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1, or the science whose aim is the study of coins, 
might be considered as a branch of ArchEeology, were its enquiries 
GOniined to the coins of hy-gone days. As coins of modern pe- 
riods, however, fall within its range, Numismatics must stand as an 
independent study. Still, to the stndent of history, coins ai-e ever 
of interest. They furnish him with notices of the religious and 
political systems of ancient nations, as well as of the geography 
and history of eommnnities of which written traditions give him 
but the name. The devices on early Greek coins always expi-ess 
some historic or religious tenet in the national belief. A recently 
discovered series of Baeti'ian coins tells of a Greek Empii-e in Cen- 
tral Asia, whose very existence had been previously unknown. 
"The Roman Imperial ooins," says Sir J. Bowring, "in addition 
to their individual character and interest, possess a general histori- 
cal interest in consequence of being for the most part struck to 
commemorate remarkable events. The difficulties of history are 
consequently cleared np by these contemporaiy records, which are 
so complete until the time of Constantine that histories have been 
compiled from them. They form the most authentic data in the 
Roman annals, the years of the consular and tribunitian offices 
held by the Emperors appearing in the front, and on the reverse, 
representations of the events whose dates are expressed on the 
other side. The coins of Trajan, of Hadrian and of the Antonines 
are remarkable for this and for the accurate data which are thereby 
supplied to history, by which the mistakes of chroniclers are often 

Nor are coins of less value to the artist. To him, as an illustra- 
tor of history, they give fairly reliable representations, otherwise 
unattainable, of persons, places, incidents and objects, to which 
reference is being continually made, and concerning which men 
desire to have some authentic information. Who can look on a 
collection of Roman bronzes without feeling that he has before 
him the exact likenesses of men, at " whose names the world grew 
pale " — likenesses whose fidelity is proved by the persistency with 
which certain features appeal-, however vaiied as to metal, size, 
date, or place of issue, may be the coins themselves? To such an 
one, coins are also monuments of the art ideas and attainments 
in mechanical skill of difEerent nations at successive periods in 
their histories. 

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To tho aiitiqiiarian, coins are priceless mpmorials of tlie past. 
They form a gt'Qniiie portioii of that Flotsam and Jetsam of 
former days -whieb he so loves to gather up. As he contemplates 
the precious I'elics, he i-ecalls the national and social circumstances 
under which they came into existence ; he pictures to liimself 
through what endless variety of hands these coins must have 
passed ; what changes in the world's condition they must have 
witnessed; what desolation^ they have survived. Such power of 
suggestion {^ve, in his eyes, a peculiar value to coins and lead to the 
foi-ming of those collections that are studied with such delight by 
men otTtindred taste. 

Fi'om whichever of these sources, then, has come that impulse 
which has awakened in our reader an interest in Numismatics, we 
shall suppose him to be in possession of a number of coins of dif- 
ferent countries, dates and conditions. His first business is, of 
coui-se, to classify them according to their countries, placing the 
cities or states of these alphabetically, and arranghig the issues 
of each mint in chronological order.* Next, as oppoi-t.unity offers, 
replacing those of an inferior by others of a superior condition 
or preservation, he will look out for specimens of the different 
types or devices that are sometimes found on pieces of the same 
issue or series ; he will also add varieties or coins of a common 
type, but differing from each other in minute det^.ils accord- 
ing to the taste or skill of the different die cutters. Of the 
American cent of 1793, for example, we have the wreath, the 
chain, the libeity cap types, with trivial differences in their 
details, giving rise to varieties. The young collector should, 
however, interest himself not so much in the gathering of a full set 
or series of coins of a particular issue, as in the making of a collec- 
tion of diverse types. Twenty-five coins of diffei-ent dates and dis- 
similar devices will yield vastly more pleasure and instruction 
than so many all of one date and device, and unlike only in unim- 
portant mechanical det^ls. He should also remember that a small 
collection of superior pieces is preferable to a larger one of 
poor and defaced ones. The eye has no pleasure in studying the 
latter, while the former is a source. of constant gratification. 

Nor is it wise to mn much after rarities. Ancient coins are gene- 
rally found in large masses,the owners of speciein former days hav- 

t6 of Eastern Europe, Greece, iu Its kiugdoniB, ivith its islands, ^ 

Minor, Syria, PariJiift, Persia, Bactria, Egypt and Northeiii Africa. Havliig tlius 

completea agaograpMcal circle we slioiild return to Rome for Its ^ainW^ coins, plac- 
ing next those of tie Bmperar's with their Gothic and Vandal succesaora Jn Italy. 
Tbe Byzantines commence a new line, runnine out with the fail of Constantinople, 
and overlapping the coinages of modem civilization which look their rise in the 
downfall of Kome. In the following pages, while seeing many advantages in tho 
above order, we prefer speaking of coins accordhig to their age, noticing^ret those 
of the source of all coinage, Greece and its colonies, till these were allswallowed 
up by the great Roman people. 


ingno other way of hosirding it than by burying it in the gi'oiiiid. 
In many cases these hoards have hiin undisturbed til! our own day. 
When discovered, the pieces on the outside are generally found to 
be deeply corroded and rust eaten ; some farther in have escaped 
the damp, but have felt the atmosphere and are covered with a 
gi-eatly admired thin gi-een coating, hard and polished as enamel, 
called the ^aiJTiCT, while a small number in the centre, completely 
protected from the air, may be as bright and clean as on the day 
that they were buried.* The pieces, therefore, that are rare and 
costly to-day, may, owing to the diecoveiy of sojne large collection, 
become exceedingly common to-moiTow and fall proportionately in 
value. Besides, the fancy prices often paid for " rare " coins is a 
great inducement to counterfeiting. Some collectors, we may 
add, confine themselves to the coins of a single cotintry or of a 
single class, such as the Autonomous, or issues of the early free 
Greek States, or the Imperial Greek, the Roman Fiimily Imperial 
or Colonial issues, the modern Obeidioncd\ or Siege pieces, 


coin 1^ handlii^ It improperly. SUcer coins ui 
Soap and warm water, with a soft brnah, wUI n 

.... , . that should be removed from. 

--,-^-- mid bftve OHi J BOflp ^d water applied to thern. Wten tha j^eaee and dirt 

ore removed, polish gentlr with powdered eoapstone on flannel. Neier nee ammonia or acid. 
BratB coins can b« cleaned by ualog a mixture of one part of _pi'epaTed chalh nltlL two of 
spirits of hartehorne. Mix thesa wei] hi a bottle, and apply with flannel or a tooth brush, 
WHBhing the mixture o£ with water and poliBhin)! with flannel. 

t ObBidlonal or Siege pieces were lasned generoUy in connection wjth a siege of some 

t™™ ™ * — 1 — „ ^ . 1„ »!.„ ^aut of J, regnlar coinage. Fteqneiitly they were of base 

n money of James n of England, bearing Ttdues that belong 
_j dBTicBB and forma are wtogether irregnlar Oar oldest 
the bsgtnnlng of the Fifteenth centmy by ffrancis I 

Ee the Gnn money ol 

iimLiii, III HuciL cases, iueb iu 

to Bold or sfl»er Their lei 

ObaidloBsl are those issueil in the bsgtnnlng of the Fiftet 

engaRSd m his Italian wars It does not coma within the r 

coimt of snoa special issues, but It may be of Intsreat to our readeri 
the more common Siege pieces with the date of their ii^nie 

Kinadnin of Itnlv 


r LuJmU 

Italian K^pub 
|t"i these 

Lev den 





Newark England 



Pont^ract Cartle England 



SoarburuJi England 


St Dor 1 1 

Stll ill'" 

lb87 J8H 

m/kidi'i»i—IA' livl 

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Pattern pieces, and so on. Others make skeleton collections, 
filling up the gaps as they have opportunity ; while yet others, of 
more fastidious tastes, pride themselves on the chai-acter and con- 
dition of their coins, refusing to admit into their collections any 
but those of the rarest issues, or of the highest degree of 
preservation. On such matters each collector must be guided by 
his own taste or ability. 




Our earliest coins were evidently struck, that is, made by a 
punch or hammer, driving the metal into a die. As art progressed, 
a double impression was made ; a die being fastened to either claw 
of a little instrument resembling a nipper or pincers. The un- 
equal force of the blows of the hammer by which these were closed 
upon the metal accounts for the great variety in the distinctness 
or accuracy of the impression, and also for the irregularities and 
ragged appearances of the edges. Not a few coins were cast in 
moulds ; chiefly, however, it le supposed, by forgers, or, if by au- 
thority, by the Roman Emperors themselves when they had debased 
the coinages. Plated coins, fraudulent, of course, and most ingeni- 
ously manufactured, are also numerous. The Greeks, the 6aals, the 
Romans, were all adepts in this business, the temptations to en- 
gage in it being very great. The Roman laws pimished counter- 
feiters with infamyand death, but when the State money was itself 
of mixed metal, how could forgers be detected ? 

The hammer and die continued to be the only insti-uraents used 
in coining until the middle of the Sixteenth century, when the 
French Mint applied the screw in place of the hammer as a power. 
Tliis change was first adopted in England in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, part of whose money Ss hammeved and part milled or the re- 
sult of the screw. Among tne advantages of this new method are a 
smooth edge, a form really circular, and gi-eat evenness of 
impression. To prevent clipping or paling the edges of the coin, 
a common mode of cheating, a circle was now stamped on the 
coins as near the edge as possible, as may be seen on Eliaabeth's 
early milled money. Another mode of preventing this fraud was 
the placing a legend on the edge, a plan possible, nowever, only on 
the thicker pieces of money. The saw-like edge possessed by mod- 
em coins is called the milling. On some English coins of last 
century, the milling is diagonal to the edge, and on others it is 
at right angles. 

The only mode of exchange among the primitive inhabitants of 
the earth must of course have been simply that of barter — a mere 
exchanging of articles between individuals. From a very early date, 
however, there has been employed a metallic medium of exchange, 
the value of the medium depending on the metal employed, its 
weight and purity. We do not know when coins (from the French 
coigner, to strike with acoigne or wedge), — that is, pieces of metal 
whose weight and value would be guaranteed by the parties issuing 

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them, and "whioli would therefore be simply coimfet? and not wi 
— were first used, nor by ■whom. The credit of inventing such 
money (fi-om the Latin montta) has been claimed for the Persians, 
for me Greek Coloniste of Asia Mmor (who migrated thither 
from the Peloponnesus about tlie 11th centuiyE. C.), and for the 
inhabitants of the island of ^gina ; yet, as the oldest coins we 
have ai-e the gold pieces issued by the Asiatic Greeks, these 
may possibly be our earliest coined money. These pieces were 
called tSaies-s,— that is, standSirds, — and were equal in weight to two, 
and in value to twenty, drachms of silver. There were also J>i- 
staters or two staters, and Jlemi-staiers, or half ones with smaller 
gnbdivisions. These coins, as might be expected, are very rude in 
workmanship, being little more than pieces of metal of a certain 
weight driven by a strong punch into a mould or die, so that on 
the one side is the design and on the other the indent of the 

Suice the earliest coins do not bear the year of their issue, and 
their devices for the most part are only some national symbol, it 
is impossible to fix their age with accuracy. Numismatists, how- 
ever, seek to determine their dates by noting the different styles 
of the punch mark on the reverses. The oldest coins are supposed 
to be those on which the punch mark is simply an imeven indent. 
The next are those on which it is regular in form, and with edges 
sharply and distinctly cut. Then those on which it is divided 
into sections. Next, those on which the punch is found to make 
an incused or bas-relief pattern, and then, the latest, when the in- 
dent itself becomes a field, on which important devices or symbols 
appear. Since the jnnchmark passed through these changes, 
at different periods in different countries, we can use these 
facts to some extent as a gnide to the relative ages of coins 
of the same country, and then, by cai'eful comparison with the 
coins of other countries, may leam something as to their actual 

As thei-e can be very little difference of age, if any, between 
the earliest coinages of 'Greece and those of Asia Minor, we shall 
commence with describing, briefly, the coins of some of those 
States or Cities whose fame has shed a gloiy on their common 
Greece. It is impossible, however, for us to describe the coins of 
eveiy Grecian City or Colony, Many of these States were of very 
limited extent, and would be content to use the coin of some 
friendly neighbor, countermarking them with some stamp that pro- 
claimed a new owner, whde, on the other hand, every free city in a 
State might, and often did, exercise the right of coinage, impress- 
ing on the coins issued some symbol of local significance. Hence, 
there exists a fai- greater variety of devices on Grecian coins than 
would be possible under our modem system of having a common 

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device for a whole land. On Greek coins, representations of nat- 
ural objects, such as plants, fishes, animals, birds, that might 
abound in a locality, be connected with some local incident, or be 
sacred to some local deity, are among the earliest devices. Some- 
times, again, certain attributes, distinctive of their guardian deity, 
were symbolized to the initiated by figures of animals in which 
similar characteristics existed. The Bull, for instance, was the 
symbol for strength ; the Eagle, for penetration ; the lion, for 
courage. These devices were succeeded by ideal representations 
of the deities themselves. The popular mind was thus prepared 
for having on the coins the likenesses of their fabled heroes — 
Hercules, Ajax, Castor, and Pollux. The way was thus opened 
for the likenesses of living heroes. At fii-st, divine qualities were 
attributed to these ; Alexander was represented as Jupiter ; Ly- 
simachns as the homed Bacchus. This class of coins served as a 
connecting link between the previous classes, to which is given the 
general name of Autonomous, as being the coinage of free States, 
and those issued aubseqnently and known as Regal, because bear- 
ing the effigies of living rulers. 

The inhabitants of the island of JEgina are supposed to have 
been the first to issue a silver coinage. This they did about the 
Eighth century B.C., using the device of a tortoise, an animal sacred 
to Mercury, the God of weights and measures. This remained aa 
their national device for several centuries, while the purity or 
value of these pieces, familiarly known as " tortoises," soon secured 
for them so general a circulation as to render it impolitic, if not 
impossible, to change the symbol. The original device was there- 
fore retained, though with snch modifications and changes adopted, 
in the course cf time 1? leveil i piogiessneh omate and oulti- 

vated style of art. Our illustrations represent coins of ^Egina of 
different periods, the difference between the rude simjilicity of 
the oldest, and the elaborate and finished appearance of the latest 
being veiy gi-eat. The A and F on either side of the tortoise are 
the fii-st two lettei-s of M%ms,. 

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Few cities have a reputation for artistic taste of culture equal 
to that of Athbnb,* and yet its early coIds, while celebrated for 
their weight and purity, are by no means attractive. The general 
device these bear is that of an owl, a bird sacred to Minerva, the 
patron deity of a city that bore her name, Adtjvfj — Athens. 


T,ie reverse of our illustration has simply a rude indent of irreg- 
ular shape, caused by the blows of the punch in driving the metal 
into the die. The knobs or beads on the breast of the owl resem- 
ble those on the back of the tortoise of the second period of the 
coins of iEgin*, to the peiiod of whose issue this Athenian coin 
may therefore be assigned 


This didr^chm belongs to the time of Pericles. The head is that 
of Minerva, while the reverse presents us with a deep indent hav- 
ing a circular top, in which is the traditional owl, with the let- 
ters A @ E (Atnense) on the one side, and on the otlier a sprig of 
olive, a tree sacred to Minerva, and abundant in the neighborhood 
of the city. 

i Alphabet 

* It may 


n capitals 

and small 



._ A 



__ B 


__ G 



,- D 



.. E 



.. Z 

W— 1- - 


s-s . 


o-<, . 




p—p . 


2-i _ 

_ S 



Tile higheat attainment of Athenian art is shown in. the above 
engraving. The head of Miner\'a is magnificent, while the owl is 
as ungraceful and uncouth as ever. The olive wreath round the owl, 
and the vase ou which it stands, suggest the olive groves and their 
famous oil. The small figure represents jEsculapius, the God of 
Healing, in reference to one of the uses of the oil, and is probably 
intended as a sort of mint mark, while the incription reads across : 

Ads Msvsd Emysvo O^sXo. 
meaning Athens (name of issuer). Munedos (possibly name of 
the mint-master or engraver), son of ^pigenos and Ophelon. 

One naturally asks why the Athenian coinages shoidd ou one 
side be so inferior in point of ai-tistio taste, to those of many other 
less famous localities. Perhaps the commercial inconvenience that 
would result in such an age, from any change of a national device 
so well known aa the owl, may in part account for the very slight 
modification allowed during several centuries in its figure. National 
taste may have had something to do with it, just as on the English 
florin of the present day, the characters and even the designs 
of former days reappeaiv May not the Athenians in like manner 
have preferred that one side of their coin should ret^n in all its 
archaic rudeness, that device which had been so long associated 
with their national histoiy? 

B^OTiA, one of the earliest states to issue a silver coinage, had 
adopted at a remote date as its symbol tJic device of a shield or 


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To this it adhered through all its history. At first the Bseotian 
coins bore simply tho shield, but subsequently they bore in addi- 
tion, 0, the initial letter of theii- chief city, Thebes, while those of 
the latest date bore the letters &EB. 

None of the Greek coin, however, are so disappointing as those of 
CoKiNTii, a city of the highest fame for devotion to the line arts, 
yet whose numismatic taste or aldll was of an exceeduigly poor 
character. The device on Corinthian coins is that of F 


remembrance of the victory over it of Belieroplion, and of his vic- 
tory again by means of it over the monster, the Chimiwra. The 
designs are exceedingly rude and the execution most wretched, 
while on the reverse is a series of four punch marks so aiTanged 
and of such a shape as to suggest the wai-ds of a key. 

Apart from that celebrity which Macedonia possesses because 
of the fame of Alexander the Great, its coinage entitles it to a 
special notice. To Macedonia belong the earhest coins on which 
dates or the names of living monarchs appear, as well as the first 
gold coins that were issued in Europe. Up to the Sixth century, 
B. C, the rude punch mark was to be found on the reverse of 
every com , but about thit penod Alexander the First, King of 
Macedonia, (.ngia\ed hi^ name lound an inner square that was in 
tile centie of tht mlont Th de\in, on the obverse is the national 

iiiiUADHAi'iiJi 'IK ALi;.\AMjEii I. OF :iiA(;i-:]io;-.-, 500 n. c. 
one of a horse — Macedonia and Thrace being famous for tlieir 
horses — led by a man weanng a peculiarly sliaped head-dress, 
known as " the Macedoniaii liat," and carrying two spears, in aliu- 




sior, it is thought, to the competing, by tlie King, at the' f)lym])ic 

The coins of Archelaus, about 400 B. C, resemble, on their ob- 
verse, tliose of Alexander — a horse and a wan-ior aiTaed with two 


verse there is still the punch mark, within which, however, is the 
f ore-pai't of a goat, alluding, it is thought, to the capture of Edessa 
by Caranus, the founder of the Macedonian dynasty, following a 
floek of goats, as they entered the city in the dusk of the evening. 
In 336 B. C, Alexander III. known as the Great, succeeded his 
father, Philip II. Daring the wonderful career of this hero, coins 
wereissued, both iuEurope and in Asia, in such abundance thatthey 
are still very easily obtained. Our illustration is that of a tetra- 
drachm or four drachma piece, having on the obverse a head, either 
of Hercules with the skin of the Nemean lion for a head dress, or of 
Alexander himself. On the reverse is a figure of Jupiter, seated, 
with the inscription AAEHANAPOT {money of Alexander), 
Jupiter is holding an eagle while the Lyre is the crest or sj 
of Colophon in Ionia, part of whose name, KOAO, appears. 

*Tlie Olympic Games were instituted, tt is said, by Heracles or Hercules, about 
le year Xw B. C. They took their name from the piaee where they were held, 
(Jlympm, a town in the FelopoiiueBsus, For mora than 400 years they were held at 



The death of Alexander at Babylon in 323 B. C, was followed 
by a division of the empire among his generals, Macedon itself 
was seized by Cassanoer, whom Alexander had left as governor. 
Cassander's dynasty termmated in Pereeus, with whom, after his 
defeat by the Romans at Pydna, in 168 B, C, the celebrated 
Macedonian Phalanx — Alexander's great militaiy formation — 
having broken, the Macedonian monarchy ended and the country 
became a Roman Province, 

Many petty kmgdoms and independent States lay in the neigh- 
borhood of Slacedoma whnne coinages greatly resemble those we 
have alre'idj desciibed About 480 B. C, Getas, King of the 
Edoneane issued money resembling that of Alexander I., but 
bearing the inscription B 4.21 iET2, the earliest coins on which 
this word occurs The Kms^ of Thrace, Epirus, Illyria, and 
other le?i fimous diHtncts ail issued coins tliat from their great 
rarity have been repeatedly counteiieited. Caution must there- 
fore be exercised m deiling with what appear to be the coins of 
these locilitie" 

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If the coins of ^gina are the earliest known of the European 
series, those of Milbtus in Iwiia are tlie earliest^of the Asiatic, 

ABOUT 8(!0 B. c. 

The device on this stater is that of a lion'a head with open month, 
a symbol expressive of strength and courage, in other words, of 
royalty. The nideness of the design and execution, reveals a con- 
dition of artistic taste not veiy creditable^ to the inhabitants of 

Similar in metal and in -weight is the Daric or Persian stater, 
struck by Darius Hyetaspes, the Persian conqueror of the Greek 
colonies, Tliese stateis aie found in gold, but more frequently in 
silver. On some the loyal aichei lu lepresented as kneeling, on 

others he is standing. It is thought that these staters were struck 
for the use of the conquered colonists, affording them what they 
were familiar with — coined money — yet such having, instead of 
the national or local Grecian devices, the Persian symbol of a 
crowned ai-cher. The rudeness of the punch mart on the reverse 
would suggest a remoter date for them, but it is p(ffisihle that, as 
elsewhere, commercial and political re^ons may nave led to a re- 
taining of the early style. In our own day the Austrian Govr n- 
ment issues yearly thousands of dollars from the Maria Theresa 
dies of last century, such alone being freely taken by the inhabi- 
tants of her Mediterranean provinces. 

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Ephesus etaiids without a peer for ita i-epiitatioii for wealth, and 
culture among the Greek colonies in Asia Minor. It was one of 
the twelve Ionian cities in Asia iliuoi' of mythic times, having 
been founded by the Amazons and then taken possession of by col- 
onists from Athens. It ie said that the Mnaes assumed the shape 
of bees, and, flying before the emigrants, guided their vessels to 
their future home. In gi-ateful remembrance of this service, the 
Bee waB adopted as the national symbol. 


The stag on the reverae of our illustration was sacred to Ai-terius 
or Diana, whose worship was so magnificently obseiTed at Ephesns. 

On the earliest Ephesian coins we have simply the device of the 
bee ; on those of a later period, but still autonomous, we have on 
the reverse the stag, the emblem of Diana the huntress, while on 
those of the Roman period we have the figure of Diana Multimam- 
Tuia with her stags. 

Passing over other Grecian colonies, but following np the line 
along which Greek influence, through the presence of Alexander 
the Great, would be felt, we come to BrreYNiA. Nicomedia, the 
capital of this couutiy, was founded by Nicomedes the First, about 
250 B. C. His grandson, Prueias, dared the hostility of the Rom- 
ans by gi\Tng a shelter at his court to HannibaL The head of 
Prusias is remarkably life-like, and is evidently a good portrait. 
The figure on the reverse is that of Jupiter Soter — Jupiter, the Sa- 
viour — while the Greek insoription is simply (money) " of the King 

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Prusias." The othei characters ire prenumibly mint 
Coins of PErGAML^ indof 4bmbis"ia lie also tound 


I' The nuMt illustrious of the Generals of Alexander was Ptole- 
my Lagus, the son of ArsinSe, a concubine of Philip. On the 
death of Alexander and the division of the Empire, Ptolemy took 
possession of EGTPT,and was at fii-st content to rule under the shad- 
ow of hia great leader's name. He secured that Alexander's fune- 
ral should be celebrated at Alexandria, and thus made himself the 
guardian of his ashes. One of his great works was the foi-mation 
at Alexandria of its famous library, containing, when burnt about 
the year 400 A. D., some five hundred thousand volumes. The coins 
of Ptolemy bore at first the devices of those of Alexander, with 
his own name added. Next, those on which his own likeness was 
placed without the title of King. Then, those on which be is 
styled BA2IAET2, or King. Afterwards, those struck by his son, 
and on which hia portrait, with or without that of his wife, Beren- 
ice, appears, — those bearing the inscription 2D.THP02, those 
strucli at Cyiene,in connection with the funeral of Alexander, and 
those having foi a rc^eise the portrait of Berenice. 

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In 285 B. C, his son, Ptolemy Philadelphns, ascended the throne. 
The effigy on his coins differs from that of his father merely by 
its youthf nl appearance. On the reverse is Areiuog, his wife. The 
coins of Ptolemy III, Euergetes, the Benefactor, 245 B. C, differ 
only in the expression of the features from those of his predeceesor. 

Ptolemy IV., or Phiiopater, the father-lover, called so in irony, 
from being enspected of having murdered Ms father, Euergetes, 
marked his accession to the throne in 222 B. C. by the murder of 
his mother, Berenice II. In sacred liistory this Ptolemy is distin- 
guished for having been stopped by a miracle, when forcing his 
ivay into the sanctuai-y of the temple at Jerusalem. The coins 
of Ptolemy V., or Epiphanes, 181 B. C, are distinguished by 
the radiated crown, emblem of divinity. 

The couree of the Ptolemeian dynasty was soon rapidly down- 
ward. In 49 B C, Cleopatra, having quarrelled with her brother 
Ptolemy XII., invoked and obtained the aid of Julius Casar, when 
Ptolemy was di'ownedas he sought to swim across the Nile. Cleo- 
patra, now 28 years of age, i-eigned alone, but after Csesar's death 
was summoned by Marc Antony to explain why she had failed to 
assist the Tiium^iis in theii struggle. The famous intei-view took 
place, at which Cleopatia -lO fascinated her judge that he became 
her husband and fled with hei ' " 

By the dpath of Cleopiti'*, who poisoned herself in her 39th 
year, to avoid captuie by Augustus, the line of the Ptolemies be- 
came extinct, and Egypt was reduced to a province of Rome, 


To Selewcus, surnamed Nicanor the Victorious, another of 
Alexander's generals, Babylon fell as his share of territory. 
There, he laid the foundations of the great Eastern Empire 
known as the Syrian, issuing coins in his own name in the yeaa- 
312 B. 0. These coins have at first, like those of Ptolemy in 
Egj'pt, the usual types of Alexander, with the simple name of 
Seleucl's. Afterwards he assumed the title of BA2IAETS, 
or King. On several of his coins the figure of a bull occupies the 

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reverse, in allusion to the ovei-powering by Seleucus* of a bull^tliat 
had escaped from Alexander when he was about to offer it m sacri- 
fice. In 282 B. C, Seleucus was succeeded by his son Antiochus 
L, called Soter, from his r9|)elliiig of tlie attacks of the Gauls on 
Asia Minor, who boldly placed hia portrait on the coinage, a cus- 
tom which about this time became very genei-al. In 223 B. C, 
the throne was occupied by Antioehue III., called The Great, 
from thewonderful prosperity of the earlier portion of his reign. 
By sheltering Hannibal, however, and by his unjust war agamst 
Ptolemy V., the King of Egypt, he, like Prasias of Bithynia, be- 
came involved in war with Kome. This ultimately led to hie death 
in 189 B. C, when plundering the treasui-es of a temple that he 
might pay the fines imposed on him by Sdpio Asiaticus. This 
monarch's coins are thefii-st of his dynasty that bear a date. In 176 
B. C, Antiochus lY., sumamed Epiphanes the Illustrious, sought 
to suppress the Jewish mode of worship, and to force the Greek 
religion on the Jews, thus leading to the great Maccabean rebel- 
lion in Judea. On his coins we find not only the name and title 
of the monarch, but hia surname, the first instance of the custom 
on this series. ~---.~- " J.'i^^ 

Wearied of the wai-s of their Seleucian Kings, the" Syrians^ at 
last, SO B. C, offered the throne to Tiffranes^ King of Araienia, 

For some fifteen yoai-a this monarch reigned, when at length he was 
defeated in 65 B. C., by Pompey the Great, and the throne of the 
Seleucidffl passed away by the annexation of Syria to Eome. 

The dominions of Seleucus had consisted at first only of Baby- 
lonia. To this, however, waa soon added Sasiana. Media was 
next conquered, and the monarch's power extended to the Oxns 
and the Indua. After his overthrow in 306 B. C, of Antigones, 
the most powerful of Alexander's generals, and one that had asaumed 
the title of King of Asia, Asia Minor and the whole of Syria 
were also added to his territoiy. The whole Asiatic conquests of 
Alexander may therefore be held as included in the Kingdom 
of Syria. The principle, however, on which it was founded — that 

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of eatablishing a Gneco-Maeedonian Empire in a foreign cowntry 
— was fatal to its permaneQcy. Unused to foreign modes of rule and 
oftentimes ill-treated, the natives of the Eastern portion at length 
revolted, and under Arsaces, 250 B. d, established the Parthian 
Kingdom, Though Greek rule had so bitterly galled the Parth- 
ians, so firmly had Grecian influences affected tnem, that the in- 
Bcriptions on the coins now issued were in Greek, the types were 
from the Greek mythology, and the word •PTylEyt/IMNO^ — lover 
of the Greeks oftentimes appeared. 


One of the most distiuguished of these Parthian Kings was 
Arsaces VI., 150 B. C, known as Mithridates I. Under him 
Media, Persia and Babylonia were added to the Empire, which 
thus extended from the Caucasus to the Euphrates. During tlie 
reignof Arsaces X., 80 B. C, a great religious revolt took place with 
a view to the overthrow of the Greek Polytheism and the re-es- 
tablishment, as the religion of the State, of the ancient faith of 
Central Asia. Coins of the king's rival — Arsaces Phraatea — exist 
with the inscription on them of ^vvr/yopoiy "Zapasr pewa — Defen- 
der of Zoroaster. In the y^ar 55 B.C., Arsaces Orodes, one of the 
most powerful of the line, ascended the throne. Crassus, at the 
bead of 30,000 Roman soldiers, sought the restoration to the throne 
of an elder brother, but was defeated by Orodes, and his whole 
army slain or captured. 

About the Christian era, Artabanus, king of Media, but one of 
the Arsacidffi, was called to the Parthian throne, and recovered 
Ai-menia fi-om the Romans. The victories of Arsaces SXIII., 
about 60 A. D., caused such alarm at Rome itself, that eventually 
Aimenia was declared ceded to Arsaces for hie brother, a favor ac- 
knowledged by an offer from Arsaces to aid Vespasian in his Jew- 
ish wai-B with 40,000 troops. Arsaces XXV., about 120 A. D., be- 
came involved in war witn Rome, and was ultimately defeated by 
the Emperor Trajan. For the next hundred years there was a contin- 
uous embroilment of Parthia with Rome, till at length its resour- 
ces wei'e so wasted that in 226 A. D., a revolt of the native Per- 
sian population under Ardshir (or Artaxerxes) proved successful, 
and the Parthian monarchy became merged in the Second Persian 
Empire, under the dynasty of the Sassanidie. 


In this revolt, Artaxerxes obtained the support of the peo])le by 
claiming to be the heir of the gi-eat Cyrus, and by announcing his 
intention of restoring the national religion — that of Zoroaster. 
On his coins, therefore, we do not find either Greek characters or 

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Greek titles, but, in Arian characters, Shahshinslia — the equivalent 
for the Gi-eek King of Kings. The boundariep of this kingdom 
changed greatly accoraing to the varying fortunes of its monarchs. 
One while, they embraced the vast region between the shores of the 
Hellespont, on which, at Chalcedon, the Peraians under Chosroes 
n., 620 A. D,, maintained themselves for ten years fighting 
against the usurper Phocas, and ihe banks of the Indns. At other 
times, the Roman eagles were carried triumphantly throughout 
almost the whole territoiy. Formany years a great struggle was 
waged between the rising power of Christianity and the national 
religion, symbolized by the flaming altar of the fire worshippers 
on the national coinage. 

In 640 A. D., the reigning monarch was summoned by the Ca- 
liph Abu Bekr, to embrace the Mahommedan religion. War fol- 

lowed on his refusing, and, 
monarch of the Second Persi 
China, his tenitoiy 

struggle which followed, the 
1 Empire perished, his son fled to 
; a province of the Miihommedan 


The Syrian Empire, aa founded by Seleucus Nicanor, embraced 
the whole tenitory from the Hellespont to the Punjaub. The 
more eastei'n portion was, however, held by but a feeble tenure, 
so that Diodotus, the Governor of Bactkia, the modern Bokhara, 
WM able, about the year 260 B. C, to make successful his revolt 
against Antiochus IX For nearly five hundred years the empire 
thus founded continued in existence. The coinage of its monarchs 
bore at first inscriptions in Greek alone. Then they became bi- 
lingual or Arian words spelt in Grecian characters, with indica- 
tions of a long struggle for supremacy, when finally all traces of 
Grecian infl-ucnce disappeared, so far as characters, titles or si 

are concerned, these being replaced by such as are found on coins 
of modern date. 

These coins have been brought to light only within the last 40 
years, and reveal what had been previouslyunkiiown to history — 
the existence of this Grseco-Bactrian Empire. 


In the extreme south-eastern comer of European Russia is the 
district now known as the Crimea, but formerly as the Cimmerian 
Bosphoiiis. The sovereignty once existing here goes back to the 
earhest dates of history, or about 480 B. 0, Coins have come down 
to US from Leucon, who lived about the yeai- 390 B. C, bearing on 
the one side a head of Hercules, and on the other a bow and a 
club, with the name and title of the monarch in Greek characters. 

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About the year SOO B. C, owing to its inability to resist ancl keep 
back tlie hordes of wanior emigi-ants that poured weetwai-d from 
Scythia and Central Asia, the throne of the Boaphoras wae yield- 
ed to Mithridates, the Satrap or Persian Gtovemor of Pontus. In 
the break-up of the Persian Empire, consequent on the victories 
of Alexander, the kingdom of Pontus became fully established, so 
that about a ccntui-y before tlie Christian era, its monai'ch Mith- 


ridates VI., known 11 the Gieat was •» tnrraidabie n\al to 
Rome for the supremacy of the iLibtem "Woild A series of 
dealings now ensued bi-tween Kime ml the w^eieignsof Pon- 
tus, ending, however in the leducmgof Pontus propei to aRtman 
province,while the Boephorue portion was recovered from its Pontic 
rulers by a descendant of the foi-mer native sovereigns. Of this 
restored monarchy there exists an interesting series of coins, on 
which, while the names of the native princes appear, there is also 
the fullest acknowledgment made of Roman sovereignty, by the 
presence of the likenesses of the Roman emperoi's, with their 
names and eras. The Empire maintained its existence down to 
about the year 330 A. D., the era of Constantine the Great, 
when it was overthrown by a neighboring bai'harous people, and 
a nationality that had existed for nearly eight hundred years, 
became obliterated forever. 

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Is the earliest account of [■omiiiCTce in Palestivk, so far back as 
1850 B. C, wefiiicl that the medium of exchange was silver, not 
gold, and that tliis was weighed, not counted. " Abraham weighed 
to Ephron four hundred shekels of silver current money with the 
merchant."' Gen. 23, 16. The bai-a or blocks of silver thus used, 
though not coins in our sense of that word,* would possibly soon 
come to be of a particular shape or size, or have some stamp or 
impress on them that would declare their weight and thus secure 
for them a fixed commercial value. A half shekel piece was the 
Atonement money, (Exod. 30, 15), while Saul's servant had a 
quarter shekel, (1 Sam. 9, S), Such pieces would long supply 
the few necessities of an agricultural people like the Jews. In 
David's time, eight hundred years after Abraham, we find silver 
and gold still weighed, not counted. By degi'ees, however, the 
coinage of surrounding countries entered Palestine. The con- 
quest of Israel by Assyria, 721 B. C, led to a considerable circu- 
lation of Assyrian money, while Persian money flowed in on the 
return of Judah from the Babylonian captivity. Cyrus gave large 
Bums from " the king's house," that is, the royal treasury, for the 
rebuilding of the temple at Jenisalera. These gifts would doubt- 
less be in the form of the thick Persian gold coins called Danes 
or Archers. 

In the year 325 B. C, Alexander the Great took possession of 
Palestine, when Greek money, consisting of gold staters, and silver 
drachms and tetradrachme came into use. Many of Alexander's 
tetradrachms were struck in Palestine and bear the names of the 
places of theii- coinage. On the death of Alexander, Palestine 
became part of the dominion of Seleucus. An interesting series 
of coins, in many respects resembling the Alexandrine, was issued 
1^ the kings of this dynasty, some of which bear the mint mark of 
jkospolis, the Lydda of New Testament times. 

About 185 B. C, the Jews rose in revolt, and engaged in a 
heroic struggle for liberty under the lead of Mattathias of the 

* In Gen. 33:19, we read that Jacob bought a field from Hainor for one hundred 
pieces of money. A almllar phtaae is found in Job 43:11. The word in tliese paa- 
sagea translated pieces means, properly, lambs, and it la now thought denotes 
pieces of gold with the figure of^a lamb stamped on them, denoting that they were 
of value BUfficient to purchase aueh. Such seems to have been the atyle of money 
„,„j .-„ ■o^t.„i^„ Tk i„fl .„gg pf [j,g flgm^s stamped on the early 

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Asmonean family, and foundev of the Maccabean dynasty. In 
139 E. C, their independence of the Seleucidse was practically 
ackno'wledged, when Antiochue VII. authorized Simon, successor to 
Mattathiae, "to coin money for the country with thine own 
stamp," a privilege, however, that Simon is befieved to have pi-e- 
viously exercised on his own responsibility. Simon now issued 
the famous shekel, weighing half an ounce, and intrinsically worth 
about half a dollar, and theh-ilf shekel in silver, with quarters and 
sixths in copptr, the lust and only national coinage the Jews ever 


These shekels are a little larger tlian a two cent piece; on the 
obverse is a cup or chalice, suggesting the water-drawing cere- 
mony at the Feast of Tabernacles, the season of greatest national 
joy, while the triple lily on the reverse is more suggestive of the 
Divine promise that "Israel shall bloom as a lily," than of Aaron's 
almond blossoming rod. Round the cnp la the legend, in 
Samaritan or old Hebrew characters, " Shekel of Israel," a letter over 
it denoting the year of its issue, while ronnd the lily is the legend, 
" Jeruaalem the holy," Imitations of these shekels, with the 
legends in square or modern Hebrew ch.tracters, are very common. 
Simon was succeeded in 136 B. C, by John Hyrcanus, on whose 
coins we find in the legend " Johanan, High Priest, and the Con- 
federation of the Jews," a distinct acknowledgment of a popular 
sovereignty. The reverses of these pieces have, as a type, a double 
cornucopia with a poppy head between them. This symbol is 
found on Egyptian coins of an earlier date, so that Hyrcanus may 
either have simply borrowed this design, using it as an emblem 
of national prosperity, or have assumed it to denote some inter- 
marriage, aa the coats of arms of allied royal or noble families are 
frequently quartered on each other's shields. 

This double cornucopia remained the type of Jewish coins for 
about a century, when, in 37 B. C, and by the aid of Roman Le- 
mons, the Idumean or Herodian dynasty, in the person of Herod I,, 
or the Great, ascended the throne, Coins were now issued with the 
legend, for the most partinGreekcharacters, of "Herod the King," 
round a caduceus, the emblem of peace, round a helmet, the em- 
blem of war, or most frequently round an anchoi-, with reference, 

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possibly, to Herod's well known concern for maritime interests. 
Coins of Herod Archelaus have on them, in part or in whole, the 
word " Sthnarch,'''' a title of less extent than that of king. Those 
of Antipas have the word Tettarch, denoting that he was gov- 
ernor of but the fouith part of what had once been one kingdom. 
On the coins of Philip, 34 A. D., we have for the first time in 
Jewish history, a human effigy, that of the Emperor Tiberius, a 
daring departure from Jei^dsh law and custom. Herod, how- 
ever, would readily set such aside that he might flatter a Koman 
Emperor, or perhaps obey an edict by acknowledging himself a 
vassal of Rome, Herod Agrippa, grandson of Herod the Great^ 
issued a series of coins purely Jewish, that is, free from any refer- 
ences to a foreign power, having on the obverse an umbrella or 
canopy, with the legend in Greek characters " King Agri^a,^" 
and on the reverse, three ears of wheat with date of issue. Thi& 
monarch outlived the destiniction of Jerusalem and the remainder 
of his coins bear the heads of the Emperors in succession down t» 
Domitian in 96 A. D. Such ai-e the coins that form the Herodian 
series, and which were struck principally at Cesarea Philippi. 

In the year 33 A. D.,Judea was reduced to a Province, and came 
under the control of" Procurators," such as Pontius Pilate, who were 
appointed by the Roman Emperors. These persons had too great 
a personal interest in maintaining peaceintheirterritories to allow 
of any wanton outrages against Jewish feelings or prejudices. 
They therefore omitted " images," that is, human likenesses, from 
their coins and placed on these merely some ordinary symbol, the 
name of the Roman Emperor, and the date of its issue. Such 
coins were issued down to the year 65 A, D., when there took 
place that first revolt of the Jews against the Romans which 
ended in 6f A. D., in the siege and destruction of Jenisalem by 
Titus. During this four years wai", silver and copper shekels were 
issued by the Jewish leaders, having on them such symbols as a jug 
or pitcher, n, palm tree, a palm branch, a vine leaf, a buiLch of grapes. 

SHEKEL OP SIMON, I'EiNCK 01'- isKABL; round the vine leaf is- 

" Firat year of the redemption of IsraeV 
a lyre or a temple, with the name Simon and the date of its 
Msue, which is described as being such a year of "the deliverance 
of Israel," or " of the redemption of Israel," 

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In the year 69 A. D., came the end in the fall of Jeriiaalem, when 
a remarkably interesting series of eoins known as the JudceaGapta 
series, and referring to this event, was stnick at Rome, 

In 131 A. D., the Emperor Hadrian resolved to rebuild Jerusar 
lem. The second revolc of the Jews now took place, when Bar- 
cochab, claiming to be the Messiah, and at the head of 200,000 
men, for a time swept all before him. During hia power he issued 
money, for the moat part restriking Roman coins, with the s 

OF smox BAKCOCHAB, Seconcl lievolt of the Jews. 

and legends of the coins of the first revolt. After two yeai-s 
this revolt was suppressed, when Hadrian completed his project 
of restoring Jem salem, giving to the new city, however, the name of 
^lia Capitolina, combining his family name of .<Blia with that of 
Jupiter Capitolinus, and thus by rendering the locality profane and 
polluted in the eyes of the Jews, shattered their hopes of a na- 
tional kingdom with Jerusalem for its capital. 

A new series of eoins was now struck at Jerusalem, or rather in 
Colonia j^lia Capitolina Commodiana, the colonial town of .^lia 
Capitolina Commodiana, with the heads of the respective emperors 
down to Hostilianus, 251 A. D., when the Imperial Jewish issues 
■ceased, to be succeeded in 695 A. D., by the Cwfic coinages of the 
Mahommedan conquerors. The coins at present in use in Pales- 
tine arc those issued by the Turkish rulers. 

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The coins of Macedonia having served as a coniiectiug link be- 
tween those of Greece and the different Eastern Empires that 
were more or less affected by its art, iv-e now retura to consider 
those of the Western AVorld, for the maiitime and commercial 
energy of the Greeks had led to a migration in a westerly direction 
simuTtaneoiis with that to Asia Minor, At a very early date, 
Italy, Sicily, France, Spain, Carthage, had t-eceived so many colonies 
from Greece, that what was till lately the Kingdom of the Two 
Sicilies, was known formerly as Gneda Magna. These colonies 
soon received additions from the Asiatic settlements, so that the 
coinages of Grsecia Magna, while having features national and dis- 
tinctive, frequently remind us by their style and devices, not merely 
of Greece, but of Grecian art as modified by Asiatic influences, 
some, at times, bearing symbols that are purely of Asiatic origin. 

At this distance of time, we ai'e unable to state in every case, 
the parent land of each of these settlements, but when in the 
midst of devices known to be local, the well-known symbols of 
certain Grecian States or Cities appear, we have no hesitation in 
inferring a connection. Pttocis, for instance, in Greece, sent out a 
colony that founded Phocea in Asia Minor. The legend of the 
shoal of seals or rather of porpoises that attended the ships in 
their voyage, secared the adoption by the colony of the old 
name, while as ^wxr/ (Phoce) is the Greek word for a seal, the 
device of a seal stamped on money proclaimed the state by which 
it bad been issued. The presence of the seal or of the poi-poise 
on coinages of Grsecia Magna thus tells of connection with Phocis, 
either direct or indirect, through Phoce. That the Phoceans 
were a very maiitime people is plain also, from the fact that there 
frequentlj' appears on their coins the figures of the Dioscuri, 

The eomage of Grsecia Magna is probably the oldest to which 
dates can with any confidence be. assigned. Sybakis, afterwards 
called Thukium, was founded by a colony from Aohaia, about 
720 B. C, and destroyed in the yeai' 510 B. C. When destroyed its 
coinage was of a peculiar style, and one that had long replaced a 
coinage of a different type. Specimens of this earlier type have 
oome down to us, and we cannot be far wrong in ascribing them 
to irtiout the year 600 B. C, while those of Alexander I, of 
Macedon, date only from about 480 B. C, 

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This earliest knowii type is tliiii, flat and large m surface, having 
the design on the obicifct— i«ci*se(? oi sunk in on tlie leveise, re- 
sulting from the use t i ] nnth on whn h w is the ctuntLipirt of 
the design in tlie die 

The bull is tlio symbol of strength, and appears on all the coins 
of Thurium, alluding to the river on which the city wae buiit. 
llie city -we have said wae founded in 721 B. C, about the time of 
Numa Pompilius in Rome, or the invasion of Judea by Sennache- 
rib, and deetroyedin B.C. 510. It wa^ rebuilt in 453 B. C, but 
destroyed again in 448 B C , by the Crotonians 

Ceotona i^as another Achaian colony, and founded by Myscel- 
lus about 710 B C The m<»st fieijuent of its t} pes is the tripod. 

Apollo hi jirt 1 reeled My cellus to the site of the new city. — 
Here les s ofte met w th on tl ese coins, beeaiiie he founded 
those OIj mi games at wh eh the Ci-otonians had carried off thir- 
teen out of twenty-six prizes. .The ancient coinage of Crotona 
has the tripod with letters K P 0. On later coins we have no 
incused designs, but in place thereof a regular reverse, such as an 
altar with a figure of Hercules beside it. 

Mbtapontum was founded about 710 B. C, by a Pel asgie colony 
from the north of Greece. The distinguishing symbol on its coins, 
whether gold or silver, is the full ear of corn, a grateful recogni- 
tion of Ceres, for the feitility of their soil. Later coins bearing the 

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aneient type, the ear of wheat along with a grasshopper, have a 
reverse consisting of a bearded figure typical of the river god, 
with a dolphin beneath, and when used in certain games, the in- 
scription JXEAOK) A9A0N. 

inuitACUM oi i p riiji 

Tabbntum lay at the southe n eit enaitj of the Itahan Pe lin- 
snlsi, and was founded by the Lacede non ans ibo t B C It 
was ttot subject to the Eomans nt 1 t tell nto tl e i ha Is o the 
defeat of Pyn-hus in 272 B. C. Fo 1 ng tfte that change of for- 
tune Tarentum retained its selt go-\ ernmeut anl the use of the 
Greek language. It is said to ha^ e ece ^ e 1 ts i ime f om Taras, 
a son of Neptune, by whom t wa's to n le 1 The coins of the 
earliest period have for design a youth kneeling on one knee and 
striking a lyre, with the inscription Taras written reversed so as 
to appear ^JPAT,'^ 

Th&Jirat or i-uder period of its coinage extends from 707 B, C- 
474 B. C The second or more advanced extends from 474 B, C. 
down to its capture by the Bomans, while the third covers its 
gradual decay under Boman rule. There are two great divisions 
of the coins of Tarentum ; on the first we have Taras on a dol- 
phin on the obverse, and on the reverse a wheel, symbol of Apol- 
lo's tripod ; Taras on a dolphin, and on the reverse a female head 
encircled by a nimbus — Satyra the mother of Tai-as ; Taras on a 
dolphin incused or in has lelief on the one side, and in alto on the 


other. On the second, we have Taras on a dolphin, and on the 
reverse a man seated with a great diversity of objects beside him. 
These being chiefly the natural products of the locality, the man 

*The coins whose iustriptions are eo written arc known n? BtMMi'ei)he<lou. 



is supposed to represent the People, and all these latter ooiiie are 
assigned to the second period of Taientiim coinage. 

The coinage of Tarentum is next to that of Syracuse in variety 
of designs, artistic excellence and extent of issues, the known 
vaiieties of the silver alone amounting to nearly a thousand. 

Of all these colonies, however, the most famous was that of 
SyBjVcusb in Sicily, founded by the Corinthians at a very early 
date. The earliest reliable of its coins are those issued by the 
oligarchy of the Geomori at the close of the 6th Century B. C. 
The tetradrachm we engrave was struck previous to the reign of 
Gelon, and presents us with the design of a quadriga or four- 
horse chariot, while on the reverse there is an incuse square divided 
into four quarters, having a female head — possibly that of Proser- 
pine or Koras (Ceres) as the Syracusans called hei- — in the cen- 
tre. On these ancient coins the " k " in ISyrakosios is rep '"' 

by the Punic Q, 

In 488 B. C, Gelon, a citizen of Gela, won the Olympic prize, 
and having been appointed General in Syracuse, became supreme 
in 485 E, 0. His coins ai'e distinguished by the abandonment of 
the incused stamjj, and the surrounding the enclosed head with dol- 
phins, rendering it the main feature. Mke or Victory is now seen 
crowning either the horses or the charioteer. In 480 B. C, Gelon 

fained a great naval victory over the Caithaginians. At the so- 
citation of Ms wife Demarete, he granted the vanquished more 
favorable terms than they expected, when they in gratitude pre- 
sented her with one hundred talents of gold. This Gelon coined 
into the famous pieces known as Demaretia, from his wife's name, 
or Pertiekontalitra, from their weight. The head, on the obverse, 
faces to the right, and is enclosed in a circle, outside of which 
are dolphins, while on the reverse there is a chiirioteer and quadriga, 
Nike crowning the horses, andintbeexergue, alien, possibly as the 
symbol of a victoiy in Africa. 

In 478 B, 0,, Gelon was succeeded by his brother Hieron, whose 
coins have a sea serpent in the exergue in place of the lion, in al- 
lusion, it is thought, to his victory in 474 B. C. over the Etruscans, 

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previously the acknowledged luleie oi the sea. On the expalsion, 
in 466 B. C, of the Gelon dyn^ty, the Democracy was established^ 
laating until 412 B. C, during which time a number of tetradrachms 
were issued whose exergues are void of symbols, save one, which has 
a locust. To this period have been attributed copper coins, supposed 
to be the first issue in that metal, with a head resembling Hieron's 
on the obvei-se and a cuttlefish on the reverse. In 412 B. C. the 
Athenians besieged Syracuse. Their failure to capture it was 
marked by the issue of a small gold coinage, with the head of 
Pallas AtELfenje. These coins show a great advance in the style" of 
art. In place of SvpauoOiov the final syllable becomes osv j 
the horses in the quadi'iga are represented as in high action, while 
the names of the die engravers are signed to their work. In 406 
B. C, supreme power was in the hands of Dionysios, who issued 
the finest specimens we have of the Syracusan coins. 

^ .' 



In 344 Tuiioleon wai sent from Coiinth ind the Dionysians 
pelled, when i laige issue of an ekct mm coinage, that is, of am 
ture four-fifths gold and one-fifth silver, was made. These el 
tmm coins resembled and passed for gold staters. On the o 
was the helmeted head of Pallas with Syraoitsion, and on the re- 
vei-se, the Corinthian Pegasus, Timoleon issued a lai'ge sized cop- 
per coinage, on whose pieces, as restrikes, are often found the sym- 
bols of other colonies. 

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The Timoleou Democracy or Rejiublic was overthrown in 317 
B. C, I>y Agathoolee, on whose earlier coins the triquetra or three- 
legged symbo! of Sicily, similar to that on the coinage of the Isle of 
Man, first appeai-s, while the name of the city is also found, replaced, 
however, on bis later coinage, by his own name, AFAQOKAEOS 
BASIAETS. Among the subsequent rulera were Hiketas, 
Pyrrbus of Epirws, called in by the Syraciisans to resist the 
Carthaginians, on many of whose coins is the head of Her- 
cules on the obverae, with the figure of Pallas Pi'omacbos on tbe 
reverse, and Hieron II., whose coins, however, bear not so often his 
own name as that of his son Gelon, or his vrife Philistis, known by 
the veiled bead with the quadriga drawn by horsea walking or gal- 
loping. On some coins of this period occur Roman numerals, 
showing thus early the influence of tbe Republic, a fact still more 
clearly shown by the word, SIKIAID. TAN, a bravado flung in the 
face of the rapidly extending control of Sicily by the Romans, 

In 214 B. 0., Syracuse ws« besieged by the Romans under Jlar- 
cellus, and, despite the wonderful mechanical contrivances of 
Archimedes, was captured 212 B. C. Two yeai's afterwards the 
whole of Sicily was declared a Roman Province, and the free 
States of Grsecia Magna passed out of" existence. 


Rome was founded by Romuhis in the year T53 B. C, and we 
have every reason to believe that so early as the year 715 B. C. 
its people were using a metallic currency. The famous copper 
mines of the Italian peninsula would furnish copper, while the 
Greek miners seem to have anticipated modern science by discov- 
ering such amalgams as rendered this metal suitable for a coinage. 
At first tbe Romans made the Libra or pound of twelve ounces 
their standard. A piece of copper of this weight was called an Ma 
or As, a term afterwards used to denote either tbe vailite — a 
pound weight, or the metal — ^bronze. In the time of Servius 
Tullius, 578 B. C, the As was a rectangulai- piece of metal, while 
be is said — though this is doubted — to have been the first to stamp 
these blocks with the images of domestic animals, a practice that 
has given us the word ^ecwnJa (from ^eezis, cattle), money. When 
these bai-s were of more than one As value, they were suitably 
stamped. About 395 B. C. the As which bad hitherto been rec- 
tangular and passed by weight, became circular and passed by 
count. At the same time it was i-educed in weight, a usual Roman 
expedient for meeting hard times. The devices also w 

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and the As was divided into the Si'mis or Semi-As — the halfj'^is, 
bearing generally the head of Jupiter, and stamped with tlie let- 
ter S, and on the reyerse, the prow of a ship — common to all the 
pieces. The Quincunx, or five uiicire, with its five dots, unique as a 
jioman, but only scarce as an Italian issue. The THens, or third, 
having generally the head of Minerva, bat on the rev. four dots to 
denote the four ounce weight — the third of the twelve ounce 
pound. The Quadrans, having the head of Hercules and three dots 
to denote the one-fourth of the As. The Sextans, with the head of 
Mercuiy and two dots, to denote the one-sixth of the As; and the 
XXncia, or ounce, with Minerva's head and one dot, to denote the 
one-twelfth of the As, — whence the term C^cza/isused as descrip- 
tive of the whole series. A similar division of the bronze money 
prevailed in the other Italian States, the devices being different. 

The first reduction in weight of the As was caused by financial 
distress, the result of the capture of Rome by the Gauls, 390 B. C. 
Subsequently further reductions were made, so that at the date of 
the First Punic war, 284 B. C, the As weighed only one ounce, 
and the national cui-rency was at a sad discount in the money 
market. In the time of Pompey, 50 B. C, the As, weighing about 
an ounce, resembled in size the pieces known as the First bronze. 
In the days of Augustus, 27 B. C, the Second bronze was known 
as the dupondius or two As piece, and the diminutive Third bronze 
as the aasarius, the ancient name for the As itself. This copper 
coinage was adhered to by the Romans through all their history 
till the Western Empire fell to pieces, the last piece strack at the 
mint being similar in name and metal to the first. ^ -^ 

As this copper coinage was the national money, all its issues 
were controlled by the Senate, whose authorization was shown by 
the presence of the letters S. C. — Senatus Constdto — by order of 
the Senate. Then, as now, of coni-se, private individuals or fami- 
lies issued money, but, not bearing these letters, such pieces pos- 
sessed no legal value, and depended for their circulation on their 
intrinsic value, or, like our tradesmen's tokens, on the credit of 
those who issued them. Very interesting collections may, how- 
ever, be made of these, of which we will speak again. 



While thus the copper coinage alone received the national sanc- 
tion, gold and silver pieces were also used, the issuing of which 
became afterwards the prerogative of the Emperors, 

The intercoiii-se between Rome and those native Italian States iu 
which silver coinages existed, would necessarily lead to the pre- 
sence of silver money at Rome, yet it was not till the interval be- 
tween the defeat of Pyrrhus and the engaging in its first Punic 
war, that Rome adopted a silver currency. In 278 B. C. w^ is- 
sued the Dmariua — a silver coin equal in weight to the Greek 
drachm, and iu value to ten As^s, as is shown by its name — den 
or decern ceria; on the obverse was the head of Pallas, with X, the 
numeral of value, behind it, and on the reverse generally a likeness 
of the Dioscuri* with the word Roe or Itomam the exergue. The 
qidnarina or five ^a piece beai-s the numeral V, and the sester- 
tius, or two-and-a-hali As piece has the stamp SII. The sester- 
tius is really the semi-t&rtius, the Eomana describing two-and-a- 
half as two and half way to the tbu-d. 

The fii^t appearance of a Roman gold coinage was in the year 
207 B. C, when what is known as the Scrupttlar coinage was is- 
sued.f The obverse of these pieces bears the bead of Mars with 
the numeral of value according to size, while on the reverse is an 
eagle with the word koma. This simplicity of device, however, 
soon disappeared, and the name of the moneyer or mint master 
added to the word Eoma, or the presence of the Dioscuri made 
way for some device connected with the moneyer's family — a 
change, doubtless, partly comi)limentaiT and paitly precautionary 
against a debasing of the comage. These coins were minted at 
Capua by Greek artists, and wei-e tne pi-edecessore of the true Roman 
Awetis, or gold piece. This latter coin resembled the BcTupidum 
in appearance, and weighed about 130 grains, equal to our own 
five dollar gold piece, though it soon fell short of this weight 
The issuing of these pieces was transferred by Constantine to 
Byzantium. The Eastei^n Emperors continued the issue, and under 
the name of Bezants or Byzants, these pieces cii-culated through- 
out Eiu-ope during all the dark ages, when no other gold coinage 

*Tlie Dioscuri, Castor and PoUu3,tw(n sonsofJupiteraodLeda, were the earliest 
guardian deities of Rome, so that tlieir figureE repeatedly occur ou Roman coins, 
eaei one generally stanfling besfde a horee. On their removal ft'om earlli they were 
changed into the conateilaQou Gemini, hence the star that Is aeen on their helmets. 

+The ScJigJuZumwas the one-twenty-fourtli part of an ounce. The English Sorer- 
elgn weighs a little over a quarter of an ounce, so that the Ssnmuiwn was a cohi 
worth about one-sixth of a Sovereign, or twenty Sestereeg. This yalnation is con- 
firmed by our knowledge that in the reign of Augustus, the SeateriiMS was worth about 

a loif , or 
tM..83 of 01 

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The wonderful career of foreign conquest pursued by Rome, is 
apt to divert attention from the domestic difficulties that often- 
times impeiilled her veiy existence. Among her great struggles 
must te mentioned, because of its bearing on Italian coinages, the 
Social or Marsian war of 90 B. C, when the leading Italic States 
combined to obtMn from Rome political rights and powers, equal 
to those of her own citizens. The dreadful contest lasted for two 
years, involvbig the loss of 300,000 of the very flower of the pop- 
ulation. Through the generalship of Marius, Sulla and others, it 
terminated in the triumph of Rome, but was followed by the be- 
stowment, as a favor, of that " Roman Franchise " whose possession 
had been contended for as a right. During this straggle the allied 
States issued coins, chiefly silver Denarii, bearing a female head 
with the national Italia in place of the provincial Roma in the 
exergue, and on the revei-se eight figures (supposed to represent the 
States) taking an oath over a sow ; with below them the name 
(^{uinto PompcBcliits) S{ilo), the chief leader of the confederacy. 
Others have the Dioscuri, while on many there are figures of ani- 
mals used symbolically. 

The early coinages of the Republic at first bore simply some 
national symbol such as Roma, the head of Pallas, or the Dioscuri. 
After a time, names of individuals appear on the coins. Form- 
erly these names were supposed to be t^ose of the Consuls under 
whose administration the coins were issued, and the tei-m Goiisu- 
lar was employed to denote the whole class. The term is still in- 
deed employed as a matter of convenience, though, as many names 
appeal' belonging to persons not of consular dignity, it is seen that 
such a reason for its use has no foundation in fact. It is probable, 
therefore, that, in some cases, these are the names of the moneyers 
at the date of issue ; that in others they are the names of the per- 
sons. Families* or individuals, that had sent to the mint the metal 
to be coined for their own use; of local ofticers in some of the 
provinces, many of the pieces being provincials; while in yet other 
cases, the pieces may be lite our own complimentary or political 
medals — struck off in connection with some particular incident. 

This coinage may be roughly classified as consisting of pieces 
that bear a name only, without anything to inform us as to the 
individual, and of such as have, in addition, some significant sym- 
bol, or that refer to some well known incident in the history of the 
individual or family whose name appeai-s on the coin. The First 
Triumvirate — Crassus, Pompey and J. Ctesar, 60 B. C. — placed their 
names on the coins they issued, while ten years later, on Cffisar's 
assumption of supreme power, the Senate placed his portrait there. 
On C^esai-'s assassination, coins were issued bearing the names and 

■* The Romaa FamiUi, a 


portraits of Cassius and Brutus, the successful conspirators, and 
were soon followed by others issued hy the second Triumvirate — 
Antony, Lepidus and Octavius. 

Brutus and Cassius both sti-uck coins, on the murderjof Ctesar; at 
least coins in silver and gold exist of the above device, and are 
now generally considered to be genuine. 


Hitherto the distinctive feature of the Roman coinage had been 
its copper or bronze issues, and, despite the silve?' denarius or the 
golden aureus which in imperial times were freely issued, the 
ofonze sestertius, or, as collectors call it, the first Brass, with its 
divisions, the second and thii-d Brasses, were still the most dis- 
tinctive features of the national mint. The historic value of the 
devices and inscriptions on these coins, with their not infregnent 
high artistic execution, have attracted to them the greatest atten- 
tion. From such legends as ^gypta capta, Judea capta, MexPar- 
this datus. Hex Armen dat, Qermania svhacta, Armenia et Meso- 
potamia inpotestatem H. It. redaeios, we could almost prepare,'*as 
Addison has said, a State Gazette. 

The Second Triumvirate soon broke up. After tviumphing over 
their opponents, the confederates quarrelled among themselves. 
This ultimately settled into a contest between Octavius and An- 
tony. Antony united his fortunes with those of Cleopatra, Queen 
of Egypt, perishing with her in her war with Rome, and thus left 
Octavius in sole possession of the Empire of the world. 

Caius Octavius, grand nephew and adopted heir of Julius 
Cffisar, was born in 83 B. C. In 27 B. C. the Senate conferred on 
him that title of Auqustus, or " Consecrated," by which he is now 
personally known. On the earliest sestertius he issued, we find 
the portrait of Julius Cfosar, with the inscription Divus Julius, while 
the reverse bore that of Augustus himself, with the legend IHvi 
FUius — son of the God, with reference to his adoption by the 
deified Crasar. By this politic act he connected himself with the 
fame of the great Julius, and sheltered the placing of his own por- 
ti-ait on the coin by the precedent of that of Csesar's, 

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On Wer usnes the m^onption i. often simply DinaAuguatu,, 
mtli head, while the arc almost oonntless. As the inscrip- 
tions or legends on the Koman coins consist eenerally of the names 
and offloiaf titles of the rnlers, we place m the Appendix full lists 

"'coins were fteqnently strnek during an Empemt's reign bearing 
the portraits ot riembers ol his family, all of which are generally 
"elided in the series of the Emperor himself ; thus of Angnstus 
we have coins of his wife, Livia Drmdm, who is always called 
Mia A«!rM on Latin coins; of .Mta, his profligate ■•"gl't";. «' 
^^omwo, his son-in-law, and ot Calm and i»o.m, his grand- 
«,m After a career of wonderful prosperity, finding Borne, it is 
said,' built of bricks, and leaving it of marble, and havmg so fos- 
tered art and literature that the Au<,mtan Am has become a pro- 
verbial phrase, Augustus died 14 A p., aged seventy-seyen 

Tmuums Claudtm Mro, son of Augustus' second wtfe, Luvia, 
succeeded to the empne on his step-rsther's death His career 
wa\ so mfamoiis for itl iice and debauchery, that after his death 
fhe was smotheted, when 78 years old, by his successor) the Senate 
iilled in all tho i~rai ol the first bronze, which i- •!— ■.<— ■■™ 

I therefore, now 


rather scarce, though the wcond and third bronzes are very plen- 
tiful Tbeic are also coins ot hia son, Drusus Jitmor, on whose 



coins we always read Dbusds C^sak; of the Emperor's brother, 
Drasue Senior, whose titles read Detisus, or more frequently, 
Neeo Claudius Detisus; of Antonia, the wife of Drusua Senior; 
of Germanicus, son of Dnisus Senior, described on coins as Germ. 
Cfflaar, or Germanicus Ciesar, Ti Aug., and so on; of his wife, 
Affrippina Senior, and of their eldest children, N^o and Drusus, 
Tiberius was succeeded ia 37 A. D, by Caine, youngest son of 
Germanicus and Agrippina, but better known as Oamgula, In the 
early period of his reign he was lavishly generous and merciful, 
but he soon far surpassed Tiberius in hia crimes and infamy. In 
his case, also, the Senate, after his death, called in the first bronze, 
ao that, as his reign was short, but few have come down to us. 
The one that we engrave has figures of the Emperor's three sistei-s 
on the reverse. 

liie titl Imperator is a ourname, is found on Caligula's colo- 
nial coins. 

It was this Emperor who wished that all the Roman people had 
but one neck that he might decapitate Rome at one blow. In 
his madness he stabled his favorite horse in the palace, fed it on 
^Ided oats, made it a member of the college of priests, and raised 
it to the consulship! He afterwards proclaimed himself a god, 
and had temples erected and eaorifices offered to himself. 

In 41 A. D., Caligula was succeeded by Tiberius Claudius 
Drusus, the youngest son of Drusus Senior. Owing to his deli- 
cate health and studious habits, Clactdius had escaped Caligula's 
jealousy, but, on his death, was proclaimed Emperor by the Prje- 
torian guards. The rewards he ^ave to these troops gave the firat 
example of that fatal custom which aftei-wards subjected Rome to 
a military despotism. 

In public matters the government was wholly in the hands of 
the Emperor's infamous wife, MesBolina, and, on her execution, in 
those of her as proili§;ate successor, Agrippina. During this reign 
the conquest of Britain was commenced and the great Claudian 

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Ti, Olaud. or Claudius Cjesar, with Jmperator as a sumai 
on the Colonials* this title is found only as a prenomen. 

* The Roman. CMonia had its origin in the settlement In b( 

3, therefore, tlie whole disbiet, while the Munisl 

ain polltl 

town. MonaywaB issued t 

sometimes in the' na' 

Of the latter. The following is a complete list 

heing in italic : 





.^Ua Capit«liua. 





Autioch (Piaiaia.) 


" (Syria.) 




























Carthago Nova, Tarngon. 


Carthago Vetua. 













y denotealts chief 
somefimea in that 

li Mnn pHlitiee 

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Claudius was poisoned in 5i A. D. by his wife, Agrippina, when 
his step-aon, Lucius Domitius Nero, whom he had adopted as bis 
heir in 50 A. D., and who bad then taken the names of Tiierins 
C'lau^ins N"eeo I>rustis, succeeded him. In many respects, the 
reign of Neio wis one of the most wretthed that eiei llome en- 
dured At hst tlie leEcion« ro'Je inn. -volt, and iftei a reign of 
fouitetn ■veii-'s TSem cnVl bis d^v'i b\ simidc "\^ ith iU his 

basene'is Nero i^ as i great lovei of the iine arts, and the coinage 
of his reign is perhaps the best in the whole Rom in series, the 
designs being interesting, the metal hard, and the devices 
well cut. One of the most interesting of his coins commemoi-ates 
the great peace in the i-eign of Augustus, when, for the third time 
in Roman history, the Temple of Janus was shut. On this coin 
the Temple is represented with its door shut, the inscription being 
Pace P. It. Terra Marigue parta Janum chmt — Peace prevail- 
ing on Land and Sea, the Roman People closed the Temple of 

Nero's family coins are those of his wives Octavia-Poppcea, and 
her daughter Claudia, and Me^salina, all colonials, and exceed- 
inglr rare. 

