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Full text of "Coghlan's Handbook for Travellers in Southern Italy, Comprising Rome, Naples, and Sicily"

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I:tJ.£/Zr.&S 




l^arbatti College Hibtatg 
X^AM.. tavo. &U«*. 



S « 



I< 



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C o-A^'Vv-«Wi , ^'' /^.'i^/'Vv^A/i 



COG H LAN'S 



F0& TAAYEIJ^BBS IN 



SOUTHERN ITALY; 



COMPBISINO 



ROME, NAPLES, AND SICILY, 

WITH THE NECE8SABY INFOIUIATION BESPEGTINa 

PASSPORTS, MOI^T, LUGGAGE, RAILEOADS, 
STEAM PA9KETS, HOTELS, Etc. 



FIFTH edition; 

OOBBECTBD UP TO THE PBBSENT TIME. 



ILLUSTRATED BY LARGE MAPS OF ITALY AND 
SICILY, ROME AND NAPLES. 



LONDON: 

TRUBNEB A Co., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1863. 



(• 



f 



, 



C O-A^W^-^VW J J- 7^«v^^VtA^ 



GOGH LAN'S 




FOB TaATEIXEBS IN 



SOUTHERN ITALY; 



OOMPBISINO 



ROME, NAPLES, AND SICILY, 

WITH THE NECE8SABY I17F0B1LLTI0N BESPEGTINa 

PASSPORTS, MOI^T, LUGGAGE, RAILEOADS, 
STEAM PA9KETS, HOTELS, Etc. 



FIFTH edition; 

OOBBBCTBD UP TO THE PBBSENT TIKE. 



ILLUSTRATED BY LARGE MAPS OF ITALY AND 
SICILY, ROME AND NAPLES. 



LONDON: 
TRUBNEB A Co., 60, PATERNOSTEE ROW. 

1863. 



Ifa./£/^sJS 




s 






ROMAN-STATER. 



Passports. Before the traveller enters the Papal States, it is 
indispensably necessary that his passport bear the visa either of 
the Nuncio residing in the last capital he has visited, or of a Pa- 
pal ConsuL It will save trouble, in the event of his passing through 
France at the outset of his tour, to obtain the visa of the Nun- 
cio at Paris ; but if circumstances deprive him of the opportunity 
of applying to a Minister,' the signature of the Consul in some 
important town will be sufficient The Austrian visa is also de- 
sirable, not merely for the Papal States, but for all parts of Italy. 
On arriving at the frontier, the passport is examined and coun- 
tersigned; and in sea^ports, as Ancona and Givita Yecchia, the 
signature of a British Consm is necessary. 

On entering the principal towns of the Papal States, with 
few exceptions, the passport is demanded at the gates, in order 
to be signed; but, to save delay, the traveller is allowed to name 
the inn at which he purposes to stop, so that the passport may 
be sent affcer him. A fee of one or two pauls is required for each 
viaa; and in garrison towns this process is repeated on leaving. 

Before the traveller quits Rome on his return to England, it 
is desirable that his nassport be signed by the Ministers of all 
the Sovereigns through wnose domihions it is intended to pass: 
those of Austria (ana Tuscany), Sardinia, and France, shouM on 
no account be omitted. 

Lascia-passare. Persons travelling in their own carriage should 
write b^orehand to ^«iv oorrespondent, or banker, at Some, or 
to the British Consul, requesting that a lascia-passare may be for- 
warded to the frontier, and an^er left at the gates of Rome, ih 
order to avoid (he formalities of the custom-house. The lascia- 
pasaare is never granted to persons travelling in public-carriages. 

CusTOM-HosssB (Dogana). The Papal frontier-stations and cus- 
tom-houses are marked by the arms of the rdgning Pontiff, sur- 
mounted by the triple crown and crossed keys. 

The custom^'hDaBe visitation is less severe than in many other 
States of Italy, and a small foe will save the traveller much in- 
convenience. Books are the especial object of inquiry. 

Money. The Roman coinaee ie on the decimal system. Ac- 
counts are kept in bajocchi of 6 quattrini each: in pauls, of 10 
b^jocchi; and in scudi^ of 10 pauls. The principal coins in use 
are — the new gold piece, of 6 scudi: the silver scudo, of 10 pauls; 
the paul; and the bajoccho. Some of the old gold coins, are still 
current, and are, therefore, included in the following Tabular State- 
ment of the coinage, giving the intrinsic value in English a^- 



IV 



HONIT. — ROADS. 



cording to the weight of gold and silver, and the legal value in 
the other Italian moneys. The minute fractions, which would only 
affect the calcnlatioga <»f considerable siimst are not given. It is 
necessary to premise that the Roman money, in comparison with 
that of Tuscany, suffers a decrease of 5 per cent, called the 
tara; hence the Tuscan franeescone, which is also a piece of 10 
pauls, is equal to IOV4 Roman pauls, or 4 s, 5i|a d. English. 



GOLD. 

DoppU nuova of Pius 

yn. (pistole) . . . :r B2 paala 1 baj. 
Zecchino (sequin) . . n-20 „ 5 „ 
The new pteee of 5 

Bcndl =50 „ . . 

Ditto of 2V3Scadi . . 25 ,, . 

SILySR. 

The scndo (Roman 

dollar) =10 „ . . 

Mezzo scudo . . . . = .5 „ . . 

Testone = S „ . . 

Papetto = 2 ,, . . 

Paolo (pan!) . . . . = . .10 baj. 

Grosso (V2 paal) . . . rz • * « 

COPPER. 

Bajoccho = . . 5 quat. 

Mezzo bajoccho . . .= . . 2V2,; 
Quattrino =3 . . 8 den. 



=3 
10 
d 
H 



s. d. 
13 8I/2 
94V2 

81 41/4 
10 8V« 



4SV4 
2 n/a 

18V« 

10V4 

OsVs 

2V2V16 



about Vs 



h 

m o 



17 87 
1180 

28 86 
1314 



1^ 



5 37 
2 69 
1 61 
107 
54 
27 



6 



80 118 

14 1 

3119 6 
16 



6 68 
3 34 
118 
1 54 

18 8 
64 



13 



I 

jo 
a** 
£9 



12 33 
8 43 

1818 
960 



880 
190 
1 14 
76 
38 
19 



19 83 
13 55 

30 87 
15 44 



617 
8 09 
185 
123 
61 
30 



6 



I 



The Napoleon is generally worth 37 pauls; the Spanish dollar 
10 pauls; the Tuscan francescone 10i|4 pauls; the Neapolitan piastre 
9 pauls, 4 baj. ; the Neapolitan ducat 7 pauls, 9 baj. ; the Carline 
7 baj., 9 den.; the grano 4 quattrini or S denari; 100 Neapolitan 
ducats are, th^efore, 79 Roman scudi. The e'Xchange with Eng- 
land is said to be at par when the pound sterling is calculated 
at 45 pauls ; but its real value may be more correctly stated at 
between 46 and 47 pauls. In Bologna, the Koman scudo is divided 
into 5 lire, and the bajoccho is cidlea a soldo : this lira is equal 
to 1 fr. 07 cents, or 76 Horentine centesimi 

Roads. The roads in the Papal States are generally good but 
the nature of the country is unsuitable to their construction, and 
they still retain their ancient subdivision into three classes: t^e 
consular, provincial, and communal and the Papal government de- 
serves great credit for the liberality of their improvement; as 
there are few countries in which the establishment of new lines 
of communication has been more encouraged, in proportion to 
the limited means at its disposal. The English system is now gene- 



rally followed, and BaUwayB have la^y obtained the approval of 
the GDTemment, by whk^ Nasties and Rome, Rome and Florence 
will be iNTonght within a few hours trayeUing. 

PosTHMw The Poat Houses in the Papal States are distii^Qshed 
by the arms of the reigning PontilB^, me Oardinai Chamberlain, 
and the Director-Genjaral of Posts. The serrioe is done by con- 
tract, subject to the general control of Gfovemment Fked charges 
are made for posting, postillions, &c There are no turnpikes. 

A printed book of instructions at each Post House for the 
convenience of ^e traveller contains the following: — ^Horses and 
postillions are to be always ready for service. Open and covered 
carriages are to be kept for travellers who require them. Post- 
masters are forbidden to supply horses without a written license 
from the authorities of the place of departure, or a passport from 
the secretary of state. Postmasters are not allowed to supply 
saddle horses to travellers, unless they have a sufficient number 
remaining to fulfil the duties of the post; nor are they allowed 
to send horses forward to change on the road, nor to transfer 
horses fh)m one station to anooier. They are bound to keep two 
postillions ready for service night and day, and to have written 
over t^e principal door of the post-house the length of the post, 
price of the course, and a statement of the right of a third or 
fourth horse. The third or fourth horse can only be enforced where 
the tariff specially allows it. When there are no horses, post- 
masters are bound to give travellers a declaration in writing to 
that effect (lafedej; after which they may provide themselves 
wi^ horses elsewhere. The time allowed from one post to another 
is two hours; for ordinary or extraordinaiy estafettes, carrying 
despatches on horseback, one hour and a half. Postmasters are 
forbidden to demand more than the price allowed by the tariff. 
The following regulations are adopted in regard to carriges. 

1. For cabriolets or covered carriages with one seat, what- 
ever their aumber of wheels, carrying a small trunk and travel- 
ling bag (or a small imperial only), two horses, if travellers be 
not more than three ; three horses, if there are four passengers, 
with power to dharge for four horses, which the travellers may 
have attached to the carriage on paying for a second postillion. 

2. For^ covered carriages, with two seats and leather curtains 
by the side, like the common vetturino, and for regular chariots 
having only on seat, both descriptions carrying a trunk, a tra- 
velling bag, and a small portmanteau, three horses, if there be 
two or three persons ; if four persons, then a fourth horse is char- 
ged, which the travellers may have as before, on paying a1§e- 
oond postillion. If these carriages contain five or six persons, they 
are considered carriages of the third class. 

8. For Berlines and carriages of four seats, with an impe- 
rial, a trunk, travelling bag, &c., four horses, ir carrying two or 
three persons ; if four, then a fifth horse is charged ; if five or six 
persons, six horses ; if seven, the number of horses is the same, 
but seven are charged. 



J 



tl MTiNC. 

Where eaniages contain a greater miniber than ig mentioiied 
abOTe under each class, no greater ntmber of horses is reqiured, 
but a charge of four pauls per {K>6t is fixed for each perwn abore 
the number. A child under seven years is act reckoned, but two 
of that age are counted as one person. 

When the quantity of Inggage is evidestiy greater than the 
usual weight, a tax of three pauls per post is allowed to be im- 
posed. Travellers may obtain, on startmg^ a bolUtta cU maggio, 
specifving in separate columns all particulars relating to thenum- 
her of horses^ baggage, charf^es, &c*, exclusive of postillions and 
ostlers. In this case one is given to the traveller^ the other to the 
postillion, who is bound to pass it to the next, until it is finally 
lodged in the post-office of the town at which the jouined ends. 
All complaints may be noted on this doenment, as well as any 
expression of ben aervito on the part of the ^ostiUions. Travel* 
lers should obtain this bolletia at the post office ei the first post 
town; it will protect them from imposition, and costs only one panl. 
In case of dispute between travellers lud postmaster or po* 
stillions, it is provided by the general order of Cardinal Chamb^- 
lain, that an appeal be made to thje local director fdireitore lo* 
cale), who has power to put both postmaster and his men under 
arrest for three days, or to suspend them for ten days, reporting 
the fact to the director-general in Borne, to whom it belongs to 
take ulterior measures, hi places where the post-house is an inn, 
travellers are sometimes told that there are no horses in erdec to 
induce them to stop. If there be reason to suspect that ^s state- 
ment is made from interested motives, application should at once 
be made to the local director. There are few places of any note 
in which a director is not to be found : he is generally a person 
of responsibility, and the complaints of travellers are met with 
promptitude and courtesy. 

The following is the Tariff for Ordinary Posts: 

Each horse 5 pauls pier post. 

Postillion, each 3V9 ditto ditto 

Stable-boy, for every pair ... 'fi ditto ditto 
Saddle horse, or courier ... 4 (Utto ditto 

Two-wheel carriage 3 ditto ditto 

A carriage with four places inside, 
and four wheels, furnished by 

the postmaster 6 ditto ditto 

The postillion^s biionamano, although fixed by the preceding 
tariff at 3i|2 pauls, is generally 5i|2 of 6 pauls, or more, accord^ 
iug to good conduct. A separate postillion is required for each 
pair of horses. The following wiU, therefore, be the expense of 
posting, giving each postillion d^^ pauls per post: 

PoBt. 2 horses, 3 horses. 4 horses and 8 postillions. 

I . . 16 pauls . . 21 pauls . . 32 pauls 

1»|4 . . 20 „ . . 26.2 „ . . 40 „ 

l'/2 . . 24 „ . . 21.4 „ . . 48 „ 

. l»/4 . . 28 „ . . 36.6 „ . . 56 „ 



i 



^QVmm. — ^^'ETTUiUKI. . vu 



V 



The length of the drdinaiy Roman post in 8 iMles^ equal to 
7 miles 712 yards EBflish; but the post rturiea CDnsiderablj ac- 
Gordiog to loeality, and to the eharacteir of theconntiy. The length 
of the Roman mile ill Ij^ English yards, abont one twelfth less 
than an English mile. The length of the Tuscan mile is 1^08 
English yards; of the Neapolitan mile 2^436 yards; of the Pied- 
montese mile 2,836 yards. The Italian mile of 60 to the degree 
is 2,026.4 English yards. The Roman foot is 11.72 English mches; 
the pahn is 3|4 of ihe foot, or nearly 8^/4 inches* 

VETTURim. Persons who do not travel in their own carriage 
must, in a great measure, be dependent on the vettunno : indeed 
there are many parts where it is the only available mode of com*- 
munication. The tourist who travels in his own earriage with vet« 
turino horses will find that althought it may cost somewhat less 
tiian the post, the saving scarcely compensates f<^r the loss of 
time. A duplicate agreement should be drawn up b^ore startmgi^ 
and attested by some person in authority. The vetturino gener* 
ally undertakes to provide breakfast^ dmner, supper, ana bed; 
the charge for one place varies, hut it ought not to be more than 
two 8cu£ a-day: from Bologna ta Rome, a journey occupving 
seven or eight days, the charge is irom nine to ten seudi; m>m 
Bologna to flarenoe three to four scudi; and from Florence to 
Rome seven to ten seudi, varying from ^ye to six dajs. When a 
single traveller or a party of friends engage a vetturmo, the bar- 
gain should expressly stipulate that no other person is to be taken 
up on any pret^ce whatever; otherwise occasions will soon be 
found for forcing other persons into the carriiage. It often hap- 
pens that the vettunno sells his engagements, in which case a 
traveller may be exposed to two or three changes of vehicle: 
this daould also be specified in the agreement, as well as any 
particular stages into which he may wish to divide the journey. 
The biumamano or manda is usually <|2 scudo a*day, if ^^ben 
servito," or more if the journey be a short one: it is desirable 
that this be not included in the contract, but made conditional on 
ffood beha/dduv. When a vetturino is required to stop on the road 
for the convenience of travellers, he expects them to pay one or 
two scudi a night for each horse's expenses. In this respect post^ 
ing has an advantage, ad it allows travellers to stop when they 
pleate) and visit places on the road, without this additional cost 

Hi)TKis. These are given in detail under- the descriptions of 
the different towns; in the capitals and provincial cities they are 
generall^r excellent throughout the States: but at the intermediate 
post-stations they are wretchedly bad. The prices vary in dif- 
ferent towns, and particularly according to the circumstances in 
which the traveller makes his appearance; the charges for tiiose 
who travel in their own carriages being notoriously higher, fre- 
quently by 100 per cent, than for those who travel vetturino. 

Geiokal Topography. The Papal States are bounded on the north 
by the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, on the east by the Adriatic, on 



mi HOTELS. — fiERERAL T0PeFRAPinr.-^60>'SRNEMENT. 

the 9c»!ith-eftst W Naples, on the south-west by the MediteiTan6aii)aTid 
on the west by Tuscany and Modena. The superficial area^ according 
to government surveys at 18,017 Italian square milesi It is calculated, 
however, that only a third part of the surface is cultivated, and 
a considerable portion of the country is very thinly inhabited. 

The territories comprised in the Papal States have been ac- 
quired at various periods, by inheritance, by session, and by con- 
quest In the eighth century, the Duchy of Biome, which constituted 
tiie first temporal possession of the Holy See, was conferred by 
Pepin on Stephen IL Iil the twelfth century, the allodial posses- 
sions of the Countess Matilda passed to the church ; that portion 
of them, which is well known as the Patrimony of St. Peter, ex- 
tends from Rome to Bolsena, including the coast line from the 
mouth of the Tiber to the Tuscan frontier. On the return of the 
Popes from Avignon, and on the subsequent subjection of the 
pettv princes of Romagna and Umbria, other important districts 
graaually fell under the poiier ot the church. Perugia, Orvieto, 
Cittk di Castello and numerous dependent towns acknowledged 
tiie sovereignty of the Popes ; and the conquests of JuHus II. added 
to the dominions of the Holy See Ihe important districts of Bologna 
and Ravenna. 

The States are divided into twenty provinces. Eadi province 
is divided into communes, and eleven of them are divided into 
districts, with peculiarities of local govemment 

The Roman Government is an unlimited elective hierarchy, the 
head of which is the Pope, who is chosen by the College of Car- 
dinals out of their own body. The number of the Cardmals was 
limited to seventy by Sixtus V., in allusion to the number of dis- 
ciples whom the Saviour commissioned to spread the gospel through- 
out the world; but the college is seldom full All vacancies in their 
body are filled up by the Pope, whose power in this respect is 
absolute. The Cardinals constitute what is caUed the Sacred Col- 
lege, and are the Princes of the Church. They rank in three 
classes. The six Cardinal Bishops (Ostia, Porto, Sabina, Palestrina, 
Albano, Frascati); Fifty Cardinal Priests; Fourteen Cardinal Dea- 
cons. They all receive salaries, independently of any revenues 
which they may 4^rive from benefices, and from the emoluments 
of public offices. On the death of the Pope, the supreme power 
is exercised by Uie Cardinal Chamberlain for nine days, and dur- 
ing that time he has the privilege of coining money in his own 
name and impressed with his own arms. On the ninth day, the 
fimeral of the deceased Pope takes place, and on the day follow- 
ing the Cardinals are summoned to the secret conclave to elect 
his successor. They are shut up till they agree : the voting is se- 
cret, and the election is determined by a majority of two-thirds, 
subject to the privilege of Austria, France, and Spain, to put 
each a veto on one candidate. The conditions of the election re- 
quire that the Pope be fifty-five years of age, a Cardinsi,! and an 
Italian by birth. 



s. 




Y, 



ggs, 6 

lintlte 

iitsl>e- 
oitrded 
Melga 

iia,isa 
DrUble 
( table 
Are, 6 



B& Melga, bas published bis pri- 
ces, which will enable persons be- 
fore entering to know wbat ex- 
pense they are likely to incur. 
The charge for apartments de- 
pends upon the number of rooms, 
and the number of aturs to reach 



: mu<:£ 

re, but 
,-rdg pri- 
ces. Apartments trom i panls up- 
wards. Plain breakfast, 3 pauls; 
eggs or meat extra; a yery good 
table d'hote at six in the aum- 
mer and five in the winter, in- 
cluding wine, 6 pauls. 

Bbtel Mtloni, in the Piaiaa del 



VIII 

the »oj 

on the 
togovc 
howevi 
a con9 
T\ 
quired, 
quest, 
the fin 
Pepin 
sions < 
of tbei 
tends 
moutb. 
Popes 
petty 1 
gradixa 

Gittk 1 
the Bor 
to the 
and B 

Xi 
is divi 
distric 

T 
head < 
dinals 
limited 
ciples 
out tb; 
body 
absolu 

lege, j 

dassei 
Albaol 
cons. 4 

which J • 

of pul' 
is exel 
ing thi' 
name f 
fimerai 
ing th< 

his suci.. _ _ • 

cret, and the election is determined by a majority of two-thirds, 
subject to the privilege of Austria, France, and Spain, to put 
each a veto on one candidate. The conditions of the election re- 
quire that the Pope be fifty-five years of age, a Cardinal and an 
Italian by birth. 



HAND-BOOK 



FOR 



SOUTHERN ITALY, 



OR 



GUIDE-BOOK FOR TRAVELLERS. 



ROME. 



Hotels : S^tel de Londres. This 
establishment consists of two large 
houses in the Piazza di Spagna. 
The proprietors, Messrs Semy, 
have rendered their houses ex- 
ceedingly desirable for first-rate 
families; excellent cooking in tJie 
English and French style : there 
is no table d'h6te, but dinners 
are served in the apartments at 
all prices. Families residing in 
the hotel will be furnished with 
every accommodation for balls and 
entertainments. The wines are 
excellent. Arrangements can be 
made for board and lodging. 

JSotel de V Europe, This is also 
a first-rate estabUshment in tiie 
Piazza di Spagna. The proprietor, 
Mr Melga, has published his pri- 
ces, which will enable persons be- 
fore entering to know what ex- 
pense they are likely to incur. 
The charge for apartments de- 
pends upon the number of rooms, 
and the number of stairs to reach 



them. Breakfast, with eggs, 5 
pauls; h, la fourchette, 6 pauls; 
tea, 3 pauls ; dinner, served in the 
apartments at 10 pauls, 15 pauls, 
and 2 and S^ scudi: servants be- 
longing to families are boarded 
at 7 pauls the day. Mrs Melga 
is an Englishwoman. 

Hotel d' Angleterrcy centralljr si- 
tuated in the Piazza Tortonia, is a 
very good^ clean, and comfortable 
bouse, with an excellent tabic 
d'h6te daily at half-past five, 6 
pauls; breakfast, 8 pauls. 

Motel Allemagne^ Via Condotti 
near the Piazza di Spagna, very 
good, well-situated house: much 
larger than the Angleterre, but 
upon the same scale as regards pri- 
ces. Apartments from 4 pauls up- 
wards. Plain breakfast, 3 pauls; 
eggs or meat extra; a very good 
table d'hdte at six in the sum- 
mer and five in the winter, in- 
cluding wine, 6 pauls. 

Hotel Melonifin the Piazza del 



2 



GSNTRAL ITALY. — ROME. 



Popolo, a first-rate, well-situated 
hotel, and adapted for families of 
distinction. 

There are also the Hotel de 
BuesiCf Hotel de Paris j Hotel de la 
Minerva , Hotel Ceaare, a hotel 
garni, &c., but I do not know 
these sufficiently to recommend 
them. Apartments, as may readily 
be supposed, are numerous and at 
all prices. Single men, who are 
not particular as to locality, may 
get one room for 60 pauls amonth ; 
m the Piazza di Spagna a suite 
of apartments will cost from 15 to 
40 louis a month ; in the Piazza del 
Popolo from 18 to 20 ; in the Corsa, 
from 18 to 30; and in other less 
frequented situations, from 10 to 
20. A valet de place may be hired 
at 10 pauls a day ; engaging one 
for any time 7 or 8 pauls a day. 

Bookseller, Beading Boom, arid 
Circulating Lihra/ry. — V.Monal- 
dini, Piazza di Spagna, No. 79, 
having regular communications 
every foft-night, can procure the 
most recent publications from Pa- 
ris and London, and rereives sub- 
scriptions to the *Galignani's Mes- 
senger,' or any other papers. A 
large collection of English, 
French, and Italian Works, Al- 
manacks, Army and Navy Lists, 
&c. &c. for sale. 

Terms of subscription to the 
reading room: 



To Reading Boom 


To Reading Room 


and Library. 


only. 


sc. pa, 


sc pa. 


3 weeks. . 2 5 


1 week ..09 


1 month. . 3 


2 ditto ..15 


2 ditto ..32 


3 ditto ..17 


3 ditto ..74 


1 montli ..20 


4 ditto ..90 


2 ditto ..33 


5 ditto . . 11 


3 ditto ..45 


6 ditto . . IS 


4 ditto ..58 




5 ditto ..70 




6 ditto .85 



The foUowingregulationsareto 

be observed in the reading room : 

The rooms are open to subscribers 

very day from nine in the morning 



till nine in the evening: on holi- 
days, from twelve to two in the 
morning, and from five till nine in 
the evening: on Christmas-day 
and Easter Sunday the room is 
closed by order of government* 
Subscribers are requested to in- 
sert their places of residence after 
their names in the book. No news- 
paper or pamphlet to be taken out 
of the readine room without the 
permission of the proprietor. 

The subscription money is al- 
ways paid in advance. 

Bestaurateurs, — Lepri, Via 
Gondotd; Bentini, Corso. 

Cafis. — Ruspoli, in the Corso j 
Nazarri, Piazza di Spagna; Di 
Venezia, Piazza Sciarra. 

Bankers. — Torlonia and Co.. 
Piazza di Venezia; Freeborn and 
Co., Via Condotti, 7; Plowden, 
Cholmley and Co., Piazza Sciarra; 
Macbean and Co., Via Condotti, 
No. 2 1 ; Macquay, Packenham, and 
Co., Piazza di Spagna, No. 20. 

Agents for the packing and ship' 
ment of works of art. — Mr W. 
Jackson, Via Babuino, 38, corres- 
pondent of Mr Chinnery, Lower 
Thames street, London; Mr Paula 
Trebby, Via Condotti, correspon- 
dent to the Messrs M*Craken, Old 
Jewry, London. 

Promenades.-^ The Pincian hill, 
the villa Borghese, and the villa 
Pampili Doria. 

The English church is open 
from the middle o' October till 
the end of May, under the direc- 
tion of the Rev. James H tchinson. 
No. 85 Piazza di Spagna. The 
morning service begins at eleven, 
the after-noon at three, according 
id the ritual of the Church of 
England. 

Kome is celebrated for works 
of statuary, or in all qualities o • 
marble, mosaics, ancient and mof 
dern paintings, and Roman pearls- 



RiOVAtV Sf ATB8.-^110IIS. 



tiiere is also 4%o«sitl«rab1e export! 
df woo], larnH* ikid kid skins, the 
produce of the Campagna. These 
articles are shipped by the Tiber 
at the custom house of Ripa 
Grrande in Rokne, where the river 
is navigable for vessels of about 
eighty tons burden. 

Cigars. — The tobacco trade is 
favoured by the government to 
Messrs Torlonia and Co. The im- 
portation of tobacco manufactu- 
red out of the States is prohibited. 

Principal dep6t is in the corso, 
near the Via della Conventite. 

Hachney Coaches, — The prin- 
cipal stands are in the Piazza di 
Spagna, the Piazza di Yenezia, and 
opposite the post office: the price 
of the first hour is 4 pauls ; of the 
successive hours, 3 pauls; but on 
festival days it is necessary to 
make a pnvate agreement. Car- 
riages and saddle horses irom 
Barfoot'S) No. 151 Via Babuino; 
Brown's, 78 Due Macelli : the price 
is one dollar per day. 

Fas^fHyrts. — ^The fees to the con- 
suls:— English, 5 pauls; Neapoli- 
tan^ 5 pauls; Tuscan, gratis; Sar- 
dinian, 8 pauls; French, 5 pauls; 
Swiss, 5 pauls; police, 6 pauls. 
Persons staying any time must 
send to the police office for a 
permit of residence; this costs 
6 pauls. 

Prices of clothes vary according 
to the quality of the cloth. High 
duty, clothes dear; coat, 8/. 10s. 
to U 

Italian Masters, of course, are 
numerous ; price, 6 pauls a lesson. 

Post Office,— LietteTS for Great 
Britain or the United States must 
be franked to the frontier. To any 
part of the Continent on a single 
letter the charge is half a paul; 
to England or the United States, 
l>|i paul. 

Theatres. — Apollo, near the 



Ponte ^'AngeiOjf open it thfe car- 
nival season only, for ^and ope- 
ras; the pit from 3 to 5 pauls; 
boxes as per agreement: Arger- 
tina: both belonging to Torlonia. 
— Valle,Matastasio, and Aliberti. 
for comedy and tragedy ; price of 
admittance to the pit, I'jipaul.— 
The Teatro Diurno, at the Mauso- 
leum of Augustus, is open in the 
summer season for comedy and 
tragedy, and for equestrian exer- 
cises ; admission to the pit, 7» (2 ba- 
jocchi.— Theatre at the Fiaro pa- 
lace, Piazza di St Lorenzo, in Lu- 
cina. — The Marsonelles, or Burra- 
tini, abounding in satire: price in 
the pit, half a paul ; in a box, 1 
paul. 

Diligences from Rome to Naples 
by the upper and lower road five 
times a week, in thirty-six hours; 
fare by Terracina, 11 scudi 35 
bijocchi; by Ceprano, 10 scudi 
75 bijocchi 

Civita Vecchia every day, in 
eight hours : fare, 2 scuao ; by the 
malle-poste, 2 scudo 40 bijocchis. 

Vetturtni may be had in great 
plenty, to proceed in every direc- 
tion. The average cost for one 
person for a seat, board, and lodg- 
ing, should not exceed two Roman 
ecus or dollars per diem. See In- 
troduction. 

The following arrangement of 
dividing Rome mto eight days is 
in accordance with the plan intro- 
duced with so much success by 
M. Visi, with such alterations as 
circumstances render necessary, 
by M. Nibby and myself. It is 
true that persons who make a stay 
of some months, will necessarily 
devote a much greater portion of 
time to the inspection of the anti- 
quities, yet for a flying visitor 
the plan is the best that can be 
adopted.By a similar arrangemen" 

1* 



GBiraiAL HALI.'-IOIIS* 



of Paris, that capital and its envi- 
rons may he seen in ten days. 

According to the opinion most 
generally admitted, Home was 
founded by Bomulus, a descendant 
of iBneas and of the Alban kings, 
in the year 758 before the Christian 
era. The city was originally limited 
to the Palatine hill ; the Capitoline 
was added after the lape of the 
Sabine women, and then die valley, 
separating those two hills, became 
the forum. 

Numa, the successor of Romu- 
lus, enclosed a part of the Quirinal 
within the city. After the destruc- 
tion of Alba by Tullius Hostilius; 
of Tellene, Ficana, and Politorium 
by Ancus Martins, the Caelian and 
Aventine hills formed part of the 
city, and were peopled by the in- 
habitants of those towns. A wooden 
bridge, called the Sublician, cele- 
brated for the valour of Codes, 
was thrown over the river, and a 
citadel was built on the Janiculum 
by Ancus Martins. Servius Tul- 
lius enlarged the city by enclosing 
the remainder of the Quirinal as 
well astheViminalandtheEsqui- 
line; he sourrounded it with walls 
composed of square blocks of vol- 
canic tufa, fortified it with an ag- 
ger, or rampart, extending from 
the Quirinal to the arch of Gallie- 
nus on the Esquiline; the seven 
hills and a smaD part of the Jani- 
culum were thus enclosed within a 
circuit of about eight miles. 

Though the city had greatly in- 
creased in the period that elapsed 
from Servius to Aurelian, the cir- 
cuit of the walls remained the 
same ; but this emperor, with the 
view of repelling foreign invasions, 
raised a new line of walls, which 
was completed under Probus in 
276. Vopiscus, a contemporary 
writer, asserts that these walls 

^re fifty miles in circuit, an ex- 



tent which would w^pear exa^^ 
gerated if we did not take into 
consideration the size of the city, 
and the dense population which 
naturally occupied the capital of 
the world ; and in fact, the ruins of 
the public buildings alone cover 
so large a space of ground, that 
within the present enclosure it 
woul'1 be impossible to find room 
for private houses to receive the 
larTf population of the ancient 
city. Of the walls of Aurelian no 
traces remain; those of the pre- 
sent day, embracing sixteen CM^d 
a half nules in circumference, are 
of a period posterior to that em- 
peror; their most ancient part 
does not go beyond the time o 
Honorius in 402. 

On the right bank of the Tiber 
the walls are altogether modem, 
the Vatican not having been en- 
closed until 852, by Leo IV, to 
defend the church of St Peter 
against the Saracens. The space 
occupied by the modem city is 
about one-third of ^at enclosed 
within the walls ; the other two- 
thirds consist of kitchen gardens, 
vineyards, and villas. 

Of the twelve gates of the mo- 
dem city eight are on the left bank 
of the river, viz. : the Flaminian or 
del Popolo,Salaria,Pia StLorenzo, 
Maggiore, St Giovanni, St Sebas- 
tiano, and St Paolo. On the right 
bank are the Portese and St Pan- 
cra2io,Cavalleggieri and Angelica.. 
Eight of the more ancient gates 
are closed,viz.: the Pinciana,Yinii- 
nalis,Metronis, Latina, Ardeatina^ 
Fabrica, Pertusa, and Castello. 

The Tiber passes throughRome 
in a direction from north to south. 
There are four bridges, the Aelian 
or St Angelo, Janiculense or Sisto,, 
Fabrician or Quattro Capi, and 
thatof Gratian or St Bartolomec 



ROHAN STATES. — ROME. 



Three are in ruins : the Vatican, 
Palatine, and Sublician. 
^ Servius Tullius divided Rome 
into four quarters or regions : the 
Palatina, Suburrana, Esquilina, 
and Collina. Augustus into four- 
teen, viz.: IjCapena; 2, Coelimon- 
tana; 3, Isis and Serapis: 4, Via 
Sacra; 5, Esquilina; 6, Alta Se- 
mita; 7, Via Lata; 8, Forum Ro- 
manum; 9, Circus Flaminius ; 10, 
Palatium; 11, Circus Maximus; 
12, Piscina publica ; 13, Aventina ; 
and 14, Transtiberina. 

The present city also is divided 
into fourteen Rioni, viz.: Mont 
Trevi,Colonno,Campo Marza,Pon- 
te, Parione, Regola, St Eustachio, 
Pigna, Campitefli, St Angelo, Ripa, 
Trastevere, and Borgo. 

The population of the city and 
its suburbs amounted, according 
to the census of 1838, to 148,903 
souls, and it is now, in 1856, 
181,000. 

TThough plundered and burnt at 
different periodSjRome has always 
risen like the phoenix out of her 
ruins. The obelisks, columns, sta- 
tues, and other master-pieces of 
artjthe remains of ancient temples, 
triumphal arches,theatres, amphi- 
theatres, thermae, tombs, and 
aqueducts are the unrivalled or- 
naments of this metropolis. 

Manv of the modem edifices are 
not inferior in magnificence to 
those of antiquity; at every step 
are sumptuous churches,extensive 
psdac^s, containing valuable col- 
lections of painting and sculpture, 
fountains, villas filled wim an- 
cient and modern works of art In 
two public museums are united 
master-pieces of Egyptian, Etrus- 
can, Greek, and Roman sculpture. 
Rramante, Raphael, Michael An- 
gelo, and other eminent artists 
have embellished the city witih 
their works. 



Monuments of all ages collected 
here have rendered Rome the seat 
of the fine arts. In the number of 
her literary establishments are the 
University or Sapienza,founded in 
the thirteenth century, the Roman 
college and seminary; the Naza- 
reno, Doria, Clementine, Propa- 
ganda, Enghsh, Irish, and Scotch 
colleges. Among {he academies 
are those of St Luca for the fine 
arts; of the Catholic religion for 
theological subjects; theLinceian 
for the mathematical and physical 
sciences; the Archeological for 
antiquities; the Tiberina and Ar- 
cadian for the Italian language 
and literature. 

Camei,mosaics,sculptures,paint- 
ings, engravings, silks, cloths, ar- 
tincial pearls, strings lor musical 
instruments, beads, etc. constitute 
the principal objects of trade. 

Charitable establishments a- 
bound in Rome, independently of 
those supported by foreigners for 
the use of their countrymen. The 
sick are received, according to the 
nature of their complaints, in the 
hospitals of St Spirito, St Giacomo, 
the Consolazione, St Giovanni La- 
terano, StGalicano, and StRoch. 
Of the numerous asylums for the 
poor the principal are StMichele, 
tlie Pio Institute di Carita, the Con- 
servatorio of the Mendicanti for 
females, and the house of the or- 
phan boys. 

At Rome the Catholic religion 
displays aU her splendour. In no 
city can the ceremonies of the Holy 
Week, of Easter, of the Corpus 
Domini, of St Peter and of Christ- 
mas, vie with those of the Vatican. 

FIRST DAY. 

FROM PORTA DEL POPOLO TO THE CA- 
PITOL. 

Porta del Popo/o.— When Ho- 
norins rebuilt the dty walls in 4 



r6 



GENTRAI. ITALY. — AOMK. . FIRST DAY. 



a gate was opened on the Flami- 
nian way ; under Narses, in the se- 
cond period of the sixth century, 
it was placed in the present spot 
This gate, which derives its name 
from the church of St Maria del 
Popolo, was rebuilt by Vignola in 
1561, according to the design of 
Michael Angelo. The external part 
is decorated with four columns of 
the Doric order of breccia and 
granite; the internal ornaments 
were designed by Bernini. 

Piazza del Popolo, — This piazza, 
formed by two large hemicycles, 
is adorned with fountains, sta- 
tues, an Egyptian obelisk, and 
churches of nearly the same style 
of architecture, from which branch 
ofif three of the principal streets of 
Kome : that in the middle, called 
the Corso, is a mile in length. 

The statues of the piazza repre- 
sent Rome,between the Anio and 
the Tiber; Neptun and the Tri- 
tons; Spring, Summer, Autumn, 
and Winter. The semicircle to 
the left of the gate is surmounted 
by the public promenade of the 
Pincian hill. 

Adjoining the gate is the church 
called St Maria del Popolo, found- 
ed, according to popular tradition, 
by Pope Paschal 11, in the year 
1099, to deliver the people from 
the noctural phantoms attributed 
by the vulgar to Nero, who was 
buried on the Pincian hill in the 
tomb of his family. 

This church was rebuilt under 
Sixtus IV; Agostino Chigi and 
others, at the close of the fifteenth 
and beginning of the sixteenth 
century, vied with each other in 
decorating it with monuments, 
which render it one of the most 
interesting of the city. 

In the first chapel to the right 
on entering are paintings by Pin- 
tiuicchio. The second, containing 



the tomb of Cardinal Gibo, was 
built in the form of a Grreek cross, 
but this was changed into a La- 
tin cross by the addition of tiie 
vestibule. It is adorned by sixteen 
columns of the Corinthian order, 
with slabs of verde and nero an- 
tico, violet marble and alabaster. 
The painting of the left repre- 
sents the Martyrdom of St Law- 
rence, by Morandi, and that on 
the right St Catharine, by Daniel. 
The painting over the altar is by 
Carlo Maratta. The third chapel, 
dedicated by Sixtus IV to the Vir- 
gin and all me saints, was painted 
by Pinturicchio. 

The tombs by Sansovino are 
the best sample of sculpture exist- 
ing at Rome after the revival 
of the art. In the chapel on the 
right of the altar is a paintmg of 
Annabil Carracci, representing the 
Assumption. 

The chapel, delicated to the Ma- 
donna diLoreto, and belonging to 
the Chigi family, was built and de- 
corated according to the design 
of Raphael, who also furnished t£e 
designs of the mosaics of llie cu- 
pola, of the paintings of the frieze, 
and of the altar piece, which re- 
presents the Nativity of the Vir- 
gin, commenced by Sebastian del 
Piombo and finished by Francis 
Salviati; of its four statues, the 
two which represent Daniel in the 
Lion's Den, and Habakkuk with 
the Angel, are by Bernini; and 
the other two representing the 
prophets Elias and Jonas seated 
on tie Whale, are by Lorenzetto ; 
these last are higmy exteemed, 
particularly the Jonas, which was 
executed according to the model 
given by Raphael, and under his 
direction. 

The Church of Monte Santo was 
begun in 1662, by order of Alexan- 
der Vn, and finished by Cardinal 



lOMAN STATU. — ^ROMS. FIRST DAT. 



Gaistald!^ 'who entrusted the exe- 
ctttion af Rainaldi's design to Ber- 
nini and Carlo Fontana; It contains 
the busts of several popes, a paint- 
ing by Carlo Maratta, representing 
St Francis wiUi the Apostle St 
James in presence of the Virgin; 
and the History of St Magdalen 
de' Pazzi, painted by Gemignam. 

8t Maria de' Miracoli. — The 
four Angels supporting the Image 
of the Virgin, over the high altar, 
are by Raggi; the statues of Faith 
and Charity by Lucenti, who also 
executed the bronze bust of Car- 
dinal.Gastaldi which surmounts his 
tomb. 

In entering the corso the first 
church on the left is that of 

Gesu^ e Ma/tia^ ornamented with 
Tarious kinds of fine marble, and 
gilt with stuccoes. It contains se- 
veral tombs of the Bolognetti fa- 
mfly. The sacristy is adorned with 
some fresco paintings by Lanfranc. 
Nearly opposite is the church of 

8t Oiacomo degV Incurabili. — 
This was built in 1338, by Cardinal 
Pietro Colonna,andrebuiltin 1600, 
according to the designs of Fran- 
cis da Volterra.In ^e second cha- 
pel on the right is a bas-relief by 
Legros, representing St Francis 
praying for the Intercession of the 
Virgin, and two paintings whose 
sobiects are connected with the life 
of uiis saint. 

St Carlo. — This church, one of 
the most magnificent of me city, 
is divided into three naves by pi- 
lasters of the Corinthian order. It 
was begun in 1612; the cupola, the 
tribune, and the hi^ altar, are by 
Pietro da Cortona. The painting 
over the altar, representing St 
Charles presented to the Madonna 
by our Saviour, is one of the best 
works of Carlo Maratta; the pamt- 
ings of the cupola and tribune are 
by Giacinto Brandi. 



In following the corso the first 
large palace on the right is 

The Palozzo R%i8poliy the prin- 
cipal ornament of which is tiie 
grand staircase, formed of 116 
steps, each of a single block of 
white marble. The gallery, 80 feet 
in length, 26 in height, and ll^j, 
in breadth, contains some fresco 
paintings by Giacomo Zucchi, a 
pupil of Vasari. The ground-fioor 
IS now used as a coffee house. 

St Lorenzo in Lucina. — SiX- 
tus m, it is believed, built this 
church in the year 435. It certainly 
existed at the end of the sixth cen- 
tury at the time of St Gregory the 
Great: it was restored by Adrian I 
in 780, and rebuilt by Celestin III 
in 1196. 

Over the high altar is Giiido 
RenTs celebrated picture repre- 
senting the Crucifixion: the cha- 
pel dedicated to St Francis was 
painted by Mark Benefial ; and a 
monument toPoussin, who has bu- 
ried in this church, has lately been 
executed and erected here by Le- 
moyne. 

St Sylvester in Capite. — Tradi- 
tion refers the origin of this church 
to the year 26 L Amongst the nu- 
merous relics preserved in it, the 
most remarkable is the head of St 
John the Baptist The frescoes of 
the Assumption, of St John, St Sil- 
vester, and of other saints are by 
Brandi. In the first chapel on the 
left the paintings are by Trevisani, 
and are some of the best works of 
that artist 

ThePcUozzo Ohigi —This palace 
was commenced by Giacomo della 
Porta, was continued by Mademo, 
and finished by della Greca. It was 
destined by Alexander VII as a re- 
sidence for the Chigi family, to 
which he belonged. 

It contains three celebrated an- 
tique statues : the first represent' 



ynxtr 



8 



CENTRAL HAL >. — ROMK. mWT DAT. 



a Venus, on which is an anc/^^ t 
Greek inscription, purporting tv at 
it is the work of Menophantes, 
exe cut e d on the model of the statue 
see p at Troy; it is of Parian mar- 
ble, and was found on the Cselian 
hiij. The second represents Mer- 
cury, and is one of the Hermes 
calle d attic by Pausanias : the dra- 
pery is beautiful, and this work 
may be considered, in every re- 
spect, as belonging to the most 
flourishingperiod of sculpture. The 
third, also of Parian marble, re- 
presents Apollo with the laurel and 
serpent This statue is of fine design 
and execution, and is probably of 
the time of Addan. 

The gallery contains some paint- 
ings by several of the great masters, 
amongst which we shall particular- 
ly notice the following : — 

St Anthony, St Pascal, St Cecily, 
and an Ascension, byBenvenuto 
Garofalo. 

St Francis and Magdalen, by 
Guercino. 

St Barthelemy and St John, by 
Dosso Dossi. 

A Battle-piece,by SalvatorRosa. 

An Infant Jesus with Angels, by 
Albano. 

A portrait of Laura, by Paul 
Veronese. 

A Magdalen, by Spagnoletto. 

The carrying the Ark, by Palma 
Giovane. 

Madonna and Child, by Albano. 

Our Saviour and St Thomas, by 
Ant Caracci. 

Portrait of Pietro Aretino, by 
Titian. 

Satyr disputing with a Philoso- 
pher, by Salvator Rosa. 

Holy Family, by Poussin. 

Conversion of St Paul, by Do- 
minichino. 

Two Portraiits, by Tintoretto. 

Marriage of St Catherine, by 
^"doma. 



The Piatza Chlonna occupies a 
part of the forum of Antoninus 
Pius, and derives its name from 
ihe column raised by the senate to 
Marcus Aurelius in commemora- 
tion of his victories in Germany 
over the Marcomanni.The bas-re- 
liefe represent these exploits. The 
figure of Jupiter Pluvius, to whom 
the Pagars attributed the extraor- 
dinary rain obtained from the true 
God by the prayers of the thun- 
dering legion, is worthy of parti- 
cular attention. 

The column is formed of 28 
blocks of white marble ; its diame- 
ter is of 1 1 '/ifeet, height 128 V^ feet, 
including statue 24>|2feet: a wind- 
ing staircase of 190 steps leads to 
the top, where, in 1589, Domenico 
Fontana, by order of Sixtus V, 
placed the bronze statue of the 
apostle St Paul. 

In front of the column is the 
General Post office, and in the 
adjoining Piazza of Mont Citorio, 
which occupies the site of the 
ancient theatre of Statilius Tau- 
rus, is another Egyptian obelisk. 

The 7 emple of Antoninus clearly 
indicates that it was once a temple, 
and its proximity to the forum of 
Antoninus, and the inscription dis- 
covered in the sixteenth century, 
are sufficient arguments to prove 
that it was dedicated to Antoninus 
Pius by the Roman senate and 
people in the forum bearing his 
name. 

Its remains consist in eleven 
columns, supportinga magnificent 
marble entablature.These columns 
formed the lateral part of the por- 
tico which surrounded the temple ; 
they are fluted, and of the Corin- 
thian order, four feet two inches 
in diameter, 89>|2 feet in height; 
the base is attic, and the capital 
ornamented with olive leaves. In 



BOHAN STATES. — ^ROMt. FniST DAT. 



» 



the coart are fragments of part of 
theceHs. 

In the seyenteenth century these 
ruins first served as a front to the 
custom house. 

The Church of 8t Ignatius. — 
Cardinal Lndovisi, a nephew of 
Gregory XT, huflt the church at 
his own expense: it was hegun in 
1626, and finished in 1685. l)omi- 
nichino made two different de- 
signs, from which Padre Grassi 
formed the one that was followed, 
The front hy Algarde is in traver* 
tine, and has two orders of co- 
lumns, Corinthian and composite. 
The interior, divided into three 
naves, is ornamented by the fresco 
paintings of Padre Pozzi, a Jesuit, 
who designed the finest chapels 
of this church. A bas-relief by Le- 
gros represents StLuigi Gonzaga, 
whose body reposes under the al- 
tar in an urn covered with lapis 
lazuli: near the side entrance is 
the tomb of Gregory XV. 

The Collegio MomanowBS raised 
in 1582 by Gregory XIII on the 
designs of Bartolomeo Ammanati. 
It contains a spacious court, sur- 
rounded with a portico. The La- 
tin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, 
the different branches of belles- 
lettres, philosophy, and theology, 
are taught here under the direc- 
tion of we society of Jesus. In the 
building annexed are an observa- 
tory, a library, and the museum 
founded by padre Kircher, con- 
taining numerous objects of anti- 
quity and of natural history, with 
a complete collection of the Ro- 
man As and its subdivisions, be- 
queathed by Cardinal Zelado to 
tills museum. 

In the Sciarra Palace is a large 
collection of paintings, the princi- 
pal of which we shall proceed to 
point out. 

In the first room: Sacrifice of 



Abraham,by Gherardo delle Notti ; 
Cleopatra, by Lanfr^mc; Decolla- 
tion oi St John the Baptist, by 
Valentin J Dep osition, by Bassano; 
the Samaritan woman, by Garo- 
falo; Madonna, by Titian. 

The second room contains a col- 
lection of landscapes: a Salvator 
Rosa, two Claudes, representing 
Sunrise and Sunset; Both, a Wa- 
terfall ; a View of Vesuvius, of the 
Venetian school ; two paintings by 
Paul Brill: several by Orizzonte 
and Locatelli : a Nicholas Poussin, 
representing St Matthew; a Breug- 
hel, St John baptizing our Sa- 
viour; a view of Naples by Cana- 
letti, and other landscapes by Oriz- 
zonte and the school of Claude. 

In the third room is a Calvary 
of the school of Michael Angelo, 
Marriage of Cana by Pomarancio, 
a Madonna by Francesco Francia. 
A Benvenuto Garofalo, represen- 
ting Circe transforming men into 
beasts. 

The other chief paintings of this 
room are a Madonna and Child, 
and several Saints, by Andrea del 
Sarto ; a Holy Family, by Scarcel- 
lino ; a Noli me tangere, and vestal 
Claudia, and the Adoration of the 
Kings, by Garofalo; two Flemish 
pieces; three small pictures by 
Titian. 

Passing into the fourth and last 
room, and commencing from the 
left, are two fine pictures by Schi- 
done. the first representing the 
Paraole of the Wheat and the 
Chaff, and the second, Arcadia. 
Dido abandoned, by ScarseUino; 
two Evangelists, by Guerdno : the 
next picture is the Violin-player, 
supposed to be the celebrated Te- 
baldeo, a work of Raphael in 1518, 
according to the original inscrip- 
tion; Herodias receiving the head 
of St John,byGiorgione; the Sa- 
maritan woman, by Albano; the 



ilO 



PE^TRAL .ITALX«— ROME. FiaST PAT. 



well-known picture of the Gamb- 
lers, by Caravaggio; and that ce- 
lebrated painting of Vanity and 
Modesty, by Leonardo da VincL 
Jhe other distinguished works in 
this room are Orpheus in the pa- 
lace of Pluto, and a Fair, by Breug- 
hel : two Ma^dalens, by Guide ; the 
family of Titian, painted by him- 
self; a St Jerome, by Guercino; 
and the portrait known by the 
name of Bella diTiziano, painted 
by that artist. 

Several discoveries made under 
Pius IV, and in 1614, have proved 
that in the vicinity of this palace, 
near the modem Arco de' Carbog- 
nani, was the triumphal arch raised 
by the Roman senate and people 
to the Emperor Claudius after the 
conquest of Britain. 

St Marcello was built in the 
fourth century, on the site of a 
house occupied by St Lucina, a 
Roman matron, in which S, Mar- 
cellus I died ; it was rebuilt in 1519, 
on the desings of Giacomo Sanso- 
vino. The most remarkable paint- 
ings of this church are those of 
the chapel of the Crucifix, where 
Pierin del Vaga has represented 
the Creation of Eve. 

St Maria in Via Lata^ accor- 
ding to ancient tradition, was built 
on the spot occupied by the house 
of the centurion with whom St 
Paul resided when sent to Rome 
by Festus. It is added that the 
fountain which still exists sprang 
up that the apostle might be enab- 
led to baptize those whom he con- 
verted to Christianity. An oratory 
was built here soon after, but the 
soil of Rome having risen to its 
present level, this oratory is now 
under ground; it is, however, easy 
of access by means of a convenient 
staircase. On the altar are the por- 
traits of St Peter and St Paul by 
Fancelll 



Th0 church was bniJt in the 
eighth century, renewed in 1486, 
and again in 1662. The columns of 
the nave are of Cipolline marbl^, 
coated with Sicilian jasper. 

Palazzo i)oWa.— The Doria fa- 
mily are justly ranked amon^ the 
most ancient and the most lUus* 
trious nobility of Italy. This pa- 
lace contains a splendid collection 
of paintings ; the principal are: 

In the first room, called the 
Saloon of Poussin, are numerous 
Landscapes by that celebrated 
artist; two Sea Views, by Hon- 
pair; a Turkish Woman on Hor- 
seback, by Castiglione; and some 
paintings, by Rosa di Tivoli, in his 
best style. 

In the second room are a St 
Catherine, by Scipione Gaetano; 
St Dorothy, by Lanfranc; two 
Landscapes, by Both; a Castig- 
lione, and St Eustachius, by ^- 
bert Durer; three Bassani, repre* 
senting Christ driving the Money- 
changers out of the Temple, the 
Flight of Jacob, and the Tempta- 
tion of Christ; three other paint- 
ings, by the same artist, represent- 
ing the Sacrifice. of Noah after 
the Deluge ; the Apparition of Je- 
sus to the disciples of Emaus, and 
an Ecce homo; a Giorgione, a 
St Sebastian, by Agostino Caracci ; 
a Tempesta, and a Landscape by 
Poussin. 

The third room contains a Holy 
Family, by Garofalo; the Endy- 
mion of Guercino; the Mistress 
of Titian, by that artist; a De- 
position from the Cross, by Paul 
Veronese; a portrait of Macchiap 
velli, by Bronzino ; a Vandyke and 
a Guercino; the Death of Abel, 
by Salvator Rosa; two Portraits, 
by Titian, one representing Jan- 
senius. 

The other most remarkable pic- 
tures of this room are a Pierin 



ROMAN STAT£8.<— ROIlS.-r-FIRST VJkJ. 



11 



del Yagft, a landscape represesit- 
ing the Apparition of Emaus, by 
Both; a Holy Family, hj Pietro 
Perugino; aDianaandEndymion, 
by Rubens; Portraits by Titian 
and Vandyke. 

Some very fine portraits deco- 
rate the fourth room: after the 
Portrait of a Female, by Ru- 
bens, comes a large picture repre- 
senting the celebrated Admiral 
Andre Doria, by Dobso Dossi ; and 
a splendid Portrait of the same per- 
sonage, by Sebastian del Piombo ; 
two Holbeins, one representing 
himself and the other his wife. 

In the fifth room are an Icarus 
and Dedalus, by Albano ; a Holy 
Ffunily of Ludovico Garacci; a 
Roman Charity, by Valentin; a 
Garofalo, and two St Jeromes, one 
by Palma and the other by Spag- 
noletto. 

The gallery, which may be con- 
sidered as the most magnificent of 
Rome, contains some of the most 
splendid paintings of this col- 
lection. 

The first litl^e picture on the 
left, representing the Dispute of 
Christ with the Doctors of the 
Law, is a work of Dossi of Ferrara; 
the Battle pieces are by Bor- 
gognone; the Visitation of the 
Virgin, by Garofak). We may next 
obserre three beautifiil Landsca- 
pes, by Dominichino ; the portrait 
of a Franciscan Friar, said to be his 
confessor, by Rubens; a Magdalen, 
by Titian; and six semicircular 
Landscapes, by Annibal Caracci, 
representing me Flight into E- 
gypt, the Visitation, Assumption, 
Cmist carried to the Sepulchre,the 
Birth of Jesus, and the Adoration 
of the Magi. 

On this side of the gallery are 
also : a Lot with his Daugwers, 
by Gherardo delle Notti; two St 
Francis, by Annibal Caracci; the 



Death of Tancred; a Portrait, by 
Guercino; and those two splendid 
landscapes, the Windmill and the 
Temple of Apollo, by Claude Lor- 
raine. 

The opposite wing of the gallery 
begins with a beautiful landscapfs 
of Claude,representingthe Repose 
in Egypt; a Portrait by Murillo; 
a Holy Family, by uarofalo ; the 
Prodigal Son by Guercino; two 
o^er Landscapes, by Claude; a 
Magdalen of Annibal Caracci, and 
a fine Composition of Fuercino, re- 
presenting St Agnes; a Madonna 
of Guido; a portrait of Innocent 
X,by Velasquez; a St John Bap- 
tist, by Guercino; the Marriage 
of St Catherine, by Garofalo a 
Salyator Rosa, representing Beli- 
sarius and our Saviour served by 
Angels in the Desert, by Both. The 
portraits of Luther, Calvin, and 
Catherine are copies from the ori- 
gmal of Giorgione existing in the 
Pitti palace at Florence; the fine 
picture, representing a Society of 
Misers, is a classic work of the far- 
rier of Antwerp. 

In tiie fourth wing we observe a 
Holy Family of Fra Bartolomeo; 
a Susanna, by Annibal Caracci; 
the Four Elements, by Breughel; 
a Landscape, by Dominichino ; a 
Samson and a St Paul, by Guer- 
cino; a. Crucifixion, bv Michael 
Angelo: and the Sacrince of Ab- 
raham Dj Titian. 

The principal remaining pictu- 
res are a Kermesse or Country 
Festival, by Teniers ; two Lands- 
capes, by Both ; a portrait of Queen 
Giovanna the younger, by Leo- 
nardo da Vinci; a copy, by Ni- 
cholas Poussin, of the celebrated 
antique fresco of the Vatican 
known by the name of the Nozze 
Aldobrandine; a portrait of a 
Duke of Ferrara, by Tintoretto; 
another Portrait and a St Cathe- 



la 



CINTIUL ITALT. — ^ROKI. FIRST DAT. 



nne, by Titian ; a Deposition from 
the Cross, by II Padovano; two 
small Gherardo delle Notti, and 
a St Jerome, by Spagnoletto. 

Venetian Palace. — TMs palace 
was built in 1468 by Paul II, a 
Venetian, according to the design 
of Julian de Majano, with mate- 
rials taken fi'om the Coliseum and 
Forum of Nerva. It was during a 
long period the residence of the 
sovereign p ontiff s, but was given 
by Clement Vlllto the republic of 
Venice for the use of her ambas- 
sadors to the holy see. It now 
belongs to the Austrian govern- 
ment 

Church of St Marco. — The pon- 
tiff St Mark built this church in 
337, and delicated it to St Mark 
the Evangelist It was rebuilt by 
Gregory IV in 833. Paul n pre- 
served the ancient tribune with its 
mosaic ornaments, and renewed 
the rest of the church in 1469. In 
the chapel of St Mark are paint- 
ings by Pietro Perugino and by 
Borgognone. 

The Palazzo Torlonia contains 
several paintings by Camuccini, 
Landi, and the celebrated group 
of Canova representing Hercules 
throwing Lycas into the sea. 

Under the present Duke Alex- 
ander the collection of works of 
sculpture and painting has been 
so considerably increased, and 
the embellishments have been exe- 
cuted in such a style of splendour, 
that this palace may now be con- 
sidered as one of the most magni- 
ficent of Rome. 

Chiesa delOem, — This splendid 
temple, belonging to the Jesuits, 
was commenced in 1575 by Car- 
dinal Alexander Famese on the 
designs of Vignole, and continued 
by Giacomo delle Porta,who raised 
the cupola and front with its Co- 
rinthian and composite pilasters. 



The Interior is decorated with mar- 
ble, gilt stuccoes, sculptures, and 
paintings. The frescoes of the tri- 
bune, of the cupola, and ceiling 
may be reckoned amongst the best 
works of Boccaccio. 

In the chapel of the right arm of 
the cross Carlo Marattahas repre- 
sented the death of St Francis 
Xavier. The high altar has four 
fine colums of giallo antico, and 
a picture of Muziano represf^nd- 
ing the Circumcision of Christ 

The chapel of St Ignatius, de- 
signed by padre Pozzi, is one of 
the richest and most magnificent 
of Rome. Its four columns, with 
their base and capitals,are covered 
with lapis lazuli. The pedestals 
of the columns, the entablature and 
pediment are of verde antico. In 
the centre of the pediment is a 
marble group representing the 
Holy Tnnity, by Ludovisi; the 
figure of our Saviour is by Ottone : 
the globe held by the Eternal 
Father is a single piece of lapis la- 
zuli. Padre Pozzi painted die St 
Ignatius placed over the altar; be- 
hind this picture is the statue of 
the saint in silver; his body is 
under the altar in an urn of gilt 
bronze, on which are represented 
different actions of this saint At 
the side of the altar are two groups 
representing the Christian faith 
embraced by barbarous nations,by 
Tendon ; Religion armed witti the 
cross and beating down Heresy, by 
Legros. The paintings of the ceil- 
ing of this chapel are by Boc- 
caccio. 

Tomb ofCaiua Pohlidus Bibu- 
lu8. — The family of the Poblicii 
was plebeian, and was divided into 
two branches, one bearing the sur- 
name of Malleolus, the other of Bi- 
bulus; to a member of the latter 
branch this tomb was erected. The 
inscription still existing informs 



K. 



MMAR STATSSt-^-ROMR. SKCOMft Jfhl, 



13 



n8, that by a senatns constiltaiii, 
and a decree of the people, a place 
was assigned to Caius Poclicius Bi- 
btilus, the son of Lncins, edile of 
the people, in order to erect a se- 
pulchral monnment to himself and 
his posterity, in consideration of 
his honour and valour. 

C. POBLICIO L. F. BIBVLO. AED. Pr. HONORIS 

VIRTVTISOVK CAVSSA SENATY8 

CONSVLTO POPVLIQVE IVSSV LOCVS 

aiONyMENTO. QVO. IPSE POSTERSIQVE 

EIY8. INFERRENTVR PYBLftE. DATVS EST 

The period of the plebeian edility 
of Bibulus is not precisely known, 
but it i& conjectured, from the style 
of the monument and the ortho- 
graphy of the inscription, that he 
Bved in the time of Ceesar. This 
tomb was outside the walls of Ser- 
vius Tullius, but was enclosed 
within the walls erected by Anre- 
fian in 274, and by Honorius in 
402. The western front, which still 
remains, was adorned with four 
Doric pilasters, with the statue of 
Bibulus inthe centre. Towards the 
'80Uth front are remains of the or- 
namented architrave smd frieze. In 
consequence of the elevation of the 
soil the sepulchral chamber is now 
fifteen feet under ground, and 
serves as a cellar to the house built 
on the ruins of this monument 

SECOND DAY. 

FROM THE CAPITOL TO THE LATERAN. 

The CapitoL-^Thas celebrated 
hill was thus named by Tarquinius 
Priscus; in digging the earth in 
order to lay the foundations of the 
temple of .Jupiter, a head ^caput) 
was found on the spot, which cur- 
cumstance the augur considered as 
a presage that the city would be- 
come the capital of the world. 

This hill was previously named 
Satumitts, from ue town builthere 



by Saturn^ and Tarpeius after the 
death of Tarpeia, the daughter of 
the commander to whom Romulus 
had entrusted its defence against 
the attacks of the Sabines. 

Its form is an irregular ellipsis, 
sloping at each extremity to the 

fMSt; the two elevations at the 
tremities were known by the an- 
cients under the name of Capito- 
linm and arx, on account of the 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, si- 
tuated to the north, and of the ci- 
tadel to the west ; the space bet- 
ween them was named intermon- 
tium. The height of this hill above 
the level of the sea is 150 feet, and 
the circumference 4400. 

In ancient times it was encloses 
on all sides, bemg accessible only 
from the forum by the "Clivus 
sacer or asyli." the "Clivus capito- 
linus," ana tne ''Centum gradus 
rupis TarpeaB." By the first access 
those who obtained the honours of 
a triumph ascended to the temple ; 
its direction followed the line of 
the eordonata which now leads to 
the arch of Severus. The clivus 
Capitolinus formed two branches, 
one leading from the forum to the 
arch of Tiberius, situated on the 
spot where the hospital named the 
Consolazione now stands,the pave- 
ment of the other remains near 
the column of Phocas; the two 
branches unite behind the temple 
of Fortune under a modem house ; 
they followed the direction of the 
intermontium, passing unter the 
entrance of the tabularium, and the 
tower bearing the arms of Boni- 
face IX. The third ascent led to 
the citadel near the Tarpeian rock. 
The citadel, or arx, was enclosed 
with walls and towers, even on the 
side of the intermontium. These 
walls were of large blocks of vol- 
canic stone or prey tufa, a speci- 
men of which is still visible in a 



14 



CENTRAL HALT. — RQHI. SECONR RAT, CAPITOL. 



ff^lery under the GaffareBi palace, 
within the arx were the houses or 
raHier cottages of Romulus, of Ta- 
tius, of Manfius, the temple of Ju- 
piter Feretrius, built by Romulus 
to receive the spoils of the victory 
which he gained over Acron, chief 
of tlie Cerumnians, and many other 
temples and altars, on which ac- 
count it was also named "Ara sa- 
crorum." 

On tiie north side of the inter- 
montium was the asylum establish- 
ed by Romulus in order to increase 
tiie population of his city ; on the 
soutii were the tabularium, the 
athenaeum, and capitolian library. 
The tabularium derived its name 
from the bronze table deposited in 
it, on which were inscribed the se- 
natns consult], the decrees of the 
people, the treaties^ of peace, of 
alliance, and other public docu- 
ments. It was built by Catulus, the 
successor of Sylla in the dicta- 
ture, eightyfour years before the 
Christian era; was burnt in the 
contest between the soldiers of Vi- 
tellius and Vespasian, and was re- 
built by the latter, who collected, 
in 3000 bronze tables,' the acts 
which had been scattered over the 
whole empire. 

Some remains of the portico of 
this edifice are still existing tow- 
ards the forum; they are of the 
Doric order in peperino, with the 
capitals in travertine. 

On ihe summit of the hill over- 
looking the corso,where the church 
of Araceli now stands,was the cele- 
brated temple of Jupiter Capito- 
linus, built by Tarquin the Proud 
in ful^ment of the vow made by 
Tarquinus Friscus, after the last 
Sabine war.Having been destroyed 
three times by fire, it was rebuilt 
by SyUa, Vespasian, and Domitian. 
Under SyDa its dimensions were, 
according to Dionysius of Halicar- 



naasus, in Roman feet, circumfer- 
ence 770,lengtii200, breadth 186; 
the front, having a triple row of 
columns (which was double on the 
sides), faced the south. The cella 
was dividid into three naves with 
ediculae or chapels ; of those on the 
sides one was dedicated to Juno, 
the other to Minerva,and the third, 
in the centre, to Jupiter. It was in 
front of this temple that the ge- 
nerals to whom triumphal honours 
had been decreed sacrificed for 
the victories which they had ob- 
tained ; and in the court named the 
area capitolina, enclosed witili por- 
ticoes, they partook of a banquet 
after the sacrifice. 

This temple was entire under 
Honorious; Stilicon stript it of part 
of its ornaments ; Genseric, in 445, 
carried away the gUt bronzes which 
formed its covering ; in the eighth 
century it was falling into ruins, 
and in the eleventh had altogether 
disappeared. 

Modem Capitol. — This edifice 
contains numerous objects of art, 
which render it a spot of the 
highest interest The modem em- 
bellishments are works of Paul m, 
who raised the two lateral build- 
ings on the designs of Michael An- 
gelo, renewed the front of the se- 
natorial palace, opened the street 
to the north-west, and built tbe 
steps of the ascent 

At the foot of the balustrades 
are two Egyptian lions, of black 
granite, found near the church of 
St Stefano ; on the top are two co- 
lossal statues of Castor and Pol- 
lux, in pentelic marble, found near 
the Jew's syniu^ogue; two marble 
trophies, csutlea the trophies of Ma- 
rius, though the style of sculpture 
resembles that of the early times 
of Septimius Severus; two statues 
of Constantine Augustus and of 
Constantino Caesar, found in the 



«91IAN STATES.— ROiO. SIOPOND OAT* SiPiXOL 



^15 



thermae of Oonstantine an the 
Quirinal; two columns, the one on 
the right of the ascent is an an- 
cient mile stone indicating the first 
mile of the Appian way, where it 
was found in 1584; the column on 
the left is modem; the baU, how- 
ever, is ancient, and as it was 
found at the base of Trajan's co- 
lumn, it is supposed that it once 
contained the ashes of that em- 
peror. 

In the centre of the square is the 
equestrian statue of Marcus Au- 
rehus, found near St John La- 
teran's, and placed on this spot 
by Paul in, under the direction 
of Michael Angelo. This is the 
only bronze equestrian statue re- 
maining of all those which adorned 
ancient Rome. 

Senatorial Palace. — On the 
ruins of the tabularium Boniface 
IX built a palace in 1380 for the 
residence ofthe senators. Paul in 
ornamented it with Corinthian pi- 
lasters imder the direction of Mi- 
chael Angelo. At the fountain 
placed here by Sixtus V are three 
antique statues; one represents 
Minerva^ the drapery of which is 
of porpliyry, foimd near Cora; 
and the two others, the Nile and 
the Tiber, in Parian marble,found 
in the temple of Serapis on the 
Quirinal. 

The large hall leads to the tower 
of the capitol raised under Gre- 
gory Xni by Longhi, a situation 
offering the most extensive views 
of Rome and its environs. 

Museum. — In the court is a co- 
lossal statue of Ocean, formerly 
stationed near the arch of Severus, 
with two Satyrs, and two sarco- 
phagi, of inferior style, but inter- 
esting as connected with ancient 
customs; on one is represented 
a double chase with arms and 
nets; on the walls are inscriptions 



in memory of several Praetooaa 
soldiers. . 

Portico, — To the left of the en- 
trance are a colossal statue of 
Minerva, a head of Cybele from 
the villa Adriana, and a fragment 
of a statue of a captive kmg in 
violet marble. 

On the right of the entrance 
are a statue of Diana, a Jupiter, 
an Adrian offering sacrifice, and 
a remnant of a statue ofCeres, 
in porphyry, remarkable for the 
elegance of the drapery. 

ffaU of Inscriptions. — Around 
the walls are 122 imperial and 
consular inscriptions, offering a 
chronological series from Tibe- 
rius to 'Dieodosius. In the centre 
is a square altar of ancient Greek 
style, on which are represented 
the labours of Hercules. 

Sail of the Urn — This name 
was given from a large sarcopha- 
gus in white marble covered with 
basreUefs relating the most re- 
markable incidents in the life of 
Achilles; in the front is repre- 
sented his quarrel with Agamem- 
non on account of Briseis, on the 
sides his departure from Scyros. 
and vengeance for the death or 
Patroclus; behind is Priam sup- 
plicating for the body of Hector. 
The remaining objects of interest 
in this room are a Mosaic found at 
Antium; a Palmyrean monument 
erected to Agliobolus and Malac- 
belus, as is ascertained by the in- 
scription in Greek and Palmyrean ; 
a bas-relief of a priest of Cybele, 
and a small statue of Pluto and 
Cerberus. 

On the walls of the staircase 
are fragments of the ancient plan 
of Rome found in the ruins of the 
temple of Remus on the sacred 
way. We may notice particularly 
the site of the baths of Sura, the 
porticoes of Octavia andHercu- 



16 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. SECOm DAT. CAPITOL. 



L 



les, buildings in the forum — viz., 
the Emilia and Julia basilisks, 
the Graecostasis, a part of the 
imperial palace, the amphitheatre, 
theatre of Pompey and part of 
the thermae of Titus. 

Hall of the Vase. — The large 
marble vase formerly in the centre 
was found near the tomb of Ce- 
cilia Metella, and is placed on an 
antique altar having figures of the 
twelve divinities with their se- 
veral attributes ; another vase in 
bronze found in the sea near An- 
tium was a present from King 
Mithridates Eupator to the gym- 
nasium of the Eupatorists. On the 
two sarcophagi are sculptured inr 
bas-relief the formation and de* 
struction of man according to the 
Neo-Platonic system, and the fable 
of Diana and Endymion. We may 
notice also the bas-relief of the 
Diac table, which relates several 
events of the Biad, a tripod, and 
two statues of the Ephesian Diana. 
The Mosaic representing doves 
is an imitation of the celebrated 
work of Sosus,mentioned by Pliny, 
and then existing at P^rgamus in 
Asia Minor; it was found in the 
viUa Adriana at Tivoli. 

Gallery, — Opposite to the great 
staircase are the busts of Marcus 
Aurelius, and Septimus Severus, 
found at Antium in the ruins of 
the imperial villa; and in the gal* 
lery, those of Cato the censor, 
Scipio Africanus, Phocion,Adrian, 
Cahgula, Caracalla, Marcus Aure- 
lius, and Domitius Aenobarbus. 
The inscriptions on the walls were 
found in the columbarium or se- 
pulchral chamber of the slaves 
and freedmen of Livia, on the 
Appian way; the statue of a 
woman in a state of intoxication 
on the Nomentana. On a vase of 
a curious form is figured a Bac- 



chanalian scene, and on a sar- 
cophagus the Rape of Proserpine. 

Hall of the Emperors — On the 
walls are several interesting bas- 
reliefs; the hunt of the Calydonian 
boar,byMeleager; a sleeping En- 
dymion, considered as a master- 
piece of antique sculpture; Hy- 
las carried away by the Nymphs. 

In the middle of this room is the 
seated statue of Agrippina, wife of 
Germanicus, but in the opinion of 
some, of an unknown Roman lady. 
The busts of the emperors, em- 
presses, and Caesars are placed 
m chronological order. 

The series commences with that 
of Julius Caesar ; we shsdl notice 
particularly those of Marcellus, 
the nephew of Augustus, Tiberius, 
his brothers Drusus and Genna- 
nicus, Caligula, Messalina, Nero, 
Poppaea his wife, Otho, Vitellius, 
Julia daughter of Titus, Plotina 
wife of Trajan, Adrian, Sabina 
his wife, and Aelius Caesar his 
son by adoption, the latter a bust 
in high preservation, and very 
rare. The remainder are Annius 
Verus, found near CivitaLavinia; 
Commodus, his wife Crispina^ Di- 
dius Julian, Pescennius Niger, 
Septimius Severus, Decius, and 
Julian sumamed the Apostate. 

Hall of the Philosophers —A col- 
lection of portraits of literary and 
philosophic personages of anti- 
quity collected here has given it 
this denomination. The most in- 
teresting bas-reliefs are those of 
Hector conveyed to the funeral 
pile, accompanied by Hecuba and 
Andromache in tears ; a sacrifice 
to Hygeia, in rosso antico, and 
fragment of a Bacchanalian bear- 
ing the name of the sculptor Cal- 
limachus. 

Among these busts, which have 
been identified, are the following : 
Diogenes, Demosthenes, three of 



JROVAfr STATIS. — ROKE. SECOND DAT. OAPITOK. 



17 



Euripides, four of Homer, two of 
Sophocies,Thucydides, Jidian,Ar- 
chimedes, and Sappho. 

Saloon — ^The two colnnms of 
giaJlo antico, twelve and half feet 
in height, were found near the 
tomb of Cecilia Metella; the two 
Victories, supporting the arms of 
Clement* Xn, at the arch of Mar- 
cus Aurehus, in the corso ; a Ju- 
piter and an Escnlapius in nero 
antico, at Antium; tiie two Cen- 
taurs, in the villa Adriana; an 
infant Hercules, on the Aventine ; 
this statue is placed on a rect- 
angnlar altar, the bas-^reliefs of 
which allude to the Theogony of 
Hesiod; Rhea in the pains of 
labour, the same goddess offering 
a stone to Saturn instead of her 
son Jupiter; Jupiter nourished 
by the goat Amalthea, and the 
Ciorybantes drowning his cries by 
the clash of arms; Jupiter raised 
to the throne in the midst of the 
divinities. 

The most remarkable statues 
are two Amazons, Mars and Ve- 
nus, a Minerva, a Pythian Apollo, 
a colossal bust of Trajan with the 
civic crown, a gilt bronze statue of 
Hercules holding in one hand a 
club, in the other the apples of the 
garden of the Hesperides; an ani- 
mated old woman, supposed to be 
Hecuba: a colossal bust of Anto- 
ninus Fms, and an Harpocrates, 
found at the ville'Adriana. 

Hall of the Faun. — In the middle 
of this room is the beautiful Faun 
in rosso antico, found at the villa 
Adriana, and fixed to the wall is 
the bronze inscription containing 
a part of the original senatus con- 
Biutum mutiny the imperial dig- 
nity to Vespasian. 

We next observe on a sacro- 
phaguB the fable of Diana and 
^dymion; an altar dedicated to 
Isis; a child playing with a mask 



of Silenus, the most perfect sta- 
tue of a child handed down to 
us from antiquity; a Cupid break- 
ing his bow; a child playing with 
a swan— this is a copy of a work 
in bronze, executed by the Car- 
thadnian Boethius, and praised 
by Pliny ; a large sarcophagus in 
fine preservation representing the 
battle of Theseus and the Amen- 
ians against the Amazons; the 
bas-reliefe which represent the 
vanquished Amazons are full of 
expression. 

Hall of the Gladiator. — The ce- 
lebrated statue of a man mortsdly 
wounded, called the Dying Gla- 
diator, is the chief ornament 
of this room; his costume, howe- 
ver, would indicate that he is a 
Gaul, and the statue probably 
formed part of a group repre- 
senting the Gallic incursion into 
Greece. 

The other fine statues areZeno, 
a Greek philosopher; the Faun 
of Praxiteles, found at the villa 
Adriana; Antinous, admirably de- 
signed and executed; a Flora, 
with beautiful drapery ; the bust 
of Brutus ; the Juno of a grand 
style; a head of Alexander the 
Great ; an Ariadne crowned with 
ivy; the statu6 of a female whose 
features express grief, bearing a 
covered vase with offerings, sup- 
posed by some to be Isis or a 
Pandora, but more probably Elec- 
tra carrying funeral offenngs to 
the tomb of her father; a statue 
of Apollo holding the lyre, with 
a griffin at his feet, found near 
the sulphureous waters on the 
road to Tivoh. 

Cabinet. — Some objects of in- 
terest in the history of the arts 
are here united, but are not ex- 
posed to public view. The Venus 
of the Capitol is admirably exe- 
cuted; the group of Cupid and 



18 



emmAL itau.-^roiu. sscoum day. CAPtnL. 



Psyche was found on the Aven- 
tine. 

St Maria d'Araeoeli. — This 
church was built in the elevenUi 
century, on the site of the temple 
of Jupiter. Till the year 1252 it 
was a Benedictine abbey. It was 
given to the Franciscan mars by 
Linocent IV, 

It is divided into three naves 
by twenty-two columns of Egyp- 
tian granite of different dimen- 
sions ; on the tibird near the prin- 
cipal entrance is the inscription 
GVBicvLo avgvstorvm; these co- 
lumns probably belonged to the 
imperial palace. The ceiling was 
gilded under Pius V. 

In the first chapel on the right, 
dedicated to St Bernardino di 
Sienne, are some frescoes ranked 
amongst the best works of Pin- 
turicchio. In the chapel of St Mat- 
thew, this apostle and the prin- 
cipal incidents of his life were 
painted by Muziano. In that of 
Bt Francis is a painting by Tre- 
visani, and over the high altar a 
very ancient image of the Virgin; 
some paintings by Niccola di Pe- 
saro decorate the chapels of St 
Paul, of the Madonna, and of 
St Anthony. 

In the choir is a fine painting 
of the school of Eaphael, which 
represents the Virgin with St Joto 
the Baptist and St Elizabeth, and 
is supposed to be by Giulo Ro- 
mano. 

Palace of the Conaervatori. — 
Under the portico on the right 
is a statue of Julius Caesar, con- 
sidered to be the only authenti- 
cated portrait known of that ce- 
lebrated man; on the left is that 
of Augustus with a prow at his 
feet, allusive to the victory of 
Actium. Around the court are se- 
veral antique fragments; on the 
left a colossal head of Domitian, 



the sepolchral urn of Agrippiaa, 
wife of Germanicus, the fragments 
of two porphyry columns, a bronze 
head and arm, said to have be- 
longed to the colossal statue of 
Gommodus; two statues of Dacian 
kings with Rome triumphant in 
the centre; a group of a lion at- 
tacking a horse, found in the 
stream Almo, and a large pedes- 
tal which once supported a sta- 
tue of Adrian. 

Hall of the Busts. — Pius VII 
transferred to this place the busts, 
previously in the Pantheon, of 
men illustrious in the sciences, 
lettres, and arts. 

The principal regulations of 
this establishment are, Uiat it is 
destined to perpetuate the me- 
mory of celebrated Italians, and 
that the busts of those only who 
have been acknowledged to have 
possessed a genius of the highest 
order can be admitted. 

In the first room are the por- 
traits of celebrated foreigners who 
resided in Italy — Poussin, Mengs, 
Winkelmann,AngelicaKaufimann, 
and Su6e, director of the French 
academy at Rome. 

In the second, the portraits of 
celebrated Italian artists of the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fif- 
teenth centuries, executed at the 
expense of Ganova; the Floren- 
tine Brunelleschi, Nicolo Pisano, 
the sculptor and architeQt; Giotto 
and Orcagna, both distin^ished 
in painting, sculpture, and archi- 
tecture; the Florentine painters, 
Masaccio, Giovanni di Fiesole, 
Ghiberti, and the sculptor Do- 
natello. 

The third room contains the 
portraits of Pius Vn and of Ra- 
phael, the former by Ganova, who 
at his own expense raised busts, 
executed by sundry artists of his 
day, to the following celebrated 



(H^IIAM, STATBS.— BOHB. .JlXCOND.DAT. ChtmU 



19 



men oi the sixteenUi oeatury : Ti* 
tian, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael 
dAjigelo Buonarotti, Palladio, Fra 
Bartolomea di St Marco, Man- 
tegna, SigaoreUi, Pietro Peru- 
gino, Andrea del Sarto, Marc An- 
tonio Raimondi, the Bolognese en- 
graver Correggio, Paul Veronese, 
and the arclutects Bramante ana 
Sanmichelli. 

The fourth room contains the 
busts of artists who flourished 
in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
eighteenth centuries: Annibal Ga- 
racd, by Naldini; Canova presen- 
ted also the Francesco Marchi, 
a military architect of Bologna, 
the Giulio Romano, Polydoro di 
Caravaggio, the Sebastian del 
Piombo, Ghirlandajo, Nanni di 
Udine, and Dominichino. 

In the fifth room we find the 
busts of the engraver Pickler, of 
the engineer Rapini, of Pietro di 
Cortona, and of Piranesi di Ma- 
jano, a celebretad engraver and 
architect 

The sixth contains the busts of 
literary characters : Trissino, Me- 
tastasio, Annibal Caro, Bodoni, 
Venuti, Aldus Manucdus, Mor- 
gagni, Verri, Bartoli, and Bec- 
caria, presented by their friends 
or relatives. 

At the expense and under the 
direction of Canova, the following 
have also been placed here: Dante 
and T(H:qaato Tasso, the work of 
d'Este; Alfieri, Petrarca, and 
Ariosto, by Finelli ; Goldoni, Chri- 
stopher Columbus, Galileo, Mura- 
tori, and Morgagni, by Tadolini; 
Tiraboschi, the autlior of the li- 
terary history of Ital^. 

The seventh room is occupied 
by the sepulchral monument of 
Canova, decreed by Leo XII and 
executed by Fabris. 

The last room is dedicated to the 
professors of music who acquired 



cielelHity in their day : Cimavoea, 
whose bust, executed by Canont, 
was presented by Caramal Gon- 
salvi ; Sapchini, Corelli, and Pae- 
siUo of Taranto. 

Staircase, -— Below the first 
flight of steps, on the left, is an 
inscription in honour of Caivs 
Duilius, who gained the first naval 
victory over the Carthaginians in 
the year of Rome 492; this frag- 
ment of the time of the empe- 
rors was found near the arch of 
Severus. 

On the walls, forming a species 
of terrace, are four bas-reliefs : the 
first, of Marcus Aurelius offering 
^ sacrifice at the temple of Jupiter ; 
the second, a triumph of the same 
emperor, who in the third is repre- 
sented on horseback, and in the 
fourth receiving a globe, the sym- 
bol of imperial power. The bius- 
relief on the waJl on the left re- 
presents the Sabine Curtius pass- 
ing the marsh during the combat 
between Romulus and Tatius. 

HalU of the Oanaervatari, — The 
Cavalier d'Arpino painted in the 
first saloon several facts of early 
Roman history : Romulus and Re- 
mus found, at the foot of the Pala- 
tine, Romulus tracing the circuit 
of the new city, the rape of the 
Sabine women, Numa offering a 
sacrifice, the battles between the 
Romans and Yeians, the Horatii 
and Curiatii. 

Other subjects of Roman history, 
painted by Laureti, decorate the 
first antechamber: Mutius Scae- 
vola burning Ms hand in presence 
of Porsenna, Brutus condemning 
his two sons, Horatius Codes on 
the Sublician bridge, the Battle of 
the Lake Regillus. 

There are also statues in this 
room of Mare Antonio Colonaa, 
who gained the battle of Lepanto; 
of Tommaso Rospigliosi; Fran- 



I 

J 



30 



GENTIUL ITALT. — HOIO. SECOND VAT. CAI^tfL. 



eesco Aldobrandini ; Alexander 
Famese,who commanded in Flan- 
ders; and of Carlo Barberini, the 
brother of Urban VII. 

In the second antechamber is 
a frieze by Daniel di Volterra, 
representing the triumph of Ma- 
rius after the defeat of the Cimbri, 
and in the centre the wolf with 
Romulus and Remus ; this is not 
the original wolf of the Capitol 
struck by lightning, previously to 
the conspiracy of Cataline, as 
Cicero relates, but the one men- 
tioned by Pliny and Dionysius of 
Halicamassus , dedicated in the 
year of Rome 458, and found near 
the site of the ruminal fig tree at 
tiie base of the Palatine in the 
fifteenth century; a fine statue 
of a shepherd boy taking a thorn 
from his foot; busts of Junius 
Brutus, the first Roman consul, of 
Proserpine, Diana, Julius Caesar, 
and Adrian. 

In the third antechamber we 
observe several marble fragments, 
on which are engraved the cele- 
brated consular "fasti" down to 
Augustus, and over the entrance 
door a fine bas-relief head of 
Mithridates, king of pontus. 

In the audience room are a frieze 
representing different Olympic 
games; busts of Sdpio Africa- 
nus; Philip of Macedon; Appius 
Claudius, in roso antico ; a strik- 
ing likeness, in bronze, of Mi- 
chael Angelo, done by himself; 
a head of Medusa, by Bernini; 
and a picture of the Holy Fa- 
mily, by Giulio Romano. 

Lq the following room Annibal 
Caracci painted the exploits of 
Seipio Anicanus; the tapestrv on 
the walls, with subjects tsQcenfrom 
Roman history, was made at St 
Michele, in Rome. In the four 
comers are the busts of Sappho, 
Ariadne, Poppea, and Socrates. 



The last room is remarkable as 
possessing sundry frescoes of 
Pietro Perugino relative to Ihe 
wars between the Romans and 
Carthaginians; in the chapel are 
a Madonna of Pinturicchio and 
the Evangelists of Caravaggio. 

Gallery of Paintings, — The de- 
scription commences on the left 
of the entrance. The first picture 
is the portrait of a Female by 
Giorgione ; a Madonna and Sain^ 
of the Venetian school, beinff a 
copy of Paul Veronese. The Ap- 
parition of Angels to the Shep- 
herdsj by Bassano ; the Sacrifice 
of Iphigenia, by Pietro di Cor- 
tona; a Portrait, by Bronzino; a 
St Lucia, one of the best works 
of the author; a Madonna in 
glory, the Espousals of St Ca- 
therine, and a Holy Family, with 
St Jerome, all four by Benvenuto 
Garofalo ; Vanity, by Titian ; a St 
Jerome, and a portrait of him- 
self, by Guido; a Portrait, by 
Velasquez, admirably coloured; 
the Coronation of St Catherine, 
by Garofalo; two Adoration of 
the Magi, by Scarsellino; a Land- 
scape, with the Martyrdom of St 
Sebastian, by Dominichino; an 
Orpheus playing on the lyre, by 
Poussin ; and a Man caressing a 
Dog, by Palma Vecchio, are the 
principal paintings on this side 
of the room. 

Opposite , and particularly 
worthy of notice, is the Depar- 
ture of Agar and Ishmael^ a fine 
work of Mola's; a Chanty, by 
Annibal Caracci, who also painted 
the St Cecilia, and a Madonna with 
St Francis, the celebrated Sybilla 
Persica of Guercino; the Ma- 
donna, by Albano, a fine com- 
position; a Magdalen, by Tinto- 
retto; a Sketch, by Agostino Ca- 
racci, of the celebrated Commu- 
nion of St Jerome at Bologna; 



HOVAN fUTSS.-T-IOlfE* flCOUrB DAT. 



a Hohr Family b^ Schidoni; and 
the Espousals, in the ancient 
Ferrarese style. 

On the third wall are a Christ 
disputing/with the Doctors, a fine 
compositibn, by Valentin; the Cu- 
mean Sybil of Dominichino; Her- 
minia and the Shepherd of Lan- 
franc; the Separation of Jacob 
and Esau, by del Garbo ; a Magda- 
len of Guide; Flora on a Trium- 
ghal Car, by Poussin; a View of 
rrottaf errata, by Vauvitelli; a 
St John Baptist, by Guercino; 
Cupid and rsyche, by Luti; a 
Landscape and Magdalen, by Ca- 
racci; Uie Magdalen of Albano; 
the Triumph of Bacchus, by 
Pietro di Cortona; a St Celia of 
RomaneUi. 

On the fourth wall we observe 
a portrait, by Dossi, of Ferrara; 
anotiiier bv Dominichino ; a Chiaro- 
oscuro of Polydore Carayaffgio;a 
Sketdiof a soul in bliss, by Guide ; 
Virdn and St Anne with Angels, 
by Paul Veronese; a Romulus 
and Remus nourished by the 
Wolf, by Rubens ; a Portrait, by 
Giorgione; Rachel, Leah, and 
Laban, by Ferri; Circe present- 
ing the beverage to Ulysses, by 
Sirani; a Portrait, by Giorgione; 
the Dispute of St Catherine, by 
Vasari; a Madonna, by Francia; 
a Portrait, by Bronzino ; a chiaro- 
oscuro representing Meleager , by 
Polydore Caravaggio; and the 
Coronation of the Madonna with 
St John, by an author not known. 
On the wall to the left of the 
entrance of the second room are 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost and 
the Ascension, by Paul Veronese; 
an Adoration and the Madonna 
in glory, by Garofalo ; two Land- 
scapes, by Claude; a Flemish 
piece, by Breughel ; sundry views 
of Rome, by Yanvitelli ; a Cupid 
of Tintoretto; two Sketches and 



an fioropa, by Guldo; a Battiey 
by Borgognone; and asplendid re- 
presentation of our Saviour and 
the Adulterous Woman, by Titian. 

These are followed by a defeat 
of Darius at Arballae, by Pietro 
di Cortona; a Portrait, by Titian; 
the Polyphemus of Guido ; a Ju- 
diUi, by Giulio Romano ; a Holy 
Family of Andrea Sacchi; the 
Journey into. Egypt, by Scarsel- 
lino; a St John Baptist, by Par- 
migiano ; a St Francis of Anni- 
bal Caracci; a Claude; a fine Ga- 
rofalo, representing the Madonna, 
Child, and St John, and the Judg- 
ment of Solomon, by Bassano. (hi 
the second wall is the celebrar 
ted St Pe1n)nilla of Guercino, a 
copy of which in mosaic ia in 
St Peter's; on the left of this 
classic picture is an allegory, on 
the right a Magdalen, of the school 
of Guercino. 

On the third wall are the Bap- 
tism of our Saviour, by Titian; 
a St Francis, a Holy Family, and 
a fine St Sebastian, by Luaovico 
Caracci; a Gipsy and a Young Man. 
by Caravaggio; a Madonna ana 
Child, by Perugino; a St Matthew 
of Guercino; a St Bernard, by 
Bellini; and a Soldier reposing, 
by Salvator Rosa. 

The principal pictures that folr 
low are a Flagellation, by Tinto- 
retto; an Old Man, by Bassano; 
a Cleopatra in the presence of Au-' 
gustus,and a St John Baptist, by 
Guercino ; the Baptism of Qurist, 
by Tintoretto; Jesus driving the 
Money-changers out of the Temp- 
le, a fine St Sebastian of Guido; 
the Conversion of St Paul, and 
Christ Fulminating Vice, byScar- 
sellino; a fine painting of St 
Barbara, by s<»ne attributed to 
Annibal Caracci, by others to 
Dominichino; a St Sebastian* by 
Garofalo; a Holy Family, byP 



sfe 



CENTUja'' tTALY.— llOltE. 8£C6!«D DAT. 



arigiado ; the Queen of Slieba, bv 
AHegrini; a St Christopher with 
our Saviour, by Tintoretto; a St 
Cecilia ofLudoyico Caracei; and 
a Sketch of Cleopatra; by Guido. 

On the fourth wall are two 
Philosophers, by "D Calabrese;** 
aBersabea otPalma; the Graces, 
by Pahna the younger; Nathan 
and Saul, by Mola; Jesus at the 
house of the Pharisee, by Bas- 
sano ; a Magdalen in Prayer, and 
the Rape of Europa, both by 
Paul Veronese. 

Behind this edifice was the 
aoropolis or fortress of Rome, and 
the Tarpeian rock, apart of which 
is risible from the Piazza della 
Consolazione. It still preserves a 
certain height, but it should be 
borne- in mind that the soil is 
raised about forty feet above its 
ancient level, and that the falls 
of earth from the top have also 
tended to diminish its primitive 
height Those who were declared 
guilty of treason to their country 
were hurled headlong from this 
rock; such was the fate of Man- 
lius. 

From the Capitol two streets 
lead to the forum; that to the left 
passes by the substructions of 
the tabularium. Under the church 
dedicated to St Joseph is the 

AfammertinePrisonyhvLilt under 
Ancus Martins, and described by 
Varro ; the chamber still existing 
is covered with rectangular slabs 
of volcanic stone called reddish 
tufa; its form is that of a trape- 
zium, twenty-four feet long, eigh- 
teen wide, and thirtheen high. 
Towards the north-west are traces 
of a window which sheds here 
its feeble light No trace of an 
ancient door being visible, it is 
conjectured that criminals were 
lowered into the prison through 
the aperture covered with an 



iron grating. The eastern front 
is Well preserved, and on blocks 
of travertine are the names of 
the consuls, Rufinus and Nerva, 
who restored it From the steps 
leading to the prison, named 
"Scalae Gemoniae,*' the bodies of 
those put to death in the prison 
were dragged through the forum 
and thrown into the Tiber from 
the Sublician bridge. 

These executions took place in 
the inferior or Tullian prison, thus 
named from Servius TulKus. It 
was cut in the rock about twelve 
feet under the level of ancient 
Rome. We learn from history that 
many celebrated personages of 
antiquity died in this prison. Ju- 
gurtha of starvation; Lentulus, 
Cethegus, StatiliuB, Cabinius, and 
other accomplices of Catilina, by 
strangulation; Sejanus by order 
of Tiberius, and Simon, son of 
Joras, chief of the Jews, by that 
of Titus. It is supposed that, after 
having adorned the triumphal 
pomp, the captive chiefs were con- 
fined in the Tullian prison till 
sent to the places assigned as 
their residence. Syphax finished 
Ws days at Tivoli ; Perseus, king 
of Macedon, at Alba Fucensis. 

The celebrity of this prison is 
increased by the pious tradition 
that the apostles St Peter and 
St Paul were confined in it under 
Nero, and a spring of water, said 
to have been used at the baptism 
of Processus and Martinian, the 
keepers of the prison, who after- 
wards suffered martyrdom, is*still 
visible. Over the prison is the 

Church of St Giuseppe, built in 
1598. The picture over the high 
altar, representing the Marriage 
of the Madonna, is by Benedetto 
Bramante; the Birth of Christ, on 
the left altar, is by Carlo Maratta; 
the Death of St Joseph, by Roma- 



mnrAir «TAfss.-^«iiiB. second da's. 



nelti. The three isolated cduimts 
near this church belong to ^e 

l^mple of Japiter Tonans, 
raised by Augustus, on his return 
from the war in Spain, where one 
of his slaves, who carried a light 
daring a journey by night, was 
struck dead by h'ghtning. This 
temple having suffered, probably 
daring the fire which consumed 
the atiienaeum and other build- 
ings in this direction, was restored 
by the Emperors Severus and Ca- 
racalla. In compariiig those parts 
of the cornice deposited in the 
portico of the tabularium with 
those of the temple of Concord, 
two periods of Roman architec- 
ture are easily distinguished; that 
of Augustus and that of Severus, 
of the perfection and of the de- 
cline or the art Of this monu- 
ment there remain only three 
fluted Corinthian columns, four 
feet two inches in diameter. The 
entablature is remarkable for the 
diiFerent instruments used in the 
sacrifices, sculptured in bas-relief 
on the fneze. 

The ancient pavement of poly- 
gonal basaltic blocks at the base 
of this temple formed a part of 
the Clivus Capitolinus, one of the 
roadfi that led to the Capitol. 

Temple of Forttme. — It was 
hitherto generally supposed that 
the eight colunms, near the temple 
of Jupiter Tonans, were remains 
of the celebrated temple of Con- 
cord, in which the senate occasion- 
ally assembled; but although si- 
tuated between the Capitol and 
forum, the front of the temple 
of Concord was turned to the 
forum according to Plutarch, and 
Dio asserts that it was in the 
immediate vicinity of the Mam- 
mertine prison. These columns 
formed p^rt of the temple of For- 
tune, built under Maxentius, and 



rebuilt by the senate. They are 
all of different diameters,. of the 
Ionic order, and of Egyptian ^- 
nite ; some are twelve feet in cir- 
cumference, and forty in height, 
comprising the basis and capital. 
The frieze is ornamented inter- 
nally with foliage and arabesques, 
belonging in part to the primitive 
temple, and of the fine period 
of Roman architecture, but the 
others are evidently of the fourth 
century. 

Several chamber8,of a brick con- 
struction, as used under Adrian, 
have been recently discovered 
near this temple ; the columns and 
capitals being profusely adorned 
with trophies and victories ap- 
pear to be of the time of Sep- 
timius Severus. An inscription, 
on an entablature of the portico, 
indicates that in these chambers 
were the statues of the twelve 
divinities, called Consentes, whose 
names have been preserved by 
Ennius in the following order: 
— Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, 
Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercury, 
Jupiter, Neptune, Vulcan, Apollo; 
and that these statues were re- 
stored by Pretextat, prefect of 
Rome, in the year 368 of the 
Christian era. 

On the right of the temple of 
Jupiter Tonans are the remains 
of the 

Temple of Concord, so interest- 
ing in Roman history, and in the 
topography of the ancient city, 
discovered under amass of marble 
fragments of excellent workman- 
ship. Three votive inscriptions, one 
highly preserved, have determined 
its position, and agree with the 
testimony of ancient writers. 

Some vestiges of the cellar with 
fragments of giallo antico, afri- 
cano, and violet marble are now 
the only remains* It appears by 



24: 



CnmAL ITALY. — ^BOIIE. SECOND DAT. 



these fragments that the int^or 
coltiixis, the base of which was 
highly finished, and of the style 
of tiitose found at the thermae of 
Titus, were of giallo antico and 
violet marble. An inscription pre- 
serves the name of M. Antonius 
Geminus, prefect of the military 
treasure,who dedicated the temple, 
which seems to have been des- 
troyed by fire before the eighth 
century. 

Boman Forum, — The celebrity 
of this spot, the most classic of 
ancient Rome, has induced anti- 
quarians to trace its limits and 
assign to each edifice its peculiar 
locality. The system of Nardini, 
founded on the authority of the 
classics, has been in a great mea- 
sure verified by the discoveries 
made tiU the present day. 

The Romans having, under Ro- 
mulus and Tatius, occupied the 
Palatine, and the Sabines the Ca- 
pitoline, hill, they had no other 
means of communication than by 
the kind of isthmus which, com- 
mencing at the Tarpeian rock, 
joined the Palatine towards its 
northern angle. According to Dio- 
nysius of Halicamassus, this val- 
ley was then covered with woods 
and marshes, and had a slope 
towards the east and west, which 
was most sensible, from tibe spot 
now occupied by the granary near 
the column ofPhocastothe arch 
of Severus and theforum of Nerva. 
The springs which, from Uie decli- 
vities oftheQuirinal, Viminal, and 
Esquiline, fell into the valley on 
one side, and from the Aventine, 
Capitoline, and Palatine, into that 
on the other side, formed marshes 
which, in the latter case, being 
united with the overflowings of 
the river, became a lake, called 
the Velabrum. By a passage in 
Yarro it is ascertained that m his 



time, prior to the dictatorship of 
Caesar, the extent of the forum 
was of seven jugera, and each of 
these jugera contained a surface 
of 240 Roman feet long and 220 
wide; the sides presented a su- 
perfices of 201,600 square feet, 
or an extension of 550 feet long 
and 366 wide, the city itself being 
then only one mile in circuit It 
was enlarged towards the east suc- 
cessively under Caesar and Au- 
gustus. 

By the excavations made of 
late it appears that the forum 
existed tiU the eleventh century, 
and was totally destroyed in 1060, 
when Robert Guiscard set fire to 
this part of the city. It was after- 
wards used as a place for de- 
positing rubbish, which in the 
course of time afccnmulated to the 
height of tweuty-four feet It af- 
terwards became a market for 
oxen, and hence it derived its ap- 
pellation of Campo Yaccino. 

Edifices of the Forum. — The fo- 
rum of Rome, like all those of 
the Italian cities, was, according 
to Yitruvius, of an oblong form. 
In order to render it regular a 
portico of two stories was erected, 
with chambers above and shops 
(tabemae) on the ground floor. 
Around it many buildings for dif- 
ferent uses were raised, which, 
on the authority of ancient writers, 
and fragments of the ancient plan 
of Rome preserved in the Capi- 
tol, were disposed in the following 
order: — 

In the centre of the southern 
side was the curia or senate house ; 
on the right of this building the 
comitium, or place destined for the 
popular assemblies or publicplead- 
ings ; the graecostasis^ or hall for 
the reception of foreign ambas- 
sadors ; and the Fabian arch,raised 
by Fabius, conqueror of AHobrogi. 



nOIIAIV STATES. — ROME. SECOND DAT. 



25 



On the left were the temple of 
Castor and Pollux, the laJ^e 'of 
Juturna, and temple of Vesta, 

The western side was occupied 
by the temple of Julius Caesar, 
the Julian basilic, and the area 
of Ops and Saturn. On the north, 
under the Capitol, were the temple 
of Saturn, the arch of Tiberius, 
the temple of Vespasian, and the 
Schola Xantha. 

On the east were the two Emi- 
lian basilics and shops. In the 
centre of the area were the rostra 
or tribune whence harangues were 
addressed to the people, thus nam- 
ed from the beaks of tlie vessels 
taken by the Bomans from the 
Antiates ; this tribune was oppo- 
site to the senate house and sur- 
rounded with the statues of Ro- 
man ambassadors killed while exe- 
cuting their mission; it was pla- 
ced under Julius Caesar near the 
Bouthem angle of the forum, and 
called "nova rostra" the ancient 
site preserving the appellation of 
'Vetera." Opposite the temple of 
Caesar was a column of giallo an- 
tico erected in his honour. At the 
foot of the temple of Saturn was 
a gilt column, milliarum aureum, 
on which were engraved the dis- 
tances from Rome to the princi- 
pal cities of the empire; near the 
arch of Septimius Severuswas the 
rostral column raised to Caius 
DnHius to commemorate his vic- 
tory over the Carthaginians. It is 
known by the testimony of an- 
cient antliors, that several other 
monuments existed in the forum, 
such as the Jani, or public porches 
where commercial men assembled; 
the column of Mevius, conqueror 
of the Latins ; the equestrian sta- 
tue of Domitian, but tJieir situation 
is uncertain. 

To the north-east of the forum 
is the 



Arch of Septimius Severus, rais- 
ed by the senate and Roman people 
in the year 205 of the Christian 
era, to commemorate the victories 
gained by Sevenis over the Par- 
thians and other eastern nations. 

The arch is decorated with eight 
fluted columns of the composite 
order, and with bas-relief repre- 
senting engagements with the Ara- 
bians JParthians,andAdiabenian8 ; 
on the western side is a staircase 
leading to the plattform, on which 
was placed 'the statue of the Em- 
peror seated between his sons Ca- 
racalla and Geta in a triumphal 
car drawn by six horses abreast 

On the left is the 

Chiu'ch of St Luke, one of the 
most ancient in Rome. Alexan- 
der IV jrestored and dedicated it 
to St Martina, but Sixtus IV hav- 
ing presented it in 1588 to the 
academy of painting, it was re- 
built on the designs of Pietro di 
Cortona, and dedicated to St Luke. 
The painting over the right altar, 
representing the Martyrdom of 
St Lazanis, is byBsddi; the As- 
sumption, by Sebastian Conca; 
St Luke painting the B. Virgin 
is a copy of Raphael, by Gram- 
matica. In the subterranean church 
is a chapel built by Pietro di 
Cortona. 

The Academy of the Fine Arts, 
called St Luca, established by 
Sixtus V, is composed of pain- 
ters, sculptors, and architects, and 
holds its sittings in the house ad- 
joining the church. It contains 
several portraits of celebrated 
pamters : tJieSt Luke of Raphael, 
in which is inserted his own por- 
trait; two Landscapes, by Caspar 
Poussin; three pictures of Sal- 
vatorRosa; and a Chi-ist with the 
Pharisee, by Titian. 

The front of the Church of St 
Adrian, built of brick, but for- 



26 



ROMAN STATES. — ^ROME. SECOND BAT. 



merly covered with stucco, dates 
from the fifth century of the Chri- 
stian era. The door, covered with 
bronze, was taken to St John La- 
teran under Alexander VII. When 
the interior of the church was re- 
built in 1649, a pedestal belonging 
probably to the Emilian basilic 
was found; the inscription indi- 
cates that Probianus, prefect of 
the city, had raised a statue there. 

The Colunm of Phocas was dis- 
covered during the excavations 
made in 1813, by tKe inscription 
on the pedestal, tiiiat this colunm, 
with its gilt statue on the top, 
had been raised in 608 by Sma- 
ragdus, the exarch, to the Em- 
peror Phocas, in commemoration 
of Uie tranquillity he maintained 
in Italy. The other inscriptions 
subsequently found are those re- 
lative to the "Averrunci" gods, to 
Minerva Averrunca, Marcus, Cis- 
pius, the praetor, Lucius, and Con- 
stantius Caesar. Three brick pe- 
destals, formerly covered with 
marble, supported large colunms 
of red granite. 

This columns is fluted Corin- 
thian, and belonged originally to 
some edifice of the time of the 
Antonines. Its diameter is fbur 
feet two inches ; the pedestal ten 
feet eleven inches m height. It 
appears from this column that 
even in the seventh century the fo- 
rum of Caesar was still one of the 
most frequented spots in Rome. 

Graecostasis, — It is ascertained 
by passages fipom ancient authors, 
ana the plan of Rome at the Ca- 
pitol, that these fine remains of 
ancient architecture belonged to 
the graecostasis, or building as- 
signed for the reception of foreign 
ambassadors. The front, compo- 
sed of eight columns, faced the 
temple of Antoninus and Fau- 
stina; on the sides were tihirteen 



columns of pentelic marble, flu- 
ted, and of the Corinthian order. 
They are four and a half feet in 
diameter, fortyfive in height, com- 
prising base and capital. The en- 
tablature they support is of the 
most finished workmanship. The 
capitals equal in beauty those of 
the Pantheon, and these ruins may 
be considered as Hie best model 
of the proportions and ornaments 
of the Corinthian order. 

Ouria — Towards the Velabrum, 
and opposite to the Capitol, was 
the Curia Hostilia, used for the 
sittings of the senate ; it was re- 
built bvAugustus, and called Curia 
Julia. The remains of the hall now 
form part of a carpenter's house, 
near the church of St Maria Li- 
beratrice. The front, which was 
probably ornamented with a por- 
tico and marble columns, has dis- 
appeared. 

The Temple of Vesta was rai- 
sed by Adrian I in the eighth cen- 
tury on the ruins of the temple 
of Vesta, in which the Vestal vir- 
gins preserved the Palladium and 
tJie sacred fire. 

In the tribune is a mosaic of 
the eighth century: the painting 
over the principal altar is by Zuc- 
cari. 

On the declivity of the Pala- 
tine behind this temple were the 
Lupercal, a grotto sacred to Pan, 
and the Ruminal fig tree under 
which Romulus and Remus were 
found by Faustnlus. 

Via Sacra. — This celebrated 
way received its name from the 
scnfices which accompanied the 
peace between Romulus and Ta- 
tius. It commenced at the coli- 
seum, passed near the temple of 
Venus and Rome, the basilic of 
Constantine, the temple of Ro- 
mulus and Remus, of Antoninus 
and Faustina, and entered the fo- 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. SECOND DAY. 



27 



mm by the Fabian arch,near which 
a part branched off towards the 
temple of Vesta, ended at the Via 
Nnoya, which joined the circus, 
following the direction of the street 
leading at present from the foram 
to the church of St Anastasia. The 
principal branch of the Via Sacra 
passed through the forum, and 
finished at the Capitol; but ac- 
cording to Va;rro, at the citadel 
called Arx Sacrorum. 

The Temple of Antoninus and 
Faustina was built by the senate 
in honour of Faustina, the name 
of her husband Antoninus was ad- 
ded after his death. In ii'ont of 
the ceUa is a portico of six co- 
lumns, with three on each side of 
cipolHno, the largest known of this 
kind of marble, being forty-three 
feet high, including the base and 
capital. They support an entabla- 
ture composed of enormous blocks 
of white marble. On the frieze are 
bas-reliefs of griffins, chandeliers, 
and wases of the best style of 
sculpture. The walls of the cella, 
built of peperino, or Albano stone, 
were covered with white marble. 
In ancient times twenty-one mar- 
ble steps led to the interior; at 
present there are about sixteen 
feet between the base of the por- 
tico columns and the level of the 
Via Sacra. 

Temple of JRomidus and Bemus. 
— ^It is ascertained from the ec- 
clesiastical writers that the church 
of SS. Gosimo and Damiano was 
built on the ancient temple of Ro- 
mulus and Kemus. The cella, now 
the vestibule of the church, is of 
a circular form, and on the mar- 
ble pavement was engraved the 
plan of Rome, fragments of which 
are now in the Capitol. The copy 
of its inscription, preserved in a 
manuscript of the Vatican library, 



proves that this temple was built 
under Constantine. 

The upper part of the temple 
has been adapted as the vestibule 
of the church of SS. Cosimo and 
Damiano, built in 527 by Pope 
Felix ni; a bronze door brought 
from Perugia, and two porphyry 
columns, form the entrance; in 
the ancient church, now under 
ground, is an altar under which 
repose SS. Cosimo and Damiano. 

The two cipoUino columns, mea- 
suring from the base to the ca- 
pital thirty-one feet, were a part 
of the portico which belonged to 
the temple of Remus. 

The three large arches near 
these columns are remains of the 

Basilic of Constantine. — Aure- 
lius Victor says, that in the year 
311 of the Christian era Maxen- 
tius raised this edifice, which, after 
his defeat, was consecrated by tlie 
senate to Constantine. 

The plan of this building is 
that of a basilic, being divided 
into three naves; the style of the 
construction ana ornaments is 
identical with that of the &er- 
mae of Diocletian, and other edi- 
fices of the fourth century; in a 
fragment of the roof which fell *n 
1828, several medals were found, 
one in silver of Maxentius. From 
the fifteenth to the middle of the 
seventeenth century, these ruins 
were supposed to have been those 
of the temple of Peace. 

The length of the building was 
aOOfeet, the width 200, and height 
seventy. The middle nave was 
supported by eight fluted Corin- 
thian columns. The nave to the 
north is well preserved ; a change 
is visible in the construction, the 
entrance having been originally 
om)osite the coliseum, and the 
tribune at the head of the great 
nave; another opening was after 



o* 



26 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. SECOND DAY. 



wards made facing the Palatine, 
when the tribune was transferred 
to the centre of the north nave. 
Kemnants of the giallo antico pa- 
yements, of capites, porphyry co- 
lumns, and entablatures were dis- 
covered during the recent exca- 
vations. 

St Franeesca Bomana was built 
under Paul I, renewed under Leo 
IV and Paul V, when the present 
front was raised. Before the high 
altar is the tomb of St Fran- 
cesca, covered with precious mar- 
ble and gilt bronze; on the tomb 
of Gregory XI, by Olvieri, is a 
bas-relief representing the return 
of the Popes to Rome after an 
absence of seventy-two years at 
Avignon. 

The Arch of Titus, raised by 
the senate to Titus, son of Ves- 
pasian, after the conquest of Je- 
rusalem, is of pentelic marble, 
and had, on each side, four half 
columns of the composite order; 
two only now remain at each 
firont : they support the entabla- 
ture and attic. 

The bas-reliefs under the arch 
represent Titus on a car drawn 
by four horses abreast, driven by 
Rome under the figure of a fe- 
male, with Victory crowning the 
emperor, who is preceded and 
followed by his soldiers. 

The most interesting part of 
the triumphal pomp consists of 
the prisonners,the golden table and 
sacred vases, the seven-branched 
golden candlestick, and other 
spoils of the temple of Jerusalem. 
In the centre is the figure of Ti- 
tus borne by an eagle in allusion 
to his apotheosis. On the two front 
angles are four victories of a good 
style of sculpture, and on the fneze 
ot the entablature is a represen- 
tation of the river Jordan, indi- 
cating the conquest of Judaea, 



m€n leading oxen to be sacrificed, 
and soldiers with round shields. 

This arch, though small and of 
a single arcade, is the finest mo- 
nument of the kind left us by an- 
tiquity. 

Temple of Venus and Borne. — 
The Emperor Adrian himself ma- 
de the designs of this temple, and 
superintended its construction. Dio 
designates the primitive site as 
the atrium of the golden house 
of Nero, at the summit of the Via 
Sacra, near the amphitheatre. 
Having suffered from fire, it was 
restored by Maxentius. 

This temple was raised in the 
centre of an oblong enclosure 
formed by a portico 500 feet long 
and 300 wide, with a double row 
of granite columns, each three and 
half feet in diameter. It was di- 
vided into two parts, with two di- 
stinct and separate celiac, though 
they formed but one temple, con- 
sisting of two rows of columns at 
each front, and a single row at 
each side. Its length was 333 feet, 
and width 160; ten columns at each 
front, twenty at each side, all of 
Proconesus marble (white with 
grey veins), nearly six feet in dia- 
meter, of the Corinthian order, 
and fluted, as is proved by the 
fragments that remain. The ex- 
ternal walls of the cella were co- 
vered with the same quality of 
marble, five and half feet in thick- 
ness. 

The temple had two entrances, 
one towards the forum by the 
steps near the arch of Titus^ 
the other towards the coliseum 
by a double staircase, the remains 
of which are still visible from the 
court; seven steps led to the vesti- 
bule, and five others to the cella. 
The interior of the two celiac was 
decorated with porphyry columns 
two feet two inches in diameter ; 



ROMAN STATES. — ^ROMS^ SECOND DAT. 



29 



the roof was gilt, and the mside 
walls and pavement were covered 
with giallo antico and serpentine. 

Palatine Hill.— The traditions 
admitted by ancient writers re- 
specting the name of this cele- 
brated hill are that Evander fomi- 
ded on it a city called Pallantium, 
from his native town in Arcadia, 
a name changed into Pallatium, 
from which is derived Palatinus. 

This hill is surrounded by the 
other hills of Rome ; by the Aven- 
tine to the west, the Caelian to 
the south, the Esquilin^ to the 
east, the Yiminal, Quirinal, and 
Capitoline to the north and north- 
west Its form is that of a tra- 
pezium 6,400 feet in circumfe- 
rence; it is 156 feet above the 
level of the sea, and was the 
cradle of Rome. Romulus had his 
cottage on the part turned tow- 
ards the Circus Maximus ; Numa 
near the temple of Vesta; Tul- 
lius HoBtilius built his house on 
the summit overlooking the fo- 
rum; Ancus Martins on the spot 
where the temple of Venus anji 
Rome was afterwards erected ; and 
TarquiniuB Priscus on the slope 
overlooking the Velabrum. 

