliaiu ; and* he was not a stone in the place of an 
egg* ; and he was not a wisp in the place of a club ; 
but he was® a hero in place of a hero ; and he was va- 
lour after valour. He then made an invading, defying, 
rapid, subjugating, ruthless, untiring war/ in which he 
fuUy avenged his brother. His reign,® at the beginning of 
his reign,was one full of battles, wars,combats, plundering, 
ravagingjUnquiet. But at itsconclusion, this reignatlength 
became bright, placid, happy,peaceful, prosperous, wealthy, 
rich, festive, giving of banquets, laying foundations. Some 
of his adventures are bere shortly related. 



thns in B. — Rob î Ţ^r^ an fii je cocc- 
tach, conjatac, ai|i5iiec,io|i^atac, 
eayya'oat» a ccoy^ac tia )\^ţ,6 pn. 
HoW imo]ri|\o, an x^ije -ptibac, 
ŢtiT)al, |N)niuMininac, poToaiîiail, 
j>on«, |xiiT>r»i]\, |X)niaoinear, yle'h- 



ach, p]i|vecach a 'oeip.eio. HI "oa 
fcc^taib mnipcep, y*unn co lelcc. 
This (leâcription muflt be undentood 
as rcferring to the reign of Brian in 
Mnn^tcr only: not to his reign as 
knij; of Irdand. 

"h3 



102 



cosccDli scce-otiel ne sccllcnbti. 



Plonder of 
the islanda 
of the 
Shamnon, 
A.D. 977. 



Donna- 
bhân unites 
with Har- 
oldţ Danish 
king of 
MuDster. 

They are 
both slain 
by Brian» 
A.D. 978. 



Brian's 
message 
to Mael- 
muadh to 
demand 
£ric. 

His poetU 
cal address 
to the 
xneasenger. 



LXIV. Romaîibcn), rţia, Imaţi ocur « "oa meic la 
bpian ; T)ubcen'D ocuf Cuallaix) la huib *Oomnaill Coji- 
cobafciTiT) înninif Tnoi|i, ocuf înrnif "oa *OjiumanT)> 
ocu]^ infe-oa uli in cuain lapfin ; .i. cac 'ou iţiabcroaţi 
miia, ocuf fnacama ocuf batiT^ţiacx^a na ngalU *0a 
ppi€ rţia oţi, ocuf aji^ez rni'oa maini, ocuf nrîontira 
im'oa ecfamla if na hinT)fib fin ocuf if na pop-T^aib. 

Ro ciiiţiefcai|i, qaa, T)onniibdn CCţialc mac Imaip 
cuip aţi maţibaT) a aT;aţi, ocuf ţio ţii^fac ^aillTntinian e. 
Ro cuaiT) laţifin ayi cţieic înnuib pn'ogenn, ocuf ţio 
^abfoc buap 'Diaipnii^i, ocuf fio aiţi^fac CoCpai^ Cuan, 
ocuf ţio mafibfor a T)ani, ocuf fio maţabfoc *Oonnubdn 
mac Carail, in zecv inbaig, ţii Ha pn'o^enn, ocuf ţio 
mai^bi^ar: CC]ialT: mac 1maip |ii gali, ocuf ţio cuipfex; 
d|i 'Dimoji aţi^allaib, ocuf r;ucfai; buaţi T)iaiţimici leo. 
In 'oaţia blia^ain ayi mafibaT) TTlaTjh^amna fîn. 

LXV. [1f annfin ţio cuifi bpian recea co TTlaelmuat 
mac byiain 'Dia|i|iai'5 efica aBiurcaţi .i. îTlacsarfina mac 
CeinneiTXi§, .i. Co^aţian polla sţia-oa vo bjiian eifein, 
ocuf ocbejiT; bţiian an laiT)h : — 

©11115b a Choccaţidin caif, 

Co ÎTlaelmucro an ftuifcc fiin-D^taif, 
50 macaib Oţiain af buan |iac, 
1f co macaib ua nGacoai. 



iBif Brian, B. omită the words 
a 'oa meic la bţiian, and conse- 
quently repr^ients Imar, Dabhcenn, 
and Coalladh, [litiap, ocuf "Duib- 
genT) octjy* Ciialla'6, B.] as having 
been killed by the Hua Domhnaill of 
Corcobhaiscinn. 

• Ini$-tnorj or ** Big island.** It 
seems as if a line had been omitted 
bere in D. ; for B. reads ta îlua 
n'DoTnnaitl Cbo|ux)baiyxaii'o in 
inif Cacbaig blia-oam lap, map,- 
ba'Dfnatgamna. Hohaiticce-oteo 
Pint) itiif, ocuf inif moitv, ocnţ» 
w^Ţ "oa 'DivoTTiaiiT) ocviţ mr\Ţei>a 
fxn ^aain vile aţi^ena. "By Hua 



Domhnaill of Corcobhaiscinn in Inls 
Cathaigh, the yearafter the mnider 
of Mathgamhaln. Finn Inia and Inia 
Mor, and Inis Da Dromann were 
plondered by them, and the islanda of 
the whole harbour likewiae.*' 

^Harbour: vis., the Harbour of 
Limerick, or mouth of the Shannon. 
It is evident from these words, and 
those that follow, that the text is de- 
fective ; for it is impossible that two 
men conld have beeu killed in more 
islands than two. We are, therefore, 
under the necessity of preferring the 
text of B, as given in note *. 

^Sih€r, B, reada^ 'Oo pfiich dţ\ 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



103 



LXIV. Imax and his two sons had been killed by Piunder of 
Brian' ; Dubhcenn and Cuallaîd by the Ui Domhnaill, ^fW^^ 
of Corcobliaiscmn în Inis-m6r,* and în Inîs-da-Drumand, Shamioii, 

A.D. 977. 

and în the other Lslands of the harbour,' afterwards ; 
namely, every place in which the wîves and children and 
women of the foreigners were. There were foiind gold 
and silver^ în abundance, much of wealth and variouâ 
goods în those îalands and in the fortresses. 

Then Donnabhăn învited Aralt, the son of Imar, unto Donna- 
him, afber his father had been killed, and the foreigners ^^q]^ 
of Mumhain made him king. He [Brian*] went after- oid, Danish 
wards on a foray into Ui Fidhgenti, and they took cattle Hmster. • 
înnumerable ; and they pltindered Cathaîr Cuan,^ and 
they kîlled its people ; and they killed Donnabhân, son of They are 
Cathal, the ripe culprit,^ the king of Ui Fidhgenti ; and ^y Bnâ^ 
they Idlled® Aralt, son of Imar, king of the foreigners, and -^^- 978. 
they made a prodigious^ slaughter of the foreigners, and 
they carried away with them cattle înnumerable. This 
was the second year after ^^ the kUling of Mathgamhain. 

LXY. [Then Brian sent a messenger to Maelmnadh, the Brian*8 
son of Bran, to demand from him the Eric* ^ of his brother, ^®ţj^, 
Mathgamhain, son of Cennedigh, viz., Cogarân, who was muadh to 
the confidenţial officer of Brian. And Brian spake this ^^^ 
poem : — 

* Hi8.poeti- 

Gro, O Cogarăn, the intelligent, cal adâreas 

Unto Maelmuadh of the piercing blue eye, mewMicer 

To the sons of Bran of enduring prosperity, 
And to the sons of the Ui Eachdach. 



ocup montepx lom'oa ete yf na 
hînn-pl), ocoj* i|* na poţicaib pn : 
** There weie found gold and manj 
other goods in the idando, and in thoee 
fortresses.'* 

' He f jBtmui]. B reads, "Oo ctiaiT) 
loţvpn bţMon. "Brian went after- 
wards," which interpreta the text 
of D. 

• Cathair Ctum. Catfioa^ Ciaon, 
D. Cotojp. Cvon, B. 



7 CvIpriL B. omits the words, in 
t;e6c mboig. 

8 KUkd. Ro gabfoc, B., "They 
took." 

^Prodigiaus. CC^ m6xi, B., "A 
great slaughter." 

M Afîer. lati, B. The folio wing 
chapter is an interpolation which oc- 
curs only in B. 

^Eric. That is, the fine payable 
by the Brehon Law for the mnrder of 
MatbgftTnh a i P t 



104} coscroîi sae*oîiel ue scclLccibîi. 

Piaţiţxxi'6 T)iob pjf na ţ?dtaib 
01*6 îna|i mafibfoc mo bţicncaiţi, 
CiT) maţi ma|ibfacaţi na ţ?i|i, 
TTlacsamain mac Cemneircig. 

maifig T>o ma|ib lucc anen)ig ; 
Tîlai|i5 vo ma|iB mac Cemneiccig; 
Tn6|i an mîofiac 5titvbţ?eti|i -oe 
beic ac Imafi ana ai^e. 

51* mifi T)o maitex> fin, 
t^fcoD raib mic Ceinneirn^, 
Hi maitpex) 'OalcCaif calma, 
'CefcoD caib acngeţxna. 

Hi mairţ:ef6 Longafidn lân, 
Ma Bcngeiin, na Occdn, 
Ha Conaing qfitiai* na ccfiec, 
Ha Ceinneicng caom cuimneac, 

lfea6 Deaţiaii; na ţ?i|i, 
TDal cCaif ţiiii aţi uainib, 
50 mbefxac |itiacaţi 50 ţiac, 
gomba htiachai* hui OacDac. 

Qlanna Coyibmaic iccăin, 

Ha biT) 7)0 cftic clainne Heill, 
[1 ccîţi coiccjiic bl*] ^ac 'Ofteam, 
TDanba* le6 -DeifcefiT: 6|\enn. 

Ia 015 mac bfiam mic Cein 
CuThal mo bţiarai|i 'oam p^in, 
Woca ^eib ucco jeiU no sfiaig, 
CCcc 6 p6in ina cinai*. 

ţeallaiT) muricha* mâfi mac bfiiain, 
THaolmtiorD -do coţxî fa c^t) ^liait, 
Ocuf ni ţxiitibtiij a geaH, 
O a*ba|i am-DinJ Ofienn. 

Rdi* le mac Oţiain nac baDhor» 
Cetic caiccijif 6 mai|iea6, 
'Cecc 50 belac Lecca lUe 
Lîn a t^5 fo tx)6|iai'oe. 



1 / hadforgiom. The meaning is, 
** Althoagh I hâd forgiven the mtuder 
of my brother, the tribe of the Dai 
Cdfl would never foigive the slaughter 
oftheirchieftuxi." 



* Longarâii, read Lonargan. 

B /fi a ttrtmger pnmnct. The 
wordfl within bracketa are aappUed 
hy Mr. Cuny from conjectoxe; a 
I blank ia leit în the originiL T^ 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



105 



Ask them what were the reasons 

Why they killed my brother ; 

Why did the men kiil 

Mathgamhain, son of Cennedigh ? 
Woe ! to have killed unanned people — 

"Woe ! to have killed the son of Cennedigh ; 

Great the misfortune, that thej thought it bctter 

To be on Imar's side than on his. 
Though I had forgiven^ that^ — 

The cuţting open the side of Gennedigh's son ; 

The brave Dai Cais would not forgive 

The cnttqig open the side of their lord. 
Longaran,' the opulent, would not forgive, 

Nor Echtighem, nor Ogân, 

Nor hardy Conaing of the plunders, 

Nor Cennedigh the comelj, the mindfuL 
This is what the men now say — 

The Dai Cais — unto them, on fit occasions, 

That they wiU make a victorions march 

By which the Ui Eachdach will be reduced to a few. 
The Clann Cormaic afar 

Let them not be f rom the Clann NeiU country, 

pn a stranger province' be] every tribe, 

K theirs be not the south of Erinn. 
Whenever^ the son of Bran, son of Cian, shall offer 

The Cumhal^ of my brother unto myself, 

I will not accept from him hostages or studs. 

But only himself in atonement for his guilt. 
Murchadh the great, the son of Brian, promises 

To check Maelmuadh in the first combat, 

And his pledge will not be forfeited 

By the heir of the chief king of Erinn. 
Say unto the son of Bran that he fail not, 

After a full fortnight from to-morrow, 

To come to Belach Lechta hither 

With the full moster of his army and his followers* 



meaning U, " Let the Clan Connaic 
(or Dai Caia), and all its tribea live 
in exile, and retire to the country of 
the O'Neilla (Le., the North of Ire- 
land), rather than yield to othen the 



sovereignty of the Sonth, Le., of Hnn- 
ster." 

« YFAeneMT. Litenlly, ''Thedayon 
which." 

^ (hanhal See above, p. 94, note ^ 



106 



coţccDti ţae'oîiel ne sccLLccibîi. 



CCcc TTitiTia nren on-oer 
Co betac leafcca Um^tMT, 
P|iicaile^ aige 5a tij 
T)al cCai|" if mac Cemneiing. 

Woca sebtari nota cmn 
Ofi na aiţx^ec no ţ^ayvanî), 
Ha ^eiH, na in-oili, a pfi, 
In-Difi 'DOib if ei|ii§. 



eiRlS] 



Battle of 
BeUch 
Lechta, 
and death 
of Maol- 
muadh, 
A.D. 97a 
Battle of 
Fan Con- 
rach, A.D. 
979. 



Brian 
in vadea 
Oaaoiy, 

andLein- 
ater. 



LXVI. CCnT)fein -00 cuiţi bfiian ca:6 belaig Lefca, 
vu iT)|iocai|i moelmtiai'D mac bţiain ţiî îTluman, ocuf 
T)a .c. vec umi ez\\i gali octjf 5087)61, ocuf ţio gab 
bţiogci ÎTluman co pccp-p. 

OCf a ochii fin ruc bţiian ccxt pain Conpac pop 
^allaib ; ocuf ţio bţiif ocuf ţio aijigefcaiii na 'Oefi 
co poţic Wp, octif TU) inarib mei tm) faig in caccro 
aiţi .1. T)omnaill mac paeldn a ptijiu Laţigi, ocuf po 
^ab bţiagci Tntiman uli aţi caţiUT) a lama mafi fin, 
octjf fo ^ab bfasci aiîiT)cell ÎTluman na pagbai^f 
metilii, na poglaip crom fna cellaib. 

T)a ţionaD laţifin fluage^o peji ÎTluman uli la 
bţiian in nOfţiai^b, ocuf fo cuibfiiseT) leif 5^lla- 
paDţvaic mac Tk)n£aDa, ocuf ţio ^ab a giallu .1. fii 
Ofjiaip. "Oa SuaiT) latifin co mag nCCillbi co can- 
caDafi "oa fi Lagen na €eac, .1. Tk)mnall Cloen, ocuf 
TJuaCal fi lafCaif ti^i, ocuf fo ^ab a mbfaigci icinT> 



1 Brian. We have here again the 
text of D. B reads, 1f annfin 730 
dtiiTX briiom cat p^w 1x1 îTluTlian .1. 
ÎTlaotmucro, octif (tcbeţuic afvoile 
|vo mcxprbcro tMx tâfo 'd6cc ann «do 
gaUocib ocuf gaoi'oealea^ ocuf 
|vo Tnop-bcro ÎTlaotimicrD x^r\: 
"Then Brian gave battle to the king 
of Munster, Le., Maolmnadh, and aome 
nj there were killed there 1,200 of 
the foreignen and of the Irish, and 
Maolmuadh himaelf was killed.** And 



then in a new paragraph, Ro ^ba6 
brunJDe na ÎTIniiiafi co faifigo of 
a haitle, ocuf cuc b|\iafi, Ac: 
**He took the hoetagee of Mnmhain 
as far as the sea afterwaida, and Brian 
gave hattie,"^ &c. 

^ Fan ComracL 'O^in ţdificonn- 
Yxach, B., '*Dtm Fain Comuach** [or 
the Fort of Fan Connrach, (ie., of the 
Church of Conrad.)] CC 1>pan mic 
Connţva'D, **at Fan mic Coimrad.'* 
^fifk Imtf. (^DM) A.D. 979. 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



107 



Sut if he do not come from the Sonth 
To Bdach Lechta, the evergreen, 
Let him answer at his house 
The Dai Cais and the son of Cennedigh. 

For him shall not be accepted from them 
Gold, nor silver, nor land. 
Nor hostages, nor cattle, O Man I 
Teii them this and go. 



Gc] 



LXVI. Then Brian^ fought the Battleof Belach Lechta, in ^^^"^ 
which fell Maelmuadh, son of Bran, king of Muinhain, and Lechta, 
twelve hundred along with him, both Gaill and Gaedhil ; ^^'2*'* 
and he took the hostages of Mumhain even iinto the sea. maadh, 

Afler that Brian gained battle of Fan Connwîh» over ^'^ 
the foreignera And he ravaged and plundered' the Deşi Fan Con- 
even to Port Lairge, and he banished him who hadj^^^/ 
foroed the war on him,* to wit, Domhnall, the son of 
Faelăn, of Port Lairge, and he took^ the hostages of all 
Momhain, as the fruit of his arms then^ ; and he took the 
hostages of the principal^ chmt^hes of Mumhain, that 
they should not reoeive rebels nor thieves to sanctuary in 
the churchea 

After this there was an expedition under Brian of all ?"*? 

. . invades 

the men of Mumhain into Osraighe ; and Gillapatric, son Ossoiy, 
of Donnchadh, was put in fetters by him; and he took 
his hostages, i.e. of the king of Osraighe. He went after "^ ^^^'' 
that to Magh Ailbhe,^ where the two kings of Laghin 
came into^ his house, viz., Domhnall Cloen, and Tuathal, 
king of western Liphi, and he took their hostages^® ; this 



* Phmdered. For |vo bfiif octi-p 
fio ccifisejxaYi, B. reada, ţio cnţicci 
^*he plundered.** 

* On him. For |vo Ţca^ in caccro 
onp, B. in more modem spelling reada, 
ţvo JX115 ţjcnţi an cogaiâ. 

^Hetook, 'gabmf, B. 

* T%en. GCnuaifi f.n, B., "at 
tbat time." 

' Principal B. reada, ocuf fio gab 



bTvaigDO ceaUj ÎTlmfian, aţi na 
ţ?accbaT)cn|*innctea'6a no tx>ţ1cn'De 
înnnb: "And he took hostages of 
the chnrches of Mnnater, that they 
should not recdre robbers or thieyes 
within them.** 

^ Magh Ailbhe. B. reada, 7 '«do 
dtiai'D ayyin 1 mui§ CCitbe. 

» Into. Ina teac, B. 

^0 Bostaga. B. omits thU dame. 



108 



coscroti ^ae-otiel ne ţccllcabti. 



Brian, 
king of all 
Muaster, 
A.D. 984. 



Muirghifl, 
crown 
prince of 
Connacht) 
ktUed, 
A.D. 98a 

Brian's 
treaty with 
Maelsech- 
laîn, A.D. 
998. 



Revolt of 
Leinster 
and of the 
foreigfnen 
fromBrUn. 



ofe mbliaT)an ayi mafibaT) Tllcrch^amna. CCmlai-o pn 
ba ţii Le€i TTlo^a Ojiian. Ro cinoloD moţi coblac 
muiii'oi leif lap^in po|i ^Oeiţxc T)ei|ic, ocuf ţiuccair qii 
.c. lepcap. leif, poţi «inainT) co toc Rai, ocuf fio 
hinţiex) ÎTli-Di leif co hUfnec, ocup ţio cţiecfoc bţiepni 
uli Dayi OC^tiac fuap. *Da cucrcayi, 'ona, u. cex: a|i pcec 
uauib 1 Conacra coiroeinifor: olca moţia airo, ocuf coji- 
Tnaiibtxic Tnui|iptif mac Concobaifi fiigDamna Conacr, 
ocuf ţio mayibaT), am, pocaiDi v\h feom. Ir Leip 
iT)fU}cai|i RuaiT)fii mac Copcfiaig [yii] Ua mOjiium 
ocuf laţiraiţi Conace. 1f leip i'Ofiocaifi TDuiisiur mac 
RuaT)ţii laţifin. 

*0a îionoD 'oan moţicoblac la bjiian co piein pac- 
rop co rame TTloelfeclainT) ina com'oail, co iroefinfoc 
fi€ anv .1. ifiabi vo bfiaigcib te€i mo^a ic moelpec- 
lainx) .1. bfvo^i gali ocuf Logen, a T^abaiţic -oo bpiaîi, 
ocuf Ua pacfiac (Xvm, ocuf Ua TDani leif, ocup 
•Dilfi Le€i CuiTiT) o Iun am ac cen coccaD cen ţ^ţoil 
6 Ojiian "DO maelfeclainT) .i. -oa blioDain fin ţie coi 
^Imni mama. 

LXVII. CCfi nec imopţio T)omnaill Cloen mac lop- 
can ţii Logen, bacaţi Login ocuf gaill co hamţiiajiac 



1 Eigkt yeara, B. hegins a new 
paragrapli here. CC cairo occ m- 
btia-oan inioiV|vo laţx maţitSa'D 
TTl otgocrfino tio gab btiiati bţioi^SDe 
octif lan|ii Je Leite TTl oga. " Now 
at the end of eight yean after the 
murder of Mathgamhain, Brian took 
the hostagea, and the full sovereignty 
of Leth Mogha,'' Le., of the sonthem 
half of Ireland. 

^By kim. Le btiiati, B., **by 
Brian." Omitting mtipn. 

< Boata. B. reads cţii. c eoctoţv 
leif afi Sioncnnn, "Threehundred 
ships with him on the Shannon." 

* HundrttL B. reads, u. eonbap. 
picec : "five acore ships." 

s ComtachL IcConnadcaib, B., 
"against the Connachtmen.** 



« Greoi evils. Ulca ithrxi, B., 
" many evila." 

' Tk^ kiOed, ţaji tfiorUiacaii 
ITItiiTisef mac Conoabonţi tvi- 
'oaţtina Cof^nacc, ociif |H)£on^ 
ete, B., "So that Moirghes, aon (tf 
Conchobhair, crown prince of Con- 
nacht, and many othen, were killed." 

« By him, }ţ teo coivcoiti, B., 
'^ Bjr them was killed ]" and the same 
reading is repeated instead of iţ^ leif 
it)fU)caip. in the next line. 

King. Hi is added from B. 

w Muirffhuu. Tnuţxgef, B. 

u Aftenoards. B. oonnects this 
woid with what follows, 1a|ifin crui 
"oo ţioncro. " Afterwarda was made 
by Brian," &c 



f 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WTTH THE QAILL. 



109 



was eight years^ after the murder of Mathgamhain. Brian, 
Thus Biiau was the king of Leth Mogha. Afterwarda Mister, 
there was assembled by him' . a great marine fleet on ^^' ®^- 
Dei-g Deirc ; and he took three hundred boats^ with him 
upon the Sinann as far as Loch Bai ; and Midhe was 
ravaged by him as far as Uisnech ; and they plundered 
all Brei&e beyond Ath liag upwUrds. There went also 
five hundred* and twenty from them into Connacht* ; 
and they perpetrated great evils* there, and they killed^ 
Muirghius, son of Conchobhar, orown prinee of Connacht, MnuţrWa, 
and there were killed also many of themselves. It was ^^ ^j 
by him* was slain Ruaidhri, son of Coscrach [king]® of Connacht, 
Ui Briuin, and of western Connacht. And it was by him a-dT^ss. 
Muirghius/^ the son of Rimidhri, was slain aften^ards.^^ 

Brian now made a great naval expedition to Flein Brian's 
Pattoid/* where Maelsechlainn came to meet him, andjjj^^î** 
they concluded a mutual peace there, viiz., such hostages i^in, A.D. 
of Leth Mogha as Maelsechlainn had, i.e. hostages^^ of the 
foreigners and of the Laghin, and likewise of the Ui 
Fiachrach Aidhne, and of the Ui Mâine, to be ceded to 
Brian; and the sole sovereignty of Leth Oirinn, from 
thenceforth,^* to belong to Maelsechlainn without war or 
trespass from Brian. This was two years hefore the battle 
of Qlenn Mama.^^ 

LXVII. Now,'® aiter the death of Domhnall Cloen, son Revolt of 
of Lorcan,'^ king of Laghin, the Laghin and the foreigners ^l"*?^ 



u Plem PaUmcL bl6in Pac6ici, B. 

u Eostoffet. B. readSf .1. a ţuxibe 
T)ol>|icngoib Leite TTl 05a, 7 'gallţ 
ocirp Lat^ecm 05 Tnaeleclainn: 
** Such hostages of Leth Mogha, and 
of the foreignen, and of the Leinster- 
men, as Maelsechlamn had." 

" Thence/ortk. Opn amaâ gon 
cogcro, gem pogait "oo bţwan ati 
TTlaelf'echtainn, B. 

^ Glmn Mama, The hattle of Glen 
Mama is dated 998 (the 20th year of 
MadBechlainn), by the Four Masters; 
bat A.D. 1000, according to 0*Fla- 



herty's Chronology; and, therefofe, 
the alliance or treaty recorded in this 
chapter must be dated 996 (4 M.>) or 
998 (O'FL) 

" Now. B. omits imof^ivo. 

^7 80H of 'Lorcan. These words are 
omitted in B. The death of Domh- 
nall Cloea is dated 983, by the Four 
M., the 5th year of Maelsechlainn, 
whioh in O'Flaherty's Chronology 
would be 985, so that the revolt of 
Leinster must have begnn twelve or 
thirteen years bef ore the treaty with 
Maelsechlainn. 



foreigners 
from Brian. 



110 



cosaroti ţoce'Dliel ne salLcnbti. 



Battle of 
Glen 
Mama, 
A.D. 1000. 



The Lein- 
ater-men 
and Danes 
of Dublin 
defeated. 



•00 bţiian, ocuf bcrcaţi ic Tcobjiucrax) coccaiT) pfii b|iian, 

ocuf pfii ÎTlumnefiaib aficena. *0a Iuit), imojiiio, bpian 

ocuf moţifeinol peaţi muman leif co tai^nib, ocuf co 
^ullu .1. "DO ^abail pofi CCt Clia€ no co ţiiajiaiscif 

^ailU Ro cuiţiix; 'oan ba, octif munT^efia Lc^en in 

afcaill gali, ocuf i ntlib bţiin CbualanT), ocuf i nUib 

Sabjia, ocuf i nUib 'DoncoDa, octif canccrcaţi Login 

ocuf gcnll fe6 na mtînreţiaib i conni mbfiiain, ocuf a 

coniDail .1. co JI'O'T^ THania. Ro comiMnsfei; an-o fin 

bfiian co ÎTlumnefaib, ocuf gailL co Laigne^aib leo. 

Ro pejiaD, imop-fio, ca€ pulec, picDa, pojvoepc, peocai[i, 

peajvoa, peţiamail, ajaţib, aniaţiia, efcaţi-oemail, erufijiu 

ocuf 1*0611011; [pifife ocuf eolai§ naţi cuiţieofe 6 cau 

TTltiise Roca nuaf ctji'oaine ba ni6 ina fin. Tk)ruic- 

feac ann fochai'5e "oo *Oal cCaif, ocuf vo tntinîi- 

neachaiB aţicena; fio uiicfeac ann fofigla gali CCra 

Clia€, ocuf gali Gfienn uile, ocuf rucca^ dji iai|en; 

CI* vf^a a& îio muig îx)îi na gallaiB, octif pori na I015- 

ni§. Ro nia|iba'5 qfia ann OCfialu mac CCrfiloiB ţii 

•oamna gali eyienn, ocuf Cuilen mac Occigeţin, ocuf 

.xL 06*0 impo vo neoc ap peaţiţi baoi "oo gallaiB a 

nGfienn, octif leanai'5 bţiian iod co jiangaDaţi in -oiin, 

50 nobţioB — 



1 Agamst Brian. PoniV octif poţi 
fntiilionn aţicena, B., "againat him 
and againat Mamhaîn alao.** 

s The La^hm, Co SuUa, octif 
co Longnm «do gal^oit/ ofv GCtctiot 
no co ixiOTi'oaifĂ, B., "agdnst the 
foreignen and againat the Laghin," 
[or men of Ldnater,] ^ to laj Biege to 
Ath GUath nntU it anbmitted to him.*' 

* The oatOe. btiari, B. 

^Angk. B. reada, inof|f;ailt 
gaU/ in tlib biMiJin Cualann 7 
1 nit) gabtia: "Into the angle of 
the foragnen in Ui Briain Cuallan, 
and into Ui Gabbra/* It ia possible 
that Ascall Gail^ '^the angle of the 
Gaill,** onght to be regaided aa a pro- 



per name, denoting aome piaee po«- 
aeased by the f oreigners. The reading 
of B. would aeem to make it a place 
in the territory of Ui Biiuin CnaJann, 
a district embradng the greater part 
of the barony of Bathdown, aod a 
poition of the north of the co. Wldc- 
low. See Dr. 0*DonoTan*a note \ 
Fa» M., 738 (p. 340). AmouR or 
ĂagaU (Latin aaâUd)^ ia the ano pit; 
and hence an angular pîeoe of gnmnd, 
like the apace between a man's ann 
and hia body. 

' Beyond: i.e., in advance of their 
famlliea (more to the aouth of the 
districts to which they had aent their 
wives and children), in order to inter- 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



111 



became disobedient to Brian, and were menacing war 
against Brian, ^ and against the people of Mumhain ako. 
Brian, therefore, marched, with a great muster of the men 
of Mumhain, against the Laghin' and against the foreign- 
ers, intending to lay siege to Ath Cliath until the foreign- 
ers should submit to him. But now the cattle^ and the 
families of Tiaghin were sent into the angle^ possessed by 
the foreigners, and into Ui Briuin Chualann ; and into 
Ui Gabhra, and to Ui Donnchadha. And the Laghin 
and the Qaill came beyond^ their families to meet Brian 
and into his presence, viz., to Glenn Mama. They met Battle of 
there ; Brian with the Mumhnigh, and the foreigners ^^ 
aooompanied by the Tjaghin ; and there was fought be- A.D. lOOO. 
tween them a battle, bloody, furious, red, valiant, heroic, 
manly ; rough, cruel, heartless ; and [men^ of intelligence 
and leaming say that sinoe the battle of Magh Bath,^ to 
that time, there had not taken place a greater slaughter. 
There feU there multitudes of the Dai Cais, and of the 
Muimhnigh in general ; there fell there the greater part 
of the foreigners of Ath Cliath, and of the foreigners of 
all Erinn ; and there was also a slaughter of the Laghin; The Lein- 
for, in short, the foreigners and the Laghin were utterly '*^~!?"^ 
defeated. And there were killed there Aralt, the son of Dublin 
of Amlaibh, the crown prince of the foreigners of Erinn, ^«'f**»^ 
and Cuilean, the son of Echtighem, and four thousand 
along with them, of the best of the foreigners of Erinn. 
And Brian foUowed them till they reached the D6n,® 
whereupon was said — 



cept Brian's march. B. reada, Txxn- 
5(rcaT>. goiH ocay* laijin |^o6 tia 
tnaiTiceţvail) i ccoinne btviain 50 
glecm-D TTKhna. "TheGafflandthe 
Ţjighm came in advance of thdr fam- 
iliee, against Brian at Glen Mama." 

And [men. B. reada, Ro ţea|i(rD 
imofiTio eacofiţuz cat piilead pic- 
XM, ŢO\voea\i^ peorvâa, pearwtihail, 
oiTimln," agatit), ainicnfvoai oaf" 
ccdtîVTwaTfiml. CCcuf a '©«itxic, &c. 



The passage which f oUowa in brackets 
from thîs place tothe laat line on p. 114, 
ia wanting in D., and haa been snpplied 
firomB. The Izish leader will percdve 
the change of orthography. 

fMagh Rath, See the historical 
românce of the battle of Magh Bath, 
publiahed by the Iiiah Aichteological 
Society. 

B The Dtm: Le., the dân or fortiesa 
of Ath Cliath, Le., of Doblin. 



112 



coscroîi saet)îiel ae sallccibti. 



Poetical 
celebration 
of the 
▼Ictoiy, 



Pcroa cm fioai^fi cainic Ofiian 
O 5^inn TîlaTna co hCCc-Clioc. 



'CtisiHini ficciyi af a T)ân, 

Ti^u^fam coilcib, rucqpam cluni, 

'Cusfam eic maiue meafia, 

If mna blaite bon^eala. 
"Oo ctii|ifioc "Oal cCaif anăg 

CCn Id Ţixx va picec că-o, 

-Socii ai'oe 6 im^foc ba, 

If 'oa ccn^foc Id ţxroa. 

pcrocD 

TheCaatie LXVIII, tto hnTOţia-fe iTTiopţio an vdu le6, OCtlf ţio 

pîiSdei!^ tictinse*' oc«r îw> t«^ bfiian afi fin a pţx)rlon5pOTVc 

andburaed. ifiTi TTibaile 6 noT)laic tn6p co noDlaic bBcc. Txinic 

lapfin ifin Tnafisa'B, ocuf ţio loifcecrB cm 'd6ti tiile teo, 

ocuf TUfipa^aiCfiox: cifce lucalmain jan pagBdil, atncnL 

ccfbeiix: an ple, ag inifin fcel an*©: — 

Coc Slinne TTlania if tndfi mep,, 

Uî qfitiai'De cau T)afi ctufieTo, 

I3ţi|i a ticroa ni fvcc6 56, 

CC dfia fa eafbcc6o. 
CC cp^o-oacc if a cfitiaf, 

CC laernctuţie fa Idnluaf, 

Im-ba Iii 506 qfidc T)Ocaît t», 

Cac a^ qfiochcro a caile. 
CfieagDcre if ciofifxro cneaf, 

8colccr6 cenT) ccaoiti coirh'oeaf, 

T^ioijte comaUa, ni ^tiac, 

Ocuf Idma 50 IdnltJat. 
lYn'ba mofib leofan if lib, 

■Ofteama ccarhaib fa cainib, 

T)fieani -Danafi luam gem ffiitia|wn), 

^o cfiuai^D cega ccombualcrD. 



Poem on 
the battle 
of Glenn 
Mwnm 



1 Ath CUath, The lemainder of this 
quatrain la mîiwing in B., but space 
is left for it, aa if the scribe had 
been nnable to dedpher the antient 



MS. from which he copied, bat hqped 
to repair the defect from some other 
source. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 113 

Long was that roate bj which Brian came. Poeticei 

From Glenn Mama to Ath Cliath."» celebration 

of the 



▼ictory* 



We broaght silk out of the fortress ; 

We bronght bedding ; we broiigbt feathen ; 

We brought steeds goodlj and fleet, 

And blooming wbite fair women. 
The Dai Cais put to death 

On that day two score hundred^ ; 

Many they deprived of oows, 

And gaye them a long daj' ! 

LONO. 

LXVIII. The fortress then was plundered by them and TheCastie 
ransacked ; and Brian at that time remained encamped in pţ^^Sl 
the town from great Christmas to little Christmas.^ He andbumed. 
came then into the market, and the whole fortress was 
bumed by them, and they left not a treasnre under 
ground that they did not discovet. As the poet said in 
relating the story of it — 

The batUe of Glenn Mama was great and rapid ; p^em on 

No harder battle was ever fonght ; — the battle 

The man who says so makes no false assertion — Mai^"^ 

For its slanghters and its losses ; 
Its yalonr and its severity ; 

Its championship and its Aill impetuosity ; 

Many on every side were its misfortunes, 

Each party destroying the other. 
Fierdng, and hacking of bodies, 

Cleaving of comely and handsome heads, 

Feet in action — it is not false I — 

And hands in fbll activity. 
Many were the dead of them and of yon ; 

Crowds in trances and in swoons ; 

Crowds of ready Danars, withoot cessation, 

Brayely contending with them. 



*Two9Corehmdrtd, ThuseemBto 
mean « hnndred times two score : Le., 
4,000, « number probably exagge- 
rated. 



* A Umg doji: Le., spared their Uves 
for some time longer. 

A ChriMtmat: Le, fromChziitiiiasDay 
to the Epiphany. 

I 



IU 



coţaroti scce-Dliel tie ţalUnbli. 



Yalae of 
the spoil 
taken. 



How the 
wealth. 



PcpDa T)o baf tume fin 

O maiTMTt co •otiî)n6nai$, 

If ţxroa vo hcroficro "oe, 

Cac 05 fnaţibcro ac6ile. 
Rti^fccc meic tia fiig bofiac, 

Tjfi^ cat na tigaU co cnuchac, 

^ufi ctii|ifccc cou ^all co qitiai'6, 

T^iă coc na n^aoi^deal faifix^aanD. 
*Oo bp.ife^ an coc aţifin 

CC|i ei^in aţi na gallaib, 

T)a c^ -oâcc ni beg a bîxro, 

1nnifcea|i ann -do maţibat». 
Cac TTltii^e Tlau fie ceafca, 

Ho coc ni6fi ÎTltuge h6alca, 

"Moca nînnfamail im ţiac, 

If ba|iatîiail T)on aon cat. 

coxti. 

LXIX. If e fin aon lona-fi af ni6 a pfiî€ •d6|i ocuţ* 
'oaiţiccex:, ocuf 'DfionnT)|xtiine, ocuf vo leccaiB, ocuf tm 
jeamaiB capitmogail, ocuf "do coţinaiB buabaill, ocuţ* 
•DO blei-oe-fiaiB blaice. Ho non6ilOT co haon lonorB na 
feoiTx fin leo. TT16|i "ona 'DeT>ei'5iB exaAla ^aca -oafia 
fţiit ann fOf. *Ni ţiaiB imofţio T)<jn no Txiinsean, no 
no ceall, no co^af, no neime^ vo 5aBop5 



fif an ngldim njlipi^is, njlonnTnaiTi, nsnuifrî^ip w 
Bî 05 ceaglaim, octif 05 ceaccayi na hoDala fin, 6ifi 
ni yiaiBe ipolaC po ralmain in 6|iinn ina pd •BiatftjwiilS 
-oifiealTO as pianaiB no 05 fî«ciiiriaiB nî na ptiaţiacati 
na T)anniaf5ai§ allmaţi'Ba injanraca fin, cţie semc- 
li-becc, ocuf qfie io'6ala'6fa'&. Tn6p 'ona vo lîinaiB, 
ocuf vo macamaiB, ocuf T)in5eanaiB cugoB po «ftaiiie, 
ocuf po "Bocafi leo,] ocup jW) 'Dligfei; in ni fin ; va\'s if 



1 Dark noan: Le., midnight. 

> GailL The original words, Gaitt, 
forrignen, and OaedhU, QmA. or Iriah, 
aie here letained beeavae of the allite- 
ration oTidently intended by the poet. 