Niio v. IS suctfedcdin 6'^ 4 D by GvLiiv, a mcmbei of in tn 
cant Komm f imih riihng sufficiently tr pi.y the Pi i,toinnb 

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for their services, these soon revolted, and a short reigii of seven 
months was closed by the Emperor's miirder aa he was address- 
ing the mutineers. His coins are very abundant. 

The fignre of Moma, in our illustration, is exceedingly bold and 
striking, and is probably the original of the fignre of Britannia on 
English money, unless, indeed, we are to suppose a combination 
by the English mint-master of this coin and of that second brass 
of Hadrian's, which has on the reverse a female wan-ior seated on 
a rock, holding a spear, with a shield beside her, the word Brit- 
annia foi-ming the legend round the field. 

On the death of Galba, Mai-ous Salviua Otho, who claimed 
descent from the ancient Kings of Etruria, was proclaimed Em- 
peror by the Italian troops. The Gennan Legions, however, 
proclaimed their General, Aulus Vitellius, Emperor. Civil war 
enaned, when Otho, having received a crashing defeat, committed 
suicide after a reign of some ninety days. Of Otho, a few gold 
and silver coins exist, but as yet at least no bronze ones have 
been discovered. 

Aulus Vitellius ascended the throne in 69 A, D. Devoid, as 
Emperor, of the energy and ability he had shown in a sub- 
ordmate position, he gave himself up to the lowest and coars^t 
indnlgences, and after a reign of eight months fell in a military 
revolt. His coins in Gold are rare, in Silver common, and in 
Bronze scarce. A few family coins exist, of his father, Luckia 
ViteUiua, to whom the title of Censor is given — a fact unmen- 
tioned in history. The titles Ccesar and Bater Patrm never 
occur on the coins of Vitellius. 

Nero had appointed Titus Flavius Vespasianus to be com- 
mander of the troops fighting against the Jews. On the death of 
Otho, the Eastern legions, indignant that the Pnetorians should 
have chosen a sovereign without consulting them, proclaimed 
Vespasian Emperor, an act concuiTed in by all the armies in the 
East, and, on the death of Vitellius, by Rome itself Vespasian's 
reign lasted for ten yeai-s, and ended with his djiiig fiom natural 

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oauaeB, the first time since Augustus tliat a Roiuau Emperor 
had 80 died, 

Vespasian's reign is chiefly famous for his wars with the Jews 
and the final oveithrow of their power. This he commemorated 
hy a very interesting and rather extensive series of coins, with 
reverses that are descriptive of the event. There are a few family 
coins of this reign, some of which are of the greatest rarity, 
such as of his wife Flavia DomitiUa, who died before her hushand 
became Emperor, and also of BomitUla their daughter, who died 
young. Those of Titus and Domitian, his two sons, are abun- 

On the death of Vespaaian in 79 A, D., his eldest son, Titus 
Flavins Sabinus Vespasianus, who had been associated mth his 
father in the government in 71 A, D., was proclaimed Emperor. 
His early training and experience as a soldier qualified him for the 
chief command in Judea when his father was proclaimed Emperor, 
His successes, crowned by the capture and desti-uction of Jerusa- 
lem, 70 A. D., and the annihilation of the Jewish nation, were 
wai-ded by a special triumph at Rome. An arch, which still s 
vives, was erected in his honor, different incidents of his car 
being depicted on it. On many of his coins there are reverses like 
those of the Judcua Capta series of his father. 


Titus, for his gi-e at benevolence, was called " The love and delight 
of the human race," but, in the third year of his reign, died sud- 
denly— -poisoned, it was believed, by his younger brother, Domi- 
tian. The coins of Titus are very numerous, and in all metals, 
though the Colonial and Imperial Greek are somewhat rare. 

Titus reissued in bronze many of the finer coins of his prede- 
cessors. These restored ones, or Hestituti, as they are called, are 
rather rai-e, and much sought for. The legend of T. Ccesar Vespa 
proclaims the coin to be one of Titus' ; but if it read J?. Ccesar 
Vesp., it is a reissue by Titus of a coin of Tiberius. A few coins 
of his daughter Julia, in all metals, have come down to us. 

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Titus was succeeded by his brother Titus Flavius Domitianus, 
the last of those commonly called the Twelve Ceesai-s, and in whom 
the Flavian and Ciesariaii f amDies ended. At first his reign prom- 
ised to be a continuation of that of Titus, but, soured by great, 
military losses in Germany, he vented his wrath at home, murder- 
ing or banishing almost every citizen of rank or standing. After 
a reign of sixteen years Domitian was assassinated by the sanc- 
tion, if not order, of his wife Domitia, whom he had doomed to 

The coins of Domitian ai-e very common, and in the legend the 
name Domitian or its initial letter D, is always present ; 
while Germ, or Germamcus fiequently occui-s in support of his 
fictitious German conqneits i fiction which he cained so far \s to 
parody the Judcea Cnpta of Titus bj I'iium^ some coin=( witl 
the legend Gei-mania Cajita m them 

- \ 



The rei erie ot oui illustration records an incident of the Secu- 
lar Games the Emperrr, eated on a throne whose pedestal bears 
the word Feu Es—com, is distributing bread in the form of ring- 
shaped loaves, to two citizens. Coins of his wife Domitia are 
veiy abundant. 

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In 96 A. D., Marcus Cocceins Nebva was chosen Emperor by 
the Senate, and during Iiis short i-eign conducted public affaii-a 
with great' ■wisdom and uprightness. Finding himself .unable to 
keep tbe Prtetorian Guards in check, he adopted Trajan, then 
commander of the German Legions, who became his successor in 
98 A. D. On his accession, Nerva issued a coin or medal with 
the device of two hands joined and the legend Concordia Meer- 
citum, a device that occurs on many of his coins with a great 
variety of details. 

Nerva s adoj te 1 s n Maicus XJlpmb Tta]anitus t rmit is a "Span- 
iard \>Y birth, become Emperor m 91 A. D. He personally led 
the legions that subdued Dacia, Armenia and Mesopotamia, add- 
ing those countries to the Roman territories. His foreign career 
was one of continuous conquest, and his domestic government one 
■of benevolence and justice, contributing gi-eatly to the improve- 
ment and beautifying of Rome. The many important events 
of Trajan's lengthened reign are recorded on his bronze coinage. 

On the coins of Trajan a new title appears, Optimus IVinceps, 
given to this Emperor by the Senate in acknowledgment of his 
Tirtuous character and equitable administration. 

Trajan made a large reissue of the gold and silver coins of his 
predecessors, and though his own coins are very plentiful, the for- 
mer are very scarce. 

Trajau was succeeded in 11 T A. D,, by his adopted son and half 
cousin, Pa blius jEHus Hadriasus, whose coin issues surp^s in num- 
ber, variety, and execution those of any other Emperor. Many 
perils threatened the Empire at this period, but by a judicious 
conciliating of some tribes and rigorous repressing of others he 

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>"CiENT AXI> sioi)i:i;x, 

extricated Rome from her dangera, and received from the Senate 
the title of Puter Patria'. To keep back the Picts who were press- 
ing doivn on the Roman garrison in Britain, he built a great wall 
from the Solway to the Tyne, right across the whole country. 
In Turkey he founded what is still the second city of that Empire, 
and which continues to bear his name, while in many other locali- 
ties abundant remains ai-e found of the great energy of this dis- 
tingnished ruler. '* ^""^" 

In 138 A. D., Hadrian adopted as his heir Titus Aurelius Fulvius 
Antoninus, a native of Nematistis, now JVtmea, in Gaul, and who 
then assumed the names of T. ^lius Hadrianus Antoninus, and 
ascended the throne the same year. The private character of this 
monarch was worthy of all praise, while as a ruler he acted m the 
father of his people. " Happy the nation," it has been said, " that 
has no history," and the annals of Rome during the reign of A. are 
singularly free from the records of wai-s or revolts, and are occu- 
pied almost altogether with the accoimts of domestic improvements. 
The title Pivs, reminding us of Virgil's Pius .j^Jnecis, was conferred 
on Antoninus by the Sernte because ot his filiil attachment to 

When Hadi-ian adopted Antoninus as his successor, Antoninus 
adopted Mai-cuB Annus Verus as his heh-. Hadrian, who had the 
highest estimate of the truthfulness of Vems, conferred on him the 
title of Yerissimtis, piaying on his name Verm. In 101 A. D,, 
Verus succeeded to the throne as Mabcus Al'eklil's Antonikus, 
when his caj'eer, both in public and in private, proved him to be 
one of the most illustrious ornaments of our race. His coins are 
very numerous, and, from the fullness and variety of their legend, 
would almost enable us to construct a history of his reign. 

Aui-elius, having died at Vindebono, now Vienna, in 180 A D., 
was succeeded by his son Lucius Marcus Aurelius Oommodus An- 
toninus, whose character and career were as infamous as his 
father's had been illustrious. In his fourteenth year Commodus 
received from the Senate the new title of I^inceps Juventutis, and 

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in his fifteenth was associated, with his father in the gOYemmeut. 
The coins of this half monster, half madman, rant next toTraiao's 
for number, vaiiety and beauty, and from their legends have been 
classified thus : those stmck from the tune when he was created 
Csesai', 166 A. T)., down to 180 A, D., and bearing the names of 
Lucius, Aureliue or Commodus; those stfuck between 180 A, D. 
and 191 A. D. having on them Marcus, Comraodue, or Antoninus, 
and sometimes Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus; and lastly, 
those stiuck between thi=i peiiod and his death, having the name 
jElius added to the othei 


After a reign of twelve years, Commodus was strangled, and 
Publius Helvius Pebtikax raised to the throne. By attempting, 
however, to refoi-m the military service, Pertinax incurred the en- 
mity of the troops, and after a short reign of eighty-seven days 
was assassinated by a band of Preetorians. Owing to the short 
duration of his rule, the coins of Pei-tLnax are very scai-ce. They 
bear the legend Imp. Cies. P. Helv, Pert. Aug. 

On the murder of Pertinax in 193 A. D., the army put up the 
throne for sale, when it was purchased by Marcus DiDius Severus 
JuLiANUs. After, however, a reign of but sixty days, the Senate, 
alanned by the approach to Rome of Lucius Septimius Severas, 
who claimed the throne and was supported by the legions of 
Gaul and Germany, ordered Julianus to be put to death, so that his 
coins ai'c very scarce. 

The purple was now conferred on Caius Pescennius Niger, 
commander of the army in the East, by the troops under him. 
The coins of this monarch are all colonials and of the highest 
degree of rarity. While the Asiatic Legions had proclaimed Niger, 
Emperor, those of Britain proclaimed Decimus Clodius Septimius 
Albinus, and those of Gaul and Germany proclaimed Shveeus. 
Severus promptly secured Rome and concOiated Clodius Albinus 
by making him Vcesar. He then marched against Niger and com- 
pletely routed him in a battle on the banks of the Issus, 195 A. D. 
Turaing then on Clodius, he finally defeated him at. Lyons, 197 

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A. D., remaining thus, without a rival, ill the possession of the 
throne. Coins of Clodius Albinus are exceedingly rare, those 
with Ciesar being alone considered Roman. 

The career ot Luoiua Septimius Seveeus was that of a soldier. 
He personally commanded the legions aiike in their conflicts ■with 
the Parthians ia Central Asia, and with the Picts and Scots or in 
the mlds of Britain. His coins are very numerous and record 
many notable events. 

On the death of Severus at York in A. D. 21J, his sons Mai'cus 
Aurelina Antoninus Bassiancs, nick-named Caeacalla, and Pub- 
lius Septimius Gbta Cffisar conjointly occupied the throne. This 
joint sovereignty lasted for a year, when Caracalla murdered his 
brother. His subsequent career was one of frightful cruelty and 
vice, closing mth his murder in 217 A. D., by a Pratoi-ian. 

The vacant throne ivas now occupied by Marcus Opelius Severus 
MACKiitrs, by whose orders Caracalla had been assassinated, and 
who was proclaimed Emperor by the Praetorians. His reign was 
brief and unmarked by events of national importance. His coins 
ai'e not common. 

While Macrinus had been proclaimed Emperor at Rome, the 
Easteni lemons had proclaimed their general Varius Avitus Bassi- 
auus, nephew of Julia Domna. In his youth this individual had 
become a priest of the Syro-Ph(Bnician bun-god El-gabal, whence 
his own popular name of Eiagabalus. The rivals met at Antioch, 
when, Macrinus having been slain, Elagabalua became monarch, 
taking the names of Caracalla Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, claim- 
ing to be his son. His career was one of unspeakable debauchery, 
and lasted for less than four years, when he too fell by the Prsetor- 
ians. His coins are moderately common and are often mistaken for 
those of Caracalla, A singular device on many of his coins is that 
of a conical-shaped stone ornamented with stars, or with stars in 
the field, the symbol of his deity El-gabal. 

Elagabalus, having perished in a mutiny of his troops, was suc- 
■ceeded in 222 A. D. by his adopted son, known in histoiy as 
Seveeus Alexandee. Alexander paid great attention to the 
coinage, and the issues of his reign show that Rome had now 
reached the second stage of national life — that in which men, having 
ceased to do great deeds, erect memorials of qualities or principles 
that ai-e no longer current in society. Personally one of tlie best 
of Roman Emperors, Sevebus soon became hateful to the fierce 
Pifetorians, and in a revolt headed by Maxim inns, he and his mother, 
Julia Marafea, perished, civil liberty at Rome perishing with 
them, the Empire changing into a military despotism. 

Cains Julius Verus Maxuhnus, who ascended the throne in 235 
A. D., was by birth a Goth, and being a man more than eight 
feet in height, was possessed of immense physical strength. His 

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reign lasted for but a coiiple of yeai's ; his coins are pretty7abua- 
dant, the legends on those issued at Rome being smip\y'^Maxi- 
miniis; on the Latin colonials, Julius Maximinus; and on the Greek, 
Cains Jul Yerus Maximinus. 

Gireat anarchy now prevailed in the Roman Empire. Every- 
■where the legions elected their favorite general as Emperor, only 
after a few days or months possession of the titles, to replace the 
victim of their election by some other. The coins of such persons 
possess neither artistic nor historic merits, yet are much sought for 
because of their excessive rarity. We shall therefore simply 
mention the names of a few of the better known Emperors. The 
GrOEDiANB, father and son, both bearing the same legend, Imp. C. 
M. Ant. Gordianus Afi-. Aug., and distinguishable only by the dif- 
ference between the effigies, are much sought for. Coins exist of 
Decimns Ctelius BAuiiNtra, and of Marcus Clodius Pupienits, 
both of whom were declared Emperors, and both perished within 
a year. Marcus Antonius Gordianus, commonly known as Goedi- 
ANUS nL, ascended the throne in 238 A.D., as M. Ant. Gordianus, 
the absence of the Africanus from the legend suiEciently distin- 
guishing his coins, which ai-e very numerous, from those of his 
father or grandfather. 


The legend on the reverse reads, provinaia maisia aupei-ioris, Col 
Vim An. inL 

In 244 A. D., Gordianus was killed in a revolt and Marcus 
Julius Philippus, prefect of the PrEetoiians, ascended the throne. 
His reign lasted for five years. His coins and those of his wife, 
Marcia Otacilia Severa, are abundant. In 247 A, D., Philip asso- 
ciated with him in the government his eldest son, also Marcus Ju- 
lius Philippus, whose coins are inscribed M. Ju), Philip Cse, — 
M. Jul. Philippus nob. Cses. — Imp. M. Jul. Philippus Aug. The 
coins of Caius Messius Quintus Teajanus Decius, who reigned 
in a military character 249-251 A. D., are very common and 
are inscribed Imp. C. M. Q. Trajanus Decius — Imp. Cres. 0. Mess. 
Q. Decius Traj. Aug.— -while coins of his son Quintus Herennius Et- 
niscus Messius Ti-ajanns Decius, who had shared the throne with 
his father and perished with him, always bear the whole or part 

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of Ms name, Serennius. Coins of his brother, Caiua Valens 
Hostiiianue Meseiue Quintus are scarce, Lis reign lasting but a 
few months. The coins of Cains Vilins Trebonianua Gallus, 351- 
254 A.D,, are easily distinguished by their inscriptions, as are those 
of Voluaianus. During the reign of Publins Licinins Valerian- 
us, there were many issues of coins that are still abundant, while 
of his son, Pnbliua Licinius Gallienua, and of his wife, Cornelia 
Salonina, we have also many, but most of them greatly debased. 
The reign of Galiienus was marked by a large number of restorar 
tions or memorial coins in honor of the early Emperors, inscribed 
Divo Auguato, Divo Vespcisiano, IHvo Tito, IHvo Nervie, Divo 
TVaJano, Hadriano-, Pio, (Antoninus Plus,) Marco, (Marcus Au- 
relius,) Marco Antontno, Severo, (Septimius SeTerue), Alexandra, 
(Severus Alexander), most of which have the word Consecratio, 
to denote that these persons had been enrolled among the gods, on 
the reverse, and thus form what is known as the Consecration se- 
ries.* These coins are made in billon, an alloy of a very little 
silver to a large amount of copper, largely used now-a^days in the 
coinage of Central Europe. The object of the alloy is to avoid 
the bulkiness of large copper coin, but it is easily counterfeited 
and soon acquu'es a db^ty look and feel. 

Galliekus was succeeded by his son Saloninus, of whom we 
have much billon or base silver money, but whose bronzes are very 
rare. On the murder of this monarch, the purple was assumed by 
Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus, who issued many iirst 
bronzes, after which that coin disappeared from the Roman mint- 
age. The reign of Postumus marks the commencement, 258 A. D,, 
of that season of dreadful confusion and disorganization known as 
the period of the Thirty Tyrants. History has not preserved for 
US the names of all those persons, so we must take the figure as 
a round number. 

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Of some of these, coins have come down to ue, and of others so 
many oounterf eita are ia circulation, that the collector must exercise 
much care in dealing with them. 

The Homan Empire was now apparently tumbling to pieces. 
The Huns swept across its provinces in the west; the Goths deso- 
lated Achaia, sacking Athens and Corinth; while the Persians, 
under Sapor, laid waste the Asiatic teiTitory. The catastrophe 
was, however, delayed through the efforts of men like Marcus Aure- 
lius CiAUDius, sumamed GoTHicusfrom the gi'eat victory, 269 A.D. 
in which he drove back the Goths; of Lucius Claudius Domitius 
Atjeelianus, one of the greatest of Roman Emperors, and to whom 
the title "Restorer of the Roman Empire" was^ven; of Marcus 
Aurelius Pkobus and of Marcus Aurelius Caeus. AVTien Cains Va- 
lerius DioCLBTiANus ascended the throne, in 284 A. D., the danger 
seemed past. The consciousness that no one man could administer 
the affairs of so v^t an Empire led Diocletian to divide the Gov- 
ernment into East, which he kept in his own hands, and into West, 
which he assigned to Maximianus Hekculius, whom he had as- 
assumed as colleague. 

The floodgates of intrigue and revolt were now opened. A 
stream of civil dissension overspread the Empire till the strong 
hand of Flavins Galerius Valens Constantinas, son of Ohlorus, 
adopted son of Maximianus Hercnlius, in 323 A, D., held the 


sceptre. Constantine I., or the Great, transfen'ed the seat of 
Empire to Byzantium, which he named Constantinople, and de- 
clared Christianity to be the religion of the State. This change led 
to the presence of Christian symbols on the Imperial coinage. 
The coins of Constantine are exceedingly abnndant, and distin- 

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gnishable from those of his son Flavius Claudma Julius Conatan- 
tlnus, known as Constantine II., by the absence from, them of the 
Claudius, always found on those of his eon, on whose coins also 
appears the labarum or sacred banner, having on it the monogram 
of Christ.* In 361 A. D,, Flavius Claudius Julianus I., known as 
Julian the Apostate, nephew of Constantine the Great, ascended 
the throne, and the Christian symbols disappear, to reappear, 
however, on the coinages of his successors. 

In 396 A. D., Theodosius divided the Empire, bestowing 
Rome and the Western Provinces generally on bis second son, 
HoNOEius. The coins of Honorius, whose capital was Ravenna, are 
not scarce, most of them having Conob in the exergue. During 
this reign, the Roman authority was rapidly disappearing, Spain, 
Gaul and Pannonia, (the modem Austria), becoming occupied by 
invading German and Gothic tribes, driven from their homes by 
the Huns, some of these latter even crossing the Alps. At the head 
of his Visigoths, Alaiic, who had previously swept Gi-eeoe and plun- 
dered Athens, captured, in 410 A. D., Rome itself, when the Senate 
p!a^5ed upon its throne Peiscus Attalus, of whom a few coins re- 
main. For fifty years after this, the history of Rome is but a 
record of court intrigues and conspiracies, of ecclesiastical dissen- 
sions, and of feeble and futile efforts to keep back the ever advanc- 
ing power of the barbarians. Alaric and his Goths having shown 
the way to Rome, Attila and his Hans followed in 452 A. D., 
and a second capture of the city was averted only by the wise 
submissiveness of Pope Leo the 1st. In a few yeai-s, however,- 
Genseric, King of the Vandals, who had crossed from Spain into 
Africa, recrossed the Mediteri'anean, captured Rome and so 
effectively destroyed its treasures as to lay a foundation for the 
word Vandalism. 

Gaul, Britain, Spain, Northern Africa, the Mediterranean Islands, 
had now all been wrested from Rome and were being ruled or mis- 
ruled by the fierce chiefs of fiercer tribes, when, in 475 A, D., 
RoMuitrs Augustus, sneeringly called Auguatvius by the people, 
who had been placed on the throne by his father Orestes, was 
deposed by Odoaoer, King of the Heruli, and the Roman Western 
Empire ceased to exist. 


With Odoaceu, a. D, 476, begins the Gothic Kingdom of Italy, 
lasting for nearly a century. Durmg this time we have the names 
of Thbodoric, who assumed the title of King of Italy, and ranks 

*Iii the exergue of many coins, the word or letters ComiA may be found. As the 
name of the mint is ffenerally on that part of the coin, these letters are supposed 
to stand for amttaiiMTtopdli Romce soiiai cypcijue B ; B being the Greek nameralfor S, 
denoting prol>ably the second department or officer of the mint. 



among the greatest of monarchs ; of Athalaeicus, 526 A. D., 
grandson of Thcodoric, and of Theodohatus, 534 A. D., of whom 
we know very little. The coinages of these princes are known 
only by a few pieces of silver or third bronze, beanng simply the 
name of the monarch, and the title Rex. On the death of Theo- 
dohatus, the crown fell to Witiges, who, after a brief career, waa 
defeated and captured by Belisarius. With Baduela, or Baduila, 
his successor, 552 A. D., on whose coins, as on those of his prede- 
cessor, the head of Justinian appeal's, the Gothic Kingdom of 
Italy ended, and the Provinces of the West, emerging from their 
dependent condition, took form and shape as independent commu- 
nities — the parents of the modern nations of Europe. 



Fronn the pei-manent division of the Roman I 
death of Theodosius the Great in 396 A. D., is to be dated i 
coin period. The symbols, devices and legends on the Roman 
Eastera coinage had hitherto been purely Heathen. But now 
Christian symbols, — such as the effigy of Christ, the Monogram, 
the Cross, the Virgin Mother, new titles, different letter characters, 
a different artistic style, — appeal-, to all of which the term Byzan- 
tine has been applied. This Byzantine period extended from the 
reign of Theodosius the Great, down to 1453 A. D., when Con- 
stantinople was captured by Mahommed the Second and the 
Eastern Empire swept away. The first section of this period ex- 
tends down to Alexius CoMNENtrs in 1081 A. D. Anastasius, 
(^461 A. D.), greatly modified and improved the coinage, issuing 
in gold the SoUAus, a modem name for the Roman AMteas, and 
worth about five dollarf in gc Id md the Tnem, or the one thu-d of 
the Solidus, ind m copper, \ iei,es rLSemblmg the Roman Sestertius. 

Domimts N'oster anastasius, 490 A, D. 

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The As of tlie Roman Empire had gradiiaUy been < 
weight, till it was represented only by the third bronze. This 
again in the East had been brought down to the weight of ten 
grains, and known as the noitmia, had yet become the stan- 
dard of value. To the copper coinage of the East, the tenn 
follis, the name given by Diocleaian to a new piece he issued, 
was applied, stamped so as to declare how many noumia were con- 
tained m it. On these Byzantine coins, accordingly, we frequently 
find the whole field of the reverse covered by a large coai-se let- 
ter, used as one of the Greek numerals, according to the following 

Units, ABr/!E^'^ZH9 

10 20 30 40 50 GO 70 80 90 

Hundreds, r:^TT$XWn,7C 

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 

The letter M, therefore, is the numeral of value for forty, while 
K, also frequently met with, is that of ten — noumia. In the exer- 
gue, the letters CON, standing for Constantinople, frequently oc- 
cur. By degrees Greek characters became employed, and were 
mixed up in a barbarous manner with Roman ones. 

No history in the world presents us with such a record of crimes 
on the part of rulers and of sufferings on the part of people, as that 
of the Byzantine Empire. Ambition, intensified by religious fanat- 
icism, led to a series of outrages against humanity that are without 
a parallel. While the Empire was thus torn by internal dissen- 
sions, it was little able to cope successfully with foreign assailants. 
In A.D. 636-641, the Caliph Omar, at the head of his Sai-acen hordes, 

e dace expreaeed by comblnaHons o( the 

._ .., ^iversfllly recognized, atarting place, euJ^h ns 

ir the Bfrth of Christ, tlie dates denote the yea 
i__ --^ find dynasty, flU"*" --"-- "---'-■ - 

8 and BoBuhoruB, 

f, 3ia B. C, Dat! 

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r of the Empire, and commenced that 

shattered the Asiatic po\ 

series of attempts on Constantinople which was afterwards so sue- 
cessfid. In 720 A.D., Leo III., a man of obscure birth, had become 
Gleneral of the Eastern Army. Having successfully conspired 
against Theodore III,, whom he drove into a mon^teiy, Leo as- 
cended the throne and reigned for twenty-four years. From 857 
to 867 A I>, the Byzantine sceptre was held by Michael in., eon 
of Theophilus and Theudwa Duiing the miuoiity of her son. 


Theodora had reigned, but on Michael's accession he consigned her 
to a convent, in which she died. 

In 1081 A.D., Alexius Comnenus deposed Nicephorus. The 
reign of Alexius is memorable in Byzantine history, as it was the 
era in which those transactions began that led ultimately to the 
overthrow of the empire. 

In lOSl A. D. came the Crusaders mai-ching towards Jerusalem. 
Necessarily they took part in Bynantine politics, but did not at 
first meddle with the Empire. Soon, however, their hosts 
became mere mercenaries, and in 1203 A. D. assisted Alexius IV. 
in recovering the throne from his uncle, who had usurped it. Hav- 
ing thus learned their power, the Latin soldiers nest year took 

* Michael wfte atterwotda miiriletea by EaBiUua 1., whom ht 



posseasion of the throne themselves, and placing Baldwin, son of 
the Count of Flandei's, on the throne of Constantinople, divided 
the territory among their four leading chiefs. The Byzantine 
com't removed to Nicea and watched its opportunity. The vaiying 
fortunes of the Crusaders gave to the Byzantines an opportunity of 
recovering their capital. In 1207 A.I>., Michael Palteologua, aided 
by the Genoese, recovered Constantinople, and the last chapter of 
Byzantine history began. The failure of the Crusaders to retain 
Jerusalem had been followed by a Turkish invasion of Europe. 
The hour of destiny, long delayed by the Western help given to 
the Byzantines, at last aiTived. Offended by the insults offered 
to their Church, the Latin princes refused to help any longer. On 
May 39th, 1453 A. D., Constantine Palteologus being on the 
throne, Constantinople was captured by the Turks, and the last 
representative of the great Roman Empire passed away. 

Mints of the Eastern Emperors. 

Alexandria, . . . . AAE, AAEH, (St. Pierre.) 

Antioch m Syria, (Theuopolis), - ANT, THEVP, THEV. 

Cai'thage, CAR, KAK, KART. 

Heracleia, - - - - II. 

Catania, CAT. 

Tiberias, TIBERIAJOC. 

Constantinople, - - - CON, CONS, CONST, KON. 

Cyprus, KYim. 

Constantia in Cyprus, - - KoiN. 

Cyziqne, CYZ, KYZ. 

Chei-son, XEP, (St. Eugene.) 

Milan, MD'PS. 

Marseilles, .... MA. 

Nicomedia, NIG, NIKO. 

Nice, ... - - ST. DEMETRIUS. 

Ravenna, . - - - - RA RAV RAVENNA. 

Rome, . - - - . ROM ROMA. 

Thesaalouica, - - - - TES, ©EC. 

Vienna, VIENNA. 

Sicily, SOL. 


The Crusades, planned with the view of securing to Christians 
the right of worshipping at the Holy Places in Palestine, soon be- 
came diverted into seeking the recovery of the whole ten-itory 
irom the Turks. Aa the Crusading armies began gradually to 

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spread themselves throughout Syria and its adjacent districts, they 
established local sovereignties, in almost all of which money was 
struck. We have thus, coins of the Princes of Antioch, the series 
lasting from 1100 A. D., of the Counts of Edessa and of Tripoli, 
of the Kings of Jerusalem and of Cyprus, aod of the Lords of 
Sidon and of Beyrout. To these may he added the coins of the 
western princes who assumed eastern titles, such as the Princes 
of Achaia, the Dukea of Athens, the Lords of Corfu, Ithaca, 
Cephalonia, and the like. On these coins there is generally 
some religious emblems, with the name of the place and of the 
prince in the legend on I' 




The coinages of modern Europe date from the break up of th©- 
Roman Empire, and especially from the setting up of a compara- 
tively strong government in France. The conquests of the French 
monarchs soon included a large part of Europe. The gi-eat divi- 
sion of this territory that took place during the Carlovingian dy- 
nasty into the Gei-man Empire, Italy, and Spain, furnishes us ■with 
a natural order to be followed, the other European nations assum- 
ing importance at a date somewhat later. In treating, theref ore,of 
modem coinages, we shall proceed, in the pages that follow, along- 
the lines now indicated. Our readers, we trast, wiU keep ever in 
mind that our present custom of confliring the devices and le- 
gends on coins* to the likeness, with name and titles of the 
sovereign, is of very recent origin, and is even yet not universal. 
During the Middle Ages a large part of European com was 
medallie in its character, which, along with the frequent changes 
of territorial limits, has resulted in an endless variety of designs. 
In attempting any approach to system in our arrangement of 
modem coins, we must therefore adhere as closely as possible to- 
historical lines. 

While, then, the modern coinages of Europe commence on the 
overthrow of the Roman Empire, yet the numismatist will remember 
that there was a coinage m Gaul previous to that event. Tliis 
native coinage was evidently suggested by the Staters of the 
Macedonian Philip, the coins of Northern Spain, and those of the 
. Greek colony of MassDia or Mai'seilles. Roman influence, as i-e- 
salting from commerce and war, was also felt and is shown. The 
metals employed were gold, silver, electrum, bronze and potm; 
the charactei-s were Greek, Celtiberian, or Latin, and the designs 

re much more vsrieil than were those of antiquity. A tew 
h the cotae of foimer days; many are talien from the names 
e WHliims, the louis, &c. \ others from the locality or citj; 



were a blending of the mythology of the sti'angcrs with that of 
the natives. 

In 510 A, D., Gaul was recognized by Anastaaiua as an 
independent kingdom under Childeiic. The Franks (or Jih-eemen, 
a name assumed by a confederation of German tribes), had not 
merely invaded Gaul, bnt had taken such instant and absolute 
possession of it, that the framework of society remaned un- 
broken, and desolations like those of Italy were unknown. 
Among the great chieftains of that period were Merovceua, who 
had risen to such pre-eminence as to possess in 448 A. D. a na- 
tional leadership which Le transmitted to liis children, thus found- 
ing the powerfal Merovingian dynasty, whose representatives 
were Clovis, ChUdebert, Clotaire, Daeobeit and others. During 
the continuance of this family several independent Royalties or 
Kingdoms were fonned, 

Aqpitaine, the South-eastern part of France, was, in 607, 
taken possession of by Clovis, and divided among his sons. In a 
few years all Aquitaine belonged to the kingdom of Austrasia. 
In 628 A. D,, Dagubert was the sole possessor of all the lands 
that had belonged to the Merovingians. Two years after his ac- 
cession, he gave one portion of these dominions to his half-brother 
Caribert. By a treaty in 630, Caribert gave to Dagobert certain 
estates, and thus arose the Merovingian Kingdom of Aquitaine, 
whose mlers wei'e known as the Dukea of Gasconyand Aquitaine, 
Counts of Fesenzac and Annagnac and the ancient Kings of 
NavaiTe. There ai'e coins of all these rulers. 

BuEGUNDT. — The Kings of Burgundy were of the same race as 
the Ostrogoths in Italy and the Visigoths in Spain. Roman dig- 
nities at first wei-e conferred upon 3iem, so that they appear to 
have issued coins previous to 640 A. D., beaiing the names and por- 
traits of the Roman Emperors. Gradually, however, these were 
replaced by their own, and the powers of independent monareha 
were thus quietly assumed, 

Nkustkia, or western Fi-ance, containing, therefore, Armorica 
or Brittany, became, about 574 A. D., an independent territory. 
Brittany had its local chiefs or Kings, down to about 830, when 
Louis Le Debonnaire succeeded in obtaining a nominal recogni- 
tion. On the cession of Nonnandy to the Noi-mans in 912, the 
name JVeustria fell into disuse. 

AusTiwsiA consisted of the Trans-Rhine portions of France, with 
the cities between the Rhine and the Meuse, Thuringia and Bava- 
ria. In 546, Theodebert, gi-andson of Clovis, who had been reign- 
ing in Austrasia for about 20 years, abandoned the usual custom of 
placing the likenesses of the Roman Emperoi-s on his coins, and 
placed there his own. It is said that this was done in retaliation 

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against Justinian, who had assumed the surname of JP¥anciscus, 
to indicate his soverei^ty over the Fi-ench. Before another cen- 
tury, however, Pepin v ., eon of Charles Martel, and founder of the 
Garlovingian dynasty, compelled Theodoric III, to appoint 
him Mayor of the Palaee in each of the kingdoms of Neustria, 
Austrasia and Burgundy. The real power was thus in Pepin's 
hands In 752 A. D., Pepin's grandson, Pepin the Short, assumed 
the crown and was formally crowned king of the Franks. On 
Pepin's death, in 768 A. D., his sons Carloman and Charles, after- 
wards the Great, reigned jointly, the whole powerfalling to Charles 
on his brother's death. In 776, Charles was accepted by the Saxons 
as their sovereign. In 778 he successfully invaded Spain and in 800 
A. D. was crowned at Rome by Leo HI., as Carolns Augustus. This 
dynasty effected a great change in the coinage. SUver was used 
in place of goM, and devices national and diristian replaced the 
names of moneyers. To bishops, monasteries and petty principal- 
ities was granted the light of issuing money, the church authori- 
ties using generally the device of a church buildiug with the le- 
gend Chkistiaha Religio. 


The coins of Charlemagne bear simply a cross with the 
name Carolus Eek, and on revei-se, a cross with place 
of mintage. It is said that one of the Prankish customs on the 
election of a king, was to elevate him on a shield and to place in 
his hand, in place of a scepti-e, a reed or lily in blossom. On some 
coins of these first two dynasties, therefore, the monarchs are 
represented with a fieur de lis in their hands, the flower that be- 
came eventually the armorial figure of France. The number of 
flowers on the shield was reduced by Charles VI. to three, a num- 
ber since adhered to by the Bourbons. Chai'ies died in 814 A. D., 
and was succeeded by his son, Louis I.— Le DebonnMre, 814-840 A, 
J). In 843 Louis gave to his eldest eon, Lothariue I., the Imperial 
Crown, with Italy and the eastern French provinces ; to his second 
son Louis the Gennan, the Gei'man part of his dominions ; and 
to Charles the Bald, who may be considered as the founder of the 
French dynasty, Neustiia, Aquitaine and the Spanish mark or 

On the death of Louis V., in 987, Hugh Capet seized the throne 
and founded the third dynasty, surviving till 1328. During the 

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early years of this Capetian line, the coinage remained unimproved, 
the barons issuing what they pleased. An immense amonnt 
of money was issued by the Abbey of St. Martin de Tour, ^ving 
rise to the toumois. Louis IX., (St. Louis,) 1250, A. D., 
made the sou, previously a coin of account, one of value ; the 
silver sou, worth about four silver pennies, he called the gros, 
while the denier was called the little toiirnois. He issued a few 
gold pieces, but made a free use of billon or black money in the 
fonii of the Liard or Hardi — ranking as three silver pennies, the 
MaiUe or half denier, and the hourgeoise or quarter. 

In 1827, the House of Valois, a branch of the Capetian family, 
occupied the throne. The English armies now so overran the coun- 
try, that Edward III. placed on his coins the title King of 
M-anoe. The gold pieces of Charles VII., with a crown on their 
reverses, introduced the silver ^fe'cfw or crown pieces into the coinage 


of Europe. The billon pieces bear the Arms of Anjou — three 
fleur de lis with Sit nombn Domini senedictum, while the silver 
teston, (from TEST — pi-oof or witness), or great head of LouisXIL, 
(1498-1516), received its name from the king's portrait, identify- 
ing the coin as national money. Henry HI. was assassinated in 
1588, when Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, w^ put forward as 
Charles X., by the League under the Duke of Guise. Coins of 
" The Pretender" were struck by the League for six years after 
hie death. In 1593, however, Heniy of Navarre, of the House 
of Bourhon, ascended the throne as Henry IV. of France. In 

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1614, on the coins of Louis XIII., who had been betrothed to Ann 
of Austria, daughter of Philip III., king of Spain, there appeared 
the legend CATALONiin Pkincbps, the reverees sometimes showing 
six L's, so placed as to form a central triangle. The Louis d'or 
was issued in 1640, after which date no important change was made 
in the coinage until the Revolution of 1788. 

OF Lonis XIV., 1643-1715 a. d., king of feancb and 


the centre is tlis standard of £eam.) 

B tin 1791 the coins bore the bead of Louis XVL, with Roi dks 
Fbancais, and on the reverse Liberty writing the word Constitu- 
tion onatablet, with the yearof Liberty below, or,afasces and cap 
within branches, with La Nation, La Loi, Le Roi, with the year 
of our era. Some coins of 1798 have simply the tablet with 
Rbpublique Feancais and year of Liberty, and on reverse a 
wreath resting on a pair of scales, with Libkete, Egahtb. Others 
have Liberty with a Phi-ygian cap, with Bepublique Feancais, 
and on reverse a wreath, with value. The money issued in France 
between 1791 and 1795 is called the Constitutional currency, be- 

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On the coins of Napoleon as Premier Consul or Emperor, there 
is his head with name and titles. After his fall in 1815, the head 


of Louis XVIII. is on the coins, with a crowned shield ( 
taining the arms of Anjou on the reverse. In 1831, on the ac 




sion of Louis Philippe, the reverse iDore simply the values, while 
in 1848 the Republican symbols again appear, to be replaced by 
the head of Napoleon as President of the Republic, and in 1852 


8 Empeior * On his o^ erthiow, in IbVO the laige head of Ceres 
ras pli^ed on the coinis, with Libektb, Egalitb, Frateenitb oa 


Bepiiblic, aod tbe date of IBGl. The coin, mnchtfl the BDipriaedFab^BtaiideriThiiwaanottn 
tia secret, woa mn ap to 118 fmnca. Cimouii to know vhj & cola which, from Its recent 
date, coidd not, he Im^^laed, be a TariC^ fetched snch a price, he aa&ed the aneucceBBfal 
bldderwhr be had offered aa much aa llOfiuiCB, andvaamet nltli Uie BOmenhat oontemp- 
taoasieplr, " Wiif, don't yoDseeiCie i piece vKhtba lock ot bairT' (vne^Ki a la meehe.) 
Moreaiiamorepax2ledhewtiaobllB;ed to aak for an explanation, and waatoin that one of the 
Srst deoreee Jasned after the coap d'etat on Ibe second of DeceiiiDec,referred to the cdning of 
new money ,whlch waa to be gtamped with the efflgy of the prince praBident, One of the ilTe- 
fnmc ^ecee waa bTonght to tlie Elyaee for approvu, but the late Bmperor, hating iU atten- 
Idon tien by other th&gs, foraoi all about it for atew days. When he came to examine it, 
he noticed a lock of hair cnrled^forward near the right temple, ivhlch diaplecsed him, and he 
gave orders to haTB the mould altered. Bn(, taMng hla ^lenee for consent, the director of 
flie mint had commenced (he Isaue, and twenty-tlirea Ave franc plecea coold not be with- 
drawn from cironlalion. These are the coins which are now so highly prized by collectors^ 



the reverse*, as on the 5 franc pieces of 1797 and 18i8. The letter 
A is the Paris mint mark; during the Commune of 18Y0, its mint's 
private markswere an anchor and trident one on each side of the a. 
In the Appendix tho reader will find a full list of the Sovereigns 
■of France, with a list of the different coins issued by each of 

Tho death of Charlemagne was followed by the existence, as 
eemi-independent governments, of many feudal chiefs, each of 
whom was soon found issuing money in his own name. Of these 
our space allows ne simply to mention a few. Within the 
kingdom of Neu stria, for instance, lay the Dukedoms of 
France, Brittany, Normandy, Flanders and Champagne. There 
were Counts of Anjou, of Maine, Blois, Vendome, Artoise, 
Namur, Soissons, Valois, and others. The rulers, often bear- 
ing more than one title, issued money sometimes under one title 
and sometimes under another. The Principality of Sedan, foun- 
ded in 1379, by Chas. V., became connected, in 1591, with the 
house of de La Totir D'Auvergne, when its coins tell of this 

I. Compelgne. 

St. Lo, near Cf 

r. aud a lion — Geneva. 

[. Bochelle. 

.. Limogea. 

!. Bordeftus. 

,. LUle. 

. Tonlonse. Inl803Viv. 

but droppefl in 1810. 

. with an iaTerted cup — Milan. 

'. Montpalller, 

I. St. Fourcain. 

3, list of the FrenoU mint marks : 

P. Dijon. 

Q. Ctialon surSaone. 

B. Villeneuve St. Andre lea Avigaon. 

R. with crown and wolf— Rome. 

R. and a fleur de lis — Londres id Gftrd. 

S. NoyeE. 

T. St. Menehold. 

V. Turtn. 

V. aad an anchor — Venice. 

X. Villefi'anehe. 

Y. Bourses. 

Z, Dauphlne. 


B. B. Strasbm-g. 

C. C. Besangon. 
A. E. Arras. 

Two Fish, rtreeht. 

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The Dukedom of Burgundy was founded in the Eleventh cen- 
tmy, and terminated in 1477 A, D., when Maria, the last Duchess, 
married the Archduke Maximilian of Austria, canying with her 
into that housf 1 er vi 't jntrimnnv 

The Kingdom of Aquitaine embraced a large number of fiofs, 
among wiich was the famous Kingdom of Havarre, whose mon- 
arch Henry is better known as Henry IV. of France. 

The Kingdom of Burgundy mast be distinguished from the 
Duchy of the same name, this latter being a portion of Neustria. 
Among the celebrated territories of Burgundy were the County 
of Provence and the Principality of Orange. Within the County 
was Avignon, the seat of the Papacy from the year 1229 to 1348, 
though money was struck there, m the Pope's name, down to the 
year 1690. 

The Seignory of i>owi6es formed part of Burgandy, At the 
commencement of the 14th century Dombes was acqun-ed by the 
Duke of Bourbon. In 1660 it passed to the Duke of Montpensier, 
the sovereign line ending with the lady whose coin we engrave. 



SELLE) PRlNCEfes OP IlO,MBl!.&, 10(.. 


The ]Dreseiit Switzerland was originally part of the dominions 
of the Kings of Burgundy Under Chai'lemagne it foi-med part 
of hia Empire tnd m 1032 wab gnen bv BndoTph t:> the Geiman 
Empiie As eaih ab 1100 A D its bishop's tnd semi independ- 

ASlEEi OF ST. GALL, 1622, 

ent nobles and towns issued money. In 1315, under tho lead of 
Uri and Unterwalden, the Forest Cantons threw off the German 
connection, and Schwyz, Xlri, Unterwalden, Lucei^ue, Zurich, 
Glaxas, Zug and Eenie entered into a perpetual league, the founda- 
tion of the Swiss Confederation. In 1415 the league took Aargau, 
Thurgau and Ticino from Austria, adding these to the Con- 

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federacy. Freibourg and Sol eiire were next admitted. In 1510 
Bazel, Schaffhausen and AppenKell were admitted. St, Gall, 


Mullhausen and Bienne, and aftei'wards Geneva, K"eufchatel,Va]ai3 


and tlie Grisons were also admitted. In 15^6 Berne wrested the 
Pays de Vaud from Savoy and became the leading State, 



■ THE woelh ; 


111 1V98 these State? were ooDbtitated by Frtni^e into the Helve- 
tian HepuUa. 111(1 the C'lntonil I'^siica iemg Mippresse 1 coins 

were iasned with the device of a soldier canying a standard with 
legend, Mehetische ReptMik. 

In 1 SI 5 the Confederacy was restored and the Cantonal issues 
resumed. In 1848 a general device was adopted of Liberty seated, 
with value and date on the reverse. Neufchatel, at first part of 
Burgundy, had been ceded in 1288 to the House of Chalons. In 

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1707 Frederick I. of Prussia, as representing thatHouse, obtained 
the Duchy. In 1806 Napoleon bestowed it as a Grand Duchy on 
Berthier. In 1814 it was restored to Pmesia, but in 1857 revolted, 
and while the title of Pi-ince of Neufchatel is borne by the King 
of Prusaia, the State'now forms an integral part of the Swiss 


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During the long interval l)etween the reign of Hoiiorius, 394 
A. D,, and the entrance of Victor Emmanuel into Rome in 1866, 
Italy waa hut a geographical expression. On the overthrow of 
that Gothic kingdom, 472-S59 A. D., whose mlers had mainly- 
made JRavenna their residence, Justeniait conferred on Nares 
the title of Exarch^ the term Mxa/rchate being applied to the terri- 
tory over which he raled. The coinage of these Exai'chs consists 
of a few pieces of small copper with the inscription Felix Rav- 

Among the invaders of Italy were the Longobai'di or Lombards, 
a tribe of the Gennan people, and who had pi-eviously been masters 
of Pannonia. In 670 A. D., under their King Alboin, these took 
possession of Northern and Central Italy and soon reached an ad- 
vanced degree of refinement. Their rulers sought to unite all the 
Italian tribes under one sceptre. This policy was hindered by the 
opposition of the papal power, aided by the Prankish kin^, among 
whom was Pepin, who had been anointed by Stephen 11., Patriciate 
or Governor of Rome, and had thus, as well as from the dissensions 
among the Lombards themselves, a pretext for interfereing. 
In 773 A. D., Charlemagne crossed the Alps, and in the decisive 
battle of Pavia crashed the Lombard power. In 800 A. D. Charle- 
magne waa crowned by the Pope as VaTolus AtigustMS, Emperor 
of the Romans, when he issued a few silver coins with a rude 
bust, and on the reverse R. F., having previously issued from 
Milan, coins with a cross in place of the bust and on the reverse 
his monogram, — though before this date Pope Hadrian, 771-795 
A. D., had already issued a silver penny on the model of the 
Roman Denarius. 

On the division of the Roman Empire many petty sovereignties 
arose in Italy, and as among these there was no bond of union, 
the evils i-esulting became so intolerable that during the years 
1856-86 State after State rose in revolt ag^nst their respective 
princes and connected themselves with Piedmont as ruled over 
by the House of Savoy. In 1866 Rome itself opened its gates, and 
victor Emmanuel II. took possession as King of a United Italy. 

We shall now describe the coins of some of the leading Italian 
States, as these existed previous to the late unification of that 




la the year 1000 A. D,, Rudolph of Burgundy bestowed Savoy 
and Maurienne on Eerthold, mailing him Count of Savoy. The 
Bishops of Maurienne were already issuing money, but the earliest 
Savoy pieces arc those of Humbert III., 1148 A. D. Other estates 

TE T V i AILB , lUKE OF 'i ^, li ) A T>. 

■were gradually added, until, in 1417, the Principality of Piedmont 
■was gained, and the family title became that of Duke of Savoy. In 
1489 Charlotte of Lusignan, Queen of Cyprus, transferred all her 
crown rights to Charles, Duke of Savoy, whose descendants have 
since then claimed to be Kings of Cyprus and Jerusalem. 

In 1713, Duke Victor Amadeus Et. obtsuued Sicily, surrendering 
it, however, in 1720, to Austria, in exchange for Sardinia and the 
erection of his States into a kingdom. 

In 1 79C Savoy and Nice were annexed to France, while Piedmont 
was called the Sub Alpine MepuUic. On the fall of Napoleon, in 
1814, Emmanuel IV. recovered his dominions, having Genoa 
added to them. The coins issued after this date will be 
found to have quartered on the shield, the Arms of Sardinia, 

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Cjpria and Jerusalem, Genoa and Savoy, with legend Bwx. Sar, 
Janvae et Montis/. Frinc. Fed. I). 

In 1860, Victor Emmanuel ceded Nice and Savoy to France, in 
exchange for the aid through which he ultimately became King 
of Italy, and now the coins for all the Peninsula bear hie head with 
name and title. 


With the coins of Savoy should be classed those of Monaco. To 
the Prince of this little territory Ixjuis XIV. gave permission, in 
1643, to issue gold and silver coin, and the next year these coins 
were current in France, Copper coins are still issued bv its 
Prince. ^ ^ 


Our earliest coins of Genoa were gtruck at Padua, in the Elev- 
enth century. In 1138 Conrad II conferred on the Genoese the 
right of a coinage, in which they were onhrmed, m 1104 by 
Heni-y IV. They then adopted a de\ice that i': a sppaking t>pe a 
sort of gateway with the legend .Trtnvfl It m 1 30 the mjney 


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bore the seal of the Republic. The name of Conrad is found on 
the coins of the Island of Chios, which had been ceded to the 
Genoese by the Emperor Michael Paljeologus, and which remained. 
a Republic till 1566. On the mediaeval coins are religious figures 
and emblems, with the legend, Dvx et Gvb Reip Genva. In 1798 
the Duchy of Genoa was constituted by Napoleon part of the 
lAgurian Republio. Coins were now issued, having the Goddess. 
of Liberty crowned and seated, her arm resting on a shield bearing 
the armfl of Genoa ; on the reverse the fasces and cap betweea 
branches, and date. 


In 1814 Genoa was given to Piedmont, retaining its liberty of 
issuing its own coinage, which bore the bust, with name and titles, 
of the Piedraontese King on the obverse, and on the reverse the- 
crowned shield, with anns, with the legend, Dux Sxib Getwae et- 
Mmitisf. Prine. Fed. t&c. 

The portion of Northern Italy, known as Lombardy, formed 
part of the territoiy assigned in 901 A. D. to the German Empire. 
A number of independent duchies, such as Mantua, Susa, Pied- 

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mont, aEd of free or republican cities, as Venice, Genoa, Milan, Pa- 
via, soon arose, and, for a time a Lombard League maintained its 
independence. In 1540 Spain became master of the ten-itory, but 
in 1 708 was compelled to yield to Austria the portion lately known 
ss Austrian-Lorabardy, Coins were issued by the Austrian 


Emperor under his titles ot Duke ( f Luigundy and Count of 
Tyro!.]|In 3 797 Napoleon proclaimed Lombardy to be a free 
State, under the name of the Gtsalpine Itepubhi, In. 1803 it 
became Napoleon's Italian kingdom issuing coins having Napo- 
leon's head on the obvei-se, and on the reveise a French eagle. 

with a shield on its breast. On the lower values of these issues 
there is simply a large N, surmounted by the iron crown of Lorn- 
hardy, said to be made out of the naila of the true cross, en- 


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closed in a wreath, and on the reverse the value and date vnth 
legend, JVapokonelmperatore jS. Re. In 1814 Lombardy and 
Venice, hitherto governed by its own Doges, were given to Austria 
as the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, when coins were issued 
having, the Austrian two-headed eagle annnouiited by the im- 
perial crown, those of low value having a ducal crown surmounted 
by the imperial one, with Regno Lomhardo Veneto, and on reverse 
value and date. 

In 1859 Lombardy was ceded to Piedmont, and since then its 
coinage has been the general one of Italy. 


Milan was originally a Gallic city. Conquered by the Romans 
222 B. C, it received the Roman franchise in 49 B. C. After 981 
it was govei'ned, in the names of the Emperors, by Dukes bearing 
the Roman name of the city — Mediolannm. Subsequently it came 
under the power of the Ghibeliines, by whom it was made the 
master as well aa capital of Lombardy. From 1545 to 1714, Milan 
was subject to France, Spain, or to Austria. In 1805, within its 


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cathedral, Kapoleon was crowned King of Italy, it being in Bue- 
cession the capital of the Ciaaipine Republic, of the Italian Re- 
public, and lastly of the Kingdom of Italy. In 18] 5 Milan waa 
restored to Austria, but in 1859 was ceded to Piedmont. 

On the coins of the Spanish monai-chs the Milanese ai-ms fill all 
the shield ; on those of the Austrian they are frequently only on 
a shield of pretence. 


The earliest inhabitants of Venetia were great traders, exchang- 
ing European products for those of the East. In 452 A, D. the 
Huns invaded the territory and drove the natives into those swampa 
on which Venice now stands. In 697 A. D., this settlement, 
already powerful through commei-ce and repnblican in govern- 
ment, gave to Its chief ma^istiate the poweia of i Dictator and the 
title of Doge oi Dux — Duke 


In 829 A. D. the body of St. Mark was brought to Venice, which 
then placed itself under the Saint's protection. Venice soon became 
the mistress of the sea. In 1486 A. D.,however,the Portuguese round- 
ed the Cape of Good Hope and secured the Eastern trade, while 
maritime activity among the nations of Western Europe, consequent 
on the discovery of America, decided the downfaU of Venice. On 

the gold sequins and ducats oi sihei trowns of Venice there is 
generally a figure of the reigning Doge, and on the i-everse bome 

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religious dsYices connected with St. Mark, or the national arms, 
a winged lion with or without a book, the ecclesiastical symbol of 
the Saint. 


Ill 1197 Napoleon Buonaparte took possession of Venice and 
annexed it to Austria. In 1806, however, the territoiy of Venetia 
was joined to that of Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy, but on Napo- 
leon's overthrow, in 1814, was transferred back to Austria, when 
it was joined to Lombardy as one of the Austrian crown lands. 
From this it was separated in 1859, remaining still subject to Aus- 
tria, but in 1866 Venice was ceded to the present Italian Kingdom. 


May be regarded as the ancient Mruria. In the days of Charle- 
magne its chief city, Florence, was governed by a duke. In the 
Eleventh Century Florence was bequeathed to Pope Gregory VH. 
by the Countess Matilda,and soon became not only a free but a Re- 
publican city. In the beginning of the Thirteenth Centu^ Florence, 
whose wealth and commercial influence throughout Europe was 
already unequalled, sided with the Guelphs, the friends of the 
Papacy, in theii- struggle against the Ghibellines, the friends of the 
Emperor, In 1252 Florence issued the famoas golden Florin, 
weighing a drachm, having on the obverse a lily and the word 
Fhrentia, and on the reverse a figure of John the Baptist. In 
1406 it became master of Pisa, long its great rival. At last, in 
1528, Clement VIL formed a league with Charles V. of Germany, 
by which Florence was to become a Principality for the Pope's 
son, Alexander de Medici. In 1530, after a fearful seige, Florence 
fell, and was reduced to being sunply the capital of the Grand 
Duchy of Tuscany, 

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The singular device on the reverse of the Eiljove is copied from 
a piece of Augustus, whose faith in astrology had led him to issue 
a medal bearmg the figure of Caprioornus, the constellation of 
which the stai' of his destiny formed a part. By thus reproducing 
the device, Cosmo likened himself to Augustus, a comparison uot 
inappropriate when the splendors and refinements of their resf ective 
administrations aie <.onsideied. Since thi loss of its mdejendence, 

the coins of Tuscany have generally borne on the obverse the bust, 
name and title of the sovereign, and on the reverse the Arms or a 
religious figure or design. In 1803 Tuscany was erected by 
Napoleon into a kingdom, under the name of Etraria, when [the 
coinage bore a crowned shield with various inner shields bearing 
the arms of Spain and those of Anjou and Tuscany. In 1814 
the Gi^nd Duchy was restored to Ferdinand III.,, but in 1S60, 
under the Garibaldian revolution, the State was annexed to Pied- 

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raont, the Provisional Government striking coins having on ob- 
vcn'se a crowned shield bearing the Cross of Savoy, with Vrrroitio 
Emak-uele He EiEi-ro, and on reverse vahie and date, with Gov- 
EENo DkUjA Toscana. 


Lucca was a free republic so far back as 1310. Its early eomage 
beai-s a crowned shield enclosed by branches, with SespubUca Lu- 
censis and date, and on reverse ^t. Maitin on horseback dividing 
his cloak irith a beggar. In 1805 Napoleon erected Lucca into a 
Principality for his sister, in 1815 transferring it to Maria Lousia 
of Spam. Her son ceded it to Tuscany in 1847, and in 1860 it 
was annexed to Sardinia. 


The city of this name is of great antiquity, being mentioned by 
Cicero and other Roman writere. In 960 A. D., to the House of 
Este was given the Marquisate of Modena, a title changed into 
a Dukedom in 1452 by tbe Emperor Frederick in. In l'?96 it 
formed part of the Cisalpine Republic, but in 1814 was restored to 
the i-eigning family. In 1860 its inhabitants drove away then- 
Diical raler, and joined themselves to Piedmont. 


was founded by the ancient Eti-uscans, and is therefore an older 
city than Rome itself. In 189 B. C. the Romans made the city a 
Colony under the name of Bononia. Charlemagne made it a free 
city, and in 1112 Henry V. confirmed its independence. The sttc- 
cess of the tinelphs — the Papal party — ^\vas fatal to the existence' 
of the Bolognese Republic, which then became simply a city of 

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the States of the Church. In 1^96 Bologna was made the capital 
■of the Cisalpine Republic, and in 1860, despite the opj)oeition of 
the Vatican, it transfeiTed itself to the rising power of Piedmont. 


The energy and perseverance of the early bishops of Rome in 
asserting the dignity and supremacy of their See, naturally led the 
citizens to regard them ae their protectors. In 720 .A, D., Pope 
Gregory III., naving quarrelled with the Emperor Leo, declared 
Rome independent. Pepin and Chariemagne added to its turri- 

Coijs OF Agapitus, Pa^cb (Pope) a. D., 946. (The monogram 
contains Alberiei,the Pope's family name.) 

tory. On the coins of this period we have generally on the one 
side, the legend Scvs {Sanchm) Peteus, and on the other aide the 

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name of the ruling Pope. This period lasted for iieariy three cen- 
turies, duriiig ivliicli additions were gradually made to the Papal 
territory. From 1100 to 1300 A. D., the coinage is that of the 
Roman people, having a figure of Peter, with Roman. Principe, 
and on reverse, Senat. Popvl. Q. R. Sometimes the name of 
the"civil governor is found, and on the revei-se a female figure with 
Roma Caput Mundi, la 14T0, Sextus IV. placed Ms profile like- 
ness on the coins, an example since followed by his si 
the Papal See, down to the present day. 


The general device on Papal coins (those of the States of the 
Church) is a shield bearing the arms of the reigning Pope, sur- 
mounted by a tiaia with meignia ind some rehgions or benevolent 
motto on the reveise During the mteiregnum occasioned by the 
death of a Pope, the Caidinal Cimmerlmg issues money which 
then always bears the legtnd bEOB \ a — 


During all this period coins were issued by Episcopal authori- 
ties in vai-ious districts and also by many of the cities within the 

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Papal territory, but which still possessed a measure of municipal 
freedom— Mantua, Bologna, Ferrara, Aquileia and many others 
enioying this liberty. The coins thus issued are of value and 
denomination like those of Rome, but bear the name of 
the issuing city. 

In 1798, Napoleon formed the Papal States into the Roman 
Republic, issuing gold and silver crowns, and a copper coinage bear- 
ing the fasees and cap, with Repubblica Romana, and on the re- 
verse the value within a wreath. In 1800, Pins VII. recovered hia 
States and retained them till 1809, when they were incorporated 
with France, and Rome declared to be Second city of the Empire. 
In 1814 the Papal rule T» 


In 1848, Pius IX. fled to Gaeta, and the Second Republic, under 
Mazzini,was proclaimed, issuing acoinage— the 1 Bajocchi — (appar- 
ently coM) having liajocehi, 1849, in 2 Enes across the field, with 1, 
in a small wreath above it, and on the reverse the fasces and le- 
gend, while the 3 Bajocchi is remarkably fine — a large eagle en- 
closed in a wreath, and standing on the fasces with legend round 
Dio B PoPOio, and on reverse S Bajocchi within a beaded circle, 
outside of which is Repubblic a Romana, 1849, 

In 1849 Pius was restored by the French troops, but in 1866 
Rome set aside the temporal sovei'eignty of the Pope, and became 
the metropolis of the new kingdom of Italy. 


After the overthrow of the Lombards, Arigisus' H., Duke of 
Beneveuto and Salerno, sought to become independent of 
Charlemagne's authority. In 1077 Italy was invaded by the 
Normans, who formed the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and 
the Dukedom of Calabria. Taking possession thus of Sicily, 
Salerno, Amalfi, Benevento, Capua, and all the Grecian and Arabian 
territories in Soutbem Italy, the Norman lords issued money 
on which they copied the Byzantine and Saracen devices — such as 
having on the obverse: Jesus Christ, the Conqitebor of thb 

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: ASD modee:ij. 


World; and on the reverse: Theee is but om"r God, asd iih is 


The coins of Naples and Sicily thus constitnte as many 
distinct series as there have been rulers. Commencing as early as 
the Ninth century then, we have the coins of the native Dukes; 



then those of tl e Crus de Kings; then those of the Spanish 
r lers — House of A •iL.on — tl e sons of that country always placing 
n the n 1 o gh wl tever line they came to the crown, 


Sispama/iiim Infans; then those of the German or Austrian 
rulers. From 1700 A. D. we have the coins of the Spanish 
Bourbon line, whose coins have either a bust or a crowned shield, 


with D. Ct., Hisp. Neap. Rex, or Utriusque Siciii^ Hiebo- 

In 1718, Victor Amadieus II., of Savoy, became King of Sicily, 
but in 1718 exchanged the island for Sardinia, Sicily reverting to 
Charles VI. of Austria, In 1735, Charles VII,, of Bourbon, became 

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King, — Sicily, thereafter, though, politically separate from Na- 
ples, becoiniiig a family appanage. In 1799, the French drove 
Ferdinand from Naples, which was declared to be the 
Neapolitan or Pa»-thetiopian R^niblic. The coinage now had the 
Goddess of Liberty with staff and cap, with the fasces ajid the 
legend M^mbUca Napolitana, having on the reyei-se the value, 
and the year of the French Republic. Several changes took place 
during the Napoleonic pei-iod; the coins of Joseph, afterwards 
King of Spain, have a crowned shield with devices; those of 
Murat have abiiat, with name and title. In 1814, Ferdinand was 
restored as Ferdinand I., King of the two Sicilies, having previous- 
ly borne on his coins such titles as F. IV. of Naples, F, HI., of 
Sicily, so that his titles are apt to pei-plex the student. In 1860, 
owing to the Gai-ibaldian revolution, this monarchy was over- 
thrown, and tile Kingdom of the Two Sicilies annexed to Pied- 




Until the irmption of the Moors in 714, Sixain existed as a com- 
pact and powerful kingdom, to which the Emperors of the East 
had conceded the privilege of a coinage. Hence its early gold 
trienB. Of the comB of the Gotho-Ibenan princes, a series exists 
coming down to the year 711, when the fine tenninated with 
Roderic, " the Last of the Goths," the Moorish power becoming 
masters of Spain. The coins of the Moorish rulers bear Cufic 
legends with the names of the monarchs or chiefs that issued 
them, from such places as Cordova, Saragossa, Seville, Toledo, 
Almeira, Valence, Granada and others. The Gothic natives, how- 
ever, who had taken refuge in the mountains of Asturias and Leon, 
BO stubbornly resisted the Moors, that about the year 1000 there 
existed the three Spanish monarchies of Navarre, Aragon and 
CastUe, each issuing silver pennies, resembling those of the other 
countries ©f Europe. At last, in 1492, Ferdinand V, of Aragon, 
and his wife Isabella of Castile took Granada the last Moorish 
stronghold and becime ao^eroigns rt i United Sj iin * 

s consisted of the gold doubloon, its half, quarter or 
pistole, eighth or escudo, and sixteenth or gold dollar. Latterly 
the doubloon alone had been issued. The silver consisted of the 
dollar of twenty I'eals value, its half, quarter, eighth and sixteenth. 

*Pope Alexander VT. conferred on Fei'dinftDd, because of Wb fierce enmity against 
the Moors, tie Jews and other opponents of the Holy See, the title of Gatkoti^ana. 
6fiD borne by tliu nu.niirchs ut Spain. 

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86 THB coia-AGES or THE WOELD ; 

Kow we have the dollar and its half, the peseta of four reals, its 
half anil tlie one real. Of the real there ai-e three kinds : first, the 
Mexican, of which eight make a dollar ; second, the real of new 
plate, (deplata nueva) of which ten make a dollar, and third, the 
■oellon, used in Spain, of one hundi-ed centimes, of which twenty 
make a dollai-. The copper coinage consists of the two and the 
one centos of eight and four maravedi, (each worth three centimos) 
and the oohavos of two maravedis. 

The Anns of United Spain consist of a lion rampant, the em- 
blem of Leon, and of a castle, the emblem of Castile, on a shield or 
shields between two pillars, representing the pillars of Hercnles, 
as Gibraltar and Ceuta were called. In 1513 Chai'les, Duke of 
Austria and of Burgundy, exercised sovereign power in Spain, 
his mother Johanna, queen regnant being insane, but her nam.e 
always appearing along with his on the coinage. 

In 1516 the thrones of Austria and Spain were united by 
Charles I., afterwards Charles V., Emperor of Gei-many, In 

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1700 Charles II. died without issue, when the tiirone was claimed 
by Philip of Anjou, and by Charles, second son of Leopold of Aus- 
tria. Puilip stepped into occnpancy, — the first of the Bourbons. 
Coins were now issued by the friends of Charles — now Charles III. 
of Austria, the Pretender, carrying the Austrian arms instead of the 
Spanish. Those of Philip have on the obverse a crowned shield, 
bearing the Spanish arms along with thoseof Anjou andlegend Phil- 
ippics V. D.G., and on reverse the Spanish arms, with Hispaniakum 
Rex. In 1 308 FerdinandVII.was proclMmed king,hut the same year 


Napoleon bestowed the throne on his brother Joseph. From this date, 
down to 1812, we have coins of Joseph. During the same pej'iod, 


y were issued by Ferdinand. Ferdinand, ri 
1 1813, issued coins with his bust, name and date, having on the 
reverse a crowned shield with the arms of Spsun and Anjou. The 

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CKOWN OF l-Bi:UINAND VII, 1808-1833 A. 

coins of Isabella II., 1834-68, are of the usual style — bust, 
title and date. Dui-ing the Republic of 1870 the c 



ure of Liberty reclining, with Espaxa foi legend, and on the re- 
verse the arms surmounted, not by a crown but a turiet Ama- 
deus I., son of the King of Italy, succeeded, to be replaced, after an 

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interval, by the present monarch, Aloiizo XII., 
Queen leahella IL* 


About the year- 1100, Alpbouso VI., King of Castile, 
Portugal, as a dependent fief, on Henry of Burgundy. This 
dynasty possessed the throne for four hundred yeai's — the most 
glorious period in Portuguese history. 