In latter times it was the resi- 
dence of the Graechi, of Crassus, 
Hortensius, Cicero, Clodius, Mark 
Antony, Claudius Nero, father of 
Tiberius, and of Octavius, father of 
Augustus. To this last is due the 
commencement of the 

Palace of the Caesars. — His 
paternal mansion having been des- 
troyed be fire, Augustus built a 
house on the middle of the hill 
towards the Aventine, adding to 
it a temple of Apollo, a portico, 
and a library. It was enlarged by 
Tiberius in the direction of the 
Velabrum, and by Caligula, who 
raised a front with porticoes in 
the foriun, and a bridge suppor- 



ted by marble columns, in order to 
unite it with the Capitoline hill. 

The whole Palatine was not ex- 
tensive enough for the improve- 
ments made by Nero, which oc- 
cupied the space between this 
hill, the Esqmline, and the gar- 
dens of Mecaenas under the "ag- 
ger." This immense palace con- 
tained extensive sardens, woods, 
ponds, baths, and several other 
buildings. Having been destroyed 
by fire in the 64th year of our 
era, Nero repaired it with such 
magnificence that it was called the 
"domus aurea", or golden house. 
It would be difficult to form an 
idea of its magnificence. Accord- 
ing to ancient writers it was sur- 
rounded withponticoes,having not 
less than three thousand columns, 
and before the vestibule was his 
colossus in bronze, 120 feet high, 
the work of the celebrated Zeno- 
dorus. Most of the rooms and halls 
were adorned with statues, co- 
lunms, and precious marbles. 

The palace not being finished 
at the death of Nero, a conside- 
rable sum was assigned byOtho 
for its completion, but owing to 
the shortness of his reign his or- 
ders was not executed. Vespasian 
and Titus demolished, or destined 
to other uses, the part ontheEs- 
quiline; they built the coliseum 
and thermae : their successors em- 
bellished or partially changed the 
palace on the Palatine. After the 
translation of the empire it was 
abandoned, suffered much under 
Alaric in 410, and Genseric in 
455, when the bronze vases, and 
the sacred utensils of the temple 
of Jerusalem were taken away. 
It was, however, continually re- 
stored, served as the residence of 
the Emperor Heraclius in the se- 
venth century, and existed even 
in the eight. At the present day 



90 



CENTIUL ITALT. — ROVC SECOND VAT. CAPlttfL. 



eesco Aldobrandini ; Alexander 
Faniese,who commanded in Flan- 
ders; and of Carlo Barberini, the 
brother of Urban VH 

In the second antechamber is 
a frieze by Daniel di Volterra, 
representing the triumph of Ma- 
rhiB after the defeat of the Cimbri, 
and in the centre the wolf with 
Romulus and Remus ; this is not 
the original wolf of the Capitol 
fltrack by lightning, previously to 
the conspiracy of Cataline, as 
Cicero relates, but the one men- 
tioned by Pliny and Dionysius of 
Haiicamassus , dedicated in the 
year of Rome 458, and found near 
the site of the ruminal fig tree at 
tiie base of the Palatine in the 
fifteenth century; a fine statue 
of a shepherd boy taking a thorn 
from his foot; busts of Junius 
Brutus, the first Roman consul, of 
Proserpine, Diana, Julius Caesar, 
and Adrian. 

In the third antechamber we 
observe several marble fragments, 
on which are engraved the cele- 
brated consular "fasti" down to 
Augustus, and over the entrance 
door a fine bas-relief head of 
Mithridates, king of Pontns. 

In the audience room are a frieze 
representing different Olympic 
games; busts of Sdpio Africa- 
nus; Philip of Macedon; Appius 
Claudius, in roso antico; a strik- 
ing likeness, in bronze, of Mi- 
cmiel Angelo, done by himself; 
a head of Medusa, by Bernini; 
and a picture of the Holy Fa- 
mily, by Giulio Romano. 

In the following room Annibal 
Caracci painted the exploits of 
Scipio Africanus; the tapestrv on 
the walls, with subjects taken from 
Roman histoxy, was made at St 
Michele, in Kome. In the four 
comers are the busts of Sappho, 
Ariadne, Poppea, and Socrates. 



The last room is remarkable as 
possessing sundry frescoes of 
Pietro Perugino relative to the 
wars between the Romans and 
Carthaginians; in the chapel are 
a Madonna of Pinturicchio and 
the Evangelists of Caravaggio. 

Gallery of Paintings, — The de- 
scription commences on the left 
of the entrance. The first picture 
is the portrait of a Female by 
Giorgione ; a Madonna and Sainis 
of the Venetian school, beinff a 
copy of Paul Veronese. The Ap- 
pantion of Angels to the Shep- 
herdSj by Bassano ; the Sacrifice 
of Iphigenia, by Pietro di Cor- 
tona; a Portrait, by Bronzino; a 
St Lucia, one of the best works 
of the author; a Madonna in 
glory, the Espousals of St Ca- 
therine, and a Holy Family, with 
St Jerome^U four by Benvenuto 
Garofalo ; Vanity, by Titian ; a St 
Jerome, and a portrait of him- 
self, by Guide; a Portrait, by 
Velasquez, admirably coloured; 
the Coronation of St Catherine, 
by Garofalo; two Adoration of 
the Magi, by Scarsellino; a Land- 
scape, with the Martyrdom of St 
Sebastian, by Dominichino; au 
Orpheus playing on the lyre, by 
Poussin; and a Man caressing a 
Dog, by Palma Vecchio, are the 
principal paintings on this side 
of the room. 

Opposite , and particularly 
worthy of notice , is the Depar- 
ture of Agar and Ishmael^ a fine 
work of Mola's; a Chanty, by 
Annibal Caracci, who also painted 
the St Cecilia, and a Madonna with 
St Francis, the celebrated Sybflla 
Persica of Guercino; the Ma- 
donna, by Albano, a fine com- 
position; a Magdalen, by Tinto- 
retto; a Sketch, by Agostino Ca- 
racci, of the celebrated Commu- 
nion of St Jerome at Bologna; 



ROHAN 9T4TES.-:-B01lE. SSC0N9 DAY. 



a Hohr Family hj Schidoui; and 
the Espousals, in the ancient 
Ferrarese style. 

On the third wall are a Christ 
disputing, with the Doctors, a fine 
compositibn, by Valentin; tiie Cu- 
mean Sybil of Dominichino; Her- 
minia and the Shepherd of Lan- 
franc; ^e Separation of Jacob 
and Esau, by del Garbo ; a Magda- 
len of Guide; Flora on a Trium- 
phal Car, by Poussin; a View of 
Gfottaf errata, by YauYitelli; a 
St John Baptist, by Guercino; 
Cupid and Psyche, by Luti; a 
Landscape and Magdalen, by Ca- 
racci: the Magdalen of Albano; 
the Triumph of Bacchus, by 
Pietro di Cortona; a St Celia of 
RomanellL 

On the fourth wall we observe 
a portrait, by Dossi, of Ferrara; 
another bv Dominichino ; a Chiaro- 
oscuro of Polydore Caravaggio;a 
Sketch of a soul in bliss, by Guido ; 
Virgin and St Anne with Angels, 
by Paul Veronese; a Romulus 
and Remus nourished by the 
Wolf, by Rubens ; a Portrait, by 
Giorgione; Rachel, Leah, and 
Laban, by Ferri; Circe present- 
ing the beverage to Ulysses, by 
Sirani ; a Portrait, by Giorgione ; 
Ihe Dispute of St Catherine, by 
Vasari; a Madonna, by Francia; 
a Portrait, by Bronzino ; a chiaro- 
oscoro representing Meleager , by 
Polydore Caravageio; and the 
Coronation of the Madonna with 
St John, by an author not known. 

On the wall to the left of the 
entrance of the second room are 
the Descent of the Holy Ghost and 
the Ascension, by Paul Veronese; 
an Adoration and the Madonna 
in glory, by Garofalo ; two Land- 
scapes, by Claude; a Flemish 
piece, by Breughel ; simdry views 
of Rome, by Vanvitelli ; a Cupid 
of Tintoretto ; two Sketches and 



an Kuropa, by Guido; a Batde, 
byBorgognone; and asplendid re- 
presentation of our Saviour and 
the Adulterous Woman, by Titian. 

These are loUowed by a defeat 
of Darius at Arballae, by Pietro 
di Cortona; a Portrait, by Titian; 
the Polyphemus of Guido ; a Ju- 
dith, by Giulio Romano; a Holy 
Family of Andrea Sacchi; the 
Journey into. Egypt, by Scarsel- 
lino; a St John Baptist, by Par- 
migiano ; a St Francis of Anni- 
bal Caracci; a Claude; a fine Ga- 
rofedo, representing the Madonna, 
Child, and St John, and the Judg- 
ment of Solomon, oy Bassano. (hi 
the second wall is the celebra- 
ted St Petronilla of Guercino, a 
copy of which in mosaic is in 
St Peter's; on the left of this 
classic picture is an allegory, on 
the right a Magdalen, of the school 
of Guereino. 

On the third wall are the Bap*- 
tism of our Saviour, by Titian; 
a St Francis, a Holy Familv, and 
a fine St Sebastian, by Luaovico 
Caracci; a Gipsy and a x oung Man. 
by Caravaggio; a Madonna ana 
Child, by Perugino ; a St Matthew 
of Guercino; a St Bernard, by 
Bellini; and a Soldier reposing, 
by Salvator Rosa. 

The principal pictures that fol- 
low are a Flag^lation, by Tinto- 
retto; an Old Man, by Bassano; 
a Cleopatra in the presence of An* 
gustus, and a St John Baptist, by 
Guercino; the Baptism of Christy 
by Tintoretto; Jesus driving the 
Money-changers out of the Temp* 
le, a fine St Sebastian of Giudo: 
the Conversion of St Paul, and 
Christ Fulminating Vice, byScar^ 
sellino; a fine painting of St 
Barbara, by some attributed to 
Annibal Caracci, by others to 
Dominichino; a St Sebastian^ by 
Garofalo ; a Holy Family, by Pai^ 



Ife 



cEfirniia''TrALY.~^KoiilE. second i»at. 



soigiatio ; the Queen of Slieba, bv 
Aliegrini; a St Christopher 'with 
our Sariour, by Tintoretto; a St 
Oedlia of Ludovico Caracd ; and 
a Sketch of Cleopatra; by Guido. 

On the fonrtn wall are two 
Philosophers, by "II Calabrese;" 
aBersabeaotPalma; the Graces, 
by Palma the younger; Nathan 
and Saul, by Mola; Jesus at the 
house of the Pharisee, by Bas- 
sano ; a Magdalen in Prayer, and 
the Rape of Europa, both by 
Paul Veronese. 

Behind this edifice was the 
acropolis or fortress of Rome, and 
the Tarpeian rock, apart of which 
is yisible from the Piazza della 
Oonsolazione. It still preserves a 
certain height, but it should be 
borne- in mind that the soil is 
raised about forty feet above its 
ancient level, and that the falls 
of earth from the top have also 
tended to diminish its primitive 
height Those who were declared 
guilty of treason to their country 
were hurled headlong from this 
rock; such was the fateofMan- 
lins. 

From the Capitol two streets 
lead to the forum; that to the left 
passes by the substructions of 
the tabularium. Under the church 
dedicated to St Joseph is the 

JdamrfiertinePrison^hmlt under 
Ancns Martins, and described by 
Yarro ; the chamber still existing 
is covered with rectangular slabs 
of volcanic stone called reddish 
tufa; its form is that of a trape- 
zium, twenty-four feet long, eigh- 
teen wide, and thirtheen high. 
Towards the north-west are traces 
of a window which sheds here 
its feeble light No trace of an 
ancient door being visible, it is 
conjectured that criminals were 
lowered into the prison through 
the aperture covered with an 



iron grating. The eastern front 
is well preserved, and on blocks 
of travertine are the names of 
the consuls, Rufinus and Nerva, 
who restored it From the steps 
leading to the prison, named 
"Scalae Gemoniae,'' the bodies of 
those put to death in the prison 
were cbagged through the forum 
and thrown into the Tiber from 
the Sublician bridge. 

These executions took place in 
the inferior or Tullian prison, thus 
named from Servius TulHus. It 
was cut in the rock about twelve 
feet under the level of ancient 
Rome. We learn from history that 
many celebrated personages of 
antiquity died in this prison. Ju- 
gurtha of starvation; Lentnlus, 
Cethegus, Statilius, Cabinius, and 
other accomplices of Catilina, by 
strangulation; Sejanus by order 
of Tiberius, and Simon, son of 
Joras, chief of the Jews, by that 
of Titus. It is supposed that, after 
having adorned the triumphal 
pomp, the captive chiefs were con- 
nned in the Tullian prison till 
sent to the places assigned as 
their residence. Syphax finished 
his days at Tivoli ; Perseus, king 
of Macedon, at Alba Fucensis. 

The celebrity of this prison is 
increased by the pious tradition 
that the apostles St Peter and 
St Paul were confined in it under 
Nero, and a spring of water, said 
to have been used at the baptism 
of Processus and Martinian, the 
keepers of the prison, who after- 
wards suffered martyrdom, is'still 
visible. Over the prison is the 

Church of St Giuseppe, built in 
1598. The picture over the high 
altar, representing the Marriage 
of the Madonna, is by Benedetto 
Bramante; the Birth of Christ, on 
the left altar, is by Carlo Maratta; 
the Death of St Joseph, by Roma- 



ROirAN flTA«S. 



BBCOND 11411. 



2a 



nelti. The three isolated oolunms 
near this church belong to the 

Temple of Jnpiter Tonans, 
raised by Augustus, on his return 
from the war in Spain, where one 
of his slaves, who carried a light 
during a journey by night, was 
struck dead by lightning. This 
temple having suffered, probably 
during the fire which consumed 
the athenaeum and other build- 
ings in this direction, was restored 
by the Emperors Severus and Ca- 
racalla. In compariiig those parts 
of the cornice deposited in tiie 
portico of the tabularium with 
those of the temple of Concord, 
two periods of Roman architec- 
ture are easily distinguished ; that 
of Augustus and that of Severus, 
of the perfeclion and of the de- 
cline of the art Of this monu- 
ment there remain only three 
fluted Corinthian columns, four 
feet two inches in diameter. The 
entablature is remarkable for the 
different instruments used in the 
sacrifices, sculptured in bas-relief 
on the frieze. 

The ancient pavement of poly- 
gonal basaltic blocks at the base 
of this temple formed a part of 
the Clivus Capitolinus, one of the 
roads that led to the Capitol. 

Temple of Fortune, — It was 
hitherto generally supposed that 
the eight columns, near the temple 
of Jupiter Tonans, were remains 
of the celebrated temple of Con- 
cord, in which the senate occasion- 
ally assembled; but although si- 
tuated between the Capitol and 
forum, the front of the temple 
of Concord was turned to the 
forum according to Plutarch, and 
Dio asserts that it was in the 
immediate vicinity of the Mam- 
mertine prison. These columns 
formed part of the temple of For- 
tune, built under Maxentius, and 



rebuitt by the senate. They are 
all of different diameters,. of the 
Ionic order, and of Egyptian gra- 
nite; some are twelve ^et in cir- 
cumference, and forty in height, 
comprising the basis and capital. 
The frieze is ornamented inter- 
nally with foliage and arabesques, 
belonging in part to the primitive 
temple, and of the fine period 
of Koman architecture, but the 
others are evidently of the fourth 
century. 

Several chamber8,of a brick con- 
struction, as used under Adrian, 
have been recently discoverea 
near this temple ; the columns and 
capitals being profusely adorned 
with trophies and victories ap- 
pear to be of the time of Sep- 
timius Severus. An insertion, 
on an entablature of the portico, 
indicates that in these chambers 
were the statues of the twelve 
divinities, called Consentes, whose 
names have been preserved by 
Ennitts in the following order: 
— Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, 
Diana, Venus, Mars, Mercury, 
Jupiter, Neptune, Vulcan, Apollo; 
and that these statues were re- 
stored by Pretextat, prefect of 
Rome, in the year 868 of the 
Christian er& 

On the right of the temple of 
Jupiter Tonans are the remains 
of the 

Temple of Concord, so interest- 
ing in Roman history, and in the 
topography of the ancient city, 
discovered under amass of marble 
fragments of excellent workman- 
ship. Three votive inscriptions, one 
highly preserved, have determined 
its position, and agree with the 
testimony of ancient writers. 

Some vestiges of the cellar with 
fragments of giallo antico, afri- 
cano, and violet marble are now 
the only remains* It appears by 



24 



CmnUL ITALY. — HOm. flSCOND HAT. 



these fragments that the interior 
ooltims, the base of which was 
highly finished, and of the style 
of those found at the thermae of 
Titus, were of giallo antico and 
violet marble. An inscription pre- 
serves the name of M. Antonius 
Geminus, prefect of the military 
treasure,who dedicated the temple, 
which seems to have been des- 
troyed by fire before the eighth 
century. 

Boman Forum. — The celebrity 
of tliis spot, the most classic of 
ancient Rome, has induced anti- 
quarians to trace its limits and 
assign to each edifice its peculiar 
locality. The system of Nardini, 
founded on the authority of the 
classics, has been in a great mea- 
sure verified by the discoveries 
made till the present day. 

The Romans having, under Ro- 
mulus and Tatius, occupied the 
Palatine, and theSabines the Ca- 
pitoline, hill, they had no other 
means of communication than by 
the kind of isthmus which, com- 
mencing at the Tarpeian rock, 
joined the Palatine towards its 
northern angle. According to Dio- 
nysius of Halicamassus, this val- 
ley was then covered with woods 
and marshes, and had a slope 
towards the east and west, which 
was most sensible, from the spot 
now occupied by the granary near 
the column of Phocastothe arch 
ofSeverus and the forum of Nerva. 
The springs which, from the decli- 
vities oftheQuirinal, Viminal, and 
Esquiline, fell into the valley on 
one side, and from the Aventine, 
Capitoline, and Palatine, into that 
on the other side, formed marshes 
which, in the latter case, being 
united with the overflowings of 
the river, became a lake, called 
the Velabrum. By a passage in 
y arro it is ascertained that m his 



time, prior to the dictatorship of 
Caesar, the extent of the fomm 
was of seven jugera, and each of 
these jugera contained a surface 
of 240 Roman feet long and 220 
wide; the sides presented a so- 
perfices of 201,600 square feet, 
or an extension of 550 feet long 
and 866 wide, the city itself being 
then only one mile in circuit It 
was enlarged towards the east suc- 
cessively under Caesar and An* 
gustus. 

By the excavations made of 
late it appears that the fomm 
existed till the eleventh century, 
and was totally destroyed in 1080, 
when Robert Guiscard set fire to 
this part of the city. It was after- 
wards used as a place for de- 
positing rubbish, which in the 
course of time al^cnmulated to the 
height of tweuty-four feet. It af- 
terwards became a market for 
oxen, and hence it derived its ap- 
pellation of Campo Vaccino. 

Edifices of the Forum. — The fo- 
rum of Rome, like all those of 
the Italian cities, was, according 
to Vitruvius, of an oblong form. 
In order to render it regular a 
portico of two stories was erected, 
with chambers above and shops 
(tabemae) on the ground floor. 
Around it many buildings for dif- 
ferent uses were raised, which, 
on the authority of ancient writers, 
and fragments of the ancient plan 
of Rome preserved in the Capi- 
tol, were disposed in the following 
order: — 

In the centre of the southern 
side was the curia or senate house; 
on the right of this building the 
comitium, or place destined for the 
popular assemblies or publicplead- 
ings ; the graecostasis^ or hall for 
the reception of foreign ambas- 
sadors ; and the Fabian arch,raised 
by Fabitts, conqueror of AUobrogi. 



1I«I|A1« STATES. — AOME. SECOND DAT. 



25 



On the left were the temple of 
Castor and Pollux, the laie 'of 
Jutuma, and temple of Vesta, 

The western side was occupied 
by the temple of Julius Caesar, 
the Julian basilic, and the area 
of Ops and Saturn. On the north, 
under the Capitol, were the temple 
of Saturn, the arch of Tiberius, 
the temple of Vespasian, and the 
Schola XanUia. 

On the east were the two Emi- 
lian basilics and shops. In the 
centre of the area were the rostra 
or tribune whence harangues were 
addressed to the people, thus nam- 
ed from the beaks of the vessels 
taken by the Bomans from the 
Antiates ; this tribune was oppo- 
site to the senate house and sur- 
rounded with the statues of Ro- 
man ambassadors killed while exe- 
cuting their mission ; it was pla- 
ced under Julius Caesar near the 
southern angle of the forum, and 
called "nova rostra" the ancient 
site preserving the appellation of 
''Vetera," Opposite the temple of 
Caesar was a column of giallo an- 
tico erected in his honour. At the 
foot of the temple of Saturn was 
a gilt column, milliarum aureum, 
on which were engraved the dis- 
tances from Rome to the princi- 
pal cities of the empire ; near the 
arch of Septimius Severuswas the 
rostral column raised to Caius 
DaOius to commemorate his vic- 
tory over the Carthaginians. It is 
known by the testimony of an- 
cient authors, that several other 
monuments existed in the forum, 
such as the Jani, or public porches 
where commercial men assembled; 
the column of Mevius, conqueror 
of the Latins ; the equestrian sta- 
tue of Domitian, but tlieir situation 
is uncertain. 

To the north-east of the forum 
is the 



Arch of Septimius Severus, rais- 
ed by the senate and Roman people 
in the year 205 of the Christian 
era, to commemorate the victories 
gaiaed by Severus over the Par- 
thians and other eastern nations. 

The arch is decorated witii eight 
fluted colunms of the composite 
order, and with bas-relief repre- 
senting engagements with the Ara- 
bians,Parthians,and Adiabenians ; 
on the western side is a staircase 
leading to the plattform, on which 
was placed* the statue of the Em- 
peror seated between his sous Ca- 
racalla and Geta in a triumphal 
car drawn by six horses abreast 

On the left is the 

Church of St Luke, one of the 
most ancient in Rome. Alexan- 
der rv restored and dedicated it 
to St Martina, but Sixtus IV hav- 
ing presented it in 1588 to the 
academy of painting, it was re- 
built on the designs of Pietro di 
Cortona, and dedicated to St Luke. 
The painting over the right altar, 
representing the Martyrdom of 
St Lazarus, is byBaldi; the As- 
sumption, by Sebastian Conca; 
St Luke painting the B. Virgin 
is a copy of Raphael, by Gram- 
matica. In the subterranean church 
is a chapel built by Pietro di 
Cortona. 

Tlie Academy of the Fine Arts, 
called St Luca, established by 
Sixtus V, is composed of pain- 
ters, sculptors, and architects, and 
holds its sittings in the house ad- 
joining the church. It contains 
several portraits of celebrated 
painters : the St Luke of Raphael, 
in which is inserted his own por- 
trait; two Landscapes, by Gaspar 
Poussin; three pictures of Sal- 
vatorRosa; and a Chi-ist with the 
Pharisee, by Titian. 

The front of the Church of St 
Adrian, built of brick, but for- 



26 



ROMAN STATES. — MUE» SECOND DAT. 



meriy covered with stucco, dates 
from the fifth century of the Chri- 
stian era. The door, covered with 
hronze, was taken to St John La- 
teran under Alexander Vn. When 
the interior of the church was re- 
built in 1649, a pedestal belonging 
probably to the Emilian basilic 
was found; the inscription indi- 
cates that Probianus, prefect of 
the city, had raised a statue there. 

The Colunm of Phocas was dis- 
covered during the excavations 
made in 1813, by tKe inscription 
on the pedestal, diat this column, 
with its gilt statue on the top, 
had been raised in 608 by Sma- 
ragdus, the exarch, to the Em- 
peror Phocas, in commemoration 
of the tranquillity he maintained 
in Italy. The other inscriptions 
subsequently found are those re- 
lative to the "Averrunci" gods, to 
Minerva Averrunca, Marcus, Cis- 
pius, the praetor, Lucius, and Con- 
stantius Caesar. Three brick pe- 
destals, formerly covered with 
marble, supported large columns 
of red granite. 

This columns is fluted Corin- 
thian, and belonged originally to 
some edifice of the time of the 
Antonines. Its diameter is four 
feet two inches ; the pedestal ten 
feet eleven inches m height. It 
appears from this column that 
even in the seventh century the fo- 
rum of Caesar was still one of the 
most frequented spots in Rome. 

Qraecostasii. — It is ascertained 
by passages f];om ancient authors, 
and the plan of Home at the Ca- 
pitol, that these fine remains of 
ancient architecture belonged to 
the graecostasis, or building as- 
signed for the reception of foreign 
ambassadors. The front, compo- 
sed of eight columns, faced the 
temple of Antoninus and Fau- 
•^tina ; on the sides were thirteen 



columns of pentelic marble, flu- 
ted, and of the Corinthian order. 
They are four and a half feet in 
diameter, fortyfive in height, com- 
prising base and capital The en- 
tablature they support is of the 
most finished workmanship. The 
capitals equal in beauty those of 
the Pantheon, and these ruins may 
be considered as the best model 
of the proportions and ornaments 
of the Corinthian order. 

Ouria — Towards the Velabmm, 
and opposite to the Capitol, was 
the Curia Hostilia, used for the 
sittings of the senate ; it was re- 
built bvAugustus, and called Curia 
Julia. The remains of the hall now 
form part of a carpenter's house, 
near the church of St Maria Li- 
beratrice. The front, which was 
probably ornamented with a por- 
tico and marble columns, has dis- 
appeared. 

The Temple of Vesta was rai- 
sed by Adrian I in the eighth cen- 
tury on the ruins of the temple 
of Vesta, in which the Vestal vir- 
gins preserved the Palladium and 
the sacred fire. 

In the tribune is a mosaic of 
the eighth century: the painting 
over the principal altar is by Zuc- 
cari. 

On the declivity of the Pala- 
tine behind this temple were the 
Lupercal, a grotto sacred to Pan, 
and the Ruminal fig tree under 
which Romulus and Remus were 
found by Faustulus. 

Via Sacra. — This celebrated 
way received its name from the 
scnfices which accompanied the 
peace between Romulus and Ta- 
tius. It commenced at the coli- 
seum, passed near the temple of 
Venus and Rome, the basilic of 
Constantine, the temple of Ro- 
mulus and Remus, of Antoninus 
and Faustina, and entered the fo- 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. SECOND DAY. 



27 



mm by the Fabian arch,near which 
a part branched off towards the 
temple of Vesta, ended at the Via 
Nuova, which joined the circus, 
following the direction of the street 
leading at present from the forom 
to the church of St Anastasia. The 
principal branch of the Via Sacra 
passed through the forum, and 
finished at the Capitol; but ac- 
cording to Vairro, at the citadel 
called Arx Sacrorum. 

The Ternple of Antoninus and 
Faustina was built by the senate 
in honour of Faustina, the name 
of her husband Antouinus was ad- 
ded after his death. In front of 
the cella is a portico of six co- 
lumns, with three on each side of 
dpolUno, the largest known of this 
kind of marble, being forty-three 
feet high, including Uie base and 
capital They support an entabla- 
ture composed of enormous blocks 
of white marble. On the frieze are 
bas-reliefs of griffins, chandeliers, 
and wases of the best style of 
sculpture. The walls of the cella, 
built of pep erino, or Albano stone, 
were covered with white marble. 
In ancient times twenty-one mar- 
ble steps led to the interior; at 
present there are about sixteen 
feet between the base of the por- 
tico columns and the level of the 
Via Sacra. 

Teniple of Romulus and Remus. 
— ^It is ascertained from the ec- 
clesiastical writers that the church 
of SS. Cosimo and Damiano was 
built on the ancient temple of Ro- 
mulus and Remus. The cella, now 
the vestibule of the church, is of 
a circular form, and on the mar- 
ble pavement was engraved the 
plan of Rome, fragments of which 
are now in the Capitol. The copy 
of its inscription, preserved in a 
manuscript of the Vatican library. 



proves that this temple was built 
under Constantine. 

The upper part of the temple 
has been adapted as the vestibule 
of the church of SS. Cosimo and 
Damiano, built in 527 by Pope 
Felix ni; a bronze door brought 
from Perugia, and two porphyry 
columns, form the entrance; in 
the ancient church, now under 
ground, is an altar under which 
repose SS. Cosimo and Damiano.. 

The two cipollino columns, mea- 
suring from the base to the ca- 
pital thirty-one feet, were a part 
of the portico which belonged to 
the temple of Remus. 

The three large arches near 
these columns are remains of the 

Basilic of Constantine. — Aure- 
lius Victor says, that in the year 
311 of the Christian era Maxen- 
tius raised this edifice, which, after 
his defeat, was consecrated by tiie 
senate to Constantine. 

The plan of this building is 
that of a basilic, being divided 
into three naves; the style of the 
construction and ornaments is 
identical with that of the tJier- 
mae of Diocletian, and otiier edi- 
fices of the fourth century; in a 
fragment of the roof which fell *n 
1828, several medals were found, 
one in silver of Maxentius. From 
the fifteenth to the middle of the 
seventeenth century, these ruins 
were supposed to have been those 
of the temple of Peace. 

The length of the building was 
SOOfeet, the width 200, and height 
seventy. The middle nave was 
supported by eight fluted Corin- 
thian columns. The nave to the 
north is well preserved ; a change 
is visible in the construction, the 
entrance having been originally 
opposite the coliseum, and the 
tribune at the head of the great 
nave; another opening was after 

0* 



28 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. SECOND DAT. 



wards made facing the Palatine, 
when the tribune was transferred 
to the centre of the north nave. 
Kemnants of the giallo antico pa- 
vements, of capitals, porphyry co- 
lumns, and entablatures were dis- 
covered during the recent exca- 
vations. 

St Franceeca Bomana was built 
under Paul I, renewed under Leo 
IV and Paul V, when the present 
front was raised. Before the high 
altar is the tomb of St Fran- 
cesca, covered with precious mar- 
ble and gilt bronze; on the tomb 
of Gregory XI, by Olvieri, is a 
bas-relief representing the return 
of the Popes to Rome after an 
absence of seventy-two years at 
Avignon. 

The Arc?t of TituSy raised by 
the senate to Titus, son of Ves- 
pasian, after the conquest of Je- 
rusalem, is of pentelic marble, 
and had, on each side, four half 
columns of the composite order ; 
two only now remain at each 
firont : they support the entabla- 
ture and attic. 

The bas-reliefs under the arch 
represent Titus on a car drawn 
by four horses abreast, driven by 
Rome under the figure of a fe- 
male, with Victory crowning the 
emperor, who is preceded and 
followed by his soldiers. 

The most interesting part of 
the triumphal pomp consists of 
the pri8onners,the golden table and 
sacred vases, the seven-branched 
golden candlestick, and other 
spoUs of the temple of Jerusalem. 
In the centre is the figure of Ti- 
tus borne by an eagle in sdlusion 
to his apotheosis. On the two front 
angles are four victories of a good 
stvle of sculpture, andonthemeze 
01 the entablature is a represen- 
tation of the river Jordan, indi- 
cating the conquest of Judaea, 



men leading oxen to be sacrificed, 
and soldiers with round shields. 

This arch, though small and of 
a single arcade, is the finest mo- 
nument of the kind left us by an* 
tiquity. 

Temple of Venua and Borne, — 
The Emperor Adrian himself ma- 
de the designs of this temple, and 
superintended its construction. Dio 
designates the primitive site as 
the atrium of the golden house 
of Nero, at the smnmit of the Via 
Sacra, near the amphitheatre. 
Having suffered from fire, it was 
restored by Maxentius. 

This temple was raised in the 
centre of an oblong enclosure 
formed by a portico 500 feet long 
and 300 wide, with a double row 
of granite columns, each three and 
half feet in diameter. It was di- 
vided into two parts, with two di- 
stinct and separate celiac, though 
they formed but one temple, con- 
sisting of two rows of columns at 
each front, and a single row at 
each side. Its length was 333 feet, 
and widthlGO; ten columns at each 
front, twenty at each side, all of 
Proconesus marble (white with 
grey veins), nearly six feet in dia- 
meter, of the Corinthian order, 
and fluted, as is proved by the 
fragments that remain. The ex- 
ternal walls of the cella were co- 
vered with the same qualitv of 
marble, five and half feet in thick- 
ness. 

The temple had two entrances, 
one towards the forum by the 
steps near the arch of Titus, 
the other towards the coliseum 
by a double staircase, t^e remains 
of which are still visible from the 
court; seven steps led to the vesti- 
bule, and five others to the cella. 
The interior of the two celiac was 
decorated with porphyry columns 
two feet two inches in diameter ; 



ROMAN STATES. — ^ROHS. WOOND BAT. 



29 



the roof was gilt, and the inside 
walls and pavement were covered 
with giallo antico and serpentine. 

Palatine Hill. —The traditions 
admitted by ancient writers re- 
specting the name of this cele- 
brated hill are that Evander foun- 
ded on it a city called Pallantium, 
from his native town in Arcadia, 
a name changed into Pallatimn, 
from which is derived Palatinus. 

This hill is surromided by the 
other hills of Rome ; by the Aven- 
tine to the west, the Caelian to 
the south, the Esquiline to the 
east, the Yiminal, Quirinal, and 
Capitoline to the north and north- 
west. Its form is that of a tra- 
pezium 6,400 feet in circumfe- 
rence; it is 156 feet above the 
level of the sea, and was the 
cradle of Rome. Romulus had his 
cottage on the part turned tow- 
ards the Circus Maximus ; Numa 
near the temple of Vesta; Tul- 
lius Hostilius built his house on 
the summit overlooking the fo- 
rum; Ancus Martins on the spot 
where the temple of Venus anji 
Rome was afterwards erected; and 
Tarquinius PHscus on the slope 
overlooking the Velabnim. 

In latter times it was the resi- 
dence of the Graechi, of Crassus, 
Hortensius, Cicero, Clodius, Mark 
Antony, Claudius Nero, father of 
Tiberius, and of Octavius, father of 
Augustus. To this last is due the 
commencement of the 

Falace of the Caeaara. — His 
paternal mansion having been des- 
troyed be fire, Augustus built a 
house on the middle of the hill 
towards the Aventine, adding to 
it a temple of Apollo, a portico, 
and a library. It was enlarged by 
Tiberius in the direction of the 
Velabrum, and by Caligula, who 
raised a front with porticoes in 
the foriun, and a bridge suppor- 



ted by marble columns, in order to 
unite it with the Capitoline hill. 

The whole Palatine was not ex- 
tensive enough for the improve- 
ments made by Nero, which oc^ 
cupied the sjpace between this 
hill, the EsqmUne, and the gar- 
dens of Mecaenas under the *'ag- 
ger." This immense palace con- 
tained extensive gardens, woods, 
ponds, baths, and several other 
buildings. Having been destroyed 
by fire in the 64th year of our 
era, Nero repaired it with such 
magnificence that it was called the 
"domus aurea", or golden house. 
It would be difficult to form an 
idea of its magnificence. Accord- 
ing to ancient writers it was sur- 
rounded withpontiGoes,having not 
less than three thousand columns, 
and before the vestibule was his 
colossus in bronze, 120 feet high, 
the work of the celebrated Zeno- 
dorus. Most of the rooms and halls 
were adorned with statues, co- 
lumns, and precious marbles. 

The palace not being finished 
at the death of Nero, a conside- 
rable sum was assigned byOtho 
for its completion, but owing to 
the shortness of his reign his or- 
ders was not executed. Vespasian 
and Titus demolished, or destined 
to other uses, the part ontheEs- 
quiline; they built the coliseum 
and thermae : their successors em- 
beUished or partially changed the 
palace on the Palatine. After the 
translation of the empire it was 
abandoned, suffered much und^ 
Alaric in 410, and Genseric in 
455, when the bronze vases, and 
the sacred utensils of the temple 
of Jerusdem were taken away. 
It was, however, continually re- 
stored, served as the residence of 
the Emperor Heraclius in the se- 
venth century, and existed even 
in the eight At the present day 



30 



ROMAN STATES. — ROME. SECOND OAT. 



it presents nothing bat ruins more 
or less imposing by their masses. 
The evergreen oak, laurels, cy- 
presses, and other trees add to 
the picturesque beauty of these 
ruins, particularly towards the fo- 
rum and the Circus Maximus. 

Orti Famesini. — These gar- 
dens, formed by Paul III of the 
Famese family,formerly contained 
statues, bas-reliefs, and a variety 
of species of marbles which have 
been sent to Naples. The most 
considerable ruins are those of 
the substructions which supported 
the external porticoes of the pa- 
lace; and in the direction of the 
circus traces exist of the theatre 
of Caligula. Two chambers, known 
by the appellation of baths of Li- 
via, are covered with paintings; 
and near these are the ruins of 
the Palatine library, and the site 
of lJie temple of Apollo. 

Villa Palatina. — The villa Spa- 
da, now villa Mills, is built on the 
ruins of the house of Augustus. 
On the ground floor, under a por- 
tico formed by four granite co- 
lumns, are frescoes of Raphael re- 
presenting Venus and the Nymphs ; 
they were engraved by Mark An- 
tonio; and on the roof Hercules, 
with other gods, and the Muses. 
Under ground are three cham- 
bers, well preserved,which formed 
part of the house of Augustus. 

In the garden contiguous to 
the villa are remains of an oblong 
court, used as an arena for wrest- 
ling; and in the centre, on the 
eastern side, is a tribune vnth 
niches for statues, where the ga- 
mes took place in rainy weather. 
From the roofs of the ancient 
palace is an extensive view of 
Rome, and of the campagna. 

Meta Svdans. — We learn from 
Cassiodoms that this *^meta^ was 
constructed under Bomitian, and 



from medals of the oolisemn that 
it had the form of the boundaries 
of the circus called **metae.'' It 
derived the appellation of "meta 
sudans'' from the water that is- 
sued from it It was found, by 
recent excavations, that the an- 
cient basin was eighty feet in 
diameter. 

The limits of the ancient quar- 
ters of Rome n, HI, IV, and X 
united at this spot. 

Colossus of Nero.-^'WhQn Nero 
built his golden house he ordered 
Zenodorus, a celebrated sculptor, 
to execute a colossal statue in 
bronze, of 120 feet in height, re- 
presenting his own portrait under 
the form of Apollo, or of Uie sun, 
and placed it in the vestibule. 
Vespasian transferred it to the 
atrium of the palace, which was 
situated on the spot where Adrian 
erected the temple of Venus and 
Rome.Twenty-four elephants were 
employed in removing it to its 
pedestal, the remains of which 
are still visible near the "meta 
sudans.'' Commodus substituedhis 
own likeness to that of Nero, but 
after his death that of the son 
was replaced. This statue existed 
till the beginning of the fifth cen- 
tury, when it was destroyed in 
order to convert the bronze to 
other purposes. 

Oo/w«t«m.-TheEmperor Flavius 
Vespasianus built this amphithe- 
atre on his return from the war 
in Judaea, on the spot occupied 
by ponds in the gardens of Nero, 
and nearly in the centre of an- 
cient Rome ; it was dedicated by 
Titus, and finished by Domitian. 

The games celebrated at its 
dedication lasted 100 days, during 
which 5,000 wild beasts and se- 
veral thousand gladiators were 
killed. Nautical games also were 
given here. These various games 



CENTRAL ITALY. — aOMI, SECOND DAT. 



31 



were continued till the year 523. 
From the eleventh to the four- 
teenth century it served as a 
fortress to the Frangipani and 
Annibaldi, noble Roman families : 
to which period may be attributed 
its ruin. In 1381 it was trans- 
formed into an hospital, and after- 
wards furnished materials for 
building the Gancellaria, the Far- 
nese, the Barberini, the Venetian, 
and other palaces. 

The amphitheatre had a triple 
row of arcades, one raised over 
the other, intermixed witli half- 
columns which supported their 
entablature. Each row consisted 
of eighty arches, with the same 
number of half-columns. The edi- 
fice was terminated by a fourth 
order or attic, with pilasters and 
windows. The first order of archi- 
tecture is Doric, the second Ionic, 
the third and fourth are Corin- 
thian. 

The first row of arcades lis 
marked with Roman figures, as 
they formed so many entrances, 
which, by means of staircases, 
led to the upper porticoes; so 
that each person might easily find 
his place, and retire without con- 
fusion, at the close of the games. 
Between the arcades numbered 
XXXVm and XXXIX is one of 
the principal entrances, corre- 
sponding with the middle of the 
length, which communicated with 
a room ornamented with stuccoes ; 
through this the emperor arrived 
at the podium. The form of this 
amphitheatre is oval; its height 
157 feet, its circumference out- 
side 1,641 ; but to judge of its 
size it is necessary to ascend the 
first or second story of the por- 
ticoes* 

In 1611 and 1812 the walls 
which closed the arches of the 
first row were pulled down; and 



the half-columns and pillars,which 
were half buried under ground, 
were thus uncovered. Under the 
present level were found parallel 
wHJUs, some elliptic, some recti- 
linear, destined to support the 
arena. Some of these constructions 
were evidently of the fifth cen- 
tury ; and it appears from inscrip- 
tions that this edifice, having suf- 
fered from earthquakes, was re- 
stored by Lampadius and Basi- 
hus, prefects of Rome in 437 and 
485. The arena, the podium, and 
steps were repaired by the former, 
the arena and podium bvBasilius. 
The arena (so called from the 
sand that covered the ground) had 
one principal entrance to the east, 
the other to the west, and formed 
an ellipsis of 285 feet long, 182 
wide, and 748 in circumference ; it 
was surrounded by a wall, to pre- 
vent the beasts from rushing on 
the spectators ; by doors and pas- 
sages, closed with bars of bronze : 
thn>ugh these passed the gladia- 
tors and animals. On the platform, 
called podium, were places de- 
stined for the emperor and his 
family, and vestal virgins. Over 
the podium began the seats for the 
spectators,communicating with se- 
veral doors, called vomitoria; 
these seats were divided into 
three rows, named praecinctiones 
and moeniana: the first firom the 
arena had twenty-four steps, the 
second sixteen, the third ten, be- 
sides the gallery, formed of eighty 
columns which supported the cei- 
ling; the moeniana were subdi- 
vided by little staircases made in 
the seats, and separated them; 
the subdivisions were named cu- 
nei. On the seats there was room 
sufficient for 87,000 persons, and 
on the terrace for 20,000. On the 
outside wallSy in the cornice of 
the building, were beams covered 



32 



CENTRALITALY. — Mftt. SECOND DAY. 



With bronze, to which was atta- 
ched the velarium or awjiing,that 
sheltered the spectitors from the 
rays of the sun. 

The holes seen in this and in 
other monuments were originally 
filled with iron bars, that served 
to join the blocks of stone; they 
were carried away in the middle 
ages. 

In consequence of the tradition 
that many Christians suffered mar- 
tyrdom in this arena, where they 
were condemned to be devoured by 
wild beasts, fourteen chapels with 
the mysteries of the passion of our 
Saviour were erected in the arena, 
in the middle of the last century, 
where the ceremony of the Via 
Orucia takes place, on festivals and 
on Fridays, two hours before sun- 
set 

The Arch of Con8tantine,erected 
by the senate and people to Con- 
stantine, to commemorate his vic- 
tories over Maxentius andLicinius, 
is composed of three arcades, eight 
Corindiian cohunns, several in 
giallo antico, one of white marble, 
and several bas-reliefs. The co- 
lumns, a part of the entablature, 
the eight square, eight round bas- 
reliefe of the fronts, two large 
squares of the sides, and seven 
statues of violet marble, were 
taken from the arch of Trajan. 

The bas-reliefs under the grand 
arcade appear to belong to an in- 
termediate period between Trajan 
and Constantine. 

The first bas-relief on the left, 
fronting the coliseum, alludes to 
the entrance of Trajan into Rome ; 
the second to the restoration of the 
Appian way ; the third to a distri- 
bution of provisions ; the fourth to 
the dethronement of Parthoma- 
siris, king of Armenia. 

The squares towards the Pala- 
tine and Caelian represent the 



battle against Decebalus, king of 
Dacia, and the victory gained 
over him by Trajan. 

In the four squares on the other 
front this emperor is seen pro- 
claiming Parthomaspates king of 
the Partiiians ; discovering a con- 
spiracy framed by Decebalus; 
haranguing his soldiers, and of- 
fering the sacrifice called suove- 
taurile. 

The eight round bas-reliefs on 
the small arcades, represeutine 
alternately himting parties and 
sacrifices to Apollo, Mars, Syl- 
vanus, and Diana. 

The road under this arch is 
the ancient triumphal way, and 
leads to. 

The Church of St Gregorio, built 
by Pope St Gregory the Great 
(descended from the ancient and 
noble family Anicia), who posses- 
sed a house on this spot In the 
year 584 he converted it into a 
monastery, in which he resided 
previously to his pontificate; he 
also built here a church in honour 
of the apostle St Andrew. 

After his death another church 
was built in honour of the same 
pontiff ; and in 1683 Cardinal Sci- 
pio Borghese added the front, the 
portico, and the steps. 

Adjoining the church are three 
ancient chapels, raised by St Gre- 
gory, and renewed by Cardinal 
Baronius: the first is dedicated to 
St Silvia, mother of the saint; 
the statue is by Cordieri, a pupil 
of Buonarotti; the paintings of 
the roof are by Guide Reni. In 
the chapel of St Andrew is a paint- 
ing over the altar by Pomarancio ; 
on the sides are a St Peter and 
St Paul, a St Andrew revering 
the cross, by Guido, and the fla- 
gellation of the saint, by Domi- 
nichino. At tlie bottom of the third 
chapel, dedicated to St Bart>ara, is 



ROMAN STATES. — ^ROMS. SECOND DAT. 



33 



a statue of St Gregory, commen- 
ced bv Michael Angelo and fin- 
ished by Cordieri. The marble ta- 
ble placed in the middle of this 
chapel is the same from which 
St Gregory distributed food every 
morning to twelye poor pilgrims. 

The Caelian hill is larger and 
more irregular than the others, 
having a circumference of 16,100 
feet We learn from Tacitus that 
it was originally called Querque- 
tcdanus, being then covered with 
oak trees. Under Romulus or Ta- 
tius it was named Caelius, from 
the Etruscan general Caelius Vi- 
benus, who had come to the as- 
sistance of the Romans. After the 
destruction of Albalunga, Tullius 
Hostilius placed here the Albans, 
and enclosed it in the city. Since 
Ihe devastations committed by 
Robert Guiscard, in 1080, it has 
not been inhabited. 

The Church of St Giovanni and 
St Paolo was built in the fourth 
century, on the site of the house 
belonging to these two martyrs, 
who were put to death under Ju- 
lian. It is decorated with a por- 
tico composed of eight granite 
columns, and in the interior are 
twenty-eight columns of different 
kinds of marble. The pavement is 
a species of mosaic, composed of 
porphyry, serpentine, and white 
marble, offering one of the finest 
specimens of the Alexandrine 
work, or opus Alezuidrinum, so 
named from Alexander Severus, 
who brought it to perfection. The 

?a]nting8 of the tribune are by 
'omarancio; that of the fourth 
chapel, on the right, is by Benefial 
In the garden adjoining the 
chiurch are romains of a buildmg 
in travertine, supposed to be the 
vivarium, or enclosture for the 
beasts destined for the games of 
the amphitheatre ; it has two sto- 



ries, one nnder ground, leading to 
an ancient quarry. 

The other remains before the 
church probably formed part of 
the ^^Macellum Magnum," or of 
the great meat and ^sh market 
which was on the Caelian. Tradit- 
ion has preserved to this spot 
the name of "Pescaria Vecchia," 
or old fish market 

From the inscriptions still exist- 
ing on the eastern front of the 
Arch of Dolabella, we learn that 
it was raised in the tenth year 
of the Christian era by the con- 
suls Publius ComeUus Dolabella 
and Caius Junius Siianus (flamen 
martialis), a priest of Mars. Hence 
this arch probably formed the 
entrance to the Campus Martialis 
on the Caelian, where the equina, 
or equestrian games, were cele- 
brated when the Campus Mar- 
tius was inundated by the over- 
flowings of the Tiber. 

It served as a support to the 
aqueduct of Nero, the remains 
of which extend to the Lateran. 

The Church of St Maria in 
Domnica was built on the site 
of the house that belonged to 
St Cyriaca, a Roman lady; it is 
called also the Navicella, from 
a marble boat placed in front of 
it by Leo X. In the interior are 
eighteen fine granite and two por- 
phyry columns, and the attic has 
pamtings in chiaro-oscuro, by Ju- 
lio Romano and Pierin del Yaga. 

In the space between this church 
and that of St Stephen were the 
Castra peregrina, or barracks of 
foreign soldiers, as was ascertai- 
ned by several inscriptions found 
on the spot They still existed in 
the fourth century, and served as 
a prison to Chodonoomar, whom 
Julian defeated in 359 near Stras- 
burg. 

Adjoining this church is the 

2* 



34 



ROMAIC STATES. — HOME. SECOND DAY. 



villa Mattel; the two large pe- 
destals covered with inscriptions 
were dedicated by the soldiers 
of the fifth cohort to Caracalla 
and Maximin. A small Egyptian 
obelisk decorates the grounds. 

St Stefano Rotondo has been 
asserted by some writers to have 
been the temple of Faunus, by 
others of Bacchus, or of Claudius, 
but when we observe that its co- 
lumns are of different orders and 
diameters; that the cross sur- 
mounts some of the capitals; that 
it is known from Anastasius the 
librarian that Pope St Simplicius 
consecrated this church in 467, 
it cannot be denied that it is a 
Christian edifice of the fifth cen- 
tury ; it is called St Stefano Ro- 
tondo from its circular form. It 
was restored by Nicholas V in 
1452, who enclosed its' double 
portico. The interior of this church 
gives an idea of the magnificence 
of ancient edifices. Its diameter 
is 133 feet, and it is supported 
by fifty-eight marble and granite 
columns, some Corinthian and 
some Ionic. 

On the walls are paintings by 
Pomarancio and Tempesta, repre- 
senting the sufferings of Christian 
martyrs under the Jews, Roman 
emperors, and Vandal kings. 

The Church of St Clement-^ 
The body of the patron saint- 
one of the early successors of St 
Peter— and that of St Ignatius, 
bishop of Antioch, repose under 
the high altar. The church of St 
Clement existed in the fifth cen- 
tury, was restored by several po- 
pes, and Clement XI reduced it to 
its present state; it is interesting 
as the only church in Rome that 
preserves the divisions and prin- 
cipal parts of ancient churches. 

We may observe the vestibule 
before the chui^ch in tiie Piazza 



di St Clemente, where is a small 
portico formed by four columns, 
a work of the eighth century; 
the atrium, or court, surrounded 
with porticoes, leading to the en- 
trance of the church; in the 
middle nave is an enclosure in 
marble with the monogram of 
John YIU, used as a choir in the 
primitive churches, having on each 
side the "ambones" from wich the 
epistle and gospel were read to 
the people. The sanctuary was 
isolated; in this part are seats 
for the bishop who assisted at 
the ceremonies. The mosaic of 
the roof is of the thirteentiii cen- 
tury. The paintings alluding to 
the crucifixion of Christ and to 
the martyrdom of St Catherine, in 
the left chapel from the entrance, 
are by Masaccio, and though in- 
jured and in part destroyed, se- 
veral of the heads convey a great 
idea of the merit of that artist 
The tomb of Cardinal Rovarella 
is a beautiful work of the thir- 
teenth century. 

THIRD DAY. 

FROM THE LATERAN TO THE QUIRINAL. 

The Piazza of St John Lateran 
was thus named from Plautius La- 
teran, who resided in this quarter. 
The palace having been destroyed 
by fire was rebuilt by Sixtus V, 
according to the designs of Do- 
menico Fontana. The present Pope 
has restored it. 

The Baptistery of Constantine 
was raised by Constantine in the 
Lateran palace when he erected 
tlie church: it was restored in the 
ninth century, then by Gre gory 
Xm, and in 1640 by Urban VHI. 
An antique urn of basalt serves 
as the baptismal font; it is sur- 
mounted by a cupola supported 
by two rows of columns, eight 



CCNTRAL ITALY. — BOMJB. SBCOND DAT. 



36 



of white marble and eight of 
porphyry. Above the second row 
are paintmgs allnsiye to St John 
the Biq)tist, by Andrea Sacchi. 

The Basilic of St John La- 
teran is the first of Rome and 
of the Catholic world ; from Con- 
stantine it is called the Constan- 
tinian; from the spot on which 
it is built the Lateran ; and having 
been dedicated in the seventh 
century to St John the Baptist 
and to the Evangelist it is also 
called the basilic of St John. 

The primitive temple lasted ten 
centuries, and together with the 
palace was destroyed by fire, but 
was rebuilt under Clement V, 
Pius lY, and Sixtus Y, who added 
the portico. Clement XII raised 
the grand front, and decorated it 
with four large columns and six 
pilasters to support the entabla- 
ture, over which is a balustrade 
with ten colossal statues of saints 
and that of our Saviour in the 
middle. Five bronze doors lead 
into the church; the one walled 
up is called santa, being opened 
only in the year of the jubilee. 

The interior is divided into five 
naves ; in the middle one are the 
statues of the twelve apostles. The 
Corsuii chapel, built by Clement 
Xn in honour of St Andrew Cor- 
sini, one of his ancestors, is one 
of Ihe most magnificent in Rome. 
Over the altar, between two co- 
lumns of verde antico, is a mosaic 
representing that saint, copied 
from Guido. On the pediment are 
the figures of Innocence and Pe- 
nitence ; in the bas-relief St An- 
drew is seen defending the Flo- 
rentine army at the battle of 
Angheil In the large niche, de- 
corated with two porphyry co- 
lumns, is the mausoleum of Cle- 
ment XII. It is adorned with the 
superb antique urn of porphyry 



taken from the portico tho of 
Pantheon, and the bronze statue 
of this pontiff, by Maini, who also 
executed the statue of Cardinal 
Neri Corsini opposite, and those 
of a Genius and Religion. 

Around the high altar are four 
granite columns supporting a Go- 
tiiic tabernacle, where, amongst 
other relics, the heads of St Peter 
and St Paul are preserved in sil- 
ver reliquaries. 

The altar of the holy sacrament 
has a tabernacle ornamented with 
precious stones placed between 
two angels of gUt bronze, and 
four verde antico columns. Those 
in bronze supporting the entab- 
lature are eight feet seven inches 
in circumference, and are suppo- 
sed to be those lormed by Au^- 
stus of the spars of the Egyptian 
vessels captured at the batUe of 
Actium. 

In the tribune is the altar of 
our Saviour with mosaics. One of 
the precious objects preserved in 
this basilic is the table used at 
the last supper of Christ. An- 
nexed to the church is a cloister 
of the t hirte enth century, in which 
Urban Ylli collected several mo- 
numents of the middle ages. 

Seala Santa. — When Sixtus V 
rebuilt the Lateran palace he pre- 
served the c hap el and the tricli- 
nium of Leo lU, which hat not 
suffered from fire. He raised a 
p<^rtico according to the designs 
of Fontana, and placed under it 
the staircase whicSi existed in the 
palace of Pilate at Jerusalem, on 
which our Saviour passed several 
times. Having been thus sancti- 
fied, the faiuful now ascend it 
on their knees, and descend by 
the four lateral staircases. It con- 
sists of twenty-eight marble steps, 
80 consumed by friction that it 



36 



CKNTRAt ITALY. — ROME. 8£C0ND DAY. 



became necessary to cover them 
with wood. 

At the top of the stairs, under 
the altar of the chapel, is an an- 
cient and highly-venerated image 
of our Saviour; and in four cases 
made of cypress wood are relics 
which have given to this chapel 
the appellation of Sancta Sanc- 
torum, lu the external niche are 
preserved the mosaics of the tric- 
linium of St Leo in. 

Porta St Giovanni was sub- 
stituted by Gregory XIII for the 
ancient Asinaria gate, thus called 
from the Asiiiia family, by which 
Totila entered Rome. 

Two miles from this gate is 
the ancient Via Latina, covered 
with ruins of tombs and other 
buildings. To one of these ruins 
was given the name of Temple 
of Female Fortune, celebrated 
for the filial piety of Cariolanus ; 
but as the distance assigned by 
Plutarch and Valerius Maximus 
does not agree with this tradi- 
tion, it is in the farm at Roma 
Vecchia that this temple must 
be placed. 

Basilic of St Oroce in Geru- 
salemme. — This church, one of 
the seven basilics of Rome, was 
built by St Helen, the mother 
of Constantino, and received its 
appellation from a large portion 
of the holy cross which that em- 
press had found at Jerusalem and 
deposited here. 

The three naves are separa- 
ted partly by eight large colmnns 
of Egyptian granite. The "baldac- 
chino" is supported by four co- 
lumns of breccia corallina; and 
under the altar, in an antique 
basaltic um, are the bodies of 
St CesariuB and St Anastasius. 
On the roof of the tribune ate 
some fine frescoes by Pinturicchio ; 
se in the subterranean chapel 



+v. 



of St Helen are by Pomarancio, 
and the mosaics are by Baldas- 
sare Peruzzi 

Near the church are ruins, now 
transformed into cellars, formerly 
supposed to have formed part of 
the temple of Venus and Gupid in 
the Variani gardens, which belon- 
ged to Varianus Marcellus, the 
father of Heliogabalus.The neigh- 
bouring aqueduct of Clau<Sus 
brought the Aqua Claudia to the 
Caelian and Palatine hills, and 
under Sixtus V served as a sup- 
port to the aqueduct of the Aqua 
Felice. 

In the viUa Conti remains of the 
reservoir of the thermae of St He- 
len have been discovered, and 
their authenticity is established 
by inscriptions found an the spot 

Anfiteatro Castrense. — This 
building, in which the military 
festivals called castrensic games 
were celebrated, consisted of two 
stories, and tlie exterior was deco- 
rated with Corinthian pilasters 
and half columns. It was enclo- 
sed within the walls by Honorius. 

Passing under the Neronian 
arches of an elegant construction, 
we arrive at the 

Porta Maggiore — As it was 
customary among the ancients to 
give an imposing aspect to those 
parts of the aqueducts which cros- 
sed the pubUc roads, the Emperor 
Claudius raised at this spot a mo- 
nument in tilie form of a triumphal 
arch, which may be considered 
as one of the most magnificent 
of ancient Rome. It is built of 
enormous blocks of travertine, 
and is composed of two large 
and three small arches with co- 
\ lumns. 

In clearing away the construc- 
tions raised on it in the middle 
ages a sepulchre was found in a 
tower bearing an inscription to 



ROHAN STATES. — ROME. THIRV DAT. 



87 



Marcas Vii^^us Eurysaces, a 
rich baker, in the latter times of 
flie republic. Under Honorius this 
monament was destined to con- 
tain gates of the city, and being 
composed of two arches one be- 
came the Labican, the other the 
Prenestine gate; tiie former has 
long since £sappeared. 

Beyond the gate in the city 
walls on the left the canals of 
the aquae Julia T6pula and Mar- 
cia are still yisible, and at a short 
distance that of ^e Anio vetus 
snnk in the ground. 

Beyond the gate the Labican 
way on the right follows the di- 
rection of Labicum, a city of La- 
tium, mentioned by Livy and 
other ancient writers; it is now 
the village of Colonna. At the dis- 
tance of a mile and a half from 
the walls are the ruins of the 
aqueduct of Alexander Severus; 
and half a mile further on those 
of the mausoleum of St Helen, 
in which is a small church de- 
dicated to the martyrs St Peter 
and St Marcellinus, who were 
buried in its catacombs. 

Several funeral inscriptions of 
the '^equites singulares'' having 
been found here, it may be pre- 
sumed that the burying ground 
of this select body of cavaLry was 
in this direction. Some fragments 
of these inscriptions are infixed 
on the walls of the church. 

The Via Prenestina led to Ga- 
bii and to Praeneste. The exten- 
sive ruins spread over the ground 
about three miles from the walls 
are those of the Oordian villa, 
which contained porticoes and 
thermae. The remains of two halls 
and of a temple are well preser- 
ved. In the interior of the cella 
are traces of old paintings, which 
indicate that in Uie middle ages 



tins temple was transformed into 
a church. 

The ruins of Minerva Medica 
have been considered by anti- 
quaries as the temple of Minerva; 
the statue of that goddess, now 
in the Vatican, having been found 
here, though the form of the buil- 
ding is that of a large hall, be- 
longing probably to some ancient 
villa The building is decagonal, 
the distance between the angles 
is twenty-two and a half feet, 
and the circumference 220. The 
statues discovered on the spot 
are those of Esculapius, Pomona, 
Adonis, Venus, a Faun, Hercu- 
les, and Antinous. 

Between this edifice and the 
Porta Maggiore are two colum- 
baria, one built by Lucius Ar- 
runtius, consul in the sixth year 
of oiu: era, to receive the ashes 
of his slaves. 

On the right are the remains 
of an ancient foimtaln generally 
called the 

Trophies of iMarius, on account 
of the two marble trophies for- 
merly placed on the sides as or- 
naments, and transferred under 
Sixtus V to the balustrade of the 
capitol; in examining the style 
of these trophies and of the buil- 
ding, it is evident that they are 
of the time of Septimius Seve- 
rus, who restored the aqueducts 
of the city. 

The Church of St Bibiana was 
consecrated in 470, in honour of 
Bibiana; it was restored by Ho- 
norius in in 1224, and by Ur- 
ban Vin in 1625, who raised the 
front on the designs of Bernini 
It is composed of three naves, 
divided by antique granite co- 
lumns; the frescoes of the middle 
nave alinde to the history of St 
Bibiana, whose statue at the high 



A 



S8 



CENTRAL tTALY.^^ROMJi;. THIRD BAY. 



altar is considered to be one of 
the best works of Bernini. 

Under the altar is an antique 
urn of oriental alabaster, seven- 
teen feet in circumference, con- 
taining the bodies of this saint, 
of St Deraetria, and of their mo- 
ther St. Daphrose. 

The Church of St Eusebius is 
very ancient ; the roof was pain- 
ted by Mengs, and some frescoes 
of merit have been found on the 
walls of the subterranean cham- 
bers existing in Hie garden. 

Porta St Lorenzo, originally 
called Tiburtine, the road which 
passes under it being that of Ti- 
bur or Tivoli. It was built by Ho- 
norius in 402, and supports the 
ancient aqueduct of the Julian 
Marcian and Tepulan waters. 

St Lorenzo out of the Walls. — 
This basilic, built by Constantine 
in 330, was restored by several 
popes, particularly by Honorius 
in, who added the portico in 
1216, and used it for the coro- 
nation of the Count of Auxerre, 
Pierre de Courtenay, as Latin 
Emperor of Constantinople. 

Tlie portico has six Ionic co- 
lumns of different diameters ; the 
paintings relate to the history of 
Honorius, of St Laurence, and 
St Stephen, 

The interior has three naves, 
divided by twenty-two Ionic co- 
lumns of granite; near the en- 
trance is an antique sarcophagus 
with a bas-relief representing a 
Roman marriage. In the middle 
nave are two marble "ambones" 
used for singing the gospel and 
epistle. In the tribune is the an- 
cient pontifical seat inlaid with 
sundry stones: this tribune, the 
primitive basilic, has twelve flu- 
ted columns of violet marble, the 
greater part of which is under 
ground; two of the capitals have 



trophies instead of acanthus lear 
ves. Over this entablature are 
twelve smaller columns, two of 
green porphyry. The high altar 
is ornamented with four of red 
porphyry supporting a marble 
baldacchino, under which repose 
the bodies of St Laurence and 
the protomartyr St Stephen. Be- 
hind the tribune is the sacro- 
phagus which containied the re- 
mains of St Zosimus, pope in 418, 
having bas-reliefs representing 
Genii gathering grapes, a subject 
frequently seen on the early Chri- 
stian monuments. 

The subterranean chapel in the 
left nave is celebrated for the 
privileges and indulgences gran- 
ted by different popes to 3iose 
who visit it. 

The Arch of Gallienus, situa- 
ted near St Eusebius, was dedi- 
cated to Gallienus about the year 
260: it is formed of large tra- 
vertine blocks, and is in good 
preservation. 

The Church of St Vitus was 
built near the ancient "Macellum 
Livianum," which was rebuilt by 
Livia, the wife of Augustus: near 
it is a monument in Egyptian 
granite, with a crucifix and a 
figure of the Virgin, raised by 
Clement Vm in 1595 to com- 
memorate the absolution given 
to Henry IV of France. 

On the piazza of St. Maria 
Maggiore is a column of the Co- 
rinthian order, 58* |2 feet high, 
including the base and capital, 
and nineteen feet three inches 
in circumference; it belonged to 
the basilic of Constantine. Paul V 
placed on the summit the bronze 
statue of the Virgin. 

St Maria Maggiore. — This 
church is situated on the sum- 
mit of the Esquiline called Cis- 
pius, near the ancient temple of 



ROMAK tITATJES. — ROM£.— TBIKD DAY. 



Jimo Liicina; it was built in 852 
in consequence of a vision of St 
Liberius and John the Patrician, 
which wiis confirmed on the fol- 
lowing day by a fall of snow on 
the 5th August, a miracle which 
gave rise to the fesdval still ce- 
lebrated on that day by the church. 
The snow covered the space which 
the building was destined to oc- 
cupy, and for this reason it was 
then called "St Maria ad Nives," 
but now Si IVIaria Maggiore, as 
it is the principal church dedi- 
cated to the Madonna. It is one 
of the seven basilics of Rome and 
of the four which have a holy 
gate for the Jubilee. 

In 432 Pope Sixtus III enlar- 
jged this church, which was re- 
stored and enriched by several 
popes, and particularly by Bene- 
dict XIV. The front has two rows 
of columns, one Doric, the other 
Corinthian; on the lower portico, 
supported by eight granite co- 
lumns, are bas-reliefs, and a sta- 
tue of Philipp IV, King of Spain. 
From the central balcony of the 
upper portico the sovereign pon- 
tiff gives his blessing to we peo- 
ple; the mosaics are by Qaddo 
Gaddi, a contemporary of Ci- 
mabue. 

The interior is composed of 
three naves separated by thirty- 
six Ionic marUe columns, taken 
from the temple of Juno. 

The chapel of the holy sacra- 
ment, built by Sixtus V on the 
designs of Fontana^ is covered 
with marb]e, and decorated with 
paintings and Corinthian pilasters. 
On the right is the tomb of Six- 
tus V, adorned with his statue, 
four verde antico columns, bas- 
reliefs, and the statues of St 
Erancis and St Anthony of Pa- 
dua: on the left is that of St 
Pius y, whose body is preserved 



in a verde antico nrn, adorned 
with gilt bronze. In the middle 
of the chapel is the altar of the 
holy sacrament, wi.h a magnifi- 
cent tabernacle, supported by four 
angels of gilt bronze. 

The high altar is isolated; it 
consists of a grand porphyry nm 
covered, and a marble slab with 
four bronze gilt angels at the cor- 
ners; above it is a rich baldacchino 
supported by four porphyry co- 
lumns, and surmounted by six 
marble figures of angels. The mo- 
saics of the grand arcade allude 
to subjects of the Old Testament, 
and of the life of the Virgin. 

The sumptuous chapel of the 
Borghese family, erected by Paul 
V on the designs of Flaminius 
Ponzio, contains various species 
of marble and frescoes. On the 
left is the tomb of that pontifi^, and 
on the right that of Clement VIII, 
both decorated with statues, bas- 
reliefs, and columns. The statues 
of St Basil, of David, of Aaron, 
and St Bernard are works of 
Cordieri. The altar of the Virgin 
is adorned with four fluted co- 
lumns of oriental jasper ; the base 
and capitals are of gilt bronze ; the 
frieze and the pedestals of the 
columns are of agate. The image 
of the Madonna, said to have 
been painted by St Luke, is en- 
riched with lapis lazuli, and en- 
circled with precious stones. The 
bas-relief of the entablature re- 
presents the miraculous fall of 
snow. The frescoes over the al- 
tar are by the Cavalier d'Arpino, 
those of the cupola by Civoli, 
the paintings near the windows 
and arcades over the tombs are 
among the best compositions of 
Guide. 

St Prassede,— It is related that 
at the solicitation of St Praxedes 
St PiuB I erected, in 160, an ora- 



A 



40 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. THIRD DAY. 



tory in the thermae of Novatiis, 
her brother, on the spot for- 
merly, called "Vicus Lateritius," 
to which the Christians retired 
in times of persecutoin. The 
church, with its three naves, di- 
vided by sixteen granite columns, 
was built by Pascal I in 622. At 
the high altar are four porphyry 
columns, the steps leading to the 
tribune are of rosso antico, the 
largest blocks known. A part of 
a column in a chapel to the right 
is in high veneration: it was 
brought from Jerusalem, and is 
supposed to be the same to which 
our Saviour was bound during 
his flagellation. A painting of this 
subject by Julio Bomano is in 
the sacristy. 

St Martina, —A church was 
built on this spot by St Sylvester at 
the time of Gonstantine, and over 
it tiie present church was erected 
in the year 600; this was embel- 
lished in 1650, and at the end 
of the last century. The three 
naves are divided by twenty-four 
antique columns of different qua- 
lites of marble. The landscapes 
painted on the walls are by Gas- 
par, and the figures by Nicholas 
Poussin; the chapel of te Virgin 
near the high altar is covered 
with precious marble. 

Below the steps under the high 
altar, in a subterranean chamber 
designed by Pietro da Cortona and 
surrounded with columns, are the 
tombs of St Silvester and St Mar- 
tin; under this chamber is the 
church with its mosaic pavement 
built by St Silvester on the ruins 
of an edifice of the second cen- 
tury. A council is said to have 
been held here by St Silvester 
in 324. 

On the left of St Martin's are 
the church of St Luda in Selci, 
~"ar the celebrated quarter of an- 



cient Borne called the "Suburra," 
and the "Vicus Patricius," or the 
street assigned to the Patridans 
by Servius Tullius. 

St Pudenziana. — This church, 
after having been repaired at 
sundry periods, was embellished 
and reduced to its present state by 
Cardinal Caetani in 1598. The 
leaves are separated by fourteen 
antique columns. 

The apostle St Peter is said 
to have lodged in the house of 
Pudens, a senator, on which this 
church was built; the cupola was 
painted by Pomarancio. In the 
chapel on the right is the same 
altar on which St Peter is said to 
have celebrated mass. The sta- 
tue of our Saviour giving the 
keys to St Peter is by Giacomo 
deila Porta. The Caetani chapel 
is rich in marble and fine luma- 
chella columns. 

Adjoining the Bambin GesiSiis 
a monastery for the education of 
young girls. Following the Via 
St Francesco di Paolo, the ancient 
"Vicus Sceleratus," where Tullia 
drove her car over the dead body 
of Servius TuUius, her father, we 
arrive at the church of 

St Pietro in Vincoli^ built by 
Eudoxia, the wife of Valentinian 
in. Emperor of tie West, to pre- 
serve the chains which, under 
Herodle bound St Peter in the 
prison of Jerusalem; it is for this 
reason called "in Vincoli." It was 
restored in 1503, and embellished 
in 1705. 

Twenty Doric fluted columns 
of Greek marble, seven feet in 
circumference, divide the naves; 
two of granite support the middle 
arcade. On the first altar is a 
painting of St Augustin by Guer- 
cino ; the tombs of cordinals Mar- 
getti and Agucci are from the 
designs of Dominichino, wo pain- 



ROHAN STATES. — ROME. TIUKV VAY. 



41 



ted the portraits and the St Peter 
preserved in the sacristy. 

The tomb of Julius II is from the 
designs of Michael Angelo, who 
placed in the middle his celebrated 
statue of Moses, considered as one 
of the master-pieces of modem 
sculpture. It is of colossal size, 
and represents Moses with the 
tables of the law under his right 
arm casting a reproachful look on 
the people whose faith seems to 
be wavering. The four statues in 
the niches are by Raphael de 
Montelupo, a pupil of Buonarotti. 

The St Margaret over the fol- 
lowing altar is one of the best 
works of Guercino; the tribune 
was painted by Giaoomo Coppi, 
a Florentine; the St Sebastian in 
mosaic is of the seventh century; 
over the last altar is a Piety, by 
Pomarancio. 

Thermce of Titus, — The'therm» 
were originally established at 
Rome for the purpose of bathing, 
but in the course of time these 
edifices became places of luxury, 
surrounded with porticos, gardens, 
possessing libraries, saloons, and 
places destined for athletic games, 
which were viewed from a kind 
of theatre. Agrippa was the first 
who raised this kind of building 
for the public. His example was 
followed by Nero and Titus; those 
of Agrippa and of Nero were in the 
Campus Martius. Titus selected 
the palace and gardens of Nero. 
Havinor been enlarged under Do- 
mitian, Trajan, and Adrian, these 
thermae extended frx)m the coli- 
seum to the church of St Mar- 
tino. They were near the palace 
of Titus, among the ruins of 
which was found, under Juluis II, 
the celebrated group of the Lao- 
coon. 

This edifice is now destroyed, 
bitt some remains convey an idea 



of its magnificence ; the plan of it 
is preserved in the fragments of 
the plan of Rome at the GapitoL 
The subterraneous chambers, be- 
longing for the most part to the 
house of Nero, over which Titus 
built his thermae, are covered with 
arabesque paintings, which from 
the vivacity of the colours, the 
variety and accurac^of the design, 
excite the admiration of artists. 
It is supposed thatRaphael availed 
himself of these frescoes in paints 
ing the Loggie of the Vatican. 

Sette Sale. — This building con- 
sisted of two galleries, the lower 
one is now under ground; the 
upper story had mine corridors, 
serving as a piscina or reservoir 
of water, built before the time of 
Titus. The walls are of a strong 
construction, having a 4)laster 
which resists the action of water, 
called by Vitruvius "opus signi- 
num f it is composed of fragments 
of baked earth mixed with a fine 
cement The doors are situated 
alternately in places where they 
could not diminish the strength 
of the walls, and are so disposed 
that from four of the doors the 
eight that remain are visible. The 
present corridor is thirty-seven feet 
long, twelve wide, and eight high* 

Beyond the church of St Maria 
in Carinis, so called from the Ca- 
rinae, a quarter of ancient Rome so 
named from its resemblance to the 
keels of ships, is the Torre de' 
Conti, built on the ruins of the 
temple of the Earth, near which 
was the residence of Pompeythe 
Great. 

Jf'arum Palladium, — The em- 
peror Domitian having commen- 
ced his forum to the left of those 
of Caesar and Augustus, erected 
a temple in honour of Pallas, and 
named his forum Palladium; it 
was afterwards called the forum 



A 



42 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. THIRT DAT. 



of Kerva. The two Corinthian co- 1 
lumns, three parts under ground, 
called the Colonnacce, are nine 
and a half feet in circumference 
and twenty-nine in height They 
support a richly-worked entabla- 
ture. The bas-reliefs on the frieze 
representing the arts of Pallas 
are finely composed and executed. 
In the middle of the attic in the 
statue of Pallas. 

Forum ofNerva, — This forum, 
decorated with a temple to Nerva 
raised by Trajan, is supported by 
a large wall, composed of large 
blocks of peperino stone united 
by hooks ofhard wood. The style 
01 this construction, so very dif- 
ferent from that adopted in the 
forum, leads to the presumption 
that it is anterior to Nerva by 
many centuries; of the different 
arches which led to this forum, 
one only remains, called Arco de' 
Pantani, from the marshy mature 
of tiie soiL 

Adjoining this arch is the 

Temple of Nerva. — One of the 
finest edifices of Rome for its co- 
lossal dimensions, the beauty of 
the architecture and the richness 
of its ornaments. All tliat remains 
of it is a part of the portico, con- 
sisting of three columns sixteen 
and a half feet in circumference 
and forty-five in height, and a 
pilaster supporting the architrave, 
which is finely ornamented. 

The front of the temple was ex- 
posed to the west, and, according 
to Palladio, had eight colunms, 
and the side porticoes nine, ex- 
clusive of the pilaster next the 
wall. The excavations of 1821 
have proved that the lateral por- 
ticoes rested on a podium placed 
above three elevated steps. 

'>Dposite this building were 

belonging to the temple of 

which in the seventeenth 



century were employed in the 
construction of other buildings. 

Near tiie church of 8t Maria in 
Campo, under the Quirinal, are 
remains of a building, said to be 
the thermae of Paulus fimilins, 
tiiough more probably they may 
date from Trajan, as the construc- 
tion resembles by its regularity 
the monuments erected under that 
emperor. 

Forum of Trajan. — This co- 
lumn, the finest monument of the 
kind remaining of ancient times, 
was dedicated to Trajan by the 
Roman senate and people after 
the conquest of Dacla. It is of 
the Doric order, and is composed 
of thirty-four blocks of Carrara 
marble, placed one over the other, 
and united by bronze hooks. The 
pedestal is formed of eight blocks, 
the column of twenty-three, the 
capital and pedestal of the sta- 
tue of one. The height from the 
base to the top of the statue is 
132 feet Dividing it into sepa- 
rate parts, the grand pedestal is 
fourteen feet high, its base three; 
the column, its base and capital, 
ninety; the pedestal of the sta- 
the fourteen, and the statue eleven. 
The lower diameter is eleven feet 
two hiches, the upper ten feet In 
the interior 6i the column is a 
winding staircase of 182 steps. 
On the summit formerly stood a 
bronze gilt statue of Trajan,which 
Constantius 11 sent to Constanti- 
nople in the year 663. Sextus Y 
replaced it by the statue of St 
Peter. The large pedestal is co- 
vered with arms, eagles, and gar- 
lands of oak leaves; the whole 
of excellent sculpture and com- 
position. 

On the bas-reliefs, represent- 
ing the two campaigns of Trajan 
against Decebalus, king of Dacia, 
mko was finally vanquished in 



ROMAN STATES.— KOME. THIRB DAT. 



43 



101, are more tiian 2,500 male 
figures, independently of horses, 
arms, machines of war, military 
ensi^, and trophies, each figure 
being about two feet high. These 
bas-reUefs hare always been con- 
sidered as master-pieces of sculp- 
ture, and have served as models 
to Raphael, to Giullo Romano, 
and o&er great artists. 

The magnificence of the co- 
lumn corresponds with that of 
the forum, constructed by Apol- 
lodorus of Damascus. It was sur- 
rounded with porticoes of columns, 
supporting statues and bronze 
ornaments, with a basalic, a tem- 
ple, and the celebrated Ulpian 
library. It was found in the last 
excavations that the column was 
placed in the centre of a small 
oblong court, seventy-six feet in 
length and fifty-six in width, paved 
with marble, having to the south 
the wall of the basilic, and on 
the three other sides a portico, 
composed of a double row of co- 
lumns. The library was divided 
into two parts, one for Greek, 
the other for Lalan works, which 
were afterwards removed by Dio- 
cletian to his thermae: remains 
of it have been found behind the 
two small porticoes, near the co- 
lumns. The basilic followed the 
direction from east to west, hav- 
ing its principal entrance to the 
south; &e interior was divided 
by four rows of columns into five 
naves, the pavement was com- 
posed of giallo antico and violet 
marble,11ie walls were covered with 
white marble, the roof with gilt 
bronze, and the five entrance steps 
of large blocks of giallo antico; 
firagments of the steps, the pa- 
vement, and of the granite co- 
lumns belonging to the interior 
peristyle are still visible. Towards 
the column, the basilic was closed 



by a wall; it had three entrances, 
each decorated with a portico of 
four columns supporting an attic ; 
on the terrace above were a tri- 
umphal car and statues; a trium- 
phal arch led to the great square, 
situated to the south, and sur- 
rounded with sumptuous porticoes. 
It is probable that a similar space 
existed at the opposite extremity 
behind the temple, so that what 
remains at present may be esti- 
mated at about one-third of the 
surface of the forum, of which the 
whole length was 2000, and the 
breadth 650 feet 

Amongst the equestrian statues 
raised on the spot was that of 
Trajan, in gilt bronze, placed be- 
fore the temple, which particularly 
attracted the attention of the Em- 
peror Constantius, when he visited 
Rome in the year 854. 

The injuries of time and the 
depredations of man ruined all 
these magnificent edifices, which 
were still entire in the year 600, 
even after the ravages of the Goths 
and Vandals. The fragments and 
inscriptions found in the last exca- 
vations are affixed to the walls. 

St Maria di Loreto. — This 
church, of octangular form, with 
a double cupola, was designed by 
Sangallo. Over the altar of the se- 
cond chapel is a fine statue of St 
Susanna, by Quesnoy, the Fleming, 
and over the high altar is a pain- 
ting by Pietro Perugino. 

The Colonna Palace was com- 
menced by Martin Y, and finished 
by the princes of the Colonna fa- 
mily. 

The apartment on the ground 
floor was painted by Gaspar Pous- 
sin, Tempesta, Pomarancio, the 
Cavalier d^Arpino,<fec. On the stair- 
case is a colossal statue of a cap- 
tive king, and a bas-reUef in por- 
phyry of the head of Medusa. 



44 



CENTRAL ITALY. — WJO. FOURTH DAT. 



In the hall adjoinmg the gal- 
lery are portraits by Titian, one 
of Luther and one of Galvin; others 
by Tintoretto ; a Guardian Angel 
and a Madonna, by Guercino ; two 
Paul Veronese ana the Besnscita- 
tion of Lazarus, by Parmigianino. 

The vestibule of the gallery con- 
tains several Landscapes by Pous- 
sin and Orizzonte, by Berghem, 
Svanevelt, Breughel, and Paul 
Brill; the gallery, and Assump- 
tion, by Rubens ; several portraits 
in the same picture by Giorgione ; 
a StFrancis and St Sebastian, by 
Guido ; two St John, by Salvator 
Rosa ; the Martyrdom of St Agnes, 
by Guercino; a Magdalen of An- 
nibal Caracci; a Holy Family with 
St Lucia, by Titian; the Shep- 
herds sleeping, by Nicolas Pous- 
sin; the Peace between the Ro- 
mans ans Sabines, by Dominico 
Chirlandajo. 

The palace communicates with 
the gardens on the declivity of 
the Quirinal, where two large frag- 
ments of a frontispiece of fine 
workmanship constitute the ruins 
of the temple of the Sun, or of 
Serapis. 

Santi Apoatoli — This church, 
founded by Constantine, was re- 
newed in tne interior at the begin- 
ning of the last century, on the 
design of F. Fontana. An antique 
bas-relief in the portico represents 
an eagle grasping a laurel crown. 
Opposite is the monument of Vol- 
pato, by Canova. 

On the roof of the middle nave 
Boccaccio has painted theTriumph 
of the Franciscan Order. The cha- 
pels are ornamented with pictu- 
res and columns; over the high al- 
tar is the Martyrdom of St Philip 
And St James, by Muratori. 

^6 tomb of Clement XIV, with 
ataes of Clemency and Tem- 



perance, is a celebrated work of 
Canova. 

The chapel of St Francis was 
painted by Chiari. The Descent 
from the Cross, over the altar of 
the last chapel, by Francesco 
Manno. 

In the environs of this church 
were the "Forum Suarium," the 
street of the "Cornelians," and the 
grand temple of the Sun, built by 
Aurelian. 

. FOURTH DAY. 

FROM THE QUIRIIVAL TO THE 
MAUSOLEUM. 

The Quirinal. — In ancient times 
this hill was named Agonalius or 
Agonius, from the Sabine word 
Agon, a hill; and subsequently 
Quirinal, from the temple of Qui- 
rinus, or from Cures, a Sabine 
city. Its circumference is 15,700 
feet, and its height above the le- 
vel of the sea 320. 

The present name of Monte 
Cavallo is derived from the groups 
of colossal men and horses said to 
represent Castor andPollux,which 
may be considered as master-pie- 
ces of Grecian sculpture, though 
of authors unknown; the inscrip- 
tions Phidias and Praxiteles not 
being anterior to the middle ages, 
these groups cannot be attributed 
to those celebrated artists. Pius VI 
placed between them the obelisk 
found near the mausoleum of Au- 
gustus, and Pius VQ transferred 
here from the forum the large 
basin of oriental granite now used 
as a fountain. 

Papal Palace. — This palace 
was built by Gregory Xin, in 
1574, on the ruins of thermae of 
Constantine, and was successively 
enlarged under Sistus V, and se- 
veral other popes; Phis VH com- 
pleted its embellishments. 



ROMAN STATES.-— ROME. POURTH BAT. 



4& 



Near the chapel is an extensive 
ha]] paved with marbles of various 
kinds ; the roof, richly sculptured, 
has a frieze painted by Lanfranc 
and Saraceni the Venetian. 

Over the chapel door is a bas- 
relief by Landini, representing Je- 
sus washing the feet of the Apost- 
tlcs. The apartments are decorated 
with a St Peter and St Paul by Fr a 
Bartolomeo ; a St Jerome,by Spag- 
noletto; a Resurrection, by Van- 
dyke ; a Madonna of Guido; David 
and Saul, by Guercino. Tlie fres- 
coes of the chapel allusive to the 
life of the Virgin, and the Annun- 
ciation over the altar, are beautiful 
compositions of Guido. 

In the other room are excellent 
works of modem artists ; the frie- 
zes of Finelli representing tJie 
Triumps of Trajan, and that of 
Alexander by Thorwaldsen. 

Palazzo Roapu/lioH. — This pa- 
lace was built by Cardinal Sdpio 
Borghese on the ruins oftheCon- 
stantinian thermae, and is now 
possessed by the Rospigliosi fa- 
mily. 

The pavilion of the garden is 
decorated with the Aurora of 
Guido, representing Apollo, under 
the figure of the Sun, seated in a 
car drawn by four horses abreast, 
and surrounded by seven nymphs 
allusive to the hours. The gran- 
deur of the composition, the per- 
fection of the design and colour- 
ing, have given tMs painting a 
high celebrity. The friezes round 
the room,representing theTriumph 
of Love and the Triumphal Pomp 
of Virtue, are by Tempesta, the 
landscapes by Paul Brill 

In the adjoining chambers are : 
a fine antique bust of Scipio AM- 
canus; Adam and Eve in Para- 
dise ; the Triumph of David, by 
Dominichino ; the Apostles, by Ru- 
bens; Sampson overturning the 



Temple, by Ludovico Caracci, and 
several ancient busts. 

St Silvester. ^This church con- 
tains several paintings of merit. 
In the second chapei a Giacomo 
Palma ; an Assumption, by Scipio 
Gaetani; the David dancing be- 
fore the Ark, Judith showing the 
head of Holofemes to the Bethu- 
lians, Esther fainting in the pre- 
sence of Assuenis, die Queen of 
Sheba seated on the throne with 
Solomon, are by Dominichino. The 
side walls of one of the chapels 
were painted byMathurin and Po- 
lydor Caravaggio, theroofby the 
Cavalier d*Arpino. 

The Villa Aldobrandini,situated 
near this church, possesses several 
statues and other ancient monu- 
ments. 

In the vicinity of this villa are 
the churches of St Dominick and 
Sixtus and of St Catherine of 
Sienne, both decorated with pi- 
lasters of the Corinthian order. 
In the court of the monastery, 
attached to this latter church, a 
brick tower was raised in the year 
1210, by Pandolfo Suburra, the 
senator of Rome. The tales re- 
specting this tower, that it was 
built by Augustus, and that Nero 
viewed from it the burning of 
Rome, are inventions of the middle 
ages. 

The churches of St Agatha 
and St Bernardino of Sienne are 
on the declivity of the hill lea- 
ding to the valley which sepa- 
rates the QuirinaJ from the Vi- 
minal, called in ancient times 
^^Vallis Quirinalis," from the tem- 
ple dedicated to Romulus under 
the name of Quirinus. 

Opposite the diurch of StVi- 
talis, founded in 416, are sub- 
structions oftheViminal hill: on 
this are now placed the chm*cb 



^kCP 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. FOURTH DAY. 



of St Lorenzo in Paneperna, and 
barracks. 

St Denis — This church and 
monastery, built in 1619, are now 
occupied by French nuns follo- 
wing the rule of St Basil; they 
take charge of the education of 
young females. Though plain, the 
architecture is remarkable for its 
elegance. Over an altar on the 
left is a miraculous image of the 
Virgin, which belonged to St Gre- 
gory the Great The pictures of 
St Denis and St Louis are by 
Lebrun; the "Ecce homo" by 
Luca Giordano. 

The Quattro Fontane, so cal- 
led from the fountains at the four 
angles, offer views of the obe- 
lisks of St Maria Maggiore, of 
Monte Cavallo, and of the Tri- 
nita de' Monti. 

St Charles, — The front has two 
orders of columns, and the court 
of the house adjoining has two 
porticoes, one above the other, 
supported by twenty-four columns. 

St Andrew's, built in 1678 for 
the noviciate of the Jesuits, by 
Prince Pamphili, and embellished 
witii marble columns and paint- 
ings. In the chapel of St Fran- 
cis Xavier are three pictures by 
Boccaccio. The high altar piece 
is the Crucifixion of St Andrew, 
by Borgognone. Under the altar 
of the following chapel, the body 
of St Stanislaus is preserved in 
an urn of lapis lazuli, 

St Bernardo,— In 1598 the Coun- 
tess Sforza changed into a church 
one of the two round buildings 
situated at the southern angles 
of the thermae of Diocletian, sup- 
posed to have been the tepidaria 
or calidaria, or rooms for tepid 
or hot baths. Some ruins of the 
theatre are still seen in the gar- 
den behind the church. 

The Foumtain of Aqua Felice, 



erected by Sixtus V on the de- 
sings of Dominieo Fontana, is di- 
vided into three arcades by two 
breccia and two granite Ionic co- 
lumns. 

The central arcade contains the 
colossal statue of Moses stnkhig 
the rock; the lateral arcadeg; bas- 
reliefs of Aaron conducting the 
Hebrews to the miraculous spring, 
and Gideon choosing soldiers to 
open the passage of the river. 
An abundant supply of water falls 
into three marble basins. 

The Thermae of Diocletian, con- 
structed by the emperors Diocle- 
tian and Maximian, cover a space 
of 1,069 feet in length and bre- 
adth^ or an enclosure of 4,276 
feet in circuit These immense ther- 
mae, which according to Olympio- 
dorus afforded sufficient room for 
3,200 bathers, were of a square 
form, closed at each of the south- 
west angles by circular halls, 
which stiU exist, one in the church 
of St Bernard, the other in a gra- 
nary near the entrance of the villa 
Massimi. Decorated with porti- 
coes, halls, groves, and walks, these 
thermae also contained schools of 
science and of athletic exercises, 
and a magnificent hall called the 
Pinacotheca, which has been trans- 
formed into the church of 

St Maria Degli Angeli. — The 
Pinacotheca, or principal hall of 
Diocletian's baths, was changed 
into a church by order of Pius IV, 
under the direction of Michael 
Angelo Buonarotti, who reduced 
it to tlie form of a Greek cross, 
and rendered it one of the finest 
churches in Rome, The pavement 
having been raised six feet, on 
account of the humidity of the 
spot, the bases and a part of the 
granite columns are under ground. 

In 1740, Vanvitelli reduced the 
church to its present state; he 



KOMAN STATES. — ROME. FOVITH OAT. 



47 



Slaeed the altar of the blessed 
ficholas Albergatti on the spot 
which had before been occupied 
by the grand entrance; the late- 
ral door became the chief en- 
trance, and he added eight brick 
columns covered with stucco to 
the nave supported by eight of 
real granite. 

The present entrance is by a 
round vestibule of the same size 
as the church of St Bernard, and 
was used formerly as one of the 
halls. At the sides are the tombs 
of Carlo Maratta and of Salvator 
Rosa, of cardinals Parisio and Al- 
ciato. On the right is the chapel 
St Bruno, whose statue by Hou- 
don is near the entrance to the 
transversal nave, which is sup- 
ported by eight granite columns 
sixteen feet in circumference and 
forty-flve in height, comprising 
their base and capital The church 
is 336 feet long, seventy-four wide, 
and eighty-four in height 

The first picture on the right 
represents the Crucifixion of St 
Peter, by Bicciolini; the second, 
the fall of Simon the Magician: 
it is a copy of the original of 
Vanni existing at St Peter's. The 
altar piece of the following cha- 
pd is by Graziani^ the side paint- 
ings by Trevisani, and those of 
the roof by Biccherai and Maz- 
zetti. The St Peter restoring Ta- 
bitha to life is a copy from Bag- 
lioni, the painting near it is an 
original by Mutian. 

In the nave of the high altar 
four larffe paintings cover the side 
walls; ttie first on the right, re- 
presenting the Presentation of the 
Virgin at the Temple, is by Ro- 
manelli ; the second, the Martyr- 
dom of St Sebastian, is a classic 
work of Dominichino : the Baptism 
of Christ is by Carlo Maratta, and 



the Chastisement of Annanias and 
Sapphira by Pomarancio. 

Returning to the transversal 
nave, the painting of the Con- 
ception is by Bianchi; the St 
Bruno of the chapel by Odazzi, 
the side pictures by Trevisani, 
and the Evangelists by Procac- 
cini. The fall of Simon Magus by 
Battoni, and the St Basilius of 
Subleyras, adorn the opposite 
wall. In 1701 the meridian was 
traced in this church, with the 
signs of the zodiac composed of 
variegated marbles. 

The cloister, adorned with a 
square portico supported by 100 
travertine columns, was designed 
by Michael Angelo. 

Behind the baths was the "ag- 
ger" of Servius Tullius, or the 
artificial rampart of earth de- 
fende by square blocks of vol- 
canic stone and a deep ditch. 
Beyond the rampart are remains 
of the Praetorian camp. Enclosed 
in the vineyard of tiie Jesuits 
named Macao, the external part 
of it is easily distinguished in 
following the line ofwallstothe 
right of Porta Pia. These ruins 
convey an accurate idea of the 
form of Roman camps. 

St Maria Delia Vittoria, — The 
interior of this church, built by 
Paul V in 1605, is enriched with 
Sicilian jasper, and contains a 
St Francis in the second chapel, 
with paintings on the side walls 
by Dominichino. In the sumptuous 
chapel of St Theresa is the sta- 
tue of the saint in an ecstacy of 
divine love. The Holy Trinity, 
over the altar of the following 
chapel, is by Guercino^ the Cru- 
cifixion by Guido Rem. 

PortaPia. — This gate replaced, 
in 1364, the Nomentana gate, so 
called irom Nomentum, a Latin 
town situated twelve miles from 



88 



CENTRAL tTALY,*^ROMli;. THIRD J»AY. 



N^ 



altar is considered to be one of 
tie best works of Bernini. 

Under the altar is an antique 
urn of oriental alabaster, seven- 
teen feet in circumference, con- 
taining the bodies of this saint, 
of St Deraetria, and of their mo- 
ther St. Daphrose. 

The Church of St Eusebius is 
very ancient ; the roof was pain- 
ted by Mengs, and some frescoes 
of merit have been found on the 
walls of the subterranean cham- 
bers existing in the garden. 

Porta St Lorenzo, originally 
called Tiburtine, the road whicn 
passes under it being that of Ti- 
bur or Tivoli. It was built by Ho- 
norius in 402, and supports the 
ancient aqueduct of the Julian 
Marcian and Tepulan waters. 

St Lorenzo out of the Walls. — 
This basilic, built by Constantine 
in 330, was restored by several 
popes, particularly by Honorius 
in, who added the portico in 
1216, and used it for the coro- 
nation of the Count of Auxerre, 
Pierre de Courtenay, as Latin 
Emperor of Constantinople. 

The portico has six Ionic co- 
lumns of different diameters ; the 
paintings relate to the history of 
Honorius, of St Laurence, and 
St Stephen, 

The interior has three naves, 
divided by twenty-two Ionic co- 
lumns of granite; near the en- 
trance is an antique sarcophagus 
with a bas-relief representing a 
Roman marriage. In the middle 
nave are two marble "ambones" 
used for singing the gospel and 
epistle. In the tribune is the an- 
cient pontifical seat inlaid with 
sundry stones: this tribune, the 
primitive basilic, has twelve flu- 
ted columns of violet marble, the 
greater part of which is under 
ground ; two of the capitals have 



trophies instead of acanthus lear 
ves. Over this entablature are 
twelve smaller columns, two of 
green porphyry. The high altar 
is ornamented with four of red 

Eorphyry supporting a marble 
aldacchino, under which repose 
the bodies of St Laurence and 
the protomartyr St Stephen. Be- 
hind the tribune is the sacro- 
phagus which containied the re- 
mains of St Zosimus, pope in 418, 
haying bas-reliefs representing 
Genii gathering grapes, a subject 
frequently seen on the early Chri- 
stian monuments. 

The subterranean chapel in the 
left nave is celebrated for the 
privileges and indulgences gran- 
ted by different popes to 3iose 
who visit it. 

The Arch of Gallienus, situa- 
ted near St Eusebius, was dedi- 
cated to Gallienus about the year 
260: it is formed of large tra- 
vertine blocks, and is in good 
preservation. 

The Church of St Vitus was 
built near the ancient ^'Macellum 
Livianum," which was rebuilt by 
Livia, the wife of Augustus: near 
it is a monument in Egyptian 
granite, with a crucifix and a 
figure of the Virgin, raised by 
Clement Vm in 1595 to com- 
memorate the absolution given 
to Henry IV of France. 

On the piazza of St. Maria 
Maggiore is a column of the Co- 
rinthian order, 68* {2 feet high, 
including the base and capital, 
and nineteen feet three inches 
in circumference; it belonged to 
the basilic of Constantine. Paul V 
placed on the summit the bronze 
statue of the Virgin. 

St Maria Maggiore, — This 
church is situated on the sum- 
mit of the Esquiline csdled Cis- 
pius, near the ancient temple of 



KOMAK 8TATJES. — ROM£.-*THlJtD DAY. 



89 



Juno Lttcina; it was built m 852 
in consequence of a vision of St 
Liberius and John the Patrician, 
which was confirmed on the fol- 
lowing day by a fall of snow on 
the 5th August, a miracle which 
gave rise to the festival still ce- 
lebrated on that day by the church. 
The snow covered the space which 
the building was destined to oc- 
cupy, and for this reason it was 
then called "St Maria ad Nives," 
but now St Maria Maggiore, as 
it is the principal church dedi- 
cated to ihe Madonna. It is one 
of the seven basOics of Rome and 
of the four which have a holy 
gate for the Jubilee. 

In 432 Pope Sixtus HI enlar- 
jged this church, which was re- 
stored and enriched by several 
popes, and particularly by Bene- 
dict XIV. The front has two rows 
of columns, one Doric, the other 
Corinthian; on the lower portico, 
supported by eight granite co- 
lunms, are bas-reliefs, and a sta- 
tue of Philipp IV, King of Spain. 
From the central balcony of the 
upper portico the sovereign pon- 
tiff gives his blessing to me peo- 
ple; the mosaics are by Gaddo 
Gaddi, a contemporary of Ci- 
mabue. 

The interior is composed of 
three naves separated by thirty- 
six Ionic marble columns, taken 
from the temple of Juno. 

The chapel of the holy sacra- 
ment, built by Sixtus V on the 
designs of Fontana^ is covered 
with marb]e, and decorated with 
paintings and Corinthian pilasters. 
On tiie right is the tomb of Six- 
tus V, adorned with his statue, 
foiu* verde antico columns, bas- 
reliefs, and the statues of St 
Eraneis and St Anthony of Pa- 
dua: on the left is that of St 
Pius V, whose body is preserved 



in a verde antieo urn, adorned 
with gUt bronze. lu the middle 
of the chapel is the alt^r of the 
holy sacrament, wiih a magnifi- 
cent tabernacle, supported by four 
angels of gilt bronze. 

The high altar is isolated; it 
consists of a grand porphyry urn 
covered, and a marble slab with 
four bronze gilt angels at the cor- 
ners; above it is a rich baldacchino 
supported by four porphyrj' co- 
lumns, and surmounted by six 
marble figures of angels. The mo- 
saics of tibe grand arcade allude 
to subjects of the Old Testament, 
and of the life of the Virgin. 

The sumptuous chapel of the 
Borghese family, erected by Paul 
V on the designs of Flaminius 
Ponzio, contains various species 
of marble and frescoes. On the 
left is the tomb of that pontifi', and 
on the right that of Clement VHI, 
both decorated with statues, bas- 
reliefs, and columns. The statues 
of St Basil, of David, of Aaron, 
and St Bernard are works of 
Cordieri. The altar of the Virgin 
is adorned with four fluted co- 
lumns of oriental jasper; the base 
and capitals are of gilt bronze; the 
Meze and the pedestals of the 
columns are of agate. The image 
of the Madonna, said to have 
been painted by St Luke, is en- 
riched with lapis lazuli, and en- 
circled with precious stones. The 
bas-relief of the entablature re- 
presents the miraculous fall of 
snow. The frescoes over the al- 
tar are by the Cavalier d'Arpino, 
those of the cupola by Civoli. 
the paintings near the windows 
and arcades over the tombs are 
among the best compositions of 
Guide. 

St Prasaede,-— It is related that 
at the solicitation of St Praxedes 
St Pius I erected, in 160, an ora- 



40 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. THIRD DAY. 



tory in the thermae of Novatns, 
her brother, on the spot for- 
merly, called "Vicus Lateritius," 
to which the Christians retired 
in times of persecutoin. The 
church, with its three naves, di- 
vided by sixteen granite columns, 
was built by Pascal I in 822. At 
the high altar are four porphyry 
columns, the steps leading to the 
tribune are of rosso antico, the 
largest blocks known. A part of 
a column in a chapel to the right 
is in high veneration; it was 
brought from Jerusalem, and is 
supposed to be the same to which 
our Saviour was bound during 
his flagellation. A painting of this 
subject by Julio Romano is in 
the sacristy. 

St Martino.—A church was 
built on this spot by St Sylvester at 
the time of Constantine, and over 
it the present church was erected 
in the year 500; this was embel- 
lished in 1650, and at the end 
of the last century. The three 
naves are divided by twenty-four 
antique columns of different qua- 
lites of marble. The landscapes 
painted on the walls are by Gas- 
par, and the figures by Nicholas 
Poussin; the chapel of te Virgin 
near the high altar is covered 
with precious ' marble. 

Below the steps under the high 
altar, in a subterranean chamber 
designed by Pietro da Cortona and 
surrounded with columns, are the 
tombs of St Silvester and St Mar- 
tin; under this chamber is the 
church with its mosaic pavement 
built by St Silvester on the ruins 
of an edifice of the second cen- 
tury. A council is said to have 
been held here by St Silvester 
in 324. 

On the left of St Martinis are 

the church of St Lucia in Selci, 

^ the celebrated quarter of an- 



cient Rome called the "Suburra," 
and the "Vicus Patricius," or the 
street assigned to the Patricians 
by Servius Tullius. 

St Pudenziana. — This church, 
after having been repaired at 
sundry periods, was embellished 
and reduced to its present state by 
Cardinal Caetani in 1598. The 
naves are separated by fourteen 
antique columns. 

The apostle St Peter is said 
to have lodged in the house of 
Pudens, a senator, on which this 
church was built; the cupola was 
painted by Pomarancio. In the 
chapel on the right is the same 
altar on which St Peter is said to 
have celebrated mass. The sta- 
tue of our Saviour giving the 
keys to St Peter is by Giacomo 
della Porta. The Caetani chapel 
is rich in marble and fine luma- 
chella columns. 

Adjoining the Bambin Gesil is 
a monastery for the education of 
young girls. Following the Via 
St Francesco di Paolo, the ancient 
"Vicus Sceleratus," where Tullia 
drove her car over the dead body 
of Servius Tullius, her father, we 
arrive at the church of 

St Pietro in Vincoli^ built by 
Eudoxia, the wife of Valentinian 
in. Emperor of the West, to pre- 
serve the chains which, under 
Herodle bound St Peter in the 
prison of Jerusalem; it is for this 
reason called "in VincoH" It was 
restored in 1503, said embellished 
in 1705. 

Twenty Doric fluted columns 
of Greek marble, seven feet in 
circumference, divide the naves; 
two of granite support the middle 
arcade. On the first altar is a 
painting of St Augustin by Guer- 
cino ; the tombs of cordinals Mar- 
getti and Agucci are from tlie 
designs of Dominichino, wo pain- 



ROMAN 8TATE8.-^TOMS. THIAB DAY. 



41 



ted the portraits and the St Peter 
preserved m the sacristy. 

The tomb of Julius 11 is from the 
designs of Michael Angelo, who 
placed in the middle his celebrated 
statue of Moses, considered as one 
of the master-pieces of modem 
sculpture. It is of colossal size, 
and represents Moses with the 
tables of the law under his right 
arm casting a reproachful look on 
the people whose faith seems to 
be wavering. The four statues in 
the niches are by Raphael de 
Montelupo, a pupil of Buonarotti. 

The St Margaret over the fol- 
lowing altar is one of the best 
works of Guercino; the tribune 
was painted by Giacomo Coppi, 
a Florentine; the St Sebastian in 
mosaic is of the seventh century; 
over the last altar is a Piety, by 
Pomarancio. 

Thermcd of Titus, — The'thermse 
were originally established at 
Rome for the purpose of bathing, 
but in the course of time these 
edifices became places of luxury, 
surrounded with porticos, gardens, 
possessing libraries, saloons, and 
places destined for athletic games, 
which were viewed from a kind 
of theatre. Agrippa was the first 
who raised this kind of building 
for the public. His example was 
followed by Nero and Titus ; those 
of Agrippa and of Nero were in the 
Campus Martins. Titus selected 
the palace and gardens of Nero. 
Having been enlarged under Do- 
mitian, Trajan, and Adrian, these 
thermae extended from the coli- 
seum to the church of St Mar- 
tino. They were near the palace 
of Titus, among the ruins of 
which was found, under Juluis 11, 
the celebrated group of the Lao- 
coon. 

This edifice is now destroyed, 
but some remains convey an idea 



of its magnificence; the plan of it 
is preserved in the fragments of 
the plan of Rome at the GapitoL 
The subterraneous chambers, be- 
longing for the most part to the 
house of Nero, over which Titus 
built his thermae, are covered with 
arabesque paintings, which from 
the vivacity of the colours, the 
variety and accuracy of the design, 
excite the admiration of artists. 
It is supposed thatRaphael availed 
himself of these frescoes in paint- 
ing the Loggie of the Vatican. 

Sette Sale. — This building con- 
sisted of two galleries, the lower 
one is now under ground; the 
upper story had mine corridors, 
serving as a piscina or reservoir 
of water, built before the time of 
Titus. The walls are of a strong 
construction, having a 4)laster 
which resists the action of water, 
called by Vitruvius "opus signi- 
num ;" it is composed of fragments 
of baked earth mixed with a fine 
cement The doors are situated 
alternately in places where they 
could not diminish the strength 
of the walls, and are so disposed 
that from four of the doors the 
eight that remain are visible. The 
present corridor is thirty-seven feet 
long, twelve wide, and eight high. 

Beyond the church of St Maria 
in Carinis, so called from the Ca- 
rinae, a quarter of ancient Rome so 
named from its resemblance to the 
keels of ships, is the Torre de' 
Conti, built on the ruins of the 
temple of the Earth, near which 
was the residence of Pompeythe 
Great. 

Forum Palladium. — The em- 
peror Domitian having commen- 
ced his forum to the left of those 
of Caesar and Augustus, erected 
a temple in honour of Pallas, and 
named his forum Palladium; it 
was afterwards called the forum 



J 



42 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. THIRT DAY. 



of Nerva. The two Corinthian co- 
lumns, three parts under ground, 
called the Colonnacce, are nine 
and a half feet in circumference 
and twenty-nine in heiffht They 
support a richly-worked entabla- 
ture. The bas-reliefs on the frieze 
representing the arts of Pallas 
are finely composed and executed. 
In the middle of the attic in the 
statue of Pallas. 

Forum ofNerva, — This forum, 
decorated with a temple to Nerva 
raised by Trajan, is supported by 
a large wall, composed of large 
blocks of peperino stone united 
by hooks of hard wood. The style 
of this construction, so very dif- 
ferent from that adopted in the 
forum, leads to the presumption 
that it is anterior to Nerva by 
many centuries; of the different 
arches which led to this forum, 
one only remains, called Arco de' 
Pantani, from the marshyfuature 
of the soiL 

Adjoining this arch is the 

Temple of Nerva, — One of the 
finest edifices of Rome for its co- 
lossal dimensions, the beauty of 
the architecture and the richness 
of its ornaments. All that remains 
of it is a part of the portico, con- 
sisting of three columns sixteen 
and a half feet in circumference 
and forty-five in height, and a 
pilaster supporting the architrave, 
which is finely ornamented. 

The front of the temple was ex- 
posed to the west, and, according 
to Palladio, had eight colunms, 
and the side porticoes nine, ex- 
clusive of the pilaster next the 
wall. The excavations of 1821 
have proved that the lateral por- 
ticoes rested on a podium placed 
above three elevated steps. 

Opposite this building were 

'S belonging to the temple of 

8, which in the seventeenth 



century were employed in the 
construction of other buildings. 

Near the church of St Maria in 
Campo, under the Quirinal, are 
remains of a building, said to be 
the thermae of Paulus Emilius, 
though more probably they may 
date from Trajan, as the construc- 
tion resembles by its regularity 
the monuments erected under that 
emperor. 

Forum of Trajan. — This co- 
lumn, the finest monument of the 
kind remaining of ancient times^ 
was dedicated to Trajan by the 
Roman senate and people after 
the conquest of Dacia. It is of 
the Doric order, and is composed 
of thirty-four blocks of Carrara 
marble, placed one over the other, 
and united by bronze hooks. The 
pedestal is formed of eight blocks, 
the column of twenty-three, the 
capital and pedestal of the sta- 
tue of one. The height from Uie 
base to the top of the statue is 
132 feet Dividing it into sepa- 
rate parts, the grand pedestal is 
foiuteen feet high, its base three; 
the column, its base and capital, 
ninety; the pedestal of the sta- 
the fourteen, and the statue eleven. 
The lower diameter is eleven feet 
two inches, the upper ten feet In 
the interior <^f the column is a 
winding staircase of 182 steps. 
On the summit formerly stood a 
bronze gilt statue of Trajan, which 
Constantius 11 sent to Constanti- 
nople in the year 663. Sextus Y 
replaced it by the statue of St 
Peter. The large pedestal is co- 
vered with arms, eagles, and gar- 
lands of oak leaves; the whole 
of excellent sculpture and com- 
position. 

On the bas-reliefs, represent- 
ing the two campaigns of Trajan 
against Decebalus, king of Dacia, 
who was finally vanquished in 



ROMAN STATES. — ^ROMB. TURD DAY. 



• 48 



101, are more than 2,500 male 
figures, independently of horses, 
arms, machines of war, military 
ensi^s, and trophies, each figure 
being about two feet high. These 
bas-reliefs have always been con- 
sidered as master-pieces of sculp- 
ture, and have served as models 
to Raphael, to Ginllo Romano, 
and o^er great artists. 

The magnificence of the co- 
lumn corresponds with that of 
the forum, constructed by Apol- 
lodorus of Damascus. It was sur- 
rounded with porticoes of columns, 
supporting statues and bronze 
ornaments, with a basalic, a tem- 
ple, and the celebrated Ulpian 
tibrary. It was found in the last 
excavations that the column was 
placed in the centre of a small 
oblong court, seventy-six feet in 
length and fifty-six in width, paved 
witb marble, having to the south 
the wall of the basilic, and on 
the three other sides a portico, 
composed of a double row of co- 
lumns. The library was divided 
into two parts, one for Grreek, 
the o<ber for Latin works, which 
were afterwards removed by Dio- 
cletian to his thermae: remains 
of it have been found behind the 
two small porticoes, near the co- 
lumns. The basilic followed the 
direction from east to west, hav- 
ing its principal entrance to the 
south; Ibe interior was divided 
by four rows of columns into five 
naves, the pavement was com- 
posed of giallo antico and violet 
marble,the walls were covered with 
white marble, the roof with gilt 
bronze, and the five entrance steps 
of large blocks of giallo antico; 
fragments of the steps, the pa- 
vement, and of the granite co- 
Imnns belonging to the interior 
peristyle are still visible. Towards 
the column, the basilic was closed 



by a wall ; it had three entrances, 
each decorated with a portico of 
four columns supporting an attic ; 
on the terrace above were a tri- 
umphal car and statues; a trium- 
phal arch led to the great square, 
situated to the south, and sur- 
rounded with sumptuous porticoes. 
It is probable that a similar space 
existed at the opposite extremity 
behind the temple, so that what 
remains at present may be esti- 
mated at about one-third of the 
surface of the forum, of which the 
whole length was 2000, and the 
breadth 650 feet. 

Amongst the equestrian statues 
raised on the spot was that of 
Trajan, in gilt bronze, placed be- 
fore the temple, which particularly 
attracted the attention of the Em- 
peror Constantius, when he visited 
Rome in the year 354 

The iiyuries of time and the 
depredations of man ruined all 
these magnificent edifices, which 
were still entire in the year 600, 
even after the ravages of the Goths 
and Vandals. The fragments and 
inscriptions found in the last exca- 
vations are affixed to the walls. 

St Maria di Loreto, — This 
church, of octangular form, with 
a double cupola, was designed by 
Sangallo. Over the altar of the se- 
cond chapel is a fine statue of St 
Susanna, by Quesnoy, the Fleming, 
and over the hi^h altar is a pain- 
ting by Pietro Perugino. 

The Colonna Palace was com- 
menced by Martin Y, and finished 
by the princes of the Colonna fa- 
mily. 

The apartment on the ground 
floor was painted by Gaspar Pons^ 
sin, Tempesta, Pomarancio, the 
Cavalier d'ArpinOj&c. On the stair- 
case is a colossal statue of a cap- 
tive king, and a bas-relief in por- 
phyry of the head of Medusa. 



44 



CENTEAL ITALY. — ftdXE. POVRTH DAT. 



In the hall adjoining the gal- 
lery are portraits by Titian, one 
of Luther and one of Calvin; others 
by Tintoretto; a Guardian Angel 
and a Madonna, by Guercino; two 
Paul Veronese and the Resuscita- 
tion of Lazarus, by Parmigianino. 

The vestibule of the gallery con- 
tains several Landscapes by Pous- 
sin and Orizzonte, by Berghem, 
Svanevelt, Breughel, and Paul 
Brill; the gallery, and Assump- 
tion, by Rubens ; several portraits 
in the same picture by Giorgione; 
a St Francis and St Sebastian, by 
Guido ; two St John, by Salvator 
Rosa ; the Martyrdom of St Agnes, 
by Guercino; a Magdalen of An- 
nibal Caracci; a Holy Family vrith 
St Lucia, by Titian; the Shep- 
herds sleeping, by Nicolas Pous- 
sin; the Peace between the Ro- 
mans ans Sabines, by Dominico 
Chirlandajo. 

The palace communicates with 
the gardens on the declivity of 
the Quirinal, where two large frag- 
ments of a frontispiece of fine 
workmanship constitute the iniins 
of the temple of the Sun, or of 
Serapis. 

Santi Apoatoli — This church, 
founded by Constantine, was re- 
newed in the interior at the begin- 
ning of the last century, on the 
design of F. Fontana. An antique 
bas-relief in the portico represents 
an eagle grasping a laurel crown. 
Opposite is the monument of Vol- 
pato, by Canova. 

On the roof of the middle nave 
Boccaccio has painted theTriumph 
of the Franciscan Order. The cha- 
pels are ornamented with pictu- 
res and columns ; over the high al- 
tar is the Martyrdom of St Philip 
and St James, by Muratori. 

TTie tomb of Clement XIV, with 
statues of Clemency and Tem- 



perance, is a celebrated work of 
Canova. 

The chapel of St Francis was 
painted by Chiari. The Descent 
from the Cross, over the altar of 
the last chapel, by Francesco 
Manno. 

In the environs of this church 
were the "Forum Suarium," the 
street of the "Cornelians," and the 
grand temple of the Sun, built by 
Aurelian. 

FOURTH DAY. 

FROM THE QUIRINAL TO THE 
MAUSOLEUM. 

The Quirinal. — In ancient times 
this hill was named Agonalius or 
Agonius, from the Sabine word 
Agon, a hill; and subsequently 
Quirinal, from the temple of Qui- 
rinus, or from Cures, a Sabine 
city. Its circumference is 15,700 
feet, and its height above the le- 
vel of the sea 320. 