• Mă^h EaUtL No anch battle is re- 
oorded in the Ixish Aaiuda, unleea the 



battle of Clontarf be intended, in wfaidi 
af tenraxds Brian felL Clontaif was a 
part of the antient plain called Stăm 
Moigk Ealta Eadair, Fonr Hast, A.M. 
2560. 

4 By them: Le., by Bzian and hfa 
foUowen. 



WARS OF THE QAEDHIL WTTH THE OAILL. 115 

Long did thej contmne in this way, 

From the moming unto the dark noon* ; 

Long were the hoirors continued, 

Each partj killing the other. 
The sons of the kings made a brave charge 

Throngh the ranks of the sorrowing Gaill' ; 

And fiercelj djrove the ranks of the Gaill 

Through the ranks of the Gaedhil north-eastwards. 
The battle was thereapon gained 

By force against the Gidll ; 

Twelve hundred — ^not small the glory ! — 

Are recorded to have there been killed. 
The battle of Magh Bath, as it is described, 

Or the great battle of Magh Ealta,^ 

Are not eqnal in prosperous results, 

Nor to be compared with this one battle. 

The Battlb. 

LXIX. It was in that one place were found the great- Vaiue of 
est quantities of gold and silver, and bronze [JmTidruviie], SkeT^^ 
and predous stones, and carbuncle-gems, and buffalo homSy 
and beautifîil goblets. AII these valuables were coUected 
by them* to one place. Much also of various vestures 
of all colonrs was found there likewise. (For never was How the 
there a fortress, or a fastness, or a mound, or a church, or ^^ ^^ 
a sacred place, or a sanctuary, when it was taken by that weaith. 
howling, furious, loathsome crew, which was not plun- 
dered by the collectors and accumulators of that weaith. 
Neither was there in ooncealment under ground in Erinn, 
nor in the vaxious soUtudes belonging to Fians or to 
fairîes, any thing that was not discovered by these 
foreign, wonderful Denmarkians, through pagaoism' and 
idol worship.) Many women also, and boys, and girls, 
were brought to bondage and ruin by them^ ;] and the 



* Thrmgk pagamtm. The meaning 
ia, tbat notwithttaading the potent 
ipel]e emţdoyed hy the Ffans and fai- 
iIm ol old ior the coneealment of 
theâr hidden treaeavee, the Danei, by 
their pagan magic and the diaboUcal 



power of their idola, were enabled to 
find themoat 

< Bjf them: i.e., by Brian and his 

party. D. adds, aivopn Aere, or oh 

lAa< ocoanon, and then proeeeds as after 

I the bracket in the text The clauee 

I2 






116 



coscroti ^ae-otiel ne ţallccibh. 



The com- 
plete inb- 
Jection of 
the f oreigii'- 



erii 



BriAn*8 

twenty-Aye 

battles. 

He rwnEiiui 
«t Dublin 
fiye weeks. 



B*Tag«i 
Lelofter. 



ţiiu T)aj\OTi(n) iT»T)ocaiTiT), octif ificrc ţio infaig iccofnum 
aq[ii£i, ocuf cqpofiba pein poţifio. Cit) -ona ace poimpo 
a fen ocuf orolu'o aTiT)fiTi ţiif na ^allaib, ocuf ^ac olc 
'oaţionfOT; rajiţuif oţifio potnan. TX)maif. CCţi in miao 
pofiamifeT; tk) peaţiib OjienT) if pai ţio iniT>eD 'ooib. 

Olc if6n 'DO gallaib, imoţiţio, ţiogenaifi in jilla pin 
.1. bţiian mac CenT)eT:i5. *0ai5 ip leip ţiomaţibaiT^ 
tvomu'oaisiT:, yiODilaţiipT:, ţioDoefioiT: ip jvomugpanaipc 
Cona fiabî cdrclec 6 beinT) e^aiţi co 'Cec •Ouin'o 
lafin&pinT) ^an gali inT)anxi pai|i, ocup naţiab bpo gaii 
gaillpig. Ck)na|iba ni fii mac oclai^ no oc^ipţinT) vo 
goeDelaib <n)0|inT) im ptiipc no im opaifi ele aţi cal- 
mam, ocup ni moba ni pe mna n< 'oopn'o im meii bpoti, 
no puni bappni, no mp a hăraig, abc ţall no ^aillpec 
T)anenam. 

[LXX. Câicc cafea picer in po cpe^Dob a rcaoiB po- 
T)ein, appe^ po ppaoin bpian poppa, ţup in cca6 in po 
mapba* ep6in, jeniţioca T)eBfea ap£ena. Ro bai itn- 
moppo bpian annpin o noDlcnc m6p 50 p6il bpi|T)6. 
Ro hinT)pa5 tai^in leip aSc bece, ocup po gaB bpai|T)e, 
ocup po loipccea-b Coill Comaip leip, ocup po leopofi, 
ocup po pei'Bi^e'B beilge ocup "oainsne leip. Ro elo itn- 



deacribing bow the Danea came by their 
great wealth Î4 a parenthetical digres- 
rion, after which the nairatiye retams 
to the spoil taken by the Tictorioas 
Brian and hia followen. 

^ DeaervetL B. reads, ocup th) 
■oti^oc piâm in ni pin oiyi ipicpo 
501II |M) lonnpcnţ icro -oo 6opnaiti 
a cqfi16e, ocup a ix)tvba ■oilip 
pein irfim : " And they had d»- 
■erved that treatment, for the foreign- 
ers had begmi the attack to contest 
with them their own coimtiy and 
their beloved lawfnl inheritance.** In 
the OM of <Aiy and ikem both MSS. are 
somewhat confused, meaning by thoee 
prononna eometimee the Iriah, some- 
timea the Danea, or other foreigners. 
To avoid this conAiaion, a alight liberty 
haa been takan in the 



by snbetitating " tke forfignerf for 

* Tkt rupecL Theee worda, to the 
end of the paragraph, are omittBd 
in B. 

' IU luck. B. reada, Otc imoritio 
an p6n "do jgallccib in ta ţio genatfi 
in ptle pin : '* Bad waa the Inck of 
the foreignera on the day when that 
yonth waa bom." 

^ Exterminated. B. reada, ocoptU) 
•Diloicixicchic. 

s WuuKwing ahset CoiUed, B^ 
" an old woman." 

Weitem Erimu B. reada, in lOfi- 
ta\\. &Tvent>, **in the west of EriuB," 
bat the other reading, no lofi nCium», 
ia giyen aa a gloia in O'Cleiy'a hand 
orer theae worda. Fkom Bemi Edair 
[now Howth], to Tech Didon [aa 



WARS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



117 



foTeigners had deserved' that treatment, because by them 
the provocation had been given, and they had been the 
aggressors to contest with them [Le., wiih Brian and 
his followera] their own country and their lawfdl in- 
heritance. However, their good luck and fortune then 
tumed against the foreigners, and all the evils they had 
hitherto inflîcted were now fully avenged on them. For 
the respect* which they had measured to the men of Erinn, 
was by the samQ standard now measured to themselves. 

111 luck' was it, however, for the foreigners when that The com- 
youth was bom, viz., Brian, the son of Cenneidigh ; for it ^^J^ 
was by him they were killed, destroyed, exterminated,^ thefwrfgn- 
enslaved, and bondaged. So that there was not a win- ^^ 
nowîng sheet^ from Benn Edair to Tech Duinn, in west- 
ern Erinn,^ that had not a foreigner in bondage on it, nor 
was there a quem without a foreign woman.' So that no 
son^ of a soldier or of an officer of the Qaedhil deigned 
to put his hand to a flail, or any other labour on earth ; 
nor did a woman^ deign to put her hands to the grinding 
of a quem, or to knead a cake, or to wash her dothes, but 
had a foreign man or a foreign woman^^ to work for them. 

[LXX. Five and twenty battles, in which their own Bxian's 
sides were pierced, did Brian gain over them, induding JJ[S2!'*^* 
the battle in which he himself was killed, besides sundry 
skirmishes. Brian remained in that place from great He nnudiis 
Christmas" tiU the festival of Brigit. Laighin wasj^^^^ 
ravaged by him, except a small portion, and he took hos- 
tages ; and Coill Comair was bumed by him, and hewn Raragei 
down, and passages and fortresses deared by him. But Am- ^'«»**«'- 



ialand ofiF the south-westem point of 
Keny], wms eridently a luiud mode of 
deecribing the soathem half of IreUnd. 

' Forâgn woman. In the original, 
ffttUbech. A quem \b a stone hand- 
mill still nsed in many parts of Ireland. 

> No ton. Conaţi bo ni te mac 
6octai5 no oiccci^eittn, B. 

9 A vxtman. tliţ), bo ni ie mnaoi 
a lârh im mele bţvdn no im {mine 
baiti^ne, B, 



^^ Forâgn iDoman, Lit, ^*AgaIlor 
a gaUlflech.** ţall ocuy gaitljpech 
T>a •oenaifi, B. *Danenam in D. is 
forTianTienam. Heieanother portion 
of the text (chaps. Ixz. to flnt paia- 
graph of chap. IxxiL im^) ia inpplied 
from B. in oonaeqnence of an imper- 
fection in D., from the lofls of a leal 

u From great Chrulmat: Le., from 
December 25 to Febmary 1, indoaiye. 
I See p. 113, note <. 



118 



cosoroti scce-otiel tie salLaibîi. 



Amkffflies 
toUlflter. 



Snbmits tx> 
Biian. 



Captare 
of Mad- 
mordha, 
kingof 
Ldnster. 



Brian's 
trittmphant 
retum 
home. 



Brian's 
lebellion 
agalxist 
MaiciLMch- 
laîim, Ung 
of Ireland, 
A.D. 1002. 

A moath*s 

trace 

agraedto. 



tnoţiţio OCiifilaiB |ii ^all ill6 ati caca, ocuf ţio fiacc ay 
gac lOTioD T)eif aceile co ţiia&: co htlllxni. *Oo ciiaf 
itnTno|xţio o bţiian ina "biai^, ocuf ni puaiţi ation ace 
CCoh, TIO ace G^ocai'fe, 50 xxaiTiic hi cech bţiiain hi ccinn 
naice lapatîi, octif cuc abjieic pein vo bţiian, ocuf cuce 
Opian a Un T>oîX)rft. 

LXXI. Ho gab imofiţio bţiian ÎTlaolTnoix'fea mac TTluţx- 
cha5a all6 an caca ţieirfie in luBaîicai'fie, ocuf ife THuţi- 
cha5 cuce af an luBaţi 'oa aim^eâm h6, ocuf bai hilldiih 
occ bţiian 5U|i jaB bţiai^DO Lai^en uile. Ho hoff laicce* 
T)e ajifin, ocuf cucca5 b|wii§T>e Laifeen t)6, ocuf ţu> 
hai6nîoTO'5 *Oonncha5 mac *Ooiţ»naill Claoin neitfte. 

Trainic iinoTvpo brvtar, va h^h laririn, 50 T^^c 
foiAenmnac, ocuf co cofccyiach commai'Bmec amoit 
ba minic laif. Ife^ înnific lucc pepa, ocup fenchupa 
conac ţiaiBe U|xţiaiT)h "opepaiB Ulutţjan -Don cpluaiţe^ 
fin gan otbaţi a€i5heT>haif leif 'd6|i ocuf Daipccecx; 
ocup 'oeccafi T)aca, ocup T)a gac lonniîiafp aţiEena ; coniT) 
T)a poifigell fin t>o foncrB an T)uan. 

LXXII. *Oo fona^ mof fluaiss'B Leice ÎTlo^a uil© 
le Oţiian lapfin ecif s^llae ocuf gaoi'5ela co ţiiacu 
'Cemţiaig na yiio^, ocuf fo cuiţie^ cecca uota co TTlael- 
ecloinn mac *Ooiftnaill co \ii 'CeAfaS, ocuf po fiţxic 
bţungDe paiţi no ca€ muna aencai'fee^ bfai§T>e, octif 
cucca* afofea vo Hlaoileflainn 'oiBfin.] Ho fiţi, imoţiţu), 
TTloelfeclainT) cafDi mîf 'oo fi com&noil Le€i CuinT), 
ocuf cugaD in cafoi fin v6 can cfeic can infOD can 
aif^ni 5an fogail can poflofcuT), ocuf bfian in pof- 
longpofc pfi fin fe fin i 'Cempaic. 



1 With Aedh: Le., Amlafi; the Dan- 
ioh king, waa noi reoeived by Aedh, 
or Hngh O'Neill, the chief of the 
Ulaidf or northem UUtermen, nor by 
Eochaidh, the chieftain of the East of 
Ulster, to whom he had fled for pro- 
tection. 

s Bouse: i.e. aabmitted to Brian. See 
p. 123, line a 

> Hitforirttt: Le., his dânor fortie» 
of DnbliiL 



* MunÂadh : Le., Maichadh or Mor* 
rogb, son of Brian. BCaelmordhay or 
Maelmâra, eon of Murchadh [jLe., 
of a different and older Murchadh], 
waa the king of Leinster, and brother 
of Gormlath, Biian's third wife. 

Tke poem. Meaning apparaitly 
the poem given above in chap. IxviiL 

^ MaeltechkUmn. Hereweretazntothe 
text of D. B. reads, ocup jio pip^op- 
coifi ÎTlaelpeâloifiTi caifvoe mîf. 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 119 

kibli, king of the foreigners, fled on the day of the batiJe, Amlaff file» 
and went from one place to anotber, until he came to the ^ ' 
Ulaid. But he wsa pursued by Brian's orders ; and he found 
not shelter with Aedh,^ nor with Eoohaidh; so that he SabmHsto 
came into Brian's house* in a quarter of a year after, and *'**"' 
submitted to Brian*s own terms, and Brian restored his 
fortress' to him. 

LXXI. Brian captured also Maelmordha, son of Mur- Captan 
chadh, on the day of the aforesaid battle, conoealed în a mo^ih«r 
yew tree ; and it was Murchadh^ that fordbly dra^ed lâng of 
him out of the tree ; and he continued in oaptivity with 
Brian until Brian received the hostages of all Tiaighin. 
He was then liberated, and the hostages of Tjaîghin were 
given to him, and Donnchadh, son of Domhnall doen, 
WBB dethroned for him. 

Brian now retumed to his home after this, cheer- Brianta 
fiilly, in good spirits, victbriously and triumphantly, as ^^'*"* 
was his wont. Men of leaming and historians say that houAi 
there was not a yeoman of the men of Mumhain on that 
expedition who had not received enough to fumish his 
house with gold and silver, and cloth of colour, and all 
kinds of property in like manner. And it was to oom- 
memorate this the poem^ was made. 

LXXII. A great expeditipn of all LethMogha, both QailI BrUn^s 
and Gaedhil, was afterwards made by Brian, until they î^ainat" 
reached Temhair of the kings ; and messengers were sent Maebedi- 
from them to Maelsechlainn, son of Domhnall, king of oHreU^ 
Temhair, and they demanded hostages firom him, or battle, ^^' ^<^- 
shoidd he refuse hostages, and Maelsechlainn was given 
his choice of these.] Maelsechlainn,® however, requested A month's 
a month*s delay to muster Leth Chiinn ; and that delay was ^^ to. 
given to him^, durîng which no plunder or ravage, no 
destruction or trespass, or buming, was to be inâicted 
npon him. And Brian remained encamped® during that 
tîme in Temhair. 

^Tokm, B. omit8T)o,"tohim.** i Brian was ia Temhair [i.e., Tara], 
^Encamptd. B. reada, octi|^ bfiiom { doring that time;^* viz., during the 
1 cT^mţiaig ifţwţ* an p.e Ţ\n : " And ' tîme of the truce. 



120 



coBCCOli ^ae-otiel ne ţalLcnbîi. 



Mftdaech- 1ţ^ ipn comaţili va fioncro la TTloelfeclainT) airofein 



lAiim*s 



em 



hâmy to S^^^oc Ck)Tn5aill Ua 8lebin, oUum tUcro, ocuf in ruaif- 

^!«^»g»o*ceifw; apcena vo ctifi aţi ceiro CCeDa U "Neillţii CCeliţ, 

Cornuui^t octif aţi ceriT) eoccroa tnic CCţi-osail fii Ulcro, ocuf ixcca 

ele aţi ceiro Cârceii mic Concubccfi ţii Conacr, ocuf tki 

nfTxiif Le€ CuiiTO co heTimemnaC leofen coc ţeţigac 

ţefiamail vo iabaiţi^; x>o bţiian, ocuf t>o Lei€ tnoga, 

octif foifi'oacr; 'Cetnfiac vo cofnutn ţiiti. TTleTii cifciţ* 

fin, imoţiţio, "DO cofntini faiţi'oate "CeniţiaC, ba M a 

cotnafili bfiajn tk) cabanxc vo bfiian, "oaig n< W aco- 

mains te€i TU 05a vo ţiefcal aci feom a enuţi, oca-p 

niyi ba naiyii DOfom can 'Cemţioig va cofntitn ol-oaf 

•DO clannaib Weill, ocuf vo faeţiclannaib Le€i CtiinT) 

cqfifiena. 

Giiu LXXIII. Ck)ni'D ax\v vo ţiosni ^illa Comgaill Ua 

O'sfJ^' Slebin in -ouanfa 1 gfiefa&c CCeDa Ua NeilU ocuf 15a 

pocticai sîiifcro vo Tîabaiţix: coBa vo bţiian — 

«ddresB to 

CC DubiiaT) fiib vvl ţxxoeaf , 

Ufilain leif ac ttn^ea^ hf 

"Oo -oaboiT) ţie ce^Hac Tkcil, 

"Oa fiiacu 6 'Cemfiaig ţxil pf. 
Poroa ţie bOfiinT), CCet, 

CC cfiaeb Gebinx) an-o ti tliall, 

Co cofi^ba Let Ctiin-o aţi coifi, 

Co coificea uuinT) mbţioin ayi bţiion. 
benacca ţ»fi nOţienT) ofic, 

Ha leic lonna lebenT) leac, 

Hw iza 6fi fâil oii no6c, 

Ctifi 1 bţion -DO bfiepnai^ bale. 



Aedh 
O'NeilL 



1 PoeL B. omits the docription, 
'*the poet of the UUid and of aU the 
north«** 

s Shovld came. B. nada, ocuţ T>a 
rooţ^ai|* let CniTifi tiiie tei|* mcqfi 
pn 00 ha6n lonoro, ocuf co ha6n 
TnenTniia£, if cat no beţicro tk) 
btviom, ocor th) leit Tîlo^a, ocuj* 
faeţitaic 'Cemţva "do 6opicci1i fnaţx 
fin ; ociif mutia ciofcaif w) 6of- 



ncnti faoî|ifi na t^emţuic. "And 
if all Leth Cniim shonld oome with 
them to one place and with <me mind, 
then to give battle to Brian and to 
Leth Mogha, and to omtend for tha 
freedom of Temhair in like manner; 
but if they shonld not come to defend 
the freedom of Temhair, &c" 

*JBeoaufe. B. reads, «0615 ni borf 
aqponng t>Tiicnn ocvf leite Tnoga 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



121 



The oounsel that MaeLsechlaiim adopted on this occasion 
was to send GillaComgaill O'SIebhin, the poet* of theUlaid, 
and of all the north, to Aedh O'Neill, king of Ailech, and 
to Eochaidh, son of Ardgal, king of the Ulaid, and another 
messenger to Cathal, son of Conchobhar, king of Con- 
nacht ; and if the Leth Cuinn should come' unanimousiy 
with these, then to give a ftirious and manly battle to 
Brian and the Leth Mogha, and to contend for the free- 
dom of Temhair with them. But should they not come 
to defend the freedom of Temhair, the counsel he adopted 
waa to give hostages to Brian, because' he had not the 
power by himself to meet the Leth Mogha ; and it was not 
more disgraceful for him not to contend for the freedom 
of Temhair than it was for the Clann Neill, and all the 
other clanns of Leth Cuinn as well 

LXXIIL And it was^ on that occasion that Qilla Com- 
gaill O'Slebhin made this poem, urging Aedh O'Neill, 
and inciting him to give battle to Brian — 

Ye have been requîred to go southward ; 
Beady too at Lis Luigheach, 
To battle with the House of Tal ; 
From Temhair of Fal bas come the message. 

Long does it seem to Erinn, O Aedh, — 
O delightftd tree— head of the (^Neill, 
XJntil thoa restorest Leth Cuinn to its right — 
Untîl thon bring a wave of woe npon Brian. 

The blessings of the men of Erinn upon thee ; 
Let not a coward in the field go with thee ; 
On thee is all oor hope to-night — 
Dispel its sorrow from the strong Magh Breagh. 



Mtelaech- 

laixm'8 

embtfliyto 

thekingBof 

Ulsterand 

Connan^t. 



Offla 

Comgmill 

O'Slebhin's 

poedcal 

addreasto 

Aedh 

O'NeflL 



XX) 6>fcc aioce a aeiioţi, octif x\\ 
md ba iiâf\ T>oyx>tfi gom 'Ceifionfi no 
tfjŢCC iTid -DO âtannaib tlâilX: "be- 
caiue he had no power by himself to 
resitt Brian and the Leth Mogha, and 
it was not more diagracefol for him 
not to defend Tara than it was to the 
clann Neill, &c" 
< And it woâ, The whole of this sec- 



tion, indnding the poem, is omitted in 
B. ; where we read here "Do ţioifie an 
pil a tecT^cnţie^c amoil ay* ţeţif\ 
TU>ţ6cpp.ihGC^h. GCfbeţvctmoti- 
TU) GCo^ 6 tleiU, 7c : "The poet did 
his message as best he oonld for the In- 
formation of Aedh. Then Aedh 0*NeiU 
answered, &c.,** as in chap. Ixziv. 



122 



cosoroîi saet)tiel ae salLccibti. 



CCţi bai5 goe-oel jeib vo fcictc 

Co fin oenpefi ţ^ţigei* cac, 

Wa leic co|i 'Cemţia i cech mOfiiam, 

lc[f]elba bai biaiT) co bţvou. 
bjiacaţi T)tiic ÎDaelfeclaiTiT), 

3eţvc fiuţi T)tiic in mocaiţi Dan mac, 

T)âna Debaiî) timpi a CCct), 

Com "oiitais T)oib 'Cemaiyi Oţiec mbatc. 
Wacafbefiac eacrixainx) uaib, 

CiT) T)ecmatn5, "oânrafi baţi fît, 

TTlini fiucop, fie baţi fie, 

"Ml 'p.ucca'D ţTfii ţie na cfiic. 
CofnaiT) 'Cemaifx, q^en bayi ţ»iT)m, 

CC Ţ&o [^ieg. peDnaib] HeiH neţic baf\ nDUftifi'Oy 

IJa jvaecam a lef bayi ngaiţiim, 

Ml T)ef lib anim eaccpxmT) tJijxnT). 
CCfiT) 506 oenrti, blot^lon blaic, 

Cam cac cliou byiauafi moD btiaiT), 

8ona fie cumafc cac cuie, 

pofirall cac tiilc ilaţi fluaig. 
1p câmpean if cofiu T)tiib, 

Cen gub "oain^ean, •oul co Ofiian, 

Ha legiT) in mallma^ -oo neoc, 

TTlilif a T)eod if a bioD. 
beififio ctjafcefic Cfien-o lec, 

CCeD fiif a nefi^enî) cac locc, 

beţieD vo celi in lec ceaf , 

Ma lâgiT) bofi leaf vo lor. 
befiei) Oocu utm cian, 

Ulcu uli, afiî) in T)am. 

beţiiD Cacal cecac coiţi, 

CtJceT) feţi nOilnegmadc nan. 
Cfiiţ |ief na fluogaib ftiaf, 

'CyiĂnaig if cfiuaDai^ a fâif, 

ÎDa T)a necaif ţvaâaiT) cdc, 

bac ţ^fiDi co bţio^ THX heif . 



1 I%3f iroCfter : Le., near relative. 
Maelfechlalnn was his nephew, hie 
eister's eon. 

*7^: Le., Maelmirhlainn and hta 
mother. 



*It: TUL, Temhair or Tanu ' 
temi :" Le., noi of Uie hoose of O^NeOL 

^B ehoe m $(m: Le., between thae 
(Aedh) and Maelaechlaiim. 

^JHggraoe» Lit. '^Diegrace of ex- 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



123 



For the sake of the Gaedhil take thj shield 

Against that one man who injures all ; 

Let not the hill of Temhair come into Brian's house — 

With those who now possess it let it be for evor. 
Maelsechlainn is thj brother^ ; 

Thj beloved sister is the mother whose son he is ; 

Make batile for her, O Aedh ! 

Thej^ have equal right to strong Temhair, of Breagh. 
Let not extems earry it' awaj f rom jou ; 

However difficult, let peace be made between you^ ; 

If not carried awaj in yonr time 

It shall not be carried away until the time of the end. 
Defend Temhair, mightj be your exertion I 

Ye danns of NiaU, by the strength of your hands — 

Let ns not require to caii you ; 

It is not honourable to you that extems should disgraoe^ us. 
Noble is every unîon — glorious, renowned ; 

Beantiful every brother-battle if it be a victory ! 

Prosperons by combiniug is each part ; 

Powerful against all evil is a numerous army. 
The policy that is most proper for yon, 

Although not strong, is to go against Brian ; 

Sorrender not the soft plain^ to any man — 

Sweet are its drink and its meat 
Bring thou the north of Erinn with thee, 

O A.edh, who art foUowed by all parties ; 

Let thy comrade' bring with him the sonthem half; 

SufTer not your interests to be destroyed. 
Let Eochaidh bring — ^long the march — 

All the Ulaîd — a noble company ; 

Let Cathal, the warlike, the just, bring 

The province of the illustrious men of Olnegmacht. 
Rise up thou before the armies, 

Strengthen and harden their ranks ; 

If thou wilt go, all others will go, 

Thou shalt be the better of it ever afler. 



terna [Le., of Brian andhisparty] upon 
118 ÎB not honourable [Ut, handiome, 
pleasant] to yovL" 
J^ft pîain. Meaning Breagh or 



Bregia, the rich plain în which Tem- 
hair or Tara stood. 

7 Comrade : viz., MaelsechIauuL 
The k«t word of this line waa origin- 



124 



coscron scceDîiel tie ţalLcnbli. 



CC mic "Oomnaill tia Heill naif, 
PtJil ţofimlaitiT) •ooTigiieiTi ic SîWf , 
CC|i CI "Cemfia -otaic ocaîf, 
bete yii CfveTiT) ace co fiif. 

HoTnaiTiT) co bntcm bţioga CtJiyic, 
CCyi ţ^ţicmT) Ooga vo loc, 
Cfii^ ţvomaiTiT), efipiin leac, 
Wa bac biD anim 6|ienT) oţic. 

CC CCeD mic "Oomnaill o Weill, 
Snm ayi coţiblaitiT) 'Cemţia pail, 
beţiiţi ciţi CCi|ic Oetipi-p. o b|iian, 
biT) ^lall gac oen-pifi ic laim. 

bac lan fvi Cfien-o aţi cecc, 
tJa cleadc vo leben-o "oo Gu|ic, 
Uaifi na6 cacaifi caţilaig o|ic, 
Ma leic cnoc Caiţimaic "oo Cti|ic. 

Cofvaic in fluage-o aţi fiice 
TTlijfice|icai5 na ţiuoD^al ţaţvc, 
CC lefcfiaib ţlaine fioc necc, 
TTîini fai^e faigpeafi o|ic. 

Wa ţrjfiicoil ţ»in fiţi im ceţic, 

bem in ^^15 «^^ X^^B ^^ P'^^» 

biT) ca6 ţ?fiicolef -oo bein, 

If uaiflm clann WeiU cac nific. 

"Oa cifcaif "00 cltjfa 1 cein, 
TTîafi -oa ctiaroaf a tia WeiH ndif., 
MibaD -DeboT) lec in naall, 
*Oani in fltiag im 'Cemaifi pail. 

O ţi6 Coţimaic o cuin-o Coiţi, 
^f -Doib caplaic in cofi ciaţi, 
CCcc C1C cac a anam em, 
tli T>aUxrD ţi6c HeiH op. HiaU. 



ally written T>eaf in the MS., and U 
oorrected apporently by the original 
acribe toceaf.* 

1 NoNe. TheMS. baa nonf (of Naaa?) 
which oaght perhapa to be nonţVi noble. 
O'Niall is ao called in thia page (line 
26), and dratU qfIrtUmd, Une 1. Bnt 
the zhymeia in iavonr of natf . 

* Bmgk. Thia word eignifies a fort, 
or chieft«in*B reridenoe. By ^' Corcea 



Brngh** ia here meant Caahel ; ao caUad 
from Corc, son of Lugaidh, who waa 
khig of Caahei in the time of St. Pa- 
trick, and waa the flrat to make Caahel 
the rqyal reâdenoe. 

^Ofeoenffnam. In the Iiîah Ooi^. 
There ia a pUy npon worda here that 
cannotberepresented inthetrandation. 
The word ooi/er, gen. oe^, aigniflea 
literallyoiM hmm, taiîciif, iiMndmaL Art, 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



125 



O son of Domlmall, grandaon of Niall, the noble,' 

The brîght sheen of the sun illamines thee, 

Since thoa art intent npon Temhair for thyself 

Thoa shalt be king of Erinn if thou wilt bat come. 
Lead us against Brian of Corc's Brngh,' 

On Lngaidh's land be thj ravaging ; 

Gro thoa before ns — alaughter attend thee — 

Let Dot the disgrace of Erinn be npon thee. 
O Aedh, son of Domhnall, grandson of Niall, 

Sit thou on the glorioos tower of Temhair-Fail, 

Wrest the land of Art Oenfer from Brian, 

Let the hostage of every man' be in thy hands. 
Thoa shalt be fnll king of Erinn bj coming 

Let not thy platform [i.e. Tara] become accostomed to Lorc,^ 

Since no reproach attaches to thee, 

Yidd not CormacV Hill to Corc.« 
Direct the army in the track 

Of Moirchertach of the red prowess ; 

In vesselâ of glass he ha« washed thee^ ; 

Unless thoa advance, thoa shalt be advanced apon. 
Serve not thou thyself a man of right ; 

Strike the king, ezcept the sapreme king ; 

Let all be in vassalage ander thy stroke ; 

Nobler are the race of Niall than any might. 
If thy renown shall spread afar, 

As I haye said, O descendant of Niall the brave ! 

The shoat will not be a contest against thee 

Wbich is raised by the hosts around Temhair-Fail. 
From the time of Cormac, grandson of jast Conn, 

To bis race belongs this western hiU ; 

Bnt each man gave bis ready life ; 

Niall's fort was not taken from Niall. 



kingof Iieland, A.D. 220, son of Connof 
the himâred battleB, was snnuuned Oen- 
fer, becftnse he was the only sumving 
son of hîB father. The meaning, there- 
fore, is, ^ Wrest from Brian the landa of 
king Art Om/erf [Le., the kingdom of 
Ireland] and let the hoetage of every 
oaiţ/er [Le., of every individual] be in 
thy hand." beţviţi in the preceding 
line is prohably a mîstake for beţiiT). 



^ Lmx, or Lorc : Le., to Leinster ; so 
called from Loeghaire Lorc of the Liffey, 
king of Ixtdand, A.M. 8649. 

• Cormae^s. Over the word Cai|\- 
mcnc in the MS. a coeval hand haa 
written " vel Cormaic," the more nsosl 
spelling. 

Corc : Le., to Mnnster. See note *, 
p.124. 

7 Wa$h€d (Aee. This seems a pro- 



126 



coBcroti scce'otiel ne salLccibti. 



Cac |ii ţio 5ab ^ţiint) oaib, 

Oafi cticm coelbiiTo clainni HeiU, 

Wi ciacc ra|i beţinait) neic "otiib, 

CCf cac n|i i 'Cemfiaic qfiein. 
tla leicfitj ofir na bob cac, 

Hic peoil rfioir -oa coif no Deoc, 

CC bui rfii Cacal na coc, 

Ha leic cec ccctap. tdo neoc. 
Wi benpiam bec 51 bec moţi, 

If afi T)e5blaT) ceic vo Ofticm, 

Ci bec menmcm lint) a fifro, 

If nd|i n^eng fen Vemifiat fiaţi. 
8anrai5 pu Ltimneac na lonj 

CCfiT)ai5 -feo conoD ctimnead cnro, 

5efeD |iirfti Li^ Luific, 

'Cticfti Cafel Cuific va cinT). 
Ifcif [vel iţxic] mac "omgbala "06, 

TU a "Din^bala Ier fiecla, 
, ÎTlat) ru baf -oe "oe nac Toait, 

biT) leu uli m mait lua. 

a "oub. 

ThereftiMi LXXIV. CCfbetiT:, imofiţu), CCeD Ua Weill in can boi 

t4^ T:eTnaiii accofom .1. ic Cenel eosoin, fia coroinrer a 

fxiiţii, ocuf inci ica micro "oa cofncro a faiţii, ocup 

CCf beţie na6 cibţier) a anmain 1 cenT) caua ţo lamaib 

*Oalcaif T)o cofnccm ţiigi -00 neoc ele. If aiţifin ţio 

Caiţiif leo. 

BfadBech- •Qa fiofic in feţi 7)0010 co TTIailfeclain'D, ocuf aqper; 

ÎSSÎT*' îi« rce^« Pîi -oo. lîTi cornaţat 'oa ţiopii maelfec- 

petBon» and toinT), VO luiT) fei) CO T^ttc OCeî)a Ua T^eilU ocuf bai 

offen to 

xesignluB 

CTOwn. 



yerbial expreasion, eqnivalent to oor 
proverb of " dwelling in glaas houses. " 
But over the word necc, " waahing," 
in A coeyal hand, are written the 
letters ţic in the MS., probably to 
indicate another reading, Tie|\u, 
"strength,** — "in Tessela of glaas ia 
thy Btrength.** But qo. ? 
1 Over a pap: Le., not one of you 



obtained the sovereîgntj by any bye» 
way or treacheiy. 

>Zorc. See above, note ^, p. 125. 

" Whm tk^. Ut, " When Tenihair 
belonged to them, viz., to the Cinei 
Eoghan f i.e., the family of Eogfaan, 
the branch of the 0*NeUI of which 
Aedh was the chieftain. B. leads, 
an con tio bon ^rfionfi oc Cenet 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



127 



Of aU the kings of jon that niled Erinn, 
Of the sweet mnsical race of the sons of Niall, 
No one of you came over a gap^ 
Fiom anj qaarter to strong Temliair. 

Let hîm not come upon you — refuse not battle — 
You are not dead âesh, in foot or horse ; 
O descendant of the three Cathab of the battle, 
Leave not the hoase of thy fathers to any man ! 

Tis no small yalour, although the small is great ; 
Tis with high renown thou goest against Brian, 
Although it is small courage in ns to saj so, 
Tis a shame to have old Temhaîr dragged to the West. 

Covet thou Luimnech of ships 
For this purpose — that thou majest be remembered there, 
For thee will shout the Liphe of Lorc,' 
Puii thou down Caisei of Gorc 

Thou art a person worthj of it ; 
If thou preserve thj worthiness in thj daj — 
If thou be active now to the last, 
To thee shall belong all the good that remains. 

Thou art. 

LXXI V. Aedh O'Neill, however, answered— "Whenthey,* 
namely, the Cenâ Eoghain, had Temhair, they defended 
its freedom ; and whoever possesses it, let hîm defeod ita 
freedom ;" and he said " that he would not risk his life in 
battle against the Dâl Cais, in defenoe of sovereignty for 
any other njan." This was the final answer/ 

The man of poetîy retumed to Maelsechlainn' and re* 
lated to him those tidings. The coimsel that Maelsech- 
lainn acted on was this : he went himself to the honse of 
Aedh O'Neill, and he spoke to him and ofiered him host- 



Therefiual 
of Aedh 
0*NeîlL 



Maelflech- 
Uunnyiflits 
Aedh in 
penon, and 
offen to 
resignhis 
crown. 



6x>)gonn ţvo coţmacafi ofont^, octij* 
on CI aga mbioro 4 p6in na cofnoih 
oona i^nţij^ : ** When Temhair belong- 
ed to the Cinei Eoghan ite freedom 
waa defended, and whoever poaseseea it 
let it be hia l>iuineM to def end ita 
freedom.** 



< Afuwer. Lit., ** Thua he oon- 
dndedwith them,** i.e., the n^gotiation 
waa concladed between Aedh and the 
ambaaaador of Maelaechlainn. 

< To MaeUeckUmm. B. reada, tmx 
inni|*in ţ\x\ co TTlaetf^echlaîtin, 
"to teii thia to Maelaechlainn.** 



128 



cosoroti ţae'otiel ne ţgcLlcnbti. 



icca ogallaim, ocuf raţigiT) bfiogci tk), ocuf ţw) fiai'5 
flfiif, Cofdin 'Certiţvaig -duit; pein aţi fe, ocuf -00 beţifa 
jiallu t)Uit;, -oaig ip peţxfv lem bei€ accoqpo na bei€ ic 
Oîiian. -Oais ni pil a acmaing againT) can ceafe 1 vea6 
mbţiiain tnin cifiu leam 1 cenT) ca€a, ocuf tna€i Le€i 
CuinT) aficena 
Aedha»- Ho cinolir, T)na, Ceneal Gogain laţifin co hCCeT) Ua 
MmUesthe ^eill, ocuf fio înnif "Doib in ţxîel fin .1. TnaelfeclainT> 
EoghAin. 1 raifigfi giall T)o aţi "oul 1 cenT) caia leif in nagit) 
bţiian ocuf *Oailcaif. Ho ţiai-ofei; Cenel eogain ni bi 
anT) fin [aer] elafeu, 'oaig ţio înţi nflaelfedainT) na6 
gebaD CCeT) a pallu, 'oaig ba fini ocuf ba huafliu 
ÎTIaelfeclainT) ina OCeT), ocuf bar) cuina leif 1 oqxwn 
7)0 tx>ct: 1 cenT) caca leif, ocuf co maţiboD "oo T)enani 
•DOib, ocuf "Dailcaif . 

CCfbeţic OCeD fţiiu xx)cc 1 comaţili, ocuf 1 cocuţi, ocuf 
fţiecţia tnaii -oo rabaiţic aţi ÎTIaelfeclainT) înnaf na 
horo vofixmv plaiemnaif "ooib a Cuţiuf cucu. 

T)a cuacapfun 1 ca^uţi, ocuf ţio bacaţi ica imţicro 
ca focţia horo comaiC -ooibfeon fţii a naninam in nuaiţi 
•oa ţiateaif 1 cenT) caia fţii *Oalcaif. ^Oaig T)e etxxcaţi 
nac T:ei6fiT:if *Oalcaif ţiompofom, ocuf na£ reiqpicif 
feom fţii "Oalcaif ; ocuf va ecacaţi na bi acniaing a 



Aedhâd- 

▼iMsddi- 

beratlon. 