IsabellaofCBstile, nnd Ferdinand V. of 
Johaniifl o( Amgon. kiid piilip 

Charlee I. oif Castiia nnd Arragon, 
wards the Emperor Chsile* V. _ 

FbUlp n., E1i% of Castile, Arragon and 
Portnral ' 

PhmpIII., Elngof CofltilB, Airagon 

rUUp TV.. King of CBBtile, Arragon and 

Philip T., ot Anjou, King of Spain. , 
Louie, atterwaros tne seixaxdFmllp '^ 




KMANVEt. POETVQAI.IE Az^avtoi-vtii ciU'a -vjMaque in Africa 
vominvs cvinbb, ethiopie, aeabie, peesik, indie, 
conqvistm ■savigaiionvm commercii. 
The last of the BurgumJian family -was Sebastian I., who per- 
ished in Africa in 1578. On his coins there is a crowned shield 
with the ai-ms— five shields crosswise, bordered with seven castles — 
the arms of Algaroe, with name and title, and on the reverse a 
large cross with m hoc signo vinces. Philip II. of Spain now 
seized the throne, and for 60 yeai-s Poi-tugal was subject to that 
country and involved in all its wars with the Netherlands, la. 
1640 the Portuguese ie\oltel and plitel the Duke f Braganzaon 

the throne, under tht title of Jc am (John) I\ The golden moi 
dore a foui thou'^md ibi oi tour dollai piece was replaced in 
1''22 by the^oe or piece of 12 800 reis 


Philip I, of Spam 
Philip II or Spain 
Phlllpni ofapnin 
JohnlV ofBraganza 
Alphouzo "VI 
Don Pedro n 

Manall of 
Peter rv 
Don Miimel 

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In 1797 Queen Maria became imbecile, wlieii her eldest son, 
John Maria, was appointed regent. In 1803 Joan aubstituted Ms 
own for his mothers name on the coinage, with the title of P. 
Itegen.% retaining this even after the queen's death in 1810. 

In 1807 John was defeated by Napoleon, and removed his whole 
court and capital to Rio Janeiro, in Brazil. In 1820, however, he 
returned to Lisbon, leaving his son Dom Pedro in charge, Brazil 
having shortly aftei-wardg become independent, its name was taken 
off the Portuguese coinage. 




The Belgie were well known to the Roman armies. Toward 
the end of the Thu-d century, the Fi-anks, the Saxons and other tribes 
hegan to make inroads, so that by the Fifth century the Belga 
had disappeared. The Franks now held the soil, and Dagobert I., 
one of their princes, erected at Utrecht, a church which in 695 
became a bishopric Charlemagne's conquest of the territory led 
to the rise of a gi'eat number of petty Lordships or States, the 
chief being the Duchies of Q-ueldres, Brabant, lAvxe)nbwrg\xa.A. 
Idmburff, the Marquisat^ of Anvers (Antwerp), the Counties of 
BoUand, Zealand,, Ztitphen, Flanders, Artou, Hainault and 
JVamur, and the Lordships of Utrecht, Groningen, Ov&ryssd, 
J^Hesiand and Mechlin, aftei-warcU fonning the provinces of the 
Netherlands. In 1384, the important county of Flanders, and 
■with it the chief authority among the other States, passed to the 
Duke of Burgundy. In 1477, along with Burgundy, the Provinces 
passed to Austria. On the abdication of Charles V., in 1565, they 
passed to his son and successor on the Spanish throne, Philip 11. 




In that year came the revolt 'of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Guel- 
dresland, Overyssel, Groningm and M-ieslaiul against Philip, end- 
ing in the independence of the United Provinces, with the Princes 
of Orange as hereditary Stadthotdei-s, the other or Belgic Prov- 
inces remaining in connection with Spain. The coins from this 
period have generally on obverse, a man standing with drawn 
sword in one hand and arrows in the other, with date and legend, 
and on reverse a square tablet with legend. 


In 1793 the French declared the Provinces to be the BiMavian 
^epwi^ic, bat in 1806 Napoleon made his brother Loiiis Napoleon, 
King of Holland, Bobsequently declaring the Kingdom to be a 
province of France. On the fall of Napoleon, the Northern and 
Southern Provinces were formed into the Kingdom, of the Ifeth- 
erlands, to be divided in 1830, by the secession of Belginm, and 
its establishment as a separate kingdom. 

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Holland or the Netherlands having had such a checquered his- 
tory, its coinages are hopelessly complicated. Each pi'ovinee is- 
sned money in its own name of value and names sometimes like 
and sometimes unlike that of the other Provinces, while indi- 
vidual cities frequently struck money. Generally speaking, how- 
ever, the name or crest of the issuing province is on the money, 
thus enabling us to identify its coins. On the earlier issues of 
Utrecht we find its Latinized name, Civitab Teaikctbs, accom- 
panied by various devices, while on those of last century we mora 
frequently find Stad Utrkcht, and on reverse the crowned shield, 

:^ OF <iUELmiEs. 

with or without lion supporters. On those of Gruddres, again, we 
have its arms, a crowned shield with two crowned lions rampant 
and fighting, with legend, In deo est spes yosTEA, and on reverse, 
Gelbt^. The ai-ms of Zealand are a crowned sliield with wavy 


lines to represent water, with a lion rampant rising from it, and 

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the legend, Luctok kt Emeego. The arms of West 1 
a crowned shield with two lions running. Holland has a lion ram- 
pant within a circular fence with gateway, holding a libertyjpole 
and hat. 

During the short reign of Lonis Napoleon, the coinage bore his 
head, name and title, with a croiraed shield and date on the re- 
verse. On the accession of William I., his head, name and title 
appear, the crowned shield on the reverse exhibiting the arms of 
the Kingdom, a crowned lion rampant, with sword and bundle of 

!I \'Lb ULUEN 

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On the division of the Belgian Provinces, at the rovoit of the 
Netherlandi, the southern or Celtic districts adhered to Spain. 
In 1598 Phihp II. ceded thes>e to Austria, when Belgium became 


an independent Itingdom. In 1621 it fell back into the hands of 
Spain, where it remained till 1713, when the peace of Uti-eeht 
terminated the war of the Spanish succession. It was then re- 
stored to Austria, and i-emained subject to her till 1797, when it 
was united to France. On the fall of Napoleon it was separated 
from France and joined to Holland to constitute the Kingdom of 
the Netherlands, only to separate in 1830 and become an indepen- 
dent monarchy under Leopold of Saxe Coburg, its present ruler. 
The coinage of Belgium subsequent to 1598 is largely Austrian, 


beaniig the names and titles of the sovereigns, as Archdukes of 
Austria and Dukes of Burgundy, Lotharmgia, Brabant, and 
Counts of Flanders. Toward the close of last century, while the 
bust, &c., was on the obverse, the reverse had simply Ad usum Bel- 
611, AusTE, In 1790, during a revolt against Austria, a gold and 

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silver Lion florin, half, und quarter (known as tlie Lion series), 
were stiiick, haying for their device a lion rampant, hot'liiig a sword 
or planting a liberty pole, with various Latin mottoes, such as Ad 
USUH FoiDEBiTI Bklgii, 

No coins were issued by Belgium after its conquest by the 
French in 1794 till 1830, when the present series appeared with 
head and legend, Leopold, Premier Roi des Belges, and on 
reverse, valne and date within a wreath. On the copper coins a 
large ornamental L, surmounted hj a crown, fills the ohvei-se, and 
on the reverse a lion Is seated holdmg a tablet with the inscription, 
OoNBTiTUTios Bejlgb, 1831, with legend, L'Uxiox FAir la force. 
On the uickle pieces, of later date, the lion is rairi|>:iiil,williout the 



About the Twelfth centuiT, Luxemburg, anoldGei-man County, 
came into the hands of the Counts of Limburg, who then assumed 
the titles of Counts of L. Passing into the hands of Burgundy it 
became, in 1477, connected with Austria. In 1797 it was given to 

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France, and in 1314 raised to a Grand Duchy and ^ven to Hol- 
land. In 1830 its temtory was divided between Belgium and 
Holland, the title of Grand Dnke of Luxemburg going to the 
King of Holland, while a separate coinage was still issued for the 
Duchy. On the obverse of these coins is the crowned shield, hav- 
ing a croinied lion rampant, called the Bohemian lion, from Its two 
tails, the House of Luxemburg having given kings to Bohemia 
from 1310 to 14W A. D. 

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By the treaty of Verdun in 843, Lotliaii-e, son of Louis le I>e- 
honnaire, received all the eastera pai-t of Finance, the Alps, and 
the French Rhine pi-ovinces and so formed the Kingdom of 
LoiTaine. At the same time, all the German territories of Chai-le- 
magno, forming the Kingdom of Grermany, wea-e given to Louia the 
Gei-man. On the death of Lothaire, Fi-ance took possession of 
Provence and Burgundy, while the remainder of his territory joined 
itself to the Kingdom of Germany, and thus laid the foundation 
of the first German Empire, In 953, LoiT^ne ceased to be a 
royalty, and became an Imperial province with two Duchies : 
MoseUe, with the inner divisions of Lorraine, Luxemburg, the 
Palatinate of the Rhine, and the Bishoprics of Straaburg, Metz, 
Toul and Vei-dnn, and Lotharingia or Brdhant, with its divisions 
of Brabant Gueldres, and the Bishoprics of Cambrai, Li6ge and 
Cologne. At this time the Kiugdom of Germany comprised Sax- 
ony, Thuringia, Swabia, Bavaria, Bohemia, Coi-inthia and Camiola. 
The mlers — spiritual and secular — in these two kingdoms being 
tlie Electors of the Empii-e. 

On the death of Louis IV., in S12, the Electors of the Empu-e 
assembled at Woi-ms, chose Conrad, I>uhe of Saxony, Franconia, 
and Hesse, to be Emperor. In his family the crown remained 
down to the death of Frederick Barbarossa, in 1190 A.I>. After 
the election of Coni-ad, money was stmck freely in all the States 
and principalities, the Emperors seeming to posseas no right of 
issuing money except for their own domains. The name of a 
German Emperor, therefore, appearing on a coin issued by another 
prince, is simply to be regarded in the light of a date, or aa a 
symbol of memberahip in that aristocratic confederation called the 
German Empire. 

The German Empire continued as a bond of union among the 
sovereigns and princes of Central Europe until the wars of Na- 
poleon. The frequent redistributions then of European territory 
enriched some of the memhera of the Empire at the coat of others, 
while the Confederation of the Rhine so weakened the Empire 
that at last it was formally dissolved in 1806. In 1814, however, 
it was reorganized by the Congress of Vienna, but died from nat- 
ural causes in 1848. 

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The great successes of Prussia in her war with France, in 1870, 
led to the occupation of Paris by the Gei-man ai-raies. When in 
Paris, in April, the assembled princes and generals proclaimed the 
revival of the Empire, placing its crown on the head of Frederick 
"William of Prussia. The Empire then formed has led to an ex- 
tensive surrender of sovereign rights hy States previously exer- 
cising them. Among other results, there is now but one coinage 
for all those petty States and Principalities that lie in Central 
Europe all having been merged in one great Empire. 

In arranging the coin issues of the several States of the GreiTnan 
Empire, it will he found impossible to form any such systematic 
series as is possible with those of some other countries. Territories 
changed mastei-s, boundaries altered, titles appeared and disap- 
peared so rapidly, that no one can keep the coins of different States 
from intermingling. Some knowledge of heraldry and of history 
will be needed in an-anging these pieces, for on many of them the 
student will find on the one side simply certain initials, and on the 
othei', perhaps, a coat of arms unlike, through the number of its 
quarterings, anything he ever saw before. On studying the de- 
vices in detail, however, he may have the satisfaction of tracing 
the coin to its issue.* 

le Getmna Emperore. with the data of their aeceeeions. 

Albert I., of Hapeburg IMS 

n., of Anstria , 1488 

AlphongoX,, Ehigof Castile ISBT 

Charlemagne...'."...'.*.*,'.'.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!'.'.! BOO 

Charles IL STB 

Charlealll 8B0 

Charles IV., of Laiemhiirg 1347 

IBVanels I., of LortainB i745 

Pranolely Emperor of Austria 18M 

Pranciair. 1798 

Vredeiiclc L, of Batharoeaa 11^ 

Frederick n, ISIS 

Frederick in 1800 

Frederick rV 1440 

Prederiok Wffliam, of PruBBia ISTO 

Henry Vly King of the HomanB 1191 

Henry VIL, of Thnringta ises 

Henry VII,. of Lniemhurg IBOg 

Joseph 1 1705- 

Joseph n 1765 

Joesue. of Lusembnrg. 1410 

Leopold 1 1658 

Leopold U 1790 

Lothairel 840 

Lotaidre n., Duke of Saiony Im 

Louis ly LeDebonnairB 814 

Lonlan. 355 

Lonisln 898 

LonlBlV., of Bavaria 13H 

Maria Tber.-ea 1740 

Mattliias 1613 

Maximilian I 1493 

Maximilian n 1564 

Othol 911 

OOioll 936 

Othom 973 

OthoIV 988 

Otho v., of Saxony 1308 

Philip, Lord of Tuscany 1198 

Eobartns 1400 

Rodolph I., of Hapehnre 1S93 

Rodolphll....... 1578 

Knpert 1S»S 

SIglsmnnd. of Lnxembnrg 1410 

Wanceslos, of Luxemburg 1378 

William, of Holland 1350 

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The inhabitants of the modera Prussia first appear in history 
ahout the Tenth Century, and were then known as the Borussi. 
From the Eleventh Century,the Prussians were subject to the Dukes 
of Poland until the Twelfth, when they secured their independence. 
About the Thirteenth Century, the Teutonic Knights attempted the 
conversion of the Borussi to Christianity, and after fifty years 
fighting had well nigh them all killed off, replacing them by Ger- 
man colonists. In the Fifteenth Century, Sigismund, Kmg of 
Poland, took West Prussia from the Knights, while East Prussia 
was formed into a Duchy to be subject to Albert of Brandenburg, 
who had become Grand Master of the Order.* 



In 1417, the Brandenburg lands were bestowed on Frederic L, 
who was at the same time raised to the Electorate. The Markgraf , 
Albei-t of Brandenburg, became, in 1525, Duke of Prussia. By 
the energies of the Electoi-s of the Seventeenth century, Prussia 

•During the CrnsadeB, but epeciallv at the steee of Acre, inhabitanla of Inbeek and Bre- 
men dBrofeil ttiemeelySB to nursing tte woundea eoldierB. For thle conduct Frederick of 
owaWa formed them into the Teutomc Order of the Knighta of St Mary of Jernsalam only 

HermanH of noble blrta being admlerible aa mombera. SuiaThlrteentlice-' *■■- ''-•^^'■■ 

aonght to CliriBtianiiB the heatlien trihea on the Southern ahores ' " ~ 
eamenoaaeaaors of FrDBBia, Livonia, Conrluid, and other placaa. 
solved la 180B, by Napoleon, Its estatea paeslnf *- "■ ■- 



and Brand(iTi"burg so pro^eied that in 1701, the Electorate be- 
came a Kingdom, undei FrLdinck III , who then became Frede- 
rick!., of thej-o»/«ihoii-.eof RusMi 

ItliANDENnUKG, 1688-1 '713, J 

Of the coins of 'his earlier period our space forbids more than a 
general statement. On the obverse will be generally found a bust, 
with the name and titles, which will sometimes read — D, G. 
M. E. S. R. I., Arc. and El., meaning Marehio Brandenburg 
Sacri Momani Imperii Arehithesaurivs et Elector ; on the re- 
verse is a crowned shield with date, the legend reading Rbk Bo- 
EussLSi, or BoEussoEUM Rex, with the Black Eagle, single headed 


and crowned, having a sceptre in the right talon and an orb i 
the left one. Toward the close of the century the lej 
German, and reads, Koenig von Pekussen, in which h 
still appears. 
In 1870 the German Empire was revived, and the Imperial 

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crown placed on tlie head of Frederick WDliam IV, Since then 
the moneys of Prussia have been merged in the nnifoiin coinage 
issued under the sanction of the new German Diet.* 



So far back as the year 850, Saxony (Saehsen) was created a 
Dnkedom, with Lubeck for its capital. In 912 its Dnke, Henry 
" The Fowler," obtained the Imperial throne, and founded the 
Saxon line of German Emperors, lasting till 1024, A. D. In 1423 
Saxony became an Electorate. In 1500, in the family of the then 






■Eiag sad Emperor Frederick Wlillam IV 



Elector, Frederick the Warlike, it was transferred to the younger 
branch of his children, as represented by Duke Maurice. The de- 
vices on the coinage of Saxony are for the most part of the usual 

character — a bust, with name and titles, on the obverse, and on 
the reverse a crowned shield with amas or value and date. 

John Geoi^e I., 1611-1636, joined with Gnstavus Adolphus and 
took part in the Thirty Years Wai-. Subsequently joining Aus- 
tria, he added largely to hia estates, and raised the Electorate to 
its highest point. Succeeded by hia son, John George II., bis other 


sons divided certain estates among themselves and founded cadet 
houses, all of which, however, ran out before 1750. In 1697, 
Duke Frederick Augustas became King of Poland. On his 
Polish coins he was now called Rex Poloniaeuji, a titJe that never 

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1 the Saxon coina. On their reverses are two shields 
bearing arms — the one of Saxony, the other of Poland '>nd Lithn- 


ania. In 1V04 he was deposed from this rank, through the influ- 
ence of Charles XII., of Sweden, yet continued issuing coins as 
King. After the overthrow of Charles at Pultowa in 1709, Fred- 
erick was restored to the throne, which remained in his family, till 
the dismemberment of Poland, in 1795, by Russia, Pnissia and 

In 1711, Frederick issued a ducat, on the reveres of which ai-e 
two altai's, one holding the imperial vestment, sceptre, crown and 
orb ; the other the regal mantle, sword and crown. By this he 
showed his claim to the succession to the imperial throne. On 

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1694-1733, A D 

some of the coins of last century we have on the reverse a shield 
with two fields, one containing the arms of haxony, the other hia 
personal arms, those of the House of Wettm — the cioss swoids — 
arm's that appeared on coins of Saxony for the last time m 1807. 



In 1806, Frederick Augustus HI. joined Napoleon, and was re- 
wai'ded by the rank of King and the gift of the Polish Duchy 
of Warsaw. On the fall of Napoleon, however, though allowed 
to retain his new rank, he lost all nis new territory. 

In 1870 Saxony became part of the second German Empire. 


The Piincipality of Coburg formerly comprised Saase-i 
Saxe-Meiningen, Haxe-Gotha and Saxe-HUdburghaij^en. In 1826 
Hildburghauseu and Saalf eld were formed with Meiningen into the 


Duchy of that ]iame, while Coburg anA Gotha were united in 
a Duchy, carrying the arms of Saxony. The coinages of these 
connected States is of no merit, and can easily be classified by 
means of the h 


When Frederick was deprived of his Electorate of Sajtony, in 
1547, he was made Duke of Weimar or Weimar-Eisenach, In this 
family the Dukedom remained till 1815, when, for his services 
against Napoleon, Duke Charles received an accession of territory 
and the rank of Grand Duke. The State now forms part of the 
German Empire. The device on the coins is the bust or crowned 
shield, with Gbosiierzogthum Sachsen, and the Saxon arms on a 
shield of pretence, 


The Hohenzollem family trace their pedigree back to the Ninth 
Century, when Count Thassilo built a castle near Hechingen, on 
the heights of Zollem. In 1105 the House divided into the Elder 
or Swabian line, and into the Yonnger or Franconian, In 1576 
the Eider line divided into the two principalities of Hohenaollern 
Hechingen and HohenzoUern Sigmaringen. In 1415 the Younger 
or Franconian branch received from the Emperor the Electorate 
of Brandenburg, and now, as King of Prussia, occupies the 
throne of Germany, In 1842 the houses of the Elder line sur- 
rendered their States to Prussia, but retained the titles and 
receiving pensions. On the coinage we have the legends, Hohenz. 
Hbch. or HoiJENz. SiG., according to the State that issued them, 


This territory was originally occupied by the Celtic _Bo8», from 
whom the old Latin name £oiaria^ and its German name of 
Baiem or Bayren is derived. Charlemagne having added it to 

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his territories, bestowed the Dukedom in 1180 on the Count 
of Wittlesbauh, from whom its present ruler is descended. On 
coins issued during this period, we have shields with the Bavarian 
ai'ma, religions figures and legends, while the titles of the Dukes 
often read as follows ; oet Gratia, vtriusqiie, aavarioB, and 
pulatinatus sv^rioris tmx cirnies valaiinua vJieni Bacri Romani 
imperii A.rchidapifer (cup-bearer) elector i^andgraviies jjeucht- 
enbergm. In the case of some coins issued on the marriage of 


Maximilian Joseph, in 1747, we have added to the above the 
words Mo/ria Anna B^gia vrinceps Folonim ei saxoniw. 

From the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth centuries the limits of 
Bavaria were frequently changed, so that many petty States, 
Bishoprics and Free Cities, all of which issued money in their own 
names, were within its limits. In 1642 Bavaiia became an Electo- 
rate, and in 1772 the Mhenish Palatinate was added to it,* 

valati'um ai paii 

mie, with Its DL 

terrttory eabieot to such p 
limes, iberetore, the Hhenlel 
Bavemn moaey ; BOoietUoe^ 

>1 officer of tUcEtn^ 
?mamie coofemd (ma 

, r ai6tr[cte. Hen ca the 

was Known aa a Palatinate or county PalatinB. Some- 
K focmed part of Bavaria, when it le menttoneil on the 
in Independent territory, and issued its own money. 



In 1806, Nipoleon elected Bavaria into a Kingdom, under 
Maximiliiii Tuseph its Duke 1'798-1825, a rank it still retains,, 
though noiv part nt the Set.nnd German Empire. 



In the days of Charlemagne, Brunswick formed part of Saxony. 
In 1235, along with Luneburg, it was made a Duchy under 
Duke Otho, In 1569, Henry, son of Ernest the OonfessoVy 
founded the house of Snmswiek- Wolfetibiittel, or Brunswick, his 
younger brother William founding that of Brunswtck-I 


This Thaler was struck to commemonEte the victory of Gustavtia 
Adolphna of Sweden, and his ally, Duke George, of Brnnswick, 
over the Imperialists at Duthlingen, and is a good specimen of 
the medailic coinage of the German and other European States. 

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On the coins of Brunswick we ha^e geneiill^ tie cubt>m'uj 
bast, -with name and titles. Sometimes then, la the device of the 
wild man of the Hartz, a coarse sa-v age with a cloth ironndhis 
loins, and holding a pine tree in his hand on the loerses will be 
the crowned shield or the values. 



THALER 01' riilLlP. 

In ISOeBrunswicltwas seized by ]SrapoleoD,and used to make 
up his Kingdom of Westphalia. After the battle of Leipsic how- 
ever, in 1813, it was restored to the son of the late Duke. In 
1815, DukeFrederiek William fell at Quatre Bras, when his heir, 
Charles Frederick, then a minor, was placed nnder the guardian- 
ship of the Prince Regent of England, so that on the coins issued 
between 1817 and 1823, the legend reads, Oeorffius J). G. Frinc. 
Begens, and on the reverse, Tutor nam. Caroli Jhiois Brwia et 
Jjun, with the white horse of Hanover or the wild man of the 

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I small Stat 


On the division of the House of Brunswick in 1569, the Duchies 
of Luneburg and Zeli became the property of William, la 1692 
Hanovei' became an Electorate, and in llli, on the death of Queen 
Anne, Elector George Lewis, the nearest Protestant heir of that 
deceased so-\eiei„i a'ifendet the throne of Ei^h 1 s George 
L, retaining his Loi luhip of 111110% ei 



Pieces of various value wei-e now issued, beailng either the bust 
and legend of the English sovereign, or the royal anus, along 
with some Hanoverian device, such as the horse ninning, the wild 
man of the Hartz, St, Andrew and his cross, having on them the 
Hanover value in thalers, Marien groschen, ducat, or pistole. 

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In 1814 Hanover was raised to a Kinsfdom, but as the Salic law 
i the Queen of England from assuming the Haiio\eriaii 


crown, this passed in 1838 to Victoria's uncle, Ernest Augustus, 
Duke of Cumberland. On his death, in 1851, the throne was 
occupied by his son George, but the Kingdom has lately been 
absorbed by Prussia. 

The coinages of Brunswick and Hanover seem to have been, to 
some extent, interchangeable, the titles of the sovei-eign on either 
being Dux Br et Luneb, 


Westphalia, now a province of Prussia, derives its name from 
the West-falen, a Saxon tribe, Charlemagne, having subdued the 
Saxons, allowed their leader to remain Duke of the Migem and 
West-falen. In 1179 the electoral Archbishop of Cologne brought 
the district under his control, where it remained till 1803, when the 
largerpart of it was given to the Hesse Darmstadt family. In 1807 
Napoleon formed the Kingdom of Westphalia by taking portions 
from Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick and Upper Saxony, appointing 

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his youngest brother Jerome, its monai-ch. On the battle of Leip- 
Bic m 1313, this kingdom ceased to exist, and the Duchy itself was 
united to Prussia. On the recent coins of Westphalia we have 
therefore a bust with king's name, Hieeonymits Napoleon, and 
on reverse value iiml date. 


Wui'tembei;g was under the control of Counts till 1495, when 
the Empei-or Maximilian made it a Dukedom. On the peace of 
Lunf^ville in 1800, it was raised to an Meetorate. In 1805 Napo- 
leon conferred on it* ruler the rank of JK^vq adding l<ira;elY to 


EG, 1623. 

Ms dominions, a change confirmed by the Congress of Vienna. 
The State is now part of the Gennan empire. 

On recent coins of "W^urtemburg we have the king's bust, with 
names and titles, such as DuxWukt opWiet rniburg et TEcewsis 
(Teck) and the anus as usual on a crowned slrield with supporters. 

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3 COINAGE^; ( 

Stuttgart is the capital of Wurtemtmrg, its history going back to 
the Twelfth century. In 1285 it was taken by the House of Haps- 
burg, and has since then been frequently the seat of war. 


Tho tcrritoiy of Hesse was occupied originally hy the Catti. 
On theii- migi'ation to Gaul the Saxons took possession, whence 
its name of Saxon Hesse. In 911 the Duke of Franeonia and 
Hesse was elected Emperor of Germany. In the yeai- 1300 the 
domains were portioned out among different branches of the ruling 
family, but in 1562 a final division was made into Hesse-CassS 
e Landgraf was made an Elector in 1803), Hesse Dai'mstadt 

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(Grand Duchy in 1806), and Hesse Hombuvg (Landgraviate), 
each being so distinguished from the name of its capital. 

The coinages of the three States are interchangeable, those 
since 1803 being distinguished onlj' by the titles of the ruling 
prince. The ai-ms of Hesse are a hon rampant, anrmonnted by a 
orown, the devices on the coins being generally a head or bust on 
the obverse, with name and titles, and on reverse the shield with 
arms or value and date. 


In llSOHermanll., the ruler of the Baden tenitoiy, assumed the 
title of Marhgraf. In 1475 Baden was divided, according to the 
Gennan custom, into Ba<kfn.-Bad&i\ Skiad Baden-I)ourlach. In 1771 
these were united by Duke Charles Fi-ederick of Baden becoming 
Duke of Baden-Baden. In 1803 the Duchy was advanced to an 
Electorate. In 1806 the Elector received the title of Grand Duke 
(GriJeherzog), the heir apparent being known as the Hereditary 
Grand Duke and the othei sons and daughters at Margraves and 
Margravines. The coins aie of the usml deaigns — busts, names and 
titles, with cronntd shiflds with irms, value and dates. 



In the Twelfth century the Mecklenburg tei-ritory was made a de- 
pendency by Heniy the Lion. In 1349 the Emperor Charles raised 
it to a Dukedom. In 1701, after several divisions and reunions, 
the State was divided into the Dukedoms of MeeJclmburg Schwerin 
and of Mecklenburg Strditz. In 1815 the Duke of Mecklenburg 
Schwerin was made a Grand Duke. Each of the Duchies has its 
own coinage, needing no description, as the name of the State 
always appears. 

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The House of Lippe dates from 1129, though in 1013 itfollowod 
the usual German custom ancT divided its temtoiy. ITie coins 
of Lippe bear a full-blown rose, filling up nearly all their field. 


The Principality of Anhalt consists of the Duchies of A. Bern- 
burg, A. Dessau and A. Kotheu. The independence of Anhalt 
dates from the 13th century, and the present threefold division 
goes as far back as' the 17tn century. The coins of Anhalt are 
easily recognized by their device of a bear with a ducal crown 
fastened on its collar, walking along a wall, while beneath it is :m 
arched doorway. 


The present Oldenburg was in early times subject to Saxony, 
but in 1180 independent States were formed by the Counts of 
Oldenburg and Delmenhoret. The dynasty then founded has re- 
mained in possession of this temtoiy till the present time, besides 
^ving royal houses to other lands. In 1448, Christian of Olden- 
burg became King of Denmark, and founded the Danish house of 
Oldenburg. The Russian royal family is a branch of the Olden- 
burgs, as also was the late royal family of Sweden. On the coins 
of this Duchy the legend is generally OLDE^-BUKG Coubajst 


Lorraine was originally part of the German Empire, and dates 
from 855 A. D., when Lotharius 11. obtained its lands. What is 
now called Rhenish Prussia was separated from it in the Tenth cen- 
tury, and in 1044 A. D., the remainder was divided into Upper and 
Loioer Lon-aine. In 1477 L(m&i' Lorraine came into the hands of 
Austria, and now forms pait of the Kingdom of Belgium, and the 
provinces of Brabant and Gelderland inHoUand. Li 1736, Upper 
Lorraine, which had previously been governed by its own dukes, 
was given to Stanilas, ex-King of Poland, but in 1766 was united 
to France as its province of Lorraine. As a result of the Franco- 
German war of 1870, Lorraine was ceded by France to Prussia, 
and its present coinage is now included within that of the German 


Metz, an old Roman town, became, on the death of Clovis, in 511 
A. D., the capital of Australia and later, of Lorraine. In 985 it 

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became a fi'ee Imperial city. By tlie treaty of Westphalia in 1048, 
it was ceded to France, but ia now connected with Prussia, h'rom 
960 A. D. down to 1666, both the Bishop and City of MctK issued 


N OF METZ, 1632. 


The early home of the^House of Orange is said to have been on 
the banks of the Rhone. 

In 11?8 A. D., Frederick I. granted the right of coining money 
to the Count of Orange. The earlier issues bear the name of 
Frederick on the obverse, and on the reverse the ai-ms of Orange 
— a comet or horn. During the sixteenth century the House of 

OKASGE, 1649. 
1 that of Chalon, which was then in possession of 
the principality. In 1673 the Kiug of France confiscated the es- 
tates of Nassau, restoring them, however, hi 1678. They were 
again taken duiing the French Wai' and, in 1702, given to the 
Prince of Conti, the title. Prince of Orange, passing to the de- 
yoendants of the Prince of Nassau-DietK. 




This Duchy ia one of the southern States of Germany, and re- 
ceives ita name from the Castle of Nassau, the chief sti'onghold in 
the Twelfth centuiy of the Counts of Laurenburg. A younger 
branch of this house, hy niariiage with the heirese of Gelders, 
founded the line of Nassau-Geldei-s, represented at present in the 
royal family of the Netherlands. This junior line, having also 
obtained the principality of Orange, is now known as the nSer of 
that prineipaJity. In 1806, Nassau was rendered a Duchy, but is 
now part of the German Empire. The coinage is of the usual 
monotonous style : a bust on the obverse, with name and titles of 
the sovereign, and on the reverse a crowned_^shieId,with date and 


In the Thirteenth century, Hamburg, Luheck and Bremen 
formed a mutual covenant or Sanaa for trading pui-jioses. The 
advantages of this League were so obvious that it soon included 
every commercial city in Holland and Livonia. By 1630, how- 
ever, its general mission had been accomplished, and its power 
rapidly declined, so that it soon consisted only of the three first 
named cities and Dantzic. These formed free republics till 1810, 
when Napoleon added the flrat to France. In 1813, however, they 
joined wilhFi^nkfort on the Mam mfoimmg what lie now known 
as the Flee Hanseitic Cities 

Of these cities Mambuvg ia the largest. So far back as the 
To'Clf th century Hamburg was raised to the rank of a Free City by 
Otho IV. Ita coinage is very easily recognized from its arms — a 
wall and gateway surmounted by three towers. On the old coins 
the fort was shown surrounded by water, referring to the Elbe. 

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As the city forms ii member of the German Empire, the crowned 
double-headed eagle with the imperial orb on its breast, and hold- 
ing eword and sceptre, with name and titles of the reigning Em- 
peror is often found on the revei-ses. 



Lubeck, one of the oldest North German towns, was declared, 
in 1226, a free city. As a member of the Empire, its coins bear 
the two-headed eagle, having on the breast the numeral of value, 
with Imfeeialis Civitas. On the reverses are the date, valne, 
and name of the city 


Bremen was erected, in the Eighth century, into a bishopric by 
Charlemagne, and has always been a city of importance. Its arms 
consist of a key diagonal-wiee on a shield, surmounted by a coro- 
net, with value in grotes, and on reverse the two-headed eagle 
having an orb on its breast sustaining the imperial crown, with the 
name and titles of the Emperor for legend. As Bremen was an 

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Episcopal city, we sometimes find on the reverst^s, in place of the 
eagle, a cross patt4e with the legend Ceux Gmnisti nos salts, 
when the legend on the obverse will bo Koseta Howct B,BnnibUc(E 



Nuremberg was made a Free Imperial City by the Emperor 
Henry V. in 12X9. In ]il7 its inhabitants purchased their civic 
independence from the House of Hohenzollem. During the 
middle ages it held an important position as a trading and manu- 
facturing city, but having joined the Confederation of the Rhine 
in 1806, was annexed to Bavaria. On its eaiiy coins is found 
the figure of its patron saint, St. Lawrence, with such legend as 
MoNETA Reifub. NuKENBEEGBNSis. Subsequently this device 
was replaced by the busts of the Emperors. Some of its gold 
coins— ducats — have on the obverse a lamb canying a banner, 
bearing the word Pax. Such, with similai- pieces from other 
countries, constitute a class of coins known as Agnus pieces. 


Frankfort is the oldest of the free cities of Gei-many. In 
1366 Charles IV. appointed it as the place in which the election 
of the Emperors of Geimany should take place. Its coinage 
bears either the Emperor's bust, with name and title, or a view 
of the river Main, with Fi-ankfoit on the bank and a bridge 
crossing the river, and the crowned eagle on the reverae, with 
Fbeib Stadt Fkankptjet. 

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This city wae founded by the Ubii ahout 40 B. C, and about a 
hundred years later received, in honor of Agi-ippina,_the wife of 
Claudius, the name of Oolonia Agrippina, whence its modem 
name of Cologne. It entered the Hanae League in the Thirteenth 
century and contended with Lubeck for the first place. At first 
a bishopric, in the Eiglith century Cologne was made an ai-ch- 
bishoprie. Some of the occupants of the See became distinguished 
as princes of the Empire, so that a struggle arose between them 
and the civic rulei's, resulting in the removal of the archbishop's 
residence to Bonn. In 1801 the See was secularized, and in 1815 
the whole territory was handed over to Prussia, 

The coins of Cologne resemble, in general style, those of the 
other cities — the Emperor's bust, with name and titles, &c., or that 
of the archbishop, with such legends as As,chiesaopti3 (or ArcM 
'Exisoopus), Coloniensis Fameeps Ki^eetor, and on the reverse a 
crowned shield, with date and legend, EFisoopus et Fnmc^s 
Dux BuxejWs MaecAjo Franoi<B Oohnienais, &c., &c. 

It is, however, both needless and impossible for us to attempt to 
describe the coinages of the other Episcopal or free cities. What 
we have swd indicates their characteristics, each of course having 
the peculiarity of the name and rank of its raler, and often some 
distmetive device. Those of SaMyu/rg, for instance, are covered 
with ecclesiastical emblems and designs. Stralsund has for its 
arms a broad arrow. StoIA&-g has a stag with antlers, passing in 
front of a crowned pillai- that is siirmounted with the orb, Augs- 
iwg has a fir cone. Dansic, two crowned Maltese crosses in a. 

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shield. Goroeyland (Corbel nova), Pmlerbom, Sixmeln, and so on 
all of which can easily be distinguished and classiBed by the col- 

MAKK OF 8T0LBKRG, 1764. 




The arms of Schleswig are two lions running to the left. As 
connected with Denmark the coins of Schleswig have, on the 
obverse, the Danish arras, while on their reverses is found a 
crowned shield with the national arms, and on the Scheidmunze, or 
provincial currency of low values, the name of the Statu, value 
and date. 

In 1864, Schleswig, which had previously formed with Hol- 
stein one Principality, was formally tafeen poseeseion of by 
Denmark. Prussia and Austi-ia then attacked Denmark and took 
both States from it, finally quaiTcUing over the spoil. 



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The earliest knowu coins of Denmai-k are those struck in Eng- 
land and Ireland. Those of Canute, 1015 A, D., have hie head 
with Cnvt R., and on the reverse Sivokd I Roci. In 1389 5Iar- 
giiet of Denmaik addel Sweden to hei dominion which then, in 
1441 when the House of Holeteiii the present occnj inta of the 
thione obtained supieme power consisted of Denmark pioper, 
Sweden and Nor^vay The com syntem of Denmaik is rather 
complex there hems; distinct ^mdcontempoianeouB issues foi each 
of the three t,ountiies Denmark retammg on her corns the arms 
of Sweden though m 15 '< thtt cotmtty unlerCuti^ua Wasa, 
=(e<.tiied It mdependciK, 


Struck to commemorate the suppression of a conspiracy against 
the crown. 



This eliield bears the ai-ms of Denmark, Nonvay, Sweden, 
Schleewig, Gothen and Weiiden. The shield resting on the cross 
carries the ai-ma of Holstein, Stormam and Ditmarsen, while the 
shield of pietence his those of Oldenburg ■md Delmenhorst. 

The Danish corns have generally on the ob^eise the bust and 
name of the inlei xnd on the leveise a cicwned shield with the 
royal arms thiee lions ■^nd nine 1 eiit oi ptih ] " i ~m recent 
issues, odIj 'value nnl late 


Our eai-liest coins of Noi-way are those of Onlaf, 1066, having for 
legend Oniaf Rex Nok., the title being sometimes Ihix rather 
than Hex. Toward the close of the Fourteenth century, Nor- 
W^ had been annexed to Denmark. 

The Danish-Koi-wegian coins bore on the obverse the bust, 
name, and titles of the Danish king, and on the reverse the Nor- 

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wegia in a 1 o imj i t climbing a battle axe. In the ex- 
ergue a e t^vo 1 imme a ciossed, the Norwegian M. M, with refer- 
ence to the mines of Konigsberg. Up to 1818 the coins of Nor- 
way resemble those of Dennaai'k ; since tlien they belong to the 
Swedish scries. 






The ai'ms of Sweden are three crowns, and as there is no gold 
coinage the sihcr money eonsists of the Rixsdaler or Goveniment 


dollar of 48 schillings. This dollarls woiiJi 100 copper 6re or aere, 
(Zat., aerum). Lately thia &i-e has been replaced by skiUings of 
which there are two issues; the one, the government money, haying 
a large crowned monogram of the King within branches, and on 
the reveree a lai-ge I on cii-cular disk, with legend, Skillisg Bigs- 
MONT. The other akilling is only half the value of this, and is 
called Skiliinq Banco. 

On the coins of the Wasa family, 1528-1658, there is always a 
reli^ous symbol, the ohvei-se presenting, with bust, a legend, con- 
sisting of the king's name, and titles, D, G. Svegoemw* GoTHOEwm 
VANDALOKwm Rex, while the reverse is a crowned shield ivith 

During the wai-s of Charles XII,, Sweden was greatly impover- 
ished. As a meaem-e of necessity, during 1715-1719, the Baron 
Goertz, the Prime Minister, issued a series of eleven dalers of cop- 
per to circulate at the value of silver. The reverses of these coins 
all bear "I. Daler S. M." in three lines, and on the obverse of 
each there is a different design, as follows : 
A Crown, I7l5. Jtipiter, 1718. 

Pallas, 1716. Mars, 1718. 

Publiea fides, Wett och Wa- Mercurlus, 1718. 

pin, 1717. Hoppei, 17I!>. 

Satui-n, 1718. Phcebus, 1718. 

Flink och Pardig, 1718. 

The series was closed by one bearing the baron's own effigy, a 
circumstance that le^, ultimately, to his being indicted and execu- 
ted for treason. 

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From 1736 uiitillTSl, the arms of Hesse Cassel wei-e on the coins, 
when the house of Holstein came to the throne, retaining it till 
1810. Napoleon then appointed Beraadotte, one of his Mai-shals, 
Crown Prince, and in 1813 annexed Sweden to Norway. In 1818 
Beraadotte ascended the throne as Charles XIY., hia coins bearing 
his bust, and legend, sveriges noeb. G{otfdand) och (and) west- 
manland Koniing, with, on reverse, a crowned shield or two 
arrows aaltire., with value and date. 


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In 1)81 A. D., tlie Byzantine Emperor, John ZLraisces, having 
conquered the Russians, sealed a peace with tliem by giving hia 
daughter in raamago to their Duke Vladomir. In 1328 the Tar- 
tars overthrew the rising civilization, but in 1462 their yoke was 
thrown off, and the modern Russian system began. Dnring the 
earlier period of its history Russia consisted of many jietty States, 
mled over by the sons of the dominant Duke, each of whom issued 
money. In 1534 many of these States were brought together by 
Ivan, who then assumed the title of Tear or Czar, while in 1721 
Peter the Great assumed the title o£ Emperor. Russian money 
consists of the goM Imperial, with ten silver roubles, each of 
which is divided into 100 coppei- cents or copecks. From 1828 to 
18ST platinum was used, but found to be unsuitable. The Russian 

lette like a d yet so Id the Roman e 1 th c 

not ceal le hil at the a ne t me the e e 1 ttle va 
*h del 5 R O the ol tr es m ^ be f n 1 the b t ot tl e 

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arch, and on tbe reverses, generally, the Russian two-headftcT 
eagle, each head crowned, with the Imperinl crown above. On the 
eagle's breast is generally a shield, with figure of St. (ieorge and 
the dragon. 


The name of Poland is found upon the earliest pages of Eu- 
ropean history. Specially famous for military prowess, it exhausted 
its energies on battlefields, and when torn by interna! dissensions, 
became an easy prey to its allied adversaries, so that now it has 
ceased to exist. In 1573 Poland became an elective monarchy, 
and chose Henry of Valois for its ruler. Next year Henry aban- 
doned his Polish crown on succeeding to the throne of France, as 
Henry HL 

CASIMIT!, 1665. 

In 1112, the first partition of Poland took place at the^anda of 
Russia, Austria and Prussia, these powers dividing among them- 
selves neai-ly one-fourth of her territoiy, despite the protests of the 
people, the Diet and the King. The Polish coins of this date have 
on their obverse a head, with legend, Stanilaus Augustus D.G.Rkx, 
rOLonia TAagmis lyux litf {lAthuanice), with a crowned shield on 
tbe reverse, having the arms of Poland and Lithuania, In 1793 
the second partition, and in 1795 the last partition, or final division 


of Poland, was effected by the same powers, In 1807 Napoleon 
formed the Ditshy of War.?aWf but in 1815, this, as the Kingdom 

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of Poland, was given to Russia, by tlie bond of a personal union. 
On the Russian coins now issued the Czar was called King of 
Pola/nd. In 1830 the Poles revolted and revived the Kingdom of 
Poland, declaring themselves independent, issning the coma that 
bear on the obverse a crowned shield with the arms of Poland and 
Lithuania, and on the revei-se, the value within branches, and the 
date below. The revolt was soon afterwards auppre^ed, and 
Poland declared to be an integral part of the Russian Empire. 


In 1832 Russian silver one-and-a-half rouble pieces were issued. 
These correspond exactly in value to ten Polish zlotjs. That 
these coins might circulate freely in both countries, their Russian 
value was stated in Russian, and their Polish value in Polish char- 


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Austria] receives rits name from its position in Eui-o^>e — Ost- 
Reich — the East Country. This portion of his dominion was 
placed by Charlemagne nnder a Mark-Graf, or Loi-d of the 
Marches. Additions were made to the territory, bo that in 1273 
the House of Hapaburg (from Habsburg or Hawk's Castle on the 
Aar), its rulers, rose to the Imperial pui-ple. 

The Ai-ma of Austria consist of a double-headed eagle, wur- 
mounted by the Imperial Crown, the eagle having on its breast a 
shield with arms, and holding a sword in the right talon and a 
sceptre in the left one. During the present century the sceptre 
has been replaced by the globe. On the obverse of Austrian 
coins is generally the Emperor's bust, with name and titles, and on 
the reverse the Austrian Eagle, with remainder of titles, or value 
and date. These titles are Emperor of Germany, Archduke of 
Austria, Duko of Bnrgundj, Count of the Tyrol, mng of Hungary 
and of Bohemia, Count of Styri3,&c., &e. 

Through Charles V., the Austrian monarchy became ruler over 
well nigh all Europe, and an immense variety of titles are found 
on the coins, according to the country for whose use such were 
specially issued. 

In 1804 Fi'ancis H., Emperor of Germany, proclaimed himself 
hereditary Emperor of Austria, laying down, in 1806, his titles of 

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Emperor of Geiinany and King of the Romaus, In 1815, Loni- 
bardy and Venice were added to Austria, and the names of 
these teiTitoriea, with or without Galicia and Illyria, appeared 

on the Austrian coinage, while at the same time coins 
were issued for Lombardy and Venice, having the Austrian Eagle, 
with the values, dates and locality. In 1866, when Lombardy 
and Venice were annexed to Piedmont, this latter series ceased. 

OF AirSTEIA, IfiTl. 


The Magyars, as the old Hungarians are called, are of Scythian 
origin, and entered their present home under the leadership of 
Arpad; about 890 A.D, About the year lOOO, Ai-pad's descend- 
ant, St. Stephen, was crowned King of Hungary, Ms descend- 


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ants retaining the throne till 1301. From this period the riilere 
"wer^ chosen from foreign houses till 1526, when, on the prostration 
of Hungary by the Turks, the Hapsburg family ascended the 
throne. Hungary never formed part of the Austrian Empire, but 


has always been connected with it by a personal union with its 
sovereign, retaining a large amount of independence. Hence, 
the coins struck for Hungary and Bohemia have on the obverse 
either the crowned shield, with arms, or the soverei^'s bust, with 
name and Hungarian title, and on the reverse, religions emblems. 
During the struggle of Louis Kossuth in 1848, coins were issued 
by the Revolutionary Government, having on the obverse a 
crowned shield beinn^ the Hungarian Aims with legend, and on 
reverse the value m Hungarian and date In 1867, a new an inge 
ment was made betwucn Austiia and Hungary, securing the 
more perfect autonomj ot the littei 


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The ii»ni(! Jiohemia comes from tlie old Celtic tribe ol' Ibe Jioii, 
that having crossed from France into Italy was for several centu- 
ries at bitter war with Rome. On its final defeat by Scipio in 191 
B. C, a portion of the tribe leaving Italy settled north of the 
T>anube, hence the name of the teiiitory Boiohemium — home of 
the Boii — contracted to Bohm&n — BoMmta. In fiSj A. D., Otho 
made Bohemia tributary to the German Empire, and in 1061 Henry 
VI. conferred the title of King of Bohemia on the Duke of Prague. 
In bis family the throne remained till 1306 A. D. During this 
period, or from about the year 1200, Ottocar began the issue of 
JSracteates,* cup-like coins of very thin silver, with the type on one 

sidi; and the indent on the other, like the ncu ed n t (- fecia 
Magna. From 1310 to 1437 Bohemia lib k g of the 


*ThBee coins are now iBgarfled as a feudal 
pendent Tank of their itisueis, for the O^rmai 
monej bearing a donblo Impress. A large ai 



House of Luxemburg, In 1440 thi? dynasty was expelled, and the 
throne made elective. In 1490 Ladhlaus, its sovereign, was made 
King of Hungary, Under the reign of Ferdinand I,, Bohemia 
■was joined to Austiia, and has remained so ever since. 

With Bohemia is connected om' familiar word Dollar, which is 
merel]7 a coiTuption of Thaler, a name ^ven to the silver pieces 
that, in 1517, were made from the mines in the Bohemian y/tctfe 
or valleys. 


Once an independent aristoci-atic Republic, like Venice, thia State 
is now an Austrian dependency on the Adriatic, In 1358 Ragusa 
placed itself under the protection of Hungary, and afterwards under 
Turkey. In 1808 Napoleon abolished its Republican government, 
and incorporated it with the province of Dalmatia, when in 1814 it 
came into the possession of Austria. On ita coins there is on the 
obverse a bust with legend Mhacus He^ubl, and on the reverse a. 
crowned shield, enclosed by crossed branches and religious motto. 


The coins of Ttirkey are devoid of interest. The Mahommedan 
religion forbids the making of any likeness of a natural object for 
any purpose, so that the coins bear simply Arabic inscriptions on 
either side. The monogram of the Sultan, called the Toghra, is 
very conspicuous on the obvei-se, while on the reverse is g 


the name of the mint, the Sultan's year of reign, and the date 
from the Hegira, The standard piece is the piastre, found with its- 
multiples in gold and silver, and worth about 4 cents, while ten 
paras are worth one piastre. The Turkish billon dollai', oftentimes 
met with, is either a counterfeit, or was struck for Tripoli, whose 
coins i-esemble those of Turkey, The little flower beneath the 
Toghra is the State mint mark, guaranteeing the value of the coin. 
Among the copper coins of low value issued by Turkey, chiefly 
for circulation in North Africa, is one that is easily recognized 

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by a double triangle on the obveree, and on the reverse Constan- 
tinopk, in coarsely designed Arabic, and the date of the Hegira 
in Roman letters. These coins seem to be cast by the yard, and 
broken off in lengths ; they often perplex yonng collectors by the 
apparent anomaly of Arabic letters and Roman numerals. )" 


Among the provinces of Eastern Europe subject to Turkey are 
the Danubian States of Moldavia and Wallachia, In 1859 these 
principalities foi-med a monarchical onion, taking the name of Ron- 
mania, and calling their ruler Prince Hospodar. The coinage of 
Roumania is altogether modem, and has no interest, consisting 
chiefly in copper Jiani. 


In 1829 modern Greece, having successfully revolted from Tur- 
key, adopted the monarchical form of goverament, and in 1833 
called Otho of Bavam to the throne. Greek money consists of 
gold pieces of 20 or 40 drachmfe ; of silver, 5, 1, ^, and -J drachm^, 
each drachmfe having 100 eopper cents or lepta, of which there are 
10 the diobolus, S or the obolns, with 2 and 1 lepta pieces. On these 
coins there is the bust, name and title of the King, and on the re- 

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verse, a crowned shield with the Gieek aims , on the copper coinB 
the reverse bears the ■> ahie within branches 

A few years ago Otho abdicite'l and n t^ siKiccdtd by Prince 
George of Denmark, whose loins m. Umost \ countei-part of 


In the Thirteenth century the Ionian Islands formed one of the 
principalities of the Ci-usadere. About the Fifteenth, they became 
subject to Venice, with whom they remained till 1797, when France 
took possession. In 1809 they fell into the hands of Britain, by 
whom they were formed, in 1815, into the Septinsular Republic, 
In 1819, copper coins — penny, halfpenny and faithing — were struck 
in England for the Ionian Islands, having on the oh v erse £ritcmnia 
seated with an olive branch in her hand, with the word EitiTANNrA, 
and on the reverse, the arms of the Ionian States, the winged lion 
holding an-ow8 and a shield, with the Greek words lONIKON 
KPA'TO'S and date. In 1834 there was a coinage both of silver 
and of copper. On the obverse of the silver is a figure of Britannia, 
as before, but on the reverse an oak wreath encloses the numerals 
XXX, making the value equal to half a crown. The obverse of 
the copper called an obolus, was similar, but on the reverse baa 
the ■winged lion of St. Mark as on old Venetian coins, with the 
inscription as before, and date. 

In 1863 Great Britain ceded the islands to Greece, when its 
local, yet really British coinage, was replaced by the ordinary 
money of Greece. 

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The «oiuage of Great Britain goes back to the very verge of 
prehistoric times. Ciesar, -writing about the year 55 B. C, refers 
to the nse by the Britons of some medium of exchange, but in 
terms bo general as to leave it uncertain whether this were coined 
money or simply rings or plates of metal. Many coins indeed exist 
which are ascribed by zealous numismatiata to the prehistoric 
period, but the coins themselves bear neither legend nor device by 
which they can be confidently assigned to Britain. They may, 
however, have been struck there by native workmen in rude imi- 
tation of Greek money. On one of these so-called British_ coins 
there are characters supposed to be the letters Leqo, considered 
to be an abbreviated f onn of Legona/x, the name of one of Csesar's 
assailants on his second invasion, in 54 B. C. On others are the 
letters cvn, cvno, cvnobeli, with such other letters as 
CAMV, CAMvi^ doubtless denoting Camttlodunmn, now Col- 
chester in Essex, the capital of the territory ruled over by a native 
prince called Cunobeline, the Cymbeline of Shakspeare. 

Shortly after Cunobeline's death, and the i-e-conquest of Britain, 
54 A. D., all the native mintages were suppressed. During the 
Roman period of British history, from the Christian era to about 
the year 450 A. D., large quantities of coin, bearing Imperial de- 
vices, and known as Colonials, were struck. The number of 
molds for casting money, and the many dies for different rulers 
that have been found, show that counterfeiters must also have 
been all the time busy with their nefarious arts. 

On the withdrawal of the Romans, the enfeebled British sought 
the aid of the Saxons to defend thefii against the assaults of the 
Northern tribes, the Picts and Scots. This led to the permanent 
occnpancy of Britain by Saxon tribes, and the formation of those 
seven distinct kingdoms known in history as the Heptarchy, 
namely, ££nt. South Saxons, Mtst Saxons, Mt»t Angles, West 
Saxons and N'orthumherland, itself consisting of two principali- 
ties, I>eiva and Semicia. Of these kingdoms, many coins (silver) 
have come down to us. To the tiniest of these pieces, some 
of which were struck previous, and others subsequent to the con- 
version by St. Augustine, in 606 A. D., of the Saxons to Christianity, 
the term Soeatta or Skeaita is applied, Others are known as the 

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Penny, that coin whose weight, oue two-hundred-and-fortieth of & 
pound, has furnished a name for that proportion of value which 
is characterietie of the modem coinage of Great Britain, the 
Hidf-^nny, and the fourth part_of the Penny—the Mmrth-ing or 
Farthing. Brass or copper money tnown as Stycas were also 
used, each piece being equal in value to half a farthing. Such 
Nubdivision of vahies was needful when, as in the reign of CEthel- 
stan, thirty pennies could purchase an ox, and twelve of them a 

Of the coins of these Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, those of li^ent 
are the most ancient, some of them being ascribed to Ethilbert, 
who reigned from 568 to 616 A. D. On some of these early 
coins not only the name of the king, but that also of the moneyer, 
may bo found, while on a coin of Baldred, the last king of Kent, 
823 A. D., we have for the first time the place of the mintage; 
the device being, on the obverse, a bust of the king, with the 
legend, baldbbd bex oant., and on the reverse, moEMOn 
WONETA, with DOVK CITS, a contraction for Dorovemia civitas or 
Canterbitry, the place of mintage, 

The kingdom of Mercia seems, from the number of its coins 
that have come down to us, to have been the most moneyed of 
all the States of the Heptarchy. The coins of OfFa, ?58-796 A. 
D., are the most artistic of the Anglo-Saxon series, Offa visited 
Rome two years before his death, and is supposed to have brought 
back with him some Italian artists. On these coins there occur 
the king's name, with his title, eex merciokum, with that of 
the moneyer on the reverse, while the mint is left unnamed. A 
few coins of his queen, Cenetreth, have also been preserved. The 
coinage of Burgred, 855 A. D., was not only debased to the lowest 
point in its style of ai-t, but also in its standard, the metal used 
being an exceedingly coarse alloy. This is supposed to have 
arisen from national poverty, caused by the inroads of the Danes, 
who, in 874 A. D,, drove Burgred itcym his throne, when he fled to 
Rome, where he died. 

No coins of the kingdoin of the JEast Angles are known of an 
earlier date than 690 A. D. One of the famous kings of this tcrri- 
toiy was Eadmnnd, 855 A. D., whose coins bear the kin^s name 
and his title, ejsx Ajf. Murdered by the Danes in 870 A.T)., Ead- 
mund became subsequently known in the Church calendar as St. 
Eadmund, while Guthnim, a Dane, was then placed upou the 
throne by Alfred. Guthruni having embraced Christianity in 878 
A. D., assumed the name of Ethelstan. 

NortJmmberland is the only Anglo-Saxon kingdom that issued 
the mixed metal money known as Stycas, which seem to have 
fallen into disuse about 780 A. D., for none of later dates have 
been found. On some of the coins of Onlaf or Aulof, 9^7 A. D., 

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we find the Saxon Gunune — the eoiiroe of the Germ;m Kirnig initl 
English King, in place of the Roman H&x. 

Early in the ninth centniy, Ecgboorht aseonclctl the throne of 
the West Saxon kingdom, and aoon made himself master of the 
■whole of the Heptarchic States. To him, therefore, belongs 
properly the glory of lieing "the firet sole monarch of England," 
though Bevem of the kingdoms still retained a feudal independence. 
In 872 A. D., on the death of ^thelred, the throne became 
occupied by his brother .Alfred, known in history as Alfred the 
Great, whose career was remarkable for viciBsitudes that surpass 
the dreams of the novelist, and the impress of whose mind is borne 
by- the England of to-day. The necessities of Alfred drove him 
to greatly debase the coinage, on which he is styled Alfred or 
JELFEED EBX, while the reverses have not only the moneyer's 
name, but frequently a monogi'am of the town in which the mint 
was situated, these towns being roBO— Dorovernia or Canter- 
bury, — lONDiNiA — London ; obsnapoeda — Oxford. 

In fi24 A. D., CEthelstan, Alfred's grandson, ascended the throne, 
and enacted that there should be but one kind of money for the 
whole realm. His design in this was to depiive noblemen and 
burghs, archbishops and abbeys alike of the privilege of isstung 
money. This law was steadily enforced till the reign of Edward 
I., when letters and other distinguishing marks were used to 
indicate by whom the current money Bad been coined. On 
(Ethelstan's coins appear, the title not assumed by any of his prede- 
cessore. Rex totius JSKiTANNi-iK — one, however, hardly justified by 
fact. CEthelstan had mints at more than twenty of the principal 
cities in the kingdom, showing the extent of his authority and the 
activity of his government in caring for the coinage of the realm. 
During the reign of Edgar, 960 A. D., the coin had become so re- 
duced in value by clipphig that a Penny would pass only for a 
Halfpenny. So seriously was social life affected by this dishonesty, 
that St. Dunstan* refused, on a certain Whitsunday, to celebrate 
mass until the moneyere found guilty of dishonesty had been 
punished in the usual manner by cutting oft their right hands. 

In 975 A. D., Eadmund the Martyr ascended the throne, placing 
on his coins the title Rex Anglorum, having a rude, Ill-drawn por- 
trait on the obverse, and on the reverse the name of the moneyer 
and the place of the mint. 

After a reign of four yeai-s, Edwaa-d was murdered by his step- 

!<St. Dnnsljin nsa of noble Inrth, Hnaamanot cstiaordiuaiy ability r.iid ccccimplistimente. 
As Abbot of Gloatonbnri' he awniiied the higbest credit for poi-sonal lanctltv ond courai^, 
having come off couqasror in a great contsgt with the Fi'ince of Derknr-as, llii< public career 
was mafitchec1iered;ono whOe he irashlghin /aTOratthe court, domineerhi? over king and 
people, and again fleeing to the Continent to Bare hla life. Be lived far two ohjactB, the dvU 
nnlncaUon of Britain and tbe camplet« eubjectlou of itachnrch to that of Some. Many 
great refomia were effected by him. not the least of wMch was the improvement of the 
coinage. In 980 A, D. he was made Archblahop of Canterborr, and died in 988 A . D. 



mother Elf rida, that her eon ^thelreil might wear tlio crown. The 
character of the usurper wa« so weak, and his incompetency so 
flagrant, that the Danea swept the country as they pleased, ex- 
torting from the king, at different times, the sum, ti-uly enormous 
for that period, of one hundred and sixty-seven thousand pounds. 
Still the coins of ^thelred are pi-etty numerous. On some of 
them the king is clothed in armor, and wears a helmet sti-ength- 
ened by ribs that give it the appearance of a spiked crown, the 
legend being jEthelekd Rex Angi.o. On the reverse is our 
earliest example of a voided cross, with what are known as mart- 
lets in the angles, and with the name of the moneyer and of the 
mint around the edge. On another variety the king holds a scep- 
tre, its first appearance on British coins. On one variety there is 
a hand on the reverse, with the Greek letters A and il, the only 
instance in which such characters are found on any of the Anglo- 
Saxon coins. 

In the conflict between j^Ithelred's son,Edmund Ironside and Cnut 
(Canute) the Dane, son of Suein, fortune eventually favored Cnut, 
who became established in the kingdom in 1017 A. D. On his 
coins the title King of England is almost always to be found, 
though on a few very rare ones we find him styled Rex Danoeum, 
Onut had a larger number of mints than any of his predecessors, 
partly because of an increase of national wealth, and partly be- 
cause certMn burghers were willing to pay for that reputation 
which the presence of a mint within their towns would give them. 

In 1042 A. I>. the Saxon dynasty was restored, and Edward 
the Confessor obtained the throne. Edward soon introduced the 
French custom of moneyage or changing the device on the national 
currency, a custom bringing considerable profit to the crown. 
Hence, probably, the large number of types, amounting to nearly 
five hundred, of this monarch's coins. On some of these coins Ed- 
ward is represented as wearing a large beard, an unusual feature 
on the coinage of this period. On others, for the first time in 
Anglo-Saxon coinage, the king is seated on a throne, crowned and 
holding the orb and sceptre, with the legend EADpaed Jiex 
Anglo, the Saxon p being ec|_uivalent to the w of the Romans. 

On the death of Edward, in 1066 A. D., Harold took possession 
of the vacant throne, clsuming it as a gift made to him by Edward, 
in his dying hour. During his brief reign of nine months, Harold 
issued many coins bearing on the obverse his name and title, and 
on the reverse the name of the moneyer and of the place of 

In 1066, the Saxon Harold fell at Hastings, in one of those 
decisive battles that give a new direction to human affairs. The 
Norman William, known as the Conqueror, then ascended the 
Bnglish throne, and a new period of European histoiy commenced. 

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William's reign was not marked by any considerable change in tlio 
coinage. The Penny and its divisions remained as before, but tho 
money of account was modified. The Saxon Scilling or ShiUing 
— money of account— was now ordered to represent twelve Pennies. 
The value of the Danish Mwrk, also money of account, was fixed 
at one hundred and sixty Pennies. The corns of William resemble 
closely those of Harold. On the obvei-se is a bust crowned, either 
full faced or profile, with crosses of different designs on the 

X. s. type. 

In 108T A. D. William Rufus ascended the throne. His coins 
are comparatively few, and so closely resemble those of his father, 
William the Conqueror, that we are often at a loss to distinguish 
between them. 

On the death of Rufus, in 1100 A. D., his younger brother, 
Henry, seized the crown. Though called Beauclerk, from his 
scholarly tastes and attainments, the coinage does not seem to 
have had much attention paid it. Moneyage however, was 
abolished, and the severest punishments threatened against counter- 
feiters. The church also tried to protect the purity of the coinage 
by denouncing such persona as oppressors of the poor and diaturbera 
of the state. Still, the practice went on. At length, in 1125, 
Henry inflicted on all the moneyers who had been guilty of 
debasing the coin — 94 in number — the horrible punishments of the 
law, while to the honest moneyers was committed the task of 
recoining the whole money of the realm. There is considerable 
similarity among the coins of the first three Henrys. Those how- 
ever that bear the greatest resemblance to the coins of the 
Williams are generally considered to belong to Heniy the First. 


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On the death, in 1135 A. D., of Henry, leaving no son, the 
direct male line of the Normans became extinct. The throne ivas 
therefore seized by Stephen, son of a daughter of the Conqaeror, 
to the prejudice of Maude or Matilda, Henry's daughter, an act 
that naturally led to war and turmoil during all Stephen's reign. 
Many of the barons, with or without the King's sanction, now 
issued money. The standard of value seems, however, to have 
been on the whole well maintained. On the obverse of Stephen's 
coins, which are very rare, is a bust, full-faced or profile, 
frequently facing the nght, crowned, with sceptre or flag in the 
right hand, with legend. On the reverse is a cross, with name of 
moneyer and mint ; oftentimes a number of ornaments take the 
place of these. The crown that Stephen weara is now fuUy 
developed into that flewr-deJAs pattern which continued to be 
depicted on the English coinage down to the reign of Henry the 

In 1154 A. D. Stephen died when by arrangement, he w^ 
succeeded by Maude's son, Henry the Second. Heniy was, perhaps, 
the most powerful Bovei'eign of his time. From his father, 
Geoffiroy Plantagenet Count of Anjou, he inherited the Princi- 
palities of Anjou, Tourraine and Maine; from his mother, Nor- 
mandy ; through his wife, the County of Poitou and Dukedom of 
Aquitaine ; so that, in addition to the throne of England, he had 
immense territorial possessions in France. His early coins are 
exceedingly rude, but about 1180 A. D. he procured a French 
artist, Philip Aymary of Tours, under whose care considerable 
improvement was effected. The type of the flr^ coinage is the 
usual one — a bust, full-faced, or profile, with fully defined Jkur-de- 
lis crown, a sceptre in the right hand, generally resting on the 
shoulder, but sometimes held upright, with legend, and on the 
reverse a cross pattee, with small Ci-osses in the angles. In 1180 
the second issue took place, having on the reverse a short double 
cross. The dies of this issue are supposed to have been used 
during the reigns of Richard and of John, and to have been the 
\ised for the first coinage of Henry IIL 

In 1189 Richard the First — Ccenr de Lion-— succeeded his fath<.n-. 
Though he reigned for ten years, not a single English coin bc:.!- 

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ing hie name lias como down to us. Either none were struck, or 
so many were melted down or exported to pay Richard's ransom 
that none now exist. 

On Richard's death, in 1199, his brother John seized the 
throne. There exist a number of John's Irish coins, but none 
of his English issues have been preserved. John, having died in 
1216 A. D., was succeeded by Ms son Henry the Third, who, so 
soon as bis possession of the throne was secured, isaaed exten- 
sively Pennies, Halfpennies and Farthings, These resembled the 
coins of previous reigns, having the Kind's head, with a front 
face,witha.;feMr-(?e-fe crown; on die reverse is a short double cross, 

■First Isiswe. 

whose limbs were within the inner cu'cle. The clipping, however, 
continued so mercilessly that in 1248 A, D. there wasa great reooin- 
age. The old money was called in and melted down. On this 
second coinage a new type wf« adopted, one that was retained 
more or less down to Henry the Fu'st. The double cross on the 
reverse was extended, with only three pellets in each quarter, 
to the outer edge of the circle containing the legend, so that 
any clipping would be obvious at once ; while following the 
King's name on the obverse are either the Roman numerals HI. 
or the word t e k c i . 

In 1257 A. D., the first coinage of English gold — the Ryal (or 
Royal) — took place ; the King, though in great straits for money, 
issuing a gold Penny — that is, a coin of that size and style — 
■ordering that it should be current for Twenty Pennies. 

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In 1272 A, D., Edward the First succeedod his father, Henry, 
and aought to improve the coinage. Clipping and counterfeiting 
seem, however, to have been as prevalent as ever. The Jews, ever 
the victims of mediffival ignorance and prejudice, were assumed to 
be the chief actors in these diehonesties, and in 1290 A. D. were 
banished from the kingdom, never to return. At the same time, 
one-fifth part of all their movables wns confiscated to the king 
by Parliament, a meaeui-e which was doubtless the i-eal purpose 
of their banishment. The coins of Edward, and of his suece^ors 
down to Henry the Seventh, all bear the king's bust, with a fuli- 
faced effigy wearing a crown fleurie— that is, one whose band has 
three fleur-de-lis projecting from it, and between these fleura are 
other fleurs not rising so high. The effigy is merely a conven- 
tional king's head, and not a portrait. Owing to the absence of 
any iiiimeralfi, the coins of the Edwards of the Saxon dynasty are 


possibly intenningled, a similar absence of numerals having long 
caused great uncertainty about the coins of the Noi-man Ed- 
wards. As a general rule, however, we are warranted in think- 
ing that all the coins having only edw. on them belong to Ed- 
ward the First; those having edwardvs, to Edward IH, and 
all others to Edward H. The coins of this reign are the Penny, 
Halfpenny and Farthing. 