The present name of Monte 
Cavallo is derived from the groups 
of colossal men and horses said to 
represent Castor andPollux,which 
may be considered as master-pie- 
ces of Grecian sculpture, thoujgh 
of authors unknown; the inscrip- 
tions Phidias and Praxiteles not 
being anterior to the middle ages, 
these groups cannot be attributed 
to those celebrated artists. Pius VI 
placed between them the obelisk 
found near the mausoleum of Au- 
gustus, and Pius Vll transferred 
here from the forum the large 
basin of oriental granite now used 
as a fountain. 

Papal Palace. — This palace 
was built by Gregory XIH, in 
1574, on the ruins of thermae of 
Constantine, and was successively 
enlarged under Sistus V, and se- 
veral other popes; Pius VII com- 
pleted its embellishments. 



BOMAN STATES. — ^BOME. FOVKTB DAT* 



4^ 



Near the chapel is an eztensiye 
hall paved with marbles of various 
kinds ; the roof, richly sculptured, 
has a frieze painted by Lanfranc 
and Saracen! the Venetian. 

Over the chapel door is a bas- 
relief by Landini, representing Je- 
sus washing the feet of the Apost^ 
tics. The apartments are decorated 
with a St Peter and StPaulbyFra 
Bartolomeo ; a St Jerome,by Spag- 
noletto; a Resurrection, by Van- 
dyke ; a Madt)nna of Guido; David 
and Saul, by Guercino. The fres- 
coes of the chapel allusive to ^e 
life of the Virgin, and the Annun- 
ciation over the altar, are beautiful 
compositions of Guido. 

In the other room are excellent 
works of modem artists ; the frie- 
zes of Finelli representing tiie 
Triumps of Trajan, and that of 
Alexander by Tnorwaldsen. 

Palazzo RospifflioH. — This pa- 
lace was built by Cardinal Sdpio 
Borghese on the ruins oftheCk)n- 
Btantinian thermae, and is now 
possessed by the Rospigliosi fa- 
mily. 

The pavilion of the garden is 
decorated with the Aurora of 
Guido, representing Apollo, under 
the figure of the Sun, seated in a 
car drawn by four horses abreast, 
and surrounded by seven nymphs 
allusive to the hours. The gran- 
deur of the composition, the per- 
fection of the design and colour- 
ing, have given this painting a 
high celebrity. The friezes round 
the room,repre8enting theTriumph 
of Love and the Triumphal Pomp 
of Virtue, are by Tempesta, the 
landscapes by Paul BrilL 

In the adjoining chambers are : 
a fine antique bust ofScipioAfri- 
canus; Adam and Eve in Para- 
dise ; the Triumph of David, by 
Dominichino ; the Apostles, by Ru- 
bens; Sampson overturning the 



Temple, by Ludovico Caracci, and 
several ancient busts. 

St Silvester. — This church con- 
tains several paintings of merit* 
In the second chapel a Giacomo 
Palraa ; an Assumption, by Scipio 
Gaetani; the David dancing be- 
fore the Ark, Judith showing the 
head of Holofemes to theBethu- 
Hans, Esther fainting in the pre- 
sence of Assuerus, the Queen of 
Sheba seated on the throne with 
Solomon, are by Dominichino. The 
side walls of one of the chapek 
were painted byMathurin and Po- 
lydor Caravaggio, the roof by the 
Cavalier d'Arpino. 

The Villa Aldobrandini,situated 
near this church, possesses several 
statues and other ancient monu- 
ments. 

In the vicinity of this villa are 
the churches of St Dominick and 
Sixtus and of St Catherine of 
Sienne, both decorated with pi- 
lasters of the Corinthian order. 
In the court of the monastery, 
attached to this latter church, a 
brick tower was raised in the year 
1210, by Pandolfo Suburra, the 
senator of Rome. The tales re- 
specting this tower, that it was 
built by Augustus, and that Nero 
viewed from it the buminff of 
Rome, are inventions of the middle 
ages. 

The churches of St Agatha 
and St Bernardino of Sienne are 
on the declivity of the hiU lea- 
ding to the valley which sepa- 
rates the Quirinal firom the Vi- 
minal, called in ancient times 
"Vallis Quirinalis," from the tem- 
ple dedicated to Romulus under 
the name of Quirinus. 

Opposite the diurch of StVi- 
talis, founded in 416, are sub- 
structions of theViminal hill: on 
this are now placed the churc^^ 



46 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. FOURTH DAT. 



of St Lorenzo in Paneperna, and 
barracks. 

St Denis — This church and 
monastery, built in 1619, are now 
occupied by French nuns follo- 
wing the rule of St Basil; they 
take charge of the oducation of 
young females. Though plain, the 
architecture is remarkable for its 
elegance. Over an altar on the 
left is a miraculous image of the 
Virgin, which belonged to St Gre- 
gory the Great The pictures of 
St Denis and St Louis are by 
Lebrun; the "Ecce homo" by 
Luca Giordano. 

The Quattro Fontane, so cal- 
led from the fountains at the four 
angles, offer views of the obe- 
lisks of St Maria Maggiore, of 
Monte Cavallo, and of the Tri- 
nita de' Monti. 

St Charles. — The front has two 
orders of columns, and the court 
of the house adjoining has two 
porticoes, one above the other, 
supported by twenty-four columns. 

St Andrew's, built in 1678 for 
the noviciate of the Jesuits, by 
Prince Pamphili, and embellished 
with marble columns and paint- 
ings. In the chapel of St Fran- 
cis Xavier are three pictures by 
Boccaccio. The high altar piece 
is tihe Crucifixion of St Andrew, 
by Borgognone. Under the altar 
of the following chapel, the body 
of St Stanislaus is preserved in 
an urn of lapis lazuli, 

St Bernardo.— In 1698 the Coun- 
tess Sforza changed into a church 
one of the two round buildings 
situated at the southern angles 
of the thermae of Diocletian, stip- 
posed to have been the tepidaria 
or calidaria, or rooms for tepid 
or hot baths. Some ruins of the 
theatre are still seen in the gar- 
den behind the church. 

"^he Fountain of Aqua Felice^ 



erected by Sixtus V on the de- 
sings of Dominico Fontana, is di- 
vided into three arcades by two 
breccia and two granite Ionic co- 
lumns. 

The central arcade contains tlie 
colossal statue of Moses striking 
the rock; the lateral arcade^ bas- 
reliefs of Aaron conducting the 
Hebrews to the miraculous spring, 
and Gideon choosing soldiers to 
open the passage of the river. 
An abundant supply of watei^ falls 
into three marble basins. 

The Thermae of Diocletian, con- 
structed by the emperors Diode- 
tian and Maximian, cover a space 
of 1,069 feet in length and bre- 
adth^ or an enclosure of 4,276 
feet in circuit These immense ther- 
mae, which according to Olympio- 
dorus afforded sufficient room for 
8,200 bathers, were of a square 
form, closed at each of the south- 
west angles by circular halls, 
which stiU exist, one in the church 
of St Bernard, the other in a gra- 
nary near the entrance of the villa 
Massimi. Decorated with porti- 
coes, halls, groves, and walks, these 
thermae also contained schools of 
science and of athletic exercises, 
and a magnificent hall called the 
Pinacotheca, which has been trans- 
formed into the church of 

St Maria Degli Angeli. — The 
Pinacotheca, or principal hall of 
Diocletian's baths, was changed 
into a church by order of Pius IV, 
under the direction of Michael 
Angelo Buonarotti, who reduced 
it to the form of a Greek cross, 
and rendered it one of the finest 
churches in Rome. The pavement 
having been raised six feet, on 
account of the humidity of the 
spot, the bases and a part of the 
granite columns are under ground. 

In 1740, Vanvitelli reduced the 
church to its present state; he 



BOHAN STATES. — ^ftOME. FOVRTI BAT. 



47 



S laced the altar of the blessed 
ficholas Albergatti on the spot 
which had before been occupied 
by the grand entrance; the late- 
ral door became the chief en- 
trance, and he added eight brick 
columns covered with stucco to 
the nave supported by eight of 
real granite. 

The present entrance is by a 
round vestibule of the same size 
as the church of St Bernard, and 
was used formerly as one of the 
halls. At the sides are the tombs 
of Carlo Maratta and of Salvator 
Bosa, of cardinals Pansio and Al- 
Giato. On the right is the chapel 
St Bruno, whose statue by Hou- 
don is near the entrance to the 
transversal nave, which is sup- 
ported by eight granite columns 
sixteen feet in circumference and 
forty-flve in height, comprising 
their base and capital The church 
is 386 feet long, seventy-four wide, 
and eighty-four in height. 

Tlie first picture on the right 
represents the Crucifixion of St 
Peter, by Bicciolini; the second, 
the fall of Simon the Magician: 
it is a copy of the original of 
Vanni existing at St Peter's. The 
altar piece of the following cha- 
pel is by Graziani^ the side paint- 
ings by Trevisani, and those of 
the roof by Biccherai and Maz- 
zetti. The St Peter restoring Ta- 
bitha to life is a copy from Bag- 
lioni, the painting near it is an 
original by Mutian. 

In the nave of the high altar 
four larffe paintings cover the side 
walls; vie first on the right, re- 
presenting the Presentation of ^e 
Virgin at the Temple, is by Ro- 
manelli ; the second, the Martyr- 
dom of St Sebastian, is a classic 
workofDominichino ; the Baptism 
of Christ is by Carlo Maratta, and 



the Chastisement of Annanias and 
Sapphira by Pomarancio. 

Bietoming to the transversal 
nave, the painting of the Con- 
ception is by Bianchi; the St 
Bruno of the chapel by Odazzi, 
the side pictures by Trevisani, 
and the Evangelists "by Procac- 
cini. The fall of Simon Magus by 
Battoni, and the St Basilius of 
Snbleyras, adorn the opposite 
wall. In 1701 the meridian was 
traced in this church, with the 
signs of the zodiac composed of 
variegated marbles. 

The cloister, adorned with a 
square portico supported by 100 
travertine columns, was designed 
by Michael Angelo. 

Behind the baths was the ^*ag- 
ger" of Servius Tullius, or the 
artificial rampart of earth de- 
fende by square blocks of vol- 
canic stone and a deep ditch. 
Beyond the rampart are remains 
of the Praetorian camp. Enclosed 
in the vineyard of die Jesuits 
named Macao, the external part 
of it is easily distinguished in 
following the line of walls to the 
right of Porta Pia. These ruins 
convey an accurate idea of the 
form of Roman camps. 

St Maria Delia Ftttorm.— The 
interior of this church, built by 
Paul V in 1&06, is enriched with 
Sicilian jasper, and contains a 
St Francis in the second chapel, 
with paintings on the side walls 
by Dominichino. In the sumptuous 
chapel of St Theresa is the sta- 
tue of the saint in an ecstacy of 
divine love. The Holy Trinity, 
over the altar of the following 
chapel, is by Guercino^ the Cru- 
cifixion by Guido Rem. 

PortaPia.—This gate replaced, 
in 1364, the Komentana gate, so 
called from Nomentum, a Latin 
town situated twelve miles from 



48 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. FOURTH J>M. 



Borne. Its present name is derived 
from Pius IV, who ornamented the 
internal part on the designs of Mi- 
chael Angelo. Near the original 
gate is the tomh of Quintus Hate- 
rius, the praetor, a personage of 
note at the time of Tiberius. 

On the right of the road are 
the villa Patrizi, in a delightfiil 
situation; Lucemari, formerlv Bo- 
lognetti; Massimi, and Torlonia. 
The latter, v;hen the embellish- 
ments now in progress are com- 
pleted, will be one of the most 
splendid villas in the environs of 
Roma 

St Agnes. — This church was 
built by Constantine on the spot 
where the body of St Agnes was 
found. A marble staircase of forty- 
five steps, on the walls of which 
are numerous sepulchral inscrip- 
tions, leads to the church, divided 
into three naves by sixteen anti- 
que columns of different Idnds of 
marble; fifteen smaller columns 
support the upper portico and 
four of porphyry surround the 
altar, composed of precious 
marble, where the body of the 
saint is laid. Around the tribune 
is a mosaic of the time of Ho- 
norius I, and on the altar to the 
right a head of our Saviour by 
Buonarotti. This church preser- 
ves the form of the civil basilics 
of the Romans. 

St ConsianHa. — Some mosaic 
works representing genii gathe- 
ring grapes induced antiquarians 
to consider this church as an an- 
cient temple of Bacchus, but it 
is known that these ornaments 
were frequently used in early Chri- 
stian buildings. The present con- 
struction being of the time when 
art had declined, and the plan 
not agreeing with that of ancient 
temples, it is better to adopt the 
asttement of Anastasius and Am- 



mianus Marcellinus, that Con- 
stantine built this baptistery of a 
spherical form for the baptism 
of the two Gonstantias, his sister 
aqd daughter. 

A sarcophagus of porphyry 
found on tiie spot, having the 
same symbols as those on the 
roof, of the same style and form 
as that of St Helen, would seem 
to indicate that it served as a 
sepulchre of the Constantine fa- 
mily. Both these sarcophagi were 
removed by order of Pius VI to 
the Vatican museum. 

The bodies of Constantia and 
St Emerentiana are placed under 
the middle altar; twenty-four gra- 
nite columns form the interior 
peristyle; the external corridor 
is nearly destroyed. 

Some walls of an oblong form, 
improperly termed the hippo- 
drome of Constantine, belonged, 
as the late excavations have pro- 
ved, to a Christian burying ground 
placed between the two churches. 

A mile beyond these ruins is 
the Nomentan bridge thrown over 
the Anio, and on the other side. 

The Mona Sacer. — The ple- 
beians oppressed by the patri- 
cians withdrew to this spot, which 
they fortified, in the year of Rome 
861. The senate sent deputies, 
priests, and the vestals to per- 
suade them to return, though to 
no purpose. They yielded to Me- 
nenius Agrippa, wnose fable of 
the limbs of the human body is 
related by Livy. The tribunes were 
then instituted; but being abo- 
lished by the decemvirs, the 
people witlidrew a second time 
to this spot, when a law was 
passed, rendered sacred by an 
oath, that no revolt should ever 
be attempted against the tribunes. 
This hill, hitherto called „Ve- 



lUMIAN STATES.-HROIIE. FOUBTH Ml* 



49 



Ha" was thenceforth denominated 
Mons Sacer. 

At the distance of another mile, 
between the Komentan and Sala- 
rian ways, in a spot called Yi^e 
Naove, are the ruins of the villa 
of Phaon, in which Nero sought 
a refoge and put an end to his 
days. The position of this villa 
IB determined by the testimony 
of Suetonius. 

Porta Salaria — When Hono- 
rius enlarged the walls the Porta 
Salaria was substituted to the 
CoUina of Servius. In 409 Alaric, 
king of the Goths, entered Rome 
by this gate, through which the 
Gauls had also penetrated in the 
times of the republic. 

Villa Albani. — This villa was 
built in the middle of the last 
century by Cardinal Albani, who 
formed in it, under the direction 
of Winkelman, a large collection 
of statues, busts, bas-reliefs, sar- 
cophagi, and other antique mo- 
numents. 

In the vestibule are bas-reliefs 
in stucco, copied from the anti- 
que: a statue of a young man, 
said to be C. Caesar, son of 
Agrippa; a Eoman lady under 
the form of Ceres; a Nymph; a 
slave with a dagger in his hand, 
improperly named Brutus; the 
colossal masks of Medusa; Bac- 
chus and Herculus. 

On the walls of the stairease, 
among sundry bas-reliefs, is that 
of the children of Niobe killed 
by Apollo. In the oval room are 
a bas-reliefs representing the car- 
ceres of a circus, and a faun. 

The cabinet contains bromse 
statues of Pallas, of the Famese 
Hercules, of Glycon, of Apollo 
Saurotonus, one of the most re- 
markable of the collection ; a small 
Osiris, a Serapis of green basalt, 



Hercules reposing ; vases of ala- 
baster and porphyry. 

In the third room, over the 
chimney, is the profile of Anti- 
nous, celebrated for the beauty 
of its execution. The gallery, or- 
namented with eight pilasters in- 
laid with mosaic, and ten with 
different sorts of marble, con- 
tains bas-reliefs of Hercules in 
the garden of the Hesperides, of 
Daedalus and Icarus, Alexander 
and Bucephalus, Marcus Aurelius 
with Faustina under the figure 
of Peace. The painting on the 
roof, a celebrated work of Mengs, 
represents Apollo and Mnemo- 
syne on Parnassus, surrounded 
by the Muses. The chiaro-oscuri 
are by Lapiccola. In the room 
a4joining is a Greek bas-relief of 
Eurydice bidding an eternal fare- 
well to Orpheus at the moment 
that Mercury reconducts her to 
the infernal regions. 

In the hall of the Caryadites 
are: a vase of a beautiful form; 
the celebrated Caryatides, inscri- 
bed with the names of Criton and 
Nicolaos, Athenian sculptors , two 
otherCaryatides of excellent work- 
manship; the busts of Lucius Ve- 
nis, Vespasian, and Titus; a co- 
lossal mask of Silenus. 

The gallery on the ground floor 
contains several hermes of The- 
raistocles, Epicurus, Alexander, 
Amilcar, Iteonidas, Masinissa, and 
Scipio; a celebrated Mercury, a 
statue of Faustina found near the 
forum of Nerva, Venus, a muse, 
a faun, and a priestess. 

Under the portico, supported 
by pilasters and twenty-eight co- 
lumns of different marbles, are 
statues of the hours and of se- 
veral RomRn emperors. In the 
porch of Juno are the statue of 
that goddess, two Caryatides, the 



42 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. THIRT DAY. 



of Nerva, The two Corinthian co- 
lumns, three parts under ground, 
called the Colomiacce, are nine 
and a half feet in circumference 
and twenty-nine in height They 
support a richly-worked entahla- 
ture. The bas-reliefs on the frieze 
representing the arts of Pallas 
are finely composed and executed. 
In the middle of the attic in the 
statue of Pallas. 

Forum of Nerva, — This forum, 
decorated with a temple to Nerva 
raised by Trajan, is supported by 
a large wall, composed of large 
blocks of peperino stone united 
by hooks ofhard wood. The style 
of this construction, so very dif- 
ferent from that adopted in the 
forum, leads to the presumption 
that it is anterior to Nerva by 
many centuries; of the different 
arches which led to this forum, 
one only remains, called Arco de' 
Pantani, horn the marshyfuature 
of the soil. 

Ai^oining this arch is the 

Temple of Nerva. — One of the 
finest edifices of Rome for its co- 
lossal dimensions, the beauty of 
the architecture and the richness 
of its ornaments. All that remains 
of it is a part of the portico, con- 
sisting of three columns sixteen 
and a half feet in circumference 
and forty-five in height, and a 
pilaster supporting the architrave, 
which is finely ornamented. 

The front of the temple was ex- 
posed to the west, and, according 
to Palladio, had eight columns, 
and the side porticoes nine, ex- 
clusive of the pilaster next the 
wall. The excavations of 1821 
have proved that the lateral por- 
ticoes rested on a podium placed 
above three elevated steps. 

Opposite this building were 
ruins belonging to the temple of 
Pallas, which in the seventeenth 



century were employed in the 
construction of other buildings. 

Near tiie church of St Maria in 
Campo, under the Quirinal, are 
remains of a building, said to be 
the thermae of Paulus Emilius, 
though more probably they may 
date from Trajan, as the construc- 
tion res^Dibles by its regularity 
the monuments erected under that 
emperor. 

Forum of Trajan., — This co- 
lumn, the finest monument of the 
kind remaining of ancient times, 
was dedicated to Trajan by the 
Roman senate and people after 
the conquest of Dacia. It is of 
the Doric order, and is composed 
of thirty-four blocks of Carrara 
marble, placed one over the other, 
and united by bronze hooks. The 
pedestal is formed of eight blocks, 
the column of twenty-three, the 
capital and pedestal of the sta- 
tue of one. The height from the 
base to the top of tiie statue is 
132 feet Dividing it into sepa- 
rate parts, the grand pedestal is 
fotirteen feet high, its base three ; 
the column, its base and capital, 
ninety; the pedestal of the sta- 
the fourteen, and the statue eleven. 
The lower diameter is eleven feet 
two inches, the upper ten feet. In 
the interior 6i the column is a 
winding staircase of 182 steps. 
On the summit formerly stood a 
bronze gilt statue of Trajan, which 
Constantius 11 sent to Constanti- 
nople in the year 663. SextusV 
replaced it by the statue of St 
Peter. The large pedestal is co- 
vered with arms, eagles, and gar- 
lands of oak leaves; the whole 
of exceUent sculpture and com- 
position. 

On the bas-reliefs, represent- 
ing the two campaigns of Trajan 
against Decebalus, kii^ of Dacia, 
who was finally vanquished in 



RQMAN STATES. — ^KOMS. TURD DAY. 



• 43 



101, are more tban 2,500 male 
figiures, independently of horses, 
arms, machines of war, military 
ensi^s, and trophies, each figure 
being about two feet high. These 
bas-reliefs hare always been con- 
sidered as master-pieces of sculp- 
ture, and have served as models 
to Raphael, to GiuUo Romano, 
and otiber great artists. 

The magnificence of the co- 
lumn corresponds with that of 
the forum, constructed by Apol- 
lodorus of Damascus. It was sur- 
rounded with porticoes of columns, 
supporting statues and bronze 
ornaments, with a basalic, a tem- 
ple, and the celebrated Ulpian 
tibrary. It was found in the last 
excavations that the column was 
placed in the centre of a small 
oblong court, seventy-six feet in 
length and fifty-six in width, paved 
with marble, having to the south 
the wall of the basilic, and on 
the three other sides a portico, 
composed of a double row of co- 
lumns. The library was divided 
into two parts, one for Grreek, 
the other for Latin works, which 
were afterwards removed by Dio- 
cletian to his thermae: remains 
of it have been found behind the 
two small porticoes, near the co- 
lumns. The basilic followed the 
direction from east to west, hav- 
ing its principal entrance to the 
south; tiie interior was divided 
by four rows of columns into ^ve 
naves, the pavement was com- 
posed of giallo antico and violet 
marble,the walls were covered with 
white marble, the roof with gilt 
bronze, and the five entrance steps 
of large blocks of giallo antico; 
fragments of the steps, the pa- 
vement, and of the granite co- 
Imnns belonging to the interior 
peristyle are still visible. Towards 
the column, the basilic was closed 



by a wall; it had three entrances, 
each decorated with a portico of 
four columns supporting an attic ; 
on the terrace above were a tri- 
umphal car and statues; a trium- 
phal arch led to the great square, 
situated to the south, and sur- 
rounded with sumptuous porticoes. 
It is probable that a sinnlar space 
existed at the opposite extremity 
behind the temple, so that what 
remains at present ma^ be esti- 
mated at about one-third of the 
surface of the forum, of which the 
whole length was 2000, and the 
breadth 650 feet. 

Amongst the equestrian statues 
raised on the spot was that of 
Trajan, in gilt bronze, placed be- 
fore the temple, which particularly 
attracted the attention of the Em- 
peror Constantius, when he visited 
Rome in the year 354. 

The iiyuries of time and the 
depredations of man ruined all 
these magnificent edifices, which 
were still entire in the year 600, 
even after the ravages of me Goths 
and Vandals. The fragments and 
inscriptions found in the last exca- 
vations are affixed to the walls. 

St Maria di Loreto, — This 
church, of octangular form, with 
a double cupola, was designed by 
Sangallo. Over the altar of the se- 
cond chapel is a fine statue of St 
Susanna, by Quesnoy. the Fleming, 
and over the high altar is a pain- 
ting by Pietro Perugino. 

The Colonna Palace was com- 
menced by Martin Y, and finished 
by the princes of the Colonna fa- 
mily. 

The apartment on the ground 
floor was painted by Gaspar Pons^ 
sin, Tempesta, Pomarancio, the 
Cavalier d^Arpino,&c. On thestair^ 
case is a colossal statue of a cap- 
tive king, and a bas-relief in por- 
phyry or the head of Medusa. 






44 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ft«XE. FOURTH DAY. 



In the hall adjoinmg the gal- 
lery are portraits by Titian, one 
of Luther and one of Calvin; others 
by Tintoretto ; a Guardian Angel 
and a Madonna, by Guercino; two 
Paul Veronese and the Resuscita- 
tion of Lazarus, by Parmigianino. 

The vestibule of the gallery con- 
tains several Landscapes by Pous- 
sin and Orizzonte, by Berghem, 
Svanevelt, Breughel, and Paul 
Brill; the gallery, and Assump- 
tion, by Rubens ; several portraits 
in the same picture by Giorgione ; 
a St Francis and St Sebastian, by 
Guido ; two St John, by Salvator 
Rosa; the Martyrdom of St Agnes, 
by Guercino; a Magdalen of An- 
nibal Caracci; a Holy Family vrith 
St Lucia, by Titian; the Shep- 
herds sleeping, by Nicolas Pous- 
sin; the Peace between the Ro- 
mans ans Sabines, by Dominico 
Chirlandajo. 

The palace communicates with 
the gardens on the declivity of 
the Quirinal, where two large n-ag- 
ments of a frontispiece of fine 
workmanship constitute the ruins 
of the temple of the Sun, or of 
Serapis. 

Santi Apostoli — This church, 
founded by Constantine, was re- 
newed in the interior at the begin- 
ning of the last century, on the 
design of F. Fontana. An antique 
bas-relief in the portico represents 
an eagle grasping a laurel crown. 
Opposite is the monument of Vol- 
pato, by Canova. 

On the roof of the middle nave 
Boccaccio has painted theTriumph 
of the Franciscan Order. The cha- 
pels are ornamented with pictu- 
res and columns; over the high al- 
tar is the Martyrdom of St Philip 
and St James, by Muratori. 

The tomb of Clement XIV, with 
'tatues of Clemency and Tem- 



Serance, is a celebrated work of 
anova. 

The chapel of St Francis was 
painted by Chiari. The Descent 
from the Cross, over the altar of 
the last chapel, by Francesco 
Manno. 

In the environs of this church 
were the "Forum Suarinm," the 
street of the "Cornelians," and the 
grand temple of the Sun, built by 
Aurelian. 

FOURTH DAY. 

FROM THE QUIRINAL TO THE 
MAUSOLEUM. 

The Quirinal. — In ancient times 
this hiU was named Agonalius or 
Agonius, from the Sabine word 
Agon, a hill; and subsequently 
Quirinal, from the temple of Qui- 
rinus, or from Cures, a Sabine 
city. Its circumference is 15,700 
feet, and its height above the le- 
vel of the sea 320. 

The present name of Monte 
Cavallo is derived from the groups 
of colossal men and horses said to 
represent Castor andPollux,which 
may be considered as master-pie- 
ces of Grecian sculpture, though 
of authors unknown; the inscrip- 
tions Phidias and Praxiteles not 
being anterior to the middle ages, 
these groups cannot be attributed 
to those celebrated artists. Pius VI 
placed between them the obelisk 
found near the mausoleum of Au- 
gustus, and Pius VII transferred 
here from the forum the large 
basin of oriental granite now used 
as a fountain. 

Papal Palace. — This palace 
was built by Gregory XIH, in 
1574, on the ruins of thermae of 
Constantine, and was successively 
enlarged under Sistus V, and se- 
veral other popes; Pius VII com- 
pleted its embellishments. 



BOMAN STATES. — ^ROME. FOVRTH DAT. 



4^ 



Near the chapel is an extensive 
hall paved with marbles of various 
kinds; the roof, richly sculptured, 
has a frieze painted by Lanfranc 
and Saraceni the Venetian. 

Over the chapel door is a bas- 
relief by Landini, representing Je- 
sus washing the feet of the Apost^ 
ties. The apartments are decorated 
with a St Peter and StPaulbyFra 
Bartolomeo ; a St Jerome,by Spag- 
noletto ; a Resurrection, by Van- 
dyke ; a Madonna of Guido; David 
and Saul, by Guercino. The fres- 
coes of the chapel allusive to the 
life of the Virgin, and the Annun- 
ciation over the altar, are beautiM 
compositions of Guido. 

In the other room are excellent 
works of modem artists; tlie frie- 
zes of Finelli representing ihe 
Triumps of Traian, and that of 
Alexander by Thorwaldsen. 

Palazzo Bospigliosi. — This pa- 
lace was built by Cardinal Sdpio 
Borghese on the ruins of the Con- 
Btantinian thermae, and is now 
possessed by the Kospigliosi fa- 
mily. 

The pavUlon of the garden is 
decorated with the Aurora of 
Guido, representing Apollo, under 
the figure of the Sun, seated in a 
car drawn by four horses abreast, 
and surrounded by seven nymphs 
allusive to the hours. The gran- 
deur of the composition, the per- 
fection of the design and colour- 
ing, have given tms painting a 
bigh celebrity. The friezes round 
the room,representing theTriumph 
of Love and the Triumphal Pomp 
of Virtue, are by Tempesta, tJie 
landscapes by Paul Brill 

In the adjoining chambers are : 
a fine antique bust ofScipioAfri- 
canus; Adam and Eve in Para- 
dise; the Triumph of David, by 
Dominichino ; the Apostles, by Ru- 
bens; Sampson overturning the 



Temple, by Ludovico Caracci, and 
several ancient busts. 

St Silvester. --This church con- 
tains several paintings of merit* 
In the second chapel a Giacomo 
Palraa ; an Assumption, by Scipio 
Gaetani; the David dancing be- 
fore the Ark, Juditli showing the 
head of Holofemes to the Bethu» 
lians, Esther fainting in the pre- 
sence of Assuenis, 3ie Queen of 
Sheba seated on the throne wiHi 
Solomon, are by Dominichino. The 
side walls of one of the chapek 
were painted by Mathurin and Po- 
lydor Caravaggio, the roof by the 
Cavalier d'Arpino. 

The Villa Aldobrandini,8ituated 
near this church, possesses several 
statues and other ancient monu- 
ments. 

In the vicinity of this villa are 
the churches of St Dominick and 
Sixtus and of St Catherine of 
Sienne, both decorated wiUi pi- 
lasters of the Corinthian order. 
In the court of the monastery, 
attached to this latter church, a 
brick tower was raised in the year 
1210, by Pandolfo Suburra, the 
senator of Rome. The tales re- 
specting this tower, that it was 
built by Augustus, and that Nero 
viewed from it the burning of 
Rome, are inventions of the middle 
ages. 

The churches of St Agatha 
and St Bernardino of Sienne are 
on the declivity of the hill lea- 
ding to the valley which sepa- 
rates the Quirinal from the Vi- 
minal, called in ancient times 
^'Vallis Quirinalis," from the tem- 
ple dedicated to Romulus under 
the name of Quirinus. 

Opposite the diurch of StVi- 
talis, founded in 416, are sub- 
structions of theViminal hill: on 
this are now placed the churdi 



46 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. FOURTH DAY. 



of St Lorenzo in Paneperna, and 
barracks. 

8t Denis — This church and 
monastery, built in 1619, are now 
occupied by French nuns follo- 
wing the rule of St Basil; they 
take charge of the oducation of 
young females. Though plain, the 
architecture is remarkable for its 
elegance. Over an altar on the 
left is a mkaculous image of the 
Virgin, which belonged to St Gre- 
gory the Great The pictures of 
St Denis and St Louis are by 
Lebrun; the "Ecce homo" by 
Luca Giordano. 

The Quattro Fontane, so cal- 
led from the fountains at the four 
angles, offer views of the obe- 
lisks of St Maria Maggiore, of 
Monte Cavallo, and of the Tri- 
nita de' Monti. 

St Charles. — The front has two 
orders of columns, and the court 
of the house adjoining has two 
porticoes, one above the other, 
supported by twenty-four columns. 

St Andrew's, built in 1678 for 
the noviciate of the Jesuits, by 
Prince Pamphili, and embellished 
with marble columns and paint- 
ings. In the chapel of St Fran- 
cis Xavier are three pictures by 
Boccaccio. The high altar piece 
is the Crucifixion of St Andrew, 
by Borgognone. Under the altar 
of the following chapel, the body 
of St Stanislaus is preserved in 
an urn of lapis lazuli, 

St Bemardo,—ln 1698 the Coun- 
tess Sforza changed into a church 
one of the two round buildings 
situated at the southern angles 
of the thermae of Diocletian, sup- 
posed to have been the tepidaria 
or calidaria, or rooms for tepid 
or hot baths. Some ruins of the 
theatre are still seen in the gar- 
den behind the church. 

The Fountain of Aqua Felice, 



erected by Sixtus V on the de- 
sings of Dominico Fontana, is di- 
vided into three arcades by two 
breccia and two granite Ionic co- 
lumns. 

The central arcade contains the 
colossal statue of Moses striking 
the rock; the lateral arcadegfbas- 
reliefs of Aaron coiiducting the 
Hebrews to the miraculous spring, 
and Gideon choosing soldiers to 
open the passage of the river. 
An abundant supply of water falls 
into three marble basins. 

The Thermae of Diocletian, con- 
structed by the emperors Diocle- 
tian and Maximian, cover a space 
of 1,069 feet in length and bre- 
adth^ or an enclosure of 4,276 
feet in circuit. These immense ther- 
mae, which according to Olympio- 
dorus afforded sufficient room for 
8,200 bathers, were of a square 
form, closed at each of the south- 
west angles by circular halls, 
which stiU exist, one in the church 
of St Bernard, the other in a gra- 
nary near the entrance of the villa 
Massimi. Decorated with porti- 
coes, halls, groves, and walks, these 
thermae also contained schools of 
science and of athletic exercises, 
and a magnificent hall called the 
Pinacotheca, which has been trans- 
formed into the church of 

St Maria Degli Angeli. — The 
Pinacotheca, or principal hall of 
Diocletian's baths, was changed 
into a church by order of Pius IV, 
under the direction of Michael 
Angelo Buonarotti, who reduced 
it to the form of a Greek cross, 
and rendered it one of the finest 
churches in Rome. The pavement 
having been raised six feet, on 
account of the humidity of the 
spot, the bases and a part of the 
granite columns are under ground. 

In 1740, Vanvitelli reduced the 
church to its present state; he 



MMAN STATES.— ROME. FOniTH BAI. 



47 



placed the altar of the blessed 
Nicholas Albergatti on the spot 
which had before been occnpied 
by the grand entrance; the late- 
ral door became the chief en- 
trance, and he added eight brick 
columns covered with stucco to 
the nave supported by eight of 
real granite. 

The present entrance is by a 
round vestibule of the same size 
as the church of St Bernard, and 
WAS used formerly as one of the 
halls. At the sides are the tombs 
of Carlo Maratta and of Salvator 
Bosa, of cardinals Parisio and Al- 
ciato. On the right is the chapel 
St Bruno, whose statue by Hou- 
don is near the entrance to the 
transversal nave, which is sup- 
ported by eight granite columns 
sixteen feet in circumference and 
forty-flve in height, comprising 
their base and capital The church 
is 336 feet long, seventy-four wide, 
and eighty-four in height 

The first picture on the right 
represents the Crucifixion of St 
Peter, by Ricciolini; the second, 
the fall of Simon the Magician: 
it is a copy of the original of 
Vanni existing at St Peter's. The 
altar piece of the following cha- 
pd is by Graziani^ the side paint- 
ings by Trevisani, and those of 
t^e roof by Biccherai and Maz- 
zetti. The St Peter restoring Ta- 
bitha to life is a copy from Bag- 
Uoni, the painting near it is an 
original by Mutian. 

In the nave of the high altar 
four large paintings cover the side 
walls; Sie first on the right, re- 
presenting the Presentation of the 
virgin at the Temple, is by Ro- 
manelli ; the second, the Martyr- 
dom of St Sebastian, is a classic 
work of Dominichino : the Baptism 
of Christ is by Carlo Maratta, and 



the Chastisement of Annanias and 
Sapphira by Pomarancio. 

Returning to the transversal 
nave, the painting of the Con- 
ception is by Bianchi; the St 
Bruno of the chapel by Odazzi, 
the side pictures by Trevisani, 
and the Evangelists by Procac- 
cini. The fall of Simon Magus by 
Battoni, and the St Basilius of 
Subleyras, adorn the opposite 
wall. In 1701 the meridian was 
traced in this church, with the 
signs of the zodiac composed of 
variegated marbles. 

The cloister, adorned with a 
square portico supported by 100 
travertine columns, was designed 
by Michael Angelo. 

Behind the baths was the ^*ag- 
ger'' of Servius Tullius, or the 
artificial rampart of earth de- 
fende by square blocks of vol- 
canic stone and a deep ditch. 
Beyond the rampart are remains 
of the Praetorian camp. Enclosed 
in the vineyard of the Jesuits 
named Macao, the external part 
of it is easily distinguished in 
following the line of walls to the 
right of Porta Pia. These ruins 
convey an accurate idea of the 
form of Roman camps. 

St Maria Delia Fittoria.— The 
interior of this church, built by 
Paul V in 1605, is enriched with 
Sicilian jasper, and contains a 
St Francis in the second chapel, 
with paintings on the side walls 
by Dominichino. In the sumptuous 
chapel of St Theresa is the sta- 
tue of the saint in an ecstacy of 
divine love. The Holy Trinity, 
over the sdtar of tiie following 
chapel, is by Guercino^ the Cru- 
cifixion by Guido Rem. 

PortaPia, — This gate replaced, 
in 1364, the Komentana gate, so 
called from Nomentum, a Latin 
town situated twelve miles from 



46 



eENTRAL ITALY. — BOME. FOURTH DM. 



Bome. Its present name is demed 
from Pius rVjWho omameiited the 
internal part on the designs of Mi- 
chael Angelo. Near the original 
gate is the tomh of QuintusHate- 
rius, the praetor, a personage of 
note at the time of Tiberius. 

On tiie right of the road are 
the villa Patrizi, in a delightful 
situation; Lucemari, formerly Bo- 
lognetti; Massimi, and Torlonia. 
The latter, y.hen the embellish- 
ments now in progress are com- 
pleted, will be one of the most 
splendid villas in the environs of 
Roma 

St Agnes. — This church was 
built by Constantine on the spot 
where the body of St Agnes was 
found. A marble staircase of forty- 
five steps, on the walls of which 
are numerous sepulchral inscrip- 
tions, leads to the church, divided 
into three naves by sixteen anti- 
que columns of different kinds of 
marble; fifteen smaller columns 
support the upper portico and 
four of porphyry surround the 
altar, composed of precious 
marble, where the body of the 
saint is laid. Around the tribune 
is a mosaic of the time of Ho- 
norius I, and on the altar to the 
right a head of our Saviour by 
Buonarotti. This church preser- 
ves the form of the civil basilics 
of the Romans. 

St Conatanfia. — Some mosaic 
works representing genii gathe- 
ring grapes induced antiquarians 
to consider this church as an an- 
cient temple of Bacchus, but it 
is known that these ornaments 
were frequently used in early Chri- 
stian buildings. The present con- 
struction being of the time when 
art had declined, and the plan 
not agreeing with that of ancient 
temples, it is better to adopt the 
asttement of Anastasius and Am- 



mianus Marcelliuiis, that Con- 
stantine built this baptistery of a 
spherical form for the baptism 
of the two Gonstantias, his sister 
ai^d daughter. 

A sarcophagus of porphyry 
found on tiie spot, having the 
same svmbols as those on the 
roof, of the same style and form 
as that of St Helen, would seem 
to indicate that it served as a 
sepulchre of the Constantine fa- 
mily. Both these sarcophagi were 
removed by order of Pius VI to 
the Vatican museum. 

The bodies of Constantia and 
St Emerentiana are placed under 
the middle altar; twenty*four gra- 
nite columns form the interior 
peristyle; the external corridor 
is nearly destroyed. 

Some walls of an oblong form, 
improperly termed the hippo- 
drome of Constantine, belonged, 
as the late excavations have pro- 
ved, to a Christian burying ground 
placed between the two churches. 

A mile beyond these ruins is 
the Nomentan bridge thrown over 
the Anio, and on the other side. 

Tlie Mons Sacer. — The ple- 
beians oppressed by the patri- 
cians withdrew to this spot, which 
they fortified, in the year of Rome 
361. The senate sent deputies, 
priests, and the vestals to per- 
suade them to return, though to 
no purpose. They yielded to Me- 
nenius Agrippa, wnose fable of 
the limbs of the human body is 
related by Livy. The tribunes were 
then instituted; but being abo- 
lished by the decemvirs, the 
people withdrew a second time 
to this spot, when a law was 
passed, rendered sacred by an 
oath, tnat no revolt should ever 
be attempted against the tribunes. 

This lull, hitherto called „ye- 



RMiAN STATES. — ROHfi. FOURTH &AT« 



49 



fia" was thenceforth deii(»ninated 
Mons Sacer. 

At the distance of another mile, 
between the Nomentan and Sala- 
rian ways, in a spot called Yi^e 
Nnove, are the ruins of the villa 
of Phaon, in which Nero sought 
a reAige and pnt an end to his 
days. The position of this villa 
is determined by the testimony 
of Suetonins. 

Porta Salaria — "When Hono- 
rins enlarged the walls the Porta 
Salaria was substituted to the 
CoUina of Servius. In 409 Alaric, 
king of the Goths, entered Rome 
by this gate, through which the 
Gauls had also penetrated in the 
times of the republic. 

Vtlla Alhani. — This villa was 
built in the middle of the last 
century by Cardinal Albani, who 
formea in it, under the direction 
of Winkelman, a large collection 
of statues, busts, bas-reliefs, sar- 
cophagi, and other antique mo- 
numents. 

In the vestibule are bas-reliefs 
in stucco, copied from the anti- 
que: a statue of a young man, 
said to be C. Caesar, son of 
Agrippa; a Roman lady under 
the form of Ceres; a Nymph; a 
slave with a dagger in his hand, 
improperly named Brutus; the 
colossal masks of Medusa; Bac- 
chus and Herculus. 

On the waUs of the stairease, 
among sundry bas-reliefs, is that 
of the children of Niobe killed 
by Apollo. In the oval room are 
a bas-reliefs representing the car- 
ceres of a circus, and a faun. 

The cabinet contains bronze 
statues of Pallas, of the Famese 
Hercules, of Glycon, of Apollo 
Saurotonus, one of the most re- 
markable of the collection ; a smsJl 
Osiris, a Serapis of green basalt, 



Hercules reposing ; vases of ala- 
baster and porphyry. 

In the third room, over the 
chimney, is the profile of Anti- 
nous, celebrated for the beauty 
of its executioa The gallery, or- 
namented with eight pilasters in- 
laid with mosaic, and ten with 
different sorts of marble, con- 
tains bas-reliefs of Hercules in 
the garden of the Hesperides, of 
Daedalus and Icarus, Alexander 
and Bucephalus, Marcus Aurelius 
with Faustina under the figure 
of Peace. The painting on the 
roof, a celebrated work of Mengs, 
represents Apollo and Mnemo- 
syne on Parnassus, surrounded 
by the Muses. The chjaro-oscuri 
are by Lapiccola. bi the room 
adjoining is a Greek bas-relief of 
Eurydice bidding an eternal fare- 
well to Orpheus at the nmment 
that Mercury reconducts her to 
the infernal regions. 

In the hall of the Caryadites 
are: a vase of a beautiful form; 
the celebrated Caryatides, inscri- 
bed with the names of Criton and 
Nicolaos, Athenian sculptors, two 
otherCaryatides of excellent work- 
manship; the busts of Lucius Ve- 
nis, Vespasian, and Titus; a co- 
lossal mask of Silenus. 

The gallery on the ground floor 
contains several hermes of The- 
mistocles, Epicurus, Alexander, 
Amilcar, Leonidas, Masinissa, and 
Scipio; a celebrated Mercuiy, a 
statue of Faustina found near the 
forum of Nerva, Venus, a muse, 
a faun, and a priestess. 

Under the portico, supported 
by pilasters and twenty-eight co- 
lumns of different marbles, are 
statues of the hours and of se- 
veral Romfin emperors. In the 
porch of Juno are the statue of 
that goddess, two Caryatides, tlie 



^ 



CENTRAL fTALT. — ROME. TBIRT DAY. 



of Nerva. The two Corinthian co- 
lumns, three parts under ground, 
called the Colonnacce, are nine 
and a half feet in circumference 
and twenty-nine in height They 
support a richly-worked entabla- 
ture. The bas-reliefs on the frieze 
representing the arts of Pallas 
are finely composed and executed. 
In the middle of the attic in tiie 
statue of Pallas. 

Forum of Nerva, — This forum, 
decorated with a temple to Nerva 
raised by Trajan, is supported by 
a large wall, composed of large 
blocks of peperino stone united 
by hooks of hard wood. The style 
of this construction, so very dif- 
ferent from that adopted in the 
forum, leads to the presumption 
that it is anterior to Nerva by 
many centuries; of the different 
arches which led to this forum, 
one only remains, called Arco de' 
Pantani, from the marshy mature 
of the soil. 

Adjoining this arch is the 

Temple of Nerva, — One of the 
finest edifices of Rome for its co- 
lossal dimensions, the beauty of 
the architecture and the richness 
of its ornaments. All that remains 
of it is a part of the portico, con- 
sisting of three columns sixteen 
and a half feet in circumference 
and forty-five in height, and a 
pilaster supporting the architrave, 
which is finely ornamented. 

The front of the temple was ex- 
posed to the west, and, according 
to Palladio, had eight cotunms, 
and the side porticoes nine, ex- 
clusive of the pilaster next the 
wall. The excavations of 1821 
have proved that the lateral por- 
ticoes rested on a podium placed 
above three elevated steps. 

Opposite this building were 
ruins belonging to the temple of 
Pallas, which in the seventeenth 



century were employed in the 
construction of other buildings. 

Near the church of St Maria in 
Campo, under the Quirinal, are 
remains of a building, said to be 
the thermae of Paulus Emilius, 
though more probably they may 
date from Trajan, as the construc- 
tion resembles by its regularity 
the monuments erected under that 
emperor. 

Forum of Trajan. — This co- 
lumn, the finest monument of the 
kind remaining of ancient times, 
was dedicated to Trajan by the 
Roman senate and people after 
the conquest of Dacia. It is of 
the Doric order, and is composed 
of thirty-four blocks of Carrara 
marble, placed one over the other, 
and united by bronze hooks. The 
pedestal is formed of eight blocks, 
the column of twenty-three, the 
capital and pedestal of the sta- 
tue of one. The height from the 
base to the top of the statue is 
132 feet Dividing it into sepa- 
rate parts, the grand pedestal is 
fourteen feet high, its base three; 
the column, its base and capital, 
ninety; the pedestal of the sta- 
the fourteen, and the statue eleven. 
The lower diameter is eleven feet 
two inches, the upper ten feet. Li 
the interior 6i l&e column is a 
winding staircase of 182 steps. 
On the summit formerly stood a 
bronze gilt statue of Tra|an,which 
Constantius 11 sent to Constanti- 
nople in the year 663. Sextus Y 
replaced it by the statue of St 
Peter. The large pedestal is co- 
vered with arms, eagles, and gar- 
lands of oak leaves; the whole 
of excellent sculpture and com- 
position. 

On the bas-reliefs, represent- 
ing the two campaigns of Trajan 
against Decebalus, king of Dacia, 
who was finally vanquished in 



MHAN STATES. — ^ROME. TIIRD BAT. 



43 



101, are more tiban 2,500 male 
figures, independently of horses, 
arms, ma^nes of war, military 
ensi^s, and trophies, each figure 
being about two feet high. These 
bas-reliefs have always been con- 
sidered as master-pieces of sculp- 
ture, and have served as models 
to Raphael, to GiuUo Romano, 
and o&er great artists. 

The magnificence of the co- 
lumn corresponds with that of 
the forum, constructed by Apol- 
lodorus of Damascus. It was sur- 
rounded with porticoes of columns, 
supporting statues and bronze 
ornaments, with a basalic, a tem- 
ple, and the celebrated Ulpian 
Ubrary. It was found in the last 
excavations that the column was 
placed in the centre of a small 
oblong court, seventy-six feet in 
length and fifty-six in width, paved 
with marble, having to the south 
the wall of the basilic, and on 
the three other sides a portico, 
composed of a double row of co- 
lumns. The4ibrary was divided 
into two parts, one for Grreek, 
the odier for Latin works, which 
were afterwards removed by Dio- 
cletian to his thermae: remains 
of it have been found behind the 
two small porticoes, near the co- 
lumns. The basilic followed the 
direction from east to west, hav- 
ing its principal entrance to the 
south; die interior was divided 
by four rows of columns into five 
naves, the pavement was com- 
posed of giallo antico and violet 
marble,1he walls were covered with 
white marble, the roof with gilt 
bronze, and the five entrance steps 
of large blocks of giallo antico; 
fragments of the steps, the pa- 
vement, and of the granite co- 
lumns belonging to the interior 
peristyle are stiU visible. Towards 
the column, the basilic was closed 



by a wall; it had three entrances, 
each decorated with a portico of 
four columns supporting an attic; 
on the terrace above were a tri- 
umphal car and statues; a trium- 
phal arch led to the great square, 
situated to the south, and sur- 
rounded with sumptuous porticoes. 
It is probable that a similar space 
existed at the opposite extremity 
behind the temple, so that what 
remains at present may be esti- 
mated at about one-third of the 
surface of the forum, of which the 
whole length was 2000, and the 
breadth 650 feet 

Amongst the equestrian statues 
raised on the spot was that of 
Trajan, in gilt bronze, placed be- 
fore the temple, which particularly 
attracted the attention of the Em- 
peror Constantius, when he visited 
Rome in the year 854. 

The ii\juries of time and the 
depredations of man ruined all 
these magnificent edifices, which 
were still entire in the year 600, 
even after the ravages of me Goths 
and Vandals. The fragments and 
inscriptions found in the last exca- 
vations are affixed to the walls. 

St Maria di Loreto, — This 
church, of octangular form, with 
a double cupola, was designed by 
Sangallo. Over the altar of the se- 
cond chapel is a fine statue of St 
Susanna, by Quesnoy, the Fleming, 
and over the high altar is a pain- 
ting by Pietro Perugino. 

The Chlonna Palace was com- 
menced by Martin Y, and finished 
by the princes of the Colonna fa- 
mily. 

The apartment on the ground 
floor was painted by Gaspar Pons- 
sin, Tempesta, Pomarancio, the 
Cavalier d^Arpino,&c. On the stair- 
case is a colossal statue of a cap- 
tive king, and a bas-relief in por- 
phyry of the head of Medusa. 



44 



CENTRAL ITALY. — R»ME. FOURTH DAY. 



In the hall adjoining the gal- 
lery are portraits by Titian, one 
of Luther and one of Galyin; others 
by Tintoretto ; a Guardian Angel 
and a Madonna, by Guercino; two 
Paul Veronese and the Resuscita- 
tion of Lazarus, by Parmigianino. 

The vestibule of the gallery con- 
tains several Landscapes by Fous- 
sin and Orizzonte, by Berghem, 
Svanevelt, Breughel, and Paul 
Brill; the gallery, and Assump- 
tion, by Rubens ; several portraits 
in the same picture by Giorgione ; 
a St Francis and St Sebastian, by 
Guide ; two St John, by Salvator 
Rosa ; the Martyrdom of St Agnes, 
by Guercino; a Magdalen of An- 
nibal Caracci ; a Holy Family with 
St Lucia, by Titian; the Shep- 
herds sleeping, by Nicolas Pous- 
sin; the Peace between the Ro- 
mans ans Sabines, by Dominico 
Chirlandajo. 

The palace communicates with 
the gardens on the declivity of 
the Quirinal, where two large frag- 
ments of a frontispiece of fine 
workmanship constitute the ruins 
of the temple of the Sun, or of 
Serapis. 

Santi Apoatoli — This church, 
founded by Constantine, was re- 
newed in the interior at the begin- 
ning of the last century, on the 
design of F. Fontana. An antique 
bas-relief in the portico represents 
an eagle grasping a laurel crown. 
Opposite is Ae monument of Vol- 
pato, by Canova. 

On the roof of the middle nave 
Boccaccio has painted theTriumph 
of the Franciscan Order. The cha- 
pels are ornamented with pictu- 
res and columns ; over the hi^h al- 
tar is the Martyrdom of St Philip 
and St James, by Muratori. 

The tomb of Clement XIV, with 
the statues of Clemency and Tem- 



perance, is a celebrated work of 
Canova. 

The chapel of St Francis was 
painted by Chiari. The Descent 
from the Cross, over the altar of 
the last chapel, by Francesco 
Manno. 

In the environs of this church 
were the "Forum Suarium," the 
street of the "Cornelians," and the 
grand temple of the Sun, built by 
Aurelian. 

. FOURTH DAY. 

FROM THE QUIRINAL TO THE 
MAUSOLEUM. 

The Quirinal. — In ancient times 
this hill was named Agonalius or 
Agonius, from the Sabine word 
Agon, a hill; and subsequently 
Quirinal, from the temple of Qui- 
rinus, or from Cures, a Sabine 
city. Its circumference is 15,700 
feet, and its height above the le- 
vel of the sea 320. 

The present name of Monte 
Cavallo is derived from the groups 
of colossal men and horses said to 
represent Castor and Pollux,which 
may be considered as master-pie- 
ces of Grecian sculpture, though 
of authors unknown; the inscrip- 
tions Phidias and Praxiteles not 
being anterior to the middle ages, 
tiiese groups cannot be attributed 
to those celebrated artists. Pius VI 
placed between them the obelisk 
found near the mausoleum of Au- 
gustus, and Pius VH transferred 
here from the forum the large 
basin of oriental granite now used 
as a fountain. 

Papal Palace. — This palace 
was built by Gregory XIII, in 
1574, on the ruins of thermae of 
Constantine, and was successively 
enlarged under Sistus V, and se- 
veral other popes; Pius VH com- 
pleted its embeDishments. 



lOMAN STATES. — lOME. FOVIITH DAT* 



41^ 



Near the chapel is an extensive 
hall paved with marbles of various 
kinds; the roof, richly sculptured, 
has a frieze painted by Lanfranc 
and Saraceni the Venetian. 

Over the chapel door is a bas- 
relief by Landini, representing Je- 
sus washing the feet of the Apost- 
tles. The apartments are decorated 
with a St Peter and StPaulbyFra 
Bartolomeo ; a St Jerome,by Spag- 
noletto; a Resurrection, by Van- 
dyke ; a Madonna of Guido; David 
and Saul, by Guercino. The fres- 
coes of the chapel allusive to the 
life of the Virgin, and the Annun- 
ciation over the altar, are beautiful 
compositions of Guido. 

in the other room are excellent 
works of modem artists ; the frie- 
zes of Finelli representing tide 
Triumps of Tr^'an, and that of 
Alexander by Thorwaldsen. 

Palazzo Rospigliosi. — This pa- 
lace was built by Cardinal Scipio 
Borghese on the ruins of the Con- 
Btantinian thermae, and is now 
possessed by the Rospigliosi fa- 
mily. 

The pavilion of the garden is 
decorated with the Aurora of 
Guido, representing Apollo, under 
the figure of the Sun, seated in a 
car drawn by four horses abreast, 
and surrounded by seven nymphs 
allusive to the hours. The gran- 
deur of the composition, the per- 
fection of the design and colour- 
ing, have given this painting a 
high celebrity. The friezes round 
the room,representing theTriumph 
of Love and the Triumphal Pomp 
of Virtue, are by Tempesta, the 
landscapes by Paul BrilL 

In the adjoining cliambers are : 
a fine antique bust of Scipio Afri- 
canus; Adam and Eve in Para- 
dise; the Triumph of David, by 
Dominichino ; the Apostles, by Ru- 
bens; Sampson overturning the 



Temple, by Ludovico Caracci, and 
several ancient busts. 

8t Silvester. — This church con- 
tains several paintings of merit. 
In the second chapel a Giacomo 
Palma ; an Assumption, by Scipio 
Gaetani; the David dancing be- 
fore the Ark, Juditli showing the 
head of Holofemes to the Bethu- 
Hans, Esther fainting in the pre- 
sence of Assuerus, the Queen of 
Sheba seated on the throne with 
Solomon, are by Dominichino. The 
side walls of one of the chapels 
were painted by Mathurin and Po- 
lydor Caravaggio, the roof by the 
Cavalier d'Arpino. 

The Villa Aldobrandini,situated 
near this church, possesses several 
statues and other ancient monu- 
ments. 

In the vicini^ of this villa are 
the churches of StDominickand 
Sixtus and of St Catherine of 
Sienne, both decorated with pi- 
lasters of the Corinthian order. 
In the court of the monastery, 
attached to this latter church, a 
brick tower was raised in the year 
1210, by Pandolfo Suburra, tibe 
senator of Rome. The tales re- 
specting this tower, that it was 
built by Augustus, and that Nero 
viewed from it the buminff of 
Rome, are inventions of the middle 
ages. 

The churches of St Agatha 
and St Bernardino of Sienne are 
on the declivity of the hill lea- 
ding to the valley which sepa- 
rates the Quirinal from the Vi- 
minal, called in ancient times 
"Vailis Quirinalis," from the tem- 
ple dedicated to Romulus under 
the name of Quirinus. 

Opposite the diurch of StVi- 
talis, founded in 416, are sub- 
structions of theViminal hill: on 
this are now placed the churcli 



46 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. fOURTR DAY. 



of St Lorenzo in Paneperna, and 
barracks. 

St Denis — This church and 
monastery, built in 1619, are now 
occupied by French nuns follo- 
wing the rule of St Basil; they 
take charge of the education of 
young females. Though plain, the 
architecture is remarkable for its 
elegance. Over an altar on the 
left is a miraculous image of the 
Virgin, which belonged to St Gre- 
gory the Great. The pictures of 
St Denis and St Louis are by 
Lebrun; the "Ecce homo" by 
Luca Giordano. 

The Quattro Fontane, so cal- 
led from the fountains at the four 
angles, offer views of the obe- 
lisks of St Maria Maggiore, of 
Monte Cavallo, and of the Tri- 
nita de' Monti. 

St Charles. — The front has two 
orders of columns, and the court 
of the house adjoining has two 
porticoes, one above the other, 
supported by twenty-four columns. 

St And/rew's^ built in 1678 for 
the noviciate of the Jesuits, by 
Prince Pamphili, and embellished 
with marble columns and paint- 
ings. In the chapel of St Fran- 
cis Xavier are three pictures by 
Boccaccio. The high altar piece 
is the Crucifixion of St Andrew, 
by Borgognone. Under the altar 
of the following chapel, the body 
of St Stanislaus is preserved in 
an urn of lapis lazuli, 

St Bernardo,— "hi 1 598 the Coun- 
tess Sforza changed into a church 
one of the two round buildings 
situated at the southern angles 
of the thermae of Diocletian, sup- 
posed to have been the tepidaria 
or calidaria, or rooms for tepid 
or hot baths. Some ruins of the 
theatre are still seen in the gar- 
den behind the church. 

Tlie Fountain of Aqua Felice^ 



erected by Sixtus V on the de- 
sings of Dominico Fontana, is di- 
vided into three arcades by two 
breccia and two granite Ionic co- 
lumns. 

The central arcade contains the 
colossal statue of Moses striking 
the rock; the lateral arcadefifbas- 
reliefs of Aaron coxiducting the 
Hebrews to the miraculous spring, 
and Gideon choosing soldiers to 
open the passage of the river. 
An abundant supply of water falls 
into three marble basins. 

The Thermae of Diocletian, con- 
structed by the emperors Diocle- 
tian and Maximian, cover a space 
of 1,069 feet in length and bre- 
adth, or an enclosure of 4,276 
feet in circuit. These immense ther- 
mae, which according to Olympio- 
dorus afforded sufficient room for 
3,200 bathers, were of a square 
form, closed at each of the south- 
west angles by circular halls, 
which still exist, one in the church 
of St Bernard, the other in a gra- 
nary near the entrance of the villa 
Massimi. Decorated with porti- 
coes, halls, groves, and walks, these 
thermae also contained schools of 
science and of athletic exercises, 
and a magnificent hall called the 
Pinacotheca, which has been trans- 
formed into the church of 

St Ma/ria Degli Angeli. — The 
Pinacotheca, or principal hall of 
Diocletian's baths, was changed 
into a church by order of Pius IV, 
under the direction of Michael 
Angelo Buonarotti, who reduced 
it to the form of a Greek cross, 
and rendered it one of the finest 
churches in Rome. The pavement 
having been raised six feet, on 
account of the humidity of the 
spot, the bases and a part of the 
granite columns are under ground. 

In 1740, Vanvitelli reduced the 
church to its present state; he 



MMAN STATES.— ROME. FOURTH BAY. 



47 



placed the altar of the blessed 
Nicholas Albergatti on the spot 
which had before been occupied 
by the grand entrance; the late- 
ral door became the chief en- 
trance, and he added eight brick 
columns covered with stucco to 
the nave supported by eight of 
real granite. 

The present entrance is by a 
round vestibule of the same size 
as the church of St Bernard, and 
was used formerly as one of the 
halls. At the sides are the tombs 
of Carlo Maratta and of Salvator 
Bosa, of cardinals Pansio and Al- 
ciato. On the right is the chapel 
St Bruno, whose statue by Hon- 
don is near the entrance to the 
transversal nave, which is sup- 
ported by eight granite columns 
sixteen feet in circumference and 
forty-flve in height, comprising 
their base and capital. The church 
is 386 feet long, seventy-four wide, 
and eighty-foiu: in height. 

Tlie first picture on the right 
represents the Crucifixion of St 
Peter, by Ricciolini; the second, 
the fall of Simon the Magician: 
it is a copy of the original of 
Vanni existing at St Peter's. The 
altar piece of the following cha- 
pd is by Graziani^ the side paint- 
ings by Trevisam, and those of 
the roof by Biccherai and Maz- 
zetti. The St Peter restoring Ta- 
bitiia to life is a copy from Bag- 
lioni, the painting near it is an 
original by Mutian. 

Tn the nave of the high altar 
four larffe paintings cover the side 
wsJls; uie first on the right, re- 
presenting the Presentation of the 
Virgin at the Temple, is by Ro- 
manelli ; the second, the Martyr- 
dom of St Sebastian, is a classic 
work of Dominichino : the Baptism 
of Christ is by Carlo Maratta, and 



the Chastisement of Annanias and 
Sapphira by Pomarancio. 

Returning to the transversal 
nave, the painting of the Con- 
ception is by Bianchi; the St 
Bruno of the chapel by Odazzi, 
the side pictures by Trevisani, 
and the Evangelists by Procac- 
cini. The fall of Simon Magus by 
Battoni, and the St Basilius of 
Subleyras, adorn the opposite 
wall. In 1701 the meridian was 
traced in this church, with the 
signs of the zodiac composed of 
variegated marbles. 

The cloister, adorned with a 
square portico supported by 100 
travertine columns, was designed 
by Michael Angelo. 

Behind the baths was the ^*ag- 
ger" of Servius Tullius, or the 
artificial rampart of earth de- 
fende by square blocks of vol- 
canic stone and a deep ditch. 
Beyond the rampart are remains 
of the Praetorian camp. Enclosed 
in the vineyard of the Jesuits 
named Macao, the external part 
of it is easily distinguished in 
following the line ofwallstothe 
right of Porta Pia. These ruins 
convey an accurate idea of the 
form of Roman camps. 

St Maria Delia Firtori a.— The 
interior of this church, built by 
Paul V in 1605, is enriched with 
Sicilian jasper, and contains a 
St Francis in the second chapel, 
with paintings on the side walls 
by Dominichino. In the sumptuous 
chapel of St Theresa is the sta- 
tue of the saint in an ecstaey of 
divine love. The Holy Trinity, 
over the altar of the following 
chapel, is by Guercino^ the Cru- 
cifixion by Guido Rem. 

PorfaPm.— This gate replaced, 
in 1364, the Nomentana gate, so 
called from Nomentum, a Latin 
town situated twelve miles from 



A 



48 



eSNTRAL ITALY. — BOME. FOURTH BM. 



Borne. Its present name is deriyed 
from Pius IV, who ornamented the 
internal part on the designs of Mi- 
chael Angelo. Near the original 
gate is the tomh of Quintus Hate- 
rius, the praetor, a personage of 
note at the time of Tiberius. 

On the right of the road are 
the villa Patrizi, in a delightful 
situation; Lucemari, formerly Bo- 
lognetti; Massimi, and Torlonia. 
The latter, vrhen the embellish- 
ments now in progress are com- 
pleted, will be one of the most 
splendid villas in the environs of 
Rome. 

St Agnes. — This church was 
built by Constantino on the spot 
where the body of St Agnes was 
found. A marble staircase of forty- 
five steps, on the walls of which 
are numerous sepulchral inscrip- 
tions, leads to the church, divided 
into three naves by sixteen anti- 
que columns of different kinds of 
marble; fifteen smaller columns 
support the upper portico and 
four of porphyry surround the 
altar, composed of precious 
marble, where the body of the 
saint is laid. Around the tribune 
is a mosaic of the time of Ho- 
norius I, and on the altar to the 
right a head of our Saviour by 
Buonarotti. This church preser- 
ves the form of the civil basilics 
of the Romans. 

St Conatanfia. — Some mosaic 
works representing genii gathe* 
ring grapes induced antiquarians 
to consider this church as an an- 
cient temple of Bacchus, but it 
is known that these ornaments 
were frequently used in early Chri- 
stian buildings. The present con- 
struction being of the time when 
art had declined, and the plan 
not agreeing with that of ancient 
temples, it is better to adopt the 
^ttement of Anastasius and Am- 



mianus Marcellinns, that Con- 
stantine built this baptistery of a 
spherical form for the baptism 
of the two Constantias, his sister 
and daughter. 

A sarcophagus of porphyry 
found on ihe spot, having the 
same symbols as those on the 
roof, of the same style and form 
as that of St Helen, would seem 
to indicate that it served as a 
sepulchre of the Constantine fa- 
mily. Both these sarcophagi were 
removed by order of Pius VI to 
the Vatican museum. 

The bodies of Constantia and 
St Emerentiana are placed under 
the middle altar: twenty-four gra- 
nite columns form the interior 
peristyle; the external corridor 
is nearly destroyed. 

Some walls of an oblong form, 
improperly termed the hippo- 
drome of Constantine, belonged, 
as the late excavations have pro- 
ved, to a Christian burying ground 
placed between the two churches. 

A mile beyond these ruins is 
the Nomentan bridge thrown over 
the Anio, and on the other side. 

77ie Mons Sacer, — The ple- 
beians oppressed by the patri- 
cians withdrew to this spot, which 
they fortified, in the year of Rome 
361. Tlie senate sent deputies, 
priests, and the vestals to per- 
suade them to return, though to 
no piurpose. They yielded to Me- 
nenius Agrippa, whose fable of 
the limbs of the human body is 
related by Livy. The tribunes were 
then instituted; but being abo- 
lished by the decemvirs, the 
people withdrew a second time 
to this spot, when a law was 
passed, rendered sacred by an 
oaUi, tnat no revolt should ever 
be attempted against the tribunes. 

This hill, hitherto called „Ve- 



KMiAN STATES. — ROIIE. FOURTH 1>A¥. 



49 



lia" was tbeneeforth denominated 
Mons Sacer. 

At the distance of another mile, 
between the Nomentan and Sala- 
rian ways, in a spot called Vi^e 
Nnove, are the rnins of the villa 
of Phaon, in which Nero songht 
a refage and put an end to his 
days. The position of this villa 
is determined by the testimony 
of Suetonius. 

Porta Salaria — "When Hono- 
rius enlarged the walls the Porta 
Salaria was substituted to the 
Collina of Servius. In 409 Alaric, 
king of the Goths, entered Rome 
by this gate, through which the 
Gauls had also penetrated in the 
times of the republic. 

ViUa Alhani. — This villa was 
built in the middle of the last 
century by Cardinal Albani, who 
formed in it, under the direction 
of Winkelman, a large collection 
of statues, busts, bas-reliefs, sar- 
cophagi, and other antique mo- 
numents. 

In the vestibule are bas-reliefs 
in stucco, copied from the anti- 
que: a statue of a young man, 
said to be C. Caesar, son of 
Agrippa; a Koman lady under 
the form of Ceres; a Nymph; a 
slave with a dagger in his hand, 
improperly named Brutus; the 
colossal masks of Medusa; Bac- 
chus and Herculus. 

On the walls of the stairease, 
among sundry bas-reliefs, is that 
of the children of Niobe killed 
by Apollo. In the oval room are 
a bas-reliefs representing the car- 
ceres of a circus, and a faun. 

The cabinet contains bronze 
statues of Pallas, of the Famese 
Hercules, of Glycon, of Apollo 
Saurotonns, one of the most re- 
markable of the collection ; a small 
Osiris, a Serapis of green basalt, 



Hercules reposing ; vases of ala- 
baster and porphyry. 

In the third room, over the 
ehinmey, is the profile of Anti- 
nous, celebrated for the beauty 
of its execution. The gallery, or- 
namented with eight pilasters in- 
laid with mosaic, and ten with 
different sorts of marble, con- 
tains bas-reliefs of Hercules in 
the garden of the Hesperides, of 
Daedalus and Icarus, Alexander 
and Bucephalus, Marcus Aurelius 
with Faustina under the figure 
of Peace. The painting on the 
roof, a celebrated work of Mengs, 
represents Apollo and Mnemo- 
syne on Parnassus, surrounded 
by the Muses. The chiaro-oscuri 
are by Lapiccola. In the room 
adjoining is a Greek bas-relief of 
Eurydice bidding an eternal fare- 
well to Orpheus at the nmment 
that Mercury reconducts her to 
the infernal regions. 

In the hall of the Caryadites 
are: a vase of a beautiful form; 
the celebrated Caryatides, inscri- 
bed with the names of Criton and 
Nicolaos, Athenian sculptors , two 
otherCaryatides of excellent work- 
manship; the busts of Lucius Ve- 
rus, Vespasian, and Titus; a co- 
lossal mask of Silenus. 

The gallery on the ground floor 
contains several hermes of The- 
mistocles, Epicurus, Alexander, 
Amilcar, Leonidas, Masinissa, and 
Scipio; a celebrated Mercuiy, a 
statue of Faustina found near the 
forum of Nerva, Venus, a muse, 
a faun, and a priestess. 

Under the portico, supported 
by pilasters and twenty-eight co- 
lumns of different marbles, are 
statues of the hours and of se- 
veral Roman emperors. In the 
porch of Juno are the statue of 
that goddess, two Caryatides, the 



90 



airrRAL vtku. — wm, vmsmn day. 



heads of Socrates and Pertinax, 
in bas-relief. 

In the long gallery are eighteen 
hennes; a &reek statue of a Fe- 
male holding a flower, in the same 
attitude and style as those which 
decorated the front of the temple 
of Egina — these are now in Bava- 
ria; a faun with Bacchus, Apollo, 
Diana, and a priestess of ancient 
Greek style. This gallery leads to 
a hall paved with antique mosaic; 
in the centre is a superb marble 
sarcophagus, on which is repre- 
sented the marriage of Thetis and 
Peleus. 

In the first of the following rooms 
are a porphyry bust called Be- 
renice, with a head of green ba- 
salt; tiiose of Caracalla Pertinax 
and Lucilla in rosso antico. Abas- 
rdief represents Diogenes in his 
tub conversing with Alexander; 
a Daedalus preparing the wings of 
Icarus, and an antique landscape 
found on the Esqufline. 

In the second are a supposed 
Ptolemjr, by Stephanos, a pupil 
of Praxiteles; a Pallas, a Venus ; 
Jupiter seated amid tlie twelve 
signs of the zodiac ; a white marble 
vase, twenty-two feet in circum- 
ference, found at the temple of 
Hercules on the Via Appia, with 
the labours of Hercules sculptured 
in bas-relief. 

The third is decorated with six 
columns and several antique mar- 
bles; a faun, a bust of Lucius Ve- 
rus; black granite and africano 
vases ; an antique mosaic, on which 
is figured the inundation of the 
Nile; and a small bas-relief of 
Iphigenia on the point of sacri- 
ficing Orestes and Pylades on the 
altar of Diana. 

In the last room are a statue 
of Apollo seated on a tripod; a 
Leda ; the combat between Achil- 
les andMemnon; and a fragment 



of cormce from the temple of 
Tri^'an, found in the ruins of hia 
forum in 1767. 

The hall of the billiard roonoi 
contains among other statues those 
of Bacchus and Hyacinthus. La the 
room opposite are a Berenice, wife 
of Ptolemy ; Evergetes offering tlie 
sacrifice of her hair for the safe 
return of her husband ; in the room 
adjoining are a statue of Diana of 
Ephesus, and of a female Satyr. 

In another part of the garden^ 
in semicircular portico supported 
by twenty-six columns of different 
marbles, are the statues of Mer- 
cury, Achilles, Apollo, Diana, a 
pretended Sappho, Hercules, Bac- 
chus, and two Caryatides; twenty 
smaller statues are placed on co- 
lunms corresponding with those of 
the portico. There are also twenty 
busts,and twenty hermes; the most 
remarkable are those of Aesop, 
Isocrates, Hortensius the orator, 
Aurelian, Balbinus, and Caligula. 

Under the porcn are two sta- 
tues of black Egyptian marble, 
two sphinxes, six small statues, 
and a large basin of Egyptian 
breccia. The mosaicpavement and 
paintings of the gallery. are the 
work of Lapiccola, the landscapes 
are byAmesi, the small pictures 
by Biccheral On the base of the 
statue of Juno is an antique mo- 
saic representing a school of phi- 
losophers, and another represent- 
ing Hesione delivered from the sea 
monster, 

Salarian Bridge, — It was on this 
bridge that, 350 years before the 
Christian era, Manlius killed the 
Gaul who had challenged him to 
single combat, from whom he took 
the torques or golden collar worn 
by the Gauls ; this exploit obtained 
for him the name of Torquatus. 
On the rising ground near the spot 
where the Anio joins the Tiber was 



nOMAN STATES. — KOMB, romflTil BAT. 



5t 



sitnated Antemuae, one of die most 
ancient towns of Latium. The plain 
and hills on Ili€ right of the bridge 
have been the scene of events 
celebrated in earlyBoman history ; 
the defeat of the Yeians and Fi- 
denates by Tullus Hostilius;the 
defection and punishment of Fu- 
fetinS} chief of die Albans, which 
occasioned the destmctionofAl- 
balonga. The tower on the left 
of the road is bnilt on an an- 
cient tomlK 

Gardens of Salluat — On his 
retnm to Borne from Africa, which 
he had governed in the interests 
of Caesar, the historian Sallust 
formed these gardens in the val- 
ley between the Quirinal and Pin- 
dan hills and on a part of Monte 
Pincio. At his death they were in- 
herited by his nephew, a friend 
of Augustus and Tiberius, and in 
the twentieth year of the Christian 
era they entered into the impe- 
rial domain. The villa constructed 
on the spot was inhabited by 
Nero, Vespasian, and also by Au- 
relian after the conquest of Pal- 
myra. Having been destroyed by 
the Goths under Alaricin409,no 
attempt was made to restore it. 

It is easy to trace the situation 
of the circus, the remains of the 
palace, of a temple of Venus, of 
the substructions on the side of 
the Quirinal, and in the Barbe- 
rini vigna the "agger" of Servins 
Tulliu8,under whidi wasthe "Cam- 
pus sceleratus,*' where the vestals, 
who had violated their vow, were 
buried alive. 

Villa Ludovin. — This villa, now 
the property of Prince Piombino, 
consitsts of three edifices ; one of 
which was built on the designs 
of Bominichino. The most remark- 
able works of art in the second 
are a colossal head of Juno; the 
statues of EsculapiuR, Apollo, Ve- 



nus ; busts of Claudius, Julius Oae* 
sar, Apollo, Antinous; a splendid 
statue of Mars in repose; groups 
of Apollo and Diana, of Pan and 
Syrinx. A statue of Cleopatra, a 
gLetdiator, a Venus quitting the 
bath, a Hercules, Bacchus, and 
Mercury; a finely draped statue 
of Agrippina ; the group of Orestes 
recognisid by his sister Electra^ 
the work of Menelas, a Greek 
sculptor, as appears from the in- 
scription; and thatofPaetusand 
Arna, or more probably of He- 
mon supporting Antigone. Pluto 
carrying ofF Proserpine is by Ber- 
nini. 

In the third is the fresco of 
Aurora, a master-piece by Guer- 
cino. The goddess seated on a 
car drawn oy four horses, and 
preceded by the Hours, scatters 
flowers around her. A youth hold- 
ing a torch and flowers signifies 
Daybreak, and the female asleep 
Night 

The following room contains 
two landscapes by Dominichino, 
and two by Guercino, who painted 
also Fame, under the figure of 
a femaJe sounding a trumpet and 
holding an olive branch ; this work 
is not inferior in merit to the 
Aurora. 

St Niccotb di Tolentino.—Tbia 
church, built in 1614 by Prince 
Pamphili, contains a fine fresco 
ofPietro diCortona,who designed 
the Gavotti chapel. The picture 
of St Agnes was copied from the 
original of Guercino in the Do- 
na gallery. 

In the Piazza Barberini, si- 
tuated on the site of the ancient 
circus of Flora, is a fountain sup- 
ported by four dolphins, with a 
Triton in the centre. 

Capuchin Chv/rch. — In the first 
chapel on the right is the celebra- 
ted picture of St Michael by Guido 

8* 



52f 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ^ROME. FOURTH DAT. 



The Conception over the high al- 
tar is by BombelK; the St An- 
thony and St Bonaventure by An- 
drea Sacchi. St Paul cured by 
Ananias is one of the most cor- 
rect works of Pietro di Cortona. 

St Isidoro. — The convent ad- 
joining this church is occupied 
bv Irish Franciscans. The first 
chapel on the right and that on 
the left of the high altar were 
painted bv Carlo Maratta. The St 
Isidoro of the high altar is one of 
the best works of Andrea Sacchi. 

The Barberini Palace was com- 
menced under Urban VIII by Carlo 
Mademo and finished by Bernini. 
On the roof of the saloon Pietro di 
Cortona has painted the Triumph 
of Glory under the attributes of 
the Barberini family. In the centre- 
piece the arms of that family are 
carried up to heaven by the Vir- 
tues, in the presence of Provi- 
dence, of Time, Eternity, and the 
Fates. The first side picture re- 

5 resents Minerva fulminating the 
'itans ; the second Religion and 
Faith triumphing over Volup- 
tuousness. The third Justice Abun- 
dance, Charity, and Hercules des- 
troying the Harpies, an allegory 
of the chastisement of the wicked. 
The fourth the Church and Pru- 
dence, Vulcan and Peace, closing 
the temple of Janus. 

In the gardens of the palace 
was the "Capitolium vetus," which 
had three chapels, delicated by 
Numa to Jupiter, Juno, and Mi- 
nerva. In the court is the antique 
inscription taken from the trium- 
phal arch erected to the Empe- 
ror Claudius after the conquest 
of Britain. 

Fontana di Trevi, — The Aqua 
Vergine, which supplies the foun- 
tain, was introduced into Rome 
by Agrippa for the use of his 
baths, situated near the Pantheon. 



Its source is eight miles distant 
from the city, on the ancient Col* 
latine way; the subterraneons 
aqueduct is fourteen miles long^ 
after traversing the villa Borg- 
hese and villa Medici, the water 
divides into two streams, one tak- 
ing the direction of this fountain, 
and the other that of the Via 
Condotti. 

Before the front of the palace, 
where the fountain is placed, are 
four Corinthian columns and six 
pilasters, between which are two 
bas-reliefs, one represents Agrip- 
pa and the other the young girl 
who first discovered the spring. 
In the large nidie is the statae 
of Neptune standing on a car 
drawn by sea-horses, and guided 
by Tritons, commanding the wa- 
ters which rush out of a mass 
of rocks. The side niches contaia 
tiie statues of Abundance and 
Salubrity : the four over the en- 
tablature complete the decoration 
of the attic. 

The little church of St Maria 
in Trivio on the left of the foun- 
tain is said to have been built 
by Belisarius. It was reduced to 
its present form on the designs 
of Del Duca, in the middle of 
the seventeenth century. 

In the church of St Andre delle 
Fratte are two angels by Bernini ; 
the ceiling was painted by Ma- 
rini. The steeple is a curious 
work of Boromini. 

Propaganda Fide. — This reli- 
gious establishment was founded 
by Gregory XV in 1622, for the 
purpose of propagating the Ca- 
tholic faith Young men from all 
countries are admitted here, and 
after having finished their edu- 
cation are sent as missionaries 
to different countries. The col- 
lege possesses a typography fur- 
nished with all sorts of onental 



ROHAN STATES.— ROME. FOURTH DAT. 



53 



characters, a library with many 
Coptic and oriental works, and a 
collection of medals, gems, and 
other cariosities. 

Piazza di Spagjui. — So called 
from the resiaence of the Spanish 
ambassadors at Rome. In the cen- 
tre is a fountain called the Bar- 
caccia, from its form, and the 
stairs that lead to the Trinity de' 
Monti, on the Pincian hiU. 

The church of the TrinitJi de' 
Monti was built by Charles Ylll, 
king of France, who presented it 
to the religious order of St Fran- 
cesco Paola. It belongs, at pre- 
sent, to the community of the 
Sacr6 Coeur de Jesus, who have 
established a house of education 
for young ladies in the adjoining 
convent. This church was restored 
in 1815. In the sacristy is the 
beautiful fresco of Daniel di Vol- 
terra, representing the Deposition 
from the cross. 

French Academy, — This palace 
was built in 1540 on the designs of 
Annibal Lippi, the front overlook- 
ing the garden on those of Michael 
Angelo ; it was enlarged by Cardi- 
nal de Medici, and although within 
the walls, the circuit of the whole 
YiUa, which commands extensive 
views over the city and its envi- 
rons, is of about a mile and a 
half. 

-The French academy, founded 
by Louis IV in 1666, is composed 
of a director and twenty pen- 
sioners chosen among the young 
men who have obtained prizes at 
Paris in sculpture, painting, ar- 
chitecture, music, and engraving. 

ViUa BorgJtese, — This villa, one 
of the largest and most splendid of 
Home, owes its origin to Cardinal 
Sdpio Borghese, the nephew of 
Paul V. At the end of last century 
it was enlarged under Prince 
Marc' Antonio, more recently by 



the princes CamiUo and Fran- 
cesco Borghese; it has been con- 
siderably embellished by the lat- 
ter, who added to it the villa of 
Raphael 

The grand entrance is of the 
Ionic oraer, erected on fhe model 
of the finest propylaea of Greece 
and Asia Minor. At the extremity 
of the sreat walk is an arch sur- 
mounted with a statue of Septi- 
mius Severus ; and the propylaea 
of an Egyptian temple leading to 
the villa of Raphael, who painted 
on the walls the Marriage of Ro- 
xana, and various sacrinces and 
arabesques, all which have suf- 
fered from the lapse of time. 
Beyond the aqueduct, on the 
right, is a small temple conse- 
crated to Diana; on the left, the 
lake and temple of Esculapius; 
and at tiie end of the walk an 
imitation of an antique monument, 
with copies of sundry inscriptions 
found at the country house of 
Herod Atticus. 

The palace, built on the designs 
of Yansanzio, a Flemish architect, 
contains a large collection of an- 
tique monuments. 

Under the portico are two tri- 
umphal bas-reliefs that belonged 
to the arch of Claudius, others 
allusive to a battle between the 
Romans and barbarians, and to 
the origin of Rome a curious 
monument in travertine, bearing 
the inscription Orvius, or Corvius 
Nasica, representing a Roman ma- 
gistrate preceded by three lictors, 
and several antique inscriptions. 

The fresco on the roof of the 
saloon, paintend by Rossi, repre- 
sents the arrival of Camillus when 
the garrison of the Capitol were 
in treaty with Brennus for the 
ransom of the city; the circular 
bas-reliefs, the sacrifice of Po- 
lixenes, Hercules, and Jole. The 



54 



€X1IITRAL ITALY. — ROHI. rOIATB OAT. 



colossal busts of Isis and a Muse, 
of Adrian and Antoninus Pius, 
are admirably executed. In the 
left niche is a semi-colossal sta- 
tue of a faim, in the right, one 
of Bacchus. The bust of Vespa- 
sian, the funeral altar of Flavia, 
and the tomb of Petronia, a ce- 
lebrated singer of the time of 
Antoninus Pius, are interesting 
works. 

In the first chamber are co- 
pies of bas-reliefs from antiques, 
arabesques, and paintings. The 
subject of the vase alludes to the 
story of Oedipus and the Sphinx. 
The statue of Ceres, from the 
expression of the head, the de- 
licacy of the work, and the dra- 
pery, is considerea as a master- 
piece of ancient sculpture. On the 
right is the bas-relief of Tde- 
phus, found in the ruins of the 
unperial villa on the Labican way, 
^d a torse of Ganymede from 
Nomentum. 

The second chamber contains 
several monuments relative to the 
history of Hercules. In the middle 
is the Amazon, Anthiope, com- 
bating Hercules and Theseus ; on 
the sarcophagus are the labours 
of Hercules against the lion, the 
hydra^ and the wild boar, wilh 
the hmd and the stvmphalides. 
The arrival of the Amazons to 
assist Troy, figured on the cover 
of the sarcophagus, has been il- 
lustrated by Winkelmau. The op- 
posite side alludes to five other 
labours : against the bull of Crete, 
Geryon, Hippolitus, the dragon 
of the Hesperides, the centaur 
Nessus; and the second part of 
the cover to the council of the 
gods on the marriage of Thetis. 

The third chamber, in which 

are works of Bernini, contains 

sixteen pilasters and four oo- 

'unns of red oriental granite. 



The ceiling was painted by Mar^ 
chetti; the metamorphosis of 
Daphne in the valley of Tempe, 
by Moore; Apollo and Diana, by 
Labruzzi; and the animals, by 
Peters. The groups of Apollo 
and Daphne, Aeneas, David draw- 
ing the sling against Goliah, are 
by Bernini. The bas-reliefs allu- 
sive to the seasons, represented 
on four vases, are by Labonreur. 

The callery is one of the most 
s]plendid of Rome. Its twenty 
pilasters of giallo antico, with 
gilded capitals, are ornamented 
with white marble camel and blue 
mosaics, executed on the designs 
of Tommaso Conca by Carradon, 
Salimbeni, and other artists of his 
time. In the niches are antique 
statues of a Muse, Diana, Bacchus, 
and Thetis ; on the walls are eleven 
modern bas-reliefis alluding to my- 
thological subjects ; the arabesque 
paintings are by Marchetti; the 
fable of Galathea is the work 
of D'Angelis. The busts in por- 
phyry of the emperors, the por- 
phyry sarcophagus found in the 
mausoleum of Adrian ; four tables 
of the same marble; several va- 
ses and cups of alabaster and 
species of other marble, parti- 
cularly one in ophix, a very rare 
Egyptian stone, complete the de- 
corations of this chamber. 

The cabinet contains an Her- 
maphrodite, several precious mar- 
bles, busts of Tiberius, Sappho, 
Mercury, and Scipio: an antique 
pavement in mosaic, found at 
Castel Ardone, on the road to 
Tivoli, and a table inlaid with 
aeate, jasper, lapis lazuli, and 
otner precious stones. The paint- 
ings on the ceiling alluding to 
the fable of the Hermaphrodite 
and Salmacis are by Buonvicini. 

In the fourth chamber are six- 
teen pilasters and four coloBms 



RMAfl ST&fES.-HtOllS. rODRTH DAY. 



66 



of breceia coralHna. The Council 
of the Gods was painted by Pe- 
cheux; the chiaro-oscuri, by Mar- 
€hetti. The four oil paintings, by 
Thiers, a French artist, repre- 
sent a chase and the death of 
MHo; Polydamas and the grati- 
tude of llieseus. A statue of the 
Pythian Apollo in the primitiye 
Greek style, and a sarcophagus 
on which are sculptured Tritons 
and Nereids, in allusion to the 
transfer of souls into the isles of 
the blessed. 

The fifth chamber possesses 
several monuments relative to the 
religion of Egypt; various spe- 
cies of marble and columns in 
oriental granite, nero antico; a 
statue of Isis with her attributes, 
in bronze; a Ceres j a female sta- 
tue of a style antenor to the time 
of Phidias ; a bronze head of Bac- 
chus; the remaining part is of 
flowered alabaster. 

In the middle of the sixth cham- 
ber is an antique group of three 
flgures emblematic of Youth, Vi- 
luity, and Old Age, or of Spring, 
Summer, and Winter; there are 
also a Ceres, a Mercury, inven- 
tor of the lyre ; two fauns, a Pluto, 
an Antoninus Pius; Bacchus ana 
Proserpine, a very ancient and 
unique group. 

On the second story are chim- 
ney pieces of amethyst, porphyry, 
rosso anticOj several paintings by 
Peters, Gavin Hamilton, the sta- 
tues of Paris and Helen, and four 
bas-reliefs, in giallo antico, on 
a ground of porphyry, the work 
of Pacetti. 

FIFTH DAY. 

raOM THI MAVSOLEVM OF AUGUSTUS 
TO TEE VSLABRUM. 

Mausoleum of A%tffu»tu8 in the 
Via Pont^fid. — Suetonius, spea- 



king of the funeral of Augustus, 
says that his remains were pla- 
ced in the monument which he 
had erected in his sixth consu- 
late, or twenty-seventh year be- 
fore our era, between the Fla- 
minian way and the banks of 
the Tiber. The ashes of Octavia, 
Drusus, Germanicus, and of other 
members of his family, were also 
deposited here. 

Strabo observes, in the fifth 
book of his Geography, that on 
a circular and elevated base of 
white marble was a mound of 
earth, planted with evergreens; 
that on its summit was the bronze 
statue of Augustus, and in the 
interior the sepulchral chambers 
destined for his family; that be- 
hind the monument were shady 
walks, containing in the centre 
a funeral pile of white marble 
surrounded with poplars. 

In the twelfth century this mo- 
nument was converted into a for- 
tress by the Colonna princes, and 
falling into possession of the 
people of Rome it was reduced 
to a ruin. Nothing now remains 
but the fondation walls and the tra- 
ces of thirteen sepulchral rooms. 
About the end of last century a 
species of amphitheatre was built 
on these walls, which is used in 
the summer months for theatri- 
cal representations. 

8t, Roch. — This church, situated 
in the Via Ripetta, was rebuilt 
in 1657 by Rossi, and its front 
recently by Valadier. Over the 
altar of the second chapel is a 
fine painting of the Yirgin, St 
Roch, and St Anthony, by Boc- 
caccio; in the chapels of St An- 
thony and of the Crib are .estee- 
med works of Calabrese and Bal- 
dassar PeruzzL 

JBij^etto.— Under Gement XI a 
landing place was made here fo^ 



46 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROME. roURTH BAY. 



of St Lorenzo in Paneperna, and 
barracks. 

St Denis — This church and 
monastery, built in 1619, are now 
occupied by French nuns follo- 
wing the rule of St Basil; they 
take charge of the oducation of 
young females. Though plain, the 
architecture is remarkable for its 
elegance. Over an altar on the 
left is a mkaculous image of the 
Virgin, which belonged to St Gre- 
gory the Great The pictures of 
St Denis and St Louis are by 
Lebrun; the "Ecce homo" by 
Luca Giordano. 

The Quattro Fontane, so cal- 
led from the fountains at the four 
angles, offer views of the obe- 
lisks of St Maria Maggiore, of 
Monte Cavallo, and of the Tri- 
nita de' Monti. 

St Charles. — The front has two 
orders of columns, and the court 
of the house adjoining has two 
porticoes, one above the other, 
supported by twenty-four columns. 

St Andrew's, built in 1678 for 
the noviciate of the Jesuits, by 
Prince Pamphili, and embellished 
with marble columns and paint- 
ings. In the chapel of St Fran- 
cis Xavier are three pictures by 
Boccaccio. The high altar piece 
is the Crucifixion of St Andrew, 
by Borgognone. Under the altar 
of the following chapel, the body 
of St Stanislaus is preserved in 
an urn of lapis lazuli, 

St jBcmardo.— In 1698 the Coun- 
tess Sforza changed into a church 
one of the two round buildings 
situated at the southern angles 
of tiie thermae of Diocletian, sup- 
posed to have been the tepidaria 
or calidaria, or rooms for tepid 
or hot baths. Some ruins of the 
theatre are still seen in the gar- 
den behind the church. 

The Fountain of Aqua Felice, 



I erected by Sixtus V on the de- 
sings of Dominico Fontana, is di- 
vided into three arcades by two 
breccia and two granite Ionic co> 
lumns. 

The centml arcade contains the 
colossal statue of Moses striking 
the rock; the lateral arcadesfbas- 
reliefs of Aaron conducting the 
Hebrews to the miraculous spring, 
and Gideon choosing soldiers to 
open the passage of the river. 
An abundant supply of water falls 
into three marble basins. 

The Thermae of J)iocletian,con-' 
structed by the emperors Diode- 
tian and Maximian, cover a space 
of 1,069 feet in length and bre* 
adth, or an enclosure of 4,276 
feet, in circuit These immense ther- 
mae, which according to Olympio* 
dorus afforded sufficient room for 
8,200 bathers, were of a square 
form, closed at each of the south- 
west angles by circular haJls, 
which stiU exist, one in the church 
of St Bernard, the other in a gra- 
nary near the entrance of the villa 
Massimi. Decorated with porti- 
coes, halls, groves, and walks, these 
thermae also contained schools of 
science and of athletic exercises, 
and a magnificent hall called the 
Pinacotheca,which has been trans- 
formed into the church of 

St Ma/ria Degli Angeli. — The 
Pinacotheca, or principal hall of 
Diocletian's baths, was changed 
into a church by order of Pius IV, 
under the direction of Michael 
Angelo Buonarotti, who reduced 
it to the form of a Greek cross, 
and rendered it one of thefijiest 
churches in Rome. The pavement 
having been raised six feet, on 
account of the humidity of the 
spot, the bases and a part of the 
granite columns are under ground. 
In 1740, Vanvitelli reduced the 
church to its present state; he 



ROHAN STATES. — SOME. FOVRTH BAT. 



47 



plaeed the altar of the blessed 
Nicholas Albergatti on the spot 
which had before been occupied 
by the grand entrance; the late- 
ral door became the chief en- 
trance, and he added eight brick 
columns covered with stucco to 
the nave supported by eight of 
real granite. 

The present entrance is by a 
round vestibule of the same size 
as the church of St Bernard, and 
was used formerly as one of the 
halls. At the sides are the tombs 
of Carlo Maratta and of Salvator 
Rosa, of cardinals Parisio and Al- 
ciato. On the right is the chapel 
St Bruno, whose statue by Hou- 
don is near the entrance to the 
transversal nave, which is sup- 
ported by eight granite columns 
sixteen feet in circumference and 
forty-flve in heig:ht, comprising 
their base and capital. The church 
is 336 feet long, seventy-four wide, 
and eighty-four in height 

The first picture on the right 
represents the Crucifixion of St 
Peter, by Bicciolini; the second, 
the fall of Simon the Magician: 
it is a copy of the original of 
Yanni existing at St Peter's. The 
altar piece of the following cha- 
pd is by Graziani^ the side paint- 
ings by Trevisani, and those of 
the roof by Biccherai and Maz- 
zetti. The St Peter restoring Ta- 
biUia to life is a copy from Bag- 
lioni, the painting near it is an 
origin^ by Mutian. 

Tn the nave of the high altar 
four larffe paintings cover the side 
walls; me first on the right, re- 
presenting the Presentation of the 
Virgin at the Temple, is by Ro- 
manelli ; the second, the Martyr- 
dom of St Sebastian, is a classic 
workofDominichino ; the Baptism 
of Christ is by Carlo Maratta, and 



the Chastisement of Annanias and 
Sapphira by Pomarancio. 

Returning to the transversal 
nave, the painting of the Con- 
ception is by Bianchi; the St 
Bruno of the chapel by Odazzi, 
the side pictures by Trevisani, 
and the Evangelists by Procac- 
cinl The fsill of Simon Magus by 
Battoni, and the St Basilius of 
Subleyras, adorn the opposite 
wall. In 1701 the meridian was 
traced in this church, with the 
signs of the zodiac composed of 
variegated marbles. 

The cloister, adorned with a 
square portico supported by 100 
travertine columns, was designed 
by Michael Angelo. 

Behind the baths was the ^*ag^ 
ger" of Servius Tullius, or the 
artificial rampart of earth de- 
fende by square blocks of vol- 
canic stone and a deep ditch. 
Beyond the rampart are remains 
of the Praetorian camp. Enclosed 
in the vineyard of &e Jesuits 
named Macao, the external part 
of it is easily distinguished in 
following the line of walls to the 
right of Porta Pia. These ruins 
convey an accurate idea of the 
form of Roman camps. 

St Maria Delia Firtori a.— The 
interior of this church, built by 
Paul V in 1605, is enriched with 
Sicilian jasper, and contains a 
St Francis in the second chapel, 
with paintings on the side walls 
by Dominichmo. In the sumptuous 
chapel of St Theresa is the sta- 
tue of the saint in an ecstacy of 
divine love. The Holy Trinity, 
over the altar of the following 
chapel, is by Guercino^ the Cru- 
cifixion by Guido Rem. 

PortaPia. — This gate replaced, 
in 1864, the Nomentana gate, so 
called irom Nomentum, a Latin 
town situated twelve miles from 



i 



MaFcelliutis, that Con- 
stauRtine bailt this baptistery of a 
sphmeal fonn for the baptism 
of the two ConstantiaSy his sister 
and daughter. 

A sarcophagus of porphyry 
found OB the spot, having the 
same srmbok as those on the 



48 csKTmai irALi.^aomc r«nTa bat 

Kome. Its presait name is deriTed 
firom Piiis IV, who ornamentevl the 
interaal part on the designs of Mi- 
chael Angelo, Xear the original 
gate isthetoubof QuitttusUate- 
rius> the praetor, a personage of 
note at the time of Tibenns. 

On title ri^t of the road are 
the viila Patriai, m a dehghtftii j roof, of the same style and form 
situation; Lueeruari^ forawj'rly Bo- ' ^s that of St Helai, would seem 
logne^ti ; >lai>$iini« anvl Torlonia. ; to indicate that it served as a 
The latter, whwa the wabelKsh- sepulchre of the Constantine fa- 
nents now in progress are oo»- 1 Baiiy^ Both these sarcophagi were 
pleted. will be one of the most ' n^aoYed by order of Pius YI to 
splendid villas in the environs of - tjjte vatican museum. 

^*^' . i^u. V ^ I The bodies of Constantia and 
^ A^^ —This chwr^ wa.v j^^ {jBerentiana are placed under 
buih by Constantuie on the spot . jj^^jni^oi^ ^„, twenty-four gra- 
wherj* the body ot ^t Agu^ wa.^ ^^ coI^ms fonn tihe interior 
ftHmd.Amarble^tau^'aseoftmv- ^^^.j^. ^y,^ external corridor 
five steps, on the waiUot which g^^^eirh destroved. 
ore mnuerousi sepulchral mscnp- * ^^^ vi c 
tio«s.leadstothech«rv'b..livi.wa , Sane walls of an oblong form, 
into three uavt s bv sixit^u anti- Mttpn..pertT termed the hippo- 
Que coh«a»J of iUAVr^ut kinds of ^^^^ ;^* Constantme, belonged, 
iarble; fiftt-eu sniaUer voluuing^ *^,^*^^ late excava^ have pro- 
support the up^>er pv>rtkv aii.1 ve.UtoaChrtsQanb«Djmggromid 
%^oi porph>n surt^Huid the P^^^^ between the two churches, 
ahar. c^po^l of prvvk>«j A mile beyond thijse rums is 
BBttble. wherTthe boily i>t the the >ometttaabr»%e thrown over 
Mint is laid. Aroiuid the tinbtuie ^ -^^^^ awl on the other side, 
is a mogak of the tiine of Ho- Vie Jf'jus Saetr^ — The ple- 
norius L and on the altar to the betaiis oppresseii by the patri- 
right a headl of our Savivuur by cian^ withdrt^w to this spot, which 
BminarottL This c>«»vh pt^W- they 6>Ptitied» in tibe year of Kome 
ve» d^e fom of the civil basilica 3«>I. The senate sest deputies, 
of the Bontans. pnei^ts. and the vieetals to per- 
^ C«>«tdf(m>ia^Sottfee mosak* :>uade thent to retsnau though to 
works representing genii gaihe^ ao purpo<>e. They vielded to Me- 
rino grapes imittced auti^ttartaiij^ aettia:^ A.g:r^pak whose fhble of 
to oonader tdiis church ])^ an an- the limbs oi the iMnan body is 
(amt tsonple .>f Baicvhat$^ bnt it reiacedbvLivy. The tribunes were 
in kivwn diat diese oraantottts Uien ini>tittited: boi being abo- 
wexetxeqaentiv usJd in early Cbri- limbed by the k^emTirs, the 
qtiMB bnidinisk The j^rerseut cvn- people witjidi>;w a second time 
ssmctNm being of the time when :;o thi:> spoc^ whes a law was 
' -"* ieeiined* and the ^ici passed^ reudere^l saioned by an 
-^ with that f aticieuc ouch» nhar :io re^oii should* ever 
f better w ^iao^t the be attempti^ a^^iwatst the tribunes. 
Anastaaofr and Am- Tliii> luii^ hitaecto <alled ^Te- 



ROHAN 8TATJES.^«0IIS. FOURTH DAT. 



49 



Ha" was thenceforth denominated 
Mons Sacer. 

At the distance of another mile, 
between the Nomentan and Sala- 
rian ways, in a spot called Yi^e 
Naove, are the ruins of tlie villa 
of Phaon, in which Nero sought 
a refdge and put an end to his 
days. The position of this villa 
is determined by the testimony 
of Snetonius. 

Porta Salaria — When Hono- 
rius enlarged the walls the Porta 
Salaria was substituted to the 
CoUina of Servius. In 409 Alaric, 
king of the Goths, entered Rome 
by this gate, through which the 
Gauls had also penetrated in the 
times of the republic. 

Villa Alhani. — This villa was 
built in the middle of the last 
century by Cardinal Albani, who 
formed in it, under the direction 
of Winkelman, a large collection 
of statues, busts, bas-reliefs, sar- 
cophagi, and o^er antique mo- 
numents. 

In the vestibule are bas-reliefs 
in stucco, copied from the anti- 
que: a statue of a young man, 
said to be C. Caesar, son of 
Agrippa; a Boman lady under 
the form of Ceres j a Nymph; a 
slave with a dagger in his hand, 
improperly named Brutus; the 
colossal masks of Medusa; Bac- 
chus and Herculus. 

On the walls of the stairease, 
among sundry bas-reliefs, is that 
of the children of Niobe killed 
by Apollo. In the oval room are 
a bas-reliefs representing the car- 
ceres of a circus, and a faun. 

The cabinet contains bronze 
statues of Pallas, of the Famese 
Hercules, of Glycon, of Apollo 
Saurotonns, one of the most re- 
markable of the collection; asmsJl 
Osiris, a Serapis of green basalt, 



Hercules reposing ; vases of ala- 
baster and porphyry. 

In the third room, over the 
chimney, is the profile of Anti- 
nous, celebrated for the beauty 
of its execution. Tlie gallery, or- 
namented with eight pilasters in- 
laid with mosaic, and ten with 
difPerent sorts of marble, con- 
tains bas-reliefs of Hercules in 
the garden of the Hesperides, of 
Daedalus and Icarus, Alexander 
and Bucephalus, Marcus Aurelius 
with Faustina under the figure 
of Peace. The painting on the 
roof, a celebrated work of Mengs, 
represents Apollo and Mnemo- 
syne on Parnassus, surrounded 
by the Muses. The chiaro-oscuri 
are by Lapiccola. In the room 
adjoining is a Greek bas-relief of 
Eurydice bidding an eternal fare- 
well to Orpheus at the moment 
that Mercury reconducts her to 
the infernal regions. 

In the hall of the Caryadites 
are: a vase of a beautiful form ; 
the celebrated Caryatides, inscri- 
bed with the names of Criton and 
Nicolaos, Athenian sculptors , two 
otherCaryatides of excellent work- 
manship; the busts of Lucius Ve- 
rus, Vespasian, and Titus; a co- 
lossal mask of Silenus. 

The gallery on the ground floor 
contains several hermes of The- 
mistocles, Epicurus, Alexander, 
Amilcar, Leonidas, Masinissa, and 
Scipio; a celebrated Mercury, a 
statue of Faustina found near the 
forum of Nerva, Venus, a muse, 
a faun, and a priestess. 

Under the portico, supported 
by pilasters and twenty-eight co- 
lumns of different marbles, are 
statues of the hours and of se- 
veral Romnn emperors. In the 
porch of Juno are the statue of 
that goddess, two Caryatides, the 



50 



CMTRAL ITAIT. — ROMS. POIHtTH MT* 



heads of Socrates and Pertinax, 
in bas-relief. 

Iq the long gallery are eighteen 
hermes; a Greek statue of a Fe- 
male holding a flower, in the same 
attitude and style as those which 
decorated the front of the temple 
of £gina — ^these are now in Bava- 
ria; a faun with Bacchus, Apollo, 
Diana, and a priestess of ancient 
Greek style. This gallery leads to 
a hall payed with antique mosaic; 
in the centre is a superb marble 
sarcophagus, on which is repre- 
sented the marriage of Thetis and 
Pdeus. 

In the first of the following rooms 
are a porphyry bust called Be- 
renice, with a head of green ba- 
salt; those of Caracalla Pertinax 
and Lucilla in rosso antico. Abas- 
relief represents Diogenes in his 
tub conyersing with Alexander; 
a Daedalus preparing the wings of 
Icarus, and an antique landscape 
found on the Esquiline. 

In the second are a supposed 
Ptolemy, by Stephanos, a pupil 
of Praxiteles; a Pallas, a Venus ; 
Jupiter seated amid the twelve 
signs of the zodiac ; a white marble 
vase, twenty-two feet in circum- 
ference, found at the temple of 
Hercules on the Via Appia, with 
the labours of Hercules sculptured 
in bas-relief. 

The third is decorated with six 
columns and several antique mar- 
bles; a faun, a bust of Lucius Ve- 
ms; black granite and africano 
vases ; an antique mosaic, on which 
is figured the inundation of the 
Nile; and a small bas-relief of 
Iphigenia on the point of sacri- 
ficing Orestes and Py lades on the 
altar of Diana. 

In the last room are a statue 
of Apollo seated on a tripod; a 
Leda; the combat between Achil- 
^^s andMemnon; and a fragment 



of cornice from the temple of 
Trsgan, found in the ruins of his 
forum in 1767. 

The hall of the billiard room 
contains amonff other statues those 
of Bacchus ana Hyacintlias. hi the 
room opposite are a Berenice, wife 
of Ptolemy ; Evergetes offerinjg die 
sacrifice of her hair for the safe 
return of her husband ; in the room 
adjoining are a statue of Diana of 
Ephesus, and of a female Satyr. 

In another part of the garden, 
in semicircular portico supported 
by twenty-six columns of different 
marbles, are the statues of Mer- 
cury, Achilles, Apollo, Diana, a 
pretended Sappho, Hercules, Bac- 
chus, and two Caryatides; twenty 
smaller statues are placed on co- 
lumns corresponding with those of 
the portico. There are also twenty 
busts,and twenty hermes; the most 
remarkable are those of Aesop, 
Isocrates, Hortensius the orator, 
Aurelian, Balbinus, and Caligula. 

Under the porch are two sta- 
tues of black Egyptian marble, 
two sphinxes, six small statues, 
and a large basin of Egyptian 
breccia. The mosaic pavement and 
paintings of the gallery. are i^e 
work of Lapiccola, the landscapes 
are byAmesi, the small pictures 
by Biccherai. On the base of the 
statue of Juno is an antique mo- 
saic representing a school of phi- 
losophers, and another represent- 
ing Hesione delivered from the sea 
monster. 

Salarian Bridge. — It was on this 
bridge that, 350 years before the 
Christian era, Msmlius killed the 
Gaul who had challenged him to 
single combat, fiK)m whom he took 
the torques or golden collar worn 
by the Gauls ; this exploit obtained 
for him the name of Torquatus. 
On the rising ground near the spot 
where the Anio joins the Tiber was 



MMAKi flTATTBS. 



rOURTB BAT. 



5t 



sitaated Antenmae, one of diemoBt 
ancient towns of Latium. The plam 
and hills on Uie right of the bridge 
hare been the scene of events 
celebrated in early Roman history ; 
the defeat of the Yeians and Fi- 
denates by Tidlus Ho6tilius;the 
defection and punishment of Fu- 
fetins^ chief of the Albans, which 
occasioned the destruction of Al- 
balunga. The tower on the left 
of the road is built on an an- 
cient tomK 

Gardens of Salluat — On his 
return to Rome from Africa, which 
he had goremed in the interests 
of Caesar, the historian Sallust 
formed these gardens in the val- 
ley between the Quirinal and Pin- 
dan hills and on a part of Monte 
Pincio. At his death they were in- 
herited by his nephew, a friend 
of Augustus and Tiberius, and in 
the twentieth year of the Christian 
era they entered into the impe- 
rial domain. The villa constructed 
on the spot was inhabited by 
Nero, Vespasian, and also by Au- 
relian after the conquest of Pal- 
myra. Having been destroyed by 
the Groths under Alaricin409,no 
attempt was made to restore it. 

It is easy to trace the situation 
of the circus, the remains of the 
palace, of a temple of Venus, of 
the substructions on the side of 
the Quirinal, and in the Barbe- 
rini vigna the "agger'' of Servius 
Tnlliu8,under which was the "Cam- 
pus sceleratus," where the vestals, 
who had violated their vow, were 
buried alive. 

Villa Ludovisi . — This villa, now 
the property of Prince Piombino, 
consitsts of three edifices ; one of 
which was built on the designs 
of Dominichino. The most remark- 
able works of art in the second 
are a colossal head of Juno; the 
statues of Esculapius, Apollo, Ve- 



nus; bttstsof Claudius, Julius Cae<^ 
sar, Apollo, Antinous; a splendid 
statue of Mars in repose; groups 
of Apollo and Diana, of Pan and 
Syrinx. A statue of Cleopatra, a 
gladiator, a Venus quitting the 
bath, a Hercules, Bacchus, and 
Mercury; a finely draped statue 
of Agrippina ; the group of Orestes 
recognisid by his sister Electra^ 
the work of Menelas, a Greek 
sculptor, as appears from the in- 
scription; and thatofPaetusand 
Arria, or more probably of He- 
mon supporting Antigone. Pluto 
carrying off Proserpine is by Ber- 
nini. 

In the third is the fresco of 
Aurora, a master-piece by Guer- 
cino. The goddess seated on a 
car drawn by four horses, and 
preceded by the Hours, scatters 
flowers around her. A youth hold- 
ing a torch and flowers signifies 
Daybreak, and the female asleep 
Night 

The following room contains 
two landscapes by Dominichino, 
and two by Guercino, who paintea 
also Fame, under tiie figure of 
a female sounding a trumpet and 
holding an olive branch ; this work 
is not inferior in merit to the 
Aurora. 

St Niccoib di Tolentino. — This 
church, built in 1614 by Prince 
Pampmli, contains a fine fresco 
ofPietro diCortona,who designed 
the Gavotti chapel. The picture 
of St Agnes was copied from the 
original of Guercino in the Do- 
ria gallery. 

In the Piazza Barberini, si- 
tuated on the site of the ancient 
circus of Flora, is a fountain sup- 
ported by four dolphins, with a 
Triton in the centre. 

Capuchin Church. — In the first 
chapel on the right is the celebra- 
ted picture of St Michael by Guido 



62 



CENTRAL ITALY. — MUX, FOORTH DAT. 



The Conception over the high al- 
tar is by bombelli; the St An- 
thony and StBonaventure by An- 
drea Sacchi. St Paul cured by 
Ananias is one of the most cor- 
rect works of Pietro di Cortona. 

St Mdoro. — The convent ad- 
joining this church is occupied 
by Irish Franciscans. The first 
chapel on the right and that on 
the left of the high altar were 
painted by Carlo Maratta. The St 
Isidoro of the high altar is one of 
the best works of Andrea Sacchi. 

The Barherini Palace was com- 
menced under Urban VIII by Carlo 
Maderno and finished by Bernini. 
On the roof of the saloon Pietro di 
Cortona has painted the Triumph 
of Glory under the attributes of 
the Barb erini family. In the centre- 
piece the arms of that family are 
carried up to heaven by the Vir- 
tues, in the presence of Provi- 
dence, of Time, Eternity, and the 
Fates. The first side picture re- 
presents Minerva fulminating the 
Titans ; the second Religion and 
Faith triumphing over Volup- 
tuousness. The third Justice Abun- 
dance, Charity, and Hercules des- 
troying the Harpies, an allegory 
of the chastisement of the wicked. 
The fourth the Church and Pru- 
dence, Vulcan and Peace, closing 
the temple of Janus. 

In the gardens of the palace 
was the"Capitoliumvetus," which 
had three chapels, delicated by 
Numa to Jupiter, Juno, and Mi- 
nerva. In the court is the antique 
inscription taken from the trium- 
phal arch erected to the Empe- 
ror Claudius after the conquest 
of Britain. 

Fontana di Trevi, — The Aqua 
Vergine, which supplies the foun- 
tain, was introduced into Rome 
by Agrippa for the use of his 

3,ths, situated near the Pantheon. 



Its source is eight miles distant 
from the city, on the ancient Col- 
latine way; the subterraneous 
aqueduct is fourteen miles long;^ 
after traversing the villa Borg- 
hese and villa Medici, the water 
divides into tino streams, one tak- 
ing the direction of this fountain^ 
and the other that of the Via 
Condotti. 

Before the front of the palace, 
where the fountain is placed, are 
four Corinthian columns and six 
pilasters, between which are two 
bas-reliefs, one represents Agrip- 
pa and the other the young girl 
who first discovered the spring. 
In the large niche is the statue 
of Neptune standing on a car 
drawn by sea-horses, and guided 
by Tritons, commanding the wa- 
ters which rush out of a mass 
of rocks. The side niches contain 
the statues of Abundance and 
Salubrity : the four over the en- 
tablature complete the decoration 
of the attic. 

The little church of St Maria 
in Trivio on the left of the foun- 
tain is said to have been built 
by Belisarius. It was reduced to 
its present form on the designs 
of Del Duca, in the middle of 
the seventeenth century. 

In the church of St Andre delle 
Fratte are two angels by Bernini ; 
the ceiling was painted by Ma- 
rini. The steeple is a curious 
work of Boromini. 

Propaganda Fide, — This reli- 
gious establishment was founded 
by Gregory XV in 1622, for the 
purpose of propagating the Ca- 
tiiolic faith Young men from all 
countries are admitted here, and 
after having finished their edu- 
cation are sent as missionaries 
to different countries. The col- 
lege possesses a typography fur- 
nished with all sorts of oriental 



ROMAN STATES. — ROME. FOURTH DAT. 



58 



characters, a library with many 
Coptic and oriental works, and a 
collection of medals, gems, and 
other cariosities. 

Piazza di Spagna. — So called 
from the residence of the Spanish 
ambassadors at Rome. In the cen- 
tre is a fountain called the Bar- 
caccia, from its form, and the 
stairs that lead to the Trinity de' 
Idonti, on the Pincian hill. 

The church of the Trinity de' 
Monti was built by Charles Vm, 
king of France, who presented it 
to the rehgious order of St Fran- 
cesco Paola. It belongs, at pre- 
sent, to the community of the 
Sacre Coeur de Jesus, who have 
established a house of education 
for young ladies in the adjoining 
convent. This church was restored 
in 1815. In the sacristy is the 
beautifol fresco of Daniel di Vol- 
terra, representing the Deposition 
from the cross. 

French Academy, — This palace 
was built in 1540 on the designs of 
Annibal Lippi, the front overlook- 
ing the garden on those of Michael 
Angelo ; it was enlarged by Cardi- 
nal de Medici, and although within 
the walls, the circuit of the whole 
villa, which commands extensive 
views over the city and its envi- 
rons, is of about a mile and a 
half. 