The anawer 
of the Clan. 



i Hottagei. B. hu coţiocai'O '06 
Tjemhcaxi, " he offered him Temhair ;'* 
ie., he oifered to resign to him the 
BOYerelgnty of Ireland. 

TemAotr. Coţxxin •omc ţî^n 1, 
B., '* Defend it for thyseU." 

*8aidU Omit., B. 

« TThtm, Ina, B. 

• Power, GCqpoinoc, B. 
•FaOmg imio. Lit, '* going iato 

BriAn*8 house ;" Le., becoming one of 
his Timmlif 

7 Came noL TD tina cciopoiţifi, B. 
At the head qf Ae baUle: Le., as com- 
mander-in-chief. 

• Assembkd. B. omite «ono, and 
ia|ifiT». 



• Qffered. OCcc t;aiTi5fin, B. 

^^Cauld be, Wa|l bo c6iţi fiti, 
oi|i |M) ţM-oiii Tflaelfechloinn, B.: 
**That this was not right, for liael- 
Hechlainn knew, &&" 

^O&ier; Le., in pedigree; olandder 
branch of the family. B. reada, nod 
Sebcro CCo* a bţunţoe, oiţi bo pne. 

» Cf Oemâelvea, '06il> j^n ocof 
TK), B. 

w AdviteeL a-oiibaific CCo* yuv 
code hi ococcoTi, ocuf hi ccoihoiTitei 
TK) t;abaiţit; 'Deisp|\eoc|ia, B. 

^ Secret cmmâL Casuţv, the aame 
word apelt cosuT^ three linee hcfore^ 
B. reada hi oooocaYi, another Tariation 
of orthogxmphy. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



129 



ages^ ; and said io him — " Defend Temhair^ for thyself/' 
said he,^ " and I will give thee hostages ; for I would 
rather be dependent on thee than^ on Brian. For we 
have not power^ to prevent our falling into^ Brian's hands 
if thou come not' with me at the head of the battle, and 
the nobles of Leth Cuinn also." 

The Cenâ Eoghain were then aasembled^ to the pre- Aedh a»- 
sence of Aedh O'Neill, and he related to them the fact that ^^^ ^^ 
Maelsechlainn had offered^ hostages to him provided he Eogiudn. 
would go with him at the head of the battie against Brian 
and the Dăl Cais. The Cenâ Eoghain said that that conld 
be^^ nothing but evasion, for Maelsechlainn knewthat Aedh 
would not accept of hostages from him, because Maelsech- 
lainn was older^^ and nobler than Aedh ; and he cares not, 
provided they go with him to the head of the battie, to 
the mutual slaughter of themselves^^ and the Dăl Cais. 

Aedh advised^^ them to retire into secret coundl and Aedh ad- 
conference, and to give a favourable answer to Maelsech- J^©^" 
lainn, so that his joiu*ney to them should not be a rejection 
of the sovereignty on their part 

They retired to secret council,^^ and they aâked them- The anawer 
selves what benefit would aocrue to them compared with oftheCiao. 
their lives,^^ should they take the lead in battie against 
the Dăl Cais. For they knew'® that the Dăl Cais would 
not retreat before them ; and that they would not retreat 
before the Dăl Cais ; and they knew that it would be 



^Tkeir Ihes. "Doib pţM a nan- 
mcmnait), B. 

^ Thejf knew. "DoiJ tio fîecccrc- 
ca|i|X)Tn nac c©i6picciy» "Dai cCaiy» 

nat bioTD aqpaing a ne^ţicma atn 
cofnmaYvba'D a c^te 'do 'D^atti; 
oca|* "DO ţidi-opoc na|v bo puţuiii 
ho6 |X)coqrv m6\i na ocloinn ca|\ a 
ne\Ţ, 6i|i fit bioTD a |^il le |X)6aYX 
na te |X)Tncniie go hfiat ma'o "oia 
ccuitite cm cat; octi|« a 'otibruxcaţi 
an cinet>h no|v ceic ţiio Lodlanti- 
001^ .1. on ane^ oţ qiODa Ţon 



'Dorhan, B. : ^' For they knew that the 
Dai Cab would not retreat before them, 
and thejr knew that it wonld not be 
poBsible to separate them, and that 
they wonld mutually slaughter each 
other; and they said that they sougfat 
no great benefits for their children 
af ter them, for they could have no 
hope of benefit or of wealth for them- 
selvee for ever, if the battie was f ought ; 
and they said that the tribe that re- 
treated not before the Lochlanns, who 
were the bravest tribe in the world. 



130 



coţcrot) sae-otiel ne ţaliccibti. 



Thflyde- 
mand from 
Maelaech- 
lainnhalf 
of hiBteni- 
toiy. 

KaelBech- 
IflJnn dft- 
IMUtsin 
WTfttb. 



Hesubmit* 
toBrian 
ando£Fei8 
him ho»- 

Brianta 



neqfiana "oa coTniunţrif oen ca6 aer cac "oo comînaţiba'O 
a cele "oib. Ho |iaiT)feT; naţi buţiail leo foqia va claiiro 
'oaneif, T)ai5 ne [leg. nî] h6 a fuil pein no bioD ţie 
Ţocfwi va ctiipt»a in cat "Oaig fio ercccaţi in Itidc nap 
€eic fie LoSlannacaib no fie "Oanmafisafoib .1. fiefin 
ciniUT) if cfwyoa if [in] •ooman nac reicpraf fiompafX)ni. 
If 'P» imofifu), comafvli va fionoT) leo .1, lei pefi TUidi 
ocuf pefianT) 'Cemfiafi T)oib, amoil fio boD coniT>atos 
•DOib, ocuf "DO befiTHnf ca€ malle pfiif. 

LXXV. Tio hînnife^ vo TflaelfecloinT) in fcel fin, 
ocuf fio gab pefig mofi 6, ocuf fio im-oi^ po •oim'oais, ocuf 
luiT) lafifin co clainT) Colmain, ocuf mnifiT) vo\h in fx^l 
fin, ocuf ifi comafili "oa fioni cete 1 ceac mbfiiain. *0a 
tuyv lafiftn "oa pi6er vec maficafi co Tx^fWLcn co pupoU 
mbfiiain, can cofi, can comafici, ate eneac bfiiain pem 
ocuf "Oalcaif, ocuf inpifiT) na fcela pfii "oo, octif po 
paiT) "oa bagbcro acmaing comcro ca€ vo befiOT), ocof o 
nac ptiaip afbepc comoD vo 'oenum a piapfom ranic 
ocuf co nbfioD bfiagci vo. 

Ho fiegaifi bfiian fin, ocuf fio fiaiT) ; 'oaig if amloiT) 
canacoifiti cucainT), afife, can cofi, can comafici, can 
como, fuxgaiT) cafi^oi mbliaT)na 'ouiqf^u, can giall can 
ecipi 'DiofifiaiT) ofir; octif fioBmaicni 'oinfaigi in htbca 



^ Jkmmarhiimâ. Omit,B. Hehccn- 
TnaTij;acaiB, D., for ţve THmmaţiga- 
dont), acooiding to the uraal oithogra- 
phy of thia MS., omitting the edipsed 
or qufeioeiit lett«r, and bo in the line 
preoeding ecaca|i for ţecocaţv. 

" Tktr^/hre. Octif oţ^ coifionţile, B. 

> Tke mm. B. readfl, lech TDi'De 
ocuf ţeatunnn na'Ceiftiiac a ccofh- 
■otitâof T)6itS ocof TX) betiTxnf cert 
himonUeniiâ: *'ThathalfofHidhe 
[Le., Meath], and of the territoijr of 
Temhair be their own inheritanoe, and 
that then they wonld figfat the battie 
along with them.** 

4 Woi ioUL "Oo hinfiif*ei&, B. 

* Orăot wratk B. nada» ocuf tw 
ţal> peţis mâţi TTIaeleâlaiiin, octif 



TM imttţ ţx) TMTnicro, ocof t»o imtiţ 
af pn 00 d^nn Cotmdm: "And 
gieaţ wrath seiaed Maeleerhlainn, and 
he departed in diipleaanre, and he re- 
tnmed then to the Clan Cohn&in, âc" 

^ToaubmiL Lit^ ** to go into Biian'i 
honse;** Le., become Tnasal or trîba- 
tar7toBrian;8eenote€,pil28. Ocof 
op oomaiţiti T)o fionord te6, .1. 
TTIaelechlainn, 'oot>o^ 1 cech bţu- 
onn, B.: "And this waa the adrlc» 
they gave him, viz^ MaiJaerhlainn, to 
go into Biian*8 hoase." 

f BrianC» imU. "Do Vaffi loţipn 
TDaetpedlcnnn no. ţioec "oâcc fnofi- 
cach go Triate ţrapal bţiiom oţi 
ţoftâe no î>fhYia£, B.: "Then 
Maelseehlâinn went f orth witb twclte 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



131 



impossible to separate them, Bhould they once join in 
batile, and that each wonld kill the other. They said 
that they sought not benefits for their children afber them, 
for they themaelves could have no hope of any benefits if 
the battle was fought. For they knew that the people 
who retreated not before the Loohlanns, nor before the 
Danmarkians,^ the bravest nation in the world, would not 
retreat before each other. The resolution, therefore," that They dt- 
was adopted by them wna this : "that half the men' of Maelaech- 
Midhe and of the territory of Temhair be ceded to them, ^ţ™? ţ*^ 
as if it had been their inheritance, and that then they toiy. 
wotdd fight the battle along with him." 

LXXy. This fact was told^ to Maelsechlainn, and great Maelaech- 
wrath* seized him, and he departed in displeasure; and J^^^ 
he retumed then to the Clann Colmain, and told them ^rrath. 
these tidings ; and the advice they gave him vras to sub- 
mit^ to Brian. He, therefore, set out with twelve soore He Bubmitt 
horsemen, until he arrived at Brian's tent/ without gua- ^f^ 
rantee or protection, beyond the honour of Brian himself,^ him ho», 
and of the Dăl Cais ; and he related to him^ these facts ; ^*^^ 
and he said'° that had he been able he would have given 
him battle, and as he was not able, he said that he came 
to make his submission to him, and to give him hostagea 

Brian answered^ ^ that, and said : " Since' ' thou hast come Brian's 
mito us thns," said he, "without gnorantee, without protec- *°'''^' 
tion, without treaty,'* we give thee a truce'* for a year, 
without asking pledge or hostage from thee; and we will 



aoore honemen, imtU he anived at 

Brian's tent, on the green of Tara.** 

« Hinudf, B. omită ţein. 

•roAwi. ■Oob|\icm,B.,"to Brian." 

10 Ht said. B. reads, ocoŢ a 'ou- 

botjit; TMX mhwt a aqpoing onoce 

guţuib cat TK) bâfurD, ocnj' 6 nac 

fiaibe, a "oiibaitic Stifuib im -d^- 

fiotrh a Yiia|ia|x>rii cdnnic, ocoţ go 

cuin^YUtobTUXtgoe'Dâ: " And he said 

that if he had been able lie would have 

ghren battle, bat aa he waa not able, he 



said that he came to make his sabmia- 
sion, and to give him hoetagee." 

u Anuwend. B. reada, ocoj^ fio 
ţrieoconţi btiion : (fiegcnţi in D. be- 
ing the same word with the iniţial p 
omitted.) 

^ Sinoe, B. omits 1x11^ ; and for 
cofiaccni^n, reads t;an5or6af|'. 

^Treaty, Coihon-o, B. 

" Truce. Hachon'D oai|VDe blioro- 
x\a iniic, 5an gialta 5011 emi|ie 
'oiofiTicnc; vo\vc, ocii|« ţvadctimne 

k2 



132 



coţaroti ţcce-otiel tie ţallcabti. 



BrUn 

preMiits 

twelTe 



fin imţioDifiu, co pînnam ca ppe^ţia -00 beficrc ţoţiainT), 
.1. CCei) ocuf ©ofiaiT), ocuf Tncro coc -00 beţicrc •otiin, afi re, 
na uaipfiu naţi na^aiT) leo. CCf beţii; TflaelfeclainT) 
nafi jiagoD ereţi, ocuf afbeţir nac 1 comatili boD coiţi 
jiobail |ie bfiian, aci; boD cofiu vo tx)cu va Caig "oaig ba 
•oe^cuţiuf -DO cena e^fiun tk) rece na €ec. Ocuf ba 
niai€ la cac uli in comapli fin, uaifi ni fiabi aSc "oeţieT) 
loinT:i accu ; ocuf if fi fin comaţili 'oafţionfoc. 

'Cuccax; va pcec "o^c ea£ an-ofin vo, tnaelfeclain'D 
o bfian, ocuf ni fiabi Don -oana picer vec bai ajioen 
■oore BteedB ţxe Tnaelfeclain'D nec fif ayi biu eac "00 b|iei€ maci 
■echiamn, ^©^f» CO zuc Tnaelfeclain'D uli iac vo TTlufCaT) mac 
whobe- bniain cuc a Iccm in a laim in la fin. "Oaiţ if e fin 
upon Mur- oen fijDomna vo eţiaib Of enT) nac f ab 1 coţiacuf ac 

Brian'aaon ^^^l'î^clain'D feiTll fin. Tlo fCaffCTC, imoffo, laffin 

fo f i€ ocuf fo bennaCcam, ocuf cancacaf 'oa C15. 
Brian aaiu LXXVL T)o TionaT) mof coblac muf 17)1 [laffin, accim) 
^^liT bliODna, la bfian co hattuain, ocuf fludg af n'îi an 
tages from py^ Connacc, gtif gabacaf bf ai^De Connacca uile pfi 
ândfrom haoincfe&main, ocuf fo fifODh bţxai^De ua*a of 
JJ^^' TTlaole^lainn, ocuf fio inT)laic TTlaoileclainn bfaiţ;De 
A.D. 1001. conuicce fin in aenl6. rJuccoB bţiai^e Connafca, octif 

TTlaoileClainn 50 hCCcluain. Impai'Bif bţiicm leo fin 

•Dia ^igh. 
T)o fonoB m6fi floi§i'5 afif accin-D bliaDna la bţiion 

co "Dân T)elcca, ocuf fo fiţi e7)h bfiai§De uoB aţi OCoDh 

ocuf aţi Gochai-fe, no cac -Df ocqi a pofifa muna cupHiif, 



Biian 
mflets the 
CNeiUs 
at Don- 
dalk. 



TMornifcngi^ 1T1 todca fin imiun^- 
ifi 50 ppîonnom, yc, B. 

^Aedh. OCcrâ 6 tleiU, B. 

^Saidke, Omit., B. Ha contifi 
l66 inotp. Tioaşhai'O, B. 

• 8aid. Ocnf dcbetic, B. 

< Be taid. OGcbeţic na|i bl an 
âomcnţiVe t6\\i «Dobdii te bţiian 
"DO 'Denorh, ocuf ba coţux, 7c., B. 

^StAmistum, Lit/'from hia [ICael- 
Bechlainn's] having gane into hiB 
[Biian*8] hoiue." See above, note 6, 
p. 128. "Do a6ea6cfom do t\^ B. 



• ProMons. "Oa I6inat>, B. 

7 Ttceive Mcart, "Don "oa fndec 
•oecc bcn bi ppa|V|vaD îTlaoileâ- 
lainn, aon T>iiine lof a|\ ftilcrt 
eacb iH) bfieit teif tna aice, B. 

> AU, Omit, B. 

• For ke teaâ. "Ooig TK) h6 pn en 
ţilg'Danina T>ţeţiaib Civinn nouţ 
fioibe a|i coţuxcafi B. To nnder- 
■tand thia txanaaction the reader thonld 
know tfaat by accepting the twelTe 
■oore honee, Maelaecfalaiiiii ai^now- 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE OiILL. 133 

go to visit those people whom thou hast mentioned, that 
we may know what answer they wiU give iinto us, viz., 
Aedh* and Eochaidh, and if they will give us battle," said 
he* "come not thou with them against ua" Maelsech- 
lainn said' that he wouid not go on any account; and 
he said^ that Brian was not acting on a right advioe, 
for it would be better for him to retum to his home, be- 
cause his expedition was sufficiently successful in having 
received submission^ &om himself. And that advice was 
pleasing to all, because they were at the last of their 
provisions^ ; and this was the advice they adopted. 

Twelve score steeds were then given to Maelsechlainn Bnan 
by Brian, and there was not one of the twelve score^ men P^** 
who accompanied Maelsechlainn who would deign to carry score steeds^ 
a led horse with him; so that Maelsechlainn bestowed JJ^JJÎ^ 
them all® upon Murchad, son of Brian, who had given his who be- 
hand into his hand on t hat da^. For he was* the only J^ *^*™ 
royal heir of the men of Erinn who was not in allianoe Muicbad, 
with Maelsechlainn before that time. They then*° parted """*^ 
in peace and with benedictions, and repaired to their 
respective homes.** 

LXXVI. A great naval expedition was made [at the Brian saOs 
end** of a year after this, by Brian to Ath Luain, and an î^'^*^^'*** 
army by land throughout Connacht, so that he received tages from 
the hostages of all Connacht in one week ; and hostages ^nd from** 
were sought by him from Maelsechlainn, and Maelsechlainn Maeisech- 
conducted hostages to that place on the same day. The hos- a.d?*1001. 
tages of Connacht and of Maelsechlainn having been con- 
veyed to Athluain, Brian retumed with them to his house. 

A great expedition was made again, at the end of a Brian 
year, by Brian to Dun Delga, and hostages were sought q,^2iÎ?' 
by him from Aedh, and from Eochaidh ; or that war at Dnn- 

-^ dalk. 



ledged Brian's soyereignty (iee Book 
of Riffhiij p. 176). Haelsechlainns' 
foUowen refiued to lead them and 
Maelsechlamn thereforebestowed them 
npon Murchad, Brian's son, in token 



w Then, Ho p)caji|xnxcqrv icqfvpt) 
B. 

" Homet. "Dio ccigiti, B. 

18. At the end, Here there is another 
defect in the MS. D., owing to the Ion 



of allianoe and friendship. of a leaf. 



134 



cosccot) sae'otieL ne saUccibti. 



A trace for 
ayear. 



Brian 

Gonquen 

Ulster, 



co rcaTi5accafifi'5e .1. CCa6 ocuf Oochai'b "oa accallaiiîi 

They make go T)ân "Dealga, 50 Ti'oeiinfcrc fî€ ann, ocuf offcrb» ocuf 

cdiţi'oe Tnblia'Bna T)6iBfium tk) 'Benonfi accomaiţile an 

cerc no an bţxai^De th) beţi-oaif hi ccinT) blicrona, ocuf 

gem fai^'6 T)oiCfiuni afiTflaoilfeCloinn no aţi Connac- 

raiB pţiif an mblia^ain fin, act; a mbeit ina ccduvoiB. 

LXXVII. T)o fiona^ moţifltiaisi'fe "opepoiB ©ţienn tiile 

le b|iian eciţi galL ocuf gaoi'beU vo neoc bai 6 fliati 

A.D. i002. puaiT) acuai'5, accionn blia7)na lafifin 50 hUlim ; guţi 

. d ^^^ Siallcc HUcS uile 6 tk) pĂimiT) CCoh coch •06. Octif 

Eochaidh accionn va tJlio^ain lafifin "oo ţuro CCo* ocuf eochai'5 

S"^bh ^^ CţiaiBe 'Culcha, •oii aţi mafiBa'B iod afiaon, ocor 

Tnicha, fio mafiBo* TOai^G Ula-fe uile ann. 

iL'Z "^ T«>n(r6 motirLoisiT. mx^u Ut btiion. co TunBe 

qoen Se' opohoig itCaiLluin, ocuf go fiaiCo feaficrfiam in OCfiT)- 

a!d^ioo4 ^*^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ piche tunge •d6|i aţi alrâiţi inCCfi'oma- 

chae, ocuf co xxucc gialla Ulo^ ocuf ^Oalnaţioi'Be, 

ocuf in cuaifceipc leif aţicena, cenmo^a CeneL ConuilL 

Brian's LXXVIII. "Do fioine bpian nfi6fifluai§i'5 laţifin accinn 

JJ^ ^ blia^na ele uimcell ©ţien^), 5U|i gaB bftaigDe peţi 

^^^nd, TteţienT) uile. Ife-b vo fidi'Dh q[i6 Idţi Connafic, ocuf 

'hi TTlag nCCî ifin CoiţiţifliaB, ocuf hi cTJiţi CCilella, 

ocuf hi ccfiich Caiţvpfie, octif caţi ^licceach, ocuf Idih 

£16 le mtiifi, ocuf Idih "bof le nţi, ocuf le beinn 5^1" 

ban, 1X1111)111?, ocuf xxip. T)ţioBaoif, ocuf iTflaigh nOine, 

ocuf xxx[i CC€ ^enai§ og &afrT^uai'5, ocuf itCîţi nCCoDO, 

ocuf Txqfi beţinof THâţi, octif ixxţi peffaiT), ocuf itd'ţi 

Goţain, octif inT)ail RiaT>a, ocuf in*Oail CCîiai'Be, ocuf 

inUlTxiiC gtiţi gabafcaifi fo LugnofODh 1 mbealac *Oâin. 

Ro I61CC piţiu eţienn laţifin -oia ucigiB ţumipa. TH> 



^MmqfErum, AcoevalhAndhae 
written over theae wordi in the MS., 
no peţi nCivenTi. 

• Lammai, Th» Anm. UlL ntA, oo 
XioacccR>aT% tnsnocpro co bealach 
Ti'O^inf " nntil at LammM he reached 
Belach-diiiii,** or "BeUch-mâm," m 
in Dr. O^Conor^B edition. The Foir 
Jfacfen nae the sime word, oo ccofi- 



jiatzaccofif or T)0f<x6ccrDati, "be 
reached.** But the text îs correet; 
gabofcaifi ift A Yerb deponent» and aig^ 
nîfiee he took np at, or took poewiflii 
oftheplace. Wehave an inatanceof thii 
eonstmction, eh. zzxL p. 3i, Mţpf«> 
gnţvsat)fac aţieiccin 1 fiXhiiblrifin, 
**the7 took poesenion by force of Dub- 
lin;** UL, **took np [a poiitioo] in 



J 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



185 



should be prodaimed against them, if they gave them noi. 
And they came, viz., Aedh and Eochaidh, to confer with 
Brian to D4n Dealga, and they made a peace and trace They make 
there; and they were given a year's time to come to aJI^^'^' 
dedsion, whether it should be battle or hostages they 
would give at the end of the year ; and that they were not 
to attack Maelsechlainn, nor the Connacht men, during 
that year, but continue as âriends. 

LXXVII. A great expedition of all the men of Erinn,' Bmn 
both GaU and Gaedhil, of aU who werefrom SUabhFuaidSr 
soutbward, was made by Brian at the end of a year after A.D. 1002. 
that against the Ulaidh, and he took the hostages of all 
Ulaidh since Aedh failed to give him battle. And in two Aodh and 
years after that Aedh and Eochaidh fought the battle of j^n^^ 
Craebh Tulcha, in which they were both killed together ; •* Crscbh 
and all the nobles of Ulaidh were killed there. A-D. ibos; 

A great expedition was made after that by Bri&n; and Brian con- 
he was a night in Tailltin; and he went from that to Ard Sf^^*^* 
Macha, and he laid twenty ounces of gold on the altar in A.D. 1004. 
Ard Macha; and he brought away with him the hostages 
of Ulaidh, and of Dăl Araidhe, and of all the north like- 
wise, except the Cinei Conaill 

LXXVIII. Brian made a great expedition afterwaids at Brian's 
the end of another year all round Erinn, and took the roim?**^ 
hostages of all the men of Erinn. His route was through Iniand, 
the middle of Connacht, and into Magh-n-Ai, over the 
Coirr Shliabh, and into Tir Ailella; and into the countiy 
of Cairpre, and beyond Sligech, and keeping his left hand 
to the sea, and his right hand to the land and to Beinn 
Oulban, over Dubh and over Drobhaois, and into Magh-n- 
Eine, and over Ath Seanaigh at Easruaidh; and into Tir 
Aedha, and over Beamas M6r, and over Fearsad, and into 
Tir Eoghain, and into DU Biada, and into Dăl Araidhe, 
and into Ulaidh, imtil about Lammas^ he halted at Belach 
Duin. He then dismissed the men of Erinn to their homes 



Dablin." In the old Iriih of the 
Book of Axmagh fvogffb occnn in 



the same sense, "he took ap at** (a 
place). 



136 



cosoroti ^ae-ohel ne saUccibti. 



Supplies 
himaelf 
with provi- 
noiifl at 
Crsebh 
Tnlduu 



LevieB tri- 
bnte upon 
the Saxona, 
WelBh,the 
men of 
Lennoxof 
Sootland, 
andArgyle. 



IreUnd 
enjoya 
profoand 
peace. 

Brianen- 
foroeslaw 
and oidv- 



loucafv Lai^in caţi bţie^a bwB '5ef "oia txi^B, ocuf ^11 
cafi muifv 50 hCCTClioc, ocuf co poţir Laiţige, ocuf 
co LtiiTnnea^, ocuf Connatea poţi puD ini'5e fiaţi wa 

1f ann bai bţrfan hi cCţiaoiB 'CulCa, ocUf Ulai'5 cega 
BicrccrB ann. 'Cuccpccc t)6 ann 'od .c "oecc mapr, va -c. 
.oc muc, ocuf "oa cer) 'Bece molr, ocuf fio iio-felaic Oţiion 
•DCC .c. -oecc eafi •oâiBfion, ţie txioiB 6iţi, ocuf cnjiccic, 
ocuf 6'Dai| ; vo^% ni •oeacai'5 biocaC aen Băile "oioB 6 
bpian san each, no nî «DiamaDh bui-oeac e -opafebdiL 

Ho cui|i coBlac muifii'Be lafifin ap, muiţi .1. ^oill 
OC€aSlia€, ocuf puifii; Laiţiţe, ocuf Ua cCeinnpeloîfe 
ocuf Ua nGocach THuiftan, ocuf utitîioţi peţi nSţient) 
T)o neoc jiopTxifv lonmapa t)îoB ; ^p TX)Bai5pior an ciof 
pio^Da Shaocan ocup bpeTxm, ocup Lemnai^, ocup [leg. 1] 
CClban, ocup CCipep gaoi'Bel uile, ocup a mbpai^De ocup 
aneiT)ipe, maille le moip fiîop. *Oo poinn Opian an cîp 
uile map "oo "oli^ .1. crcpian "oo pi§ CCraclia€, ocup ocpion 
•DoccaiB Lai§en, ocup ua nGa€a6 TTlurfian, ocup aupicm 
ele TKiep "odna, ocup eala'&na, ocup va gac T)Uine ap 
mo painicc a lep. 

LXXIX. CiD upa a&c rainicc bpian mâpcuaipr; pi^ 
cimCell OpenT) atftlai'B pin, ocup "oo poccpoDh piKdin 
Bpenn leip, enp cealla, ocup ruaCa, co n'oepncro pi€ in 
6pinn uile pe alin. Ho cafo, ocup po cuiBpig Iute 
mopra pogla, ocup "oibeipse, ocup cocccrfe. Ho cpoch, 
ocup po iftapB, ocup po mu'ohai'B meipleafia, ocup bi€- 
bena£(Oc, ocup po^UcSa 6penn. Ho pcpiop, po pcaoiU 



^Purv^or. The BiaiachoTBiadhiack, 
an officer whose dnty it was to supply 
proTÎmona to all chieftains and penons 
of rank, travelUng with attendants 
tbFOQgh the conntiy. 

s And Alba. The word in the ori- 
ginal being in the genitive case (nom. 
AUfOf gen. Alban), it ie evident that 
for 7 OClbon in the text, *' the Lemh- 
naigh and Scotland," we should read 
.1. OClbon, "tfae Lemhnaigh [or men 



of Lennox] Le., of Scotland.** 
remoyes the impropiiety of distxn- 
guishing Scotland from Lennox and 
Algele. The Leamnaigh wera do- 
scended from Mâine Leamhna (so 
called from the river Leamhan), who 
was son of Corc, king of Monster, fifth 
in descent from OilioU Olnm, and 
of the same race as Brian (O^FIahertj' 
Ogjfff. p. 884) ; the Aiier-Gaadhil 
[" Finei GadflUomm**], or nm ol Ar- 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



137 



în all directions. The Laighin went over Bregha south- 
ward to their homes ; and the foreigners over the sea to 
Ath Cliath, and to Port Lairge, and to Luimnech ; and the 
Connachl^men through Midhe, westwards to their homea 

Brian was then at Craebh Tulcha, and the Ulaidh with SnppUes 
him getting him provisions there. They supplied him J^^^^. 
there with twelve hundred beeves; twelve hundred hogs, rionaat 
and twelve hundred wethers; and Brian bestowed twelve xui^^ 
hundred horses upon them, besides gold, and silver, and 
dothing. For no purveyor* of any of their towns de- 
parted from Brian wîthout receiving a horse or some other 
gifb that deserved his thanks. 

He sent forth after that a naval expedition upon the sea, Levies tri- 
VÎ2., the Gaill of Ath Qiath, and of Port Laiige, and of the ^"fg^^ 
Ui Ceinnselaigh, and of the Ui Eathach of Mumhain, and Welsh, the 
of ahnost all the men of Erinn, such of them as were fit to ^^^^ of 
go to sea; and they levied royal tribute from the Saxons ScoUmd, 
and Britons, and the Lemhnaigh of Alba,* and Airer-Gaed- "^ ^^ 
hil, and their pledges and hostages along with the chief 
tribute. Brian distributed all the tribute according to 
rights, viz., a third part of it to the king of Ath Cliath; and 
a third to the warriors of Laighin and of the Ui Eathach 
of Mumhain ; and another third to the professors of scien- 
ces and arts, and to every one who was most in need of it. 

LXXIX. So Brian retumed from his great royal visi- ireUmd 
tation around all Erinn made in this manner: and the^^?^ ^ 

prof omd 

peace of Erinn was proclaimed by him, both of churches peue. 
and people ; so that peace throughout all Erinn was made 
in his time. He fined and imprisoned the perpetrators of BrUm en- 
murders, trespass, and robbery, and war. He hanged, J^J^i^ 
and killed, and destroyed the robbers and thieves, and 
plunderers of Erinn. He extirpated, dispersed, banished, 



gyle, were ako of Irish race, bo that 
the object of thisparagraph is to daim 
for Brian the sapreme sovereignty of 
the Gaelic race. Bnt it ie most prob- 
ably an interpoUtion inserted by some 
sealons partizan. The next chapter 
oontinaes the history from Brian*i 



** great royal visitation roond IreUnd,** 
without any reference to this foreign 
expedition ; nor is there a record of his 
hayîng inraded England, Wales, and 
Scotland in any other historical an- 
thority. 



138 



coBcroti sae'otiel Re ţallcnbti. 



subjuga - 
tion of the 
Danes. 



|io "Bealaig, |io ling, ţio lomaiţi, fio le^oiti» fW) mill, ocuf 
tio mu-ohai-b ^^llu gaca nfie, ocuf gaca ruaire in 
Complet© Ojienn uile 50 poifilecan. Ho mafiB arfi a ţiiofea, ocuf 
a fiuifieacha, a ccţieiT^ill ocuf a ccfi6in tîiiIi'6, a lacgaiLe 
ocuf gaifcci'b. Ho T)aeţi, ocuf fio mo^fxxnaig a maeifi, 
ocuf a fieacraifie'Ba, ocuf a fuairfieacha a naiîiaif, 
ocuf a macaeîîja maefiT)a mofiglana, ocuf a ninseTia 
mine mac^acrxi ; coni^h do fin fio fiai'oe'5 an Lai'5 .1. 

Ro bţiaonncrb Tfil. 
LXXX. lafi monnafibo* imofifio gali a bOfiinn uile, 
ocuf a ccufi Bfienn na fioicdin, rainicc aentUen 6 
"Cliofiaig T;uaifceifiT: Ofienn, co Clio'5na T)eifceifiT; efienn, 

toJvebim- ^^"^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ eaclulfc fie ahaif, ocuf ni ţuaifi a 
moierted in f loD, na a f ofiucca* T)o 'fienaiîi ; cona^ aifie ţin fio con 
^'^^ an pile— 

O T!^ofiai§ co Clîa6na caif*, 
If fxxil 6ifi aice fve a haif, 
1 fiâ bfiiain caoibjil nafi cfm, 
*Oo cimcil aoinben 6fiinn. 



Alone 
woman, 
bearmga 
ring of 



Brian en- 

coniages 

leaming. 



Ho cum'oaise'b leif "ona cealla cataif eţienn, ocuf 

a neirfie'ba. Ho cuifiiuc f aoi€e, ocuf maigifqfieafa vo 

ieaccafcc eccna, ocuf eolaif, ocuf "oo cen-oac leaCafi 

cafi mtiifi, ocuf rafi mâfifxxififige ; uaifi vo loifxîce* 

ocuf T)o bai'De'5 a fcfiepqfia, ocuf a liuBaifi in gaS cili, 

ocuf in gac neinie'5 ina fio6ai:;cafi la •oibeficcacaiB 6 

rofaC 50 •oeifie'b. bfiian imofifio t)o beifie'6fi'5e luafi 

ţx)|lama, ocuf luac leaBafi t)0 jafi aon ţx)lei€ "oa 

Hebuids ^^©^56* annfin. "Do fiona* imofifio luBfia lom^a, 

and repaîi» ocuf lofaigco loif. T)o fiona* leif cempull Cille 

makes^ T)dlua, ocuf rempull Innfi Cealrfia, ocuf cloic6each 

bridgesand 
roadfl. 



1 Butowedf fc. Tbe poem bere 
quoted yns probably so well known at 
the time that the scribe did not think 
it neoeeiaiy to copy moie than ita fint 
words; bnt the editor haa not been 
able to find it elsewhere. 

s BanUhmenL It ia clear that there 



waa no snch '*peace'* and protperitj 
under Brian, as iaheredeecribed. The 
annals exhibit their nsual reoorda of 
war and murder, nor were the Daaea 
and other northmen erer " baniahed** 
from Ireland, not even after the famons 
battle of Giontarf, which did no more 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE 6AILL. 139 

k 

cauaed to fly, stripped, maimed, ruined, and destroyed the 
foreigners in eveiy district and in every territoiy through- 
out the breadth of aJl Erinn. He killed aJso their kings, Complete 
and their chieftains, their heroes, and brave soldiers, their Jj*^^°f^ 
men of renown and valour. He enslaved and reduoed to Danes. 
bondage their stewards and their collectors, and their 
swordsmen, their mercenaries, and their comely, large, 
deanly youths; and their smooth youthfal girls. And it 
was on that occasion the poem was redted, viz. : 

There was bestowed, etc' 

LXXX, Afber the banishment' of the foreigners outAione 
of all Erinn, and after Erinn was reduoed to a state of J^"^ 

' beanDg a 

peace, a lone woman came &om Torach, in the north of ring of 
Erinn, to diodhna, in the south of Erinn, carrjring a ring ^^ ^. 
of gold on a horse-rod, and she was neither robbed nor moiested în 
insulted ; whereupon the poet sang — *° ' 

From Torach to pleasant Gliodhna, 
And carrying with her a ring of gold, 
In the time* of Brian, of the bright sîde, fearless, 
A lone woman made the circuit of Erinn. 

By him were erected also noble churches in Erinn and BrUn en- 
their sanctuaries. He sent professors and maaters to teach ^^^^, 
wisdom and knowledge; and to buy books beyond the 
sea, and the great ocean; because their writings and their 
books in eveiy church and in every sanctuary where they 
were, were bumed and thrown into water by the plunder- 
ers, from the beginning to the end^ ; and Brian, himself, 
gave the price of leaming and the price of books to 
every one separately who went on this service. Many He bniids 
works, also, and repairs were made by him, By him were ^f^***" 
erected the church of Cell Dălua, and the church of Inis makes 

bridgesand 

roadA. 



thaa check their prognee to complete 
ascendancy. 

* Time. Keating, who quotes thifl 
fltanza, reads, a bf?lcnt bţucniit "in 
the reign of Bimn." Taoitî^t being 
the gen. nng. muc the epithets 



t;aoib5il nctfi cîm, " bright-eîded, 
feulesB," must be applied to Brian. 

^ To tke end: i.e., from the begin- 
ning to the end of the Daniah sway in 
Ireland, the destmction of booka was 
their univereal practice. 



140 



coBcroti sae-otiel ne saLlccibti. 



Strength- 
ens f ortified 
places 
throaghout 
the coiin- 
try. 



Hisproft- 
perity for 
fifteen 
yean. 



Cdebrated 

byGilU 

Modada. 



T^uama 5reine], ocuf lubţxa im-oa ele aficena. "Oa 
ţionair leif "oţiocair, ocuf T)Ocai|i, ocuf flige'Ba. Ro 
•DaingniT; leif, -Dna, •oâin ocup T)ain5ni, ocup mfeiMi, 
ocuf fiispuiţXT; aipeT)a na TU uman. "Da ţionaT), 'ona, 
cunToaC Cafil na ţxi^, ocuf Cin-o CCbţiac, ocup inif hota 
CenT), ocuf inif Loca ^^iţi, ocuf T)ân Gofaiţi TTlonsi. 
"Dân CLiar, ocuf "Dân Cţioi;, ocqf inif Loca Saiglefi-o, 
ocuf inif in ^aill T)uib, ocuf tlofac, ocuf CenT) Coţicro, 
ocuf boţxuma, ocuf fiispuifiT; ÎTIuman apcena. Ro bai 
an afifen co fona, firamail, co ple7)ac, pufii'oe^, p|i- 
bfierac, co conaic, ca'oufac ; co n^enmnaDeacr, ocuf co 
cjiabuT), ocuf cofifiefe, ocuf co jiia^laib ic cleţiEib, 
co n^ail ocuf co nsayxîeT) con neneaC, ocuf co nensnum 
1 laeCaib, ocuf co cofiref, rpen, railc, rţiebaţiglan, .ti- 
blia-ona vec in afvo ţiip ne^ienT) amail ofbeţiT; ^ilLa 
TTIU'OU'oa : — 

piacuT) ţîaîisi, culi qfiicc, 

b|iian bţveo of banba blacbţiic, 
Can ciabaiţi, con biar, con bţiat, 
Cuiţ blioDna "oec 'pa "DeJiuic. 