To this reign belongs, it is thought, the issue of the first Groat, 
a word that combines the sounds of the French ffros and of the 
English ffreai. So few of these pieces were put into circulation 
that those we have are considered to have been merely patterns. 
The device consists of a full-faced effigy wearing the crown 
fleurie; the drapery round the neck is fastened with a ro- 
sette; while the legend reads EDWAIiDVS: DI: GRA: REX: 
ANGL:. On the reverse there is the long cross fleurie, with 
three pellets in the angles, liound the pellets are the words, 
" Londonia civi," while in an outer circle is the legend, DVX 
AQVTi DNS HBNIE: Duke of Aquitaine and Lord of Ireland. 

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Edward tliG First died in 130V A. I)., and was succeeded by 
liis son, Edward the Second, whose weak cliaracter, making him 
dependent on favorites, repeatedly involved liim in trouble with 
his nobles, and whose gi-eat invasion of Scotland was effectually 
cheeked at Bannockburn (1314 A. D.), by Robert the Brace. 
His coins — Penny, Halfpenny and Farthing — difEer from those 
of his father only in their legend, which reads EDWA, or 

In one of the contests with the nobles, in which his wife joined 
their ranks, Edward the Second was taken prisoner, and put to 
death in 1326 A. D. by order of his queen, Isabel, sister of 
Charles the Fourth of France. His son, a lad of fifteen years, 
was at once proclaimed king as Edward the Third, the power 
during his minority being really in the hands of the queen-mother 
and her paramour. On attaining his majority, three years after- 
wards, Edward threw off this yoke, punished all who had been 
concerned in his father's death, and confined his mother as a 
prisoner to her own bouse for the remainder of her life. His 
Scottish wars, consequent on Baliol's recognition of him as king 
of that country, led only to great bloodshed, for the Scottish 
people would not brook a surrender of their independence. He 
also claimed to be king of France, upholding his claim by his 
most splendid victories at Cressy, in 1346 A. D., when his son, 
a la,d of sixteen, took what is still the crest of the Prince of 
Wales, three ostrich feathers, with the motto, Jch IHen, from 
the helmet of the King of Bohemia, whom he had slain, and 
at Poitiers in 1356 A. D., when the French king was taken pris- 
oner. The king's closing days were clouded. Losses in Scotland, 
losses in France, dissensions with his Parliament, opposition from 
the Black Prince (who died in 1376 A. D,), formed a sad contrast 
to the prosperity of his early years, so that he sank into the grave 
in 1377 A. D., having reigned fifty-one years. 

The coinage of Edward was very varied. His first issue of gold 
consisted of Florins, having a device of the king crowned and 
robed and sitting under a canopy, with Halves and Quarters. 



On a. second issue, one of Nobles and their Quarters, tlie lung isreji- 
resented armed and standing up in a ship ; a third issue differs 
fi-om the second only in having an e in place of l in the centre 
of the reverse, -while a f oui-th issue, consisting of Nobles, halves 
and quai-ters, has AVTEM in the legend on the reverse. Our 
eogi-aving is of a noble known to belong to the first period of the 
fourth issue, by the spelling tranciens, and nsintr IBA for IBAT. 
The words DEI GRATIA appear now for the "first time on the 
coinage of England, 

On his silver coins, consisting of Groats, Half-Groats, Pennies, 
Halfpennies and Farthings, the device is a bust of the king 
crowned, with full face ; on the reverse of groats and ha!f-groats 
there is an inner circle containing the place of mintage ; the 
long cross with three pellets in the anf !es L o all the silver coins, 
while the king's name rea ] iDW 4PD or EDW \.PDVS. 


In 1377 A, D. Richard the Second, son of the Black Prince, 
succeeded his grandfather. His reign ig notable for the rise 
of the power of the House of Commons, by means of its right 
of taxation — a power that led to Wat Tyler's rebellion in 1380 
A. D. During this reign every goldsmith was required to have 
his distinguishing mark, so that his work could be traced, 
Richard's coinage consisted of the gold Noble, with it« Half 
and Quarter, with device of a ship like that of Edward HI,, and 
the silver Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing, 
having the king's bust, crowned, with full face; the name reads 
RicABD or RicAEDUs, wlth the Rex Angl Z Francie. 
'^, On the death of Richard, in 1399 A. D., his cousin Boling- 
broke, Ihike of Lancaster, usurped the crown as Henry the Fourth, 
The victories in 1402 A. D., of Henry Percy or Hotspur, over the 
Welsh and Scotch, did not prevent other revolts, and, aftei' a 

troubled reign, Hen^died in 1413 A. D., of e, , „ 

The first issue of Henry's gold coins consisted of Nobles, Halves. 
and Quarters, with four fienr-de-lis on the shield of arms, the 
noble weighing 120 grains, and a second issue of nobles weigh- 
ing only 108 grahis, and quarters with, possibly, only three flowers. 

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The tirst issue of his silver coin oonaisted of Groat, Half-groat, 
Penny and Halfpenny, having the king's bust crowned, and full 
face. Of the second issue, tnere is no Halfpenny known. The 
first issue is called the heavy money, the Groat weighing 12 
gi'ains, and the second, the light, the Groat weighing only 60 grains. 
The coinages of the Heni-ys IV., V., VL so closely resemble each 
other, that numismatists seldom attempt to distinguish between 
them. It is thought, however, that the light money, on which 
the crown ifl broad and flat, resembling that of Edward IIX, may 
belong to Henry VI,, and that that on which it is high and large, re- 
eemblmg that of Richard III., may belong to Henry VII., before 
the recoinage of his fifth year. Among the coins of the Henrys 
are some having annulets between the pellets on one or two of 
the quarters on the reverses. Some of these were issued in Lon- 
don and othera in Calais. They are generally regarded as a late 
issue of Henry V., or an eai'lj one of Henry VI. The first issue 
of Henry VI. {1422-1461 A. D.) is heavy, the second (1470 
A.D.) is light money. 

In 1461 A. D. Edward IV. ascended the throne to reign 
twenty-three years. His first issue of gold, made in 1464, con- 
sisted of the !Noble of the usual device ; his second, made in 1465, 
coneisted of the Noble or Real, with its halves and quarters. 
The Angel, with a device of Michael transfixing the dragon with 
his Bpear, and on the revei-ae a sliip, and the Angelet or Half An- 
gel. On the side of the vessel, on these coins, is a rose, badge 
of the House ot York, while the sun in the center of the re- 
verses IS a memorial of the strange appearance of three suns in 
the hea^ ens, called by astronomers a parhelia, which appeared 
justbefoie the battle of Mortimei's Cross in 1465. Edwards silver 
coinage consinted of Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny and 
Farthmg, all of the usual style 

< PO \1 OF EDU 

Edward's coins, previous to the fourth yeai- of his reign, were 
heavy ; those issued subsequently were light. 

Of Edward V., 14S3 A. 1)., the reign was too brief to admit of 

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any coiDage, or the issues too fow to admit of any being pre- 
served, as no coins of any denomination have come down to ns. 

In the middle of June, 1483 A. D., the Duke of Gloucester 
took possession of the throne as Richard III. His coins are of same 
type as those of his predeceBsors. The golrl consisted of the Angel 
and Angelet, anil the silver of Groats etruok in London or York, 
Hal f- Groats Bt ruck in London, Pennies and HalfpennicH 

Richard having perished in 1485, at Bosworth field, waa suc- 
ceeded by the Duke of Richmond as Henry Vll. The first issue 
of gold consisted of the Noble or Rial, the Angel and the An- 
gelet ; the second consisted of the Sovereign and the Double 
Sovereign, a name taken from the device — that of the sovereign 
in his robes and on the throne. On the reverse of this coin is a 
double rose, emblem of the union of the houses of Tork and Lan- 
caster in the monarch and his queen. The first issue of silver, 
1485-9, consisting of Groat, Half-Groat, Penny and Halfpenny, 
has a device of toe full face and open crown, resembling that of 
his predecessors. 

The /Second is&ne of Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny and Far- 
thing, with the front face, but high arched crown, with a reverse sim- 
ilar to that on the previous type, but with forked ends to the cross. 
The Third, issued in 1504, and consisting of Shillings, Groats, Half- 
Groats and Pennies, of superior workmanship and of types wholly 
different from anything hitherto used. This Shilling was the first 
coin of that value in England, and was declared to be equal to 
twelve Pennies. It presents us with the first ti-ue portrait on an 

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English silver coin. These Shillings are now extremely scarce. 
The Groats and Half-Groats of this coinage were of a similar 

-device, while the P< 
orb .ind sceptre. They 


In 1509 A, D., Heniy VIII. ascended the throne to reign 
mearly forty yeai's.j^The first issue of gold (1527), consisted 
Double Sovereign, Sovereign, Rose Noble, George Noble, Angel 
and Angelet. On the George Noble we have tne now familial- 
device of St. George and the dragon, the reverse bearing a ship, 
The second issae (1644), consisted of the Sovereign-An^el, Ange 
let, Quai-ter Angel, Crown and Half-Orown. The device on flu 
Crown consists of a double rose between the crowned initials of the 
iing and his successive queens. On the Ha!f-Crowns the letters 
a,re not crowned. The third issue (1545) consisted of the Sover- 
«ign, its half, the Crown and its half, with devices as before. For 
the first silver coinage (1509), consisting of Groat, Half-Groat, 
Penny, Halfpenny and Farthing, the dies of the third coinage of 
Henry YIL. were used, the numerals VH. being changed into V HI. 




In 1513, Henry captured Tournay, i 
were issued. 



e:kglish COINS. 

Tlie second issue (1527) presents us with the side likeness of the- 
king himself, encircled with hie titles of King of England andi 
France, variously abbreviated. The third coinage (1643) consisted 
of Testoon, Groat, Half-Groat, Penny and Halfpenny, Some of 
this issue is of fine silver, others of base metal. The device is a 
bust, fuU-faeed, crowned, with beard and mnstache ; and, on 
reverse, a double rose, crowned sides. 

The/oMJ'fA coinage (1645) Shilling, Groat, Half-Groat and Pen- 
ny, differ from the third only in its extremely debased charac- 
ter — being half sUver and half alloy. The fifth coinage (1546) 
was the most debased that was ever current in Great Britain — one- 
third silver and two-thirds alloy. The devices resemble those of 
the eai'lier issues, but the members of this are known by the 
amount of alloy. 

Edward YT., 1546, issued, in his fii'st gold coinage, a Half-Sov- 
ereign, with device of the king crowned, andgeatoaonthe throne, 
holding the sceptre and orb ; and a Crown and a Half-Crown, 
having the royal arms crowned. The secondissue, 1549,consi8ted 
of the Treble Sovereign, having the king as before, but with a 
sword; the Sovereign.the Half, the Quarter or Crown, and the HaLf- 
Crown. The third issue, 1550, consisted of the Six- Angel piece, with 
Michael vanquishing the devil ; Double-Sovereign, Sovereign, or 
Double-Royal, Angel and Angelet. On the fifth issue there is a 
'half-length figure of the king in armor, crowned, and standing with 
sword in one hand and the orb in the other. The first issue of sil- 
ver, consisting of Groat, Half-Groat, Penny and Halfpenny, had 
the king's profile to right. The second consisted of two kinds of tes- 
toons or shilling, the one being half silver and half alloy, the 
other,one pai-t silver and three parts alloy. The type is the Kuig's 
face in profile, with fom- vai-ieties in the legend, one bearing: 
MDXLEX, or MDL, the first English silver coins bearing date. 
Of the third coinage we have the Crown, and Half with the king: 

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in armor on horaebaek ; Shilling, Sixpence and Threepence, with 
bust of king, full-faced and crowned, with values ; Penny and 
Halfpenny with king on throne, and Farthing with a portcullis. 


In 1553 Edward was succeeded by hie sister Mary, whose gold 
coins consisted of the Sovereign, having the queen crowned and 
seated on her throne ; the Rial, the queen crowned and standing 
in a ship ; the Angel and Angelet, with Michael and the dragon.. 
Her silver consists of the Groat, Half -Groat and Penny. 


In 1654, Maiy married Philip of Spain when an Angel and An- 
gelet were issued, like those of 1563 but with Phihp's name in 
the legend. On the firat issne of « ./» r consietmcof Gioat Half- 
groat and Penny, we have the queen b b ist alone with Philip's 
name in the legend ; but on the 8e(.ond consisting of Shilling 
and Sixpence, we have busts of Phihp an! Maiy facing each, 
other, with the Neapolitan and British aims on the reverse 


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Elizabeth succeeded her sister in 1558. Iler first gold coins 
were the Sovereign, the queen crowned and seated on the throne ; 
the Rial, the queen with high ruff standing in a ship; the Angel, 
Angelet and Quarter Angel, with device of Michael and dragon. 
During the same year she issued of hammered money, a Sovereign 
with bust in robes and high crown, and of milled money, with bust 
in mantle and a low crown of two arches, a Half-sovereign 
hammered, like the sovereign. This year she issued of hammered 
money, a Sovereign, Half-sovereign, Crown, Half-crown with bust 
to left, in robes and high arched crown ; of miUed money, a Sover- 
eign, Half-sovereign, Crown and Half-crown, with email bust in 
mantle and low crown of two a 


Elizabeth's silver, hammered, consists of the Shilling, Sixpence, 
Groat (or f ourpence) Threepence, Twopence, Three halfpence. Pen- 
ny, TTiree Farthings, Halfpenny. On all these except the Three-half 
penny, which has a portcullis, we have the queen's bust crowned, 
with long hair and ruff. Of the milled money we have the Crown, 
Half-crown, issued only in the years 1601-2, Shilling, Sixpence, 
Uroat, Threepence, Twopence and Three Fai-thmgs, having a bust 
of the queen crowned, with sceptre and orb._ As the coins of 
low vahie were of nearly equal size, to avoid mistakes a rose was 
placed behind the head of the alternate values ; that is, on the 
Sixpence, the Threepence, the Three-halfpenny and the Three Far- 
thing ; the other coins — the Shilling, the Groat, Half-groat, Pen- 
ny and Halfpenny are without it. 


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Tlie reader will notice tlie absence of any inner circle on 
this piece. This is characteristic of its mode of manufacture. 
In 1561 A. D., a Frenchman of name unknown employed a mill 
and screw for striking coins in place of the long used hammer 
and die, the result being much neater coins, sharper impressions, 
rounder forms, while various patterns could be strnck on the 
edge. Milled money is known also by the absence of any inner 
circle between the legend and the device. This, however, did 
not lead to the discontinuance of the hammer, so that for some 
years both modes were employed. 

In 1603 James VI. of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth as Jamea 
I, of England. His first issue of gold consisted of Sovereign, Half 
.and Quarter or Crown, having a bust of the king in armor, crowned, 
with legend, d, g, ang. sco. fea., etc. During the same year he 
issued the Unit or Sovereign, Double Crown or half-sovereign, 
Crown and half, all simDar to the coins of the first issue, but with 
the legend D. G. mag. beit, fha., etc. A Crown of this issue is 
known as the Thistle crown, from having a erowued thistle on the 
reverse. In 1605 the gold consisted of the Rose Rial or Sovereign, 
having the king in his robes and seated on the throne ; the Spur 
Rial, with the king in armor; the Angel and Angelet with 
Michael and the dragon. In 1620, James issued a Rose Rial or thir- 
ty-shilling piece, having the king seated, with raff and collar 
■oftheGarter;theSpurRial, of fifteen shillings, with Scottish lion 
sitting crowned ; the Angel, the Unit, the Doable Crown and the 
Crown, with the king's bust in profile. Of the silver issued in 1603, 
the Crown and Half have the king on horseback ; the Shilling, Six- 

Since, Fourpence and Penny have the king in profile, while the 
alfpenny has a portcullis. 


The silver of 1604 consists of the Crown and half as before, 
«xcept that the Ang. Scot, of the legend is replaced by Mag. 
Bkit, On the Shilling and Sixpence there is the bust with profile ; 
She Half-Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny have a rose crowned. 

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Some of the Crowns, Half-crowns and Shillings have the Prince 
of Wales plume over the shield, mdicating that iJiey were 
made of silver from the Welsh mines, and as we know that 
these were not opened till 1621, we know at once a date before 
which, at least, these crowns were not issued. 

This reign witnessed the issue of the first eopper coins in 
Great Britain. The absence of small coins had led private persona 
to issue in gi'c at numbers what are now called Tradesmen's tokens. 
Partly to relieve this national want, and partly to obtain the 
profit of the issue, James, in 1613, issued copper farthings, to 
be current in England, Wales and Ireland. On the obverse is the 
crown over scepti-es crosswise, with and without m. m., with 
legend Jaco. D. G. Mag. Beit., and on the reverse the Irish harp 
crowned with continuation of title Fea. et Hib. Rex. 

Charles I. succeeded his father in 1825, when goM coins were issued 
from the mints of London, Oxford, Bristol and by Nicholas Briot, 
those of London consisting of the Unit or Broad, or Sovereign. 
The Half and Quarter are distinguished by the king wearing either 
a laS and collar or a falling lace band The Oxford p eces, the 
treble and single Unit and Half have tl e king armor while 
Briot's coins — the Unit, Half an 1 An^el — ^hive tie tings bust 
with the falling band. 

A good-sized volume woul 1 hi lly s lihce t r a det^ led de- 
scription of Charles' silver co nige our space all ws us to de- 
scribe only a few pieces. CI arles is the only Engl sh king 
that issued Twenty and Ten SI Ihng s Iver p e es the device is of 
the king on horseback, with legend and dates 1642 3 4 From 
the Tower mint come Crowns a d Halt crowns with the king on 

horseback; Shillings and Sixpences with bust; Half -groat, Pennies 
and Plalfpennies, with rose crowned on both sides or rose on 
one and thistle on the other. The Oxford min t also issued Crowns 
and Half-crowns; with the king on horseback, but the most de- 
sired of its series is that with a view of the city between the 

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On the Shillings, bixpences, Groats, Three-penny s, Half-groata 
and Pennies, we Save simply the bust crowned and facing right or 
left. On the coins from Aberyswith, we have the Prince of Wales 
plume, to show that the motal came from the Welsh mines. 


During the great Rebellion, Charles was often unable to use 
bis regular mints. He therefore issued pieces of irregular shapes, 
values and devices, according as his necessities required and 
which, because of tieir intrinsic worth, passed for money. Of 
these Obsidional or siege pieces, many sarvive, a full list being 
found in our Introduction. 

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The copper Farthings of Charles' first issue resemble those of 
James; on the second issue, in 1635, the device is the crown with 
crossed sceptres, and legend Carolus D, G. Ma. Bel, and on re- 
verse a rose crowned with Fea et Hi Rbx. To prevent counter- 
feiting a small piece of brass was inserted in the centre. 

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On the execution of Charles, in 1649, the Parliament issued 
■what is known as the money of the Commonwealth — Twenty, Ten 
and Five-shilling pieces in gold; with Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, 

I! OF THE cosii; 

Sixpence, Half-groat and Penny in silver, all of the same design ; 
the Halfpenny having on the reverae only the shield ■with the 
Irish harp. 

During the Commonwealth, coppei- and pewter fai-thinga ap- 
peared bearing the arms of the Commonwealth, but they never 
became ■very common, and it is uncertain whether they were issued 
by the government or by private parties. 

In 1656 Cromwell prepared a gold Fifty shilling, Broad or 
Twenty- Bhillirig,^ ail d^a Half-broad or Ten-shilhng piece ; as well 

CROMWELL, 1658. 

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as silver Crown, Half-crown, Shilling, Niiiepenny aud Sixpenny 
pieces, all of precisely the same design and legend; the coins are 
beautifully engraved, l)ut never came into general use. 

In 1660, Charles II. ascended the throne, issuing at once gold 
Broad or twenty-shilling pieces. Half-broad and Quarter, with a 
laureated bust in proiile facing the left, Kext year coins of similar 
denominations and design were issned, having the value in letters 
behind the head ; toth of these issues were hammered money, the 
restoration of the king being thus marked by a return to the old 
method. In 1662, there wereissued Five-guinea, Two-guinea and 
Half-guinea pieces, with obverses like the earlier issues, but re- 
verses have four C's interlinked in the center of a cross. This issue 
was of miflet^money. To denote that the metal came from the 
coast of Guinea in West Africa, the term guinea was now made 
use of, and an elephant or elephant and castle placed below the 
king's bust 

Silver Half crown '^hilling. Sixpenny, Half -groat and Penny 
pieces v,ere is ucd m ICi i\\ of one device. 


A second and thnd i^sue of coins of similar denomination and 
devices weie i<(=!ued w ith ^ ^lueB iji letters placed behind the king's 
head. These three issues weie all of hammered monQy, but in 1862, 


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;i Crown with a rose under the king's head, supposed to indicate 
ihat the metal came from the West of England mines, Half- 
■Crown, Shilling and Sixpence, were issued of milled money. The 
design is a lanreated bust to right with mantle over the shoulders ; 
with interlinked C's in the angles of the crowned cross on the 
reverse, with an elephant and castle on some of the pieces and 
the Welsh plumes on others. 

There might be said to have heen another coinage, one of the 
smaller pieces, 4d., 3d., 2d., Id., all of which have the numerals, but 
not the inner cu-cle, and an M. M on their reveises. These are the 
last specimens of hammered money, and were probably atmck, 
not for general circulation, but as Maunday money,* 

In 1663, Shillings were issued, milled with straight lines, and 
resembling in device the Crown pieces; in 1670, the milling lines 
were placed obliquely Th{ fir&t Si\pence was struck in 1674, 

■ Charles also issued a copper Halfpenny, having laureated bust 
in armor, with legend Caeoltjs a Caeolo, and on reverse, Brit- 
amiia seated holding spear and olive branch, with legend Qvatvoe. 
Mabia. Vindico., and in exergue Britannia. Tne Farthing of 
same design had the date 1665. In 1672 he issued a Halfpenny 
and a Farthing of similar device, with BmrAHNiA for legend on 
the reverse, and the date, 1672, in the exergue. In 1684 there 
was an issue of tin Farthings, similar in design to the above, with 
the legend on the edge, Nvmmokvm Famvlub, 1684, 

In 1685, James H. succeeded his brother, and soon issued gold 
Five, Two, One, and Half-guinea pieces, having the king's bust 
lanreated and facing the left, with legend Jacobus II., Dei. Gratia ; 
on the reverse four shields crosswise, each crowned, with ele- 
phant and castle on many of the coins. In 1686-7-8, James issued 
silver Crowns, Sixpences, Groats, and Two-pennies with Half- 
crowns, Shillings andPennies in 1686-8-7-8. Copper money was 

. . — _ , groats, three-pennies, two-peimlee, 

there havelieeD veara ui the sovereign'B fife. The cnBtom is sUlI ohserved, a 
given are eaaUy alstJngnlahed from ordinary cutrency liy the aljeence of any 



not issned by James. In addition to such, in 1685, he issued a tm 
Farthing, having a laui-eated bust in armor ; on the reverse is Brit- 
annia, and on the edge Nvmmoevm famvlus, with date. In 1687 
he issued a tin Halfpenny, differing from the design on the Farthing 
only in the bnst being draped. 


In 1688 William and Mary occupied the English throne, and 
issued ^oW Five, Two, One, and Half-guinea pieces, with busts and 
names. Siher Crowns were issued in 1691, bearing the busts of the 
king and queen facing light, with a cross of shields on the reverse, 
with a monogi-am of W . and M. in the angles, and the arms of Nas- 
sau in the center. Half-Crowns were issued in 1689, having on 
the revei-se a square shield, with the national arms quartered, and 
the date, 1689. Another of the same year has a shield of the 
same general design, yet different in detail. The reverse of the 
Half-crown resembles that of the Crown. 


The Shillings and Sixpences resemble the above design, while 
on the smaller money, theMaunday money, thei-e are the Iioman 
characters to indicate the value, 

Pnring this reign, tin Halfpennies were issued with busts and 


names, with Britannia on the reverse as before, with the date in 
exergue, 1689 or 1691. On Farthings of similar metal and design 
the dates are 1690-1 or 2. These were the last tin coins issued 
in England. In 1694, ct^per Halfpennies and Farthings of similar 
designs were issued. 

In 1694 Queen Mary died, when William issued gold coins as 
before, the legend reading : Gvlieuuvs III., and with reverses of 
shields crosswise with arms of Nassau in the centre. The siher 
Cro^vns resembled the gold Crowns ; the Half-crowns, Shillings and 
Sixpences were similai', one Half-crown having the elephant and 
castle under the bust; another has the Welsh plume in eaeh angle 
of the reverse ; on some of the Shillings we have a rose in flie 
angles, and on others roses and plumes, indicating a mixture of 
Ei^lish and Welsh silver. 

Ill 1696 all current hammered money was called in by the govern- 
ment, and to facilitate the isssue of the new money, mints were 
estabUshed in different parts of the countiy. The coins thus issued 
have, below the busts, the initial letter of the mint where they 
were strack as Bristol, c^ettter, Txeter, Tionrich, York. Those of 
London liave no distinguishing lettei 


Copper Halfpennies and Fai-tliinga were also issued, having bust 
of the King in armor with Gvlielmvs Tektivs, and on the re- 
vei-se, Britannia, with date 1895 to 1701 inclusive. 

Ann succeeded to the throne in 1702, and issued ffold Five, One 
and Half-guinea pieces, having bust of queen with Anna Dei 
GiiATiA, and on reverse four shields crosswise with rose in the cen- 
ter ; from this four sceptres issae, each tipped with a harp, a this- 
tle, a fleuT-de-lis or an orb. The pieces of 1703 have Vigo under 
the bust, denoting metal taken from the Spanish galleons in Vigo 
Bay in 1702. ^ter the union with Scotland in 1705, Ann issued 
Five, Two, One and Half -guinea pieces, with obverse as before, 
but on the reverse, the arms of England and Scotland are 
imited on the 1st and 3d quarters, and the 2d is given to France, 

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The silver Crown, Half-crown, Shilling and Sixpence of 1702 and 
1703 resemble the gold coins of those dates, the word Vif/o heing 
also found. Those issued after the Scottish union resemble the 
gold of the same dates. 


Ann issued a coppei- ¥va-thmg with bust on the ut>^eise, and ou 
reverse Britannia seated, with dite llli in the exergue The coin 
is handsomely engraved and ia pietty common. 

In 1714 the Elector of Brunswick Lunenburg succeeded Ann 
Its George I. To the usual titles of the sovereign was now added 
that of F. D. for Mdei Defmaor, a title conferred on Henry VIII, 
by Pope Leo X., and though since then always on the gi-eat seal, 
never hitherto placed on the coins. The fourth shield on the re- 
verse w^ now filled with the arms of the king's German dominions, 
the two lions being the arms of Bi-unswicK ; the lion rampant 
that of Lunenburg ; the horse that of Saxony ; while the central 
crown is Charlemagne's — the symbol of the Elector's office as Arch- 
Ti-easnrer of the Holy Roman Empii-e. The legend on the reverse 
in full ia ; VRTjNsvicensis bx TMnenburgensis dvx ?,acri nomuni im- 
perii, ArchiTaesaurariuB et ■ELectar, the anglea being filled in with 
plumes or roses, with s.s.C. (South Sea Company), or with C C. 
or "VV". C. C, to denote the Welsh Copper Company. 

The gold ooimge consisted ot Pn e, T« o, One-hilf and Quarter 
guinea pieces, hi\mg on the revuae the foui shields ciosawlse, 
and the star of the & liter in tlie ctntei The Quarter guinea 


GEom E I 3 7JO 

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was issued only in 1718. The silver Crown, IIaIf-ci-ow(!, Shilling 
and Sixpence reseml)le the coins of the gold issue. The Maunday 
money was issued as usual, having the large numeral of value 
crowned with the king's Biitiuh tiue ilont 

The cop^i money consisted of Halfpennies and J iithings, hav 
ing king's bust Kureated and dnped, with Bntinnia on re^eiae 
The dates aie fiom 1111 to 11M melusue Those of 1717 and 
1718 are thicker and smaller than those of latei yeara. 

In 1727 George II. issued gold Five, Two, One, and Half -guinea 
pieces, having king's bust with the young head, hair long and 
neck bare ; on the reverse the shields are no longer arranged 
crosswise, but united as quarters of a single shield, as on the gold 
of William and Mary. In 1739 the bust has what is called the 
old head, in other respects the issue resembles that of 1727. The 
word Lima is found on several pieces of this issue, signifying 
that the metal had been captured at Lima, in Peru, 

The silver Crown, Half-crown, Shilling and Sixpence have the 
bust in armor with drapery over it, with the shields on the re- 
verse crosswise. In 1748 the second issue of silver took place, 
with the old head design — in other respects resembling that 
of the fii-st issue. Many of the coins of 1745-6 have Lima below 
the bust. The Maunday money is of the yotmg head type alone. 
The Gopp^ coinage consisted of a young head Halfpenny and Far- 
thing, from 1729 to 1739 inclusive, and an old head Halfpenny and 
Farthing from 1740 to 1764, 


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In 1760 Geoi-ge III. succeedecl his grandfather. His ^o^rf coins 
consist — 1T60-1 786 — of Guinea with bust. Half and Quarter, issued 
oniy and for the last time in 1762. From 1787 to 1800, a Gninea, 
Half, and One-third or Seven shilling piece were issued, with the 
arms on a shield of spade-ace pattern, and hence, commonly 

From 1801 to 1813 we have coins of 

called the 


the same denominations — the Guinea being issued, however, only 
in 1813, the last issue of that -value. These coins were issued 
for the troops embarking for France, and were not circulated 
in England. In 1817 a sovereign was issued having on the 
reverse St. George and the dragon, and a Half-sovei-eign with the 
arms on a shield. 

r lln 1763, stiver Shillings (called Northumberland shillings) were 
issued, having the king's bust, and on reverse, four crowned shields 
crosswise. In 1 787 a Shilling and a Sixpence were issued, resembling 
the preceding, hut with more drapeiy and armor, and a crown be- 
tween the angles on thereverae; in 1798 anothersbilling, differing 
onlyindatefrom that of 1787. In 1801 the legislative union between 
Great Britain took effect, when the title King of France was quiet- 
ly dropped from the list of those titles previously given to the 

English sovereign. Owing to the great scarcity of national 
money, while the Government was strangely unwilling to issue any 

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from the mint, it yet authorized the Bank of England to issue a 
Five-shilling piece, or dollar — a name taken fi-om the Spanish coin- 
age, and the only one ever issued in England, followed during sev- 
eral years by Bank tokens of the values of Three Shillings and of 

At last, in 1816, a great new coinage was issued. The Crowns in 
1818-19-20, with the king's bust on the obverse and the figures of 
St. Geoi^o and the dragon on the revei-se. The Half crowns 
were issued in 1816-17, the obverse having the king's bust look- 
ing away from the spectator, with legend Georgius in. Det 
Gkatia, and on the reverse, a handsome armorial shield encircled 
by the collar of the Garter, with badge. In 1817-8-9 and 20, a 
new type was used showing less of the kmg's shoulder. Shillings and 
Sixpences of this type were also issued. Of the Maunday money, 
there were four varieties ; Ist, that which resembles the North- 
umberland Shilling; 2d, that with bust resembling the Shilling of 
1737, the numerals of value being in scrip and crowned, issued 
only in 17S2 ; 3d, that with obverse like the last, but with Arabic 
numeral of value crowned ; and 4th, that with the bust of 1816. 

This reign was marked by an extensive and peculiar eo^er 
coinage. In 1770 a Halfpenny and Farthing were issued, having 
the king's bust in armor and the legend Gkoegius III. Bex, with 
Britannia on the reverse. In 1797 there was an issue of Two-penny 
and of One-penny pieces, the first of these values ever used in Eng- 
land, weighing respectively two and one ounce avoirdupois. These 
have a sunk centre and a raised rim on which is the legend with the 
king's bust on the obverse, and on the reverse Britannia seated. 
In 1799 there was a further issue of Twopennies, Pennies, Half- 
pennies, and Farthings of the previous design but without the 
raised i-im; another issue of all except the Twopennies being made 
in 1805, of a somewhat similiar design but of lighter weight. In 
1817 all the copper coin circulation was called in ■with the 
view to a reooiuage. 

In 1820 George IV. issued ^o/(? Two, One, and Half-sovereign 
pieces, having a head of the king with short curly hair, and on re- 
verae St. George and the dragon, with date in the exergue. The 
Half Sovereign htw on the reverse a shield like on the other coins, 
or a plain shield with rose, thistle and shamrock belowit. In 1826 
a Sovereign and Half-sovereign were issued having date below the 
bust. In 1821-2 siher Crowns were issued having the king's 
bust with hare neck and on reverse St. Geoi^e and the dragon. In 
1820-21-23, Half-crowns were issued, havmg on the reveree a 
crowned shield with rose below, thislie and shamrock on either 
side. A Shilling and a Sixpence of this design were issued in 1821. 
Others of this same yeai- resemble the half-crown of 1823. In 
1323-4, Half-crowns, Shillings and Sixpences were issued, having 

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on reverse a p n aqua e h ell erowi el In 1825-28-28 and 29 
there was an ss e of i Half w 11 bust and without 

drapery, and o 
of the Shilling 
and 9, a <row 

ned. On the reverse 

"3 xpences of 1826-7-8 

vn. The Maunday 

money has the head of he (. own ot 18 1 Pistrucci's, on the 
earlier pieces. The heal ot the Tl ee ] nny of 1822 is from the 
punch of the two penny of the same da e 

The copper CO tl "e ons t ofaFathng ngraved by Pistnieci, 
and issued in 1821-2-3-5 and 6, having draped bust, and on 
reverse Britannia seated. In 1825-6 and 7, a Penny was issued 
with bare neck to the bust, and in exei^ue of reverse, a rose, thistle- 
and shamrock. In 1826-7 Halfpennies, and in 1827 to 30 inclusive. 
Farthings of similar design were issued. 

William IV. succeeded his brother in 1830, issuing a gold Sove- 
reign, 1831 to 7 inclusive, with bust, and on revei-se a square shield. 
He also issued a Half-sovereign of similar design for years 1834-7 
inclusive. jSiYwer Half-crowns were issued in 1831-4-5 and 6 ; 
Shillings and Sixpences of similar obverse, but the value in words 
across the centre of the reverse, the whole enclosed by branches. 
The Groats of 1836 and 7, have on the reverse Britannia seated. 
The Maunday money has crowned numerals and tlie coppei' 
Penny, Halfpenny and Farthing are all of the usual designs 

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In 1837 Vict 
having bust, a d 


d dh 

and shamrock b w 
ahield, without h fl 



late kiiiE; pi'isid to his brother the irm^ ot Han D\er wore now 
dropped from tht, English stindiid On htcr i uina St George 

and the dragon appears on the reverse. A very beautiful Five- 
Bovereign piece has also been struck, but has never come into 

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circulation. The silver Crown and Half -crow ii have the queen h 
head filleted, with aiins on plain shield withm brinuhes, rose 
thistle and shamrock below. The issue of theue pieces ceised 
in 1851. 

In 184?, a very splendid Gothic Crown was prepired, but 
has never got into circulation. 


In 1848 a Florin, resembling the above Crown, was Issued, but 
o^ving to tlie absence of the letters d. g., had to be recalled by the 
Government. Another was therefore prepared with those letters 
and is now in general use. The Shilling, Sixpence and Groat, 
resemble on tlie obverse those of William IV",, while the 
Three-penny has on the reverse a large numeral of value, 
crowned. The Maunday money is like that of the previous sove- 
reigns. Victoria's copper coinage consists of a copper Penny, 
Halfpenny and Farthmg, with bust, the hair braided and the 
neck bare, with Britannia on the reverse. On the reverse of 
a Half-farthing, there is half-pakthing in two lines aoross 
the field, with crown above and date below. The issue of 
these ceased in 1856. The current issue, struck in I860, is of 
bronze, and consists of Penny, Halfpenny and Farthing, having 
laureated draped bust of the queen, and Britannia on reverse. 

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Among the earliest foreign possessions of the English monarchs, 
were those French Provinces that through ancestral right, mar- 
riage or conquest, formed part of British temtory. This sovereign- 
ty was exercised in part, by the establishing of local mints, whose 
names are freqneotly to he found on the coins of English sove- 

Perhaps the earliest of these is a Penny of Henry II. (1170 
A. D.), struckinAquitaine, and on which the king's title, Hsneicvs 
Rex, runs as a legend round the coin, while on the reverse is aqvi 
TANi a in three lines. On the coins of Richai-d I. sometimes hia 
name and title ran across the coins in two or even three lines, as Dnx 
Aqvitanieov Pietavienais (Poitou). 

On the coins of Henry IIL and Edward I. the lion of Aquitaine, 
with or without a crown, occupies the centre of the reverse. 
Edwardll, also issued m.oneyfor the Dukedom, for we read that in 
1314 the French King closed Edward's mints. Edward III., having 
assumed, in 1339, the title King of France, placed that on hia coins, 
omitting the lower one of Duke of Aquit^ne. In 1360, however, 
he resumed the title of Duke, hut in 1369 again employed the title 
of king, which thenceforth remained on the English coinage 
till 1801. Several succeeding monarchs also issued money for these 
French estates. Grradnally, however, the Fi-ench monarchy over- 
I'an these districts until, at length, on the lose of Calais in 1558, 
the last vestige of England's early authority on continental Eu- 
rope disappeai'cd. 


These are the only remains of the immense continental pos- 
sessions of England. Among the peculiarities of these islands 
is a coinage distinct from that of the sovereign country, 
though of course, struck in London, On the obverse is a shield 
with three leopards or lions; the legend is State op Jeesby, and 
the date 1813, while on the revei-ee, inclosed in a wreath, are the 
words THKBB SHILLINGS TOKEN. Oil a copper coinage issued in 
18i4, is found the Queen's head, with inscription and date, and 
on reverse the am^ of Jeraey as before, with ^ of a shilling; 

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172 Tuni COINAGES OF thv: woki.d ; 

GuEENSBY baa also its coins. On t!ie obverae is a shield 
with the three leopards, and the word Guekxsey below it; and 
on the reverse, the valne, two, pour, six or eight doubles, with 
date. On the high values, the word Guernsey is above the shield, 
and the lower part of this ia placed in a wreath. 


In 1 786, the British government purchased the Isle of Man from 
the duke of Athol. As the island had a peculiar history and con- 
stitution, Pence and Half -pence were at once struck for its local 
currency. On the obverse is the king's bust, with the legend 
Geoegius in. Dki Geati4, 1786, and on the reverse thcarms of 
Man, three legs in armor joined at the thigh, with the legend on 
a broad band or border, Quocumqve Jeceeis Stabit. 

Similar coins were struck in succeeding reigns till 1839, when 
the separate coinage was abolished. 


Previous to the conquest of Ireland by the Danes and by the 
Finns, as the Northmen are popularly called, the national money 
consisted of gold, silver and brass rings of a high degree of purity 
and of carefully graduated weights, reminding one of the animal 
weights found in Babylon. The earliest known coins are those of 
the Danish period, 850-1200 A.D. These coins, issued from mints 


at Dublin, Limerick and Waterford, seem to be rude copies of 
Anglo-Saxon pieces, having, like the early Danish money, merely 
str^es, lllllllll's, to represent letters. During this period certain na- 
tive princes are supposed to have issued a fewbracteate and other 
coins that are evidently copied in their style from those of tha 
Danes, The authority of the Anglo-Saxon and Danish rulers of 
England was already so powerful in the eastern portion of the 
island known as the Pale, that there are coins of Ethelred, Edred, 
Edgar and of Canute, 886-1035 A. D., struck in Dublin. 

In 1185, during the Norman period, John, then Lord of Ii-eland, 
issued for use in I rcland,Ha!f pennies and Farthings having the short 
double cross with an annulet in each angle on the reverse. Those 

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struck then are called, from the full face design, full moon pieces. 
The legend is iohanjtes dom (inus), and on the reverse tomas on 
i>w (Thomas of Dn' '" ' 

After his accession to the English throne, John issued Pennies 
for Ireland of a wholly different design. The triangle, thought 
by some to reappear in the Irish triangular hai-p, is probably the 
symbol of the Trinity. It is EO employed in church architecture, 
and as is known the conversion of Ireland from paganism to Chris- 
tianity is connected with St. Patrick's advocacy of that mystery 
of the Christian faith, and his use of the trefoil as a natural 
analogue. The legend on the reverse is robebt on dive. Half- 
pennies and Farthings were also issued. 

In 1248, Henry HI. issued his second coinage of the long double 
cross with the three pellets in the angles on the revei-se. Hie 
Irish PenuieSjWith the king's head in the triangle, belong, from their 
obvei-ses, to this period. On the coins of his successors, the first 
three Edwards, the title Dns. Hyb. — Domimis Hibernim — first ap- 
pears, while the triangle w^ inverted. Oar readers i^'ill remember 
that on the coins of fcdward I. we have simply Edw., on those of 
the n., Edwa. or Ed-wak., and on those of the III., Edwaedvs. 


On the Groat of Henry VI, there is on the obverse a large crowa 
surrounded by a tressnre, and on the reverse a long cross with 

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pellets, and civitas dtblinie. On a Groat of Edward IV, there 
are rays proceeding from a rose, to an outer circle in wliicli 
is CIVITAS DVBLiNiE divided into four sections by roses, the 
badge of the house of York, and by suna, the king's own crest. 
On another, there ai-e the Iiish arms, "three crowns impale," 
that is, one above tlie other, with a sword or spear passing up- 
ward throueh them, and on the reverse the British arms on a 
shield, with legend ^ex Hibemie, Edward being the first to assume 
this title. Another has the large crown of Henry VI. Pen- 
nies and Halfpennies were also issued. The Groat of Richard IH,, 
and that of Henry VII. i-esemble the second one of Edwai-d IV, 
Of Edward VI, there are no coins. The Sixpence of Henry 
Vin,, base metal, issued in 1541, has the English arms on a 
crowned shield with Henric 8, If. &., Angl. Franc, and on revei-ee, 
M Jlibemie Hex, 38. The device on the reverse is the Msli 
harp facing left crowned, with H, R. on either side, also oi-owned, 
Heny's marital relations can be followed by his Irish Groats, 
which wei-e apparently issued on each new maniage, and bear be- 
side the harp the initial of the new queen. On a 6d,, 3d., 1-Jd., 
and f d., issued in 1544, minted in Dublin, there is a full face of 
the king, and on the reverse the English shield. In 1553, Maiy 
issued a Shilling, Groat, Half and Penny, with her bust, and on the 
reverse a crowned harp. Next year Shillings, Groats and Sixpences, 
base, with busts of Philip and Maiy facing each other, were 
issued; the Groats resemble the Shillings, but have the date above 
the heads. In 1558, Elizabeth issued various base silver pieces, 
and also a copper Penny and Halfpenny, the first Irish copper 
coinage, differing from the device on the silver only in having a 
shield between the letters E E, and the harp between the years of 
the date 16 — 01 or 16—02. In 1602, James L issued several base 
silver pieces with bis bust on them, and in 1613, two varieties of a 
copper farthing, having a crown with sceptres crosswise, and le- 
gend Jaco D. G., Mag. Brit, and on revei-se Fra et Bib. Bex, with 
crowned harp. While these coins were of equal intrinsic value, 
and to be used both in England and in Ireland, that possibly for 
England has a rose for M, M. above the crown, while tnat for Ire- 
land has a trefoil for if. M, on the reverse, the crown and harp 
being smaller and of different design from that on the other. In 
1625, Charles I. issued copper Farthings resembling those of 
James in design, with the legend Caro or Carolm D. G. Mag. 
£ri. 01- Jirii., and on reverse Fra et Sih. Mex. During Charles' 
Irish troubles, what are known as the St, Patrick's pence were 
coined,* On the Halfpenny is a hai-per with legend Floreat Rex ; 

• The history of theeo piecea !s very obscnte ; tliot they citcnisted in 

•' •-"■■ ■■ --re la common a-B bs such till s centory ago, Bho> 

TBelr device on both aides BeiDg 

BUd Caithiuga, and wr 

thoj either aprnn^ fiom un eccleefasticii! source or appe^ed to some eccleaiastlcal BenHment, 



ou reverse St. Patrick, mitred, and with orosier, holding out the 
trefoil, with the arms of Dublin at his side, with lesjend Ecce Grex. 
On the Farthingia a similar obverse,but on reverse the saint, holding 
a double or m.etropolitan cross, is driving venomous animals be- 
fore him ; a cathedral is in the backgi-ound, and the legend 
Qviescaf Plebs. The Onnond money was coined in 1643, and 
is obsidional. Charles II. issued, in 1660, a copper Farthing 
having legend Oarolvs II., I>. G. M. B., and on reverse a 
crowned harp, with !F¥a et Sib. Rex., and in 1680, a Halfpenny 
with bust of king facing left, legend Carolvs II. Dei Gratici, and 
on i-everse a crowned harp, dividing the date 1680; legend 
Mag. Sr. Ira. et Uib. Hece. James II. issued a copper Half- 
penny in 1686, with his bust facing left, with reverse like that of 
Charles IT., the crown and harp being somewhat latter. In 
1689 came his Gun money, coined in Ireland from old metal, 

and consisting of Crowns, having the king on horseback with 
drawn sword, legend Jao. II. Dei 6i-a. Mag. Bri, Fra. et Sib, 
Sex. On the reverse are the national arms on four crowned shields 
placed crosswise, with a crown in the center; legend Ohristo vio- 
tore triwnpho, and in the angles of the shields Ano Dom 1390, 
The Half -crowns. Shillings and Sixpences have latii'eated bust fac- 
ing left, with legend Jac^vsII. Dei Gratia, and on reverse, crown 
and sceptres crossed with I. R, with the value, xxx, xii, vi, in the 
upper angle, and the month of issue in the lower one, with legend 
Jmg. Br. Ira. et. Sib. Sex 1689. White metal Penny and Half- 
penny pieces in 1689. In 1690 a Five shilling piece m the aaino 
metal, and copper Halfpennies resembluig those of 1686, but with 
date above the crown, and with date divided by the upper part 
of the crown, and also by the lower part of the harp. After 
James' flight from Ireland some of his followei-e issued from 

They therefore have no connection vitii the royal mint, and were prohably 

:...,., >.,,u -,i...:oQOf 1610, by or for the Catholic party. Hi '—'' 

reonashleld theaimsof IhedtyofDnbliD.a 
a cathedral, and that the famous St. Fatricli' 

the Iiieh rehelUon of 1610, by or for the Catholic party. Now remembering that on tla 
,.._.i -...-■J .1. if Uie city of DnbliD.and that on the copper piece 

more than probahle ihat these coina owe their origin to Dublin. In 1681, i 

Nawby arrWed in Nsw Jbi • »-'■■'- — — ' • '•■ "i- > 

lify an Act of the Jersey L.„ — _ ^ 

a fact that slreDgtheiiB (he theory of theii Snblin mintage. 

..rtved in New Jersey from Dublin, brlEEinB eo many of tl 

ct of the Jersey Le^alature In aanctionlng their use aa a New Jersey currency, 



Limerick, tlalfpoiinv pieces ivith obverse as on tlie Gun money, 
and reverse a seated ■woman resting on a hai^p and holding up a 
cross, with legend Hibemia 1791.* In 1692 William and Mary 
issued a copper Halfpenny and Farthing with their bnsts in 
profile, with crowned harp on reverse dividing the date. 

Anne issued no Irish money. The well known Wood Pennies 
and Halfpennies of 1722-3-4 were the only issues of George I. 
George 11. issued a Halfpenny and a Farthing in 1738, having sim- 
ply Qeorgius II. Rex, with, on the reverse Mibemia, above a 
crowned harp, and date below, George III. issued a Halfpenny 
in 1766: bust to left, and a Penny, H^fpenny and a Farthing in 
1805, with bust clothed, wliile in 1822 George IV. issued a Penny 
and a Halfpenny and a pattern Fai-thiog, and thus closed the 
series of Insb money. 


The earliest reliable Scottish coins are the very few ascribed to 
Alexander I., 1107-1124, A. D. These have a rude profile with 
sceptre, facing right, and on the reverse a cross with pellets in 
the angles. Of his successor, David, that " sair sanct for the 
crown," as he was styled because of his large donations of crown 
property to the Church, there are many coins, all of which 
resemble those of Alexander — the name being generally spelt 
Davit. We have no coins of the next monai-ch, Malcolm IV., 
but of William the Lion, 1166-1213, there are: 1st. Those 
with King's head to right, with short single cross; 3d. Those with 

same head, but short double cross ; and 3d. Those with head to 
left, all coined at Serewie (Herwiok), Ed-enhv (Edinburgh), P&rt 
(Perth), or Hoeeabu (Roxbm-gh). 

The coins of Alexander H. 1213-1249, are exceedingly rare, and 
were all minted at Roxburgh, Of those of Alexander III. 1349- 
1286, there were several issues. In 1250 it was ordered that 
the cross on the reverse should pass through the circle, making 

rbo GTin money of Jam«B H. ivaeisaned at the tollomng dMes; Slipencea 10B9, July, 
., Sep., rber, Nov., Dec,, and IflSO, Jan, and Feb. SbUlinga 1689, Jniy.Ang., Sg)., Oct,, 
., Dec.Sbor, flber, lOber, IffiO, Jan., Feb.. Mar., Ap., May., June and Sep., with large 

imall for Mat,, andAp. Half-crowns 1089, Julj to 
. --nail (or Mar., Ap. and M- 

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■what ie called the long cross.* We have thus on some coins a long 
double cross, and on othera a long single one, with a six-pointed 
mullet or star with open center in each angle. On the obvei'se 
ie a crowned head with sceptre, facing left. On the Pennies and 
Halfpennies the legend is Aleosander Dei Gra., with continuation 
on the reverse, Hex Sootorum. The Farthings all belong to the 
single cross issue, and bear merely Alexander Hex iScotorvm. 
Margaret, the Maid of Norway, Alexander's successor, having 
died before her accession, the period of confusion that followed 
the king's death ended in the placing, by Edward L of England, 
of John Baliol on the Scottish throne. On Baliol's coins — Pen- 
nies, Halfpennies, and ptrasibly Fai-things, there is a bnst with 
sceptre, and with the legend Johannes Dei Q, K&& Seoton/m. 
In 1306 Robert the Bruce occupied the throne, and issued Pen- 
nies, Halfpennies and Farthings, with a profile likeness and Jiex 

David n.,1329-13VO,issnedPenmes, Halfpennies and Farthings, 
and added the Groat and the Half-groat to the money of Scotland. 
These have on the reverse an inner circle with place of mintage 
and an outer cii-cle with legend such as Dns ProUotor meorum. David 


issued the first Scottish gold money. His coins are numerouR 
and very varied. Having been captured by Edward, the pay- 
ment of the heavy ransom of 100,000 marks greatly impoverished 
his country and led to a depreciation of Scottish money. Robert 
II., 1370-1390, issued Groats, Half-groats, Pennies and Halfpen- 
nies, Art mnst have been at alowebb at this period in Scotland, for 
the likeness on the coins which stands for Robert, also represents 
David. The coins of Robert IH., 1390-1406, with a full face on 
the obverse, are easily recognized by the pellets, in place of the 
muUeta in the angles of the cross on the reverse, a change again 
copied from the coins of England. Robert was the first to issue 
iiUon coins, and did so from Invei-ness. James I. issued Groats 
small in size. Pennies and Halfpennies, all having pellets in the 

* A similar device was employed in England, bylHeury IH., in 134S. 


118 TIIB <;OINAGES OF THE woitiJ>; 

angles of the cross. On James' assaasiiiation, in 1437, James IL, a 
minor, was declared king. In his Jirst issue of Groats, Half-groats 
and Pennies, made previous to 1451, there is in the angles of the 
cross a fleur-de-lis alternating with a sceptre. On the secmicl 
iseue, the Icing has no sceptre, and his neck is bare, with ci-owns 
in the angles on the reverse, an issue consisting of Half-groats 
and Pennies. And on the third issue, the king's neck is clothed. 
The Gi-oats of this reign are as lai'ge as an English Shilling, 

In 1480 James IH. ascended the throne, and issued silver 
coins; Jirst, having pellets in the angles of the cross ; second, liav- 
ing one large six-pointed mullet alternating with three pellets, 
with an annulet in their center ; third, havinga small mulet and 
pellets without the annulet and known as the Borage Groat ; 
fourth, having mullet of five points and pellets ; fifth, with crowns 
and pellets alternating, and sixth, with crowns and fleur-de-lis 
opposite, and pellets between, with legend Ihis Protor mevm et 
mevor. James' HUon gi-oats have on the obverse the Scottish 
lion on a shield, and on the i-everse an open cross with email 
St. Andrews cross in the centre, and crowns in the angles. His 
billon Farthings have the king's head crowned, and on the revci-se 
a cross with pellets and villa £!ditibvrtfi. 

Of James IV, 1488-1513 we have, first, coins with a fnl] face 
and an open crown, and second, those with a three-quarter face 
and an arched crown. The billon Pennies, Halfpennies and 
Farthings resemble th<«e of the previous reign. 

On the death of James at Flodden, his son, James V. was de- 
clared king. His first issue has the three-quai-ter face, with open 
crown, thistles and mallets in the revei-se ; the secoMt?, known as 
the Douglas Groat, of very fine workmanship, has a single arched 
crown, and the third has a double arched crown. On the reverses 
of the latter two ai-e the national arms, the lion rampant. James' 
billon Groats or Placks have a large thistle crowned with I. 5, on 
either side, and a St. Andrews cross with two fleur-de-lis on the 
reverse. His gold pieces are known as Honnet pieces from the 
small cap on the ting's head. 

The coins of Mary, Queen of Soots, are very numerous, and may 
be classified thns : 1st. Those issued previous to her marriage with 
the French Dauphin ; in 1553, Testoons and half-testoons, with the 
queen's bust, and on the reverse the arms of Scotland and of 
France, Marks were also issued. 2d. Those issued during her 
married state. 3d. Those during her widowhood. 4th. Those 
daring her man-iage with Damley ; and 5th, those subsequent to 
his murder. In 1565 the first Scottish issue of silver Crowns, or 
Mary Ryalls, took place. These weighed one ounce, and passed 
for 30 shillings Scots, Smaller pieces of xx and x shillings value 
were also issued. These xxx shilhngs are commonly called Ci'uick- 
ston dollars, the palm tree on the reverse suggesting to the pop- 

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iilar mind a yew tree at Criiickstoii Castle, the seat of Lord 
Damley. Owing to tlie poverty of the crown, tlie issue of silver 
Groats and Pennies was replaced hy one of billon, or i-ather of 
copper, washed with silver. The Two-penny piece was now 
called a JBodle, a corruption of Lord Bothwell's name, by whom 
it was prepared. 

James VL, having succeeded hia mother in 1571, revived the 
issae of Marks and Half-marks. His Mrst iasne was that of the 
Sword Dollar and its Half, with the national arms on the ob- 
verse, and on the reverse an erect sword crowned, with value and 
date. This is called the James Riall. Second, the Noble and 
its Half, having the arms as before, but on the reverse a cross, with 
crowns and tmstles in the angles. Third, in 1578, the Thistle 
Dollar, from the large thistle crowned, its motto, " JVemo me 
impuiie lacesset^^ now appearing for the first time. Fourth, in 
1582, the XL, XXX, xx and x Penny pieces, having the king in 


^inor and crowned, and on the revei-se the arms. Li 1589 the 
value of the xl Penny 'piece was i-aised to l, and in 1601, when 
the last Scottish crown was isBued, it was raised to lx, as being 
worth sixty shillings Scots. Fifth, the Balance Mark, so called 
from the pair of scales and sword point on the reveree. Sixth, the- 
Bare-headed Mark, having the king in armor and with head un- 
covered on the obverse, and on the reverse a three-headed thistle 
crowned; and. Seventh, the Thistle Mark, from the large single this- 
tle crowned with arms on the reverse. James' billon money was 
extensive, and very much resembled that of his mother. For the 
first time a pure co^er coinage was now issued, consisting of a 
Penny piece, with the bare-headed bust of the king and three 
thistle heads on the reverse. The billon Penny has I. B. under 
a crown, with legend. Jacobus, D. G. E., Scoto, and on the re- 
verse the arms, with one dot behind the lion, and place of 



mintage, while on the liillon bodle, or Turner, as it was now 
called, .1 corruption of the French Toumois, are two dots with 
legend, Vincil Veritas. 

On the death of Elizabeth, in 1603, James VI. succeeded to the 
throne of England under the title of James I. The coins hence- 
forth struck for use in Scotland resemble in design those of Eng- 
land, except that in the shield on the reverses, the arms of 
Scotland — the lion rampant — occupy the fii-st and third quarters, 
while on those of England they appear only in the second quarter. 
The ffold pieces of James consist of the Sceptre, the Double Crown, 
the Crown the Thistle Crown and the Half Crown On the silver 
C onn IHalfconni eces there is also a thistle n place of a oso 

on tl e t n " t the ho se Ti e cone H rd/ f 1 1« the 
three-headed thistle with JaoobusJ). G. Mag. Brit., and on the re- 
verse the lion rampant. 

The gold of Charles I. consisted of the Quarter, the Unit, its 
Half, Quarter and Half-quarter. On the silver Shillings and SIk- 
pence, there is the value in numerals behind the head. Half- 
marks were issued resembling the English shillings, also Forty 
and Twenty-penny pieces, and a Two-shilling piece with the 
arms on the revei-se, Scotch value. 


The copper Bodle has a large C. R. crowned, with Ca/r D. 6-. Scot 
Aug. Fr. et Mib. R., and on the reverse a large thistle with Nemo 
Me, etc. 

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Charles II. issued a Four, a Two, a One and a Half-mark piece, 
having the king's bust in armor to left, and on the reverse four 
shields arranged crosswise, with crowned interlinked C's in the 
angles, with legend M<w. BH. Fra. et Sib. Sex. 1672. There 
was also a Dollar, Half, Qnarter and Eighth, with bust to right, and 
legend Seo. Ang. Fr. et IBb. Rex. 16'?6, with thistles in the angles 
on the reverse. The Sixteenth of the dollar was issued in 1681, 
having on the reverse a St. Andrew's cross, crowned with national 
emblems in the angles. On that of Charles IL, in place of the C. 
R. there is the sword and sceptre crossed, and on the reverse the 
date. On the copper jSaw5ee,tbe King's head with legend,and on tlie 
reverse the crowned thistle with date. 

In 1687 James II. issued a Forty-shilling piece, with British 
shield crowned on the reverse, and a Ten-shilling piece, with St. 
Andrew's cros« on the reverse tiiL ^ihie being e\presst<l beneath 
the bu t 


In lb"*) and lli91 ^Vilhiin and Mm i-'suod pitoei of ^ixty, 
Forty, Twenty and Ten sbillings lalue beaiinj, both then busts, 
■r--;--, i^,tt ^ij^j on le^eise the Bntish hield with the Arms 


of Nassau in the centre, and a Five-shilling piece with a mono- 

fram of W, and M. on the reverse. The copper Bawbee has both 
usts with the large crowned thistle on the reverse, 

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has the crowned monogram of W. and M., with reverso as be- 
fore. Aftei' Mary's death, William issned pieces of similar value 
and design, but hearing only his own bust, his Five-shilling piece 

having on the reverse a three-headed thistle crowned. William's 
copper Bawhee, of 1693, has his own head, the Half, in place of the 
monogram, having the sword and sceptre crosswise, crowned. 

Ill 1705, Ann isaned a Ten-shilling piece resembling that of her 
predecessor, the Nassau shield being i-emoved from the arms, and 
a Five-shilling piece with the three-headed thistle, and thus termi- 
nated the series of the coins of Scotland, 


Malt.a lias ever been one of the great strategic points of the Me- 
diterranean, and has passed in foi'nier ages successively through the 
hands of the Phcenicians, Greeks, Carthagenians and of the Romans, 
by whom it waa placed nnder the rule of the Prsetor of Sicily. On 
the division of the Empire in 395 A. D., Malta fell to the Eastern 
section, to which it was attached till about the Ninth century. 
In 870 the Arabs drove out the Greeks, and in lOBO were them- 
selves expelled by Oount Roger of Sicily, who gave the inhabi- 
tants a comparatively free and popular government. During the 
Crusades, Malta became subject to the houses of Anjou and Castile. 

In 1530 Charles V. granted Malta, along with Gozo and Tripoli, 
in perpetual sovereignty, to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
who bad been driven by the Turks out of Rhodes, where they had 
issued money. Th3 coins now bore the nam.e and effigy of the 
Grand Master of the Order, with legend M-ater, (name) Magmm 
Magister Mospitalis, (tec,, tfco. The arms ai-e on a shield that 
covers the head and body of an eagle; the value is in Seudos of 
twelve tarins each. In 1798 Malta was captured by the French, 
and the order of St. John dissolved. Soon after, however, 
it was taken by the British, in whose hands it still remains. In 
1827, and again in 1835 and in 1844, there were coined for Malta 
copper pieces, in value one-third of a farthing, the device being a 
reduced copy of the English penny of those years. 

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I'rom the early occupancy of Canada by Prance, a French coin- 
age in that country was to be expected. In 1670 Louis the Four- 
teenth issued a silver piece of five sou value, having on the ob- 
verse a bust of the king with old head, laureated, surmounted by 
a small figure of the sun, with the legend Ltd. xin d. g. fe. 
ET. NAV. Rex; on the reverse, the royal arms crowned, and the 
legend Gloeiam Reqni. tvi. Dicent. 1670. There is also a coj>- 
per DoiTBi^ or two-denier piece, having on the obverse a large 
Roman L crowned dividing the date, 1670;with the letter A (Paris 
mint mark) below it, the legend being Lvdovicvs. xiii, d. gk. 
Fbam. et. nav. Rex. On the obverse is the inscription, in four 
lines across the field, doveu db. l ameeiqub. beancoise, with 
the mint mark A in the exergae, and on either side of it a fleur-de- 

On the conquest of Canada (which then consisted of little else 
than the present Lower Canada), by the Biitish in 1760, French 
money, of course, was in circulation in the form of the Sou, 
the Livre or Franc, and the Escu or Crown. In 1780, a British 
colony or settlement at a place called Kentucky issued in 
silver and in copper a coin that is often supposed to be con- 
nected with the United States Kentucky, but whichisreallyalooal 
token of Canada. 

As we have nothing to do with the tokens of Canada, we omit 
all description of the 


tokens of 1814, and mention only its provincial coinage of 
Pence and Halfpence in 1823 and 1824, with the head of 
George IV. and legend, Peovincb op Nova Scotia, having on the 
reverse a large thistle with legend, Half-pbnht Token 1823. 
Some of these coins bear the date 1832, the old oneswith dates 
■changed, being used under William IV. In 1840 we have the 
head of Victoria on coins otlierwise mere duplicates of those of 
1823, while coins of 1843 and 1856 were struck from very much 
superior dies. In 1856 the elaborate Mayflower Penny and Half- 
penny were issued, having Victoria D : G : Beitanniae: Reg : P: 

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D. with eoroneted head and date, and on the reverse a large 
bunoh of flowei-s with, Peovincb of Nova Scotia and Penny or 
Halfpenny Token. In 1861, 1862 and 186i, thin bronze Cent and 
Half-cent pieces were iasned having lanreated bust and legend 
as before and on reverse a wreath of flowers, surmomited by 
One Cent, and in exergue, Nova Scotia inclosing a Ci-own i\ith 
date below it. 

Coins of a Cent value oppuiired in 


having tlie name Prince Edward Island i-ound the obverse, 
and the date 1855 and 1857, while on the reverse are*the 
words Self-Govbenment and Free Tkadb, in five lines. In 1871 
there was issued a Cent, having on obverse the Queen's head with 
diadem, and in a ch-cle ronnd the device the words, Victoria 
Queen. On the obverse we find a large and a small tree \vith 
Parva subingenti below them, and in outer circle Peixcb 
Edward Island One Cent. 
In 1843 

issued her beautiful Frigate Pence and Halfpence, with dia- 
demed Queen's head with inscription and date, and on the 
reverse a Frigate at anchor with sails furled, and inscrip- 
tion: NRw BEUNSwicii, ONE PENNY TOKEN. In 1854 a bet- 
ter shaped head with the hair fastened by a ribbon, and 
Frigate as before, with the words, on the reverae, one penny 
CURKBNCY. Silver 5, 10 and 20 Cents and bronze Cents and Half- 
cents were issued in 1861-64 from dies that were used in the same 
yeai- for Nova Scotia, the name on the obverse being changed. 


was the most .ambitious of these maritime provinces. Not issuing any 
separate coinage till 1865, it then iasued a Two dollai ffold piece,. 


the only Canadian gold, a 20, 10 and 5 Cent silver and a 1 Cent 
copper piece. In 1870, a 60, and 20 cent silver, having queen's head 

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laureated, with Newfoundland below and on revcr 
date inclosed in n circle, and in 1810 a coffer cont w 
The coinage of 

itself, whether Upper or Lower, is very scanty, the wante 
of the country having been met till lately by an immenss 
issue of private tokens. The coins having can ad a with 
the date, 1830, 1841, 1842 and 1844, with halfpenny on the 
reverse, were all private ventures. So was the Canada half- 
penny TOKEN with the Ship on the reverse. The first gooernment 
issue, was the coin having the head of George IV. ivith legend 
PHOviNCK OF TTPPBE CANADA, and On reverse Britannia seated, 
with HALFPENNY TOKEN and date 1832, the obversebejng from the 
die of the Nova Scotia copper of same date. In 18S8, were issued, 
a silver 20, 10 and 5 cent piece, and a bronze Cent with a large 
head wreathed, having in outer circle, tictoma dei gratia eegina 
CANADA, and on the obverse, a wavy wreath of maple leaves, in- 
closing the words one Cent 1858, 


Canada has added a 25 and a 50 cent piece in silver to hei coin- 
age, but the copper is still confined to the cent. 


No coins in the world are so rare and costly whert in good con- 
dition as those of the American series. Of many of the pieces the 
issue was exti-emely small, and as when issued they were at once 
used in business transactions, they speedily became worn and de- 
faced. The poverty of the colonists, moreover, and their deficiency 
in art tastes, account for the absence in those days of collectors, 
so that specimens in fine condition of the early coins of America 
are very rare. As the circle of collectors enlarges, the demand 
for these coins will necessarily increase, while perhaps, the total 
supply is already in the market. 

The earliest medium of exchange that we find in use between 
the European colonists on these shores and the Indian natives, was 

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wampum, or atrings of shells, ground down to about the size of a 
grain of com. These were used by tlie Indians for ornament and 
for barter, so that for trading purposes the settlers also required 
to deal in them. 

By 1652 colonial life had so advanced that a metallic currency 
was demanded. In that year the Greneral Court of Ma^achusetts 
issued at Boston some silver pieces, having stamped on them on 
the one side the lette v e (tJew Englan 1) and on the other 
the values, Xlld. VId and nld resfeet ely Of the Three- 
penny pieces on y oo hi a k w o e;e can now be 

traced. Thes e Id 

tion, possess considerable interest as being 
coinage. The absence of any design gave such ofifense, however, 
that another series was issued in October, 1652. The design on 
these coins is an Oak tree with scraggy branches, inclosed in a 
circle of dots, the outer edge having a similar ring, and between 
the rings the words, Masathusbts, in, and continued on the re- 
verse, New England, An : Dom. •.■.■ the date, 1652, being in 
the centre, with the numerals of value, immediately below, XII., 
VL or III. In 1662, Penny and Twopenny pieces of this oak tret' 
design were issued. A second series of this tree money bears a 
I'ine tree, but in other respects resembles its companion. 


This tree money, once known as Boston or Bay shillings, was 
isiued at different intervals for nearly thirty yeara, yet the original 
date, 1652, was retained on every piece. No genuine Penny 

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pieces of either type are now known; the genuine ksiving been 
struck on a die, all that are cast must be counterfeits. 