-The French academy, founded 
by Louis IV in 1666, is composed 
of a director and twenty pen- 
sioners chosen among the young 
men who have obtained prizes at 
Paris in sculpture, painting, ar- 
chitecture, music, and engraving. 
VUla BorgJiese. — This villa, one 
of the largest and most splendid of 
Rome, owes its origin to Cardinal 
Scipio Borghese, &e nephew of 
Paul V. At the end of last century 
it was enlarged under Prince 
Marc' Antonio, more recently by 



the princes CamiUo and Fran- 
cesco Borghese; it has been con- 
siderably embellished by the lat- 
ter, who added to it the villa of 
Raphael 

The grand entrance is of the 
Ionic order, erected on the model 
of the finest propylaea of Greece 
and Asia Minor. At tlie extremity 
of the great walk is an arch sur- 
mounted with a statue of Septi- 
mius Severus ; and the propylaea 
of an Egyptian temple leading to 
the villa of Raphael, who painted 
on the walls the Marriage of Ro- 
xana, and various sacrifices and 
arabesques, all which have suf- 
fered from the lapse of time. 
Beyond the aqueduct, on the 
right, is a smaU temple conse- 
crated to Diana; on the left, the 
lake and temple of Esculapius; 
and at ihe eQd of the walk an 
imitation of an antique monument, 
with copies of sundry inscriptions 
found at the country house of 
Herod Atticus. 

The palace, built on the designs 
of Vansanzio, a Flemish architect, 
contains a large collection of an- 
tique monuments. 

Under the portico are two tri- 
umphal bas-reliefs that belonged 
to the arch of Claudius, others 
allusive to a battle between the 
Romans and barbarians, and to 
the origin of Rome a curious 
monument in travertine, bearing 
the inscription Orvius, or Corvius 
Nasica, representing a Roman ma- 
gistrate preceded by three lictors, 
and several antique inscriptions. 

The fresco on the roof of the 
saloon, paintend by Rossi, repre- 
sents the arrival of Camillus when 
the garrison of the Capitol were 
in treaty with Brennus for the 
ransom of the city; the circular 
bas-reliefs, the sacrifice of Po- 
lixenes, Hercules, and Jole. The 



54 



€XNTRAL ITALT. — ^ROHI. rOIATB DAT. 



colossal busts of Isis and a Muse, 
of Adrian and Antoninus Pius, 
are ndmirably executed. In the 
left niche is a semi-colossal sta- 
tue of a faun, in the right, one 
of Bacchus. The bust of Vespa- 
sian, the funeral altar of Flavia, 
and the tomb of Petronia, a ce- 
lebrated singer of the time of 
Antoninus Pius, are interesting 
works. 

In the first chamber are co- 
pies of bas-reliefs from antiques, 
arabesques, and paintings. The 
subject of the vase alludes to the 
story of Oedipus and the Sphinx. 
The statue of Ceres, from the 
expression of the head, the de- 
licacy of the work, and the dra- 
pery, is considered as a master- 
piece of ancient sculpture. On the 
right is the bas-relief of Tele- 
phus, found in the ruins of the 
unperial villa on the Labican way, 
^d a torse of Ganymede from 
Nomentum. 

The second chamber contains 
several monuments relative to the 
history of Hercules. In the middle 
is the Amazon, Anthiope, com- 
bating Hercules and Theseus ; on 
the sarcophagus are the labours 
of Hercules against the lion, the 
hydra, and the wild boar, wil^ 
the hind and the stvmphalides. 
The arrival of the Amazons to 
assist Troy, figured on the cover 
of the sarcophagus, has been il- 
lustrated by Winkelman. The op- 
posite side alludes to five other 
labours : against the bull of Crete, 
Geryon, Hippolitus, the dragon 
of the Hesperides, the centaur 
Nessus ; and the second part of 
the cover to the council of the 
gods on the marriage of Thetis. 

The third chamber, in which 
are works of Bernini, contains 
sixteen pilasters and four co- 

vam of red oriental granite. 



The ceiling was painted by Mar- 
chetti; the metamorphosis of 
Daphne in the valley of Tempe, 
by Moore J ApoUo and Diana, by 
Labruzzi; and the animals, by 
Peters. The groups of Apollo 
and Daphne, Aeneas, David draw- 
ing the sling against Goliah, are 
by Bernini. The bas-reliefs allu- 
sive to the seasons, represented 
on four vases, are by Laboureur. 

The callery is one of the most 
s]plendid of Rome. Its twentv 
pilasters of giallo antico, with 
gilded capitals, are ornamented 
with white marble camei and blue 
mosaics, executed on the designs 
of Tommaso Conca by Carradon, 
SaHmbeni, and other artists of his 
time. In the niches are antique 
statues of a Muse, Diana, Bacchus, 
and Thetis ; on the walls are eleven 
modern bas-reliefs alluding to my- 
thological subjects ; the arabesque 
paintings are by Marchetti; the 
fable of Galathea is the work 
of D'Angelis. The busts in por- 
phyry of Ae emperors, the por- 
phyry sarcophagus found in the 
mausoleum of Adrian ; four tables 
of iJie same marble ; several va- 
ses and cups of alabaster and 
species of other marble, parti- 
cularly one in ophix, a very rare 
Egyptian stone, complete the de- 
corations of this chamber. 

The cabinet contains an Her- 
maphrodite, several precious mar- 
bles, busts of Tiberius, Sappho, 
Mercury, and Scipio: an antique 
pavement in mosaic, found at 
Castel Ardone, on the road to 
Tivoli, and a table inlaid with 
agate, jasper, lapis lazuli, and 
ouier precious stones. The paint- 
ings on the ceiling alludmg to 
Uie fable of the Hermaphrodite 
and Salmacis are by Buonvicini 

In the fourth chamber are six- 
teen pilasters and four coloBms 



RMAN 8TAfES.-Ht01IS. rODRTH DAY. 



6fi 



of breccia corallina. The Council 
of the Grods was painted by Pe- 
eheux; die chiaro-oscuri, by Mar- 
chetti. The four oil paintings, by 
Thiers, a French artist, repre- 
sent a chase and the death of 
Milo; Polydamas and the grati- 
tude of Tlieseus. A statue of the 
Pythian Apollo in the primitive 
Greek style, and a sarcophagus 
on which are sculptured Tritons 
and Nereids, in allusion to the 
transfer of souls into the isles of 
the blessed. 

The fifth chamber possesses 
several monuments relative to the 
religion of Egypt; various spe- 
cies of marble and columns in 
oriental granite, nero antico; a 
statue of Isis with her attributes, 
in bronze; a Ceres; a female sta- 
tue of a style anterior to the time 
of Phidias ; a bronze head of Bac- 
chus; the remaining part is of 
flowered alabaster. 

In the middle of the sixth cham- 
ber is an antique group of three 
figures emblematic of Youth, Vi- 
rdity, and Old Age, or of Spring, 
Summer, and Winter; there are 
also a Ceres, a Mercury, inven- 
tor of the lyre ; two fauns, a Pluto, 
an Antoninus Pius; Bacchus ana 
Proserpine, a very ancient and 
unique group. 

On the second story are chim- 
ney pieces of amethyst, porphyry, 
rosso anticOj several paintings by 
Peters, Gavm Hamilton, the sta- 
tues of Paris and Helen, and four 
bas-reliefs, in giallo antico, on 
a ground of porphyry, the work 
of Pacetti. 

FIFTH DAY. 

nOM THB MAVSOLEVM OF AUGUSTUS 
TO THE VSLABRUM. 

Mausoleum of Augustus in the 
Via Pon^^ct.— Stiet(H>iu8, spea- 



king of the funeral of Augnstus, 
says that his remains were pla- 
ced in the monument which he 
had erected in his sixth consu- 
late, or twenty-seventh year be- 
fore our era, between the Fla- 
minian way and the banks of 
the Tiber. The ashes of Octavia, 
Drusus, Germanicus, and of other 
members of his family, were also 
deposited here. 

Strabo observes, in the fifth 
book of his Geography, that on 
a circular and elevated base of 
white marble was a mound of 
earl^, planted with evergreens; 
that on its summit was the bronze 
statue of Augustus, and in the 
interior the sepulchral chambers 
destined for his family; that be- 
hind Ihe monument were shady 
walks, containing in the centre 
a funeral pile of white marble 
surrounded with poplars. 

In the twelfth century this mo- 
nument was converted into a for- 
tress by the Colonna princes, and 
falling into possession of the 
people of Rome it was reduced 
to a ruin. Nothing now remains 
but the fondation walls and the tra- 
ces of thirteen sepulchral rooms. 
About the end of last century a 
species of amphitheatre was built 
on these walls, which is used in 
the summer months for theatri- 
cal representations. 

St, EocL — This church, situated 
in the Via Ripetta, was rebuilt 
in 1657 by Rossi, and its front 
recently by Valadier. Over the 
altar of the second chapel is a 
fine painting of the Yirgin, St 
Roch, and St Anthony, by Boc- 
caccio; in the chapels of St An- 
thony and of the Crib are .estee- 
med works of Calabrese and Bal- 
dassar PeruzzL 

Bipetta.'-Vnder Clement XI a 
landing place was made here for 



56 



CENTRAL ITALT. — ROME. riFTH DAT. 



the wine, oil, wood, corn andoliher 
articles brought by water from 
Umbria and the Sabine country. 
The steps are formed of the sto- 
nes of a arch of the Coliseum 
thrown down by an earthquake 
in 1703. On the level of the street 
is a fountain; on the columns are 
marked the greatest inundations 
of the Tiber. 

Opposite the steps is the church 
of the Schiavoni, given by Nicho- 
las V to the Illyrian natioa It 
was rebuilt in 1588 by Sixtus V. 

Borghese Palace, — This palace, 
one of the most magnificent of 
Rome, was begun in 1590 by Car- 
dinal Dezza, and finished under 
Paul V, by Flaminio Ponzio. The 
porticoes in the entrance court 
are supported by ninety-six gra- 
nite columns. « 

The apartments on the ground 
floor contain a choice collection 
of pictures, open to the public 
daily at ten o'clock. We shall enu- 
merate the principal of them: — 

First Room— The Holy Trinity, 
by Leandro Bassano; the Ma- 
donna, Child, and two Apostles ; 
the Conversion of St Paul, by 
Garofalo; a Madonna, by Ghir- 
landajo; St Peter repentant, by 
Sgaguoletto ; the Adoration of the 
KiQgs, bv Giacomo Bassano. 

Second Room — Our Saviour, 
and a head of St Francis, by 
AnnibaJ Caracci; the Marriage 
of Cana, Birth of Christ, and De- 
position from the Cross, by Ga- 
rofalo ; the Virgin, Jesus, and St 
John, by Titian; Christ with a 
Disciple, Venus weeping for the 
death of Adonis, both by Scar- 
sellino; the Chase of Diana, one 
of the masterpieces of Domini- 
chino. 

Third Room — St Anthony pre- 
aching to the Fish, by Paul Ve- 
ronese: Pordenone and his Fa- 



mily, painted by himself; a St 
Jorni the Baptist in the Desert, 
by Paul Veronese ; a St Francis, 
b^ Annibal Caracci ; and a Holy 
Family, by Pierin del Vaga. 

Fourth Room — Two Apostles, 
by Buonarotti ; the Rape of Eu- 
ropa, by the Cavalier d'Arpino; 
a Raphael, the Deposition from 
the Cross; another Deposition, 
by Garofalo j the Cumaean Sybil 
of Dominichmo ; the Visitation of 
St Elizabeth of Rubens; a Da- 
vid, by Giorgione. 

Fifth Room — The Four Sea- 
sons,' by Albano; Joseph with the 
Wife of Potiphar, by Lanfranc; 
the Samaritan Woman, by Ga- 
rofalo; the Prodigal Child, by 
Guercino; and the Resurrection 
of Lazarus, by Agostino Caracci. 

Sixth Room — A Susanna, by 
Rubens; a portrait of the For- 
narina, by Giulio Romano ; a Ve- 
nus and Satyr, by Paul Veronese. 

The Seventh Room is covered 
with looking glasses. 

Eight Room — Four mosaics, 
one representing Paul V, of the 
Borghese family; a Madonna and 
Child, by Palma ; and a Portrait, 
by Bronzino. 

Ninth Room— A Prodigal Child, 
by Titian; a Holy Familjr, by 
Innocenzo d'Imola; a Deposition, 
by Pietro Perugino; a portrait 
of Cesare Borgia, and another of 
a Cardinal, by Raphael; the Ma- 
donna and Child, by Scarsellino ; 
the celebrated picture of Sacred 
and Profane Love, one of the 
masterpieces of Titian. 

Tenth Room — The Return of 
the Prodigal Child, by Guercino; 
a ResuiTection of Lazarus, and 
a Flagellation, by Garafalo; a 
Madonna, by Pietro Perugino; 
Samson bound to the Column of 
the Temple, Jesus in the presence 



ROHAN 8TATB8. — ROMS. FirTH DAT. 



67 



of the Pharisees, and the Graces, 
all by- Titian. 

Eleventh Room— A Holy Fa- 
mily, by Scipio Gaetano ; the Vir- 
gin and Child, by Bellini: the 
Wife of Titian; under the ngure 
of Judith, by Titian ; Lot and his 
Dangers, by Gherardo delli 
Notti; a portrait of Raphael, by 
one of his pupils; a Virgin and 
Child, by Andrea del Sarto. 

Gampo Marzo. — The ancient 
Campus Martins extended from 
the Capitol, Qirinal, and Plncian 
hiUs to the Tiber, and in the days 
of the republic was consecrated to 
gymnastic exercises and the pu- 
blic assemblies for the election 
of magistrates; but under the 
empire a part only remauied for 

Eublic use, the rest being occupied 
y monuments, by the theatres 
of Pompey and Marcdlus, the 
amphitheatre of Taurus, the Pan- 
theon, and the thermae of Agrippa. 

St Maria Maddalena. — This 
church contains several orna- 
ments, and some paintings. Pladdo 
Costanzi has represented St Ca- 
millo de Lellis, founder of the 
religious order that assists the 
dying. Boccaccio painted the cha- 
pel of St Nicholas of Ban. 

St Maria in Aguiro — This ap- 

Eellation is saia to be derived 
•om the "equiria" games which 
were celebrated on this spot; it 
IB now called Orfanelli, from the 
house in which orphans are recei- 
ve and educated. The second 
chapel contains paintings by Ghe- 
rardo delle Notti. Over the altar 
is the Visitation of the Blessed 
Virgin, by Boncora In the cha- 
pel of the Annunciation is a pic- 
ture by Nappi or the Capucnin, 
and frescoes by Saracem. 

Pantlieon, — This monument,the 
most perfect of the Roman anti- 



quities, was erected by Agrippa 
in his third contulate, in the 
727th year of Rome and the 27th 
before the Christian era. It is 
evident that the circular part of 
this edifice has no connexion with 
the portico— a circumstance which 
has given rise to discussion 
amongst modem writers, 'some 
pretending that the round hall 
is greatly anterior to Agrippa, 
and that he merely added the 
portico. This hall, Jhowerer, can 
be attributed only to Agrippa, as 
it is connected with his thermaa 
We may reasonably conclude that, 
wishing to transform this build- 
ing into a temple, Agrippa added 
the portico in 729 to the edifice 
which had been erected in 727. 
Dio observes that as the statue of 
Venus and Mars, placed in the 
interior, had the attributes of se- 
veral divinities, the temple was 
called the Pantheon, but adds 
his belief that it was so called 
from the resemblance of the roof 
to tiie form of the heavens. The 
statue of Julius Caesar was placed 
in the interior; those of Augus- 
tus and Agrippa in niches under 
the portico. Having suffered from 
fire under Titus and Trajan, the 
Pantheon was restored by Adrian, 
and at a subsequent period by 
Antoninus Pius, Severus, and Ca- 
racalla; as is proved by the fol- 
lowing inscription still legible on 
the architrave: — 

MP. CAES. SEPTIMIVS. SEVRRVS. PIVS. 
PERTINAX. ARABICVS. ADIABENICVS. 
PARTHICVS. UAXIUVS. PONTIF. MAX. 
TRIE. POTEST. X. inP. IX. COS. III. P- 
P. PROCOS. 

IMP. CAES. M. AVRELIV8. ANTONINVS, 
PIVS. FELIX. AY6. TRIE. POTEST. V.' 
COS. PROCOS. PANTHEVH. VETVSTATB. I 
CORRVPTVM. CVM. OHNL CVLTV. RES. I 
TITVERVMT. I 

8* ^ 



68 



OBflmiAL ITALY. 



Pim MT. 



This last restoration -was made 
in the year 202 ; no fiorther men- 
tion is made of this monument till 
it was visited by the Emperor Gon- 
stantius in 354. In 391 it was 
closed, like all other pagan tem*- 
pies, and remained so till 608, 
when the Emperor Phocas ceded 
it to Boniface lY, who dedicated 
it in hononr of the blessed Vir- 
gin and the martyrs, under the 
title of St Maria aa Martyres, 
which it still preserves. 

In 668 the Emperor Constan- 
tius n stripped the temple of the 
bronze tiles which covered the 
roof and the cupola, and of the 
bronze statues which had esca- 
ped preceding devastations, and 
gave orders to transport them to 
Constantinople. They were taken 
by the Saracens, and carried to 
Alexandria. Gregory m repaired 
tliis iiyury by covering the roof 
with lead. 

In the civil broils of the thii*- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries 
this monument suffered severely ; 
at the beginning of ^e fifteenth 
century the eastern side of the 
portico had disappeared; ruins 
had accumulated to the height of 
the bases of the columns, so that 
,it was necessary to descend se- 
veral steps in order to enter the 
church. 

In 1632 Urban VIH, of the Bar- 
berinl. family, ordered all the 
bronze of the portico to be applied 
to the construction of the columns 
of the confession and of the chair 
of St Peter, and to the founding 
of cannon for the Castel St An- 
gelo, which amounted to eighty 
in number. Torrigio, who was an 
eye-witness, says that the metal 
thus carried away weighed 
450,251 lbs., and the nails ^one 
9,374 lbs. 
In 1662 Alexander Vn resto- 



red the eastern side, raised the 
two granite columns still stand- 
ing, and cleared away the rub- 
bish and huts which encumbered 
die portico. Benedict XIY, in the 
middle of last century, reduced 
the interior to its present state. 
Under Pius Vn the covering oi 
die cupola was partly renewed, 
and excavations were made near 
the western side of the portico 
which have thrown light on the., 
plan of the edifice. 

The portico, 103 feet wide and 
sixty-one deep, consists of sixteen 
columns, each of a single block of 
oriental granite, fourteen feet in 
circumference and thirty-eight in 
height, exclusive of either base or 
capital The eight front columns, 
of grey granite, support an enta- 
blature and pediment of the finest 
architectural proportions. The en- 
trance into the temple was for- 
merly effected by seven steps, 
but at present oiuy by two. The 
diameter of the interior, which 
is equal to its height from the 
pavement, is 132 feet; the thick- 
ness of the external wall is nine- 
teen feet. The light enters by a 
single circular opening, twenty- 
six feet in diameter, at the top 
of the roof. 

The tribune of the high altar, 
of a semicircular form, is orna- 
mented with fourteen large fluted 
columns of marble, twenty-seven 
feet high and three and a half 
in diameter, without the capital 
and base; eight circular chapels, 
decorated wiSi columns and pila- 
sters, support the entablature, the 
frieze of which is covered with 
porphyry. The bronze Caryatides, 
the work of Diogenes of Athens 
which, according to Pliny, were 
placed in the interior, probably 
supported the upper cornice of 
the attic. 



i 



ROMMf 8TATIS. — MO. FIFTH INKT. 



59 



Around the dreaoBference be- 
Vwe&i the chapels are eight niches, 
called by the ancients aedicolae, 
adorned with a pediment suppor- 
ted by two Corinthian columns 
of giallo antico, porphyry, and gra- 
aite, which have been adapted to 
serve for altars. 

In the third chapel on the left 
in enteming, under the statue of 
the Madonna del Sasso, the work 
of Loronzetto, one of his pupls, 
are the remains of Raphael. The 
busts of Pemzzi, Pierin del Yaga. 
Znccari, Annibal Oaracci, ana 
others who were buried in this 
temple, have heeo. transferred to 
the GapitoL 

27te Church of St Maria avpra 
Minerva. — This church derives 
its name from the temple of Mi- 
nerva erected by Pompey, on the 
ruins of which it was built The 
most interesting objects which it 
contains are a crucinx painted by 
Giotto, the tombs of Leo X and 
Clement YII by Bandinelli, and 
a statue of our Saviour by Mi- 
chael Angelo. In the convent is 
a library open daily to the public. 

The ancient church of St Eusta- 
chio, which was restored in the 
last century on the designs of 
Canevari, preserves in an antique 
nm placed under the altar die 
remains of the titular saint, whose 
martyrdom is represented in a 
painting by Femandi, placed in 
the choir. 

Near this church is the Sa- 
pienza or University, commenced 
bv Leo X on the plans of Mi- 
chael Angelo; it was continued 
SSixtus y, and finished by 
exander YII. It is divided into 
five colleges, viz., those of theo- 
logn^, law, medicine, philosophy, 
aim philology; the professors are 
pidd by government. On the 
ground fioor are schools of the 



fine arts, under the direction ci 
the Academy of St Luke ; in which 
lectures are delivered on sculp- 
ture, painting, architecture, per- 
spective, anatomy, and mythotogy. 

The Palazzo Madama, the resi- 
dence of the governor of Rome, 
was built by Catherine de Me^ 
did, afterwards queen of France, 
on the ruins of the thermae of 
Nero, of which several granite 
columns are still preserved in a 
cellar in the Via de' Crescenzi. 
Numbers of statues, busts, and 
bas-reliefs, found in the ruins, 
were once deposited in the Giu- 
stiniani palace, which contained 
also a fine collection of paintings 

St. Luigi — This church was 
built in 1689, by Henry m, king 
of France, on the designs of Gia- 
como della Porta. It has three 
naves, divided by Ionic pilasters, 
covered with Sicilian jasper. In 
the second chapel on the right 
are frescoes by Dominichino, re- 
presenting on one side St Cecily 
distributing her clothes to the 
poor, the same saint in her last 
nomeuts, and on the other the 
angels crowning her and her hus- 
band. The Assumption of the Vir- 
gin, over the high altar, is by 
Francesco Bassano. In the chapel 
of St Matthew is a fine painting 
by Caravaggio, representing our 
Saviour summoning the publican 
to abandon his occupations and 
to foUow him* and in the sa- 
cristy a small painting of the 
Madonna, attributed to Correggio. 

Church of St Augustin. — This 
church, built in 1483, one the 
designs of Baccio Pintelli, by Car- 
dinid D'EstouteviUe de Uohan, 
and restored in the last century 
by VanvitellL is in the Italian 
style of the fifteenth century. It 
is divided by columns into three 



60 



CKIfTRAL ITALT. — ^ROMB. FIFTH DAT. 



nayes; its cupola was the first 
ever erected in Rome. 

Near the entrance is a statue 
of the Madonna and Child, by 
Sansovino, which, being in par- 
ticular veneration, is decorated 
with precious gifts. 

In the chapel of St Augustin 
are three paintings by Guercino. 
At the high altar are four angels, 
according to the models of Ber- 
nini, and an iumage of the Virgin, 
said to have been painted by St 
Luke, brought to Rome by the 
Greeks after the fall of Constan- 
tinople. In the urn of verde an- 
tico of the adjoining chapel re- 
poses the body of St Monica, 
mother of St Augustin. The statue 
of St Thomas de ViUanova, by 
Ferrata ; the group of the Virgin, 
Child, and St Andrew, by Sanso- 
vino, and the Madonna of Lo- 
reto, by Caravaggio, decorate the 
adjoining chapels; on the third 
pilaster on the left of the en- 
trance is the celebrated fresco of 
Isaiah, by Raphael. 

In the convent annexed to the 
church is a library, to which the 
public is admitted daily. 

The church of St Antonio de' 
Portoghesi, was built in 1695 by 
Martin Longhi, at the expense 
of the king of PortugaL It con- 
tains several rare and beautiful 
species of marble, gilt stuccoes, 
and paintings by Calandrucci, 
Graziani, and Luigi Agricola. 

St Apollinare — In 772 Adrian 
I built this church on the ruins 
of a temple or monument con- 
secrated to Apollo. It was resto- 
red by Benedict XIV, and con- 
tains a statue of St Francis Xavier, 
by Legros ; on the altar is a paint- 
ing by Ercole G^nnari. 

In the Roman seminary young 
men, destined for the ecclesias- 
tical profession, are instructed 



in the belles lettres, and the diffe- 
rent branches of philosophy and 
theology. The establishment is 
under the inspection of the car- 
dinal vicargeneral, who generally 
resides in it 

The Palazzo Altemps, the por- 
ticoes of which were raised by 
Balthassar Peruzzi, contains some 
ancient statues, columns, and bas- 
reliefs, and in the chapel is pre- 
served the body of Pope St Ani- 
cetus, who died a martyr in 168. 

On the front of a house in the 
same street, Polydore Caravaggio 
painted in chiaro-oscuro the fable 
of Niobe. The Lancellotti palace 
possesses ancient statues of Mer- 
cury, Diana, and numerous busts. 

The Church of St Salvator in 
Lauro. — This church contains 
thirty-four Corinthian columns, a 
painting by Peruzzini of the Santa 
Casa of Loreto, and the first 
production of Pietro di Cortona. 

The house numbered 124 in 
the Via Coronari was the pro- 
perty and once the residence of 
Raphael. Near the Piazza St An- 
gelo formerly existed an arch 
raised in honour of the emperors 
Gratiftn, Valentinian n, andTheo- 
dosius; the verde antico columns 
and other marbles forming its 
decoration are now in the church 
of St Celsus, near which are the 
Palazzo Cicciaporci, built by 
Giulio Romano, and Palazzo Ni- 
colini by Sansovino, a celebrated 
Florentme architect 

Chiesa Nuova — St Filippo Neri, 
with the assistance ofGregoryXIIT, 
built this church, which contains 
works of Pietro di Cortona (who 
painted the ceiling and cupola): 
of Gaetani, Cavalier d'Arpino and 
Muziano. 

Before the high altar are four 
fine columns of porta santa, with 
the bases and capitals in gilt 



ROMAN STATES. — AOMB. PIPTH DAT. 



61 



bronse; three paintings by Ru- 
bens, represent angels, saints, and 
martyrs. 

The body of St Filippo Neri 
reposes in the chapel consecrated 
in his honour; the Presentation 
of the Blessed Virgin in the Tem- 
ple, over the next altar, is an 
esteemed work of Boccaccio. In 
the sacristy is a statue by Al- 
gardi of St Philip, and in the 
room which the saint inhabited 
are paintings by Guercino and 
Gruido. 

St Maria della Pace. — This 
church was built under Sixtus IV 
by Pintelli, and restored under 
Alexander'Vn by Pietro da Cor- 
tona, who added its semicircular 
portico. 

The interior has a nave and 
octagonal cupola. The first cha- 
pel on the right contains a bronze 
bas-relief of the Deposition from 
the Cross, and St Catherine sur- 
rounded by little children, by Fan- 
celli; over the arch are the ce- 
lebrated frescoes of Raphael, re- 
presenting the Cumaean, Persian, 
Phrygian, and Tiburtine Sybils. 

Under the cupola are the Vi- 
j9itation of St Elizabeth, by Carlo 
Maratta; the Presentation in the 
Temple, a master-piece of Baldas- 
sar Peruzzi; the Birth of the 
Blessed Virgin, by Vanni; and 
her Death, by Morandi. There 
are fonr columns of verde antico 
near the high altar, over which 
are some works of Francesco Al- 
bano. 

In the church of St Maria dell' 
Anima, begun in 1400, and after- 
wards enlarged by German resi- 
dents in Rome, who established 
near it a hospital for their fellow 
citizens, are sundry works of Sa- 
racen!, Gendgnani; a Madonna 
over the altar, by Julio Romano; 
the tomb of Adrian VI, firomthe 



designs of Peruzzi, and a monu- 
ment to Luke Holstenius, who 
flourished in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The front gates, of a good 
style of architecture, are attribu- 
ted to Sangalio. 

Piazza Navona. — This piazza, 
occupying the site of the circus 
of Alexander Severus, some ruins 
of which exist under the church 
of St Agnes, still preserves its 
original form, the houses being 
built on the foundations of the an- 
cient seats. 

Under Gregory Xm a fountain 
was placed at its northern and 
another at its southern extremity. 
The latter consists of two large 
marble basins ; in the centre is the 
figure of a Triton holding a dol- 
phin, by Bernini, erected under 
Innocent X; on the borders of 
the vase are similar figures exe- 
cuted by Flaminio Vacca, Leo- 
nardo of Sarzana, Silla, and Lan- 
dini. 

Bernini, by order of Innocent X, 
made the designs of the central 
fountain, formed of a large circular 
basin, seventy-three feet in dia- 
meter, within which is a rock 
perforated on its four sides, and 
four colossal statues, executed on 
the models of Bernini, represent- 
ing the Ganges, Nile, La Plata, 
and the Danube. 

A market is held in this piazza 
every Wednesday, and in August 
it is inundated on Saturdays and 
Sundays. 

St. Agnes. — This church, re- 
stored by the Pamphili princes 
in the seventeentii century, is in 
the form of a Greek cross. The 
interior contains eight large co- 
lumns of cottanello marble, gilt 
stucco, verde antico near the high 
altar; several statues and paint- 
ings by various artists of that 
period. 



e2 



CIIITRA^ ITAtT.—ROVB. rirTH »AT. 



The Sf Agnes in the flames, and 
St Eustace exposed to the lions, 
are by Ferrata; the group of the 
Holy FamOy by Guido; the tomb 
of Innocent X bv Maini. Below the 
church is one of the finest works of 
Algardi, representing St Agnes. 

The Pamphili palace, adjoining 
the church, was built in 1650 on 
the designs of Reinaldi. On the 
extensive ceDing of the grand gal- 
lery Pietro di Cortona painted the 
adventures of Aeneas. 

The Braschi palace is celebrated 
for its splendit marble staircase, 
which is decorated with columns 
and pilasters of oriental" red gra- 
nite. 

At the corner of this palace is 
the Piazza Pasquino, on which is 
an ancient mutilated statue placed 
on a pedestal; it was found near 
the shop of a tailor named Pas- 
quino, who was celebrated for his 
jokes and satires, a circumstance 
from which the word pasquinade 
is derived. The statue, though 
greatly injured by time, exhibits 
traces of excellent worlonanship ; 
it formed part of a group repre- 
senting Menelaus defending the 
body of Patroclus. 

The church of St Pantaleo, 
erected in 1216 by Honorius III, 
was presented by ftregory XV to 
St Joseph Calasanzio, who founded 
the order of the pious schools de- 
stined to give gratuitous instruc- 
tion in reading, writing, arithme- 
tic, and rudiments of Latin. The 
body of the samtly founder re- 
poses undar the altar in an urn 
of porphyry. 

The Palazzo Massimi, built by 
Balthassar Peruzzi, contains va- 
rious paintings and an antique 
statue of a Discobolus, copied from 
the bronze statue by Myron. 

8t Andrea delta Valle. — ^Inthis 



church, erected in 1691, are se- 
veral classic works of the Bolog- 
nese school. Lanfranc painted t£e 
cupolaf Dominichino the fourEvan- 
gelists and several traits from the 
history of St Andrew. H Gara- 
brese the pictures allusive to the 
life of the saint The first chap^ 
on the right has eight colamns 
of verde antico; the second, that 
of the Strozzi family, has twelve 
of lumachella, four tombs, and 
over the altar a bronze group of 
the Blessed Virgin with our Sa^ 
viour after his Grucifixion, copied 
from the original of Michael An- 
gelo. The other monuments of note 
are the tombs of Pius n and 
Pius in, by Pasquino da Monte- 
pulciano; the Assumption, over the 
last altar, bv Passignani ; the sta- 
tues of St John the Baptist, the 
Evangelist, St Martha,and St Mary 
Magdalen. 

The Theatre of Fompey occu- 
pied the entire space between the 
Palazzo Pio and the Via Ghiavari 
and Giupponari; the scena or 
staee began near the tribune of 
St Andrea della Valle ; the centre 
of the semicircular part is now 
covered by the Palazza Pio, on 
which are the only visible ruins 
of this monument It contained 
28,000 spectators, and communi- 
cated with a portico supported 
by 100 columns, occupying the 
site of the present streets Della 
Farina, Sudario, Argentina, and 
Barbieri. On the days of public 
representation the senate assem- 
bled in a hall called Guria Pom- 
peia, in which Gaesar fell on the 
ides of March, the 709th year of 
Rome, and 44th before our era. 

The Palozzo Stoppani, nowVi- 
doni was built on die designs of 
Raphael ; the Prenestine tables, a 
kind of ancient calendar found at 
Pale8trina,are preserved here ; and 



MMAV STATEI.^'llOIIB. riTTfl IkAT. 



al the foot of tiie stairs is an an- 
tique statue of Marcos Aurelkis. 

In the vicinity of the Argentina 
theatre are the churches of the 
8t Sudario, belonging to the Pied- 
montese, and St Julian to the 
Flemish nation; also those of St 
Helen and St Nicholas. In the 
yard and cellar of the house ad- 
joining this church are four an- 
cient columns which formed part 
of the temple of Hercules Gustos, 
finished by Sylla in the 669th 
year of Rome. 

The Palazzo Mattei possesses 
many objects of antiquity; the 
statues of Pallas, Jupiter, Abund- 
ance, bas-reliefe representing a 
consul punishing a culprit ; a sa- 
crifice to Priapus: the Chase of 
Meleager; a sacrince to Escula- 
pius; the Rape of Proserpine ; the 
feraces; Peleus andThetis ; besides 
busts of several emperors. 

In the rooms are paintings by 
Paul Brill and Breughel ; the Sa- 
crifice of Abraham, by Guido: 
frescoes by Pietro di Cortona; 
and the entrance of Charles Y 
into Bologna, by Tempesta. 

Flaminian Cvreua. — The Mattei 
palace just described occupies the 
site of the circus built by Gains 
Flaminius, who in his second con- 
sulate was killed at thebatde of 
Lake Thrasymine. It covered the 
space bounded by the Piazza dell' 
Olmo and Gapizucchi. It was sur- 
rounded with temples, which have 
all disappeared. From the columna 
bdlica, placed before the temple 
of Bellona, the consuls and em- 
perors hurled a dart in the di- 
rection of the country against 
which they declared war. 

In the Piazza Tartaruga is the 
beautiful fountain raised on the 
designs of Giacomo della Porta; 
the bronze figures are by Tad- 



deo Landini, a distinguished Flo- 
rentine artist 

hi the Costaguti palace are 
several frescoes by celebrated ar- 
tists of the first period of the se- 
venteenth century. Hercules shoot- 
ing an arrow agamst Nessus, who 
is carrying away Dejanira, is a 
work ofAlbano; Apollo mounted 
on his car surrounded by Genii 
and Time, discovering Iriith, is 
by Domini chino; the episode of 
the Jerusalem, Rinaldo sleeping 
on his car, drawn by two dra- 
ins in the presence of Armida, 
is a highly-finished composition 
of Guercino; the Venus, Cupid, 
and other divinities, are by the 
Cavalier d'Arpino; Justice and 
Peace, by Lanfranc ; Arion seated 
on the dolphin, and a vessel filled 
with mariners, by Romanelli. 

St Gaterina de' Ihinari, — This 
church was built in the twelfth, 
and was restored in the sixteenth, 
century by Giacomo della Porta. 
The Coronation of the Virgin is 
by Annibal Caracci; the St Mar- 
garet, a copy of an original of 
Sie same artist, by his pupil Mas- 
sari ; Scipio Gaetano painted over 
the third altar the Assumption 
of the Blessed Virgin. The fres- 
coes over the high altar are by 
Frederic Zuccari and Rafi^ael da 
Reggio. 

St Maria in CampitelliyfBS buHt 
at the public expense in 1658, 
from veneration for a miraculous 
image of the Madonna. In the 
interior are .pilasters and twenty- 
two fluted Corinthian columns. 
The paintings are by Conca, Gior- 
dano, Gemignani, and Boccaccio. 

Portico of Octavia — This por- 
tico, built by Augustus, was in 
the form of a partdlelogram, hav- 
ing a double row of colunms 360 
feet in extent, and the temples 
of Jupiter and Juno in the centrr 



6i 



ciirraAL italt. — ^rome. htth bat. 



The fragments preserved in the 
Capitol convey an exact idea of 
its form and size. According to 
Pliny and Pausanius, it was de- 
corated with several monuments 
of art, particularly with the Cu- 
pid of Praxiteles, all which were 
sonsumed by fire under Titus. The 
portico was restored by Severus 
and by Caracalla, and later in the 
fifth century. 

The part still existing was for- 
merly one of the chief entrances ; 
it had an interior and an exterior 
front, each supported by four flu- 
ted columns, and two pilasters of 
the Corinthian order. Of one of 
these fronts only two columns 
and a pilaster remain ; of the other, 
two columns and two pilasters. 
They support an entablature ter- 
minating in a pediment. 

Under the portico is the little 
church of St Angelo in Pesche- 
ria, belonging to the Fishmonger's 
company. The painting over the 
altar of St Andrew is by Vasari. 

In the lane leading to the church 
of St Catherine are remains of 
the temple of Juno Kegina. These 
consist of there fluted columns 
of the composite order, with a 
part of the entablature. They now 
belong to a private dwelling. 

The Theatre of MarceUus, rai- 
sed by Augustus, and so named 
from his nephew, the ton of Oc- 
tavia, was 267 feet in diameter, 
and contained thirty thous and 
spectators. 

The interior was formed of large 
travertine blocks; on the exterior 
were columns of three orders of 
architecture, one of which orders 
has disapperead. The remains of 
the other two consist of demi- 
columns, Doric and Ionic. Their 
proportions serve as a model to 
modem architects for the union 
of these orders. 



In the middle ages this mo- 
nument became a fortress of the 
Pierleoni. To these succeeded the 
Savelli; who built, on the designs 
of Peruzzi, the palace now oc- 
cupied by a branch of the Orsini 
family. 

About the middle of the neigh- 
bouring lane, called Delia Buf^a, 
was the Porta Carmentalis of the 
first walls of Rome, and near it 
the Forum Olitorium, or vegetable 
market, in which were three tem- 
ples that faced the C^pitoL Some 
remains of them are still visible. 
One of them, raised by Colatinus, 
in the year 500 of Home, was 
dedicated to Hope, the second to 
Piety, in the year 559, and the 
third to Juno Matuta, in the year 
571. The temple of Piety^ raised 
in commemoration of fQial piety 
in this forum, stood on the site 
of the theatre of Marcellus. 

St NiccoVo in Careers, — This 
church, built in the minth cen- 
tury, and since frequently resto- 
red, is divided into three naves 
by fourteen antique columns, vary- 
ing in materials and diameter. 
Under the altar is an antique 
urn of green porphyry with car- 
vings of Medusa's head. 

The church of the Consolazione 
contains estimable compositions 
of Zuccari, Pomarancio, and Ron- 
calli; it adjoins the hospital for 
the wounded of both sexes. 

In the churches of St Aloy de' 
Ferrari and St John the Baptist 
are also numerous paintings by 
the same and by other artists. 

The Forum Piscarium, or fish 
market, was in this quarter. 

SIXTH DAY. 

FROM THE VELABRDH TO THE 
FABRICIAN BRIDGI. 

Velabrum, The Yelabrum was 
a marsh formed by ^e overflo- 



ROHAN STATES. — ROME. SIXTH DAY^ 



65 



wings of the river and by the 
waters that came from the Fala- 
tine and Aventine hills; it still 
preserves its appellation, though 
It was drained by the last kings 
of Rome, when they completed 
the cloaca masima. 

At the foot of the Palatine %as 
the Forum Boarium, or cattle mar- 
ket; probably the original Roman 
forum: on which stood the bronze 
cow 01 Myron, brought from Egina. 
In its vicinity was the ara ma- 
xima, or altar, raised by Hercu- 
les after having killed Cacus, and 
the temple of Hercules, discove- 
red in the fifteenth century, which 
contamed his statue of gilded 
bronze, now in the Capitol. Ta- 
citus asserts that it was at this 
spot that Romulus began to trace 
the furrows of his new city, 753 
years before Christ. 

Janus QuadAfons, — This is the 
only arch that remains of those 
called Jani, which served to shel- 
ter the people from the weather. 
In 1829 it was cleared of all the 
constructions raised by the Fran- 
gipani when they converted it into 
a fortress in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Each front presents an arch 
with small niches. This building 
may be ascribed to the time of 
Se/erus. 

The Arch of SepHmiua Severua 
was erected, as is seen from the 
inscription, by the bankers and 
merchants of the Forum Boa- 
rium, in honour of Severus and 
his family. Its principal front is 
situated towards the west. Under 
the arch are represented Seve- 
rus and Julia his wife, bearing 
the caduceus, or a symbol of 
concord, and performing asacri- 
ficewith Caracallaand Geta, whose 
figure was effaced after his death, 
but of which traces are visible. 
Under these bas-reliefs are others 



of sacred ut^sils, sacrifices, pri- 
soners accompanied b^ Roman 
soldiers, and men drivmg oxen, 
alluding to one of the trades that 
raised this monument 

The church of St Giorgio in 
Velabro was built in the fourth 
century. It is proved by an in- 
scription preserved there that the 
portico was added, and the church 
restored, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It is divided into three naves 
by sixteen columns, four of which 
are of violet coloured marble. 

The cloaca maxima was com- 
menced by Tarquinius Priscus, 
and finished by his son Tarqui- 
nius Superbus, who drained into 
this channel the waters of the 
Velabrum. 

The vault is formed of three 
layers of large blocks of tufa uni- 
ted at certain distances by blocks 
of travertine stone, without mor- 
tar or cement. The arch is twelve 
feet in height and twelve in 
breadth, thus justifying the as- 
sertion of Pliny, that a car, lo- 
aded with hay, could easily pass 
within the aperture. Its length 
firom the forum to the Tiber is 
2,500 feet ; its mouth at the river 
is between the Palatine bridge 
and the temple of Vesta. It is 
remarked by Dionysius, Strabo, 
and other authors, that the clo- 
acae, the aqueducts, and the high 
roads were alone sufficient to 
place the Romans in the first rank 
amongst nations. 

Following the declivity of the . 
Palatine we arrive at the ancient 
church of St Anastasia, restored 
by sundry popes, near which was 
the ancient ara maxima. A very 
ancient Christian altar is pre- 
served here. In the interior are 
eight violet, two red granite, and 
two Africano columns. 

In the Murcian valley, situated 



66 



OBNTRAL ITALT. — ROME. saTH DAT. 



-between tiie Palatine and Aven- 
tine, and at the foot of the pa- 
lace of the Caesars, was 

The Circus Maasimua. — This 
spot was selected by Romiilus to 
celebrated games in honour of 
Keptune (surnamed Census), they 
were hence called Consuaha; at 
these was effected the rape of 
the Sabine women. To comme- 
morate this event the subterra- 
nean altar of Consus was erected 
in the circus; it was uncovered 
for the sacrifice before the games 
commenced, and then covered 
again with earth, Tarquinius Pri- 
scus built the circus, which from 
its size received the appellation 
of maximus. The circenses, or 
games of the circus, were the 
favourite amusement of the Ro- 
mans. They consisted principally 
of chariot races, each chariot 
having two or four horses, and 
of various athletic games. Dio- 
nysius of Halicarnassus, who vi- 
sited this circus after its enlar- 
gement under Julius Caesar, says, 
that it was three and half stadii, 
or nearly half a mile, in length, 
four plethre, or 400 feet, in 
))readth, and that it could con- 
tain 150,000 persons. It was 
greatly injured by the fire which 
occurred under Nero, but being 
restored by Vespasian and by 
Trajan, it could hold 250,000 
persons. It was further enlarged 
under Constantino; and accord- 
ing to the notice of the empire 
it then afforded room for 405,000. 

The circus was of an oblong 
form ; one of the ends was semi- 
circular, the other a gentle curve. 
At the semicircular end was the 
grand entrance ; at the curve were 
tiie careeres or starting place. In 
the middle was the spina, a long 
narrow platfcwm covered with 
arae, statues, columns, and two 



obelisks; at the extremities we^ 
the metae, round which it wa» 
necessary that the cari should 
pass seven times before they were 
entitled to the prize. 

A triple line of porticoes placed 
over each other, and numerous 
rows of seats as in the theatres 
and amphitheatres, were destined 
for the spectators. At the foot of 
the podium, appropriated in aJl 
these places of public amusement 
to the dignitaries of the empire, 
was a canal, called the Euripus, 
nine feet in breadth and depth, 
added by Julius Caesar. 

Although originally destined for 
the chariot races, yet wrestling, 
pugilistic games, foot racing, the 
hunting of wild beasts, and other 
manly exercises, were practised 
in the circus. It was on this spot, 
according to Aulus Gellius, that 
Androcles, condemned to fight in 
the games, was recognized by 
the Son from whose foot he had 
extracted a thorn in Africa; the 
animal licked his hands and 
spared his life. 

Besides the great circus there 
existed several others in Rome : 
the Flaminian, that of Flora, the 
Sallustian, those of Caligula, 
Adrian, Heliogabalus, Alexander 
Severus, and Romulus, son of 
Maxentius; this last is situated 
on the Appian way. 

Beyond arivulet called the Mar- 
rana are the ruins of the 

TAermotf of CcuraoaUa, — The 
Emperor Antonius CaracaUa com- 
menced these thermae in 212, and 
finished them in the 217th year of 
the Christian era. Porticoes were 
afterwards added by Heliogabalus 
and Alexander Severus. Their 
magnificence has been extolled by 
Spartian, Sextus Victor, and by 
Olympiodorus, who says that they 
contained 1,000 bathing places. 



KOrnhV NATES. — ROME. SIXTH MY. 



«7 



The period of the deBtruction of 
this splendid edifice was during 
tiiie wars between the Goths and 
the Greeks in the sixth century. 

In the excavations made in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, the torso of the Belvidere, 
the Famese Hercules, the Farne- 
sine Flora, the group of the Far- 
nese bull, the three last now at 
Naples, and several hundred sta* 
tues, more or less injured, were 
found in these ruins. 

The form of the edifice was a 
square, measuring 1,050 feet on 
each side. In the centre was a 
building 690 feet high, 450 Wide, 
isolated in an extensive court 
used for public exercises; a kind 
of theatre was placed on the hill 
to the south-west. The front was 
at the north-east, where nume- 
rous chambers, still visible, were 
occupied by the guards and sla- 
ves attached to the establish- 
ment; a common entrance led 
into a large arched portico lead- 
ing to the baths, and six stair- 
cases placed at sundry distances 
to the court containing the cen- 
tral edifice. 

Later excavations have pro- 
duced mosaics of porphyry, ser- 
pentine, giallo antico, porta santa, 
-white marble, and lava; the de- 
signs present a variety of forms 
and brilliancy of colours, but are 
inferior in workmanship to those 
of the courts for exercises, re- 
presenting gymnasiarchs anaath- 
letae; these last are now in the 
Lateran palace. 

This part of the thermae was 
distributed into two courts sur- 
rounded with porticoes, which 
served for the gymnastic exer- 
cises. Near this was a large cen- 
tral hall called Uie Pinacotheca, 
in which were eight enormous 
granite columns ; a round hall at 



the south-west, opposite the thea^ 
tre; and the great piscina, 188 
feet long and 134 broad, which 
had nine channels for the pas* 
sage of the water. The lower 
part of the walls was covered 
with a mastich called opus sig- 
ninum, which rendered them im* 
penetrable to water. At each end 
of the court are remains of two 
octagonal halls, near which were 
discovered, in 1777, the two ba- 
saltic baths now in the Yaticaa 
museum. 

The church of StNereo and St 
Achilleo was erected in 524, and 
rebuilt in 1596. Four columns of 
Africano marble support the bal- 
dachin of the altar, near which 
are two ambones. In the tribune 
is the presbyterial chain used by 
St Gregory I. 

The church of St Sixtus is 
situated in the 

Valley of Egeria. — This valley, 
celebrated according to ancient 
tradition as the spot where Numa 
consulted the goddess Egeria, is 
between the Caelian mount and 
a hill called Monte d'Oro, yet it 
has been placed by modem 
writers at a distance of three 
miles from the city. From a com* 
parison of passages of ancient 
authors, and particularly of Ju* 
venal where he describes the jour- 
ney of Umbricius, it is evident 
that this valley was near the 
Porta Capena, which was situated 
in this direction. 

On a hill to the right, over* 
locking the church of St Cesareo, 
was the temple of Mars extra 
muros, and on the ancient Via 
Appia, in the Yigna Sassi, is 

The T(mh of the Seipios, dis- 
covered in 1790, and composed 
of two stories; we first, still ex- 
isting, is a large subterranean 
chamber dug out of the tufa ; o^ 



68 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ^ROMK. SIXTH DAT. 



the second, in which were semi- 
columns of the Ionic order, and 
niches occupied by the statues of 
the Scipios, and by that o the 
poet Ennius, nothing remains. The 
following objects, found in his 
tomb, are now in the Vatican 
museum ; the sarcophagus of Lu- 
cius Scipio Barbatus, conqueror 
of the Samnites and Lucanians, 
before the first Punic war ; a bust 
crowned with laurel, supposed to 
be that of the poet Ennius, pro- 
bably of one of the Scipios ; an- 
other in white marble of an un- 
known personage, and several 
inscriptions. Copies of these oc- 
cupy the places of the originals 
in this monument, so interesting 
from its antiquity, and for its 
having been the tomb of the fa- 
mily to whom Rome owed the 
conquest of Carthage. 

In the same vineyard is the 
columbarium of Hylas and Vita- 
Bna, destined, like other monu- 
ments of this nature, to receive 
the ashes of the slaves and eman- 
cipated freedmen, who where ge- 
nerally buried on the lands or 
near the tombs of their masters: 
several small niches were filled 
with the vases called oUae, which 
contained the bones and ashes 
collected at the funeral pile. In 
front of these niches were inscrip- 
tions (tituli) with the names, rank, 
and profession of the deceased. 
These columbaria were raised on 
the sides of the high roads, and 
particularly on the iiatin and Ap- 
pian ways. 

The first inscription is that of 
Hylas and of Vitalina, the pro- 
prietors; the others of persons 
attached to the court of Augustus 
and Tiberius. 

On the Appian way is the arch 
of Drusus, raised by the senate 
to the father of &e Emperor 



Claudius. The canal and arcades 
still visible on the upper part 
and at the side of this monument 
are part of the aqueduct used by 
Caracalla to supply waters for 
his thermae. 

Porta Appia, or St Sebastian, — 
This gate was substituted in place 
of the Porta Capena when the 
city was enlarged: it derived its 
appellation from the Appian way, 
which was paved with large blocks 
of stone by the censor Appius 
Claudius in the 442nd year of 
Rome, and was the most magni- 
ficent of all those opened by the 
Romans. It was repaired by Augu- 
stus when he drained the Pontine 
marshes, by Vespasian, Domitian, 
Nerva, and by Trajan. It united 
with the Latin way at the Casi- 
line bridge, near Capua. The pre- 
sent name of the gate is taken 
from the basilic of St Sebastian, 
two miles distant. 

A quarter of a mile from the 
gate is the Almo, a stream sup- 
plied by various springs five and 
six miles distant from the city; 
according to Ovid, the priests of 
Cybele annually washed in this 
stream the statue of that god- 
dess and the utensils used in her 
worship. 

Opposite the little church of 
"Domine quo vadis," are the ruins 
of the tomb of Priscilla, the wife 
of Abascanthus, mentioned by Sta- 
tins : and further on are several 
tombs, and an extensive colum- 
barium, supposed to be that of 
the slaves of Augustus. 

In the Casali vineyard several 
inscriptions were found in 1826 
relative to the Volusia family, one 
of the most distinguished of an- 
cient Rome; and near this spot 
a marble sarcophagus, of fine com- 
position and well preserved, the 
bas-relief of which represents a 



BOMAll STATES. — ^ROME. SKTH BAT. 



battle between tbe Oanls and 
Bomans. 

In another vineyard, to the left 
of a lane diverging from the main 
road, a large sepulchral chamber 
was discovered in 1726. It was 
appropriated to the bondsmen of 
Livia Augusta, and contained nu- 
merous vases and cinerary vases 
with their inscriptions, all of 
which are now in the gallery of 
the Capitol. 

The Church of St Sebastian, 
built over the cemetery of St Ca- 
lixtus, is one of the seven ba- 
silics of Rome ; it was rebuilt in 
1611 by Cardinal Scipio Borghese 
on the designs of Fiaminio Pon- 
zio. The high altar is adorned 
with four ^e columns of verde 
antico, and over the doors are 
figures of saints painted by An- 
tonio Caracci. The statue of St 
Sebastian is by Giorgetti, from a 
model of Bernini 

A staircase leads from the 
church to the catacombs, dug in 
the form of corridors or galleries. 
These excavations, from which 
sand or arena, now called pazzo- 
lana, was taken for the purpose 
of construction, were formerly cal- 
led arenaria. They were enlarged 
by the Christians, who in the 
times of the persecution practi- 
sed here the exercises of religion 
and buried their dead. The an- 
cient ecclesiastical authors assert 
that fourteen popes and 170,000 
Christians were buried here; and 
that the bodies of St Sebastian, 
of the apostles Peter and Paul, 
were deposited during a certain 
period in these catacombs. 

On the left of the road are 
the ruins of a villa, ascertained 
by late excavations to be that of 
Maxentius, built in the year 311 
of the Christian era. One of the 



most remarkable monuments of 
this villa on the Appian way is the 

Temple of Romulus. — The plan 
of this building is an oblong square, 
surrounded wth a wall, with a 
portico of arcades and pilasters 
in the interior. In the centre was 
the temple, of which only the 
subterranean part now remains. 
Palladio, from whom these par^ 
ticulars are derived, has proved 
that this temple was one of those 
called prostyle; that it had a 
rectilinear portico with six co- 
lumns, that the entrance was 
round, and that the edifice was 
seen from the Appian way. The 
subterraneous parts of the por- 
tico are well preserved ; the walls 
are about fourteen feet thick ; the 
diameter of the subterranean cella 
nearly 100; it is encircled with 
niches, and in its centre is a large 
octagonal pillar supporting the 
roof. 

As this temple is of a construc- 
tion similar to that of the circus, 
which is ascertained by niunerous 
inscriptions found in the late exca- 
vations to have been that of Ro- 
mulus, the son of Maxentius, and 
as the medals struck .after his 
death bear on the reverse a round 
temple, this edifice may safely 
be considered as dedicated to 
the same personage. 

Behind the wall of the large 
square court, opposite the car- 
ceres of the circus, is a small 
unknown tomb of more ancient 
construction. 

The Circus, known during cen- 
turies under the name of Cara- 
calla, was proved by the exca- 
vations made by the duke Tor- 
Ionia in 1825 to be that of Ro- 
mulus, the son of Maxentius. 
Three inscriptions bear the name 
of Maxentius ; the one best pre- 



70? 



OnmUL ITALY.— 'ftOVji. tnTR BAIi 



served, i^aced under the entrance 
door, is a ibllows: 

DIVO. ROnVLO. N. M. V. 

COS. ORD. n. FILIO 

0. N. HAXENTn. IN VICT. 

VIRI. ET. PERP. AV6. NEPOTI 

T. DIVI. nAXIMlANI. SENI 

ORIS. AC. BIS. AUGU8TI. 

Thus illustrating the anonymous 
writer, a contemporary of Maxen- 
tius, published by Eccard, who 
says that this emperor erected a 
circus in catecumbis, or near the 
catacombs. 

The circus being well pre- 
served is one of the most inter- 
esting monument near Rome. Its 
lengtid is 1,700, its breadth 260 
feet; the carceres, circus, and 
spina are distinctly visible. The 
carceres are divided into thirteen 
arches; the circus in the distri- 
bution of the seats resembled 
other edifices of this sort; the 
spina was 300 feet long, twenty- 
two wide, and from two to five 
high. 

Cecilia Metella, — This sepulch- 
ral monument, 100 feet in dia- 
meter, is of a circular form, built 
of large blocks of travertine ; its 
waUs are of the extraordinary 
thickness of thirty-five feet In 
its interior was found, under 
Paul Hr, the marble sarcophagus 
now placed in the court of the 
Famese palace. 

On the top of the monument 
is inscribed — 

CAECILTAE 

Q. CRETICI. F. 

UETELLAE. CRASSI. 

Over which is a marble frieze 
finely executed and adorned with 
bucrania or bulls' heads and fes- 
toons. 

The upper constructions are of. 
*he year 1299, when the Gaetani 



family transformed this tomb into 
a fortress. 

Monument of Serviliue — Bey- 
ond the tomb of Metella are re- 
mains of the ancient pavement 
of the Appian way, which at this 
point was fourteen feet broad, 
and was crowded with numerous 
sepulchral monuments now alto- 
gether unknown ; some fragments, 
however, found in an excavation 
made in 1808 indicate that ou 
this spot was the tomb of Ser- 
vilius Quartus. 

Near the farm called Roma 
Vecchia are remains of a qua- 
drangular wall built of large blocks 
of peperino or alban stone, some 
being ten feet long. This spot, 
it would appear from Martial, 
was the sacred field of theHoratii, 
and near it, at the fossae Clui- 
liae, tradition places the combat 
between the Horatii and Curiatii 

Villa of the QuintUii. ^The 
mass of ruins known under the 
name of Roma Vecchia are those 
of a country house of the second 
century of the Christian era, be- 
lon^ng to Gordinus and Maximus 
Qmntili, as is proved by the fol- 
lowing inscription observed on 
several pipes of lead: n. qvinti- 

LIORVH, CONDINI ET MAIIMI. The tWO 

brothers were put to death by 
the Emperor Commodus, who ap- 
propriated to himself their exten- 
sive property. Several statues, bas- 
reliefs, columns, and fragments 
were found here in 1828 ; reser- 
voirs of water, a fountain, an 
aqueduct, two large halls for bath- 
ing, and a small amphitheatre, 
may be traced among the ruins. 

Near the circus of Romulus is 
the temple of Bacchus, ascertained 
bv a Greek inscription on an ara 
of Bacchus mentioned by Hol- 
stenius. 

The portico is supported by four 



RftMAff StAT£fi««>-ROIIB. »aft VAT. 



7f 



whMe fluted Corinthian colnmns, 
taken from some edifice of the time 
of the Antonines; on the right 
hand is seen the altar of Bacchus 
TTi^ its Greek inscription and the 
Dionysiac serpent In the eleventh 
century it became a church, and 
was afterwards dedicated to St 
Urban. 

In the valley of the Oaifarella is 
die Nymphaeum, hitherto consi- 
dered as the fountain of Egeria, 
known from Juvenal and Symma- 
chus to have been near the Capena 
gate. These nymphae are fre- 
quently seen in the villas of the 
ancients, who dedicated them to 
rivers, fountains, and Naiads. 

This edifice of reticular brick 
work had several niches occupied 
by statues. The pavement, two 
feet lower than the present level, 
was covered with seipentine, the 
walls with verde antico, and the 
niches with marble. At the fur- 
thest end of the grotto is a re- 
cumbent statue, probably that of 
the Almo. The style of the build- 
ing is of the time of Vespasian. 

In the same valley, half a mile 
from this Nymi^aenm, in the di- 
rection of l£e city, is the 

Temple or Fanum Rediculi. — 
When Annibal raised the siege 
of Rome a field and fanum were 
consecrated to the Genius of Re- 
turn; but its position is stated 
by Pliny to have been on the 
Appian way, two miles from the 
Capena gate; this little temple 
was probably dedicated to the 
river Almo, which flows at its 
base. The brick construction re- 
sembles that of the aqueducts near 
the Porta Maggiore of the time of 
Nero. 

Its pilasters have small aper- 
tures in the centre, and two oc- 
tagonal half columns are placed 
on ^e side that faces a cross 



road, connecting the Appian and 
Latin ways. 

Returmng to the Appian way^ 
and following the road near the 
church of St Sebastian for the 
distance of two miles, is the 

BasiUc of St PauL—TMB church 
was built by Constantine in a 
farm belonging to Lucina, a Ro- 
man matron, over the cemetery in 
which St Paul was buried. It was 
rebuilt and enlarged in 386 by 
Yalentinian II and Theodosius,. 
completed by Honorius, and re- 
stored by several popes. On the' 
night of the 15th July, 1828, the 
greater part of this basilic, and in 
particular the roof, Uie central 
nave, and the doors, were con- 
sumed by fire. It is ahready in 
great part rebuilt, with some 
slight deviations from its original 
structure. 

The ancient front which still 
remains is adorned with mosaic 
of tiie thirteenth century. Th& 
interior was 240 feet long (without 
reckoning the tribune), 138 feet 
wide, and its fiwe naves were se- 
parated hj 182 columns, thirt}'- 
six feet high, and eleven in dr- 
cumference, taken in part from 
the Aemilian basilic The columns 
supporting the grand arch of the 
tribune were twenty-two feet high, 
and five in diameter; the altars^ 
were decorated with thirty por- 
phyry columns, which were also 
injured by the flames. 

The ancient mosaics have been 
preserved; that over the great 
arch of the principal nave, made 
under St Leo in 440, represents 
our Saviour with the twenty-four 
ancients of the apocalypse and 
the apostels Peter and Paul. 
On the upper part of the great 
nave was the series of portraits 
of the popes from St Peter to 
Pius VII, the 268rd pontiff. 



72 



CENTRAL HALT* — ^ROME. saXH DAT. 



Under the high altar, which was 
greatly injured, are parts of the 
bodies of St Peter and St Paul. 
In the tribune is a mosaic of the 
thirteenth century. 

Adjoining the basilic is a mo- 
nastery; its cloister is surroun- 
ded with arcades built in 1220, 
within which are several ancient 
inscriptions. 

St Paul at the Three Foun-- 
tains, — Three churches were rai- 
sed by the ancient Christians on 
tliis spot, called ad aquas Sal- 
vias. That'erected where St Paul 
suffered martyrdom was restored 
in 1690 by Cardinal Aldobran- 
dini on the designs of Giacomo 
della Porta; it contains the three 
springs of water which are said 
to have appeared at the three 
bounds of the apostle's head. 

In the church dedicated to St 
Vincent and Anastasius in 624 
are frescoes of the twelve apo- 
stles from the designs of Raphael. 

The third church, dedicated to 
the Madonna under the denomi- 
nation of St Maria Scala Coeli, 
and restored by Cardinal Alexan- 
der Farnese on the designs of 
Vignola, is of an octagonal form, 
terminated by a cupola. It con- 
tains a mosaic by Zucca, a Flo- 
rentine, the first good modern 
work of the kind^ 

Porta St Pao/a.— When the 
walls of the city were enlarged 
the present gate was substituted 
for those called the Trigemina, 
Minucia, Navalis, and Lavema- 
lis; it was rebuilt by Belisarius, 
eigtheen feet above the more an- 
cient level 

Pyramid of Caiua Ceatius, — 
This sepulchral monument, in the 
form of a quadrangular pyramid, 
was built in 330 days, as is ascer- 
tained by the inscription, and is 
covered with marble one foot in 



thickness. Its height is 125 leet, 
each front is seventy-five, and 
the mass of the building twenty- 
five feet thick; the sepulchral 
chamber is twenty feet long, 
twelve wide, and fifteen high* 
Caius Cestius was one of the Be> 
ven Epulones who prepared the 
epula or banquets for the ^ods ; 
this ceremony, called lectister- 
nium, was practised in the tem- 
ples in case of signal victories, 
or of public calamities. 

This pyramid was restored by 
Alexander YII, when the columns 
placed at the western angles, the 
bronze foot now in the Capitol, 
and two pedestals, were disco- 
vered,bearing the same inscription, 
and showing that Cestius was a 
contemporary of Agrippa. 

Near this pyramid is the Pro- 
testant burying ground. 

Teataccio — The origin of this 
hill, which is not mentioned by 
any of the ancient authors, may 
be attributed to fragments of vase 
of terra cotta, called teata in La- 
tin. Its height is 163, and its cir- 
cumference 4,503 feet 

Not far from this hill is an arch 
called that of St Lazarus from the 
adjoining hermitage ; it probably 
formed part of the public granaries 
placed in this quarter.. 

In the neighbouring Vigna Ce- 
sarini are ruins of the ancient 

Novalia^ SO called from the spot 
where vessels touched, and mer- 
chandise was landed; other ruins 
in small tufa polygons of the se- 
venth century of Home probably 
belonged to the arsenal. In the 
middle ages this side of the river 
was called the Ripa Graeca, and 
that opposite Ripa Romaea. 

Pons SubliciiM. — This bridge, 
the first thrown over the Tiber 
imder Ancus Martius, is cele- 
brated for the action of Horatius 



BQIlAli -STAT18«--B0ia. fiXT^ HAT. 



7» 



Cocles, irho alone withstood on 
it the army of PoFsenna. It was 
afterwards called the Aemilian 
when rebuilt in stone by Aemi- 
lins Lepidua, censor under Au- 
gnstos. Having been restored by 
Antoninus Pius, it was afterwards 
carried away in the year 780 in 
an extraorainary inundation of 
the river. 

The ancient salines or salt ware- 
houses, and the Porta Trigemina 
of TulKus, were near this bridge. 

The Aventine. — This hiljj.isin 
the form of a pentagon, 10,800 
feet in circumference, or nearly 
eighteen stadia, the measurement 
assigned to it by Dionysius of Ha- 
licamassus, and is forty-two me- 
tres above the level of the sea. 
Several etymologies of its name 
are given in ancient authors; ab 
adventUi from the arrival of the 
people of Latium at the temple 
of Diana; Avens, a river in the 
territory of Rieti, an ancient Pe- 
lasgian city; and Aventinus, king 
of Alba» who was buried in the 
spot 

It first formed apart of Rome 
under Ancus Martius, who des- 
tined it for the residence of the 
Latin tribes, whom he had subju- 
gatedy and principally of the in- 
habitants of PoUtorium, Tellene, 
and Ficana, but it is known from 
Tacitus that it was not enclosed 
in the Pomaerium before tiie reign 
of Claudius. 

The principal edifices raised 
on the Aventine were the temples 
of Dianjt, of Juno Regina, the 
Bona Dea and Minerva, the ar- 
milustrium, the atrium of Liberty, 
the palaces of Sura and of Tra- 

i'an, the thermae of Varius and 
)eciu6. These edifices have all 
nearly disappeared. 

St Maria Aventina. — This 
church was built in the thirteenth 



century, restored by Pins V, and 
reduced to its present state by 
Cardinal Rezzonico, in 1765, from 
the designs of Piranesi, who united 
in its decoration various orna- 
ments of antiquity. As it belongs 
to the knights of Malta it is known, 
as the priory; it commends a fine 
view of Rome, and of the envi- 
rons. The temple of the BonaDea, 
was near this spot on the decli-, 
vity of the hilL 

St Alexius. — Near St Alexius, 
was the armilustrium, a name de- 
rived from the exercises of the 
soldiers and the games they ce- 
lebrated in honour of Mars and 
Tatius. This church is anterior 
to the ninth century; it became 
an abbey in 976, was reconse- 
crated in 1217, and now belongs 
to the monks of St Jerome. 

St Sahina was built over the 
house of the father of this saint 
near the temple of Juno Regina, 
erected by Camillus, after the cap- 
ture of Veii. 

Its foundation is due to anil- 
lyrian priest namedPeter, in 425,. 
as is seen from a mosaic inscrip- 
tion over the principal door. ]^t. 
was restored by several popesy 
and finally by Sixtus V, in 1687. 
It is divided into three naves by 
twelve fluted Corinthian columns 
on each si4e. In the chapel/ odf 
the smallest nav^, is a master* 
piece of Sassoferrata, represent* 
ing the Virgin of the Rosary,. 
St Dominic and St Catherine of 
Sienne. 

St PrUca. — This church, it is 
said, was built over the house of 
St Prisca, who, according to tra- 
dition, was converted to the faith, 
and baptized with many others 
on this spot, by St Peter himself. 
It contams twenty-four antique 
columns, frescoes by Fontebuoni, 
and a painting by Fassignani. 



t4 



OXNtlUL ITALT.^^ROSK. ' SlXtl »AY. 



Ixl lAie ykeyard opposite were 
the temples of Diana ereeted by 
Servins TulliuB and Minerva Aven- 
tinensis. 

Si Mivria in Ooamedin, is built 
on the niins of the temple of Ce- 
res and Proserpine. A part of the 
cella, with its large blocks of 
travertine and seven colunms of 
the peristyle, seven feet in cir- 
cumference, and of the compo- 
site order, are still visible. Ac- 
cording to Tacitus, this edifice 
was consecrated a second time by 
Tiberius. 

Adrian I rebuilt this church in 
782, which is also called the Bocca 
della Veritk, from a large piece 
of round marble, in the form of 
a mask, having its eyes and mouth 
wide open, placed under the por- 
tico. 

The interior of this church is 
divided into three naves by twelve 
antique columns, and the pave- 
ment is formed of the ancient 
mosaic called opus Alexandrinum. 
It contains also two ambones, a 
marble pontifical seat, an image 
of the Virgin brought from Greece, 
and under the altar an urn of 
Egyptian granite filled with relics. 

Temple of Vesta. — It was al- 
ready been observed diat the 
temple of Vesta erected by Numa, 
in which the palladium was pre- 
served, was situated in the forum, 
at the foot of the Palatine. The 
INresent temple, like those that 
^sted in each curia, appears to 
have been restored in the second 
century of our era; nineteen co- 
lumns of white marble, forming 
a circumference of 170 feet, con- 
stitute the exterior portico : their 
height, including base ana capi- 
tal, is thirty-six feet; their dia- 
meter three, that of the cella 
^^-'Tty-six. 

ie Temple of Fortuna Verilis, 



now called St Maria E^iaea, 
was built by Servius TaHius, the 
sixth king of Rome, and waschan- 
ged into a church in 972. 

Its form is that of an oblong 
square, with four front and seven 
side columns of the Ionic order, 
twenty-eight feet high, Theysop* 
port an entablature ornamented 
with festoons, genii, candelabra, 
and bulls' heads. 

Opposite this is the 

Souse of Nicholas de I^enzo, 
presenting a capricious assem- 
blage of antique fragments of dif- 
ferent periods, a specimen of Ro* 
man architecture of the eleventh 
century. It belonged to Kicholas,, 
the son of Crescentius, whose fa- 
mily was then powerfol at Rome. 
Over the ancient door, which is 
now closed, is an inscription writ- 
ten in the twelftli century, in La- 
tin rhyme, indicating "fiiat Ni- 
cholas, the son of Crescentius and 
of Theodora, gave this house to 
his son David.^ It is said that in 
1847 it fell into the possession 
of the celebrated Cola di Riensso, 
the Roman tribune, from whom 
it derives its present appellation. 

Palatine Bridge — During the 
first six centuries of her existence^ 
Rome had only two bridges^ the' 
Sublician and the Palatine; the 
latter, so called from the neigh^ 
bouring Palatine hill, was finished 
under the censors Scipio Africa- 
nus and Lucius Mummius. 

It was restored by Gregory tX, 
in the thirteenth, and by Julius 
in, in the sixteenth century. Hav-. 
ing suifered an inundation under- 
Gregory Xm it was rebuilt in 
1575, but part of it was cari-ied 
away by the waters in 1596; it 
has not since been repaired. 

At the foot of this bridge the 
view embraces the Aventine with 
the grotto of Cacns, the remains 



KMAN CTJVfHL—MMB.— ilTIITa WhfTi) 



7h 



of the Sabiidan bridge, the* Prate 
Mcffda, the sitnatioii of tbe camp 
of Porsenna)' tbe inouth of the 
GloacoL the island of Esculapius, 
the Faoritian bridge, that of Gra-^ 
tian and the Janicolum, the •site 
of many of the principal fects 
of Roman history ft'om the kings 
to the decline of the western 
empira * 

SEVENTH DAY. 

FROM THE FABRiCIAN TO THE 
AEUAN BRIDGE. 

Trastevere, on the richt bank 
of the Tiber, was added to the 
dty bjr Ancos Martins, who for- 
tified it in order to repel the 
incursions of the Etruscans. Its 
first inhabitants were the people 
of Latinm, conquered by that king. 

TheFabridan bridge, nowQuat^ 
tro Gapi, was built, as is proved 
from Dio, and the inscnptions 
over the arches by Fabricius, 
curator viarum, in the 690th year 
of Home. It is formed of tnree 
arches, and l^ids to tiie 

Island of the JHber. — After 
the expulsion of the last Tarquin 
the senate granted all his pro- 
perty to the people, who, as an^ 
cient story reports, threw into 
the river the wheat grown on his 
fields; bnt the enormous mass 
being si^dently dense to resist 
the current, formed a small is- 
land, which was afterwards for- 
tifiea and inhabited. 

In the year 461 of Rome, when 
the pla^e raged with violence 
in the city, the senate sent de- 
puties -to tibe temple of Escula- 
piBS at Epidanms, who returned 
with a serpent which disappeared 
in this island. A temple was erec- 
ted to Esculapius on the spot 
now occupied oy the church of 

iBt Sartolasneo. — The interior 



is 'divided into, three' nmeB by 
twenty-four columns of granite, 
said to have bdon^ed to the an- 
cient temple. The island centai- 
ned also me temple of Faun and 
Lyaoonian Jupiter. 

Ponte Or^ziano. — This bvidge, 
now called St Bartolomeo, was 
built, as is ascertained firom the 
inscriptions on the parapets^ in 
the year 467 of the present era,. 
by the emperors Valentinian Va- 
lens and Gratian. 

The Church of 8t Cecilia, oc- 
cupying the site of the house ef ' 
that saint, was consecrated in 250 
by Urban I, restored in 821 by 
Pasqual I, and given by Clement 
Vm to the Benedictine nuns, who 
annexed to it an extensive con-- 
vent The large marble vase in 
the court is one of those called 
canthari, which were ]^laced in 
the courts of the Clnristian chur- 
ches, and served for t^e ablution* 
of the faithful. 

The church has three naves;' 
over the high altar is a balda^ 
quin, supported by four aquitaine 
columns: under it is a beaiutiftil^ 
statue or St Cecily, by Maderao : 
the pavement is of alabaster ana^ 
predous stones; antique mieoadcs^ 
adorn the tribune. Near the d^a^^ 
pel of the Crucifix is a chamber 
painted by Paul Brill, on which 
9t Cecily is said to have stiffBred 
martyrdom. i 

Bipa Grande — ^The port and^ 
custom house were built by !»- 
nocent XII, in 1692, for the re^- 
ception of merchandize brought 
by vessels which ascend the river 
a distance of twenty-four miles 
from the sea. 

In the vicinity, afterwards cal- 
led Prata Mutia, from the deeds 
of Matins Scaevola, Porsenna had 
placed his camp, and Clelia with 
her companions swam over the 



76 



CCRTIAL RALT. — MIO. flBTENTB BAT. 



Tiber when escaping from the 
EtraBcans. 

St Michele^ — This establi^h- 
ment was founded by Innoc^itXII, 
in 1686^ to receive and instruct 
poor children in the mechanical 
and fine arts, and offer an asy- 
lum to male and female invalids. 
It contains a woollen and silk 
manufactory, and one for tapestry 
in the style of the Gobelins. 

Porta Portese. — This gate was 
subs tituted, in 1643, by Urban 
Vni for the ancient Porta Por- 
tnensis, built by Arcadius and 
Honorius, in 402, when they resto- 
red the walls of the city. 

The church of St Francis was 
given to St Francis in 1229, and 
restored by Cardinal Pallavicini 
on the designs of Rossi. In the 
chapel to the right of the high 
altar is a fine painting of the 
Madonna, Child, and St Anne, 
by Boccaccio. 

After passing the churches of 
the forty martyrs and St Caliz- 
tus, we arrive at that of 

8t Maria in Traetevere, — It is 
said that the ancient Taberna 
Meritoria, a kind of asylum for 
soldiers after a certain period of 
service ; was situated on this spot; 
and that Pope Calixtus, in 224, 
obtained leave of the Emperor 
Alexander Severus to erect here 
an oratory, which was the first 
public place of Christian worshh) 
at Borne. It was restored by St 
Julius in 840, and afterwards en- 
larged by Innocent II, Nicholas 
y, and Clement XI, who added 
the present portico, which con- 
tains many ancient inscriptions. 

The interior is divided into 
three naves by twenty-one large 
granite columns, exclusive of the 
four supporting a rich architrave, 
some having an Ionic, some Co- 
rinthian capital. The Ionic capi- 



tals are highly wrought, and a» 
they contain figures of Uarpocra- 
tes, of Isis, and of Serapis, they 
probably belonged to a temple 
dedicated to those Egyptian di- 
vinities. The pavement, like that 
of other ancient churches, is a^ 
mosaic of porphyry, serpentine, 
and other species of marbla 

On the ceiling is a beautiful' 
painting of the Assumption, by 
Dominichino: who, in the last 
chapel of the right nave painted 
also a Child scattering Flowers, 
The high altar is isolated, and 
its baldachin is supported by four 
porphyry columns. The mosaica 
of Uie tribune, of the year 1143^ 
represent our Saviour, the Virgin, 
and several saints; those imme- 
diately below, representing the 
Virgin and the twelve apostles, 
are more modem. 

Among the sepulchral monu- 
ments in this church are those 
of Lanfranc the painter, and of 
Bottari and Nardini, two cele- 
brated literary characters. 

St Oriaoffono — In 1623 this an- 
cient church was restored by Car- 
dinal Scipio Borghese, who added 
the portico supported by four red 
granite columns. The tluree naves 
of the interior are separated by 
granite columns of the tonic order, 
taken from ancient monuments. 
The baldachin is supported by four 
of a rare quality of alabaster. On 
the ceiling is a copy of St Gry- 
sogonus carried up to Heaven, 
from the original of Guercino. 

St Maria delta /8ba/a.— Cardi- 
nal Cosimo, in 1592, erected this 
church, in order to place in it a 
miraculous image of the Virgin, 
taken from an a^'oining hous^ 
The architecture of the front is 
by Mascherino; that of the in- 
terior by Francesco di Volterra. 
On the grand altar is a tabernacle, 



RfMAlf STAns.— ROKB. 0WI1ITH DAT. 



^ 



formed of precious stones, and 
decorated with sixteen columns 
of oriental iasper. The fresco 
painting of the Madonna in the 
dioir is by the' Cavalier d-Ar- 
pino. 

The Janiculuniy so called from 
Janus, a king of the Aborigines, 
nho built a city opposite to that 
of Saturn on the Capitoline; this 
hill was comprised in the city' 
under Ancns Mbrtius. Liyy as- 
serts that two sarcophagi were 
found at the foot of the Janicu- 
lum, one said to contain the body 
of NumaPompilius, and the other 
books; these alone were found, 
seven'inLatinand seven in Greek, 
composed by that king. They 
were burnt by order of the se- 
nate, as containing pernicious 
doctrines. 

St Pietro in Montorio. — To- 
wards the close of the fifteenth 
century ttiis church was rebuilt 
by Pintelli, at the expense of 
fWdinand IV, king of Spain ; it 
was restored under Pius Vn. 

In the first chapel on the right 
is the Flagellation of Our Saviour, 
painted by Sebastian del Piombo, 
iknd designed by Michael Angelo. 
The Conversion of St Paul is by 
Vasari ; over the high cJtar was 
ihe Transfiguration^ now in the 
museum of the Vatican; the sta- 
tues of St Peter and St Paul 
are by Daniel di Volterra and 
Leonardo, of Milan, his pupil. 

On a spot adjoining this church, 
wherfe, accordmg to ancient tra- 
dition, St Peter was Crucified, is 
a small round temple, with six- 
teen columns of grey granite, 
deswned by Bramante. 

The Fontana Paolma is tibe 
largest of the city, and supplies 
the greatest body of water, which 
is brought in piurtfirom the lakes 
.af Bracciano abd Martigiiano. 



Between six Ionic columns of rM 
granite, are five niches for the 
passage of the waters. It was 
raised by Paul V in 1612, with 
materials taken from the forum 
of Nerva. 

The portico of St Pancrazio, 
the ancient Janiculensis, was re- 
buit by Urban VIII, when he 
sourronded Trastevere with walls. 

On the right of the Aurelian 
way is a villa, built in the form 
of a ship; in the upper gallery, 
eighty-seven feet long, and four- 
teen wide, are paintings by Pie- 
tro di Cortona, Allegrini, ana Gri- 
maldi. 

The church of St Pancrace 
was founded by St Symmachus 
in 500, over &ie catacombs of 
Calepodius, celebrated in eccle- 
siastical history, and in the acts 
of the martyrs. 

The villa Pamphili, now be- 
longing to the Doria family, was 
laid out, under Innocent A, by 
Falda and by Argaldi, who Duilt 
the palace. It contains groves, 
extensive alleys, a lake, water- 
falls, and fountains decorated 
with antique statues and bas- 
reliefs. In a hemicyele is a marble 
faun, that plays on the^ute, and 
an orffan set in motion by water. 

In the palace are several an- 
tique busts, bas-reliefs, the sta- 
tues of Euterpe, Marsyas, and of 
an Hermaphrodite ; several tombs 
and columbaria well preserved, 
with numerous interesting in- 
scriptions, have been found of 
late years and are preserved in 
the villa. 

Palazzo Coraini —This palace, 
situated in the Via Lun^ara, one^ 
of the most splendid palaces of 
Bome, contains a valuable collec- 
tion of paintings, the principal 
of which are in the first room. 
The Ectee homo, a St Jecoor 



^78 



enrnrn i<mlt. 



•SITINTI "»AT. 



land ft aaitoritim; by Guevdoe; 
Venus at her Toilet, by Albano; 
Lather and Catherine iBoren, by 
Holbein; a Holy Family, by Qa- 
rofalo; a Presentation at the 
Temple, by Paul Veronese; and 
portrait of Philip 11, by Titian. 

The second room contains a 
St Jerome, Paule HI, and a Chase, 
by Rubens; a Noli toe tangere of 
Boccaccio; the Crucifixion of St 
Peter, a St John the Baptist, the 
Herodiafd of Guido; an Annfuncia- 
tion of Baonarotti; Madonna by 
Sasso Ferrata and Andrea del 
'Sarto. 

In the third room are the Sa- 
viour, by Carlo Dolci; an Albano, 
a Schidone, a Madonna of Inno- 
cenzo dTmola; St John; and Ma- 
donna by Guido. 

In the fourth room are portraits 
by Holbein, Vandyke, a Doge of 
Venice, byBoccacdo; two Cardi- 
nals, by Dominichino ; Innocent X, 
by Diego Velasquez ; a Giorgione ; 
the two sonsof Charles V,Ferdi- 
. nand I and Philip H, by Titian. 

In the fifth room is a view of 
-die Borromaean Isles, by Vanvi- 
belli; a St Seba^an of Rubens; 
. two battles, by Borgognone ; and 
the celebrated Madonna andChild, 
4>y Morillo. 

In the last room is the Giant 
Titus, by Salvator Rosa. 

The library is particularly rich 
In manuscripts and books printed 
in the fifteenth century. 
• At the end of the gaardens, and 
on the rise of the Janicnlum, is a 
villa belonging to the palace, 
raised on the spot formerly oc- 
/cupied by tSie villa of Martial 

Villa Zante.— According to Va- 
sari, Giulio Romano buih this 
'bvase tor Mons. Turini, the in- 
timate friend of Raphael, and one 
«f <the most distinguished Relates 



of the courts of Leo X akd Cle- 
ment vn. 

It formerly contained frescoes 
by Giulio and his pupils, whidi 
were engraved by Marc^ Antonio, 
Agostino the Venetian, and other 
«elebrated artists. These frescoes 
are now in the Villa Borghese. 

After the death of Mon8.TuriBi, 
the villa passed into other hands. 
During the last century 'it be- 
longed to the Lante fainily, who 
sold it in 1624 to Prince Borghese. 
It now belongs* to the nuns of the 
Sacr6 Coeur de Jesus. 

Fameivna, — The Famesina 
palace was bmltby AgostinoChigi, 
a banker, and patron of the fiae 
arts under Leo X, on Ihe designs 
of Peruzzi. In the sixteenth cen- 
tury it fell into the possession 
of the Faniese, and at the ex- 
tinction of that house in 1731, 
it became the property of the 
reigning family of Naples. 

This palace is interesting for 
the lightness and elegance of its 
architecture, and as containing the 
fable of Copid and Psyche, painted 
in fresco from the original designs 
of Raphael, and under his direc- 
tion. The subject taken from Apn- 
leius is distributed as follows: 
the assembly of the gods, with 
Venus and Cupid, infc»rm Jnpiter 
of the projected nuptials; Mer- 
cm*y OTesents Psyche with the 
cup of ambrosia, the pledge of 
immortahty : the nuptials of Cu- 
pid and Psyohe celebrated in 
Olympus, and the general ban- 
quet of the god& 

Around the oeiHog ten trian- 
gnlar paintings represent the 
events of the fable till the period 
of the nuptials. 

The first on the left of the 
entrance is Venus ordering her 
son to insfMre Psyche with a pas- 
sion for the vilest of mortau M 



«eif ^ «VA«S.:^r4UKU. .iircn»l A4T. 



('99 



B'-pgnieluAeiit for hAyi^g dared 
to fall in love with hinL 

2l Oupid presents Psyche to the 
Oraeea, Hie oompanions of Y enus ; 
#^8 paintii^g is ehiefly the work 
4^ Baphael 
S^Venus qmtli^ff Juno and Ceres, 
who inti^oseinfayoiir of Psyche; 
in- the foUowiqg picture the god- 
dess, in a moment of . irritation, 
mounts her car, drawn by four 
dorefiy and directs her course to 
Japiier,wh0m9he solicits to send 
Mercury in pursuit of Psyeha In 
the sixth painting Mercury pub- 
lishes the orders of the father of 
the gods, and the recompensepro- 
mised by Venus for the person of 
Psyche, who returns from the 
iofemal regions borne by three 
young Cupids; she presents to 
the goddess the vase of paint gi* 
Ten by Proserpine to appease her 
anger; Cupied complains to Ju- 
piter of the cruelty of his mother, 
And obtains permission to marry 
Psyche, who is conducted to hea- 
ven for the nuptials by Mercury. 
. Near these paintings are the ge- 
nii of the gods, or young Cupids, 
bearing their attributes in triumph, 
in aQusion to the power of love, 
which subdues all things; 

In the ^ alining chamber is 
Oalatea earned by two dolphins, 
preceded by a Nereid, and foUo- 
. wed by another carried by a Tri- 
ton, the work of Raphael. 
..'- The frescoes on.the oeUing re- 
present Diana on her car drawn 
$yoxen, and iihe fable of Me- 
d»sa^ by Daniel di Yolterra^and 
. Seba^t^n del Piomho. The fine 
'eetoissal bead by^ Michael Angelo. 
enlisting in this chamber, servea 
as a^ occupatten while he was 
..writixig for Daniel his pupil, and 
was not hit0nded, ae has Jl^en 
aaaerted,;*as a ; criticisni- on.ijie 
.ir««k of. lUii^hfiel. . . .m 



T^e rooms on the first stoij 
contain frescoes of PeruzzL of 
the school of Kaphael, and of 
Sodoma. 

Along the Yiar Lin^gara »re the 
churches of St Giacomo, of St 
Croce d^a PenlteuiUL, of the Yi- 
sitatlon, and of St Francis de 
Sales, all containing pai^ting8 on 
various reli^ous subjects* 

St Maria Regina Coeli was buiit 
in 1654 by Anne Colonna, who, 
at the death of her husband, re- 
tired to the monastery annexed 
to this church. It received its 
appeUatiou from the anthem Be- 
gina CoeU laetwre alleluia^ which 
the Carmelite nuns are obliged 
to sing every four hours. 

The Palazzo Salviati was built 
on the designs of Baccio d'Ag- 
nolo, a contemporajry of Raphael, 
who, with the distinguished ar- 
tists of that period, used to as- 
semble in his studio. At the ex- 
tinction of the Salviati family this 
palace came into the possession 
of government, who placed here 
its archives. Since 1820 the grounds 
have been reduced to a botamc 
garden dependent on the univer- 
sity. 

The church of St Onofrio was 
built, in 1439,' for the hermits of 
the congregation oif St Jerome, 
some act» ox whose life have been 
painted in fresco, by Dominichino. 
The beautiful painting. of the. Ma- 
donna and ChM surrounded with 
Angels, immediately over the doDT, 
is also by that celebrat^^ artist 
The convent of St OaoMo was 
the residence of Tasso jn jhds latp 
ter days, and here he died in 
1595 J his tonib is on the left in 
lentermg t^. ch«i<ch. In tiie con- 
vent is a Mad(H»ua, said to be 
painted by Leonardo ^aYincit 

The PoHa Bt Symto [was rai- 
sed by Lw lY, i» QW,cwhenfr^ 



* 



<iiMTRjiii: ifA'LT.— "K^rtiE. SBVincrt iKt. 



BurroTinded the Vatican with Walls, 
•and under Paul lH this gate was 
rebuilt on the* designs, of San- 
gaUo. Its name is derived from 
vie adjoining church and hospi- 
tal of Santo Spirito, in which is 
an establishment for lunatics, foun- 
ded by Benedict XHI, and enlar- 
ged under Leo XXL 

The Ponte Sisto, the ancient 
Pons Janiculensis; was restored 
by Siytus IV in 1474 ; the foun- 
tain opposite the Via Giulia, pla- 
ced here by Paul V, on the de- 
signs of John Fontana, is com- 
posed of two Ionic columns, sup- 
porting an attic and a niche 
through whidh the waters fall 
into a large basin. 

The church of the Trinity de 
Pellegrini, built in 1614, contains 
over the principal altar a paint- 
ing of the Holy Trinity, by Guido, 
one of the best works of that 
artist. In the adjoining building 
pilgrims are received, and con- 
valescents admitted from the hos- 
pitals of the city. 

The interior of St Carlo a* Ca- 
tinari is of the Corinthian order, 
and possesses several paintings 
of merit. One by Pietro di Cor- 
tona represents St Charles in a 
procession; four Cardinal Virtues 
under the dome are by Domini- 
chino; and the Death of St Anne, 
by Andrea Sacchi. 

The Cancelleria, a palace des- 
tined for the residence of the vice- 
€hancelk)T of the church, was com- 
menced by Cardinal Maz^arotta, 
and finished under Sixtus IV. 

The architectural designs were 
given by Bramante, who surroun- 
• ded the court with a double por- 
tico, supported by forty-four gra- 
nite columns, taken from the por- 
tico of Pompey. The stones of 
tile Coliseum, and the marbles 
of Uie atch of Gordi&n, were em- 



ployed in the const ru^on of tMs 
palace. 

The adjoining church of St Lo- 
renzo in Damaso, built in 384 in 
honour of St Laurence the mar- 
tyr, was also restored on the de- 
signs of Bramante. It contains the 
statue of St Carlo Borromeo, by 
Mademo ; and the tomb of Aimi- 
bal Caro, a celebrated poet of 
the sixteenth century. 

A small edifice in a neighbour- 
ing street, called the Famesina, 
was built by Raphael 

Jn the Piazza Famesearetwo 
large granite basins, one foot and 
a half high and seventeen feet 
long, found in the baths of Ca- 
racaUa. 

The Palazzo Farnese was com- 
menced by Paul m, on the de- 
signs of Antonio Sangallo, and 
finished under CardinsS Alexan- 
der Famese by Michael Angelo 
Buonarotti. This edifice, built with 
blocks taken from the Coliseum, 
is of a square form; the court 
has three orders of architecture. 

On the first story is the gal- 
lery of Annibal Caracci, contain- 
ing his best compositions. 

In the centre of the ceiling is 
the Triumph of Bacchus and 
Ariadne; the golden car of Bac- 
chus in drawn by two tigers ; 
that of Ariadne, in silver, by two 
white goats: both cars are sur- 
rounded witn Fauns, Satyrs, and 
Bacchantes, £(nd preceded by Si- 
lenus. 

The round pictures represent 
Pan offering to Diana the wool 
of his goats, and Mercury pffe- 
senting the golden apple to Paris. 

In &e large pictures Galatea 
is carried on tiie seas amid a 
troop of Nymphs, Cupids, and 
Tritons 1 Aurora on her car car- 
ries off Cephalus; Polypbemos 
endeavours to chfitte' Galatea by 



MHMi svuns. 



'WMnm- M(T. 



>«1 



the 9oaad& of Hk pipe, aad' not 
succeeding) hxarls a rock at Acis, 
wlio carries her avay. 

Tbe four squares represent Jn- 
pitar receiving Jitno in the nup- 
tiaJ eeach; Diana caressing £n- 
dymion, while two Gapids con- 
cealed'! in a bosh e^joy their vic- 
tory over her; Hercules, in the 
dress of Jole, playing on the ta- 
bor, and Jole covered with the 
skin* of the Nemaeh lion leaning 
on the clnb of Hercules; Anchi- 
ses detaching a bnskin' from the 
foot of Venus. Over the figure 
of Polyphemus, Apollo carries 
away Hyacinthus ; Jupiter, under 
the form of ao eagle, Ganymede. 

The dghtmedallionSjOf a bronze 
colour, represent Leander being 
drowned in the Hellespont: Sy- 
rinx metamorphosed into a Keed ; 
Hermaphrodite surprised by Sal- 
macis: Cupid tying a Satyr to a 
tree ; boreas carrying away Ori- 
thea; Eurydice cafted back to the 
regions below; and the Kape of 
Europa. 

Over the niches and windows 
Arion is mounted on a Dolphin ; 
Prometheus auimates his statues; 
Hercules kills the Dragon of the 
Hesperides; the same hero de- 
livers Prometheus aftei* striking 
with a dart the Vulture that de- 
voured his liver; Icarus falls into 
the sea; the Pre^ancy of Gal- 
hsto is discovered in the Bath; 
the same Njrmph is changed into 
a Bear ; Phoebus receives &e Lyre 
firom Mercury. 

Dominichino has represented 
over the door a Young Girl ca- 
ressing an Unicom, the device of 
the Famese family. 

At the ends of the gallery are 
Andromeda attached to the rock 
in presence of her desolate pa- 
rents, and Perseus comhatingthe 
Dragon; Perseus petrifying Phi- 



nebs and hi&cdinpBiikms with Hbfi 
head of Medosa. - • 
•'lu'the other rooms are frescoes 
by Daniel di Volterra; Salviati, 
Zttccari, and Giorgio Vasari 

In a cabinet of the pfdaee An- 
nabal Caraoci has also painted 
Hercules sustaining a Celestial 
Globe ; Ubrsses delivering his com- 
pamons from Circe and the Sy- 
rens; Anapus and Anaphinomous 
saving their parents from the 
flames of Etna; Perseus cutting 
off the head of Medusa; Hercu- 
les fighting against theNemaean 
Lion. The chiaro-osenro orna- 
ments that separates ^ese sub- 
jects are also by Annibal Car- 
racci, and are aiso so flneiy exe- 
cuted that they might pass all 
alti-relievi. 

On the first story of the Spada 
palace is the colossal statue of 
Pompey, found in the Via Leu- 
tari, near thor Caneeilaria. It is 
supposed to have been placed in 
the Curia of Pompey, situated 
near this theatre, and to be the 
same statue at the base of which 
Caesar fell. 

The gallery of this palace con- 
tains, amongst other pictures, a 
David with the head of Goliah; 
a Magdalen, by Guercino; aBo- 
man Charity, by Annibal Caraoci; 
a Judith and a Lucretia, by Guide ; 
Christ disputing with the Doctors, 
by Leonardo da Vinci ; the Market 
of Naples, and the Revolt of Mas- 
saniello, by Michael Angelo della 
Bombacciate ; a Visitation of St 
Elizabeth, by Andrea del Sarto ; 
two iandscapes,by Salvator Rosa ; 
several portraits by Titian, Van- 
dyke, and Tintoretto. 

St Maria^ called \Pella Morte. 
— This church was built by a fra- 
ternity in 1576, whose object was 
to render the last duties to those 
who were found dead in the cam- 



<flnimi. ' TifcLY»- 



ssmm-^nj. 



pagnat)! Bome« ItkilJeaieated to 
the Virgin of Prayer, tiie My 
Baoramenb being ezpoBedidnring 
forty hours tilie first SonndAy of 
each month, a pins eocerdse now 
-performed in all other chunShes 
attematety throaghont the year. 

TIliB church was restored by 
Clement VH, and containfe a-Holy 
Famify, hj Masucci ; aBt Michael, 
by a pupil' of Raphael; St Ju- 
liana Falconieri, by -Ghezzi; and 
freBcoes by Lanfranc* 

The Falconieri palace, the re- 
sidence of the princes of that an- 
eknt house, was rebuilt in the 
•eventeenth oentuiy of the desigiis 
-of Borromini. 

St Gaterina diSienne, built by 
the Siexpeae in 1526, contains 
frescoes by della Vite, a pupil of 
Raphael; the principal altar has 
a painting by Jerome della Genga ; 
-the figure over the door is by 
Passeri, who wrotT'the history of 
;the artists of his time. 

St Spirito of the Neapolitans. 
— ^This national church was built 
in 1572, and restored by Gario 
Fontana and Gosimo, a Neapoli- 
tan. In the interior are a Miracle 
iof St Francis de Paolo, by Lam- 
berti; » Mart^rrdom of bt Gen- 
nar», by Luc Giordano; a St Tho- 
mas Aquinas, by Muratori. The 
cupola is by Passeri. 

The Oratory of 8t Peter and 
St Paul del €hnfalone.—la 1264 
St Bonayenture insti'^tedthe first 
fraternity of laymen iu Rome, and 
gave it the name of the Gonfa- 
lone, or banner. On the walls of 
this oratory several facts of the 
New Testament were painted in 
fresco by Agresti, and others, 
who painted also the altar piece. 

In the Via Giulia is Ihe church 
of St Maria del Sufiragio, de- 
signed by Rainaldi. It contains 
works of Na^ali, Ghezzi,Troppa, 



Ghiioif BfinnaaeKifDaAidilieSto- 

miilg,<.and other artists. 

In the little church ofSiFatn- 
tina, erected on the spottsel^ted 
bj Julius n for a palaoe forihe 
civil and criminal tribunal ofRome, 
is a picture of the Blind Man 
cured by our Saviour, said to be 
Muziano. 

St Ctiovanm de* Fiorenliim.'*^ 
A company of Florentines erected 
this churdi in 1566 on tiie de- 
signs of Giaoomo deSa Porta; 
the front was raised by Alexan- 
der Galilei, by order of Gle- 
mentXIL The interior is divided 
into three naves; the painting in 
the chapel of St Jerome is by 
Sante Titi; that in the side cha- 
pel by Gigoli; the Martyrdom of 
StGosmas and StDamiaabySal- 
vator Rosa. The altar piece is de- 
corated with marble on the de- 
signs of Pietro di Oortona, and 
at the expense of the Falconieri 
family : thegronp over the Bltar,r&- 
presenting the Baptism of Ghnst, 
is by Raggi; that of Gharity by 
Guiao; the tomb of Monsignor 
Gorsini isbyAlgardi, that of Ac- 
ciajuoli by Ferrata. The chapel 
of tiie Grudfix was painted by 
Lanfranc. 

Vatican Bridge, — The period 
of the foundation of tiiis bridge 
is uncertain; it appears that m 
the fifth century it was in a state 
of ruin. The remains of walls of 
the middle ages, stiH seen in the 
river, are founded on the rains 
of the ancient bridge, a part of 
which was demolished in 1812, 
in order to ameliora/te the navi- 
gation of the river. 

EIGHTH DAY. 

FROM THE AKUAN BAIOGB TO 
HONTE MARIO. 

The Vatican hill forms the pro- 
longation of the Janiculum ; its 



flMIA|itiiMr»l.?ripWfF. MiVrftMV. 



t« 



■nwtAi iroiti valooioio, . 4jt •«ra«tes 
'deiivered bere at ^e peoiod of 
Ihe dominfttiovi. of the Etruseo- 
Veiaofiu la ancient times it was 
not i&clnded within the city; in 
Uie eateenthjeemtury, nnderrSix- 
tuB Y, it £(HiQed 'One of the imt- 
teen diiriaions;. 

Aelian Bridge^ or Pontt St 
AnffMfhrr-TMs bitid^ was built 
by tlie Emperof Adrian to serre 
SB »€08iBiilnieatM>nwithhisiDau- 
fioLeani and circus. It oomsits of 
ihr^ oen^sral and four smaller 
archea; it was restored by Ni- 
cholas V and by Clement VH, 
who .erected on it the statues of 
Si P<eter and St Paul. 

•The Mausoleum ofAdrianrhvalt 
on <^e model of thatof Aogustos 
lor Uie «epalture of the Emperor 
and the members of bis fiuDaUy, is 
200 feet in diameter; the exte- 
rior, according to Procopius, was 
covered with Parian marble, and 
decorated with pilasters, support- 
ing an entablature. At each angle 
of the square base were groups 
of men and horses; the round 
top was covered with statues. 

In the decline of the empire 
this monument was used as ameans 
of defence of the dty. Proeopius 
adds theit its ornaments were 
ruined by the Greeks, who fortified 
themselves here against tide Goths, 
aidd broke the statujes to throw 
them at the besiegers. 

In the tenth cenliury it was 
fortified by Oresoentius, a noble 
Roman, and successivedy under 
several popes from Boniface IX 
to Urban YIIL It is now called 
Forte St Angelo from the statue 
of the archangel Michael placed 
on its summiLt; it conununicates 
with the Vatican palace by a 
covered archway. 

Santo Spirito, — This hospital, 



4he fno8ti«xteMive of the .d^, 
receives thesiok, th/&mBane,.adia 
foundlings. It was founded .by In- 
noeent III in Hd8. It contains 
a cabinet of anatomy. The ad- 
joining church was rebuilt in 1538, 
on the designs of Sangallo. 

St Maria- va Tratpontina, was 
restored in 1563. There was £Qf- 
merly near the baptismal font a 
.pyzawnid, eui^sed, in lihe middle 
ages, to have been the tomb of 
Romnlus, or of Sdpio Emilia^the 
conqueror of Gacthage. The mar- 
ble that covtered it was (qoplied 
by Popo Dono I to pavie Hie atrium 
Of St Peter's. 

In tilie stnaill Piaaza Scossaca- 
valli is a palace of the architec- 
ture of Bramante, sow beloiu;ijig 
to the Tortonia ^unily, by ^mom 
it has been greatif embetii^ed. 

Fiaztia St Piefrpj — The area, 
1,075 feet in length, forming this 
piassza maybB divided into three 
sections; tlie first, 216 &et long 
BAd204 wide, leads ito ishe innnci- 
pal piatsea, of a eegular elliptic 
fiHm, bouAded by a colossal co- 
lonnade of the Doric order for- 
med by four rows of columns on 
each side, the cenjixsl xoadbeing 
large enough to admit two car- 
riages abreast These p<»ticoes, 
fifty-six feet wide and sixty-one 
high, contain 284 columns, and 
support a balustrade, on ^nrhi^ 
are placed 192 colossal statues, 
eleven and a half feet ^h. The 
second section of the piazza is 
788 feeth in Icogth and 586 in 
breadth. The third section im- 
mediately preceding the basilic 
is a reguhu: trapezium, and ser- 
ves as an atrium to the church ; 
its length is 296, and its breadth 
336 feet. 

Near the obelisk are two foun- 
tains by Carlo Mademo, each rais- 
ing to a height of nine feet a body 



'U 



cmntAh iTALi«--^tn. unxm mir. 



of water which falliB^ into a round 
ffranite basin fifty feet in dream- 
rerence. 

B^aUio of St Peter's. This mag- 
nificent temple is situated in the 
Vatican territory of the ancients, 
from which it derives its denomi- 
nation. In this direction were the 
-gardens and circas,a Nero/ where 
Qi& massacre of the Christians, 
related by Tadtns, took place. 
Their remains were interred in 
a grotto near the circus, and St 
Peter having soon after suffered 
martyrdom, his disciple Mark 
conveyed his body to the same 
spot, where an oratory was rai- 
sed over his tomb by Pope St 
-Anacletus. In 826 Constantino 
laid the foundations of the church, 
divided into &ve naves, which 
existed till the fifteenth century. 

Nicholas Y, desirous of erecting 
in honour of the prince of the 
apostles a temple equal in splen- 
dour to that of Scuomon, com- 
menced the tribune in 1450, which 
was continued b^ Paul IL In 
1503 JuMuB n, after having exa- 
mined the designs of the most 
skflfiil architects, selected that 
of Bramante, who devised the 
grand cupola. 

After the death of Julius II and 
of Bramante, Leo X confided the 
works to Sangallo, to Fra Gio- 
condo, and mially to Raphad, 
and at his decease to Peruzzi, 
of Sienne, who converted the La- 
tin into a Greek cross, and com- 
pleted the tribune under Cle- 
ment vn. 

His successor, Paul IQ, selec- 
ted as architect Antonio Sangallo, 
whose plan consisted in re-adopt- 
iog the Latin cross, according to 
the design of Bramante. At the 
death of Sangallo, the direction 
of the v/orka was entrusted to 
Michael Angelo Buonarotti, who 



resumed liie plan of Perazxi, en- 
larged the tribune, the arms of 
the transverse naves, gave a new 
design for the cupola, and inten- 
ded to build a front similar to 
that of the Pantheon. After Mi- 
chael Angelo, Yignola raised the 
two lateral cupolas; andGiacomo 
della Porta completed the cen- 
tral one. 

Under Paul Y the work was 
finished by Carlo Mademo, who 
raised the front and portico, aad 
abandoned the plans of Buonarotti 
for those of Bramante, by giving 
the temple the form of a Latin 
cross. 

FinaUy, under Alexander YII, 
the portico of the piazza was 
constructed by Bernini, and un- 
der Pius YI the sacristy was ad- 
ded on the plans of Marchionni 

Painting, sculpture, mosaics^ the 
art of melting bronze, ^dmg, 
carving, all the arts have contri- 
buted to embellish this temple, 
the most splendid not only of 
Rome but of the whole world. 

The front is composed of eight 
columns, eight feet five inches in 
diameter, eighty-eight in height, 
including the base and ciq>ital, 
four Corinthian pilasters, an en- 
tablature and attic terminated by 
a balustrade, supporting thirteen 
statues seventeen feet high, re- 
presenting our Saviour and the 
Aposties. The height from the 
pavement to the top of the cross 
over the cupola is 424 feet 

The portico is 439 feet in length, 
and forty-seven in breadth; at 
one end is the statue of Charle- 
magne, by Comacchmi, at the 
other that of Constantine, by Ber- 
nini. The pilasters lining the por- 
tico support an entablature and 
a roof sixty-two feet high, cove- 
red with gilt stucco; over the 
great door is the mosaic of Giotto, 



<MHMr»«ffAiw>-(«on. umitb mht. 



86 



A Floramifte of. tiw^^thiffteailii 
century, rapreicotiji^ the boat of 
St Peter. 

The door* with a bronze cross. 
called the Porta Santa, is opened 
only once every twenty-five years, 
at the period of the jubilee. The 
bas-relief of the principal gate 
allade to the martyrdom of St 
Peter and St Panl, to the coro- 
nation of the Emperor Sigismund 
by Eugenins IV, and to the au- 
dience granted by that pontiff to 
the_ envoys of sundry eastern 
nations. 

The interior, in the form of a 
Latin cross, is divided into three 
naves by pilasters supporting four 
large arches on each side; to each 
are attached two others , fluted 
and Corinthian, eieht feet broad, 
seventy-seven high, over which 
is an entablature of eighteen feet; 
in the niches are marble statues, 
fifteen feet in height, of the foun- 
ders of religious orders. The 
counter pilasters uniting under 
the arches have medsJlions, the 
portraits of different popes; the 
roof is covered with gilt stucco, 
and the pavement is formed of 
the finest quality of marble. 

At the end of the great nave, 
raised on a pedestal, ia the sta- 
tue of St Peter, whose foot is 
Idssed by the faithful in venera- 
tion of ihe prinee of the apost- 
les. The comession of St Peter, 
or tomb, containing parts of his 
and of St Paul's bodies, is sur- 
rounded with a circular marble 
balastrade, on which 112 lamps 
are continuaUy bumhig. A dou- 
ble stahroase leads to the inte- 
rior, which is decorated with 
marbiLe, festoons, and angels of 

Silt bronze. On each side of the 
oor are the statues of St Peter 
and St Paul; in an oblong oidie 



is the confession, a part of te 
andent oriCtory of St Anadetos. 

Xn- the statue of Piua VI, who 
was buried near the tomb of St 
Peter, Canova has represented 
that pontiff praying at the altar 
of the confession. 

• The altar pkuied under the cu- 
pola is isolated, and turned to 
the east, aecording to ancient 
custom. The baldadhin, erected 
in 1633 by Bernini, is suppor- 
ted by four irregular columns of 
the composite order, of gilt bronze, 
thirty-four feet high; at the an- 
gels are fonr angels; in the cen- 
tre is a globe supporting the 
cross. The total height of the 
baldachin is eighty-six feet 

The Oupola.STam9,Jxtd^ hav- 
ing conceived the idea of erect- 
ing the largest cupola in the 
world, formed for its support 
four pillars 206 feet in oircum- 
fer^ice. In his designs for this 
church Michael Anselo planned 
a double cupola; between* the 
walls, which are twentv-two feet 
thidc, a staircase leads to tilie 
balL 

The diameter of the cupola is 130 
feet; the height of the pillars, 166 ; 
of the cupola, 156; of the lan- 
tern, fifhr-thre&; of the pedestal 
of Idle ball, twenty-nine and a 
half; of the ball itself, seven 
and a half j and the cross, ^nr- 
teen; forming a total height of 
426 feet 

Tlurty-two Corinthian pilasters, 
between which are sixteen win- 
dows, support an entablature from 
which commences the concavity 
of the cupola, divided into six- 
teen compartments, adorned with 
gilt stuccoes and mosaics repre- 
senting angels, the Virgin, the 
apostles, and several saints. 

On the frieze of the entabla- 
ture, 8i^>ported by the four large 



m 



CHUnUL ITALrr»-*WHni ' ' BIMTH ««Y. 



pMlars, ift the fottowing tefct 4f 
the gospel :-*^Ta es Petnifiy et su- 
per banc petram aedificabo ec- 
clesiam meam, et tibi dabo cla- 
i¥«t regni coekHram." 
• In &e upper mcbes of tbe pil- 
lars, formed into balconies, with 
a balustrade in front and columns 
at eneh side, many relics are pre- 
serred ; the most precious are in 
that over Ae statue of St Vero- 
nica. 

The statues in the lower niches 
allude to the instruments of the 
passion. St Veronica holds the 
cloth that wiped the sweat from 
our Saviour's face, St Helen the 
nails and cross, St Longinus the 
lance that pierced his side; the 
fourth represents St Andrew. 

Tribune and Chair of St Peter, 
— At the extremity of the crand 
nave are the tribune and the al- 
tar, OTcr which is liie chair, made 
partly of wood, partly of ivory, 
covered with ornaments, and. sup- 
ported by four colossal figures 
representing the celebrated doc- 
tors of the Latin and Greek 
church, St Ambrose, St Augus- 
tine, St Athanasius, and St John 
Chrysostom. Two angels bear the 
tiara and pontifical keys: a mul- 
titude of seraphims venerate the 
chair; the Holy Ghost, in the 
shape of a dove, crowns the en- 
tire work. 

The ton^ of Paul m was exe- 
cuted by Guglielmo della Porta, 
under tibe direction of Michael 
Angelo. At the base are the re- 
clining statues of Justice and 
Prudence ; the former, being ne- 
arly naked, was partly covered 
by Bernini with a bronze dra- 
pery. The sepulchral monument 
of Urban VIU, with the statues 
of Charity and Justice, is a work 
of Bernini. 

The ceiling of the tribune is 



ioofvered 'widi ^t •sliiocoes ^ani 
bas-reliefe : • Chnst giving tiie keys 
to St Peter is taken fron'a ^- 
sign of Eaphae], the Crucifixion 
of the Apostla &om a painting 
of Quido, the Decollation of St 
Paul from a bas-relief of Algardi. 

South Side, — Leaving the tri- 
bune on the left, the ^st altar, 
adorned with two large column^ 
of black Elgyptian granite,, con- 
tains a mosaic representing St 
Peter curing the lame man; tbe 
original painting is by Francesco 
Mancini. Opposite is the tomb of 
Alexander VIII, who died in 1691, 
by Andrea Rossi. The bas-relief 
alludes to the canonization of se- 
veral saints by that pontiffin 1690. 

On the next altar, that of St 
Leo, is a bas-relief of Algardi, 
representing Attila retiring firom 
Rome at the sight of St Peter 
and St Paul. 

Over the third is a miraculous 
image of the Virgin, and on the 
cupola are mosaics from the de- 
signs of Andrea Sacchi and Lan- 
franc. 

Over the fourth, opposite the 
tomb of Alexander Vu by Ber- 
nini, is the fall of Simon the ma- 
gician, from a painting by Vanni 
of Sienne. 

Near the tomb of Pius VH, by 
Thorwaldsen, are other altars witii 
the Crudfixion of St Peter, from 
an original by Guido^ and St Tho- 
mas touching the side of our Sa- 
viour, from CamuocinL 

Over an altar, on the opposite 
pillar of t&e grand cup<da, is a 
mosaic, from an original by Ron- 
calli, of Ananias and Sapphira 
expiring at the feet of St Peter. 

In the Clementine chapel is a 
mosaic, fr^mi a painting of An- 
drea Saochi, representing a mi- 
racle of St Gi^gory the Gveat, 
whose body is under ti^s altar. 



AN OTATB&rfMMHB. . 1I6ITV' !ȴ. 



HiT 



Ite itoiai6&:of the etip«l* are 
firom works of BonealM." 

Oil another pillar of tbe gvand 
cupola is the mosak cop^ofthe 
Trans^guratioiL Jn ihe chapel of 
thie choir is the Conception, from 
t9ie eriginal of Bfanchi. In that 
of the Presentation, the Virgin 
presented at the Temple is ftSm 
the orieinal of llomanelli. The 
totnb of Maria fiobieski Stnart, 
who died inl755,i8omariiented 
with a saarcdphagus of porphyry, 
witii a Charity and ageninslici- 
ding her portrait Opposite are 
those of the three last princes of 
the house o^ Stnart, by Canova. 

The baptismal font of the last 
chapel on the right consists of 
a porphyry urn, twelve feet long 
and six broad, covered with a 
bronze gilt pyramid supporting a 
lamb, the symbol of the Redee- 
mer. The central mosaic, repre- 
senting the baptism of our Sa- 
viour by St John, is copied from 
Carlo Maratta; St Peter bapti- 
zing St Processus and St Marti- 
nian in the Mammertine prison, 
and Cornelius the centurion, are 
from Passerie and Procaccini. 

In the first chapel .on the right, 
on entering, are the group of the 
blessed Virgin and our Saviour 
after his crucifixion, one of ihe 
earliest works of Michael Angelo, 
and a mosaic representing St Ni- 
cholas of Bsun. Opposite the mo- 
nument of Christina, queen of 
Sweden, is that of Leo XII, by 
Fabris. 

The chapel of St Sebastian con- 
tains the mosaic of the picture of 
Dominichino existing at St Maria 
degh Angeli. Near the tomb of 
bmocent XH isthatoftheCoiUi- 
tess MatQda. The bas-relief e&- 
des to the absohition given by 
St Gregory Vn to the Emperor 



rv^.in prfibeniBe .of the 

oonntesiSi '- , 

(Ofi Hm Bkiet ol the ehapel of 
the holy sacrament is a rich ifea- 
bemacle decorated with twelve 
columns of lapis lazuli, the base 
and capitals of the Corinthian 
order, and the cupola are of ^t 
bronize. The tresco, representing 
the Holy Trinity, is byPietrom 
Cortona. In this chapel are the 
tombs of SixtusIVand JuliusII; 
the bas-reliefs, of gilt stucco, are 
by the same artist. 

On the pillar of the cupola is 
the mosaic of the Communion of 
St Jerome, by Dominichino. 

The chape! of the Vh-gin, built 
on the designs of Michael An- 
gelo, contains an ancient image 
of the Madonna; the angular mo- 
saics of the cupola are copied 
from ihe works of Muziano. After 
the tomb of Benedict XIV, on a 
pillar of the cupola, is the altar 
of St Basil the Great, the mosaic 
of which is from an original by 
Snbleyras. 