*0a blia-oain, imoţijio, 'oefbai'o -ou "oa pcer in afi'oţiip 
na muman. 



1 And maf^. Here we retum to the 
text of D. B. omits ajvcena. 

> Camencayi, TGodaifi, B. 

> Strengthened. Ro cum'oaise^ 
lei|» -Diinice, ociij* •Danigne, ocuf 
ţvioţl>iiiTiC} ocoŢ M\f\Ţerba oiţie^oa, 
B. : " By him were fortified duna and 
f aatnenes, and royal forts, and cde- 
brated idanda, &c." 

* Alto. "Do iioncpo leif, B., " By 
himwaabnilt'* Ho cuiiToai Jtoo tei|» 
por, ** By him wen additionally for- 
tified," Keating. 

< Ce/M-AhroL Cen'opebfvonx, B., 
and KeaUitff. 

e Dun CUaih. Ocuf "Oun Cliac, 
B., Keatmg. 

7 /im* an GhaiU Dwbh. Inif an 
ţaiH "Ouiti, octif lîiif Loca 8015- 
tinT), ociif HofttC na TI105, B. : " lnl« 



an GhaiU doibh [ÎBland of the black 
foreigner, or Dane,] and the ialand ol 
Loch Saiglenn, and Rosach of the 
kings." The names of these pUeei 
are thus given by Keating : — " Ceanu- 
fabhrad, Inia Locha C^ Inia Locha 
Gair, Dun EochairBfhaighe, Dîin laag, 
Dân-tri-Iiag, Dfin-gCrot, Dun Cliacb, 
Innai [theialanda] an GhaUl-diiihh, Iim 
Locha Saigh]ionn,R<Mna Riogfa,Cea]iii> 
Coradh, the B6raîinhe(an b6|unifie.7* 

• /n Uke maumer, Rig^ifii; TTlit- 
fhan mie aţi6eana, B. 

• Peoce/W. Ho bai oihloiT) p« 
co fiowwhait, |X)na, pleatMxc, puţi- 
ecca6, piţibţieotac, ocn^co conâigh, 
caT>tiţM6 ; 00 ngeanmnatgeâc, oco|* 
co cqfuiba^ iccleiţicib \sâ a lim>f 
ocuj* co neined, 7c., B. 

^^Firm, B. omită cţien. 



m*- 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



UI 



Cealtra, and the beli tower of Tuam Greine], and many' 
other works in like manner. By him were made bridges 
and causeways,' and high roadă. By him were strength- strength- 
ened,* also, the dans, and fastnesses, and islands, and *ţ*f°'*'**** 
celebrated royal forts of Mumhain. He built, also/ the throughout 
fortification of Caisei of the kings, and of Cenn Abrat,* the J^ «o^- 
ialand of Loch Cend, and the island of Loch Gair, and 
IHin Eochair Maige, Din Cliath,® and Din Crot, and the 
ialand of Loch Saiglend, and Inis an Ghaill Duibh,^ and 
Rosach; and Cend Coradh, and Borumha, and the royal 
forts of Munster in like Hianner.^ He continued in this Hispros- 
way prosperously, peaceful,® giving banquets, hospitable, JJ^'^ 
jnst-judging; wealthily, venerated; chastely, and withyea». 
devotion, and with law and with rules among the dergy ; 
with prowess and with valour; with honour and with 
renown among the laity; and fruitful, powerful, firm,*^ 
secure; for fifteen" years in the chief sovereignty of 
Erinn»^ aa Gilla Mududa»^ said— ^t^ 

A boîling sea, a rapid flood — Modnda. 

Brian the flame^^ over Banbha of the variegated flowers ; 

Withont gloom,^^ without gnile, without treachery, 

Fifteen^* years in full prosperity. 

For two soore years, wanting two, was he chief king of 
Mumhain. ^^ 



" FifUen. "Oa bticroam •065., B. 
JTeafM^. ^^twdveyean." 

" Erimi, Wn. hdTvenTi, B. 

u GiOaMududtL B. hasple, '*the 
poetţ" without mtming him, nor does 
Keating give the poet's name, although 
he quotes the same stanza, which oc- 
ean in the poem attributed to GioUa 
Modada O^Caasidy, abbot of ArdbTec- 
can, and preservedinthe Book o/Lecanf 
foL 812 a, and in the LeatHuur Gabhala 
of the 0*Cleiy'8 (Ma), in the libreiy 
of the Bo^al Iriah Academy, p. 239, 
stanza 51. This poem begins thiu : — 
0|ie ogh inif na naoffi, and contains 
a list of the kings of Ireland from the 
introdnction of Christianity to the year 
1022. O''F\aheitf8Ogy0.Proiog,p.2, 



^* Torck, or flama D. reads beo, 
" living," but brieo, the reading of B., 
of the Leaihar GabholOf and Book of 
Lecanj has been adopted, as gÎTing a 
better sense. Keating has bţieci^ 
"Brian of Breagh,'' or Bregia. 

^ Without ffloom. B., Keating, and 
the Leabhar Gahhaloj give this line 
thus:— ţon aaTnai|i gon beD gon 
bţvoc. The Book o/Lecan reads, ţan 
ciabai|i gon bec ^wn bţvoch. 

^^njUm, B.,inthKeaiing, Leabhar 
GabhdUi, and Book ofLecan, reads, tnx 
Ce., "twdve years"), anda^liis^forţa. 

^7 Mttmhaku B. reads, T>a bliorooiTi 
cea|*Da tmj -oa pidec fio bai ifiT^iţe 
TTIiifnan. " Four score yeaia, wanting 
two» was he king of Hunster.** 



142 



coţcroti ţae'otiel tie saHocibti. 



Haelmor- 
dha, king 
of Leinflter, 
brings a 
tribute of 
pine trees 
to Brian. 



Hearriyos 
at Kinoonu 

GoTmlaith 
excites him 
to throw 
off Brian*8 
yoke. 



Hisquanel 
with 

Mnrchadh, 
Briaii*88on. 



LXXXI. T)a luiT), iinoţitu), lafifin Tnaelmotvoa tnac 
TfluficoDa [11 Logen v inT)luctiT) q[ii feolcţxanT) giuţniis 
'DibbaiT) pe'oa 5«^llbi 'oo bţiian co Ceiro Cojicro .1. reol- 
cfiaiTO o Uib palp, ocuf f eolcjianT) o Uib paelon, octif 
feolcfiaiTD o Uib ÎTluiţieDais [ocuf o Laigif, octif o na 
rpi CoTnnaib.] Co cafila unaţibaig ecoţiţio ac voiz in 
nagai'D flebi mboccaic, co n'oecai'o in ţii pein, .1. fnael- 
mop-oa, po peolcjianT) Ua paelan, ocup înnaji pţiâil cuc 
Opian pemi 'oo ocup copcaip [6ip] ina nmcell, ocup 
cnaip apsaic anT), bai in rinap umi, ocup tnebaiT) cnap 
•Da cnapaib pepin pei'oim. CCp poceam 'ooib, imoppo, co 
CenT) CopaT), caii in pi a inap "oe ocup puccro T)ocuni a 
pecap e 'oo cup cnaip apgaic inT) .1. "oo cum ^opmloici 
ingini ÎTlupcaDa mna Opiain, ocup pobi pi'oe mauoip 
T)oncaDa mic bpiain. Ro gab in pigan înmnop, ocup 
ruc upcup ipin reniT) 'oe, ocup po bai ica cuppacoD, ocup 
ica spepafc a bpacap, "Daig ba holc le mogpani, ocup 
•oaippini ocup 'oocpa "do 'oenum -oo neo£, ocup in nî nap 
paemacap a a€aip na pena€aip 'oo p6maD 7)6, ocup 
apbepc co pippea'o a mac apa rfiac in ni cetnia. 

LXXXII 'CohpuiT) ppiinoip puigill ecoppo ocup ÎTlup- 



^ After ihis. Peccuy» ryo twb 
TnaotmoTVii'Da, B., "Once npon a 
time Maolmorâha, &c.** 

« Convqf, "OiTi-oiticcm, B. 

•Pmm. LiL, '*sail-tree0 of ţdne." 
T^i i^eolcTianx) ngiupa •opîcrotkn'o 
pewx ţcnble co btwcm, B. ^Itbi 
in the text is probably a mistake of 
traxLBcription in the MS. D. for 'gonbti. 

^ Ui Faelain. In B. theae names 
are In the singular, 6 Pont^e, 6 
paoldin, 6 ÎTltUTieToais; and the 
WOTds '*and from Laighia, and from 
the three Commainns," are omitted, 
being an evident interpolation, for 
otherwÎBe there would have been more 
than three maats. This clause has, 
theref ore, been placed within bracketa, 
althou^ it occun In the text of 
D. 



• The kmg himteff, B. reids, ţu^ 
Icngean t^ein, " The king of Leinater 
himaelf,**- onutting, .i. TTlaetmofi'Da- 
The dispute was evidentlj for prece- 
dency among the three tribee who bad 
suppUed the masts; and it bzoke oct 
at a boggy place, wfaere it became oe- 
cessary to proceed in single file, and 
the question arose who shoold go fint, 
the king himself dedded the queitioii 
by asaiating to cany the mast of the 
Ui Faelain. 

> Buttoru, B. reada, ocup tnofi 
ŢXvo\l cuce bîtian t>o iwimbe pn, 
ocuy» cojicaifi 6tii in a tntndeaU, 
ocuţ* cnapit)e aiîxgîc cmn : "Andhe 
had on a sQken tunic wliich Brian had 
gîven him before that, wfaich had a 
border of gold around it, and sîlrer 
buttonaonit** Thia gift was the tokeo 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAJLL. 



143 



LXXXI. After this,^ Maelmordha, son of Murchadh, MAeimor- 
king of Laighiu, set out to convey^ three rnasts of pine» ^1:^, 
of the trees of Fidh Gaibhli to Brian to Cenn Coradh, viz., bnng» a 
a mast from the Ui Failghe, and a mast from the Ui^^J^^IJ^ 
Faelain,^ and a mast from the Ui Muireadhaigh [and from to Briui. 
Laighis, and from the three Commainns]. But a dispute 
took place between them when ascending a boggy moim- 
tain, whereupon the king himself/ viz., Maeknordha, put 
his hand to the mast of the Ui Faelain, having a silken 
tunic which Brian had previously given him, which had a 
border [of gold] round it, and sUver buttons® ; the tunic 
was^ on hîm, and one of its buttons broke^ with the exer- He arriTw 
tion.* Now, when they had amved at*® Cenn Coradh, the ** Kinco». 
king took off his tunic, and it was camed to his sister to 
put a silver button on it, viz., to Gormlaith,^^ daughter of Gormiaith 
Murchadh, Brian's wife**; and she was the mother of ?*"^^^ 

f ' rm ^ throW 

Donnchadk, son of Brian. The queen took the tunic and off Brian's 
cast it into the fire** ; and she began to reproach** and ^^^^ 
incite her brother, because she thought it ill that he should 
yield service and vassalage, and suffer oppression from any 
one, or yield that which his father or grandfather never 
yielded; and she said that his [Brian's] son would require 
the same thing from his son.*^ 
LXXXII. Some peevish words followed between him and His qnarrei 

with 

MnichAidli, 
^* ReproacK B. omită ic a cti|vţxi- Brian'» son. 

ccpo octiy». 

i< E%8 son, This is better ezpressed 

in B., thus:— -ooiK ba holc le vno^- 

foine TIO "DcnTii^e -00 dup, -oo neoâ 

ele ţxniv, .1. an ni na|v ţaom a 

a6aitv no a ţ^enotaifi fiiarh, ocup 

acbeţic p6p co ptipecro mac bţiiain 

a|i a rhacfan ina 'oiaig, ocup ga6 

"Duine n^Ţ apxnle : " For she thought 

it ill that service or vassalage should be 

yielded by him to any one, a thing that 

his father or his grandlather never 

yielded ; and she said also that Brian's 

son would hereafter require it £rom his 

[Maehnordha^s] son, and aU other men 

afterwards."* 



of his vassalage to Brian. See above, 
note >, p. 182. 

^ Wat. Ocup «DO bi| B. 

• Brdhe, "Oo Theabai'6, B. 

^ Exertion. Re ni6T> an pe'oniat B. 

^^ Arriotd aL CCţi ccoţiadcoin 
imoTifio TK»^ B. 

u OurmloUh. B. reads, catl on ţii 
a lonafi "oe 'do cuţi on cnaipe onn 
£uni ţofimUroa : '* The king put his 
tunic off to have the button put on by 
Gormlaith." 

M W\fe. .1. bean bfiioin, ocup "oo 
W pin motoifiţ 7c, B. 

"-FVre. Ocup T>o beţie ujvâaTi "oe 
ipin ceine, B. : '*She made a cast of 
it into the fire.** 



144 



coscToti sae-Dtiel ne ţallccibti. 



fioD aţi macin cţie ţiirimţiefain pi'ocellaci^a .1. TTltipforo 

ocuf Conaing baraţi ic imiţxi; pcilli, bai maelTnofiTHi 

ac cegofc aţi nfluiiSaT), ocuf ţio nncoifc beiţic Diaţibo 

duci ţx)ţi TTlupcaT). Ro peţigaiceD ÎTluţicoD, ocuf of- 

beţic, 1f ru zuc comaţili 'oo gallaib in can ţio meboiT) 

Madmor- poţifiu. Ro jiaiT) TTlaelino|n)a -do, bepoD comaţili aţiiţ* 

inanger. 'DOib, ocuf ni meba'D pofiţu). CCfbeţit: TTluţicaD, biT) mv 

ibaji inaiţin accur paoein 'ooib. Ro peţigai'oeT) îTlaeV 

Tnofi-Da, ocuf 'oa cuaiT) "oa €15 lebca can ce'oacu'o can 

celebţiaT). 

BriansendB LXXXIIL Ro hînnifeT) fen 'oo btiian, ocuf ţio cuiţi 

Jjij®^^ gilla na 'Diai'o "oia afca*© coţifio ajailleaD b^iian, ocu|* 

cofiţiucaT) cţiOD ocuf cuaţiafcul leif. 1f am) fin ţiuc in 

gilla paiţi 1 cin*© claiţi C1U1 *Odlua allanaiţi, ocuf 

feiffiw^ ^c '^^^ ^T^ ^ ®^ anT). 'Cohţiai'o pi€nof eoiţiţiu 

ocuf in pila, ocuf impoif pfiifin gilla, ocuf -00 bepi: 



1 Conaing, " Conaing, son of Donn- 
chnan," Keating^ Le., Brianta nephew 
who waa afterwards killed at the bat- 
tle of Clontarf ; bat Keating adda, tio 
•00 tiĂifi 'Ofitunge a-p 6 CoTnofiba 
Caoim jiii ţhlinne "oa toi -do bî 05 
imitic |v6 TTluţvcha'D. "Or accord- 
ing to some it was [Conaing] socces- 
flor of St Kevin of Glendaloch that 
waa playing with Murchadh," mean- 
ing, no doubt, Conaing O'Carroll, ere- 
nagh of Glendaloch, whose death ia re- 
oorded by the Four Maştera at 1031. 

> DefeatecL Keating adds, ag ccc6 
^mnemania, "at the battle of Glen- 
mama," which ia evidently the defeat 
alluded ta 

' Yewiree. AllndingtoMaolmordha 
having concealed himaelf in a jew tree 
after the battle of Glenmama, see eh. 
IxxL, p. 119, supra. Keating softens 
this insulting speech into a yUin ipwn 
pn, aţi TTliiT^cro, " X defy thee to do 
it, said Murchadh." 

« Taking leaoe. The whole duip- 
ter îs thna giyen in B.: 01*6 cţui 



adc canla pniCtiOfcc rnitill nwn 
maticho^ (mac brudin), ocor 
Concnng, ocuf icro oc imitvc pcalti. 
Do ceogon'pg TTlaolmoiiţi'Da bejvc 
ofi Tnuţicha'D T>a ixuga'D cimte 
ţ^oîfi. Ro ţeaixgaiser» TTIuţichoc^ 
TYion beific, ocuţ» ţio ^^ afv TTI aol^ 
moţiţi'Da, ocuf a^beţic n^'f : oy* 
XM cuce cm dorfiaiţile 'Dona gatlcnb 
an la fio meatSoi'D pofiţia Ro 
ivdfo TTlaotTnotiti'oa afi na înroeit- 
506 co m6fv: T)o befiţxx corhoiftie 
T>6ib a|iif yf 1106a maispe oţvţux. 
CCcbeţicîTliJiicha'D, blo^ anciâbai\ 
ma difice ipon z6\n xya cncxxi, aţi 
Ţe. 'Do ciioi-D XVI Loigen -oa ceg 
teabta ^cm ceao^s^ P^ ceilea*- 
bţvaD : " It happened also that he had 
Bome hasty words with Morchadh, son 
of Brian, and Conaing,whowere playing 
chess. Maolmordha taoght a moTe 
against Morchadh by which the game 
went against him. Morchadh became 
angry at this move, and he looked at 
Maolmordha and said to him, Thon ari 
he who gETest ad^ioe to the f orogncis 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



145 



MuTchadh the next moming, arising out of a casual contro- 
versy at chess; for as Murchadh and Conaing* were play- 
ing chess, Maelmordha was teaching against Murchadh, 
and he advised a move by which a game went against 
Murchadh. Murchadh became angry, and said: " It was 
thou that gavest advice to the foreigners when they were 
defeated."^ Maelmordha said: ''I will give them advice Madmor- 
again, aud they shaU not be defeated" Murchadh said : ^^^J'*' 
"Have the yew tree* made ready for them by yourself." 
Maelmordha beoame angered, and retired to his bed-room 
without permission, without taking leave.* 

LXXXIII. This was told to Brian, and he sent a mes- Briansendi 
senger* afber him to detain him imtil Brian should con- ^,JJ*^*^ 
verse with him, and until he should carry away with him 
cattle and pay. The messenger overtook him at the end 
of the plank-bridge of Cell D&lua, on the east side, and he 
waâ mountinghis horse there. A dispute ensued between 
him and the messenger, and he turned on the messenger 
and gave him a stroke of a yew horse-switch on his head, 



on the daj when they were defeated. | 
Haolmorâha said in great wrath, I 
will give them advice again, and they 
ahall not be defeated. Murchadh said, 
Let the yew tree be ready for thee to 
sit on, said he. The king of Laighen 
went to his bedchamber, withont ask- 
ing permission, without taking leave." 
On comparing this passage with Keat- 
ing's narrative, and with the context, 
it is evident that something Îs omitted 
in both MSS., and that we should read, 
" Maolmordha retired to his bedcham- 
ber, and next moming left the Koute, 
withont asking permission or taking 
leave." KeatingsaysjOifipfafnuca 
no Tnco'one, ocu|* pogbaiY* an bail>e 
5om ceitiobţvoTD -00 btiian: "He 
arose early in the moming and left 
the place without bidding farewell to 
Brian." 

^ Afeasenger. Doctiinsillasiicroa 
-DO |?^Ti 'DO ^xyŢcai) |v1 Laiţen, .1. Co- 
Satidn ainm an 5iolla,ocuf beifiiţ» 



an gtlla paifi, ocuţ» iiai-oir niif 
cl<y6 co IV15 e^venT) cap, cen-o cuafi- 
aţxait 6^xi ocuj* 61^x15^ Impa-p an 
X^A x^^Ţ ocijy» ţ^ ap. ec a can^o claiţi 
Citle TxX tua, ocuţ* C15 beim xxm 
eatUttŢc itknp 50 sup bfiiy* cnartia 
an âm-D tiite, ocu|* ly» inicat\ bai 
-paiii co ceoj 1115 0|ienT>, B, : " He 
sent an officer of his own to stop the 
king of Laighen. Cogaran was the 
name of the servant; and the servant 
gave him the menage, and asked him 
to retum to the king of Ireland for 
wages of gold and vestments. The 
king [Maelmordha] turned upon him, 
and he was on horseback at the head 
of the plank-bridge of Cell di lua, 
[Killaloe], and struck him a blow 
with a horse-switch of yew, so that he 
broke all the bones of his head, and he 
was carried back to the house of the 
king of Erinn." The next danse from 
imaficufi to dmm in gitta, is omitted 
inB. 

L 



146 



cosoroti sacDliel ne sallccibti. 



Maelmor- 
dhs smites 
the mesaen- 
ger. 



He raises tk 
rebellion 
against 
Brian. 



withthe. 
kingsof 
Cmirbra 
and West 
Brefni 

eunders 
eath. 



beim v^ eafilaifc ibaiji t>o na ^erw, coţi bţiif cnama 
in cirn) uli. 1nia|icuţi bai paiţi in pila co CenT) Cojiod. 
Cocaţidn, 'ona, ainm in gilla. Robail vo paiţiinT) cm'o 
cocc ina 'Diai'o, ocuf can a lefuT) af cowcro ţwaţiac. 
CCfbeţic bţiian if ţîoţi colba a €0151 pein ţu) fiţipeoi) 
coiji paiţx, ocuf ni pell ina €15 -ţein "00 jenaD ţîaip. 

LXXXIV. Ho ţ\)ic, imoţipo, Tnaelmotvoa in ai-ochi 
fin co 8in teaf CCbcnn, 1 nUib bu'oi .1. co reafi ÎTlic beţWKii, 
yiig Ha mbu'Di. Uo foic moC aţinamBaiiac in ^aţ^^'^^cf'"" 
nai^, co rea£ "Ounlain^ mic 'Cuacail .1. ţii la^xCaiţi Li^i, 
octif rimaiţi^cefi mcrci Logen ina conni co ţiici fin, 
pcuf ina coni7)ail ; ocuf înnifiT) "ooib mif aDUf •oogbcnl 
•00, ocuf aii bfiecfii tk) rabaifc aiţi pein, ocuf aji in 
cugOT) uli. If 1 comajili po^i aţi 7)eUn^ leo impo aţi 
br^ian, ocuf paiT)iT; recea co piairbeţiTxic mac 1Tlufice|i- 
raig Ui Neill .1. co ţiig CC1I15, ocuf aiCnic "oo co^o^ do 
'oenam pţii îTlaelfeclainT), ocuf ffii hUlraib, foiceţi 
foffa ele co peţijal Ha Tluai|ic co ţii^ bţiefni, ocuf co 
hUalsanr Ua Cian-oa ni Canbni, ocuf foemair fin uli. 
,mp<yD aîv bpion. 

*0.o foni piarbeţxrac cţiec 1 THi'oi, ocuf fo infveTXip 
pofimofi 1TliT)i leif. CCf 'oifi'oe no maţiboD Ofli mac 
IDubcinT) micimaiţi, pefi sţuroa "do Oîiian, ocuf THoţimaeii 
•oa maeyiaib e, ocuf fochai'oe ele. *Oo ţxonar) cţiec moţi 
ele fie hUalgaţi^ Ua Cia|iT)a ocuf fie pefigal Ua Huaific 



1 Purtue. Hop 6il 'oţoiiiifin ann 
zotn an'oeafyjai} ţii taigen, ocaf 
gem a leipn «ff 50 mcco iviatva6, 
B. : "Some were amdoiia to ponne 
the king of Laigen and not to let him 
o£F nntil he made subminion." 

> J)emamd, diTipemai'O, B. 

* Dreaehenmt, Ocuf nipeallmcqfi 
toJ p6in T)0 gânom pâiţi, B. 

• ^oâlmordka. înaotnio|ip,'Da 
mac îTluţichorDa, B. 

^ Arriced. Ramic, B. 

^SonqfBerdoL CofeinLtrCCbâifi 
in tiib bui-oe co ceî'mic OeiTt'oe, 
B.: "At Senlis Ab&in [old Fort of 



St Abbaa] in Ui-Buidhi, to the 
of the 8on of Benne." 

''f Earlp, For fno6 arinotmlxifuic, 
B. reada oţvticnnafuxd. 

s Aââembled. Oicof jU) timoijig- 
fecca|\ mente an dtiicci^ mie ma 
comneocuf matofti'oâiUB.: **Aiid 
the nobles of the whole provmoe as- 
sembled to meet hun, and in his pie- 
sence.** 

* BâedvetL B. omits ntx^hmt t>o. 

^^ Ikcuian, If 1 coihainle aţi ayi 
onnea^ oca, impo^ ayv Oixion, B. *. 
** This waa the dedaion that they came 
to^ to tom against Brian.** 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 147 

and broke all the bones of the h^ad. It was necessaiy MiMlmor- 
to carry the mesaenger back to Ceim-coradh. And Co- ^^^^, 
car&n was the name of the messenger. Some were anxious gv 
to pursue' him [Maelmordha] then, and not allow him to 
escape until he made submission. But Brian said it 
should be at the threshold of his own house he would 
demand' justice from him, and that he would not prove 
treacherous^ to him in bis own house. 

LXXXIV. Maehnordha^ arrived^ that night at Sen Leas He nbet a 
Ab&inn, in Ui-Buidhi, viz., at the house of the son of J^^jiJJ" 
Berdai,® king of Ui-mBuidhi. He arrived early^ the next Brian. 
moming at the Garbh Thamhnach, at the house of Dun- 
lang, son of Tuathal, king of larthar Liphi ; and the nobles 
of Laighin assembled^ to meet him at that place, and in 
convention; and he told them that he had received^ dis- 
honour, and that rep^oachfnl words were applied to himself 
and to all the province. The decision^^ that they came to 
thereupon was to turn against Brian ; and they sent 
messengers to Flaithbhertach, son of Muirchertach O'Neill, 
ie., to^^ the king of Ailech, exhorting^' him to make war 
upon Maelsechlainn and Uladh; and other messengers 
were despatched to Ferghal Ua Ruaux;, king of Brefni ; 
and to Ualgarg O'Ciardha, king of Cairbri; and these all*' 
consented to turn against Brian. 

Flaithbhertach made a plunder in Midhp, and the 0*Nem 
greater part** of Midhe was ravaged by him. It was on Si,gg of 
this occasion was slain Osii,'* son of Dubhcenn, son of ^"^ţE? 
Imar, an officer of Brian, and one of his high stewards, Bi^efni 
and many more. Another great plunder was made by*® piundei» 

u To, B. omits, .1. co> I bfscketo ia a mere rapetition by a ele* 

^ EadiOTimg, OC aitne tm) cobora rical eiror of the scribe. 



■DO «enaili oţi fDcwteclcmi'o» tort- 
ceti ţeaţHX ele co htlalgcqitg hva 
CicqftT^'Da co f.i ConfipTie, ocu-p co 
Pefigal 6 tluaific co fii bţieipne 
[pcvtŢ a cncne tjo cogoro -oo 'oeitcnh 
afi TTIaetedtaiTi'D ocof a|\ ţ:eaTvaib 



u Tkete dO, This cUiua îs omitted 
inB. 

1* Grmkr part Uţifnop. Tni-De 
tnte tei|», octip i|* -oi pti, B, 

i< Otii, Or Fosli; the Flosa or Flo- 
dus, of the Sagas. 



tfli-oe, ocuy» impor» a^i bp.ian], B. : ^^By.Le b tlalgafig «a CiofifVDai 



Bat it îs evident that the daiue within 



ociir le. B. 

l2 



148 



coscroti ţae'otiel tie ţallccibti. 



Ifadaech- 
Uunn de- 
feats them, 
A.D. 1012. 



He plan- 
den the 
foreignen 
aafaru 
Howth. 

Hiflsonand 

200otliers 

sUin. 



Thefo- 

teignen 

and Lein- 

atermen 

plunder 

Heath. 

HaelMch- 
lainn corn- 
plainsto 
Brian. 



poţi ÎTlaelfeclainT), coji aiţisfec ^^l'^ii^ct» coţi maţibfoc 
T)OTnnall mac ^OoncaiT) ti a ÎTlaelfeclainT), |ii§T)oiniia 
'Cemţiac, ocuf Ceţinac mac piauro, ţii Lini, ocuf ^enaii 
Ua Leucan, ţii ^^^len^, ocuf fochai'oe ele. CCfcaţirois 
TTlaelfeclain'Diafifin oţiio, corucTllaelfeclain'oracu|i, 
ocuf coţi maţibai) leif Ual^aţig Ua CiapT)a ţii Capbpi, 
ocuf Tkcoz Ua Ce^inacan, aiţiţii b|iepni, ocuf fochai-oe 
ele am). 

*0a ivonaD c|iec ne ÎTlaelfeclainT) lafifin poţi ^allaib, 
ocuf fio infiz: co OeinT) €Dai|i ; ocuf fo a|\ţiaiT) Ofuco 
ÎTţaelmofT)a mac ÎTluţicaoa, ocuf 8iqfiiuc mac OCmlaib, 
ocuf gaill ocuf La^in, ocuf fo maţibfcrc in T:f ef qieac 
va cţiecaib uli. lT)fX)caiţi anT) in rCClbanafi mac 
ÎTlaelfeclainT), ocuf lx)|ican mac eacnsejinx) [fi] 
Ceneil ÎTlecaif, octif va cer afoen fiti. 

LXXXV. T)a fonaT) mofflua^w laffin la 5allaib, 
octif fe tagnib, ocuf fo hinfe* ÎTli'Bi leo co pabuf 
PeSin, ocuf f ucfac bf air mof ocuf buaf T)iai|imici leo 
a 'CefmuinD "Pabaif. X>a locan cea&a laffin o 
ÎTlaelfeclainT) va acaini fin fe Of ian .1. a €if ca 
hinf eT), ocuf a macti ca mafbar), ocuf nafODdim cocod 
gali ocuf Lajen ocuf bfepni ocuf Caf bf 1 ocuf Cenel 
©ogain in oen abull paif. 



^Upon, CCţi, B., "agminst." 

> ^f^ heir, B. omită ivigDorhna 
T^Tn|va6, and reads ocuf gnp. m a|ib- 
foc Ceatvna6 mac Vloimi. The 
Four Masters and Ann. Uit. caii him 
Ceamachatt, 

• Lini. So in both MS. But we 
ahould read Luighne. See Fovr MtuL 
and Aim, UlL 1012. 

« Senan. B6iia6 6 l6cân |ii ţonl- 
ens; 50 tvtiBfcrc pixti ÎTli-oe, ocof 
TTlaelfeâlainn tX)Tiîia, ocuf ctig- 
|Hro cacaivoa 66ite, pip. maîibpcrc 
om-o Ual^atvcc na CtapTi'oa p.ig 
CaippTie, octif Tkrog 6 Ceyvnaddn 
oifiîxis bp-eipne, ocuf -Daine im-oa 
eile, B. : ** Senach O'LOchăn, king of 



Qaileng ; nntil the men of Meath and 
Maelsechlainn overtook them, and they 
had a skirmish together, in whlch were 
slain Ualgarg Ua Ciarrdha, king of 
Caiipre, and Tadhg O'Cernacban, sab- 
king of Brefne, and many other men." 
The Fonr Mastexa read " Sen&n Ua 
Leochan, Lord of Gaileng." 

• Overtook, Over afcaficois in D. 
the original scribe has written no ar- 
capi^D : Le., ^^ or ofraţiits" a diiTereot 
f onn of the same word. 

^AJltr thit, B. omits laţifin, and 
reads ap galloib ocuf ţvo hin^po^ 

7 BuL B. reads ocaf fitic oppa. 
GCppoi'D in the text is for capp- 
ton'D. 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WTTH THE GAILL. 



149 



TJaJgarg XJa Ciardha, and by Ferghal Ua Ruairc upon* 
Maelsechlaiim; aud theyplundered the Gailenga, and they 
killed Domhnall, son of Donnchadh, grandson of MaeLsech- 
lainn, royal heir^ of Temhair, and Cemach, son of Flann, 
king of Lin^,^ and Senan^ Ua Leuchan, king of Gaileng, and 
many others. After this, Maelsechiainn overtook' them ; 
and Maelsechiainn gave them battle, in which Ualgarg Ua 
Ciardha, king of Cairbri, and Tadhg Ua Ceamachan, sub- 
king of Brefni, and many others were killed by him. 

A plundering expedition was made after this^ by Mael- 
sechiainn against the foreigners, and he ravaged as far as 
Benn Edair; but^ Maelmordha, son of Murchadh, and 
Sitriuc, son of Amhlaibh, and the foreigners, and the 
Laighin* overtook them, and killed the whole^ of one of 
their three plimdering parties. There fell there the 
Albanach,^^ son of Maelsechiainn, and Lorcan, son of 
Echtigem [king]" of Cinei Mechair, and two hundred 
along with them. 

LXXXV. A great expedition** was afterwards imder- 
taken by the foreigners and the Laighin, and Midhe was 
plundered by them as far as Fabhar of Fechin ; and many 
captives and cattle innumerable were carried off by them 
from the Termon of Fabhar. After which messengers went 
trom Maelsechiainn to Brian, to complain of this, namely, 
that his territoiy was plimdered and his sons killed, and 
praying him not to permit the foreigners and the Laighin, 
and the Brefni, and the Cairbri, and the Cinel-Eoghain, 
to come all together'^ against him. 



Maelsech- 
Uinn de- 
feats them, 
A.D. 1012. 



He plvn- 
dex8 the 
foreignen 
as far u 
Howth. 



His son and 

200othen 

alain. 



The fo- 
reigners 
and Lein- 
stermen 
plunder 
Meath. 



Maelsech- 
iainn com- 
plaint to 
Brian. 



*And tke Laiffkm. B. has ocu|^ 
SatltLai^en "and the foreigners of 
Laighen." ţti map-tifccc, B. 

• J%e fohole. B. omits nil. The 
Fonr M. (1012) read, qfi«i6 -oia cqve- 
aân1>, " one of his plnndeiing parties.'* 

u The AUfonack, L&, the Scotchman. 
Ann. InisfL (Dubi.) and Four Masten 
read, "FUnn, son of Maelsechiainn.** 
Fori-DTioccnmB. reads, ocQ'pcoTUxnţi. 



^ Kktff, This word is inserted from 
B. The Four Masters say that it was 
the son of Lorcan, not Lorcan hinuelf, 
who was slaîn on this occanon ; and 
they add, '' This was the defieat of 
Drainen,** now Drinan, oonnty Dnblin. 

u ExpedUion. This chapter occurs 
only in D. 

^Together. OCtraU is for pcroball, 
** at the same time;** timniL 



150 



cosoroti scce^otiel ne sallocibti. 



Brian 
plnnden 
Oflfloryand 
Leinster. 

Murcliad 
devasUtes 
the country 
from GUn- 
daloch to 
Kilmain- 
ham. 

Theyblock. 
adeDvblixL 



Brian ad- 
vanoes 
agaiaat 
Dublin. 



Theanxili- 
ariei of thfl 
forojgnon» 



LXXXVI. *0a |ioncn) moţi fluageT) ţeji TTltiTnafi octij^ 
Conacr; la bţiian laţifin in nOfţiosib ocut^ ilLognib, 
ocuf |U) iTiţiic Ofjicftsi leo. T)a foni T11ti|i£crD mac 
bfimiTi cfiec moţi ilLognib, ocuf ţio cnps in ci|\ uli co 
ţiocc f amuT) Caimpn, ocuf ţio înţiefcaiţi in ci|i uli ocuţ* 
|io loifc, ocuf fiuc bfiait; moţi leif, ocuf bua|iT)ia|imiui, 
ocuf fo yx)ci; co CillTTlaisnGnT), co paci OC€a Cliccfe. Ro 
fiuacc bjiian, ctm, octif in fltios ina com-ooil, -oo fonfonc 
pofibafi ocuf poţicomet; ţo^i 0C€ Cli<3cc, ocuf pof lon^pofu; 
ani), bacojfi am) fin 6 peil Ciafian poţmaiţi co nor;laic 
moţi, ocuf ni ţio ţiiaţiţ^oc 501 11 no lojin pţiifin oen giall, 
no oen car, no oen coma vo- O rapnic "ooib alloin zamc 
bţiian va rccig ţo noclaij. 

LXXXVII. T)o gniCeţi moţi piu ager) ele la bţiian aţi 
peil poqioic eţiţiaig, "oo ţabail ţx)ţi CC€ Cliai ocuţ* aţi 
Lagin. Or cualaraţi, cţia, jaill in rocaţr^ul fin cticu, 
ţio cuţiii; cefca ocuf peffa aţi ca€ le€ ua€ib, vo €inot 
uoţieac ocuf focţiaiT)i cucu, vo ţiefcal cafea vo bţiian. 
1flo co£uţieD cucu, em bţiODOţi laţila, ocuf CCmlaib mac 
ţii loclanT) .1. TKL laţila Căiţii, ocuf ruafciţit; 8axan uli. 



1 J^/Ur thit, B. omitB latifin. 
^Otraighe- Thedaiuewiihiiibrack- 
ets is omitted in B. 

• The ickole. B. omite iile. 

A CaimJufhen: i.e., tbe raligiouB hoiue 
OT monasteryof St Caimbghen, (St 
Kevin,) of Glandaloch. According to 
the reading of D. thia devastation was 
hy Mnrchadh, son of Brian; bnt B., 
by omitUng the worda within braekets, 
makes Brian himeelf the devastator. 

* CbiMlry. Ocaf ţu> hint>ţia'6 cm 
ciŢi tetf, ocaf IV1ICC bfioiT) mâţi 
eiţ'co, ocitf ţu> paâc co Citi TTIaig- 
tieonn, co ţxntâe CCta Oliat oona 
flvag, ocuf "DO ţumfocc ţoţibcnf 
ocaf ţofitoim^cc toţi CC6 Ctiat, 
ocof vo bcBCOfi onti 6 ţett Ciaţutn, 
TţU^, B. : ** And the coontiy was i»- 
Taged by him, and many capUvea 
taken by him, ând he marched to 



Cin Maiţ^enn, to the green of Ath 
Cliath, with his anny, and they made 
a si^ge and a blockade ronnd Ath 
Cliath, and remained there from the 
Feast of Ciaran, &c" 

* Tojamhm. £»(., in hia praMoce : 
i.e., Brian with his anny came np to 
join Ms son Mnrchadh. 

7 GretU Ckritlmai. See abore, p. 
118 and p. 117. 

f Spbndjf, B. reada, ni ţvo ţviaţi- 
<"ftr*'^ gaill iTicro tcag;hi «ro ţrţuf 
cm fxe fm im pallt im cot, fio im 
comcn^. 

•iVoramau. OCUmze^B. 

w Om. Itn, B., "abont" 

u In tprmv Om. B. 

^AUadk. "00 gabcnt oţi, B. 