In 1685, the Boston mint was closed by order of Charles II. 
No more issues of Massachusetts money were then made until 
1766, when the colonists, in expression of their gratitude to 
William Pitt for his exertions in obtaining the repeal of the 
Stamp Act, issued a medalet or token, which soon ])e<iarae used as 
current money. On the obverse is a bust of Pitt, with wig and 
queue, with the legend, "The eestoeek of commebcb, 17V6 ;" 
and below the bust, the words No stamps. On the reverse is a 
ship sailing to the right, with the word America on the field be- 
hind it, with the legend, Thakkb to the peiends of i.ibeety abb 


In 1787, ^Massachusetts, in order to lessen the drain on the re- 
sources of the Federal Government, issued a copper Cent and Half- 
cent. The device is that of an Indian chief with his bow and 
arrow, a star to left of his face, with the legend, Commonwealth ; 
on the reverse is an American earfe, having in its right ta- 
lon a bundle of arrows, and in the left an olive branch, on the 
breast is a shield, bearing the word Cent. The legend is Massa- 
chusetts, and in the exergue is the date, 1787 or 1788. Of the 
Cent of 1787 there are three mai-ked varieties; on the 1st the 
eagle holds arrows in the right talon, and an olive branch in the 
left ; on the 2d, a long tapering branch of olive in the right, and 
arrows in the left, and on the 3d, a wide br.inching olive in the 


right, and an-ows in the left. The Half-cent, for each year, bears 
the same general device, with the words Half Cent on the shield, 
but has many varieties. 

In 1788, the Federal Government prohibited any further State 
coinage, and ao, for the second time, the mint of Massachusetts 
was closed. 

The New England issues of coin were, however, not confined to 
Massachusetts. Other of the colonies having their State rights, 
availed themselves of these in issues of money. In 1785, CON- 
NECTICUT issued a copper Cent having a bust, passing for Wasb- 

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ington, with the legend AucTOiii Connec, and on the reverse, the 
Goddess of Liberty, with the legend Ind. et Lib, the date 1786 
being in the exergue. Of this issue there were eight distinct 
types, distingaishable from each other by differences in the punctu- 
ation, before, between, and after the legend on the obverse, by the 
bust facing right or left, draped or in amior, or by the head being 
laareated or filleted. In 1786 there was another issue of as many 
types with the same general device. The edges of the planchet 
having been carefully milled, the pieces of this date are generally 
found Iq a better condition than those of 1785. In 1787 another 
issue took place, and one that, judging from the frequency with 
which coins of this date ai-e found, must have been very extensive. 


The differences of the punctuation may denote different die cutters, 
or the different purchasei-s of the coin from the mint. Of this issue 
nearly fifty distinct types ai-e known, making more than a hundred 
varieties. Some of these types are extremely rare, especially such aa 
have any peculiarity in either of the legends; for sometimes we read 
AtrciON, AUTOPi, AUCTOBE, AUCTOBi, in placc of AUCTOEi; very fre- 
(|uently obverse dies are found with a variety of reverses, and 
again reverses with a variety of obverses. Such pieces are known 
as mules. 

Though the General Congress prohibited in 1787 any further 
State coinage, yet we have Connecticut Cents of 1788. As their 


number is compai-atively small, it is supposed that the mint n 
mwned in operation long enough to work off the stock of metal o 

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hand. There are some fifteen or twenty types of this issue, differ- 
ing as before in the style of the effigy, punctuation, etc.* 

VERMONT has also an honorable place on the list of States 
possessing a local coinage, having had such a coinage even before 
she was formally recognized as a State by Congress. In 1783 
there appeared under State sanction a Cent with a device both poeti- 
cal and patriotic. On the obverse the All-seeing Eye with radiat- 
ing lines, thirteen, of which have shot ont further and are more 
conspicuous than the rest, between each of which is a six- 
pointed star, while the legend reads Quakta Decima Stelia, with 
reference to Vermont's claim to be the fourteenth star in the TTnioD. 


On the reverse is the sun radiated, but onlypartly visible as he 
over mountains that slope to the right, and are crowned by i 


a lurss 'bust, tvitli tbe leaead i 


. in that .„ . 

IE losifle a circle, wltli tlie legend. 
itters ni. in the eiergne. On thp 


■ I. AM, GOOD, 
nnl in size \a lialf H 

. . . :iB., with the word 

verse. On another piece witti a elmilflr obveree, the revei'Si.' 
.. .itou u. o,^ "^, "ilk the legend 1^ 1. cdt. my. WAT. TDBODQii. On sonic; 
hiatvpethB dfltr 1737 Is omittS. An iaene of the fltBl mentioned tjpeBeemeto 

t hose in good condition ni 

three Eledge hajninerB crowned with the ie^ 

with Vt«l in the eiergue. Another issue of this i 

le legend 0-- "■--'-— •™° *■-" "" — 

e the mel^ w 

■orlj alloyed, 



trees. Below the nioiintains is a plough, iii the exergno, the date. 
The legend is Vermontw Bbh. Publica. or Veemonhs Rks. Pub- 
LiCA. Next year the legend reads YEiiMON'i'ENsnjM Res, Pubuca, 
The number of trees vai-ying from seven to nine. A second design 
appeared this year, having buat of "Washington in armor with Ver- 
MON AucTOEi, and on the reverse Liberty seated, with Isde ki' 
Lib. and dates 1786-V-8. From its peculiarly large head an is- 
sue of 1786 is known as the "baby head " vanety, and specimens 
in good condition are rai'e.* 

NEW JERSEY, or, as it was first called, JVbva Caesarm, in 
honor of its first governor, Lord Jersey, whose title came from the 
English Channel Islands, ( called by the Romans Ccesa/ea), does not 
seem to have had any local mint until 1786. On the coins then issued 
the device on the obverse is a plough sui-monnted by a horae's head, 
with the legend Nova O^sabea and in the exergue the dates 
1786 or 7, On the reverse is a heart-shaped shield, witli bars or 
stripes in the upper pai-t running across the shield, and in the lower 
part running lengthways, with the legend E Plliuhus Usum. Of 


this issue there are a dozen varieties, with a large immbcr of vii- 
riations, diEEering on such points as the length of the plough's 
handle, long or short, equal or unequal, round or square, the beam 
sti-aight or cru'ved, the horee's head raised or not, the shield broad 
or narrow, the ploughshare large or small, the coulter present or 
absent. On one issue of 1787 the legend reads E Plueibs, 
1788, the year so fatal to local issues, saw the last of the New 
Jersey cents. This issue resembles those previously issued, but must 
have been verv limited, as only some ten varieties are known, on one 
of which the horse and plough faee the left; one or two being called 
the dog or fox cent from a very small figure of such an animal, 
a mint mark we suppose, preceding the legend on the reverse. \ 

♦ Connected with these gennii 

bnat with tUe legend on the reveres of Iuuuhb Coliihbia, some 

imd UuMe httvhig the kln^ 
of whichjhoweTst, ff en S 

t In ITW eome one Issue- _, — . „ .„. 

^be, holding I, pair of bcbIbb In the left hand and n Hag In the rl 



Amona; the genuine native issues we must include ivhat is known 
ae tlie j±nnapolis money of MARYLAND. Of these pieces the 
Shilling has on its obverse for device a wreath inclosing two hands 
olaepedjWiththe name of the issuer, J, Ciialmbe8, Annapous, On 
the i-everse are the figures of two birds pecking at a plant growing 
out of water, (canvas-back ducks?) with value and date 1783. The 
obverse of the sixpence is similar to that of the shilling, but on the 
reverse is an ornamental cross, with sixpence and date 1783, wliile 
the Three-penny piece with obverse as before, but without wreath, 
has on the reverse a laurel branch surmonnted by a wreath, with 

In 1659 Lord Baltimore, proprietor and Gtovernor of Mary- 
land, issued silver Shillings and Sixpences forthat colony. These 
]iieces are now all rare, while a silver Groat and a copper Penny 


may be called unique. On the obverse is a profile bust of Loi'd 
Baltimore facing the left, with the mint mark over his head and a 
oross patee, and the legend C^cilius, Dns. Teeb^-Maei^ &ct. On 
the reverse, are the arms of the Palatinate surmounted by a crown 
withRoman letters of value at the side, and the legend CEEScrrii: 

Another Colonial piece of the utmost rarity is that known as the 
CAROLINA halfpenny, having the device of an eiepnant with a 
legend across the reverse of the coin of " Gor Pbeseeve Caeolina 
& The Lords Peopribtoes," the date 1694 being below it. The his- 
tory of this piece is unknown. The device of the elephant is found 
on a token known as the London halfpenny, and issued in Ixindon 
during the reign of Charles the Second, bearing on its reverse the civ- 
ic arms. Such a device would very naturally be adopted by some of 
the East or West Indian trading companies of that date, and thus be- 
come a kind of symbol of foreign trade. Another specimen of 
this elephant halfpenny, bearuig the same date 169i, has for leg- 
end the words, " God preserve New England." The device of 

LDHBu nritli the date. On Che rEvecee Is tbe 

a curreDcy, but from Its rarity and the IlDe 

more probably only a pattern. The similarity 

many New Jersey cents and that on Boms 

le same dle^inker worked for the three 


J- l-HK WORLD ; 

an elephant appears, we may otsei-ve, on the coins issued till 
lately by the British Government for use in Ceylon. 


111 1722, William Wood, the author of the Irish Wood Half- 
pence of the same date, issued under a Royal Patent, for use 
in the Colonies, Two-Penny, Penny, and Halfpenny pieces. 
These pieces are known from their device as the ROSA AMERICA- 
NA series. On the obverse is a well-cut head of George the First, 
the counteipart of that on the Irish pennies, with the legend; Geoe- 
I h:b ; EEx, and on the 

reverse a full-blown rose in the centre. Above it ai'e the words 
uoHA AMKRIC4NA, 1722 (though two Varieties are without a 
date), and on a ribbon below it, are the woi-ds, utile dulci. On 
the obverse of the Penny and of the Halfpenny the legend is Geor- 
giits. Dei. Gratia. Hex, with the reverse as before. In 1723, the 
rose was surmounted by a crown, and, the date being changed, in 
other respects the issue resembled that of the preceding year. 
In 1733, there was another but very small issue of the Two- 
penny piece, the head being that of George the Second, and the 
rose having leaves and a bud. Only some three or four specimens 
of this are known ; probably only a few patterns were struck. 

Another of the foreign struck pieces is the VIRGINIA Half- 
penny, which bears on the obverse a bust of George the Tliii'd, 

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facing the right with the legend Gbokgius hi. bex. On the 
reverse are tlie arms of Great Britain, quartered, surrounded by the 
crown, which divides the date, 17 — IS, while the legend reads 


I'^irginia. Of this piece there are large and small jilanchcts 
and a number of vaiieties. In 1774, a silver issue was made with 
the Virginia arms crowned. 

It is not believed that any coins were ever issued by authority 
of the Legislature of NEW YORK, or that even any legal mints 
evei-existed in the State, A number of copper coins do indeed exist 
called New York pieces, but all of these were struck in England 
and sent to this country as a tradhig speculation. The earliest of 
these pieces has on the obveree a bust of Washington in army 
dr^s, with the legend Non Ti Virtute Vici ; on the reverse is 
Liberty seated and holding a pair of scales with a staff surmounted 
by a liberty cap,lying on her right arm. The legend is Neo Eboea 
CENSiB, and the date I786i We have also a coin bearing on the ob- 
vei'se a design, legend and date, the exact counterpai-t of the New 
Jersey Immunis Columbia piece, while on the reverse is a large 
eagle upright, with arrows in one talon and a laurel branch in the 
other, and the legend E pluhibds unum. 

In 1786 there appeared the Excelsior cent, having on the ob- 
verse the New York arms, an oval shield with device of the rising 
snn, the shield surmounted by an eagle with open wings and sup- 
ported by Justice and Liberty, with the word excklsiok in the ex- 
ergue. On the reverse is a roughly designed eagle, holding 
an olive branch in the left talon and arrows in the right; 
on the breast is a shield, while the head is suiTounded by thirteen 
stars ■with the legend b plueibum unum, and in the exergue 
1 786. Another issue of this coin, having a similar obvei-se, 
but the reverse altered in a few particulai's, eleven stai'S in place of 
thirteen surrounding the head, arrows in the left and olive in tlie 
right instead of the reverse, and bearing the date 1787 — was issued 
the next year. Of the same date is another piece with a bust in armor 

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on the obverse, and the legend nova hboeac, and on the reverse, 
Liberty, beaiing a most suspicions resemblance to the Hri- 
tannia on old English money, with the legend Viet, et Lib. 
date IT 87. Of this piece, two types with several varieties are 
known. There is another piece of this date having a fine device. 
On the obverse is an eagle with expanded wings standing on a 
rock, with the legend Nbo Eboeaceksis, 1V87, while round the 
base of the field is the word Excelsioe. On the reverse is an In- 
dian chief, standing with a bow ia one hand and an uplifted toma- 
hawk in the other ; the legend reading Libee Natus Xibektatem 
Depbndo. a variety of this coin has on the obvei-se a small oval 
shield with the sun rising; this is surmounted by a small ea^le 
with expanded wings, and is supported by the figures of Justice 
and Mercy; at the base is the date 178V, and below this the 
word ExcEisiOE. There is, however, beyond the agreement in de- 
sign with the preceding piece, nothing special about this coin to 
connect it with New York. 

Among the other tokens or local cents connected with New 
York, are those having on the obverse the device of a ship in full 
sail, and with Talbot Allum and Lee, New Yoek, and in the ex- 
ergue One cent. On the reverse is an erect fignre of Liberty, stand- 
ing beside a wool bale and holding a staff with liberty cap. The 
legendbeiugLiBEKTY andCosimeece, andthe date 1794, while on 
the edge we read, Payable at the stoeb of. This was plainly 
what we now call a store card or tradesman's token, an advertise- 
ment from its legends, a coin from its intrinsic value. A second 
issue, ivith some variation in the design, was made the next year, 


Toward the of the Colonial perio da large amount of copper 
tokens of thin planchets and light weight was in circulation, with a 
great variety of legends and devices, some interesting, not a few 
very stupid. Many of these were imported from England by 
tradei-s of doubtful honesty, while not a few were of home manu- 
facture, and struck, it is feared, mainly in Philadelphia. On the 
obverse of one of these is a laureated bust facing the right, with 
the legend Geoegius Triumph o. On the reverse is Liberty hold- 
ing a staff in her left hand, a laural branch in her right, while in 
front of her is a grate or paling of thirteen bars, with the legend, 
vocspoPOLi, and the date 1783. 

In 1783 there also appeared a copper piece, having on the ob- 
verse, in the center, the All-seeing Eye, with radiating beams, 
among which are tidi-teen stars, the legend being Nova Constel- 
LAiio. On the reverse is a wreath inclosing rtie letters u. s. in 
Roman characters, with the legend Libertas — Justitia, and 



the date 1783. The three types of this issue have different pnnc;- 
tiiations: In the first type constelatio is speHed with only 
one L ; the rays have blunt ends, while on the others these 

GOLD iMMUNSE cOLUMBTA. — Costdlatio SeHes 

There was another issue of these pieces in 1785, with 

similar devices. The legend on the obvei-se, however, has now 
coNSTBLEuVTio, while on the reverse the U. S. is in sciip, and the le- 
gend reading libertas et justitia, 1786. Of this also there' are 


thi-ee types, ditfermg as before by the spelling in consteli.atio, 
and by the punctuation. The ends of tlie second type of tlils 
year's issue are blunt, those of the others pointed. There was also 
an issue of this piece in 1786, having the U. S. in Komaii charac- 
ters, while the lepjenfl reads Libertas et Justitia. 

What is called the Kentucky Cent it 
piece, struck at Lancast3r, in England,J 

very pretty and tastefiil 
17'J1, On the obverse 

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are fllleen stars, forming a triangle, each ytar bearing the initial 
letter of one of the States, Kentucky, whence its name, being at 
the apex. On the reverse is a hand holding an open scroll on 
which we read, oue cause is just, while the legend is, UNANiJt- 
iTY IS THE BTBENQTH OF SOCIETY. Gound the edge of the coin 
we read. Payable in Lancaster, London or Bristol. Some were 
struck on a thin and some on a thick planchet. 

Akin in some respects to this Kentucky piece is the Confeder- 
atio Copper. On the obverse, a circle of rays whose center is 
occupied by thirteen atai's, the legendbeing Confede ratio, and the 
date 1785. On the reverse is the fignre of an Indian standing be- 
side an altar, with bow and an-ow in his hands, and hie foot on a 
crown, mth the legend, Ihimica Tyeannis AaiBEicAHA. 

Another of these imported coins bears on the obverse a female 
figure seated, with her left hand resting on a harp, the legend 
being, Nokth Amkeican Token, and the date in the exergue, 
I'ZSl. On the reverse is a brig sailing to the right, with the 
legend, Cosoibece. 

To this same period and to the same origin we must ascribe the 
IVaehmgton Cents. On the firat of these, known as the Small- 
head Washington, we have a bust of Washington in military 
dreas, facing the left, with the legend, Washington and Indb- 
PENDENOE, and in the exergue, 1783. On the reverse is Liberty 
seated, holding in her right an olive branch, and in her left a lib- 
erty pole with cap, the legend being, United States, the exergiie 
blank, but the letters x. w. i. in one comer and k. s. in the 
other. On the second type, the I>owbk'headedWnahington, we have 
Washington as before, with simply the word Washington, and 
in the exergue an oblong star of eight points. The reverse is the 
same as the obverse, with the legend, Onb Cent. The third 
type, called the Unity Cent, has on the obverse the bust of 
Washington laureated, facing the left, with Washington 
AND Ikdepbndence, and date 1783, the reverse consisting of a 
laurel wreath inclosing the words, One Cent, while the legend 


is, UxiTV Stati.;s o^ Ameisica, and in the ux'crgue, I-IOO. Tlie 
toiu'ili of tliis sene.'^, known as tlic J^arge-heaS Wtishington, 

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has Washiugtoii, legend and date as before, its reverse being a 
copy of that on the first type. 

In the beginnine of last centuiy copper coins were struck in 
Paris for the use of the Fi-ench Colonies generally. As at that 
time Louisiana belonged to France, certain of these pieces are 
known among collectors as Zotmiana Cents. Of those issued — 
1.21 and 1722 — the obverse presents two L's saltire wise, sur 
mounted with a crown, with the Anjou legend, ^it Nommi Bmn- 
ini Senedictiem, and on the revei'se, Oolontes .Vrimpoise, 1722. 
Another issue was made in 1767. These coins arc found with and 
without a couHterstam]!. 

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Although the Declaration of Independence had been a 
in 171&, it was not nntil several years afterwai'ds that a Federal 
coinage was issued. Up to that period the Colonies had either 
minted on their own account, or private individuals had struck or 
imported copper coins for cnn-ency. In 1787 the Goveniment 

issued the fiest United States Cent — now called the M-an/din 
penny, because cue of his terse sayings was inscribed upon it. 
On the obverse is a snn-dia! in the centre, shone upon by the sun, 
with the word Fugio on the right, and 1787 in the left, and in the 
exergue mind touk business. On the reverse is a circle formed of 
thirteen rings, representing the original number of the States ; 
the small circles on one type, plain, and on another, each bears the 
name of one of the States. The large circle incloses a smaller one, 
on which are inscribed thewordsUNrrED States; on one variety — 
there are seven — the order is reversed, and the words read, 
Status Untebd, while in the centre is the legend, we aee one. 

With the issue of this solitary but interesting piece, the Federal 
mint contented itself from 1787 to 1791, when the present 
mint was established and at once proceeded to prepare dies for 
new issues. In 1791, there appeared three pattern pieces, now 
called the Eagle cents. On the obverse of the first is a bust of 
Washington, facing to the left, with the legend, Washington 
Peesidknt, with the date, 1791, in the exergue. The reverse re- 
sembles that of the Massachusetts cent, an eagle with expanded 
wings, the body nearly covered with a heai-t-shaped shield, the right 
talon holding a laurel branch, the left a bundle of an-ows, and on 
a scroll, held by the beak, are the words U>-um E Pi.uRinus, with 

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the legend, One Ce^'t. On the edge we read, United States 
OF Ameeica. This is now known as the Large eagle cent. On 
the second of these pieces we have a similar obverse, without the 
liate, however ; on the reverse is an eagle, with upraised wings, 
that rise above its head and are connected by a cloud-wreath, 
between which and the eagle are eight stars ; on the eagle's breast 
is a shield with stripes, erosswaye at the top ; the date in the 
exergue and legend as before. This is known as the SmaR eagle 
cent. The third has an obverse similar to that on the large eagle 
cent, while on the reverse the eagle's wings are upraised, but are 
only level with the head ; the clouds are wanting ; the stai-s are 
six in place of eight in number, and the legend above is cent, in 
place of ONE CENT. There was a small experimental issue of these 
pieces, which are now mnch sought for by collectors, butWaahing- 
ton so determinedly opposed Sie placing of his effigy on the 
national coinage that the device was rejected, and the ties them- 
selv^, it is said, were broken. 

In 1792 another piece was issued having on the obverse a bust 
of Washington, with the legend, G. Washington, Pbesident I., 
and the date in the exergue. On the reverse is an eagle with 
upMused wings, between the tips are fifteen stars ; on the breast a 
shield, as before, the legend being Usn-ED States of America. 
Washington, it is said, was much pleased with this service, but his 
fatal objection to it was the numeral after the word President. 
On another piece of the same date we have a naked bust of 
Washington, filleted, facing right, with date below, and a revei-se 
copied from the third pattern of 1791. 

There is yet one other pattern piece of this year that is some- 
times met ; the obverse is apparently a copy of that of the Cent 
or secojW pattera piece of 1791, while the reverse is a copy of that 
on the lai-ge eagle aif/i-Hl pattern of that date, with one star rest- 
ing on the head of the eagle and a i-ow of twelve stars connecting 
the wings in place of the legend Cent. 


Eagle. — Of the gold coinage of the United States there is consid- 
erable variety. The first piece strack was an Eagle or Ten dollar 
gold piece, in 1795, having on the obverse a female head 
with large Uberty cap. The legend is Libbkty. Round the edge 
of the field ai-e five six-pointed ^tai-s to the right and ten to the 
left. On the reverse is an eagle ith e i an iel wings, holding a 
wreath in its beak and a long ol e 1 nch n it talo s, the legend 
being United States or Ameri a. 

In 1796 the Eagle had sixteen stars to na k the idmissionof 
Tennessee into the Union. In 1797 tl e ob e se be g unchanged, 
the eagle on the reverse has a li ge \ eld o t b ea t, the wmgs 

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are uplifted and their tips connected by a wreath of clouds with 
thirteen stars ; a scroll across the eagle's neck has E Pluribub 
Untjm, while the legend round the edge of the field is United 
States OP Ambeica. From 1798 to 1804, inclusive, the stars on the 
obverse were reduced to thirteen. No Eagles, properly so called, 
were issued after this date, Iii 1838, however, a piece of equal 
valne, but called a Ten Dollai- piece, was issued, having on tlie 
obverse Libertyfacing left,ha\'lng her hairtied up into a knot, and 
on a band the word Libeety, with thirteen stars round the field, and 
date in the exergue ; and on reverae an eagle with shield and uplift- 
ed wings. The legend is United States op America, and below 
the eagle we re'v^ Tb-v D In 1839-40, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1. and 8 
similar pieces i\eie issued In 1849 a Double Eagle or Twenty 
Dollar piece was isMud, md cmitiiuied to be issued down to_ 1857. 

IIai.f-Eagle. — The Half -eagles of 1795 to 1804, inclusive, resem- 
bled the Eagles of those years, the device of 1804 remaining in use 


during 1805, 6, and 7. In 1808 we have tlie Matron head, 
facing left, weai-ing a loose cap with Libbett on its band, with 
date below aud thirteen stai's round the edge of the field. On the 
reverse is an eagle, shield, and uplifted wings, connected by a 
scroll having E R:.0KIbo8 Unum and 5 D. in the exergue. This 
device appears on the Halves of 1809 to 15 inclusive. During 
1816 and 17 there was no gold coinage. The old device was then 
resumed, and is found on the Halves of 1818 to 1833 inclusive. 

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On the Half of 1834 the scroll with its legend, E. Piuei- 
Bvs TJnum, is omitted, the device being othei-wise imchanged 
from the preceding years, and so remained for 1835-6, and 7 — 
the last year of me Half Eagle. In 1838 "Five Dollak" 
pieces were issued, with device sirailai' to that on the Ten doUar 
pieces of this year, and ao again from 1839 to 1867 inclusive. 

Quakter-Eagle. — The fii'st Quarter Eagle was issued in 
1796, and in device and legend resembled the other gold coins of 
the same year. Toward the close of the year another device was 
employed, the stars being left off the obverse, and on the reverse 
the eagle is entirely changed, its wings are expanded, on the 
breast is a shield, the wings are uplifted anA their tips connected 
with a wreath of clouds, below which are sixteen stars, while a 
scroll in the beak of the eagle has the words, E Plueibus XTnum. 
In 17fl7-8 and 9 the device was unchanged. In 1800-1 and 2 no 
Quartei'-Eagles were issued. In 1803-4-5-6 and 7 the Quarter re- 
appeai-ed, with device as before. In 1808 its device resembled 
that on tiie Half-Eagle of this year, when it was di'opped till 1821. 
Dming 1822-3 it was absent, but was present from 1824 to 1827. 
In 1828 it was again wanting, re-appearing again in 1829-30-31- 
32 and 33. In 1834-5-0-7 it bore the device of the Half-Eagle 
of this year, again in 1838 changing to become like the Eagle of 
the same date. There was no change in 1839-40 or 41, (except 
that in this yeai- the letter C appeai-s on the reverse, indicating 
tliat the issue was intended for California), nor in 1842-3-4-5-6- 

I'lEiL — In 1854 a Three-Dollar piece was is- 
m ill lie id To represent an Indian princess, with 

three dollar piece. 

upiight ^iretth ot ftithci-s, on whose band is the word Libeett, 
while round the iield we read. United States of America. On 

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the reverse is a tobacco wreatli, inclosing value and date. Simi- 
lar coins were issued in 1865-6 and 1. 

One Dollar. — In 1849 a One-Doliar piece was issued, having 
an obverse like the other coins of the date, but on the reverse a 

wreath enclosing, 1 Dollab, 1849. So also in 1850-1 and 2. In 1853 
thedoUarwas wanting, but re-appeared in 1854 with an obverse re- 

^ that of the Three -Dollar piece of the same year, a device 
it continued to bear down to the present. 



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DoLLAE. — 111 1794 a Silver I>o!lar was issued having on the ob- 
vei-se a female head facing right with flowing hair; the date 
is in the exergue, seven stars are on the one side and eight on the 
other of the word Liberty. On the reverse, an eagle as if about 
to fly is standing within a wreath, while the words united states 
OF AMERICA are round the border of the field. On the edge of the 
coin are the words one, dollar, oe, unit, hundeed, cents. In 
11^0, the Dollar was of last year's type till near the close of the yeai-, 
when Liberty's bust was made larger and draped, and the haii- tied 
by a ribbon or fillet at the back of the head. On the reverse the 
eagle is smaller and is standing on a elond. The Dollar of 1796beai-s 

SILVER DOLLAR OF 1795, ( 2d 'lYPE,)- 

the same device. In 1797 the device is unchanged, but on some 
dollars there are fifteen stars, the efligy facing seven; on otliei-s 
there are sixteen, the effigy facing on some six and on others seven. 

In 1798, the obverse is unchanged, except tliat there are only 
thirteen stars, six in front of the effigy. Oil the fir.ft issue, the 

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reverse still beat's the small eagle, lint on a second issue later in 
the year the device resembles that on the second type of the gold 
quarter eagle of 1796. 

The dollar of 1799 has always 13 stars on the reverse, 
resembling that of 1798, having however, on one type eight 
stai-8 in front of the effigy and seven behind, and on another 
seven in front and six behind. In 1800-1-2-3-4-5 dollars were 
issued resembling that of 1799, and then none were strnck till 
18-^6, when the beautiful Gobiecht pattei'n was prepared, having 
Liberty seated beside a shield, and holding a speai- and cap, with 
date, and on the reverse an eagle flying across a field studded with 
twenty-sis lai'ge and six small stai-s, and legend " united states of 


In 1837 there were no dollars issued ; but in 1838, Gobi-echt's 
device w^ adopted, differing from the pattern of 1836 only in, 
having thirteen stars round the edge of the field of the obverse 
■while the field of the reverse is without stars. It is said that only 
eighteen of this design were issued. The dollar of 1839 resembled 
that of the previous year, while on that of 1840 there is a new 
device. The obverse is as before, Liberty seated, facing right, 

but the reverse is an eagle about to fly, with expanded wings, 
and holding in its talons arrows and laure! branch, with legend 

tTNITED STATES OP AMERICA, ONE DOL. PrOm this date doWIl tO 1873 

the dollar was regularly issued, and always of the one device. 

Trade Dollar. — In 1873 there was issued whatis known aa the 
Trade Dollar, a piece somewhat heavier than the ordinary coin, and 
having a device somewhat different. It is intended chiefly for cii'- 
uiation abroad, and has been issued every year sin ce. 

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^.HALF-DotLAK. — ^The first Half-dollar was issued in 1794 and re- 
sembled in device the dollar of tliat year. Tlie Half-dollar of 
1795 bears the same device as that of 1794. In 1796 and 1 it re- 
sembled the Dollara of these years ie=pccti^ch There ill's then 


no Half issued till lSOl-2-3-4-5-6 ai:td 7, when it resembled the 
Dollars of these years respectively. Toward the close of this year 

HALF-DOLLAR Ol'' 1803. 

there (iSOV), was a complete change of the ilesigii; Liberty faced 

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306 THE coiNAiJEfi OF THE wor.T.n ; 

left, weai's a loose cap with libeetx on the band, having seven etara 
in front of the effigy and six behind, with date in the exergue. On 
the revei-ae an eagle preparing to fly and holding an-ows and olive 
branch in its talons, over its head a scroll with the words e. pluri- 
Bus UNUM, while around the edge of the field we read trsiTBD 
STATES OF AMERICA, and below the eagle 50 cekts, a device contin- 
ued each yew down tol815inclasive. In 1816 there was no silviT 
coinage, but in 1817 the Half-dollar was resumed and continued 
to be issued regularity down to the year 1 '^36 inclusive without any 
change except that m 1826 the ta vere smill anl in 1827 were 
large. In 1834 there were large ads ill la e In 837 the scroll 


with its legend was i-emoved from the reverse and 50 cents took 
the place of 50 c, while the edge was milled. On a late issue of 
1839 and during the whole of 1840 Liberty is seated, with date 
below and six stai's in front of the effigy and seven behind. . "The 
reverse is as before with h/llf dol. substituted for 50 cests. This 


device was continued down to 1852 inclusive. In 1853 a barbed 
arrow was placed on each side of the date on the obverse and 
the background of the reverse was covered with rays. In 1854 
the rays were wanting, and in 1856 tlie barbed an'ow.s were re- 




moved. In 1866-7 a scroll was placed on the reverse bearing In 
God toe Trust. In 1873 on a second issue, and in 1874, an ai-row 
head was placed on each side of the date in the exergue. In 18(5 
and 1676 the arrow-head was absent. 


QuAETEE-DoLLAE. — The tirat Quarter-dollar was issued in 1786, 
with device lesemblmg the doUai of the same -vear. The next is- 
sue of the QuTiter took place in 1804 igain lesembling the dollar 
of its yeai, the tame devitt being ustd on the issues of 1805-6-7. 
There weie thtn n Qi^tteii lis ltd nntil 181^, when a new is- 

sue resembled the Half-dollar of same year. In 1816 there was no 
coinage. In 1817 the Quarter was absent, but in 1618 it re-ap- 


veared with device of I81S, which it retained each year till 1825 
inclusive. In 1826 there was no Quarter issued. Re -appearing in 

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182'7 and 1828, it -was again wanting in 1829 and 1830, In 1831 
the size was reduced, the scroll left off, the edge raised, and re- 
mained so down to 1839 inclusive. In 1840 Liberty was seated, 
with the datebelow, while on the reverse quae, dou toofe the 


place of 25 c. This continued for each year down to 1853, when 
the backgi-ound of the eagle was filled in with raj's, and on a later 
issue of same year an arrow was placed on eneh side of the date on 
the obverse, a device retained during 1855 a.nd IfioO, then dropped 
to re-appear in 1874 alone. In 1'^5-i the lays weie dropped, and in 


1887 a scroll appeared, with the words, /*i God %oe trust, since 
which time the Quarter has been issued each year with the same 
device. In 1873 arrow heads wei-e plaoed beside the date. 

The Dime. — The first Dime or Ten-cent piece was issued in 1796 
and resembled the Dollar of that year. In 1797 there was a 


complete change on the reverse, as our illustration shows, and on the 
obvei'se in place of the fifteen stai-s that had appeared on tlie Dime 

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of tliej previous year, only thirteeD, witli reference to tlie " Oid 
Thirteen " were placed, on the obverae. In 1799 there were no 
Dimes issiieri. In 1801-2-3-4-5 the early device was resumed, with 

thirteuii stavs in ohica of sixteen on the revci-sc. In I80C-7-S there 
were no Dimes. 'Tn 1800 the device resembled that of the II;df- 

. . t Uf^e each y. 
nnlii ThJO, ^^h^□^ 


with ib'.: old device, which weus k jtumc I on the Dimew oi' IS21 
to 183(i inclusive, excepting f* t ni whuli there was i:o Dime 

icd. In ISSV the device was unchanged, but on a second issue, 
our illusti'ation shows, both obverse and reverse were changed, 

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while the stare reappear on the obverse of that of 1838,* though 
in all other respects the device is similai', the Dime of every year 
since bearing it unchanged. In 1853 the device was unchanged, 
but on a second issue an arroiv-head was placed on either side of 
the date, and retained during 1854 and 1855, but removed in 1856, 
since which time the Dime has been issued eveiy yeai- with device 
unchanged, except in 1873-4, when th<i arroivs re nppc sired. 

HAiF-DiME.— The first Half -Dime ii-a*? issued in 1704, iiiid 
sembledthe dollar of the same year, that of 1795 behig similar. 
I'lQO the fillet-head of Lihertv is used, and X\\c TTsilf-Dhno ros 

hies the dollar. In 1797 the same dei"ice is used, but there are 
now eight stars facing the efflgy, and seven behind it. ^ In 179^ 
and 1799 thei-e were on Half -Dimes. In 1800 the stars were reduced 
to thirteen, six facing the effigy and seven behind it ; and so, also, 
on the Half-Dimes of 1801^2 and 3. In 1804 no Half-Dime was 
issued, and that of 1805 bore the old device, Tlie Half-Dime^ 
was then discontinued until 1820, whoii a new df^vioe appeared. 


used every yeai' down to 1835 inclusive. In 1837 the Ha!f-Dime ap- 
peared at first with the device unchanged, but, on aseco^t? issue it re- 
sembled the Dime of this year, having l^iberty seated, without 
(itars. in 1838 tbii-teen stai-s are placed round the edge of the 

* The New Orlenna m 

■& Uic 5tarie?5 olivo 



obverse, a device tliat has dnce been used every year to the 
present. On n second iHsnii in 18o3, an arrow was placed on each 

side of the date, and retained during 1854 and 1855, absent in 
1856, but reappearing in 1873, when the issue ceased. 

Thbkb Cent Piece. — In 1851, the firat Three Cent piece was 
issued, having on the obverse a large star, ivith ustted states of 
AMERICA, and date, and on the reverse a large C, with the numer- 
als III in th<> center and thirteen stars around the edge of the field. 


issue down to 1873, when the further issue of the piece was 
fitoppe'I, ufter only a few of that year had got into circulation. 

IVenty Cent Piece. — In 1873 a Twenty Cent piece, without 
milled edge, was issued with the old device of Liberty on the oh- 

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\-Qrse, Imt on the reverse a very liigh-shoiilderecl eagle resembling 
that on the Trade Dollar. The legend reads xibited states oi" 
AMERICA, with TWENTY CENTS iu the exerguc. Tliis coin has been 
issued chiefly for use in the Pacific States, and has appeai-ed in 

COPPER cri^f-VE 

Cent.— In 1 j 

This Cent ivasi s ed n h e d C 

having on the bverae a uc 

chain inclosing e w d on d 

S TA'j'F.s oi'' Air E n 

i-jirltt, ivith th 


LiJSER'i'v, iiiid in the exei'gne the date lVO-3. Of this form thoi't- 
iiue four types, on onu of which the legend roadis Ajieiij, n-itli 
.•■evci-al varieties. The second form is known a.s the Wreath Cent, 
having on the obverae, in place of the ciiain, a wi'onth 
witii many ben-ies inclosing the 
stems] E,of ^ the wreath are tied wit 

CAP CENT OF 1793, 

reverse ;js head of Liberty with liaiv unbound and Hom'- 
ing loosely, and in the exergue a twig with leaves. Of this Cunt 
thore are two types — a small held with many varieties and a l;n-ge 

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lioad with only a few. The third form is the Libert}/ Cap Cent, 
having, as before, a wreath inclosing the words gnu imsi ; bnt 
now, thrown oyer tlie left shoulder of Liberty is a pole eunnount- 
ed by a Liberty cap. Li 1794 and 1795 this waa the device need. 
It also appeared in 1796, but on a second isKue was replaced by 
the Fillet-head. !From this the cap and pole were di'Opped, the hair 
tied at the back of the head by a ribbon, while the bust was draped. 
Of this pattern ai-e the Cents of the years 1797 to 1808, inclusive. In 
the latter part of this year, however, a very matronly head of Lib- 
erty, with lier forehead encircled by a band bearing the word 
LiBBBTY, was placed on the coins, while thirteen stars took the place 
of the legend and the date In the exergue. 

On tlie revei-se of this Cent, the wreath has become a circular 
garland inclosing the words cite ceni-. This device was used from 
1808 to 1838 with the followmg variations. In 1815 there were 
no Cents issued. Of the Cent of 1817, there were two issues, one 
liaving thirteen and the other fifteen stars on the obverse. 
In 1819 and in 1825 the date appeared in both lai'ge and small 
issues. In 1926, the hair of Liberty, which had resembled a loose 
cap, waa made up into a double knot, according to the fawhion 
of that day. Of the Cent of 18.?9, there were four varieties, 
one having the head of 1838, the hair being tied with twine ; for 
another, beads were used ; on the third, the head is somewhat 
small, while on the fourth and last, the haii' has a peculiar arrange- 
ment, the dot underthe ONE, andthe line under the CENT being both 
absent. In 1840 and 1844 the dates are in lai-ge and small figures. 
Of I84;i there are three varieties: 1st, resembling that of 1842, 
but with date 1843; 2d, with obverse of '42, and reverse of '44, 
and ."id, with devices of the Cent of 1844. Of 18d5, we have the 
dates in straight and in slanting hguies, and in 1857 the last of the 
large Cents wt> issued vMth the dates in large and small type. 

lUKEL L.i:M OF 1856. 

In liS56, there was issued a small luckel Cent, having on the 
obverse an eagle flying aci-oss the field, the legend being unitej) 
STATES OP AMEEicA, and in the exergue the date of 1856, while on 
the reverse are the words one ckiti' inclosed by a tobacco wreath. 
This device was ret^ned for 1857 and '58, but was changed in 1859 
for the head of an Indian wearing a coronet of feathere, liberty 

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being printed round their base, witii tlie legend as before, and 
date to suit, while on the reverse the wreath is oak. In 1860, there 
was another change, the obverse remaining as before, but on the 

reverse there was an oat wreath with aiTows at the base, and a 
small shield at the top, with the words ojs'e cent enclreed. In 1864 
the mstal was changed from nickel to bronze. Since then the de- 
vice has remained unchanged to the present. 

Half-Cbnt, — The fii-st Half-cent was issned in 1793, and resem- 
bled the Liberty Cap cent of that year, except that Iiibertj f acew 
left. In 1794, 3, 6 and 7, a similar device was employed — Liberty 
facing right. In 1798, no Half-cents were issued, and of 1799 
none are known. In 1800 the fiUet-head is employed. In 1801 
there was no Half-cent, but in 1802-3-4-5-6-7-9, there were Half- 
cents of the old device. In 1809 the Half -cent had the matron head 
of Libei-ty, as on the cent of the previous yeai', a device retained for 
1809, 1810, and 1811. There was now no issue of Half -cents till 
1826, when the same old device re-appears, as also on that of 1826. 
In 1827 there was no Half-cent, but in 1828 it appeai-ed, having thir- 
teen stars on one issue and only twelve on another. In 1829 the 
Half-cent appeared, but not in 1880. It did so, however, in 1831-2 
;i-4-5 and 6. It is then absent until 1840, when it appeared mth 
the Knotted-head, tbe hmr being tied on a double knot on the back 
of the head — a design it i-etained each year down to 1857 — when 
the issue of Half-cents was discontinued. 

Two Cnjrr. — In 1864, there appeared a veiy pretty TWO-CKsr 
piece in bronze, having on the obverse a large 2 with cbsts below 
it, inclosed in a wheat wreath, with the legend Usited SrAXES of 
America; on the reverse is a large shield with wossed arrows 
behind, and above, a scroll with legend Is God we Teust, with date 
1S64 in exergue. These pieces were issued regularly till April 
1873, when they were discontinued by Act of Congress. 

White Metal. — In 1865, there was issued a thkbe-cbnt piece 
in a white metal composition, having large numerals HI, inclosed by 
a.n olive wreath on the obverse and a female head with bandeau 
beai-ing the word Lieeety on the reverse with legend Usitbd 
States of America and date 1865. Since that date this piece has 
been issued regularly down to the present year. 

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Five Cekt. — In 1866, a Five-c&it nickel piece was issued having 
on the obverse a large 5 siin-ounded by a circle of thirteen stars and 
separated from each other by rays, with the legend United 
States op Ambkica, and in the exergue the word cents. On the 
reverse is a shield, with olive branches overhanging, and the legend 
In God wb Teust, with the date 1866 in the exergue. In 1867, 
the rays were omitted from the obverse, and since then, these 
piecei? have been issued unchanged down to the present year. 

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The coined mom ^ ciiLiilatmg thioiiah Spini^h Amfiioii, dowit' 
to about 1820, ton-iisted of jiieces corned iitliei id Mexico or in 
Spain itself. Fiom W^O to 1770, flat, iiregaliilj shiped pieces 
of hammered silvei, ronghh stamped with the ii-ms of Si)ain, and 

MEXICAN GLOlil, 1)1 

of all values, from the doubloon down, and known ejs Cob^money^ 
were in circulation. The date on these pieces is always defective, 
the numeral of the lOoii Ikujs Oi\ lys omilted— 1750, foi- in- 


Mtance, reading as only 750, and so on. Toward the close of last 
century the Globe dollars of Charles III.— the two globes repre- 

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Beiiting the old aud the new worlds as subject to Spsuii — and the 
FiUar dollars of Charles IV., were common. In the beginning 
of this century Fordiiiiiud VIT, issued at Caraccas his well- 


known pieces of four and two Keals. He also issued tliiu cop- 
per coins having a lion and a shield, with cross crowned, and and 
DE 1818. Caeaoas, and on revei-se his monogram. In ISIO 
Hidalgo, a Mexican priest, commenced that revolutionary strug- 
gle which Insted ti!I 182], when national independence was si'- 

cured. During all this period the royalist mints kept issuing dol- 
lars beai'ing a bust of Ferdinand VIL ^ud the Spanish arms, while 

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the Republican leaders also kept issuing money, each party 
restamping the coins issued by the other. "We have thus dollars 
of the Zacateoas mint down to 1821, with the Spanish aims — tlie 
crowned shield iDetween pillars. On the obverse of one of 1811 
there is a rude impression of a volcano and the letters L. V. 0. 
beneath it. In 1812 the Republican General Vargas restruck the 
obvei-se of dollar's with Ms own name, placing the date across t!ii? 
field, and on the reverse effaced the royaUst inscription by t\w 
legend b. caxa dk sombreekte, his headquarters. In 1813 the 
Republican leader Mordos issued a cast dollar, half and quarter, 
having on the obverse a bow and aiTOW within branches, and 
below the word Sun, denoting the Army of the South ; while on tlie 
reverse are the value and date within a wreath. 

In 1821 we have the coinage of Iturbide — AuGnsTUS I. On 
the medal money is a military bust, and on reverse ai'6 two wolves 
eltmbing a tree. On his ordmary money the bust is bare, and on 
reverse a email crowned eagle erect on a caotus ; and on a variety 
a larger eagle stooping to fiy. 


Ii] 1823 this monarchy was i-eplaced by a Republic, when the 
nints of Mexico, Ihiranffo and Guatioxato issued dollars having 

on the obverse a liberty cap and rays, and on reverse a large 
evook-nrnTced eagle with snate. From 1824 the eagle was small, 

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utraiglit-neckecl, and stood upright, si Liberty cap rositiiig on rays 
l>eiiig on the revei-se. 

During 1864-5-6 and V thebustof ^teCTm«K«« was on the coins, 
■with his ai-ms on therevevse, the 10, 6 andoopper I cent pieces bearing 


:i crowned eagle. Republican dollars were, however, also isBUod ii 
1866 and 1867, having the liberty eap and raye M-itli nnerownei 
«agle. On the ovevthroi of tl e E j e tl I ep bl c ido] ei 

the device on the present o s 

DOr.i.AK (oE PEao) Oi-' 1HU9. 

On JMexican dollais with the liberty cap, the legend (..onsists of 
tiie value, place of mintage, year of issue, mint master^s initials 
and degree of fineness. The following are the principal mint 
marks ; fi or M", E", M", or GC, for Mexico. Z' for Zacatecas, 
1810. G" for Ghtanaxato, 1812. D° for Durango, 1811. P' for 
San Lim Potosi, 1829. C* for Chihualma, 1811-14; 1822. G^ 
for Guadalaxnra, 1814. ME. for Jla^an. G.C, for Guadalupe 
T CaJlao, 1844. C. for OuUocm, in Sinaloa, 1846. 

Copper coins havt.' been isf^tied at Jalisco having bow and quiver. 

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'i2<> THE COIS.UiES Oi;' TllJi WOKLO ; 

M-ith an unfurled flag, and legend Estado Libre de Jalisco, 182!), 
nnd on reverse Liteity seated, holding pole and cap, with mi 
ijuarto. At Sonora, with Liberty seated, holding pole and cap 
with a cornucopia at her feet, ■with tma qua/rtiUa de real 1859, and 
on the reverse the Mexican eagle within X/S* y Sob" de Sonora. 
At Sinora, with small head of Liberty between branches. At 
Chihualuni, with figure of Indian chief, i\-ith bon- and arrow, ote. 


Embraces the States of Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nii'- 
ai'agua and Coeta Rica, On the gold coins bearing the names of 
these States and circulating throughout the confederacy, the device 
is that of the sun in the sty, shming above "% row of mountain 
peaks, with the legend itEPTjni.iL,A dbt cuntbo de AitcKicv On 
the revei-se, a tree, with value, and legend lh kk ( ntsi v ie uxdo. 
On the silver and coppei- coins, the snn le lepreientnl i ju'-t rising 

from behind the mountains, hut in other respects the devices aru 
similar. Those of Costa liiea, 1865, have its arms on a plain 
shield i-esting against a trophy of spears. 


Is the present title of what has been Colombia, and then consisted 
of New Grenada, Venezuela and Ecuador, but "now embraces the 
States of Panama, Bolivar, Canca, Antioquia, Cnndinamarca, Boy- 
nca, Santander and Magdalena. In 1819, New Granada {Mieva 
'■(■rranada) issued a dollar, having an Indian head, with crown of 
feathers, and on the i-everse a pomegranate (the arms of Granada 
in Spain), The same device is on the conis of Cundinamaroa, is- 

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sued'in 18 ] I " the Repnlhc t Colo b mde Sf of 
the femdle b at ot I b ty a d on e -se h f e c ossed by 
bow an I I 1 ee t c cop 

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»01.].AU OK NV 

1839, a coniiicopia, above which is a condor flying. On that 
of 1848, the shield rested on four flags, surmoniited by the condor, 


Jb the diminutive ot'Venezia — Venice, and w;is the name given in 
1499 to an Indian village, built like the British oranoges on piles 
«et in the water. During the war of Independence, Venezuela 
formed pait of the Republic of Colombia. In 1815 the republican 
leadei-a issued from Gm-acae a coS-lilte peseta of two reals. In 1821 
there was the same from Ferd. VII., having the Spanish avtas, with 
F. 1, and on reverse two pUlars, with the inscription 2 (SeaU) plv — 
SVL — TEA. B. 1821 — S, while below is Garaeas. The Repub- 
lican money of 1824 has only pai't of this inscription, 2 — u — stl 
— TK — 24. In 1843 one, one-hall' and quai-ter copper centavos wert- 
issued, having a female bust of Liberty, and on revei-sc value and 
date. In 1852, a copper centavo and half-centavo were issued, 
having lai-ge head of Liberty and eepl'iilioa im -vs'ST,zvii\.K, with, 
on reverse, value and date, between bi-anches. 


Under the name of Quito, was foi'merly part of Venezuela, and 
as such included in the Republic of Colombia. On the break up 
of that union, in 1831,',Qnito became independent, taking the name 
of Eaw,dor, its territory lying on both sides of the equatorial 
line. The coinage is very limited, the money of the sniTounding 
l^tates circulating fi-eely. On the gold coins is a female bust of 
Liberty, and on reverse two mountain peaks with a condor on 
each, the sun above. On the silver coins of 1836 there are a 
fasces crossed by bow and an-ow, between two cornucopias, with 

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j'eversc like tliat on the i 
ia a bust of BoHvar. The 

On a doubloon of 1847 there 
of Ecuador are a gold Condor, 


or Ten Dollar piece, with its }iali', the E.scudo; silver l^naa, ■A.ntl 
copper Contavo and half. 


Commenced its revolt against Spain in 1821, and issued its own 
first dollar in 1822. Spain, however, did not acknowledge its in- 
dependence till 1824, and continued issuing money for Peru until 
that year, so that for this period we have two sets of coins, often 
reatamped, confusing the collector. 

On the Peruvian dollar of 1822, the obverse bears the ai-ms, 
with I'er" IAI»-e, and on the reverse thei'e is a column and scroll 

sapported by Virtue and Liberty. In 1825 the obverse had. Lib- 
erty standing, in her right hand sometimes a staff and cap, and 
sometimes a spear, with her left hand resting on a shield, and 

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reverse, the aime on a shield, with Reptib Peruana. In !S30 th<j 
Republic divided into Nortli and South Peru. Ilie dollar for 
North P('m retained tlie last-mentioned device, hut hore the words, 

M:( yor-Pm.mna, mtli for ^r. m. 
\\^-^'} South Puruisfiued from Cukco i 
with Repuh Sud Peruuaa, and on i 

of ]l,iiua. In 
a iiiinaiid stars, 
and voleano, 

with sliip an I 

^lole aiKl cap s 

shield. One nl 

on ohA-(?rae, ^ th P 

pi!i8inclosing\a,l e Ji 

Twenty Dolli s val e an 1 


led o Sol Dobli 
do, and lledio Escu lo a%lve DoUa Half Pes t D ne 
jV[eilio Dinero; copper Centavo and Half. 

d rays 
) nueo- 
' Sol of 

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Effticted its iiidepeiiclence in 1824, through the labors of MlZih- 
ertador, General Simon Bolivar, from, -whom it takes its name. On 
its coins of 182'? is a military bust of Bolivai-, with Ms name below, 
and on reverse, two lamas lying under a tree, with six stars 
above. On those of 1842 the bust is laureated and bare, and witli- 

ontname In 1850 the bust is that of General Beku, with reverse, 
Hercules' treading down a dragon. In 1858 the dollar had a 
legend ivithin a wreath, and on revci-se the ai-ms of the Republic. 
In 1865 the bust of General Melgai-ejo was placed on the coinage, 
while the present issue resembles that of 1858. The m. ji. is p. t. 
s. I, (Potosi,). 


Began its struggle for liberty in 1810. The Republican dollar of 
Santiago (m. m. §.), bears a volcano in action, and in wreath 
above, vs teso, with reverae, a high column surmounted by globe 


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aii'l htai, 'VMtli ditf., 1S17, 
(liini,(d on trie meiSL to 
olneisc "V stii 07I i vludiT si 

r THE woELit ; 

incxeig'ut 111 1834- the dm 
a mmdoi with broKn rhiin, 
.tmouiitLd U\ I jdiiiiK ;iidi(iil 

liranchcn, with EBi'uni.icA ds chile. In 1853 the condor suif- 
poi-tod aa oval shield, while the half dollars of 1836 represent thi.' 
condor flying with a broken chain. The eopper ocntavo and half- 
contavo have a large stai- on obverse, witli value inclosed by 
briiTiclics on reverse. In IS75 the device was again changed. 


Am it is now called (the former being the Spanish and the latter 
a LatiniKed word for silver), was formed in 1810 by the union 
of provinces tJiat had been subject to the Spanish Viceroy of Peiii. 
Oil a doUar of 1813 the device is that of the sun, with legend, 
PKOvixciAS DEL Eio i>B LA PLATA, and on revei-se, the arras of the 
Confederacy, two hands supporting a Liberty pole and cap. Tlie 

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chief oiiut is at Jiioja; m.m.: k. a., ov e. In 1822 iUit'DOs Aj-res 
issued a coppei' declmo, Jiaving tlie arms between brandies crossed, 

and on reverse, 

ten deoinio piece, having a phi 

XAOioNAL, JJUENOS AYEEs, 182V. The Dollar of 1838 has a hust of 
General Rosas on the obverse, or the Arms of the Confederacy, 
with the monntain of Potosi on the reveree, as in onr illustration. 


once formed part of Buenos Ayres, but in 1825 seced- 
ed. On the dollar are the arms (scales, a castle, a 
horse, and a cow, in quarters), aurmoiintod by the rising enn, and 
inclosed by oak branches ivith eepitbijca oeibntab del ubugtjay 
and date in exergue, and on reverse nine stai-s in a ring inclosing 
value, and sine db mohtkvidbo. A copper twenty oentesimas 
■was issued in 1864, and a forty and a twenty centesinias in ISSV. 

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Honduras is the middle state of Central America. Foi-merly it 
was anbjeet to Spain, but is now an independent Eepnblic, having 
itM own coinage. The nickel coins consist of 1, i, -J and J reals. 
The copper peso of 1862, Pi-ovincial Gcovemment, has tlie sea, 
two tniTeta connected by an ai'ch, liberty cap; on reyeree a 
mountain with feathered crown above and comncopias at the side. 
Those of 1871 have on the obverse the legend diosuxioxlibektad, 
15 DE SEPT. 1321. In the centre ai-e two branches that enclose a 
tree whose stem divides tlie value, while above the tree are eleven 
stai-s ; on tbe reverse are two inverted cornucopias, forming with 
the flags a trophy and oval centre; outside of this are the words 
BEPUJiLicA DE HONDURAS roiind a small pyramid, below which is the 
date, If^Vl, whde a coronet of feathers surmounts the whole dc- 


under tbo leadership of Dr. Francia, threw off the Spanish yoke 
in 1814, and formed one of the original Argentine Republic pro- 
vinces. On its coins are tlie arjiis — a lion guarding, or sui)portiug, 
a Liberty pole with cap. 


was taken possession of by the Portuguese in 1300. In 1806, on 
the entrance of the French troops into Portugal, the Regent 
.Tohn rcmovcrl hi« onurt fvom Lisbon to IJii) ile -lani'ii'o. On his 

return to Europe in 1821, Brazil, under the leadBrshi]) of John's 
son, J)om Fedro, revolted, and in 1822 became independent. Pre- 

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vions to 1833 the silver coinage consisted of Spanish -American 
dollai-s, restaniped with the Brazilian arms. On the present coin- 
age are the ai-ms— the lielterl globe surmounted bv a crown and 
inclosed by branches, with vnlue aud date on 


is the name given to that whole district of Frencli Guiana, witlt- 
in whioli is the famous penal colony of Fi-ance. Darin"- the 
last oentni7, coins were struck in billon, washed in gold and silver 
by Louis XV. and Louis XVI., in Paris, for use in the French 
colonies. On those for Cayenne the legend is coi.onie de cayenne 
the coins themselves, in other i-espects, resembling those in nse 
in the Island of Reunion. 


For these two divisions of British Guiana there were issned 
in 1809, a silver Three-shilling or Gfailder token, havinw on the 
obverse a 'wrf of (Jeorge IIL, with legend GEOiiGius ID. Dei 


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Gkatia, and on the reverse a wreatli ineloeing a large 3 s'""- 
mouiited by a crown, while on a broad band or border are the 
words, CoLOXiKS ov EssEQtTEBO AND Dkukeahy Token, 1809, 
with copper coins of same device, but of 2, 1, -J and ^ stiver (or 
penny), value. In 1818 a copper stiver was issued, with the head 
of previous issue, but with a different reverse, an oak wreath iii- 
closrng the words osk sti^^bb, crowned, and no inner cirele to the 
legend ; ^ and i stivers were also issued. In 1816 another silver 
Three-ahiiling token was stmck, having the King's bust, with 
legend, (jdohgil's III., D. G. Beitanniakl-ji Rex, with a reveifie 
like that of the stiver of 1813, except that instead of one stivki(, 
we have a large 3 inclosed by the wreath, with legend, coi.oxy 
OP DEMHRAKA AHD ESSEQUEiio, There were also issues, in IS^U 
and 1833, of 3, 2 and 1 guilders, with the 4-, ^ and | values, with 
and without the crown. 



The earliest of the coins of these islands is that known as the 
Sommer Island piece, struck in England _pre«iows to 1616. Of thin 
coin only 2 pieces, one the size of an English penny, and the other 
of a halfpenny, are known. On the obverse is a hog and above it 
the numerals XII. with the legend Sommek ^ Iblamds ^ while on 
the reverse is a full-rigged ship under sail with i flag fiom eicli of 
her four masts. Tlie amallei piece has the same dei ice, but with 
the numerals VL These pitcei weie stiuok for use ni the Ber- 
randas, called at fii-st the Sommei Wandb becauM i oloni/ed ibout 


1600 from Virginia by Sir George Sommers, who afterwards dicil 
th(^re. In 1793 a halfpenny was struck in England for Bermndn, 
having the head of George HI. facing the j-ight, and on the ro- 
vei-se a ship in full sail going to the left, with the legend Bbii- 
MiTDA and tlie date 1T93 in the exergue. 

For the .BAHAMAS, a halfpenny -n-as stnick in 1806, having a 

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o jronEitx, 231 

■ head of George HI. with date 1806, and oji the revevee a 
^hip ill full sail — two small vessels in the offing, with the legend 
.Bahama, and in the exergue, Expulsis Pieatis Restituta Coir- 
JIEECIA, a device copied fi-om that great seal of the island which 
had been adopted in 1717, when the Crown resnmed the govern- 
ment of the islands, and appointed a Captain Eogere as Gov- 

In 11BB, there were issued penny and halfpenny pieces for 
BARBADOES, with obverse, a negi-o's head with coronet of PrincLi 
of Wales, and iinder the neck, the words I skeve ; on the reverse a 
pine apple with legend, Bakbadoes pE^rsY, and date 1788. 

In 1792 another penny and halfpenny were Btmck, with ali- like the last, bnt on the reverse ICng George as Neptnne 
seated in a caa- and driving two sea horses, with legend and date, 
being a copy of the great seal of the island. 

For ANTIGUA, faithmgs have been issued having a palm 
ti"ee for the device. 

In 1838-0-40 large numbers of English threepennies, two -peonies 
and three halfpenny silver pieces were exported to JAiSAICA 
and the colonies generally, for currency. 

In 1869 a nickle penny and halfpenny were struck in England 
for this island, having on the obverse the Queen's head, with a 
diadem suiTouuded by a circle of beads, outside of which are the 
words Vkttokia Queen, ivith date. On the reverse is a shield, 5 
pineapples on a cross, an alligator suimounting it, and below a 
badge with legend indps utebque bebviet uni. Outside a circle 
^of beads ai-e the words, Jamaica iialit-pensy. 



For Martinique and Guadaloupe, small coins of silver and of gold- 
washed billon were sti-uck in France during parts of last century. 

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On the obv 
and on the 


a bust of Louis SV. or of Louis XVI. laureatetl, 
the locality for which issued. 



To Denmark belongthe istandsof St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. 
John. For these there was issued, in 17Q3 and lT6T,a colonial coin- 
age of silver and copper, having usually the royal monogram on the 
obverse and a ship of war on the reverae, with legend Dansk 
Ameeikansk MtjST. The more recent ifisues have the Danish 
ai-ms on a shield crowned, with name and title of the sovereign^ 
and on reverse the value within bi-anches, with legend Da>^sk 
Vbstixmsk Mont. 



Ilayti, or St. Domingo, revolted from Frciicli rule in I T9 1, tinally 
securing its independence in 1803,whenDessaluie8 became Emperor. 
His death, in 1806, was followed by a monarchy in the southern 
part of the island under Heniy L, and by a republic in the north- 
ern part under Petion, a rival of Henry's, Petion's coins have his 
head and on reverse tree and ai-ms. In 1820 J, P. Boyer, Petion's 
successor, effected a miion of the Spauisli and French portions of 
the island, but in 1843 was compelled to flee the island. On his coins 
also is a tree with wai'like implements and year of the Republic, and 
on reveree a snake. In 1840-6 the copper coins have the fasces 
and liberty cap with legend, value and date, and onreverae, value 
with yeai- of Republic. In 1 843 Eastern or Spanish Hay ti broke off 

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from this union and formed itself into the Dominican Republic, 
issuing brass one-fourth pieces of 1844 and 1848, under the protec- 
tion of Spain. Western or Frencli Hayti remained Republican 
until 1849, when General Soulouque became Emperor as Fatistin 

I., issuing coins with his crowned bust, legend and date, and on 
revei-se arms with legend and value. In 1859 Soulouque abdi- 
cated and again a Republic was proclaimed with Geffrard for 
President. The present coins bear Geffrard's head, with name, 
title and date and on the reverse a tree with anns and value. 

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Persia, called by the natives Iran, is substantially the an- 
cient Media. Dnnng the period of the Saseanidse, or Second 
Persian Empire, 229-620, A.D., this Power was at its height. On its 
conquest by the Saracens, its native coinage was replaced by one 
with Cnflo iascriptioi>8. The history of Persia from that period 
down to the present day is the most extraordinary record the 
world possesses of auceeas-ve revolntions or invasions. During 
this period the Persian ai-ms, a sun shining over the back of a 
lion armed with a sword, has been placed on its copper coins, with 
an extract fi-om the Koran on the reverse. Gold and silver coins 
.■^till have such extracts on both sides. 

Persian coins a^e the ffoldToraaa. and Half-Toman; the silver, 
Sahib-Koran audits half, the Penebad, and the copper shahee and 
its half. The propoi-tion of values is somewhat decimal; Ten 8ha- 
liees, one Penebad; Two Penebads or Twenty Sahib-Korans, one 

The coinages of the native States of India resemble those of oth- 
er Eastern powersintheirnegleotof artistic devices. So far as the 
Mu;:sulman Powers are concerned, their Koran forbids any like- 
nesses ; on their coins, therefore we have only inscriptions of the 
name and era of the i-uling prince. Not until we come to the 
period of the East India Company which so long controlled India, 
do we come to a coi.iage that is of general interest. This famous 
Company was founded in 1600 by Charter from Queen Elizabeth, 
for the purposes merely of trade. Bj^ that daed a moiiojioly of the 
trattle of the whole East was obtained. In 1612, it obtained 
from native princes leave to establish agencies or factories at 
several points. In 1662, Charles II. virtually coufen-ed on it a 
.sovereignty in India, by empowering it to make peace or war 
with the native princes. In leTT, Chai-lea pei-mitted the Com- 
pany to coin money at Bombaj, provided such did not interfere 
with the coinage of Great Bntian. At a later date a mint was 
Bet up at Madras, and at a still later date at Calcutta. In the 
mints of the native princes the dies wei-e twice the diameter of the 
coin, so that only a portion of the inscription could be presented. 

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The ruins in ordinary currency li:ive all, tbcruforo, imperfoct le- 
gends. When native coins are found with complete iegonds it is 
because Buch have been struck, not I'oc currency, but for boijjg 
festive occasion . 

If the eai'ly French and English sovei'cigns sought to enrich 
themselves by their custom of changing the devices on their 
coins, the Indian rulers seciu-ed the same result by declaring that 
the rupee, one yeai- after its date, was depreciated three per cent., 
and five per cent, by the second year, a system that led to a frequent 
recoinage, with proportional profit to the government. This was, 
however, so bui-densome that in 17T3 the goveniment ordered that 
coins, no matter at what period they might be issued, should be 
always of par value, imless reduced in weight. In 1790 new 
maohinery was employed at the mints and the size of the die so re- 
duced that the whole device could appear on the money. 

The earliest of what may be called the East Indian Company 
series, are silver crowns, half-crowns, shillings and sixpences, is- 
fiuedin 1601 by Elizabeth, expressly fyi the use of llie Compan;-, 

This is commonly called Elizabetli's PortcuUis money, 
having the royal arms on the obverse with E. M. crowned on either 
side, and on the reverse a large Portcullis crowned. (The Poi-t- 
culiis was the badge of the Beaufort family becanae of their de- 
scent from the Tudors.) 

In 1671,tlieIndiaCompanyestablished,on their own responsibility, 
a mint at Bombay, fonnerly a Portuguese settlement, but which 
had been given to Charles II., on his maniage, in 1662, ivith the 
Portngnese Princess Royal. This money wa,« for use only in Indiii, 
and therefore consisted of Miqjees and Fanams. In 1677 this mint 
secured the royal sanction, and its money, while bearing the com- 
pany's anns on the obverse, by the words Mon Bombay Aistglic Rk- 
GiAES 1687, sufficiently acknowledged the supremacy of the crown. 
Copper money of somewhat similar devices was struck in the same 
reign, in the brief one of James II., and also in that of George II., 



bearing date 1728. The Bombay Rupee was marlted with Persian 
charactei-s and was at lirst vary imperfect in its impres^sion and 
fliffei-s but slightly from that for Mai^lras. 

tTp to IVni tiiu ("opper coinage for this Vvesideney had been 
struck in England, but after that date it was manula^tui'ecl at 
Bombay. The earliest of these issues is the JTalf-Amia or 4 pie 
piece, having on the obverse a large heart sui-mounted by the nu- 
meral of value, witli the date 1781, and on the reverse a pair of 
scales with the word in native characters, Aclil — Just weight or 
Justice, OnthatHtrucb since 1832, are the Company's aa-ms, with 
legend above. East India Oomi'any, and in scroll beneath, Atjp, 
Rbg. bt Sex. Ang, with date, while on the reverse are the scales 
with the value, Hait-Anna or Pie in Englisli characters above 
them, and Adil, in native, below them. 

As at Bombay, so at Madras, coin bad been struck previous to 
the foi-nial legalizing of the mint there in 1743. A very beautiful 
gold piece of this mitit is known from the design iiponHt, ;ia tlie 

Faifodii, On the i 

a representation of Vishnu the'De- 
" "■ ' ■■■ ' In 180S 

stroyer, one of the great deities of Hindoo mythology, 
this design appeared ni si!ver,but in 1820 the ordinary Madras Rupee 
was issued, but replaced in 1835 by the Company's Rupee. Pre- 
vious to 1807, the copper coinage of Madras had been stniok in 
England, h;iviii^' mi obverse like that of the Bnmb^iy Half-Anna, 

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with date 1794, smd on the reverse the Compaiiy'is m-ma, with the 
legend, Auspicto Regis et Senatus Angj.i.e on a broad band 
edging the piece, and with the figures 4S below the arms, 
and referring to Oxe Rupee in the band, while on a narrow 
scroll beneaUi the ai-mK are the words UNrrED east india com- 

pany. In 1803 Cash pieces were struck, having on the obvei-se the 
arms, the legend, East India CoirpAirE and flie date, and on the 
reverse, a Persian inscription with the value, xx, x, or v, caah in the 
exergue. The small I Cash has simply the Company's crest. The 
lion rampant, with tlic value, on the re'verse. 

In 17t)() 1 mint wis established at Calcutta 
The a"hl mohuis issued here resembled the 
havin_, Ihe siim, <\, sign and legend. Tlic copp 


struck in England^up to 1792, after which date it was ias 
from Calcutta. At first this bad simply a date on one i 

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uiid it sliield on the other, but after 1795 it. bore native le- 
gouds with date. Laterin tlie century, the Half- Anna, was issued 
liaTing the Company's arms on the obverse, with Ausp. Regis et 
Sex. on a waved sctoII below, with date 1825, and on the 
reverse a wreath inclosing words Half-anna, with legend East 
India Company. In 1833 a Four Pie piece was issued with obvei-se 
like the last, with wreath on the reverse inclosing lai-ge nuinei-al_4. 
After 1835 nothing was issued but the Half-Anna and the one Pie, 
In 1845, however, the denomination was changed from Annas 
to Cents and in that year there was an issue of Cents, Halves aiid 
Quartei-s, having on the reverse a large head with diadem with 
Yici-OKiA Queen, and on the obverse simply a wreath enclosing 
OiS-E cent, and having outside East India Company, with date. 