. At the end of the north nave 
are three altars, with mosaics re- 
presentii^ the Martyrdom of St 
ProeesHis and St Martioian, from 
the original of Valentin; that of 
St Erasmo from Kicholas Pous- 
sin, and of St Wenceslaua, king 
of Bohemia, from the original by 
Oaroseili. 

Over the last pillar of the cu- 
pola is the mosaic from Lanfranc, 
of the bark of St Peter on the 
point of sinking, when Christ 
comes to the assistance of the 
apostle. 

Opposite is the tomb d Cle- 
ment Xin, by Canova; it is com- 
posed of three large figures: the 
pope in prayer, Behgion suppor- 
ting the cross, and the genius of 
death seated near the sarcopha- 
goB ; of two recumbent ba&<reiief 



•88 



OBMTRAL IfALY>«**«MiI. BMHTIIMMnr. 



figures of Caiarity and Fortitade, 
and two lions, symbolic of tiie 
strengtii of mind which distinguis- 
hed mat pontifEl 

In the last chapel of this side 
of the basilic are mosaics of the 
St Michael of Gnido, and of the 
StPetronilla of Guercino ; those of 
the cupola are from paintings by 
Andrea Sacchi, Homanelli and 
BenefiaL 

After the tomb of Clement X 
is the mosaic from the original 
of Costanzi, of St Peter restoring 
Tabitha to life. 

The pavement of the ancient 
basilic, preserved entire, is eleven 
feet under that of the modem. 
Four small chapels correspond to 
the pillars that support the cu- 
pola, and over their altars are 
mosaic subjects taken from works 
of Andrea Sacchi. 

The chapel of the Confession, 
placed under the grand altar of 
the new basilic, was ornamented 
by Clement VIII with marble, gilt 
stucco, and twenty-four bronze 
reliefs allusive to sundry events 
in the lives of St Peter and St 
Paul. This altar is held in the 
highest veneration, being placed 
over the tomb of the prince of 
the apostles. 

Among the tombs of this sub- 
terranean church are those of the 
Emperor Otho II, of Charlotte, 
queen of Jerusalem and Cyprus, 
of James Stuart m, and of several 
popes ; it also contains numerous 
statues, bas-reliefs, mosaics, paint- 
ings,inscriptions, and other sacred 
monuments belonging to the an- 
cient church. 

The Sckcrigty. — The vestibule 
leads to three saUeries adorned 
with grey marble columns and 
verde Africano pjjlasters, between 
which are various ancient and 



aiodem inscriptionsyandtlie hakis 
of several pontiffB. 

In the sacris^ of the canons are 
a painting by Fattore, a pupil of 
Kaphael, one by Ghilio Romano, 
and two by CavalluccL In the ad- 
joining sacristy are a Muziano, 
representing Christ giving the 
keys to St Peter, and an ancient 
image of the Virgin. 

The external parts of the temple 
can alone convey an accurate iaeja 
of its size. A winding staircase of 
142 steps leads to a platform, on 
which are two octangular cupolas, 
136 feet in height; that of the 
grand cupola above this platform is 
285 feet ; it is entered by means of 
galleries communicating with the 
interned entablature, seven feet 
wide and 380 in circumference. 
Ascending to the spot where the 
cupola is double, several steps 
lead to the lantern, others to the 
ball of gilt bronze, which is seven 
and a half feet in diameter, and 
contains room for sixteen persons ; 
an iron ladder leads to the cross, 
which is thirteen feet high. 

In finishing our cursory view of 
St Peter's, it may not be foreign to 
the purpose to add that three 
centuries and a half were em- 
ployed in its construction; that 
it contains ten cupolas, besides 
the one raised by Michael An- 
gelo, ninety-six marble columns, 
twenty-nin^ paintings in mosaic, 
about 140 statues, of which ninety- 
one are marble, twenty-eight 
stucco, and twenty-one bronze; 
that from the entrance to the 
chair of St Peter the length is 
575 feet, and the breadth under 
the cross 417; that the middle 
nave is eighty-two feet broad and 
142 high, each of the lateral naves 
twenty feet wide; and that ftom a 
calculation made by Carlo Fon- 
tana in 1693 tJie expenses, ex- 



imum vnTEii-^Hioiis. »em »i'T. 



^ 



obism of the gilding^ iBosflic 
worfes, and the sacristy, amounted 
at that period to nearly 252 mil- 
lions of' francs. 

Open on Mondays from half- 
past ten till one to the puhlic; 
one tUl half-past fire every other 
day, except Saturdays, when it 
closes at twelve. 

The VaMcan Palace. — The 
period of the foundation of the 
Vatican is not known, but it is 
probable that when building the 
church Constsmtine assigned to 
the pope some of the edifices 
raised in the gardens of Nero. 

It was repaired in the twelfth 
century, enlarged by Gregory XI 
when the holy see returned from 
Avignon, was embellished by Ju- 
lius II and by Leo X; enlarged 
by several other pontiffs, and 
completed by Clement Vni and 
Paul V. A superb building was 
added to the museum by Pius VI, 
and a pinacotheca by Pius VII; 
the reigning sovereign Gregory 
XVI has founded two new mu- 
seums, one for Etruscan, the other 
for Egyptian monuments. 

The architecture of this palace 
being of different periods is de- 
fective as regards symmetry and 
regidarity. The principal stair- 
case, near the statue of Ckmstan- 
tme, leads to the salaregia; the 
frescoes of which, represienting 
different historical facts, wero 
painted by Vasari and Zuecari. 
The Vaticsm is open on Mon- 
davs to ttiose who choose to pay 
a fee to die custode, from half- 
past ten till one; and from one 
till half-past five iu summer, and 
four in wmter. Other days open 
. from ten till fbur, except Satur- 
4^ys, when It closes at twelve; 
bat it appears Uiat frequent 
changes t^e place respecting 
Ae hours ttf admission^ infiueuced 



b^ frequent fetes, fkstsj and festi- 
vities. To see the E^tian and 
Tuscan galleries and to mount 
the dome, permission must be 
had through the English consul. 

The SkcHne Chapel, built in 
1478 by Sixtos IV, is celebrated 
of the fresboes of Michael An- 
gelo, who represented on the cei- 
ling the Creation of the World 
and sundry passages of the Old 
Testament — a work executsd in 
the space of twenty months, 
without any assistance. 

Under Paul HI the same-artist 
completed in three years the Last 
Judgment In the centre are 
Christ and the' Virgin in the midst 
of th<6 apostles and of a multitude 
of saints; over these, angels bear- 
ing the instruments of the pas- 
sion; below, others sounding 
trumpets to call the dead from 
their tombs to the last judgment 
Several of the dead resume their 
flesh, others endeavour to shake 
off the earth, others traverse the 
air to appear at the tribunal. 
Some angels assist the elect in 
their attempt to reach heaven, 
while demons, on the other hand, 
drag down to hell the condemned, 
i^ose resistance produces the 
most violent struggles. On the 
lower part of the pcture Oharon 
receives them in faii^ bark, and 
transports them to the infernal 
regions. ■ 

On the other parts of the 
chapel Pietro Perugino, Ohirlan- 
dajo, and other distinguished ar- 
tists ofthe fifteenth century, have 
represented scenes taken from 
the scriptures. 

^he Pauline C^^jpe/ was erected 
under Paul m on the designs 
of Sahgallo. The walls are co- 
vtt*ed with firescoes painted by 
Michael Angelo and by Zuccari. 
The lioly sacrament is exposed 



im 



CynmUL lIALTtf<«<r4IOimi'' BltHTS^MT. 



-dudng the forty hours in iMs 
chapel on the first Sanday of 
Advent and in the holy week. 

The Loggie or Oalleriea of 
Mapkael^ere commeneed by Bra- 
mante under Julius U, and finished 
under Leo X by Raphael, who co- 
vered the interior wfils with paint- 
ings and omameats on his own de- 
signs, and directed their exe- 
cution. 

The arabesques of the first, and 
the allegorical pieces of the third 
story, were painted by Gio d'U- 
dine. On the second story, com- 
posed of thirtheen arcades, Ra- 
phael has represented fifty-two 
scenes of the Old and New Tes- 
tament, executed partly by himself 
and partly by Julio Romano, Pie- 
rin del Vaga, and others, on his 
designs and under his direction. 

Thiese paintings i^ered much 
m 1527, when Rome was taken 
by the troops of Charles V ; but 
though the colouring has faded, 
they are still much admired for 
their designs and composition. 

The rooms on the first story ad- 
joining the museum, called the 
Borgia rooms, contain frescoes by 
Giovanni dTIdine, Pierin del Vaga, 
and Pinturioehio. The Martyrdom 
€f St SebaBtian, the Visitation of 
the Virgin, iSt Catherine- is pre- 
s^ce of Mfttimian, tmd others, 
are by Pinturioehio, who also 
painted the subjects of the fourth 
voom, relative to the arts^ sciences, 
-and virtuesu " ; • 

Tbii famous antique paj&tiog 
found on. the EaqniKne in 1606, 
and called Nosze Aldobrandini, 
Is supposed to represent the Mar- 
riage of Peleos and Thetis. The 
■»^ph, oC an infoior style, was 
•discovered near the Via Nomen- 
Um m I&IO ; the portraits of ^ve 
of the most aoterious- women i4)f 
thelieroic tineei Paslph^et^ SegrQAi 



Phedra^Myitrha, aadCanace^iiew 

the St Sebastian gate in 182a 

Oullery of InscHptwrvt.'^ThB 
reunion and arrangment of this 
eoUec^on is due to Pius VII. On 
the right side are Pagan^ on the 
left Christian inscriptionli, iwand 
generally in the catacombs. 

The n)rmer relate to the gods 
and sacred ministers, to the em- 
perors, magistrates, soldiers, em- 
ployments, trades, and fuinerals. 
The other antique monuments 
are sarcophagi, funeral altars, ci- 
nerary urns. Among the monn- 
ments are a marble niche, with 
emblems of Neptune, found at 
Todi, discovered in the Preto- 
riftki camp, and dedicated to the 
genius of the centuria und» the 
consuls Burrhus and Oommodus 
in 181. The monument of Lucius 
Atimetus, remarkable for its bas- 
reliefs of a cutler's shop; the 
wells, consecrated by Cerellius 
to Ceres and the Nymphs; se- 
veral representations of the Mith- 
riac worship. 

The Christian inscriptions are 
interesting from the simpols of 
the vine, the fish, the ark of Noah, 
the dove, the anchor, the rites 
and sepulchral forms, the chro- 
nology of consuls in the fourth 
and filth centuries; the faults of 
orthography and doubtful pro- 
nunciation of several letters in- 
dicate the corruption of the Latin 
language in those times. 

The />i^ar^ surpasses the other 
libraries of Italy by the number 
of its Greek, Itatin, Italian, and 
oriesxtal mannsonipts; and its eol- 
lection. of editions of the fiiteantli 
century. It irafi commenced at 
the LaAeraa by Pope ^t Hilaff . 
inereased by Nicholas V^ «Aa 
plaoed in its present position by 
^iztus V. 

Over the case eontajaiog the 



.^•mKnfW9aM5j**t^maLfiawam msL 



<tl 



btloicB and tmitainctlpls are fctts- 
coes by sundry artists and Etrail- 
oaif ya8e8..0n one of the finest 
is repi^eMBted the apotbeofsis of 
. TriptQlemus ; on anoliher, Achilles 
and Ajas: playing at dice. 

In the long galleries are the 
manuscripts atnd: books oi the 
libirarieB of the elector palatine, 
of the dukes of Urbino, of Queen 
Christina/ of the Capponi and 
Ottoboni, suocessiyely united to 
that of the. Vatican. 

The. third hall of the gallery 
•to the left contains two statues, 
one of St Hippolitus, on whose 
seat is the celebrated paschal 
cialendar; the other represents 
Aristides of Smyrna, a Greek so- 
phist. Near these statues is a col- 
lection of utensils, paintings, and 
other objects used by the early 
Christians, and the cabinet coia- 
taining charts, written on papy- 
rus of the sixth century; ad- 
joining this cabinet is -^at of an- 
cient and modem engravings col- 
lected by Pius VI, and at the 
end of the gallery that of cameos 
and antiquities in bronze. 

17i€ Jfuseum.-^ Without enter- 
mg into a detailed description of 
the numerous objects of art united 
-in 4hiB coDection, we shall briefly 
notice the most interesting. 

Opposite the female reolininig 
statue |)laced on a tomb, found 
on the Via Cassia, ki a bas-»re- 
lief of the games of the circus, 
and one id .the ancient Greek 
style, of MinerTA preceded by 
another diinnity. Another draped 
figure, over a' ^otire ahisQ* ^as 
ei^ected, according to its inscrip- 
tion by the: priests of Bacchus, 
tp the gods .placed on it La the 
third compaiiafaent on the Ti^ht 
IS 'a fragnkeot'-with 'genii ridmg 
401'. sea mbhsters, both of a light 
and el09ant ctm^osition* 'Oe 



dmibldbeaded hiSmes is remar- 
kable as being thie otily monu- 
ment known, uniting -Bacchus un- 
der the forms of Zagreus asd 
Dionysius. 

In the gallerr called the Brac- 
cio Nuovo the first object worthy 
of att^tion is. the hermes, for- 
med of a half-fi^re of Mercusy, 
on which is an mscription rela- 
tive to the sculptor Zeno, which 
has been illu€(trated by Winkel- 
mann. The mosaic under the sta- 
tue of Domitianus and Varus, re- 
presenting Ulysses escaping from 
Scilla and the Sirens^ and that 
under the Faun, were found in 
the vicinity of the gate of St 
Sebastian. 

The Minerva Medica, discove- 
red near the supi^osed temple ^o 
called, is admirea for its propor- 
tions, drapery, and its geneimd 
expression ; it is one of the best 
preserved of those received from 
the ancients. It is- probable that 
the artist has imitated the statue 
that existed in the Parthenon. 

In the centre of the gallery is 
a basaltic vase, highly &ush^ 
and of elegant composition. 

The statue of the Nile with 
sixteen children, symbolic of the 
sixteen cubits the extent of its 
rise, and whose plinth is . cove- 
red with animals and ^ants pe- 
culiar to ihat river^/was found 
near the temple of Sehapis. In 
the four angles are colossal imasks 
of Medusa,< discovered i near the 
temple of Venus and. Bomei, and 
in the isitthes of the hemieyole 
are ^yb 'statues from theituins of 
v^s near Tiveli, and that of 
LuGuUus bA. Oiroaei. ' 
.. The mosaic- of: the pajireinient 
represeiiting Diana of Epheaus, 
was found at Poggio Mirteto, in 
<h« Sabine country; the statues 
of Venus AnadyiMnene and of the 



92 



imirniJkL italt^^^-kome. siesTB'BftT. 



Greek philosopher, are well exe- 
cuted; t^e Demosthenes, findy 
drapea, and in appropriate atti- 
tude, is considered to be a per- 
fect likeness of that orator. 

The other most remarkable 
works of this hall are, Abun- 
dance by land and by sea, a Ro- 
man matron, supposed to be JuUa, 
the daughter of Titus, Euripides 
in good preservation, a Diana 
contemplatingEndymion, an Ama- 
zon and a Faun, found near Circaei. 

Near the garden gate are a re- 
clining Faun with Nereids and 
other Fauns, found in the villa 
of Quintilius at Tivoli. A Gany- 
mede, which was placed over a 
fountain at Ostia; in the niches 
are an Isis and a Silenus. A 
Nerva with the toga. A Silenus 
-crowned with ivy holding Bac- 
chus in his arms ; the head of a 
Dacian captive found in 1812 in 
the excavations of the Trajan 
forum, and a Caryatides from the 
temple of Pandrosus in the cita- 
del of Athens, brought to Venice 
in the seventeenth century, and 
thence to the Giustiniani palace. 

Second Part of the Gallery, — 
In the fifth compartment, on the 
right, is a fragment representing 
the carceres of a circus; in the 
seventh are others of rural sub- 
jects, and the nuptial banquet of 
the Leucippides, to which Castor 
and Pollux were invited. The sar- 
copha^s of Evhodus, with the 
bas-relief of the death of Aicestes, 
in fine preservation, and frag- 
ments with dancing Menades. 

In the* ninth compartment are 
fragments of interesting bas-fe- 
liefs, of the andent Greek style, 
allusive to Perseus and the com- 
bat of Herculus with the Ama- 
zons. 

Opposite the tenth is a mask 
of tne Ocean on a votive altitr, 



and a well^aped stsitue of Po- 
lymnia. 

The most interesting objects of 
l^e eleventh division are busts -of 
Sappho and of Antoninus Pius, 
opposite is that of Alcibiades; of 
the twelfth, a statue of Hercules, 
the combat of the Amazons, a 
wounded gladiator plunging a dag- 
ger in the breast of a lion. 

In the fragments of the fifteenth 
compartment the Roman soldiers 
may be seen covered with the 
hamata, a kind of cuirass, and 
with the squamea^ so called from 
their scaly form. 

In the sixteenth is the statue 
of Tiberius, found in Veil; iathe 
seventeenth the fragment of a bas- 
relief, with a four-wheeled car, 
and a bust of Augustus, found 
at Ostia, which from its high 
fimish is considered as onie of the 
finest of the collection. Near the 
bust of Demosthenes is that of 
Cicero, agreeing with the medals 
found at Magnesia. 

Near the finely-draped statue 
of Esculapius in the nineteenlii 
compartment are the torso of a 
Citharedus of flowered alabaster, 
sundry animals, and a mithriac 
group. 

The chief objects in the twen- 
tieth are a Tiberius found at Pi- 
pemo, and opposite a sarcopha- 
gus, placed on a sepulchral mo- 
nument, on which are sculptured 
utensils used in grinding olives 
and in making oiL On the left a 
statue of AtropoB, one of the fates, 
found in the villa Adriana* 

In the twenty-first a head of 
one of the daughters of Niobe, 
another of Verus admirably exe- 
cuted, a statue of Silenus, and op- 
posite a bust of Isis. 

In the twenty-third are bustis 
of Antoninus, Nerva^ Pallas, Tvnr 
jan, and Augustus; aad on the 



RtXAN'ITA!R8-^R«iE. BIflflTH DAT. 



90 



Opposite wall & bas*relief of Aeon, 
a ffnofitic diyinity, and one of 
Miuira. 

The twenty-fourth and twenty* 
fifth compartlnents contain a Ve- 
nus, a MercuiT, a statue of Clau- 
dius, busts of jNeptune, ofAgrip- 
pina the younger, of Brutus, and 
a small statue of Typhon in the 
Egn)to-Roman style. 

The twenty-sixth and twenty- 
seventh, a Ceres finely-draped, 
placed on a quadrangular altar, 
with figures of Apollo and Diana, 
Mars and Mercury, Fortune and 
Hope, Hercules and Sylvanus, 
fragments of excellent style' and 
execution; opposite are statues of 
Atys, Hercules, and Ganymede. 

Li the twenty-eight and twenty- 
ninth are a Koman lady under 
the form of Hygeia in petelic mar- 
ble; a fine bust, a colossal head 
of Antoninus Pius, a small statue 
of Ulysses as he is represented 
on the.medals of the Mamilian fa- 
mily. Opposite are a fragment re- 
presenting a dancing Faim ; heads 
of Sabina the wife of Adrian, of 
IsiiS, of a Centaur crown with 
yineleaves, and a bacchie head 
in giallo antico. 

lu the last compartments are 
a reoumbent Hercules, two hei> 
mes, (mfi- o£ Solon and the other 
unknoipcn. 

Jlemicpcle of the Belvedere.-^ 
Pius Vn united in these rooms 
numerous Egyptian monuments 
and casts from the Parthenon, 
presented by Georg IV, king of 
England. 

The semicircular gallery con- 
tains the Egyptian monuments 
purchased by Pius VH. Ten sta- 
tues of black granite, each with 
the head of a lioness, represent 
**Athor,'*the Venus of the Greeks; 
in the centre of the curve is a 
mummy in its case between two 



cynocephali^ sculpture m sand- 
stone. Around' the wall are hie* 
roglyphics and epitaphs, one of 
which dates from ^e year 1602 
of the Christian era. Under the 
opposite windows, and ranged in 
closets, are small statues of bronce. 
wood and stone utensils, of all 
sorts, used in ancient Egypt, and 
several mummies of sacred ani- 
mals. All these objects were found, 
in latter times, in the ruins of 
Thebes, and in the tombs of 
Goumsdi, on the left bank of the 
Nile. 

The reigning pontiff ordered the 
reimion in these chambers -of all 
the Egyptian monuments existing 
in the public museums o£ Rome. 

Museo Fio C/emen^tno. — ^This 
immense museo was formed by 
Popes Clement XUI and XIV, but 
particularly by Pius VI, who added 
numerous monuments and the hall 
of animals, a part of the gallery, 
the hall of the muses, the round 
hall, that in the form of a Greek 
cross, that of the biga, and the 
grand staircase. From its aiichi- 
tecture and decorations it may 
be considered as one of the most 
splendid of modern Home. 

Square JPoreh.'^hk the centre 
is the celebrated torso of the 
Belvedere, found in the thermae 
of Caracalla. It is known, from 
the Greek inscription at ' the base, 
that this fragment, > belonging to 
a statue of Hercules, is the work 
of ApoUonius, son of Nestor the 
Athenian. < 

Of the other monument in this 
room the most celebrated are thosct 
found in the tomb of thOiScipios; 
several very ancient inscriptions 
line the wsJls, that on t^e sarco- 
phagus shows that it was the 
tomb of Scipio Barbalus, loonsul 
in the year of Rome 460. The 
bust crowned with laurel, placed 



/i 



9i 



ClilTIUl rrA&T.-^iiMn: eisbti »AT«' 



L 



on the tomb, was probably the 
portrait of one of tne Scipios. 

In tiie round hall are fragments 
of male and female figures finely 
draped, and on the balcony an 
ancient clock, on which are mar- 
ked the carmnal points, and the 
names of the winds, in Greek 
atnd Latin. 

Chamber of Meleager, so called 
from its celebrated statue, oyer 
which is an ancient inscription 
statinfl; that Lucius Mummius, 
consul in the year of Rome 607, 
defeated the Achaeans, took and 
destroyed Corinth, and affcer his 
triumph dedicated the temple 
which during the war he had 
vowed to erect to Hercules. A 
bas-relief on the walls represents 
the apotheosis of Homer by the 
Moses. 

Portico of the Cowr^.— This por- 
tico, which contains the most ce- 
lebrated monuments of ancient 
art, is supported by sixteen gra- 
nite columns and several pila- 
sters. 

The first cabinet contains an- 
cient statues of Mercury and 
Pallas; the boxers and Perseus 
of Ganora. 

The second, the Mercury known 
under the name of Antinous, found 
on the Esquiline; on the walls 
are bas-reUfe of Achilles, who 
has just killed Penthesilea, and 
an !Uiac processit^n. 

The third, the group of Lao- 
coon, found, under Julius II, in 
the baths of Titus. We learn from 
PKny that this composition is 
due to three Grecian sculptors, 
Agesander, Polydorus, and Athe- 
nodorus of Rhodes. The bas- 
reMefs represent a Bacchanalian 
festival and the triumph of Bac- 
chus after his Indian expedition. 

The last cibbinet is that of the 
Apollo Belvedere, found at Antium 



in the b^nmng of the sixteenth- 
caitnry, and considered to be ihe 
most perfect work of sculpture. 
The bas-reliefs on the wall alfaide 
to a chase and to Pasiphae. 

Near the first cabinet is a sarco- 
phagus with an inscription stating 
that it belonged to Marcellus, tlie 
father of Heiiogabalus ; anothei* 
with fi^es of fauns and priest-' 
esses of Bacchus. 

On the sarcophagi near the 
second cabinet are represented 
prisoners imploring the cle- 
mency of the conqueror, and 
Bacchus visiting Ariadne in the 
isle of Naxos. 

On those placed near the third, 
Nereids are carrying the arms of 
Achilles, and the Athenians are 
engaged in battle with the Ama* 
zons. 

Near the fourth cabinet are 
bas-rehefis of Hercules and Bac- 
chus, with their attributes, Au- 
gustus commencing a sacrifice, 
and Rome accompanying a vic- 
torious emperor. 

Hall of the AnimaU. — In this 
rare collection of sculptured ani^ 
mals are the groups of a marine 
Centaur and a Nereid, Het'cides 
killing Gorgon, chaining atid> car- 
r}rng away Cerberus, IdllStg the 
Lion, Diomed and his horses, 
Commodus on horseback casting 
a javelin. It appears from this 
statue that in the time of that 
emperor it was customary to shoe 
horses. 

The pavement is composed of 
antique mosaics representing a 
wolf, an eagle devouring a hare, 
and a tiger. 

Gallery of Statues. — The most 
remarkable statues of this gal- 
lery are a Clodins Albinus. a 
half-figure of Cupid, Paris, Pal- 
las, Penelope, Juno, an Amason, 



R0i4ll iTAlVt.— RtMi. BMflTH t^At; 



Mo- 



tile inase Urania, Posldippoe, and 
Menander. 

On the opponte side are an 
Apollo holding the lyre, a Nep- 
tune, a wounded Adonis, Bacchus- 
a group of Esculapins and Hy- 
geia, a Banaid; Ariadne deser, 
ted rusually called a Cleopatra) 
is piaeed between two marble 
chandeliers found in the villa 
Adriana, and is supported by a 
pedestal, on the bas-relief of 
which is represented the war of 
the giants against the gods. 

Sail of jSu9t9. — The most es- 
teemed busts in this collection are 
those of Domitia, Galba, Mam- 
maea, Lysimachus, Ariadne, Me- 
nelans, valerian, Pertinax, Acrip- 
pa, Garacalla, Antinous, and Se- 
rapis, in basalt 

A niche is occupied by the co- 
lossal statue of Jupiter, at whose 
feet is the eagle grasping the 
sceptre and Uiunderbolt. On the 
other side of the hall are busts 
of Trajan and Antoninus Pius, of 
Sabina, Brutus^ Aristophanes, and 
Marcus Aurehus, a semi-figm*e of 
Apollo, a statue of Livia, and on 
a sole block of marble two por- 
traits said to represent Cato and 
Poreia. 

Oa5i>itff.— Underpins VI, D'An- 
gelis painted on the centre of the 
celling the marriage of Bacchus 
and Ariadne, and in the four ang- 
les Paris Offering the apple to 
Yenns, Diana and Endymion, Ye- 
miB aaid Adonis, Pallas and Pa- 
ris. On the frieze are represen- 
ted antique festooms and child- 
ren ; the bas-reliefs allude to the 
labours of Hercules. The statues 
of Biinerva, Ganymede, Adonis, 
of one of the Houris, of Yenus 
and Diana, are ancient works of 
fine composition. 

Under the niches are four por- 
phyry benches resting on bronze 



snpporter& The pavement^ an an- 
cient mosaic of the finest exe* 
cution, was found in die villa 
Adriana. A festoom of sundlry 
fruits and leaves, tied widi rib- 
bons, fonns a circular border 
round a compartment of white 
mosaic enclosing three figures. of 
masks, and a landscape wHh goats 
and shepherds. 

In the passage leading to the 
galler^ is the statue of a dancing 
faun, and near a small Diana a 
bas-relief of three conquerors in 
athletic games. Under the win- 
dow is the celebrated alabaster 
vase found in the mausoleum of 
Augustus, supposed, from the in- 
scriptions that lay near it, now 
preserved in the gallery, to have 
contained the ashes of LiviUa, the 
daughter of Gerraanicus. 

The Hall of the Muse is de- 
corated with sixteen columns of 
Carrara marble, with antique ca- 
pitals from the villa Adriana. 

The statues representing the 
Muses were founa with the Her- 
mes of the Saees of Greece, in 
the villa of Cas3us at Tivoli. They 
are Melpomene, <;rowned with 
vine leaves and holding the mask 
and sword; Thaba, with the ta- 
bottr and comic maskj Urania, 
the celestial globe; Calliot)e; Po- 
lymnia, the muse of Pantonilwe, 
with her hands folded in- her dra^ 
pery; Erato, with her lyre; Clio, 
the muse of history; Terpsichore 
and Euterpe. Near the statue of 
Silenus are a bas-relief of the 
dance of Corybantes ; the Hermes 
of Sophocles, Bttripides. Eschi- 
nes, Demosthenes, andAntist^e- 
nes, ^e first portrait known of 
this founder of the Cynic sect 

The veiled Hermes of Aspasiii 
is placed near the bust of Peri- 
cles; both have Greek inscrip- 
tions. The remaining principal 



> 



96 



CEMTIUL niiU.T.— BOMB. B14VTH BAf. a 



busts of this hall are those of 
Solon, Periander, Alcibiades, So- 
crates, Aratas, and Euripedes. 

The marble pavement, inlaid 
with sundry mosaic figures of co- 
mic and tragic actors, was found 
atLorium (Castel di Guido),twelve 
miles from Rome. The frescoes 
by Conca allude to the subjects 
united in this room. 

Bound Hall. — A variety of sta- 
tues and colossal busts, placed 
on columns of porphyry, form the 
ornaments of this hall, round 
which are ten marble pilasters 
whose capitals were sculptured 
by Franzoni. 

The principal busts are those 
of Jupiter, Adrian, Antinous, Se- 
rapis, Julia Pia, and Pertmax; 
the statues of Hercules, Augus- 
tus, Ceres, Antoninus Piu8,Nerva, 
Juno Lanuvino, indicated by the 
goat skin and shield. 

The pavement found at Otri- 
coli, and the sea monsters at 
Scrofano, are fine specimens of 
antique mosaics. In the centre, 
over the head of Medusa, is a 
porphyry vase, forty-one feet in 
circumference. 

ffall of the Greek Croas.^- The 
door leading into this room is re- 
markable for the splendour of its 
ornkaments. The bases, columns, 
colossal statues, serving as Cary- 
atides to the entablature, are all 
of red Egyptian granite, andi are 
supposed to have been adapted 
to one of the entrances of Adri- 
an's villa. 

On the porphyry urn, which was 
the tomb of St Constantia, children 
are occupied in gathering grapes. 
It was found near her church, 
commonly called the temple of 
Bacchus. 

The corresponding urn, also of 
porphyry, with bas-reliefs of a 



battle and prisoners, served asithe 
tomb of the Empress St Helen. . 

Near the grating are two colos- 
sal Sphinxes, and on the walls bas- 
reliefs, representing combats of 
gladiators and wild beasts, Bac- 
chanalian an other mythological 
subjects. 

On the pavement is a mosaic, 
found at Tusculum, representing 
a head of Minerva, and various 
arabesques. 

The staircase is decorated witii 
twenty columns of granite, with 
balustrades in bronze) entabla- 
tures of sculptured marble, and 
statues emblematic of the Nile, 
and of another river. 

Another staircase, on which 
are eight columns oi breccia co- 
rallina, leads to the. 

Hall of the Biga — In the cen- 
tre of which is an ancient marble 
biga, finely sculptured. In the 
niches are statues of Perseus, of 
Alcibiades, a richly draped fe- 
male figure performing a sacri- 
fice, of Apollo holding the lyre, 
of Phocion, a Dioscobolus copied 
from Mvron, of Apollonius, a 
Greek pnilosopher of the second 
century, and of Apollo Saurocto- 
nus, or destroyer of the lizards- 

The sacrophagi placed at the 
foot of each niche represent the 
genius and the attributes of the 
Muses, the games of the circus, &c. 

The following gallery is divi- 
ded into six sections; the first 
containing monuments, chande- 
liers, and two trunks of trees sup- 
porting nests of little Cupids. 

The second, vases, cups, chapr 
deliers of various forms, and two 
sacrophagi alluding to the history 
of Protesilas and Laodamia, ana 
to the death of Egisthus and dy- 
temnestra. 

In the third are the antiqui- 
ties discovered at Tor Maranico^ 



MIIAII BTATES.— RtME. EI€BTB DAt. 



97 



near the Ardeaii way, and con- 
Bistinjg of statues, fragments of 
paintingB, and a mosaic repre- 
senting vegetables, fish, and mwL 

The fourth section is enriched 
with vases, chandeliers, cups, sta- 
tues, bas-reliefs, sarcophagi with 
the fable of Niobe, and tibe amours 
of Diana and Endymion. 

In the fifth is an elegant dra- 
ped statue of Ceres; in the last 
section are monuments, and many 
rare kinds of marble. 

In the adjoining rooms are 
the tapestries of Raphael, and 
the coUection of maps formed by 
Gregory Xm. 

Mu8eo Chregoriano, — This mu- 
seum has been formed by the 
present pope, Gregory Xvl, to 
contain tne numerous monuments 
of art found of late years in the 
cities of Vulci, Tarquinii, Cere, 
Toscanella, and in other s^ots 
cast over that part of ancient 
Etruria which extends from the 
Tiber to the river Flora, To these 
monuments have been added those 
of Egypt, which were hitherto 
in the Capitol, or in other public 
museums. 

In the first vestibule are three 
reclining figures, two male and one 
female, originally placed over 
tombs, which are remarkable by 
the ornaments with which they 
are adorned. 

The horses' heads, of a good 
style of sculpture, were found 
over a sepulcnral door at Vulci. 

Several cinerary urns, made of 
alabastar of Volterra, and votive 
offerings, were discovered at Cere. 

The adjoining room contains 
a larg sarcophagus, on which are 
represented the funeral rites of 
the Etruscans, and urns found at 
Castel Gandolfo, of a style simi- 
lar to those of Etruria. 



The works in terra eotta are 
united in the hall of Mercury, 
so called from the highly finis- 
hed statue of that godn)und at 
TivoU. 

The following room contains 
the vases, with black figures on 
yellow ffround, of the most an- 
cient style. The vase of Bacchus, 
particularly admired for its exe- 
cution: the figures are not mere 
outlines but painted, the diffe- 
rent colours imitating the flesh, 
the vestments, and accessories; 
the subject represents Mercury 
consigning to Silenus the infant 
Bacchus; three nymphs, embla- 
matic of the seasons, which for- 
merly were three in number, are 
celebrating with their song the 
birth of the son of Jove. 

The chamber of Apollo is so 
called from the vase, in high pre- 
servation , representing Apollo 
seated on the tripod, singing to 
the sound of the lyre ; this urn 
is perfect, both for its composi- 
tion and its whorkmanship. It is 
placed in the middle of several 
others, which are highly inte- 
resting. 

In die hall of the bronzes is 
the military statue discovered at 
Todi; a monument unrivalled, as 
offering a tvpe of the national 
art, the celebrity of which is en- 
creased by the epigraphs engra- 
ved on it, to whicn various in- 
terpretations have been given. In 
this room are domestic utensils, 
differing in form, style, and size ; 
chandeliers, used also in the sa- 
cred rites, the tripod and casket, 
beautiful oronzes found at Vulci, 
military weapons at Bomarzo, 
fragments of figures larger than 
life at Chiusi, the colossal arm 
in the port of Civita Vecchia: 
the Etruscan car, so singular for 
its ornaments and style, the chest 



i 



CUnUL IVALT.— Rtfn. BMBTB VAf. 



engraved with atUetic combats, 
are worthy of observatioii; the 
walls and tables are covered with 
mirrors, and inscriptions useful 
in advancing the knowledge of 
the Etruscan language. In two 
closets are deposit^ a great 
number of small utensils, Ught 
fragments, and vases: the large 
vessels, utensils, and arms, on 
the walls, the masks used in 
scenic representations and cro- 
wned wim ivy, are finely exe- 
cuted. 

The works in gold are beau- 
tiful and elegant, whether we 
consider the invention, the form, 
or their state of preservation: 
the ornaments of men are the 
distinctive signs of dignities, the 
premiums of victory, tae gifts of 
athlethic combats, tiie civic and 
triumphal crowns of ivy and myr- 
tle, the gold works cut with the 
chiseL not only manifest the ca- 
ste of the artists, but convey an 
idea of the scientific knowledge 
of the nation. From all these ob- 
jects an idea may be formed of 
the riches, the flourishing' state, 
and the degree of splendour at- 
tained bv the Etruscans, when 
objects of such value were buried 
with their owners. 

A passage, the walls of which 
are lined witJi Etruscan inscrip- 
tions, leads to a large room, round 
which are copies perfectly re- 
sembling the original paintings 
existing on the tombs of Vulci 
and Tarquinii, monuments of the 
highest importance in the history 
of national art, as they represent 
the public games and banquets 
which took place attlie funerals 
of illustrious individuals. The va- 
ses and sculptures of this room 
are marked with Etruscan in- 
scriptions. 



Near the pasage to the oine* 
rary urns of alabaster of Vol- 
terra is an imitation of a small 
Etruscan cemetery, and a tomb 
brought from Vulci, the door of 
which is guarded by two lions 
placed as in their original posi- 
tion. In the interior are disposed 
the funeral beds and vases which 
are usually found in these tombs. 

The Oallery is filled with cups 
of the most delicate workmans- 
hip that has come down to us 
from the ancient schools. Of va~ 
rious and beautiful shapes, the 
design is generally of the light- 
est character; the artists, pleased 
no doubt with the elegance of 
their compositions, have frequen- 
tly inscribed their names on the 
vases, with short and witty jests 
expressive of joy, happiness, in* 
vitations to drink, to pass life 
merrily, expressions which may 
appear to be discordant with the 
figures represented, but for which 
there exists a reason which it is 
not always easy to penetrate as 
the afi^ord a field for extensive 
research. These arguments may 
be particularly applied to the 
archeology of the fine series of ajv 
gonaudc vases found in the necro- 
polis of Agilla and in that of Cere 
which are united in this museum* 

This celebrated maritime ex- 
pedition of the heroic ages was 
hiUierto considered as having af- 
forded a subject of fiction amongst 
the Greek and Latin poets, nor 
did any monuments exist in sup- 
port of their assertions, but in 
this collection is an ample de- 
velopment of the Thessalian story 
which gives a new, a better, and 
a difi^erent idea of that celebra- 
ted event On one of the vases 
the principal chiefs who partook 
of the dangers and glory of the 
enterprise are preparing for their 



MNVAN STATES. — SSII£. BISHTA DAlf- 



89 



departure and putting on their 
armour: the attendants, obliged 
to serve and fallow their lords, 
]Hrepare the shields, each of which 
is distinguished by an emblem; 
on one a Hon, on another a buU, 
on others a throne or a branch 
full of leaves ; not only does this 
yase prove the antiquity of he- 
raldry but the mantles worn by 
the personages show their de- 
grees of rank, and the same or- 
naments that cover the mantle 
of the chief appear on those of 
his attendant. 

On other vases are represen- 
ted the calamities which befel 
the royal house of Aeson and 
Pelias : the lamentations of Lem- 
nos, the vengeance of Medea, 
are expressed in a manner dif- 
fering altogether from the ao 
counts of ute Greek and Latin 
stage, or from the epic poetry of 
those nations : the hand of these 
ancient artists was guided by nar- 
rations now lost,',as appears on a 
vase placed in the centre of those 
described, on which the final ca- 
tastrophe of the conquest of the 
golden fleece is expressed in a 
mode hitherto unknown; Jason, 
when nearly devoured by the dra- 
gon, is drawn out of his jaws by 
Minerva; the name written in 
clear purple letters near the 
figure of the chief leaves no doubt 
on the subject 

After the argonautic vases come 
those whidi represent the deeds 
of Hercules and the mysteries of 
Dionysius, forming a series of 
subjects difficult to explain, the 
traditions and opinions of the 
learned being frequently at va- 
riance. 

A design of the utmost per- 
fection and purity of style with 
an expression suited to tiie sub- 
ject ip that of Oedipus in his tra- 



velling dresSy deeply mediating 
on the enigma proposed by the 
sphinx, who appears on the sum- 
mit of a rock in those mixed 
fantastic forms of a lion and a 
young female under which she is 
represented in the monuments of 
art. On another vase the artist, 
without regarding Ihe design, ri- 
diculed this subject by represent- 
ing a man with an enormous head 
in the same pensive attitude as 
Oedipus, and a monkey in lieu 
of the sphinx. 

The vases relative to the an- 
cient systems of theogony, to the 
Homeric descriptions, to the pu- 
blic games, banquets, and other 
usages of those times, open a wide 
field for research, wJbiether we 
consider the beauty and excel- 
lence of the design, which in the 
ffymnastic scenes often reach per- 
fection, or the light they throw 
on the classic authors and other 
monuments of antiquity. 

In one of the closets are vases 
of a smaller size but highly in- 
teresting from the variety of their 
forms and caprice of invention, 
particularly in those used for 
drinking ; some have the form of 
a ram, others of the humble ani- 
mal that carried Silenus. tbe face 
of an Ethiopian and ot Silenus, 
who expresses his joy on receiv- 
ing the gifts of his disciple. This 
closet also contains bowls and 
vases of various forms of the most 
finished workmanship. 

The Egyptian Museum, — Se- 
veral statues and colassal figures 
contemporaneous with their pro- 
totypes are united in this museum. 
The colossus of Queen Twea, the 
small statue of Menephtah I seated 
on a throne, the fragment of the 
throne ofKhams^sIII, are of the 
period of the dynastic that reigned 
between the year 1822 and 1474 

5* 



100 



GENTIUL ITALY.— HOME. SI6HTS DAT. 



before the Christian era. Without 
entering into a detail of all the 
monuments representing the hu- 
man form, animals, vases, o^ other 
objects, we shall arrest our at- 
tention on the most remarkable; 
the two lions next to the colos- 
sus of Twea, though the last of 
the works executed under the 
Pharaohs which are known to 
ns, bear testimony to the talent 
of the Egyptian sculptors even 
at the decline of that empire. 

The torso of King Nectanebo, 
placed in the hall of lions, is not 
less worthy of attention for the 
beauty of its form; nor can we 
avoid noticing another torso in the 
same hall representing one of the 
ministers of state, it is executed 
in alabaster of Goumah. 

Continuing our review of this 
museum we shall find a new, 
though indirect, proof of the er- 
rors hitherto conunitted injudging 
of Egyptian art when it repre- 
sented the human form. In the 
large hall contiguous to that of 
the Kons, fitted up in the Egyp- 
tian style, are the monuments of 
imitation or those produced in 
Rome in the Egyptian manner 
at the period of the emperors, 
the ffreater part of which were 
found in the Villa Adrianna near 
Tivoli. To an imitation of the 
works executed under the Pha- 
raohs and without attempting to 
correct the original taste pre- 
vailing during so many centuries 
in Egypt, these artists added the 
softness and finish which dis- 
tinguished the Greek school at 
Rome. An example is observed 
in the Antinous, a statue placed 
in this hall, which from the beauty 
of its form has been named by 
artists the Egyptian Apollo. If 
imitation has produced a work 
of such merit, how can we doubt 



of the perfection which sculpture 
had attained in Egypt? not that 
aU Egyptian statues could serve 
as models, but several dispersed 
throughout Europe are equal in 
beauty to the Antinous. The works 
of imitation representing animals 
are not less useful in judging of 
Egyptian art; in comparing the 
works of the Egyptian and Ro- 
man artists, if Uie former is not 
superior he certainly is not infe- 
rior, as the Egyptian, in there- 
presentation of animals, always 
possessed the greatest degree of 
skill, as is evidentiy proved by 
the lions of King IVectanebo, by 
the prodigious quantity of vola- 
tiles, quadrupeds, reptiles, and 
scaraboei abounding in tlds mu- 
seum, whose resemblance to na- 
ture is so perfect that they might 
serve for the study of naturalists. 

Architecture, — ^la order to com- 
plete the Egyptian collection of 
the Vatican of works of art in 
its primitive state the only mo- 
numents wanting were those of 
architecture; the works preserved 
till the present day in Egypt at- 
test the boldness of imagination 
and power of execution shown 
by that nation in this art, and 
excite a sentiment of regret in 
those who have not had an op- 
portunity of observing the monu- 
ments spread iJong the banks of 
the Nile. 

The Vatican museum possesses 
a small but valuable remnant of 
this nature ; a capital firom The- 
bes of the second order of archi- 
tecture, formed of sandstone in 
the shape of an expanded lotus ; 
that it is genuine is attested by 
the vestiges of yellow colour which 
originally covered it, as it was 
customary amongst the Egyptians 
to paint those species of stone 
which did not admit of polish^ 



BOKAN STATES.— ROME. SI6HTH DAY. 



101 



This small remnant, placed in the 
gallery of mummies, may be found 
useful in comparing me Greek 
style with the original Egyptian. 

We shall not dwell on the va- 
rious productions of the mecha- 
nical arts abounding in tUs col- 
lection, on the fabrication of pa- 
pyrL the weaving of cotton in 
the bandages of mummies, nor on 
the admirable art of preserving 
for thousands of years the re- 
mtans of the mortal frame, on 
the sandals varying in shape, or 
tiie works in bronze and syca- 
more wood on which are repre- 
sented figures of <he gods or of 
embalmed bodies, cases containig 
animals reduced to mummies, and 
those in which writings have been 
deposited; one in the gallery of 
mummies is particularly interest- 
ing, as it represents on its four 
sides hieroglyphic inscriptions re- 
lative to the four genii, the com- 
panions and assistants of Osiris 
m the regions below, who appear 
in their respective characters. In 
this collection are numerous small 
vessels of various substances, con- 
taining the ointment used in paint- 
ing the eyelids, others were des- 
tined to preserve balsam or per- 
fumes. 

Sudi is the valuable collection 
of monuments bearing testimony 
to the knowledge of Uie Egyptians, 
of that knowledge whi(£ Moses, 
having imbibed, became powerful 
in acts and words (Acts of the 
Apostles, chapter VII). Such are 
the resources laid open to the 
learned in this museum by order of 
the reigning pontiff Gregory XVI, 
and due to his incessant zeal to 
promote the interests of religion. 
Here the theologian will find the 
vestiges of the primitive traditions 
which preceded the revelation 
written by Moses and the ]^ro- 



phets ; here sacred philology de- 
rives information for the expla- 
nation of oriental biblical texts ; 
how many points of contract exist 
between the customs of the two 
nations, the people of God and 
that of Egypt, whose history is 
so closely connected; what anew 
light is shed on a multitude of 
Hebrew idioms and forms of lan- 
guage, arising from the similarity 
of a great number of scriptural 
phrases with the forms of the 
ancient Egyptian language pre- 
served in tiie hieroglyphic in- 
scriptions. 

To the. student of sacred writ, 
it will be gratifying to see tiie 
portrait of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; 
under whose auspices, and doubt- 
less providentially, was underta- 
ken the version of the scriptures 
from Hebrew into Greek, called 
the septuagint The civilized na- 
tions of that time were thus 
enabled to read the sacred code, 
and prepared to receive the first 
fflimmermgs of the doctrines of 
me unity of God and of the re- 
demption which was approaching; 
the statues of Ptolemy and Ar- 
sinoe are placed near that part 
of the library which contains the 
celebraded manuscript of this ines- 
timable version. 

In the Egyptian monuments col- 
lected in tins museum a distinct 
history in traced of sculpture and 
architecture, whe shall i)ow exa- 
mine writing and painting. 

Writing, — The primitive state 
of the Egyptian characters is 
proved by the vestiges that re- 
main of the earliest kinds of 
writmg : the first was that of the 
simple representation of the idea, 
the second was at once symbolic 
and phonetic, the third the plain 
alphabetic expression, at least in 
Greek and Roman names; tb 



m 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ^ROME. EIGBTH DAT. 



nnion of these systems constitu- 
tes the beauty of the writing 
called hieroglyphic. 

The written papyri^ some in the 
hieroglyphic, others m the hiera- 
tic and demotic characters, amount 
to about thirty-two ; these line the 
walls of the fourth room after the 
gallery of mummies. 

In the fifth are disposed inscrip- 
tions relating to history, and in 
the left angle that of Queen 
Ammens6 illustrated by Rosellini, 
near which is the precious scara- 
boeus called that of Memnon, or 
Amenoph HI, engraved in honour 
of that king, to celebrate his mar- 
riage with Que5n Taia and the 
happy state of Egypt at that pe- 
riod. On the fragment of a pi- 
laster of brown stone is an inte- 
resting inscript on indicating that 
Egypt was governed by a female, 
in the want of a male heir to the 
throne. 

A valuable historic monument 
in the hall of statues is that of 
a priest, whose tunic is covered 
with a long inscription purporting 
that five kings had reigned suc- 
cessively during his ministri : three 
Egyptian, Apnes, Amasis, Psam- 
macherites, and two Persian, Cam- 
byses and Darius. Whe shall not 
dwell on the numerous dedicatory 
and funeral inscriptions of other 
monuments in granite, alabaster, 
basalt, existing in this collection, 
as several have not yet 'been il- 
lustrated. 

The pure hierofflyphic charac- 
ters are preserved in the inscrip- 
tions on the two lions of King 
Nectanebo, and in the sarcopha- 
gus of a priest of the goddess 
Pascht, named Psammeticus, in 
the hall of urns. In that of the 
lions are other hieroglyphics in 
profile on the tiirone of Ram- 
ies m, those on the corerof the 



sarcophagus of Im^tph in the 
gallery of mummies and around 
the sarcophagus ofMan^s int^e 
hall of urns are of the most de- 
gant execution. 

Of the third class of plain out* 
lines are the hieroglyphycs on 
the scaraboei, amulets, and funeral 
vases. Of the fourth, called U- 
near, are the inscriptions on the 
mummy cases. The fifth comprises 
those painted, as on the monu- 
ments of Ramses X, and of the 
daughter of Takellothis. The great 
advantage derived from the Imow- 
ledge of these characters is their 
application to chronology and his- 
tory, and whenever on the mo- 
numents of Egypt any royal name 
is written, it is easy to assign 
the period to which it belongs, 
as one of those names generaUy 
corresponds to a certain date. 
The Vatican collection embraces 
chronological dates indicated by 
royal names, twenty-eight in num- 
ber, according to the following 
series : 

1. Renoubka, one of the most 
ancient kings of the XVI dynasty, 
who lived about the time of Abrar 
ham. This monument was found 
in the tombs of Goumah, the name 
is written on the necklace or collar. 

2. Amenoph I, written on the 
mummy case (hall of urns), and 
unless this be the title of a di- 
vinity its date would be the year 
1832 before Christ 

3. 4. Amense and Amenenh^ 
the former reigning queen of the 
XVm dynasty; the latter, her 
husband, 1750 years before Christ 

5. Thutm^ ly, the fifth kin^ of 
the preceding dynasty, succeeded 
to his mother Amens^, and reigned 
from the year 1749 to 1727 be- 
fore Christ 

6. 7. To the same dynasty be- 
longs Amenoph m, the eightik 



ROMAN STATES. — RMOL EMHTH BAT. 



101 



IdBg; the scaraboeus above men- 
tioned, bearing his name and that 
of his wife Taia, belongs to the 
year 1690 before Christ. The six 
colossi of the goddess Pascht,two 
of which are in the halls of lions, 
the others in the hemicyle, were 
executed under this king. 

8. Menephtah L The museum 
possesses in the Egyptian hall 
an elegant statue of this king, 
who reigned from 1604 to 1579 
before the present era, and was 
father of the great Sesostris. 

9. 10. TweaandConth^res; the 
first, the wife of the above-named 
king and the mother of Sesostris, 
is represented in a colossus of 
black breccia placed in the hall 
of lions; the other represented 
on the pilaster of ihe colossus 
was probably the wife of Sesostris. 

11. Bamses in, the Sesostris 
of the Greek writers, who reigned 
from 1565 to 1494, bc. His name 
is frequently repeated on the frag- 
ment of his seated statue to the 
left in the hall of lions and on 
the colossus of Queen Twea. 

12. Siphtah also belonged to 
the eighteenth dynasty, but the 
period of his reign is uncertain. 

13. Ramses Y, second king of 
the nineteenth dynasty, in the 
fifteenth century b.c, is mentioned 
in a hieratic papyrus twelve, let- 
ter c. 

14. Ramses X, founder of the 
twentieth dynasty, belongs to the 
thirteenth centuiy before the pre- 
sent era; his name appears on 
a small painted sandstone placed 
in the fifth chamber. 

15. Osorchod the son of Takel- 
lothis, ^ho reigned eight centu- 
ries before the Christian era. This 
prince is represented on painted 
wood in the fith room, in the act 
of offering a sacrifice to the god 
Pfar^« 



16. Psammeticas I, fourth king 
of the twenty-sixth dynasty, who 
reigned between 654 and 609 b. c. 
The museum possesses several mo- 
numents of this king found at 
Sais, his native place, His name 
is inscribed on two statues in the 
hall of Egyptian figures, on a 
sarcophagus, and on a demotic 
papyris twelve, letter a. 

17. Apries, of the same dynasty, 
588 years before the present era, 
whose second name is Ramesto. 

18. Amasis, his successor. 

19. Psammacherites, who suc- 
ceeded Amasis. 

20. Cambyses,thePersianking, 
oppressor of Egypt, 525 years 
B.G. His name appears on the same 
statue. 

21. Darius, the successor of 
Cambyses. 

22. Nectanebo, of the twenty- 
ninth dynasty, three centuries and 
a half B.C., and the last of the 
Pharaohs. To this period belong 
the two lions, master-pieces of 
art, and the beautiful torso whidi 
represents this king. 

23. Ptolemy Pbiladelphus, who 
reigned 284 years. b.c. His colos- 
sal statue is in the centre of the 
hall of lions. 

24 Arsinoe, the wife of the 
above-named king, whose statue is 
on the right of that of Ptolemy; 
both statues bearing inscriptions 
on their pilasters. 

25. Ptolemy Philopator, whose 
name is on the papyrus in the 
demotic characters, dating from 
the third year of his reign, or 
the 219 B.C. Number eleven, let- 
ter £. 

26. Arsinoe, his sister, and wife. 

27. 28. Ptolemy Evergetes and 
Berenice his wife, the parents of 
the preceding. 

The numerous monuments, not 
included in the above list, might 



9i 



CINTIUi irAU.-^MMI: HMTH B&fj 



on the tomb, was probably tbe 
portrait of one of tne Sdpios. 

In the round hall are fragments 
of male and female figures finely 
draped, and on the balcony an 
ancient clock, on which are mar- 
ked tibe car^nal points, and the 
names of the winds, in Greek 
and Latin. 

Chamber of Meleager, 60 caHed 
firom Its celebrated statue, over 
which is an ancient inscription 
stating that Lucius Mununius, 
consul in die year of Rome 607, 
defeated the Achaeans, took and 
destroyed Corinth, and after his 
triumph dedicated the temple 
which during the war he had 
vowed to erect to Hercules. A 
bas-relief on the walls represents 
^e apotheosis of Homer by the 
Muses. 

JPortieo cf the Court^TMs por- 
tico, which contains the most ce- 
lebrated monuments of ancient 
art, is supported by sixteen gra- 
nite columns and seversJ pila- 
sters. 

The first cabinet contains an- 
cient statues of Mercu^ and 
Pallas; the boxers and Perseus 
of Canoya. 

The second, the Mercury known 
under the name of Antinous, found 
on the Esquiline; on the walls 
are bas-relifis of Achilles, who 
has just killed Penthesilea, and 
acn Isiac procession. 

The third, &e group of Lao- 
coon, found, under Julius 11, in 
the baths of Titus. We learn from 
Pliny that this composition is 
dne to three Grecian sculptors, 
Agesander, Polydorus, andAthe- 
nodorus of iUiodes. The bas- 
reMefs represent a Bacchanalian 
festival and^the triumph of Bac- 
chus after his Indian eaq)edition. 

The last cabinet is that of the 

olio Belvedere, found at Antium 



in the beginning of the sixteenth' 
century, and considered to be tiie- 
most perfect work of sculpture. 
The bas-reliefs on the wall alhide 
to a chase and to Pasiphae. 

Near the first cabinet is a sarco- 
phagus with an inscription stating 
that it belonged to Marcellus, the 
father of Heliogabalus ; anothei" 
with figures of fauns and priest-' 
esses of Bacchus. 

On the sarcophagi near the 
second cabinet are represented 
prisoners imploring the cle- 
mency of the conqueror, and 
Bacchus visiting Ariadne in the 
isle of Naxos. 

On those placed near the third, 
Nereids are carrying the ajrms of 
Achilles, and the Athenians are 
engaged in battle with the Ama- 
zons.. 

Near the fourth cabinet are 
bas-reHefs of Hercules and Bao 
chus, with their attributes, Au- 
gustus commencing a sacrifice, 
and Rome accompanying a vic- 
torious anperor. 

Sail of the Animals. — In this^ 
rare collection of sculptured ani- 
mals are the groups of a marine 
Centaur and a Nereid, Hei*c«)es 
killing Gorgon, chaining ahd car- 
rjrng away Cerberus, WlM*g the" 
Lion, Diomed and his horses, 
Commodus on horseback casting 
a javelin. It appears from this 
statue that in the time of that 
emperor it was customary to shoe 
horses. 

The pavement is composed of 
antique mosaics representing a 
wolf, an eagle devouring a haare, 
and a tiger. 

Gallery of Statues, — The most 
remarkable statues of tfaiB gal- 
lery are a Clodius Albinus. a 
hatf-figure of Cupid, Paris, Pal- 
las, Penelope, Juno, an Amazon, 



ROttAN tffMnM.— MKB. IMiTH IfhT.'* 



m 



tibe mote Urania, Posidippos, and 
Menaiider. 

On the opposite side are an 
ApoUo holding the lyre, a Nep- 
tune, a wounded Adonis, Bacchus- 
a group of Eficulapins and Hy- 
geia, a Danaid; Ariadne deser, 
ted (usually called a Cleopatra) 
is plaeed between two marble 
diandeMers found in the villa 
Adriana, and is supported by a 
pedestal, on the bas-relief of 
which is represented ihe war of 
the giants against the gods. 

ffaU of ^Mt8, — The most es- 
teemed Irasts in this collection are 
those of Domitia, Galba, Mam- 
maea, Lysimachus, Ariadne, Me- 
nelaus, Valerian, Pertinax, Agrip- 
pa, Garacalla, Antinous, and Se- 
rapis, in basalt 

A niche is occupied by the co- 
lossal statue of Jupiter, at whose 
feet is the eagle grasping the 
seeptre and thunden)olt. On the 
other side of the hall are busts 
of Trajan and Antoninus Pius, of 
Sabina, Brutns^ Aristophanes, and 
Marcus Aurehus, a semi-figure of 
Apollo, a statue of Livia, and on 
a sole block of marble two por^ 
traits said to represent Cato aad 
Poreia; 

(?a5t>i<5^— Under Pius VI, D' An- 
gelis painted on the centre of the 
ceih'ng the marriage of Bacchus 
and Ariadne, and in the four ang- 
les Paris offering the apple to 
Venus, Diana and Endymion, Ve- 
nus and Adonis, Pallas and Pa- 
ris. On the frieze are represen- 
ted antique festooms and child- 
ren ; the bas-reliefs allude to the 
labours of Hercules. The statues 
of Minerva, Ganymede, Adonis, 
of one of the Houris, of Venus 
and Diana, are ancient works of 
fine composition. 

Under the niches are fom- por- 
phyry benches resting on bronze 



supporters. The pavement^ an an- 
cient mosaic of the finest exe^ 
cution, was found in the villa 
Adriana. A festoom of sundry 
fruits and leaves, tied with rib* 
bons, forms a circular harder 
round a compartment of white 
mosaic enclosing three figures. of 
masks, and a landscape with goats 
and shepherds. 

In the passage leading to the 
galler^^ is the statue of a dancing 
faun, and near a small Diana a^ 
bas-relief of three conquerors in 
athletic games. Under the win- 
dow is t£e celebrated alabaster 
vase found in the mausoleum of 
Augustus, supposed, from the in- 
scriptions that lay near it, now 
preserved in the gallery, to have 
contained the ashes of Livilla, ^e 
daughter of Germanicus. 

The HaU of the Muse is de- 
corated with sixteen columns of 
Carrara marble, with antique ca- 
pitals from the villa Adriana. 

The statues representing the 
Muses were found with the Her- 
mes of the Sages of Greece, in 
the villa of Cassius at Tivoli. They 
are Melpomene, crowned with 
vine leaves and holding the mask 
and sword; Thalia, with Hie ta- 
bour and comic maskj Urania, 
the celestial globe ; Callio{)e ;■ P0'>> 
lymnia, the muse of PantooHtfe, 
with her hands folded inher dra*- 
pery; Erato, with her lyre; CSio, 
the muse of history; Terpsichore 
and Eaterpe Near the statue of 
Silenus are a bas-relief of the 
dance of Corybantes ; the Hermes 
of Sophocles, Euripides, Eschi- 
nes, Demosthenes, andAntisthe- 
nes, the first portrait known of 
this founder of the Cynic seet 

The veiled Hermes of Aspasia 
is placed near the bust of Peri- 
cles; both have Greek inserip- 
tions^ The remaining principf 



CENnUL rUXT.— KONB. IMVTH BAI. 



busts of this hall fure those of 
SoloD, Periander, Alcibiades, So- 
crates, Aratus, and Euripedes. 

The marble pavement, inlaid 
with sundry mosaic figures of co- 
mic and tragic actors, was found 
at Lorium (Castel di Guido), twelve 
miles from Rome. The frescoes 
by Conca allude to the subjects 
united in this room. 

Bound Hall. — A variety of sta- 
tues and colossal busts, placed 
on columns of porphyry, form the 
ornaments of this hall, round 
which are ten marble pilasters 
whose capitals were, sculptured 
by Franzoni 

The principal busts are those 
of Jupiter, Adrian, Antinous, Se- 
rapis, Julia Pia, and Pertinax; 
the statues of Hercules, Augus- 
tus, Ceres, Antoninus Piu8,Nerva, 
Juno Lanuvino, indicated bytiie 
goat sMn and shield. 

The pavement found at Otri- 
coli, and the sea monsters at 
Scrofano, are fine specimens of 
antique mosaics. In the centre, 
over the head of Medusa, is a 
porphyry vase, forty-one feet in 
drcunoference. 

ffall of the Greek OrosB. — The 
door leading into this room is re- 
markable for the splendour of its 
ornaments. The bases, columns, 
colossal statues, serving as Cary- 
atides to the entablature, are all 
of red Egyptian granite, aoid are 
supposeato have been adapted 
to one of the entrances of Adri- 
an's villa. 

On the porphyry urn, which was 
the tomb of St Constantia, children 
are occupied in gathering grapes. 
It was found near her church, 
commonly called the temple of 
Bacchus. 

The corresponding urn, also of 
porphyry, with bas-reUefs of a 



battle and prisoners, served as. the 
tomb of the Empress St Helen. 

Near the grating are two colos- 
sal S]phinxes, and on the walls bas- 
reliefs, representing combats of 
gladiatorii and wild beasts. Bac- 
chanalian an other mythological 
subjects. 

On the pavement is a mosaic, 
found at Tusculum, representing 
a head of Minerva, and various 
arabesques. 

The staircase is decorated ynih 
twenty columns of granite, with 
balustrades in bronze, entabla- 
tures of sculptured marble, and 
statues emblematic of the Nile, 
and of another river. 

Another staircase, on which 
are eight colmnns of breccia co- 
rallina, leads to the. 

Hall of tJie Biga — In the cen- 
tre of which is an ancient marble 
biga, finely sculptured. In ^e 
niches are statues of Perseus, of 
Alcibiades, a richly draped fe> 
male figure performing a sacri- 
fice, of Apollo holding the lyre, 
of rhodon, a Dioscobolus copied 
from Myron, of Apollonius, a 
Greek philosopher of the second 
century, and of Apollo Sauroeto- 
nus, or destroyer of the lizards. 

The sacrophagi placed at the 
foot of each niche represent the 
genius and the attributes of the 
Muses, the games of the circus, &c 

The following gidlery is divi- 
ded into six sections; the first 
containing monuments, chande- 
liers, and two trunks of trees sup- 
porting nests of little Cupids. 

The second, vases, cups, chanr 
deliers of various forms, and two 
sacrophagi sdluding to the history 
of Protesilas and Laodamia, and 
to the death of Egisthus and Gly- 
temnestra. 

In the third are the antiqui- 
ties discovered at Tor Maranico^ 



ROMAN STATES.— ROME. SICBm BAY. 



97 



Bear the Ardean way, and con- 
sisting of statues, fragments of 
paintings, and a mosaic repre- 
senting vegetables, fish, and fowl. 

The fourth section is enriched 
with vases, chandeliers, cups, sta- 
tues, bas-reliefs, sarcophagi with 
the fable of Niobe, and tiie amours 
of Diana and Endymion. 

In the fifth is an elegant dra- 
ped statue of Ceres; in the last 
section are monuments, and many 
rare kinds of marble. 

In the adjoining rooms are 
the tapestries of Raphael, and 
the collection of maps formed by 
Gregory XIII. 

Museo Oregoriano, — This mu- 
seum has been formed by the 
present pope, Gregory XYI, to 
contain the numerous monuments 
of art found of late years in the 
cities of Vulci, Tarquinii, Cere, 
Toscanella, and in other spots 
cast over that part of ancient 
Etruria which extends from the 
Tiber to the river Flora. To these 
monuments have been added those 
of Egypt, which were hitherto 
in the Capitol, or in other public 
museums. 

In the first vestibule are three 
reclining figures, two male and one 
female, originally placed over 
tombs, which are remarkable by 
the ornaments with which they 
are adorned. 

The horses' heads, of a good 
style of sculpture, were found 
over a sepulchral door at Vulci. 

Several cinerary urns, made of 
alabastar of VoUerra, and votive 
offerings, were discovered at Cere. 

The adjoining room contains 
a larg sarcophagus, on which are 
represented the funeral rites of 
the Etruscans, and urns found at 
Castel Gandolfo, of a style simi- 
lar to those of Etruria. 



The works in terra cotta are 
united in the hall of Mercury, 
so called from the highly finis- 
hed statue of that godfbund at 
Tivoli. 

The following room contains 
the vases, with black figures on 
yellow ground, of the most an- 
cient style. The vase of Bacchus, 
particularly admired for its exe- 
cution: the figures are not mere 
outlines but painted, the diffe- 
rent colours imitating the flesh, 
the vestments, and accessories; 
the subject represents Mercury 
consigning to Silenus the infant 
Bacchus; three nymphs, embla- 
matic of the seasons, which for- 
merly were three in number, are 
celebrating with their song the 
birth of the son of Jove. 

The chamber of Apollo is so 
called from the vase, in high pre- 
servation , representing Apollo 
seated on the tripod, singing to 
the sound of the lyre ; this urn 
is perfect, both for its composi- 
tion and its whorkmanship. It is 
placed in the middle of several 
others, which are highly inte- 
resting. 

In Qie hall of the bronzes is 
the military statue discovered at 
Todi; a monument unrivalled, as 
offering a tvpe of the national 
art, the celebrity of which is en- 
creased by the epigraphs engra- 
ved on it, to whioi various in- 
terpretations have been given. In 
this room are domestic utensils, 
differing in form, style, and size ; 
chandeliers, used also in the sa- 
cred rites, the tripod and casket, 
beautiful bronzes found at Vuld, 
military weapons at Bomarzo, 
fragments of figures larger than 
life at Chiusi, the colossal arm 
in the port of Civita Vecchia: 
the Etruscan car, so singular for 
its ornaments and style, the ches^ 



98 



CINTIIAL nPALT. — StfHB. BMITB 911. 



engraved with alliletic combats, 
are worthy of observation; the 
wflJlfl and tables are covered with 
ndrrors, and inscriptions useful 
in advancing the knowledge of 
the Etruscan language. In two 
closets are deposited a great 
number of small utensils, light 
fragments, and vases: the large 
vessels, utensils, and arms, on 
the walls, the masks used in 
scenic representations and cro- 
wned with ivy, are finely exe- 
cuted. 

The works in gold are beau- 
tiful and elegant, whether we 
consider the invention, the form, 
or their state of preservation: 
the ornaments of men are the 
distinctive signs of dignities, the 
premiums of victory, uie gifts of 
athlethic combats, Uie civic and 
triumphal crowns of ivy and myr- 
tle, the gold works cut with the 
chisel, not only manifest the ca- 
ste of the artists, but convey an 
idea of the scientific knowledge 
of the nation. From all these ob- 
jects an idea may be formed of 
the riches, the flourishing' state, 
and the degree of splendour at- 
tained bv the Etruscans, when 
objects of such value were buried 
with their owners. 

A passage, the walls of which 
are lined with Etruscan inscrip- 
tions, leads to. a large room, round 
which are copies perfectly re- 
sembling the original paintings 
existing on the tombs of Vulci 
and Tarquinii, monuments of the 
highest importance in the history 
of national art, as thev represent 
the public games and banquets 
which took place at the funerals 
of illustrious individuals. The va- 
ses and sculptures of this room 
are marked with Etruscan in- 
scriptions. 



Near the pasage to the oine* 
rary urns of alsSbaster of Vol- 
terra is an imitation of a small 
Etruscan cemetery, and a tomb 
brought from Vulci, the door of 
which is guarded by two lions 
placed as in their original posi- 
tion. In the interior are disposed 
the funeral beds and vases which 
are usually found in these tombs» 

The Gallery is filled with cups 
of the most delicate workmans- 
hip that has come down to us 
from the ancient schools. Of va- 
rious and beautiful shapes, the 
design is generally of the light- 
est character; the artists, pleased 
no doubt with the elegance of 
their compositions, have frequen- 
tly inscribed their names on the 
vases, with short and witty jests 
expressive of joy, happiness, in- 
vitations to drink, to pass life 
merrily, expressions which may 
appear to be discordant with the 
figures represented, but for which 
there exists a reason which it is 
not always easy to penetrate as 
the afi'ord a field for extensive 
research. These arguments may 
be particularly applied to the 
archeology of the fine series of ar- 
gonautic vases found in the necro- 
polis of Agilla and in that of Cere 
which are united in this museum. 

This celebrated maritime ex- 
pedition of the heroic ages was 
hitherto considered as having af- 
forded a subject of fiction amongst 
the Greek and Latin poets, nor 
did any monuments exist in sup- 
port of their assertions, but in 
this collection is an ample de- 
velopment of the Thessalian story 
which gives a new, a better, and 
a difi^erent idea of that celebra- 
ted event On one of the vases 
the principal chiefs who partook 
of the dangers and glory of the 
enterprise are preparing for their 



KOyAli STATES.— A91IE. SISBTB DAY. 



09 



departnre and putting on their 
armour: the attendants, obliged 
to serve and fallow their lords, 
prepare the shields, each of which 
is distinguished by an emblem; 
on one a lion, on another a bull, 
on others a throne or a branch 
^1 of leaves ; not only does this 
vase prove the antiquity of he- 
raldry but the mantles worn by 
the personages show their de- 
grees of rauK, and the same or- 
naments that cover the mantle 
of the chief appear on those of 
his attendant. 

On other vases are represen- 
ted the calamities which befel 
the royal house of Aeson and 
Pelias: the lamentations of Lem- 
nos, the vengeance of Medea, 
are expressed in a manner dif- 
fering altogether from the ac- 
counts of uie Greek and Latin 
stage, or from the epic poetry of 
those nations : the hand of these 
ancient artists was guided by nar- 
rations now lost,"as appears on a 
vase placed in the centre of those 
described, on which the final ca- 
tastrophe of the conquest of the 
golden fleece is expressed in a 
mode hitherto unknown; Jason, 
when nearly devoured by the dra- 
gon, is drawn out of his jaws by 
Siinerva; the name written in 
clear purple letters near the 
figure of the chief leaves no doubt 
on the subject 

After the argonautic vases come 
those whidi represent the deeds 
of Hercules and the mysteries of 
Dionysius, forming a series of 
subjects difficult to explain, the 
traditions and opinions of the 
learned being frequently at va- 
riance. 

A design of the utmost per- 
fection and puril^ of style with 
an expression suited to we sub- 
ject ip that of Oedipus in his tra- 



velling dress, deeply mediating 
on the enigma proposed by the 
sphinx, who appears on the sum- 
mit of a rock in those mixed 
fantastic forms of a lion and a 
young female under which she is 
represented in the monuments of 
art. On another vase the artist, 
without regarding the design, ri- 
diculed this subject by represent- 
ing a man with an enormous head 
in the same pensive attitude as 
Oedipus, and a monkey in lieu 
of the sphinx. 

The vases relative to the an- 
cient systems of theogony, to the 
Homeric descriptions, to the pu- 
blic games, banquets, and other 
usages of those times, open a wide 
field for research, whether we 
consider the beauty and excel- 
lence of the design, which in the 
ffynmastic scenes often reach per- 
fection, or the light they throw 
on the classic authors and other 
monuments of antiquity. 

In one of the closets are vases 
of a smaller size but highly in- 
teresting from the variety of their 
forms and caprice of invention, 
particularly in those used for 
drinking ; some have the form of 
a ram, others of the humble ani- 
mal that carried Silenus, the face 
of an Ethiopian and of Silenus, 
who expresses his joy on receiv- 
ing the gifts of his disciple. This 
closet also contains bowls and 
vases of various forms of the most 
finished workmanship. 

The Egyptian Museum. — Se- 
veral statues and colassal figures 
contemporaneous with their pro- 
totypes are united in this museum. 
The colossus of Quern Twea, the 
small statue of Menephtah I seated 
on a throne, the fragment of the 
throne ofRhams^sIIJ, areoftho 
period of the dynastic that reigned 
between the year 1822 and 1474 

6* 



100 



CEFITRAL ITALT.— ROME. EieHTI BAT. 



before the Christian era. Without 
entering into a detail of all the 
monaments representing the hu- 
man form, animals, vases, o^ other 
objects, we shall arrest our at- 
tention on the most remarkable; 
the two lions next to the colos- 
sus of Twea, though the last of 
the works executed under the 
Pharaohs which are known to 
ns, bear testimony to the talent 
of the Egyptian sculptors even 
at the decline of that empire. 

The torso of King Nectanebo, 
placed in the hall of lions, is not 
less worthy of attention for die 
beauty of its form; nor can we 
avoid noticing another torso in the 
same hall representing one of the 
ministers of state, it is executed 
in alabaster of Groumah. 

Continuing our review of this 
museum we shall find a new, 
Uiough indirect, proof of the er- 
rors hitherto committed injudging 
of Egyptian art when it repre- 
sented the human form. In the 
large hall contiguous to that of 
the lions, fitted up in the Egyp- 
tian style, are the monuments of 
imitation or those produced in 
Rome in Uie Egyptian manner 
at the period of the etaperors, 
the greater part of which were 
found in the Villa Adrianna near 
TivoU. To an imitation of the 
works executed under the Pha- 
raohs and without attempting to 
correct the original taste pre- 
vailing during so many centuries 
in Egypt, these artists added the 
softness and finish which dis- 
tinguished the Greek school at 
Rome. An example is observed 
in the Antinous, a statue placed 
in this hall, which from the beauty 
of its form has been named by 
artists the Egyptian Apollo. If 
imitation has produced a work 
of such merit, how can we doubt 



of the perfection which sculpture 
had attained in Egypt? not that 
all Egyptian statues could serve 
as models, but several dispersed 
throughout Europe are equal in 
beauty to the Antmous. The works 
of imitation representing animals 
are not less useful in judging of 
Egyptian art; in comparing the 
works of the Egyptian and Ro- 
man artists, if me former is not 
superior he certainly is not infe- 
rior, as the Egyptian, in there- 
presentation of animals, always 
possessed the greatest degree of 
skill, as is evidently proved by 
the lions of King Nectanebo, by 
the prodigious quantity of vola- 
tiles, quadrupeds, reptiles, and 
scaraboei abounding in tiids mu- 
seum, whose resemblance to na- 
ture is so perfect that they might 
serve for the study of naturalists. 

Architecture, — fii order to com- 
plete the Egyptian collection of 
the Vatican of works of art in 
its primitive state the only mo- 
numents wanting were those of 
architecture; the works preserved 
till the present day in Egypt at- 
test the boldness of imagination 
and power of execution shown 
by that nation in this art, and 
excite a sentiment of regret in 
those who have not had an op- 
portunity of observing the monu- 
ments spread along the banks of 
the Nile. 

The Vatican museum possesses 
a small but valuable remnant of 
this nature; a capital from The- 
bes of the second order of archi- 
tecture, formed of sandstone in 
the shape of an expanded lotus ; 
that it is genuine is attested by 
the vestiges of yellow colour which 
originally covered it, as it was 
customary amongst the Egyptians 
to paint those species of stone 
which did not admit of polish^ 



BOMAN STATES. — ROME. SIftHTH DAT. 



101 



This small remnant, placed in the 
gallery of mummies, may be found 
nsefol in comparing the Greek 
style with the original Egyptian. 

We shall not dwell on the va- 
rious productions of the mecha- 
nical arts abounding in tius col- 
lection, on the fabrication of pa- 
pyri- the weaving of cotton in 
the oandages of mummies, nor on 
the admirable art of preserving 
for thousands of years the re- 
mains of the mortal frame, on 
the sandals varying in shape, or 
the works in bronze and syca- 
more wood on which are repre- 
sented figures of ihe gods or of 
embalmed bodies, cases containig 
animals reduced to mummies, and 
those in which writings have been 
deposited; one in the gallery of 
mummies is particularly interest- 
ing, as it represents on its four 
sides hieroglyphic inscriptions re- 
lative to the four genii, the com- 
panions and assistants of Osiris 
m the regions below, who appear 
in their respective characters. In 
this collection are numerous small 
vessels of various substances, con- 
taining the ointment used in paint- 
ing the eyelids, others were des- 
tined to preserve balsam or per- 
fumes. 

Such is the valuable collection 
of monuments bearing testimony 
to the knowledge of tiie Egyptians, 
of that knowledge whi(£ Moses, 
having imbibed, became powerful 
in acts and words (Acts of the 
Apostles, chapter VII), Such are 
the resources laid open to the 
learned in this museum by order of 
the reigning pontiff Gregory XVI, 
and due to his incessant zeal to 
promote the interests of religion. 
Mere the theologian will &id the 
vestiges of the primitive traditions 
which preceded the revelation 
written by Moses and the pro- 



phets ; here sacred philology de- 
rives information for the expla- 
nation of oriental biblical texts ; 
how many points of contract exist 
between the customs of ^e two 
nations, the people of God and 
that of Egypt, whose history is 
so closely connected; what anew 
light is shed on a multitude of 
Hebrew idioms and forms of lan- 
guage, arisingfrom the similarity 
of a great number of scriptural 
phrases with the forms of the 
ancient Egyptian language pre- 
served in die hierogly^c in- 
scriptions. 

To the. student of sacred writ, 
it will be gratifying to see the 
portrait of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; 
under whose auspices, and doubt- 
less providentially, was underta- 
ken the version of the scriptures 
from Hebrew into Greek, called 
the septuagint The civilized na- 
tions of that time were thus 
enabled to read the sacred code, 
and prepared to receive the first 
fflimmermgs of the doctrines of 
the unity of God and of the re- 
demption which was approaching ; 
the statues of Ptolemy and Ar- 
sinoe are placed near that part 
of the library which contains the 
celebraded manuscript of this ines- 
timable version. 

In the Egyptian monuments col- 
lected in tbis museum a distinct 
history in traced of sculpture and 
architecture, whe shall i)ow exa- 
mine writing and painting. 

Writing, — The primitive state 
of the Egyptian characters is 
proved by the vestiges that re- 
main of the earliest kinds of 
writing : the first was that of the 
simple representation of the idea, 
the second was at once symbolic 
and phonetic, the third the plain 
alphabetic expression, at least in 
Greek and Roman names; thi 



10^ 



CENTRAL ITALY. — ROUS. B16IITH DAT. 



nnion of these systems constitu- 
tes the beauty of the writing 
called hieroglyphic. 

The written papyri^ some in the 
hieroglyphic, others m thehierar 
tic and demotic characters, amount 
to about thirty-two ; these line the 
walls of the fourth room after the 
gallery of mummies. 

In the fifth are disposed inscrip- 
tions relating to history, and in 
the left angle that of Queen 
Ammens^ illustrated by Rosellini, 
near which is the precious scara- 
boeus called that of Memnon, or 
Amenoph ni, engraved in honour 
of that king, to celebrate his mar- 
riage with Que^n Taia and the 
happy state of Egypt at that pe- 
riod. On the fragment of a pi- 
laster of brown stone is an inte- 
resting inscript on indicating that 
Egypt was governed by a female, 
in the want of a male heir to the 
throne. 

A valuable historic monument 
in the hall of statues is that of 
a priest, whose tunic is covered 
with a long inscription purporting 
that five kings had reigned suc- 
cessively during his ministri : three 
Egyptian, Apnes, Amasis, Psam- 
macherites, and two Persian, Cam- 
byses and Darius. Whe shall not 
dwell on the numerous dedicatory 
and funeral inscriptions of other 
monuments in granite, alabaster, 
basalt, existing in this collection, 
as sevetal have not yet 'been il- 
lustrated. 

The pure hieroglyphic charac- 
ters are preserved in the inscrip- 
tions on the two lions of King 
Nectanebo, and in thesarcopha- 

fiis of a priest of the goddess 
ascht, named Psammeticus, in 
the hall of urns. In that of the 
lions are other hieroglyphics in 
profile on the throne of Ram- 
ses m, Uiose on the corerof the 



sarcophagus of Im6tph in the 
gallery of mummies and around 
the sarcophagus ofManfes in the 
hall of urns are of the most ele- 
gant execution. 

Of the third class of plain out- 
lines are the hieroglyphycs on 
thescaraboei, amulets, and funeral 
vases. Of the fourth, called li- 
near, are the inscriptions on the 
mummy cases. The mth comprises 
those painted, as on the monu- 
ments of Ramses X, and of the 
daughter of Takellothis. The great 
advantage derived from the Imow- 
ledge of these characters is their 
application to chronology and his- 
tory, and whenever on the mo- 
numents of Egypt any royal name 
is written, it is easy to assign 
the period to which it belongs, 
as one of those names generaliy 
corresponds to a certain date. 
The Vatican collection embraces 
chronological dates indicated by 
royal names, twenty-eight in num- 
ber, according to the following 
series : 

1. Renoubka, one of the most 
ancient kings of the XVI dynasty, 
who lived about the time of Abra- 
ham. This monument was found 
in the tombs of Goumah, the name 
is written on the necklace or collar. 

2. Amenoph I, written on the 
mummy case (hall of urns), and 
unless this be the title of a di- 
vinity its date would be the year 
1832 before Christ 

3. 4 Amense and AmenaihS, 
t he fo rmer reigning queen of the 
XVm dynasty; the latter, her 
husband, 1750 years before Christ 

5. Thutmfes IV, the fifth king of 
the preceding dynasty, succeeded 
to his mother Amens^, and reigned 
firom the year 1749 to 1727 be- 
fore Christ 

6. 7. To the same dynasty be* 
longs Amenoph ID, the eighth 



BOMAN 8TAT£8.<^RMfl. Bi6BTH DAT. 



m 



king; the scaraboeus above men- 
tioned^ bearing his name and that 
of his wife Taia, belongs to the 
year 1690 before Christ. The six 
colossi of the goddess Pascht, two 
of which are in the halls of lions, 
the others in the hemicyle, were 
executed onder this king. 

8. Menephtah L The museum 
possesses in the Egyptian hall 
an elegant statue of this king, 
who reigned from 1604 to 1579 
before the present era, and was 
father of the great Sesostris. 

9. 10. TweaandConth^res; the 
first, the wife of the above-named 
king and the mother of Sesostris, 
is represented in a colossus of 
black breccia placed in the hall 
of lions; the other represented 
on the pilaster of the colossus 
was probably the wife of Sesostris. 

11. Ramses III, the Sesostris 
of the Greek writers, who reigned 
from 1565 to 1494, bc. His name 
is frequently repeated on the frag- 
ment of his seated statue to the 
left in the hall of lions and on 
the colossus of Queen Twea. 

12. Siphtah also belonged to 
the eighteenth dynasty, but the 
period of his reign is uncertain. 

13. Ramses Y, second king of 
the nineteenth dynasty, in the 
fifteenth century B.€.,is mentioned 
in a hieratic papyrus twelve, let- 
ter c. 

14. Ramses X, founder of the 
twentieth dynasty, belongs to the 
thirteenth century before the pre- 
sent era; his name appears on 
A small painted sandstone placed 
in the fifth chamber. 

15. Osorchod theson ofTakel- 
lothis, ^ho reigned eight centu- 
ries before the Christian era. This 
prince is represented on painted 
wood in the fith room, in the act 
of offering a sacrifice to the god 



16. Psammeticus I, fourth king 
of the twenty-sixth dynasty, who 
reigned between 654 and 609 b. c. 
The museum possesses several mo* 
numents of this king found at 
Sais, his native place, His name 
is inscribed en two statues in the 
hall of Egyptian figures, on a 
sarcophagus, and on a demotic 
papyris twelve, letter a. 

17. Apries, of the same dynasty, 
588 years before the present era, 
whose second name is Ramesta 

18. Amasis, his successor. 

19. Psammacherites, who suc- 
ceeded Amasis. 

20. Cambyses,thePersianking, 
oppressor of Egypt, 525 years 
B.C. His name appears on the same 
statue. 

21. Dados, the successor of 
Cambyses. 

22. Nectanebo, of the twenty- 
ninth dynasty, three centuries and 
a half B.C., and the last of the 
Pharaohs. To this period belong 
the two lions, master-pieces of 
art, and the beautiful torso which 
represents this king. 

23. Ptolemy Philadelphus, who 
reigned 284 years. b.c. His colos- 
sal statue is in the centre of the 
hall of lions. 

24. Arsinoe, the wife of the 
above-named king, whose statue is 
on the right of that of Ptolemy; 
both statues bearing inscriptions 
on their pilasters. 

25. Ptolemy Philopator, whose 
name is on the papyrus in the 
demotic characters, dating from 
the third year of his reign, or 
the 219 B.C. Number eleven, let- 
ter E. 

26. Arsinoe, his sister, and wife. 

27. 28. Ptolemy Evergetes and 
Berenice his wife, the parents of 
the preceding. 

The numerous monuments, not 
included in the above liist, migh* 



104 



CENTRAL ITALT. — ROMS. IlfifltH OAT. 



furnish documents of the reigns 
of the Koman emperors. The space 
of 1 ,600 centuries comprised within 
the dates which have been already 
indicated and inscribed on the mo- 
numents, the authenticity of which 
reposes on the authority of histo- 
rians and chronicles, particularly 
that of Eusebius, rectified on the 
Armenian text far more exact than 
the Greek of Scaliger, is sufficient 
to show the rich mine of historical 
knowledge opened by the Egyp- 
tian writing. Its material con- 
struction offers a large field for 
discussion on the first essays of 
writing as an art, while it fur- 
nishes also a means of advancing 
the progress of oriental philology. 
Painting. — Although in remote 
times painting was not distinct 
from writing, as several arguments 
attest respecting Egypt, we shall 
consider them as independent of 
each other in the monuments of 
that country. Painting, as it was 
thirty or forty centuries ago, exists 
in its original state and excites 
surprise. When judging of this art 
in Egypt allowance must be made 
for the harshness of the lines 
and the want of perspective. The 
facility of the inventions and the 
spirited composition are the strik- 
ing points of these monuments. 
An example of these is seen in 
the painting on the case, placed 
in the hall of urns, in which was 
preserved the mummy of Giot- 
mut, the mother of Chuns Hie- 
rogrammateus of Ammon at The- 
bes; one side represents the fu- 
neralprocession moving towards 
the T^eban necropolis; on the 
other the deceasea supplicates 
six of the gods, in order to ob- 
tain a free passage to the cele- 
stial reeions ; these he has finally 
aittainec^ as represented in the 
interior part of the case, in com- 



pany of his mother, whose in^ 
scription is on one of the pain- 
tings of the interior. The colou- 
ring and the various scenes pos> 
sess a high degree of interest 
It was an established doctrine 
amongst the Egyptians, tiiat the 
souls of the just ei^joyed an un- 
alterable repose when they arri- 
ved in presence of the gods, but 
in a state of uncertainty they be- 
lieved that assistance might be 
derived from the remembrance 
of the living; for this reason the 
mother is seated near her son, 
expressing joy at the offerings 
and prayers of the surviving re- 
latives, a remnant of the primi- 
tive traditions of the human race 
relative to a future state and to 
the assistance the living may ren- 
der to the dead. Each of these 
representations is accompanied 
with analogous hieroglyphic in- 
scriptions. 

Of the paintings on wood that 
of the son of T^ellothis is re- 
markable for the vivacity of its 
colouring; the figures and various 
scenes which cover the papyri re- 
present the rites and circumstan- 
ces that precede and follow the 
judgment that Osiris is supposed 
to pass on souls; nor is the me- 
lancholy sight wanting of the pu- 
nishments suffered from fire and 
the furies, so accurately was the 
tradition preserved relative to the 
destiny of souls when separated 
from the body. The representa- 
tion on paintings seven, letter a, 
eight, and fourteen, relate to these 
siwjects. 

The Gallery of Paintings con- 
tains several master-pieces of art, 
united in this gallerv by order of 
the reigning pontiff Gregory XVL 

The portrait of a Venetian 
Doge is by Titiaa 

The miracle performed by St 



BOHAN STAT£S.-**«01IIE. EIGHTH DAT. 



105 



Gregory the Great^ by Andrea 
Sacchi 

The Descent from the Cross, 
by Garavaggio. 

The Vision of St Romuald, by 
Sacchi. 

Gonmmnion of St Jerome, by 
Bominichino. 

Martyrdom of St Erasmus, by 
Poussin. 

St Processus and St Martinian, 
by Valentin. 

Christ in the tomb, by Man- 
tegna. 

The Virgin, St Thomas, and St 
Jerome, by Guido. 

Magdalen, St Thomas, by Gu- 
ercino. 

Martyrdom of StPeter byOuido. 

Coronation of the Virgin, by 
Pinturicchio. 

Resurrection of Christ: Birth 
of Christ, by Perugmo. 

Transfiguration : Coronation of 
the Virgin: The Three Mysteries, 
viz.: the Annunciation, Nativity, 
and Presentation, by Raphael. 

Our Saviour, by Correggio. 

The Virgin, Sts bebastian,Fran- 
cis, Anthony, Peter, Ambrose, and 
Catherine, by Titian. 

Michelina of Pesaro, by Boc- 
caccio. 

St Helen, by Paul Veronese. 

The Vii^n, Child, St Joseph, 
by Garofala. 

Madonna of Foligno, by Ra- 
phael. 

Landscape, with Animals, by 
Potter. 

Madonna, St Laurence, and 
others, by Perugino. 

Miracle of St Nicholas of Ban, 
by Angelo da Fiesole. 

Annunciation, by Boccaccio. 

Chambers of Raphael — The 
greater part of these chambers 
had been already painted by Sig- 
norelli, Perugino, and other ar- 
tists, when Julius n, at the so- 



licitation ^of Bramante, invited 
Raphael from Florence, and or- 
dered him to represent the dis- 
pute on the holy sacrament. 

At the completion of the work 
the Pope dispensed with the la- 
bours of the other artist^ caused 
their paintings to be effaced, and 
entrusted the execution to Ra- 
phael alone. 

These frescoes were neglected 
in past times, and having suffe- 
red also from the damp, they no 
longer preserve their original 
freshness of colouring, but their 
composition and design will ever 
form a subject of admiration. 

The fire in the Borgo, which 
happened, in 847, is the subject 
of die -first fresco. It would ap- 
pear that Raphael was inspired 
by the poetic description of the 
burning of Troy, having introdu- 
ced, among other episodes, that 
of Aeneas bearing Anchises on 
his shoulders and followed by 
Creusa. 

Over the window is the Justi- 
fication of St Leo m in presence 
of Charlemagne, the cardinals, 
and archbishops. / 

The third fresco represents the 
victory gained by Leo IV over 
the Saracens at Ostia, the fourth, 
the coronation of Giharlemagne 
by Leo m in the basilic of St 
Peter's. 

The paintings of the ceiling 
are by Pietro Perugino; these, 
out of respect for his master, 
Raphael would not allow to be 
effaced. 

The School of Athena — The 
scene is laid under the portico 
of a palace. In the middle of the 
upper steps are Plato and Aris- 
toteles; on the right, Socrates 
and Alcibiades ; Diogenes holding 
a book is on the second step; 

6* 



tM 



CINTIUIL IT&LT. 



CnSTfl OAT. 



Pj^agoras surrotuided by his 
chsciples, at the end on the right 

To some of the %ure8 the ar- 
tists has given the portraits of 
personft^es of his time: Archi- 
medes IS bramante; the young 
man with his hand on his breas^ 
the Duke of Urbino; the one 
kneeling, the Duke of Mantua; 
Ihe two on the left of Zoroaster 
are Pietro Peru^ino and Raphael, 
the latter wearmg a black cap. 

Opposite this painting is the 
Dispute on the Holy Sacrament 
The Trmity, the Virgin, and St 
John the Baptist, occupy the 
upper part; at the sides of the 
altar are the four doctors of the 
Latin church, several of the fa- 
thers, and many saints of the 
Old and New Testament disput- 
ing on this profund mystery. 

In the painting of Famassus, 
Apollo, in the midst of Oie nine 
Muses, is playing on the violin. 
Around the mountain are several 
ancient and modem poets: Ho- 
mer, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Ennius, 
Sappho, Propertius, Dante, Boc- 
caccio, and Sannazaro. 

Over the window Jurisprudence 
is represented as assisted by Pru- 
dence, Fortitude, and Tempe- 
rance: on the sides are two his- 
torical subjects: the Emperor 
Justinian delivering the digest to 
Trebonian; Gregory IX the de- 
cretals to a consistorial advocate. 

The ceiling is divided into nine 
subjects. In the centre, angels 
support the arms of the church; 
in the rounds are Philosophy, Jus- 
tice, Theology, and Poetiy. In 
the four oblong paintings are 
represented Fortune, the judg- 
ment of Solomon, Adam ana Eve 
tempted by the serpent, Marsyas 
flayed alive by Apollo. 

Chamber of SeliodortM. — He- 
liodorufii the prefect of Seleucus 



Philopator, king of Syria, was 
ordered by this prince to plunder 
the temple of Jerusalem, 176 
vears before the Christian ercL 
While preparing for tiiis sacri- 
lege, God, at the prayer of the 
high priest Onias, sent against him 
a horseman and two angels armed 
with whips, who drove him out 
of the temple; by an anachro* 
nism common to tiie painters of 
his time, Haphael introduced Ju^ 
lins n into tiie group which he 
painted; the other groups were 
mushed by Pietro di Cremona, a 
pupil of Correggio, and by Julio 
Romano. 

In the painting opposite St 
Leo I is represented on his way 
to meet Attila, king of the Huns, 
whose intention was to plunder 
Rome. Struck with terror at the 
sight of St Peter and St Paul 
flying in the air with swords 
unsheated, Attila hastens to re* 
treat 

The third fresco is the miracle 
of Bolsena; a priest, doubting of 
the real presence of Christ in 
the Eucharist which he was on 
the point of consecrating, saw 
blood on the corporal. JidiusH, 
with other contemporary perso- 
nages, is present at the mass. 

The fourth rq)resent8 St Peter 
when the angel delivers him from 
his chains and leads him out of 
prison. The effects of light are 
admirably expressed in iSas pic- 
ture; that of the angel in the 
prison differing from mat of the 
same angel out of it, and that 
of the moon from that of the 
lighted torch held by the soldier. 

The chiaro-oscuroof the ceiling 
is by Raphael; the Caryatides, by 
Polydore Caravaggio. 

AaU of Oonstantine, — ^Ri^hael, 
having completed the designs of 
this &llt commenced the fresco 



RO«AM SMTES. — miV. KICimi VAT. 



Hn^ 



inteAded to reproBent the victory 
of Coafltantine over Maxentius 
near tke Milviaa bridge, and had 
finished the lateral figures of 
Jnstice and Benignity when his 
earthly career was closed. 

After his death Julio Romano 
was charged by Clement YII with 
the execution of the work, and 
painted the apparition of the 
Gross to Constantino. 

In the fresco opposite Constan- 
tine is baptized dj pope St Sil- 
vester; the paintmg is by n 
Fattore. 

Between the windows Del CoUe 
has represented, from the car- 
toons of Raphael, the donation 
of Rome to St Silvester by Con- 
stantine. 

The eight pontiffs on the sides 
of these paintings are by Giulio 
Romano; the chiaro-oscuro, by 
Caravaggio; the ceiling, bvLau- 
retti; the other subjects, by the 
two Zuccari. 

On the ground flo<n: of the 
palace is the manufactory of mo- 
saicSfContaining upwards of 10,000 
enamels of different colours. 

The gardens of the palace, 
commenced under Nicolas V, were 
enlarged by Bramante under Ju- 
lius U. In a niche of the princi- 
pal front is large bronze pine- 
apple, found at the Pantheon. 
The villa, built by Pius IV and 
restored under Leo Xn, contains 
paintings by Boccaccio and Zuc- 
cari. 

From Monte Mario, on which 
is a villa belonging to the Fal- 
eonieri family, me view embraces 
Rome and the Campagna. 

The Villa Madama, formerly 
theproperty of Margaret,daughter 
of Charles V, and now of the 
King of Naples, was commenced 
on tiie designs of Raphael, and 
finished, after his death, by Giulio 



Romano, who, whJi the assiitante 
of Giovanni d'Udine, painted the 
portico, the frieze, and cedling 
of the principal hall. These works 
are in a state of decay. 

AQUEDVCT8. 

Ancient Rome was supplied 
with water from fourteen aiffe- 
rent springs, only three of which 
remain: the Vergine Felice, and 
Paolina; but these afford a quan- 
tity of water sufficient for the 
use of the inhabitants, for the 
ornament of the city, and for 
108 public, and the incalculable 
number of private fountains 
which it contains. 

The Aqiia Vergine supplies 
thirteen large and thirty-seven 
small fountains, from a volume 
estimated at 1,617 Roman onde 
which pours into the city 66^000 
cubic metres every twenty-four 
hours. 

The Aqtta Felice takes its rise 
in a hill called Castelletto, near 
la Colonna, sixteen miles distant, 
and enters the city near the 
Anfiteatro Castrense, where its 
level is about forty-eight metres 
over that of the river. One of 
its branches takes die direction 
of St Maria Maggiore ; the other 
that of Termini, the Quirinal, 
Piazza Barberini, and Capitol; it 
thoDL descends into the forum to 
the Bocca della Verity, and the 
Piazza Giudea, after having fur- 
nished in its course water for 
twenty-seven public and an im- 
mense number of private foun- 
tains. 

It produces 1,027 inches, or 
20,537 cubic metres every twenty- 
four hours. 

Aqua Paolina. — The construc- 
tion of this aqueduct was com- 
menced and completed by Paul V 
of the Borgheae family, who con- 



v» 



CKinUL ITALT.-'^UMIB. OSCUSIS. 



fided its execution to Gio. Fmi- 
tana. An ancient aqaedoct of Tra- 
jan was brought into use for the 
passage of the waters from tiie 
lake of Bracciano, a distance of 
twenty-two miles. An increase, 
from the same lake, was intro- 
duced by Clement X, another 
under Leo XII. from the Strac- 
ciacappe and Alseatine lakes. 

These waters unite onthe Ja- 
niculiun, where they divide into 
two branches; one descends to- 
wards the Vatican, the borgo, 
and Piazza St Pietro ; the other 
into Trastevere, after having left 
a volume of 180 inches at the 
Paolina fountain. A body of 282 
inches passes through thePonte 
Sisto to the fountain, and thence 
disperses itself in the Via Giulia 
and vicinity. 

The Paolina furnishes 4,709 
inches or 94,000 cubic metres 
every twenty-four hours. 

The three aqueducts, if uni- 
ted, would present a lenght of 
108,000 metres, equal to twenty- 
seven French leagues; the vo- 
lume of water wifli which they 
supply Rome amounts to 180,500 
cubic metres every twenty-four 
hours. 

OBELISKS. 

It is justly observed in the 
^Library of Entertaining Know- 
ledge,' voL i, p. 269, "that of all 
the works of Egyptian art, for 
the simplicity of their form, their 
size and unity, and l^e beauty 
of their sculptured decorations, 
none can be put in comparison 
with the obelisks. That as lasting 
records of those ancient monarchs 
whose names and titles are sculp- 
tured on diem, they posses a 
high historical value, which is in- 
creased by the fact that some of 
the most remarkable of these ve- 



nerable monuments now adorn 
ihe Roman capital The Caesars 
seem to have vied with one ano- 
ther in transporting these enor- 
mous blocks from their native 
soil ; and since the revival of the 
study of antiqmties in Rome, se- 
veral of her enlightened pontiffs 
and particularly Siztos Y ana 
Pius Yl, have again erected those 
which had fallen down, and were 
lying on the ground in fragments. 

The obelisks were erected by 
the Egyptian kings before the 
conquest of their country by Cam* 
byses of Persia. As their example 
was followed bv the Ptolomies. 
and Romans, these monuments 
belong to three different epochs. 
The Flaminian Lateran, and Mon- 
te Citorio obelisks are acknow- 
ledged, from their designs and 
incriptions, to be of the first epoch, 
that of the Pharaohs. 

We shall proceed to give a 
brief description of the twelve 
obelisks of different dimensions 
which now decorate the cit^. 

The Flaminia Obelisk is situa- 
ted in the centre of the Piazza 
del Popolo: this obehsk is se- 
ventyfour feet hi^h, exclusively 
of its pedestal, it is covered with 
hieroglyphics. It was originally 
erected at HeUopolis, in Lower 
Egypt, by Rhamses III, or the 
great Sesostris, as a decoration 
of the temple of the Sun, to whom 
it was dedicated. The name of 
this monarch, repeated several 
times in the cartouches, proves 
the exactness of Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus, who has inserted in his 
writings a part of the inscriptions 
translated by Hermapion. 

After the battle of Actium and 
the conquest of Egypt, Augustus 
transported this obelisk to Rome 
and placed it in the circus Maxi- 
mus. In 1587 Sixtus Y transfer* 



BOHMI fTATIt. — MME. OBKLUIS. 



109 



ved it, thoogh broken into three 
parts, to its present position, 
where it was erected by Dome- 
nieo Fontana. ^ 

Oheliak at Monte OUorio. — This 
obelisk, erected at Heliopolia by 
Psammeticns I, king of '£gypt, 
whose name is <reqiiently repea- 
ted in the hieroglyphics, was 
brought to Rome by Augustus, 
who placed it in the Cfampus Mar- 
tins, where it served as a sun 
diaL It was found under Benedict 
XIV, in 1748, and placed in its 
present position in the eighteenth 
year of Fius VI. It is of red gra- 
nite, and is sixty-eight feet hiffh, 
exclusively of the modem pede- 
BtaL which is thirteen. 

The sculptures on the west side 
are nearly all erased. Beneath 
the base of the pyramidal top we 
have the crowned hawk, a pair 
on each side, with a serpent be- 
hind each attached to a globe. 
There are only two varieties of 
cartouches, one containing the 
praenomen and Uie other the 
name. 

On another face of the pyra- 
midal top is a sphinx, without a 
beard, reclining on an altar. On 
the south face the god R^, the 
sun, with the hawk's head, is sea- 
ted opposite the reclining sphinx. 
On the east face Osiris is oppo- 
site to the same figure. The ver- 
tical angle of the pyramidal fa- 
ces contains the scarabaeus sacer, 
with a large disk, almost touch- 
inp; two curved extremities of its 
wmgs. 

Laterim Obelisk, — This obelisk, 
the largest in Rome, was erected 
at Thebes by Theutmosis II, king 
of Egypt, as is ascertained from 
the cartouches that bear his name. 
U was transported from Thebes 
to Alexandria, by Gonstantine, 
and thence by his son Gonstan- 



tius to Rome, where it was rai- 
sed in the circus maxhnus. It was 
fonndat a depth of twenty-two f(set 
under ground, broken into three 
pieces, but was restored by Do- 
ndnico Fontana, the architect of 
Sixtus Y. It is of s^e granite, 
covered with hierogiVphics, and 
ninety-nine feet in height with* 
out the pedestal. The surface dis- 
tinctly dibits traces of fire. The 
original inscription is contained 
in six vertical lines. 

SaUuatian Obelisk. — This obe- 
lisk, found in the gardens of Sal- 
lust, was raised opposite tilie 
church of the Trinitk de' Monti, 
by Pius yi in 1789. It is of Egyp- 
tian granite, and is forty-four 
feet high, without the pedestal. 

The Pantheon Obelisk, placed 
in the centre of this piazza, by 
Glement XI, was found in dig- 
ging the foundations of the con- 
vent of the church of the Mi- 
nerva on the spot where the tem- 
ple of Isis and Serapis once 
stood. It is covered with hiero- 
glyphics. A fountain surrounds 
its base. Its height is about nine- 
teen feet 

The Minerva Obelisk y found 
near that above-mentioned, was 
erected here by Bernini under 
Alexander Vn, on the back of 
a marble elephant Its height 
does not exceed 12i|% feet The 
hieroglyphics attest that it was 
raised by Psammetichus II, of 
the thirty-sixth dynasty to Neith, 
the same goddes as the Minerva 
of the Greeks and Romans. 

The Navona Obelisk, whose 
height is fifty-one feet, was erec- 
ted by Bernini, under Innocent X, 
on the top of a rock, which is 
about forty-one feet above the 
level of the soil It was found in 
the circus, commonly called of 
Garacalla, beyond the gate of St 



110 



CBNTRAL ITALf.^-RQaB. XNTlllMn. 



Sebastittn, and 'was origmaly de- 
dicated, as is proved by the Mero- 
glypbicB, to the Emperor Do« 
mitian. 

The Vatican Obelisk, of seyne 
granite, is said to have been 
raised at Heliopotis by Nonco- 
reus, son of Sesostris, and was 
broaght to Rome, by Galigala, 
who placed it in his circus near 
the Vatican, where it remained 
untouched, during all the vicis- 
situdes of tbe city; in the year 
1586, it was erected on the spot 
it now occupies under Sixtus V, 
by his architect, Domenico Fon- 
tana. 

It is without hieroglyphics; is 
seventy-two feet high, eight feet 
four inches in diameter, and 126 
feet from the ground to the cross. 

On its base is engraved an in- 
scription purporting that it was 
dedicated bv Caligula to Augu- 
stus and Tiberius. 

The OhelUka at St Maria Mag- 
giore and at Monte Cavallo were 
brought to Borne by the Empe- 
ror Claudius, who placed them 
before the mausoleum of Augu- 
stus. The former was erected by 
Sixtus Y, under the direction of 
D. Fontana, the latter by Pius 
VI. They are of red granite, with- 
out hieroglyphics, and forty-three 
feet high. 

Pineian Obelisk. — The hiero- 
glyphics of this obelisk present 
an eulogium of Antinous, the 
favourite of Adrian. It was found 
in the circus of Aurelian, beyond 
the Porta Maggiore, in the time 
of Urban VIII, and was rais^ 
on the Pineian hill in 1828, un- 
der Pius VII. Its height is twenty- 
ei^t feet without the pedestal. 

The obelisk of the villa Mattel 
was discovered near the temple 
of Isis and Serapis, the upper 
part alone is antique, the hye- 



roglyii^cs on the krwer part are 
an imitation. 

The quarries of the seyne gra- 
nite, the material of which the 
Theban obelisk were made ex- 
tend from the island of Philae 
along the whole line of the ea- 
taracs, the northern point of Ele- 
phantine forming their limit in 
that direction. This red granite 
is known by its beautiful colour^ 
and owing to its hardness it re- 
ceives the fine polish observable 
on the Roman obelisks. 

rriNERART OF TH£ ENVIRONS. 

As the environs of Rome ex- 
cite interest from the beauty of 
their situation, the associations 
of history, and the remains of 
their antique monuments, a short 
description is given of the prin- 
cipal places, viz.: Tivoli, Paie- 
stirina, Frascati, Albano, and VeiL 

Boad to Tivoli, About a mile 
from the Porta St Lorenzo, is 
the basilic of (hat name, which 
has alreadv been described. 

At the fourth mile is the Amo, 
now called Teverone, which se- 
parates Latium from the Sabine 
territory, and unites with the Ti- 
ber, near the Salarian bridge 
three miles from the city. 

At the tenth mile are seen re- 
mains of the Tiburtine way, for- 
med like the other Roman roads, 
of large polygonal blocks of ba- 
saltic lava. 

About the twelfth mile is the 
TartarouB lake, an appellation 
derived from the quahty of its 
tartarous and calcareous waters, 
which petrify vegetables. 

Solfatara Bridge, — The waters 
that pass under tiiis little bridge 
are of a bluish colour, and ex- 
hale a strong snlphareous smeU. 
These waters, eaUed albulae by 
Strabo, Pansaaias, and Martial, 



MNAW aTATB8.**R0HB. INVUMS. 



ill 



jslrae from a iake, about a mile 
from tbe road, which was for- 
merly a mile in circuit, but at 
tbe present day its average dia- 
meter does not exceed 450 feet 
The bituminous substances for- 
med by these waters are con- 
densed on their surface, and 
ffive rise to different 8hi4[>ed bo- 
dies called floating islands. In 
the neighbourhood of the lake 
were tibe tiiennae of Agrippa. of 
w^ch some remains still exist. 

T<»nb ofthePlauHem Family y — 
This sepulchral monument was 
raided by the Plautii, one of the 
great Roman families under the 
republic and the empire. It is 
btalt of trayertine stone, in a 
round form, and has half columns 
<m the ei^terior with inscriptions, 
two of which remain, one of M. 
Plautius Silvanus consul and VH 
vir of the epulones, distinguished 
by his exmoits in niyria; the 
other of T. Plautius Silvanus, 
who accompanied Claudius in his 
expedition to Britain. The con- 
structions at the top prove that in 
^e middle ages it was converted 
into a tower of defence. 

VUla Ad/riana, — The Emperor 
Adrian, having visited the diffe- 
rent parts of the empire, deci- 
,ded on imitating in this villa all 
those buildings that had pleased 
him most in his travels. The ly- 
ceum, academy, prytaneum, and 
Paedle of Athens, the valley of 
Tempe. the Canope of Alexan- 
dria, Tartarus, the Elysian fields. 

In the middle ages the villa 
was greatly injured. Under Mar- 
tin V, some of its marbles and 
statues were broken and used as 
mortar. Excavations among the 
mins have, howerer, at all ti- 
mes produced classic monuments, 
now the principal ornament of 
the museums and galleries of 



Rome. The villa was About %&iea 
nnles in circumference. Its chief 
remains are 

The Oreek 2%ca/rc, which is the 
best presOTved of the three that 
existed here; we may still trace 
a part of the scena , the corri- 
dors, and the place of the steps. 

Annexed to the theatre on die 
west are remains of a large square 
court which was surrounded with 
porticos. 

Near the modem house, built of 
ancient substructions, is a pas- 
sage, on the roof of which are 
stuccoes and paintings of exqui-* 
site taste. 

Paedle, — Pausanias informs us 
that the Paecile of Athens was 
a portico decorated with paint- 
ings relative to Athenian exploits. 
The portico of the villa was an 
oblong parallellogram, in the cen- 
tre of which was a large court 
A wall, still entire, which was 
between a double row of pila- 
sters, was probably painted like 
the buildings at Athens. 

To the south of this wall is 
what is called the Temple of the 
Stoics, said to have been lined 
with porphyry, and further on is 
a round edifice with a mosaic 
pavement, representing sea mon- 
sters; this place was used for 
exercises in swimming. 

To the left are the ruins of the 
library. 

The imperial palace, situated 
on an elevation, is composed of 
two stories. On the ground floor 
are several remains of paintings, 
on the upper stor^ is a large 
quadrangular portico communi- 
cating with the' palace. 

A number of rooms called the 
eento camerelle served formerly 
as barracks for the pretorian 
guards. On the exterior were 
galleries resting on pilasters or 



112 



eiKTRAi ITALY. — ^ROHE.* ENYIR9NS. 



columns ; the commumcation with 
each room was by means of the 
gallery, as in the convents of the 
present day. 

Canope. — This building, so cal- 
led from the city of Canope in 
Egypt, contained a temple of Se- 
rapis ; several rooms and a pain- 
ted gallery are still visible. 

On the right are remains of the 
academy and of a theatre. The 
four subterraneous corridors, 
forming a rectangle, were a part 
of the infernal regions. In the 
vicinity were the Elysian fields, 
the valley of Tempo, and the 
Peneus. 

HvoU. — This town, the foun- 
dation of which is attributed to 
Tibur, Cor ax, and Catillus of 
Argos, was built 462 years be- 
fore Rome, after the expulsion 
of the SicuU from the territories 
which they then occupied. It was 
called Tibur from the name of 
the Argean chief; was allied with, 
though sometimes opposed to the 
Romans in the early times of the 
republic ; subsequently under the 
Romans it was a mumcipal town. 

Temjple of Vesta, — This ancient 
edifice, of a fine style of archi- 
tecture, is of a circular form, 
twelve and a half feet in diameter ; 
its columns are eighteen feet in 
height without the capital which 
is ornamented with leaves of the 
acanthus. It had originally eigh- 
teen columns of the Corinthian 
order in travertine, ten of which 
remain. Its situation on the top 
of a rock, on the border of an 
extensive valley, is highly pictu- 
resque. 

Adjoining it is the temple of the 
Tiburtine sibyl, built of traver- 
tine, with four Ionic columns in 
front. It is now the church of 
St Giorgio. 

Opposite these temples is the 



new emissary perforated in the 
Monte Catillo, 2di metres loi^; 
and twenty-five broad at its 
mouth; the waters pass through 
this channel and on tiie brink 
of the valley form a beautiful 
cascade. 

In the picturesque grotto of 
the Sirens the waters ddsappear 
for a time in a subterranean 
channeL 

The grotto of Neptune, sincp 
the deviation of the course of 
the Anio, no longer receives any 
supply of water. 

Cascatelle, — The streams of the 
Anio are used in the iron, copper, 
and other works which are car- 
ried on at Tivoli, and precipitate 
themselves from a height of 100 
feet into the valley below, wind- 
ing over rocks bounded with trees 
and meadows that produce a most 
picturesque effect 

Opposite, and bordering the 
path leading to the valley, are 
the villa of Catullus, the church 
of St Antonio, built on the ruins 
of a villa said to have belonged 
to Horace, and, half a mile furtiher 
on, the chapel of Quintiliolo, de- 
dicated to the Virgin. It stands 
on the remains of the villa of 
Quintilius Varus, in which were 
formerly found statues, columns, 
and a variety of mosaics. 

Crossing the Aquoria, a rivulet 
at the bottom of the valley, over 
an ancient bridge in good pre- 
servation, and the Anio over a 
wooden bridge, the return to Ti- 
voli is by the ancient Via Tibur- 
tina. 

Villa of Mecoenas. — Among 
the ruins it is easy to distinguish 
a large square court, which was 
surrounded with half columns of 
the Doric order, and arcades 
communicating with a portico, 
and a double row of chambers 



ROMAN STATES. — ROHI. — CimiONS. 



118 



looking over the valley. These 
are built over a large subter- 
raaeous hall, called uie stable, 
but supposea to have been are- 
servoir. A rapid torrent passes 
through a canal, and in its fall 
f^m the mountain contributes to 
form the cascades. From the ter- 
race the view embraces Borne 
and the Campagna. 

In a neighbouring vineyard is 
an edifice called the Tempio della 
Tosse, adapted as a church in 
the middle ages. It appears to 
advantage in the midst of trees 
and vineyards. 

Near the Roman gate is /the 
villa D'Este, built by a cardinal 
of the D'Este family in 1549, 
formerly one of the most splendid 
villas of Italy. It contains fres- 
coes by Zuccari, Muziano, and 
other artists of those days, al- 
lusive to the history of Tivoli. 

At a distance of ten miles on 
the Valerian way is Vicovaro, or 
Varia, the ruins of which con- 
sist of remains of an ancient 
bridge, over which passed the 
Aqua Claudia, and of large tra- 
vertine blocks forming the walls 
of the city. Five miles fiirti^er 
on is Licenza, te ancient Di- 
gentia, near which was the Sabine 
farm of Horace, celebrated in 
his verses. 