1* Whm. O tu> cacitacafi imofifio 
SmU/ CCtm Ctiot ţm coideţ'cat fm 
caca caiţMt; pefc^ ocaf z^tca ofi 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



151 



LXXXVL After this^ the men of Mumhan and of Briân 
Connacht, under Brian, made a great expedition against qI^^^^ 
the Osraighe and against the Laighin, [aud Osraighe' was Leiiuter. 
ravaged by them. Murchadh, son of Briaa, made a great Murchad 
plnnder of the Laighin], and he devastated the whole* ^T"^*^ 
coimtiy, until he reached the community of Caimhghen/ from GUn- 
and he ravaged and bumt the whole country* ; and many ^**^^^ 
captives were carried off by him, and catite innumerable ; hJ!""- 
and he came to Cill-Maighnenn, to the green of Ath 
CliatL Then Brian and the army arrived to join hîm.^ 
They made a siege and blockade romid Ath Cliath, and Theybiock- 
an encampment there. They were there from the festival * *°' 
of Ciaran in harvest, to great Christmas^; and neither 
the foreigners nor the Tjaighin yielded him, during that 
time, one hostage, nor one battle, nor one subsidy.^ So 
when their provisions' were exhausted, Brian retired to 
his home about Christmas. 

LXXXVII. Another great expedition was made byBrium^i. 
Brian on* ® the festival of Patriek in spring, * ^ to attaek * ^ Ath ▼*»<»• 
Cliath and the T<aighîn. But when^' the foreigners heard ^b^. 
of Hm muster coming against them, they sent messengers 
and ambassadors every where around them, to gather 
tro<^ and armies unto them, to meet Brian in battle. 
They invited unto them Brodor, the earl, aud Amlaibh, The âaxm- 
son of the king of Lochlann, i.e. the two earls of Cair, "«Mo'tii® 
and of all the north of Saxon-land.** These two were **"*^*^ 



gac le* tia6ccib -do cm6l fttiaife 
ocof ţ^oâcnt» cuca, no -ptiefcat 
cota no bfvian, B. It will be seen 
that D. nade ţiefcal lor ^pfiof'cal, 
omittiiig the iniţial p, as uaual in that 
MS. 

i< sLaoii-hHd : meaning England. 
B. leada, Ho cocvifiecrD cuca omnpn 
bţunxxţi lOTiloc Cenţii hOCfccroal 
mac |vi tochlotro, ocnj* CCţnceroat 
iaţ\taCaip.i hCCpccrool, .1. |vi mcny»- 
cejxc 8axaii, ocii-p caiţ^ loingp, 
TfiU : '* They invited to them Bfodar, 



the Eail of Cair Aacadal, son of the 
king of Lochlann, and Aeradal, earl 
of Cair ÂMsulal, viz^ king of ^the 
north of Saxon-land, and the chiefs 
of shipe, &c." Tliere ia evident lome 
conf usion in these readings. The An- 
nals of Loch C^ caii Brodar loţila 
Ca6iTve eabţUM^, '*£arl of Caer 
Ebroc" [i.e., Tork], but this must be 
a mistake. The ronumtie tale, caUed 
'* The Batâeof CUmtarf," has " Brodar 
and Aflgal, two sons of the lung of 
Lochlann.** 



152 



coţcroti ^ae-otiel ne ţaUccibli. 



Superiority 
of the 
Danish 
annonr. 



Sigtird, 
earl of 
Orkney, 
amveswith 
an army 
f rom the 
Isles. 



Hie 8ons of 

Uip klng of 

France, 

with 

others, join 

againrt 

Brian. 



"Coifis lonsfi octif inaţibrai^ ocuf 'oanaip. iaiirai|i 
6oţipa uli in T)iaf fin, can coji 11, can aimnn, can ficPDUf, 
can comafici vo *Oia no va 'ouni, 'oo cili no vo nemecro, 
ocuf pice cer 'oanaţv t)ian, T)oli5, 'oibeţvcaf, 'ouficfiai'Deac, 
'DO CCnnfiapsacaib allmap-Daib inganracaib, aca cpeic, 
ocuf ica paicleaT) babein, no aţ\ ofi ocuf aţi afi^oc ocuf 
aţi cac înmuf aţicena. "Ni bai, imoţijU), "oanafi no 
•oibeţigac 'oon piCic cet; fin, can Itiţiig lain'Deîv5a, ixiilc, 
T:ţien7)tialai5, raiT:nemai5, "do laţi un*© airh airlegfa, no 
'Duma înnuaţi nemefgi'Di, ima coebaib, ocuf imnia cne- 
faib leo o cennaib co bon'oaib. 

Ro rocufie-D cucu, 'ona, 8iuc|iaiT) mac Loraifi, laţila 
înţ^ Ofc ocUf na ninfi afcena, ocuf comcinol floij 
buiţib, baţibafDa,T)iceilli'D,'Docifc, 'Doconiain'D,T)o^allaib 
infi 0|ic, ocuf infi Cac ; a ÎTlanainT), ocuf a 8ci, ocuf a 
LeoDUf ; a Cin-o 'Ciţii, ocuf a hCCi|ie|i goeDel, ocuf tki 
baţiun a Coţiţi biiernaib, ocuf CoţxnTKibbliceoc a Opec- 
naib Cilli TflUni. 

Ro co€uf eT) cucu, 'ona, Caţvlur ocuf eb^iic, va meic 
fiig Ppanc, ocuf plac, q[ien tniliT) LoclanT), ocuf Conmael 
T;jieiceU X>a ţi occ, q[ia, in longef fin af cac aipro co 
hCCc Clia€. bai, 'ona, foqiai'oi aDbul moţi i nCC€ Clia€ 
boDein .1. q[ii cară comojia comnefira. T)a |U)cr, "ona, 
tnoelmofoa mac THuţiSaDa mic pnT), ţii tosen, ocuf 
focţiai-Di tagen ocuf Ha Cen'Ofelaig leif, co CCr Cliar. 
'Cţxi cată mofa 'oibfi'oe. 



^Diman. Thia word, though ori- 
ginally ngnifying Danes^ ia often lued 
in the senae of violent, villanona, fe- 
roooiia, persona. It probably haa thia 
aignification here, and ia certainly 80 
nsed again, lines 4 and 7, of thia page. 
B. omită tili, ** oiL" 

• VeneraHoH. ţan paicill* gon 
aicciTiiii, B. 

• For flion. *Oo "Dia fio 'oâine, 
tK) fiaefh, tio TK) îieiniOT), B. : " For 
€k>d or man, for saint or for Banctnary.** 

« Tufo ikfmmmd. LiL, *' twenty 
hnndred." So both MSS. ; bot the 



Arm, UlL, Four Matt^ and Leabkar 
Crobhalaj read ** one thoiuand." 

< Hard-kemied. B. omită t>iifi- 
qfvai'Deac, and roadă, t>iifVDibeiicxa6 
T>o 'DhomTnaţvocaib, snppjying the in- 
iţial t>, which, aa nanal, ia dropped in D. 

^SeUmg. CCfi na oqfveiCi ocof 
atv na ccrniTKic Ofv 6^1, ocuf ofv 
lonnmnf moţuxen ţiitf, B. : **Sd]ing 
and hiring themaelyes for gdd and for 
tieaanre, along with them." 

7 7%ere «wif Mot Hi yunbe imoţi- 
fio, B. 

• TripU'plalti, tqfi^'miala]^ B. 



WARS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



153 



the chiefs of ships, and outlaws, and Danars^ of all the 
westof Eiirope,having no reverence, veneration,» respect, or 
mercy for God or for man,' for church or for sanctuary, at 
the head of two thousand^ cruel, villanous, ferocious, 
plundering, hard-hearted,* foreign, wonderful Danmar- 
kians, Belling® and hiring themselves for gold and silver, 
and other treasure as well. And there was not^ one 
villain or robber of that two thousand who had not 
polished, strong, triple-plated,^ glittering armour of 
refined iron, or of cool uncorroding* brass, encasing their 
sides and bodies &om head to foot. 

They invited to them also Siucrad,*^ son of Lotar, earl of 
the Ore islands, ând of other islands also ; with an assem- 
bled anny of ignorant, barbarons, thoughtiess, irreclaun- 
able, unsociable foreigners of the Orc islands, and of the 
Cat islands; from Manann, and from Sci, and from Iico- 
dhus; from Cenn Tire, and from Airer-gaedhel ; and two 
barons'* of the Corr Britons, and Comdabbliteoc of the 
Britons of Cili Muni. 

They invited to them also Carlus and Ebric,** two sons 
of the king of France, and Plat, a strong knight of Loch- 
lann, and the hero ConmaeL*^ This fleet then arrived** 
from every quarter at Ath CliatL There were also in 
Ath Cliath itselP* a very great force, namely, three very 
great strong battalions ; for Maelmordha, son of Mur- 
chadh, son of Finn,*^ king of Laighin, and the muster 
of Laighin, and of Ui Cennselaigh,'^ with him, came to 
Ath Cliath. These formed'® three great battalions. 



Saperîoritjr 
of the 
Danuih 
aimoor. 



Signrd, 
earl of 
Orkney, 
arriveswith 
an army 
from the 
Isles. 



The 801U of 

the king of 

France, 

with 

others, join 

against 

Brian. 



' Cool, vncorroding, 1 nTyţniaiYi neiTh 
meiTigiţ im a cnea-paib teo 6 in-ooit) 
co bonnonb, B. 

10 Sivcrad. " Sitric, aon of Lodar,'* 
B. " Sichfrifh, aon of Lodar," Four 
Miut "Siuchradh, son of Lodar," 
Aim. UU. ^'Signrd, Hlodver'fl son," 
Nidt$ Saff«Lj cap. clviii 

u Ttoo barons. B. reads, OGuy^ a 
boTitm, octi|» a Coifibivecccncnli, 
octij* a Coţinbticeoc, ocuy* a b|vecrc- 
Ticnb Cille Tlluitie : "And from 
Barru and from the Corrbritona, and 



from Com-bliteoc, and from the Britons 
of CiU-Muine [St David's]." ^ 

W-E&ric eilTMC,B. 

" Conmael TTlaol, B. 

^* Arrived "Do ţuxxaT>af\ Cîia 
cm loingei* |*in, B- 

" Ittelf. B. reads, ocii|» -oo W ţo- 
cţioi'De crobab m CCt Cbiat p6in .i. 
cfil caca commdţui coimneţicae. 

»• Son ofFinn, Om., B. 

17 And of Ui Cemtelaigh. Om., B. 

18 Tkeae/ormed. \1oţ octip cţxl cată 
cotnTndiia •ooibţ^iTi, B. 



154 



coscroti ţcce^otiel Re ţccllccibti. 



Theforces 
of Brian. 



He plnn- 
ders all 
aroond 
Dublin. 



Fingal and 

Howth 

bomed. 



Brian holda 
a coonciL 



Tbe march 
of Brian's 
anny. 



LXXXVIII. Imrufa, itnoţiţu), bfiiain mic CennerMS 
|ii Ofienu Ro nnolic finei fein no6 t)0 fiecaitv 6 'oo 
peficnb eţiem) .1. 'oa ctiiceT) îTltiman ocuf Conafitxi, ocuf 
pyi TlliT)i ; octif ni ba caiţifi T)OfUin piţi ÎTIidi, uocifi "oa 
•pinţi pein coqfieicprnf 6 fie hucr în ccrfa fin, ce rati- 
caca|i if in com^nol. Ocuf fianccrcaţi, qfva, co liCC€ 
ClicrB. Ocuf ţu) înţiic Ha ^obla, ocuf Ua "OoncoDa, ocof 
Pni 5«l'l' uli leo. Ro lofceT) leo Cell THaignenT). Ro 
cuţieT), 'Dna, T)on£at) mac Oţiioin ocuf glafloii T)alcai|*, 
ocuf rţxef cab TU uman poţi ruaCaib Lccgen, octif n^oiaii) 
na muinreţv, T)ia napcain ocuf "Oia in'oţiitiT) in nţii. Oc 
concacaţx na gaill na poţilofci 1 pm ocuf cuaifi^Ocaip, 
ranccrcayi ina nagaiT) 1 1TIo^ nBl'oa, ocuf |iof com|\aicf©i; 
ocuf mcf ar; a ni'ona cată 6f aiyiu 

1f an*© bai bţiian an'Ofen afi poci OCra Cliac, ocuf 
ma€i T)dilcaif in aiţiecruf, im TflaelfeclainT) ocuf im 
THufifiax), ocuf im Conain^, ocuf im 'Caog mac CoCail, 
ocuf im ma€ib Conace aţicena, ocuf piţi îfluman, ocuf 
ţMfi ÎTli'oi ; aer maT) enni niţi ba yiun oen pfi ic pefioib 
tni'Di fie cafi, no ic TTlaelfeclain'D. 

LXXXIX. T)a 'oecafcaifi bfiian ucroa "oafiaiff co 
pacafcafi ucro in cipi comcfiuinT), comofi, cengailn, 



1 Now. B. omită imoţiţu). 

> King. aiTVDTii, B., " chief kîng.'' 

• Oheyed, 1 n neoc po pţveccaifi ^ 
B. LÂLy "responded to him.** 

< C9MKhL B. readfl, ocuf cnige^ 
Connadc, ocuf beocdn w) cvige^ 
tUcro: "and the province of Con- 
nacht, and a small portion of the pro- 
vince of Uladb." 

'^FaiUkfuL Uob eTXOîfiifM -od f*cm 
pfi Tîli'oe congocaiv na tifi6l| oifv 
•0615 Tw> P'oiţ^ co ccp.eioqpeccaif* 6 
fie hti6c an cota, B. 

> iind Uujf. B. omits thÎB olaaae. 
"^And Ui CMia. Ho hinTiţicro hua 

ţaljîMi, B.: "They plnndered Ui 
Gabhra," &&, onHting «ui 

• AILJL omite «ti leo. 
^jyiAem. B. reads, octif 1X0 loif- 

cet Cltiam Dalldin, ocuf Cell 



Tfloi^enn la bţxian : " And dnam 
Dftllain [Clondalkin], and Cili Maigii- 
nenn [Kilmainham] were boint by 
Brian." 

^New leviei. lÂL, ««green leries.** 
Co nslafcroh, DtAl Amu. Inu/., 
which Dr. O'Conor tranalatet "cum 
coernleiB militibos Daloa8sionmi," and 
explains GaUo-^loMi, or aoldiers painted 
a livid colour to excite temrf B&r. 
Hib, ScfiptL tom. ii. The lomaBtie 
tale, ** Battle of dontaif,'* nada, co 

" Wen tmU. Ro co^tiiţvecro, B. 

" Territoriea. 1 ţofica<k6aiV, B. 

^* The oountnf. *0a nifinţuro ocuf 
XXX naţigcan, B., "to plunder and 
«poiL" 

" Saw, Oz oonnoai;aifi, B. 

" Fine. pmi ţall ocuf occnoit 



WAB8 OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



155 



LXXXVIII. To retum now* to Brian, son of Cennedigh, The forc» 
king^ofErinB. There aasembled around hîxn aJl that »'»'«- 
obeyed* him of the men of EriBn, naxaely, the two pro- 
vinoee of Mumhain and Conacht,^ and the men of Midhe ; 
but the men of Midhe were not faithful^ to him, for he 
knew himself that they woidd desert him at the approach 
of that battle, although they came to the aasembly. And 
they^ now reached Ath Cliath. And^ Ui Gabhla, and Ui He pion- 
Donnchadha^ and all^ Fine Gali were plundered by them. ^^" ^ 
Cili Maighnenn was bumed by them.' Then Donnchad, Dublin. 
8(m of Brian, and tJie new levies^^ of the Dai Cais, and 
the third battalion of Mumhain were sent^^ into the ter- 
ritories*' of Laighin, in the absence of its people, to spoil 
and plunder the country.^' When the foreigners saw^^Fîngaland 
the conflagration in Fine^* Gali and the district of Edar, J^^ 
they came against them in Magh n-Elda^*^ and they met, 
and raised their standards of battle on high. 

Brian was then on the plain^^ of Ath Cliath, in council Brian hoids 
with the nobles of the D61 Cais,** and with Maelsechlainn, * ^""^^ 
and with Murchadh, and with Conalng, and with Tadhg, 
son of Cathal, and with the nobles of Conacht together, 
and with the men of Mumhain and the men of Midhe;*' 
but it happened that the men of Midhe and Maelsechlainn 
were not of one mind with the rest.^" 

LXXXIX. Brian looked out behind him and beheld the The march 
batde phaJaox, compact, huge. disciplined. moving m'^^'' 



CDcnţi, B., which leadings beiog more 
cornet, are adopted in the tranalation. 

^«InMaffhm-Elda. CoTnagneica 
octrpiu) cojwn J'pec a maoticroa certa 
Of aifiT), B.: "To Magh-n-Elta, and 
they imnged their itandards of battle 
on high.** 

wPtow. Pcntce, B. 

MDa/ Cmt, OcvtŢ vncate petv 
n6Ţienii a iicninea6i;a|* ime arm, 
rni TYlotuxTD, TC, B. : " And the 
nobles of the men of Emin with him 
there, with Murchadh,^ &c. 



u Midke. B. omită all mention of 
Maelsechlainn and the men of Midhe 
or Meath, and reads, ocuf im maitib 
Connadc ocuţ* Tîliiitian, "and with 
the nobles of Connacht and Mnmhain." 

» The rut, B. reads, CCcc cetia, 
nlfi bo fiiiti ainfMţi 05 Tnaet|*ec- 
lainn |i6 ca6| diyv ititii|*ic feon- 
doiTM co cxcnţinic, 7c. : " But Mael- 
eechlainn waa not t one mind with the 
rest; for historians reUte," fte., pn>- 
oeeding as in chi^ xc, and omitting 
the wholc of chap. Ixxxix. 



156 costTDti Eae-Dtiel Re socUxnbti. 

copaifti ccf€a, co cai cafcac, co catfoiT» coDnac, co 
hoenrtTDac oenmemnnac, ic flaigi in tnaigi £ucu, ocuf 
.X. mepgi ocur W PC'^ oţiţvo, -do 'oepţ, oc«r "oo bm™. 
ocuf 7>uaTii, ocur ^'o cenel ca£a "oafea ; mon Tnep^i fift 
foji f uaCniT», fenca, |xiinemaiL, puc boaiD [caca] cttCa 
ocUf cafia cLia€a, ocuf *^^^^ congaLa, jiip ap bp!]**?) 
.un. ca€a conicei înnuiaD pn .1. mepgi opEpanemail 
pepsait Ua Ruaipc, aipupi cua€ bpepni ocuf Conmacni, 
ocuj- pepgaL pein am)pin, ocuf "Oomnall mac Rogalloif, 
ocup S'^-^o 110 Hoem mac "Domnaitl ua pepgail, ocoT 
mai^ cua* bpoicni ocui:' Conmacni apcena. Ocup can- 
cacap gaipix; on lonspopc, ocuy xrn paiTii^caii an-o, ocur 
came pepjal ocup na ma^ map apabi bpian va a^al- 
laim, ocup Tia ţeapapcap Opian patlci cuiroail cap- 
■Demoil pip, ocup po epig triupcai} pemi, ocup po 
poi-opium ina mau ; ocup pobi bpian ic ■papţsngn) pceL 
■oe, ocup mnippium ■do, CCen mac Ualţaipţ Ua CiapTW, 
pi Capbpi, TiemeT) ciacc Leip T>ocum in foca pin, w 
cungnum pe Opian ; ocup po maltaij bpian anxipin Ua 
Ciapua ocup Capbpt, ocup cuc bennacc ap pepgal ocup 
ap peapaib Opepni apcena. 

XC. "DaiE ipoT) înnipic paipem) co capnic do na 
halLmapacaib a cuapapcal in noDoich pemi pin t» 
cai&um, ocup co pancacap co Oein-D ©ooip, m cpat ac 
concacap na poplopci ocup in cip ica hiupeo; uatp 
capcocap tk) Opian m 00015 1^"" capui 'ooib co cpnch 
eipgi opnombapof, con no poplopa ţ» -oenuni, co 
cochainp no peolcpain-o, ocup ni impobwiip -oopip; 
uaip pib egoit leo gaipceo fTlupCon), ocup "Odlcoip 
opfeno. 



I Ftrsal Umteff. Thii dupter oc- *Jiţfimd. Tht US. hw vmva, 

aut in D. and nat In B. No meation lor vţemev, or t>oţ«ine«. 

ot Feigal U> Ruurc and hii foUowen, 'Somt. Seonchoi-âe, B., " bUo- 

u pracnt In Uw battle, ii to be found riuu." 

in the Amuls, nor ia he mentioned in * Battle. In <Tahaig ţioiin*, B^ 

tiu Book of Conqacati, or 1^ Kut- " the niglit batore." 

ing. » Wim (% «w. GCn nm <n- 



WABS OF THE QAEDMIL WITH THE GAILL. 



157 



âlence, mutely, bravely, haughtily, unitedly, with one 
mind, traversing the plain towards them ; and three score 
and ten banners over them, of red, and of yellow, and of 
green, and of all kinds of colours ; together with the ever- 
lasting, variegated, lucky, fortunate banner, that had 
gained the victory in every battle and in every conflict, 
and in every combat ; by which seven battles had been 
gained before that time, namely, the gold-spangled banner 
of Fergal TJa Buairc, chief king of the territory of Brefiii 
and Conmaicni ; and Fergal himself ^ was there, and 
Domhnall, son of Eagallach, and Gilla-na-naemh, son of 
Domhnall, grandson of Feigal, and the nobles of the ter- 
ritory of Brefhi and Conmaicni in like manner. And they 
came near the tent, and stopped there; and Fergal and 
the nobles advanced to where Brian was, to meet him, and 
Brian gave them a hearty friendly welcome ; and Mur- 
chadh rose up to him, and seated him in his place. And 
Brian asked him the news, and he told him that Aedh, son 
of Uaigairg Ua Ciardha, king of Cairbri, refiised^ to aocom- 
pany him to that battle in defence of Brian. And there- 
fore Brian cursed TJa Ciardha, and the Cairbri, and gave 
a blessing to Fergal and to the men of Brefiii also. 

XC. Some,^ indeed, have said that the pay of theAnother 
pirates was spent the night before that battle,* and**^"*^ 
that they had gone homewards as far as Benn Edair, 
when they saw^ the conflagration and devastation of the 
country ; for they had offered Brian the night before,^ that 
if he would delay the buming imtil the morrow's sunrise, 
they would raise^ their sail-masts, and never retum again^ ; 
for they dreaded the valour of Murchadh, and of the DU 
Cais in general 



conncacaji na poTvtoi|H*e i pine- 
gatt, octi|* QTi clji ga htn-DfveT), B. : 
** When they saw the conflagration in 
Fingall, and the conntry derartated." 
^ Nigki btfore. In (rDong ţioiriie 
pn, B., "the night before that." 



' Thejf tpoidd raite. Octi|* oo coc- 
patcip B. 

8 Again. Ocii-p na hionipo6T)at|* 
■DO jii-oip, tiaiti |iob ecccni leo, yc, 
B. D. has |iib for fiob,, evidently aa 
error of the scribe. 



158 



coţoroti ţcce-otiel Re sallaibti. 



cnemy. 



AjMembiing XCI. CiT), qfiQ acTî, fio impoDaţi 1T) loTigeof , ocuf ccm- 
foreel cocaţi IU oen inoD, ocup jaill OCra Clia*, ocuf Lopn, co 
ţiabctcafi .un. cerca comofia comneţica. Cit>, "ona, ace ba 
tKiiL glecafi, jonac, glipreac, puteai, pofi-oeţis, ogmqi, 
ogajib, ifiţalac, in cofnTxnl fin T)âlcaif ocuf ţe|i îTltimon 
ocup Conacr, ocup peţi bfiepii, ocup gali, ocuf Logen. 
Description Oaca|i, iTno|i|io, T)UTi T)afina leiC in ccrBa fin jlaim 
**|^*'**"*" Slonmof, gtifinaf, glecac, galafi, gnimafi, safgbecyoa, 
•Duabfiţ, "Dian, "Deninierafi, T)afacca£, 'oiceilliT), *oocoifc, 
•oodomuint), becDa, bofb, baf baţira, bocroba, oft, o^Uim, 
annicqfiraCa, ttflam, ansbciT), ifgalaS, nemnec, niotxt, 
ncmi'oeniail "oanaiţi; "oana, T)UficfaiT)eca, anniaf.gaichi 
ccnbli, allmafoa gaiU, joţimslafa, genrli-oi ; can fagiU, 
can ccrouf, can crcinn, can comafci vo *Oia no tx) 'ouîii. 
baraf leo f en vo f efral cară ocuf comloin'o afa cinT), 
fcnsci fesi, ţeocfacha, fule«a, fOf-oeTisa, ţti^h\ih ppi*- 
baccana£a, ^efia, 50ifT:i, junefa, osmafia, a«i, acbeli, 
niarxt, nemnefa aţi na pobfe'o, ocuf ayi na fof uamnoD, a 
ptilib T)|iecon, if lofcenT), if T)obof noftfac, tiifpţ^ec, ifcoţip 
if oncon if naftţiac oitnemneac, necfcnnail af£ena, iw 
cai€iurn fein ocuf va nibimcaT) im naifignib ai^ ip 
iţigali, if ensnoma. baraţi leofen fcngirbtiilc baoba, 
bofibofoa, ocuf bogoroa bla€i blabtii-oi; ocuf Loipi 
lonna, le^anglafa, jefia, gairiba, vemmv, i lomaib leT> 
meca, "oana, vti\i tybefsafi leo. bacaf leo, rpa, lupe&t 
lain'oeţiTKi, lu^mafoa, qfieDoalaSa, qioma, qnenrf eb^unt) 
TX) laţiunt) air, cn^legfei, ocuf 'Dtima imnuaţi, nemepjiTw, 
|ie -Dinn coţip, ocuf cnef, octif cenimitillais, «oib aji 
aţimaib a€i, aigbeli, ocuf ctin ilpaebfaib, ilib, agmajia. 



Their 
weapona. 



^ One place. OCn aen toncro, B. 
*A ootffUcL Cit) cţui ace ba 

COlfl^DOt) B. 

> Womding, Om., B. In the next 
]fai« B. oaiJts ** and the mm of Breloi," 
and addfl alter *^ Laighin" ţie ceite, 
** together," or ** with each other." 

*OJAatbatlle. boccaţv "ona TKm 
txtţva leit rxm tat fm, B. We 
have here an extravagant specimen 



of the heaping together allitefathre 
epithets, in which the Iiuh bardic 
writentookddight TofindEagliab 
eqniyalents for sach absurd verbositf 
ianoTtryprofitableoreasytask: thve 
are here something Uke twentj-MrcB 
a^ectivee strang together before we 
come to the sabatanthre they aie fa- 
tended to deecribc. The corvMpondtDg 
passage in B. ia aa follows: 5lântit 



WARS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



159 



XCI. But DOW the âeet retumed, and came to one place' ; Assembiing 
both the foreigners of Ath-Cliath and the Laighin, and they i^^ 
formed seven great strong battalions. And then ensued 
a conflict,^ wrestling, wounding,' noisy, bloody, crimaoned, 
terrible, fierce, qnarrelsome: that conflict of the Dai Cais 
and the men of Munster, and of Conacht, and of the men 
of Brefoi, and of the foreigners, and of the LaighitL 

Now on the one side of that battle^ were the shouting, DescriptUm 
hateful, powerful, wresiling, valiant, active, fierce-moving, If ^^^ ^"** 
dangerous, nimble, violent, furious, unscrupulous, untam- enemy. 
able, inexoiable, unsteady, cruel, barbarous, frightfiil, 
sharp, ready, huge, prepared, cunning, warlike, poisonous, 
murderous, hostile Danars ; bold, hard-hearted Danmark- 
ians, snrly, piratical foreigners, blue-green, pagan; with- 
out reverence, without veneration, without honour, without 
mercy, for Qod or for man. These had for the purposes of Their 
battle and combat, and for their defence,^ sharp, swifl, ^*»p<*'"' 
bloody, crimsoned, bounding, barbed, keen, bitter, wounding, 
terrible, pierdng, fatal, murderous, poisoned arrows, which 
had been anointed and browned in the blood of dragons 
and toads^ and water-snakes of hell, and of scorpions and 
otters, and wonderful venomous snakes of all kinds, to be 
cast and shot at active and warlike, and valiant chieftains. 
They had with them hideous, barbarous, quivers; and 
polished, yellow-shining bows; and strong, broad green, 
sharp, rough, dark spears, in the stout, bold, hard hands 
of freebooteis. They had also with them. poHshed, pliable, 
triple-plated, heavy, stout, oorslets of double refined iron, 
and of cool imcorroding brass, for the protection of their 
bodies, aud skin, and skulls, firom sharp terrible arms, and 
from all sorts of fearful weapons. They had also with 



pitatt gleooad, ^loitiac, gai|vcc- 

^ £aem, curti'oatea [clofortie], ţ^lerh- 
Da, |4/iopta,fliţ^6alai5eati,5lana, 
ţoTiTngtajM, tttipie^ tap[ia6, lain- 
t>efi'DG[, 'DOfct, 'oloTiţOf "ooijinsealo, 



leoroTurD octiţ» p|i1 hcojilead, ocoţ» 
pţil hotâuma cnej*, ocaţ» coţiţ», ocar 
cen-ofiitiUaig 'Dibtimb. AU that 
follows in the text ia omitted in B. 
to the end of dup. xdi. 

^Dtftnce, LtC, *«oyerth<ârhflftdB:" 
tia|xal is for ţfi0|<cat ; the p omitted 
as ueiial in D, 



160 



coscroti ţcce-otiel Re ţaLLcnbti. 



bccuayi, •ona, leo clai-omi calma, ctifiaca, qfiotna, xxrpc- 

bulleca, rail£i, T^ţiena, T^aiţibrefa. 

Description XCII. bacaţi, iTTiofiTio, T)OTi lei€ ele in ca€a fin, 

tEwaT'* * cutiaiT) cfiODa, comcalma ; gan^iit)» glan^epona, lu^maţia, 

leumeac, lancalma, nieţiT)a, mofipiimac, ullac, aloinT), 

aliata, byiurac, bfii^ac, bofifiptiT)ach, niam'oa, nua^eU 

nemejvcnec, agmaţi, engac, ilbuaTMic ; r|v6iT; ocuf raifis 

T^ţienl, ocuf qienmili'D laec gali, ocuf gaifciT), enig, ocuf 

engnuma e^eni) .1. In luaDi leqfiom ţio bţiip cac rpen, 

ocuf ţio |iain ca£ jior, ocuf fio lin^ cac "Docaifi, ocuf |U) 

lomaiyi ca6 T^ţien fiem) .1. Clanna Lu^Deac mic Oengupa 

'Cifiig, fiif a jicrceţi T)dlcaif boyiama, ocuf gejiacai glan- 

7;a|T;a goeDel aţi oen fim. 

Panegyric CiniUT) înramlai^ceac fin fie macaib ÎTlileaT) afi fiij- 

on the Dâi 'oacr, ocuf ttfi fiolopiT), aţi rfieoifi, ocuf aţi aifibefiir, ocaf 

TheFranka ^î^ lî^T^^P'O- PfUIinc na pocla ÎX)nT)aifl'Dl, aţi 5llCtlf , OCUf 

andiaraei- ap, glansaifXîeT) .1. ÎTleic aibT)a, alli, uafli, ilbuoTKifa, 
MMid. Invaeil nacOfienT) illocai^, afi codi, ocuf aţi cunlacc, 
Theiionsof «f^ pfiînni, OCUf afi infuicuf. Lcomain lonna, leTxxpiaca, 
the Gad. ^emieSa na n^oeDel, afi gail, ocuf afi gaifcer), ocuf aţi 
dw^f" SnimfiOD. Oncoin afei, acluma na banba buoixnci, aţi 
ireUnd. Txxlci ocuf afi ralcaifiefe. Sebuic fuafici faiţi-pen^a na 
Thehawka fi&oţiţKX alli, a7)uaiţi, ţiif naţi ^aba7> cofi no caqiai no 

of Europe. « •* ■■ 

cliacac no comlonT) ţiiam ţiemifin, no anT>fin pein. 

ba, T)na, leo vo ţiefxxxl ca€a ocuf comloim), oţxi cinD, 
f lega f uaţici, femneca, p^nafaca, p'ocaimi, pianconla piji 
Their amu «Hi pin-D^tiilL beţia booba biţiara, co f uaCnemaib fixxi, 
and ar- ţ>ainenfiail, congţian rxiiţin^nib, glana, gloţi'oa, glainiT)!, 
•oa nian 'oibţiucu'o pţii haiţiiţEi baig ocuf ifigaili. bacap 
leo, "ona, lenm lebţia, lainT)efia, cuana coema, cnefţela, 
cunga, coţii, comfioema. bauaţi leo, -ona, maiţi alli, ilUi- 
"oaCa, cneţxa, coema, cum-oaCra, cerţianTxinaca, doema, 



moar. 



1 Weiffht Lucroi. LU,, ** lead." 
*NaU$. The MS. D. haa here 
congnsfuxn ; bat the |;n are a mani- 
lest mJstake which the acribe probably 



forgot to erase. The coirect leading 
oongium haa been adopted in tbe 
text 



WABS OP THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 161 

them valorous, heroic, heavy, hard-striking, strong, power- 
ful, stout swords. 

XCII. But on the other side of that battie were Descnption 
brave, valiant champions; soldierly, active, nimble, bold, ^"*^' 
fîill of courage, quick, doing great deeds, pompous, beau- 
tiful, aggressive, hot^ stroDg, swelling, bright, fresh, never- 
weary, terrible, valiant, victorious beroes and ohieftains, 
and champions, and brave soldiers, the men of high deeds, 
and honour, and renown of Erinn; namely, the heavy 
weight^ that broke down eveiy stronghold, and oleft 
every way, and sprang over every obstacle, and flayed 
eveiy stout head, that is to say, the desoendants of 
Lugaidh, son of Oenghus Tirech, wbo are called the Dai 
Cais of Borumha^ and the stainless intelligent beroes of 
the Gaidhil along with them. 

These were a tribe worthy of being oompared with the PanegTric 
sons of Miledh, for kingliness ^.nd great renown, for energy, ^^® ^^ 
and dîgnity, and marţial prowess. They were the Franks xheFranka 
of ancient Fodhla, in intelligence and pure valour ; the f»d israci- 
oomely, beautifiil, noble, ever- victorious sons of Israel ireUncL 
of Erinn, for virtue, for generosity, for dignity, for truth, 
and for worth ; the strong, tearing, brave lions of the Thelioiuof 
Gaedhil, for valour and bold deeds ; the terrible, nimble, ***® ^^^' 
wolf-hounds of victorious Banba, for strength and for^ '^ 
fimmess ; the graoeful, symmetrical hawks of mild ireland. 
Europe, against whom neither battie, nor battle-field, nor ^^^^^ 
conflict, nor combat was ever before, nor then was, main« 
tained. 

And these had for the purposes of battie and combat, Tbeir anns 
above their heads, spears glittering, well riveted, em- 
poisoned, with well-shaped, heroic, beautiful handles of 
white hazle ; terrible sharp darts with variegated silken 
strings; thick set with bright, dazzling, shining niuls,'' 
to be violently^ cast at the heroes of valour and bravery. 
They had on them also, long, glossy , convenient, handsome, 



and ar- 
mour. 



• VioUnihf. Wiati î» for n-oian, 
aeeorduig to the ustud orthograpby ol 



tho MS. D.f omitting the letter eclipaed 
in pronunciation. 

M 



162 



cosoroti scce'Dhel ne ţalLccibti. 



comraţiafia vaji fcti|iT)ib ţniaţici, fi€leb|ia leo- Oacoji 
leo, T)na, Ţce^i Tnoţia, milex^a, euţiocra, alb, iltcrcaca, co 
cofnfiaix)ib cop,i cţie^utna, co -pLabţuroaib ţifi alli pm)- 
|iUTii, aţi flefaib foepclanî) foefibeţxic, f iicnjic, i^^ain-o, 
|X)conicnn'D, leo. bacafi leo, T)na, cctCbcnţip, ayuica, ţx>- 
ţioţiTMi, co ngemaib ^lofi-oa, glani-Dt, co legcnb Icnti'oeitDa, 
lopnaiia, im cenTxnb ţiupeac if ţiig miler). bocccţ^ leo 
ruaga qfioma, T^cn-oleca, rfiena, TX)lşx)a, raiT;neTnaca> s^pa» 
^luaifi, 5lainiT)i, leina, limra Loclantiaca, ilUimaib 
rţiiccfi, ocuf Tîaif eac, T^ţier^U ocuf qfienmileT), pfii floiTu, 
ocuf pp.1 T^uaţicain lufieac luxaţi 'Ofiulinec "oib. Ockxx|i, 
•ona, leo claiT)Tni cţiuoroi, comneţvca, coUrocc, coema, 
cuTH'oacca, -plemna, flipTxi, -pliy^la, ^efia, planet, BOfim- 
gUxfa, lumeca lafaţiia, lain'oeii'Da, •oen^*W|i5i T)eocb|W5 
emi, a€i, crcluma, inixmib "Defini, i)oţinT)5ela, ţ\ufieac ocuf 
jiigfnile'o leo, pţii leoo ocuf p|ii lerţiors pţii hcnţileac 
ocuf pţii horocoma cnep, ocuf cofiţ)» ocuf cen-omulac T)tb. 
XCIII. ÎTlaifi^ na |W) insoib^n muintiiţi fin T)Oiieoc 
nafi af jiiafiaisefcaiţi. THaifig po co'otiifc a pojxslaini 
7)011000 ica |iabi acTnoing a fiimţabala. TTlaiţis fu> 
nifai5 T)oneoc nac itifoilpcif ', oţi ba f nam in nogaiT:» 
Ţjvota ; ba hefaiigain 'oaţiac t)u •oofw'oaib ; ba pal ţie 
mbiiufruT) fobgţiTXx ; ba -gocc im ţanem, no im ^lan ; 
ba 'ooţw'o 1 ngae n^lfieni, T:ţiiall pţiefcail cofia no 
comlaiiro T)Oib ; thhs ni ba foail in ni ţ\tf ba fomalr^a 
gaţib^leo octif cfiuaT) fitin-ofcleo na Utefitiai-oi fin "do 
roDUfcuu 

Disposition XCIV. CiT>, Tîfia actî, |ia oţiT)ai5iT:, ocuf fio conţunpT; 

mjSfc^ na cafea ceccap.'oa fon cuma fein. "CucaD cjia TX)fa£ ic 



Danger of 
an enconn- 
ter with 



Pifyop,iifiH Sm aboV6, 
PI>. 50, 94, llfi. 