III IBS'* th( Biitish Government abolished the great Company 
that foi m-we than two hundred yeai-s had monopolized the 
U-affi nftleE t Snceth ill the none i ued for circulation 
in Ind 1 1 si r t! e c o nel b st ot C 


■ppct t 

the Eabt issued. 

at diffei-ent times by the East India Company for theii- possessions 
outside of India, allhowever of the same general type ; the Aimas 
for the one side, and on the other some device with native in- 
scriptions. Tliose of Bombay, for instance, were alsc 
SUMATRA, while there were also pieces struck in 180' 

vith the 


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iogeii(l IsLANit OF Sumatra oii them ; thosn! for the PRINCE 
OP WALES ISLAND, liave tlie arniH ivith dsite 1810 in 
the exergiie, and on the othev side difierent kinds of wi'oatlis in- 
closing the words Pulo Ptniang in native characteia. 


The modern coinage ofiCEYJ-os" always been stmck by tlic 
Uritish. Goveniment, the distinctive device being an elephant, alikf 
on the silver and on the copper money. Onthecoinof 1816 the bust 
of George III. was placed on the obverse, the elephant reraaJJiing as 
before on the reverse; while on the silver coinage of 1821 there is 
the boat of George IV. In 1828 and in 1837 there was sti'uck iu 
England, a copper half farthing for Ceylon. There has recently 
been issned for Ceyion a very handsome scries of coins, copper 
•and silver, of the style here given. 


[n ] 86:2, there was issned a cent having obveree like the East 
India Company's cent of 1845, with reverse a wreath and words, 
oxB CBJST, INDIA, STitAiTS, 1862, in five lilies. A later issue has 
the Queen's head, with coi-onet, and on reveree a large I, inside a 
beaded cii'cle, ronnd which are the words, straits seitlemeisi', 
ONE OEJ,T, 1874. Goa belongs to Poi'tngal, and Pondicherry to 
P>ance, for which nipees and fanams were issued by Louis XV, 
and Loins XVI. 


To the Kingdom of the Netherlands belong the islands of 
Java, Sumatra, Boraeo, Celebes, the Spice Islands and New 

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240 THE coiN'AGBs OF the would ; 

Guinea. For these, as grouped together under the name of 
Nedbklandi9che Indie, or for the CoKtnial settlements among 
them, coins have been issued. On those of early dates, gold and 
silver rapees, with their halves and quarters, issued by the Dutch 
East India Company, we have Oriental inscriptions, hut with dates 
in Arabic numerals. The copper coins of this aeries bear the amas of 
Utrecht or of Guelders. Fi-om 1811 to 1816 these islands were in 
the hands of the British, and the coins were issued by the East India 
Company. (See East India series.) In 1816 they were restored to 
the Dutch, when the modera Dutch series begins, having on the 
obverse the king's head, or nedeel. indie, vdth date across the 
field, with arms on the revei-se. The latest issue have the 
Royal aiTns crowned, with date andvalne, and on the reverse, 
inscriptions in two Eastern languages, 


In 1521 Magellan discovered these islands, which lie to the 
north of Borneo, losing his life soon afterwards in a struggle 
with the natives. Some years ago they received their present name 
in honor of Philip II. of Spain. In 1581, Manila was founded, and 
has since then continued to be the capital of the Spanish colonies 
and settlements throughout the islands. 


One of the most important settlements on Borneo is that of 
Sarawak, where, in 1841, Su- James Brooke established himself as 
Uajah, and has marked his supremacy by an issue of copper cents. 
On the obverse is an excellent likeness, with Beookb Rajah, and 
on the i-everse the words OTJE cent, encircled in a wreath, between 
which and the edge of the coin we read Sarawak and the date. 


Tile money of Siam is buUet-shapotl, and is formed by briiigin 

together the ends of oval pieces of silver. Each piece heaiN 



minute stamp declaring its value. The manufacture of tbis money 
shows wonderful skill on the part of its workers, for, while it con- 
sists of seven pieces — the Sihat, Songhat, Tieal Bat, Song Salimg, 
Salung, Fung Sung Pie, and Pie — each piece is pei-fectly symmetri- 
cal, audits weight carefnlly propoi-tioned to that of the other pieces. 
There has, however, been lately etruek flat money resembling that 
of other countries, — the dollar, half-dollar, ten and five-cent pieces, 
having a pagoda on the obverse, and the elephant, a sacred animal 
in Siam, on the reverse. 
The coins of 


resemble the cash of China, but are chiefly made of lead. 


The coinage of China, according to the chroniclers of that 
country, dates back to the remotest ages before the Christian era, 
and consisted at first of oblong, razor-shaped pieces. The present 
style of coinage is said to have been adopted about 250 B. C. The 
cash pieces are of brass or copper, and cast, the square hole in the 
middle being for the convenience of plaeing them on strings. Ah the 
Chinese are accustomed to characterize the reigns of their mon- 
archs by some particular phrase, instead of the monarch's name, 
this phrase is placed on the coins issued during his reign. Others 
of the chai-acters mean " current money," while others are the mint 
marks of the ofiicials by whom the coins have been issued. 

In" 1856 3 native silver dollar was issued which has become 
already very rare. The gold coin resemble the cash. 

In 1863 there were issued for the British colony of Hong 
Kong, copper coins having bust crowned with, Victoria Queen, 
and on the reverse, four Chinese characters in a circle of dots, with, 
outside. Hong Kong, One Cent, 1863. A very small coin was 
issued next year for the same colony ; on the obverse, a square, per- 
forated like the Chinese coins, with crown above, v. e, below, and 
date 1863-4 and 1866 on either side, with the words hong kong, 

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ONE MILL, round the circle, and on the reverse a Chinese character on 
each side of the square. There has also been issued in silver a dol- 
lar, half, quarter, ten and five-cent pieces, with the queen's head. 

The early gold coinage of Japan consisted of large, but very 
thin, oval pieces of pure gold, the surf^re beinu slia;hth corru- 

gated or waved, called the Qohang, with its i-ectangular quarter, 
the Itzebu, with the value written on them with Indian ink. The 
silver Itnebu and its quarter are also of the domino shape, while 
the brass or copper Tempo is thick and oval, with a hole in the cen- 

j the roundiour and one F'senny pieces resemble the Chinese 

The latest Japanese gold, silver and copper money is circular 
in shape hi-vint; on the ubveise tht loyal umv a lug( clu-ysanthe- 

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mnm flower enclosed in a circle occupying the centre, and on the 
1 nondescript fignre with Japanese characters in a border. 


The gold fields of Australia have been ho productive that 
England judged it desirable to establish a Colonial mint. In 1852, 
therefore, a gold sovereign was issued, beai'ing on the obverse a 
crown with date, and legend, gotbknmknt assay office, Adelaide, 
and on reveree, value os'e pound in the center, with weight of 
metal for a legend, Next year, two and a half ounce pieces 
were issued, having a large Kangaroo, with date and legend, Foici' 
Philip, Austbalia; with reverse, a large numeral of weight. 

In 1855 the Sydney mint issued a sovereign, with queen's head 
and name, and on reverse, Austkalia, w^ithin hi'anclies, and Sydni: \- 
MINT above. 



Generally, there are as yet no other distinct issues, Eno;lish money 
cri-culating, while a large number of tokens of penny and halfpenny 
value, issued by store-keepera in the various settlement!?, ai-e freely 
used. The Sandwich Islands may be regarded as an exception, 
their rulers having lately issued a copper cent, with bnat of the 
king and native inscription, with date. 


There is no necessity for illustrating the 
of North Africa, such as Egypt, Tunis 
being dependencies of Turkey, either 
Turkish mint or 

inagcB of the countries 

Tripoli, for all these, 

their coins from the 

1 their inscriptions the Tnrkish devices. 

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Formerly, Algiers also belonged to Turkey, when ita coinage 
resembled that of its neighboring States, but in 1830 it bocame a 
French possession and now receives its money from Franco. 

Morocco has a coinage of its own, but for the most part uses 
Spanish coins. 


On the "West Coast of Africa, European nations have at differ- 
ent 'times planted trading or Colonial settlements. To 1791 the 


English Sierra Leone Company, trading to the west coast of 
Africa, and connected with the early Guinea Coast Company, 
issued a Dollar, half, 20 cent and 10 cent pieces in silver, and a 
one penny and a one cent piece, having a Hon on the obverse, 
with legend, Sibeka Leone Company, and in the exergne, 
Africa. On the reverse are two hands joined, with value 
and date. Another issue was made in 1790. 

To Portugal belong the Cape Verde Islands, Senegambia, some 
islands of Ouinea, Angola, Benguela and Mozambique. For 
these there have been issued silver and copper pieces of so 
many MaaUa value. The device is the arms of Portugal, rest- 
ing on a crowned globe, with the monarch's name — as P. Regens 
DoMiNus GuiNEJE, and on reverse, Poetuguezia Africa, with 
value and date in the center, 


Was founded in 1820 by the American Colonization Society as a 
colony or settlement of fi-ee persons of color from the United 
States. In 1833 the Society issued a copper cent, with name and 
date of origin — 1816, on the obvei-se and on the reverse a man 
planting a tree by the seashore, while the sun is rising from the 
waves, with date. In 1847, the settlement having adopted a re- 
publican form of government, was recognized as a free and inde- 

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pendent State, and then issued coins of one and two cent value. 
On these coins, the obverse has a head of Liberty, wearing the 
Phrygian cap, and on a raised rim, Republic of Liberia. On 
the reverse is a large palm tree on the seashore, ivith one or •I'wo 
CENT8, and date 1847 on the lim. 


This lonoly island, famous only for being the prison of Napo- 
leon, had a copper coinage struck for it by the East Lidia Com- 
pany. On the obverse is, St. Helena 1821, HALiriiNNY, inclosed 
by a wreath, and on the reverse the arms of the Great Company. 


In 1649 the French took the Isle of Bourbon from the Por- 
tuguese, changing its name to Reunion in 1789, and to Isle Bo- 
naparte in 1809. Iq1720, they took poseasion of Mauritius, which 
was then named the Isle of France, but this, in 1810, w^ taken 
hy the British and remains in their hands. For these_ islands, 
France issued, during the reigns of Louis XV. and Louis XVI., 
small silver and billon pieces, bearing the crowned arms of Anjou, 
with the King's name and title, and on the reverse, the value 
and date, with Isles de Fb. et De Boukbon. On those issued of 
late years, we have on the reverse, value and date within branches, 
with the legend Colonies Fkancais. 

In addition to all the English issues for paiticular locahties, there 
was a silver coinage struck specially for Mamitius, but cun'ent 
through all the Colonies. On the obvei'se is a large shield with the 
royal arms, with legend Geokgius IV., D. G. Bbitanniahum Rex, 
and on the reverse flie aims of the British Admiralty, an anchor and 
cable with crown above, with legend Colootab: Beitan: Monet: 







High Capet SS" 

Denieis nn 1 01 olc 

< arloman I "GS 

rr STS 

Charebert 61 

ChiTlemagiie 6S 

Claries I— Tht Bold 840 

II— The Fit 8b4 

m bm 

IV— Tlno Handsome 3a3 

GWJ—AnTcl Ilorm Rojal 

and Half 
Sitver—OToa Toum is + aad 

J- Qros, Denier Tournois. 
BiSon — Double Paris, Denier 

Paris, Double Deniei',01)ole 


Cliarles Y : 1364 

Gold — Em'als, Francs, Fleur 

de lis, Florins. 
Sillier — Gros Tournois. 
BUhn — White Gros, Denier 

and Double Tournois. 

ClxarleaYI 1380 

(Md — Roynl, Crown, Mou- 

ton, Chaise, Salut. 
SiioBr-^ivs Tournois. 
Btllon — Blaacs, Double and 

Denier Tournois, Double 

and Denier Pads, Liard, 

fHenry V.and VI.of England 

struck money in France 

and for France during this 

Charles Til 1443 

(Soiol— Crown, Frane, Royal, 
JVIouton, Chaise. 

Silver— Gtos, 

Billon — Iiar^ Blanc, Double 

and Denier Paris, Double 

and Denier Tournois, 


Charles VIIL.-- 1483 

GoW— Crown. 


Bilion— White Crown, White 
Sun, Carolufl, Liard, Hardi, 
Double and Denier Tour- 
nois, SlaiUe, Denier Tour- 

[Coins were struck during 
this reign for Italy.] 
CliarlesIX 15G0 



affion— Double Sun, Paris, 
Sun Paris, Douzaiu, Liard, 
Double and Denier Tour- 

Charles X - 1824 

ecia-Pieces of 100, 40, 20 

and 10 Francs. 
Wcer—Viva Franc, with its 

Brwise— 10 ajid 15 cents, 
struck for the colonies. 
Charles Mai'tel 737 

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Cl d m 
CI tail 







Eudes or Hugh 

Francis I - --1515 

Gold— Crov/n. 
Silver — Testou. 
Billon — Blaacs, Liard, Dou- 
ble and Denier Tournois, 
Deniet Bourdelat, Coronat. 

Francis II 1550 

[The coins of Henry II. were 
issued down to 1561.] 

Gontram 561 

Henry I -1031 

Sitor— Denier. 

Henrrll - 1547 

Gold — Orown, Henry, 
8ilt>er — Testoa. 
Billon — GJros de Nesle, Dou- 
zaine, Double and Denier 

Henry III .1574 

Oold — Crown. 

Silver — Franc, Teston, i 

^Uon — Bix Blanc, Douzaine, 

Liard, Double and Denier 


Henry IV 1610 


^"ter — Franc, \, i and ^ 

BUlon — Douzaine and Liard, 
Brorm — Double and Denier 

Toumois, Double Dau- 

JoLnn....'. 1316 

GWfZ— Eoyal. 
John II 1350 

ffoM— Crown, Fle«r de lis, 
Mouton, BOTal, Franc. 

mser—Gtms Tournois. 

Ill 81 —D-oi- dOI I 
8 Louis VII 
6 aili»r—ii i d Ob 1 

711 L ^ni 13 

8dmi — Denier and Obole. 

Louis IX 1336 

Gold — Chaise, Royal, Eeine, 

Agnel, Franc or Crown, 

^■ner — Groa and Denier 

ToumoiB, Denier Paris. 

LouiaS 1314 

Gold — AMel. 

Sfltw— Groa, Denier and 

Obole Tournois, 
BSlon — Denier and Obole 

Louis XI--- 1461 

OoM— Crown. 
Siiser.. Gtos. 

BUlim — Blano, Denier Paris, 
Hardi, Maille, Denier Tour- 
nois, Denier Bourdelais. 

Louis XII 1498 

Gold — Crown of Queen Ann. 

S(te)-— Gros, Teston. 

B!KciM--Large White, Double 

and Denier Toumois.Liard, 

Hardi, Coronat, Patard. 

Louis Xin 1610 

ffflM— Double, Single and 

Louis XIV---- 1643 

GoM— Crown, Louis and 

Louis d'or. 
Silwr — Sis Franc, Fleur de 

lis. Crown and Quarter. 
BiUon—%\x White, 4 and 2 

Bronze — Liard, Double and 




Louis ST - 


Gold — Quinzdn, Louis, Half 

:Si!s:er— -Crown and Quarter, 
pieces of 10 and 20 Sous. 

Billon — 3 and 1 Sou. 

j5wn«e— Sou, ^ and i, 
Louis XVI- 1774 

G/)id~-2, 1 and i Louia, 

Silver — Crowa, 4, i and ^^. 

BUlon— 'Pieces of 3, 15 anrl 
SO Soua, Sis Blanc. 

Brome-~2, 1, -J and i Sou, 

Louis XVn 1703 

Assimats of 100, 400, 500 
and 1500 Livrea, 

Louis XVin 1814 

ffrftf— Pieces of 30 and 40 

Silver — Pieces of 5 Frani'a 

Louia Philippe 1830 

Same as Charles X. 

MerovEBua _ 448 

Napoleon Bonaparte 1804 

Gold—^ and 40 Francs. 

Silver— S, 2, 1, ^ and i Franc. 

Bronxs — 10 Centime. 

Napoleon II 1831 

Napoleon m 1853 


Biker — 

Browie — 

Pepin— Tlie Short 7B3 

Pharamond 418 

PhUipI 1060 

iS(7iie!- — Denier and Obole. 
Philip n 1180 

Siher — DouMe and Denier 

Tournois, Douhle Paris and 

Philip III __.1370 

wSi— Agnol, Eoj-al, Denier 

and Grown Chfuse. 
^her — Gros and Denier 
Toumois, Denier Paris. 

Philip rv_ 1385 

ffoM— Large and Small Eo3'- 

als, Chaise, Agnel. 
SiMw!'— Gros, ^ and ^ Tour- 

BiUmi — Double and Denier 
Paris, Double and Denier 
Tournoia, Bourgeois, Dou- 
ble and Single Obole or 

Philip V -,- 1318 

Gold — Agnel. 
Silmi^~Gros Toumois. 
BUlan — Denier Tournois. 

PMIip VI _133r 

Qold—1 and a Royal Crown 

Paris, Angdot, Lion, 

Chaise, PaviUion, Florin, 


8ilmr—P&-n.?., Tournois, 

Pleur de lis. Crown. 
^lon — Double and Decier 
Paris, Double and Denier 
Tournois, Obole. 

Robert I -- 93S 

" II.- 990 

SUmr — Denier. 

Rudolph 923 

Siegebert I 561 

II- - 638 

Theodebald 548 

Theodebert I 534 

n 590 

Thierry I 511 

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A. A. 

The yei 

A.A. A.A.A, xugugU. Two, 
three Augustuses. 

A.A.A.F.F. AMTO, A) 

rfo Tei-iwrtdo. An inBcriptioa in 
allusion to thejlancti or planchets, 
of gold, silver and copper, from 
which the coins of the respective 
metals were strucQt, generally fol- 
lowing the name of the monetary 
^" ~";i for the time being. The 

chief officers of the Roman mint. 
Abk. abk^JiM. Grand-nephew. 
Aoca, ACicitana. Accitana, a Ro- 
man colony in Spain, now Gua^ 

dlx, in Grenada. 
Acer. L. in. ACCKaraa J^efpo in. The 

third Le^un of Accitana, 
Act. AOTioCTw, hCTia or acttoto. 

Actiacua or Actium, a town of 

Epirus, now Prevenza. 
A. act. a, ACTiiMMS Ajwiio. The 

Actiatic Apollo. 

Ad. PRV. EStT. AD FBUfies EMun- 
dua. For buying corn; allud- 
ing to the puhhc purchases of 
corn for the people, for which 
monej was expressly struck. 

Adi, ADJirfnis. Relief, alluding to 
a lerfon distlnguialied for some 
signfl. assistance afiorded in time 


usH. Adiocntion of Augustus, 

illu Img t in 
mdit IT 
Adloctt coil 

I J um Adlocution 
toiian coiioiti 
Advent aus iud 
ACHA cr ajbic or 

al IrcsB to th 

PIl«10M Al 

thi Pii 

r ABlffl 

•Sicilm or GKLlim 
TliL anivd of Aueuifiis m Ju 
daa 01 Mauritania or Achm^ 
O! Atiica or Asia or "bicily oi 
Qnul or SpMn 


cunile aelile ipp minted hy tJu 
P tiician« 



divme temples restored bj Au 

Abd p ABDifefedi pototos The 

Aedile powei 
Aed PL AB&jfiii PLE&w Aedilt 

of the people 
Aed b \ed(M sfxe or abd!&m? 

Akh ABin^jiM 01 AEViTia Name 

of a person igC 
iPqvrr Ava tQvrrtc AUGiisfo 

The qui y of Aua "tus 

ABP AETfJ ifTi Etuu tj 
A !■ A I ViUis The son of Aulus 
A ^ \iih 1 epot The nephei 
of iulus 



AfiRiP. V. AGnirpos Filiun. The 
Kon of Agrippa. 


MAfe!- caii CjESARib atjousti. 
Anippa, the dauffliter of Marcus, 
aiia motner of Caiua desar Au- 
gustus {tlie emperor Caligula). 

Al or Ale. Aij'Exandria. AlesancLria. 

AiiiM. iTAi.. ALiiianto iTALMW. The 
provision of Italy, in allusion to 
the public purchase of com, for 
distiibutiOD in Italy, 

Ai.TTi. ALviTJKS. Name of a per- 

Astc. AKictus. Name of a person- 

A. M. B. Aniiochiae vioneia ofB.- 
eina secunda. Money 
Antioch B, tliat is, of 
second office or division 
toe mint ; the officers being dis- 
tinguished by A, B, for first and 
second ; a system common in Roman 
monetary numerals. 

As. B. or ANT. B. AstiorMae oflicina 
secunda. The second division of 
tlie mint of Antioch. 

A. K. p. F. A.nmim sotum Fd(cem 
vav^iim.. A happy and prosperous 
new year; wished to theEmpei*- 


CON. AKBO Dccci^ssn. NATaf* 

CRBii vopnlo ciseenses casaUtuU. 

In tlie year of tlie city, 

CirceoBian games v"" ' 

for the people 
A^\o^^ATo ankoka AuatMft The 

proTisiun of Augus,tui alluding 

to a yearly distnbution of com 

among the people 
Am p k^TMcIaae percuisa Struck 

at Antioch 
A^T B AhTMnSrae signafa Struck 

at Antioch 
A P F A«co vopvlo veriundo or 

Krgento Fopuh Yenuiulo Gold or 

"liver (coint.) struck for the people. 
A. p. LVG. _ veeunia jsveduni a. 

Money of Jjugdunum, noiv Lyons 

in France ; A of the first division 

of the mint. 
Apoi.. itoK. APoiifc fiosdalu. The 

monetary Apollo. 
Apoi,. pal, .\pol?o VKhatinus, The 

Palatiae Apollo. 
Apol. salvt, coxseevatoki, apol- 

Joni %k.i,xytaH consehvatori. To 

Apollo, the Saviour and Preserver. 

Aq, o. B, hciuUim oMcina B. Of 

Aquilia, the second division of the 

Aq. p, b. AquUiae vecunia eignata. 

Money struck at Aquilia, 
Att p. Aq,7iiliae vercuaaa. Struck at 

Aq, s, Ai^uUia Agitata. Struck at 

I AqvA. M. AQUA ^arcfa. The Marc- 

i ianwater, alluding to water brought 

I to the city tkrough the core and Tib- 

; erality of Mareus. 

' AqvA. TBAJ. AQVA TRAjana. The 
Trajanian waler. 

■ Ar. or ARL, hselate or arlaSb, Aries. 

1 Aha. pac. aka pacw. The altar of 

i Arab, adqvi. aimbm AHQOisiia. 

Arabia conciuered, 
menia subjugated. 


vopvli Komani bbdactiw. Arme- 
nia and Mesopotamia reduced 
the power of the Roman 


A. 8 

signifying tliat it was of that 
town ; struck in the first division 
of the mint. 

Asm. Jifung&ana. Astigltana, now 
Ecisa In Andaltisja, Spain, 

AvG. AVGvr or AttGugft/s, or Aua- 
uata, or Auejsstoiw, Augur or 
Auguatus, or Augusta, or of the 

AtG, D, P, ATIG!iS(!!S HIBI TUwS. 

Augustus, son of the deitv. 

AvGG. or AVSGO, ATjQusti. Augus- 
tus : two or three e's after av, 
signified that two or three em- 
perors were reigning Jointly. 

AvB, piA, BiDON. coLONiA. AxmeUa 
PIA BiDOHii COLONH, Aurelius 
Pius, a colony of Sidon. 

B. Berj/tUv^s or Bono, 

or officina aecimda. This letter 
B by itself, is used to signify 



or Ekaocakj 
of the 

aa a numeral, antT signifying 3, 
B. A. -BfcuxaTa AugyMaUa. Tiio 
Augustalian Braccara, now 
Brague, a town in Portugal. 


a man's name, or Bsebia, tlie 
name of a Roman family. 
Ealb. BALBiw. Balbus the name 
of a personage. 

_ good event, 
or to a good event. 

Bbit. ssaTannimii or ■SB.TSanrda. 
Britannia, or the country Britain. 

Bitoc. ■EBOodtus. Brocchus, the 
name of a personage. 

B. K. r. N. Bono bbpuMico Kofei. 
Appointed (to be struck) for the 
good of the public. 

Bkvn. BEvmSKsiu™. Brundudum. 
a town in the kingdom of Na- 

B. 8IBM. B. siKMM. B., struck at 8ir- 
mium in the second office of the 
mint, as signified by the uu- 
mei'al b. 

B. e. Lo. B (offlcina 

signata, iMatlunwrn. The se 
(monetary office), coined 

B. T. seffite Ti-anqviUitiu. Happy 

BvTHR. BUTHRoiam, Buthi-otum, 
now Butrinto in Epirua, 

august colony of Aroe Pi 
or tlie Agrippine colony. 
Oabb. CABsHio, Cahellio, n 

- Ca. 

vaillon, in France. 

0. A. BVT, colonia &.ugvMa BVT/inj- 
tum. The colony Augusta ButJi- 
rotum (of Butrinto, now of tlie 
same name in Epii-oa). 

C. A. c, cdoma xtiguata caeaaren. 
The august colony of Caesarea, 

C. A. B, colonia Ktigusta smenl". 
The colony Augusta Emerita, 
now Merida in Spain. 

C, A. B. ATG. FATEK. €olon.ia 
AMffUDta emerita Axioust^s patbii, 
Augustus, the father of tLe col- 
ony Augusta Emei'ita, in Spain, 
now Merida. 

I Palestine, or 


C. cnius or CMiar. Caiua 

C. C'trthago or ceiimr or centm 
oiiies or Qljjpsae or cokors 
colonia or oonmiltum 
Carthage, or censor, or a liun- 
di'ed, or citizens, or a buckler, 
or a cohort, or a colony, or a 
decree, or Cornelius (name of a 

C. A. A. p. colonia Augusta Aroe 
pat'ivn&is or colonia a. Augusta 
eatrensia or coJonws Agnppma. 
(Cologne) the august colony of 
Aroe Patrensia; or A (the first) 

Cabss. or CABSSB. CA^aares, Cae- 
sars; ss signifying two, and sss 
three Caesars. 

Cabsab. avo. p. bes, imp. avg. cos. 
iTB. Cabsab avbusU viliits o&dg- 
natius iMveraUiT Avauataa conaul 
ITB)-Mm. Caesar, son of Augustus, 
chosen Emperor, Augustus, and 
Consul for the second time. 

Cabbar, Drvi. p. Cabbak divi eilins. 
Caesar, son of the Qod. This in- 
I scription most frequently occurs 
on the coins of Augustus Caesar, 
tlie adopted son of the deified 
Julius Caesar, 

Tifex JiAsimua, Caesar the High 
C.A.I, or c.i.A. colonia Augusta svMa. 
The colonyAugusta Julia, in Spain, 
now Cadiz. 

Cal. CATiOffiiria or CALwims or CAL- 

idia. Calaguris, a town in Spain, 
now Oalahora. Calidiua, name of 
Calidia, name of a 

A. o. A. p. colonia Augusta, oca 
Antoviniana pefe. The happy col- 
ony Ocft Augusta Antoniniana, in 
Africa, now Tripoli. 
A. PI. MET. 8ID. colonia Aurelta 
Pla METrogoiis siDo/i. The colony 
Aurelius Pius, tlie metropolis of 
Sidon, in Syria, 

A. E. colonia Augustavauracorum, 
or cdloma Augusta negia. The 



colony Augusta Eauracum, 
Switzerhind ; now Aagst, nc 
Basle ; or the royal colony of Asl 

■ Augusta. 



FSVLtodiea oBCtr- 
The sacred 
periodical oecumenic contests, 
called Iselastica. 
Ckrt. qvin. ROM. cow. cssiandna- 
QoiHSWsnnafc Roiiae coMgft'Suto. 
The fifth year games of Home 

AUGiwfi PBON^ws Anguatua ■pon- 
Ufex Tisaamiug TBSntniHa Folestate 
nn. Taier patriae. Cains Caesar, 
great grandson of Augustus ; Au- 
gustus, High PoEtifC exercising 
thetrihunitian power for the fom-^ 
time i father of liis country. 
C. c. COL. uvs. dau^ia cojretj col- 
ortia LirorfuTi-um. The colony Clau- 
dia Copia Lugdunum, now Ly- 

C. c. I. B. coloiiia campmtris 3uUa 
Bobba. The mral colony of Julia 
Babba, in Mauritania. 

0. c. I. B. D. D. coiania campeatrU 
jvMa Bobba jteBreto Tiscurumum,. 
The rural colony of Julia Babba, 
by the decree of the Decnrions. 

C. c. I. H. F. A. crfiuiws coTKorMa 
sulia nadTWmetkia Tia Aiiguata. 
The colony Concordia Julia Ha- 
drumetiua Pia Augusta, in Africa. 

C, CIV. D. D. p. corona cvtioa T3ata 
aecreUi vublieo. The civic crown 
awarded hy public decree. 

C, c. M. A. cMorda Carthago Kotws 
Auguita. The colony Carthago 
Nova Augusta, in Spain. 

C, c. If. c. D. D. coUmia ceneortUa 
sorba caesavea Tsearefo ■Decurion- 
wn. The colony Concordia Nor- 
ba Caesarea, by the decree of the 
Decnrions, Caesai'ea Norba, 
town in Lusitania. 

C. R. CffntissiFoa Remisaa, or dn 
ms smtituU. The hundredth 
loitted; or, The Circensiaa games 

C. c. s. colonia claudia eaiaria. 
The colony Claudia Salaria. 

C. cvp. caius cuFienmus. Name of 
a personage. 

Cen. CESsor. Censor. 

Cess. per. Cbnsoc PEspeftJUS, or 
CBHSiWs PEKmissu. Perpetual 
Censor, or by permission of the 

his army. 


E^reiia i 


0. p. caii tMos. Son of Ciuus. 

C. H. coil nepos. Nepliew of Caius. 

C. F. p. D. cdonia vlavia poeermU 
■Dendtwrn. The colony Flavia Pa- 
censia Develtum now Develto, a 
small town in Turkey. 

C. o. r. H. p. A. cohnia Gem^a 
jvlia Jiada^Tia pariana AugvMa. 
The colony Gemella Julia Hadri- 
ana Paiiana Augusta, a town in 

C. I. c. A. colonia iuUa tsoiieordia 
Apamaea, or colonia stdia Cartha- 
go AvMqua. The colony Julia 
Concordia Apamaea ; or the col- 
ony Carthago Antiqua, now Car- 
thagena, in Spain. 

0. I. C. A. GENIO, p. R. D. D. COlonia 

ivMa coneordia Augusta gbnio 
vopuli Romoni Deareto cecuj'io- 
num. The colony Julia Concor- 
dia Augusfa to the genius of the 
Eoman people by the decree of 
the Decnrions. 

C. 1. A. ». colonia julia Augusta 
oertona. The colony Julia Au- 
gusta Dertona. 

C. I. AT. colonia Julia xvgusta. Tlie 
colony Julia Augusta, now Cadiz, 

C. I. ATQ. p. snj. cofcn&i 3ulia AU- 
ousta Yelix ansope. The colony 
Julia Augusta Felis Sinope. 

C. I. B. cdonia svOa saloa. The 
colony Julia Balha, in Mauri- 

C. I. c. 4. p. A. cofesiia juUa cartfhago 
Auguata vij Antigua, or colonia 
juha connt/ius Augusta pia Anio- 
mniana The colony Julia Car- 
thago Augusta Pia Antiqua, in 
Spam, now Carthagena ; or, tlic 


C. I. CAEa, casus juUus CAEsar. 

Name of a personace. 
C. r. CAi. Qolonia juiia CAiipe. The 

colony Julia Calpe, now Gibral- 

0. L P. cdonia Julia Tdix. The 

colony Julia Felix, 
C. I. G. A. colonia Jvlia oemdla au- ; 

guBta. The colony Julia Qemella : 

" " " cohnia vmmunis lUice \ 

The free colony lllice ! 

!. M. L. colonia aeti-oj. 
The colony Metropolis Laodicea' 

TIRI8. Q, T. I. N. C, CSaeo ATEL- 

II viKK i^imq BnnaMim vtetncin 
iuhae ^ovae carthagims. Under 
CneiiM Alelhua Flaccus and 
Cneius Pon peiua Flaccus, the 
Duumvirs (ci ft've years of the 
iictorous Caithago Julia Nova, 

C. !. IJ.. A. q, PAPIR. • 

ilMee Kuguatci Qumio Papikw cah- 
bone (tuinia TSHendii voTurano n. 
vtbM ciuingveKnalibua. The free 
colony Drice Augusta, under 
Quintus Papirius Carbo and 
Cjuintua Terentius Montanus, the 
Duumvirs for five years. 
I I. N, G. colonia Julia i>:orba Cne- 
. The colony Julia Norba 

ATiiPhis Name of a personage, 
(f. DOM PKoroi csaeo oomtio 
PROwn»ule Tinder Onaeus Domit- 
iua the Proconsul 
Ch, f CNrt^f ¥iliui The son of 

Feralor. Cnaeua the Great, tho 
commander ; tliat is, Cnaeus Pom- 
pey, the son of Quintius Pompey, 
Co. DAM. MBTKO. cohnia da 
HBTRopo/i). The colony ] 
ens Metropolis. 

ihago. The coloiw' Julia Nova 
Carthago, now Carthagena, in 

!iR, CON. cmcenaea cosstitiiti; or 
cmeenses consessil. The games of 
the Circus established ; or, he 
celebrated the Circensiaa games. 

!. 1. T. cdoniajidia 'waleaUa. The 
colony of Julia Valentia, in Spain, 

'i., cimulius or ciMudia or CLypeua. 
Name of a personage or family, 
or a buckler. 

CLASSM VRaetoiiana. The Prae- 
f ect of the fleet, or the Praetorian 
!. L. AVQ. P. caiue JMcius i.TJGueii 
Filiati. Caius Lucius, the son of 

Caius and Lucius, the two Cac- 

': L. I, COR. colonia Laws Jidia COB- 
inthus. The colony Laus Julia 
Corinthus, in Qreece. 

fidelity of the Prsetoriaa Cohorts, 

■in the usual manner. 
COH. I. cit. coBortis I. CBeiemis. Of 

the first cohort of Crete. 
CoH. Tax. pbOj. Conors PRfflTO- 

■riana ■PB.nappensium. The Pre- 

torian cohort of the Philippians. 

A town in Macedonia, famoua 

for the battle fought there, B, c, 

COi. AEL. A. n. MET. COI.OTlJtt ASHlli 

Augusta sadrwrneMna. The colony 
Aelia Augusta Hadrumetina, in 

Col. AEL, CAP. coMM, p. p. coiiOnia 
ABLi'o CA:eitolina co'mr^odiana via 
Fdix. The colony Aelia Capi- 
tolina Commodianfl Pia Feh.x:. 
The modern Jerusalem. 

Col. ALEX. TEOAS, cohonia alex- 
andritina tboas. The colony 
Alexandiiana Troaa in Phrygia, 
now Carasia. 

CoL. amab, or AMS, coTuonia amas- 
trianorwm, or coLonia A-M&t/Hano- 
rum. The colony Amatrianomm 
in Paphlagonia, now Amstre. 

Col. akt. or anti, coLonia AHTiu- 

>y Google 



ckia or A'siiochia. The colony 
Antiochia in Asia. 

ARELATe sBXTANorMUi. The col- 
ony Arelate Sestanorum, now Ar- 
ies in France. 
Col. AST. ATO. cojjonia AStiff^ana 
ATJOtisto, The colony Astigitana 
Augusta, now Esija in Spain. 

austa FELKB ■EEmtkus. The colony 
aFelixBerithus, now Bey- 

COL. AVO. FIB, coLonio AVBUSta 
Enww. The colony Augusta Fir- 
ma Astigitana, now Exija in 

Col. AV6. 7VL. philip. coi/mta AV- 
GU«la jviiia PHiLiFPensis. The col- 
ony Augusta Julia of Phiiippi, a 
town in Thrace. 

Col. Ava. pat. trevie. cohonia 
AUGustoPATecnaTHETiROj-um.. The 
colony Augusta Patertia Treviro- 


Avausta TBOAitensis or T'ROADsneis. 
The colony Augusta Troadensis, 
...SI. _.. .!._ _..._ _. ..1., ancient 

Col. __._ .._. . 

ATJOuaTA EMiatiTA. The coJony 
Auj^usta Emerita, now the town of 
Merida in Spain. 

COTjonia AWnelui AifTomniana ap- I 
oitsia TBOAitoww. The colony Aii- 
rdia Antoniniaua Augusta Troa- 
densis, founded on the site of 
Col. ATO. KAH. coMM. p. F. coiania 
AVBdia KABJ-ZKe coxslodia/na via 
vdix. The colony Aurelia Karrhte 
Commodisna Pia Felix, a town 

Col. a 

V Carrl 

cou>ma Au- 
The colony Au- 
relia Pia Sidon. 

OOL. AVE. p. M. SIDON. COLOtiia AU- 

sdia Fia, Metropolis bidoh. The 
colony Aurelia Pia Metropolis Sid- 
don, now Seid or Sayde in Syjia. 

Col. b. a. coloiw'i waeea^a AMpuata. 
The colony Braccara Augusta, 
now Brague in Ltisitania. 

Col. bbmt. l. v. or -v 
bbrit/ius i^ffio T. or 

colony Berythus, now Beyroot in 
Phojnicia, the fifth or eightn lemon. 

OoL. CABB. COLi^Jiltt CABE^^iO. The 

colony Caheliio in France. 
Col. caes. ahtioch. coi/mia cag- 
Barai aktioohm. The colony 
Caesarea Antioclua in Syria. 

Giista. The colony Caesarea Au- 


LODUHUM. The colony Canialo- 

dunnm, now Colchester. 
Col. cashjk. coLorda caselin-uto. 

The colony Caailinuni, now Cas- 

CoL. CL. PTOL. coiioma CLoudta pto- 

uymaiis. The colony Claudia Pto- 

lomais, now Acre in Phtenicia. 


CT(3 METBOJwKs. The colony Dam- 
ascus Metropolis, the capital of 
Col. f. j. a. p. babcib. ooi/mia 
Ylaida jJiUa Augusta via barcino. 
The colony Flavia Julia Augusta 
Pia Barcino, now Barcelona in 

Col. plat. avg. con. coLonAi PLA•c^lt 
AXKMuta coBinthue. The colony 
Flavia Augusta Corinthus in 

Col. el. pac. devlt. cownm ei/i- 
ma VAcends DEYi/sum. The col- 

I ony Flavia Augusta Pacenais De- 
ultum, now Zagara or Zagoria, a 
town in Thrace. 

, Col. h. cOLoraia adiopdis. The col- 

I ony Heliopolis. 

I Col. ha. meb. color?*! VAdriarta 

I MERCwn. The colony Hadriana 

i Mercuri, now Fenno in Italy, 

' Col. hel. r. o. M. H. coLonia hbhc- 
polU loiji Optimo Mfucimo vdiapoU- 

j tana. The colony Heliopolis Jovi 
Optimo Maximo Heliopolitana, 

! Col. ivl. avg. c. i. f. coman. col- 
onia JCLsa Auawifes clmtdia nvdcta 
^eUx ooMAHOTTim. The colony Ju- 
lia Augusta Claudia Invicta Felix 
Comanorum, now Oomane in Cap- 

tmda Avousta VELix BERgtlius. 

The colony Julia Augusta Felix 
j Berythus, now the town of Bey- 
; root in Phtenicia. 



Col. ivh. Ave. fbl. 

The colony Julia A 
Oremna, now of the 


CAPitoKTWini OKCYMBWWiwn iSElasti- 
cum HELwpfKftwiwm. The Julian 
colony; the Bacred Augustan Fdi- 
cian Contest ; OScumenic Iselastic 
HeliopolitaD (certain games cel- 
ehrated at the Julian colony of 
Heliopolis in Syria). 

coLOiiiVt 3ulia co^cm-dia apj 
xuaualo neereto veeurionum. The 
colony Julia Concordia Apamea by 
the august decree of the Decurions. 

CoL. rvL. lAT. coH- coionia juLiit 
Liua cORinthus. The colony Julia 
Laus Corinthus. 


ri.iEnnais&BlioTi^naia, The colony 

Julia Patema NarhonenBis, now 

Narbonne in France. 
COL. ANT. COM. cojMiiae AHioniniiiae 

covmodiaTice. The Antoninian and 

Commodian colonies. 
Col. kbm. cOLoaia bbmojmim, or 

NEMii«ssn«um. The colony Ne- 

COL. MiCBPn. coND. coLoniu bicbp- 
HOTVUM coNEKta. The Nicephorian 
colony, founded upon the Eu- 
phrates, in Mesopotamia. 

Coi,. PATB. cohonia FxiBenm, or 
FATBida. The colony Pat^nsis, 
or Patricia. This latter town is 
now Cordova, in Spwn. 

OOL, p. F, AVG. P. CAK8. MET. COL- 

/mia prima ■Bla-nia AVGuata veHa; 
CAEsarea UMvrapdis. The colony 
Prima Plavia Augusta Pelii Cae- 
ssrea Metropolis, in Palestine. 
Col. p. ft., avg. caeb. mktrop. p. b. 
V. cojjoma vrima flihto Aueusfa 


riae palestina. The colony Prima 
Flavia Augusta Caesarea Jletropo- 
lis of the province of Syria, in 
Col. pb. p. a. caesar, counia. pui- 
ma vUma Augusta OiEBAEea. The 

colony Prima Flavia Augusta Cae- 
sarea, in Palestine. 

Col. b, ». AVG. pl. c. mbtbop. col- 
onia Tiomana velix xVBuata FLOvia 
caemrea metropoKj, Tlie colony 
Eomana Felix Augusta Flavia 
Cfesarea Metropolis, the capital 
of Syria. 

OOK KOJi. coLoma BOMiitensi's. The 
colony of Romula, now Seville, 
in Spain. 


hVGDunum. Lugdunum, the col- 
ony of the Romans, now Lyons. 

Cou Bvs. LBO. vi coLoni'a Kys*&w 
LBofo VI. The colony Ruseino, the 
sixth Legion, ■ - " ■ 

Cou SABAB. cOLcmiasj 

colony of Saharia, in Pannonia, 
now Sarwar in Hungary. 

COL. 8BBA8. coLonAi BEBAstoe. The 
colony of Sebastia, in Palestine. 

Col. beb. g. beapol. colwim bekj>w 
Btdda KBAPOLis. Tiie colony of 
Servius Glalba Neapolis, now Ha- 
blous in Palestine. 


TBopolzi. The colony Tyrus Me- 

CoL. V. I. CELSA. cawnia vietiix 
julia CELSA. The colony Victrix 
Julia Celsa, thought to be now 
Kelsa, in Spain. 

Col. VIC. ivl. lep. coijmia victrix 
JUL& LKPfils. The colony Vic- 
trix Julia Leptis, in Africa, now 

CoL. VIM. AH. r. coLOJiM YiKinaeium 
ANmoL TheViminacian colony, in 
the first year. 

Col. vlp. tba, coLonia uLPia tba- 
jana. The colony Ulpin Trajana, 
now Keiien or Varhel, in Tran- 


ABroe KOMO^ BT AVOTts^. For the 
community of Asia, of Rome, by 
Augustus, meaning Roman mon- 
ey struck by Augustus for the use 
of the Asiatic provinces. 

Com. imp. atg, comm itiFeratorii 
AVG-uiH. The deputy of the au- 
gust Emperor. 

Coiiu. coiiModus, 

Commodus, an Emperor's i 
or Commodiana, a colony. 



r Co. 

atantiiujpoU noneta ligicina b. or 
conttanUnopoli aoneta assignata. 
Money struck at Constantmo- 
ple, B. that is, of the Becoad of 
flee or diyision of the Mint ; the 
offices being distinguished hy the 
letters A. B., for first and second 
a system common in Roman mon 
etary numertda; or, money struclt 
at Constantinople. 

Con. or cons, or const, cossianti 
raopfe. Constantinople in Turltej 

Con. avg. viil casgiarium Auaa^ft 

Tin. The eighth gift of ' 


CoNO. casGonMa. Concord. 

CoNC. ArAM. cixscorMa 
The Concord of Apamea, 

CoNa. DAT. rOF. coNeiiwtMmDA'Piim 
popufc. A gift of com to the peo 


»M»iPKiMDMP(if«i&) vfimanonatam 

The first gift of corn bestowed or 

the Homan people. 
CoH9. p. B. or Cose. PH. CONG 

iairmm popuki Bomano; or, conc 

ianvm TnimMm. The gift of core. 

for the Roman people; or, the first 

^ft of com. 
Cong. tek. p. e. imp. max 

Ocme^arkim'TEB.iium popu/o _. 

■rut incPermg MAXimm Dirritm. The 

third gift of corn for the Roman 

people for great benefits. 
Con. m. coNsiantinopolis Tioneta. 

The money of Constantinople. 
OoN. o. B. coNstanlinopoli offidna b. 

The money of Constantinople ; ofH- 

cina B; that is, of the second office 

or division of tlie mint. 
Ooh. OB. cossdintin^pdi ^ 

Btrucli at Constantinople. 

Consensu, bknat, 

Q. B. coKBBNBU SENATws ET squeff- 
tris OBDINIB PopvMnTie iwinoni. 
By the consent of the Senate, of 
the equestrian order, and of the 
Roman people. 

Cons. o. a. cOT^&lattU'ii&poli oMdnm 
Of Constantinople, the office A., 
tliat is, of tiie first office or division 

A. Strack at Constantinople, office 
a. (See aboTj.) 
ONS. Buo. coTiseitaiori suo. To hi= 
preserver ; a title given to several 
CooPT corpxa^Ms Chosen oradop- 
ir asHOCUled 

Si fl c COOPT tftia m oMi,e coki. 
egi'im st;iba Tsunetum BXSfnafw 
consults In all the colleges by 
the m^ority and by Senatorial 
o p F CAE mbtbo co!oma Triimi 
vlamu. c\xa(i>ea mbtrojw^w The 
colony Prima Flay a Cae«areii 
Metropolis the capital of PaleB- 

o p I A cohmaoetaiiOfiiinmnpa 
cenas j«&a Aiuruafi The colonj 
of Octavianorum Pacensis Julii 
o B Is B coiiii'f ttmopdh \wma 
H nat B StiTiCk at Conitantinople 
the new Rome B 


tliird time 
Coaa«ulm Consuls 
Cos Ti (.iiisiil. VI Consul for the 

C paet cmws PiETua Caius Paet- 
us name of a personage 

C. P. PL. ATG. p. 6. CAES. METBO. P. 

8. r. cxtlenia, -prima vumia KVQusta 
vdiD fiermamca OAESoraa, mktbo- 
polis wwiineice ^friae vaUsHiM. The 
colony Prima Blavia Augusta Felix 
Glermanica Caesarea, Metropolis of 
the province of Syria in Palestine, 

C. li. dai'itas mipuUicae. The glorj- 
of the Republic. 

Cras, cbas3«». Crassus, name of a 

_, _. _. _. onia 'Romaria JtUia 

peJKC Biiiope. The colony Romana 
Julia Felix Sinope. 


Ava-aela coMMODin. Crispina Au- 
gusta, wife of Commodus Au- 

SACK. PAC, censor sacbj's TACwTidis. 

Censor for pexlonning the sacred 


T. T. colonw, nogata itm-UMi. The 


colony Togala Tariico, now Tiiiiii- 
gona in Spain. 
!. T. clffpeim voUduh. The votive 

enii iiossilianu8 Mfssi'us quiktub. 
Cains Valens HostilianuB Messius 
Qtiintus, n.ime of a personage. 

To the vnnquisli(;r of barl);ii'ous 

Deci. DKCivs ot DEQennalia. Dccius, 

OF the decennial games. 
De. SBiut. DE G-ERMffijHft Of tlie Gor 

mans, that is, relating to tliat nn- 

To CiiUiJ Vettins Languidua, mioie 

of a ptrsonagc. 
C. VI. IK .colaiiiri vicirifs uAiee. The 

colony Victrix lUioe, 
C, Q. I". P. conml <iuinium pofef 

ralrla^. Consul for tlieflfth time, 

Father of his country. 
CvB. X. P. cmtalof x. Tlandorum. 

An officer for ctriking a certain 

0. V. T. a^iiiit viatrix Taraco. The 
colony Victrix Taraco, now Tfura- 
gona m Spain. 

C. T. T. T. ^TBBOTT. ATG. QOlonil), 

Ytelric TDgaia 'earam ^TEKNiTirfs 
.A.uoustae. The colony Victrix 
Togata Taraco to tlie ■Eternity of 
Augustus, now Tarragona in Spain. 


D. A. Dwus Augustus. The divine 

Dac. DAcid. DAci<!ii». Dacia or Da- 

Dao. CAP. DAciacAFto. Dacia talten, 
Dacia atg. pkovincia. dacia auo- 

tiati pnovmciA. Dacia, Uie prov. 

ince of Augustus. 
Dama. DAMASCUS. Dauiascus in Sy- 

D. ( 

ta aeso/r AUffustas. The 

divine Angus 

orbae caesarianae. The 

Decurions of the colony of Con- 
cordia Norha Oiesariana. 

Cl.odktS BEP'rt'lWS AliBIMtW CAESlW. 
DeeimusClodiua Septimus Alhinus 

), c. s. De consu^m sentenHa. By 
the decree of the consuls. 

ram sodTorv/m. Our Lords, 
DebeliiATOR. gent, babbak. di 


r of 

D. N. veeimi sepo)!. The nephew of 

Djss. Dominus. Lord or Empeior. 
Diana, peiic. diaka PEitGenjiiB. 

Diana of Perga. 
DicT. PEK. Tiiciaior rE-RpetuuH. 

Perpetual dictator. 
Dii. pat. mi -PAwii. The gods of 

the coimtry. 
DiiH. cvsT. Diis cvBTodibus. To tbi; 

guardian gods. 
Dns. OESiT. Diis aENiTcUibua. To the 

genital gods. 
D. i.M. a. BeainxietoMithraasacniiir. 

Sacred to the invincible god Mi- 


oc AUGtinti. The august diBcipIine, 
or the discipline or Augustus. 
Drvi. p. Divi viUvs. Tie son of the 
god. This inseriplion generally 
appears on the coins of Augustns, 
tlio adopted son of Julius Cffisar, 
■wlio waa deified by the Senate. 


YEseaKtaw. To tlie divine Au- 
gustus Vespasian. 
Divo. AVG. Divo AVGM^to. To tbo 
divine Augustus. 

To Titus Vespasian, the son of tl 
divine Vespasian. 
Div. pio. Dive. pio. To the divine 
Pius (Antoninus). 


ieu» PATEE. The divine Trajan 

Augustus Parthicus, the Father. 

DoM. or DOMiT. domjWus, or domi- 

lianiiS. Domitius, or Domitian. 


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APPENDICES.> at: 11 CAMSnm diyi, viliiDOiJ- 
iTiAhA AUiiBSft'. Domitia Augus- 
ta niothei of tlie divine Cseaar, 
soa of the august Domiiian, 

B p Tnvus ptuB, Tlie diyine Pius, 
meiming Antoninus. 

B p p Dii Penates, Tlie liousehold 
gods tlie Penates. 

I)b c bs q PR. oniima cxsttr ijra'ra- 
guejjnofts FBoefeeiiig. Driisus Cu 
sar the tve years pra;fect. 

Db\b\8 o^sae. ti. Ava. f. di^ 


AUGusfi Fihiis, Dm Avowti Nepw 
Drasufl Ciesar, son of Tiberius 
Augustus and gi'andson of Au- 
gustus Oiesar. 
D. B. I. M. Dw SfK mvieto MMrtw. 
To Mithras, the iuvincible god of 
the s 


Egn. G-AL. AVG. TiGTsativs GAiiieniis 
AUBVsitis. Egnatius Gallienus Au- 
guslus, name of a personage, 

EtD. MART. EYD^ma MAnTiV. To the 
Idea of March. 

E<i. COH. ECguMtria coitora. Tlie 
equestrian cohort. 

Eq, m. Sjqiiitumuasiatri. The mas- 
ters of tlie cavalry. 

Eq. ordih. BQuiiuw ORDiBis. The 
order of Knlglits. 

Etr. strus-'iis. Etruriau. 

Eva, EVitopa. Europe. 

Ex. AK. p. EX Ait^ciif't F-uro, or 
Tmbnfo, or vuUico. Moaey made 
from fine silver, or the approved 
silver, or the public silver, 

Ex. coKs. ExcoKsensK. By consent. 

Ex. D. D. Bs: j>eereto DecuHonum. . 
By the decree of the Decurions. 

ES. EA, p. IJ. L S. AD. AE. D. E. ' 

EX EA recttiiia quae jus»u senaiiis j 
AD iLBtra/mim nelata Eat, Tie 
money -which, by the command of 
the Senate, has been remitted to | 
the Treasury. 
ExBECiTve. VAC. EXERcrrua ■ 
The Vaccenian army. 



The Persian army. 

Ex. s. c. EX aenatua oonnilfo. By 
order of the Senate. 

Ex. s. D. EXS^MhMDSoreto. By de- 
cree of the Senate. 

P. Yobius, or miciiinduni, or Fecit, or 
Fdve, or wili'is, or Flamen, or 
vortuiuis. The name of a person, 
or the future pai-ticiple of IJieverb 
to make, or the perfect t^nse 
of the same verb, made ; or, hap- 
py, or, a son, or, a high priest, 
or, fortune. 

Pab. PABtKS. Fahius, a man's name. 

Pabei. FABiHciiM. Pabricins, a 

e of 


To the victorious fates. 
Favstina. Ava, astonist avs. Pit. 

r. p. PATJ8TISA KV&Uita AUTO- 

KiNi ATjousti pri Fati'is vatriae. 
Faustina Augusta (the wife of) 
Antoninus Augustus Pius, lather 
of his country. 
F. B. Fdicitas ■aeata. Blessed happi- 

P. c. vaeieiidwn ctiravit, or vni- 
m&ttto coavekendiis. The mating 
(of coin) superintended, or, con- 
veying com, 


mtce. or xva'/Ml. To Ihe august 
happiness, or the happiness of 

Pel. pbo. FEiicitas Tsotindai'uvi. 
The happiness of the provinces. 

Pel. temp. rep. vsiAx tsaiFortim 
BEPamto. The happy amend- 
ment of the age. 

Fer, d, FEKonitf nea, Tiie Goddess 


the fidelity of the Legions, 
Ftoes milit, pidbs MiLiTwm, The 

fidelity of the soldiers. 
PiD, BXBBC. pnw» BSKBcSw* The 

fidelity of the army, 
Pl, Thammi. or ri.„viu«. The flamen, 

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or high priest, 

priest of the god, tie 

'idtM. DIAL. FtAMen D 
liigh priest of Jupiter. 

FlaviuB, a man's 
Tiie higli 



The high priest of Mars. 

Pl. Fel. FLov&ie EELjtfw. Of the 
happy Fiityian CLegion). 

POK. FOviitiM. Fortune. 

i^HT. P. B. -FORtuna or voitUtudo 
Ti^puM Romtmi. The Fortune, or 
the strength of the Homan peo- 

POBT. PRIM. FORTuna ■ps.vttig&nUa. 
Tlie Portune of the flrst-horn. 

Fort. bed. YOV-Tunae bedjke; or 
FOKTMBO* iiED)M«. The retum of 
Fortune; or, to the return of For- 



Fourius, a mai 
DBIA, a Roman Gens. 

Fvxa. PDLGMrffito!', (Jupiter) Fulgu- 
Ftlm. FDLMs?M(foj-. (Jupitor) Fulnii- 


I-. GoUnicus, or Qaudimii, or eeyt- 
tas, orGscmoiias, ot anaea. Galini- 
cus, surname of TolusianuB ; or 
Joy, the name given to one of 
tho Roman Lemons; or the Ge- 
nius of good or evil, a divinity; 
or Germnnus, the name of a per- 
sonage ; or Gnea, a -woman's 

Gadet. OrXDiTona. Gaditana, 

Cadiz, in Spain. 
Gal. OAJiindmis, or OALmws. 

Undicus, or Galerius, hoth ni 

of personages. 
G. or GBB. AVG. o^nio xvousU. 

the genius of Augustus. 
G. COR. svPEK. onea coRn^i'a 

ERa. Gnea Cornelia Supera, the 

name of an empress. 

icus, Daeicus, titles hestowed on 
the emperors for their victories 
over the Genniins and Dacians. 

Gem, l. GESRwa i,egio. The Douhle 

Gen. col. cor. gtssw coLoniae cor- 
inthiae. To the Genius of the col- 
ony of Corinth, 

Gen, illt. qenw-s ihuvrld. The 
Genius of lOyria, now Dalmatia. 

Gekio, col. hek, pate, sesio 
coLonuw nehothViimw FAiRerms, 
To the Genius of the colony of 


a Patrei 

Obh, '. LYG. GEBJti lAiodunend. To 

the Gejiius of Lugdunum, now 

Germ, capta. eERxania capta, 

Germany conquered. 
Ger, p. GERmurtKa vrovinda, or 

GERinajife popvMs. The German 

Province, or, the German people, 
Gl. E. E, &ijBTia Exercitua Bonumi, 

The glory of the Roman army. 
Gl, p. r. GLifrtJi pojrafo' nomaJii', 

The glory of the T -■- 

secrated to the Genius of tho 

G, M. v. eemina idiJ^rva "viciiix. 

The colony Gemina Minerva Vic- 

trii, in Italj'. 
Goth, no-cniciia, Gothicus, a title 

given to several emperors. 

G. I. „ 

Fopuliia. Greece traversed; o. 
people of Greece. 

the Genius of the Eflman pei 
Grao. geaccAms. Gracchus, 
of a personage. 

, the 

H. sastati Hastati, a name given 
to a certain portion of the Ko- 




Faier Patriae. Hadrianua Augus- 
tus, Consul for the tlilrd time, 
f atfiei of the coaatiy. 


Helvius Pertiiiax, 

Her. tmseuks, 
cules, the ] 

Of the Haatati and of the 

ipolia, Heliopoiis, the city 
m. in EfiTDt. 

eof a 


HBiRAO&'Ats. Hei'aclitus, 



To Hercules Gaditai 


iMio ooTuditori. To Hercules Rom- 
auus Conditor; the Ttoimm Her- 
cules, the founder. 

HiLAniT. TEMP. HiLAmraa tbm- 
FOi'um. The hilarity of the times. 

Hip. HippijM. Hipp ins, a man'a 

Hisp m.'ipalii 01 Hispttns oi insp- 

lUii atown mSpaiE or Spam; or 

Hispalus the Djune of i person. 

Ho HOW) the divinity Honoui 

Ha a si^n foi sesteituim thp Baa- 

terce a piece ot Eomjn money. 


Wipe itvr or Kni or mno or 
J!H(SM or I oi 1 Imperator or 
Jnpitei 01 Jiino oi hy the com- 
mand or the first or one 
A impf]atO) A.uqualua oi indul- 
gmiha Aujastt The emp ror Au- 
gustus or hy the permission of 

c imipeiafor- caeaar or n Uus 
aeaai- The Empeior Caesar or 



■ Cieeanbus fhilip- 
pis vjomtis To the two Phihps, 
Caesars and Auguati 

irymiXo Aeie vltindoFeiiuiido. The 

I. IT. impcrafor iiei'um. Imperator 

for the second lime. 


-noMn. Duumvir for five years. 

Imp. cabs, .istoninus Ave. p.p.p. 
laverator cxRsair AifTOKIKoa Au- 
Gimiiis villi vater vairiae. The 
emperor Ca;aar Antoninus Augus- 
tus, Pius, Father of the Countty. 

Imp. cabs. Ava. oomst. cons. Imp- 
ei'ator CAMsatr xuaushu coiorMm' 
coKSffB*u. The emperor Caesar 
Augustus, (chosen) hy the consent 
of the community. 

Imp. caes. c. vid. volvsiaso. Imp- 
ei'ator cabshm' cow viaio YOLUsiano. 
To the emperor Cissar Cains Vibius 

Imp. caes. divj. a 

AXQmnii vUio tbajaki hadriako 


Tonmid Mimnw TB,ibuni{iae Totes- 
tate cosewfo' FatH Fatriae. To the 
emperor Cuesnr Traj'anua Hadrian- 
u3 Augustus, son o£ the divine 
Trajanus Augustus, the Best, Do- 
cicua Parthicus, High Priest, exer- 
cising the Tribunitian power. Con- 
sul Fatliei- of the Oountry 

Gnem wxasta qwjiiCiw The em 
peror Caesar Gneus Mesaiua Quni 
tus nime of a usurper 


AKM PAKT iMPeratoi CMHfiriiueiu» 


eus PABT/iMMS. The emperor 
Caesar Lucius Aui'eliua VeruB 
Augustua Anneaiacus Parthlcus ; 
the dissolute associate of Marcus 



due SEFTtmiilK SEVei 

AU&iwfws Tsilmnitia FOtestale cos- 
ml. Tlie omperoi' Caesar Lucius 
Septimius Severus Pertiiiiix Augus- 
tus, eserdsing the Tidliunilian 
power, Oonaul. 

ATG. inperadn' caiua vtiblivs lic- 
niws VALERiANt-B Pi''w veiin aug«* 
tas. Ttie empeior Caius Publius 
LicimusValerianua Rus Felix Au- 
UP. iTBit. uipefrtftjj' iTBK?/m. Im- 
perntor for tlie seooud time. 

AVG. aiperafar CJ«&ar iLoi-eits ak- 
Tcm'niis GORUiAHua AS'meanus 
Avou^titt. The emperor Caesar 
Mjircua Antoninus Gordianus, 
Af ricanns, Augustus. 


The emperor Caesar Marcus OpeH- 
ua Severus Macrinus Augustus. 
Imp. c^s. hebt.^. teaiaho. atg. 

1'. liCPeratoricxBansEavAK tba- 
.TAXO tiMwoBto OEBmanieo dacko 
VonUjieiisaximo TRibitnUia Toteatate 
coNswi v. Tater Talriae. To the 
«mperor Caesar Nerva Trajan, 
AucuatUB, Qermanicus, Dacicus, 
hi^h pontiff, exercising the Trihu- 
Bitian powei-, consul for (he fifth 
time, father of the country. 

>. The emperor 
Pubiins Helvius Pertinax 



mlm. The emperor Mai'cus Ju- 
lius PhilippuH Augustus. 

VESvemlico tolubiaho AUWMfo 
To the emperor Caesar Caius Va 
lindicns Finnicus Galindicua Ven 
■dendicus Volusianus Angus tu" 
titles which Volusianns assumed 
afier lua conquests. 

Imp. ( 


velix Avauatus. The emperor Caesai 
Marcus Cassius Latienus Postu 
mus, Piua, Felix, Augustus, Imper 
ator, one of the thirty tjiants. 

Imp. c. m. traiakvb. djlcivs, avg. 
liipei'alor caesar Moreus tkAiTA- 
Mus DECius AvaustruB, The em- 
peror Caesar Marcus Trajantis 
Deciiis Angustua. 

Imp, C. p. """ ~ ~ 

Tito ABLio AKTOsrso. To the em- 
peror Titus Aelius Antoninus. 

Imp. t. cms. divi. vest. p. avs. p. 
M. in. POT. COS. KEST. liipera- 
tor T«r«« CMSar divi VBSPOsiims 
vHius AVGvs^K vonUfex Maxwms 
■Fiifynnitia porestate cosiul res- 
TituH. The empeiwr Titus Cae- 
sar, son of the divine Vespasian, 
high pontiff, exercising the Tri- 
bunitinn power, and Consul, re- 

Imp. ti. iMPa'afc)' Vi. Impera- 
tor for the sixtii time, 

Imdvlgent. avoo. in. caeth. ibddl- 
GBKTiet AXJGiidmvm m cahtho^ 
n&nses. Tlie clemency of the two 
favor of tlie Cartha- 

Indvlo. pia. posTVMr. avg. inddl- 
aenUa pia postdmi Avavsti. The 
pious clemency of Postumus Au- 

Jupiter Cantabricus. 
I. o. M. D. JtW! Optimo Max^io 

DSDiealum Dedicated to Jupiter, 

the best and greatest. 
I o M H. jovi opHmu) iscmrmo 

mlu^iobs To Jupiter, the best and 

greatest of Heliopolis. 

•fecitd to Jupiter, the Ijest and 

opiiiiio ntwimo ^omsoHsECvsuiatin 
Avaiutt To Jupiler, the liest, the 
greatest, the sponsor of the secu- 
rity of Augustus. 

AMP. ATQ, TBAK. B. E. JOl'l OpUnW 

a/Mima seiiaftw vopul"H(^*e wnna- 
nua vofii BWfleepto vno onifitB iMPer- 



guilliori Statu s^. The Roman pi 
pie and Senate (liave) offered 
lliaiiksgivmgs to Jupiter, tlie best, 
the greatest, for hia preservation 
of toe Emperor Caesar, and that 
tlirough Tiiin the republic ia ' 
richer and more tmaquil state. 
. o. M.v. c. jovicyiiimaiiaximoYktnri 
WJiseiiialori, To Jupiter, the host, 
the greatest, the yictorious, tlie 

lov. . 

•i oiYMpfo. To Jupiter 

lOY. STAT. JOT! BTATOrf. To JupltOT 


lOT. TON. JOV! Touanft'. To Ju- 
piter, the Thunderer. 

IsBL. OBCvw. mBUtsSca oncvttentea. 
The laelastican and Oecumeniean 

I. s. M. E. jwnn sospita Magna seffina, 
or JMTWJ aospHa naler tumtanorum, 
Juno Sosplta, the great queen; or, 
Juno Sospita, the mother of the 

Ital. iTAw'a. Italy. 


The Italian muiiicipaJity. 
Itd. cap. .lUDiSa CAPta. Judea (aken. 
Itl. juUus or jifii'a, or jtiManvs. 

Julius, or Julia, or Juliauus, all 

aameB of personages. 

GlWto CA89ANDREN«iS. Julla Au- 

gusta Casaandrensia, aKoman col- 
ony, formerly a town in Greece : 

one of the generals of Alexander 
the Great, who, on the death of 
that monarch, seized upon the ad- 
roiniatration of Greeee. 

G««6i GENiTn^ OBBils. JuliaAugus- 
ta, motlier of the world. 


ATJOiJSTA colonia caesarea Ang^ista, 
Julia Augusta, the colony of Caes- 
area Augusta. 
Ivi.rA. mp. T. AVG. F, AvovsTA. 
JULIA juFeratorii TiU Avuusti Ftlia 
AuausTA. Julia Auffiiata, daugh- 
ter of the Emperor Titua Augus- 

IvL. V. MAxiuva c. .TULw veru» 


K i« often used for ou corns struck 

in the Grecian provmcea 
K. caithagooi fcaeso Corthagp or 

Eae^o (a ChnstiBn name) 
Kap CAFitolitia Capitolina. 
Kab CABfhoffo Cailhage 
Kab o CATtatagmensii offiana The 

Carthigeuian monetary office 
Eabt or Kkt b Oaet?w^ offiema 

qumta The fifth Carthagenian 

monetary office 
KoN orKOiH co^''&!«^i/(OJwto Con 



,aw or Lemif 
I iMdi. The 
mbassador, c 

colony ] 

or Lucius, 
the games. 
The col- 

Mgdwiium, colonia. 
ony Lugdunum, now 
Laphr. LAPmiiu. Laph 
name for Diana. 

Luaiua aitrei.™s commoiZus GBr- 
tiavieun SABMafcas. Lucius Au- 
relius Commodus Germanicua Sar- 
maticus, titles given him for the 

PARTKi'tvi or SEPtwiiia, or vlpiii. 
Tiie double legion Paeifica, or 
Parthica, or Neptunia, or Ulpia, 
all distinctive titles of this Ro- 




LB9. 1. ADI. P. P. LBOJC I. ADJUtri'l! 

Fta viddis. The first legion, Pia, 
Fidelis, Adjutrix. This legion pro- 
baWj' obtiiined these names from 
comiDg up in a needful moment to 
tlie help of another legion. 