Twelve miles from Tivoli, and 
twenty from Rome, is 

PctUatrina^ or ProenestCy a city 
founded, according to Yirgil, by 
Caeculus, son of Vulcan ; accord- 
ing to others, by Praenestus, son 
of King Latinus, prior to the 
Trojan war. Its elevated situa- 
tion and good air rendered it a 
point of attraction to the ancient 
Romans. It was celebrated also 
for its temple of Fortune, res- 
tored and ^larged by L. SyUa, 



which occupied the wholo site 
of the present town. 

Palestrina was destroyed in 
the fifteenth centuir, but was 
rebuilt on the ruins of this temple, 
when a mosaic pavement was 
discovered, which is now in the 
Barberini palace at Palestrina. 

This celebrated work repre- 
sents sundry animals and plants, 
a tent with soldiers. Egyptian 
figures playing on musical in- 
struments, others occupied with 
the labours of agriculture. Of 
several interpretations given of 
this work the most probable is 
that the subject alludes to the 
festivals established in Egypt 
under the Greek kings, at the 
period of the inundation of the 
Nile. 

Near La Golonna, eight miles 
from this town, is a lake, falsely 
said to be the Rogillus, where 
the battle took place between the 
Latins and Romans, which de- 
cided the fate of Tarquin. 

Some miles distant, in the farm 
called Pantano, in the lake of 
Castiglione, formerly Gabinus, 
near the ancient city of Gabii, 
discovered in 1792. The only 
remabs are the cella of the temple 
of Juno, and square blocks of 
the local volcanic stone, which 
formed the walls of the dtadeL 

FrtMcati owes its origin to the 
destruction of Tusculum by the 
Romans in 1191; the modem 
town contains nothing remark- 
able, but the numerous viUas in 
its environs and the excursion to 
the ruins of Tusculum are highly 
interesting. 

The most splendid of these 
villas are the Aldobrandini and 
Mondra^one, belonging to the 
Borghesi; the Bufinella, to the 
queen of Sardinia ; the Gonti and 
FalconierL Tusculmn, said to havr 



114 



CnmULL ITALT.-^ROIIS. KNVIRMS. 



foeim founded by Telegonus, a 
son of Ulysses and Circe, was a 
favourite residence of the Romans 
in the latter tunes of the republic. 
Li a elevated position are the 
remains of a theatre, baths, an 
aqueduct, and walls; several sta- 
tues, busts, and other works of 
art found in the excavations, at- 
test its ancient splendour. 

Grotta Ferrata is a small vH- 
lage with a church, in which Do- 
menichino has represented in 
fresco several acts of St Bartho- 
lomew and St Nilus, who retired 
to this spot about the year 1,000. 
The painting over the altar is 
by Annibale Caracci. 

Two miles from this village is 
Marino, formerly Castro Moenium, 
an ancient city of Latium, men- 
tioned by Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus and Pliny. The church of 
St Barnabas possesses a painting 
of the martyrdom of St Bartho- 
lomew, in the first manner of 
Guercino; that of the Holy Tri- 
nity one by Guido. The Albano 
gate leads to the Ferentine valley, 
so called from the goddess of 
that name, where the people of 
Latium held their national as- 
semblies before their subjugation 
by the Romans. 

Oastel Oandolfo is agreably 
situated on the lake of that name, 
which, in very remote times, was 
the crater of a volcano; its cir- 
cuit is about six miles, its depth 
480 feet On the occasion of an 
extraordinary swell of the waters, 
394 years before the Christian 
era. the Romans, then occupied 
with the siege of Veii, sent de- 
puties to Delphi to consult the 
oracle of the Pythian Apollo, who 
answered that Yeii could not be 
taken unless the waters of this 
lake were reduced to ^eir level 
Having decided on perforating 



the mountain, the work was car- 
ried on with such activity ihaX 
within a year they completed the 
canal, which is a mile long, three 
and a half feet wide, and six 
high; it is chiselled out of the 
rock, and has never required any 
repair. 

Alhano. — Alba Lunga is said 
to have been built about 400 
years before Rome, by Ascanius, 
the son of Aeneas, between the 
mountain and the lake, in the 
direction of the present Palaz- 
zola; it was destroyed by Tul- 
lius Hostilius. During the second 
Punic war a camp, protecting the 
Appian way, was established on 
the site of Albano, which be- 
came a city at the decline of the 
empire. 

On the left of the Via Appia 
before entering the gate, is a large 
tomb, stripped of its ornaments, 
containing a room eleven feet 
long and seven wide; it is com- 
monly called the tomb of Asca- 
nius, but, being situated on the 
grounds that formed the villa of 
Pompey, it is more probable tliat 
it was raised by that general to 
receive the ashes of Juha his wife, 
the daughter of Caesar. According 
to Plutarch it was also the tomb 
of Pompey. 

Near the church of the Ma- 
donna della Stella is another large 
tomb, raised on a square base 
fifty- five feet in circumference: 
in the centre was a pedestal 
serving as the base of a statue, 
and at each angle a round py- 
ramid. It was knagined that tlus 
tomb had been raised to the 
Horatii and Curiatii ; but it is re- 
lated by Livy that they were 
buried on the spot where they fell, 
between the Latm and Appian 
ways, at a distance of about five 
miles from Rome. The architec- 



MMnur sTATKk-^Rma. envihons. 



lU 



tare of ihis monament is of a 
for more remote period; it was 
probably raised to Aruns, the 
son of rorsenna, who was killed 
near this spot when attacking 
Aricia in the year 247 of Rome, 
or 606 before the Christian era. 
' A mile from Albano is the Til- 
lage of Aricia, preserving the 
name of the city, built in the 
plain by Archillochus 1,400 years 
before our era. Some of its ruins 
may be seen in a vineyard cal- 
led Orto di Mezzo, on the Via 
Appia; they consist of the cella 
of the temple of Diana, of walls 
formed of irregular blocks, of the 
emissary communicating with the 
dtatel, and remains of baths. 

Veil, — Dionysius Halicamassus 
observes, in the second book of 
his Roman Antiquities, "The third 
war which he (Romulus) sustai- 
ned was against a city, then one 
of the most powerful of the Etrus- 
can nation, called Yeii, distant 
from Rome about 100 stadii; it 
is situated on a steep rock, and 
is of about the same size as 
Athens." One hundred statii are 
twelve and a half miles. In an- 
other passage the same author 
adds that this was one of the 
Etruscan cities the nearest to 
Rome; that it was on the Via 
Cassia or Claudia is proved by 
thcPentingerian chart, which thus 
disposes the stations on this road : 
Roma ad Pontem, m, ad Sextum, 
in, Vejos, VI; a distance corres- 
ponding exactly with that of Di- 
onysius. 

At a mile to the east of La 
Storta, over a hiU, separated from 
the plain by two rivulets, which 
imited form the Cremera, was si- 
tuated Veil, as was proved by 
the excavations made in 1810, 
when a tomb and several frag- 
ments of statues were found. The 



citadel and one of the wings of 
the town occupied the Isola Far- 
nese, a fortress in the middle 
ages, now a farm. The softness 
of the rock explains the work of 
the mine which decided the fate 
of the palace after its ten years' 
eiege. 

The isola presents the appe* 
arance of a deserted village witii 
a population of about forty souls. 
At the gate called thePortonac- 
cio are various fragments of sculp- 
ture. The church of St Pancra- 
zio, divided into three naves, is 
of the fifteenth century. Many 
square stones found in the castle 
probably belonged to the walls 
of the ancient citadel 

A path, which from the frag- 
ments of its pavement appears 
to be antique, leads on the right 
to the ancient town. On the left 
are steep rocks; on the right a 
de^ precipice, formed by tiie 
rivulet called the Fosso dell' Isola, 
which about half a mile further 
on forms a cataract of about fifty 
feet in a most picturesque situa- 
tion. Beyond this cataract an an- 
cient road of- the Etruscan Veil, 
six feet broad, leads to an ex- 
tensive plain, where fragments 
of worked marble and of bricks 
indicate the spot once inhabited, 
enclosed in the Etruscan city. 
The Roman Veii was situated near 
the forest where the late disco- 
veries were made ; this spot pre- 
sents numerous fragments of va- 
ses, painted with varnish on a 
black and red ground, and of a 
very fine day, probably the work 
of the primitive Veians. Of the 
buildings found in the lastexcar 
vations one deserves observation 
— an ancient Roman columbarium^ 
called by the peasants the ceme- 
terio, composed of three room% 
one of which only is open. It con- 



116 



CBHTTRAL ITALT.-*^RO]l£. limHONS. 



tains several tombs and fanenarj 
inscriptions. Near the Golnmba- 
rium were discovered the statue 
of Tiberius, now in the Vatican; 
that of Gennanicus, nine pahns 
highj many busts, fragments of 
architecture ; twenty-four columns 
belonging to the same edifice, 
probably a basilic, near which was 
the forum, as Yitruvius informs 
us that such was their relative 

Eosition in the Italian cities. It 
as been ascertained from inscrip- 
tions that at Veii there was a 
temple of Mars, and from the 
excavations that Castor and Pol- 
lux, Piety, and the Genius of the 
city, were honoured at Veii. 

It is primitive state, and be- 
fore its capture by Camillus, the 
city must have extended to Ponte 
Sodo, and the forest now covers 
its ruins. In proceeding to this 
bridge, and before arriving at the 
Cremera, the remains of a road 
which at intervals is intercepted 
by square masses of tuffo, indi- 
cate the ancient walls of the city, 
and lead to the Cremera, caUea 
the Fosso di Formello and Fosso 
del Valca, which unites with the 
Tiber. Beyond the Cremera is the 
Ponte Sodo, so named from its 
solidity, being cut out of the rock 
— a work of the Etruscan Veians. 
Without returning to the Isola, 
it is easy to reach the Via Cas- 
sia at the Osteria del Fosso, after 
having crossed the Cremera by 
following a direction to the west, 
near the spot where the late ex- 
cavations have been made. On 
the right of the road many Etrus- 
can tombs are seen in the rock, 
in which small vases painted on 
a dark ground are continually 
discovered. 

Time, — The Italian sundial, 
principally in use at Rome, is re- 
gulated according to the setting 



of the sun, which in all seasons 
takes place at twenty-three hours 
and a half. On the Ist of Janu- 
ary the tweenty-fourth Italian hour 
thus answers to our half-past five; 
the French noon to their seven- 
teen hours and three quarters, 
and midnight to their seven hours 
and a half^ the sun setting forty- 
five minutes later at Rome tlum 
in Paris. The twenty-fourth hour 
is marked by the Ave Maria, 
which is said half an hour after 
sunset 

Climate. — The Roman winter 
is, after that of Pisa and Naples, 
the mildest in Italy. Rome is so- 
metimes prefered to Naples for 
certain diseases. The thermome- 
ter rarely descends below 49 or 
5**, and even this takes place but 
once in four or five years. The 
summit, however, is rather sus- 
picious, and with the scirocco the 
atmosphere is quite overpowering. 
The danger of the malaria ap- 
pears to have been much exag- 
gerated. Besides the learned ob- 
servations of the celebrated Lan- 
cisi, physician to Popes Innocent 
XI, Innocent XII, and Clement 
XI, the illustrious Brocchi could 
recognise any vicious principle in 
the air of Rome, even when ana- 
lyzed in 1818 (noted for the mul- 
titude of intermitting fevers) in 
one of the worst parts of the 
city — viz., in the valley adjoining 
the basilisk St Laurent, extra 
muros. The changeableness of ^e 
climate is perhaps the greatest 
part of its danger, but tiiis is 
easily counteracted by wearing 
flannel, which, as we are infor- 
med, was customary amongst the 
ancient Romans. It has also been 
remarked that the air appears 
salutary to aged persons — a fact 
proved by the long life of a great 
number of both foreigners and 



HOIAN STATES. — BOMB. CLDUTB. 



117 



natiyeg who have inhabited this 
dty. The prudent traveller runs 
no risk in going to Rome at all 
seasons; he may establish him- 
self there, and repose for the re- 
mainder of his me in this noble 
retreat without fear. 

Rome is still the first city of 
the world for the quality and 
quantity of its water. The best, 
I'acqua vergine, shown to the sol- 
diers of Affrippa by a youg girl, 
yet flows plentuuUy from the foun- 
tain Trevi, and has kept its sweet 
name. The numerous springs of 
salubrious bright limpid water at 
Rome is one of its wonders, and 
yet how inferior is modem Rome 
on that point to antique Rome! 
"Dov' h oggi I'Aniene vecchio," 
cries the learned Claudio Tolo- 
mei of Sienne, in his letter of 
the 26th of July, 1543, to Gio- 
vanni Battista Grimaldi; "Dov' 
^ I'acquaAppia? dov' h la Clau- 
dia? dov' h la Tiepola, 1' Augusta 
fe le altre?" 

The water of the Tiber had, 
for a long time, the reputation 
of being sweet and salubrious. 
Many persons formerly got a liv- 
ing by driving asses about the city 
laden with its water for sale. The 
father of Rienzi was one of these 
water-sellers. Paul in, in his lon- 
ger journeys, always took some 
with him. When Clement VII went 
to Marseilles to marry his niece, 
Catherine de Medicis, to the Dau- 
phin's brother, afterwards Hen- 
ry n, his physician required him 
to carry some of this water with 
him, which he accordingly did. 
Gregory XIII, who lived eighty- 
four years, constantly drank this 
water, which has now become so 
dhrty and so decried. Ariosto sung 
its praise, but it was then cus- 
tomary to leave it some days to 
settle. 



It appears from the analysis 
made in July 1880, of two mas- 
ses of water of 100 lbs. each — 
one taken above Ponte Molle, be- 
fore it passes through the city, 
and the other below the port 
Ripa-Grande — that this water is 
not only potable, but is even of 
a superior quality to that of the 
Seine or Thames. The mineral 
virtues and mild temperature of 
the river contented the Romans 
of the Republic, and their only 
summer baths were on its bor- 
ders. The temperature rises from 
180 to 240, and scarcely differs 
from that of the air but by 2^ to QK 

The water of the Tiber is now 
successfully recommended for in- 
flammations and weaknesses of 
the eyes. 

Teetotallers should ask the 
waiter of the caf6 for some aqua 
di cannella (a small waterpipe or 
cinnamon) which is nothing bet- 
ter than water turned off from 
the waterpipe placed in nearly 
every house; it is consequently 
a little fresher, but is not cinna- 
mon water, as some foolish wits 
endeavour to make green travel- 
lers believe it to be. 

The lasagne soup is excellent. 
The beef is perfect; that of Pe- 
rugia (manzo perugino) is prefer- 
red. The meat of the mongana 
(a suckling calf) only cedes to 
the celebrated veal of Sorrento. 
There is nothing more delicate 
than the fried brains, lambs'sweet- 
breads, and kidneys, of Rome. 

The turkeys ofRome are deemed 
the fattest of Italy. The geese and 
fowls, in spite of their sacred or 
patriotic associations, are now but 

Eassable. These last come from 
ra Marca, and a . seven day^s 
journey in coops makes them al- 
most unfit for the table. It is nf^ 



lis 



cBmuj. iTALi.'^Ron. mrvmoNB. 



the same with the pigeons, which 
soon recover and become excel- 
lent; they cede, however, to the 
savour of the native pigeons, the 
best in Italy, which are sola for 
about double the price in the 
Strada Colombella (from Colombo), 
behind tibe small dirtv market 
held over the ruins of the marve- 
lous Pantheon. These delicate, 
white, rosy pigeons also make an 
exquisite soup, stomachic and sa- 
lutary to convalescents. The su- 
periority of the race may be tra- 
ced back to antiquity. But the 
barbarous sensuality of the Ro- 
mans had recourse to an expe- 
dient to fatten them that is quite 
neglected by the poulterers of 
the Colombella, who are a set of 
indolent folks not encouraged by 
the frugality of the present Ita- 
lians. "When the young pigeons 
begin to get fledged," says Var- 
ron, "their legs are broken, and 
they are replaced in the nest; 
in the meanwhile their mothers 
are plentifully supplied with food. 
These poor mings eat and make 
their little ones eat the whole 
day long, and in this manner they 
fatten much quicker and become 
much whiter than the others." 
Instead of the fifteen or twenty 
bajocchi given f(Tr a pair of mo- 
dem pigeons, these of the an- 
cients had a most extraordinary 
value, and gave an enormous pro- 
fit They were commonly sold for 
200 sesterces (56 fr.) a piece. The 
best pigeons rose to 1,000 ses- 
terces (280 fr.). L. Axius, a Ro- 
man cavalier, is said to have re- 
fused 400 deniers (448 fr.) for 
a pair of pigeons of this kind. 
Yarron adds, that at Rome there 
were some people who possessed 
more thaa 100,000 sesterces 
(28,000 fr.) in pigeons, and who 
drew thence a gain of 50 per cent 



The vidnity fhmiahes aprodi- 
gions quantity of large and small 
birds, such as qu£dls,larks (lodole), 
beccafichi, sm'pes, patridges, nota^ 
bly the gray (stame), and thrushes 
(tordi). These last, some what lean 
and cheap, differ from the Uini^ 
hes mentioned by Varron, which 
were fattened in cages and sold 
for 3 deniers a piece (3fr. 86 c*). 
Five thousand of these birds, bred 
a the villa of the maternal aunt 
of Merula, in Sabina, twenty-fow* 
miles from Rome, brought her 
an annual revenue of 60,000 ses- 
terces (16,800 fr.) The quails were 
fattened in the same way with 
bsdls made of figs and nour of 
epeautre (a species of wheat); 
they were equally expensive, al- 
though the Roman poulterers had 
volteri even in the town. The loins 
of pork (lombetto) of Rome are 
noted, also its hams, prepared in 
the villages of the Appenninea. 
The reputation of the Roman 
pork is of long standing. A diploma 
inserted in the ^Storia Diplomatica 
de' Senatori,' by Francesco An- 
tonio Yitali, shews that, inde- 
pendently of the stores of Greek 
wine, sugar, eels, fish, beans, 
peas, &e., twelve hundred pigs 
were provided for the kitchen 
(cucina) of Charles d'Anjou on 
his arrival at Rome, where he 
was most hospitably entertained 
by Pope Clement IV, at that time 
holding a fief in Provence. This 
list would lead one to believe 
^at the cook of the French Prince 
was already prodigal of these 
hot spicy sauces, now, too much 
in use at the tables of our poli- 
ticians, aristocrats, and bankers. 
Fish are excellent, and plentiful 
The fishery extends along the 
coast from Civita Vecchia to Ter- 
racina. Nimble muleteers scent 
pretty correctly on what point of 



ROMAN fTATSa. — IWHB. PROVrSIOltt. 



119 



the coast the wind is likely to 
blow, and hasten thither; they 
load the fish as it is taken from 
the boats, and drive it off to 
Rome during the night. 

The principal market is held 
on the mins of the interesting 
Portico of Octavia. Men are em- 
ployed to sell the fish, so that 
the Parisian monster, la pois- 
sarde, does not exist at Rome. 
The Roman housekeepers say that 
fish is good in the months where 
the letter r is pronounced. The 
sturgeon, the first of the pesce 
nobile, if partaken of too freely, 
sometimes produces disorders. of 
the stomadL The small roach 
(triglia) makes an excellent fry, 
out the large one is better gril- 
led. The spigola was highly con- 
sidered by the Greeks and Ro- 
mans; the small young ones taken 
in the Tiber were particularly 
esteemed, as, according to the 
epicures of the times, these were 
much tendered from their efforts 
to ascend the river. Themodeni 
fish is not less considered, and 
competes with the sturgeon; it 
is a large fish, and is ^en in 
the Mediterranean. The white de- 
licate ombrine. has honoured the 
best tables of antiquity, and of 
the renaissance The splendid pa- 
pagello, delicate, white, and sa- 
voury, is the delight of the rich, 
although it has not the merit of 
being rare. The mullets (cefalo), 
less esteemed, less delicate, and 
heavier, are frequently more than 
two feet long; tibeprmce of Mu- 
signano, now Canino, states, that 
sometimes this fish weighs 171bs. 

The actual prices for the prin- 
cipal provisions are given else- 
where. This detail may prove of 
some utility, as there is no city 
in Europe that leaves a greater 
desire to return to than Rome, 



and it may not be indifferent to 
know its expences. Without doubt, 
it is very agreeable to meditate 
in the midst of its splendid ruins, 
but it is also necessary to think 
of dinner. 

I^ in spite of the strong and 
noble nature of the Roman race, 
it is no more given the soil (like 
many others) to produce heroes,, 
yet this land is still the magna 
parens frngum. Notwithstan&ig 
appearances smd poetic prejudi- 
ces, the environs of Rome, and 
the hills that surround it, are 
fertile and well cultivated. 

Savoury fruits and excellent 
vegetables grow there in abun- 
dance. The asparagus of Tivoli, 
the indigestible fennel (finocchio), 
the brocoli, best prepared alia 
strascinata, the grapes of Tivoli 
(pizzutello), the muscadine gra- 
pes, the water mellon (cocomero), 
the green figs (fichi gintili), the 
melons of iSeti. 

Roman mushrooms have been 
always esteemed. They appear 
to have been the only thought 
of two of its most insignificant 
masters, whether ancient or mo- 
dem, viz.: the Emperor Clau- 
dius and Pope Clement VII. The 
last was so passionately fond of 
them, that afraid of not being 
sufficiently supplied, he forbade 
their use throughout the Roman 
states. The savoury meadow mush- 
room (prataiuolo) still merits the 
praises bestowed on it by the 
professeur gastronome Catius. 

It is dried and served in ra- 
gouts when there are no others. 
In the market of the Piazza Na- 
vone Apicius would still find the 
oronge, whose mode of prepara- 
tion he details with so much com- 
placency. The finest of all is the 
ovolo, having the form and whi- 
teness of an egg, whence it de- 



lao 



CINTRAL ITAL1. — ROME. GAT3SS. 



rives its name. It is served fried 
in oil, or seasoned with oil and 
garlic, or particularly with wild 
mint (mentnccia), considered at 
Rome as an antidote, and even 
as a necessary ingredient to every 
dish of muslurooms. 

Excellent cheese and milk; 
the most noted are : curded milk 
fricotta e giuncata) ; delicious haf- 
talo eggs (ova di bufale); ewes' 
milk (£eese (pecorino), particu- 
larly that of Viterbo; the same 
cheese with saffron, called for- 
maggio fiore, from being curded 
with the powder of a mountain 
flower; cows' milk cheese (pro- 
vatnra bianca) ; buffalo milk cheese 
(provatura marzolina), so named 
mm being the last made in the 
month of March. 

Butter was nearly unknown in 
Rome forty years since. There 
is now, however, a large dairy 
near the tomb to Cecilia Me- 
tella, where it may be had very 
gooi This progress is owing to 
the arrival at Rome of nume- 
rous English travellers. As the 
Roman dairies, however, do not 
provide sufficient for the consump- 
tion during the winter, a certain 
quantity is received from Lom- 
bardy.The price is then 30 ba- 
jocchi per pound, but in the sum- 
mer it is only 14. 

Maccaronj pastry (pasticcio di 
macaroni), made of cream truffles, 
mushrooms, cockscpmbs, small 
livers, &c., is much sought after, 
and is purely Roman. 

Each coffee house has its cha- 
racter, or, as we say of a paper, 
its colour. 

The Cafe Greco, the only one 
where smoking is permitted, is 
the rendezvous of French, Ita- 
lian, and German artists. New 
works and various reputations are 



there canvassed, both loudly and 
frankly. 

The Caf6 Monte-Citorio, called 
de^abbione (old fools, block- 
heads), is frequented by profes* 
sors and savans, who choose a 
president amongst themselves sur- 
named crochio. I have there met 
some gentlemen of rare merit 

The caf6 of the fountain Trevi 
was the resort of the Abb6 Fea ; 
it is the caf6 of the antiquarians, 
and is noth the least known ; even 
the peasants carry there all the 
medals, pieces of brick, &c, that 
they turn up in their fields. 

In these different re-unions the 
chronicle of the day occupies a 
large place ; the modem Romans 
are not less inquisitive or less 
given to tale-bearing than those of 
the times of Horace or Juvenal. 

The most fashionable is the 
Caf6 Nazarri, Piazza di Spagna. 
At the cafes one should call for 
a poncio spongato, the most 
argreeable and the most tonic 
of sherbets, only costing eight 
bajocchi. The spuma di latte, a 
kind of iced-whipped cream, is 
excellent; but must be ordered 
beforehand. The best of all is the 
mattonella al butirro, small, com- 
pact, and so hard that one may 
carry it away in one's pocket, 
whence its name brick of butter. 

The taste, the necessity for 
ices, may be traced back to the 
ancient Romans. 

Horses — The Romanhorses are 
rather small, but they are spiri- 
ted, full of nerve, lively, and make 
excellent saddle horses. The 
breeds of Chigi and Braschi are 
the most noted; the last-mentio- 
ned breed, reared in the Pontine 
Marshes, are sometimes subject 
to tumours in the legs, and soft 
hoofs. Prince Borghese is at pre- 
sent endeavoiuing to regain the 



lOllAN tftVfES. — Hffia, eEKEMMVK, 



131 



reputation his liouse once had 
tor its liories; Dikke AleSLander 
Torlonia also seeks to create a 
similar reputation. The bronze- 
coloured horses of the Borghese 
family have frequently served as 
models for artists; Uuido har- 
nessed them to the car of his 
celebrated admirable Aurora in 
the Palazzo Rospigliosi. An un- 
trained Roman norse may be 
bought at the annual May fair 
for ahout sixty crowns (about 
800 fir.). Th^ ordinary breed, in 
spite. of its appearance, is not of 
bat mettle, and is tolerably ac- 
tive M. de Toumon reports that 
the fivQ hundred horses which 
he furnished the army with, in 
1818, although only tifuree ^ars 
old, and sent away immediately 
after gelding, did good service 
during the campaign that ter- 
minated by the batue of Leipsic. 
The large black horses so much, 
in use amongst the cardinals are 
sold very dear; they are princi- 

Sally drawn from the Polesina 
i Kovigo. 

Hunting, — Rome may be re- 
commended* also to sportsmen, as 
the goveniment does not disdain 
legislating for their pleasures. -Hie 
port d'armes, only costing three 
panls (less than two frs.)' is- gi- 
ven nearly to everybody; stran- 
gers only need show their pass- 
ports. Leon XII, who, in his time 
Bad been passionately fond of 
hunting, but who abandoned it 
when seated on the pontifical 
throne (unlike his celebrated pre- 
decessor Leon X), ordered that 
the gates of Rome should be ope- 
ned at all hours to die sportsmen 
who pronounced the word cac- 
ciatori. 

The prmcipal sport is fiimis^ 
hed by birds of passage: namely, 
in the winter, woodcocks, grey 



partridges (stane), lapwings (pa- 
vonceDe), and an onormous quan- 
tity of aquatic birds; in the 
month of May the quaJh begin 
to arrive from Northern Africa^ 
and afford good sport on the sea- 
ooast, from Givita Yecchia to 
Terracina; the summer offers 
only a few small quails (qtiac^ 
liardi), found in the cornfields 
after the harvest, and before the 
burning of the straw ; but in au-* 
tumn tiiere is again a quantity 
of quails retumin^r to Africa, 
thrushes (tordi), snipes, and par- 
ticularly lariks (lodole). 

These last procure amusement 
for everybody. During the Ooto«- 
ber vacations, judges, lawyers, and> 
even prelates, booted and spurred,' 
grotesquely perk themselves on 
small asses, and give themselves* 
up to his amusetaent with tiie 
ardour of school boyB. 

The whistler (fischiatore) is al^ 
ways a Florentine, who charges 
pretty highly for his superionAy 
over the other Italian wnistlers ; 
he contrives, however, to get as 
many as two or three hundred 
larks in the nets, and apparently 
without much difficulty. 

The wild boar is pnndpally 
hunted during the winter in the 
forests of Nettnno, and of Gi- 
stema. These wild spots, howe- 
ver, are not very safe, as alt- 
hough brigandage aiid grand is no 
more to be met with in Italy,' 
yet, some individuals stHl prac-' 
tise it in detail. One of these 
small troops latelv plundered the 
Infant Don Miguel, not less pas- 
sionate in the chase than on the 
throne, of his cloak and splen- 
did fowling-piece. 

A most excellent and agreeable 
companion for this hunting-party 
is Sig. Yallati, the best sports- 
man and ^e best wild-boar painter 

6 



120 



csNiBAi. maT.-Timiir tmsM^ifm^ 



ia Italy. He orgauses an unmeBiBe 
hunt onee a year, principally for 
Btrangers, who retum comple- 
tely eQChanted with ih» whiole 
alPaif. 

The lanciatora is a i^ort cac- 
hed on in dark cloudy nigths» 
The sportoman fastens a lantern 
on his breast, and holds a large 
circular net extended on a light 
hoop, just above his shoulders. 
He walks stealthily along the 
fields, and rapidly throws tbe net 
on all birds that he gets sight 
of; a small bell is fastened to 
one of his legas, and serves, as 
it is said, to conceal his approach 
from the birds, that take hiu for 
one of the cows o^ goats that 
cover the fields. This neckbreak- 
ing amusement is sometimes in* 
terdicted; indeed it is so very 
destmctiye tibat It should be pro- 
hibited altogether, llie most spi- 
rited and adventurous amusement 
(^ tibe Roman sportsman is that 
which is undertaken in winter, 
in a boat on the Teverone from 
the Ponte Lucano to the Tiber. 

Wild fowl shooting and fish- 
ing are the avowed amusements 
of this sporting excursion of six- 
teen hours; but its romantic si- 
tes, even more picturesque than 
the Ponte Lucano, the model of 
one of Gaspar Poussin's charm- 
ing landscapes, have also their 
attractions. The axe is someti- 
mes necessary to fray a road for 
the boat tlm)ngh piles of bro* 
ken branches of trees, or of 
whole trees that have been swept 
away by the violence of the tor- 
rent 



Inmcation ov tub jmclesiabticaiw 

CEBJSaiONIES WnCH TAX£ JPLAC^ 
IN tnS PAPAJL CHAPEL, AND IIT 
THB PRINCIPAL CMDaCfl^ 

January. — Ist. At ten, high 
mass in the Sistine chapel, m 
presence of the pope, the car- 
dinals, and the pontifical court 

5th. Vespers in tiie same cha- 
pel, at three p.m. 

6th. Epiphany. At ten, high, 
mass as above; at four, proces- 
sion in the churdi of Aracoeli. 

17th. Festival of St Aijtonio,. 
at his church near St Mari^ Mag-, 
giore. Blessing of horses and 
other animals, 

18th. Chair of St Peter; a^ 
ten, pontifical chapel at St teter's. 

. FebriMry. — 2n^ Purification of 
iJbe Madonna. At ten, pontifical 
chapel in the Apostohc palace,, 
in which the candles are bles- 
sed and distributed. — During 
Lent., pontifical chapel at the. 
Vatican every Sunday; on Ash. 
Wednesday Uie blesamg and di- 
stribution> of ashes. 

Mcureh. — 7tk Festiyal of St 
Thomas Aquinas at the Miner- 
va; the holy college of cardinals 
is present at high mass. 

9th. Festival of St Francesca, 
Romana, at her church near the 
Arch of Titus, 

25th. Annunciation of the Vir- 
gin. The pope and cardinals are 
present at high mass at the Mi- 
nerva; procefision of young eirla 
who have received a dowry &om 
the fraternity of the Annunciation. 

Moly Yl^e«A|.— Palm Sunday. The 
pope blesses and distributes pabira 
in the Sixtine chapel; high mass.. 
The ceremony commences at half- 
past nine. 

Wednesday. About five, Mise- 
rere in the Sixtine chapel. 

Thursday. High mass in the 



RfUMl if ^T^8.-Hmi^ -CS^M^IJ)^ 



1 \ 



m 



f^mf^ <du»e]f; tbe pope dem^ 
the holy Sacrament in the jheio- 
haa^ chitp^f tsom the balcony 
of the Yatieaa he reads the l)uu 
in Ca&na Dominit |^ves bi& bless- 
ing to the peopk ; washes the 
fe^t and serves at table twelve 
poor priests of different nations. 
At five o'dodc Misi^eve in, the 
Si^tine chapel After sunset the 
pontifi>caI altar i& St Peter's isr 
washed. 

Friday. At half-past nine the 
ceremony takes place in. the Six- 
tine. cfaa»di^ int: pfestoce of the 
pope aaa cKnttnals. In th/^ after^ 
noon' the office and Mse^ere, as 
on the preceding) da3^s. In many 
chnrefaev and oEratoxies is cele- 
brated the dme honrs' agony in 
commemoration .of: the Ihree 
hoi^s tibat Christ paseed on the 
cross. 

Saturday; At the chnrch of St 
John Lateran, baptism of Jews and 
Turics newly converted; holy or- 
ders grantea to those who are de- 
stined to the ecclesiastical pro- 
fession. Honses blessed. 

Easter.^ Te pope himsetf cele- 
brates mass at St Peter's at ten 
o'clock ; at twelve he gives his 
blessing from the balcony of the 
facade. 

Monday^ Tuesday^ and Sunds^/ 
following, pontifical chapel in the 
Apostouc palace; 

4^;. — 25tL Festival of St 
Marie the Evangelist, at his, 
chorch, Palazzo di Yenezia. At 
eight o'clock a procession of all 
the dergy repaurs from this 
chnrch to St Peter's to implore 
the pardon of sins ; for this rea- 
son It is called Litaniae msdores. 

Jfos^.— 2nd. Festival of St Atha- 
nasins, Bishop of Alexandria and 
doctor of the church. High mass 
according to the service of the 



Greek, church at^ StAtihanaMiia* 
via Babuino; 

mh. Festival of Bt Fihppo 
Nei% the*: apostle ai Boiiie.. Pon- 
tilrcal dbtapel at tiie-G14eBal^0'*'> 
va; the pope and 8iM»ed oolfege 
are priraenta' 

On Ascenifion d^ ih<$ pope- 
repairs to St John Lateran,. an^ \ 
afi^r mass gives his blessijdg to 
the people. 

At Pentecost, papal chapel at 
ten, at the apostolic palace or! 
at St Maria Maggiore. In the'' 
afternoon females are permitted 
to visit the subterranean church 
of St Peter's at the Vatican. 

Corpus Domini, at eig}^t o'clock 
commences the procession of the 
holy Sacrament,, attended by tibie 
pope, the cardinals,, and m the 
clergy at Borne. ^During this and 
the following days processions take 
place in dmezent parts of the 
town; those of St John Lateran 
the rollowing Sunday and Thurs- 
day, or of octave, are attended 
by the pope snd cardinals. 

/uw4?,— 2ith,Festival of 8t John 
Baptist High mass at ten o'clock 
at St John Lateran, in pi^esence of 
the pope and cardinals. 
. 2ath. Eve of the festival of St 
Peter and St Pi^uL At six^ pon- 
tifical, voj^ers at St Peter's. The 
subteriraaeoua church is opened to 
the piety of the faithful 

Ju/y.— 14th. Chapel of Cardi-.^ 
nals at the Santi Apostoli, in ho- 
nour of St Bonaventure. 

81st Grand festival at the Gesti 
in honour of St Ignatius. 

August. -^Ut Festival at St 
Pietro in Vincoli. At the church 
on the Esquiline the chains of 
St Peter are exposed during eight 
days to public veneration. 

16th. Assumption of the Vir- 
gin. High pontifical mass at St 

6* 



124 



CBffBAt ftktt.' 



Ifarift Major, followed by the 
blessing nom the baleony. 

/8Qi<m6ef.-^th.N8tnrity of the 
yirgjn.. Hi|^ mass in presence 
of the nope and cardinals at St 
Maria ad Popolo. 

November. — Ist. Pontifical mass 
at the Vatican at ten o'clodL At 
thre^^ ^^Pf ^ ^^^ ^^ deceased. 

2ii4« This day, sacred in the 
Catholic church to the memory 
of the deceased, the pope and 
cardinals are present at high mass 
in the Sixtine ch^>eL On the 3rd 
and 5th, fiinctions are celebrated 
at the palace for the deceased 
popes and cardinals. Passages 
m>m Scripture or from ecclesia- 
stical history analogous to the 
snbject are represented in wax 
in different churches, particularly 
at St Maria in Trastevere, at the 
hospital of Santo Spirito, the 
Consolazione, at the church of 
La Morte in Tia Giulia, and at 
St John Lateran. 

4tL Festival of St Carlo Bor- 
romeo ; the pope and - cardinals 
repair to Ihe church of St Carlo 
in the Corso, where high mass is 
celebrated at ten o'clock. 

^9th. Chapel at St Peter^s.for 
the repose of the soul of Pius vHr. 

December. — The first Sunday of 
Advent, papal chapel at the Va- 
tican at ten o'clock. After the 
service the pope carries the holy 
Saqrament m procession, and ex- 
poses it in the Pauline chapel, 



winch h fflominated niA waar. 
candles. 

Each Sunday ai Advent, pa- 
pal diapel at tiie Apostolic ralace. - 

8th. Conception of the virgin. 
High mass in the papal chap^.. 
At four o'clock procession firom 
the chureh of AracoeH, which cros^ 
ses a part of the forum. 

24th. Christmas eve. Y espers in ' 
the papal chapeL About eight in 
the evening midnight mass is ce- 
lebrated in preGenee of the pope 
and cardinals. 

25th. At tlnree in the morning 
the night mass commences at St 
Maria Maggiore, and the holy 
cradle is exposed all day on the 
high altar. At ten, high mass by • 
the sovereign pontiff, either at 
this church or at St Peer's. 

From this day till the first Ja- 
nuary the birth of our Saviour 
is represented in figures in dif- 
ferent churches; that of Ara- . 
coeli is the most interesting. 

26th. Papal chapel at ten, m ho- 
nour of St Stephen. 

27tlL The same in honour of 
St John the Evangelist 

29th. Festival of St Thomas^ 
archbishop of Canterbury, at his 
church near the palazzo Famese. 

3l8t Grand Vespers at the 
Vatican, in the Sixtine chapel. 
At the church of the Gresi!l a so- 
lemn Te Deum is sung in pre- 
sence of the holy coUe^ and 
magistrates of Rome. 



HAND-BOOK 



FOB 



SOUTHERN ITALY. 



BOMB TO NAPLB8 BT TBBRAGUfA. 

Di8taiice,20'|4postes: 152 Eng- 
lish miles. 

POfftM. 

Fram Borne to Torre di MeBBtrto iVs 

— Albano 1 

(A Uiird horse going.) 

'— (Hocano 0>/4 

(A third horse from Velletrl to 
Qenxano.) 

— Velletri 

— Gisteme 

— Torre deTre PonW ... 

— Boeca di Ftnme ..... 

— Mesa 

— - Ponte Maggiore 

— Terraeliia 

.— Fondi Vfi 

<A third horse going and retaming.) 

— Itri 

— Mela di Qraeta 

— OarigUano 

(A third horse each way.) 

— St Agata 

•^ flparanisi 

.>-T- Capoa 

T* Averso , 

^ Naples !»/» 

•BOMB TO MAPLBS BT PIFBBNO. 

Distance, 191/4 postes: 140 Eng- 
lish miles. 

Poites. 
ffMift Berne to Torre » MesaaTia 1^^ 

•^ Mariao ........ 

— Fi^ota 

— Velletri 



From Sermoneta to Casenaore 

— Pipemo ...... 

— Manitl 

— Terraclna . . 

— Tarraeina to Naples . 



i 

1 
1 

10 



N.B. The same remarks with 
regard to the accommodations on 
the road, equally apply between 
Rome and Naples as betweeii 
Florence and Rome. 

FROM ROME TO NAPLKS BT 
TERRA CINA. 

The old road to Naples was 
the celebrated Afmian way, made 
by Appios Glaacuns the Blind, 
when he was censor, in the year 
of Rome 442; it commenced at 
Rome by the Gapene gate, which 
afterwards, the city being enlar- 
ged, was r^laeed by tiie gate 
now 'Called St Sebastian's ; it men 
passed trough the Pontine mar- 
shes, and extended as far as Oa- 
pua, from which place Tn^an 
continued it to' Brindes, a town 
of Apulia, in 'the kingdom of Na- 
ples, where there was a magni- 
ieent harfoonr, and where petsons 
usually endbarked wbo were tr« 



126 



SOUTHEIkN ITALT. — ROME TO NAPLES. 



vellmg to Grece. This way was 
formed with large blocks of stone, 
and ornamented with superb 
tombs; it was so infinitely supe- 
rior to the other Roman ways, 
that Cicero denominated it Re- 
gina Viarum, and Procopius Via 
Spectatu Dignissima. 

The modem road 4» Iffaoles is 
not exactly Ihe same as the Ap- 
pian way, as on its emress from 
Rome by the gate of St John, it 
leaves the old road pn the dght, 
and passes to Albajo. 

Gate of St John, — The traveller 
wiU leave Rome by this gate, for- 
merly called Ceiimontana, be- 
cause it is situated on Mount 
Caelius. It is now called St John, 
a name which it derives from 
the church of that saint in the 
vicinity. At this gate commenced 
the ancient Campanian way, which 
led to the province of Campania, 
an the kingdom of Naples. It was 
like wise designated the Tusculan 
way, because it formed the road, 
as it does now, to the ancdent 
Tusculum, a celebrated town of 
Latium, now called FrascatL 

This road was bordered bv 
magnificent tombs, covered with 
marble, but which are now strip- 
ped ot an their ornaments. It 
may be observed, that this me- 
laachoiy way of ornamenting the 
-public roads was likewise dist- 
ingiiished by a degree of majesty 
and useMness; for, amongst the 
ancients, the sight of the tombs 
dit not discourage the living; but 
the youn^ men were supposed 
to foe excited by a spirit of emu- 
lation, by the remembrance of 
the lllustrioiis men who were 
there inhumed. On this road like> 
wise are several vestiges of the 
aqiieduct of Claxidian, as well as 
«f that of the waters of JuKa, 
Tepnla, and Marcia; they are, 



situated across a delightful plain, 
and form very picturesque objects 
in the landscape. 

On the riffht of this road, s^out 
five miles irom St John's Gate, 
is a large farm of Duke Torlonia, 
commonly called RomaVecchia, 
where a great quantity of walls 
ef ancient buildings and other 
antiquities may be seen. It is 
supposed to have been the ancient 
Pagus Lemonius, a market town, 
where the workmen, called Pa- 
gani, resided. In the exctvatiims 
lately made, numerous marbles, 
busts, sarcophagi, and statues of 
great merit, were discovered. 

Seven miles from ^St John's 
Gate is 

7hr di Mezza Via. — This in 
an isolated house, used as an inn. 

On the right of it are the re- 
mains of an aqueduct, which runs 
towards the west, and is buflt of 
brick. It conveys water to the 
baths of Caracalla, across the 
Appian way. 

From Tor di Mezza Via, the 
road passes to 

Albano.-^ThiB small and de- 
light-ful town, situated near the 
iSae, on the Appian way, stands 
on the ground formeriy occupied 
by the ancient town of Alba 
liunga, which was built by Asca- 
nius, the son of Aeneas, between 
the lake and the mount 400 years 
before the period when Rome 
was founded. It flourished for the 
space of 500 years, but was aft- 
erwards destroyed by TuUus Ho- 
stilius. 

Before die trareUer reaches 
AlbanOy be may see on the left 
the 

Tomb of AtcaniuB, — This is 
an andait'tomh, divested of tin 
ornaments with which it wits for- 
merly decorated, and vidgarhr 
called the tomb of Ajsoanins, al- 



' ^(M to «fiA>tfe8 ii nvkAlstttk: 



m 



ilt^tigh Its real ongin, atid !Si« 
Jjcriod whern it trfts erected, are 
totally unknown. 

Outside the other gate of Al- 
bano, 6n the road to Riecia, is 
the 

Tomh of the O^WafiX— This is 
a square mausoleum, fifty-five 
Parisian feet in drcumference. 
-which was formerly surmountea 
by five pyratnids or cones, but 
only two of these now remain. 
It is almost universally thought 
to be the tomb of the Curiatii; 
but several writers have, with 
more judgment, attributed it to 
Pompey the Great, whose country 
bouse was in the vicinity of this 
place. 

Above the town may yet be 
Been the remains of an amphi- 
theatre, and of a reservoir, sup- 
posed to have been those of Do- 
mitian. 

A mile from Albano is the 
small and pretty village of 

Castel Oandolfo. — ^The road to 
it, caDed La Galleria, is a de- 
lightful promenade. The extra- 
ordinary beauty of the situation, 
and the salubnty of the air, have 
induced the sovereign pontiffs to 
erect there a magnificent Ch5,tean, 
or villa, to which a delightful 
garden is attached. The archi- 
tecture is simple and antique, 
and here the pope usually resides 
during the autumn. Castel Oan- 
dolfo is situated on the borders 
of the lake Gastello, and com- 
mands some very extensive views 
of Rome and its environs. On 
entering Castel Gandolfo, the tra- 
veller may observe in the villa 
Barberini, the magnificent remains 
of the country seat of Domitian, 
from which there is an enchant- 
ing prospect Near Castel Gan- 
dolfo, Milo, when going to his 
native place Lannvium, killed 



CAaudius, thfe tribune of the peo- 
ple, who wa(S returning on horse- 
back from Arida. This event 
forms the subject of Cicero's 
finest oration. 

Adjoining Castel Gandolfo is 
the lake formerly called 

Lake of Albano, — This lake is 
now called Lake of Castello ; it 
was the crater of a volcano, and 
is Ave miles in' circumference, and 
640 feet in depth. On the borders 
of the lake are two grottos, said 
to have been halls ornamented 
with statues of nymphs, and in- 
tended as cool places of resort 
The canal of this lake is one of 
the most extraordinary works of 
the ancient Romans; it is an 
outlet through which the waters 
of the lake cross the mountains, 
and discharge themselves on the 
opposite side. It was constructed 
B98 years before the Christian 
era, on accotint of a large in- 
crease of water, which threatened 
Rome with an inundation at the 
time when the Romans laid siege 
to Veii. Rome sent deputies to 
Delphos to consult the Oracle of 
Apollo, which answered that the 
Romans would not be able to 
subjugate the Veiaris till they 
constructed a passage for the 
waters of the lake of Albano. In 
consequence of tlus prediction, 
they began to cut through the 
mountain, and worked wim such 
assiduity, that at the end of a 
year they had made a canal nearly 
two miles in len^h, about three 
feet and a half m breadth, and 
six feet in height This operation 
cost immense sums of money; 
but the canal was made so strong 
that it has never wanted any re- 
pair, and is still used for the 
purpose originally intended. 

Nearly a mile from Castel Gan- 
dolfo is 



198 



MOfOMI nktl.-r^wa 19 MAPUS. 



Tm JSioeui. — It was formeiiy 
called Aiida, and was the place 
where Horace made his first stay 
m lus jonmey to Briiides.*It is 
a market town, situated on the 
Appian waj, and on the charm- 
ing lake of NemL The position 
is dehghtfol, and the air very 
salubrious. Opposite the Chigi 
palace is a beautiful church, 
erected from the designs of Che* 
ralier Bernini. Four miles from 
Riccia is 

Oensano, — This village is si- 
tuated on the side of the lake 
of Nemi; it is rendered very 
pleasant by the plain and the 
large avenues, which form de- 
lightful promenades in its vicinity, 
and is remarkable for the salu- 
brity of the air, and the good 
wines which it produces. On the 
eastern bank of the lake ma^^ be 
seen the ruins of several ancient 
buildings, and the house of Char- 
les Maratta, on the interior walls 
of which may be seen some draw- 
ings by this skilful painter. The 
streets of the village are broad 
and straight, and lead into the 
great square which is ornamented 
with a fountain. 

At a short distance is the small 
market town of Nemi. In its neigh- 
bourbood are vineyards produ- 
cinf^ excellent wine, and very fine 
fruit. The lake in front contri- 
butes in no small degree to the 
beauty of its scenery. This lake 
is about four miles in circumfer- 
ence, and has an emissario, or 
canal, for its superabundant wa- 
ters. According to Strabo, near 
this place there was a wood con- 
secrated to Diana, and a temple 
of Diana Taurica, so much re- 
sorted to by the Latins that it 
gave rise to the b;uflding of this 
town. The lake was called Dia- 
na's Looking Glass, because it 



was said that thia goddess oonld, 
from her temple, view her owb 
imaffe in its waters. 

Aoovit three miles fh>m Nemi 
is Civita Lavinia, a small caste 
on the spot where fonnerly stood 
the ancient town of Lavinimn, 
which was the birthplace of the 
Emperor Antoninus Pius, and of 
Milo.Thetwo celebrated paintings 
mentioned by Pliny, one of At- 
las and the other of Helen, Were 
in this town. 

At a very short distance was 
the famous town of Lavinium, 
built by Aeneas, in honour of 
Lavinia his wife. 

Near Lavinium was Laurentum, 
an ancient town, standing on the 
ground now occupied by Pratica, 
a ruined castle, sisuated on the 
sea shore, and said to be the 
place where Aeneas landed on his 
arrival in Italy. 

All these' places are now 
small and inconsiderable villages; 
but whoever has perused the Ro- 
man history, or the seventh book 
of Virgil's Eneid. will contem- 
plate them with lively interest, 
and will be reminded, by a view 
of them, of the actions and ex- 
ploits of many celebrated heroes 
of antiquity. 

About six miles from Gensano is 

Velletri. — This town was for- 
merly the capital of the Volsci, 
whence the family of Octavian 
Augustus derived its origin. Octa- 
vian had a magnificent country 
house at this place, which was 
likewise adorned with the villas 
of the Emperors Tiberius, Nerva, 
C. Caligula, and Otho. ^ 

The most remarkable palaces 
in Velletrij at the present time, 
are that of Lancellotti, formerly 
CKnetti, and that of the ancient 
Borgia familv. 

The Lancellotti Palace is a large 



HMtt T* HMIUft «ViTBIltCfilA<v 



n» 



j^a&cA'f •lNiiltl;frmii' the dengns of 
MiirtfiaLuiigfaL The front towards 
the street is Tary beautiful, and 
"te staircase, aU- of marble, is 
one of the most remarkable in 
Italy. The gardens of this palace 
are about six miles in drcumfe- 
yence, ai&d are veil laid out and 
<nnamented. The waters used in 
the fonntains have been brought, 
at an immense expense, from the 
mountain of Fajola, which is five 
miles distant, by means of aque- 
ducts in some places cut through 
the mountain. The mountain of 
Yelletri,. as well as all the country 
between this place and Rome is 
covered with valcanoes. The ce- 
lebrated Pallas, which has taken 
the name of this town, was found 
in the environs in 1797. 

Deviating from the roi^d, about 
nine miles from Yelletri, is the 
»nall village of Cora, which was 
formerly a town of Latium, in- 
habited by the Yolsci, and aiter- 
wards destroyed by the Romans. 
Its walls, which were formed of 
large blocks of stone, surrounded 
the town^ and in them may still 
be seen tecraces leading to sub- 
terranean ways, hollowed out of 
the rode, whence the besieged 
might defend themselves. 

At Cora are the remains of two 
temples; the first is supposed to 
have been consecrated to Her- 
cules, and is called the 

Tenq>le of fferciUes — There 
are eight Doric columns of the 
vestibule remaining, and the wall 
which separated the temple £rom 
the vestibule. On the frieze is an 
inscription mentioning the magi- 
strates who built this edifice : from 
the orthography of this inscrip- 
tion it is apparent that this temple 
was erected in the time of the 
Emperor Claudian. The other 
temple was dedicaM to Castor 



mA PofiuX;. two Comthiaii co- 
lumns and the inscription on the 
frieae of the entablature are the 
only vestiges remaining. 

£ight miles from Yefietri, after 
passing the river Aatura, the tra- 
veler reaches 

CUtema. -^ Some antiquaries 
suppose that this is the place 
called by St Paul, in the Acts of 
the Apostles, ^res Tabernae, the 
Three Taverns, where he says 
that the Christians came to meet 
hun; but others show the ruins 
near Sermoneta, which is eight 
miles from Cistema. 

Quitting the Naples road, the 
traveUer may go to Sermoneta, 
formerly Sulmona. This is a mi- 
serable village, and is only re- 
markable for the remains of an- 
cient fortifications. 

About six miles from Sermo- 
neta is the town of Sesze, called 
by the Latins Setia, or Setium. 
It is situated on the height m 
front of the Pontine Marshes.. Ti- 
tus Livy speaks of it on account 
of a revolt of Carthaginian slaves, 
and Martial mentions it for the 
supperiority of its wines. Here 
may be seen considerable remains 
of an ancient tenmle of Saturn 
the entrance of which is closed 
by ruins; butfr>omthe top of the 
arch it is ascertained to be about 
135 feet in height. 

Seven miles and a half from 
Sesze is Piperno, a small town, 
likewise situated on the hekrht 
An inscription over the entrance 
informs us that this town was 
the ancient Pipemum, the capi- 
tal of the YolscL 

Retuninff to Cistema, after pro- 
ceeding eight miles, the traveller 
reaches the 

Torre de' Tre PonH --At this 
inn commence thePontineMarshes, 
which extend for a space abov* 



•ovmnr italt. 



tiren^^foor miles in lenfftli, aad 
▼ftrriiig from six to twelre miles 
in breadth. The name of Postme 
Marshes, or Pemptina Palus, is 
derived from Pometi^ which was 
a popoloosand ooasiaerabletowiL 
even prior to the foandation of 
Rome, and was situated at the 
place now called Mesa, an inn. 
Dion^iasof Halicamasstts, in the 
second book of his historr, speaks 
of the Lacedemonians, wno estab- 
lished themselres on this coast, 
and built a temple there to the 
goddess Feronia, so called aft- 
rendia arboributj becanse she pre- 
sided over the productions of the 
eartli. 

This country afterwards became 
so populous that, according to the 
testimo&T of Pliny, there were 
no less wan twenty-tliree towns, 
Amongst these towns w^e Sul- 
mona, now Sennoneta; Setia, now 
Sesze; Pipernnm, now Pipemo; 
Antium, and Forum Appii, of 
which we have previously given 
an account Independently of these 
towns, there were in the environs 
a great number of country houses, 
of so much importance that the 
names of some of them are stQl 
preserved; the most celebrated 
were those of Titus Pomponius 
Atticus, in the vicinity of Hezze ; 
of the Antoniana family, in the 
vicinity of the mountain called An- 
tognano, where may still be seen 
the ruins of the Grotte delGampo ; 
of Mecene,nearPontanello, where 
there are some old walls ,* and of 
Augustus, at a short distance from 
the palace of the Cornelia family, 
in the place called* Maruti. 

The waters whis descend from 
the neighbouring mountainB, and 
flow very slowly, formed marshes 
at this place, and rendered the 
country totaUy unfit either for 
habitatien or coitivalion. In sum- 



aier they pfodnoed OThaJwBaas 
of so baaefid a nature, tint tiiey 
were said to infect the air at 
Rome, which is about f(»ty mfles 
distant This i^>pean to havebeea 
the opinion ent^tained as far 
back as the time of Pliny^ who 
says in his third book, fifth chap- 
ter, ^Ob putridas exhalatioiies h&- 
mm paludnm, ventmn S^rc^hae- 
nicum Bomae smmnopere nozium 
volunt nonnuUi." This persuasion 
instigated the Bomans to provide 
agiunst the inundations, whidi 
would have rendered their most 
beantiM residences unhealthy, 
and was the prmdpsl motive for 
the construction of the numerous 
canals at every period of their 
history. 

Appius Claudius, in the year 
of Rome 442, was the first per- 
son who commenced any works 
in the Pontine marshes. When 
making his celebrated road across 
them,called Appian from his name, 
he constructed canals, bridges, 
and chauss^es, considerable paits 
of which still exist The wars in 
which the Romans became enga- 
ged for a long time diverted their 
attention, and prevented their 
keeping this district in- the state 
it required; inundations returned, 
and 156 years before the Chris- 
tian era, extensive repairs be- 
came absolutely necessary. 

These nirbrks had remained in 
a neglected state for a long time, 
when Julius Caesar formed the 
most extensive proj^ects for the 
amelioration of tiiis part of the 
country; he proposea to extend 
the mouth of the Tiber towards 
Terraeina, to facflitate the mode 
of carrying on business at Rome, 
to dram the Pontine marshes, 
and tiius desiccate the neighbou- 
ring country. Plutarch, Suetonius^ 
and Di<mysius have mentioned 



mMM ID HftFtEB' Vr TKlMXeffM. 



isi 



^thiB iftteiitidiir of Owisr,tiie exe- 
-cutiCHV'of "vrlfficli WM only preren- 
ted by his death. The project for 
dfadnintf ihe land was afterwards 
TindertflyKen by Oetavian Aofin- 
tus, who caused canals to be nwde 
in varioiis directions, for the pur- 
pose of conveying tifcie water to 
tiie sea. According to the test- 
mony of Diomrskis, the Emperor 
Trajan parea the road which 
crossed the Pontine marshes, and 
constructed bridges and hooses 
iik many parts of it; the anihen- 
ticity of tiiis fact may be prored 
from the inscription on a stone 
in the tower of Tre Ponti, on 
the Appian way. • 

The marshes became again 
overflowed at the time of the de- 
cline of the Roman empire; in 
the letters preserved by Gassio- 
dorus, it is stated that Theodo- 
ric, kmg of Italy, consigned them 
to Oecinns Decius, for the pur- 
pose of draining them ; and it ap- 
pears ^at the enterprise of De- 
cius succeeded to the utmost of 
his expectations. The inscription 
made on die occasion may be 
fleen near the cathedral of Ter- 
racina. 

Boniface ym was the first Pope 
who undertook to desiccate the 
Pontine marshes: he caused a 
very large canal to be construc- 
ted, and thus drained all the up- 
per part of the country ; but the 
waters of the lower part being 
too much on a level, the canals 
gradually filled, and the inundar 
tion retunied. 

Martin Y, of the ancient hou^e 
of Golonna, made another canal, 
which is still in existence, and 
is called Rio Martino. This work 
is SOT extensive, both in br^&dth 
and depth, that some persons have 
supposed it to be much older, 
and to have borne the name of 



Riof Martino Ions before ike pon- 
tificate of Marlm V. This pope 
was in hopes he should be able 
to carry off all the water by tiiis 
large canal, but his death put a 
period to the undertaking. 

Sixtns V, in 1585, prosecuted 
the same object, in order to pu- 
rify the air, and augment the fer- 
tily of the Roman territory; he 
made anotl^r large canal, called 
Fhune Sisto, into which a great 
portion of the scattered water was 
collected, and afterwards dischar- 
ged into the sea at the fbot of 
Mount Circello. He made use of 
the old canals, fbrmed by Ap- 
pius Claudius, Augustus, and Tra- 
jan, in order to convey the wa- 
ters into his new canai; and he 
constructed banks on hoQk sides 
to prevent its overflowing. These 
banks, however, not being suffi- 
ciently strong, gave way after the 
death of Sixtus Y, and the caaal 
became aJmost useless. 

His successors for more than 
two centuries were engaged in 
surveying and forming plans for 
draimng these marshes; but the 
difficulty of its execution, and the 
great expenses attending it, al- 
ways obstructed the success of 
the undertaking. At length the 
great Pius VI, who entertained 
the same views respecting it as 
Sixtus Y, considering that he 
should be able to use for agri- 
cultural purposes 20,000 rubbia, 
or 100,000 acres, employed Ca- 
jetan Rapini to make a new sur- 
vey. This engineer discovered that 
aU the waters mi^ht be collected 
in a canal adjoinmg theAppiain 
way, and by one he constructed 
m that direction he conveyed then 
into the sea at Torre di Badino. 
This was caiM the Linea Pia, 
a name which i* derived from 
this pontiff, who in 1779^uidev* 



193 



savrumi rrAiff.^i 



TO fMfUS. 



ItN^ the exeention of k <irfth tio 
kioonsideralde axdoiur. Sereral 
small canals convey the water 
into two odi^s of larger sice, 
aad by this means stagnation is 
prevented. Pins YI several times 
visited it in person; and sparing 
neither pains nor expense, he 
hronght the work to sach a state 
of perfetition that nearly the whole 
of this extensive country is now 
ooltivated, the air is pmnfied, and 
the Apinan way, which was for- 
merly under water, is now rees- 
tablished. The road toTerracina 
was formerly very incommodious, 
as it passed through the moun- 
tains of Sezze and Pipemo; but 
the present is a level and straight 
road about twenty-five miles in 
length. 

About three miles from Torre 
Tre Ponti are the beautiful re- 
mains of some ancient monuments, 
which ornamented the Forum Ap- 
pii and the celebrated Appian 
way. 

, At the extremity of the wes- 
tern cape of the Pontine marshes, 
and at the mouth of the river 
Astura, is the tower of the same 
name, where there was a small 
port, from which Cicero embar- 
Ked to go to his country house 
at Formia on the day when he 
was assassinated. It was here also 
that the young Conradin, King of 
Naples, was betrayed and arres- 
ted by Frangipani, a nobleman 
of Astura, to whom he had fled 
for safety. 

From the extremity of the Pon- 
tine marshes, towards Torre d^As- 
tura, the distance to Nettuno is 
only six miles. Nettuno is a ma- 
ritime town in the Boman terri- 
tory; it took its name from the 
temple of N^^nne, where sacri- 
^oes were offered to that deity 



for the pnrpoefe oi obtaniing a 
safe and prospeeroos voyage; 

A mile and a half from Net- 
tuno, aad forty-two miles fr<lm 
home, is Caipo d'Anzio, formerly 
called AntiuuL It was a town of 
the Yolsei, which was celebrated 
by the wars of the inhabitants 
against the BcAnans in the year 
of Borne 262. It had formerly a 
harbour, which was destroyed by 
Numidus in the year of Bome 
284. This town was rendered veiy 
famous by its magnificent tem- 
ples, dedicated to Fortune, Ve- 
nus Aphrodite, and Aesculapius, 
and for the country house or villa 
belonging to the emperors. Mttoy 
statues have been oiscovered at' 
this place, and amongst others 
the celebrated ApoUo of the Va- 
tican, and the Gladiator of Borg- 
heee. The Emperor Nero rebuut 
Antium, and Constructed an im- 
mense harbour there, on which, 
according to the testimony of Sue- 
tonius, he expended large sums 
of money. Having afterwards fal- 
len to ruins. Pope Innocent XH 
undertook its re-estabUshment, 
which was finally accomplished 
by Benedict XTV. The coimtry 
houses of Gorsini, Dona, and Al- 
bani demand attention for the 
beauty of their appearance 

At the other western extre- 
mity of the Pontine marshes is 
Monte Gircello, or cape of the 
famous Circe, a peninsula formed 
by a lofty rock, on which stands 
the town of San FeUce. At this 
place was the palace of the 
Daughter of the Sun, and the 
dreadful prisons where flomer 
kibrms us that the companions 
of Ulysses were confine after 
their metamori^osiSv and where 
they afterwaros passed a whole 
vear in the eigoym^t of every 
luxury. 



lUNlB.T•^aiAJrIJes Mi-rumanki 



188 



Re(«nuB(^ to the AppSiui wsy, 
at eight mjies from Torre Tre 
Fontii the traveller reaches 

Boeca di Mume, — This is an 
inn in the immediate vicinity of 
which is a -ivhite marble brioge, 
erected over a canaL 

The. next place on the route is 

Meta, from whence the tra- 
vetter proceeds to 
. Pcmte Maggiore, near which the 
•navigable river Uffense crosses 
t^e road. At this place also the 
canal divides into two brajiches, 
one of which proceeds in a direct 
line to the sea, whilst the other 
meanders in a oblique direction 
along the side of the road. 

Termteina, — i^Albergo RtaU). 
This is the last town in the Ro- 
man territory. It was built by 
the Yolsci, and called in their 
language Aiucur or Axur, whence 
is aerived the name of Jupiter 
Anzurus, so called b^ Virgil; 
that is, Jupiter adored at Anxur. 
The Greeks afterwards denomi- 
nated it Traxina, from which 
the name of Terracina is derived. 
The fr^ntofJupiter's temple may 
still be seen, supported by large 
fluted marble columns, measuring 
lour feet and a half in diameter. 
The ancient Anxur was situated 
on the summit of the hill; Ho- 
race alludes to it in the foUow- 
Ing line: 

"Ifflporitam Ula sasis MndentiboB 

Anxur." 

The entrance to the cathedral 
church of Terracina is formed 
by two divisions of steps. On the 
first sten is a granite urn, the 
lid of wnich is ornamented with 
paiffl leaves, and surmounted by 
a crown. On the base of it is 
an inscription, stating that this 
nm was formerly used for tor- 
menting Christians, and after- 
wards for the puipose of dip- 



ping ike hanis 'On ent^riag^'tfae 
^urch* The nave of Hbask sacred 
edifice is supported by six co- 
lumns of different kinds of mar- 
ble ; the canopv of the sJtar rests 
on four beautinil fluted colunms; 
the pul^t, which is square, is 
fonned mto compartments with 
mosaic ornaments, and is sus- 
tained by five small granite co- 
lumns. 

The climate of this town is 
mild, and the views in tiie vici- 
nity are truly picturesque. The 
palace, erected imder the super- 
intendence of Pius VI, is worihy 
of notice, together with several 
other monuments of the munifi- 
cence of this pope. 

The chain of mountains on 
which Terracina is situated is 
separated from the Apennines by 
the great valley of Monte Casino, 
which abounds with springs is- 
suing from the foot of the moun- 
tain, and many of them flowing 
in numerous small streams into 
the Pontine marshes. 

The ancient Romans had many 
country houses on the hill of Ter- 
racina. The Emperor Oalba had 
an extensive palacenearthe spot, 
where there are some ancient 
grottoes hollowed out of the rock. 
The traveller may likewise see 
the ruins of the palace of Theo- 
doric, king of the Ostrogoths, 
who was the first king of Italy 
in 489. and at that time the most 
powerml monarch in Europe. On 
the lull is the ancient enclosure 
of the walls of Anxur, consisting 
of large stones, reservoirs of 
water, and the ruins of several 
ancient tombs, the urns of which 
are in good preservation. 

The harbour of this towii, oon^ 
structed hy Antoninus Pins, de- 
mands attention on account of 
the numerous remains which yet 



134 



fiMwrnm iTAiiY.'^itmiB'To mPM. 



exist The fbrm Kft^behts^nmny 
be distinctlj ascertakied; the 
stone rings to Mfiiieh theyessels 
were attached may also be seen; 
but this harbour being ^led with 
sand, the sea has retired from 
the basin. Several popes have 
entertained the idea of clearing 
this harbonr, and the undertak- 
ing would certainly be productiye 
of essential benent 

The famous Appian way passed 
to Terracina, and a beautiful 
remnant of it is to be seen below 
the town, in the Canon's maga- 
zines. This fragment being con- 
tained in a kind of stables, has 
been better preserved than other 
parts; the blocks of stone, in the 
form of irregular pentagons, are 
united with a degree of nicety 
equal to that of any new work. 

On the gate of Terracina, to- 
wards Naples, may be seen the 
arms of Pope Paul 11, with an 
inscription in Gothic letters, bea- 
ring date of the year 1470. The 
adjacent guardhouse is hollowed 
out of the rock, as are numerous 
deep caverns in many parts of 
the mountain. There is likewise 
a scale of 120 divisions, marked 
by numbers, engraved on the 
rock, for the purpose of denoting 
the height of the declivity. 

From Terracina to NStples is a 
distance of sixty-nine miles, or 
nine postes. Six miles from Ter^ 
racina is a tower called Torre 
de' ConfinI, or Portello, which 
forms the banier between the 
kingdom of Naples and the ter- 
ritory of the Pope. There is a 
gnard house at this place, where 
the passports obtained from the 
Naples minister at Rome must 
be exhibited; the passports are 
tiien sent to the officer of the 
*uard at the tower dell' Epitafio, 



t^ sites permisdon for' the 
traveller to proceed. 

The road then passes for se- 
veral miles along the ancient 
Apian way. The borders of this 
road are in many places planted 
with threes, the branches of whidi 
afford a pleasing shade from the 
heat of me sun. The air is in 
this part of thie eomitry so mild 
l^at at the end of December 
flowers of every kind may be 
seen in luxuriant growth. 

Five miles from the tower delF 
Epitaflo is 

Fondif a small town situated 
on the Appian way, which in- 
deed forms its principal street 
It was formerly one of the towns 
of the Aurund, a people of La- 
tium, and was almost destroyed 
in 1534 by a Turkish fleet, who 
wished to carry away Julia of 
Consagne, countess of Fondi, so 
celebrated for her beauty. ^trabo, 
Pliny, and Martial speak in hiffh 
terms of the wines of Fondi, 
which are still in great repute. 
Fondi is paved and intersected 
by two streets, which cross it at 
right angles. The walls are worthy 
of observation: the lower part of 
the town is said to have been 
built anterior to the time of tibe 
Romans. The cathedral is a very 
ancient Gothic building, and con- 
tains a curiously worked marble 
tomb, a ponfaflcal chair, and a 
pulpit of marble covered with 
mosaics. In the church of the 
Annonciade is a picture repre- 
senting the pillage of this town 
by the troops of the famous Bar- 
barossa. 

Near Fondi is the grotto where, 
according to Tacitus, Sqanus 
saved the life of Tiberius. 

In a house belonging to the Do- 
minicans fs the room inhabited by 
St Thomas Aquinas, and the hall 



wm vf mnois n TMMMitVAi 



185 



in wlnek he taught theology. The 
lake -of Fondi abounds wiw fish; 
the eels are large and excellent, 
but the stagnation of water in this 
lake renders the air of the neigh- 
bouring country unhealthy. In 
the environs of Fondi numerous 
orange and lemon trees are grown. 

Saetonius mentions that villa 
CasteUo, the birthplace of the 
Emperor Galba, was on the left 
of ibis road. 

Eight miles from Fondi is 

/«rt, a large village situated 
on the Appian way, obout sik 
miles from the sea. Numerous 
remains of the Cyclopede walls 
may still be seen there. Some 
autnors state it to have been the 
ancient town mentioned by Ho- 
race under the name of Urbs 
Mmnarraram. This village is sur^ 
rounded by hills abounding with 
vines, fig trees, laurels, myrtles, 
and mastic trees ; from the latter 
tree liiat valuable gum called 
mastic is obtained. The position 
is so pleasant, the fields so frag- 
rant, and the productions so va- 
ried, that it cannot be viewed 
witfiout exciting the most de- 
lightful sensations^ 

On the right of the road to- 
wards Modi di Gaeta is an an- 
cient tower which is said to have 
been the tomb of Cicero; it is 
supposed to have been erected 
by his freedmen on the spot where 
he was killed. It is a circular 
edifice resting on a square ba- 
sement; in the circular part are 
two roofed stories supported in 
the centre by a masdve round 
column. Contiguous to this mo- 
nument is a road which is pro- 
bably the same by which Cicero 
went to the sea coast when he 
was assaaslnated. 

At a short distance m the sea 
shore is a fountain, coi^ectored to 



have been* thd fmnitain of Arfca- 
ohia, near which, accordhig to Ho- 
mer, Ulysses met the daughter 
of the king of the Lestrigons. 

Between the tower and Mola 
di Gaeta the road commands a 
delightful view of l^e town and 
gulf of Gaeta, as well as of Mount 
Vesuvius and the neighbouring 
islands of Napl^ 

Eight miles from Itri is 

Mola di OaeU — This is a large 
market town, situated near the 
sea and ^ulf of Gaeta. It is built 
on the rums of the ancient formia, 
a town of the Lestrigons, which 
was afterwards inhabited by the 
Laconians, of whom Ovid speaks 
in the fourteenth book of his Me- 
tamorphosis. This town was ce- 
lebrated in the time of the an- 
cients for the beauty of its si- 
tuation. Horace places the wines 
of Formia in the same rank as 
those of Falemo. Formia was de- 
stroyed by the Saracens in 866. 

Mola has no harbour, but there 
are numerous fishermen. The sea 
shore is delightful; on one side 
is seen the town of Gaeta, ad- 
vancing into the sea, send fornix 
ing a channing pro8]^ect; and on 
the other side the isles of Ischia 
and Procida, which are situated 
near Naples. 

At Castellone, between Mola 
and Gaeta, are some ruins which 
are confidently stated to be those 
of the country hotise of Cicero, 
called by him Formianum. Here 
Sdpio and LeHus often retired 
for the purpose of recreation, and 
near here Cicero was assassina- 
ted at the time of the ^reat pro- 
scription whilst escaping in a 
litter to elode the fuiy^ of Marc 
Antony, fbrty-four years before 
the Christian era. He was sixty- 
four years of age. 

Five miles fi*ora Mola is 



186 



soinrBciuf fTAiif .---Boiii TO mnbEs. 



Oa^ki.^^ThM town, oontams 
10,000 souls, aad is situated on 
tiie declivity of a hill; it is very 
ancient, as it is supposed to have 
been founded by Aeneas, in ho- 
nour of G^jeta, his nurse, who 
died there according to the te- 
stimony of Yirgil, Eneid, b. 7, 
1. 1:— 

"Ta qnoqae llttoribui nostrb. Aeneia 
Natriz, 

Aeteroam morieiu famam, Cijeta/ 
dedUtI, 

Bt nunc servat honoB sedem tuns; 
ossaqae nonea. 

H«Bperia in magna, si qaaastaa glo- 
ria signant."^ 

Gaeta ii^ situated on a gulf, 
the shore of which is truly de- 
lightful, and was formerly inter- 
spersed with beautiful houses. In 
the sea ma^r still be seen the 
ruins of ancient building, similar 
to those in the gulf of Baia; this 
proves the partially which the Ro- 
mans entertained tor these charm- 
ing situation. This town is nearly 
insulated, being only connected 
with the continent by a narrow 
strip of land. There are oidy t^o 
gates, which are guarded with 

Seat care. It has a commodious 
rbour, which was constructed, 
or at least repaired, bj Antoni- 
nus Pius, and in the unmediate 
vicinity of the harbour is an ex- 
tensive suburb. 

On the summit of the hill of 
Gadta is a tower, commonly cal- 
led • Torre d'Orlando (Orlando's 
Tower), which is the most re- 
markable monument in this town. 
According to the inscription on 
the gate, it was the mausoleum 
of Lucian Munatius Plancus, who 
is regarded as the founder of 
Jjyons, and who induced Octa- 
vian to prefer the surname of 
Aupistus to that of Romulus, 
which some flatterers wished to 
give him as the restorer of the 



city oi Rome. This mtesoleom 
must have been erected siiOt^en 
years before the Christian era. 
At this place likewise is a su- 
perb column with twelve sides, 
on which are engraved the na- 
mes of the different points of the 
compass, in Greek and Latin. 

In the suburb of this town is 
a tower called Latratina; it is 
circular, and is nearly similar to 
the first, which is supposed by 
Gruter to have been a temple of 
Ihe god Mercury, whose oracles 
were delivered from a dog's head. 
Hence his temple was caUed Lat- 
ratina, from ladrando, signify^ 
barking. 

The fort of Gaeta was made by 
Alphonso of Aragon, obout the 
year 1440, and augmented by King 
Ferdinand and Uharles Y, who 
surrounded the town with thick 
walls and rendered it the stron- 
gest fortress in the kingdom of 
Naples. In a room in this castle 
the body of the constable Char- 
les of bourbon, eeneral of the 
troops of Charles V, was preser- 
ved for a long time; he was kil- 
led at the siege of Rome, which 
was pillaged by his army in &e 
year 1528, aflier he had for a 
long time besieged Pope Clement 
Vn. The body of this constable 
was to be seen here till within 
a few years; but it is said that 
Ferdinand I caused it to be in- 
terred with funeral rites worthy 
of his rank. Gaeta has lately re- 
sisted two longs sieges, the first 
in the year 1806, against the 
French, and the other against the 
Austrians, in 1815. 

The cathedral church is dedi- 
cated to St Erasmus, bishop of 
Antioch, who is the protector <Mr 
patron saint of the town of Gaeta. 
This church contains a beaatifial 
picture by Paul Veronese, uid 



MUX Td ilAHBS ftt TBRBACnfA. 



137 



llie sta&dard giren by Pins Y to 
Jyoil Jolm of Austria, tiie gene^ 
tal who eommanded me Ghnstian 
urmy against the Turks. Oppo- 
site the grand altar is a symbo- 
Hcal monument, which appears to 
hare some reference to Aescu- 
lapius. The steeple is remarkable 
for its height, and for the beauty 
of its work; it is said to have 
been erected by the Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa. 

The church of the Trinity is 
the most cel^rated at Gaeta; it 
is situated outside the town, near 
a rock, which, accordmg to the 
tradition of the country, was rent 
into three parts in honour of the 
Trinity on the day of our Sa- 
viour's death. A large block, fallen 
into the principal cleft of the 
rock, forms the foundation for a 
chapel of the crucifix, a small 
but elevated building, beneath 
which tiie sea passes at a con- 
siderable depth, and bathes the 
foot of this rock. This chapel was 
very ancient, but was rebuilt in 
1514 by Peter Lusiano, of Gaeta. 
The situation is very singular, 
and there is perhaps no other 
chapel in a similar position. It 
is ^'evident that this cleft has been 
produced by some violent erup- 
tion, as the projecting angles on 
ohie of its sides correspond to 
the indented parts of the oppo- 
site side. 

We shall now return to the 
Naples road, which we had left, 
in order to- describe Mola di 
Gaeta. On leaving Mola the tra- 
veller proceeds en a line with 
t^ sea f6r a mile, when he leaves 
it for the same space, and again 
sees it at Scavali, a small village, 
where it forms an angle. He then 
passes near the sea««hore for ano- 
tiier mfle, and at the distance of 
Hucee miles sees the remains of 



an amphitheatre, and of an aqiie- 
duct and other ruins, whidi are 
supposed to have formed part of 
the ancient town of Mintumum. 
At a short distance he reaches 
the river. 

Ocmgliano. -t- This river was 
formerly called the Idris, and se- 
parated Latium from Campania: 
the bridge over it is oonstructed 
with boats. On the gate leading 
to the bridge is a beautiful in- 
scription relating to Quintns Ju- 
nius Severianus, formerly a de» 
curion at Mintumum. At this 
place the traveller quits the Ap- 
pian way, which runs parallel 
with the sea^shore as far as the 
mouth of the Yoltumo, where 
the Domitian way commences. 

The marshes formed by the 
Garigliano in the vicinity remind 
us of the deplorable fate of Ma^ 
rius, that proud Roman who was 
so often victorious in the field, 
and seven times consul. He was 
obliged to immerse himself in the 
mud of these marshes, in order 
to avoid the pursuit of the sa- 
tellites of Sylla, but, being dis- 
covered, he intrepidly delivered 
himself from them, and even made 
them tremble with this counte- 
nance and threatening looks. 

About eight miles from the ri- 
ver Garigliano is Sessa, a small 
town, which is supposed to have 
been the ancient Huessa Aurun- 
corum, one of thie principal towns 
of the Volsci, and the birthplace 
of Lucilius, who was the first sa^ 
tirical Roman poet 

Returning to the Naples roafl, 
at eight miles from the Gairigliano, 
the travdier reaches 

8t Agatha^ delightfully situa^ 
ted amongst numtoous ' gardens^ 
and surroimded by pleasant hillfik 
Eight miles from St Agatha is^ 

-^aranm.— This is a soHtary 



^SB 



SOOranUf fTAU.-r-IIMn f iuhbs. 



half firoEti ^hieh it id eS|^ mi- 
Hr to 

OSo^uo^P^This to^m is one mile 
and a ha]f from the ancient Oa- 
peoLf twenty miles from Naples 
and twelve miles from the mouth 
of the Voltdmo, on which rhrer 
it is situated. It is surrounded 
hy fortifications, and it garriso- 
ned by a considerable number 
of troops. Traviellers are obliged 
to send their passports to the go>- 
vernor, in order to obtain per- 
nnsston to pads. 

Strabo . says that Capua was 
built by the Tyrrhenians, who 
were driven from the banks of 
the Po by the Gauls, about 524 
years before the Christian era. 
Others suppose that it existed 
more than 300 ^ears before that 
time, and that it was founded by 
Capius, one of the companions 
of Aeneas^ from whom it deri- 
ved the name of Capua. Strabo 
says its name was derived from 
€aput, the head, as it was one 
of the principal cities in the world. 
FloruB reckons Rome, Carthage, 
and Capua, as the tiu-ee first 
towns: Capua quondam inter tres 
maximas numerata, Lib. i, ch. 16. 
The Tyrrhenians were driven from 
Capua by tiie Samnites, and tibe 
latter were in turn expelled by 
the Romans, in whose time this 
town was celebrated for the beauty 
of its position. It was situated in 
a charming and fertile plan in 
€aim)ania, of which it was the 
'Carnal, and was said by Cicero 
to be the finest colony of the 
Boman people. 

. Hannibal, in order to make the 
town of Capua ids ally, gave a 
promise to its inhabitants, that 
ae would render it the capital of 
itiily. The Romans revenged them- 
selves on the inhabitants with ex- 
traordinary cruelty; for, having 



taken the town alter a long 8iefle» 
it was put in bondage, sold by 
auction, and the senators, * after 
Imag beaten widi rods, were be- 
headed. 

Genseric, king of the Vandals;, 
finished the destruction of Capua 
in 455, and nothing was left but 
its name, which was given to a 
new town built in 856. This town 
was defended bv a castle and 
fortifications, which were destro- 
yed in 1718, and replaced by 
others of modem construct on, so 
that Capua is now of much im» 
portance in the kingdom of Nap- 
les. The bridge over the Voltumo 
at this place, which the traveUer 
passes in his way from Rome, is 
by no means elegant, and is far 
inferior to that at the Naples 
gate, which is ancient and bean* 
tiful. 

The cathedral church of Ca- 
pua is supported by granite co- 
lumns of various dimensions, 
whidh have been taken from an- 
cient buildings. In the third cha^ 
pel on the right is a beautiful 
picture by Solimene, representing 
the Holy Virgin with the infant 
Jesus and St Stephen. The grand 
altar is 6mamented with an As- 
sumption, by the same painter. 
On the altar of the subterranean 
church is a half-length marble 
figure of Notre Dame de la Piti^ 
executed by Chevalier Bernini 
In the middle of the church is 
a Christ as large as life, lying 
on a windingsheet; it is finely 
sculptured by the same artist, 
Bernini* 

The church of the Annuncia- 
tion likewise merits atten^n: the 
exterior displavs a simple but 
elegant stvle of architecture, of 
the Corinthian order; its int^or 
ornaments are modem, an^ are 
of the nicest description. It is 



KMK TO HKPUS »V TEiaUEeill«4 



sappomd to have hemi 'an aii- 
-eieot temple, formefty bcdlt at 
some ^staoDiee from the old Ga- 
-poa; but it is certam iliat no part, 
except the socle^ is really sntiqae, 
:1iie. ancients bemg totally nnac- 
c^aainted with grouped pilasters 
bke those on the exterior of this 
building. 

Many marbles and inscriptions 
from the ancient Capua may be 
seen inlaid in the walls of diffe- 
rent houses, in various parts of 
the town: The marble heads in 
basHrelief, phioed under the en- 
trance arch of the Judges' square, 
were likewise brought from the 
old town. 

The ancient Capua was situa- 
ted a mile and a half from the 
new town, and considerable re- 
mains of it may still be seeii at 
the market town of Santa Maria. 
Two airches in the road on the 
side of Casilino are said to have 
formed one of the gates of the 
ancient Capua; but the most^ex- 
traordinary vestige found in these 
ruins is an ovsu amphitheatre, 
measuring in the interior 250 feet 
in length, and 150 in breadth, 
without including the thickness of 
the building, which is ISO feet 
in addition. Some parts of it are 
•stai in tolerable preservation, such 
as the great corridors, the arches, 
the steps, and the boxes for the 
accommodation of the spectators. 
The amphitheatre is built of brick, 
and cased with white marble. The 
arena is so much sui^e that the 
podium, or wall, which de&nded 
the spectators from ^e attacks 
ftf the ferocious animals, is no 
longer visible. This amphitheatre 
was composed of four orders of 
architecture; in one of ^e. gates 
may be seen two arches of the 
Tuscan order, havin^at Hieir keyv 
stones a head of Jimo, and a 



head of Diana, executed in bas- 
relief, but indjnerendy sculptured. 
A chapiter of a Doric column, 
fallen over this gate, ten^ stron^ 
gly to support the idea that the 
second order whidi ornament^ 
the exterior of the edifice was 
Doric^ From the top of the ndns 
of this ampidthoatre there is a 
delightful and extensive proi^ect, 
Gomm&ndittg in the distance a 
view of Mount Vesuvius. 

The Appian way formerly pas- 
sed to Capua. In the environs of 
Capua are several villages and 
temples, the names of which in- 
dicate Ihe antiquity of their ori- 
gin : Marcianese was a temple of 
Mars ; Ercole, a temple didicated 
to Hercules J Curtis^ a palace or 
curia; Casa PuUa, a temple of 
Apollo, of which however no ves- 
tives now remain. The temple of 
Jupiter Tiphatin was situated near 
Caserta, and the temple of Diana 
Lucifera, called Tiphatina has 
been replaced by the abbey of 
St Angel. The moimtains in the 
vicinity of Capua and Caserta are 
still called Monti Tifatini; this 
name is derived from the volcano 
Tifata, Which is now extinguished. 
About the year 1763, a quarrj; of 
white marble, with yellow veins, 
was discovered at nine miles from 
Capua. The columns for the grand 
palace of Caserta were taken from 
this quarry, and, including the 
expense of erection, only cost 
fifty-six piasters each. 

The distance from Capua to 
Naples is fifteen miles, or two 
postes. The road crosses a fier- 
tile and d^itthtful country, where 
the myrtle, the laurel, and various 
odoriferous plants,, as well asnu* 
merons fruit trees, may be seen 
iourishing in the nkost luxuriant 
state, even in the middle 4>f win- 



140 



sofynim iTMiT.i-^MU td mFUSB. 



ter. Aboat half way between Ca- 
poM and Naples is 

Aver 8a. — This town was at a 
•short distance from the ancient 
Atella, celebrated aniongst the 
Bomans for its bon-mots and wit- 
Isdsms, as well as for its obsce- 
nities and debaucheries. Having 
been destroyed by the barbarians, 
Aversa was rebuilt about the year 
lldO, by the Normans, who con- 
quered Naples and Capua. It was 
called Aversa, because it served 
to maintain an equilibrium bet- 
ween those two towns. Charles I, 
of the house of Anjou, king of Na- 

Eles, completely destroyed Aversa, 
ecause its inhabitants has re- 
volted, and were supported by 
the house of Rebursa, whom he 
exterminated. The town did not, 
however, long remain in a state 
of dilapidation, the excellence of 
the climate and the fertility of the 
soil causing it to be re-edified. 

The town of Aversa is small, 
but neat and well built. It is si- 
tuated in a delightful plain at the 
end of a broad and straight ave- 
nue, which leads to Naples. A 
dehghtful road leads to this town; 
it is broad and straight, and bor- 
dered by umbrageous trees, round 
which vmes twine their encircling 
branches.Thereare several beauti- 
ful churches, palaces, and other 
public buildings, amongst which 
may be distinguished the grand 
hospital for madmen, of which we 
shall give a description hereafter. 
The country in the environs 
of this town presents a coup d^oeil 
of surprising beanty; fertile mea- 
dows, well-cnltivated lands, and 
poptuous villages, aUemattely de- 
light the eye. Tbe liost Village is 
Okpo di Clnno, at which j^ace 
coomiences the new and masni" 
fioent road, lately oonstructedto 
form a commonication with Na- 



ples. Everything then begins to 
announce Uie vicinity of the c»- 

?ital of a considerable Idngdfmu 
*he most distinguishing trait, how- 
ever, is the noise heard at about 
three or four miles from Naples: 
at first it appears dislant and 
confused, but gradually augments 
as the traveller approaches; thB 
singing of one, and the shrill 
voices of others going to the town, 
or returning from it the noise ^ 
the carriages, may all be distinctly 
heard. At about a mile distant, 
the buzz on the outside, and the 
noise within the town, assail the 
ears, and from the apparent bustle 
it appears like an extraordinary 
fdtectay. Itis, however, constantly 
so from sunrise to sunset, and 
gives the traveller a correct idea 
of Naples being more populous 
than any other town in Italy. 

A railroad is open between 
Capua asnd Naples,passing through 
Caserta, describea in excursion 
from Naples. 

NAPLES. 

This city is so ancient, that its 
origin is enveloped in the obsou- 
ritj appertaining to the fables of 
antiquity. According to some, Fa- 
lema. one of the Argonauts, 
founaed it about 1300 years be- 
fore the Christian era; accords 
ing to others, Parthenope, one of 
the Syrens, celebrated by Homer 
in his 'Odyssey,'being shipwrecked 
on this coas^ landed here, and 
built a town, to which she gave 
her name; others attribute its 
foundation to Hercules, some to 
Aeneas, and others to Ulyssea, 
Let us leave these opinions, and 
consider them as arising from the 
vainity of nations, who wish to 
attribute their origis to some te* 
madoible and extraordinary event 
It is more ^robaUe that r^i^let 




c 



ingnube 



„ iabM gateni. Uannibat en- 
deaTonred to ablain possesBfon 
of tbe ci^, but being alarmed 
at the height of tbe walls, he 
desiated from the siege. This trait 
of generority, or rather of policy, 
on the part of the Neapolitans, 



ther 
gafflc fate as othw "parte of Italy: 
it was aubdned by Odoacre, and ' 
then by Theodoric, king of the 
Gotha, who gave it the title of 
County. 

Naples was the first town whieb 
fiBeied any i ' 



140 

ter. A 
|>ii« ai 

Avet 
•short i 
Atelia, 
Boman 
tieismd 
mties ) 
beend 
Aversfl 
11^30, 1 
quered 
called 
to max 
ween t 
of thel 
ples,cd. 
oecaust 
volted, 
the hoj 
exterm! 
howevfl 
of dila] 
tiie clin 
soil cau 
The 
hut nei 
tuated ! 
end of 
nue, w1 
delighti 
it is hr 
deredb 
which V 
brsmch^ 
fid chT£ 
public 1 
may be! 
hospital 
shall gi' 

The 
of this t4 

of SUrpi ^^, itiirwifwu 

dows, W«ii-cuiuv««u iiiuuB, luitt — **-- «ni ouwra w uufmw, 

poptdous villages^ alternately de- 

Ught the eye. The last village is 

Capo di Chino, at which place 

cofomeiices the new and macni- 

fioent road, lately oonstructedtb 

form a communication with Ka- 



Let US leave these opm^and 
consiifex them as arising ftomthe 
vawfcy of nations, who wish to 
altriimte their origin to some re- 
madcable and extraordinary ewnt 
It is more ^obalde that N^MS 



fl^vTBEid rrjav.'— iisTORT •f NimnM,:* 



147' 



is "hidebted for ite foimdationto 
soHfe Gre^ cblonies; this may 
be inffflred from its own name, 
Neapolis, and from the name of 
anotiier town contiguons to it, 
Paleopolis : the religion, language, 
manners, and castoms of die 
Greefes^ which were preserved 

! here fdr a long period of tinie, 
are a sofgdent indication of its 
aborinnal inhabkants. Strabo, in 
the mill book of his Geography, 
speaks ofthede Greek colonies 
whence these cities derive their, 
origin ; he Hkewise informs ns that 
the people of Campania, smd' af-* 
terWards those of Cumae, ob- 
tained possession of Naples. The 
city of Comae boasted mnch 
greater antiqnity, and possessed 
much greater power l^an Naples, 
of the grandeur and beauty of 
whidi its inhabitants were very 
jealotis; they consequently des- 
troyed it, but it was soon rebuilt 
by command of the Oracle, and 
it was not till then that it re- 
ceived the name of Napoli, that 
is, New City, a name which it 
preserves to the present day. 

The increase of this city was 
slow and inconsiderable. No men- 
tion whatever* is -made of it by 
any historian, till thirty-three 
years before ' the "commencement 
of die Christian era, when it was 
classed amongst the confederated 

** towns. A century afterwards, dur- 
ing Hannibal's contest with the 
Romans, it presented to the lat- 
ter a considerable sum of money 
for carrying on the war, and re- 
g jected the propositions of that dis- 
tinguished general. Hannibal en- 
deavoured to obtain possession 
of the citv, but being alarmed 
at the height of tiie walls, he 
desisted from the siege. This trait 
of generosity, or rather of policy, 
on the part of the Neapolitans, 



who justly eonsid^ed that tlieir 
fortune was intimately connect 
ted with that of the Romans,- 
procured them the constant friend- 
ship of Aat nlition. Attracted 
by 'the beauties of this eneh^-' 
ting resideiKcej' several rich' and; 
distinguished inhabitisuits of Ro^ 
me e^biished themBelves here^.; 
The town of Paleopolis was af- 
terwards united 'to Naples, and* 
it is said; that during uie reigns 
of the emperors itbecahie a R^^- 
man colony. This town, after being 
embelHshed and augmented br 
Adrian, about the year 190, ana 
by Constantine in 308, was con- 
sidered one of the most impor- 
tant in the Roman empire. 

Its strength and power saused it ^ 
to be respected by the first barba- 
riand, who carried pillage and de- 
struction into Italy. In the year' 
409 of the Christian era, Alaric, 
king of the Goths, after having 
sacked the city of Rome, eixtered 
Campania; the town of Nola was^ 
almost destroyed*- but these bar* 
barians passed close to Nat^es, 
which was left unmolested by 
their fiiry. Genseric, king of the 
Vandals, invaded Italy in 455;' 
he destroyed Capua^ even to iti- 
foundation; Nola was not spared; 
the environs of Nfepies were laid 
waste, but the dty itself' was 
respected. In one of the castles, 
called Lucullanum, the young A«- : 

gistulus, the last emperor of 
ome, retired after having been 
dethroned by Odoacre, Ung of 
the Heruli, in the year 476. Na- 
ples at length experienced the 
same fate as other parts of Italy; 
it was subdued by Odoacre* and • 
then by Theodoric, king or the 
Goths, who gave it the title of 
County. 

Naples was the first town which 
offered any resistance to the 



/ 



142 



swmiN wkkr,^mMtmiY ^r 4UfUi^ 



troops of diB Emperor Jasliniaai. 
under the commaad ofE^lisarios, 
who wall 86Bt into Italy in the 
year 68&, for the purpose of again 
flubjectiiig it to the power of the 
emperorB.£e]isarius besieged Na- 
ples h^' sea and land i; Msefforts 
were for a. long time of no avail, 
and he was preparing to take his 
troops to another part, wh^en he 
discovered the s^btm^aneanaque-^ 
dttcts whieh still exist: by means , 
of these he intifodiicea- some of 
the Inraveat soldiers in las senany^ 
who having rendered themselves 
masters of every important post, 
pillaged the town aod massa^^red 
its inhabitants, without any re- 
gard to age, rank, or sex. Affec- 
ted by the deplorable condition 
of this city, and urged by the 
reproaches of the Pope St Syl- 
vester, Belisarios was amongst 
the first to take measures for &e 
re-e^aJ>lishmentand repopulation 
of Naples : and these measures 
were so ctf actually executed that, 
in the year 542, it was capable 
of sustaining another siege against 
Totila. It Uien experienced all 
the horrors of famine. Demetrius, 
who was seat from Constanti- 
nople to assist it, was beaten ia 
sight of Ni^pleSf and the provi- 
sions on board his vessels fell 
into the hands of the enemy; 
Maximin, prefect of the Preto- 
rium, was not more fortunate, 
and Nicies was' compelled to 
surrender.. The cruelty of Totila 
being considerably mitigated by 
the remonstrance of St Benedict, 
he treated Uie city with huma- 
nity, and contented himself with 
destroying the walls, that he might 
not again be exposed to such a 
tedious siege. 

Narses entered Italy in order 

to re-establish the affairs of the 

~*>eror; Totila was conquered 



and killed; Tela, his ' sfiec6M<»r 
to the throne of the Goths, 90^- 
rished soon after, in anoih^j 
battle, which took' place near 
Naples, at the foot of Mount 
Vesuvius. . The dominion of these- 
barbarians was then terminal 
in Italy, and in 567 the .kingdom 
became subjected again to the 
£mper(»r of Conetai^^Mipl^, who 
entrusted the govecament^ of it 
to the exarchs estiablishied at 
Bavenna, who extended their 
powor as far as Naples* 

The LombardSj who came from 
Austria and Hungary, made an 
irruption into Italy, and . in the 
year 568 founded a powerlol 
kingdom there, which- existed till 
the time of Charlemagne,. in 774;. 
but they didr not obtain posses^- 
sion of the city of Naples; it 
was ineffectuaJly besieged, jand 
remained faithful to the eastern, 
empei'or. It had the : name of 
Duchy, but it chose its own ma- 
gistrates and officers, and en-, 
joyed a kind of independence. 
The dukes of Beneventum, who 
were Lombard princes, extended 
their dominion as far as Capua. 
In the year 663, the Emperor 
Constant made an attempt to.take 
the town of Beneventum, but he 
waa obliged to.retfre to Naples, 
at the approach of Grimoald, 
king of the Lombards. Arigisell, 
son-in-law of King Didier, de- 
clared' himself the sovereign of 
it in the year 787 ; his succes- 
sors besieged Naples several 
times, and at l^gth rendwed it 
tributaiT about the year 830. 

The Saracens, who were inha- 
bitants of Africa, came into Italy 
in the year 836, committed new 
ravages, and caused new wars; 
they gained possession of Misenal 
and destoyed it; they dev^statea 
the environs of Naples, but did 



M«fsnur*«T*un«-iit9«iar Hir ftmrnt 



ym 



sot eiiter the city itself. SergfiiSj 
cUse of Ns^les, afterwards for- 
med an albanee with the Sava- 
ceiis; he persecuted St Athena-^ 
sins, the bishop of Naples, and 
took possession of the treasure 
of the cathedral; for these acts- 
he. was exoomnuinicated in the 
year 872^ sad sol interilict was 
issued against the citpf of Naples. 
Another Athanasios, bishop of 
Naples, had his eyes put out by 
or^r of Serguis, who* sent him 
to Rome, and established him- 
self in hsB place, in. the veiar 
877. This' new duke and bishop, 
contmuing' the alliance with the 
Saracens, was likewise excom- 
municated, and in order to sup- 
port laiB cause, brought troops 
from Sicily in 88& It was then 
that Mont Gassin was pillliged, 
and the Abbe Bertaire killed at 
the altar of St Martin. The Sa- 
racens were not driyen from the 
country till 914, when Pope John. 
X haymg leagued himself wilh 
the princes of Beneventum, of 
Gapua, of Naples^ and of Gaeta, 
made war against the Saracen^ 
defeated than, and compellea 
them to take flight We shall 
pass oyer aU the divisions and 
petty wars which happened in 
this century amongst die princes 
of Beneyentum, Naples, Gai>ufl, 
the Greelos, Saracens, and Latins, 
in order to notice more particU'* 
larly the period when the king- 
dom, of Naples assumed a new 
aspect on Uie arrival of the Nor- 
mans in the eleyenth century. 

It is perhaps the most re- 
markable event in this history, 
that a new state was formed by 
forty Norman gentlemen, who re- 
tamed in 1016 from visiting the 
church of St Michael of Mount 
Gargan in Apulia, and who were 
assisted by a few others coming 



from thel Boly Laid in- tiie^ fbl*» 
lowing year^ The Gm^s I^ 
siege to the town of Ban; the- 
celebrated Melon, a Lombaard,; 
who wished to deliflrertiiseoun-' 
try from Ihe tyranny^of tl^Greelra,. 
solicited the assffitanee of tUe^ 
Normans, in oeigBBCtion wi&' 
whom he attaineii hii^ object The 
Normans likewise rescued Guai^i 
maire m^ a prinoe of Salerno,, 
who was besieged by the Sara^ 
cens; ibis vict^ induced thesil: 
to remain itt the country, where^ 
they afterwards, beingf a^nsted' 
by other Normans whom (hey 
invited^ duove out^the Saracens- 
and Lomibards, and estaUished 
a kingdom; 

The Emperor Henry II, who' 
came into Italy to oppose the^ 
progress of the Gre^s^ was r^ 
cogmsed as sover^gn, in 1022^ 
at Naples^ at Beneventum, and- 
at Salerno; and he gave the Nor^ 
mans sev^al settlement in Apu*-: 
lia. They afrerward assisted Pan-^ 
dolf, the count of Gepua, to re-<' 
gain his possessions. This count,, 
in order to revenge himself on 
Serghis IV, duke of Naples, with* 
wknn he was at enmity, took the^ 
city, ravaged it, and.pi^aged it;; 
not iq)aring the ehurdies. Sergtus; 
returned with the asnstance-of 
the Normans, and retook his ca*- 
pital in 1080; he gave them a: 
territory between Naples and 0»>i 
pua, where they setded and re-< 
built the town of Aversa, or 
which Bainulf was the first count. 

The snccessof theseN<»mansin 
their new colonies attracted thefr 
countrymen to Italy : three of the 
twelve sons of Tancred of Hante- 
viUe, William Iron Arm, Drogon, 
and Onfroi, arrived therein 1038; 
they distinguished themselves on 
every occasion, and afforded 
great assistance to the Greeks,. 



J4nfc 



WSTfOIK^ IT4LT. — HMTOBT 01 NAUSt 



bat tlie ingi^Bykitade ei the latter 
haTing initigated the Normans 
to make war, Drogon created 
himflelf oonnt of Apulia ; the pope, 
St Leo IX, and the emperor, uni« 
ted to expel him, but the pope 
fell into the hands of Robert 
Qoiscard, another son of Tan- 
cred of HauteTille, who entered 
Italy in the year 1053. 

Tlie Normans paid every re- 
spect to this pope whilst he was 
their prisoner; they conducted 
him to the town of Benerentum, 
which had belonged to him since 
the preceding year; and it was 
there, according to histdrians, 
that he hestowed the inveBtiture 
of Aptdia, of Calabria, and of 
Sidly, on Onfroi, one of Tan- 
cred's sons, on account of his 
homage to the holy see. Robert 
Ghnscard took the title of duke 
of Calabria in 1060, and conti- 
nued to extent his conquests: he 
afterwards liberated Pope Gre; 
gory Vn from the hands of the 
Emperor Henry TV, who besie- 
ged him in Rome; but he did 
more injury to the town than the 
enemies he had driven away. He 
was preparing to make war with 
the Greeks, when death put a 
period to his operations, in 1085. 

Roger, son of Robert Guiscardj 
succedea him, and was proclai- 
med duke of Calabria and of Sa- 
lerno: Boemond and Tancred, 
his son and nephew, set out in 
1096 for the crusade. This is the 
Tancred whose adventures and 
amours were so much celebrated 
by die poets, and particularly by 
Tasso. 

At the time when Duke Ro^er 
was about to pass into Sicily, 
on account of a conspiracy for- 
med by a Greek against the Count 
of Sicily, Pope Urban H was so 
pleased with his zeal for the 



weffare of the Catholic charch, 
that in 1100 he nominated hiift 
and his successors apostolic le- 
gates to the whole island; he 
performed the functions of this 
ofQce with great fidelity; he le- 
established religion in Sicily, 
and founded numerous hospitaLst 
churches, and bishoprics. 

Roger, the second son of the 
preceding, having been made 
Count of Sicily , obtained posse- 
sion, in the absence of his eldest 
brother, of Apulia and of Gala- 
briaj the duke of Naples swore 
fidehty to him in 1129; and. ha- 
ving afterwards become master 
of all the territory now forming 
the kingdom of Naples and Si- 
cily, he took the title of king, 
with the consent of the Antipope 
Anacletus ; he subdued all wno 
wished to oppose him, and com- 
pelled Pope Innocent H to con- 
firm his title of king of Sidly in 
the year* 1139. He carried hia 
conquests to Africa, rendering 
himself master of Tripoli, of Tu- 
nis, and of Hippona ; and he left 
his kingdom, in the year 1154, 
to his son, William the Wicked 
William II, surnamed the Good, 
succeeded his fatlier in 1166. 

In 1189 Tancred, son of King 
Rog», waa elected king of Sicily^ 
on account of his superior abili* 
ties, although the Emperor Henry 
YI laid claim to this kingdom, 
as having married Constance, 
the posthumous daugtherofEing 
Roger. 

After the death of Tancred, 
in the year 1192, the Emperor 
Henry vl, son of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, obtained possession of 
the kingdom, and transmitted it 
to his son. Frederick H swaved 
the sceptre of Sicily for fifty- 
three years; but his death hap- 
pening in 1250, Pope Innocent tV 



SOUTHERN ITALI. — HISTORY OF NAPLES. 



145 



took possession of Naples as part 
of the property of the holy see. 
The son of Frederick was excom- 
municated by this pope, as a 
mark of disrespect and hatred^ 
towards his father; the city of 
Naples closed its gates against 
him, but he besieged it, took it 
by famine in 1254, and treated 
the inhabitants with extraordi- 
nary cruelty. Mainfroi, or Man- 
fredi, the natural son of Frede- 
rick 11, obtained the crown, to the 
prejudice of Gonradin, son ofthe 
Emperor Conrad TV, who was 
the rigthful heir as the grandson 
of Frederick. 

Pope Urban IV afterwards be- 
stowed Naples and Sicily, in 1265, 
on Charles, count of Anjou and 
of Provence, brother of St Louis, 
who engaged to p^ tribute to 
the court of Rome. In the mean- 
time Conradin brought an army 
from Germany to conquer his 
kingdoms; the Ghibelines of Italy 
received him with open arms; 
but having been defeated by the 
troops of Charles of Anjou, he 
was taken, as well as the young 
Frederick, the heir to the duchy 
of Austria, and they were botn 
executed at Naples in 1268, by 
order of Charles of Anjou. 

The house of Suabia then be- 
came extinct and Naples passed 
under the dominion of a new 
race of kings. Charles I estab- 
lished his residence at Naples, 
and this gave rise to a revolu- 
tion in Sicily; the French were 
put to the sword on Easter day, 
29th March, 1282, at the time 
when the vespers were being 
sung at Palermo. John of Pro- 
cida, who was the principal au- 
thor of tiie Sicilian ve^ers, was 
deprived, hj King Charles of An- 

i'ou, of his island of Procida, for 
laving taken the part of Man- 



fredi and Conradin. Peter of Ar- 
ragon, who married a daughter 
of Manfredi, was made king of 
Sicily ; and these kingdoms were 
separated till the time of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, who united 
them in 1604. 

' Charles n succeded his father, 
Charles I, and transmitted the 
kingdom to his son, Robert the 
Good, in 1309. This prince dis- 
played considerable talent, and 
under hid reign the arts, sciences, 
and literature were most culti- 
vated Bt Naples. In 1341 Jane I, 
grand-daughter of Robert, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Naples; 
she married Andrew, son of tiie 
King of Hungary; but he was 
strangled in 1345, probably with 
the approbation of the queen; 
others, however, attribute his 
death to the intrigues of Char- 
les de Duras, who contrived the 
death of this unfortunate queen. 
The grand schism of the west 
commenced in 1378, by the double 
election which the cardinals suc- 
cessively made of Urban VI and 
Clement VD; the latter was re^ 
cognized as pope by France and 
by Queen Jane. Urban excom- 
municated the queen, and decla- \ 
red her deprived of her estates; 
he invited from Hungary Char- 
les de Duras, a descendant of 
Charles H, and gave him the 
kingdom of Naples. The queen, 
in order to have a protector, no- 
minated as her successor the Duke 
of Anjou, brother of Charles V, 
king of France, and second son 
of King John; but she could not 
prevent Charles de Duras from 
entering Naples on the 16th 
July, 1381. The queen was be- 
sieged in the Castello dell' Uovo, 
and was obliged to surrender; 
Charles de Duras ordered her 
to be executed on the 22nd May, 



146 



SOOTHKRN ITALY. — HISTOllT Of NAVLBS. 



1382, just as the Duke on Aiyou 
was entering Italy to assist her. 
For the sake of brevity we shall 
pass over the successors of Char- 
les ni and of Louis of Anjou. 

In the year 1493 Charles VIII, 
being at peace with Spain, Eng- 
land, and the Low Countries, 
determined to support the claims 
of tiie house of Anjou to the 
kingdom of Naples; he was li- 
vely and ardent, his favourites 
encouraged him to undertake 
this conquest, and he accompli- 
shed the desired object; he en- 
tered Naples on the 21st February, 
1495; he made his entry with 
the imperial ornaments, and was 
saluted with the name of Caesar 
Augustus, for the pope, Alexan- 
der VI, had declared him Em- 
peror of Constantinople on his 
passage into Rome. It is true that 
Charles YIII had besieged him in 
the castle of St Angelo; but he 
atoned for this offence by wait- 
ing on him at mass, and paying 
him filial obedience in the most 
solemn manner. 

A short time after, the Vene- 
tians, the pope, the emperor, and 
the king of Arragon, being leagued 
against Charles VIII, he could 
not preserve his conquest, and he 
would y, ith difficulty have regained 
France had he not won the battle 
ofFomova in 1495. Ferdinand II 
then returned to his kingdom of 
Naples, by the assistance of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, king of Ar- 
ragon and of Sicily. He died in 
1496, without leaving any heir. 

Louis XII then wished to lay 
claim to the kingdom of Naples, 
as the successor of the ancient 
kings of the house of Anjou, 
and particularly of Charles VIII, 
who had been king of Naples 
in 1495; Ferdinand likewise sup- 
ported his pretentions to it as 



a nephew of Alphonso, kisfir 
of Naples, who died without is- 
sue in 1458* In 1501 Louis sent 
Gonzalvo of Cordova, sumamed 
the Great Captain, under pretence 
of assisting his cousin against 
the King of France, but in fact 
to divide with him the kingdom 
of 'Naples, according to a secret 
convention entered into between 
these two kings. Frederic II was 
obliged to abandon his- estates; 
he retired to Tours, wh^re he 
died in 1504. Louis XII and the 
King of Arragon divided the king- 
dom, but Naples belonged to the 
French. This division, which took 

Slace in 1501, gave rise to new 
ifficulties; a war was kindled 
between the French and Spa- 
niards; and Ferdinand, notwith- 
standing the treaty, took posses- 
sion of the kingaom. Gonzalvo 
gained the battle of Seminira in 
Calabria, where he took the. 
French general, Aubign^, priso- 
ner, and the battle of Cerignole, 
iu Apulia, when Louis d'Armag- 
nac, duke of Nemours and vice- 
roy of Naples, was killed on the 
28th of April, 1503. He gained 
a third battle near the Carigliano, 
and entered Naples in the same 
year. The French then lost the 
kingdom of Naples for ever, and 
this city afterwards submitted for 
more than two centuries to for- 
eign princes who did not reside 
in Italy. 

Charles V, who became king 
of Spain in 1516, continued to 
sway the sceptre of Naples, as 
did Philip II and his successors, 
till the conquest of the Emperor 
Joseph I, in 1707. 

Whilst the kings of Spain were 
in possession of Naples, they 
appointed viceroys who, being 
screened by distance from the su- 
perintendence of their sovereign^ 



frovttofiHIf ITALt. — tlTSTORT 01^ NAt*LE». 



147 



often oppressed the people. The 
buke of Archop, who was vice- 
roy in 1647, under Philip IV, 
wished to lay a tax 6n fruit in 
addition to the excessive imposts 
with which the Neapolitans were 
already burdened. This new de*- 
mand was so exorbitant that it 
excited the murmurs of the people. 
The viceroy was often importuned 
by the solicitations and the da- 
mours of the populace, whilst cros- 
sing the market place to go to 
the church of the Carmelites, on 
every Saturday, as was the custom. 
About the same time the people 
of Palermo compelled the viceroy 
of Sicily to suppress the duties 
©n flour, wine, oil, meat, and 
cheese : this example encouraged 
the Neapolitans, and gave rise to 
the famous conspiracy of which 
Masaniello was the chief mover. 
The chief, of the conspiring 
party was a young man, 24 years 
of age, named fliomas Aniello, 
but by the populace pronunced 
Masaniello. He was bom at Amalft, 
a^ small town in the gulf of Sa^ 
lemo, twenty-^even miles from 
Naples, and was by profession a 
fisherman. The general discontent 
80 inflamed his mind that he re- 
solved to hang himself or take off 
the tax on fruit On the 16th 
June, 1647, he went to the shops 
of the fruiterers and proposed to 
them to come the next day to 
the market place together and pu- 
blicly declare that they would not 
pay the duty ; the assessor, how- 
ever, having obtained information 
of the proceeding, repaired to the 
spot, where he gave the people 
hopes that the tax should be re- 
moved, and thus dissipated the 
tumult. On the 7th July, how- 
ever, thiB tumult having recom- 
menced, he attempted ineffectually 
to quell the disturbance, and had. 



nearly been killed by the popu'i 
lace. Masaniello took this oppor- 
tunity of assembling the most de- 
termined; he conducted them to 
the place where the offices and 
chests of the collectors were si- 
tuated; these they pillaged im- 
mediately, and after breakingopen 
the prisons and freeing the cap- 
tives they proceeded fe the pa- 
lace of the viceroy, whom they 
compelled to promise tha* the 
duty should be taken off; he af- 
terwards took refuge in the new 
castle; the people, Jiowever, be* 
sieged him there, and not con'- 
tenting themselves with his pro* 
mises, made him pledge himself 
to suppress the duty, and to main- 
tain the privileges and exemp- 
tions granted to the Neapolitans 
by Ferdinand I of Arragon, as 
well as by Frederick and Char- 
les V. They likewise insisted that 
the council and all the nobility 
should ratify this engagement 

At the sanje time the people 
pillaged the houses of the col- 
lector, and of all those who had 
any share in imposing the duty 
on fruit ; and they were about to 
commit similar depredations on 
the palaces of several noblemeA 
had they not been diverted frgm 
their intention by the timely in- 
terposition ofCardinal Fitemarino, 
archbishop of Naples,forwhomthe 
people entertained great friend- 
ship and respect 

Masaniello was, however, elec- 
ted captain-general of the people 
on the 9th July; his spirit, finn- 
ness,and good behaviour rendered 
his authority more " considerable 
every day ; a kind of throne was 
erected for him in the centre of 
the market-place, on which he 
ascended with his counsellors, 
and gave audience to the public. 
There, in his white fisherman's 

7* 



148 



MUTBEKN ITALY. — BISTORT OP NAPLES. 



dress, he received petitions and 
requests, prononnced judgment, 
and caused his orders to be im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than 1<50,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mof e closely confined in the castle, 
and his provisions cut oflF. ' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
mantles or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guilty. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even crueL 

On the 13th July, negotiators 
having arrived to conciliate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
with great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church ; he caused 
the capitulatioh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
Masaniello stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
in hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy ; the first was, to make 
him conunandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
guard, with the right of naming 
tiie military officers, and gf ant- 
ing leaves ; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



fiards who were in the castle* 
these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony mi^ht 
not be disturbed by his reAisal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 
On the 14:th of July Masaniello 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
thr6ught the city, imprisoning^ 
torturing, and beheading people 
for the slightest offences. He threa- 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with nirn 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in foUies of a 
different kind; she went in a su- 
perb carriage, taken from tbe 
Duke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

Masaniello had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform tiie vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his foUies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Caracciolo, 
the master of the horse, that as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met him he should kiss his 
feet in the market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by flight to the 
castle. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even the po- 
pulace, to whom he ewed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, f^te day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Carmel, 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SOUTflOBRN ITALY. — HISTORT OF NAPLBS. 



149 



Masaniello went to hear o^ass; 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
**Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are wil&g to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the viceroy and all die magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church.'' The cardinal em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
saniello immediately ascend f^d the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
conjured them not to abandon 
him, recalling to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which had attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and Masaniello, seeing that he 
had lost the public confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace in 
order to carry his abdication to 
the viceroy. The cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; but as Masaniello 
was in a perspiration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belonging to the 
convent to change his Imen. After 
having rested, he went to a bal- 
cony overlooking the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
had entered through the church, 
and were calling him; he walked 



up to them, saying, "My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
am." They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The head of Masaniello was car- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing the least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to take an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
siter being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-general. 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months^^d 
he published a manifesto in or- 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Kome in the month of 
September, 1647 ; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples offe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading the people 
against the Spaniards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on tho 21st of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car- 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Garbonara; he had induced many 
noblemen to join him, and hiB 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, idien the Spa 



m 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — HISTORY OF NAPLBft. 



mards, profitmg by his occasio- 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
rione and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Caserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; be was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus termina- 
ted- the disturbances of Naples. 