• Who did noi yield. B. read«, ga 
inl>ior6 acpoins a ningabata, " if it 
waa poMÎble t« eacape from it i" omit- 
ting **woe to thoae who arouaed their 
anger." 

^FummeOMg. B. reads, ocuf ba 
heofoţioccafi* 



«iSMKnţ^. TTliiTibţUKbc, B. 

^ Ii «MW. ^ And it waa," ocuf txi, 
B. 

^Tkejki, B.readi,ocaf baT>oifiii 
im gae. 

7 AitempL B. omits ţ^fiefxaiU 

» For, X>6ii ni faaiU, B. 

* Warrion, B. adda (aflar na 
lae6TUzr6e fin) 6iţi ba Uhh i nwo 



WARSOP THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 168 

i^hite, neat, well-adjusted, graceful ahirta. They had on 
them also, beautiful, many-coloured, well-fitting, hand- 
some^ well-shaped, well-adjusted, enfolding tunics, over 
comfortable long vests. They had with them also, great 
warlike, bright, beautifîil, variegated shields, with bosses 
of brass, and elegant chains of bronze,' at the sides of their 
noble, accomplished, sweet, courteous, eloquent clansmen. 
They had on them also, crested golden helmets, set with 
sparkling transparent brîlliant gems and precious stones, 
on the heads of chiefs and royal knights. They had with 
them also, shining, powerM, strong, gra^^ful, sha^, 
glaring, bright, broad, well-set Lochlann axes, in the hands 
of chie& and leaders, and heroes, and brave knights, for 
cutting and maiming the cloee weU-fastened coats of maiL 
They had with them, steel, strong, piercing, graceful, 
ornamental,, smooth, sharp-pointed, bright-sided, keen, 
clean, azure, glittering, flashing, briUiant, handsome, 
straight, well-tempered, qnick, sharp swords, in the beauti- 
ful white hands of chiefs and royal knights, for hewing 
and for hacking, for maiming and mutilating skins, and 
bodies, and skullsi 

XCIII. Woe unto all who shunned not this people, i>«»ger of 
who did not yield unto them.* Woe to those who aroused ter with 
their anger, if it was possible to escape from it. Woe to *^®"** 
those who attacked them, if they could have avoided 
attacking them; for it was swimming against a stream; 
it was pummelling' an oak with fists; it was a hedge 
against the swelling^ of a spring^tide ; it was^ a string upon 
sand or a sun-beam ; it was the fist® against a sun-beam, 
to attempt^ to give them battie or combat; for* it is not 
easy to conceive any horror equal to that of arousing the 
fierce battie and hard oonâict of these warriors.^ 

XCIV. So these battaUons were arranged and disposed**^ Dbpodtion 
în the following manner.^* The foreigners and the^y'aforo». 

5tvibi, ocirp ba colt pataâ leoifiotn ^ Disposed. B. omits ocii|« jvo 

«DO neoi u^p-o, octif* peţU)cloifiTie na coniungic 

tao6tua'6e pn vo isvoviŢcav» ^ Manner. ţ?on fccrficot pn, B. 

H2 



164 



co^oroti sae'Dtiel ne ţaLLcnbti. 



Leaden of 
the Danes 
of Dublin. 



Disposition 
of ţhe Iriab 
who were 
on the 
Daniah 
aide. 

Theîr 
leaden* 



gallaib ocuf ic tai^nib "Dona T)aT)aifwb T)ibe|xcaib all- 
Tnaţi-oaib fin, -oo bţiorap, layila Caip,i eb[ioc, cuifeaC 
T)anafi, im Conmael, mac a mcrcati, ocuf im Siticai-o mac 
Loraifi, layila infi Oyic, ocuf im piair, qieii milix) ^all 
uli, ocuf CCrM[iat mac 6lb|iic mac ţ\i tofilanT), ocuf 
Cayilluf, ocuf 'Cofibeiro t)ub, ocur 8uniTi, ocu-p Suamn, 
ocuf maci gali layit^aiyi 6ofipa o Lx)claiTi'D fiaţi, aţ\ oen 
fiiu fiTi. T)a fionaD, imopiio, cipi oen ca€a cţiuim) 
comoţi vo ^allaib CCia Cliac uli, ocuf rucaD ina ne^ai-o 
f en 6 .1. 1 n'Diai) na nanmaţigac. Uo baraţi fiompofi'oe, 
T)ub5all mac OCmlaib, ocuf ^illaciaţian mac 5^uin- 
laţiainx) mic CCmlaib, octif *OoncaT) ua hGjiuitb, ocuf 
OCmlaib tagmainT) mac ^o^î^cci'^i -i- ce€|ii fii^Domna 
toIL baraţi ţiompo, T)na, Omţi vuh, ocuf ^ţiifin ocuţ^ 
ttimmin ocuţ^ ^naDgaiţi .i. cerţii iţiţiig gali, ocuţ* cerţii 
ix)ifi5 lon^, ocup machi gali Oţien-o aţioen ţiiu fen. 
T)o ţionai) 'oan oen ca€ t)0 Lagin, ocup "ouib CenDţ^laij, 
ocup ruca^ ţie palaib pin 6. bacaţi ţiompopen T)na, 
Tfloelmoţi'oa, mac ÎTluţiCaDa, ţiig Lagen, ocup boeran, 
mac T)unlain5, ţii laţiraiţi tagen, ocup "Ounlang, mac 
'Cuacail, ţii Lijii, ocup bţiogoţiban, mac Concobuiri, ţii u 
palp, ocup T)omnall, mac peţigaile, ţii poţiruar^h Logen, 
ocup mar^hi tagen aţiCena. 



1 Placed in. T>iicin) -OTia, B. The 
pDieaiiing ia, that the foreigneţa who 
had establidied themaelvea in Ireland, 
and who were in allîance with the 
Leinstennen, put their Danish and 
Norwegian avxiliaries in the front of 
the battle. 

* Murderou». B. omits 'Dibeţiconb. 

* Under Brodar, B. readf, .1. bfio- 
'DOtp. lojilacoipech 'oanaţi; omitting 
•* of Cacr Ebroc" 

^Smoaid. A mistake in the MS. 
D. for Siucraid. See above, p. 153, 
note ^^. B. reads Sitriuc 

^Elbrie, *'Anrad, son of Mbric,** 
B. 

^Suanm, Im Cofitop ocup ifn 



TyOţibeti'D •onli, ocop itti dairftni, 
ocup im Sucnnni, B. : " With Cariua 
and with Torbend the black, and with 
Suimhni and with SuainnL" 

7 Akmg wUh tkem, B. reada, mente 
gali &|venn ttile aţi aon ţiiu peiTi, 
** the nobles of the foreigneiB of all 
Erinn along with them." 

^Sironff, Cf.uifi'D oengcnlce oom- 
m6m B. 

^ After. Ina "Dicniţ pin hd, .1. 
cm'Diaig na n'Danrhatioc, B. 

10 Head. bocaţi |iompa pin, .1 
B.) where the names of the chieftaint 
are giyen thua : ** DubhgaO, aon of 
Amlaf, and Donchad, gnndwn of 
Erulf , and Amlaf, aon of Lagmam 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE OAILL. 



165 



Laighen placed^ în the front the murderous* foreign 
Danars, under Brodar,* earl of Caer Ebroc, chiefbain of the 
Danars; with Conmael, his motlier*8 son, and with Siu- 
caid,* son of Lotar, earl of the Orc Islanda, and with Plait, 
the bravest knight of all the foreigners, and with Anrath, 
son of Elbric,'^ son of the king of Lochlann, and Carlus, and 
Torbenn the black, and Sunin, and Suanin,^ and the 
nobles of the foreigners of western Europe, from Lochland 
westwards, along with themJ A line of one very great 
strong® battalion was formed of all the foreigners of Ath 
Cliath, and it was placed after^ the above, that is afber 
the Danmarkians. At their head*^ were Dubhgall, sonLeadenof 
of Amlaf, and Gilla Ciarain son of Glun-iaraind, son of ^f d^^ 
Amlaf, and Donchad, grandson of Erulf, and Amlaf Lag- 
mund, son of Goâraidh, the four crown princes of the 
foreigners. At their head also, were Ottir^^ the black, 
and Grisin, and Lummin, and Snadgair, four petty 
kings of the foreigners, and four chiefbains of ships, and 
the nobles of the foreigners of Erinn along with them. 
A battalion^ ^ was also formed of the Laighin and of Dispoation 
the Ui Cennselaigh, and it was placed behind*^ the abova ^^^^^^^ 
And at the head of them were Maelmordha, son of Mur- on the 
chadh,^^ king of Laighin, and Boetan, son of Dunlang, ^d^ 
king of western Laighin,^* and Dunlang, son of Tuathal, xheir 
king of liphi, and Brogorban, son of Conchobhar, king of ^•*<*""' 
Ui Failghi, and Domhnall, son of Fergal, king of the 
Forthuagha of Laighin, and the nobles of Laighin like- 



wise. 



16 



•on of Gofraidh, four crown princes of 
the foraigneiB." Bat three only are 
mentioned. 

^1 Ottir» B. giyes these namee thns : 
'' Oitir the black, and Grifin, and Su- 
ainin, and Lnimnin, and Sigraidh," 
omitting the deecription which f ollows, 
and addmg only after the last name, 
ocnţ^aji'D 5aiU/fiah6|venn ayicena 
aţiaon jiiti |*in, "and the chief fo- 
reigners of Erinn also along with 
them." 



^A battaUon. Cat intfti, B., "a 
great battalion.*' 

^Behwd, Ut, "at the heels of." 
CCtv a i^dlcnb -pn 6, B. 

^^Mwrehadh. B. adda mac Ptivo. 
"Mnrchadh, son of Finn." 

^ Laighm. B. reads, |w iocTi;6cnTV 
Lipe, ocuf bţiogafibân, yc., ondtting 
the second Dunlang. 

^* LikeiBU^. B. reads, uite Ofiaon 
f\1ii|nii, " the nobles of all Laighin 
along with them." 



166 



coţaroti scce-otiel ue scclLcnbli. 



Disposition 
of Brian's 
ariny. 



TheD&l 
Cais. 
Their 
leaders. 



Theotiier 

troopsof 

Munster. 

Their 
leaden. 



XCV. 'CuccQT) iTnofi|io, ix)fac cerca bfiicnn, ocuf ina€i 
©ţienT) ajicena "OU •oamfiai'o T)Gin, T)iulaiTis ţiemţian, 
T)UTi 5aTnanT)|iaiT) ^lain, gafca, ^etxi, ^alai^ gniniaig, 
5afi5beoT)a .1. t)0 T)dlcaif cufioca coTifiumai^ ocu'p do 
claîincnb tuig^eac ajiceTia. Oai yiompu fi^e in Tle&oiîi 
in?:aTnlai5T:e£ ilbucroafi na hCC-oam clainni ilcenealoici 
allorai .1. niiifica'D mac bfiiain, eo Rofv^» ţiiSDîiai'oi 
efienx) ; cerw gaili, ocuf gaf cix), ocuf snimfiowi, eni^ 
ocuf engnuma, ocuf aob^acra peaţi t^alman, fie ţ\e, ocuţ^ 
fie fiemif ; "oai^ ni afimiTî fen£aiT)i goe^el comberh 
T)on aDamclainT) fie fie pein oen Duni no congboDfciai 
comfiefcail imbualx^a do. barayi, Dna, afi oen fiif fin, 
.1. 'CaifiDelbac a mac, in fii^Domna a aifi [if] pefifi bai 
in nOfiinD, ocuf Conaing mac T)onctian, in rpef Duni if 
cocu fii bfiian bai 1 nGfiinD, ocup Niall Ua CuinD, ocuf 
©ochu mac *0unaDai5, ocuv CuDullig mac CenDom^, 
T:fii comeriiDi bfiiain, ocup *Oomnall mac T)iafimaT:a, fii 
CoficubaifcmD, ocup popula lair gaili, ocup gaf^iD 
T)dlcaip ap oen piu pin. T)a ponaD qaa oen car 
comnapx; comop do glepi pluag ÎTluman uli, ocuptniccaD 
fie f*alaib pen e. Oacap pompopiDe ÎTloila, mac 
T)omnaill, mic paelan, pi^ na T)epi, ocup TTÎangnup, 
mac CCnmcooa, pi utiaCan, ocup rfieiT; ocup qfienl na 
ÎTluman uli ap oen piu pen. 



1 The front 'Cucccro cofMC certa 
0|viain imoftţibi B. 

^To the. "Don •Dcnhţvai'o, •oein, 
•olpiiins, 6ctip "Don gatfiomţvcn'o 
gloin 5l6pca gapco, ^alac, pilo- 
ihat, S(nţvccbe<y6a, .1. -do 1)01 Ccnp, 
ocup TX) Ctan'DaibLTig'Dad oţicena» 
B. 

• fferoes, %an\<m'o\iiX}'0 ; " the 
Chmandraidhj'" were an antient warlike 
people of the Firbolg race In Erris, in 
Connanght; but th«r name ia here 
lued in the general senae of heroee, or 
warrioTB. 

^Adam. B. reads, baoi iionipa 
pm, &ccaif\ mcf^ctftitoijce na 
iCivetin, .1. îTltifichcrâ : "Therewaa 



leading them the matchleiB Heetor of 
Krinn, yiz., Mnrchadh/* &c. 

' Tew ofRoBB, One of the famons 
old trees of Ireland. See (TFlaherf^* 
Ogyg-, Part îiL, c 60, p. 813. 

•jBhiiwy. B. reads, Cen'Dgaile 
ocuf» gaipci^ eifiij ocuf» enpiarha, 
octif» aoty6a6ca an catmcm ma ti#, 
ocuf^inaţieiniep. "Ooigni eniimiix 
f«anchai^ co Tiait)e |ie ft^, ocwf* tie 
yientief» pein, ne6 no con^bo^ fxnoc 
co p|iof*cat imbnalca "oo : " The 
head of the Tilour of hnrtxj ; mimi- 
ficence and liberalitj and beauty of 
the worid in hia time and in his career ; 
for historiana do not reiate that there 
waa any one in his time and in fais 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



1«7 



XCV. Tbe front* of Brian's battalion and of the nobles 
of Ebrinn with him, was given to the^ aforesaid impetnous, 
îrresîstible, troope, to the fine, intelligent, vaKant, brave, 
active, lively heroes,' viz., to the heroic, victorious Dai 
Cais, and to the Clauan Luighdeach Ukewise. At the head 
of these was the matohiess, ever victorious, Hector, of the 
many-nationed heroic ohildren of Adam,^ namely, Mur- 
cbadh, son of Brian, the yew of Ross,^ of the prinoes of 
Erinn ; the head of the valour and bravery,^ and chivahy, 
munificence and liberality, and beauty, of the men of the 
worid in his time, and in his career ; for the historians 
of the Gaedhil do not reiate, that there was any man of 
the sens of Adam in his time who conld hold a shield in 
mutual interohange of blows with him. Along with him 
were also, Tordhdibach, his spn,^ the best crown prince of 
his time in Erinn, and Conaing, son of Doncuan, one of the 
three men® most valued by Brian, that were then in 
Erinn; and NiaU Ua Cuinn, and Eochaidh, son of Duna- 
dach, and Cudulligh, son of Cennetigh, the three t^ar 
guards^ of Brian ; and Domhnail, son of Diarmaid, king 
of Corcabhaiscinn, and the greater part of the men of 
bmv^ry and valour of the Bal Cais along with them.*^ 
One very skong and great* ^ battalion was idso fcHined of 
the ehosen hosts of all^^ Mumhain, and was stationed in 
the Pear* * of the former. At the head* ^ of these was Mothla, 
son of Domhnail, son of Faelan, king of the Deşii, *^ and 
MiAgnus, son of Anmchadh, king of Ui Liathain, *^ sikI the 
brave and heroic of all Mumhain along with them. 

8 Men. B. reads, wn Cîiey» peyi ay» 
zotu la btitan ţvo b€c! in ©ixinti. 

• Rear Guard», Cutcomeoroaige, B. 

10 Wi(k Ihetn, B. omită ţ\x\ ; and 
reads nrxfi for cţio, next aentence. 

^^StrongcmdgreoL CoThmdTi coîh- 
naţiCt B. 

^^AH B. omits uli. 

^lUar, Re a |HîiaiB fin 6, B. 

" At tU head. Rompopn .1., B. 

^'^DeaU. UI na «"Odifi, B. 

M Ui Liaihain. TTla]gnuf mac 
GCnmco^ Til «a ttatain ocu-p 



DiapoaitioB 
of Brian'i 
aimy. 

TheDăl 
CaU. 

Theîr 
leaden. 



The other 

troopsof 

Munster. 

Their 
leaden. 



career that conld hold a shield in mu- 
tual interchange of blows with him." 

''His jon. B. reada, a|v aon |iif 
.1. Txn|i|v6eatBa6 an mac a aoift, 
octif an ţiToartina yiop peap,Ti |io 
boi in ©Tfiinn : "Along with him was 
Toirdhealbach [or Tnrlogh] the son of 
his age" [i.e., there was no other son of 
his time to be compared to him,] " and 
the hest crown prince** [Le., heîr ap- 
parent to the crown,] "that was in 
Erinn.** He was at this time but fif- 
teen yeare of age. — Aim, CUmm, 



168 



coscroti sae'Dtiel Re sccUcnbti. 



and their 
leadera. 



Biiaii*8 
Danidi 



Thebatta- XCVI. T)o îiaccrD, «oTia, cerc CoTiacT; im nflaelfiuanaiT) 
^^f Con- y^ ^Qro^t), ocuf im 'C<n>5 Ua Cellai5, fii Ua nflam, ocuf 
TTloelfitianaiT) mac ÎTlufigiUfa, ţ\i Tfltimniii îTlaeltxua- 
UIT), ocup im T)omnall Ua ConcemnT), ţii Ua nT)iafimaT)a, 
ocuf im Ual^aţi^ mac Ce|ini, octif im mofeb. Conacx; uti 
iiia "DegaiT) fem. 
T)a coifigeaD T>eic mofimaip. bfiiain cona nţaU 
aiucuuriea. focp^^^ib a|i 1T1 "Daiui cimaif T)Oii ca£. T)a copjeaD 
Pefi^al Ua Ruaiţic, ocuf ti bţiiuin, ocuf Conmacni umi, 
aţi in cimaif ele T)on coc ceima. 
Thebatta- Ro bai, -Dna, ÎTlaelfeclaifiT), mac T)omiiaill, pi 
Madsech- 'Ccmţiac, ocuf cau peţi TiliT)i umi, ocuf ni po paimfiT» 
lain and comcoţiocux) \ie cac Gciţi, uaifx ba hi comaţili gali in 
JdltS^^^ ai'oaifi fiemi t)6, cIod [tk) cufi] eropţio ocuf 501 11, ocuf 
mim in]^i^p fiun ^aill, ni infaispicif ^aill locpum, 
ocup if amlaiT) fin "oa ţionfar, uaiyi ţvo bi in -oţiocomajilli 
ew)f|UK 
ThepoBt XCVII. CCrbepaix;, imojifo, aţiaili fencaiT)i TTluman, 
JJ^^^coni-D T:ţie coc T)efmuman bai ÎTlufcaD, mac bf-iain, 
Bonof ocUf a ie^lac .1. fecT; p£ic mac 1115 bai ina commai- 
ceacc, uaiţi ni ţi abi f 15 oen ruafe in ©ţiim) con a mac 
no can a b|urfaif 1 T^eslad TTÎuffai'D, uaif jiibe nţepua 
amfac OţienT), ocuf a macan 6, T)af heif CCe-oa Ui MeilL 
OCx;be|i<iiT; conix) aiţiT) in oifo baraţi in T)a caC .1. caC 
T)efmuman, ocuf cac 'Cuaromuman, ocuf if foUuf ofţx) 
coniT) p|i fein, uaiji in ran bacaţi t coţiucuT) na coc, 
va cuaiT) TTluţi^aT) et) uţicaiţi ţie ca6 'oinfongciT) galL 



Brian. 



C|ve6in octif ctiemlUfritimcm uile, 
B. 

1 UaH^-Etdhin, O neroin, B., Le., 
O'Heyne. 

*Kifig, im fii, B. 

* Maebfianaidk, B. reads, octif 
im TTlaotţvacmcn'DmacTTltiiTi^ofa, 

ocuf im UalgOTiS ^^'^ Ceifiln, 
ocuf im montib Conna6c mie tia 
nDegoi'D fein. 



«Beftoeen Ihem. The two part- 
grapha beginning tmi coiţiţecns ^oe 
7f and ending ecofiţvo, line 17, of thli 
page, are omitted in B. The words 
TM) 6ti|i, line 14, are inserted u neccs- 
aary to theeense. 

> HUtoriant. B. reads, CDcbeivoc 
imoiijio afiaite jond^ |ie ccat 
"Defmnttian tio bai Tfluţ^iOT: 
"Othera, howeyer, aay tfaat it wu 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



169 



XCVI. The battalion of Conacht also, was led byThehatu- 
Maelruanaidh Ua-n-Eidhin,» and by Tadhg Ua CeUaigh, ^l^^"""" 
king' of Ui Mani, and by Maelruanaidh,' son of Murghius, and their 
king of Muintir Maelruanaidh ; and by Domhnall, grand- 
son of Cuceninn, king of Ui nDiarmada; and with 
UaJgarg, son of Cerin, and with the nobles of all Conacht 
along with him. 

The ten great stewards of Brian were drawn up, with Brian's 
their foreign aimliaries, on one aide of the army. Fergal JJjJ^^^ 
Ua Buairc, and the Ui Briuin, and the Conmaicne, were 
ordered to the left wing of the army. 

Maelsechlainn also, son of Domhnall, king of Temhair, Ţb* ^«tt*- 
and the battalion of the men of Midhe, with him, were Mi^^ech- 
next ; but he consented not to be placed along with the ^"^ *^^ 
rest ; because the counsel of the foreigners on the preceding Meath. 
night was that he should put a ditch between him and the 
foreigners ; and that if he would not attack the foreigners, 
the foreigners would not attack him ; and so it was done, 
for the evil underatanding w«« between them.* 

XCVII. Some of the historians^ of Mumhain, however, The poet 
say that Murchadh, son of Brian, was placed, mixed with Mu^ad^ 
the battalion of Desmumhain, along with his company, aon of 
namely, seven score sons of kings that were in attendance 
upon him ; for there was not a king of any one tribe in 
Erinn, who had not his son or his brother® in Murchadh's 
household ; for he^ was the lord of the volunteers of Erinn, 
and of her sons, next to Aedh Ua Neill. They say that the 
two battalions were side by side, namely, the battalion of 
Desmumhain, and the battalion of Tuadhmumhain, and it 
is clear that this is true® ; for when they were arranging* 
the battalion, Murchadh went forward beyond the rest a 



befbre the hatUlion of Desmuinhaiii 
[Desmond, or Sonth Munster] that 
Murchadh waa placed." 

^Brother, t4o a b|Mrtaiţi, B. 

Torhe, Hibe, for |iob â, I). Ucnti 



ţvob 6 TniiţichoTD ciţefina am^£ 
O^iefiT), ofi 6^Ţ GCoT>a i t46ill, B. 

8 True. CCnn|X) gUTi pip. -pn, B. 

Arrangmg. OC5 ooţitiococ^ fia 
ccor, B. 



170 



coţccDti scce'DheL ne salLcnbti. 



Altercation 

between 

Murehadh 

and Demh- 

nall,8onof 

Kmln. 



Dnnlang 
0*Harta- 
gan pro- 
phecies his 
own and 
Murchadh's 
death. 



Ro cuip. imoţiţio bfiian "OomnalL mac emin, tki ţuro 
ţie ÎTluţiccro fcibiUT) aţia culu co mbeic cnfvo in cnji'D 
octif *Odlcaip. "Oa Iuit) *Ootntiall tnac 6fniTi, ocuf yio 
liaiT) pfii THup-ccro -peni. CCfbeţit; ÎTluficcro ba •oimc 
mexxi a comoţili, tioiţi lya mbeiz; a hoenuţi a\i laji peDa 
Jabli, m bepoT) oen qfuxig afi culu ţie pepaib eţietit), cia 
-DeaiicrD nec pfiif receoD i poDnaifi galL ocuf soet)eL 
Ifex), Dna, ţxyoefia mafei T)effnuTTian uli tk) tnofibuT) 
aiTO, qfviaLl lenmnana TTÎUfifiai'o "ooib ic mincelUn) na 
gali, ocuf na nOCn^ap-gac. CCf beţie "Oomnall mac 
6min pfii ÎTluficaD, if olc vo gne, a ţiig miliT), cit> mofi 
T)o meifnec. CCfbeţic THuţico^ bai ODlug tk), uoiţi 
iţx)cait)i "00 T)fio6 oclai6aib no lecpeo^ a cuir ca£a [t)o] 
paiţi co T)e|ieaD lae. CCf beţir mac emm ni he pein no 
lecpeoD ; ocup ba piţi vo pom j^i\ uaiţi va comaiLL 

XCVIII. Ho cofiai^c na caua aiţit) in aiţiT) laţipin. 
1p anv pin tmi T)ecapcai|i ÎTluţicaD peca ocup ir conncnc 
va leii 'oeip cuigi ina comaţicipc in coen oclae moţi 
menmac, milera, meaţi-oala^, painemail, paţiuacutt), 
piiamail, -oaca, •oiţiiuc, 'oegDenmaC, .1. T)unlan5 O hCCţi- 
rugan, ocup aicnigip e, ocup ruc rpi cmpcemi in 051*0, 
ocup twiţibiţiip poic T)o, ocup peţiaip pailn pfiip, ocup 
CC 51II1, ap. pe, ip patxt co ranacaip cugainT), ccfi pe, 
ocup ip moţi in gţtoro mna, ocup demna "ouir mo 



^HantFscatL t^uivctiiii ţve ccac 
'oionnpoi JiT) sall, B. 

9 Tknt, B. omits imoţlţio. 

^ToieU "OaţurDatvenivTichQrD 
pdx» poţ\ ctila, B. 

^ His counteL Donihnall, it seema, 
dld not t«ll Blurchadh that the ooonsel 
came from his father. B. reads, "Do 
twb "DoTtinatl ocup i[u> iidi'o te 
niii|ich<r6 c16t). Tio tioi-o HltiTi- 
choTD 1V0 ba 'Ditiii:, meca a £0- 
itienjit©, 7c 

< He «NU. B. nads, ocup iu> tiâi'D 

■Da. 

• f^âh GaUhk, " The wood of 
Gaibhle" (now Fiffile), King^t oonnty, 



near Portarlington. See aboTe, cfaap. 
Ixxix.; from which it appean that the 
trees from thie wood were in part the 
caon of the bnach betwean Briaa 
and Maelmordha, king of Leuuter; 
and it ia probable that the wood Fidh 
Gaibhle was one of the dispvted bofder 
frontiere. This seema the real ezpla- 
nation of the above reiy obeciire pas- 
sage. B. reada, aţi l<iTit;e^sai^> 
ni tiiibivcro aun cţvoiţ oţi ocdla fve 
ppeţicnb Ctienn, ocup ip ta^ ţw 
c©i6pe^. 

7 JUatoH, B. omits «ona. 

^AIL B. omite titi. 

^Follow. lecmoifina, B. 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



171 



hand's cast' to attack the foreignera Then^ Brian seni Altercation 
Domhnall, son of Emin, to teii* Murchadh to fall back until nSS^h 
he should be on a line witb the Dalcais. Domhnall, son and Domh- 
of Emin, went and told this to Murchadh. Murchadh ^^„^ 
answered that his counsel^ was timid and cowardly ; for 
if he was^ alone in the midst of Fidh Gaibhle/ he would 
not retreat one step badiLwards before the men of Erinn, 
why then should any one ask him to retreat, in presenoe 
of the Qaill and GaedhiL And the reason^ why the 
nobles of all^ Desmumhan were killed there, was because 
they endeavoured to follow^ Murchadh to surround the 
foreigners'^ and Danmarkians. Domhnall, son of Emin, ' ' 
said to Murchadh, ''thy countenanoe is bad, O royal 
champion, although thy courage is great." Murchadh 
answered that he had*^ cause for that, because many a 
&lse hero'* would leave his share of the battle to him at 
the end of the day.'^ The son of Emin'^ said that he 
would not leave his share. And he said truly; for he 
fulfilled his promise.'^ 

XCVIII. The battalions'^ were placed side by side Dnniang 
after that. Then Murchadh looked to one side and be- ^'^*rt^- 

gan pro- 

held approaching him, on his right side, alone, the hero- phecies hu 
ical, courageous, championlike, active, beautiful, strong, S^hadh'i 
bounding, gracefîil, erect, impetuous, young hero, Dun- dcath. 
lang O'Hartugan ; and he recognised him and made 
three springs to meet him, and he kissed him, and wel- 
comed him; and "O youth," said he, "it is long until 
thou camest unto us; and great must be the Iove and 
attachment of some woman to thee, which has induced 



1® FortUgmerg. Ha ngolt octi|* na 
ii*OanmaYicc, B. A dUtînction is 
hcre drawn between the G<dll and th« 
Dane*. 

iJ 8<m of Emm. OCcbetic "Oofti- 
nall t\e TTlii|ictia6, B. 

M J70 AâdL Tio bai, B. 

^ False hero. 'Oţioch laoctioib fio 
tâiqpea'D, B. The vo seeioB super- 
flnon* hi D., and ia therefore giyen 
trithin brackcti. 



" /My. ţ?ai|i |ie noi'66e, B., " be- 
fore that night'* 

i» Son of Emin. •Oorhnatl, B. 

^^ Hie promise, T)© "OoThîraU pn, 
ocnţ^ ţio corfiaitl, B. This narratiTe 
seems to show that there was dissen- 
sion or jealousy amongst the leaden of 
Brian*s army. 

>7 7^ haUaHons. The whole of thia 
chapter ia omitted in B. 



172 coscroti ţae'oliel ne 'sccUxobh. 

q^.egti'Dfa, ocuf rjie^UT) bjiiain, ocuf Conaing, ocuf 
^DoncaiT), ocuf mori 'Ddlcaif aficena, ocuf ccibni 
Orien-D cof amu. 'Cfiuag fin, am, a ţii, aţi ^Ounlang, if 
rno inT::aibniUf 7)0 qfieigiuf oţir, -oa pefccqfm e, .1. bera 
can baf, can «a&r, can ir^ai-o, con accufiuf, cern iţiqia, 
afi TYiaiCiUf 7)0 rnacuifcnb in ralman "Dam co bţurf, 
ocuf nem aţi mbfiaft amac, ocuf tnuna rucoinxjfea 
bfienfi fiiT^fU, ni T:icpainx) an'Ofo; ocuf pof a bei€ inTMm 
"oam baf "oajbail in la "oa gebTxif u baf. In baipubfa 
bof anniu, am ? aţi TTl uţiCoD. T)a ^eba, am, aţi *Otinlan^, 
ocuf 7)0 ^eba Oţiian, ocuf Conain^, ocuf tiţimoţi mccfei 
OţienT), ocuf 'Caiţi'oelbac vo mac Wî ţa\ii mai€ comfimc 
annofa ereţi, aţi ÎTluţifiaD, ocuf 'oa biaD accain-o fceLa 
ni'oaţiefaiT; oţir; aer em cena, aţi TTltiţicaT), if menic 
raţicaf "oamţHi 1 firaib, ocuf 1 firbţiu^aib, in bera ţ^n, 
ocuf na comaDa, ocuf niţi r^ţieigiuf oen ai-oci mo mţi, 
no mo T)tictif oţio. Cuie ereţi, aţi ^Ounlung, horo ţBfi 
ler;fu do "oinEbail 7>\v anniUT). Ir^air: an?) fiur, aţi 
TTluţicaT), fG piţi T)ec neoc if raiţ^ac lon^fi, ocuf if 
peţi comlainT) cer cac oen -Duni T)ib, aţi muiţi ocuf aţi 
uiţi, eenmoua bţioroţi, oeuf Coţinabblireoc, ocuf TTlaeL- 
moţi'oa, oeuf Lagin aţicena. Leic T)amfa, am, aţi T)un- 
Lan^, Coţinabbliueoc, oeuf va ţiia Lem ni if mo, 'oo 
gen -DO con^num Ier ţoŢ. If T)iulain5 in peiDm Ţ\n 
am, aţi ÎTluţicaD, a "Dunlan^, -oa peţxafu e. 
Orderof XCIX. Cix), uţia, acu, If an'Dfin ţu) comaţi'oaisir;, ocuf 
ţio CoţiaigiT; na cerca cecuaţi'oa lax) pon coţi fin, ocuf 
fon cuma, co ţiepe-o caţibar cereţiţii'oa on Cin-o coţiaele 
T)on ca€ ceCuaţi-oa, ocuf ţio ruţime^) bloD beim bailc. 



the batde. 



^DeUght, The word U now spelt 
aoifineaf. 

> The kUlt, Ifiton^ See ariah. 
Ogyg,, III., c. 22, p. 200. This pas- 
sage ifl a curions proof how long a be- 
lief in the Pagan deities of the IrUh 
lingered in the countiy, mingled with 
Chriatianity. Dunlang dedarea that 
he waa ofiFered long life, worldly pros- 
perity, and Aeaven A«req/ler, if he ahan- 
doned Murchadh ; but he pref erred cer- 



tain death in battle to a breach of hia 
engagement. Mnrchadh replica that 
he, also, had been ofiFered in latiy 
mounds and palaces all worldly advan- 
tages, but nerer would abandon hia 
country and hia inheritance. 

• ConuMUtMc Written Com-da~ 
hUteoa, p. 153, mpra; and aee alao 
chap. xciz., p. 188, in/r€L 

^ Drawn t^. B. omită ocof tu> 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



173 



thee to abandon me; and to abandon Brîan, and 
Conaing, and Donnchadh ; and the nobles of Dai Cais in 
like manner, and the delights of Erinn until this day." 
" Alas, O king/' said Dunlang, ''the delight^ that I have 
abandoned for thee is greater, if thou didst but know it, 
namely, life without death, witbout cold, witbout thirst, 
without hunger, witbout decay ; beyond any delight of the 
delights of the earth to me, until the judgment ; and heaven 
after the judgment; and if I bad not pledged my word to 
thee, I would not have oome bere ; and moreover it is fated 
for me to die on the day thou sbalt die." ''Sball I reoeive 
death this day, thenf said Murchadh. "Thou shalt 
receive it,indeed/' said Dunlang, ''and Brian, and Conaing, 
shall receive it, and almost all the nobles of !E^rinn, and 
Toirdhelbhaeh thy son." " This is not good encourage- 
ment to figbt," said Murchadh, "and if we ba^ such news 
we would not have told it to thee ; but, however," said 
Murchadh, "often was I offered, in hills' and in fairy 
mansions, this world and tbese gifts; but I never aban- 
doned for one night my couptry nor my inberitance for 
them." " What man,'' said Dunlang, " wouldst thou choose 
to be kept off thee this day." " There are yonder," said Mur- 
chadh, "sixteen men who are captains of fleets, and every 
one of them is a inan to combat a hundred, on sea and on 
land ; besides Brotor, and Comabbliteoc,^ and Maelmordha, 
and the Laighin also." " Leave to me, then," said Dun- ^ 
lang, " Comabbliteoc ; and if I can do more, thou shalt have 
my further aid." " That is a severe service, indeed," said 
Murchadh, "O Dunlang, if thou didst but know ii" 

XCIX. The battalions were now arranged and drawn up^ Order of 
on both sides, in such order and in such manner, that a four- *^* ^^^^ 
horsed chariot could run from one end to the other of the 
line, on both sides^ ; and the battalions then made a stout. 



• Both tide$. ţ?on cc6^xl |*in, octi|* 
jXMi ccatna, co tveitpe^ caţipcn; 
ceitiţi Ţiicroa on cxw'o co aţiaile 
non cat cetca\v6a 6f a ccenT), aţi 
a ccotwoiâŢt ocwf* ţio ţtiiYiTne(r6 
bloDb6ifn, 7C, B. ^* In this order and 



in this numner; so that afoar-horse 
chariot oonid nin from one end to the 
other of the lines on either aide, on 
their heads" [Le. on the heads of the 
soldiers standing in line], "aocompaei 
were they." 



174 



cosaroti ţcce'oliel ne saUccibti. 



Birdsand 
demons 
expecting 
thdrprey. 



The combat 
of Domh- 
nBllfSon of 
Eimin, 
withPlait 



bot>ba, bayibayi'oa, T)on coi i cenT) ayiaele. UC, vr\a, 
ba ho^ci namcre; im ţioe fen, ocuf ni ba haţfii cajiar 
im cui|im. Ocuf jio cumtiig ceccaţi'oe -oib a 'oisugiia 
î)aîiaile. Ocuf fio in f ai 5 ca6 aţiaile T)ib. Octif ba ni 
'00 ingnaDaib bfiora ruafia|H;bail in qfiomglefa fin t>o 
înnifin. Tio eţii^ em, bat^b Difciţi, T)ian, 'oenmneTXic, 
•oafaScac, 'oufi, T)uabfec, T)ercen5rac, cfiuaiT), epoDa, 
cofairech, co bai ic fCfiecaiT) (qi Itiamain of a cennaib. 
Ro eipseraţi am bananaig, ocuf boccanaig, octif ^elim 
Slinni, ocuf amari aD^aill, octif fiabfia, octif feneoin, 
ocuf 'Demna ax)m4lT;i aeoiţi, ocuf pifimaminn, ocuf 
fiabapfliia^ T)ebil 'oemnafi, co mbcrcaţi a comţţiefadc, 
ocuf 1 commofiax) aij ocuf ifi^aili leo. 

C. Ho comjiaiceT:a|i afiT)ur anx) fin, *Oomnall mac 
Gmin, mofimaeţi OClban, o Opian, ocuf piane mac pi 
LoClanT), T:pen miliT) "soilt ; ap na jidT) «do piair in croaic 
jxemi, ni ţiabi 1 nOpinT) pep baD incomlaim> tk), tx) 
gab, imoppo, T)omnall mac 6min vo txiim e, pacecoip, 
ocup ba cuimnec cecTxip 7)6, ap maiT:in. Ip appin rxinic 
piair a ca€ na lupeaS amac, octip apbepr ţo €pi, 
Papap *Oomnall? .1. caic ira *Oomnall? Ro p.ecaip 
*Oomnall, ocup apbepr:, 8unT), a pni-oing, ap pe. Ro 
compaicperap lappun, ocup po gab ca£ ic aiţille^ 
apaile T)ib, ocup iqfiocaip ceccap ţiepaile, ocup ip 



^ £ach other. *0a ceite, B. 