Leg. 11. PABT T. p. V.F. LB&iff II. 

pabtSmoi v. Fm videUs. The sec- 
ond le^on Purlliicn, Pia for the 
fifth time, and faithful for tlie 
fifth time, distinctive honorary 
titles of this legion. 
Lbo. n. Tito, or tb. fok. IjEQio n. 
Tui^anvs OT iwt^anvsFOBMs. The 
second legion of Troy, or Tra- 
jamia Fortis. 


The third Parthian legion. Le- 


VI. Pia VI. FideHe. The fourth le- 

fion, pious for the sixth time, and 
liUiful for the sixth time, distine- 
tive titles repeatedly conferred. 
Leg. m. XX.!o Maeedonica xx. 
The twentieth Macedonian legion. 
Leg. pko. coa or ibg. pro. pr. or 

LBGl. ATG. or lEG, A. P. LBUaftlB 

PEo conauie or TjaaaMs pro PEa«- 
tore, or i^aatua A.vsuati, or KGcfo 
krmeniae ■pit/Bijieiae. Ambassador 
for the consul, or amhassador for 
the prfetor, or the ambassador of 
Augustus, or the legion of the 
proviEce of Armenia. 

czMudia asMina vmrnAs. The 
seventh faithful legion Claudia 

Leo. v. m. p. c. IiEQIO v. Nacedojiiea 
via conetang. The fiflli Macedon- 
ian legion, pious and constant, dis- 
tinctive titles of honor. 

Leg, XI. cLAVDii. legjo xi. Clau- 
dia. The eleventh legion Claudia. 

Leg. xn. pre. legjii xvi. YBMgelJae 
or 'FRT.genae. The sixteenth le- 
^on of Pregelia, a town in Lat- 
mm ; or Fregena, an ancient town 
of Tuscany. 

Leg. xsjc, sep. vl e. u;GiiJ xxs. 
BBP(«««(Ji« VI. -BidiUs. The thir- 
tieth legion Neptimiana, faithlul 
for tlie sixth time. 

Len. cvr. X. p. iJSKfwilus CTSFator 
X. wlaniloi'uin: Lentulus, an of- 
ficer for striking a certain 
of money. 

Lbp. jjBTf^ui or ixeUs. Lepidus, 
name of ii personage, or Leptis, 
name of a town. 

L. H. T. iMdus BostSins tuierii. 
Lucius Hostilius Tubero, name of 
a personage. 

Lib. avg. im. cos. mi. wzeralifan 
Av&usti iiii. consul mr. TLe 
fourtJi liberality of Augustus, con- 
sul for the fourth time. 

L. N. T.WM NBpt«. Nephew of Lu- 

L. B". lucM FlMug. Sou of Lucius. 

LiBBatAiiiT. AVG. LnsKKALiias Au- 
Gueta or AUQ««(^. The august lib- 
erality, or the liberality of Augus- 

AUGU«&" C0Lw«)'a AUffuaia Aroe ra- 
trmifix. To the children of Aii- 
gustus, the colony Augusta Aioc 
of Patr,is. 


Liberty restored. 
Lib. II. or iii. Liuwiffftw ii or in 

The second or third liberality 
Lib, p. MBCi-o Fain, To Lib<r thi. 

father, Bacchus. 
Lib. pvb. WBei-oMtas vuBlica or 

TJiserfoB Fuslica. A public libci 

ality, or public libei'ty 

Lie, COB. SAL, TALBat. N C^S LlCiJlJ'/S 

ooRndme BAi,omma VMMRtattus 
KoWife c^aar. Liciaius Cornebus 
Sfiloninus Valerlantis Nobihe 

Lie. or LiciN, lics'/m'us ucnuumvi 

LicJnius or Lidnianua 
L, L MiN, Jisgia l Mnseretiim Tlie 

first legion of Mincn a, a town m 

LocvPLET. oiiB,_ tbhrae, locup- 

the enrichcr of the universe. 
LoK, LONj?«s. Longus, name of a 

L, p. D. AE. p. liumts Fapirius ne- 

dgimtm ARdilia FleMa. Lucius 

Papirius chosen Aedile of the 


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lumtia votesttUB xv. consul iir 
vate)' votnae. Lucius SeptinuuB 
Pius Augustus, High 

1 for the third t 
the country. 



BKNiisM cosiiil n. valer Patiiae 
Lucius Septimius Severus Perti 
nax Augustus Imperator Par 
thicuB Aiahicus, Parthicus Ad 
iahenicus, consul for the second 
time, father of the country. 

L. vaij. i/iiems TALerto. Lucius 
Valerius, name of a personage. 

Ltc. ijtrcdJiMs or imcrio or LUC(i« 
num. Lucanus or I.ucrio, names 
of personages, or Lugdunum, now 

Lvc. p. s. lAsoduni feciima signatn 

Hon y u k a Lyon 

Lt ae uuct ABL Luciua 


Lv ILl 


"M tsaesjo < 



persona or a month oi Muierva 

or moDeT or nmnicipal or mu 

nitae a fortified town 
yi A Mi/ro!M AurelvM Marcus 

Ma cant majwms canib*(m Mani- 

us Caniniua {name of a person). 
Ma. c. avb, MAjina (aedes) caeaaris 

AUG JSft 01 MAreMU It AUGliSft 

The gicit temple of Augustus 

or the market place of Auguitui 
JI ^v imicus iBMj&MB Tilarcu'. 

^milius (a man s name) 
llAG DEOEMT siAGne livas DE 

CBM- US Slaguentius Decentiua 

lU:, PIli^ MAG7i(M PICS. Th(, It 

and pious awaided t Cne 

"\I ^^^, Mamw ii,T,(u» Man ih 

4jinius (a man s name) 

Bralo> ATjGur GOt,»Kl DESJ^nai is 
ITERim ET Tnwi/u i Jblaicus 
Antoninua imperator au^ui 
and consul for the second and 
third time 

ton; iliS AUdBsSt S OBEM itUL 8 

Marcus Antoninia lugustu, Uer 

rvFeratm- oajsml DESiGraoius rrBat 


!icae oone^endae Marcus Antoni 
nus imperator (or comm ndcr) 
consul for the second timt and 
tnimvir for tho thud time foi es 
talli=hmg the Hepuhhc 

JIlRC ^AKOffi 01 \LAi«?(a orinit 

tin Maicn 01 "Mircus oi Mar 

llmciA oTAca BEIT i.^e ^iakoia 
OTACiLia fEveri wsmitfi Mi 
cia Oticd I Severn Aunusta 

"Vli-B PKop Map-j Pi(OPiffn(( r 
"Vlara tlip kfLQdci 

Mab iLT Mii&uiTC I To ^lar 
the avenger 

sjUi LAT««iis POsiUMUB. ilaicua 
Cassius Latienus Postumus 

Mother ot the Auguati 


^loth r 
"\Iofhei ot 

ot the senUe 
the country 


mother of the gods, the preserver, 
Mat. dbtm. baivt. matoj' detjm sa- 



liWari. To the beneficent motlier 
of the gods. 
Matbe. avog. mater tojGustorum, 
Mother of the August!. 


iTTS BAi/BTiB ntagtor. ilarciis At- 

ius BalbuR, FraeloK 
Mate, oastror. matb! cabtrorm)«. 

To the mother of the campB. 
M.ATP. Marejut Anvidiua. Marcus 

Aufidius (the name of o personage). 
M. ATE. or MAR. ATE. ucireus AU- 

KeKiM. Marcus Aurehus. 
M. AVR. ANTON, natvus Avseli'M ak- 

TONMiws. Marcus Aurelius Anto- 

M. AVI«^ 

p. ir. Viarmia AimELtMSANTOOTNUS 
AUGiutuR KJOSEsiaatis vonUfe 
tmus. Maroua Aureliua Antoninus 
Augustus Armeniacus, high Pon- 

Max. MAximws. Maximus. 

M. C. I. wwnicipium cali^vn's 3'Uiia. 

The city of Calaguris Julia, now 

Lahorre in Bpain. 

Met. METTOjioffiK. The Metropolis. 

Mbt. METaccMs. Metaceus. 

Met, tjupiab. pan. iswraMum tiL- 
PiAsiMii Fh-TMLomewm. Ulpian and 
Pannoniaa metal. 

Met. del. t/cEnaliwm. del. for dal- 
matianwm. Metal of Dalmatia. 

Met. bob. METaBiim soRimLm. Me- 
tal of Noricum. 

M. F. Ham vHkis. The son of Mar- 


N. isard sepos. The nephew 
of Marcus, 

H. ru:.BE0AvoinA. deet. Muniei- 
pium Biber/t. illeroavonia Der- 
Toja._ The municipal city of Hi 


MlBEB. ■\ 

To the 

bis. Money of the city of Garth- 

2>idtis cmlatem J 

RTattramt. Marcus Lepidus repair- 
ed the town of Reginens. 
M. L. w>n£ta jMf/dunemmm,. The 

money of Lugdunum (Lyons). 
M. MAEC. narcvs Miarcellvs. JMarcns 

M. M. 1. y. jurmieipes Munidpii jvlU 

uSiwn*fe. Tlie mnnicipals of the 

mRoicipiil city of Julius TTtlcensis. 
M. K. Mc)«efa Tuoii^on^itsis. Money of 

MoN. Mouefti. Money. 
MoN. AVG, iiosetct AVQUsti. Money 

of Augustus. 
Mo. 8. T. iioneta mgnata "irmeri*. 

Money struck at Treves, a city in 

M, POP. uaJWM TovUiun. Marcus 

Popilius (a man's name). 
M. B. nunidjiium Batminatmii. The 

city of Ravenna, in Italy. 
M. s. uomae supmiork. Of Upper 

i. BT CABS8 nosTB. voneta 

M. ! 

moscBOram. Sacred money of our 

Augustl and Ctesars. 
M. B. T K. tiimeia emnata. TBec«H«. 

Money struck at Treves. 
MvL. FEL, MTTLfet ■BShida. Many 



dpiwm AUGWsto bubilis c<m 


PEONTo/M DUUMVIR!. The town 
of Au^ta BilbiUs, repaired un- 
der Cams Cornelius and Marcus 
Helvius Fronto, Duumvirs. 
Mvn. ciiVB. uaixieipium, chimia. 

' Olunia. 

MviJ. FANB. ML. MONie^'jwn. fane- 
^Uum. The town of Fane- 


The town of Stohen- 


Nic^^m iTALic«jise 

jWiyaaii. An Italian municipality, 

by the permission of Augustus. 

Mvs, STOB., or BTOBBHB, or SXOBl 

siTM. Mutiic^um BTOBensa 
fiTOBEKsiMM. The town of S 
bensium, in Macedonia. 




■ NoWie, 

servos TRiijaiiae aiesahubiam^ 

N. sataiM, or sepos, . . 

nostfir, orKMjftun, orsmnmwi. The 
Lirtii ; or, the nephew ; or, noble 

' or, our ; or, money, 

Kat. kaWw, OTNAttDi. The l)irth 

Nat. vrb. cine. con. yAiali tjbb s 
Ciscsnms conalitiiti. The Oircen 
sian gEinieB instituted on the anni 
vei'sary of the foundation, of thi 

N. C. Ncm cae^ar, or srMUa oaesar. 
Kero CiEsar, or nohle Ctesar. 

K. C. A, p. K, NMWimWS WMM« A 

popii^) iit»minn>. Money struck by 

the Roman people. 
Nkp. red, NEPftino BEDW(»^ To the 

retuming Nepti 
Nkp, B. BBPfeno s 



feasts held in honor of Neptune. 

Nek. nbiw or heb^o. Nero or 

Nerva, both names of personages. 

URBjIs. Nero, the first 
the city. 
Nebo. clavd. dbv 

Sacred t( 

teus luperatm: The emperor Nero 
Claudius Drusus Germaniciis, 
Nero, et, dbtovs. caesabbs. qvinq. 

s iffjnm^aenrtalea ooloniae 
YietncU suUae isovae ca/rtMginia. 
Nero aiid Dnisua quimjuennial 
Caesars of the colony Victnx Julia, 
or Nova Carthago. 

N, p. Nxmem" vUi^a. The son of 

N. H. nummi sepos. The nephew 
of Num.erius. 

NiCEPK. NiOEPHOJ'Mim, Nicepho- 
rium, a colow in Mesopotamia. 

Nia. siaer. Niger, the surname of 
the emperor Pescennius. 

Nob. C. TSOBilif or soBHimniiis 
caemir. Noble, or uoMest Caesars. 

N. T. fiUJtdni-iutela)-i. To the tute- 
lar Deity. 


Of the colony Nerva TrajaJia Alex- 
iindriana Bostra, or Bostrensis, a 
town in Palestine, 
Nv. wma. Numa Pompilius. 


O o/ or &ffifiiJi oi oqulmus or 
opfimo The prepoiition ob the 
mmt marlt showing where the 
money was manufactured Oeul 
mu'i the name of a personage oi 
optimo the best a tifle of 
Jupiter, sometimes bestowed also 
upon the Emperor Trajan, 

Ob. ae-oroB. CIV. BEB.oro. c. s. ob. 
oi-nes sermtos. For the preservers 
of the citizens, speaking of a crown 
wldch was riven to those who had 
saved the life of a Koman citizen. 

(Ec. tMCamema. A name given to 
public games and combats. 

Off. in const. oYvMnae Tertiae 
ooNSTomte'nt^wW. In allusion to 
money struck in the third monetary 
ofilce at Oonatantinople. 

Oavi.. oauLni'is. Ogulnius. 

Olt. oTJYmpiuK. Oiympius. 

O. M. T, optimo iiatumo vonanti. 
To the Thunderer, the best, the 

Op. or OPT. Prin, or PR. ovtmo 
PRnxdpi. To the best prince. 

Op. div, OPi DiviwK. To the 
divine Ops. 

Opei, OFSimins. Opeimius. 

Opkc. oPBiiiiM. OpeliiK. 

Opi, Drvof, tb. p. cos. n. opi. 
■OTVTfiaeTBilmnilia potestote comul. 
n. To the divine Ops ; exercising 
the tribunitial power, and con- 
sul for the second time, 

Opptva. capit. pbopk. prsp, cla. 

Obb. ter. obbw TBKraJttm. Allud- 
ing to the extent of the Roman 

Ot. or oTACiL, 0TIHS7M or ota- 
Cil.i««, Otacilia, the name of 
an empress, or Otacilius, the 
name of a personage. 



rmrii.mi, ir Torpetwas, or Vius, or 
vuiittfi.i', or Fopulus, or vomit, or 

ox- criiUnda, or pu6Swm, or pufi- 
^i'eo. Father, or of the oountiy, 
or (tlve preposition) by, or struck, 
or perpetual, or pious, or pon- 
tiff, or tko people, or he Ms 
pliMsed, or praefect, or the first, 
or a prince, or a province, or 
Publins, or to the public. 

P. A. Tieta$ A/uffusti, or Augusta. 
The piety of Augustua, or Augos- 
tan piety. 

Pac. or PACT. PACi^fti. To the 
pacific Mars. 

Pace. p. b, tebba. jrAEict. pabta. 


Bomans' tbbra iiAKiijMe pabta 
JANTJM CLuaiT. He has shut the 
temple o( Jamia, having pro- 
cured peace for the Eoman peo- 
ple upon, land and sea. 

Uader the Duumvirs Publius 
Alitius and Lucius Menius. 
Pabhon! PAHJfOKW. For Paii- 


fatJior of Caiiis Caesar. 

P. C. Ii. VAlEBIAMVa. PW6ij!W tW- 

ndiua i^idnim VAiEBiAMua. Pub- 
lius Cornelius Licinius Valeria 
nua name of an emperor 
P. D F)pu/c o-itii/m Given to the 

Pbiao pblacj/ Pelagia a titk 
given to Venus 

Papi. papiWms. Papirius, name of 
a personage. 

P. AQ. vei-cussa xqriiMtf. Struck 
at Aquilia, a town in Italy, on 
the coast of the Adriatic. 

P. AB. vercuasa Kuelafe. Struck at 
Arelato, now Aries in France. 

P, AB. AD. vwrOiieita A-Roinous 
ADi/ibenieua, Parthicus Arabicus ( 
AdiabenicTis, titles g^ven to em- 
perors for their conquests or 
victories obtained in these coun- 

Pab. FAntMcus. Parthicus, a 

title given to the emperors for 

victories over the Pai'thians. 
P. ABL. pecunia ASELofCTisja or 

VBTcassa, ASMLate. The money of 

Aries, or struck at Aries. 
Pat. patej- PATme. Father of the 

Pax. Ave. pax A-uousta. The 

Augustan peace. 
Pax. p. bom. fas ToptiM EOMom*. 

The peace of the Boman people, 

Romim The Pcnites of the 
Eoman people 
Pbib. PBBmiss i By the permission 

PbH. a or PEBPET Ava FFR 

pefiii Aujitstua or pebpbtui « 

Aviimttm Perpetual Augustus 

Pebm divi Ava coi, bow peb 


uJei The colony Bomnlea by 
the permission of the divine 
Pebm imp cob f«em«s i imp 
Biaiona coRintlu Of Connth 
by pel mission ot the empcr i 


erafona o-EBManw^ By the per 
mission of the emperor GemiiEi 
cus aJlTidmn to Domitiaa who 
had that sum xme 
Pki(miss\ 1 APBO"o pROCOS ni 

coi.9i' III By permission of Lu 

ciu'f Apronmi proconsul for tliL 

th rd time 
P. H p vefUHia ao'ute pet tmwt 

Money struck at Bome 
Prut PFBTjnin Putinax name 

of an emperor 
Pesceb FiL^CBKiHTW Pescennius 

name ot an emperor 
', F viu» ¥eli.T or Fii vtdilis or 

Frim^ts veett Pioijs and happy 

01 pious and futhful oi hrst 

. F PUblti PS&M! or Pss F*fw 
The son of Pubhns or the 
daughter of the Pius that is of 
Antonmus Pius 

(ijfft ions Of the province ot 
Spain Oitenons 


Philip the f onnder 

'. I. or PBIH rVVBN FltWJJ)* J« 

veiituiii or pbim«jm invBNtuft* 
The Pnnce of j outh 

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PiKT. AVG. yiBTas Aueusta. 

gustan piety. 
P. K. Tercasea Kortliagw.. Struck 

at Carthage. 

P1.&B. TKilJ. PLASfojWS T 

qtoBma. PJaetorius Tranquillus, 

name of a personage. 
P. L. COR, SAi. FvSMva i*c 

coKTwifes siiAOJiinus. Publius 

Licinius Cornelius Saloninus, 

name of an emperor. 
P. L. o. If. psrctisea j/agdurd 

officinA sovd or ^ond. Stniclc 

at Lugdunum in the new 

ninth office. 
P. M. -ponUfex mtidrnvs. The 
n pontiff. 


iae swperwru cai/mia YiMinia- 
ev/m or Yiainacium. The colony 
Vimiuiacumj or Vindnacium, in 
tlie province of Upper Moesia, 
now Widin, in Servia. 

Pol. fotjUo. PoUio, name of a 

Pom. Fowpeivs. 

Post. ost. po 
port of Ostia. 

P. P. Fater ratriae. Father of Oie 

P. p, AVG. Ferpet^us 
Perpetual Augustas. 

P. POMPON. OB, n, viB. vubho 
POMPONw CKispo, or CBispino 
Duumvnto. Under the Duumvir 
Puhliua Pomponius Crispus, or 

P. E. pereuesa Komae. Struck at 


pRefect of the fleet 
and of the coasts. 


wanorum. Priefect of the Ger- 
Pb. cos. yBoeonsvl. Proconsul. 


The first Decennials. 
Pbinoip. iwbwt. pKiNcrpj jtjtekt- 

•uMa. To the prince of youth. 
Pkob. PiiOB-ufl. Probus, name of 

Pboc. FROContul. Proconsul. 
Pkoc. sic. PBOCfwaw^ siciUae. Pro- 
consul of Sicily. 

OS. Grand-nephew. 

ProprECtor, or for 

Q., or p. provincia. 

or PB0Qu(i*<8fe>!v. 

or for the qusestor. 

Peop. or PBO. 


the prEPtor, 
Pboq, or PBO. 





tke gods. 

BBNATiw. By the foresight of 

the senate. 
Pb. s. p. FBoDinciae syriae Falestin^. 

Of the province of Syria, in 

Pk. vkb. FKi^feetus vbbIs or 

Fnaetar UBBfe. Prsefect or pra;- 

tor of the city. 
P. s. Fereusaa sUmae. Stmok at 

Siscia, in Croatia, now Sisseg. 
P. T. F6r,>asm w&mrm. Struck at 

Treves, in Germany, now Treves. 
PvDio. PODicifea. Modesty. 
PvpiB. PDPiKJttts. Pupienus, name 
f an emperor. 

Qi/wf A qn»s 

(the name of 

every fifth year 


of a personage 

Q. c. u. p. I. qumtuj oseB3/iis ToMeuiit 
FiM invpermtoi Qumtua Cecibnw 
Metellua Pius, Commander 
DBS. c^aaeatoi Tm&ignafM Ap 
pointed a qufestor 


silts DECsus HOBii!! Caesar Quin 
tus Herennius Etru<<cus Messms 
Decius, Noble Caesar 

T of Spain 

Q. o. C. FAB. QMinic offiilnw (et) case 
~KBii>. To Qumtus Ogulmus and 
I Cains Fahiu'i 


of the prcetoi 


A kin-j i^i\Li 


ft) PAiiH!J cmioii! (et) qui/tfi 
Tv^tbiitco iroi.(a(KJ To Qumtu'' 
Papirmi Carbo and to Qiiiiilu= 
Teitntius "MontanuB 
Q pii 01 q PEO c 01 COB quftestor 



coNRw/j Tertium To Qmiitiis 
Terentius Culleoms piocuiwul 
foi the thitd time 
Qtad. quADriiius, Quadrittus. 


The qiiadrngesiraa, a tax 
lied, remitted. 
„ _. .JEU. qvisquejinak 
Quinquennial repeated. 

■J. V. or (JVOD. T. M. 8. (jiftiU viud 

VLunitae 6inl, or sauit. That the 
roads may be defended. 
Q. TEE. QKaesfor unnii. Qiweator of 
the city. 


U. ■RemUsa, or Boma, or jieatituit, 

oritOTtumiis, Eeniitted, ot Rome, ; 

or he has restored, or Romao. 

K.v. BAr^Jwia. Ravenna, a city of 

Italy. ! 

R. c. 'Bomani dim. Roman cilieens. [ 

R. cc. semiasa c .C. Tlie two hun- 1 

dredth remitted. [ 

RBcsr. BECBPto, Received. ■ 

KEC. OKB. RECtoj' 0BB4S. EuleT of 

the world. 
Rbf. BBFecto. Rebuilt oi re- ; 


KoviBB MiLfe ABOLiT. The stalc ' 
debt, to tlie value of nine thou- 
sand sesterces, aboiisbed, by pay- , 
ment. hs, signifies sesterces, i 

Res. REBM(fu» or itEsf^ij. Be- '- 
stored, or lie has restored. 

Itor. iTAL. KESTiiutor WAidae. ■ 
The restorer of Italy. 

Rest. btm. HMSiituta Nvuidia or j 
NCMraum 'RESTitfitwrn. Numidia i 
restored, or the money remitted. ! 

tJ tiieParthi ns 

i'^. iioi.emaeti'- King 

Rby rutT 

\. kms .,J 

Rt;\ p-ioL 


B 1£ 01 BEI MIL IK^ Vl/tfcllll OI 

Si,! lEiLiiaj'iJ Military affaiis 
Ito Eomoe To Bomt, 

RoM ^TPB ROHrtf -aTBEHat To 

etem il Rom<. 
Rcvivin^' Rome 

Ron LOL KOMwZfffl LOLDJiiff TilC 

colony Romulea 
Rom ft avg HOMae et avcus/ 
To Rome and to Augustus. 


Reviving Rome, 


Romulus Augustus. 


To Romulus the founder. 
Ro. p. 

Mones' struck at Rome. 
R. r. nomas Fercussa. Sti'ucb at 

R. p. c. TifiipuliUaie comUtv^nrkie. 

For the re-establishing of the 

R. B. iu>ma6 eignata. Struck at Rome. 
li. V. nomavietriT. Victorious Rome. 
R. p. s. Rimennas peetmia sis/nat/r. 

Money struck at Ravenna. 
R. xi:. BemisM XL. 'I'he fortielb 


f apes, or mwcgito, 
3sts, or things to 
r tlie half of the 

e of a personage), or the 

iddess of 
: security 

SECuritas MigtisU, 
AmiHodhiae. Salus, the 
health, or the health c 
of Augustus, or struck at Antioch, 
speaking of money. 
Sacbrd. coop. in. omh. coll. or 


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coop(«ft(s IN oMBWi vojJLeffia ( 
cosi,sgia) supra NTiJKJ'iWi. 8 
pernumerarj' priests appointed i 
all the colleges. 

Sac. f. eACjfs Faciuiidum or sac 
Facierae. Sacrifices to tli6 go 1 
to tie perfoimed, or Tieing pe 

Sacr. per. 

. Period 



Secular gamea of t 


8A.C. BffiCULARi'a 8AC) 

Secular saeiilices. 

S^CTT,. FRl 

To a fertile period. 

Sao. BACtwftffiTO. Saguntum, a foi 

in Spain, 

Sal. baww 

or HALifMia, or salo/ 

jiM, or sa 

i^mna. Tlie goddess f 


r Saldulj«, a town 

Spain; or 

EaJoninus, or Balonina. 

Sai.. gbit. 

The health of the h 

Sail, hab 



Sallustia Barb 

The names of an 


town in Spain. 

8, ARL. sign 

■tia ARELtite. Struck 

Aries, in Prance. 

Barm. a-iHiintoie. Savmaticus, 
title given to an emperor for h 
conquests over tlie Barmatians. 

Satf, sAuF/fin. or SAUP/ej'!^ 
Saufieia, the name of a Roma 
family, or Sautfeius, tJie name i ! 

f Itom f r 

senaiiis comulto. By decree 

of the Senate, which allowed 

money to lie coined. 
Sci. AS", scipii' xwricawus. Scip 

Scip. ASLi. sciPMi AsiAiwiis. Scipi 

the AJsiatic. 
8. COHBT. &ignata coTSWicmMrw^l 

Struck at Constantinople. 
ScR. ecBiboriia, or scRj'ioniu 

Scribonia, the name of a Roma 

family, or Scribonius, the nam 

of a personage. 
Beo. or a^c. SBCuritos OMCvlimn 
Security, or the age. 

Aq il i 

8 HE 
M y t 

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bonae or sicomediae. Stwjred money 
of Naibonne or TTicomedia, or 
struck nt Narbonne or Nicomedia. 

i. M. E. signafa ywTika wrnim. Mon- 
ey struck at Rome. 

I, M. K. q, signata uoneta nomcu 
qgkina qv/trta. Money Btniek al 
Home in the fourth monetary of 
flee, expressed by the letter ft, 

I. M. eisc, signata moneta SLaciae. 
Money struck at 8iscia. 

I. M. TB. eignata Koneta, 'sv&oerU. 
Money struck at Treves. 

i. M, T. s. B. sacra voneta •sB^vem 
&ignata, offimia eecunda. Sacred 
money of Trevee, b signifying of 
tte second monetary office. 

p. spurfws. 8puriu3, the name 

august hope. 

8pb8. F. B. Bpes Yopuli TUima 
The hope of the Roman people. 

S. P. q. n, ADSBitT. LiBBBT. oeoa 
vopi^nMiue somanua assbbt 
MBEBToftls. The Roman senate and 
people to the sasertor of liberty. 

8, P. q. B. A. N. p. F. mnatm FopiUus 
qjie nomanus Anno matoM (soilicel 
uibis) vieri pee!Y(optimo pnncipi). 
"Which may be freely interpreted, 
as struck by tlie senate and people 
of Rome, &o., in lionor of tie year 
of the birth of the best prince. 

S, P. q. a. IMP. c^. QVOD. t. m. s. ex. 
Bi. P. Q, IS. AD. A. D. Be?uitm Pop- 
tduaqjie vomanus weerator cxaari 
QUOD yiae yLum/ae Stmt as ea 
vecunia q,uain is ad Aetwima. 
jietuMf. Money struck by tke sen- 
ate and people, &c., in order that 
the pubhc roads might be main- 

S. P. Q. R. ivniB. AUGVST. eenatia 
FopuZusq,ue jtoTruin-uajchisi augus- 
lae. The senate and Roman peo- 
ple to Julia Augusta, 

S. p. q. B. OPTIMO. PBiBCiPi. Benatua 
Fopuluati-ae ■asmanm optimo pein- 
cm. The senate and Roman 
people to the best piince. 

8. p. q. It. BTP. p. D. 5enattig ropahts 
que Bomonws STrefam^nta topuIo 
"Data, Tlie senate and Roman peo- 

senntua suivXu&^ue : 
mhunt PRO ■Reditu i 
senate and Roman people maki. 
votive offerings for the return of 
. E. 6e7iatii» B 

"BeceptU, or RmUtuMs. Tke Roman 
senate, or the healtti of the Rom- 
ans, or the hope of tiie republic, or 
sacrifices received, or sacrifices rc- 

sestertium Tl 

Treves, in 
or tribune, or tutelar, 
T. AB. tertia Kaelate. Struck in the 
third monetary office of Arelate, 

T. CAES. DIVI. VK»P. p. AVa. p. M. 

Tit. p. p. oos. VIII. •lUaa CAEsa*' 
DIVI fESPadard riUtis . 
FonMfi^ Mosmtw Tiaiumtid i 
tate rater Tatriae Oonmil viii. 
Titus Caesar, son of fie divine 
Vespasian, so sh-led, because be 
had been deified by the Romans; 
Augustus, higk pontiff, exercising 
tlie tribunitian power, father of 
the country, consul for the eighth 

Templ. div, atg. best. cos. nu. 
TBMPiwfft Divi Avausti VMSi^tutum 
coTtavi quartum. The temple of 
the divine Augustus, restored, 
consul for the fourth, time. 

Tee. TEBentms. Terentius, name of 
a personage. 

Tes. t^snalonicae. Of Thessalouica. 

T. p. lUi vilia or lempm'vm velidtas. 


r till? Fi'licjity I 

dnughtei' of Til 

of the times. 
T. PI-. titiis m.<m<is. Titus Flnvius, 

uame of a pei'Bonagc. 
T. G. A. Tutdarin Gemim xegypti \ 

Tlie tutelary genius of Egypt. 
TiiKoro. THKOPoffi!. Tlieopolis, a ' 

Dame given to the city of Antioch ! 

in the reign of Juafinian, Emperor 

of tlie East. 
Ti. 'iihei-ivK. Tiberius, name of an 

Ti. N. Tiberil -fiepoi. Nephew of 

Ti. p. Tiberii viliiis. Son of Tiiicrius. 
T. M. AP. CL. tUvs Kanlim (et) Arpim 

Chaudius, Titus ManMua and Ap- 

pius Claudius, names of persons. 

&c. TriSuni&'ffi votesfas, or trSiu- 
rdtia vovettai or 'rnnjusiriA 
rOTESTAS T. The tribunitian pow- 
er, or exercising tlie tribunitian 
power for the fifth time. 

Tr. inevem. Ti'evcrLs or Treves. 

Thai, iRAjanus. Trajan (name of a 

Tbah. TKAsgwi'ffi'w. Traniiuillus, 
name of a personage. 

Tkanq. TBAKijMiWtos. Tranquility. 

TuEBAK. TRCBANitfB. TrcGanius, 
name of a peraonage. 


TRKBomnnug. Trehonianus, name 

V. t^aiiique, or \erus, or Yklrli; or 
Tt>, or V'irtim, or vofo, or yotinui, 
or ucta. Five, or Verua, name 
of a personage, or virtue, or by 
iJie vow, or Totive, or the city. 

V. AET. yii-tua ABT«7i«. Eternal 

Tat,, or valI'IB. tai^cmm or valbk- 

iamis, names of pei'SOnages. 
Var. kvf. vab4«» -Rwnig. Varius 

Hufua, name of a personage. 
Yes. fkl. vsseri vsiaci. To the 

happy Venus. 
Vkiteh. victb. vbser* Tsccm'ei. To 

Venua the viclorious. 
I Vent. -vESTtdim, Vcntidius, name 

of a peraonage. 


of i.^_ „_. 

Tb. p. TRtyarui vorti*. The legion 
Ti'ajaiia Fortis, a distinctivu title 
of this legion. 

TiirvMPii. TBicjiPiMtoi'. Triurn- 

Til. OBS. or o. B. s. TJleceris oit- 
siffnatn or qfficina B. msnata. 
Struck at Treves, in Germany, 
or struck in tlie oftiee b. 

Tk. leg. n. TvibuKun iJEOinnte n. 
Tlie military tribune of tlie- sec- 
ond legion. 

Tr. p TKetem percnam or recunia. 
Struck at Treves, or the money 
of Treves. 

Tr. PL. D. TB^Sim-rfs ri.i^Ms Jimigna- 
tm. Chosen tilbune for the peo- 

Tk. t. m. TRiwmfairi Majtetales. Mone- 
tary triumvirs. 

T. T. -ermrofum. (Coin^s) of Treves. 

TvL. H. or HOST. TCiAs BoetHiui or 

Vuttius Lajiguidus, name of a 

V. 1. -iutnimpeiii The a ow- of the 

ViB. TiBtHs Vibiav nime ot a pci 

'Vic. A.^G -victoiui tLLG'iili Tlie vu 

toiy of Augustus 
' Vic. ubkh. Ticbiini OERiuiniar 

Tlie Germanic Tictory 
Vio. PAR II ■\i(,t</na FABfh'ii 

Hfl.ts'rtJo. The gi'eatest Parthian 

Vio. !*. yictorin iidUc: Tlie Sicilian 

Vic. BBATissijr. ciless. victoiia-aK^ 

torj' of tlie most sacred Cteaara 

Vic. BRIT. P. M. VTctom BRiTaftwicn 
TonUfex isa.nrms. Tlie Bntisli 
victory, the high Pontiff 

Victor, bom. YicvonvfROManorvm 
The victory of the Romans 

Vict. p. g.\i.. ayg. vicTona pat 
(ftroo <iij2iefii Avansti. Tlie Par- 
thian victory of the Emperor Gal- 
lienus Augustus. 

Vni. \iii. Eight, generally this figure 
when it appears on silver coins 


signilies tbut thcv ait' woiili eight 

Vn. "\"JR, EPV. VII. VTRL Ewloitum. 

The Epuloiioaa Septemvir, a sa- i 

crefl dignity among tlie Eomans. i 
ViK. viji(Hs. Virtue, or courage, or | 

Vi. VIB. A. VI. TIB. XUffllSf'IS. 

The AugUHtan Sexemvir or Sevir, 

a titular rant amon^ the Romans, 
V. N. M. K vrbis NtcometUae Moneta 

B£iiittita. The restored money of 

the city of Nicomedia, 
■""'- -'- - Volusiiia, name of 

X. Decern. Ten, or Deoennalia(f casta) 
or deQoting the value of x Ases ou 
a Iloman denarius. 

X. p. s. vaciendtmi,. An officer ap- 
pointed for striking sUver mone^, 
X signifying the silver deuarii, 
which were originally worth ten 


3 of ^ 
vnaliDa. Public ; 



tipliat XXX. The vows for twenty 
yeais inweaaed to thirty. 
V p. vofe PuWiCffl or vofti Fopuli. 
Public vows or vow* of the pi,-opio. 

,. K. XI.. aewMsa. The fortieth, 
a tax so called, remitted. 
■I. XYi. Tlie later denarii are mark- 
ed thus ; tliia coin was formerly 
only worth ten Asee, hut rose to 
the value of sixteen, with which 
flgurea tliey were marked. 
'. XT. Money worth fifteen don- 

Thanks returned 



A (aw of tbosi.' issiK'H vrvvo, in gold, y lari^cr iiiiTiihui- in bronze, 




Ai colew 

1 1 Cocteia 






Acln and AUia 



it mill 1 







1 Cornuflcia 


_H t istonu 

liiteatn oi AiUi Hi 


toi Utll 







Sron<? S 

C !i1( ma 









A ima 



























































t lovia 




lolha ' 
























Plaetori i 








Pompoui I 








Procuki 1 







Rubelli I 



Semproni i 


St tti I 



Tirquiti I 

Tirenti i 



1 itmia 


Tiebani \ 




Ventidi 1 






X A 31 E S 


C'nasua Ftmt/jieius. Boi'ii 106 jj. C. ; 
called bySyHathe Dictator, Mag- 
mis, a title tiiat dusceiided to liia 
son and is found on his coins. 
Foimcd witli Csesar and Cransus, 
tJie fli-st Triunivirale. Killed 4S 
B. c. a— R." S.— R.^ R'; Br. 
— R.' Some coiiis represent Lim 
with liis sons Cnaeus Pompeius 
und Sestus PompeinB. There are 
><OJiie silver coins restored, hy Tra- 

t'AiDsJcT.rtra C^sab. BorulOOii.t!. : 
made Perpetual Dictator 44 b. 

G— R E ! 
Many co s : 
Marc intonj s 

eus Ponjiet s 
the Great Bo n — 

-C— R B - 

I jei 

f til 

c S— R 

1 1 

Poroi ey 



ffitl tos 

i Pon 1 u 
1 otli S xti s Pompe 
s He ho e 1 ke his fathe llic 
snr a ot Ma„n 
Si- ( ill ^w- s s ou 1 son of Pom 
pej tl e a e t Bo i 65 n c 
killed 85 B c Q— R° S— R 
R « W tl and w thout h s head 
Som n? ep eient lun t th 

hs fatle nl Irother Ciae s 
Ponpou >Iatii s d Cnaeus 
Po ni en the 10 a" 
Marciia J u B t Bo 85 b 
c &.SJS. u tel C«esai an I led 
-R 8 

portrait w th the hea Is of 11 c 
two Biut se. The e a ong 

■i„^ -n,^ ,. T, .. n»* r.ti til 

-R.1 S.—m R.^ These I 

coins do not heai' the heiid <if Cas- 

Maivui uMnilian L&pithis. Date of 
hirth, unknown ; joined Oiesar 
iigaiuat Pompey, and with Oeta-' 
vius and Anthony formed the sec- 
ond TrlumTirate;diedl3 B.C. G. — 
li.' B.— R,« R." Borne coins re- 

Marcus Aittomns, BcmSSn.c; died 
in Egypt OU a. c. G.— R. » R. " S. 
0.— n." Br, R.i R.*. Witli und 
without his head. Some coins 
represent him ivith Julius Qeaar, 
Lepidus, Cleopatra, Marc Antony 
(Lis son), Lucina Autonius, or 

tKtai>ia, sister of Augustus, wife of 
Marc Antony, Died 10 or 11 a c. 
G. — R ' This coin represents her 
with iHarc Antony. 

Vaivw Antoniug, son of Marc jUi- 
tony and Fulvla. Killed 36 b. c. 
G. — R. ' This coin represents him 
with llarc Antony, his father. 

Cleopaim, queen of Egypt. Made 
queen 56 b. c. ; killed herself 36 
B. c. G.— R.» 8.— R.* Br.~E.^ 
Most of these coins represent her 
with Marc AntOJiy. Tlie gold coins 
are douhtful. 

Oi ins Antoiaus, hrothei' of Marc An- 
tony, killed by Brutus 44 or 43 
li. c. G. — R " Without portrait. 

L Ldiui Antoniuu, brotlier of Marc Au- 
toay. Bora—; died—. G.— E.* 
S.— R. ' These coins represent 
him with Marc Antony, his broth- 

C ins Oeiimus Caepa* AueusTtrs, 
nephew and heir of Julius Ca.'sar. 
Born 68 B. c. ; declared Emperor 
30 B. c. : obtained the uaine.ot Au- 
gustus 37b. c; died 14a, d, G,— 

>y Google 


nre many of Ms coins restored liy 
Claudius, Nero, Titus, Domitian, 
Serva, and Trajaa. The coins of 

Lima Bi-asUia, seooad wife of Augus- 
tus. Bom fi7 B. c. ; died 30 a. i>. 
S.—G.—R.* The coins of this 
princess, struck in Bome, do uot 
bear her head ; ahe is represented 
as Justice, Piety, and HealtlL She 
is called Jifte Augusta, on Latin 
coins; Zwa ou some Ofmk ones. 
Toofe: the name of Julia after Au- 
gustus's death. 

Mai-cus Vipmniiis Agrippa, son-in-law 
of Augustus. Bora tl3 B.C. ; died 
13 B.C. G.— R' S.— R« R.' Br. 
— 0. — R> Some coins represent 
him with Augustus. There are se- 
cond brass coma restored hy Titus, 
Domitiau, and silver by Traian. 

JvUa, daughter of Augustus, wife of 
llariusMarceUimifl, Marcus A^p- 
pa, and, lastly, of Tiberius. Bora 
39 B. 0, ; died of starvation by com- 
mand of Tiberius, a. d. 14. Her 
name appears ou a coin of Augus- 
tus, with the heads of her sons, 
Caius and Lucius. There are only 
Greek coins of tliis princess. 

Caius et Lucius, sons of Marcus 
Agrippa and Julia. Caius, born 
30b. o.;Ca?sar,nB. C. ; died4A. d. ; 
Lucius, born 17 b, c. ; Cfesai', the 
same year; died 3 A, d. These two j 
princes are named Jogether on the 1 
coins of Augustus. We do not I 
find their porti'aita except on Colo- ■ 

Agrippa Fostwmus, son of Marcus ' 
Agrippa and Julia. Bom IS b, c. ; 
obtained the name of Cesar 4 a. u. ; 
killed by Tiberius, his brother, 14 
K. D. Of this Pidncc no coins are 
known, except a Greek and one 

TiBESTOS CLAuyrcs Neiio, son-in- 
law of Augustus. Born 43 b. 0. ; 
ol>taineil the title of Cffisar 4 a. d. ; 
declared Emperor 14 a. d, ; amoth- 
cted, by order of Caligula, 37 a. d. 



■■ Rr.- 

C. — R* Some coins ore without 
his head; other represent him with 
Augustus and Drusus the Young- 
er. Thei-e are some coins restored 
by Titus, Domitian, and Trajan. 

Ji^ffro Claudius Srustts, Junior, sou of 
Tiberius. Bom 13 b. C; poisoned 
by his wife, Livia, 33 a. d. Br. — 
0. — R. " Most of the coins of this, 
prince, and all those in silver, re- 
present hhn on tJie reverses of Ti- 
berius. Some of them are without 
his poi-trait. There are coins re- 
stored by Titus and Domitian. 

Weiv Claudius JMisus, Senior, brother- 
of Tiberius. Boi'n 38 b. c. ; died 0' 
A. D. G.— R* B,— R^ Br.— R3 
There are some coins stnick by 
Claudius, and others restored by 
Titus and Domitian. 

Antoma, daughter of Marc Antony, 
and wife of Drusus Senior. Born 
38 B, 0, ; poisoned by her grandson 
Caligula, 38 a. d. G.— R* 8. 
— R.^ 

Gd'maniffus, son of Dnisus Senior 
and Antonia. Born 15 B. C. ; 
adopted by Tiberius and obtained 
the title of Ciesar 4 a. d. ; was. 
poisoned 19 a. d. G.— R.' It.« 
S.— R' R« Br,— CRf Nearly- 
all the coins represent him with 
Augustus, Caligula, and Agrip- 
pina. There ai'e coins restored hj 
Titus and Domitian. 

Agtippiria Senm; daughter of Agrippa 
and Julia, wife of Germanicus. 
Born 13 b. C. ; was starved to 
death by oi-der of Tiberius 33 
A, D, G.— E.' R« S.— E.* Br.— 
R.' R' Most of the coins repre- 
sent her with Caligula and Ger- 
manicus. Thei'e are coins restored 
hy Titus. 

Mro and I>i-usus, sons of Gei-maiii- 
cns and Agrippina. Nero bom 
7 A. ». ; starved to death by Tibe- 
rius 31 A. D. Dmsus bom 8 a. d. ; 
starved to death by Tiberius 
33 A. D. Br.— C. They are re- 
presented together on horseback. 

Oaids, commonly called C.iLieuLA, 
son. of Germanicus and Agi'ip- 
pina. Born 13 A. i>. ; declared 
Emperor 37 a. d, ; killed by the 
Prietorian guards 41 a. d. G.— ■ 

li.^ R.' S.— R.^ 


Ir.— C. 

>y Google 


— R ' Tlie namo of Caliguln 
iM"* given to tlui Empeioi be 
cauMt lio liad woia fiom lu-i m 
f iincy the CabgH or militaiyljoot 
Some coins jrepieaent him with 
GermamcuR and his motliei Agiip 
pint The title of Invp&ratm is 
found on his Colonial corns alone 
Chiudm first wife of Caligula Date 
of birth tinknown mamed H 
\ D died 86 \ D ISa genuine 
coins Thi'j lii>t wife of CaliR 
ula IS aometimc calkd by wntcis 
Tuiiia Chudilla 

fouith Mif( o£ Caligula 

Boia — 1 

> ^ 

<k\ t \ 

Br— R' borne eoiue iipre-tnt 
liti with OaudiU'. andwithNeio 

Cl'tudw daughtei of Claudius iiid 
PJintla Tn-giUiDJll I Horn — 
killed hy Neio 65 s. d Wt do 
not know of any Roman com-- 
of tins pnnce33 Hei name is to 
be found on a Colonial coin and 
hei poitrait on two pieces — onp a 
Colonial and tlit other of iki 

liliii'ia ClautliUf Bitfanivi^UH son 
of Claudius and Messalina Boiii 
4^ 1 D waa poisoned by Nero 55 
ID Bi -E 8 

Liciux Doimhus Nbbo tlic ■^oiuiULr 

son of Cnaens Dunutiu'. \.li 

enobaihns and 4.gnppin i llie 

lounaei bomnlaw and idopted 

b> riaudnia as heir tliin took 

111 n Lilies of Tthiilie Clow i • 

I ' I Bom 37 -i D 

I I name of Cesar 60 \ 

I I (I Bmpeioi 64 A i: 

■■ "" G-— C — 

C ihgula 
ulia LirtUo sisttr of Caligula Born 
18 A D killed 41 A. D Tlu^ 

!nncere is called by lustoiian 
ulia or Livillft No Eomaiicoin 
can be ittTibuted to this ponceaa 
with certainty Julia Livilla may 
be found on Greek coma 
s/jpj tva Claudius Ih iwus son of 
DiuBuB Senior (the brother ot 
T ibenus) and Vntonia Bom 10 
K c declared Emperoi 41 * 
D poisoned h^ his wife igiip 
pina 54 V n G — H R ' f» — C 
— H " Br — C — B ■• Some corns 
lepieaent him mfh \gijppjna the 
\ oiinnei Some of his coina ti ere 
itstoi'd 111 Titus and Tr^an 
Claudius had thiec uives Plautii 
Uii,ii5aml]a ii-luPitiiia and Va 
Imi.iM hdun 

The ( 

-R * Bi - 

of 1 


of tliem lepre 
sent hiDi witli \giippina tho 
"i oungei 
Octuiui Bom 43 A u fiistwifeof 
Neio by whom she was flist di 
\ oiced and then killed by opemn^ 

No : 

■e known of thia piincess 
There are liowe\er, some Colonial 

Pomatn Salnna second wife of N(io 
Boin — dud Ob \ D fiom the 
litcctsof akickgi^enhti l>i 'Niio 
fl e do not know of ani ( iin ot 
this piineeaseseept a iih iCriMk 
whicli IS doubtful and tii o C Ir 
nial coppus of hei dau„htii Cliu 
dia {also unceitam) which hear 
hei name on the reverse 

'^tt'i&ia Vetvilinn third wife of Neio 
Vi m — died \ D home Greek 
1 I T II 111 coins lue known of 

I lil'i of Keio and Pjp 

I 111 U4 A D died the 
1 ,i.d 4 months Tiieie 

II (OK j!is ot this pnucLss ex 
cept a leaden one which bears bei 
hiad on the leveise of a com of 
INeio her father also iv, o doubt 


ful Colonial bronzes, wliicli bear ■ Bom 41 a. d, : obtiiiued the title of 

her name. , Csesar 69. SLaied the sovereign 

Liiniua Vlodius Maeet; Proprtetor in '• power with his father, witli the 

Africa 68 A. D. ; assumed to bei title of Emperor 71; became sole 

Emperor on Nero's death, but put ' emperor 79 ; died 81. G.— C— 

to death by order of Galba. S.— ; B, = S.— C— R.' Br.— C.—R. * Thc- 

R. ' R. * These coins were struck ; coins of Titus are numerous ; some 

in Africa. : represent him with' Vespasian, 

Sci'inua Sidpidus Born 3 B.C. Uomitian, or with his daughter 

declared Emperor 68 A, d. ; assas- ; Julia. Airicidia (who is not lianied 

sinated bj' Otho 69 a. d. G.— E.»i on any coin) and Marcia Furnilk 

E.4 s._c,— Ri Br,— C— E.» were his wives. 

Some of these coins were restored . Marcia Fiirnilla, second wife of Titus, 

by Titus and by Trajan. 1 Born — . Repudiated by Titus 

3F"K>m Salviii» Otho. Bom 33 a. d. ; , before his advancement to the 

declared Enrperor 60 a. d. ; con- throne. Died — . No Romnii 

quered by vitellius and JdUed ' coins arc known of Furnilla. 

liimself the same year. G.— E.* Tliei'e is a Greek coin attribnted 

S.— li. ' R. » There are only Colo- to lier. 

nial brass of Otho. . Julia, daughter of Tifus and Furnilla. 

.dwftiS ViTKitrus. Born 15 A. D. : de- Born—; died — G.— C.— 11.' S. 

Glared Emperor in Qermtmy 69 — H.^ R." Br.— R.^ 

■ " ; and put to death by \ espa- ^ Domtiasus, son of Vespasian and 

_ ._.j._... .,. . _ Q.— , Flavia Bouiitilla. Bom 51 a. d.; 

— R.' I obtained tJie name of Caisar 69 ; 

K." ] declared Euiperor 81 ; assassinated 

Zueiiis ViMlim. father of Aulus Vi- ! 86, G,— C— R.« S.— C— Re Br. 

tellius. Bom — ;died48or?aA. D. ' — C— B.* The coins of this Em- 

G. — R.* S.^R.^ Some coins, peror arc numerous, and represent 

I'epresent him with Hie Emperor ', him with Vespasian, Titus, and 

Vitelline his son. j ivitb his wife Domitia. 

FUiUus Vespasiamtis, Bom 9 a. d. ; ' Domitia liOngiiia, wife of Domitian. 

declared Emperor 69, died 70,1 Bom — ; died liO a.d, G.— E." 

G.— C.— R.' a— C.— R."s Br,— i S,— R* R" Br.— R." B." Some 

The coins of Vespasian . coins represent hei' with Domitian 

erous ; some of them re- 1 and with his son. 
presenthim withhisBonsTitusand ! J.nonyiin<», son of Domitian and 

Domitian, others bear only their I Domitia, Born 83 a.d, ; died 

names. Some of the Roman coins ■ young. This child, whose name 

of Vespasian were struck in Anti- is not known, is represented on Ihc 

ocb ia Syria. Some of these coins , coins with his mother, 

were restored by Trajan. j Veapctnanm the Tounffer, son of Fla- 

Flacia IkumtiHa, wife of Vespasian, ' vius Clemens Domitianus. "Wc 

Born — ; died before her liusband j Imow only of Greek coins, 
was made emperor. G. — R." S. '2f<m-cjia Cocceivx Nekia. Bom 33 a. 

— B. " R. ' Some coins represent ' d. ; declared Emperor OC ; die(l 08, 

her with Vespasian. ■ G.— R." E." 8.- C— E.' Br.— (i. 

BomitHln, daughter of Vespasian and — R.* The coins of this prince arv 

ITlavia Domitilla. Bom — ; died numei-ous. Some represent him 

before her father became emperor, . with Trajan 

— ; died—-. The coins attributed ■ ted intheEmpirewithNerva, with 

to the mother of Vespasian are the titles of Cseear and Emper Jr, 

false. j but without that of Augustus 97 ; 

Titus Flaniua Vespasianus, son of ' declared sole Empcroi' 08 ; died 

Vespasian and Flavia DomitUla. i 117. G.— C— R." S.— C— R.' 

>y Google 



Ur — C — H " TntjiinreBtoiMlmftny 
(f the dims of thcRonniiFsmslies, 
Mild of hii pre(teop«Rors Many 
coins leprcsent Inm with Kerva, 
Ills tatlier Plotina op Hadrian. 
The coins of Tiajan aro veiynume- 
Jiius his (Oin-aaio struck ivitli the 
iiiitil ot difleient MuntiieB such 
L T) ilin it] i Pannoiiia d.c 
III 11 if! of ft-ijan Bom — ; 
diirt 1 J A u G— B * R" S. 
— -K Some comi repicsent Lcr 
w iti. Ti^an Matidin oi Had- 

mui-'is Fiifii father ot the Em- 
pLioi Traian Boin — died 
11)11 \ D G— H ' S— R* 
I he 1 oiiii lepiphent him with | 
ihi 1 iiijiiioi Tra] m liis sou i 

f! I ifUi ot Tninn Born ' 

' ' ' 1 r ( -E« e.-; 

I I - 1 1 »t lici coins 


- I I I I 11 it Antoninus - 

Till I —1 s_h Br— R*'; 
itpic-int 111! withPlo- 
l)p H tlic nam< of Miu'- ^ 

ac A. D, ; adopted bj- Hadrian 
and named Osesar, 138 a. o. ; 
declared Emperor the same 
year, taking tlie names of Tttm 
j&iii» Httdrianus A., leeeiving 
from tie Senate tlie tilie of Pfes/ 
died 101 A. D. G.— C— R." 8.~ 
C.~B.« Br.— C.-R» Borne 
coins represent Mm with, ^idri- 
aii, Faustina, Marcus Aureliti.^, 
and Lucius Verufi. The coins of 


1 illui ihn HvBRitM;'. son- '. 
mini lit iMjifidii !iDd Tiajim. 
]i"ni () \ D adopted by Trajan' 
117 nude Emperor tee saaie 
■veil ditd 138 G— C— R"| 
■S — t, — R » Bi — C — R ' Some ! 
coins represent him with Traian, 
Plotintt SabiUH and Antonums. I 
Tlie coins of tins Emperoi ai'c | 
iinmeious minj beiuin^ the names j 
of the different provinces over 
ivhich tc tiaveled j 

tmbinu dauphtLT of Matidia wife | 
of Hadnan Bom — Icdled ] 
hiiscif l->r A. D G— R» 8.— I 
(. — R M 1 — C — R * home coins 
M[ii( (nt kiwithBiidnan | 

Ai I iv, Liiriw Aurehyis Gyonivi ', 
I mm d\i lenif Adopted by! 
Hadnan 185 or 13« a d by 
the name ot Lurm AELiusTfjvis; 
died 138 A D G — E ^ R » S. 
— R Br— C— R' 

AiiUnow the faioiite of Hadnan; 
died 130 A D Theie are only 
Gieek com? of Antinous 

Titim AwdiUi Fuliiim Byoiuui 
Arims Antomkcs Pit'* Bom 

Bom lOii A, D. ; married Antoni- 
mia before Ida adoption hy Ha- 
drian, and died 141 a. d. Q.—Q. 
—R." S.— C— R.'' Br.— C— R." 
Some coins represent her with 
Antoninus. Tlie coins of Fausti- 
na, tlie mother, are numerous. 

^fnl■cus &alfi-kis Antoiiiwus, son of 
Antoninus Pins aad Faustina; 
died young, before Lis father 
came to tlie throne. There are 
only Greelt coins known of this 

Mitreua Anniva Verua OatCUun 
8ei»ru» ILiKCirs Aubblitts, son-in- 
law of Ajitoninus Piua. Born 
131 A. D. ; adopted by Antoni- 
nus, 138, when lie was adopted 
by Hadrian, with the name ot 
Cffisar; made Emperor 101, tak- 
ing tlie names of Maectis Aitrr- 
died 180. 


-C— R' 


him with Antoninus, Faustina the 
Yotmg, Ijiicius Verus, and Com- 
modus. The coins of this Eni- 

Jf'attitiii.a tli6 Touiigm; cousin and 
wife of MaitiUH Aureliua; fjied 
175 A. D. G.—C— R.» S.— C. 
— E." Br. — C.~R." Some 
coins represent ker with Marcus 
AuTcIius. The coins of Faus- 
tina the Younger are very numer- 

AnnivB Verua, tlie youngei 

Marcus Aurelius and Faustina. 
Born 163 a.d. ; obtained the name 
of CLCsar 166; died 170. B.— 
R' R« 

Lucius Vekus Luciua Oy'ow^s Grm- 
mixfiia, SOB of .^lius desar, and 
son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius. 


>y Google 


Born lao A. D. ; adopted hy An- 
toniiiiia Piiis, without the title of 
OfEsar, 137; associated in the 
empire, with the titles of Cajsar 
and Augustus by Marcus Am ellus 
151 pojioned 168 O — C — R ' 
8 — C — E ' Br — C — R ' Some 
cum II pi esent liini v, ifli An 
liniiiiis md Mhicus Aurehu'; 
Ih ccm of Lucm*. ^eius aie 

(I I IT'I 

-R > 

-R ' Br — C — K 

luaii'- 01 Mmm» Mivs Aiiidius 
CoMMODTTB Anteiuiiiue eldei son of 
Maicua Auielius and Faustina tlu? 
"ioimger. Bom 161 a. i>,; ob- 
tained the name of Osssar 166; | 
associated, in the empire, with the : 
titio of Emperor, 176; obtained tie ■ 
name of Augustus 177; dedared i 
tKile emperor 180; strangled 103. ' 
G.—K.' R.8 g._o.— rY Br.— ' 
0. — R.* Some coins represent him ■ 
with Marcus Aurelius, Crispina, 
and Anniua Venis. On some of his . 
coins we meet with the head 
of a woman without any name. 
She is supposed to he his concu- 
bine Marcia. Commodus had a 
partieulnr devotion for Hercules, i 
and is often represented with 
the attributes of this Demigod, 
and is called the HercuTean ■ 
Commodus. The coins of this . 
emperor are very numerous. 

Bnittid OrMpina, wife of Oomniodus. ' 
Bom — ; hanished to Caprose, and 
there died, 188 A. D, G.— R," S. 
— C— R, '. Br.— C— K. ' Some 
coin^ repre.sent her witli Coramo- 

FulMus Hdting Pkrtinax. Bora 130 
A. o. ; declared Emperor by thi' ■ 

liy the soldiers after a 

Titiana, wife of Pertiuax. Bom — ; 
On the death of her husband she 
retired from public life, where she 

died. There are only Greek coin, 
of this Princess. 

Mabcub Didids Sevenm Juliakub, 
Born 133 a.d. ; purchased the purple 
on thedeath of Pertinax,butputto 
death after a reign of 60 days. G. 
— R»S— R» Br.— R.»E.' 

Manila "licmiilia, wife of Didius Juli- 
inu« Born — ; retired from pub- 
lic life on the death of her hus- 
uant O— H.' 8.— R.' Bi-.— Ri 

Didui ( laiti daughter of Didius 
Juhunus and Scantilla. Bom l.'iS 
A. D died — ; G.— R," S.— K." 
Bi — R ^ 

Cams FniscBBKius NiGEH, Bom — ; 
dt Glared Emperor by the legions in 
Syiia killed by Severus, 104. G. — 
R « s _i{ 5 R. 7 The Roman coins 
of Pesoennius Niger were struck in 
Syria, probably at Antioch. 

Decimm Clodtcs SepUimus Albintjs. 
Born — ; named CfL'sar, by Septi- 
mius Se verus 108; being at tnat tu iic 
Governor of Britain, he took the 
title of Bmpeior of Britain and 
Qaul, 106; defeated and killed by 
Septimius Severus 197; G.— R." 
8.— R.S R.^ Bi-.— R.= R' The 
Roman coins of Albinua with the 
title of Cajsar, were stmek at Rome 
during the time that there existed 
an alliance between him and Sep- 
timius Severus, when the latter 
confeiTed upon Albinus the tiUe of 
Cffisar. Those coins whicli bear 
the title of Emperor and of Augus- 
tus were struck in. Gaul, and per- 
haps some of them in Britain itfter 
Albinus had taken the title of em- 

ii^cfKa Sbpiimius SEVsatus. Born 140 
A. D. ; declared Emperor 103; be- 
came master of the whole empire 
107, when he took the surname of 
Pertiuas; died 311. G.— H.» E.' 
S.— C— R.= Br.— 0.— R.« Some 
coins represent him with Julia 
Douma, Caracalla, and Qetii. Tlie 
coins of this emperor iwe u\uner- 

J\iUa Domiia, daughter of Bassiiin'ia, 
wife of Septimius Severus. Bom 
— ; starved herself to death on the 
death of Caracalla, 317. G.— E." 
E.' S.~C.— R.8 Br._0._Ks. 

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Some coins represent lier with Sep- 
timiws Severus, Caracalla, and G«- 
ta. The coins of this empress are 

Mnnms A'areHua Anionimis, {or Bas- 
sianus), commonly called C abac al- 
ia, eldest son of SeptimiusSeverus 
and Julia- Boml^A.D. ; ohtained 
the name of Ote#ai l£f8, when be 
took the name of Marcus Aurelius 
Antoninus; that of Augustus 198; 
Emperor witli his brother Geta 211, 
whom he killed in. his mother's 

E.6 Br.— C.-R.'!. The name 
of Elagabalus was given to this 
Emperor because he was in his 
infancy made Pontiff to tiie God 
Ela^abftlna, (the Bitn), at Emisa in. 
Syria, his country. SoniGcoinarep- 
resent him with Aquila Severa, 
Annia Faustina, and Julia Soaem- 


B E. 8 S._R, 1 R. s Br.^ 

ted byMaciinus, 317, G.— R'R," 
S.— 0.— R," Br.— 0.— R'. The 
name of Caracalla came from a new 
sort of mirment which he intro- 
duced and frequently wore. Some 
coins represent him with Septimi- 
us 8everus, Julio Domna, Geta, 
and PlautiUa, The coins of this 
emperor are very numerous, 

FtiMn Flautdla, married Caracalla 
303 A. D. ; banished to Lipari, 
303; died there, 213. G,— R.' S.— 
G.— R". Br.— E." E^ 

Ludus or PuHMtSepUmiwi&WFK, sec- 
ond son of Seirtimius SevciTis and 
Julia Domna. Bom 180 a.u, ; ob- 
tained the name of Cffoar 198 and 
ihat of Augustus 209 Emperoi 
with his eldest brother Caracalla 
311 assassinated by hun m the 
" ■ 313 G — R * 

R. S R. 6 The name of Cornelia is 
only found on Greek coins. 
A-tp-tUia Secera, second wife of Elsga- 
balus. Died after the Emperor. 

G._K,9 S,— R.3 R.i. Br.— R.! 

R.4 Some coins represent hor 
with Elagabalus, 

Annia Fatintiiia, third wife of Elaga- 
baluB. Bom — ; divorced as soon as 
she was married; died — .G. — RS 
B.— R.8 Br.— E.fl The gold coin 
is doubtful, as it bears on the re- 
verse a portrait of Ela^balus. 

Julia Swiemias, mother of Elagabulus, 
and sister of Jiilia Mfesa: kdled 333 
A.D. G.— R.e S.— C. —RS Br.— 
C— R 4 Some coins represent her 
■with Elagabalus. 

Julia Mtesn sister of Tiilia Domna 
aunt to Blagalialu.s Bom — died 
223 G — R" b — C — R * Bj — 

R » 



ims lepresent him with 
beptimius "ievems Julia Domna 
iiid (. araeaila. The coins of Geta 

Mnri-ut (^hus 8eiei"Ui JtACBiNf^ 
Bom 164 A D decliied limpeioi 
^17 killed 218 tr — R 4 R ' 
S— Rl RS Br~RiR8 

Mavm Opelms Dtadtimffiuanvs sou of 
Macrmus Born 308 ad obtamed 
Ihe names of CsBsar and of Antoni 
nus 317 and that of Augustus the 
Bilme year killed 318 G — E s 
b — E3 R B Br — R s- R B 
Slany of his coins were stiuok at 
Intioch in Syria 

ELAaABALUs, Vaitiu Aintut Baasiartv 
Bom 305 A D declued Empeioi 
218 when he took the namcb ot 
"Marcus Aureliua Antoninus put to 
deBth22'' G— Ra Rs 8 — 1_ — 


Setsbus Bumaiim 


eousm of Elagabalus 
A D adopted \w Ela 
itli tbp nnmo of Marcus 

Boin 305 

-,almlns n 

Vm, hn 

\\<\n<-) 1 > 1 Empe 

il 1 II 1 i[ii 'le^cnis 

-R » b — 

11 enthim 

iMth 1 il 

1 '1 ml Oibmna 

Memmia second wife of \lexander 
fepTpma NnpaitiPiilareaie known 

n imliii- tin ]"iiiii(( ind the 
<im Ml III 1 i« veiy 

lii — R 1 
\ liiriMrh 
1 Mnmaea 


2B4 API 

ancient auUiora : sonic conakler lior 

to have been tlic wife of Dccius, 

although she appeal's on tJie coins j cess aic false 

■with Alexander Severas. ; B'Smb Quartin.aii Pioclaimed lum 

Jylia Mamaea, sister of Julia Soaem- ' self Emperor m Germany duriiie 
ias, and mother of Alexander ' the leign of Maxinunus killi-d 
Severus. Assaflsinated with her son, | 6oon after There m a coin at 
335 A. D, Some coins represent lier tributed to Mm bearing on one 
with Alexander Beverus and Orbi- \ aide tlie inscription Divo Tito 

iuia. The coins of Mnnmea are I and on the i averse Conaeciatio 

nnmerous. faut thMCOin i6 one of those stiuck 

Iramm Antonmm^. Born—; had by Galhenus mhonoi of his pre 

himself proclaimed Emperor in ; deces6ors ivho hax.1 been laiikid 

Asia in the town of Bmisa in Syia, : among tie gods 
ilnring the reign of Alexajider ! Mavcux Antonmu, Gohdianus Afki- 

Sevems; hnt was defeated and ^ casus I (Pater). Bom ID8 a. d, : 

mteupnsoner soon after. Q.— R.s , proclaimed Emperor in Africa, and 

( )i piece of liomaii money is the , acknowledged by the Senate • 

onlycoinof Ills which IH known;. MUed himfelf about forty days 

1 1 was striick mAsia, and probably : afterwards on hearing of his ^oii's 

at Eimsa m Syria. ^eath. S.~R.,R.« TJr.— R^R,> 

^ ," -^'.'iT ^^™?, JlA^rKTJSl. These Latin coins were strack, 

C— li'^Br— 6— 'h» g^:^^^ I -Min-cu^ Antoninus Goedianus Awui- 

coiiiB represent hhii witJi' his son j casus U. son of &ji-diaiius Afri- 

Jlaximus. On Bomm coins we! eanus I Bora 193 ad.: Empe- 

havc onlyMAxmiNVS ; on ColonM i IZ 7f^^? ^"^^ ^' ^^'' 

Lalin. JvLTVB llAxiMisvs. on: ahont forty i^ysafterwarda. S.— 

Greek, the name in full CAira Jvi. : 

R" Br.— R.* These coins w 

Vekvb Masimijsvs ' Without aouDt,mmtedin Carthage, 

P«.«fa-n«, Wife of M^imimw. No j "I'o those of his father. 

particulars are known respecting ! St(^«ivis Ca^Uns BAi^BUftm. Bom 178 
this princess. 8.— R.' Er.— R.' ; *■ i>-; Emperor with Pnpienus 
K. * Wo believe this princess to J ^^^ ■ massacred af tei' a reiga of 
be the wife of Jlaximmus, from' t^i'ee months. G.— R^ S.— R.i 
the great resemblance which the! !*■' ^^- — R.* E.° 
portrait of Maximus on his coins Marcus Glodius PuPrEKCS Mfiximus. 
beai-s to hei-s, and the great like- ' Born 164 a. d. ; declared Emperor 
iiijsfi between tlie coins of Masi- 1 with Balhinus 3S8 ; massacred 
iniiiu- iuidlXaKimusandhers. All i about three months afterwards. 
t.JiD coins of Paulina repeaent her j G.— R.*S.— R.= Br.— R.»R.» 
cijiLsotij'ation, so that it is belieTod ■ Mareiis Antonius Gokdiakttb Piub 
she died before iier husband. | UL, nephew of Gordianus Afri- 

Cahis Julias Vsi-us Maximus, son of ' canus. Born 333 a. d. ; Oresar 
Maximinna. Bora — ; obttiined i 5S8; Emperoi' the same yeai' ; as- 
the nameof Gtesar SSdA. d.; killed ■ sassinat«d 344. G.— R.^ B,« 8.— 
338 a. d. G.— R." S.— K.4B.S; C— R' Br.—C— H.» The coins 
Br,— R.' R.5 Some coins repre" , of this Prince are nume 
sent iiim with his father Maxinii" ; FuHa SiMna l^anquiBina 
nus. Gordianns III. Born — ; aieti 

J^"Hi» Mtd/ffi', betrothed to 3Iaximiis. \ after her hnabnnd. S.— R.* Br, 
All that is known of this princess ■ — It. * 

is,thatMa!dininiiswishedtomajTy I JforeMH JuKnt Phiijppus I. Born 
liis aon to her, being grand niece \ 304 a. d, ; Emperor 344; killed in 
to the Emperoi' Antonmua, but this ' battle Ig- Trajan Deeius 340. G. 
maiTingewns not effected, as the' — Tt." R.' S.— C— R.' Br.— C. 