The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdoin, 
Philip V, the grandson of Louis 
XIV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702, He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Count Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of 3ie Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of the house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at Baden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Charles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadeus, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, kii^ of Spain, retook it witi 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
by the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to Charles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was aclmowledged by every 
other power king of the Two Si- 
cilies, and King Victor was obli- 
ced to rest contented with Sar- 
Oinia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of Orleans, Ae regent of France, 
who was not on good terms with 
tbe Eiqg of Sardinia, contributed 



greatly to this change rather un- 
favourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on account of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken tbe 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the King of Spain, and already 
Duke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma and 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, Tuscany to the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles UI, had the fe* 
licity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in the great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec- 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, has enjoyed more tran- 
quillity and flourished in nreater 
prosperity than at any former 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the Bucceesion of the 



SOUTBBilN- RALY. — U8TMY OF NAPI48. 



1(^1 



/ 

emperor Charles TI, the Englisli 
haa appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in order to 
force the king to sign a promise 
not to act against we interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive hunself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Gampo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of the army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was, soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
long remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
ni being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serving the second for the Spa- 
nish throne (the eldest being in- 
capable of reigning), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
years, when Napoleon Bonaparte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806, and gave 
it to his brother Joseph; ihe 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
tiie brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from fiie throne of France, 
Francis H, emperor of Germany, 
recovered^ the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vestedagain. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand U. 



GENERAL VIEW OF NAfLEB. 

It is almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in any 
other place on earth which c^ 
excite the curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeed, 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, or more 
superb than the Coliseum ? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
villas Albani andLudovisi? What 
paintings can rival those which 
may be seen in the porticoes, 
and the chambers painted by 
Raphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned: nevertheless, it 
is one of the most beautiful 
and most delightful cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples, is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and encircling a ^f sixteen 
miles in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno ; the 
other, on the left the cape of 
Massa. The islana of Capri on 
one side, and that of Prpdda on 
the other, seem to dose the gul^ 



152 



SOUTBERN ITALY. — GENERAL VIEW OF NAPLES. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The city ap- 
pears to crown this superb oasin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is tfom the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori," intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of nature, 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, by the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of. the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magnificence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
of Naples and Pozzuoli the most 



cuiious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the ''happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautifiil in the 
imiverse. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls^ 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa dell' acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the city. 
The aqueducts under the pave- 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso I. 



80DTHBRK ITALY. — NAPLES. 



1&8 



NAPliKS. 

It i8 supposed that the ancient 
town of Parthenope, or Neapolis. 
was situated in tne highest and 
most northern part of the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Napoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w^s divided into three great qar- 
ters or sqottres, called the Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towards the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 

The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, so that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them, and would not iln- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The city 
was afterwards enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
castles may, however, be used 
for itB defence; these are the 
Castello dell' Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of me 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst die people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is like- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chiaja, Monte Cal- 
vario, Avvocata, Stella, St Carlo 
aU' Arena, Yicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Qius^pe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 836,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
excepting London and Paris. 
Amonest these may be reckoned 
more tiian 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are pavea with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the prmcipal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in length. The 
squares are large and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat roo», in the form of 
terraces, which ike inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, 
and all the other public build- 
ings sure magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as diat 
of the edifices of Kome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 300 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and other public buil< 

7* 



Ui 



MVTlUmN irALT.-*-HMTOKT 01 NAPillt 



but tke ingrtUatade of the latter 
haymg mitigated the Normans 
to make war, Drogon created 
himself coant of Apolia; the pope, 
St Leo IX, and the emperor, uni* 
ted to expel him, but the pope 
fell into the hands of Robert 
Qniscard, another son of Tan- 
cred of Hauteville, who entered 
Italy in the year 1058. 

"rtie Normans paid every re- 
spect to this pope whilst he was 
their prisoner; they conducted 
him to the town of beneyentum, 
wMch had belonged to him since 
the preceding year; and it was 
there, accorcung to historians, 
that he bestowed the investiture 
of Apulia, of Calabria, and of 
Sicily, on Onfroi, one of Tan- 
cred's sons, on account of his 
homage to the holy see. Robert 
Guiscard took the title bf duke 
of Calabria in 1060, and conti- 
nued to extent his conquests: he 
afterwards liberated Pope Gre; 
gory Vn from the hands of the 
Emperor Henry TV, who besie- 
ged him in Rome; but he did 
more injury to the town than the 
enemies he had driven away. He 
was preparing to make war with 
the Greeks, when death put a 
period to his operations, in 1085. 

< Roger, son of Robert Guiscard, 
succeded him, and was proclaim 
med duke of Calabria and of Sa* 
lemo: Boemond and Tancred, 
his son and nephew, set out in 
1096 for the crusade. This is the 
Tancred whose adventures and 
amours were so much celebrated 
by the poets, l&nd particularly by 
Tasso. 

At the time when Duke Ro^er 
was about to pass into Sicily, 
on account of a conspiracy for- 
med by a Greek against the Count 
of Sicily, Pope Urban U was so 
pleased with his zeal for the 



welfare of the Oathdiic church, 
that in 1100 he noaunated hink 
and his successors apostolic le* 
gates to tiie whole island; he 
performed the functions of this 
o£fice with great fidelity; he re- 
established religion in Sicilv, 
and founded numerous hospitals^ 
churches, and bishoprics. 

Roger, the second son of the 
preceding, having been made 
Count of Sicily , obtained posse^ 
sion, in the absence of his eldest 
brother, of Apulia and of Gala- 
bria: the duke of Naples swore 
fidelity to him in 1129; and. ha* 
ving afterwards become master 
of all the territory now forming 
the kingdom of Naples and Si- 
cily, he took the title of king, 
with the consent of the Antipope 
Anacletus ; he subdued ail who 
wished to oppose him, and com- 
pelled Pope Innocent H to con-> 
firm his title of king of Sicily in 
the year> 1139. He carried his 
conquests to Africa, rendering 
himself master of Tripoli, of Tu- 
nis, and of Hippona; ana he left 
his kingdom, in the year 1154, 
to his son, William the Wicked 
William H, surnamed Uie Good, 
succeeded his father in 1166. 

In 1189 Tancred, son of King 
Roger, was. elected king of Sicily^ 
on account of his superior abili* 
ties, although the Emperor Henry 
YI laid claim to this kingdom, 
as having married Constance^ 
the posthumous daugther of King 
Roger. 

After the death of Tancred^ 
in the year 1192, the Emperor 
Henry VI, son of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, obtained possession of 
the kingdom, and transmitted it 
to his son. Frederick H swayed 
the sceptre of Sicily for fifty- 
three years; but his death hap- 
pening in 1250, Pope Innocent tv 



800THERN ITALI. — BISTORT OF NAPU8. 



145 



took possessiOB of Naples as part 
of the property of the holy see. 
The son of Frederick was excom- 
mnnicated by this pope, as a 
mark of disrespect and hatred^ 
towards his father; the cit)r of 
Naples closed its gates against 
him, but he besieged it, took it 
by famine in 1254, and treated 
the inhabitants with extraordi- 
nanr cruelty. Mainfroi, or Man- 
fredi, the natural son of Frede- 
rick n, obtained the crown, to the 
prejudice of Gonradin, son ofthe 
Emperor Conrad IV, who was 
the rigthftd heir as the grandson 
of Frederick. 

Pope Urban IV afterwards be- 
stowed Naples and Sicily, in 1265, 
on Charles, count of Anjou and 
of Provence, brother of St Louis, 
who engaged to pay tribute to 
the court of Kome. In Uie mean- 
time Conradin brought an army 
from Germany to conquer his 
kingdoms ; the Ghibelines of Italy 
received him with open arms; 
but having been defeated by the 
troops of Charles of Anjou, he 
was taken, as well as the young 
Frederick, the heir to the duchv 
of Austria, and they were botn 
executed at Naples in 1268, by 
order of Charles of Anjou. 

The house of Suabia then be- 
came extinct and Naples passed 
under the dominion of a new 
race of kings. Charles I estab- 
lished his residence at Naples, 
and this gave rise to a revolu- 
tion in Sicily; the French were 
pat to the sword on Easter day, 
29th March, 1282, at the time 
when the vespers were being 
sung at Palermo. John of Pro- 
dda, who was the principal au- 
thor of the Sicilian vomers, was 
deprived, by King Charles of An- 

i'ou, of his island of Procida, for 
laving taken the part of Man- 



fred] and Conradin. Peter of Ar- 
ragon, who married a daughter 
of Manfredi, was made king of 
Sicily ; and these kingdoms were 
separated till the time of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, who united 
them in 1504. 

' Charles n succeded his father, 
Charles I, and transmitted the 
kingdom to his son, Bobert the 
Good, in 1309. This prince dis- 
played considerable talent, and 
under \Ai reign the arts, sciences, 
and literature were most culti- 
vated Bt Naples. In 1341 Jane I, 
grand-daughter of Robert, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Naples; 
she married Andrew, son of the 
King of Hungary; but he was 
strangled in 1345, probably with 
the approbation of the queen; 
others, however, attribute his 
death to the intrigues of Char- 
les de Duras, who contrived the 
death of this unfortunate queen.' 
The grand schism of the west 
commenced in 1378, by the double 
election which the cardinals suc- 
cessively made of Urban VI and 
Clement VH; the latter was re-^ 
cognized as pope by France and 
by Queen Jane. Urban excom- 
municated the queen, and decla- \ 
red her deprived of ner estates; 
he invited from Hungary Char- 
les de Duras, a descendant of 
Chai'les H, and gave him the 
kingdom of Naples. The queen, 
in order to have a protector, no- 
minated as her successor the Duke 
of Aiy'ou, brother of Charles V, 
king of France, and second son 
of King John; but she could not 
prevent Charles de Duras from 
entering Naples on the 16th 
July, 1381. The queen was be- 
sieged in the Castello dell^ Uovo, 
and was obliged to surrender; 
Charles de Duras ordered her 
to be executed on the 22nd May, 



146 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — HIBTOllT Ot NAnES. 



1882, just as the Duke on Aiyou 
was entering Italy to assist her. 
For the sake of brevity we shall 
pass over the successors of Char- 
les ni and of Louis of Anjou. 

In the year 1493 Charles VHI, 
being at peace with Spain, Eng- 
land, and the Low Countries, 
determined to support the claims 
of the house of Anjou to the 
Mngdom of Naples; he was li- 
vely and ardent, his favourites 
encouraged him to undertake 
this conquest, and he accompli- 
shed the desired object; he en- 
tered Naples on the 21st February, 
1495; he made his entry with 
the imperial ornaments, and was 
saluted with the name of Caesar 
Augustus, for the pope, Alexan- 
der VI, had declared him Em- 
peror of Constantinople on his 
passage into Rome. It is true that 
Charles VIII had besieged him in 
tiie castle of St Angelo ; but he 
atoned for this offence by wait- 
ing on him at mass, and paying 
him filial obedience in the most 
solemn manner. 

A short time after, the Vene- 
tians, the pope, the emperor, and 
the king of Arragon, being leagued 
against Charles VIII, he could 
not preserve his conquest, and he 
would Y, ith difficulty have regained 
France had he not won the battle 
of Fomova in 1495. Ferdinand 11 
then returned to his kingdom of 
Naples, by the assistance of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, king of Ar- 
ragon and of Sicily. He died in 
1496, without leaving any heir. 

Louis XII then wished to lay 
claim to the kingdom of Naples, 
as the successor of the ancient 
kings of the house of Anjou, 
and particularly of Charles VIII, 
who had been king of Naples 
in 1495; Ferdinand likewise sup- 
ported his pretentions to it as 



a nephew of Alphonso, kin^ 
of Naples, who died without is- 
sue in 1458« In 1501 Louis sent 
Gonzalvo of Cordova, sumamed 
the Great Captain, under pretence 
of assisting his cousin against 
the King of France, but in fact 
to divide with him the kingdom 
of 'Naples, according to a secret 
convention entered into between 
these two kings. Frederic II was 
obliged to abandon his- estates; 
he retired to Tours, where he 
died in 1504. Louis XII and the 
King of Arragon divided the king- 
dom, but Naples belonged to the 
French. This division, which took 

Slace in 1501, gave rise to new 
ifficulties; a war was kindled 
between the French and Spa- 
niards; and Ferdinand, notwith- 
standing the treaty, took posses- 
sion of the kingdom. Gonzalvo 
gained the battle of Seminira in 
Calabria, where he took the 
French general, Aubign6, priso- 
ner, and the battle of Cerignole, 
in Apulia, when Louis d' Armagh 
nac, duke of Nemours and vice- 
roy of Naples, was killed on the 
28th of April, 1503. He gained 
a third battle near the Carigliano, 
and entered Naples in the same 
year. The French then lost the 
kingdom of Naples for ever, and 
this city afterwards submitted for 
more than two centuries to for- 
eign princes who did not reside 
in Italy. 

Charles V, who became king 
of Spain in 1516, continued to 
sway the sceptre of Naples, as 
did Philip II and his successors, 
till the conquest of the Emperor 
Joseph J, in 1707. 

Whilst the kings of Spain were 
in possession of Naples, they 
appointed viceroys who, being 
screened by distance from the su- 
perintendence of their sovereign^ 



fwjtbeiijr iTAtY. — tnsTORT ot iffkmxi^ 



147 



pttm oppressed the people. Th€ 
l)«ke of Archop, who was vice- 
roy in 1647, tinder Philip IV, 
wished to lay st tax 6n froit in 
addition to the excessive imposts 
with which the Neapolitans were 
already burdened. This new de* 
mand 'was so 'exorbitant that it 
excited the nrnrmurs of the people. 
The viceroy was often importuned 
by the solicitations and the cla- 
mours of the populace, whilst cros- 
ising the market place to go to 
the church of the Carmelites, on 
every Saturday, as was the custom. 
About the same time the people 
of Palermo compelled the viceroy 
of Sicily to suppress the duties 
©n flour, wine, oil, meat, and 
cheese : this example encouraged 
the Neapolitans, and gave rise to 
the famous conspiracy of which 
Masaniello was the chief mover. 
The chieiP, of the conspiring 
party was a young man, 24 years 
of age, named 'ftomas Aniello, 
but by the populace pronunced 
Masaniello. He was bom at Amalfi, 
a" small town in the gulf of Sa- 
lerno, twenty-^even miles from 
Naples, and was by profession a 
fisherman. The general discontent 
so inflamed his mind that he re- 
solved to hang himself or take off 
the tax on fruit. On the 16th 
June, 1647, he went to the shops 
of the iruiterers and proposed to 
them to come the next day to 
the market place together and pu- 
blicly declare that they would not 
pay the duty ; the assessor, how- 
ever, having obtained information 
of the proceeding, repaired to the 
spot, where he gave the people 
hopes that the tax should be re- 
moved, and thus dissipated the 
tumult. On the 7th July, how- 
ever, the tumult having recom- 
menced, he attempted ineffectually 
to quell the disturbance, andha4. 



nearly been killed by the popu'i 
lace. Masaniello took this oppor- 
tunity of assembling the most de- 
termined; he conducted them to 
the pliice where the offices and 
chests of the collectors were si- 
tuated; these they pillaged im^ 
mediately, and after breaking open 
the prisons and freeing the cap- 
tives they proceeded t6 the pa* 
lace of the viceroy, whom they 
compelled to promise that the 
duty should be taken off; he af- 
terwards took refuge in the new 
castle; the people, Jiowever, be- 
sieged him there, and not cou" 
tenting themselves with Ms pro*- 
mises, made him pledge himself 
to suppress the duty, and to main^ 
tain the privileges and exeimp- 
tions granted to the Neapolitans 
by Ferdinand I of Arragon, as 
well as by Frederick and Char- 
les V. They likewise insisted that 
the council and all ihe nobility 
should ratify this engagement. 

At the sanje time the people 
pillaged the houses of the col- 
lector, and of all those who had 
any share in imposing the duty 
on frtut ; and they were about to 
commit similar depredations on 
the palaces of several noblemen 
had they not been diverted frgra 
their intention by the timely in- 
terposition ofOardinal Filemarino, 
archbishop of N aples,for whom the 
people entertained great friend- 
ship and respect 

Masaniello was, however, elec- 
ted captain-general of the people 
on the 9th July; his spirit, finn*- 
ness,and good behaviour rendered 
his authority more ' considerable 
every day ; a kind of throne was 
erected for him in the centre of 
the market-place, on which he 
ascended with his counsellors, 
and gave audience to the public. 
There, in his white fisherman's 

7* 



148 



SODTHBRN ITALY. — U8T0RY OF NAPLES. 



dress, he receiyed petitions and 
requests, pronounced judgment, 
and caused his orders to he im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than 160,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mof e closely confined in the castle, 
and his provisions cut oflf. ' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
mantles or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guiltv. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even crueL 

On the 13th July, negotiators 
having arrived to conciliate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
¥rith great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church ; he caused 
tiie capitulatioh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
Masaniello stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
in hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy; the first was, to make 
him commandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
guard, with the right of naming 
the military officers, and grant- 
ing leaves ; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



guards who were in the casde. 
To these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony might 
not be disturbed by his refusal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 

On the 14th of July Masaniello 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
thr6ught the city, imprisoning, 
torturing, and beheading people 
for the slightest offences. He threa- 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with him 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in follies of a 
different kind; she went in a su- 
perb carriage, taken from ^e 
Duke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

Masaniello had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform tiie vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his foUies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Caracciolo, 
the master of the horse, UnAt as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met him he should kiss his 
feet in the market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by flight to the 
castle. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even tiie po- 
pulace, to whom he owed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, fgte day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Carmel, 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SOrmBRN ITALY. — U9T0RT OF NAPLKS. 



U9 



Masaniello went to hear x^ass; 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
<'Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are willing to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the viceroy and all die magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church." The cardinal em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
saniello immediately ascended the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
copjured them not to abandon 
him, recalling to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which ^ad attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and MasanieUo, seeing that he 
had lost the public confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace in 
order to carrv his abdication to 
the viceroy. The cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; but as Masaniello 
was in a perspiration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belonging to the 
convent to change his Unen. After 
having rested, he went to a bsd- 
cony overlooking the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
had entered through the church, 
and were calling hun; hewalkea 



up to them, saying, ''My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
am." They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The head of Masaniello was car- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing me least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to take an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
after being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-generaL 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months^^d 
he published a manifesto in or^ 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Kome in Uie month of 
September, 1647 ; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples o£fe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading the people 
against the Spamards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on the 21st of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car- 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Carbonara; he had induced many • 
noblemen to join him, and hiii 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, when the Sp9 



190 



SOUTURN ITALY. — HISTORY Of HIUMA, 



niards, proHtmg by hh occasio- 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
none and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Gaserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; he was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus termina- 
ted- the disturbances of Naples. 

The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdoin, 
Philip V, the grandson of Louis 
XIV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702, He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Count Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of &ie Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of the house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at Baden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Charles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadous, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, king of Spain, retook it with 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
by the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to Churles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was acloiowledged by ever^ 
other power king of the Two Si- 
cilies, and ICingVictor was obli- 
ged to rest contented with Sar- 
dinia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of Orleana, the regent of France, 
who was not on good terms mth 
the King of Sardinia, contributed 



greatly to this change rather un- 
favourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on account of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken the 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the King of Spain, and already 
Duke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma aud 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, Tuscany to the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles III, had the fe» 
licity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in ^e great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec^ 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, Has enjoyed more tran- 
quillity and flourished in greater 
prosperity than at any former 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the Bucceaaion of the 



MOTHBRH- r»LY. — USIWY OF NATtW* 



m 



«Diper(»' Oliarlea TI, the English 
had appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in order to 
force the king to sign a promise 
not to act against the interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive himself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Gampo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of die army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was, soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
king remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
HI being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serving the second for the Spa- 
nish l£rone (the eldest being in- 
capable of reigning), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
y^ars, when Napoleon Bonaparte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806, and gave 
it to his brother Joseph; the 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
the brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from fiie throne of France, 
Francis H, emperor of Germany, 
recovered* the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vested again. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand U. 



OEKKRAL VUBW OF NAPLES. 

It ia almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in any 
other place on earth which c^ 
excite the curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeed, 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, or more 
superb than the Coliseum ? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as • 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
^as Albani and Ludovisi ? What 
paintings can rival those which 
may be seen in the porticoes, 
ana the chambers painted by 
Haphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned: nevertheless, it 
is one of the most beautiful 
and most delightful cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples, is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and encircling a gulf sixteen 
miles in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape ; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno ; the 
other, on the left, the cape of 
Massa. The island of Capri on 
one side, and that of Procida on 
the other, seem to close the gulf 



152 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — GENERAL VIEW OF NAPLES. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The city ap- 
pears to crown this superb basin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is from the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori,'' intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of naturej 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, by the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magmficence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
of Naples and Pozzuoli the most 



curious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

dn the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the ''happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautifid in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
Hie eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its sourace, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. Tne Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa dell' acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the dty. 
The aqueducts under the pave^ 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso I. 



SODTIfKRN ITALY. — NAPLES. 



153 



NAPbSS. 

It is supposed that the ancient 
town of Parthenope, or Neapolis, 
was situated in me highest and 
most northern part of the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Napoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w^s divided into three great qar- 
ters or squares, called the Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towards the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 
The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, sp that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them^ and would not Un- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The citj 
was afterwards' enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
casUes may, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Castello dell' Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst die people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is like- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chiaja,Monte Cd- 
vario, Awocata, Stella, St Carlo 
all' Arena, Yicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Giuseppe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 336,302 ; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
excepting London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more tikan 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are pavea with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the prmcipal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in length. The 
squares are large and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat roofi, in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of tibe public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, 
and all the other public build- 
ings are magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as diat 
of the edifices of Home, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 300 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and other public build 

7* 



IH 



SOUTURN ITALT.— NAnSa. iOTELS. 



inga^ amongst which mre thirty- 
seven conservatories^ established 
for the benefit of poor children 
and old people, both men and 
women; there are also several 
hospitals and other humane esta- 
blishments. 

LANDING. 

On the arrival of the steamer 
in the bay of Naples, a delay of 
an hour or an hour and a half 
takes place before the passen- 
gers are allowed to land ; during 
this interval an immence accu- 
mulation of boats for their ser- 
vice takes place, so that assoon 
as the police have ascertained 
"alFs right," yourself and lug- 
gage (if you have attended to my 
hint in the Introduction) will be 
deposited in the custom house 
in a few minutes: an examina- 
tion of the luggage takes place; 
books are particularly noticed. 
As soon as your luggage is exa- 
mined, call una vetura da nolo 
(hackney carriage), and be con- 
veyed to your hotel: fare for 
two persons, 3 pauls; boatage, 
each person, with luggage I'li to 
2 pauls. 

N. B. From the moment you 
land till you quit Naples, always 
carry your handkerchief in your 
hat your, purse in your breast- 
pocket, and your watch well se- 
cured with a strong guard: the 
pickpockets in Naples are the 
most expert in Europe. 

Hotels. - Hotel Victoria. This 
is a large, delightfullv-situated 
establishment, overlooking the 
bay on one side, and the Villa 
Eeale (royal gardens) on the other. 
The apartments are elegantly 
furnished, ornamented with many 
choice and rare Chinese gems, 
and a collection of ancient paint- 
ings that have been valued at 



15,000/. sterling. The arrange- 
ments for the service of the fa- 
milies ataying \n the house are 
excellent : on each etdffe is a kit- 
chen, and 9k suitable number of 
attendants. This hotel was esta- 
blished in 1823, by the late M. 
Martin Zir, and is now admi- 
T&hlj conducted by his sons. Those 
who delight in exquisite paintings, 
by some of the J&rst artists, should, 
desire to see the private apart- 
ments of the proprietors. 

Hotel Oroocelley facing the bay ; 
report speaks higly of t^is house, 
as being a first-rate hotel. 

Hotel dea Utrangera, also front- 
ing the bav ; a snug, quiet, com- 
fortable, clean liouse, well con- 
ducted by a new proprietor, who 
pays every attention to his vi- 
sitors. 

Hotel Orande , Bretagne^ well 
situated, facing ihe Villa Eeale. 

There are also the Hotel York, 
Hotel Bome^ Hotel Busnej Hotel 
Geneva, second and third rate. 

The charges at the best hotels 
are generally as follows : — Break- 
fast of tea or coffee, with bread 
and butter, 3 pauls; with egg3, 
5 pauls with meat, 8 pauls. A 
diimer in a private apartgient will 
cost from 10 to 12 pauls ; tea, 3 
pauls. Sitting and bed rooms are 
charged according to the situa- 
tion, accommodation required, and 
more particularly the season of 
the year. 

\ shall now proceed to point 
out to the traveller every curious 
or remarkable object in this great 
city. 

FIRST DAY. 

VFLLA REALE. 

In the quarter of^Chisga is a 
quay more extensive, more airy, 
and more pleasant than even that 



JURHBJ*— SnST *9.M. '- YE.LA: ^MAIiKi 



nm ' 



of St Lucia ; it extends as iar as 
-Paiasilippo^ and k nearly 1,000 
toises ID lenght, and ninety-seven 
in breadth. The late sovereign, 
Ferdinand I, stmck with the 
charming ditaation of this quar- 
ter, diose a- part of it to form 
a royal promenade, which was 
begun in 1779. Nature and art 
have conspired to render this one 
of the' most delightfid spots in 
£urdpe i it consists of a ma^fi- 
cent garden called the Villa Reale, 
and a fine road, shut in by houses, 
among which are several newly^ 
erected palaces, and where a num- 
ber of coaches parade every af- 
ternoon. The garden is,, through 
it6 whole length, separated from 
the street by an iron railing ; there 
is a gate at its entrance, where 
a beautiful walk begins, leading 
in a straight line to the Toro 
Farnese, and thence through wind- 
ing paths to the extremity of the 
vifla. This walk, as far as the 
Toro Farnese, is planted on each 
side with acacias, which from the 
month of May to the end of sum- 
mer furnish it with the most 
pleasant shades. Several other 
walks traverse the garden on both 
sides. On the left a row of hohn 
tre^ defends it from the south- 
west wind, which, from the po^ 
sition of the villa, might prove 
extremely injurious to it The first 
part of the garden is regularly 
planted in the Italian way, and 
ornamented with parterres of flo- 
wers, fountains, and statues ; far- 
ther on it resembles more an 
English garden, or little park. 

The first statue on the right 
Bide of the entrance is an imita- 
tion of the celebrated Apollo in 
the gallery of Florence. At the 
beginning of the central walk 
there are 

Two statues of warriors, one 



on the dght and the other on 
the left side; they are larger 
than life, and the former holds 
on lits left should^ a child hang- 
ing with its head downwards : &]> 
ther on, on the sas&e side, is the 
fttatue of a young shepherd, ajid 
next to this. 

The Dying Gladiator : it seems 
to have been copied from thai 
yrhich is in the Capitelme Mu-. 
seum. A sword and a trumpet 
liie upon the ground, whereon he 
is represented as leaning in his 
agony. Opposite to tiiis stands 

The statue of an old man bring- 
ing to Jiis i6iouth a child that lies 
supine in his hands: the tnmk, 
to which the statue is attached, 
is surrounded with a serpent hav- 
ing daws and a head like a goat 
A little farther, on the same side, 
there is a fountain, from the 
middle of which rise 

Two statues representing two 
men, one of whom hardly adult, 
and shorter than the other. The 
latter stretches forth both his 
arms to the former, and looks at 
him with the countenance of a 
man advising a yonth. The boy 
has his eyes lifted up to him, 
and seems to be quite anxious 
to seize his expressions. The un- 
speakable ingenuousness breath* 
ing through the countenance of 
the youth renders this a most 
remarkable statue. 

Opposite these two statues, on 
the other side of the central walk, 
and rising likewise from the mid- 
dle of a fountain, stands. 

A group representing two men, 
one of whom has just lifted up 
the otlier, and is endeavouring 
to crush him between his breast 
and arms. The person raised 
labours to extricate hiifiself by 
strongly pressing his hand upon 
the other's temple. A club, ai 



156 



MUTUKll ITALT. — NAPLES. FliUrT BAT. 



a lion's skin sculptured upon the 
plinth, seem to indicate tiiat the 
principal statae is a Hercules. 
Somewhat farther, in the same 
direction is 

The Pugilist, or boxer, a most 
animated statue of a man, hay- 
ing his left arm raised in the at- 
titude of defending himself against 
his adversary, and preparing ^th 
the right arm to defiver a tre- 
mendous blow. Opposite this 
stands 

The statue of a handsome vouth, 
¥rith his right arm turned over 
his head, and the left leaning 
upon a trunk. A quiver full of 
arrows hangs from the latter, to 
which it is nicely tied with a 
ribbon. The statue seems to re- 
present an Endymion reposing. 
The next after this stands on the 
opposite side, and is 

A statue of young Bacchus, 
having his right arm raised, with 
a bunch of grapes hanging from 
his hand. His left arm holds a 
vase close to his side, and full 
of apples, pme-apples, and grapes. 
A ffoatskin hangs from his neck 
and shoulder, deseeding to the 
plinth. 

At a short distance from this 
little statue there is a circle, in- 
tended to form the resting-place 
of the promenade, and furnished 
with marble seats. In the centre 
formerly stood, but now in the 
Mus^e Koyale, the famous group 
called. 

Toro Farnese (the bull of Far- 
nese). It was found at Rome, in 
the baths of Caracalla, under 
the pontificate of Paul HI, who 
placed it in his Farnese palace, 
whence, about the end of the se- 
venteenth centuij, it was con- 
veyed to this city. ApoUonius 
and Tauriscus. two Grecian sculp- 
tors, executed this group from a 



single block of marble, nine feet 
eight inches in length, and thir- 
teen feet high. The subject of 
this fine specimen of sculpture is 
Dirc6 attached bv the hair to 
the horns of a buU, by Zetus 
and Amphvon, sons of Lycus, 
king of Thebes, to avenge the 
afiront offered to their mother 
Antiope by her husband, on ac- 
count of Dirc6 ; but, at the mo- 
ment the bull is loosed. Queen 
Antiope orders Dirc6 to be freed, 
and her two sons immediately 
attempt to stop the furious- ani- 
mal. These figures are larger 
than life, and are placed on a 
rock; at the base is a small Bac- 
chus and a dog, and around the 
plinth several different animids 
are represented. 

Re-enter the central walk, at 
the beginning of which, on the 
right, is 

A grovLp of Pluto carrjring 
away Proserpine. He grasps her 
with the whole strength of his 
arm. She has her eyes and right 
arm lifted up to heaven, wmle 
tearing her hair with her left 
hand in despair. Upon the base, 
Cerberus is represented. Beyond, 
on the same side, stands 

The statue of a Young Man, 
with a fine drapery folded up on 
his shoulder and arm; and op- 
posite this 

The statue of Alcides tearing 
asunder the mouth of a lion over- 
thrown. While, the hero is thus 
employing his hands, his knee is 
vigorously exerted to compress 
the animal. Following the widk, 
we shall find, on the same side, 

,A group representing a Man 
who holds a Girl within his anns. 
Another man is carved under ihe 
two statues, sitting in the atti- 
tude of a conquered person, and 
looking up to the girl, with his 



NAPf.ES.— mST »AT. VliLA RBALB.' 



167 



left httid equally raised to ex- 
^ press regret and admiration. Op- 
posite is another 

6roiq> representing two Naked 
Young Men crowned with laurel 
The one on the left leans' with 
his ann upon the other's shoul- 
der, and the latter holds two 
^ flambeaux in his hands, the one 
lifted up on his shoulder, and 
-the other reversed. They seem 
to represent Pilades and Orestes. 
Along the same walk we find 

The statue of a Young Man 
playing on the flute. A lion's^ 
skin hangs over his left arm. On 
the opposite side is 

The statue of a Faun playing 
the castanets. A musical appa- 
ratus lies under his right foot, 
by which he presses it to mark, 
as it seems, ^e measure. Far- 
ther on, still on the same side, 
there is 

The statue of a Satyr tied to 
tlie trunk of a tree. 

Before we reach another area 
opening in the central walk, we 
meet with 

Two statues standing in front of 
each other. That on the left repre- 
sents a Warior holding a dbild 
with his head downwaras upon 
his shoulder. The other is a Her- 
cules with a lion's skin hanging 
from his left side, and a child, 
which he holds close to his breast. 
His right hand holds the club. 

Here the bushy part of the villa 
begins, in which several other 
valuable marbles are found, as 
on the lefl^ 

A handsome statue of a Wo- 
man, attired, holding a crown of 
flowers in her left hand. A little 
farther, on the other side, a small 
temple is building, in which will 
^ be placed a marble statue, or. 
bust of Yirgil. Then, turning to 
the left, w^ discover 



A group representing Europa 
carried away by Jupiter under 
the form of a bull. It lies in the 
centre of a fine fountain made 
of unwrought lava, and is the 
work of a Neapolitan sculptor 
still alive (Angelo Viva), who 
made it in the year 1798. It was 
at first placed by a fountain, near 
the market place, whence its me- 
rits being recognized, it has been 
removed to its present situation. 
The airy mantle of ^e woman, 
which rises in the manner of a 
bow over her head, and the po- 
sture of the bull, which, with his 
muzzle turned up, looks at Eu- 
ropa while pursuing his W9.terj 
course, are perfectly well contn- 
ved to give the whole work a 
lightness and motion admirably 
adapted to the subject Farther 
on, but on the other side of the 
way, there is ' 

The statue of Flora crowned 
with flowers, and holding some 
in her le£b hand. 

We must now cross again the 
walk to see a modem cupola sup- 
ported by eight white columns, 
resting upon a circular base cut 
into three steps. This cupola has 
been erected lately to the me- 
mory of Tasso, a bust of whom 
in marble is to be seen under it 

Before leaving the villa the 
traveller may enjoy, almost at 
die water's edge, a nne sight of 
the greater part of the bay by 
going on the terracfe, where people 
go and rest after traversing those 
long walks. 

The villa is completely and 
brilliantly illuminated at one 
o'clock in the evening, during 
two of the summer months. It is 
almost impossible to form an idea 
of the pleasure afforded by the 
view of such a beautiful scene, 
accompanied by music and a nu- 



148 



80DTHBRN ITALT. — U8T0RY OP NAPLES. 



dress, he received petitions and 
requests, pronounced judgment, 
and caused his orders to be im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than lt50,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mof e closely confined in the castle, 
and Us provisions cut off.' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
manties or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guilty. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even cruel 

On the 13th July, negotiators 
having arrived to conciliate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
with great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church ; he caused 
the capitnlatioh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
Masaniello stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
in hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy ; the first was, to make 
him commandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
gaard, with the right of naming 
the military officers, and grant- 
ing leaves ; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



guards who were in the castle. 
To these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony might 
not be disturbed by his refusal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 

On the 14th of JulyMasanieUa 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
tfar6ught the citv, imprisoning^ 
torturing, and beheading people 
for the slightest ofifences. He threa- 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with him 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in follies of a 
different kind; she went in a su- 
perb carriage, taken from the 
Duke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

MasanieUo had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform &e vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his follies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Caracciolo, 
the master of the horse, that as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met hiin he should kiss his 
feet in the market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by flight to the 
castle. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even the po- 
pulace, to whom he ewed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, fete day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Carmel^ 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SOUTURN ITALY. — HISTORY OF NAPLB8. 



149 



Masaniello went to hear n^iass: 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
**Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are wimng to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the viceroy and all the magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church." The cardinal em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
saniello immediately ascended the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
conjured them not to abandon 
him, recalling to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which fiad attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and MasanieUo, seeing that he 
had lost the pubUc confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace in 
order to carry his abdication to 
the viceroy. The cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; but as Masaniello 
was in a perspiration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belonging to the 
convent to change his linen. After 
having rested, he went to a bal- 
cony overloolang the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
had entered through the church, 
and were calling lum; he walked 



up to them, saying, "My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
am." They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The head of Masaniello was cur- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing ihe least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to tsJce an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
after being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-general. 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months^^d 
he published a manifestp in or- 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Kome in the month of 
September, 1647 ; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples offe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading the people 
against the Spaniards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on tho 2l8t of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car^ 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Garbonara; he had induced many 
noblemen to join him, and hiis 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, when the Spa- 



l«0 



SOUTHBRN ITALY. — HISTORY OF NAPLES. 



piards, profiting by bis occasio* 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
none and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Gaserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; he was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus termina- 
ted the disturbances of Naples. 
The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdom, 
Philip V, the grandson of Louis 
XIV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702. He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Count Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of the Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of the house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at Baden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Charles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadous, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, kii^ of Spain, retook it with 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
b^ the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to Charles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was acknowledged by every 
other power kin^ of the Two Si- 
cilies, and King Victor was obli- 
fed to rest contented with Sar- 
inia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of Orleans, the regent of Fr^uice, 
who was not on good terms with 
the Kiqg of Sardinia, contribated 



greatly to this change rather un- 
favourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on account of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken the 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the King of Spain, and already 
Duke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma and 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, Tuscany to the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles III, had the fe» 
licity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in the great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec- 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, has eojoyed more tran- 
quillity and fiourished in greater 
prosperity than at any lormer 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the succession of the 



SOUTBBHN- ITALY.— HISTORY OF NAPi<|:0. 



m 



umperor Charles TI, the English 
haa appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in order to 
force the king to sign a promise 
not to act against &e interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive hunself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Campo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of the army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was, soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
)dng remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
m being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serving the second for the Spa- 
nish throne (the eldest being in- 
capaUe of reigning), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
years, when Napoleon Bonap^-rte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806^ and gave 
it to his brother Joseph; the 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
the brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from the throne of France, 
Francis H, emperor of Germany, 
recovered' the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vested again. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand II 



68N£RAL VI£W OF NAPLES. 

It is almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in aj[iy 
other place on earth which c^ 
excite tJie curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeed, 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, or more 
superb than the Coliseum? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
villas Albani andLudovisi? What 
paintings can rival those which 
mav be seen in the porticoes, 
and the chambers painted by 
Raphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned; neverthdess, it 
is one of the most beautiful 
and most delightful cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil ^ 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and encircling a gulf sixteen 
nules in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno ; ■ the 
other, on the left, the cape of 
Massa. The island of C^pri on 
one side, and that of Procida on 
the other, seem to close th^ gulf 



152 



SOUTaSRN ITALY. — SKNERAL VIEW OF NAPLES. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The citv ap- 
pears to crown this superb oasin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is m)m the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori," intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of nature, 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, bv the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magmficence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render ^e coast 
of Naples and Pozzuoli the most 



curious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the *'happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautiful in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and fall? 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa delP acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Ni4[>les is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the city. 
The aqueducts under the pave^ 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso L 



MOTBSRN ITALY. — NAPLES. 



15B 



NAPUS. 

It is supposed that the andent 
town of Parthenope, or Neapolis, 
was sitaated in ttie highest and 
most northern part of the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Kapoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w>s divided into three great qar- 
ters or squsffes, called tiie Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towards the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caiia and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 
The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, so that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them, and would not iln- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The city 
was afterwards' enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
castles may, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Castello dell' Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst the people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is like- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chiaja, Monte Cal- 
vario, Avvocata, Stella, St Carlo 
aU' Arena, Vicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Giuseppe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 836,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
exceptmg London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more &an 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are paved with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the principal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in leni^ The 
squares are large and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat roots, in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, 
and all the other public build- 
ings are magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as mat 
of the edifices of Rome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 800 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and oUier pubUc buil^ 

7* 



144 



8«IJTIIBIU<» ITALT. — BMTOKT Of NAPUIt 



but tlie mgx^tade ci the latter 
haying initigated the Nonnans 
to make war, Drogon created 
himself count of Apulia; the pope, 
St Leo IX, and the emperor, uni* 
ted to expel him, bat the pope 
fell into the hands of Robert 
Gniscard, another son of Tan- 
cred of Hantevifie, who entered 
Itidy in the year .1053. 

llie Normans paid every re- 
spect to this pope whilst he was 
their prisoner; they conducted 
him to the town of benerentam, 
which had belonged to him since 
the preceding year; and it was 
there, according to historians, 
that he bestowed the investitare 
of Apulia, of Calabria, and of 
Sicily, on Onfroi, one of Tan- 
cred's sons, on account of his 
homage to the holy see. Robert 
Gniscard took the title 6f duke 
of Calabria in 1060, and' conti- 
nued to extent his conquests: he 
afterwards liberated Pope Gre^ 

fory VII from the hands of the 
mperor Henry IV, who besie- 
ged him in Rome; but he did 
more injury to the town than the 
enemies he had driven away. He 
was preparing to make war with 
the Greeks, when death put a 
period to his operations, in 1085. 

' Roger, son of Robert Guiscard^ 
succeded him, and was proclaim 
med duke of Calabria and of Sa- 
lerno: Boemond and Tancred, 
Ihs son and nephew, set out in 
1096 for the crusade. This is the 
Tancred whose adventures and 
amours were so much celebrated 
by the poets, and particularly by 
Tasso. 

At the time when Duke Roger 
was about to pass into Sicily, 
on accoimt of a conspiracy for- 
med by a Greek against the Count 
of Sicily, Pope Urban H was so 
pleased with his zeal for the 



welfare of the Cathtflic church, 
that in 1100 he nominated him 
and his successors apostolic le- 
gates to the whole island; he 
performed the functions of this 
office with great fidelity; he re- 
established reUgion in Sicily,, 
and founded numerous hospitaifi^ 
churches, and bishoprics. 

Roger, the second son of the 
preceding, having been made 
Count of Sicily, obtained posse^ 
sion. in the absence of his eldest 
brotner, of Apulia and. of Cala^ 
bria^ the duke of Na|>Ies swore 
fidehty to him in 1129| and. ha- 
ving afterwards become master 
of all the territory now forming 
the kingdom of ^Taples and Si- 
cily, he took the title of king, 
with the consent of the Antipope 
Anacletus ; he subdued all whd 
wished to oppose him, and com- 
peHed Pope Innocent H to con-* 
firm his title of kmg of Sicily in 
the yeaff> 1139. He carried his 
conquests to Africa, rendering 
himself master of Tripoli, (rf Tu- 
nis, and of Hippona; ana he left 
his kingdom, in the year 1154^ 
to his son, William the Wicked 
William H, sumamed the Good; 
succeeded his father in 1166. • 

In 1189 Tancred, son of King 
Roger, was/ elected king of Sicily; 
on account of his superior ahm* 
ties, although the Emperor Henr^ir 
YI laid claim to this kinjgdomf 
as having 'married Constance,, 
the posthumous daugther c^Eing 
Roger. 

After the death of Tancred,. 
in the year 1192, the Emperor 
Henry VI, son of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, obtained possession of 
the kingdom^ and transmitted it 
to his son. Frederick H swayed 
the sceptre of Sicily for fifty- 
three years; but his death hap- 
pening in 1250, Pope Innocent iV 



SOUTHERN ITALT. — HISTORY OP NAPUBS. 



145 



1 



took possession of Naples as part 
of the property of the holy see. 
The son of Frederick was excom- 
municated by this pope, as a 
mark of disrespect and hatred^ 
towards his father; the city of 
Naples closed its gates against 
him, hut he besieged it, took it 
by famine in 1254, and treated 
the inhabitants with extraordi- 
nary cruelty. Mainfroi, or Man- 
fredi, the natural son of Frede- 
rick n, obtained the crown, to the 
prejudice of Conradin, son oftbe 
Emperor Conrad IV, who was 
the rigthfiil heir as the grandson 
of Frederick. 

Pope Urban IV afterwards be- 
stowed Naples and Sicily, in 1265, 
on Charles, count of A^ou and 
of Provence, brother of St Louis, 
who engaged to pay tribute to 
the court of Rome. In the mean- 
time Conradin brought an army 
from Germany to conquer his 
kingdoms ; the Ghibelines of Italy 
received him with open arms; 
but having been defeated by the 
troops of Charles of Aj\jou, he 
was taken, as well as the young 
Frederick, the heir to the duchy 
of Austria, and they were both 
executed at Naples in 1268, by 
order of Charles of Anjou. 

The house of Suabia then be- 
came extinct, and Naples passed 
under the dominion of a new 
race of kings. Charles I estab- 
lished his residence at Naples, 
and this gave rise to a revolu- 
tion in Sicily; the French were 
put to the sword on Easter day, 
29th March, 1282, at the time 
when the vespers were being 
sung at Palermo. John of Pro- 
dda, who was the principal au- 
thor of the Sicilian vedpers, was 
deprived, by King Charles of An- 

i'ou, of his island of Procida, for 
saving taken the part of Man- 



fred! and Conradin. Peter of Ar- 
ragon, who married a daughter 
of Manfredi, was made king of 
Sicily ; and these kingdoms were 
separated till the time of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, who united 
them in 1504. 

' Charles 11 succeded his father, 
Charles I, and transmitted the 
kingdom to his son, Eobert the 
Good, in 1309. This prince dis- 
played considerable talent, and 
under hid reign the arts, sciences, 
and literature were most culti- 
vated at Naples. In 1341 Jane I, 
grand-daughter of Robert, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Naples; 
she married Andrew, son of Uie 
King of Himgary; but he was 
strangled in 1345, probably with 
the approbation of the queen; 
others, however, attribute his 
death to the intrigues of Char- 
les de Duras, who contrived the 
death of this unfortunate queen; 
The grand schism of the west 
commenced in 1378, by the double 
election which the cardinals suc- 
cessively made of Urban VI and 
Clement VII; the latter was re^ 
cognized as pope by France and 
by Queen Jane. Urban excom- 
municated the queen, and decla- 
red her deprived of her estates; 
he invited from Hungary Char- 
les de Duras, a descendant of 
Charles 11, and gave him the 
kingdom of Naples. The queen, 
in order to have a protector, no- 
minated as her successor the Duke 
of Anjou, brother of Charles V, 
king of France, and second son 
of King John ; but she could not 
prevent Charles de Duras from 
entering Naples on the 16th 
July, 1381. The queen was be- 
sieged in the Castello dell^ Uovo, 
and was obliged to surrender; 
Charles de Duras ordered her 
to be executed on the 22nd May, 



146 



SOUTHEHIV ITALY. — HIBTOHT OF MAVLES. 



1382, just as the Duke on Aiyou 
was entering Italy to assist her. 
For the sake of brevity we shall 
pass over the successors of Char- 
les ni and of Louis of Anjou. 

In the year 1493 Charles Vni, 
being at peace with Spain, Eng- 
land, and the Low Countries, 
determined to support the claims 
of the house of Anjou to the 
kingdom of Naples; he was li- 
vely and ardent, his favourites 
encouraged him to undertake 
this conquest, and he accompli- 
shed the desired object; he en- 
tered Naples on the 21st February, 
1495; he made his entry with 
the imperial ornaments, and was 
saluted with the name of Caesar 
Augustus, for the pope, Alexan- 
der VI, had declared him Em- 
peror of Constantinople on his 
passage into Rome. It is true that 
Charles VIII had besieged him in 
Ae castle of St Angelo; but he 
atoned for this offence by wait- 
ing on him at mass, and paying 
him filial obedience in the most 
solemn manner. 

A short time after, the Vene- 
tians, the pope, the emperor, and 
the king of Arragon, being leagued 
against Charles VIII, he could 
not preserve his conquest, and he 
would ^ ith difficulty have regained 
France had he not won the battle 
of Fomova in 1495. Ferdinand 11 
then returned to his kingdom of 
Naples, by the assistance of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, king of Ar- 
ragon and of Sicily. He died in 
1496, without leaving any heir. 

Louis XII then wished to lay 
claim to the kingdom of Naples, 
as the successor of the ancient 
kings of the liouse of Aiy'ou, 
and particularly of Charles VIII, 
who had been king of Naples 
in 1495; Ferdinand likewise sup- 
ported his pretentions to it as 



a n^hew of Alphonso, kiny 
of Naples, who died without is- 
sue in 1458^ In 1501 Louis sent 
Gonzalvo of Cordova- sumamed 
the Great Captain, under pretence 
of assisting his cousin against 
the King of France, but in fact 
to divide with him the kingdom 
of 'Naples, according to a secret 
convention entered into between 
these two kings. Frederic 11 was 
obliged to abandon his estates; 
he retired to Tours, where he 
died in 1504. Louis XII and the 
King of Arragon divided the king- 
dom, but Naples belonged to the 
FrencL This division, which took 

Slace in 1501, gave rise to new 
ifficulties; a war was kindled 
between the French and Spa- 
niards; and Ferdinand, notwith- 
standing the treaty, took posses- 
sion of the kingdom. Gonzalvo 
gained the battle of Seminira in 
Calabria, where he took the 
French general, Aubign^, priso- 
ner, and the battle of Cerignole, 
in Apulia, when Louis d' Armagh 
nac, duke of Nemours and vice- 
roy of Naples, was killed on the 
28th of April, 1503. He gained 
a third battle near the Carigliano, 
and entered Naples in the same 
year. The French then lost the 
kingdom of Naples for ever, and 
this city afterwards submitted for 
more than two centuries to for- 
eign princes who did not reside 
in Italy. 

Charles V, who became king 
of Spain in 1516, continued to 
sway the sceptre of Naples, as 
did Philip II and his successors, 
till the conquest of the Emperor 
Joseph J, in 1707. 

Whilst the kings of Spain were 
in possession of Naples, they 
appointed viceroys wlio, being 
screened by distance from the su- 
perintendence of their sovereign^ 



sorrtreiuv itaw.— Ittstort o^ NAnjES* 



147 



pftm oppressed the people. Th« 
bake of Archop, who was vice- 
roy in 1647, under Philip IV, 
wished to lay a tax 6n fruit in 
addition to the excessive imposts 
with which the Neapolitans were 
already burdened, lliis new de- 
mand was so exorbitant that it 
excited the murmurs of the people. 
The viceroy was often importuned 
by the solicitations and the da- 
mours of the populace, whilst cros* 
sing the market place to go to 
the church of the Carmelites, on 
every Saturday, as was the custom. 
About the same time the people 
of Palermo compelled the viceroy 
of Sicily to suppress the duties 
on flour, wine, oil, meat, and 
cheese : this example encouraged 
the Neapolitans, and gave rise to 
the famous conspiracy of which 
Masaniello was the chief mover. 
The chief, of the conspiring 
party was a young man, 24 years 
of age, named Thomas Aniello. 
but by the populace pronuncea 
Masaniello. He was bom at Amalfi, 
a' small town in the gulf of Sa- 
lerno, twenty-seven miles from 
Naples, and was by profession a 
fisherman. The general discontent 
so inflamed his mind that he re- 
solved to hang himself or take off 
the tax on fruit. On the 16th 
June, 1647, he went to the shops 
of the fruiterers and proposed to 
them to come the next day to 
the market place together and pu- 
blicly declare that they would not 
pay the duty; the assessor, how- 
ever, having obtained information 
of the proceeding, repaired to the 
spot, where he gave the people 
hopes that the tax should be re- 
moved, and thus dissipated the 
tumult. On the 7th July, how- 
ever, the tumult having recom- 
menced, he attempted ineffectually 
to quell the disturbance, and had. 



nearly been killed by the popu- 
lace. Masaniello took this oppor- 
tunity of assembling the most de- 
termmed; he conducted them to 
the place where the offices and 
chests of the collectors were si- 
tuated; these they pillaged im« 
mediately, and after breaking open 
the prisons and freeing the cap- 
tives they proceeded t(> the pa- 
lace of the viceroy, whom they 
compelled to promise that the 
duty should be taken off; he af- 
terwards took refuge in the new 
castle; the people, however, be- 
sieged him there, and not con- 
tenting themselves with his pro- 
mises, made him pledge himself 
to suppress the duty, aM to main- 
tain the privileges and exemp- 
tions granted to the Neapolitans 
by Ferdinand I of Arragon, as 
well as by Frederick and Char- 
les V. They likewise insisted that 
the council and all the nobihty 
should ratify this engagement 

At the san^e time the people 
pillaged the houses of the col- 
lector, and of all those who ha4 
any share in imposing the duty 
on fruit ; and they were about to 
commit similar depredations on 
the palaces of several noblemen 
had they not been diverted frgra 
their intention by the timely in- 
terposition ofCarainal Filemarino, 
archbishop of Naples,forwhomthe 
people entertained great friend- 
ship and respect 

Masaniello was, however, elec^ 
ted captain-general of the people 
on the 9th July; his spirit, finn- 
ness, and good behaviour rendered 
his authority more considerable 
every day ; a kind of throne was 
erected for him in the centre of 
the market-place, on which he 
ascended with his coimsellors, 
and gave audience to the public. 
There, in his white fisherman's 

7* 



148 



SOUTHERN ITALT. — USTORT OP FUFLES. 



dress, he received petitions and 
requests, pronounced judgment, 
and caused his orders to be im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than 160,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mof e closely confined in the castle, 
and his provisions cut ofP. ' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
manties or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guiltv. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even cruel 

On the 13th July, negotiators 
having arrived to conciliate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
with great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church ; he caused 
the capituladoh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
Masaniello stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
in hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy; the first was, to make 
him conmiandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
gaard, with the right of naming 
the military officers, and grant- 
ing leaves; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



guards who were in the castle. 
To these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony might 
not be disturbed by his refusal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 

On the 14th of July Masaniello 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
tluf6ught the citv, imprisoning^ 
torturinff, and beheading people 
for the slightest ofifences. He threa- 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with him 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in follies of a 
different kind; she went in a su- 
perb carriage, taken from the 
Bnke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

Masaniello had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform the vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his follies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Caracciolo, 
the master of the horse, that as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met him he should kiss his 
feet in the market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by flight to the 
castle. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even the po- 
pulace, to whom he ewed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, f^e day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Carmel, 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SOVTBCRN ITALY. — BISTORT OF NAPLB8. 



149 



Masaniello went to hear n[iass: 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
"Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are wilUng to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the viceroy and all tlie magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church." The cardinal em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
saniello immediately ascended the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
conjured them not to abandon 
him, recalling to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which fiad attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and MasanieUo, seeing that he 
had lost the public confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace in 
order to carry his abdication to 
the viceroy, llie cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; but as Masaniello 
was in a perspuration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belon^g to the 
convent to change his Imen. After 
having rested, he went to a bal- 
cony overlooking the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
had entered through the church, 
and were calling Mm; he walked 



up to them, saying, "My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
am." They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The heaa of Masaniello was car- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing itie least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to tsJce an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
after being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-general. 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months^^nd 
he pubUshed a manifestp in or- 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Kome in the month of 
September, 1647; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples offe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading the people 
against the Spamards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on tho 2lBt of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car- 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Carbonara; he had induced many 
noblemen to join him, and hiis 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, when the Spa-* 



l«0 



SOUTHBRN ITALY. — HISTORY OF !UlPLB9. 



mards, profiting by bis oceasio* 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
rione and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Gaserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; he was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus termina- 
ted- the disturbances of Naples. 

The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdom, 
Philip V, the grandson of Louis 
XIV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702. He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Ck)unt Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of the Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of the house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at Baden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Charles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadous, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, kii^ of Spain, retook it with 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
by the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to ChBxles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was acknowledged by every 
other power king of the Two Si- 
cilies, and I^g Victor was obli- 
ged to rest contented with Sar- 
dinia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of Orleans, the regent of France, 
who was not on good terms with 
the Kiqg of Sardinia, contributed 



greatly to this change rather un- 
favourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on account of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken tihe 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the King of Spain, and already 
Duke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma and 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, Tuscany to the Duke of Loi^ 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles III, had the fe*- 
licity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in the great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec- 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, nas enjoyed more tran- 
quillity and flourished in greater 
prosperity than at any Tormer 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the succession of the 



BOUTBBHN' ITALY. — HiSIORY Of NAPiffl. 



ll^l 



t 

umperor Charles TI, the English 
haa appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in ord^ to 
force the king to sign a promise 
not to act against &e interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive himself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Campo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of the army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was. soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
king remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
lU being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serving the second for the Spa- 
nish throne (the eldest being in- 
capable of reigning), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
years, when Napoleon Bonaparte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806, and gave 
it to his brother Joseph; the 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
the brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from flie throne of France, 
Francis II, emperor of Germany, 
recovered^ the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vested again. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand U. 



GEN£RAL VUW OF NAPLES. 

It ia almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in any 
other place on earth which c^ 
excite the curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeed} 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, or more 
superb than the Coliseum? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
villas Albani and Ludovisi ? What 
paintings can rival those which 
may be seen in the porticoes, 
ana the chambers painted by 
Raphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned: nevertheless, it 
is one of the most beautiful 
and most delightful cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and encircling a gulf sixteen 
miles in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape ; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno ; the 
other, on the left, the cape of 
Massa. The islana of Capri on 
one side, and Uiat of Prpdda on 
the other, seem to close the gulf 



152 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — SIFHERAL VIXW OF NAPLK8. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The cil^ ap- 

Sjars to crown this superb oasin. 
ne part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is from the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, l^e mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori," intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of nature, 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, by the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magnificence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
of Naples and Pozzuoli the most 



curious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the *'happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautiful in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa dell' acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the dty. 
The aqueducts under the pave- 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso L 



MOTHSRII ITALY. — NAPLES. 



15B 



NAPLK8. 

•s. 

It is supposed that the ancient 
town of Parthenope, or Neapolis. 
was situated in me highest and 
most northern part of the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Kapoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w^s divided into three great qar- 
ters or squares, called the Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towfurds the 
place now occupied by the Yi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 

The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, so that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them> and would not tm- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The citj 
was afterwards enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
castles may, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Castello dell' Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst the people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is like- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chiaja,Monte Cal- 
vario, Avvocata, Stella, St Carlo 
all* Arena, Yicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Giuseppe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 336,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
exceptmg London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more tiian 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; Uiey go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse Ihien, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are paved with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the prmcipal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in length. The 
squares are large and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat rooiS, in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, ' 
and all the other public build- 
ings sure magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as that 
of the edifices of Kome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 800 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and other public bnild- 

7* 



Ui 



WmaSK» ITALY.— 'BISTORT Ot NAPLBt. 



but die ingraHtade of the latter 
baying initigated the Nonnans 
to make war, Drogon created 
bimBelf count of Apulia ; the pope, 
St Leo IX, and the emperor, uni* 
ted to expel him, but the pope 
fell into the hands of Robert 
Gniscard, another son of Tan- 
cred of Hauteville, who entered 
Italy in the year .1053. 

Tlie Normans paid every re- 
spect to this pope whilst he was 
their prisoner; they conducted 
him to the town of Benerentum, 
which had belonged to him since 
the preceding year; and it was 
there 7 according to historians, 
that he bestowed the investiture 
of Apulia, of Calabria, and of 
Sicily, on Onfroi, one of Tan- 
cred's sons, on account of his 
homage to the holy see. Robert 
Guiscard took the title bf duke 
of Calabria in 1060, and conti- 
nued to extent his conquests : he 
afterwards liberated Pope Ore; 
gory yn from Ihe hands of the 
Emperor Henry IV, who besie- 
ged him in Rome; but he did 
more injury to the town than the 
enemies he had driven away. He 
was preparing to make war with 
the Greeks, when death put a 
period to his operations, in 1085. 

< Roger, son of Robert Guiscard, 
succeded him, and was proclai- 
med duke of Calabria and of Sa- 
lerno: Boemond and Tancred, 
his son and nephew, set out in 
1096 for the crusade. This is the 
Tancred whose adventures and 
amours were so much celebrated 
by the poets, 'and particularly by 
Tasso. 

At the time when Duke Ro^er 
was about to pass into Sicily, 
on account of a conspiracy for- 
med hj a Greek against the Count 
of Sicily, Pope Urban H was so 
pleased with his zeal for the 



welfare of the Cathdlic ehureh, 
that in 1100 he noHiinated lum 
and his successors apostolic le- 
gates to ^e whole island; he 
performed the functions of this 
office with great fidelity; he re- 
established religion in Sicily,, 
and founded numerous hospitals^' 
churches, and bishoprics. 

Roger, the second son of the 
preceding, having been made 
Count of Sicily , obtained posse^ 
sion, in the aosence of his eldest 
brother, of Apulia and. of Cala- 
bria^ the duke of Naples swore 
fidehty to him in 1129^ andha- 
ving afterwards become master 
of all the territory now foimiBg 
the kingdom of Naples and Si- 
cily, he took the title of king, 
with the consent of the Antipope 
Anaclettts ; he subdued all who 
wished to oppose him, and com- 
pelled Pope Innocent H to con- 
firm his title of king of Sicily in 
the year. 1139. He carried his 
conquests to Africa, rendering 
himself master of Tripoli, of Tu- 
nis, and of Hippona; ana he left 
his kingdom, in the year 1154^ 
to his son, William the Wicked 
William II, surnamed the Good, 
succeeded his father in 1166. 

In 1189 Tancred, son of King 
Roger, wasy elected king of Sicily, 
on account of his superior abili* 
ties, although the Emperor Henryr 
YI laid claim to tins kix^dom, 
as having married Constance, 
the posthumous daugther of King 
Roger. 

After the death of Tancred,. 
in the year 1192, the Emperor 
Henry VI, son of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, obtained possession of 
the kingdom, and transmitted it 
to his son. Frederick U swayed 
the sceptre of Sicily for fifty- 
three years; but his death hap- 
pening in 1250, Pope Innocent IV 



80DTHEIW ITALY* — HISTORY OF NAPUS. 



145 



took possession of Naples as part 
of the property of the holy see. 
The son of Freaerick was excom- 
municated by this pope, as a 
mark of disrespect and hatred^ 
towards his father; the city of 
Naples closed its gates against 
him, but he besieged it, took it 
by famine in 1254, and treated 
the inhabitants with extraordi- 
nary cruelty. Mainfroi, or Man- 
fredi, the natural son of Frede- 
rick n, obtained the crown, to the 
prejudice of Conradin, son ofthe 
Emperor Conrad IV, who was 
the rigthful heir as the grandson 
of Frederick. 

Pope Urban IV afterwards be- 
stowed Naples and Sicily, in 1265, 
on Charles, count of A^jou ana 
of Provence, broUier of St Louis, 
who engaged to pay tribute to 
the court of Home. In the mean- 
time Conradin brought an army 
from Germany to conquer his 
kingdoms; the Ghibelines of Italy 
received him with open arms; 
but having been defeated by the 
troops of Charles of Anjou, he 
was taken, as well as the young 
Frederick, the heir to theduchv 
of Austria, and they were botn 
executed at Naples in 1268, by 
order of Charles of Anjou. 

The house of Suabia then be- 
came extinct, and Naples passai 
under the dominion of a new 
race of kings. Charles I estab- 
lished his residence at Naples, 
and this gave rise to a revolu- 
tion in Sicily; the French were 
put to the sword on Easter day, 
29th March, 1282, at the time 
when the vespers were being 
sung at Palermo. John of Pro- 
dda, who was the principal au- 
thor of the Sicilian ve^ers, was 
deprived, by King Charles of An- 

1'ou, of his island of Procida, for 
saving taken the part of Man- 



fredi and Conradin. Peter of Ar- 
ragon, who married a daughter 
of Manfredi, was made king of 
Sicily ; and these kingdoms were 
separated till the time of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, who united 
them in 1504. 

' Charles 11 succeded his father, 
Charles I, and transmitted the 
kingdom to his son, Robert the 
Good, in 1309. This prince dis- 
played considerable talent, and 
under hid reign the arts, sciences, 
and literature were most culti- 
vated Bt Naples. In 1841 Jane I, 
grand-daughter of Robert, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Naples; 
she married Andrew, son of ike 
King of Hungary; but he was 
strMigled in 1345, probably with 
the approbation of the queen; 
others, however, attribute his 
death to the intrigues of Char- 
les de Duras, who contrived the 
death of this unfortunate queen/ 
The grand schism of the west 
commenced in 1378, by the double 
election which the cardinals suc- 
cessively made of Urban VI and 
Clement VII; the latter was re^ 
cognized as pope by France and 
by Queen Jane. Urban excom- 
municated the queen, and decla- 
red her deprived of her estates; 
he invited nrom Hungary Char- 
les de Duras, a descendant of 
Charles H, and gave him the 
kingdom of Naples. The queen, 
in order to have a protector, no- 
minated as her successor the Duke 
of Aiyou, brother of Charles V, 
king of France, and second son 
of King John; but she could not 
prevent Charles de Duras from 
entering Naples on the 16th 
July, 1381. The queen was be- 
sieged in the Castello dell' Uovo, 
and was obliged to surrender; 
Charles de Duras ordered her 
to be executed on the 22nd May, 



146 



8oirrii2Ri9 nrALT. — ristort of Naples. 



1882, just as the Duke on Aiyou 
was entering Italy to assist her. 
For the sake of brevity we shall 
pass over the successors of Char- 
les ni and of Louis of Anion. 

In the year 1493 Charles VIII, 
being at peace with Spain, Eng- 
land, and the Low Countries, 
determined to support the claims 
of the house of Anjou to the 
kingdom of Naples; he was li- 
vely and ardent, his favourites 
encouraged him to undertake 
this conquest, and he accompli- 
shed the desired object; he en- 
tered Naples on the 2 1st February, 
1495; he made his entry with 
the imperial ornaments, and was 
saluted with the name of Caesar 
Augustus, for the pope, Alexan- 
der VI, had declared him Em- 
peror of Constantinople on his 
passage into Rome. It is true that 
Charles VIII had besieged him in 
tiie castle of St Angelo ; but he 
atoned for this offence by wait- 
ing on him at mass, and paying 
him filial obedience in the most 
solemn manner. 

A short time after, the Vene- 
tians, the pope, the emperor, and 
the lang of Arragon, being leagued 
against Charles VIII, he could 
not preserve his conquest, and he 
would ^ith difficulty have regained 
France had he not won the battle 
of Fomova in 1495. Ferdinand II 
then returned to his kingdom of 
Naples, by the assistance of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, king of Ar- 
ragon and of Sicily. He died in 
1496, without leaving any heir. 

Louis XII then wished to lay 
claim to the kingdom of Naples, 
as the successor of the ancient 
kings of the house of Anjou, 
and particularly of Charles VIII, 
who had been king of Naples 
in 1496; Ferdinand likewise sup- 
ported his pretentions to it as 



a nephew of Alphonso, kin^ 
of Naples, who died without is- 
sue in 1458. In 1501 Louis sent 
Gonzalvo of Cordova, sumamed 
the Great Captain, under pretence 
of assisting his cousin against 
the King of France, but in fact 
to divide with him the kingdom 
of 'Naples, according to a secret 
convention entered into between 
these two kings. Frederic II was 
obliged to abandon his estates; 
he retired to Tours, where he 
died in 1504. Louis XII and the 
King of Arragon divided the king- 
dom, but Naples belonged to the 
French. This division, which took 

Slace in 1501, gave rise to new 
ifficulties; a war was kindled 
between the French and Spa- 
niards; and Ferdinand, notwith- 
standing the treaty, took posses- 
sion of the kingaom. Gonzalvo 
gained the battle of Seminira in 
Calabria, where he took the 
French general, Aubign6, priso- 
ner, and the battle of Cerignole, 
in Apulia, when Louis d' Armagh 
nac, duke of Nemours and vice- 
roy of Naples, was killed on the 
28th of April, 1603. He gained 
a third battle near the Carigliano, 
and entered Naples in the same 
year. The French then lost the 
kingdom of Naples for ever, and 
this city afterwards submitted for 
more than two centuries to for- 
eign princes who did not reside 
in Italy. 

Charles V, who became king 
of Spain in 1516, continued to 
sway the sceptre of Naples, as 
did Philip II and his successors, 
till the conquest of the Emperor 
Joseph I, in 1707. 

Whilst the kings of Spain were 
in possession of Naples, they 
appointed viceroys who, being 
screened by distance from the su- 
perintendence of their sovereign^ 



smnHnuf itau.— -tasroiiT of navieb. 



147 



pftfti oppressed the people. The 
l)Dke of Archop, who was vice- 
roy in 1647, under Philip IV, 
wished to lay a tax 6n frnit in 
addition to the excessive imposts 
with which the Neapolitans were 
already burdened. This new de^ 
mand was so exorbitant that it 
excited the rnnrmnrs of the people. 
The viceroy was often importuned 
by the solicitations and the da- 
mours of the populace, whilst cros- 
sing the market place to go to 
the church of the Carmelites, on 
every Saturday, as was the custom. 
About the same time the people 
of Palermo compelled the viceroy 
of Sicily to suppress the duties 
on flour, wine, oil, meat, and 
cheese : this example encouraged 
the Neapolitans, and gave rise to 
the famous conspiracy of which 
Masaniello was the chief mover. 
The chief, of the conspiring 
party was a young man, 24 years 
of age, named 'Hiomas Aniello, 
but by the populace pronunced 
Masaniello. He was bom at Amalfi, 
a" small town in the gulf of Sa^ 
lemo, twenty-^even miles from 
Naples, and was by profession a 
fisherman. The general discontent 
so inflamed his mind that he re- 
solved to hang himself or take off 
the tax on fruit. On the 16th 
June, 1647, he went to the shops 
of the fruiterers and proposed to 
them to come the next day to 
the market place together and pu- 
blicly declare that they would not 
pay the duty : the assessor, how- 
ever, having ODtained information 
of the proceeding, repaired to the 
spot, where he gave the people 
hopes that the tax should be re- 
moved, and thus dissipated the 
tumult. On the 7th July, how- 
ever, the tumult having recom- 
menced, he attempted ineffectually 
to quell the disturbance, and had^ 



nearly been killed by the popn* 
lace. Masaniello took this oppor- 
tunity of assembling the most de- 
termined; he conducted them to 
the place where the offices and 
chests of the collectors were si- 
tuated; these they pillaged im- 
mediately, and after breaking open 
the prisons and freeing the cap- 
tives they proceeded t6 the pa* 
lace of the viceroy, whom they 
compelled to promise that the 
duty should be taken off; he af- 
terwards took refuge in the new 
castle; the people, Jiowever, be» 
sieged him there, and not con<- 
tenting themselves with liis pro*- 
mises, made him pledge himself 
to suppress the duty, and to main- 
tain the privileges and exempt 
tions granted to the Neapolitans 
by Ferdinand I of Arragon, as 
well as by Frederick and Char- 
les V. They likewise insisted that 
the council and all the nobility 
should ratify this engagement 

At the same time the people 
pillaged the houses of the col- 
lector, and of all those who had 
any share in imposing the duty 
on fruit ; and thev were about to 
commit similar depredations on 
the palaces of several noblemen 
had they not been diverted fr9m 
their intention by the timely in- 
terposition ofCardinal Filemarino, 
archbishop of Naples,for whomthe 
people entertained great friend- 
ship and respect 

Masaniello was, however, elec- 
ted captain-general of the people 
on the 9th July; his spirit, firm*- 
ness, and good behaviour rendered 
his authority more considerable 
every day ; a kind of throne was 
erected for him in the centre of 
the market-place, on which he 
ascended with his coimsellors, 
and gave audience to the public. 
There, in his white fisherman's 

7* 



148 



BODTBERN ITALT. — HISTORY OF NAfLKS. 



dresfi, he receiyed petitions and 
requests, pronounced judgment, 
and caused his orders to be im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than lt50,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mof e closely confined in the castle, 
and his provisions cut off.' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
mantles or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guilty. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even crueL 

On the 13th July, negotiators 
having arrived to concihate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
with great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church ; he caused 
the capitulatioh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
MasanieUo stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
in hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy; the first was, to make 
him conunandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
guard, with the right of naming 
the military officers, and gfant- 
ing leaves ; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



guards who were in the castle. 
To these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony might 
not be disturbed by his retoal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 

On the 14th of July Masaniello 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
tlir6ught the citv, imprisoning, 
torturing, and beheading people 
for the slightest offences. He tlu^ea- 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with him 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in follies of a 
different kind; she went in asu- 
perb carriage, taken from the 
Duke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

Masaniello had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform Uie vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his follies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Oaracciolo^ 
the master of the horse, that as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met him he should kiss his 
feet in the market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by flight to the 
castle. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even the po- 
pulace, to whom he owed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, f6te day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Garmel,. 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — HIStTORT OF NAPU8. 



149 



Masaniello went to hear n^ass; 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
**Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are wil&ig to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the viceroy and all the magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church." The cardinal em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
saniello immediately ascended the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
conjured them not to abandon 
him, recalling to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which fiad attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and Masaniello, seeing that he 
had lost the public confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace in 
order to carrv his abdication to 
the viceroy. The cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; but as Masaniello 
was in a perspiration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belonging to the 
convent to change his iLien. After 
having rested, he went to a bsd- 
cony overlooking the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
had entered through the church, 
and were calling him; he walked 



up to them, saying, "My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
ana." They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The head of Masaniello was car- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing the least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to take an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
after being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-general. 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months^nd 
he published a manifesto in or- 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Kome in the month of 
September, 1647 ; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples offe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading; the people 
against the Spaniards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on tho 21st of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car- 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards ; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Garbonara; he had induced many 
noblemen to join him, and his 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, when the Spa- 



150 



SOUTflSRN ITALY. — HISTORY OP NAPLBS. 



mards, profltmg b^ his occasio- 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
rione and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Gaserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; he was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus temuna- 
ted the disturbances of Naples. 

The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdom, 
Philip y, the grandson of Louis 
XIV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702. He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Count Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of the Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of the house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at Baden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Charles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadeus, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, king of Spain, retook it with 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
by the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to Charles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was acknowledged by ever^ 
other power king of the Two Si- 
cilies, and I^ng Victor was obli- 
ged to rest contented with Sar- 
dinia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of Orleans, the regent of France, 
who was not on good terms with 
He Kiqg of Sardinia, contributed 



greatly to this change rather un- 
favourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on accoimt of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken the 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the King of Spain, and already 
Duke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma and 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, Tuscany to the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles III, had the fe* 
licity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in the great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec- 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, nas enjoyed more tran- 
quillity and flourished in nreater 
prosperity than at any former 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the succeasion of the 



SOVTHBUN- ITALY. — HISTORY OF NAPOfl. 



%(^l 



fsmperor Charles TI, the English 
had appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in order to 
force the' king to sini a promise 
not to act against me interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive himself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Campo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of the army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was, soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
king remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
III being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serving the second for the Spa- 
nish throne (the eldest being in- 
capable of reigning), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
years, when Napoleon Bonaparte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806, and gave 
it to . his brother Joseph ; the 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
Ae brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from the throne of France, 
Francis H, emperor of Germany, 
recovered" the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vested again. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand U. 



GENKRAL VUEW OF NAPLES. 

It is almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in any 
other place on earth which c^ 
excite the curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeed, 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, or more 
superb than the Coliseum? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
villas Albani andLudovisi? What 
paintings can rival those which 
may be seen in the porticoes, 
and the chambers painted by 
Raphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned: nevertheless, it 
is one of the most beautiful 
and most delightful cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples, is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and endrcling a ^f sixteen 
miles in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno; the 
other, on the left, the cape of 
Massa. The island of Capri on 
one side, and that of Prodda on 
the other, seem to close the gulf 



152 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — SINKRAL VIXW OF NAPLK8. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The cil^ ap- 
pears to crown this superb oasin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is from the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori,'' intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of nature, 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, by the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of. the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magmficence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
of Naples and Pozzuoli the most 



curious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the ''happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautiful in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa dell' acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the dty. 
The aqueducts under the pave^ 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisaiius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso L 



MDTBBRII ITALY. — NAPLES. 



153 



NAPbKS. 

It is supposed that the andent 
town of Parthenope, or Neapolis. 
was situated in me highest and 
most northern part of the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Kapoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w>s divided into three great qar- 
ters or sqasyres, called the Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towards the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 

The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, so that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them, and would not tm- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The city 
was afterwards enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
castles may, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Gastello deU' Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst the people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is like- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chiaja,Monte CsA- 
vario, Avvocate, Stella, St Carlo 
all* Arena, Vicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Gius^pe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 336,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
excepting London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more &an 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of tiiie 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are paved with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the prmcipal, 
is very broad and straight, ana 
is nearly a mile in length. The 
squares are large and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost. 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat roofs, in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, ' 
and all the other public build- 
ings sure magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as that 
of the edifices of Kome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 300 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and other public build- 

7* 



Ui 



8tIITBBIU<l> ITALY. — BISTORT Ot IfAPUi. 



but die mgralitade of the latter 
baling initigated the Normans 
to make war, Drogon created 
himself count of Apulia; the pope, 
St Leo IX, and the emperor, uni- 
ted to expel him, but the pope 
fell into the hands of Robert 
Guiscard, another son of Tan- 
cred of Hkutevifie, who entered 
Itidy in the year 1053. 
. The Normans paid every re- 
spect to this pope whilst he was 
fheir prisoner; they conducted 
him to the town of Benerentum, 
wluch had belonged to him since 
the preceding year; and it was 
there, according to historians, 
that he bestowed the investiture 
of Apulia, of Calabria, and of 
Sicily, on Onfroi, one of Tan- 
cred's sons, on account of his 
homage to the holy see. Robert 
Gtnscard took the title bi duke 
of Calabria in 1060, and conti- 
nued to extent his conquests: he 
afta-wards liberated Pope Gre; 
gory Vn from Ihe hands of the 
Emperor Henry IV, who besie- 
ged him in Rome; but he did 
more injury to the town than the 
enemies he had driven away. He 
was preparing to make war with 
the Greeks, when death put a 
period to his operations, in 1085. 

Roger, son of Robert Guiscard, 
succeded him, and was proclai- 
med duke of Calabria andof Sa<- 
lemo: Boemond and Tancred, 
Ihs son and nephew, set out in 
1096 for the crusade. This is the 
Tancred whose adventures and 
amours were so much celebrated 
by the poets, and particularly by 
Tasso. 

At the time when Duke Ro^er 
was about to pass into Sicily, 
on account of a conspiracy for- 
med by a Greek against the Count 
of Sicily, Pope Urban H was so 
pleased with his zeal for the 



welfare of the Cathtflic churchy 
that in 1100 he nominate him 
and his successors apostolic le- 
gates to the whole island; he 
performed the functions of ihis 
o£Qce with great fidelity; he re- 
established religion in Sicily, 
and founded numerous hospitals^ 
churches, and bishoprics. 

Roger, the second son of thef 
preceding, having been made 
Count of Sicily, obtained posse-^ 
sion, in the absence of his daest 
brother, of Apulia and of Cala- 
bria^ the duke of Naples swore 
fidehty to him in 1129j andhdr 
ving afterwards become master 
of all the territory now forming 
the kingdom of Naples and Si- 
cily, he took the title of king, 
with the consent of the Antipope 
Anaclettts ; he subdued ail who 
wished to oppose him, and com- 
pelled Pope Innocent U to con- 
firm his title of king of Sicily in 
the year* 1139. He carried his 
conquests to Africa, rendering 
himself master of Tripoli, of Tu- 
nis, and of Hippona ; ana he left 
his kingdom, in the year 1154, 
to his son, William the Wicked 
William TI, surnamed tiie Good, 
succeeded his father in 1166. 

In 1189 Tancred. son of King 
Roger, wa& elected King of Sicily^ 
on account of his superior abili* 
ties, although the Emperor Henr^ir 
YI laid claim to tMs kingdom, 
as having < married Constance, 
the posthumous daugther of King 
Roger. 

After the death of Tancred, 
in the year 1192, the Emperor 
Henry VI, son of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, obtained possession of 
the kingdom, and transmitted it 
to his son. Frederick U swayed 
the sceptre of Sicily for fifty- 
three years; but Ms death hap- 
pening in 1250, Pope Innocent iV 



SOUTHERN ITALI.— HISTORY OF NAPU8. 



145 



took possession of Naples as part 
of the property of the holy see. 
The son of Frederick was excom- 
municated by this pope, as a 
mark of disrespect and hatred^ 
towards his father; the cit}[ of 
Naples closed its gates against 
him, but he besieged it, took it 
by famine in 1254, and treated 
tiiie inhabitants with extraordi- 
nary cruelty. Mainfroi, or Man- 
freai, the natural son of Frede- 
rick n, obtained the crown, to the 
prejudice of Conradin, son ofthe 
Emperor Conrad IV, who was 
the rigthful heir as the grandson 
of Frederick. 

Pope Urban IV afterwards be- 
stowed Naples and Sicily, in 1265, 
on Charles, count of Anjou and 
of Provence, brotiier of St Louis, 
who engaged to pay tribute to 
the court of Home. In the mean- 
time Conradin brought an army 
from Germany to conquer his 
kingdoms: the Ghibelines of Italy 
received him with open arms; 
but having been defeated by the 
troops of Charles of Anjou, he 
was taken, as well as the young 
Frederick, the heir to the duchv 
of Austria, and they were botn 
executed at Naples in 1268, by 
order of Charles of Anjou. 

The house of Suabia then be- 
came extinct and Naples passed 
under the dominion of a new 
race of kings. Charles I estab- 
lished his residence at Naples, 
and this gave rise to a revolu- 
tion in Sicily; the French were 
put to the sword on Easter day, 
29th March, 1282, at the time 
when the vespers were being 
sung at Palermo. John of Pro- 
cida, who was the principal au- 
thor of the Sicilian vomers, was 
deprived, by King Charles of An- 

1'ou, of his island of Procida, for 
laving taken the part of Man- 



fredi and Conradin. Peter of Ar- 
ragon, who married a daughter 
of Manfredi, was made king of 
Sicily ; and these kingdoms were 
separated till the time of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, who united 
them in 1504. 

' Charles n succeded his father, 
Charles I, and transmitted the 
kingdom to his son, Robert the 
Good, in 1309. This prince dis- 
played considerable talent, and 
under hid reign the arts, sciences, 
and literature were most culti- 
vated Bt Naples. In 1841 Jane I, 
grand-daughter of Robert, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Naples; 
she married Andrew, son of ^e 
King of Hungary; but he was 
strangled in 1345, probably with 
the approbation of the queen; 
others, however, attribute his 
death to the intrigues of Char- 
les de Duras, who contrived the 
death of this unfortunate queen; 
The grand schism of the west 
commenced in 1378, by the double 
election which the cardinals suc- 
cessively made of Urban VI and 
Clement VII; the latter was re^ 
cognized as pope by France and 
by Queen Jane. Urban excom- 
municated the queen, and decla- 
red her deprived of her estates; 
he invited from Hungary Char- 
les de Duras, a descendant of 
Charles H, and gave him the 
kingdom of Naples. The queen, 
in order to have a protector, no- 
minated as her successor the Duke 
of Anjou, brother of Charles V, 
king of France, and second son 
of King John; but she could not 
prevent Charles de Duras from 
entering Naples on the 16th 
July, 1381. The queen was be- 
sieged in the Castello dell' Uovo, 
and was obliged to surrender; 
Charles de Duras ordered her 
to be executed on the 22nd May, 



146 



SOVTHKRIf ITALY. — HI6T0RT OF Na1*LES. 



1882, just as the Duke on Anjou 
was entering Italy to assist her. 
For the sake of brevity we shall 
pass over the successors of Char- 
les ni and of Louis of Anjou. 

In the year 1493 Charles Vm, 
being at peace with Spain, Eng- 
land, and the Low Countries, 
determined to support the claims 
of the house of Anjou to the 
kingdom of Naples; he was li- 
vely and ardent, his favourites 
encouraged him to undertake 
this conquest, and he accompli- 
shed the desired object; he en- 
tered Naples on the 2 1st February, 
1495; he made his entry with 
the imperial ornaments, and was 
saluted with the name of Caesar 
Augustus, for the pope, Alexan- 
der VI, had declared him Em- 
peror of Constantinople on his 
passage into Rome. It is true that 
Charles YIII had besieged him in 
tiie castle of St Angelo ; but he 
atoned for this offence by wait- 
ing on him at mass, and pa3^ng 
him filial obedience in the most 
solemn manner. 

A short time after, the Vene- 
tians, the pope, the emperor, and 
the Idng of Arragon, being leagued 
against Charles VIII, he could 
not preserve his conquest, and he 
would ^^ ith difficulty have regained 
France had he not won the battle 
of Fomova in 1495. Ferdinand II 
then returned to his kingdom of 
Naples, by the assistance of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, king of Ar- 
ragon and of Sicily. He died in 
1496, without leaving any heir. 

Louis XII then wished to lay 
claim to the kingdom of Naples, 
as the successor of the ancient 
kings of the "house of Anjou, 
and particularly of Charles VIII, 
who had been king of Naples 
in 1495; Ferdinand likewise sup- 
ported his pretentions to it as 



a n^hew of Alphonso, kin^ 
of Naples, who died without is- 
sue in 1458* In 1501 Louis sent 
Gonzalvo of Cordova, sumamed 
4;he Great Captain, under pretence 
of assisting his cousin against 
the King of France, but in fact 
to divide with him the kingdom 
of ^Naples, according to a secret 
convention entered into between 
these two kings. Frederic II was 
obliged to abandon his estates; 
he retired to Tours, where he 
died in 1504. Louis XII and the 
King of Arragon divided the king- 
dom, but Naples belonged to the 
French. This division, which took 

Slace in 1501, gave rise to new 
ifficulties; a war was kindled 
between the French and Spa- 
niards; and Ferdinand, notwith- 
standing the treaty, took posses- 
sion of the kingaom. Gonzalvo 
gained the battle of Seminira in 
Calabria, where he took the. 
French general, Aubign6, priso- 
ner, and the battle of Cerignole, 
in Apulia, when Louis d' Armagh 
nac, duke of Nemours and vice- 
roy of Naples, was killed on the 
28th of April, 1503. He gained 
a third battle near the Carigliano, 
and entered Naples in the same 
year. The French then lost the 
kingdom of Naples for ever, and 
this city afterwards submitted for 
more than two centuries to for- 
eign princes who did not reside 
in Italy. 

Charles V, who became king 
of Spain in 1516, continued to 
sway the sceptre of Naples, as 
did Philip II and his successors, 
till the conquest of the Emperor 
Joseph I, in 1707. 

Whilst the kings of Spain were 
in possession of Naples, they 
appointed viceroys who, being 
screened by distance from the su- 
perintendence of their sovereign^ 



SOmllSllIf ITAtt. — tnSTORT OF ¥7AI>lEt« 



147 



pftfti oppresBed the people. The 
ibnke of ArchoF, who was vice- 
roy in 1647, under Philip IV, 
wished to lay a tax 6n frnit in 
addition to the excessive imposts 
with which the Neapolitans were 
already burdened. ITiis new de* 
mand was so exorbitant that it 
excited the murmurs of the people. 
The viceroy was often importuned 
by the solicitations and the cla- 
mours of the populace, whilst cros- 
sing the market place to go to 
the church of the Carmelites, on 
every Saturday, as was the custom. 
About the same time the people 
of Palermo compelled the viceroy 
of Sicily to suppress the duties 
©n flour, wine, oil, meat, and 
cheese : this example encouraged 
the Neapolitans, and gave rise to 
the famous conspiracy of which 
Masaniello was the chief mover. 
The chief, of the conspiring 
party was a young man, 24 years 
of age, named 'Diomas Aniello. 
but % the populace pronuncea 
Masaniello. He was bom at Amalfl, 
a" small town in the gulf of Sa^ 
lemo, twenty-^even miles from 
Naples, and was by profession a 
fisherman. The general discontent 
60 inflamed his mind that he re- 
solved to hang himself or take off 
the tax on miit. On the 16th 
June, 1647, he went to the shops 
of the fruiterers and proposed to 
them to come the next day to 
the market place together and pu- 
blicly declare that they would not 
pay the duty ; the assessor, how- 
ever, having obtained information 
of the proceeding, repaired to the 
spot, where he gave the people 
hopes that the tax should be re- 
moved, and thus dissipated the 
tumult. On the 7th July, how- 
ever, the tumult having recom- 
menced, he attempted ineffectually 
to quell the disturbance, andhacL 



nearly been killed by the popu- 
lace. Masaniello took this oppor- 
tunity of assembling the most de- 
termmed; he conducted them to 
the place where the oi^ces and 
chests of the collectors were si^ 
tnated; these they pillaged im- 
mediately, and after breaking open 
the prisons and freeing the cap- 
tives they proceeded & the pa-^ 
lace of the viceroy, whom they 
compelled to promise that the 
duty should be taken off; he af- 
terwards took refuge in the new 
castle; the people, however, be- 
sieged him there, and not con- 
tenting themselves with ills pro- 
mises, made him pledge himself 
to suppress the duty, aM to main- 
tain the privileges and exemp* 
tions granted to the Neapolitans 
by Ferdinand I of Arragon, as 
well as by Frederick and Char- 
les V. They likewise insisted that 
the council and all the nobility 
should ratify this engagement 

At the san^e time the people 
pillaged the houses of the col- 
lector, and of all those who had 
any share in imposing the duty 
on fruit ; and they were about to 
commit similar depredati<ms on 
the palaces of several noblemen 
had they not been diverted fr^m 
their intention by the timely in- 
terposition ofCardinal Filemarino, 
archbishop of Napl€S,forwhomthe 
people entertained great friend- 
ship and regpoct. 

Masaniello was, however, elec- 
ted captain-general of the people 
on the 9th July ; his spirit, Ann*- 
ness, and good behaviour rendered 
his authority more ' considerable 
every day ; a kind of throne was 
erected for him in the centre of 
the market-place, on which he 
ascended with nis counsellors, 
and gave audience to the public. 
There, in his white fisherman's 

7* 



148 



BOOTHERN ITALT. — BISTORT OF NAPLES. 



dress, he received petitions and 
requests, pronounced jud^ent, 
and caused his orders to be im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than 1<50,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mofe closely confined in the castle, 
and his provisions cut oflF. ' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
mantles or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guilty. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even cruel 

On the ISdi July, negotiators 
having arrived to conciliate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
with great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church ; he caused 
the capitulatioh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
Masaniello stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
hi hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy; the first was, to make 
him conmiandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
guard, with the right of naming 
the military officers, and gfant- 
ing leaves ; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



guards who were in the castle. 
To these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony might 
not be disturbed by his refusal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 

On the 14th of July Masaniello 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
thr6ught the city, imprisoning, 
torturing, and beheading people 
for tiie slightest offences. He threa^ 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with him 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in follies of a 
different kind; she went in a su- 
perb carriage, taken from the 
Duke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

MasanieUo had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform the vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his follies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Caracciolo, 
the master of the horse, tiiat as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met him he should kiss his 
feet in tiie market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by flight to the 
castie. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even tiie po- 
pulace, to whom he ewed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, f^te day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Carmel, 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SeUTHERN ITALY. — HIttTORY Of NAPLKS. 



149 



Masaniello went to hear n^ass; 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
**Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are willing to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the yiceroy and all llie magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church." The cardiual em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
tsaniello immediately ascended the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
conjured them not to abandon 
him, recalling to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which ^ad attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and Masaniello, seeing that he 
had lost the public confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace in 
order to carry his abdication to 
the viceroy. Tlie cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; bttt as Masaniello 
was in a perspiration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belon^g to the 
convent to change his Imen. After 
having rested, he went to a bal- 
cony overlooking the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
bad entered through the church, 
and were calling him; he walked 



up to them, saying, "My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
am.'* They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The head of Masaniello was car- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing the least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to take an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
aiter being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-general. 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months,^d 
he published a manifesto in or- 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Rome in the month of 
September, 1647 ; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples offe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading the people 
against the Spamards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on tho 2 1st of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car- 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Carbonara; he had induced many 
noblemen to join him, and hu 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, when the Spa- 



im 



90UT1L8RN ITALY. — HISTORY OF KUPLIS. 



mards, profitmg b^r his occasio- 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
rione and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Caserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; he was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus termina- 
ted- the disturbances of Naples. 

The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdom, 
Philip V, the grandson of Louis 
XIV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702. He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Count Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of the Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of the house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at Baden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Charles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadeus, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, king of Spain, retook it witib 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
by the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to Charles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was aclmowledged by ever^ 
other power king of the Two Si- 
cilies, and King Victor was obli- 
ged to rest contented with Sar- 
dinia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of Orleans, the regent of France, 
who was not on good terms with 
'\e Kiqg of Sardinia, contributed 



greatly to this change rather on- 
favourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on account of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken the 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the King of Spain, and already 
Duke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma and 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, Tuscany to the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles HI, had the fe- 
Ucity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in the great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec- 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, has enjoyed more tran- 
quillity and flourished in greater 
prosperity than at any former 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the succeaaion of the 



SOVTBimN' ITALY.— -HfSXOKY OF NAPi^. 



l&l 



/ 

emper(»' Charles TI, the English 
had appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in order to 
force the king to sign a promise 
not to act against the interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive hunself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Gampo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of the army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was, soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
long remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
III being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serving the second for the Spa- 
nish throne (the eldest being in- 
capable of reigiung), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
years, when Napoleon Bonaparte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806, and gave 
it to his brother Joseph; tiie 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
ihe brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from flie throne of France, 
Francis n, emperor of Germany, 
recovered* the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vested again. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand U. 



6EN£RAL VI£W OF NAPLES. 

It is almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in any 
other place on earth which cfin 
excite the curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeed, 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, or more 
superb than the Coliseum ? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
villas Albani andLudovisi? What 
paintings can rival those which 
may be seen in the porticoes, 
and the chambers painted by 
Raphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned; nevertheless, it 
is one of the most beautifiil 
and most delightful cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples, is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and encircling a ^f sixteen 
miles in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno ; the 
other, on the left, the cape of 
Massa. The islana of Capri on 
one side, and that of Procida on 
the other, seem to close th^ gulf 



i>^«:i ^ 



152 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — 6CNERAL VIBW OF NAPLSB. 



but between these islands and 
Ae two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The citv ap- 
pears to crown this superb oasin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king*s 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is from the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori,^' intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of nature, 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, bv the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of. the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magnificence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
f Naples and Pozzuoii the most 



curious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hiUs which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the **happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautiful in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa dell' acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the city. 
The aque(iucts under the pave- 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso I. 



SOVTHSRIV ITALY. — NAPLES. 



158 



NAPbES. 

It is supposed that the ancient 
town of Parthenope, orNeapoHs, 
was situated in me highest and 
most northern part of the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Napoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
wjLS divided into three great qar- 
ters or squares, called 9ie Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towards the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 
The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
waUs, so that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them^ and would not Un- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
city being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The city 
was afterwards enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
casUes mav, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Castello dell' Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst the people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is like- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chi^ja, Monte Cal- 
vario, Avvocata, Stella, St Carlo 
all' Arena, Vicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Giuseppe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 336,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
excepting London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more Uian 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are pavea with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the principal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in len^h. The 
squares are large and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about ^ye or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat roo», in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, 
and all the other public build- 
ings sure magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as that 
of the edifices of Rome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 800 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and other public build 

7* 



M^t^t 



9WTWSK» ITALY. — ^BISTOM 01 NAnjtl. 



but tke ingriMtttade of the latter 
hflTing initigated the Normans 
to make war, Drogon created 
himjself count of Apulia; the pope, 
St Leo IX, and the emperor, uni* 
ted to expel him, but the pope 
fell into the hands of Robert 
Guiscard, another son of Tan- 
cred of Hauteville, who entered 
Italy in the year 1053. 

Tlie Normans paid every re- 
spect to this pope whilst he was 
thei^ prisoner; they^ conducted 
him to the town of beneventnm, 
wMch had belonged to him since 
the preceding year; and it was 
there, according to historians, 
that he bestowed the investiture 
of Apulia, of Calabria, and of 
Sicily, on Onfroi, one of Tan- 
cred's sons, on account of his 
homage to the holy see. Robert 
Guiscard took the title of duke 
of Osdabria in 1060, and conti- 
nued to extent his conquests: he 
afterwards liberated Pope Gre^ 
gory Vn from Ihe hands of the 
Emperor Henry IV, who besie- 
ged him in Rome; buft he did 
more injury to the town than the 
enemies he had driven away. He 
was preparing to make war with 
the Greeks, when death put a 
period to his operations, in 1085. 

< Roger, son of Robert Guiscard, 
succeded him, and was proclai- 
med duke of Calabria and of Sa- 
lerno: Boemond and Tancred, 
his son and nephew, set out in 
1096 for the crusade. This is the 
Tancred whose adventures and 
amours were so much celebrated 
by the poets, 'and particularly by 
Tasso. 

At the time when Duke Ro^er 
was about to pass into Sicily, 
on account of a conspiracy for- 
med by a Greek against the Count 
of Sicily, Pope Urban H was so 
pleased with his zeal for the 



welfare of the Catholic ehnreh, 
that in 1100 he noHunated }dm 
and his successors apostolic le- 
gates to ^e whole island; he 
performed the functions of this 
olffice with great fidelity; he re- 
established religion in Sicily, 
and founded numerous hospitals^ 
churches, and bishoprics. 

Roger, the second son of the 
preceding, having been made 
Count of Sicily, obtained posse- 
sion, in the absence of his eldest 
brother, of Apulia and. of Cala- 
bria j the duke of Naples swore 
fidehty to him in 1129$ and. ha- 
ving afterwards become master 
of all the territory now forming 
the kingdom of Naples and Si- 
cily, he took the title of king, 
with the consent of the Antipope 
Anacletus; he subdued all who 
wished to oppose him, and com- 
pelled Pope Innocent H to con- 
firm his title of king of Sicily in 
the yeaffi 1139. He carried his 
conquests to Africa, rendering 
himself master of Tripoli, <rf Tu- 
nis, and of Hippona; andheleit 
his kingdom, in the year 1154^ 
to his son, William the Wicked 
William H, surnamed the Good, 
succeeded his father in 1166. 

In 1189 Tancred, son of King 
Roger, waa elected king of Sicily^ 
on account of his superior abili* 
ties, although the Emperor Henryr 
YI laid claim to this kingdom, 
as having -married Constonce, 
the posthumous daugther of King 
Roger. 

After the death of Tancred,. 
in the year 1192, the Emperor 
Henry VI, son of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, obtained possession of 
the kingdom, and transmitted it 
to his son. Frederick U swayed 
the sceptre of Sicily for fifty- 
three years; but his death hap- 
pening in 1250, Pope Innocent tV 



SODTBERfi ITALY. — HISTOHY OF NAPLES. 



145 



took poBsession of Naples as part 
of the property of the holy see. 
The son of Frederick was excom- 
municated by this pope, as a 
mark of disrespect and hatred^ 
towards his father; the city of 
Naples closed its gates against 
him, but he besieged it, took it 
by famine in 1254, and treated 
the inhabitants with extraordi- 
nary cruelty. Mainfroi, or Man- 
fredi, the natural son of Frede- 
rick n, obtained the crown, to the 
prejudice of Conradin, son ofthe 
Emperor Conrad IV, who was 
the rigthfiil heir as the grandson 
of Frederick. 

Pope Urban IV afterwards be- 
stowed Naples and Sicily, in 1265, 
on Charles, count of Anjou and 
of Provence, brother of St Louis, 
who engaged to pay tribute to 
the court of Home. In the mean- 
time Conradin brought an army 
from Germany to conquer his 
kingdoms: the Ghibelines of Italy 
received him with open arms; 
but having been defeated by the 
troops of Charles of Anjou, he 
was taken, as well as the young 
Frederick, the heir to the duchy 
of Austria, and they were botn 
executed at Naples in 1268, by 
order of Charles of Anjou. 

The house of Suabia then be- 
came extinct^ and Naples passed 
under the dominion of a new 
race of kings. Charles I estab- 
lished his residence at Naples, 
and this gave rise to a revolu- 
tion in Sicily; the French were 
put to the sword on Easter day, 
29th March, 1282, at the time 
when the vespers were being 
sung at Palermo. John of Pro- 
cida, who was the principal au- 
thor of the Sicilian vei^ers, was 
deprived, by King Charles of An- 

i'ou, of his island of Procida, for 
laving taken the part of Man- 



fredi and Conradin. Peter of Ar- 
ragon, who married a daughter 
of Manfredi, was made king of 
Sicily ; and these kingdoms were 
separated till the time of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, who united 
them in 1504. 

' Charles n succeded his father, 
Charles I, and transmitted the 
kingdom to his son, Robert the 
Good, in 1309. This prince dis- 
plaved considerable talent, and 
under Md reign the arts, sciences, 
and literature were most culti- 
vated at Naples. In 1341 Jane I, 
grand-daughter of Robert, suc- 
ceeded to the throne of Naples; 
she married Andrew, son of the 
King of Hungary; but he was 
strangled in 1345, probably with 
the approbation of the queen; 
others, however, attribute his 
death to the intrigues of Char- 
les de Duras, who contrived the 
death of this unfortunate queen; 
The grand schism of the west 
commenced in 1378, by the double 
election which th^ cardinals suc- 
cessively made of Urban VI and 
Clement VH; the latter was re^ 
cognized as pope by France and 
by Queen Jane. Urban excom- 
municated the queen, and decla- \ 
red her deprived of her estates; 
he invited from Hungary Char- 
les de Duras, a descendant of 
Charles H, and gave him the 
kingdom of Naples. The queen, 
in order to have a protector, no- 
minated as her successor the Duke 
of Aiyou, brother of Charles V, 
king of France, and second son 
of King John; but she could not 
prevent Charles de Duras from 
entering Naples on the 16th 
July, 1381. The queen was be- 
sieged in the Castello dell' Uovo, 
and was obliged to surrender; 
Charles de Duras ordered her 
to be executed on the 22nd May, 



146 



SOUTHZRIV ITALY. — BISTORT OF NA1»L£S. 



1382, just as the Dnke on Anjou 
was entering Italy to assist her. 
For the sake of brevity we shall 
pass over the successors of Char- 
les ni and of Louis of Anjou. 

In the year 1493 Charles vm, 
being at peace with Spain, Eng- 
land, and the Low Countries, 
determined to support the claims 
of the house of Anjou to the 
kingdom of Naples; he was li- 
vely and ardent, his favourites 
encouraged him to undertake 
this conquest, and he accompli- 
shed the desired object; he en- 
tered Naples on the 2 1st February, 
1495; he made his entry with 
the imperial ornaments, and was 
saluted with the name of Caesar 
Augustus, for the pope, Alexan- 
der VI, had declared him Em- 
peror of Constantinople on his 
passage into Rome. It is true that 
Charles VIII had besieged him in 
tiie castle of St Angelo ; but he 
atoned for this offence by wait- 
ing on him at mass, and paying 
him filial obedience in the most 
solemn manner. 

A short time after, the Vene- 
tians, the pope, the emperor, and 
the king of Arragon, being leagued 
against Charles VIII, he could 
not preserve his conquest, and he 
would ^ ith difficulty have regained 
France had he not won the battle 
of Fomova in 1495. Ferdinand II 
then returned to his kingdom of 
Naples, by the assistance of Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, king of Ar- 
ragon and of Sicily. He died in 
1496, without leaving any heir. 

Louis XII then wished to lay 
claim to the kingdom of Naples, 
as the successor of the ancient 
kings of the house of Anjou, 
and particularly of Charles VIII, 
who had been king of Naples 
in 1495; Ferdinand likewise sup- 
ported his pretentions to it as 



a nephew of Alphonso, kin^ 
of Naples, who died without is- 
sue in 1458. In 1501 Louis sent 
Gonzalvo of Cordova, sumamed 
the Great Captain, under pretence 
of assisting his cousin against 
the King of France, but in fact 
to divide with him the kingdom 
of "Naples, according to a secret 
convention entered mto between 
these two kings. Frederic II was 
obliged to abandon his estates; 
he retired to Tours, where hfe 
died in 1504. Louis Xn and the 
King of Arragon divided the king- 
dom, but Naples belonged to the 
French. This division, which took 
place in 1501, gave rise to new 
difficulties; a war was kindled 
between the French and Spa- 
niards; and Ferdinand, notwith- 
standing the treaty, took posses- 
sion of the kingdom. Gonzalvo 
sained the battle of Seminira in 
Calabria, where he took the 
French general, Aubiffn^, priso- 
ner, and the battle of Cerignole, 
in Apulia, when Louis d' Armagh 
nac, dnke of Nemours and vice- 
roy of Naples, was killed on the 
28th of April, 1503. He gained 
a third battle near the Carigliano, 
and entered Naples in the same 
year. The French then lost the 
kingdom of Naples for ever, and 
this city afterwards submitted for 
more than two centuries to for- 
eign princes who did not reside 
in Italy. 

Charles V, who became king 
of Spain in 1516, continued to 
sway the sceptre of Naples, as 
did Philip II and his successors, 
till the conquest of the Emperor 
Joseph J, in 1707, 

Whilst the kings of Spain were 
in possession of Naples, they 
appointed viceroys who, being 
screened by distance from the su- 
perintendence of their sovereign^ 



«OVttoeiUf ITALY. — tnSTORT OF HAn.EB. 



147 



often oppressed the people. The 
iDuke of Archop, who was vice- 
roy in 1647, under Philip IV, 
wished to lay a tax 6n fruit in 
addition to the excessive imposts 
with which the Neapolitans were 
already burdened. This new de- 
mand was so exorbitant that it 
excited the murmurs of the people. 
The viceroy was often importuned 
by the solicitations and the cla- 
mours of the populace, whilst cros- 
tsing the market place to go to 
the church of the Carmelites, on 
every Saturday, as was the custom. 
About the same time the people 
of Palermo compelled the viceroy 
of Sicily to suppress the duties 
©n flour, wine, oil, meat, and 
cheese : this example encouraged 
the Neapolitans, and gave rise to 
the famous conspiracy of which 
Masaniello was the chief mover. 
The chief, of the conspiring 
party was a young man, 24 years 
of age, named 'Hiomas Aniello, 
but by the populace pronunced 
Masaniello. He was bom at Amalfl, 
a' small town in the gulf of Sa^ 
lemo, twenty-seven miles from 
Naples, and was by profession a 
fisherman. The general discontent 
80 inflamed his mind that he re- 
solved to hang himself or take off 
the tax on miit. On the 16th 
June, 1647, he went to the shops 
of the fruiterers and proposed to 
them to come the next day to 
the market place together ana pu- 
blicly declare that they would not 
pay the duty ; the assessor, how- 
ever, having obtained information 
of the proceeding, repaired to the 
spot, where he gave the people 
hopes that the tax should be re- 
moved, and thus dissipated the 
tumult. On the 7th July, how- 
ever, the tumult having recom- 
menced, he attempted ineffectually 
to quell the disturbance, andhad^ 



nearly been killed by the popu- 
lace. Masaniello took this oppor- 
tunity of assembling the most de- 
termmed; he conducted them to 
the place where the offices and 
chests of the collectors were si- 
tuated; these they pillaged im^ 
mediately, and after breaking open 
the prisons and freeing the cap- 
tives they proceeded tb the pa* 
lace of the viceroy, whom they 
compelled to promise that the 
duty should be taken off; he af- 
terwards took refuge in the new 
castle; the people, J^owevftr, be- 
sieged him there, and not con*- 
tenting themselves with liis pro- 
mises, made him pledge himself 
to suppress the duty, and to main- 
tain the privileges and exempt 
tions granted to the Neapolitans 
by Ferdinand I of Arragon, as 
well as by Frederick and Char- 
les V. They likewise insisted that 
the council and all the nobihty 
should ratify this engagement. 

At the same time the people 
pillaged the houses of the col- 
lector, and of all those who had 
any share in imposing the duty 
on fruit ; and they were about to 
commit similar depredations on 
the palaces of several noblemen 
had they not been diverted frgm 
their intention by the timely in- 
terposition ofCardinal Filemarino, 
archbishop of Kaples,forwhomthe 
people entertained great friend- 
ship and respect 

Masaniello was, however, elec- 
ted captain-general of the people 
on the 9th July; his spirit, finn- 
ness, and good behaviour rendered 
his authority more " considerable 
every dav ; a kind of throne was 
erected for him in the centre of 
the market-place, on which he 
ascended with his counsellors, 
and gave audience to the public. 
There, in his white fisherman's 

7* 



148 



BOOTHKRN ITALT. — U8T0RT OF NAPLES. 



dress, he received petitions and 
requests, pronounced jud^ent, 
and caused his orders to be im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than 1<50,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mof e closely confined in the castle, 
and his provisions cut off.' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
mantles or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guilty. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even cruel 

On the 13th July, negotiators 
having arrived to conciliate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
with great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church ; he caused 
the capitulatioh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
Masaniello stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
in hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy ; the first was, to make 
him conmiandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
gnard, with the right of naming 
the military officers, and gfant- 
ing leaves ; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



guards who were in the castle. 
To these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony might 
not be disturbed by his refosal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 

On the 14th of July Masaniello 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
thr6ught the city, imprisoning,^ 
torturing, and beneading people 
for the slightest offences. He threa- 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with him 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in follies of a 
different kind; she went in a su- 
perb carriage, taken from the 
Duke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

MasanieUo had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform the vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his follies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Caracciolo, 
the master of the horse, that as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met him he should kiss bis 
feet in the market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by flight to the 
castle. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even &e po- 
pulace, to whom he ewed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, fSte day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Carmel, 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — USTORY OF NAPLK8. 



149 



Masaniello went to hear mass: 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
"Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are willing to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the yiceroy and all the magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church." The cardinal em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
saniello immediately ascended the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
coQJured them not to abandon 
him, recalling to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which ^ad attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and MasanieUo, seeing that he 
had lost the public confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace in 
order to cairv his abdication to 
the viceroy. The cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; but as MasanieUo 
was in a perspiration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belonging to the 
convent to change his linen. After 
having rested, he went to a bal- 
cony overlooking the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
had entered through the church, 
and were calling lum; he walked 



up to them, saying, "My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
am.'* They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The head of Masaniello was car- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing ihe least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to take an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
aiter being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-general. 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months^^nd 
he published a manifesto in or- 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Rome in the month of 
September, 1647 ; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples offe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading the people 
against the Spamards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on tho 2 1st of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car- 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Carbonara; he had induced many 
noblemen to join him, and his 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, when the Spa- 



150 



90UT1URN ITALY. — HISTORY OF NiiPUft. 



mards, profltmg by his occasio- 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
rione and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Caserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; he was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus termina- 
ted the disturbances of Naples. 

The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdom, 
Philip V, the grandson of Louis 
XrV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702. He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Count Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of tihie Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of tbe house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at ^aden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Cliarles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadeus, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, king of Spain, retook it wit£ 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
by the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to Charles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was acknowledged by ever^ 
other power king of the Two Si- 
cilies, and ICing Victor was obli- 
ged to rest contented with Sar- 
oinia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of OrleanSi the regent of France, 
who was not on good terms wi^ 
\e Kiqg of Sardinia, contributed 



r 

greatly to this change rather on- 
lavourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on account of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken the 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the IGng of Spain, and already 
Duke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma and 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, T^uscany to the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles HI, had the fe» 
licity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in the great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec- 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, has enjoyed more tran- 
quillity and flourished in «:eater 
prosperity than at any former 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the succession of tbQ 



SQUTBimN' ITALY.— aiSXORT OF NAPi^. 



161 



emperor Charles TI, the English 
had appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in order to 
force the king to sign a promise 
not to act against the interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive himself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Gampo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of the army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was, soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
king remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
ni being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serving the second for the Spa- 
nish throne (the eldest being in- 
capable of reigning), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
years, when Napoleon Bonaparte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806, and gave 
it to his brother Joseph; the 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
the brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from flie throne of France, 
Francis H, emperor of Germany, 
recovered^ the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vested again. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand U. 



6ENIRAL VIEW OF NAPLES. 

It is almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in any 
other place on earth which c^ 
excite the curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeedi 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agpippa, or more 
superb than the Coliseum ? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
villas Albani andLudovisi? What 
paintings can rival those which 
mav be seen in the porticoes, 
and the chambers painted by 
Kaphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned; nevertheless, it 
is one of the most beautiful 
and most delight&il cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples, is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and encircling a ^f sixteen 
miles in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape ; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno ; ■ the 
other, on the left, the cape of 
Massa. The island of Capri on 
one side, and that of Procida on 
the other, seem to close the gulf 



152 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — 6ENERAL VIEW OF NAPLES. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The city ap- 
pears to crown this superb basin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is from the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori," intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of naturej 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, by the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of. the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magnificence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
>f Naples and PozzuoU the most 



cuxious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which rorm 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the ''happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautiful in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa dell' acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the city. 
The aqueduets under the pave^ 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso I. 



80CTIIBRN ITALY. — NAPLB8. 



158 



NAPU8. 

It is supposed that Ihe ancient 
town of Parthenope, orNeapolis, 
was sitaated in me highest and 
most northern part or the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Kapoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w^s divided into three great qar- 
ters or squares, called 3ie Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towards the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 

The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, so that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them, and would not Un- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The citj 
was afterwards enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strone 
castles may, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Castello dell' IJovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst the people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is IDce- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chi£ga,Monte Cal- 
vario, Awocata, Stella, St Carlo 
all^ Arena, Yicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Giuseppe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 836,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
excepting London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more tiian 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are paved with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the principal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in length. The 
squares are larg£ and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat roo», in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, 
and all the other public build- 
ings are magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as &at 
of the edifices of Rome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 800 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and other public build 

7* 



lU 



SOUTiaaN 1TAI.T.— NAMiKS. iOTELS. 



inga, amongst which are thirty- 
seven conservatoriea, established 
for the benefit of poor children 
and old people, both men and 
women: there are also several 
hospitals and other humane estar 
blishments. 

LANDING. 

On the arrival of the steamer 
in the bay of Naples, a delay of 
an hour or an hour and a half 
takes place before the passen- 
gers are allowed to land ; during 
this interval an immence accu- 
mulation of boats for their ser- 
vice takes place, so that assoon 
as the police have ascertained 
"all's right," yourself and lug- 
gage (if ypu have attended to my 
hint in the Introduction) will be 
deposited in the custom house 
in a few minutes: an examina- 
tion of the luggage takes place; 
books are particularly noticed. 
As soon as your luggage is exa- 
mined, call una vetura da nolo 
(hackney carriage), and be con- 
veyed to your hotel: fare for 
two persons, 3 pauls; boatage, 
each person, with luggage l'|2 to 
2 pauls. 

N. B, From the moment you 
land till you quit Naples, always 
carry your handkerchief in your 
hat your, purse in your breast- 
pocket, and your watch well se- 
cured with a strong guard: the 
pickpockets in Naples are the 
most expert in Europe. 

Hotels. - Hotel Victoria. This 
is a large, delightfuUv-situated 
establishment, overlooking the 
bay on one side, and the Villa 
Eeale (royal gardens) on the other. 
The apartments are elegantly 
furnished, ornamented with many 
choice and rare Chinese gems^ 
and a collection of ancient paint- 
ings that have been valued at 



15,000^. sterling. The arrange- 
ments for the service of the fa- 
milies ataying in the house are 
excellent : on each et^e is a kit>- 
chen, and a suitable number of 
4kttendant8. This hotd was esta- 
blished in 1823, by the late M. 
Martin Zir, and is now admi- 
rably conducted by his sons. Those 
who delight in exquisite paintings, 
by some of the first artists, shomd, 
desire to see the private apart* 
ments of the proprietors. 

E^tel OrooceUet facing the bay ; 
report speaks higly of ti^s house, 
as being a first-rate hoteL 

Hotel des Mrangers, also front- 
ing the. bav ; a snug, quiet, com- 
fortable, dean liouse, well con- 
ducted by a new proprietor, who 
pays every attention to his vi- 
sitors. 

Hotel Qrande , Bretagne^ well 
situated, facing ihe YiUa Reale. 

There are also the Hotel York, 
Hotel Rome, Hotel Russiey Hotel 
Geneva^ second and third rate. 

The charges at the best hotels 
are generally as follows : — Break- 
fast of tea or cofi'ee, with bread 
and butter, B pauls; with eggs, 
5 pauls with meat, 8 pauls. A 
diimer in a private apart^lent will 
cost from 10 to 12 pauls ; tea, 3 
pauls. Sitting and bed rooms are 
charged according to the situa- 
tion, accommodation required, and 
more particularly the season of 
the year. 

I shall now proceed to point 
out to the traveller every curious 
or remarkable object in this great 
city. 

FIRST DAY. 

VILLA REALE. 