* At afeast Ud, "otia, ba ticn^ 
fiâfftac imţute, octip ni ti tx) tioigte 
cafiac im com'DaiU Ro cuitfinig 
cac "Dlb cedcaţi'oe a 'oaig, ocup a 
acoip «oa -poile, octip ba banna 
•olo^naib bţvâta, 70., B. 

* To rtkoe, He a inwpin, B. 

< T^ere arote. Ho eiţM^ -ona bo^b 
t>ian •DipciTi, B. 

' Screammff. Co mbai tKC tigive- 
pafcc, B. 

•Aho, 'OnOfB. 

TfMemiaei. ţeitce giînne» ocup 
oiTiTnai'De) B. 

* Dutroying. B. omits omnilci* 



' FirmaiiMnL Piimînnce, B. 

1^ Botk partiet. B. reada» ocup pia- 
ba|i ptua§ 'DenTniieT>e6 00 fiaba- 
uap. ooca tiţp^poâr, ocup aga 
ocoTnmai'DeTli in ca^'b dig ocup 
111501 te. 

" Firtt Tio 6oThtunoeraiti ann- 
pn cqfi ciîp, .1. DofhnatU TCn B. 

^^OnBriim^stide. B. omită obţuan. 

" NighL Inoi'Dce ţieiihenoâ fuxibe 
in CTfiinn, B. 

1^ ImmoâUUtfy, B. omits imofifvo 
and ţa 6ecof|u 

^ In ihe mormmg. OCfi a ^ealUro 
aţi ma^Mxtn. CCţv pin ccnnic ptaic, 
7c., B. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



175 



furioiis» barbarous, smashing onset on each other.^ But» 
alas ! tbese were the faces of foes in battle-field, and noi the 
facesoffnendsatafeast.^ Andeachpartyof themremem- 
bered their anoient animosiiles towards each other, and 
each party of them attacked the other. And it will be 
one of the wonders of the day of judgment to reiate^ the 
description of this tremendous onset. And there arose^ a Biids «ad 
wOd, impetuons, precipitate, furious, dark, frîgttful, ^^^^ 
voracious, merciless, combative, contentious^ vulture, their pnj. 
screaming^ and fluttering over their heada And there 
arose also® the satyrs, and the idiota, and the maniaca^ of 
the valleys, and the witehes, and the goblins,.and the 
ancient birds, and the destroying^ demons of the air and 
of the firmament,^ and the feeble demoniac phantom host ; 
and they were screaming aad compaxing the valonr aad 
combat of both parties. ^ ^ 

C. ţ'irst^^ then were drawn up there, Domhnall, son ThecomUt 
of Eimin, high steward of Alban, on Brian's^^ aide, and^^^^^i 
Plait, aon of the king of Lochlainn, brave champion of the ^>^, 
foreignera ; becauae of Plait having aaid the night^' before, 
that there waa not a man in Erinn who waa able to fight 
him, Domhnall, the aon of Eimhin immediately^^ took 
him up,and eaeh of them remembered thia in the moming.^^ 
Then Plait came forth from the battalion of the men in 
annour, and aaid three timea, "Faraa Domhnall,''^® that ia, 
^^where ia Domhnall f Domhnall anawered and aaid, 
''Here, thou reptile,'* aaid he. They fonght then,'^ and 
each of them endeavoured to alaughter the other; and 



with Plait 



^ Forat DomhndO» B. reads, pueţiiţ^ 
"Oofhnall, ţ?ii©|MŢ» "Ooihtialt ? 
8iina oTi "OcMtiftalL This word 
Fanu, or Fnerisj eeems an attempt to 
rep roae n t the old Doniah. 

" They Joughi then. B. givea the 
lemainder of thia paragrapb thua : Ho 
cofntiftâicfecaţv iccriccrh, ocuţ* fto 
gaB ca6 'Di^ ac ontileod ocnŢ oftcu- 
mor a deile ce cc6t>oi|1. Cvb cţia 
a6c irfvocţvacaTi comrmrtTn t^ 



6^te, octif iixirtitat-o |io ţîţiit icro 
afi na tbâfiad, ocoţ* polc ce^vaiţi 
■oe 1 11*00111) afunte» ocuf a ooVai- 
•ome Cfie ditorâiB a 66ile: "They 
fought then, and endeavoured each to 
sUnghter and mangle the other. And 
they f ell dain by each other, and they 
weie f ound in the moming thus — ^the 
hair of each in the fist of the other, 
and the sword of tech through the 
heart of the other.*' 



176 



cosccDti ţae'otiel ne ţcclLcnbti. 



amlaiT) ţ\o vmx^ez ocuf clai'oitifn cecixifi "oe qfie cin-oi 

afiaile, ocuf polr cecraţi ve i n'oufinx) a cele. Ocuf |U) 

be fin a cer coTnlonx) na «DOffi fin. 

ThecomUt OL Ife "oan bl aţi iwell caca na nallmafiac, 

ofSeiS?*^"""^''^ mac T^uorail, fii Li^i, .gc ceu peţi na|iniac 

feywith nincomlamT). 'Caţilla "oo i cimaif cară bfwain cucu 

the Ui « 

Briuin and f®^ ^ comlin ocuf a coma'oaif ayi afiium, ocuf aţi imaD, 
Comnaicni. .1. pef^al uRuaific, ocuf T)oninaLl mac Roţaili^, ocuf 
Silice na noem mac T)omnaill O peyi^ail, ocuf mori 
O Oţiiuin ocuf Conmacni aţiCena. CCcr^maD oen ni cena, 
va cfomacaf fen ayia celi, ocuf fo 'oelai^ecaii on car 
mof ama£, coyiabi p ex) cufboif eTJOfyio 'oon leit; artiaiT> 
"Don moyi cerc, ocuf f o ^abacafi ic uţieg^ax), ocuf ic rpen 
T^efcaD aţiaile. Ho ba comaDif, am, aifm, ocuf 
eţifiiUD, ocuf ecofc cecraţi vq 'oibfen. *0ai5 ni cuc 
nec 'oib fen vo uix) no va aiţii olc va neţinax) 1 
Cluain 'Cayib in la fin, ace in nejinacaţi pein ecofpo 
•Dulc ocuf T)efaincu f e cele, a£c ifuail naf majiboixiţi 

£in uli aceli, ocuf ni afimic fen£aix)i co n-oecaiT)!)© 
yiiuin ocuf vo Conmacnib af, ace oen cec aţi oen ţie 
Peţi^al, ocuf ţio "oilaiţipc «li u Cen'OfeUns anx), ocuf 
mebaif poţiţio poDeoiT) co ca€ na luţiec. Uaiţi ţioba 
gaiţiic in cai 11 comaţici uacib iac, ocuf a pei'om caca 
foţiţio, ocuf a n'oţiuim ţiiu ; coţi po an-ofin imcafcaiji 
.IX. buţi vo ceglac peţigail aţi T^unlang mac 'CuacaiU 
ocuf ţu) maţibfac e, ocuf ţio "oicenfcaiţi TTlac in 'Cţiin e, 
caifeac lo£ca caip peţi^ail efein, ocuf cuc leif in 
cenx) cum peţi^ail -oa comuT)ium ţiif. Ocuf cecaic 
laţiţ^n, in becan ţio bacaţi, 1 cen-o coEa bţiiain, ocuf 1 
n-oeţaiT) meţigi ÎTluţicaiT), ocuf meţiţi ţeţigail accu 
an'Ofem, ecţiubuaf aţicocim a meţigea-o uli, ocuf aţi 
moţibax) a cigeţinaD .1. ac meţigi ocuf cţii ţîifiic. 



Dunlang 
beheaded. 



^Pirates. The word nsed ia atU 
maţiac. The whole of thia chapter ia 
omitted in B. 

*DunnaiL Thia mnat be intended 
for Donlang, son of Tnathal, king of 



Ldnater, who died the same year (bat 
not in the battle), according to tbe 
Ann. of UUter and Foor Masten. He 
ia called Dunlang lower down in thia 
chapter. 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 177 

tkey fell by each other, and the way ihat they fell was, 
witii the sword of each through the heart of the other ; 
and the hair of each in the dinched hand of the other. 
And the combat of that pair was the first [of the battle]. 

CL The person who was on the flank of the bat- Theoombat 
talion of the pirates/ was Dunnall,* son of Tuathal, ^j ^SlS? 
king of liphe, with ten hundred men anned for battle. fey with 
There met him on the âank of Brian's forces, ag^^u^t ^^^'^^^ 
these, their eqoal in numbers and in might, namely, ConmAicni. 
Fezghail Ua Buairc, and DomhnaU, son of Saghallach ; 
and Oilla-na-Noemh, son of Domhnall OTeighail, and 
the nobles of the Ui Briuin and Conmaicni also. But 
now these attacked each other, and they detached them- 
selves firom the great body of the army, until there 
was the distance of a bow shot between them, on the 
north side of the great body; and they began to ştab 
and hew each other. But these parties were equally 
matched in arms, in vesture, and in appeaxance. And 
none of them paid any attention to any evil that was 
done at Cluain-Tarbh on that day, excepting the evil 
and contention which they mutually occaaioned against 
each other. But they veiy nearly killed each other alto- 
gether ; and historians do not reiate that there survived of 
the Ui Briuin and Conmaicni, more than one hundred, 
with Ferghal Ua Ruairc; and the entire of the Ui Cendse- 
laigh were routed there ; and they were afterwards pursued 
to the battalion of the mail-clad men ; for there was a 
wood of shelter near them, and they were in order of 
battle with their backs towards them; and it was then 
that nine of the household of Ferghal overtook Dunlang, Duniang 
the son of TuathaJ, and killed him; iand Mac an Trin, who ^^***^**^ 
was the captain of Ferghal's household, beheaded him, 
and he brought the head to Ferghal to congratulate him 
on it. And they went then, the few of them that were lefb^ 
into Brian's battalion, and behind Murchadh's standard; 
and they had Ferghal's standard floating there, afber the 
fall of all their other standards, and the killing of their 
chiefs, namely, ten standards and three score. 



178 



coţccoti ţcce^oliel ne ţccUxnbti. 



The asuult 
of the 
Dai Cais 
upon the 
Danes. 



CIL Ro coTnfiaicfGc layifin ccrB 'oolig, 'Dibeţi^ac, •onţi- 
cţiai-Deac, 'ouabfeS, T)ian, T)enTnneuac, "oafaccac, na 
îiCCnTnafigac, ocuf in 'oaTnfiai'o •otan, •oîulain'o, 'oiţieqwi, 
ocuf 5aTnan|iai'5 glan, 5an>ct» sefioca, ţaţibeaoa, "golac, 
^nimac, jiigDa, fiofimaii, ţiobLoDafi, T)alcaif , octif macni 
CCillella tllaiTn in oen incro. Octif fio -peţicro ca6 
pi&oa, puleach, pp-iiifi, ţorv^eţig, ţoţifitiamanTKi, peo&np, 
peţi-oa, pGficnnail, anmin, a^cqfib, anniQcp£a> efcaţvDemenU 
eTnjfipo -Diblinaib ; octif jio gab cac cc|x leoD octif lecfuro 
octif a|i cfejDa'D, ocuf aţi refccro, aţi oiţileaS, octif aţi 
actimma a fele 'oib, octif ţio ciţiţibir, ocuf ţfio ţeţiţioic* 
ctiiţip coema, ctianna, cunToacra foeţiclanT) fuoinc, 
l^gainT), focomamD, foeţibefaC, anx)fen eruţiţio. Oa 
comţiac "oa comcţiuaiT), octif comactilttini tmi con- 
rţiaf-TK! in oen inoo |^in. Ocuf ni fuail in ni ţiif ba 
fomalra, octif niţi bec in ni -oaţi ba con)6afmaiil roţi- 
anT)clef ixiilc, călcaţi, T^înnenfac, octif cţieCan zen% 
uţien, conţibreS, na niuinT:iţii fin le6 oţi let ba com- 
fiafmail lium em amail boD hi in niţimominr ilbţiec, 
illa€a6, inganx^aC, no leiqpeaD fţioif qfioim rai'olenaiţ 
•oaţieaclannaib ţiurnecaib "ooţi TX)nv gnuifib in calman. 
Wo amail bcro 6 fţienngeninefi ţxeniTMi îHngnen'oa na 
nell naţiT) naeţi'oa, ica ctitnafc octif ica combţiuî) vo 
na goe^aib ilib, ecfamla, cexw i cenu Mo omail ba 
hi in mm im>, no in muiţi meaţi, moţurobtiU ocuf 
Sţie-oan gaţib jliprefi na cerţii ngoefi ngluaifi, ngloiniDi, 
comcţitiaiT), coiţi» cont^ţx^Kx» ac ixziumech a mimofcltinD 



1 Then. Ro oomţicnceonxatv cmn- 
fin, B. 

^Danmarhiani. B. reada, nOCUb- 
Thufiad, ocuf Txnhfiai^ inan, "oiini- 
taing, 'oif^fiecqfux. 

• Championt. " Gamhaniaidh.'* — 
(See alK»Te, p. 166, note *.) B. reada, 

5afhcmfiar6 i;lansoTi'^x^ gnloitiaâi, 
5aiticct)e(yDa, ţiiog^ 

^And. Gol, B. 

^Fmiom, Mmx^. B. reada, Ro 
pecciicro cot ptiitifi, ţ:16i>aiţ»ilead» 



poTVDeţig, peoÂcnţi, ţoiiptiamcofraa, 
pecq^fi'Da, ţeafuntiait^ oitimtn. 

^And. .OnL, B. 

^Chave. GCglecyoocaf asteofuro 
aţicnle, og cite^ixcroi ocnf 05 ceop- 
cca'6, ace onjilead, ocof aoc ocdnma 
a teile "oV^» Ylo ciixţitxro caiţip 
faeficl>(infi foi^efoc focmnamn 
ecoTijiai B. 

* Moving, B. reada, ocuf tw ooih- 
pocaU 



WASS OF THE GA£DHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



179 



CIL Then^ the feaiftd, murderous, hard-hearted, The oMauit 
tenific, vehement, impetuous, battalion of the Dan- ^^ q^^ 
markians,' and the vehement, irresistible, unangweiable «pon the 
phalanx; and the fine, intelligent^ acute, fieroe, valorons, ^^ 
mighty, royal, gifled, renowned, champions' of the Dai 
Cais, and all the desoendants of OilioU Olum met in one 
place; and^ there was fought beiween them a battle, 
fiuious, bloody,* repulsive, crimson, gory, boisterous, 
mauly, rough, fierce, immerciful, hoetile, on both sides; 
and® they began to hew and deave,^ and ştab, andTnit, to 
slanghter, to mutilate each other; and they maimed, and 
they cut comely, graceful, mailed bodies of noble, pleasant» 
comrteous, affable, acoomplished men on both sides there. 
That was the clashing of two bodies of equal hardness, 
and of two bodies moving* in wntraiy directions, in one 
plaoe.^ And itisnoteasyto imagine whattolikenitto; but 
to nothing small^^ could be likened the firm, stern, sudden^ 
thunder-motion ; and the stout, valiant, haughty billow-roll 
of these people on both sides. I could compare it only to the 
vari^ated, boundless, wonderful firmament,^ ' that had cast 
a heavy sparkling shower of fiaming sta» over the sm*- 
faoe^^ of the earth ; or to the startling^^ fire-darting roar of 
the douds and the heavenly orbs, confoimdedand crashed 
by all the winds, in contention, against each other. Or to 
the Bummit of heaven,** or to the rapid, awfuUy great 
sea, and the fieroe, contentious roaring of the four trans- 
parent, piure, harsh, directly opposing winds, in the act of 
breaking loose** from the orderof theirrespective positions. 



Tkux. 6. omits fem, and adds 
octi|* niţi bo piaiiU 

^oSmaiL Lit., "Small is not the 
thing to which oonld be likened." B. 
reada, ocuy* tilţv bece cm ni f^iŢ ba 
corhoophait coţvafindlep caile, 
călcaţi, cînnefiiad, ocuj* cyveofcan 
cenT) coiţvţncea^, yc 

^FirmamaU, Oa ooţnhail leni 
orhoil bu-D 1 an fnfVTnaihonc ilbţw- 
ac ifigoncai, iloatai, no leiccpeo^ 
VXiaŢ cţvom zwtleat, B. 



^Sur/ace. 'Conngnitiţ^, B. 

^^SUmUng, d|ven'n};eininea^ţM»g- 
nen'oa na nâll nuep.'Do, a;ga oca- 
m^âyc ocuy* apa ccombvai'Dţiea'D, 
octif aga coombfi^ga^ TKma gao- 
toib ilib examlaib oen^) i ccenT}, B. 

1^ Summit ofheaeen, Lit, " beaven's 
head.'* B. omits these words, and 
reads, no arhoil \mi> 1 mtiifin meţv 
ni6ţi a'obal, " or to the noise of the 
awfuUy great sea." 

^Brţaking loote. CCg Txatmeat 

N2 



180 



cosccDti ţcce-otiel ne socLlcnbti. 



IC ţxîailiUT). No amonl bcro he in bfia€ boilc bopt^ 
ţ^U'Da6 tnfcro «oaţi cumţx^ticti'D if vo 'oiix^ailiiro comoetitM, 
na cerxifi 'oula ctim'oai]^, vo bţiu'o, ocaf vo bi6 bţiacixrD 
in Txmiain •ouint) if TKxqia aţi a cenu ba rafnalra 
tem |ie cafi nî -oib fin, bloDbeim boilc, boDba, hajt- 
bafiTm fciafi jx^iam-oa, ţx^elbocoDech, {iti£iie£, ţitioD 
ţieclannac, cloinni tu'Dea6, ţo oiagaib ralci corole- 
£aib na nanaţi naţi n'oibeţicaC, ica coma£, ocar ica 
combiiUT), ocuf sleDen gluaifi slainit)! cloi-oiutn qfuiaro, 
coljDiţiiiich *Oalcaif, ac cocceuil cfiuaiî), comnefvc, ţ|ii 
luţieSaib Iti^maţux, lain'oeţvoa, rfie^tiala^a, xxt%\£h rfieti 
qfiebţioi'o na nanmaţiţa^ allmaivoa iccnam comac cofip, 
octif cen'Dnii]lla£ pfiiti, coţiabi a nuaim octrp a poţoii 
ocuf a macalUc fen i nuamaib, ocof m naUxoib, 
octif 1 cailli:ib comaicfib 'ooib. Cop ba peiinm crobul- 
fnofi 'Dona ca£aib ce£txxţ\'oa imganoD a ţiofg fiinT) ţlof, 
octif a n^uai) nţlan ţafca ţof na cfiT^fib upoma 
ren'Dt'Di fo uapninf fismili'D Clanni taţi>each a 
hînnib aiT;hi aicbeti na claiTyitim ItifneS lain'oeffoa, 
ac fpaigteT), ocuf ic fleicgaifi na lupefi, "oponDfitibnefi 
The tatua wb. Ocuf fo fofţlefcaţi na ^oill ociif na ţoill- 
STtowwB î®^^^ bacaţi tia£ib ac pei^tim aji fcemleoD CC€a Clia€ 
of Dublin. OD fioDonfc, co faicuif faiţnoana cenui^Di ţon aefi 

eţurobul aţi ca£ le6 tia£ib. 
Aoooimt CIIL 1f ni "oa ofţ^^^l^l' r^^ ^^ caafafcbail aic Tnael- 
|i][^^^ feclcnnT) mac "Oomnaill, fi 'Cemfa^, poffin nefafcoin 
Uimi, Ung fin, in can bacaf Clanna Colmain ic lafţai^ ruaji- 



olTftlB. 



ocQf og cţienfxnle^ im ni, r\6 
ctfbcnt bi'6 6 om \r[uxt bonlc bofiţv- 
ţonSoch tioţHt6 t>o cafn|^»ocli<r6 
octif TK) TMompxnle^ ocof no 
t>ţii|«e^ ooinaenccr6, B. 

1 Cnuk, T)o btiipeib ocnf tk) bi6 
btie6u<t6 om Twmom, B., omitting 
the ranainder of the aentenoe. 

> Strong. B. omits borolxL 

»3rWye< ftotfli. BoeUbot^ad tun- 
tentwon>, B. 

< Ltidsek, B. nftds more comctlj, 
ClomneltiK^>ead; "theCUnnLnlgh- 



deeh," or detoendants of Lng*id; tf 
in line 18 of this page. 8ee Gened. 
Table IIL, Appmd. B. 

^Olaujf. 'Con^lea^afian'Oanaiii 
B. 

^F^wmfuL Co qvoon^ B. 

^ /Vee. ppri Inifieachaib lotilMi- 

ţiont> loDfineţvDoiB na fi*Oommorpoc 

nCdtmaix'Doi, B. 
« TTfltt lAen ! Le^ wHh flMir iwofdi. 

B. omite p|\iii. 

• So ikaL Co ţunBe a vpKDin, 
octff a nefotuxxnn, ocof a moBcaUa 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 181 

Or to the stern tenific judgment-day that had come, to 
confonnd, and break down the unity of the four Rur- 
rounding elements, to crush^ and finally shiver the 
compact world, and to take vengeanoe on it. To all these 
oould I compare the smaahing, powerful, strong,' bar- 
barous, shield-ehining, taiget-bossed,' red, sparkling, starry 
ODâet of the dann Ludech,^ nnder the stout bright azes 
of the stern, murderous Danars, mutilating, and croshing 
them; and the gleaming, bright, glassy,' hard, straight 
swords of the Dai Cais, in hard, powerful^ clashing against 
ihe firee,^ sparkling, thrice-riveted, stout, poweiful, pro- 
tective armour of the piratical Danmarkians, Hnumhîng with 
ihem' the bones of their bodies and their dculls, so that® the 
soTind of them, and the uproar of them, and the echo of 
them were reverberated £rom the cavems, and firom the 
difis, and from the woods in the neighbourhood; and it 
became a work of great difficulty to the battalions^^ on 
both sides to defend their clear sparkling eyes, and their 
flushed bright cheeks from the heavy showers of fieiy 
sparks which were sent forth l^ the royal champions of 
the Clann Lughdech from the sharp fearfiil points of their 
bright gleaming swords, in hacking and cutting^^ the 
firmly hooked mail-coats off them; and it was attested by Thetattla 
the foreigners and foreign women** who were watching 2J|\^^ 
firom the battlements of Ath Cliath, as they beheld, that of DnbUn. 
they used to see fiashes of fire fix>m them in the expanse 
of air on aU sides. 

cm. Another attestation^' of this is the description Aoooimt 
which Maelsechiainn, son of Domhnall, king of Temhair, mIS^- 
gave of that crush,^^ when the Clann Colmain asked l^mii kâng 

^ of TftIB. 



1 nuccmcnt», oci]|^ cmaitlon^ ocii|^ i 
ocoitlcitî ooThpoicp^ B. 

^BaitaUoni, "Oo fiOfcaiB tim-o- 
glajM na ccat ccedroqfi'oa înţtcma'O 
na ţ6U ocaţ^ fia ngritfOD fi];a|xa 
aţ\ na ac|ii6 uţioma ueînna'oe |u> 
conpiratis yc, B. 

^^CaUing. OC5 |*Tiaij|tea^ ocaţ* 
05 eţxiţvooain na toiţiea6 n'Dţumi 
nT>Tiiiitine6, B. omittiiig jyi^ 

^Foreignwomm. D.readsnangatt 



octiţ^ na ngotltpeac, which is nn- 
grmmmatical. The reading of B. has, 
therefore, been followed, where the 
whole paasage îs as foUows: — OctiT^ 
|u> ţoiţvccleDati na sailt ocaţ^ na 
SoiU/ţ^a boccoTi aţi yx^ilitea- 
"oaib 0C6a Ctiot 00 ţaicx>1|^ eon 
ţuroaiiic uataib na poipiena 
ceinnci'oe \^ aeţi aţi ^at let. 

u AUtttttiiUm, poiţigell, B. 

M Crtuh. CCn ime|x>ţicccnn, B, 



182 



coţaroti ţae-oliel Re ţaHocibli 



ofcbala tti caCa 'd6. 1f ont) ofbetvc, titicu nacofa ca6 
maţi e ţiiam, octif noco cuala a fio^tnoil, ocai* ctT> 
angel -oe 'oo beţioD a mafiafcbail if •oi^ţieicmi tem thx 
peDcro. OCct; oen ni ţoţif a rofilla fnaiţiifeo cmx), tn 
can |io cotnţunqpeT; a cexxMţi po ^ab ca£ ic cfiesocro 
a celi wb. bcn jofx; ocuf cUro eqwiiTiTii ocuv iac, 
ocuf in cfiuoD 5oe€ eţiţicai'Di caţifcib cticaitiT), ocav ni 
ţxici na pecro |iif a fnbligpea b6, no tki bai, bamofi cmv, 
in can na6 tnbţieT) •ouni -Don "oa ca£ acni aţi celi, ciT)e 
a mac no a bţioiaiţi bar) compoguf do, mini ^tx^iro 
ai cm aţi a 5ti€, no a pf ţiemi acei m cinoD a mbioD, 
aţi naţi ImaD eceţi cern), octif agiT), ocuţ* ecac, do 
bţioengail na pola poţiţitiamanDa la poţpan na joen 
ţlanpuaiţi, bai r^aţifcib SucainT). Ocwf 51*0 Degensnum 
bcro aii 'ouin vo Deniim, ni pocpamcnf ; Daiţ ţio cenţloir, 
octif ţio cuibţiigit; a ngae op a cennaib "oa ţolcaib 
paiDb ţu) iapainî) in goei cugainT), aţi na cefccro vo 
claiî)mib coljDiţigib, octif vo cuagaib ixiiDlecaib, co|i 
ba leu montiţi Duin beic ic ţieDiugiiD ocuf ica (aipneac. 
Ocuf ba vo beccaib eţieni) aţi aţi mo Den^am von 
lucu ţio oDaim m meţxxţiţain ţnn înnaţ* Duni ţomna^cain 
a pegfia can zo&c ţie gaic no aţi ţ^eanţUD. 
ThaoombAt CIV. "Oala "Ounlaing, imoţiţio, came ma ca6 na 
O'Hartî^ ^^^^^^T^^ ocuf ni Cuc cacilL aţi nec Dib, oaiţi m 
withCor- ţiabi caţia vo ţctllcnb acei eceţu Octif ţio înţ^ij 
"* Coţinabbliceoc ocuf mc cafi atufan anmin ogojib 

amaţimaţirac va £eli T)ib. If cmT) fin rancacaţi cţiitiţi 
vo mtiînnţi Coţinabliceoc aţi a belaib, ocof ctiqxiu 
cţii fain in oenpefo aţi Dunlang. OC&c moD eni Cena 



^Aaked Atm. CC cciu'd m\Ţ na 
'oeghon'D fin ag pocfiţcniM foâ^'oe, 
B.: **At the end of a monih after- 
waidi, askiag hlm for an aooonnt of ît** 

^Heaaid. Fiom thu place the dif- 
ferenoes between the two MSS. are 
ac fluent and confiderable that, in- 
stead of loading the pagei with Tarions 
readings the Editor has given the text 
ofB.atfiillintheAppendixC. Keat- 
ing, from another Boorcei has iiiMrted 



this narratiTe in his hittoij. Dr. 
0*Donoyan giTes Lynch*8 Latin tru»- 
lation of it, Fomr MasL^ p. 776w 

^Amditis. These WMda, to the cod 
of the chapter, are omîtted in B. 
Keating readfli ba 'D615 Imn ncqfi fh6 
"oiitc 'Don 'Dfvoing booi fon ţfxA 
lona 'Dâînne patong a bfrânspone 
Som aţv nT>ot aţv fxxoînneal» ocof 
afi potnartionn- "Anditiadoubtfol 
to tu whether thooe engaged ia the 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 



183 



him* for an aocoTint of the battle. It was then he said,' 
"I never saw a battle like it, nor have I heard of its 
equal; and even if an angel of Qod attempted its descrip- 
tion, I doubt if he could give it. But there was one 
ciicumstanoe that attracted my notice there, when the 
foroes first came into contact» each began to pieroe the 
other. There waa a field, and a ditch, between us and 
thezn, and the shaip wind of the spiing coming over theni 
towards us; and it was not longer than the time that a 
cow could be milked, or two cows, that we continued 
there, when not one person of the two bosts could recog- 
nise another, though it might be his son or his brother 
that was nearest him, unless he should know his voioe, 
and that he previously knew the spot in which he was; 
we were so covered, as well om* beads as our fiBMses, and 
our dothes, with the drops of gory blood, oarried by the 
force of the sharp cold wind which passed over them to 
us. And even if we attempted to perform any deed of 
valour we were unable to do it, because our spears over 
our heads had become dogged and bound with long locks 
of hair, which the wind forced upon us, when cut away 
by weUraimed swords, and gleaming axes ; so that it was 
half occupation to us to endeavour to disentangle, and 
cast them off. And it is' one of the problems of Erinn, 
whether the valour of tbose who sustained that orusbing 
assault was greater than ours who bore the sight of it 
without runmng distracted before the winds or fainting." 

CIV. We must now speak of Bunlang.^ He rushed on ThecomUt 
the host of the pirates, and spared not one of them, because j|,^"^"*«f 
he had no firiendship at aU for the foreigners. And he with^Cor- 
approached Comabliteoc, and each of them made a rough, ^*»^*«>c- 
fierce, unmerciful assault on the other. Then came three 
of the people of Comabliteoe in front of him, and they 
made three simulton^us thrusts at Dunlang. But, it was 



battle Bostained more evll tliao the 
men who endured the aight of it with- 
out going mad or diatmcted.** 
^DmUang. This evidentlf meanfl 



Dunlang O^Hartigan (aee chap. xcriii.) 
The whole of this chapter ia omitted 
in B., aa ia alao eh. xcviii, in which 
Dunlang waa fint mentioncd. 



181 coţcroti BaeDtiel ne ţatlanbti. 

ni hînnb ftn erep ţio bi t)iI acobai|i "Otinloinţ, a&c i 
Co|inablireoc, uaifi ruc oficufon atimif), ogaţibjoenţofux, 
paiţi 'DU gae, tio6 va Cogaib a faini), octif noc va 
meraij a menma, octif no£ vo lin a laaConsrteD, ţoţi 
gab ap.ţiin'D cmmin T;fieniiT; eciji cofip if cnefecitro. 
^a ţxifcin fei5 th) mtunnţi Cojinabltreoc -oa tugm- 
raţi qio •oangen, '0ibjiaic€ea6, 'Dti|ic|\cnT)6c, ina nmcelU 
ocuf TJticfocaţi na cjii coecaic va box^aii onnagont) 
in oen abtill ap. "Otinlans. CCtc oenni cena, mp caDWf, 
octif mp comapci va ngepna in rxinacul pin ; vaxs 
va €oit; pe "Ounlanţ ca£ oen poon pe himţain, ocof 
pe himbualaD -oib, conac paba ecepna ecoppo co 
inicpacop pan pancaca, octip btiilloDa bpoSa va cele. 
OCcu mov oennî cena, ipe pin in rpep compac tp "Dolţi 
bai 1 Cltiain Tîapb in ningnaip t n'oepna THapEaD vo 
cnam coma6 cen-o ocup colanu "Ooig ba rpenpoocop 
rcnpb acei pein, octip ba pticen pig milei). OCfe enî 
cena, ipuailnab com€uinm "oan TKxna caumiliT) pin, ace 
ipe ^Otinlang vo 'oiCen'o epium. 
Combat of CV. "Oala Conaing; po mpoij peic pi toţen .1. tHael- 
Md^Lw!- ^^"^^ ^^^ TntipfiaDa, octip vo mapboD .tii. pip vec 
mordha, '00 mtinuip ca6 pip "Dib ap belaib a ngepnoT), cop 
j[^gj^ compaicpec pein, cop com€oicpec pe cele .1. Conoin^ 

pi T)epmtiman, octip TTlaelmop'oa, pi Lajen. 
Thebattie CVL T)ala Cona^Tc, imoppo, po inpaiji'oap pein ţcnW' 
A*^**° of ^^ Clia6, octip "00 s<xbaDap ap cele, octip ipe pin iti 
Connanght btiaUro TieTienaS bai ap in muig pin, uaip va mapbor» 

DalieBof ^^^ ^* ^^ ^^ ^^'^ ^^^' ^^^^ "^ T?anic beo ap -00 
Dublin. Conafeaib abc oen cec, octip nticti T)e£aiT) vu ţollcn^ 
CCta Clia€ afc oen pi6i, ocup ic "opofut; Dubjaill fo 
mapbai) in pep maDepeao v\h .1. CCpnaill Scoc .1. ipiac 
po mapb e lufe caigi 'Cai'os Ui CelUng. *Oala imopţu) 
comlaint) in ca€a pin ocup a etea ni mo in€t ic "Oio 
ica a pp, uaip ca£ oen ip mo ica miaD a pip •op«oc- 



1 Combais : meanlng single combată, 
the other two being ncoided, chapt. 
c andcL 

* Conamg, He ia af terwards called 
" King of Des-mhomha,** or Desmond ; 
but B., in both plăcea, calls him " Co- | 



nang, MO of Donncnan ;" abowing thit 
Conaing,Brian*8 ncphew, waa întcodii 
S^Gmialojfieal TiM$ IIL, AppendE 
*Twm^, B. aajTS, "but mne." 
See Appendix C. 



WARS OF THE GAKDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 185 

not on them Dunlang^s deşire and attention were fixed, 
but on Comabliteoc ; for he gave him* a rough, fierce^ 
rapid bW of a spear, by which his ardour wbs exdted, 
and liis spirit roused, and his active mind occupied; for 
îts rough point passed throngh him, both body, and body- 
armour. When this was peroeived by Comabliteoc's 
people, they formed a firm, compact, hard-hearted drde 
aronnd him ; and the thrioe fif ty of them that were there, 
tumed themselves at the same time against Dmilang. 
However» it is certain, that their defence procured neither 
respect nor mercy for their chief, for by Dunlang fell every 
one of them who waited to be wounded and beaten, nntil 
there remained no interposition between them ; and they 
dealt ardent ţhrusts and fearfiil blows at each other. And 
this was one of the three hardest oombats^ that took place 
at duain Tarbh, besides what Murchadh performed, of 
bone-breaking of heads and bodies. For his wm ihe 
fierce rushing of a bull, and the scorching pati) of a royal 
champion. But to retum, these brave champions nearly 
fell by each other; Dunlang, however, beheaded him. 

CY. We must next speak of Conaing.' He fau^ed Mael- Combstof 
mordha, son of Murchadh, king of Laghin, and sixteen^?^^ 
men of the people were killed, each man of them, in fi-ont moidiia, 
of his lord, before they themselves met, and fell by each ^jjj^ 
other, viz., Cionaing, king of Des-mhumha^ and Mael- 
mordha, king of Laghin. 

CVL We speak next of the men of Conacht. They ad- Thebattie 
vanced to the foreigners of Ath Cliath, and they attacked ^f][îJLof 
each other. And that was the decisive defeat that took Connaughi 
place on the plain ; for they were [almost] all killed, on both îJîi^^ 
sides, there, for there esoaped aUve £rom it of the men of Dublin- 
Conacht, one hundred only ; and there escaped of the 
foreigners of Ath Cliatii, but twenty,' and it was at 
Dubhgall's Bridge the laat man of these was killed, viz., 
Amaill Scot, and those who killed him were the house- 
hold troops of Tadhg Ua Cellaigh. The full events of 
that battie, however, and its deeds, Qod alone knows; 
because every one besides who could have had knowledge 
of it fell there on either side ; and every man had sufBcient 



186 



coţaroti sae-otiel Re ţallcobti- 



tiocaţi anT) le€ aţi le€, octif boi obaiţi cafi oen wb a 
Pf a ruifiucra pen aţi mei; a ecni. 
Pancgyric CVII. Imuifa, imoţifu), Tlflti|i£aiT) mic bţiioin, in ţii5- 
chadurâon ^^^^'^' ^ Bobfi'oe a T>a cloi'Dium cfioDa cofnnefira -i. 
of BriăXL clai'oium ina «oeif , octif claiT)itin) ina ele, tiaiţi if fe 
fin T>uni T>e7)ena£ ţii ba coni7)eif imbaalTxi 'oa Deif 
ocuf T>a cil bai in nOţiinu Ife T)tini x>eT>enaS iţvpabi 
in piţi^aifceT) in eţiim> 6. Ife uuc a bţieiiţi fiţilais 
na6 beţuro oen rjiais rei§&T) fieifin cinitiT) T>oenna «li, 
aţi coma fa bit, atc minboD cînnci leif con ec cţie 
bi7;hu. Ife Dtini "oeDenafi ifţiabi comlonT) cec in 
©finT) e. Ife T)uni T>eT>enac fo maţib cec in oen Io e- 
Ife cofceim 'oeDenac ţiuc in fifBoifceT) in eţiinT) e. 
*OaiE ifeT> înnific fen6an>i na n^oe^eU moţipefiuji 
amail THuţifcro comlonD niac 8hamain, ocuf .tiii. amail 
TU ac 8hamain comlonT) Ltija Laga, ocuf .uii. amail 
Luj Laga comlonT) Conaill Cerinaig, ocuf .nu. amail 
Conall Cefna£ comlonT) toga tamaţxrca mic Gclenn, 
ocuf .nu. amail Log Lamapaca comlonT) heccoip 
mac Pfiiaim. Octif coniT) iac fin uiT)eDa ocuf imce£ca 
in pţiimgaifciT) o xnif in T)omain, ocnf gonac bei6 
in ţ)fiimgaifceT) ţieim 1le£coft, uaiţi naiT)in e conici 
fin, ocuf nifi mengnuma e fo hocci, ocuf cona bei€ 
laţi THuficaT) ; naiţi fenoiţi c|ii£ac q[iinT)ibliT)i e o 
hm ama£. Ocuf cofmailliuf aifi T)uneca comcen- 
aigic amlaiT) fin T)on goifceT) octif T)on T)omun aţi 
nincamlngUT) incliucca. Ro be fin incGccoiţi incam- 
laigcech na GţienT), ilbuaDaigi, aţi cţieDinm, octif cţi 
gail, ociif aţi jaifceT), aţi enea£, ocuf aţi engnum. 
Robe fin in 8amfon fuaiţic, fOcomainT), fegDainT), 
ÎX)eţibefafi na nebţiaiT)i, im focaţi ocnf im fcnţii a 
acaţiT)a ocuf a ceneoil ţie ţi6 pen, ocuf fie amfiţi. Ro 
befin inc©ţicoil coca6ca£ canafi fio fcţiif, ocuf ţio 



^Beamte U ; meaning apţMraitl7 tlie 
world. ** Before Hector the woild was 
Initsinfiuicy; after Mnrchaâh it shall 
be in its old age and dotage.** 

^JUKgion, OCfi cţietnani, "in 
faith." The thiee Unea, Crom Uo 



beftn to ofi engniiTn, tre omitted 
inD. 