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— R. « Some coins represent 
with Otacilia and Philip, liia 
The coins of Philip 

3£wma Otadlia 8em>-a, wife of [ 
Pliilip. Bom — ; died 349. G. ! 
— R.' R.« a— 0.— R,* Bi>.~C.-| 
R. ' SoniG coins repi'esent her ; 
with Pliilip the fathei' and aoii. i 

Martui Julius PmiJiTTJa II. Son of : 
Pliilip and Otacilia. Bom 337 a. d. | 
Oiesar, 344 Associated in ti.e em- , 
))iro with Ihe title of Auffustus, 1 
347; kiUed 340. G.— R* R. 8,— \ 
C— R. * Br.— C— H. ' Some coins ' 
represent him with Philip the . 
elder. The coins of this prince : 

hercoiiis. G,— R, " S.-O.— R. ' Bi-. 
— C— E.= 
Quintm Herermiug Etrnsciis Metsius 
Troianvi Bechm, son of Decius. 
CE^ar, 349: Augustus, 351; killed 
G.— R» S,— 0.— R.' 


» R» 

Mariivua. Proclaimed Emperor in ■ 
3Ioeaia and Pannonia, 3^9 a. ». : , 
killed soon nf terwards. The coins i 
which have been uttrihuted to this 
pimee are Gieeb, hut theii' attri- 
liution IS douhtfu!. These coins 
w ere nunted in Araliia, and meet ; 
likely belong: to a relation of the 
Bnipeioi Philip. Hull perhaps to ' 
hi" father 

fotapiiinvi Proclaimed Emperoi' in 
S(iin '48 4. D.: put to deatli , 
soon nflei S,— R." This coin 
wi*. wiOiont douht, minted in 
bjiia i 

Ttbeiiv Clauditii Mariu-i Facit- , 
nanus This personage was pro- 
claimed Emperor about thiH i 
peiiod and is only known liy hi" : 
I oins S — E*. It is tliought from . 
his coins that Facatianus had bim- 
•"tlf pioelaimed emperor in the ' 
rti^a at Pliilip or Trajanus De- 1 
(1U-. that he reigned in Greece, i 
hecause hiscoins were found there, ] 
or that lie was proclaimed in Moesin ' 
and Pannounia. 

Sponsianwt. Proclaimed Emperor 
about this period, and only known 
by his coins. G.— R.' 

IMivt Mesnim Qvi'nim Ta.WAKre 
Decius. Bom 301 A. d. ; Em- 
peror, 249; drowned in a bog, 351. 
G.— R* R» 8.— C— R» Br. 
— 0. — R" Some coins represent 
him with Etruscilla, Hostiuus and 

Herenma Mruseilla (wife of Decius). 
This princess is only known by 

Cuius Tateiis Hosthjakus Megsltts 
Quintiiti, sonof Deciua. Ctesar, 3^; 
Emperor with Gfajlus, 361 ; died 
sameyeai-. Q.— 1{.« S.— C— R' 
Br. — R.* B.' Some coins represent 
him with Tolusianus. 

(Mus YSmts Tbbbokianus Gallup. 
Bom 307; Emperor, 3ol; Idlled 

R.« S.— a— R* Br. 

Go— 0.— R.' 
Gma Corndia Stipera, wife of Aemil- 

ianus. Tliis princess is only 

known by her coins. S.— R.' 

Br.— R.« 
PiiMim JMnius Valeklibtjs Seimi: 

Bom 190 A. D. ; Emperor, 353 ; 

made prisoner by tlie PersiaitK. 

2fl0 ; died 368. The coins of this 

jilannmrm, believed to be the second 
wife of Valerian. This princess 
is only known by her coins, G. 
— R' R" S.— R.« R.^ 
Piiblktu I/kiiiitM Galliekus eon of 
Valerian, by his first wife. Em- 
peror, 353 ; assa^nat«d, 36d. 
G.— R.* R" 8.— R." Po.— C— 
E.' Br.— C.— R" R," During 
the reign of Qalliemis, many 
generals declared themselves em- 
perors; and, as their numiier was 
about thirty, they have been 
called the Thirty Tyrants. 

Cornelia Baloimta, wife of Gallieuus. 
Assassinated, 308. G.— R^ R.' 
8.— R." Po.— C.— R.» Br.— C. 
— R,< 

PvbUus Idciniiis Comdius SalDniHUn 
Yaleriawus, son of GaOie- 
nus. Bom 343 A. D. ; Csesar, 358; put 
todeath,3B9. G.— R'R" 8.— R.' 
Po.— C— R* 8.— C— R» Some 
coins represent him with Oaliemis. 

Qidntus Jtilius QaUienua youngest 
son of Qallienus. No coins can 
be attributed to this prince, with 
any certainty. 


1 ilenunas Jt uo brothci of Gal- 
lienus isiassiiiatcd 208 The 
coins tliat TverL attributed to this 

gnnee have 1 ei,a ruit Died to 
lAcnia GiSienu ituut to ( allcnus. 
Ho paiticulais iic Known of tliis 
pnncew The corns (ittributed to 
hei lue fal&e 
Mi-cui Gaaitan is Lritimu), Postu- 
MTJS P flPaterj Proclaimed Ein- 
peroi m Gaul 2o8 killed 

G.— R' R.' 


C— E.' Some 

tumus hear also another Jiead, 
which lias long been considered 
to be that of his son. The coins 
of Posturtms are numerous. AH 
were struck in Gaul. 
Julia Donate, believed to be the 
wife of Postumus, S^otlijng is 
known of this empress, whose 
ejdetence is hardly proved. The 
coins that have been published 

FoMurmm (Filiua). Declared Au- 
gustus in Gaul 338 ; killed in 
367. Nothing is known of this 
emperor, except that tbere are 
coins attributed to him, which 
truly belong to Mb father, and the 
lieads whicli appear on tfie reverac 
of the coins of the lattei', are prob- 
ably those of Mars and Hercules. 
All the coins of Po-tumn-j the 
Younger (if aJi> exist) were 
stmck in Gaul 

Ulpiui Col nehai Lcielmivui Littlt, is 
know tt of thib pewon igc who 
cnus(,d himself to be acknowi- ; 
edged emperor in Gaul during ' 
the reign of GaUiemia O — H.* 

Ur.— E. ' ; See the observations 
on Laeliauus. 
Marcus Piauvonim Victorinus (Pater). 
Associated in the empire of Gaul by 
Postumu8285; killed2e7. G.— R.' 
JR. » Po,_C.— B. 3 Br. C— E. ' The 
coins of the Roman standard were 
, struck in Gaul. 

I Victoriwas (Filius). jUade Ca;sar in 

i Gaul 367 ; died soon afterwards. 

■ The coins formerly atti'ibuted to 

j this prince have been restored to 

bis father. 

^'^Btona or Vidonim, mother of Tic- 

torinuB Senior. Died according to 

general opinion in 368. Br. — R* 

The coin that has been published 

of this princess is false. 

Mai-eiis AureWas Mabtds. Proclaimed 

Empei-or in Gaul in 367 ; killed af- 

'""a reign of three days. " 

Po.— E- 

~V.' R " 

La«Imnus and the 
ing — Lolhanus lod Aelianus— - 
Eiecoiding to then monej ap- 
pear to be tliiee different person- 
ages It must be obsencd that 
a great number of corns attrib- 
uted to these thne are doubtful. 
The coins of Li«liairas were 
struck m Gaul 

Zdlian/us No details aie known 
of this pnncc Br — E " 

Qtiiatus VaJene Aetiuaiis No facts 
iire knon n of this cmpeior. 

R» Po,- 

' R» Br.— E.' E-'^ 

Histonans say that he was killed 
by one of Ms comrades, aftei' a 
reign of three days ; the com- 
parative abundance of bis coin,s 
prove they were minted before lie 
assumed the title of emperor. 
C'itiiii Peswdut Tet/iicuti (Pater). Pro- 
claimed Emperor in Gaul hi 367 ; 
restored bis provinces to Aurelian 
and retired into private life 37iJ. 
G.— R" R' Po.— R» Br.— C.~ 
E, " Some coins represent him 
with his son. A great many of 
this emperor's coins are of the 
second brass, of barbarous 
execution, aud boar illegible in- 
scriptions. The coins of Tetri- 
cus and his son were all struck in 

from public life on the abdication 
of his father 373. G.— R« R,« 
Po.— R.' Br.— 0.— E." It is a 
question whether this emperor was 
ever made Augustus or not. 

Q/nadti. Proclaimed Emperor by 
the Legions in Asia in 257 ; killed 
358. No coins are known. 

Mac lUAKOT (Pater). Proclaimed Em- 
peror in the Eaat 361 ; was killed 
by his soldiers 369, with his two 
sons. The coins published as those 
of the father have been restored to 




Mi<ii'cii« Ihdi-iua Maerianua (Filius). 
He was made Augustus during Ms 
father's reigii. Po.— E.= R.« His 
coins were atmcii in the East, per- 
haps in Syria. 

Quietus, brother o( the preceding. 
Killed with liis father and brother 
atEmisa. G.— E," Po.— E= E.» 
Br.— li' These coins were struck 
in the East. 

Baliala. Proclaimed Emperor in 
Syria 388 ; killed S64, The coins 
published of Balista are tai&e. 

L'gsihum. Proclaimed Emperor in 
Mfesitt and Fannonia SGS ; killed Id 
three months. Coins all doubt- 

re knowu of 


I*i'Oclaimed Emperor i 
SI; killed 303. S.~li. 
■ns, if true, were struck i 

fhdmeia DruantiUa, wife of Begalianus. 
Nothing is known of this princess. 
8.— R." The fact of Dryantilla be- 
ing the wife of Regalianns is doubt- 

Valens. Emperor in Achaia 361: 
killed the same year. The coins ai 
present known of Yaloas are doubt- 

Pim Frugl. Emperor in Thessalia 
361 ; killed same yeaa-. The known 
coins of this Emperor are false. 

AUxander AmniUa'nui. Proclaimed 
Emperor by the lemons in Ewpt 
263; killed the same year. The 
coins of Alexander are laJse. 

Sataminus I. Proclaimed Emperor 
363; died shortly afterwards. 2To 
authenticated coins are known of 
this tyrant, 

TrebdUanMR. Proclaimed Emperor of 
in Isauria 364; killed soon after- 
wards. The coins attributed to 
this personage are false, 

Celsua. Proclaimed Emperor of Car- 
thage in 365; killed after a reign of 
seven days. No hue coins ai'e 
known of Celsus. 

Mwrmis AciUti4 Amk&hais. Proclaimed 
Emperor in Illyiia and in Rhetia in 
367; killed 368. G.™ E. « Br.— R, » 
These coiuji were either struck in 
lis, Italy Superior, or in Mi- 


afterwards. Xo ■ 
Mai-cim Aiirelim Ci-Atoics Gotbicus, 
Born 314 A. d.; Emperor in 308; 
died of the plague 370. G.— R,' 
R«Br,— C— R,' After the reign of 
Claudius no coins in billon arc 
known, for at this period they were 
so thinly coated witi silver that it 
lias in most cases all worn off except 
when the coin is in singularly fine 

Oensannus. Proclaimed Emperor 
at Boulcgne 370; killed seven days 
aftei'. The coins that liave been 
published are faJse. 
Mareus Aiir^/iue Ola/udius Qtjintil- 
I us biother of Claudius (Sithicus 
Proclauned Empeior near Aqudei i 
370 comimtted suicide eight da* •< 
after G — R « Br — C U « T!k 
coma of QuintilliLS are loo mini i 
oufl to alloi\ that hi^ iii_ii w i 
<:o short as it ui said li'\ In l< 1 1 m 
to huM bn U Jl IS pic'jT'k tint 
hi I 11 iniinth !is 

l^ II I ( -I ! R 4 

Bi _-c —Ii Hi I nmi of thLs 
emperor aie numeioua Somi 
coins repiesent him with Serenni 
and ^ abalatbus Athcuodoru'. 
Ltpia Ssmiina, iwfL of AuicUanus. 
No details are known of this em- 
press. G.— R» E.» Br,— C— E^ 

Shtihl-s Odesathus. King of Pal- 
myra 361; associated in the empire 
by Gallienus 364; assassinated 
366-7. Tiiere ai'e no true coins 
knoiin of this emperor. 

SBrTiMLi Zbkobia, last wife of 
Odeuathus. Queen of Palmym 
361 ; vauquishcd by Aui'elianus 
373, There are some coins of thi.t 
queen struck in Egypt, but thero 
are no true autonomous coins. 
rodes, son of Odenathusbyhis Srst 
wife. Augustus 264; killed 307. 
The coins of this prince are false. 

Timolaw, son of Odenathus and 
Zenobia. Named Augustus by his 
mother 366; talci'ii prisoner by 

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\urelian2 8 Helnsnotrm 
t Roman mintage but tlieie; 
C leek com tliat belonr" "" ' 

Zcnoljia Emperor in Syna S 
taken pnaonei by Aurelian ' 

Bl — B S_R ^hLBL C0U11 V 

stnick in Syiia 
ViCf/iiis Pioclaimcd Empeioi 
kijled shoitl'^ Lftei-wfumi ' 
iTibuted to Mnoonms 

f 1' 


FcRiiUK Pioclaimed Empeioi iii 
Tajpt in 31o defeated and put I j 
dtitJi the following yeai Hit 
coins attributed to Fiimus au 

Viicn Clauitui T\ciTi,9 Empuoi 
i7> ississmatLd270 * — R «It ■■ 
Br— C— R' r2ie coma of tins 
empeior are mimeroua 
tfai as Anmu» Fl.ORii.\L'a Boi i 
232 V D Bmpoioi 376 killed sami 
>eai G— K ' R.' Br— C— R 

Maim iurehia^aoBUS Bom333\ 
D Lraperor 2"^ kaied 382 
<. — R*R«S— R "Br— C— E.'^ 
The issues of tins emperor are so 
numerous ind so diverse in their 
types that tlie Abbe Rollihn had 
i colkctionof upwards of 2 000 
coins alldifEeiin'msomeminutc 

" Pioclaimed Lniperoi of 

""■ died 381 There are no 
IS of this empeior 

Empeior of Egypt and 
e 280 ; killed shortly after- 
wards. The coins of Satui-ninus 
ai'e false. 

Froaulm. Emperor of Cologne 380; 
put to death tlie same year. The 
coins of this emperor are faJse. 

Marcus Awrdiim Cabus. Born 230 
A. D. ; Emperor 383 ; killed by ' 
lightning 38S. G.— E.' B.« B,— J 
C— E,' Some coins reprejient' 
liim with Carinus. 

Mm-ctis Aurdianut TTumerij 
Bom 354 A. p. ; Csesar, 283 ; A 

8,— C.-E,''^8ome' ' '" 

him with Carinus. 

Marem Aw^usCA-fLTSvn. Born349. 

D. ; Cassnr, S83 ; Emperor, 283 ; kil 

ed 384. t — R s R s -,oine con •, 
lepiesent him with Numcnanut. 
and^Ianiuii Libica 
rig ui L In- This i-iJiKC-Js isonly 
known bj her com ti — R 3 S — 
R » R Supi o^edtobe the mfp 

i CaiinusJ Fh * 

I m Pannom s 384 

lulli,! ^ Thtse foins were 
mjst probablj sinic! in Italj Su 

til •< i lie (wDiooLLiiAMJS Bon 
243 Empiror284 adopted G 1 
tuns 3aa abdicated 305 died 
iU a— R 9 Ra S a— R i u 
Bl — C — R Tke coins of this t i 
peioi nenumerous Itwasintln 
ugn tliat the Eomitn empire w s 
llrst divided by common consent 
ng four ewmeiois two lu^i 





Chloi t _ 

cated uOj lUook liiccmpiit^Oi) 
abdicated afresh 808 pioclaimed 
himself empero! agam m 300 
~*"igled himselt "" ' "' 

R fi 

-E 1 

R « 

Gaul 2! 
batu nmt 

Bl— C R 9 



MUropm, wife of Maximianus. io 
details are luiown of this princess. 
No true coins are attributed to her, 

Amandas. Emperor in Qaul 383 ; 
killed 287. The coins published 
of this personage are very suspi- 

Adianus. Emperor in Gaul 285; Ml 
ed 387. The coins of this emper- 
ov are likewise doubtful. 

Mai'Cfis AureHus Vaieriui OAiijiusirs. 
Emperor in Ihigland387; assasKi- 
natecl389. G.—R* S.— R.= R.' 
Br.— E.S R.-"- These coins were 
stiTicb in England. 

Ai.LEOTUs. Empeiw in Bogknd 203, 
kiDed in battle with the ai-my of 
ConstantiuR, 330; Gi—R." 8.— 

>y Google 


R.' Br.— R* R,» Tlifise coins 
were sti'iick in England. 

AeftiBeus, Emperor in Egypt about 
39S; putlo deatli soon aitcrwai'ds. 
There are no truu coiws known of 
this persODiigc. 

Lticius DomiUwi JimitiUiim,ub. IDm- 
peror in Egypt JiOO. Br,— R.' 
TUcBB coins were Btruclc In Egypt. 

Fionas Vtlemt» CoMBTANrnrs I. 
(CWorus). Bora 250; Oaesar, 393; 
Emperor Ii05;diecl 30f!. Q,— R' 
E." a— R' R^ Br.— C. R" 
Borne coinB represent liim with 
Diocletian. His coins are very nu- 

FUmaJvUa IMma, first wife of Oon- 
stantiuB Chlorus. Bom about 348 
A.D. ; died about 338 ; Br.— O.R " 

Flaula Maxima Theodora, second wife 
of Constantius OhloTus. S.— R' 
Br.— C. 

GaiiKiuos Valbkidb Maximianub. 
Adopted and named Cresar by Dio- 
cletian, in 292; Augustus and Em- 
iierorin 305; died 811. G.~R.' 

R.' Br.- 


Some pieces represent him witli the 
Herct^eian Maximianus and Con- 
stantius Ghlorus. The coins of 
this prince are numerous, 

Oaleria Tofoj-ifl, second wife of Gale- 
rius Masimianus. Put to death by 
Liciniue in 315 a-d. G,— R« 8.— 
R« Br.— C. R.< 

Flaxiim Valbbidb Sbvbrus II, 
Named Caesar by the Herculeian 
Maximian in S05 : Augustus and 
Emperor in 30S ; put to doatli. in 
307. G.— R* R.« S.— Ri Br. 
—0, R' 

Galeriim YaieHiis Maximinds Daza, 
son of Galerius, named Csesar by 
Diocletian in 306 ; ^ven the title ot 
the son of the Augusti in 307 ; 
proclaimed himself Emperor in the 
East in 308 ; defeated by Licinlus 
and poisoned himself in 813 A. D. 
a— R=. R^ S.— R.* R.» Br.— 
0. H'. The coins of this emperor 
are numerous. A part of these 
pieces in Roman coin must have 
been struck in the East, probably 
in Syria. 

Ma/r(nm Aurelius Va.len!iilS.iLSEStTos, 
son of Maximianus Hercules. 
Born about 382 a. d. ; proclaimed 

himself Emperor at Rome in 306, 
and wasdrowned in the Tiber in 313 
A. D. G.— R' R» B,— R,°R' 
Br. — 0. R. ' One piece represents 
him with his son Romulus. Tlic 
coins of Maientius are very nu- 

Ma^trns Awrelms Bonvuius, son of 
Masentius, Born about the year 
806 A. D. ; named C»sar in 807 ; 
Augustus in a short time after- 
wards ; died in 309. G,— R.« 8.— 
R' Br.— R^R,* Onecoin rep- 
resents him with Maxentius, bis 

Alexander. Prochiimed Emperor at 
Carthage in 300 ; defeated and put 
to death in 311 a. d. 8.— R' 
Br.— R«R.« The Roman coins 
of Alesander were struck in 
Africa, and probably at Carthage. 

PoMiUi Fiawiui Claudius Galertua 
Valerius IdcijUaitug Licnnus, 
senior son-in-law of Constantius 
ChloruB. Born 263 a. i>. ; named 
Ciesar and Augustus, and associ- 
ated in the empire with Galerius 
Maximianus 307 ; conquered and 
taken j)risoner by his brother-in- 
law, Constantine, afterwards the 
Great, and strangled in 333. G,— 
R» R» 8.— H.« R' Po.— R» 
Br.— 0. R.» Some coins represent 
him with his son Licinius. The 
coins of tliis prince are very nu- 

Flama Gomtantia, wife of the elder 
Licinius. Died 330 a. u. The 
pieces which were published of 
this princess w 

Flaima Vcderianue Zidniamia. Li- 
crains, junior, son of the elder 
Licinius.' Bom 315 a. d, ; named 
Ciesar 317 ; deprived of the title in 
333 ; put to death in 326. G.— R* 
R,' 8.— R* B. C. R' Some 
pieces represent him with his 
father, Licinius Crispus, and 
with Constantine the Great. — 
The Roman coins of this R. ' Br.— 
R. * R ' These pieces were prob- 
ably struck in Pannonia, 

Au/relius VoJ^vs Fotew. Named Ctes- 
ar, and perhaps Augustus, by 
Licinius in 314; but was depriv^ 
of his dignities and killed. The 
" -'-- is very doubtful. 



eustiis at B\ 
111 j3J put t 
afterwtti els I 

n tlir dominion". 

I'^i a II eldest son ot Con^taiitinc 
and Fau^a. Born 316 i i> 
mmed Ciesai ^17 obtained in the 
division in J35 Gaul Spain and 
England on Ins fathers deatli 
111 667 named Emperoi and \u 
siwtuf. dif(,it(,d and killed n """ 

R -■ ■ 

-Ba R.4 Bi — 
om« of tills tm 
us lliest couiB 

iitiKs jibsifrnPd lo 

Ins fatliei m iZi ( 
Hfiena wife of f i[S)iii'< 

oil I ti 

ui a HauM'i wit« o: 
III the Gieaf drownec 
11 i)!ith 111 iiei husband i 

This pun 

1111 whLtllL 


iiid A(.lmia 
killed iiT ft— RS S— El Br 
— R 1 Soint pictcs represent him 
with foisaUntinp It is doubtful 
whcthPr thise pietts iiort, struck 
m ^Constantinople oi in the provm 
rx.fl which he olitamcd in the 
ManniM'iaiiiis hiothci to Delmitms 
Made Knia of PontiiB Cappadoraa 
and Ai nienia in the year 3ii5 died 
^7 Br ~R 6 It IB not known 
whether these pieces were struck in 

— K 1 The 1 

■s of this I 

butui-Ttiitus This per&onagc ih onli 
known hy ont com he was pro 
claimed Emperoi undei the uigiiR 
of Constans I oi II The pieci" 
ptoduced IS donbttiil 

Blamus Ttd%u» COBTAiaii-' 11 
second son of Constanliin llie 
Gicnt andFausta Bom 817 v i> 
named Ctesar in i%i obtained m 
the division In 885 the Bast 
named Augustus m 337 on the 
nuider of Conatans became n 

. .1 350 died 
i S — R I R 6 


l^phn* NBioriANLB Con 
imtx son of Eutiopia siiti t 
of Constantme the Grtat Pro 
claimed Emptror at Rome in 350 
killed after a reign of 38 days 
Br — B 1 These pieces were pio 
bftbly struck at Bome 
'istifmto Proclaimed Emperor in 
Pannouia in 350 ; abdicated after 


D E 1 o 64 lei ) 

r — C 11 & — ( — U B — t 
U Tie on t \al t n aMC 
st u k p rtly I Itom a d pa tlj 
ntlel- t 
ri « li ifif ot \ 1 t 
Till n 1 


reigning II) mouths ; died 35(1 ; i. 

— K.8 g.— R» Bi.— R.'E.' Til ** 

pieces wei'e probalilj struck 

Ifoniiiif. HiBtoriiinii do not luooi o 

this personage. Tliepiecesattribu 

ted to Oiia Nomus are douljtful 
Maviua Magnus MAUKKSTins, Bon 

aliout 303 A. D. : proclaimed Empe 

or at Auguatoduniini, tin.' mode n 

Autun, !J50; and killed himself n 

3Sa.G.— H."R.' S.— R.*ll.M!r 

— C. B. ' TJiese pieces were- eithe 

struck in Gaul or Italy 
Maf/nux SeeenMuB.'braihei of Maenen 

lius. Named Cajsiii' m 3)1 1 

straneled liiniself iii3Ju G — R 

R' S.-E.-' R.' Br-C 1 

Theae pieces were Btmt k in Caul 

in Italy, 
Sesiderius, brotlier of Magnent s 

Named Ctesar in 851 stabbed by 

liis brotlier in 353 ; but not kdltd is 

it was ttionglit. The pubhhhtd 

pieces of tills prinee sJt false 
Klanivs Olmi^M Julivs Coimiantiui 

Oa^im. Bom 325 a d named 

Cfeaar in B51 ; condenintdtodcatli 

and executed in 864 G— R " R " 

S.— R.= R.* Br.— C. R» 
Conntantiim, djmgliter of ( onitantiiie 

the Great, wifp first of Hannib lUi 

anus and secondly of C ouitanlm'j 

Gallus. Died 364 a.d Tin, pub 

lislled pieces of this pimc,eh<. ire 

very doubtful. 
Syhanm. Proclaimed Emperor at 

Cologne, in BBS ; killed aftei i 

reign of twenty-eigkt oi twenty 

nine days. The pubhshed pieces 

of Sylvanus are false. 
Flai^m» Cii'ttdi'usSjn.iJiSShs II Julian 

the Apostate.son of Julius Constaji 

tins, Uie ijrother of Coiistantme the 

Great. Born 331 a. d nianied 

CsBsar in 866 ; proclmmed Emperor 

at Paris, 360; sole Emperor 161 

killed in k battle against the Per 

siansm363. Gold.— K« B.» S 

—C— R.' Br.— C.-^R ' Thecoma 

of Julian are very numerous | In t i mil 

7''toi*e^tema., wife of Julian H died 111 l[ i i I 

SfiO. G.— R.S l!r.— C stuid 111 Uil\ 


• \ Named Augustus and associated 
K." H.~K.*.IL'. Kr— L— it m the Empire by Giatian m 370 VaIiEntihianus 1 Bom M\ succeeded Talen& in the gov 

R " Bi —It " R ' 

i^RiTiAiiCB soJiof Valcntiium I and 
8pvtia Boin "0 i d Nmm d 

All 1 t I \m 1 in (il Lm 

tonttanlia wife ot bia'ian Eoui 
3b2 1. D died 482 The puii 
bshod piete-< of Ibw pimtess aie 

i'^jmMaVAiAMTMAi.usII tonof\ il 
entiniani Boiii3il \ i) ^inuri 
AngustuH and associated m Ihi 
Empiie 3T) li ul f. i 1 i lm, 
Italy lUyni i I i 

or of all til' W ' I 

11 »>;_(_ I I I 

>y Google 

erument of tlie Bast. Died at Milan I 

a._0.— ][.» 

-a— R° 

Br.— C- 

Adia FlaceiUa, lii-at wife uf Theodo- 
siusl. Died 388. G.— R.= S. R.« 
Br.— E.1 

SlA&NusMiXLMus, assumed the name 
of Augustus in Britain, in 88S 
acknowledged Emperor ; seized 
npon Itaiy in 887, and was put to 
deathin388. G.— K.^ E.» S.— R ■ 
H,5 Br.— C. These pieces were 
Ktruck in Britain, Qaid, or Italy 

Mamws Victor, son of Slsgnus Max 
imus. Named Augustus in 383 
put to death in 388. G, — H.' S 
— -R.' Br. — R. These pieces were 
!<tnick in Gaul. 

Eugmmis, pracliumed Augustus 392 
ruled in the Western provinces 
Killed 39-1. a.— R.«R* S.— R ' 
8.»Bv.— R' 

AitcAKitrs, sou of Theodosius tlii. 
Great. Born 377 ; made Angus 


r of t 

Eadnaia, or Midoxia, wife of Arci 
dins. Died 40i. The pieces at 
tributed tothisprincesa have heen 
restored by Eckliel to Eudocia 
tiie wife of Theodosius II. 

HoNOiiJUS, tJie youngest son of 
Theodosius the Great and Fla- 
ccilla. Bom 384 ; named Au- 
gustus 393 ; Emperor of the 
West 895; died at Ravenna 433. 
G.— a— R^ S.— a— R" Br.~ 
0. — R." These pieces were prob- 
ably struck at Rome. 

CoNBTANTius III., named Augustus, 
and associated with Honorius in 
the Empii-e of the West in 431; 
died the same year. G. — R." R.' 
S.^ — R' These pieces were slruclt 
in Itflly. 

GaUa Plaeidw,, daughter of Tlicodo- 
sins, widow of Ataulf 

rtiAth 411 0_R - s— I! Br 
— R ' The com', of tin-, pumc 
have ficqntntly been tonfoundid 
with those of Constantme I and 
n These coma wLie struck m 
Gaul Constantinian coins with 
lig^g 01 Avggg,^ beloua: to thi» 

NMTAN'J 11 son of Constant lUH^ 
III Augustus m Gaul 408 assa^ 
sinated m 411 b — R ■> TIilil 
pieces wcie prohiibiy ^tiuck lu 
Mammu" Emperor in Spam 40') 
abdicated 411 b — H = Ihcsc 
pietes wen piobiblj itnick m 
I Spam 

Jo^D,L8 Empcior at >Ia3enLe 411 
I beheaded bv tJie Gorlis 41*} (t 
I — R 4 S — R ' Bi —R ' riiesf 

.tiutk in Gaiil 
t^KBASiiAJfUB lnoth<r of Jovihub 
Associated m tlw, sovtrei^n powii 
bv his brothel m 413 btlieaded m 
413 b— R« Th<.>!(. tomi wcu 
"itiuckin Gxul 
Piuscira AiTALTih Midi imptioi 
bi Alanc at Roraf 400 dcpiiMil 
ol that title rcaK^umed it in Gaul 
410 dad m ihc isle of Lipiii 

33. G.- 


-R* R.i 

These pieces 
stnick in Italy 
Fltmiis ilu/tdms CoJ,siAiiTiNi:.e III. 
Augustas in England ind Gaul 
40" tal en pr i< ner a d j t to 

G— R* 


— R4 

These pieces were struck i 

ThbodosiTjS II son of An. idius awl 
Budocia. Bom 401 : Augustus 
403 ; Emperor of the East 408 ; 
died 450. G.— C.— R.* S.— R.' R' 
Br.— R.4 R" These coins must 
not be confounded witii those of 
Theodosius I. 

£I>t<//>xui; wife of Theodosius II, 
Bom about 393 A. D. ; died 4«0, 
G.— R- R= S.— R» Br.— R.i 
Some of the coins of this princess 
have been attributed fajsoly to 
Eudocia, wife of Arcadius. 

JoHAMBES. Bom 383 ; Empei'or at 
Rome 433; died 435. G.— R." 
K' a— R' E," Br.— R.» Tiiese 
coins were struck in Rome. 

Placidius Vai^entjniands III., sou 
of Oonstantine III. Bom 419 ; 
Emperor 4Z5 ; assassinated 45S. 
- " " ■ a— E.» " ' " 


R» These coins were 
Sw^orfa, wife of Valen- 


tinian. Bom 433 ; died — . G. — 
R« Tliese coins were struck in 

■hmta Gratft Hniwriih sister of Yajen- 
tinian. Born 417 lugustus 433 
died 454. G — R » E « 8 — 
Rs Tliese coins mie struck in 

ATTII.A, King of the Hunti Bora- 
King 434 ; died 453 lliere aie 
no true autonomous corns of this 

Pbtkonius MvtiMLh Born 385 
Empei'oi' at Home 456 KiUed 
same year G — It * b — R * 
Br.— K,* All tliise were itiuck 
at Rome. 

Mabciamcs. Bom 391 ; Emperor of 
the East 430; died 457. G.— R.« 
R" S.— R.' Br.— R" 

AAiti. Puleheria, sister of Theodo- 
siu8 II., wife of Miircianiia. Born 
399; died 458. G.-R.-' S.— R.* 
Br.— R» 

Mareiis MtmHiia Avitub, Emperor 
455; abdicated and became bishop 
of Placentia 458. G,— R-* Br. 
— R.» 

Leo I. Born — ; Emperor of the East 
4^7; died 474. G,— C— Br.— R.^ 

Aelit YeHna, wife of Leo I. Born 
— ; died 484, G.— E.' 

.hiliua jlLvjoRTAKue. Born — ; Em- 
peror 457 ; assassinated 401. G. — 
H.I R.« S.— R» Br.~R.< R.» 

LtMva Bevbhus III. Born — ; Em- 
peror 46X ; poisoned 465. G. — 
R' S.— B.'Br.— R.« Thesewere 
struck in Italy. 

Prceapius Abthbmujs. Emperor 467 ; 
assassinated 473. G.— R. • S.— E. ' 
Br.— R." 

A^ia Mardcma Emkemia. Born — ; 
died—. G.~R.' These were 
struck in Italy. 

Aniemii Olybrkis. Born — ; Emperor 
of the West 473 ; died same year 
G.— R« R « S — E = PI — R ' 
These were struck m Italy 

naeidia. daughter of Vdlentmianus, 
wife of Olybnus Bom — , died 
Her portrait is only found on the 
coins of her Jxusband 

Glycmius. Born — , Augustus at Ea 
venna 473 , dethioned 474 died 
480, Rislu>p of •^nlmi'i G — E ' 


S.— R" Those eoi 
in Italy. 

Leo II. Bom about 469 a. d. ; Em- 
peror 437 ; Emperor of the East 
474, G. — R.* These pieces re- 
present him with Zeno. 

Zfho, son-in-law of Leo I., and father 
ofLeolL Born 430 a. d,; asso- 
ciated hi the Eastern Empire with 
his son, Leo II., 474; sole Emperor 
in the same year ; deposed by 
BaaiUscus 470 ; re-estaWished 477 ; 
died4!)l. G.— C.~S.— R' Er.— 
R.— R,' R.' 

Basimscus, brotlier of Verina, wife of 
Leo I. Bora — ; Emperor of the 
East 476 ; detlironed by Zeno and 
diedof hunger 477. G.— R." R." 
S.— R* Br.— R." Some pieces 
represent him with Marcus his son. 

Adia Zenoim, wife of Basiliscus. 
Bom — ; starved with her husband 
477. G.— R,» 

Mfi/reus, son of Basiliscus. Bom — ; 
Augustus and associated in the 
Empire 476 ; starved to death with 
his parents 477. TMs prince only 
on the coins of Basiliscus. 

LBOiranra I. Bom—; Augustus at 
Tarsus in Cilicia in 483 ; conquered 
and put to death 488. G.— R," 
These pieces were struck in Asia 

Julius Nbpos. Bom^; Emperor of 
the 'Vfest, 474 ; driven fi'om Rome 
475; assassmated 480. G.— R.' 
R' a— R* Br,— E.» These 
pieces were stnick in Italy. 

Romulus Augtjbtus, Bom— ; Em- 
peror of the West 475; dethroned 
by Odoacer, King of the Heruli, 
who proclaimed himself King of 
Italy, and tbus terminated the Em- 
pire of the West 470. Q.- R.' 
Br.^R. ° Tiiese pieces were sti'uck 
in Italy. 

Theodoricus, the Ostrogoth. Born—; 
occupied Pannonia and Rlyria; in- 
vaded Italy, defeated Odoacer, 
and was crowned King 498 ; died 

Br.— R.-' Some 
jresent liim with Anasta- 
Justin. Thecoinsoft is 

>y Google 

undmiiili ilh 'iUTick m Hil(leiicu\ Vandal King lu Afnta 
~iW tlefeated b} BeliBarius 534 
iiiiUum kiiip, Ilihlo nliKli put 111 (11(1 to the Vandal 

mention tint kiug and pinubs m Ifnca. 8 — H ' 
: be Gonf onniif^ with J litmlrbiiUui Bom — King ot 
11 Itulnila n Gothic AnRtinsia 5'i4 killed in hunting 
^-i I III i oiii'. of Tlieodebert 

TIma 01 Tlirii 1 in 

1 1 Li to the ^■oin'^ of 

^Totltnown :i> h H i i 

1 1 uiin line) but thoj 

found on tin 1 1 

il withtlie Roman 

[f/itiUti i> lu' at I1HI 1 L 1 

1, 1 11 , thi« king took 

[Sorn- Ki.i, L,i ji ,1 

dnd >i4 &-!'!> hi -a ' 

R '' rhLse com- weic atnick m 

1 VMEhN oivll/VNTIM' TM 


FT I'll. 

1 1 ' r in 4.iU A D su( 

1 1 ' 1 i-.teni Empire on 

ttr>/<i ' 1 1 


, 1 1 lii,htniiiE in the 
, ,1 1 - '.-L—hAi'-R 

fimUlti' s-l ]>i -h ' ' '", 

nild:h,nhi. Bom — Kmc; of the' 

TisriNTS I Bom 4i0 Einperoi 

(TofUs 111 Hai\ )10 lulled 541 1 

■m died in 527 G -( — B ' 

\o(Oin- lU kiinivn ot tlii« bal | 

s— 11 B" Bi-t TheiL art 

liana n 

sonn roins uliith bear this em 

Xinijfi.. in A"iri'-"« Bom— King 
ot till (4otlis ill It a\ '541 killed 1 

ppioi on the obverse and the 

htnd of eifJi:>i Theodoiic or Atli 

sHiiK M.ii ^o roinv ,u< known' 

ot Ihl lllUKL 

iliiiie kiiie^ of the Ostro^otU'. 
1 lit Ju^tinii'; I No 

111- know a of thih 

II dtoliei 

(iL\iiisL- 1 loLlaimed Emperoi 

TilLh 111, i, cuiufa weie MiuLk, 

111 ^14 ii,*vi«.inaUd '530 G — 
Ju^TtNLVMS r nephew of lu'ttmua 

lf,ii' hiiiii ~ king of tlie Goths 1 

111 Ilil^ ]>-; difiMcd bt NaTita 

IJoin 4sj a'l^ciated in the Em 

1i 111 d( ith iutt mend Ki the 

iiiK li, -.ok Fmperor "iSS , died 

( inliii i liiK smltalj Kocoin'i 

\i.. < _( -I} « S-R' R* 

u 1 iiii\Mi of thitpiinct 

11,111 rtitli Ulialanp Theodo 

\ l\nVI K1\GS 

haUi- U ili^i s ind Baduila king 

I.Tinil/i/itntii,di". Born — Randal 

of tlR Goih. 

Kiiu m \tncii 4B4 dipd 4tl(! S 

Ii'-TCisn Boin It a. date iin 

-B" ! 

known , Emperor of the East 6b5 

iliid HI 1,^ (i-C-B-Ft-R" 

'J,'' j^ ' ' 

iii.iill Bom -^45 

il 1 

1 1 11 of "\laurie( Br 


IFMciiiH Uu m or Iii-imuii 

mliw ol Justmns, jssociated in 

du-, \ undid kin^ ni Afiica521 

till. Bnipiie 574 sole Empeioj of 

dethroniduiO P — II " , 

the List Q78 died in 583 G — 

(■,rtima> '!>. m Qi'ilniiHi . of| 

B. R ' a— R.«Il' Br.— C. 




Macricius TiBBBiuB, soii-in-law of I 041; was esilod. No corns avp, 
Tiberius II. Born 588 : made | known of this empress. 
Emperor 683; and put to deatli ■ Tjbeuids III., son of Heraclius and 
together with Ids wife and chil- 1 Mavlina. Date of birtli unknown; 
dren by Pkocaa 602. G.— C— E,' ! created Cieaar in 640; asaociated 
S. — R> R' Br.— C— B.» Some' witbHeracleonasmtlicEmpireCil; 
coins represent this empei'or witli j year of death unknown. No coins 
hie wife Oonatantina and bis son are Iniown of this Einperor. 
Theodosius. : Conbtans II., son of Hei'sclius II, 

QmiOtmtma, wife of JJIamice. Dale' and GJregoiia. Bom (i30;asBOciated 
of birth unknown; killed with her ! hi tbi; Empire ivith his uncles 

husband and children 603. The 
portraits of this princess are found | 
only on the coins of Maurice. ] 

Tkeo^omts, son of Maurice. Date of i 
birth unknown ; associated in the i 
Empire 590; killed with his 
parents 803. 

Phocas. Date of birth unknown ; 
succeeded to the tbi'ono 603 ; was 
beheaded 610. On coins this 
emperor's name is written foca, 
or sooAS. Some coins represent 
him with his wife Leontia. ' 

LeoriUa, wife of Phocas. Date both 
of birth and death unknown. 
The portrait of this empress is 
foTind only on coins of Phocas. 

HBKACLms I. Bom about tlie yeai' 
575; dethroned Phocas and be- 
came Emperor 610; died in 641 ■ 
G.— 0.— R.^ S.— R" Br.— C — I 
It. " On some coins are f onnd 
tocher portraits of tliis empen i 
aM of his son Constantine IV 
FloBta Mtdoda, ftrst wife of Heiac 
Uus. Date of birth unknown 
died 613. No coins are known of 1 


! Flcracleonas i 

1 tho i 

«!|!C!, S 

lie his wife, 
known, and also portraits of his 
sons Conatantine IV., Heraclius, 
and Tiberius. 
CoBSTjViiTrNTr9lV.,siimamed Pogona- 
tns, son of Coastans II. Date of 
birth unknown, associated with his 
father 654 ; Role Emperor 068 ; 
died in 685. G.— C— .' S.— R.* 
R." Br.— R« R." Some of his 
coins boar poilraits of bis father. 
ifecocKtM and nberiua, brothers of 
Constantino IV. Named Cresars 

le Empire bj 

.1 and put U 

Portiaita of these 

f 1 tnlj oi tbt 


HeracwusII son of Hemclms ani 
Flavia Bom bI3 Emperot with 
Iu8 bi other Hciacleonas in 041 
was poisoned m the same yeai 
-■ ^- ■ " - R • Bi — R « 

rlir 1 


O'lbytheBulgarians dethroned 

™ and killed 711 by Bardanes 

-R ' E B .— E ' B] — E ' 

ne coins represent liuii with 

R* Bomo corns represent tlus his son Tiberius IV. 

monarch with his father Heia I TiBEiIfOS IV., son of Justinian II. and 

Tlioodora. Born 701 ; declared 

Oa^sar and Augustus in 706 ; put 

to death in 711. The portrait of 

this prince is only found o" '"" " 

There 8 

.,„„ „„„„ 8 of Justinian, bis father. 

1 portruts found of LkobiiusokLeoII. Date of birth 

1 the c 

this princess except o 
of her husband 
Martina second wite of Heraclius I 
Date of birth unknown made I 
regent witb her son Heiacleonah 

known ; usurped the throne against 
Justinian it, 695 ; dethi'oned 
and placed in a monastei'y 698 ; 
after having had his i 
cut off, put to death in 

, 705. a— R' 

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Br.— R. ' Coins have been attrib- 
uted to this monarch wliich right- 
fully belong to Leo I. 

TiBBiuos Y. (Absimarus). Date of 
birth unknown; proclaimed Em- 
peror 603 ; put to death by Justinian 
n., 703, Q.—R.' R= 8.--R« Br. 
— R'. 

FiLEPrccs (Bardsnes). Put Justi- 
nian. II. to death, and was pro- 
claimed Emperor in 711; dethroned 
and deprived of his sight, 718; 
died sliortly afterwards. G.— R ' 
R' 8.— R." 

AsASTASiua II. Date of birth un- 
known; proclaimed Emperor, 718; 
abdicated in favor of Theodosius 

S.— R." It -was about this 
time that a mixture of Greek and 
Latin letters was introduced in the 
inscriptions of the coins. 

Thbodosips (Adramytenus) III. Date 
of birth unknown; proclaimed 
Emperor, 715; abdicated in 717 for 
a monastery. G.— R." 8.— R.' 

Lbo ni. (Isaurus.) Date of birth un- '. 
known; proclaimed Emperor 717; 1 
died in 741. G.— C.— R.' 8.— 
R.S Br.— R.« Many coins of 
this emperor represent him with 
his son Constantine VI,, and his 
grandson Leo IV. 

OoNST.^Kntrus V. (Copronymus), son 
of Leo III. and Maria. El.— R' 
R." B.— H.» Br.— R.' Some 
coins represent him with Leo IV. 
and Artavasdus. 

Irene, first wife of Constantine V. 
Date of birth unknown; died in 

750. No coins are known of this 

Maria, second wife of Constantine 
V. Date of hirth unknown; died, 

751. No coins are known of this 

Wti^otm, third wife of Constantine V. 
Date of birth and death unknown. 
No coinsare known of tliis empress. 

AKTAVAsmra, son-in-law of Leo TIT. 
Date of biith unknown; rebelled 
against Copronymus and was pro- 
claimed Binperor, 742; next year 
was made prisoner.Hnd exiled,after 
having had his eyes put out, in748. 
G.— R'El.- R" Br.— R« Some 

coins represent him with his son 
Nicephorus and Constantine V. 

jVicejiAtirag, son of Artavaadus and An- 
na, sister of Constantine T. Date of 
birth unknown ; associated with Ids 
fatlier, 748; made prisoner and ex- 
iled after having had his eyes put 
out,likehi8father,in74it. The por- 
trait of this prince is found only on 
coins of Artavasdus. 

OlKrUU^liarut and J/icepliorm, sons 
of Constantino V. and Eudocia. 
Dates of theh- birth .unknown: 
created CtesarR in 769;' exiled af- 
ter liai-ing had their tongues and 
eyes burned out ; put lo death 
by order of Irene, 797. No coins 
are known of these princes. 

Leo IV. (Chazarus), son of Con- 
stantino V. (Copronymus) and 
Irene. Born 750 ; created Au- 
gustus 751 ; reigned alone 775 ; 
died in 780. G.— R.= Br.— R.'' 

TreTM, wife of Iveo IV. Dat« of 
birth unknown ; made regent of 
the Empire during the minority 
of her son Constantine YI. in 780; 
caused his eyes to be put out 
for tlie purpose of reigning aionc ; 
was imprisoned in the Isle of 
Leshos bv Nicephorus Logotlieta 
SOS; dietf in 803. G.— R." S.— 
R.« Br.— R" 

CoNSTAjimKCS VI., son of Leo lY. 
Bom 771 ; made Augustus in 
776 ; reigned with his mother 780; 
died afC*r having had his eyes 
"■"*■ """' by order of his mother, 

707, G.— R,« 

8,— R,' 



NioEPHOBUs 1. (Logotheta.) Date 
of birth unknown ; proclaimed 
Emperor 803 ; killed 811, G.— 
R, 8 Br.— R. 8 Some pieces rep- 
resent lum with lus son Staura- 
cius. During the rejan of Niceph- 
orus the mcoTtd SStjmv of t/ie 
Went commenced, — that of Ciiarle- 
magne and his successors. 

Stauradtut, son of Nicephoms I. 
Date of birth unknown ; associ- 
ated in the Empire in 803; abdi- 
cated tlie throne with his father, 
811; died 812. G,— R.3 Br,— R.8 
Some pieces represent this em- 
pei'or with liis father Nicephorus, 

Michael 1. (Rhangabe or Curo 

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palata), soii-iD-law of Nicephor- 
Tis, Date of birth unkno'mi; elect- 
ed Emperor 811; abdicated 81S: 
died 845. G.— Rs S.— E.4 Br. 
— B.-l Some coins represent liim 
witli his son Theopliylnctus. 
These coins of Michael L, upon 
which his son is not represented, 
can be eqiially attributed to the 
other emperors of the same name. 

THBOPHYiACTna, son of Michael. 
Date of birtii unkuown; associa- 
ted in the Empire, 811; entered 
into a monasteiy after having been 
mutilated by order of Leo V. 
G.— R4 Br.— R.4 The coins 
of this prince represent Mm. witli 
his lather. 

Lno V. (ArmeniuR.) Date of biith 
imknown ; proclaimed Bmperor 

—R." These coins bear the por- 
trait of his " ■ ■' "'" 

CONSTASTIiroS Tn., son of Leo V. 

Date of birth unkuown ; associ- 
ated with his fatlier 813 , 
lated and exiled by order of Mi- 
chael H. 820. Br.— -E." Some 
coins represent him with his 
father, Leo V. 

MionABj, n. (Balbi;s.) Date of birth 
unknown ; proclaim.ed Emperor 
on the deatii of Leo V. 820; 
died 839. G.— E." R.> S.— E.' 
Br, — E."- Some coins represent 
him with his son, Theophllus. 

Theophilijs, son of M!cha«l II. 
G.—R." n." El.— R.= S.— B.= 
Br.— 0.— E." There exists a 
coin bearinE tlie busts of The- 
whilus, and of a prince named 
Constantine, who probably was 
his son, but the piece is doubtful. 
There are some pieces which 
were formerly attributed to The- 
ophilus which are now restored to 
Michael in. 

Theodora, wife of Theophilus. Date 
of birth unknown; acted as re- 
gent to her son, Michael III, 843; 
was shut up in a monastery by 
Older of her son, 867. Her coins 
bear portraits of Michael III. on 
the reverse. 

MicnAEr. IIL, son of Theopliilus, 
Born 836; succeeded his father, 
849, under his mother; reigned 


alone 857; died 807, G.— E.^E." 
8. — E.^ Br,— R.' Some pieces 
represent him with Tlieodora, 
his mother, Thecla, his sister, 
his son, and Basiliusl. 

GonstanMwig was formerly supposed 
to have been the son of Theoph- 
ilus, htit was really the son of Mi- 
chaei m. This prince is un- 
known in history. G. — R* 
Some coins represent him with 
Theophilus, but most with Mi- 
chael III. 

Tliecla, da,ughter of Theophilus. 
Date of birth unknown ; shut up 
in a monasteiy with her mother 
in 857. G.— R ' 8,— R « The 
coins of this princess represent 
her with her brothei", Michael 


reigned alone in 807; died 886, 
G.— E," R' a— R» Br.— C. 
Some coins represent him with 
his sons, Constantine IX., Leo 
VI,, and Alexander. There are 
some coins falsely attributed to 
Basilius L, which really belong 
to Basilius 11. 

(;OBSTA8TiNtJsVni.,Bonof Basilius I, 
Bom about 853; associated in the 
Empu* 868; died 879. G,— E,= 
R' 8,— R> Br.— C, Somecoins 
represent Urn with his father, 
Basilius I. 

Leo VI. (Sapiens), second son of Bas- 
ilius, Bom865; associated in the 
Empire 870; reigned with his 
brother Alexander in 886; died 911. 

G.— R'R' 

-R.> Br.] 


Some coins represent him with 
Basilius L, bis souConstajitineX., 
and his brother Alexander. 
Zim (Carbonopsina), the wife of Leo 
VI. Date of birth unknown; re- 
gent over her son Constantine X., 
913; ^utup in a monastery by her 
son»19. Br.— RiR' Hercoins 
represent her with her son Con- 

AiiBXABDBK, third son of Basilius. 
Bom 870; reigned with his brother 
LeoVLin886. Diedin913. G.— 
R,'Br, — R' Some of his coins 



hiith unki 
impiie ■\i 

iuocl iimed Empcroi Hfto as, 

--'■?cl l)v Ilia wife 901 G — 

K ' Br — R '— R * SoHLL 

pri ijent hirawith BisillU" 

mi8Li3>) Dale of birth un 


11(1 S 

m Ihe Emiiiu in 'Hi iklliKnira 
diid e\il«d lii-,titliii')-ir c\ili ilb\ 
( onatantme SI m 045 diLil 0{>4 
Tie name oi thii Pnncc iv onl> i 
found on the corns ot luh fatliei 

CoMMANTr»i,9 IX thud son of Bo I 
manua Date of birth nntoiown, 1 1 
made Augustus m 945 put to de-ith. 
shoitly afterwaJ'ds Thi? pimee is 
found onU on tlie com*' iif hl^ 
tather i 

C'liNHTANTiKus S., PophjTogemtus ! 
son of Leo "VI andZoe BoinBOo 1 
succeeded his father 911 hint un 
ilei thp leffpnrvof yexandd Ins I 
iiurl^ iiid tlipii nMii= tiiotherZoS ' 

t I I , I h ic)-i3 e_| 

I' I -R ' R s 

■^ I I liiuiwifhJiiel 

1 li I I I ; ifithei ZoB 

111- lui 111 Mill-. U .ind with lio 
iiiiiiiiis I h s r ollei^m, 

lloMi>,L II SDH of CoBHtantiiic X 
Bom ni ') ,H succeeded his fatliei 
')19 clin(%3 G-— R» \^* S — 
R ' Br — R Some loih^ lepre 
seat inmwith his fitiei Constan. 
tine These coins arc not of cer 
tain sttributLon 

Theopltaw), second wife of Eomsmis 
II. Date of birth unknown; re- 
gent for her sons Basiliua and Con- 
stantine in 9S3 ; she maiiied the 
aameyear Nicephoma H., caused 
him to be asSBSSiniWod in 969 ; ex- 
iled by Joiin Zimisees ; veciilled hy 
hersonslnfiTB; died980. S.— R." , 

NiCKPHfinus TI. (PiioPas), Born in 

'm twgned 
nstiiitme Xt 
Tolm Zimisce 
(t-R'' R = 

lUth his 

^Ur till 
in "WS 

B— R '■ 

( SnllK (<, 

m icpie 


1 1iei(mi> 

■s\hi\\ii 1 ^1 uii^i.=l wn of 
iioEuiiu-. II Jiuia "HI leigned 
Tvith hii lirother Basiima 976 soic 
empLToi 102 1 died 1028 G — 
R^ ii^ S — R - R ■■ Bi — C 
Ooncaye or cup-shaped coma 
csH^A Braetditmi tame into n><at 

sin (Aiu 


Mjou 1 I I I III Dito of 

Imth uiikncinn iiiiiucil ZoL' and 
succeeded to tiie tluone 1034 le 
tired mto a monaaterj and died 
tljoie 1041 Theio are no certain 
foins of tins emperoi 

MicnArJ V loa of Marm sister of 
"Mirhaei IT Dale of biith un 
l^^o^Yn , succeeded to the tiironi, 
1041 shut up hy his aunt in a 
monastery, after having liad hia 
eyes put ont, 1043, There arc no 
coins IcnowD of this emperor. 

Const AKTiNirs XII. (Monomachus.) 
Harried ZoS and commenced his 
reign 1043; died lOM. G.— R.' 

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IV uid Oon-itaiitmL XII Boiii <!iat, 

'>78 poisoTiiKl hei tiist lmsl)in1 dioi 

t0v!4 after tlicdeatliof lipi seLond ^li t; 
in 1041 adopted hei noplicw 

Michael V (C il iphatL»i) nhLn 1 

exiled bi him she eaiis( d the pin i 

pletonse i Ji I h i lUnll i 

wiUi hei 


stantme \I 

loins thiL 

this empitss 1 1 >| t 

' b f [ m 1 1 

BUT CtlhiiiLt 

T/ieoil 11 iistu >t 7oi 

at fliM "he h i i 

1 1 111 « 

pioeiaiiM 1 T 

title of i. 

of Const 

death m 1 

1050 G— R h 
MirHiBLYI (Sti itioticua) Empt 

in 105G forced ta abdieate IOj 

died 10)1 There ue jio eert . 

coino of thi'i empcroi 
iRVACiusI (Comncaiis} Piod.ii n 1 

Erapeioi 1(Id7 ibdioittd m f\^ 

of Constantiii \ITf m 10 ') 

dudiLlOlj] G~R '' Bi— R 
( NHMiM*\III (DiieiB) Born 

too p icUimed emperor 105S 

\i 1 i(i( a— R • &— Ripi — , 

Romanus and t i'"cl ii^ll iil 
ptioi 1068 shut up in a mons 
tery b3 her ion ifiehacl VII 
10^1 di d ifh'T the \cnr W) 

RoM\NL !\ 

Eudoci 1 1 

poroi lIKx 

1070 s(t 

oiitb> oidLi 1 1 1 [i 

I J 

up in a iiioiujUi\ IUjI mIiul. hi. 

uiUUi_dbhuitl\ it 01 lid ^ — 

soon aftei died. G — R 3 B " 

i{ ' Bi — R ^ 

Br — R 8 PI — R. B borne coins 

AiJMU^I ((.omnemis) Bom 104B 

iepre«nt him ^lUi Euditri i Mi 

prot lamed Empeior in 1081 


ilied H18. G.— R.^ 

Emneror 1118 ; died 1143 : « — 
B.»R.« 8. R* Br.— R.' 

Mahtiei. I. (Comnenus Porpliyro- 
genitus Diieas). eon of John II. 
and Irene, daiighter of Ladislaus 
of Hungaiy. Bom 1180 ; made 
Emperor 1143 ; died 1180. G.— 
B." 8. R' R « Pa— H.^ Br.- C. 
— R.= 

AxBSnja II. (Comnenus), son of Man- 
uel I. and Maria. Bom 1167-9 ; 
Emperor under the regency of liis 
mother Maria, 1180 ; strangled by 
command of his, cousin *"■'-"— 
cua Comnenus in. 1183. 
Br.— E.« One coin 
Mm ■with Audronicua I. 

upon the throne, 1183 ; dethroned 
and torn in pieces by ilie people, 
-1185. G.— R.^ S.— .= 

Isaac II., son of Andi'onicus Ange- 
lus. Elected Em^peror 1185 ; de- 
posed and impriiMned by his 
brother Alexius III., 1195; re-es- 
tablished by the CruaaderB, 1303 ; 
died 1204. G.— R.' 8.— R* Br.— 
R = 

Alexius HI. (Angelus). brother of 
Isaac II. whom he dethroned, mu- 
tilated and imprisoned. Seized up- 
on the throne 1195 ; deposed by 
the French and Venetian Crusa- 
ders 1308 ; shut wp in a monas- 
tery after ^^^ving had his 


certain coins of this prince. How- 
ever it is possible that some of those 
attributed to Alexius I. really he- 
longed to Alexius III. 

Ai,BxrDS IV. (Angelus), son of Isaac 
fl. Associated with his father, who 
had been restored by theCnisaders, 
1303 ; dethroned and strangled by 
Alexius Murzuphlus, 1204. The 
same observation as above may be 
made here. 

Aiaixius T. (Murzuphlus). Seized 
upon the throne 1304 ; put to death 
by the Crusaders, who established 
a new empire at Constantinople. 


BaUvrim I., son of Baldwio VIII., 
Count of Flanders and Margfu'et of 
Alsace. Elected Emperor by the 
Crusaders in 1304; conquered and 
t^ken prisoner by Uie Bulgarians 
1309; died 1306. Br— R.« 

Henry, brother of Baldwm. Regent 
during his brother's captivity 1303 ; 
Emperor 130« ; died 1316. 

Petnis He Gw-rtmay, Count of Auxen'e. 
Elected Emperor 1316 ; crowned 
at Rome by Pope Honorius U., 
1207; taken prisoner hy Theodo- 
rus Angelus, Prince of Epirus ; 
died 1318; during his captivity his 
wife Jolaiide governed in his stead. 
No coins are known of this eni- 

BiAeH, son of the preceding. Empe- 
ror, 1331, after an inteiTegiium ; 
died 1338. No coins are known of 
this emperor. 

.BaMmn 11. , brother of Robert. 
Elected Emperor, 1338; dethroned 
by Micliael Paleologus, who put 
an end to the empire of the French 
in the East, and re-established the 
Greek empire at Constantinople, 
1361 ; died 1373. No coins arc 
known of this emperor. 

Theodobus I. (Lascaris), husbanci of 
Anna Comnena. daughter of Alexi- 
usIII. Bornll76;retiredintoABia 
after the taking of Constantinople 
by the Crusaders ; conquered Bithy- 
nia and was declared Emperor at 
Nice 1305 ; died 1332. The coins 
that could be attributed to Theo- 
dore I. and HI., not being of cer- 
tain attribution, may Be more 
safely attributed to Theodorus II. 

Thbodor-cs II., son of John Angelus 
Comnenus, King of Epims ; 
took the title of Empewr at Thes- 
salonica in Macedonia 1333 ; van- 
(iniBhed and taken prisoner by the 
Bulgarians 1380; had his eyes put 
out; recovered his liberty but ab- 
dicalfld in favor of his son John, 
who was dethroned by John III. 
(Vatatzes). Ar.— R. » Br.- R. " 
The coins of thia emperor were 



protiiibly struck in Macedonia and 
Epinifl. Those which belong to 
Theodore I. iind IIT. were undoulit- 
cdly struck in Bithynia. 

JoKN 'III. (Vatatae^, Bon-in-law to 
Theodoras I. Bor """ 
cceded to the empi 
1255. Br.— R." Tin 
struck in BytlKnia. 

TiiBODORoa III. {Lascaris Junior), son 
of John III. Bom 1S23 ; buc- 
ceeded his father 1355 ; died 1350. 
So certain coins are known of this 

John IV. {Lascaris), son of Theo- 
doras III. Born 1351; succeeded 
his father 1359; divided the Em- 
pire with his brother Michael 
VIIL ; kept prisoner in a caj " 
lifter having had lus eyes put 
1361. No coins are known of this 

MicjuEL Vin. <Paleologus). Pro- 
claimed Emperor with his broth- 
er 1259 ; sole Emperor in 1361 ; 
died 1388. G.— R' Br.— R.» 
After this reign the Greek coins 
were again struck at Constanti- 
nople. One coin represents him 
with his son Andronicus. 

AKDRomons JT., son of Michael 
VIIL Bom 1358 ; named Em- 
peror 1278 ; succeeded his father 
1263 ; dethroned by Hs grandson 
Andronieus III. 1338; died 1833. 
a— B.* 8.— R.< Br.- R.' Some 
coins represent him with his son 
Michael IX. 

MiOHAKi. IX. (Paleoloffus), son ot 
Andronieus II. and Anna, daugh- 
ter of Stephen of Hungary. Bom 
1377 ; associated with his father 


; died 1330. G.-H. > 


of Michael 

is grandf atlier,whom 
' — ; died 1341. 
i known of 

Anwronicub ni., 
IX. Born 1295 : 
he dethroned, 
Ho certain coii 
this emperor. 

John V., son of Andronieus III. 
and Ann of Savoy. Born 1333; 
succeeded Ida fatlier 1341 ; de- 
throned by his son Andronieus IV. 
1371; re-established by the Saltan 
Bajazetl373;diedl391. No coins 
are known of this emperor. 

JOHM VI. (Oantacuzenus). Regent 
1341 ; ptocldmed colleague of ^Ln 
V. 13f7;renounced the throne 1355. 
PI— R.» Of doubtful attribution. 

Akdkobicub rV., son of John V. 
Associated in. the throne with his 
father, whom ho dethroned; ab- 
dicated 1373 in favor of his brother 
Manuel. No coins are known. 

Manuel II., brother of AndronicusIV. 
Bom 1348 ; succeeded his brother 
1373 ; died 1^5. No coins arc 

with his uncle Manuel ii 
pire 1399 ; renounced the throne 
14fl2 ; died in a monasteiy. No 
coins are known of this emjieror. 

John VIII., son of Mani7el II. Boj'n 
1890 ; declared Augustus 1410 ; 
succeeded his father 1435 ; died 
1448. G.— R,' This coin is doubt- 

Gonslanttnus XZV., son of Manuel 
II. Bora 1403 ; succeeded his 
brother 1448; killed in file t.aking 
of Constantinople by tlie Turks, 
39th of May, 1453, (the 3306th 
year from the foundation of an- 
cient Rome). Thus ended the em- 
pire of the Cssars. G. — R." The 
coins of this emperor are doubtful. 


i" X J") K X 

1/ tJ 1 1 < 

Efn Captol . 

AugoC lie 
Vul It 

Vnnflpol s 

Ba yl 


B 1 


B 1. "Q 



n le 




o B 

"in Co! r 

68 ol 
«,(o f 

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187 Gcw\i, 

Coppf,r Coins 

Fii'i FiiKli"!! 

1% Geno. 



179 Gcimaulimpm 


13 Qhibellme'* 


133 1 Gold coined la 

21 ' 



ij Got!,-, Tvmcdcl 

11 of the 

U * !L iiMiana 


1 Gicat Britain 


2(1 -tfi t ecce 

(tj 1 Wphabc 


(ti It Fii-st Engli"!! 


1 (, (rU Idl'-h 

Ul ' u'-lpii 


Dale n J i^lMi Coins 
Dei (.1 ti 1 ti^t Usui 


[j2| Uuud cj 

IJI (TUiuf I tii"<rt coined 

Uimci in 





DppciKltiit 1 -. 


1 IL.M 


Diospilisd J 


DoUu Oii^^r 





Ei«t Vui,lis 

Etot Indii 

Eatt indiaalslind-. 

Eaftem Frnpiic 

11 , 
^3.} l[i,wb.liu 



11. HoliLil/i I'cni 

fi„ c„. 

17 241 llciUnl 

U lt<.lt-U,in 

> lepliant and Castlt 

Kill Hondmt 


i;i Hon Ivtng 


14 1 



'12 I 





"71111011 -dt- in 
\ Tnrtia 

llonwn Miinds 

ran ill, ] 11 

i 1 [idand 

FarDii i 

141 Iiisli [arp 

Fi lu D 1 ^1 

}i JiW ii'X.d 

164lllPcf Mm 

Fltui d li 

oU 145 iJidc Friucc 


7, , h (lu ^ lit 

Flouns Fiigi 


14, 1,U Itili 

FoUiaof Bi/antmm 





FrancLise Homin 

i> ]wv ( 

Frinkfort on 

the M«n 

130 TipaJi 

Iei-.cj We of 


Kingilom of Italj 
Kmglita of 8L John 

La Plata 
Liguitan HLpublii, 










■s (Hungary) 

Mjii Isle of 

Manufacture of Coins 
Man lind 
"Uauadn^ Monej 










Milled Money 


Modem Coins Names of 



"VIoor5 m Spam 





' j"Ni,iv Biuuswid 
New England 
, "\ewioundIand 
' I New Grenada 
': Now Jersey 
; New York 
! Nickel Coins 

Obftidional*! lutio 

,n Oceanica 

ii Oldonburt, 

f^ Olympic Gamti, 


7i ^ 


jdi Paderboiu 

tRi- Palatmatt ol tke HhiuL 

161 Palofstmt, 

'"l Patei Patriie 
MS 1 Paraguay 

115 ParliLlia 

) J Parthcnopian Eepublit, 

r~j Parthia 


Pewter Comfe 
Philippine Islanda 

Pictaviensis (Poitou) 
Platinum Corns 


Pontus Ljngdoni of 


Pnnce Edward Island 


Pnnce of Wales Island 

Piinceps Juventutis 









SI 70 



Teutonic Kniglitv 

Ehenish Palatinate 



Ring "Money 

dZ 80 







Tin Com*. 


Tourmy Money 
Tokens Bngbsh 

faalic Law 





United btates 

Sandwicli iBlinds 




71 H 










Saxon States 

103 107 


bchleswig Holstem 








Scptinsulai Republic 
bliillmg English 



Lnitcd Provinces 


L lilted States 


^3 71 b3 

Lnited 8tat«s of Colombia 

Siena Leone 



Sivpence Enghsh 



'^omniers Island 


Spade Guinea 

St Dunstan 


Valois House of 
"V eniee 



bt Gall 


fet Helena 


St Tohn KnightBof 

I •} 

St Lawrence 


•5t Mark 



8t Patrick s Pence 


Washington Cents 

St Btephen 


West India Islands 

Strut sSatlement 




Sub Alpine Republic 


Wert Saxons 
■VV ettm 



White Metal Coins