In the quarter of^Chiaja is a 
quay more extensive, more airy, 
and more pleasant than even that 



; — 8nST*]>AY.« TILLIC^JRBALE. 



<IQ5 



of^t Lucili; it eictends as far as 
•Pflnsilippo, and is aearly 1,000 
toises ID lenght, and ninety-seyen 
in breadth. The lato sorereigii, 
Ferdinand I, strock with the 
-charming {Situation of this qaac- 
ter, dhose a- part of it to form 
a royal promenade, which was 
begun in 1779. Nature and art 
have Gojiapired to render this one 
of the most delightful spots in 
£ur<^pe i it consists of a magnid- 
cent gsurden called the Villa Reale, 
and a fine road, shut in by houses, 
among which are several newly- 
erected palaces, and where a num- 
ber of coaches parade every af- 
ternoon. The garden is,, through 
its whole length, separated from 
the street by an iron railing ; there 
is a gate at its entvance, where 
a beauliM walk begins, leading 
in a straight line to the Toro 
Farnese, and thence through wind- 
ing paths to the extremity of the 
viUa. This walk, as far as the 
Toro Farnese, is planted on each 
side with acacias, which from the 
month of May to the end of sum- 
mer fonish it with the most 
pleasant shades. Several other 
walks traverse the garden on both 
sides. On the left a row of holm 
trees defends it from the south- 
west wind, which, from the po- 
sition of the villa, might prove 
extremely injurious to it The first 
part of the garden is regularly 
planted in the Italian way, and 
ornamented with parterres of flo- 
wers, fountains, and statues ; far- 
ther on it resembles more an 
English garden, or little park. 

The first statue on the right 
Bide of the entrance is an imita- 
tion of the celebrated Apollo in 
the gallery of Florence. At the 
beginning of the central walk 
there are 

Two statues of warriors, one' 



on the i^ght and the other on 
the left side; they are larger 
than life, and the former holds 
on 'its leJPt shoulder a child hang- 
ing with its head downwards : far- 
ther on, on the same side, is the 
statue of a young shepherd, mid 
next to this. 

The Dying Gladiator : it seems 
tO: have been copied from thaJk 
which is in the Capitelme Ma-, 
seum. A sword and a trumpet 
lie upon the ground, whereon he 
is represented as leaning in his 
agony. Opposite to this stands 

The statue of an old man tring^. 
ing tojiis inouth a child that lies 
supine in his hands: the trunk, 
to which the statue is attached, 
is surrounded with a serpent hav- 
ing claws and a head like a goat 
A Uttle fardier, on Uie same side, 
there is a fountain, from the 
middle of which rise 

Two statues representing two 
men, one of whom hardly adult, 
and shorter than the other. The 
latter stretches forth both his 
arms to the former, and looks at 
him with the countenance of a 
man advising a yonth. The boy 
has his eyes lifted up to him, 
and seems to be quite anxious 
to seize his expressions. The un- 
speakable ingenuousness breatht 
ing through the countenance of 
the youth renders this a most 
remarkable statue. 

Opposite these two statues, on 
the other side of the central walk, 
and rising likewise from the mid- 
dle of a fountain, stands. 

A group representing two men, 
one of whom has just lifted up 
the otlier, and is endeavouring 
to crush him between his breast 
and arms. The person raised 
labours to extricate hiifiself by 
strongly pressing his hand upon 
the other's temple. A club, and 



166 



MUTUEm ITALY. — IIAPLI8. FIBST 9AT. 



a lion's skin sculptured u^n the 
plinth, seem to indicate tiiat the 
principal statue is a Harcnles. 
Somewhat farther, in the same 
direction is 

The Pugilist, or boxer, a most 
animated statue of a man, hav- 
ing his left arm raised in the at- 
titude of defending himself against 
his adversary, and preparing with 
the right arm to defiver a tre- 
mendous blow. Opposite this 
stands 

The statueof a handsome vouth, 
with his right arm tumea over 
his head, and the left leaning 
upon a trunk. A quiver full of 
arrows hangs from the latter, to 
which it is nicely tied with a 
ribbon. The statue seems to re- 
present an Endymion reposing. 
The next after this stands on the 
opposite side, and is 

A statue of young Bacchus, 
having his right arm raised, with 
a bunch of grapes hanging from 
his hand. His left arm holds a 
vase close to his side, and full 
of apples, pine-apples, and grapes. 
A ffoatskin hanes from his neck 
and shoulder, deseeding to the 
plinth. 

At a short distance from this 
little statue there is a circle, in- 
tended to form the resting-place 
of the promenade, and foniished 
with marble seats. In the centre 
formerly stood, but now in the 
Mus6e Koyale, the famous group 
called. 

Toro Famese (the bull of Far- 
nese). It was found at Rome, in 
the baths of Caracalla, under 
the pontificate of Paul DI, who 
placed it in his Famese palace, 
whence, about the end of the se- 
venteenth centuTjT, it was con- 
veyed to this city. ApoUonius 
and Tauriscus. two Grecian sculp- 
>rs, executed this group from a 



single block of marble, nine feet 
eight inches in length, and thir- 
teen feet high. The subject of 
this fine specimen of sculpture is 
Dirc^ attached bv the hair to 
the horns of a bnU, by Zetus 
and Amphyon, sons of Lycus, 
king of Thebes, to avenge the 
affiront offered to their mother 
Antiope by her husband, on ac- 
count of Dirc^ ; but, at the mo- 
ment the bull is loosed, Queen 
Antiope orders Dirc6 to be freed, 
and her two sons immediately 
attempt to stop the furious -ani- 
maL These figures are larger 
than life, and are placed on a 
rock; at the base is a small Bac- 
chus and a dog, and around the 
plinth several different animals 
are represented. 

B«-enter the central walk, at 
the beginning of which, on the 
right, is 

A group of Pluto carrying 
away Proserpine. He grasps her 
with the whole strength of his 
arm. She has her eyes and right 
arm lifted up to heaven, wmle 
tearing her hair with her left 
hand in despair. Upon the base, 
Cerberus is represented. Beyond, 
on the same side, stands 

The statue of a Youne Man, 
with a fine drapery folded up on 
his shoulder and arm; and op- 
posite this 

The statue of Alcides tearing 
asunder the mouth of a Hon over- 
thrown. While, the hero is thus 
employing his hands, his Imee is 
vigorously exerted to compress 
the animal. Following the walk, 
we shall find, on the same side, 

,A group representing a Man 
who holds a Girl within his arms. 
Another man is carved under -the 
two statues, sitting in the atti- 
tude of a conquered person, and 
looking up to the girl, with hia 



NAPLBS.— FI18T 0AT. MLLk lUULl*' 



167 



left hand equally raised to ez- 
^ press regret and admiration. Op- 
posite is another 

Groiqi representing two Naked 
Young Men crowned with laurel 
The one on the left leans* with 
his arm upon the other's shoul- 
der, and the latter holds two 
^ flambeaux in his hands, the one 
lifted up on his shoulder, and 
^e other reversed. They seem 
to represent Pilades and Orestes. 
Along the same walk we find 

The statue of a Young Man 
playing on the flute. A lion's 
skin hangs over his left arm. On 
the opposite side is 

The statue of a Faun playing 
the castanets. A musical appa- 
ratus lies under his right foot, 
by which he presses it to mark, 
as it seems, Ihe measure. Far- 
ther on, still on the same side, 
there is 

The statue of a Satyr tied to 
the trunk of a tree. 

Before we reach another area 
opening in the central walk, we 
meet with 

Two statues standing in front of 
each other. That on the left repre- 
sents a Warior holding a diild 
with his head downwaras upon 
his shoulder. The other is a Her- 
cules with a lion's skin hanging 
firom his left side, and a chil^ 
which he holds close to his breast 
His right hand holds the club. 

Here the bushy part of the villa 
begins, in which several other 
valuable marbles are found, as 
on the lefl^ 

A handsome statue of a Wo- 
man, attired, holding a crown of 
flowers in her left hand. A little 
farther, on the other side, a small 
temple is building, in which will 
^ be placed a marble statue, or. 
bust of Yirgil. Then, turning to 
the left, we discover 



A group representing Europa 
carried away by Jupiter under 
the form of a bull. U lies in the 
centre of a fine fountain made 
of unwrought lava, and is the 
work of a Neapolitan sculptor 
still alive (Angelo Viva), who 
made it in the year 1798. It was 
at first placed by a fountain, near 
the market place, whence its me- 
rits being recognized, it has been 
removed to its present situation. 
The airy mantle of the woman, 
which rises in the manner of a 
bow over her head, and the po- 
sture of the bull, which, with his 
muzzle turned up, looks at Eu- 
ropa while pursuing his watery 
course, are perfectly well contn- 
ved to give the whole work a 
lightness and motion admirably 
adapted to the subject Farther 
on, but on the other side of the 
way, there is 

The statue of Flora crowned 
with flowers, and holding some 
in her left hand. 

We must now cross again the 
walk to see a modem cupola sup- 
ported by eight white columns, 
resting upon a circular base cut 
into three steps. This cupola has 
been erected lately to the me- 
mory of Tasso, a bust of whom 
in marble is to be seen under it 

Before leaving the villa the 
traveller may ei^joy. almost at 
Uie water's edge, a nne sight of 
the greater part of the bay by 
going on the terracfe, where people 
go and rest after traversing those 
long walks. 

The villa is completely and 
brilliantly illuminated at one 
o'dock in the evening, during 
two of the summer months. It is 
almost impossible to form an idea 
of the pleasure afforded by the 
view of such a beautiful scene, 
accompanied by music and a nu- 



148 



SOirrHKRN ITALY. — U8T0RY OF lafLES. 



drefis, he received petitions and 
requests, pronoanced judgment, 
and caused his orders to be im- 
mediately obeyed. He had more 
than 160,000 men at his command. 
The viceroy attempted to assas- 
sinate Masaniello, and to poison 
the water of the aqueduct, but 
he did not succeed ; he was then 
mof e closely confined in the castle, 
and his provisions cut oflF. ' 

Masaniello, in order to avoid 
being surprised, forbade any per- 
son under pain of death to wear 
a mantle ; everybody obeyed ; men, 
women, and clergy, no longer wore 
mantles or any other dress under 
which weapons could be concea- 
led. He fixed the price of provi- 
sions, established a very strict 
police, and with firmness ordered 
the execution of the guilty. 

If Masaniello had rested here, 
his power might have lasted a 
considerable time; but his autho- 
rity rendered him haughty, arro- 
gant, and even cruel. 

On the 13th July, negjotiators 
having arrived to conciliate the 
people, the viceroy proceeded 
with great state and ceremony to 
the cathedral church; he caused 
the capitulatioh exacted from him 
by the people to be read in a 
loud voice, and signed by each 
of the counsellors; they made 
oath to observe it, and to obtain 
its confirmation from the king. 
Masaniello stood near the arch- 
bishop's throne, with his sword 
in hand and haughty with suc- 
cess; from time to time he made 
various ridiculous propositions to 
the viceroy ; the first was, to make 
him commandant general of the 
city; the second, to give him a 
guard, with the right of naming 
the military officers, and grant- 
ing leaves ; a third was, that his 
excellency should disband all the 



guards who were in the castle. 
To these demands the viceroy 
answered in the affirmative, in 
order that the ceremony might 
not be disturbed by his refiisal. 
After the Te Deum the viceroy 
was reconducted to the palace. 

On the 14th of July Masaniello 
committed numerous extravagant 
actions; he went on horseback 
thr6ught the city, imprisoning, 
torturing, and beheading people 
for the slightest o£fences. He threa- 
tened the viceroy, and compel- 
led him to go and sup with him 
at Pausilippo, where he became 
so intoxicated as entirely to lose 
his reason. His wife displayed 
her extravagance in follies of a 
different kind; she went in a su- 
perb carriage, taken from tiie 
Duke of Maddalone, to see the 
vice-queen, with the mother and 
sisters of Masaniello, clothed in 
the richest garments, and cove- 
red with diamonds. 

Masaniello had intervals in 
which he conducted himself with 
propriety. In one of these mo- 
ments he sent to inform the vi- 
ceroy that he wished to abdicate 
the command. However, on the 
15th, he continued his follies ; he 
told Don Ferrante Caracciolo, 
the master of the horse, that as 
a punishment for not having des- 
cended from his carriage when 
he met him he should kiss his 
feet in the market-place. Don 
Ferrante promised to do this, but 
saved himself by fiight to the 
castle. The foolish Masaniello 
could not manage even the po- 
pulace, to whom he ewed his ele- 
vation, and this was the cause of 
his ruin. 

On the 16th of July, ffite day 
of Notre Dam of Mount Garmel, 
which is the grandest solemnity 
in the market church of Naples, 



SOUTHKRll ITALY. — HIdTOBT or NAPLK8. 



U9 



Masaniello went to hear n^iass: 
and when the archbishop entered 
he went before him, and said, 
"Sir, I perceive that the people 
are beginning to abandon me, 
and are willing to betray me, 
but I wish for my own comfort 
and for that of the people, that 
the viceroy and all tiie magis- 
trates may this day come in state 
to the church." The cardinal em- 
braced him, praised his piety, 
and prepared to say mass. Ma- 
saniello immediately ascendf'd the 
pulpit, and taking a crucifix in 
his hand, began to harangue the 
people who filled the church, and 
conjured them not to abandon 
him, recallmg to their recollec- 
tion the dangers he had encoun- 
tered for the public welfare, and 
the success which fiad attended 
his undertakings. Then falling into 
a kind of delirium, he made a 
confession of his past life in a 
furious and fanatic tone, and ex- 
horted others to imitate his exam- 
ple. His harangue was so silly, 
and he introduced so many irre- 
levant things, that he was no 
longer listened to, and the arch- 
bishop desired the priests to tell 
him to come down. They did so, 
and Masaniello, seeing that he 
had lost the public confidence, 
threw himself at the feet of his 
eminence, begging him to send 
his theologian to the palace m 
order to camr his abdication to 
the viceroy. The cardinal promi- 
sed to do so; but as Masaniello 
was in a perspuration, he was ta- 
ken into a room belon^g to the 
convent to change his Imen. After 
having rested, he went to a bal- 
cony overlooking the sea, but a 
minute after he saw advancing 
towards him several men, who 
had entered through the church, 
and were calling lum; he walked 



up to them, saying, "My children, 
is it I whom you seek? here I 
am." They answered him by four 
musket shots, and he fell dead. 
The populace, now left without 
a leader, were soon dispersed. 
The head of Masaniello was car- 
ried at the end of a lance as far 
as the viceroy's palace without 
experiencing ike least resistance 
from the people. But the viceroy 
wishing to taJce an inproper ad- 
vantage of this fortunate circum- 
stance, Masaniello was taken out 
of his tomb by the people, and 
after being exposed two days, 
was interred with the honours 
due to a captain-generaL 

The people of Naples conti- 
nued in a state of considerable 
agitation for several months^^d 
he published a manifesto in or- 
der to obtain the assistance of 
foreign powers. Henry de Lor- 
raine, duke of Guise, who had 
been obliged to quit France, re- 
tired to Rome in' the month of 
September, 1647 ; he thought that 
the disturbances at Naples offe- 
red him a favourable opportunity 
to drive out the Spaniards, to 
establish the Dutch form of re- 
public, and to make himself vi- 
ceroy, by heading the people 
against the Spaniards. In fact, 
he conquered the kingdom of 
Naples, and was for some time 
the general to the people, after 
the death of the Prince of Massa, 
which happened on tho 21st of 
October, 1647. He 'took posses- 
sion of the Torrione del Car- 
mine, the other castles being oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards; he es- 
tablished and fortified himself 
before the church of St John, at 
Carbonara; he had induced many 
noblemen to join him, and Ym 
affairs were in an advanced and 
prosperous state, when the Spa- 



150 



SOUTHBRN ITALY. — BISTORT OP NAPLBS. 



oiards, profitmg b^ his occasio- 
nal absence, surprised the Tor- 
rione and the posts of the Duke 
of Guise. He was arrested near 
Caserta, where he had retired, 
waiting for some troops of his 
own party; he was then conduc- 
ted to Spain, and thus termina- 
ted the disturbances of Naples. 
The kings of Spain, continuing 
the sovereigns of this kingdom, 
Philip V, the grandson of Louis 
XrV, went to take possession of 
Naples in 1702. He preserved it 
for six years; but in 1707 Gene- 
ral Ck)unt Daun took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples in the 
name of the Emperor Joseph; 
and the branch of the house of 
Austria, reigning in Germany, 
preserved this kingdom even when 
the house of Bourbon was estab- 
lished in Spain ; for by the treaty 
signed at Baden on the 7th of 
September, 1714, they gave up 
to the Emperor Charles VI the 
kingdom of Naples and Sardinia, 
the Low Countries, and the duchy 
of Milan and Mantua, as part of 
the inheritance of Charles II, king 
of Spain. 

The division still subsisting be- 
tween Spain and the house of 
Austria, the Emperor Charles VI 
was obliged to give up Sicily, by 
the treaty of Utrecht, to Victor 
Amadeus, duke of Savoy. Philip 
V, king of Spain, retook it wiA 
very little trouble in 1718; but 
b^ the treaty of 1720, he con- 
signed to Charles VI all the re- 
venue of this island. The empe- 
ror was aclmowledged by eveiy 
other power king of the Two Si- 
cilies, and King Victor was obli- 
Sed to rest contented with Sar- 
inia instead of Sicily. The Duke 
of Orleans, the regent of France, 
who was not on good terms with 
the Eiqg of Sardinia, contributed 



greatly to this change rather un- 
favourable to this monarch. 

When war was declared be- 
tween France and the empire in 
1733, on account of the crown of 
Poland, France having taken the 
Milan territory, Don Carlos, son 
of the King of Spain, and already 
Dnke of Parma, took possession 
of the kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily in 1734, which was confir- 
med to him by the treaty of 
Vienna in 1736, in the same man- 
ner as the duchy of Lorraine 
was given to France, Parma and 
Milan to the Emperor Charles 
VI, Tuscany to the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the towns of Tortona 
and Novara to the King of Sar- 
dinia. 

Naples then began to see her 
sovereign residing within her own 
walls, an advantage of which this 
city had been deprived for up- 
wards of two centuries. Don Car- 
los, or Charles IH, had the fe- 
licity to enjoy this new method 
of Dominion; he reformed abu- 
ses, made wise laws, established 
a trade with the Turks, adorned 
the city with magnificent build- 
ings, and rendered his reign the 
admiration of his subjects. His 
protection of literature and the 
fine arts may be seen in the 
works executed under his direc- 
tion at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii, and in the great care he 
displayed to preserve the monu- 
ments of antiquity. He employed 
numerous skilful artists in that 
immense undertaking, the erec- 
tion of the palace of Caserta; 
and Naples, under his benignant 
sway, nas enjoyed more tran- 
quillity and flourished in greater 
prosperity than at any former 
period. 

During the war of 1741, re- 
specting the succeaaion of tha 



MVTHBRN' RiLY.— BUTWI OF NATUM. 



m 



t 

otaperckr Charles TI, the English 
had appeared before Naples with 
a formidable fleet, in ordar to 
force the king to sign a promise 
not to act against &e interests 
of the Queen of Hungary, yet 
he did not conceive hunself jus- 
tified in refusing assistance to the 
Spaniards, who after the battle 
of Campo Santo retired towards 
his states. He put himself at the 
head of the army, which he con- 
ducted to them ; but the theatre 
of war was. soon carried to the 
other extremity of Italy, and the 
king remained tranquil. 

Ferdinand VI, king of Spain, 
and eldest brother of the King 
of Naples, died in 1759. Charles 
lU being the heir, consigned the 
kingdom of Naples and Sicily to 
his third son, Ferdinand I, re- 
serring the second for the Spa- 
nish throne (the eldest being in- 
capable of reigning), and embar- 
ked for Spain on the 6th October, 
1759. 

Ferdinand I governed his king- 
dom in peace for forty -seven 
y^ars, when Napoleon Bonaparte, 
emperor of the French, took pos- 
session of it in 1806, and gave 
it to his brother Joseph; the 
latter having afterwards been 
removed to the throne of Spain, 
was replaced by Joachim Murat, 
the brother-in-law of Napoleon. 
In 1814, Napoleon having been 
driven from the throne of France, 
Francis H, emperor of Germany, 
recovered" the kingdom of Naples 
by force of arms, and bestowed 
it on Ferdinand I, in whom the 
government was then vested again. 
At length, that monarch having 
died in the year 1825, he was 
succeeded by his heir and son, 
Francis I, who, after a short 
reign was succeeded by the pre- 
sent king, Ferdinand U. 



GENERAL VIEW OF NAfLES. 

It ia almost universally al- 
lowed, that, after having seen 
Rome, there is nothing in any 
other place on earth which c^m 
excite the curiosity or deserve 
the attention of travellers. Indeed, 
it may be truly asked, where, as 
a specimen of architecture, shall 
we find a building capable of 
being compared to the cathedral 
of St Peter; an ancient monu- 
ment, more majestic than the 
Pantheon of Agrippa, or more 
superb than the Cohseum ? Where 
shall we find so many ancient 
chefs-d'oeuvre of sculpture, as 
in the museum of Pius Clemen- 
tinus and the capitol, and in the 
villas Albani andLudovisi? What 
paiotings can rival those which 
may be seen in the porticoes, 
and the chambers painted by 
Kaphael? 

The city of Naples certainly 
presents nothing in architecture, 
in sculpture, or in painting, that 
can vie with the works of art 
just mentioned; nevertheless, it 
is one of the most beautiful 
and most delightful cities on the 
habitable globe. Nothing more 
beautiful and unique can possibly 
be imagined than the coup-d'oeil 
of Naples, on whatever side the 
city is viewed. Naples, is situated 
towards the south and east on 
the declivity of a long range of 
hills, and encircling a ^f sixteen 
miles in breadth, and as many 
in length, which forms a basin, 
called Crater by the Neapolitans. 
This gulf is terminated on each 
side by a cape; that on the right 
called the cape of Miseno ; ■ the 
other, on the left the cape of 
Massa. The island of Capri on 
one side, and that of Prpdda on 
the other, seem to close th^ gulf 



152 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — CINERAL VIEW OF NAPLES. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The city ap- 
pears to crown this superb basin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge toPortici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is from the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori," intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of nature, 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, by the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magnificence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
^f Naples and PozzuoU the most 



cuiious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the ''happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautiful in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa delF acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, and the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the city. 
The aqueducts under the pave^ 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso L 



80CTIIBRN ITALY. — NAPLKS. 



158 



NAPUE8. 

It is supposed that the ancient 
town of Parthenope, or Neapolis, 
was situated in the highest and 
most northern part of the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Napoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w>s divided into three great qar- 
ters or squares, called the Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended towards the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 
The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, sp that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them, and would not Un- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The citj 
was afterwards enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
castles may, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Castello dell* Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst the people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is Vke- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chiaja,Monte Cal- 
vario, Avvocata, Stella, St Carlo 
all' Arena, Yicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Giuseppe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 836,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
exceptmg London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more &an 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stockings. 

The streets are paved with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the pnncipal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in length. The 
squares are larg£ and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost. 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and fiat roo», in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, ' 
and all the other public build- 
ings sure magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so imposing as ih&t 
of the edifices of Kome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 800 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and other public build - 

7* 



IH 



SOUTIBtBN HALT.— NAFUSfl. HOTELS. 



inga,' amongst which are thirty- 
seven conservatories, established 
for the benefit of poor children 
and old people, both men and 
women: there are algo several 
hospitals and other humane esta- 
blishments* 

LANDING. 

On the arrival of the steamer 
in the bay of Naples, a delay of 
an hour or an hour and a half 
takes place before the passen- 
gers are allowed to land ; during 
this interval an immence accu- 
mulation of boats for their ser- 
vice takes place, so that assoon 
as the police have ascertained 
"alTs right," yourself and lug- 
gage (if ypu have attended to my 
hint in the Introduction) will be 
deposited in the custom house 
in a few minutes: an examina- 
tiop of the luggage takes place; 
books are particularly noticed. 
As soon as your luggage is exa- 
mined, call una vetura da nolo 
(hackney carriage); and be con- 
veyed to your hotel: fare for 
two persons, 3 pauls; boatage, 
each person, with luggage l'|2 to 
2 pauls. 

N. B. From the moment you 
land till you quit Naples, always 
carry your handkerchief in your 
hat your, purse in your breast- 
pocket, and your watch well se- 
cured with a strong guard: the 
pickpockets in Naples are the 
most expert in Europe. 

Hotels. - Hotel Victoria. This 
is a large, delightfullv-situated 
establishment, overlooking the 
bay on one side, and the Villa 
Reale (royal gardens) on the other. 
The apartments are elegantly 
furnished, ornamented with many 
choice and rare Chinese gems^ 
and a collection of ancient paint- 

igs that have been valued at 



15,000^ sterling. The arrange- 
ments for the service of the fa- 
milies staying \xk the house are 
excellent : on each etage is a kit- 
chen, and a suitable number of 
^tendants. This hotel was esta- 
blished in 1823, by the late M. 
Martin Zir, and is now admi- 
rably conducted by Ids sons. Those 
who delight in exquisite paintings, 
by some of the first artists, should, 
desire to see the private apart* 
ments of the proprietors. 

Hotel OrooceUej facing the bay ; 
report speaks higly of tibis house, 
as being a first-rate hoteL 

Hotel des Mrangers, also front- 
ing the. bav ; a snug, quiet, com- 
fortable, dean liouse, well con- 
ducted by a new proprietor, who 
pays every attention to his vi- 
sitors. 

Hotel Grande ^ Bretagne^ well 
situated, facing the YiUa Reale. 

There are also the Hotel York^ 
Hotel Bome^ Hotel Buesiey Hotel 
GenevOf second and third rate. 

The charges at the best hotels 
are generally as follows : — Break- 
fast of tea or cofi'ee, with bread 
and butter, 3 pauls; with eggs, 
5 pauls with meat, 8 pauls. A 
dinner in a private apajiopaent will 
cost from 10 to 12 pauls ; tea, 3 
pauls. Sitting and bed rooms are 
charged according to the situa- 
tion, accommodation required, and 
more particularly the season of 
the year. 

I shall now proceed to point 
out to the traveller every curious 
or remarkable object in this great 
city. 

FIRST DAY. 

VILLA REALE. 

In the quarter of ^Chiaja is a 
quay more extensive, more airy, 
and more pleasant than even that 



-EnST'BAT.^ TILLA^JRIAIA; 



aa5 



of 9t Lucaa ; it extends as £ar as 
-Patasilippo^ and is nearly 1,000 
toises IB lenght, aad ninety-seven 
in breadth. The lato sovereign, 
Ferdinand I, stmck with the 
charming {Situation of this quu*- 
ter, dhose a- part of it to form 
a royal promenade, which was 
begun in 1779. Nature and art 
have conspired to render this one 
of the most delightful spots in 
£urope : it consiets of a magnifi- 
cent gsurden called the Villa Reale, 
and a fine road, shut m by houses, 
among which are several newly- 
erected palaces, and where a num- 
ber of coaches parade every af- 
ternoon. The gwlen is,, through 
its whole length, separated from 
the street by an iron railing ; there 
is a gate at its entrance, where 
a beautiful walk begins, leading 
in a straight line to the Toro 
Farnese, and thence through wind- 
ing paths to the extremity of the 
vifla. This walk, as far as the 
Toro Farnese, is planted on each 
side with acacias, which from the 
month of May to the end of sum- 
mer furnish it with the most 
pleasant shades. Several other 
walks traverse the garden on both 
sides. On the left a row of holm 
trees defends it from the south- 
west wind, which, from the po- 
sition of the villa, might prove 
extremely injurious to it The first 
part of the garden is regularly 
planted in the Italian way, and 
ornamented with parterres of flo- 
wers, fountains, and statues ; far- 
ther on it resembles more an 
English garden, or little park. 

The first statue on the righf 
side of the entrance is an imita- 
tion of the celebrated Apollo in 
the gallery of Florence. At the 
beginning of the central walk 
there are 

Two statues of warriors, one' 



on the dght and the other on 
the left side; they are larger 
than life, and the former holds 
on lits left shoulder a child hang- 
ing with its head downwards; far- 
ther on, on the sasie side, is the 
fttatue of a young shepherd, and 
next to this. 

The Dying Gladiator : it seems 
to have been copied from that 
¥rfaich is in the Capiteime Ma-, 
seum. A sword and a tnimpet 
lie upon the ground, whereon he 
is represented as leaning in his 
agony. Opposite to this stands 

The statue of an old man bring- 
ing to Jiis inouth a child that lies 
supine in his hands: the trunk, 
to which the statue is attached, 
is surrounded with a serpent hav- 
ing daws and a head like a goat 
A little fardier, on the same side, 
there is a fountain, from tihe 
middle of which rise 

Two statues representing two 
men, one of whom hardly adnlt, 
and shorter than the oth^. The 
latter stretches forth both his 
arms to the former, and looks at 
him with the countenance of a 
man advising a yonth. The boy 
has his eyes liii[ed up to him, 
and seems to be quite anxious 
to seize his expressions. The un- 
speakable ingenuousness breath- 
ing through the countenance of 
the youth renders this a most 
remarkable statue. 

Opposite these two statues, on 
the other side of the central walk, 
and rising likewise from the mid- 
dle of a fountain, stands. 

A group representing two men, 
one of whom has just lifted up 
the otlier, and is endeavouring 
to crush him between his breast 
and arms. The person raised 
labours to extricate hiriiself by 
strongly pressing his hand upon 
the other's temple. A club, ar " 



166 



SOUTUUV ITALY. — NAPLI8. FIBST PAT. 



a lion's skin sculptured upon the 
plinth, seem to indicate that the 
principal statue is a Harcoles. 
Somewhat farther, in the same 
direction is 

The Pugilist, or boxer, a most 
animated statue of a man, hay- 
ing his left arm raised in the at- 
titude of defending himself against 
his adversary, and preparing with 
the right arm to deHver a tre- 
mendous blow. Opposite this 
stands 

The statue of a handsome youth, 
with his right arm turned over 
his head, and the left leaning 
upon a trunk. A quiver full of 
arrows hangs from the latter, to 
which it is nicely tied with a 
ribbon. The statue seems to re- 
present an Endyiuion reposing. 
The next after this stands on the 
opposite side, and is 

A statue of young Bacchus, 
having his right arm raised, with 
a bunch of grapes hanging from 
his hand. His left arm holds a 
vase close to his side, and full 
of apples, pine-apples, and grapes. 
A goatskin hangs from his neck 
and shoulder, deseeding to the 
plinth. 

At a short distance from this 
little statue there is a circle, in- 
tended to form the resting-place 
of the promenade, and foniished 
with marble seats. la the centre 
formerly stood, but now in the 
Mu86e Boyale, the famous group 
called^ 

Toro Famese (the bull of Far- 
nese). It was found at Rome, in 
the baths of Caracalla, under 
the pontificate of Paul DI, who 
placed it in his Famese palace, 
whence, about the end of the se- 
venteenth centuTjT, it was con- 
veyed to this city. Apollonius 
and Tauriscus. two Grecian sculp- 
tors, executed this group from a 



single block of marble, nine feet 
eight inches in length, and thir- 
teen feet high. The subject of 
this fine specimen of scolpture is 
Dirc^ attached by the hair to 
the horns of a bull, by Zetus 
and Amphyon, sons of Lycus, 
king of Thebes, to avenge the 
affiront offered to their mother 
Antiope by her husband, on ac- 
count of Dirce ; but, at the mo- 
ment the bull is loosed, Queen 
Antiope orders Dirc^ to be freed, 
and her two sons immediately 
attempt to stop the furious -ani- 
mal. These figures are larger 
than life, and are placed on a 
rock; at the base is a small Bac- 
chus and a dog, and around the 
plinth several different animals 
are represented. 

B«-enter the central walk, at 
the beginning of which, on the 
right, is 

A ^up of Pluto carrying 
away Proserpine. He grasps her 
with the whole strength of his 
arm. She has her eyes and right 
arm lifted up to heaven, wMe 
tearing her hair with her left 
hand in despair. Upon the base, 
Cerberus is represented. Beyond, 
on the same side, stands 

The statue of a Youne Man, 
with a fine drapery folded up on 
his shoulder and arm; and op- 
posite this 

The statue of Alcides tearing 
asunder the mouth of a lion over- 
thrown. While, the hero is Uius 
employing his hands, his Imee is 
vigorously exerted to compress 
the animal. Following the walk, 
we shall find, on the same side, 

,A group representing a Man 
who holds a Girl within his arms. 
Another man is carved under -the 
two statues, sitting in the atti- 
tude of a conquered person, and 
looking up to the girl, witih his 



NAFLIt.— mST SAT. Vli.U HAUL' 



167 



left hand equally raised to ex- 
^ press regret and admiration. Op- 
posite is another 

Group representing two Naked 
Young Men crowned with laurel 
The one on the left leans' with 
his arm upon the other's shoul- 
der, and the latter holds two 
^ flambeaux in his hands, the one 
lifted up on his shoulder, and 
-the other reversed. Thev seem 
to represent Pilades and Orestes. 
Along the same walk we find 

The statue of a Young Man 
playing on the flute. A lion's, 
skin lumgs over his left arm. On 
the opposite side is 

The statue of a Faun playing 
the castanets. A musical appa- 
ratus lies under his right foot, 
by which he presses it to mark, 
as it seems, the measure. Far- 
ther on, still on the same side, 
there is 

The statue of a Satyr tied to 
the trunk of a tree. 

Before we reach another area 
opening in the central walk, we 
meet with 

Two statues standing in front of 
each other. That on the left repre- 
sents a Warior holding a dbild 
with his head downwaras upon 
his shoulder. The other is a Her- 
cules wiUi a lion's skin hanging 
from his left side, and a child, 
which he holds close to his breast 
His right hand holds the club. 

Here the bushy part of the villa 
begins, in whicn several other 
vuuable marbles are found, as 
on the lefl^ 

A handsome statue of a Wo- 
man, attired, holding a crown of 
flowers in her left hand. A little 
farther, on the other side, a small 
temple is building, in which will 
^ be placed a marble statue, or. 
bust of Yirgil. Then, turning to 
the left, w^ discover 



A grov^ representing Enropa 
carried away by Jupiter under 
the form of a bull. It lies in the 
centre of a fine fountain made 
of unwrought lava, and is the 
work of a Neapolitan sculptor 
still alive (Angelo Viva), who 
made it in the year 1798. It was 
at first placed by a fountain, near 
the market place, whence its me- 
rits being recognized, it has been 
removed to its present situation. 
The airy mantle of tibe woman, 
which rises in the manner of a 
bow over her head, and the po- 
sture of the bull, which, with his 
muzzle turned up, looks at £u- 
ropa while pursuing his watery 
course, are perfectly well contn- 
ved to give the whole work a 
lightness and motion admirably 
adapted to the subject Farther 
on, but on the other side of the 
way, there is 

The statue of Flora crowned 
with flowers, and holding some 
in her left hand. 

We must now cross again the 
walk to see a modem cupola sup- 
ported by eight white columns, 
resting upon a circular base cut 
into £ree steps. This cupola has 
been erected latelv to the me- 
mory of Tasso, a bust of whom 
in marble is to be seen under it 

Before leaving the villa the 
traveller may enjoy, almost at 
the water's edge, a nne sight of 
the greater part of the bay by 
going on the terracfe, where people 
go and rest fnfter traversing those 
long walks. 

The villa is completely and 
brilliantly illuminated at one 
o'clock in the evening, during 
two of the summer months. It is 
almost impossible to form an idea 
of the pleasure afforded by the 
view of such a beautiful scene, 
acconq>anied by music and a nu- 



156 



SOOTUIUI ITALT. — ^NAPU». FIBST 9AT. 



a lion's skin scolptured upon the 
plinth, seem to indicate that the 
principal statue is a Ha*cnle8. 
Somewhat farther, in the same 
direction is 

The Pugilist, or boxer, a most 
animated statue of a man, hay- 
ing his left arm raised in the at- 
titude of defending himself against 
his adversary, and preparing ^th 
the right arm to deliver a tre- 
mendous blow. Opposite this 
stands 

The statue of a handsome youth, 
with his right arm turned over 
his head, and the left leaning 
upon a trunk. A quiver fiill of 
arrows hangs from the latter, to 
which it is nicely tied with a 
ribbon. The statue seems to re- 
present an Endymion reposing. 
The next after this stands on the 
opposite side, and is 

A statue of young Bacchus, 
having his right arm raised, with 
a bunch of grapes hanging from 
his hand. iSs left arm holds a 
vase close to his side, and full 
of apples, pine-apples, and grapes. 
A goatskin hangs from his neck 
and shoulder, deseeding to the 
plinth. 

At a short distance from this 
little statue there is a circle, in- 
tended to form the resting-place 
of the promenade, and furnished 
with marble seats. In the centre 
formerly stood, but now in the 
Mus^e Royale, the famous group 
called. 

Toro Farnese (the bull of Far- 
nese). It was found at Rome, in 
the baths of Caracalla, under 
the pontificate of Paul DI, who 
placed it in his Farnese palace, 
whence, about the end of the se- 
venteenth century, it was con- 
veyed to this city. Apollonius 
and Tauriscus. two Grecian sculp- 
tors, executed this group from a 



single block of marble, nine feet 
eight inches in l^igth, and thir- 
teen feet high. The subject of 
this fine specimen of sculpture is 
Dirc6 attached by the hair to 
the horns of a bnU, by Zetus 
and Amphyon, sons of Lycus, 
king of Thebes, to avenge the 
afiront offered to their mother 
Antiope by her husband, on ac- 
count of Dirce ; but, at the mo- 
ment the bull is loosed. Queen 
Antiope orders Dirc(§ to be freed, 
and her two sons immediately 
attempt to stop the furious -ani- 
mal These figures are larger 
than life, and are placed on a 
rock; at the base is a smaJl Bac- 
chus and a dog, and around the 
plinth several different animals 
are represented. 

Re-enter the central walk, at 
the beginning of which, on the 
right, is 

A group of Pluto carrying 
away Proserpine. He grasps her 
with the whole strength of his 
arm. She has her eyes and right 
arm lifted up to heaven, wMe 
tearing her hair wilh her left 
hand in despair. Upon the base, 
Cerberus is represented. Beyond, 
on the same side, stands 

The statue of a Young Man, 
with a fine drapery folded up on 
his shoulder and arm; and op- 
posite this 

The statue of Alcides tearing 
asunder the mouth of a Hon over- 
thrown. While, the hero is thus 
employing his hands, his kaee is 
vigorously exerted to compress 
the animal. FoUowing the walk, 
we shall find, on the same side, 

,A group representing a Man 
who holds a GSt\ within his arms. 
Another man is carved under -ihe 
two statues, sitting in the atti- 
tude of a conquered person, and 
looking up to the girl, with his 



NAnit.— FUUT SAT. SlLhk UAUL' 



167 



left hand equally raised to ex- 
^ press regret and admiratioii. Op- 
posite is another 

Qwap representing two Naked 
Young Men crowned with laoreL 
The one on the left leans* with 
his arm upon the other's shoul- 
der, and the latter holds two 
^flambeaux in his hands, the one 
lifted up on his shoulder, and 
^e other reversed. Thev seem 
to represent Pilades and Orestes. 
Along the same walk we find 

The statue of a Young Man 
playing on the flute. A lion's 
skin lumgs over his left arm. On 
the opposite side is 

The statue of a Faun playing 
the castanets. A musical appa- 
ratus lies under his right foot, 
by which he presses it to mark, 
as it seems, the measure. Far- 
ther on, still on the same side, 
there is 

The statue of a Satyr tied to 
the trunk of a tree. 

Before we reach another area 
opening in the central walk, we 
meet with 

Two statues standing in front of 
each other. That on the left repre- 
sents a Warior holding a diild 
with his head downwaras upon 
his shoulder. The other is a Her- 
cules with a lion's skin hanging 
from his left side, and a child, 
which he holds close to his breast 
His right hand holds the club. 

Here the bushy part of the villa 
begins, in whicn several other 
vuuable marbles are found, as 
on the lefl^ 

A handsome statue of a Wo- 
man, attired, holding a crown of 
flowers in her left hand. A little 
farther, on the other side, a small 
temple is building, in which will 
be placed a marble statue, or. 
bust of YirgiL Then, turning to 
the left, we discover 



A groc^ representing Enropa 
carried away by Jupiter under 
the form of a bull. It lies in the 
centre of a fine fountain made 
of unwrought lava, and is the 
work of a Neapolitan sculptor 
still alive (Angelo Yiva), who 
made it in the year 1798. It was 
at first placed by a fountain, near 
the market place, whence its me- 
rits being recognized, it has been 
removed to its present situation. 
The airy mantle of the woman, 
which rises in the manner of a 
bow over her head, and the po- 
sture of the bull, which, with his 
muzzle turned up, looks at £u- 
ropa while pursuing his watery 
course, are perfectly well contn- 
ved to give the whole work a 
lightness and motion admirably 
adapted to the subject Farther 
on, but on the other side of the 
way, there is ' 

The statue of Flora crowned 
with flowers, and holding some 
in h^ left hand. 

We must now cross again the 
walk to see a modem cupola sup- 
ported by eight white columns, 
resting upon a circular base cut 
into £ree steps. This cupola has 
been erected lately to the me- 
mory of Tasso, a bust of whom 
in marble is to be seen under it 

Before leaving the villa the 
traveller may enjoy, almost at 
the water's edge, a nne sight of 
the greater part of the bay by 
going on the terracfe, where people 
go and rest after traversing those 
long walks. 

The villa is completely and 
brilliantly illuminated at one 
o'clock m the evening, during 
two of the summer months. It is 
ahnost impossible to form an idea 
of the pleasure afforded by the 
view of such a beautiful scene, 
accompanied by music and a nu^ 



U58 



atOTniUii. ITALT.rHh'ArUSi PIBBT »AY. 



meroas companyw Coffee houses 
and dining and billiftrd rooms 
are found at the entrance of the 
garden. There are also baths, 
both cold and warm, contiguous 
to a coffee house about the middle 
of te promenade. 

Ketumlng to the Larga St Fer- 
dinand to 

Tfte Chwreh of St Francis 
(Ghieea de St Francesco), — It is 
situatad upon tHe Piazza Reale, 
erected in consequence of a vow 
of the late king Ferdinand I. It 
is built after a design by M.Bi- 
anchi, a living architect Its foun- 
dations were laid towards the 
middle of the year 1817; finished 
in 1838. This is not a single 
church, though it bears but one 
title. They are three, separate 
in all respects from each other, 
but having an internal commu- 
nication, by means of which, on 
extraordinary occasions, divine 
service may be performed by the 
clergy of all three, united in the 
principal one. This has been 
constructed in the form of the 
Pantheon, and its rotunda is 
nearly as large as that of that 
ancient temple. Amongst the mo- 
dem cupolas it will be ranked 
as the third, being next in size 
to those of St Peter's, and St 
Maria del Fiore's at Florence. 
It exceeds by nearly twelve feet 
the dome of St Paul's in Lon- 
don. The two lateral cupolas are 
those of the minor churches. 

A truly magnificent arched 
front stands before the grand 
church: it is of the Ionic order, 
surmounted by three colossal sta- 
tues, representing Heligion, St 
Francis, and St Louis, king of 
France, and supported by ten 
columns, and four pilasters., the 
diameter ofwhich is scarcely less 
by one inch than the admired 



eoluinns of the PaatUeoiw The 
wfaoleiB composed of lange blocks^ 
of Carrara marble. The front is 
flanked by a double range of co- 
lumnfi, forty-four in number, and 
as many pilastres, forming alto- 
gether a semi-drcular portico of 
the Doric order. These columns, 
as well as the pilasters, are of 
lava taken from the hills whidi 
surround the Solfatara at Poz- 
zuoli. The chord of the portico 
measures 500 feet, which is the 
whole length of the piazza. Its 
friezes and the capitals have been 
made of the calcareous stone 
which is found in the Monte di 
Gaeta, of an agreeable yellowish 
colour, and it is commonly, tough 
improperly , called Travertino. 
They have covered with the same 
stone the drum of the rotunda 
and the two lateral domes. 

Marble statues corresponding 
in number to the columns be- 
neath arp to be placed upon the 
portico. Several of tiiem are al- 
ready placed at the two extre- 
mities: they represent as many 
Christian virtues. Both the por- 
tico and the front stand upon 
several ranges of steps. The to- 
tal height of the Hotunda is equal 
to that of the Pantheon, and its 
diameter is but little less than 
that of the latter. 

Two equestrian statues of bron- 
ze, the one representing Char- 
les III, and the other Ferdinand 
I, axe erected at a small distance 
from the front The former, and 
the horse of the latter, are the 
work of the celebrated Canova. 

The inside of the three chur- 
ches is decorated with statues 
and pictures by the first Italian 
artists now living. 

Immediately opposite is 

The Royal Palace, — The an- 
cient kings of Naples inhabited 



Ji^rl9^.—Jf^WTf^J. tvLvmambi 



a69 



the cattle eailed.C«s|el CapuMio, 
now denomiot^ted la Yiqaria; they 
afterwards resided in the New 
Castle, and sQmetimesin theCa- 
stello dell' UoYo, where Alphonso 
m, of Arragon, died in U58. 
Peter of Toledo, the viceroy un- 
der Charles V, was the first who 
undertook to huild a palace for 
the residence of the sovereign : 
he constructed the edifice now 
caUM tiie Old Palace, which ad- 
joins the theatre of St Charles, 
and ciommunicates with the New 
-Castle. In this Charles V resi- 
ded; and on the gate may still 
he seen the eagle with two heads. 

Count LemoB, who was viceroy 
of Naples in 1600, added the 
large huilding, which is now the 
residence of the court Chevalier 
Dominic Fontana, a Romany was 
the architect employed on this 
beautiful palace. The front, which 
is about 455 feet in length, dig- 
^^lays three orders ol architec- 
ture, otnamented with Doric, 
Ionic, and Corinthian pilasters. 
In the first order are three large 
entrances; that in the centre is 
fournished with four beautiful 
granite columns, supporting a 
balcony; the others have only 
two. In the second and third 
order, which form two apartments, 
are. forty-two windows or case- 
ment& The whol^ building is 
surmounted by a Inagnificent en- 
tablature, above which is a 
steeple, containing a clock. The 
court is surrounded by two rows 
of piazzas, one above another: 
the communication with these is 
formed by a superb, commodious, 
and broad staircase, ornamentea 
with two colossal figures of the 
Ebro and Tagus. 

In this palace are ]arge and 
beautiful apartments, ornamented 
with rich furniture, frescoes, and 



seveml paictttreSf by-good jnastexs. 
Among thi^ latter .are the Death 
of Caesar, and the Death of Yir- 
:ginia, both by the Chevalier Ca- 
muccini; a portrait of the late 
King Ferdinand, by the same 
author; Rebecca with the Ser- 
vant of Abraham, by Francis Al- 
bano; the Circumcision of our 
Saviour, by an unknown author, 
of the Venetian school ; the Holy 
Virgin appearing to Uur Saints, 
with God the Father above her, 
by Raphael; Orpheus^ by Michael 
Angelo of Caravaggio; the Three 
Cardinal Virtues, a. copy from 
Raphael, by Hannibal Carsucci; 
our Saviour disputing, with the 
Doctors, by Michael Ai^elo of 
Caravaggio; and a portrait of the 
Duchess of Orleans, by Gerard. 

The appartments just spoken 
of are those which were occupied 
by the late king, and the pictu- 
res which they still contain ren- 
der them the most int^esting 
part of th^ palace. The chapel, 
which is remarkably magnificent, 
is ornamented with marbles, and 
painted by James del Po. The 
beautiful statue of the Conception 
is by Chevalier Cosmo Fansaga. 

A terrace, paved with marble, 
extends the whole lengUi of the 
palace, and commands a fine view 
of the sea. A communication be- 
tween this part of the palace and 
the dock has been formed by 
means of a covered bridge, by 
which the king passes when he 
wishes to enjoy the sea. On the 
right side of this palace, and near 
the old palace, is the 

Theatre of St Carlo — The 
grandeur and beauty of this thea- 
tre combine to render it the most 
remarkable in Italy It was built 
by Charles m in 1737, after a 
design by Ametrano, which was 
executed by Angelo Caresale i? 



160 



SOOTHlinf ITALT. — NAOLES. riRST OAJ. 



270 dafs. The aecidentftl fire in 
1815 having greatly injured this 
theatre, it has been ^Jmost en- 
tirely rebuilt under the direction 
of Nicolini, the architect 

This building is 144 feet In 
breadth and 288 in length, ex- 
clusive of the front, which bears 
the names ofthe most celebrated 
Italian composers and -dramatic 
poets, and is ornamented with co- 
lumns and statues. The staircases 
are commodious, and its corridors 
very extensive; the pit is eighty- 
four feet in length and seventy- 
five in breadth ; the stage is 105 
feet in lenght and fifty-three in 
breadth. The theatre contains six 
tiers of boxes : tibe first, second, 
fifth, and sixth consist of thirty 
boxes each, and the third and 
fourth of thirty-two ; these boxes 
are large, each being capable oip 
containing twelve persons. 

Besides this theatre there is 
the Teatro deila Fenice, and that 
of San Carlino, both situated in 
the square of New Castle, and 
frequented by tihe lower classes. 
The theatre called Bel Fondo is 
a very neat modern building, of 
moderate size; it is situated near 
the mole. 

The Teatro Nuovo is situated 
near the street of Toledo. The 
theatre of the Florentines is on 
the opposite side of the street 
of Toledo, close to the church 
of St John of the Florentines, 
from which it derived its name, 
and which was rebuilt in a mo- 
dern style in 1779. This theatre 
contains five tiers, each compo- 
sed of seventeen boxes; the pie- 
ces performed there are comic 
operas, comedies, and tragedies. 

The theatre of St Ferdinand, 
situated at the Ponte Nuovo, is, 
the largest in Naples, except that 
of St Charles. Proceeding to the 



right from the theatre of St Chaiv 
les, we arrive at the 

Square of the New Castle» — It 
presents itself a first in the form 
of an oblong square, surrounded 
on three si&s with houses and 
palaces, among which the newly- 
erected one, called Delle Finanze, 
is the most remarkable. The 
fourth side is formed by a wall 
extending as far as the Great 
Guard House, and in which a 
fountain may be observed, called 
Degli Specchi (the. fountain of 
mirrors), as its waters, descend- 
ing like a little cascade, are re- 
ceived in several basins, which 
may be compared to as many 
mirrors. The square is now plan- 
ted with tr^es, but it is said that, 
in order to give light to the new 
palace, Delle Finanze, theseplants 
Will be uprooted. From its first 
level dowjiwards the square con- 
tinues to the mole, and on its 
left side a stupendous fountain 
presents itself to the view ofthe 
traveller; it is calledFontana Me- 
dina, and consists of a large ba- 
sin, from the centre of which rise 
four satyrs bearing a large ma- 
rine shell, above which are four 
sea-horses supportiiig a Neptune, 
who, with the three points ofthe 
trident, which he holds in his 
hand, is throwing up water. This 
fountain, which is the finest in 
Naples, was made in the time of 
Count Olivares, and first placed, 
by order of the viceroys, at the 
arsenal, afterwards on the sea- 
shore, and lastly, was removed to 
its present situation by Duke Me- 
dina de las Torres, from whom 
it took its name, and by whose 
order the lions and other exte- 
rior ornaments were executed, 
from the designs of Chevalier 
Fansaga. 

It was upon this square, aad 



NAPLES. — FIRST OAT. THEATBBB. 



161 



under a great niiinber of sheds, 
that once lived the lazzaroni, who 
are now dispersed through the 
several quarters of the city, es- 
pecially along the Molo piccolo 
towards the Ponte della Madda- 
lena. 

Near the mole, on the left side, 
is the post of&ce and the theatre 
Del Fondo. On the right side, 
opposite to these buildings, ri- 
ses the 

Castel Nuovo. — This fortress 
is partly situated on the sea- 
shore, opposito the mole, to which 
it serves as a defence. Its public 
entrance is throXigh a small bridge 
joined with a drawbridge; and 
from the inscription placed over 
the gate it appears that this 
castle was originally built by 
Charles I of Anjou, in the year 
1283, and repaired in 1823 by 
U^e late King Ferdinand I. The 
designs of the first building, which 
consisted of the middle mass and 
the little towers vdth which it 
was surrounded, were the work 
of John Pisano; and Charles esta- 
blished his residence therCy re- 
moving from the Castle Capuano, 
which was not considered as suf- 
ficiently secure. 

The exterior fortifications which 
surround it, and form a square of 
nearly 200 toises, were commen- 
ced by Alphonso I of Arragon, 
about the year 1500, they were 
contmued by Gonzalvo of Cor- 
dova, and finished, about the year 
1646, by Peter of Toledo, who 
likewise added two large bastions. 

Beyond the first fortifications 
of this castle, between two towers, 
is the triumphal arch, erected by 
the inhabitants of Naples at the 
time of King Alphonso^s entr^; 
the whole is of marble, and is 
ornamented with many statues 
4ind bas-reliefs tolerably well exe- 



cuted, and representingthe actions 
of that king. This work is the 
production of Chevalier Peter de 
Martino, of Milan, who was the 
architect of King Alphonso. This 
monument is curious, in reference 
to the history of the arts, as few 
specimens of the architectm:e of 
this age are to be found in any 
part of Europe. 

Near this arch is a bronze 
gate, ornamented with bas-reliefs, 
representing the exploits of King 
Ferdinand 1 of Arragon. A gun- 
shot is confined in one of its 
folds; it was fired from within 
the castle, and could not pierce 
the gate, though it produced a 
triple cleft in it Over t^e in- 
ternal arch a stuffed crocodile 
is seen, about ^ix feet in length, 
which according to tradition was 
found and taken in a subterraneous 
prison of the castle, after he 
had devoured there several pri- 
soners. The arch leads into the 
Place d'Armes, in ^hich Js the 
Church of St Barbe, ornamented ' 
with marbles and paintings. A 
well is shown near this church, 
containing the water reserved 
in case of a siege. Mounting 
afterwards a flight of stairs, we 
enter the armoury, which is yet 
unfinished. The room was for- 
merly a theatre belonging to the 
court, and two royal boxes may 
still be seen carved into the walL 
It was Ferdinand I who ordered 
that an armoury should be formed 
there, capable of containing arms 
for 60,000 soldiers. 

A gallery passing under arches 
forms an internal communication 
between this castle and the royal 
palace, which might be made use 
of as a retreat in case of any 
public commotion. This castle 
has also an arsenal, a cannon 
foundry, artillery schools, bar 



152 



SOtmURN ITALY. — «ENKRAL VHW OP NAPLES. 



but between these islands and 
the two capes the view of the 
sea is unlimited. The city ap- 
pears to crown this superb oasin. 
One part rises towards the west 
in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the hills of Pausilippo, St 
Ermo, and Antignano ; the other 
extends towards the east over 
a more level territory, in which 
villas follow each other in rapid 
succession, from the Magdalen 
bridge to Portici, where the king's 
palace is situated, and beyond 
that to Mount Vesuvius. It is the 
most beautiful prospect in the 
world, all travellers agreeing that 
this situation is unparalleled in 
beauty. 

The best position for viewing 
Naples is from the summit of 
Mount Ermo, an eminence which 
completely overlooks the city. For 
this reason I am not surprised 
that the inhabitants of Naples, 
enraptured with the charms of 
the situation, the mildness of the 
climate, the fertility of the coun- 
try, the beauty of its environs, 
and the grandeur of its buildings, 
say in their language: "Vedi 
Napoli, e po mori,'' intimating 
that when Naples has been seen, 
everything has been seen. 

The volcanoes in the envi- 
rons, the phenomena of nature, 
the disasters of which they have 
been the cause, the revolutions, 
the changes they daily occasion, 
the ruins of towns buried in their 
lava, the remains of places ren- 
dered famous by the accounts of 
celebrated historians, by the fab- 
les of the ancients, and the writ- 
ings of. the greatest poets; the 
vestiges of Greek and Roman 
magmficence; and, lastly, the 
traces of towns of ancient renown; 
all conspire to render the coast 
»f Naples and Pozzuoli the most 



curious and most interesting in 
Italy. 

On the northern side, Naples 
is surrounded by hills which form 
a kind of crown round the Terra 
di Lavoro, the Land of Labour. 
This consists of fertile and ce- 
lebrated fields, called by the an- 
cient Romans the ''happy coun- 
try," and considered by them the 
richest and most beautiful in the 
universe. These fields are fertili- 
zed by a river called Sebeto, 
which descends from the hills 
on the side of Nola, and falls 
into the sea after having passed 
under Magdalen bridge, towards 
the eastern part of Naples. It 
was formerly a considerable river, 
but the great eruption of Mount 
Vesuvius in 79, made such an 
alteration at its soursce, that it 
entirely disappeared. Some time 
afterwards a part of it reappeared 
in the place which still preserves 
the name of Bulla, a kind of 
small lake, about six miles from 
Naples, whence the city is partly 
supplied with water. The Sebeto, 
vulgarly called Fomello, divides 
into two branches at the place 
called Casa dell' acqua ; part of 
it is conveyed to Naples by aque- 
ducts, ana the remainder is used 
for supplying baths and watering 
gardens. 

The city of Naples is well 
supplied with aqueducts and 
fountains. There are two prin- 
cipal springs, the waters of which 
are distributed through the city. 
The aque^uots under the pave^ 
ment of the streets are very 
broad; they have twice been 
used at the capture of Naples, 
first by Belisarius, and afterwards 
by Alphonso I. 



SOOTHIR!! ITALT. — NAPLKT. 



158 



NAPLES. 

It is supposed that the ancient 
town of Parthenope, or Neapolis. 
was situated in me highest ana 
most northern part or the pre- 
sent town, between St Agnello in 
Capo di Napoli and St George, 
St Marcelliu, and St Severin. It 
w^s divided into three great qar- 
ters or squares, called Sie Upper 
Square, Sun Square, and Moon 
Square ; it extended tow^s the 
place now occupied by the Vi- 
caria and the market place. With 
respect to the other town, called 
Paleopolis, which, according to 
Diodorus Siculus, was founded 
by Hercules, and stood near this 
place; its situation is unknown. 

The city of Naples was for- 
merly surrounded by very high 
walls, so that Hannibal was alar- 
med at them, and would not Un- 
dertake to besiege the place. The 
dty being destroyed, the walls 
were extended and rebuilt with 
greater magnificence. The citj 
was afterwards enlarged, but nei- 
ther walls nor gates were erec- 
ted. Its present circumference is 
of twenty-two miles. Three strong 
castles may, however, be used 
for its defence; these are the 
Gastello dell' Uovo, the New Castle, 
and that of St Ermo. The Tower 
del Carmine, which has been con- 
verted into a kind of fortress, is 
less used for the defence of the 
city than for the maintenance of 
subordination amongst die people. ' 
The harbour of Naples is like- 
wise defended by some fortifica- 
tions erected on the two moles. 
-Naples is divided into twelve 
quarters, which are destinguis- 
hed by the following appellations : 
St Ferdinando,Chi£ga, Monte Cal- 
vario, Avvocata, Stella, St Carlo 
all' Arena, Vicaria, St Lorenzo, 



St Giuseppe Maggiore, Porto, 
Pendino, and Mercato. 

In 1838, Naples contained a 
population of 836,302; it now, in 
1856, contains about 450,000 in- 
habitants, and is consequently the 
most populous city in Europe, 
exceptmg London and Paris. 
Amongst these may be reckoned 
more dian 40,000 Lazzaroni, who 
are the most indigent part of the 
inhabitants; they go about the 
streets with a cap on their heads, 
and dressed in a shirt and trou- 
sers of coarse linen, but wearing 
neither shoes nor stoddnes. 

The streets are pavea with 
broad slabs of hard stone, resem- 
bling the lava of Vesuvius; the 
streets in general are neither 
broad nor regular, except that 
of Toledo, which is the prmcipal, 
is very broad and straight, and 
is nearly a mile in length. Hie 
squares are large and irregular, 
with the exception of those of 
the royal palace and of the Holy 
Ghost 

The greater part of the hou- 
ses, particularly in the principal 
streets, are uniformly built; they 
are generally about five or six 
stories in height, with balconies 
and flat roou, in the form of 
terraces, which the inhabitants 
use as a promenade. 

Few of the public fountains 
are ornamented in an elegant 
style. The churches, the palaces, 
and all the other public build- 
ings are magnificent, and are 
richly ornamented; but the ar- 
chitecture is not so beautiful, so 
majestic, nor so inmosing as tiliat 
of the edifices of Rome, and of 
many other places in Italy. 

Naples contains about 800 
churches, forty-eight of which are 
parochial. There are numerous 
palaces and odier public build- 

7* 



IH 



SODTWRN ITALY. — NAHJU. lOTSLS. 



inga, amongst which »re thirty- 
seven conservatories, established 
for the benefit of poor children 
and old people, both men and 
women: there are also several 
hospitals and other humane estar 
blishments. 

LANDING. 

On the arrival of the steamer 
in the bay of Naples, a delay of 
an hour or an hour and a half 
takes place before the passen- 
gers are allowed to land ; during 
this interval an immence accu- 
mulation of boats for their ser- 
vice takes place, so that assoon 
as the police have ascertained 
"all's right," yourself and lug- 
gage (if you have attended to my 
hint in the Introduction) will be 
deposited in the custom house 
in a few minutes: an examina- 
tion of the luggage takes place; 
books are particularly noticed. 
As soon as your luggage is exa- 
mined, caU una vetura da nolo 
(hackney carriage); and be con- 
veyed to your hotel: fare for 
two persons, 3 pauls; boatage, 
each person, with luggage I'lz to 
2 paids. 

K. B. From the moment you 
land till you quit Naples, always 
carry your handkerchief in your 
hat your, purse in your breast- 
pocket, and your watch well se- 
cured with a strong guard: the 
pickpockets in Naples are the 
most expert in Europe. 

Hotels. - Hotel Victoria. This 
is a large, delightfullv-situated 
establishment, overlooking the 
bay on one side, and tibie Villa 
Eeale (royal gardens) on the other. 
The apartments are elegantly 
furnished, ornamented with many 
choice and rare Chinese gems, 
and a collection of ancient paint- 

gs that have been valued at 



15,000/. sterjiflg. The arrange- 
ments for the service of the fa- 
nuliea staying in the house are 
excellent : on each etnge is a kit>- 
chen, and a suitable number of 
attendants. This hotel was esta- 
blished in 1823, by the late M. 
Martin Zir, and is now admi- 
rably conducted by his sons. Those 
who delight in exquisite paintings, 
by some of the first luHsts, shoiud, 
desire to see the private apart* 
ments of the proprietors. 

Hotel Oroocelley facing the bay ; 
report speaks higly of l^is honse, 
as being a first-rate hotel. 

Hotel des Strangers, also front- 
ing the. bay ; a snug, quiet, com- 
fortable, clean liouse, well con- 
ducted by a new proprietor, who 
pays every attention to his vi- 
sitors. 

Hotel Grande , Bretagney well 
situated, facing the Villa Eeale. 

There are also the Hotel York^ 
Hotel Rome, Hotel Bussiey Hotel 
Genevot second and third rate. 

The charges at the best hotels 
are generally as follows ; — Break- 
fast of tea or coffee, with bread 
and butter, 3 pauls; with eggs, 
5 pauls with meat, 8 pauls. A 
diimer in a private apartpient will 
cost from 10 to 12 pauls ; tea, 3 
pauls. Sitting and bed rooms are 
charged according to the situa- 
tion, accommodation required, and 
more particularly the season of 
the year. 

1 shall now proceed to point 
out to the traveller every curious 
or remarkable object in this great 
city. 

FIRST DAY. 

VILLA RE ALE. 

In the quarter of 'Chiaja is a 
quay more extensive, more airy, 
and more pleasant than even that 



. — f aST >»A Y. ', villi: <>BBitI«E.- 



aa5 



of St Lucia; it cfxtends as lar as 
-Pansflippoj and is nearly 1,000 
toises IB lenght, and ninety-seven 
in breadth. The late sovereign, 
Ferdinand I, stmck with the 
-charming dtuation of this quar- 
ter, diose a- part of it to form 
a royal promenade, which was 
begun in 1779. Nature and art 
have conspired to render this one 
of the' most delightful spots in 
£ur<»pe : it consists of a magnifi^ 
cent garden called the Villa Reale, 
and a fine road, shut in by houses, 
among which are several newly^ 
erected psdaces, and where a num- 
ber of coaches parade every af- 
ternoon. The garden is,, through 
its whole length, separated from 
the street by an iron railing ; there 
is a gate at its entrance, where 
a beautiful walk begins, leading 
in a straight line to the Toro 
Farnese, and thence through wind- 
ing paths to the extremity of the 
villa. This walk, a& far as the 
Toro Farnese, is planted on each 
side with acacias, which from the 
month of May to the end of sum- 
mer tonish it with the most 
pleasant shades. Several other 
walks traverse the garden on both 
sides. On the left a row of holm 
trees defends it from the south- 
west wind, which, from the po- 
sition of the villa, might prove 
extremely injurious to it The first 
part of the garden is regularly 
planted in the Italian way, and 
ornamented with parterres of flo- 
wers, fountains, and statues ; far* 
ther on it resembles more an 
English garden, or little park. 

The first statue on the righf 
side of the entrance is an imita- 
tion of the celebrated ApoUo in 
the gallery of Florence. At the 
beginning of the central walk 
there are 

Two statues of warriors, one' 



on the right and the other on 
the left side; they are larger 
than life, and the ftH-mer holds 
on lits left shoulder a child hang- 
ing with its head downwards : far^ 
l^er on, on the same side, is the 
statue of a young shepherd, imd 
next to this. 

The Dying Gladiator : it seems 
tO; have been copied from Uiat 
which is in the Capitelme Mu-. 
seum. A sword ana a trumpet 
lie upon the ground, whereon he 
is represented as leaning in his 
agony. Opposite to this stands 

The statue of an old man tring^ 
ing to Jiis ^outh a child that lies 
supine in his hands: the trunk, 
to which the statue is attached, 
is surrounded with a serpent hav*- 
ing claws and a head like a goat 
A little farther, on the same side, 
there is a fountain, from the 
middle of which rise 

Two statues representing two 
men, one of whom hardly adult, 
and shorter than the other. The 
latter stretches forth both his 
arms to the former, and looks at 
him with the countenance of a 
man advising a youth. The boy 
has his eyes lifted up to him, 
and seems to be quite anxious 
to seize his expressions. The un- 
speakable ingenuousness breath-r 
ing through the countenance of 
the youth renders this a most 
remarkable statue. 

Opposite these two statues, on 
the other side of the central walk, 
and rising likewise from the mid- 
dle of a fountain, stands. 

A group representing two men, 
one of whom has just lifted up 
the otlier, and is endeavouring 
to crush him between his breast 
and arms. The person raised 
labours to extricate hiifiself by 
strongly pressing his hand upon 
the other's temple. A club, ar ' 



156 



SOOTUBN ITALT. — NAPUU. POIST 9AT. 



a lion's skin scolptured upon the 
plinth, seem to indicate diat the 
principal statue is a Hercules. 
Somewhat farther, in the same 
direction is 

The Pugilist, or boxer, a most 
animated statue of a man, hay- 
ing his left arm raised in the at- 
titude of defending himself against 
his adversary, and preparing with 
the right arm to deliver a tre- 
mendous blow. Opposite this 
stands 

The statue of a handsome youth, 
with his right arm turned over 
his head, and the left leaning 
upon a trunk. A quiver fiill of 
arrows hangs from the latter, to 
which it is nicely tied with a 
ribbon. The statue seems to re- 
present an Endyniion reposing. 
The next after this stands on the 
opposite side, and is 

A statue of young Bacchus, 
having his right arm raised, with 
a bunch of grapes hanging from 
his hand, ifis left arm holds a 
vase close to his side, and full 
of apples, pine-apples, and grapes. 
A goatskin hangs from his neck 
and shoulder, deseeding to the 
plinth. 

At a short distance from this 
little statue there is a circle, in- 
tended to form the resting-place 
^ of the promenade, and furnished 
with marble seats. In the centre 
formerly stood, but now in the 
Mus^e Royale, the famous group 
called 

Toro Famese (the bull of Far- 
nese). It was found at Rome, in 
the baths of Caracalla, under 
the pontificate of Paul EI, who 
placed it in his Famese palace, 
whence, about the end of the se* 
venteenth century, it was con- 
veyed to this city. ApoUonius 
and Tauriscus, two Grecian sculp- 
^'^rs, executed this group from a 



single block of marble, nine feet 
eight inches in l^igth, and thir- 
teen feet high. The subject of 
this fine specimen of sculpture is 
Dirc^ attached by the hair to 
the horns of a bcdl, by Zetus 
and Amphyon, sons of Lycus, 
king of Thebes, to avenge the 
afi&ont offered to their mother 
Antiope by her husband, on ac- 
count of Dirce ; but, at the mo- 
ment the bull is loosed. Queen 
Antiope orders Dirc6 to be freed, 
and her two sons immediately 
attempt to stop the furious -ani- 
mal. These figures are larger 
than life, and are placed on a 
rock; at the base is a small Bac- 
chus and a dog, and around the 
plinth several different animals 
are represented. 

Re-enter the central walk, at 
the beginning of which, on the 
right, is 

A ^up of Pluto carrying 
away Proserpine. He grasps her 
with the whole strength of his 
arm. She has her eyes and right 
arm lifted up to heaven, wMe 
tearing her hair wif^ her left 
hand in despair. Upon the base, 
Cerberus is represented. Beyond, 
on the same side, stands 

The statue of a Young Man, 
with a fine drapery folded up on 
his shoulder and arm; and op- 
posite this 

The statue of Alcides tearing 
asunder the mouth of a lion over- 
thrown. "While, the hero is thus 
employing his hands, his knee is 
vigorously exerted to compress 
the animal. Following the walk, 
we shall find, on the same side, 

,A group representing a Man 
who holds a G&l within his arms. 
Another man is carved under -ihe 
two statues, sitting in the atti- 
tude of a conquered person, and 
looking up to the girl, with his 



HArLU.— riMT SAT. Vli.LA UAU.' 



1B7 



left hand equally raised to ex- 
^ press regret and admiration. Op- 
posite is another 

Groap representing two Naked 
Young Men crowned with laurel 
The one on the left leans ^ with 
his arm upon the other's shoul- 
der, and the latter holds two 
flambeaux in his hands, the one 
lifted up on his shoulder, and 
^e other reversed. Thev seem 
to represent Pilades and Orestes. 
Along the same walk we find 

The statue of a Young Man 
playing on the flute. A lion's 
s^ hangs over his left arm. On 
the opposite side is 

The statue of a Faun playing 
the castanets. A musical appa- 
ratus lies under his right foot, 
by which he presses it to mark, 
as it seems, ^e measure. Far- 
ther on, still on the same side, 
there is 

The statue of a Satyr tied to 
tlie trunk of a tree. 

Before we reach another area 
opening in the central walk, we 
meet with 

Two statues standing in front of 
each other. That on the left repre- 
sents a Warior holding a child 
with his head downwards upon 
his shoulder. The other is a Her- 
cules with a lion's skin hanging 
from his left side, and a child, 
which he holds close to his breast 
His right hand holds the club. 

Here the bushy part of the villa 
b^ins, in which several other 
vs£iable marbles are found, as 
on the lefl^ 

A handsome statue of a Wo- 
man, attired, holding a crown of 
flowers in her left hand. A little 
farther, on the other side, a small 
temple is building, in which will 
^ be placed a marble statue, or 
bust of Yirgil. Then, turning to 
the left, we discover 



A groi]^ representing Europa 
carried away by Jupiter under 
the form of a bull. It lies in the 
centre of a fine fountain made 
of unwrought lava, and is the 
work of a Neapolitan sculptor 
still alive (Angelo Yiva), who 
made it in the year 1798. It was 
at first placed by a fountain, near 
the market place, whence its me- 
rits being recognized, it has been 
removed to its present situation. 
The airy mantle of the woman, 
which rises in the manner of a 
bow over her head, and the po- 
sture of the bull, which, with his 
muzzle turned up, looks at Eu- 
ropa while pursuing his watery 
course, are perfectly well contn- 
ved to give the whole work a 
lightness and motion admirably 
adapted to the subject Farther 
on, but on the other side of the 
way, there is 

The statue of Flora crowned 
with flowers, and holding some 
in her left hand. 

We must now cross again the 
walk to see a modem cupola sup- 
ported by eight white columns, 
resting upon a circular base cut 
into iStree steps. This cupola has 
been erected lately to the me- 
mory of Tasso, a bust of whom 
in marble is to be seen under it 

Before leaving the villa the 
traveller may enjoy, almost at 
the water's edge, a nne sight of 
the greater part of the bay by 
going on the terracfe, where people 
go and rest after traversing those 
long walks. 

The villa is completely and 
brilliantly illuminated at one 
o'clock in the evening, during 
two of the summer months. It is 
almost impossible to form an idea 
of the pleasure afforded by the 
view of such a beautiful scene, 
accompanied by music and a nu- 



';ta8 



StVTORN. ITALT.rHh'AfUS. FiAST »AY. 



•meroaB companyv Go^ee houses 
and dining and bilUard rooms 
are found at the entrance of the 
garden. There are also baths, 
both cold and warm, contignous 
to a coffee house about the middle 
of te promenade. 

Returning to the Larga St Fer- 
dinand to 

The Chv/rch of St Francis 
(Ohieaa de St Francesco), — It is 
situatad upon tHe Piazza Eeale, 
erected in consequence of a vow 
of the late king Ferdinand L It 
is built after a design by M. Bi- 
anchi, a living architect Its foun- 
dations were laid towards the 
middle of the year 1817 ; finished 
in 1833. This is not a single 
church, though it bears but one 
title. They are three, separate 
in all respects from each other, 
but having an internal commu- 
nication, by means of which, on 
extraordinary occasions, divine 
service may be performed by the 
clergy of all three, united in the 
principal one. This has been 
constructed in the form of the 
Pantheon, and its rotunda is 
nearly as large as that of that 
ancient temple. Amongst the mo- 
dem cupolas it will be ranked 
as the tiurd, being next in size 
to those of St Peter's, and St 
Maria del Fiore's at Florence. 
It exceeds by nearly twelve feet 
the dome of St Paul's in Lon- 
don. The two lateral cupolas are 
those of the minor churches. 

A truly magnificent arched 
front stands before the grand 
church: it is of the Ionic order, 
surmounted by three colossal sta- 
tues, representing Religion, St 
Francis, and St Louis, king of 
France, and supported by ten 
columns, and four pilasters., the 
diameter of which is scarcely less 
by one inch than the admired 



•columnij of the Paatlieoiw The 
wfaoL&is composed of lange blodcs^ 
of Carrara marble. The front is 
fladked by a double range of co- 
'lumn8, forty-four in number, and 
as many pilastres, forming alto- 
gether a semi-circular portico of 
the Doric order. These oolumnB, 
as well as the pilasters, are of 
lava taken from the hills whicdi 
surround the Solfatara at Poz- 
zuoli. Th^ chord of the portico 
measures 500 feet, which is tibe 
whole length of the piazza. Its 
friezes and the capitals have been 
made of the calcareous stone 
which is found in the Monte di 
Gaeta, of an agreeable yellowish 
colour, and it is commonly, tough 
improperly , called Travertino. 
They have covered with the same 
stone the drum of the rotunda 
and the two lateral domes. 

Marble statues corresponding 
in number to the columns be- 
neath arp to be placed upon the 
portico. Several of them are al- 
ready placed at the two extre- 
mities: they represent as many 
Christian virtues. Both the por- 
tico and the front stand upon 
several ranges of steps. The to- 
tal height of the Rotunda is equal 
to that of the Pantheon, and its 
diameter is but little less than 
that of the latter. 

Two equestrian statues of bron- 
ze, the one representing Char- 
les UI, and the other Ferdinand 
I, are erected at a small distance 
from the front. The former, and 
the horse of the latter, are the 
woi^ of the celebrated Canova. 

The inside of the three chur- 
ches is decorated with statues 
and pictures by the first Italian 
artists now living. 

Immediately opposite is 

The Moyal Palace, — The an- 
cient kings of Naples inhabited 



N4f<.90.— «(MT'DAT. .CHUMBBftf 



a59 



the caHte eiUled C«s$eji CapiMno, 
now denominated la YiQaria; they 
afterwards resided in the New 
Castle, ai^d sometimes in the Ca- 
Btello dell' Uo?o, where Alphonso 
m, of Arra^on, died in 1458. 
Peter of Toledo, the viceroy un- 
der Charles V, was the first who 
undertook to build a palace for 
the residence of the sovereign : 
he constructed the edifice now 
caUM ihe Old Palace, which ad- 
joins the theatre of St Charles, 
and conununicates with the New 
Castle. In this Charles V resi- 
ded; and on the gate may still 
he seen the eagle with two heads. 

Count Lemos, who was viceroy 
of Naples in 1600, added the 
large building, which is now the 
residence of the court Chevaher 
Dominic Fontana, a Romany was 
the architect employed on this 
beautiful palace. The front, which 
is about 455^ feet in length, dis- 
^^lays three orders of architec- 
ture, otnamented with Doric, 
Ionic, and Corinthian pilasters. 
In the first order are three large 
entrances; that in the centre is 
fournished with four beautiful 
granite columns, supporting a 
balcony; the others have only 
two. In the second and third 
order, which form two apartments, 
are. forty-two windows or case- 
ments. The whol^ building is 
surmounted by a Inaguificent en- 
tablature, above wbicli is a 
steeple, containing a clock. The 
court is surrounded by two rows 
of piazzas, one above another: 
the communication with these is 
formed by a superb, commodious. 
and broad staircase, ornamentea 
with two colossal figures of the 
£bro and Tagus. 

In this palace are large and 
beautiful apartments, ornamented 
with rich furniture, frescoes, and 



seveml fkUueSf by good mastfics. 
Among tM latter .are the Death 
of Caesar, and the Death ofVir- 
iginia, both by the Chevalier Ca- 
muccini; a portrait of thi6 late 
King Ferdinand, by the same 
author: Eebecca with the Ser- 
vant of Abraham^ by Francis Al- 
bano; the Circumcision of our 
Saviour, by an unknown author, 
of the Venetian school ; the Holy 
Virgin appearing to f<)ur Saints, 
with God the Father above her, 
by Raphael; Orpheus, by Michael 
Angelo of (Jaravaggio; the Three 
Cardinal Virtues, a copy from 
Raphael, by Hannibal Carsucci; 
our Saviour disputing with the 
Doctors, by Michael Ai^elo of 
Caravaggio; and a portrait of the 
Duchess of Orleans, by Gerard. 

The appartm^ts just spoken 
of are those which were occupied 
by the late king, and the pictu- 
res which they still contain ren- 
der them the most interesting 
part of th^ palace. The chapel, 
which is remarkably magnificent, 
is ornamented with marbles, and 
painted by James del Po. The 
beautiful statue of the Conception 
is by Chevalier Cosmo Fansaga. 

A terrace, paved with marble, 
extends the whole l^ogth of the 
palace, and commands a fine view 
of the sea. A communication be- 
tween this part of the palace and 
the dock has been formed by 
means of a covered bridge, by 
which the king passes when he 
wishes to enjoy the sea. On the 
right side of this palace, and near 
the old palace, is the 

Theatre of St Carlo — The 
grandeur and beauty of this thea- 
tre combine to render it the most 
remarkable in Italy It was built 
by Charles III in 1737, after a 
design by Ametrano, which was 
executed by Angelo Caresale in 



160 



SOOTHKSN ITALT. — NA0LE8. FIRST DA^. 



270 days. The accidental fire in 
1815 havinff greatly injured this 
theatre, it has been sJmost en- 
tirely rebuilt under the direction 
of Nicolini, the architect. 

This building is 144 feet In 
breadth and 288 in length, ex- 
clusive of the front, which bears 
the names ofthe most celebrated 
Italian composers and dramatic 
poets, and is ornamented with co- 
lumns and statues. The staircases 
are commodious, and its corridors 
very extensive; the pit is eighty- 
four feet in length and seventy- 
five in breadth ; the stage is 105 
feet in lenght and fifty-three in 
breadth. The theatre contains six 
tiers of boxes : tibe first, second, 
fifth, and sixth consist of thirty 
boxes each, and the third and 
fourth of thirty-two ; these boxes 
are large, each being capable of 
containing twelve persons. 

Besides this theatre there is 
the Teatro della Fenice, and that 
of San Carlino, both situated in 
the square of New Castle, and 
frequented by the lower classes. 
The theatre called Bel Fondo is 
a very neat modern building, of 
moderate size; it is situated near 
the mole. 

The Teatro Nuovo is situated 
near the street of Toledo. The 
theatre of the Florentines is on 
the opposite side of the street 
of Toledo, close to the church 
of St. John of the Florentines, 
from which it derived its name, 
and which was rebuilt in a mo- 
dern style in 1779. This theatre 
contains five tiers, each compo- 
sed of seventeen boxes ; the pie- 
ces performed Uiere are comic 
operas, comedies, and tragedies. 

The theatre of St Ferdinand, 
situated at the Ponte Nuovo, is. 
the largest in Naples, except that 
of St Charles. Proceeding to the 



right from the theatre of 8t Char- 
les, we arrive at the 

Square of the Neto Castle. — ^It 
presents itself a first in the form 
of an oblong square, surrounded 
on three si&s with houses and 
palaces, among which the newly- 
erected one, called Delle Finanze, 
is the most remarkable. The 
fourth side is formed by a wall 
extending as far as the Great 
Guard House, and in which a 
fountain may be observed, called 
Degli Specchi (the. fountain of 
mirrors), as its waters, descend- 
ing like a little cascade, are re* 
ceived in several basins, which 
may be compared to as many 
mirrors. The square is now plan- 
ted with trees, but it is said that^ 
in order to give light to the new 
palace, Delle Finanze, theseplants 
^11 be uprooted. From its first 
level downwards the square con- 
tinues to the mole, and on its 
left side a stupendous fountain 
presents itself to the view ofthe 
traveller; it is called Fontana Me- 
dina, and consists of a large ba- 
sin, from the centre of which rise 
four satvrs bearing a large ma- 
rine shell, above which are four 
sea-horses suppordiig a Neptune, 
who, ^th the three points ofthe 
trident, which he holds in his 
hand, is throwing up water. This 
fountaia, which is the finest in 
Naples, was made in the time of 
Count Olivares, and first placed, 
by order of the viceroys, at the 
arsenal, afterwards on the sea- 
shore, and lastly, was removed to 
its present situation bv Duke Me- 
dina de las Torres, n:om whom 
it took its name, and by whose 
order the lions and other exte- 
rior ornaments were executed, 
from the designs of Chevalier 
Fansaga. 

It was upon this square, and 



flAPLEB. — FIRST OAT. THEATMM. 



161 



under a great number of sheds, 
that once lived the lazzaroni, who 
are now dispersed through the 
several quarters of the city, es- 
pecially along the Molo piccolo 
towards the Ponte della Madda- 
lena. 

Near the mole, on the left side, 
is the post office and the theatre 
Del Fondo. On the right side, 
opposite to these buildings, ri- 
ses the 

Castel Nuovo. — This fortress 
is partly situated on the sea- 
shore, opposite the mole, to which 
it serves as a defence. Its public 
entrance is thro\igh a small bridge 
joined with a drawbridge; and 
from the inscription placed over 
the gate it appears that this 
castle was originally built by 
Charles I of Anjou, in the year 
1283, and repaired in 1823 by 
the late King Ferdinand I. The 
designs of the first building, which 
consisted of the middle mass and 
the little towers with which it 
was surrounded, were the work 
of John Pisano; and Charles esta- 
blished his residence there, re- 
moving from the Castle Capuano, 
which was not considered as suf- 
ficiently secure. 

The exteriorfortifications which 
surround it, and form a square of 
nearly 200 toises, were commen- 
ced by Alphonso i of Arragon, 
about the year 1500, they were 
continued by Gk)nzalvo of Cor- 
dova, and finished, about the year 
1646, by Peter of Toledo, who 
likewise added two large bastions. 

Beyond the first fortifications 
(^this castle, between two towers, 
is the triumphal arch, erected by 
the inhabitants of Naples at the 
tune of King Alphonso^s entr^; 
the whole is of marble, and is 
ornamented with many statues 
imd bas-reliefs tolerably well exe- 



cuted, and representingthe actions 
of that king. This work is tiie 
production of ChevaUer Peter de 
Martino, of Milan, who was the 
architect of King Alphonso. This 
monument is curious, in reference 
to the history of the arts, as few 
specimens of the architectmre of 
this age are to be found in any 
part of Europe. 

Near this arch is a bronze 
gate, ornamented with bas-reliefs, 
representing the exploits of King 
Ferdinand I of Arragon. A gun- 
shot is confined in one of its 
folds; it was fired from within 
the castle, and could not pierce 
the gate, though it produced a 
triple cleft in it Over tie in- 
ternal arch a stuffed crocodile 
is seen, about ^ix feet in length, 
which according to tradition was 
found and taken in a subterraneous 
prison of the castle, after he 
had devoured there several pri* 
soners. The arch leads into the 
Place d'Armes, in xhich us the 
Church of St Barbe, ornamented 
with marbles and paintings. A 
well is shown near this church, 
containing the water reserved 
in case of a siege. Mounting 
afterwards a flight of stairs, we 
enter the armoury, which is yet 
unfinished. The room was for- 
merly a theatre belonging to the 
court, and two royal boxes may 
still be seen carved into the waU. 
It was Ferdinand I who ordered 
that an armoury should be formed 
there, capable of containing arms 
for 60,000 soldiers. 

A gfidlery passing under arehea 
forms an internal communication 
between this castle and the royal 
palace, which might be made use 
of as a retreat in case of any 
public commotion. This castle 
has also an arsenal, a cannon 
foundry, artillery schools, bar- 



162 



SOUTBERN ITALY. — SAPLE8. FIRST RAY. 



I 



racks'; apartments for the oM* 
eers, etc In one part of the 
castle may be seen several large 
pieces of artillery, bearing the 
arms of the Duke of Saxoxiy, 
which were taken by Charles V. 
As this building was formerly 
the residence of soyereigns, it is 
not surprising that it contains 
many monuments, and displays 
an air of grandeur not often seen 
in ordinary fortresses. It is ca- 
pable of containing a garrison 
of 8,000 men. Near the walls 
of this castle is the 

Harbour of Naples, — This is 
of a square form, about 150 toi- 
ses in length and breadth, in- 
cludiilg a space of about 600 
square toises; it is defended by 
a great mole, which closes it on 
the west and south. This mole 
was constructed by Charles 11 
of Anjou, in 1302, and afterwards 
augmented by Alphonso I of Ar- 
ragon; it, however, received its 
last improvementfrom Charles III, 
who, in 1740, extended it 250 
feet towards the east, and thus 
defended the harbour from the 
sout-east winds. The lighthouse 
was rebuilt in 1646. The pro- 
menade along this mole is ex- 
tremely delightful, and is very 
much frequented. 

This harbour is small, and is 
not capable of containing more 
than four ships of eighty guns, 
with frigates, tartanes, and other 
small vessels; but the road, be- 
tween the dock and the Castello 
deir Uovo, is very extensive, and 
is a very favourable situation 
for the formation of a harbomr. 

Returning to the square of the 
new castle appears the 

Palace of Finance, — This was 
an ancient building, which com- 
prehended the bjmk of Naples 
and a hospital dependent on the 



chnrdi of St James degli Spag- 
naolL It has been rebuilt, and 
reduced to its present form and 
use, after designs by M. Gass, 
a living architect. The repairs 
were commenced in the year 1818, 
and were finished in 1826. The 
present palace is of a quadran- 
gular form, being an insulated 
edifice standing between Toledo 
and the Largo del Castello. Its 
principal front, turned to the 
east, overlooks the latter square, 
and is about 270 feet in length. 
It presents three large entrances, 
one of which, however (that on 
the left side of the building), 
leads into St James's Church* 
These doors are surmounted by 
three rows of seventeen windows 
each, besides those of the lower 
story. The opposite front over- 
looks the street of Toledo, 
and displays but two higher 
ranges of twenty-one windows 
each, and a single entrance; this 
is 320 feet in length. The lateral 
sides run for 464 feet along two 
smaller streets, and, when the 
palace is completely finished, 
each of them will have three en- 
trances. The interior of the edi- 
fice contains the ministerial offi- 
ces and those belonging to the 
principal branches of the govern- 
ment, namely, the finance de- 
partment, the treasiu*y, the police 
office; and it also contains the 
exchange. The whole palace is 
the 'central place of both the 
commercial and administrative 
business in Naples; its position 
between Toledo and the Largo 
del Castello could not be better 
chosen for the purpose of ren- 
dering it convenient to the in- 
habitants of the different quar- 
ters of this populous city. This 
place is well lighted with gas. 
The Ohfirch of. Si Janiea degli 



NAPLES.— URSTH hh\, CttURCHES. 



16S 



i^agnuolii"^ This church was 
erected in J 540 by the viceroy, 
Don Peter of Toledo, after de- 
signs by Ferdinand Manlio. A 
marble staircase is in its en- 
trance, which is ornamented wi& 
two mausoleums likewise in mar- 
ble, erected to the memory of 
two noble Spaniards. The church 
is now undergoing repairs. It 
chiefly requires to be stuccoed. 
Before the military occupation 
of the kingdom it contained a 
fine picture of Andrew del Sarto, 
which is supposed to have been 
carried off during that period, 
though a similar painting is still 
to be seen at the same place, 
that is, in the chapel on the left 
side of the grand altar ; but the 
fact of the supposed substitution 
is far from oeiug ascertained. 
Several other valuable pictures 
may be observed in various other 
chapels, especially three exe- 
cuted upon wood, by Mark Pino, 
of Sienne, representing, one the 
Crucifix, anotner St James, and 
the third the Holy Virgin with St 
Francis and St Anthony; three 
others, likewiseonwood^ by Ber- 
nard Lama, Criscuolo, and an 
unknown antlior; and finally, four 
pictures by the Cav. Massimo, 
&emardino of Scicily, Passanti, 
the disciple of Bibera, and the 
fourth by an unknown author; 
but the rarest production of the 
fine arts it contains is the marble 
tomb of the viceroy, who founded 
the church. It is one of the finest 
work of John Merliano, of Nola. 
It is situated in the choir, witiik 
several other sarcophagi of il- 
lustrious personages. The organ 
of the church, situated in the 
same place, is one of the most 
valuable instruments of the'kind. 
Tke Ohwch of 8t Ferdinand.^ 
This beatttiiul church, which for- 



merly belonged to the Jesuits^ 
was built at the expense of the 
Countess of Lemos, the Vice* 
Queen of Naples. The front was 
made from designs by Chevalier 
Cosmo. The paintings which de* 
corate the ceiling and the cupola 
are considered the largest and 
most beautiful works in fresco 
of Paul de Matteis. The statues 
of David and Moses, in one of 
the chapels, are by Vaccaro. Be- 
fore the suppression of the Je- 
suits a picture by Solimea orna- 
mented the altar, but at the pe- 
riod of that event it was removed" 
to the Boyal Museum, where it 
may still be seen. A modern one 
has been substituted to that.^hree 
other fine pictures may be ob- 
served on the lateral chapels, 
one representing the Conception, 
another St Ignatius, and the third 
St. Antony of Padua. 

The church of St Ferdinand 
is now a parochial one, and be- 
longs to the congregation of the 
nobility, under the title LaVer- 
gine Addolorata. The king is the 
"head of this confraternity. 

From St Ferdinand, proceed- 
ing" through the street of St Anna 
di Palazzo, >we go to 

The Church of 8t Cfiarlea AUe 
Mortelle. — It was so called from 
the myrtles (mortelle) which for- 
merly covered the country at the 
foot of Mount St Ermo. This 
church, as well as the convent, 
was founded by the p^resPieux 
Bamabites in 1616. lliese monks 
were suppressed during the mi- 
litary occupation of &e kingi* 
dom. In the year 1818 they were 
replaced by the Augvistines, to 
whom the administration of the 
church belongs at present The 
chikpel of St Liboire contains a fine 
picture by Jordans. Five other 
pictures may be observed in the 



162 



SOUTBERN iTALT.-H»APLES. FIBST BAY. 



racks'; apartments for the oM* 
eers, etc In one part of the 
castle may be seen several large 
pieces of artillery, bearing the 
arms of the Duke of Saxony, 
which were taken by Charles V, 
As this building was formerly 
the residence of sovereigns, it is 
not surprising that it contains 
many monuments, and displays 
an air of grandeur not often seen 
in ordinary fortresses. It is ca- 
pable of containing a garrison 
of 3,000 men. Near the walls 
of this castle is the 

Harbour of Naples, — This is 
of a square form, about 150 toi- 
ses in length and breadth, in- 
eludiilg a space of about 600 
square toises; it is defended by 
a great mole, which closes it on 
the west and south. This mole 
was constructed by Charles II 
of Anjou, in 1802, and afterwards 
augmented by Alphonso I of Ar- 
ragon; it, however, received its 
last improvementfrom Charles HI, 
who, in 1740, extended it 250 
feet towards the east, and thus 
defended the harbour from the 
sout-east winds. The lighthouse 
was rebuilt in 1646. The pro- 
menade along this mole is ex- 
tremely delightful, and is very 
much frequented. 

This harbour is small, and is 
not capable of containing more 
than four ships of eighty guns, 
with frigates, tartanes, and other 
small vessels; but the road, be- 
tween the dock and the Castello 
deir Uovo, is very extensive, and 
is a very favourable situation 
for the formation of a harbour. 

Returning to the square of the 
new castle appears the 

Palace of Finance, — This was 
an ancient building, which com- 
prehended the bj^k of Naples 
and a hospital dependent on the 



chnrdi of St James degli Spag- 
naolL It has been rebuilt, ami 
reduced to its present form and 
use, after designs by M. Gass, 
a living architect. The repairs 
were commenced in the year 1818, 
and were finished in 1826. The 
present palace is of a quadran- 
gular form, being an insulated 
edifice standing between Toledo 
and the Largo del Castello. Its 
principal front, turned to the 
east, overlooks the latter square, 
and is about 270 feet in length. 
It presents three large entrances, 
one of which, however (that on 
the left side of the building), 
leads into St James's Church* 
These doors arc surmounted by 
three rows of seventeen windows 
each, besides those of the lower 
story. The opposite front over- 
looks the street of Toledo, 
and displays but two higher 
ranges of twenty-one windows 
each, and a single entr.once; this 
is 320 feet in length. The lateral 
sides run for 464 feet along two 
smaller streets, and, when the 
palace is completely finished, 
each of them will have three en- 
trances. The interior of the edi- 
fice contains the ministerial offi- 
ces and those belonging to the 
principal branches of the govern- 
ment, namely, the finance de- 
partment, the treasury, the police 
office; and it also contains the 
exchange. The whole palace is 
the 'central place of both the 
commercial and administrative 
business in Naples; its position 
between Toledo and the Largo 
del Castello could not be better 
chosen for the purpose of ren- 
dering it convenient to the in- 
habitants of the different quar- 
ters of this populous city. This 
place is well lighted with gas. 
The Ohti/rch. of .St James degli 



NAPLIS.— URSTH 0AK. CttURCHES. 



16S 



Spagnttoliit "^ This ehurch was 
erected in J 540 by the viceroy, 
Don Peter of Toledo, after de- 
signs by Ferdinand Manlio. A 
marble staircase is in its en- 
trance, wMch is ornamented witii 
two mausoleums likewise in mar- 
ble, erected to the memory of 
two noble Spaniards. The church 
is now undergoing repairs. It 
chiefly requires to be stuccoed. 
Before the military occupation 
of the kingdom it contained a 
fine picture of Andrew del Sarto, 
which is supposed to have been 
carried off during that period, 
though a similar painting is still 
to be seen at the same place, 
that is. in the chapel on the left 
side ot the grand altar ; but the 
fact of the supposed substitution 
is far from being ascertained. 
Several other valuable pictures 
may be observed in various other 
chapels, especially three exe- 
cuted upon wood, by Mark Pino, 
of Sienne, representing, one the 
Crucifix, anotner St James, and 
the third the Holy Virgin with St 
Francis and St Anthonj; three 
others, likewise on wood, by Ber- 
nard Lama, Criscuolo, and an 
unknown autlior ; and finally, four 
pictures by the Cav. Massimo, 
Bernardino of Scicily, Passanti, 
the disciple of Bib era, and the 
fourth by an unknown author; 
but the rarest production of the 
fine arts it contains is the marble 
tomb of the viceroy, who founded 
the church. It is one of the finest 
work of John Merliano, of Nola. 
It is situated in the choir, witib 
several other sarcophagi of il- 
lustrious personages. The organ 
of the church, situated in the 
same place, is one of the most 
valuable instruments of the kind. 
2%e Ckurch of 8t I^'ercUnand.-r' 
This beautiful church, which for- 



merly belonged to the Jesuits, 
was built at the expense of the 
Gountes^ of Leanos, the Vice- 
Queen of Naples. The front was 
made from designs by Chevalier 
Cosmo. The paintings which de* 
corate the ceiling and the cupola 
are considered the largest and 
most beauti^ works in fresco 
of Paul de Matteis. The statues 
of David and Moses, in one of 
the chapels, are by Vaccaro. Be- 
fore the suppression of the Je- 
suits a picture by Solimea orna- 
mented the altar, but at the pe- 
riod of that event it was removed" 
to the Boyal Museum, where it 
may still oe seen. A modern one 
has been substituted to that^^hree 
other fine pictures may be ob- 
served on the lateral chapels, 
one representing the Conception, 
another St Ignatius, and the third 
St Antony of Padua. 

The church of St Ferdinand 
is now a parochial one, and be- 
longs to the congregation of the 
nobility, under the title LaVer^ 
gine Addolorata. The king is the 
"head of this confraternity. 

From St Ferdinand, proceed- 
ing" through the street of St Anna 
di Palazzo, >we go to 

The Church of St Charles Alle 
Mortelle. — It was so called from 
the myrtles (mortelle) which for- 
merly covered the country at the 
foot of Mount St Ermo. This 
church, as well as the convent, 
was founded by the pdresPieux' 
Bamabites in 1616. Tliese monks 
were suppressed during the mi- 
litary occupation of the king* 
dom. In the year 1818 they were 
replaced by the Augustines, to 
whom the administration of the 
church belongs at present. The 
chapel of St LS)oire contains a fine 
picture by Jordans. Five other 
pictures may be observed in the 



164 



SOUTHERN ITALY. — NAPLES. PALACE OP PINANCB. 



k 



choir. Each of them represents 
some prodigious event in St Char- 
les's life, and three of them, the 
most valuable, bear the seal of 
the government, which, during 
the revolutionary period, was ob- 
liged to take tins precaution in 
order to prevent other pictures 
being fraudulently substituted in- 
stead of the originals. 

Iq the immediate vicinity is a 
Boyal College, called Collegio 
delle Scuole Pie di Puglia, where 
the young nobility only, both na- 
tive and foreigners, are admitted 
for education. 

In one of the adjacent streets is 

Hie Academy for Engraving 
Plates and Hard Stones. — Char- 
les m, on his passage through 
Florence, formed the design of 
establishing at Naples an aca- 
demy for engraving similar to the 
one he had seen in the former 
place. He executed this plan by 
calling to his capital several Flo- 
rentine artists, whose descendants 
are still employed in this estab- 
lishment. It has no remarkable 
appearance, but very valuable 
works are executed there. They 
show, among others, on oval piece 
of oriental petrified wood inten- 
ded for a table, and several stu- 
pendous pieces of workmanship, 
made partly of precious stones 
and partly of oriental petrified 
wood, the whole destined for the 
chapel of the Royal Palace at 
Caserta. A school of drawing had 
also been founded in this aca- 
demy, but in the recent organi- 
zation of public instruction, this 
branch was removed to the aca- 
demy degli Studi, whither the 
whole establishment will soon be 
transferred. 

A descent leads from these pla- 
ces to a bridge called Ponte di 
Chiaja, by which the hill of St 



Ermo is connected with that of 
Pizzo Falcone. Close to this bridge 
on the right side is 

The Church of St Mary of the 
Angela. — It is a grand church, 
erected by the Peres Pieux Thea- 
tins in 1600, on the plan of P. 
Francis Grimaldi. It has three 
naves, and is ornamented with 
numerous paintings by Chevalier 
Masimo, Jordans, and Andrea 
Vaccaro. It contains also valuable 
marbles, among which the two 
Angels on the corners of the 
grand altar deserve particular at- 
tention The altar is itself a most 
remarkable piece on accoimt of 
the precious marbles with which 
it is covered. The cupola of this 
church is a magnificent imitation 
of St Peter's at Rome. It is en- 
tirely covered with lead, and may 
be seen from any open part of 
the town. The street in which 
this church stands leads to the 
top of the hill called Pizzo Fal- 
cone, but before reaching it we 
turn to the right by a short lane 
to see. 

The Church of La NunziaUella, 
— This church Ibrmerly belonged 
to the Jesuits, who rebuilt it in 
1730 after a plan by Ferdinand 
San Felice. It is ornamented with 
marbles, gilt stuccoes, and pain* 
tings bv die most celebrated ar^^ 
tists 01 that period. It contains 
besides two most valuable pictu* 
res by ancient, though unknown 
authors — one representing a fal- 
ling Christ, whidi is in the cha- 
pel of the Calvario, and the other 
in the sacristy, representing the 
Annunciation of tne Virgin. In 
the military college belon^g to 
this church, under the tide of 
Polytechnic School, 150 young 
men are maintained and educated. 

From the Nunziatella we re- 



SOUTHERN ITALT. — NAPLES. FIRST DAT. 



165 



enter the great street, and go 
up to 

Pizzo Falcone. — This hill was 
formerly called Echia, perhaps 
from the name of Hercules, and 
was afterwards denominated Lu- 
cullana, because it was partly 
occupied by the gardens and pa- 
lace of LucuUus, a Roman con- 
sul. This was formerly united to 
the Castello dell' Uovo, but the 
separation of the ground was cau- 
sed by an earthquake. In the place 
where we are now — that is, on 
the top of the hill — ^there was in 
Charles of Anjotf s time a royal 
chace of falcons, and from this 
circumstance the hill derived its 
present name of Pizzo Falcone. 
The chace was^terwards cut 
down, and an edifice was con- 
structed on its site for the de- 
tention of convicts, but in more 
recent times it was converted into 
military barracks, which are now 
occupied by the Grenadiers or 
Life Guards. At the top, on the 
side overlooking the see, is a pa- 
lace belonging to the crovm, and 
which contains at present a su- 
perb establishment directed by 
a colonel. 

This is the royal topographi- 
cal office, where topographic, geo- 
graphic, and hydrographical maps 
are formed both of llus and fo- 
rdni countries. It is furnished 
with a cabinet of geodedic and 
optical instruments, by the best 
!Kuropean makers, and possesses 
an astronomical observatory for 
geodedic operations. A nuUtary 
typography is likewise found there, 
with a calcographv for the prin- 
ting of maps, a lithography, a 
collection of military plans and 
memoirs in manuscripts, and fi- 
nally a selected Kbrary for the 
instruction of the officers belong- 



ing both to the navy and the 
army. 

. Descending from Pizao Fal- 
cone by the sea side we reach the 

Castello deir Uovo, — A large 
bridge forms the communication 
with this castle, which projects 
inta the sea about 230toiBes, and^ 
as we have already stated, was 
formerly united wiw the hill of 
Pizzo Falcone, but has been di- 
vided from it by an earthquake. 
This island is called Megarisby 
Pliny, and Megalia by Stace. Ac- 
cording to the opinion of antimta- 
ries, the celebrated and rich Lu- 
cullus, a Roman consul, had a 
villa here ; from this circumstance 
the castle, for a long period of 
time, preserved the name of Gas- 
trum Lucullanum. It is the place 
to which the young Augustulus, 
the last emperor of Rome, was 
banished by Odoacre, king of the 
Herulians, and first king of Italy, 
in the year 476. William I, the 
second king 0/ Naples, construc- 
ted a palace there in 1154, which 
was iuterwards fortified and put 
in a state ofdefence. An inscrip- 
tion may be seen there in ho- 
nour of the viceroy Francis Be- 
navides, who made several addi- 
tions in 1698. 

In coming again out of the castle, 
we have on our left a beautiful 
quay, which adjoins that of Ghiaja. 
It is called Platamone (vulgarly 
Ghiatamone), a word which is de- 
rived from the Greek Platamon, 
perhaps because it was formerly 
planted with plane trees. A little 
palace is found there, belonging 
to t^e king, and which is occa- 
sionally inhabited by foreign prin- 
ces who come to Naples. A spring 
of mineral water is found in a 
subterraneous grotto by the castle. 
The Neapolitans call it Acqua 
Ferrata; it is used, especially in 



166 



NAPLES. — riRST DAY. CHOItCSES. 



'^dnter, -for the cure ' of ▼ariou8 
disorders. The way on our right 
leads to 

St Lucia, — This is a very re- 
markable place, both on account 
of its delightful position in front 
of the gulf, ofwhich it commands 
a fine prospect, and because in 
summer it is the nightly rendez- 
vous of fashinable people. 

On this spot is another spring 
of acidulous and sulphurous wa- 
ter, called Acqua Solfegna. It 
descends, like the^former, through 
subterraneous channels, from the 
hill of Pizzo Falcone, and from 
the month of June to the end of 
September it becomes the medi- 
cinal drink of almost all valetu- 
dinarians at Naples. 

A beautiful fountain is seen near 
to this spring. It was made from 
drawings by Dominic Auria. Along 
the remainder of the beach a 
number of wooden shops are 
usually erected in the afternoon, 
where shells and exquisite fish 
are sold. On the opposite side 
there are several inns and fur- 
nished lodgings, which are eu- 
gerly sought after by foreigners, 
on account of the beautiM pros- 
pect they afford. The beach ter- 
minates with a small but very 
ancient church, dedicated to St 
Lucia, a circumstance from which 
the whole quarter derives its name. 
This church was erected by Lu- 
cia, the niece of Constantine the 
Great. 

SECOND DAY. 

We shall employ this day in 
visiting the mountain called Yo- 
mero, where we shall see the 
castle of St Ermo, and the church 
of St Martin. From thence we 
shall proceed to the Camaldules, 
and on our return visit the church 
of St Theresa, the Royal Aca- 



demy of Study, t^e Square of 
the Holy Ghost; we shall after- 
wards pass to the quarter of 
Monte Oliveto. 

From Pausilipo, .we shall re- 
turn to Chiaja, to ascend the 
mountain called Vomero, on ac- 
count of the fertility of its lands, 
which are infinitely superior to 
thos^ in the vicinity. On this 
mountain are several churches^ 
as well as the most beautiful 
villas of Naples, amongst wich 
may be distinguished mose of 
Prince Caratfa of belvedere, and 
of Count Ricciardi, and the coim- 
try seat of the Duchess of Flo- 
ridia. 

From thence we proceed to 
the adjoining hilL called St Ermo, 
from an ancient Phoenician word, 
signifying high or sublime, as in 
fact this mountain is. In the middle 
age a chapel was erected here, 
and dedicated to St Erasmus; 
from this circumstance, the name 
of that saii^t was given to the 
mountain, which is indifferently 
called St. Ermo or St Erasmo. 

On the top of this mountain 
is situated the 

Castello San Ermo, — This was 
formerly a tower, erected by the 
Norman princes ; from its advan- 
tageous situation at the summit 
of a mountain, commanding the 
city on one side and the sea on 
the other, it received the name 
of Belforte. Charles II converted 
this into a castle, to which he 
added new fortifications in 1518, 
when Naples was besieged by 
General Lautrec. Charles V made 
it afterwards a regular citadel, 
which Philip V embellished with 
new works. The whole of this 
building now presents an hexa- 
gon about 100 toises in diameter, 
composed of very high walls, with 
a counterscarp cut in the rock. 



SOtTKKN ITALt. — NAPIXS. CHVRCHE8.' 



167 



In wliich likewise are made the 
ditches surronnding it, with mines, 
countermines, and several sub- 
terranean ways in its vicinity. In 
the centre of the castle is a very 
extensive place dVrmes, with a 
formidable artillery, and a nu- 
merous garrison. Beneath this 
tsastle is a cistern of prodigious 
siize, being as broad as the castle 
itself 

A short distance below the 
castle is 

The Church of San Martino* — 
This spot was formerly occupied 
by a country house of the kinc 
of Naples, which was rendered 
remarkably delightful by the 
beauty of its situation. Charles, 
duke of Calabria, son of Robert 
of Anjou, solicited his father to 
convert it into a sacred building ; 
so that in 1325 the erection of 
the church and monastery was 
commenced, and they were en- 
dowed by King Robert and Queen 
Jane I. 

The present church was re- 
modelled two centuries after- 
wards, according to the plan of 
Chevalier Fansaga, and the fine 
appearance it bears, attended 
with the real beauty of its de- 
corations, render it mostworUnr 
of notice. It is ornamented witn 
fine paintings, beautiful marbles, 
precious stones, and gilt stuc- 
coes. On the upper part ot the 
door is a picture by Chevalier Mas- 
simo, representing Jesus Christ 
and the Virgin Mary, On the 
sides of the church likewise are 
two other pictures, representing 
Moses a^d EKas ; these are exe- 
cuted by Spagnoletto, and are 
very fine compositions. The twelve 
prophets, forming eight pictures, 
on the roof of the jiave, are the 
chefs-d'oeuvre of Spagnoletto, 
whether considered as to their 



sublimity of design, and yaifiety 
of characters, or to their ^natural 
expression ■ and beauty' of colour- 
ing. The frescoes on the roof of 
the nave, representing our Sa- 
viour's ascension, and the twdve 
apostles, placed between the 
windows, are ranked amongst 
the best works of Chevalier 
Lanfranc 

The grand altar is executed in 
wood from a design by Solimea, 
and was to be enriched with 
valuable marbles, but this hag 
not been effected. The .choir h 
remarkably beautiful ; the paint- 
ings on the ceiling were com- 
menced by Chevalier d'Arpino, 
and continued by Berardino of 
Sicily. The principal picture, cor- 
responding with the grand altar, 
and representing the Birth of 
our Saviour, is by the celebrated 
Guide Reni, but the death of 
this painter prevented his finish- 
ing it The other paintings seen 
in this church are by lianfranc,, 
Spagnoletto, and the ChevaJier 
Massimo. The chapels likewise 
contain a number of fine paint- 
ings, amongst which is the Bap- 
tism of St John, the only work 
in Naples painted by Charles 
Maratta. There are in the same 
chapel two paintings represent- 
ing Herodias in the act of offer- 
ing the head of St John to He- 
rod, and the decollation of the 
saint, both by the Chevalier Mas- 
simo. 

The chapel of St Anselm con- 
tains two fine pictures by Vac- 
cari. That of St Martin is orna- 
mented with a fresco very much 
esteemed, executed two hundred 
and fifty years ago, by the Che- 
valier Paolo Finoglia. A very 
fine bas-relief, by Vaccari, the 
sculptor, may be seen in the 
chapel of St Genntfro; and that. 



1S8 



aaVTIBRN. ITALT.rHSAfUS. FIBST 9AT. 



merottS companyv Coffee houses 
aad dining and billiard rooms 
are found at the entrance of the 
garden. There are also baths, 
both cold and warm, contigtious 
to a coffee house about the middle 
of te promenade. 

Retumtng to the Larga St Fer- 
dinand to 

The Chwreh of St Francis 
(Ohiesa de St Francesco), — It is 
situatad upon tHe Piazza Reale, 
erected in consequence of a vow 
of the late king Ferdinand I. It 
is built after a design by M. Bi- 
anchi, a living architect Its foun- 
dations were laid towards the 
middle of the year 1817; finished 
in 1838. This is not a single 
church, though it bears but one 
title. They are threcr, separate 
in all respects from each other, 
but having an internal commu- 
nication, by means of which, on 
extraordinary occasions, divine 
service may be performed by the 
clergy of all three, united in the 
principal one. This has been 
constructed in the form of the 
Pantheon, and its rotunda is 
nearly as large as that of that 
ancient temple. Amongst the mo- 
dem cupolas it win be ranked 
as the Ihird, being next in size 
to those of St Peter's, and St 
Maria del Fiore's at Florence. 
It exceeds by nearly twelve feet 
the dome of St Paul's in Lon- 
don. The two lateral cupolas are 
those of the minor churches. 

A truly magnificent arched 
front stands before the grand 
church: it is of the Ionic order, 
surmounted by three colossal sta- 
tues, representing Religion, St 
Francis, and St Louis, Idng of 
France, and supported by ten 
columns, and four pilasters^ the 
diameter of which is scarcely less 
■^y one inch than the admired 



•columns of -the PantUeon. The 
wfaolfris composed of lai^e blooks^ 
of Carrara marble. The front is 
flanked by a double range of co- 
lumns, forty-four in number, and 
as many pilastres, forming alto- 
^ther a semi-circular portico of 
the Doric order. These columns, 
as well as the pilasters, are of 
lava taken from the hills whic^ 
surround the Solfatara at Poz- 
zuoli. The chord of the portico 
measures 500 feet, which is the 
whole length of the piazza. Its 
friezes and the capitals have been 
made of the calcareous stone 
which is found in Uie Monte di 
0aeta, of an agreeable yellowish 
colour, and it is conmionly, tough 
improperly , called Travertine. 
They have covered with the same 
stone the drum of the rotunda 
and the two lateral domes. 

Marble statUes corresponding 
in number to the columns be- 
neath ar^ to be placed upon the 
portico. Several of them are al- 
ready placed at the two extre- 
mities: they represent as many 
Christian virtues. Boti^ the por- 
tico and the front stand upon 
several ranges of steps. The to- 
tal height of the Rotunda is equal 
to that of the Pantheon, and its 
diameter is but little less than 
that of the latter. 

Two equestrian statues of bron- 
ze, the one representing Char- 
les m, and the other Ferdinand 
I, are erected at a small distance 
from tibe front The former, and 
the horse of the latter, are the 
work of the celebrated Canova. 

The inside of the three chur- 
ches is decorated with statues 
and pictures by the first Italian 
artists now living. 

Immediately opposite is 

The Royal Palace. — The an- 
cient kings of Naples ibihabited 



UflB^.—JffMT'WkJ. ,€HII|kQHM»c 



:159 



the caatljB called CoAtel Gapiuaio, 
now denomiiiated la Yiqaria ; they 
afterwards resided in the New 
Castle, and spmetimesin theOa- 
steUo deU' Uovoj where Alphonso 
in, of Axragon, died in 1458. 
Peter of Toledo, the viceroy un- 
der Ch^-rles V, was the first who 
undertook to build a palace for 
the residence of the sovereign : 
he constructed the edifice now 
caUed tiie Old Palace, which ad- 
joins the theatre of St Charles, 
and communicates with the New 
Castle. In this Charles V resi- 
dojd; and on the gate may still 
be seen the eagle with two heads. 

Count Lemos, who was viceroy 
of Naples in 1600, added the 
large building, which is now the 
residence of the court Chevalier 
Dominic Fontana, a Koman^was 
the architect employed on this 
beautiful palace. The front, which 
is about 455 feet in length, dis- 
plays Uiree orders of architec- 
ture, otnamented with Doric, 
Ionic, and Corinthian pilasters. 
In the first order are three large 
entrances: that in the centre is 
fournished with four beautiful 
granite columns, supporting a 
balcony; the others have only 
two. In the second and thira 
order, which form two apartments, 
ai'e. forty-two windows or case- 
ments* The whold building is 
surmounted by a inagnificent en- 
tablature, above which is a 
steeple, containing a clock. The 
court is surrounded by two rows 
of piazzas, one above another: 
the communication with these is 
formed by a superb, commodious, 
and broad staircase, ornamented 
with two colossal figures of the 
Ebro and Tagus. 

In this palace are ]arge and 
beautiful apartments, ornamented 
with rich furniture, frescoes, and 



several pietores^ by good masteis. 
Among tM Utter are the Death 
of Caesar, and the Death of Vir- 
ginia, both by the Chevalier Ca- 
muccini; a portrait of the late 
King Ferdinand, b^ the same 
author; Rebecca with the Ser- 
vant of Ab