• Jdaee. B. haa improved the aeoM 
by omltting the worda "for the proa- 
periţy and freedom of his fatherland 
and of hîs lace." 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE QAILL. 187 

to do to know his own adventures, firom the greatnees of 
his distresa 

CVIL To retum to Murchadh, son of Brîan, the royal Panegyrîc 
champion. He grasped hia two valiant strong swords, viz., cLdCson 
a sword in his right, and a sword in his left hand, for be o' Brian. 
was the last man in Erinn who had equal dexterity in 
striking with his right and with his lefb hand. He was 
the last man that had true valour in Erinn. It was 
he that pledged the word of a true champion, that 
he would not retreat one foot before the whole of the 
human race, for any reason whatsoever but this alone, 
that he might die of his wounds. He waâ the last man 
in Erinn who waâ a match for a hundred. He was the 
last man who killed a hundred in one day. His was the 
last step that true valour ever took in Erinn. For 
this is what the historians of the Gaedhil say, that seven 
like Murchadh, would be a match for Mac Samhain; and 
seven like Mac Samhain, a match for Lugh Lagha; and 
seven like Lugh Lagha^ a match for Conall Cemach ; 
and seven like Conall Cemach, a match for Lugh 
Lamha-fada, the son of Eithlenn; and seven like Lugh 
Lamha-£eula) a match for Hector, the son of Priam. Such 
are the degrees and vanations of illustrious championship 
from the beginning of the world; and there waâ no illus- 
trious championship previous to Hector, because it^ was 
only an infant till his time, and was not fit for action, nor 
shaJU there be after Murchadh, because it shall be a palsied 
driveUing dotard ever afber. And thus championship and 
the world are compared with human life, according to 
intellectual metaphor. He was the metaphorical Hector 
of all-victorious Erinn, in reUgion,^ and in valour, and in 
championship, in generosity, and in munificence. He was 
the pleasant, affable, intelligent, accomplished Samson of 
the Hebrews, for promoting the prosperity and freedom of 
his Mherland and of his race', during his own career and 
tima He was the second powerful Hercules,^ who de- 



^HeraUet. D. leada, inc &coiL: 
bat B. giYes th« trae reading, ane 



^ţicoil, which has, therafon, beea 
introdttced into the. text 



188 



coBcron scce-otiel ae Bccllcnbti. 



upon the 



•oelaţiif piaftHi ocuf TX)ţia6îiu a hOiiiiTo, fio fiţi lafa, 
ocuf Imn, ociif uamanna, na porla pon'oaîVDi, aţi na6 
pabi "oun no -oigonn if in T)onitin. Robe in Lug tamoca 
comcofmail, |io ling ca£ Docaiţi, ocuf ţio lomoiţi cafi 
cfiencenT), ocuf |io fqiif, ocuf ţio inaţib s^llu ociif 
allmaţiofiu a h6|iinT). Robe in comla ca£a, ocuf in 
clia€ ugpa, ocuf in T)Of 'oiren, ocuf in tx)|i bfiun bi'Dbcro, 
a a€a|iT)a ocuf a ceneoil ţie fi6, ocuf fie fiemif. 
Hisiasanit CVIIL Oc connttic in fiipniliT) fiomoţi fiocatma fin 
octif in cuţi cfiODtt comnaţir; in mefOfigain, ocuf in- 
p[ii€olum uucpcrc TDanoifi octif CCnmafisoi^ allmctfVDa 
ţ?fii TDalcoif, if amail baif no bit anim "oo fioînnefxaifi 
•DOfXMn f^in, comafi'ouT) 5<^ll ţ?fiiu, ocuf fio gab pefig 
Diqia •oimofi e, ocuf bfiu€ bofifipoDa^, aDbulmofi, fio 
gab mev menman ocuf aicniu OCi^fiacc en gaili octif 
goifciT) inT), comba afi luamain of hinib ocuf of omaiL 
Ocuf fiuc wiicim cfien, cţiicc, caifibrec, nnnefnac, ţo 
caC na nCCnmafigac, amoil vom «Dian, 'oenmnerac, 
•oaf^fcaâ af na •ofiofigabail, no omail leomon lom), 
leTxifiTxxch, lurmafi, lanSalma, Txyotifcirifi, ocuf cfiouifi 
ima culenaib, no mafi bofibfiuaciif T>ian bunni TnlenT), 
bfiifreaf ocuf bţiecaf ca6 ni cof a fiice, ocuf fitic 
beifinT) cufuro, ocuf locaif mileT), -oaf ca€ na nCCnmafi- 
cac. pofiglir; a efcafiir; va heif .1. fen£aiT)i 5^11 octif 
Logen, cofi Ctiir; .L va T)eif, ocuf .L T>a cli, "Don fitioSufi 
f^n ; octif nifi aiftefioig beim fiiam vo neoc afc oen 
beim, ocuf nifi gab fcia€ na ltifiea£ f[ii beim T)ib fin 
fiiam, con leao ctiifip, ocuf cen'omullaig, octif cnam 
mafioen "Oib. C^v qfia afc, fio fiafic rfiefin ca6 fiaji 
co ba cfi mafi fin. Ro tenaic e, imonfio, •oamfuiiT) 
•oian, T){ulaing, "Oifiecfio, -oefimaifi, Clainni luigoea£ ocof 



^lkmmarbkm$, CCfimoTisaiţ fot 
"DomfnoTi^^ B. nada, "DanaiTi 
octif atimoqfun^ ** Danais and pi- 
ntes.** 

s T€§tyhd. Oyer the word ţofistic 
in D. Is the glon no înnipc, '*or it 
istold.'* 

* HiaUfrimu. Fiom this it appetn 



that thero wero Iriah hatoriana of the 
eide oppoeed to Biian, and favomable 
to those KoTsemen who were alliei of 
the king of Leinater. Bat their worki 
are now nnf ortanatelj loet Thef aze 
here appealed to as admitting the gnai 
prowese of Morehadh. 



WABS OF THE OAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 189 

stroyed and exterminated serpents and monsters out of 
Erinn ; who Rearched the lakes, and pools, and cavems, of 
noble-landed Fodhla^ whom no fortress or fastness in the 
world could resist He was the Lugh Lamha-fada, who, 
like him, sprang over every obstade, laid bare every brave 
head, and exterminated and expelled the foreigners and 
pirates out of Erinn. He was the gate of battle, and the 
hnrdle of conflict, and the sheltering tree, and tiie impreg- 
nable tower, against the enemies of his fatherland and of 
his race during his time and during his career. 

CVIII. When this veiy great, very valiant^ rojalHisaMavit 
champion, and brave powerfiil hero saw the crushing and e^yî** 
the repulse which the Danars and the piratical Dan- 
markians^ gave to the Dai Cais» it operated on h\m like 
death, or a permanent blemish, to see the conflict of the 
foreigners witii them ; and he was seized with a boiling, 
telrible anger, and an excessive elevation, and greatness of 
spirit and mind. A bird of valour and championship arose 
in him, and fluttered over his head, and on his breath. 
And he made an active, brave, vigorous, sudden rush at 
the battalion of the Danmarkians, like a violent^ impetuous, 
furious ox, thatis difficult to catch ; or like a fierce, tearing, 
swift, aQ-powerfid lioness, that has been ronsed and robbed 
of her whelps ; or like the fierce roU of an impetuous, delug- 
ing torrent, which shatters and smashes every thing that 
opposes it ; and he made a hero's breach, and a soldier's field, 
throngh the battalion of the Danmarkians. It is testified' 
by his enemies afber him, viz., the historians' of the 
foreigners, and of the Laighin, that there fell fifby by his 
right hand, and fifby by his left, in that onset; and he 
never repeated a blow to any one, but only the one blow, 
and neither shield nor mail-coat was proof to resist any of 
those blows, or prevent its cutting Oie body, the skull, or 
the bone of every one of them. Thrice, now, passed he 
through ihe battalion in that manner. He was followed, 
too, by the great^ impetuous, irresistible, matchlesş, 
phalanx of the dann Luighdech, and thb fine, lively. 



190 



coscroîi sae-oTiel ne ţcclLccibti. 



gaman'Oiiai'D slan^afca, geţiora, jalac, snimafi, ţcqfi- 

beoDa, a ieglac bcroein .1. uii. pcit; meic ţiig boccq^ iTja 

^e^lac, ocuf cjiica cev in pefi ba liisti T)u6uf T)ib fin. 

Ro lenoic e co haic, ccclum, imerfium, co mbencn) bon-o 

Pfii bonT), octif cenT) pfii cent), ocuf cnef -pfii cnef , tki 

eif ca6 conaiţi ma îiancoccqfi. Ocuf pif 7)0 famailpec 

fin -oaini CCia Clicrf, bcrcoii pofif na fcenolib, icca 

fe^OD, conaţi ba lia leo feţiţi^laigi ecptinnaf o moţi 

meiil IC buain goipr cojici, cit) 7)a cerc no rfii "oo 

Sfieifcea pai, ol'oaf folT; of sai€ uauib, afi na lecţuro 

T>o ruajaib ryioma raiT)lecaib, ocuf tk) claiT)bib lain- 

ne|iT)a lafanna; coniT) aipi fin afbepc mac CCmlcnb, 

bai ap fcemle-D a 5pianan ţein aca pegar). 1f mai€ 

benaic na ^oiill in gopr, apfe, if im-oa feppclaiţi lec- 

caiT; uoBib. CCp -oepeT) tai if cecafrxi, ap ingen bpiain, 

.1. ben [meic] OCmlaib. 

DuraUonof CIX. Cit) cpa acTî, bacap ap in linipen, ocuf ap in 

ferni^h ^^^^wo^<^ icrc, o rparh epp co lapnoin. 1f inunT), on, 

watcrat ocuf in cGn bif in mtiip IC z\atv ocup ic ruli ocup ic 

hî^water ^^^^^0. *0cn5 if a lan mapa rancarap amac na 5<^ll 

at soiiaet. «oo cup in ca€a if in macin, ocup vo pocr in muip ina 

hinat) cema "oopipi im "oepeD lae, in ran'p^ muiT) apna 

Jallaib, octip puc in lan mapa a longa uacib, 50 nac 

pabi accu poDeoiT) lea€ no reiCpmp, ace ip in poifip, 

ap mapbaT) 5<^ill na lupeac uli vo *Oalcaip apEena. 

Total de- ^ maiT) poen po maDma ap ^allaib ocup Laignib, co 

featofthe T^igaip in oenpefe, ocup po goippecap a commaipc 

Danish and t< 

Leinster cintn, ocup a caipmepca comnnenaip, cum ceci-o ocup 

*"»!»• cum rpein gabala ; ocup ipeT) po cecperap ip in paipgi, 

•oaiţ ni pabi accu lec no recpetnp cena, uaip po bop 

eruppu ocup cent) "opofait; *0ub5aill, ocup po bap 



^ Chompions. Lit, " Gamaiiraiâli." 
8ee abore, p. 166, note *. 

> Townkmd, The phnae qfiioia 
COD, wai naed to signify a barony or 
townland. So that the meaning 10: 
notone of these foUotren of Murchadh 



that waa not the owner of at leaat a 
towniand. 

• Workmg. D. reada, ]^pcea. 
which is a mUtake d tba fteribe^ 
ţfieipcea, the reading of B., haa beea 
substituted. 



WABS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 



191 



valianţ, brave, fierce champions,^ of his own household, 
namely, seven score sons of kings that were in his 
household; and the man of smallest patrimony amongst 
them was lord of a townland.' These foUowed him 
sharply, quickly, and lighily, so that they touched each. 
other foot to foot, and head to head, and body to body, 
behind him in every place that they came to. And it 
appeared to the people of Aih. Cliath, who were watching 
them from their battlements, that not more numerous 
.would be the sheaves floating over a great company reaping 
a field of oats; even though two or three battalions were 
working* at it, than the hair flying with the wind from 
them, cut away by heavy gleaming axes, and by bright 
fl«.mîng Bworda Whereupon the son of Amhlaibh, who 
was on the battlements of his watch tower, watching 
them, said, '' Well do the foreigners reap the field," said 
he, " many is the sheaf they let go from them." ** It will 
be at the end of the day that wiU be seen," said Brian's 
daughter, namely, the wife of [the son of ^] Amhlaibh. 

CIX. However, now, they continued in battle array, Dmation of 
and fighting from sunrise to evening. This is the same \^ y^ 
length of time as that which the tide takes to go, ^«terat 
and to flood, and to fiii For it was at the frdl tide the Mghwater 
foreigners came out to fight the battle in the momîng, and »* ««■«*• 
the tide had come to the same place again at the close of 
the day, when the foreigners were defeated; and the tide 
had carried away their ships from them, so that they had 
not at the last any place to fly to, but into the sea; after 
the mail-coated foreigners had been all killed by the Dăl 
Cai& An awful rout was made of the foreigners, and of the Total de- 
Laighin, so that they fled simultaneously ; and they shouted ^^^y^ ^^ 
their cries for mercy, and whoops of rout, and retreat, and Leinster 
running ; but they could only fly to the sea^ because they *"***^ 
had no other place to retreat to, seeing they were cut off 
between it and the head of Dubhgall's Bridge; and they 



* Am of. D. readflţ ben GCmlcnb, 
** Amlaff'fl wife ;*' but this i« an evident 
miatake ; and therefore the reading of 



B., ben meic GCmlaib, has been 
adopted. Sitric, eon of Amlabh, or Am- 
laff, was nuuried to Brian's daughter» 



192 coţcroti ^ae-otiel ne sccllcnbti. 

euiţiiio octif cailt 'dotj lei€ ele. Cit) rţia a£c, fio 

fiecŢecaji ifin pafiţi, amonl elca bo aţi aibell, ţie ţio 

€ef ba6, ociif fie cpeib, ocuf fie culib ocuf yio lenaic co 

hoic, aSlutn, imeqfiufn, ocuf ţio boftir co T)in)oţi mei na 

Jcnll» co mbinf na caţinoib ocuf na ceTxnb comco- 

mafcCi afi na fca|i€ain fie ciallaib ocuf fie ceqpcDaib 

coţipa|i7)aib, yiefin ruaţicain ze\rw xxxiţiifmic, ocuf ţiefin 

coCucuT) contUxn, c|iuaT)cţian>ech, tki ţionacaţi TDalcoir 

fiiti, ocuf Conacra, ocuf i ţiabi anv aţicena tk) marib 

pefi e^ienu 

Toideibach, CX. 1f an'Ofein va cuaiT) 'Caiţi'oelbaf, mac THuţi- 

^"*d«iiL ^^'^' ^^^ bfiiain, 1 n-DegaiT) na njall if in pajigi, co r;uc 

drowned at in bunni ţiobaţiT^a bulli ţaifi im caţiţiiT) Cluana Txifib» 

Sontarf.*^ octif if amloiT) |io bofieD e, ocuf 5^11 pae, ociif ^aLt 

ina T)eif, ocuf 5^11 macle, ocuf cualli na caficro cfiix;. 

"Ml ţiabi ina aif pen -ouni hcco peţifi enea£ no en^naTn 

in G|iinT), ocuf ni ţiabi ODbuţi fiig boD pefiţi. "Ocng 

enţnum a acafi am>, ocuf îiiT)a£t; a fenacaţi, octif nifi 

flan ace .u. bliaDna t)6c tk) anT)fin. Ife pof in T;îieţ* 

T)uni if mo |io maţib inia fen e. 

Aitereation If ^^'^ î^" î^ V^*^ ingen bfiiain ben [meic] CCmlaib, 

SeloTof ^^ '^^5 lemfa, aţifi, |io benfoc na 5«^ll yie nT)Ucti|*. 

Amiaff and CiT) fon, a ingen, ccţi mac OCmloib. Ua ^aill ic tjoEj; 

hUwife. ^^ ^^ paţigi, air if -otial iHiib, aţifi, nu6a netxqi ifi 

aibell pail oţiio, ace ni anaie ţie mblegtin maper). Ro 

peti^aiceD mac OCmloib ţiia, octif euc "ooţinT) t)i. 

Expioîtsof CXI. Imruf, imoţiţio, THuţi^aiT) mic bţiiain. CCţi 

Murjadh, |iQ£ţ;(3nii «oo eţii cac na n^all ocuf t>o jarţicnt) TDalcoiţ* 

Brian. a|i oen pţiif , €cmail ţio ţiemţiai-ofem, uaiţi tki baeofi T>ţienn 

vo cafimile^nnb na nJctH ţiiam, can zeycero ifin ţxiţiţi, 

eeeţi no6 ca ţiabi ciall if cumni 'oib, a£e ţio boţxi leo 



^Intheiea. Lit, >' in tt ^ bat a 

readfl, ^Ţ^r\ ppairis^ "^ *^« ■•*•'* 

^Underkim. B. omits the *'foreigner 
under him;" making two fonignen 
0DI7 to have peiiahed with him. 

• AmklaibVâ «ni. Here again fhe 
reading of B. has been followed. See 
note, p. 191. He is called Amh]afl>h*8 



son in the nezt line, which proTee that 
the omÎBBion of the word tnac, in D. 
ifl a mere clerical error, althongli it 
ocean in two differant plaoei^ 

^ Bhw. B. adds, w ^^ ben pa- 
cont ofa ce€mn, "which knocked a 
tooth ont of her bead*** 



WABS OF THE QAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 193 

were cut off between it and the wood on the other aide. 
They retreated iherefore to the sea^ like a herd of oows in 
heat^ from sun, and from gadfliess and from insecta; and 
they were pursued dosely, rapidly, and lightly ; and the 
foreigners were drowned in great numbers in the sea,^ and 
they lay in heaps and in hundreds, confonnded, after 
parting with their bodily senses and understandings, under 
the powerful, stout, belabouring; and under the tremen- 
dous, hard-hearted pressure, with which the Dai Cais, and 
the men of Conacht, and as many aa were alao there of 
the noblea of Erinn, pursued them. 

CX. It waa then that Tordhelbhach, the aon of Mu]>- TordeiUch, 
chadh, son of Brian, went after the foreigners into the sea^ Smâdim 
when the rushing tide wave atruck him a blow againat drowned at 
the weir of duain-Tarbh, and ao waa he drowned, with a aJJJS.^ 
foreigner under him,' and a foreigner in hia right hand, 
and a foreigner in hia left, and a atake of the weir 
through him. There waa not of hia age a peraon of 
greater generoaity or munificence than he in Erinn; and 
there waa not a more promising heir of the kingdom. 
For he inherited the munificence of hia father, and the 
royal dignity of hia grand&ther; and he had not com- 
pleted more than fifteen yeara at that time. He waa alao 
one of the three men who had killed moat on that day. 

Then it was that Brian'a daughter, namely, the wife Aitercation 
of Amhlaibh'a aon* said, " It appears to me,** aaid ahe^ STl^of 
" that the foreignera have gained their inheritance." Amiaff and 
" What meanest thou, O womanî" aaid Amhlaibh'a aon. ^ ^^^ 
'' The foreignera are going into the aea^ their natural inhe- 
ritanoe/' aaid ahe ; "I wonder ia it heat that ia upon them ; 
but they tany not to be milked, if it ia." Tlie aon of 
Amhlaibh became angered, and he gave her a blow.^ 

CXI. To retum, however, to Murchadh, aon of Brian. Expioîtsof 
When he had paaaed through the battalions of the foreign- JJ^*^' 
era, accompanied by the championa of the Dăl Caia, aa Brian. 
we have aaid before, there was a party of aoldiera of the 
foreigners atill before him, who had not ruahed into the 
sea as yet, who retained their senses and their memoriea, 
and who preferred enduring any amount of suffering rather 



194 



coscroîi scce'oîiel ne sccUccibti. 



Orkney, 



ând slAya 
him. 



Heattoekfl cac eTJualang a|iT)omon •otilan^ inop a mbcrcau 1f atiT) 
eSÎ^ r®" ^^ conmpc ÎTluiicaT) 8iuc|iaiT), mac Loraiţi, lajila 
Inri Ofic, aţi laţi coca *Oal Caif, ica naiţileac ocuv 
ica narcuma, ocup bd lunni locpaiiro "Daţi maig leif 
eruppu, ocuf ni jeibrif ţienna no ilpaibaifi e, ocuf ni 
biT) zerw nac TrţiaisenT), ocuf ni hw iJiug nac ixincncenT). 
1f anT) fin ţiucafcaiţi ÎDufica'D ţiucrcaţi ţio cţien 'oain- 
f aigiT), octif fxo mnlaic bulli boţib, rţien, bţitii; bfiifcer, 
na lama leii;mici luacecuaici "oefi -Deg rapaiD, t)iii- 
fai^iT) coel in cuiyip, ocup cengal in carbaiţi|i gallra 
Sfianemail bai po cen-D, cop jeppapcaip na cnaip, ocup 
cengal, ocup lara, ocup na copaigci bacap ic conţbail 
in ca€baipp, ocup rnicapcaip claiDium na lama aiUi 
ain'oeipi va aiplec, ocup va arcuma, ap roinm a cac- 
baipp ap a cui ve, cop geppapcap coel in cuipp cop 
rpapcaip in rpen miliT) pin "do Da beim comrentia 
comT)eppa map pen. 

CXII. 1p an-opin uanic in cacrniliD cupaua, angbaiT), 
®J^^°fif alUrca, CCnpaiT) mac Obpic, mac pig LoclanD i cpiplaf, 
lann, at- ocup 1 cepx:meT)on T)al Caip, ocup ba Urcip milet), ocup 
ba bepnT) cupai) no leicrea vo cac conaip ma cegeD, 
ocup TH) pini pînnmaig do Ier cinD in ca€a imacuaipu 
DO bemennaib bopba bapbapDa, ocup do bulleDoib 
Murchadh agmaţia aniapmapraca. RoDpecip fflupcoD in ni piu, 
meeUi^ ocup ba gal cpaiDi leip, ocup ţio impo papCappna ţo 
cac na lupeac cop mapb .u. jallu Dec Da Deip, ocup i 
cuie Dec Da cli Donneoc ima pabi lupeac co piafo [mac] 
Glbpic mac pi LoclanD.. Uaip pobepin cenD ţaili, ocup 
gaipaD pluaig LoclanD, ocup gali uli apcena, ocup po 
cuipepcaip comlonD peig peocaip pulea£ popDepg, ocup 
ţleicgapb glipDeofi co hanmin agapb epcapDemaiL 1p 



Ebric, son 



tacks the 
Dai Caia. 



^Siueraid, *' Sitraic," B. 

• Neck, Ltt, " the narrow part of 
the body." This bombastical deecrip- 
tion is omitted in B. 

* Wturior. It ia posaible that an- 
ţurOi the vordhere rcndered "wairior,** 
ma/ be intended as the pxoper name 
of this Champion, and that we should 



lead ** Anrad, son of Ebric,** fte. The 
romantic tale caUed the BatUe ofCkm- 
tarf so undexBtands it Bnt there is 
eridentl^r some conf usion ; for the herp 
here caUed '*8onof Ebric," is a little 
lower down called "Elbric," iriiich 
ought to be " [son of] Elbric*' R 
calls him here, when he is fast med- 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 195 

than be drowneA It was then that Murchadh perceîved Heatuck» 
Siucraid,* son of Lotar, Earl of Inşi Orc, in the midst o{^^^ 
the battalion of the D£l Cais, slaughtering and mutilating Orknejr, 
them ; and bis fmy among them was tbat of a robber 
upon a plain ; and neither pointed nor any kind of edged 
weapon could harm him ; and tbere was no strength that 
yielded not, nor thickness that became not thin. Then 
Murchadh made a violent rush at him, and dealt him a 
fieroe, powerful, crushing blow from the valiant, death- 
dealing, active right hand, in the direction of bis neck,* 
and the fastenings of the foreign hateful hehnet that was 
on his head, so that he cut the buttons, and the fastenings, 
and the clasps, and the buckles tbat were fastening the 
belmet ; and he brought the sword of the graceful left and alaji 
bând to hew and maim him afb^r the belmet had fallen ^"^ 
backwards from him ; and he cut his neck, and felled that 
brave hero with two tremendous, well-aimed blows, in 
tbat manner. 

CXII. Then came the beroic, valiant, noble, renowned Ebrfc, aon 
warrior,* the son of Ebric, son of the king of Lochlann, °{ S^Jΰ* 
into the bosom and centre of the Dăl Cais, and it was the i^^i «t- 
clear stage of a warrior, and the breach of a hero was p^ oaif. 
opened for him wberever he went ; aud he trampled to a 
litter one end of the battalion, dealing in all directions 
fierce, barbarous strokes, and victorious irresistible blows. 
Murchadh perceived this, and it was a beart-ache to him, Murchadh 
and be turned obliquely upon the battalions of the mailed- moeThto. 
men, and killed fifteen foreigners on his right, and fifteen 
on bis left, who were mail-clad, until he reached [the son 
of] Elbric, the son of the king of Lochlainn, for he was 
the head of valour and bravery of the army of Loch- 
lainn, and of all the foreigners also. And they fought a 
stout, furious, bloody, crimson combat, and a fierce, vehe- 
ment, rough, boisterous, implacable battle. And the sword 



tioned, ** Elbric, ton of the king of 
Lochlann,"* and in the second place 
'* Ebric, son of the king of Lochlann," 
transposing the names giren him in 
D., but in neither place speaking of 



"the son of Ebric" or Elbric. The 
same person is eridently meant in 
both plăcea, and the name intended 
Fas probably Eohrie or Eric; or 
perhaps Eifric 

02 



196 



coţcToti ţcce'oTiel tie sccllccibti. 



Both 

mortali^ 

woundfid. 



Elricbe- 
headed. 

Murchadh 
livQstothe 
foUowing 
da7. 

The adven- 
tureB of 
BrUiifkixig 
of IraUnd. 

Hekneds 
in pnyer, 
dfiârmghis 
Beirant to 
watch the 
battle. 



Hein- 
qnires of 
tiie senrant 
the pro- 
gniiof the 
fight 



amlaiT) bai clai'Ditim ÎTlufiSoiT) airofin aţi na mfma, 
ocuf elca vec bocaji aicci ţio le^foc |ie fio cefba6 
imualt^a, ocuf "oo "oluig in cUn'oiani ve alaim ilUroani 
a mugaiiinT) cofcelL 8ellaif in ni rin, ocuf fio lae in 
clai'Dium uaD, ocuf fio gab cenT>niullac in soill, ocuf 
fio huifc a lufii6 "oap a cenT) foifi, ocuf fio cuififec 
gleic rnifiafcala lafifin. Ro cuifi lilufi6aT> pai in igall 
a niţiT; lamfigi, ocuf fio ^ăb claiDium in gaiLl ţein 
laţifin, ocuf fio fai€ i clei€ ocr;a in gaill e co fiiacc 
ralmain cţiir ţoz\i\. "CafiaiT) T)an, in gali a fXîin pein, 
ocuf cuc zavali «oo îTlufiSoD co fio rxAX a înni iili af, 
ocuf cofi ruirpec aţi lafi ina pia^naf^. Ro feiiqpec 
cfieia, ocuf rama lafifin pofi TTluţifiaD, ocup ni fio pec 
^mx:ecc, ocup fio comniinc afioen an-of^n, in gali ocup 
mapcar), afc oen ni cef^a po ben ÎTlupScro a cem> Dun 
gali, ocup ni po mapb THupcaD in oDaich pin infi, co 
cfurf eipgi apnabafia£ co xxificn'o cfiei^fia, octip comna^ 
ocup acpigi, ocup cofi 6aiC copp Cpipc, ocup co n'oepna 
aipici, ocup a €inina 

CXIII. Imrup imoppo bpiain mic Cennecig, ppipin fie 
pin, ap compiafxxxin "Dona ca£aib fio pcaiLei) a pelL pae, 
ocup fio oplaic a palcaifi, ocup fio gab i clapecut allam, 
ocup IC aipnagi T)ap eip na cat, ocup ni fiabi ne£ na 
apuT) ace a giLla pein .1. Lacean a ainm, [o raic O Ixrcean 
pop ip in niumain.] OCpbepr; bpian ppip in gilla, pog na 
ca£a, ocup na comlonna, co ngabupa na palmu. Ho gab 
.L palm, ocup .U opian, ocup .U pauefi, ocup po imcomapc 
•oon giUa lapf^n cînnap baixxp na ca£a. Ho fiecaip in 
gilla, ocup apbepr accumacf^, ocup a?xumpc€acomT)lun 
na ca£a, ocup po f^aCc ca6 im glocan a cele T)ib. Ocup 
ni fio lia lempa rpo^rbeim 1 caill Txwnaifi, ocup .un. 
caCa ica repcao înna ufiopcbeim 1 cenxKnb, ocup 1 



1 CfuMm. Pell, KL a akin, Le. a 
earpet, rog, or cnshion made of for, or 
•kin. 

^From whom, The clanţe withm 
bracketa ocean in both MSS., bat ii 
inconaistent with the early date of thia 



work; it ia eridentty the inteipolatiMi 
of aome tranacriber. 

•iVayen. lit, Orate^s: meaninţ 
probabljr litaniee, or prayen cootbt- 
ing of > the wordt ora, or, orala pro 
nobii. 



WABS OF THE GAEDUIL WTTH THE OAILL. 197 

of Murchadh at that time was inlaid with ornament, and 
the inlajâng that was in it melted with the excessive heat 
of the striking, and the buming sword defb his hand, tear- ' 
ing the fork of his fist. He perceived that, and cast the 
sword from him, and he laid hold of the top of the 
foreigner's head, and pulled his ooat of nudl over his head 
forward, and they then fought a wrestling combat. Then 
Murchadh put the foreigner down under him, by ihe 
force of wrestling, and then he caught the foreigner's own 
sword and thrust it into the ribs of the foreigner's breast, 
imtil it reached the ground through him, three timea 
The foreigner then drew his knife, and with it gave Mur- Both 
chadh such a cut, that the whole of his entrails were cut ^^^ 
out, and thej fell to the ground before him. Then did 
shiverings and faintings descend on Murchadh, and he 
faad not power to move, so that they fell by each other 
ihere, the foreigner and Murchadh. But at the same time Eiric be- 
Murchadh cut oflF* the foreimer's head. And Murchadh ^^*^^ 
did not die that night, nor until sunrise the next day;i|ye8toth6 
until he had received absolution, and communion, andţ>^^^g 
penanoe, and until he had taken the Body of Chiist, and 
until he had made his oonfession and his wilL 

CXIII. Let us speak now of the adventures of Brian, Theadren- 
8on of Cenneidigh, during this time. When the forces met BriSL^kiiur 
in combat, his cushion^ was spreadunder him, and he opened of lieUnd. 
his psalter ; and he began to clasp his hands and to pray He kneels 
after the battle had commenced ; and there was no one ^^^*5j, 
with him but his own attendant, whose name was Latean senrant to 
[from whom* are the O'Lateans, still in Mumhain]. Brian J^^^*'** 
said to the attendant, watch thou the battles and the com- 
bats, whilst I sing the psalms. He sang fifty psalms, and g^ i^. 
fifty prayerS)' and fifty patemosters» and he asked the quir wof 
attendant after that what the condition of the battalions ^he pm^ 
wa& The attendant answered and said, ''Mixed and ip^«» of tbt 
dosely confounded are the battalions, and each of them ^ 
has come within the grasp of the other ; and not louder in 
my ears would be the echoes of blows from Tomar's Wood, 
îf seven battalions were cuttiug it down, than are the re- 



198 cosccDti ţoce-otiel ae satLccibti. 

cnonioib, ocuf i ceiromulloisib ecopîW). Ocuf fio lofiţccis 
cînnar bi mepsi TnupcaiT), ocuf afbefir; in gilla, ica na 
l^effum, ocuf mofian tk) meţigeDaib T)al Caif iimi, ocuţ* 
ini'oa cern) ca 7)ib|iU5UT> cuci, ocuf ila£ cofcaip, octip 
comaiDmi leif vo cennaib na njalL 1f moifi in fceL 
fin, om, a|i bpian. 

Ro hocoifise a pell paei, ocuf ţio gab na fcnlm, 
ociif na hofiran, ociif na părţii pon cop cecna, octiţ* 
po lappaig "oon pila cînnap bocap na ca£a, ocup po 
pecaip in gilla, ocup acbepr;: — Wi puii beo apralum 
nec 7)0 bepao aifini ap nec pec a cele wb. Daig 
iT;pocaip popula in caca cefcap-oa, ocup înnoc ip beb po 
linaic T)o bpaenjail na pola popucinnaiDi ecep cenî>» 
ocup copp, ocup ea UT) înnap nafi obpe'o a aixxip aicni op 
a mac uap ne£ Dib, ocup bacap mepc ap mepc. bi ica 
lappaigiT) cînnap bai mepgi Hlup^aiu CCpbepcin gilla 
pi baca ua*a e ; ocup po pocc cpep na ccrcaib pap, 
ocup bai ina heppum pop. CCpbepc bpian ip niai€ becic 
pip epenT), appe, cen biap in niepgi pin na heppum, tkxis 
biaiT) a mepnefi pein, ocup a nensnum in jafi T)uni Dib 
1 cen icicepoc in nriepţi pin. 

Ro hocipsex) a pell po bpian, ocup po jab .L palm, 
ocup .L opîan, ocup .1. pacep, ocup po bap icun imuaUro 
pop pipin. Ro lappaig lappin, "Don jilla cînnap bocap 
na cafea. OCpbepc in pila. 1p amail pin amail po bi 
coill 'Comaip ap lopcaD a minbaig, ocup a hoc cpunx), 
ocup na pecc cafea coecaip ap mip ica s^ppoT), [ocup a 
pailje po ih6pa, ocup a •oaipge '5ioif)opa ina peppaiîi- 
1p arîilai'5 pin acdi) na cafea ceiferxxp'Ba ap ccuicim a 
ppoplSa uile, a£c uafea^ "oa TxpăinpeipaiB, ocup tmi 
ccpeinrfiilea^aiC na pepparfi. 1p aifilai'b caxro na cafea 
cefcap'oa p6p ap na ccolla*, ocup ap na ccpea^Doft, 
ocup op na pccaoileT), ocup acar) 50 hanop'Daigfee 
imaccuaipc, ocup bleich muilinn ruaifepil oppa, ocuţ» 

* From htm, i.e. from Marchadh. Ţecc ceata ocncci^ip of, mip a^ 

« Undenpood, Here the MS. D. contefh, ocup a T^ail^ \vo fh6pa, 

endi impeifectly. The concluaioii ha» yc., as in the text. 

been sopplied from B. « Wrong way. LiL,** tuiung north- 

^A moH^ B. xeadA, ocup na wards," or to the left-hand. 



WARS OF THE GAEDHIL WITH THE GAILL. 199 

sounding blows upon heads, and bones, and skulls, on both 
sides." Then he asked what was the condition of Mur- 
chadh's standard ; and the attendant said — '* It is standing, 
and many of the banners of the Dai Cais are around it ; 
and many heads are falling around it, and a multitude of 
trophies, and spoils, with heads of the foreigners are along 
with it." That is good news, indeed, said Brian. 

His cushion was readjusted under him, and he sang the 
psakns, and the prayers, and the paters, in the same man- 
ner as before. And he asked of the attendant, again, what 
the condition of the battalions was ; and the attendant 
answered and said — "There is not living on earth one 
who could distinguish one of them from the other. For, 
the greater part of the hosts at either side are fallen, and 
those who are alive are so covered with spatterings of the 
crimson blood, head, body, and vestnre, that afather could 
not know his son from any other of them, so confounded 
are they." He then asked what was the condition of 
Murchadh's standard. The attendant said that it was far 
from him/ and that it passed through the battalions, west- 
wards, and was still standing. Brian said, ** The men of 
Erinn shall be well while that standard remains stand- 
ing, because their courage and valour shall remain in them 
all, as long as they can see that standard." 

His cushion was readjusted under Brian, and he sang 
fifty psahns, and fifty prayers, and fifty paters ; and the 
fighting continued all that time. He asked then of the« 
attendant, in what state were the forces ? The attendant 
answered — " They appear to me the same as if Tomar's 
Wood was on fire, and the seven battalions had been 
cutting away its underwood* [and it« young shoots, for 
a month,' leaving its stately trees and its immense oaks 
standing. In such manner are the armies on either side, 
afber the greater part of them have fellen, leaving a few 
brave men and gallant heroes only standing. Their 
further condition is, they are wounded, and pierced 
through, and (J^membered ; and they are disorganized all 
round like the grindings of a mill tuming the wrong 
way,^ and the foreigners are now defeated, and Murchadh's 



200 coscroti scce-otiel ne scclLccibti 

^n'8 fiomui'fe anofa aji na sallcciC, ocup î)o ^uic meifiţe 
Uononthe Tl^uficha'5. 'CfiUd^ an fccel fin, aţi bţiian ; va\i mo 
Miâadh. ^^î^^'^î^ apr®> "oo zmx: eineac, ocuf engnani ejienn an 
can "00 tmv an meiţxge fin, ocuf "oo €tiii; epe "oe 50 
p'f, octif noca mcpa rapaeif co bţidC aon laoc a lonn- 
farfiail na cofmaileif an laoic fin. Ocof ca bu'B peifiT)e 
•oaififa ci'5 af fo -do 'Beacainn, ocuf s^ma^ 6 ficche 
an 'DOîhain vo gebainn T^aţi eif îTluţichaB, ocuf Conainj, 
ocuf maiie T)al cCaif aţi cena. OCleb aţi an ^olta, va 
nT)ei|inT;a oţi mfa "00 fa|€a aţi €each, ocuf "oo ţiachmaoif 
•oon lonspoţir, ocuf "oo beimif iriţi na 51U1B, octif jac 
aon Tncfaf af fo af cuccainn 6iucpaf. Ocuf ap umamn 
larypaiT) uile, 'ooigh acdi-o na ca€a mefcc aţi tnefcc aţi 
na mbtiai'ftţieaB, ocuf Dna "oo 6ini§eT>aţ\ 'Dţieam vo ncp 
gallail!) reiche-B ifin ffaiţiţige, ocuf nî feiT)aniaţi cia 
ncpa cuccainn arfiail ac